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Full text of "Minutes and proceedings of the Five Years Meeting of the American Yearly Meetings [serial]"

DUKE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
DURHAM, N. C. 




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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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Minutes and Proceedings 



•OF THE- 



Five Years Meeting 

-:- J902-:- 



INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA 



MINUTES AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Five Years Meeting 

OF THE 

AMERICAN YEARLY MEETINGS 

HELD IN INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA 

1902 

also Minutes of the 

QUINQUENNIAL CONFERENCE 

Final Session 



PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO. 

1903 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



The Minutes of the Five Years Meeting and of the 
final Quinquennial Conference are printed in full, and the 
papers read before The Five Years Meeting are also given 
in full. By direction of the Meeting, only a synopsis 
or rather condensation of the stenographic report of the 
discussions is printed. In preparing this synopsis great 
effort has been made to give enough to represent fairly the 
views expressed by each speaker. Discussion of technical 
points of order, irrelevant remarks, and matters of unim- 
portance have been omitted. It has been thought best 
not to report the Devotional Exercises. 



Sch.R. 

• ^ Mil 

AM 

MINUTES OF OUINOUENNIAL. CONFERENCE. t rt 

THIRD DAY EVENING. ^'^ 

i . The Fourtb Quinquennial Conference of the Soci- 
ety of Friends in America convened at Friends' Meeting 
House, Indianapolis, Ind., on Third day, ioth Month, 
21, 1902, at 7.30 p.m. 

The meeting was called to order by Timothy Nichol- 
son, who presented Edmund Stanley, Vice-President, in 
the absence of the president of the former Conference. 
Ellwood O. Ellis read the 2nd chapter of 2nd Timothy, 
which was followed by earnest petitions for wisdom and 
blessings. 

2. Delegates from thirteen Yearly Meetings were 
present : 

New England. — John Ellwood Paige, Charles H. 
Jones, Benjamin F. Trueblood, Rufus M. Jones, Phebe 
S. Aydelott, Hannah J. Bailey, Sarah J. Swift, Daniel C. 
Maxfield, Olney T. Meader. 

New York. — James Wood, Robert M. Ferris, Harry 
R. Keates, Robert I. Murray, Elmer D. Gildersleeve, 
Mary L. Chase, Emilie Underbill Burgess, Elias S. 
Minard, Carolena M. Wood. 

Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas, Anna King Carey, 
Samuel R. Neave, Richard H. -Thomas, Miles White, Jr., 
Annie D. Stabler. 

North Caroli?ia. — D. Lyndon Hobbs, Joseph Potts, 
Mary C. Woody, John W. Woody, Dr. J. J. Cox, David 
E. Sampson, Mary E. Cartland, W. Alpheus White, Sue 
V. Hollowell. 



307304 



2 MINUTES 

Ohio. — Jacob Baker, J. Walter Malone, Elizabeth. M. 
Jenkins, Edward Mott, James M. Estes, Esther H. Butler, 
Emma E. Malone, Eida S. Romick, William J. Harrison, 
William P. Pinkham, S. Adelbert Wood. 

Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson, Francis W. Thomas, 
Allen Jay, Naomi H. Jay, Hannah Lewis Smith, Ell wood 
O. Ellis, Joseph John Mills, Ida S. Henley, Alpheus 
Trueblood, Joseph A. Goddard, Enos Harvey, Elizabeth 
J. Hill, Mary E- Baldwin, Anna A. Warder, Evan H. 
Ferree, Mary H. Goddard, Thomas W. White, Robert M. 
Douglas, Ira C. Johnson, Emma Hodges, Charles W. 
Osborne, Mahalah Jay, Isabel Kenworthy, David Over- 
man, Charles E. Hiatt. 

Western. — Murray S. Kenworthy, Dr. Sylvester 
Newlin, Henry Guyer, Milton Hanson, Dinah T. Hen- 
derson, William E- Pyle, David Hadley, J. Elmore 
Haworth, John T. Hadley, Enos Kendall, Joshua Carson, 
Andrew F. Mitchell, Peter W. Raidabaugh, Solomon B. 
Woodard, Dr. Seth Mills, Albert J. Brown, Ruth W. 
Newsom, Eliza C. Armstrong, Sarah J, King, William 
Trueblood. 

Canada. — Alma G. Dale, William J. Moore. Elias 
Rogers, William Harris. 

Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger, Isom P. Wooton, 
Eaura P, Townsend, Isaach N. Rich, Zenas E- Martin, 
Eliza Eindley, Joseph Sopher, Rhoda Neville, A. J. 
Hanson, Cyrus Beede, Albert W. Green, Samuel E. 
Haworth, A. F. N. Hambleton, Charles W. Sweet, 
Alfred H. Eindley, John W. Stribling. 

Kansas. — William P. Haworth, E. Clarkson Hin- 
shaw, Isaac Eindley, Achsa C. Kenyon, Isaac A. Wood- 
ard, Francis A. Wright, Catharine H. Osborne, Eeah 



MINUTKS 3 

Bales, Rachel Kirk, Edmund Stanley, Calvin C Kes- 
singer, Thomas Folger, Josiah Dillon, Mary A. Sibbitt, 
Dillon H. Dillon, Nathan Brown. 

Wilmington.— Eliza A. West, Paul Tasso Terrell, 
Elizabeth Larkin, Thomas L. Scott, Robert E. Pretlow, 
Ellen C. Wright, John B. Peelle, Nancy A. C. Leonard, 
Amos Cook, Esther G. Frame, Sarah T. Stanley, Emma 
S. Townsend. 

Oregon. — Louisa Painter Rounds, Jesse Edwards, 
Aaron M. Bray, Edwin H. McGrew. 

California. — Charles E. Tebbetts, Levi Gregory, 
Washington Hadley, Mary M. Brown, Levi D. Barr, 
William V. Coffin, R. Esther Smith. 

3. Inasmuch as the delegates to the Quinquennial 
Conference are for the most part delegates to the Five 
Years Meeting, the Clerk of the Conference was directed 
to furnish to the Five Years Meeting the reports from 
the Yearly Meetings. 

4. Sarah J. Swift and Timothy Nicholson were 
appointed to assist the Auditor, Elizabeth M. Jenkins, in 
auditing the Treasurer's report. 

5. James Wood, Chairman of the Committee on the 
Uniform Discipline, read the following report, which was 
accepted and the Committee discharged with a vote of 
thanks from the Conference. The whole report was refer- 
red to the Five Years Meeting without recommendation. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE TO PREPARE 

A UNIFORM DISCIPLINE, PRESENTED TO 

THE QUINQUENNIAL CONFERENCE 

TENTH MONTH 21, 1902. 

The Committee to prepare a Uniform Discipline for 
the several Yearly Meetings, appointed by the Conference 
held in Indianapolis in 1897, presents the accompanying 



4 MINUTES 

draft. It has been adopted by New England, New York, 
Baltimore, North Carolina, Wilmington, Indiana, West- 
ern, Iowa, Kansas, California and Oregon Yearly Meet- 
ings, and thus has become the common Declaration of 
Faith, Constitution of Government, and Rules of Disci- 
pline of the general body of Friends in America. Canada 
Yearly Meeting also adopted it, but subsequently recon- 
sidered that action. 

The draft that was put forth and has been thus gener- 
ally acted upon contained a number of typographical 
and some grammatical errors. In the copy herewith 
presented these have been corrected, so far as discovered, 
and some. changes in arrangement have been made. As 
none of these make any material alteration in the meaning 
of any portion of the document from that originally inten- 
ded, we recommend that this be considered the official 
copy, from which future publications should be made. 

The Committee feels that it is proper to state that 
their work has been carried on and completed in much 
harmony and mutual condescension. Very important 
assistance has been rendered by a number of Friends, not 
upon the Committee, widely scattered throughout the 
country. Above all, reverent acknowledgement is made 
of the Divine assistance that has made the completion of 
the work and its general acceptance possible. We humbly 
trust that the Divine blessing may attend its future 
administration. 

James Wood, Chairman, 
Mahaeah jay, Recording Secretary. 
Indianapolis, Tenth month 21, 1902. 

6. On behalf of the Committee to consider the subject 
of a Friends' Hymnal, Robert B. Pretlow made the fol- 
lowing report (See .Minutes of Five Years Meeting, 
Minute 57, Proposition 3), which was accepted and referred 
to the Five Years Meeting without recommendation. 

7. The Treasurer's report was read and, together 
with the report of the Auditing Committee, was accepted, 



MINUTES 5 

and the cash on hand with the unpaid bills was referred 
to the Five Years Meeting. The report is as follows : 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 

RECEIPTS 
1898 
June 13th, To receipted bills received 
from T. Nicholson on 
behalf Indiana Yearly 
Meeting ....... $r 68 36 

" " To Cash from Treasurer 

Indiana Yearly Meeting 85 41 
" To Receipted bills from 
James Wood, on behalf 
New York Yearly Meet- 
ing ......... 6 75 

" " To Cash from Treasurer 
New York Yearly Meet- 
ing ........ . 41 32 

June 15th, To Cash from Treasurer 
Baltimore Yearly Meet- 
ing 14 08 

" 1 6th, To Cash from Treasurer 
Wilmington Yearly 

Meeting 64 94 

" " To Cash from Treasurer 

Western Yearly Meeting 195 06 
" 26th To Cash from Treasurer 

Canada Yearly Meeting 12 94 
" To Cash from Treasurer 

Ohio Yearly Meeting . 65 70 
July 2d, To Cash from Treasurer 
New England Yearly 
Meeting ...... 56 20 

Aug. 19th, To Cash from Treasurer 
North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting 68 71 



MINUTES 



Oct. 3d, 


To Cash from Treasurer 
• California Yearly Meet- 






ing 


17 90 


" nth 


To Cash borrowed from 






John Pearson .... 


7i 38 


( ( a 


To Cash borrowed from 
State Bank, West 




. 


Branch, Iowa .... 


183 62 


I899 






Feb. 4, 


To Cash from J. Pearson, 
account Iowa Yearly- 






Meeting 


76 63 


March 4, 


To Cash from W. Wild- 
man, Treasurer Iowa 






Yearly Meeting . . . 


63 37 


Oct. 20th, 


To Cash from J. M. New- 
lin, Treasurer Kansas 






Yearly Meeting . . . 


149 66 


ii a 


To Cash from I. T. Smith, 
Treasurer Oregon Year- 








19 10 


Sept. 6th, 


To Cash from Treasurer 






Iowa Yearly Meeting . 


5 00 



Total Receipts . . $1,366 13 

1S97 DISBURSEMENTS 

By Sundry receipted bills, 
paid by T. Nicholson, 
on behalf Indiana Year- 
ly Meeting, as follows : 

Nov. 3d, By Cash paid Josephine 
Burson, for typewriting 
considerations and con- 
clusions of Conference . $ 135 

Dec. 1 8th, By Cash paid T. Nichol- 
son, for telegrams, post- 
age, etc. ...... 2 41 



MINUTES 

" 27th, By Cash paid Anna Tay- 
lor, reporting, transcrib- 
ing, etc . 112 92 

" By Cash paid Mahalah 
Jay, for editing Conven- 
tion proceedings, post- 
age, etc. ....... 38 00 

1898 
Jan. 4th, By Cash to M. Cullaton & 
Co., for 100 copies of 
Minutes of appointment 
of committees .... 3 50 

"By Cash paid W. D. Hos- 
kins, for sundry sup- 
plies for committees, 
telegraph messenger ser- 
vice, etc 10 iS 



By Bills paid by James 

Wood as follows : 

May 25th, By Cash paid Smith Iliff 

Stationery Company, 

250 programs .... $ 3 75 

" " By Cash paid the Recorder 

for 250 programs ... 3 00 



June 22d, By Cash paid American 

Friend for printing . . $ 400 00 
July 5th, " " " . . 62 70 

Aug. 25th, " (< " . . 100 00 

Oct. 13th, " " " . . 300 00 



$168 



#6 75 



2 70 

July 25th, By Cash paid A. T. Ware, 
expense a s Secretary 
Hymnal Committee . 11 27 







183 
7 


62 
65 






$ 191 


27 






74 


12 






1 


62 






50 


04 






$1366 


13 


1316 


13 
09 







8 MINUTES 

1899 

Mch. 20th, By Cash paid State Bank, 
print, note dated Oct. 
nth, renewed Jan. n, 

1899 • ■ 

" " Interest on above note . 

Apr. 19th By Cash to John Pearson, 
note Oct. 11, 1898 . . 
" " By Cash to John Pearson, 
postage and exchange . 

Oct. 21st, By Balance, Cash on hand 



RECAPITULATION . 

Total amount received . $ 
" " disbursed 

Balance, Cash on hand 

Oct. 21, 1902 .... $50 04 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. Jasper HadlEy, Treasurer. 
The above account has been audited and found to be 
correct. With a draft on New York for $50.04 and one 
unpaid bill for expenses of Uniform Discipline, $88. 

Elizabeth M. Jenkins, 
Sarah J. Swift, 
Timothy Nicholson. 

8. On motion of Timothy Nicholson, a vote of thanks 
was tendered to W. Jasper Hadley, Treasurer, for his 
faithful, business-like service. 

9. It was moved that proceedings of the Conference 
be referred to the Five Years Meeting, as the legitimate 
successor of the Conference, and the proceedings of the 
three previous Conferences are referred to the custody 
of the Five Years Meeting. 

10. The Conference then adjourned without a day. 

Edmund Stanley, President. 
Mary C. Woody, Secretary. 



MINUTES 



MINUTES OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING, 1902. 



1 . The first Five Years Meeting convened at Friends' 
Meeting House, Indianapolis, Ind. , Tenth month, 22, 
1902, at 9 o'clock, a. m. 

2. The meeting was called to order by Timothy 
Nicholson, and Edmund Stanley and Mary C. Woody 
were appointed as temporary officers. Richard H. Thomas 
read as an opening lesson the 13th Chapter of First Corin- 
thians, which was followed by prayer and exhortation. 

3. The following reports were received from eleven 
yearly meetings, giving names of delegates and alternates 
to the Five Years Meeting : 

New England. — Delegates : John Ell wood Paige, 
Charles H. Jones, Benjamin F. Trueblood, Rufus M. 
Jones, Phebe S. Aydelott, Hannah J. Bailey, Sarah J. 
Swift, Daniel C. Maxfield, Olney T. Meacler. Alter- 
nates : Timothy B. Hussey, D. Wheeler Swift, Mary E. 
Miars, Alice W. Maxfield, Alfred T. Ware. 

New York. — Delegates : James Wood, Robert M. 
Ferris, Harry R. Keates, Robert I. Murray, Elmer D. 
Gildersleeve, Mary L,. Chase, Emilie Underhill Burgess, 
Elias G. Minard, Carolena M. Wood. 

Baltimore. — Delegates : Allen C. Thomas, Anna 
King Carey, Samuel R. Neave, Richard H. Thomas, 
Miles White, Jr., Annie D. Stabler. Alternates : Find- 
ley D. Clark, Sarah H. Hoge, James Carey, Jr. 

North Carolina. — Delegates : L,. Lyndon Hobbs, 
Joseph Potts, Mary C. Woody, John W. Woody, J. 
J. Cox, David E. Sampson, Mary C Cartland, Mary J. 



IO MINUTES 

White, W. Alpheus White, Sue V. Hollo well. Alter- 
nates : N. C. English, Mary M. Hobbs, David Farlow, 
Jr., Josiah Nicholson, James R. Jones. 

Indiana. — Delegates : Timothy Nicholson, Francis 
W. Thomas, Allen Jay, Naomi H. Jay, Hannah Lewis 
Smith, EH wood O. Ellis, Joseph John Mills, Ida S. Hen- 
ley, Alpheus Trueblood, Joseph A. Goddard, Enos Har- 
vey, Elizabeth J. Hill, Mary E. Baldwin, Anna A. 
Warder, Evan H- Ferree, Mary H. Goddard, Thomas 
W. White, Robert W. Douglas, Ira C. Johnson, Emma 
Hedges, Charles W. Osborn, Mahalah Jay, Isabel Ken- 
worthy, David Overman, Charles E- Hiatt. Alternates: 
Robert L. Kelly, Joseph O. Binford, Morton C. Pearson, 
Fannie Elliott, Bertha Stubbs. 

Western. — Delegates: Murray S. Ken worthy, Syl- 
vester Newlin, Henry Guyer, Milton Hanson, Dinah 
T. Henderson, William L. Pyle, David Hadley, J. Elmore 
Haworth, John T. Hadley, Enos Kendall, Joshua Carson, 
Thomas C. Brown, Andrew F. Mitchell, Peter W. Raid- 
abaugh, Solomon B. Woodard, Seth Mills, Albert J. 
Brown, Ruth W. Newsom, Eliza C. Armstrong, Sarah J. 
King, William Trueblood. Alternates : Lewis E. Stout, 
Lydia Taylor Painter, Sarah A. Kelsey, Lindley A. Wells, 
Anna Tomlinson, Ransom Trueblood, Martha J. Binford, 
Fleming Johnson. 

Iowa. — Delegates : Absalom Rosenberger, Isom P. 
Wooton, Laura P. Townsend, Isaac N. Rich, Zenas L- 
Martin, Eliza Lindley, Joseph Sopher, Rhoda Neville, A. 
J. Hanson, Cyrus Beede, Albert W. Green, Anna S, Joyce, 
A. F. N. Hambleton, Charles W. Sweet, Alfred H. Lind- 
ley, John W. Stribling. Alternates : Edwin Morrison, 
Ellison R. Purdy, L. Maria Deane, Mary T. Thomas, 



MINUTES 1 1 

Charles S. White, R. J. Mendenhall, Philip Slack, Emma 
F. Coffin, EH G. Parker, Anna G. Thornclyke, Hannah 
T. Green, Samuel L- Haworth, Viola Smith, Hiram 
Hammond, Eli B. Mendenhall, C. Bevan Johnson. 

Kansas. — Delegates : William P. Haworth, L,. Clark- 
son Hinshaw, Isaac Luidley, Achsa C. Kenyon, Isaac A. 
Woodard, Francis A. Wright, Catharine H. Osborn, Leah 
Bales, Edmund Stanle3^, Rachel Kirk, Calvin C. Kesin- 
ger, Thomas Folger, Josiah Dillon, Mary A. Sibbitt, Dil- 
lon H. Dillon, Nathan Brown. Alternates : William S. 
Wooton, Albert A. Baile)^ Elizabeth Ljndley, John How- 
ard, Mary A, Brown, Eusebia S. Couch, Orestes A. Wins- 
low, Elisha H. Janeway, Eliza H. Carey, L. Ella Hartley, 
Mary Jones, M. Elizabeth Watts, Laura Coppock, William 
O. Elliott, Ruth S. Davis, James Pitts. 

Wilmington. — Delegates : Eliza A. West, Paul Tasso 
Terrell, Thomas L. Scott, Robert E. Pretlow, Ellen C. 
Wright, John B. Peelle, Nancy A. C. Leonard, Amos 
Cook, Esther G. Frame, Sarah T. Stanley, Emma S. 
Townsend. Alternates : Arthur L. Carey, Elizabeth 
Larkin, Olive Berger, William A. Starbuck, Edgar H. 
Stranahan, John Cook, Elsie R. Harvey, Jesse Hawkins, 
Mary Edwards, Samuel Dunlap, Ann C. Wall. 

Oi r egon. — Delegates : Edwin H. McGrew, Aaron M. 
Bray, Louisa Painter Rounds, Charles Baldwin, F. M. 
George, Jane H. Blair, Esther Townsend. Alternate: 
Jesse Edwards. 

California. — Delegates: Charles E. Tebbetts, Levi 
Gregory, Washington Hadley, Mary M. Brown, Levi D. 
Barr, William V. Coffin, R. Esther Smith. Alternates : 
Thomas Armstrong, William H. Coffin, Rebecca Naylor, 
William E. Cox, Emilie V. Hadley, Jesse F. Hunnicutt, 
Esther A. Hiatt. 



1 2 MINUTES 

4. Ohio Yearly Meeting and Canada Yearly Meeting 
sent Fraternal Delegates, as follows : 

Ohio. — Fraternal Delegates : Jacob Baker, J. Walter 
Malone, Elizabeth M. Jenkins, Edward Mott, James M. 
Estes, Esther H. Butler, Emma B. Malone, Lida G- 
Romick, William J. Harrison, William P. Pinkham, S. 
Adelbert Wood. Alternates: Daniel H. Wood, Joseph 
C. Hadley, Frederick J. Cope, William H. Harris. 

Canada. — Fraternal Delegates : Alma G. Dale, Wil- 
liam I. Moore, Elias Rogers, William Harris. 

A cordial welcome was extended to these delegates 
and an invitation given to participate in the discussions. 

5. Harriet Green, Sophia M. Fry and Rachel S. Tylor 
were present as visitors from Eondon Yearly Meeting. 

Rebecca W. Cadbury, Edward G. Rhoads, Elizabeth 
B. Jones, John C. Winston, Sarah M. Scull and William 
W. Cadbury, of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, were pres- 
ent as visitors, all of whom were cordially welcomed to 
the Five Years' Meeting. 

6. The places of absentees were filled from the Alter- 
nates by the delegations, as follows : 

In New York delegation Mary T. Tatum takes the 
place of Emilic U. Burgess until her arrival. 

In Baltimore delegation, James Carey, Jr., to act as 
delegate until the arrival of Allen C. Thomas. 

In North Carolina delegation the vacancy caused by 
the absence of Mary J. White, unfilled. 

In Western delegation Eewis E. Stout was made dele- 
gate in the place of Andrew F. Mitchell ; Eydia Taylor 
Painter to fill the place of Ruth W. Newsom ; Sarah A. 
Kelsey to fill the place of Sarah J. King. 



MINUTES 13 

Iowa delegation was filled by appointing Samuel L. 
Haworth as delegate in the absence of Anna S. Joyce. 

Kansas delegation, Albert A. Bailey is made delegate 
in place of L. Clarkson Hinshaw, absent ; Elisfia H. Jane- 
way in place of Leah Bales ; and Mary Jones in place of 
Dillon H. Dillon. 

In Wilmington delegation Mary Edwards filled the 
vacancy caused by the absence of Amos Cook and Edgar 
H. Stranahan until the arrival of Esther G. Frame. 

7 . The following epistle from London Yearly Meet- 
ing to the Five Years Meeting was read by James Wood, 
and personal greeting was given by Harriet Green, of 
London. Rufus M. Jones, Absalom Rosenberger, Ellen 
Wright, Eliza B. Armstrong and Robert E. Kelly were 
appointed to prepare a suitable letter in response. 

"To the Five Years Meeting of the Religious 
Society of Friends in America 
A Greeting in Faith and Love from the Yearly Meet- 
ing of Friends in London, held by adjournments from 
the 2ist of Fifth month to the 29th of the same, inclu- 
sive, 1902: 

" Dear Friends : — 

"To you, beloved Friends, who are gathering together 
for the first time as a constituted representative body, we 
are led to send a message of fellowship and cheer, and to 
bid you God-speed in the name of our Lord and Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, your Master and ours. We have learned 
with no ordinary interest of the banding together of so 
many of your Yearly Meetings, and desire to express our 
hope and trust that your association together will tend to 
the consolidation and progress of our section of the Church 
of Christ, to the promotion of unity in faith and purpose, 
and to the spread of the Kingdom of Heaven amongst 
men. We are encouraged in this belief because we are 
sure that by your united organization you will be able to 



14 MINUTKS 

work more effectually in the cause of righteousness in 
the world, in the promotion of peace, temperance, human 
charity, and goodwill to men. 

" Recognizing that the charter of your mutual asso- 
ciation is that uniform Discipline which your associated 
Yearly Meetings have severally adopted, we rejoice that 
you have been able to find therein a basis of co-operation 
and agreement under the Headship of Christ. It has 
been no part of our duty to compare your book of Disci- 
pline with ours ; still less have we made any attempt to 
criticize it. All thoughts of criticism have been over- 
powered by thoughts of love and thankfulness at finding 
how heartily we are at one with you, and with what 
broad-minded charity your Discipline has been drawn. 
With you we believe that ' the Doctrines of the apostolic 
days are held by the Friends as the essentials of Chris- 
tianity . . . not as traditional dogmas but as vital, life- 
giving realities.' With you we hold ' that man's salva- 
tion is a personal matter between his own soul and God, 
and does not depend upon the intervention of the Church 
in any of its offices, or by any of its officers ; ' that it 
does not consist ' in the administration of any rite, ordi- 
nance, or ceremony whatever ; ' that there is ' no author- 
ity for any form or degree of sacerdotalism in the Chris- 
tian Church ; ' that the Holy Spirit does indeed visit and 
' abide ' in the hearts of those who are willing and 
obedient, leading them into all truth. We rejoice that 
you recognize that there are many ministries of divers 
kinds to which the children of God are called ; and that, 
while no order of men is set apart, we are all called to be 
priests unto God. 

"In these days when our national life, even more than 
yours, has been darkened by the shadows of the war 
spirit, we rejoice in your unwavering testimony to the 
unlawfulness to Christians of all war. We rejoice, too, 
that in the recent Peace Congress held in Philadelphia, 
Friends of your Yearly Meetings were able to co-operate 
with other bodies of Friends many of whom , though they 
stand in no official relation with us, are yet dear to us, 
and whom we honour and esteem for their works' sake. 



MINUTES 15 

' ' We pray that your gathering may be owned and 
blessed of God : that He may be glorified in your midst : 
that there may be amongst you an abundant outpouring 
of His Holy Spirit : that Christ may dwell in your hearts 
by faith, and His divine life illuminate your souls. And 
may the L,ord unite your hearts with ours in the love of 
God and the patience of Christ. 

" Signed on behalf of the Meeting, 

"John Morland, Clerk. 
" Devonshire House, 

"12 Bishopsgate Without, 
" L,ondon, K-C." 

8. A Business Committee for the Five Years Meeting 
was appointed, composed of the following individuals : 

New England. — Rufus M. Jones. 
New York. — James Wood. 
Baltimoi'e. — Allen C. Thomas. 
North Carolina. — Mary C. Cartland. 
hidia na . — Allen Jay . 
Western. — Peter W. Raidabaugh. 
Iowa. — Charles W. Sweet. 
Kansas. — Nathan Brown. 
Oregon. — Aaron M. Bray. 
Wilmington. — Robert E- Pretlow. 
California. — William V. Coffin. 

9. The Business Committee was instructed to meet 
in Committee Room No. 1, at the close of the session for 
organization and arranging further business. 

10. Propositiens from the different Yearly Meetings 
were read and referred to the Business Committee, for 
consideration, to be reported at a future session, as seems 
best. 

1 1 . All further propositions of change of Discipline 
are referred to the Business Committee, without reading, 



1 6 MINUTES 

to determine whether these should come before the Con- 
ference or be referred to Special Committees. 
Recess of five minutes. 

12. Section 2, of Chapter 4, of the Uniform Disci- 
pline, was read as introductory to Isom P. Wooton's 
paper on the ' ' Scope and Work of the Evangelistic and 
Church Entension Board of the Five Years Meeting." 

Allen Jay also read a paper on the same subject, and 
the discussion awakened so much interest, that as the 
hour of adjournment arrived, a motion prevailed to close 
the session and continue the discussion at the opening of 
the afternoon session. 

FOURTH-DAY AFTERNOON, TENTH MONTH 22. 

13. The meeting assembled at 2.30 o'clock. Prayer 
was offered by Harriet Green, of London, and a hymn 
was sung by the congregation. 

14. The Chairmen of the Yearly Meeting delegations 
reported in writing that they had organized as a Com- 
mittee by choosing Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana, as 
Chairman, and Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon, Secretary. 
They proposed the following persons for officers of the 
Five Years Meeting, and, on motion, the persons named 
were chosen to fill the respective positions for which they 
were proposed, viz. : 

Clerk. — Edmund Stanley, of Kansas. 

First Assistant Clerk. — Ellwood O. Ellis, of 
Indiana. 

Second Assistant Clerk. — R. Esther Smith, of 
California. 

Treasurer. — Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore. 

Auditing Committee.- — Timothy Nicholson, of 
Indiana ; Francis A. Wright, of Kansas ; and Charles EL 
Jones, of New England. 



MINUTES 17 

15. The minutes of the morning session were read 
and adopted. 

16. It was ordered that hereafter, the minutes be 
read each morning for all the sessions of the preceding 
day. 

17. The Business Committee offered the following 
propositions, which, having been separately considered, 
were all adopted, and Allen C. Thomas, Rufus M. Jones 
and James Wood are appointed as proposed in the second 
proposition. 

(1) That the time for the sessions be fixed as fol- 
lows : Morning session to open at 9 o'clock and close at 
12 noon ; afternoon sessions to open at 2.30 and adjourn 
at 5 ; evening sessions to open at 7-30. 

(2) That the following committee of three be 
appointed to edit and publish the proceedings of this 
meeting, including the minutes and decisions, the pre- 
pared papers and a synopsis of the discussions, viz. : Allen 
C. Thomas, Rufus M. Jones and James Wood. 

(3) That all propositions for amending the Consti- 
tution and Discipline that have been presented to the Five 
Years Meeting, and also the additional disciplinary regu- 
lations adopted by several of the Yearly Meetings for 
their own use, be referred to a committee to be composed 
of two members from each Yearly Meeting, to be named 
by the several delegations. 

(Signed) AixEN Jay, Chairman, 

P. W. Raidabaugh, Secretary. 

18. The meeting then entered into further discussion 
of the subject of the morning, viz.: " Scope and Work of 
the Kvangelistic and Church Extension Board of the Five 
Years Meeting;" those who participated being Jacob 



IS MINUTES 

Baker, of Ohio; Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana; Levi 
D. Barr, of California; Joseph O. Binford, of Indiana; 
Thomas C. Brown, of Western ; Esther G. Frame, of 
Wilmington; Samuel L. Haworth, of Iowa; Rufus M. 
Jones, of New England ; and Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa. 

19. On motion of Charles E. Tebbetts, of California, 
the delegations were instructed to propose at the session 
to-morrow morning the names of persons to constitute 
the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, the Board 
of Legislation and the Board of Education, according to 
the provisions of the Uniform Discipline ; and further, to 
propose the names of two persons from each Yearly Meet- 
ing to constitute the committee to which shall be referred 
questions of Constitution and Discipline as already pro- 
vided for in the third proposition of Minute 17. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

20. Edmund Stanley, of Kansas, read a paper on 
' ' Scope and Work of the Committee on Legislation and 
Its Co-operation with the Government." Timothy Nich- 
olson, of Indiana, presented a paper in discussion, and 
the question was further discussed by Sophia M. Fry, of 
London ; Mary M. Brown, of California ; and Allen Jay, 
of Indiana. 

21. On motion of Phebe S. Aydelott, of New Eng- 
land, the question of whether there shall be a committee 
to draft resolutions on subjects brought before the meet- 
ings in papers and discussions was referred to the Business 
Committee for their consideration and their recommenda- 
tion thereon, to be reported to a future session. 

22. On motion of Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilming- 
ton, the subject, " Scope and Work of the Committee on 
Education," was deferred till to-morrow afternoon at 2.30 
o'clock. 



MINUTES 19 

23. On motion of Robert L,. Kelly, of Indiana, it was 
decided that the business of this meeting shall continue 
to be transacted according to the rules of parliamentary- 
usage. 

24. On motion, the meeting then adjourned. 

FOURTH DAY, EVENING, TENTH MONTH, 22. 

25. The meeting assembled at 7.30 o'clock. Hymns 
were sung and prayer was offered by Levi D. Barr, of 
California, and Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa. 

26. The Business Committee gave information that a 
book for registration of delegates and visitors will be 
ready to-morrow and requested that all should register 
their names and postoffice addresses. 

Also, with reference to a direction given them in 
Minute 2 1 , they gave information that they would act as 
a committee on resolutions, and would consider all reso- 
lutions submitted to them for that purpose by members of 
this meeting. 

27. On motion of Rufus M. Jones, of New England, 
the Business Committee was instructed to consider the 
question of devising uniform record books, and blanks 
for statistics, for use by the various meetings of the 
church, and to report their judgment thereon to a future 
session. 

28. A paper prepared by Edward M. Wistar, of Phil- 
adelphia, on the " Present Condition of the Indians and 
the Work to be Done for Them," was read, in his absence, 
by John C. Winston. Rachel Kirk, of Kansas, led in 
the discussion, and was followed by Francis W. Thomas 
and Allen Jay, of Indiana ; Carolena M. Wood, of New 
York ; and Cyrus Beede, of Iowa. 

29. On motion of James Wood, of New York, the 



20 MINUTES 

Business Committee was instructed to produce to a future 
session a resolution favorable to a continuance of the 
Indian work as it is at present carried on by the Associ- 
ated Executive Committee on Indian Affairs. 

30. John W. Woody, of North Carolina, read a paper 
on the " Present Condition of the Negroes and the Work 
to be Done for Them." Allen C. Thomas, of Baltimore, 
led in the discussion, and was followed by James Wood, 
of New York. 

31. On motion of Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore, 
the subject of the present condition of, and work to be 
done for the Negroes is referred to the Business Com- 
mittee, with instructions to produce to a future session a 
strong resolution thereupon, and further, to propose some 
plan for definite action, if any way opens therefor. 

32. The meeting then adjourned to meet to-morrow 
morning at 9 o'clock. 

FIFTH DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH, 23. 

33. The meeting assembled at 9 o'clock. Esther H. 
Butler, of Ohio, led the devotional exercises, reading a 
portion of the Scripture, giving an earnest exhortation 
and offering prayer. William P. Haworth, of Kansas, 
also made supplication. 

34. The Minutes of the afternoon and evening ses- 
sions of yesterday were read and adopted. 

35. Zenas L,. Martin, of Iowa, proposed that in view 
of the magnitude of the subject to be presented by Maha- 
lah Jay, of Indiana, his time be used by her in addition 
to that allotted her on the program, and the proposition 
by unanimous consent was granted. She then read a 
paper on the ' ' Present Condition of the Foreign Mission- 
ary Work of American Friends." 



MINUTES 21 

36. Prayer was offered by Mary C. Woody, of North 
Carolina. 

37. Esther H. Butler, of Ohio, by request of the 
meeting, spoke concerning her fifteen years of missionary 
service in China. 

Francis W. Thomas entered into discussion of the 
question. 

Wilfred and Delia D. Rowntree, recently returned 
from mission work at Ramallah, Palestine, were intro- 
duced and spoke briefly. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

38. Carolena M. Wood, of New York, read a paper 
on the " Scope and Work of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions of the Five Years Meeting." James Carey, Jr., of 
Baltimore, and Thomas C. Brown, of Western, also read 
papers in discussion of the subject, which was further dis- 
cussed by Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England, and 
Anna B. Thomas, of Baltimore, she not being a delegate, 
but speaking by general consent. 

39. On motion of Zenas L,. Martin, of Iowa, the 
papers and propositions presented in the discussion were 
referred to the American Board of Foreign Missions for 
their consideration, and they were directed to prepare and 
present to a further session a draft of plans for work, if 
they find it practicable to do so. 

40. In accordance with the instructions of Minute 
No. 19, of the session of yesterday afternoon, the follow- 
ing committees were appointed : 

(1) Evangelistic and Church Extension Board. 

New England. — Charles H. Jones and D. Wheeler 
Swift. 

New York. — Elmer D. Gildersleeve and Emilie Un- 
derbill Burgess. 



22 MINUTKS 

Baltimore. — Samuel R. Neave and Anna K. Carey. 

North Carolina. — David E. Sampson and Sue V. 
Hollo well. 

Indiana. — Joseph O. Binford, Emma Hedges, Evan 
H. Ferree and Mary H. Goddard. 

Western. — Dindley A. Wells, Sarah Kelsey, Dinah 
T. Henderson and John T. Hadley. 

Iowa. — Isom P. Wooton, Daura P. Townsend and 
Samuel D- Haworth. 

Kansas. — Isaac A. Woodard, "William P. Haworth 
and Rachel Kirk. 

Wilmington. — Esther G. Frame, Josephus Hoskins 
and Nancy A. C. Leonard. 

Oregon. — Jesse Edwards and Douisa Painter Rounds. 

California. — Devi Gregory and Devi E. Barr. 

(2) The Board op Legislation. 

New England. — Olney T. Meader and Hannah J. 
Bailey. 

New York. — James Wood and Albert K. Smiley. 

Baltimore. — S. Edgar Nicholson and Dindley D. 
Clark. 

North Carolina. — John W. Woody and J. J. Cox. 

Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson and Francis W. 
Thomas. 

Western. — Amos K. Hollo well and William True- 
blood. 

Iowa. — A. F. N. Hambleton and Cyrus Beede. 

Kansas. — Calvin Kesinger and Albert A. Bailey. 

Wilmi7igton. — John B. Peelle and Paul Tasso Terrell. 

Oregon, — Aaron W. Bray and Jesse Edwards. 

California. — Washington Hadley and William V. 
Coffin. 



MINUTES 23 

(3) The Board of Education. 

New England. — John Ellwood Paige. 
New York. — Carolena M. Wood. 
Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas. 
North Carolina. — L. Lyndon Hobbs. 
Indiana. — Robert L,- Kelly. 
Western. — Andrew F. Mitchell. 
Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger. 
Kansas. — Edmund Stanley. 
Wilmington. — Robert E. Pretlow. 
Oregon. — Edwin H. McGrew. 
California. — Charles E. Tebbetts. 

(4) Committee on Disciplinary Provisions. 

New England. — Charles H. Jones and Benjamin F. 
Trueblood. 

New York. — James Wood and Harry R. Keates. 

Baltimore. — Richard H. Thomas and Samuel R. 
Neave. 

North Carolina. — Joseph Potts and Mary C. Woody. 

Indiana. — Ellwood O. Ellis and Alpheus Trueblood. 

Western — L,ewis E. Stout and Sylvester Newlin. 

Iowa. — Isaac N. Rich and Absalom Rosenberger. 

Kansas. — Mary Jones and Francis A. Wright. 

Wilmington. — Eliza A. West and Thomas L,. Scott. 

Oregon. — Jesse Edwards and Aaron M. Bray. 

California. — Washington Hadley and Eevi Gregory. 

(5) The American Board op Foreign Missions, 

as appointed by the yearly meetings, was also reported 
at this time, and is as follows : 

New England. — Benjamin F. Trueblood and Phebe 
S. Aydelott. 



24 MINUTES 

New York. — Robert M. Ferris and Carolena M. 
Wood. 

Baltimore. — Janies Carey, Jr. and Anna B. Thomas. 

North Carolina. — Josiah Nicholson and Mary A. 
Peelle. 

Indiana. — Mahalah Jay, Charles E. Carey, Ida S. 
Henley and Joseph A. Goddard. 

Western. — Thomas C. Brown, David Hadley, Dydia 
Taylor Painter and Flora P. Mills. 

Iowa. — William Jasper Hadley, Charles L,. Michener 
and Viola Spurgiu. 

Ka?isas. — Hannah E. Sleeper, Francis A. Wright 
and Martha M. Woodard. 

Wilmington. — Ellen C. Wright, Laura E- Dunham 
and James B. Unthank. 

Oregon. — Eaura E. Minthorn and Emmor W. Hall. 

California. — Mary M. Brown and R. Esther Smith. 

41. The meeting then adjourned to meet at 2.30 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

FIFTH-DAY AFTERNOON, TENTH MONTH 23. 

42. The meeting met pursuant to adjournment, at 
2.30 o'clock. Prayer was offered by Isom P. Wooton, of 
Iowa, and Jacob Baker, of Ohio ; two stanzas of a hymn 
were sung. 

43. Absalom Rosenberger, of Iowa, read a paper on 
" The Scope and Work of the Committee on Education." 
The subject was then discussed by Charles E. Tebbetts, oi 
California; L,- Eyndon Hobbs, of North Carolina; William 
P. Pinkham, of Ohio ; Rufus M. Jones, of New England ; 
Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon ; Benjamin F. Trueblood, 
of New England ; S- Adelbert Wood, of Ohio ; and 
Aaron M. Bray, of Oregon. 



MINUTES 25 

44. On motion of Rufus M. Jones, of New England, 
the subject now under consideration was referred to the 
Board of Education, with instructions to present, if prac- 
ticable, at a future session, propositions for the considera- 
tion of this meeting. 

45. Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana, read a paper on 
the " Finances of the Five Years Meeting," Phebe S. 
Aydelott, of New England, following also with a paper. 
The question was discussed by Charles E. Tebbetts, of 
California ; Milton Hanson, of Western, and many others 
in brief remarks. 

46. On motion of Benjamin F. Trueblood of New 
England, the question of Finances, as presented in the 
papers, was referred to a committee of one from each 
delegation, to be reported by the chairman, for their con- 
sideration, and they were directed to report to a future 
session, their judgment as to practicable plans for adoption 
this meeting, and also to define the duties of the Treas- 
urer. This committee was appointed as follows : 

New England. — Daniel C. Maxfield. 
New York. — Robert I. Murray. 
Baltimore. — Miles White, Jr. 
North Carolina. — W. Alpheus White. 
Indiana. — Joseph A. Goddard. 

Western. — Milton Hanson. 
Iowa. — Cyrus Beede. 
Ka?isas. — Thomas Folger. 

Wilmington. — John B. Peelle. 

Oregon. — Jesse Edwards. 

Calif orn ia . — Washington Hadley . 

47. The Business Committee presented a program for 
the evening session, announcing that James Wood, of 
New York ; Rufus M. Jones, of New England ; Mary E. 



26 3IINUTES 

Cartland, of North. Carolina; Robert E. Pretlow, of Wil- 
mington ; Edmund Stanley, of Kansas ; and Edwin H. 
McGrew, of Oregon, would speak on the subject of the 
evening. 

48. The meeting then adjourned to meet at 7.30 
o'clock. 

FIFTH DAY, EVENING, TENTH MONTH 23. 

49. The meeting assembled at 7.30 o'clock, and 
prayer was offered by Rufus M. Jones, of New England, 
and Mary A. Sibbitt, of Kansas. 

50. According to the announcement made by the 
Business Committee at the afternoon session, the discus- 
sion of a plan for united action for the suppression of 
the liquor traffic was given by James Wood, of New 
York ; Rufus M. Jones, of New England ; Mary E. Cart- 
land, of North Carolina ; Robert E. Pretlow, of Wil- 
mington ; Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon ; Emilie Under- 
bill Burgess, of New York; and Edmund Stanley, of 
Kansas. 

51. James Wood, of New York, in behalf of the 
Business Committee, read a document which was pro- 
posed for the adoption of this meeting, calling upon other 
branches of the Church of Christ to join ours in holding 
a convention for the consideration of methods for the 
suppression of the liquor traffic. 

52. On motion of Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilming- 
ton, the document read was unanimously adopted by a 
rising vote, and the issue of it as a call was authorized in 
some manner to be determined at a future session. 

(For copy of this document see under Third Propo- 
sition adopted by Minute 84.) 

53. On motion of James Wood, of New York, the 



MINUTKS 2 7 

document and the subject of it were referred back to the 
Business Committee with instructions to report to a future 
session a plan for issuing the proposed call. (See Third 
Proposition under Minute 83.) 

54. The meeting then adjourned to re-assemble at 
9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

SIXTH DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH 24. 

55. The session opened at 9 o'clock. The devotions 
consisted of Scripture reading, exhortation and prayer by 
Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington ; the congregation joined 
in singing, and prayer was offered by J. Walter Malone, 
of Ohio, and Enos Harvey, of Indiana. 

56. The Minutes of the three sessions of yesterday 
were read and approved. 

57. Propositions were received as follows : 
(1). From Wilmington Yearly Meeting — 
Wilmington Yearly Meeting at its late annual session 

instructed its delegates to the Five Years Meeting to 
request that body to take under advisement the subject of 
a Chnrch catechism, and to consider the propriety of 
putting such catechism within the reach of Friends. 
(2). From Baltimore Yearly Meeting — 
The matter of the advisability of having a Friends' 
Bible School Quarterly has been brought to the attention 
of this meeting by a communication from Baltimore Quar- 
terly Meeting. We request our delegates to the Five 
Years Meeting to bring the subject before that body. 
(3). From the Quinquennial Conference — 
The Committee to consider the subject of a Friends' 
Hymnal made the following report, which was referred to 
the Five Years Meeting- without recommendation : 



28 MINUTES 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE. 



Owing to the distance and expense involved in get- 
ting representatives from each Yearly Meeting together, 
the work was undertaken by an Executive Committee, 
which has given no little time, labor and personal expense 
in fulfilling the object of their appointment. We did not 
deem it wise to involve the Conference financially without 
being able to submit the matter for acceptance. The 
result of our labors has been to prove that it is possible 
to obtain from publishers a book, with, say, 600 hymns 
upon a wide range of subjects and acceptable to Friends 
from a doctrinal standpoint, provided an order w T ere placed 
for an edition of 3,000 copies, said book to be well bound 
and to retail at seventy. five cents. A strong interest is 
shown in this matter from the many inquiries as to when 
such a book will be ready. 

Your Committee recommends that the subject be 
referred to the Five Years Meeting to appoint a commit- 
tee with power to select hymns suitable and arrange for 
printing and publishing the same at an early date. 
For the Committee, 
Robert E. Pretlow, Acting Chairman. 

58. On motion the three items of the foregoing Min- 
ute w r ere all referred to a committee composed of one from 
each delegation, wmich later was named as follows : 

New Eiigland. — Rufus M. Jones. 

New York. — Elmer D. Gildersleeve. 

Baltimore. — Samuel R. Xeave. 

North Carcli?ia. — Mary C. Woody. 

I?idia?ia. — Ellwood O. Ellis. 

Weste?n. — Andrew F. Mitchell. 

Iowa. — A. F. N. Hambleton. 



MINUTES 29 

Ka?isas. — Josiah Dillon. 
Wilmington. — Sarah T. Stanley. 
Oregon. — Douisa P. Rounds. 
California. — Devi D. Barr. 

59. The subject of " Methods of Practical Work 
among Rural and Urban Communities ' ' was presented by 
EH wood O. Ellis, of Indiana, following which, in further 
presentation, a paper was read by Alpheus Trueblood, ol 
Indiana. 

60. David E. Sampson, of North Carolina, led in 
prayer, and then discussed the question, and was followed 
by Devi D. Barr, of California; Charles H. Jones, ol 
New England ; Harry R. Keates, of New York ; Isom 
P. Wooton, of Iowa ; J. Walter Malone, of Ohio ; James 
Carey, Jr., and Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore ; Alma 
G. Dale, of Canada ; Solomon B. Woodard, of Western ; 
and Jacob Baker, of Ohio. 

61. On motion of Devi Gregory, of California, the 
question under consideration is referred to the Evangelis- 
tic and Church Extension Board for their consideration 
and report to a future session. 

62. The author of ' ' Throw Out the Life Dine," Rev. 
E. D. Ufford, was introduced and sang that hymn. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

63. James Wood, of New York, in behalf of trie 
Business Committee, presented the following resolutions, 
which, having been separately considered, were all 
adopted : 

(1). Resolved, That we protest in the strongest man- 
ner possible against the spirit of lawlessness that is being 
manifested in various parts of the land. Our civilization 
and our institutions are founded upon respect for and obe- 
dience to law, and they are undermined and threatened 
with destruction when any law is violated with impunity. 



30 MINUTES 

Resolved, That in respect for law, for the rights of 
humanity, and for the religion of Jesus Christ, we protest 
in the name of Christian civilization against the mob vio- 
lence, which in the form of lynching either of white or 
black, or red or yellow men, outrages every principle of 
right and justice ; and we call upon the Legislatures of 
the several states to so revise their statutes that the con- 
tinuation of this barbarous practice may be prevented. 

(2) Resolved, That we approve of the work being 
done by several of the Yearly Meetings for bettering the 
condition of the Negroes, and we desire to encourage 
them therein. 

(3) Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting approves 
of the work of the Associated Executive Committee of 
Friends on Indian Affairs, and while we recognize that 
there is much yet to be done, we are thankful for what 
has been accomplished in protecting the Indians in their 
rights, in giving them both intellectual and manual train- 
ing, and most important of all, in bringing them to the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ. 

Resolved, That we accept the present organization of 
the Committee, and we request it to continue its work, 
and we appoint it as our official representative in this 
field. 

Resolved, That the several Yearly Meetings are 
advised to continue their financial support to the Com- 
mittee, and we request them to increase their contribu- 
tions as they may be able to do. 

Resolved, That we request the Committee to report 
annually to the several bodies to whom it has heretofore 
reported, and also to send a full report of its work to the 
Five Years Meeting. 

A resolution concering Negroes was also presented 
to the Committee, but there being a strong expression 
favorable to its modification, it was referred back to the 
Committee for further consideration (See Resolution 4, 
under Minute 93.)- 



MINUTES 31 

64. The Meeting then adjourned, to meet at 2.30 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

SIXTH-DAY, AFTERNOON, TENTH MONTH 24. 

65. The meeting convened at 2.30 o'clock. The 
session opened with a period of silence, and vocal pra}^er 
was offered by Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa, and James M. 
Estes of Ohio. 

66. Charles E. Tebbetts, of California, read a paper 
on ' ' Practical Aspects of the Present Trend of Religious 
Thought." J. Ellwood Paige, of New England, also fol- 
lowed with a paper on the same subject. Aaron M. Bray, 
of Oregon ; Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana ; John W. 
Woody, of North Carolina ; Isom P. Wooton, of Iowa ; 
andS. Adelbert Wood and William P. Pinkham, of Ohio, 
engaged in the discussion. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

67. Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England, read 
a paper on ' ' How Can an Efficient Ministry be Devel- 
oped ? " Seth Mills, of Western, followed also with 
a paper. The question was discussed by Richard H. 
Thomas, of Baltimore. 

68. A resolution presented by Benjamin F. True- 
blood, of New England, was on motion, referred to the 
Business Committee for consideration and report to a 
future session. 

69. The Meeting then adjourned to meet at 7.30 
o'clock in the evening. 

SIXTH-DAY, EVENING, TENTH MONTH 24. 

70. The meeting was opened at the appointed time, 
prayer being offered by William I. Moore, of Canada, and 



32 MINUTES 

William P. Ha worth, of Kansas ; the audience engaging 
also in song service. 

7 1 . The Finance Committee presented the following 
report, which, on motion of Allan Jay, of Indiana, was 
amended by substituting Legislative Committee for Busi- 
ness Committee, and then adopted : 

To the; Five Years' Meeting : 

The Committee on Finance present the following 
recommendation — 

That the Five Years Meeting shall be incorporated ; 
that the place of such incorporation , and the form thereof, 
shall be referred to the Business Committee, (amended to 
be . Legislative Committee) . 

For the Committee, 

Daniee C. Maxfieed. 
Robert I. Murray, Secretary. 

72. The Iowa Delegation reported that Ellison R. 
Purdy and EmmaE. Coffin have been substituted as dele- 
gates, instead of Alfred H. and Eliza Lindley, who are 
now absent. 

73. Richard* H. Thomas, of Baltimore, read a paper 
on ' ' Our Present Duty to the Cause of Peace and Arbi- 
tration." The question was then discussed by Cyrus W. 
Hodgin, of Indiana, Anna B. Thomas, of Baltimore, 
Emilie Underhill Burgess, of New York, Benjamin F- 
Trueblood, of New England, Joseph Potts, of North 
Carolina, Samuel L. Haworth, of Iowa, Aaron M. 
Bray, of Oregon, and Annie D. Stabler, of Baltimore. 

74. On motion of Allen Jay, of Indiana, the Record- 
ing Clerk was directed to write a Minute of endorsement 
of the Peace Association of Friends in America, which is 
as follows: 



MINUTES 33 

The work of the Peace Association of Friends in 
America is heartily approved by this meeting, and while 
we urge the various Yearly Meetings to continue their 
relations with it, giving it hearty support, and receiving 
its annual reports as heretofore, we appoint it as our 
official representative on the subject of Peace, and request 
it to make report also to this meeting. 

75. The meeting then adjourned to meet to-morrow 
morning, at 9 o'clock. 

SEVENTH-DAY MORNING, TENTH MONTH, 25 

76. The meeting opened with devotional exercises, 
led by Harriet Green, of London, prayer also being 
offered by Joseph Sopher, of Iowa, and David E. Samp- 
son, of North Carolina ; a hymn was sung. 

77. The Minutes of the proceedings of the three 
sessions of yesterday were read and approved. 

78. Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington, read a paper 
on " Our Church Literature, " and the question was dis- 
cussed by Albert J. Brown, of Western, who presented 
resolutions which, by unanimous consent, were referred 
to the Business Committee for its consideration and judg- 
ment thereon, to be reported at a future session. 

79. Further discussion on the subject followed by 
A. F. N. Harnbleton, of Iowa, and Peter W. Raidabaugh, 
of Western, on whose motion the Business Committee was 
requested to take into consideration the advisability of the 
meeting appointing a Publication Committee. 

80. On motion of James Wood, of New York, the 
proposition to establish a Friends' Lectureship was 
referred to the Board of Education for its consideration, 
and for such action as way may open for, the question 
having first been discussed by Allen C. Thomas, of Balti- 
more ; Robert L. Kelly, of Indiana; Mary A. Sibbitt, ot 



34 MINUTES 

Kansas ; Emma F. Coffin, of Iowa ; Francis W. Thomas, 
of Indiana; Charles E. Tebbetts, of California ; Benjamin 
F. Trueblood, of New England, and Robert E. Pretlow, 
of Wilmington. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

81. The discussion was continued by Charles W. 
Sweet, of Iowa, and Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington. 

82. The following report of the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions was read, and on motion 
approved. 

The Report of the American Friends' Board of For- 
eign Missions to the Five Years Meeting is respectfully 
submitted as follows : — That, 

In session Tenth month 24, 1902, The American 
Friends' Board of Foreign Missions organized by the 
appointment of the following officers. Namely, for 

President. — Thomas C. Brown, of Carmel, Indiana. 

Secretary. — Mahalah Jay, of Richmond, Indiana. 

Treasurer. — James Carey, Jr., of Baltimore, Mary- 
land. 

Charles E. Carey, of Fairmount, Indiana, and Ellen C. 
Wright, of Wilmington, Ohio, who together with the 
three officers named above constitute the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Board, and as an 

Advisory Committee : — Hannah E. Sleeper, of 
Kansas Yearly Meeting ; William Jasper Hadley, of 
Iowa Yearly Meeting; Carolena M. Wood, of New York 
Yearly Meeting ; Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New Eng- 
land Yearly Meeting ; R. Esther Smith, of California 
Yearly Meeting; Emmor W. Hall, of Oregon Yearly 
Meeting ; Mary A. Peelle, of North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting. 

The American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions 
has considered the papers and proposition^ presented in 
the discussion on Fifth-day morning the 23d inst. in 
the Five Years Meeting, and by it referred to said Board, 



MINUTES 35 

and has adopted the following propositions to further 
define the function of said Board and its relations to the 
Boards of the Yearly Meetings, viz. : 

I. It shall be the duty of this Board to represent 
American Friends in matters pertaining to the interde- 
nominational aspects of foreign mission work. 

II. Each Yearly Meeting represented in the Board 
while continuing its own separate work as heretofore, 
should realize that this work forms a constituent part of 
the foreign mission work of Friends in America, of which 
the American Friends' Board has a general advisory over- 
sight ; but it must not be interpreted that such advice 
carries with it any controlling authority. 

III. The foreign mission Boards of the Yearly Meet- 
ings should annually furnish the secretary of the Ameri- 
can Friends' Board a full report of their mission needs, 
and of the work during the preceding year, which together 
with such other information and statistics as may be 
accessible shall be drawn upon as material for the annual 
report of this Board to the Yearly Meetings. 

IV. Whenever two or more Yearly Meetings are 
working in the same foreign field, they should each keep 
in view the importance of actual co-operation in such 
work as far as practicable. 

V. Each Yearly Meeting represented in this Board 
should make, through its foreign mission Board or other- 
wise, the necessary arrangements for receiving voluntary 
contributions for the work of the American Friends' 
Board, and forwarding the same to the Treasurer of said 
Board. 

VI. In order to bring this Board and the Mission 
Boards of the several Yearly Meetings into close touch 
with each other, it is desirable that the members of this 
Board for each Yearly Meeting shall be ex officio, or other- 
wise, members of its Foreign Mission Board. 

Thomas C. Brown, President. 
Mahai^ah Jay, Secretary. 



2,6 MINUTES 

83. A letter of greeting from the National Convention 
of Woman's Christian Temperance Union, held at Port- 
land, Maine, was received, and the Recording Clerk was 
directed to acknowledge reception of the letter and to 
give the hearty greeting of this meeting to the President 
of that body, Lillian M. N. Stevens, of Portland, Maine. 

84. The Business Committee presented three proposi- 
tions, which, having been considered separately, are on 
motion, severally adopted. They are as follows : 

(1) Resolved, That all vacancies occurring in Boards 
and Standing Committees in the interim of the sessions of 
the Five Years Meeting be filled by such Boards and 
Committees, if not otherwise provided for. 

(2) We recommend that the entire subject of Biblical 
and Religious Study be referred to the Committee on 
Education, encouraging the members of this Committee 
to do all in their power to provide for the pressing needs 
of our membership in this direction. 

(3) We propose that an Executive Committee of five 
be appointed by the Five Years Meeting to make all the 
necessary preliminary arrangements for holding the pro- 
posed Conference on the Liquor Traffic, to carry on the 
necessary correspondence with the churches, and to be the 
delegates at large from this body, and we nominate James 
Wood, Rufus M. Jones, Timothy Nicholson, Benjamin F. 
Trueblood and Edmund Stanley as such committee. And 
we further propose that the delegates from the several 
Yearly Meetings name one additional delegate to attend 
the Conference, if held. If the developments shall be 
such that an additional number of delegates will be 
advisable, the Executive Committee shall request the 
Yearly Meetings to appoint such additional number as 
the Committee may advise, 

The following is the document adopted by Minute 5 1 
at the Fifth-day evening session, and referred to the Busi- 
ness Committee by Minute 53, and their recommendation, 
now adopted, is made to read as follows : 



MINUTES 37 

From the Five Years Meeting of the 

Society of Friends in America, 

Held at Indianapolis, Ind., in October, 1902. 

To the Various Christian Bodies in the United States : 

Dear Brethren in Christ : — We are confident in the 
belief that the consensus of opinion of the professing 
Christians of our land is opposed to the evils of the 
liquor traffic, and we find a want of co-operation in prac- 
tical effort to give effect to this opposition because none 
of the propositions heretofore made has met the approval 
of the general judgment of Christian people. We recog- 
nize that this is the case in our own body, and we believe 
it is likewise true of others. As a result, the Church 
exerts far less influence than it should to prevent the evils 
produced by this great cause of poverty and crime, and 
which, also, is a most serious obstacle to the spread of 
the Gospel. 

We are deeply impressed with the conviction that an 
earnest effort should be made to ascertain in what way 
Christians can exert a united influence in this cause, and 
by what means they may work together. Upon what 
proposition can we obtain a practical agreement ? We 
frankly confess that we are not competent to solve the 
problem, but we believe that by united inquiry and a 
prayerful seeking for Divine enlightenment, with the will- 
ingness to approach the subject with an open mind, the 
united Church may find a way by which we can serve the 
cause of Christ and the good of mankind in seeking the 
ultimate elimination of this sturendous evil. We, there- 
fore, invite the governing bodies of the various denomi- 
nations of Christians in the United States to appoint dele- 
gates to represent them in a Conference to be held in the 
city of Washington, to begin on the second Wednesday 
of March in the year 1906. The decisions of this Confer- 
ence should be reached only in practical unanimity, and, 
therefore, it is unnecessary to indicate any limit to the 
proposed representation. 

We issue this invitation with an humble realization 
of the smallness of our body, as compared with many 



38 MINUTES 

others, but we do it tinder a deep sense that this duty has 
been laid upon us and that God will use the proposed 
instrumentality for the accomplishment of great good to 
mankind and for the glory of His name. 

Believing that this proposition will meet with your 
approval and practical co-operation, we have appointed 
James Wood, of Mount Kisco, N. Y. ; Rufus M. Jones, 
Haverford, Pa. ; Timothy Nicholson, Richmond, Ind. ; 
Benjamin F. Trueblood, Boston, Mass. ; and Edmund 
Stanley, Wichita, Kan., with one additional delegate from 
each of eleven Yearly Meetings, to represent us at the 
Conference. 

In the faith and love of Jesus Christ 

We are your friends, 
(Signed by direction of Edmund Stanley, 

the Meeting.) Presiding Clerk. 

Etdwood O. Ellis, 

Assistant Clerk. 

85. The Meeting then adjourned to meet at 2.30 
o'clock this afternoon. 

SEVENTH-DAY, afternoon, tenth month 25. 

86. The Meeting began with prayer by Joseph O. 
Binford, of Indiana ; Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington ; 
and Emma F. Coffin, of Iowa. 

87. On motion of James Wood, of New York, Zenas 
L,. Martin, of Iowa, was given ten minutes to speak con- 
cerning the mission work in Cuba. 

88. Consideration of the " Place and Functions of 
the Five Years Meeting in Our Church Organization" 
was now taken up, the discussion being given by James 
Wood, of New York ; Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New 
England ; Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana ; David Had- 
ley, of Western ; Isaac Rich, of Iowa ; William L,. Pyle, 
of Western ; Rufus M. Jones, of New England ; Richard 



MINUTES 39 

H. Thomas, of Baltimore ; William I. Moore, of Canada ; 
Jacob Baker, of Ohio; Annie D. Stabler, of Baltimore; 
Esther G. Frame and Edgar H. Stranahan, of Wilming- 
ton ; and Rebecca W. Cadbury, of Philadelphia. 

89. On motion of Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore, 
the question as to whether it is best to prepare a Book of 
Meetings was referred to the Business Committee to report 
to a future session. 

90. A proposition from the Business Committee that 
a committee of one from each Yearly Meeting be appointed 
as a Committee of Arrangements for the next Five Years 
Meeting, was, on motion, adopted, and the several dele- 
gations having conferred and proposed names of persons 
to constitute such committee, they were appointed as 
follows : 

New England. — Rufus M. Jones. 
New York. — James Wood. 
Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas. 
North Carolina. — Mary E. Cartland. 
Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson. 
Western. — Peter W. Raidabaugh. 
Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger 
Ka?isas. — Cyrus R. Dixon. 
Wilmington. — Jonathan B. Wright. 
Oregon. — Edwin H. McGrew. 
California. — R. Esther Smith. 

91. A proposition from the Business Committee that 
Charles E. Newlin, of Western, be appointed Railroad 
Secretary, was, on motion approved, and he appointed 
accordingly. 

(This was changed later ; see Minute 120.) 



4-0 MINUTES 

92. On motion the Recording Clerk was directed to 
write a Minute concerning the attendance of fraternal 
delegations at this Meeting ; it is as follows : 

" We are thankful to have the presence of fraternal 
delegations appointed by Ohio and Canada Yearly Meet- 
ings, to whom we have been glad to extend the privilege 
of joining in the discussion of the various questions that 
have come before us. It is our desire that these may bear 
to their Yearly Meetings the cordial fraternal greetings 
of the Five Years Meeting, and an expression of our 
appreciation of their representation amongst us at this 
time. We are also grateful for the presence of several 
members from London and Philadelphia Yearly Meetings, 
to whom it has been a pleasure to grant the same privi- 
leges. By the presence of all of these we have been 
strengthened and encouraged." 

The Meeting took a recess of five minutes. 

93. The Business Committee presented four proposi- 
tions, which, having been considered separately, were on 
motion adopted, and the appointments proposed therein 
were made accordingly. They are as follows : 

(1) The Committee do not think it advisable to pro- 
pose a Committee on Publication at this time. 

(2) Resolved, That we endorse the American Frie?id 
and the Missionary Advocate, and heartily commend 
them to the Friends in America. 

(3) Resolved, That the preparation of uniform blanks 
and uniform records be transferred to a committee com- 
posed of Rufus M. Jones, Peter W. Raidabaugh and 
William V. Coffin, to prepare the necessary forms and 
present the same before the Yearly Meetings for their 
adoption. 



MINUTES 41 

(4) It is proposed that a Board on the Condition and 
Welfare of the Negroes, consisting of twenty-two mem- 
bers, eleven at large, and one from each Yearly Meeting, 
be appointed to take into consideration the best means for 
elevating them. This Committee shall have power to 
carry the same into effect. The following are nominated 
for said board : 

At large : Augustine Jones, Robert M. Ferris, Allen 
C. Thomas, James Carey, Jr., John W. Woody, J. Elwood 
Cox, Allen Jay, Mary J. Ballard, Robert E. Pretlow, 
Peter W. Raidabaugh, Charles W. Sweet. 

From the Yearly Meetings : 

New England. — Robert P. Gifford. 

New York. — Robert I. Murray. 

Baltimo?-e. — Richard H. Thomas. 

North Carolina. — Mary M. Hobbs. 

Wilmington. — Mary Edwards. 

Indiana. — Joseph A. Goddard. 

Western. — Solomon B. Woodard. 

Iowa. — Joseph Sopher. 

Kansas. — Mary C. Wright. 

California. — William H. Coffin. 

Oregon. — Daniel Drew. 

94. The Finance Committee presented the following 
report, which, having been freely discussed and con- 
sidered, was on motion adopted, and the chairmen of the 
delegations are directed to report as proposed in the plan 
contained therein. 
To the Five Years Meeting : 

The Committee to arrange a plan of finance, and to 
define the duties of the Treasurer, are united in presenting 
the following report. We recommend, 

First, That the financial affairs of the meeting be 
conducted upon a cash basis. 



42 MINUTES 

Second, The appointment by the Five Years Meet- 
ing of a Finance Committee of five members, of whom 
the Treasurer shall be one They shall promptly ascer- 
tain the amount needed to cover the entire expense of the 
Quinquennial Conference and Five Years Meeting of 
1902 ° the probable expenses prior to Ninth month 30, 
1903, for administration of the Board of Foreign Missions 
not otherwise provided for ; of the Evangelistic Board for 
correspondence, and of such other Committees as may 
have been specifically authorized by the Five Years 
Meeting. The sum of these expenses shall be appor- 
tioned by said Committee for payment, among the several 
Yearly Meetings, in proportion to their membership. 
Notifications cf the amounts thus payable shall be sent to 
the Treasurers of the several Yearly Meetings, and also 
to the Treasurer of the Five Years Meeting. 

Remittances of these amounts shall be made prior to 
First month 1, 1903, to Miles White, Jr., Treasurer, No. 
214 East German Street, Baltimore, Md. 

In the Tenth month of each year hereafter (the finan- 
cial year shall close Ninth month 30), the probable 
expenses for the ensuing fiscal year of these Boards and 
Committees as above outlined shall be ascertained by the 
Finance Committee, and apportioned in the manner pro- 
vided for in the preceding paragraph. Remittances of 
these amounts to be made to the Treasurer before the 
close of the calendar year. 

We also recommend that a statement of the amount 
of the railroad fares of the delegates in going to and 
returning from the Five Years Meeting, shall be made in 
duplicate by the Chairman of each delegation, and certi- 
fied by him. He shall send one copy to the Treasurer of 
his Yearly Meeting, and the other to the Treasurer of the 
the Five Years Meeting, certifying also the number of 
delegates to which his Yearly Meeting is entitled. 

The Treasurer of the Five Years Meeting shall, 
prior to First month 1, 1903, adjust with the Treasurer 
of each Yearly Meeting, the balance due to or from him, 
after the apportionment as provided in the Discipline. 

We recommend that voluntary contributions shall be 



MINUTES 43 

made every year in each particular meeting of the several 
Yearly Meetings, comprising the Five Years Meeting, of 
funds for the use of the Boards of the Meeting. Each 
member should have opportunity to contribute or sub- 
scribe. So far as practicable, the collection for each 
form of work should be taken on the same day through- 
out any Yearly Meeting. Also, that our Yearly Meet- 
ings are requested to formulate and send down to their 
subordinate Meetings instructions which shall result in 
having brought clearly to the attention of the whole 
membership, the needs of the several forms of Christian 
and philanthropic effort represented by the Boards and 
Committees for which money is desired. Also, that this 
shall be done without conflicting with any other special 
work of any Yearly Meeting. 

We present the following names of persons to serve 
on the Finance Committee: Amos K. Hollowell, Albert 
F. N. Hambleton, William P. Henley, and Olney T. 
Meader (Miles White, Jr., Treasurer, already a member 
ex officio.}. 

The expenses of the Five Years Meeting shall 
include in addition to the ordinary incidental expenses of 
heating, lighting, postage, stenographers, etc. , and the 
cost of publishing in full its proceedings and distributing 
the same, the expenses of necessary employees, and any 
expenses specifically authorized by said Meeting, but 
shall not include board or lodging of the delegates. 
The railroad fare of delegates includes the actual cost of 
transportation by whatever mode of conveyance is neces- 
sary to and from the various places of residence of said 
delegates to the place where the meeting is held, and does 
not include the cost of sleeping-car accommodations, and 
other incidental expenses while en route. 

DUTIES OP THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall receive from the Treasurers of 
the several Yearly Meetings, and from other sources, all 
moneys for the use of the Five Years Meeting and the 
various Boards thereof. 



44 MINUTES 

The funds raised by voluntary contributions in the 
several Yearly Meetings and elsewhere, for the work of 
the various Boards and Committees, shall, when received 
by the Treasurer, be paid over to the Treasurers of these 
respective Boards and Committees. 

The funds raised by apportionment from the several 
Yearly Meetings shall be paid out as follows : 

First, upon the certification of the Clerk and First 
Assistant Clerk of the Five Years Meeting, the expenses 
incurred for the publication of its proceedings, the regu- 
lar expenses of the Five Years Meeting, and any special 
expenses of Committees or others authorized by the Five 
Years Meeting. 

