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Full text of "Minor products of Philippine forests"

SD229 

.B7 

V.3 




Edwin B. Matzke 
Library 



Products of Philippine 
Forests 



miliam H. Brown, Ph. D., 

ehief. Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestiy: Professor of Uotavy 
University of the PkiUppines; a»d Plant Physiohiist, ■ 
:: of Science 



VOLUME III 



%. 



/A'; 



rfyartment of Agriculture .-< 
Bureau of } 



i.ra! ResuiifL: 



Bulletin No. 22 



■thur f 



Minor Products of Philippine 

Forests 



EDITED BY 



William H. Brown, Ph. D., 

Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, 

University of the Philippines; and Plant Physiologist, 

Bureau of Science 



Volume III 




Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
Bureau of Forestry 

Bulletin No, 22 



Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry 



177674 



MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1921 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

(iARDEN 






Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
Bureau of Forestry 

liiilNliii NO. 22, XOIiiiiM- III 

Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

^ Ornamental Plants from Philippine Forests. William H. 

Bro2vn 7 

O Philippine Plants Used as Soap Substitutes or Scouring Mate- 
rials. William H. Brotvn .". 49 

C Official Philippine Medicinal Plants. William H. Brown 63 

f^ Poisonous Philippine Plants. Willia^n H. Broken 79 

(j Miscellaneous Useful Wild Philippine Plants. William H. 

Broivv 85 

«? Philippine Edible Fungi. Otto A. Reinking 97 

*0 Medicinal Uses of Philippine Plants. Leon Ma. Guerrero 149 

Index 247 

3 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE 

FORESTS 

By William H. Brown 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 1. PLATYCERIUM BIFORME. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE 

FORESTS 

CONTENTS 

Page. 

Illustrations ' 9 

Introduction 11 

Description of Species H 

Family Polypodiaceae 11 

Asplenium nidus 11 

Drynaria quercifolia — 11 

Platycerium biforme 12 

Family Lycopodiaceae 12 

Lycopodium spp 12 

Family Cycadaceae 12 

Cycas rumphii 12 

Family Liliaceae 12 

Lilium philippinense 12 

Family Orchidaceae 12 

Aerides quinquevulnerum 14 

Calanthe veratrifolia 14 

Cordula argus 14 

Cordula philippinensis 18 

Dendrobium acuminatum 18 

Dendrobium amethystoglossiim 18 

Dendrobium anosmum 18 

Dendrobium aureum 18 

Dendrobium crumenatum 22 

Dendrobium dearei 22 

Dendrobium lyonii 22 

Dendrobium revolutum 22 

Dendrobium sanderae 24 

Dendrobium schuetzei 24 

Dendrobium taurinum 24 

Eria merrillii 24 

Grammatophyllum measuresianum 30 

Grammatophyllum multiflorum 30 

Grammatophyllum wallisii 30 

Phalaenopsis amabilis 30 

7 



8 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of species — Continued. 

Family Orchidaceae — Continued. Page. 

Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana 36 

Phalaenopsis schilleriana 36 

Renanthera storiei 36 

Rhynchostylis retusa 36 

Spathoglottis plicata - 40 

Vanda lamellata 40 

Vanda sanderiana 40 

Vandopsis lissochiloides 40 

Family Nymphaeaceae 46 

Nelumbium nelumho 46 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPIKE 

FORESTS 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page. 
Fig. 1. Platycerium biforme. From Bureau of Government Labor- 
atories Publication No. 28 6 

2. Asplenium nidus growing in the forest 10 

3. Lilium philippinense 13 

4. Aerides quinquevulnerum 15 

5.^ Aerides quinquevulnerum 16 

6. Dendrobium acuminatum. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, 

Plate 17 17 

7. Dendrobium anosmum 19 

8. Dendrobium aureum. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, Plate 

176 20 

9. Dendrobium crumenatum 21 

10. Dendrobium lyonii 23 

11. Dendrobium sanderae 25 

12. Dendrobium schuetzei 26 

13. Dendrobium schuetzei. From Gard. Chron. LII, Fig. 102 27 

14. Dendrobium taurinum 28 

15. Dendrobium taurinum 29 

16. Eria merrillii 31 

17. Grammatophyllum multiflorum. From Phil. Agr. Rev., Vol. 

5 (1912), No. 9, Plate IV 32 

18. Grammatophyllum wallisii 33 

19. Phalaenopsis amabilis 34 

20. Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana 35 

21. Phalaenopsis sp 37 

22. Rhynchostylis retusa 38 

23. Spathoglottis plicata. From Bot. Register 1838 39 

24. Vanda lamellata 41 

25. Vanda sanderiana 42 

26. Vanda sanderiana 43 

27. Vandopsis lissochiloides. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, page 

221 44 

28. Nelumbium nelumbo 45 

9 



10 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 2. ASPLENIUM NIDUS GROWING IN THE FOREST. 



NEW YOR 

BOTANIC/^ 

QARDEP^ 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE 

FORESTS 

By William H. Brown 

The forests of the Philippines contain a large number of 
species which are decidedly ornamental, and are suitable for 
cultivation. These usually occur in the forest as very widely 
scattered individuals. As the seeds are ripe for only a short 
space of time and are usually quickly scattered by animals or 
the wind, it is frequently difficult to collect seeds from a given 
species. However, when once introduced into cultivation it is 
generally easy to obtain material for propagation. This is par- 
ticularly true of species which grow high up in the mountains, 
and which will not live under lowland conditions, but have been 
successfully introduced into Europe and America and grown in 
greenhouses. Owing to these circumstances, most of the or- 
namental plants in Philippine forests are of little commercial 
value. For this reason, it seemed desirable to include in this 
section only such wild ornamental plants as are collected in the 
forest and sold commercially. 

Family POLYPODIACEAE 

Genus ASPLENIUM 
ASPLENIUM NIDUS L. (Fig. 2). BiRDS'-NEST FERN. 

This species is frequently collected in the forest and sold in 
Manila, where it is used as a hanging plant. The leaves are 40 
to 120 centimeters in length and 6 to 20 centimeters wide, and 
radiate in all directions from a common center, from which 
habit it gets its name. It is the commonest native fern found 
in cultivation in Manila. In the forest it grows in the crotches 
of trees or along the trunks. It thrives in cultivation as long 
as it is watered at fairly regular intervals, but does best when 
somewhat sheltered from the wind and the direct rays of the sun. 

Genus DRYNARIA 
DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA (L.) Bory. 

This species is collected in the forest, made into hanging bas- 
kets and sold in Manila. It has very stout, somewhat fleshy 

11 



12 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

stems which are densely covered with narrow, brown scales 
about a centimeter in length. The leaves are of two kinds; 
small, brown, concave ones which gather humus, and large ones 
which are 40 to 90 centimeters long and pinnately lobed, with 
lobes 2 to 4 centimeters wide. 

Genus PLATYCERIUM 
PLATYCERIUM Bl FORME Desv. (Fig. 1). StaG-HORN FERN. 

This species is collected in the forest and cultivated in Manila 
as a hanging plant. There are two kinds of leaves ; large leaves 
which bend upward and cover the mass in which the roots are 
growing, and long, branched leaves which hang downward. 

Family LYCOPODIACEAE 

Genus LYCOPODIUM 

The species of this genus are collected in the forest, and 
brought to Manila to be sold. They are pendant plants with 
slender branches and very small, densely crowded leaves, and 
are grown in hanging baskets. 

Family CYCADACEAE 

Genus CYCAS 
CYC AS RUM PHI I Mig. Pit6go. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on food plants. 

The young plants are collected and sold in Manila for orna- 
mental purposes. 

Family LILIACEAE 

Genus LILIUM 
LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE Baker. (Fig. 3). Benguet LILY. 

Local names: Lup-lupak, suia-soi (Benguet). 

Lilium philippinense is a plant 50 to 80 centimeters in height. 
The leaves are numerous, very narrow, and 8 to 14 centimeters 
in length. The flowers are about 20 centimeters long, white, and 
very fragrant. Lilium philippinense is cultivated in Baguio 
and has been exported. 

This species is very common in Benguet and has been collected 
in Bontoc and Pangasinan. 

Family ORCHIDACEAE 

This family is the largest, in number of species, of any in the 
Philippines. Most of the species have small and inconspicuous 
flowers and are of no value as ornamentals. A large number, 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



13 




FIGURE 3. LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE. 



14 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

however, are brought to Manila and sold for cultivation, and 
many have been exported to Europe. A description of all the 
individual species which are cultivated would require more space 
than their value warrants. The following list includes the more 
important commercial species. 

Genus AERIDES 

AERIDES QUINQUEVULNERUM Lindl. (Figs. 4, 5). 

Local names: Fracitas (Rizal); ualing-ualing (Tayabas). 

Aerides quinquevulnerum is an epiphytic herb with stout stems. 
The leaves are 10 to 30 centimeters long and 1.5 to 2.5 centi- 
meters wide. The very fragrant flowers occur in considerable 
numbers on long, pendulous, flowering branches. They are about 
2 centimeters across and white marked with crimson magenta. 

This species has been reported from the following provinces: 
Bataan, Benguet, Bulact.n, Rizal, Batangas, and Tayabas. 

Genus CALANTHE 

CALANTHE VERATRIFOLIA R. Br. 

Local names: Binunga (Rizal); maraniok (Cagayan, Isabela) ; liriong- 
gubat (Tayabas). 

Calanthe veratrifolia is a terrestrial orchid with large, green, 
prominently nerved leaves, which are pointed at both ends. The 
flowers are white, medium in size, and are borne in clusters at 
the ends of long, flowering branches. 

This species has been reported from the following provinces: 
Bataan, Benguet, Mindoro, Misamis, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental 
Negros, Pampanga, Sibutu Island, Tayabas, and Zamboanga. 

Genus CORDULA 

Members of this genus are known popularly as lady's-slipper 
orchids. Two of them are worthy of note. 

CORDULA ARGUS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. 

Cordula argus is a terrestrial orchid. The leaves are some- 
what elliptical in shape and arranged in two rows. The lower 
ones are 12 to 20 centimeters long and pale green variegated with 
dark green. The flowering stem is 30 to 40 centimeters high 
and madder purple. The flowers are 6 to 8 centimeters in ver- 
tical diameter. The petals are whitish at the base and have green 
veins ; near the apex they are madder purple and spotted. The 
margins of the petals are hairy. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, and Tayabas. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



15 




FIGURE 4. AERIDES QUINQUEVULNERUM. 



16 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



17 



■'>i^. 







FIGURE 6. DENDROBIUM ACUMINATUM. 



177674 2 



18 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

CORDULA PHILIPPINENSIS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. 

Cordula philippinensis is a striking orchid with large leaves. 
The flowering shoot bears several showy flowers. The upper 
sepal is nearly white with prominent, longitudinal, dark-purple 
stripes. The lower sepal is nearly white with a yellow tip. The 
lateral petals are elongated, spiral, and purple, except near the 
base, where they are yellow with three lines of large, purple 
dots. The sack is white on the back, and the apex and margin 
lemon yellow. 

This species has been collected in Palawan. 

Genus DENDROBIUM 
DENDROBIUM ACUMINATUM Rolfe. (Fig. 6). 

Dendvohimn acuminatum is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous 
stems. The leaves are thick, firm, smooth, 9 to 12 centimeters 
long, and 3 to 4 centimeters wide. The inflorescence often ex- 
ceeds 20 centimeters in length, and bears 7 to 20 or more flowers. 
These when spread out are 4.5 to 5.5 centimeters across and 
white, with a yellow center which is streaked with lavender. 

This species has been reported from Abra and Bataan. 

DENDROBIUM AM ETH YSTOGLOSSUM Reichb. f. 

Dendrobium amethystoglossum is a robust, epiphytic orchid a 
meter in height and has 15 to 20 canes. The flowers are milk 
white, the lip deeply stained with amethyst purple. 

This species has been collected in Benguet. 

DENDROBIUM ANOSMUM Lindl. (Fig. 7). SangguMAI. 

Dendrobium anosmuTn is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous 
stems. The leaves are about 10 centimeters long and 3 centi- 
meters wide. The stems make a yearly growth, after which 
the leaves drop off and the flowers appear. These are fragrant, 
about 8 centimeters across, and light purple with a darker purple 
center. After the flowers fade, the stems bearing them dry, and 
new ones are produced from the base of the plant. 

This species has been reported from Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, 
Lepanto, Leyte, Rizal, and Nueva Vizcaya. 

DENDROBIUM AUREUM Lindl. 

Local name: Nito (Benguet). (Fig. 8). 

Dendrobium aureum is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical 
stems which are 30 to 50 centimeters long. The leaves are about 
15 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide. After they have 
fallen, the flowers appear on the stems. The flowers are large 
and cream colored, with yellow lips. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



19 




FIGURE 7. DENDROBIUM ANOSMUM (SANGGUMAI). 



20 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




oA ^ 






FIGURE S. DENDROBIUM AUREUM. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



21 




FIGURE 9. DEMDROBIUM CRUMENATUM. 



22 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species has been reported from Benguet, Albay, and 
Mindanao. 

DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM Sw. (Fig. 9). Irau. 

Local names: Ddpo * (Tayabas) ; irdu (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; 
karamosi (Ilocos Norte) ; karausi (Cagayan) ; karulai (Isabela) ; magimpal, 
magimapan (Bohol) ; man'dn (Leyte) ; sanggumai (Laguna). 

The stalk of Dendrobium crumenatum is up to a meter in 
length and, for a distance of about 20 centimeters from the base, 
is bulbous and fluted. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long 
and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. The flowers are 2.5 to 3 centi- 
meters in length, white with a pale yellow center, and very 
fragrant. All the plants of this species in the same region 
flower on the same day, the flowers lasting one day or less. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines and is frequently cultivated for ornamental purposes. 

DENDROBIUM DEAREI Reichb. f. 

Dendrohium dearei is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical stems 
which may be more than 50 centimeters in length. The leaves 
are about 5 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide. The flow- 
ers are white with a lemon-yellow center, and about 7 centimeters 
in width when spread out. The stalks of the individual flowers 
are about 4 centimeters long so that they project beyond the 
leaves. The flowers remain on the stems for a long time. 

This species has been reported from Benguet. Mindoro, and 
Mindanao. 

DENDROBIUM LYONII Ames. (Fig. 10). 

Dendrobium Ujonii is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous stems. 
The leaves are leathery, about 17 centimeters long and 3.5 to 4 
centimeters wide. The flowers are wine red at the base, lighter 
colored at the edges, 4 centimeters long and 8 centimeters wide, 
and are borne on special leafless branches. 

This species has been reported from Bataan Province. 

DENDROBIUM REVOLUTUM Lindl. 
Local name: Sanggumai (Bataan). 

Dendrobium revolutum is an epiphytic orchid with pendant 
stems. The leaves are 3 to 4 centimeters long and 1.5 centi- 
meters wide. The flowers occur singly along the stems opposite 
the leaves. They are 2 centimeters long, odorless, and white. 
The lip is pale green. 

* The word dapo, which occurs so frequently, alone or in composition, in 
the names of orchids and other epiphytic plants, means "to roost," "to perch" 
and is commonly and quite properly applied, therefore, to any epiphyte. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



23 




y? 



V 



24 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species has been reported from the following provinces: 
Bataan, Lagima, Negros Occidental, Leyte, Surigao, and Min- 
danao. 

DENDROBIUM SANDERAE Rolfe. (Fig. 11). 

Dendrobium sanderae is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical 
stems which maj^ be nearly a meter in length. The leaves are 
from 4 to 8 centimeters long and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. 
The flowers are borne on short branches, which are among the 
leaves at the end of the stem. They are white with purple lines 
on the throat, and about 6 centimeters long. The petals are 4 
centimeters in length and nearly 3 centimeters wide. 

This species has been reported from Benguet, Bontoc, and 
Lepanto. 

DENDROBIUM SCHUETZEI Rolfe. (Figs. 12, 13). 

Dendrobium schuetzei is an epiphytic orchid 15 to 40 centi- 
meters in height. The stems are erect and somewhat cylindrical. 
The leaves are somewhat spreading, leathery, about 8 to 10 centi- 
meters long and about 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide. The flowers 
are large, showy, white, with a green blotch on the throat and 
a few dark spots at the base. 

DENDROBIUM TAURINUM Lindl. (F gs. 14, 15). 

Dendrobium taurinum is an epiphytic orchid with stems which 
are a meter or more in length and about 1.5 centimeters in 
diameter. The leaves occur on the upper half of the stalk and 
are 6 to 10 centimeters long and about 4 centimeters wide. 
Growing near the end of the main stem are special flowering 
branches, which are 25 to 50 centimeters long and which have 
6 to 20 large flowers. The sepals are cream white, tinged with 
green. The petals are twisted and crimson magenta. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Albay, Batanes Islands, Benguet, Bukidnon, Davao, Laguna, Ri- 
zal, Leyte, Mindoro, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Tayabas, Gui- 
maras Island, and Zamboanga. 

Genus ERIA 
ERIA MERRILLII Ames. (Fig. 16). 

Eria merrilUi is a terrestrial orchid with a bulbous base about 
10 centimeters long. The leaves are 30 to 60 or more centimeters 
in length, and about 4 to 7 centimeters wide. The flowering 
branch is 30 to 40 centimeters long and bears numerous, large, 
nearly white flowers, which are tinged with purple. 

This species has been reported from the Provinces of Rizal 
and Sorsogon. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



25 




FIGURE 11. DENDROBIUM SANDERAE. 



26 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



27 




28 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 14. DENDROBIUM TAURINUM. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



29 




FIGURE 15. DENDROBIUM TAURINUM. 



30 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus GRAM MATOPHYLLUM 
GRAMMATOPHYLLUM M EASURESI AN U M Weathers. 

Grammato'phyllum measuresianum has many bulbous stems, 
which are slightly compressed and vary in length from 20 to 
40 centimeters. When young they are more or less furrowed, 
and when old, deeply wrinkled. Each bears at its summit from 
4 to 6 deep-green leaves, which are from 45 to 60 centimeters 
long. The flowering stalks bear many flowers, which are about 
10 centimeters across, yellowish, and marked with dark brown 
and purple. 

This species has been collected in Mindoro and Palawan. 

GRAMMATOPHYLLUM MULTIFLORUM Lindl. (Fig. 17). 
Local name: Looi-looi na duko (Sorsogon). 

Grammatophyllum rmdtiflorum has many large, bulbous stems 
and very numerous roots, the whole sometimes forming an im- 
mense mass. The leaves are about 30 to 50 centimeters long and 
6 to 10 centimeters wide. The flowers are large, and are borne 
in great numbers on long flowering shoots. They are pale green 
with large, dull, purplish-brown spots. 

This species has been reported from Mindoro, Tayabas, Cama- 
rines, Catanduanes Island, Sorsogon, Leyte, and Palawan. 

GRAMMATOPHYLLUM WALLISII Reichb. f. (Fig. 18). 

Grammatophyllum wallisii is an epiph>i;e and the largest 
Philippine orchid. The flowers are borne on large flowering 
shoots and are large and pale greenish, with dark purple-brown 
blotches. 

Genus PHALAENOPSIS 

PHALAENOPSIS AMABILIS (Linn.) Blume. (Fig. 19). Butterfly ORCHID. 

Phalaenopsis amabilis is an epiphytic orchid with a few green 
leaves growing on a short stem. The leaves are somewhat oval- 
shaped, wider near the apex than near the base, and 14 to 30 
centimeters in length. The flowers are borne in varying num- 
bers on flowering branches, are white, and 7 to 10 centimeters 
across. The butterfly orchid is very commonly cultivated in 
Manila. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Albay, Bataan, Bohol, Cagayan, Camarines, Davao, Igar Island, 
Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Lanao, Lumbucan Island, Mindoro, Negros 
Occidental, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, 
Rizal, Tayabas- and Zamboanga. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



31 




FIGURE 16. ERIA MERRILLII 



32 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



33 




FIGURE IS. GRAMMATOPHYLLUM WALLISII. 



177674 3 



34 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 19. PHALAENOPSIS AMABILIS. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



35 




FIGURE 20. PHALAENOPSIS LUEDDEMANNIANA. 



36 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

PHALAENOPSIS LU EDDEM AN N I AN A Reichb. f. (Fig. 20). 

Local names: Flor de la mananu (Spanish); manan-du (Samar, Leyte). 

Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana is an epiphytic orchid with 
usually two to six oval leaves growing on a short stem. The 
flowers are borne on special, branched, flowering shoots, have a 
faint odor, and are variable in size and color. They are white 
or yellow marked with purple or brown, and are about 6 centi- 
meters in diameter. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, 
Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo Island, Leyte, Palawan, Bukidnon, Da- 
vao, Lanao, and Zamboanga. 

PHALAENOPSIS SCHILLERIANA Reichb. f. 
Local name: Ddpong-tigre (Laguna). 

Phalaenopsis schilleriana is an epiphytic orchid with a few 
somewhat oblong-oval leaves growing on a short stem. The 
leaves are mottled above, purple beneath, up to 20 centimeters 
long, and 6 centimeters wide. The flowers are borne on large, 
branched, flowering shoots, are odorless, large, and pinkish 
purple. 

This species is found in Tayabas and Laguna Provinces. 

Genus RENANTHERA 
RENANTHERA STORIEI Reichb. f. 

Renanthera storiei is a stout, epiphytic orchid 2 to 3 meters 
in height. The leaves are leathery, arranged in two rows, 10 
to 14 centimeters long and about 3.5 centimeters wide. The 
flowering shoot is very large and bears many flowers, which are 
4 to 4.5 centimeters across. They are odorless, dark red, and 
remain fresh on the stem for a long period. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Bataan, Rizal, and Dinagat Island. 

Genus RHYNCHOSTYLIS 
RHYNCHOSTYLIS RETUSA (Linn.) Blume. (Fig. 22). 

Rhynchostylis retusa is an epiphytic orchid with green leaves 
which are about 25 centimeters long and about 2.5 centimeters 
wide. The flowers are crowded on a flowering shoot about 20 
centimeters long. They are pale pink or nearly white and have 
a pale-purple lip. The lateral sepals are about 7 millimeters 
long and about 6 millimeters wide. The petals are much shorter 
and narrower. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



37 




FIGURE 21. PHALAENCPSIS sp. 



38 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 22. RHYNCHOSTYLIS RETUSA. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



39 



I III 



"^ \ 







I//, / o 



FIGURE 23. SPATHOGLOTTIS PLICATA. 



40 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species has been reported from Bataan, Nueva Ecija. 
and Rizal. 

Genus SPATHOGLOTTIS 

SPATHOGLOTTIS PLICATA Blume. (Fig. 23). 

Local names: Balum-bahim (Bukidnon) ; kanovog (Batanes Islands); 
talu-ang (Bukidnon); tabu-dapi (Tayabas). 

Spathorjlottis plicata is a teriestrial orchid with a few long, 
rather narrow leaves growing from the bulbous base of the stem. 
The leaves are 20 to 60 centimeters long and 1.8 to 6 centimeters 
wide. The flowering shoots are 30 to 70 centimeters long. The 
flowers are purple or deep pink, and about 3.5 centimeters in 
dis meter. 

This species has been reported from the following localities : 
Albay, Batanes Islands, Lepanto, Benguet, Bukidnon, Laguna, 
Leyte, Mindoro, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Tayabas, Lanao, 
and Zamboanga. 

Genus VAN DA 

VANDA LAMELLATA Lindl. (Fig. 24). 

Vanda lamelkita is an epiphytic orchid. The leaves are about 
2 centimeters wide and 25 centimeters long. The flowers are 
borne on special branches, which may have 20 or more flowers. 
These are about 3 centimeters in vertical diameter, fragrant, 
and yellowish with purple-brown markings. 

This species has been reported from the following localities: 
Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet, Abra, Zambales, Bataan, Cavite, Ta- 
yabas, Mindoro, Babuyanes, Camiguin, Capiz, and Sulu Archi- 
pelago. 

VANDA SANDERIANA Reichb. f. (Figs. 25, 26). 

Vanda sanderiana is a large epiphytic orchid. The leaves are 
trough-like and 15 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers grow in 
clusters and are 6 to 8 centimeters in transverse by 10 to 11 in 
vertical diameter. The upper three petals are lavender with dull- 
purple spots in the lower part. The lower two petals are tinged 
with yellow and there are very numerous, dull-purple nerves 
and reticulations which give a general, dull-purple color. The 
lip is dull purple and yellow. This is the showiest orchid found 
in the Philippines. 

This species is found in Mindanao. 

Genus VANDOPSIS 
VANDOPSIS LISSOCHILOIDES (Gaudich.) Pfitz. (Fig. 27). 

Vandopsis lissochiloid.es is a terrestrial orchid with leafy stems 
up to 2 meters in height. The leaves are about 25 to 50 centi- 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



41 




FIGURE 24. VANDA LAMELLATA 



42 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 25. VANDA SANDERIANA 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



43 




44 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 27. VANDOPSIS LISSOCHILOICES. 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 



45 




FIGURE 28. NELUMBIUM NELUMBO. 



46 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

meters long and about 5 centimeters wide. The flowering shoot 
is 1.5 to 2 meters long, and bears numerous flowers which are 
5 to 6 centimeters across. The back of the flower is purple and 
the inside yellowish green with purple spots. 

This species has been reported from Bukidnon, Panay, Sigaboy 
Island, and Zamboanga. 

Family NYMPHAEACEAE 

Genus NELUMBIUM 
NELUMBIUM NELUMBO (L.) Druce. (Fig. 28). 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

This plant grows in immense numbers in Laguna de Bay. The 
flowers are gathered in considerable quantities and brought to 
Manila to be sold. 

Nelumbium speciosum grows in shallow water, the leaves and 
flowers extending above the surface. It has very large, rounded 
leaves and large, pink flowers. 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTI- 
TUTES OR SCOURING MATERIALS 

By William H. Brown 

47 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTI- 
TUTES OR SCOURING MATERIALS 

CONTENTS 

Page. 

Introduction 49 

Illustrations 51 

Description of Species 51 

Family Moraceae 51 

Ficus ulmifolia , 51 

Streblus asper 51 

Family Leguminosae 52 

Albizzia acle 52 

Albizzia saponaria 52 

Entada phaseoloides 54 

Family Oxalidaceae - 56 

Averrhoa bilimbi £6 

Family Polygalaceae 56 

Securidaca corymbosa 56 

Securidaca philippinensis 58 

Family Sapindaceae 58 

Ganophyllum falcatum -- 58 

Harpullia arborea 58 

Sapindus saponaria 59 

Family Rhamnaceae 59 

Gouania tiliaefolia 59 

Family Dilleniaceae 59 

Tetracera scandens 59 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure 1. Albizzia acle (akle) 53 

2. Albizzia acle (akle) 55 

3. Entada phaseoloides (gogo) ■ ^^ 

177674 4 49 



PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTI- 
TUTES AND SCOURING MATERIALS 

By William H. Brown 

In the Philippines there are a number of plants which con- 
tain saponin and are used as soap substitutes, especially for 
cleansing the hair. The most important of these is gogo {En- 
tada phaseoloides) which is an important article of commerce. 
Other plants have very rough leaves which are used as material 
for scouring cooking utensils, etc., and as substitutes for sand- 
paper. 

Family MORACEAE 

Genus FICUS 
FICUS ULMIFOLIA Lam. Isfs. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The leaves of this species are very hard and rough, and 
are used for cleaning cooking utensils and scouring hardwood 
floors, stairs, windowsills, etc. ; and also in place of sandpaper 
in polishing wood, when sandpaper is not available. 

Genus STREBLUS 
STREBLUS ASPER Lour. Kalios. 

Local names: Alasiis (Zambales, Mindoro) ; alasis (Surigao) ; ahldig 
(Ilocos Sur, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales) ; ampds (Pampanga) ; bugtdl 
(Negros Occidental) ; buntatai (Guimaras Island) ; kagasaka (Cagayan) ; 
kalios (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Min- 
doro) ; lasiis (Bataan); malakddios (Zambales). 

The leaves of Sti^ehlus asper are very hard and rough and 
are utilized, like those of Fici/s ulmifolia, for cleaning cooking 
utensils and as a substitute for sandpaper. 

Streblus asper is a tree reaching a height of about 15 meters 
and a diameter of about 30 centimeters. The leaves are alter- 
nate, 4 to 12 centimeters long, with a narrow base, pointed 
tip, and toothed margin. The fruits are ovoid, pale yellow, 
8 to 10 millimeters long, fleshy, and with seeds 5 to 6 milli- 
meters long. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in the 
Philippine Islands. 

51 



52 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ALBIZZIA 
ALBIZZIA ACLE (Blanco) Merr. (Figs. 1, 2). Akle. 

Local names: Akle or dkli (Nueva Ecija, Union, Pampanga, Bataan, 
Bulacan, Zambales, Tayabas, Camarines, Laguna, Sorsogon, Mindoro) ; mia- 
gep (Ilocos Norte and Sur) ; hcauiyo (Occidental Negros, Tablas) ; kitakita 
(Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales) ; mabunga (Laguna) ; 
langin (Masbate) ; saui-iri, taulili (Palawan) ; tabaldngi (Bisaya) ; tili, 
tills (Zambales). 

This species is reported to have been employed locally as 
a soap substitute, but seems to be inferior to Albizzia saponaria 
and is little used. 

Albizzia acle is a tree reachmg a height of about 30 meters 
and a diameter of about 1 meter. The leaves are twice com- 
pound. They usually have two pinnae, each of which bears 
three to six pairs of leaflets, the terminal pair being much 
larger than the others. The leaflets are inequilateral, pointed 
at the tip, usually rounded at the base, 4.5 to 18 centimeters 
long, and 2 to 7 centimeters wide. The flowers are yellow and 
green, about 1.5 centimeters in length, and are borne in small, 
rounded heads. The pod is 4 to 5 centimeters wide and up 
to 25 to 30 or more centimeters in length. The seeds cause 
a bulging of the pod, while between the seeds the pod is con- 
stricted. 

This species is fairly common and distributed from Luzon 
to Palawan. It is intolerant of shade. 

ALBIZZIA SAPONARIA (Lour.) Blume. Salingkugi'. 

Local names: Baiogo (Bataan, Agusan) ; banaibdnai (Cagayan) ; banog- 
bdnai (Cagayan) ; gogo' or gngo (Isabela, Tayabas, Masbate, Agusan) ; 
gogo-kdsai (Tayabas) ; gogong-malatoko, langil (Rizal) ; gogong-toko (Pan- 
gasinan, Pampanga, Camarines, Bataan) ; malatoko (Bataan, Pampanga, 
Rizal, Laguna) ; maratekkd, maratigd (Ilocos Norte and Sur) ; pipi (Ne- 
gros) ; salangkugi', salingkugi' , salungkugi' (Zambales, Bataan, Mindoro, 
Catanduanes, Masbate, Ticao, Surigao, Zamboanga) ; salukigi (Samar, 
Leyte) ; salunggigi, tagiirarit (Pangasinan) ; sangginggi' (Agusan) ; sian- 
kugi, tivagi (Surigao) ; tambing (Benguet) ; tigian (Guimaras Island) ; 
unaki (Camarines). 

This species is a small or medium-sized tree with a sapona- 
ceous bark which is used locally in much the same way as 
gogo (Entada phaseoloides) . The fresh wood lathers freely 
with water. 

Albizzia saponaria reaches a height of 20 meters and a diam- 



SOAP SUBSTITUTES 



53 




FIGURE 1. ALBIZZIA ACLE (AKLE). 



54 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

eter of 80 centimeters. The bark is about 5 millimeters thick, 
light gray to dark gray, and densely covered with corky pus- 
tules. The inner bark is slightly pink colored and somewhat 
spongy in texture. The leaves are alternate and doubly com- 
pound. 

This species is found throughout the Philippines, especially 
in second-growth or open forests. 

Genus ENTADA 
ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L.) Merr. {E. scandens L) (Fig. 3). GOGO. 

Local names: Ballogo (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan) ; Balogo (Samar, 
Cuyo, Bisaya provinces, parts of Bikol region) ; gogo, gugo, or gugu' (Isa- 
bela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, 
Manila, Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Mindoro, 
Marinduque, Leyte, Negros) ; ipol (Zambales) ; kalit (E. Pangasinan) ; 
lipai (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Union, Bulacan) ; lotog (W. 
Pangasinan). In most parts of N. Luzon, the name Upai is given to the 
plant and its large, round seeds, and ballogo to the crushed stem used 
for washing the hair. 

The bark and stems of Entada phaseoloides (gogo) contain 
saponin. Gogo is used extensively in the Philippines and other 
oriental countries for washing the hair and is on the market 
as an ingredient of hair tonics. 

The vine is cut in lengths of about one-half to 1 meter and 
pounded into thin, flat strips, the width of which depends on the 
•diameter of the piece treated. These strips when dried are ready 
for market. When soaked in water and rubbed, gogo produces 
a lather which cleanses the scalp very effectually. Very large 
■quantities of gogo are used in the Philippines, but it is very 
difficult to determine the amount. Many people cut and pound 
material for their own use, while others prepare a small quantity 
and peddle it from house to house. There is no organized trade 
in gogo, but it is sold in small stores throughout the Islands. 
In Manila it sells at retail at prices ranging from 40 centavos 
a kilo upward. A forest charge of 10 per cent, or 2 pesos per 
100 kilos, is collected on it. 

The chemical composition of gogo has been investigated by 
Bacon.* 

Gogo is used as a fish poison, the active principle, according 
to Bacon, being saponin. The bark is also used for cordage. 
The kernels of the seeds are mashed and used by the Filipinos 



* Bacon, R. F., The physiological active constituents of certain Philippine 
medicinal plants. Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 1 (1906), page 1021. 
Bacon, R. F., and Marshall, H. T., The toxic action of saponin. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Vol. 1 (1906), page 1037. 



SOAP SUBSTITUTES 



55 





FIGURE 2. ALBIZZIA ACLE (AKLE). 



56 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

for poultices for children having colic. According to Bacon 
the seeds contain a fatty oil which is extracted and used in 
the Sunda Islands for illuminating purposes. Bacon says that 
in some places they are roasted and eaten after the active 
principle has been removed by washing. 

Gogo has been cultivated for a long time in the highland 
towns of Cavite, namely, Silang, Amadeo, Alfonso, Mendez- 
Nuiiez, Eailen, and Marigondon. A large proportion of the in- 
habitants of Indang, perhaps a majority, cultivate Gogo to 
some extent. The vines are propagated partly from seed and 
partly by layering, and are trained over trees, coconut palms, 
etc. At three years of age, a vine is large enough to be cut. 
If not cut too close to the ground, the stump sends up several 
sprouts, which are either allowed to grow up, or employed as 
layers. The vines very rarely die as the result of cutting. 

Entada phaseoloides is a large vine with compound leaves. 
The flowers are yellow and borne on slender spikes in simple 
or compound inflorescences. Perhaps the most striking features 
of the vine are the large seed-pods, which are about 7 to 10 
centimeters wide and up to a meter in length. They contain 
hard, circular seeds 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is common and widely distributed throughout 
the Archipelago. 

Family OXALIDACEAE 

Genus AVERRHOA 
AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. KamiaS. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The fruits of this species are used to remove stains from 
clothing and also in washing the hands. 

Family POLYGALACEAE 

Genus SECURIDACA 

SECURIDACA CORYMBOSA Turcz. HiNAKI. 

Local names: Gogong-bisdya (Tayabas) ; hindki (Negros) ; oyangyd 
(Mindoro). 

This plant is used as a soap substitute in the same manner 
as Entada phaseoloides (gogo) . 

Securidaca corymbosa is a woody vine or undershrub. The 
leaves are alternate, pointed at the tip, rounded or abruptly 
pointed at the base, and from 6 to 9 centimeters in length. 
The flowers are small, and red and white. The fruit resembles 
a half maple fruit and is about 8 centimeters long. 



SOAP SUBSTITUTES 



57 




FIGURE 3. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (GOGO). 



58 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species has been reported from Luzon, Mindoro, and 
Negros. 

SECURIDACA PH ILIPPINENSIS Chodat BaluNOS. 

Local names: Baldgon, balunos (Sorsogon). 

This vine has a thick, white bark containing saponin. The 
bark is used locally in certain regions as a soap substitute. 

Securidaca phiUppinensis is a large, woody vine. The leaves 
are bluntly pointed at the base and taper to a rather sharp 
point at the tip. The flowers are small and borne on compound 
inflorescences. The fruits are oval and slightly over a centi- 
meter in length. At one end there is a long wing about 7 or 
more centimeters in length, resembling that of a maple fruit. 

This species is distributed from southern Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family SAPINDACEAE 

Genus GANOPHYLLUM 
GANOPHYLLUM FALGATUM Blume. Arangen. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark of this tree is used in the same manner as gogo 
(Entada phaseoloides) . 

Genus HARPULLIA 
HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. Uas. 

Local names: Amhuyan (Ilocos Sur) ; baydg-kalabdu (Tayabas) ; bun- 
salak (Mindoro) ; dulis, magantimus (Cotabato) ; huds (Ticao Island, 
Masbate) ; kuds (Rizal) ; mag-alad, ringis (Palawan) ; malalubds (Cama- 
rines) ; malapalikpik-hito (Tarlac) ; pods or puds (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, 
Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Mindoro) ; uds (Cagayan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, 
Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines) ; uds na purdu (Ilocos Norte). 

The bark is pounded and used as a substitute for that of 
gogo (Entada phaseoloides) . 

Harpullia arborea is a tree reaching a height of about 20 
meters and a diameter of about 60 centimeters. The leaves 
are alternate and pinnately compound. The leaflets are 
pointed at the tip, oblique at the base, and 7 to 15 centi- 
meters in length. The flowers are small and white. The 
fruit is red and is divided into two lobes, each of which contains 
a few seeds. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the forests 
from northern Luzon to the southern limits of the Sulu Archi- 
pelago. 



SOAP SUSTITUTES 59 

Genus SARIN DUS 
SARIN DUS SARONARIA L. TiKAS-TIKAS. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fibers. 

Tobacco workers in Abra use the crushed leaves for removing 
the stain of tobacco leaves from their hands. The bark is used 
for cleansing the hair. 

Family RHAMNACEAE 

Genus GOUANIA 

GOUANIA TILIAEFOLIA Lam. 

Local names: Literan (Bulacan, Rizal, Lagnna) ; pahampak (Pampanga). 

The root of this species is a soap substitute. 

Goumiia tiliaefoUa is a woody vine. The leaves are altern- 
ate, somewhat hairy, pointed at the tip, rounded or heart-shaped 
at the base, and 6 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers 
are small and greenish or whitish. 

This species is distributed throughout the Philippines. 

Family DILLENIACEAE 

Genus TETRACERA 

TETRACERA SCANDENS (L.) Merr. 

Local names: Malakattnon (Tarlac, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal); ople-bd- 
king (Palawan). 

The leaves are very rough and are used for cleaning dishes 
and various instruments. 

Tet7^acera scandetis is a woody vine. The leaves are alter- 
nate, pointed at both ends, larger near the apex than near the 
base, the margins toothed. The flowers are rather small, 
white, and borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are 
small and red. 

This species is apparently common and widely distributed 
from central Luzon to southern Mindanao. 



OFFICIAL PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 

61 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 
CONTENTS 

Pa»e. 

Illustrations 64 

Introduction 65 

Description of Species 65 

Family Cyatheaceae 65 

Cibotium barametz 65 

Family Palmae 65 

Areca catechu 65 

Family Araceae 66 

Acorus calamus 66 

Family Zingiberaceae 66 

Curcuma zedoaria > 66 

Family Piperaceae 66 

Piper betle 66 

Family Chenopodiaceae 67 

Chenopodium ambrosioides 67 

Family Menispermaceae 67 

Archangelisia flava 67 

Family Leguminosae 67 

Abrus precatorius 67 

Caesalpinia sappan 67 

Tamarindus indica 67 

Family Simarubaceae 68 

Brucea amarissima --■ 68 

Family Euphorbiaceae 68 

Croton tiglium 68 

Mallotus philippensis 68 

Ricinus communis 69 

Family Anacardiaceae 69 

Anacardium occidentale 69 

Family Myrtaceae 69 

Eugenia cumini 69 

69 



Psidium guajava. 



Family Umbelliferae 69 

Centella asiatica 69 

63 



64 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of species — Continued. 

Family Sapotaceae "0 

Palaquium spp 70 

Family Loganiaceae 70 

Strychnos ignatii 70 

Family Convolvulaceae 70 

Operculina turpethum 70 

Family Labiatae 70 

Ocimum basilicum 70 

Orthosiphon aristatus ■--- 72 

Family Solanaceae..— 72 

Capsicum frutescens 72 

Datura fast-josa var. alba 72 

Solanum nigrum 74 

Family Bignoniaceae 74 

Sesamum orientale 74 

Family Plantaginaceae 74 

Plantago major 74 

Family Compositae 75 

Artemisia vulgaris 75 

Bidens pilosa 75 

Blumea balsamifera ^ 75 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure 1. Fruit of Strychnos ignatii (St. Ignatius bean . From 

Twelfth Annual Rep., Bur. of Sci., 1913, Plate XXXVII. 71 

2. Datura fastuosa var. alba (talongpunai) 73 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 

INTRODUCTION 

In the Philippines, a great variety of plants furnish material 
for medicine. Some of the substances are apparently of little or 
no value, while others would seem to be useful. In a separate 
section, Dr. Leon Maria Guerrero, of the Bureau of Science, has 
given an account of the local medicinal uses of Philippine plants. 
For this reason there are included in the following list only 
such wild species as are official in twentieth-century pharmaco- 
poeias, and one which contains a high percentage of berberine. 
Most of such plants found in the Philippines are of little or 
doubtful value, so no attempt has been made to discuss their 
uses. Gathercoal * has recently prepared a list of botanical 
drugs which are official in twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. 
The species mentioned in the following discussion are taken 
from his list, with the addition of the one containing berberine. 

Family CYATHEACEAE 
Genus CIBOTIUM 
CIBOTIUM BARAMETZ (Linn.) J. Sm. SALAGfSOG. 

Local name: Salagisog (Camarines). 

This plant is official in the Austrian Pharmacopoeia. The 
long hairs are used in preparations for coagulating the blood 
to arrest capillary hemorrhages. 

Cibotium barametz is a large fern. The lower parts of the 
leaf stalks are covered with long golden-yellow hairs. 

This species is distributed in the mountains from Luzon to 
Mindanao. 

Family PALMAE . 

Genus ARECA 
ARECA CATECHU L. Bui?GA OR Betel nut Palm. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on palms. 



* Gathercoal, E. N., Pharmacopoeial botanic drugs of the twentieth 
century. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association for March, 
April, and May, 1916. 

177674 5 "° 



66 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The seeds are official in the German and Swiss Pharmaco- 
poeias. The powdered seeds are used as a vermifuge. 

Family ARACEAE 

Genus ACORUS 
ACORUS CALAMUS L. LUBIGAN OR SWEET FLAG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The rhizome is official in many pharmacopoeias, and the oil 
in the German Pharmacopoeia. According to Greenish * the 
rhizome has stimulant and tonic properties, and has been used 
for ague and for atonic dyspepsia. 

Family ZINGIBERACEAE 

Genus CURCUMA 
CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (Berg.) Rose. Barak or Zedoary. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The rhizome is known as zedoary and is official in the Aus- 
trian, Croatian, French, German, Hungarian, Japanese, Russian, 
Serbian, Spanish, and Swiss Pharmacopoeias and in the Ame- 
rican National Formulary. 

Family PIPERACEAE 

Genus PIPER 
PIPER BETLE L. BuYO or Betel Pepper. 

Local names: Biiyo or buyobuyo (Camarines) ; gaued (Lepanto Sub- 
province) ; ikmo itmo (Tagalog) ; ikmong Iloko (Bulacan) ; letlet or litlit 
(Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, Tayabas) ; savidt (Pampanga). 

The leaves are official in the British Pharmacopoeia. They 
are extensively used in the Philippines for chewing with the 
seeds of Areca catechu sprinkled with lime. 

Piper betle is a smooth, climbing vine reaching a height of 
2 to 4 meters. The upper leaves are 10 to 13 centimeters in 
length. The apex of the leaf is pointed and the base somewhat 
inequilaterally rounded or heart shaped. 

This species is extensively cultivated, but is also wild. It is 
distributed throughout the Philippines. 

* Greenish, H. G., A text book of materia medica, page 453. 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 

Family CHENOPODIACEAE 

Genus CHENOPODIUM 

CHENOPODIUM AM BROSIOI DES L. APOSOTIS. 

Local names: Alpasotcs (Pampanga, Manila); alpasoti (Bcntoc) ; apa- 
sotes (Union) ; aposotis (Pampanga, Tagalog, Bisaya) ; pasotis (Mindoro, 
Tagalog) . 

The top of the plant is official in the Austrian and Mexican 
Pharmacopoeias. The oil is used as a cure for worms. 

Chenopodium amhrosioides is a branched herb nearly a meter 
in height, with angled stems. It has an aromatic odor when 
crushed. The leaves are 3 to 10 centimeters in length and have 
lobed margins. The flowers are very small. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines, both cul- 
tivated and wild. 

Family MENISPERMACEAE 

Genus ARCHANGELISIA 
ARCHANGELISIA FLAVA (L.) Merr. AbUTRA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on dyes. 

This plant contains about 5 per cent of berberine. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ABRUS 
A BR US PRECATORIUS L. Kansasaga or Prayer-BEAX. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fibers. 

The seeds of this species are official in the Spanish Pharma- 
copoeia, and the leaves in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 

Genus CAESALPINIA 
CAESALPINIA SAPPAN L. SiBUKAU. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 

The heartwood is official in the British Pharmacopoeia. 

Genus TAMARINDUS 
TAMARINDUS INDICA L. Sampalok or TAMARIND. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 



68 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The fruits are official in nearly all the twentieth-century phar- 
macopoeias. According to Greenish * the pulp is used as an 
acid refrigerant and a gentle laxative. 

Family SIMARUBACEAE 

Genus BRUCEA 
BRUCEA AMARISSIMA (Lour.) Merr. 

Local names: Bogobogo (Negros, Surigao) ; magkapdyas (Leyte) ; para- 
iso, selte (Basilan). 

The flowers are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 

Briicea sivniatrana is a somewhat hairy shrub reaching a height 
of about 3 meters. The leaves are alternate and pinnate. The 
leaflets are pointed at the apex, rounded or pointed at the base, 
have prominently toothed margins, and are 4 to 10 centimeters 
in length. The flowers are small, reddish, and occur on axil- 
lary inflorescences. The fruits are oval and about 0.5 centi- 
meter in length. 

This species is distributed from central Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE 

Genus CROTON 
CROTON TIGLIUM L. CROTON-OIL PlANT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil is official in all the twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. 
According to Greenish: * 

Croton oil is a powerful irritant, producing, when applied to the skin, 
a burning sensation and redness, followed by severe pustules; it is used, 
diluted, as a counter-irritant. Internally it is a very rapid drastic cathar- 
tic, and is given in certain cases of apoplexy. 

Genus M ALLOT US 
MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. BanAto. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 

The glands and hairs which cover the fruits are official in 
many pharmacopoeias. This substance, known as kamala, is 
an efficient remedy for tape-worm. 



* Greenish, H. G., A texbook of materia medica, page 122. 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 

Genus RICINUS 
RICINUS COMMUNIS L. Taj?gan-tangan or Castor-oil plant. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gnms, and oils. 

Castor oil, which is obtained from this plant, is official in 
all the twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. 

Family ANACARDIACEAE 

Genus ANACARDIUM 
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Kasui or CASHEW NUT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The leaves are official in the Mexican and the Netherlandish 
Pharmacopoeias. 

Family MYRTACEAE 

Genus EUGENIA 
EUGENIA CUMINI Druce. DtJHAT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The bark is official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 

Genus PSIDIUM 
PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. Bayabas or GuAVA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves of this species are official in the Netherlandish 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Family UMBELLIFERAE 

Genus CENTELLA 
CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) Urban. (Hydrocotyle asiatica L.) 

Local names: Tagaditok (Batanes Islands); botbotonis (Bontoc) ; takaip 
(Polillo) ; takip-kohol (Tagalog) ; yabong-yabong (Samar). 

The leaves are official in the Mexican, Netherlandish, and 
Spanish Pharmacopoeias. 

Centella asiatica is a prostrate, slightly hairy herb. The stem 
produces roots at the nodes. The leaves are rounded at the tip, 
kidney-shaped or heart-shaped at the base, and 2 to 5 centimeters 
in diameter. The petiole is veiy long. The flowers are dark 
purple, with petals about 1 millimeter in length. 

This species is distributed in open places from Luzon to Min- 
danao and Basilan. 



70 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family SAPOTACEAE 

Genus PALAQUIUM 
PALAQUIUM spp. 

The Philippine species which yield gutta-percha are described 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

Gutta-percha is official in many pharmacopoeias. 

Family LOGANIACEAE 

Genus STRYCHNOS 

STRYCHNOS I GNAT 1 1 Berg. (Fig. I). St. IGNATIUS Bean. 

Local names: Iganod or igasiid (Samar, Leyte, Surigao) ; kahalonga, 
leite, San Ignacio (Surigao). 

The seeds are official in the British, Mexican, and Spanish 
Pharmacopoeias. They are a source of strychnine. The de- 
mand for Saint Ignatius beans is small and the supply irregular. 
If there were a greater demand, they could probably be collected 
in considerable quantities. 

Strychnos ignatii is a large, woody, forest vine. The leaves 
are opposite, oval, pointed at the tip, pointed or somewhat 
rounded at the base, prominently three-veined, and 8 to 20 cen- 
timeters in length. The fruit is rounded, pale yellowish and 
brown, and 10 centimeters or more in diameter. It contains a 
number of seeds, which are embedded in a soft pulp, having a 
squash-like odor. The fresh seeds are greenish straw-color, with 
a somewhat satin-like appearance. 

This species has been reported from Samar, Leyte, Surigao, 
Agusan, and Lanao. It is a native of, and is confined to the 
Philippines. 

Family CONVOLVULACEAE 

Genus OPERCULINA 
OPERCULINA TURPETHUM(L.) S. Manso. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fibers. 

The roots and stems are official in the British, French, Mex 
ican, and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. 

Family LABIATAE 

Genus OCIMUM 
OCIMUM BASiLICUM L. Balanoi or SwEET BASIL. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The upper part of the plant is official in the French and 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 



71 







-I — i — I — I — I — i — I — r 

lO cm. 



FIGURE 1. FRUIT OF STRYCHNOS IGNATIl (ST. IGNATIUS BEAN). 



72 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Mexican Pharmacopoeias. The plant is aromatic and is used 
as a condiment. 

Genus ORTHOSIPHON 
ORTHOSIPHON ARISTATUS (Blume) Miq. 

The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 
They are said to be a powerful diuretic. 

Orthosiphon stammeus is a tall herb. The leaves are op- 
posite, pointed at the tip, widest near the base, and have 
toothed margins. 

This species has been reported from Luzon. 

Family SOLANACEAE 

Genus CAPSICUM 
CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L. SiLI or CHILE PEPPER. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

This species, frequently known as Capsicum minimum, is a 
source of Cayenne pepper, which is official in the British, Jap- 
anese, Mexican, and American Pharmacopoeias. According to 
Greenish,* Cayenne pepper is used externally as a stimulant and 
counter-irritant, and internally to dispel flatulence and rouse the 
appetite. 

Genus DATURA 

DATURA FASTUOSA L. var. ALBA Nees. (Fig. 2). Talong-PUNAI 

Local names: Kamkammaulaii (Union) ; katsuhong (Capiz) ; talampu- 
nai (Manila, Rizal) ; talong-punai (Bikol, Tagalog). 

The leaves are official in the French, Japanese, and Nether- 
landish Pharmacopoeias and the seeds in the British Phar- 
macopoeia. The alkaloid content has been investigated by Brill. f 

Datura fastuosa var. alba is a coarse, erect, branched, smooth 
or slightly hairy herb or tree-like shrub 0.5 to 2 meters in height. 
The leaves are 9 to 18 centimeters long, the apex pointed, the 
base inequilateral, the margins irregularly and shallowly lobed. 
The flowers are very large, axillary, and solitary. The calyx is 
green and about 6 centimeters long. The corolla is white, about 
15 centimeters long, and 8 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is 
rounded, green, about 3.5 centimeters in diameter, covered with 
short, stout spines, and contains many seeds. 

* Greenish, H. G., A text book of materia medica, page 149. 
t Brill, H. C, Datura alba. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, 
Volume 11 (1916), page 257. 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 



73 




FIGURE 2. DATURA FASTUOSA VAR. ALBA (TALONG-PUNAI). 



74 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species is common and widely distributed in the neighbor- 
hood of towns in the Philippines. 

Genus SOLAN UM 
SOLAN UM NIGRUM L. KONTI OR BLACK NIGHTSHADE. 

Local names: Amti (Bontoc) ; bnhtgtdb (Bisaya) ; kaldnga (Misamis) ; 
kamakaniatisan (Tagalog) ; konti (Tag-alog) ; lubi-hibi (Tagalog, Bikol, 
Bisaya) ; jnalasile (Samar) ; nateng (Batanes Islands, Benguet) ; onti 
(Laguna) . 

The leaves are official in the French, Mexican, and Spanish 
Pharmacopoeias. 

Solanum nigrum is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly 
smooth herb 1 meter or less in height. The stems are green 
and somewhat three-angled. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters 
long, pointed at both ends, the margins subentire or undulately 
toothed or lobed. The corolla is white and about 8 millimeters 
in diameter. The fruit is a dark purple or black, smooth, 
rounded berry about 5 millimeters in diameter. 

This species is widely distributed in waste places from north- 
ern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Family BIGNONIACEAE 

Genus SESAMUM 
SESAMUM ORIENTALE L. (S. indicwn DC.) LiNGA OR SESAME. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil is official in many pharmacopoeias. 

Family PLANTAGINACEAE 

Genus PLANTAGO 
PLANTAGO MAJOR L. PLANTAIN. 

Local names: Lanting (Bontoc, Manila) ; Ilanten (Spanish) ; plantain 
(English). 

The leaves are official in the Mexican and Spanish Pharma- 
copoeias. They appear to be of little value. 

Plantago major is a perennial herb the leaves of which occur 
in a rosette near the ground. They are 5 to 10 centimeters long, 
about five-nerved, with a petiole often as long as the leaf -blade. 
The spikes are 6 to 12 centimeters long, erect, slender, and have 
crowded flowers. The capsules are ovoid and about 3 milli- 
meters long. 

This species was introduced by the Spaniards and is now 
naturalized in some localities in Luzon. 



OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 

Family COMPOSITAE 

Genus ARTEMISIA 

ARTEMISIA VULGARIS L. DamONG-MARIA or MuGWORT. 

Local names: Artamisa (Bisaya) ; damong -maria (Manila); kamaria 
(Tagalog) ; gilbas (Negros Oriental); herbraka (Bontoc). 

The upper portion of the plant is official in the French and 
Swiss Pharmacopoeias. 

Artemisia vulgaris is an erect, hairy, rank-smelling, often half- 
woody herb 50 to 80 centimeters in height. The leaves are 
pinnately lobed, 5 to 14 centimeters long, gray beneath, and 
nearly smooth above. The flowering heads are numerous, ovoid, 
3 to 4 millimeters long, and occur in large numbers on branched 
inflorescences. 

This species was introduced from Europe into the Philippines. 
It is widely distributed in cultivation and is thoroughly natural- 
ized in some regions. 

Genus BIDENS 
BIDENS PILOSA L. PURIKET. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 

Genus BLUMEA 
BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. Sambong. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. 



POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 



77 



POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 

A large number of wild Philippine plants have been used for 
poisoning fish, others yield arrow poisons, and still others are 
used for poisoning dogs. The use of fish poisons is prohibited 
by law, so that these plants are of more scientific than practical 
interest. The use of arrow poisons is confined to a very few 
people belonging to wild tribes, and is also of little practical 
importance. For these reasons, local names and descriptions 
have not been given for these plants. The following account 
is little more than a list of poisonous plants known to have 
been used in the Philippines. 

Family MENISPERMACEAE 

Genus ANAMIRTA 
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS (L.) W. & A. 

The powdered fruits of this species are put in water to kill 
fish. In preparing the poison, the fruit is heated until dry and 
then crushed and powdered. The fruits are poisonous not only 
to fish, but also to other animals. 

Family CONNARACEAE 

Genus ROUREA 
ROUREA ERECTA (Blanco) Merr. 

The wood of Rourea erecta is poisonous. It is pounded, boiled, 
and mixed with the food of dogs in order to kill them. 

ROUREA VOLUBILIS (Blanco) Merr. 

The fruits of this vine are used for poisoning dogs. 
Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus DERRIS 
DERRIS ELLIPTICA (Roxb.) Benth. 

The roots of this species are used to poison fish. Cattle have 
died from eating this plant. 

DERRIS PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. 

The roots of this plant are used as a fish poison. Cattle have 

died from eating this plant. 

79 



80 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE 

Genus ALCHORNEA 
ALCHORNEA SICCA (Blanco) Merr. 

The leaves and fruits are used for poisoning fish. 

Genus CROTON 
CROTON TIGLIUM L. 

The crushed leaves are used for poisoning fish. 

Genus FLUGEA 
FLUGGEA VIROSA (Roxb.) Baill. 

The bark is used to poison fish. 

Genus HOMALANTHUS 
HOMALANTHUS FASTUOSUS (Linden) F.-VilL 

The leaves are used for poisoning fish. 
Genus JATROPHA 
JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. 

This plant is used as a fish poison. 

Family BUXACEAE 

Genus BUXUS 
BUXUS ROLFEI Vid. 

The fruits of this species are dried and finely cut, and then 
scattered on water as a fish poison. 

Family SAPINDACEAE 

Genus HARPULLIA 

HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. 

The bark of this species is chopped fine and put in fresh- 
water streams to kill fish. 

Family STERCULIACEAE 

Genus KLEINHOVIA 
KLEINHOVIA HOSPITA L. 

In Marinduque the bark and leaves are used to poison eels. 
Family THEACEAE 

Genus TERNSTROEMIA 
TERNSTROEMIA TOQUIAN (Blanco) F.-Vill. 

The fruit and bark of this species are used for poisoning fish. 



POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS 81 

Family LECYTHIDACEAE 

Genus BARRINGTONIA 
BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz. 

The bark and fruits of this tree are used as a fish poison. 

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) Gaertn. 

The bark of this tree is used as a fish poison. 

BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (L.) Blume. 

The bark of this species is put in streams to poison fish. The 
fruits are used to poison wild pigs. 

Family ARALIACEAE 

Genus SCHEFFLERA 
SCHEFFLERA BLANCOI Merr. 

This species is used for poisoning fish. 

Family MYRSINACEAE 

Genus MAESA 
MAESA CUMINGM Mez. 

The bark of this species is used for poisoning fish. 

MAESA DENTICULATA Mez. 

The whole plant is used to stupefy fish, which are afterward 
collected from the surface of the water. 

MAESA LAXA Mez. 

The fruit of this species is used to poison fish. 

Family APOCYNACEAE 

Genus KICKXIA 
KICKXIA BLANCOI Rolfe. 

The bark and leaves of this species are used for killing fish. 

Genus STROPHANTHUS 
STROPHANTHUS CUMINGM A. DC. 

The bark is employed as an effective arrow poison. 

Genus VOACANGA 
VOACANGA GLOBOSA (Blanco) Merr. 

The pounded fruits are used to stupefy eels. 
Family VERBENACEAE 

Genus CALLICARPA 
CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe. 

The leaves of this plant are pounded and then used as a fish 

177674-^6 



82 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

poison. They are also sometimes eaten by cattle with fatal 
results. 

CALLICARPA CANA L. 

The leaves of this species are pounded and then used as a 
fish poison. 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Sch. 

The leaves of this plant are used as a fish poison. 
Family COMPOSITAE 

Genus BLUMEA 
BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. 

The leaves of this plant are used with other plants for poison- 
ing fish. Their efficacy is questionable. 



MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE 

PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 

83 



MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE 

PLANTS 

CONTENTS 

Page. 

Illustrations 85 

Introduction 87 

description of species.. 87 

Firewood 87 

Leucaena glauca 87 

Ink 90 

Phyllanthus reticulatus 90 

Lye : 90 

Acanthus ilicifolius 90 

Paper Substitutes 90 

Homalomena philippinensis 90 

Musa spp 92 

Sphagnum 92 

Sphagnum sp 92 

Tannins 92 

Pinus insularis 92 

Weinmannia luzonensis 93 

Pithecolobium dulce 93 

Canarium luzonicum 94 

Calophyllum inophyllum 94 

Ardisia serrata..: 95 

Tobacco Substitutes 95 

Astilbe philippinensis 95 

Solanum inaequilaterale 96 

Tree-fern Trunks 96 

Cyathea spp 96 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. 1. Stand of ipil-ipil surrounded by cogon 86 

2. Interior of 2-year-old ipil-ipil stand 86 

3. Root system of ipil-ipil showing tendency to develop long 

taproots 89 

4. Ipil-ipil sprouts 1 year old 89 

5. Strip 10 by 50 meters in interior of 1-year-old sprout stand 

of ipil-ipil from which 4.4 cubic meters (1.2 cords) of 

firewood was cut 91 

6. Two-year old stand of ipil-ipil. Yeild 125 cubic meters of 

firewood per hectare (13i cords per acre) 91 

85 



86 



MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIG. 1. STAND OF IPIL-IPIL SURROUNDED BY KOGON. 









-lirim k 






■' ??M. ', . R I. ''if 










FIG. 2. INTERIOR OF 2-YEAR-OLD IPIL-IPIL STAND. 



MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE 

PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 

In preparing this bulletin, most of the useful forest plants are 
included in special sections. There are, however, a few which 
do not fit into any of the preceding sections, and which are 
brought together here for the sake of completeness. 

FIREWOOD 

A large number of miscellaneous trees in the Philippines are 
used as firewood. The most important species are found in 
the mangrove swamps, and have been treated in a separate 
section. There is one dry-land species, Leucaena glauca (ipil- 
ipil) , which deserves special mention. This species has been the 
subject of a special bulletin by Matthews, from which the fol- 
lowing information is taken. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus LEUCAENA 
LEUCAENA GLAUCA (L.) Benth. (Figs. 1-6). Ipil-IPIL. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

Ipil-ipil never attains a large size, and a tree 25 centimeters 
in diameter and 10 meters tall would be exceptionally large. 
Even in stands which have not been cut for a long period, the 
average diameter of the trees would be about 10 centimeters, 
the stand as a whole not exceeding 10 meters in height. This 
species produces seeds in great abundance, the seeds germinate 
quickly, and even under adverse conditions the seedlings grow 
rapidly. The result is that the trees are usually found in dense 
stands which often contain no other species. The long slender 
poles are especially suited for the firewood needs of the Phil- 
ippines. 

Ipil-ipil is particularly valuable for planting in kogon areas 
as it can compete with the grass and, if not disturbed by fires, 
drive it out. About 25 liters of seed, if broadcasted, will plant 
a hectare. This should be done at the beginning of the rainy 

87 



88 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

season, and the grass should be burnt at the last possible moment 
before the rains begin. As the tree begins to shed seeds at 
the end of the first year, any vacant places will be filled; and 
by the end of the third year, ipil-ipil should fairly dominate 
the area and be well started toward the production of the first 
crop of firewood. Much quicker and better results would be 
obtained if the area were plowed once, just after the grass is 
burned. This would prevent the quick return of the grass and 
do away with the competition between the small trees and the 
fast-growing kogon, which often sets the crop back a year or 
more. Plowing would also give a much better seed bed and 
would result in a greater number of young plants at the start. 

If the seeds cannot be had in sufficient quantities for broad- 
casting, they can be sown in seed spots, drills, or with a corn 
planter. If any of these methods are adopted, 5 to 10 liters of 
seeds will plant a hectare. 

If ipil-ipil is planted in a grass area it should be protected 
from fires, as the burning of the surrounding grass would 
destroy the crop at any time up to the end of the third year, 
at which time the stands should be dense enough to prevent 
the entrance of fires. 

The management of a closed stand of ipil-ipil is very simple. 
It would probably be most profitable to cut the stand every 
three years, when the trees should average 10 centimeters in 
diameter and 5 to 6 meters in height. The yield should aver- 
age from 120 to 130 stacked cubic meters per hectare, which 
is equivalent to 13 or 14 cords per acre. The only rule neces- 
sary for the successful management of a stand would be to cut 
the stems at the lowest practicable height, preferably 10 cen- 
timeters or less, and to make the cuts as clean and smooth as 
possible so as not to damage the bark. It would appear that the 
cutting may extend over as large an area as is desired, as sprouts 
are developed at once and grow rapidly enough to preclude the 
entrance of undesirable species. Fires can be avoided by har- 
vesting the stand during the rainy season. 

In 1914, Matthews estimated that after allowing for compound 
interest at 5 per cent, a three years' rotation should give 39 per 
cent interest on the investment. With the present price of fire- 
wood, the rate should be greater. 

Leucaeyia glauca has not only been grown successfully as a 
firewood crop, but has been of great advantage to the Bureau of 
Forestry in its reforestation projects as a nurse crop for 
forest trees. 



FIREWOOD 



89 




FIGURE 3. ROOT SYSTEM OF IPIL-IPIL SHOWING TENDENCY TO DEVELOP 
LONG TAPROOTS. 




FIGURE 4. IPIL-IPIL SPROUTS, 1 YEAR OLD. 



90 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS. 

INK 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE 

Genus PHYLLANTHUS 

PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS Poir. Matang Buyud. 

Local names: Baghagutot (Camiguin Island, Union); bubabot (Abra) ; 
7natdng-huyiid (Camarines) ; pagbaotot (Ilocos Norte) ; tinatindan (Ma- 
nila) ; tologtolog (Laguna, Negros). 

Ink is prepared from the ripe fruits of this species. 

Phyllanthus 7'eticulatus is a shrub 1.5 to 5 meters in height. 
The leaves are alternate and occur on the stems in two rows. 
They are 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, rather pale beneath, and have 
short petioles. The flowers grow singly or in clusters of a few 
in the axils of the leaves. They are green, tinged with purple, 
and 2 to 3 millimeters in length. The fruit is rounded and 
somewhat flattened, soft, fleshy, smooth, 5 to 12 millimeters in 
diameter, and is black when mature. 

Phyllanthus reticulatus is very common and widely distributed 
in open places and thickets from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

LYE 

Family ACANTHACEAE 

Genus ACANTHUS 
ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS L. DiLIUARIU. 

A description of this plant and its local names are given in 
the section on mangrove swamps. 

According to Tavera this plant is used in the soap-making in- 
dustry, lye being prepared from the ash. 

PAPER SUBSTITUTES 
Family ARACEAE 

Genus HOMALOM ENA 
HOMALOMENA PH ILI PPI N ENSIS Engl. Tahi'g. 

Local names: Alupayi (Polillo) ; salet (Pangasinan) ; salet nga nalabaga 
(La Union); tahig (Camarines). 

The large leaves of this species are used extensively in Cam- 
arines for wrapping articles of food. 

Homalomena philippinensis is an herb reaching a height of 
about 1 meter. The leaves grow in a cluster from the ground 
and are large and somewhat heart-shaped. The "flowers" are 
green or whitish and about 6 centimeters in length. 



FIREWOOD 



91 




FIGURE 5. STRIP 10 BY 50 METERS IN INTERIOR OF 1-YEAR-OLD SPROUT STAND OF 
IPIL-IPIL FROM WHICH 4.4 CUBIC METERS (1.2 CORDS) OF FIREWOOD WAS CUT. 







-fe^^''"^ 



FIGURE 6. TWO-YEAR-OLD STAND OF IPIL-IPIL. YIELD: 125 CUBIC METERS OF 
FIREWOOD PER HECTARE (13-i CORDS PER ACRE). 



92 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao and Pala- 
wan. 

Family MUSACEAE 

Genus MUSA 
MUSA spp. Wild banana. 

The leaves of a number of wild bananas are used extensively 
for polishing floors, for lining pots in which rice is cooked, for 
lining baskets and similar articles in which food is stored, and 
for wrapping various articles sold in markets and shops. 

SPHAGNUM 
Family SPHAGNACEAE 

Genus SPHAGNUM 

This moss, which is extensively used in other countries for 
surgical dressings and for packing living plants, fish, eggs, etc., 
is of very little commercial importance in the Philippines. It 
occurs only at high altitudes, at and above elevations of 2,000 
meters, and generally in inaccessible regions. 

The supply of this moss in the Philippines is limited, and it 
would probably be cheaper to import the small quantity used 
than to attempt to collect it locally. 

TANNINS 

The most important commercial sources of tannin in the Phil- 
ippines are the mangrove swamps, which have been treated in a 
separate section. The species which is locally used in greatest 
quantities is Pithecolobium dulce (kamachile). According to 
Gana, the mangrove swamps and Pithecolobium dulce yield the 
only barks used by Philippine tanners. Gana investigated a 
number of species and found a few which have commercial pos- 
sibilities. These are mentioned in the following discussion. 

Family PINACEAE 

Genus PIN US 
PINUS INSULARIS Endl. Saleng or Benguet PINE. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

Gana * examined the bark of this species as a tanning ma- 
terial and reported that it contained a very low percentage of 

* Gana, V. Q., Some Philippine tanbarks. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 11 (1916), page 262. 



TANNINS 93 

tannin, 3.8. It gave a satisfactory leather of reddish tan with 
firm texture and good grain, but the process of tanning was slow. 
Gana believed that owing to the good quality of the leather 
produced and the availability of pine trees, the utilization of 
this bark as a tanning material was commercially important. 

Family CUNONIACEAE 

Genus WEINMANNIA 
WEINMANNIA LU20NIENSIS Vidal. 

It has been found by the St. Louis College at Baguio that 
this species furnishes good tanbark. 

Weinmannia luzoniensis is a tree reaching a height of 20 me- 
ters and a diameter of 50 centimeters. The leaves are opposite, 
and compound with three to seven leaflets, which are leathery, 
pointed at both ends, 4 to 10 centimeters in length, and with 
toothed margins. The flowers are fairly small, white or pinkish, 
and borne on racemes. 

This species is found in the mountains of Luzon and is ap- 
parently fairly common in some localities. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus PITHECOLOBIUM 
PITHECOLOBIUM DULCE (Roxb.) Benth. Kamachile. 

A description and figure and the local names of this species 
are given in the section on food plants. 

Gana,* who has made a study of Philippine tanneries, writes 
as follows concerning this species : 

Camanchile bark is used almost exclusively by Filipino tanners, who 
prefer it on account of the light-colored leather it produces. Because 
of this demand the price of air-dried camanchile bark has risen as high 
as 10 pesos per 100 kilograms. The tree is widely scattered throughout 
the Islands, although nowhere systematically or extensively grown. The 
present annual consumption of bark amounts to about 1,500 tons. Ex- 
haustion of the supply is threatened, as the trees are commonly killed 
by too extensive stripping of the bark. The bark is brownish gray and 
rough outside and reddish brown inside. It produces dull but light-colored 
leather, which reddens on exposure to light. An infusion of it contains 
a tannin of the catechol class, which gives a green-black precipitate with 
iron salts, a light brown precipitate with bromine water, and crimson 
line when in contact with one drop of concentrated sulphuric acid. Upon 
analysis a representative sample of the bark gave the following results, 

* Gana, V. Q., The leather industry of the Philippine Islands. Philippine 
Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 (1915). page 353. 



94 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

calculated on water-free material: Total extract, 34.77 per cent; non-tannin, 
9.41 per cent; tannin, 25.36 per cent. 

Camanchile bark infusion soon ferments and decomposes in this climate, 
resulting in the destruction of tannins, the development of a disagreeable 
odor, and a thickening of the liquid due to a viscous gelatinous formation 
which accumulates and grows on the surface. A few experiments with 
phenol as a preservative showed that a concentration of 0.01 per cent does 
not check the fermentation appreciably, as in a control infusion the 
tannins were destroyed, the color became a deep wine red — at least three 
times as intense as the original red orange — a somewhat penetrating smell 
was given off, and a gelatinous formation and a slimy sediment developed, 
which made the infusion viscous. After four months the loss of tannin 
amounted to 15 per cent of the total tannin content. An infusion con- 
taining 0.1 per cent phenol at the end of the same period showed a practi- 
cally unaltered tannin content and an acidity equal to 0.0714 gram acetic 
acid per 100 cubic centimeters. A little fermentation which soon ceased 
had produced some slimy sedimentation, but had not altered the appear- 
ance or odor of the clear supernatant infusion. 

Camanchile bark contains irritating principles, which are believed by 
laborers in the tanneries to indicate roughly the stength of infusions. In- 
fection of the eyes, producing weakening of the sight, and irritation and 
swelling of the lids are attributed to them. 

Family BURSERACEAE 

Genus CANARIUM 
CANARIUM LUZON ICUM (Bl.) A. Gray. PiLI. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

According to Gana * the bark of this species contains 7.8 per 
cent of tannin and gives a satisfactory leather, which is yel- 
lowish tan, with firm texture and good grain. The tanning 
process is slow. On account of the value of the nuts and resin 
produced by this species, Gana did not believe that the bark 
would be available on a commercial scale. 

Family GUTTIFERAE 

Genus CALOPH YLLUM 
CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. BiTAOG or PalOMARIA de LA PLAYA. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils, 
Gana * found that the bark of this species contained 11.9 

* Gana, V. Q., Some Philippine tanbarks. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Section A, Volume 11 (1916), page 262. 



TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES 95 

per cent of tannin and that it gave a satisfactory leather sim- 
ilar to pine-tanned leather in color, texture and grain. 

This species is fairly abundant. The trees are, however, 
widely scattered, and the collection of bark from those felled 
for lumber would be difficult and expensive. 

Family MYRSINACEAE 

Genus ARDISIA 
ARDISIA SERRATA (Cav.) Pers. 

Local names: Dapui (Nueva Vizcaya) ; labat, ruknikso (Cagayan) ; 
malaputat, panabon (Pampanga). 

It has been found by the St. Louis College at Baguio that 
this species furnishes good tanbark. 

Ardisia serrata is a tree reaching a height of about 10 meters 
and a diameter of about 20 centimeters or more. The leaves 
are opposite, smooth, 10 to 22 centimeters long, 4 to 8 centi- 
meters wide, pointed at both ends, and with rather small, pointed 
teeth along the margins. The flowers are fairly small, pinkish, 
and borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences. 
The fruits are round, about a centimeter in diameter, and con- 
tain a single round seed. When young the fruits are green, 
but as they ripen they turn red and finally black. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao 
and is apparently very common. 

TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES 

Family SAXIFRAGACEAE 

Genus ASTILBE 
ASTILBE PHILIPPINENSIS Henry. KauaX. 

Local names: Kauan (Benguet) ; tugtngi (Bontoc). 

This species is used by the Igorots for smoking. They some- 
times mix with it a little tobacco. 

Astilbe phiUppineusis is a hairy herb, 1 to 2 meters in 
height. The leaves are compound, with leaflets which are 
pointed at the tip, usually oblique at the base, and prominently 
toothed. The flowers are small and white, but are borne on 
large, conspicuous inflorescences. 

This species has been reported only from the Mountain Prov- 
ince. 



96 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family SOLANACEAE 

Genus SOLAN UM 
SOLANUM INAEQUILATERALE Merr. 

Local names: Tabaco-tabaco (Lanao) ; talantalogan (BukidnonK 

The leaves of this shrub are used by the Moro-Subanuns tor 
smoking. 

Solajium inaequilaterale is a thorny shrub about 2 meters in 
height. The leaves are large and hairy, the margins toothed 
with large lobes. The fruits are borne in clusters and are bright 
scarlet. 

TREE-FERN TRUNKS 

Family CYATHEACEAE 

Genus CYATHEA 
CYATHEA spp. 

Local names: Atibangddl, marapdko (Benguet) ; manapo (Benguet) ; 
palango (Camarines) ; punit (Samar). 

The tree ferns are always ornamental; but, on account of 
climatic conditions, cannot be successfully planted in cities and 
towns at low altitudes. 

The trunks of these ferns are very hard and durable, and 
for this reason are sometimes used for house posts. Owmg to 
the peculiar arrangement of the very large vascular bundles, 
their durable qualities, and their hardness, which allows a 
rather high polish, sections of the trunk are often prepared 
for vases or other objects of utility such as pencil holders and 
even umbrella holders. The stems may be split, and the harder 
part used for inlaying or for making small ornamental boxes, 
frames, etc. In general, however, tree ferns occupy a distinctly 
inferior place in the list of Philippine economic plants. 

The tree ferns are abundant in many parts of the Philippines, 
although they are rarely found at low altitudes except in regions 
where there is abundant rainfall. 



PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI 

By Otto A. Reinking 

177674 7 *' • 



PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI 
CONTENTS 

Page. 

Illustrations 101 

Introduction 103 

Types of Edible Fungi 109 

Family Auriculariaceae 109 

Auricularia polytricha 110 

Auricularia auricula-judae 112 

Auricularia cornea 112 

Auricularia tenuis 114 

Auricularia brasiliensis 114 

Auricularia moellerii 114 

Family Tremellaceae 114 

Tremella fuciformis 114 

Family Hydnaceae 116 

Hydnum spp US 

Family Polyporaceae 116' 

Boletus spp 11® 

Family Agaricaceae 116 

Coprinus ater 117 

Coprinus bryanti 117 

Coprinus concolor 117 

Coprinus confertus 118 

Coprinus deliquescens 118 

Coprinus flos-lactus 118 

Coprinus ornatus 120 

Coprinus plicatilis 120 

Coprinus pseudo-plicatus 120 

Coprinus revolutus 121 

Coprinus rimosus.-. 121 

Coprinus stercorarius 121 

Coprinus volutus 122 

Panaeolus panaiense 122 

Panaeolus pseudopapilionaceus 122 

Lentinus exilis 124 

Marasmius spp ■ 124 

Cortinarius spp - 126 

Volvaria esculenta 126 

Agaricus argyrostectus 132 

Agaricus boltoni - 132 

Agaricus luzonensis 132 

Agaricus manilensis 134 

Agaricus merrillii... 134 

Agaricus perfuscus 134 

99 



100 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Type of Edible Fungi — Continued. 

Family Agaricaceae — Continued. Page. 

Pleurotus ostreatus 136 

Collybia albuminosa 136 

Tricholoma tenuis 138 

Lepiota Candida 138 

Lepiota chlorospora (poisonous) 140 

Lepiota elata 140 

Lepiota fusco-squamea 140 

Family Lycoperdaceae 142 

Lycoperdon lilacinum 142 

Lycoperdon pusillum 142 

Lycoperdon pyriforme 144 

Scleroderma verrucosum 144 

Precautionary Measures 144 

Uses and Methods of Cooking 147 



PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI 
ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page. 

Fig. 1. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) 
Fresh, gelatinous specimen growing on a dead branch of 
a Canarium. Natural size , 105 

2. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) 

The same specimen as Fig. 1, but dry and hard. Natural 

size 105 

3. Cortinellus shiitake Schrot. Dried mushrooms from Japan. 

Purchased on Manila market. Natural size 107 

4. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) 

Upper surface of a large specimen. Natural size Ill 

5. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taiiigang-daga.) 

Lower surface of a large specimen. Natural size Ill 

6. Auricularia auricula-judae (Linn.) Schroet. Dried speci- 

mens sent from China and purchased in the markets of 
Manila and Los Barios, Philippine Islands 113 

7. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) 

Mass of fungi growing on dead branch. Width of largest 
specimen is 4 centimeters 115 

8. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) 

Group of fungi growing on dead stump. Natural size 115 

9. Coprinus confertus Copeland. Deliquescing stage. From 

Copeland, E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories, 
Publication No. 28 119 

10. Coprinus friesii Quelet. Grows on decaying Cocos nucifera 

trunks. Natural size 123 

11. Panaeolus. Different stages of growth 123 

12. Lentinus exilis Kl. growing on decaying stump of bamboo 

(Bambusa spivosa Roxb.). Slightly below natural size... 125 

13. Lentinus squarrosulus Mont, growing on dead stump. 

Natural size 127 

14. Volvaria escidenta Bres. Upper surface. Note volva. 

Slightly reduced 128 

15. Volvaria esculenta Bres. Under surface. Note volva. 

Slightly reduced 129 

16. Volvaria esculenta Bres. Sun dried. Slightly reduced 131 

17. Agaricus boltoni Copeland. Natural size. From Copeland, 

E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication 

No. 28 133 

18. Agaricus merrillii. Copeland. Natural size. From Cope- 

land, E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories Publica- 
tion No. 28 135 

19. Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Oyster mushroom. Natural size.. 137 

101 



102 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Page. 

Fig. 20. Collybia albuminosa (Berk.) Fetch. Upper surface. Grown 

from termite nest 139 

21. Collybia albmninosa (Berk.) Fetch. Lower surface. Grown 

from termite nest 139 

22. Lepiota chloroHpora Copel. Poisonous. Various stages of 

development. Slightly reduced 141 

23. Lycoperdon lilacinum (Mont, et Berk.) Speg. (Giant puff 

ball). Old, purpled, dried specimen. Too old to be eaten. 
Grows on soil. Reduced 143 

24. Scleroderma verrucosum Pers. (Puff ball.) Grows on soil. 

Natural size 143 

25. Fairy ring of edible fungi growing on lawn 145 



PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI 

By Otto A. Reinking * 

Mushrooms and other edible fungi are an important forest 
by-product of the Philippine Islands. The culture of these useful 
fungi is not extensively practiced, but vast numbers are collected 
locally as they grow in the wild state. Instead of practicing de- 
finite cultural methods, as is done in Japan and China, the people 
of the Philippines depend upon imports to supply the general 
commercial demand. According to the Insular Collector of Cus- 
toms, dried mushrooms in bulk were imported at the port of 
Manila during the year 1918 as follows: From China, f*=ll,981, 
and from Japan ?=9,097. Canned mushrooms are also consumed 
in large quantities. The entire supply for home consumption 
could be easily produced in this country, by special methods, 
where conditions for growth and development are ideal. 

The first grade of the Auricularia type of fungi sells on the 
Manila market for "FS a kilo, and the second grade for ?=1.80 a 
kilo. The price of the Japanese and Chinese form of Cortinellus 
varies from T2 to ^4.40 a kilo according to the season. At these 
prices the latter fungi cost in a dried state, about two centavos 
each. Local Chinese merchants will pay "PI. 60 a kilo for a good 
grade of the Auricularia type of fungi grown in the Islands. 
With such prices the mushroom and edible fungus industry could 
be easily established to supply the local demand with home grown 
products. 

Edible fungi grow wild abundantly in the forests on decaying 
wood. They are found also in small clearings and on lawns, 
where they derive their food from organic matter in the ground. 
One excellent form develops from abandoned termite nests. The 
common cultivated type, Volvaria escidenta Bres. is grown on 
piles of abaca, banana, or rice straw refuse which has been pre- 
pared in a shady and damp place such as in abaca and banana 
plantations or in old overgrown wood-lots. In China and Japan 
a more extensive system of culture is practiced. Shipments 
from China consist primarily of the dried Auricularia type. 
This fungus grows on decaying wood, everywhere in the Philip- 
pines. In the Tagalog regions it is known as taiiigang-daga, 

* Professor of Plant Pathologry, Colleg-e of Agi-iculture, Los Banos. 

103 



1Q4 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

meaning rat's ears, due to the general resemblance of the mush- 
room to the rat's ear. It is reddish brown to black, homogeneous, 
gelatinous, collapsing when dry and reviving when moistened 
(Figs. 1 and 2). The form generally shipped in the dry state 
from Japan is the Cortinellus type (Fig. 3) . Similar fungi, just 
as good in flavor, can be produced in the Philippines. 

Commercial attache Julean Arnold,* of Pekin, writes as fol- 
lows in regard to mushrooms as an article of commerce in China. 

The Chinese use many varieties of fungi in their dietary. Dried mush- 
rooms are popular with Chinese everywhere. They are gradually assum- 
ing a position of importance in the export trade. In 1917, China exported 
200 tons; it is likely that this amount includes fungi other than mush- 
rooms, as the customs authorities probably do not distinguish. Foochow 
is the center of this trade. It exported to other ports in China and to 
foreign countries a total of 300,000 pounds of dried edible fungi. They 
are grown in the mountainous ditrict in the interior of Fukien, on hard- 
wood logs felled for the purpose. Incisions are made in the logs, liquid 
manure is poured over the incisions, straw is covered over them, and 
when this is well rotted the fungi spring forth. 

In Japan even more scientific methods of culture are practiced. 
Mimura,t forest expert of Japan, comments on mushrooms cul- 
ture in, Notes on "Shiitake," {Cortinellus Shiitake Schrot.) 

The Shiitake mushroom which is an important forest by product to 
this country, is produced to the extent of 2,000,000 kilograms a year, of 
which annually over 700,000 kilos valued at $500,000 are exported. The 
study of this important product in the forest industry should not be 
disregarded. 