Second, Upon the certification of the Chairmen and 
Secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions and of the 
Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, and the 
expenses of administration and correspondence of said 
respective Boards authorized by the Discipline. 

Third, Upon the certification of the Chairmen of the 
various delegations to the Five Years Meeting of the 
amount of the railroad fares of said delegations, the proper 
proportions of each Yearly Meeting's share of fares. 

The Treasurer shall be authorized to receive and 
officially receipt for all legacies, donations, or funds, 
requiring a formal legal acknowledgment. He shall be 
required to furnish a satisfactory corporate bond in such 
amount as the Finance Committee may from time to time 
determine. He shall be provided with necessary clerical 
assistance. 

Signed on behalf of the Committee, 

Daniel C. Maxfield. 

95. The meeting then adjourned to meet at 7.30 
o'clock in the evening. 

SEVENTH-DAY EVENING, TEXTH MONTH 25. 

96. The meeting opened with devotional exercises as 
usual . 

97. The Iowa delegation reported that EH G. Parker 



MINUTES 45 

had taken place as delegate instead of A. Hanson, who 
was no longer present. 

98. The Committee appointed on disciplinary provi- 
sions reported as follows. The report was carefully con- 
sidered, and on motion was adopted. The attention of the 
Yearly Meetings is called to the amendment proposed 
therein, which calls for their action and report thereon to 
the next Five Years Meeting. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON DISCIPLINARY 
PROVISIONS. 

To the Five Years Meeting : 

The Committee to which was referred the amend- 
ments to the Constitution and Discipline, together with 
the additional disciplinary regulations as submitted by 
different Yearly Meetings, report that they have carefully 
considered all the matters thus referred to them and are 
united in recommending to the Five Years Meeting the 
adoption of the following minute : — 

Several propositions for the amendment of the Con- 
stitution and Discipline for the American Yearly Meeting 
of Friends have been submitted by Kansas, California and 
Western Yearly Meetings to this meeting for its consider- 
ation. 

This meeting does not deem it advisable to recom- 
mend to the Yearly Meetings the adoption of any of these 
as presented. It does, however, recommend to the Yearly 
Meetings constituting this Five Years Meeting, the adop- 
tion of the following modified form ol a proposition from 
Kansas Yearly Meeting, to amend Part II., Chapter x, 
Section 1, Title, Yearly Meetings, paragraph 8, following 
the words, ' When a proposition is approved by a Yearly 
Meeting, it shall be reported to the Five Years Meeting 
for its consideration,' by adding the words — 

' and if it be approved by that body, with such modifi- 
cations as that body shall see fit to make, it shall then be 



46 MINUTES 

submitted to the several Yearly Meetings for their action ; 
and it shall become operative when it shall have been 
adopted by four-fifths of the Yearly Meetings constituting 
the Five Years Meeting.' 

This particular amendment, of course, becoming 
operative only when adopted by all these Yearly Meet- 
ings. 

This Committee further recommends that the verbal, 
grammatical and typographical changes as well as the 
changes in arrangement of matter as proposed by the 
Committee of the Quinquennial Conference to prepare 
the uniform Discipline be adopted by the Five Years 
Meeting, and that the copy thus corrected become the offi- 
cial copy of this body. Also, that electrotype plates 
thereof be procured and an index be prepared and added 
thereto. 

The Committee has also examined the additional 
disciplinary regulations proposed by different Yearly Meet- 
ings in accordance with Part II, Chapter i, Title, Govern- 
ment, and finds in them nothing inconsistent with the 
Constitution and Discipline. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, Chairman. 
ChareES H. Jones, Secretary. 

99. Rufus M. Jones, of New England, read a paper 
on "The Theory and Practice of Public Worship," as 
also did Kdwin H. McGrew, of Oregon. The subject 
was discussed by William W. Cadbury, of Philadelphia ; 
Sophia M. Fry, of London ; Charles E. Tebbetts, of Cal- 
ifornia, and John W. Woody, of North Carolina. 

100. A resolution on the subject of prayer was pre- 
sented by Rufus M. Jones, of New England, and was 
referred to the Business Committee for consideration, and 
report thereon to a future session. 

101. The meeting then adjourned to meet next Sec- 
ond-day Morning at 9 o'clock. 



MINUTES 47 

SECOND-DAY MORNING, TENTH MONTH 27. 

102. The meeting convened at 9 o'clock, the devo- 
tional exercises consisting of Scripture reading, exhorta- 
tion, and prayer being conducted by R. Esther Smith, of 
California. Prayer was also offered by Elmer D. Gilder- 
sleeve, of New York; and Albert A. Bailey, of Kansas. 
Remarks of exhortation were made I by Enos Harvey, of 
Indiana; Lewis E. Stout, of Western 1 ,; J.Walter Malone, 
of Ohio, and Isom P. Wooton, of Iowa. 

103. The Board of Legislation presented the follow- 
ing report, which, having been read and considered, on 
motion of Milton Hanson, of Western, was adopted. 

REPORT OP BOARD OP LEGISLATION. 

The Committee on Legislation met and organized by 
appointing Timothy Nicholson, President, and Amos K. 
Hollo well, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Hannah J. Bailey, Francis W. Thomas and Cyrus 
Beede were appointed to present to a future meeting of the 
Committee the names of five persons to be chosen from the 
Committee to constitute a sub-committee, as provided for 
in the Constitution and Discipline. To give attention to 
subjects before the National Congress and in those States 
where there are no Organized Meetings of Friends. 

1.30, 10th, 25. The Committee appointed yesterday 
report the following names to constitute the sub-commit- 
tee : James Wood, Timothy Nicholson, Cyrus Beede, S. 
Edgar Nicholson and John W. Woody, who being fully 
united with were appointed. 

Timothy Nicholson, John B. Peelle and Amos K. 
Hollowell were appointed to prepare incorporation papers 
to incorporate the Five Years Meeting ; to have the same 
executed by all the members of the Committee, and 
recorded. The State of Indiana was given the preference, 
unless the laws of some other State is found to be more 
favorable. 



48 MINUTES 

Albert A. Bailey presented and read a letter recom- 
mending that petitions and memorials to Congress be 
better guarded. Referred to Committee of five. 

The Committee must keep a record of its proceedings 
and report to the Five Years Meeting. 

Timothy Nicholson, President, 
Amos K. Hollowell, Secretary. 

104. The Evangelistic and Church Extension Board 
presented the following report, which was read and con- 
sidered, and on motion was adopted : 

REPORT OP EVANGELISTIC AND CHURCH EXTENSION 
BOARD. 

The Evangelistic and Church Extension Board met 
and organized with Charles H. Jones, Amesbury, Mass., 
as Chairman ; John T. Hadley, Pecksburg, Ind., as Treas- 
urer ; and Emma Hedges, New Castle, Ind., as Secretary. 

Levi Gregory, San Jose, Cal., and Esther G. Frame, 
Richmond, Ind., were appointed as the two additional 
members to serve on the Executive Committee. 

The Board submits the following recommendations 
concerning the papers referred to it by the Five Years 
Meeting : — ■ 

The work of the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board is of such scope, that we urge great wisdom and 
earnestness in the furtherance of plans to enlarge this 
field, and recommend watchfulness for opportunities of ser- 
vice which enlist our sympathy and demand our attention. 

Since methods of work differ in accordance with 
needs and localities, our ministers and workers should 
recognize the importance and dignity of the mission of 
the Church, and give support to such plans as will make 
prominent the uplifting power of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, preaching the truth by example and precept^ in 
dependence upon the spirit of God. 

Charles H. Jones, Chairman, 
Emma Hedges, Secretary. 



MINUTES 49 

105. On motion of Charles H. Jones, of New Eng- 
land, the chairmen of the several delegations are directed 
to furnish the five members of the Executive Committee 
of the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, viz.: 
Charles H. Jones, Amesbury, Mass. ; John T. Hadley, 
Pecksburg, Ind. ; Emma Hedges, New Castle, Ind. ; 
Eevi Gregory, San Jose, Cal. ; and Esther G. Frame, 
Richmond, Ind., each a copy of the Minutes of their 
respective Yearly Meetings, including the names and 
addresses of all ministers belonging thereto. 

106. The Board on the Condition and Welfare of the 
Negroes reported the following organization, and on 
motion the report was approved. 

REPORT OF BOARD ON THE CONDITION AND WEI/FARE 
OP THE NEGROES. 

To the Five Years Meeting : 

The Friends' Board on the Condition and Welfare of 
the Negroes has met and organized with the following offi- 
cers ; President, Allen Jay ; Secretary, Richard Henry 
Thomas ; Treasurer, Robert M. Ferris ; who, with the fol- 
lowing, will constitute the Executive Committee : John 
W. Woody, Mary Mendenhall Hobbs, Robert E. Pretlow, 
Solomon B. Woodard and Charles W. Sweet. 

On behalf of the Committee, 
Richard Henry Thomas, Secretary. 

107. The Committee on Finance made the following 
report, which was, on motion adopted : 

REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

The Committee on Finance met and organized by 
appointing Amos K. Hollowell, Chairman, William Penn 
Henley, Secretary, and Miles White, Jr., Treasurer. 

Amos K. Holeoweee, President, 
Wieeiam Penn HeneEy, Secretary. 



5© MINUTES 

Committee : Amos K. Hollowell, 2505 College Ave- 
nue, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Albert F. N. Hambleton, Oska- 
loosa, la. ; William Penn Henley, Carthage, Ind. ; Olney 
T. Meader, 163 Hampden Street, Boston, Mass. ; Miles 
White, Jr., 214 East German Street, Baltimore, Md. 

108. The American Friends' Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions made report as follows, and, on motion, the report 
was accepted. 

REPORT OF AMERICAN FRIENDS' BOARD OF FOREIGN 

MISSIONS : 

At a meeting of the American Friends' Board of 
Foreign Missions, held Tenth month 27, 1902 : 

It is the conclusion of this Board under the advice of 
counsel, that having only organized in the year 1900 with 
members appointed by all the American Yearly Meetings, 
excepting Canada, and having in the year 1901 been incor- 
porated under the laws of the State of Indiana, and hav- 
ing accepted and since acted under said incorporation as 
the American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions, said 
Board has complied in effect with the provisions of the 
Uniform Discipline with regard to the organization and 
incorporation therein required. 

Taken from the Minutes. 

Mahalah Jay, Secretary. 

109. The Committee appointed on Bible School Quar- 
terly, Catechism, and Hymnal reported as follows. On 
motion of Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington, the report 
was considered seriatim : 

REPORT ON QUARTERLY, CATECHISM AND HYMNAE. 

Report of the Committee to which was referred . the 
propositions for a Bible School Quarterly, a Catechism 
and a Hymnal. 

We do not deem it advisable at this time to under- 
take the preparation and publication of either a Bible 



MINUTES 51 

School Quarterly, a Catechism or a Hymnal. We believe 
it needful, however, that our meetings exercise care as to 
the choice of hymns used, that they consist of spiritually 
wholesome matter, such as will tend to the promotion of 
substantial Christian growth and character. 

Rufus M. Jones, Chairman. 

no. On motion, that part of the report which con- 
cerns the publication of a Bible School Quarterly was 
adopted. 

in. On motion, that part of the report which con- 
cerns the publication of a Catechism was adopted. 

112. On motion of Francis A. Wright, of Kansas, 
the question of a Hymnal was referred to the following 
Committee, with power to take such action as they shall 
deem wise, without involving the Five Years Meeting in 
financial obligation, except for the necessary expenses of 
the Committee : 

New England. — Alfred T. Ware. 
New York. — Harry R. Keates. 
Baltimore. — Annie D. Stabler. 
North Carolina. — Mary C. Woody. 
Indiana. — Ell wood O. Ellis. 
Western. — Lewis E- Stout. 
Iowa. — Charles W. Sweet. 
Kansas. — Cyrus R. Dixon. 
Oregon. — Mabel H. Douglas. 
Wilmington. — Robert E. Pretlow. 
California. — Imelda A. Tebbetts. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

113. In conformity with a recommendation of the 
Business Committee adopted at a former session, the 
following persons were appointed as delegates to the 



52 MINUTES 

proposed Conference on the Liquor Traffic, at Washington 
City, in 1906, in addition to the five appointed here- 
tofore. 

New England. — Hannah J. Bailey. 

New York. — Albert K. Smiley. 

Baltimore. — James Carey, Jr. 

North Carolina. — Thomas Newlin. 

Indiana. — Ellwood O. Ellis. 

Western . — Albert J . Brown. 

Iowa. — Joseph Sopher. 

Kansas. — Phebe M. Barnard. 

Oregon. — Francis K. Jones. 

Wilmington. — Emma S. Townsend. 

California. — Charles E. Tebbetts. 

114. The Board of Education offered the following 
report which, after its reading and consideration, on 
motion of Elmer D. Gildersleeve, of New York, was 
adopted. 

REPORT OF BOARD OF EDUCATION 

The Committee met and organized by electing Absa- 
lom Rosenberger, of Iowa, as Chairman and Charles E- 
Tebbetts, of California, Secretary. 

We have canvassed with great interest the work done 
by our colleges and believe them to be doing a work for 
the Church and the world far exceeding in value the 
investment in them. We heartily endorse the efforts 
being made to increase their efficiency by greater endow- 
ments. We commend this movement to the attention of 
all our membership, and especially to those having 
means at their disposal that God would have them invest 
in enterprises for the upbuilding of His kingdom. We 
urge that each of our Colleges should have adequate 
endowment. By thus securing permanency and effi- 
ciency, they may be made centers of influence and power 
that shall not only make our own membership better 



MINUTES 53 

equipped for service, but shall also reach far beyond our 
own limits in extending those ideals of Christianity for 
which the Society of Friends has always stood. 

We propose that a committee of five shall be appointed 
as an Executive Committee, to consist of the following 
members : Robert E. Pretlow, Absalom Rosenberger, 
Robert E. Kelly, Carolena M. Wood and Rufus M. 
Jones. 

We propose that this Executive Committee shall be 
authorized to solicit funds for, and have general manage- 
ment of the establishment and conduct of a lectureship on 
the History and Interpretation of Christian truth as held 
by Friends. 

We further recommend : — • 

i st. That this Meeting recommend to Friends their 
co-operation in the support of the existing courses of 
Bible study in our colleges. 

2nd. We approve and encourage the efforts that are 
being made through the means of Bible Institutes to fur- 
nish a high character of Biblical instruction to our mem- 
bers. 

3d. To the end that our young men and women who 
are feeling the necessity of superior advantages in Biblical 
instruction, within our own fold, we have referred to the 
Executive Committee the matter of the establishment in 
connection with one of our existing colleges or otherwise, 
of such courses as will meet the demand. 

4th. We recommend that the Five Years Meeting 
empower the Executive Committee to appoint suitable 
Friends to constitute a financial Educational Board, who 
shall receive and hold in trust gifts and bequests for 
general or specific educational purposes among Friends. 
A. Rosenberger, Chairman. 
Charles E. Tebbetts, Secretary. 

115. The Committee appointed to prepare a letter to 
Eondon Yearly Meeting in response to the one received, 
produced the following, which has been read, and on 
motion of Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England, was 



54 MINUTKS 

adopted, direc ed to be signed and forwarded to London 
Yearly Meeting. 

To London Yearly Meeting of Friends, 

Dear Friends : — In the midst of our assembling 
together under the conscious covering of the Divine Pres- 
ence, our hearts were deeply touched and our courage 
and purpose augmented by the loving message of fellow- 
ship and cheer from you. 

Though coming from widely separated fields and 
representing in many respects divergent methods of work, 
we have been in a remarkable degree knit together in the 
One Spirit of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ. We have 
indeed many members, and all members have not the 
same office, and yet we feel that to a degree never before 
realized in the history of our Branch of the Church in 
America, we are a consolidated and united people, and 
are listening as individuals and as a Church for the com- 
mand of our Lord to go forward. 

In addition to the well filled delegations from the 
eleven Yearly Meetings entitled by the adoption of our 
Constitution and Discipline to representation in this body, 
we have had the inspiring presence and counsel of Fra- 
ternal Delegates from Canada and Ohio Yearly Meetings 
and of valued members from your own and Philadelphia 
Yearly Meetings. But while we have been profoundly 
impressed by the constant undercurrent of spiritual unity 
and large and steadfast fellowship, we rejoice in being 
able to report that the watchword of our meeting has been 
an aggressive and practical Christian activity. The range 
of our deliberations has been well-nigh as extensive as the 
needs of men. We have felt with peculiar vividness and 
force the call to preach the message of the Saviour to every 
creature ; and in the consideration of the numerous 
departments of our work, the deliberations have crystal - 
ized with definite plans of procedure. In accordance with 
the requirements of our Constitution, Boards and Com- 
mittees have been appointed to extend and promote the 
work of evangelization and church extension, of foreign 
missions, of legislation, education, temperance, peace and 



MINUTES 55 

arbitration, and to ameliorate the condition of the Ameri- 
can Negro and the North American Indian. Our foreign 
mission work is of recent growth. Thirty-one years ago 
no American Yearly Meeting was engaged in such work. 
Now, each of the fourteen American Yearly Meetings has 
within it a Foreign Mission Board, and the tendency of 
these Boards is pronounced in the direction of co-opera- 
tion and centralization. Now we have 78 of our own mis- 
sionaries in the field, 153 native helpers, 2141 church 
members and 1500 pupils in school. Last year $55,000 
was raised within the Yearly Meetings for foreign mission 
work. 

Our Legislature Board has been empowered to urge 
upon the Legislatures of our forty-five States the necessity 
of stringent laws to prevent mob violence in the form of 
lynching. Our meeting has issued a call to Christian 
bodies of the United States to send representatives to a 
convention to be held in Washington City in the year 
1906, to consider and formulate means for concerted 
action against the traffic in intoxicating liquors. 

Each of our Boards and Committees, impressed by 
the dominant note of unity of purpose among us, and 
upheld by faith in a common Leader, is consecrating itself 
to its particular task and praying for the consolation and 
guidance of the Holy Spirit. 

Realizing the preciousness of God's favor upon us 
and in the simple belief that though we may water, it is 
He that giveth the increase, we address ourselves in His 
name to our several tasks, and remain your friends in the 
common brotherhood of believers. 

116. The Committee on Arrangements for the next 
Five Years Meeting reported their organization as follows, 
which was approved by the Meeting : 

For Chairman, Timothy Nicholson, Richmond, Ind. 
For Secretary, Absalom Rosenberger, Oskaloosa, la. 

117. The Business Committee offered the following 
resolutions, which, having been considered, were, on 
motion, adopted : 



56 MINUTES 

(1) On the Christian Sabbath — 

Resolved, That we desire to call upon all citizens of 
our land to give proper observance to the Christian Sab- 
bath. It has been an important factor in Christian civili- 
zation, and its non-observance results in a weakening of 
reverence for sacred things and a decadence of moral 
standing. To professing Christians the Sabbath should 
have the profoundest respect as the chosen opportunity 
for Divine worship, and be held sacred as a Divine insti- 
tution that has been and will continue to be of inestimable 
benefit to mankind. 

(2) Providing for Vacancy in Office of Treasurer — 
Resolved, That in case of a vacancy occurring in the 

position of Treasurer, the Committee on Arrangements is 
hereby authorized to fill the vacancy and to direct the 
transfer of any funds then in the treasury. 

11S. Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana, offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was considered, and, on motion, 
was adopted : 

INSTRUCTIONS TO TREASURER. 

Resolved, That the Treasurer be instructed to pay 
all bills pertaining to the expenses of the Five Years 
Meeting, when approved as provided by the report of the 
Finance Committee ; and he is hereby authorized, if neces- 
sary, to borrow money. 

119. The Business Committee presented the following 
propositions and resolutions, which, having been con- 
sidered separately, were all, one by one, on motion, 
adopted : 

(1) On Publishing the Proceedings — 

It is proposed that the proceedings of the Five Years 
Meeting be published in one volume, to contain all the 
papers read, the conclusions reached, and a brief synopsis 
of the discussions. The number to be printed is referred 
to the delegations, and the chairman of each delegation 



MINUTES 57 

is directed to report to the Committee on Publication the 
number of copies desired for his Yearly Meeting. 

(2) On Prayer — 

For the spiritual life and power of our meetings and 
our entire church work in the world, true, living and rev- 
erent prayer is essential. As there is a tendency, too fre- 
quent in our time, to treat prayer lightly, to pray as 
though the congregation were addressed instead of the 
L,ord, and as though no effect was expected, we desire to 
see prayer kept in its true place in the life of the Church. 
And we also urge the great importance of special care on 
the part of our members to maintain a reverent attitude 
while prayer is being offered. 

(3) Book of Meetings — ■ 

The Business Committee propose that the publication 
of a Book of Meetings be referred to the Evangelistic and 
Church Extension Board. 

(4) Place of Next Meeting — 

Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting of 1907 be 
held in the city of Richmond, Ind. 

(5) Thanks to Indianapolis Friends — ■ 

Resolved, That the kind and generous hospitality of 
the Friends in Indianapolis is warmly appreciated by the 
members of the Five Years Meeting, and we return to 
them our hearty thanks for all the}* - have done to facilitate 
the transaction of the business of the Meeting and to 
make pleasant our sojourn among them. 

120. On motion of William V. Coffin, of California, 
in view of the next Five Years Meeting being held in 
Richmond, Ind., the action of a former session appoint- 
ing Charles E. Newlin Railroad Secretary was reconsid- 
ered, and, on motion, Benjamin Johnson, a resident of 
Richmond, was appointed Railroad Secretary. 

121. On motion of Harry R. Keates, of New York, 
a vote of thanks and appreciation was tendered to the 



58 MINUTES 

officers of the meeting for their faithfulness in the dis- 
charge of their duties, Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana, 
on motion, having been called to .preside during the con- 
sideration of the question. 

122. The Minutes of this session were read and 
approved. 

123. We have now finished the business that has 
come before us for consideration. We are thankful to 
our Heavenly Father for the unity and love that have 
prevailed in all the sessions of this Five Years Meeting. 
With renewed courage and hope, and with praise to the 
Lord for His manifest blessings upon us, we now conclude 
to meet at Richmond, Ind., at 7.30 o'clock P. M., on the 
third-day of the Tenth month, 1907, if the Lord will. 

Edmund Stanley, 

Clerk. 
Ell wood O. Ellis, 

First Assistant Clerk. 
R. Esther Smith, 
Second Assistant Clerk. 

RESOLUTIONS. CONCLUSIONS, PROPOSITIONS, 
ETC., ADOPTED BY THE FIVE YEARS MEET- 
ING, 1902. 

Resolved, That we protest in the strongest manner 
possible against the spirit of lawlessness that is being 
manifested in various parts of the land. Our civilization 
and our institutions are founded upon respect for and 
obedience to law, and they are undermined and threat- 
ened with destruction when any law is violated with 
impunity. 

Resolved, That in respect for law, for the rights of 
humanity and for the religion of Jesus Christ, we protest 
in the name of Christian Civilization against the mob vio- 
lence, which in the form of lynching, either of white or 



MINUTES 59 

black, red or yellow men, outrages every principle of right 
and justice ; and we call upon the legislatures of the 
several States to so revise their statutes that the continua- 
tion of this barbarous practice may be prevented. 

Resolved, That we approve of the work being done 
by several of the Yearly Meetings for bettering the condi- 
tion of the Negroes, and we desire to encourage them 
therein. 

Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting approves of 
the work of the associated Executive Committee of 
Friends on Indian Affairs, and while we recognize that 
there is much yet to be done, we are thankful for what 
has been accomplished in protecting the Indians in their 
rights, in giving them both intellectual and manual train- 
ing, and most important of all, in bringing them to the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ. 

Resolved, That we accept the present organization of 
the Committee, and we request it to continue its work, 
and we appoint it as our official representatives in this 
field. 

Resolved, That the several Yearly Meetings are ad- 
vised to continue their financial report to the Committee, 
and we request them to increase their contributions as 
they may be able to do. 

Resolved, That we request the Committee to report 
annually to the several bodies to whom it has heretofore 
been reported, and also to send a full report of its work to 
the Five Years Meeting. 

The work of the Peace Association of Friends in 
America is heartily approved by this meeting, and while 
we urge the various Yearly Meetings to continue their 
relations with it, giving it hearty support and receiving 
its annual reports as heretofore, we appoint it as our offi- 
cial representative on the subject of Peace and request it 
to make report also to this meeting. 

The following propositions were adopted to define the 
functions of the Foreign Missionary Board and its rela- 
tions to the Boards of other Yearly Meetings, viz. : 



60 MINUTES 

First, It shall be trie duty of this Board to represent 
American Friends in matters pertaining to the interde- 
nominational aspects of foreign mission work. 

Second, Each Yearly Meeting represented in the 
Board, while continuing its own separate work as hereto- 
fore, should realize that this work forms a constituent 
part of the foreign mission work of Friends in America, 
of which the American Friends' Board has a general 
advisory oversight ; but it must not be interpreted that 
such advice carries with it any controlling authority. 

Third, The Foreign Mission Boards of the Yearly 
Meetings should annually furnish the Secretary of the 
American Friends' Board a full report of their mission 
needs and of the work during the preceding year, which, 
together with such other information and statistics as 
may be accessible, shall be drawn upon as material for 
the annual report of this Board to the Yearly Meetings. 

Fourth, Whenever two or more Yearly Meetings are 
working in the same foreign field, they should each keep 
in view the importance of actual co-operation in such 
work as far as practicable. 

Fifth, Each Yearl y Meeting represented in this Board 
should make through its Foreign Mission Board, or other- 
wise, the necessary arrangements for receiving voluntary 
contributions for the work of the American Friends' 
Board and forwarding the same to the Treasurer of said 
Board. 

Sixth, In order to bring this Board and the Mission 
Boards of the several Yearly Meetings into close touch 
with each other, it is desirable that the members of this 
Board for each Yearly Meeting shall be ex-officio, or 
otherwise, members of its Foreign Mission Board. 

Resolved, That all vacancies occurring in Boards and 
Standing Committees in the interim of the sessions of the 
Five Years Meeting be filled by such Boards and Com- 
mittees, if not otherwise provided for. 

Resolved, That in case of a vacancy occurring in the 
position of Treasurer, the Committee on Arrangements is 



MINUTES 6 I 

hereby authorized to fill the vacancy, and to direct the 
transfer of any funds then in the treasury. 

Resolved, We recommend that the entire subject of 
Biblical and Religious Study be referred to the Committee 
on Education, encouraging the members of this Commit- 
tee to do all in their power to provide for the pressing 
needs of our membership in this direction. 

Resolved, We propose that an Executive Committee 
of five be appointed by the Five Years Meeting to make 
all the necessary preliminary arrangements for holding the 
proposed Conference on the Liquor Traffic, to carry on 
the necessary correspondence with the churches, and to 
be the delegates-at-large from the body, and we nominate 
James Wood, Rufus M. Jones, Timothy Nicholson, Ben- 
jamin F„ Trueblood and Edmund Stanley as such Com- 
mittee. And we further propose that the delegates from 
the several Yearly Meetings name one additional delegate 
to attend the Conference if held. If the development be 
such that an additional number of delegates be advisable, 
the Executive Committee shall request the Yearly Meet- 
ings to appoint such additional number as the Committee 
may advise. 

THE CALL FOR A TEMPERANCE CONGRESS. 

From the Five Years Meeting of the Society of Friends in 

America, held at Indianapolis, Indiana, in 

October, 1902. 

To the Various Christian Bodies in the United States, 

Dear Brethren in Christ : — We are confident in the 
belief that the consensus of opinion of the professing 
Christians of our land is opposed to the evils of the Liquor 
Traffic, and we find a want of co-operation in practical 
effort to give to this opposition because none of the propo- 
sitions heretofore made has met the approval of the gene- 
ral judgment of Christian people. We recognize that this 
is the case in our own body, and we believe it is likewise 
true of others. As a result, the Church exerts far less 
influence than it should to prevent the evils produced by 



62 MINUTES 

this great cause of poverty and crime, and which, also, is 
a most serious obstacle to the spread of the Gospel. 

We are deeply impressed with the conviction that an 
earnest effort should be made to ascertain in what way 
Christians can exert a united influence in this cause, and 
by what means they may work together. Upon what 
proposition can we obtain a practical agreement ? We 
frankly confess that we are not competent to solve the 
problem, but we believe that by united .inquiry and a 
prayerful seeking for Divine enlightenment, with a wil- 
lingness to approach the subject with an open mind, the 
united Church may find a way by which we can serve the 
cause of Christ and the good of mankind in seeking the ulti- 
mate elimination of this stupendous evil. We, therefore, 
invite the governing bodies of the various denominations of 
Christians in the United States to appoint delegates to rep- 
resent them in a Conference to be held in the city of 
Washington, to begin on the second Wednesday of March 
in the year 1906. . The decisions of this Conference should 
be reached only in practical unanimity, and therefore it is 
unnecessary to indicate any limit to the proposed repre- 
sentation. 

We issue this invitation with an humble realization 
of the smalluess of our body, as compared with many 
others, but we do it under a deep sense that this duty has 
been laid upon us and that God will use the proposed 
instrumentality for the accomplishment of great good to 
mankind and for the glory of His name. 

Believing that this proposition will meet with your 
approval and practical co-operation, we have appointed 
James Wood, of Mount Kisco, N. Y.; Rufus M. Jones, 
Haverford, Pa.; Timothy Nicholson, Richmond, Ind.; 
Benjamin F. Trueblood, Boston, Mass.; and Edmund 
Stanley, Wichita, Kan., with one additional delegate from 
each of the eleven Yearly Meetings, to represent us at the 
Conference. 

In thefaith and loveof Jesus Christ, we are your friends, 
Ellwood O. Ellis, Assistant Clerk. 
Edmund Stanley, Presiding Clerk. 
[Signed by direction of the Meeting.] 



MINUTES 63 

We are thankful to have the presence of fraternal 
delegations appointed by Ohio and Canada Yearly Meet- 
ings, to whom we have been glad to extend the privilege 
of joining in the discussion of various questions that have 
come before us. It is our desire that these may bear to 
their Yearly Meetings the cordial fraternal greetings of 
the Five Years meeting and an expression of our appre- 
ciation of their representation amongst us at this time. 
We are also grateful for the presence of several members 
of London and Philadelphia Yearly Meetings, to whom 
it has been our pleasure to grant the same privileges. By 
the presence of all these we have been strengthened and 
encouraged. 

We endorse The American Friend and the Mission- 
ary Advocate, and heartily commend them to the Friends 
in America. 

Resolved, That the preparation of uniform blanks 
and uniform records be transferred to a committee com- 
posed of Rufus H. Jones, Peter W. Raidabaugh and Wil- 
liam V. Coffin, to prepare the necessary forms and present 
the same before the Yearly Meetings for their adoption. 

It is proposed that a Board on the condition and wel- 
fare of the Negroes, consisting of twenty -two members, 
eleven at large and one from each Yearly Meeting, be 
appointed to take into consideration the best means for 
elevating them. This committee shall have the power to 
carry the same into effect. 

Report of Finance Committee and Duties of Treas- 
urer. (See Minutes — Minute 94.) 

A committee appointed on Disciplinary provisions 
presented the following report, which has been read and 
considered and on motion adopted : 

To the Five Years Meeting : 

The committee to which was referred the amend- 
ments to the Constitution and Discipline, together with 
the additional disciplinary regulations, as submitted by 



64 MINUTES 

different Yearly Meetings, report that they have carefully 
considered all the matters thus referred to them, and are 
united in recommending to the Five Years Meeting the 
adoption of the following Minute : 

Several propositions for the amendment of the Con- 
stitution and Discipline for the American Yearly Meetings 
of Friends have been submitted by Kansas, California and 
Western Yearly Meetings to this meeting for its consider- 
ation. 

This Meeting does not deem it advisable to recom- 
mend to the Yearly Meetings the adoption of any of these 
as presented. It does, however, recommend to the Yearly 
Meetings constituting this Five Years Meeting the adop- 
tion of the following modified form of a proposition from 
Kansas Yearly Meeting : To amend Part II., Chapter x, 
Section i, Title, Yearly Meetings, Paragraph 8, following 
the words : ' When a proposition is approved by a Yearly 
Meeting, it shall be reported to the Five Years Meeting 
for its consideration,' by adding the words — • 

' and if it be approved by that body with such modi- 
fications as that body shall see fit to make, it shall then 
be submitted to the several Yearly Meetings for their 
action, and it shall become operative when it shall have 
been adopted by four-fifths of the Yearly Meetings con- 
stituting the Five Years Meeting. ' 

This particular amendment, of course, becoming 
operative only when adopted by all these Yearly Meetings. 

This committee further recommends that the verbal, 
grammatical and typographical changes, as well as the 
changes in the arrangement of matters proposed by the 
Committee on the Quinquennial Conference to prepare the 
Uniform Discipline, be adopted by the Five Years Meet- 
ing, and that the copy thus corrected become the official 
copy of this body. Also that electrotype plates thereof 
be procured and an index be prepared and added thereto. 

This committee has also examined the additional 
disciplinary regulations proposed by different Yearly 
Meetings, in accordance with Chapter i, Part 2, Title 



MINUTES 65 

Government, and finds in them nothing inconsistent with 
the Constitution and Discipline. 

Benjamin F. Truebeood, Chairman. 

ChareES H. Jones, Secretary. 

The following report of the Board of Education was 
adopted by the Meeting : 

We have canvassed with great interest the work done 
by our colleges, and believe them to be doing a work for 
the Church and the world far exceeding in value the 
investment in them. We heartily endorse the efforts 
being made to increase their efficiency by greater endow- 
ments. We commend this movement to the attention of 
all our membership, and especially to those having means 
at their disposal that God would have them invest in 
enterprises for the upbuilding of His kingdom. We urge 
that each of our colleges should have adequate endow- 
ment. By thus securing their permanency and efficiency, 
they may be made centers of influence and power that 
shall not only make our own membership better equipped 
for service, but shall also reach far beyond our own limits 
in extending those ideals of Christianity for which the 
Society of Friends has always stood. 

We propose that a committee of five shall be appoin- 
ted an Executive Committee, to consist of the following 
members : Robert E. Pretlow, Absalom Rosenberger, 
Robert E- Kelly, Carolena M. Wood and Rufus M. Tones. 

We propose that this Executive Committee shall be 
authorized to solicit funds for and have general manage- 
ment of the establishment and conduct of a lectureship 
on the history and interpretation of Christian truth as 
held by Friends. 

We further recommend : 

First, That this Meeting recommend to Friends their 
co-operation in the support of the existing courses of 
Bible study in our colleges. 

Second, We approve and encourage the efforts that 
are being made through the means of Bible Institutes to 
furnish a high character of Biblical instruction to our 
members. 



66 MINUTES 

Third, To the end that our young men and women 
who are feeling the necessity of superior advantages in 
Biblical instruction, may find such opportunity within our 
own fold, we have referred to the Executive Committee 
the matter of the establishment in connection with one of 
our existing colleges, or otherwise, of such courses as will 
meet the demand. 

Fourth, We recommed that the Five Years Meeting 
empower the Executive Committee to appoint suitable 
Friends to constitute a financial educational Board, who 
shall receive and hold in trust gifts and bequests for 
general or specific educational purposes among Friends. 
A. RoSENBERGER, Chairman. 
ChareES E. Tebbetts, Secretary. 

Resolved, That we desire to call upon all citizens of 
our land to give proper observance to the Christian Sab- 
bath. It has been an important factor in the development 
of Christian civilization, and its non-observance results in 
a weakening of reverence for sacred things, and a decad- 
ence of moral standing. To professing Christians the 
Sabbath should have the profoundest respect, as the 
chosen opportunity for Divine worship, and be held sacred 
as a Divine institution that has been and will continue to 
be of inestimable benefit to mankind. 

Resolved, For the spiritual life and power of our 
meetings, and our entire Church work in the world, true, 
living and reverent prayer is essential. As there is a 
tendency too frequent in our time to treat prayer lightly, to 
pray as though the congregation were addressed instead 
of the Dord, and as though no effect were expected, we 
desire to see prayer kept in its true place in the life of the 
Church. And we also urge the great importance of spe- 
cial care on the part of our members to maintain a reverent 
attitude while prayer is being offered. 

The Business Committee propose that the publication 
of "A Book of Meetings " be referred to the Evangelistic 
and Church Extension Board. 



MINUTES 67 

Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting of 1907 be 
held in the city of Richmond, Indiana. 

Officers, Boards, Standing Committees, etc., of 
the Five Years Meeting. 

officers of the five years meeting. 

Clerk, Edmund Stanley of Kansas Yearly Meeting. 
Address, Wichita, Kansas. 

First Assistant Clerk, Ellwood O. Ellis of Indiana 
Yearly Meeting. Address, Richmond, Ind. 

Second Assistant Clerk, R. Esther Smith of California 
Yearly Meeting. 

Treasurer, Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore Yearly Meet- 
ing. Address, 214 E. German Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Auditing Committee . — Timothy Nicholson of Indiana, 
Francis A. Wright of Kansas, and Charles H. Jones of 
New England. 

Evangelistic and Church Extension Board. 
officers. 

Chairman, Charles H. Jones, Amesbury, Mass. 

Treaszirer, John T. Hadley, Pecksburg, Ind. 

Secretary, Emma Hedges, New Castle, Ind. 

Executive Committee . — The officers, and Levi Gregory, 
San Jose, Cal., and Esther G. Frame, Richmond Ind. 

New England. — Charles H. Jones and D.Wheeler 
Swift. 

New York. — Elmer D. Gildersleeve and Emilie Un- 
derbill Burgess. 

Baltimore. — Samuel R. Neave and Anna K. Carey. 

North Carolina. — David E. Sampson and Sue V. 
Hollo well. 

Indiana. — Joseph O. Binford, Emma Hedges, Evan 
H. Ferree and Mary H. Goddard. 

Western. — Dindley A. Wells, Sarah Kelsey Dinah 
T. Henderson and John T. Hadley. 

Iowa. — Isom P. Wooton, Eaura P. Townsend and 
Samuel I,. Haworth. 



68 MINUTER 

Kansas. — Isaac A. Woodard, William P. Haworth 
and Rachel Kirk. 

Wilmington. — Esther G. Frame, Josephus Hoskins 
and Nancy A. C. Leonard. 

Oregon. — Jesse Edwards and Eouisa Painter Rounds 

California . — L,evi Gregory and Levi D. Barr. 

American Friends' Board op Foreign Missions. 

officers. 

President, Thomas C. Brown, Carmel, Ind. 
Secretary, Mahalah Jay, Richmond, Ind. 
Treasurer, James Carey, Jr., 838 Park Avenue, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Executive Committee. — The above officers and Charles 
E. Carey, Fairmount, Ind., and Ellen C. Wright, Wil- 
mington, Ohio. 

Advisory Committee. — Hannah E- Sleeper, Kansas 
Yearly Meeting ; William Jasper Hadley, Iowa Yearly 
Meeting; Carolena M. Wood, New York Yearly Meet- 
ing ; Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England Yearly Meet- 
ing ; R. Esther Smith, California Yearly Meeting ; Emmor 
W. Hall, Oregon Yearly Meeting ; Harry A. Peelle, North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting. 

New England Yearly Meeting. — Benjamin F. True- 
blood and Phebe S. Aydelott. 

New York Yearly Meeting. — Robert M. Ferris and 
Carolena M. Wood. 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting. — James Carey, Jr., and 
Anna B. Thomas. 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting. — Josiah Nicholson 
and Mary A. Peelle. 

Indiana Yearly Meeting. — Mahalah Jay, Charles E. 
Carey, Ida S. Henley and Joseph A. Goddard. 

Western Yearly Meeting. — Thomas C. Brown, David 
Hadley, Lydia Taylor Painter and Flora P. Mills. 

Iowa Yearly Meeting. — William Jasper Hadley, 
Charles L,. Michener and Viola Spurgin. 



MINUTES 69 

Kansas Yearly Meeting. — Hannah E. Sleeper, Fran- 
cis A. Wright and Martha M. Woodard. 

Wilmington Yearly Meeting. — Ellen C. Wright, 
Laura E. Dunham and James B. Unthank. 

Oregon Yearly Meeting. — Laura E. Minthorn and 
Emm or W. Hall. 

California Yearly Meeting. — Mary M. Brown and R. 
Esther Smith. 

Board op Education. 

officers. 

Chairman, Absalom Rosenberger, Oskaloosa, la. 
Secretary, Charles E. Tebbetts, Whittier, Cal. 

New England. — John Ellwood Paige. 
New York. — Carolena M. Wood. 
Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas. 
North Carolina. — L. Lyndon Hobbs. 
Indiana. — Robert L- Kelly. 
Western. — Andrew F. Mitchell. 
Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger. 
Kansas. — Edmund Stanley. 
Wilmington. — Robert E. Pretlow. 
Oregon. — Edwin H. McGrew. 
California. — Charles E. Tebbetts. 

Board of Legislation. 

officers. 

President, Timothy Nicholson, Richmond, Ind. 
Secretary and Treasurer ; Amos K. Hollowell, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Sub- Committee. — James Wood, Timothy Nicholson, 
Cyrus Beede, S. Edgar Nicholson, John W. Woody. 

New England. — Olney T. Meader and Hannah J. 
Bailey. 

New York. — James Wood and Albert K. Smiley. 

Baltimore. — S. Edgar Nicholson and Lindley D. 
Clark. 

North Carolina. — John W. Woody and Doctor J J. Cox. 



70 MINUTES 

Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson and Francis W, 
Thomas. 

Western. — Amos K. Hollo well and William True- 
blood. 

Iowa. — A. F. N. Hambleton and Cyrus Beede. 

Kansas. — Calvin Kesinger and Albert A. Bailey. 

Wilmington . — John B. Peelle and Paul Tasso Terrell. 

Oregon. — Aaron M. Bray and Jesse Edwards. 

California. — Washington Hadley and William V. 
Coffin. 

Finance Committee. 

officers. 

President, Amos K. Hollowell. 
Secretary, William Penn Henley. 
Treasurer, Miles White, Jr. 

Amos K. Hollowell, 2505 College Avenue, Indian- 
apolis, Ind.; Albert F. N. Hambleton, Oskaloosa, la.; 
William Penn Henley, Carthage, Ind.; OlneyT. Meader, 
163 Hampden Street, Boston, Mass.; Miles White, Jr., 
214 East German Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Delegates to Proposed Conference on Liquor 
Traffic. 

At Large. — James Wood, Rufus M. Jones, Timothy 
Nicholson, Benjamin F. Trueblood and Edmund Stanley. 
From the Yearly Meetings : — 
New England. — Hannah J. Bailey. 
New York. — Albert K. Smiley. 
Baltimore. — James Carey, Jr. 
North Carolina. — Thomas Newlin. 
Indiana. — Ell wood O. Ellis. 
Western. — Albert J. Brown. 
Iowa. — Joseph Sopher. 
Kansas. — Phebe M. Barnard. 
Wilmington. — Emma S- Townsend. 
Oregon. — Francis K. Jones. 
California . — Charles E. Tebbetts. 



MINUTES 71 

Board on the Condition and Weefare oe the 
Negroes. 

officers. 

President, Allen Jay, Richmond, Ind. 
Secretary, Richard H. Thomas, 17 18 John Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Treasurer, Robert M. Ferris, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

At Large. — Augustine Jones, Robert M. Ferris, Allen 
C Thomas, James Carey, Jr., John W. Woody, J. Elwood 
Cox, Allen Jay, Mary J. Ballard, Robert K. Pretlow, Peter 
W. Raidabaugh, Charles W. Sweet. 

From the Yearly Meetings : — 

New England. — Robert P. Gifford. 

New York. — Robert I. Murray. 

Baltimore. — Richard H. Thomas. 

North Carolina. — Mary M. Hobbs. 

Indiana. — Joseph A. Goddard. 

Western. — Solomon B. Woodard. 

Iowa. — Joseph Sopher. 

Kansas. — Mary C. Wright. 

Wilmington. — Mary Edwards. 

Oregon. — Daniel Drew. 

California. — William H. Coffin. 

Associated Executive Committee on Indian 
Affairs, 1902. 

officers. 

Chairman pro tern., Allen Jay, Richmond, Ind. 

Clerk, Hetty B. Garrett, Green and Coulter Streets, 
Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Treasurer, Jonathan M. Steere, Girard Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee : — 

New England Yearly Meeting . — William O. Newhall, 
Emeline H. Tuttle, Myra E- Frye, John S. Kimber, A. 
Chalkley Collins. 



72 MINUTES 

New York Yearly Meeting. — Carolena M. Wood, 
Robert M. Ferris, George D. Hilyard, Mary S. Kimber. 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting. — Edward M. Wistar, 
Hetty B. Garrett, Jonathan M. Steere, Walter Smedley, 
Charles J. Rhoads, Marriott C. Morris. 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting. — John Nicholson, Mary 
B. Nicholson, James Carey, Jr., Miles White, Jr. 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting. — John W. Woody, 
Mary M. Hobbs, Rhoda M. Worth, Roxie D. White. 

Ohio Yearly Meeting. — William J. Harrison, Benja- 
min Butler, Elizabeth L. Hill, Mary C. Wood. 

Wilmington Yearly Meeting. — Edward R. Walton, 
Ellen C. Wright, Abigail J. Hadley, William F. Baugham. 

Indiana Yearly Meeting. — Robert W. Douglas, Allen 
Jay, Mahalah Jay, Eliza E- Canaday. 

Western Yearly Meeti?ig. — John H. Furnas, Nathan 
E. Hubbard. 

Iowa Yearly Meeting. — R. J. Mendenhall, William 
Jasper Hadley. 

Kansas Yearly Meeting. — John M. Watson, Susanna 
Osburn, Thomas M. Griffiths. 

Peace Association of Friends in America, 
officers. 

President, Richard H. Thomas, 17 18 John Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Secretary, H. Eavinia Baily, Richmond, Ind. 
Treasurer, Charles A. Francisco, Richmond, Ind. 

Committee on a Hymnal. 

New England. — Alfred T. Ware. 
New York. — Harry R. Keates. 
Baltimore. — Annie D. Stabler. 
North Carolina. — Mary C. Woody. 
Indiana. — EH wood O. Ellis. 
Western. — Lewis E. Stout. 
Iowa. — Charles W. Sweet. 
Kansas. — Cyrus R. Dixon. 



MINUTES 73 

Wilmington. — Robert E. Pretlow. 
Oregon. — Mabel EL Douglas. 
Calif 01'nia. — Imelda A. Tebbetts. 

Executive Committee. 

officers. 

Chairman, Harry R. Keates, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Secretary, Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington, Ohio. 

Lewis E. Stout, Plainfield, Ind. ; Cyrus R. Dixon, 
Lawrence, Kansas ; Ellwood O. Ellis, Richmond, Ind. ; 
Charles W. Sweet, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Committee on Publication of Proceedings. 

Allen C. Thomas, Haverford, Pa. ; Rufus M. Jones, 
Haverford, Pa. ; James Wood, Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

Committee on Arrangements for the Five Years 
Meeting of 1907. 

New England. — Rufus M. Jones. 
New York. — James Wood. 
Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas. 
North Carolina. — Mary E. Cartland. 
Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson. 
Western. — Peter W. Raidabaugh. 
Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger. 
Kansas. — Cyrus R. Dixon. 
Wilmington. — Jonathan B. Wright. 
Orego7i. — Edwin H. McGrew. 
California. — R. Esther Smith. 



STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

OF TH^ 

QUINQUENNIAL CONFERENCE. 



Third-Day, Tenth Month 21ST, 1902. — 7.30 p.m. 

The Conference was called to order by Timothy 
Nicholson, who isaid : As the Chairman of the Committee 
on Arrangements appointed five years ago, it becomes my 
duty to call the meeting to order. I might state on be- 
half of that Committee that we corresponded one with 
another to find out where we were to meet, and the 
majority were for Indianapolis. Our Friends in Indian- 
apolis accepted the choice most graciously. 

In the absence of the Chairman of the last Confer- 
ence, I will request the Vice-President, Edmund Stanley, 
of Kansas, to preside for this session, and Mary C. Woody, 
of North Carolina, who was one of the Clerks, will be the 
Clerk of the evening meeting. 

You will observe by the Discipline that the Chair- 
men of the different delegations constitute a very import- 
ant Committee, to nominate the Five Years Meeting offi- 
cers ; so if their be any delegations here that have not 
already appointed a Chairman, they should attend to it 
this evening, as it will be very desirable that the first 
meeting of the Committee should oe -to-morrow morning 
at eight o'clock. 

It has also been arranged that Ellwood O. Ellis, of 
Richmond, will open the religious exercises. 

Edmund Stanley, taking the Chair, said : Much as I 
might appreciate the honor of presiding over this meeting, 
it is a source of regret to me that our able and efficient 
presiding officer of five years ago fails to be with us on 
this occasion. We have met for a very important service. 
This meeting marks the beginning of a new era in our 

75 



76 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Church organization, and I look upon it as a great event 
in our history. The meeting this evening is for the pur- 
pose of closing up the business of the Conference prepara- 
tory to the organization of the Five Years Meeting. 

I will not detain you with further remarks. The 
devotional exercises will be led by Ell wood O. Ellis, ol 
Richmond, Indiana. 

Ell wood O. Ellis, of Indiana : In the very brief 
moment that I had to think as to what might be appropri- 
ate for this important meeting, the Second Chapter of 
Second Timothy came to my mind, and I will read it. 

It is of great importance that prayer should be offered 
by all those who have come up to this gathering. I do 
not mean vocally, because that would probably not be 
proper, but silently ; none ought to fail to call for the 
blessings of God just at this moment. 

This occasion is the most tremendous in importance 
that the Society of Friends has ever come to yet. It is a 
time to call upon God for wisdom ; to ask His leading ; 
to ask that we may be prevented from doing anything that 
would be disastrous to the cause we love, that we may be 
able to lead into anything that w T ill advance the cause for 
which we labor. Now, as the opportunity is given to 
me, I suggest to the ushers that during this time of prayer 
no other person be allowed to come up the aisle, so that we 
may have the time quiet before the L,ord ; and in this time 
let there be the freedom that has characterized our denom- 
ination everywhere. Let prayer now reign. 

(Several earnest petitions for wisdom and blessing were 
offered by Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington ; William 
P. Pinkham, of Ohio; Ellwood O. Ellis, of Indiana, and 
others.) 

The Chairman : It will be necessary for us to com- 
plete our organization by having a record of the delegates 
appointed to constitute this meeting before we proceed. 
The Secretary will please call the Yearly Meetings in 
order, and if the reports have not been handed to the Sec- 
retary the delegations will please pass in their reports so 
that their list of delegates may be read. The Secretary 
will read the list of delegates. 



op the; conference 77 

(List of delegates read by Mary C. Woody, of North 
Carolina. See Minutes, Minute 2.) 

The Chairman : Is it the wish of the Conference that 
we take the time to fill the places of absentees in delega- 
tions by alternates, if any are present? 

It was suggested that as vacancies could not be filled 
to-night business should be proceeded with. 

The Chairman : Then we will take it by consent that 
we do not fill the vacancies to-night. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : Five years ago there 
was a committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's account 
of both five years ago and also of this meeting. The 
Treasurer is not present, but he has sent in his report and 
his vouchers. One of the Auditing Committee died sud- 
denly, another is not here, and only Elizabeth M. Jenkins 
is present on this committee. She would like to have one 
or two appointed, that they may retire and go over the 
report before we adjourn. I therefore move that two per- 
sons be appointed by this Meeting to attend to this matter 
at once. 

(Seconded.) 

The motion was taken by consent. 

The Chairman : I will name tor that committee Tim- 
othy Nicholson and Sarah J. Swift. 

James Wood, of New York : As the delegates of this 
Conference are for the most part delegates of the Five 
Years Meeting that will meet to-morrow, and as the cre- 
dentials are in the hands of the Clerk of this Meeting, I 
move that the Clerk be directed to lay the credentials at 
the proper time before the Five Years Meeting to-morrow. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

The Chairman : Are there any other matters to claim 
the attention of this Meeting before taking up the subjects 
on the program for the evening ? 

The Chairman : The Secretary will call for the first 
order of business. 

The Secretary : Report of the Committee of the last 
Conference to prepare a Uniform Discipline. 

James Wood, of New England, read the report. (See 
Minute 5.) 



78 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

James Wood: The draft referred to in the report which 
I have just read is now before the Conference. Will it 
be the pleasure of the Conference to be informed of the 
changes referred to or to assume them ? 

The Chairman : What is the pleasure of the Confer- 
ence in reference to this ? 

A Delegate : I would like to ask whether it would 
not be wise to refer this whole matter to the Five Years 
Meeting without taking action in this Conference ? I 
think it properly belongs to that Meeting. 

James Wood, of New York : None of these changes 
are of sufficient importance to take the time of the Five 
Years Meeting for their consideration. The difference in 
language is siniply a transposition of some sections of 
one portion to another, so they may follow a more logical 
scheme. As presented to the Yearly Meetings they were 
somewhat misplaced, because of the fact that after it was 
determined what was to be presented, some of the Yearly 
Meetings were held very soon, so the arrangement was 
made somewhat hastily. A few words have been added 
to make the meaning more clear in a few instances. Every 
work requires adjustment after construction ; every watch 
that is made must be adjusted, and some little changes 
have been found necessary in the points indicated. The 
most important matters for your consideration are in the 
clauses that were omitted originally, which make provi- 
sions for the modification of the Constitution itself. Every 
constitution is supposed to have provision for its own 
amendments, and the Committee were to offer to the Con- 
ference the suggestion that the same method of proced- 
ure provided for in the Constitution of the United dates 
should apply to this. We therefore appeal to the Com- 
mittee that they give careful attention to this, and if it is 
approved by this Conference it will be all that is necessary 
in the case. It is for the Conference to decide whether 
they like these proposed changes or not. They do not 
change the meaning from that originally intended. It 
seems to me we need not take the time of the Conference 
in considering questionable changes. It might be well 
to consider clauses of amendments. 



of the; conference 79 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : It might be well 
to have an additional clause read. 

A Delegate : I move that the Conference proceed to 
hear the additional clauses. 

(Seconded.) 

The motion was carried. 

Chairman : James Wood will present the additional 
changes proposed by the Committee. 

James Wood read as follows : All propositions from 
Quarterly Meetings, and all proposed legislation affecting 
this Constitution and Discipline, shall be introduced to the 
Yearly Meeting in writing, and shall not be finally acted 
upon on the day of their introduction. Propositions for 
the amendment of the Constitution and Discipline must be 
referred to the Permanent Board of the Yearly Meeting, or 
to a special committee, for its consideration for one year. 
When a proposition is approved by a Yearly Meeting it 
shall be reported to the Five Years Meeting, for its con- 
sideration and advice. 

When a proposition is approved by a Yearly Meeting 
it should be reported to the Five Years Meeting for its 
consideration, and if it is approved by that body, it will 
be submitted to the several Yearly Meetings for their 
action, and it will be approved when it shall be adopted 
by two-thirds of the members. This is precisely as it is 
in the Constitution. 

A Delegate : What if a Yearly Meeting did not ap- 
prove of it and it had been adopted, what would be the 
result ? 

James Wood, of New York : We can only judge ot 
the future by the past, and judging by the experience of 
the adoption of this Constitution I would reply that this 
is a case that will never come up. 

The Chairman : Do you wish to take action upon 
this recommendation ? 

A Delegate : Will this addition have to go to other 
Yearly Meetings before it will be adopted ? 

The Chairman: Yes, it will have to take the course 
of all other additions. It seems unquestionably necessary, 
and no time should be lost in taking action upon it. 



80 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas: What would be the 
effect of an affirmative or negative vote on this proposi- 
tion at this time ? There is an amendment on this very 
case coming from our Yearly Meeting. 

James Wood, of New York : It seems to me as before ; 
some one said, " Have we a right to do this, and second, 
do we intend to do it if we have a right ?' ' It would have 
to go to the Yearly Meetings before it would become a law. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : Inasmuch as this 
work has to be referred to the Five Years Meeting, and 
inasmuch as other amendments covering the same ground 
are to be offered, I move we refer this whole matter to the 
Five Years Meeting for their consideration without going 
any further. 

Milton Hanson, of Western : Inasmuch as these 
amendments have been prepared by a committee of this 
Conference, I am in favor of referring them to the Five 
Years Meeting to be disposed of in the way the Discipline 
provides. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore: I speak with a 
great deal of hesitation, but it seems to me when that 
Committee made these recommendations the Committee's 
work was done, and it is not proper for that Committee to 
take up the subject again in any way whatever. That 
Committee put it out of its hands when it laid the Disci- 
pline before the Yearly Meetings. Yearly Meetings have 
printed this Discipline, and changes will work an incon- 
venience. We want to be able to refer easily to passages 
in the Discipline. The new arrangement, although it 
may be an improvement, will work awkwardness, and 
should properly lead to reprinting. The radical changes 
suggested by the Committee change the whole status of 
the Yearly Meeting from an independent body into a 
strongly organized, systematical, welded body in which 
any one of these Yearly Meetings may be obliged to adopt 
laws of discipline ot which it entirely disapproves ; such 
radical changes may seem a filling out of what is unavoid- 
ably left unfinished in the past — i. e., a change in the 
whole organic law of the body, — and for us to adopt it in 
this way seems to be not wholly in order. 



oe the conference; 8 1 

The Chairman : It seems to me there is a misunder- 
standing of the proposition which provides a plan for 
amending the Discipline. 

David Hadley, of Western : It seems to me that this 
point is well taken. I hope the proposition will be voted 
down. 

A Delegate : It seems to me it is usual for this body- 
to give such a matter further consideration than it has to- 
night, and I think this matter should be referred to the 
Five Years Meeting where it properly belongs. 

The former motion was withdrawn. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : I move that we 
refer the whole matter without recommendation to the 
Five Years Meeting. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : It seems 
to me that the vote to recommend would approve of the 
action of the Committee present here. It seems to me 
after this Committee makes its report there is nothing 
before the meeting. I do not see how it can be stated 
that this Committee has finished its work when the draft 
of Discipline is simply sent to the Yearly Meetings. I am 
well aware that this draft should be made when seven 
Yearly Meetings have accepted it. There is a Standing 
Committee to bring the results of the work which it has 
done, and it seems to me there is a weakness. I think we 
can only acknowledge the report of this Committee and 
let it be considered when it comes before us in another 
capacity. 

The Chairman : I certainly should hold that the 
Committee would not be out of place as a Committee of 
this Conference in making a recommendation to the Con- 
ference. We have a right to approve or disapprove, but 
the recommendation is certainly out of place. 

The motion was carried. 

James Wood, of New York : In adopting this report 
I move that the report be received by the Conference and 
the Committee be discharged. 

The motion was carried. 

The Chairman : The action of this Conference is to 
refe* this whole subject to the Five Years Meeting 



82 STKNOGRAPHIC RKPORT 

without recommendation. The report is accepted and the 
Committee discharged. 

A Delegate from Iowa : I move that the thanks of 
this Conference be extended to this Committee for their 
earnest labor in doing this work. It has been a source of 
great value to our Church and required a greal deal of 
service, and I should like to have this Committee feel 
they have our hearty thanks for their work. 

The Chairman : There was another Committee 
appointed for a specific service at our Conference five 
years ago, and they should report at this time. I refer to 
the Committee that had under consideration the work of 
preparing a hymnal suitable for use in connection with 
our church services. 

The Chairman : I believe this Committee is ready to 
report. We will hear from Robert E. Pretlow. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : The Committee 
was organized with Cyrus R. Dixon as Chairman. Dr. 
Dixon is absent from the Conference and I have been 
asked by the Committee to act as temporary Chairman, 
and in that capacity I submit the following report : 

(See Minutes of Five Years Meeting — Minute 57, 
Proposition 3.) 

After reading the report Robert E. Pretlow spoke as 
follows : I would like to add that the Committee did a 
great deal of work, and there would be a great deal more 
in preparing a hymnal distinctively for Friends. No one 
who has not been connected with that Committee has any 
idea of the amount of work and the hours of very patient 
toilsome labor that the different members of that Com- 
mittee gave, but we were confronted with the question of 
copyrights, and found that to impartially prepare a work 
was almost an impossibility, especially, working as- we 
were, without any financial backing save what little the 
Committee had of its own. We did find publishers who 
had access to copyrights, ready to alter expiring books or 
co-operate with the Committee, and found other publish- 
ers that would furnish a Friends' Hymnal at very reason- 
able prices. The highest price that we were definitely 
offered, as mentioned in the written report, was that a 



of the confkrkncf 83 

satisfactory book could be secured at a maximum price of 
seventy -five cents. Other offers from other publishers 
were at a less figure, and I suppose the cheaper ones 
might not be so satisfactory. We thought it would be our 
duty to present this matter to this Conference, and that it 
would be a proper method of procedure for the Confer- 
ence to refer the whole matter for official action to the 
Five Years Meeting, and if it approved of the plan it 
could appoint a Committee with power, as this Commit- 
tee did not apparently have power to act on any matter 
involving an expense to the Conference. 

Levi D. Barr, of California : I move that the matter 
be referred to the Five Years Meeting without any recom- 
mendations as to action. 

(Seconded.) 

The motion was carried. 

The Chairman : The Secretary will please announce 
the next subject on the program. 

The Secretary : The next subject on the program is 
the report of the Treasurer. 

The report was read by the Secretary. (See Min- 
ute 7.) 

Timothy Nicholson : I move that the report, together 
with cash on hand and unpaid bill, be ordered to be turned 
over to the Treasurer to be appointed by the Five Years 
Meeting. 

The Chairman : There is a motion before the House 
to refer this report to the Five Years Meeting, and to turn 
over the money on hand to the Treasurer of that Meeting 
when appointed. It also carries with it a statement of 
the indebtedness of the Conference. 

The motion was carried 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I move that the 
thanks of the Conference be extended to William Jasper 
Hadley for his services. 

Robert W. Douglas, of Indiana : No doubt the Con- 
ference is very thankful to all the officers of this Confer- 
ence for the work they have done, but I doubt the pro- 
priety of stopping at the end and thanking everybody for 
what they have done. 



84 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

David Hadley, of Western : I am very much opposed 
to such a system of parliamentary services. 

The motion was carried, those opposed voting against 
the principle and not against that particular case. 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas : I would like to ask 
one question . Are there any resources ; have all the 
Yearly Meetings paid their assessments ? 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : We have no means 
of reporting ; the Treasurer did not say anything about 
that. I take it for granted they have all paid in and there 
was a surplus. 

Rums M. Jones, of New England : In regard to this 
bill that has come in, it is a bill that has grown little by 
little in the work of preparing the new Discipline, as it 
had to be printed four or five times and sent in for correc- 
tion. I think the bill should be charged to the Five 
Years Meeting. It should be three or four or five hun- 
dred dollars, but it was reduced to $88.00, and should 
properly be charged to the Five Years Meeting it seems 
to me. There is nearly enough money on hand to pay it. 

A Delegate : I doubt the propriety of charging up 
bills in that way. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : It is 
rather ungracious to turn over a debt to a meeting that is 
not in existence and then what should this Conference 
which had died do. I sincerely hope before the meeting 
to-morrow the auditor will discover some method of 
extracting $30.00, and let this Five Years Meeting com- 
mence without a debt on its shoulders. There might be 
a possibility of this Five Years Meeting refusing to 
accept it. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : Don't cross that 
river until we get to it. 

The Chairman : We know of nothing further that 
should claim the attention of the Conference. 

James Wood, of New York : It might be proper for 
this Meeting to make some disposition of the proceedings 
to the Conference. We have kept a record from the 
beginning, I believe. Would it not be proper to make 
some disposition of the Records of this Conference ? It 



op the conference; 85 

seems to me that the Records of the several Conferences 
should be placed in the hands of some authority where 
they might be cared for, as matters of reference, at any 
rate. I move that we recommend to the Five Years 
Meeting that the proceeds of this Conference be published 
along with the proceeds of the Five Years Meeting. 

(Seconded.) 

The motion was carried. 

James Wood, of New York : I would move that the 
records of all the matters pertaining to the Conferences 
heretofore in the past fifteen years be turned over to the 
Five Years Meeting for its care and preservation. 

A Delegate : I now move that we adjourn without a 
day. 

The motion was carried. 

The Meeting was closed by prayer, and the Confer- 
ence adjourned without a day. 

FINIS. 



86 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OP 

THE FIVE YEARS MEETING. 



Fourth-Day, Tenth Month 22, 1902. — 9.00 a. m. 

The Meeting was called to order by Timothy Nich- 
olson, who said: It is suggested by the Committee of 
Arrangements that Edmund Stanley and Mary C. Woody 
act temporarily as Chairman, and Secretary. We have 
also requested Dr. Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore, to 
open the devotional services this morning. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore, read the 13th Chap- 
ter of First Corinthians, after which he said : The great- 
est thing in the life of a Christian who follows the L,ord 
and who is living in the Spirit of the Lord is love. He 
that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God and God in him, 
and as we apply this practically to our circumstances, to 
our environments, to the people we mingle with, in all 
our duties, we find a practical solution as to how to get 
out of temptation and into powerful service, and as this 
is the case individually, so it is collectively ; and as I 
was unexpectedly asked to open this meeting, it seemed 
to me that the key-note of love was the key-note for our 
meeting, and it is the key-note for our lives if we live in 
the power of the L,ord. I would suggest that we have a 
time of lifting up our hearts to God for his blessing with 
vocal prayer or otherwise, as each one may be led. 

Several prayers were then offered. 

MINUTES OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING. 
Fourth-Day, Tenth Month 22, 1902. — 9.00 a. m. 

The Chairman : We are now ready to take up the 
business of the Five Years Meeting. If Mary C. Woody, 



op the; conference; 87 

of North Carolina, is in the room she will please come to 
the table. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : The Committee on 
Arrangements arranged with stenographers to report the 
proceedings. Is this satisfactory to the Meeting ? 

(It was taken by consent.) 

The Chairman : The Clerk will read the lists of dele- 
gates appointed by the several Yearly Meetings to consti- 
tute this Five Years Meeting, and also the Minutes of 
their appointment. 

(Mary C. Woody read Minutes from the different 
Meetings, and also from Ohio and Canada Yearly Meet- 
ings, who had sent fraternal delegates. See Minutes, Min- 
utes 3 and 4.) 

James Wood, of New York : I am confident that the 
members of this Five Years Meeting welcome here the 
fraternal delegates from Canada and Ohio Yearly Meet- 
ings ; there are present also with us members of two other 
Yearly Meetings who are not delegates to this body. They 
are Harriet Green and Sophia M. Fry and Rachel Tylor, 
of London Yearly Meeting ; Dr. Edward Rhoads, Eliza- 
beth B. Jones, Sarah M. Scull, John C. Winston, William 
W. Cadbury and Rebecca W. Cadbury. I move that the 
fraternal delegates whose names have been read, and these 
friends from Eondon and Philadelphia, whose names have 
now been read, be cordially invited to participate in the 
Meeting and the discussions of the Meeting. 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas : We have no right to 
extend all these rights, but we have a right to be courteous. 

(The motion was seconded.) 

Timothy Nicholson , of Indiana : I would suggest 
that we take a vote by rising. 

The motion was carried. 

The Chairman : The Friends who are with us as fra- 
ternal delegates from Canada and from Ohio Yearly Meet- 
ings will certainly feel free to take part with us in the 
deliberations of this Meeting. We are glad to have you 
with us. We will now call the Yearly Meetings in order 
that the places of absentees in the delegation may be 
filled. 



88 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

(Mary C. Woody called the Meetings in order.) 

Albert J. Brown, of Western: I do not understand 
these are permanent changes ; now what have you to rule 
in regard to that matter ? We shall have some of our 
delegates present in this afternoon session. We are put- 
ting in alternates this morning to make our delegation 
complete. 

The Chairman : What is the wish of the Meeting in 
regard to this proposition ? 

A Delegate : I move that the alternates present be 
allowed the places until the delegates come in, and when 
they come in they take their places and the alternates 
retire. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I think it is import- 
ant that these places should be filled even temporarily. 
Very soon the delegates will be called upon to select the 
members of the Business Committee by the delegations, 
and I think the delegations should be kept full. Of course 
they would yield to appointees when they come. 

A Delegate : Who stands as the recorded delegate in 
that case ? 

The Chairman : The regular delegate. We have a 
motion before the meeting that in case an alternate has 
been placed in a delegation, the regular delegate shall 
take his place when he arrives at any time during this 
meeting ; and this motion has been seconded. 

The motion was carried. 

The Chairman, to Canada Yearly Meeting : Have 
you any names to submit, or are there any vacancies in 
your delegation ? 

Delegate from Canada : We have none. 

The Chairman : What about Ohio ? 

A Delegate from Ohio : The delegation is full. : 

The Chairman : We have completed our roll of dele- 
gates, and are now ready to pass to the next order of busi- 
ness. 

A Delegate : In case a delegate is not present, or 
alternates either, and there is a Friend that can acceptably 
fill that vacancy, would it be in order to fill the vacancy ? 
If we have not been appointed can we fill that position ? 



of the; conference; 89 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : It seems to me 
that would be a very dangerous precedent. It passes into 
the hands of the people here and takes it out of the hands 
of the Yearly Meetings. 

The Chairman : As a matter of fact we have no right 
to go beyond the appointments of the Yearly Meetings. 

Our Committee on Arrangements have submitted a 
program covering the work for the several sessions. Of 
course it is only suggestive. Do you wish to take any 
action in reference to it ? 

James Wood, of New York : In order that we may 
have definite proceedings, I move that the programs sub- 
mitted be approved and made the program of this Five 
Years Meeting, as that was the understanding with those 
whose names appear. Those who present the opening 
paper to be allowed twenty minutes, those leading in the 
discussion ten minutes, and those who speak in the dis- 
cussions following to be allowed five minutes, unless the 
time be officially extended. 

Zenas L. Martin, of Iowa : I would like to say in 
regard to the programs that the Business Committee might 
have a right to suggest any changes or additions to the 
program that in their judgment might seem wise. 