I. SHIITAKE CULTURE AS HITHERTO KNOWN. 

The Shiitake is known to have been used as a nutritious article of 
food for over 1,000 years. The people in ancient times seem to have 
learned how to grow Shiitake having noticed its occasional appearance 
on fallen trunks and rotten woods after fall of rain. They, then, began to 
fell trees in autumn, on which the mushroom grows better than the trees 
felled in other seasons and lately they learned to grow the mushrooms 
by the so-called "soak and strike" methods. The Shiitake is a saprophyte 
and the wood on which it is to be grown should become thoroughly 
seasoned. The Shiitake can grow on almost any broad-leaved tree trunk, 
but it is mostly grown on the wood of oak or birch. In the case of 
deciduous trees, they should be felled early in the fall, evergreen oaks 

* Arnold, Julean. Mushrooms as an article of commerce. Daily Con- 
sular and Trade Reports, No. 299, pages 1117-1118, December., 1918. 
Washington, D. C. 

t Mimura, Shozab'jro. Notes on "Shiitake" {Cortinellus Shiitake Schrot.) 
culture. Extracts from the Bulletin of the Forest Experiment Station, 
Meguro, Tokyo, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, Tokyo, .Japan, pages 109-^114. 1915. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



105 




FIGURE 1. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) FRESH SPECIMEN. 

NATURAL SIZE. 




FIGURE 2. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) THE SAME SPECIMEN AS 
FIG. 1, BUT DRY AND HARD. NATURAL SIZE. 



106 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

should he felled in the mid-winter, and hoth cut into sticks 2 meters 
lonK- The bark should be cut to accelerate incisions as the "arrangement 
of leaf." The well-seasoned wood so prepared is then piled up in shady 
places and covered them with leaves and branches of the tree so as to 
ensure successful development of spores. In the old method the people 
attached much importance to the time of fellinjc trees and the place in 
which the billets are piled. The cause of the parasitic fungus, however, 
remained little known among the country people and consequently no 
artificial inoculation was ever tried prior to 190;5, when the author under- 
took for the first time close study of the nature of the mushrooms as 
well as of its spores and mycelium. The result is the inoculation of 
spores and mycelium on seasoned wood was succe.ssful. The particulars 
of the work so effected have appeared in the "Journal of the Forestry 
Society of Japan" of April, 1904. 

IV. ECONOMICAL METHOD OF SHIITAKE CULTURE. 

We have so far described the nature of spore and mycelium of the 
Shiitake mushroom and can immediately proceed to set forth a rational 
mode of culture. Such the method would not pay if tried as a secondary 
industry in the country and we shall here below give the details of the 
method found practicable in our own experiment. 

{(I) INOCl'LATION WITH BILLKTS ON WHICH MUSHROOMS HAD GROWN. 

Tile starch within the leaves of a tree generally moves toward the 
roots at the end of autumn, hence, trees felled in the autumn are 
naturally richer in starch. Further, the billet.s obtained from trees felled 
between the fall and the time of budding in spring firmly kept their 
bark. Billets, rich in starch and with a good bark covering are the most 
favorable for culture of mushroom. Therefore deciduous trees to be 
used in the culture should be felled before the fall of the leaves in 
localities, where there is no deep snow while in regions where snow falls 
heavily, trees should be felled early before spring buds set in. The 
felled trees should be cut into appropriate lengths and well dried. The 
dried billets are then taken to a wet shady place, and among them the billets 
that already bore mushrooms are inserted. The spores from the mush- 
rooms grown on the mother billets disseminate on the fresh billets and 
so ensure successful inoculation. The matured billets give ordinarily a 
harvest of mushrooms both in spring and autumn. Previous to the season, 
however, the billets should be kept in water for 24 hours and then struck 
heavy blows on both ends, the practice being termed "soak and strike." 
After this operation, mushrooms will appeal" only 1 week. 

(/>) DISSEMINATION OF THE SPORE. 

Mushrooms grown in spring are generally collected when the fruitbody 
has fully developed. They are much used for home consumption and 
are termed "Spring mushrooms" ("Haruko"). The "Winter mushrooms" 
("Toko") are collected in the late of autumn or early in winter before 
the cap (thallus) is fully developed. They are much sought for in the 
Chinese market. Both kinds of mushrooms should immediately after 
collection be dried either in the sunlight or by fire, any delay in this 
work spoiling the flavor of the product. During the drying, spores fall 
in quantities from the matured caps and they should of course be col- 
lected for use in dissemination. F'or this purpose, rotten wood is ground 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



107 




108 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

into a meal and strewn over the mats on which mushrooms are placed 
for drying-. The same meal loaded with spores may be used many 
times for this end. The mixture thus obtained is kept and can be used 
in inoculation by mixing with water and sprinkling it upon fresh billets. 

(c) PROPAGATION BY MEANS OF MYCELIUM. 

It is impossible in practice to obtain mycelium as is done in culture. 
The most convenient method to obtain them is to remove the outer coating 
of old billets that have been used in mushroom growth. The rotten part 
of the wood in which mycelium is abundantly found is ground into a 
meal. This meal is mixed with water and be spread on fresh Konara 
billets. The work is best done in winter when strong mycelium able 
to resist the cold can be produced. 

The mushroom can be propagated by inoculation, but the method is 
of so scientific that is could hardly be comprehended by country people 
who remained ignorant of the possibility. 

After the results of study of spores and mycelium of the mushroom 
made by us became fully known, they gave a great impetus everywhere 
to the culture of Shiitake. An increase of over 20% in amount was 
obtained by the adoption of the methods. Not only this but in districts 
where Shiitake culture had hitherto failed, the success was obtained as 
elsewhere by the adoption of our new method. There is no doubt that 
the artificial inoculation of the mushroom as now carried on throughout 
country redounds to the credit of this discovery and adds to success 
of the forest industry. 

V. CONCLUSION. 

The spore of mushrooms loses its germinative power after a short 
interval, so it should be used immediately after collection and this is 
best done by inserting "mother billets" among the new billets to be used 
in culture. 

The spore of the winter mushroom resists the cold well and therefore 
spores grown late in winter by the "soak and strike" method may be 
used in propagation to advantage. 

Mycelium grown on mother billets is also available for propagation. 
To this end, old mother billets declining the growth of mushrooms should 
be made into meal, and this meal, mixed with water, should be spread 
on fresh billets. This is best done late in winter or early in spring. 

As the mushroom can be propagated either by the spore or by mycelium, 
there is no place where the culture cannot be carried on, contrary to the 
belief generally held prior to our investigations. 

With culture methods essentially like those practiced in China 
and Japan enough mushrooms could be produced not only for 
home consumption, but also for export trade. 

In the discussion of the edible fungi of the Philippines partic- 
ular stress is placed on those forms that can be used commer- 
cially. Since a large number of other delicious mushrooms are 
commonly found during the rainy season, the most important 
of these are also described. The paper takes up the fungi in 
their systematic arrangement and not according to their econo- 
mic importance. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 109 

In the Tagalog provinces the general name for all edible mush- 
rooms is kabuti. Specific names are applied to particular forms, 
often according to the place in which they are produced, Kabii- 
teng mamarang is the meadow mushroom; kabuteng ginikan is 
the mushroom grown on the rice straw; kabuteng saging is the 
one growing on bananas ; kabuteng taingang dagd is the common 
rat's ear fungus or the so-called Jew's ear in America. Bukui 
and kulat are terms also applied to rather leathery fungi. In 
Pampanga the ordinary umbrella like mushroom is called kuat 
or payung-paijungan, and the rat's ear type commonly known as 
bukui is frequently termed balugbug daguis. In Kalinga Prov- 
ince it is called talinga ti otot; in Leyte, ulaping; in Negros and 
Iloilo, ohong; in Camarines, tobo; in Zambales, dakaakan; in 
Cagayan and Isabela, karulu. — In Pangasinan and Iloko dialects 
the word oong is used. 

The following fungi are most generally eaten and many could 
be grown on a commercial scale. 

Family AURICULARIACEAE 

Genus AURICULARIA 

Hymenium inferior, distantly and vaguely ribbed and plicate, 
swollen when moist, and rather tremelloid, collapsing when dry. 
Spores oblong, hyaline.* 

The genus Auricularia is found generally throughout the Phil- 
ippines as well as throughout the entire world. The fungi are 
commonly called taingang-daga or rat's ear in the Tagalog dia- 
lect and Jew's ear in America. All forms are foliaceous, gelatin- 
ous plants when moist and leathery when dry. The spore 
bearing body, or hymenium, is normally on the lower side. 

The Auricularia types may be purchased in the markets of 
almost every large town in the Philippines. Large shipments 
are imported each year from China. In many of the famous 
Chinese dishes the taingang-daga is always present along with 
other vegetables and meat. It is shipped in the dry state, as one 
of the characters of the fungus is that it dries into a hard brittle 
form, but upon soaking, it again assumes its normal gelatinous 
character. These fungi are not very highly esteemed by Euro- 
peans, for when cooked they are tough and lack flavor. 

While the fungi grow as luxuriantly in the Philippines as 
in any other part of the world, little commercial use is made of 

* Descriptions of genera have been taken from Cooke, M. C. Hand- 
book of Australian Fungi. 1892. 



110 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

them. The people seem to prefer to purchase the forms shipped 
in from China. The fungus grows readily on any type of rotting 
branches. The writer has cultivated them, back of his labora- 
tory near a creek, with comparative ease (Figs. 7 and 8). As 
will be seen from the following account, the various forms are 
not at all particular as to the species of wood upon which they 
will grow. In the culture work the primary point to be con- 
sidered is that an abundance of moisture must always be 
present. A location in a dense jungle near a creek is ideal. 

Except for slight variations, all edible forms are distantly 
and vaguely ribbed and plicate, swollen, and somewhat tremel- 
loid when moist, with a violet brown color, and collapsing and 
becoming hard when dry. They may also be cup-shaped. The 
following species are edible. 

AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (Mont.) Sacc. 

Auricularia polytr'icha is a tropical form of Auricularia auri- 
culOr-judae. Frequently the A. pohjtricha assumes a large form, 
measuring from five to fifteen centimeters in diameter (Figs. 
4, 5, 7, and 8) . The usual forms measure five centimeters in 
diameter. They are rather thin, leathery, lobed plants with none, 
or a very short stalk. The designation of rat's ear or taingang- 
dag^ is rather appropriate as the fungus assumes this general 
shape. AuHcidaria polytricha merges into the Auriculana auri- 
cula-judae. The former type is, however, usually thicker with 
longer hairs and frequently more purplish than the temperate 
zone form. 

Auricularia polytricha develops in abundance and has been 
grown by the writer on the following woods : 

Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd., Alayigium longiflorum Merr., 
Aleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd., Allaeanthus luzonicus (Blan- 
co) F.-Vill., Allamanda cathartica Linn., Annona muricata Linn., 
Annona reticidata Linn., Annona squamosa Linn., Antidesma 
ghaesembilla Gaertn., Bambusa spp., Bauhinia malabarica Roxb., 
Bixa orellana Linn., Canarium villosum (Miq.) F.-Vill., Castilloa 
elastica Cerv., Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (Citrus decumana 
Linn.), Cleidion javanicum Blume, Clerodendron minahassae 
Teysm. and Binn., Coffea arahica Linn., Columbia serratifolia 
Blanco., Cordia myxa Linn., Diplodisciis paniculatus Turcz., 
Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Ficus angustissima Merr., Ficus benja- 
mina Linn., Fluggea virosa (Roxb.) Baill., Garcinia binucao 
(Blanco) Choisy, GUricidia maculata HBK., Gliricidia sepium 
(Jacq.) Steud., Graptophyllum pictum (Linn.) Griflf., Hevea 
brasiliensis (HBK.) Muell.-Arg., Koordersiodendron pinnatum 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



111 




FIGURE 5. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA. (TAINGANG-DAGA) . LOWER SURFACE OF A 
LARGE SPECIMEN. NATURAL SIZE. 




FIGURE 4. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA. (TAINGANG-DAGA.) UPPER SURFACE OF A 
LARGE SPECIMEN. NATURAL SIZE. 



112 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

(Blanco) Merr., Lagerstroemva speciosa (Linn.) Pers., Leucaena 
glauca Benth., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Mangifera 
indica Linn., Manihot utUissima Pohl., Pwrkia javanica (Lam.) 
Merr. {Parkia timoriensis (DC.) Merr.), Solanum grandi- 
florum Ruiz et Pav., Strehlus asper Lour., Sumbavia rottlerroides 
Baill., Tamarindus indica Linn., Tecoma stans (Linn.) Juss., 
Tectofia gy^andis Linn, f., and Theobroma cacao Linn. 

AURICULARIA AURICULA-JUDAE (Linn.) Schroet. 

Auricularia auricula-judae is also found on dead branches. 
From a standpoint of edibility, to the ordinary layman, there is 
no difference from the other of Auricularia. The A. auricula- 
judae type is present in greater abundance in the temperate 
regions. It usually does not attain the size of the tropical form 
and is lighter in color, being light brown to gray. The ship- 
ments of fungi from China are primarily composed of Auri- 
cularia auricida-judae. When dry they are hard and brittle 
(Fig. 6), but upon being moistened they become soft and rather 
gelatinous. The quality is approximately the same as A. poly- 
tricha. A. auricula-judae has been successfully grown by the 
writer on the following woods : 

Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. B., Annona muricata Linn., 
Annona reticulata Linn., Artocarpus sp., Bixa orellana Linn., 
Caesalpinia sappan Linn., Capparis sp., Clerodendron mina- 
hassae Teysm. et Binn., Diplodiscus paniculatus' Turcz., Evodin 
sp., Ficus spp., Fureraea gigantea Vent., Gliricidia sepium 
(Jacq.) Steud., Hibiscm sp., Jatropha curcas Linn., Lansium 
domesticum Correa, Leucaena glauca Benth., Mangifera indica 
Linn., Manihot utilissima Pohl, Melia azedarach Linn., Para- 
meria sp., Pterocarpus indicus Willd., Streblus asper Lour., 
Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir., 
and Triumfetta bartramia Linn. 

AURICULARIA CORNEA Ehrenb. 

According to C. G. Lloyd, Auricularia cornea is not distinct 
from Auricularia auricula-judae, but is a younger stage, smaller, 
and paler colored. This fungus is quite common in the Islands 
and from field observations it appears to be the same, only an 
immature form of either Auricularia auricula-judae or more 
probably Auricularia polytricha. The writer has grown it 
successfully on the following woods which were placed in a 
damp location near the river in the rear of his laboratory: 

Aglaia sp., Alangium chinense (Lour.) Rehd. {Alangium 
begoniifolium Baill.), Albizzia acle (Blanco) Merr., Aleurites 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



113 





FIGURE 6. AURICULARIA AURICULA-JUDAE (TAINGANG-DAGA) DRIED SPECIMENS 

FROM CHINA. NATURAL SIZE. 
177674 8 



114 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

moluccana (Linn.) Willd., Allaeanthiis luzonicus (Blanco) F.- 
Vill., Annona muricata Linn., Annona reticulata Linn., Clero- 
dendron minahassae Teysm. et Binn., Eriobortrya japonica 
(Thunb.) Lindl., Erythrina fusca Lour., Ficus hauili Blanco, 
Jatropha curca^ Linn., Mallotus moliiccanus Muell.-Arg., Melo- 
chia arborea Blanco, Mussaenda philippica Rich., Psidium gua- 
java Linn., Pterocarpus echinatus Pers., Pterocarpus indicus 
Willd., Sapindus saponaria Blanco, Solanum vei'basci folium Linn., 
Streblus asper Lour., Tecoma statis (Linn.) Juss., Theobroma 
cacao Linn., Trema amboinensis (Willd.) Blume, Urcna lobata 
Linn., Vitex negundo Linn., and Voacanga globosa (Blanco) 
Merr. 

AURICULARIA TENUIS Lev. 

Auricularia tenuis is rather common and can be used directly 
with the other forms. It is thinner, not so cup-shaped, smoother, 
and lighter in color than the common Auricularia polytricha. As 
to quality it compares favorably with the rest. 

The writer has grown this species successfully on the fol- 
lowing woods: 

Bambusa spp., Columbia serratifolia Blanco., Cratoxylon sp.. 
Diospyros sp., Diplodiscus panicidatus Turcz., Euphoi'bia hype- 
ricifolia Linn., Ficus spp., Leucaoia glauca Benth., Meliaceae 
Indet., Parinarium sp., Psidium guajava Linn., Pterocarpus sp., 
Pterospermum obliquum Blanco., and Zea mays Linn. 

AURICULARIA BRASILIENSIS Fr. 

Auricularia brasiliensis is a rare, smooth, tropical form of 
taiiigang-daga. It has been growTi successfully on Prosopis 
vidaliana Naves. 

AURICULARIA MOELLERII Lloyd. 

Auncularia TnoelleHi is also a form of Auricularia auricula- 
judae. The former fungus differs primarily in having a 
strongly reticulate hymenium. It is not common. 

Family TREMELLACEAE 

Genus TREMELLA 

Pulvinate or affused, brain like; spores, conidia, and spori- 
diola, globose or ovoid, always continuous. Gelatinuos, treme- 
llous, im^marginate, hymenium not papillate, surrounding the 
whole of the fungus. 

TREMELLA FUCIFORMIS Berk. 

Tremella fuciformis is a common white form of Tremella 
found in the tropics. It is characterized by being caespitose. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



115 




FIGURE 7. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGAN6-DAGA) ON DEAD BRANCH. 

NATURAL SIZE. 




FIGURE 8. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) ON DEAD STUMP. 

NATURAL SIZE. 



116 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

and may attain a size of about five centimeters high, and the 
entire cluster fifteen centimeters in width. The fungus is re- 
peatedly lobed or furcate ; with the lobes, except the last, dilated 
in a fan-like manner. A cock's comb effect is produced. It 
grows readily on dead wood and has been found on dead branches 
of Koordersiodendron pinnatum (Blanco) Merr., and Caesal- 
phiia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. It is homogeneous, gelatinous, 
collapsing when dry, reviving when moistened. The fungus is 
not abundant enough to be of any commercial importance, but 
when found it is highly prized by those who are in the habit of 
eating these forms. It is lacking in flavor, otherwise being 
rather soft, and ia( frequently used especially by the Chinese in 
the preparation of various dishes. 

Tremella foliaceae Fr. may also be found growing on dead 
wood. 

Family HYDNACEAE 

Genus HYDNUM 

Hymenium inferior, aculeate, spines subulate, separate at 
the base. Fle.^hy or woody fungi, stipitate, sessile or resu- 
pinate. 

A number of species of Hijdnum grow in the Philippines 
and the fleshy ones are edible. Usually they are too small to 
be of any economic importance. 

Family POLYPORACEAE 

Genus BOLETUS 

Hymenium tubular, distinct from the hymenophore and easily 
separable. Tubes crowded in a porose stratum, without tra- 
ma, easily separable from each other. Mouth of the tubes round 
or angular, except in a subgenus, sinuous. Spores normally 
fusiform, rarely oval or subglobose. Terrestrial putrescent 
fungi. 

The Boletus fungi have a pileus or cap with pores underneath, 
and a stem. Few of these forms are found in the Philippines, 
but all present are edible. 

Family AGARICACEAE 

Genus COPRINUS 

Hymenophore distinct from the stem, gills membranaceous, 
at first crowded, coherent, sessile, at length deliquescing into 
a black fluid, trama none. Spores even black. 

The inky caps belonging to the Coprinus group are all edible 
and found in abundance. The fungi are characterized by their 
ovate cap, somewhat expanded, dark gray to brownish, smooth 



EDIBLE FUNGI 117 

or with scales (Fig. 10). The gills are broad, crowded, white, 
later pinkish, finally black and changing into an inky fluid. 
The stem is smooth, shining, whitish, and hollow. The annulus 
or ring about the stem may disappear. They become liquid 
or deliquesce when old and never dry naturally. The members 
of this group are frequently found growing in abundance on 
decaying vegetative matter and on manure piles. Various forms 
have been described and are given below. The descriptions 
given have been taken primarily from those by Copeland.* 

COPRINUS ATER Copel. 

Coprinus ater has a pileus which at first is obtusely conical, 
later becoming plane. It is 14 millimeters broad with a tawny 
disk, varying from the periphery from dark gray to very black. 
Minute, deciduous, dark-brown scales are produced on the top. 
The flesh is thick, with gills free, narrow, and black. The 
spores are black, 15 by 9 microns, and are exstipitate. The 
stipe is fistulose, smooth, white, equal or narrowed upward, 
and at most 5 centimeters high, and 1.5 millimeters thick, but 
most often 2.5 centimeters high and 0.8 millimeter thick. The 
fungus is odorless with a fairly agreeable taste and grows on 
horse manure. 

COPRINUS BRYANTl Copel. 

Coprinus bnjanti has a pileus which passes from white 
through brown to black, and is smooth, campanulate, 6 to 8 
millimeters high and 5 millimeters wide. Its gills are free, 
but touching the stipe, from 1 to 1.5 millimeters deep, dark 
brown, and obtuse. The stipe is straight, white and solid, from 
2.5 to 3 centimeters high and 1.5 millimeters thick. It is thick, 
equal, smooth, substriate at the top, with the base scarcely 
thickened and surrounded by white hairs 1.5 millimeters long. 
The veil is obsolete. The spores are smooth, brown, 8 by 4.5 
microns, with hyaline truncate apexes. The cap is thin, odorless, 
and fine flavored. This species may grow on rotted wood, being 
collected from a rotted Ficus trunk. 

COPRINUS CONCOLOR Copel. 

Coprinus concolar is characterized by a conical pileus with 
spreading margin, about 2.5 centimeters high and wide. It is 
subfleshy, bro\Mi, very smooth, naked, and deliquescing first 
at the lacerate margin. The disk is brownish and subumbonate, 

* Copeland, Edwin Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fungi. 
Department of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication 
No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905. 



118 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

with gills 2 millimeters deep, free, crowded, obtuse, remaining 
a long time pale and then turning dark first at their edges. 
The spores are dark brown and 8 by 4.5 microns. Cystidia are 
wanting. The stipe is about 9 centimeters high, and 5 millime- 
ters thick or a little more at the base. It is white or brownish- 
smooth, hollow, and without an annulus. No odor is observed 
and the taste is mild. They are eaten by the Bagobos, who call 
them ligbuk. The fungi grow terrestrial in the forest. 

COPRINUS CONFERTUS Copel. 

Coprinus confe^'tus is gregarious and caespitose, varying great- 
ly with the weather. The pileus is fleshy, conical, and when 
grown in dry weather it is very thick. Oppressed, whitish, 
cottony flakes cover the cap, the margin of which is entire or 
cleft a few times. During rainy weather, it is thinner and 
clothed with an evanescent, silky net, and is grayish black, 
striate, with a tawny or stramineous disk, and lacerate margins. 
The gills are grayish-black, crowded, lanceolate, free, but close. 
The spores are ovate, truncate, black, and measure 14 to 16 
by 7.5 to 9 microns. The stipe is white, smooth, hollow, 
and in dry weather turbinate, 2.5 centimeters high, 1.5 centi- 
meters thick, but when rainy it is as much as 16 centimeters 
high, and 6 to 15 millimeters thick. The base may be slightly 
subbulbose and has a strong radical cord. The fungus grows 
on horse manure. (Fig, 9.) 

COPRINUS DELIQUESCENS (Bull.) Fr. 

Coprinus deliqiiescejis has a submembranaceous pileus, which 
is ovato-campanulate, then expanded, being 8 to 11 centimeters 
broad, and 4 to 5 centimeters high. It is subrepand, broadly 
striate, smooth, with a top studded with innate papillae. The 
stem is hollow, corticate, smooth, and 11 centimeters long, 4 
to 8 millimeters thick, at length remote, and linear. The spores 
are lurid black and 12 by 8 microns. This species grows on old 
stumps. 

COPRINUS FLOS-LACTUS Graff.' 

Coprinus flos-lactus grows solitary to gregarious. The pileus 
is hemispheric, with age becoming flatly expanded. It is 2.5 
to 4 centimeters in diameter, a light creamy brown and rem- 
nants of a universal veil remain as a few scattered floccose 
scales. It is sulcate with the margin entire at first, but later 
splitting. While young the cap is crisp and brittle, crumbling 



' Graff, Paul W., Philippine Basidiomycetes, II. The Philippine Journal 
of Science, Section C, Vol. 9 (1914), pages 235-254. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



119 




FIGURE 9. COPRINUS CONFERTUS. DELIQUESCING STAGE. 



120 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

on being handled, and on becoming mature tends more toward 
drying up than deliquescing. The lamellae are pale-gray at 
first, but later change through grayish-brown to dark brownish- 
black. The darkening begins first at the margin of the pileus 
and slowly advances toward the center. The edges of the gills 
usually remain conspicuously white even at maturity. They 
are slightly adherent to the stipe at first, and then become free 
after the pileus has become expanded. It is 3 millimeters 
broad at the broadest part, and somewhat obtuse at either end. 
The stipe is cylindrical and of an equal diameter throughout, 
being 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, and 3 to 4 millimeters 
thick. It is shining white, hollow, fibrillose, with an unthick- 
ened base. The spores are ovoid to pyriform, very dark brown 
at maturity, smooth, 3.5 to 5.5 by 7.5 to 11.5 microns, and 
are vacuolate usually with a single vacuole. The basidia are 
clavate, 9 by 23 microns, and the sterigmata are 4 microns 
long. The fungus grows on burned over ground. 

COPRINUS ORNATUS Copel. 

Coprmus ornatus is characterized by having a pileus which 
is campanulate to broadly conical, obtuse, 12 millimeters wide 
and sulcate. The disk is tawny, ornately beset with dark 
brown granules. The periphery is smooth or pulverulent, 
changing from white or tawny to black. The gills are 7 milli- 
meters long, 1.2 millimeters deep, and have no cystidia. The 
spores are black and 10 by 7 microns. The stipe is straight, 
2.5 centimeters or less high, and 1 millimeter thick. It is equal 
or slightly contracted upward, smooth, white or hyaline, with a 
ferruginous base, and is scarcely hollow. It is odorless and 
has a fair flavor. The fungus grows on rotted wood of various 
kinds, 

COPRINUS PLICATILIS (Curt.) Fr. 

Coprmus plicatilis has a pileus that is very thin, oval, cylin- 
drical at first, then expanded, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters broad. 
The cap has a tendency towards splitting and is sulcato-plicate, 
somewhat smooth, with a broad disc which finally is depressed. 
The stem is equal, smooth, white, and 2 to 8 centimeters long. 
The gills are adnate to a distinct collar, and are distant, and 
grayish black. The spores are 12 to 14 by 8 to 10 microns. 
This species develops in pastures and on horse dung. 

COPRINUS PSEUDO-PLICATUS Copel. 

Coprinus pseudo-plicatus has a pileus which is early flattened 
out, about 3 centimeters wide, being thin, at first scaly, and 
becoming black because of its thinness. It is deeply split down- 



EDIBLE FUNGI 121 

ward through the gills, making the structurally entire margin 
cuspidate-dentate. The disk is brown, subumbonate, or in age 
concave. The gills number about sixty, are 3 millimeters deep, 
adnate to a narrow collar, and black or pale after the spores 
are cast. The spores are obtuse, thickest toward the base, 
black, and measure 20 to 22 by 11 to 12 microns. The basidia 
are 30 microns high, disposed regularly over the hymenium, 
and 15 to 20 microns apart. The stipe is 10 centimeters or 
less high and 1 to 4 millimeters thick. It is equal, straight, 
smooth, and hollow. The fungus grows on horse manure and 
rotted leaves. 

COPRINUS REVOLUTUS Copel. 

Coprinus revolutus has a pileus 2 centimeters or less wide, 
which passes from campanulate through plane to broadly re- 
volute. The disk is flat and brown-granulose with a sub-fur- 
furaceous and sulcate periphery. The gills number up to 
seventy or less and barely touch the stipe. They are narrow, 
acute at both ends and black. The spores are black, apical at 
the base, and measure 11 to 13 by 8 microns. The stipe is 
about 10 centimeters high, 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick at the 
top, 2 to 2.5 millimeters toward the base, and is white, hollow, 
fragile and velvety below. This species grows on dung. 

COPRINUS RIMOSUS Copel. 

Coprinus riniosus is characterized by having a pileus 1.5 to 
2 centimeters high and wide, being thin, cylindric, campanulate 
or conical, truncate, and naked. It splits very early downward 
through the gills and consequently is plicate in appearance. 
It is tawny-gray outside, turning black in clefts. The tawny 
disk is flat or concave. The gills are free and somewhat remote, 
cut away towards the stipe, obtuse at the margin, black, becom- 
ing pale with age and have no cystidia. The spores are 15 by 
13.5 microns, black and tj^pically subangular and broadest to- 
ward the apex. The stipe is hollow, white, naked, and equal. 
The fungus grows on horse manure. 

COPRINUS STERCORARIUS Fr. 

Coprinus stercorarius has a pileus that is very thin, ovate at 
first, then companulate and covered with a dense white micaceous 
meal. Later it is expanded, being 2.5 centimeters broad and 
2 centimeters high. The margin is striate. The stem is at 
first ovately bulbous, then elongated, attenuated, at first prui- 
nate, and white. The gills are adnexed, ventricose, and black. 
The spores are 14 to 15 by 8 microns. This species grows on 
rich soil and dung. 



122 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

COPRINUS VOLUTUS Copel. 

CopHnus volutus is characterized by having a pileus from 
1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, being thin, naked, early explanate 
and later revolute or involute. It turns gray to black and the 
flat disk is ferruginous and warty. The gills are free, but very 
close and at first obtuse at both ends, soon splitting from the top 
of the pileus, but not from the margin. The spores are black, 
narrowly ovate and 12 to 13 by 6.5 microns. The stipe is 4 
centimeters high, 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick, slightly attenuated 
upward, and is white, naked, and hollow. The fungus grows on 
rotted leaves. 

Coprinus fimbriatus B. et Br., Coprinus friesii Quelet. (Fig. 
10) , and Coprinus nebulosus Zoll, may also be found. The first 
two are commonly found growing on decaying Cocos nucifera 
Linn, trunks. 

Genus PANAEOLUS 

Gills not deliquescing, not waxy, united above to the hymeno- 
phore. Cap fleshy, not striate, with variegated gills exceeding 
the margin. Spores globose to elliptic. Stipe not annulate. 

The descriptions given have been primarily taken from those 
by Copeland.* 

PANAEOLUS PANAIENSE CopeL 

Panaeoliis panaiense has a pileus which is 7 centimeters or 
less wide, conical, tawny, and fleshy. The surface is flocculose 
when diT and like blotting paper when wet. It has a fugacious 
veil. The gills are deep, adnate, and ashy gray. The spores 
are elliptical, 7.5 to 9 by 5.5 to 6.5 microns, and appendiculate. 
The stipe is 12 centimeters or less high, 1 centimeter thick, 
being equal, solid, and brittle. This species grows on horse 
manure. 

PANAEOLUS PSEUDOPAPILIONACEUS Copel. 

Panaeohis psedopapilionaceus has a pileus 1.5 to 3 centi- 
meters wide, hemispherical, without umbo, whitish, not zonate, 
dry, naked, and subfleshy. Its gills are narrowly adnate. 
The stipe changes from nearly white to black and is 6 to 10 
centimeters high, 1.5 to 3 millimeters thick in the middle and 
thicker toward both ends. It is white, powderj^ at the top, firm, 
with a narrow axial canal. The spores are 6.5 to 8 by 5 to 6 
microns. This species grows on manured ground. 

* Copeland, Edw:n Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fungi. 
Department of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication 
No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



123 







124 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Panaeolus papilionaceus (Fr.) Graff and Panaeolus veluticeps 
Cooke et Mass. are other edible species. (Fig. 11) . 

Genus LENTINUS 

Pileus fleshy, coriaceus, tough; when old, hard and dry. 
Stem hard and often obsolete, when present continuous with 
hymenophore. Gills tough, simple, unequal, thin, edge acute, 
generally toothed ; trama none. 

The Lentinus group of fungi are commonly eaten by the 
Filipinos. In general these fungi are rather tough and lacking 
in flavor, but a number are more or less tender and are rather 
highly prized. 

LENTINUS EXILIS KLOTZ. 

Lentinus exilis is the best of the edible types. It grows on 
putrescent wood and frequently on decaying bamboo roots and 
culms. The fungus has been cultivated on the dead roots and 
stem of Bambiisa spinosa Roxb. {Bambusa blumeana Schultes.) 
(Fig. 12). In this picture Lentinus exilis, from first observa- 
tion, resembles a Pleurotus, but this is due to the fungus growing 
from one side of the bamboo. Other specimens in the same 
group have a distinct stalk and a funnel-shaped pileus. It 
is a large white form. 

The pileus is papyraceous, rigid, infundibuliform, regular, 
and even. It is a radiately striate under a lens, pallid tawny, 
7 to 10 centimeters broad. The stem is very short, smooth, 12 
to 20 millimeters long, and girt by the vestiges of a ring. The 
gills are crowded, very decurrent in lines, nearly equal, tawny, 
and not torn. 

Besides this species the following are eaten, but are rather 
hard and tough: Lentinus connatus Berk., Lentinus leucochrous 
Lev., and Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Fig. 13). 

Genus MARASMIUS 

Fungi tough, dry, shrivelling, but not putrescent, and re- 
viving when moistened. Hymenophore continuous with the stem, 
but homogeneous, descending into the trama. The veil is 
absent. Stem cartilaginous or homy. Gills tough, rather 
distant, and with acute edges. The fungi dry up instead of 
decaying when old. 

Some forms of Mm-asmiu^ may be eaten. None are danger- 
ous, but most are too small and tough. Marasmius equicrinis 
Muell. and Marasmius pilopus Kalch. are two small forms, not 
edible, that grow on dead wood. Marasmius capillipes Sacc. 
has been found growing on decaying Streblus asper Lour. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



125 




126 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Other species of Marasmius found, but which are too small 
to be edible, are Marasmius erumpens Mass., Marasmius pa- 
touillardi Sacc. et Syd., and Marasmius siccus Schw. 

Genus CORTINARIUS 

The spores are rusty-ochre, resembling in color peroxide ot 
iron. A veil is universal, like a cobweb, distinct from the 
cuticle of the pileus, of a different texture to the pileus, and 
consisting of arachnoid threads. A similar veil is found in 
Agai'icus, but it is there either partial, or continuous with the 
cuticle of the pileus. The stem is superficial and confluent 
with the hymenophore. The gills are adnate, membranaceous, 
persistent, cinnamon-colored and powdery. The trama is 
floccose. 

Various species of Cortinarius found in the Philippines 
are edible. 

Genus VOLVARIA 

Fleshy, gills free, at first white, and later pink; spores el- 
lipsoid, smooth and pink. Annulus none; volva present. It is 
easily distinguished from all other pink spored genera by the 
volva. The chief characteristics are that the bottom of the 
stipe of the mature fungus is borne in a cup or volva and that 
no ring or annulus is present. 

VOLVARIA ESCULENTA Bres. 

Volvaria esculenta is the most important and common edible 
species of the Agaricaceae found in the Philippines. It grows 
well on the decaying stems of abaka and banana, on rice straw, 
and other waste organic matter. The mature fungus is easily 
recognized by having pale, pinkish gills and a distinct volva or 
cup at the bottom of the stipe. No annulus or ring is present 
on the stem (Figs. 14 and 15). A complete description of the 
species is as follows. 

Pileus fleshy, nearly plane or slightly raised into an umbo, becoming 
broadly convex when old, slightly fragile, buckthorn brown, bearing fine, 
hair-like scales, flesh white, turning brown when dried; lamellae thin, free, 
white, becoming brown after six hours exposure to light; stipe tapering 
or slightly narrowed towards the top, white, becoming pale brown when old, 
solid and fleshy; volva mummy brown. No part of the volva remains on 
the top of the pileus in the form of scales; annulus absent; spore print 
pale brown; spores ovate, almost white, size 10 x 5 microns. 

Pileus 5-12 cm. broad; stipe 5-13 cm. long; 0.5-1.5 cm. thick; average 
weight of each mushroom 25 gm. 

Volvaria esculenta is highly prized by all the Filipinos and is 
collected during the proper season of growth. It is also culti- 
vated in the abaka and the rice regions of the Islands on the de- 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



127 




^^ 






I 



128 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 




FIGURE 14. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



129 








FIGURE 15. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 

177674 9 



130 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

caying hemp and rice trash. Vicencio,* who carried out pre- 
liminary studies on mushroom culture in the Philippines, gives 
the following as the local methods of culture. 

There are four methods of growing mushrooms in Pampanga; namely 
the rice-wash method, common salt method, bagasse method and banana 
method. The first two methods consist in piling chopped rice straw in 
a favorable place, usually under bamboo trees. The rice straw must be 
ten inches thick above the surface of the ground after being tramped by 
the feet. Those two are the same in all respects except that the solutions 
used for keeping them moist are different; for example, in the rice- wash 
method, the solution used is the washings from the rice before cooking. 
This liquid looks milky and contains water and starch. For the common 
salt method, the liquid is a weak brine, a solution containing one spoonful 
of salt to every eight liters of water. The bagasse method consists in 
piling together fine pieces of sugar-cane bagasse and heavily watering with 
sugar cane juice scum at least daily for one month, afterwards keeping 
the bed moist with water. The banana method consists of piling chopped 
banana trunks, stumps and leaves to a thickness of about one foot and 
a half or sometimes more. It is said by the natives that the thicker it is the 
better. As in the other cases, it should be watered to keep it moist. 

In all parts of these methods, it is important to note that no previous 
spawning is to be done in the bed. The growers have only to attend to the 
preparation of the bed, its care and the gathering of the mushrooms. 

Volvaria esculenta has an excellent flavor and a strong, pleas- 
ant, rice-straw odor. It will dry down well and can be kept 
in this condition for a long period (Fig. 16). Its odor and 
flavor is not lost in drying. These mushrooms can be success- 
fully cultivated in the Philippines and this industry could be 
developed to such an extent that it would be unnecessary to im- 
port from China and Japan, 

Volvaria prumosa Graff, grows on sandy beaches near salt 
water. 

Genus AGARICUS 

Spores of various colors; gills membranaceous, persistent, 
with an acute edge; trama floccose, confluent with the inferior 
hymenium. Fleshy fungi, putrifying, and not reviving when 
once dried, hence differing from such genera as are deliquescent, 
coriaceous, or woody. The general characters are the color 
of spores and the presence of a ring on the stipe and no cup or 
volva at the base of the stem. 

The genus is divided into five series according to the color 
of the spores. Species of Agai'iciis are found throughout the 
world and they comprise the chief edible mushrooms of com- 
merce. 

* Vicencio, Arsenio Santos. A study of mushroom culture in the Phil- 
ippines. The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester, Vol. 5 (1916), pages 
119-128. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



131 







FIGURE 16 VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. DRIED SPECIMEN. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 



132 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The descriptions of the various species have been taken pri- 
marily from those by Copeland.* 

AGARICUS ARGYROSTECTUS Copel. 

AgaHcus argijrostectus is recognized by a pileus 3.5 centi- 
meters wide passing from conical to convex-plane and by 
being shiny white, always naked, subfleshy, with unchanging 
gray flesh. It is without odor and has an agreeable taste. 
The gills are 3 millimeters deep, free, obtuse at both ends, 
gray at first, but later turning dark. The spores are 5.5 to 
6 by 4 to 4.5 microns and without guttules. The stipe is 3 to 4 
centimeters high, 4 to 3 millimeters thick, firmly attached to 
the pileus, terete, scarcely enlarged dow^nward, and solid or 
nearly so. The annulus is membranous, pendent, and early 
breaking up and disappearing. The fungus is not common, 
growing in sunny pastures, and described from Davao. 

AGARICUS BOLTONI Copel. 

Agariciis boltoni has a pileus 10 to 15 centimeters wide, 
passing from globose through cylindrical and conical to more 
or less plane. It is clothed with brown scales, which are 
denser and larger toward the disk. The disk is fissured, 
plane, or subumbonate. It is fleshly, white, well flavored, and 
about odorless. The gills are numerous, crowded, free, 6 
millimeters deep, white when young and ultimately dark brown. 
The spores have short basal appendages and are 8 to 9 by 5 to 6 
microns. The stipe is 18 to 16 centimeters high, stout with glo- 
bose base, and becoming hollow with age. The annulus is fixed, 
ample, persistent, declined, and subentire. The species is com- 
mon in sunny pastures in Davao. (Fig. 17). 

AGARICUS LUZONENSIS Graff. 

The fungi of this species t are solitary and have a slight 
odor. The pileus is fleshy, convex to expanded, clothed complete- 
ly, except for the solid red-brown center, with delicate red 
brown fibrils, the outer two-thirds showing the white flesh of the 
cap between. It is soft, smooth, with a thin margin, 7 to 9 
centimeters in diameter. The flesh is white, 5 millimeters thick. 
The margin usually has remnants of the membranaceous veil 
attached. The stipe varies in diameter from 9 millimeters just 

* Copeland, Edwin Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fungi. 
Department of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Piiblication 
No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905. 

t Graff, Paul O. Philippine Basidiomycetes, II. Philippine Journal of 
Science. Section C, Vol. 9 (1914), pages 235-254. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



133 




134 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

above the slightly swollen base to 6 millimeters at the insertion 
into the pileus. It is long, solid, fibrous throughout, white to 
light brown, and smooth except above the annulus, where it is 
slightly flocculent. The annulus is well up on the stipe and is 
membranaceous and persistent. The lamellae are white, but 
appear very dark at maturity of the fungus because of the 
color of the ripe spores. The lamellae are 6 millimeters broad, 
both ends obtuse with the margins minutely notched and showing 
the white color of the gills even at maturity. The basidia are 
club-shaped, 5.5 by 19 microns. The spores are dark brown, 
small, elliptic, 2.5 to 3 by 5 to 5.5 microns, often uniguttulate. 

AGARICUS MANILENSIS Copel. 

Agaricus manilensis has a convex, smooth, aquamulose pileus 
with a disk that is flat and dark brown. It is subfleshy and 
becomes white toward the margin, where the scales are sparse. 
The gills are free and rounded toward the stipe, turning from 
rose to dark brown. The spores are about 7.5 by 4 microns, 
are obtuse and oblique at the base. The stipe is 5 centimeters 
high, 2.5 centimeters thick, equal, naked, smooth, and hardly 
solid. The annulus is fixed, entire, and convex upward. The 
fungus grows in lawns. 

AGARICUS MERRILLII Copel. 

Agaricus merrillii is a large species, sometimes 10 centimeters 
high and wide, almost without taste or odor, the pileus is naked 
or scaly, turning from white to brown, shining, subfleshy, and 
truncate or with concave apex when young. Sometimes um- 
bonate in the middle of the depression, when old it is plane, 
with a horizontal, entire, or incised border, 1 to 2 millimeters 
broad, derived from the veil. It has about 250 gills that are 
crowded, 5 millimeters deep, subacute at the margin, salmon- 
colored when the veil ruptures, finally turning black brown. 
The spores are minute, uninucleate, 6 by 3.5 microns. The 
veil ruptures late. The annulus is high up, white on both sides, 
floccose without, very lacerate and pendent. The stipe is some- 
what contracted toward the top, abruptly enlarged at the base, 
solid or nearly so, and whitish or turning brown outside and 
inside. This species grows terrestrial under trees. (Fig. 18). 

AGARICUS PERFUSCUS Copel. 

Agaricus perfuscus is characterized by the entire fungus 
being brown, darkening with age, odorless and with a good 
taste. The pileus is early expanded, 3 to 4 centimeters wide, 
undulate, squamulose, subfleshy, with disk slightly depressed, 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



135 




136 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

and the margin strongly but deciduously appendaged. The 
gills are free, close, obtuse at both ends, and 4 millimeters deep. 
The spores are elliptical, 6 to 6.5 by 4.5 microns, and obscurely 
1 or 2 guttulate. The stipe is 3 to 4 centimeters high, and 3 to 
4 millimeters thick, also equal, firm, naked, and subhollow. The 
annulus is high up and fugacious. This species grows on ma- 
nured ground. 

Agarics growing on the lawn frequently produce "Fairy Rings" 
(Fig. 25). 

Genus PLEUROTUS 

Edge of the gills entire, not canaliculate or split. Fleshy, 
putrescent, not reviving when wet. Trama of the pileus not 
vesiculose; spores typically smooth, gills more or less fleshy, 
readily separable into two layers. Stipe excentric or none. 

The general characters of Pleurotits are that it grows like 
a shelf fungus with a stalk from one side, instead of a central 
typical stalk as with other mushrooms. All species are edible. 

PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS Jacq. 

This is one of the most sought for forms. (Fig. 19). It 
varies in shape according to where it is growing, either on the 
side or on top of a log. In some cases the plant may have a 
definite lateral stem, but frequently no stem is produced. The 
cap is white to gray and varies from 4 to 20 centimeters broad. 
It is soft and fleshy, being thicker towards the place of attach- 
ment. The gills are broad and white, not crowded and de- 
current if a stem is present. The spores are white, or a pale 
purple. The stem if present is short, white, and without ring 
or volva. 

Pleurotus noctilucens (Lev.) Sacc. grows on dead wood, and 
Pleurotus striatulus Fries, has been found growing on dead 
parts of Urena lobata Linn. var. sinuata (Linn.) Gagnepain. 
The latter fungi are rather small. Pleurotus applicatus Fr. var. 
cytidiatus Pat. may also be found on dead wood. 

Genus COLLYBIA 

Pileus between fleshy and tough, at length rather leathery, 
sulcate, or corrugated ; margin at first involute. Stem some- 
what cartilaginous, mycelium floccose, sometimes not manifest. 

The fungi of this genus are commonly found growing from 
termite nests. 

COLLYBIA ALBUMINOSA (Berk.) Fetch. 

Collybia alhuminosa is the common form of Agaric that grows 
from termite nests. It is found throughout the tropics (Figs. 
20 and 21). 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



137 




138 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus TRICHOLOMA 

Edge of the gills entire, not canaliculate or split. Fleshy, 
putrescent, not reviving when wet. Edge of gills acute, not fold- 
like. Trama of the pileus not dehiscing ; spores typicaly smooth. 
Gills more or less fleshy, readily separable into two layers. 
Stipe central or nearly so. Hymenophore homogeneous and 
confluent with the fleshy or fibrous elastic stipe. Stipe not 
annulate or volvate. Gills adnate or sinuate, not decurrent, 
stout and fleshy ; stipe and pileus of the same substance. 

Tricholoma tenuis Graff grows in lawns. 

Genus LEPIOTA 

Fleshy putrescent, not reviving when wet. Edge of gills 
acute, not fold-like. Trama of the pileus not vesiculose ; spores 
typically smooth. Gills more or less fleshy, readily separated 
into two layers. Stipe central or nearly so, not volvate, but an- 
nulate. Hymenophore discrete from the fleshy stipe. 

The general characters are the presence of a ring or annulus 
and the absence of a cup or volva on the stipe. Some species 
are edible, but others are poisonous, being especially toxic to cer- 
tain people. Lepiota chlorospora has been reported as an edible 
species. This form, however, is extremely poisonous to certain 
individuals and consequently should always be avoided. It can 
easily be recognized in the mature stage, by the greenish gills 
(Fig. 22). 

The descriptions of the species have been primarily taken from 
those by Copeland. 

LEPIOTA CANDIDA Copel. 

Lepiota cariclida has no odor and a mild taste. The pileus 
is 7 centimeters wide, flat, strongly umbonate, dry, shining, and 
almost naked. The disk is fleshy, the margin thin, substriate, 
minutely crenate, and the flesh is unchanging. The gills are 
free, close, very crowded, lanceolate, subacute at both ends, thin, 
and white. The spores are 9.5 by 6 microns, hyaline, guttulate, 
and apiculate. The stipe is 15 centimeters high, 5 millimeters 
thick near the top, with a narrow axial hollow, much enlarged, 
but not bulbous in the solid lower part. It is naked, shining 
white, deeply sunken into the disk, but not confluent with it. The 
annulus is high up and deciduous. It is well characterized by 
the strongly fusiform lower third of the stipe. The fungus 
grows solitary in sunny grass plots. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



139 




FIGURE 20. COLLYBIA ALBUMINOSA (TERMITE FUNGUS). X 1,2. 




FIGURE 21. COLLYBIA ALBUMINOSA (TERMITE FUNGUS). \ 1 2. 



140 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

LEPIOTA CHLOROSPORA Copel. (Poisonous). 

Lepiota chlorospora has a fleshy pileus, passing from globose 
through campanulate to broadly conical. It is 8 centimeters 
wide and 4 centimeters high, with the periphery sometimes ex- 
planate. The disk is brown, with an entire or fissured cap. The 
periphery is sparsely clothed with pale brown scales and fibers. 
It is white near the entire or subciliate margin. The gills 
are free, remote, 5 centimeters long, 8 millimeters deep, and 
are crowded, narrowed toward the stipe, white at first, turning a 
greenish blue. Their edges are made of hyaline vesicles, 25 to 
35 by 20 microns. The spores are hyaline-green, 8 by 5 microns, 
smooth, short stalked, each with a single large globule containing 
the green pigment. The stipe is 8 to 10 centimeters high and 6 
to 8 millimeters thick. It is straight or crooked, knotted, firmly 
attached to the pileus, and brown outside and inside, with a white 
pith. The annulus is 1 centimeter broad, conspicuous, fixed, 
persistent, split in its own plane, and white above until discolored 
by the spores. The fungus grows in lawns. 

This species is poisonous to the majority of people. It can 
be readily told by the green gills of the mature forms (Fig. 22). 

LEPIOTA ELATA Copel. 

Lepiota elata has a mild odor and taste. The pileus is coni- 
cal at first, but soon flattens. It is 4 to 6 centimeters wide, um- 
bonate, fleshy, silky-squamulose about the disk, elsewhere naked. 
The margin is substriate, broadly reflexed when old. The disk 
is bro^^^lish with white peripherj% but turning dark red. The 
gills also turn from white to dark wine colored. They are free, 
close, crowded, and ventricose. The spores are hyaline, symme- 
trical, from 9 to 10 by 5 to 6 microns. The stipe is 5 to 8 centi- 
meters high and 5 millimeters thick at the middle, somewhat 
thickened downward, but not bulbous, and is naked, with an axial 
canal. The ring is attached midway, and is free, convex, narrow, 
entire, brown, fugacious, and sometimes attached to the margin 
of the pileus. The fungus grows in manured lawns. 

LEPIOTA FUSCO-SQUAMEA Peck. (Leviota manilensis Covel.) 

Lepiota fusco-squamea has an excellent flavor and almost no 
odor. The pileus is 5 to 9 centimeters wide, campanulate-conical, 
later flat, subumbonate, and striate near the margin. The disk 
is densely clothed with minute brown scales which become sparse 
toward the margin. The flesh is whitish and unchanging. The 
gills are free, not attached to a collar, crowded, deep, whitish, 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



141 




142 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

and subacute at both ends. The spores are variable, com- 
monly 10 by 7 microns. The largest are 13 to 15 by 7.5 to 
9 microns and hyaline. The stipe is 10 centimeters or less high, 
1 centimeter thick, firm, equal or somewhat thickened downward, 
with an axial canal. It is white or pale brown, and naked. 
The ring is movable, or half fixed, entire, with a dark brown mar- 
gin. The fungus has been observed growing around Pithecolo- 
bium and Terminalia. 

Lepiota cepaestipes (Sow.) Quel., Lepiota pulcherrima Graff, 
Lepiota revelata B. et Br., and Lepiota sulphopenita Graff are 
other edible species. They have the general external characters 
of the other described forms. 

Family LYCOPERDACEAE 

Genus LYCOPERDON 

Peridium membranaceous, single, the subpersistent cortex 
becoming broken up into warts or spines, dehiscing by a small 
apical mouth, or the whole of the upper part evanescent, capil- 
litium dense, springing from the more or less developed sterile 
basal stratum; spores globose or elliptical, externally rough or 
smooth. 

The Lycoperdons are commonly called puff balls. All species 
are non-poisonous, but some are unsavory. 

LYCOPERDON LILACINUM (Mont, et Berk.) Speg. 

Lycoperdon lilacinum is broadly obovate or turbinate, 5 
to 10 centimeters high, 5 to 8 centimeters broad (Fig. 23). It 
is contracted below into a stout, cellular, stem-like base. The 
peridium is thin and evanescent above, dehiscing by large irreg- 
ular opening. The cortex is white, polished, and breaking 
away in papery patches. The threads are thinner than the dia- 
meter of the spores. The spores are violet with a tinge of 
ochre, echinulate, globose, and measure 6 microns. The fungus 
grows on the ground and is the largest edible form. 

LYCOPERDON PUSILLUM Batsch. {Lycoperdon todayense Copel.) 

Lycoperdon pusillum has a peridium that is obovate, or 
pyriform, 1 to 2 centimeters in height, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters 
in thickness. It is plicate at the base, entire above, and clothed 
when young with deciduous warts or flakes which are hyaline 
when moist, later finely and obscurely areolate. They are white 
at first, turning yellow, and opening by a small aperture at the 
top. The fertile gleba is very distinct from the sterile. The 
base is cellular. The spores are globose, smooth, 3.5 to 4 mi- 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



143 




FIGURE 23. LYCOPERDON LILACINUM (GIANT PUFF BALL). OLD SPECIMEN. 

REDUCED. 




FIGURE 24. SCLERODERMA VERRUCOSUM (PUFF BALL). NATURAL SIZE. 



144 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

crons in diameter. The capillitium is rudimentary, irregular and 
thick. The fungus grows in tufts about the base of a Mtisa and 
is rather small for eating. 

LYCOPERDON PYRIFORME Schaeff. 

Lijcoperdon pyriforme is pyriform, membranous, 3 to 8 centi- 
meters high, and rather umbonate. It is dehiscent by a small, 
torn mouth covered with minute pointed warts, but becoming 
smooth. The roots are composed of numerous white, long, 
branching fibers. The threads are thicker than the spores, 
branched, continuous with the slightly cellular, sterile base, and 
forming a columella. The spores are olive, smooth, globose, and 
4 microns in diameter. This puff ball grows on stumps or on 
the soil and is one of the larger forms. 

Lycoperdon cepiforme Bull., Lycoperdon furfuraceum Schaeff., 
Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt., Lycoperdon plicatum Berk, et 
Curt., Lycoperdon pratense Schum., Lycoperdon roseum Zoll., 
and Lycoperdon vanderystii Bres. are other forms which are 
edible, but which are usually small. 

Genus SCLERODERMA 

Peridium firm, corticate, dehiscing irregularly ; flocci adhering 
everywhere to the peridium and forming minute cells, in which 
are produced the glomerules of spores, without peridiola; root- 
ing, but without a distinct stem. 

SCLERODERMA VERRUCOSUM BuU. 

The peridium of Scleroderma vei'rucosum is rounded, at first 
rigid, and then fragile. It is dehiscent determinately at the 
apex, covered with an adnate persistent cortex, and is smooth, 
rather verrucose, areolate, or even, and a dingy yellowish. It is 
usually produced downwards into a short stipitiform base, or 
it is sometimes sessile. The gleba is dark purple, and the flocci 
are lax and a greyish tawny. The spores are at first brownish, 
then pale purplish, globose, and rough. 

Scleroderma verriicosum is one of the common puff bulls grow- 
ing in abundance on the soil (fig. 24). 

Scleroderma aurantiacum- Pers., Scleroderma dictyosporum 
Pat., and Scleroderma vulgare Fr. are other puff balls that may 
be found growing on the soil. 

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES 

The edible fungi are not confined to one general group, but 
range from low forms, the Auriculariaceae, to the higher 
forms in the Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. These groups 
include the taingang-dagd or rat's-ear types, the pore fungi, 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



145 




177674 10 



X46 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

the gill fungi, and the puff balls. Practically all taingang- 
dagci or rat's-ear types are edible and a large majority of the 
pore fungi and gill fungi can be eaten with safety. The puff 
balls can all be safely eaten. Some of these forms while not 
poisonous can not be used as an article of diet on account of 
a lack in flavor and a tough texture. 

Since a few mushrooms are poisonous, the only safe way to use 
particular forms as food is to become acquainted with the 
individual species of fungi that can be used as an article of diet. 
While a large number of the edible forms have been described 
and pictured in the preceding pages, a few practical methods of 
determining whether or not the fungi are poisonous may not be 
out of place. The physiological test is advocated for persons 
who are willing to practice upon themselves. This test consists 
in first tasting a small piece of the fungus without swallowing 
any of the juice. If after one-half of an hour no discomfort is 
noticed, a larger piece, the size of a small pea, may be chewed up 
and swallowed. If no poisoning symptoms arise after one-half 
hour the fungus may be regarded as edible. All fungi that have 
a disagreeable flavor would naturally be discarded in this test, 
even though they were not poisonous. Besides the physiological 
test, a number of other rules should not be neglected by beginners. 

The structure and spore color of the gill mushrooms is often 
an indication of their edibility. These mushrooms all have a cap 
and stem. Some species may have a volva which is a mem- 
branous envelop or sac at the base of the stem; while other 
species may have an annulus or ring about the stem just below 
the cap. The color of the gills in mature mushrooms depends 
upon the color of the spores. Various colors such as white 
yellow, brown, purplish, dark brown, or black may be found. 
There are mushrooms which have a cup at the base and a ring 
on the stem. Fungi having white spores, indicated by white 
gills, and both a cup at the base and a ring about the stem should 
be discarded as poisonous. Mushrooms with black spores or 
gills are generally edible. They frequently have a ring around 
the stem, but no cup at the base as is true of the agarics. The 
Volvaria edible forms described have pinkish spores and gills, 
no ring about the stem, but a distinct cup or volva at base of 
the stem. Other precautionary measures that should be observed 
by beginners are the following: 

Avoid fungi when in the button or unexpanded stage. 

Avoid those in which the flesh has begun to decay, even if only 
slightly. 



EDIBLE FUNGI 147 

Avoid those forms which have white spores or gills as well 
as a ring and cup on the stem. 

Avoid fungi in which the cap, or pileus, is thin in proportion 
to the gills, and in which the gills are nearly all of equal length, 
especially if the pileus is brightly colored. 

Avoid fungi having a milky juice, unless the milk is reddish. 

Avoid all tube bearing fungi in which the flesh changes color 
when cut or broken or when the mouths of the tubes are reddish, 
and in the case of other tube bearing fungi experiment with 
caution. 

Fungi which have a sort of spider web or flocculent ring 
around the upper part of the stalk should in general be avoided. 

USES AND METHODS OF COOKING 

The AitiHciilariaceae are most generally eaten by the Chinese. 
The fungi are first soaked in water and when soft they are 
thoroughly cleaned in several changes of water. They are then 
commonly cooked with rice and noodles. Another method of 
preparation is, after thorough cleaning, to fry with grease in a 
pan and then to add to meat, shrimp, rice, and noodles. Fre- 
quently they are eaten alone after frying. 

Various receipts for cooking mushrooms are used. The gill 
fungi and puff balls are best eaten after frying or stewing with 
no seasoning except some grease for frying and pepper and salt. 
The caps of the agarics should be carefully washed. Peeling is 
unnecessary. The stems, unless too tough, should be cooked up 
specially in the form of stews. The mushrooms should be 
prepared as soon as possible after picking. The time required 
for stewing varies from 5 to 40 minutes according to the variety 
and tenderness. 

Mushrooms may be canned in glass jars, after thorough boil- 
ing. They may also be preserved by drying in the sun or in 
an oven. After all moisture has been removed, they should 
be packed in perfectly tight containers. The Aiwiculariaceae 
are generally collected in the fresh state and then dried in the 
sun. They remain in perfect condition indefinitely when placed 
in proper containers. After a preliminary soaking in water, 
during which they assume their normal fresh state, they may be 
cooked as if fresh. The common commercial mushroom, Volvaria 
esculenta may be dried successfully in the sun and then 
stored in a perfectly tight vessel (Fig. 16). Before cooking, 
these forms should first be soaked in water and then cooked as 
if fresh. Little flavor seems to be lost by this species in drying, 



MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

By Leon Maria Guerrero 

149 



MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 
CONTENTS 

Page. 

Introduction 163 

Description of Species 167 

Algae 167 

Gi'acillaria lichenoides (gulaman) , 167 

Family Polypodiaceae 167 

Acrostichum aureum (lagolo) 167 

Adiantum philippense (kaikai) 167 

Asplenium macrophyllum (pakong-giibat) 167 

Drynaria quercifolia (pakpak-lauin) 168 

Oleandra neriiformis (kaliskis-ahas) 168 

Onychium siliculosum (pakong-anuang) 168 

Family Schizaeaceae - 168 

Lygodium circinnatum (nito) 168 

Family Cycadaceae 168 

Cycas rumphii (pitogo) - 168 

Family Typhaceae 169 

Typha angustifolia (cat-tail) 169 

Family Pandanaceae 169 

Fandanus tectorius (common or beach pandan) 169 

Family Hydrocharitaceae 169 

Ottelia alismoides (kalaboa) 169 

Family Gramineae 169 

Andropogon aciculatus (tinlai) 169 

Andropogon citratus (tanglad or lemon grass) 169 

Andropogon sorghum (batad) 170 

Andropogon zizanioides (vetiver or moras) .....,-.. 170 

Bambusa spinosa (spiny bamboo) 170 

Bambusa vulgaris (kawayan-kiling) 170 

Coix lachryma-jobi (tigbi or Job's tears) 170 

Cynodon dactylon (bermuda grass) 170 

Eleusine indica (palagtiki or yard grass) 170 

Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (kogon) 171 

Oryza sativa (rice) 171 

Panicum stagninum (uraroi) : 171 

Paspalum scrobiculatum 171 

Schizostachyum dielsianum 171 

Zea mays (corn) 172 

Family Cyperaceae 172 

Kyllinga monocephala (busikad) 172 

Family Palmae 172 

Areca catechu (bunga or betel palm) 172 

Areca hutchinsoniana (pisa) 172 

151 



152 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of Species — Continued. 

Family Palmae — Continued. Page. 

Arenga pinnata (kaong or sugn.r palm) 172 

Cocos nucifera (coconut palm) 173 

Corypha elata (buri) 173 

Family Araceae 173 

Acorus calamus (lubigan or sweet flag) 173 

Alocasia macrorrhiza (biga) - 173 

Amorphophallus campanulatus (pungapung) 173 

Cyrtosperma merkusii (palauan) 173 

Homalomena philippinensis (tahig) 174 

Rhaphidophora merrillii (amlong) 174 

Typhonium divaricatum 174 

Family Flagellariaceae 174 

Flagellaria indica (baling-uai) 174 

Family Commelinaceae 174 

Commelina benghalensis (sabilau) .-. 174 

Family Liliaceae 175 

Allium cepa (onion) 175 

Allium sativum (bauang or garlic) 175 

Sanseviera zeylanica (sinawa) 175 

Smilax bracteata (banag) 175 

Smilax china (ubi-ubihan) , - 175 

Smilax leucophylla (hampas-tigbalang) 175 

Family Amaryllidaceae „... 176 

Crinum asiaticum (bakong) 176 

Curculigo orchioides 176 

Eurycles amboinensis (katangal) 176 

Hymenocallis littorale 176 

Polianthes tuberosa (azucena or tuberose) 177 

Family Dioscoreaceae 177 

Dioscorea hispida (nami) 177 

Family Musaceae 177 

Musa errans var. botoan (butiihan) 177 

Family Zingiberaceae 177 

Alpinia pyramidata (langkauas) 177 

Costus speciosus 177 

Curcuma longa (dilaii or turmeric) 177 

Kaempferia galanga (dosol) 178 

Kaempferia rotunda ^ 178 

Kolowratia elegans (tagbak) 178 

Zingiber zerumbet (barak) » 178 

Family Cannaceae 178 

Canna indica (canna) 178 

Family Marantaceae 179 

Donax cannaeformis (bamban) 179 

Family Orchidaceae 179 

Geodorum nutans 179 

Family Casuarinaceae 179 

Casuarina equisetifolia (agoho) ., 179 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 153 

Description of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Piperaceae 179 

Piper betle (buyo or betel pepper) 179 

Piper nigrum 180 

Piper retrofractum 180 

Family Chloranthaceae 180 

Chloranthus brachystachys 180 

Family Moraceae 180 

Artocarpus communis (antipolo) 180 

Artocarpus cumingiana (anubing) 180 

Artocarpus Integra (nangka) 180 

Fatoua pilosa (sikkir) , 181 

Ficus hauili (hauili) 181 

Ficus minahassae (hagimit) 181 

Ficus payapa (payapa) 181 

Malaisia scandens (malaisis) 181 

Streblus asper (kalios) 182 

Family Urticaceae 182 

Fleurya interrupta (lipang-aso) 182 

Laportea mej'eniana (lipang-kalabau) 182 

Pilea microphylla 182 

Pouzolzia zeylanica.... • 182 

Family Aristolochiaceae 183 

Aristolochia sericea (pang-gisi) 183 

Aristolochia tagala (timbaiTgan) 183 

Family Polygonaceae 183 

Polygonum barbatum (subsuban) 183 

Family Chenopodiaceae 183 

Chenopodium ambrosioides (alpasotes) 183 

Family Amaranthaceae 184 

Achyranthes aspera (rag-ragadi) ...^ 184 

Aerua lanata (karlakem) 184 

Amaranthus spinosus (kalunai) 184 

Celosia argentea (kadaiohan) 184 

Family Portulacaceae 185 

Portulaca oleracea (gulasiman) 185 

Family Basellaceae 185 

Basella rubra (libato) 185 

Family Nymphaeaceae 185 

Nelumbium nelumbo (baino or lotus) 185 

Family Menispermaceae 185 

Anamirta cocculus (ligtang) 185 

Arcangelisia flava (abiitra) 185 

Arcangelisia flava (abutra) 185 

Cissampelos pareira (kalaad) 186 

P*>'cnarrhena manillensis (ambal) 186 

Stephania japonica (maratugi) 186 

Tinomiscium philippinense (baiating) 186 

Family Annonaceae 187 

Alphonsea arborea (bolon) 187 

Goniothalamus amuyon (amuyong) 187 



154 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Lauraceae 187 

Cinnamomum mercadoi (kaliiagag) 187 

Cinnamomum mindanaense (Mindanao cinamon) 187 

Litsea glutinosa (sablot) 187 

Family Capparidaceae 188 

Capparis horrida (halubagat-baging) 188 

Capparis micracantha (halubagat-kahoi) 188 

Crataeva religiosa (balai-lamok) 188 

Gynandropsis gynandra (manabo) 188 

Family Moringaceae 188 

Moringa oleifera (malunggai or horse-radish tree) 188 

Family Pittosporaceae -.— -- 189 

Pittosporum pentandrum (mamalis) 189 

Family Leguminosae 189 

Abrus precatorius (kansasaga or prayer-bean) 189 

Adenanthera intermedia (tanglin) 189 

Bauhinia malabarica (alibangbang) 189 

Caesalpinia crista (kalumbibit) 189 

Cassia alata (acapulco) 190 

Cassia fistula (cafia-fistula) 190 

Cassia mimosoides (kalanda) 190 

Cassia occidentalis (andadasi) 190 

Cassia sophera (tambalisa) 190 

Cassia tora 191 

Dalbergia cumingiana (tahid-labiiio) 191 

Dalbergia ferruginea (kamut-kabag) 191 

Entada phaseoloides (gogo) 191 

Euchresta horsfieldii 191 

Mimosa pudica (makahia) 191 

Mucuna nigricans (nipai) 192 

Phaseolus aureus (balatong) 192 

Pongamia pinnata (bani) 192 

Pterocarpus blancoi (Blanco's narra) 192 

Sophora tomentosa (sandalaitan) 192 

Family Oxalidaceae 193 

Averrhoa bilimbi (kamias) 193 

Averrhoa carambola (balimbing) 193 

Biophytum sensitivum (mahihiyain) 193 

Family Rutaceae 193 

Chaetospermum glutinosum (tabuyok) 193 

Citrus maxima (pomelo or lukban) 193 

Clausena anisum-olens (kayumanis) 194 

Lunasia amara (lunas) 194 

Micromelum minutum 194 

Murraya paniculata (kamuning) 194 

Toddalia asiatica 194 

Zanthoxylum avicennae (kangai) 195 

Zanthoxylum rhetsa 195 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 155 

Description of Species — Continued. Page, 

family Simarubaceae I95 

Brucea amarissima I95 

Harrisonia perforata (mamikil) I95 

Samadera indica (manunggal) 196 

Family Burseraceae 196 

Canarium luzonicum (pili) 196 

Canarium villosum (pagsahiiigin) 196 

Garuga abilo (bogo) 196 

Family Meliaceae 196 

Chisocheton pentandrus (katong-machin) 196 

Dysoxylum decandrum (agaru) 197 

Melia azedarach (paraiso) 197 

Sandoricum koetjape (santol) 197 

Xylocarpus granatum (tabigi) 197 

Family Euphorbiaceae 197 

Acalypha indica 197 

Aleurites moluccana (lumbang) 197 

Aleurites trisperma (bagilumbang) 198 

Breynia rhamnoides (matang-hipon) 198 

Cicca acida (iba) 198 

Croton tiglium (croton-oil plant) 198 

Euphorbia hirta (gatas-gatas) 198 

Euphorbia neriifolia 198 

Euphorbia thymifolia 199 

Euphorbia tirucalli (consuelda) 199 

Excoecaria agallocha (buta-buta) 199 

Homonoia riparia (maiigagos) 199 

Jatropha curcas (tubang-bakod or physic nut) 200 

Jatropha multifida (mana) 200 

Macaranga grandifolia (biiigabing) 200 

Macaranga tanarius (binuiiga) 200 

Mallotus philippensis (banato) 200 

Manihot utilissima (kamoteng-kahoi) 201 

Melanolepis multiglandulosa (alim) 201 

Phyllanthus niruri (talikud) 201 

Phyllanthus reticulatus (matang-buyud) 201 

Ricinus communis (taiTgan-tang'an or castor-oil plant) 201 

Family Anacardiaceae 202 

Anacardium occidentals (kasui or cashew nut) 202 

Mangifera indica (mango) 202 

Semecarpus cuneiformis (ligas) 202 

Spondias purpurea (siniguelas) 202 

Family Celastraceae 202 

Celastrus paniculata (laiigitngit) 202 

Lophopetalum toxicum (abiiab) 203 

Family Hippocrateaceae 203 

Salacia prinoides (matang-ulang) 203 

Family Icacinaceae 203 

Gonocaryum calleryanum (taingang-babui) * 203 



156 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of Species — Continued. ^ae®- 

Family Sapindaceae 203 

Cardiospermum halicacabum (lagupok) - 203 

Dodonaea viscosa (kasirag) 204 

Guioa koelreuteria (alahan) 204 

Harpullia arborea (uas) 204 

Lepidopetalum perrottetii (dapil) 204 

Family Balsaminaceae -- 205 

Impatiens balsamina (kamantigi) 205 

Family Rhamnaceae 205 

Colubrina asiatica (kabatiti) 205 

Ventilago dichotoma (salapan) 205 

Zizyphus jujuba (manzanitas) 205 

Family Vitaceae 206 

Cissus quadrangularis (sugpon-sugpon) 206 

Columella trifolia (ariuat) 206 

Leea aculeata (mali-mali) 206 

Leea manillensis (amamali) 206 

Tetrastigma harmandii (ayo) 207 

Family Tiliaceae 207 

Corchorus acutangulus (pasau na haba) 207 

Corchorus capsularis (pasau na bilog) 207 

Corchorus olitorius (pasau or jute) 207 

Muntingia calabura (datiles) 207 

Triumfetta bartramia (kulot-kulotan) 207 

Family Malvaceae 208 

Abelmoschus moschatus (kastuli) 208 

Abutilon indicum (giling-gilingan) 208 

Hibiscus esculentus (okra) 208 

Hibiscus mutabilis (mapula) 208 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (guraamela) 208 

Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) 209 

Hibiscus tiliaceus (balibago) 209 

Malachra capitata (bakembakes) 209 

Malvastrum coromandelinum (salsaluyut) 209 

Sida acuta (takim-baka) 209 

Sida cordifolia 209 

Sida javensis (S. humilis) (igat-igat) 209 

Thespesia populnea (banalo) 210 

Urena lobata (kollokollot) 210 

Family Bombacaceae 210 

Bombax ceiba (malabulak) 210 

Ceiba pentandra (cotton tree or kapok) 210 

Family Sterculiaceae 210 

Abroma fastuosa (anabo) 211 

Kleinhovia hospita (tan-ag) 210 

Pentapetes phoenicea (flores de las doce) 211 

Pterocymbium tinctorium (taluto) 211 

Pterospermum diversifolium (bayok) 211 

Sterculia foetida (kalumpang) 211 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 157 

Description of Species — Continued. 

Family Sterculiaceae — Continued. Page. 

Theobroma cacao (cacao) 211 

Waltheria americana (barubad) 212 

Family Dilleniaceae ■'■■■ 212 

Dillenia philippinensis (katmon) 212 

Family Guttiferae 212 

Calophyllum blancoi (bitanhol) 212 

Calophyllum inophyllum (bitaog or palomaria de la playa).. 212 

Cratoxylon blancoi (guyong-guyong) 212 

Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) 213 

Family Bixaceae 213 

Bixa orellana (achuete or annatto) 213 

Family Caricaceae 213 

Carica papaya (papaya) 213 

Family Thymelaeaceae 213 

Gyrinopsis cumingiana (butlo) 213 

Wikstroemia ovata (round-leaf salago) 214 

Family Lythraceae 214 

Ammannia baccifera (apoi-apoian) 214 

Lawsonia inermis (henna or cinamomo) 214 

Family Lecythidaceae 214 

Barringtonia acutangula (kalambuaia) 214 

Barringtonia asiatica (botong) , 214 

Barringtonia racemosa (putat) 215 

Family Combretaceae 215 

Lumnitzera racemosa (kulasi) 215 

Quisqualis indica (niug-niugan or tangolon) 215 

Terminalia calamansanai (malakalumpit) 215 

Terminalia catappa (talisai) 215 

Terminalia comintana (binggas) 216 

Terminalia edulis (kalumpit) 216 

Family Myrtaceae 216 

Decaspermum fruticosum (patalsik) ■ 216 

Eugenia cumini (duhat) 216 

Psidium guajava (guava or bayabas) 216 

Family Melastomataceae 217 

Memecylon ovatum (kulis) .--. 217 

Family Araliaceae 217 

Nothopanax fruticosum (papua) - -- 217 

Schefflera cumingii (kalang-gamat) 217 

SchefHera elliptifoliola (galamai-amo) 217 

Schefflera odorata (tarangkang) 217 

Schefflera piperoidea (himainat) 217 

Family Umbelliferae 218 

Apium graveolens (celery or apio) 218 

Carum copticum (damoro) 218 

Centella asiatica 218 

Coriandrum sativum (coriander or culantro) 218 

Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 218 



158 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Ericaceae 218 

Rhododendron vidalii 218 

Family Myrsinaceae 219 

Ardisia boissieri (tagpo) 219 

Family Plumbaginaceae 219 

Plumbago indica (pamparapit) 219 

Plumbago zeylanica (sangdikit) 219 

Family Sapotaceae 219 

Bassia betis (betis) 219 

Mimusops parvifolia (bansalagin) 219 

Family Ebenaceae 220 

Diospyros ebenaster (zapote) 220 

Diospyros multiflora (kanomoi) 220 

Family Oleaceae 220 

Jasminum sambac (sampaguita) 220 

Family Loganiaceae 220 

Buddleia asiatica (taliknono) 220 

Fagraea cochinchinensis (urung) 220 

Fagraea racemosa (bulubuaia) 221 

Strychnos ignatii (St. Ignatius bean) 221 

Strychnos multiflora (bukuan) 221 

Family Gentianaceae 221 

Canscora diffusa (chang-bato) 221 

Family Apocynaceae 221 

Allamanda cathartica (campanero) 221 

Alstonia macrophylla (batino) 221 

Alstonia scholaris (dita) 222 

Cerbera manghas (baraibai) 222 

Kibatalia blancoi (pasnit) 222 

Lochnera rosea (atai-bia) 222 

Nerium indicum (oleander or adelfa) ^ 222 

Paralstonia clusiacea (malabatino) 223 

Parameria barbata (dugtung-ahas) 223 

Plumiera acuminata (kalachuche) 223 

Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia (maladita) 223 

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui (pandakaki) 223 

Thevetia peruviana 224 

Family Asclepiadaceae 224 

Asclepias curassavica (bulak-damo) 224 

Calotropis gigantea (kapal-kapal) 224 

Streptocaulon baumii (hinggiu-na-puti) 224 

Tylophora brevipes (pasiika) 224 

Tylophora perrottetiana (kullafig-em) 225 

Family Convolvulaceae 225 

Calonyction muricatum 225 

Evolvulus alsinoides 225 

Ipomoea digitata (kamkamote) 225 

Ipomoea hederacea 225 

Ipomoea pes-caprae (katang-katang) 225 

Ipomoea pes-tigridis (rangraiTgau) 226 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 159 

Description of Species — Continued. 

Family Convolvulaceae — Continued. Page. 

Ipomoea reptans (kangkong) 226 

Merremia emarginata (kupikupit) 226 

Operculina turpethum 226 

Quamoclit pinnata (cypress vine or cabello de angel) 226 

Family Boraginaceae 227 

Coldenia procumbens (tabtabokol) 227 

Cordia myxa (anonang) 227 

Ehretia microphylla (kalamoga) 227 

Ehretia navesii (talibunog) 227 

Heliotropium indicum (Ikoi-pusa) 227 

Rotula aquatica (buntut-buaia) 228 

Tournefortia sarmentosa (salsallakapa) i 228 

Trichodesma indicum 228 

Trichodesma zeylanicum (dilang-usa) 228 

Family Verbenaceae 228 

Avicennia officinalis (api-api) 228 

Callicarpa caudata 229 

Callicarpa erioclona (palis) 229 

Callicarpa formosana (timbabasi) 229 

Clerodendron bethuneanum (guanton) 229 

Clerodendron cumingianum (talumpapait) 229 

Clerodendron inerme (aiigangri) 229 

Clerodendron intermedium (laroan-anito) 230 

Clerodendron macrostegium (malapotokan) 230 

Clerodendron minahassae (aiam-aiam) 230 

Clerodendron quadriloculare (bagauak) 230 

Lippia nodiflora (cbachahan) 230 

Premna cumingiana (manaba) 231 

Premna nauseosa (mulauin-aso) 231 

Premna odorata (alagau) 231 

Tectona grandis (teak) 231 

Vitex negundo (lagundi) 232 

Vitex trifolia var. ovata (lagunding-dagat) 232 

Family Labiatae 232 

Anisomeles indica (taling-harap) 232 

Coleus amboinicus 232 

Coleus blumei (maiana) 232 

Hyptis suaveolens (bangbangslt) 233 

Leucas lavandulifolia (pansi-pansi) 233 

Mentha arvensis (mint or yerba buena) 233 

Ocimum basilicum (balanoi or sweet basil) 233 

Ocimum sanctum (sulasi or holy basil) 233 

Pogostemon cablin (patchouli or kablin) 233 

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary or romero) 234 

Scutellaria luzonica (sidit) 234 

Family Solanaceae 234 

Datura fastuosa (talong-punai na itim) 234 

Datura fastuosa var. alba (talong-punai) 234 

Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) 235 



160 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Description of Species — Continued. 

Family Solanaceae — Continued. Page. 

Solanum cumingii (talongtaloiigan) 235 

Solanum melongena (egg plant or talong) 235 

Solanum nigrum (konti) 235 

Family Scrophulariaceae 235 

Bacopa monniera (ulasiman-aso) - 235 

Limnophila indica (inata) 235 

Scoparia dulcis (malaanis) 236 

Family Bignoniaceae 236 

Crescentia alata (hoja-cruz) 236 

Dolichandrone spathacea (tuwi) 236 

Oroxylum indicum (pingkapingkahan) 236 

Family Pedaliaceae 236 

Sesamum orientale (sesame or liiiga) 236 

Family Acanthaceae 237 

Acanthus ilicifolius (diliuariu) 237 

Barleria prionitis (kukong-manok) 237 

Blechum brownei (sapin-sapin) 237 

Graptophyllum pictum (atai-atai) 237 

Justicia gendarussa 237 

Justicia procumbens 238 

Pseuderanthemum pulchellum (limang-sugat) 238 

Rhinacanthus nasuta (tagak tagak) 238 

Family Plantaginaceae 238 

Plantago major (plantain) 238 

Family Rubiaceae 238 

Borreria hispida 238 

Gardenia pseudopsidium 239 

Hydnophytum formicarium 239 

Hymenodictyon excelsum (aligango) 239 

Morinda citrifolia 239 

Mussaenda philippica (tinuliian-gatas) 239 

Nauclea junghuhnii (mambog) 240 

Nauclea orientalis (bangkal) 240 

Oldenlandia corymbosa 240 

Paederia foetida 240 

Pavetta indica (lumboi-manuk) 241 

Psychotria luzoniensis (alitakbo) 241 

Psychotria mindorensis 241 

Rubia cordifolia (mangil) 241 

Family Cucurbitaceae .- 241 

Benincasa hispida (kondol or waxgourd) 241 

Lagenaria leucantha (upo) 242 

Luffa cylindrica (patola) 242 

Momordica charantia (ampalaya) 242 

Momordica cochinchinensis (tabog-ok) 242 

Trichosanthes quinquangulata (katimbau) 242 

Family Goodeniaceae 243 

Scaevola frutescens (bokabok) 243 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 161 

Description of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Compositae 243 

Ageratum conyzoides (bulak-manuk) 243 

Artemisia vulgaris (damong-maria or mugwort) 243 

Blumea balsamifera (sambong) 243 

Centipeda minima (haraiigan) 244 

Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum) 244 

Crossostephium chinense 244 

Eclipta alba (tultulisan) 244 

Elephantopus scaber (pagbilau) 244 

Elephantopus spicatus (supsuput) 245 

Emilia sonchifolia (tagulinau) 245 

Enhydra fluctuans 245 

Eupatorium triplinerve (aiapana) 245 

Grangea maderaspatana (pakpako-ti-alog) 245 

Pterocaulon redolens (subosub) 245 

Siegesbeckia orientalis 245 

Sphaeranthus africanus (sambong-damo) 246 

Spilanthes acmella (palumai) 246 

Tagetes patula (marigold or ahito) 246 

Vernonia cinerea (agas-moro) ► 246 

Wedelia biflora (hagonoi) 246 

177674-.— 11 



MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

By Leon Maria Guerrero * 
INTRODUCTION 

These notes are the result of several years of investigation 
into the use made by the natives, for medicinal purposes, of 
certain plants belonging to the rich Philippine flora, as well 
as of those of other, foreign species introduced into this country 
in a prehistoric period and since. 

The list of such plants seems unnecessarily long; neverthe- 
less, it does not include all of the species in the list of Philippine 
medicinal plants. Many already recorded have been purposely 
omitted, as their inclusion here would occupy too much space. 
Though it is a long one, it covers only investigations conducted 
among the Christianized natives, segregated in towns or villages, 
who have for some time enjoyed the advantages of modern 
civilization and culture. Similar investigations will be carried 
on later among the scattered tribes living in the forested moun- 
tains in various regions of the Archipelago. 

The Philippine flora comprises not only an astonishingly 
large number of timber and other useful species, but also a no 
less astonishing wealth of medicinal plants, the great thera- 
peutic possibilities of which will become apparent once empiri- 
cism gives way to the practice of scientific pharmacology. This 
subject has scarcely been touched, so far as native drugs are 
concerned, notwithstanding the reasonable demand that our 
native products be utilized in preference to those of other coun- 
tries which frequently are no better than those of our own land. 

To prepare a genuinely Philippine Pharmacopoeia is not a 
simple task, for it involves a thorough chemical and pharmacody- 
namic study of the most important drugs already known to 
medical practitioners. Not only this, but careful selection must 
be made from among those tested in order that the formulas 
shall not contain several drugs that possess the same or similar 
curative virtues, and that the proposed Philippine code shall 
include such foreign drugs for which no equivalents have yet 
been found here. 

* From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory; Bureau of 
Science, Manila. 

163 



164 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

From our present knowledge of this matter it seems ad- 
visable to condense the list so as to include only the most 
important material; that is, such plants as have proved effica- 
cious, either medicinally or toxically, according to the general 
conception of these two terms. There is no doubt that much 
of folklore has entered into the belief in the great virtues of 
plants reputed to be medicinal. This fact portrays clearly the 
primitive mentality of a part of our people who have not yet 
entirely thrown off the ethological traces which at one time 
characterized them. What might at first glance appear to be 
of secondary importance or even without value, may often prove 
the stepping-stone to chemical investigation ; because a belief 
that may appear to be mere opinion without foundation in fa,ct 
is, in reality, the result of practical observation. A thing ob- 
served may be inexplicable to one of primitive intelligence; but 
such observation may develop into superstition, since his mind 
is incapable of interpreting correctly the phenomenon he has 
observed, and he can only explain it as having occurred through 
the mysterious intervention of some deity who possesses the 
key to the enigma. 

The mediquillos,* not really understanding the causes that 
produce disease, simply utilize the plants herein described in 
the treatment of symptoms. For this reason, the descriptions 
of their curative uses are usually given here in terms of symp- 
toms rather than as remedies for the treatment of specific 
diseases. 

The formulas used by the mediquillos for the administration 
of their vegetal drugs are the simplest. Their officinal and 
galenic preparations consist of decoctions and infusions that 
are more or less concentrated, recently adopted sirups, oily 
unguents or embrocations, watery or alcoholic macerations, poul- 
tices, plasters that have for their base pure wax or resinous sub- 
stances, inhalations, fumigations, empyreumatic products, etc. 
Their methods of manipulation are rudimentary and inspired 
by false principles or by a faulty understanding of the imme- 
diate component parts of the plants. The mediquillo is not 
given to mixing many ingredients in one prescription; this 
fact makes it easier to detect the effects of the drug employed 
by him, and eliminates all doubt as to whether the effect can 
be attributed to the principal medicament or to some other one 
used in connection with it. 



* A word used in the Philippine Islands for one having medical 
iencft but no title. 



ex- 



perience but no title. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 165 

In conclusion, it may be stated that this list of Philippine 
medicinal plants includes many, the curative virtues of which 
have been tested by missionaries who for a time exercised their 
calling in localities lacking the indispensable means for treat- 
ment of their sick parishioners. However, it should be remem- 
bered that the missionaries owed their knowledge of these native 
remedies largely to the mediquillos. Notwithstanding the 
aversion of the missionaries to certain superstitious practices 
with which these mediquillos sometimes accompanied the in- 
ternal or external administration of some therapeutic remedy, 
the former were frequently compelled to request the services 
of the latter when the life of a patient became endangered. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 
ALGAE 

Genus GRACILLARIA 

GRACILLARIA LICHENOIDES Grev. GULAMAN. 

Local names: Guldman (Tagalog, Sambali, Pangasinan) ; gulamdn 
(Bicol) ; gurdman (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Cuyo) ; gurgurdman 
(Cagayan). 

The gelatine extracted from this seaweed is used as a pectoral 
and antidysenteric. 

Family POLYPODIACEAE 

Genus ACROSTICHUM 
ACROSTICHUM AUREUM L. Lag6lo. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

The rhizomes are vulnerary, and are especially used in 
healing inveterate ulcers. The leaves used in topicals are 
emollient. 

Genus ADIANTUM 

ADIANTUM PHILIPPENSE L. KAIkAi. 

Local names: Culantrillo (Spanish in the vicinity of Manila and Pam- 
panga) ; kaikdi (Tagalog). 

The fronds either in decoction or a sirup are, in European 
therapeutics, utilized for the same purposes as is Adiantum 
capillus veneris. In the Philippines they are administered to 
women in childbirth in the same manner as are the species of 
Aristolochia. 

Distribution: Central Luzon to Palawan. 

Genus ASPLENIUM 

ASPLENIUM MACROPHYLLUM Sw. PakoNG-GUBAT 

Local names: Buntot-kapon (Tagalog); culantrillo (Bukidnon) ; pako 
(Palawan, Bukidnon, Isabela) ; pakong-gubat (Manila and vicinity). 

The fronds in the form of a decoction are a powerful diuretic, 
used in the treatment of defective urinary secretion, especially 
that induced by beriberi. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

167 



168 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus DRYNARIA 

DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA (L.) J. Sm. PakpAK-LAUIN. 

Local names: Baga-haga (Pangasinan) ; gona tibdtib (Pampanga) ; 
kabkdb, kabkdbin, kabkdbon (Bisaya) ; kabkdb (Bicol) ; kappa-kappd 
(Iloko) ; pako (Tayabas) ; pakpdk-lduin, paipdi-amo (Tagalog) ; saga 
(Benguet). 

A description of this species is given in the section on orna- 
mental plants. 

The rhizomes in decoction are used as an astringent. In 
concentrated form they are said to be anthelmintic. 

Genus OLEANDRA 
OLEANDRA NERIIFORMIS Cav. KALISKIS-AHAS. 

Local names: Kaliskis-dhas, hlnas (Tagalog). 

The stipes in decoction are an efficacious emmenagogue. They 
are believed, among the Filipinos, to be a good remedy for ven- 
omous snake bites. 

Distribution: Benguet, Zamboanga, Basilan. 

Genus ONYCHIUM 
ONYCHIUM SILICULOSUM (Desv.) C. Chr. PAK6NG-ANtJANG. 

Local names: Dila-dila, pakong-aniiajig (Tagalog); pako (Bulacan). 

The fronds in decoction are good for dysentery. 

Distribution : Apparently confined to the provinces of northern 
and central Luzon. 

Family SCHIZAEACEAE 

Genus LYGODIUM 
LYGODIUM CIRCINNATUM (Burm. f.) NlTO. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on fiber plants. 

The stipe is chewed and applied to the bites of venomous 
reptiles or insects in order to neutralize the poison. 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines from the Batanes 
Islands to Zamboanga. 

Family CYCADACEAE 

Genus CYCAS 
CYC AS RUM PHI I Miq. Pit6G0. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The whole seed is roasted, pounded into small pieces, put into 
coconut oil, stirred, and applied to wounds, boils, itches, and 
other skin diseases. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 159 

Family TYPHACEAE 

Genus TYPHA 
TYPHA ANGUSTI FOLIA L. CaT-TAIL. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants. 

The woolly inflorescence is employed in the healing of wounds, 
yet it ought rather to be considered as hemostatic by mechanical 
action. 

Family PANDANACEAE 

Genus PAN DAN US 
PAN DAN US TECTORIUS Soland. Common or Beach Pandan. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants. 

The aerial roots yield a decoction used as a beverage in cases 
of blennorrhea. This decoction, together with urethral injec- 
tions of the sap of the base of the banana plant, is said to be 
a rapid cure for this malady. 

Family HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Genus OTTELIA 
OTTELIA ALISMOIDES (L.) Pars. KalaboA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves are used in topicals to cure hemorrhoids. It 
has been claimed that this plant has rubefacient properties. 

Family GRAMINEAE 

Genus ANDROPOGON 
ANDROPOGON ACICULATUS Retz. TiNLAI. 

Local names: Amor-seco (Spanish-Filipino, Tayabas, Bataan) ; tinldi 
(Bataan). 

The entire plant in decoction is regarded as a diuretic. 

Distribution : Common in central provinces of Luzon, but 
found also in the Mountain Province of Luzon, and the Islands 
of Palawan and Mindanao. 

ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC. TANGLAD or LEMON GRASS. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The roots yield a decoction used as a diuretic. The leaves are 
employed for aromatic baths. 



170 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

ANDROPOGON SORGHUM (L.) Brot. var. VULGARIS (Pers.) Hack. 

BatAD. 
Local names: Bdtad (Tagalog, Bikol, Cuyo, Occidental Negros, Davao) ; 
bukdkau (Bontoc, Iloko Provinces, Pangasinan). 

The fruits yield a decoction much like that of barley and 
which is used similarly. 

Distribution : Cultivated, on a small scale for local consumption, 
from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. 

ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (L.) Urban. Vetiver or MORAS. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The decoction of the roots is used for tonic baths, and is taken 
internally as an efficacious lithotriptic. 

Genus BAMBUSA 
BAMBUSA SPIN OS A Roxb. Spiny Bamboo. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on bamboos. 

A decoction of the roots is administered in cases of anuria. 

BAMBUSA VULGARIS Schrad. KawayAN-Kiling. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on bamboos. 

The aqueous sap of this plant is much esteemed by the natives 
as a remedy for phthisis. 

Genus 001 X 
COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L. TiGBi or Job's Tears. 

The local names of this species are given in the section on 
fibers. 

The starch obtained from the fruit is considered as a tonic 
which is restorative in convalescence. 

Distribution: Widely distributed in the settled areas of the 
Philippines. 

Genus CYNODON 

CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) Pers. BERMUDA GRASS. 

Local names: Galot-galot (Pangasinan); grama (Spanish-Filipino). 

A decoction of the entire plant is an effective diuretic and is 
also considered a pectoral. 

Distribution: From northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Genus ELEUSINE 
ELEUSINE INDICA (L.) Gaertn. Palagtik! or Yard Grass. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 171 

The entire plant, mixed with gogo, is used to cleanse the head 
of dandruff, and to prevent loss of hair. 

Genus IMPERATA 
IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (L.) Beauv. var. KOENIGII Benth. KoGON. 

Local names: Buchid (Batanes Islands); gaon (Benguet) ; gogon 
(Bikol) ; kogon (Bontoc, Tagalog, Pampanga, Bisaya, etc.) ; pan'du 
(Iloko). 

The fruiting spikes are regarded as vulnerary in decoction, 
and as a sedative when taken internally. 

Distribution: Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to 
southern Mindanao. 

Genus 0RY2A 
ORYZA SATIVA L. RiCE. 

Local names: Ammai (Ibanak) ; humdi (Cebu, Misamis) ; pdgai (Iloko, 
Cagayan) ; pdgoi (Pangasinan) ; pdkii (Igorot) ; pdlai (Tagalog) ; pale 
(Pampanga); pdli (Sambali) ; pdroi (Bikol, Bisaya, Cuyo). 

The roots and rhizomes yield a decoction employed in cases 
of anuria. The lye produced by the burned culms is considered 
by the Ilokos to be an abortive. The fruits in decoction or 
poultices are emollient. 

Genus PANICUM 
PANICUM STAGNINUM Retz. Urar6i. 

Local names: Lagtom na puld, tiraroi (Camarines) ; timsim (Chinese). 

A decoction of the pith is used as a diuretic. 
Distribution: Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to 
southern Mindanao. 

Genus PASPALUM 
PASPALUM SCROBICULATUM L. 

Local names: Ang-angson (Benguet); balili (Lepanto) ; perag'is (Ta- 
galog) . 

A decoction of the roots and rhizomes is used as an alterative 
in childbirth. 

Distribution : Mountain Province of Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus SCHIZOSTACHYUM 
6CHIZ0STACHYUM DIELSIANUM (Pilger) Merr. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on bamboos. 

A decoction of the rhizomes makes a refreshing beverage. 
The young shoots are used to dissipate the opacity of the cornea. 

Distribution: Very common in the central provinces of 
Luzon. 



172 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus ZEA 
ZEA MAYS L. CORN. 

Local name: Mais (Spanish-Filipino). 

A decoction of the fresh or dried stalk, as well as that of 
the stigmas, is a diuretic much used by the natives of the 
Philippines, 

Distribution : Cultivated throughout the Philippines. 

Family CYPERACEAE 

Genus KYLLINGA 

KYLLINGA MONOCEPH ALA Rottb. BUSIKAD. 

Local names: Aniiang, inuthd (Tagalog) ; bagi-bdgi, piingos (Samar) ; 
basikad, botoiicillo (Laguna) ; borsa ulu dadakkel (Union) ; bosbotones, 
busikad (Bisaya) ; katutu (Cotabato) ; malaapnUd (Pampanga) ; mustra 
(Tayabas) ; ftudsnd (Bisaya). 

The rhizome yields a decoction employed as a diuretic. Mixed 
with oil, it is externally employed to combat certain forms of 
dermatosis. 

Distribution : Common and widely distributed throughout the 
Philippines. 

Family PALMAE 

Genus ARECA 
ARECA CATECHU L. BUNGA or BETEL PALM. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on palms. 

The seeds, besides being chewed, are also much employed 
externally as an astringent. The tender seeds are said to be 
purgative, and the ripened ones grated are a vermifuge. Some 
care must be taken in grating, as the seeds contain poisonous 
elements. 

ARECA HUTCHINSONIANA Becc. PiSA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on palms. 

The raw terminal bud is given to children to be eaten as a 
vermifuge. 

Genus ARENGA 
ARENGA FINN ATA (Wurmb) Merr. KAoNG or Sugar palm. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on palms. 

The unripe fruit is edible, but when ripe is said to be a violent 
poison for dogs. The fuzz of the petioles is used as a hemos- 
tatic and cicatrizant. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 173 

Genus COCOS 
COCOS NUCIFERA L. CoCONUT PALM 

Figures of this species and its local names are given in the 
section on palms. 

This plant, besides its many medicinal uses, gives an empy- 
reumatic product used generally in toothache caused by caries, 
and in cutaneous diseases. It is obtained by burning the endo- 
carp in a receptacle, and condensing in another the volatile 
products which separate. 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines in cultivation. 

Genus CORYPHA 
CORYPHA ELATA Roxb. BuRl'. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on palms. 

The young plants are brewed in decoction and administered 
in cases of febrile catarrh. 

Family ARACEAE 

Genus ACORUS 
ACORUS CALAMUS L. LUBIGAN or SWEET FLAG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The rhizomes are administered as a stimulant and carminative. 
They are said to be antirheumatic when used as an embrocation. 

Genus ALOCASIA 
ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (L.) Schott. BlGA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The petioles, in a nearly decayed state, are ground together, 
placed in a piece of cloth with live coals, and used as an applica- 
tion to alleviate toothache. 

Genus AMORPHOPHALLUS 
AMORPHOPHALLUS CAM PANULATUS (Roxb.) Blume. Pungapung. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The corms are caustic, and are employed, in antirheumatic 
poultices, as rubefacients. 

Genus CYRTOSPERMA 
CYRTOSPERMA MERKUSII (Hassk.) Schott. Palauan. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 



174 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The spadix is used in decoction as an emmenagogue and 
ecbolic. 

Genus HOMALOMENA 
HOMALOMENA PH I LI PPIN ENSIS Engl. TAHfc. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on miscellaneous plants. 

The rhizomes are reputed to be antirheumatic if used in the 
form of an embrocation. 

Genus RHAPHIDOPHORA 
RHAPHIDOPHORA MERRILLII Engl. AMLONa 

Local names: Amlong (Camarines) ; amulong (Iloko) ; balamai, mala- 
pakpdk^ tampinhanal, tibdtib (Tagalog) ; balikiikup bisano, dibatib, daila, 
garban, horag, takoline, tirbdtib (Bisaya) ; diikup (Bontoc). 

The sap is employed for the cure of snake bites. The spadix 
of this plant is valued among the natives as an emmenagogue. 
perhaps on account of its form. 

Distribution: Mountain Province of Luzon to southern Min- 
danao. 

Genus TYPHONIUM 
TYPHONIUM DIVARICATUM Decne. 
Local name: Gabigabihan (Tagalog). 

The corms have a rubefacient quality, but are very rarely used. 
Family FLAGELLARIACEAE 

Genus FLAGELLARIA 
FLAGELLAR I A INDICA L. BaliNG-uAi. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants. 

The stem and rhizome in decoction are considered diuretic. 

Family COMMELINACEAE 

Genus COM M ELI N A 
COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS L. SABILAu. 

Local names: Alikbdngon (Tagalog); bias-bids (Pampanga) ; kuhdsi 
(Batanes Islands) ; kulkuldsi (Union) ; olikbdngon (Tagalog) ; sabildu 
(Bisaya). 

The entire plant, in decoction, is used as an emollient colly- 
rium. It is also employed to combat strangury. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands to Palawan and Basilan. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 175 

Family LILIACEAE. 

Genus ALiUM 
ALLIUM CEPA L. ONION. 

Local names: Aldonises, sibihjas (Tagalog). 

The bulbs, cooked and mixed with cocoanut oil, are used in the 
form of an ointment applied to the abdomen to provoke diuresis. 

ALLIUM SATIVUM L. Bauang or Garlic. 

Local names: Ajos (Spanish) ; hcinang (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, 
Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Union, Zambales, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Pampanga, 
Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Camarines Norte and Sur, Albay, Leyte, Marinduque, Misamis) ; lasond 
(Cuyo). 

The bulbs, when applied to the temples in the form of a 
poultice, are considered to be revulsive in headache. They are 
used also to mitigate the pain caused by the bites of insects, scor- 
pions, centipedes, etc. 

Genus SANSEVIERA 
SANSEVIERA 2EYLANICA (L.) Willd. SiNAwA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in the 
section on fiber plants. 

The leaves when roasted are used as an emollient. 

Genus SMI LAX 
SMI LAX BRACT EATA PresL BanAg. 

Local names: Bandg (Benguet, Union, Abra) ; banal (Benguet) ; hampds- 
tigbdlang, kamagsd, sipit-oldng (Rizal) ; kolot-bdbui (Bataan). 

The rhizomes and roots are regarded as depurative when 
used in the form of a decoction. 

Distribution : Benguet, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bula- 
can, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Bataan, Sorsogon, Davao. 

SMI LAX CHINA L. UBI-UBfHAN. 

Local names: Bnanal (Benguet); ubi-ubihan (Tagalog). 

The roots and rhizomes taken in the form of a decoction are 
used as depurative in cases of herpetism, syphilis, etc. 

Distribution: In the mountains of Benguet, Lepanto, Ifugao, 
Bontoc, Mindoro, Zambales, Negros. 

SMILAX LEUCOPHYLLA Blume. HampaS-TIGbXlang. 

Lacal names: Banal (Benguet) ; hampds-tigbdlang, kdmot-kabdg (Rizal) ; 
ronas (Bisaya) ; zarzaparilla-puti (Laguna). 

The roots and rhizomes of this species are used as a purifier 



176 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

of the blood, as is the case with all species of Smilax. They are 
considered as antisyphilitic and antirheumatic, and are gen- 
erally effective in cutaneous affection. 

Distribution : Benguet, Pangasinan, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, 
Laguna, Mindoro, Balabac, Palawan, Culion, and Agusan. 

Family AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Genus CRINUM 
CRINUM ASIATICUM L. BakONG. 

Local names: Aguhdhan (Bisaya); hakon (Polillo, Mindoro); hdkong 
(Bataan, Union, Pangasinan, Camarines) ; kalagukon (Bisaya) ; salibang- 
bdng (Bisaya). 

The bulbs are prepared as an ointment, and the leaves as 
an emollient, both in the form of topicals. The bulbs have 
emetic properties. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands, Bontoc, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Viz- 
caya, Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, 
Polillo, Palawan, Davao, Zamboanga, 

Genus CURCULIGO 

CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gaertn. 

Local names: Estrella, talangi, tataluangi (Bukidnon) ; kogon-kogon 
(Rizal); sulsulitik (Bontoc). 

The plant is used as a cure for skin diseases and for head- 
ache. The root when powdered and used pure, or mixed with 
other tonic or carminative vegetable drugs, is considered tonic, 
pectoral, diuretic and aphrodisiac. 

Distribution : Bontoc, Pangasinan, Rizal, Mindoro, Sorsogon, 
Antique, Semirara Island, Biliran Island, Palawan, Bukidnon. 
and Davao. 

Genus EURYCLES 

EURYCLES AMBOINENSIS (L.) Lindl. Katangal. 

Local names: Abud (Bisaya); katdngal (Bisaya); katungal (Tagalog) ; 
kosol (Bisaya) ; dausum (Bisaya) ; pandbor (Bisaya) ; talaihnir (Bisaya) ; 
taliunud (Bikol) ; tambdl (Tagalog); tanual, tonuar (Bisaya). 

The bulbs are employed as emeto-cathartic in small doses; 
the leaves are used externally as antirheumatic topicals. 

Distribution: Cavite, Laguna, Camarines, Mindoro; often 
cultivated as an ornamental pot plant. 

Genus HYMENOCALLIS 

HYMENOCALLIS LITTORALE (Jacq.) Salisb. 

Local names: Ajos-djos iiga mapiiti (Bisaya); bdkong (Tagalog); 
lirio (Spanish-Filipino). 

The bulbs are used as a vulnerary. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 177 

Genus POLIANTHES 
POLIANTHES TU SEROSA L. AZUCENA or TUBEROSE. 

Local name: Azucena (throughout the Philippines). 

The bulbs are used in a decoction to cure gonorrhea ; and in 
the form of a poultice are employed as a maturative. 
Distribution: Cultivated from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family DIOSCOREACEAE 

Genus DIOSCOREA 

DIOSCOREA HISPIDA Dennst. Nami. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The tubers, raw or cooked, are used as an anodyne and ma- 
turative in cases of tumors and buboes, and also against ar- 
thritic and rheumatic pains, etc. 

Family MUSACEAE 

Genus MUSA 
MUSA ERRANS (Blanco) Teodoro var. BOTOAN Teodoro. Butuhan. 

Local names: Buttian or butuhan (Tagalog, Bikol) ; bui (Iloko) ; pdkol 
(Bisaya). 

The sap is vulnerary. The sap exuding from the base of the 
cut trunk is used for urethral injections in gonorrhea. 

Distribution: Widely distributed and occasionally cultivated. 

Family ZINGIBERACEAE 

Genus ALPINiA 

ALPINIA PYRAMIDATA Blume. Langkauas. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The rhizomes are carminative and stimulative. A decoction 
of the leaves is used for antirheumatic and stimulant baths. 

Genus COSTUS 
COSTUS SPECIOSUS (Koenig) Sm. TUBONG-USA. 

Local names: Baston de San Jose (Spanish in Iloilo) ; Innas (Bataan) ; 
tambdk (Batangas) ; tubong-usd (Camarines). 

The rhizome is an aromatic medicine. It is not much used, 
though it sometimes replaces the species of Kaempferia. 

Distribution: Very widely distributed throughout Luzon, the 
Visayas, and Mindanao. 

Genus CURCUMA 
CURCUMA LONGA L. DiLAU or TURMERIC. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The rhizomes when cooked in oil are stomachic and vulnerary. 

177674^—12 



178 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus KAEMPFERIA 
KAEMPFERIA GALANGA L. DUSOL. 

Local names: Disol (Bontoc) ; duso (Tagalog, Rizal) ; dusol, gnsol (Ta- 
galog) ; kisol (Bukidnon). 

The rhizome is carminative if used in decoction. When 
chewed, it is said to be useful in alleviating coughs. The 
pounded rhizome is used in curing the irritation produced by 
contact with stinging caterpillars. 

Distribution : Bondoc, Rizal, Bukidnon. 

KAEMPFERIA ROTUNDA L. 

The rhizome is used internally in gastric complaints, as are 
the species of Galayiga. Used externally, it is a powerful cica- 
trizant if mixed with coconut oil. 

Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines, both cul- 
tivated and wild. 

Genus KOLOWRATIA 

KOLOWRATIA ELEGANS PresL Tagbak. 

Local names: Tagbak (Rizal, Laguna, Camarines) ; tagbdk-bdbui (Ba- 
tangas) ; talbdk (Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna); tugbdk (Tayabas). 

The leaves, after having been pounded and mixed with a little 
salt, are rubbed on the affected parts of a paralytic patient. 
Distribution : Widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Genus ZINGIBER 

ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L.) Sm. BARAK. 

Local names: Bangldi (Tagalog); bardk (Tayabas); kalaudg (Albay) ; 
langkauds (Polillo) ; tamohilang (Bukidnon); tumbong-dso (Tagalog). 

The pulverized rhizome is administered as an antidiarrhetic. 

Distribution : Bontoc, Apayao, Bataan, Cavite, Manila, Ba- 
tangas, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Albay, Bukidnon, 
Lanao ; occasionally cultivated. 

Family CANNACEAE 

Genus CANNA 
CANNA INDICA L. CANNA. 

Local names: Kakuintdsan, kuintas-kuintdsan (Tagalog); tikas-tikas 
(Tagalog, Bisaya) ; lasd (Batanes Islands). 

The rhizome in decoction is used as a diuretic, and when 
macerated in water is said to alleviate nosebleed. 
Distribution : Batanes Islands to Lanao. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 179 

Family MARANTACEAE 

G€nus DONAX 
DONAX CANNAEFORMIS (Forst. f.) K. Schum. Bamban. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants. 

The roots when brewed in decoction are said to act as an 
antidote for snake bites, and in blood-poisoning generally. 

Family ORCHIDACEAE 
Genus GEO DO RUM 
GEODORUM NUTANS (Presl) Ames. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The tuberous base is regarded as emollient when utilized 
as a poultice. 

Family CASUARINACEAE 

Genus CASUARINA 

CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA L. Ag6ho. 

Local names: Agoho (Tagalog, Bisaya, Bikol, Pampangan) ; ago (Palaui 
Islands, Cagayan) ; agok (Cagayan, Babuyanes Islands) ; agoko (Panga- 
sinan) ; agoso (Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas) ; ak-o (Cagayan) ; aro 
(Iloco, Benguet) ; arobo, aroho (Abra) ; aroo (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pan- 
gasinan, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Sur) ; karo (Ilocos) ; malahohok (Bisaya) ; 
maribuhok (Leyte, Surigao). 

The bark, in decoction, is employed as an emmenagogic and 
ecbolic when taken in large doses. 

Distribution : Very widely distributed from northern Luzon 
to Palawan and northern Mindanao, along the coast and sandy 
river valleys. 

Family PIPERACEAE 

Genus PIPER 
PIPER BETLE L. BuYO or Betel Pepper. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The leaves, together with lime and betel nut, constitute a 
masticatory in general use among the Filipinos, who consider 
it a preservative of the teeth and a prophylactic against certain 
complaints of the stomach. The leaves when greased with lard 
or sesame oil are much used by Filipinos as a carminative 
medicine applied to the abdomen of children suffering from 
gastric disorders. 



180 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

PIPER NIGRUM L. 

Local name: Malisa (Tagalog, Bisaya). 

The fruit is used as a condiment by the Filipinos; and also, 
when applied externally, as a stimulant and rubefacient. 

Distribution: Cavite, Batangas, Surigao. 

PIPER RETROFRACTUM Vahl. 

Local names: Amaras (Pangasinan) ; huyo-buyo (Bisaya) ; kamara 
(Abra, Union) ; kayungo (Manila) ; litlit (Cavite, Pangasinan) ; sabia 
(Cavite, Rizal, Laguna) ; saog-machin (Rizal) ; subon-mani'ik (Bataan). 

The root i& chewed and the saliva swallowed, or the root is 
brewed in decoction as a cure for colic. 

Distribution : Babuyanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Union, 
Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Laguna, Mindoro, Antique, Palawan. 

Family CHLORANTHACEAE 

Genus CHLORANTHUS 

CHLORANTHUS BRACH YSTACH YS Blume. 

Local names: Apot, gapas, umu-um (Benguet) ; gamuk (Bukidnon) ; 
tolal (Basilan). 

An infusion of this plant is said to be good for headache. 
Distribution : Common and widely distributed at medium and 
higher altitudes throughout the Archipelago. 

Family MORACEAE 

Genus ARTOCARPUS 
ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS Forst. Antip6L0. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants, 

A decoction of the bark is used as a vulnerary. 

ARTOCARPUS CUMINGIANA Tree. AnubiNG. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark is boiled and used as a remedy for stomachache. 

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRA (Thunb.) Merr. Nangka. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The leaves, charred, and powdered, are used as an effective 
cicatrizant for the wound resulting from a surgical operation 
for the removal of congenital phimosis. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 181 

Genus FATOUA 
FATOUA PILOSA Gaudich. Sikki'r. 

Local names: Malbas-damo (Batangas) ; poro (Union) ; sarungkdr a ba- 
bassit (Uocos Sur) ; sikkir (Union), 

This plant is said to be used for swollen gums. 
Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. It occurs in dry 
thickets, on walls, cliffs, etc. at low altitudes. 

Genus FICUS 
FICUS HAUILI Blanco. Haui'li. 

Local names: Dmdiu (Benguet) ; hauili (Benguet, Zambales, Bulacan, 
Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro) ; kauili (Tayabas, Bataan) ; 
labnog (Mindoro, Occidental Negros, Guimaras Island) ; lagneob (Bataan) ; 
lagmiit, lamnog (Occidental Negros) ; Idpting (Pangasinan) ; lillau, tuHau 
(Cagayan) ; liuliu (Abra, Bontoc, Pangasinan) ; raiya-rdiya (Ilocos Norte 
and Sur, Abra); yabnoi (Batanes Islands). 

The latex is used to cure certain varieties of herpes. The 
leaves applied externally are said to be antirheumatic. 

Distribution : Very abundant throughout the Philippines, 
from Batanes Islands to Basilan Island. 

FICUS MINAHASSAE (Teysm. & De Vr.) Miq. Hagimit. 

Local names: Arimit (Abra); ayimit (Polillo) ; aimit, ayilmit (Tayabas 
businai (Ilocos Sur) ; hagimit (Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, 
Capiz) ; hugimit (Bukidnon) ; sabfog (Bontoc) ; tambis-tambis, taisan 
(Basilan); tambuyogan (Masbate). 

The leaves are used as an antirheumatic topical. The sap is 
employed as a beverage. 

Distribution : From northern Luzon to Basilan Island. 

FICUS PAYAPA Blanco. PayapA. 

Local names: Balete or balite (Zambales, Bataan, Rizal Mindoro, Laguna, 
Batangas) ; dalagita (Bisaya) ; daldkit (Oriental Negros) ; langaban (Co- 
tabato) ; paydpa (Tagalog, Pampangan). 

The roots are an effective vulnerary when powdered and 
applied to wounds. 

Distribution : Common in northern and central Luzon, and also 
collected from Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Cotabato, and Lanao. 

Genus MALAISIA 
MALAISIA SCAN DENS (Lour.) Planch. Malaisi'S. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The leaves are administered in decoction to women after 
childbirth. 



182 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus STREBLUS 
STREBLUS ASPER Lour. Kali6s. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on soap substitutes. 

Water in which the bark of this tree has been boiled is used 
for disinfecting wounds; also internally for the skin disease 
called "culebra." The bark is chewed as an antidote in snake 
poisoning. An infusion of the leaves is drunk as a tea. 

Family URTICACEAE 

Genus FLEURYA 

FLEURYA INTERRUPTA (L.) Gaudich. LipAng-ASO. 

Local names: Dalamo, damoro (Bisaya) ; langdla, lipdng-dso, lipdng- 
kastila (Tagalog) ; lupa (Pampanga). 

The leaves, applied locally, are said to be good as a cure 
for carbuncles. A decoction of the root is an efficacious 
diuretic. 

Distribution: Apayao, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Manila, La- 
guna, Tayabas, Polillo, Albay, Sorsogon, Antique, Misamis, 
Butuan, Camiguin Island, Davao, Palmas Islands. 

Genus LAPORTEA 

LAPORTEA MEYENIANA (Walp.) Warb. Lipang-KALAbAu. 

Local names: Aparigua (Bisaya); lingdtong, lipa, lipdi, lipdng-kalahdu 
(Tagalog); lipdng-diitong (Pampanga). 

The root and leaves are used in infusion as a diuretic in 
cases of urinary retention. The leaves are said to cure car- 
buncles if applied locally. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Union, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal, La- 
guna, Tayabas, Batangas, Mindoro, Guimaras Island. 

Genus PI LEA 
PILEA MICROPHYLLA (L.) Liebm. 

The entire plant in infusion is used as a diuretic. 
Distribution: Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Ta- 
yabas, Polillo, Albay, Palawan, Malamaui Island, Jolo, Cotabato. 

Genus P0U20LZIA 
POUZOLZIA ZEYLANICA (L.) Benn. 

The leaves are used as a vulnerary, but more especially as a 
cicatrizant for gangrenous ulcers. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Union, 
Bontoc, Apayao, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 183 

Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Min- 
doro, Samar, Leyte, Negros Oriental, Butuan, Bukidnon, Lanao, 
Zamboanga. 

Family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 

Genus ARISTOLOCHIA 
ARISTOLOCHIA SERICEA Blanco PANG-GUlSf 

Local name: Pang-guisV (Iloko). 

The entire fresh plant is used as a carminative, emmenagogue, 
and febrifuge remedy. In cases of very painful gastralgia, 
the root is chewed and the saliva swallowed. The root macer- 
ated in native spirituous liquors is administered post partum 
as a uterine tonic. It has been asserted that this drug is a 
violent abortive. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Union, Batangas. 

ARISTOLOCHIA TAG A LA Cham. Timbangan. 

Lo:al names: Malanbi, timbangan, timh a ng timbangan (Tagalog) ; 
kamkamaulau (Benguet) ; nag-erus; (Union) ; parol-parolan (Polillo) ; 
tauen-tanen (Iloko). 

The roots are said to be tonic, carminative, and emmenagogic ; 
and a very eflficient remedy for infantile tympanites if they are 
pulverized and applied to the abdomen. 

Distribution: Widely distributed from the Mountain Prov- 
ince of Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Family POLYGONACEAE 

Genus POLYGONUM 
POLYGONUM BARBATUM L. SUBSUBAN. 

Local names: Kanubsuban, ligan-lupa (Pampanga) ; subsuban (Tagalog). 

The sap of the pounded leaves, applied directly to wounds, 
is an effective cicatrizant. 

Distribution: Mountain Province of Luzon to Basilan. 

Family CHENOPODIACEAE 

Genus CHENOPODIUM 

CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. AlpAS6teS. 

Local names: Alpasotes (Spanish-Filipino); alpasoti (Bontoc) ; apasotes 
(Union) ; pasotis (Mindoro) ; all corruptions of the scientific name. 

The leaves and tops, crushed and mixed with cooked rice are 
used as a carminative in poultices applied to the abdomen of 
children suffering from dyspepsia. This plant is considered 
also to be an emmenagogue. 

Distribution: In waste places throughout the Philippines. 



184 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family AMARANTHACEAE 

Genus ACHYRANTHES 

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. RAG-RAGADI. 

Local names: Angud (Pampanga) ; garem (Ilocos Sur) ; gnella (Palaui 
Island) ; hdngog (Balabac Island) ; hcingor (Tagalog, Bisaya) ; hdngot 
(Tagalog) ; hdngug (Mindoro, Bulacan) ; higad-higad, igad-igad (Ilocos 
Norte); libai (Tagalog); rag-ragddi (Pangasinan) ; sardmo (Bisaya). 

A decoction of the leaves and roots of this plant is used 
locally as a diuretic. 

The sap is said to be useful in dissipating the opacity of the 
cornea. 

Distribution: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium 
altitudes, a weed in open waste places. 

Genus AERUA 
AERUA LAN AT A (L.) Juss. KARLAKEM. 

Local names: Karlakem (Union); painainap (Mindoro). 

A decoction of this plant is a very efficacious diuretic, and 
is said to be useful in catarrh of the bladder and in gonorrhea. 

Distribution : Union, Central Luzon provinces, Mindoro, and 
the Visayas, 

Genus AMARANTHUS 

AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L. KaluNAI. 

Local names: Akmn (Cotabato) ; ardi (Batangas) ; ayantoto (P'am- 
panga) ; ba'nan (Bontoc) ; bayambdng (Mindoro) ; iting-iting (Davao) ; 
kalunai (Iloko) ; karlunoi (Iloko in Bontoc) ; kuantong (Iloko) ; kulitis, 
kilitis (Tagalog) ; oori (Polillo) ; siitan (Union) ; urdi (Mindoro, Tayabas). 

A decoction of the root is useful in the treatment of gonorrhea. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Union, Nueva Ecija, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Min- 
doro, Polillo, Palawan, Davao, Cotabato. 

Genus CELOSIA 
CELOSIA ARGENTEA L. KadAIOHAN. 

Local names: Kadaiohan, (Tagalog); sansandok (Ilocos Norte); tagug- 
hiig (Occidental Negros). 

The seeds when in a decoction, or as fine powder, are con- 
sidered antidiarrhetic and aphrodisiac. The leaves are edible; 
but are not eaten by women during menstruation. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Benguet, 
Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Mindoro, Negros, Bohol, Palawan, Lanao, Davao. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS . 185 

Family PORTULACACEAE 

Genus PORTULACA 
PORTULACA OLERACEA L. GULASiMAN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves and tops, in poultices, are used as an antihemorrha- 
gic. In the form of an infusion they are taken as a diuretic 
beverage. Also they are employed to heal burns and cure 
certain skin diseases. 

Distribution: Very common in waste places throughout the 
Philippines. 

Family BASELLACEAE 

Genus BASELLA 
BASELLA RUBRA L. LiBATO. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The roots are employed as a rubefacient, and in poultices 
to reduce local swellings. The sap is used to anoint any part 
of the body affected by acne in order to diminish the irritation 
produced by that malady. 

Family NYMPHAEACEAE 

Genus NELUMBIUM 
NELUMBIUM NELUMBO (L.) Druce. BAiNO or Lotus. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The roots, rhizomes, and flowers are employed as an astrin- 
gent. The leaves and seeds are used in poultices. 

Family MENISPERMACEAE 

Genus ANAMIRTA 
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS (L.) W. et A. LiGTANG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The seeds, which are very poisonous, are used to kill lice in 
the hair. They are also employed in fishing. 

Genus ARCHANGELISIA 
ARCHANGELISIA FLAVA (L.) Merr. Abutra. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 



186 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

A decoction of the roots and stem is used as a febrifuge, tonic, 
emmenagogue, or abortive, according to the quantity adminis- 
tered. In Zambales it is also employed as an expectorant in 
bronchial affections. This plant contains about 5 per cent of 
berberine. 

• Genus CISSAMPELOS 

CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA L. KalaAD. 

Local names: Batang-bdtang (Cebu) ; kaldad, kalkaldad (Tagalog, 
Iloko in Union and Cagayan) ; kalakalamdian (Batangas) ; kuskusipa 
(Iloko) ; gulagulamdnan (Tagalog) ; ham.'pa'pdre, himpdra' (Bisaya) ; ma- 
kabu (Bulacan) ; malarutto (Apayao) ; pare'-pdre' (Laguna) ; pari', sam- 
papdre' (Bisaya); sansdu, sansau-sansduan, sinsaii-sinsdnan (Tagalog). 

The root when brewed in decoction is considered diuretic, 
lithotriptic, pectoral, and febrifugal. The pounded leaves are 
used to cure snake bites. They are a good antiscabious remedy. 

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the Philippines. 

Genus PYCNARRHENA 

PYCNARRHENA M AN ILLENSIS Vidal Ambal. 

Local names: Ambal (Tagalog) ; bdgo (Negros) ; halikot, halot (Bisaya) ; 
mamoiigol (Tayabas). 

The powdered root, taken internally, is used as a tonic 
m.edicine. It is very efficacious as a cicatrizant. It is said that 
it is also an excellent vulnerary and a remedy for snake bites, 
and that the infusion is good for women in parturition. 

Distribution: Central Luzon to Zamboanga. 

Genus STEPHANIA 
STEPHANIA JAPONICA (Thunb.) Miers Maratugi. 

Local names: Kuren (Batanes Islands); maratugi (Bontoc). 

This plant is said to be of value in the cure of itches. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, 
Lepanto, Benguet, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna, Camiguin Island. 
In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus TINOMISCIUM 

TINOMISCIUM PHILIPPINENSE Miers Bayating. 

Local names: Bayating (Pampanga) ; lagtdng (Laguna); timbang- 
timbang ( Tayabas ) . 

The white milky sap diluted with water is used as an 
eyewash. 

Distribution : Pangasinan, Laguna, Tayabas, Biliran Island, 
Lanao, Davao. In forests at low and medium altitudes. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 187 

Family ANNONACEAE 

Genus ALPHONSEA 
ALPHONSEA ARBOREA (Blanco) Merr. BoLON. 

Local names: Bolon (Camarines) ; kaldi (Zambales, Laguna) ; lanutan 
(Leyte, Mindoro, Tayabas) ; lanutan-itum (Ticao Island); sapiro (Cebu). 

The fruit of this tree is boiled and used locally as a cure for 
fever. A decoction of the fruits is a good remedy in amenorrhea. 
Distribution: Central Luzon to Davao. 

Genus GONIOTHALAMUS 
GONIOTHALAMUS AMUYON (Blanco) Merr. Amuyong. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The seeds cooked with oil make an effective liniment in rheu- 
matic complaints. In decoction they are used in tympanites. 

Family LAURACEAE. 

Genus CINN AMOM UM 
CINNAMOMUM MERCADOI Vidal Kalingag. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark has rubefacient properties and is utilized as a re- 
medy for headaches and rheumatism. It is also chewed for 
stomach troubles, and is used in tuberculosis. It is sometimes 
substituted for cinnamon as a condiment. 

CINNAMOMUM MINDANAENSE Elm. MINDANAO Cinnamon. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark is used in the same manner as is Ceylon cinna- 
mon. Filipinos use it in decoction with ginger, star anise 
(Illicium anisatum) , and sugar as a stomachic beverage, and 
also at breakfast. It is a very agreeable and hygienic drink. 

The leaves yield a stimulant and carminative medicine. 

Genus LITSEA 
LITSEA GLUTINOSA (Lour.) C. B. Rob. Sablot. 

Local names: Balangdnan (Mindoro) ; butus (Bataan) ; dalduen (Isabe- 
la) ; dungul (Cagayan) ; lauat (Masbate) ; lokblut (Amburayan) ; lomd- 
ngog (Guimaras Island) ; malakakdo (Bataan) ; tndrang (Polillo) ; 
mipipi (Ticao Island) ; olos-olos (Pangasinan) ; parasablut (Zambales) ; 
sablot (Union, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela) ; siblot (Cagayan) ; tagu- 
tugan (Camarines) ; tayakpok (Agusan) ; tiibjus (Batanes Islands). 

The bark is used in decoction for the cure of intestinal catarrh. 
Distribution: Cagayan to Cotabato. 



188 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family CAPPARIDACEAE 

Genus CAPPARIS 
CAPPARIS HORRIDA L. f. HALUBAGAT-BAGING. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The leaves are employed as a counter-irritant. 

CAPPARIS MICRACANTHA DC. HalubagAT-KAHOI. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

This plant is said to be used for asthma and for pains in the 
breast. 

Genus CRATAEVA 

GRATA EVA RELIGIOSA Forst. Balai-LAMOK. 

Local names: Baldi-lamok (Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan) ; banugan (Masbate) ; 
dulingatok (Pampanga) ; leting-pdko (Nueva Ecija). 

The leaves of this plant are said to be useful in cases of irreg- 
ular menstruation. They are considered stomachic. The root 
is employed as an alterative. The sap of the bark is used as a 
cure in convulsions and tympanites. 

Distribution : Northern Luzon to Masbate and Palawan, prob- 
ably also in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Found in 
waste places, along streams, and in thickets near the sea, some- 
times planted. 

Genus GYNANDROPSIS 
GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA (L.) Merr. Manabo. 

Local names: Mandho (Abra) ; tantandok, tantanddk iiga dadakkol 
(Union) . 

The leaves are used externally, as are the seeds of mustard, 
and are taken internally in certain bilious disorders. The seeds 
are considered to have properties similar to those of mustard. 

Distribution: Cagaj^an, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Union, Pangasinan, 
Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Panay, 
Negros Oriental, Davao, Zamboanga. 

Family MORINGACEAE. 

Genus MORINGA 
MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Malunggai or Horse-RAdish tree. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark is used as a rubefacient remedy. It is said that the 
roots of this tree, if chewed and applied to the bite of a snake. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 189 

will prevent the poison from spreading. A decoction of the 
roots is considered antiscorbutic and is also given to delirious 
patients. 

Family PITTOSPORACEAE 

Genus PITTOSPORUM 
PITTOSPORUM PENTANDRUM (Blanco) Merr. Mamalis. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

An aromatic decoction brewed from the leaves is used by 
women in their baths following childbirth. The powdered bark 
is employed, in small doses, as a febrifuge. If taken in larger 
doses, it is considered a general antidote. It is also effective 
in bronchitis. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ABRUS 
ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. KanSASAGA or PrAYER-BEAN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

A decoction of the leaves and roots of this plant is used as 
a cough cure. 

Genus ADENANTHERA 

ADENANTHERA INTERMEDIA Merr. Tanglin. 

Local names: Bagiroro (Albay) ; bdhai (Antique, Zamboanga) ; bngd- 
yong-chitia. (Ilocos Sur) ; butdrik (Cagayan) ; hahop (Samar) ; ipil, 
pamiasin (Zambales) ; kinasaikdsai (fide Blanco) ; malasdgad (Rizal) ; 
matdng uldng (Laguna, Tayabas) ; kaagdhan (Laguna) ; sagun-sagun 
(Masbate) ; tadlangdu (Camarines) ; tanglin (Zambales, Bataan, Laguna) ; 
tanglon (Pampanga). 

The bark and seeds are employed as a cure for snake bites. 
Distribution : Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in thickets and 
forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus BAUHINIA 
BAUHINIA MALABAR I CA Roxb. AlibANGBANG. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

A decoction of the bark is considered antidysenteric and anti- 
diarrhetic. The leaves are used in topicals applied on the head 
in fevers which are accompanied by headaches. 

Genus CAESALPINIA 
CAESALPINIA CRISTA L. KaLUMBIBI'T. 

Local names: Banbang (Cebu) ; baydg-kambing, kalnmbibit (Tagalog, 
Sambali) ; bebit (Misamis) ; dalogdog (Rizal); dalugdug (Bikol, Bisaya). 



190 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The seeds when administered in the form of a powder are a 
febrifuge and are regarded as a tonic. 

Distribution : Union, Pangasinan, Tayabas, Bataan, Rizal, 
Camarines, Mindoro, Palawan, Cebu, Misamis, Davao. 

Genus CASSIA 
CASSIA A LATA L. ACAPULCO. 

Local names: Acapulco, kapurko (Zamboanga) ; andadasi nga biigbugtong 
(Union) ; andadasi nga dakkel (Pangasinan) ; kasitas (Camarines) ; paka- 
yonkom (Bataan); polo-china (Negros, Busicanga) ; sunting (Surigao). 

The sap of the leaves is an efficient antiherpetic, especially 
when the herpes is of the furfuraceous form. 

Distribution : Throughout the settled areas of the Philippines 
at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant. Occasionally 
planted. 

CASSIA FISTULA L. CANA-FfSTULA. 

Local names: Baldyong (Mindoro) ; cana-fistula or cana-pistula (Ilocos 
Norte, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, Mindoro) ; fistula (Cebu) ; tindalo (Min- 
doro). 

The pulp of the fruit is. employed as a cathartic. 

Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, 
Cebu, Occidental and Oriental Negros, Palawan; in cultivation 
only. Not to be confused with the much more widely distributed 
native Cassia javanica L., which is almost everywhere known 
by similar names. 

CASSIA MIMOSOIDES L. KatANdA. 

Local name: Katandd (Bukidnon). 

The roots are used as a cure for diarrhea. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In open grass- 
lands at low and medium altitudes, in some regions ascending 
to 1,500 meters. 

CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS L. AndADAsI. 

Local names: Andadasi (Union); baldtong-dso (Tagalog) ; sunting 
(Samar) ; tambalisa (Zamboanga). 

The seeds are used as a febrifuge. The leaves are purgative 
and antiherpetic, though not so efficient as those of acapulco 
(Cassia alata) . 

Distribution: Throughout the Philippines, from Cagayan to 
Zamboanga. 

CASSIA SOPH ERA L. TAMBALfSA. 

Local names: Andadasi (Ilocos Norte, Union) ; tambalisa (Tagalog). 

The seeds are used as a febrifuge. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 191 

Distribution: Babuyanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan 
subprovince, Union, Rizal, Laguna. 

CASSIA TORA L. 

Local names: Andadasi nga dadakkol (Union); baho-balw (Bisaya) ; 
baldtong (Laguna); baldtong-dso (Tagalog). 

The entire plant, in decoction, is taken as a vermifuge and 
purgative. 

Distribution: Very common in Batanes Islands, Luzon, and 
Mindanao, but does not seem to occur in the Visayas except in 
Cebu. 

Genus DALBERGIA 
DALBERGIA CUMINGIANA Benth. TAHID-LABtJYO. 

Local names: Bulanini, kanndk (Cagayan) ; kauilan (Camarines) ; tahid- 
labuyo (Tayabas). 

This vine is employed in curing the stomach pains of small 
children. 

Distribution : Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In thickets and 
secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. 

DALBERGIA FERRUGINEA Roxb. Kamut-KABAG. 

Local names: Bolidtadhdn (Agusan) ; kdmut-kabdg (Mindoro) ; kipus- 
kipus (Zamboanga) ; kulik-nnandr (Pampanga) ; maldsang -salve (Bataan) ; 
manaon (Tagalog); malumalunggdyan (Rizal). 

A decoction of the wood of the stem or root is an emmena- 
gogue, and is an abortive if the administered dose be immoderate 
in size. 

Distribution: Isabela Province to Zamboanga. 

Genus ENTADA 
ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L.) Merr. GOGO. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on soap substitutes. 

The stem macerated in cold water makes a cleansing soap. 
It is also used as an emetic. 

Genus EUCHRESTA 
EUCHRESTA HORSFIELDII (Lesch.) Benn. 

Local names: Lagiian (Tayabas); kaidnda, makahilub (Bukidnon). 

The roots are chewed as a cure for snakebite. 
Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Of local oc- 
currence on the higher mountains. 

G«nus MIMOSA 
MIMOSA PUDICA L. MAKAHIA. 

Local names: Andibaing (Pangasinan) ; bain-bain (Iloko) ; dikut-mala- 
marine (Pampanga) ; dilgun-silsu (Union) ; han'ipai (Leyte) ; hia-hia' (Cu- 



192 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

yo) ; huia'-huia' (Bisaya) ; huiag-huiag (Occidental Negros) ; kipi-kipi' 
(Bisaya) ; kirom-kirdm (Samar) ; kokol-ddien (Iloko) ; makahia' (Zam- 
bales, Pangasinan, all Tagalog provinces) ; tdlo-magdlaa (Rizal) ; torog- 
torog (Bikol). 

The entire plant in decoction is considered as an alterant and 
antiasthmatic. 

Distribution : Common throughout the Philippines in open 
waste places at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus MUCUNA 

MUCUNA NIGRICANS (Lour.) Steud. NiPAI. 

Local names: Alilipdi (Zamboanga) ; bukitkit, ipdl, lipdi (Tagalog); 6a- 
luktot (Polillo) ; danipai (Samar) ; duglo (Bataan) ; nipdi (Alabat Island) ; 
nipoi (Bikol); sagapok (Capiz). 

When this vine is cut, watery sap exudes freely. This water is 
used as a cure for many kinds of fevers. 

Distribution : Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In thickets and 
secondary forests at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant. 

Genus PHASEOLUS 

PHASEOLUS AUREUS Roxb. Balatong. 

Local names: Balatong (Union, Pangasinan); monggo, munggo^ bala- 
tong (Tagalog). 

A decoction of the seeds is an effective diuretic in cases of 
beriberi. The seeds are employed either raw or cooked in 
maturative poultices. 

Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Islands. 

Genus PONGAMIA 
PONGAMIA PINNATA (L.) Merr. Bani. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark is used as an abortive by the natives of the Island 
of Guimaras. 

Genus PTEROCARPUS 

PTEROCARPUS BLANCOI Merr. Blanco's Narra. 

Local names: Apdlit (Pampanga) ; asand (Bulacan) ; ndrra (Union, 
Bulacan). 

The resin is used as an astringent in aphtha or thrush. 
Distribution: Union, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal. 

Genus SOPHORA 

SOPHORA TOMENTOSA U SandALAI'tAN. 

• Local names: Bangil, sambalagisui (Bisaya); sipon (Batanes Island); 
sandalaitan (Tayabas, Palawan) ; tabagisa (Negros, Zamboanga) ; tarn- 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 193 

balisa (Mindoro, Masbate, Neg-ros) ; tambaleta (Mindoro) ; tambiligisa 
(Negi'os) ; 

A decoction of the root, stem, or seeds is considered as anti- 
choleric. The seeds are used as a purgative. 

Distribution: Along the seashore throughout the Philippines, 
abundant in some localities. 

Family OXALIDACEAE 

Genus AVERRHOA 
AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. Kamias. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The fruit is used in the same manner as is that of the following 
species. 

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. BalIMBI'NG. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The sap of the fruit is prepared as a syrup which is admin- 
istered in fevers as a cooling drink. 

Genus BIOPHYTUM 

BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM (L.) DC. MahihIYAIN. 

Local names: Damong-bnngkalat (Batangas) ; damong-hiya, macahiya 
(Tagalog) ; mahihiydin (Tagalog) ; makahiyang-laldke (Laguna). 

The leaves, placed under the pillow, are reputed to act as 
a soporific. The seeds, applied in the form of a powder, are 
used as a vulnerary. The roots in decoction are administered 
in cases of gonorrhea and of stone in the bladder. 

Distribution : Cagayan to Cotabato. 

Family RUTACEAE 

Genus CHAETOSPERM UM 

CHAETOSPERMUM GLUTINOSUM (Blanco) Swingle Tabuyok. 

Local names: Kabuymi-dso, tabog (Bataan) ; kalatan (Isabela) ; tabuyok 
(Pangasinan) . 

The juice of the fruit is rubbed into the hide of a dog to 
cure itch. It is also used as a hair tonic. 

Distribution : Isabela, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Bataan, Manila. 

Genus CITRUS 

CITRUS MAXIMA (Burm.) Merr. Pomelo or Lukban. 

Local names: Arasiigd (Cuyo) ; baorigon (Misamis) ; baranghas (Union) ; 
bobanotdn (Zambales) ; kabugau (Iloilo) ; lukbdn (Cagayan, Benguet, 

177674 13 



194 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines 
Norte and Sur, Albay, Marinduque) ; namnja (Spanish-Filipino) ; sua 
(Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Tarlac) ; silha' (Nueva Ecija, Bu- 
lacan, Rizal, Manila, Bataan, Batangas, Tarlac, Polillo, Sorsogon, Iloilo). 

The leaves, flowers, and pericarps are employed, in the form 
of a decoction or infusion, as a sedative in nervous affections. 
Distribution: Cultivated in almost all provinces. 

Genus CLAUSENA 
CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS (Blanco) Merr. Kayumanis. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The leaves, stuffed into pillows and placed under the head, 
have a soporific effect. They are also used in baths, in cases 
of rheumatism. 

Genus LUNASIA 
LUNASIA AMARA Blanco. LuNAS. 

Local names: Apdong-kdhoi (Laguna, Batangas) ; lahau (Masbate) ; luhi- 
hibi (Cebu) ; lunan (Pampanga) ; hhias (Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Mindoro, 
Palawan) ; lunas-bondok (Bataan) ; marmdngga (Cagayan) ; paitan (Ilocos 
Sur); papait (Camarines); saltiki (Rizal, Laguna); santiki (Laguna). 

The leaves and bark are used for stomach troubles. 
Distribution: Northern Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus MICROMELUM 
MICROMELUM MINUTUM (Forst.) Seem. 
Local name: Makabdngon (Camarines). 

This plant is said to be used for curing stomachache and 
headache. 

Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Catanduanes Island, Samar, 
Leyte, Lanao, Sulu, Basilan. 

Genus MURRAYA 

MURRAYA PANICULATA (L.) Jack. Kamuning. 

Local names: Bandsi, banadsi, bandti, etc. (through almost whole range, 
except Tagalog provinces) ; kamdin (Pangasinan) ; kamuning (Tagalog) ; 
lukbdn-balit (Pangasinan). 

A decoction of the leaves is used as a mouth-wash in cases 
of toothache. 

Distribution : Widely distributed, from northern Luzon to 
southern Mindanao. 

Genus TODDALIA 
TODDALIA ASIATICA (L.) Lam. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 195 

A decoction of the root is antidiarrhetic and dynamogenic 
during convalescence from fevers. The bark is used in infusion 
as a bitter stomachic tonic and febrifuge. The leaves when 
chewed fresh are said to be useful in stomach disorders. 

Genus 2ANTH0XYLUM 

ZANTHOXYLUM AVICENNAE (Lam.) DC. Kangai. 

Local names: Bagatamhdl, murbdar (Bisaya) ; biingai (Palawan) ; itiigan 
(Benguet) ; kangai (Pampanga) ; kaijutdna (Batangas) ; sdlai, sdlai-kdngai 
(Pampanga) . 

A decoction of the stem is used as a stomach tonic and as a 
counter-poison for snake bite. 

Distribution : Benguet, Zai^boanga, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Ba- 
tangas, Misamis, Cotabato, 

ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA (Roxb.) DC. Kasabang. 

Local names: Kasdbang (Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Zambales) ; ivatdna, 
kaietdna (Bataan, Batangas, Negros) ; kaitdna (Rizal) ; kaintdna (La- 
guna) ; palo-kaitdna (Zambales, Zamboanga) ; sdgai-kdngai, salddai, sdlai 
(Bisaya); sdrai (Masbate). 

The bark, pounded and mixed with oil, is used externally as 
a remedy for stomach pains. A decoction of the bark is taken 
internally as a cure for paleness. The bark is also used as a 
cure for pains in the chest. "When chewed it is applied to snake 
bites. 

Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Masbate, Negros, Pa- 
lawan, Basilan. 

Family SIMARUBACEAE 

Genus BRUCEA 
BRUCEA AMARISSIMA (Lour.) Merr. 
Local name: Bago-bdgo (Negi'os). 

The fresh fruits are said to be good for stomachache. The 
dried fruits are considered by European and Chinese physi- 
cians as a very efficacious antidysenteric remedy. 

Distribution: Pangasinan, Leyte, Negros, Palawan, Surigao, 
Misamis, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Basilan. 

Genus HARRISONIA 

HARRISON I A PERFORATA (Blanco) Merr. Mamikil. 

Local names: Asimuu (Tagalog) ; baguit, baxdt (Pangasinan) ; bokit 
(Ilocos Sur); mamikil (Batangas, Rizal) ; sap-sapdng (Ilocos Sur). 

The bark of the root in decoction is a very efficacious remedy 
for diarrhea and dysentery. It is employed also against chol- 
era. 



196 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Distribution: IIocos Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Ben- 
g-uet, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Batangas, 
Samar, Butuan, Davao, Zamboanga. 

Genus SAM AD ERA 
SA MADERA INDICA Gaertn. Manunggal. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark and wood are a febrifuge, tonic, stomachic and em- 
menagogue when administered in the form of a maceration 
or decoction in water, alcohol or wine. 

Family BURSERACEAE 

Genus CANARIUM 
CANARIUM LUZONICUM (Blume) A. Gray PiLI. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 
The oleo-resin is a stimulant medicine used externally. 

CANARIUM VILLOSUM (Blume) F.-Vill. Pagsahi'ngin. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 
The resin is used medicinally. 

Genus GARUGA 

GARUGA ABILO (Blanco) Merr. BOGO. 

Local names: Abilo (Tagalog) ; bio (IIocos Sur) ; bugo or bogo (Mindoro, 
Masbate, Negros Occidental, Cebu, Misamis, Zamboanga, Cotabato) ; bunns 
(IIocos Norte); lufnio (Rizal); libds (Tayabas) ; talulgdnaii (Zamboanga). 

Blanco says that a decoction of the root is administered to 
those suffering from consumption. 

Distribution: IIocos Norte and Sur, Union, Pangasinan, 
Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Negros Occi- 
dental, Mindoro, Cebu, Misamis, Davao, Cotabato, Zamboanga. 

Family MELIACEAE. 

Genus CHISOCH ETON 

CHISOCHETON PENTANDRUS (Blanco) Merr. Katong-MACHIN. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

An oil extracted from the fruit of this species is used as a 
hair cosmetic. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 197 

Genus DYSOXYLUM 
DYSOXYLUM DECANDRUM (Blanco) Merr. Agaru. 

Local names: Agdru (Pangasinan) ; baguUbds (Basilan) ; bohdue (Mas- 
bate) ; buntugan (Camarines) ; igiu (Batangas) ; pamatdgin (Cagayan) ; 
Icugyng (Mindoro) ; malaaduds, palndhan (Occidental Negros) ; tadidng- 
kalabdu (Laguna) ; taming -tdyning (Basilan Island). 

The bark administered as a fine powder is a safe emetic. 
Distribution : Cagayan to Basilan Island. 

Genus MELIA 
MELIA AZEDARACH L. PARAfsO. 

Local name: Paraiso (Spanish-Filipino). 

The bark is considered a vermifuge. 

Distribution : Cultivated in all parts of the Archipelago. 

Genus SANDORICUM 
SANDORICUM KOETJAPE (Burm. f.) Merr. Santol. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The fresh leaves applied to the skin are sudorific. In decoc- 
tion, they are used for baths in cases of fever. 

Genus XYLOCARPUS 
XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM Koenig. Tabigi. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

The bark is astringent. The fruits and seeds, powdered or 
in decoction, are employed as an antidiarrhetic. 

Family EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Genus ACALYPHA 
ACALYPHA INDICA L. 

Local names: Bugos (Tagalog) ; maraotovg (Iloko). 

The juice of the root and leaves is given to children as an 
expectorant and emetic in bronchitis. It is also administered 
in decoction. 

Distribution : Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, Palawan, Balabac 
Island, Davao, Zamboanga. 

Genus ALEURITES 
ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. LUMBANG. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 
The seeds yield an oil used as a mild purgative. 



198 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

ALEURITES TRISPERMA Blanco Bagilumbang. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil extracted from the seeds is an effective insecticide. 
The sap of the bark is employed as a cure for scurf of the head. 

Genus BREYNIA 

BREYNIA RHAMNOIDES (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. MATANG-Hl'poN. 

Local names: Gimgtimayi (Bontoe) ; matdng-hipon (Bulacan, Manila, and 
vicinity) ; matdng-olang (Tayabas) ; matdvg-sdga (Cuyo Island) ; matdng 
uldng (Butuan) ; santing (Basilan) ; sintug (Zamboanga) ; si'ingut-oldng 
(Bisaya) ; tangisan-hagio (Davao). 

The bark is an astringent used to prevent hemorrhage. 
Distribution: Very widely scattered throughout the Philip- 
pines from northern Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus CICCA 
CI CCA AC I DA (L.) Merr. Iba. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The bark yields a decoction which is employed in bronchial 
catarrh. 

Genus CROTON 
CROTON TIGLIUM L. CrOTON-OIL PLANT. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The seeds and the oil extracted from them are violently 
drastic, and are used as revulsives in cases of rheumatism and 
cough. The plant is also used to poison fish. 

Genus EUPHORBIA 
EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. GataS-GATAS. 

Local names: Botobotonis, sayikun (Tagalog) ; bottoms (Bontoe); bu- 
gayau (Samar) ; buyaydra, taudiia (Bisaya) ; gatas-gdtas (Tagalog, 
Bisaya) ; golondrina (Spanish-Filipino) ; magdtas, malimalis, sisiohan 
(Pampanga) ; maragdtas (Union) ; soro-soro (Camarines) ; tairas (Batanes 
Islands); taua-tdua (Occidental Negros). 

The entire plant is used as an antidote, being considered 
haemostatic, sedative, and soporific. In decoction it is very 
efficacious for allaying the dyspnoea of asthmatics. 

Distribution : Batanes to Basilan. 

EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA L. 

Local names: Bait (Tagalog, Pampangan, Bisaya); karimbudya (Bon- 
toe); sorosoro, sorog-sorog (Tagalog, Pampangan). 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 199 

A fluid extracted from the roasted leaves is used in earache. 
Distribution : Cultivated in gardens ; apparently nowhere 
spontaneous. 

EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. 

Local names: Golandrina (corrupted Spanish); makikitot (Bontoc). 

The leaves are commonly employed in poultices to counteract 
the effects of bites of poisonous snakes ; also as an efficient 
vulnerary. The latex is sometimes used to dissipate the opacity 
of the cornea. 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines in v^aste placets along 
roads and trails, in fallow rice-paddies, etc. 

EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI L. CONSUELDA.* 

Local names: Balibali (Iloilo; ; consuelda (Spanish) ; gaton (Benguet) ; 
katuit (Tagalog) ; solda-solda (Leyte) ; solsoldong (Pangasinan) ; soro- 
soro (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Iloilo) ; sostieldo (Ilocos Norte and Sur, 
Abra, Union) ; susuerdo (Zambales) ; suelda-consuelda (Bulacan, Manila, 
Cavite, Camarines Sur, Zamboanga) ; sueldo-coiisueldo (Caniarines) ; suer- 
do-consuerdo (Cagayan, Bataan, Marinduque). 

The stems are used in poultices to aid the healing of frac- 
tures of the bones. The latex is said to be an energetic revulsive. 
It is also employed as a cure for wounds. If allowed to get into 
the eyes, it is said to cause blindness. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Occasionally 
planted in gardens, but apparently nowhere spontaneous. 

Genus EXCOECARIA 
EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA L. BUTA-BUTA. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

The latex is known as a caustic ; nevertheless it is used in 
healing obstinate ulcers. 

Genus HOMONOIA 

HOMONOIA RIPARIA Lour. Mangagos. 

Local names: Agooi (Bulacan); agoioi (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas) ; 
agukuk, kagoioi (Rizal) ; dumdnai (Tagalog, Iloko) ; lumdnai (Tagalog) ; 
apoioi, mangagos (Tayabas) ; baldnti (Bataan, Zambales; hangdrai 
(Samar) ; liuhon (Sambali) ; lumandia (Tagalog) ; malahngos, miagook, 
miagits (Occidental Negros) ; mandgos (Mindoro). 

* The Spanish name of a European medicinal plant {Symphytum of- 
ficinale L.) which, in the original form or various corruptions of it, has 
become the almost universal name of Euphorbia tirncalli in the Philip- 
pines. 



200 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

In the southern part of the Philippine Archipelago it is used, 
like sarsaparilla, as an efficient stimulant in the treatment of 
certain venereal diseases. A decoction of the roots is used as 
an emetic. Water running at the foot of these shrubs is con- 
sidered as having depurative properties. 

Distribution : From northern Luzon to southern Mindanao, 
on banks and in beds of streams. 

Genus JATROPHA 
JATROPHA CURCAS L. TubaNG-BAKOD OR PHYSIC NUT. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil of the seeds is a drastic purgative. A decoction of 
the leaves is a good antidiarrhetic. A decoction of the roots is 
also used as a cure for diarrhea; while that of the leaves is 
employed as a cough remedy. The bark of this plant is pounded 
slightly and placed in the mouth as a cure for snake bite. It 
is apparently also applied to the bites of various animals. 

JATROPHA MULTiFIDA L. ManA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The seeds are an energetic and dangerous cathartic. Their 
use has been almost abandoned in native medicine. 

Genus MACARANGA 
MACARANGA GRAN Dl FOLIA (Blanco) Merr. Bingabing. 

Local names: Biluak (Bataan) ; bingdbmg (Tagalog) ; bimiiTgas (Ba- 
tangas) . 

The resin is used as an astringent gargle for ulcers in the 
mouth. 

Distribution: Rizal, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Mindoro. 

MACARANGA TANARIUS (L.) Muell.-Arg. BiNUNGA. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The powdered root is used as an emetic in fevers. In decoc- 
tion, it is administered to cure haemoptysis. 

Genus MALLOTUS 
MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. Banato. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 

The red glands of the fruit have been used as an antiherpetic. 
but are more useful when taken internally as an anthelmintic. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 201 

Genus MAN I HOT 
MANIHOT UTILISSIMA PohL CASSAVA or Kamoteng-KAHoi. 

Local names: Baliughoi (Mindoro) ; kamote-kahoi (Moro) ; kamotevg- 
kdhoi (Sambali, Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya) ; kamote-moro (Ilocos Norte and 
Sur, Union, Pangasinan) ; kamoti-ti-moro or kamotit-moro (Ilocos Norte 
and Sur, Cagayan) ; kamoteng-hisaya (Pangasinan) ; kamoteng-dutong 
(Pampanga) ; kamote-sa-moro (Bikol) ; kamoteng-kdui (Cuyo) ; kdnggos 
(Bikol); kdong-moro (Sambali). 

A decoction of the bark of the trunk is considered antirheu- 
matic. 

Distribution : Cultivated in almost all provinces. 

Genus MELANOLEPIS 

MELANOLEPIS M ULTIGLAN DULOSA (Reinw.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. ALIM. 

Local names: Alom (Pangasinan, Cuyo); dlim, takip-asin (Tagalog) ; 
dlo7n or dlum (Bikol, Bisaya) ; pasalkdl (Pampanga) ; tres pioitos (Spanish- 
Filipino) . 

The bark and leaves when slightly heated and applied to the 
skin are used as a sudorific. 

Distribution : In thickets and waste places throughout the 
Philippines. 

Genus PHYLLANTHUS 

PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI L. Talikud. 

Local names: Malakirum-kinhn (Samar) ; sampaloksampalokan (Rizal, 
Manila) ; Saw Pedro (Occidental Negros) ; sumisavipdlok, turutalikdd (Ca- 
marines) ; talikiid (Ilocos Norte) ; taltallikud (Iloko) ; yerba de San Pablo 
(Bisaya). 

The entire plant is used in decoction as a tonic for the stomach. 
It is also an emmenagogue and is considered as a febrifuge 
giving positive results in cases of ague. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan, Union, Pan- 
gasinan, Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Pampanga, 
Camarines, Batangas, Pana3% Negros, Butuan, Lanao, Davao, 
Basilan. 

PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS Poir. Matang-BUYUD. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on miscellaneous plants. 

The bark and the leaves are considered diuretic and alterative 
They are also reported to be purifiers of the blood. 

Genus RICINUS 
RICINUS COMMUNIS L. TANGAN-TANGAN or CasTOR-OIL PLANT. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 



202 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The leaves, fresh and whole, are used externally in headache. 
The seeds are purgative and are regarded as antirheumatic. The 
leaves, cooked with milk, are employed in poultices for certain 
varieties of ulcers. 

Family ANACARDIACEAE 

Genus ANACARDIUM 
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Kasui or CASHEW NUT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil of the pericarp is used as a powerful escharotic. 

Genus MANGIFERA 
MANGIFERA INDICA L. ManGGA or Mango. 

Local names: Mampala (Balabac) ; mampdlang (Basilan) ; nidngga (Ilo- 
cos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Isabela, Vizcaya, 
Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, 
Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, 
Marinduque. Masbate, Leyte, Cebu, Iloilo, Agusan, Misamis, Cotabato, 
Davao, Basilan); pdho (Iloilo, Capiz) ; pumdngya (Cuyo). 

A decoction of the root is considered diuretic. The bark 
and seeds are astringent. The leaves are prepared as a tea. 
The resin is used as a cure for aphthoes. 

Distribution : Cultivated throughout the Philippines. 

Genus SEMECARPUS 
SEMECARPUS CUN El FORM IS Blanco. LigIs. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The oil of the pericarp is used as a caustic or escharotic, and 
sometimes in the treatment of certain indolent ulcers. 

Genus SPONDIAS 
SPONDIAS PURPUREA L. SiNIGUELAS. 

Local names: Ciruelas (Spanish, "plums"); sarguelas (Ilocos Norte and 
Sur, Abra, Union, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales) ; sinigiielas (Tagalog 
provinces, Marinduque) ; sirigidlas (Bikol provinces, Misamis) ; sirgiielas 
(Iloilo, Cuyo). 

A decoction of the bark is an efficacious antidysenteric and 
is also used in cases of infantile tympanites. 

Distribution : Cultivated from northern Luzon to Mindanao 
and Palawan. 

Family CELASTRACEAE 

Genus CELASTRUS 
CELASTRUS PAN ICU LATA Willd. LANGITNGfT. 

Local names: Laguete, langitngit (Tagalog). 

A description of this species is given in the section on resins, 
gums, and oils. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 203 

The seeds when pulverized are administered as an anti- 
rheumatic, and are also used in cases of paralysis. The sap of 
the leaves is given as an antidote in cases of opium poisoning. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Genus LOPHOPETALUM 

LOPHOPETALUM TOXICUM Loher. Abuab. 

Local names: Abuab, bantigi (Tagalog) ; dayanddng (Mindoro) ; ditd 
(Tagalog, Bikol) ; aUbambcvngan (Davao) ; piiti-i babdye and Make (La- 
nao) ; tando' (Zamboanga) . 

The thickened sap of the bark is used by the Negritos and 
other hillmen to poison the tips of their arrows. 
Distribution : Central Luzon to Zamboanga. 

Family HIPPOCRATEACEAE 

Genus SALACIA 
SALACIA PRINOIDES (Willd.) DC. ' MATANG-ULANG. 

Local name: Matdng-uldng (Tagalog). 

The roots are used in decoction in cases of amenorrhea and 
dysmenorrhea. They are regarded as an abortive. 

Distribution : Widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Family ICACINACEAE. 

Genus GONOCARYUM 

GONOCARYUM CALLERYAN U M (Baill.) Becc. Taingang-BABUI. 

Local names: Ampdleng, gozzdng-kalinga (Isabela) ; bitotic (Tayabas) ; 
busigan (Cagayan) ; diihatduhdtan (Bataan) ; karasoko (Cagayan) ; lunas 

(Bataan, Rizal, Laguna) ; malagozzdn (Isabela) ; malaikmo-laldki (Nueva 
Ecija) ; malaikmd (Bataan, Bulacan, Batangas, Tayabas) ; malapandakdki 

(Zambales, Tayabas) ; malapinggdn (Laguna) ; maragauak, maragaued 

(Cagayan) ; malasamdt (Cagayan, Bataan) ; malatapdi (Camarines) ; rog- 
rogso (Union) ; taingang-bdbui (Tayabas) ; saling-bato (Laguna) ; uratdn 

(Ilocos Norte); ydya (Cagayan). 

Hunting-dogs after having been subjected to the smoke of 
the burning flowers or fruits of this species are said to be very 
good at catching wild hogs or deer. This plant is said to be 
used as a cure for stomach troubles. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands and all provinces of Luzon. 
Common in virgin forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Family SAPINDACEAE 

Genus CARDIOSPERM UM 

CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L. var. M ICROCARPU M. Lagupok. 

Local names: Angelica (Iloilo) ; bangkilong (Tagalog): farol (Spanish- 
Filipino); lagupok (Cuyo) ; lobo-lobohan (Batangas); palpaltoog (Ilocos 



204 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Sur) ; paltdk-vdka (Zambales) ; paltuk-paltukan (Pampanga) ; paputukdn 
(Cavite) ; parid-dso (Union); parparid (Ilocos Norte); purpurdok (Pan- 
gasinan) . 

A decoction of the root is regarded as diaphoretic, and is used 
for catarrh of the bladder. The leaves are considered anti- 
rheumatic whether taken internally in the form of a beverage 
or applied externally in oil embrocations. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands to Zamboanga. 

Genus DODONAEA 
DODONAEA VISCOSA (L.) Jacq. Kasi'rag. 

Local names: Alipdta (Tagalog) ; dmndnai (Benguet) ; hagui-ui (Taya- 
bas) ; kalapivai (Tagalog) ; kasirag (Sambali) ; ligad (Palawan) ; tabdu 
(Tayabas) . 

The bark employed in decoction is an efficacious astringent in 
humid eczema and for healing simple ulcers. It is also consid- 
ered a good febrifuge. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, 
Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Tayabas, Sorsogon, 
Mindoro, Palawan. 

Genus GUIOA 
GUIOA KOELREUTERIA (Blanco) Merr. { G. Perrottetii Radlk.) Alahan. 
Local names: Alahan, aldsan, bilde-viariang-itim, mamdlis, nisi-yiisi (Ba- 
taan) ; andngin, malasangi (Rizal) ; angset (Ilocos Sur) ; bdngil, gisi-gisi, 
malahdbi (Zambales) ; basai (Guimaras Island) ; busikag (Balabac Island) ; 
cha (Cebu) ; imdlis, kaningning (Mindoro) ; kartiutolen^ pamiitolen, vibres 
(Pangasinan) ; malauds (Nueva Ecija) ; iTgisi-ngisi (Zambales, Bataan, 
Mindoro) ; paksion (Iloilo) sdlab (Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo) ; sdhib (Ba- 
taan, Rizal, Polillo); uds, uwds (Ilocos Norte); ulds (Benguet). 

An oil extracted from the seed is used in the cure of certain 
skin diseases. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Genus HARPULLIA 
HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. UAs. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on soap substitutes. 

The bark and fruits are used to prevent leech bites. The 
bark is also used as a substitute for Entada phaseoloides as a 
hair tonic. It contains an active substance which stupefies and 
kills fish. The oil of the seeds is sometimes used as an anti- 
rheumatic. 

Genus LEPIDOPETALUM 
LEPIDOPETALUM PERROTTETII (Camb.) Blume. Dapil. 

Local names: Bigds (Occidental Negros) ; ddpil (Nueva Ecija); dila- 
dila (Pampanga) ; malakakdo (Zamboanga) ; marinsidno, paga-paga (Cota- 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 205 

bato) ; ualis (Tagalog) ; uas (Pangasinan) ; sagddan (Manobo) ; sdlab 
(Tagalog) ; tolotigre (Occidental Negros). 

The powdered seeds are used to kill wild hogs. 

Distribution: Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Batangas, Camarines, Negros, Biliran, Lanao, Davao, Cotabato, 
Zamboanga, Basilan. 

Family BALSAMINACEAE 

Genus I M RATI ENS 
I M RATI ENS BALSAM INA L. KamANTIGI'. 

Local name: Kamantigi' (Tagalog). 

The leaves are pounded and used in poultices to dissolve felons. 
Distribution : Bontoc, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, 
Camarines, Bukidnon. 

Family RHAMNACEAE 

Genus COLUBRINA 

COLUBRINA ASIATICA (L.) Brongn. Kabatiti. 

Local names: Kabatiti (Tagalog, Palawan, Polillo) ; kayakds (Union) ; 
palid-ldut (Tawi-Tawi) ; uatitik (Bisaya). 

The leaves are used in decoction to alleviate the irritation of 
and to cure certain diseases of the skin. The fruits are used as 
a fish poison. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Tawi-Tawi and Palmas Is- 
lands. 

Genus VENTILAGO 
VENTILAGO DICHOTOMA (Blanco) Merr. Salapau. 

Local names: Salapau, silipau (Tagalog); pakpdk-tiitubi (Rizal). 

The bark, pulverized, and mixed with oil, is useful in certain 
cutaneous diseases. 

Distribution: Rizal, Laguna, Polillo, Sorsogon. 

Genus ZIZYRHUS 

ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA (L.) Lam. Jujube or Manzanitas. 

Local names: Manzanas or manzanitas (Spanish-Filipino throughout the 
Philippines). 

A decoction of the bark and leaves is employed as an effective 
astringent in dysentery and diarrhea, and is used in bowel 
trouble of all kinds. 

Distribution : Pampanga, Tarlac, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Batangas, Negros Oriental, Zamboanga. 



206 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family VITACEAE 

Genus CISSUS 
CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. SUGPON-SUGPON. 

Local names: Sugpon-sugpon, sulpa-sulpa (Bisaya). 

The sap is applied in the form of drops in cases of otorrhea 
and epistaxis. It is also used as an alterative in irregularities 
of menstruation. 

Distribution: Luzon (Cagayan, Batangas, Rizal), Negros, 
Cebu, Siquijor. In dry thickets in and about towns at low 
altitudes- 
Genus COLUMELLA 

COLUMELLA TRIFOLIA (L.) Merr. ARfuAT. 

Local names: Ariuat (Union); grapokol, kabila^i, kalit-kalit (Tagalog) ; 
kagundi, kikindi, lagini, langingi, lupo (Bisaya) ; kalut-pamo (Panga- 
sinan). 

The leaves yield a decoction which is considered as antiscor- 
butic. The sap of the leaves is regarded as having similar 
properties. 

Distribution : Bontoc, Union, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, 
Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Biliran, 
Iloilo, Negros, Cebu, Palawan, Misamis, Lanao, Davao. 

Genus LEE A 
LEEA ACULEATA Blume. MALI-MALI 

Local names: Amamdli (Samar, Agusan) ; balinaundu (Tayabas); hdra 
(Laguna) ; kemamdle, meviamdie (Bukidnon) ; mali-mali (Laguna) ; ma- 
mdlig (Cotabato) ; sipit-kahig (Tayabas). 

The leaves are said to be used for purifying bad blood. 

Distribution : Babuyanes Islands and northern Luzon to Min- 
danao and Palawan, in most or all the islands and provinces. 
Common in thickets and second-growth forests, especially along 
streams at low and medium altitudes. 

LEEA MANILLENSIS Walp. Amamall 

Local names: Ahang-dhang (Laguna); alumani (Union); alumam.dni 
(Abra, Ilocos Sur, Lepanto) ; amamdl (Pangasinan) ; amamdli (Bisaya) ; 
aydnian-kildt (Zambales) ; kalldkal (Igorot in Benguet) ; kaliantdvg (Ba- 
taan) ; kaliantdn (Mindoro) ; kuldtai (Palawan) ; mali-mali (Pampanga, 
Laguna) ; mamangal (Palawan) ; taliantdn (Rizal, Bataan, Cavite) ; tum- 
bosut (Occidental Negros); vodadin (Batanes Islands). 

The roots, branches, and leaves, used in decoction, are con- 
sidered vulnerary. 

Distribution : Very common throughout the Philippines. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 207 

Genus TETRASTIGMA 
TETRASTIGMA HARMANDII Planch. AYO. 

A description of this species and its local jiames are given in 
the section on food plants. 

A decoction of this plant is taken internally as a powerful 
diuretic. Also, it is employed externally as a lotion to cure 
scabies. 

Family TILIACEAE 

Genus CORCHORUS 
CORCHORUS ACUTANGULUS Lam. Pasau NA HABA'. 

Local names: Pdsau na hdba' (Tagalog) ; salsaluyut (Union). 

The seeds are employed in the same manner as are those of 
Corchorus capsularis, and for the same affections. 

Distribution : Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Union, Bataan, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Laguna, Mindoro, Palawan, Lanao. 

CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS L. PasAU NA BI'loG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The leaves are used as a cure for headache. The seeds, either 
as a powder or in decoction, are used as a tonic, carminative and 
febrifuge. 

CORCHORUS OLITORIUS L. PAsAu or Jute. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 
The seeds are said to be employed as a purgative. 

Genus MUNTINGIA 
MUNTINGIA CALABURA L. DatiLES. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The flowers are used in infusion in the same manner as are 
those of Tilia europaea. 

Genus TRIUMFETTA 
TRIUMFETTA BARTRAMIA L. KULOT-KULOTAN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The roots and leaves are used in decoction as an emollient in 
the same manner as are Urena, Abutilon, -etc. It is also em- 
ployed as an antiblennorrhagic. 



208 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family MALVACEAE 

Genus ABELMOSCHUS 

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medic. Kastuli'. 

Local names: Dahipang, kastiokastiogan, kastiiW (Tagalog) ; dukihn, 
marikum^ maropoto, sapinit (Bisaya) ; kaliipi (Tayabas, Laguna) ; kasto- 
kastoUan ( Pampanga) . 

The seeds after being pounded and prepared in decoction are 
administered as a diuretic, tonic and carminative. A mucilag- 
inous decoction of the root and leaves is used in the treatment 
of gonorrhea. The seeds are also employed as an antihysteric. 

Distribution : Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon, 
Catanduanes, Capiz, Camiguin Island, Surigao, Bukidnon, Pal- 
mas Islands. 

Genus ABUTILON 

ABUTILON INDICUM (L.) Sweet Giling-gili'ngan. 

Local names: Didupang, rnalvas de castilla, malvts (Bisaya); giling- 
gilingan, kuakuakohan, kuako-kuakohan (Tagalog) ; lulupmt (Iloco) ; lup- 
luppdu (Union) ; malvas (Cagayan, Manila, Mindoro, Agusan) ; mdrbas 
(Tayabas, Polillo, Agusan); taratakiipis (Bisaya); yampong (Bisaya). 

The leaves yield an emollient decoction. 
Distribution : Northern Luzon to Mindanao. 

Genus HIBISCUS 
HIBISCUS ESCULENTU8 L. Okra. 

A syrup which is useful in sore throat attended with hoarse- 
ness is made from the mucilaginous fruit. 

HIBISCUS MUTABILIS L. MapulA. 

Local names: Amapola (Spanish for "poppy"; so called in Manila) ; ma- 
pxdd (Tagalog, Bikol). 

The flowers are considered pectoral when employed in decoc- 
tion. 

Distribution : Reported from Manila, Laguna, Camarines, 
Misamis, Surigao, Davao, but probably found cultivated in many 
other regions. 

HIBISCUS ROSA-SI NENSIS L. GUMAMELA. 

Local names: Arogdngan, antoldngan, kayduga, gumamela, tapolonga, 
tarakdngan, tanr'dngaii (Tagalog, Pampanga, Bisaya) ; guviamela (Tayabas, 
Manila and vicinity, Basilan) ; kaydnga (Bontoe) ; kaydnga-rosa (Iloko). 

The roots, bark, leaves and flowers in decoction are used as an 
emollient. 

Distribution : Cultivated in almost all provinces. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 209 

HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. ROSELLE. 

The root is bitter, and is regarded as tonic and aperitive. 
Distribution: Bontoc subprovince, Manila and vicinity, La- 
guna. 

HIBISCUS TILIACEUSL. Malubago. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on fiber plants. 

The bark is used as an emetic. The flowers boiled in milk are 
employed for the cure of earache. 

Distribution : Common throughout the Philippines. Very 
easily propagated by means of cuttings. 

Genus MALACHRA 
MALACHRA CAPITATA L. BakembaKES. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The root and leaves, used in decoction, are considered emollient 
in enemas and for bathing purposes. 

Distribution : Common in waste places throughout the Philip- 
pines. 

Genus MALVASTRUM 
MALVASTRUM COROMANDELINUM (L.) Garcke Salsaluyut. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The leaves are employed as a cure for carbuncles. 

Genus SI DA 
SI DA ACUTA Burm. f. Takling-baka. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The roots and leaves are emollient in decoction, which, taken 
internally, is considered a specific against hemorrhoids, fever 
and impotency, and also as a general tonic. As a demulcent 
and diuretic, it is used in gonorrhea and rheumatism. 

SIDA CORDIFOLIA L. 

A description of this species and its local name are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

In decoction, the leaves are regarded as emollient and as 
having diuretic properties. 
SIDA JAVENSIS Cav. (S. humilis Willd.) iGAT-fCAT. 

Local names: Hapunan-niknik (Rizal) ; igat-igat, padda-padddk-pusa, 
mar-ma raipns (Union); kolotane-bdging (Tagalog). 

177674 14 



210 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The entire plant in decoction is used as a specific for 
gonorrhea. 

Distribution : Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, 
Laguna. 

Genus THESPESIA 

THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) Soland. Banalo. 

Local names: Bandgo, malibdgo, taha-tnha (Tayabas) ; banctlo (Cavite.i ; 
bubui-gi'ibat (Tagalog) ; malobdgo (Zamboanga) ; marabdgo (Ilocos Norte) ; 
vdlo (Batanes Islands). 