James Wood, of New York : It is always understood 
that the Business Committee has a right to present such 
business as may seem best to the meeting. 

Zenas L. Martin, of Iowa : I think the Business 
Committee should have the power to reject any of this 
program or add to it. 

James Wood, of New York : I will accept that as a 
part of the original motion. 

The Chairman : It has been moved and seconded that 
we accept the program submitted, subject to such changes 
as the Busines Committee may recommend. 

The motion was carried. 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas : I move that if the 
first person does not occupy the full twenty minutes the 
second person should have the remainder of the time so 
that there will be thirty minutes given to the presentation 
of the subject. 



90 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Benjamin F. Trueolood, of New England : I think 
that is unnecessary, as the Conference can always extend 
the time if it cares to do so. 

Francis Wright's motion has been seconded, so what 
is your pleasure ? 

The motion was carried. 

The Chairman : We have accepted the program as 
proposed, subject to such changes from time to time as 
the Business Commmittee may recommend. The first 
thing is the reading of the epistle from the London 
Yearly Meeting addressed to this meeting. This epistle 
has been forwarded to James Wood, of New York, and as 
he is familiar with it, I suggest that we ask him to read it 
for us at this time. 

(Consent.) 

(See Minutes of Five Years Meeting, Minute 7.) 

Harriet Green, of England : I feel sorry, dear Friends, 
that London Yearly Meeting is left out of your Union, 
because I believe so entirely in unity there is strength. I 
do not think London Yearly Meeting is left out ; I think 
that letter states exactly the truth, that London Yearly 
Meeting is one with American Yearly Meetings in heart 
and purpose. For myself and for my friends I will say 
how very heartily we appreciate the kind welcome you 
have given us, and what a privilege we feel it to be here 
to-day. I am sure they must envy our position in this 
meeting this morning. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : I am sure it must 
be a very great joy to us all to have this beautiful and 
uplifting message from our friends across the sea. I know 
our friends are deeply interested in our meeting this week 
in Indianapolis, as I have recently talked to some of the 
Friends. After having heard this epistle and having^felt 
the sympathy that has come to us, I hope we shall feel the 
way open to appoint a small committee to prepare a letter 
of appreciation or an epistle from this Five Years Meeting 
to be sent to London Yearly Meeting. I think this might 
be done by a committee of five or six Friends, to be 
appointed by the Chair. 

The motion was carried. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 9 1 

The President : The next order of business will be 
the appointment of the Business Committee. This Com- 
mittee will consist of one member from each Yearly Meet- 
ing, the members to be selected by the delegates from the 
Yearly Meetings. Are you now ready to make the 
appointments ? 

A Delegate : Should there not be a recess of five 
minutes so that the delegates may have time to agree upon 
the names to constitute this Committee. 

The Chairman : By consent a recess of five minutes 
will betaken. 

(Adjourned for five minutes' recess.) 

The Chairman : We will hear the names of the Busi- 
ness Committee. 

New England Yearly Meeting. — Rufus M. Jones. 

New York Yearly Meeting. — James Wood. 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting. — Allen C. Thomas (sub- 
stituted by Anna King Carey until he comes). 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting. — Mary E. Cartland. 

Indiana Yearly Meeting. — Allen Jay. 

Western Yearly Meeting. — Peter W. Raidabaugh. 

Iowa Yearly Meeting. — Charles W. Sweet. 

Kansas Yearly Meeting. — Nathan Brown. 

Oregon Yearly Meeting. — Aaron M. Bray. 

Wilmington Yearly Meeting. — Robert E. Pretlow. 

California Yearly Meeting.— William V. Coffin. 

A Delegate : I hope this nomination will not be 
taken as a precedent. I note that Mary E. Cartland has 
the sole honor of representing her sex on this Committee. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : I move that this 
Committee be instructed to meet in Committee Room 
No. 1 immediately at the rise of this meeting. 

(Seconded.) 

The Chairman : It has been suggested that as our 
program fixes no time for the closing of our different ses- 
sions, it might be well to have that point determined, as 
well as the time for beginning our sessions. Shall we 
refer this matter to the Business Committee ? 

(Consent.) 



92 STENOGRAPHIC RKPORT 

The Chairman : The next order of business is the 
presentation of propositions from Yearly Meetings, and 
their reference to committees. 

Read by Secretary Mary C. Woody, of North Caro- 
lina. (See Minutes, Minute 98.) 

The Chairman : The disciplinary provisions passed 
by the several Yearly Meetings as provided for in the 
Uniform Discipline, will not come in connection with the 
business called for at this time. Only those that come as 
proposed amendments are in order. 

(Secretary reads proposition from New York.) 

The Chairman : What will you do with the proposi- 
tion from New York ? 

James Wood, of New York : I move that all this be 
referred to the Business Committee for its recommenda- 
tion to the Conference as to what course should be taken 
for its consideration. Doubtless some of these subjects 
will be referred to a special committee, and others 
may be referred to one committee. We can not sift 
them in the open body of business as we could in the 
Business Committee, as it could give them urgent consid- 
eration as to the best manner of investigation of these 
several subjects and recommend them to the Conference 
for their consideration. I move these be referred to the 
Business Committee. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : As to the report 
of the California Yearly Meeting I think it was their 
judgment that it should be read in this Meeting. It was 
not read heretofore. It seems to me as a delegate that 
this should be presented to this Meeting. I hope it may 
be read. 

(The Minute ot the California Yearly Meeting was 
read in full.) 

The Chairman : Do we understand that the recom- 
mendation from California Yearly Meeting was passed in 
the Meeting this year, or was it only submitted to the 
Meeting for consideration ? 

Levi D. Barr, of California : I am not sure about 
that, but a year ago, I understand. 

Charles B. Tebbetts, of California : The committee 









OF THE CONFERENCE 93 

was appointed a year ago, but the matter came before this 
Yearly Meeting for the first time. 

The Chairman : The recommendations from Califor- 
nia and Western Yearly Meetings, touching disciplinary 
changes, have not come in accordance with che provisions 
of the Uniform Discipline. I do not see how we can refer 
them to the Committee for consideration. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : It seems to me 
that these should be treated like recommendations from 
other ■ Yearly Meetings. They do not come as proper 
requests for changed Discipline. They are not according 
to the Constitution, but they can possibly be dealt with 
as requests coming from the Yearly Meetings in regard to 
a committee. I should suggest they be included with a 
whole batch of recommendations that go to the Business 
Committee. They have to be treated as recommendations 
and referred to the Business Committee. 

The Chairman : I fail to see how we can take any 
action in a case like this. We can take no action because 
the Discipline has not been followed. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : The ruling of the 
Chair is strictly correct in one sense ; if we were witnesses 
we would be ruled out of Court ; but I suggest that all 
this be referred to the Business Committee for such recom- 
mendations as they may return. 

David Hadley, of Western : Western Yearly Meeting 
is not operating under the Uniform Discipline as yet. We 
only claim the right of petition. Owing to the necessi- 
ties of this meeting we had better begin on somewhat of 
a liberal basis. 

A Delegate : I move that this be referred to the Busi- 
ness Committee. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore: The ruling of 
the Discipline seems to be very explicit that the questions 
must be considered by the Yearly Meetings for one year 
and then, when it is approved, after that it will be reported. 

Robert W. Douglas, of Indiana : I like the sugges- 
tion of David Hadley. I do not think we should antici- 
pate what would be the action of the Business Committee 
or what would be the future action of this Meeting. I 



94 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

think in their wisdom they will see a way out without 
discussing this general question here in this meeting. 

A Delegate : It seems to me that in the first session 
of this Meeting it would be a bad precedent for us to vio- 
late this Discipline and set a bad example for subsequent 
Meetings ; it will go down as an example and get us in 
trouble hereafter. 

A Delegate : It seems to me that it would be cour- 
teous to receive requests from Yearly Meetings and have 
them referred when they come in for discussion. The 
question would then be referred without discussion. I 
think that should be referred to the Committee. What 
action will be taken will be decided when the time comes. 

The Chairman : It is moved and seconded that all 
recommendations from the several Yearly Meetings be 
referred to the Business Committee. What is your pleasure? 

The motion was carried. 

James Wood, of New York : I desire to make another 
motion. A number of the Yearly Meetings have adopted 
for their own use additional disciplinary regulations which 
are reported to this meeting for its consideration. I move 
that all these, without being read in this Meeting, be also 
referred to the Business Committee that they may recom- 
mend to this Committee what disposition may be made of 
them, and that the additional disciplinary regulations 
approved by the several Yearly Meetings for their own 
use, when they have not yet been read, be referred in a 
similar manner, without reading, to the Business Commit- 
tee. The object of this motion is not that the Business 
Committee shall investigate all these propositions and act 
upon them as recommendations and conclusions, but 
recommend to this Conference what action should be taken 
according to the appointment of a committee for their 
consideration, not that the Business Committee itself will 
undertake this investigation. 

(After considerable discussion the motion to refer to 
the Business Committee was carried.) 

The Chairman : Is it the wish that the question of 
reports be now taken up, or will you refer to a future 
session ? 



OF THE CONFERENCE 95 

James Wood, of New York : I think this is the proper 
time. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : It is the proper 
time to consider about the reports of the Five Years 
Meeting. We ought to have some decision at once as to 
how much of this discussion is to be kept, and I would 
like to raise this question before we take up the business 
of the day. The custom of the past has been to report 
everything that is said, and publish it, and it seems to me 
it is hardly wise to do this any more. I should like to 
hear how our friends feel upon this subject. 

The Chairman : Do you wish to take up this question 
at this time? If there is no objection we will refer it to 
the Committee with the expectation that it will be 
brought up in due time. 

A Delegate : The first thing this afternoon is the 
appointment of officers. Has any provision been made 
for that ? 

The Chairman : The Uniform Discipline provides that 
the chairmen of the several delegations shall constitute a 
Committee to recommend officers for this meeting. 

A recess of five minutes was taken. 

The Chairman : Before the presentation of the paper 
for this hour we will have read from the Discipline the 
section relating to the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board, in order that we may understand the matter as it 
has been provided for in the Discipline. 

Mary C. Woody, of North Carolina, read the section. 
(See Constitution and Discipline, Part iv., Chapter iv., 
Sect. 2.) 

The Chairman : We are now ready for the next sub- 
ject — "The Scope and Work of the Evangelistic and 
Church Extension Board of the Five Years Meeting," 
by Isom P. Wooton, of Iowa, and Allen Jay, of Indi- 
ana. 



96 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

THE SCOPE AND WORK OF THE EVANGELISTIC 
AND CHURCH EXTENSION BOARD OF THE 
FIVE YEARS MEETING. 

By Isom P. Wooton, 
Marshalltowx, Iowa. 

"The field is the world." The efforts, therefore, of 
the Society of Friends, as a united Christian body, should 
be to bring the people to the Savior and build them up in 
the Most Holy Faith. 

In union there is strength. Hence we stand to-day 
upon a hill-top from whence we, as a people, have never 
before looked out on life's duties. If there should come 
into our vision possibilities of which we have never 
dreamed, is it not because we have a wider range from the 
higher and more forceful relations of the Church ? And 
will we not be brought under greater responsibilities to 
put forth a greater and a better systematized effort to 
carry out the purposes of our mission ? The high life of 
our people will be manifested to the world, just so far as 
we move out under the leading of the Holy Spirit, in the 
conflict against sin and in rescuing the people from its 
power. 

We have never been a proselyting Church and in the 
true sense we desire never to be, but we have paid too 
dearly for the smallness of our numbers. It is said "The 
most valuable articles are done up in small packages," 
but is this a reason that we should set our small package 
away and let it waste until nothing but the wrappings 
remain? Duty calls us to Evangelization. Self-preser- 
vation bids us be doing. The wide spread and unoccupied 
fields in the rural districts in our older States appeal to our 
sympathies ; and the broader opportunities in the great 
West and South offer fruitful fields to the Church. Mace- 
donian cries are on every hand "Come over and help us," 
and are heard by our people ; and many of the workers are 
only waiting to be sent into those fields . The fields are white 
unto the harvest. To reach out and supply this needed 
help, ought to be and I believe is, the concern of the Five 



OF THE CONFERENCE 97 

Years Meeting of the Society of Friends in America. We 
may hesitate and even refuse to adopt methods because 
other churches have used them, but the duty of our Society 
is neither to be copyists as copyists, nor to wait until we 
can find a unique and untried way in which to go. What 
is that in thine hand, may be asked of the Church to-day, 
as well as of Moses four thousand years ago ; and though 
simple, may be a potent instrument in the hands of God. 
Our beloved Dr. William Nicholson of Kansas, who 
stepped from the shore of California on to the eternal 
Pacific, said ten years ago in his estimable paper on the 
Pastoral System, " Now we may not be inconsistent with 
true and sound principles, if by the adoption of new and 
safe practices in the Church, we secure a successful 
answer to the prayers which we have been offering for 
many years, for the reviving of the Lord's work and the 
extension of the borders of His Kingdom " ; so to lay 
hold of such methods in our effort to evangelize and 
extend the work of the Church as will answer the needs 
of to-day, will commend itself to every wise and thinking 
people. 

As to the Scope : The Evangelistic and Church 
Extension Committee ought to be organized in the sim- 
plest possible form which can meet the needs of the 
Church, keeping an eye to the greatest amount of success- 
ful work accomplished at the smallest expense. The 
Uniform Discipline specifies a President, Secretary and 
Treasurer ; we would suggest also a Superintendent. 
The duties of the first three offices should be such as are 
usual to these stations. The Superintendent should be 
the working agent of the Committee, always subject to 
the control of the Committee and yet left at liberty to pur- 
sue the work unhesitatingly, unless ordered to desist by 
the Committee, which should always be his advisor. 

The office of Superintendent should always be advi- 
sory in its power, never dictatorial. He should try to 
inform himself in all the broader interests of the Society 
of Friends, and be able to advise and counsel in any matter 
concerning any Yearly Meeting in America, always sub- 
mitting his counsel through the Yearly Meeting's 



98 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Superintendent from whom the matter in question came. 
He should be the one to whom all the Evangelistic and 
Church Extension Superintendents of the several Yearly- 
Meetings should send a copy of their approved reports 
and should keep them on file and should make a sum- 
mary report from them, approved by the Committee, to 
the Five Years Meeting, with such other information as 
shall fall under his care during the interval. 

He should be the one to whom appeals are made for 
assistance in the Evangelistic or Church Extension fields, 
and should submit, from time to time, to the executive 
committee the demands made by the Superintendents of 
the Yearly Meetings for means to assist in the furtherance 
of the work. 

He should be the agent of the committee in soliciting 
funds for carrying out the object of the committee and 
should pass from Yearly Meeting to Yearly Meeting under 
the advice of the executive committee in the furtherance 
of the interest of the committee. He should look after 
permanent endowments by Wills, etc., as opportunity 
may occur. 

His official relation should be by appointment by the 
committee, with the approval of the whole Board, and 
should hold for one year. 

The Board should be incorporated under the L,aws of 
the State of Indiana, to be able to hold and control 
bequests made either to the Evangelistic or Church Exten- 
sion department, and it should faithfully control and dis- 
burse the proceeds in lengthening the cords and strength- 
ening the stakes of the Society of Friends, to the building 
up of the Kingdom of our Eord and Saviour, Jesus 
Christ. 

They should keep the endowment funds invested 
with reliable securities. 

In conclusion, This Board stands for the pushing of 
our Church work into fields into which it would be impos- 
sible for any one of the Yearly Meetings to go alone. It 
becomes a centre for the stability of the work, by creat- 
ing a permanent fund to meet the expenses necessary for the 
wider fields in and beyond any of our Yearly Meetings. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 99 

Fields have already been opened by individual effort 
or by the efforts of a few, in Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, 
Florida, Missouri, Wisconsin, the Dakotas, Colorado and 
other States, all of which have been abandoned for the lack 
of a little help added to the individual efforts ; fields which 
would have yielded a good harvest to the Church, and 
where we might have carried the true Gospel to places which 
are now sitting in darkness. You object, and say, " All 
this increases the expenses of the Society at large. ' ' Who 
ever objected to the enlarging of the capacity of his fac- 
tory because it would take more oil to grease the wheels ? 
We are enlarging our Missionary work, and well we may 
be, so long as Providence is dashing opportunites across 
our pathway and we are compelled to pick them up. 
Shall the feet and hands of the Church be pushing into 
the foreign fields, while the Evangelistic or vital organs 
are throbbing less and less forcefully ? No, let us raise 
higher and higher the healthful throb of the heart. L,et us 
open the lungs and take in more of the invigorating air 
around us, so that the members of the body may be in- 
creased and strengthened for the conflict that is before us. 

By Allen Jay, 
Richmond, Va. 

The scope and work of the Evangelistic and Church 
Extension Board of the Five Years Meeting is pretty 
clearly defined in the Uniform Discipline. Yet it may 
not be unprofitable to dwell a little upon some matters 
connected with this important branch of Church work. 

The Board should be composed of those who believe 
in the work ; those who have heard the call, " Go ye " ; 
and as far as possible have had some experience in the 
Evangelistic and Church Extension work in their own 
Yearly Meetings. In accordance with the provision of 
the Discipline, the Board should have a complete list of 
all the ministers with their post-office address ; and as far 
as possible have a knowledge of their individual gifts and 
adaptability to places and circumstances. 

In addition to this list should be added the names of 



IOO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

those who are gifted in singing in the spirit and with the 
understanding, along with those also who are skillful in 
religious work who are not recorded, but who may be 
very useful in helping the Evangelist and Pastor to bring 
souls into the light, and introducing them by personal 
work, into an acquaintance with their Savior. Many of 
these who may never be recognized as called to preach 
the Gospel publicly, have nevertheless proved themselves 
workmen that need not be ashamed, handling aright the 
word of truth. 

When the Evangelist goes into a meeting to work, 
he should work in harmony with those who have the pas- 
toral care of said meeting, whether such care is main- 
tained by an individual or a pastoral committee. He 
should avoid drawing the congregation to himself, but 
leave them under the care of those in authority. Avoid 
making division and stirring up bitter feeling. Preach 
Jesus and Him crucified. 

In order that the work may be fruitful of the best 
results, it is very necessary that the Board should be well 
informed as to the needs of the field in the various Yearly 
Meetings, and the nature of the work required. With a 
knowledge of the workers and an acquaintance with the 
field and its environments, the Board, under the leading of 
the Spirit, can render more efficient help. 

The Board should encourage the different Yearly 
Meetings to be active in endeavoring to carry on " Church 
Extension" work. It is necessary to a healthy growth 
of the Church. A self-centred Church, like a self-centred 
Christian, soon wastes all its spiritual life on itself and 
becomes self-righteous and ready to judge and condemn 
others who do not believe and do as it does. The 
remedy for such an evil is to look out and around, and 
see what the Master would have us to do for others ; to 
know the fact that we are debtor to others who are not in 
the fold. They that water shall be watered. The Church 
thus engaged will grow in spiritual life and power. 
Happy the Church that is filled with the spirit of the 
Master, who bids us go into the world and make disciples 
of all nations. 



OF THE CONFERENCE IOI 

The Board should use proper efforts to secure funds 
to assist in carrying forward this healthy growth of the 
Church. A special Building Fund would enable them to 
do efficient work in this line, and a well directed plan 
should be instituted to raise such a fund. 

It would be beneficial for the Board to have well 
digested plans for Church buildings ; plans suited to 
various sized congregations and to different localities. 
These plans should be for neat and tasteful buildings, not 
extravagant or costly. Special attention should be given 
to light, heat and ventilation. The seating should have 
care ; the platform not too high or too low ; the acoustic 
properties should have special attention. The title to the 
property should be perfect. With these plans on hand, 
and with some funds to assist in carrying them out, great 
encouragement can be given to those who are struggling 
to secure a place for worship. 

Here permit me to say, on the subject of loaning a 
certain sum to help in the building, with an obligation 
that it is to be returned after three or five years. To my 
mind it is doubtful if this is conducive to the future wel- 
fare of the Church. First, is it right to set apart a build- 
ing devoted to the worship of God with a debt hanging 
over it ? Is it a good example to the members of the 
Church ? In the second place, in a few years it becomes 
an old debt. And who does not know an old debt is hard 
to raise ? The members don't like to hear about it. They 
have lost their enthusiasm, and it drags along, and finally 
a few faithful ones have to meet it and pay it off Better 
raise it all in the beginning, and be free to use all the 
money that comes in to carry forward the work that the 
Lord lays upon the Church. 

With the Board supplied with the proper amount of 
funds, and a thorough knowledge of the field and the 
workers, it is then prepared to act systematically and 
intelligently. Great care should be exercised in the dis- 
tribution of the workers. Too much attention cannot be 
given to this part of the work. In the first place, the 
endowment of the Board should not be given to those who 
are not in harmony with the views of Friends, and who 



102 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

go about making divisions and separations in meetings 
and among individuals ; those who introduce methods 
and practices subversive of good order and discipline in 
the Church ; who are found teaching and preaching 
against Church regulations, claiming to be too good and 
spiritual to be members of any Church ; whose time is 
put in finding fault with the Church and condemning all 
who do not accept their presentation of the Gospel, claim- 
ing they have the only revelation of the truth, selecting 
some special phase of the Gospel and riding it as a hobby 
until it becomes an error of the most dangerous kind, 
running into ranterism, which ends in fanatical actions 
and expressions, subversive of the truth and calculated to 
lay waste and destroy the Church of God. 

Against all these extremes the Board should guard, 
and should seek to build our ministers and workers up in 
a full, clear, evangelical, and an all-around Gospel. Not 
merely a fourfold Gospel, but a manifold Gospel, to meet 
the manifold temptations of this life. 

The day may come when the Evangelistic and 
Church Extension Board of this Five Years Meeting 
may have under its care a Biblical Department in some 
Christian college where our ministers and workers can be 
trained in the truths of the Bible, in connection with 
literary and scientific training, that will develop them into 
all-around Christian character, prepared to preach the 
Gospel to those who want to hear it, with power and suc- 
cess. The world needs, and is waitingfor such preaching. 
We should pray for such men and women filled with the 
Spirit to be raised up among us. We have many such. 
Their numbers are on the increase. And with this fact 
before us and the fields white unto harvest, may we not 
hope, with a wise and Spirit-filled Board, assisted by wise 
and earnest Yearly Meetings' Superintendents working in 
harmony, the work may be blessed during the next five 
years ? That the cords of the Church may be lengthened 
and her stakes strengthened, and God glorified by His 
militant Church. 

Eevi Gregory, of California : I am intensely inter- 
ested in this subject. I feel confident a more weighty 



OF THE CONFERENCE 103 

subject will not claim the attention of the Five Years 
Meeting. It has been my lot in an experience of some 
years in the ministry to have somewhat to do in pioneer 
work in Iowa and California for eight years, and it seems 
to me that we might well consider some of the proposi- 
tions that have been presented by these papers that we have 
heard. I have found, in my experience, demands that 
cannot be met by local meetings, or even Yearly Meet- 
ings. I remember instances in Iowa when there were 
certainly excellent opportunities for Friends to heed the 
call from Macedonia, and yet, for the lack of money, we 
were not able to possess the land. I have found a very 
much the same condition in California. We have had to 
surrender meetings simply for a lack of a few dollars, and 
so it seems to me that as we consider the Evangelistic and 
Church Extension work we certainly must bear in mind 
that there is need, and will be need of money. I have 
very often had questions pressed upon me in this field, 
"Have Friends no funds for new fields?" and I have 
been compelled to say for California, "We have not." 
And it seems to me that it is a very sad state of affairs 
that a church two hundred and fifty j^ears old has not 
means to go out into new fields. I have more recently 
come in contact with calls that have come to me not 
merely from the country places in California, but from 
large cities, such as Stockton, San Francisco, etc. I pray 
God the directions of this hour may reach our hearts and 
we may be able to go home from this Five Years Meeting 
ready to do what God has given us to do not only in the 
Evangelistic work but in the Church Extension work. 

Harry R. Keates, of New York : I am very thankful 
this subject comes in the name of this Conference. I expect 
there is a feeling in most of our hearts that there is a lim- 
ited time to consider what is the most important part of the 
work of the Church. I indorse both of these papers. When 
we carry out our organization I trust that we shall see to 
it that we appoint men who are not only in favor of care- 
ful evangelistic work but who are red hot for it. The 
time has come when some of us will have to stand whether 
we like it or not, and utter our protesting to the dead- 



104 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

locking of the church wheels of progress by putting peo- 
ple into power who are not prepared to go the length they 
ought to in this work. We have 93,000 members of the 
Society of Friends in America and in round numbers more 
than 70,000 of them are adults, who are capable of deny- 
ing themselves and giving at least one penny per day for 
the cause of Christ and for the salvation of souls and for 
the upbuilding of the Church in America. Friends, this 
Board would have by such a means over $200,000 at its 
disposal. A very simple way. It is somewhat of the 
way that was operated in the Church of Rome. I do 
trust that when the time comes we may be furnished with 
men and women who will be filled with the Spirit of God, 
and by faith and prayer go forward with the work which 
we desire to see done in filling up the vacant places and 
building up the weak and wasted places. 

Rebecca W. Cadbury: I stand before you, dear Friends, 
in deep feeling, for we of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting do 
not consider the finances for Church Extension Work, but 
I would not for a moment say that money is not necessary 
to the extension of the Church of Christ as we Friends 
hold it. But may I lay before you something that is far 
dearer than the purse. It is the thought of what Quaker- 
ism stands for, and if Quakerism is worth anything it is 
worth its spirituality, and Quakerism to-day in Philadel- 
phia, in Ohio and in Indiana, and in the length and breadth 
of the land, needs a deepening of spiritual life. A Friends' 
Meeting (excuse me, I do not speak as a critic) but 
a Friends' Meeting is a gathering together to worship, of 
worshipers who come not to hear one man but who 
come to hear the Gospel. In waiting upon the Lord our 
souls will be fed and nourished, and as we grow in Chris- 
tian life we will become strong women and men for the 
work as Friends, and Friends will not take a secondary 
place. The deep spiritual life will remain at the top. 
Dear Friends, when we come to our Meetings let us listen 
for the Ford and hear his voice. " My soul, wait thou 
only upon God." 

Elmer D. Gildersleeve, of New York : I have been 
asking myself the question: ' ' What about the Evangelistic 



OP THE CONFERENCE 105 

Committee ? What has it done for the Society of 
Friends ?" and I think if I should ask those present here 
to-day, especially the delegates, what is the means through 
which you were brought into the church, or by which 
you were inspired to work in the Friends' Church to 
which you belong, I believe, if I should ask this question 
very many would say, it was through the work of the 
Evangelistic Committee, and what is known also as the 
Committee on Church Extension Work, or Church Exten- 
sion Board. I well remember the early days of my own 
work when an evangelist came from a Western Yearly 
Meeting. Many will remember that those who sat among 
us were men and women filled with the Spirit of God. Many 
of us are birthright members of the Society of Friends, 
and possibly I might say, it was not until the beginning 
of the evangelistic services of our Board, and not until 
then, you began your real active work in the Church. 
Others of us stand and say that it was not until we 
gave our hearts to God through the instrumentalities God 
has placed among us by sending among us these evangel- 
ists, who, in the hands of God, were the means of placing 
us in the Church ; so we stand debtors to the Evangelistic 
Committee, and as evangelistic workers we should come 
out and do our work for God. I believe that the respon- 
sibility that rests upon us is very great, very momentous, 
and the responsibility that rests upon us, or at least should 
rest upon us, is one that we cannot carry without God's 
help. Let us grasp the situation and feel the responsi- 
bility and assume it, and I can assure you as we go for- 
ward in His name very many more will be added to the 
Church. Let us see to it that we are ready for the work, 
and ready to assume the responsibility ourselves, that 
God's name may come off more than conqueror through 
Him that loved us. 

The Chairman : We will have to close this subject 
unless we extend the time. 

(After some discussion it was concluded to continue 
the consideration of the subject at the afternoon session.) 

The Chairman : I will now name the committee to 
prepare an epistle in response to the epistle received from 



106 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

London Yearly Meeting. I appoint Rufus M. Jones, i 
Absalom Rosenberger, Eliza C. Armstrong, Ellen C. 
Wright and Robert L- Kelly. 
Adj ourned . 

Fourth-Day, Afternoon, Tenth Month 22. 

After a time of waiting before the Lord and prayer 
and the singing of a Irytnn, the Chairman said : The first 
thing for us to consider is the appointment of officers for 
the ensuing sessions of this Meeting. We are ready to 
hear the report of the Nominating Committee. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : The Committee met 
this morning and all the members were present but one, 
and the results of this consideration were as follows : 

The Committee proposed the following persons for 
officers of the Five Years Meeting, viz.: 

Clerk, Edmund Stanley, of Kansas. 

First Assistant Cleik, Ellwood O. Ellis, of Indiana. 

Second Assistant Clerk, R. Esther Smith, of California. 

Treasurer, Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore. 

Auditing Committee. — Timothy Nicholson, of Indi- 
ana ; Francis A. Wright, of Kansas ; and Charles H. 
Jones, of New England. 

After reading the report, Timothy Nicholson said : As 
the name of our temporary Chairman is in this list per- 
haps he will excuse me if I ask this Convention what we 
will do with this report ? 

(The report was adopted.) 

Edmund Stanley, of Kansas, in accepting the posi- 
tion of Clerk, said : We thank you for the expression 
of confidence and for the honor that you have placed upon 
us. We have met for an important service. Fifteen 
years ago the Friends of America and of England felt the 
need of a closer union, of combining interests and uniting 
strength. Three Meetings have been held, and out of 
these three Meetings have grown the Five Years Meeting 
which now becomes a permanent factor in the history of 
the Church. We can only anticipate its future, its use- 
fulness in the Church ; and yet our convictions are strong 



OF THE CONFERENCE 107 

in the belief that it will occupy a very important place in 
the organization of this body of Christian believers. The 
work which was undertaken by the Conference is, per- 
haps in some instances, incomplete. It would be strange 
indeed if all the work undertaken by it had been fully 
consummated ; and, to my mind, one of the important 
duties for this body is the completion of the work that 
has been in the hands of the Conference, and the meeting 
of certain conditions that have not as yet been met in the 
plans and process of organization. In addition we have 
in our hands the formulation of plans for carrying out the 
lines of work entrusted by the Yearly Meetings to this 
body of Friends. It is needless for me to take the time 
of this Convention to speak on these subjects, as many of 
them are referred to in the program. It is my desire and 
my prayer to-day that in our deliberations we may care- 
fully consider the interests of the Church and the pur- 
poses for which this meeting has been organized. May it 
be the means of making us strong in every line of service, 
and united in purpose and thought in the great questions 
that the Church must meet, must consider, must solve in 
the interest of mankind. May God grant that this, our 
new experiment in Church organization, may grow in 
strength and in wisdom and in power for the glory of His 
name. I thank you again for the honor you have con- 
ferred upon me. The reading of the Minutes is now in 
order. 

Mary C. Woody, of North Carolina : The Minutes 
are in quite a rough shape. If they could be omitted 
until another session we could have a fresh copy. I 
scarcely think the Secretary can read them. 

Robert W. Douglas, of Indiana : I think the former 
Secretary should read the Minutes at the present time and 
the new clerks could go on to better advantage. 

The Minutes were read by Mary C. Woody, of North 
Carolina. 

Robert L,. Kelly, of Indiana : It seems to me that 
those who are delegates from the Canada and the Ohio 
Yearly Meetings will hardly understand in the Minutes 
what we mean, as the statement is rather ambiguous. A 



108 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

more definite statement could be made, for the statement 
as made certainly would admit of a very broad interpre- 
tation'. They do not have a right to vote. 

James Wood, of New York : It is a definite propo- 
sition they should be invited to participate in the discus- 
sions but nothing further. 

The Minutes were approved as corrected. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I move 
that hereafter the Minutes be read once a day at the open- 
ing of the morning session. 

(This motion was taken by consent.) 

The Clerk : We have a report from the Business 
Committee. 

James Wood, of New York : I should like to state 
that the Business Committee chose Allen Jay as Chairman 
and Peter W. Raidabaugh as Secretary. 

The Clerk : We are now ready for the recom- 
mendations of the Business Committee. (See Minutes — 
Minute 17.) 

All the recommendations were approved. 

The Clerk : We are now ready to enter upon the 
discussion of the subject referred from the morning 
session. 

The discussion of the morning session on "The Scope 
and Work of the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board " was resumed. 

Jacob Baker, of Ohio : As stated this morning, the 
basis of our combined action is how to build up the organ- 
ization of our L,ord Jesus Christ in Church Extension 
work. I will have a few words to say from the Evangel- 
istic Committee platform. Without the preaching of the 
Gospel, without the power of the Holy Ghost, there 
would be no Church extension. The sunlight to-day in 
October is just as bright and as pure as it was in the first 
century, and has never grown old. The sunlight from 
the Sun of Righteousness for this benighted world is as 
pure and sweet and golden as it was in the morning when 
the sons of God shouted for joy and the morning stars 
sang together. The purpose of Church Extension work is 
soul saving. This is the fourth session of this Conference 



OF THE CONFERENCE 109 

that I have been privileged to attend, and I have an in- 
creasing desire at this time to keep to the old landmarks 
of the Gospel of the blessed God in all Evangelistic work. 
We should have a Gospel not only full of enthusiasm and 
intelligence, but full of love and mercy, and full of the 
arrows that stick fast to the hearts of those that are in 
need of the quickening power of God's Spirit and the refin- 
ing power of God's Word. It does seem to me that I am 
here a trophy saved by grace. Thirty-nine years ago, in 
a revival that struck this country, it found me, and I am 
here a soul in zeal and in the Word. I am here to stand 
for the Church Extension work. I want all these young 
people to keep full of the truth of God, for the truths are 
as good in the Old Testament to-day as they are in the 
New, and if I begin in the New I run into the Old, and if 
I begin in the Old I run into the New. L,ord bless these 
young people as they go into Evangelistic work. There 
is no blessing that can reach the soul like the truth of 
God. I am the oldest active minister in the Ohio Yearly 
Meeting. May God bless His work. May God bless this 
movement, is my prayer. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : The question is 
The Scope and Power and the Field of Work of the Evan- 
gelistic Committee of the Five Years Meeting. I hope 
the Chair will rule us down to speak directly to the sub- 
ject. 

L,evi D. Barr, of California : I suppose we all take it 
for granted that we are evangelists and must be evangel- 
istic. Those who live out in the vast western country 
feel the need of this Church Extension work, and of hav- 
ing help from the strong centres of the Church. We have 
too long neglected the teeming centres of population ; we 
have been too much in the rural districts as Gospel fishers, 
and I believe this plan of organization will enable us to 
press the battle into the places where there are many peo- 
ple. We could make it possible for those who feel the fire 
burning in their hearts to go to these places where men and 
women are, where men and women battle with the problems 
of life, and bear this message of life and love. I am sure 
there is much of this work to be done. I see no reason 



IIO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

why this Commitee as proposed should not be empow- 
ered. If it is simply complimentary, then I am opposed 
to it. Not all are called, but those that are should carry 
this work forward. I for one am in favor of recognizing 
the suggestion of the first paper this morning, that that 
Committee when it is appointed be empowered to go for- 
ward and prosecute its work. 

Joseph O. Binford, of Indiana : The papers which 
were read this morning have my hearty approval. I 
think the question is, What can this Meeting do to advance 
the work of the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board ? I have thought in connection with this sub- 
ject that one of the questions for them to consider would 
be how to impress our various congregations in the 
various Yearly Meetings with the importance of this great 
work. Many of us have to acknowledge with sorrow 
that there has been some great reaction with reference to 
evangelistic work. The reasons might be given why this 
action has taken place, but I believe this Board can do 
much to stir up the membership of our various Yearly 
Meetings upon this question, as well as to lay plans to 
enter new fields. I believe we need to be stirred up on 
this one question ; we aie not accomplishing what we 
should accomplish if our hearts w 7 ere in the work as they 
should be. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I feel deeply, dear 
Friends, the importance of this subject. Lay aside our 
evangelistic work, and the result will be that our days will 
be numbered. I feel that we ought to get something 
practical from the papers that are presented this morning, 
and in the discussions in which we have so profitably 
engaged, both morning and afternoon, that I therefore 
make this motion, that this Conference appoint one. from 
each Yearly Meeting to take into consideration the two 
papers that were presented this morning, the questions 
relating to the Uniform Discipline, and present a plan in 
harmony with those papers to a future session of this Con- 
ference for its consideration and action. I hope I can get 
a second to that motion. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : I would like to 






OF THE CONFERENCE III 

offer a substitute to that motion, and I move that the 
delegations be instructed to propose to-morrow morning 
members to constitute the Evangelistic and Church Exten- 
sion Board according to the provisions of the Constitution 
and Discipline, and to propose names of two persons from 
each Yearly Meeting to compose the Committee, to which 
the questions of discipline already mentioned shall be 
referred. 

(Seconded.) 

The Chairman : Is Thomas C. Brown willing to accept 
the substitute as the original motion ? 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I am willing to 
accept it. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington : I think evangel- 
istic work is the very foundation of our Church activities. 
All that we have, all the blessings that we have, have 
come up from the evangelistic work.' A great many col- 
leges are outgrowths of this movement. We need gifts 
now just as much as we did when God first gave them. 
He had a purpose in giving these gifts. These gifts are 
just as essential to us as they were to the evangelists. I 
never knew in reading the Scriptures that the time ever 
came when Priscilla and Aquila ceased to be evangelists. 
All the way through the Church the Scriptures speak of 
the men evangelists and the women evangelists, and every 
gift is necessary to the health of the Church just as much 
as every member of our body is necessary to the health 
of our body. What we want to do is to have the Church 
Extension go out into the different places where there are 
no Quakers and no Quaker Meetings. We want these 
people to feel they have the support of the Church. We 
are not ashamed we are Quakers ; we are not ashamed to 
go into the city and teach, Quakerism will live in the 
city and delights to live there, and will grow wondrously. 
I pray God the time will never come when a single gift of 
the Church will be ignored. 

Samuel L,. Haworth, of Iowa : I am from Iowa, but 
I live in Nebraska. I do not know that what I am about 
to say is entirely within the subject, but if the Friends' 



112 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Church can carry on Church Extension work and build 
churches, I believe they will have to go somewhere else 
besides Nebraska to do it. We have empty churches in 
Nebraska. I would not ask you for money to build 
churches there. We have had evangelistic work, but I 
believe if you carry on this Church Extension work with- 
out pastoral work you will have to go somewhere else 
besides Nebraska. I am speaking advisably. I think I 
know what I am talking about. Now you may call this 
work pastoral work, personal work, or resident ministry 
of Brother So-and-So, but when I first went to Nebraska 
they called me Brother Sam. Now that was all right, 
but sometimes they would call me pastor, and sometimes 
Reverend, and I did not like that name, but it does seem 
to me that the support of such work as we call pastoral 
work ought to come within the power and privileges of 
this Board. I believe that I can say to you from obser- 
vation in the work in Nebraska that you lose money to 
send evangelists into a community and hold a series of 
meetings, and build a church, and then let it go down. 
We do not ask for money to build churches, evangelists 
to hold meetings, but for permanent workers. It is my 
firm conviction that what Nebraska needs is Friends' 
workers, a supply of pastors, or resident workers in these 
various places where meetings have been established rather 
than evangelists or church buildings. The people out 
there were not raised Quakers, and you need not expect 
them to carry on a Friends' Meeting as if they had been 
in operation one hundred years. I belonged to a Meeting 
in Tennessee that would go along without a preacher or 
without a resident minister. They do not do that way in 
Nebraska. They were not raised to it, and so I believe 
that if this Board will do its work properly it will take up 
just this line of work in such places. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : I think it is uni- 
versally recognized here that pastoral work has to be 
done. I do not suppose there is a delegate here that 
would have the pastoral work taken from the Yearly 
Meeting. It is a distinct work of the Yearly Meeting, 
and Church Extension work. It is the function of the 






OF THE CONFERENCE 113 

Yearly Meeting to see that it is properly carried on. The 
Five Years Meeting should not take charge of the pastoral 
affairs of any section of the country in America. 

Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa : I have enjoyed the dis- 
cussion of the question that has been before us. I think 
the scope is the world, but it seems that we are to advance 
and take the territory that is next to us. The workers of 
Jesus when they came to Him and asked Him the ques- 
tion, He- answered, " This is the work of God, that ye 
believe in Him whom He has sent." We need for the 
people to believe just what Jesus says, when He says, 
"Come that ye may have life, and have it more abun- 
dantly." And then again, " Go ye, and preach the Gos- 
pel unto all nations." Hence there does rest upon us a 
tremendous responsibility. I believe just what Jesus has 
said, that we are to go into the whole world and preach 
the Gospel unto every creature. If the Church is not 
evangelistic we shall not accomplish the work, but if the 
Church is evangelistic I believe that more will be accom- 
plished than has ever been accomplished in the past. I 
believe there should be some one at the head of this move- 
ment. 

William P. Haworth, of Kansas : I should like to 
ask if there is not now a motion pending before the house. 

The Chairman : The motion was to appoint one from 
each delegation to have these papers in charge, but a sub- 
stitute was proposed that the' delegates should appoint 
persons to constitute the Board as provided for in the 
Discipline. 

The Clerk : The motion is that we nominate the 
persons to constitute this Board and refer this matter to 
them. As there is no time fixed for naming these persons 
I suppose it will be done now if the motion is carried. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : I move that at 
the opening of the next session the nominations for all 
this Board be made, and the various matters be referred 
to them so they will have time to consider the report of 
this body. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I wish to ask one 



114 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

question in connection with this. Western adopted a 
Uniform Discipline one year ago. The time has not yet 
come for its going into effect, and hence the Yearly Meet- 
ing has not made the appointment of the members for this 
particular Board. If the Five Years Meeting takes this 
action what will be the status of Western Yearly Meeting ? 
Can we place delegates upon these different Boards ? 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : These delegates 
are not appointed by Yearly Meetings excepting perhaps 
California. 

The Chairman : We are now ready for the question ; 
what is your pleasure ? 

(The motion was carried.) 

The Chairman : The report will be called for to-mor- 
row morning. 

Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore : I rise to ask for an 
interpretation of the requirements of members of this 
Evangelistic Committee, so that we may know who could 
act. It requires two members from each Yearly Meeting. 
Do they have to be simply members of the Yearly Meet- 
ing, or members of the delegations here present? 

Rufus M.Jones, of New England: The Discipline 
means that the members of this Committee shall be mem- 
bers of the Yearly Meeting. While it would be more 
convenient that the members should be present, it is not 
absolutely necessary, according to the Discipline, that 
they should be. 

(A five minutes recess was taken.) 

The Chairman: I will ask Elwood O. Ellis to take 
the chair. 

SCOPE AND WORK OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
LEGISLATION, AND ITS CO-OPERATION WITH 
THE GOVERNMENT. 

By Edmund Stanley. 

There is perhaps no more delicate question to come 
to our attention in this meeting than the one of legislation. 
First, because of the apparently inseparable relation exist- 
ing between legislation and political domination ; and 



of the conference; 115 

second, on account of the diversity of opinions held by 
Christian believers as to the proper methods that may 
be used to accomplish what might be agreed upon as 
legitimate legislation. So long as the Christian world is 
divided in sentiment regarding plan of action there can be 
little prospect of great achievements along any lines of 
public reform. 

Three questions must be considered, and upon these 
an agreement must be reached to assure even a degree of 
success : What changes in private, social, or national 
polity are essential to the development of our highest and 
best interests ? Is legislation the most promising way to 
reach the desired end ? And, lastly, how shall we pro- 
ceed in the use of legislative means to accomplish this 
purpose ? 

That the Church has a right, and it may be a duty in 
this matter, to encourage and influence legislation that is 
believed to be in the interest of the general welfare of 
mankind we need not question. It is, however, important 
that any movement be supported by settled conviction 
both as to the matter and as to the method of procedure. 

There are many questions upon which we have 
formed opinions from present evidence, or from hasty 
investigation, that we believe conducive to the public 
good which have not passed beyond the theoretic stage. 
Any attempt to secure or influence legislation along such 
lines would be hazardous, and in the end might produce 
such results as would destroy the usefulness of the organ- 
izations that were instrumental in their production. 

Briefly stated, the Church can only help to promote 
legislation touching questions upon which there can be 
little if any diversity of opinion. There are questions of 
great moment that confront us as a nation upon which 
the ablest statesmen are divided in opinion, some of which 
a hundred and twenty years of discussion has left unset- 
tled. To enter such a field would show lack of wisdom 
and the folly of indiscretion. 

There are fields, however, that are open for the efforts 
and activities of every influence possible that may be exer- 
cised for and in the interest of the public good. 



Il6 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Among the first great reformatory efforts made by the 
Friends was the movement in the interest of the Criminal 
classes. The introduction of humane and reformatory 
measures into the prison life of England first, and then of 
Europe, produced such wholesale results that there can 
be no question as to the wisdom of the course pursued by 
Elizabeth Fry and others, as to the advanced ideas held 
by these reformers, or as to the practicability of continued 
and enlarged efforts in behalf of the unfortunate classes 
that fall under the penalty of the law. 

There is no longer a question as to the wisdom of 
introducing reformatory measures into prison discipline, 
and the force of the Church should be thrown in favor of 
any movement that promises to restore the unfortunate to 
a place in the world where the blight of prison life shall 
cease to cloud and depress those who seek for opportuni- 
ties to live honorable lives. 

There is often a line of distinction between the crim- 
inal punished and the criminal unpunished ; between the 
one who has paid the penalty for his offence and the one 
who has remained free, only because of a lack of evidence 
to convict. The one is restored to an honored place in 
society, the other wears the scarlet letter throughout a 
life-time, and leaves its effect like a dark cloud overhang- 
ing the lives and destinies of unfortunate posterity. 

There are, too, other unfortunate classes that call for 
our sympathies and our help. The eleemosynary institu- 
tions that care for the insane, the feeble minded, the 
blind, the deaf, and the deformed, are calling for the 
attention of the public mind. So long as these institu- 
tions are subject to political influences and changes, the 
great Christian and philanthropic heart of the people must 
reach after these helpless creatures, must feel the prompt- 
ing to energetic action for the alleviation of their unfor- 
tunate conditions. 

Again, in every town and city, and oftentimes in 
rural communities, there are found boys and girls growing 
up without the care necessary for the development of 
right character. How far the public authority can 
intrude upon the private domain is a question upon which 



OP THE CONFERENCE 117 

there will be many opinions ; but as society must protect 
itself against the criminal classes,, and must care for those 
guilty of offenses, and those rendered helpless by the acts 
and lives of such, society has the right — nay, it becomes 
a duty — to put forth every effort to prevent the produc- 
tion of criminals in our midst. We are derelict of duty 
when we allow the children to grow up about us in igno- 
rance, and under conditions that tend to make them 
familiar with crime. From a financial standpoint it is a 
perilous policy ; from the Christian standpoint, nothing 
short of negligence of duty and a crime. 

We coin a few pennies in the mint of vice and pour 
out pounds for our folly. The care of unfortunate youth 
must claim our attention if we would elevate the standard 
of morals among all classes of our people, if we would 
reduce crime in our cities and the criminal classes in our 
courts and prisons. 

Hard as it may seem, the parents and guardians of 
boys and girls who fail to control, to educate, to fit for 
honest and honorable living, should yield to the demands 
of society and the authority of the State, that proper care 
may be extended for the good of the individual and for the 
welfare of society. 

It is not for me here to outline a plan for the accom- 
plishment of this end ; but all must agree that it is practi- 
cal and possible to greatly reduce the criminal and non- 
productive classes of onr country by and through the 
proper care of the youth of the land. Thousands of chil- 
dren are growing up in the slums of our great cities, and 
we know well what it means. Few of these fail to enter 
the ranks of the violators of law. There should be no 
slums in our cities ; but if slums do exist, it should be a 
crime subject to severe punishment to keep children under 
such influence ; at least it should be sufficient cause for 
the law to interfere in the interest of society, and the care 
and control of such children should be assumed by the 
municipality or the State. We quarantine against disease 
to prevent its spread and deadly effect. Every place and 
locality where crime is housed and criminals resort 
should be quarantined against the spread of their deadly 



Il8 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

contagions. If parents will resort to such places, or choose 
to live in such surroundings, child life should be spared 
the penalty ; and by force of law, if need be, they should 
be placed in environments that are productive of manhood 
and womanhood. 

The Christian world has ever sought to relieve dis- 
tress, to alleviate suffering, to promote brotherly sympa- 
thy and kindness. The opportunities are multiplying with 
each succeeding decade, and the pressing needs are forcing 
upon us the consideration of questions of vast proportions 
and of vital importance. Each is within itself a problem 
for a master mind, and all call loudly for help from the 
Christian world. The American policy towards the native 
American is, and has been, a disgrace to Christian civiliza- 
tion . No treaty has been held sacred in the face of greed and 
avarice ; no spot has yet been found for the Indian where 
his title remained inviolate, if the white man set his heart 
on such possession. In our efforts to protect and elevate 
him we have proceeded blindly in the undertaking ; we 
have never thought to help him through any other plan 
than that of converting him into a white man, a process 
almost universally fatal. 

Honest as may be our convictions, our policy con- 
tinues to impoverish and to kill ; and it is doubtful if we 
will learn better in time to save even a remnant of these 
most unfortunate people. Here is a legitimate field for 
intelligent Christian activity. The negro, a slave forty 
years ago, is now but half free, and has yet to learn the 
real meaning and value of freedom. The Armenian 
troubles, the situation of the Jews in some European and 
Asiatic countries, the peoples of our new possessions, all 
offer fields for investigation, and connected with which 
are opportunities for vital legislation that Christians 
should press to the point of action. 

Upon the traffic in and use of intoxicating drinks the 
Christian world is fast becoming a unit. In most of our 
States and in many other countries Christian influences 
are being felt, and legislation is taking shape in opposi- 
tion to this terrible curse. We are coming to know our 
strength, and the enemy is already wavering. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 119 

Again, we have long stood as a people opposed to 
war as a means of settling differences. Whether between 
man and man, or nation and nation, the principle is the 
same. We were slow, however, to suggest a plan to pre- 
vent the resort to arms. We are proud of our stand on 
this great question, and rejoice to know that there is a 
possible — yes, a feasible plan being worked out to accom- 
plish the very thing we so long desired. 

I have tried to point out a few of the legitimate fields 
for legislation, such as are open and solicitous for the help 
of Christians of all denominations. Perhaps the most deli- 
cate is not what questions are worthy our attention and 
demand our action, but how shall we proceed in the per- 
formance of known duty ? Strong as may be our convic- 
tions, bitter as may be our prejudices, the fact remains that 
only as we are able to separate these questions from party 
affiliations, from party influences, can we hope to gain and 
permanently hold ground in great reforms. The Church 
has always lost spiritually in partisanship ; as a political 
organization it has suffered the direst evils. Under the 
persecutions of Nero it prospered ; under the protection 
of Constantine the seeds germinated that afterwards threat- 
ened to choke out the very life it had manifested under 
severe persecutions. 

Every persecution with which the name of the Church 
has been connected, it matters not whether it be the Span- 
ish inquisition, the massacre of St. Bartholomew, the de- 
struction of the Huguenots of France, or the Jews and 
Mohammedans in Aragon and Castile, the persecution 
in turn of Catholics and Protestants in England, or even 
the Salem witchcraft of our own time — every one has been 
the direct result of political designs under pretensions of 
religious zeal. 

L,et the Church become a political power to further 
any interest, however good, and she at once becomes the 
prey of designing men who eagerly grasp the opportunity 
to use honest, conscientious men to further private interests. 

It is not party organization that we need ; that will 
insure success ; but united Christian effort toward the 
desired end. 



120 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Christian world can produce the great reforms so 
much needed to-day by speaking out with no uncertain 
sound. Not a saloon could run in many of our States if 
the Christian people could but agree upon a plan of attack. 
Not another war would be waged between civilized 
nations if the Churches that claim the Christ as their head 
would stand uncompromisingly for international arbi- 
tration. 

The public utilities and natural resources of our coun- 
try, under honest management, with impartial legislation, 
should and would be made conducive to the welfare of the 
people as well as productive and profitable to the owners. 
It is the duty of every man to study the social and eco- 
nomic questions of the day, and to so inform himself that 
he may act intelligently in matters that are daily becom- 
ing more prominent in the polity of the Nation and the 
State, and more important as factors in the social, moral 
and spiritual realms of human society. 

What we need is a united Christian sentiment in the 
interest of universal good to mankind. 

LEGISLATION. 

By Timothy Nicholson, op Indiana. 

From copies of two addresses by, and a recent letter 
from, our dear friend, John S. Rowntree, of York, Eng- 
land, I learn that for more than one hundred years pre- 
vious to the repeal of the Test and Corporation Act in 
England in 1828, which was the harbinger of the great 
Reform Bill in 1832, no important measure in the interests 
of religious freedom was passed by the British Parlia- 
ment, and no Friend could be a member of that body. In 
1833 Josph Pease, the first Friend member, was elected to 
Parliament. Erom this time Friends and other noncon- 
formists took an active part in municipal and national 
affairs, and great progress in religious and civil liberty 
followed. In 1833 the affirmation of Friends, Moravians 
and Separatists was made equivalent to an oath for all 
purposes, including qualification for office. In 1837 there 



OF THE CONFERENCE 121 

was the abolition of Negro slavery, and subsequently the 
abolition of religious tests in the great universities, and of 
compulsory church rates, &c. 

Out of all proportion to their numbers Friends in 
England have participated in legislative and municipal 
affairs ; as members of Parliament — at one time there 
being as many as twelve Friends in that body, — as Lord 
Mayors, Magistrates, Members of City Councils, of School 
Boards, Poor Laws, Guardians, &c. Birmingham for 
many years had a Friend in Parliament, and seven Friends 
have filled the office of Mayor. York and Scarborough 
were each represented in Parliament by a Friend. The 
office of Mayor of Darlington has been held by Friends ten 
times, five have been members of the Corporation and seven 
have been Magistrates — an important office in England. 

The education and training of English Friends de- 
velop a type of character eminently fitted for self govern- 
ment, and the public has not been slow to recognize 
this fitness, and Friends have thus had a remarkable influ- 
ence upon the educational, physical and moral life of that 
country. 

The Meeting of Sufferings of London Yearly Meeting 
is one of the most remarkable religious bodies in the world. 
Meeting monthly, often from fifty to seventy-five members, 
men and women, in attendance, it acts as a search-light 
over nearly all parts of the world. In a recent meeting the 
following subjects were considered : "Arbitration between 
England and France," " Friends' South African Relief," 
"The Australian Deputation," "Slavery in Pemba," 
" Doukhobors in Canada," " Library and Printing Com- 
mittee's Work," " Friends' Work in Norway," " Memo- 
rial to the Government on Gambling," " The Devonshire 
House Premises," " The Granting of Twenty-five Copies 
of J. S. Rowntree's ' Faith and Practice,' for Distribution 
in Australia," &c 

I doubt if the combined actions of the Permanent 
Boards of all the Yearly Meetings in America during the 
last year will equal the work of that one session of the 
London Meeting for Sufferings. 

In proportion to the population of the two countries 



122 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

there are twice as many Friends in the United States as in 
England, and in Indiana twenty times as many. 

What are we doing to influence National , State, County 
or Municipal legislation ? How many Friends have been 
members of Congress during the last decade ? How many 
in our State Legislature ? How many Mayors ? or mem- 
bers of City Councils, or County Commissions, or mem- 
bers of School Boards ? 

I have long felt we have fallen far short of our duty, 
as well as of our privilege, and sadly failed in these re- 
spects to exercise that influence for good in our respective 
communities, which, as Christian citizens, we should have 
done ; and I sincerely hope we will in future encourage 
some of our young people to prepare themselves for use- 
fulness in the lines above indicated : that they may merit 
the encomium of Dr. David Gregg in his " Quakers the 
Makers of America," when he says, " The Quakers, when 
seen at their best, stand in American history for ideal 
civilization ; and this civilization is their contribution to 
the American Republic. As historic characters they are 
a marked and influential people in the midst of the most 
marked and influential types of mankind. They have put 
their stamp indelibly on national and international life. 
If we enter the courts of justice we can see that they have 
been there ; the substitution of affirmation in place of the 
oath is their work. The jails of humanity show the re- 
sults of their reform. The dream of that beautiful prison 
angel, Elizabeth Fry, is being worked out into reality in 
criminal law, and the remedial element in punishment is 
being pushed to the forefront in this administration of jus- 
tice," . . . . " and that this has been done by uttering 
an emphatic protest against all destructive evils, and by 
keeping before one's country uplifting and inspiring ideals 
and righteous principles." 

Sophia M. Fry, of London : I do not like to occupy 
the valuable time of this Meeting upon what has just now 
been said of the political life in England. Our young 
men in England feel they have a duty as citizens, and 
wherever you go in England you will find Friends taking 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 23 

their share of public life, in the work of our school boards, 
as guardians, etc., and in the work which concerns Par- 
liamentary life. You will also find women in England 
doing a great work. I have been particularly struck in 
this country that men of position do not feel they can 
enter into politics because of their impurity. It would 
seem that if one-tenth part of their abilities were turned 
into your politics you would make a clean sweep in a very 
short time of those things which you hold to be impure. 

Mary M. Brown, of California : I dislike to have this 
important question passed without a word upon it, dear 
Brothers. I believe it is your duty to see that we have 
better laws, and that the laws that we do have are enforced. 
I think the brethren should enter the political ranks of 
our country and see that the politics are cleaned up. We 
will not get better or proper laws until the best part ot 
our people take hold of it. Our politics are in the hands 
of those who do not care for the morals of our country. 
This should not be. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : In the last letter I ever had 
from John Bright he wrote : ' ' Why is it that Friends take 
so little a part in Congress or Legislature ? They do not 
feel that they are governors. If Christian people do not 
take their part in the government the time will come when 
the nation will mourn." I am glad to announce that we 
have a delegate on this floor who is Mayor of a city of 
10,000 inhabitants, and they do not have a saloon in the 
city. 

Phebe S. Adyelott, of New England : I move that 
all papers and resolutions be referred to the Business Com- 
mittee for consideration. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : In as much as 
we have taken from to-morrow afternoon session one of 
the subjects, and the time would be so limited to preclude 
the discussion of a very interesting subject that will next 
come before us, I offer a motion that we do now adjourn 
and give the delegates a chance to appoint their represen- 
tatives on the various Boards, and that the subject for this 
hour come at the time of the appointment of this Board 



124 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

on to-morrow afternoon's program. I move that we defer 
the consideration of the next paper until 2.30 to-morrow 
afternoon in the place of the appointment of the Board. 

(The motion was carried.) 

James Wood, of New York : The postponement of 
this subject will give an opportunity to fill in the vacancy 
upon the program in connection with the subject that was 
to be considered. The subject was to be by Absalom 
Rosenberger, and the discussion was to be opened by 
Isaac Sharpless. Isaac Sharpless met with a severe acci- 
dent and is not able to attend this Conference, so you will 
find but one name following the subject. Will the Con- 
ference allow the Committee to select some person to fol- 
low the discussion to-morrow afternoon ? Or do you 
prefer to leave it for an open discussion after the paper is 
presented ? 

David Hadley, of Western : I move that the Business 
Committee select a person to follow President Rosenberger 
to-morrow afternoon. 

(The motion was lost.) 

The subject will be open for general discussion after 
the presentation by President Rosenberger. 

John W. Woody, of North Carolina: I move that 
in addition to this Board already provided for that we 
ask the delegates from the different Yearly Meetings also 
to name a Board in the interest of the Negroes. 

The Clerk : Shall we ask the Business Commit- 
tee to recommend a plan of procedure for passing upon 
the questions that require action from this Meeting ? We 
have thus far been following the precedent of the Confer- 
ence of five years ago ; and as this is a different Meeting 
it seems to me that in some way it should be decided by 
this body how the sense of the Meeting shall be taken. 

James Wood, of New York : The order of business 
so long established in the Friends' Church does not apply 
to delegated bodies. This body is composed of represen- 
tatives of the Yearly Meetings, each having an equal 
authority with the other, and as such shall try to have 
individual opinions expressed, and therefore the method 
pursued by the Chairman in this Meeting so far seems to 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 25 

be entirely correct, that each delegate shall have a right 
to vote his or her own opinion on every subject that comes 
before us. It is entirely different from the Friends' Meet- 
ings as ordinarily held. We have long pursued a beauti- 
ful method, but it does not harmonize with the situation 
here, and I hope we shall continue the practice of voting 
on questions as we have already done. 

Robert L,. Kelly, of Indiana : It seems it ought to be 
considered by us. There are eleven members of that 
Committee ; we are here as delegates, we ought to have a 
voice, and I see no reason it should be referred to the 
eleven members. I would hope, therefore, that the orig- 
inal parliamentary usage which has been carried on in our 
Conferences should be made the usage of this Conference. 
I move that the ordinary parliamentary procedure shall 
govern the proceedings of this Meeting. 

(The motion was carried.) 

The Clerk : We will now adjourn. 

A.nd after a prayer the Meeting adjourned. 

Fourth-Day, Evening, Tenth Month 22, 1902. 

The Clerk : May we have a few minutes of quiet 
before the L,ord. I want to say, dear Friends, that we 
should be prompt to every intimation of duty. These 
moments for devotion are free for everyone that feels a 
prompting to any vocal service for the Master. 

Levi D. Barr, of California, led in singing " All Hail 
the Power of Jesus' Name," and then offered prayer, as 
also did Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa. 

The hymn, " Leaning on the Everlasting Arms," 
was sung. 

The Clerk : The Business Committee have some 
matters of information for us. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : It is proposed that we have 
a book prepared for the names of all the delegates and 
their post-office addresses and the names of all visitors, 
that we may keep a record for reference, and as soon as 
the book is prepared, which will be to-morrow, it will be 
placed at the right of the desk, and I hope each one of 
you will see that your name is written plainly. 



126 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Business Committee will undertake to have reso- 
lutions presented on the various subjects considered by 
the Meeting. Any person desiring to have a resolution 
presented will please write it out and present it to the 
Business Committee, and we will see that they are prop- 
erly taken care of. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : The Discipline 
provides that the records of the various Meetings shall be 
kept in a uniform record book, and also that statistics 
shall be kept ; I therefore move that the whole subject of 
providing uniform records and providing uniform blanks 
for statistics be referred to the Business Committee, and 
they can bring some plan of accomplishing the desired 
end. It needs to be brought in at an early session so that 
it may have attention. 

(The motion was carried.) 

The Clerk : The next subject on the program, " The 
Present Condition of the Indians and the Work to be Done 
for Them," was to be presented by Edward M. Wistar, of 
Philadelphia. As he is not present, John C. Winston has 
been asked to read his paper. 

John C. Winston, of Philadelphia: I am sorry our 
friend is not here to read this paper for himself. It is 
always difficult to read another man's paper, especially 
when you have only a short time to look it over. 

FRIENDS' ASSOCIATED WORK FOR INDIANS. 

AN EPITOME AND GLANCE AT 

PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

By E. M. Wistar. 

The Society of Friends in America has a record of 
fair dealing, benevolence and Christian endeavor towards 
Indians. On the 14th of this month, 220 years ago, the 
historic Treaty under the Elm at Shackamaxon, on the 
banks of Delaware River, was made. Upon that occasion 
William Penn, Governor and Friend, in concluding his brief 
address, said : " Our desire is not to do injury and thus 
provoke the Great Spirit, but to do good. We are now 



OP THE CONFERENCE 1 27 

met on the broad pathway of good faith and good will, 
and no advantage will be taken on either side, but all is 
to be openness, brotherhood and love. " And the response 
on behalf of the Indians was likewise memorable and 
solemn, and agreed that "they would live in love and 
peace with Onas and his children so long as the sun and 
moon shall endure." 

That these words on neither hand were of the nature 
of an idle flourish we have the testimony and mutual acts 
of children's children through seven generations, during 
which the Indian has proved faithful, and of the Quaker 
it has not been recorded that the compact of brotherly 
love has been forgotten. L,et us, too, not forget. 

William Penn, in petition to King Charles for the 
grant of land, since known as Pennsylvania, says, "he 
had in view the glory of God by the civilization of the 
poor Indians and their conversion by just and lenient 
measures to Christ's kingdom," and George Fox is 
recorded as writing to Friends in Pennsylvania and West 
Jersey that they should ' ' let them know the principles of 
Truth, so that they may know the way of salvation and 
the nature of true Christianity, and how Christ has died 
for them," and at another time he wrote requesting 
Friends " to instruct the natives in the principles of 
Christianity and the practice of a true Christian life." 

In thinking over these things and in trying to sift 
and choose what should be presented in a brief review 
and appeal such as has been requested for this occasion, 
it seems as though childhood memories are insistent to be 
heard, and almost clog the pen with numerous anecdotes 
and familiar names and sayings of the Indian of the past 
and of earnest Friends, whose heart, hand and substance 
was freely bestowed in behalf of the sorely tried and needy 
red brother. 

Records are rife with items of interest that show a 
history worthy to be cherished by any loyal Friend. 

Old Corn Planter, the masterful and celebrated Chief, 
in the year 1791 sent greetings to Friends in Philadelphia 
wherein he said: " Brothers, the Seneca Nation see that 
the Great Spirit intends they should not continue to live 



128 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

by hunting, and they look round on every side and enquire, 
' Who it is that shall teach them what is best for them to 
do ?' Your fathers dealt honestly by our fathers, and these 
have engaged us to remember it. We wish our children 
to be taught the same principles by which your fathers 
were guided . . . and such other things as you teach 
your children, especially the love of peace." 

Friends who visited the Delawares in 1793 were thus 
addressed by their Chief : 

' ' Brothers : We are glad in our hearts to see our 
brothers, the Quakers, speaking before us. We feel the 
grace that is in your hearts conveyed to us, and we wish 
to be of the same religion, but we are poor and weak and 
not capable of judging for ourselves. We hope you will 
have pity on us and instruct us how to gain a more com- 
fortable living, and also how we may come to obtain ever- 
lasting happiness. When we think of our poor children 
our hearts are affected with sorrow. We hope you will 
send us teachers." 

Just here pathos tempts kindly sentiment and sym- 
pathy to expand and guide our judgment and future 
action, but limited minutes forbid. Briefly, however, is 
there not revealed a century of honest Christian endeavor ? 
Is there not indicated a cordial relation between the Indian 
and the Quaker for the century of great national activities 
during which he was to be bereft and driven to the wall ? 

Is there not an echoing cry to-day for the encourage- 
ment of Friends here assembled and for those they repre- 
sent, to cherish the mission work for Indians and to con- 
tinue Christianizing effort during the remaining years of 
transition from Paganism and while the historic, though 
weaker, people are gradually becoming obsolete and 
merged into the life of an overpowering nation ? 

During the period above referred to, on till the time 
of united effort by the several Yearly Meetings, large sums 
were contributed by Friends in America, with consider- 
able additions from English Friends, to inaugurate prac- 
tical education and religious teaching amongst some of 
the tribes, and continuous care as to their general welfare 
w 7 as not neglected. 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 29 

111 1795 the Yearly Meeting of Friends in Philadel- 
phia instituted a Standing Committee on the subject of 
improvement and civilization of the Indians, which, by 
successive appointments, has now exceeded a century of 
continuous existence and activity on behalf of the Indians 
of various lesser tribes located in the northwestern part 
of Pennsylvania and in western New York. 

A synopsis of the work of Friends as then under- 
taken may be gained in considerable part by the following 
extract from the Minutes of that year : 

"To the Yearly Meeting now sitting: The Com- 
mittee appointed on the interesting concern for promoting 
the welfare of the Indian natives report that at several 
meetings, in which we have had the company of divers 
concerned brethren not particularly named to the service, 
we have deliberately considered this important subject, 
which has for a series of years deeply exercised the minds 
of many Friends, and been latterly revived in the Yearly 
Meeting with increased weight. Our minds haye been 
measurably drawn into sympathy with these distressed 
inhabitants of the wilderness, and on comparing their 
situation with our own, and calling to grateful remem- 
brance the kindness of their predecesors to ours in the 
early settlement of this country ; considering our pro- 
fessed principles of peace and good will to men, we are 
induced to believe, with much unanimity, that there are 
loud calls for our benevolence and charitable exertions, to 
promote among them the principles of the Christian relig- 
ion, as well as to turn their attention to school-learning, 
agriculture and useful mechanic employments, especially 
as there appears in some tribes a willingness to unite in 
endeavor of this kind. We believe that this end may be 
much promoted, under the Divine blessing, by a recom- 
mendation from this Meeting to the several Quarterly 
Meetings that a liberal subscription be set on foot and a 
fund raised, to be under the direction of a special com- 
mittee to be appointed by the Yearly Meeting, in order 
that these purposes may be carried into effect as early as 
practicable, and the apparently friendly disposition of the 
Government towards this desirable object improved. And, 



130 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

conceiving this subject is of sufficient magnitude to claim 
the attention of our religious Society in different parts ot 
this continent, we think it may be useful to embrace the 
substance of this concern in the epistles to the respective 
Yearly Meetings." 

During the early and middle part of the last century 
the interested efforts of Friends were further increased 
and extended into frequent interviews with the Executive 
and Department of the Interior at Washington, and this 
again, by natural sequence, led to Federal commissions to 
Friends from time to time, who, as occasion called for 
their active and self-denying services, were specially qual- 
ified to treat with the Indians and to advance the better 
objects of the authorities at Washington on their behalf. 

Early in the year 1869 the Meeting for Sufferings of 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, under a weight of responsi- 
bility because of the perplexed and suffering condition of 
many of the native tribes scattered over various parts of 
our country west of the Mississippi River, memorialized 
Congress and in a vigorous and able document endeavored 
to influence our Government. 

On the 26th of First Month, 1869, four Friends, hav- 
ing the wrongs and rights of the Indian much at heart, and 
one of whom being already well known at the Interior 
Department and to members of Congress likely to have 
influence, carrying copies of the memorial, went to Wash- 
ington and succeeded in placing it before the individual 
members of both Houses, and in the interesting and his- 
toric interview with President-elect U. S. Grant, handed 
him a copy. Following this came the avowed peace pol- 
icy of the President and the subsequent appointment of 
Friends as Indian Agents and subordinate officials through- 
out the Central Superintendency by nominations from the 
Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian 
Affairs, which was now called into existence and imme- 
diately became active and energetic, as evidenced by their 
minutes and reports of that and subsequent years. In 
President Grant's first message to Congress he said : 

' ' I have attempted a new policy towards these wards 
of the nation with fair results, so far as tried, which I 



OF THE CONFERENCE 131 

hope will be attended ultimately with great success. 
The Society of Friends is well known as having suc- 
ceeded in living in peace with the Indians in the early 
settlement of Pennsylvania, while their white neighbors 
of other sects, in other sections, were constantly embroiled. 
They were also known for their opposition to all strife, 
violence and war. . . . These considerations induced me 
to give the management of a few reservations of Indians 
to them, and to throw the burden of the selection of agents 
upon the Society itself. ' ' 

In order then that harmonious and effective action on 
the part of the Society might be obtained the Associated 
Committee, a delegate body representing ultimately all 
the Yearly Meetings, was organized, and responding to 
the invitation of the President, during his two adminis- 
trations co-operated with the Government through the 
selection and subsequent oversight of a superintendent 
and nine Indian agents, together with many subordinate 
officers of the Federal service, all of whom were Friends 
chosen for their sterling character and ability to do the 
service intrusted to them. 

We may readily believe that the burden carried by 
the Committee in early days, as well as the labors of those 
under them, was great. It was then, and has since been 
through all its changes, an invigorating work for those 
actively engaged in it. In this connection we may take 
briefly from the full and most interesting report published 
by the Associated Committee in 1871 : 

" No good work is ever wholly lost. Some of this 
people have already been blessed with the knowledge of 
salvation. War has been prevented, and we think some 
permanent influence of our labors may be expected to 
remain, even under such a change as would exclude us 
from the field. The results of true missionary labor often 
survive changes in government. But whatever may be 
the result to the Indian, our own blessing will be sure. 
We are to act well in the present. We are to enter the 
vineyard to-day and labor, though frost may come on the 
morrow and blight our prospects. We are to plant and 
to water, expecting a blessing to ourselves and to the 



132 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

objects of our concern in just that measure which God 
sees meet to bestow. He giveth the increase. Can we 
safely stand idle ? Can we truthfully say we have not 
been divinely called unto this service ? Does it not seem 
that a door has been opened for us to do our part as a 
Church in bringing about a fulfillment of His forespoken 
declaration : ' I will give thee the heathen for thy inheri- 
tance, and the uttermost part of the earth for thy posses- 
sion ; ' and if we depart from the work, shall we not be 
responsible to Him for all the darkness and heathen igno- 
rance which it is in our power to prevent ? ' ' 

Changes did occur during the following administra- 
tions which led to the exclusion of Friends from Govern- 
ment offices, but their efforts were made to conform to 
this, and, through the mission stations and schools, have 
been continued to the present time, and while one gener- 
ation labored and has passed away, another has entered in, 
and the old concern to aid and promote Christian civiliza- 
tion amongst the Indians still has place amongst us ; and 
quietly, through our Meetings, through thousands of 
family visits, in our own established day and First-day 
schools, and prominently through intimate and cordial 
relations with both teachers and children of certain Gov- 
ernment boarding schools, the true Gospel, we believe, is 
being preached, and many thousands, who otherwise might 
be almost or entirely without Christian teaching, are being 
reached and given the opportunity to know of our Sav- 
iour's love. 

As an interesting and important natural incident of 
this work, a number of Meetings, as is well known, have 
been established, and a number of these, still more or less 
under care of the Associated Committee, exist to-day. 

These, together with the more aggressive initial mis- 
sion work, comprise not all but important parts of our 
united efforts and ma}- be submitted here for the considerate 
judgment of Friends as to their proper attitude and the 
responsibilities which accrue or which should be assumed 
by them for the future. In the said Meeting we find a mixed 
membership. With the great influx of white settlers 
and adventurers upon the reservations, it has not been 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 33 

practicable always to exclude the one in working for the 
other, nor has it been deemed desirable to have done so 
with a view to best results for the Red man. 

For detail information regarding the Committee's 
work of to-day it seems proper to refer to our published 
reports and our Minutes of annual Meetings which are 
carefully sent each year to the several delegate members, 
trusting to them to distribute amongst the members of the 
several Yearly Meetings according to their best judgment. 
It is proper, however, to say that these stations and the 
missionaries in the field are the subject of deep and con- 
tinuous thought, and that the varied work incident to 
active membership in the Committee still gives opportu- 
nity for a wide range of constant care and influence which 
cannot be detailed or even mentioned within the confines 
of this brief paper. 

In closing, reference is made to a collation of figures 
for the purposes of this paper, which assumes that in some 
327 bands and tribes scattered throughout all the States 
and Territories west of the Mississippi and in the States 
(excepting Ohio) which touch the Great L,akes, there are 
roughly 245,000 inhabitants of our country classed as 
Indians. 

Statistics show from 30,000 to 35,000 of these to be 
members of some religious organization and that there are 
some 350 church buildings in use by them ; nevertheless, it 
may be confidently stated that for earnest and devoted 
mission workers, under responsible call to duty, there is 
an open field. 

In these transition days, while so much that is degrad- 
ing and harmful is being presented and forced upon the 
notice of the Indian, whether he be fast passing away or 
whether the life of his varied race adapt itself and be con- 
tinued yet many years, in any case the toil, the tears 
and the prayers of the past, the call of the present and 
the hopeful duty for the future thus inadequately and so 
briefly brought to notice, make their appeal. 

The way of Christian missions is hard and rough and 
oftentimes difficult to travel, but with the Gospel message 
to be preached it seems necessary for Friends as well as 



134 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

others to exert themselves and continue in their work and 
privilege of carrying it to the Indian and in caring for the 
tender growth from seed already sown. 

The Clerk : The subject will be further consid- 
ered by Rachel Kirk, of Kansas Yearly Meeting, who has 
been for twenty -five years a worker among the Indians of 
Indian Territory. 

Rachel Kirk, of Kansas : When I received word that 
I would be expected to talk on the Indian Question as 
given on the program , I was busily engaged in our Yearly 
Meeting, and I have had but a few minutes alone since 
that time. The subject has been very well handled, and 
I do not know why I should be called upon to add any- 
thing else. The Present Condition of the Indian is the 
first thought on the program. I think it is more perilous 
than ever before since we have been among them. This 
is caused by the white men who are there seeking to de- 
fraud them of their homes ; but first of their minds, by 
giving them stimulants and intoxicants ; and those who 
do that not only do it seeking to take away their lands, 
but since Congress has made it a ruling that a dead 
Indian's land can be sold, some have been drugged. We 
have evidence of this. One man, an educated Shawnee 
Indian, was given poison. He was sick at a white man's 
house with whom he had had a great deal of business, and 
where he had gone to have some business settled. He 
was taken sick and was taken to his room and his wife 
was called, and in a short time while she was absent from 
the room he was given another dose of the medicine, and 
when she returned he was almost speechless. That will 
be a common occurrence, we think, under existing cir- 
cumstances. We think they will be brought into this 
condition by those who are seeking to get their land. 
This is the condition of the Indians with whom we are 
associated principally. This Indian's name was John 
King, and he was educated at Hampton School in Vir- 
ginia. We think the work to be done among them is to 
be accomplished by those to whom Christ's word comes 
when He said to His disciples, " As My Father has sent 






OF THE CONFERENCE I 35 

Me into the world, even so I send you into the world." 
This means giving time and means and self and all. 
Missionaries are needed in more of the government schools. 
There is one school, thirty-five miles from where we live, 
which has no missionaries, and we have been begged for 
years to send them one We considered it ten or twelve 
years ago, and the Executive Committee had it under 
consideration at the same time. There is an Indian Bap- 
tist minister there, and we thought, and the Executive 
Committee thought, that it would be a detriment to the 
work and would be infringing on other denominational 
work ; but the sequel shows that it would have been well 
had we sent missionaries there. They would now gladly 
receive missionaries of the Gospel from our denomination ; 
they talk of the Quakers and ask them to come and hold 
meetings there. At another school there has been a 
transfer made of some of the employees from the govern- 
ment schools among the Indians where George Hartley is 
located, and where we have been for the last sixteen or 
seventeen years, and they write and tell us they miss the 
little Church services and the Sunday-schools, and ask if 
there could not be missionaries sent there to care for them, 
teach them God's Word and lead them to Christ. This is 
one great need of the Indians. Another need is for some 
one to look after the interests of the girls who come home 
from the government schools, and give them instruction 
and provide homes for them. They usually have land 
allotted to them ; they need some one to look after them 
to see that they are not called back into the camps and 
into the same environment from which they were taken. 
It will not be long until they will be associated with the 
Indians just as they were before. We need some one to 
look after them and teach them to work, take them into 
their homes and supply their needs. They would soon 
learn to take care of themselves. Some people have said 
to me — some one since I came into Indiana — " The time 
that is spent with the Indians is thrown away." Of 
course, that touched a very tender spot, but I think we 
can prove by two illustrations that it is not the case. 
One is, one of our girls in the government schools at 



136 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Wyandotte, in charge of Franklin M. Meredith and wife ; 
many will remember her being in Karlham college for 
three years. She is now the wife of a banker in Rock- 
port, Indiana, and has two beautiful children and an 
ideal home, and is engaged in Christian work of different 
kinds, especially in temperance work, and other works of 
that kind. She can lead a prayer meeting and do a good 
deal of work in different ways ; and is called on for all the 
entertainments that are given in music in that place. 
Another one is Ida Johnson. She also had two or three 
years in Karlham College. She is the wife of Colonel 
Pratt in Carlisle School. I think these two instances oi 
what can be done for Indians are sufficient. What we most 
need is to go out in the spirit of the Master and remember 
that love conquers all things . What the Indian needs is love 
unfeigned. We have been trying to give them this love. 

The Clerk : We can take a little time for a general 
discussion upon this subject. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : I think this ques- 
tion is not too old, but is a question that we ought to con- 
sider. It comes to us forcibly, " Open the doors wide for 
the success of our Christian civilization " ; but for a long 
time the efforts that we have made in the United States 
in reference to the Indian trouble were in the wrong di- 
rection. We put civilization before Christianization, and 
before the maintenance of any solid civilization in the 
world we must first be founded on a solid Christianization. 
No advance I believe can be maintained with relation to 
the heathen tribes on earth that has not been so associated 
together with the principles of the Christian religion. 
Our work of civilization and Christianization — I am put- 
ting it as we have worked upon it for almost a century — 
that work, I say, has simply brought them up, that we 
might admit them to the doors of the Church, and when 
we reach that point we turn away and leave them to their 
peril to be picked up by those of some other religious 
organization who have warmer hearts and longer aims of 
mercy to take them in. We have come to the door, and 
only in a very few instances has the door ever been opened 
to admit them into Church fellowship. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 37 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I take my stand on this ques- 
tion with a great deal of hesitation as a member of the 
Executive Board which has had charge of this work for a 
number of years. In the last meeting in Philadelphia a 
few months ago it was decided by the Board to turn this 
work over to the Five Years Meeting, and I came to this 
Five Years Meeting with the hope and desire that this 
matter would be so interesting and the delegates so aroused 
on this subject that they would appoint a Board on the 
subject of the Indians, and that they would assume the 
work now being carried on by the various Yearly Meet- 
ings in America. But on coming here I find my Brothers 
on the Business Committee, as well as others, feel as if the 
Five Years Meeting is going to have more than enough to 
begin with, and they do not feel that this meeting is 
ready for this at the present time. And my own judg- 
ment, after carefully weighing the matter, is that perhaps 
we had better refer it back again to the same workers 
in the various Yearly Meetings. Let them carry it for- 
ward five years longer. I should, however, suggest 
that our Secretary or Clerk be requested to make a very 
strong Minute, if you are willing, to urge the different 
Yearly Meetings to continue to pay up their proportion oi 
the money, in order that we may go forward with the 
work. I think it would be very discouraging if some one 
should take up these Minutes and see that we dropped the 
matter. That is not what we want now. We want to do 
something. I hope you will do something one way or 
another, but I do hope that a strong Minute of endorse- 
ment will be passed by this meeting, and that the Yearly 
Meetings will be encouraged to support the work actively. 
You should remember there are nearly four hundred 
Indians who are members of the Friends' Church. 

Levi D. Barr, of California: Does the four hundred 
include the Indians on the island in the Alaskan field. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I think it does. 

James Wood , of New York : I should be glad to 
second any motion that Allen Jay might make indorsing 
the work of the Associated Executive Committee. I think 
it very proper that this consideration of the Indian work 



138 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

which has been done and which is to be done should come 
directly after the discussions we had this afternoon. I 
want to say just one word in regard to government 
schools. Our government has found that we must have 
civilization ; the Indians must be educated pure and sim- 
ple ; they must have a spiritual education, and so the 
government has been glad to have the co-operation of 
Friends, and their influence has been very great, and I 
feel that for the future we have a very open door for work. 
I feel, dear Friends, that we should go forward in co-ope- 
rating with the government in caring for these Indians. 

Cyrus Beede, of Iowa : While I acknowledge Allen 
Jay is a prophet, yet, I doubt whether he is led by the 
right spirit at this time. In 1871 I first worked with the 
Indians, and I remained with them until 1878 continu- 
ously. I visited repeatedly the wildest Indians of the 
Northwest, the Apaches and the Wichitas ; also the In- 
dians of the Indian Territory ; and I went and visited 
these Indians after being specially warned against going 
into the neighboring camps, as it would not be safe under 
any circumstances to go into their camp, as they 
were on the war path. I took my team that very same 
night and after sundown rode twenty-five miles into the 
country away from any inhabitants, and stopped at a 
tent and slept in a bed with the Chief of the Coyote 
Indians, after arriving there at two o'clock. I staid there 
until morning, and then, after the old Quaker way, two of 
the important Indians — the chief ones — went with me to 
convey me to the next camp, and show me like friendly 
Indians. I feel an interest in the Indians such as I feel in no 
other philanthropic subject that has come before this body. 
I have spent the best years of my life in this service. I was 
carried out of the Indian country when it was supposed that 
I would never be able to go back again, and I have lived 
under a doctor's care for years suffering from malaria con- 
tracted in the Indian country. I think the legislation 
within the last two or three years in connection with Indian 
matters has been suicidal in many instances ; not that I 
would cast the least reflection on the Washington Com- 
mittee ; they have done a great deal ; but I fear they have 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 39 

not been as watchful at all times as they might have been 
to secure the proper legislation. The Indians have been 
made citizens of the United States before they were ready. 
The last time I visited the Indian country I was told that 
a minister had been talking to them, and he said that the 
Indians should be put in deep water and should be made 
to swim or drown. A law recently made by Congress 
provided that the Kickapoos might sell their lands, pro- 
vided they moved out of their country, so that they were 
no longer residents there. They might sell their lands if 
they would leave the country. They sold their lands 
after moving out for a short time. One piece of land I 
was sent especially to examine. There were one hundred 
and sixty acres sold first to a man for $3000 — a very nice 
piece of land ; finally $4500 was bid. I was asked to 
examine that case and make a report. I went down there 
and called for the storekeeper and asked him how much 
he had sold to the heirs of a certain person ; how much 
have you sold to the credit account of that land ? $3000 
was the amount that was finally received for the land. 
They did not know exactly how much they were going to 
get. A store bill was for $2000. I asked to see the 
account. I looked at the account and made a report on 
the case, and requested that the money be paid to the 
Indians, but not in the presence of the traders. The 
orders were so given, but the payment was not so made. 
One of the traders was at the bank at the time the pay- 
ment was made, and he got most of the money. The 
Indians are not calculated to take care of their lands ; 
they are not ready for citizenship. It means a class of 
paupers on the hands of the American people for a few 
years. I would be exceedingly glad if this convention 
would take the work from the several Yearly Meetings 
and organize a committee and take charge of this work, 
and have a Washington Committee that would look after 
the legislation. We do not know anything like the whole 
number of cases, especially if the party in service does not 
take hold of the matter and protect the Indians from the 
white man who purchases their lands. A woman came to 
me and said she had sold a piece of land, but instead of 



140 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

putting in the amount as sixty acres that she had sold 
they put it in at eight} 7 , taking twenty acres that she had 
never sold, and after taking the twenty acres which she did 
not sell, she said she lacked five hundred dollars of get- 
ting the price she had been promised for the sixty acres, 
and she did not know what to do. She could not tell 
anything about it. I made inquiries about this matter. 
Well, the man did not seem inclined to say much at first, 
but after a while I found out he did buy the land, but the 
man to whom it was deeded did not know anything about 
it. The first time he knew that he owned the land was when 
he was asked to deed it away. I then went to the man 
who really had charge of the whole thing. Well, he said, 
" It is true I kept $500 of that money, but I came by it 
honestly; I kept it for my services." It would take 
more time than I have to tell you all about these Indians. 

Robert W. Douglas, of Indiana : We have a political 
motto over in Ohio, it is " Let well enough alone." The 
Indian work is going on and is doing fairl} 7 well with the 
present organization of the Associated Executive Com- 
mittee, and I, for one, prefer that it would stay there until 
the Five Years Meeting is better organized. The detail 
of the work is great and it takes a great deal of thought 
and organization to carry on successfully, so I doubt 
the propriety of taking away this work from the Asso- 
ciated Executive Committee until we are better informed 
or convinced that the Five Years Meeting can manage the 
matter better. I am in favor of the matter remaining 
right where it is for the next five years at least. 

William P. Haworth, of Kansas : I am in favor of 
leaving this matter as Allen Jay suggested. There is 
more than one reason why we should do so. The Five 
Years Meeting is now a new organization ; if the Five 
Years Meeting takes the work out of the Executive Com- 
mittee's hands it will spoil some of the plans of the Phil- 
adelphia Yearly Meeting, and as they are not represented 
in this Meeting, we would interfere with their work. For 
the next five years at least, I think it should remain 
where it is. 

Benjamin F. Traeblood : It has occurred to me that 



OF THE CONFERENCE 141 

this Five Years Meeting might adopt this Associated Com- 
mittee. The matter is left in such an indefinite way that 
it strikes me as being entirely competent for this Five 
Years Meeting to adopt the Committee. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : If the Five Years Meeting 
indorse it they will pay the same money right along and 
will work just the same as they have before. 

James Wood, of New York : I move that the Busi- 
ness Committee be instructed to bring in a resolution pro- 
viding for the continuation of this work as it is. 

The motion was carried. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I rise to say that Edward M. 
Wistar advises me that the Government is going to build 
Oklahoma mission at once. 

The Chairman : We are now ready for the next sub- 
ject, "The Present Condition of the Negroes and the 
Work to be Done for Them," by John W. Woody. 

John W. Woody, of North Carolina, read a paper. 

THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE NEGROES 

AND THE WORK TO BE DONE 

FOR THEM. 

By John W. Woody. 

The Negro came to this country a captive slave. It 
was the only way that he could have had a part in our 
early civilization. He came a pagan and a savage. His 
new master cared for him, trained him to labor and taught 
him the language of England and the Christian religion. 

Among the slaves there were good blacksmiths, 
wheelwrights, carpenters, bricklayers, cooks and trained 
household servants. The slave listened to the same 
preacher as his master and accepted the Christian doc- 
trine as a great Divine reality. It was at once the source 
of the race's comfort and hope. The paganism of the 
fathers was given up and the Negro in America has never 
ceased to believe in the Gospel of the universal brother- 
hood of man. The other day a minister, speaking to his 
people of the family of God, said in the full hopefulness 
of the dark race, " The adoption into the family of God 



142 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

is our only road to a better civilization. Politics will not 
save us, God alone can do it. The black man is a 
brutal savage in Africa to-day because God is not in his 
civilization." 

The slave was trained in accordance with the labor 
in which he was to serve. Hence, in the cotton, rice and 
sugar growing sections where the Negroes were thrown 
together in large gangs under an overseer, and therefore 
brought into but little contact with the white race, there 
was small evidence of an improved civilization, and hence 
the higher and lower classes of Negroes so marked in the 
South to-day. When freedom came, the American Negro 
was not pagan but Christian, and speaking the language 
of the highest Christian civilization. They had the spirit 
of obedience and faithfulness in industry. Many were 
skilled workmen and finely trained domestics, with almost 
no one gifted with the elements of wise leadership. 
Through generations of slavery the average Negro had 
simply learned to obey, with almost no thought of respon- 
sibility, not even of his own children. Almost no indi- 
viduality, no self-reliance or power of self-supervision, 
and but little independence of purpose. Such was the 
Negro when the rights and responsibilities of freedom 
came. Such was the colored race in America when it 
passed from the protection and training of the old master 
to begin a new era and to make for itself an epoch of his- 
tory under new relations in the midst of friends and ene- 
mies and many sore temptations. 

During the thirty-nine years of freedom the colored 
people have made commendable progress, not all that 
some of their friends expected. Few understood the 
Negro thirty-nine years ago as we know him now. At 
first the effort was to train a generation of freemen for 
good citizenship, but before the first generation was 
trained another was on hand with much the same needs 
and characteristics as the first. 

It now becomes apparent that Christian and patriotic 
duty is not simply the education and training of a body 
of liberated slaves, but the problem of the training and 
development of a race numbered by its millions and in 






OF THE CONFERENCE 143 

the very childhood of its history. Millions in America 
and many more millions of savage pagan brothers in 
Africa. All to be under the training hand of God by any 
peoples, forces or environments that our Lord shall choose 
to use. 

Very early in our Church history God gave us an 
interest in this people. It could hardly have been other- 
wise. A cardinal principle of Quakerism is the universal 
brotherhood of man. That is what our thee and thou 
stand for, if for anything. George Fox, in an exhortation 
to his followers, said, " Let your light shine among the 
Indians, the blacks and the whites, that you may bring 
them to Jesus Christ." John Woolman gave his life in 
behalf of mercy and freedom. The Quakers were among 
the first for the abolition of slavery, and when freedom 
came they were early on the field to take up the work of 
training. Now the standard of Quakerism is set up in 
the center of the Dark Continent and in other places of 
benighted wretchedness. Thus, with the multiplicity of 
our numbers and the increased abundance of our resources, 
God has enlarged the hearts of our membership, widened 
our vision of the world's needs and added to our oppor- 
tunities for helpfulness. 

What part the Christianized Negro in America is to 
have in the salvation of his pagan brother in Africa does 
not yet appear. In due time God's wise economy will be 
shown. Thus far the Anglo-Saxon seems to be the 
appointed missionary and trainer for the dark race ; not, 
of necessity, because he is white, or because he is of Saxon 
blood, but the more because of the centuries of discipline 
the Saxon has undergone. The Anglo-Saxon himself is 
much the better disciplinarian to-day because of his two 
or three centuries of training under the Norman-French. 

There are a number of excellent teachers and leaders 
among the colored people, some capable disciplinarians, 
but, as a rule, they have been trained by white teachers. 

At least for a time, the best results may be expected 
where there is co-operative effort and white supervision. 
The Negro still needs the help of his white Christian 
brother. But this aid should be given in the way of a 



144 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

reinforcement rather than as a free donation. The Negro 
is as easily spoiled by beneficiary aid, unwisely applied, 
as members of the white race. As a rule the individual 
Southern Negro is weak in the points of self-supervision 
and self-help, personal responsibility and look-a-headitive- 
ness. He is dependent on the white race to supervise him 
in his labor, help him in his thinking and planning and 
carry his responsibilities, and he generally uses the bird 
in hand and does not trouble himself about the one 
in the bush. Because of these slavery-begotten weak- 
nesses the dark skin stands for shiftlessness and reckless 
indolence. To reach the race in these points of weakness 
and thus aid in its substantial development, efforts of great 
fruitfulness are being made in four different lines : — 

First, The improvement of the home. The home is 
the measure and the basis of a people's civilization. Many 
of the colored people have substantial and well-kept 
homes of their own in which live intelligent, industrious 
and well ordered families, but in most parts these people 
have not come very far from the windowless one-roomed 
cabin of slavery days. While thus huddled together in 
large families there can be little hope of a better social 
life. Where the environments are encouraging they soon 
work their way out of these miserable rented cabins by 
securing homes of their own, often beginning with a 
house with one room and a loft, then adding other rooms, 
a barn with a well-kept cow, the dogs swapped off for a 
pig, a neat garden with fruit trees growing in all the spare 
corners of the lot. Here is hope for the race, and all 
from the help and encouragement of some one who has 
been trained for better life and better living. 

Now is the opportunity for the colored people South 
to secure homes while land is cheap and many of the 
white families are leaving the farms and moving to the 
factory towns. The owning of a home, however small, 
is a great remedy against idleness, and the essential to 
best citizenship. It is very encouraging to notice the 
spirit of contented thrift that comes to a colored family 
with the possession of a home, a chance to work for 
themselves. 






OF THE CONFERENCE 145 

But a short time since I went to employ the services 
of an old former slave who has secured him a home of 
five acres. I found him alone in his field using his leis- 
ure time digging up the stumps — a rare sight even among 
the enterprising white men of our State. 

Next to the home as a means for elevation of the 
colored people are the school and the church. 

The school teacher and the minister are the principal 
means through which the home life and social life of these 
people are to be reached. They have the confidence of 
their people and are their natural leaders. In the better 
training, reinforcement and wise siipervision of these is to 
be found the key to the solution of the race problem. 

The teacher of the colored people should have the 
spirit and preparation of a practical missionary. In addi- 
tion to the work in the school room the teacher's influ- 
ence should touch the homes of the patrons. Instruction 
and encouragement are much needed in the matters of 
farming and gardening, poultry raising, caring for cows, 
making butter, cooking, housekeeping and the training of 
the children in the home. 

Who can better meet these needs than the school 
teacher, well prepared by an ample course of literary and 
industrial training ? Here a large opportunity is open to 
the Friends' Church whereby it may exercise its philan- 
thropy and patriotism by reinforcing the efforts now being 
made to prepare teachers for these rural districts among 
the colored people, and to follow up these teachers by 
necessary aid and supervision. 

The part of Quakerism in the building of our nation 
has been to labor for the development of the country's 
best forces and for the extension and improvement of her 
citizenship, rather than to do service in her armies. By 
our exemption from military service our resources have 
been augmented, our opportunities for philanthropic ser- 
vice for the country have been enlarged and our responsi- 
bilities for our nation's standard of civilization and stand- 
ard of citizenship have been increased. 

The wise distribution of funds by the reinforcement 
and co-operative method has been, successfully illustrated 



146 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

by the Trustees of the Peabody Fund, as applied to many 
of the higher grade schools for both races. 

A few years since a number of the best colored people 
of Winston-Salem, wishing to have better advantages for 
the normal and industrial training of their people, secured 
the aid and co-operation of a number of substantial busi- 
ness men and prominent church men of the white race. 
Reinforced by funds from the white people and directed 
by the supervision of these experienced white business 
men and an efficient and well trained colored principal, 
they opened their school. Being further reinforced by 
the Peabody Fund, the State and other sources, the 
Slater Industrial and State Normal School is doing excel- 
lent work in the midst of a school settlement of some 
fifty thrifty and well regulated homes of colored people. 
The civil officer has never 3^et made an arrest on the 
Slater Heights. 

A few days since a visiting member of the State 
Board, in his talk before the school, made the statement, 
1st, That in the Slater School was being realized his ideal 
of what a colored school should be and what he himselt 
had long worked for but had not been able to reach, and 
2d, That the school is what it is because that from the 
first it has had the reinforcement and supervision of the 
best white business men of the community. 

The Normal and Industrial School at High Point is 
an illustration of what the New York Friends have 
accomplished by the same method. As the Friends' Col- 
ored School has been built up at High Point, and as the 
Slater Normal and Industrial School has been built up 
for the colored people at Winston-Salem, so in most parts 
of the South the rural schools of both races may be reor- 
ganized and very materially improved by wisely applied 
aid and efficient supervision. 

The subject of the white rural schools enters the race 
problem. The race prejudice in the South is almost 
entirely among the illiterate poor of both classes and the 
small politician. What is needed then is a kind of Pea- 
body Fund for the rural schools of the South and another 
Dr. Curry, who shall .visit some of these rural districts 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 47 

with his encouraging suggestions, wise reinforcements 
and efficient supervision. 

Should not Quakerism supply this fund and this 
agent for its distribution ? 

The colored people believe in their churches and 
their ministers. Their meeting houses show more thrift 
than their homes. In the rural districts they often appear 
as well as the church buildings for the whites. The hope 
of the race is their confidence in God. Their standard of 
religion may not be so high as that of some, but their 
zeal keeps about as well up to their knowledge as that of 
any other church people. They believe in their Bible and 
read it in place of fiction. They know more about the 
Bible than almost any other book, yet, as it is with some 
of us, some of their ministers are hurtfully deficient in 
the knowledge of the Bible and Bible history. 

The Negroes make good Methodists, good Baptists, 
good Episcopalians, good Presbyterians and good Congre- 
gationalists, and there is material among them to make 
substantial Quakers. And the religious thought of the 
race needs the quiet and substantial influence of Quaker- 
ism, taught through Bible Institutes for their teachers and 
ministers, by Bible and Normal classes maintained in our 
colored schools or by the organization and supervision of 
churches among the colored people. Perhaps by all these 
means the colored race should be brought into contact 
with the doctrines and practices of the Friends' Church. 

Next to the family, the school and the church, the 
industrial problem touches the race question of the South. 
The most healthy industrial condition is that in which 
each one can pursue the occupation of his choice. Under 
the environments of the South, fortunately or unfortu- 
nately, the choice of the Negro must for a time be lim- 
ited. In their present weakness of individuality the 
tendency of the race is to collect together in the towns 
and about places of public works to take any job that 
luck may give them , part of the time to be employed and 
part to be idle, with no settled occupation and no definite 
purpose in life, not working at any one thing long enough 
to become efficient in any line of labor. Among this 



148 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

company are young men and girls who have come from 
poorly governed homes. Many of these drift into idle 
habits and into trouble, and finally into houses of correc- 
tion, or into the convict gang on the roads where they 
receive their first lessons of real industrial training. Is 
it any wonder that those accustomed to see these dark 
rabbles are ready to disfranchise them ? But there is 
another side to the picture. There was a colored woman 
who came with her son and lived with a white widow who 
was once her mistress. This boy grew up under the dis- 
cipline of his colored mother reinforced by the discipline 
of the white lady at whose home the mother of the boy 
lived. The boy was trained to work and given some edu- 
cation. Three years ago he came to the Slater School ; 
we found him reliable and used him in responsible tasks. 
This summer vacation he had charge of the school dairy, 
did the milking, drove the dairy wagon, made collection 
and rendered his weekly reports — all satisfactory. What 
is the difference between this boy and the one in the chain 
gang ? certainby not blood. One was disciplined and 
trained to work , given responsibility and kept busy doing 
something useful ; the other was not. One is respected 
by all who know him, the other is not. Thrift and intel- 
ligence always command respect. When the black skin 
comes to stand for these, race prejudice will retire. This 
trained young man is a type of the coming Negro, and 
his thrift and intelligence will admit him to respectable 
citizenship. None will object to his franchise except it 
be the ignorant rabble or the little irresponsible politician . 
The present educational movement through the South 
means a new era for the colored race, an era of better 
homes and better home discipline, an era of intelligent 
thrift, when the colored people shall live more in their 
own houses and be efficient in settled lines of industry, an 
era of stronger individuality, better self-supervision, 
greater foresight, and in every way better citizens. Yes, 
the Negro has a future of hope, and Quakerism is still to 
have a part in his training and his encouragement. 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 49 

The Chairman : The discussion is to be opened by 
Allen C. Thomas. 

Allen C. Thomas, of Baltimore: I think we can all 
agree that schools and colleges are very important. My 
thoughts turn to some different aspects of this subject, 
the present condition of the Negro. I had the privilege 
of staying in England three months this past summer. II 
I was asked once, I was asked twenty times, ' ' What about 
the treatment of the Negro in America ?" I need hardly 
say that I blushed for my country, and perhaps for our 
Society of Friends, whenever this question was asked. I 
could say little on the subject. What are we doing as 
the Society of Friends ? We are doing a great deal from 
one point of view, as we have heard, and I am very sure 
we will all say, "God speed the work." But there is 
another thing which the Negro needs, and that is Justice. 
I sat in a window of a hotel in Oxford, England, looking at 
the beautiful memorial to the martyrs, Ridley and Fatimer, 
who were burned at the stake because of their religious 
opinions. While sitting there I saw several American 
tourists standing before that column who were evidently 
speaking of the suffering of the martyrs and the great in- 
justice they had received, and the thought struck me, " I 
wonder if they ever stop to think that in our free America 
nearly every month in the year some one is burned at the 
stake?" There is this great difference, however ; Ridley 
and Latimer had at least a show of a trial, and had an 
opportunity to give some words of defence, while not one, 
I think I can safely say, of those who are burned at the 
stake in America have a chance to say anything in self- 
defence. As citizens of America and as members of the 
Society of Friends in America we ought to take some 
official action on this great matter. I do not know that I 
can suggest anything better than that the Business Com- 
mittee should be asked to present a series of resolutions 
on this subject, and in regard to lynching. I know it has 
been said, and I have heard it said, that nothing but lynch- 
ing will produce the desired effect on the Negro. I do 
not care whether this is so or not. Everyone should at 
least have a trial. Matters of this kind are either right or 



150 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

wrong ; if they are wrong we should do our best to stop 
them, and I hope this Five Years Meeting will see its way- 
clear to issue a series of resolutions in regard to lynching, 
and in regard to securing justice for all men, whatever 
may be the color of their skin. 

A Delegate : Are we to understand that a Negro 
every day is burned at the stake ? 

James Wood, of New York : I think that is not far 
out of the way, but that statement was not made. It 
was said one Negro per month ; some one else suggested 
one per day ; but I think the one per day is more nearly 
correct. There are two reports from Texas, one for yester- 
day and two for the day before. These would last for 
three months. In connection with this thought of lynch- 
ing, I have always thought, 

" Oh wad sonie power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as others see us.'' 

Do you know that the people of England regard lynching 
in America as the blackest thing upon this earth to-day. 
It is looked upon as a deeper d} r e of iniquity than anything 
else that takes place on earth. I wish to say a word on 
the paper read b}^ Professor Woody. It was an exceed- 
ingly able paper, and was true and just in its statements. 
I trust a way may be found for its speed}' publication, 
because it gives more light upon this subject than any 
paper I have yet seen. And when we consider these 
questions are being developed in the South as they have 
never been before ; when we consider the great ability of 
some of the men at the head of the institutions there, that 
the fact that out of the five most intelligent men in 
America one is a Negro, and this one man is Booker T. 
Washington. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore : I move that this 
question be referred to the Business Committee, with the 
request that they bring up a strong resolution on the sub- 
ject and present it to us. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I hope this will not 
be confined to lynching: the Nesro. There have been a 



of the; conference 151 

great many white men lynched. Let us strike at this 
miserable, barbarous practice of lynching any one. 

John W. Woody, of North Carolina : The resolution is 
a good one, and I hope to tell the people that this conven- 
tion, this Five Years Meeting, would take up this work 
for the colored race in some associated way, because we 
are not doing our part. We have an opportunity now to 
show that we are patriots, that we are philanthropists 
and that we are willing to do our part, and now that 
the race is free, we are willing to help bring them up 
to a plane of respectable citizenship. The Negroes in 
the South, so far as I am acquainted with the question, 
accept the situation, and go to work to prepare them- 
selves for the battle with the determination that when 
:he proper time comes they will vote. They are looking to 
get public sentiment, and will work out their own salva- 
tion. I heard a colored man say, " We are not especially 
interested in suffrage ; we do not want social equality ; 
vie want civil rights — that is what we want." 

We have our Boards in all great works. Are you 
going to switch around the Indian ? Are you going to 
swtch around the Negro ? We have an Evangelistic 
Beard and other Boards ; what are we going to do ? I had 
hojed that the Negroes and Indians might be put some- 
where together. If we do not help these people we shall 
have a blot on our history from the days of the Civil War 
on cown. We have helped to free him, but if that is all 
we ire going to do we have not done very much for him. 
The Negro should vote. The best people of the South 
have made up their minds the Negro must be helped. 
The ^norant rabble of the South is the element that does 
the lynching. What shall this Five Years Meeting do 
on thi subject? 

Rifus M. Jones, of New England : I would amend 
the mcion by adding that some definite plan of action 
shouldbe proposed, if any opens therefor. 

Tfr motion was carried by a unanimous vote. Then 
adjournd. 



152 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

FIFTH-DAY MORNING TENTH MONTH 23, 1902. 

The Devotional exercises were led by Esther H. But- 
ler, of Ohio, who also offered prayer ; as also did William 
P. Haworth, of Kansas. The hymn, "Fill me now," 
was sung. 

The Clerk : The Recording Clerk will now read the 
Minutes of the sessions of yesterday. 

The Minutes were read and approved. 

A Delegate : The proposition of Rufus M. Jones in 
regard to the Uniform Discipline as well as a Uniform 
Record Book, I believe he said both were provided for in 
the Discipline. The Minute in regard to the blanks was 
omitted this morning. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : I would like to ask 
that the Minute in regard to the Indian work be read 
again. I did not understand it as it was given. 

(The Minute was read again.) 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I thick 
there is a very serious misunderstanding of the matter. 
My understanding was that the Five Years Meeting should 
take up this work and conduct it as they thought best. 

James Wood, of New York : The record of the Clerk 
is correct. 

The Clerk : I think Benjamin F. Trueblood strted 
it correctly. 

Allen Jay, of Western : My understanding of the 
matter was that the Five Years Meeting indorse the vork 
and also recommend that it be continued under the same 
organization as heretofore, and that the Yearly Meetings 
should be asked to make the same appropriation;, and 
that the Committee should report to this Five YearsMeet- 
ing five years hence. We do not assume the rnone^ mat- 
ters, but we assume the work; that is, the Five Years 
Meeting adopt the same work. 

James Wood, of New York : The conception; of the 
idea seem to vary very much, but Allen Jay is comet, and 
probably that was the understanding of the meetiig when 
they voted upon the question. We asked them fr unan- 
imous consent so as to include the intention of themeeting 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 53 

when they voted on the record. If consent is granted 
it will undoubtedly meet the purpose the meeting had in 
view when they voted upon the resolution. I therefore 
move unanimous consent be given. 

Samuel L. Haworth, of Iowa : Will you please state 
to the meeting what the amendment is ? 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : Just a little word of explana- 
tion. My opinion is that this Five Years Meeting is not 
yet ready to meet the expenses of carrying on this great 
work , and as the work is already organized, and as the 
present committees of the different Yearly Meetings are 
very anxious that this meeting indorse the work, my 
proposition is that the Five Years Meeting here now in- 
dorse the work as carried on by the Associated Executive 
Committee of the different Yearly Meetings, and recom- 
mend it to report to this Five Years Meeting, and that the 
Yearly Meetings be requested to go forward and pay their 
share the same as before. Some of the Yearly Meetings 
will take more interest in the work if it is indorsed by the 
Five Years Meeting. The Yearly Meetings will continue 
to pay the expenses, and the Committee will report to the 
Yearly Meetings just as they have been doing, and also 
report to the Five Years Meeting. 

Ellwood O. Ellis, of Indiana : The Business Commit- 
tee knows the sense of the meeting and let them act ac- 
cordingly. 

Clerk : We were to have a report from the dele- 
gations in regard to the appointment of members to con- 
stitute our various Boards. The proposition for the ap- 
pointment of the different Boards at this time was made 
with this thought in view, that the members who would 
constitute these Boards would be benefited by an early 
appointment. They would, because of their appointment, 
keep in touch with the discussions of the sessions and the 
presentation of the particular subjects in which they are 
interested. This report, according to program, should 
come in the afternoon session ; and in all probability the 
members of the several Boards have been selected and 
notified of their appointment. Is the meeting willing to 
pass the reading of the reports from the delegates until 



154 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

the time provided in the program, that we may give full 
time to the discussion this morning ? 

(Consent.) 

Clerk : There are only six of these reports on the 
table at the present time. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western: Western Yearly Meet- 
ing Delegates have discovered a mistake and would like 
the privilege of withdrawing for a minute to correct it. 

L,evi D. Barr, of California : The Chairman is to hand 
these to the Clerk, and when he has all of them he is to 
announce it to the meeting. 

The Clerk : The Clerks would like to have a lit- 
tle time to look over these reports and arrange them. By 
the time we are through with the first subject they will be 
ready, and the Clerk will present them. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : We noticed yes- 
terday that there was often great delay in the delegates 
taking their places after the recess, and they were very 
tardy in coming to recognize that in our discussions we 
had only five minutes each, that our delegates were of the 
opinion that our presiding officer needed a reminder, and 
the delegates went out this morning and provided them- 
selves with a gavel to present to the presiding officer for 
use during the sessions of this Five Years Meeting. After 
having secured this we came in possession then, through 
the kindness of Charles E. Newlin, of a smaller one 01 
historic value. The mallet of this gavel was made out of 
the sill of the Old Lick Branch Church, the first church 
of any denomination ever built within the limits of this 
county. The handle was made out of the gallery hand-rail 
on which the hands of the venerable Benjamin Seebohm and 
many others of the sages rested as they proclaimed the 
everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ. On behalf of Charles 
E. Newlin and the Wilmington delegation I take great 
pleasure in presenting to the presiding officer these gavels 
for use during the sessions. 

The Clerk : We accept these gavels with thanks 
to the donors. They will find a place in the conduct of 
this Five Years Meeting. The little one will be called 



OF THE CONFERENCE 155 

into service on ordinary occasions, and the larger one in 
times of great disturbance. 

The Business Committee has limited the time of papers 
to twenty minutes. Ten minutes will be given to the per- 
son that follows as the first speaker, and five minutes for 
the speeches in general discussion. 

We are now ready to take up the subject assigned 
for this morning, ' ' The Present Condition of the Foreign 
Missionary Work of American Friends." The subject 
will be presented by Mahalah Jay, of Indiana. 

Zenas D- Martin, of Iowa : As the paper is too long 
to render in the time allotted she may have the time 
alloted to me, the second speaker, thus giving her thirty 
minutes time. 

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE FOREIGN MIS- 
SIONARY WORK OF AMERICAN FRIENDS. 
By Mahaeah jay. 

Foreign Mission work in the form now exemplified in all 
the Yearly Meetings, of locating missionaries in foreign 
fields to reside among the people and teach them, is a 
thing of but a few years' trial by American Friends. 

Indiana Yearly Meeting was the first to establish such 
work. Samuel A. Purdie and wife, first of this class of 
missionaries, entered Mexico in 1871, scarcely thirty-one 
years ago. They began work at Matamoras, in the State 
of Tamaulipas. The work of this Yearly Meeting in 
Mexico has been nearly all within this State, and has been 
conducted mainly on three lines — the press, the school 
and the church. A religious monthly paper was started 
in 1872, and is still issued from the mission press. It 
goes, in small numbers, to every Spanish-speaking coun- 
try on the globe, including all important Spanish-speaking 
islands. School books and other books and tracts in 
large numbers have been prepared or translated, and 
printed at the mission and circulated among the people — 
some years as many as a million pages. It still is a very 
effective arm of the service, though less of this work is 
now done. Last year 270,000 pages only were issued. 



156 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Schools were started from the first in a small way ; 
the girls' school, later known as Hussey Institute, at 
Matamoras, has been continuous for twenty-nine years. 
Preparations are now being made in Victoria for a school 
of higher grade and a Bible Institute for young men. A 
building is provided, a qualified northern teacher is on the 
ground, and the school opens this fall. 

The Gospel preached with power has won many to 
Christ lin the years since the founding of the mission. 
Meetings have been gathered in many places. Seven 
monthly meetings have been set up. Six Mexicans of in- 
telligence and filled with the Holy Spirit have been re- 
corded Ministers of the Friends' Church. These all con- 
tinued faithful ; some have finished their work on earth, 
others labor on. Other preachers and exhorters are rec- 
ognized workers in the mission. The church member- 
ship within reach of Friends' meetings now is less than 
five hundred. 

The mission has three buildings at Matamoras — a 
church, a school-building, and Hussey Institute ; cost of 
this property, $10,000. At Victoria there is the printing 
establishment and missionaries' home, a building for the 
Young Men's School, and a meeting-house not yet com- 
pleted ; estimated cost of all these, $10,000 more. Six 
missionaries from the United States are now in the field. 
About $7,200 have been raised in Indiana Yearly Meeting 
the past year for foreign missions. 

IOWA YEARLY MEETING. 

Iowa Yearly Meeting began missionary work in the 
island of Jamaica, West Indies, in 18S3. Its work is 
among two distinct classes of people — the colored popula- 
tion born upon the island and the coolies, or people from the 
West Indies and their children, brought there as laborers. 
These last especially are strictly heathen people. The 
work has expanded from year to year till now they report 
thirteen missionaries in the field at three principal stations 
with ten out-stations, three churches, five hundred and 
thirty church members, and an average attendance at all 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 57 

their places of worship of seven hundred and eighty per- 
sons each Sabbath. This mission has a well-established 
training-home for girls and is opening such a home for 
boys, and there is a large number of day-scholars under 
its care. Seventeen buildings belong to the mission, viz. : 
— Bight meeting-houses, four school-houses, three mis- 
sion homes and the two training homes. The value of all 
this property is reckoned to be $16,000. The mission 
is in good condition and the prospects encouraging. The 
interest in the work is increasing in Iowa Yearly Meeting. 
It reports $5,700 raised this year for foreign missions. 

PHILADELPHIA FRIENDS. 

Next in the order of time was the establishing of 
Friends' mission in Tokio, Japan, in 1S85, by the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Association of Friends of 
Philadelphia. They have five foreign missionaries in 
Tokio at this time and two at an out-station supported by 
another Board. The mission is provided with good 
buildings for the meeting and the school, and the homes 
of the missionaries, which have cost $15,189, and this 
year a property has been purchased for $1,200 at Mito, an 
important sub-station of the mission. Mary Morton 
Haines, who herself was for some years a missionary in 
Tokio, writes : 

The Foreign Missionary Association of Friends of 
Philadelphia is thankful to report much blessing to have 
rested on the work in Japan during the past five years. 

Although crippled by the loss of our faithful pioneer 
missionaries, Joseph Cosand and his wife, the work so 
well started by them has, in the main, been carried on by 
those who have succeeded them. 

At the main station under our care in Tokio the mis- 
sion force, consisting of Gilbert and Minnie Pickett 
Bowles, Mary A. Gundry and Edith Dillon, were rejoiced 
early in last summer to welcome Sarah Ellis, who went to 
aid in the work of the Girls' School, and, as way opened, 
in the general work of the mission. Gilbert and Minnie 
Pickett Bowles have their home in the mission residence, 
which is close to the Girls' School, where a comfortable 



I5§ STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

home is provided for the three foreign ladies whose work 
is chiefly in the school. The number of pupils has been 
larger the past year than at any time heretofore, and the 
hearts of the teachers rejoice in recording fifty pupils in 
average attendance, nearly all of whom are Christians. 

A stone's throw from the school building, and right 
on the street, stands the Meeting-house, with seating 
capacity for two hundred, more or less. Over the en- 
trance is a sign-board, bearing the text — John xviii. 3 — 
" This is Life Eternal, that they might know Thee, the 
only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent." 
It is a silent witness for the truth. A remarkable instance 
lately came to the notice of our workers of the conversion, 
through reading this text as he passed daily, of a dissolute 
man. Now rejoicing in his Saviour, and desiring to serve 
Him, he is endeavoring to earn a little money to buy 
ground and put up a sign-board containing some of the 
Gospel truths so precious to him. This he wishes to 
place near the railroad between Tokio and Yokohama, 
where many will read the Words of Life. 

The chief out-station in connection with Friends' 
work in Japan is Mito, under the care of the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of Canada Yearly Meeting . 

At Tsuchiura the Meeting and First-day School are 
kept up by resident native Christians, encouraged by 
visits from the members, Japanese and foreign, of the 
Evangelistic Committee. 

At Ishioka an earnest and gifted Japanese evangelist 
is in charge of the work. He wrote some months ago : 
" Christian work seems pretty difficult, yet by and by their 
attention is coming toward Christianity I believe. I am 
praying to the Lord to get His preaching power at present 
and in future." 

Since the disorganization of the Society of Friends in 
1894 occasioned by the National vs. the Quaker element 
at the time of the Chinese and Japanese War,!the mission- 
aries have not seen their way clear to reorganize nnder the 
name of Friends ; but the church work is carried on under 
the care of an Executive Committee composed of Japa- 
nese — w T ho are, in belief and practice, true Friends — and 



OF THE CONFERENCE 159 

some of the missionaries. With this organization there 
have been no appointments as ministers made, though the 
several evangelists working with us have proven them- 
selves true Gospel ministers, and others often take part 
acceptably in the meetings. 

Tract distributing, translation and publication of 
books (Life of Stephen Grellet ; of Elizabeth Fry ; of 
George Fox; Offices of Holy Spirit by Dr. Dougan Clark, 
etc.) classes for young men in English and the Bible; 
cooking and Bible classes for the women, and Bible 
Women's house to house visiting, in addition to the regu- 
lar meetings and First-day School work, and the Girls' 
Boarding School, have been means to the great end of 
bringing souls to Christ in the Sunrise Kingdom. 

KANSAS YEARLY MEETING. 

The Foreign Mission Board of Kansas Yearly Meet- 
ing furnished the following account of their mission. 
Their work is among the Indians of Douglas Island, 
Alaska, and vicinity, less than one thousand in number. 
They report two hundred church members, an average 
attendance at meeting of one hundred and twenty-five, and 
two hundred in the Sabbath school. The mission reaches 
the white settlers as well as the Indians. This Yearly 
Meeting raised $1,039 for foreign missions this year. 

REPORT. 

The Friends' Mission at Douglas Island, Alaska, 
which is owned and managed by the Friends' Mission 
Board of Kansas Yearly Meeting, was founded in 1887. 
The following buildings are at this station : The Mission 
dwelling-home, value, $1,200; church building, value, 
$1,800; old school-house, value, $300; native school- 
house on the beach, value, $200 ; total, $3,500. 

There is also at the sub-station of Takou one log cabin 
and a new tent. Church services and Sabbath-schools are 
held at Douglas for both whites and natives, and a day 
school has been taught by a missionary teacher about 
seven months in the year for several years. A missionary 
holds meetings and preaches to, and teaches the natives at 



l6o STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Takou. There are four missionaries maintained at Doug- 
las, and much assistance has been given at Takou harbor. 
About $1,400 annually is expended at these stations by 
Kansas Yearly Meeting. 

NEW ENGLAND YEAREY MEETING. 

New England Yearly Meeting, after contributing to 
the work of English Friends in Syria for several years, in 
1888, took separate charge of the mission in Palestine, at 
Ramallah, situated a few miles north of Jerusalem,. Be- 
sides its distinctively Gospel work, its main features have 
been its medical work which reached from its dispensary, 
!!335 patients the last year; and its training-home and 
school for girls, now having thirty-four inmates, both of 
which have been ably managed or assisted by educated 
native workers , and its seven day-schools in neighboring 
districts, these having an average aggregate attendance 
this year of one hundred and fifty pupils. Thirty. six 
church members, one hundred and fifty adherents, an aver- 
age attendance of one hundred and twenty-five at meetings 
for worship, six Sabbath- schools with one hundred and fifty 
scholars are reported this year, and $6,499 raised in the 
yearly meeting for foreign missions. Four acres of land 
are held by a clear title from the Turkish government, 
upon which as the work has broadened, in addition to the 
mission home, a laundty building has been erected, walls 
built, stone walks laid, two large cisterns dug, and in 1897 
a large addition built to the home at a cost of $6,000, mak- 
ing the whole plant valued at $25,000. East year an im- 
portant and much needed training-home for boys was 
opened. Applications were far in excess of accommoda- 
tions, even though a nominal fee was demanded toward 
the cost of training. There are now eighteen carefully 
selected bright, active boys in this home. Both girls and 
boys in these homes are trained in industrial pursuits, in 
addition to their school studies and daily instruction in 
the Bible. 

WESTERN YEAREY MEETING. 

Western Yearly Meeting, after assisting Indiana 
Yearly Meeting for several years, in 1889 established a 



OF THE CONFERENCE l6l 

mission of its own at Matehuala, in the neighboring Mexi- 
can State of San Luis Potosi. The mission now has three 
principal stations, seven foreign missionaries and a num- 
ber of native helpers. They report four established 
churches and a church membership of one hundred and 
fifty-eight, one hundred and thirty-nine pupils in schools, 
and $4,668 raised in the Yearly Meeting the last year for 
foreign missions. One Quarterly Meeting of this Yearly 
Meeting supports two missionaries — husband and wife — at 
Johannesburg, South iVfrica. 

The following account of their Mexican mission is 
presented by a member of their Foreign Mission Board. 

Western Yearly Meeting has an established mission 
at Matehuala, Mexico ; owns the mission property^ which 
is used for home for missionaries, school and printing de- 
partment ; also chapel for church services, property 
valued at $7,000 ; also owns buildings at Cedral, used for 
the same purpose with the addition of medical office, 
property valued at $4,500. 

The work was opened at Matehuala, Eleventh Month 
1888 ; at Cedral later ; and the last, promising station of 
Catorce Real, was opened last Fourth Month. The medi- 
cal work was opened nearly two years ago, and has made 
rapid progress in preparing the way for the reception of 
the Gospel. The educational and evangelistic work are 
making commendable progress. Each one of the princi- 
pal stations has one or more sub-stations, where the Gos- 
pel is preached, and at one point, La Paz, a church and 
school was organized. The work is being extended into 
many parts of the field, by preaching, distributing liter- 
ature, and the entrance of the Bible itself. A printing 
press is owned by E- M. Sein, one of our missionaries, 
who publishes a paper called El Catolico Convertido, which 
has a large circulation, and is a means blessed of God in 
teaching truths, and disclosing the errors of Romanism. 
Our schools are taught by faithful, conscientious teachers, 
and are doing satisfactory work. There is increasing de- 
sire on the part of the people for the privilege of sending 
their children to our schools. The wide range covered by 
the medical work, bringing numbers under the influence 



1 62 • STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

of the Gospel, the number of young men who have come 
to learn the " Way of Life," the financial aid given by the 
native church in meeting current expenses, and also in 
relief of needs surrounding it, are tokens of increased 
interest and life — all due to the blessing of the Lord upon 
every effort put forth in His name. To Him be all the 
praise ! 

OHIO YEARLY MEETING. 

Ohio Yearly Meeting dates the founding of its China 
mission 1890, though its pioneer missionary, Esther But- 
ler, had been in the country learning the language and 
the conditions for missionary work in the mission of 
another denomination three years before. This mission 
has two principal stations, two churches, eighty church 
members and five hundred adherents, one boarding-school 
and three day-schools. 

Ohio Yearly Meeting has also a successful mission in 
Nowgong, Central Province of India, conducted by four 
women, two supported by the Ohio Board and two sup- 
ported from other sources. 

The Yearly Meeting reports $11 ,000 given for foreign 
missions this year, and $3,900 given outside the Yearly 
Meeting; total, $14,900 for their whole foreign work, a 
larger amount than usual, being increased by some special 
gifts and legacies. We take the following in regard to 
the China mission from Esther Butler's report on the 
subject. 

Friends' Foreign Missionary Society of Ohio Yearly 
Meeting owns three and one-half acres of land at Nanking, 
China, on which have been erected three large substantial 
brick buildings, home, boarding-school and hospital. 
Also there is a chapel arranged for to be built at once. 
The actual outlay for land and buildings, $8,900, present 
value, one-third more. The church was organized in 
1892 ; the girls' boarding-school and hospital both opened 
in 1896. For the years 1902 and 1903 six missionaries 
are resident at this station. 

Luh Hoh mission station was opened in 1898 ; the 
church organized in 1900. Property owned by Society, 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 63 

one small lot 100 feet deep by 36 wide, on which has been 
built a small semi-foreign brick house. Cost for lot and 
building, $758. Estimates have passed the Board for buy- 
ing land and erecting chapel and dispensary. Five mis- 
sionaries resident at this station for 1902 and 1903. Four 
other buildings are rented for the use of chapels, dispens- 
aries and day-schools. 

The work has been providentially opened and 
equipped on lines that meet the three great demands of 
China to-day — educational, medical and evangelistic. 
All China is now asking for "Western learning," and 
having finally decided that this is her need, rest assured 
she will have it. Great opportunities are given us to help 
in Christian education and training for the evangelization 
of China by her own people. 

The medical work has developed and enlarged very 
much since the troubles of 1900. The five thousand who 
have received medicine at the dispensaries is at the very 
lowest but half the number that have heard the Gospel 
through this agency. The faithfulness of the foreign phy- 
sicians in staying by the people at the risk of their own 
lives during the great epidemic of cholera that visited 
Nanking the past summer, has been greatly appreciated 
by the people, and is telling in a most fruitful way in all 
the missions at that place. 

The crucial tests through which China passed in 1900 
and the supernatural way in which native Christians met 
persecution and death, gave to the religion of Jesus Christ 
a reality and power, both in the church and out, that she 
had not felt or known before. The progress of Christian- 
ity has been slow and very difficult, but the records of 
1900 show it to have been sure. The " Son of Man has 
found faith ' ' in China . 

OREGON YEAREY MEETING. 

Oregon Yearly Meeting's mission is on Kaak Island, 
Alaska, which has a population of 400. The mission was 
opened in 1894. They have now a church of fifty-four 
members. They recently built a meeting-house, the 
natives helping to the amount of $300 in cash and labor. 



164 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

At its dedication one hundred and thirty-one natives re- 
quested membership. The missionaries write: "We 
think best to hold them on trial for a[ while before sending 
their names in ; they are a people of such emotional 
natures." The mission has a comfortable dwelling be- 
sides the church building. These Indians, like nearly all 
others of Alaska, spend only the winter months at their 
homes on the island ; the rest of the time they employ in 
hunting and fishing to make their living. 

There are now three missionaries in the field most of 
the year. The amount of $810 is reported raised this year 
for foreign mission work by Oregon Yearly Meeting. 

CALIFORNIA YEARLY MEETING. 

In 1897, California Yearly Meeting opened a mission 
near Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, far north, looking out 
toward the Polar Sea. It has been conducted by devoted 
missionaries who felt called to carry the Gospel to the few 
benighted inhabitants of that frozen region, the dwindling 
race of Eskimos. The population of their large field is 
estimated at only about one thousand. Three mission- 
aries are at the mission at present, one of them sent and 
supported by another Yearly Meeting. The missionaries 
report a church of one hundred and four members, and 
that a much larger number usually attend the services ; 
two Sabbath schools with one hundred and eighty-eight 
scholars, and two other schools. 

The Alaskan nature is accessible, teachable and re- 
sponsive, and the outlook is encouraging. The buildings 
consist of a mission home of five comfortable rooms, a 
school -house, which serves on the Sabbath as well, and a 
warehouse. The interest in the home land is well sus- 
tained and means sufficiently supplied. The Yearly Meet- 
ing raised $1,520 for foreign missions this year. 

OTHER YEARLY MEETINGS. 

Baltimore, New York, North Carolina, Wilmington 
and Canada Yearly Meetings have not opened separate 
missions, but help in one or several of those of other 
Yearly Meetings. It is not that these Yearly Meetings 



1 



OP THE CONFERENCE 1 65 

do not take equal interest in foreign missions, or are not 
as able to support separate work as others, but some of 
them at least have thought it a wiser policy to strengthen 
existing missions with their means than to start weak 
ones of their own. In most cases they do some definite 
part in the missions they assist. Accordingly, 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting has long aided Indiana 
in the Mexican work, supporting for a time a boys' school 
and at present a native evangelist. It supports a travel- 
ing secretary of the Japan Scripture Union, and a girls' 
day-school in connection with New England's mission in 
Palestine, besides its numerous smaller or special gifts to 
other work. It is a large contributor to the work of the 
American Friends' Board. It reports this year $2,129 for 
foreign missions. 

New York Yearly Meeting's Board assists in the 
work of four Yearly Meetings. At Victoria, Mexico, of the 
Indiana Yearly Meeting mission, New York has a board- 
ing and day-school for girls, Penn Institute, ninety pupils, 
two foreign missionaries and three native teachers. It has 
provided its own building for this boarding-school. The 
property is valued at $3,400. New York also aids the 
Ohio Board in its mission in India and supports two mis- 
sionaries at L,uh Hoh, China. It supports a native evan- 
gelist in Japan and two teachers of day-schools in Palestine, 
Its contribution this year to foreign mission work is $4,206. 

North Carolina's Foreign Mission Board directs 
its efforts principally to the support of its missionary, 
Annie V. Edgerton, who works in the mission of the Ohio 
Board in India. She went out the last of the year 1898, 
and has proved an efficient worker in caring for the thirty- 
two orphans at the Nowgong orphanage, is a teacher in 
day-school and Sabbath-school, visiting Zenanas and em- 
bracing all opportunities to lead souls to Christ. She has 
acquired the use of two of the languages of India, the 
Hindi and Urdu, and thus is equipped for evangelistic 
work. The North Carolina Foreign Mission Board is 
credited with $605 this year for foreign missions. Indi- 
viduals in the Yearly Meeting support at least four chil- 
dren in India. 



1 66 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Wilmington Yearly Meeting has for four years 
supported a native worker in the Mexico mission of West- 
ern Yearly Meeting and three years ago went out a mis- 
sionary to the Kotzebue Sound mission of California 
Yearly Meeting, and supports her there. They now pro- 
pose to take for their chief work a station in Cuba in con- 
nection with the American Friends' Board. Their receipts 
this year for foreign missions are $1,192. 

Canada Yearly Meeting's Foreign Mission Board 
has long been interested in Japan, working with the Phil- 
adelphia Board. In 1899 they assumed the support of the 
station of Mito and sent out their missionaries, Gurney 
and Elizabeth S. Binford, who are very industrious 
workers. Their time is much occupied with Bible classes 
taught in their own house. This work is largely among 
students. Elizabeth Binford has mothers' meetings, 
cooking classes and Bible classes for women and girls. A 
native evangelist, M. Kato, a faithful worker among his 
countrymen for many years, works with them. The 
church gathered there numbers fifty-seven, and two Sab- 
bath-schools, 211. This Yearly Meeting contributed 
$1,128 this year for foreign missions. 

The American Friends' Board op Foreign Mis- 
sions organized in 1894 under provisions made in the 
Quinquennial Conference of 1892, continued till 1900 to 
discharge its functions as a bureau of information and a 
medium of communication between the Boards of other 
denominations and Friends. In 1900, with the authority 
and instructions of seven Yearly Meetings, it made prep- 
arations to take up also field work in Cuba. It followed 
the plan laid down in the Uniform Discipline in its further 
organization for this class of work, and is incorporated 
under the laws of the State of Indiana. It appointed an 
agent through whom it selected a location in the north- 
eastern part of Cuba, a region destitute of missionaries 
and the Gospel ; it sent out four missionaries in the fall of 
1900 and has sent three since, making seven missionaries 
in Cuba at the present time, and one Cuban evangelist is 
working with them. They are holding two stations now; 
Gibara and Holguin, and some other preaching places, 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 67 

with church and school and colportage work in successful 
operation. A third station at Banes, the headquarters of 
the United Fruit Company, has the buildings ready for 
occupancy this winter, and the arrangements are made, in 
part, for building at Tanamo Bay, the headquarters of the 
Cuba Fruit Company, with the expectation of opening a 
mission station there within the next year. The Board 
has had four buildings erected, two homes for missiona- 
ries and two meeting-houses, at a cost of $6,500, includ- 
ing cost of lot at Gibara. The work at Holguin is carried 
on in rented property. The receipts of this Board from 
appropriations of the Yearly Meetings and of other 
Boards, and from donations, bequests and other sourses, 
are between $6,000 and $7,000 this year; the total re- 
ceipts since beginning the work in Cuba are about 
$14,000. All the American Yearly Meetings, except 
Philadelphia and Canada, have fallen in line with the plan 
of the Board and grant it appropriations for the expenses 
of administration, etc., and are thus virtually united in 
the work. 

The Friends' Africa Industrial Mission for which 
funds have been solicited in most of the Yearly Meetings, 
obtained the amount deemed necessary to make a start. A 
Board was organized to aid in carrying on its work com- 
posed of two members from each of ten of the American 
Yearly Meetings, and incorporated under the laws of the 
State of Ohio. It sent out its three pioneer missionaries 
last Fourth Month. After reaching the region in which 
they expected to locate, they spent something over a month 
in selecting the site for the mission, and at length settled 
on a location some twenty miles or so northeast from the 
present western terminus of the railroad from Mombasa 
on the east coast, in British East Africa, near Lake Vic- 
toria Nyanza, among the Kavirondo people, supposed to 
number one million— an unclothed but industrious tribe, 
who now welcome the coming of the missionaries. The 
location chosen— post-office address, Kisumu— is consid- 
ered healthful and very satisfactory. The altitude is be- 
tween five and six thousand feet, on the banks of a beauti- 
ful river with waterfalls close by that can be utilized for 



1 68 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

power, and several springs of the best water to use for 
household purposes. A mile square has been selected of 
the most fertile soil with excellent timber in a dense forest 
near by. Altogether the prospects are very encouraging. 
This year $3,173 dollars have been contributed for this 
work, and a total of $8,724.78 have been received by the 
treasurer of the Board during the time that this work has 
been before our people. 

Elsewhere, in the missions of other denominations, 
under the Christian Alliance, under independent Boards, 
or independent of any Board, a considerable number of 
our members are working in foreign fields. 

We see from the foregoing sketch that in all the 
American Yearly Meetings Friends are engaged in foreign 
mission work, and that their work is in nine widely sepa- 
rated countries. The interest is deep with a part of our 
membership, but many are not awakened on the subject. 
The aggregate amount of contributions reported this year 
for foreign missions is $55,000, a creditable sum, do we 
think, for a Church of less than one hundred thousand 
members ? Yet it is not all we are able to do in fulfilling 
the great mission of the Church. Not half the purses of 
our membership were reached in collecting this fund. 

These problems are before us : How Our Church 
Shall Come to Do Its Whole Duty, Its Full Obedience to 
Our Lord's Command to " Disciple All Nations " ; How 
We May Strengthen the Long Line of Missions We Have 
Laid ; How We May Guard Against Future Unwarrant- 
able Expansion ; How We May Gain the Strength of 
Union of Effort without Weakening the Sympathy and 
Individual Interest that Foster Our Missions in their 
Separate State. Machine work is cold and, even with 
money provided, will fail ; we need heart in it for whole- 
some warmth in foreign mission work. May the Lord 
teach us how to solve the problems before us. 

Mary C. Woody, of North Carolina : I feel as if we 
ought to stop a moment for thanksgiving at the array of 
interesting facts before us. Let us pray. 






OF THE CONFERENCE I 69 

Lewis E. Stout, of Western : I do not know how 
many returned missionaries there may be in this Five 
Years Meeting, but there is a feeling from some of us that 
we want to hear from Esther Butler. I move that she be 
invited to speak ten minutes at this time. 

The motion was taken by consent. 

Esther H. Butler, of Ohio : I am glad I am with you 
to-day. I have been saying as I hear these different 
opinions that I am glad there is nothing limited about 
the Gospel. It is an uttermost salvation, and it is an 
uttermost opportunity and time for us here assembled. I 
cannot speak for every country but I have a message 
from China this morning, and what I will say of it may 
be said of a great many of our heathen lands, that they 
are ready for the Gospel. 

The signs of the times announce that the Lord's 
coming draweth near, and it is a time for the Church to 
do what she is to do and do it quickly, and for every man 
that has the privilege of being in heathen lands to-day, 
whether you be there as a visitor or a worker, there is 
one thing that immediately impresses you, and that is the 
special loving touch and the special workings of the Holy 
Spirit, and not only through the agencies of humanity, 
but directly sent here and there by taking up things that 
we least would have thought that he would have taken 
to advance the work. There are going through China 
to-day a class of workers spreading the Gospel to the 
very farthest side of the empire ; the very last agency 
that any of you or us would ever have thought of God 
using. They are the ex-" Boxers," and in many cases 
if they are not ex-" Boxers ' ' they are people with thought 
and purpose very little above the ex-" Boxers," and they 
are going far and near and telling the people how the 
people died for their religion in China. There are no 
public halls, but in every town and square of the city, 
there are what are known as Tea houses, and every public 
announcement is given from these places. These people 
are going about from place to place telling of the wonder- 
ful death of the people who believed in Jesus' doctrine in 



I JO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

1900. They are not telling this to spread the Gospel. 
They say, "We do not understand, we cannot explain 
to you, but it is verily the truth that these people die as 
we tell you, and they die willingly and without fear, and 
even when they had an opportunity to repent they refused 
to do so. Refused to do so much as step over a cross 
drawn in chalk on the street to save their lives, and 
in many cases, when they might have escaped, feeling they 
had to be true to God, acknowledged that they were disci- 
ples without being asked." This fact is being spread by 
ungodly men through China to-day. The Lord is sealing 
this testimony, and from the farthest parts of China the 
people are coming by land and river. For instance a boat- 
load of men from the interior of China, after they had 
planted their rice, took charge of a boat and twenty-five 
or fifty of these men sailed day and night to reach a cer- 
tain place and meet the missionaries there, that they 
might understand from them about this Gospel. The 
beginning of this was the talk in the Tea Houses by those 
ungodly men. Friends, what impression does this bring 
to you ? It says to me, God would save the world, and 
He would have you send out men and women that belong 
to the Holy Ghost. Friends, we have no right to be deaf 
on this question, it is the work of the hour, it is the work 
of the Church, do it, and we will sweep through the 
pearly gates if we attend to this cry. Friends, I have 
long since ceased to pray for God to have pity and mercy 
on the heathen, but I am praying to-day that God may 
have mercy on the Church and on Friends. It is time 
we were working, it is time we were filling in these last 
days with some tremendous spirit-filled effort to bring the 
tidings to this people. The whole world is open, and 
every place in China is open. Wonderful things have 
occurred in China, and I believe that had we been faithful 
all these years God would not have asked such a costly 
price for the salvation of China. When you go to China 
you find why the Chinaman is conservative, but when the 
blessed Holy Spirit touches that man's or woman's heart 
it melts just as yours or mine does. Sit down beside 
them and tell them a message fresh from Christ, and it 



OF THE CONFERENCE IJI 

will not be very long until the tears are coursing down 
their faces, and they will say " That is what we want." 
Men and women of x*\merican Yearly Meetings, there are 
such wonderful privileges that the Lord Jesus will give 
us ; let us step out and take them. I did not know I 
should be allowed to say a word, but I feel it in my soul 
that the Lord Jesus brought me here for such a time as 
this. 