A decoction of the bark is regarded as alterative if adminis- 
tered internally. It is used externally as an embrocation. A 
decoction of the leaves is reputed to be emollient and a cure for 
itches. The juice of the fruit is sometimes used in certain 
herpetic diseases. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Basilan. 

Genus URENA 
URENA LOB AT A L. ■ KOLLOKOLLOT. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on fiber plants. 

The roots and leaves are emollient when prepared as a decoc- 
tion. 

Family BOMBACACEAE 

Genus BOMBAX 
BOMBAX CEIBA L. MalABULAK. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The roots are considered astringent, restorative, alterative, 
and aphrodisiac. They are used as a restorative in pthisis. 
The gum is very astringent. 

Genus CEIBA 
CEIBA PENTANDRA (L.) Gaertn. COTTON TREE or Kapok. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The tender fruit is used as an emollient. The bark is employed 
as a vomitive. This bark is preferred to that of the malabulak 
(Bombax ceiba) as an aphrodisiac. Brewed into a decoction it 
is regarded as a specific in febrile catarrh. 

Family STERCULIACEAE 

Genus ABROMA 
ABROMA FASTUOSA .Jacq. ANABO. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 211 

The root is frequently used as an efficient emmenagogue, espe- 
cially in the different forms of dysmenorrhea. Its use usually 
gives speedy relief. 

Genus KLEINHOVIA 
KLEINHOVIA HOSPITA L. Tan-ag. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The bark and leaves are poisonous. In Marinduque they 
are used to poison eels. A decoction of the leaves is said to be 
antiscabious. 

Genus PENTAPETES 
PENTAPETES PHOENICEA L. FlorES DE LAS DOGE. 

Local name: .4 las doce (Union, Tayabas). 

The fruit in decoction is used as an emollient. 
Distribution: Cagayan, Union, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Negros, Samar, Surigao, Davao, Cotabato. 

Genus PTEROCYM Bl UM 
PTEROCYMBIUM TINCTORIUM (Blanco) Merr. Taluto. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on fiber plants. 
The bark and the fruit are poisonous. 

Genus PTEROSPERM UM 
PTEROSPERMUM Dl VERSI FOLI U M Blume. BayoK. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The bark and flowers charred and mixed with the glands of 
Mallotus philippmensis are employed in smallpox to cause sup- 
puration. 

Genus STERCULIA 
STERCULIA FOETIDA L. Kalumpang. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

A decoction of the bark is used in cases of dropsy and rheuma- 
tism as an aperient, diaphoretic and diuretic. A decoction of the 
fruit is astringent. 

Genus THEOBROMA 
THEOBROMA CACAO L. CACAO. 

A decoction brewed from the root is an emmenagogue and is 
regarded as ecbolic. 

Distribution : Bontoc, Lepanto, Manila, Mindoro, Polillo Island, 
Leyte, Surigao, Lanao, Palawan, Cotabato. 



212 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus WALTHERIA 
WALTHERIA AMERICANA L. Barubad. 

Local names: Barubad (Union); handing -kanding (Occidental Negros). 

This plant is considered as a febrifuge and also as an anti- 
syphilitic. 

Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Bontoc, Union, 
Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines, 
Mindoro, Negros Occidental, Antique, Culion, Palawan. 

Family DILLENIACEAE 

Genus DILLENIA 
DILLENIA PHILIPPINENSIS Rolfe Katmon. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on food plants. 

The acid juice of the fruit, when mixed with sugar, is used as a 
cough cure. It is also employed for cleansing the hair. 

Family GUTTIFFERAE 

Genus CALOPHYLLUM 
CALOPHYLLUM BLANCOI PI. & Tr. BiTANHOL. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in the 
section on dyes. 

The sap of the bark of this plant, especially when mixed with 
sulphur, is used locally as a cure for boils and wounds. A cloth 
kept moist with the sap is applied on the breast of a patient suf- 
fering from asthma. 

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. BiTAOG or PalOMARIA DE LA PLAYA. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The oil obtained from the seeds and the oleo-resin from the 
bark form a very energetic cicatrizant; the latter is used as a 
balsamic in affections of the lungs. The leaves are used to cure 
affections of the eye. The oleo-resin is employed on wounds. 
Water in which the leaves have been pressed is said to be an 
efficient astringent against hemorrhoids. 

Genus CRATOXYLON 
CRATOXYLON BLANCOI (Blume) Mus. GUYUNG-GUYUNG. 

Local names: B'ansilai (Surigao) ; baringkokorong (Ilocos Sur, Nueva 
Ecija, Pangasinan, Camarines) ; guyimg-guyung (Pangasinan, Cavite, 
Rizal, Basilan) ; kansilan (Bisaya) ; kansilai (Pangasinan, Negros Occiden- 
tal, Negros Oriental) ; uging (Abra) ; oringon (Masbate) ; pagulingin 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 213 

(Rizal) ; pagnlingon (Negros Oriental) ; salinggogon (Camarines) ; ugingan 
(Cagayan). 

A decoction of the bark is used as a galactagogue. 
Distribution : Cagayan to Basilan. 

Genus GARCINIA 
GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. MangoSTEEN, 

Local name: Mangostan (All regions where it is known). 

The leaves and the bark are used as an astringent for the 
cure of aphtha, or thrush, and also as a febrifuge. The peri- 
carps are regarded as very efficacious in curing chronic intestinal 
catarrh. 

Distribution : Sorsogon, northern Negros, Mindanao, Sulu. 

Family BIXACEAE 

Genus BIXA 
BIXA ORELLANA L. ACHUfiTE. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on dyes. 

A decoction of the bark is employed in febrile catarrhs. The 
red resinous substance of the seeds is considered an efficient 
remedy for certain skin diseases. 

Family CARICACEAE 

Genus CARICA 
CARICA PAPAYA L. PAPAYA. 

Local name: Papaya (Spanish-Filipino) ; otherwise known as kapdias, 
tapdias, papias, and similar corruptions, throughout the Archipelago. 

A decoction of the outer part of the roots is digestive and tonic 
and is much used in the cure of dyspepsia. 

Distribution : Very widely distributed throughout the Phil- 
ippines, usually in cultivation. 

Family THYMELAEACEAE 

Genus GYRINOPSIS 

GYRINOPSIS CUMINGIANA Decne. BuTLO. 

Local names: Ahihan (Tayabas) ; bdgo (Agusan) ; biyiuko (Capiz) ; butlo 
(Tayabas) ; dalakit (Samar) ; lanutan (Sibuyan) ; magadn (Tayabas) ; 
malagdpas (Samar). 

The bark and roots are used for stopping the flow of blood 
from wounds. The bark, wood and fruits are used as a sub- 
stitute for quinine. 



214 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Catanduanes, Sa- 
mar, Sibuyan, Le>i:e, Panay, Mindanao, Jolo. In primary forests 
at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus Wl KSTROEM lA 
WIKSTROEMIA OVATA C. A. Mey. RoUND-LEAF Salago. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The leaves are emeto-cathartic, and are dangerous to admin- 
ister. The fresh bark or branches of this plant are tied about 
the neck of a patient to relieve bronchial catarrh. 

Family LYTHRACEAE 

Genus AMMANNIA 

AM MANN I A BACCIFERA L. APOI-APOIAN. 

Local names: Apoi-apoian (Pangasinan, Rizal) ; par-apit anggit (Pam- 
panga) ; bias-piigo' (Tagalog). 

This plant is caustic, and is used similarly to cantharides as a 
substitute for blistering plaster. 

Distribution : In open wet places, old rice fields, etc., through- 
out the Philippines. 

Genus LAWSONIA 

LAWSONIA INERMIS L. HeNNA PLANT Or CiNAMOMO. 

Local name: Cinamomo (Spanish-Filipino). 

This shrub is said to be antiherpetic, but is rarely used. 
Distribution : Cultivated for ornamental purposes in most 
towns in the Philippines, but scarcely naturalized. 

Family LECYTHIDACEAE 

Genus BARRINGTONIA 

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) Gaertn. KalAMBUAIA. 

Local names: Kalamhudia (Pangasinan) ; latuba, tilha (Cagayan) ; putad 
(Pampanga, Laguna) ; piitat (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, La- 
guna, Camarines, Mindoro) ; sako (Agusan). 

The bark of this species is said to be used on wounds. 
Distribution : Widely distributed in the Philippines along 
streams, in thickets, etc. 

BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz BoTONG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The fruit is employed to stupefy fish. The leaves when fresh 
are used in topicals for rheumatism. The seeds are employed 
as a vermifuge. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 215 

BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (L.) Blume PUTAT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark is used externally in decoction as an antirheumatic. 

Family COMBRETACEAE 

Genus LUMNITZERA 
LUMNITZERA RACEMOSA Willd. KULASf. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on mangrove swamps. 

A fluid substance which is obtained from incisions made in the 
stem is employed, mixed with coconut oil, as an antiherpetic and 
a cure for itches. 

Genus QUISQUALIS 
QUISQUALIS INDICA L. TangoLON. 

Local names; Babi-bdbe (Pampanga); balitadhdn (Bisaya) ; niugyiiugan 
(Tagalog) ; pinones (Bisaya;) talolong, tangalon (Marinduque) ; fangolon 
(Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); tartardok (Iloko) ; tortordok (Tagalog). 

The fruit is used as a vermifuge. The plant is also used as 
a cough cure. 

Distribution : Common and very widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 

Genus TERMINALIA 

TERMINALIA CALAMANSANAI (Blanco) Rolfe Malakalumpi't. 

Local names: A^ndrgo (Ilocos Sur) ; bangkalduag, kalamansdnai (Taga- 
log) ; bunlos (Rizal) ; kalamansdli (Zambales, Nueva Ecija) ; kalumpit 
(Tayabas, Bataan) ; lankug (Surigao, Agusan) ; magatalisai (Masbate) ; 
mabantut (Bataan) ; malakalumpit (Bataan, Laguna, Camarines) ; pa- 
ngalussiten (Abra) ; sdkat (Nueva Ecija) ; sdket (Bengiiet) ; salisai (La- 
nao) ; sambitrdgat (Palawan); saplid (Surigao); talisai (Cotabato). 

The bark is astringent and is used both internally and exter- 
nally. It is known to have lithotriptic qualities. 

Distribution: Very widely distributed from northern Luzon 
to Cotabato. 

TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. TALfSAI. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The red leaves are used to expel worms, while the fruit is said 
to contain a purgative substance. The leaves are mixed with 
oil and rubbed on the breast to cure pain. The bark is 
astringent and is used against gastric fevers and bilious diar- 
rhea, also as an antidysenteric. The sap of the tender leaves 
mixed and cooked with the oil of the kernel is, according to P. 
Blanco, a specific against leprosy. 



216 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

TERM IN ALIA COMINTANA (Blanco) Merr. BinggAs. 

Local names: Bangles (Nueva Ecija) ; bangius, hinabuai (Mindoro) ; 
binggds (Bataan, Zamboanga) ; bongds (Leyte, Occidental Negros) ; 
dinglds (Tagalog) ; lasila (Cagayan) ; lasilak (Cagayan, Ilocos Sur) ; 
lasilat (Apayao) ; maglolopoi (Pangasinan) ; naghubo, saplungan (Rizal) ; 
rubian (Laguna) ; tiroron (Camarines) ; yxmu-ywm (Surigao). 

The fruit is astringent and is used in decoction to cure thrush 
and obstinate diarrhea. 

Distribution : In nearly all parts of the Philippines from Ca- 
gayan to Zamboanga. 

TERM IN ALIA EDULI3 Bt&srj3 KaluMPIT. 

A description and figure of^thiB" species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The fruit is used in eye washes in the same manner as the 
fruit of aroma {Acasia farnesiaTia) . It is also used in lotions 
in cases of humid herpetism or eczema. 

Family MYRTACEAE 

Genus DECASPERMUM 

DECASPERMUM FRUTICOSUM Forst. PATALSfK. 

Local names: Agem, dgim a babde (Cagayan); alungkagai (Bisaya) ; 
patalsik (Laguna) ; diigayon, salilihan (Dinagat Island) ; guyong-guyong 
(Polillo Island) ; kamigrin (Lanao) ; kansilai (Zamboanga) ; kuldsi (Bisa- 
ya) ; kiilis, malagiting-giting, tayoni-tdyom (Rizal) ; lardu, salingsingan 
(Benguet) ; tarongatingnn (Samar). 

The fruit is used as a remedy for stomach pains. 
Distribution: Common from the Batanes Islands to Basilan. 

Genus EUGENIA 
EUGENIA CUM INI (L.) Druce {E. jambolmia Lam.). DuHAT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The bark in decoction is astringent. The leaves steeped in 
alcohol, and the seeds when pulverized, are used as an efficacious 
remedy in diabetes. The fruits, cooked to a thick jam, are said 
to be an efficient astringent in acute diarrheas. 

Genus PSIDIUM 
PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. GUAVA or Bayabas. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on food plants. 

The bark and leaves are astringent, vulnerary, and when used 
in decoction are antidiarrhetic. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 217 

Family MELASTOMATACEAE 

Genus MEMECYLON 

MEMECYLON OVATUM Sm. KULIS. 

Local names: Kandon, kandong (Iloko) ; kiUis (Tagalog) ; malabanggi 
(Cuyo Island); sagingsing (Bisaya). 

The roots in decoction are used in certain irregularities of 
menstruation, and the leaves in infusion are employed as an 
astringent in ophthalmia. 

Distribution : Central Luzon to Basilan. 

Family ARALIACEAE 

Genus NOTHOPANAX 
NOTHOPANAX FRUTICOSUM (L.) Miq. Papua. 

Local name: Papua (throughout the Philippines). 

The leaves powdered and mixed with salt are vulnerary and 
are considered by the natives to be very efficacious. 
Distribution : Widely cultivated. 

Genus SCHEFFLERA 
SCHEFFLERA CUMINGII (Seem.) Harms Kalang-GAMAT. 

Local name: Kalang-gdmat (Cagayan). 

This plant is said to be useful for stomach troubles. 
Distribution : Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna. 

SCHEFFLERA ELLIPTI FOLIOLA Merr. Galamai-Am6. 

Local names: Balete (Laguna) ; galamdi-amo (Tayabas). 

A decoction is used by mothers after childbirth. 
Distribution : Tayabas, Laguna, Camarines, Catanduanes. 

SCHEFFLERA ODORATA (Blanco) Merr. and Rolfe TarangkAng. 

Local names: Galdmai-amo (Rizal, Laguna); taglima (Cebu, Basilan); 
tarangkdng (Ticao Island). 

The bark is used as a cough cure. The leaves yield an 
effective antiscorbutic decoction. The resin is employed as a 
vulnerary. 

Distribution : Laguna to Basilan. 

SCHEFFLERA PIPEROIDEA Elm. HimainAt. 

Local name: Himaindt (Tayabas). 

This species is used as a tonic for mothers after childbirth. 
Distribution : Tayabas, Laguna. 



218 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family UMBELLIFERAE 

Genus APIUM 
APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. CELERY or APIO. 

Local names: Apio (Spanish); kinintsdi (Chinese-Tagalog) ; kimchdi or 
kintsd i ( Chinese) . 

The decoction of the entire plant is said to be diuretic and 
an emmenagogue. 

Distribution : Reported only from Benguet ; also cultivated 
by Chinese gardeners about Manila. 

Genus CARUM 
CARUM COPTICUM ( L.) Benth. DAMORt). 

Local names: Damoro (Tagalog) ; lamudio (Batangas). 

The fruits are employed with "buyo" for chewing when carmi- 
native effects are desired. 

Distribution : Manila and Batangas. 

Genus CENTELLA 

CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) Urban {Hijdrocotyle asiatica L.) 

TAKfP-KOHOL. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The sap of the leaves is employed as a curative for wounds 
of the sclerotic. The decoction is considered a diuretic and is 
said to be useful in gonorrhea. 

Genus CORIANDRUM 
CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. CORIANDER or CULANTRO. 

Local names: Culdntro (Spanish); ongsoi (Chinese). 

An infusion of the fruits is used to cure dyspepsia. When 
pounded, they are inhaled to dissipate giddiness. 

Distribution : Collected only from Union ; commonly cultivated 
by Chinese market gardeners of Manila. 

Genus FOENICULUM 
FOENICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. FENNEL. 

Local names: Anis (Manila and vicinity); Jiaras (Tagalog). 

The fruit in infusion is carminative. 

Distribution: Manila and vicinity, Negros Oriental, Misamis. 

Family ERICACEAE 

Genus RHODODENDRON 
RHODODENDRON VIDALII Rolfe 
Local name: Ayalea (Ifugao). 

This plant is used as a cure for itches. 

Distribution : Isabela, Cagayan, Abra, Ifugao, Bontoc, Bataan, 
Laguna, Tayabas. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 219 

Family MYRSINACEAE 

Genus ARDISIA 

ARDISIA BOISSIERI A. D. C Tagpo. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 
The leaves are used on wounds. 

Family PLUMBAGINACEAE 

Genus PLUMBAGO 

PLUMBAGO INDICA L. (P. rosea L.). Pampasapit. 

Local names: Hangad iig babde (Bataan) ; laurel (Manila, Camari- 
nes) ; panting-panting (Cotabato) ; pampasapit (Tagalog). 

The roots are scraped and employed in poultices for headache. 
The bark is a very effective blistering plaster, and is applied to 
the spine in certain fevers. It is also said to be an antidyspeptic. 

Distribution: Bataan, Manila, Camarines, Laguna, Palawan, 
Cotabato. 

PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L. SANGDIKfT. 

Local names: Banghdng, talangkdu (Iloko) ; sampdga (Laguna); sang- 
dikit, sangdidikit (Tagalog). 

The pounded roots are used for blistering. In decoction they 
are employed as an antiscabious remedy. They are said also to 
be ecbolic. 

Distribution: Northern and central Luzon, Palawan, Zam- 
boanga. 

Family SAPOTACEAE 

Genus BASSIA 
BASSIA BETIS (Blanco) Merr. BetiS. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The bark and leaves of this plant are said to be useful for 
curing the stomach pains of children. The latex applied to 
the abdomen is said to expel worms. The powder of the bark 
provokes sneezing. 

Genus MIMUSOPS 
MIMUSOPS PARVIFOLIA R. Br. (.1/. elengi L.) Bansalagin. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The bark, as well as the unripe fruit, yields a powerful 
astringent remedy. Both are used as a gargle to strengthen 
the gums. They are further employed in lotions for ulcers, and 
in urethral injections for gonorrhea. 



220 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Family EBENACEAE 

Genus DIOSPYROS 
DIOSPYROS EBENASTER Retz. ZAPOTE. 

Local names: Zapote or zapote negro (Mexican, in all regions whene 
found) . 

The pounded bark and leaves are employed as a blistering 
plaster. 

Distribution : Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, 
Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Manila, Cavite. 

DIOSPYROS MULTIFLORA Blanco. Kanomoi. 

Local names: Dupiiigan, kamomi (Nueva Ecija); kanomai, kanomei 

(Ilocos Sur, Union, Pangasinan) ; kanumai, kanomoi (Rizal) ; kanumi 
(Bataan). 

The bark and leaves are caustic, and are used as a cure for 
furfuraceous herpes, ringworm, etc. 
Distribution: Luzon, the Visayas, Mindanao. 

Family OLEACEAE 

Genus J ASM IN UM 
JASMIN UM SAM BAG (L.) Ait. SampAGITA. 

Local names: Hubar (Balabac) ; kampopot (Pampanga, Manila); kn- 
Idtai (Pampanga) ; lumabo, malul (Cotabato) ; mamd (Bisaya) ; sampdga 
(Tagalog) ; sampagita (Spanish-Filipino) ; sampagita doble (Spanish- 
Filipino). 

The flowers are applied as a poultice to the breasts of women 
to reduce the secretion of milk. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Bontoc, Lepanto, Pangasinan, Pam- 
panga, Tarlac, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Palawan, Misamis, 
Davao, Cotabato, Zamboanga, Basilan. 

Family LOGANIACEAE 

Genus BUDDLEIA 
BUDDLEIA ASIATICA Lour. Taliknono. 

Local names: Animugin (Benguet) ; lagundi-saldsa (Bisaya); lakien-ti- 
subusub (Union) ; malasambong (Tagalog) ; nialigus (Bontoc) ; sambong- 
kola (Rizal, Tayabas) ; taliknono (Tagalog) ; tokmdn (Abra) ; tugndng 
(Iloko) . 

This plant is used locally for abortion. Also it is used in 
skin diseases and as a cure for loss of weight. 

Distribution : Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Genus FAGRAEA 
FAGRAEA COCH INCH IN ENSIS (Lour.) A. Chev. URUNG, 

Local names: Dolo, teka (Palawan) ; snsulin (Mindoro) ; urung 
(Palawan). 

The bark is used as a febrifuge, especially in agues. 
Distribution: Mindoro, Palawan. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 221 

FAGRAEA RACEMOSA Jack. BuLUBUAlA. 

Local names: Badgu (Bagobo) ; bago-sala (Samar) ; buhibudia (Negros) ; 
haTTibudia, hinibiibudia (Capiz) ; kabdl (Tayabas) ; kibudia (Laguna) ; 
kukodmon (Camarines Norte) ; libdkan (Laguna, Polillo) ; magusiak 
(Zambales) ; makatibuha (Subanun) ; malabudia (Negros) ; malabago 
(Cebu) ; talob-dlok (Tayabas). 

The bark and the flowers are used as an antidote for snake 
bite. 

Distribution : Central Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus STRYCHNOS 
STRYCHNOS IGNATII Berg. St. Ignatius Bean. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The bark and seeds, in small doses, are used as a febrifuge, 
and are said to be anticholeric and tonic. They are reported 
to be effective in some forms of paralysis. They are very 
poisonous. 

STRYCHNOS MULTI FLORA Benth. BUKUAN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

This plant is said to be used for throat troubles. 

Family GENTIANACEAE 

Genus CANSCORA 
CANSCORA DIFFUSA (Vahl) R. Br. Chang-BATO. 

Local names: Kubdmba, chang-bato, tsang-batd (Tagalog) ; malenggal 
(Rizal). 

The entire plant, administered in the form of a decoction, 
is tonic and antigastralgic. 

Distribution : Ilocos Norte to the central Luzon provinces and 
Mindoro. 

Family APOCYNACEAE 

Genus ALLAMANDA 
ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA L. Campanero. 

Local names: Campanula, campanero (Spanish). 

The whole plant is poisonous. When brewed in decoction ana 
administered in small doses, it is used as an antidotal. 

Distribution : Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Cama- 
rines, Albay, Occidental Negros. 

Genus ALSTON I A 

ALSTON I A MACROPHYLLA Wall. Batino. 

Local names: Basikdlang, basikdrang^ daldkan (Ilocos Sur) ; basikdl- 

lang, pangolaksien (Cagayan) ; basikdlon (Isabela) ; batikdlang (Panga- 



222 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

sinan) ; batino (Tayabas, Laguna, Rizal, Batangas, Mindoro) ; itang-itang 
(Guimaras Island) ; kuyau-kiiydu, malatapdi (Camarines) ; pangalisok- 
loen (Pangasinan) ; jmngalamutien, pangalanud-dien (Ilocos Norte) ; sulu- 
silhiga7i (Palawan); tambal-tungan (Tawi-Tawi) ; tangitang (Capiz). 

The bark is used in the same manner as is that of dita 
{Alstonia scholaris) . 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines, from Cagayan to 
Tawi-Tawi. 

ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R. Br. DiTA, 

Local names: AlipcUiin (Ilocos Norte) ; andardyan, dilnpdo7i (Cagayan) ; 
bita (Iloilo) ; dalipdnen, lipduen (Abra, Ilocos Sur, Amburayan subprov- 
ince) ; ditd (Zambales, Tarlac, Tayabas, Rizal, Laguna, Bataan, Batangas, 
Camarines, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Samar, Leyte, Sibuyan Island, Negros). 

A decoction of the bark is used as a tonic and febrifuge and 
is said to be an emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary. 

Distribution: Very common throughout Luzon and the Vi- 
sayan Islands. 

Genus CERBERA 
CERBERA MANGHAS L. BaraibAi. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

The seeds are toxic, and are used in fishing in small streams. 

Genus KIBATALIA 

KIBATALIA BLANCOI (Rolfe) Merr. Pasni't. 

Local names: Kagpadian (Ilocos Sur) ; laneteng-gubat (Batangas) ; 
laniti (Guimaras, Negros); pasnit (Ilocos Sur); tibig (Cavite, Batangas). 

The leaves are used to cover the head in case of headache. 
Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, 
Leyte, Guimaras Island, Negros. 

Genus LOCH N ERA 

LOCH N ERA ROSEA (L.) Reichb. Atai-BIA. 

Local names: Chichirica (Spanish-Filipino) ; kumintdng (Bisaya) ; lau- 
rel (Cagayan) ; ntai-bid (Rizal, Manila) ; rosas-sa-baibai (Bisaya) ; Sa^i 
Pedro (Polillo) ; sanda (Bikol). 

The roots in decoction are used as an eff'ective emmenagogue. 
It is said that they may produce abortion. 

Distribution : Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to 
Palawan and northern Mindanao. 

Genus NERIUM 
NERIUM INDICUM Mill. OLEANDER or Adelfa. 

Local names: Adelfa (Spanish); ginatadn (Tagalog). 

The bark and leaves are poisonous. With an admixture of 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 223 

oil, they are employed as an external application in skin eruption 
or irritations in herpes, etc. 

Distribution : Occasionally cultivated for ornament in various 
regions. 

Genus PARALSTONIA 

PARALSTONIA CLUSIACEA Baill. MalABATINO. 

Local names: Basikdlang (Ilocos Sur) ; batikoling (Rizal) ; bayag-usd 
(Mindoro) ; ditd (Bataan) ; kiiyau-ijdu (Masbate) ; malahatino (Baler); 
maladitd (Batangas, Tayabas). 

The bark is used on swellings. 

Distribution : Cagayan to Camarines, Mindoro, Samar, Mas- 
bate, Negros, Palawan, Surigao. 

Genus PARAMERIA 

PARAMERIA BARBATA (Bl.) K. Schum. (Parameria 

philippinensis Radlk.) Dugtung-ahas. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on fiber plants. 

The bark macerated in oil is an efficacious vulnerary .and is 
also used internally for the cure of tuberculosis. 

Genus PLUMIERA 

PLUMIERA ACUMINATA Ait. TEMPLE FLOWER or Kalachuche. 

Local names: Kalachuche or kalatsiitse (Zambales, most Tagalog prov- 
inces; Camarines, most Bisaya provinces) ; kalasuche (Cavite) ; kalatuche 
(Tagalog) ; kalunache (Iloko, Cagayan) ; kalisuchu (Pangasinan) ; kard- 
karikuchd (Pampanga) ; kidaloche (Iloko); talisocho (Pangasinan). 

A decoction of the bark is used as a purgative, emmenagogue 
and febrifuge. The latex is also employed for the same effects. 
Distribution : Cultivated in the majority of provinces. 

Genus RAUWOLFIA 

RAUWOLFIA AMSONIAEFOLIA A. DC. Maladita. 

Local names: Alibuthut (Masbate); banogan (Masbate); batikoling 
(Bukidnon) ; maladitd (Camarines, Bukidnon) ; maraandardijan (Cagayan). 

The young buds are used for the stomach disorders of young 
babies. 

Distribution : Cagayan to Camarines, Lubang Island, Min- 
doro, Masbate, Bukidnon. 

Genus TABERNAEMONTAN A 
TABERNAEMONTANA PANDACAQUI Poir. PandAKAKI. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 

The milky juice is said to be good for swellings. A decoction 



224 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

of the root and the bark is used to cure certain affections of 
the stomach and intestines. Women use it also at childbirth. 
The leaves are used in bathing. 

Genus THEVETIA 
THEVETIA PERUVIANA (Pers.) Merr. 

Local name: Campanelo or camjmnero (Spanish). 

The decoction of the bark, in regulated doses, is employed as an 
emetic and febrifuge, said to be effective in intermittent fevers. 
Distribution : Isabela, Baguio, Manila, Basilan. 

Family ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Genus ASCLEPIAS 
ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L. BuLAK-DAm6. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The roots are employed, both in decoction and pulverized, as 
an emetic, having effects similar to those of ipecacuanha. 

Genus CALOTROPIS 
CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (L.) Dryand. Kapal-KAPAL. 

Local name: Kapal-kapdl (Tagalog). 

The bark and thickened latex are used as an alterative in 
certain diseases of the skin. They also have vermifugal 
properties. 

Distribution : Manila, Batangas. 

G«nus STREPTOCAULON 
STREPTOCAULON BAUMII Decne. HlNCfU-NA-PUTi. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The latex is much used as a vulnerary. 

Genus TYLOPHORA 

TYLOPHORA BREVIPES (Turcz.) F.-Vill. PaSUKA. 

Local names: Bugnei (Cagayan) ; sarimgkdd, samngkdr (Ilocos Norte) ; 
pasiika (Tagalog in Zambales) ; dail, sayongkdl (Pangasinan) . 

A decoction of the roots is used as an emetic. The root is 
a substitute for ipecacuanha in all its uses. It is also consid- 
ered as an emmenagogue and as a specific for colic. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Zambales, 
Mindoro. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 225 

TYLOPHORA PERROTTETIANA Decne. KuL-langem. 

Local names: Kul-Jangem (Union); maraipus ti bakes (Iloko). 

The leaves are used with wonderful effect as a vulnerary. 
Distribution : Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna. 

Family CONVOLVULACEAE 

Genus CALONYCTION 
CALONYCTION MURICATUM (L.) G. Don 

Local name: Tonkin (so called by the friars). 

The seeds are vulnerary and are considered a very efficacious 
antidotal remedy for poisoning. They are also said to be 
purgative, as are those of the Ipomoea nil Roth. 

Genus EVOLVULUS 
EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES L. 

The entire plant is used in infusion to cure certain irregular- 
ities of the bowels. It is also employed as a vermifuge and a 
febrifuge. 

Distribution: Very common in northern and central Luzon, 
but also collected from Semirara Island, Antique, Bukidnon, 
Davao, and Cotabato. 

Genus IPOMOEA 

IPOMOEA DIGITATA L. (/. paniculata R. Br.) Kamkamote. 

Local names: Buldkan (Culion) ; kamkamote (Union); piintas-piintas 
(Tagalog) . 

The fresh, fleshy root, in infusion, is used as a purgative. 
It is said that the root dried and pulverized is good for emacia- 
tion in children. It is also regarded as alterative, tonic, 
aphrodisiac and galactagogic. 

Distribution: Union, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Culion, 
Butuan. 

IPOMOEA HEDERACEA (L.) Jacq. 

Local names: Campanilla azul (Spanish); kamote-kamotehan (Manila 
and vicinity). 

The pulverized seeds are administered as a purgative and 
are said to be anthelmintic. 

Distribution: Abra, Lepanto Bontoc, Rizal, Manila. 

IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE (L.) Roth Katang-katang. 

Local names: Arodaiddi (Bisaya) ; badino (Batanes) ; balimbahin 

(Polillo) ; daripai (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya) ; kabaikabdi (Tayabas) ; 

177674 15 



226 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

kamkamotihan (Bataan) ; kamkmnote (Union) ; katang-kdtang, lagairdi, 
lampnyong (Tagalog) ; lagildi (Davao) ; langhdyong (Iloko) ; palang- 
pdlang (Iloilo). 

The leaves are employed as an escharotic to extirpate the 
fungoid growth of ulcers. They are cooked and used as an 
antirheumatic topical. 

Distribution: Along the beach from Batanes Islands to 
Basilan. 

IPOMOEA PES-TIGRIDIS L. RANGRANgAu. 

Local names: Rangraiigdu ng ahududn, rangrangdii (Union); mala- 
sandid, salasandia (Bisaya). 

The leaves are employed in the form of poultices as a resolvent 
of pimples, boils, etc. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Amburayan, Lepanto, Union, Panga- 
sinan, Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Anti- 
que, Guimaras Islands, Bukidnon, Zamboanga. 

IPOMOEA REPTANS (L.) Poir. KanGKONG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The tops are edible and are mildly laxative. 

Genus MERREMIA 
MERREMIA E MARGIN ATA (Burm. f.). Hallier f. KuPI-KUrt'T. 

Local names: Bato-bato (Tagalog); kupi-kujnt (Iloko). 

The leaves and tops in decoction are sometimes employed as 
a diuretic. 

Distribution : Rizal, Bataan. In dry open grasslands and 
waste places at low altitudes. 

Genus OPERCULINA 
OPERCULINA TURPETHUM (L.) S. Manso 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

The root, either pulverized or in alcoholic tincture, is employed 
as a drastic purgative. 

Genus QUAMOCLIT 
QUAMOCLIT PINNATA (Descr.) Voigt. 

Cypress vine or Cabello de angel. 

Local names: Cabello de dngel (Spanish-Filipino) ; himpitan (Cotabato) ; 

malabohok (Bisaya) ; tnalviardvia (Cebu) ; pabellon de dngel (Panga- 

sinan) ; pisos-pisos (Oriental Negros) ; tartardok (Ilocos Norte) ; ten- 

tenedor (Union). 

The leaves are prepared in poultices and employed as a remedy 
for bleeding hemorrhoids. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 227 

Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Bontoc, Union, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, 
Laguna, Camarines Norte and Sur, Albay, Sorsogon, Iloilo, 
Antique, Oriental Negros, Cebu, Bantayan Island, and Cotabato. 

Family BORRAGINACEAE 

Genus GOLDEN I A 

GOLDEN I A PROGUMBENS L. TabtABOKOL. 

Local names: Oregano-laldki (Tagalog) ; papait ti nuang (Union); 
tabtabokol (Ilocos, Abra) ; tapiasin (Tagalog). 

The leaves are applied in poultices to mature abscesses. The 
dried leaves when pulverized provoke sneezing. 

Distribution : From Cagayan to Manila, and in Mindoro. 

Genus CORDIA 
GORDIA MYXA L. AnoNANG. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on fiber plants. 

A decoction of the bark is said to be antidyspeptic and a 
febrifuge. When reduced to a powder it is used as a cure for 
ulcers in the mouth. 

Genus EHRETIA 
EHRETIA MIGROPHYLLA Lam. KalamogA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The dried leaves are boiled and the resulting fluid is used 
internally as a cure for stomach trouble. A decoction of the 
leaves is used as a cough cure. 

EHRETIA NAVESII Vidal Talibunog. 

Local names: Alimhiingug (Surigao) ; kalambonog (Pangasinan); mala- 
tadidng (Nueva Vizcaya) ; maragaued (Ilocos Norte) ; talibunog (Lepanto). 

This plant is used in the pure of fever. 

Distribution: Throughout the Philippines from Cagayan to 
Basilan. 

Genus HELIOTROPIUM 

HELIOTROPIUM INDIGUM L. IKOI-PUSA. 

Local names: Aposdtes (Basilan); buntot-leon (Tayabas, Albay) ; hinla' 
laion (Tagalog) ; higad-higdran (Nueva Ecija) ; ikog-ikog-sang-kuti (Bi- 
saya) ; ikoi-pusa (Sambali) ; kabra-kdbra, kavibra-kdmbra (Bisaya) ; kw- 
ting-kutingan (Tagalog) ; makabra o puntalefante (Negros) ;, malakudku- 
ran (Zambales) ; pengngd (Abra) ; peng-nga-peng-iigd (Pangasinan) ; 
peiiga-pengd (Union) ; trompa-elefante (Manila, Marinduque) ; trompa- 
lipante (Iloilo). 



228 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

A tea made from the leaves is used for bathing cuts and sores ; 
also for the treatment of cholera. The leaves are applied to 
wounds and boils. The leaves in decoction are used as a pectoral 
and as antiscabious. The sap of the leaves mixed with salt is 
said to be useful for clearing the vision. The plant is said to be 
also used for ear and skin diseases. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Basilan. 

Genus ROT U LA 
ROTULA AQUATICA Lour. BUNTtJT-BUAIA. 

Local names: Aposotes (Basilan); buntiit-biidia (Bulacan) ; kuldtai 
(Tagalog) ; makabra, puntalefdnte (Negros) ; tdkad (Rizal) ; trompali- 
pdnti (Iloilo). 

The stems are used in decoction as a sudorific and diuretic. 
Distribution : Cagayan to Basilan. 

Genus TOURNEFORTIA 
TOURNEFORTIA SARMENTOSA Lam. SalsALLAKAPU. 

Local names: Kalaiigungug (Bisaya) ; salsallakdpu (Union). 

The leaves are specially employed in destroying the larvae 
found in the ulcers of cattle. 

Distribution: In most or all islands and provinces from Ba- 
buyanes Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. 

Genus TRICHODESMA 
TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) R. Br. 

This species is used in the same manner as is the following. 
Distribution: Rizal, Laguna. 

TRICHODESMA ZEYLANICUM (Burm. f.) R. Br. DiLANG-USA. 

Local names: Dilang-tisd (Tagalog); mabulo (Rizal). 

The flowers are employed by natives, instead of those of Bo- 
rago officinalis, as a sudorific and pectoral. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Ma- 
nila, Laguna. 

Family VERBENACEAE 

Genus AVICENNIA 
AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS L. ApI-API. 

A description and figures of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

A resin from the sapwood is used locally on snake bites. The 
seeds cooked with water are used as maturative poultices, and 
as a cicatrizant of ulcers. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 229 

Genus CALLICARPA 
CALLICARPA CAUDATA Maxim. 

Local names: Amgup, anayup (Bengnet) ; haraihdi (Palaui Island). 

A decoction made from the fresh or dried leaves is used as a 
cure for stomach trouble. 

Distribution : Northern Luzon to Albay, Misamis. 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Schauer PALI'S, 

Local names: Alinau (Mindoro) ; malasambong (Lagnna) ; ])alis (La- 
guna) ; sulingdsau (Nueva Ecija) ; tambalabdsi (Batangas) ; tigau (Min- 
doro, Negros). 

This species is said to be used for the cure of itches. 
Distribution: Throughout the provinces of Luzon, Mindoro, 
Leyte, Negros, Davao, Zamboanga. 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe TiMBABASI. 

Local names: Anandhin (Bengnet) ; annoyop (Pangasinan) ; tuhai-hdsi 
(Laguna) ; palis, tuhang-daldg (Laguna, Tayabas) ; talambdsi (Batangas, 
Mindoro) ; tigau (Laguna, Mindoro, Tayabas) ; timbabdsi (Laguna, Ta- 
yabas) ; tuba (Bulacan). 

The leaves are smoked like stramonium to combat dyspnoea. 
Also, when fresh and crushed, they are used to stupefy fish. 
Distribution : Cagayan to Davao. 

Genus CLERODENDRON 

CLERODENDRON BETHUNEANUM Low GUANTON. 

Local names: Anor-an (Palawan); guanton (Surigao) ; kalikal (Suri- 
gao) matd-kuo (Masbate) ; parida (Zamboanga). 

An infusion of the leaves is used by women during preg- 
nancy. 

Distribution: Isabela in northern Luzon to Basilan. 

CLERODENDRON CU M I NGI AN U M Schauer Talumpapait. 

Local names: Dakiitung (Jolo) ; talumpapdit (Lanao) ; tanogo (Zam- 
boanga). 

The leaves of this species are used for stomachache. 

Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Capiz, Negros, Camiguin de Min- 
danao, Agusan, Butuan, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, Basilan. 

CLERODENDRON INERME (L.) Gaertn. Ang'AiTgri. 

Local names: Ang'angri, busel-biisel (Union); balisin (Bisaya) ; balis- 
kug (Bisaya); mangotiigot (Bataan) ; tabangdiigo (Iloilo). 

The root is administered in decoction as a febrifuge and 
general alterative. The leaves are used in poultices as a re- 
solvent. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Davao. 



230 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

CLERODENDRON INTERMEDIUM Cham. Laroan-ANI'to. 

Local names: Alokdsok (Bisaya) ; balantaiia, bantdna, bolongtambdl 
(Bisaya) ; igiiiga (Tagalog) ; ikap-ani-dni (Sambali) ; kalalanan (Bataan) ; 
kasopdngil (Laguna, Tayabas, Batangas) ; katungatum (Cotabato) ; kolo- 
koUg (Bisaya) ; laroan-anito (Tagalog) ; libintdno (Occidental Negros) ; 
makalaldnang (Tagalog); pakdpis (Bisaya); salingudk (Mindoro). 

The root is known to be purgative. The leaves, either whole 
or pounded, are applied on the abdomen of a parturient in certain 
complications. 

Distribution : Babuyanes Islands to Cotabato. 

CLERODENDRON MACROSTEGIUM Schauer Malapotokan. 

Local names: Agboligan (Iloko) ; bagdtiak, malapotokan (Tagalog); 
bagdk, kasopdngil (Mindanao). 

The leaves are employed, in decoction and as poultices, to cure 
carbuncles. 

Distribution: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Tayabas, Mindoro, Sibu- 
yan Island. 

CLERODENDRON MINAHASSAE Teysm. and Binn. AlAM-AlAM. 

Local names: Ain-amboligan (Pangasinan) ; aiam-diam (Iloko); 6a- 
gdnak (Bataan) ; bagdnak-itim (Rizal) ; bagduak-p7ild (Rizal) ; bokoboko 
(Union). 

This plant is used as an external remedy for chest and 
stomach pains. The leaves are said to be boiled and applied to 
boils. 

Distribution: From Cagayan to Basilan. 

CLERODENDRON QUADRILOCULARE (Blanco) Merr. Bagauak. 

Local names: Bagduak na morado (Tagalog) ;• bagduak na puld (Rizal) ; 
baligtanin (Batangas) ; saling-udk (Occidental Negros, Mindoro). 

The leaves in topicals are used for healing wounds, ulcers, etc. 
They are also employed in tonic baths. 

Distribution: Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Min- 
doro, Ticao Island, Capiz, Negros Occidental, Siargao Island, 
Bucas Grande Island. 

- Genus LIPPIA 

LIPPIA NODI FLORA (L.) Rich. Chachahan. 

Local names: Busbusi (Union); chachdhan (Manila); lopulopu (Iloilo) ; 
nakiilad (Batanes) . 

An infusion of the leaves and tops is employed by the natives 
as a carminative and diuretic remedy. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands, Cagayan to Laguna, and Panay 
to Zamboanga. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 231 

Genus PREMNA 

PREMNA CUMINGIANA Schauer Manaba. 

Local names: Banabd (Cagayan, Isabela) ; maladpi (Tagalog) ; manahd 
(Camarines, Leyte, Bukidnon) ; kilig (Bataan) ; magilik (Rizal) ; palan- 
dictnan (Cagayan). 

The leaves in infusion are employed as a remedy for dropsy, 
and also as a diuretic. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Central Luzon provinces, Camarines, 
Leyte, Surigao, Lanao, Davao, Basilan. 

PREMNA NAUSEOSA Blanco Mulauin-aso. 

Local names: Agrdu (Abra) ; alagdu-gubat (Laguna) ; ananghit (Ri- 
zal) ; vialamuldnin (Bataan) ; mulduin-dso (Tarlac, Bataan, Zambales, Ba- 
tangas, Rizal, Laguna). 

The leaves are said to be used as a cure for stomach troubles. 
Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Capiz. 

PREMNA ODORATA Blanco AlagAu. 

Local names: Adgdit (Camarines, Guimaras Island); adiyo' (Marin- 
duque) ; alagdu (Union, Abra, Bontoc, Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac, Bul- 
acan, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Tayabas, Laguna, Negros) ; argdu (Negros) ; 
atinge (Nueva Vizcaya) ; lagan (Cotabato) ; lassi (Cagayan) ; tangle (Pam- 
panga). 

A decoction of the roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits is used as 
a sudorific and pectoral, and is said to be carminative. The 
leaves with coconut or sesame oil are applied to the abdomen of 
children to cure tympanites. The leaves are boiled in water and 
the water used for bathing babies, and also as a treatment for 
beriberi. In the latter case the boiled leaves are applied to the 
affected part of the patient's body. The plant is used as a head- 
ache cure. 

Distribution : From Batanes Islands, throughout the provinces 
of Luzon, and southward to Cotabato. 

Genus TECTONA 

TECTONA GRANDIS L. f. Teak. 

Local names: Dalanddng (Occidental Negros); dalondon, kalaydte (Bis- 
aya) ; jdte (Zamboanga) ; hadlaydti (Agusan) ; jdti (Jolo) ; teca (Rizal, 
Laguna, Zamboanga) ; tikla (Tagalog) ; ydti (Port Banga). 

The leaves, either fresh or dried, are used in decoction as an 
excellent remedy for haemoptysis. The same decoction taken 
as a gargle is said to cure sore throat. 

Distribution : Rizal Province to Jolo. 



232 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus VITEX 
VITEX NEGUNDO L. LagUNDI, 

Local names: Agno-casto (Spanish-Filipino) ; ddngla (Ilocos Norte 
and Sur, Abra, Zambales, Pangasinan, Laguna) ; lagundi (Cagayan, Zam.- 
bales, Bulacan, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Masbate, Pampanga). 

A decoction of the bark, tops, and leaves is said to be anti- 
gastralgic. The leaves are used in aromatic baths; also as an 
insectifuge. The seeds are boiled in water and eaten, or the 
water is taken internally, to prevent the spreading of poison 
from the bites of poisonous animals. The infusion is also used 
for disinfecting wounds. Wine in which the seeds have been 
soaked is said to be good for dropsy. The leaves of the tree 
applied to the forehead are said to be good for headache. The 
plant is also regarded as a febrifuge. 

Distribution: Common and widely distributed in thickets. 

VITEX TRI FOLIA L. var. OVATA (Thunb.) Merr. Lagunding-DAGAT. 
Local names: Agiibdrati (Bisaya) ; daldallagni (Union); kalapini 
(Union); lagiinding-ddgat, Jagimding-gapdng (Tagalog). 

The leaves in decoction are used for aromatic baths. 
Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan, Isabela, 
Union, Batangas, Catanduanes. 

Family LABIATAE 

Genus ANISOMELES 
ANISOMELES INDICA (L.) 0. Kuntze Bangbangsit. 

Local names: Pdling-hardp, taling-hardp (Tagalog). 

A decoction of the leaves is said to be antirheumatic and 
stomachic. 

Distribution : Widely distributed in open waste places in the 
Philippines. 

Genus COLE US 
COLEUS AMBOINICUS Lour. 

Local names: Oregano (Spanish-Filipino); siigdnda (Tagalog); to- 
rongil, Union (Spanish-Filipino). 

The leaves in infusion or as a syrup are used as an aromatic 
carminative, administered in cases of dyspepsia and also to 
cure asthma. 

Distribution: Cultivated in many regions. 

COLEUS BLUMEI Benth. MaiaNA. 

Local names: Badidra, maidna (Tagalog, Bisaya, Pampanga) ; maidnau 
(Bikol) ; malidna (Tagalog, Bisaya, Pampanga); lapondia (Bisaya). 

The pounded leaves are said to be valuable as a cure for 
headaches, and for the healing of bruises. 
Distribution: Widely cultivated. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 233 

Genus HYPTIS 

HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS Poir. Bangbangsi't. 

Local names: Bangbangsit (Bontoc, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan) ; kaling- 
kabdyo (Dumaran Island); litdlit (Union); suilb-kabdyo (Polillo). 

A decoction of the roots is valued as an appetizer. This 

plant is also used for affections of the uterus. The root in 

decoction is said to be emmenagogic, and a stimulant if 
employed in rheumatism. 

Distribution: In waste places throughout the Philippines. 

Genus LEUCAS 

LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA Sm. PANSI-PANSf. 

Local names: Kaskasiimba (Pangasinan); langa-Iangd (Camarines) ; 
pansi-pansi (Laguna) ; salita (Polillo); sampdran (Bulacan). 

The leaves are crushed and used externally in dermatosis. 
Distribution: Very abundant throughout Luzon, and col- 
lected also from Mindoro, Polillo, and Surigao. 

Genus MENTHA 
MENTHA ARVENSIS L. MINT or Yerba buena. 

Local name: Yerba buena (Spanish). 

The tops and leaves are carminative and when bruised are 
used as an antidote for the stings of poisonous insects. 

Distribution: Reported from Pangasinan, Manila, Batangas, 
Tayabas, but known to be commonly cultivated. 

Genus OCIMUM 
OCIMUM BASILICUM L. Balan6i or Sweet Basil. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The leaves are used in infusion or decoction as a carminative 
and stimulant medicine. 

OCIMUMSANCTUML. SulAsi or HoLY BASIL. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 

The leaves in decoction are used for aromatic baths. A decoc- 
tion brewed from the roots and leaves is said to be a specific 
for gonorrhea. Externally it is used in baths to cure rheumatic 
pains and paralysis. A decoction obtained from the seeds is 
said to be demulcent. 

Genus POGOSTEMON 
POGOSTEMON CABLIN (Blanco) Benth. Patchouli or Kabli'n. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 



234 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The leaves and tops serve as a preservative against moths. 
They are employed also in baths, when they are said to have 
antirheumatic action. 

Genus ROSMARINUS 

ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. ROSEMARY or ROMERO. 

Local names: Dtimero (corruption of Spanish "romero") ; rosmiro 
(Bontoc), 

The leaves are used in the Philippines in the same manner 
as in European therapeutics. 

Distribution: Reported from Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, Marin- 
duque, but widely cultivated. 

Genus SCUTELLARIA 
SCUTELLARIA LUZONICA Rolfe SiDIT. 

Local name: Sidit (Benguet). 

The plant is said to be used as a cure for stomach pains. 
Distribution : Northern and central Luzon, Mindanao. 

Family SOLANACEAE 

Genus DATURA 
DATURA FASTUOSA L. TalONG-PUNAI NA ITIM. 

Local names: Siva (Batanes Islands) ; talampunai (Marinduque) ; ta- 
lampiinai na ithn (Batangas). 

The species is poisonous, as is the variety alba. It is uti- 
lized for the same purposes as stramonium. The leaves and 
flowers are smoked for dyspnoea in bronchitis. 

Distribution : In open places in and about settlements through- 
out the Philippines. 

DATURA FASTUOSA L. var. ALBA (Nees) C. B. Clarke. Talong-punai. 

Local names: Kamkammaulati (Union) ; katsubong (Capiz) ; taram^ 
punai, talam-punai, talong-punai (Tagalog, Pampanga, Bikol) ; kachibong 
(Bisaya, Marinduque). 

The leaves are much used in resolutive and mitigant poultices. 
They are also smoked like stramonium in cases of dyspnoea 
produced by asthma. The seeds and roots have the same uses. 
They are sometimes used for criminal purposes. The Moros 
are said to intoxicate themselves with this plant before they 
commit their massacres. 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines in waste places in 
and about towns. Much more common than the purple-flowered 
form. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 235 

Genus NICOTIANA 
N I COT I AN A TABACUM L. TOBACCO. 

Local name: Tabaco (Spanish). 

The fresh leaves are used in poultices as a sedative and 
maturative. A decoction of the dried leaves is used for enemas 
for expelling certain intestinal worms. 

Distribution : Cultivated, either on a commercial scale, or for 
local use, in almost all provinces. 

Genus SOLAN UM 
SOLAN UM CUM IN Gil Dunal TAL0NGTAL6NfiAN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves used in poultices are said to be mitigating and 
resolvent. The seeds are employed as a sedative, and are some- 
times used to cure toothache. 

SOLANUM MELONGENA L. EGG Plant or Tal6ng. 

Local names: Talchif/ or tanhif/ (wherever cultivated) ; bcroif/cna 
(Spanish). 

The roots in decoction are taken internally as an antiasthmatic 
and as a general stimulant. The leaves are employed to cure 
piles. 

Distribution : Cultivated in almost all provinces. 

SOLANUM NIGRUM L. K6nti. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The leaves when prepared in poultices are said to have seda- 
tive and healing properties. Prepared as an alcoholate, they are 
said to alleviate neuralgic pains. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Genus BACOPA 

BACOPA MONNIERA (L.) Wettst. ULASfMAN-Aso. 

Local names: Alasiman, olasiman (Cebu) ; ulasiman-afso (Taj^aloj?). 

The entire plant in decoction is utilized by the natives as 
a diuretic. 

Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Manila, Laguna, Cebu. 

Genus LIMNOPHILA 
LIMNOPHILA INDICA (L.) Druce Inata. 

Local name: Inata (Ta^alog). 

An infusion of the leaves is used in the cure of dysentery 
and dyspepsia. 



236 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Distribution: Cag-ayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Pan- 
gasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal Laguna, Leyte, Bukidnon, Davao, 
Lanao. In shallow, slow streams at low and medium altitudes, 
ascending to 1,500 meters. 

Genus SCOPARIA 

SCOPARIA DULCIS L. Malaamis. 

Local names: Is-isa (Pangasinan) ; kacha-kachdhan, hibi-hibihan (Ta- 
galog) ; vialaamis (Pampanga) ; tnalismalisan (Polillo) ; swmpalokan 
(Laguna). 

An infusion of the leaves and tops is used as a tea in certain 
affections of the intestines. 

Distribution: From Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao. 

Family BIGNONIACEAE 

Genus CRESCENTIA 

CRESCENTIA ALATA H.B.K. HOJA-CRUZ. 

Local names: Krus-krusan (Rizal); hoja-cruz (Spanish-Filipino). 

A decoction of the leaves is employed as an astringent and 
antihemorrhagic, and is much used in haemoptysis and dy- 
sentery. 

Distribution : Rizal and Tayabas. 

Genus DOLICHANDRONE 

DOLICHANDRONE SPATHACEA (L. f.) K. Schum. Tuwf. 

Local names: Pata (Union) ; tcnTgds (Palawan) ; tanghds (Mindoro, 
Masbate, Negros Occidental) ; tivi (Butuan) ; tiwi (Camarines, Tayabas, 
Mindoro, Agusan) ; tue (Tagalog) ; tui (Zambales, Bataan, Mindoro). 

The seeds are administered in the form of a powder, gen- 
erally for some nervous complaint. 
Distribution: Northern Luzon to Basilan Island. 

Genus OROXYLUM 
OROXYLUM INDICUM (L.) Vent. Pingkapingkahan. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The leaves are used for the cure of female irregularities. 
The bark of the root is said to be antirheumatic if used in 
decoction, and also antidysenteric and diaphoretic. The leaves 
are g-enerally used in antirheumatic baths. 

Family PEDALIACEAE 

Genus SESAMUM 
SESAMUM ORIENTALE L. {S. indicum DC.) Sesame or LiNGA. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 237 

The oil extracted from the seeds is used as an antirheumatic 
in massage treatment. 

Family ACANTHACEAE 

Genus ACANTHUS 
ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS L. DiLIuAriu. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names 
are given in the section on mangrove swamps. 

The leaves and roots are used in decoction as an antiasthmatic. 
A decoction of the leaves is considered as emollient. 

Genus BARLERIA 
BARLERIA PRIONITISL. KOKONG-MANUK. 

Local names: Kolintd (Manila); korrintd (Mindoro) ; kokong-manuk, 
kuldyita (Tagalog) ; kurdnta (Mindoro). 

A decoction of the leaves and tops is used for bathing in 
cases of febrile catarrh. 

Distribution : Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Min- 
doro, Cuyo Islands. 

Genus BLECHUM 
BLECHUM BROWN El Juss. SAPIN-SAPIN. 

Local names: Bumburrua (Baguio) ; ddiang (Tagalog) ; damong-samhdW 
(Bataan) ; garem nga purau (Union) ; karis-busuk (Ilocos Norte) ; sapin- 
sapin (Tagalog); tarre-tarre (Pangasinan). 

The entire plant in decoction is used as an antiblennorrhagic. 
The pounded leaves are employed as a vulnerary. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands, throughout the provinces of 
Luzon, Polillo, Leyte, Occidental Negros, Cebu, Misamis, Lanao. 

Genus GRAPTOPHYLLUM 

GRAPTOPHYLLUM PICTUM (L.) Griff. Atai-ATAI. 

Local names: Antolang (Tagalog) ; balasbds, pdsau (Bisaya) ; atai-dtai, 
balasbds-nialomai, terndte, yovas (Tagalog) ; kalupueng (Laguna) ; morado 
(Spanish-Filipino); sardsa (Tagalog). 

The leaves are used as an emollient poultice on ulcers of the 
hand and for keeping open artificial ulcers made for medicinal 
purpose. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Lepanto, Pampanga, 
Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Palawan, 
Lanao, Davao. 

Genus JUSTICIA 

JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. 1 KapANATULOT. 

Local names: Bugndu, bugno-negro (Palawan) ; bunldu (Bisaya) ; huling- 
bdngon (Balabac Island); kadpaidn (Union); kapanatiilot (Tagalog); 



238 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

malabulak, San Francisco-bundok (Bataan) ; padir (Abra) ; paritulot (Ri- 
zal, Cavite, Tayabas) ; pidpulto (Cagayan) ; tuhod-manuk (Cavite). 

The fresh leaves are used in topicals to cure the oedema of 
beriberi and are said to be useful in rheumatism. In decoction 
they are used for bathing during childbirth. 

Distribution: Bulacan, Biliran Island, Leyte, Capiz, Bohol, 
Palawan, Balabac Island, Butuan, Lanao, Cotabato, Zamboanga. 

JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS L. 

The leaves are used externally as an astringent in the cure of 
certain eruptions of the skin. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands and northern Luzon to Min- 
danao, in most islands and provinces. In open places at low 
and medium altitudes. 

Genus PSEUDERANTHEMUM 

PSEUDERANTHEMUM PULCHELLUM (Hort.) Merr. LiMANG-SUGAT. 

Local names: Aliopiop, mojno, maladosodos, panaptum (Bisaya) ; cinco- 
llagas (Spanish-Filipino); kinatuluan, pasioki (Bataan); limdng-sugat, 
silisilihan (Tagalog) ; pulpfdto (Ilocos Norte, Union) ; sinkilladas (Pangasi- 
nan, Rizal, Tayabas); tuldng-mamik (Negros Occidental and Tagalog). 

The roots, stems and leaves in decoction are used against 
aphthoes and also as a cicatrizant of wounds, ulcers, etc. 

Distribution: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Western 
Visayan Islands, Mindanao. 

Genus RHINACANTHUS 

RHINACANTHUS NASUTA (L.) Kurz Tagak-TAGAK. 

Local names: Cinco-Uagas na puti, silisiWian, tagak-tagdk, taging-tagdk 
(Tagalog). 

The sap of the root and leaves, or a decoction of the same, 
is efficient in certain obstinate forms of dermatosis. 
Distribution: Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna. 

Family PLANTAGINACEAE 

Genus PLANTAGO 
PLANT AGO MAJOR L. PLANTAIN. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on official medicinal plants. 

A decoction of the leaves is used as an emollient. 

Genus BORRERIA 
BORRERIA HISPIDA (L.) K. Schum. {Spermacoce hispida L.) 
Local name: Landrina (Tagalog). 

The leaves brewed in decoction are used as an" astringent in 
hemorrhoids. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 239 

Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan to Batangas and 
Laguna, Mindoro, Panay, Basilan. In open dry places at low 
and medium altitudes. 

Genus GARDENIA 

GARDENIA PSEUDOPSI Dl U M (Blanco) F.-Vill. 

Local names: Baydg-usd (Masbate) ; butunalaga (Cagayan); kasablan 
(Cotabato) ; kasikas (Benguet) ; lamog (Cotabato) ; malabayabas (Taga- 
log) ; sulipa (Bataan), 

The fruit is used as a cure for smallpox. 
Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Genus HYDNOPHYTUM 
HYDNOPHYTUM FORMICARIUM Jack Banghai. 

Local name: Banghai (Bisaya). 

The swollen woody bases of the plants are used in the form 
of a decoction as an efficient remedy in liver and intestinal 
complaints. 

Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Surigao. 

Genus HYM ENODICTYON 

HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM (Roxb.) Wall. Aligango. 

Local names: Abdr (Abra, Ilocos Sur) ; aligango (Bulacan) ; aligpdgi 
(Davao) ; balang-kori (Nueva Ecija) ; Mgdu (Rizal) ; kamataldng (Basilan 
Island); matalisai (Guimaras Island); tnbo-bato (Palawan). 

The bark is used as a substitute for cinchona bark in its 
antiperiodic effects. 

Distribution : Abra to Rizal, Palawan, Guimaras Island, 
Davao, Basilan. 

Genus MORINDA 
MORI N DA CITRI FOLIA L. BanGKORO. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on dyes. 

The fruit is used as an emmenagogue. The leaves when 
fresh are applied on ulcers to effect a rapid cure. The sap of 
the leaves is antiarthritic. 

Distribution: Widely distributed in thickets and second- 
growth forests in the Philippines. 

Genus MUSSAENDA 

MUSSAENDA PHILIPPICA A. Rich. TiNULUAN-GATAS. 

Local names: Agboi (Bisaya); aghoi (Guimaras Island, Negros, Min- 
doro); ayaunikilat (Cotabato); balai-lavidk (Iloko) ; balikaran (Tayabas); 
bogon (Samar) ; buyon (Samar, Palawan) ; darumabi (Cotabato) ; galas 
virgen (Cavite) ; gibuian (Misamis) ; hagbui (Palawan) ; kdhoi-daldga 
(Zambales, Bataan) ; malacafe (Camarines) ; matdng-drau (Bisaya) ; mit- 



240 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

yon (Agusan) ; taba-tabd (Camarines) ; talik-hardp (Tayabas, Polillo) ; 
taua-taud (Camarines, Butuan, Bukidnon) ; tinga-tingd (Tagalog) ; tinu- 
luan-gdtas (Rizal). 

This plant is said to be used against snake bites and to cure 
dysentery. The roots and leaves in decoction are used for cer- 
tain affections of the chest and lungs. The root is employed 
in cases of jaundice as are also the white, full-grown sepals. 
The leaves, employed externally in decoction, are used as an 
emollient. 

Distribution: Common and widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines. 

Genus NAUCLEA 

NAUCLEA JUNGHUHNII (Miq.) Merr. Mamb6g. 

Local names: Bangkdl (Tayabas, Sorsogon, Masbate) ; kabdk (Samar, 
Leyte) ; mambog (Camarines); sapaun (Davao) ; tiroron (Camarines). 

A decoction of the bark is used in connection with menstrua- 
tion. 

Distribution: Isabela, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Albay, 
Masbate, Leyte, Negros, Misamis, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga. 
In primary forests at low altitudes. 

NAUCLEA ORIENTALIS L. BANGkAl. 

Local names: Balikakak (Cotabato) ; bangkdl (Zambales, Bataan, 
Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Leyte, Iloilo, Butuan, Cotabato, 
Palawan) ; buldia (Babuyanes and Batanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Abra, 
Benguet, Union, Pangasinan) ; kabdk (Butuan). 

The leaves are applied to boils and tumors. The bark in 
decoction is said to be vulnerary, antidiarrhetic, and a cure for 
toothache. 

Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. 

Genus OLDENLANDIA 
OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA L. 

Local name: Ulasiman-dso (Tagalog). 

The entire plant in decoction is used as a febrifuge and a 
stomachic. 

Distribution : Throughout the Philippines. Often common in 
and about towns, in waste places and gardens. 

Genus PAEDERIA 
PAEDERIA FOETIDA L. 

Local names: Bangogan (Bikol) ; dikut na buluk (Pampanga) ; kantukai 
(Tagalog, Pampanga); kantutak (Tayabas); kantutan (Tagalog); lilitan 
(Bisaya) ; matabdng -dikut (Pampanga); taitdi (Bisaya). 

A decoction of the bark is taken as an emetic, while that of 
the leaves is used in antirheumatic baths. 

Distribution : Widely distributed throughout the Islands. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 241 

Genus PAVETTA 
PA V ETTA INDICA L. GUSOKAN. 

Local names: Galauan (Bukidnon) ; gesges (Cagayan) ; gusokan (Cebu, 
Bataan) ; malakape (Zambales, Bulacan) ; pangapatoten (Cagayan) ; sang- 
kilan (Negros Occidental); tamayayi (Negros Oriental). 

The bark in decoction, or pulverized, is administered, especially 
to children, to correct visceral obstructions. The leaves in 
decoction are used externally to alleviate the pains caused by 
hemorrhoids. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Basilan. 

Genus PSYCHOTRIA 

PSYCHOTRIA LUZONIENSIS (Cham, and Schlecht.) F.-Vill. Takpo. 

Local names: Alitakbo, huruhiigndi (Camarines) ; altoko, dumamai 
(Nueva Vizcaya) ; kadpadyan (Union) ; kahtbribo-Iabdyo (Zambales) ; 
katagpo (Pampanga, Bulacan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna) ; katagpong-gubat 
(Rizal) ; kombateo (Tayabas) ; nguspul (Benguet) ; takpo (Tayabas, La- 
guna, Batangas, Cavite) . 

A decoction of the root is administered as an antidysenteric 
remedy. 

Distribution: Laguna to northern Mindanao. 

PSYCHOTRIA MINDORENSIS Elm. 
Local name: Tagulinau (Bikol). 

This plant is said to be a cure for certain eye troubles. 

Distribution: Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Mindoro, Leyte, 
Panay, Negros, Mindanao. In primary forests at low and me- 
dium altitudes. 

Genus RUBIA 
RUBIA CORDI FOLIA L. Mangil. 

Local name: Mangil (Benguet). 

The roots in decoction are used to cure certain disorders of 
the urinary organs. 

Distribution : Abundant in the Mountain Province of Luzon, 
and occurring also in Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Lanao, Davao. 

Family CUCURBITACEAE 

Genus BENINCASA 

BENINCASA H ISP I DA (Thunb.) Cogn. Waxgourd or KONDOL. 

Local names: Gondol (Pangasinan) ; kondol (Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pam- 
panga, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines Norte 
and Sur, Marinduque, Iloilo, Cebu, Misamis, Cuyo) ; maliiigga (Cavite) ; 
sekoi (Tagalog) ; tambidok (Tagalog) ; tangkoi (Ilocos Norte and Sur, 
Abra, Cagayan, Isabela, Union) ; tangkud (Rizal, Camarines) ; tibaidiong 
(Bataan). 

177674 16 



242 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The fresh fruit, made into a syrup, is administered generally 
in all disorders of the respiratory organs. 

Distribution : Cultivated throughout the Islands. 

Genus LAGENARIA 

LAGENARIA LEUCANTHA (Duch.) Rusby COMMON GoURD or tJPO, 

Local names: Barantiong (Albay) ; calabaza blanca (Spanish); goboi 
(long variety: Pangasinan) ; kalahdha-majndi (Zambales) ; kcdabdsang- 
piiti (Camarines Norte and Sur, Misamis) ; kalubai (Iloilo, Cuyo) ; kondol 
(Cagayan) ; iabdiag (round variety: Manila, Camarines Sur, Marinduque) ; 
iahidiong (long variety: Pangasinan) ; tubuiigau (both long and round 
varieties: Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Union; round variety: 
Pangasinan, Zambales) ; opo or upo (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, 
Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines Norte 
and Sur, Leyte, Iloilo, Marinduque). 

The green fruit, prepared as a syrup, is employed as a pectoral. 
Distribution : Cultivated in all provinces. 

Genus LUFFA 

LUFFA CYLINDRICA (L.) M. Roem. SONGE GoURD or PatOLANG Ligau. 

Local names: Batiitang-ndk (Rizal); kabatiti (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos 
Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Union, Mountain, Zambales, Pangasinan) ; kabatiti- 
ti-dso (Union) ; pepinillo de Sayi Gregorio (Spanish-Filipino) ; patolang 
ligdu (Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Cavite, 
Batangas, Tayabas, Mindoro, Marinduque) ; tabobog (Tagalog) ; tabobok 
(Tarlac, Bulacan). 

The dried fruit is steeped and the resulting liquid used as an 
effective emetic. 

Distribution: This wild form occurs in many provinces. 

Genus MOMORDICA 
MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. AmpALAYA. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on food plants. 

The sap of the leaves is used as a parasiticide, and the fruit 
when macerated in oil as a vulnerary. 

MOMORDICA COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.) Spreng. TaB0G-6k. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

The seeds are used as a pectoral when pulverized or prepared 
in the form of a decoction. 

Genus TRICHOSANTHES 

TRICHOSANTHES QU I NQUANGULATA A. Gray KatimbAu. 

Local names: Kabalonga (Laguna); kathnbdu (Benguet) ; patola-ai- 
gaidng (Nueva Vizcaya) ; tabau-tabdu (Pangasinan) ; tabugok (Bulacan) ; 
timon-timon (Abra). 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 243 

The mature seeds, finely powdered, are cooked with coconut 
oil. After cooling, the oil is applied externally to cure itches. 
Also, the powdered seeds are put in wine and taken internally for 
stomachache. 

Distribution : Camiguin Island, Babuyanes Islands, Cagayan 
to Laguna, Masbate, Antique, Lanao, Davao. 

Family GOODENIACEAE 

Genus SCAEVOLA 

SCAEVOLA FRUTESCENS (Mill.) Krause Mosbor6n. 

Local names: Agusiihin (Zambales) ; balok-bdlok (Polillo) ; bokdbok 
(Tagalog, Bisaya) ; bosboron (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya) ; bdto (Tagalog, 
Bisaya) ; dudukduken (Ilocos Norte) ; liyiog, linu (Zambales) ; 'itialmalu- 
kung (Union); mosboron (Tagalog, .Bisaya); panabolong (Tagalog, 
Bisaya); tagustus (Bisaya). 

The roots yield a decoction used in beriberi and in certain syphi- 
litic affections, also in dysentery. The leaves are smoked like 
tobacco. 

Distribution: Sea coasts throughout the Islands. 

Family COMPOSITAE 

Genus AGERATUM 

AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L. BULAK-MANUK. 

Local names: Asipukpiik (Pangasinan) ; bahug-bahug (Negros) ; bulak- 
manuk (Bulacan) ; damong-palids (Manila) ; gamot-tulisdn (Tagalog) ; 
damong-kambing (Rizal) ; damong-paildya (Laguna) ; kamubuag (Batanes 
Island) ; karokanding (Leyte) ; kolong-kogong (Camarines) ; pagpdgai 
(Bontoc) ; singilan (Cagayan). 

The stem, roots, and flowers of this plant are boiled and the 
resulting fluid used for stomach trouble. The leaves pounded 
and mixed with salt are a very effective vulnerary. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands, throughout Luzon, Mindoro, 
Culion, Palawan, Iloilo, Leyte, Antique, Occidental Negros, 
Siargao Island, Davao, and Cotabato. 

Genus ARTEMISIA 
ARTEMISIA VULGARIS L. DAMONG-MARI'a or MUGWORT. 

A description of this species and its local names are given 
in the section on official medicinal plants. 

The leaves are used as a carminative and emmenagogue. 
Distribution : Widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Genus BLUMEA 
BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. Samb6nG. 

A description and figure of this species and its local names are 
given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. 



244 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

The roots are used locally as a cure for colds. The leaves 
are applied to the forehead to relieve headache. An infusion 
is used as a bath for women in childbirth. A tea made from the 
leaves is used for stomach pains. A decoction of the leaves 
is used as antidiarrhetic and antigastralgic. The decoction is 
used also for aromatic baths in rheumatism. 

Genus CENTIPEDA 
CENTIPEDA MINIMA (L.) A. Br. & Aschers. Harangan. 

Local names: Harangayi (Tagalog, Bisaya) ; pisik (Bisaya). 

The leaves, squeezed between the fingers and inhaled, clear 
the head by provoking sneezing. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, 
Manila, Lanao. 

Genus CHRYSANTHEMUM 

CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM L. CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

Local names: Mansanilla a babassit (Union); manzanilla (Spanish- 
Filipino); dolontas (Tagalog). 

The heads, in infusion, are used as a carminative. 
Distribution: Lepanto, Bontoc, Union, Manila, Camarines, 
Malamaui Island, Occidental Negros. 

Genus CROSSOSTEPHIUM 
CROSSOSTEPHIUM CHINENSE (L.) Merr. Absinth or Ajenjo. 

Local name: Ajenjo (Spanish). 

The leaves and tops in infusion are a carminative and are 
said to be an emmenagogue. 

Distribution: Widely cultivated as a pot-plant. 

Genus ECLIPTA 
ECLIPTA ALBA (L.) Hassk. TULTULISAN. 

Local names: Higis-manuk, tinta-tintdhan (Tagalog) ; karimbudia 
(Bontoc) ; salsalida (Mindoro) ; tinta-tinta (Iloko) ; tultulisdn (Fangasi- 
nan) ; yayaod (Batanes Islands). 

The leaves and tops brewed in decoction are used in cases of 
hepatitis. Pounded they are employed for healing wounds. 
Distribution: Batanes Islands to Cotabato. 

Genus ELEPHANTOPUS 
ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER L. Pagbilau. 

Local names: Kabkdbon (Union); pagbilau (Tayabas). 

A decoction of the roots and leaves is used as a diuretic, febri- 
fuge, and emollient. 

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the Islands. 



MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 245 

ELEPHANTOPUS SPICATUS Aubl. SUPSUPUT. 

Local names: Ardatag (Bisaya) ; dila-dila (Laguna) ; dilang-usd (Ta- 
galog) ; supsuput (Bontoc) ; maratabdko (Union). 

The leaves are used as a vulnerary. 

Distribution : Batanes Islands to Davao, but particularly abun- 
dant in northern Luzon. 

Genus EMILIA 
EMILIA SONCHIFOLIA (L.) DC. Tagulinau. 

A description of this species and its local names are given in 
the section on food plants. 

A decoction of the leaves has proved very efficacious in cases 
of fever. It is also used in combating infantile tympanites. 

Genus EN HYDRA 
ENHYDRA FLUCTUANS Lour. 

The leaves are pressed and applied to the skin in the cure of 
certain herpetic eruptions. 
Distribution : Manila. 

Genus EUPATORIUM 
EUPATORIUM TRIPLINERVE Vahl AlAPANA. 

Local names: Aiapdna (Manila); apdna (Tagalog). 

The leaves in infusion are used as a sudorific and tonic, partic- 
ularly in fevers. 
. Distribution: Manila, Laguna. 

Genus GRANGEA 
GRANGEA MADERASPATAN A (L.) Poir. PAKPAk6-TI-AL0G. 

Local name: Pakpako-ti-dlog (Union). 

The leaves in infusion are used as a stomachic and antispas- 
modic. 

Distribution : Union, Pampanga, Manila. 

Genus PTEROCAULON 
PTEROCAULON REDOLENS (Forst. f.) F.-Vill. SUBOSUB. 

Local names: Samhoyig-gald' (Tagalog); sambung (Mindoro) ; sabosob- 
a-bdlang (Pangasinan) ; subosub (Ilocos Norte). 

The leaves in decoction are used for stimulant baths. 
Distribution : Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bontoc, Le- 
panto, Isabela, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Mindoro. 

Genus SIEGESBECKIA 
SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS L. 

Local names: Kaedeo (Batanes Islands); put (Bontoc). 

The leaves in decoction are used as an alterative and, when 
applied in the form of lotion, as a vulnerary. 

Distribution: Batanes Islands, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, 
Lanao. 



246 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 

Genus SPHAERANTHUS 

SPHAERANTHUS AFRICANUS L. Samb6nG-DAM6. 

Local names: Botobotoyiis, palpalsuut (Union); malasamhong-damo (Ta- 
yabas) ; sambong-gald' (Tagalog) ; talatabdko (Bisaya). 

A decoction of the leaves and tops is taken as a stomach tonic 
and is also employed as an antiblennorrhagic. 

Distribution : Babuyanes Islands, northern and central Luzon, 
Mindoro, Biliran, Basilan. 

Genus SPILANTHES 
SPILANTHES ACM ELLA (L.) Murr. PaluMAI. 

Local names: Pilet-pilet (Balabac Island); palumdi (Pampanga). 

The roots, leaves, and tops brewed as a decoction are used 
as a vulnerary. 

Distribution: Cagayan, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, La- 
guna, Mindoro, Balabac Island. 

Genus TAGETES 
TAGETES PAT U LA L. MARIGOLD or Ahito. 

Local names: Ahito, amarillo (Spanish-Filipino). 

A decoction of the flowers is used as a carminative and is said 
to be refreshing. 

Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Islands, naturalized 
in parts of the Mountain Province. 

Genus VERNONIA 

VERNON I A CINEREA (L.) Less. Agas-m6R0. 

Local names: Agas-moro (Union); kulong-kugon (Samar) ; magmansi 
(Pangasinan) ; sagit (Bontoc) ; tagulinai (Tayabas) ; yayulinau (Polillo). 

An infusion of this plant is taken internally as a cough med- 
icine. This plant is also said to be used on wounds. The leaves 
are used in decoction against humid herpes, eczema, etc. 

Distribution : In open waste places throughout the Philippines. 

Genus WEDELIA 

WEDELIA Bl FLORA (L.) DC. HagONOI. 

Local names: Agonoi (Visaya) ; anaoi-6i (Batanes Islands); hagonoi 
(Union, Batangas, Tayabas, Polillo, Mindoro, Iloilo, Agusan) ; hago-onoi 
(Davao). 

The leaves used in decoction are vulnerary and antiscabious. 
A tea made from the roots and leaves is said to be a remedy for 
stomachache. The plant is also said to be useful in case of 
fever. 

Distribution : Common in thickets and along the shore through- 
out the Philippines. 



INDEX 



[This index embraces Volumes 1, 2, and 3. The numbers of the volumes are given in 
Roman numerals and the numbers of the pages in Arabic. Scientific names are written in 
italics and official local names in black-faced type.] 



Abak&, see Musa textUis, 
Abang-S.bang, see Curculigo recurvata. 
Abang-abang, see Leea manillensis. 
Abang-abang, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Abar, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Abelmoschus moschatus: 

Distribution, iii, 208. 

Local names, iii, 208. 

Medicinal, iii, 208. 
Abelnwschus multilobatus : 

Description and distribution, i, 386. 

Local name, i, 386. 

Rope, i, 386. 
Abiang, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Abigi, see Arenga tremula. 
Abigon, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Abiki, see Arenga tremula. 
Abiki, see Pinanga spp. 
Abilo, see Garuga abilo. 
Abkel, see Pittosporum resiniferum. 
Abkol, see Pittosporum resiniferum. 
Abroma, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Abroma augusta, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Abroma fastuosa: 

Description and distribution, i, 396. 

Local names, i, 395. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i, 395. 

Medicinal, iii, 210. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Abrome, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Abrus precatorius: 

Description and distribution, i, 378. 

Local names, i, 378. 

Fiber, i, 378. 

Medicinal, iii, 67, 189. 
Absinth, see Crossostephium chinense. 
Abuab, see Lophopetalum toxicum. 
Abud, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Abukai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Abukobuko, see Strychnos multiflora. 
Abustra, see Archangelisia fiava. 
Abutilon indicum: 

Distribution, iii, 208. 

Local names, iii, 208. 

Medicinal, iii, 208. 
Ablitra, see Archangelisia fiava. 



Acacia farnesiana: 

Description and distribution ii, 208. 

Figure, ii, 205. 

Local name, ii, 204. 

Gum, ii, 204. 

Perfume, ii, 304. 
Acalypha indica: 

Distribution, iii, 197. 

Local names, iii, 197. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 
Acanthaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 404. 

Lye, iii, 90. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 82. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 237. 
Acanthtis ebracteatus : 

Description, i, 84. 

Distribution, i, 24. 

Local name, i, 84. 
Acanthus ilicifolius : 

Description, i, 84. 

Distribution, i, 24, 101. 

Figure, i, 85. 

Local names, i, 82. 

Lye, iii, 90. 

Medicinal, iii, 237. 
Acaptilco, see Cassia alata. 
Achote, see Bixa orellana. 
Achras sapota : 

Local name, ii, 73. 

Gum chicle, ii, 73. 
Achu6te, see Bixa orellana, 
Achyranthes aspera: 

Distribution, iii, 184. 

Local names, iii, 184. 

Medicinal, iii, 184. 
Acoelorrhaphe wightii: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Acoro, see Acorus calamus. 
Acorus calamus: 

Description and distribution, ii, 182. 

Local names, ii, 181. 

Calamus oil, ii, 181. 

Condiment, ii, 252. 

Medicinal, ii, 66, 173. 
Acrostichum aureum: 

Description, i, 32. 

Distribution, i, 24, 32. 

Figure, i, 33. 

247 



248 



INDEX 



Acroatichum aureum — ^Continued. 

Local names, i, 32. 

Medicinal, iii, 167. • 

Actinorhytis calapparia: 

Description and distribution, i, 139. 

Local name, i, 139. 
Adang, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Adelfa, see Neriuvi indicum. 
Adenanthera intermedia: 

Distribution, iii, 189. 

Local names, iii, 189. 

Medicinal, iii. 189. 
Adgau, see Premva odorata. 
Adiangau, see Agathis alba. 
Adiantuin jihilipijenne : 

Distribution, iii, 167. 

Local names, iii, 167. 

Medicinal, iii, 167. 
Adiyo, see Premna odorata. 
Adlai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Adonidia merrillii: 

Description and distribution, i, 139. 

Figure, i, 141, 142. 

Local names, i, 139. 

Areca nut substitute, i, 139 ; ii, 252. 

Ornamental, i, 139. 
Aduas, see Dracontomclutn edule. 
Adupong, see Sterculia crassiratnea. 
Aegiceras cornicidatum : 

Description, i, 72. 

Distribution, i, 22, 72. 

Figure, 1, 74, 75, 77. 

Local names, 1, 72. 

Firewood, i, 116. 
Aegiceras floridum : 

Description, i, 76. 

Figure, i, 78. 

Local name, i, 76. 
Aerides qninquevulnerum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 14. 

Figure, iii, 15, 16. 

Local names, iii, 14. 

Ornamental, iii, 14. 
Aerua lanata: 

Distribution, iii, 184. 

Local names, iii, 184. 

Medicinal, iii, 184. 
Afii, see Dipterocarjjus vernicifluus. 
Afulut, see Urena lobata. 
Agagai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
AgagVjulin, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Agamid, see Ficus palawanensis. 
Agamit, see Ficus palawanensis. 
Agandung, see Trema orientalis. 
Agkru, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Agas, see Palaquium philippense. 
Agas, see Rhynchosi>ora corytnbosa. 
Agas, see Scirjjus grossus- 
Agas, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. 
Agas-as, see Flacourtia rukam. 
Agaricaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Agaricus argyrostectus: 

Description, iii, 132. 

Distribution, iii, 132. 

Edible fungi, iii, 132. 



Agaricus boltoni: 

Description, iii, 132. 

Distribution, iii, 132. 

Figure, iii, 133. 

Edible fungi, iii, 132. 
Agaricus luzonensis : 

Description, iii, 132. 

Edible fungi, iii, 132. 
Agaricus manilensis : 

Description, iii, 134. 

Distribution, iii, 134. 

Edible fungi, iii, 134. 
Agaricus merrillii: 

Description, iii, 134. 

Figure, iii, 135. 

Edible fungi, iii, 134. 
Agaricus perjuscus : 

Description, iii, 134. 

Edible fungi, iii, 134. 
Agas-m6ro, see Vernonia cinerea. 
Apat, see Zingiber officinale. 
Agathis alba : 

Description and distribution, ii, 29. 

Figures, ii, 19, 21, 23. 

Local names, ii, 18. 

Analysis of Manila copal, ii, 24. 

Distillation of Manila copal, ii, 27. 

Export of Manila copal, ii, 20. 

Oxidation of Manila copal, ii, 28. 

Method of collecting the resin, ii, 22. 

Uses, ii, 20. 

Varnish, Manila copal in, ii, 26. 
Agave cantula : 

Distribution, i, 362. 

Local name, i, 362. 

Fiber, i, 362. 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 

Paper, i, ' 415. 

Tensile strength, i, 322. 
Agave sisalana : 

Distribution, 1, 362. 

Local name, i, 362. 

Fiber, i, 362. 
Agboi, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Agboi, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Agboligan, see Clerodendron macrostegium. 
Agdang, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Agelaea everettii: 

Description and distribution, i, 376. 

Local names, i, 376. 

Fiber, i, 376. 
Agem, see Decaspermuvi fruticosum. 
Ageratum conyzoides: 

Distribution, iii, 243. 

Local names, iii, 243. 

Medicinal, iii, 243. 
Agho, see Leucaena glauca. 
Agho, see Pithecolobium subacututn. 
Aghoi, see Mussaenda i^hilippica. 
Agiktik, see Desmodium heterocarpum. 
Agim a babae, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Agkui, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Aglai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Aglaia everettii: 

Description and distribution, ii, 302. 
« Figure, ii, 303. 



INDEX 



249 



Aglaia everettii — Continued. 

Local names, ii, 302. 

Food, ii, 302. 
Aglaia glomerata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 302. 

Local names, ii, 302. 

Food, ii, 302. 
Aglaia harmsiana: 

Description and distribution, ii, 304. 

Figure, ii, 305. 

Local names, ii, 304. 