Two delegates offered prayer that the Lord's will 
might be known, and that when known it would be fol- 
lowed. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana: This question is 
like a fire in my bones. Fifty years ago we started from 
nothing. If we have a right to claim a religious origin 
on the basis of the Xew Testament grounds it is because 
we are a missionary organization. I want to say first of 
all that the report was not only hopeful to me but to my 
mind it was sublime. The progress that we have made 
in the march of missionary work in the world at large 
during the years of its operation since we have taken it 
up as special work is marvelous to me. As I have just 
said, fifty years ago it was objected in the Yearly Meetings 
to using the word Missionary. I hope that even- state- 
ment that shall be made in this meeting shall be to 
enforce and enlarge this work. Though our field is 
broad it is not the world. The missionaries of the Lord 
Jesus Christ go out in the field and earn- light into dark 
places. I hope that the spirit of the missionary will soon 
take hold of our heart and life, and that the missionaries 
will be multiplied a thousand fold before we have another 
Five Years Meeting. We have the money and the 
means. Let us invest in the house of God that we may 
carry the truth broadcast all over the earth, and that this 
Board which has charge of this question may be enabled 
to sow beside all waters, sow broadcast, and I tell you, 
brethren, the name of our God shall be great and our 
Church shall be broadened and deepened in the love of 
God and in the harmony and fellowship of each other 
here on earth. 



172 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Clerk : A suggestion has come to the Chair 
that our members would like to hear a word from our 
missionaries just returned from Palestine, Wilfred and 
Delia Rowntree. Will Mr. and Mrs. Rowntree come to 
the platform ? 

Wilfred Rowntree : Dear Friends, it is a great pleasure 
to be with you here to-day. We have enjoyed hearing 
from all of you this morning. Whether we are at home 
or abroad we like to know what others are doing in the 
ranks of the Lord. One great problem in the foreign 
missionary field is the same as it is at home, that is, get- 
ting workers. Missionaries that go out to Palestine have 
to work upon the lines that our L,ord himself worked 
upon in the same land. He chose a few and instructed 
them, and sent them out as workers, and all missionaries 
there find that is the way in which the work is to be done. 
We go into a strange country, the customs are strange, 
the language is strange, and we find that we ourselves are 
not able to get at the problem in a way that would inter- 
est the people, so we cannot do very much ourselves, but 
we can put all our strength in training others to go out 
and work. Just as you have heard in China so in Pales- 
tine our efforts are put in that direction. No nation will 
be raised until the women are raised, and the girls and 
women of Palestine seem to be lifted up by the missionary 
work, and so we devote our energies especially to training 
up the girls. The parents did not at first care to send 
their girls, but now that is all changed. The girls go 
back into their homes to their people with messages ofi-sal- 
vation. The children who come to the day-schools carry 
back messages of salvation to their parents. These girls 
really know what salvation is and they are doing good 
work, and soon in the future their efforts will bear fruit. 
You know there is the time of sowing in foreign mission- 
ary fields before a harvest is reaped. I am glad to see the 
change in their lives which will bear witness to the power 
of God. And if I might leave just a word with you it is 
this, " Remember the workers in your prayers." From 
experience I can bear witness to the fact that the greatest 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 73 

strength comes to those away from home in the know- 
ledge of the prayers that are ascending for the blessing of 
God upon the work ; but not only upon the workers, but 
for the work. L,et the workers know you are praying for 
them. It would not be a bad plan to carry this on in the 
home fields as well as in the foreign fields, for there are 
just as brave workers in this country as in any country on 
the face of the earth. Don't forget those who are trying 
to serve their Master. 

Delia Rowntree : I want to say that those in the 
foreign fields will realize the loving remembrances this 
morning, and I think they will feel cheered and invigorated 
for their work. I want to thank the people here on behalf 
of them , because I so realize how sweet it is to feel the 
sympathy of the good people at home. 

Harriet Green, of England : Dear Friends, we have 
heard about giving our money. We have something 
better to give than our money ; it is our children. I 
want to say one word about the London Yearly Meeting. 
We have about one hundred missionaries in foreign lands, 
and we ought to have about two hundred, but it has come 
about in this way. We have taught our children to 
expect that God will want them in the foreign fields. I 
know this means a great deal for parents, but I long that 
this Five Years Meeting should take this message to 
every Yearly Meeting, that the time is drawing near, the 
time for our lives is short, the time for our service is short 
in this world, and considering the last words of our L-ord 
we should not only educate our children, but we should so 
keep them interested and informed that scores of them 
should hear the call from Jesus. At least fifty have heard 
the call from our Children's Meeting. And through school 
life and through college life have grown up with the 
thought before them that God would want them. And so, 
dear Friends, it seems to me that in this meeting of such 
exceptional interest, and while we have the power of the 
Holy Ghost with us, that there should be not only the edu- 
cation of our children, but the thought that God wants 
the children of our meetings. If we give our children the 
money will come in. I am glad our Foreign Missionary 



174 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Board long ago came to this conclusion. I thank God for 
it and for the rapidity of His work. But, dear friends, we 
are not doing one-half enough yet, are we ? 

(Recess for five minutes.) 

The Clerk : ' ' The Scope and Work of the Board 
of Foreign Missions of the Five Years Meeting ' ' will be 
presented by Carolena M. Wood, of New York. 

THE SCOPE AND WORK OF THE BOARD OF 

FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE FIVE 

YEARS MEETING. 

By Carolena M. Wood, of New Yoke. 

We have seen this morning something of the work of 
the American Friends and of the pioneer efforts of the 
American Friends' Board to meet the needs of the work. 
We come now to consider the possibilities of closer union 
and greater mutual helpfulness which may be developed 
through the Foreign Mission Board of the Five Years 
Meeting. 

As our minds have traveled around our world — through 
Alaska to Japan and China, through India to Syria, 
Africa, the West Indies and Mexico — we have realized 
that American Friends have accepted a world-wide service 
which calls for the greatest knowledge and skill in order 
to properly administer for the greatest results, the lovei 
and self-sacrificing gifts of the Church at home. So far 
we have had scarcely forty years of experience in mission 
work, and we may well learn much from the high ideals 
and well-organized work of the Boards of other denomina- 
tions after their century of experience. In every case we 
find them with a strong central executive under whose 
well-trained eye every detail of the work is organized with 
the same systematic care which is used in any railroad 
office or other great business. Under such an executive 
they divide the responsibility both for the home work and 
for the work on the field. At home, the interest in dif- 
ferent sections is placed under the care of subordinate 
Boards or individuals, and these in turn have subordinate 



OF THE CONFERENCE 175 

Boards and Societies, so that, if possible, every member of 
the Church may be touched by the news of what God is 
doing for the nations, and by a feeling of his responsi- 
bility in the work. Thus the gifts are gathered in and 
administered with the greatest technical skill by the cen- 
tral executive. On the field, on the other hand, the re- 
sponsibility is placed squarely on the shoulders of the sec- 
tion, or mission as a whole, and they, with the advice of 
the central executive, administer what the home Church 
has sent to help them in their service. This, in general 
outline, is the plan of organization for all the great Boards, 
and I welcome the organization of the Foreign Mission 
Board of the Five Years Meeting, which is being effected 
this week, as opening great possibilities for improvement 
in the mission work of Friends. 

Let us for a moment consider the organization of the 
Foreign Mission Board as outlined in the Uniform Disci- 
pline. We find at present a Board consisting of twenty- 
seven members representing all the allied Yearly Meetings. 
Its duties shall be both advisory and executive — advisory 
for all the work of the allied Yearly Meetings, executive 
for the work specifically put under its care. It shall 
be organized with the usual officers, making, with two 
others, an executive committee of five. Under this com- 
mittee the Secretary shall be the executive officer, " and 
it shall be his duty to collect information respecting the 
condition and needs of Foreign Mission fields, and to 
learn, as far as possible, the best means of supplying those 
needs ; to obtain from the members of the Board and from 
other sources full information of the foreign mission work 
carried on by the several Yearly Meetings represented in 
the Board, or by the members of these Yearly Meetings, 
and to advise those in charge of such work in reference 
thereto ; to ascertain the qualifications and preferences of 
those offering themselves as missionaries ; to collect and 
publish full statistics concerning all the foreign mission 
work of Friends in America, and in general to obtain and 
impart such information from within and from without 
the denomination as may aid the foreign mission work." 
The Board shall assist each Yearly Meeting to make the 



176 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

necessary arrangements for annually soliciting contribu- 
tions in every congregation ; it may assume control of 
work transferred to it, may enter upon new work, and 
may establish regulations with regard to foreign member- 
ship and foreign meetings. 

Such a Board may do much for missions. L,et us 
consider some of its possibilities in its advisory capacity. 

Everywhere knowledge is power, and now, as always, 
no one can succeed who does not thoroughly understand 
his subject. Especially is this true of so complicated a 
service as one carried on in a foreign country must neces- 
sarily be, and it will be a great assistance to all our 
workers to have an information bureau where we can get 
the information "from within and without the denomina- 
tion' ' to aid us in the work. Beside providing information 
for special cases, the work will necessarily take the form 
of publications — statistics, a prayer calendar, reports, and 
some adequate method of disseminating missionary infor- 
mation through our periodicals and by leaflets. We shall 
need a circulating missionary library for the use of the 
missionaries on the field and for the Boards at home. 
While the well organized Boards of other denominations 
have years ago proved the importance of self-support, 
self-government and self-propagation for the native Church, 
we are only just realizing them. Although the primaty 
importance of industrial missions for some fields has been 
long ago demonstrated, we have had to give years of ser- 
vice to learn the lesson which we might have learned from 
our next-door neighbor. We do not yet understand the 
importance of business principles in mission work, of defi- 
nite support, the strong central station, or a score of other 
proven propositions. Much of this information may be 
brought to us without loss of time through an up-to-date 
information bureau. 

In its advisory capacity the Board of the Five Years 
Meeting might encourage and make systematic arrange- 
ment for proper visitation of the mission fields. No 
amount of paper and ink can ever take the place of per- 
sonal contact with the people and problems on the field 
itself, and in no wa) r can the sympathetic bond between 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 77 

the Church at home and the Church on the field be so 
strengthened as by a visit ' ( in the love of the Gospel ' ' to 
the foreign work. Such visits pay tenfold for the labor 
and money expended. 

Great help could be given all our Boards in prepar- 
ing missionaries to go to the field. There should be a 
complete list of all our members who are looking toward 
service abroad. We should understand to what field they 
feel called , and what are their qualifications ; and much 
help might be given them in making adequate preparation 
for their life service. Such a central Board can much 
better judge of a Friend's physical, mental and spiritual 
preparation for the work, than can a Board of less experi- 
ence. Friends have already expended too much upon 
workers physically or mentally unqualified for the service 
required, as discrimination in such matters needs great 
sanctified common sense and Christian courage. The 
care of such a Board ought to awaken in those going into 
foreign work a deeper sense of responsibility as they 
realize the wider opportunities of the foreign field. In 
sending out missionaries and supplies often large reduc- 
tions in expense can be obtained through a Central Board 
from railroads and steamships, and only through a Central 
Board can Friends be properly represented in interde- 
nominational work and relations. Such a Board would 
certainly give to Friends a sense of the importance of the 
work ; it would unlock some of the coffers, produce self- 
denial, and retain within the enterprise of Friends some of 
the funds, many of the lives, and much of the effort, now 
going from us to the foreign work through outside chan- 
nels. 

This work, indicated under "advisory duties," if 
well done, would certainly produce confidence in the body 
at large and a certain unity in the work. This would 
ultimately lead to combinations of work in different fields 
and make it possible to develop broader policies and more 
proper organization to produce far-reaching results. 
Thus in time the work now carried on by the separate 
Yearly Meetings would doubtless be put more and more 
under the care of the central body, and this, with the 



178 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

present work in Cuba, would develop its more executive 
functions. When this time comes, however, I feel that 
our plan should not interfere with the support of indi- 
vidual missionaries or schools or stations devolving upon 
a Quarterly or Yearly Meeting. If a work has been car- 
ried on for years by any one Yearly Meeting, it will be 
very near to the hearts of its members, and should be 
definitely supported by them, that meeting simply promis- 
ing to pay a certain sum for the support of the work and 
the Central Board administering it. Thus that field may 
still be the special object for the care of the meeting and 
yet all will be well administered. In this way it may be 
possible to prevent the confusion of interest which results 
from repeated appeals in one place for different works, 
and will fix the privilege and interest and responsibility 
in one place rather than risking the possibility that the 
support which is everybody's business is nobody's busi- 
ness. 

For the organization of the Board to accomplish this 
work I would make the following suggestions : There 
should be a regular office for the Board's work where the 
secretary and a clerk could give their whole time to the 
work. This office must be situated in one of the Mission 
Board centres of the country if we are to keep up to date 
in mission matters. These centres — New York, Boston, 
and Nashville, Tenn., — are, unfortunately, not near the 
centres of Friends, but I feel it to be of the first import- 
ance to be closely in touch with the work of the great 
Boards. Only thus can we help the work of Friends as it 
needs to be helped. As the executive work of the Board 
grows it will need a salaried treasurer, but this will be a 
future need. I would suggest that the Board meet each 
year at the same time and place as the other Boards of the 
Five Years Meeting. If it were to meet successively at 
New York, Oskaloosa, Wilmington (Ohio), Baltimore 
and Indianapolis, it might cover our territory in the most 
practical way. The Executive Committee should meet 
much oftener to properly oversee the work. 

It might also be helpful to divide the Board into sec- 
tions — one on Alaska, one on Japan and China, one on 



of the conference; 179 

India, one on Syria, one on Africa, and one on Latin 
America — to have special oversight of these fields. There 
might also be sections devoted to the study of evangelistic 
work — one for educational and industrial work, one for 
medical and philanthropic work— each of which should 
have representatives on the section for the country where 
that type of work is carried on. 

The possibilities for the Foreign Mission Board of 
the Five Years Meeting seem almost infinite. If we can 
add to Friends' blessed feeling of personal responsibility 
in service a missionary society in each meeting, an indi- 
vidual or society in each Quarterly Meeting to keep up 
the interest there, a YearlyMeeting's Board to care for all 
its responsibilities in missions, and a strong central execu- 
tive under the Five Years Meeting, we ought to be, as far 
as organization can go, well equipped for the beautiful 
service to which we are called. We ought to be able to 
produce not only laborers of ' ' good report full of the 
Spirit and of wisdom," but those whose technical skill 
may help to make our service more nearly a perfect 
service. 

The Clerk : This paper will be followed by a short 
paper by James Carey, Jr., of Baltimore. 

ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF FRIENDS' FOR- 
EIGN MISSION WORK. 

By James Carey, Jr., of Baltimore. 

We have had presented to us this morning ' ' Foreign 
Mission " work under the care of the various Yearly 
Meetings and of the American Friends' Board. 

We have also listened to a most interesting paper, 
presenting a number of subjects for our careful thought 
as to the best method of organizing and carrying on our 
work ; what has especially impressed my own mind as 
important for us now to consider, has been the general 
under-lying principles which should govern us in this 
organization and the further development of the work 
which we are now entering on. 



l8o STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Society of Friends since its first organization has 
with more or less insistence held two peculiar views of 
religious truth. First, an absolute need of the immedi- 
ate guidance of the Holy Spirit in all the affairs of life. 
Secondly, an advocacy and employment of democratic 
methods of Church government, founding both of these 
views on the Scriptures as exemplified by the early 
Church. 

Until the organization of the United States of 
America, democratic principles in political government 
were never clearly understood. In Church government 
they were almost unknown, as not only the established 
Church of England, but also the dissenting churches, 
were governed by strong central organizations composed 
largely of their clerical members. It was reserved for 
George Fox, the broad-minded and far-seeing organizer 
of the Religious Society of Friends, to solve the problem 
of a real democracy in Church organization. 

True democracy involves the largest degree of per- 
sonal liberty consistent with the real interest of the 
community. As development progresses, as the social 
and political life becomes more intricate, individual liberty 
must give way more and more to the good of the commu- 
nity. 

The organization of the Society of Friends of America 
in separate Yearly Meetings created a number of small 
democratic bodies, each entirely independent of the other, 
and with few points of contact except through the 
exchange of annual epistles and the visits of ministering 
Friends. They met to transact their business, with but 
little knowledge as how this might affect a neighboring 
Yearly Meeting. Fortunately the ties of kin, and the 
brotherly love pervading the Society, kept these organiza- 
tions somewhat together, as well as the general attach- 
ment to the mother Church in England and their desire 
for its recognition. After more than two hundred years 
of this almost separate church existence, it is an event of 
no small interest that they have recognized the necessity 
of the organic union recently effected by the adoption of 
the uniform Discipline and the setting up of the Five 



of the; conference 181 

Years Meeting now in session, a result which was brought 
about through the action of the last Quinquennial Confer- 
ence. In comparing this new meeting with its predeces- 
sor, we see at a glance that the Five Years Meeting is a 
permanent instead of a temporary body, and that it is to 
work as well as to advise. It will co-operate with the 
several Yearly Meetings in and even share their responsi- 
bility for a part of the work of the Church, and this is 
essentially the case in its relation to foreign mission 
work. 

It is only necessary to glance at the early history of 
the Society of Friends to find that it was essentially a mis- 
sionary church from its inception, though it was probably 
longer than most other denominations in adapting itself 
to the organized foreign mission work which is found 
necessary to meet the needs of the present day. It 
would be strange, indeed, if with its democratic organ- 
ization and its distinctive views as to the necessity of 
immediate Divine guidance in undertaking and carrying 
on its work, the Society of Friends of America had 
promptly developed a uniform system of foreign mission 
work applicable to all the Yearly Meetings, and so that 
these would not overlap each other in the different 
countries where their work was situated. May we not 
see the guidance of the Head of the Church when we find 
this overlapping so small and the unity of the work so 
great ? 

The proposition of the Quinquennial Conference of 
1892, for the establishment of a Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions for all the American Yearly Meetings would seem 
to have had in view only a bureau of information and sta- 
tistics, but it held within it the seeds of a new development 
for our Society which should soon spring up and bear 
fruit. In the Third Annual Report of the new Board, its 
vision is becoming broader, and we find the suggestion to 
the Yearly Meetings that its functions should be extended, 
(I quote from the report) " In the direction of con- 
certed action of foreign mission work among Friends in 
America, implying the thought that the primitive stage 
of foreign mission work among us by separate Yearly 



1 82 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Meetings, and different Boards and Committees, with no 
related action, has to some extent fulfilled its mission, 
and that our Church would effect more and have greater 
iufluence if there was at least co-ordination among the 
Yearly Meetings and Boards." 

There were two events which occurred shortly after 
the writing of the above, which more than anything else 
helped to bring about the consummation of the desire 
therein expressed. I refer to the Ecumenical or World's 
Foreign Mission Conference, held in the spring of 1900, 
and the freedom of Cuba as a result of the war with 
Spain. The first incited our own Church, as well as 
others, to renewed and more active work, and the second 
opened up a field which in the minds of many created an 
opportunity which could not be neglected. It was 
clearly felt, however, as stated in the Board's Report of 
1899, that no one or two Yearly Meetings were able to do 
all that Friends should do in this new field, and the sug- 
gestion to the various Yearly Meetings for the reorganiza- 
tion of the Board and the empowering of it to carry on 
this work met with a hearty response, which has since 
resulted in the active and successful work now carried on 
in the northeastern end of the island of Cuba. 

I have referred thus hurriedly to the foreign mission 
work of the Society of Friends of America, in order to 
show its organic development from the un-official work 
in Palestine undertaken by Friends of New England and 
London Yearly Meetings, to the active and efficient mis- 
sions of the various Yearly Meetings, and now to the 
more recently organized work of the Society of Friends of 
America under the American Friends' Board of Foreign 
Missions, and yet the fully developed and most efficient 
plan of work has not been entered upon by us. It would 
be easy to ignore the past and to take the shortest and 
easiest path back to the road which our Society left at its 
organization by adopting the plans and organization of 
the work of our sister churches, but it is not in this way 
I am sure that we should be doing our best work in this 
new field. The times have changed, and we must adapt 
our plans and methods to the present age, but let us not 



OF THE CONFERENCE 1 83, 

lose sight of the democratic principles of church organiza- 
tion upon which our Society has always rested, but rather 
avoid in our foreign mission work too great centralization 
of power and responsibility which we have endeavored to 
avoid in other departments. 

It should not, therefore, be a prime object of the 
Board, even were it possible, to take over the Foreign 
Mission Work of the various Yearly Meetings, and 
thereby assume a responsibility which in most cases these 
can best carry. It should seek rather to supplement their 
efforts and to bring about such unity of purpose and co- 
operation in action as will produce the best results and 
most advance the cause of Foreign Missions. To this 
end I would make the following suggestions which are in 
accordance with the spirit at least of the uniform Disci- 
pline : 

First, Each Yearly Meeting represented in the Board 
while continuing its own separate work as heretofore, 
shall realize that this forms a constituent part of the 
foreign mission work of the Society of Friends in Amer- 
ica, of which the Board has a general advisory over- 
sight. 

Second, The Foreign Mission Committees of the 
several Yearly Meetings shall annually furnish the Board 
a full report of their mission needs, and work during the 
preceding year, which together with such other information 
and statistics as may be accessible shall be incorported by 
the Secretary of the Board in its annual report to the 
Yearly Meetings. 

Third, Whenever two or more Yearly Meetings are 
working in the same foreign field, they should each keep 
in view the importance of co-operation in such work, and 
if deemed advisable by them should arrange for carrying 
it on through a joint committee; should, however, the 
work require in their united judgment the co-operation of 
all the Yearly Meetings, an application should be made 
to the Board to carry on such work. If the Board should 
conclude to assume the control it may appeal to all the 
Yearly Meetings for their aid and support. 



184 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Fourth, Each Yearly Meeting represented in the Board 
shall make through its Foreign Mission Committee the 
necessary arrangements for receiving voluntary contribu- 
tions for the work of the Board, and such contributions 
shall be forwarded to its Treasurer through this Com- 
mittee. 

Fifth, In order to bring the Board and the Foreign 
Mission Committees of the Yearly Meetings into closer 
touch with each other, it should be recommended that 
the members of the Board for each Yearly Meeting shall 
be ex-ofncio members of its Foreign Mission Committee. 

In conclusion, I would suggest the advisability of 
uniformity in the Foreign Mission organizations of the 
several Yearly Meetings, and to this end that the Board 
of Foreign Missions of this meeting be instructed to pre- 
pare and forward to the Yearly Meetings of 1903 for their 
consideration a plan of organization having in view the 
present relations of these meetings to the Board of For- 
eign Missions. 

What this organization should be and what its rela- 
tion to the Foreign Mission Board, it may not be my 
place to suggest. It has come to me, however, some- 
thing like this : permanent Yearly Meeting Boards of 
Foreign Missions, uniform in their constitution and organ- 
ization ; supreme under their several Yearly Meetings in 
the administration of their own work and confederated in 
the Foreign Mission Board of this meeting for the general 
oversight of the entire Foreign Mission Work of our 
Society. 

A small Executive Committee, which can readily be 
brought together for frequent consultation and in addition 
to its officers an agent, who shall be at liberty to visit as 
thought best the Mission fields of all the Yearly Meet- 
ings, as well as those of the Board. 

With some such working plan as this we shall be 
prepared I think to extend and make effective the Foreign 
Mission Work of the Society of Friends of America. 

The Clerk : In opening the general discussion we 
will allow Thomas C. Brown, President of the Board 
of Foreign Missions, to speak first. We have before us 



of the; conference 185 

two practical papers that have suggested definite lines of 
work. Let us keep this discussion strictly within the 
limits of the subject under consideration. We wish to 
reach some definite conclusions ; and if we keep our 
minds to the thought of the paper we shall accomplish a 
great deal more than if we branch out in other lines. 

SCOPE AND WORK OF THE BOARD OF 
FOREIGN MISSIONS. 
By Thomas C. Brown. 

Negatively speaking, it is not within the scope and 
work, neither is it the purpose of the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions to interfere in any way with 
the work or management of any Board or organization 
now doing work in the foreign field. Neither is it within 
its province to interfere with the organization and prose- 
cution of further work in any new field by any such 
Board. The Woman's Boards of Foreign Missions and 
the different Yearly Meetings have been pioneers in this 
field, and have wrought nobly in the past, showing a 
commendable zeal and enthusiasm which is commensu- 
rate with the greatness of the subject in which they have 
been engaged, viz., " Preach the Gospel to every Crea- 
ture." That they have been free from error, no one will 
claim. That their management has always been wise, 
their best friends do not maintain, neither did they hope 
for. But when errors have been made, either in organi- 
zing or working such missions, those Boards have been 
quick to correct all errors as far as may be, and press 
forward in their work with such zeal as has held the con- 
fidence of the general public. Their acts have been woven 
into history, and stand as monuments of the energies of 
earnest and consecrated hearts, shaping the work of the 
oncoming hosts who shall toil in this field, and, awaiting 
the testing of the final judgment which will reveal the 
wood, hay and stubble, as well as the precious metals 
which will stand in the final testing. 

Their mission is not yet completed. The door is 
still widening before them, and, touched by the Divine 



1 86 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Spirit, they are moving onward. Paralyzed be the hand 
that would strike down, and disorganize the forces that 
would remove these agencies from their appointed voca- 
tion. Maintain the individuality of these Boards. Is 
there, then, any room for the American Friends' Board of 
Foreign Missions ? An}- specific field in which it may 
expend its energies and not interfere with other kindred 
organizations ? If it may not be helpful, it has no claim 
for life. 

There are some questions that are broader than any 
one Yearly Meeting. Some problems that cannot be 
solved by local forces. Union of forces and compactness 
of organization have been potent agents in many sharp 
conflicts, and have turned victory on the right side in 
many of earth's greatest battles. 

The cry of "fire " breaks the quiet of the midnight 
hour. Yonder building is already within its destroying 
grip. Its flames have taken hold of the building, and 
now begin to leap from within. Five minutes and they 
are in check ; ten, and they are suppressed. Where is 
the secret of this success found ? In the one word — 
organization. 

The Foreign Mission work is one subject that is 
broader than any one Yearly Meeting. Its successful 
management requires not only thorough and compact 
organization, but the employment of a broader force that 
will in some way bring the united energies of the entire 
Church to bear upon its problems. Here is the mission 
of the American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. As 
a distinct organization, it can take up the subject of sta- 
tistics, showing the work of each separate Board that has 
been organized in the Church. These statistics carefully 
prepared, not giving undue prominence to the work of 
any one Board or field over another, will constitute the 
History, past and present, of all of the Foreign Mission 
work in the Church. Its value will at least be two-fold. 
First, it will reveal the weaknesses that may exist in the 
work of any Board, and be helpful in correcting them. 
And second, it will stimulate to greater effort in the finan- 
cial support of these missions ; and contribute to greater 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 87 

efficiency in the work accomplished in the field. It is 
within the scope and work of the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions to enter any field that is not 
already occupied, and organize and maintain the work 
there. The rapid march of events in the political world 
among the nations of the earth suddenly opens the door 
for the Gospel to a nation. At nightfall it may lie beyond 
the reach of the Gospel, but with the first gleams of the 
dawn over the eastern hills, it may be lying at the feet of 
the Christian world, looking imploringly to the Christian 
Church for the simple message of Him whose coming 
brings not only the dawn of the " Sun of Righteousness," 
but that full-orbed hope which alone can be an " Anchor 
to the Soul " when most needed. 

Cuba is just such a field. Suddenly, by the turn of 
National events, she was thrown, with all her pressing 
needs, at the feet of Christians. It was our opportune 
time. Had it not been that the American Friends' Board 
of Foreign Missions already existed, Friends could not 
have so quickly entered that field. Each Yearly Meeting 
already had its field, the demands of which were increas- 
ing. Retraction meant death. Advance meant victory, 
growth and success. By the union of all the Yearly 
Meetings in this work, a commendable start has been 
made ; a mission has been planted that insures growth in 
the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the reflex influence on 
the churches is healthful and binds us one to another in 
fellowship and service. 

The American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions 
may also be helpful in securing suitable and needful legis- 
lation either in our own country, or in any country where 
Friends have opened missions or may desire to open them. 

It may render advice and counsel to any Board rela- 
tive to questions touching the organization or manage- 
ment of any mission work, but it must not be interpreted 
that this advice carries with it any controlling authority. 
This function alone belongs to the Board organizing it, 
unless it shall choose to transfer this management to the 
American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. 

The American Friends' Board shall have power to set 



1 88 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

forth the standard required for, and to receive into church 
membership those with whom they are working, and to 
organize churches and make provisions for their future 
care, after they have been so organized. 

It should have power to develop plans for raising 
funds for financial support of its work, either by contri- 
butions, special collections, or bequests, but it should 
have no power to assess a tax on any Yearly Meeting for 
this purpose, and make it binding on the Yearly Meeting 
to pay this assessment. 

The ' scope and work of the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions may then be briefly stated as 
follows : 

First, To gather statistics of all Mission work in 
the Friends' Church, and to act as a medium of com- 
munication between our Board and that of other denom- 
inations. 

Second, To organize and open Mission work in any 
field not already occupied. 

Third, To aid in securing needed legislation affecting 
Foreign Mission work, either in our own or foreign gov- 
ernments. 

Fourth, To render advice and counsel with any 
Friends' Board relative to its work. 

Fifth, To arrange for and confer church membership 
upon suitable persons in our missions, and to organize 
them into churches. 

Sixth, And to raise funds and provide for the finan- 
cial support of its own work. 

The Clerk : The subject is now before the meeting. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I would 
like to state in another way practically the same thing 
that has been stated by the clerk. I think it is very 
important that we get into our minds a clear conception 
of what is to be the general and final outcome of it. 
First, in the present condition of it, to care for the funds 
for the development and the practical work in Cuba and 
the West Indies, which is now undertaken. Second, an 
advisory connection with all Boards of all Yearly Meetings. 
Third, I believe it would be a function of the new Board 



OF THE CONFERENCE I 89 

to open up new fields in South America, and South 
Africa, and the Philippine Islands. I believe it would 
be extremely wise to consult with the American Friends' 
Board and see if it is not the thing to open new fields. 
Fourth, I think it would be distinctly the scope of this 
Board to co-operate with other Boards on the subject of 
missionary comity, as to whether it is proper to enter a 
section of a new field. Fifth, part of the function of this 
new Board is the general instruction of all of our Friends 
in America, and the whole Friends' Church on the subject 
of Missions and Missionary work. Sixth, to provide 
funds gradually, and begin at once by encouraging 
bequests, and to have a general fund which may be used 
not only in the support of its own work, but in the co- 
operation and support of special fields now under the care 
of the Yearly Meetings ; and ultimately, to get together a 
large fund that will lie back of our Mission work in all 
quarters of the earth. I do not believe the Board will 
ever reach its highest power until it does this ; and when 
it does it will reach the fulfillment of its great mission. 

Anna B. Thomas, of Baltimore : I am a delegate on 
the Board of Foreign Missions, but not to this Conference. 
May I have a minute or two ? [Consent was given.] I 
believe in the future of this Board as does Benjamin True- 
blood. I have been thinking of the way that English 
Friends carry on their vast work in foreign missions. 
We do not expend anything like as much money in our 
own church work. We do not have to expend much 
money in our work, so we ought to be able to do more 
for the general mission field, and American Friends 
should appreciate the advantage of pushing forward into 
it. The English Friends carry forward their great work, 
and yet keep their individual responsibility, because they 
have sub-committees in the different fields in which they 
are interested. The work carried on by the English 
Friends is far greater than ours, and that work is carried 
on independently. Our work could have Boards for 
Latin America, China, Africa, etc., and be affiliated with- 
out interfering with each other's province. 

Zenas L,. Martin, of Iowa: I think the two papers 



190 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

have well compassed the field, and the speakers have done 
well also. I hope, however, that we will not be inclined 
to put too much on the Five Years Meeting. I move 
these two papers and suggestions be submitted to the 
Foreign Mission Board to consider, and report what 
measures they deem best for this meeting to adopt. 

(The motion was carried.) 

The meeting adjourned to meet at 2.30 o'clock. 

Fifth-Day Afternoon, Tenth Month 23d, 1902. 

The Clerk : We will have a few minutes of quiet 
waiting before the L,ord. Prayer and the singing of a 
hymn. 

Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington : I want to say 
what is upon my heart. I notice in the appointment of 
the various committees that only three of these had any 
women on them, and that is of great concern to us. I 
read in the Scriptures, " Stand fast in the liberty where- 
with Christ hath made us free." I want a full Quaker 
Church, but there is no department that needs to be 
attended to more than women, but we have little chance, 
and my heart burns as I think of it. I do not understand 
it that it is Quakerly not to give the women a chance. I 
do not want the women to take the men's places. I 
admire a womanly woman and a manly man. You can- 
not say if you can find a woman competent to go on that 
committee you would put them on, for I answer that we 
have as competent women as we have competent men. I 
think it is a mistake, and we should see to it that in all 
the committees there is at least one woman represented 
there. I think it is right for us to do do this. 

Robert B. Pretlow, of Wilmington : I would like to 
say that from our Wilmington delegation we have four 
men and seven women. 

The Clerk : These speeches are a little too late, 
as they nearly always are. We are now ready for the 
next subject. 



of the; conference 191 

SCOPE OF THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEE 
ON EDUCATION. 

By Absalom Rosenberger. 

It is important that, under the new regime into which 
the Friends have just entered, the great co-ordinating 
departments of the Society shall enter upon their work 
with clearly denned powers, in order that their functions 
in the church economy may be properly performed and 
each confine its activities within clearly marked bounda- 
ries, usually denominated their scope or fields of work. 
Thereby will be avoided all the departmental friction that 
might otherwise occur and the interests of the body cor- 
porate be promoted. 

Hitherto the different Yearly Meetings have been ac- 
customed to conduct almost all their enterprises as separ- 
ate organizations with no interdependence whatever. 
This has been notably true of our educational work. 
Monthly, Quarterly and- Yearly Meetings have been free 
to found, maintain and conduct such schools as in their 
judgment seemed wise, regardless of the rest of the world. 
We fully concede that marked good judgment beyond 
their day and generation has characterized the efforts of 
our fathers, and the good guidance of Providence can be 
seen in their comparative freedom from mistakes. Now, 
however, under our changed relations it would seem wise 
to give careful consideration to this subject, as new times 
may bring new demands at our doors. 

Looking backward from this milestone of events, it 
can safely be said that the world is practically undivided 
in its approval of the educational work of Friends in the 
past. A half century and more ago the Friends' schools 
were the acknowledged centres of a safe and wholesome 
education equal and possibly superior to almost all others 
either public or private, both in moral excellence and in- 
tellectual advancement. They were the pathfinders who 
' ' blazed ' ' the way through the unbroken forests and laid 
.the foundations of an educational system that had for its 
mission, expressed or implied, the intellectual training of 
every child born within its borders. Eong before the 



192 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

State had begun to feel the premonitions of a coming sys- 
tem of free public schools that should be universal in its 
application, William Penn in Pennsylvania, and the 
Friends in New England, New York and the Carolinas 
had made excellent provisions along this line. As the 
star of empire westward turned its way along the great 
thoroughfares through Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Michi- 
gan, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and across the 
great plains even to the sunset slope of our western moun- 
tains, beside the house for worship stood a structure for 
the intellectual and moral development of the young 
Friends. 

In process of time a change came in the tide of 
events. The declaration of our Federal Government in 
setting apart the great Northwest Territory to the effect 
that within this vast domain, Religion, Morality and Edu- 
cation should be forever promoted, supplemented by the 
free grant of lands for the maintenance of a system ol 
public education, brought about a new order and arrange- 
ment of affairs. Since that time it has been increasingly 
the public policy to supplant the denominational schools 
by those under the direct management of the States. In 
keeping with this changed situation the State, and to 
some extent the large Christian denominations from their 
almost exhaustless resources, have been providing second- 
ary schools and universities, liberally supplied with 
modern appointments, faculties of scholarly men and 
wealthy endowments. Thus the public school system is 
being carried to a high state of perfection. In turn the 
free tuition, excellent libraries, laboratories, gymnasia, 
and the influence that graduation therefrom gives in the 
way of public recognition for appointments to remunera- 
tive positions, are exerting a potent influence in gathering 
the young Friends to these centres of learning along with 
he multitude. In some quarters it is now openly pro- 
claimed that the only safety for the small denominational 
college is to take refuge by affiliation under the protection 
of the wealthy university. The perfection of the public 
school plan seems to require the kindergarten, the primary 
grades, the high school, the State Normal, the State College 



of the conference; 193 

of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, and the State Univer- 
sity. This condition that now confronts our western 
colleges has a decided tendency to eliminate the whole 
system of denominational schools. 

Might not the Committee find it within the scope of 
its powers to conduct a careful inquiry into the situation, 
consider the Macedonian cries for help, and suggest means 
of relief in needy places ? Earlham with a moderate en- 
dowment must compete with the practically free State 
schools of Indiana ; and Penn College in a common- 
wealth that embraces 52,000 square miles and contains a 
population of two and a half millions, has as competitors 
the free State schools and fifteen denominational colleges, 
all of which have been declared by the Association of Iowa 
Colleges to be worthy of a name and place in the sister- 
hood. 

If there is still a place and mission for Friends' Col- 
leges the spirit of the times demands that they be clearly 
set out and boldly published. The State has so far sur- 
passed all other agencies in the line of opportunities for a 
purely secular education that their continued existence 
cannot be justified on that ground. The moral and 
Christian culture not vouchsafed by the State may be 
secured in well-nigh any of the well-equipped and well- 
manned denominational colleges now in existence ; but 
somehow that does not satisfy or eliminate the Quaker 
element in the equation. At last are we not driven to 
cover under the only tenable position, viz., that we must 
have colleges that have a distinctively Quaker atmosphere 
and at least a grain of Quaker leaven to give life ? No 
plea is entered for some great Quaker temple of learning 
with gilded domes approached by a George Fox boulevard, 
William Penn avenue, or ascended by a Robert Barclay 
stairway for all that would be most unquakerly indeed. 
We need rather institutions of more modest pretensions 
where the atmosphere is thonntghly saturated by the keen 
prophetic spirit of Fox, the cultured but consecrated 
endowments of Penn, and the profound erudition of many 
of the early Friends. In the fierce scramble for patronage 
have we not too much lost sight of the primary purpose 



194 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

of founding and maintaining Friends' schools ? We seek 
to divest them of every earmark that proclaims the name 
of the owner, and too often the Church gets little direct 
return from the capital invested, and therefore becomes 
discouraged about making any further outlay in that 
direction. Cannot something more be done or some 
method be devised whereby a larger return shall be made 
to the Church on its invested capital ? Every young Friend 
who walks through the halls of L,ondon Yearly Meeting- 
House must have his Church loyalty deeply stirred by 
the collection of portraits of worthy Friends and the brief 
statement of their lives and labors that are to be found 
neatly framed and hung upon the walls. A few years ago 
a )^oung Friend graduated from one of our best colleges 
where, during a full four years' course, he saw and heard 
few things that acquainted him with the origin, wonderful 
history, heroic sufferings and the distinctive views and 
doctrines of Friends. A few years afterward, while taking 
a professional course at one of the great universities, his 
Church interests were ver}r much aroused by hearing a 
lecturer of world-wide repute on Constitutional History 
devote a lecture hour to a statement of the influence of 
Friends, declaring that the world was destined to appre- 
ciate more and more with the lapse of time the trend, of 
righteous influences set going by the life, doctrines and 
practices of the peace-loving Friends. To know all that 
is strongest and best in the past history, the heroic strug- 
gles for the uplift of the race and the present life of the 
Society is the birthright of all young Friends. 

It is further imperative that our colleges be kept on 
a plane of excellence equal to the best in the land if their 
halls are to be filled with our youths. Young Friends 
are not slow to recognize the economic difference between 
" the good " and " the best, and to place a proper esti- 
mate upon the commercial value of graduation from insti- 
tutions of the highest reputation for affording the most 
thorough preparation for life. The intense competition 
for remunerative positions in this day requires thorough 
training, alertness and skill acquired by the most 



OF THE CONFERENCE 195 

approved methods of instruction ; and we cannot afford 
to send our young people out handicapped for the race. 

To keep our colleges abreast of the times requires the 
expenditure of large resources and wise administration. 
It might now appear clearly within the province of this 
Committee to make a searching survey of the whole field, 
looking especially at the location, number, relative stand- 
ing and support of our institutions of learning. It is 
altogether possible to have a college with vast wealth so 
located as to render it largely inaccessible to the body of 
the Church, in which case its chief patronage would come 
from outside sources. However valuable its work might 
be in a general way it would be largely a waste of treasure 
from the standpoint of Church economics. Given another 
location more accessible to Friends the same institution 
might prove of vastly more value to the Church as its 
patronage would then come from the membership. It 
may sometimes happen that those sections which contain 
the largest numbers are the least capable of providing for 
their education, and consequently the temptation becomes 
the greatest to rely upon the free tuition of the State or to 
accept the benevolences proffered by the wealthier de- 
nominational colleges. A few years ago a Friend minister 
with a large family of children to educate, induced by free 
tuition, moved into the neigborhood of a State school. 
The children are enjoying gratuitous instruction in an 
excellent institution but are joining other churches. 
Caught in the currents thrown around them in college, 
many young Friends are annually drifting out from us to 
become sound scholars, bright lights in other churches, 
enthusiastic missionaries under other denominational 
Boards, and valued fellow-citizens ; but that does not 
build up the section of the Church to which we belong 
and in whose prosperity we are most interested. It would 
appear advisable that the strong centres of Friends should 
have ample provision made for advanced education under 
favoring conditions. 

If in some manner the Committee could find a plan 
for securing a large educational fund held for a common 
benefit and distributed judiciously to those sections where 



195 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

the stringent necessities seemed most to demand relief, 
untold good would result. There must be some reliable 
means of directing the attention of those blessed with a 
liberal spirit and large means at their disposal to the 
points where their benevolences will be most helpful and 
bring back the best returns. If the volume of the resources 
of the gratuity of Friends could find its outlet along the 
channels of society work, relief would be given to the 
whole educational system. Too much of the Society's 
wealth is spent upon fields not our own in such a manner 
as to bring no direct return. 

In a sense the extraordinary catholicity of Friends is 
commendable, and the missionary spirit that has sought 
the enlightenment of a world lying in darkness is Christ- 
like indeed, but the methods have too often been wanting 
in wisdom. As an example our evangelistic efforts have 
been instrumental in leading multitudes to a knowledge 
of saving grace, but too long has our chief joy been in 
seeing the Philistines gathering in the harvests. We have 
long needed some Quaker Shamgar with oxgoad to defend 
the fields sown with bountiful hand, that our garners 
might be full and running over at the time of ingathering. 
Our educational policy has been scarcely less unwise. 
Too many of the largest gifts for educational purposes 
have fallen practically outside the lap of the Church. 
The resources bestowed upon Friends' schools should not 
be used for self-adornment, but should be so employed 
that, by the production of a higher state of efficiency in 
the body itself, much more may be accomplished for the 
good of society in general. With the decline of intelli- 
gence in the Church, skillful service will take its departure, 
inasmuch as weak brain power brings about the decadence 
of all true greatness. By keeping the whole organism in 
a healthful state we shall secure strong functional energy 
and power that may be utilized for the common weal. 
Whenever the seat of life becomes enfeebled by ignorance 
or its energies dissipated by want of unity of action, there 
will ensue a debilitated state of the Church wherein it 
shall be incapable of energetic and powerful efforts. 

The number of Friends' colleges is a question of 



OF THE CONFERENCE 197 

moment. At present we have Haverford and Bryn Mawr 
for New England, New York and Pennsylvania ; Guil- 
ford for North Carolina ; Wilmington for Ohio ; Earlham 
for Indiana ; Penn for Iowa ; The Friends' University for 
Kansas ; Central for Nebraska ; Pacific for Oregon ; and 
Whittier for California. In most cases they are far sepa- 
rated, a distance of about 500 miles intervening be- 
tween them. Hitherto they have been independent enti- 
ties, every one revolving in its self-appointed sphere. 
Among them different standards prevail as to the require- 
ments for admission to Bachelors' Degrees. Shall they 
remain fixed at the present number ? Shall they all stand 
upon the same plane and be measured by the same stand- 
ard of requirements ? Or shall there be enlargement ot 
curricula in some special centres ? Would it be possible 
to provide for such concurrent action as would enable all 
to do first-class work up to a certain minimum require- 
ment for Bachelors' Degrees and, by special arrangement 
wherein proper financial relief should be extended, provide 
for additional two year courses leading to Masters' De- 
grees in certain colleges ? 

Are we disposed to continue to entrust the Biblical 
training of young Friends to other churches, or has not 
the time about come to make ample provisions for the 
same under our own auspices ? The Hebrew nation at 
one time sank into such a hopeless condition of servitude 
and so bereft of national honor that no smith or smithy 
was found anywhere within its borders, but all Israel 
went down to the Philistines to sharpen every man his 
share, and his coulter, and his ax and his mattock ; and 
it came to pass in the day of battle that there was neither 
szvord nor spear found in the hand of any of the people. 
How long will the Friends remain at ease about having 
their ministers and workers educated in the schools of 
other Christian denominations ? 

In a brief recapitulation we might suggest that within 
the scope of this Committee's duties might lie a consid- 
eration of such questions as — 

1. Is there still a demand for Friends' schools ? 

2. What shall be the number ? 



1 98 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

3. What shall he their relation to one another? 

4. How shall they be supported ? 

5. Can courses on Friends' doctrine and history be 
introduced to an advantage to the Church ? 

6. Would it be advisable to have an Educational 
Board capable of receiving and disbursing funds for the 
good of all the colleges ? 

James Wood, of New York : Yesterday I called at- 
tention to the fact that there was a vacancy on the pro- 
gram, and the meeting was asked if they would like to fill 
this vacancy, and they replied that they would rather 
speak themselves. I wish that you would now call upon 
Charles E. Tebbetts, of California, to speak on the work 
in California. 

(Consent.) 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : It seems to me 
that there is an important function that lies before us in 
all of our work ; and saying this I recognize the value of 
the various kinds of work that come before us. I realize 
while these are vital to the Church, that if we are to ac- 
complish what we should in these various channels of 
influence, we must have men and women who will stand 
for our Church before the world. They should be found 
in any locality where a college is to be placed, so that our 
young people can be trained to the very best advantage. 
I look forward to the outcome of the Five Years Meeting 
with a great deal of interest, because it seems to me it 
might get away from localism and get into such an asso- 
ciation of Friends in America as would cause us to .look 
for and enter entirely new fields. It seems to me that no 
outcome of this conference could be more appropriate 
than that in this consolidation of work in all departments 
of our Church the standing of our 3'oung men should be 
raised. There are various institutions that ha* T e need of 
funds for endowments. There are institutions already in 
the field for securing these endowments. It would be an 
easy matter to go before the Friends of America in this 
enterprise of the Church, first, by this conference defining 
the policy in regard to the educational system, as to what 



of thk confkrfnce; 199 

it wants to do, and then call for the body of the Church 
to stand for the institutions, and support them with all 
funds necessary to make them command the respect of the 
district in which they are placed. I believe that it would 
be easy for our Church in this country to place every one 
of our colleges upon a respectable foundation. With the 
movement on behalf of the Church I believe it would be 
an easy matter to place every one of these institutions 
upon a firm basis, and the outcome of this conference 
might give confidence to our men of means and the entire 
membership of the Church. There has been too much 
scattering of means in the Church. Our wealthy men 
have given their means generously to institutions that 
were not in any distinct sense Friends' institutions. I 
long to see the day when our men of means will have a 
respect for our Church and will give abundantly for the 
establishing of our own work and for carrying it on in the 
world. 

L. Lyndon Hobbs, of North Carolina : In the first 
place I want to give my hearty approval to the papers 
presented. I think great good will come from the dis- 
cussions which they brought before us. They touched 
so many points of vast importance to the Society of 
Friends in America. I have so forcibly felt the demand 
upon the educational power of the Society of Friends by 
the competition of other institutions, that I think the fol- 
lowing comparison will express it. What would be the 
effect upon the Society of Friends in America if all the 
other denominations existing in America were just as freely 
open to the ministers of the Society of Friends as is the 
teaching profession ? If we lost some ten or fifteen good 
preachers in America every year, what would be the result 
upon evangelistic and Church Kxtension ? Four excellent 
teachers went out of Guilford and went to the State Nor- 
mal School — -four of the best teachers in the college ; and 
they went to the State Normal because they got a great 
increase in their salary. So a person who is at the head of 
an institution feels sick at heart when his best teachers are 
taken away from him . It is absolutely necessary that we 
shall pay better salaries to our teachers in order that we may 



200 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

maintain the Society of Friends in America. This is the 
truth, and we shall have to acknowledge it. There is a 
vast amount of work before us, and better equipped insti- 
tutions stand at our sides trying to get our young men 
and women. It is almost impossible to hold them just by 
our saying we would like for them to stay. So the ques- 
tion that is just such a burden upon my heart is that we 
cannot keep our best teachers ; and I tell you the only 
way to remedy this, so far as I am able to see, is to put 
our shoulders, heads and hearts together and better equip 
the institutions we have, in order to cope with the insti- 
tutions that surround us. It is important for us to go 
forward in the Society of Friends, and we cannot do this 
without educational institutions, and they must be main- 
tained. 

William P, Pinkham, of Ohio : I would like to make 
two points in respect to our colleges just to call attention 
to what seems to me a very practical consideration for the 
present moment. Of course there will always be a diffi- 
culty in competing with public institutions while they set 
the pattern in all respects in regard to courses of study 
and methods of instruction. It is a fact, and it is well 
known to educators generally, that all through the edu- 
cational world there is a longing for more practical 
methods in our educational systems. Some may remem- 
ber several years ago the National Association appointed 
a large committee — thirty persons, — and they appointed a 
sub-committee of ten ; and the report of that committee 
of ten was full of life and full of excellent suggestions in 
regard to methods of instruction ; but it is certainly true 
that our public institutions have only to a very limited 
degree been able to act upon the suggestions given there, 
and our colleges scarcely dare take hold of these things at 
all. It seems to me by a proper study of this great ques- 
tion it would be possible for the Friends' institutions to 
take the initiative in bringing about a system of education 
modifying the curriculums of our schools, and modifying 
the methods of instruction, and to make them far more 
thorough than they have been under the heavy machinery 
that is necessary in the mechanical system of the public 



OF THE CONFERENCE 201 

schools. The other point of which I wish to speak is 
this : Some years ago our Church most certainly took a 
noble position in regard to religious instruction of our 
children. And our children went to Friends' schools, and 
they found there as a rule something better than they find 
in their homes in the way of historic instruction and very 
earnest and Christian life. But I fear that as a whole 
our Friends' schools have scarcely kept their prestige in 
this matter. It seems to me if there is a crying need in 
connection with educational work, that our colleges and 
our academies be maintained by officers and teachers who 
are not only good scholars but who have a rich and deep 
Spiritual knowledge of the Christian life. I believe the 
crying need of the Friends' institution is that the spiritual 
quality be made equally proportionate to the educational 
quality in other respects. The time has come when a 
professor should not be selected simply with reference to 
scholarship in a particular department. Where are we to 
find a biologist who is a thoroughly elevated spiritual 
man, who is evangelistic in his faith, sound, free from the 
errors of modern thought — I say, Where are we to find 
him ? I am not going to answer that question. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : I was going to 
make a motion that the paper that has already been read 
on this whole subject be referred to the Committee on 
Education for it to devise some plan for carrying out prac- 
tically the ideas that have been brought before us. I 
want to add in reference to the whole subject, in a sen- 
tence or two, that if the colleges are to go on and the 
educational work of Friends in America is to go on and 
accomplish what they ought to do, we should realize the 
situation more than we ever have as yet. The difficulties 
are these : We hardly get a man out in the world ready to 
serve our Church when he finds a more congenial place 
somewhere else. He is made to feel over and over again 
he is unsound, simply because he has been compelled to 
do thinking on lines that are not exactly square with the 
ones that were held fifty years ago. He is made to feel 
he is not wanted, I want to say, and I speak with 
some grounds of assurance, that there never was a time in 



202 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

the history of America or any other country when the 
men and women who are teaching in our American col- 
leges, and also in our own colleges, had such sound faith 
in Jesus Christ and were so deeply filled with the spirit of 
salvation. I wish we might realize it and encourage it, 
and I wish we might have faith enough to encourage 
young men to go on in the truth and meet the great prob- 
lems of Jesus Christ. 

Lewis E. Stout : I would like to second Rufus M. 
Jones' motion, but Edwin McGrew rose early in this ser- 
vice and I think we should hear him. 

Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon : I feel very deeply, 
and I think I ought to feel very deeply, along the lines 
that have been suggested this afternoon . From the little 
experience that I have had in one of the most struggling 
institutions that has ever existed — I speak with all kind- 
ness and respect of Penn College — I know what the 
struggle has been. I went there under protest ; but I was 
a Quaker, and I loved the Church and the institution, 
not because I had better advantages or equipments — but I 
am glad I went. And then I went from there to an insti- 
tution that is yet more struggling and needy ; and so I 
think I ought to feel deeply on these lines to-day. There 
is just one question that I desire to emphasize ; that is 
what is suggested by the question , ' ' Ought we to quit main- 
taining the Friends' institutions? Have they proved of 
sufficient value to the Church to compel us to believe they 
should be maintained ? I think if we take even a hasty 
survey over the work of the various Yearly Meetings, 
especially in the West, the question will be answered. 
None of our institutions, in my judgment, have any rea- 
son for apologizing for their existence. I am sorry to 
say our experience in a very great measure is simple ; but 
with all that, under the direction of the Lord, we have 
touched lives for God that never would have been reached 
had .it not been for that little institution in the Great 
West. Sometimes the work is discouraging, but I do 
rejoice that we can bring the message that by our strug- 
gle there great blessings have been brought to the lives 
of men. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 2 °3 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I arose to 
make one particular suggestion, and this suggestion has 
grown out of a great deal of experience and interest in 
our educational work. I suppose that, as a teacher and 
President, I have been connected with more of our educa- 
tional institutions than any Friend in America. I do not 
know how many more I shall be connected with before I 
die but I know the struggle of these institutions. I was 
in Earlham College when the first dollar was given ; I 
was President of Wilmington a long time before the first 
dollar was ever thought of for endowment, and I was 
President at Penn for a great many years before the first 
dollar of endowment was put into the hands of that insti- 
tution ; and I say in all humility that no Friend in 
America has absolutely given more time, more of his life 
to educational institutions than I have given. I am 
ashamed to say it, but I never received a respectable liv- 
ing salary as a Professor of a college or President, that 
would enable me to live as a college Professor or Presi- 
dent ought to live, and I never got into a position in 
which I received a respectable living salary as a citizen of 
the country until I went into work entirely outside of the 
Church. And yet, I am glad I did all the work, and I 
feel to-day that the fruits of it are appearing in very many 
lives. I now come to the particular suggestion. You 
will excuse my personal reference which it is not at all 
my habit to make. I think if there were any proofs 
needed of the value of these educational institutions we 
have them in this conference. There are forty men and 
women in this conference that have been Professors and 
Presidents or students of the single College of Penn in 
Iowa, and I suppose that there are many that have been 
students, or Professors or Presidents of Earlham College. 
The Chairman of this conference is the President of one 
of our institutions which has a financial father who is 
going to put it very rapidly into the forefront of the Ameri- 
can colleges so far as money is concerned. I suppose the 
subject before this meeting is the Scope and Work of this 
Committee on Education. I have this suggestion to 
make, that, when it is organized, the Committee ought at 



204 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

once to take up as a committee of the whole body of 
Friends in America, the immediate endowment of our 
present existing institutions. Take them up one at a 
time ; apply to the whole body of Friends, and throw its 
entire influence into one college at a time until it is en- 
dowed with a quarter of a million or a half million — all 
of those that do not already have that amount of money. 
Guilford College is now in the field for an endowment of 
one hundred thousand dollars. This Committee might do 
this within a year. Then this Committee might tackle 
Wilmington, and give them a hundred thousand, and ask 
the whole Society of Friends in America for it ; then help 
Pacific College by giving it one hundred thousand, and as 
before make the appeal to the whole Society of Friends in 
America. It would only take one dollar a head for us to 
put down one hundred thousand dollars a year. They 
might also remember Whittier, and when they have gone 
the rounds and have the institutions up to this basis, they 
might commence the process right over again and give 
them another hundred thousand. This could all be done 
within the next ten years, and every one put on a sound 
financial basis, and then there would be time to consider 
as to whether or not a new one should be opened in Texas 
or Mexico, or Cuba or somewhere else. 

S. Adelbert Wood, of Ohio : I think it might be 
well for them to be graded from the standpoint of the 
parents. As parents we have clamored throughout the 
years for guarded education. I think it ought to be a 
part of the work of the Board to see especially that our 
children do have a guarded education, that our children 
may go to these places of learning and come home with- 
out their faith impaired in the Scriptures ; that they would 
come home with confidence in the Christian religion that 
nothing shall impair that confidence in the vicarious sac- 
rifice of Jesus Christ. A large proportion of our Presi- 
dents and Professors to-day are Christian men and women 
whose influence is such that we are glad to have our chil- 
dren come under their influence ; but we do know posi- 
tively that the influence of some in other places tells upon 
the students, so that when they come to our homes they 



OF THE CONFERENCE 205 

come with their faith impaired, if not destroyed, in the 
Bible as authoritative and as the Word of God, and for 
that reason we desire the Board of this Five Years Meet- 
ing should exert an influence, as far as it is possible for 
them to do so that this may be eliminated from our 
schools. 

Aaron M. Bray, of Oregon : I want to endorse with 
all my heart the expressions that have been made. This 
is certainly true, the faith of our young people is often 
impaired. They have come home to us scarred and 
wrecked and ruined so far as religious belief is concerned. 

The Clerk : The Secretary will please read the 
motion. 

The Secretary : I move that the subject now under 
consideration be referred to the Board on Education with 
the instructions to present it, after practical consideration, 
to this meeting. 

(The motion was carried.) 

The Clerk : We are now ready for the next sub- 
ject, " The Finances of the Five Years Meeting." 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I want to take a 
minute to say I have known people that were brought up 
in preachers' families under the very best of religious in- 
fluence, and they went off and did not believe in the 
Bible. I do not wish any aspersions cast on the educa- 
tional institutions of the Friends. 

THE FINANCES OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING. 
By Timothy Nicholson 

Steps should be taken to incorporate this body ac- 
cording to the laws of some one of the States. At least 
two delegates from each Yearly Meeting represented 
should sign the Articles of Incorporation. A Board of 
seven trustees should be appointed. Also a treasurer, who 
should give satisfactory bond for the faithful discharge ol 
his duties. An Auditing Committee of three should be 
appointed by the Five Years Meeting, who shall annually, 
or oftener, carefully audit the accounts of the treasurer 



206 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

and of the treasurers of all the Boards and Committees, 
and report to the next session of the Five Years Meeting. 

The Constitution provides that the expenses of the 
Five Years Meeting, including the publication and distri- 
bution of its proceedings, should be apportioned to the 
several Yearly Meetings according to the number of their 
membership, and the railway fares according to the num- 
ber of their delegates, and each Yearly Meeting will raise 
its quota in whatever manner it may prefer. 

For the expenses of this session, some of the Yearly 
Meetings, if not all, have already made specific appropria- 
tions, and they will do this again in 1906 for the session 
of 1907. 

For the work and expenses of the Foreign Mission 
and the Evangelistic and Church Extension Boards and 
other Committees of the Five Years Meeting, voluntary 
contributions should be periodically solicited in every 
congregation of each Yearly Meeting, arrangements to be 
made therefor by the Yearly Meetings with the active 
co-operation of their respective members of these Boards 
and Committees. It will be desirable that each of these 
collections be made the same day in all the congregations 
of a Yearly Meeting. 

At present the Five Years Meeting represents about 
85,000 members. 

For the next five years I suggest the Yearly Meet- 
ings apportion for voluntary contribution a rate of ten 
cents per member per annum for the American Board of 
Foreign Missions; ten cents per member per annum for 
the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, and five 
cents per member per annum for the other Committees of 
the Five Years Meeting. These amount to only twenty- 
five cents per member ; but each congregation should 
raise that amount for every one of its members, including 
absentees and non residents. 

In those Yearly Meetings having Boards for the same 
kind of service as the Boards of the Five Years Meeting, 
the respective rate for the voluntary contribution may be 
increased sufficiently to meet the needs of these Yearly 
Meeting Boards. For instance, if a Foreign Mission 






OF THE CONFERENCE 207 

Board of a Yearly Meeting requires for its work, in addi- 
tion to the appropriation by the Yearly Meeting, ten cents 
per member, let twenty cents per member be raised for 
Foreign Missions, and thus avoid any rivalry or competi- 
tion between the Boards of the Five Years Meeting and 
those of the Yearly Meetings. 

All collections should be paid to the Yearly Meetings' 
treasurers, who will remit to the Treasurer of the Five 
Years Meeting its proportion of the contributions, and he 
in like manner to the treasurers of its Boards. 

I would further suggest that the chairman of the dele- 
gation of each Yearly Meeting promptly furnish the 
treasurer with the name and address of each delegate in 
attendance, and the amount paid by each for his railroad 
ticket from his home to Indianapolis. If any one has 
purchased a round-trip ticket, let it be so reported. The 
treasurer will get the sum of these fares, omitting the 
round-trip tickets, double the amount, and add the sum 
of the round-trip tickets and apportion this total sum 
among the Yearly Meetings, according to the number of 
delegates to which they are entitled. 

THE METHOD AND ADVANTAGES OF THE 

ENVELOPE SYSTEM AND SYSTEMATIC 

GIVING. 

By Phebe S. Aydelott, of New England. 

I am thankful to speak on this subject, partly be- 
cause it is important in itself, and partly because there is 
need of reform in some churches in the management of 
finances. It is a hopeful feature that we are calling 
things by their right names. In other days we talked 
about the ' ' apportionment of stock ' ' an expression 
which carried little meaning to any but those of Quaker 
pedigree. Now we speak freely of " finances," and are 
seeking for a better knowledge of the principle that should 
govern all our beneficence. It is a well-known fact that 
formerly the current expenses of many meetings were 
borne by a comparatively few adult members who were 



208 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

able to give, while the younger members and those in 
more limited circumstances were never solicited. The 
Church has never applied the test to its birthright mem- 
bers as to whether they would be willing to contribute of 
their earthly substance for its support and maintenance as 
the Lord should prosper them, and too often the person 
received by request has not been asked to assume any 
financial obligation toward the Church as a duty and 
privilege. In every organization of whatever nature that 
man has devised, every member must, to be in good 
standing, pay his proportion of the expenses. Should 
not the Christian in seeking admission to the Church fulfill 
the law for love's sake and feel under moral obligation to 
sustain its interests? In our denominational arrange- 
ment there is now a chain of six links, — viz., the individ- 
ual, the congregation, the Monthly Meeting, the Quarterly 
Meeting, the Yearly Meeting, and the Five Years Meeting. 
It will readily be seen that the meeting is what the indi- 
viduals make it ; hence the individual is the unit of 
power. If a spring is pure, the stream will be pure, and 
wherever it flows it will carry blessing and comfort with 
it. There is a very close relation between the spirituality 
of the Church and its finances. The Holy Spirit is the 
administrator of the Church. He should have charge of 
all its affairs, and He will take charge of them and manage 
them right if He is permitted to do so. If we recognize 
His authority He will lead and make the way easy. The 
Holy Spirit can create unanimity. He can transform 
selfish men and women into cheerful and liberal givers, 
' ' and all the Church shall know that I am he which 
trieth the reins and the heart." The shortest way to a 
man's pocket-book is by way of the throne. There is 
money enough among Christian professors for every need 
of the Church, but the spiritual life is not deep and strong 
enough to bear it into the Lord's treasury, Christian 
giving ought to be a distinctively personal transaction 
between the giver and his Lord, but it does not follow 
that the giving must be secret. The example of one who 
gives systematically should be allowed to have its influ- 
ence with others. God has seen fit to place the beneficent 



OF THE CONFERENCE 209 

work of the world upon a financial basis, and everywhere, 
both in nature and in grace, does He teach us the beauty 
and the value of system. Tides rise and fall in regular 
succession, seasons come and go, and the planets revolve 
in their orbits with absolute certainty. In the Jewish 
economy God sanctified the first-born to Himself. Later 
in their history, the Levites were taken in place of the 
first-born, and when they were numbered it was found 
that there were 273 more of the first-born than of the 
Levites. Then God gave the command that five shekels 
apiece should be paid to Aaron for each of these 273 
in order to redeem them. Coming to the Gospel dispen- 
sation the command was, " Upon the first day of the 
week let every one of you lay by him in store as God hath 
prospered him that there be no gatherings when I come." 
Has not the time fully come when we should apply sys- 
tematic Scriptural methods to our Church finances ? Is 
it too much to expect that old and young, rich and poor, 
male and female, should unite together for this end ? 
Work shared by all is more likely to be appreciated by 
all. The more persons give to a cause, the more they 
love that to which they give, and it is the consistent, 
continuous employment of money that tells. It is .fair to 
assume that the blessing of God will rest upon all legiti- 
mate plans for Christian success which are intelligently 
conceived and energetically carried forward, or in other 
words, God will bless the means which He Himself has 
ordered for the advancement of His kingdom. In the 
Yearly Meeting of which I am a member, we came to the 
point some years ago, when our finances needed a new 
and fresh impetus. We studied the methods used by 
other denominations and we learned that by the use of 
envelopes for weekly or monthly free-will offerings, these 
churches had increased their funds 100 per cent., and 
had trebled the number of contributors. We reasoned 
that the Friends have as much common sense and as 
keen business ability as others and as it was Scriptural, 
there was every argument in favor of adopting the plan 
ourselves. For more than ten years this system has been 
used. It overthrew certain ancient customs and there 



2IO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

were prejudices to overcome, but wherever it has been 
adopted by any congregation it has proved successful. 
The advantages of the plan are : 

i st. Each one decides for himself, and by himself, 
what it is his right to give. 

2nd. It secures the small gifts. 

3rd. It enlists the interest of a greater number. 

4th. It makes giving voluntary and conscientious. 

5th. It is educational and enlists the young. 

6th. It makes giving a part of worship. 

7th. It furnishes a strong argument to Christians to 
do this for Christ's sake. 

As an example of what systematic giving may accom- 
plish, let us take Indiana Yearly Meeting with its 20,000 
members. It is safe to say 15,000 of these have some 
money in their hands that they may call their own. 
Taking richer and poorer together, these 15,000 could 
average for church work ten cents per week, $5.20 per 
year, or an aggregate of $78,000. Let every member of 
every Yearly Meeting, under like conditions, give with 
system and in proportion as the Lord hath prospered him, 
and the question of finance will be forever settled and the 
revenune which will flow into the coffers of the Church 
will be sufficient to sustain the largest plans for the bet- 
terment of humanity. It is therefore of the greatest 
importance, that without delay the best methods of Chris- 
tian giving be introduced and habits of self-denial be 
formed which will carry the Church of Christ gloriously 
forward . 

The Uniform Discipline contemplates the use of 
advanced methods, as will be seen b}- the following 
extract in Part II, Chapter XI: "Meetings are to give 
careful attention to wise methods for raising funds for the 
service of the Church. They shall encourage voluntary 
giving, and shall make such arrangements as will extend 
to every member an opportunity to contribute as he may 
desire. Every member should contribute according to 
his means, and a failure to do this becomes a culpable 
avoidance of Christian duty." So much for the principle 
that should govern the saver. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 211 

How shall this indispensable motive power reach the 
Five Years Meeting ? In Part II, Chapter XIII, of the 
Uniform Discipline we read : ' ' The expenses of the Five 
Years Meeting shall be apportioned among the several 
Yearly Meetings according to their membership." Each 
Yearly Meeting might reasonably pay a pro-rata amount 
per annum into the treasury of the Five Years Meeting 
sufficient to cover all probable expenses, the same to be 
forwarded near the first of each year. There is much 
more dignity in having money in the treasury to draw 
upon, than in having to wait for the Yearly Meetings to 
contribute after the expenses have been incurred. 

The objection might be made that Yearly Meetings 
would have to pay for members that are simply nominal 
and do not contribute to anything. But every Yearly 
Meeting has this difficulty and one can sympathize with 
the other in this particular. If there is the same standard 
for all, no one should be unwilling to co-operate. The 
approximate number of Friends in America is 93,000. It 
will be safe to say that the Yearly Meetings which now 
constitute the Five Years Meeting number at least 
81,000 members. At the rate of one cent per member 
this would receive into its treasury in one year $810.00, 
and in five years $4,050.00. The Five Years Meeting is 
proving that it is necessary to the growth and extension 
of the Friends' Church in America. With the individual 
member right toward God and with loyalty to his supe- 
rior meeting, money will not be lacking to give to each 
link in the chain the needed strength and efficiency 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : I have been very 
much pleased with this paper. We had a very pleasant 
experience in our Yearly Meeting where we adopted 
this method. I believe most of our Meetings have 
entirely adopted this, and they have raised far more 
funds than before. In this present year with a member- 
ship of 1,300, there were $20,000 raised for our work. 

Milton Hanson, of Western : I have listened very 
attentively to the plans as outlined by Timothy Nichol- 
son, and the plan strikes me as so wise, so practical, and 



212 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

so in harmony with God's plan, that all these funds are 
to be raised by voluntary contribution except the expenses 
of this meeting, that I feel there is nothing to discuss. 
The proposition seems to be self-evident. We might some 
of us discuss some features, as there is ample room here 
for talk on the various plans. I feel like moving that we 
adopt it as a whole. I do not want it discussed, it is so 
plain and self-evident. I want it adopted as a whole. 

The Clerk : A little explanation touching the 
part of Discipline that provides for the distribution of 
the travelling expenses of the delegates, I think is neces- 
sary. It is not clearly understood, so James Wood will 
please explain. 

James Wood, of New York : A number have asked 
why this arrangement was put in the Discipline that the 
traveling expenses should be met in the way therein prov- 
ided. It is one of the most difficult practical problems 
to be solved in the whole preparation of the Discipline. 
The solution was met by a suggestion from two Friends 
representing the larger Yearly Meetings in this country 
and the West. The difficulty arose in this way, that if 
every Yearly Meeting paid the traveling expenses of its 
own delegates, and if the Five Years Meeting continually 
met here or in some other similar locality, the Yearly 
Meetings situated like California and Oregon and New 
York and North Carolina, would have to pay more, much 
more for their delegates to attend the Five Years Meeting 
than would those who had the meeting near at home ; but 
the difficulty was solved when the propositions came in, 
and one was from Indiana herself, that this plan should 
be followed. 

Francis A. Wright, of Indiana : I did not follow this 
paper, all of it, but it had a great deal in it, so when the 
time came to vote I did not know what to do, but I 
thought it would be better to refer it to the Committee on 
Education. I am not opposed to this in any way. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I would 
like to ask Timothy Nicholson, through the Chair, if 
there is any advantage in adopting it outside of the fact 
that it would be in the report. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 213 

The Clerk : Will Timothy Nicholson please answer. 

Timothy Nicholson : It is very important that this 
body shall endorse it. If this body adopts it and sends 
it down as the judgment of this body, it will add to its 
force. 

Charles H. Jones, of New England : I think our 
Friend from Kansas ran against the same snag that came 
from us on this side in reference to adopting these two 
papers. The two are identical so far as the spirit is con- 
cerned, but the suggestions are different, and in adopting 
both papers it would be very difficult to harmonize them. 

Milton Hanson, of Western : I move that we adopt 
the plan presented in the Paper by Timothy Nicholson. 

Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore: I have been ap- 
pointed Treasurer, and I should like some one to explain 
to me just what I am expected to do. I am asking for 
information. 

A. F. N. Hambleton, of Iowa : I have very great 
confidence in the one who presented the paper, but it is 
very nearly impossible for me to follow a paper and take 
in all the details and plans when so many subjects are 
touched upon, and whether it would be the right and 
proper thing for the delegates of this body to vote to 
adopt such a plan without a further careful consideration 
of the question is very doubtful to me. I think it would 
be better and wiser judgment for us to first refer this to a 
committee and let them give it careful consideration. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I did not have any 
idea that any plan that would be proposed and read here 
would be accepted at once. I supposed it would be 
referred to a committee of one from each delegation, and 
I think that would be a more satisfactory course. They 
may see some places it would be better to modify . If the 
mover of the resolution is willing to withdraw I think it 
would be better. 

Milton Hanson of Western : I will withdraw my 
motion. 

The motion was withdrawn. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : It has 
been moved that this matter be referred to a committee 



214 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

of one member from each delegation to be chosen by the 
chairman, and I second this motion. 
( The motion was carried.) 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I suggest that this 
committee take into consideration what Miles White, Jr., 
the Treasurer has asked. He wishes to know what his 
powers and his duties are. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : You will notice in the pro- 
gram for to-night at 7:30 is the Discussion of a plan for 
united action for the Supression of the Liquor Traffic, and 
the committee makes this proposition that James Wood 
is to have ten minutes, Rufus M. Jones twenty minutes, 
Mary E. Cartland twenty minutes, Robert E. Pretlow ten 
minutes, Edmund Stanley ten minutes and Edwin H. 
McGrew ten minutes. 

Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington : There is only 
one woman on for this evening. I think we should be 
better represented. We have women that are just as 
smart as the men. 

A Delegate : We put two women on the list and one 
of them would not serve, and there is one left yet. My 
opinion is that the Business Committee perhaps think it 
best that when we get through with the speeches it will 
not be best to throw open the discussion. 

The Clerk : If the Conference will select a woman she 
may have eight minutes of my ten, and if she is making 
a good speech I will not stop her until she has used the 
other two. 

Samuel L,. Haworth, of Nebraska : Has any provi- 
sion been made for the program for the next Five Years 
Meeting. 

The Clerk : Heretofore the programs have been 
prepared by committees. A committee for this service 
will have to be appointed in this meeting. 

Samuel E- Haworth, of Nebraska : I think we are 
leaving a good many things until the closing hours. I 
believe it would be a good idea to attend to some of these 
things. I move that the chairman of the delegations be 
instructed to name the committee for the next five years, 
one from each delegation. 






OF THE CONFERENCE 215 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I think 
this is not quite the form the subject should take. It will 
be necessary before this Five Years Meeting closes to 
have a number of persons to constitute the Executive 
Committee to represent the Five Years Meeting, and they 
will look after the matter of the program , and I hope the 
Business Committee will take that subject into considera- 
tion. 

The Clerk : The Business Committee will attend 
to this matter in due time. I think there is no question 
but that the Business Committee will give us information 
in reference to all subjects that should claim our attention. 
They have them under consideration at the present time. 

The names of the Foreign Missionary Board as far as 
reported were read. 

Adjourned after prayer by a delegate. 

Fifth Day Evening, Tenth Month, 23. 

The Chairman : Let us have a few minutes of quiet 
before we enter upon the business of the hour. 

Prayer by Rufus M. Jones, of New England, and 
Mary A. Sibbitt, of Kansas, and singing "All hail the 
powers of Jesus' name." 

The Clerk: Our subject for this evening is "Some 
Plan for United Action for the Suppression of the Liquor 
Traffic . ' ' The Committee announced the speakers and the 
time of each at the close of the last session. Since that 
time there has been added the name of Emilie Underhill 
Burgess, of New York. The first speaker of the evening, 
James Wood, of New York, will have ten minutes. 

James Wood, of New York : The subject before the 
meeting this evening is a proposition sent to this Five 
Years Meeting by the New York Yearly Meeting. That 
proposition has had the approval of a number of other 
Yearly Meetings and thus comes to this meeting with the 
united endorsement of those meetings. The Business 
Committee have asked me to make a statement as to just 
what this proposition is, and what the subject is that is 
now before this meeting. In one of the New York Yearly 



2l6 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Meetings, there was held some two years ago, a temper- 
ance meeting, and at that temperance meeting the 
question was asked by the chairman, " Why is it that the 
Church of Jesus Christ does not exert a more potent influ- 
ence in opposition to the liquor traffic, for if the Churches 
of Jesus Christ would unite on this matter they could 
control it." The answer to that question was given then, 
as it has been given since everywhere, and it is well 
understood by you that the Christian people of our land 
are not united, because none of the propositions for the 
suppression of the liquor traffic have met with the 
approval or united judgement of the Christian people. 
There could be no other reason. The Quarterly Meeting 
sent the Yearly Meeting a proposition to lay this subject 
before the Five Years Meeting, with the view of having 
Friends, and the members of the Christian Church through- 
out the land ascertain what they could unite upon, so 
that they as with one voice and one hand might act, and 
their influence might be felt everywhere throughout the 
land. This proposition was made because of the well 
understood fact that men cannot walk together unless they 
be agreed. And the great question we are confronted 
with is to ascertain how far we can agree to walk together, 
because just so far, and not one bit farther, can we have a 
united Church and the influence of the united Church 
upon this great question. Now I proposed to ascertain 
whether by any conferences with all the Christian 
churches in the land what could be agreed upon in this 
very great and very serious proposition. In order- that 
we might come to a better understanding of how the 
other churches might possibly consider it, I took occasion 
to get the best information I could obtain on this matter. 
I consulted with the presiding Bishop of the M. K- Church 
in this country, he who was chosen to preach the official ser- 
mon at the funeral of President McKinley in the Capitol at 
Washington. I stated what the proposition was to that 
eminent Bishop of the M. E. Church and I said to him, "It 
was very important for us to have some understanding as 
to how such a proposition might be received, if we should 
send one out from the Five Years Meeting of the Society 



OF THE CONFERENCE 217 

of Friends to the Christian churches of all names through- 
out the United States." He gave the subject very care- 
ful consideration. He said, "It will depend very much 
upon the appeal or the invitation you send out to the 
Churches to meet in a conference for this purpose, and 
next it will depend upon the persons, the individuals 
whom you appoint. They will be most thoroughly invest- 
igated by every Christian body before they take action 
upon your proposition, " and he said further, " I want to 
say to you if you appoint extremists of any sort upon 
your delegation you had better never issue the call ; but if 
this matter is undertaken in the spirit you state it to me, it 
you appoint persons of sound judgment and well known 
character, I can say that the Methodists of this Country 
will respond most heartily on your proposition, and I 
believe the other denominations of the land will also most 
cordially unite with you. 

I endeavored to see Dr. Henry Van Dyke, the 
Moderator of the Presbyterian Assembly, I was unable to 
see him, but I saw a person that was very near Dr. Van 
Dyke. He was an official in the Presbyterian Church, and 
he spoke to me practically in the same way as the Metho- 
dist Bishop had spoken to whom I have referred. An 
official representative of the Congregationalist Church gave 
me practically the same answer, and I have reason to believe 
from what I have learned that the Baptist Church will 
consider that the occasion is ripe for this movement. 
Now, dear Friends, that is just the proposition that is 
before us to-night. To my mind it is one of the greatest 
of which the Society of Friends has ever undertaken to 
consider. It carries with it a very great responsibility, 
and a dignity of purpose that is immeasurable. If God, 
the Holy Ghost, leads us forward in this matter let us go 
forward with boldness ; but if we cannot be united and 
there appears to be dissent among us in regard to this 
proposition, let us not consider it further. The Business 
Committee have taken this matter under consideration, 
and if it be apparent that the Holy Spirit has set his seal 
of approval on this proposition here to-night they have 
delegated me to present to you the draft of a call from 



2l8 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

this conference of the Church for your consideration, but 
not otherwise. The Business Committee have considered 
that the best possible opening of this subject would be a 
simple, impartial, historical statement of the propositions 
that have already been presented to the American people 
upon this great subject. Fortunately we have one who 
is exceptionally well informed in this particular. Rufus 
M. Jones will make an historical statement and give us 
the several propositions that have already been before the 
American people. 

The Clerk: We will now hear Rufus M. Jones, 
of New England. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : My dear Friends: 
During the leisure of the last twenty-four hours I have 
tried to prepare my mind for an impartial discussion of 
this great subject, the greatest economic problem that is 
before the American people, the liquor problem which 
confronts us to-night. The receipts from the sale of 
intoxicating drinks last year amounted to one billion two 
hundred and fifty million dollars, that means that from the 
moment I was born into the world had I begun counting 
dollars without stopping a second, I should not have fin- 
ished this total yet in my whole lifetime. One billion 
two hundred and fifty million dollars, the amount of 
money spent. That helps you to realize the greatness of 
the economic problem that is involved in the subject 
before us. The moment you touch it as asocial question, 
I need not tell you, you are face to face with the most 
difficult social factor that has ever been presented in the 
history of the world, because without entering into an 
enthusiastic discussion to-night, because I speak impar- 
tially, it is a recognized fact that crime which is cer- 
tainly on the increase in all civilized countries grows very 
largely out of the problem of the saloon interest now 
before us. In fact, almost every one of the social dis- 
eases of modern civilization is fed in the saloon. I believe 
it is a historic fact that there has been no other single 
influence that has so brought corruption into American 
politics as the saloon question. I cannot speak fully 
to-night, for time will not permit. This awful curse fixes 



OF THE CONFERENCE 219 

itself upon the individuals of our community, and blights 
and spoils their lives, and makes wrecks wherever it puts 
its cold hands. If one of us could imagine living with a 
man who comes home drunk, if we could imagine that 
situation, we should know a little about what is taking 
place in millions of homes to-night when men come home 
after their evening's debauch. We spent about twelve mil- 
lion dollars on our foreign missionaries over the world, and 
right at home our citizens spent about one billion two 
hundred and fifty million dollars on intoxicating drinks ; 
if we cannot do anything to stop that issue in our country, 
then the question comes up as to whether it is any use 
for us to throw out kindly hands toward the poor 
heathen. If we cannot do anything for one shall we touch 
the other ? Now, how shall we deal with it ? First, 
every Christian man in the world must be a total abstainer. 
But that is only one little bit of the opportunity in dealing 
with this problem, for though every Christian man should 
abstain, it would not solve the problem. It is still with 
us. Drinking liquor is grounded upon abnormal appe- 
tite, and you must realize this situation before you can 
deal with it. Now it seems that the situation at present 
means that it has to be dealt with not passively but 
aggressively. You can burn a hay-stack or a brush-pile, 
but you have no right to set fire to a building in the city, 
for the moment you endanger another man's house the 
law touches you. We have found that it is dangerous to 
have men spit on our streets because it carries disease, 
and in many of our cities a penalty of $500.00 attaches to 
the act, because it is dangerous. We have discovered 
that one of the worst diseases in America, or any country, 
comes from the bite of a mosquito, and though we never 
liked them and could not see any use for them, we did 
not organize to fight mosquitoes then, but now we have 
the legislature appropriating large sums of money to drive 
the mosquito out of existence. In Massachusetts they 
have spent days and nights discussing what to do with 
the Buffalo Moth, because it has come to be such a pest. 
If we have to fight spitters, Buffalo Moths, and mosqui- 
tos, how much more aggressively should we go to work 



220 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

to fight the liquor traffic. What methods can we use in 
fighting it ? Various methods have been tried by which 
to fight it. First, there is the license method. The 
license method is based upon the fact that there is no 
inherent right for any individual to sell intoxicating 
liquors, so he must have a license. Under the license 
system there has never been a successful method in deal- 
ing with the saloon. It sanctions the whole business. 
Under this method it permits the immorality to go on for 
money. We do not believe this is right. The system 
has provided occasion for the most extensive corruption, 
and it is there the liquor traffic has laid its hands upon 
politics. The saloon has been driven to this for pro- 
tection. I believe the license system has not reduced 
drunkenness. You remember the man who went into 
court and gave three reasons why his client was not 
present. One was, his wife was very sick that particular 
day; second, there was no horse to be obtained for his 
getting there ; and third, he was dead. Having the third 
reason presented to the Court, it was not necessary to 
present the other two. Another system we have is the 
so-called tax system, which differs somewhat from the 
license system. Here the State lays down certain con- 
ditions under which the liquor may be sold. It pro- 
vides that business must be carried on within certain 
definite lines : for instance, it prohibits the sale of 
liquor on Sunday ; to minors ; from being sold within a 
certain distance of a church or school-house. In Ohio, 
they provide that every one who sells shall pay a tax of 
$250.00. There are some other provisions in the Ohio law. 
By the Mulct law in Iowa, every man who sells liquor is 
taxed $600.00, and he must give a bond of from $300.00 
to $5,000.00. In Iowa, he must have a paper signed by 
one-half of the voters, and if the town is a small town he 
must have sixty-five per cent, of the voters. In New 
York, there is the Raines law, and a very high tax, 
graded somewhat as to the size of the town. The Raines 
law provides that all saloons that have Hotel attachments 
may sell liquor on Sunday. I think, perhaps, the worst 
feature of this law is that it raises such a revenue. The 



OF THE CONFERENCE 221 

revenue was eleven million six hundred thousand dollars 
one year ago, which takes so much directly off the indi- 
vidual taxes. Another method dealing with it, prohibition 
is also well known to us ; it is the attempt to stop the 
traffic altogether, or to stop the manufacture, and thereby 
stop the sale. There are two methods on the statutes 
for getting at it. It has been tried by seventeen States 
in the United States, at various times in their history, 
and it is now in operation in five of the States. The 
great feature is that it drives the traffic out of operation in 
any city where it is in force, it removes temptation from 
the young ; they do not see liquor and smell it everywhere 
they go. You do not see men drinking, and in large dis- 
tricts it is made practically impossible to obtain intoxi- 
cating drinks. In times of great moral earnestness it has 
succeeded in driving the traffic out of the State. Now 
there are no objections that I know of to such a system, it 
it would work. When it does not work, of course, it is the 
fault of the people. But in States where it is or has been 
in operation, there has generally been great difficulty in 
competing successfully in the rebellion against the law. 
I use the word that ought to be used — " Rebellion." 
When a law is not enforced, and when nobody promises 
to enforce it, or where the mayor of the city comes and asks 
whether people want it enforced, this is nothing but rebel- 
lion. The demand for liquor has been a very serious diffi- 
culty, and in prohibition States bogus drug stores have 
sprung up in all directions, as we all know. A man 
came into one of these prohibition towns one day and 
wanted to know if he could get a drink quickly. The 
gentleman answered that he could not get one. The man 
still asked if there was no way at all by which he could 
get a drink, and the gentleman answered that he could 
only get a drink if he was bitten by a rattle-snake. 
He then said, " Do you know where there is a rattle- 
snake ?" The gentleman told him that one of the neigh- 
bor's boys had a pet snake. The man asked where the 
boy lived. He went down there, but in a short time came 
running back and said, " I must have a drink, there are 
twenty-five people standing around there waiting for a 



222 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

chance to get at the snake. ' ' So that has been the exact 
situation. I was born and brought up under a prohibi- 
tion law, cast my first vote for the amendment of the 
State Constitution. I watched it, believed in it, and I 
believe in it to-night, and yet we must face the facts. I 
have something very interesting to show you to-night. It 
is the latest seizure. The box was obtained in the city of 
Portland, Maine, where the sheriff gave his life in an 
effort to enforce this law and put down the rebellion 
against it. This was seized by the sheriff, it is a perfectly 
harmless looking box, you could take it with you 
anywhere. Take off the cover and this is what you 
have inside. (Here shows a Kentucky whiskey bottle.) 
This bears the mark of W. B. Samuels and Company, 
Fifth District, Kentucky. Of course, you have read of 
the magnificent work of Sheriff Pearson. You will see 
some of the difficulties which confronted him. Men will 
do absolutely anything to get liquor. There was a case 
of a man that was put in the asylum to keep him from 
getting drunk. He went out into the yard one day and 
cut off his hand, and then asked for whiskey to put the 
bleeding stump in. They brought the whiskey and he 
put his arm into it, but he drank the whiskey from 
around it. This is an exaggerated case of an abnormal 
appetite. I tell you, Friends, we do not know anything 
about it. We cannot conceive it. We must realize and 
treat this matter accordingly. Of course, there are other 
phases of prohibition which we have not discussed to- 
night. I can only treat of it as it is in our present condi- 
tions of society. 

Local option is another method. It has been tried 
in a great many of the States, and the difference between 
local option and State prohibition is that it is often 
impossible to get in the whole State a sentiment that 
will support the law, and so a community here and there 
backs the law. In Cambridge Massachusetts, a city of 
nearly 90,000 inhabitants there is not a single drop of 
liquor sold. I suppose that is the largest city in the 
world free from liquor selling, but you must remember 
that in fifteen minutes you can get into Boston. But a 



OF THE CONFERENCE 223 

number of Massachusetts towns have absolutely prohibi- 
tion as a result of this method, for each town decides 
whether it wants prohibition or not. I suppose there are 
no laws quite so good on the statute books as the Missouri 
law; I mean their local option law. It provides that 
each ward of a city shall itself decide whether it will have 
any liquor sold within that ward or not, and if it is settled 
by the vote of the ward that liquor may be sold, then a ma- 
jority of the residents must sign the paper. That puts the 
control into the hands of the people. The State Prohibition 
laws ought to stop the liquor traffic ; the idea is right, but 
you know of the results that have followed in the past. 
The Dispensary System is another of the recognized meth- 
ods that have been followed in dealing with the liquor 
traffic. In South Carolina we have the only instance of it in 
this country that I know of. One of the advantages of 
it is that it takes away the personal profit, for the man 
who sells it gets nothing out of it excepting his salary as 
an officer. The would-be purchaser must make his 
request for liquor in writing, leave a blank signed, and 
get his liquor and go home. No liquor can be sold to a 
minor under any condition, nor to habitual drunkards. 
It can be sold only in the day time and never to be drunk 
on the premises, and the man who sells it is paid a certain 
salary, and no matter how much or how little he sells the 
profit is just the same. One half of the profit goes to the 
State, one quarter to the county, and one quarter to the 
town. This method has other advantages. Gambling is 
prohibited, and treating is impossible, and the towns are left 
free to have prohibition if they want it. But the State has 
the monopoly of the liquor business, and the State sells it 
to its people and thereby reduces the taxes. One plan is 
to have a public dispensary where liquor can be sold, 
where every cent of money is to be used to build substi- 
tutes for the saloon where people will be educated not to 
use the whiskey. This is the plan of Joseph Rowntree. 
The money will build gymnasiums, recreation-rooms, 
etc., where the poor people can go and spend their spare 
moments, and where they can recover from the effects of 
the saloon. Now this I believe is an historical account of 



224 STENOGRAPHIC RKPORT 

our dealing with this great problem, and I believe it is 
clear to everyone of us that not one of these methods have 
been successful in stopping the sale of liquor. We have 
made some inroad upon it, we have taken some great 
steps, but we have done very little to destroy the business 
itself. I feel hopeful. I want to state two or three hope- 
ful things before I take my seat. I think the most 
hopeful side of all has been the decision of the Courts in 
the great case that is very familiar to the Indianapolis 
people, the decision which we should keep well in mind. 
The Court has decided first that the saloon-keeper is 
civilly responsible for damages. If a man is thrown out 
of his occupation the family can get damages ; the land- 
lord that rents property for the use of a saloon is also 
responsible. License is no protection for a man. If he 
does damage he is responsible for it. Secondly, that an 
orderly saloon in an orderly neighborhood is necessarily 
disorderly and is therefore a nuisance. 

The great bulk and force of the work against the 
saloon is helped by the fact that many of the larger cor- 
porations and organizations refuse to employ a man who 
drinks. He can not work on a railroad, he can not 
work where he endangers lives, and indeed no man wishes 
to employ a' man who drinks. The great law of the sur- 
vival of the fittest is weeding out drunkards, though very 
slowly. The offspring of a drunkard is a weak man; he 
cannot stand with the offspring of the man who dees not 
drink. The Christian forces of society are working against 
the saloon. Who should be the representatives of God in 
this world if not the Christian Church, and if we are 
looking for a good organization of the work for God in 
the world where should we look for it except in the 
Christian Church, and in our hearts. This liquor traffic 
should be stopped, then let us with one mind and one 
voice call upon Christ's name, and come together to see 
if we cannot discover some method to stop this great evil 
about which I have been talking. 

The Clerk : We will now hear from Mary E. Cart- 
land. 

Mary E. Cartland, of North Carolina: Reforms move 



OF THE CONFERENCE 225 

slowly, but they do move, and they never go back. This 
is true of temperance. The time is ripe for such a step 
as that before us. The Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, the greatest organized effort against this evil, has 
been largely educational. " Organize, agitate, educate," 
has been its motto. It is fitting that the plan proposed 
should originate with Friends. If the churches could 
only unite, bow much could be done! The Church 
should give itself to this great work. 

The Clerk : The next in order will be Robert E. Pret- 
low. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington : I trust the 
audience will forgive me for two or three personal refer- 
ences. I have the honor of being an original woman's 
crusader, that tremendous movement that started out 
against the saloon, and awakened the conscience as no 
other movement has ever done. We did a great deal of 
good but the saloon kept increasing. I have the honor 
of being a charter member of the Prohibition Party in the 
State of Indiana, and the Prohibitionists have stood 
together, and talked, and voted, and used clubs unwisely, 
and have done a great many other things, and have pro- 
voked a tremendous amount of thinking, and have 
awakened a tremendous amount of conscience, and the 
saloon kept on growing, and kept on increasing. I 
lobbied for the Nicholson Bill in Indiana, and we got it, 
and the liquor traffic was absolutely unmoved, and the 
saloons in Indiana are more numerous to-day than they 
were before. In Indiana, Ohio, and Arkansas I have 
helped in local option contests, and we have driven 
saloons out of communities, and have saved men and 
boys in those communities, but the liquor traffic has not 
felt the little we were able to do. We have been work- 
ing along these various lines and some of us have gone 
down into our pocket books, and have conributed to this 
great cause that Rufus M. Jones has referred to, and we 
have secured the magnificent decision from Judge 
Higgins, and the saloon passed out from the control of 
the man into the control of his wife, and the Judge was 
defeated for nomination by the party that had put him in, 



226 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

before, and a liquor man nominated in his place, and 
before the opposition he was Speaker of the Legislature, 
but the liquor man was chosen Speaker. I bring this 
before our notice not to discourage us, but to enforce 
upon our minds and consciences the one idea that the 
question is yet unsolved. Every effort towards righte- 
ousness has God's blessings upon it. We have been 
doing the right thing, but we have not done it 
adequately yet. But because these methods have failed 
and other methods have failed I do not think we should 
lose hope and lose courage. I don't believe that the 
Church of the Living God and the God of the living 
Church is to be baffled in this fight. Victory is to come 
but it may yet be that God must smite the sea and divide 
it before us before we are going to be able to cross over to 
the promised land of victory. I believe that some extra- 
ordinary method that has not been tried is called for in 
the churches throughout all these different Yearly Meet- 
ings, that have been sent to this body, with the request 
that we call all Christians together everywhere and get 
down before God on our face in prayer before Him. But 
some say ' ' What method are you going to propose ? If 
we knew what to do we would not need to call this con- 
ference. If we had found a method that we know is 
going to succeed there would be no need of this. Resolu- 
tions will not solve the question. If strong resolutions 
would have solved the question the saloon would have 
been gone out of Indiana years ago. They will not solve 
it. Laying aside our resolutions for a moment — our pet 
idea can't we altogether keep this one idea before us the 
absolute extermination of the saloon, and ask all Chris- 
tians to help. In the meantime Friends object that we 
cannot get all of the churches together for some years. 
There must some time elapse. In the mean time Friends 
try to get the saloons out of your towns. Keep at work 
for the Nicholson Law and prohibition, vote a clear white 
ballot that counts for God and conscience if we do not 
elect anyone. Local optionists keep on working in your 
own communities ; you who believe in education keep on 
educating, work along these lines with redoubled vigor, 



OF THE CONFERENCE 22 7 

and keep our mouths closed from saying anything about 
our brother that is working in another way, and spend 
the years that must elapse in earnest prayer to God that 
the light from the eternal throne may burst out on this 
question, and that the Captain of our Salvation shall take 
command and lead our forces on to victory. 

The Clerk: We will now hear from Edwin H. Mc- 
Grew. 

Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon: RufusM. Jones has 
said something about the liquor traffic to-night but he has 
not told us all about it. Our hearts have been stirred with 
these remarks that have come to us this evening. We 
have had much said about plans that have not yet worked 
satisfactorily. I agree very heartily with what Robert E. 
Pretlow has said. The time has come when we must face 
this question. The Friends ought to do something very 
definite. I cannot sum up what has been said, but I 
think we should face this question as we have faced other 
questions that we cannot always understand, believing 
that God lives and that he is able to work out these things 
and make a way when there is none. I believe that I 
have no preconceived notions that I cannot give up, I have 
no resentments that will hold me if I know my mind 
before God, from acting in this matter impartially as a 
Christian man before his Maker. Shall we not approach 
this in a most prayerful spirit? God will make the way. 

Emilie Underhill Burgess, of New York : We 
should not be discouraged. The battle is not yours but 
God's. There are many views of what should be done. 
We shall have to meet the saloon where it is, and take 
away its props. I trust that some action may be taken 
that we may unite with other churches. 

Edmund Stanley, of Kansas : I believe we have had 
enough. This is not the year to turn to Kansas for the 
settlement of great social or political questions. It is 
said that when Kansans fail to raise a good crop of corn or 
wheat they are sure to raise a new crop of political or 
social ideas for the world. This year we have a most 
magnificient crop of corn, and a fair crop of wheat. It is 
not the time to look to Kansas for new ideas along these 



2 28 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

lines. I presume Kansas is given a place on this program 
because she has taken some advanced positions on this 
question. I am from a prohibition State and we accept no 
compromise propositions; but I want to endorse the remarks 
that were made by Robert E. Pretlow when he said that 
we must work on in whatever lines we may be working. 
We may differ in our opinions and in our methods, but 
we are all coming to the same point, we are striking the 
same enemy, and with every stroke are doing effectual 
work. In the state of Kansas we have saloons in a large 
number of the towns and cities ; but the saloon every- 
where under the law is a public nuisance. Whiskey is 
outlawed and the saloon keeper is considered an anarchist. 
We are trying to teach the people of Kansas to recognize 
this fact. We cannot take care of the toper but we are 
trying to take care of the boys. We get into a great 
hurry sometimes, and think reforms come too slowly. 
We should not expect great reforms to come in a day. 
In our educational work in public and private schools we 
are emphasizing the point that the boys in the schools 
must be taught to be honorable American Citizens ; and 
that to be American Citizens they must be law-abiding, 
must recognize the law of the land as authority, and 
must accept it whether they like it or not. Whenever we 
raise up a class of voters under the teaching that obe- 
dience to the law is necessary to make good citizens, we 
will help to solve this question. We are not here to-night 
to tell you the best way to solve it. We are trying one 
way, and propose to stay by it unless we are sure of a 
better. The editor of one of the most prominent political 
papers in the State, and one who has made a fight on pro- 
hibition, said recently that he never expected to see 
Kansas go back on that law, much as he hated and 
fought it. Reforms never go backward. There is 
nothing new for us here to-night. If we are trying to find 
an easy way to solve this problem we will be disappointed. 
Take from the saloon the protection of the law, and the 
saloon keeper is not the brave man he appears to 
be; he is a coward and is ready to run at the first attack. 
If I were asked for a practical plan for operation I would 



OF THE CONFERENCE 229 

say, L,et us stand for the right, and pledge ourselves as 
men never under any circumstances, anywhere or at any 
time, to vote for any man unless he is known to be right 
on this question. There are enough men in every county 
in the State of Kansas, with probably two or three excep- 
tions, that are in favor of the enforcement of law, to 
compel every political party that has a foot-hold in the 
State to nominate men who have honest convictions on 
this subject, and will stand for the enforcement of all 
law. The official positions that have to do with the 
making and enforcing of laws are the ones that require 
attention. I cannot hope that through any political party 
organization positive and lasting reforms of this kind can 
come. Reverses in politics will come and often with fatal 
effect. The refusal to support unsafe men is a common 
ground for all regardless of party, and to take and 
occupy such a position means the encouragement and 
often the enforcing of better government. 

The Clerk : What is the further pleasure of this 
meeting ? 

James Wood, of New York: I am selected by the 
Business Committee to read for your consideration a 
definite call to the Churches. ( Proposition read.) 

The Chairman : You have heard the proposition 
coming from the Business Committee. 

Francis W. Thomas: I like this proposition very 
much, and I hope we will take measures to effect this 
proposition. 

( Consent.) 

James Wood, of New York: I offer the following 
resolution and move that it be referred to the Business 
Committee for careful consideration, and that the Com- 
mittee should present a resolution carrying out the propo- 
sition before us. 

(The motion was carried. See Minutes, Minute 84.) 

The Clerk : What is your further pleasure. 

Robert E. Pretlow, of Wilmington: I move that we 
now adjourn. 

(Carried. And after a prayer the meeting adjourned.) 



23O STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

SIXTH DAY MORNING, TENTH MONTH 24. 

The meeting was called to order by the Clerk at 
9.00 A. M. 

The hymn — "I Need Thee Every Hour," — was sung, 
and Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington, led the devotional 
exercises, and prayers were offered by J. Walter Malone, 
of Ohio, and Enos Harvey, of Indiana. 

The Clerk : The Recording Clerk will now read the 
Minutes of the sessions yesterday. 

(The Minutes of the different sessions were consid- 
ered separately and approved.) 

Three propositions were received by the Meeting, 
viz.: 

(1) From Wilmington Yearly Meeting, proposing the 
preparation of a catechism ; (2) from Baltimore Yearly 
Meeting, proposing a Friends' Bible School Quarterly ; 
(3) the Report of the Quinquennial Conference on the 
proposition to prepare a Hymnal for Friends. 

After some discussion, the question was referred to a 
committee, consisting of one from each delegation to be 
named by the delegations. 

Reports of Committees on Referred Business. 

The Clerk : Have you any reports from committees ? 

(Clerks answer, none on the table.) 

The Clerk : I fear we may be crowded with reports 
later in the sessions. If there are no reports ready we will 
take up the next subject on the program. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : I think it is very important that 
the committees get ready to report, I am afraid by to-mor- 
row they will all come up at once, and there are other 
committees that will have to be appointed and will have to 
get together, and I am afraid we are going to have every- 
thing at the last. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I would like to know if it 
is arranged permanently as to the time when this Conven- 
tion adjourns. 

Allen Jay, Chairman of Business Committee : The 
arrangement is to have a session on Second Day morning 






OP THE CONFERENCE 23 1 

and if we do not get through we can go on for the balance 
of the week. 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : It is very important 
for some of us to know when we can get home. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : With the days and evenings so 
taken up, it is impossible for the committees to get ready 
to report, but we can take up some other subjects this 
morning, and then take up the reports of the committees 
when they do get ready. We have power to have a ses- 
sion after that if we want to, but I do not think anybody 
thinks of anything else but to adjourn on Second Day. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : We are here on 
important business. We meet only once in five years, 
and I hope that we are not going to rush away. I believe 
that as we are here we should have our plans arranged and 
if necessary we ought to stay until our work is complete. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : I notice at the heading 
of this program a clause which reads, " This program may 
be changed at any time by the meeting." I think it 
would be unwise to try to fix definitely a time for the 
adjournment of this Meeting this morning. I think we 
should go on with our program this morning. 

Francis A, Wright, Kansas : I did arrange to stay if 
it was necessary. I asked the question because it is 
important for me to know right away when I shall be 
able to get home, as I have another engagement. I thought 
we might take up two subjects this morning, and that 
would leave a place in another session for the reports of 
these committees. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : Mr. President, let us 
proceed with the business. 

The Clerk : The point raised by Francis A. Wright is 
a good one. It might be well for us to know if we are 
going to introduce more than one subject this morning. 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington : It does seem to 
me that with the days and evenings so taken up, the 
committees have had very little time to give the sub- 
jects consideration outside the sessions, and if we could 
proceed with the program for this morning and close just 
as soon as through, we might expedite business. 



232 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Clerk : Unless there is some proposition for us 
to act upon we shall proceed with the program. 



METHODS OF PRACTICAL WORK AMONG 

RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES. 

By El wood O. Ellis. 

More important than method is the spirit of the 
worker. Some persons are effective anywhere. Put 
them in communities isolated or otherwise and they will 
always make themselves felt as factors of great influence 
wherever they are. But every member of the Church of 
Jesus Christ ought to make himself felt as an influence 
for good. There is no distinction between minister and 
layman in this respect ; all are alike servants of Jesus 
Christ, and to the one who has a will to work there is a 
field of labor anywhere. Such persons welcome sugges- 
tions from any source, and that is the reason why it is 
proper that we should discuss methods. 

I like, very much, the program of this meeting. It 
is so filled with suggestions as to how we may work, when 
we get back to our respective places of service. Work 
would better centre in a town for a radius of at least two 
or three miles into the country. The plan of having the 
meeting-house a half-mile or so outside of the town, as it 
used to be, however well it may have served its purpose 
in the past, is no longer adapted to the conditions .that 
exist. I do not know why this plan prevailed so much 
with the Friends' denomination, but the time has come 
when the town is the centre. We cannot make it other- 
wise. To work against it is to work against the current 
of the day. 

Of work in strictly rural districts, I am not prepared 
by any experience to speak. I was born a mile and a 
half from town, and spent all my boyhood days just that 
far from town in three different communities, but I have 
always been connected with the work of a meeting in or 
near the town. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 233 

The church building should be a centre. It is under- 
stood that it is a place of prayer, of ministry, and of spir- 
itual power ; not that these are confined to any one place, 
but that it is especially appointed for these purposes and 
dedicated to them. 

The church building should also be a social centre, 
supplying the social demands with social good, and thus 
counteracting as far as possible the social evils of the 
community. The employment of means to attract away 
from evil to good is always proper. 

About a year ago I was passing through a large city, 
and with a friend was walking along a sidewalk, when we 
came to a certain church door, by the side of which we 
read these words : ' ' Come in and rest and pray.' ' I can- 
not express the feeling that that sentence of hearty wel- 
come brought to me. Though I could not then take 
time to heed it, I felt a strong impulse to walk in, to sit 
down, rest, meditate and pray. I believe the time has 
come when our church buildings ought to be made a 
place of welcome to the weary passer-by. We should not 
permit the saloon to be open away into the hours of the 
night and early in the morning, and have the church 
building open only about twice in the week. Conse- 
crated members of the Church should make the church 
building a centre that will attract sinners and wayfarers 
into its doors, and then lead them surely on to Christ. 
The need of a home of welcome, with proper and helpful 
attractions to persons weary, and lonely, and restless, and 
seeking diversion, is a great one. 

There have been many social changes in the past few 
years, that have very materially changed the work for the 
Church to do, and to be blind to these changes and fail 
to adapt ourselves to them, is to fail in accomplishing the 
most effective service for Christ. A certain man walked 
upon a high bridge for the purpose of leaping from it and 
ending his life. Just before the intended act, a stranger 
spoke to him kindly, and soon learned from him his sad 
story of distress. He was given counsel and help in a 
wise and substantial way, and walked off the bridge with 
a new and better purpose, and afterwards lived years of 



234 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

useful service. Every member of the Church ought to 
emulate the example of the stranger and discover the per- 
son who is in need of brotherly love and counsel. It is 
the duty of the Church to execute such plans as will bring 
it best into contact with the sinful, the discouraged, the 
needy, and then wisely administer to their needs. 

I believe that meetings in towns might well consider 
the propriety of having reading-rooms established in con- 
nection with them. I was thoroughly impressed with this, 
when visiting in England, and I admire the centres there 
established by Friends, where persons may come in and 
read, write, obtain lunch, and have a place of many con- 
veniences, that is opened under the auspices of the 
Church, the organization which above all others, has the 
right to reach the hand of help to every human being, no 
matter what his condition. 

So I put it before you for consideration whether the 
time has not come, when, especially Friends' church 
buildings in the towns shall be provided with reading- 
rooms, with books, periodicals of the day, and with pic- 
tures hanging upon the walls. Here again, I was so 
impressed with the pictures hanging upon the walls of 
Devonshire House, Fondon Yearly Meeting, — pictures of 
Friends, of historic value ; pictures that told so much 
more in a moment than could be told in words. Friends' 
pictures are on sale at this meeting that are appropriate 
to hang in our meeting-houses, and which tell the history 
of our people that is worth the telling. 

I would suggest also that there be writing material — 
letter-paper, envelopes, pens and ink, so that a young 
man, although a stranger, may know that under the care 
of the Friends' Church there is a place where he may sit 
down and write to his father or friend . We may properly 
become known as providing centres for convenience in 
these things, where persons will come and put themselves 
under the care and help of those who are spiritually- 
minded, and who will lead them into the best things. 

Also, I think we ought to provide more as do English 
Friends, for lectures and entertainments of proper charac- 
ter, so there will be an inclination on the part of the 



OF THE CONFERENCE) 235 

people to go to the church-building. A working Church 
is a happy Church, and is one in which the members have 
neither time nor inclination to talk about each other, nor 
to complain. It is one of our difficulties that we do not 
have enough for our members to do. 

I believe the attitude of the Church ought not to be 
that of condemnation toward anybody. A certain elderly- 
lady reproached a young man with severity and harsh- 
ness, and the result was that she closed every avenue of 
influence she had ever held upon him. The Church 
should be wise in its approach to individuals. Only last 
Sabbath, a middle-aged woman told me the experience of 
her girlhood days, when a certain Friend, whose name 
you would likely all know were I to mention it, exer- 
cised great control over her by the prudence and wisdom 
he had. She was wild, reckless and careless and engaged 
in questionable things. On one occasion he said to her, 
" Does thee get something in dancing more enjoyable 
than in other things? " She replied, " Well, I like it." 
Then he said, " Just as long as thy conscience allows it, 
go on in dancing, but watch carefully to see if there is not 
a better way." In telling me of the incident she said, 
" Had he condemned me sharply, I should have turned 
against him, but as it was, it was not long till I was com- 
pletely of his opinion and ready to defend it. I thought 
he was the best man on earth and would not do anything 
that I knew was contrary to his views." 

There is in this a lesson for our profit. Our relation 
to the sinful world should be such as to prompt men to 
do right, because they respect and love, and desire to 
please and honor us in this way. In the organization of 
our meetings we should provide for coming into personal 
contact with as many as we can. As long as there is an 
unsaved soul in the community, the Friends' Church ought 
to be trying to reach that soul and save it. There is a 
key to every human heart and it is ours to find that key. 
' ' He that winneth souls is wise ' ' is equivalent to ' ' He 
that is wise winneth souls," and our wisdom is made 
manifest by the true test — our success in the great work 
of winning them for Christ. 



236 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

The Clerk : The further consideration of this subject 
has been assigned to Alpheus Trueblood. 

AlpheusTrueblood, of Indiana: There are three pas- 
sages of Scripture that may be made the basis of all our 
Church and individual Christian life. John 16:13, "How- 
beit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He shall guide 
you into all the truth. " 2 Cor. 5: 14, "For the love of Christ 
constraineth us." 1 Cor. 9: 22, "I am all things to all 
men, that I might by all means save some." Christ and 
his apostles do not furnish us with specific rules, for the 
government of the Church, and for our conduct in all 
the relations of life. Plainly it would be practically 
impossible to do so. It cannot be done in human laws. 
Instead of the attempt to meet the inventive versatility of 
fraud, by a corresponding versatility in the enactment of 
laws, the New Testament deals in broad principles, 
capable of universal application. There is one underlying 
truth which the Church must keep hold of in consider- 
ing the subject of methods, and that is, that there is not 
to be one idle soul among all its members. There is an 
Arabian proverb which says, " He who knows not, and 
knows that he knows not is simple, teach him. He who 
knows, and knows not that he knows is asleep, wake him. 
But he who knows, and knows that he knows is wise, follow 
him." It would probably be difficult to classify our 
churches, but I venture to say that the majority of us 
belong to the second class. 

There are very few who have any fair idea of the 
situation, or any conception of the possibilities for good 
which centre in the Church. Our subject takes on special 
interest when it is known that eighty per cent, of the 
churches in this country are in towns and cities of less than 
eight thousand inhabitants, and four pastors out of every 
five are in charge of town or country churches. Virtually 
a large number of these churches are unorganized. 

Organization is the keynote of modern civilization. 
Organization is simply the proper distribution of the 
working forces. This will include methods almost as 
varied as the conditions of the different localities. The 
commander of an army orders a certain movement when 



OF THE CONFERENCE 237 

the enemy is entrenched on the hill, but he changes his 
tactics when he learns that the enemy has changed his 
position. 

Some one has said that the great hindrance to the 
Church is the statement of " half-truths " and " glittering 
generalities." All efforts to reach a systematic plan of 
giving for the support of the Church, is met with the 
suggestion, that all we have belongs to the L,ord, or the 
proposition to observe Decision Day in the Sabath School 
by the ' ' glittering generality ' ' that every Sabath ought to 
be a Decision Day. This is true in both cases, but when 
it is used as an argument against a definite time or plan 
for doing things its practical effect is to weaken the work. 
To ask what will become of the Church when its member- 
ship is absorbed in organizations for specific work, is 
very much like asking what will become of a great manu- 
facturing establishment when all the wheels, belts and 
pulleys are in their places, and by this a proper distribu- 
tion of the power is maintained. The Church will always 
be powerless when out of touch with God, and we can 
only be in touch with Him when we are in harmony with 
His plan ; and His plan is, " To every man his work." 

In urban and rural districts the columns of the local 
paper may be used to great advantage, if wisely managed, 
in keeping the interests of the Church before the people. 
News which the city editor might consider as entirely too 
tame to suit the taste of his contingent, will, because it is 
a part of the local interests of the community, be gladly 
accepted by the town editor. 

Often a lack of interest is due to a lack of knowledge. 
The business man by persistent advertising creates a 
demand for his wares. The great Biscuit Trust says 
"Uneeda Biscuit" and straightway the American people 
needs a biscuit or thinks it needs a biscuit which 
amounts to the same thing. Not an Acme Biscuit nor 
a Star Biscuit, but the one they read about. The end is 
accomplished by persistent enforcement upon the con- 
sciousness of the individual, of the superiority of the 
article. Those of us who are divinely appointed to break 
the Bread of Life ought to have the inspiration which 



238 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

comes from knowing that we have the only Bread, that 
will feed the hungry soul. 

We have probably all heard something of the small 
attendance at the Sabbath evening service in most or all 
denominations. I think the matter has been magnified 
beyond what the merits of case would justify. We have 
said so much about the reasons why people do not attend 
church that a great many have come to believe that there 
is nothing to go for. Would it not be better for us to 
discuss for awhile the reasons why men do go to church, 
and then do our very best to provide the things they are 
looking for. Evidently there is something needed, and I 
believe that that something is within our reach. 

The American people virtually spend their leisure 
time during three or four months of the year in the 
open, and it is well that they do. Would not a brief 
Gospel service in the afternoon and early evening in 
the parks with good singing and a short discourse full of 
soul food, and suggestions of practical help along the 
line of the difficulties of life, be as apt to catch the ear of 
the people, as many other things, all right and proper in 
their place. Experience proves that it would. 

In the smaller places where there are no parks the 
evening service could be changed from the house to the 
church lawn, or some other suitable place, where we 
would secure a larger attendance and a new inspira- 
tion to this part of our work which seems to drag so 
heavily. This would help men to see that it is the 
message that we are emphasizing, and not the church 
edifice, and the forms of religion. 

The demand upon the Church in a social way is 
greater now than ever before, and while men do not 
attend the services with the same idea, that they would a 
social club, yet as a rule the} 7 do enjoy a good social 
Christian atmosphere. It will be a long time before we 
can all have the " open church," but we can have right 
away the open home and open heart. If we do not 
have a church parlor, we may occasionaly convert the 
audience room into a veritable reception room, where the 
church may spend an evening at home to its members. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 239 

And now, finally, we can make no hard and fast rules. 
It our ministers and other church leaders are men and 
women of God and of close observation as we ought to be, 
the matter of methods will largely adjust itself. 

There are no automatic self-acting plans, that will 
run the church. " Eternal vigilance is the price of lib- 
erty." Plan your work and work your plan. Organ- 
ization is economy of time and methods and money. 
The Gospel needs sometimes a good airing. Nothing 
is ever gained by magnifying our difficulties. Methods 
necessarily change, but what of it, it is for us to help 
men to fill the new forms of thought and activity with 
the spirit of loyalty to God and love to man. 

Making new church history is more important than 
trying to live on the dry bones, of ancient church history. 
The one aim of the Church should be, to bring men into 
a higher and nobler life, and any method that will help 
us to do this should not be too quickly discarded. 

The Clerk : The subject is now open for general dis- 
cussion. 

David B. Sampson, of North Carolina : May we bow 
our heads in a word of prayer ? 

I wish I could express the feelings I have this morn- 
ing as this subject is brought before us. We are all well 
aware of the wondrous changes that have come over this 
country, and especially do we realize it in the rapid de- 
velopment. Throughout the country the families are 
going to the busy centres of industry, and the rural meet- 
ings are to a large extent separated, and it looks as 
though some of them would almost be neglected ; yet we 
turn again and are glad to see the meetings building up in 
our towns and cities ; but the nucleus that builds up these 
churches comes from the country in almost every case. 
If this shall go on our country districts must still have 
our support, our prayers and our effort. I know the dis- 
tance between one point and another in many cases is 
great, and in many places the roads are very bad. The 
sacrifice is closely allied to that which is required of those 
who seek the foreign field, and yet if we are going to do 
the work and follow the pattern of Him who walked 



240 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

through the valleys and over the hills from village to vil- 
lage and from home to home, we must follow that same 
course. There are the children in the country, and in a 
few years they will be young men and women seeking 
positions and flocking to the towns. We must get them 
in the country if we expect to use them in the towns, 
where they will find their future homes. I therefore earn- 
estly plead for a systematic, persevering, loving effort for 
those who live in the country. I want to emphasize the 
opening sentence of the first speaker. More important 
than all system and everything else is the spirit of the one 
that goes. If he does not have a willingness to go, a real 
yearning for the souls of those with whom he is thrown in 
contact — it may be only once a month, as he goes from 
place to place — if he does not have that spirit, he will 
soon grow tired of his work and have fewer people to lis- 
ten to him when he gets there ; but if he has that baptism 
that comes from the great Father above, he will have a 
place given him in the hearts of the people, and the chil- 
dren will flock around him ; they will be glad to see him 
and will learn to be interested in the cause he represents. 
I desire that we should realize that this needs to be kept 
up continuously. Itinerancies have done more in the little 
experience I have had in North Carolina to establish 
meetings and keep them going than any other one thing 
that I know of ; and while we are glad to see the meet- 
ings developing in the settlements, we want to remember 
that they need to be continually fed by those who come 
from the country. That is where we first get them, and 
I pray that we will not lose sight of this, and not only 
rally around the meetings which are to be found in the 
meeting-houses, but that we will avail ourselves of every 
cross-road and every school- house where we have no 
meeting-house, and at the cross-roads and in the school- 
houses we will preach the same Gospel that always 
attracts and builds up, and as they come under the 
power of that Gospel they will fall in line with His 
work and we will have those coming on, who, when 
some of us have ended our work and served our day 
and been laid away, will take our places and do better 



OF THE CONFERENCE 24 I 

work than we have ever done. May God ever remem- 
ber the rural districts. 

Levi D. Barr, California: I wanted to quote a pas- 
sage or two of Scripture written to all nations, that My 
house shall be a house of prayer — a place of worship. It 
is also declared by the great Apostle of the Gentiles that by 
the preaching of the Gospel the salvation of the world is 
to be accomplished. I believe as members of this Five 
Years Meeting of Friends we had better be slow about 
running to remedial agencies until we have extended our 
commission. I know in the city, teeming with life and 
the problems of life, and in the country where men and 
women are absorbed with the things of this life where they 
become calloused and hardened, it seems that the door- 
way is somewhat closed. And other words and means 
will take the place of that truth of God . But the spiritual 
life of a man or woman who comes from the busy world, 
from the cares of life, will not be built up or strengthened 
by any institutional means whatever. I have heard on 
the right hand and on the left busy men of affairs, who, 
when they go to church, often at the hours appointed for 
divine worship they find, so theylsay, that there are means 
and methods employed to occupy the time, such as lec- 
tures, soloists introduced to entertain the people, when 
they need salvation. Beloved, we cannot compete with 
the world in the question of entertainment. This old 
world does not need entertainment. Thousands of men 
and women are dancing to the music of the world, the 
flesh and the devil when they ought to stop a little and 
hear the Gospel, " Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise 
perish." I believe friends, that the Church should bear 
that message. Somebody may say, that is what we aim to 
do, but I am sure that men and women should be more con- 
cerned about hearing the Gospel ; that is what they go to 
church for, and while the old Gospel ship is being tossed 
here and there, there is not time in this mad rush in which 
we are hurrying forward for the Church to undertake to 
change things by seeking to cater to these things. I trust 
that this conference shall take a position on this question 
that shall not be any uncertain position. 



242 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Charles H. Jones, New England : I want to empha- 
size very strongly one or two points bearing on the 
remarks which have been made. This question of the 
relation of the Church to rural and urban communities is 
certainly not of secondary importance. The matter of 
idleness — there is an old saying, " Satan finds some mis- 
chief still for idle hands to do." The working Church is 
a growing Church. The Church that solves the problem 
of how to keep its members at work, has solved the prob- 
lem of its relationship to communities, whether in the 
cities or country. In regard to methods — in a great 
many places Friends have made a mistake, a sad mistake, 
in confounding methods of work with the principles of 
the denomination. The principles of the Society are 
unchangeable and the methods are as changeable as the 
age we represent. 

A man cannot do business as his father and grand- 
father did. He must adapt himself to his age and envi- 
ronment. The Church must do the same in regard to the 
methods she employs to carry forward the work which 
has been alotted her. Every member of the Church of 
Jesus Christ, as a result of his membership, becomes 
a responsible party in the Church, and upon him or her 
rests the responsibility of carrying out the divine com- 
mission — " Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gos- 
pel to every creature." Every living member of a living 
Church has a work in the harvest-field. It is not a ques- 
tion of methods but a question of results that you and I 
are interested in to-day. I want to leave this thought 
and it is a practical one for ministers or laymen ; we are 
all servants of Jesus Christ commissioned to preach the 
everlasting Gospel. 

Harry R. Keates, New York : I want to say that I 
think we are indebted in these discussions to those who 
have prepared the papers, though we may not agree with 
the premises in the case. It was said by the first speaker 
we have all, in the past, placed our batteries in the most 
unfavorable position. We have placed them where the 
enemy was not. I think the principle in the parable of 
the marriage feast is what we ought to recognize in all 



OF THE CONFERENCE 243 

our work. First, the invitation was given to the house of 
the King — a rich man in the center of population — they 
failed to respond, and then there was the message to go 
out into the streets and lanes of the city, and yet there 
was room, and then there was the region beyond, and he 
commanded, " Go out into the highways and hedges and 
compel them to come in." John Wesley's motto was 
' ' All at it , and always at it . " Sam Jones says the trouble 
with the Pastoral question is that the Church calls a man 
for its pastor and expects the Gospel chariot to roll on, 
but generally the pastor is found in the shafts and the 
people all on the inside sitting down and taking it easy. 
If you will go back to the first principles of the Society of 
Friends you will find that the whole body was incorpor- 
ated into the life of the Church. I think we ought to 
have the highest conception of the truth. 

There are some methods which we ought to observe. 
The Church ought to be an active force reaching out with 
its influence and consciously and unconsciously bring 
people to Jesus Christ. How are we going to serve Him ? 
Are we going to serve Him as if there was nothing in it ? 
I think there are some methods that ought to influence 
the young people. In the days of George Fox, when he 
went out to see how the Church was prospering he found 
that some of the most startling ministry heralded from 
the young, so I think in the centers of population and in 
the country, the young and the old ought to take hold 
and build up the Church. Our eyes ought to be open for 
opportunity. The Church should send some committee to 
visit every one who moves into a community and see 
where he belongs. There ought to be others to call upon 
him, and show their sympathy and help. These and 
many others are practical methods which we ought to 
take hold of. The main object is to lead people to the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : I have but little to say 
with reference to the central work. It has been brought 
out by Ell wood O. Ellis. I think the)' have spent 
about eight thousand dollars at his meeting (Richmond, 
Ind.) to make it practical, but this is not a rural district. 



244 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

When an individual is to work in a rural district it seems 
to me the first thing to do is to make a survey of what he 
has to operate on. Now the central work has drawn 
from the rural districts and outside of our largest cities, 
the most neglected portion is from one to five miles out 
of the city. Everything is centered in the city and the 
young people of these districts are left out. It is the 
business of one going into such desolate places to make a 
centre of his own, and every one of these centres ought 
to be a training school, so that when the boys and girls 
move into the city they will be fitted to take up the work 
there. Boys and girls that have been neglected in that 
district ought to be educated in regard to religious 
work. They should feel they are a mighty factor in that 
work. That is a thing we ought to impress upon them, 
and if we succeed we will bring these boys and girls over, 
they will forget the gossip of the neighborhood, and will 
labor in the Lord's work. Boys and girls in the country 
are more susceptible of impressions from the conscience 
side than those in the city. They see the iniquity and 
ungodliness of the city more than the boys and girls in 
the city who become so accustomed to seeing it, and there 
is a chance to reach these boys and girls out in the 
country. We must keep the boys and girls impressed 
with the fact that they must prepare themselves to meet 
the wrongs of the cities with positive work that at least 
will modify the iniquity of the cities. It is the business 
of the pastors to tell the boys and girls that out of the 
great workers in the cities nine tenths of them have come 
from the boys and girls of the country. It is a fact and 
needs to be impressed upon them that they are in the 
greatest school ever organized and by this means you can 
make them feel the importance of the work they are 
engaged in, and they won't want to run into the city 
quickly but will wait to prepare and go to the work of 
the Lord. 

J. Walter Malone, Ohio: I am very much interested 
in how this meeting is putting first things first, but 
there are just four little words that I want to leave this 
morning, the words of the Master who said "Go ye," 



OF THE CONFERENCE 245 

for we cannot wait for people to come but must go, " Go 
ye," "All power is given unto me," "All nations and 
all people," and " L,o, I am with you always." So, be- 
loved, if we come to God, who has promised all power and 
let us make our meetings a fire — I have noticed people 
always run to a fire — some say, well, if you are going to 
keep your fire going you will have no crowd. God 
will fetch the people together if we will keep the fire 
going; you will have no trouble about the crowd. I 
believe God wants us to keep the fire going. A man 
came to our mission once from one of the worst of neigh- 
borhoods and said they wanted to join the mission. Where 
did you hear the Gospel ? We never heard it. When did 
you meet a missionary ? I never met one. Why do you 
want to join the mission ? That is the point sir, that man 
from my community got up here in the neighborhood ; he 
was the worst man, a drunkard, of my town and he came 
back sweet as heaven and we want that same Gospel out 
our way. So I want us to make our meetings a place 
where something happens, which means service — lives. 
We are to save the world and by the power of the Holy 
Ghost we can do it. Let us preach the old Gospel of Jesus 
Christ that Jesus and Paul preached and we will have the 
result that they did or I will throw my Bible away. The 
old Gospel is as powerful as it ever was. 

James Carey, Jr., Baltimore: One of the speakers 
referred to the fact that we must set our members to 
work. At home there is no trouble about work. All our 
factories and warehouses are running full tilt and every 
body is occupied. It is not a question of being occupied, 
it is a question whether we are giving enough time to 
the work of the Church. Now, of course, there are a 
great many people who are not their own managers. 
There are a great many prosperous people in the Friends' 
Church ; there are merchants and men engaged in other 
business whose time is taken up very closely, but there 
are others, especially the women, who, though they are 
anything but unoccupied, can work out their own time 
better than some of us men, and I believe w r hen we go 
home from this meeting that we ought to think over the 



246 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

different work this Five Years Meeting has given us to 
do and the work at home, and try and arrange our time 
to do it. I have thought that a real, true Friend cannot 
make as much money as a person not a member of the 
Society of Friends. We have a certain work to do, and 
one of the first things we have got to have is the time. 
We must think over very carefully how to arrange our 
business and affairs to get that time, and it cannot be 
gained without sacrifice. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore: I want to say how 
very much I enjoyed the papers. I also very strongly en- 
dorse the thought that the great object of the Church is to 
bring souls to the Lord Jesus Christ and build up the 
kingdom of God on the earth. It is very important for us 
to bear in mind that there are very many ways of serving 
the Lord. The best way of sowing seed is to sow seed in 
prepared ground, and while it is very true that it is not the 
Church's duty to amuse — it is not the Church's duty to 
do anything of that kind, — yet it is the Church's duty to 
have its hand on every avenue of life, to make every one 
feel that it has an interest in him or her, to make the 
young people feel that the desires which God has placed 
within them are not simply to be left to develop of them- 
selves, but to be directed and made use of. The church 
that takes the position that it has no care for the amuse- 
ments and things of that kind of its young people and its 
old people, is very far from doing its duty. The desire 
for amusement is not only natural but is absolutely essen- 
tial to sound health and growth. A man never becomes 
the man he ought to be unless he has the proper amuse- 
ment while young. The Church should make the young 
people know that it does care whether they go to bad 
things or good things. I hope no one will misunderstand 
me. When we come to our church services nothing 
should enter into our services but the things of the Lord 
and the proclamation of the truth ; anything in the way 
of mere amusement is utterly out of place. The attention 
of people is to be drawn to Jesus Christ — coming, dying, 
rising again, and coming now into our hearts to live there 
and abide there forever. There is one thought that I 



OF THE CONFERENCE 247 

wish to emphasize, a passing word of encouragement to 
people in small meetings, you that feel that you cannot 
cope with the organism in great cities. The thing for 
country meetings to do is to understand the duty of indi- 
vidual faithfulness. Each one can keep on the outlook 
for some one to bring to the L,ord Jesus Christ, whether 
we bring him to be a member of the Friends' Church 
or not. 

There is a saying that I believe is too true, that 
" While God made the country and man made the city, 
the Devil made the small town." There is no place where 
there is so much wickedness as in small country villages. 
There is no place where the Gospel is needed in all its 
purity more than in the small country towns ; no place 
where it is more important that it shall be preached than 
just there ; and in these small country towns and meet- 
ings no one need be discouraged, for every one who names 
the name of Christ ought to feel that he has received a 
commission from the Lord Jesus Christ to go after every 
lost soul, and as long as there is a soul in bondage that he 
has any influence over, he should strive to bring him to 
the L,ord Jesus Christ. 

Devi Gregory, California : I propose or move that 
this matter be referred to the Evangelistic and Church Ex- 
tension Board. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : We have with us a person 
who has been working in Manitoba and who knows all 
about this work. I should like to hear from Alma G. 
Dale. 

Alma G. Dale, Canada : We cannot dictate to each 
other as to the methods we should pursue in our work. If 
you find your place you will find it at the foot of the 
cross ; you will find it in the baptism of the Holy Spirit ; 
and then, as you feel the call from the L,ord you get down 
and ask Him to furnish you your place, He will give it. 
It may be to leave your home of comfort and go out 
into the far-away places and live as the people live ; but 
as you go you can realize that every soul that comes 
across your path you meet and touch for good or evil, and 



248 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

then you expect to give an account in the day of judg- 
ment for that soul ; you go into their homes, you sit 
down and eat the tough meat, you partake of the black 
bread and sleep on the sod floor, and when you get to 
that place you touch them for God and for Heaven and 
eternity. We are living in too soft times. We talk about 
sacrificing ; we are not sacrificing for God ; we are taking 
the fat of the land. Come to the place where you can 
divide your last dollar with some poor person and trust 
God for the next one, and you will get to the place where 
you can do efficient work for God. I tell you the world 
has never been at such a stage in its history when it so 
truly needed the Friends' Church as it needs it to-day. I 
tell you oftentimes one woman can do more good on the 
plains and in the slums than ten men can do. I had a 
primary class in a mission Sabbath-school for a year and 
had some children out of some very poor families. There 
were two little girls out of one family, and one of these 
came one Sabbath and the other the next, and I wondered 
why it was that Jane came one Sabbath and Mary the 
next ; and I noticed that when Jane came she had a blue 
bow on her hat and when Mary came in she had a red 
bow. That was the only difference in the dress. The 
mother, to hide the deficiency in clothing, had provided 
these two bows. A man would have been there for ten 
years and never found out why Jane came out one Sab- 
bath and Mary the next. When I go into these homes I 
meet women that never hear the Gospel from the first 
week in November till the first week in April. May God 
help us to be right down with our brother ; get down on 
the same level ; take off the cloak of pride and put on the 
cloak of humility. It is no place for lazy people. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : I second the proposition 
made by our brother. 

Solomon B. Woodard, Western : I heartily endorse 
the papers and all that has been said, but there is one 
part of the subject that has not been touched upon, and 
that is in bringing this right into our homes, and it seems 
to me we fail more than anywhere else in not bringing 
the practical work right into our families. If we would 



OF THE CONFERENCE 249 

make the Church work — the work that we are called to 
do — if we would make that the primary point above all 
our secular work before our children, and talk with them 
with the common sense that we apply to our business 
obligations, we should educate them to have an interest 
in the work that lies so near our hearts. Then when 
they come in contact with individuals they will know 
how to work and will have a desire to work in our Church 
work. 

Jacob Baker, Ohio : I believe that every sermon 
ought to be new-born — ought to be under the fresh inspi- 
ration of the Holy Ghost, and where that is the case and 
where we are down to the level of the common people in 
our lives, so that we can assist and sympathize with them 
in their cares and trials, we shall have a greater hold 
upon them than we could have by any human plans to 
direct them. 

When the matter of the country was before us — I 
looked back to David as a shepherd — I looked back to 
Gideon upon the threshing-floor — I looked to Elisha as a 
diligent lad — and I think of the country lad of to-day 
and I want to say, God bless him who has come from a 
country home, and may God touch us with a real spirit 
of love for the country folk, and I want us to live among 
our country folks with the spirit of God that will make 
us a center of attraction everywhere. 

Clerk : It is moved and seconded that this subject be 
referred to the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board. 

(Carried.) 

Clerk: We have in the audience the Rev. E. S. 
Ufford, who is the author of the hymn, " Throw Out the 
Life-Line," and there has come to the table a request that 
we ask him to sing that hymn. If there is no objection, 
and I think there will be none, we will ask him to sing 
it at this time. 

Rev. E. S. Ufford, of Massachusetts : I am provi- 
dentially with you this morning, passing through this city 
on my way to the coast, as I go to bear the Life -Line 
around the world. It gives me great pleasure to sing it 
to you as I go. I have sung the hymn in a great many 



250 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

parts of the country — in Whitechapel , London, and in 
Paris. May God's blessing rest upon this hymn as I sing 
this hymn which I wrote, I hope, under the blessed inspir- 
ation of the Master. 

(Sang the hymn.) 

(A recess of five minutes was taken at this time. ) 

Clerk : We will call for names to constitute the 
committee which was to be selected during this recess. 
• (For names of Committee on Catechism, Quarterly 
and Hymnal, see Minutes, Sixth day, Morning.) 

Clerk : We are now read}- for any business that may 
come from the Business Committee. 

James Wood, New York : The Business Committee 
directs me to present these resolutions for the considera- 
tion of the meeting. (See Minutes, Minute 63.) 

(Reads resolutions against Lynching and Lawless- 
ness.) 

Clerk : We will take these resolutions separate^. 
What will you do with the resolution just read ? 

Delegate: I move that this resolution be received. 

Robert L. Kelly, Indiana : I move that this motion 
be amended to the effect that the Legislative Committee 
be instructed to propose some means of presenting this to 
the different Legislatures. 

Clerk : I would rather have that in a separate motion. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I would like to have the Indian 
included in that resolution. 

Delegate from California : In respect to color, we 
have the Chinese. 

Clerk : I think the intention of the resolution is to 
cover all classes. It is moved and seconded that this 
resolution be referred to the Committee on Legislation. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Clerk : I will ask Robert L. Kelly to state his motion 
again. 

Robert L. Kelly, Indiana : My motion was that the 
Legislative Committee be empowered to take such steps 
as are necessary to bring these resolutions to the notice 
of the several States. 

(Motion carried unanimously) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 25 I 

(James Wood reads Resolution, No. 2, on Plans for 
Improvement of the Negro.) 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore : I feel rather sorry 
that that has been proposed. It seems to me that the 
Society of Friends, which took so much care and labored 
in behalf of the Negro before he was set free and labored 
for a number of years after he was set free — has been neg- 
ligent to a certain extent of its duties. I do not think 
the duty of the Society of Friends is exhausted by simply 
having a duty on the legislative side. Therefore, I 
should be very glad if the Business Committee is willing 
to have the matter referred to them with the request that 
they again carefully consider the matter, and see whether 
the proposition made by Professor Woody is not practical 
that we have a special board for the interest of the Negro. 
I believe that as members of the Society of Friends that 
it is a step which we should be first in taking. 

James Wood, New York : The committee has given 
careful attention to the point raised by Richard H. 
Thomas, and it is seen at once in regard to the holding of 
property some legislation would be necessary, and there 
seems to be no other body in this meeting to whom this 
subject could be so properly referred as the Committee on 
Legislation. If referred to some other committee, it is 
quite likely they will have to have aid to carry out the 
plans that will be presented. 

John W. Woody, North Carolina : The basis of the 
proposition as suggested by our friend here simply brings 
out this thought. A committee appointed by this Meet- 
ing for the purpose of the elevation of the Negro can work 
with better effect, in case it is not necessary for legislative 
work to be done, because the work must not be in the 
least sense political. Those of us in the South feel this 
subject more than any of the rest of you can. The ques- 
tion is right in the midst of us. The best people of the 
South have made up their minds that this race must be 
elevated, and this movement, should it work with the 
best results, ought not in anyway to touch legislation— it 
should not touch the political movements of the coun- 
try in any way. For that reason a Board could work 



252 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

more efficiently throughout the whole South, and it 
would be very easy for the Legislative Committee to re- 
inforce the other committee without seeming to have any 
contact with it, but wherever you come before any Legis- 
lature in the South you touch the political interests of the 
country. Now, none of you know probably better than 
I know that if you go there it goes through as a Republi- 
can measure or a Democratic measure — it touches legisla- 
tion — it comes more or less to one of these parties. Now, 
if this board should be separate, and get the help of these 
best white people, and then take hold of the colored race 
as well as the white race, it seems to me that we could 
direct a work that would be fruitful in the line of work 
that we are wanting to bring about. Now, I do not 
speak of this because of my interest in the white man in 
the South but because of my interest in the civilization of 
the country. Where I am living it is the white race as 
well as the colored race — they are limited in their indus- 
tries, it is our purpose to make them efficient in their 
industries. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : I think this 
Five Years Meeting ought to show a great deal of respect 
to the wishes of our friends from the South, in as much as 
they know more than we do, and as tbeir judgment is 
that a different course would be wise, I think we ought 
to take steps to do this. 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : I would like to hear the 
resolution read again. 