Food, ii, 304. 
Agnaia, see Lumnizera littorea. 
Agnaya, see Stenochlaena palustris. 
Agno-casto, see Vitex ncgundo. 
Ago, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Agoho, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Agok, see Casuariyia equisetifolia. 
Agoko, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Agonoi, see Wedelia biflora. 
Agooi, see Honwnoia riparia. 
Agoso, see Casc^iarina equisetifolia. 
Agpoi, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Agpor, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Agrau, see Preinna nauseosa. 
Agsam, see Lygodium circinnatum. 
Agsam, see Lygodium japonicum. 
Agsam, see Lygodium scandens. 
Agtimaloi, see Tahernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Agubahan, see Crinum asiaticum. 
Agubarau, see Vitex trifolia. 
Agukiik, see Homonoia riparia. 
Aguriaiiang, see Abrus precatorius. 
Agunyanyang, see Abrus precatorius. 
Agrusahis, see Payiicum palmaefolium. 
Agusais, see Panicum palmaefolium. 
Agusiihin, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Agu-u, see Pinus v^erkusii. 
Ahito, see Tagetes patula. 
Aiam-iiam, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Aiapina, see Eupatorium triplinerve. 
Aimit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Aizoaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 276. 
Ajenjo, see Crossostephium chinense. 
Ajos, see Allium sativum. 
AJos-ajos nga maputi, see HymenocaUis lit- 

torale. 
Akat, see Bruguiera conjugata and Bruguiera 

sexangula. 
Ak-o, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Akum, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Alag&si, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Alagau, see Premna nauseosa. 
Alag&u, see Premna odorata. 
Alagau-blanco, see Premna nauseosa. 
Alagau-d&gat, see Premna nauseosa. 
Alagau-gubat, see Premna nauseosa. 
Alagosi, see Greicia acuminata. 
Alahan, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Alahan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 
Alai, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
AJaka, see Palaquium philippense. 
AJakaak, see Palaquium philippense. 
Alal, see Piyius insularis. 
Al-alinau, see Greivia multiflora. 



Alangabun, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Alangasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Alangigan, see Canangium odoratum. 
Alangilan, see Canangium odoratum,. 
Alangki, see Canarittm luzonicum. 
Alasan, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Alasas, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Alasas, see Pandanus liczonensis. 
A las doce, see Pentnpetes phoenicea. 
Alasiman, see Bacopa monniera. 
Alauihau, see Dracontomehim edule. 
Albahaca, see Ocimum basili/:u'in. 
Albahaca, see Ocimtim sanctum. 
Albahaca, see Sida cordifolia. 
Albahaca de caballo, see Lantana camara. 
Albangbang, see Bauhinia malabarica. 
Albizzia acle : 

Description and distribution, iii, 52. 

Figure, iii, 53, 55. 

Local names, iii, 52. 

Soap substitute, iii, 52. 
Albizzia lebbekoides : 

Description and distribution, ii, 288. 

Figure, ii, 289. 

Local names, ii, 288. 

Fermented drink, ii, 288. 
Albizzia sai^onaria: 

Description and distribution, iii, 52. 

Local names, iii, 52. 

Soap substitute, iii, 62. 
Albutra, see Archangelisia flava. 
Alchornea sicca : 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 
Alcohol : 

Areca caliso, i, 147. 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Arenga tremula, i, 158. 

Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 

Caryota majestica, i, 182. 

Caryota mistis, i, 182. 

Caryota merrilUi, i, 182. 

Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 
Aldonises, see Allium cepa. 
Aleurites fordii: 

Distribution, ii, 120. 

Extraction of tung oil, ii, 120. 

Properties of tung oil, ii, 123. 

Uses of tung oil, ii, 120, 122. 
Aleurites moluccana : 

Description, ii, 133. 

Distribution, ii, 124, 133. 

Figure, ii, 125, 127, 129. 

Local names, ii, 124. 

Analysis of kernels and oil, ii, 130-132. 

Extraction of oil, ii, 126, 128. 

Fertilizer, ii, 128, 132. 

Growth, ii, 132. 

Lumbang oil, ii, 123, 124. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 

Oil cake, ii, 128. 132. 

Planting, ii, 132. 

Separation of shell from kernel, ii, 126 



250 



INDEX 



Aleurites moluccana — Continued. 

Storage of nuts, ii, 128. 

Uses of oil, ii, 126. 
Aleurites montana, see Aleurites fordii. 
Aleurites trisperma: 

Description and distribution, ii, 137. 

Figure, ii, 135. 

Local names, ii, 134. 

Analysis of oil, ii, 134, 136. 

Baguilumbang oil, ii, 134. 

Fertilizer, ii, 137. 

Growth, ii, 137. 

Medicinal, iii, 198. 

Planting, ii, 137. 

Uses of oil, ii, 123. 
Alibabag, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Alibabai, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Alibambangan, see Lophopetalum toxicuyn. 
Alibang, see Bauhinia , malaharica. 
Alibang-b&ng, see Bauhinia malaharica. 
AJibhon, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Alibutbiit, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. 
Alibutbut, see Tabernae)iiontana pandacaqui. 
Alig&ngo, see Hym^nodictyon excelsurrK 
Aligpagi, see Hyxtenodictyon excelsuin. 
Aligpagi, see Phaleria perrottetiana. 
Alikbangon, see Comnielina benghalensis. 
Alilipai, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Alim, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. 
Alimbungug, see Ehretia navesii. 
Alimon, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Alimpuying, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Alimudias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Alinang, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Alinau, see Callicarpa erioclona. 
AlJnau, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Alinau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Alinau, see Grewia acuminata. 
Alinau, see Grewia multijiora. 
Alindagon, see Trema orientalis. 
Alingaro, see Elaeagnus philippensis. 
Alinsago, see Agathis alba. 
Aliopiop, see Pseuderanthernuin pulchellum. 
Alipata, see Dodonaea viscosa. 
Alipata, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Alipauin, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Alismaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 246. 
Alitagtag, see Allaeanthus glaber, 
AUa-allagat, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Allaeanthus glaber: 

Description and distribution, i, 368. 

Figure, ii, 263. 

Local names, i, 368 ; ii, 262. 

Fiber, i, 368. 

Food, ii, 262. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Allaeanthus luzonicus : 

Description, ii, 262. 

Local names, ii, 262. 

Food, ii, 262. 
AUagat, see Grewia acurninata. 
Al-lagat, see Uvaria rufa. 



Allamanda cathartica: 

Distribution, iii, 221. 

Local names, iii, 221. 

Medicinal, iii, 221. 
Allium cepa: 

Local names, iii, 175. 

Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Alliuyn sativum : 

Local names, iii, 175. 

Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Alluloi, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 
Alm&ciga, see Agathis alba. 
AJmaciga babae, see Agathis alba. 
Almendra de Indias, see Terminalia catappa. 
Alocasia macrorrhiza: 

Description and distribution, ii, 253. 

Local names, ii, 253. 

Food, ii, 253. 

Medicinal, iii, 173. 

Ornamental, ii, 253. 
Alogbati, see Basella rubra. 
Alokasok, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Aloko, see Garcinia dvlcis. 
Alokon, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Alolokdo, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 
Alom, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. 
Alpai, see Nephelium mutabUe. 
Alpasotes, see Chenopodium ambrosioidea. 
Alpasoti, see Chenopodium anibrosioides. 
Alphitonia excelsa: 

Description and distribution, i, 380. 

Local names, i, 380. 

Rope, i, 380. 
Alphonsea arborea : 

Distribution, iii, 187. 

Local names, iii, 187. 

Medicinal, iii, 187. 
Alpinia pyramidata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 259. 

Local names, ii, 259. 

Beverage, ii, 259. 

Condiment, ii, 259. 

Medicinal, iii, 177. 
Alstonia macrophylla: 

Distribution, iii, 221. 

Local names, iii, 221. 

Medicinal, iii, 221. 
Alsto7iia scholaris: 

Distribution, iii, 222. 

Local names, iii, 222. 

Medicinal, iii, 222. 
Altoko, see Fsychotria luzoniensis. 
Aluluan, see Pistia stratiotes. 
Alum, see Hibiscus tHiaceus. 
Alum, see Melanolepis tnultiglandvlosa. 
Alumamani, see Leea manillensis. 
Alumani, see Leea inanillensis. 
Alungkagai, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Alupag, see Euphoria didyma. 
Alupag-amo, see Euphoria didyma. 
Alupai, see Euphoria didyma. 
Alupak, see Euphoria didyma. 
Alupayi, see Homalomena philippinensia. 



INDEX 



251 



Alupi, see Terminalia edulis. 
Amagong, see Thespesia lanums. 
Amai-it, see Flacourtia rnkam. 
Amamali, see Leea aculeata. 
AmamS.li, see Leea manillensis. 
Am-amboligan, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Amapola, see Hibiscus mutabilis. 
Amaranthaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 274. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 184. 
Amaranthus spinosiis: 

Distribution, iii, 184. 

Local names, iii, 184. 

Medicinal, iii, 184. 
Amarayithus viridis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 274. 

Figure, ii, 277. 

Local names, ii, 274. 

Food, ii, 274. 
Amaras, see Piper retrofractum. 
Amargo, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Amargoso, see Momordica charantia. 
AmarUlo, see Tagetes patula. 
Amaryllidaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 362. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 176 
Ambal, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. 
Ambobanga, see Orania palindan. 
Amboi-uan, see Gretvia acuminata. 
Ambolong, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Ambong, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Ambulong, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Ambung, see Arenga ambong. 
Amgup, see Callicarpa caudata. 
Amlong', see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
Ammai, see Oryza sativa. 
Ammannia baccifera : 

Distribution, iii, 214. 

Local names, iii, 214. 

Medicinal, iii, 214. 
Ammugin, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Amominn sp. 

Rope, i, 365. 

Tensile strength, i, 322. 
Amongyang, see Pygeum preslii. 
Amora, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Amoras, see Andro2:>ogon zizanioides. 
Amor pho phallus campanulatus : 

Description and distribution, ii, 253. 

Figures, ii, 255. 

Local names, ii, 253. 

Food, ii, 253. 

Medicinal, iii, 173. 
Amor-seco, see Andropogon aciculatus. 
Ampalaya, see Momordica charantia^ 
Ampaleng, see Gonocaryum caUeryanum. 
Ampaleya, see Momordica charantia. 
Ampelocissus martini: 

Description and distribution, ii, 328. 

Food, ii, 328. 
Amug&n, see Pygeum glat^didosum. 
Amugan, see Pygeum preslii. 
Amugauen, see Sapindus saponaria. 



Amugis, see Dracontomelum edule. 
Amulong, see Rhaphidophora merriiliL 
Amiiyong', see Goniothalamus amuyon. 
Amuyong, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Anaau, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Anabiong, see Melochia umbellata. 
Anablong, see Trema orientalis. 
Anabling, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Anab6, see Abrojna fastuosa. 
Anabo, see AUaeanthus luzonicus. 
Anabo, see Melochia umbellata. 
Anabong, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Anabu, see Abroma fastxMsa. 
Anabun, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Anacardiaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 312. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 202. 
Oils, ii, 146. 
Anacardium occidentale : 

Description and distribution, ii, 146. 
Local names, ii, 146. 
Cashew nut oil, ii, 146. 
Medicinal, iii, 69, 202. 
Anacolosa luzoniensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 274. 
Figures, ii, 272. 273. 
Local names, ii, 270. 
Food, ii, 270. 
Anafu, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Anagas, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. 
Anagas, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 
Anagas, see Stercidia luzonica. 
Anagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Anagdung, see Trema orientalis. 
Anagep, see Terminalia edulis. 
Anagiim, see Trema orientalis. 
An&hau, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Anahauon, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Anahiuan, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Anakseng, see Greu-ia edulis. 
Anamirta cocculus : 

Description and distribution, i, 375. 
Local names, i, 375. 
Fish poison, iii, 79. 
Medicinal, iii, 185. 
Rope, i, 375. 
Tensile strength, i, 322. 
Ananas comosus: 

Distribution, i, 356. 
Local name, ii, 256. 
Fiber, i, 360. 
Food, ii, 256. 
Anandhin, see Callicarpa formosana. 
Ananggi, see Canarium ovatuin. 
Anangging-puti, see Dracontomelum edule. 
Anangilan, see Canangium odoratum. 
Anangin, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
AnaiTgiran, see Canangium odoratum. 
Anaoi-6i, see Wedelia biflora. 
Anariong, see Trema orientalis. 
Anarong, see Trema orientalis. 
Anau, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Anayup, see Callicarpa caudata. 



252 



INDEX 



AndadasI, see Cassia occidentalis. 
Andadasi, see Cassia sophera. 
Aridadasi nga bugbugtong, see Cassia alata. 
Andadasi nga dadakkol, see Cassia tora. 
Andadasi nga dakkel, see Cassia alata. 
Andang, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Andarayan, see Alsto7iia scholaris. 
Andibaing, see Mimosa pudica. 
Andropogon acicidatus: 

Distribution, iii, 169. 

Local names, iii, 169. 

Medicinal, iii, 169. 
Andropogon citratus: 

Description and distribution, ii, 176. 

Local names, ii, 174. 

Condiment, ii, 174. 

Distillation, ii, 175. 

Medicinal, iii, 169. 

Oil, ii, 174. 

Paper, ii, 176. 

Perfume, ii, 174. 
Andropogon halepensis: 

Description and distribution, i, 338. 

Local names, i, 338. 

Fiber, 1, 338. 
Andropogon nardus : 

Distribution, ii, 177. 

Oil, ii, 176. 
Andropogon sorghum: 

Distribution, iii, 170. 

Local names, iii, 170. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 
Andropogon zizanioides: 

Description and distribution, i, 339 ; ii, 
181. 

Figure, ii, 179. 

Local names, i, 338 ; ii, 177. 

Fiber, i, 338. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 

Vetiver oil, ii, 177. 
Aneg, see Dioscorea esculenta. 
Ang'angri, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Ang-angson, see Paspalum scrobiculatuvi. 
Ange, see Curcuma longa. 
Angelica, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. 
Aiiggit, see Ammannia baccifera. 
Anggu&t, see Bidens chinensis. 
Ang-nguad, see Bidens pilosa. 
Angset, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Anguar, see Bidens chinensis. 
Angud, see Achyran*hes aspera. 
Anias, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Anias de moras, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Anibong, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Anibong, see Oncosperma fila''>ne'^tos'um. 
Anibong, see Typha angustifolia. 
Anibung, see Oncosperma filamentosum. 
Anilai, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Anilau, see Alphitonia excelsa. 
Anilau, see Columbia blancoi. 
Anilau, see Columbia lanceolata. 
Anil&u, see Colunfibia serratifolia. 
Anilau, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Anilau, see Grewia mvltiflora. 
Aninga, see Agathis alba. 



AniiTgat, see Agathis alba. 
Aninguai, see Euphoria didyma. 
Anipa, see Nipa fruticans. 
Anis, see Foeniculum vulgare. 
Anisado : 

Clausena anisum-olens, ii, 212. 
Anis de moro, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Anisomeles indica: 

Distribution, iii, 232. 

Local names, iii, 232. 

Medicinal, iii, 232. 
Anisoptera thurifera: 

Description and distribution, ii, 52, 64. 

Figure, ii, 53, 55. 

Local names, ii, 52. 

Dimensions of fibers, i, 423. 

Palosapis resin, ii, 52. 

Paper, i, 423-425. 
Anitap, see Commersonia bartramia. 
An-nabo, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Annabo, see Malachra capitata. 
Annabo, see Malachra fasciata. 
Annabo a dadakkel, see Abalmoschus rnultilo- 

batus. 
Annatto tree, see Bixa orellana. 
Annonaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 375. 

Food plants, ii, 280. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 187. 

Oils, ii, 189. 
Annoyop, see Calliearpa forviosana. 
Annuad, see Flagellaria indica. 
An6nang, see Cordia myxa. 
Anonang-bakir, see Cordia myxa. 
Anonang gum : 

Cordia myxa, ii, 88. 
Anonang-lalaki, see Cordia cumingiana. 
Anonongkot, see Urena lobata. 
Anopol, see ConocephaUus violaceus. 
Anoran, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. 
Anos, see Schizostachyum lima. 
Ansa, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Antagan, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Antel, see Canarium villosum. 
Anteng, see Agathis alba. 
Anteng, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Anteng, see Canarium villosum. 
Antiaris toxicaria : 

Description and distribution, i. 

Local names, i, 368. 

Fiber, i, 368. 
Antidesma bunius: 

Description and distribution, ii, 
Figure, ii, 309, 311. 

Local names, ii, 308. 

Food, ii, 308. 
Antip61o, see Artocarpus communis. 
Antipole, see Artocarpus elastica. 
Antipolong lalaki, see Artocarpus communis. 
Anto, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. 
Antol, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Antolang, see GraptophyUum pictum. 
Antolangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Anton, see Lygodium semihastatum. 
Anuad, see Flagellaria indica. 



369. 



308. 



INDEX 



253 



Aniiang, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Anublng, see Artocarpus cutningiana. 
Anubing, see Ai'tocarjius rubrovenia. 
Anubing' gum : 

Artocariiua cutningiana, ii, 70. 
Anubing-kadios, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Anubing na nangka, see Gymnartocarpus 

woodii. 
Anubling, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Anubling, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Anugau, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Aniinang, see Cordia myxa. 
Anuriga, see Ficus benjamina. 
Aniinong, see Cordia myxa. 
Aniipol, see Conocephallus violaceus. 
Aon-o, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Apagi, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Apakapaka, see Palaquium philippense. 
Apalit, see Pterocarpus blancoi, 
Apalit, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Apalung, see Euphoria didyina. 
Apalya, see Momordica charantia. 
Apana, see Eupatorium triplinerve. 
Aparlgua, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Apas, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Apasotes, see Chenopodium ambrosioides. 
Apatot, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Apatut, see Bixa orellana. 
Apdong-kahoi, see Lunasia ainara. 
Api-fi,pi, see Avicennia alba. 
Api-fi,pi, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Api-api, see Avicennia spp. 
Apio, see Apium graveolens. 
Apiot, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Apitan, see Pygeum preslii. 
Apitong, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Apitong, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Apitong, see Dipterocarpus vernicifloruus. 
Apium graveolens: 

Distribution, iii, 218. 

Local names, iii, 218. 

Medicinal, iii, 218. 
Aplit, see Grewia multiflora. 
Apluda mutica: 

Description and distribution, i, 339. 

Local names, i, 339. 

Hats, i, 339. 
Apnig, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Apnit, see ArAsoptera thurifera. 
Apocynaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 403. 

Fiber plants, i, 406. 

Food plants, ii, 370. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 76. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 221. 

Oils, ii, 168. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 81. 
Apoi-apoian, see Amtnannia baccifera. 
Apoioi, see Homonoia riparia. 
Xpong, see Amorphophallus cajnjJantdatus. 
Aposotes, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Aposotes, see Rotala aquatica. 
Apot, see Chloranthus brachystachys. 
Apulas, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Aptilid, see Eleocharis dulcis. 



Apung, see Greivia stylocarpa. 
Apung-apung, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Aguilaria malaccensis: 

Distribution, i, 403. 

Fiber, i, 403. 
Araceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 353. 

Food plants, ii, 252. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 173. 

Oils, ii, 181. 

Paper substitute, iii, 90. 
Arachis hypogaea: 

Distribution, ii, 108. 

Local name, ii, 108. 

Peanut oil, ii, 108. 

Uses, ii, 109. 
Aragasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Aragau, see Premna nauseosa. 
Arai, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Araka, see Palaquium philipiiense. 
Araliaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 217. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 81. 
Arandon, see Trema orientalis. 
Aririgen, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Arangen oil; 

Ganophyllum falcatum, ii, 147. 
Arasnga, see Citrus maxima. 
Aratan, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Archangelisia jiava : 

Description and distribution, ii, 388. 

Local names, ii, 388. 

Dye, ii, 388. 

Medicinal, iii, 67, 185. 
Archonto phoenix alexandreae, i, 243. 
Ardatag, see Elephantopus spicatxis. 
Ardisia boissieri: 

Description and distribution, ii, 364. 

Local names, ii, 362. 

Food flavoring, ii, 364. 

Medicinal, iii, 219. 
Ardisia serrata : 

Description and distribution, iii, 95. 

Local names, iii, 95. 

Tannin, iii, 95. 
Areca caliso : 

Description, i, 143, 147. 

Local names, i, 147. 

Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. 

Areca nut substitute, ii, 252. 

Beverage, i, 148. 

Buyo substitute, i, 148. 
Areca camarinensis : 

Description, i, 143. 

Figure, i, 149. 
Areca catechu: 

Description, i, 140, 144. 

Distribution, i, 144. 

Figure, i, 145, 146. 

Local names, i, 144. 

Buyo chewing, ii, 252. 

Medicinal, iii, 172. 

VeJTTiifuge, iii, 65. 
Areca costulata, i, 143. 



254 



INDEX 



Areca hutchinsoniana : 

Description, i, 144, 148. 

Local names, i, 148. 

Medicinal, iii, 172. 
Areca ipot : 

Description, i, 143, 148. 

Distribution, i, 148. 

Figure, i, 149. 

Local names, i, 148. 

Areca nut substitute, i, 148 ; ii, 252. 

Ornamental, i, 148. 
Areca macrocarpa: 

Description, i, 140. 

Figure, i, 149. 
Areca parens : 

Description, i, 143. 

Figure, i, 149. 
Areca vidaliana: 

Description, i, 144, 148. 

Distribution, i, 148. 

Local names, i, 148. • 

Ornamental, i, 148. 
Areca whitfordii: 

Description, i, 143, 148. 

Distribution, i, 148. 

Local names, i, 148. 
Arenga nnibong : 

Description and distribution, i, 150. 

Local names, i, 150. 

Blowguns, i, 150. 

Food, ii, 252. 
Arenga mindorensis, see Arenga tremula. 
Arenga pinnata: 

Description and distribution, i, 150. 

Figure, i, 151. 153. 

Local names, i, 150. 

Alcoholic drinks, i, 155. 

Fiber, i, 152. 

Medicinal, iii, 172. 

Starch, i, 155. 

Sugar, ii, 156. 

Uses, i, 150. 

Vinegar, i, 156. 
Arenga saecharifera, see Arenga pinnata. 
Arenga tremula: 

Description, i, 150, 158. 

Distribution, 1, 158. 

Figure, i, 157. 

Local names, i, 158. 

Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. 

Beverage, i, 158. 

Fiber, i, 158. 
Argau, see Prenma nauseosa. 
Argau, see Premna odorata. 
Aribu-bu, see Dioscorea luzonenais. 
Ariman, see Pothoidiuni lobbianum. 
Arimit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Arinaya, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. 
Aristolochiaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 183. 
Aristoloch ia sericea : 

Distribution, iii, 183. 

Local name, iii, 183. 

Medicinal, iii, 183. 



Aristolochia tagala: 

Distribution, iii, 183. 

Local names, iii, 183. 

Medicinal, iii, 183. 
Ariuat, see Columella trifolia. 
Ariuat, see Tetrastigma harniandi. 
Aro, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Arobo, see Casuarina eqiiisetifolia. 
Arodaidai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Arogangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Arogbati, see Basella rubra. 
Aroho, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Ar6ma, see Acacia farnesiana. 
Aroo, see Casuarina eQuiseti folia. 
Aroro, see Andropogon halepensis. 
Artemisia vulgaris: 

Description and distribution, iii, 75, 243. 

Local names, iii, 75. 

Medicinal, iii, 75, 243. 
Artocarpus communis: 

Description and distribution, i, 369 ; ii, 
262. 

Figures, i, 371 ; ii, 264, 265. 

Local names, i, 369. 

Fiber, i, 369. 

Food, ii, 262. 

Medicinal iii, 180. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Artocarpus cumingiana: 

Description and distribution, ii, 70. 

Figure, ii, 69. 

Local names, ii, 70. 

Chewing gum, ii, 70. 

Medicinal, iii, 180. 
Ar^ocar pus elastica : 

Description, i, 370 : ii, 72. 

Figure, ii, 71. 

Local names, i, 369 ; ii, 70. 

Bird lime, ii, 70, 72. 

Chewing gum, ii, 70. 

Fiber, i, 369. 

Food, ii, 262. 
Artocarpus integra: 

Description and distribution, i, 370. 

Local names, i, 370. 

Figure, ii, 265, 26'7. 

Dye, ii, 387. 

Fiber, i, 370. 

Food, ii, 266. 

Medicinal, iii, 180. 

Preserves, ii, 266. 
Artocarpus odoratissima : 

Description and distribution, ii, 266. 

Figure, ii, 268. 

Local name, ii, 266. 

Food, ii, 266. 
Artocarpus rubrovenia : 

Description and distribution, i, 370. 

Local names, i, 370. 

Fiber, i, 370. 
Arundinaria niitakayamensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 258. 

Figure, i, 279. 

Local names, i, 258. 

Pipestems, i, 258. 



INDEX 



255 



Arunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 
Arupag, see Euphoria didyma. 
Arupai, see Euphoria didyma. 
Asam-asam, see Pithecolobiuin subacutum. 
Asana, see Pterocarpus blancoi. 
Asana, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Asclepiddaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 404. 

Fiber plants, i, 407. 

Food plants,, ii, 372. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 224. 
Asclepias curassai'ica : 

Description and distribution, i, 407. 

Local names, i, 407. 

Medicinal, iii, 224. 

Pillows, i, 407. 
Asimau, see Harrisonia perforata. 
Asipukpiik, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Asis, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Aspe-aspe, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Asplenium macrophyllum : 

Distribution, iii, 167. 

Local names, ii, 167. 

Medicinal, iii, 167. 
Asplenium nidus: 

Description and distribution, i, 24 ; iii, 11. 

Figure, iii, 10. 

Local name, iii, 11. 

Ornamental, iii, 11. 
Astible phiUppinensis : 

Description and distribution, iii, 95. 

Local names, iii, 95. 

Tobacco substitute, iii, 95. 
Asiite, see Bi.ea orellana. 
Atai-atai, see Graptophyllum pictum. 
Atai-bia, see Lochnera rosea. 
Atangen, see Toddalia asiatica. 
Athyrium escidentum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 241. 

Local name, ii, 241. 

Figures, ii, 242, 243. 

Food, ii, 241. 
Atibangdal, see Cyathea, spp. 
Atibulnak, see Riibus pectinellus. 
Atibutbut, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Atilang, see Cabilia blancoi. 
Atinge, see Premna odorata. 
Atsuete, see Bixa oreUana. 
Attai-na-baka, see Sida acuta. 
Attakai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Attalea cohune, i, 243. 
Auai, see Flagellaria indica. 
Auai si gayang, see Flagellaria indica. 
Auricularia auricula- judae : 

Description, iii, 112. 

Figrure iii, 113. 

Local name, iii, 112. 

Edible fungi, iii, 112. 
Auricularia brasiliensis : 

Description, iii, 114. 

Local name, iii, 114. 

Edible fungi, iii, 114. 
Auriculariaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 109. 



Auricularia cornea: 

Description, iii, 112. 

Edible fungi, iii, 112. 
Auricularia rnoeUerii : 

Description, iii, 114. 

Edible fungi, iii, 114. 
Auricularia polytricha : 

Description, iii, 110. 

Figures, iii, 105, 111, 115. 

Local name, iii, 110. 

Edible fungi, iii, 110. 
Auricularia tenuis: 

Description, iii, 114. 

Edible fungi, iii, 114. 
Ausiman, see Portulaca oleracea. 
Averrhoa bUimbi: 

Description and distribution, ii, 294. 

Figure, ii, 298. 

Local names, ii, 294. , 

Food, ii, 294. 

Medicinal, iii, 193. 

Soap substitute, iii, 56. 
Averrhoa carambola : 

Description and distribution, ii, 296. 

Figure, ii, 298. 

Local names, ii, 296. 

Food, ii, 296. 

Medicinal, iii, 193. 
Avicennia alba : 

Description, i, 82. 

Distribution, i, 22, 82. 

Local names, i, 82. 

Stands, i, 94-100. 

Timber, i, 82. 
Avicennia officinalis: 

Description, i, 80. 

Distribution, i, 22, 80. 

Figure, i, 23, 81, 83. 

Local names, i, 80. 

Medicinal, iii, 228. 

Stands, i, 94-100. 

Timber, i, 80. 
Ayalea, see Rhododendron vidalii. 
Ayaman-kilat, see Leea manillensis. 
Ayamgilan, see Pithecolobiuin subacutum. 
Ayantoto, see Ainaranthus spinosus. 
Ayaunikilat, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Ayimit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Ayo, see Cissus repens. 
Ayo, see Tetrastigma harmandii. 
Ayumit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Ayupag, see Euphoria didyma. 
Azafran, see Curcuma longa. 
Azucena, see Polianthes tuberosa. 

B 

Baagu, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Baba, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Babara, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. 
Babayan, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Babayan, see AUaeanthus luzonicus. 
Babe-babe, see Quis(iualis itidica. 
Babui, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Babui, see Schizostachyum diffusum. 



256 



INDEX 



Bacopa monniera: 

Distribution, iii, 235. 

Local names, iii, 235. 

Medicinal, iii, 235. 
Badang-badang, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Badiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Badiara, see Coleus blumei. 
Badino, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Baeg, see AUaeanthus glaber. 
Bafe nga bunsung, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Baga-as, see Cy perns malaccensis. 
Baga-as, see Scirpus yrossus. 
Bagabag, see Eiigenia tnananquil. 
Baga-baga, see Drynaria quercifoUa. 
Bagak, see Clerodendron niacrostegium. 
Bagakai, see Schizostachyum brachycladum. 
Bagakai, see Schizostachyum lumantpao. 
Bagakan, see Schizostachyum brachycladum. 
Bagakan, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 
Bagambang, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Bagang, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. 
Bagang, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
Bagangga, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Bagarilau, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Bagasantol, see Aglaia everettii. 
Bagatai, see Corypha elata. 
Bagatambal, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Bagatbat, see Arenga pinnata. 
Bagauak, see Clerodendron niacrostegium. 
Bagauak, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Bagauak, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. 
Bagauak, see Conocephallus violaceus. 
Bagauak-itim, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Bagauak na morado, see Clerodendron quadri- 
loculare. 
Bagauak na pula, see Clerodendron quadrilo- 
culare. 
Bagauak-pula, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Bagbagutot, see Phyllanthus retieulatus. 
Bagbalogo, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Bagiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Bagi-bagi, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Bagilumbang, see Aleurites trisi>erma. 
Bagiluinbang oil : 

Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. 
Baging, see Gnetum indicum. 
Bagiod, see Grewia edulis. 
Bagiroro, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Bagli, see AUaeanthus luzonicus. 
Bago, see Abrorna fastuosa. 
B&go, see Gnetum gnemon. 
Bago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Bago, see Phaleria perrottetiana. 
Bago, see Pycharrhena maniliensis. 
Bago-bago, see Brucea amarissima. 
Bagobalong, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Bagohon, see Grewia multiflora. 
Bagong, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. 
Bago-sala, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Bags: 

Coryjiha elata, i, 192. 

Musa textilis, i, 364. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 

Pandanus radicans, i, 334. 

Pandanus simplex, i, 336. 



Bags — Continued. 

Scirpus grossus, i, 353. 

Typha angustifolia, i, 330. 
Bagsang, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Bagsang, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Bagtik, see Agathis alba. 
Bagtoan, see Pinanga spp. 
Bagu, see Gnetum gnemon. 
Bagu, see Terminalia edxdis. 
Bagu-balanak, see Pothos spp. 
Baguit, see Harrisonia perforata. 
Bagulibas, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Bagun, see Grewia acuminata. 
Bagusalai, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Bahai, see Abrus precatorius. 
Bahai, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Bahai, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Bahi, see Caryota cumingii. 
Bahi, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Baho, see Terminalia edulis. 
Baho-baho, see Cassia tor a. 
Bahug-bahug, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Bahug-bahug, see Lantana camara. 
Bain-bain, see Mimosa j)udica. 
B&ino, see Nelumbium nclumbo. 
Bainiid, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Bait, see Cycas rumphii. 
Bait, see Euphoria didyma. 
Bait, see Euphorbia neriifolia. 
Bakad, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakalas, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Bakalau, see Euphoria didyma. 
Bakalau, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Bakan, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Bakao, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Bakau, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Bakau, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakau, see Rhizopora mucronata. 
Bakau, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Bakauan, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Bakauan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Bakauan, see Ceriops roxburghiana. 
Bakauan, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakauan, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bakauan-babae, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakiuan-babae, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bakauan-lalaki, see Bruguiera parviflora- 
Bakauan-lalaki, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Bakfi,uan-lal§,ki, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakduan-lalaki, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bakauang-lalaki, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bakau bankita, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakau-laldki, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakau taggai, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bakbak, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
Bakeles, see Euphoria didyma. 
Bakembikes, see Malachra capitata. 
Bakembakes, see Malachra fasciata. 
Bakhau, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bakhau, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Baki-baki, see Scirpus grossus. 
Bakkalau, see Euphoria didyma. 
Bako, see Rhizophora spp. 
Bakon, see Crinum asiaticum. 
Bakong, see Crinum asiaticu^n. 
Bakong, see Hymenocallis littorale. 



INDEX 



257 



Bakong, see Pandanus dubius. 
Bakoog, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Bakting, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Bakto, see Cephalostachyuni mindorense. 
Baku, see Rhizophora spp. 
Bakuit, see Sporobolus elongatus. 
Balabalanggutan, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Balagan, see Grewia acuminata. 
Balai-lain6k, see Crataeva religiosa. 
Balai-lamok, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Balai-uak, see Oroxyluni indicum. 
Balak, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Balakbak, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Balali, see DiUenia reifferscheidia. 
Balamai, see lihaphidophora merrillii. 
Balanai, see Ocimum basilicum. 
Balanga, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Balafiganan, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Balanggot, see Cyi>erus iiialaccensis. 
Balanggot, see Triumfetta bartrarnia. 
Balanggot, see Typha angustifolia. 
Balangog, see Ipomoea reptans. 
Balang-kori, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Balan6i, see Ocimum basilicum. 
Balantakan, sec Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Balantana, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Balanti, see Homonoia riparia. 
Balasbas, see GraptophyUum x>ictum. 
Balasiai, see Scynphiphora hydrophyllacea. 
Balasugan, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Balatbat, see Licuala spinosa. 
Balatcng, see Cassia tora. 
Balatong, see Phaseolus aureus. 
Balatong-aso, see Cassia occidentaJ.is. 
Balatong-aso, see Cassia tora. 
Balau, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Balau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Balau resin : 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, ii, 56. 

Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. 
Balaungan, see Rubus fraxinif alius. 
Balayong, see Cassia fistula. 
Balayong, see Sindora supa. 
Bal-bal-lusa, see Solanurn cumingii. 
Balbalosa, see Solanurn cumingii. 
Baleau, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Balebagum-gubat, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Baleo, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Baleo, see V/ikstroemia indica. 
Balete, see Ficus benjamiria. 
Balete, see Ficus forstenii. 
Balete, see Ficus pachyphylla, 
Balete, see Ficus palaivanensis. 
Balete, see Schefflera elliptifoliola. 
Balete or balite, see Ficus payapa. 
Baleteon, see Ficus benjamina. 
Balete-pula, see Ficus benjamina. 
Balewe, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Baliaro, see Schizostachyum dielsianutn. 
Baliaro, see Schizostachyum diffusum. 
Balibago, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Balibago, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Balibago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Balibago, see Trema orientalis. 
Balibali, see Dracontomelum edule. 



Balibali, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Balibo, see Pinus insidaris. 
Bali'gang, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Baligtanin, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. 
Balikaran, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Balikau, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Balikau, see Schizostachyum diffusum. 
Balik-balik, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Baliknong, see Melochia umbellata. 
Baliku, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Balikukup bisano, see Rhaphidophora merri- 
llii. 
Balilang-uak, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Balili, see Eleusine indica. 
Balili, see Paspalum scrobiculatum. 
Baliliuan, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Balimbahin, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Balimbin^, see Averrhoa carambola. 
Balimbingan, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Balinad, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Balinad, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Balinad, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Balinad, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Balinaunau, see Leea aculeata. 
Baling-agta, see Diospyros discolor. 
Balinghoi, see Manihot utilissima. 
Balingkauayan, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Baling-uai, see Flagellaria indica. 
Balinkangin, see Euphoria didyma. 
Balinsarayan, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Balinsiagau, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Balios, see Ceiha pentandra. 
Balisayin, see Terminalia edulis. 
Balisin, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Baliskug, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Balit, see Euphoria didyma. 
Balit, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Balita, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Balitadhan, see Quisqualis indica. 
Balitagtag, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Balite, see Ficus pachyphylla. 
Baliting,-ibon, see Ficus benjamina. 
Balitnong, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Balituk, see Capparis micracantha. 
Baliu, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Baliuan, see Columbia lanceolata. 
Balla, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Bal-laayang, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Bal-lai, see Piper umbellatum. 
Ballang, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Ballast retainers : 

Mangrove swamp species, i, 26. 
Bal-liba, see Vallisneria gigantea. 
Ballok, see Garcinia binucao. 
Balobago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Balobalo, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Balobayauak, see DiUenia philippinensis. 
Balobo, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Balobo, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Baloi, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Baloi, see Pterospermum diver sifoliuni. 
Balok-balok, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Baloklok, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Balonggat, see Cyperus malaccensis. 
Balongkahinai, see Pothoidium lobbianum. 



177674- 



-17 



258 



INDEX 



Balongo dilang-ahas, see Grewia acuminata- 
Balongsaging, see Uvaria sorzogonenais. 
Balopo, see Greivia stylocarpa. 
Balsakan, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Balsatiiinaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 205. 
Balsbas-malomai, see Graptophyllum pictum. 
Baltik, see Agathia alba. 
Baliibad, see Anacardiurn occidentale. 
Balubar, see Anacardiurn occidentale. 
Balubat, see Anacardiurn occidentale. 
Balubitoon, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
BaliiboK, see Anacardiurn occidentale. 
Baluganos, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Balukanad, see Aleurites trisperma. 
Balukanag, see Aleurites trisperma. 
Balukanag, see Chisocheton cumingianua. 
Balukanag oil : 

Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 117. 
Baluk-baluk, see Ponyamia pinnata. 
Balukok, see Grewia edulis. 
Baluktot, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Balukut, see Garcinia binucao. 
Balulau, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Balum-balum, see Spathoglottis plicata. 
Balunggai, see Morlnga oleifera. 
Baluno, see Camptostetnon philippinense. 
Baluno, see Mangifera caesia. 
Balutbaliit, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Bamban, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Banibusa bluiiieana, see Bainbusa spinosa. 
Bambusa cornuta : 

Description and distribution, i, 258. 

P'igure, i, 280. 

Local names, i, 258. 
Bambusa glaucescens: 

Description, i, 259. 

Distribution, i, 258. 

Fishing rods, i, 259. 

Ornamental, i, 259. 
Bambusa lumampao: 

Dimensions of fibers, i, 422. 
Bambusa merrillii: 

Description, i, 258, 259. 

Distribution, i, 259. 

Figure, i, 281. 
Bambusa spinosa: 

Description, i, 258, 259. 

Distribution, i, 259. 

Figure, i, 282, 283, 284. 

Local names, i, 259. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 

Paper, i, 419. 

Planting, i, 266-278. 

Uses, i, 259-260. 
Bambusa vulgaris : 

Description, i, 258, 260. 

Distribution, i, 260. 

Figure, 1, 285-287. 

Local names, i, 260. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 

Planting and growth, i, 266-275. 

Uses, i, 260. 
Banaasi, see Murraya panicidata. 
Ban&g, see SmUax bracteata. 



Banago, see Gnetum gnemon. 
Banago, see Thespesia populnea. 
Banaken, see Elaeagnus philippensis. 
Banal, see Smilax bracteata. 
Banal, see Smilax leucophylla. 
Banalo, see Thespesia populnea. 
Banana, see Musa paradisiaca. 
Banana (wild), see Musa spp. 
Banasi, see Murraya paniculata. 
Banati, see Murraya paniculata. 
Banato, see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Banato-maliit, see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Banato oil ; 

Mallotus philipjnnensis, ii, 142. 
Banban, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Banbang, see Caesalpinia crista. 
Bandabok, see Geodorum nutans. 
BaiTga, see Orania pcUindan. 
Bangar, see Sterculia foetida. 
Bangat, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Bangat, see Sterculia foetida. 
Bangbang, see Plumbago zeylanica. 
Bangbangsit, see Hyptis suaveolens. 
Banghai, see Hydnophytum formicarium. 
Bangias, see Tcrminalia comintana. 
Bangil, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Bangil, see Sophora tomentosa. 
Bangkal, see Nauclea junghuhnii. 
Bangkal, see Nauclea orientalis. 
Bangkalauag, see Terminalia calatnansanai. 
Bangkau, see Rhizophora candelaria. 
Bangkau, see Rhizophora mucronata. 
Bangkilong, see Cwrdiospermum halicacabum. 
Bangkoang, see Pandanus simplex. 
Bangkok, see Garcinia binucao. 
Bangk6ro, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Bangkuang, see Scirpus grossus. 
Bangkuit, see Sporobolus elongatus. 
Banglai, see Zingiber zerumbet. 
Bangles, see Terminalia comintana. 
Banglua, see Pygeum preslii. 
Bangogan, see Paederia foetida. 
Bani, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Baniakalau, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Baniakau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Banig-banig, see Pluchea indica. 
Banikad, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Banikad, see Sterculia philippinensis. 
Banilad, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Banilad, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Banilad, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Banilad, see Sterculia philippinensis. 
Banisan, see Arenga tremula. 
Banitan, see Mangifera altissima. 
Baniti, see Garcinia dulcis. 
Baniti, see Palaquium philippense. 
Banitis, see Bassia betis. 
Bankudo, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Banlot, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Bannakalau, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Bannakalau, see Sterculia philippinensis. 
Banogan, see Rauwolfla amsoniaefolia. 
Banot, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Bansal&gin, see Mimusops parvifoUa. 
Bansalagin-mujer, see Mimusops parvifoUa. 



INDEX 



259 



Bansalagon, see Miniosops parvifolia. 
Bansilai, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Bantana, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Bantigi, see Lophopetaluyn toxicum. 
Banugan, see Crataeva religiosa. 
Banukalag, see Aleurites trisperma. 
Banut, see Bauhinia ctimingiana. 
Banyat, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Baobao, see Pongamia jiinnata. 
BaoiTgon, see Citrus maxima. 
Barabak, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Baraibai, see Cerbera manghas. 
Baraibai oil : 

Cerbera manghas, ii, 168. 
Baraies, see Terrninalia edulis. 
Barak, see Curcwna longa. 
Barak, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Barak, see Zingiber zerunibet. 
Barakbak, see Eugenia xanthophyUa. 
Baralang, see Rourea volubilis. 
Baralauik, see Capparis horrida. 
Baralta. see Pothoidiuvi lobbianum. 
Barangan, see Eleusine indica. 
Barangau, see OroxyluDi indicum. 
Baranggoi, see Orania palindan. 
Baranggot, see Cyperus malaccensis. 
Baranggot, see Urena lobata. 
Baranghas, see Citrus maxima. 
Baranin, see Andropogon citratus. 
Barantiong, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Barasbarasan, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Baraybay, see Cerbera manghas. 
Bareu, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Bari, see Phnleria cumingii. 
Baria-an, see Grewia eriocarpa- 
Barigaua, see Jussiaea linifolia. 
Baringkokorong, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Barini, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Baris, see Arenga tremula. 
Barit, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Bariu. see Pandanus copelandii. 
Bariu-S.n, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Bariuatuat, see Tetrastigma loheri. 
Bariu-bariu, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. 
Barleria ijrionitis : 

Distribution, iii, 237. 

Local names, iii, 237. 

Medicinal, iii, 237. 
Barobo, see Diplodiscus jianiculatus. 
Barobo, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Baroi, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Baroi, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Baroi, see Pterospermuni diver sifolium. 
Baroi, see Pterospermum nivettm. 
Baroi, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Barringtonia acutangula : 

Distritbution, iii, 214. 

Local names, iii, 214. 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 

Medicinal, iii, 214. 
Barringtonia asiatica : 

Description and distribution, ii, 162. 

Local names, ii, 161. 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 

lUuminant, ii, 162. 

Medicinal, iii, 214. 



Barringtonia racemosa: 

Description, ii, 162. 

Distribution, i, 26 ; ii, 162. 

Local names, ii, 162. 

Fish and wild pig poison, iii, 81. 

lUuminant, ii, 162. 

Medicinal, iii, 215. 
Baruan, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Barubad, see Waltheria americana. 
Barubo, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Basai, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Basakla, see Ficus forstenii. 
Basangal, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Basanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Basbasot, see Sida acuta. 
Basbasot, see Sida rhombifolia. 
Basellaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 278. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 185. 
Basella rubra : 

Description and distribution, ii, 278. 

Local names, ii, 278. 

Medicinal, iii, 185. 

Spinach substitute, ii, 278. 
Basi, see Terrninalia edulis. 
Basiad, see Cana'ium ovatum. 
Basikad, see KyUinga monocephala. 
Basikalang, see Alstonia macrophyUa. 
Basikalang, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Basikalon, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Basikarang, see .Alstonia macrophylla. 
Basilalag, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Baskets ; 

Agave cantula, i, 362. 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

A7-enga tremula, i, 158. 

Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. 

Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 

Caryota majestica, i, 182. 

Caryota merrillii, i, 182. 

Caryota mitis, i, 182. 

Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Dendrobium crumenatutti , i, 365. 

Donax cannaeformis, i, 365. 

Dryopteris pteroides, i, 323. 

Epipremnum spp., i, 354. 

Flagellaria indica, \, 356. 

Gleichenia linearis, i, 326. 

Heterospathe elata, i, 210. 

Lygodium spp., i, 326. 

Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 

Musa textilis, i, 364. 

Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. 

Pandanus copelandii, i, 332. 

Pandanus luzonensis, i, 334. 

Pandanus radicans, i, 334. 

Pandanus simplex, i, 336. 

Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. 

Pericaynpylus glaucus, i, 375. 

Pathos spp., i, 354. 

Raphidophora spp., i, 356. 

Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. 

Schizostachyum diffusum, i, 264. 

Schizostachyum fenixii, i, 265. 



260 



INDEX 



Baskets — Continued. 

Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. 
Schizostachyum lutnampao, i, 264. 
Scirpus grossus, i, 353. 
Stenochlaeva palustris, i, 323. 
Typha angustifolia, i, 330. 
Bassia betw: 

Description and distribution, ii, 166. 
Figure, ii, 165, 167. 
Local names, ii, 166. 
Illuminant, ii, 166. 
Medicinal, iii, 219. 
Bassia ohovati folia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 364. 
Local name, ii, 364. 
Food, ii, 364. 
Baston de San Jose, see Costus speciosus. 
Basuit, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Batad, see Andropogon halepensis. 
Batad, see Andropogon sorghum. 
Batad-batS,ran, see Andropogon halepensis. 
BataK-batag, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Batakan, see Bamhusa spinosa. 
Batang-batang. see Cissampelos pareira. 
Bat'ano, see Cerbera manghas. 
Bat'ano, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Batarau, see CalophyUum inophyUum. 
Batbat, see Arenga tremula. 
Batete, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Batete incense : 

Kingiodendron alternifolium, ii, 208. 
Batikalang, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Batikoling, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Batikoling, see Rauwolfia, amsonias folia. 
Bating see Castanopsis philippensis. 
Bating, see Lumnitzera litter ea. 
Batino, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Bato-bato, see Merremia emarginata. 
Batuakan, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Batuan, see Garcinia binucao. 
Batiiban, see Anacardium occidentale. 
Batukanag, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Batutang-uak, see Luffa cylindrica. 
Bauan, see Amaranthus viridis. 
Ba'uan, see AnMranthus spinosus. 
Bauang, see Allium sativum. 
Baugin, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Bauhinia cumingiana: 

Description, and distribution, i, 379. 
Local names, i, 379. 
Fiber, i, 379. 
Bauhinia malabarica: 

Description and distribution, ii, 290. 
Figure, ii, 291. 
Local names, ii, 288. 
Food flavoring, ii, 290. 
Medicinal, iii, 189. 
Bauing, see Ocitnum basdicum. 
Bauit, see Harrisonia perforata. 
Baunal, see Smilax china. 
Bauno, see Mangifera caesia. 
Baut, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Bayabas, see Psidium guajava. 
Bayabas-uak, see Capparis micracantha. 
Bayag-kabayo, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Bayag kambing, see Caesalpinia crista. 



Bayag-usa, see Cerbera manghas. 
Bayag usa, see Gardenia pseud o psidium. 
Bayag-Ui-a, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
BayanAang, see Amaranthus si)inosus. 
Bay; ngbang, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 
Bayanti, see .Aglaia glomerata. 
Bayant'. see .Aglaia harmsiana. 
Bayao, see Ptcrocymbium tinctorium. 
Bayating, see Tinumisciuvi philippinense. 
Bayauas, see Psidium guaja 'a. 
Bayayat, see StercuVn cuneata. 
Bay it, see Cycas rum, liii. 
Bayog, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Bayog, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Bay6g, see Dendrocalamus merrillianus. 
Bayog, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Bayog, see Piersopermum niveum. 
Bayog, see Pterospermum, obliquum. 
Bayog-bayo', see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Bayog-bayog, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Bayok, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Bayok, see Pterosi>ermurn niveum. 
Bayok-bayok see Momordica cochinchinensis. 
Bayok-bayokan, see Pterospermum niveum. 
Bayong, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Bayongboi, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Bayugtin, see Pterospermum niveum. 
Bayuk, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Bayuko, see Artocarpus eurningiana. 
Bayuko, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Bayuko, see C ymnartocarpus woodii. 
Bayuko, see Pterospei mum obliquum,. 
Bayuktuan, see Castanopsis philippensis. 
Bay-yating, see Anamirta cocculus. 
Bayyet, see Euphoria dulyma. 
Beach pandan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Beads : 

Coryiiha data, i, 192. 
I Ocimum sanctum, ii, 218. 

Bebit, see Caesalpinia crista. 
Begoniaceac : 

Food plants, ii, 352. 
Begonia spp. : 

Food flavoring, ii, 352. 
Belis, see Arenga tremula. 
Belisan, see Ptychoraphis ehneri. 
Belts : 

Gleichenia linearis, i, 326. 
Musa tcxtilis i, 364. 
Benglaling, see Grewia multiflora. 
Benglareng, see Grewia bUamellata. 
Benguet lily, see Lilium philippinensis. 
Benguet pine, see Pinus insvlaria. 
Benincasa hispida: 

Distribution, iii, 241. 
Local names, iii, 241. 
Medicinal, iii, 241. 
Ben oil : 

Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. 
Berberidaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 388. 
Berengena, see Solanum melongena. 
Bermuda grass, see Cynodon dactylon. 
Betel nut palm, see Areca catechu. 
Betel palm, see Areca catechu. 



INDEX 



261 



Betel pepper, see Piper betle. 
Betes, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
B6tis, see Bassia betis. 
Betis-lalaki, see Bassia betis. 
Betis oil : 

Bassia betis, ii, 166. 
B'eus, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Biao, see Aleurites moluccana. 
Biaog, see Pterospernium obliquum. 
Bias, see Gnetum indicum. 
Bias-bias, see Contnielina benghalensis. 
Bias-pugo, see Amma-nnia baccifera. 
Biatiles, see Leucaena glauca. 
Biau, see Miscanthus sinensis. 
Biayo, see Agathis alba. 
Bidai, see Ocimuni basUicum. 
Bidai, see Ocimuni sanctum. 
Bidens chinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 376. 

Local names, ii, 376. 

Rice wine, ii, 376. 
Bidens pilosa : 

Description and distribution, ii, 377. 

Local names, ii, 377. 

Medicinal, iii, 75. 

Wine, ii, 377 
Bidiangan, see Agathis alba. 
Biga, see Alocasia macrorrliiza. 
Biga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Biga, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Biga-biga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Bigaho, see Miscanthus sinensis. 
Bigao, see Miscanthus sinensis. 
Bigas, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 
Big:n&i, see Antidesma bunius. 
Bignai-kalabau, see Antidesma bunius. 
Bignon, see Melochia umbellata. 
Bignoniaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 375. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 74, 236. 
Bi-idu, see Miscanthus sinensis. 
Bikal, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Bikal, see Schizostachyuw. diffusum. 
Bikal-babui, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Biknong, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Bilabila, see Eleusine indica. 
Bilde-mariang-itim, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Bilis, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Bili'ia, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Biluak, see Macaranga grandifolia. 
Biluan, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Biluan, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Biluang, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Biluan-lalaki, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Bilukau, see Garcinia binucao. 
Biliikau, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Bilunga, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Bing&bing, see Macaranga grandifolia. 
Bingabing, see Melochia umbellata. 
Binggas, see Terminalia comintana. 
Bing-iia, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Bi'nong see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Bintikai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Binuga, see Macaranga tanarius. 



Binukau, see Garcinia binucao. 
Binukau, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Binuko, see Gyrinopsis cuniingiana. 
Binunga, see Caianthe veratrifolia. 
Binunga, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Binunga, see Melochia umbellata. 
Binunga gum : 

Macaranga tanarius, ii, 73. 
Biniingan, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Binungas, see Macaranga grandifolia. 
Binurok, see Embelia phUippinensis. 
Bio, see Garuga abilo. 
Biophytum sensitivum : 

Distribution, iii, 193. 

Local names, iii, 193. 

Medicinal, iii, 193. 
Biosan, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Bira, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Birds'-nest fern, see Asplenium nidus. 
Bisal, see Terminalia edulis. 
Bisalak, see Embelia phUippinensis. 
Bisik, see Lansium dubiuni. 
Biskan, see Dillenia phUippinensis. 
Bislot, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Bisong, see Sterculia stipularis. 
Bisudak, see Embelia phUippinensis. 
Bita, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Bitali, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Bitanag, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Bitanll61, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Bitanhol, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Bitaog, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Bitiog, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Bitaog oil : 

Calophyllum inophyUum, ii, 156. 
Bitaoi, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Bitaoi-bakil, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Bitaong, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Bitnong, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Bitog, see Rourea volubilis. 
Bitok, see Palaquium philippense. 
Bitong, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Bitongol, see Flacourtia indica. 
Bitongol, see Flacourtia rukam. 
Bitonog, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Bitoon, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Bitotu, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 
Bit-taog, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Bittog, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Biuas, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Biuis, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Bius, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Bixaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 401. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 213. 
Bixa orellana : 

Description and distribution, ii, 401. 

Local names, ii, 401. 

Dye, ii, 401. 

Medicinal, iii, 213. 
Biyiig, see Pterospermum diver si folium. 
Blanco's narra, see Pterocarpus blancoi. 
Blechum brownei: 

Distribution, iii, 237. 

Local names, iii, 237. 

Medicinal, iii, 237. 



262 



INDEX 



Blowguns : 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundi folia, i, 216. 
Schizostachijum lima, i, 264. 
Blumea balsamifera : 

Description and distribution, ii, 224. 
Figure, ii, 223. 
Local names, ii, 222. 
Fish poison, iii, 82. 
Medicine, ii, 222 ; iii, 75. 243. 
Boa, see Areca catechu. 
Bobo, see Sterculia foetida. 
Boboaya, see Flagellaria indica. 
Bobog, see Sterculia foetida. 
Boboi, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Boboi-gubat, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Bobonotan, see Citrus maxima. 
Bobor, see Bovtbax ceiba. 
B6bor, see Sterculia foetida. 
Bodobodo, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Boehmeria nivea: 

Description and distribution, i, 374. 
Local names, i, 373. 
Fiber, i, 373. 
Boga, see Areca vidaliana. 
Boga, see Dioscorea esculenta. 
'B6go, see Garuga abilo. 
Bogon, see Mussaenda jihRippica. 
Bohaue, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Boho, see Gigantichloa levis. 
Boho, see Schizostachyum brachycladum.. 
Boho, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 
Boho-boho, see Lantana camara. 
Bohokan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Boiboi, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Bokabok, see Scaevola frutescens- 
Bokaui, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 
Bokit, see Harrisonia perforata. 
Boko, see Gigantichloa levis. 
Bokoboko, see Clerodendron minahassae. 
Boletus spp. : 

Description, iii, 116. 
Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Bolidtadhan, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Bolo, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Bolo, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 
Bolon, see Alphonsea arborea. 
Bolong, see Flacourtia indica. 
Bolongkoyan, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Bolong-sina, see Dendrocalamus latifiorus. 
Bolong- tambal, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Bombacaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 392. 
Mangrove swamps, i, 40. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 210. 
Oils, ii, 150. 
Botnba.r ceiba: 

Description and distribution, i, 394. 
Local names, i, 392. 
Fiber, i, 392. 
Medicinal, iii, 210. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Bombycid^ndron vidalianum : 

Description and distribution, i, 387. 
Local names, i, 386. 



Bombycidendron vidalianum — Continued. 

Fiber, i, 387. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Bonbon, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Bonga, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Bongas, see Terminalia comintana. 
Bongbong, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Bongbong, see Schizostachyum diffusutn. 
Bongog, see Sterculia foetida. 
Bongon, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Bonotan, see Sterculia stipularis, 
Bo-o, see Ximenia americana. 
Booboo, see Pinus instdaris. 
Booton, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Borneo tallow : 

Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 

Isoptera borneensis, ii, 160. 
Borrag inaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 409. 

Food plants, ii, 373. 

Gums, ii, 88. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 227. 
Borreria hispida : 

Distribution, iii, 238. 

Local name, iii, 238. 

Medicinal, iii, 238. 
Borsa nga dadakkel, see Kyllinga monocephala- 
Bosboron, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Bosbotones, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Boto, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Botobotonis, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Botobotonis, see Sphaeravthus africanus. 
Boton, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Botoncillo, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Botong, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Botong, see Dendrocalamus laUJiorus. 
Botong, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Boton oil : 

Barringtonia asiatica, ii, 161. 
Bottles : 

Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 80. 
Bottonis, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Bows: 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 
Boxes : 

Lygodium spp., i, 326. 
Brea, see Canarium viUosum. 
Breadfruit, see Artocarpus commtinis. 
Breynia rhamnoides: 

Distribution, iii, 198. 

Local names, iii, 198. 

Medicinal, iii, 198. 
Broyneliaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 356. 

Food plants, ii, 256. 
Brooms : 

Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338. 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 
^ Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Malvastrum coromandelinum, i, 388. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 

Oryza sativa, i, 342. 



INDEX 



263 



Brooms — Continued. 

Phragmites harka. i, 342. 

Phragmites vulgaris, i, 342. 

Saceharum spontaneum, i, 344. 

Tkysanolaena maxiiua, i, 346. 
Brownloiria lanceolate : 

Description, i, 40. 

Local name, i, 40. 
Brucea amarissima: 

Description and distribution, iii, 68. 195. 

Local names, iii, 68, 195. 

Medicinal, iii, 68, 195. 
Brugu'era caryophylloides, see Bruguiera 

cylindrica. 
Bruguiera conjugata : 

Description, i, 48, 50, 52. 

Distribution, i, 22. 

Figure, i, 51, 91. 

Local names, i, 52. 

Firewood, i, 112-117. 

Tannin, i, 119-124 

Timber, i, 52. 

Stands, i, 86-99. 
Bruguiera cylindrica: 

Description, i, 48, 50, 54. 

Distribution, i, 22, 54. 

Figure, i, 56, 57. 

Local names, i, 54. 
Bruguiera eriopetala, see Bruguiera sexan- 

gvla. 
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, see Bruguiera con- 
jugata. 
Bruguiera parvi flora : 

Description, i, 48, 50, 58. 

Distribution, i, 22, 58. 

Figure, i, 59, 61. 

Local names, i, 58. 

Firewood, i, 112-116. 

Stands, i, 86-99. 

Tannin, i, 119-124 

Timber, i, 58. 
Bruguiera sexringula : 

Description, i, 48, 50, 52, 54. 

Distribution, i, 22. 

Figure, i, 53, 55. 

Local names, i, 54. 

Stands, i. 96-99. 

Tannin, i. 120-124. 

Timber, i, 52. 
B'rus, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Brushes : 

Arenga pinnata, \, 150. 

Cocas nueifera, i, 184, 244. 
Biia, see Areca catechu. 
Bua-bua, see Eugenia mnnanquil. 
Bualtik, see Lonicera philippinen.fis. 
Buas, see Mallotus philippinen.iis. 
Bubabot, see Phyllanthus reticvlatus. 
Bubahan, see Lansium dubium. 
Bubog. see Stercidia foetida. 
Bubua, see .Aglaia everettii. 
Bubui, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Biibui-gubat, see Bombax ceiba. 
Bubiii-gubat, see Thespesia populnea. 
Bubunau. see Aglaia everettii. 
Bubur, see Sterculia foetida. 



Bubutigan, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Bu-buyan, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Buchid, see Imperata cylindrica. 
Buddleia asiatica : 

Distribution, iii, 220. 

Local names, iii, 220. 

Medicinal, iii, 220. 
Bueng, see .Acorus calamus. 
Bugalot, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Bugang. see Saceharum spontaneum 
Bugayau, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Bugayong-china, see .Adenanthera intermedia. 
Bugayung, see Abrus precatorius. 
Bugbugayong, see Abrus precatorius. 
Bugkau, see Toddalia asiatica. 
Bugnai, see .Antidesma bunius. 
Bugnau, see Justic'a gendarussa. 
Bugnei, see .Antidesma bunius. 
Bugnei, see Tylophora brevipes. 
Bugno-negro, see .Justicia gendarussa. 
Biigo, see Garuga abilo. 
Bugos, see Acalypha indica. 
Bugubi, see Thysanolaena maxima- 
Bugiibui, see Thysanolaena maxitna. 
Buhai-biihai, see Typha angustifolia. 
Biiho, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 
Bui, see Musa errans. 
Buibui, see Thysanolaena maxima. 
Buis, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Bukad, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Bukadkad, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Bukakau, see Andropogon sorghum. 
Bukitkit, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Buk-kalau, see Euphoria didyma. 
Bukkau, see Toddalia asiatica. 
Bukuan, see Strychnos multiflora. 
Bulagak, see Ui^aria sorzogonensis. 
Bulagun, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
Bulai patani, see Phaseolus lunatus. 
Bulak. see Ceiba pentandra. 
Bulakan, see Ipomoea digitata. 
Bulakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. 
Bulakan, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Bulakaui. see Flagellaria indica. 
Bulak-bulakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. 
Bulak-bulakan, see Thespesia lampas. 
Biilak-damo, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Biilak-dondol, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Biilak-kastila, see Asclejjias curassavica. 
Bulak-kastila, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Bulak-manuk, see .Ageratum conyzoides. 
Bulak-sino, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Bulala, see Nauclea orientalis. 
Bulala, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Bulala oil : 

Nephelium mutabile, ii, 150. 
Bulali, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Bulanini, see Dalbergia eumingiana. 
Bulau, see Canarium luzonicum. 
BuJbul, see Pinus insularis. 
Bulbulin, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Bulbulin, see Malachra capitata. 
Bull, see Corypha elata. 
Bulinau. see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Bulno, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Bul6g, see .Aglaia everettii. 



264 



INDEX 



Bulog, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Buloi, see Dioscorea divaricata. 
Bulokbiilok, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Bulu, see Schizostachyuni lumanipao. 
Bulubadiang, see Ceriops roxburghiana. 
Bulubuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Bulubukhon, seeGrewia rtiultiflora. 
Bulubuluhan, see Malachra capitata. 
Bulugai, see Diplodiscus panictdatus. 
Buluhan, see Malachra capitata. 
Bumitan, see Mangifera altissiina- 
Bunag, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Bunayon, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Buneg, see Garcinia dulcis. 
Buneg, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Btinga, see Areca catechu, 
Bunga, see Areca hutchinsoniana. 
Bunga, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Banga, see Orania palindan. 
Bunga, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Bunga de China, see Adonidia merriUii. 
Bunga de Jolo, see Adonidia merriUii. 
Bungai, see Zanthoxyluni avicennae. 
BuiTgalon, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Bvngalon, see Camptostemon phUippinense. 
Bungalon, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Bunga-machin, see Pinanga spp. 
Bunga na tukayong, see Pinanga spp. 
Bungang-gubat, see Areca whitfordii. 
Bungang-ipot, see Areca ipot. 
Bungat, see Sterculia stipularis. 
Bungkalot, see Citrus sp. 
Bungkiilan, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Bunglas, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Bungog, see Sterculia foetida. 
Bungon, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Bungon, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. 
Bunguas, see .Aglaia everettii. 
Bunlau, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Bunlos, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Bunnai, see Antidesrna bunius. 
Bunog, see Garcinia venidosa. 
Bunot-bunot, see Melochia umhellata. 
Bunsilak, see Elaeocarpus caloiiiala. 
Bunsog, see Agathis alba. 
Buntatai, see Ehretia niicrophylla. 
Buntot-kapon, see Asplenium macro phyllum. 
Buntot-leon, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Buntot-usa, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Buntugan, see Dysoxylum decandruni. 
Buntlit-buaia, see Rotala aquatica. 
Buntut-palos, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Bunug, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Bunus, see Garuga abilo. 
Bunut, see Rubus elmeri. 
Buragris, see Garcinia binucao. 
Biirak, see Canangium odoratum. 
Burakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. 
Burakan, see Operculina turpethum. 
Buratu, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Buri, see Corypha elata. 
Burirau, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Burseraceae : 

Food plants, ii, 300. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 196. 



Burseraceae — Continued. 

Oils, ii, 114. 

Resins, ii, 40. 

Tannins, iii, 94. 
Buru, see Diplodiscus paniculatu^. 
Burubayoko, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Burubugnai, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 
Buruiu, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Busai-ing, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Busain, see Bruguiera conjugata, 
Busain, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Busain, see Bruguiera sexangida. 
Busaing, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Busbusi, see Lippia nodiflora- 
Busbusilas, see Tabernaetnontana pandacaqui. 
Busel-biisel, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Busigan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 
Busi-ing, see Bruguiera eonjvgita. 
Busikad, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Busikag, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Businai, see Ficus minahassae. 
Busuanga, see Cassia alata. 
Buta, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Buta-buta, see Cerbera manghas. 
Buta-buta, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Butalau, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Butarik, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Butigan, see Phaleria cum^'nr/ii. 
Butl6, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 
Butnong, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Butnong, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Butoan-pula, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Bi'to-buto, see Cerbera manghas. 
Butlihan, see Musa errans. 
Butor, see Schizostachyuni dielsianum. 
Butor, see Schizostachyuni diffusum. 
Butterfly orchid, see Phalaenopsis amabUis. 
Butter substitute ; 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 

Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 

Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Buttons : 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Coelococcus amicarum, i, 192. 
Butiin, see Dendrocalamus latiftorus. 
Butunalaga, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 
Butus, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Buxaceae : 

Poisonous plants, iii, 80. 
Buxus rolfei: 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 
Buyayara, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Buyo, see Piper betle. 
Buyo : 

Adonidia merriUii, i, 139. 

Areca caliso, i, 147. 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 

Areca ipot, i, 148. 

Heterospathe elata, i, 210. 

Oncosperma spp., i, 231, 232. 

Pinanga spp., i, 236. 
Buyobuyo, see Piper betle. 
Buyo-buyo, see Piper retrofractuni. 
Buyon, see Mussaenda phUippica. 



INDEX 



265 



Cabello de angel, see Quamoclit pinnata. 
Cabo negro, see Arenga pinnata. 
Cacao, see Theobroina cacao, 
Caesalpinia crista : 

Distribution, i, 24 ; iii, 189. 

Local names, iii, 189. 

Medicinal, iii, 189. 
Caesalpinia nuga: 

Distribution, i, 24, 101. 
Caesalpinia sappan : 

Description and distribution, ii, 391. 

Local names, ii, 389. 

Dye, ii, 389. 

Hedge plant, ii, 391. 

Medicinal, iii, 67. 
Calabaza blanca, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Calamus arugada: 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus bicolor : 

Description, i, 178. 
Calamus blancoi: 

Description, i, 173. 
Calamus cumingianus : 

Description, i, 174. 
Cala^nus diephenhorstii : 

Description, i, 174. 
Calamus diniorphacanthus: 

Description, i, 178. 
Calamus discolor: 

Description, i, 174. 
Calamus elmerianus: 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus fiUsphadix : 

Description, i, 174. 
Calamus foxworthyi: 

Description, i, 174. 
Calamus grandif alius : 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus halconensis : 

Description, i, 178. 
Calamus jenningsianus : 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus manillensis: 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus maximus : 

Description, i, 174. 
Calam us megaphyllus : 

Description, i, 176. 
Cala7nus melanorhynchus : 

Description, i, 173. 
Calamus merrilii, see Calamus maxima. 
Calamus meyenianus : 

Description, i, 173. 
Calamus microcarims: 

Description, i, 178. 
Calamus microsphaerion : 

Description, i, 177. 
Calamus mindorensis: 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus mitis: 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus mollis, see Calamus usitatus. 
Calamus moseleyanus : 
Description, i, 175. 



Calamus mvltinervis: 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus oil .• 

Acorus calamus, ii, 181. 
Calamus ornatus : 

Description, i, 174. 

Figure, i, 165. 
Calamus ramulosus : 

Description, i, 177. 
Calamus reyesianus : 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus samian : 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus simphysipus: 

Description, i, 174. 
Calamus si phono spathus : 

Description, i, 177, 178. 
Calamus spinifolius : 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus spp. 

Conspectus of the species, i, 173. 

Description, i, 158, 160. 

Distribution, i, 135, 158, 160. 

Figure, i, 159, 169. 

Uses, i, 160. 

Quality and grade, i, 170. 

Supply, i, 162. 

Utilization and export, i, 168. 
Calamus trispermus : 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus vidalianus : 

Description, i, 177. 
Calamus vinosus: 

Description, i, 175. 
Calamus viridissimus : 

Description, i, 176. 
Calamus usitatus: 

Description, i, 173. 

Figure, i, 161, 163. 
Calanthe veratrifolia : 

Description and distribution, iii, 14. 

Local names, iii, 14. 

Ornamental, iii, 14. 
CaUicarpa cana : 

Fish poison, iii, 82. 
CaUicarpa caudata : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 

Medicinal, iii, 229. 
CaUicarpa erioclona : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 

Fish poison, iii, 82. 

Medicinal, iii, 229. 
CaUicarpa formosana : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 
Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Medicinal, iii, 229. 
Calonyction muricatum : 
Local name, iii, 225. 
Medicinal, iii, 225. 
Calophyllum blancoi: 

Description and distribution, ii, 400. 
Local names, ii, 400. 



266 



INDEX 



CalophyUum blancoi — Continued. 

Dye, ii, 40O. 

Medicinal, iii, 212. 
CalophyUum inophyllum : 

Description and distriijution, ii, 159. 

Figure, ii, 157. 

Local names, ii, 156. 

Bitaog oil, ii, 158. 

Confection containers, ii, 340. 

Medicinal, iii, 212. 

Planting, ii, 159. 

Tannin, iii, 94. 
Calotropis gigantea: 

Distribution, iii, 224. 

Local name, iii, 224. 

Medicinal, iii, 224. 
Camagon, see Diospyros discolor. 
Campanelo, see Thevetiu peruviana. 
Campanero, see AUamanda cathartica. 
Campanero, see Thevetia peruviana- 
Campanilla, see Allamanda cathartica. 
Campanula azul, see Ipomoea hederacea. 
Camphor; 

Blumea balsamifera, ii, 222. 
Camptostemon philippinense : 

Description, i, 42. 

Figure, i, 41. 

Local names, i, 40. 

Firewood, i, 42. 
Canangium odoratum : 

Description and distribution, ii. 200. 

Figure, ii, 191, 193. 

Local names, ii, 189. 

Adulterants of oil, ii, 197. 

Classification of oil, ii, 194. 

Composition of oil, ii, 198. 

Distillation, ii, 192, 196. 

Exports of oil, ii, 190. 

Extraction with solvents, ii, 196. 

Growth, ii, 198. 

Ilang-ilang oil, ii, 189. 

Manufacture of oil, ii, 190. 

Planting, ii, 198. 
Canarium luzonicnm : 

Description and distribution, ii, 48. 

Figure, ii, 41, 43. 

Local names, ii, 40. 

Analysis and distillation of Manila elemi, 
ii, 45-48. 

Export of Manila elemi, ii, 42. 

Food, ii, 239, 300. 

Method of tapping, ii, 44. 

Medicinal, iii, 196. 

Tannin, iii, 94. 

Uses of Manila elemi, ii, 42. 
Cnvarium ovatum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 117. 

Figure, ii, 115. 

Local names, ii, 114. 

Confection, ii, 302. 

Food, ii, 302. 

Pili-nut oil, ii, 114. 
Canarium villosum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 50. 

Figure, ii, 51. 

Local names, ii, 49. 



Canariu7n viUosuin — Continued. 

Analysis of resin, ii, 49. 

Medicinal, iii, 196. 

Uses of resin, ii, 49. 
Canar iu »s w iUia m sii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 302. 

Figure, ii, 301. 

Local name, ii, 302. 

Food, ii, 302. 
Candles ; 

Cocas nudfera, ii, 93. 

Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 

Hemandia ovigera, ii, 103. 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 

Pongamia pinnata, ii, 111. 

Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 

Shorea borneensis, ii, 160. 
Canela, see Cinnatnomum mercadoi. 
Canela. see Cinnamomuiti mindanaense. 
Canes, see Walking sticks. 
Canna, see Canna indica. 
Canna indica: 

Distribution, iii, 178. 

Local names, iii, 178. 

Medicinal, iii, 178. 
Cannaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii. 178. 
Canscora diffusa: 

Distribution, iii, 221. 

Local names, iii, 221. 

Medicinal, iii, 221. 
Cafia-bojo, see Schizosfachyum luttiampao. 
Caiia espina, see Bambusa spinosa. 
CaSa-fistula, see Cassia fistula. 
Cana-pistula, see Cassia fistula. 
Capparidaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 282. 

Medicinal plants, iii. 188. 
Capparis horrida: 

Description and distribution, ii, 282. 

Local names, ii, 282. 

Food, ii, 282. 

Medicinal, iii, 188. 
Capparis micracantha : 

Description and distribution, ii, 284. 

Local names, ii, 282. 

Food, ii, 284. 

Medicinal, iii, 188. 
Caprifoliaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 409. 
Capsicum frutescens : 

Description and distribution, ii, 374. 

Local names, ii, 373. 

Condiment, ii, 374. 

Dye, ii, 404. 

Medicinal, iii, 72. 
Capsicum minimum, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Cardlxjard (substitute for) : 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 
Cardiospermum. halicacabum : 

Distribution, iii, 203. 

Local names, iii, 203. 

Medicinal, iii, 203. 
Caricaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 213. 



INDEX 



267 



Carica papaya : 

Distribution, iii, 213. 

Local names, iii, 213. 

Medicinal, iii, 213. 
Carriers" poles ; 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Livistona rotundifoVa, i, 216. 
Carum copticum : 

Distribution, iii, 218. 

Local names, iii, 218. 

Medicinal, iii, 218. 
Caryota cumingii: 

Description, i, 180, 182. 

Distribution, i, 182. 

Local names, i, 182. 

Uses, i, 182. 
Caryota majestica, i, 180. 
Caryota merrUlii, i, 180. 
Caryota mitts: 

Description, i, 180. 

Distribution, i. 182. 

T o'.al names, i. 182. 

Ornamental, i, 182. 
Caynta rumphtana : 

Description, i, 180. 

Figure, i, 179, 181, 183. 

Local names, i, 182. 

Ornamental, i, 182. 
Caryota spp. : 

Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. 

Starch, ii, 252. 
Caryota ure-ns, i, 243. 

Cashew nut, see Anacarditim occidentale. 
Cashew-nut oil : 

Avacardium occidentale, ii. 146. 
Cassava, see Manihot utilissima. 
Canxia alata : 

Distribution, iii, 190. 

Local names, iii, 190. 

Medicinal, iii, 190. 
Cassia fistula: 

Distribution, iii, 190. 

Local names, iii, 190. 

Medicinal, iii, 190. 
Cassia mimosoides : 

Distribution, iii, 190. 

Local names, iii, 190. 

Medicinal, iii, 190. 
Cassia occidentalis: 

Distribution, iii, 190. 

Local names, iii, 190. 

Medicinal, iii, 190. 
Cassia sophcra : 

Distribution, iii, 190. 

Local names, iii, 190. 

Medicinal, iii, 190. 
Cassia tor a : 

Distribution, iii, 191. 

Local names, iii, 191. 

Medicinal, iii, 191. 
Cassie flower, see Acacia jarncbiana. 
Cassie-flower oil : 

Acacia farnesiana, ii. 204. 
Castaiias, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 



Castanopsis philippensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 260. 

Figure, ii, 261. 

Local names, ii, 260. 

Food, ii, 260. 
Castor oil : 

Ricinus communis, ii, 143. 
Castor-oil plant, see Ricimis communis. 
Casuarinaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 179. 
Casuarina eqidsetifolia: 

Distribution, iii, 179. 

Local names, iii, 179. 

Medicinal, iii, 179. 
Cat-tail, see Typha angustifolia. 
Cattle food: 

Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. 

Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Caulking : 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 

Caryota majestica, i, 182. 

Caryota merrillii, i, 182. 

Caryota mitts, i, 182. 

Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 
Caulking material : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 

Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. 

Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. 

Canarium villosU77i, ii, 49. 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus ii. 54. 

Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. 
Cebollas del monte, see Geodornm nutans. 
Ceiba pentandra: 

Description and distribution, i, 394 ; 
152, 154. 

Figure, ii, 151. 

Local names, i, 394 : ii, 150. 

Fiber, i, 394. 

Kapok oil, ii, 152. 

Medicinal, iii, 210. 
Celastraceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii. 202. 

Oils, ii, 147. 
Celastrus paniculata : 

Description and distribution, ii, 147 : 
202. 

Local names, iii. 202. 

Medicinal, iii, 202. 

Oil, ii, 147. 
Celery, see Apium graveolens. 
Celosia argentea : 

Distribution, iii, 184. 

Local names, iii, 184. 

Medicinal, iii, 184. 
Centella asiatica: 

Description and distribution, iii. 69. 

Local names, iii, 69. 

Medicinal, iii. 69, 218. 
Centipeda minima: 

Distribution, iii, 244. 

Local names, iii, 244. 

Medicinal, iii, 244. 



268 



INDEX 



Cephalostachyum mindorense : 

Description and distribution, i, 260. 

Figure, i, 288. 

Local name, i, 260. 
Cerbera manghas: 

Description and distribution, i, 76. 

Figure, i, 79. 

Local names, i, 76. 

Illuminant, ii, 168. 

Medicinal, iii, 222. 
Cerbera odoUam, see Cerbera manghas. 
Cereza, see Muntingia calabura. 
Ceriops candoUeana, see Ceriops tagal, 
Ceriops roxburghiana : 

Description, i, 60, 62. 

Distribution, i, 22. 

Figure, i, 63, 64. 

Local names, i, 62. 

Dye. i, 122. 

Tannin, i, 121-124. 

Timber, i, 62. 
Ceriops tagal: 

Description, i, 60, 62. 

Distribution, i, 22. 

Local names, i, 60. 

Dye, i, 122. 

Firewood, i, 112-114. 

Stands, i, 86-99. 

Tannin, i, 119-124. 

Timber, i, 60. 
Cha, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Cha, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Chachahan, see Lippia nodiflora. 
Chaetospermum glutinosum : 

Distribution, iii, 193. 

Local names, iii, 193. 

Medicinal, iii, 193. 
Chairs : 

Calamus spp., i, 1.58. 

Daenwnorops spp., i, 205. 

Korthalsia spp., i, 212. 

Schizostachyum diffxisum, i, 264. 
Champaka, see Michelia ehampaca. 
Champaka oil : 

Michelia champaka, ii, 185. 
Champakang-pula, see Michelia chavipaca. 
Champakang-puti, see Michelia longiflora. 
Champakang-puti oil : 

Michelia longiflora, ii, 188. 
Chanang, see Bixa orellana. 
Cliang-batd, see Canscora diffusa. 
Chang-gubat, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Charcoal : 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 
Chengam, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. 
Chenopodiaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 183. 
Chenopodinin am brosioides : 

Description and distribution, iii, 67, 183. 

Local names, iii, 67, 183. 

Medicinal, iii, 67, 183. 
Chewing gum ; 

Artocarpus cumingiana, ii, 70. 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. 
Chichirica, see Lochnera rosea. 



118. 



118. 



Chicle gum : 

Achras sapota, ii, 73. 
Chico, see Achras sapota. 
Chile-manuk, see Asclepias curassavica- 
Chile pepper, see Capsicum frutescens. 
China grass, see Boehmeria nivea. 
Chipiihu, see Artocarpus communis. 
Chisocheton cumingianus : 

Description and distribution, ii, 

Figure, ii, 119. 

Local names, ii, 117. 

Balukanag oil, ii, 117. 
Chisocheton pentandrus: 

Description and distribution, ii. 

Figure, ii, 121. 

Local names, ii, 118. 

Hair cosmetic, ii, 118. 

Medicinal, iii, 196. 
Chloranthaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 180. 
Chloranthus brachystachys : 

Distribution, iii, 180. 

Local names, iii, 180. 

Medicinal iii, 180. 
Chocolate, adulterant: 

Anacardium occidentaie, ii, 146. 

Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. 
Chonenwrpha elastica : 

Description and distribution, ii, 84. 

Figure, ii, 85, 86. 

Local names, ii, 84. 

Analysis of rubber, ii, 84. 

Collection of rubber, ii, 84. 
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, i, 243. 
Chrysanthemum, see Chrysanthemum indi- 

cum. 
Chrysanthemum indicum : 

Distribution, iii, 244. 

Local names, iii, 244. 

Medicinal, iii, 244. 
Cibotium barametz : 

Description and distribution, iii. 65. 

Local name, iii, 65. 

Medicinal, iii, 65. 
Cicca acida : 

Description and distribution, ii, 310. 

Figure, ii, 311. 

Local names, ii, 310. 

Food, ii, 310. 

Medicinal, iii, 198. 
Cinamomo, see Lawsonia inerinis. 
Cinco-llagas, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 
Cinco-llagas na puti, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. 
Cinnamomum iners: 

Description and distribution, ii, 200. 

Figure, ii, 199. 

Local names ii, 200. 

Cinnamon, ii, 200. 

Cinnamon substitute, ii, 282. 
Cinnamovium mercadoi: 

Description and distribution, ii, 202. 

Figure, ii, 201, 

Local names, ii, 200. 

KaliiTgag oil, ii, 202. 

Medicinal, iii, 187. 



INDEX 



269 



Cinnamomum mindanaense : 

Medicinal, iii, 187. 
Cipres, see Leucaena glauca. 
Ciruelas, see Spondia purpurea. 
Cissampelos pareira: 

Distribution, iii, 186. 

Local names, iii, 186. 

Medicinal, iii, 186. 
Cissus quadrangularis : 

Distribution, iii, 206. 

Local names, iii, 206. 

Medicinal, iii, 206. 
Cissus repens: 

Description and distribution, 1, 379. 

Local names, i, 379. 

Fiber, i, 379. 
Citronella oil : 

Andropogon nardus, ii, 176. 
Citrus hystrix: 

Description and distribution, ii, 210. 

Figure, ii, 211. 

Local names, ii, 208. 

Food, ii, 296. 

Oil, ii, 210. 
Citrus maxima: 

Distribution, iii, 193. 

Local names, iii, 193. 

Medicinal, iii, 193. 
Citrus in icrantha : 

Description and distribution, ii, 212. 

Figure, ii, 213. 

Local name, ii, 210. 

Samuyan oil, ii, 210. 

Shampoo, ii, 212. 
Citrus sp. ; 

Description, ii, 212. 

Local names, ii, 212. 

Shampoo, ii, 212. 
Clausena anisu^n-olens : 

Description and distribution, ii, 214. 

Figure, ii, 215. 

Local names, ii, 212. 

Anisado ingredient, ii, 214. 

Medicinal, iii, 194. 

Oil, i, 214. 
Clerodendron bethuneanum : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 

Medicinal, iii, 229. 
Clerodevdron cumingianum : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 

Medicinal, iii, 229. 
Clerodendron inerme : 

Distribution, iii, 229. 

Local names, iii, 229. 

Medicinal, iii, 229. 
Clerodendron intermedium : 

Distribution, iii, 230. 

Local names, iii, 230. 

Medicinal, iii, 230. 
Clerodendron macrostegium : 

Distribution, iii, 230. 

Local names, iii, 230. 

Medicinal, iii, 230. 



Clerodendron ininahassac : 

Distribution, iii, 230. 

Local names, iii, 230. 

Medicinal, iii, 230. 
Clerodendron quadriloculare : 

Distribution, iii, 230. 

Local names, iii, 230. 

Medicinal, iii, 230. 
Coccothrinax garberi, i, 243. 
Coco, see Cocos nucifera. 
Coconut oil : 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Coconut palm, see Cocos nucifera. 
Cocos nucifera: 

Distribution, i, 184 ; iii, 173. 

Figure, i, 128, 185, 186, 187, 189, 191, 
193 ; ii, 95, 97, 99, 101. 

Local names, i, 184. 

Age of nuts, ii, 96. 

Alcoholic drink, i, 188. 

Analysis of copra and copra cake, ii, 102, 

Charcoal, i, 188. 

Constants of oil, ii, 102. 

Demand for oil, ii, 94. 

Deterioration of oil, ii, 98. 

Export of oil, ii, 96. 

Fiber, i, 190, 192. 

Food, ii, 252. 

Medicinal, iii, 173. 

Method of obtaining oil, ii, 93. 

Moulds of copra, ii, 93. 

Oil cake, i, 184, 188. 

Sugar, i, 190. 

Tensile strength, i, 322. 

Uses, i, 184. 

Uses of oil, ii, 93. 

Vinegar, i, 190. 
Cocos plumosa, i, 184. 
Cocotero, see Cocos nucifera. 
Coelococcus amicarum, i, 192. 
Coix lachryma-jobi: 

Distribution, i, 339 ; iii, 170. 

Local names, i, 339. 

Beads, i, 339. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 
Coix lachryma-jobi var. ma-yuen: 

Description and distribution, ii, 248. 

Local name, ii, 248. 

Fermented drink, ii, 250. 

Food, ii, 250. 
Coldenia procumbens : 

Distribution, iii, 227. 

Local names, iii, 227. 

Medicinal, iii, 227. 
Coleus amboinicus: 

Distribution, iii, 232. 

Local names, iii, 232. 

Medicinal, iii, 232. 
Coleus blumei: 

Distribution, iii, 232. 

Local names, iii, 232. 

Medicinal, iii, 232. 
Collybia albuminosa : 

Description, iii, 136. 

Distribution, iii, 136. 



270 



INDEX 



Collybia albuminosa — Continued. 
Figure, iii, 139. 
Edible fungi, iii, 136. 
Colubrina asiatica : 

Distribution, iii, 205. 
Local names, iii, 205. 
Medicinal, iii, 205. 
Coluvibia blancoi : 

Description and distribution, i, 381. 
Local names, i, 381. 
Rope, i, 381. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Columbia lanceolata: 

Description and distribution, i, 381. 
Local names, i, 381. 
Rope, i, 381. 
Columbia mollis: 

Description and distribution, i, 382. 
Local names, i, 382. 
Roi5e, i, 382. 
Columbia serratifolia : 

Description and distribution, i, 382. 
Local names, i, 382. 
Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 
Dye, i, 382 ; ii, 399. 
Fiber, i, 382. 
Columella tri folia: 

Distribution, iii, 206. 
Local names, iii, 206. 
Medicinal, iii, 206. 
Combretaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 402. 
Food plants, ii, 352. 
Mangrove swamps, i, 68. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 215. 
Oils, ii, 162. 
Commelina benghalensis : 
Distribution, iii, 174. 
Local names, iii, 174. 
Medicinal, iii, 174. 
Commelinaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 174. 
Cummersonia bartramia : 

Description and distribution, i, 396. 
Local names, i, 396. 
Rope, i, 396. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Common gourd, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Common pandan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Conipositae: 

Food plants, ii, 376. 
Mangrove swamps, i, 84. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 75, 243. 
Oils, iii, 222. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 82. 
Condiment : 

Androiiogon citratus, ii, 174. 
Curcuma longa, ii, 182. 
Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. 
Confection ; 

Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. 
Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. 
Connaraceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 376. 
Poisonous plants, iii, 79. 



ConocephaXus violaceus : 

Description, ii, 266. 

Local names, ii, 266. 

Drinking water, ii, 2i'6. 
Consuelda, see Euphorbia tirucaUi. 
Convolvulaceae : 

Fiber plants, 1, 408. 

Food plants, ii, 372. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 225. 
Cooking oil : 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70, 72. 

Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 

Isoptera borneensis, ii, 160. 

Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. 

Ocimum basiUcum, ii, 217. 

Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 

Terminalia catappa, ii, 164. 

Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. 

Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. 
Coprinus ater : 

Description, iii, 117. 

Edible fungi, iii, 117. 
Coprinus bryan ti : 

Description, iii, 117. 

Edible fungi, iii, 117. 
Coprinus concolor : 

Description, iii, 117. 

Local name, iii, 118. 

Edible fungi, iii, 117. 
Coprinus confertus : 

Description, iii, 118. 

Figure, iii, 119. 

Edible fungi, iii, 118. 
Coprinus deliquescens : 

Description, iii, 118. 

Edible fungi, iii, 118. 
Coprinus fimbriatus: 

Figure, iii, 123. 
Coprinus flos-lactus: 

Description, iii, 118. 

Edible fungi, iii, 118. 
Coprinus friesii : 

Figure, iii, 123. 

Edible fungi, iii, 122. 
Coprinus nebidosus: 

Edible fungi, iii, 122. 
Coprinus ornatus: 

Description, iii, 120. 

Edible fungi, iii, 120. 
Coprinus jAicatilis: 

Description, iii, 120. 
Edible fungi, iii, 120. 
Coprinus pseudo-plicatus : 
Description, iii, 121. 
Edible fungi, iii, 121. 
Coprinus revolutus : 

Description, iii, 121. 
Edible fungi, iii, 121. 
Coprinus rimosus : 

Description, iii, 121. 
Edible fungi, iii, 121. 
Coprinus stercorarius : 
Description, iii, 121. 
Edible fungi, iii, 121. 



INDEX 



271 



Coprinus volutus: 

Description, iii, 122. 
Edible fungi, iii, 122. 
Cor chorus acutangulus: 
Distribution, iii, 207. 
Local names, iii, 207. 
Medicinal, iii, 207. 
Corchorus capsularis: 

Description and distribution, i, 382. 
Local names, i, 382. 
Fiber, 1, 382. 
Medicinal, iii, 207. 
Corchorus olitorius : 

Description and distribution, i, 383. 
Local names, i, 383. 
Fiber, i, 383. 
Food, ii, 332. 
Medicinal, iii, 207. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Corda.s:e ; 

Abroma fastuosa, i, 395. 
Abrii^ precatorius, i, 378. 
Agelaea everettii, i, 376. 
Allaeanthtis glaber, i, 368. 
Alphitonia excelsa, i, 380 
Amonium sp., i, 365. 
Anamirta cocculus, i, 375. 
Artocarpiis communis, i, 369. 

Artocarpus Integra, i, 370. 

Bauhinia cumingiana, i, 379. 

Boehmeria nivea, i, 373. 

Bombax ceiba, i, 392. 

Bombycidendron vidaUanum, i, 386. 

Columbia blancoi, i, 381. 

Columbia lanceolata, i, 381 

Columbia mollis, i, 382. 

Comniersonia bartramia, i, 396. 

Corchorus capsularis, i, 382. 

Corchorus olitorius, i, 383. 

Cordia cumingiana, i, 409. 

Cordia myxa, i, 409. 

Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. 

Donax cannaeformis, i, 365. 

Elaeocarpus calomala, i, 381. 

Ficus benjamina, i, 372. 

Ficus forstenii, i, 372. 

Ficus pachyphylla, i, 372. 

Ficus palawanensis, i, 373. 

Flagellaria indica, i, 356. 

Gnetum gneynon, i, 328. 

Gnetum indicum. i, 328. 

Gnetum sp., i, 330. 

Goniothalamus amuyon, i, 375. 

Grewia acuminata, i, 384. 

Grewia bilamellata, i, 384. 

Grewia eriocarpa, i, 384. 

Grewia multiflora, i, 385. 

Helicteres hirsuta, i, 396. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus, i, 387. 

Ichnocarpus ovatifolius, i, 406. 

Ischaemum angustifolium, i, 340. 

Kleinhovia hospita, i, 397. 

Lonicera philippinensis, i, 409. 

Maeaa cumingii, i, 406. 

Malachra capitata, i, 387. 



Cordage — Continued. 

Malachra fasciata, i, 388. 
Malaisia scandens, i, 373. 
Melochia umbellata, i, 397. 
Muntingia calabura, i, 385. 
Parameria philippinensis, i, 407. 
Phaeanthus ebracteolatus, i, 376. 
Phaleria cumingii, \, 403. 
Phaleria perrottetiana, i, 403. 
Polyalthia flava, i, 376. 
Pongamia piniiata, i, 379. 
Pterocymbium tinctorium, i, 398. 
Pterospermum diver sifolium, 1, 398. 
Pterospermum niveum, i, 400. 
Raphidophora spp., i, 356. 
Roiira volubilis, i, 378. 
Sapindus saponaria, i, 380. 
Sida acuta, i, 390. 
Sida cordifolia, i, 390. 
Sida mysorensi^, i, 390. 
Sida rhombifolia, i, 391. 
Stenochlaena palustris, i, 323. 
Sterculia crassiramea, i, 400. 
Sterculia cuneata, i, 400. 
Sterculia joetida, i, 401. 
Sterculia luzonica, i, 401. 
Stercidia oblongata, i. 401. 
Sterculia philippinensis, i, 402. 

Stercidia stipularis, i, 402. 

Streptocaulon baumii, i, 408. 

Strychnos multiflora, i, 406. 

Thespesia lampas, i, 391. 

Trema orientalis, i, 366. 

Triumfetta bartramia, i, 386. 

Typha angustifolia, i, 330. 

Urceola iniberbis, i, 407. 

Urena lobata, i, 391. 

Wikstroemia si^p., i, 403. 
Cordia cumingiana: 

Description and distribution, i, 409. 

Local names, i, 409. 

Rope, i, 409. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Cordia myxa: 

Description and distribution, i, 409. 

Local names, i, 409. 

Medicinal, iii, 227. 

Paste, i, 88. 

Rope, i, 409. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Cordula argua: 

Description and distribution, iii, 14. 

Ornamental, iii, 14. 
Cordula philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, iii. 18. 

Ornamental, iii, 18. 
Coriander, see Coriandrum, sativum. 
Coriandrum sativum : 

Distribution, iii, 218. 

Local names, iii, 218. 

Medicinal, iii, 218. 
Cork substitute .- 

Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 48. 
Corn, see Zea mays. 
Coronitas, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Coronitas, see Lantana camara. 



272 



INDEX 



Cortitiarius spp. : 

Description, iii, 126. 
Edible fungi, iii, 126. 
Cortinellus shiitake : 
Figure, iii, 107. 
Cultivation, iii, 104. 
Importation, iii, 104. 
Corypha elata: 

Description, i, 192. 
Distribution, i, 135, 196. 
Figure i, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203. 
Local names, i, 192. 
Alcoholic drink, i, 202. 
Beads, i, 194. 
Buttons, i, 194. 
Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 
Fiber i, 198. 
Food, ii, 252. 
Medicinal, iii, 173. 
Paper, i, 421. 
Stand, i, 194, 196. 
Starch, i, 205. 
Sugar, i, 204. 
Sweetmeat, i, 194. 
Syrup, i, 194. 
Tensile strength, i, 322. 
Uses, i, 194. 
Vinegar, ii, 252. 
Costus speeiosus : 

Distribution, iii, 177. 
Local names, iii, 177. 
Medicinal, iii, 177. 
Cotton-seed oil substitute : 

Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. 
Cotton tree, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Cradles: 

Khaphidophora spp., i, 356. 
Crataeva religiosa : 

Distribution, iii, 188. 
Local names, iii, 188. 
Medicinal, iii, 188. 
Cratoxylon blancoi : 

Distribution, iii, 212. 
Local names, iii, 212. 
Medicinal, iii, 212. 
Crescentia alata : 

Distribution, iii, 236. 
Local names, iii, 236. 
Medicinal, iii, 236. 
Crinunt asiaticum : 

Distribution, iii, 176. 
Local names, iii, 176. 
Medicinal, iii, 176. 
Crossostephium chinense : 
Distribution, iii, 244. 
Local name, iii, 244. 
Medicinal, iii, 244. 
Croton oil; 

Croton tiglium, ii, 138. 
Croton-oil plant, see Croton tiglium. 
Croton tiglium : 

Description and distribution, ii, 138. 
Figure, ii, 139. 
Local names, ii, 138. 
Croton oil, ii, 138. 



Croton tiglium — Continued. 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 

Medicinal, iii, 68, 198. 
Cubilia blancoi: 

Description and distribution, ii, 322. 

Local names, ii, 322. 

Food, ii, 322. 
Cucurbitaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 375. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 241. 
Culantrillo, see Adiantum philippense. 
Culantrillo, see Asplenium macophyllutn. 
Culantro, see Coriandrum sativum. 
Cunoniaccae : 

Tannins, iii, 93. 
Curculigo recurvata : 

Description and distribution, i, 364. 

Local name, i, 362. 

Fiber, i, 362. 
Curculigo orchioides: 

Distribution, iii, 176. 

Local names, iii, 176. 

Medicinal, iii, 176. 
Curcuma longa : 

Description and distribution, ii, 183. 

Local names, ii, 182. 

Condiment, ii, 259. 

Dye, ii, 385. 

Food, ii, 182. 

Food coloring, ii, 259. 

Medicinal, iii, 177. 

Oil, ii, 182. 
Curcuma zedoaria: 

Description and distribution, ii, 184. 

Local names, ii, 183. 

Medicinal, ii, 183 ; iii, 66. 

Oil, ii, 183. 

Perfume, ii, 183. 

Zedoary, ii, 183. 
Cushions ; 

Schizostachyu))! lima, i, 264. 
Cyatheaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 65. 

Tree fern trunks, iii, 96. 
Cyathea spp. 

Distribution, iii, 96. 

Local names, iii, 96. 

Uses, iii, 96. 
Cyathocalyx globosus: 

Description, ii, 280. 

Figure, ii, 279. 

Local names, ii, 280. 

Areca nut substitute, ii, 280. 
Cycadaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 241. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 168. 

Ornamental plants, iii, 12. 
Cycas rumphii: 

Description and distribution, ii, 244. 

Figure, ii, 245. 

Local names, ii. 

Food, ii, 241. 

Medicinal, iii, 16 

Ornamental, iii, 
Cymbidium : 

Distribution, i, 24. 



241. 



12. 



INDEX 



273 



Cynodon dactylon : 

Distribution, iii, 170. 

Local names, iii, 170. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 
Cyperaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 346. 

Food plants, ii, 250. 
Cyperus malaccensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 26, 348. 

Figure, i, 349, 350. 

Local names, i, 346. 

Fiber, i, 346. 
Cyperus radiatus : 

Description and distribution, i, 348. 

Local names, i, 348. 

Fiber, i, 348. 
Cypress vine, see Quamoclit pinnata. 
Cyrtosperma merkiisii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 254. 

Local names, ii, 254. 

Food, ii, 254. 

Medicinal, iii, 173. 
Cyrtostachys lakka, i, 243. 

D 

Dadayem, see Bidens pilosa. 

Dadiangau, see Agathis alba, 

Dadiingoi, see Agathis alba. 

Dcemonorops affinis, i, 208. 

Daemonorops clemensianus, i, 206. 

Daemonorops curranii, i, 208. 

Daemonorops gaudichaudii, see Daemonorops 

mollis. 
Daemonorops gracilis, i, 208. 
Daemonorops loherianus, i, 206. 
Daemonorops margaritae, i, 206. 
Daemonoroiys mollis : 

Description, i, 208. 

Figure, i, 207. 
Daemonorops ochrolepis: 

Description, i, 206. 
Daemonorops oligolepis: 

Description, i, 206. 
Daemonorops pannosus: 

Description, i, 206. 
Daemonorops pedicellaris: 

Description, i, 206. 
Daemonorops spp. : 

Conspectus of the species, i, 206. 

Description, i, 205. 

Distribution, i, 135. 
Daemonorops virescens: 

Description, i, 206. 
Daemonorops urdanetanus: 

Description, i, 206. 
Dagailo, see Pistia stratiotes. 
Dagang, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Dagingdingan, see Euphoria didyma. 
Dagkalan, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Dagko, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Dagudri, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Dagum, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Daiamiras, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Daiang, see Blcchum brownei. 
Dail, see Tylophora brevipes. 
Daila, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
177674 18 



Dakutung, see Clerodendron cumingianum. 
Dalagita, see Ficus payapa. 
Dalakan, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Dalakit, see Ficus forstenii. 
Dalakit, see Ficus payapa. 
Dalakit, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 
Dalamo, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Dalandang, see Tectona grandis. 
Dalau, see Acorus calamus. 
Dalau, see Curcuma longa- 
Dalauen, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Dalbergia candenatensis : 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Dalbergia cumingiana: 

Distribution, iii, 191. 

Local names, iii, 191. 

Medicinal, iii, 191. 
Dalbergia ferruginea : 

Distribution, iii, 191. 

Local names, iii, 191. 

Medicinal, iii, 191. 
Daldal, see Asdepias curassavica. 
Daldallagni, see Vitex trifolia. 
Daldallupang, see Thespesia lampas. 
Daligan, see Averrhoa carambola. 
Dalihan, see Averrhoa carambola- 
Dalinas, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Dalinas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Dalinsi, see Terminalia edulis. 
Dalipauen, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Dalisai, see Terminalia catappa. 
Dalit, see Antiaris toxicaria. 
Dalit, see Canarium villosum. 
Dallag, see Greivia multiflora. 
Dalogdog, see Caesalpinia crista. 
Dalondon, see Tectona grandis. 
Daluari, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Dalugdug, see Caesalpinia crista. 
Dalunet, see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Dalunit, see Trema orientalis. 
Daliinot, see Trema orientalis. 
Dalupan, see Urena lobata. 
Dalupang, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 
Daliiru-babae, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Damarau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Dambohala, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Damo, see Eleusine indica. 

Damong-bungkalat, see Biophytum sensitivum. 
Damong-hiya, see Biophytum sensitivum. 
Damong-kambing, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Damong-mabaho, see Sida mysorensis. 
Bamdng-maria, see Artemisia vulgaris. 
Damong-pailaya, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Damong-palias, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Damong-sambali, see Blechum brownei. 
Damdro, see Carum copticum. 
Damoro, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Damortis, see Pithecolobium dulce. 
Dampalit, see Sesuvium partulacastrum. 
Dampol, see Pygeum glandulosuni 
Dandiilit, see Camptostemon philippinense. 
Danggai, see Kingiodendron alternif olium. 
Dangkaan, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Dangkalan, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Dangla, see Vitex negundo. 
Dangli, see Grewia tnultifiora. 



274 



INDEX 



Danglin, see Greivia multiflora. 

Danglin-aso, see Helicteres hirsuta. 

Danglin-kalabau, see Helicteres hirsuta. 

Dangliw, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 

Danglog, see Grewia multiflora. 

Danglog, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 

Danipai, see Mucuna niyricans. 

Danli, see Grewia eriocarpa. 

Danlog, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 

Danu, see Ischaemum angustifolium. 

Da6, see Dracontomelum dao. 

Dapiau, see Areca catechu. 

Dapiau, see Pinanga spp. 

S^pil, see LepidopetcUum perrottetiu 

Dapnit, see Wikstroemia ovata. 

Dapo, see Dendrobium crumenatuin. 

Dapong-tigre, see Phalaenopsis schilleriana. 

Dapui, see Ardisia serrata. 

Darahiro, see Pistia stratiotes. 

Daraido, see Pistia stratiotes. 

Darairo, see Pistia stratiotes. 

Darau, see Acorus calamus. 

Darayau, see Pittosporum pentandrum- 

Daripai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Darumabi, see Mussaenda, philippica. 

Darumaka, see Donax cannaeformis. 

Dasa, see Pamdanus luzonensis. 

Dasigan, see Pinanga spp. 

Datiles, see Leucaena glauca. 

Datiles, see Muntingia calabura. 

Datura fastuosa : 

Distribution, iii, 234. 

Local names, iii, 234. 

Medicinal, iii, 234. 
Datura fastuosa var. alba: 

Description and distribution, iii, 72. 

Figure, iii, 73. 

Local names, iii, 72. 

Medicinal, iii, 72. 
Dauag, see Capparis horrida. 
Dauag, see Capparis micracantha. 
Dauag, see Toddalia asiatica. 
Dausa, see Peristrophe bivalvis. 
Daiisum, see Eurycles amboinenais. 
Dayandang, see Triphopetalum. toxicum.. 
Dayap, see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Dayap-dayapan, see Clausena anisuvi-olens. 
Dayumaka, see Arenga tremula. 
Dayumaka, see Heterospathe elata. 
Decaspermum jruticosum : 

Distribution, iii, 216. 

Local names, iii, 216. 

Medicinal, iii, 216. 
Dekai-dekaiang, see Embelia philippinensis. 
Demopa, see Euphoria didyma. 
Dendrobium : 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Dendrobium acuminatum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 18. 

Figure, iii, 17. 

Ornamental, iii, 18. 
Dendrobium amethystoglossum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 18. 

Ornamental, iii, 18. 



Dendrobium anosmuyn : 

Description and distribution,, iii, 18. 

Figure, iii, 19. 

Ornamental, iii, 18. 
Dendrobium aureum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 18. 

Figure, iii, 20. 

Local name, iii, 18. 

Ornamental, iii, 18. 
Dendrobium crumenatum: 

Description and distribution, i, 36 
iii, 22. 

Figure, i, 367 ; iii, 21. 

Local names, i, 365 ; iii, 22. 

Fiber, i, 365. 

Ornamental, iii, 22. 
Dendrobium dearei : 

Description and distribution, iii, 22. 

Ornamental, iii, 22. 
Dendrobium lyonii: 

Description and distribution, iii, 22. 

Figure, iii, 23. 

Ornamental, iii, 22. 
Dendrobium revolutum: 

Description and distribution, iii, 22. 

Local name, iii, 22. 

Ornamental, iii, 22. 
Dendrobium sanderae : 

Description and distribution, iii, 24. 

Figure, iii, 25. 

Ornamental, iii, 24. 
Dendrobium schuetzei: 

Description, iii, 24. 

Figure, iii, 26, 27. 

Ornamental, iii, 24. 
Dendrobium taurinum: 

Description and distribution, iii, 24. 

Figure, iii, 28, 29. 

Ornamental, iii, 24. 
Dendrocalamus curranii: 

Description and distribution, i, 261 
Dendrocalamus giganteus: 

Growth, i, 277. 
Dendrocalamus latiflorus : 

Description and distribution, i, 261. 

Local names, i, 261. 
Dendrocalamus merrillianus : 

Description and distribution, i, 261. 

Figure, i, 289, 290. 

Local names, i, 261. 

Tensile strength, i, 322. 

Uses, i, 261. 
Dengau, see Acorus calamus. 
Dental mould preparations : 

Agathis alba, ii, 29. 
Dental surgery : 

Achras sapota, ii, 74. 
Deora, see Peristrophe bivalvis. 
Deora, see Peristrophe tinctoria. 
Derris eUiptica : 

Cattle and fish poison, iii, 79. 
Derris philippinensis : 

Cattle and fish poison, iii, 79 
Derris trifoliata: 

Distribution, i, 24. 



INDEX 



275 



Derris uliginosa : 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Desinodium heterocarpum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 391. 

Local names, ii, 391. 

Dye, ii, 391. 
Devil's cotton, see Abronia fastuosa. 
Diana, see Sesbania grandiflora. 
Dibatib. see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
Dibual, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Dictyosperma alba: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Dikut-malamarine, see Mimosa pudica. 
Dikut iTga buluk, see Paederia foetida. 
Dila-dila, see Elephanthopus spicatus. 
Dila-dila, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii- 
Dila-dila, see Onychium siliculos^im. 
Dilang-usa, see Elephantopus spicatus. 
Dilang-usa, see Trichodesjna zeylanicum. 
Bilau, see Curcuma longa. 
Dilau oil : 

Curcuma longa, ii, 182. 
Dilau-pula, see Curcutiia longa. 
Dilgun-susu, see Mimosa pudica- 
Dili, see Pittosporutn pentandruvi. 
Biliman, see Stenochlaena pahistris. 
Diliuariu, see Acanthus ilicif alius. 
Oilleniaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 400. 

Food plants, ii, 338. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 212. 

Scouring material, iii, 59. 
Dillenia niegalantha : 

Description and distribution, ii, 338. 

Local names, ii, 338. 

Food, ii, 338. 
Dillenia philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 338. 

Figure, ii, 339, 341. 

Local names, ii, 338. 

Dye, ii, 338, 400. 

Food, ii, 338. 

Medicinal, iii, 212. 
Dillenia r eiff erscheidia : 

Description and distribution, ii, 340. 

Local names, ii, 340. 

Food, ii, 340. 
Dilupaon, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Dingin, see Dillenia philippinensis. 
Dinglas, see Terminalia comintana. 
Dingo, see Pitttosporum resiniferum. 
Dinochloa ciliata: 

Description and distribution, i, 261, 262. 

Figure, i, 291. 
Dinochloa elmeri: 

Description, i, 261, 262. 

Distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 292. 
Dinochloa luconiae : 

Description, i, 261, 262. 

Distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 293. 

Local names, i, 262. 



Dinochloa pubiramea: 

Description, i, 261, 262. 

Distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 294. 

Local names, i, 262. 
Dinochloa scandens : 

Description, i, 261, 262. 

Distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 295. 

Uses, i, 262. 
Dioscoreaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 257. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 177. 
Dioscorea divaricata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 257. 

Local names, ii, 257. 

Food, ii, 257. 
Dioscorea esculenta : 

Description and distribution, ii, 257. 

Local names, ii, 257. 

Food, ii, 257. 
Dioscorea hispida : 

Description and distribution, ii, 258. 

Local names, ii, 257. 

Food, ii, 258. 

Medicinal, iii, 177. 
Dioscorea luzonensis : 

Desci-iption and distribution, ii, 258. 

Local names, ii, 258. 

Food, ii, 258. 
Dioscorea pentaphylla: 

Description and distribution, ii, 258. 

Local names, ii, 258. 

Food, ii, 258. 
Diospyros discolor: 

Description and distribution, ii, 370. 

Figure, ii 369, 371. 

Local names, ii, 370. 

Food, ii, 370. 
Diospyros ebenaster : 

Distribution, iii, 220. 

Local names, iii, 220. 

Medicinal, iii, 220. 
Diospyros multiflora : 

Distribution, iii, 220. 

Local names, iii, 220. 

Medicinal, iii, 220. 
Diplodiscus paniculatus : 

Description and distribution, i, 383. 

Figure, ii, 331. 

Local names, i, 383. 

Food, ii, 332. 

Rope, i, 383. 
Dipterocarpaceae : 

Oils, ii, 160. 

Paper, i, 423. 

Resins, ii, 50. 
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus: 

Description, ii, 60. 

Distribution, ii, 62. 

Figure, ii, 57, 58, 59, 61. 

Local names, ii, 54. 

Resin, ii, 56. 
Dipterocar pus vernicifluus : 

Description and distribution, ii, 64. 

Figure, ii, 63, 65, 66. 



276 



INDEX 



Dipterocarpus vernicifluus — Continued. 

Local names, ii, 62. 

Resin, ii, 62. 
Diran, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Dischidia saccata : 

Description and distribution, i, 24. 
Disi, see Terminalia edtdis. 
Disol, see Kaeinpfera galanga- 
Dit&, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Dita, see Antiaris toxicaria. 
Dita, see Cerbera tnanghas. 
Dita, see Lophopetalum toxicum. 
Dita, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Diualat, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Diudiii, see Ficus hauili. 
Djoeroedjoe, see Acanthus ilicifoUus. 
Do don (tea v isco sa : 

Distribution, iii, 204. 

Local names, iii, 204. 

Medicinal, iii, 204. 
Dogdol, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Doldol, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Dolichandrmie spathacea : 

Distribution, iii, 236. 

Local names, iii, 236. 

Medicinal, iii, 236. 
Dolo, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. 
Dolontas, see Chrysanthemum indicum. 
Donax cannaeformis : 

Description and distribution, i, 365. 

Figure, i, 367. 

Local names, i, 365. 

Fiber, i, 365. 

Medicinal, iii, 179. 
Dondol, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Dongrareng, see Grewia bilamellatu. 
Dracontomelum dao : 

Description and distribution, ii, 316. 

Figure, ii, 314, 315. 

Local names, ii, 312. 

Food, ii, 312. 
Dracontomelum edule: 

Description and distribution, ii, 316. 

Figure, ii, 317. 

Local names, ii, 316. 

Food, ii, 316. 
Druce, see Nelumbiuiti nelumho. 
Drynaria quercifolia : 

Description, iii, 11. 

Distribution, i, 24; iii, 11. 

Local names, iii, 168. 

Medicinal, iii, 168. 

Ornamental, iii, 11. 
Dryopteris pteroides : 

Distribution, i, 323. 

Local name, i, 323. 

Baskets, i, 323. 
Dudos, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Dudukduken, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Diien, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Duen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Dugayon, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Dugian, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Duglo, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Duhat, see Eugenia cumini. 
Duhatduhatan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 



Duidui, see Pterocymbium tinctoriuin. 
Duka, see Kingiodendron alternifoliuni. 
Dukep, see Telosma procumbens. 
Duko, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Duktung-ahas, see Streptocaulon baumii. 
Dukiim, see Abelmoschtis moschatus. 
Dukup, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
Dulau, see Curciima longa. 
Dulingatok, see Crataeva religiosa. 
Dulitan, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Dulitan-takloban, see Falaquiiim phUippense. 
Dulokdiilok, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Duluariu, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Duluk-duluk, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Dulupang, see Abutilon indicum. 
Dumamai, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 
Dumanai, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Dumanai, see Dodonaea viscosa. 
Dumanai, see Homonoia riparia. 
Dumau, see Coix lachryma-jobi- 
Dumayaka, see Arenga tremula. 
Dumero, see Rosmarinus officinalis. 
Dumon, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Duiigas, see Cerbera tnanghas. 
Dunglu, see Alphitonia excelsa. 
Diingon, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Diingon, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Dungon-lalao, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Dungon-late, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Dungul, see Litsea ghitinosa. 
Dungun, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Dungurungut, see Citrus hystrix. 
Dupdupan, see Diplodiscus paniculattts. 
Dupingan, see Diospyros multiflora. 
Duran, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Durareng, see Grewia bilamellata. 
Durarong, see Grewia multiflora. 
Duso, see Kaempfera galanga- 
Dus61, see Kaempfera galanga. 
Duung, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Duyan, see Dioscorea divaricata. 
Duyong, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Dyes : 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 

Ceriops roxburghiana, i, 122. 

Ceriops tagal, i, 122. 

Dyes, ii, 385. 

Xylocarpus granatum. i, 122. 
Dypsis madaguscariensis : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Dysoxylum decandrwm : 

Distribution, iii, 197. 

Local names, iii, 197. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 

Ehenaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 403. 

Food plants, ii, 370. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 220. 
Ebiok, see Arenga pinnata. 
6bus, see Corypha elata. 
Echa-ti-bakir, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Eclipta alba : 

Distribution, iii, 244. 

Local names, iii, 244. 

Medicinal, iii, 244. 



INDEX 



277 



Eggplant, see Solamtm melongena. 
figot, see Eugenia curranii. 
Ehretia microphylla: 

Description and distribution, ii, 373. 

Local names, ii, 373. 

Medicinal, iii, 227. 

Tea substitute, ii, 373. 
Ehretia navesii: 

Distribution, iii, 227. 

Local names, iii, 227. 

Medicinal, iii, 227. 
Elaeagnaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 352. 
Elaeagnus philippensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 352. 

Local names, ii, 352. 

Food, ii, 352. 
Elaeis guineensia: 

Description, i, 208. 

Distribution, i, 208 ; ii, 103. 

Figures, i, 209, 211. 

Local names, i, 208 ; ii, 103. 

Composition of oil, ii, 103. 

Oil, i, 208. 

Ornamental, i, 208. 

Uses, ii, 103. 

Wine, i, 208. 
Elaeocarjjaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 381. 

Food plants, ii, 330. 
Elaeocarpus calomala: 

Description and distribution, i, 381. 

Local names, i, 381. 

Food, ii, 330. 

Rope, i, 381. 
Elatostenia spp. : 

Description and distribution, ii, 270. 

Food, ii, 270. 
Eleocharis dulcis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 250. 

Figure, ii, 251. 

Local name, ii, 250. 

Food, ii, 250. 
Elephantopus scaber: 

Distribution, iii, 244. 

Local names, iii, 244. 

Medicinal, iii, 244. 
Elephantopus spicatus : 

Disti-ibution, iii, 245. 

Local names, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Eleusine indica : 

Description and distribution, i, 340. 

Local names, i, 340. 

Hats, i, 340. 

Medicinal, iii, 170. 
Embelia philip pinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 364. 

Local names, ii, 364. 

Food, ii, 364. 
Emilia sonchifolia : 

Description and distribution, ii, 377. 

Local names, ii, 377. 

Food, ii, 377. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 



Enhalus acoroides: 

Description and distribution, ii, 246. 

Local names, ii, 246. 

Food, ii, 246. 
Enhydra fluctuans : 

Distribution, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Entada phaseoloides : 

Description and distribution, iii, 56. 

Figure, iii, 57. 

Local names, iii, 54. 

Medicinal, iii, 191. 

Uses, iii, 54 
E piprernnuni spp. : 

Description and distribution, i, 354. 

Baskets, i, 353, 354. 
Eria nierrillii: 

Description and distribution, iii, 24. 

Figure, iii, 31. 

Ornamental, iii, 24. 
Ericaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 362. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 218. 
Escobilla, see Sida acuta. 
Espada, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Estrella, see Curculigo orchioides. 
Euchresta, horsfieldii ; 

Distribution, iii, 191. 

Local names, iii, 191. 

Medicinal, iii, 191. 
Eugenia aherniana : 

Description and distribution, ii, 354. 

Local names, ii, 354. 

Food, ii, 354. 
Eugenia aquea : 

Description and distribution, ii, 356. 

Local names, ii, 356. 

Food, ii, 356. 
Eugenia calubcob : 

Description and distribution, ii, 356 

Figure, ii, 355. 

Local names, ii, 356. 

Food, ii, 356. 
Eugenia cumini : 

Description and distribution, ii, 356. 

Local names, ii, 356. 

Food, ii, 239, 356. 

Medicinal, iii, 69, 216. 
Eugenia curranii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 358. 

Local names, ii, 358. 

Figure, ii, 357. 

Food, iii, 358. 
Eugenia mananquil : 

Description and distribution, ii, 358. 

Figures, ii, 226, 359. 

Local names, ii, 358. 

Food, ii, 358. 
Eugenia polycephaloides : 

Description and distribution, ii, 360. 

Local names, ii, 358. 

Food, ii, 360. 
Eugenia xanthophylla: 

Description and distribution, ii, 360. 

Figure, ii, 361. 



278 



INDEX 



Eugenia xanthophylla—Continviedi. 

Local names, ii, 360. 

Food, ii, 360. 
Eupatorium friplinerve: 

Distribution, iii, 245. 

Local names, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Euphorbiaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 396. 

Food plants, ii, 308. 

Gums, ii, 73. 

Ink, iii, 90. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 40. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 68, 197. 

Oils, ii, 120. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 80. 
Euphorbia hirta : 

Distribution, iii, 198. 

Local names, iii, 198. 

Medicinal, iii, 198. 
Euphorbia neriifoUa : 

Distribution, iii, 198. 

Local names, iii, 198. 

Medicinal, iii, 198. 
Euphorbia thymifolia: 

Distribution, iii, 199. 

Local names, iii, 199. 

Medicinal, iii, 199. 
Euphorbia tirucaUi : 

Distribution, iii, 199. 

Local names, iii, 199. 

Medicinal, iii, 199. 
Euphoria didyma : 

Description and distribution, ii, 326. 

Figure, ii, 325. 

Local names, ii, 326. 

Food, ii, 326. 
Euphoria nephelioides : 

Description and distribution, ii, 326. 

Food, ii, 326. 
Eurycles amboinensis : 

Distribution, iii, 176. 

Local names, iii, 176. 

Medicinal, iii, 176. 
Evolvulus alsinoides : 

Distribution, iii, 225. 

Medicinal, iii, 225. 
Excoecaria agallocha: 

Description and distribution, i, 40. 

Figure, i, 41. 

Local names, i, 40. 

Fuel, i, 40. 

Medicinal, iii, 199. 

F 

Fabrics : 

Agave cantula, i, 362. 

Ananas comosus, i, 356. 

Boehnieria nivea, i, 373. 

Corchorus capsularis, i, 382. 

Corchorus olitorius, i, 383. 

Malachra capitata, i, 387. 

Musa sp., i, 411. 

Musa textUis, i, 364. 

Sida rhombifolia, i, 391. 

Urena lobata, i, 391. 
Fafalong, see Vaccinhim whitfordii. 



Fagaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 260 
Fagraea cochinchinensis: 
Distribution, ii, 220. 
Local names, iii, 220. 
Medicinal,' iii, 220. 
Fagraea racemosa : 

Distribution, iii, 221. 
Local names, iii, 221. 
Medicinal, iii, 221. 
Fancy articles ; 

Abroma fastuosa, i, 395. 
Fimbristylis diphylla, i, 348. 
Fimbriatylis globulosa, i, 348. 
Lygodium spp., i, 326. 
Musa textUis, i, 364. 
Pandanus simplex, i, 336. 
Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. 
Fans: 

Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338 ; ii, 177. 
Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. 
Far61, see Cardiospermum halicacabuin . 
Fatoua pilosa : 

Distribution, iii, 181. 
Local names, iii, 181. 
Medicinal, iiii, 181. 
Fencing: 

Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. 
Fennel, see Foeniculum vulgare. 
P'ertilizer : 

Aleurites moluccana, ii, 132. 
Aleurites trisperma, ii, 137. 
Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. 
Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 
Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Fibers : 

Areea catechu, i, 144. 
Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 
Arenga tremula, i, 158. 
Bamboos, i, 251. 
Calamus spp., i, 158. 
Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 
Cocus nucifera, i, 184. 
Corypha data, i, 192. 
Daemonorops spp., i, 205. 
Fiber plants, i, 313. 
Heterospathe elata, i, 210. 
Korthalsia spp., i, 212. 
Livistosa spp., i, 214. 
Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 
Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 
Paper, i, 415. 
Ficus benjamina: 

Description and distribution, i, 372. 
Local names, i, 372. 
Rope, i, 372. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Ficus forstenii : 

Description and distribution, i, 372. 
Local names, i, 372. 
Rope, i, 372. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Ficus hauUi: 

Distribution, iii, 181. 
Local names, iii, 181. 
Medicinal, iii, 181. 



INDEX 



279 



Ficus in inahassae : 

Distribution, iii, 181. 
Local names, iii, 181. 
Medicinal, iii, 181. 
Ficus pachyphylla: 

Description and distribution, i, 373. 
Local names, i, 372. 
Rope, i, 372. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Ficus palawanensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 373. 
Local names, i. 373. 
Rope, i, 373. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Ficus payapa : 

Distribution, iii, 181. 
Local names, iii, 181. 
Medicinal, iii 181. 
Ficus ulmifolia: 

Description, ii, 266. 
Distribution, ii, 270. 
Figure, ii, 269. 
Local names, iii, 266. 
Food, ii, 266. 
Scouring materials, iii, 51 
Fide, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
FimbristyUs diphylla: 

Description and distribution, i, 348. 
Local names, i, 348. 
Fiber, i, 348. 
FimbristyUs ferruginea : 

Distribution, i, 26. 
FimbristyUs globulosa: 

Description and distribution, i, 352. 
Figure, i, 351. 
Local names, i, 348. 
Fiber, i, 352. 
Finlaysonia obovata: 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Firewood : 

Bruguiera parviflora, i, 112-116. 
Camptostevion phiUppinense, i, 42. 
Ceriops tagal, i, 112-114. 
Cultivation of Rhizophora, 1, 100. 
Leucaena glauca, iii, 87. 
Rhizophora candelaria, i, 112-114. 
Rhizophora imicronata, i, 112-117. 
Sonneratia alba, i. 44. 
Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 112-116. 
Stands in mangrove swamps, i, 86. 
Xylocarpus violticcensis, i, 112-117. 
Fish corrals : 

Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. 
Fishing rods : 

Bambusa glaucescens, i, 258. 
Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifoUa, i, 216. 
Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. 
Fish-tail palm, see Caryota cuwmgii. 
Fish traps : 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 
Daemonorops spp., i, 205. 
Gigantochloa Icvis, i, 262. 
Korthalsia, i, 212. 
Fish traps, tying: 

Malaisia scandens, i, 373. 
Pothoidiuin lobbianum, i, 354. 



Fish traps, tying— Continued. 
Rourea volubilis, i, 378. 
Stenochlaena palustris, i, 328. 
Fistula, see Cassia fistula. 
Flacourtiaceae : 

Fo6d plants, ii, 346. 
Oils, ii, 161. 
Flacourtia euphlebia : 

Description and distribution, ii, 348. 
Local name, ii, 346. 
Food, ii, 346. 
Flacourtia indica: 

Description and distribution, ii, 348. 
Local names, ii, 348. 
Food, ii, 348. 
Flacourtia rukam: 

Description and distribution, ii, 348. 
Figure, ii, 349. 
Local names, ii, 348. 
Food, ii, 348. 
Flacourtia sepiaria : 

Figure, ii, 350. 
Flagellariaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 356. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 174. 
Flagellaria indica : 

Description and distribution, i, 356. 
Figure, i, 359. 
Local names, i, 359. 
Fiber plants, i, 356. 
Medicinal, iii, 174. 
Flavoring : 

Acorus calamus, ii, 181. 
Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. 
Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. 
Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. 
Floors : 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifoUa, i, 216. 
Oncosperma spp., i, 231, 232. 
Flor de la mariana, see Phalaenopsis luedde- 

manniana. 
Floras de las doce, see Pentapetes phoenicea, 
Fluggea virosa: 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 
Flutes : 

Schizostachum lumampao, i, 264. 
Foeniculum vtdgare : 

Distribution, iii, 218. 
Local names, iii, 218. 
Medicinal, iii, 218. 
Food : 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 

Arenga amhong, i, 150. 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Food plants, ii, 225. 

Heterospathe elata, i, 210. 

Livistona rotundifoUa, i, 216. 

Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 

Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. 

Oncosperma filamentosum, i, 36, 232. 



280 



INDEX 



Food coloring : 

Curcuma longa, ii, 182. 
Food oil : 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. 

Anacardium occidentale, ii, 146. 

Cocos. nucifera, ii, 93. 

Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 

Palaquium philippense, ii, 168. 

Terminalia catappa, ii, 162. 
Fracitas, see Aerides quinquevulnerum. 
Fuel: 

Canarium viUosum, ii, 49. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 
Fugayong, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Fungi, edible, iii. 97. 
Funnels : 

Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 82. 
Furniture : 

Bavibusa vulgaris, i, 260. 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 

Daevionorops spp., i, 205. 

Korthalsia spp., i, 212. 



6 



Gaas, see Scirpiodendron ghaeri. 
Gabi, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Gabigabihan, see Typhonium divaricatum. 
Gagabiitan, see Eleusine indica. 
Gagabiiten, see Malvastrum coromandelinuni. 
Gagalang, see Sonchus oleraceus. 
Gaho, see Miscan'hus sinensis. 
Galagala, see Agathis alba. 
Galamai-amd, see Schefflera elliptifoliola. 
Galamai-amo, see Schefflera odorata. 
Galatgat, see Ipomoea reptans. 
Galauan, see Pavetta indica. 
Galiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Galiang, see Cyrtosperrna merkusii. 
Galluran, see .4verrhoa carambola. 
Galo, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 
Galot-galot, see Cynodon dactylon. 
Galumbang, see Jatropha curcas. 
Galura, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Gamboge : 

Garcinia venulosa, ii, 18. 
Gamot-tulisan, see Ageratuin conyzoides. 
Gamu, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Gan-an, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Ganda, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Gandus, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Ganophyllum. falcatum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 148. 

Figure, ii, 149. 

Local names, ii, 147. 

Illuminant, ii, 148. 

Soap, ii, 148. 

Soap substitute, iii, 58. 
Gaon, see Imperata cylindrica. 
Gapas, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Gapas, see Chloranthus brachystachys. 
Gapas-gapas, see Camptostemon phiUppin- 

ense. 
Gapingoi, see Gleichenia linearis. 
Garban, see Rhaphidophora merriUii. 



Garcinia binucao: 

Description and distribution, ii, 340. 

Figure, ii, 342. 

Local names, ii, 340. 

Food, ii, 340. 
Garcinia dulcis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 344. 

Figure, ii, 343. 

Local names, ii, 344. 

Food, ii, 344. 
Garcinia mangostana : 

Distribution, iii, 213. 

Local name, iii, 213. 

Medicinal, iii, 213. 
Garcinia mi^idayiaensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 344. 

Local names, ii, 344. 

Food, ii, 344. 
Garcinia rubra : 

Description and distribution, ii, 344. 

Figure, ii, 345. 

Local names, ii, 344. 

Food, ii, 344. 
Garcinia venulosa : 

Description and distribution, ii, 346. 

Figure, ii, 347. 

Local names, ii, 346. 

Food, ii, 346. 
Garcinia vidalii: 

Description and distribution, ii, 346. 

Local names, ii, 346. 

Food, ii, 346. 
Gardenia pseudopsidium: 

Distribution, iii, 239. 

Local names, iii, 239. 

Medicinal, iii, 239. 
Garem, see Achyranthes aspera. 
C^arem nga piirau, see Blechum brownei. 
Garlic, see Allium sativum,. 
Garomaka, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Garuga abilo : 

Distribution, iii, 196. 

Local names, iii, 196. 

Medicinal, iii, 196. 
Garulan, see Averrhoa carambola. 
Gasatan-mulato, see Mimusops parvifoUa. 
Gasi, see Croton tiglium. 
Gatasan, see Garcinia dulcis. 
Gatasan, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Gatasan, see Mimusops parvifoUa- 
Gatas-gatas, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Gatas-virgen, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Gatbo, see Thysanolaena maxima. 
Gatmo, see Vaccinium myrtoides. 
Gaton, see Eiiphorbia tirucalli. 
Gauai-gauai, see Sagittaria sagittifolia. 
Gauai-gauai, see Sesbania grandiflora. 
Gaued, see Piper betle. 
Gaui-gaui, see Sesbania grandiflora. 
Gayumahin, see Terminalia edulis. 
Gengibre, see Zingiber officinale. 
Gentianaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 221. 
Geodorum nutans: 

Description and distribution, ii, 68, 7 

Local names, ii, 68. 



INDEX 



281 



Geodorum nutans — Continued. 

Glue, ii, 68. 

Medicinal, iii, 179. 
Geron, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Gesges, see Pavetta indica. 
Gibuian, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Gigantochloa attcr, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Gigantochloa levis : 

Description and distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 296. 

Local names, i, 262. 

Planting and growth, i, 266-267. 

Uses, i, 262. 
Gigantochloa robuata, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Giliman, see Stenochlaena palustris. 
Giling-gilingan, see Abutilon indicum. 
Ginabang, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Ginataan, see Nerium indicum. 
Ginger, see Zingiber officinale. 
Ginlin, see Ochrosia, oppositifolia. 
Giragara, see Cocos nucifera. 
Giret, see Canarium villosum. 
Giron, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Gisa, see Miscan'hus sinensis. 
Gis&u, see Canarium williamsii. 
Gisi, see Ficus benjamina. 
Gisi-gisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Gisihan, see Euphoria didyma. 
Gisit, see Terminalia edulis. 
Gleicheniaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 326. 
Gieichenia linearis: 

Description and distribution, i, 326. 

Figure, i, 325. 327. 

Local names, i, 326. 

Fiber, i, 326. 
Glochidion littorale : 

Distribution, i, 26. 
Glue; 

Cordia my.ra, ii, 88. 

Geodorum nutans, ii, 68. 

Macaranga tanarius, ii, 73. 
Gnetaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 328. 

Food plants, ii, 244. 
Gnetum gnemon: 

Description, i, 328. 

Local names, i, 328. 

Food, ii, 244. 

Rope, i, 328. 
Gnetum indicum : 

Description, i, 328. 

Distribution, i, 330. 

Figure, ii, 247. 

Local names, i, 328. 

Drinking water, ii, 246. 

Food, ii, 246. 

Rope, i, 329. 
Gnetum sp. : 

Description, i, 330. 

Local names, i, 330. 

Rope, i, 330. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Goboi, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Gdg'O, see Entada phaseoloides. 
Gogolingin, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 



Gogon, see Imperata cylindrica. 
Gogong-langil, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Golandrina, see Euphorbia thymifolia. 
Golondrina, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Goma, see Chonemorpha elastica. 
Gona tibatib, see Drynaria quercifoUa. 
Gondol, see Benincasa hisinda. 
Goniothalamus amuyon: 

Description and distribution, i, 376. 

Local names, i, 375. 

Medicinal, iii, 187. 

Rope, i, 375. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Gonocaryum calleryanuin : 

Distribution, iii, 203. 

Local names, iii, 203. 

Medicinal, iii, 203. 
Goodeniaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 243. 
Gorong-gong, see Eugenia viananquil. 
Gouania tiliaefolia: 

Description and distribution, iii, 59. 

Local names, iii, 59. 

Soap substitute, iii, 59. 
Gozzang-kalinga, see Gonocaryum calleryanum 
GraciUaria lichenoides: 

Local names, iii, 167. 

Medicinal, iii, 167. 
Grama, see Cynodon dactylon. 
Graviineae : 

Bamboos, i, 253. 

Fiber plants, i, 338. 

Food plants, ii, 248. 

Medicinal, iii, 169. 

Oils, ii, 174. 

Paper, i, 416, 422. 
Grammatophyllum' measuresianuni : 

Description and distribution, iii, 30. 

Ornamental, iii, 30. 
Granimatophyllum m ult iflorum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 30. 

Figure, iii, 32. 

Local name, iii, 30. 

Ornamental, iii, 30. 
Gram mat ophyllum wallisii: 

Description, iii, 30. 

Figure, iii, 33. 

Ornamental, iii, 30. 
Grangea maderaspatana : 

Distribution, iii, 245. 

Local name, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Grapokol, see Columella tri folia. 
Grap* ophyllum pictum : 

Distribution, iii, 237. 

Local names, iii, 237. 

Medicinal, iii, 237. 
Gregorio, see Acanthus ilicifoUus. 
Grewia acuminata : 

Description and distribution, i, 384. 

Local names, i, 384. 

Fiber, i, 384. 
Grewia bilamellata : 

Local names, i, 384. 

Rope, i, 384. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 



282 



INDEX 



Grewia ec 

Description and distribution, ii, 332. 

Figure, ii, 333. 

Local names, ii, 332. 

Food, ii, 332. 
Grewia eriocarpa : 

Description, i, 384. 

Figure, ii, 334. 

Local names, i, 384. 

Fiber, i, 384. 

Food, ii, 332. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Grewia multiflora : 

Description and distribution, i, 385. 

Local names, i, 385. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Rope, i, 385. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Grewia stylocarpa : 

Description and distribution, ii, 336. 

Figure, i, 335. 

Local names, ii, 332. 

Food, ii, 336. 
Griting, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Guadua philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 262. 

Figure, i, 297. 
Guanton, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. 
Guava, see Psidium guajava. 
Guayabas, see Psidium guajava. 
Guella, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Giigo, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Guioa koelreuteria : 

Distribution, iii, 204. 

Local names, iii, 204. 

Medicinal, iii, 204. 
Gulagulamanan, see Cissainpelos pareira. 
Gulaman, see GraciUaria lichenoides. 
Gulasiman, see Portulaca oleraeea. 
Guma, see Cordia myxa. 
Gumaka, see Arenga tremula. 
Gumamela, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Gum arable substitute : 

Sesbania grandiflora, ii, 72. 
Gumayaka, see Arenga tremula. 
Gum, chewing : 

Achras sapota, ii, 73. 

Artocarpus curningiana, ii, 70. 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. 
Gumihan, see Artocarpus elastica. 
Gumihan gum: 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. 
Gumuk, see Chloranthus brachystachys. 
Gungumayi, see Breynia rhavmoides. 
Gunhun, see Osbomia octodonta. 
Gupit, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
Gupit, see Pygeum preslii. 
Guraman, see Gracillaria lichenoides. 
Gurguraman, see Gracillaria lichenoides. 
Gurong:-gur6, see Citrus sp. 
Gusokan, see Pavetta indica. 
Gusol, see Kaempfera galanga. 
Gutta-percha ; 

PalaQuium ahernianum, ii, 76. 
Payena leerii, ii, 82. 



Guttijerae : 

Dyes, ii, 400. 

Food plants, iii, 340. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 212. 

Oils, ii, 156. 

Tannins, iii, 94. 
Guyabas, see Psidium guajava. 
Guyong-guyong, see Decaspermum frutico- 

suni. 
Guyung-gflyung, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Gymnartocarpus woodii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 270. 

Figure, ii, 271. 

Local names, ii, 270. 

Food, ii 270. 
Gynandropsis gynandra : 

Distribution, iii, 188. 

Local names, iii, 188. 

Medicinal, iii, 188. 
Gyrinopsis curningiana : 

Distribution, iii, 213. 

Local names, iii, 213. 

Medicinal, iii, 213. 

H 

Habagat-baging, see Capparis horrida. 
Habas, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Habika, see Pinanga spp. 
Habiki, see Pinanga spp. 
Habiok, see Arenga pinnata. 
Hadlayati, see Tectona grandis. 
Hagad, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Hagakhak, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Hagason, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Hagbiii, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Hagimit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Hagnaya, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 
Hagnaya, see Stenochlaena palustris. 
Hagod, see Trema orientalis. 
Hagol, see Caryota cumingii. 
Hagonoi, see Wedelia biflora. 
Hago-onoi, see Wedelia biflora. 
Hagui-ui, see Dodonaea viscosa. 
Hagiipit, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Hagusahis, see Panicum palmaefolium. 
Hahop, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Hahun, see Pericampylus glaucus. 
Hair cosmetic: 

Chisocheton pentandrus, ii, 118. 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Hair oil : 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. 

Citrus sp., ii, 212. 
Halas, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Halauihau, see Dracontomelum edule. 
Halikot, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. 
Halot, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. 
Halubagat, see Capparis micracantha. 
Halubagat-baging, see Capparis horrida. 
Halubagat-kahoi, see Capparis micracantha. 
Halupag, see Euiihoria didyma. 
Hambuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Hambuding, see Pinanga spp. 
Hamitanago, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Hammocks : 

Rhaphidophora spp., i, 356. 



INDEX 



283 



Hampapare, see Cissampelos i>areira. 
Hampas-tigbalang, see Smilax bracteata. 
Hampis-tigbalang, see Smilax leucophyUa. 
Hamugi, see Ai'tocarpus rubrovenia. 
Hanadgong, see Trema orientalis. 
Hanadiong, see Trema orientalis. 
Hanagdong, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Hanagdong, see Trevia orientalis 
Hanagdiing, see Trema orientalis. 
Hanbulali, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. 
Hangalai, see Bruguiera parviftora. 
Hangarai, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Haiigarai, see Hoiionoia riparia. 
Hangad nang babae, see Plumbago indica. 
Hangog, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Hangor, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Hangos, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Hangot, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Hangug, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Hanlagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Hanopol, see Conocephallus violacetis. 
Hanopol. see Maesa cumingii. 
Hanot, see Hibiscus tHiaceus. 
Hantak, see Sterulia oblongata. 
Hapong, see Nipa fruticans. 
Hapunan-niknik, see Sida javensis. 
Hard, see Lea aculeata. 
Haraihai, see Callicarpa caudata. 
Harangran, see Centipeda minima. 
Haras, see Foeniculum vulgare. 
Haras, see Garcinia binucao. 
Harpullia arbor ea: 

Description and distribution, iii, 58. 
Local nanaes, iii, 58. 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 

Medicinal, iii, 204. 

Soap substitute, iii, 58. 
Harrisonia perfoi-ata: 

Distribution, iii, 195. 

Local names, iii, 195. 

Medicinal, iii, 195. 
Harupai, see Mimosa pudica. 
Hats: 

Andropogon halepensis, i, 338. 

Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338 : ii, 177. 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 

Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Cyperus vialaccensis, i, 346. 

Donax canneaformis, i, 365. 

Fimbristylis globulosa, i, 348. 

Heterospathe elata, i, 210. 

Imperata exaltata, i, 340. 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 

Lygodium spp., i, 326. 

Musa textilis, i, 364. 

Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. 

Nipa fruticans, \, 222. 

Oryza saliva, i, 342. 

Pandanus radicans, i, 334. 

Pandanus sabotan, i, 334. 

Pandanus simplex, i, 336. 

Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. 



Hats — Continued. 

Phragmites vulgaris, i, 342. 

Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. 

Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. 

Scirpiodendron ghaeri, i, 352. 

Sporobolus elongatus, i, 344. 
Hauill, see Ficus hauili. 
Hedge plants : 

Bambusa glaucescens, 1, 258. 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 
Hedyachras philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 326. 

Food, ii, 326. 
Hclicteres hirs2ita: 

Description and distribution, i, 397. 

Local names, i, 396. 

Rope, i, 396. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Heliotropium indicum : 

Distribution, iii, 227. 

Local names, iii, 227. 

Medicinal, iii, 227. 
helminthostachys zeylanica : 

Description and distribution, ii, 241. 

Local names, ii, 241. 

Food, ii, 241. 
Henna plant, see Lawsonia inermis. 
Herbara, see Sida acuta. 
Heritiera littoralis: 

Description, i, 42. 

Distribution, i, 22, 42. 

Figure, i, 43. 

Local namies, i, 42. 

Stands, i, 98-100. 

Timber, i, 44. 
Hermandiaceae : 

Oils, ii, 103. 
Hernandia ovigera: 

Description and distribution, ii, 103, 104. 

Local names, ii, 103. 

Illuminant, ii, 103. 
Heterospathe elata: 

Description and distribution, i, 210. 

Figure, i, 213. 

Local names, i, 210. 

Areca-nut substitute, ii, 252. 

Food, ii, 262. 

Uses, i, 210. 
Heterospathe negrosensis : 

Description, i, 210. 

Local name, i, 212. 
Heterospathe philippinensis, i, 210. 
Heterospathe sibuyanensis : 

Description, i, 210. 

Local name, i, 212. 
Hevea braziliensis : 

Analysis of latex, ii, 67. 

Method of collecting latex, ii, 67. 
Hia-hia, see Mimosa j>udica. 
Hibau, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Hibi-hibihan, see Scoparia dulcis. 
Hibiok, see Arenga pinnata. 
Hibiscus escvlentus: 

Medicinal, iii, 208. 



284 



INDEX 



Hibiscus mutabilis : 

Distribution, iii, 208. 

Local names, iii, 208. 

Medicinal, iii, 208. 
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis : 

Distribution, iii, 208. 

Local names, iii, 208. 

Medicinal, iii, 208. 
Hibiscus sabdariffa: 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 
Hibiscus surattensis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 336. 

Local names, ii, 336. 

Condiment, ii, 336. 
Hibiscus tiliaceus: 

Description, i, 387. 

Distribution, i, 26, 387 ; iii, 209. 

Figure, i, 389. 

Local names, i, 387. 

Fiber, i, 387. 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 
Hidiok, see Arenga pinnata. 
Hipad-higad, see Achyranthes aspera. 
HJgad-higaran, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Higis-manuk, see Eclipta alba. 
Hikau-hikauan, see Sonneratia alba. 
Hilagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Hilalagat-saging, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Himainat, see Schefflera piperoidea. 
Himbaba-6, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. 
Hiiiibubuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Himpagtan, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Himpara, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Hinabuai, see Terminalia comintana. 
Hinagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Hinagdung, see Trema orientalis. 
Hinalagak-saging, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Hindi, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Hindi, see Schizostachyum di^usum. 
Hingalai, see Bruguiera parviftora. 
Hingali, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Hinggiu, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. 
Hinggiu, see Malaisia scandens. 
Hinggiu-kalabau, see Streptocaulon baumii. 
Hinggiu-kalabau, see Urceola iinberbis. 
Hingglu-na-puti, see Streptocaulon baumii. 
Hingkamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Hinlalagak, see Uvaria rufa. 
Hinlalaion, see Heliotropiuni indicum. 
Hinlalaong, see Trema orientalis. 
Hippocrateaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 203. 
Hoag, see Flagellaria indica. 
Hoag-uai, see Flagellaria indica. 
Hoja-cruz, see Crescentia alata. 
Holy basil, see Ocimum sanctum. 
Holy basil oil : 

Ocimum sanctum, ii, 218. 
Homalanthus fastuosus : 
Fish poison, iii, 80. 
Homalomena philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, iii, 90. 
Local names, iii, 90. 
Medicinal, iii, 174. 
Paper substitute, iii, 90. 



Homonoia riparia : 

Distribution, iii, 199. 

Local names, iii, 199. 

Medicinal, iii, 199. 
Hopea acuminata: 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Hopea spp. : 

Borneo tallow, ii, 160. 
Horag, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
Horse-radish tree, see Moringa oleifera. 
Household utensils : 
I Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Howea belmoreana, i, 243. 
Hoya : 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Huani, see Mangifera odorata. 
Hubar, see Jasminuin sanibac. 
Hubulos, see Trema orientalis. 
Hugimit, see Ficus minahassae. 
Huiag-hviiag, see Mimosa pudica. 
Huia'-huia", see Mimosa pudica. 
Huligano, see Fterocymbium tinctorium. 
Huling-bangon, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Hulit-tengah, see Ceriops spp. 
Humai, see Oryza sativa. 
Hungo, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
Hunug, see Pygeum preslii. 
Hunung, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Hydnaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Hydnophytum : 

Distribution, i, 24. 

Figure, i, 27. 
Hydnophytum formicarium : 

Distribution, iii, 239. 

Local name, iii, 239. 

Medicinal, iii, 239. 
Hydnum spp. : 

Description, iii, 116. 

Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Hydrocharitaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 246. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 169. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica, see Centella asiatica. 
Hynienocalis littorale : 

Local names, iii, 176. 

Medicinal, iii, 176. 
Hymenodictyon excelsum: 

Distribution, iii, 239. 

Local names, iii, 239. 

Medicinal, iii, 239. 
Hyophorbe amaricaulis, i, 243. 
Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, i, 243. 
Hyptis suaveolens : 

Distribution, iii, 233. 

Local names, iii, 233. 

Medicinal, iii, 233. 



fba, see Averrhoa bilitnbi. 
rba, see Cicca acida. 
Ibiok, see Arenga pinnata. 
fbus, see Corypha elata. 



INDEX 



285 



Icacinaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 203. 
Ichnocarpus ovatifolius : 

Description and distribution, i, 406. 
Local names, i, 406. 

Fiber, i, 406. 
Igad-igad, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Igat-Igat, see Sida javensis. 
Iginga, see Clerodendron interniediuni. 
Igiu, see Chisocheton pentandrus. 
Igiu, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Igok, see Arenga pinnata. 
fgot, see Eugenia curranii. 
fgot, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
ikap-ani-ani, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Ikmo, see Piper betle. 
Ikmong Iloko, see Piper betle. 
Ikog-ikog-sang-kuti, see Heliotropiutn indicum. 
fkoi-pusa, see Heliotropiuni indicum. 
Ilang-Ilang-, see Canangium odoratum. 
Hang-ilang-giibat, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Ilang-ilang-oil : 

Canangium odoratum, ii, 189. 
Il&s, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Ilib, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Illuminant : 

Aleiirites moluccana, ii, 126. 

Aleiirites trisperma, ii, 134. 

Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. 

Arachia hypogaea, ii, 109. 

BarringtoTiia asiatica, ii, 161. 

Barringtonia racemosa, ii, 162. 

Bassia betis, ii, 166. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, ii, 158. 

Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. 

Canariuin ovatum, ii, 114. 

Canarium villosum, ii, 49. 

Celastrua paniculata, ii, 147. 

Cerbera manghas, ii, 168. 

Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 117. 

Cocoa nucifera, ii, 93. 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, i, 54. 

Dipterocarpua vernicifluus, ii, 62. 

Ganophyllum falcatum, ii, 148. 

Hernandia ovigera, ii, 103. 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 

Jatropha midtifida, ii, 142. 

Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. 

Nephelium mutabUe, ii, 150. 

Palaguium philippense, ii, 168. 

Pangiuyn edule, ii, 161. 

Pittosporum resiniferum, ii, 106. 

Pongamia pinnata, ii. 111. 

Sesa^num orientate, ii, 168. 

Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 

Shorea borneenais, ii, 160. 

Sindora inermis, ii, 38. 

Sindora aupa, ii, 38. 

Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. 

Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. 
Ilukabban, see Sonneratia alba. 
Ilukabban, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Imalis, see Guioa keolreuteria. 
Imbubuiukan, see Grewia multiflora. 
Imkabao, see Allaeanthua glaber. 



Impatiens baJsamina : 

Distribution, iii, 205. 
Local name, iii, 205. 
Medicinal, iii, 205. 
Imperata cylindrica : 

Distribution, iii, 171. 
Local names, iii, 171. 
Medicinal, iii, 171. 
Imperata exaltata : 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 
Fiber, i, 340. 
Paper, i, 419-422. 
Impid, see Bauhinia cumingiana- 
Impig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Inangdon, see Trema orientalis. 
Inata, see Limnophila indica. 
Incense : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Kingiodendron alternifolium, ii, 208. 
Indai luging, see Trema orientalis. 
Indi, see Schizoatachxjum dielsianum. 
Indi, see Schizostachyum diffuaum. 
Indian almond oil: 
I Terminalia catappa, ii, 162. 

I Indigo f era suffruticosa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 392. 
I Local names, ii, 392. 

Dye, ii, 392. 
Indigofera tinctoria : 

Description and distribution, ii, 392. 
Local names, ii, 392. 
Dye, ii, 392. 
Inep, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Inggiiu na puti, see Parameria philippinengis. 
InIt, see Rubus rosaefolius. 
Iniu, see Uvaria rufa. 
Ink: 

Phyllanthus reticulatus, iii, 90. 
Inri, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Inri, see Schizostachyum diffuaum- 
Insulator : 

Palaguium ahernianum. ii, 82. 
Intsia bijuga: 

Description and distribution, ii, 394- 
Figure, ii, 393. 
Local names, ii, 392. 
Dye, ii, 394. 
Inuad, see Flagellaria indica. 
Inual, see Flagellaria indica. 
Ipal, see Mucuna nigricans. 
fpil, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Ipil, see Intsia bijuga. 
fpil, see Leucaena glauca. 
Ipil-ipil, see Leucaena glauca. 
ipod, see Areca ipot. 
Ipomoea digitata: 

Distribution, iii, 225. 
Local names, iii, 225. 
Medicinal, iii, 225. 
Ipomoea hederaceae : 

Distribution, iii, 225. 
Local names, iii, 225. 
Medicinal plants, iii. 225. 



286 



INDEX 



Iponioea pes-caprae : 

Distribution, iii, 225. 

Local names, iii, 225. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 225. 
Ipomoea pes-tigridis: 

EHstribution, iii, 226. 

Local names, iii, 226. 

Medicinal, iii, 226. 
Ipomoea reptans: 

Description and distribution, ii, 372. 

Local names, ii, 372. 

Food, ii, 372. 

Medicinal, iii, 226. 
fpot, see Areca ipot. 
Irar, see Pinanga spp. 
Ir&u, see Dendrobium crumenatuvi. 
Irok, see Arenga pinnata. 
Ischaemum angustifoUum : 

Description, i, 340. 

Distribution, i, 342. 

Figure, i, 341. 

Local names, i, 34 L 

Fiber, i, 340. 
Isip, see Antidesma bunius. 
Isis, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Isis, see Ficus ulniifolia. 
Is-isa, see Scoparia dideis. 
Isismaya, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Isis-iTgipin, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Isoptera borneensis : 

Distribution, ii, 160. 

Bormeo tallow, ii, 160. 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Itang-itang, see Alstonia macrophyUa. 
ftil, see Intsia bijuga. 
Iting-iting, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Itmo, see Piper betle. 
Itngan, see Zanthoxylum amcennae. 
Itom-itom, see Diospyros discolor. 
Itsa, see Ehretia microphyUa. 
Itiiman, see Diospyros discolor. 
lyo, see Tetrastigma harmandi. 



Jantak, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Jasminuin saynbac : 

Distribution, iii, 220. 

Local names, iii, 220. 

Medicinal, iii, 220. 
Jate, see Tectona grandis. 
Jati, see Tectona grandis. 
Jatropha curcas: 

Description and distribution, ii, 142. 

Figure, ii, 141. 

Local names, ii, 140. 

Medicinal, iii, 200. 

Physic-nut oil, ii, 140. 
Jatropha multifida: 

Description and distribution, ii, 142. 

Local name, ii, 142. 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 

Illuminant, ii, 142. 

Medicinal, iii, 200. 
Jeruju, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Jerusalem, see Leucaena glauca. 



Job's tears, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Jujube, see Zizyphus jujuba. 
Juncaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 360. 
Juncus effitsus: 

Description and distribution, i, 360. 

Figure, i, 361. 

Local name, i, 360. 

Fiber, i, 360. 
Jussiaea linifolia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 403. 

Local names, ii, 403. 

Dye, ii, 403. 
Justicia gendarussa: 

Distribution, iii, 237. 

Local names, iii, 237. 

Medicinal, iii, 237. 
Justicia procumbens: 

Distribution, iii, 238. 

Medicinal, iii, 238. 
Jute, see Corch(/rus olitorius. 

K 

Kaagahan, see Adenanthera intermedia. 

Kabaero, see Leucaena glauca. 

Kabag, see Allaeanthus glaher. 

Kabahero, see Leucaena glauca. 

Kabaikabai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Kabak, see Nauclea junghuhnii. 

Kabak, see Nauclea orientalis. 

Kabal, see Fagraea raceniosa. 

Kabalonga, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata, 

Eabatiti, see Colubrina asiatica. 

Kabatiti, see Luffa cylindrica. 

Kabilan, see Columella trifolia. 

Kabiling, see Pogostemon, cablin. 

Kabislak, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 

Kabit-kabit, see Eleusine indica. 

Kabkab, see Drynaria quercifolia. 

Kabkabin, see Drynaria quercifolia. 

Kabkabon, see Drynaria quercifolia. 

Kabkabon, see Elephantopus scaber. 

Kablin, see Pogostemon cablin. 

Kabling, see Pogostemon cablin. 

Kaboloan, see Bambusa vulgaris. 

Ksboloan, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. 

Kabra-kabra, see Heliotropium indicum. 

Kabiigau, see Citrus hystrix. 

Kabiigau, see Citrus maxima. 

Kabugawan, see Bambusa spinosa. 

Kaburau, see Citrus sp. 

Kabuyao oil : 

Citrus hystrix, ii, 208. 
Kabtiyau, see Citrus hystrix. 
Kabuyau-aso, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. 
Kacha-kachahan, see Scoparia dulcis. 
Kachang-kachang, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Kachuchis, see Avicennia alba. 
Kachui, see Anacardiuyn occidentale. 
Kadaiohan, see Celosia argentea^ 
Kadel, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Kadiapa, see Amaranthus viridis. 
Kadiat, see Gnetum sp. 
Kadiin, see Columbia lanceolata. 
Kadlihan, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Kadlin. see Pogostemon cablin. 



INDEX 



287 



Kadlingr, see Pogostenion cablis. 
Kadlom, see Pogostenion cablin. 
Kadlum, see Pogostemon cablin. 
Kadpaayan, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 
Kadpaian, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Kaedeo, see Siegesbeckia orientalis. 
Kaempferia galanga : 

Distribution, iii, 178. 

Local names, iii, 178. 

Medicinal, iii, 178. 
Kaempferia rotunda: 

Distribution, iii, 178. 

Medicinal, iii, 178. 
Kagatongan, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Kagatongan, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
Kagoioi, see Homonoia riparia. 
Kagoko, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Kagpaaian, see Kibatalia blancoi. 
Kaguku, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Kagukug, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Kagundi, see Columella trifolia. 
Kahoi-dalaga, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Kaietana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Kaikai, see Adiantum phUippense. 
Kaitana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Kaiutana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Kakaab, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Kakaagr, see ComDiersonia bartraxiia. 
Kakaag. see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Kakampilan, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Kakao-kakao, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Kakao-kakao, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Kakaomalve, see Abronm fastuosa. 
Kakarohai, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Kakindi, see Columella trifolia. 
Kakuintasan, see Canna indica. 
Kalaad, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Kalabclha-maputi, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Kalabasang-puti, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Kalabayuan, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Kalabda, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Kalabiia, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Kalabubo-labayo, see Psychotria lur:onicnsis. 
Kalabugau, see Coix laehrynia-jobi. 
Kalachuche, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kalagimai, see Pandaniis simplex. 
Kalagiikon, see Crinum asiaticum. 
Kalai, see Alphonsea arborea. 
Kalakalamaian, see Cissa7ni}elos pareira. 
Kalalauan, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Kalalauan, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Kalamansali, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Kalamansanai, see Flacourtia rukam. 
Kalamansanai, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Kalamansanai, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalamansito, see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Kalambonog, see Ehretia navesii. 
Kalambu&ia, see Barringtonia acutangula. 
Kalumbugi, see Dillenia philippinensis. 
Kalamias, see Averrhoa biliinbi. 
Kalamoga, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Kalamunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 
Kalang-gamat, see Schefflcra cumingii. 
Kalangungug, see Tournefortia sarmentosa. 
Kala6o, see Limnophila roxburghii. 
Kalapia, see Palaquiiim ahernianum. 



Kalapinai, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Kalapinai, see Dodonaea viscosa. 
Ka'.apini", see Avicennia officinalis. 
Kalapini', see Lumnitzera Uttorea. 
Kalapini, see Pluchea indica. 
Kalapini, see Vitex trifolia. 
Kalapini mangitit, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Kalarora, see Peristrophe tinctoria. 
Kalarosa, see Peristrophe bivalvis. 
Kalatan, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. 
Kalatsuche, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kalatuche, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kalauag, see Curcuma longa. 
Kalauag, see Zingiber zerumbet. 
Kalauahan, see Artocarpiis cumingiana. 
Kalaiitit, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalayate, see Tectona grandis. 
Kalbang, see Schizostachyum textorium. 
Kaliantan, see Leea manillensis. 
Kaliantang, see Leea manillensis. 
Kaliat, see Gnetum indicum. 
Kaliat, see Gnetum sp. 
Kalibambang, see Bauhinia malabarica. 
Kalibon, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Kalibura, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Kalikal, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. 
Kalikit, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Kalimatas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Kalimotain, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Kalimumug, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Kalingad, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kalingag, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kalingag, see Cinnamomum mindanaense. 
Kalingag oil : 

Cinnamovium mercadoi, ii, 200. 
Kaling-kabayo, see Hyptis suaveolens. 
K&lios, see Streblus asper. 
Kaliot, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Kalipaya, see Palaquium ahernianum. 
Kaliskis-ahas, see Oleandra neriiformis. 
Kaliso, see Areca caliso. 
Kalisiichu, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kalit, see Tetrastigma harmandi. 
Kaliti, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. 
Kalitkalit, see Cissus repens. 
Kalit-kalit, see Columella trifolia. 
Kalit-kalit, see Grewia multiflora. 
Kalitoitoi, see Hibiscus surattensis. 
Kaliuauai, see Flagellaria indica. 
Kalkalaad, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Kallakal, see Leea manillensis. 
Kalogkog, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Kalokog, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Kalomagon, see Terminalia eduUs. 
Kalomala, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
Kalomanog, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalubai, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Kalubkub, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Kalui, see Oci'iiiMW sanctum. 
Kalukalumpangan, ' see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Kalukalumpangan, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Kalul6t, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Kalulung, see Lygodium fiexuosum. 
Kalumala, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
Kalumangon, see Terminalia edulis. 



288 



INDEX 



Kalumbibit, see Caesalinnia crista. 
Kalumpang, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Kalumpang, see Sterculia foetida. 
Kalumpang oil : 

Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. 
Kalumpit, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Kalumpit, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalumpit-puti, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Kaluiiache, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kalunai, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Kalunai, see Am-aranthus viridis. 
Kalunga, see Flacourtia rukavi. 
Kalunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 
Kalupai, see Euphoria didyma- 
Kalupang, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Kalupe, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kaliipi. see Abelmoschus moschatus. 
Kalupi, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalupueng, see GraptophijUum pictuni. 
Kalurig, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalusi, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kalusit, see Terminalia edulis. 
KalusuVian, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Kalut, see Dioscorea hispida. 
Kalut-kalutan, see Urena lobata. 
Kaluuiiuai, see Flagellaria indica. 
Kalu-ui, see Ocimum basilicum. 
Kamachile, see Pithecohbium dulce. 
Kamachile oil : 

Pithecolobium dulce, ii, 110. 
Kamagdng, see Diospyros discolor. 
Kamagsa, see Agelaea everettii. 
Kamagsa, see Elaeagnus philippensis. 
KamajTsa, see Synilax bract eata. 
Kamah, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Kamain, see Murraya paniculata. 
Kamaisa, see Croton tiglium. 
Kamakamsilihan, see Pithecolobium subacuttan. 
Kamaksa, see Agelaea everettii. 
Kamaksa, see Rourea volubUis. 
Kamalitos, see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Kamalunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 
Kamalunggi, see Moringa oleifera. 
Kamamba, see Piper timbellatum. 
Kamanchile, see Pithecolobium dulce. 
Kamandag, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Kamandiis, see Garcinia rubra. 
Kamangi, see Ocimum basilicum,. 
Kamangkau, see Ocimum sanctum. 
Kamarigog, see Dioscorea luzonensis. 
Kamangsi, see Garcinia binucao. 
Kamanngi, see Ocimum .'<anctum. 
Kamansi, see Artocarpus communis. 
Ki.mantigi, see Heliotr opium indicum . 
Kamantlgi, see Impatiens balsamina. 
Kamantiging-linau, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Kamantiis, see Garcinia rubra. 
Kamara, see Piper retrofractum. 
Kamarag, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Kama rag, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Kamarak, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Kamaris, see Terminalia edulis. 
Kamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Kamatalong, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Kamatamata, see Aglaia harmsiana. 



Kamatatalina, see Cubilia blancoi. 
Kamates, see Lycopersicum escidentum. 
Kamates-bondok, see Lycopersicum esculentum. 
Kamausa, see Croton tiglium. 
Kamaya, see Diospyros discolor. 
Kambal, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
Kambot, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Kambra-kambra, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Kambug, see Dillenia phUippinensis. 
Kamias, see Averrhoa bilimbi. 
Kamiging, see Dioscorea esculenta. 
Kamigrin, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Kamiing, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. 
Kamiring, see Semecarpus cuneiformis- 
Kamkamaulau, see Aristolochia tagala. 
Kamkamote, see Ipomoea digitata. 
Kamkamote, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Kamkamotihan, see Ipomoea pes-carprae. 
Kamkampilan, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Kamokamotehan, see Operculina turpethum, 
Kamote-kamotehan, see Ipomoea hederacea. 
Kamote-moro, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamoteng-bisaya, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamoteng-dutong, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamoteng-kahoi, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamoteng-kaui, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamote-sa-moro, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamoti-ti-moro, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamotit-moro, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kamot-kabag, see Smilax leucophyUa. 
Kampilan, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Kampopot, see -Jasminum sambac. 
Kampupot, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Kamubuag, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Kamulau, see Citrus hystrix. 
Kamuling, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Kamuning, see Murraya paniculata. 
Kamuntai, see Citrus hystrix. 
Kamut-abiig, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Kamut-kabag, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Kamutolen, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Kamuyau, see Citrus hystrix. 
Kamiiyau, see Dipterocarpus grandifiorus. 
Kamuyau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Kanai, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Kanaroset, see Grewia multiflora. 
Kanas-kanas, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Kandaroma, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kandiis, see Garcinia rubra. 
Kanding-kanding, see Waltheria americana. 
Kandis, see Garcinia binucao. 
Kandon, see Memecylon ovatum. 
Kandong, see Memecylon ovatum. 
Kandongisol, see Euphoria didyma. 
Kangai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Kanggos, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kangk6ng, see Ipomoea reptans. 
Kanila. see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kanilao, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kaningai, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Kaningning, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Kaniuing-puti, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Kaniui-puti, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Kannak, see Dalbergia cumingiana. 
Kanomai, see Diospyros multiflora. 



INDEX 



289 



Kanomei, see Dtospyros multiftora. 
Kanomi, see Diospyros multiftora. 
Kandmoi, see Diospyros multiftora. 
Kanovog. see Spathoglottis plicata. 
Kansasaga, see Abrus precatorius. 
Kansilai, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Kansilai, see Decaspermuni fruticosum. 
Kansilan. see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Kantingan, see Pterospermum niveum. 
Kantiitai, see Paederia foetida. 
Kantutak, see Paederia foetida. 
Kantutan. see Paederia foetida. 
Kanublinjr, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Kanubsuban. see Polygonum barbatum. 
Kanumai, see Diospyros multiftora. 
Kanumi, see Diospyros multiftora. 
Kanumai, see Garcinia biiiucao. 
Kanumog, see Pygeunt glandulosum. 
Kanupul, see Conocephallus violaceus. 
Kkong, see Arenga pinnata. 
Kaong-moro, see Manihot utilissima. 
Kapah, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kapak, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kapal-kapal, see Calotropis gigantea. 
Kapanattilot, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Kapas, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kapas de Francia, see Ascleiiias curassavica. 
Kapas-kapas, see Thespesia lampaa. 
Kapas-sanglai, see Ceiba pentandra* 
Kapitan, see Citrus hystrix. 
K&pok, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kapok oil : 

Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. 
Kapos, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kappa-kappa, see Drynaria Quercifolia. 
Kapurko, see Cassia alata. 
Karagomoi, see Pandanus simplex. 
Karaiap, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Kara-karikuchd, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Karamai, see Cicca acida, 
Karamiras, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Karamosi, see Dendrobium crumenatum.. 
Karasoko, see Gonocaryum calleryanunu 
Karausi, see Dendrobium, crumenatum. 
Karayo, see Nephelium mutabUe. 
Karekai, see Lygodium japonicum. 
Karifurtig, see Lunvnitzera littorea. 
Kariis, see Garcinia mindanaensis. 
Karikasin, see Leucosyke capitellata, 
Karimbuaia, see EcUpta alba. 
Karimbuaya, see Euphorbia neriifolia. 
Karis-busuk, see Blechum brownei. 
Kariskis, see Albizzia lebbekoides. 
Kariskis, see Leucaena glauca. 
Kariskis, see Pithecolobiutn subacutum. 
Karlilei, see Pinanga spp. 
Karmai, see Cicca acida. 
Karo, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Karokanding, see Ageratuni conyzoides. 
Karokob, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Karote, see Dioscorea hiapida. 
Kanid, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Karulai, see Dendrobium. cruinenatum 
Kas&bang, see Zanthoxylum. rhetsa, 
Kasablan, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 
1T7674 19 



Kasai, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 

Kasanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. 

Kasasaga, see Abrus precatorius. 

Kasibai, see Sapindus saponaria. 

Kasiboen, see Sapindus saponaria. 

Kasikas, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 

Kasira, see Capsicum frutescens. 

Kasirag, see Dodonaea viscosa. 

Kasitas, see Cassia alata. 

Kasiu, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 

Kaskasumba, see Leucas lavandulifolia. 

Kasla, see Croton tiglium. 

Kasoi, see Anacardium oecidentale. 

Kasopangi], see Clerodendron intermedium. 

Kasopangil, see Clerodendron macrostegium. 

Kastilde, see Pinanga spp. 

Kastiokastiogan, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 

Kasto-kastolian, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 

Kasttile, see Sida acuta. 

Kastiile, see Thespesia lam pas. 

Kastlili', see Abelmoschus moschatus. 

Kastii, see Anacardium oecidentale. 

Kasuit, see Capparis micracantha. 

Katagpo, see Ardisia boissieri. 

Katagpo, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 

Katagpong-gubat, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 

Katak, see Lygodium ftexuosum. 

Katakut, see Phaseolus lunatus. 

Katana, see Ricinus communis. 

Katana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 

Kat&nda', see Cassia mimosoides. 

Katanda, see Euchresta horsfieldii. 

Kat&ngal, see Eurycles amboinensis. 

Katang-k&tang-, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 

Katapang, see Garcinia vidalii. 

Katatbum, see Ardisia boissieri. 

Katiddei, see Pinanga spp. 

Katigau, see Ocimum sanctum. 

Katigbi, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 

Katikis, see Sapindus saponaria. 

Katimb&u, see Trichosanthes quinquangu- 

lata. 
Eatiput, see Maesa cumingii. 
Eatmo, see Vaccinium ivhitfordii. 
Katmon, see Dillenia megalantha. 
Eatm6n, see Dillenia philippinensis. 
Katmon, see Dillenia reifferscheidia. 
Katm6n-bayani, see Dillenia megalantha. 
Katmon-kadlagan, see Dillenia reifferscheidia. 
Kato, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Katong-bakalau, see Chisocheton pentandrus. 
ES.tong-machin, see Chisocheton pentandrus. 
Kdtong-machin oil : 

Chisocheton pentandrus, ii, 118. 
Katudai, see Sesbania grandiftora. 
Katuit, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Katumbal, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Katiingal, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Katungatum, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Kattirai, see Sesbania grandiftora. 
Katiirai gum : 

Sesbania grandiftora, ii, 72. 
Katuri, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Katuri, see Sesbania grandiftora. 



290 



INDEX 



Katutu, see Kyllinga vionocephala. 
Kauakauayan, see Apluda mutica. 
Kauan, see AstUbe philippinensis. 
Kauayan-songsong, see Schizostachyum lu- 

■niatnpao. 
Kauilan, see Dalbergia cumingiana- 
Kauili, see Ficus hauili. 
Kauing, see Arenga pinnata. 
Kaupkiip, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Kawayan, see Bambusa spinosa- 
Kawayan-bayog, see Dendrocalamus inerri- 

llianus. 
Kawayan bayugin, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Kawayan-boo, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Kaw&yan-China, see Bambusa glauceacens. 
Kawayan-gid, see BamMisa spinosa. 
Kawayan hobero, see Bo/mbusa vulgaris. 
Kawayan-kiling, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Kawayan-puti, see Gigantochloa levis. 
Kawayan si-itan, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Kawayan-sina, see Bambusa glaucescens. 
Kawayan-sina, see Dendrocalamus latiflorvs. 
Kawayan-sina, see Giganthochloa levis. 
Kawayantinik, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Kawayantotoo, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Kayakas, see Colubrina asiatica. 
Kayanga, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Kayanga-rosa, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Kayapo, see Pistia stratiotes. 
Kayo, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Kayogpog, see Eugenia xayithophylla. 
Kayokog, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Kayokos, see Eugenia xantliophyUa. 
Kayos, see Dioscorea hispida. 
Kayu-g&lu, see Sindora inermis. 
Kayu-galu oil : 

Sindora inermis, ii, 38. 
Kayugkok, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Kayumanis, see Clausena anisum-olens 
Kayumayen, see Terininalia edulis. 
Kayungo, see Piper retrofractum. 
Kayutana, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Keddeng, see Columbia blancoi. 
Kedd6ng, see Columbia mollis. 
Keddeng, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Kemamale, see Leea aculeata. 
Kiapo, see Pistia scratiotes. 
Kibatalia blancoi : 

Distribution, iii, 222. 