James Wood. New York : I think the best way is to 
refer it back to the Business Committee, I therefore move 
that the Resolution be referred back to the Business Com- 
mittee for further consideration. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Clerk : We will hear the next resolution. 

(James Wood read resolution, 3, commending the 
work done by several of the Yearly Meetings on behalf of 
the Negro.) 

(Motion that the Resolution be approved carried.) 

(James Wood read Resolution, 4, concerning the work 
of the Associated Executive Committee on Indian Affairs.) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 253 

(On motion, the resolution was approved.) 
(Announcements were made and the meeting was 
closed with prayer by William P. Haworth.) 
Then adjourned until 2.30 p. m. 

SIXTH DAY AFTERNOON, TENTH MONTH, 24. 

The meeting was called to order at 2.20, by Ellwood 
O. Ellis. 

Clerk (E..O. Ellis): The delegates will please take 
their places promptly and we will have a little time for 
devotion and it is not a fit time for devotion unless there 
is perfect quiet. 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa ; and James M. Estes, Ohio, 
offered prayer. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : I want to say, dear 
friends, that I come to you with no hobbies to present. 
The subject I am to speak upon is not one of my own 
choosing, but I have approached it, and every step of the 
way has been with earnest prayer that the outcome of this 
consideration might be for the strengthening of the 
Church of Christ and for the advancement of His king- 
dom. I trust that in this same spirit of prayer what I shall 
say shall be received this afternoon, and that whatsoever 
is said shall be in this same spirit of prayerful considera- 
tion — seeking the advancement of the kingdom of God. 

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT TREND 
OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT. 

By Charees E. Tebbetts. 

Every advance in man's investigation of God's work 
in nature, and His dealings with man, make necessary a 
readjustment — not of the Christian's faith — but of our con- 
ceptions of what God has done and His ways of working. 
Only God is omniscient. Man is very finite. The horizon 
of his knowledge is exceedingly limited. At his best he 
can but confess, with Newton, that he is but a child play- 
ing upon the shore of the vast ocean of that which may be 
known. 



254 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Within the realm of the spirit, he is capable of con- 
tact with the infinite, and may know all that is necessary 
for his safe passage through the wilderness of this life 
into the glories of the future ; but in the realm of the in- 
tellectual he is but an interpreter of the records left in 
nature of God's handiwork, and in revelation of God's 
dealings with man in the past, and His purposes for man 
in the future. 

As an interpreter he can but " know in part," and in 
this partial knowledge there must needs be many crudities 
and mistakes, which can be only gradually corrected by 
more careful investigation of the material which God has 
placed at his disposal. It is man's privilege and duty to 
search out that which may be known and reverently read 
of God ' s thought in the pages of nature and revelation . To 
successfully accomplish this, requires almost infinite 
patience in the comparison of all the records open to him. 
And the results, at the very best, can only be an approxi- 
mation to the absolute truth. New sources of informa- 
tion will be constantly opening to him, and these will all 
the while be correcting the mistakes of previous study. 

The great trouble has always been the lack of humil- 
ity — in the modest appreciation of our own powers as in- 
terpreters- In our over-confidence, both in scientific 
study in nature and in theological study in revelation, we 
have too often placed our superficial guesses at truth upon 
the plane of assured knowledge. To quote a remark of 
Dr. Behrends at the Ecumenical Missionary Conference, 
" The great trouble with us is we know so many things 
that are not so." The result has been most disastrous in 
the so-called conflict between science and religion, and in 
the wordy warfare of past generations between the dif- 
ferent sects of the Christian Church. Fiercely has the 
battle raged over questions of science — whether the earth 
is round or flat ; whether it or the sun is the centre of 
motion ; whether the earth was made in six of its rota- 
tions, or through immeasurable ages ; whether present 
forms of life were spoken into existence by theyfo/ of the 
Almighty or came to be by slow changes through long 
ages ; over questions of theology — predestination and 



OF THE CONFERENCE 255 

free will ; forms of church government ; modes of admin- 
istering the so-called ordinances ; certain questions of 
eschatology. Over such questions as these, men have 
been pronounced heretics, excommunicated from the 
Church, burned at the stake — literally and figuratively ; 
the Church of the living God has been divided, the body 
of Christ rent asunder, discord between brethren, suspi- 
cion, anger and hatred have taken the place of Christian 
love. Is it any wonder the world has looked on doubt- 
ing the verities of a religion manifesting such bitter 
fruits? When the smoke of battle has cleared away, it 
has been found there were no irreconcilable differences 
after all. The records of nature and revelation have not 
been in conflict. They have been questions of interpreta- 
tion only ; it has simply been shown that human judg- 
ment was not infallible. 

It would seem that Christians should by this time 
have learned wisdom by experience and have quit their 
useless controversy. We may thankfully acknowledge 
that most of the old bitterness between the different de- 
nominations has passed away, and that a much better 
understanding exists between the theologian and the 
scientist. And yet we are frequently made aware that 
suspicion of brethren is not entirely passed. Every little 
while some brother is impaled with the charge of heresy. 
There are still occasional hints of a broken fellowship, 
unless the thoughts of believers are held strictly within 
the limits of the older interpretations. I trust that in a 
Quaker conference Christian love may rule supreme while 
we candidly discuss some of the practical aspects of the 
present trend of religious thought. 

I cannot speak as an authority upon the subject, as 
my work for the last fifteen years has been under such 
pressure in other fields that I have read no work either 
expounding or opposing modern theories. It is impossi- 
ble, however, for a person to intelligently read such re- 
ligious and scientific articles as find place in the current 
literature of the day without being impressed with the fact 
that great changes have taken place in the scientific and 
religious thought of the last quarter century. I suppose 



256 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

it to be a fact that evolution in some form is generally, 
perhaps unanimously accepted by those who have given 
careful, intelligent study to the questions involved ; and 
that there are no text books now issued and no institu- 
tions of higher education of any standing that do not re- 
ceive it as a fundamental hypothesis in all science teach- 
ing. If I rightly understand, higher criticism in its rela- 
tion to the Bible investigates the books contained therein 
as to their date and authorship, and the place they are to 
occupy as history or literature. I suppose it is a fact that 
as a result of these studies the views of some upon these 
points have been materially modified. The practical 
questions for us are — what place shall we give these 
teachings in our own scheme of thought, and what should 
be our attitude as a Church in regard to them. 

We may group those who devote themselves to these 
studies into two classes : First, Those who investigate 
from the standpoint of opposition to the Bible. Such are 
likely to make extreme claims more or less sensational in 
character with a fondness for startling religious people ; 
they enjoy any evidences of anxiety upon their part for 
the safety of their convictions. The less attention the 
Church gives them the less trouble there will be from that 
source. A second class, studying from the standpoint of 
a Christian faith, desire to ascertain the truth. They are 
constructive in their work and are the real defenders of 
the faith. Because of different points of view there are 
great differences in the claims made ; and most of us have 
not the data at hand nor the time for sufficient investiga- 
tion to rightly decide upon the merits of the controversy. 
It must be left to Christian scholarship. There it may 
safely be left. 

A question of immediate and practical interest for us 
is : " Are there any indications that tend either to excite 
or allay anxiety as to the outcome. The claim is made 
that there is unusual indifference on the part of the people 
to the claims of Christianity ; that there is a lack of con- 
viction for sin, and of real heart seeking after God. Some 
assert that this indifference is caused by the views promul- 
gated by modern scholars. It may be admitted that there 



OF THE CONFERENCE 257 

is far too much indifference among the people to their 
spiritual needs. But if modern thought be in any consid- 
erable degree the cause, we ought to find indifference and 
skepticism greatest in our educational centres where ad- 
vanced thought is supposed to exert its strongest in- 
fluence. 

Now the fact is just the reverse of this. There is no 
organization so closely in touch with student life through- 
out the world as the Y. M. C. A. I present the follow- 
ing communication received a few days ago from the in- 
ternational headquarters : 

" New York, Oct. 2, 1903. 

" Your letter of Sept. 25th making inquiry concern- 
ing the religious condition of the colleges and univerities 
in Europe and America has just been received. In 
America evangelical Christianity is undoubtedly a more 
vital power in the lives of the students than at any pre- 
vious time during the last century. The proportion of 
members of evangelical churches in the 690 institutions of 
learning in which there are Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations is reported to average a little over fifty per cent. 
The religious influences exerted upon the students by pro- 
fessors in the smaller denominational colleges are much 
the same as in former decades, as far as we can ascertain. 
In the large universities of an independent character the 
professors do not have opportunity to exert as direct a re- 
ligious influence upon students, and in not a few cases 
their influence is not in the direction of positive Christ- 
ianity, although by far the majority of the professors are 
evangelical Christian men. On the other hand, the vol- 
untary religious activities on the part of the students them- 
selves exert an influence upon student life such as has 
never been experienced before in the history of higher 
education. The result is that there is more study of the 
Bible and deeper interest in missions and a greater respect 
for Christianity on the part of students than ever before, 
and as far as we can ascertain a larger number of students 
are led to become Christians each year than in preceding 



258 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

decades. The conditions in Europe are not so pro- 
nouncedly in support of evangelical Christianity. As far 
as we can learn, a smaller proportion of students are evan- 
gelical Christians in the positive sense of the term. 
Agnosticism, materialism and rationalism are much more 
common ; and yet, also in European universities a nucleus 
of earnest Christian men is found in practically every in- 
stitution who are beginning to exert a marked influence in 
the direction of vital Christian living. The conditions in 
the universities of Great Britain and Ireland are much more 
nearly like those in the United States and Canada, and each 
year the university students are themselves assuming a 
larger share in exerting an organized influence to reach 
their fellow-students. This is chiefly in the direction of 
the development of the religious life of those who are now 
Christians. The influence of certain professors in Eng- 
land and Scotland, following the example of Prof. Drum- 
mond, is quite pronounced in promoting Christian living. 
" Very sincerely yours, 

" H. P. Anderson." 

" To Pres. Chas. E. Tebbett, Whittier, Cal." 

Every person familiar with college life knows, as the 
above evidence shows, that the influences toward evangel- 
ical Christianity are far stronger in those centres than 
ever before. The most enthusiastic and spiritual gather- 
ings of the present day are those of Christian students. 
Modern missions had their rise, in this country, among col- 
lege students, and nowhere at the present time do they 
receive more intelligent study and more hearty support. 
That at the very time that indifference rules in the world 
at large, there is an almost universal uplift in evangelical 
spiritual life throughout the educational centres of the 
world, does not indicate that so-called advanced thought 
is strongly detrimental to religious influences. Even in 
the rationalistic centres of Europe evangelical Christianity 
is gaining, and shows that the extreme form of destructive 
criticism is losing its influence. I can bear personal testi- 
mony from an experience of over thirty years in connec- 
tion with student life in various fields, in all of which the 



OF THE CONFERENCE 259 

claims of modern thought were candidly considered, and 
such as seemed reasonably established freely received, I 
have never known a student turned aside from the Chris- 
tian faith. I have known two young men from Christian 
families, placed between the two extremes of rationalistic 
thought on the one hand and blind denunciation of 
modern thought on the other, who became skeptics. 
Openness to all forms of possible truth and absolute can- 
dor in considering all claims is the only safe place for the 
Church to stand. The advice of Gamaliel to the leaders 
of religious thought of his time, when they would con- 
demn the teachers of new ideas, is still sound and safe. 
Any other course is likely to exaggerate the evils without 
accomplishing good ; if the views advanced be false, open 
denunciation and heresy trials simply advertise them the 
more. Condemnation for heresy, even if just, enables the 
heretic to pose as a martyr and gain the sympathy of the 
world ; and if unjust, as it generally has been throughout 
the past, it arouses indignation against the Church and 
destroys its power as a witness-bearer to the truth. 

Again, to cling to old interpretations and to denounce 
the new when they have been generally accepted, is to 
destroy one's power of reaching intelligent men with the 
truth. A person maybe a true believer and teach correct 
conceptions of all the essentials of faith ; but if he persist 
in declaring that the earth is flat, and that to believe it 
round is to deny the Bible, he cannot expect to reach in- 
telligent men with the truth. He will make skeptics 
rather than believers. 

The practical conclusion I believe to be that the 
whole controversy should be left to the tribunal of Chris- 
tian scholarship. Before the open light of thorough in- 
vestigation the truth will be established and error over- 
come. 

I must briefly touch upon a few other practical phases 
of the question : 

First, Confidence in the leadership of Christian 
scholars should take the place of suspicion. Ever since 
the days of Paul, the Christian scholar has been the strong- 
est human factor in the promulgation of the truth. His 



260 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

spirituality is certainly as deep, and his love of truth as 
strong as that of any ; and his opportunities for investiga- 
tion, and his ability to sift out false claims from true are 
immeasurably superior. The history of the Christian 
Church in all the ages of the past have assuredly estab- 
lished his claim to our confidence and honor. 

Second, The Church of Christ should always have 
deep reverence for truth. While all truth is not equally 
important, all truth is sacred. Any statement of possible 
truth should be treated with respectful consideration and 
not with derision. If evolution be a possible mode of 
God's work, we do not honor Him by treating it lightly. 
If we show irreverence for that which is God's truth to 
the scientist, we may have ourselves to blame if he lack 
reverence for those truths most sacred to us. 

Third, We should welcome light from any source. 
Superstition and error always thrive where investigation 
is suppressed. Truth always delights in the open light of 
day. 

Fourth, New statements should neither be hastily re- 
ceived nor condemned. If they seem to be inconsistent 
with Biblical statement, it may prove to be only with our 
interpretation. The Berean attitude is always the correct 
one. Search the Scriptures carefully to see whether, after 
all, they may not be perfectly reconcilable with the state- 
ments that are new to us. In this searching make wise 
use of the thoughts of other interpreters ; our range of 
vision may be too limited ; other eyes may be keener. 
Personal conference with those who love our L,ord.and 
who hold other views is most helpful in broadening our 
outlook. Discussion with those who deny our Lord 
should be with great caution ; it is rarely helpful to either 
party. 

Fifth, The best place for the consideration of such 
themes is in open conferences, where devout Christians 
may candidly and lovingly compare their divergent views, 
and by personal contact and the sweet fellowship of the 
devotional service may learn to love as brethren and re- 
spect each other's Christian spirit, though they may not 
see eye to eye. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 26 1 

Most emphatically the sermon is not the place for 
such discussion. The clear presentation of the awful fact 
of human sin and failure, and the glorious remedy through 
salvation and redemption in Christ Jesus and the help of 
the Holy Spirit, is a theme amply sufficient to occupy the 
time and strength of the Christian pulpit. It is no place 
either to air the new views of modern thought or to hurl 
anathemas at those who hold them. The apostolic rule 
was this: "That which 'we have seen and heard, that 
which we have seen with our eyes, that which our hands 
have handled of the Word of L,ife — that declare we unto 
you." The closer we adhere to this practice the more 
completely will we fulfill the mission of the preaching of 
the Gospel. 

Sixth, What are the bearings of this question upon 
the integrity of the Bible ? It has not been shown to be 
in error in any important statement of fact, nor has any 
essential doctrine been touched by an5' statement of 
modern thought that has received the general approval of 
Christian scholars. Rationalistic critics may claim that 
its veracity is overthrown, and Unitarians may claim that 
they invalidate the doctrines of sin and redemption ; but 
the veracity of the Bible and the truthfulness of the doc- 
trines taught were never so strongly established in the 
thoughts of intelligent men as they are to-day. That it 
should stand the test of the severest criticism and be 
found not inconsistent with verified facts of the latest sci- 
ence is one of the strongest proofs that it is not of human 
origin. 

Human interpretations have been shown to be at fault. 
Certain ideas have been read into the Bible that were 
never in its text. It is a revelation of God to men and of 
His will for them. It uses facts from nature to make 
clear God's relationship to His creation and to illustrate 
His truth ; and in doing so it uses language that could be 
used with perfect consistency by the scientist of the twen- 
tieth century. It sets forth God's purposes in the history 
of His chosen people. It teaches the most sublime truths 
in the form of philosophy, oratory, poetry, parable and 
allegory. It may not be always easy to determine in 



262 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

which category some special portion should be placed, 
but the truth taught and the integrity of the word is en- 
tirely independent of such questions, as they are also of 
questions of authorship and date. 

The Bible is still, as Gladstone calls it, " The Im- 
pregnable Rock of Holy Scripture." In its pages, as 
nowhere else, are found help for the tempted, comfort for 
the sorrowing, courage for the faint-hearted, inspiration 
for the living, and everlasting hope for the dying. 

When the heathen prince asked good Queen Victoria 
" why the difference between the degradation of his own 
people and the blessings enj oyed by hers," she gave him a 
copy of the Bible, saying : "This is the foundation of 
England's greatness." Any book whose teachings can 
lift men out of the slime of sin to a noble manhood ; that 
can lift tribes out of savage cannibalism to devoted 
Christian living ; that can lift nations out of barbarism to 
civilization, needs the support of no human hands to 
steady it from falling. Years ago infidels prophesied that 
our Bible would soon be a book discredited and unread. 
But to-day no book approaches it in the eagerness with 
which it is sought after. It never was in so great demand 
among the people in any former generation, and never 
before so reverently studied in our centres of education. 
For it we have nothing to fear. It is still able to make 
wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ 
Jesus. 

Clerk : We will have a further presentation of this 
subject by J. Ell wood Paige, of New England Yearly 
Meeting. 

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF TPIE PRESENT TREND 

OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT. 

By John Ell wood Paige. 

Whoso toucheth this topic toucheth the apple of the 
eye, and in approaching it I wish us to have clearly in 
mind the proposition laid down by Paul in his epistle to 
Timothy which was read in the opening of our first 
session in this house, "The servant of God must not 



of the; conference 263 

strive." A discussion of a subject does not necessarily 
imply a marshalling of antagonistic forces, but rather a 
comparison of views in the effort to obtain light upon 
the matter in hand and to come to correct conclusions. 

From a general view of some of the trends of 
the religious thought of our time the outlook is 
hopeful. There is a growing and deepening desire to 
obtain a strong, comprehensive grasp of truth, not of 
opinions and deductions which are the result of other 
men's thinking but of truth itself and for the real love of 
it, and men come to conclusions based upon their own 
research, and I am thankful in the belief that they go 
about their task with a divine illumination and guidance, 
something which they have obtained because they have 
devoutly sought for it. If there was ever a time, we 
have long since passed from it, when Protestant Christ- 
ians were willing to accept the judgment of any man or 
set of men as final, and they base their action upon the 
apostolic teaching ' ' Let every man be fully persuaded in 
his own mind . ' , Like the Bereans their patent of nobility 
rests upon the basis of dail} r scriptural study and research. 

The trend of religious thought is away from a blind 
acceptance of other men's interpretations of Scripture 
truth, and toward a reverent desire to find for ourselves 
what the truth really is. In this independence however, 
let it not be understood that no value is placed upon the 
thought and experience of men of earlier times. Let it be 
fastened with a nail in a sure place that the quest after 
truth is an honest one, that the desire is to prove all 
things and to hold fast that which is good. The thought 
of to-day, taking advantage of the opportunities which 
the schools afford, together with the accumulated ex- 
perience of the years, goes into deeper and broader realms 
as the days go by. What could we claim by way of 
advancement if it did not ? It would be strange indeed 
if mistakes were not made, they are made to-day, they 
have been made in the past, they will continue to be 
made. But he who seeks aright, in the light of the spirit 
of our master, will eventually discover the straight path 
between right and left hand errors. 



264 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

One important practical aspect of religious thought 
to-day is its comprehensiveness, its thoroughness, and its 
effect in the sy metrical development of the man. We 
have suffered in the past, and we have not secured com- 
plete release, from men of one idea. One particular phase 
of truth fastens itself upon the heart and conscience of 
the man and he bends the entire energy of his being upon 
it, to the exclusion of other and equally important phases. 
I do not care how good and pure and strong and 
scriptural and orthodox that particular truth may be, an 
exclusive insistence upon it is bound to result in an 
abnormal development along one line and a painful 
shrinking in others. The tendency of modern thought is 
to save from this, and to bring one up to the measure of 
the stature of the fullness of a man. Nothing is more 
clearly apparent in the purpose of God for his creatures. 
There may be a place for specialists in religious teaching, 
but they do not always receive their preparation in the 
way the specialists in medicine or the other sciences 
receive theirs, more's the pity. The scientific specialist 
does not start in his line of preparation with an eye solely 
to his future vocation, taking up only these branches 
which relate immediately to it. It is an absolute necessity 
that his mind should be developed in all its parts, a 
necessity too that his physical being should be trained 
and developed, so intimate is the relation between the 
physical and the mental. Then when all the parts of his 
mental, moral and physical nature receive a full develop- 
ment, the energies of his being may well be concentrated 
upon the chosen pursuit of his life. We have discovered 
that we have no business to take the spiritual away from 
all the other forces of our being and treat them upon a 
separate line. They too need to be cultivated, expanded, 
and given their proper relation with the mental, the 
moral, and the physical. The man of one idea is sure to 
wax impatient with those who run not with him to the 
same excess of concentration upon his pet theme. His 
charity is often found to be inadequate, whether you take 
it in the broad sense of love or restrict it to that shade of 
meaning which relates more particularly to toleration. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 265 

The trend of religious thought to-day ( I speak more 
particularly of our own people ) is not to break away 
from our old moorings. We have a priceless heritage 
and we do not want to squander it. We would take our 
patrimony with all thankfulness, and by judicious care 
and the use of any methods which the progress of events 
may place in our reach we would enlarge it for our own 
benefit and the benefit of our children. Modern thought 
would not take from our Bible one iota of its truth or its 
teaching. It only asks to be allowed to delve into its 
depths and to bring forth from its treasures things new 
as well as old: It is pitiful to see the efforts that are 
made to defend the Scriptures, as though they needed 
defending. The good old book in its entirety has stood 
the wear and tear of twenty centuries and to-day is more 
widely circulated than ever before, translated into more 
languages than ever before, studied more than ever before, 
believed in more than ever before. Now and then a 
critic puts his puny hand upon it and tells us it is over- 
thrown, but he endureth for a little time and then vanish- 
eth away. To-day the Church has more to fear from 
petty criticism from those who are on the constant watch 
for heresy than from that bolder type that meets one in 
an open field and fair fight. 

The demand of the hour is for broad, liberal, yet 
carefully guarded training for the work of life. In saying 
which, I am profoundly impressed with the fact that an 
unlearned man if he be spirit filled is a power inconceiv- 
ably greater than the most thoroughly cultivated without 
such filling. What I contend for and what I conceive to 
be the practical trend of the best religious thought of the 
day is a healthy combination of the two. The Bible 
nowhere puts a premium upon ignorance ; its general 
demand is for thorough development. Let me cite two 
of its notable examples, one from the Old Testament 
Scriptures whose career is fresh in our minds from recent 
study. Forty years in the high grade schools of Egypt, 
forty years alone with his flocks and his God in the 
pasture lands of Midian, forty years leading and training 
a vast rabble of slaves, murmuring, complaining, 



266 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

impatient ; and leading them to his successor, a diciplined, 
loyal, and invincible army. Men who have started out 
in a search after the ' ' mistakes of Moses ' ' and have 
followed him carefully from the Nile to Nebo will, if they 
are honest, return from the quest in admiration of the 
greatest law-giver, the truest poet and seer that the world 
has ever known. The other, rich in his natural endow- 
ment, trained in the schools of Tarsus, no mean city, 
finishing his studies at the feet of Gamaliel, ardent in the 
vigor of his young manhood, is shone upon by a light 
from heaven and has given in his life and his writing a 
brilliant proof for all time of what God can do with a 
well trained man, when once He gets his hand upon him. 

To such practical issues, as I understand it, is the 
trend of the religious thought of our best minds to-day. 

Clerk: The subject is now before you for discus- 
sion. 

Aaron M. Bra}-, Oregon : I do not know that I want 
to discuss this question. I notice that whenever this ques- 
tion is brought to the attention of an audience everybody 
that brings it before us says that the whole thing must be 
left to Christian scholarship. Now, I suppose there is 
no one here who would claim to be a scholar in the sense 
in which the term is used. They tell us about the con- 
census of Christian scholarship — that term was used five 
years ago. Some of us ignorant people would like to 
hear what that means. We know that some of the higher 
critics in our land, including men in our own Church, 
have declared positively that the only fall of man that -the 
world knows anything about is a fall upward. Now, 
what some of us ignorant people would like to know is, 
whether the Christian scholarship of America, or Europe, 
has come to the conclusion that the only fall of man is a 
fall upward. We want to know what to think of evolu- 
tion. I ask this question for information and we want 
the information. I will give you the reason that I want 
it. I heard a man, who believes both in higher criticism 
and evolution, declare in the presence of forty or fifty 
persons — he says, " I discard entirely the substitutional 
idea of the death of Christ. I belive in the educational 



OF THE CONFERENCE 267 

idea. I believe that Christ died on behalf of man, but 
the trouble is," says he, " that somebody comes along 
and claims that Jesus Christ died instead of man." I 
admire the papers that have been read this afternoon, 
they have been well written, but neither of them has 
touched the marrow of this question. They have failed 
to touch the very thing that we want to know. I ask for 
light upon this subject. I am not a scholar, but I think 
I have a right to know what Christian scholarship does 
declare in regard to the fall of man. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana: There are a great 
many expressions made by persons who are members of 
Friends that do not represent the Society of Friends, and 
because somebody who may be a member may give expres- 
sion to something that is not in accordance with the trend 
of thought of the Church, the Church is not responsible, 
and I would refer the brother and all others who want to 
know what the trend of thought of our Church is to the 
Declaration of Faith of the Richmond Conference in 1887 
which you will find in our Books of Discipline. 

Clerk : What disposition will you make of these 
papers ? 

James Wood, New York : I do not know that any 
action is necessary in the face of this meeting. 

John W. Woody, North Carolina : As this question 
is before us it seems to me our friend has put a question 
that some of us would like to hear answered. I would 
like to know how we stand on this question. When we 
speak of the practical aspects of a thing we would like to 
know what are some of the results that should be looked 
for. Now, as the papers that have been read before us 
have clearly led us to believe that first there is that which 
is revelation and there is an open question as to what 
revelation is. We all believe in revelation as a Church, 
but we differ as to what revelation is touching certain 
points. There are two lines of thought, man's thought 
and God's thought. Now, when we go to look at the 
practical aspects of a thing we can better know a thing 
by its effect. In the days before Christ came, this meas- 
uring of revelation by reasoning began — we find we can 



268 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

trace this measure of Man's thought with God's thought. 
It is no new thing. What has been the effect of this 
measure of man's thought with God's thought upon the 
heart and its effect upon the Church ? Now, shall we 
study the Bible, and go out with God's help to bring the 
world to believe in the Bible, or shall we give our time 
to find out whether this Bible is true or not ? 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : I rose to put myself on record 
at the present time on this great issue that is before us 
to-day. I was not in to hear the papers, but I have been 
under advisement in regard to the prudence of introducing 
any measure of this kind to a body of this kind. A dis- 
cussion of this kind belongs to educational conferences ; 
it belongs to Bible conferences ; it belongs to many 
places but it does not belong here. Dr. McKenzie, well 
known by the reading people of the East, was representing 
the cause of Christ at Harvard University. He was called 
upon by the ministers of the Methodist Church to come 
before them in a morning meeting, where were almost 
always two hundred people gathered from the ministers of 
the Methodist Church, and he told them why they had not 
been successful, and especially in reaching the more intel- 
ligent and bringing them in touch with the Gospel. 
Among the things that Dr. McKenzie said is this, " Breth- 
ren, your call is to preach the Gospel of the Lord Jesus 
Christ ; you have no call at all in the scientific lines, and 
if I had a question to ask on a scientific subject I would 
not go to a single one of you for an answer. You are not 
situated so as to know." Now, you go into your places 
on Sabbath day, if a man comes from the scientific circles 
he does not go to hear scientific questions discussed, he 
wants his soul fed. He is a scientific man, you begin to 
explain yourself and you begin to flounder and he says, 
"O, pshaw! he doesn't know anything about this subject." 
Shall you expect that man to come again ? That expec- 
tation would be a failure if 3^ou did. There is a reason 
for scriptural investigation ; I am heartily in favor of the 
deepest researches of the Gospel on constructive lines. I 
shall alwa5 r s be in favor of an education that can be put 
under man's feet, so that you feel that you are standing 



OF THE CONFERENCE 269 

on something solid below you. But to have these ques- 
tions brought before such an audience as this, I protest 
against it as out of order, and I think our protest ought to 
stand against any introduction of anything of the kind 
ever again in these meetings. 

S. Adelbert Wood, Ohio : I want to add, in the 
strongest terms that the practical tendency of to-day is to 
rob us of the Scriptures as authority because the tendency 
is to eliminate certain parts. It strikes right at the vital 
truths upon which we stand as a Church when we recog- 
nize that the trend of religious thought is to eliminate 
from the offering of Jesus Christ on Calvary everything 
but the ethical, and that the purpose of the death of Christ 
was simply to influence, thus leaving us without a vicari- 
ous sacrifice, without a substitutional offering. I claim 
as a man who has sought God and has found Him, who has 
sought the forgiveness of sins and has heard the sweet 
words, " Thy sins, which are many are forgiven thee," 
one who has sought by the power of the Gospel to be 
cleansed from all sin, and sought for and received the fill- 
ing of the spirit of God, that I know something of the 
Gospel though I am not a scholar. I contend that we 
are not disposed as a people to drift back into an educated 
priesthood to interpret the Scriptures for as. As Chris- 
tian men and women having known the truth, having 
tasted and seen that the Lord is good, we know some 
things, and 'we know it as well as any other man knows 
it. We know that there is an efficacy in the blood of 
Jesus Christ to cleanse from all sins, that death has taken 
place for the redemption of the world, and that there is 
forgiveness of sins. When we have transgressed the 
Word of God, we know that we are under the curse of 
the law because it is written, "Cursed is everyone that 
continueth not in all things which are written in the book 
of the law to do them," that He might redeem them 
under the law. We stand in defence of the truth, 
though we be not scientists, and make no profession 
in that direction ; as Ministers of the Gospel we stand 
in its defence, though we be not scientists. I feel 
that the time has come when questions of science should 



270 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

be tested by the Word of God and not the Word ot 
God by science. 

AVilliam P. Pinkhatn, Ohio : I have thought that if 
one of these excellent papers had just given us the mean- 
ing of the expression, " The Trend of Modern Thought," 
it might perhaps have been a help to us in our discussion. 
Evidently the expression indicates a movement against 
our old standard beliefs. Our brother who has just 
spoken, has indicated one of the lines of difference — the 
trend toward the acceptance of the ethical theory of the 
atonement and the rejection of the substitutional theory. 
The scientific thought is certainly toward the adoption of 
the idea that the works of humanity are generally inspired 
— that the genius of Newton and Edison and Morse was 
just as truly inspired as were the sayings of the holy men 
of old — although the inspiration did not exist in the same 
degree or standard of excellence. This is one of the ten- 
dencies and one most certainly destructive in its influence 
and which I hope that the Church of Christ will stand 
against. Then there are other thoughts, one of these is 
respecting the fatherhood of God. The tendency of the 
time is to reject almost wholly that sublime conception of 
the judicial relationship of God toman which every where 
beams out from the pages of the Book. The tendency is to 
emphasize the Divine love to such an extent as to almost do 
away with the idea of Divine judgment. In the human 
being there is another tendency — a tendency toward an 
altogether altered view of the subject of what sin is. We 
have accepted the thought that sin is the transgression of 
law, but the idea obtains more and more that sin is rather 
man's misfortune than his fault. There is in these lines 
and in others a tendency to enthrone the doctrine of evo- 
lution. It has been said to-day, in one of the papers, that 
evolution is generally accepted everywhere. Evolution in 
one sense has always been recognized in some respects. 
The evolution of the oak from the acorn has in it in a 
certain sense the fact of evolution which has always 
been, and will always be recognized, but for the theory 
of evolution to be brought forward as an explanation of 
nature is questionable, is undemonstrable and to assert 



OF THE CONFERENCE 27 1 

it as a fact to base all our reasons and conclusions upon 
is one of the disastrous tendencies of the day in which we 
live. 

Rufus M. Jones, New England : We have a very 
important subject which must be discussed this afternoon 
if it ever is. It seems to me that this subject has been 
pretty thoroughly discussed and I would move that we 
now turn our attention to the next subject. 

(Motion seconded.) 

Levi D. Barr, California : I think such an important 
question as this one, that affects the vital interests of the 
Church, ought to be thoroughly discussed. There is no 
question concerning the Church that needs the attention 
of the Church more than this. I want to enter a protest 
against side-tracking this question until we do something 
with it somehow or other. I should like to see some of 
the older members take a part. 

Clerk : There is a call for the question. If you do 
not desire this motion to pass you can vote it down . 

(The motion was carried by a majority of 72 to 23.) 

David E. Sampson, North Carolina : I was not present 
to hear the papers, therefore I did not feel that it was 
right forme to vote. I wished to make that statement. 
There has been ringing in my ears ever since I entered 
this room, this passage of Scripture, " Nevertheless the 
foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The 
Lord knoweth them that are His." 

(A recess of five minutes was then taken.) 

HOW CAN AN EFFICIENT MINISTRY BE DEVELOPED ? 

Clerk : This subject will now be presented by Benja- 
min F. Trueblood, Secretary of the American Peace 
Society. 

"All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name," was sung 
while the delegates were taking their places. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : When the 
subject upon which I am to speak was given to me it was 
rather a more modest one than has gotten into the pro- 
gram. I am compelled to assume a great deal in the 
treatment of this subject, to assume what the Church 



272 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

holds on its spiritual side and to confine myself, in the 
limited time of twenty minutes, to the discussion of what 
I consider to be certain practical inefficiencies in our min- 
istry in the past, and to some extent at the present time. 
It is impossible for me to cover the ground fully, so if you 
find a great many things unsaid in the paper, remember 
I know of many more, and if you find criticisms about 
the incompleteness of this you may certainly know that I 
myself, have found many more. 

HOW CAN WE DEVELOP A MORE EFFICIENT 

MINISTRY ? 

By Benjamin F. Trueblood. 

The wording of the subject which I have been asked 
to present assumes that our ministry, if not altogether 
inefficient, is at least much less efficient than it ought to 
be. Of this assumption there is little need to bring proof. 
Every one who has any fairly extensive knowledge of our 
church throughout the United States knows it to be cor- 
rect. In the development of our church activities in 
recent years, evangelistic work, foreign mission work, 
general educational work and other lines have gone much 
in advance of effort to secure for our congregations an 
intelligent, comprehensive, living ministry of the word. 

Let me, then, speak briefly, first of the nature of the 
inefficiency, secondly of its causes, and thirdly of possible 
remedies which may be found. 

The inefficiency shows itself in several directions. 
Our ministry is still much too traditional in its manner 
both of conceiving truth and of presenting it. Platitudi- 
nous exhortations, stereotyped phraseologies, threadbare 
illustrations and figures, and traditional interpretations 
now ruled out by larger Biblical knowledge and better 
translations, abound all too much in many discourses. 
The changed conditions of the time in which we live are 
not well grasped, and methods of setting forth truth 
suited thereto are not adopted. The result is that much 
of our preaching fails to lay hold of people and make them 
feel that living and eternal realities are being dealt with. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 273 

In not a few instances where ministers have aban- 
doned the traditional habits of thought and methods of 
public speech formerly prevalent among us, they have 
fallen, or plunged, into the almost equally worn-out ways of 
thought and speech of preachers of other religious bodies. 

Again, our ministers are still largely a body of intel- 
lectually untrained and meagerly equipped men and 
women, incapable therefore of fully grasping the inner 
divine significance of the great movements of thought 
which are surging everywhere around us. They have not 
learned to think deeply, sustainedly and comprehensively. 
Besides their deficiency in general mental culture, many 
of them have learned little of the long and many-sided 
history of the church catholic, and not much more of that 
of our own body. The history of the doctrinal interpre- 
tations of Christianity, with their developments, transfor- 
mations and disappearances, is to the major part of them 
a sealed book. The results of this general and special 
lack of intellectual equipment are poverty of ideas, weari- 
some repetitions, readiness to catch up new and super- 
ficially plausible notions, proneness to extremes in the 
statement of special phases of the truth, hobby-riding, 
sentimental moralizing, fanatical excesses and narrow 
intolerance of other views than one's own. Another 
result is woeful failure to enter into and understand the 
peculiar intellectual and moral struggles of the men and 
women of our time, and a consequent failure to grip and 
hold congregations, especially when they contain any 
considerable numbers of the educated young men and 
women of our day, whose drifting from our churches is 
one of the most painful phenomena confronting us. 

Because of this paucity of ideas and its general effect 
on their preaching many ministers are able to stay but a 
short time in one place. The} 7 have to move on before they 
have had time to lay and develop any important plans of 
work in a community, or run about to find opportunity to 
repeat their small barrel of sermons. Congregations, in 
consequence, become discouraged, or restless, hard to 
please and critical, to the great detriment of the cause for 
which Christian assemblies stand. 



274 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Again, too large a imrnber of our ministers have only 
a meagre understanding of the real nature and Scriptural 
basis of onr denon al principles, and of their rela- 

tion to the tenets of other Christian bodies and to the 
spreat general doctrines common to all. They are conse- 
quently unable, in many eases, to meet the ministers ot 
other denominations on the same level of attainment, and 
: . gi . a satisfactory account of themselves and of our 
church. 

ice more, few of our ministers are producing any- 

:he way of valuable general religious literature, 

— sermons commentaries, essays on important religious 

. ies, treattses : plied Christianity, studies in the 

origin and history of our religion, etc . so much in 

in these days of universal reading, thought and 

: es e.-n ch . Our membership are hence compelled to satisfy 

_ thirst foi knowledge and help in these directions at 

other fountah - 

Is it any - ader, then, that as a whole our church 
is. according to the statistics of recent years, only just 
maintaining Itself, if it is doing that? 

1 have no disposition, in call:::,, attention to these 

acts, to produce a distorted or shabby picture of 
the character and work of our ministers. Much of what 
I have said applies with equal force to a considerable por- 
of the ministry of other religious organizations. 
:- are numerous, increasingly numerous, exceptic 
this general characterization of our ministry. There is 
not in any denomination a more spiritual, devoted and 
self-sacrificing body of preachers than ours, and certainly 
hich is doing so large and successful a busi- 
ness on so small a capital. Our mini sters are not under 
par in either brains or energy. I believe them to be 
naturally above the average. Whence, then, comes this 
inefficiency which is imperiling our work, indeed 
our whole denominational existence, as almost nothing 
else is ? 

The trouble in general lies only secondarily with the 
ministers themselves. It lies primarily with the Society 
as a whole. The mefficiency has been caused bv certain 



OF THE CONFERENCE 275 

extremes to which our church at one time carried some of 
its conceptions of the ministry and its functions in the 
church. Through these extremes the ministry was 
degraded from its divinely appointed position in the work 
of the church, and thereby shorn very much of its vitality 
and power. Preachers were made to feel that their min- 
istry was an entirely secondary thing, to be exercised only 
after everything else had been attended to. The theory 
that there is no class distinction between ministers and 
others, that the holding of public worship is not necessarily 
dependent on any visible ministerial leadership, that the 
preaching of the Gospel should be unmercenary and free, 
that preachers are dependent directly upon the Spirit for 
their general qualification and upon his fresh moving for 
each particular service, that education cannot make a 
minister, — important as these conceptions were and are, 
taken in their true meaning and proper proportion and 
application, they were entirely overworked by us. To 
such an extent was this the case, that whole sections of 
the personality of ministers, as created by God and 
ordained for their proper ends, were treated practically as 
if they were non-existent, — the intellect in particular, the 
former disownment of which was probably the greatest 
error ever committed by Quakerism. Spirituality, spirit- 
ual guidance, the sufficiency of the divine anointing and 
qualification, — great principles of which we must never 
lose sight, — were interpreted in such a narrow, tread-mill 
way that they were made a cloak for all manner of ignor- 
ance, crudity of ideas, mental vacuity, extravagant senti- 
mentalism, sanctimonious and unnatural speech, intellect- 
ual fear or indolence, and endless repetition of single 
monotonous discourses. 

From the repressive and sterilizing influence of this 
perverted conception of a spiritual ministry and the habits 
that sprang from it, we are still suffering greatly ; it has 
been nearly impossible for any of us entirely to escape 
from it. Few, if any, of us older preachers have pulled our- 
selves wholly loose from it, or ever can do so. We are still 
under the bondage to such an extent that, from fear of 
not being duly solemn and heavenly minded, neither our 



276 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

thoughts nor our voices will work freshly and naturally, 
nor can we without great difficulty set ourselves to the 
kind of mental and theological training and work which 
we need, lest we crowd the Lord out of our service. Our 
younger ministers also are suffering from the same cause 
much more than many of them imagine, so deeply were 
these one-sided conceptions ingrained in them in their 
earlier years. 

Perhaps the most discouraging feature of the situa- 
tion is that not a few of those who have gotten rid of some 
of the narrowing conceptions and peculiarities which 
befell us, have retained others, and those not the least 
detrimental, or have fallen into opposite extremes no less 
unfortunate. This has given rise in places, in the 
untrained intellectual soil of the Society, to a large 
amount of crude dogmatic self-assertion, under the claim 
of infallible Spiritual guidance, to fanciful and highly 
sentimental conceptions of truth, and to methods of 
preaching and teaching which are, if anything, more peril- 
ous to our strength and usefulness than the worst of the 
old peculiarities. 

How shall the ministry of the present and future be 
saved from these conditions, and made such as our inter- 
pretation of Christianity and its efficient propagation in 
the earth demand ? That is a difficult question, to which 
probably only time can give any adequate answer. The 
following suggestions may possibly help us to think along 
right lines on the subject. 

1. Our conception of the divine qualification - and 
Spiritual guidance of the ministry must be entirely res- 
cued> as it has already been in part, from the narrowness, 
onesidedness and artificialness into which it fell, and 
given its rational and complete interpretation. The prin- 
ciple itself is right and 'always was. It lies at the very 
foundation of all living and effective ministerial service. 
But we have treated divine qualification and guidance too 
much as if they were something artificial, put upon the 
spirit on the outside, — a bit of spiritual tatooing or finger- 
printing, or the effects of some immaterial pianola shoved 
up against the soul to make it go right, or flashes of a 






OF THE CONFERENCE 277 

light from some region far away from the spirit illumina- 
ting the inner being occasionally in a fitful, irregular and 
mechanical way. This perverted notion has been the 
origin of pretty much all of our ministerial errors, weak- 
nesses and whimsies, — our depreciation of the intellect 
and of hard, patient intellectual work, our melancholy 
management of the voice, our fancy-chasing sermonizing, 
our irregular and uncertain service, our ebullitions of loud, 
passionate and often empty rhetoric. 

The doctrine of divine qualification and guidance 
truly interpreted means the possession of the entire being 
by the divine life and purposes, in an inner, organic way. 
It means not only the Spiritual possession and guidance, 
but also the sanctified human use, of all the parts and 
faculties of the being, each according to its own nature 
and laws. It allows of neither the suppression nor the 
misdirection of any. God's work in the creation and 
organization and ordinary processes of our nature is just 
as great and sacred as His supernatural direction of it, 
and the one is never supplanted in the work of the other. 
When our ministry come to have this normal conception 
of the doctrine and try practically to realize it, there will 
be no more neglect or belittling of the intellect, no more 
mental bondage and fear. Ministers will thoroughly 
prepare themselves intellectually for their work, both in 
a general and special manner, and in briefer or more 
extended way for every sermon which the Lord calls 
them to preach, just as naturally as they will pray much 
and wait much upon God. Following the law of the 
mind's growth and use, they will be diligent, constant 
and open-minded students, not only of the Bible and of 
books upon the history and development of the religion 
which they teach, but also of those treating of the 
manifold ways and works of God in nature and human 
society. They will as far as possible study history and 
literature and science and psychology and philosophy 
and economics and sociology and political principles. 
Heart, imagination, mind, voice, body, — all will be 
constantly, diligently and harmoniously held to their 
best and most efficient service, in the interests of the 



278 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

unsurpassed work to which all ministers are divinely 
appointed. 

Here, it seems to me, is to be found the great and 
fundamental secret of a more efficient ministry. The 
whole nature with all its faculties, working according to 
their several laws, fed from all possible sources of truth, 
must be taken into the circle of divine qualification and 
guidance, and God must not be excluded from so much 
of the being as by our traditions He has practically been 
shut out in the past. 

2. The } T oung men and women now entering the 
ministry, exceptions of course aside, should all have a 
thorough mental training, both general and special, before 
assuming in a large way the active responsibilities of the 
work to which God has called them. The universal edu- 
cation of our time makes this a necessity. It constitutes 
a clear manifestation of the general will of God in the 
matter. These young men and women, however able, 
intelligent and consecrated they may be, can make no 
more serious mistake than to hurry into their work in a 
raw and immature state, through eagerness to be about 
their Master's business. Their Master's own spirit of 
self-restraint in the matter of His supreme work till He 
was thirty years of age is worthy of their reverent imita- 
tion. To rush raw into their work, the highest and 
most exacting in which men can engage, means in many 
instances to run a short and possibly brilliant career, and 
then to fail and fall out, because they find themselves 
exhausted in resources and unable to meet the increas- 
ingly heavy demands which modern educated Christian 
congregations are laying upon those called to minister 
to them spiritual truth in its ever-enlarging unfolding. 
There are, in some of our Yearly Meetings, possibly in 
all, not a few ministers only just past middle life, at the 
period when they ought to be at the height of their power, 
who find themselves actually in this position at the 
present time. Our imperfect conceptions and methods in 
the past gave them when young no proper qualification 
for the new age which was coming upon them. We must 
beware lest this happen again in this age of young people, 






OF THE CONFERENCE 279 

when there are grave dangers that many young men and 
women will be crowded forward into responsible positions 
before they are properly developed and matured. There 
is time enough, — -and money enough, if the church will 
only set-it apart, — to fit up every young minister in such 
form as will make him in the generation to come a work- 
man who will not need to be ashamed, and of whom the 
Church will have no excuse for growing tired. 

3 . We have now in active service a large number of 
capable and most valuable ministers — and no one appre- 
ciates them more highly than I do — who cannot go back 
and educate themselves in the higher learning, either 
general or religious, as they would all so much like to do. 
These need not be discouraged. They can do much to 
keep themselves fresh and to increase their efficiency, if 
they will only devote a portion of their time systematic- 
ally and conscientiously to careful and serious reading. 
In these days of libraries and inexpensive books there is 
little excuse for any minister allowing himself or herself 
to become intellectually antiquated and dull. Some min- 
isters might well curtail a little the social side of their 
activities — very proper in their place — in favor of an extra 
hour daily with valuable books. What they would lose 
thereby temporarily with certain members of their con- 
gregations they would gain twice over in permanent 
influence, respect and staying power. 

4. One further consideration : If we are to develop a 
ministry as efficient as the age we live in demands, as our 
great, increasingly important mission in the future will make 
absolutely imperative, if we are to survive and have any 
leadership in the further work of the world's redemption 
and reconstruction in the divine order, we must have 
under our own care an institution or institutions, in 
which our young men and women called to the Christian 
ministry may receive the very best and most compre- 
hensive training which the present advancement of the 
world's Christian life and knowledge makes possible. 
We ought to have the best and completest that can be 
had ; nothing superficial and onesided is worthy of us. 
The case is urgent and admits, I fear, of little further 



280 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

delay. Not another year ought to be allowed to pass 
without seeing the foundations of such an institution well 
laid. Some of our young men who feel deeply the neces- 
sities of the time go from us to the theological schools 
under other direction ; almost half of them never come 
back to us. The number who go, if we neglect to 
provide for them at home, will steadily increase; the 
proportion who will not return will almost certainly not 
diminish. 

I do not rate, I hope, at less than their real value the 
attempts which have been made in connection with our 
colleges and elsewhere to meet the need of such education 
and training as have been indicated above. Some of 
them have been made in the face of great difficulties and 
with a courageous devotion and self-sacrifice worthy of 
all praise. But none of them, it will be readily con- 
fessed, has reached a standard of development in scope, 
equipment and general efficiency at all adequate to the 
needs of the case, nor is it likely that they ever will 
under present conditions. The Biblical Departments in 
all our colleges ought to be made strong and efficient, 
but our present needs require something more. 

This Five Years Meeting, assembled this year for the 
first time, representing practically the entire body of 
Friends in the nation, and opening for us under the leader- 
ship of our Lord Jesus Christ a new era of power and 
progress in the fulfillment of our mission, ought to 
assume at once this task, which it has the ability and can 
command the means adequately to accomplish. It could 
not, I believe, better mark its inauguration and give jus- 
tification of its existence than by taking steps for the early 
establishment under its own supervision of a Biblical 
Institute and Training School, where those called to the 
Christian ministry and other Christian work may obtain 
the best and most comprehensive training for their calling 
which can be had, and obtain it under conditions which 
will not tend to weaken and undermine faith in the great 
principles which have made us a people. 

In closing the paper Benjamin F. Trueblood presented 



OF THE CONFERENCE 28 1 

a resolution in regard to Biblical Institute or Training 
School. 

Clerk : Further discussion of this subject by Dr. 
Seth Mills, of Western Yearly Meeting. 

Seth Mills, Western : I think I shall not need all the 
ten minutes appropriated to me for my discussion, which 
at this hour you will be very glad to know. 

HOW CAN AN EFFICIENT MINISTRY BE 
DEVELOPED ? 

By Seth Miees. 

It may be assumed at starting that two things are to 
be kept in sight throughout ; first, the raised-letter idea 
of development ; second, the employment of some definite 
means to secure it. 

If we were able to state in adequate terms what an 
efficient ministry is, the question of its development might 
more readily be answered. We may at least, be sure that 
efficient preaching is only that which conveys the truth 
of God to the hearts of men . 

The Pauline proposition that the ' ' Gospel of Christ 
is the power of God unto salvation," logically demands 
that preaching have in it the power of God ; and further, 
that by this power, the message of salvation reach its des- 
tined end. 

Explicitly stated, preaching to be efficient, must fit 
some one's Spiritual need. 

Jesus said to the first preachers, " Go, and as ye go, 
preach, saying, the ' Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' " 
There is no mistaking the import of this command ; and 
that is the first word of the Gospel to the kingdom of this 
world for all time. Further on, His charge to Peter was, 
' ' Feed my sheep, feed my lambs. ' ' Let it be remembered 
now, that Ministry which fails in feeding the food of God 
lacks efficiency. 

Entertainment for the mind was no part of the Mas- 
ter's standard, but the word of life to the soul, was always 
and in all of, His ministry. 



282 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

St. Paul illustrated our topic in the training of Timo- 
theus, his son, in the Gospel ; his charge to the young 
preacher was to strive for efficiency in ability rightly to 
divide, — that is, — " cut straight,'''' the word of truth. 
What is intended here, is the skill of an expert in car- 
pentry to make a precise section of his material that it 
may exactly fit a complementary piece of workmanship. 
It is the developed proficiency of a master workman who 
has studied to "show himself approved," and feels that 
he may confidently rely upon the commendation of his 
employer. Such skill, is the standard here inquired for. 

This efficiency is not the work of a moment, or the 
" life of an air-plant." There is no royal road to it. It 
demands hard, patient study of mechanical law, using the 
figure here spiritually, and persistent application in prac- 
tice of these principles to their intended use. In spiritual 
artizanship there must be the apprentice, beginning at the 
bottom and working patiently to the top. 

To state some of these first things, there must be to 
begin with, a distinct recognition of the Divine Call. It 
is a great thing for one to feel that he is " called of the 
Lord, as was Aaron." A strictly intellectual apprehen- 
sion of duty, while not to be undervalued, is still less 
than enough. There must be the emotive impression 
that presses the magic button of the soul to the response, 
" Here am I." There must be the mysterious touch ot 
the finger of God, and the audible, if yet unspoken, voice, 
which calls by name and moves the heart of the man, 
like the phenomena of the " Burning Bush," and making 
bare the feet to the deep, reverent consciousness of ' ' Holy 
ground." 

Then there is the always practical importance of pre- 
paredness. It is too late in the day for untrained service 
in any of the world's great enterprises, and intellectual 
equipment for the Lord's work surely cannot safely be 
overlooked. Discipline in thought as well as action, 
forceful expression, logical deduction, all have their value 
illustrated in the great Apostle to the Gentiles ; and I 
think it must be generally conceded that at any time a 
truly spiritual ministry will not be less spiritual for being 



OF THE CONFERENCE 283 

scholarly. True scholarship is the best guarantee of that 
practical simplicity which best adapts the Word to the 
understanding of the most simple-minded. Moreover, it 
is not to be forgotten at this juncture, that whatever there 
may be of a frowning castle in modern thought is likely to 
be vulnerable only to an intellectual thinker. 

Then again, there is the element of abandonment to 
be incorporated primarily into the scheme of progress. 
Paul sizes up the situation exactly in his ' ' waiting 
upon," or rather giving oneself to, the ministry. The 
"separating" or "setting apart," which is expressly 
the work of the Holy Spirit, must be supplemented by 
personal consecration and a settled understanding with 
oneself that all is to be counted loss for the blessed service 
of Jesus Christ. 

Still further, there must be the one single specialty 
to know the Bible and believe it with an all-consuming 
belief. The minister, of all men, must give his days and 
nights to the Bible. A sharp-sighted world knows when 
a man is preaching what he does, or does not believe, and 
disposes of his message accordingly. 

The terminal is reached in the steadfast conviction 
that after all else is settled, the " enacting clause " is 
from the Lord. After all the possibilities of individual 
effort are exhausted, the whole is but failure until it is 
charged with the truth of God by the ever-blessed Holy 
Spirit. " Preach the preaching that I bid thee," was the 
imperial order of the prophetic age, and belongs to ours 
as well. 

The gift of a " learned tongue " is a necessary factor 
in the process of development. Medical authority recog- 
nizes what it is pleased to term a ' ' Therapeutical 
Instinct," as the secret of correct prescribing. lamsug- 
gesting the need of a true spiritual instinct, implanted 
by the Lord and refined by His grace, which may detect 
with spontaneous and delicate nicety the indication for 
special gospel truth. 

The study of words and their best use is another 
essential. Here again we are permitted to draw upon the 
great Apostle. To Timothy, he commends the pattern of 



284 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

his own " sound words." The deep inwoven sense is 
that of " healthy " words, virile words, live- wire words, 
having vital energy within and free from the artificial 
superficial. The late President Harrison once said of his 
pastor, who is still an honored minister in this city, " I 
have never heard him say a foolish thing." O, that such 
efficiency might be correctly attributed to all of us. 

Passing from the minister's personal relationships, 
some collateral agencies are vital in promoting healthy 
development. Among these must be noted the place of 
the Eldership. Efficient Elders are as handmaids to the 
ministry. They are, if not to go before, at least to go 
hand-in-hand with it. Their office ought not to exist in 
name only. If development is growth, Elders ought to 
be of the kind to help growth. Spirit filled and strenu- 
ously active they should be forever awake to every chang- 
ing current in the atmosphere about them. The most 
practical movement along this line for the hour, is the 
inauguration of good methods to facilitate return to the 
Apostolic type of Eldership. 

Then it must not be forgotten that in a large measure, 
church people are, themselves, responsible for the effi- 
ciency of the ministry. Nothing will more surely weaken 
the best man's service than a listless, somnolent congre- 
gation. Ministry cannot develop in an atmosphere of 
chilling, passive, inactivity. The walls of Jericho stood 
up straight till the priests blew the trumpets and the 
"people shouted ; " then " they fell down flat." Given 
a moody and unresponsive church membership, and a 
weakly, insufficient ministry will result in spite of the 
minister. 

Attempting to reduce the sense of these fragmentary 
suggestions to something like a working formula, it seems 
appropriate that the greater Friends' Church now being 
established, should renew its structural principles with 
diligent care. First, It would be well in some suitable 
way to re-emphasize its original belief in the necessity for 
a truly Holy-Ghost inspired and baptized ministry. Sec- 
ond, To outline anew, broadly and comprehensively, its 
conception of the real nature of the Divine Call to the 



OF THE CONFERENCE 285 

ministry of the Gospel, and insist upon the necessity of its 
recognition . Third , To adopt some stated measures look- 
ing towards the amplification of service in the Eldership, 
and with special reference to its place in guiding and 
developing the ministry. Fourth, To inaugurate some 
organized appliance which may help ministers, young and 
old, but more particularly the young, to the benefits of 
systematic Bible study and training in Christian work. 
Fifth. To secure in the Church at large, a more general 
response to duty in co-operation with the ministerial 
department. 

As a last word, to develop a thoroughly efficient 
and church-building ministry, demands time, patient and 
continuous effort, faithfulness and prayer on the part of 
the whole membership. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore : I have listened 
with much interest to these papers. It is a matter of 
great importance, that we should look at this subject 
carefully and thoroughly. There has been a tendency in 
the past, at least among Friends in America, to run from 
one extreme to the other. When they find that one 
extreme does not answer they have, not infrequently, run 
into the opposite. We are right when we assume that the 
minister needs the call of the Lord ; and that he needs the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit, but when we merely assume 
it. and then emphasize his intellectual training as his 
necessary outfit, the first is very likely to fade from our 
remembrance. For, as a rule, what is simply assumed 
is likely to be forgotten . I want to plead this evening for 
that great preparation for the ministry which is to be had 
in a life lived with Jesus Christ. The great theological 
school that I and you are to go to is that school to which 
the disciples went, when they walked with our Saviour 
through Judea and Galilee. We also need the loving 
training that comes from a walk with Christ. There was 
nothing joyful or sorrowful that had not been glorified 
and sanctified to the disciples by the communion and 
teaching of their Master, and I know of no training for 
the ministry that begins to equal the training that comes 



286 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

from living with Jesus Christ. In following our ordinary- 
natural duties we become and remain men among men. 
I know something of what I am speaking of from personal 
experience. For two years or more I spent my whole 
time in the ministry of the Gospel in a foreign land and 
the Lord blessed me, and I trust it was not without bles- 
sing to others, but when I returned again to my home and 
entered into the ordinary duties of life I felt a new grip 
on the truth of God, a new power to teach it to other 
people, a new connection with men. I know one who is 
an eminent authority in his own department of study, 
and one who knows a great deal of the trend of modern 
thought. He had absolutely stopped attending any place 
of worship ; because he knew more than the preachers 
could tell him. But he went one day into a Friends' 
meeting where there was no especially trained minister, 
but where there was freedom, under the spirit of the 
Lord, and he said, "Here is my place. These people 
make no profession of learning — no profession of teaching 
me what I know better than they do, but they speak sim- 
ply, and give what they feel to be messages from God 
and these messages reach me." There is a great deal 
more in what that man said than many of us are apt to 
think. When a man feels that he must supplement the 
knowledge of the call of God by a special course in 
an institution and he takes a course of training along 
intellectual lines, it is almost impossible for him to 
come out of that theological institution at the end of 
three years, and not lay an undue emphasis on the 
intellectual preparation rather than the spiritual when he 
comes before the people. I do not plead for ignorance, 
but I do want men and women who give themselves 
up to the Lord to give their powers to Him, to be willing 
to take of such opportunities for improvement as they may 
have, but never in such a way as to think, or to lead 
others to think, that intellectual training is of prime im- 
portance. The emphasis should always be on the call of 
the Lord. That is what is needed, and then on the guid- 
ance of His Holy Spirit, teaching us what to do and 
what to say. If there were more close waiting upon His 



OF THE CONFERENCE 287 

Spirit, more speaking when He says speak, and stopping 
when His Spirit stops, and less feeling that it is im- 
portant to fill up an hour, or a half or three-quarters of an 
hour, and more readiness to leave time for somebody else 
or for silence, the needed variety would be supplied by the 
Holy Spirit laying His touch upon this person and on 
that person. I praise God for our ministry — for our min- 
isters who are endued with the Holy Spirit. I praise God 
for the learned Apostle Paul ; but I do not stop there ; I 
praise God also for the unlearned Apostle Peter. Who 
can say that Paul was the greater ? It was Peter who 
preached that wonderful sermon on the day of Pentecost, 
and not Paul. Both have their right place, and the Church 
that is in full harmony with the apostolic spirit will make 
room for both. 

On motion it was decided to refer the resolution of 
Benjamin F. Trueblood in regard to the establishment of 
a theological institution to the Business Committee. 

Clerk : Unless you order otherwise, we shall have to 
pass from this question and take up the matters from the 
Business Committee that must be disposed of in this session . 

Allen Jay, Indiana : All committees should have 
their reports ready for the session to-morrow morning as 
arranged on the program. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I do not know how it 
is possible for all of these committees to report to-morrow 
morning. One committee, of which I am a member, was 
not to meet until 1.30 to-morrow, and I don't know how 
we are to get together and get our work done so as to 
report to-morrow morning. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : There are arrangements for re- 
ports in the afternoon. 

Clerk : We will rise and be dismissed by Robert W. 
Douglas. 

Then adjourned until 7.30. 

SIXTH DAY EVENING, TENTH MONTH 24. 
Clerk : Let us have a few moments of devotional 
waiting before we begin the work of the program. 

Prayer was offered by William I. Moore of Canada, 



288 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

and William P. Ha worth of Kansas, and the hymns, 
' ' While the days are going by ' ' and ' ' Will Jesus find us 
watching," were sung. 

Clerk : There are one or two items of business on the 
table that should be disposed of before we take up the 
program. 

(Recording Clerk read a proposition from the Finance 
Committee. See Minutes, Minute 71.) 

Aaron M. Bray, Oregon: We would like to know 
what this means. 

Robert I. Murray, New York : The Finance Com- 
mittee took up the paper that was read in our hearing on 
the general subject of raising money and various other 
things, and the first clause in that had to do with the 
incorporation of the Five Years Meeting. The direction 
to our Committee was to bring in a plan of action. We 
reached the conclusion that it would be desirable that this 
Meeting should be incorporated ; but there were so many 
difficulties in the way, as to what State should be chosen, 
and so many points were in the way, that we hesitated to 
undertake to present an}' plan for such purpose, and 
therefore it was thought best that the matter be referred 
to the Business Committee with power, that they might 
proceed to enter the corporation under such laws as they 
might see fit and at such place as might seem best. That 
they might have an opportunity to consider it — that was 
all — and of course that would carry with the necessity 
of the Business Committee being continued beyond the 
sessions of this Meeting. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : In order to settle this matter 
without bringing it before the Business Committee, I 
make a motion that this subject be referred to the Com- 
mittee on Legislation in order to get the law proper for it. 
It seems to me that we should do this ; they hold over 
for five years, and there are twenty-two of them, and some 
of them are lawyers and doctors, and they know some- 
thing about the business. I do not see how we could get 
a better committee to refer it to. Let them select the 
Legislature we want to incorporate under, and as a 
certain number of people have to sign the articles of 



OF THE CONFERENCE 289 

incorporation, and we can authorize them — there are 
twenty-two of them to sign the document — I believe they 
can manage the matter and report in five years from now. 

William P. Ha worth, Kansas : I second the motion, 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : Any number of members of 
this Five Years Meeting can write out articles of incorpo- 
ration and sign it as incorporating this body. The 
authority may be given to any committee, but the persons 
signing it must be in the State where the incorporation 
act is accomplished. It is not a very hard thing to in- 
corporate. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The American Friends' Board 
of Foreign Missions had to go before the Legislature in 
order to get a special law in order to incorporate, and as 
this Five Years Meeting will be something new in the 
world, it may not be so easy after all. 

(Motion carried.) 

Chairman: The subject for this evening, "Our 
Present Duty to the Cause of Peace and Arbitration . ' ' The 
subject will be opened by Richard H. Thomas, of Balti- 
more Yearly Meeting. I want to say in introducing this 
subject, there is one thing which I hold as a firm convic- 
tion ; that is, that history in future years will tell us that 
the arbitration movement is regarded as the greatest event 
of the Nineteenth Century. 

OUR PRESENT DUTY TO THE CAUSE OF 

PEACE AND ARBITRATION. 

By Richard H. Thomas of Baltimore. 

The very fact that all of us in this Conference are 
convinced on the general question of peace is, perhaps, 
a difficulty in itself in our consideration of it. We 
all agree that Peace is right and that arbitration is 
the way to settle difficulties. But in so far as we begin 
to take a thing for granted, just so soon do we begin 
to let it go into the background ; and this is, to a certain 
extent, true in regard to Peace ; for I know of some 
who feel that we have no time to give to it because we 
are so taken up in Gospel work, and others, who think 



290 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

that the recognition of universal brotherhood is so far 
in the future that it is hardly worth while to work for 
it. But Peace is a real integral part of the Gospel mes- 
sage. We were reminded this afternoon of the trend of 
modern thought. I will not dwell upon it now, but we 
must recognize the fact that this age is intensely practical. 
People are asking, What is the value of Christianity to 
the individual — what is its value to society and to the 
nation ? The practical answer to that question given by 
professing Christians has too often allowed the spirit of 
Christianity to be grievously misrepresented and defamed. 
Do we say that we have not time to engage in Peace work 
because of Gospel work ? Look at the condition of things 
in Europe. There the people, or at least a large part of 
the people who stand for social reform , for Peace and for 
the betterment of mankind, have denounced Christianity as 
the friend of war. I myself, for instance, heard a prom- 
inent man say, " My wife wants me to be a Christian, but 
I am unable to be one, because Christianity teaches war." 
And he was utterly surprised when some of us told him 
that we were Peace men because we were Christians. The 
case is not exactly the same in America, of course, but 
there is a feeling even in America — and it is not confined to 
a small class — that Christianity even here and now panders 
to the wealthy ; has to a certain extent sold itself to wealth ; 
and the ears of this class are closed to the teaching of the 
Gospel, because of the position of Christian people on 
these vital questions. The man who has experienced a 
real change of heart is a man who has come to be changed 
through and through, and society is going to be changed 
through that man's influence. A converted man, there- 
fore, ought to mean a converted home ; a converted man 
and a converted home ought to mean a converted society, 
and a converted society ought to mean a converted na- 
tion ; but it is a very usual conception of Christianity that 
says that Christianity means that I am to be saved simply 
as an individual, and that I am to help other individuals to 
be saved from hell. I was calling at the house of a religious 
man — not a member of our denomination — and I gave him 
a Peace paper. He said, " That is all very well, but I can 



OF THE CONFERENCE 29 I 

take no interest in that ; I do not believe in it at all." I 
said, ' ' Why not ? " He said that the reformation of the 
world was something that God had given up, and it is 
no use for us to attempt it. On that man's table I saw 
wine and wine glasses. Has God given up the reforma- 
tion of the world and ceased to try to save it ? What a 
travesty of the Gospel is this ! The attitude which inter- 
ests itself in what is known as evangelization — that is, the 
personal salvation of the individual and in little beyond 
that, an attitude that a great many maintain, forgetting 
that all men and women are brothers and sisters — is re- 
sponsible, perhaps innocently responsible, for a large 
amount of infidelity in the world. When a man comes 
into the new life, it means that he has come into an en- 
tirely new atmosphere, and that through him others also 
are to come into it, till the whole earth is influenced. It 
is a Gospel of glad duty. There is freedom for all be- 
cause Jesus Christ has struck at the root of everything 
that leads to oppression ; freedom, because Jesus Christ 
has brought freedom to the hearts of men, and because 
Christianity touches life on every side of it. A man 
whose social relations are not converted is not soundly 
converted ; a man whose politics are not converted is not 
soundly converted. Christianity touches a man in every 
phase of life ; therefore, a full Gospel of salvation for the 
individual is a step to a converted family life and a con- 
verted social and political life, and we are to do what we 
can to make the conditions of life such as to enable people 
to hear the Gospel and accept it. The followers of Jesus 
Christ are to be separate from the selfish spirit of the 
world, and are called upon to deny it and in every possi- 
ble way to be free from it. But this is not simply an in- 
dividual matter. There are social wrongs and evil sys- 
tems that need combined action to abolish them, and the 
Gospel for society is to be preached and society is to be 
saved through the power and life of Jesus Christ, working 
through men and women who are themselves saved by 
Him, and who, because they are saved, are growing into 
His likeness. In proportion as society is saved will the 
individual be in a condition to hear and accept Jesus Christ. 



- ._ STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

But you say that the apostles did not preach this, nor 
did they expend their strength upon it, but upon indi- 
viduals. We must remember that Christianity arose in 
the midst of the corruption of Roman society. It came as 
a pure breath from Heaven to the vitiated moral atmos- 
phere of the day. Its wildest enemy could not accuse it of 
the slightest responsibility, or even connivance with the op- 
pressions of the time. It gave men a new outlook, a new 
hope, a new life : yet it recognized the responsibility to 
the State by inculcating the duty of adopting the only 
direct method it then had at its disposal of influencing it 
— that is, by prayer for those in authority. Now times 
have changed. Official Christianity has so long been in 
the ascendency, so long been the attendant and supporter 
of constituted authority ; has so often allowed its free tes- 
timony to righteousness to be reduced to very small pro- 
portions by its alliance with those who have arisen through 
iniquity, that many to-day hold it responsible for the worst 
evils of the times. It is, therefore, no secondary part of real 
Gospel work to labor for such a salvation for society as will 
bring about conditions where the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
will be willingly heard, and where it can be fully lived out. 
For it is impossible to dwell among a people of unclean 
lips and keep our own lips entirely clean, so long as we are 
only intent upon our own personal salvation and our own 
inward experience. We are members of a social body ; 
when our eyes are opened to see the truth, we find our- 
selves at every turn an inevitable part of the system with 
its injustices and oppressions. Unless by thought, or 
words, or deeds, or prayers, we are laboring to free' the 
social and political body from the weight of these things, 
we are contributing to their continuance. 