Local names, iii, 222. 

Medicinal, iii, 222. 
Ribuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Kickxia blancoi: 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Kideng, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Kikkig, see Ficus uhnifolia. 
Killg, see Prevuna cumingiana. 
Kili-kili, see Artocarptis rubrovenia. 
Kilitis, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Kilitis, see Amaranthus viridis. 
Kil6b, see Gleichenia linearis. 
Kilog, see Gleichenia linearis. 
Kimchai, see Apium graveolens. 
Kinasaikasai, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Kinatuluan, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 
Kindaiohan, see Celosia argentea. 



Kindug-kindug, see Aegiceras cornictdatum. 
Kingiodendron alternifolium : 

Description and distribution, ii, 208, 209. 

Figure, ii, 207. 

Local names, ii, 208. 

Incense, ii, 208. 
Kinintsai, see Apium graveolens. 
Kintsai, see Apium graveolens. 
Kinubot, see Rubus moluccanus. 
Kipi-kipi', see Mimosa pudica. 
Kipot-kipot, see Emilia sonchifolia. 
Kipus-kipus, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Kirini, see Dioscorea luzonensis. 
Kirisol, see Jatropha curcas. 
Kir6i, see Dioscorea divanricata. 
Kirom-kirom, see Mimosa pudica. 
Kisol, see Kaempferia galanga. 
Kleinhovia hospita: 

Description and distribution, i, 397. 

Local names, i, 397. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i, 397. 

Fish poison, iii, 80. 

Medicinal, iii, 211. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Kobb6ot, see Ischaemum angustifolium. 
K6gon, see Imperata cylindrica. 
Kdgon, see Imperata exaltata. 
Kogcn-kogon, see Curculigo orchoides. 
Kokol-daien, see Mimosa pudica. 
Kokong-manuk, see Barleria prionitis. 
Kolagpung-pula, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Kolasiman, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Koldasan, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Kolinta, see Barleria prionitis. 
Kolis, see Ficus benjamina. 
Kolison, see Citrus sp. 
Koliung, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Kollokollot, see Urena lobata. 
Kollokollot ti bao, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
KoUolot, see Urena lobata. 
Kolobot, see Citrus hystrix. 
Kolokauayan, see Apluda mutica. 
Kolokogo, see Ocimuni sanctum. 
Kolokolog, see Clerodendron intermedium,. 
Kolo-kolot, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
Kolonanas, see Averrhoa billTtibi. 
Kolong-kogong, see Ageratum eonyzoidea. 
Kolotang-baging, see Sida javensis. 
Kolot-babui, see SmUax bracteata. 
Kolot-kolotan, see Urena lobata. 
Kolowratia elegans: 

Distribution, iii, 178. 

Local names, iii, 178. 

Medicinal, iii, 178. 
Kombateo, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 
Komkompitis, see Leucaena glauca. 
Komontres, see Pithecolobium dulce. 
Kond61, see Benincasa hispida. 
Kondol, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Koniko, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
K6nti, see Solanum nigrum. 
Kopakopa, see Eugenia manangwl. 
Koribo, see Canarium vUlosum. 
Korlunoi, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Korokalasag, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 



INDEX 



291 



Koron-k6ron, see Hernandia ovigera. 
Korot, see Dioscorea hispida. 
Korrinta, see Barleria prionitis. 
Korthalsia laciniosa : 

Description, i, 212. 
Korthalsia mei-riUii : 

Description, i, 212. 
Korthalsia sacaphigeroides : 

Description, i, 212. 
Korthalsia squarrosa: 

Description, i, 212. 
Kosing, see Anacardium occidentale. 
Kosol, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Kotmok, see Terminalia edulia. 
Krus-kriisan, see Crescentia alata. 
Kuako-kuakohan, see Abutilon indicum. 
Kuakuakohan, see Abutilon indicum. 
Kuantong-, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Kubamba, see Canscora diffusa. 
Kubimba, see Piper umbeUatum. 
Kubi, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
T',-.i,; p.p Arfririirpiis ruhrovenia. 
Kubi, see Cerbera manghas. 
Kubill, see Cubilia blancoi. 
Kudlasan, see Coix lachnjmO'jobi. 
Kugitas, see Gnetuni gnemon. 
Kugyug, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Kuhasi, see Comtnelina benghalensia. 
Kuintas-kuintasan, see Canna indica. 
Kukodmon, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Kukuris, see Euphoria didyina. 
Kula, see Geodorum nutans. 
Kulakatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Kulalau, see Curcuma longa. 
Kulaloche, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Kulanta, see Barleria prionitis. 
Kulasi, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Kulasi, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Kulasi, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Kulasi, see Ltannitzera littorea. 
Kul&si', see Ltimnitzera racemosa. 
Kulasi", see Osbornia octodonta. 
Kulasi', see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, 
Kulat, see Urena lobata. 
Kulatai, see Jasminuin, sambac. 
Kulatai, see Leea manillensis. 
Kulatai, see Rotala aquatica. 
Kulatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Kulet, see Urena lobata. 
Kuliad, see Gnetuni indicum. 
Kuliamot, see Ficus benjamina. 
Kuliat, see Gnetum indicum. 
Kulibutbiit. see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Kulik-manar. see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Kulilem, see Garcinia binucao. 
Kulimbaning, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
KulinK-manok, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Kulis, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Kfilis, see Memecylon edule. 
Kfllis, see Memecylon ovatum. 
Kulitis, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
KuUtis, see Amaranthus viridis. 
KuHuan. see Cinnamomum, mercadoi. 
Kulkul&si, see Commelina benghalensis. 
Kul-langgm, see Tylophora perrottetiana. 
KuUukulluk, see Urena lobata. 



] Kulong-kugon, see Vernonia cinerea. 
KuJot, see Dioscorea hispida. 
Kulot, see Lygodium japonicum. 
Kulot-kul6tan, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
KulukatiiTgal, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Kulukatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum, 
Kulutkulutan, see Urena lobata. 
Kulut-pamo, see Columella trifolia. 
Kumagasaka, see Kingiodendron alternifolium, 
Kuman, see Gnetum gnemon. 
Kumintang, see Lochnera rosea. 
Kunakun, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
Kiinig, see Curcuma longa. 
Klinig, see Mahonia philippinensis. 
Kuplikupit, see Merremia emarginata. 
Kupi-kupit, see Merremia emarginata. 
Kupkiip, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Kuplas, see Ficus idmifolia. 
Kuranta, see Barleria prionitis. 
Kuren, see Stephania japonica. 
Kurimau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluua. 
Kurukau&yan, see Apluda mutica. 
Kurumpang, see Sterculia foetida. 
Kusibeng, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Kuskusipa, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Kutingkutingan, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Kutipi, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Kutkut timbalong, see Barringtonia racemosa. 
Kuyau-kuyau, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Kuyau-yau, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Kuyo, see Piper umbellatum. 
Kyllinga monocephala : 

Distribution, iii, 172. 

Local names, iii, 172. 

Medicinal, iii, 172. 



Labat, see Ardisia serrata. 
Labau, see Lunasia amara. 
Labauel, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Lab&yo, see Melochia umbcUata. 
Labiatae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 232. 

OOs, ii, 217. 
Labig, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Labnai, see Sterculia stipularis. 
Labnog, see Ficus hauili. 
Labon, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Labtang, see Anamirta cocculus. 
Labuag, see Hibiscus surattensis. 
Labug-labug, see Malachra capitata, 
Lada, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Ladiangau, see Agathis alba. 
Lagairai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Lagan, see Prem/na odorata. 
Lagaon, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Lagasak, see Bruguiera sexangvla. 
Lagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. 
Lagau, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Lagenaria leucantha: 

Distribution, iii, 242. 

Local names, iii, 242. 

Medicinal, iii, 242. 
Lagiauat, see Rtibtis rosaefolius. 
Lagilai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Lagini, see Columella trifolia. 



292 



INDEX 



Lagkitan, see Sida mysorensis. 
Liagmut, see Ficus hauUi. 
Lagneob, see Ficus hauili. 
Lago, see Abrus precatorius. 
L&go, see Pygeum glandulosum. 
L&go, see Pygeum preslii. 
Lagod, see Trema orientalis. 
Lagoiloi, see Acanthus ilicifoUus. 
Lag61o, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Lagtal, see Archangelisia flava. 
Lagtang, see Anamirta cocculus. 
Lagt&ng, see Archangelisia flava. 
Lagtang, see Tinoniisciuiii jihilippinense. 
Lagtom na pula, see Panicuni stagninum. 
Laguan, see Euchresta horsfieldii. 
Laguan, see Nepheliuni mutabUe. 
Laguete, see Celastrus paniculata. 
Lagukanata, see Rubus fraxinifoUus. 
Lagfindi, see Vitex negundo. 
Lagundi-late, see Pluchea indica. 
Xagfinding-d&gat, see Vitex trifolia. 
Lagunding-gapang, see Vitex trifolia. 
Lagunrti-salasa, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Lagunton, see Nephrolepis hirsutvla. 
Lagup6k, see Cardiospermum halicacabum, 
Lagutlut, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Lagut-iit, see Xylocarpus nioluccensis. 
Laho, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Laiasin, see Columbia serratifolia. 
Lailaiginan, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Laioan, see Cicca acida. 
Lakadbulan, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Lakamas. see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Lakaubi, see Zalacca clemensiana. 
Lakien-tisubusub, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Lakkaiigan, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Lamai, see Trema orientalis. 
Lambug, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Lamilan, see Dipterocarpus vernicdfluua. 
Lamio, see Dracontomelum edvle. 
Lamio, see Garuga abilo. 
Lamnog, see Ficus hauili. 
Lam-nuan, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Lamog, see Gardenia pseuAopsidium,. 
Lam6n, see Enhalus acoroides. 
Lampakanai, see Typha angustifolia. 
Lampayong, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Lamp oil, see Illuminant. 
Lampoyang, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Lamudias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Lamudio, see Carum copticum,. 
Lanagon, see Flacourtia euiihlebia. 
Lanas, see Stenochlaena palustris. 
Landing, see Scyphiphora hydrophyUacea. 
Landrina, see Borrcria hispida. 
Lanete, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. 
Laneteng-gubat, see Kibatalia blancoi. 
Langa, see Sesarnum orientale. 
Langaban, see Ficus forstenii. 
Langaban, see Ficus payapa. 
Langala, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Langa-langa, see Leucas lavandtUi folia. 
Langarai, see Bruguiera eylindrica. 
Lang&rai, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Langari, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Langari, see Bruguiera sexangula. 



Langbayong, see Ipom,oea pes-caprae. 
Langdang, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Langingi, see Columella trifolia. 
Langis, see Pittosporum resiniferum. 
Laiigis, see Sesarnum orientale. 
Langitngit, see Celastrus paniculata. 
Langka, see Artocarpus integra. 
Langkauls, see Alpinia pyramidata. 
Langkauas, see Zingiber zeru^nbet. 
Langkuas, see Alpinia pyramidata. 
Langkuas, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Langlangas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Langosig, see Grewia multiflora. 
Laniti, see Kibatalia blancoi. 
Lankug, see Terminalia calainansanai. 
Lannu, see Spondias pinnata. 
Lano, see Spondias pinnata. 
Lansina, see Ricinus communis. 
Lansium, dubium: 

Description and distribution, ii, 304. 

Figure, ii, 306. 

Local names, ii, 304. 

Food, ii, 304. 
Iianti.na, see Lantana camara. 
Lantana camara: 

Description and distribution, ii, 217. 

Local names, ii, 216. 

Oil, ii, 216. 
Lantana oil: 

Lantana camara, ii, 216. 
Lanten-sapa, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Lanting, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Lanut, see Grewia multiflora. 
Lanutan, see Alphonsea arborea. 
LanHtan, see Bombycidendron vidalianum, 
Lanutan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Lanutan, see Goniothalamu^ amuyon. 
Lanutan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 
Lanutan, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Lanutan, see Polyalthia flava. 
Lanutan, see Pygeum preslii. 
Lanutan-itum, see Alphonsea arborea. 
Lanutan-puti, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Lapi, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Lapinig, see Eugenia xanthophylla, 
Lapni, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Lapnis, see Grewia multiflora. 
Lapnis, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Lapnis, see Melochia umbellata. 
Lapnisan, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Lapnit, see Columbia lanceolata. 
Lapnit, see Grewia eriocarj)a. 
Lapnit, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Lapnit, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Lapole, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Laponaia, see Coleus blumei. 
Laportea meyeniana: 

Distribution, iii, 182. 

Local names, iii, 182. 

Medicinal, iii, 182. 
Lapting, see Ficus hauili. 
Lara, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Lardu, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Lar6an-anIto, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Lasa, see Abrus precatorius. 
Lasa, see Canna indica. 



INDEX 



293 



Lasa, see Nipa fruticans. 

Lasa, see Nipa fruticans. 

L&sa, see Thysanolaena maxima. 

LasUa, see Terminalia comintana. 

Lasilak, see Terminalia comintana. 

Lasilat, see Terminalia comintana. 

Lasona, see Allium sativum. 

Lassi, see Premna odorata. 

Lasuit, see Pittosyjorum pentandrum. 

Lat&, see Antiaris toxicaria. 

Latania commersonii: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Latania loddigesii : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Latauan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
Latok, see Telosma procumbens. 
Latris, see Muntingia calabura. 
Latuba, see Barringtonia acutangula. 
Lauan, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Lauan, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Lauan puti, see .Anisoptera thurifera. 
Lauas, see Nymphea pubescens. 
Lauat, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Lauraceae : 

Food plants, ii, 282. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 187. 

Oils, ii, 200. 
Laurel, see Lochnera rosea. 
Laurel, see Plumbago indica. 
Lawson ia iner m i^ : 

Distribution, iii, 214. 

Local name, iii, 214. 

Medicinal, iii, 214. 
Laya, see Zingiber officinale. 
La-ya, see Zingiber officinale. 
Lay-a, see Zingiber officinale. 
Layasin, see Leucosyke capiteUata. 
Leather, patent : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Lecythidaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 214. 

Oils, ii, 161. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 81. 
Leea actdeata : 

Distribution, iii, 206. 

Local names, iii, 206. 

Medicinal, iii, 206. 
Leea 7nanille7isis : 

Distribution, iii, 206. 

Local names, iii, 206. 

Medicinal, iii, 206. 
Leguminosae : 

Dyes, ii, 389. 

Fiber plants, i, 378. 

Fire wood, iii, 87. 

Food plants, ii, 288. 

Gums, ii, 72. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 189. 

Oils, ii, 108, 204. 

Paper, i, 423. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 79. 

Resins, ii, 38. 

Soap substitutes, iii, 52. 

Tannins, iii, 93. 
Lemon grass, see .4ndropogon citratus. 



Lemon-grass oil : 

Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. 
Lenggadai, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Lenggadi, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Lenggadi, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Lengnga, see Sesamum orientate, 
Lengua de leon, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Lentinus connatus : 

Description, iii, 124. 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Lentinus exUis: 

Description, iii, 124. 

Figure, iii, 125. 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Lentinus leucochrous: 

Description, iii, 124. 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Lentinus squarrosulu^ : 

Description, iii, 124. 

Figure, iii, 127. 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Lepidopetahim perrottetii: 

Distribution, iii, 204. 

Local names, iii, 204. 

Medicinal, iii, 204. 
Lepiota Candida : 

Description, iii, 138. 

Distribution, iii, 138. 

Edible fungi, iii, 138. 
Lepiota cepaestipes: 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lepiota chlorospora : 

Description, iii, 140. 

Distribution, iii, 140. 

Figure, iii, 141. 

Poisonous fungus, iii, 140. 
Lepiota elata : 

Description, iii, 140. 

Distribution, iii, 140. 

Edible fungi, iii, 140. 
Lepiota fusco-squamea: 

Description, iii, 140. 

Edible fungi, iii, 140. 
Lepiota pulckerriina : 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lepiota revelata: 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lepiota sulphopenita : 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Leting-pako, see Crataeva religiosa. 
Letis, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Letis, see Dipterocarpus grandifiorus. 
Letlet, see Piper betle. 
Leucaena glauca : 

Description and distribution, ii, 290. 

Figure, ii, 293 ; iii, 86, 89, 91. 

Local names, ii, 290. 

Coffee substitute, ii, 290. 

Firewood, iii, 88. 

Firewood crop, ii, 290. 

Planting, iii, 88. 
Leucas lavandulifolia: 

Distribution, iii, 233. 

Local names, iii, 233. 

Medicinal, iii, 233. 



294 



INDEX 



Leiicosyke capitellata: 

Description and distribution, i, 374. 
Local names, i, 374. 
Fiber, i, 374. 
Li-a-sin, see Leueosyke capitdiata. 
Liba, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Libai, see Achyranthes aspera. 
Libakan, see Fagraea raceviosa. 
Libang-bang, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Libas, see Garuga ahito. 
Libas, see Momordica cochinchinensis. 
Lib&s, see Spondias pinnata. 
Lib&to, see Basella rubra. 
Libato, see Lwnnitzera littorea. 
Libatcputi, see Camptostemon philippinense. 
Libintano, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Libtiik, see Pterooymhium tinctorium. 
Licnala spinosa: 

Description and distribution, i, 212. 
Figure, i, 215. 
Local names, i, 212. 
Ornamental, i, 212. 
Ligaa, see Greivia mvltiflora. 
Ligabon, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Ligad, see Dodovaea viscosa. 
Lrigan-lupa, see Polygonum barbatum. 
Lig&s, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. 
Ligas, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 
Ligayan, see Mimu^ops parvifolia. 
Ligt&ng, see Ananiirta cocculus. 
Liliaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 360. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 175. 
Ornamental plants, iii, 12. 
Lilitan, see Paederia foetida. 
Lilium philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, iii, 12. 
Figure, iii, 13. 
Local names, iii, 12. 
Ornamental iii, 12. 
Lillau, see Ficus hauili. 
Lima bean, see Phaseolus lunatus. 
Lima-lima, see Dioscorea pentaphylla. 
Lim&ng-stigat, see P sender anthejnum pvlehe- 

llum. 
Lime, bird : 

Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. 
Limnophila indica: 

Distribution, iii, 235. 
Local name, iii, 235. 
Medicinal, iii, 235. 
Limnophila rugosa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 376. 
Local name, ii, 375. 
Food, ii, 375. 
Hair perfume, ii, 375. 
Limon see Coleus amboinicus. 
Limoncito, see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Limoncitong-kastila, see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Limon-karabau, see Citrus hystrix. 
Lingi, see Sesamum orientale. 
Linga-ling, see Nelumbium nelumbo. 
Lingaro, see Elaeagnus philippensis. 
Lingatan, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Lingnga, see Sesamum orientale. 
LiiTgog, see Avicennia officinalis. 



Lingo-liiigo, see Mimusops parvifolia. 
Lino, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Linog, see Scaevola frutesccns. 
Linoleum : 

Aluerites moluccana, ii, 124. 
Linu, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Lipa, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Lipai, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Lipai, see Miicuna nigricans. 
Lipang-aso, see Boehmeria nivea. 
LIpang-&so, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Lipang-dvitong, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Llpang-kalabiu, see Laportea meyeniana. 
Lipang-kastila, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Lipata, see Cerbera manghas. 
Lipata, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Lipatang-buhai, see Excoecaria agallocha, 
Lipauen, see Alstonia scholaris. 
Lipot, see Dipterocarpus vernicifiuus. 
Lipote, see Eugenia curranii. 
Lipote, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Lippia nodi flora : 

Distribution, iii, 230. 
Local names, iii, 230. 
Medicinal, iii, 230. 
Lipus, see Dipterocarpus vernicifiuus. 
Lipiite, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Liputi, see Canarium ovatum,. 
Liputing-gubat, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Lirio, see Hynvenocallis Uttorale. 
Liriong-gubat, see Calanthe veratrifolia. 
Iiisid, see Chonemorpha elastica. 
Litalit, see Hyptis suaveolens. 
Litlit, see Piper betle. 
Litlit, see Piper retrofractuni. 
Litsea glutinosa: 

Disti-ibution, iii, 187. 
Local names, iii, 187. 
Medicinal, iii, 187. 
Liuhon, see Homonoia riparia. 
Liuliu, see Ficus hauili. 
Livistona australis : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Livistona chinensis: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Livistona cochinchinensis: 

Description, 1, 214, 216. 
Distribution, i, 135, 216. 
Figure, i, 218. 
Local name, i, 216. 
Uses, i, 216. 
Livistona merrillii: 

Description, i, 214. 
Livistona robinsoniana : 
Description, i, 214. 
Livistona rotundifolia: 
Description, i, 214. 
Distribution, i, 216. 
Figure, i, 219. 
Local names, i, 216. 
Uses, i, 216. 
Livistona spp. : 

Food, ii, 252. 
Lobi, see Cocos nucifera. 
Lobo-lobohan, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. 



INDEX 



295 



Lochnera rosea : 

Distribution, iii, 222. 

Local names, iii, 222. 

Medicinal, iii, 222. 
Loganiaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 406. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 220. 
Logo, see Terminalia catappa. 
Loiloi, see Leucaena glaiica. 
Lokblut, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Lokd6, see Dryopteris pteroides. 
Lokdo, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 
Lokoloko, see Ocimutn sanctum. 
Loloan, see Pistia stratiotes. 
Lomangog, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Longbayau, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Longboi, see Eugenia ctimini. 
Lonicera phRippinensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 409. 

Local names, i, 409. 

Fiber, i, 409. 
Lontong, see Sterculia hizonica. 
Lo-ob, see Schizostachyitm dielsianum. 
Lo-ob, see Schizostachyuin diffusuni. 
Loomoi, see Scindapsus spp. 
Looms ; 

Schizostachyuin textorium, i, 265. 
Lopa, see Bamhusa cornuta. 
Lophopetalum toxicum: 

Distribution, iii, 203. 

Local names, iii, 203. 

Medicinal, iii, 203. 
Lopulopii, see Lippia nodiflora. 
Losuban, see Bombycidendron vidalianum. 
Lotion: 

Cocos nucife-ra, ii, 93. 
Lotus, see Nehtynbium nelumbo. 
Lubanayong, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Lubas, see Spandias pinnata. 
Liibi, see Cocos nticifera. 
Lubia, see Pinanga spp. 
Lubigr&n, see Acorus calamus. 
Lubilubi, see Cubilia blancoi. 
Lubi-lubi, see Geodorum nutans. 
Lubilubi, see Ltiyiasia amara. 
Lubricant : 

Isoptera bomeensis. ii, 160. 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 

Ricinits conmuiiis, ii, 143. 

Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 

Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 
Luffa cylindrica : 

Distribution, iii, 242. 

Local names, iii, 242. 

Medicinal, iii, 242. 
Lugis, see Eugenia tuananguil. 
Lugo, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Liigos, see Areca catechu. 
Lukabbaan, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Lukabban, see Sonneratia alba. 
Lukabban, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Lukb&n, see Citrus maxima. 
Lukban-balit, see Murraya paniculata. 
Lulupaw, see AbtUilon indicum. 
Lumabo, see Jasminum- sambas. 
Lumampau, see Schizostachyum lumampao. 



Lumanai, see Homonoia riparia. 
Lumanaia, see Homonoia- riparia. 
Lumbai, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Lumbanau, see Aglaia everettU. 
Lumbing, see Aleurites moluccana. 
Lumbang, see Aleurites trisperma. 
Lumbang-banukalad, see Aleurites trisperma. 
Lumbang-bato, see Aleurites moluccana. 
Lumbang-gubat, see .Aleurites trisperma. 
Lumbang oil : 

Aleurites moluccaiia, ii, 124. 
Lumbii, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Lumbiag: see Metroxylon sagu. 
Lumboi, see Eugenia cumini. 
Lumnitzera littorea: 

Description, i, 68. 

Distribution, i, 22, 68. 

Figure, i, 71. 

Local names, i, 68. 

Forest charge, i, 125. 

Stands, 1, 96, 97. 

Timber, i, 70. 
Lumnitzera racemosa: 

Description and distribution, i, 70. 

Local names, i, TO. 

Forest chai-ge, i, 125. 

Medicinal, iii, 215. 
Lumpitan, see Quamoclit pinnata. 
Lunan, see Lunasia amara. 
Liinas, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Lunas, see Costus speciosus. 
Lunas, see Gonocaryum caUeryanum. 
Lunas, see Lunasia amara. 
Liinas, see Oleandra neriiformis. 
Lunas-bondok, see Lunasia amara. 
Lunasia amara: 

Distribution, iii, 194. 

Local names, iii, 194. 

Medicinal, iii, 194. 
Lunga, see Sesamum orientale. 
Lungakan, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Lunug, see Ficus pachyphylla. 
Luoi-luoi na dako, see Grammatophyllum mvl- 

tiflorum. 
Lupa, see Fleurya interrupta. 
Lupak, see Euphoria didyma. 
Lupi, see Phragmites karka. 
Lupi, see Phragmites vidgaris. 
Lupig, see Bauhinia cumiyxgiana. 
Lupigi, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Lup-lupak, see Lilium- philippinensis. 
Lupluppan, see Abutilon indicum. 
Lupo, see Columella trifolia. 
Lusong, see Vaccinium whitfordii. 
Lusunan, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Luting, see Rtibtis fraxinifolius. 
Liiya, see Zingiber officinale. 
Luy-a. see Zingiber officinale. 
Luyaluyahan, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Luyang-dilau, see Curcuma tonga. 
Luyong, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Luyos, see .Areca catechu. 
Lycoperdaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lycoperdon cepiforme : 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 



296 



INDEX 



Lycoperdon furfuracewn: 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon lilacivniin : 

Description, iii, 142. 

Figure, iii, 143. 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lycoperdon plicatum : 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon polymorphum : 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon pratense : 

Description, iii, 144. 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon pusillum : 

Description, iii, 142. 

Edible fungi, iii, 142. 
Lycoperdon pyriforme : 

Description, iii, 144. 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon roseum : 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycoperdon vanderystii : 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Lycopersicum esculentum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 374. 

Local names, ii, 374. 

Food, ii, 374. 
Lycopodiaceae : 

Ornamental plants, iii, 12. 
Lycopodiuyn spp. : 

Description and distribution, iii, 12. 

Ornamental, iii, 12. 
Lye: 

Acanthus ilirifolius, iii, 90. 
Lyffodium circinnatum: 

Description, i, 328. 

Distribution, iii, 168. 

Figure, i, 329. 

Local names, i, 326, 328. 

Fiber, i, 328. 

Medicinal, iii, 168. 
Lygodium flexuosum: 

Description, i, 328. 

Local names, i, 326, 328. 

Fiber, i, 328. 
Lygodium japonicum: 

Description, i, 328. 

Local names, i, 326, 328. 

Fiber, i, 328. 
Lygodium scandens : 

Description, i, 328. 

Local names, i, 326, 328. 

Fiber, i, 328. 
Lygodium semihastatum : 

Description, i, 328. 

Fiber, i, 326, 328. 

Local names, i, 326, 328. 
Lythraceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 214. 

M 

Ma-asim, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Mabantut, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Mabiilo, see Diospyros discolor. 
Mabulo, see Trichodesma zeylanicum. 
Macahiya, see Biophytum sensitivum. 



Macaranga grandifolia: 

Distribution, iii, 200. 

Local names, iii, 200. 

Medicinal, iii, 200. 
Macaranga tanarius: 

Description and distribution, ii, 73, 312. 

Figure, ii, 313. 

Local names, ii, 73, 310. 

Fermented drink, ii, 312. 

Glue, ii, 73. 

Medicinal, iii, 200. 
Macsa ciimingii: 

Description and distribution, i, 406. 

Local names, i, 406. 

Fiber, i, 406. 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Maesa denticulata : 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Maesa laxa: 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Magaan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 
Magabalogo, see Kingiodendron alter nifoliurru. 
Magalolo, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Maganhop sa bukid, see Albizzia lebheko- 

ides. 
Magatalisai, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Magatas, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Magatungal, see Gnetum gnemon. 
Magau, see Ocinium sanctum. 
Magayao, see Heritiera Uttoralis. 
Magilik, see Premna cumingiana. 
Magimapau, see Dendrobium crumenatum. 
Magimpal, see Dendrobium crumenatuyn. 
Magit, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Magkauayan, see Apluda mutica. 
Magkono, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Maglolopoi, see Terminalia comintana. 
Maglumboi, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
Magmansi, see Vernonia cinerea. 
Magnoliaceae : 

Oils, ii, 185, 
Magtalisai, see Terminalia edulis. 
Magtalulong, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
MagtaTigud, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Magtongod, see Ceriops tagal. 
Magtongog, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Maguey, see Agave cantala. 
Magusiak, see Fagraea raccmosa. 
Magutapilak, see Pothoidium lobbianum. 
Mahihiyain, see Biophytum sensitivum. 
Mahonia philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 388. 

Local name, ii, 388. 

Dye, ii, 388. 
MaiS,na, see Coleus blumei. 
Maianau, see Coleus blumei. 
Maidbaid, see Oroxylum indicutn. 
Maigang, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Mais, see Zeamays. 

Maismaisan, see Asclepias curassavica. 
Makaasim, see Eugenia mananquil. 
MakabarTgon, see Micromelum compressum. 
Makabra, see Rotala aquatica. 
Makabu, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Makadaeg, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Makahla, see Mimosa pudica. 



INDEX 



297 



Makahilub, see Euchresta horsfieldii. 
Makahiyang-lalake, see Biophytum sensitivum, 
Makalalanang, see Clerodendron intermedium, 
Makalsa, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Makasla, see Croton tiglium. 
Makatba, see Citrus hystrix. 
Makatibuha, see Fagraea racemosa, 
Makau, see Agathis alba. 
Makau, see Dracontomelum dao. 
Makaya, see Greivia stylocarpa. 
Makitkitot, see Euphorbia thymifolia. 
Makopa, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Malaachuete, see Melochia uinbellata. 
Malaaduas, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Malaamis, see Scoparia dulcis. 
Mala-an,? lako lakop, see Pothos spp. 
Mala-anonas, see Pygeum preslii. 
Malaapi, see Premna cumingiana. 
Malaapulid, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Mala-atis, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Malabago, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Malabago, see Hibiscus tUiaceus. 
Malabanggi, see Memecylon ovatum. 
Malabanilad, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Malabatino, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Malabayabas, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Malabayabas, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 
Malabiga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Malabignai, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 
Malabitis-papa, see Malachra fasciata. 
Malaboho, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Malabohok, see Casuarina eguisetifolia. 
Malabohok, see QuamocUt pinnata. 
Malabokbok. see Gymnartocarpns woodii. 
Malabonot, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Malabuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Malabugos, see Homonoia riparia. 
Malabulak, see Bombax ceiba. 
Malabulak, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Malaburiga, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Malaburga, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Malacafe, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Malachra fasciata: 

Description and distribution, i, 388. 

Local names, i, 388. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Rope, i, 388. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Malachra capitata: 

Description and distribution, i, 388. 

Distribution, iii, 209. 

Local names, i, 387. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i, 387. 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 
Maladayap, see Capparis micracantha. 
Maladayap, see Lansium dubium. 
Maladita, see Paralstonia clusiacea. 
Maladita, see Rauwolfia awsoniaefolia. 
Maladosodos, see Pseuderanthemum pulcheU 

lum. 
Malagabi, see Terminalia edulis. 
Malaganep, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Malaganit, see Albizzia lebbekoidea. 
Malaganit, see Leucaena glauca. 
Malagapas, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. 



Malagasaha, see Sterculia phUippin'ensis. 
MaJagasaha, see Sterculia stipularis. 
Malagayaman, see Pothoidium lobbianum. 
Malagayaman, see Pothos spp. 
Malaghanip, see Albizzia lebbekoides. 
Malaghanit, see Albizzia lebbekoides. 
Malagiting-giting, see Decaspermum frutico- 

sum. 
Malagmat, see Pygeum preslii. 
Malagozzan, see Gonocaryum caUeryanuin. 
Malahabi, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Malahagis, see Eugenia mananquU. 
Malahito, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Malaigang, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Malaigang, see Eugenia mananquU. 
Malaikmo, see Gonocarytim calleryanum. 
Malaikmo-lalaki, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 
Mala-imus, see Elaeagnus philippensis. 
Malaisia scandens : 

Description and distribution, i, 373. 

Local names, i, 373. 

Fiber, i, 373. 

Medicinal, iii, 181. 
Malaisis, see Malaisia scandens. 
Malaiyau, see Dracontotiieliim dao. 
Malakadios, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Malakakao, see Lepidopetaluni perrottetii. 
Malakakao, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Malakakao, see Phaleria cumingii. 
Malakakao, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Malakakao, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Malakakao, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Malakalad, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
HalakalumpS.ng', see Sterculia luzonica. 

Malakalumpit, see Terminalia calo/man- 
sanai. 

Malakanasi, see Lansium dubium. 
Malakapai, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Malakirum-kirum, see Phyllanthu^ niruri. 
Malakmalak, see Palaquium philippense. 
Malakmalak oil : 

Palaquium philippense, ii, 168. 
Malakopa, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Malakudkiiran, see Heliotropiutn indicum. 
Malalapi, see Maesa cumingii. 
Malamansanita, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Malambingan, see Allaeanthus glaber. 
Malamputian, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Malamulauin, see Pronna nauseosa. 
MalanangkS,, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Malanbanilad, see Sterculia oblongata, 
Malangbuyud, see Phyllanfhus reticulatus, 
Malanopit, see Elaeocarpus calomala. 
Malapaho, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, 
Malapaho, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Malapaho, see Mangifera altissima. 
Malapakpak, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. 
Malapandakaki, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 
Malapaiigi, see Pangium edule. 
Malapapaya, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Malapi, see Croton tiglium. 
Malapili, see Canariuin luzonicuni. 
Malapinggan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum,. 
Malapot6kan, see Clerodendrom macroatS' 

gium. 
Malaputat, see Ardisia serrata. 



298 



INDEX 



Malaputat, see Palaqumm philippense. 
Malaraniim, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Malaruhat, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Malaruhat, see Eugenia niananquU. 
Malarungon, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Malariirang', see Trema orientalis. 
Malarurung, see Trema orientalis. 
Malarutto, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Malasaga, see Pi^hecolobium subacutum. 
Malasagad, see Adenanthera interm-edia. 
Malasaging, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Malasaging, see Cubilia, blancoi. 
Malasamat, see Gonocaryum calieryanum. 
Malasambong, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Malasambong, see Callicarpa erioclona. 
Malasambong-damo, see Sphaeranthus afri- 

canus. 
Malasampalok, see Albizzia lebbekoides. 
Malasandia, see Ipomoea pes-tigridis. 
Malasangi, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Malasang-salve, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 
Malasantol, see Aglaia everettii. 
Malasantol, see Diospyros discolor. 
Malasapsap, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Malasapiiti, see Palaquium philippense. 
Malasikongdoron, see Trema orientalis. 
Malatadiang, see Ehretia navesii. 
Malatakon, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Malatampui, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Malatapai, see .4lstonia macro iihyUa. 
Malatapai, see Cyathocalyx globosiis. 
Malatapai, see Gonocaryum calieryanum.. 
Malatuba. see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Malatumbaga, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Malatumbaga, see Chisocheton pentandrus. 
MaJatumbaga, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Malauas, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Malaubi, see Aristolochia tagala. 
Malayambo, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Malayambo, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Malbas-damo, see Fatoua pilosa. 
Malenggal, see Canscora diffusa. 
Maliana, see Coletis blinnei. 
Malibago, see Hibiscus tUiaceus. 
Malibago, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Malibago, see Thespesia populnea. 
Maligang, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Maligus, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Mali-mali, see Leea aculeata. 
Mali-mali, see Leea manillensis. 
Malimalis, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Malingga, see Benincasa hispida. 
Malisa, see Piper nigrum. 
Malismalisan, see Scoparia dulcis. 
Mallets, polo : 

Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. 
Mallotus philippinensis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 398. 

Local names, ii, 396. 

Banato oil, ii, 142. 

Dye, ii, 398. 

Medicinal, iii, 200. 

Tape-worm remedy, iii, 68. 
Malobago, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Malobago, see Thespesia populnea. 
Malubigo, see Hibiscus tiliaeeua. 



Malugai, see Moringa oleifera. 

Malul, see Jasminum sambac. 

Malumalunggayan, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 

Malunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 

Malunggal, see Samudera indica. 

Malvaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 399. 
Fiber plants, i, 386. 
Food plants, ii, 336. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 208. 

Malvaliisa, see Solanum cumingii. 

Malvas, see Abutilon indicum. 
I Malvas de castilla, see Abutilon indicum. 

Malvastrum coromandelinum : 
\ Description and distribution, i, 388. 

Local names, i, 388. 
Brooms, i, 388. 
Medicinal, iii, 209. 

Malvis, see Abutilon indicum,. 

Mama, see Pinanga spp. 
I Mamadling, see Columbia blancoi. 
\ Mamakau, see Dracontomelum dao. 

Mamales, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 

Mamalig, see Leea aculeata. 

Mamalis, see Guioa koelreuteria. 

Mamalis, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 

Mamalis, see Sapindus saponaria. 
I Mamalis oil: 

Pittosporum, pentandrum,, ii, 105. 
I Mamangal, see Leea numUlensis. 
I Mamata, see Euphoria didyma. 

MamatS.-babae, see Lansium dubium. 

Mamaued, see Columbia blancoi. 

Mamaued, see Columbia serratifolia. 

Mamb6g, see Nauclea junghuhnii. 

Mamogen, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 

Mamonak, see .Aglaia harmsiana. 

Mamongol, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. 

Mampala, see Mangifera indica. 

Mampalang, see Mangifera indica. 

Mamued, see Columbia blancoi. 

Mana, see Jatropha multifida. 

Manaba, see Premna cumingiana. 

Manabo, see Gynandropsis gynandra. 

Managos, see Homonoia riparia. 

Manalu, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 

Manan-aw, see Phalaeno psis lueddemanniana. 

Manankil, see Eugenia mananquil. 

Mana oil : 

Jatropha multifida, ii, 142. 

Manaon, see Dalbergia ferruginea. 

Manapo, see Cyathea spp. 

Manapo, see Sindora supa. 

Manaring, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 

Manau, see Dendrobium crumenatum. 

Manban, see Donax cannaeformis. 

Mangagos, see Homonoia riparia. 

Mangala, see Garcinia venulosa. 

Mangalri, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 

Mangga, see Mangifera indica. 

Manggapole, see Mangifera altissima. 

Manggasinoro, see Phaeanthus ebracieolatus. 

Manggating, see Caniptostemon philippinense. 

Mangifera altissima : 

Description and distribution, ii, 316. 
Figure, ii, 318. 



INDEX 



299 



Mangifera altissima — Continued. 

Local names, ii, 316. 

Food, ii, 316. 
Mangifera caesia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 320. 

Figure, ii, 319. 

Local names, ii, 320. 

Food, ii, 239, 320. 
Mangifera indica: 

Distribution, iii, 202. 

Local names, iii, 202. 

Medicinal, iii, 202. 
Mangifera odorata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 320. 

Local names, ii, 320. 

Food, ii, 320. 
Mangil, see Rubia cordifolia. 
Mangipod, see Areca ipot. 
Mangkit, see Urena lobata. 
Mangkit-parang, see Desmodiutn heterocar- 

pum. 
Mango, see Mangifera indica. 
Mangostan, see Garcinia mangostana. 
Mangosteen, see Garcinia niangostana. 
Mangotngot, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Mani, see Arachis hypogaea. 
Manihot utilissima : 

Distribution, iii, 201. 

Local names, iii, 201. 

Medicinal, iii, 201. 
Maniknik, see Bassia obovatifolia. 
Manila copal : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Manila elemi : 

Canarium luzonicum. ii, 42. 
Manila hemp, see Musa textilis. 
Manilig, see Bassia betis. 
Mani-mani, see Desmodium heterocarpum. 
Manimanihan, see Desmodium heterocarpum. 
Manimparog, see Palaquium philippense. 
Maninila, see Garcinia binucao. 
Manogbayo, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Manogtalisai, see Palagiiium philippense. 
Manul, see Jasminum sambac. 
Manungg&l, see Samadera indica. 
Manunggal oil : 

Samadera indica, ii, 114. 
Manzanas, see Zizyphus jujuba. 
Manzanilla, see Chrysanthemum indicum. 
Manzanilla, see Pluchea indica. 
Manzanitas, see Muntingia calabura. 
Manzanitas, see Zizyphus jujuba. 
Maobo, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Maoro, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Mapola, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Mapula, see Hibiscus mutabilis. 
Maraandarayan, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. 
Marabago, see Thespesia populnea. 
Marabas, see Sida mysorensis. 
Marabayabas, see Eugenia aquea. 
Marabayabas, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Marachuite, see Croton tiglium. 
Maradamortis, see Fithecolohium subacutum. 
Maragatas, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Maragauak, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 



Maragaued, see Ehretia navesii. 
Maragaued, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. 
Maragayaman, see Scindapsus spp. 
Marag6inon, see Brownlowia lanceolata. 
Maragoso, see Momordica charantia. 
Mara-ipus, see Streptocaulon baumii. 
Maraipus ti bakes, see Tylophora perrottetiana. 
Marakapas, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Marakapas, see Pterocymbium tinctorium, 
Marak&pas, see Thespesia lampas. 
Maramabolo, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Maramani, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Mara-mara, see Ehretia microphylla. 
M&rang, see Artocarpus odoratissima. 
Marang, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Marangis, see Nephelium niutabile. 
Maraniok, see Calanthe veratrifolia. 
Marantaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 365. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 179. 
Maraotong, see Acalypha indica. 
Marapako, see Cyathea spp. 
Marasiksik, see Oxalis repens. 
Marasmius capillipes: 
Description, iii, 124. 
Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Marasmius equicrinis: 
Description, iii, 124. 
Non-edible fungus, iii, 124. 
Marasn^ius erumpens : 
Description, iii, 126. 
Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. 
Marasmius piatouillardi : 
Description, iii, 126. 
Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. 
MarcLsmius pilopus: 

Description, iii, 124. 
Non-edible fungus, iii, 124. 
Marasmius siccus: 

Description, iii, 126. 
Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. 
Maratabako, see Elephantopus spicatus. 
Maratakkim-baka, see Sida acuta. 
Maratarong, see Cordia cumingiana. 
Maratarong, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Maratarong, see Thespesia lampas. 
Maratekka, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Maratia, see Ehretia microphylla. 
Maratugl, see Stephania japonica. 
Marbaar, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Marbas, see Abutilon indicum. 
Marbas, see Sida mysorensis. 
Marcilanana, see Emilia sonchifolia. 
Margarine; 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 
Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Maribuhok, see Casuarina equisetifolia. 
Marighoi, see Ptychoraphis intermedia. 
Marigold, see Tagetes patula. 
Marikum, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 
Marinsiano, see Lepidopetahim perrottetii. 
Mariu-bariu, see Enhalus acoroides. 
Marmangga, see Lunasia amara. 
Mar-mara-ipus, see Sida javensis. 
Marobo, see Cinnamomum iners. 



300 



INDEX 



Marokbarok, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Maronggoi, see Moringa oleifera. 
Maropoto, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 
Marsdenia tinctoria: 

Description and distribution, ii, 404. 

Local name, ii, 404. 

Dye, ii, 404. 
Martinezia caryotaefolia : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Marubo, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Marunggai, see Moringa oleifera. 
Marurugi, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Marutong, see Euphoria didyma. 
Masaplak, see Grewia eriocarpa. 
Matabang-dikiit, see Paederia foetida. 
Mata-kuo, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. 
Matalbak, see Donax canvaeforinis. 
Matalisai, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Matamata, see Aglaia glomerata. 
Matamata, see Aglaia har^nsiana. 
Matamata, see Euphoria didyma. 
Matanga], see Ceriops roxburghiana. 
Matang-araw, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Matang-buytid, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. 
Matang-hipon, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Matang-olang, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Matang-saga, see Breynia rhaynnoides. 
Matang-ulam, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Matang-ulang, see Abrtis precatorius. 
Matang ulang, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Matang-ulang, see Aglaia harmaiana. 
Matang-uling, see Salacia prinoides. 
Matatalina. see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Matobato, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 
Mats : 

Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 

Corypha data, i, 192. 

Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. 

Cyperus radiatns, i, 348. 

Daemonorops spp., i, 205. 

Imperata exaltata, i, 340. 

Korthalsia spp., i, 212. 

Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 

Musa textUis, i, 364. 

Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 

Pandanus copelandii, i, 332. 

Pandanus dubius, i, 334. 

Pandanu.3 luzonensis, i, 334. 

Pandanus radicans, i, 334. 

Pandanus sabotan, i, 334. 

Pandanus simplex, i, 336. 

Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. 

Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. 

Scirpus grossus, i, 353. 

Scirpus lacustris, i, 353. 
Mattapal, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Matting rush, see Juncus effusus. 
Mayambago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Mayapis, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Mayapis, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Mayatbang, see Dioscorea luzonensis. 
Maykauayan, see Apluda mutica. 
Mayubo, see Diplodiscus paniculatus, 
Mayuo, see Pterocymbium tinctorium,. 



Medicinal : 

Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. 

Local uses, iii, 163. 

Official plants, iii, 63. 

Sindora supa, ii, 38. 
Melanolepis tnidtiglandulosa : 

Distribution, iii, 201. 

Local names, iii, 201. 

Medicinal, iii, 201. 
Melastoniataceae : 

Dyes, ii, 402. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 217. 
Melia azedarach : 

Distribution, iii, 197. 

Local name, iii, 197. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 
Meliaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 302. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 36. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 196. 

Oils, ii, 117. 
Melochia umbellata: 

Description and distribution, i, 397. 

Local names, i, 397. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i, 397. 
Memecylon ovatum : 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local names, iii, 217. 

Dye, ii, 402. 

Medicinal, iii, 217. 
Menispermaceae : 

Dyes. 11, 388. 

Fiber plants, i, 375. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 185. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 79. 
Mentha arvensis : 

Distribution, iii, 233. 

Local name, iii, 233. 

Medicinal, iii, 233. 
Merremia emarginata: 

Distribution, iii, 226. 

Local names, iii, 226. 

Medicinal, iii, 226. 
Merremia nymphaeifolia: 

Description and distribution, i, 408. 

Local names, i, 408. 

Fiber, i, 408. 
Metroxylon rumphii, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Metroxylon sagu : 

Description and distribution, i, 408. 

Figure, i, 221. 

Local names, i, 220. 

Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. 

Food, ii. 252 

Uses, i, 220. 
Miagook, see Homonoia riparia. 
Miagus, see Homonoia riparia. 
Miapi, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Michelia champaca: 

Description, ii, 188. 

Figure, ii, 187. 

Local names, ii, 185. 

Champaka oil, ii, 185. 



INDEX 



301 



Michelia longi flora: 

Description and distribution, ii, 188. 
Local name, ii, 188. 
Oil, ii, 188. 
Micronielum minutum: 
Distribution, iii, 194. 
Local names, iii, 194. 
Medicinal, iii, 194. 
Midbid, see Eugenia, mananquil. 
Milipili, see Canarium viUosum. 
Mimosa ptidica : 

Distribution, iii, 191. 
Local names, iii, 191. 
Medicinal, iii, 191. 
Miviusops parvifolia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 366. 
Figure, ii, 367. 
Local names, ii, 366. 
Food, ii, 366. 
Medicinal, iii, 219. 
Mindanao cinnamon, see Cinnamomum min- 

danaense. 
Mindang, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Mindoro pine, see Pinus merkiiaii. 
Mini, see Donax cannaeformis. 
Mint, see Mentha arvensis. 
Miniinga, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Mipipi, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Miscanthus Sijicnsis; 

Description and distribution, i, 342. 
Local names i, 342. 
Fiber, i, 342. 
Miscellaneous useful plants, iii, 85. 
Mitbid, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Modbod, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Moling-moling, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Momordica charantia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 376. 
Local names, iii, 376. 
Food, ii, 376. 
Medicinal, iii, 242. 
Momordica cochinchinensis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 376. 
Local names, ii, 376. 
Food, ii, 376. 
Medicinal, iii, 242. 
Monggo, see Phaseolus aureus. 
Monotbonot, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Mopio, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 
Mora, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Moraceae : 

Dyes, ii, 387. 
Fiber plants, i, 368. 
Food plants, ii, 262. 
Gums, ii, 70. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 180. 
Scouring materials, iii, 51. 
Morado, see Graptophyllum pictunt. 
Moras, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Morinda citrifolia: 

Description, ii, 406. 
Distribution, ii, 406; iii, 239. 
Local names, ii, 405. 
Dye, ii, 405. 
Medicinal, iii, 239. 



Moringaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 284. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 188. 
Oils, ii, 104. 
Moringa oleifera: 

Description and disti-ibution, ii, 105. 
Figure, ii, 283. 
Local names, ii, 104. 
Ben oil, ii, 104. 
Food, ii, 284. 
Medicinal, iii, 188. 
Uses, ii, 104. 
Moropoto, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
Mosbor6n, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Mucuna nigri<:ans: 

Distribution, iii, 192. 
Local names, iii, 192. 
Medicinal, iii, 192. 
Mugwort, see Artemisia vulgaris. 
Mulabago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. 
Mulang, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Mulato, see Intsia bijuga. 
Mul§.uin-aso, see Premna nauseosa. 
Muling-muling, see Diplociscus paniculatus. 
Mulumustasa, see Emilia sonchijolia. 
Munggo, see Phaseolus aureus. 
MuiTgilkil, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Muntai, see Citrus sp. 
I Muntingia calabura: 

Description and distribution, i, 386. 
Local names, i, 385. 
Fiber, i, 385. 
Food, ii, 332. 
Medicinal, iii, 207. 
Murraya paniculata: 

Distribution, iii, 194. 
Local names, iii, 194. 
Medicinal, iii, 194. 
Musaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 364. 
Food plants, ii, 259. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 185. 
Paper substitute, iii, 92. 
Musa errans : 

Distribution, iii, 177. 
Local names, iii, 177. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 177. 
Musa paradisiaca : 

Dimensions of iiber, i, 422. 
Fiber, i, 364. 
Paper, i, 416. 
Musa spp. : 

Local name, ii, 259 ; iii, 92. 
Food, ii, 259. 
Paper substitute, iii, 92. 
Musa textilis : 

Distribution, i, 364. 
Figure, i, 363. 
Local name, i, 364. 
Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 
Fiber, i, 364. 
Paper, i, 415. 
Tensile strength, i, 322. 
Mushrooms, iii, 97. 



302 



INDEX 



Mussaenda philippica: 

Distribution, iii, 239. 

Local names, iii, 239. 

Medicinal, iii, 239. 
Musti^a, see Kyllinga monocephaXa. 
Muta, see Fhnbristylis globulosa. 
Mutha, see Fiynbristylis diphylla. 
Mutha, see Kyllinga inonocephala. 
Muyon, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Myrmecodia : 

Distribution, i, 24. 

Figure, i, 25. 
Myrsinaceae: 

Fiber plants, i, 406. 

Food plants, ii, 362. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 72. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 219. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 81. 

Tannins, iii, 95. 
Myrtaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 354. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 72. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 216. 

X 

Nabo, see Abroma fastitosa. 

Naga, see Pterocarpus spp. 

Nagdon, see Trema orientalis. 

Nag-enis, see Aristolochia tagala. 

Naghubo, see Terminalia comintana. 

Nakulad, see Lippia nodiflara. 

Nala, see Pterocarpus spp. 

Nami, see Dioscorea hispida. 

Namo, see Dioscorea hispida. 

Namut, see Grewia stylocarpa. 

Nangka, see Artocarpus Integra. 

Nangnangisit, see Sida rhombifolia. 

Nara, see Pterocarpus spp. 

Narandauel, see Pithelocolobium subacutum. 

Naranja, see Citrus maxima. 

Narra, see Pterocarpus blancoi. 

Nara, see Pterocarpus spp. 

Nato-pula, see Palaquium phUippense. 

Nauclea junghuhnii: 

Distribution, iii, 240. 

Local names, iii, 240. 

Medicinal, iii, 240. 
Nauclea orientalis: 

Distribution, iii, 240. 

Local names, iii, 240. 

Medicinal, iii, 240. 
Naui, see Lygodium circinnatum. 
Negegan, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Nelumbium nelumbo : 

Description and distribution, ii, 278. 

Figure, iii, 45. 

Local names, ii, 278. 

Food, ii. 278. 

Medicinal, iii, 185. 

Ornamental, iii, 46. 
Neowashingtonia filijera: 

Recently inti-oduced palm, i, 243. 
Nephelium lappaceum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 328. 

Figure, ii, 327. 

Local name, ii, 328. 



Nephelium lappaceum — Continued. 

Food, ii, 328. 

Rambutan tallow, ii, 148. 
Nephelium mutabile : 

Description and distribution, ii, 150, 328. 

Figure, ii, 329. 

Local names, ii, 150, 328. 

Bulala oil, ii, 150. 

Food, ii, 328. 
Nephrolepis hirsutvla: 

Description and distribution, i, 323. 

Local names, i, 323. 

Fiber, i, 323. 
Nerium indicum : 

Distribution, iii, 222. 

Local names, iii, 222. 

Medicinal, iii, 222. 
Ngano, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Ngisi-ngisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Ngotngot, see Cocos nucifera. 
Nguspul, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 
Nibong, see Oncosperma filamentosa. 
Nicotiana tabacum : 

Distribution, iii, 235. 

Local name, iii, 235. 

Medicinal, iii, 235. 
Nigi, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Nigi-puti", see Camptostvmon philippinense. 
Kilad, see Scyphiphora hydrophyUacea. 
Nilar, see Scyphiphora hydraphyllacea. 
Niog, see Cocos nucifera. 
Niogniogan, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Niogniogan, see Orania palindan. 
Niog-niogan, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 
Nipa, see Nipa fruticans. 
Nipa fruticans : 

Description, i, 32, 222. 

Distribution, i, 20, 24, 32, 222. 

Figure, i, 34, 35, 223, 225, 227, 229. 

Local names, i, 32, 222. 

Alcohol and alcoholic drinks, i, 224. 

Cultivation, i, 230. 

Fiber, i, 224. 

Sugar, i, 231. 

Sweatmeats, i, 224. 

Uses, i, 224. 

Vinegar, ii, 228. 
Nipah, see Nipa fruticans. 
Nipai, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Nipoi, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Niri, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Nirih, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Nirih, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Nisi-nisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Nito, see Dendrobium aureum. 
Nito, see Lygodium circinnatum. 
Nito, see Lygodium spp. 
Nito a dadakkel, see Lygodium flexuosutn. 
Niton-nitoan, see Lygodium sca7idens. 
Nitong-puti, see Lygodium circinnatum. 
Nitong-puti, see Lygodium flexuosutn. 
Nitong-puti, see Lygodium japonicum. 
Nito-nitoan, see Lygodium scandens. 
Nitu, see Lygodium fiexuosum. 
Niug, see Cocos nucifera. 
Niugniiigan, see Quisqualis indica. 



INDEX 



303 



Njiboeng, see Oncosperma fiZamentosa. 
Nothopanax fruticosum : 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local name, iii, 217. 

Medicinal, iii, 217. 
Nyireh, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Nyireh batu, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Nymphaeaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 278. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 185. 

Ornamental plants, iii, 46. 
Nymphaea pubescens : 

Description and distribution, ii, 278. 

Local names, ii, 278. 

Food, ii, 278. 

o 

Obien, see Artocarpus cumingiana. 
Obieng, see Flacourtia rukam. 
6bod-6bod, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Ochrosia littoralis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 370. 

Local names, ii, 370. 

Food, ii, 370. 
Ochrosia op positi folia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 372. 

Local name, ii, 372. 

Food, ii, 372. 
Ocimum basilicum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 218. 

Local names, ii, 217. 

Flavoring-, ii, 217. 

Mediinal ii, 217 ; iii, 70, 233. 

Perfume, ii, 218. 
Ocimuvi sanctum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 219. 

Local names, ii, 218. 

Beads, ii, 218. 

Medicinal, iii, 233. 

Oil, ii, 218. 
Odiau, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Odling, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Odo, see Ganophyllum falcatuin. 
Oenotheraceae : 

Dyes, ii, 403. 
Oil adulterant : 

Sindora siipa, ii, 38. 
Oil cake: 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. 

Ceiba pentandra, ii, 152. 
Oil palm, see Elaeis guineensis. 
Oil, ii, 90. 

Okra, see Hibiscus esculentus, 
Oksor, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Olacaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 270. 
Olango, see Pandanus radicans. 
Olasiman, see Bacopa monniera. 
Olasiman, see Portulaca oleracea. 
Oldeniandia corymbosa: 

Distribution, iii, 240. 

Local name, iii, 240. 

Medicinal, iii, 240. 
Oleaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 220. 
Oleander, see Neriuvi indicum. 



Oleandra neriiformis ; 
Distribution, iii, 168. 
Local names, iii, 168. 
Medicinal, iii, 168. 
Oleomargarine ; 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Olikbangon, see Commelina benghalensis. 
Oliva, see Cycas circinalis. 
Olive oil substitute : 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. 
Olivo, see Cycas circinalis. 
Oloi, see Artocarpus odoratissima. 
01-61, see Pinus insularis. 
Olos-olos, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Onau, see Arenga pinnata. 
Oncosperma filamentosa: 

Description and distribution, i, 36. 
Local name, i, 36. 
Uses, i, 36. 
Oncosperma filamentosum: 
Description, i, 231, 232. 
Distribution, i, 232. 
Local names, i, 232. 
Uses, i, 232. 
Oncosperma gracilipes : 
Description, i, 232. 
Oncosperma horridum: 
Description, i, 232. 
Local names, i, 232. 
Oncospernm platyphyllum: 

Description, i, 232. 
Oncosper^iia spp. : 

Areca nut substitute, ii, 252. 
Oncosperma tigiUaria: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Ong&li, see Agelaea everettii. 
Oiigot, see Cocos nucifera. 
Ongsoi, see Coriandrum sativum. 
Onion, see AUium cepa. 
Onychium siliculosum : 
Distribution, iii, 168. 
Local names, iii, 168. 
Medicinal, iii, 168. 
Oori, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
60s, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Operculina turpethum : 

Description and distribution, i, 408. 
Local names, i, 408. 
Fiber, i, 408. 
Medicinal, iii, 70, 226. 
O phioglossaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 241. 
Oplai, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Oplig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
6po, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Opong-opong, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Orania decipiens: 

Description, i, 234. 
Orania palindan: 

Description and distribution, i, 234. 
Figure, i, 233. 
Local names, i, 234. 
Ornamental, i, 234. 
Orania paraguanensis : 
Description, i, 234. 
Orania philippinensis, see Orania palindan. 



304 



INDEX 



Orania rubiginosa: 

Description, i, 234. 
Oras, see Schizostachyuin lumampao. 
Orchidaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 365. 
Gums, ii, 68. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 179. 
Ornamental plants, iii, 12. 
Oregano, see Coleus amboinicus. 
Oregano-lalaki, see Coldenia procumbens. 
Oreodoxa ochracea : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Oreodoxa regia: 

Description and distribution, i, 234. 
Figure, i, 235. 
Local name, i, 234. 
Ornamental, i, 234. 
Oringon, see Cratoxylon blancoi, 
Oring-oring, see Adonidia 7nerrillii. 
Ornamental plants, iii, 7. 

Adonidia merrilUi, i, 139. 
Areca ipot, i, 148. 
Areca i-idaliana, i, 148. 
Arenga ambong, i, 150. 
Arenga mindorensis, i, 158. 
Arenga tremula, i, 158. 
Bambusa glaucescens, i, 258. 
Bambusa spinosa, i, 260. 
Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 
Caryota niajestica, i, 182. 
Caryota vierrillii, i, 182. 
Caryota initis, i, 182. 
Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. 
Cocas nueifera, i, 184. 
Heterospathe data, i, 210. 
Licuala spinosa, i, 212. 
Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 
Orania palindan, i, 234. 
Oreodoxa regia, i, 234. 
Pinanga spp., i, 236. 
Zalacca clemensiana, i, 243. 
Oroi, see AmorphophaUus campanrdatus. 
Oroxylum indicum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 375. 
Local names, ii, 375. 
Food, ii, 375. 
Medicinal, iii, 236. 
Orthosiphon aristatus : 

Description and distribution, iii, 72. 
Medicinal, iii, 72. 
Oryza sativa: 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 
Local names, iii, 171. 
Fiber, i, 342. 
Medicinal, iii, 171. 
Osbornia octodonta: 
Description, i, 72. 
Figure, i, 73. 
Local names i, 72. 
Caulking material, i, 72. 
Timber, i, 72. 
Ottelia alismoides : 

Description and distribution, ii, 248. 
Local names, ii, 248. 



Ottelia alismoides — Continued. 

Food, ii, 248. 

Medicinal, iii, 169. 
Owango, see Pandanus radicans. 
Oxalidaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 294. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 193. 

Soap substitutes, iii, 56. 
Oxalis repens: 

Description and distribution, ii, 296. 

Local names, ii, 296. 

Salad ingredient, ii, 296. 
Oyangd, see Pandanus radicans. 

P 
Paang-baliwis, see Maiachra capitata. 
Faang-baliwis, see Malachra fasciata. 
Pabellon de angel, see Quauioclit pinnata. 
Pachyrrhizus erosus: 

Description and distribution, ii, 110. 

Local names, ii, 110. 

Food, ii, 292. 

Singkamas oil, ii, 110. 
Padda-paddak-pusa, see Sida javensis. 
Padir, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Padsahingin, see Dipterocarpus verniciflults. 
Paederia foetida: 

Distribution, iii, 240. 

Local names, iii, 240. 

Medicinal, iii, 240. 
Pagai, see Oryza sativa. 
Paga-paga, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 
Pagatapat, see Aegiceras cornicidatum. 
Pagatpat, see Sonneratia alba. 
Fagatpat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Pagbaotot, see Phyllanthus reticidatus. 
Fagbilau, see Elephantopus scaber. 
Pagiruga, see Antidesma bunius. 
Pagoi, see Oryza sativa. 
Pagpagai, see Ageratum conyzoides. 
Pagpagan, see Mimusops parvifolia. 
Pagsahingan, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorua. 
Pagsahingin, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Pagsahingin, see Canarium viUosum. 
Pagsahingin resin : 

Canarium vUlosum, ii, 49. 
Pagsaingin, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Pagsaingin, see Dipterocarpus vemicifluus- 
Pagulingin, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Pagulingon, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Paho, see Mangifera altissima. 
Paho, see Mangifera indica. 
Pahuhiitan, see Mangifera altissima. 
Fahutan, see Mangifera altissima. 
Paina, see Kingiodendron alternifolium,. 
Paints : 

Aleurites moluccana, ii, 124. 
Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. 
Sindora inermis, ii, 38. 
Sindora supa, ii, 38. 

Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. 
Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. 
Paipai-amo, see Drynaria quercifolia. 
Paitan, see Lunasia amara. 
Paitan, see Pygeum preslii. 
Pakagonkon, see Cassia aJ.ata. 



INDEX 



305 



Pakak, see A}-tocarpus communis, 
Pakalkal, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Pakalsa, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Pakan, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. 
Pakapis, see Clerodendron intermedium. 
Pakaran, see Palaguium philippense. 
Pakarohai, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Pakat, see Ceriops tagal. 
Paket, see Dioscorea luzonensis. 
Pakiling, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Pakin-bakir, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Fakit, see Dioscorea luzonensis. 
Pako, see Aspleniuyn macrophylluni. 
Fak6, see Athyriuni esculentum. 
Pako, see Drynaria quercifolia. 
Pako, see Nephrolepis hirsutvla. 
Pako, see Onychium siliculosum. 
Pakoidan, see Ochrosia littoralis. 
Pakol, see Musa errans. 

Pakong-anuang, see Onychium siliculosum,. 
Pakong-gtibat. see Asplenium macrophyUum. 
Pako-pako, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. 
Pakos larat, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Pakp&k-l&uin, see Drynaria quercifolia. 
Pakpako-ti-alog, see Grangea maderaspatana. 
Pakpak-tutubi, see Ventilago dichotoma. 
Paksahinsrin, see Canarium villosum. 
Paksion, see Giiioa koelreuteria. 
Pakii, see Oryza saliva. 
Paku laut, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Pakupakuan, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Pakupakiian, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Falagtiki, see Elusine indica. 
Piilai, see Oryza sativa. 
Palak-palak, see Palaquium philippense. 
Palak-palak, see Sterculia crassiramea. 
Palalan, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Palali, see Dillenia philippinensis. 
Palali. see Dillenia reifferscheidia. 
Falanau. see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Palandiauan, see Prenina cumingiana. 
Palange, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Palangi, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Palango, see Cyathea spp. 
Palangpalang, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. 
Palapat, see Sonneratia alba. 
Palaquium ahernianum: 

Description and distribution, ii. 82. 

Fijrure, ii, 75, 77, 79, 81. 

Local names, ii, 76. 

Collection of srutta-percha, ii, 76. 

Export of gutta-percha, ii, 76. 

Uses, ii, 82. 
Palaquium. oleosum, see Palaquium philippense. 
Palaquium philippense. 

Description and distribution, ii, 366. 

Figrure, ii, 368. 

Local names, ii, 366. 

Food, ii, 366. 

OU, ii, 168. 
Palaquium spp. : 

Medicinal, iii, 70. 
Palata, see Sonneratia alba. 
Palatangan, see .Aglaia harmsiana. 
Palatangen, see .Aglaia harmsiana. 
177674 20 



Palauan, see Aloca^ia macrorrhiza. 
Falauan, see Cyrtosperma merkusii. 
Palaupalau, see Barringtonia asiatica. 
Pale, see Oryza sativa. 
Pali, see Oryza sativa. 
PaJia-laut, see Colubrina asiatica. 
Palias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Palikpik-hito, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Palina, see Kingiodendron alter nifolium. 
Falind&n, see Orania palindan. 
Paling, see Barringtonia racemosa. 
F&ling-h&rap, see Anisomeles indica. 
Palipe, see Pothos spp. 
Falls, see Callicarpa erioclona. 
Palis, see Callicarpa formosana. 
Pal-la, see Alpinia pyramidata. 
Pallaipat-baibai, see Enhalus acoroides, 
Pallopallot, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
Palma brava, see Livistona rotundifolia, 
Palinae : 

Food plants, ii, 250. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 32. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 65, 172. 

Oils, ii, 93. 

Palms and palm products, i, 127. 
Palm-kernel oil : 

Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 
Palm oil : 

Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 
Palo-china, see Cassia alata. 
I'alo-kaitana, see Zanthoxyluvi rhetsa. 
Palomaria, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Falomaria, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 
Palomaria, see Kingiodendron aUernifolium. 
Palomaria, see Leucaena glauca. 
Falomaria de la playa, see Calophyllum ino- 
phyllum. 
Palomaria del monte, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Palongapui, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Palong-manok, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Palongpong, see Embelia philippinensis. 
Palosanto, see Rourea volubilis. 
Falos&pis, see Anisoptera thurifera. 
Palosapis resin : 

Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. 
Palpalsiiut, see Sphaeranthus africanus. 
Palpaltoog, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. 
PalsahiiTgin, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Palsahingin, see Canarium villosum. 
Paltak-vaka, see Cardiospermum halicacaburti. 
Paltuk-paltukan, see Cardiospermum AaJicoco- 

bUtll: 

Paluahan, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Palugapig, see Heritiera littoralis. 
Falumai, see Spilanthes acmellia. 
Palumpung, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Palupo, see Wikstroemia indica. 
Palutan, see Flacourtia indica. 
Fam&go, see Pericampylus glaucus. 
Pamainap, see Aerua lanata. 
Pamalalien, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Pamalafangen, see Chisocheton pentandrus. 
Pamamalien, see Dillenia philippinensis. 
Pamangkilon, see AmorphophaUus cam.panvla- 
tus. 



306 



INDEX 



Pamantulen, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Pamantulen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Pamarnisen, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
Pamarnisen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Pamatagin, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Pamiasin, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Pamilaten, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Pamilingan, see Pygeum preslii. 
Pamittaogen, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Pamittaogen, see Calophyllum inophyllum,. 
Pampar, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Fampasapit, see Plumbago indica. 
Pamutolen, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Panabolong, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Panabon, see Ardisia serrata. 
Panabor, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Panabulon, see Cerbera manghas. 
Panaeolus panaiense : 

Description, iii, 122. 

Edible fungi, iii, 122. 
Panaeolus papilionaceus : 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Panaeolus pseudopapilionaceus : 

Description, iii, 122. 

Edible fungi, iii, 122. 
Panaeolus velutvceps : 

Figure, iii, 123. 

Edible fungi, iii, 124. 
Panagisien, see Mallotus philippinensia. 
Panampat, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Panaptum, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 
Panau, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. 
P&na(i, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. 
Pan' au, see, Imperata cylindriea. 
Panau verdadero, see -Dipterocarpus grandiflo- 
rus. 
Pandakaki, see Cerbera vianghas. 

Pandakaki, see Tabernaemontana pandaca- 
qui. 

Pandakaki-itim, see Tabernaemontana panda- 

cagui. 
Pandakaki-puti see Tabernaemontana panda- 

caqui. 
Pandan, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Pandan, see Pandanus simplex. 
Pandan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Pandan, common or beach, see Pandanus tec- 
torius. 
Pandanaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 332. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 169. 
Pandan de china, see Pandanus luzonensis. 
Pandans, see 'Pandanus spp. 
Pandan-totoo, see Pandanus simplex. 
Pandanus copelandii : 

Description and distribution, i, 332. 

Local names, i, 332. 

Fiber, i, 334. 
Pandanus dubius: 

Description and distribution, i, 334. 

Local names, i, 334, 

Fiber, i, 334. 
Pandanus luzonensis: 

Description and distribution, i, 334. 

Local name, i, 334. 

Fiber, i, 334. 



I Pandanus radicans: 

Description and distribution, i, 334. 
Local names, i, 334. 
Fiber, i, 334. 
Pandanus sabotan : 

Description and distribution, i, 334. 
Figure, i, 333. 
Local name, i, 334. 
Cultivation, i, 334. 
Fiber, i, 336. 
Pandanus simplex: 

Description and distribution, i, 336. 
Figure, i. 335. 
Local names, i, 336. 
Fiber, i, 336. 
Pandanus tectorius : 

Description, i, 338. 
Distribution, i, 336. 
Figure, i, 335, 337. 
Local names, i, 336. 
Fiber, i, 338. 
Medicinal, iii, 169. 
Pangahutan, see Mangifera altissima. 
Pangalamutien, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Pangalanud-dien, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Pangalisokloen, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Pangal-linasu, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Pangalussiten, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Pangan, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Panganto-an, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Pangapatoten, see Pavetta indica. 
Pangarandongen, see Trema orientalis. 
Pangardisen, see Bombycidendron vidalianum. 
Pangdan, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Pangdan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Fang-guisI, see Aristolochia sericea. 
Pangi, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
F&nl'i, see Pangium edule. 
Pangium edule : 

Description and distribution, ii, 352. 
Figure, ii, 351. 
Local names, ii, 348. 
Food, ii, 348. 
Oil, ii, 161. 
Panglan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Panglingain, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Panglongboien, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Panglumboien, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Panglumbuyen, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Pangmanggaen, see Mangifera altissima. 
Pangmarunggayen, see Pithecolobiwtn subacu^ 

turn. 
Pangolaksien, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Pangungan, see Ximenia americana. 
PaiTguplasen, see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Pangyau, see Nephelium mutabile. 
Panicum palmaefoliu m : 

Description and distribution, ii, 250. 
Figure, ii, 249. 
Local names, ii, 250. 
Rice substitute, ii, 250. 
Panicum stagninum : 

Disrtribution, iii, 171. 
Local names, iii, 171. 
Medicinal, iii, 171. 
Panigbin, see Corchoms capsularis. 



INDEX 



307 



Panikin, see Pygeum preslii. 
Pansi-pansi, see Leucas lavandulifolia. 
Panting-panting, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Panting-panting, see Plumbago indica. 
Pantog-lobo, see Hernandia ovigera. 
Panuto, see Euphoria didyma. 
Paoli, see Greivia stylocarpa. 
Papait, see Lunasia ainara. 
Papait ti nuang, see Coldenia procumbens. 
Papasil, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Papiya, see Carica papaya. 
Paper: 

Agave cantula, i, 415. 

Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. 

Anisoptera thurifera, i, 423-425. 

Bambusa blumeana, i, 422. 

Bambusa lumampao, i, 422. 

Bambusa spinosa, i, 419. 

Corypha elata, i, 421. 

Imperata exaltata, i, 419-422. 

Musa paradisiaca, i, 416. 

Musa textUis, i, 415. 

Oryza sativa, i, 422. 

Parkia javanica, i, 423-425. 

Pentacme contorta, i, 423-425. 

Saccharum sara, i, 421. 

Saccharum spontaneum, i, 419-422. 

Schizostachyiim lumampao, i, 416-419. 

Wikstroemia indica, i, 421. 

Wikstroemia meyeniana, i, 421. 

Wikstroemia ovata, i, 421. 
Paper, non-bibilous : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Paper pulp: 

Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. 

Imperata exaltata, i, 340. 

Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. 

Wikstroemia spp., i, 403. 
Paper size: 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Paper substitutes : 

Homalomena philippinensis, iii, 90. 

Musa spp., iii, 92. 
Paper, transparent : 

Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. 

Sindora inennis, ii, 38. 

Sindora siipa. ii, 48. 
Pappagan, see Miynusops parvifolia. 
Papu&. see Nothopanax jruticosum. 
Paputukan, see Cardiospermum halicacabuni. 
Paraiso, see Mclia azedarach. 
Paralstonia clusiacea : 

Distribution, iii. 223. 

Local names, iii, 223. 

Medicinal, iii, 223. 
Parameria barbata : 

Medicinal, iii, 223. 
Parandang. see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Parangis-sabungan, see Eleusine indica. 
Parapit, see Ammania baccifera. 
Pararan, see Ganophyllum falcatum. 
Parasablut, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Parashorea mala<inonan : 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Parda, see Phaseolus lunatus. 
Pare'-pare', see Cissampelos pareira. 



Pari', see Cissampdos pareira. 

Paria, see Momordica charantia. 

Paria-aso, see Cardiospermum halicacabuni. 

Pariam, see Momordica charantia. 

Parida, see Clerodendron bethuneanuni. 

Parina, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 

Parina, see Sindora inennis. 

Paritulot, see Justicia gendarussa. 

Parkia javanica : 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 423. 
Paper, i, 423-425. 

Parog-parog-ti-noang, see Momordica cochin- 
chinensis. 

Paroi, see Oryza sativa. 

Parol-parolan, see Aristolochia tagala. 

Paronapin, see Heritiera littoralis. 

Paronapoi, see Heritiera littoralis. 

Parparia, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. 

Partian, see Parameria philippinensis. 

Parua, see Pinus insuluris. 

Parug-parug, see Momordica cochinchinensis. 

Parukapol, see Vaccinium ichitfordii. 

Pasa, see Areca catechu. 

Pasak, see Bassia betis. 

Pasak, see Mimusops parvifolia. 

Pasakla, see Fieus pachyphylla. 

Pasalkal, see Malanolepis multiglandulosa. 

Pasanglai, see .Asclepias curassavica. 

P&sau, see Corchorus olitorius. 

Pasau, see Graptophyllum pictum. 
Pasau-hapai, see Jxissiaea linifolia. 

P&sau na bilog, see Corchorus capsularis. 

F&sau, na haba', see Corchorus acuta/ngulus. 

Pasguik, see Pittosporum peiitandrum. 

Pasingan, see Bambusa spinosa. 

Pasioki, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 

Pasnit, see Kibatalia blancoi. 

Pasoso, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Pasotis, see Chenopodium ambrosioides. 

Paspalum scrobicidatuin : 
Distribution, iii, 171. 
Local names, iii, 171. 
Medicinal, iii, 171. 

Paste: 

Cordia viyxa, ii, 88. 
Pasfika, see Tylophora brevipes. 

Pata, see Dolichandrone spathacea. 

Pataga, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Pataktol, see Ardisia boissieri. 

Patalsik. see Deca.fpermum fruticosnm. 
Pat&ni, see Phaseolus lunatus. 
Patchouli, see Pogostemon cablin. 
Patchouli oil : 

Pogostemon cablin, ii, 219. 
Patikan, see Caryota cumingii. 
Patling, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Patola, see Luffa cylindrica. 
Patong, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. 
Patpat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Patsaingin, see Canarium villosum. 
Patiigo, see Cycas circinalis. 
Paua, see Ba7nbusa spinosa. 
Paua, see Flagellaria indica. 
Paua, see Schizostachyum fenixii. 
Pauai, see Fimbristylis diphylla. 
Pauai, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 



308 



INDEX 



Pauid, see nipa fruticans. 
Paunapin, see Heritiera, littoralis. 
Pavetta indica: 

Distribution, iii, 241. 

Local names, iii, 241. 

Medicinal, iii, 241. 
Payangit, see Marsdenia tinctoria. 
Payipa, see Ficus payapa. 
Payar, see Sonn^ratia alba. 
Pay ena leerii: 

Distribution, ii, 82. 

Figure, ii, 83. 

Gutta-percha, ii, 82. 
Payina, see Kinaiodendron alternifolium. 
Peanut, see Arachis hypogaea. 
Peanut oil : 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. 
Pedada, see Sonneratia alba. 
Pedaliaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 236. 

Oils, ii, 168. 
Pedis, see Garcinia venvlosa. 
Penga-penga, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Pentacme contorta: 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 423. 

Paper, i, 423-425. 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Pentapetes phoenicea: 

Distribution, iii, 211. 

Local name, iii, 211. 

Medicinal, iii, 211. 
Pepinillo de San Gregorio, see Luffa cylin- 

drica. 
Perag'is, see Paspalum scrobiculatum. 
Perapat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Perepat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Peres, see Citrus hyatrix. 
Peres, see Garcinia vidalii. 
Perfume : 

Acacia farnesiana, ii, 204. 

Acorus calamus, ii, 181. 

Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. 

Canangium odoratum, ii, 189. 

Citrus hystrix, ii, 210. 

Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. 

Michelia champaka, ii, 185. 

Michelia longiftora, ii, 188. 

Pogostemon cablin, ii, 219. 
Perfume oil : 

Sindora inermis, ii, 38. 
Perfumery : 

Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. 

Andropogon nardus, ii, 176. 

Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. 

Ocimum basilicum, ii, 218. 

Toddalia asiatica, ii, 214. 
Pericampylus glaucus: 

Description and distribution, i, 375. 

Figure, i, 377. 

Local names, i, 375. 

Fiber, i, 375. 
Peris, see Garcinia venuLosa. 
Peristrophe bivalvis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 404. 

Local names, ii, 404. 



Peristrophe bivaZvis — Continued. 

Dye, ii, 404. 
Perog-parog-ti-tawo, see Momordica cochin- 

chinensis. 
Petroleum nut, see Pittosporum resiniferum. 
Petroleum-nut oil : 

Pittosporum resiniferum, ii, 106. 
Phaeanthus ebracte hiatus: 

Description and distribution, i, 376. 

Local names, i, 376. 

Fiber, i, 376. 
Phalaenopsis amabilis : 

Description and distribution, iii, 30. 

Figure, iii, 34. 

Local name, iii, 30. 

Ornamental, iii, 30. 
Phalaenopsis lueddeinanniana : 

Description and distribution, iii, 36. 

Figrure, iii, 35. 

Local names, iii, 36. 

Ornamental, iii, 36. 
Phalaenopsis schilleriana: 

Description and distribution, iii, 36. 

Local name, iii, 36. 

Ornamental, iii, 36. 
Phalaenopsis sp. : 

Figure, iii, 37. 
Phaleria cumingii: 

Description and distribution, i, 403. 

Local names, i, 403. 

Fiber, i, 403. 
Phaleria perrottetiana: 

Description and distribution, i, 403. 

Local names, i, 403. 

Fiber, i, 403. 
Phaseolus aureus: 

Distribution, iii, 192. 

Local names, iii, 192. 

Medicinal, iii, 192. 
Phaseolus lunatus : 

Description, ii, 292. 

Local names, ii, 292. 

Food, ii, 292. 
Phoenix canariensis : 

Ornamental, i, 236. 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Phoenix dactylifera: 

Distribution, i, 236. 
Phoenix hanceana: 

Description and distribution, i, 236. 

Local name, i, 236. 

Rain coats, i, 236. 
Phoenix pusilla: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Phoenix roebelenii: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Phoenix rupicola : 

Ornamental, i, 236. 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Phragmites karka: 

Description and distribution, i, 342. 

Local names, i, 342. 

Fiber, i, 342. 
Phragmites vulgaris: 

Description and distribution, i, S44. 

Figure, i, 343, 345. 



INDEX 



309 



Phragmites vulgaris — Continued. 
Local names, i, 342. 
Fiber, i, 342, 344. 
Phyllanthus niruri : 

Distribution, iii, 201. 
Local names iii, 201. 
Medicinal, iii, 201. 
Phyllanthus reticulatus: 

Description and distribution, iii, 90. 
Local names, iii, 90. 
Ink, iii, 90. 
Medicinal, iii, 201. 
Physic nut, see Jatropha curcOyS. 
Physic-nut oil : 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 
Piadak, see Xylocarpus moluccenais. 
Piagau, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Piag&u, see Xylocarpus moluccenaia. 
Piagau oil : 

Xylocarpus moluccensis, ii, 118. 
Fiai, see Acrostichum aureum. 
PiaiTga, see Bassia hetis. 
Piapi, see Avicennia alba. 
Piapl, see Avicennia officinalis. 
Piay, see Acrostichum aureum. 
Pichik, see Oxalis repens. 
Picture frames : 

Saccharum officinarum, i, 344. 

Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. 
Piekal, see Mallotus philippinenais. 
Piet, see Corypha elata. 
Piksik, see Avicennia officiruilis. 
Pilai, see Rubus niveus. 
Pilapil, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Pilauai, see Canarium ovatum. 
Pilauai, see Eugenia polycephaloides. 
Pilaui, see Canarium ovatum. 
PUea microphylla: 

Distribution, iii, 182. 

Medicinal, iii, 182. 
Pilet-pilet, see Spilanthes acmellia. 
Pili, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Pili, see Canarium ovatum, 
Pilig, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Pili-nut oil : 

Canarium, ovatum, ii, 114. 
Pilipili, see Aglaia harmsia/na. 
PiUows : 

Asclepias curassavica, i, 407. 

Bonibax ceiba, i, 392. 

Ceiba pentandra, i, 394. 

Typha angustifolia, i, 330. 
Pilokong, see Fimbristylis globvlosa. 
Pinaceae : 

Resin, ii, 18. 

Tannins, iii, 92. 
Pinanga barnesii: 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinanga basilanensis : 

Description, i, 241. 
Pinanga batanensis: 

Description, i, 241. 
Pinanga copelandii: 

Description, i, 238. 



Pinanga curran ii : 

Description, i, 239. 
Pinanga elmerii: 

Description, i, 239. 
Pinanga geonomaeformis: 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinanga heterophylla; 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinanga insignis: 

Description, i, 236, 241. 
Pinanga isabelensis : 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinanga kuhlii; 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Pinanga tnaculata : 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinam,ga modesta: 

Description, i, 238. 
Pinanga negrosensis: '. ■ 

Description, i, 240. 
Pinanga philippinensis : 

Description, i, 236, 239. 

Figure, i, 237. 
Pinanga rigida: 

Description, i, 240. 
Pinanga samarana: 

Description, i, 239. 
Pinanga sclerophylla: 

Description, i, 240. 
Pinanga sibuyanensis : 

Description, i, 241. 
Pinanga speciosa: 

Description, i, 241. 
Pinanga spp. : 

Description, i, 236. 

Local names, i, 241. 

Areca-nut substitute, ii, 252. 

Conspectus of the species, i, 238. 
Pinanga urdanetana: 

Description, i, 239. 
Pinanga urosperma: 

Description, i, 239. 
Pinanga woodiana: 

Description, i, 240. 
Pineapple, see Ananas comosus. 
Pinggapinggahan, see Oroxylum indicum, 
Pinggot, see Juncus effusus. 
Pingit, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Pingkapingkahan, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Pinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Pino, see Agathis alba. 
Piiiones, see Quisqualis indica. 
Pintaka, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Pinus insularis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 32, 84. 

Figure, ii, 31, 33, 35. 
Local names, ii, 30. 
Analysis of turpentine, ii, 32. 
Method of boxing, ii, 30. 
Tannin, iii, 92. 
Turpentine, ii, 30. 
Pinus m erkusii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 34. 
Figure, ii, 36. 



310 



INDEX 



Pinus ■nt'Crkusii — Continued. 
Local names, ii, 34. 
Turpentine, ii, 34. 
Piperaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 260. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 179. 
Piper betle : 

Description and distribution, iii, 66. 
Local names, iii, 66. 
Buyo chewing, ii, 252. 
Medicinal, iii, 66, 179. 
Piper nigrum : 

Distribution, iii, 180. 
Local name, iii, 180. 
Medicinal, iii, 180. 
Piper retrojracttim : 

Distribution, iii, 180. 
Local names, iii, 180. 
Medicinal, iii, 180. 
Piper uiiibellatum vwr. subpeltatum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 260. 
Local names, ii, 260. 
Condiment, ii, 260. 
Pipes (water) : 

Gigantochloa levis, i, 262. 
Pipestems : 

Arundinaria niitakayamensis, i, 258. 
Pipisig, see Ai}icennia officinalis. 
Pipisik, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Pipisik. see Avicennia officinalis. 
Pipturus arborescens : 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 
Pirara, see Sonneratia caseolaris. 
Piris, see Garcinia I'idalii. 
Fisft, see Areca hutchinsoniana. 
Pisa, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Pisa, see Canarium viUosum. 
Pisik. see Centipeda mininm. 
Piso-piso, see Rhynchospora corymhosa. 
Pisos-pisos, see Quamoelit j>innata. 
Pistia st ratiotes : 

Distribution, ii, 254. 
Local names, ii, 254. 
Hog food, ii, 254. 
Scrubbing, ii, 254. 
Pita, see Areca vidaliana. 
Pithecolobium dulce : 

Description and distrbution, ii, 292. 
Figure, ii, 295. 
Local names, ii, 292. 
Food, ii, 292. 
Kamanchile oil, ii, 110. 
Tannin, iii, 93. 
Pithecolobium subacutum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 394. 
Local names, ii, 394. 
Dye, ii, 394. 
Pitjoeng oil: 

Pangium edule, ii, 161. 
Pit6go, see Cyeas rumphii. 
Pittosporaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 189. 
Oils, ii, 105. 
Ptttosporuin pentandrum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 106. 
Local names, ii, 105. 



Ptttosporuin pentandrum — Continued. 
Mamalis oil, ii, 105. 
Medicinal, iii, 189. 
Pittosporum resiniferum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 108. 
Figure, ii, 107. 
Local names, ii, 106. 
Petroleum-nut oil, ii, 106. 
Plantaginaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 74, 238. 
Plantago major: 

Description and distribution, iii, 74. 
Local names, iii, 74. 
Medicinal, iii, 74, 238. 
Plantain, see Plantago major. 
Platycerium biforme : 

Description and distribution, iii, 12. 
Figure, iii, 6. 
Local name, iii, 12. 
Plectocoviia elmeri : 

Description, i, 242. 
Pleurotus applicatus : 

Edible fungi, iii, 136. 
Pleurotus noctUeucens : 

Edible fungi, iii, 136. 
Pleurotus ostrcatus: 

Description, iii, 136. 
Figure, iii, 137. 
Edible fungi, iii, 136. 
Pleurotus striatulus: 

Edible fungi, iii, 136. 
Pleurya interrupta: 

Distribution, iii, 182. 
Local names, iii, 182. 
Medicinal, iii, 182. 
Pluchea indica: 

Description, i, 84. 
Local names, i, 84. 
Plumbaginaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 219. 
Plumbago indica: 

Distribution, iii, 219. 
Local names, iii, 219. 
Medicinal, iii, 219. 
Plumbago zeylanica : 

Distribution, iii, 219. 
Local names, iii, 219. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 219. 
Plumiera acuminata: 

Distribution, iii. 223. 
Local names, iii, 223. 
Medicinal, iii, 223. 
Pogostemon cablin: 

Description and distribution, ii, 222. 
Figure, ii, 221. 
Medicinal, iii, 233. 
Perfume, ii, 219. 
Poisonous plants, iii, 79. 
Pola, see Caryota cumingii. 
Polianthen tuberosa: 

Distribution, iii, 177. 
Local names, iii, 177. 
Medicinal, iii, 177. 
Polish : 

Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. 



INDEX 



311 



Polyalfhia flava: 

Description and distribution, i, 376. 

Local name, i, 376. 

Rope, i, 376. 
PolygaXaceae : 

Soap substitutes, iii, 56. 
Polygonaceae : 

Medicinal, iii, 183. 
Polygonum barbatum: 

Distribution, iii, 183. 

Local names, iii, 183. 

Medicinal, iii, 183. 
Polynesian ivory-nut palm, see Coelococcus 

amicarnni. 
Polypodiaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 323. 

Food plants, ii, 241. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 167. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 32. 

Ornamental plants, ii, 11. 
Poly podium sinuatum : 

Description and distribution, i, 24. 

Figure, i, 27. 
Polyporaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Pomade : 

Acacia farnesiana, ii, 204. 
Pomelo, see Citrus viaxivia. 
Pongamia pinnata: 

Description and distribution, i, 379 ; ii, 
111, 112. 

Figure, ii, 113. 

Local names, i, 379 ; ii. 111. 

Fiber, 1, 379. 

Medicinal, iii, 192. 

Pongam oil, ii. 111. 
Pongam oil : 

Pongamia pinnata, ii. 111. 
Pongpong, see Embelia philippinensis. 
Poot-si-nuang, see Urena lobata. 
Poro, see Fatoua pilosa. 
Porong, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Partulacaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 276. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 185. 
Portulaca oleracea: 

Description and distribution, ii, 276. 

Distribution, iii, 185. 

Local names, ii, 276. 

Food, ii, 276. 

Medicinal, iii, 185. 
Pothoidium lobbianum: 

Description and distribution, i, 354. 

Local names, i, 354. 

Fiber, i, 353, 354. 
Pathos spp. : 

Description and distribution, i, 354. 

Figure, i, 355. 

Local names, i, 354. 

Fiber, i, 353, 354. 
Pototan, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Pototan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Pototan, see Bruguiera parviflora. 
Pototan, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Pototan-babae, see Bruguiera sexangula. 



Fot6tan-lal&ki, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 
Pouzolzia zeylanica : 

Distribution, iii, 182. 

Medicinal, iii, 182. 
Prayer-bean, see Abru^ precatorius. 
Premna cuniingiana: 

Distribution, iii, 231. 

Local names, iii, 231. 

Medicinal, iii, 231. 
Premna nauseosa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 373. 

Distribution, iii, 231. 

Local names, ii, 373 ; iii, 231. 

Medicinal, iii, 231. 

Piper betle substitute, ii, 373. 
Premna odorata: 

Distribution, iii, 231. 

Local names, iii, 231. 

Medicinal, iii, 231. 
Preservative, leather : 

Ricinus communis, ii, 143. 
Preservative, wood : 

Aleurites moluccana, ii, 126. 

Anacardium occidentale, ii, 146. 
Pritchardia gaudichaudii : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243, 
Pritchardia pacifica: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Pseuderanthemu))i jndchellum : 

Distribution, iii, 238. 

Local names, iii, 238. 

Medicinal, iii, 238. 
Psidium guajava : 

Description and distribution, ii, 360. 

Figure, ii, 363. 

Local names, ii, 360. 

Food, ii, 360. 

Medicinal, iii, 69, 216. 
Psychotria luzoniensis : 

Distribution, iii, 241. 

Local names, iii, 241. 

Medicinal, iii, 241. 
Psychotria mindorensis : 

Distribution, iii, 241. 

Local name, iii, 241. 

Medicinal, iii, 241. 
Pterocarpus blancoi: 

Distribution, iii, 192. 

Figure, ii, 397. 

Local names, iii, 192. 

Medicinal, iii, 192. 
Pterocarpus indicus: 

Figure, ii, 395, 397. 
Pterocarpus spp. : 

Local names, ii, 396. 

Dye, ii, 396. 
Pterocarpus vidaliana : 

Figure, ii, 397. 
Pterocaulon redolens: 

Distribution, iii, 245. 

Local names, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Pterocymbium tinctorium : 

Description and distribution, i, 398. 

Figure, i, 399. 



312 



INDEX 



Pterocymhium tmctormjn— Continued. 

Local names, i, 398. 

Medicinal, iii, 211. 

Rope, i, 398. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Pterospermum diversifolium : 

Description, i, 398. 

Distribution, i, 400. 

Local names, i, 398. 

Dye, ii, 399. 

Medicinal, iii, 211. 

Rope, i, 398. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Pterospermum niveum: 

Description and distribution, i, 400. 

Local names, i, 400. 

Dye, ii, 399. 

Fiber, i, 400. 
Pterospermum obliquum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 400. 

Local names, ii, 399. 

Dye, ii. 400. 
Ptychoraphis cagayanensis : 

Description, i, 242. 
Ptychoraphis elmerii: 

Description, i, 242. 

Local name, i, 242. 
Ptychoraphis intermedia : 

Description, i, 242. 

Local name, i, 242. 
Ptychoraphis microcarpa: 

Description, i, 242. 
Ptychosperma macarthurii: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Pueng, see Jscha^tnum angustifolium. 
Puenig, see Isehaemum angustifolium. 
Pugihan, see Caryota cumingii. 
Pugapong, see Piper unibellatum . 
Puguhan, see Caryota cumingii. 
Puis, see Ai'errhoa hilimbi. 
Pulau, see Nymphaea pubescens. 
Puled, see Greivia stylocarpa. 
Pulit, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Pulit, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Pulpiilto, see Justicia gendarussa. 
Pulpulto, see Pseuderanthemum pvlchellum. 
Pumangga. see Mangifera indica. 
Pundung. see Avicennia alba. 
Pungapung, see Amorphophallus campanu- 

latus. 
Pungos, see KyUinga monocephala. 
Punit, see Cyathea spp. 
Punlaing, see Cocos nucifera. 
Puntalefante. see Rotala aquatica. 
Puntas-piintas, see Ipomoea digitata. 
Puos, see Ficus forstenii. 
Pupugan, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Purgative oil : 

Croton tiglium, ii, 138. 

Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 

Picinus communis, ii, 143. 

Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. 
Puriket, see Bidens pHosa. 
Purikit, see Urena lobata. 
Puropagai, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatue. 



Purpuraok, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. 

Purpurikit, see Bidens chinensis. 

Puser, see Schizostachyum fenixii. 

Puspus, see Ficus forstenii. 

Piitad, see Barringtonia acutangvla. 

Putad, see Barringtonia racemoaa. 

Putat, see Barringtonia acutangvla. 

Plitat, see Barringtonia racemosa. 

Putat oil : 

Barringtonia racemosa, ii, 162. 
Puti-i babaye, see Lophopetalum toxicutn, 
Puti-i lalake, see Lophopetalum toxicum. 
Putoputohan, see Scindapsus spp. 
Putut, see Biuguiera conjugata. 
Putut, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Pututan, see Bruguiera conjugata. 
Putiitan, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Puyas, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 
Puyugau, see Xylocarpus nwluccensis. 
Puyiis, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Pycnarrhena 7nanillensis : 

Distribution, iii, 186. 

Local names, iii, 186. 

Medicinal, iii, 186. 
Pygeum glandulosum: 

Description and distribution, ii, 389. 

Local names, ii, 388. 

Dye, ii, 389. 
Pygeum presUi: 

Description and distribution, ii, 389. 

Local names, ii, 389. 

Dye, ii. 389. 

Q 

Quanioclit pinnata : 

Distribution, iii, 226. 

Local names, iii, 226. 

Medicinal, iii, 226. 
Quisqualis indica: 

Distribution, iii, 215. 

Local names, iii, 215. 

Medicinal, iii, 215. 



R 



Rabo de leon, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Rabo de tigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Ragiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Ragini, see Rubus rosaefolius. 
Ragiu, see Rhynchospora corym-bosa. 
Ragiu-diu, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. 
Ragiudiu, see Scirpus grossus. 
Rag-rag&di, see Achyranthea aspera. 
Raincoats : 

Lix'istona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 

Phoenix hanceana, i, 236. 
Raiya-raiya, see Ficus hauili. 
Rakido, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. 
Rambutan, see Nephelium lappaceum. 
Rambutan tallow : 

Nephelium lappaceum, ii, 148. 
Ramie, see Boehmeria nivea. 
Rangrang&u, see Ipomoea peS'tigridia. 



INDEX 



313 



Eangrangau ng abuduan, see Ipomoea 

tigridis. 
Raphia ruffia: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Raphidophora merrillii: 
Description, i, 356. 
Figure, i, 357, 358. 
Fiber, i, 353 356. 
Raphidophora spp. : 

Fibers, i, 356. 
Rapitan, see Arenga pinnata. 
Rapok, see Sterctdia stiptdaria. 
RatOes, see Muntingia ccdabura. 
Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia: 
Distribution, iii, 223. 
Local names, iii, 223. 
Medicinal, iii, 223. 
Reforestation crop : 

Batnhusa spinosa, i, 259. 
Renanthera storiei: 

Description and distribution, iii, 36. 
Ornamental, iii, 36. 
Rhantnaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 380. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 205. 
Soap substitutes, iii, 59. 
Rhaphidophora merrillii : 
Distribution, iii, 174. 
Local names, iii, 174. 
Medicinal, iii, 174. 
Rhinacanthus nasuta: 
Distribution, iii, 238. 
Local names, iii, 238. 
Medicinal, iii, 238. 
Rhizophora candelaria: 
Description, i, 62, 68. 
Distribution, i, 22, 62. 
Figure, i, 10, 65. 
Local names, i, 68. 
Ciiltivation, i, 100. 
Firewood, i, 112-114. 
Stands, i, 86-100. 
Tannin, i, 119-124. 
Timber, i, 66. 
Rhizophoraceae : 

Mangrove swamps, i, 48. 
Rhizophora mangle: 

Ballast retainer, i, 26. 
Rhizophora mucronata : 
Description, i, 62, 68. 
Distribution, i, 22, 62. 
Figure, i, 67, 69. 
Local names, i, 68. 
Cultivation, i, 100. 
Firewood, i, 112-117. 
Stands, i, 86-99. 
Tannin, i, 119'-124. 
Timber, i, 66. 
Rhododendron vidalii : 

Distribution, iii, 218. 
Local name, iii, 218. 
Medicinal, iii, 218. 
Rhodomyrlus tomentosa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 862. 
Food, ii, 362. 



Rhynchospora corymbosa : 

Description and distribution, i, 352. 
Local names, i, 352. 
Fiber, i, 352. 
Rhynchostylis retusa : 

Description and distribution, iii, 36. 
Figure, iii, 38. 
Ornamental, iii, 36. 
Rice, see Oryza sativa. 
Ricinus communis : 

Description, ii, 144. 
Distribution, ii, 143. 
Figure, ii, 145. 
Local names, ii, 143. 
Castor oil, ii, 144. 
Dye, ii, 398. 
Medicinal, iii, 69, 201. 
Rigini, see Cissus repens. 
Rimodas, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Rimora, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Rimoras, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Rogrogso, see Gonocaryum caUeryanuin. 
Ronas, see Smilax leucophyUa. 
Rongon, see Ceriops tagal. 
Root beers ingredient : 

Cinnanwmum mercadoi, ii, 202. 
Rope, see Fibers : 

Dendrocalamus merriUianus, i, 261. 
Rosaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 388. 
Food plants, ii, 284. 
Rosas-sa-baibai, see Lochnera rosea. 
Roselle, see Hibiscus sabdariffa. 
Rosmarinus officinalis: 
Distribution, iii, 234. 
Local names, iii, 234. 
Medicinal, iii, 234. 
Rosmiro, see Rosmarinus officinalis. 
Rotala aquatica: 

Distribution, iii, 228. 
Local names, iii, 228. 
Medicinal, iii, 228. 
Round-leaf sali.g'O, see Wikstroemia ovata, 
Rourea erecta: 

Dog' poison, iii, 79. 
Rourea volubilis: 

Description and distribution, i, 378, 
Local names, i, 378. 
Dog poison, iii, 79. 
Fiber, i, 378. 
Royal palm, see Oreodoxa regia. 
Rubber : 

Chonemorpha elastica, ii, 84. 
Parameria philippinensis, ii, 88. 
Rubiaceae : 

Dyes' ii, 405. 
Mangrove swamps, i, 84. 
Rubia cor di folia: 

Distribution, iii, 241. 
Local name, iii, 241. 
Medicinal, iii, 241. 
Rubian, see Terminalia comintana. 
Rubus copelandii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 284. 
Food, ii, 284. 



314 



INDEX 



Hubus ellipticus: 

Description and distribution, ii, 285. 

Local name, ii, 285. 

Food, ii, 285. 
Rubus elmeri: 

Description and distribution, ii, 285. 

Local name, ii, 285. 

Food, ii, 285. 
Rubus fraxinifolius: 

Description and distribution, ii, 285. 

Local names, ii, 285. 

Food, ii, 285. 
Rubus niveus : 

Description and distribution, ii, 286. 

Local name, ii, 286. 

Food, ii, 286. 
Rubus pectinellus : 

Description and distribution, ii, 286. 

Figure, ii, 287. 

Local name, ii, 286. 

Food, ii, 286. 
Rubus rolfei: 

Description and distribution, ii, 286. 

Food, ii, 286. 
Rubus rosaefolius : 

Description and distribution, ii, 288. 

Local names, ii, 288. 

Food, ii, 288. 
Rugian, see Bambusa sjjinosa. 
Rukrokso, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Rukrukso, see Ardisia serrata. 
Rukurok, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Rumaka, see Arenga tremula. 
Ruiigon, see Ceriops tagal. 
Runo, see Miscanthus sinensis. 
Rutacea^ : 

Food plante, ii, 296. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 193. 

Oils, ii, 208. 



Sabal adansonii: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Sabal blackburneanum : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Sabal mauritiforme : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Sabal palmetto: 

Recently introduced pato, i, 243. 
Sabfog, see Ficus minahassae. 
Sabia, see Piper retrofractum. 
Sabila, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Babll&u, see Commelina, benghalensia. 
Sabl6t, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Sabnit, see Hibiscus surattensis. 
Saboagon, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Sabung-sabuiTgan, see Eleusine indiea. 
Sabunog, see Phragviites karka. 
Sabutan, see Pandanus sabotan. 
Sabutan, see Pandanus tectorius. 
Sabut4n-buS.ia, see VaUisneria gigantea. 
Saccharum officinurum: 

Fiber, i, 344. 
Saccharum sara : 

Paper, i, 421. 



Saccharum spontaneum: 

Local names, i, 344. 

Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. 

Fiber, i, 344. 

Paper, i, 419-422. 
Sachet powder : 

Acorus calamus, ii, 181. 
Sadak, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. 
Sadak, see Malaisia scandens. 
Sadak, see Parameria philippinensis. 
Sadauag, see Pinanga spp. 
Sadiiag, see Pinanga spp. 
Saga, see Abrus precatorius. 
Saga, see Drynaria quercifolia. 
Saga, see Nipa fruticans. 
Sagadan, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 
Sagaga, see Pittosporum resiniferum. 
Sagai-kaiTgai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Sagakap, see FlageUaria indiea. 
Sagambaging, see Abrus precatorius. 
Sagapok, see Mucuna nigricans. 
Sagasa, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Sagasa, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Sagasa, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Sagasa, see Scyphijyhora hydrophyUacea. 
Sagasaga, see, Abrus precatorius. 
Sagasak, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Sagat, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Sagiat, see Goniothalaynus amuyon. 
Baging-s&ging, see Aegiceras corniculatum, 
Sagingsagingan, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Sagingsing, see Memecylon ovatum. 
Sagisi, see Heterospathe elata. 
Sagit, see Vemonia cenerea. 
Sagittaria sagittifolia: 

Description and distribution, ii, 246. 

Local names, ii, 246. 

Food, ii, 246. 
Sago palm, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Sagii, see Metroxylon sagu. 
Sagu, see Wikstroemia meyeniana. 
Sagun-sagun, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Sahikan, see Portulaca oleracea. 
Sdhing, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Sakat, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Sakat, see Terminalia edulis. 
Saket, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Saket, see Terminalia edulis. 
Sako, see Barringtonia acutangula. 
Sakolon, see Areca caliao. 
Sakolon, see Pinanga spp. 
Saksig, see Areca ipot. 
Saksik, see Areca ipot. 
Salab, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Salab, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 
Salabagin, see Flacourtia rukam. 
Salab na pula. see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Salacia prin aides : 

Distribution, iii, 203. 

Local name, iii, 203. 

Medicinal, iii, 203. 
Saladai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Salad oil : 

Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. 

Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. 



INDEX 



315 



Salagin, see Chisocheton cumingianus. 
Salagip, see Wikstroemiu lanceolata. 
Salagisog, see Cibotium baranetz. 
Salago, see Phaleria cumingii. 
Salago, see Wikstroemia indica. 
Salago, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. 
Saldgo, see Wikstroemia ovata. 
Sal&go, see Wikstroemia spp. 
Salago, lance-leaf, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. 
Salago, large-leaf, see Wikstroemia meyenicna. 
Salago, round-leaf, see Wikstroemia ovata. 
Salago, small-leaf, see Wikstroemia indica. 
Salagong-babae, see Phaleria, cumingii. 
Sal&gong-gubat, see Phaleria cumingii. 
Salai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Salai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Salai-kangai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. 
Salaisau, see Terminalia catappa. 
Salalangin, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Salamungai, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Salangisag, see Pinanga spp. 
Salaniog, see Heterospathe elata. 
Salaapu, see Ventilago dichotoma. 
Sala'sa, see humnitzera littorea. 
Salasaluyut, see Corchorus acutangulus. 
Salasandia, see Ipomoea pes-tigridis. 
Saleng, see Ganophyllum faleatum. 
S&leng, see Pinus insularis. 
Salet, see Homalomena philippinensis. 
Salet nga nalabaga, see Homalomena philippin- 
ensis. 
Salibangbang, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Salibangbang, see Crinum asiaticum. 
Saligau, see Croton tiglium. 
Saligum, see Momordica charantia. 
Salik, see Sida acuta. 
Salikut, see Palaquiuni ahernianum. 
Salilihan, see D€ca.spermum fruticosum. 
Saling, see Canarium vUlosum. 
Saling-batc, see Gonocaryum caUeryanuin. 
Salinggogon, see Cratoxylon blancoi. 
Salingkugi, see Pongamia pinnata. 
Salingsingan. see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Saling-uak. see Clerodendron intermedium.. 
Saling-uak, see Clerodendron quadriloevlare. 
Salisai, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Salisai, see Terminalia catappa. 
Salisi, see Ficus benjamina. 
Sal it, see Pinus merkusii. 
Salita, see Leucas lavandidifolia. 
Sallapugud. see Aglaia harmsiarui. 
Salogon, see Antiaris toxicaria. 
SaJomagi, see Tamarindus indica. 
Salong, see .4gathis alba. 
Saloyot, see Corchorus olitorius. 
Salsalida, see Eclipta alba. 
Salsallakapu, see Tournefortia sarmentosa. 
Salsaltiyut, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. 
Saltiki, see Luncusia amara. 
Salua-sua, see Capparis micracantha. 
Salub. see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Salukut, see Palaquium ahernianum. 
SalumSgi, see Tamarindus indica. 
Saluyong, see Cordia myxa. 



Saluyot, see Co-rchorus olitorius. 
Saluyut, see Corchorus olitorius. 
Salves : 

Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Samadera indica: 

Description and distribution, ii, 114. 

Local names, ii, 114. 

Manunggal oil, ii, 114. 

Medicinal, iii, 196. 
Samak, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Samak, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Samat, see Piper betle. 
Sambag, see Tamarindus indica. 
Sambalagisai, see Sophora tomentosa. 
Sambalduke, see AncLcardiuin, occidentale. 
Sambon, see Bluniea balsamifera. 
Sambong, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Samb6ng-dam6, see Sphaeranthus africanus. 
Sambong-gala, see Pterocaulon redolens. 
Sambong-gala, see Sphaeranthus africanus. 
Sambong-kola, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Sambong oil : 

Blumea balsamifera, ii, 222. 
Sambonotan, see Eugenia aherniana. 
Sambung, see Pterocaulon redolens. 
Samburagat, see Terminalia calama,nsanaL 
Samiling, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 
Sampaga, see Jasminum sambac. 
Sampaga, see Plumbago zeylanica. 
Sampagita, see .Jasminum sambac. 
Sampagita doble, see Jasminum sambac. 
Sampaka, see Michelia champaca. 
Samp&lok, see Tamarindus indica. 
Sampalokan, see Scoparia dulcis. 
Sampapare', see Cissampelos pareira. 
Saniparan, see Leucas lavandulifolia. 
Sampinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Samuk, see Macaranga tanarius. 
Samuyau, see Citrus micrantha. 
Samuyau oil : 

Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. 
Sana, see Nelubium nelumbo. 
Sanbag, see Tamarindus indica. 
Sanda, see Lochinera rosea. 
Sandalaitan, see Sophora tomentosa. 
Sayidoricum koetjape: 

Description and distribution, ii, 308. 

Figure, ii, 307. 

Local names, ii, 308. 

Food, ii, 308. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 
San Francisco-bundok, see Justicia gender 

rusaa. 
Sangdidikit, see Plumbago zeylanica. 
Sangdikit, see Plumbago zeylanica. 
Sanggumai, see Dendrobium crumenatum. 
Sanggumai, see Dendrobium revolutum. 
Sangkilan, see Pavetta indica. 
Sangkuyong, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Sanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Sangsangitan, see Sporobolus elongatus. 
San Pedro, see Leucaena glaiica. 
San Pedro, see Lochn-era rosea. 
San Pedro, see Phyllanthus niruri. 



316 



INDEX 



Sansandok, see Celosia argentea. 
Sansau, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Sansau-sansauan, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Sansevieria zeylanica: 

Description and distribution, i, 362. 

Local names, i, 360. 

Fiber, i, 360. 

Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Santa Elena, see Leucaena glauca. 
Santiki, see Lunasia amara. 
Santing, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Santing, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Santing-santing, see Acanthus Uicifolius, 
Sant61, see Sandoricum koetjape. 
Santor, see Sandoricum koetjape. 
Saog-machin, see Piper ret rofr actum,. 
Saong-saong, see Canarium I'illosum^ 
Sapang, see Caesalpinia sappan. 
Sapang, see Dioscorea pentaphylla. 
Sapaun, see Nauclea junghuhnii. 
Sapindaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 380. 

Food plants, ii, 322. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 203. 

Oils, ii, 147. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 80. 

Soap substitutes, iii, 58. 
Sap in dus saponar ia : 

Description and distribution, i, 380. 

Local names, i, 380. 

Fiber, i, 380. 

Soap substitute, i, 380 ; iii, 59. 
Sapinit, see Abelmoschus moschatus. 
Sapinit, see Hibiscus surattensis. 
Sapinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Sapinil, see Rubus rosaefolius. 
Sapin-sapin, see Blechum brownei. 
Sapiro, see Alphonsea arborea. 
Saplid, see Terminalia calaniansanaL 
Saplit, see Pithecolohium subacutum, 
Saplungan, see Aglaia ylomerata. 
Saplungan, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Saplungan, see Terminalia coviintana. 
Sapotaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 364. 

Gums, ii, 73. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 219. 

Oils, ii, 166. 
Sap-sapang, see Harrisonia perforata. 
Sarai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 
Saramau, see Pinanga spp. 
Saramo, see Achyrantkes aspera. 
Sarasa, see Graptophyllum pictum. 
Sarau, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Sarauag, see Pinanga spp. 
Sarguelas, see Spondia purpurea. 
Saripongpong, see Sterculia oblongata. 
Sarnugar a dadakkel, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Sarok, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. 
Sarok, see Pogostemon cablin. 
Sarungkad, see Tylophora brevipes. 
Sarungkar, see Tylophora brevipes. 
Sarungkara babassit, see Fatoua pUosa. 
Sasa, see Nipa fruticans. 



Sasitang, see Lygodium, flexuosum.. 
Sauag-caballo, see Triumfetta bartramia. 
Sauang, see Cycas circinalis. 
Saung, see Pinus insnlaris. 
Savidug, see Terminalia catappa. 
Sawale : 

Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. 
Saxyfragaceae : 

Tobacco substitutes, iii, 95. 
Sayapo, see Abrovra fastuosa. 
Sayapii, see Abroma fastuosa. 
Sayikan, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Sayongkal, see Tylophora brevipes. 
Scaevola frutescens : 

Distribution, iii, 243. 

Local names, iii, 243. 

Medicinal, iii. 243. 
Schefflera blancoi : 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Schefflera cu»iingil : 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local name, iii, 217. 

Medicinal, iii, 217. 
Schefflera elliptifoliola: 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local names, iii, 217. 

Medicinal, iii, 217. 
Schefflera odorata : 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local names, iii, 217. 

Medicinal, iii, 217. 
Schefflera piperoidea: 

Distribution, iii, 217. 

Local name, iii, 217. 
Schizaeaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 326. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 168. 
Schizostachyum brachycladum : 

Description, i, 263, 264. 

Figure, i, 298. 

Local names, i, 263. 
Schizostachyum curranii : 

Description and distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 300. 
Schizostachyum dielsianum: 

Description, i, 263, 264. 

Distribution, i, 264 ; iii, 171. 

Figure, i, 299. 

Local names, i, 264. 

Medicinal, iii, 171. 

Uses, i, 264. 
Schizostachyum diffusum: 

Description, i, 263, 264. 

Distribution, i, 264. 

Figure, i, 301. 

Local names, i, 264. 

Baskets, i, 264. 

Chairs, i, 264. 
Schizostachyum fenixii: 

Description, i, 263. 

Distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 302. 

Local names, i, 265. 



INDEX 



317 



Schizostachyum hirtiflorum : 

Description, i, 263. 

Distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 303. 
Schizostachyum lima: 

Description, i, 263, 264. 

Distribution, i, 264. 

Figure, i, 304. 

Local names, i, 264. 

Uses, i, 264. 
Schizostachyum longispiculatum : 

Description, i, 263. 
Schizostachyum. luviumpao: 

Description, i, 263, 265. 

Distribution, i, 264. 

Figure, i, 250, 305, 306. 

Local names, i, 264. 

Paper, i. 416-419. 

Planting and growth, i, 278. 

Uses, i, 265. 
Schizostachyum luzonicum: 

Description, i, 263. 

Distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 307. 
Schizostachyum palawanense : 

Description, i, 263. 

Distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 308. 
Schizostachyum textorium: 

Description, i, 263, 265. 

Distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 309. 

Local names, i, 265. 

Looms, i, 265. 
Schizostachyum toppingii: 

Description and distribution, i, 265. 

Figure, i, 310. 
Scindapsus spp. : 

Local names, i, 356. 

Fiber, i, 353, 356. 
Scirpiodendron ghaeri: 

Description and distribution, i, 352. 

Local name, i, 352. 

Hats, i, 352. 
Scirpus grossus : 

Description and distribution, i, 353. 

Local names, i, 353. 

Fiber, i, 353. 
Scirpus lacustris: 

Description and distribution, i, 353. 

Local names, i, 353. 

Mats, i, 353. 
Scleroderma aurantacum: 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Scleroderma dictyosporum: 

Description, iii, 144. 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Scleroderma verrucosUTn: 

Description, iii, 144. 

Figure, iii, 143. 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 
Scleroderma vulgare : 

Description, iii, 144. 

Edible fungi, iii, 144. 



Scopa ria didcis : 

Distribution, iii, 236. 

Local names, iii, 236. 

Medicinal, iii, 236. 
Scouring materials, iii, 49. 
Screens : 

Cyperus radiatus, i, 348. 

Miscanthus sinensis, i, 342. 

Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. 

Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. 
Scrophulariaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 375. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 235. 
Scutellaria luzonica: 

Distribution, iii, 234. 

Local name. iii. 234. 

Medicinal, iii. 234. 
Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea: 

Description and distribution, i, 84. 

Figure, i, 87. 

Local names, i, 84. 
Securidaca corymbosa: 

Description and distribution, iii, 56. 

Local names, iii. 56. 

Soap substitute, iii, 56. 
Securidaca philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, iii, 58. 

Local names, iii, 58. 

Soap substitute, iii. 58. 
j Segisi, see Heterospathe data. 
Sekoi. see BenitTrnsa hispida. 
Semecarpus cuneiformis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 320. 

Figure, ii, 321. 

Local names, ii, 320. 

Food, ii, 320. 

Medicinal, iii, 202. 
Semecarpus gigatitifoUa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 322. 

Figure, ii, 323. 

Local names, ii, 322. 

Food, ii, 322. 
Serar, see, Corypha elata. 
Sere, see Pandanus copelandii. 
Besame, see Sesamum orientale. 
Sesame oil : 

Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Sesamum. indicum, see Sesamum orientale. 
Sesamum orientale : 

Description and distribution, ii, 172. 

Figure, ii, 169. 

Local names, ii, 168. 

Exports of oil, ii, 170. 

Medicinal, iii, 74, 236. 

Sesame oil, ii, 171. 
Sesba n ia grand iflo ra : 

Description, ii, 72. 

Distribution, ii, 73. 

Local names, ii, 72. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Food, ii, 294. 

Substitute for gum arable, ii, 72. 



318 



INDEX 



Sesuvium portulacastrutn : 

Description and distribution, ii, 276. 

Local name, ii, 276. 

Food, ii, 276. 
Shafts, vehicle: 

Dendrocalamns vierriUianus, i, 261. 
Shampoo : 

Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. 

Citrus sp., ii, 212. 
Shoe soles : 

Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 48. 
Shorea balangeran : 

Distribution, ii, 160. 

Borneo tallow, ii, 160. 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Shorea eximia: 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Shorea negrosensis: 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Shorea i)alosapis : 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Shorea pohjsperma : 

Resin, ii. 52. 
Shuttles, hand-loom : 

Bambusa sjiinosa, i, 259. 
Siapo, see Grewia multiflora. 
Siapo, see Melochia umbeUata. 
Siblot, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Sibukau, see Caesalpinia sappan. 
Sibut-sibutan, see Streptocaulon baumii. 
Sibuyas, see Allium cepa. 
Sida acuta: 

Description and distribution, i, 390. 

Local names, i, 390. 

Fiber, i, 390. 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Sida cordifoUa : 

Description and distribution, i 390. 

Local names, i, 390. 

Fiber, i, 390. 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 
Sida javensis: 

Distribution, iii, 209. 

Local names, iii, 209. 

Medicinal, iii, 209. 
Sida mysorensis : 

Description, i, 390. 

Local names, i, 390. 

Rope, i, 350. 
Sida rhombifolia: 

Description and disti-ibution. i, 391. 

Local names, i, 391. 

Fiber, i, 391. 
Sidda, see Saccharum spontaneum. 
Sidit, see Scutellaria luzonica. 
Siegeshechia orientalis: 

Distribution, iii, 245. 

Local names, iii, 245. 

Medicinal, iii, 245. 
Sig-id, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. 
Sigid, see Malaisia scandens. 
Sigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Siitan, see Amaranthv^ spinosus. 



Sikal, see Saccharum spontaneum. 
Sikamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Sikkir, see Fatoua pilosa. 
Silad, see Corypha elata. 
Silag, see Corypha elata. 
Silasila, see Jussiaea linifolia. 
Sileng-botones, see Capsicum, frutescens. 
Sileng-labuyo, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Sill, see Capsicum frutescens. 
Silipau, see Ventilago dichotoma. 
Silisilihan, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. 
Silisilihan, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. 
Silk-cotton tree, see Ceiba pentandra. 
Silong-pugo, see Pericanipylus glaucus. 
Simarubaceae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 68, 195. 

Oils, ii, 114. 
Sinaligan, see Cordia myxa. 
Sinaligan, see StercuVa oblongata. 
Sinambang, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Sinawi, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Sindora inermis : 

Description and distribution, ii, 38. 

Figure, ii, 37. 

Local names, ii, 38. 

Kayu-galu oil, ii, 38. 

Perfume oil, ii, 38. 
Sindora supa : 

Description and distribution, ii, 40. 

Figure, ii, 39. 

Local names, ii, 38. 

Supa oil, ii, 40. 

Uses, ii, 38. 
Singitan, see Sida rhombifolia. 
Singkam&s, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Singkamas oil : 

Pachyrrhizus erosus, ii, 110. 
Siniguglas, see Spondias purpurea. 
Sinin-aba, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Sinkamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Sinkilladas, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum, 
Sinsau-sinsauan, see Cissampelos pareira. 
Sinsud, see Sindora inermis. 
Sintug, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Sinutan, see Sida rhombifolia. 
Sipit-kahig, see Leea aculeata. 
Sipit-olang, see Smilax bracteata. 
Sipit-ulang, see Malachra capitata. 
Sipon, see Sophora tomentosa. 
Sirguelas, see Spondias purpurea. 
Sirinate, see Averrhoa carambola. 
Sirisiu, see Ficus benjam.ina. 
Sisal, see Agave sisalana. 
Sisiohan, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Siva, see Datura fastuosa. 
Slippers : 

Agave cantida, i, 362. 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 
Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. 

Fimbristylis diphylla, i, 348. 

Fimbristylis globulosa, i, 348. 

Ischaemum angustifoUum, i, 340. 



INDEX 



319 



Slippers — Continued. 

Oryza sativa, i, 342. 
fandanus simplex, i, 336. 
Rhynchospora eorymbosa, i, 352. 
Typha angustifolia, i, 330. 
Smilax bracteata: 

Distribution, iii, 175. 
Local names, iii, 175. 
Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Smilax china : 

Distribution, iii, 175. 
Local names, iii, 175. 
Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Smilax leucophylla: 

Disti-ibution, iii, 175. 
Local names, iii, 175. 
Medicinal, iii, 175. 
Smudge : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Soap : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Alewrites moluccana, ii, 126. 
Arachis hypogaea, ii. 109. 
Calophyllum inophyllum, ii, 158. 
Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150, 152. 
Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 118. 
Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. 
Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. 
Ganophyllum falcatum, ii, 148. 
Isoptera borneensis, iii, 160. 
Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. 
Pangium edule, ii, 161. 
Pongamia pinnata, ii. 111. 
Ricinus communis, ii, 143. 
Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. 
Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. 
Soap substitutes, iii, 49. 
Sobosob, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Solanaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 404. 
Food plants, ii, 373. 
Medicinal plants, iii. 72, 234. 
Tobacco substitutes, iii, 96. 
Solan um cumingii: 

Description and distribution, ii, 374. 
Local names, ii, 374. 
Food, ii, 374. 
Medicinal, iii, 235. 
Solarium ivaequilaterale : 
Description, iii, 96. 
Local names, iii, 96. 
Tobacco substitute, iii, 96. 
Solanum melongena : 

Distribution, iii, 235. 
Local names, iii, 235. 
Medicinal, iii, 235. 
Solanum nigrum : 

Description and distribution, iii, 74. 
Local names, iii, 74. 
Medicinal, iii, 74, 235. 
Solasi, see Ocimum basUicum. 
Solda-solda, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Solsoldong-, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 



Sonchus oleraceus: 

Description and distribution, ii, 377. 
Local name, ii, 377. 
Food, ii, 377. 
Sonneratia alba: 

Description and distribution, i, 44. 
Figure, i, 45. 
Local names, i, 44. 
Firewood, i, 44. 
Food, ii, 352. 
Vinegar, ii, 352. 
Sonneratia caseolaris: 
Description, i, 46. 
Distribution, i, 22, 46. 
Figure, i, 47, 49. 
Local names, i, 46. 
Cultivation, i, 102. 
Firewood, i, 112-116. 
Forest charge, i, 125. 
Stands, i, 86-100. 
Tannin, i, 120-124. 
Timber, i, 46. 
Sonneratiaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 352. 
Mangrove swamps, i, 44. 
Sophora tomentosa: 

Distribution, iii, 192. 
Local names, iii, 192. 
Medicinal, iii. 192. 
Sorog-sorog, see Euphorbia neriifolia. 
Boro-soro, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Sorosoro, see Euphorbia neriifolia. 
Sorosoro, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Sosong-dalaga, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Sosueldo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Sosuerdo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Sotis, see Bixa orellana. 
Spathiphyllum- commiitatum : 
Description, ii, 256. 
Food, ii, 256. 
Spathoglottis plicata: 

Description and distribution, iii, 40. 
Figure, iii, 39. 
Local names, iii, 40. 
Ornamental, iii, 40. 
Spear shafts ; 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifoUa, i, 216. 
Oncosperma filamentosum, i, 36, 232. 
Pinanga spp., i, 236. 
Sphaeranthus africanus: 
Distribution, iii, 246. 
Local names, iii, 246. 
Medicinal, iii, 246. 
Sphagnaceae: 

Sphagnum, iii, 92. 
Sphagnum : 

Sphagnum spp., iii, 92. 
Sphagnum spp. : 

Distribution, iii, 92. 
Uses, iii, 92. 
Spice : 

Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. 



320 



INDEX 



Spilanthes acmeUa: 

Distribution, iii, 246. 

Local names, iii, 246. 

Medicinal, iii, 246. 
Spiny bamboo, see Bambusa spinosa. 
Spondias pinnata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 322. 
Figure, ii, 324. 

Local names, ii, 322. 
Food, ii, 322. 
Spondias purpurea: 

Distribution, iii, 202. 

Local names, iii, 202. 

Medicinal, iii, 202. 
Sponge gourd, see Luffa cylindrica. 
Sporobolus elongatus: 

Description and distribution, i, 344. 

Local names, i, 344. 

Fiber, i, 344. 
Sporobohis indicus : 

Description and distribution, i, 346. 

Hats, i, 346. 
Stag-horn fern, see Platycerium biforme. 
Starch : 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Caryota spp., i, 182. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 
Stenochlaena palustris : 

Description and distribution, i, 326. 

Figrure, i, 324. 

Local names, i, 323. 

Fiber, i, 323. 

Food, i, 326. 
Stephania japonica : 

Distribution, iii, 186. 

Local names, iii, 186. 

Medicinal, iii, 186. 
Sterculiaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 399. 

Fiber plants, i, 395. 

Food plants, ii, 336. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 42. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 210. 

Oils, ii, 154. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 80. 
Sferculia crassiramea: 

Description and distribution, 1, 400. 

Local names, i, 400. 

Rope, i, 400. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Sterculia cuneafa: 

Description and distribution, i, 400. 

Local names, i, 400. 

Rope, i, 400. 
Sterculia foetida : 

Description and distribution, i. 401 ; ii, 156. 

Figures, ii, 153, 155. 

Local names, i, 401 ; ii, 154. 

Composition of seeds, ii, 154. 

Food, ii, 336. 

Kalumpang, oil, ii, 156. 

Medicinal, iii, 211. 

Rope, i, 401. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 



Sterculia luzonica : 

Description and distribution, i, 401. 
Local names, i, 401. 

Rope, i, 401. 
Sterculia oblongata: 

Description and distribution, i, 402 ; ii, 336. 

Figure, ii, 337. 

Local names, i, 401 ; ii, 336. 

Food, ii, 336. 

Rope, i, 401. 

Tensile strength, i, .321. 
Sterculia philippinensis : 

Description and distribution, i, 402. 

Local names, i, 402. 

Rope, i, 402. 
Sterculia stipularis : 

Description and distribution, i, 402. 

Local names, i, 402. 

Rope, i, 402. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
St. Ignatius bean, see Strychnos ignatii. 
Stinging crystals : 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 
Streblus asper : 

Description and distribution, iii, 51. 

Local names, iii, 51. 

Medicinal, iii, 182. 

Sandpaper substitute, iii, 51. 

Scouring material, iii, 51. 
Streptocaulon baumii: 

Description and distribution, i, 408. 

Local names, i, 408. 

Fiber, i, 408. 

Medicinal, iii, 224. 
Strophanthus cumingii: 

Arrow poison, iii, 81. 
Strychnos ignatii: 

Description and distribution, iii, 70. 

Figure, iii, 71. 

Local names, iii, 70. 

Medicinal, iii, 70, 221. 
Strychnos rnulti flora: 

Description and distribution, i, 406. 

Local names, i, 406. 

Fiber, i. 406. 

Medicinal, iii, 221. 
Sua, see Citrus maxima. 
Suangi, see Citrus sp. 
Sua'-siia', see Triphasia trifoliata. 
Subit, see Toddalia asiatica. 
Subon-manuk, see Piper retrofractum. 
Sub6sub, see Pterocaulon redolens. 
Subsliban, see Polygonum barhatum. 
Sud-sud, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Sudsud, see Kyllinga monocephala. 
Suelda-consuelda, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Sueldo-consueldo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Suerdo-eonsuerdo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. 
Suganda, see Coleus amboinicus. 
Sugar : 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 
Sugar cane, see Saccharu^n officin/s/rum. 



INDEX 



321 



Sugar palm, see Arenga pinnata. 
Sugpon-sugpon, see Cissus guadrangularis. 
Suha', see Citrus maxima. 
Suia-soi, see Lilium philippinensis. 
Sulasi, see Lumnitzera racemosa. 
Sulisi, see Ocimum sanctum. 
Sulasig, see Aegiceras eorniculatum. 
Suliman, see Maesa cumingii. 
Sulimbubu, see SterciiUa cuneata. 
Sulingasau, see Callicarpa erioclona. 
Sulipa, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 
Sulipa, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Sulmin, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Sulpa-sulpa, see Cissus quadrangular is. 
Sulsulitik, see Curculigo orchioides. 
Sulu-saungan, see Canarium villostim. 
Sulusihigan, see Alstonia macrophylla. 
Siima, see Archangelisia flava. 
Sumpa, see Corchorus capsularis. 
Sungut-olang, see Breynia rhamnoides. 
Sunting, see Cassia alata. 
Sunting, see Cassia ocddentalis. 
Sup&, see Sindora supa. 
Supa oil: 

Sindora supa, ii, 38. 
Supstiput, see Elephantopus spicatus. 
Surgical appliance : 

Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 82. 
Surusampalok, see Phyllanthus niruri. 
Surusighid, see Sida acuta. 
Susokoyili, see 0.rcdis repens. 
Susulin, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. 
Susumbig, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Susumbiik, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Susumbik, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Susungbiig, see Grewia stylocarpa. 
Susung-damulag, see Uvaria rufa. 
Susung-kabayo, see Uvaria rufa. 
Stisung-kalaljau, see Uvaria rufa. 
Susung-kalabau, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. 
Suub-kabayo, see Hyptis suaveolens. 
Sweet basil, see Ocimum basilicum. 
Sweet basil oil : 

Ocimum basilicu>n, ii, 217. 
Sweet flag, see Acorus calamus. 
Syrup : 

Corypha elata, i, 192. 

T 

Taag, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Tabaco, see Nicotiana tabacuyn. 
Tabaco-tabaco, see Solanum inaequilaterale. 
Tabagisa, see Sophora tomentosa. 
Tabaiag, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Tabangongo, see Clerodendron inerme. 
Tabas, see Cubilia blancoi. 
Taba-taba. see Miissaenda philippica. 
Tabau, see Dodonaea viscosa. 
Tabau, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Tabau, see Lumnitzera racemosa. 
Tabau, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Tabau. see Scyphiphora hydrophyUacea. 
Tabau-tabau, see Trichosanthes quinquangu- 
lata, 

177674 21 



Tabernaemontana pandacaqui: 

Description and distribution, ii, 404. 

Local names, ii, 403. 

Bleaching agent, ii, 408. 

Medicinal, iii, 223. 
Tabiaiong, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Tabigi, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Tabigi, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Taboan, see Pandanus dubius. 
Tabobog, see Luffa cylindrica. 
Tabobok, see Luffa cylindrica. 
Taboeta, see Excoecaria agallocha. 
Tabog, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. 
Tabog-6k, see Mom^rdica cochinchinensis. 
Tabtabin, see Fimbristylis diphylla. 
Tabtabdkol, see Coldenia procumbens. 
Tabu, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Tabu-dapi, see Spathoglottis plicata. 
Tabugok, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata. 
Tabiil, see Canarium villosum. 
Tabulak, see Solanum cumingii. 
Tabuli, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. 
Tabunak, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
TabuiTgau, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Tabuyok, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. 
Taccaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 256. 
Tacca pinnatifida : 

Description and distribution, ii, 256. 

Local name, ii, 256. 

Starch, ii, 256. 
Tachin-kabayo, see Malvastrum coromandeli- 

num. 
Tadak, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Tadiang-kalabau, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Tadiang-kalabau, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Tadlangau, see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Tafu, see Mallotus philippinensis. 
Tagabang, see Corchorus olitorius. 
Tagadeu, see Thysanolaena maxima. 
Tagak-tagik, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. 
Tagap, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 
Tagasa, see Bruguiera sexangula. 
Tagasa, see Ceriops tagal. 
Tagatoi, see Mimusops parvifolia. 
Tagb&k, see Kolowratia elegans. 
Tagbak-babui, see Kolowratia elegans. 
Tagbilau, see Oroxylum indicum. 
Tagetes patula: 

Distribution, iii, 246. 

Local names, iii, 246. 

Medicinal, iii, 246. 
Tagga', see Pterocarpus spp. 
Taggat, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Tagimi, see ConocephaUus violaceus. 
Tagimunau, see Triphasic trifoliata. 
Taging-tagak, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. 
Tagipan, see Caryota cumingii. 
Tagisa, see Thysanolaena maxima. 
Tagise, see Heterospathe elata. 
Tagisi, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
Tagka', see Pterocarpus spp. 
Taglima, see Schefflera odorata. 
Tagnag, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Tagob, see Bidens chinensis. 



322 



INDEX 



Tagomtagom, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tagong-tagong, see hidigofera tinctoria. 
Tagpan, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Tagpo, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Tagpung-pula, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Tagughug, see Celcsia argentea. 
Tagulinai, see Vernonia cinerea. 
Tagulinas, see Ettiilia sonchifolia. 
Tagulinau, see Emilia sonchifolia. 
Tagulinau, see Fsycliutria mindorensis. 
Tagumbau, see Jatropha curcas. 
Tagungtiingan, see Pterocymbiuni tinctorium. 
Tagurare, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tagustus, see Scaevola frutescens. 
Tagutugan, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Tahid-labuyo, see Dalbergia cumingiana. 
Tahig, see Homalomena philippinensis. 
Taingang-babui, see Gonocaryum caUerya- 

num. 
Taingang-daga, see Auricularia spp. 
Taingan^-daga, see Oxalis repens. 
Taing-aso, see Morinda citrifolia. 
Tairas, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Taisan, see Ficus ■)n,inahassae. 
Taitai, see Paederia foetida. 
Taiwanak, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Takad, see Rotala aquatica. 
Taka magindjinau, see Corchorus oUtorius. 
Takamain, see Blumea balsamifera. 
Takim-baka, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. 
Takim-vaca, see Sida rhombifoUa. 
Taking-baka, see Sida acuta. 
Takip-asin, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. 
Takip-kohol, see Centella asiatica. 
Takkim-baka, see Sida acuta. 
Takkit-vaca, see Sida rhombifoUa. 
Taklang-anak, see Garcinia dulcis. 
'iakUing-anak, see Garcinia venulosa. 
Taklang kurong, see Jussiaea linifolia. 

Takling-baka, see Sida acuta. 
Takling-vaca, see Sida rhombifoUa. 
Tako, see Terminalia edulis. 
Takobtob, see Areca catechu. 
Takok, see Calophyllum blancoi. 
Takoline, Rhaphidophora merrillii. 

Takpo, see Psychotria luzoniensis. 

Taktak, see Corypha elata. 

Takulau, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 

Takulau bianco, see Bombycidendron vidaXia- 
nu7n. 

Takumbau, see Jatropha curcas. 

Takung, see Pterocymbiuni tinctorium. 

Talahib, see Miscanthus sinensis. 

Talahib, see Saccharum spontaneutn. 

Talakatak, see Castanopsis philippensis. 

Talakau, see Helicteres hirsuta. 

Talambasi, see Callicnrpx formosana. 

Talampunai, see Datura fastuosa. 

Talampiinai, see Ricinus communis. 

Talampunai na itim, see Datura fastuosa. 

Ta'.ang, see Diospyros discolor. 

Talangi, see Curculigo orchioides. 

Talangk&u, Bee Plumbago seylanica. 

Talantalogan, see Solanum inaequilaterale. 

Talatabako, see Sphaeranthus africanus. 



Talaunur, see Eurycles amhoinensis. 
Talbak, see Kolowratia elegans. 
Taliang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. 
Taliantan, see Leea manillensis. 
Talibunog, see Ehretia navesii. 
Talik-harap, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Taliknono, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Talikud, see Phyllanthus niruri. 
Talinga" an, see Pterospermum diversifolium. 
Talingaen, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Talinganan, see Garuga abilo. 
Talingtaling, see Solanum cumingii. 
Talipopo, see Mimusops parvifolia. 
TaKsai, see Terminalia calamansanai. 
Talisai, see Terminalia catappa. 
Talisai, see Terminalia edulis. 
Talisi, see Terminalia catappa. 
Talisocho, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Taliu, see Pittosporum pentandrum. 
Taliunud, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Talo, see Wikstroemia indica. 
Talob-alok, see Fagraea racemosa. 
Taloktok, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Talolong, see Quisqualis indica. 
Talo-magalau, see Mimosa pudica. 
Talong, see Solanum melongena. 
Talong-punai na itim, see Datura fastuosa. 
Talongtalongan. see Solanum cumingii. 
Talosan, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Taloto, see Pterocym,bium tinctorium. 
TaJtallikud, see Phyllanthus niruri. 
Talu-ang, see Spathoglottis plicata. 
Talumpapait, see Clerodendron cumingianum. 
Talumpapat. see Clerodendron cumingianutn. 
Talungtalungan, see Solanum cumingii. 
Talu-talu, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. 
Taliito, see Pterocymbiuni tinctorium. 
Taluto, see Sterculia luzonica. 
Tamahilan, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Tamanag, see Kleinhovia hospita. 
Tamarind, see Tamarindus indica. 

Tamarind-seed oil : 

Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. 

Tamarindus indica : 

Description and distribution, ii, 294. 

Figure, ii, 297. 

Local names, ii, 294. 

Bleaching agent, ii, 396. 

Food, ii, 294. 

Medicinal, iii, 67. 

Tamarind-seed oil, ii, 112. 

Tamaiihan, see Lansium dubiuvi. 

Tamayan, see Pavetta indica. 

Tamayuan, see Pygeum preslii. 

Tambak, see Costus speciosus. 

Tambal, see Eurycles amboinensis. 

Tambalabasi, see CalUcarpa erioclona. 

Tambaleta, see Sophora tomentosa. 

Tambalisa, see Cassia occidentalis. 

Tambalisa, see Cassia sophera. 

Tambalisa, see Sophora tomentosa. 

Tambal-tungan, see Alstonia macrophylla. 

Tambi, see Eugenia mananquil. 

Tambiligisa, see Sophora tomentosa. 

Tambis, see Eugenia aquea. 



INDEX 



323 



Tambis, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Tambis, see Eugenia mananquU. 
Tambis-tambis, see Ficus minahassae. 
Tambo, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
Tambobonot, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Tambo-tambo, see Calophyllum inophyUum. 
Tambo-tambo, see Xylocarpus granatum. 
Tambu, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
Tambu, see Thysanolaena inaxima. 
Tambulok, see Benincasa hispida. 
Tambuyogan, see Ficus minahassae. 
Taming-taming, see Dysoxylum decandrum. 
Tamo, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Tamohilang, see Zingiber zerumbet. 
Tamok, see Pterospermuni niveum. 
Tampinbanal, see Rhaphidophora tnerrillii. 
Tampinita, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. 
Tampoi, see Eugenia calubcob. 
Tampoi, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 
Tampoi-gubat, see Eugenia xanthophyila. 
Tampiii, see Eugenia xanthophylla. 

Tamputi, see Eugenia calubcob. 

Tan-ag, see Kleinhovia hospita. 

Tanak, see Kleinhovia hospita. 

Tando', see Lophopetalum toxicum. 

Tang-dg, see Kleinhovia hospita. 

Tangdl, see Ceriops roxburghiana. 

Tangal, see Ceriops tagal. 

Tangal, see Terminalia edidis. 

Tangalan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 

Tangal-babae, see Bruguiera cylindrica. 

TangsU-lalaki, see Ceriops tagal. 

Tangalo, see Actinorhytis calapparia. 

Tangalon. see Quisqualis indica. 

Tangan-tangan, see Jatropha curcas. 

Tangan-t&ngan, see Ricinus communi.-j. 

Tangantangan-tuba, see Jatropha ourcaa. 

TangAs, see Dolichandrone spathaeea. 

Tangbo, see Phragmites vulgaris. 

Tanggulai. see Alphitonia excelsa. 

Tanghal, see Ceriops tagal. 

Tanghas, see Dolichandrone spathaeea. 

Tafigid. see Canangium odoratum. 

Tangiling-bangohan. see Aglaia harmsiana. 

Tangisan-bagio, see Breynia rhamnoides. 

Tangit, see Canangium odoratum. 

Tangitang, see Alstonia mncrophylla. 

Tangkoi, see Benincasa hispida. 

Tangkong, see Ipomoea reptans. 

Tangkiia, see Benincasa hispida. 

Tangkung, see Ipomoea reptans. 
TanglHd, see Andropogon citratus. 

Tangle, see Premna odorata. 
Tanglin, see .Adenanthera intermedia. 

Tanglon. see Adenanthera intermedia. 
Tang6Ion, see Quisqualis indica. 

Tangus, see Eugenia mananquil. 
Tannin : 

Ardisia serrata, iii, 95. 
Areca catechu, i, 144. 
Bruguiera parviflora, i, 119-124. 
Bruguiera sexangula, i, 120-124. 
Calophyllum inophyUum, iii. 94. 
Canari^nn luzonicum., iii, 94. 
Ceriops roxburghiana, i, 121-124. 



Tannin — Continued. 

Ceriops tagal, i, 119-124. 
Pinus insularis, iii, 92. 
Pithecolobium dulce, iii, 93. 
Rhizophora candelaria, i, 119-124. 
Rhizophora mucronata, i, 119-124. 
Sonneratia alba, i, 44. 
Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 120-124. 
Weinmannia luzonensis, iii. 93. 
Xylocarpus granatum, i, 120-124. 
Xylocarpus ^noluccensis, i, 120-124. 
Tanobong, see Phragmites vulgaris. 
Tanogo, see Clerodendron cumingianum. 
Tantandok, see Gynandropsis gynandra. 
Tantandok riga dadakkol, see Gynandropsia 

gynandra. 
Tanual, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Tanubong, see Phragmites karka. 
Taoda, see Peristrophe bivalvis. 
Taoda, see Peristrophe tinctoria. 
Taoto, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Tapiasin, see Coldenia procumbens. 
Tapin&g, see Sterculia crassirainea. 
Tapira, see Pinanga spp. 
Tapolonga, see Hibiscus rosa^sinensis. 
Tapiilau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. 
TapHlau, see Pinus merkusii. 
Tarabang, see Ottelia alismoides. 
Tarabtab, see Capparis horrida. 
Tarabtab. see Capparis micracantha. 
Tarabtab-uak, see Capparis horrida. 
Tarabtab-uak, see Capparis micracantha. 
Tarambolo, see Solanum cumingii. 
Tarangking, see Schefflera odorata. 
Taraptap, see Capparis micracantha. 
Taratakiipis, see Abutilon indicum. 
Tariu, see Livistona cochinchinensis. 
Tarau, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Taroi, see Grexvia jnultiflora. 
Tarokangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Taroktok, see Bombax ceiba. 
Tarong, see Solanum melongena. 
Taroi^atiiTgan. see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
TaroiTgatir^an, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Tarre-tarre, see Blechum brownei. 
Tartaraok, see Qunmoclit pinnata. 
Tartaraok, see Quisqualis indica. 
Taruntum, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Tata, see Nipa fruticans. 
Tata, see Nipa fruticans. 
Tatagt&g, see Trema orientalis. 
Tataluangi, see Curculigo orchioides. 
Taua, see Flagellaria indica. 
Taua-taua, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Taua-taua, see .Jatropha curcas. 
Taua-taua, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Tauaua, see Euphorbia hirta. 
Tauen-tauen, see Aristolochia tagala. 
TauraiTgan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
Tautu. see Pterocymbium tinctorium. 
Tau-ua, see .Jatropha curcas. 
Tau-ua-tau-ua, see Ricinus communis. 
Tawalis, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Tayakpok, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Tayam, see Desmodium heterocarpum. 



324 



INDEX 



Taya-taya, see Terminalia eduUs. 
Tayokon, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Tayok-tayok, see Fimbristylis diphylla. 
Tayok-tayok, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Tayom-tayom, see Decaspermum fruticosum. 
Tayon, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Tayum, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Tayum, see Indigofera tinctoria. 
Tayung, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Tayung-tayungan, see Indigofera tinctoria. 
Teak, see Tect ma grandis. 
Teca, see Tectona grandis. 
Tectona grandis: 

Distribution, iii, 231. 
Local names, iii, 231. 
Medicinal, iii, 231. 
Teka, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. 
Teka-teka, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Tekistekis, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Tekiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Telosma procum bens : 

Description and distribution, ii, 372. 

Local names, ii, 372. 

Food, ii, 372. 
Temple flower, see Plumiera acuminata. 
Tengah, see Ceriops spp. 
Tengar, see Ceriops spp. 
Tentenedor, see QuamocUt pinnata. 
Terentum, see Lumnitzera littorea. 
Terminalia calamansanai: 

Distribution, iii, 215. 

Local names, iii, 215. 

Medicinal, iii, 215. 
Terminalia catappa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 166. 

Figure, ii, 163. 

Local names, ii, 162. 

Dye, ii, 402. 

Food, ii, 352. 

Indian almond oil, ii, 164. 

Medicinal, iii, 215. 
Terminalia comintana : 

Distribution, iii, 216. 

Local names, iii, 216. 

Medicinal, iii. 216. 
Terminalia edulis: 

Description and distribution, ii, 354. 

Figure, ii, 353. 

Local names, ii, 354. 

Feed, ii, 354. 

Medicinal, iii, 216. 
Temate. see Graptophyllum pictum. 
Ternstroemia toQuian : 

Fish poison, iii, 8C. 
Tetracera scandens : 

Description and distribution, iii. 59. 

Local names, iii. 59. 

Scouring material, iii. 59. 
Tetrantigma harmandii: 

Description and distribution, ii, 330. 

Local names, ii, 330. 
Food, ii, 330. 

Medicinal, iii. 207. 



Tetrastigma loheri: 

Description and distribution, ii, 330 
Local name, ii, 330. 
Food, ii, 330. 
Tewanak, see Bambusa vulgaris. 
Tewung, see Flagellaria indica. 
Thatching material : 

Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338; ii, 177. 
Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 
Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 
Corypha elata, i, 192. 
Imperata exaltata, i, 340. 
Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 
Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. 
Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 
Theaceae : 

Poisonous plants, iii, 80. 
Theobroma cacao: 

Distribution, iii, 211. 
Medicinal, iii, 211. 
Thespesia lam pas : 

Description and distribution, i, 391. 
Local names, i, 3S1. 
Dye, ii, 399. 
Rope, i, 391. 
Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Thespesia populnea: 

Distribution, iii, 210. 
Local names, iii, 210. 
Medicinal, iii, 210. 
Thevetia peruviana : 

Distribution, iii, 224. 
Local name, iii, 224. 
Medicinal, iii, 224. 
Thrinax argentea: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Thrinax parvifolia : 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Thrinax robusta: 

Recently introduced palm, i, 243. 
Thymelaeaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 403. 
Medicinal plants, iii, 213. 
Paper, i, 421. 
Thysanolaena maxima: 

Description and distribution, i, 346. 
Figure, i, .347. 
Local names, i, ?46. 
Brooms, i, 346. 
Tiagk6t, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tiaora, see Peristrophe bivalvis. 
Tibaiaiong, see Benincasa hispida. 
Tibangan, see Pinanga spp. 
Tibanglan, see Pinanga spp. 
Tibanglan, see Strychnos multiflora. 
Tibatib, see Pothos spp. 
Tibatib, see Rhaphidophora merrilUi. 
Tibi, see Ficus benjamina. 
Tibig, see Kibatalia blancoi. 
Tibigi, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. 
Tibulid, see Citrus sp.- 
Tibungau. see .Aglaia glomerata. 
Tibungau, see Aglaia harmsiana. 
Tigahui, see Pinanga spp. 



INDEX 



325 



Tigau, see Callicarpa erioclona. 

Tigau, see Callicarpa formosana. 

Tigbao, see Saccharum spontarteum. 

Tigbau, see Acanthus ebracteatus. 

Tig-bi, see Coix lachryina-jobi. 

Tigrbikai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. 

Tige nga najrnianto, see Amorphophallus cam- 

panulatus. 
Tiger grass, see Thysanolaena maxima. 
Tigi, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tigi, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Tigiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. 
Tikal, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Tikamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. 
Tikas-tikas, see Caiina indica. 
Tikas-tikas, see Sapindus saponaria. 
Tiker, see Scirpus la<-ustris. 
Tikes, see Pithecolobium subacutuin. 
Tikis, see Livistona rotundifolia. 
Tikiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. 
Tikiu, see Scirpus grossus. 
Tikla, see Tectona grandis. 
Tikog, see Cyperus malaccensis. 
Tikog, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Tikog, see Sagittaria sagittifolia. 
Tikug, see Fimbristylis globulosa. 
Tikug, see Scirpus grossus. 
Tiliaceae : 

Dyes, ii, 399. 

Fiber plants, 1, 381. 

Food plants, ii, 332. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 40. 

Medicinal plants, iii. 207. 
Tilub, see Gleichenia linearis. 
Timbab&si, see Callicarpa formosana. 
Timbambakis, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Timbangalan, see Pinanga spp. 
Timbingan, see Aristolochia tagala. 
Timbang-timbang, see Tinom,iscium philippin- 

ense. 
Timbangtimbangan, see Aristolochia tagala. 
Timbungan, see Coelococcus amicarum. 
Timon-timon, see Trichosanthes Quinquangu- 

lata. 
Timsim, see Panicuvi stagninum. 
Tinagasi, see Leucosyke capiteUata. 
Tinatina-an, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Tinatinaan, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. 
Tindalo, see Cassia fistula. 
Tinder : 

Arenga pinnata, i, 150. 

Caryota cumingii, i, 182. 

Caryota majestica, i, 182. 

Caryota merriUii, i, 182. 

Caryota mitis, i, 182. 

Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. 
Tindoi, see Acanthus ilicif alius. 
Tindok, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Tindok-tindok, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Tinduk-tindukan, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 
Tinduktindukan, see Aegiceras floridum. 
Tiiigantirigan. see Pterospermum niveum. 
Tingantingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. 
Tinga-tinga, see Mussaenda philippica. 



Tingkal, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Tingpud, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Tinikan, see Capparis micracantha. 
Tinlai, see Andropogon aciculatus. 
Tinlui, see Acanthus ilicifolius. 
Tinomiscium philippinense. 

Distribution, iii, 186. 

Local names, iii, 186. 

Medicinal, iii, 186. 
Tinta-tinta, see Eclipta alba. 
Tinta-tintahan, see Eclipta alba. 
Tinta-tintahan, see Lantana camara. 
Tinuluan-gatas, see Mussaenda philippica. 
Tipolo, see .-irtocarpus commiinis. 
Tipon-tipon, see Arenga tremula. 
Tiratina-an, see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Tirbatib, see Rhaphidophora merriUii. 
Tiroron. see Nauclea junghuhnii. 
Tiroron, see Terminalia comintana. 
Titau, see Agathis alba. 
Titau, see Rubus ellipticus. 
Titipuho, see Wikstroemia indica. 
Titiu, see Scirpus grossus. 
Tivi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. 
Tiwayos, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Tiwi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. 
Tobacco, see Nicotiana tabacum. 
Tobacco substitutes : 

Astible philippinensis, iii, 95. 

Solanum inaequUaterale, iii, 96. 
Toddalia asiatica : 

Description and distribution, ii, 216. 

Figure, ii, 299. 

Local names, ii, 214. 

Food flavoring, ii, 300. 

Medicinal, ii. 300; iii, 194. 

Perfume, ii, 216. 
Tohod-tohod, see Jussiaea linifolia. 
Toilet powders : 

Acorus calamus, ii, 181. 
Tokman, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Tokod-banua, see Amorphophallus cam panu- 
latus. 
Tolal. see Chloranthus brachystachys. 
Tologtolog, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. 
Tolosan, see Helicteres hirsjita. 
Tolotigre, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 
Tomato, see Lycopersicum esculentum. 
Tcnggui, see Ceriops tagal. 
Toiigo, see Dioscorea esculenta. 
Tongog, see Ceriops tagal. 
Tongtongking, see Helicteres hirsuta. 
Tonuar, see Eurycles amboinensis. 
Topo, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 
Torches : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 

Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. 
Torog-torog, see Mimosa pudica. 
Torronga, see Coleus amboinicus. 
Tortoraok, see Quisqualis indica. 
Tournefortia sarmentosa : 

Distribution, iii, 228. 

Local names, iii, 228. 

Medicinal, iii, 228. 



326 



INDEX 



Transmission belts : 

Achras sapota, ii, 74. 
Tree fern trunks : 

Cyathea spp., iii, 96. 
Trema orientalis: 

Description and distribution, i, 366. 
Local names, i, 366. 
Fiber, i, 366. 
Tensile strength, i. 321. 
Tremcllaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 114. 
Tremella foliaceae : 

Edible fungi, iii, 116. 
Tremella fuciformis: 
Description, iii, 114. 
Edible fungi, iii, 114. 
Tres moras, see Andropogon zizanioides. 
Tres puntos, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. 
Trianthema portulacastrum : 

Description and distribution, ii, 276. 
Local name, ii, 276. 
Food, ii, 276. 
Trichodesma indicum : 
Distribution, iii, 228. 
Medicinal, iii. 228. 
Trichodesma zeylanicum: 
Distribution, iii, 228. 
Local names, iii, 228. 
Medicinal, iii, 228. 
Tricholoma tenuis : 

Edible fungi, iii, 138. 
Trichosavthes qui-iKjuangulata : 
Distribution, iii, 242. 
Local names, iii, 242. 
Me<licinal, iii, 242. 
Triphasia trifoliata: 

Description and distribution, ii, 300. 
Local names, ii, 300. 
Food, ii, 300. 
TristeUateia australaniae : 

Distribution, i, 24. 
Triumfetta hartramia: 

Description and distribution, i, 386. 
Local names, i, 386. 
Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 
Fiber, i. 386. 
Medicinal, iii, 207. 
Troentoem, see Aegiceras corniculatUTti. 
Trompa-elefante, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Trompalipante, see Heliotropium indicum. 
Trompalipanti, see Rotala aquatica. 
Troughs : 

I/ivistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 
Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216 
Tsang-bato, see Canscora diffusa. 
Tua-an, see Kingiodendron alternifoUnm. 
Tuanio, see Osbornia octodonta. 
Tuawis, see Oshornia octodonta. 
Tuba, see Barringtonia acutangula. 
Tuba, see Crofon tiglium. 
Tuba, see -Tatropha curcas. 
Tubai-basi, see Callicarpa formosana. 
Tflbane-'bS.kod, see .Jatropha curras. 
Tubang-dalag, see Callicarpa formosana. 
Tubang-makaisa, see Croton tiglium. 



Tuba-tuba, see Croton tiglium. 
Tuba-tiiba, see Jatropha curcas. 
Tuba-tuba, see Thespesia populnea. 
Tuberose, see Polianthes tuberosa. 
Pubjus, see Litsea glutinosa. 
Tubli, see Croton tiglium. 
Tubo-bato, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Tubol-tubol, see Typha angustifolia. 
Tub6ng-usa, see Costus speciosus. 
Tue. see Dolichandrone spathacea. 
Tugabi, see GanophyUum falcatuni. 
Tugas-tiigas, see Rubus fraxinifolius. 
Tugbak, see Kolowratia elegans. 
Tugi, see Dioscorea escuZenta. 
Tugisak, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. 
Tugi-tugian, see Pericatnpylus glaucus. 
Tugnang, see Buddleia asiatica. 
Tugtugi, see A.stilhe philippinensis. 
Tugtugin, see Canarium luzonicum. 
Tugvip, see Artocarpus elastica. 
Tuhod-manuk, see .Justicia gendarussa. 
Tui, see Dolichandrone spathacea. 
Tuka, see Phaleria cumingii. 
Tuka, see Phaleria perrottctiana. 
Tuka, see Wikstroeniia lanceolata. 
Tukal, see Ardisia boissieri. 
Ttikod, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. 
Tukod-banuwa, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. 
Tukud-langit, see Amor pho phallus campanu- 
latus. 

Tukud-laiigit, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. 

Tul-S.nan, see Eugenia aherniana. 

Tul-anan, see Lansium dubiuin. 

Tulang-manuk, see Pseuderanthemum pulchel- 
lum. 

Tuliau, see Ficus hauili. 

Tulo, see Alphitonia excelsa. 

TultulisS,n, see Eclipta alba. 

Tumatanud, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. 

Tumbong-aso, see Morinda citrifolia. 

Tumbong-aso, see Zingiber zerumbet. 

Tumbosut, see Leea manillensis. 

Tumolubo, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. 

Tumu, see Bruguiera conjugata and Bruguiera 
sexangula. 

Tunduk-tundukan, see Aegiceras corniculatum. 

Tunga, see Pygeum preslii. 

Tungkut-langit, see Helminthostachys zeyla- 
nica. 

Tungo, see Dioscorea esculenta. 

Tungod. see Ceriops tagal. 

Tuiigog, see Ceriops tagal. 

Tung oil : 

Aleurites fordii, ii, 120. 
Aleurites montana, ii. 120. 

Tungiid, see Ceriops tagal. 

Tungiig, see Ceriops roxburghiana. 

Tungung, see Ceriops roxburghiana. 

Tuoi, see Eugenia calubcob. 

Turkey-red oils : 

Ricinus communis, ii, 143. 

Turmeric, see Curcuma longa. 

Turpentine : 

Pinus insularis, ii, 30. 
Pinus merkusii, ii. 34. 



INDEX 



327 



Turutalikod, see PhyUanthus niruri. 
Tuwi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. 
Tylophora brevipes : 

Distribution, iii, 224. 

Local names, iii, 224. 

Medicinal, iii, 224. 
Tylophora perrottetiana: 

Distribution, iii. 225. 

Local names, iii, 225. 

Medicinal, iii, 225. 
Trjpha angnsti folia : 

Description and distn-ibution, i, 330. 

Figure, i, 331. 

Local names, i, 330. 

Fiber, i, 330. 

Medicinal, iii, 169. 
Typhaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 330. 

Medicinal plant.s, iii, 169. 
Typhonium divaricatum : 

Local name, iii, 174. 

Medicinal, iii, 174. 

IT 

Uag. see Flagellaria indica. 

Uai ti uak, see Flagellaria indica. 

Uakak, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. 

Uakatan. see Alphitonia excelsa. 

Uakatan, see Rhi-zophora candelaria. 

Ualis. see Lepidopetahim perrottetii. 

Ualis-ualisan, see Sida acuta. 

Ualis-ualisan, see Sida rhombifolia. 

Uani, see Mangifera odorata. 

Uarat-uarat. see Pothos spp. 

Uas, see Guioa koelreuteria. 

TJas, see Harpullia nrborea. 

Uas, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. 

Uatitik, see Colubrina asiatiea. 

Uaualisin, see Sida acuta. 

Ubag:, see Dioi^corea liizonensis. 

Uban-uban, see Lansium dubinm. 

Ubien, see Artocarpus cntningiana. 

Ubien, see Artocarpus rubroi'enia. 

Ubi-ubihan, see Srnilaa- china. 

Ubop, see Dioscorea divaricata. 

Ue na grayang. see Flagellaria indica. 

Uginai, see Andropogon halepensis. 

tjgring, see Cratoxylon blaneoi. 

Ugringan, see Cratoxylon blaneoi. 

Uprpoi, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 

UKsang, see Licuala spinosa. 

Uhangro, see Pandanus tectorius. 

Ulangia, see Abrus precatorius, 

Ulas, see Guioa koelreuteria. 

Ulasiman, see Porfidaca oleracea. 

TTlasiman-aso, see Baropa inonniera. 

Ulasiman-aso, see Oldenladia corymbosa. 

Ulayan. see Castanopsis philippensis. 

Ulayan, see Euphoria didyma. 

Ulayan, see Miniiisops parvifolia. 

<Tli. see Agathis alba. 

Ulisuman, see Trianthema portulacastrvm. 

Uliuan, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 

I'hnaceae: 

Fiber plants, i, 366. 



Umbelliferae : 

Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 218. 
Umpig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Umpik, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Umu-um, see Chloranthus brachystachys, 
Unau, see Arenga pinnata. 
Ungang, see Plectocotnia eltneri. 
Ungo, see Elaeocarpus caloinala. 
Unip, see Pithecolobiuvi subacutum. 
Uog, see Flagellaria indica. 
tJos, see Sterculia oblongata. 
TJpak, see Sterculia cuneata. 
Upas-tree, see Antiaris toxicaria. 
Upling. see Bauhinia cumingiana. 
Upling-gubat. see Ficus nlmifolia. 
Upo, see Lagenaria leucantha. 
Upopi, see Cyperus radiatus. 
Upplas, see Ficus ulmifolia. 
Urai, see Amaranthus spinosus. 
Uraroi, see Panictim stagninum. 
Uratan, see Gonocaryuni calleryanum. 
Urceola imberbis : 

Description and distribution, i, 407. 

Local names, i, 407. 

Fiber, i, 407. 
Urena lobata : 

Description and distribution, i, 392. 

Figure, i, 393. 

Local names, i, 391. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i, 392. 

Medicinal, iii, 210. 

Tensile strength, i, 321. 
Li rticaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 373. 

Food plants, ii, 270. 

Medicinal plants, iii. 182. 
TJrung, see Fagraea cochinchinensia. 
Usau, see Euphoria didyma. 
TJsau, see Nephelium lappaceunt. 
Usiu, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. 
Usiu, see Schizostachyum- diffusum. 
Uvaria purpurea : 

Description and distribution, ii, 280. 

Food, ii, 280. 
Uvaria rufa: 

Description and distribution, ii, 280. 

Figure, ii, 281. 

Local names, ii, 280. 

Food, ii, 280. 
Uvaria sorzogonensis : 

Description and distribution, ii. 282. 

Local names, ii, 282. 

Food, ii, 282. 
Uwas, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Uyango, see Pandanus radicans. 
Vaccinium myrtoides: 

Description and distribution, ii, 362. 

Figure, ii. 365. 

Local name, ii, 362. 

Food, ii, 362. 
1 'ace in iu m ^vhitfordii : 

Description and distribution, ii, 862. 

Local names, ii. 362. 

Food, ii, 362. 



328 



INDEX 



VaUisneria gigantea: 

Description and distribution, ii, 248. 

Local names, ii, 248. 

Food, ii, 248. 
Valo, see Thespesia populnea. 
Vanda lamellata: 

Description and distribution, iii, 40. 

Figure, iii, 41. 

Ornamental, iii, 40. 
Vanda sanderiana : 

Description and distribution, iii, 40. 

Figure, iii, 42, 43. 

Ornamental, iii, 40. 
Vandopsis lissochiloides : 

Description and distribution, iii, 40. 

Figure, iii, 44. 

Ornamental, iii, 40. 
Vanilla ovalis: 

Distribution, i, .366. 

Fiber, i, 366. 
Vanoverberghia sepulchrei : 

Description and distribution, ii, 260. 

Food, ii, 259. 
Varnish : 

Agathis alba, ii, 20, 22, 26. 

Aleurites inoluccana, ii, 126. 

Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. 

Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. 

Calophyllnm inophyllum, ii, 159. 

Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42, 44. 

Dipterocarpus grandifiorusf ii, 54. 

Dipterocarpus verniciftuus, ii, 62. 

Sindora inermis, ii, 38. 

Sindora supa, ii, 38. 

Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. 
Vatica niangachapoi : 

Resin, ii, 52. 
Ventilago dichotoma: 

Distribution, iii, 205. 

Local names, iii, 205. 

Medicinal, iii, 205. 
Verbenaceae : 

Food plants, ii, 373. 

Mangrove swamps, i, 80. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 228. 

Oils, ii. 216. 

Poisonous plants, iii, 81. 
Vermifuge : 

Areca catechu, i, 144. 
Vernonia cinerea : 

Distribution, iii, 246. 

Local names, iii, 246. 

Medicinal, iii, 246. 
Vetiver, see Andropogon zizanioidea. 
Vetiver oil: 

Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. 
Vibres, see Guioa koelreuteria. 
Vinegar : 

Arenga. pinnata, i, 150. 

Cocos nucifera, i, 184. 

Corypha elata, i, 192 

Nipa fruticans, i, 222. 



Vitaceae : 

Fiber plants, i, 379. 

Food plants, ii, 328. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 206. 
Vital!, see Pterocarpus spp. 
Vitex negundo: 

Distribution, iii, 232. 

Local names, iii, 232. 

Lye, i, 154. 

Medicinal, iii, 232. 
Vitex trifolia: 

Distribution, iii, 232. 

Local names, iii, 232. 

Medicinal, iii, 232. 
Voacanga globosa: 

Fish poison, iii, 81. 
Vodadin, see Leea manillensis. 
Voiavoi, see Phoenix hanceana. 
Volvaria esculenta : 

Description, iii, 126. 

Distribution, iii, 126. 

Figure, iii, 128, 129, 131. 

Edible fungi, iii, 126. 
Volvaria pruinosa: 

Edible fungi, iii, 130. 
Vutalau, see Calophyllum inophyllum. 

w 

Waling-waling, see Aerides quinquevulnerum. 
Walking sticks : 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 

Daenionorops spp., i, 158. 

Korthalsia spp., i, 212. 

Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 

Pinanga spp., i, 236. 
Waltheria americana : 

Distribution, iii, 212. 

Local names, iii, 212. 

Medicinal, iii, 212. 
Wango, see Pandanus radicans. 
Water (drinking) : 

Calamus spp., i, 158. 
Water pipes : 

Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. 

Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. 
Wax, sealing: 

Agathis alba, ii, 20. 
Waxgourd. see Benincasa hispida. 
Wedelia biflora: 

Distribution, iii, 246. 

Local names, iii, 246. 

Medicinal, iii, 246. 
Weinmannia luzonensis: 

Description and distribution, iii, 9i 

Tannin, iii, 93. 
Wikstroemia indica : 

Description and distribution, i, 404. 

Local names, i, 404. 

Fiber, i, 403. 

Paper, i, 421. 
Wikstroemia lanceolata: 

Description and distribution, i, 404. 

Local names, i, 404. 

Fiber, i, 403. 



INDEX 



329 



Wikstroemia meyeniana : 

Description and distribution, i, 404. 

Figure, i, 405. 

Local names, i, 404. 

Fiber, i„ 403. 

Paper, i, 421. 
Wikstroemia ovata: 

Description and distribution, i, 404. 

Local names, i, 404. 

Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. 

Fiber, i. 403. 

Medicinal, iii, 214. 

Paper, i, 421. 
"Wild banana, see Musa spp. 
Window shades : 

Miscanthus sinensis, i, 342. 

X 

Xinienia atnericana: 

Description and distribution, ii, 274. 

Figure, ii, 275. 

Local names, ii, 274. 

Food, ii. 274. 

Purgative, ii, 274. 
Xylocarpus granatum : 

Description, i. 38. 

Distribution, i, 22, 38. 

Figure, i, 37. 

Local names, i, 36. 

Dye, i, 38, 122. 

Lumber, i, 38. 

Medicinal, iii, 197. 

Stands, i, 86-100. 

Tannin, i, 120-124. 
Xylocarpus moluccensis : 

Description, i. 38. 

Distribution, i, 22. 

Figure, i, 39. 

Local names, i, 38. 

Firewood, i, 112-117. 

Forest charge, i, 125. 

Piagau oil, ii, 120. 

Stands, i, 86. 

Tannin, i, 120-124. 

Timber, i, 38. 



Yabnoi, see Ficus hauili. 
Yabyaban, s^e Tacca pinnatifida. 
Yagom. see Indigofera suffruticosa. 
Yaka, see Corchorus olitoritis. 
Yakal-dilau, see Sindora supa. 
Yalisai, see Terminalia catappa. 
Yam, see Dioscorea esctdenta. 
Yamban. see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. 
Yampong. see Abutilon indicum. 
Yard grass, see Elensine indicn. 



Yas, see Panicum palmaefolium. 

Yati, see Tectona grandis. 

Yaya, see Gonocaryuni calleryanum. 

Yayaod, see Eclipta alba. 

Yayasi, see Ficus ulmifolia. 

Yayod-no-kangkang, see Emilia sochifolia. 

Yayulinau, see Vernonia cinerea. 

Yellow lanutan, see Poly alt hia fiava. 

Yerba buena, see Mentha arvensis. 

Yerba de San Pablo, see Phyllanthus niruri. 

Yovas, see Graptophyllhim pictum. 

Yunu-yiinu, see Terminalia comintana. 

Yu-pa, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. 



Zalacca clem ensiana : 

Description, i, 243. 

Distribution, i, 242. 

Ornamental, i, 243. 
Zanthoxylum, av'.cev.ncc : 

Distribution, iii, 195. 

Local names, iii, 195. 

Medicinal, iii, 195. 
Zanthoxylum rhetsa: 

Distribution, iii, 195. 

Local names, iii, 195. 

Medicinal, iii, 195. 
Zap6te, see Diospyros ebenaster. 
Zapote negro, see Diospyros ebenaster. 
Zarzaparilla-puti, see Smilax lencophylla. 
Zea mays: 

Distribution, iii, 172. 

Local name, iii, 172. 

Medicinal, iii, 172. 
Zedoary, see Curcuma zedoaria. 
Zedoary oil; 

Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. 
Zingiberaceae : 

Dyes, ii. 385. 

Fiber plants, i, 365. 

Food plants, ii, 259. 

Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 177. 

Oils, ii, 182. 
Zingiber officinale : 

Local names, ii, 184, 

Condiment, ii, 184. 

Flavoring, ii, 184. 

Medicine, ii, 184. 

Oil, ii, 184. 
Zingiber zerumbet: 

Distribution, iii, 178. 

Local names, iii, 178. 

Medicinal, iii, 178. 
Zizyphus jujuba : 

Distribution, iii, 205. 

Local names, iii, 205. 
J Medicinal, iii, 205. 



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