Of all the anomalies the world has ever seen, there is 
none worse than the followers of Jesus Christ fighting with 
deadly weapons. I accuse no one. It is not for me to judge 
my brother. How do I know but that to others I am allow- 
ing in my life things which seem to them as inconsistent 
as their war attitude appears to me ? But I submit the fact 
that though I may not see everything, that is not to make 
me close my eves to what I have seen, or cease to raise 



OF THE CONFERENCE 293 

my voice in testimony to it. And some of us here have 
seen that no argument from necessity, no argument from 
the good that may have come from war, can make the 
passions of hell and acts of ruthless cruelty harmonize 
with the Spirit of Him who came not to destroy men's 
lives but to save them, and to give His life a ransom for 
many. War, with its substitution of might as opposed to 
justice; war, with its desolation and suffering ; war, with 
its fearful cost in money and in human lives ; war, with 
its necessary violations of even elementary morality, with 
its awful list of crimes directly and indirectly attributable 
to it and following in its wake, is in its root and in its 
fruit essentially opposed to Jesus Christ. 

Further, I make bold to say that never during the 
past seventeen hundred years, since the remembrance of 
the early overwhelming conviction of the first Christians 
on this subject passed away, have there been as many 
who, as a general proposition, would agree to this indict- 
ment against war as there are to-day. 

This brings me to the first specific duty which lies 
before us in this connection. It is to take advantage of 
this fact, and by example and precept do what we can to 
induce these to have the courage of their convictions, and 
to teach them that, mixed up as things are in this world, 
no amount of jugglery is to induce us so to dishonor 
Christ as to make Him a minister of sin, or to suppose 
His authority can be used to justify any war or any 
preparations for war on any pretext whatever. For any 
whose eyes are open on this subject to plead that war is 
ever necessary, is in that particular a flat denial of the 
truth of Jesus Christ, and, as all denials of Him do, it 
injures His cause. I am sorry to say that on this ques- 
tion of social redemption many professed atheists are 
going into the Kingdom before us, for they, starting from 
the basis of humanity, are working out the teachings of 
Peace in many instances more rapidly than those who 
felicitate themselves on having received light from 
Heaven. 

What is our duty, the duty of those whose eyes are 
open to the truth of this subject ? 



294 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

First, to maintain our position and to emphasize it. 
The fact that few of us are in public life, that few have 
very extended influence, does not alter the fact of our 
privilege and responsibility in the matter. Thomas 
Ellwood's suggestion caused Milton to write " Paradise 
Regained." If you get hold of the personal history of 
active workers for Peace in public life to-day, you are very 
likely to find a Friend had a hand in making him what 
he is. In the multitudes of men and women we come 
across evety day, we know not the influence that those 
we influence may exert. The revival in modern times of 
the ancient Waldensian Church came about through the 
instrumentality of an English Christian gentleman whose 
attention was directed to them through the apparently 
accidental reading about them in a pamphlet which he 
picked up carelessly in a physician's waiting room. The 
great Chalk Cliffs that overlook the English Channel are 
made up of myriads of shells. The strength of our work 
lies in daily individual testimony faithfully borne. 

Secondly, L,et us welcome and encourage any move- 
ment for Peace, even though it does not go as far as we 
wish. The establishment of the Hague Convention is, 
perhaps, the most wonderful witness to the change that 
is taking place in the thoughts of men on the subject of 
Peace and War that has ever been known. It is not 
wholly on the full Christian basis, but it is a step, and is 
one more evidence of the fact that men are finding that 
what is morally wrong is not politically wise. Let us, by 
our influence in conversation and in writing, make The 
Hague Convention, with its international Court of Arbi- 
tration already in actual operation, tell for Peace as far as 
we can make it tell, till men's minds become saturated 
with the thought of Arbitration, so that it will come to 
them more naturally than the thought of war. 

Third, L,et us understand that we are not only against 
war but for Peace, and that Peace is a principle. We 
who believe in Peace because Christ is the Prince of 
Peace and because He has shown us that Peace is what 
man is made for, cannot approve of anything that makes 
for war. Peace is to be had only on the basis of justice 



of the; conference 295 

and love. It cannot be had when there is greed and 
injustice, or when there are wrong or foolish notions as 
to National honor. These principles we have just now 
an opportunity to stand for in the question of the treat- 
ment of the Cubans and the Filipinos. Let us never 
justify our country in any position or in any act that in 
its legitimate consequences would lead to war. If the 
nation finds itself in a position where there is no way to 
avoid war except by an exercise of Christian forbearance 
beyond what the average temper of its citizens is able to 
exercise, let us not justify the country or condone the 
wrong, but without railing, consistently bear our testi- 
mony and so be genuinely patriotic and loyal to its truest 
interests. 

Fourth, Do what we can to substitute sound ideas as 
to National honor and greatness. Besides private influ- 
ences we can utilize occasions like the Fourth of July or 
Washington's Birthday, for these commemorate events so 
long gone that all personal feeling has died out, and we 
can speak on Peace without inconsistency. The case is, 
of course, different with Decoration Day, or with Grand 
Army Reunions ; for with these there is the direct glorifi- 
cation of arms, and without condemning those who think 
differently, I should feel that the endorsement of war in- 
volved in the acceptance of invitations to deliver addresses 
on these occasions would have more influence for the 
wrong side than any words for Peace that could suitably 
be uttered would counterbalance. 

Fifth, As I have said, Peace is a principle. It cannot 
be confined to international relations. We cannot proclaim 
Peace between nations and ignore it between individuals, 
and between sections of society, capital and labor, white 
and colored. Competition, when it practically means 
that competitors are enemies, means war, at least in the 
spirit of it. It is far too often assumed that capital and 
labor are essentially antagonistic. The truth is that if 
they understood their true relations they would see that 
they are essentially co-operative. We, as Friends, may 
well feel thankful that President Roosevelt, whose belief 
in and endorsement of war we have so often regretted, has 



296 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

come out so nobly in the great coal strike as the champion 
of Peace and justice. It is part of our Gospel message 
to encourage and help promote all movements that will 
lead to justice and fellow-feeling between employer and 
employees, and to teach men that in Christ Jesus there 
can be neither white nor black, and that while a man may 
rightly choose who shall be his intimate friends, he may 
not, as a follower of Ghrist, choose that justice and kind- 
ness shall be dealt to one class of men and not to another. 

Sixth, The careful arrangement of lectures and ad- 
dresses not only on Peace but also on these aspects of 
Peace, and the dissemination of sound literature, are also 
most useful. There is The Peace Association of Friends 
in America, which has done much work in this line, and 
deserves the continued support of Friends. It publishes 
a monthly paper The Messenger of Peace, which is circu- 
lated more or less in most of the States. Then, there is 
in Boston the able Advocate of Peace, edited by our friend, 
Benjamin F. Trueblood. 

Seventh, We can also do much in influencing legisla- 
tion in right directions. 

Finally, I end as I began, by saying, let us present a 
full Gospel to the people, to society, and to the world, 
and live it out. Here is the solution of the abolition of 
war and the spirit of it, and of the bringing in of the 
reign of Peace. 

Clerk : Further discussion of this subject by Cyrus 
Hodgin. 

Cyrus Hodgin : I want to endorse very heartily the 
points that were made by Dr. Thomas in his paper, and 
the suggestions that he makes as to how we may practice 
Peace and Arbitration, and I wish him to be encouraged 
by us. I believe that the present duty of the Society of 
Friends toward the subject of Peace and Arbitration is 
practically the same to-day that it has always been. The 
Society of Friends has always been a Peace and Arbitra- 
tion Society. We have never gone back on our teaching 
of that doctrine, and I trust we never shall. The Society 
of Friends has led the world to our views on this subject 



OF THE CONFERENCE 297 

of Peace and Arbitration, and we have reached out without 
any help from other denominations. We have discharged 
our duty so far as we have gone in a way that has been 
helpful to the world, but that duty is not yet complete. 
It is our present duty to stand by this broad Gospel that 
Dr. Thomas has spoken to us about. In niy childhood, 
in the Quaker home in which I was brought up, and in 
the Quaker meeting which I attended, I obtained the idea 
that the Bible was a Quaker book somehow or other, and 
I believed Quakerism rested right on the Bible. Since I 
have grown older and have studied the Bible more, I am 
more and more convinced that Quakerism stands on the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. That being the case it is certainly 
our present duty to stand by this Gospel. It is the doc- 
trine of the Gospel that love is the fulfilling of the Gos- 
pel. " L,ove worketh no ill to his neighbor; therefore, 
love is the fulfilling of the law." Friends hold to the 
Gospel standing of morality. The Gospel declares that 
we shall " Provide things honest in the sight of all men." 
War does not. Strategy in war is regarded as the highest 
accomplishment of an army of soldiers. What is involved 
in strategy ? Take, for instance, an incident in the late 
war with the Filipinos. You are all familiar with the 
account of Funston's capture of Aguinaldo ; how he 
practiced his brutality ; how he successfully practiced his 
forgery, his falsehood, and how he got things under false 
pretense. But the nation applauded that man ; the Gov- 
ernment applauded and rewarded him by promoting him. 
Can Friends applaud forgery, briber}^,. falsehood and false 
pretense? Not and be Christians. The one great objec- 
tion to war is that it holds up a different standard of 
morality. We must give up one and hold to the other, 
-or we may love one and hate the other. We cannot serve 
two masters — War and Peace. War and the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ are utterly out of harmony as to their stand- 
ards of morality. 

Again, we must trust to our standard of righteous- 
ness instead of stepping aside for the other standard ; for 
if we do not stand by our standard, the standard of dis- 
unity, of bribery, of forgery, will crowd itself down into 



298 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

our business life. Tbink of it ! If we applaud forgery 
and briben T and falsehood in the conduct of a man in the 
army, what can we say against a man who practices it in 
his business ? And there are men in business that are 
taking the stand that certain forms of dishonesty are right, 
that they are business methods. The principles involved 
in war are coming up in business interests. 

Friends hold that Jesus Christ taught in His Gospel 
that we are to love our enemies. War says, Hate your 
enemies. Is that true. Not very long ago a man who 
became Secretary of War for the United States set up this 
standard for a man who went out as a soldier. He said : 
We hear a good deal these days about loving our enemies, 
but, says he, I have no patience with that sentiment ; 
away with it. We must hate them, we must despise 
them, and when the occasion rises we must say, " Come 
on, boys, let's give them hell." That is the standard he 
set up for them. The Gospel teaches us that we should 
not avenge ourselves. War calls for revenge, for venge- 
ance. One Sabbath morning, after the Maine was 
blown up, I met a group of men, and they all wore 
badges on their coats, and I read on those badges the 
words, " Remember the Maine. To hell with Spain ! " 
Now, if that is the spirit of war, and we cannot den}'' it, 
what ought to be our duty toward it as Christians, as fol- 
lowers of Jesus Christ, who says, ' ' Love your enemies, and 
pray for them which persecute you and despitefully use 
you " ? War says, the end justifies the means even to the 
destruction of property and lives. The property and lives 
of thousands are sacrificed in order that the end may be 
achieved. In a single combat war destroys the fruits of 
civilization that were generations in producing. Indeed, 
I heard a very learned gentleman say, " It is the business 
of war to destroy the fruits of civilization." If this is 
true — if our Christian civilization is going down before 
war, what ought we to do as Friends and Christians ? 

But, somebody will say, you are not patriotic if you 
do not stand by the country, sometimes we have to go to 
war, and we must stand by the country even if it is war. 
I believe that the truest patriotism stands for peace under 



OF THE CONFERENCE 299 

all circumstances. What does a true patriot wish for his 
country ? If I mistake not he wants his country to be a 
light unto the nations, he wants his country to be in the 
van, in the lead of the nations, lift them higher and 
higher and higher in the progress of civilization and life. 
But war destroys nations The warlike nation of to-day 
is the decadent nation of to-morrow. This is the view of 
one of the greatest scientists of modern times. On one 
occasion Jesus Christ told Peter, " All they that take the 
sword shall perish with the sword." At one time the 
question was expounded that heat expanded bodies, and 
men by experiment tested the application of heat to this 
body and that body, and the other body, and every time 
heat expanded the body, and they came to the conclusion 
that heat expands all bodies. So we may apply that ques- 
tion of induction to this question that Jesus Christ pro- 
pounded, and give it the test of scientific men. L,et us go 
back for a moment and look at example after example. 
Old Egypt built herself up by the sword . Where is Egypt 
to-day ? She perished with the sword. Then came 
Assyria with its great walled city of Nineveh. But 
Assyria built herself up by the sword, but died by the 
sword. Babylon and Persia fell by the sword. Athens, 
cultured, philosophic, literary, scientific Athens, was 
built up by the sword and Athens perished by the sword. 
Rome built herself up by the sword and likewise perished 
by the sword, and lies in the dust to-day by the strokes 
of the sword. Spain came on after Rome building herself 
up by the sword. Spain, the other day, was mutilated by 
somebody's sword. Think of it, Friends, if Jesus Christ 
was right, does not the sword hang over us if we go on 
building ourselves up by war. War is dangerous, and I 
tell you the patriotic thing to do is to say to our Govern- 
ment, it is unsafe to build up the military system, to build 
up a great army ; we are in danger every day that we do 
it. It is not difficult to see why. 

France is an illustration of what war will do for a 
nation. France became a great warlike nation. France, 
time after time, pushed to the front the greatest army the 
world ever knew and, like all nations, selected the best, 



300 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

physically speaking, the best built men, perfect specimens 
of manhood — those who were the most fitted for the propa- 
gation of her race, and so France has been going down ! 
down ! down ! down ! If a farmer wants to build up a. 
herd of cattle he does not select the poor little weak stock 
from the shambles, but he breeds from the fine ones,_ 
those that are most fit. 

So France has been going down until the other day 
when there was a parade of soldiers of all nations — Ameri- 
can, German, French soldiers, the. most striking thing in 
that parade was the diminutive stature and the weak 
appearance of the French soldiers. 

What does patriotism demand of us ? It demands- 
that we shall stand by our doctrines of Peace and Arbi- 
tration. Let Arbitration settle these difficulties. Some 
say that questions involving the national honor and 
national dignity can never be arbitrated. That would be 
saying that there are questions between individuals that 
can be settled in no other way only by the old code of the 
duel. They have substituted the civil Court for the 
duel. Why is it dishonorable for men to settle other 
difficulties in a civil Court ? What can be more honora- 
ble than righteousness ? What can be more dignified 
than justice ? As Dr. Thomas has so well put it, when 
righteousness and justice prevail in a nation then all call 
for War is gone. The honorableness of righteousness 
and the dignity of justice will settle all these questions. 
The national honor and dignity will be safer under the 
Hague Court than under two great national armies. - I 
want to endorse this statement of our Chairman, that 
history in the future will look back to the adoption of 
this Court at the Hague as the greatest event of the Nine- 
teenth Century. I take great pleasure in looking over 
the facts that the French had more influence in implant- 
ing in the Czar of Russia a desire for that Court than any 
other nation. 

Trusting to righteousness and the God of righteous- 
ness shall bring us to the time when " The kingdoms of 
this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of 
His Christ." 



OF THE CONFERENCE 3OI 

Allen Jay, Indiana : I would like to introduce the 
editor of the Messenger of Peace, Anna B. Thomas, of Bal- 
timore ; and I move that she be allowed to speak to us for 
a few minutes at this time on this subject of Peace. 

(Motion carried.) 

Anna B. Thomas, Baltimore : It gives me great 
pleasure to look into the faces of the delegates in the 
capacity of the editor of the Messenger of Peace. It goes 
into many States — more States, I think, than are repre- 
sented here — but it should go into more. We put it 
around on the benches to-night that those who do not 
know the paper may see it, and if any Friend will 
hand the sum of one quarter of a dollar to me and the 
name of some friend they want to interest, the paper will 
be sent to such a one, or for one dollar they can send 
eight copies to one address. 

I think this work for Peace means some effort. I 
want us to make this effort. I want each one of us 
to try to win over one person to the principles of Peace. 
Fix upon some one — your friend, the Methodist min- 
ister, or the Presbyterian minister ; ask him to preach 
a Peace sermon on Peace Sunday. Work with him 
until you convince him of the principles of Peace. Do 
the same with your public school teacher, with your 
next friend who is at the head of a big business estab- 
lishment. We have got to do some aggressive work 
for Peace. I think the Peace Conference last winter in 
Philadelphia did a great deal to stir us up on this ques- 
tion. It is a work we can do individually in our home 
life. I want us to be at work. 

Emilie U. Burgess, New York: I wondered if the 
women of this audience realized that there are two prob- 
lems that especially interest us : the Temperanance ques- 
tion and this one of Peace. No other subject can mean 
as much to the women as these two questions. I won- 
dered if we were just going to listen, take it all in, and 
then go home and do nothing. How can we go home 
and do no better than we have done ? Our children are 
learning war. War pictures come in Harper s Weekly, 
many of our books are filled with the war spirit, and eager 



3<D2 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

as they are to learn, they will see and read things that will 
affect their lives. If we educate men and women in the 
war spirit, we are going to have war. Bring this subject 
before your children, especially the boys ; ask them to 
write essays on the subject of Arbitration, and when they 
come to study it they will see what a wonderful subject 
it is. 

We can make this subject exceedingly practical, and 
I hope the different branches of your Yearly Meetings 
here will take this subject up before our educational insti- 
tutions, let them have the children write these essays, and 
they will see what a wonderful subject it is. Then in the 
evenings, cannot we have a meeting with the boys ? It is 
useless for us to come here and hear these papers and 
addresses if we are going to go home and say to ourselves, 
What a wonderful conference and what wonderful essays, 
unless we are going to put those Peace principles into 
practice^ 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England: I did not 
get into the room in time to hear Dr. Thomas's article, 
but I want to call attention to two or three things, and I 
hope that no Friends will go out unless it is really nec- 
essary. I do not think we have any appreciation of the 
vantage ground which we hold on this subject. In 1899 
I went to The Hague to attend the Peace Conference 
with a deputation of the English Friends who were sent 
over at that time to the Conference, and when John 
Bellows, the chairman of that deputation, presented his 
address, Baron de Staal, in his reply, said " I am very 
glad to see this body of Friends here ; we all know that 
you are sincere." And that deputation had as much to 
do in that association as anything done there. 

In 1 8 19, Stephen Grellet made a visit to Alexander 

I. of Russia and had a long and serious interview with 
him, after which the Emperor declared that his soul had 
been greatly moved. He also made a visit to Nicholas 

II. The influence Stephen Grellet made 011 the imperial 
family of Russia was behind that conference — in a quiet 
way — perhaps, as strongly as every where else . We do not 
appreciate the vantage ground we hold to-day. The 



OF THE CONFERENCE 303 

Society of Friends has been a great factor in creating this 
great Peace movement and in the setting up the great Inter- 
national Court of Arbitration. Through the work and in- 
fluence — first, of George Fox, William Penn and one of 
the William Aliens, and later the work of men like John 
Bright — has come a tremendous moral and spiritual influ- 
ence, until they have had to realize that our Church in 
its Peace capacity has been at the bottom of the Peace 
movement more than any other organization ; yet I al- 
ways hesitate to say that, because we live on these old 
things of the past. 

What is the duty of the Society of Friends at this 
present time on the Peace question ? I have been for 
twelve consecutive years constantly engaged in this 
movement and little else. It is a fact that we have few 
men and women in our Church who are engaged in this 
work. From Maine to California we have, perhaps, a 
hundred men and women in the Society of Friends who 
are doing active, intelligent, energetic Peace work. We are 
orthodox on the subject, but we are resting on the oars of 
our orthodoxy. It is more work to get up any real en- 
thusiasm in the Quaker towns than anywhere else. It 
has got to be an old story ; we are not interested in going 
to Peace conferences, and in our Yearly Meetings the 
Peace meeting is always the smallest one. More Friends 
will go to sleep in a Peace meeting than upon any other 
subject that comes before the Church. These things 
ought not so to be. We have a vantage ground; we 
have a national record on this subject, and you ought to 
set yourself to reading and finding out this history of the 
cause of Peace and Arbitration, following the days of 
George Fox in the seventeenth century up to the present 
time. I have never in all my work found anything which 
so touches every feeling and every part of my being as 
this does. I wish there was time to-night to tell you the 
triumphs of this cause. There is not time, but I do want 
to tell you not to let what these friends have said fall on 
listless ears. Study upon this subject ; subscribe for the 
Peace paper, the Messenger of Peace. What is the cost 
per year ? Only the price of a piece of ribbon — not a very 



304 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

long one, either. I think I shall speak the truth when I 
say that not ten of you that are here who are not sub- 
scribers to that paper will subscribe for it here, and still 
less will subscribe for that other paper, for which I must 
not speak because I am the responsible editor of it. I 
speak thus not from an} 7 personal interest, but because I 
love the cause of Peace, because I love the Church and 
because I love you. On every Friends' platform, every 
place from which a Friend minister preaches, I want our 
Church to be in the forefront, where God has intended it 
to be and where it was so long. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : You will all remember the posi- 
tion that the Five Years Meeting assumed yesterday in 
regard to the work among the Indians. This Peace Asso- 
ciation of Friends in America have an organization ; they 
have a Central Board, President, Vice-President, Secretary, 
Treasurer and an Executive Committee ; and then they 
have two members from each Yearly Meeting in America, 
or at least they may have. Now, I do not propose to ask 
that the Five Years Meeting assume this, but I wish the 
Five Years Meeting would now make the same Minute in 
regard to the Peace Association of Friends in America as 
they made on the Associated Committee on Indian Affairs 
and recommend it to the different Yearly Meetings. Will 
you do it ? I move that this Five Years Meeting do that. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore: I think the Peace 
Association of Friends in America will be glad to come 
under the Five Years Meeting. 

Ellwood O. Ellis, Indiana : It came by a resolution 
from the Business Committee. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : Make one just like that. I don't 
believe in too much red tape. 

Clerk : Under ordinary circumstances I should try to 
persuade you to pass this over for further deliberation, 
but these two Boards have been in existence for many 
years. They have evidently shown that we needed some- 
thing in the way of a united organization. They were 
the forerunners of the Five Years Meeting, and for this 
reason I think we are safe in taking hold of the subject. 

(Motion unanimously carried.) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 305 

Joseph Potts, North Carolina : About half an hour 
ago we heard some one tell us that certainly Peace was a 
part of the Gospel. I have concluded in my own mind 
that it is the whole of the Gospel. " Peace with God and 
Peace with Man." Peace was what the Lord Jesus came 
to bring us, and we know that we cannot have peace with 
God unless we have peace with man. I have written 
down what I want to say. 

Peace and Citizenship. 

This body should need no argument against War. 
We simply recognize that Peace with God implies also 
peace with all men everywhere. We can be enemies to 
none and retain His Peace. 

In so far as we find the human government over us 
proposing war measures of any description we absolutely 
decline allegiance to it therein, whatever the consequences. 
However, we remain submissive, as our Saviour and His 
disciples taught, to the powers that be, but cannot be 
forced to fight. In the stage of the world's history which 
we have reached, we do not expect great inconvenience 
from this. 

Examining the Constitution under which we have 
been organized as a nation for more than a century, we 
quickly learn that it provides for an army and navy, and 
for arsenals and forts ; the President is made Commander- 
in-Chief of such army and navy. It grants power to 
Congress to declare war, and to make regulations about 
the militia, and thus commits the nation to ultimate 
appeals to destructive force. This is a burden which the 
willing voter assumes. 

Christ and His apostles have much to say about our 
subjection to the powers that be, but nothing whatever as 
to how His children shall bear rule in the body politic. 

While this is no argument whatever against the pro- 
priety and the necessity of human government by and 
over those who will not submit to Christ's rule, it is sug- 
gested as defining somewhat the duties of those who do. 
They cannot administer un-Christian human law but 



306 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

must work with greater earnestness and zeal toward estab- 
lishing the rule of Christ. Let us have Peace and poli- 
teuma — Citizenship, conversation, manner of life, policy ; 
whatever be the right translation ; but peace with God 
and peace with men — this kind of Peace at any price ; and 
our citizenship will be in heaven while we are yet on 
earth. Uninjurious force may often be required and 
properly used in the restraint of lawbreakers, insane peo- 
ple, or children. Injurious force may not be used under 
any circumstances, nor may we run the risk of injuring 
by using a dangerous weapon. Love cannot injure a 
fellow man intentionally. There is a ferocity, or wild- 
beast nature, which inheres in all not fully redeemed 
souls. There is not a vestige of this which harms, 
abuses and injures others in Christ, nor in His spirit 
which dwells within the fully redeemed. 

Samuel L- Haworth, Iowa : I would like to make a 
suggestion. In a home where I was boarding some time 
ago, one of the girls of the family was a student of United 
States history, and I either took up the book and looked 
at it or asked her whose history it was, and she said 
" Thomas's," and I had heard something of " Thomas's 
History," because the author is a Friend, and I was 
pleased to know that our Public school in the town where 
I was living had adopted his History. Now, I am not 
an agent for the publishers of this book, nor has the 
author given me a commission to say this, but if Friends' 
schools are not using " Thomas's History," I would sug- 
gest that you make a change and use it ; and if you have 
any influence with School Boards, that there be an effort 
made to introduce this United States History, not simply 
because it is a Quaker history, or a United States history by 
a Friend, but as the thought impresses me, because for one 
reason at least, that the relationship between War and 
Peace may be put to us in the proper light. I will give you 
one instance. I noticed concerning the War ot 1812 a 
statement something like this, that " A treaty with Eng- 
land more favorable to the United States could have been 
made before the war than was made at the close of the 
war." That is a short statement, and yet it will cause 



OF THE CONFERENCE 307 

young people to think, what good, then, was that war 
if the United States could have had a better treaty before 
the war than it got after the war ? One reason why peo- 
ple go to war is because they fail to think. I think that 
President McKinley had assumed a thinking attitude 
towards the affairs of the nation, and I believe that our 
Congress lost its head, and that that was the reason, or 
partly the reason, of the war with Spain. 

A Delegate : I like the remarks in regard to the 
United States History, and would like to suggest that 
the author of that book, or some one else, write a general 
history on the same subject. I think people ought to 
find out there is something beside glory in war, and our 
histories, if properly written, would help them to find it 
out. 

Aaron M. Bray, Oregon : I want to simply state that 
a little more than a year ago the State of Oregon displaced 
# a very objectionable school history and adopted one writ- 
ten by a Friend, and I suppose that so far as the entire 
schools of the State of Oregon are concerned, they are 
going to use this same book that has been referred to. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore : May I remind 
Friends that while we have heard that Stephen Grellet, 
an honored Friend, some years ago took a journey and 
called on the Czar of Russia, that an honored Friend of a 
later day called on the Czar, and may have had some 
influence. I refer to Barnabas C. Hobbs. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : Another name should 
not be forgotten, that of Daniel Wheeler. 

Annie D. Stabler, Baltimore : My heart was wonder- 
fully stirred on this subject some time ago when I went to 
hear a Presbyterian minister. The subject was " Spirit- 
ual Tessons to be Gained from the Battle of Gettysburg." 
I think I never heard anything depict the horrors of war 
more clearly, yet after he got through telling of the 
awfulness of war, he went on to say that our war with 
Spain was a holy war, and he further went on to say that 
" if a burglar conies into my house and my life and the 
life of my family are in danger I should consider it a 
Christian act to take that man's life." It seems to me 



308 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

we do want to be stirred up on this subject and make our 
testimony heard by the world. I feel like hanging my 
head in shame when I hear men declare such things as 
that which that minister uttered. L,et us be up and 
doing. 

Clerk : I think the time has arrived to close the dis- 
cussion. We have a few announcements and then we 
will be ready to close the meeting. 

(Announcements were then made.) 

Clerk : We are now ready to close the meeting. We 
will arise and be dismissed by Isom P. Wooton, Iowa. 

Clerk : We stand adjourned until 9.00 o'clock to- 
morrow morning. 

SEVENTH DAY MORNING, TENTH MONTH 25. 

The meeting was called together at nine o'clock. 

Clerk : Our devotional exercise this morning will be 
in charge of Harriet Green of Eondon. 

Harriet Green, Eondon : May we have a little time 
of prayer together ? 

Harriet Green then' offered prayer and spoke. She 
was followed by Allen Jay, of Indiana ; Eevi D. Barr, of 
California; and David E. Sampson, of North Carolina; 
and the hyinn, " More about Jesus," was sung. 

Clerk : The recording clerk will now read the Minutes 
of the sessions of this meeting held yesterday, beginning 
with the morning session. (The Minutes of the three ses- 
sions were separately read and approved.) 

Albert J. Brown, Western : If it is in order, I would 
like to ask if the Finance Committee has any plan to pro- 
pose in regard to the settlement of the expenses of the 
delegates of this meeting. The delegates are beginning 
to pack up and we would like to know about this matter. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I will answer that that was 
before the Committee this morning, but I think the report 
will come in some time to-day. 

Josiah Dillon , Kansas : I want to say in reference to 
the breaking up of the delegations, that we are under 
moral obligations to remain until the meeting is out, and 



OF THE CONFERENCE 309 

that we be present at each session, and more especially so 
if we expect our expenses to be paid. I think we ought 
to hold ourselves responsible to God for attendance here 
until this meeting closes. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : May I ask, Who is to 
settle the railroad fares of the delegates — the Treasurer of 
the Five Years Meeting or the Treasurers of the Yearly 
Meetings ? 

Clerk : Will Tiniottry Nicholson answer ? 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : The Treasurer of the 
Yearly Meeting will pay the railroad fares of its delegates 
and will report the amount to the Treasurer of the Five 
Years Meeting, and when the Treasurer of the Five Years 
Meeting has received all these amounts he will take the 
aggregate and find the proportion that each Yearly Meet- 
ing should pay, and if any Yearly Meeting has paid more 
than its apportionment, the amount will be remitted to 
the Treasurer of that Yearly Meeting, and if any Yearly 
Meeting has not paid enough, the Treasurer of the 
Yearly Meeting will be asked to remit to the Treasurer of 
the Five Years Meeting the amount necessary to cover the 
deficit. There may be a simpler way, but I have not 
been able to see it. I cannot answer for any of the other 
Yearly Meetings, but I was directed to pay the expenses 
of the delegates from Indiana Yearly Meeting. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : It seems to me that it is 
important to know what is to be done in regard to the 
expenses of the alternates. There are alternates here 
who need the mone}^, and they have come with the ex- 
pectation of being used as delegates. 

Phebe S. Aydelott, New England : It seems to me 
that the Discipline is very plain on this matter, that the 
amount is apportioned among the Yearly Meetings ac- 
cording to their delegates. It seems to me very simple 
for the Treasurer of this meeting to pay the individuals 
the amounts due them. These cards will go to the 
Treasurer of our Yearly Meetings, and he will — or rather 
these cards will — go to the Treasurer of the Five Years 
Meeting, and he will apportion it, and then it will go to 
the Treasurers of the Yearly Meetings, and if one has 



3IO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

paid more there will be something returned, and if one 
has paid less than they ought they should remit to cover 
the apportionment. 

David Hadley, Western : We are setting business 
precedent here that will probably govern this body in 
years to come. I cannot see that this would be a busi- 
ness-like way unless the Yearly Meetings furnish the 
money and then let the Five Years Meeting seek some 
method by which it shall pay for the expense of the dele- 
gates. We ought to require each Yearly Meeting to pay 
the amount assessed. 

Lewis E. Stout, Western : Our delegation did not 
ask this question to hear from the Conference in the way 
we have been doing. We hoped that the Finance Com- 
mittee had something to suggest. I would like to sug- 
gest that they withdraw and complete this plan so that 
our minds may be clear in reference to this matter, so that 
they may report before this session closes. 

Milton Hanson, Western: That matter has been 
before the Finance Committee, but it is not ready to re- 
port. The plan is as outlined by Timothy Nicholson. 
But as part of the delegates want their money now, there 
could be a temporary arrangement made with the Treas- 
urer of this meeting so that he could pay the individuals 
and let the Yearly Meetings settle the accounts later on. 

Carolena M. Wood, New York : I think when the 
expenses of this meeting are made up we shall find that 
the time of this meeting has been worth about $10 a 
minute, and I think we should not spend $20, $30 or $50 
here discussing a point we cannot settle. 

Clerk : In filling out your cards make them show 
what your railroad fares are from your home and to your 
home. We will pass from this subject and ask the 
Finance Committee to take the matter in hand. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : Somebody made the 
right remark when they said that the Treasurer of each 
Yearly Meeting should see that all these expenses are 
paid to their delegates ; that should be attended to at 
home. I think probably the traveling expenses of the 
delegates of Indiana Yearly Meeting will not be over $150, 



OF THE CONFERENCE 311 

but the cost to some of the Yearly Meetings will be over 
$500. Now when the Treasurer of the Five Years Meet- 
ing has apportioned the expense to the Yearly Meetings, 
if he should find the average cost to be $575, all that the 
Treasurer of Indiana Yearly Meeting has to do is to 
deduct the traveling expenses he has already paid — say 
$150 — from that amount and remit the balance to this 
body. It seems to me if we would manage it that way we 
would not have any trouble. 

Clerk : We will now take up the first subject on the 
program, for this morning, which is a paper by Robert 
E. Pretlow, of Wilmington Yearly Meeting. 

OUR CHURCH LITERATURE. 
By Robert E. Preteow. 

The subject assigned to me is a very broad one, far 
too broad for elaborate treatment in a twenty minute 
paper. Some phases of it were ably presented by papers 
and discussion at the Conference of ten years ago, and 
others five years ago. These need not be repeated. This 
paper shall take for granted, first, the great value and in- 
fluence of its own distinctive literature in the Church ; 
and second, the possibility of an improvement over 
present conditions ; and shall attempt to confine itself to 
a brief discussion of some ways in which practical action 
may be taken by this body toward the improvement and 
enlargement of our literary supplies. 

The necessity of a periodical which shall be the ex- 
ponent of the thought and work of the Church is too well 
recognized to need argument, just as is the value of a liv- 
ing ministry. In regard to supplying the preaching of 
the Word, we are beginning to learn that the organized 
Church has a duty to perform in taking the initiative and 
sharing the sacrifice, not leaving the whole business to an 
individual. 

There has long been a feeling, and it has been grow- 
ing, that the publishing interest also ought to be the con- 
cern of the Church and not merely the private enterprise 
of an individual. But no one Yearly Meeting adequately 



312 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

represented the Church, and in some ways it seemed 
more objectionable for a general publishing concern to be 
in the hands of a single Yearly Meeting than to be under 
private management. 

A desire to connect the Church more closely with its 
publications led some years ago to the organization of the 
Publishing Association of Friends, composed of repre- 
sentative Friends from various sections. It was, doubt- 
less, the best that could be done at the time ; but all that 
it could really accomplish was to substitute the private 
enterprise of a number of individuals for that of one per- 
son. And beyond that point we have not yet progressed. 

Our Church needs a publishing house that shall be 
unmistakably the affair of the Church, and which, as 
such, can lay just claim to the loyalty of all her members. 

At an important assembly of Friends a resolution 
indorsing the American Fj'iend was objected to because 
that paper is a private enterprise. 

On the same ground many Sabbath-schools feel ab- 
solved from claims of denominational loyalty in securing 
their supplies, because the Church, as such, has no publi- 
cations. In deciding between the output of different pri- 
vate concerns they feel justified in guiding themselves by 
a careful counting of the pennies, and too often the value 
of our own presentation of the Bible School work is lost. 

No reflection is intended upon those who have so 
faithfully served the Church according to the methods 
thus far in use. Under existing circumstances those 
methods were the best possible. Hitherto there has been 
no channel through which the united Church could act. 
With the creation of the Five Years Meeting conditions 
have been revolutionized. The whole question of a 
Church publishing house and a Church periodical must 
be viewed under entirely new aspects. This body with 
its various Boards represents, continuously, united Qua- 
kerism, and makes possible, for the first time in the his- 
tory of the Church, the creation of machinery adequate 
for the management of a publishing institution for the 
Church. 

No more important Board could be created than a 



OK THE CONFERENCE 313 

Publication Board, which should have power to acquire 
for the Church existing interests, and to further extend 
its operations as the means placed at its disposal and the 
needs of the Church may warrant. 

Our periodical literature would naturally first claim 
its attention. One of the burdens of the Conference ten 
years ago was the multiplicity of periodicals. Since that 
time the happy results of the consolidation of the Christian 
Worker and Friends' Review have amply demonstrated the 
truth of the proposition that for a denomination of our 
numbers one general periodical is better than two or more. 

Should our periodicals pass under direct control of 
the Church still further consolidation would seem to be in 
order. The Church paper should be broad and strong 
enough to cover all departments of Church work, so that 
the reading membership may be symmetrically developed 
and informed along all lines, and not be divided into 
various groups showing different varieties of one-sided 
development. Special periodicals maintained in the inter- 
est of special departments would seem to a degree both 
wasteful and ineffective. The same matter presented in 
the special publication would be more economically pub- 
lished and more widely circulated as a department of the 
one Church paper than under the present system. 

Of course the periodical would not be edited by the 
Publishing Board, nor would the editor be under its con- 
stant surveillance. God has called some men to declare 
Him with the pen, as He has others to proclaim Him with 
the tongue. It should be the Board's concern to find God's 
man and give him the best facilities and the largest liberty 
for his service. 

The Board having a general supervision would ac- 
complish the one important thing of making our period- 
ical and other publications no longer an individual enter- 
prise, but a concern of all the Church. Then every 
pastor ought to feel that it is a part of his duty to extend 
the circulation of the paper among the membership as the 
exponent of the Church and to contribute to it all items of 
important Church news, so that it may properly reflect 
the Church. 



314 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Periodical literature, however, important as it is, is 
only a part of the literature which we need. There is an 
urgent demand for the more thorough and extended treat- 
ment of subjects than the periodical affords, and the more 
permanent form which may be placed upon the library 
shelf and referred to again and again. 

We still have, it is true, the books that have been 
standards in Friends' libraries for two hundred years; but 
notwithstanding the wealth of material in them, they have 
long since ceased to meet our needs. 

Thomas Kirnber said of them in a essay more than 
twenty years ago : ' ' The modern reader stands appalled 
before the long array of ponderous volumes of the literature 
current in the day, whether theological, biographical or 
historical. They almost seem to justify, in their amplitude, 
the complaint of an Edinburgh Reviewer of the last genera- 
tion in regard to Dr. Nares' ' Memoirs of L,ord Burleigh,' 
that ' The title page is as long as an ordinary preface, the 
prefatory matter would furnish out an ordinary book, and 
the book contains as much reading as an ordinary 
librae . ' 

" One seems at a loss which most to wonder at, the 
patient industry of those who wrote such Titanic volumes, 
or those who read them ; both apparently for a mere pas- 
time." 

We may as well face the fact that these books are not 
read, and will not be read, to any considerable extent. 
If we are to have a literature that will get into the hands 
and minds of our present day members that literature 
must be created. 

We have a great and inspiring history, but it is 
nowhere made readily and attractively accessible. 

We have produced men and women of noblest quali- 
ties and most fruitful lives, but the records of those lives 
are, for the most part, confined to ponderous and solemn 
memoirs that are marvelously successful in soothing to 
sleep any awakening interest. 

We have a philosophy so simple, so clear, so true and 
strong, that the greatest minds of the world are charmed 
when they come in contact with it ; and still we refer back 



OF THE CONFERENCE 315 

to the stilted and scholastic work of Barclay for an expres- 
sion of that philosophy. 

There is a painful dearth of books which express in 
the language of to-day either the history or the genius of 
our Church, and there never was a time when they were 
so earnestly desired by so many people as now. 

The demand is not for controversial literature in- 
veighing against the faults of this or other ages. We 
have tons of that sort of stuff in old libraries, and all of it 
is as dead as the cities of the plain. Nor do we want mere 
negation. We are not protestants ; we are affirmers. 
Our mission is not to deny some certain things, but to 
declare a life so large and free and strong that it cannot be 
compressed into the outworn shell of dead systems. 

We want, then, an expression of Quakers and Quaker- 
ism that shall be positive, practical, clear and concise ; in 
short, that shall conform to the spirit and form of our 
time as completely as the involved and voluminous tomes 
of Fox and his fellow-workers conformed to their times. 

Can such works be produced ? If not, then we had 
as well drop all consideration of the subject, 

But is the desire unreasonable or the hope of satisfy- 
ing it vain ? And can this body do anything that will 
tend toward the practical solution of this problem ? 

There is abundance of material for a literature of the 
greatest interest and value. And there is ability sufficient 
to make excellent use of this material. But our able men 
and women are very busy ones, and, for the most part, 
those who have their own livings to make. The produc- 
tion of worthy literature requires time for thought and 
research, and research requires money. In the final 
analysis the question that confronts us is one of money ; 
money for the production of the literature, and such a 
channel for its publication and distribution that the money 
question may take care of itself. 

The latter item would be far on the way to solution 
through the establishment of the Church Publication 
Board above proposed. It would represent the whole 
Church. It would have its advertising media in the 
Church publications. It would have its agencies in the 



316 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

various book and tract committees, and in the whole body 
of the ministry. It would have more direct access to the 
whole body of probable customers than any other publish- 
ing house could possibly do. Friends would naturally 
look to it for all matter of special interest to the Church. 
Thus it would have an exceptionally good opportunity of 
disposing of its publications. 

"How shall production be stimulated?" Let us 
examine the circumstances attending the production of 
three important publications of the last quarter of a cen- 
tury and see if we cannot get a hint from them. 

Probably the most satisfactory brief presentation ot 
Quakerism now attainable — certainly the most charming 
in its style — is Thomas Kimber's " The True Christian 
Theology of the Early Friends." This was delivered as 
a lecture at Earlham College, and its publication in pam- 
phlet form made possible by the action of Indiana Yearly 
Meeting Book and Tract Committee. 

A very important contribution to Peace literature is 
Dr. Trueblood's pamphlet, "William Penn's Holy Experi- 
ment in Civil Government." This also was prepared to 
be delivered as an oration at Philadelphia, and was pre- 
served by publication through the American Peace Society. 

Possibly the most deeply philosophical and pro- 
foundly spiritual little book to which Modern American 
Quakerism may lay claim is " A Dynamic Faith," by 
Rufus M. Jones. 

This series of five lectures was delivered before the 
Haverford Summer School of Religious History, and- the 
Friends' Bible Institute at Earlham, and afterward put 
into book form by Headley Brothers, of London. 

Attention is called to the fact that all these were first 
prepared as lectures, and that the Church as such had no 
hand in the putting into permanently available form of 
but one of them. Now it is entirely probable that these 
have not been the only really excellent lectures, well 
worthy of presentation, that have been delivered. From 
our Summer Schools, Bible Institutes, Endeavor, Educa- 
tional, and Sabbath-school Conventions it might be possi- 
ble to glean many things worth reading as well as hearing. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 317 

It is already the duty of the Committee on Education , 
according to the Discipline under which we are met, to 
' ' recommend text books that give valuable information 
concerning the history or doctrine of our branch of the 
Church." 

Might not the scope of duty of that Committee be 
extended so as to include watchfulness for the discovery 
of such matter and the encouragement of its publication ? 

But a further step in which the Church shall more 
directly take the initiative in the production of a literature 
commends itself to the writer as now for the first time 
practical. 

Let the Committee on Education, under the direction 
of this Meeting, be properly incorporated and solicit funds 
for the endowment and support of a lectureship on Church 
History and Doctrine. Let this Committee then annually, 
or as often as its finances will permit, employ some capa- 
ble representative of the best thought of the Church to 
prepare a course of lectures on some subject of historical 
or religious interest. Let these lectures be delivered 
before the students of our various colleges or elsewhere 
under such arrangements as may be made with the Com- 
mittee on Education, and at the end of the year let the 
subject matter be available for publication in book form. 

This plan, if adopted, would secure careful and 
scholarly work. It would bring annually some one of 
our best thinkers into personal touch with the student 
body, not of one college alone, but of our various colleges. 
It would provide frequent additions to our literature, and 
at the same time secure in advance of its publication a 
considerable demand for it, as large numbers of those who 
heard the lectures delivered would wish to possess them 
in print. 

Being under control of a permanent Committee, a cer- 
tain degree of continuity would be assured which the per- 
sonality of different lectures will insure against monotony. 
Year by year a worthy literature covering an ever widen- 
ing field will be built up, supplying the want which we 
now so keenly feel. 



318 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

This need not be the only source of production. In- 
dividual ability and opportunity will find as free a field as 
it ever did. But the problem the writer has endeavored 
to consider is, How can this organization work toward 
the betterment of our literature ? The suggestions which 
have been made are not made as mere academic theories, 
but as practical propositions for the consideration and 
action of this body. 

Clerk : The further discussion of this subject has 
been assigned to Albert J. Brown, of Western Yearly 
Meeting. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : I thought in view of the 
fact that the book of ' ' Brief Selections from the Life and 
Works of William Penn," has been referred to, that I will 
read one of these this morning. (Lifts up the folio vol- 
ume.) 

If there is any suggestion that might be made further 
I do not know what it is ; for this paper has covered the 
whole subject, and I appealed to the author to know if he 
had anything else to say and he said he had, so I will tell 
you what further he would say. He would have the Five 
Years Meeting take supervisory control of the publica- 
tions of our Yearly Meetings and in time try to work out 
a central publishing house for Friends, which I think, 
perhaps, would be a very practical thing, but I have 
wondered all along if some statements are true that we 
have no literature of the present time and how are we 
going to use all this machinery that is proposed. It has 
been said here that we do not have a living representa- 
tive literature from the Friends of America to-day. Now, 
I cannot tell you how we are going to produce it ; but I 
have a hope that we will produce it, and I think I can 
give a reason for the hope that is within. 

History will certainly show that all literature that 
survives has come out of some great struggle. Man in 
his struggle with evil has spoken to the world through 
the prophet and the seer, and I believe that we as a peo- 
ple are entering upon a new era. The other evening, 
when we discussed the temperance question the most pro- 
nounced thing in that assembly was the feeling of pressure 



OF THE CONFERENCE 319 

from above that we must go forth and give the word. 
There must come a literature — there must always come a 
way out for the people who believe that they have not 
attained the heights. We have organized this body with 
the belief that under organized effort we can extend our 
borders. Now, that is my hope — that there will come a 
literature under these various lines; for instance, I have 
longed to see Friends do as some others have done when 
great issues came upon the nation, to lift their voices, and 
some of them have, and proclaim to the world and to the 
nation that we have a solution for the questions of the age. 
To illustrate, a few years ago when England went to war 
in South Africa, a College president on the Pacific coast 
left his chair and started across the United States lecturing 
against war. He was David Starr Jordan, and his subject 
was " The Blood of the Nations." It seems that he was 
called to the emergency, he left his chair in college and 
seized the opportunity to travel clear across this continent 
and lectured in- Europe upon this problem, and Indiana 
Yearly Meeting recognizing the value of this document, 
printed extracts from it, and sent it broadcast. 

It has not been very long since Dr. Hadley, of Yale, 
lifted up his voice in behalf of better citizenship, and his 
lectures have gone broadcast. These men are leaving 
their thoughts on the minds of the people, and I would 
like to see twenty Friends where there is one coming out 
on these lines to show men the way. 

Then again, I would like to see the ministry so effec- 
tive among Friends that it would be qualified to speak before 
the public institutions, like the great universities and great 
assemblies ; that it would be so efficient that these people 
would be called upon to deliver a message from God to 
these institutions and assemblies. I spent three years in 
the University of Indiana. Every week a sermon was 
preached by some minister in the State of Indiana. Not 
one Friend was called upon to speak in that institution, 
and I inquired one time at the institution if they had a 
prejudice against Friends and this was the reply that was 
made by one who was near the president, " We have not 
felt that they have commended themselves sufficiently." 



320 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Since I left the university one minister has been 
called to preach before that body who was a Friend. I 
wish we might have dozens and dozens of them, so 
that we could proclaim the message that we have to 
men everywhere, and may God grant us the favor and the 
privilege of declaring the truths which we hold as funda- 
mental to this whole country and to the world around. 
So I say to you this morning, my friends, that we have 
the hope of a great future, and unless we have convictions 
that are as deep as human experience, we will not be 
called upon, and we will fail. But the little body ot 
Friends gathered here this morning I trust do have a 
message for men. If the spirit of God calls on a man or 
woman to write — it may not be many words you say, but 
if the spirit of the eternal God is in them men will hear 
the message. There came a man from Israel who saw sin 
creeping into every household and he lifted up his voice 
against it, and Hosea lives in the heart of mankind. We 
have a Friend whose service has been recognized by the 
world, and when I was reading the life of John Bright it 
seemed to me that Parliament was before me and the 
great problem of humanity was there, and here was Bright 
standing by the rail lifting up his voice for God and 
humanity. I have read some sermons that came from 
Friends that can never die. 

Friends, let us set our hearts upon the larger hope ot 
humanity and go forth in every field of human thought to 
leave the influence of our thought and our conviction 
upon this old world. We can never die so long as we do 
that. I have a resolution I wish to offer : 

(Read a resolution in regard to The American Friend 
and The Missionary Advocate. See Minutes, Minute 92.) 

Levi D. Barr, of California: Is that offered as a 
motion ? 

Clerk : It is offered as a resolution to this meeting. 

Lewis E. Stout, Western : I suppose that it should 
be referred to the Business Committee. 

James Wood, New York : I think it had better be 
referred without deliberation to the Business Committee. 






OF THE CONFERENCE 321 

Clerk : We have previously taken action that resolu- 
tions shall be referred to the Business Committee, so it 
will be referred without further consideration. 

Albert F. N. Hambleton, Iowa : I do not know that 
it would be possible for me to add much to what has 
already been covered by these able papers presented on 
this subject, which is to my mind one of the most im- 
portant subjects before the Friends of America. But, 
however, I should venture a suggestion to try to make a 
practical application of a thing which to me has been 
revealed in talking with the ministers of the Friends' 
Church during the past few years, which might, if prop- 
erly carried out, be able to assist them in presenting to the 
congregations to which they preach some of the principles 
of Friends and the reasons for the belief in the doctrines as 
promulgated by the Society of Friends. The thought I 
have in mind is along the line of what we find our best 
educators need, and that is practical reference books on 
the various subjects which can be readily referred to. We 
find the professional men — -the doctor has his books to re- 
fer to, his encyclopedia ; the lawyer has his encyclopedia 
— but when it comes to the Friend minister, and he wants 
to present his reason for the statements of Friends, he has 
only such books as the one shown here in our midst this 
morning. I hope that we may soon have, in connection 
with this subject, an encyclopedia which will state facts 
relating to history, brief biographies of the best men of 
the Friends' Church. Each subject being given to 
those best adapted to handle this subject, and give state- 
ments of the doctrines of Friends, such as the doctrine of 
the ordinances, the doctrines and testimonies of Friends 
on war, and all the various cardinal principles which the 
Friends' Church has held from its origin ; and have a 
statement, biographical, of the lives of men who have 
founded or been connected with the early history of our 
denomination. By reference to the histories we find that 
many slanders have been perpetrated. Macaulay 's history, 
we find, is incorrect and slanderous, and many others have 
either purposely or ignorantly misrepresented the history 
of many of our founders. L,et biographies be presented, 



32 2 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

in a page or two to each one. This can be done by those 
who have the time and opportunity to consult the best 
books of reference obtainable, and thus let us have in the 
near future an encyclopedia for Friends' use. 

A few years ago I went to attend a church which was 
presided over by a pastor who was once a prominent 
member of this Society. He spoke on the subject, ' ' Why 
am I a Presbyterian?" I thought it was a complete 
failure ; but also I thought it was probably no more a 
failure than most of our pastors would make should they 
undertake to say, " Why am I a Friend ?" I have had a 
deep concern for years on this subject, and I do hope that 
in this Five Years Meeting some steps may be taken 
whereby we can have brought to our use and our privi- 
lege a book for the use of young ministers and those who 
wish to present the truths as held by this Church. 

Peter W. Raidabaugh, Western : For twelve years I 
have been working practically on the line suggested by 
Robert E. Pretlow's paper. When I came in contact 
with the Friends' Publishing Association I found every- 
thing was moving along at a dying rate, small circula- 
tions, much money being spent, $17,000 sunk in the 
Christian Worker with a circulation of 4500. We went 
to work to bring about a consolidation of the Friends' 1 
Review and the Christia?i Worker, and this union has been 
a good thing. We found concerning the publications for 
the Bible Schools one Quarterly to supply all the different 
grades of the school. To my mind we can never succeed 
until we can have a publishing house in some way Under 
the direction of the Church. We have our missionary 
interests under the care of a special Board ; we have our 
Educational Board, and we have our Evangelistic and 
Church Extension all under Boards and under the control 
of the Church. But the publishing interests — the Quar- 
terlies, Lesson Eeaves and papers for the children, under 
the control of one man, or practically so. The children 
who are to be the future members of the Church, in the 
years when impressions are made on their minds, are hav- 
ing placed in their hands the publications that are practi- 
cally controlled by one man. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 323 

I do not know that this Five Years Meeting is ready 
to take up this work further than to have a Committee on 
Publications which should have advisory relation in re- 
gard to what shall be published ; and if some one comes 
forward with a book pretending to be the views of 
Friends, let these papers be referred to the Committee, 
and if it gives its endorsement its goes out with the en- 
dorsement of the Church, and if some paper is not re- 
ceived Friends will know that the Committee has read the 
manuscript and cannot endorse it ; Friends will know 
that that is not endorsed by the representative body of the 
Five Years Meeting. If anything not strictly in harmony 
with the Church should appear in our publications this 
Committee could call down the editors, and the editors 
could submit questions of difficulty to this Committee and 
receive advisement from them. Perhaps this is as far as 
we are ready to go now, and I will move you that the 
subject be referred to the Business Committee, that if in 
their judgment they think best, such a Committee can be 
asked for or suggested. 

James Wood, New York : I wish to speak upon 
another branch of the subject, not on the resolution. 

Clerk : Are you ready for the question ? 

(Motion carried.) 

James Wood, New York : The resolution offered by 
Albert J. Brown and the resolution just passed on some 
other matters still leave the practical suggestion that 
was suggested in the paper of Robert E. Pretlow that 
lectureships should be established for the benefit of 
Friends. This proposition meets my hearty approval. 
The suggestion is in line with the very best literature of 
our age. It is in line with the experience of others. The 
celebrated Bampton Lectures at Oxford, England, have 
been the means of giving to the world some of its ablest 
and best productions in regard to the wide fields which 
they embrace. It is considered throughout the world that 
one of the greatest steps ever taken in regard to matters of 
this kind affecting the world at large was the establishment 
by an American lady of a lectureship for India. Mrs. 
Haskell established a lectureship that met the admiration 



324 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

of the intellectual and Christian world ; that lecturers 
should be appointed to go to India and express to them the 
highest and the best thought of the Christian world. The 
publication of these lectures for use elsewhere since they 
were delivered in India have proved a great means of 
benefit to the Christian people everywhere. Robert E. 
Pretlow spoke of instances of lectures similarly prepared 
by Friends in America as having brought some of the most 
valuable literary productions of recent time, and I think 
his proposition is just in the line of the best experience of 
the Church in this direction ; therefore, I take great 
pleasure in moving that the proposition be referred to the 
Committee on Education for its consideration and for such 
action as way may open for. 

Rufus M. Jones, New England : Just as James Wood 
rose to speak I was about to rise to speak on the same 
subject. I want to second the motion he has made. 
About a year ago I thought a good deal about this same 
idea that Robert E. Pretlow has so well set forth, and I 
worked for some time on the idea, and finally went to a 
man who has a large pocketbook and told him that I 
believed it would be a new way for good to be accom- 
plished — the idea of establishing a lectureship so that 
some Friend or Friends could be kept at work visiting 
meetings and presenting the early history of Friends and 
subjects that concern Friends to-day ; and this Friend 
expressed a very great interest in the idea, and told me he 
was ready to contribute liberally to any such scheme. 
Now, James Wood has referred you to one of the most 
important lectureships in the world. I want to call your 
attention also to the Gifford lectures, the greatest in the 
world, a good lecturer is chosen to lecture every year. 
These lecturers receive for their services at the rate of $5 
a minute for their speeches. While we are not expecting 
to have a lectureship of quite that high grade, I believe if 
we really take this matter up with the deep concern to 
give it our full endorsement, there will be no difficulty 
about securing the funds to carry on such a work as this. 

I know a little about the publishing interest of 
Friends and the difficulties of it, and I want to say here 



OF THE CONFERENCE 325 

that it will be absolutely impossible ever to bring about 
any sort of a publishing house among Friends unless there 
is a big capital back of it. We may make these resolu- 
tions and appoint a committee and say it is practical 
and all that, but it can't be done. We cannot do it. I 
believe there is but one of the denominational publishing 
houses in America that is self sustaining ; I have found 
only one in my investigation. Two of the largest have 
just consolidated because financially they could not live. 
Now, you have this difficulty before you, and it will 
always be before the Society of Friends because we are a 
small body. I do not believe there ever can be a pub- 
lishing interest of any consequence unless there is a large 
fund raised and some individuals who are deeply con- 
cerned should put their hands in their pockets and make 
such a thing go. 

David Hadley, Western : There is one feature that 
has not been touched upon in these discussions, and it 
seems to me there is a field for literature that appeals 
directly to the personal experience. We must have that 
which touches the heart life, that which comes along the 
line of doctrinal revelation, and I think the Church will 
fail in its mission if it does not keep before its member- 
ship a literature that shall appeal to the personal experi- 
ence of the individual ; and if we only want historical 
literature and lectures upon such subjects, she will fail to 
touch the heart life of her membership. While I have 
full harmony with what has been said, still I was rather 
expecting he would refer to such a matchless book as Dr. 
Clark wrote ; books about the deeper spiritual currents of 
literature that would appeal to the heart life and not to 
their sense of denominational pride ; books which will 
touch the personal experience and by which men will 
gain an experience in Christ Jesus. 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore : I unite heartily with 
the proposition of Robert E- Pretlow in regard to a 
lectureship. I believe we shall reach a wider field than 
has been mentioned, not only our young people and 
the members of our own body, but also the public. If 
such lectureships as proposed are established, I am sure 



326 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

that one object of our coming together in thi,s body will be 
realized. It is a way, and one of the best, of putting our 
views before the public and letting them be known ; it is 
also an education and training to our members. I have 
received many letters during the past few years — from, I 
suppose, ten different States of the Union, asking for 
information in regard to the doctrines of the Society of 
Friends ; the interest is great not only within our own 
body but outside. And ministers of the Society of 
Friends have written me to ask, " What shall I read, 
where shall I find information upon the doctrines of 
Friends," so I believe that this is a step which is prac- 
tical and one which we can take. 

In regard to a publishing house, as our friend, Rufus 
M. Jones, said, any one who has had any experience with 
publishing houses, knows that large capital is necessary 
to carry them on. A publishing house is a business enter- 
prise, and the financial question lies back of everything 
else. The Society of Friends is not a large body, and has 
not many wealthy members. I do not believe that a 
publishing house would be practicable for us. 

Robert L,. Kelly, Indiana : I feel that I have some- 
thing to say upon the proposition which is now before 
this conference. I am afraid to say to you here that since 
the suggestion was made for the election of the members of 
this Educational Committee, I have had very little faith 
in the practicability of such a committee on the ordinary 
educational lines. Activity is what we are engaged in in 
the United States. Our local interests are so exception- 
ally peculiar that there has been no proposition come to my 
knowledge thus far, until this proposition of Robert E. 
Pretlow's, on which the educational interests of Friends 
could unite in a practical way, and I have expressed that 
conviction over and over. This is a proposition which I 
do believe is practical, which the Educational Commit- 
tee could take hold of and make something of. I most 
sincerely subscribe to what my friend, David Hadley, has 
said. So far as I am concerned, I suppose that the pride 
of the Friends' Church has been appealed to sufficiently. 
I suppose we are sufficiently proud of what our fathers 



OF THE CONFERENCE 327 

and grand- fathers did as Quakers. Perhaps we are not 
sufficiently familiar with what they did. Yet as a young 
Friend, I have felt that that is not the great problem that is 
before the Quaker Church at this time. Now I do not 
want it to be understood that I do not wish this historical 
information of what has been done in the Quaker Church, 
or that we shall go out with a limited notion of what has 
been done in the years that are past, but I want these 
lecturers to go out before God, and filled with the spirit 
of God, and ask Almighty God to interpret the genius of 
Quakerism to the world at this time, right here and now. 
It seems to me that is what we need and what we ought 
to have, and it seems to me that this lectureship would 
give an opportunity in a better way than any other way 
that has come before this convention for these lecturers to 
go out. I should want it to be on the same basis as the 
ministry. When one Yearly Meeting has been willing to 
liberate a minister, and appropriated the funds for his 
traveling expenses, that he might go out and preach 
Jesus Christ in the various quarters within the limits of 
Friends, he has the sanction of the Church, and I should 
want these lecturers to go out in the same way, that when 
a lecturer goes out he may feel that he is being liberated 
by the church. It is the genius of Quakerism that we 
want interpreted. If it does not stand for anything for 
these people of this age, I want to attend some other 
denomination. I do not want it limited, but I want it to 
be one of the great means of building up the kingdom of 
Christ on earth. 

Mary A. Sibbitt, Kansas : I want to say that my 
heart has been pained at the silence of the women all 
during the conference. You do not rise to your feet. 
We cannot complain that the brothers do not give us a 
chance. I represent one of the young Yearly Meetings, 
but I want to tell you that we are true Quakers, from the 
top of our heads to the soles of our feet. I want to 
sanction the words of David Hadley. The cry is for the 
real spirituality of the Quaker religion. My work takes 
me among other people, I have been engaged in temper- 
ance reform work among other people, and they come to 



328 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

me and say, " Mrs. Sibbitt, give us some idea of where 
you get your wonderful spiritual power in your Church ? ' ' 
I cannot lay my hands on the literature that I may edu- 
cate them. The cry of my heart has been for the last 
four years, give me some literature, give me some litera- 
ture. The cry is the same all over Kansas Yearly Meet- 
ing. Give me something that I may put into the hands of 
those who are seeking to know what the real baptism of 
the Holy Ghost is, as we as a Church teach it. God stir 
the hearts of the members of this conference that we may 
develop some practical plans that we may not only go 
out and teach the historical truths but bring it into prac- 
tice. I would not disparage the ministry of the Quaker 
Church. There is no ministry in the West to-day that 
stands as high as the ministry of the Quaker Church. 
L,et us stand by them. 

Clerk : I hope that Friends will speak to the proposi- 
tion now before the meeting ; that is, that the proposition 
to establish a Friends' Lectureship be referred to the 
Committee on Education for consideration, and that they 
be empowered to provide for it as way may open. 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : I was not going to 
speak on this proposition, but on another feature — that 
was in regard to literature for the unsaved. This need 
has been apparent to me for a number of months, and 
during the past year numbers have written to our Book 
and Tract Depository and said, " Why don't Friends 
write books and tracts for the unsaved ? ' ' We are sup- 
plying spiritual reading for the Church, and I wanted to 
touch upon this here this morning in connection With 
what has been said. 

Francis W. Thomas, Indiana : I wish to give my 
support to the remarks made by my brother, Robert L,. 
Kelly. I can call to mind, and you can call to mind, that 
such a thing was inaugurated by Indiana Yearly Meeting 
fully thirty years ago. " General meetings " were organ- 
ized and subjects were selected and assigned to the minis- 
ters, and in these congregations they were able to set forth 
the doctrines and practices of Friends in relation to the 
Church and Society. Brother Robert Walter Douglas 



OF THE CONFERENCE 329 

and John Henry Douglas and others were engaged in that 
special work. There were lectures, and a lecture was 
usually specified to be on a certain subject, or an address 
on a certain point of doctrine or profession of the Society 
of Friends. This went on for three years, and the founda- 
tion was laid by these lectures for the progress of Indiana 
Yearly Meeting and for the increase in its membership 
which took place afterwards. It was better than sermon- 
izing then ; the public mind needed it, our own member- 
ship needed it. I believe we have men to-day. L,et us 
give them an opportunit} r and lay the burden on them and 
we shall have an advance made in our testimony of the 
doctrine that will stand before the public. There is a 
class that will go to hear a lecture that will not go to hear 
a sermon, and they get to understand that there is some- 
thing to be found out and that the Quaker Church stands 
for something and not for nothing. If we ever stand for 
anything as a people and accomplish that for which we 
are gathered together, we must have this as one of the 
means that goes out into the world. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : We are entering 
into a broad field in this regard if we put before the world 
a potent lectureship, and in this way I am sure that we 
shall be able to gain the ears of other institutions of 
learning. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : If I thought 
this lectureship means simply a rehashing of old tradi- 
tions in a traditional way I should oppose it ; but if it 
means an interpretative lectureship in the large sense, 
with a sociological side, a political side, bearing on all 
the functions of life, then I should favor it. It does not 
seem to be so formidable as some would suppose. Such 
an endowment would need a comparatively small sum. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas: This means the Educa- 
tional Committee has power to act but does not have 
power to report ? 

Clerk : The Educational Committee does not report 
this year. 



330 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington : It was rather a sur- 
prise to me that there should be an idea on the part of any 
one that this lectureship means a dry-as-dust presentation 
of facts is all that is intended. Difficult as it is to get at 
old Friends' history now through all the dust and volume 
of these old tomes, there is in it something that stirs the 
spirit of everbody that goes to do it. I believe that it 
will be taken as a matter of course that everything intro- 
duced to this body was introduced for the spiritual uplift 
of the whole Church ; otherwise I would have no thought 
of burdening this Conference with anything that would 
merely deal with dry facts. The space that was allotted 
to this subject forbade going all over all kinds of litera- 
ture, but the preacher who is to go before an audience 
and interpret to the people the genius of our great Chris- 
tian philosophy should have this before him. This was 
my idea that this lectureship should provide. 

(Recess of five minutes.) 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington, led in singing, 
" Blest Be The Tie That Binds." 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa : I feel that I would like to 
say this. I have different commentaries in my library, 
they are all written by men of some other churches. I 
wish some one of our own Church would give us a good 
spiritual as well as historical exegesis of the Old Book, 
that we might have something giving the correct views of 
Friends on the ordinances, &c. I wish that we could 
have something clear and concise on these questions. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : This is a very inter- 
esting subject, and I am glad that our brother presented 
the paper. I think it is a wise suggestion, and I rejoice 
in the responsibility that has come over this conference 
and I am thankful for the speeches that have been made 
by David Hadley, the President of Earlham College, and 
others. I think it is the very thing we need. But we 
are talking about our ministers. I do not like it. I do 
not unite with the brothers in this. I know we are a 
little people, so far as numbers are concerned, but we have 
strong ministers. There are no stronger ministers in 
Indiana than those in the Quaker Church, and as for the 



OF THE CONFERENCE 33 1 

membership of the Church, they are far ahead in intel- 
lectual pursuits — they are ahead of the most of the people. 

Clerk : I hope the sisters will not go away from here 
and complain that they had no chance to speak. You 
have not stood to claim your place, and I have looked 
right into your faces just as much as I dared to see if you 
did want to speak, and you would not make a move. It 
is seldom that you go from a meeting like this but that 
some one is heard to say, that " somebody did all the busi- 
ness and ran the meeting." You have the same right as 
any of the rest, and if you fail to take your part you are 
to blame, not the people that do the business. 

Are you ready to take up the questions that have 
been assigned to this session ? 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : Our Saviour said, 
" Pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest, that He 
will send forth laborers into His harvest." So I believe 
if we will pray the Lord to send them out, and it may be 
that He will send them out themselves. I believe that if 
they will carefully consider these questions some of these 
people who feel these needs will be called of the Lord to 
fill these places. 

Clerk : We will now take up the Reports of Commit- 
tees on Referred Business. We will have the report 
from the American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. 

(Report was read. See Minutes, Minute 82.) 

Clerk : You have heard the report from the Mission- 
ary Board ; what is your pleasure with reference to it ? 

Aaron M. Bray, Oregon : I move that it be approved 
and adopted by this meeting. 

James Carey, Jr., Baltimore: I do not think it is 
necessary for this body to do more than receive the report. 
The American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions is not 
appointed by this meeting, but by the Yearly Meetings, 
and in accepting our report I suggested that we might be 
recognized as The American Friends' Board of Foreign 
Missions, which the Discipline provides that should be 
organized. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : I was about to remark 
that there were some legal phases of this question, and 



332 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

there is an additional report which, is withheld on account 
of these legal phases, and I hoped that the discussion on 
this matter would be withheld until we are thoroughly 
satisfied in regard to these legal phases, and until the 
Five Years Meeting received that report. In adopting that 
report it is virtually recognizing the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions as a board of the meeting. 

Clerk : With the addition suggested by James Carey, 
Jr., would it affect the action of this meeting? 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : James Carey is familiar 
with it, and will meet with us. 

(James Carey, Jr., withdrew the suggestion.) 

(Rufus M. Jones called attention to the Discipline, 
Part IV., under Boards.) 

David Hadley, Western : I do not see why this Board 
should be the only one to be appointed by the Yearly 
Meetings. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : It is necessary because 
of the fact that we have articles of incorporation, and 
on that account the law requires that the members be 
appointed by the Yearly Meetings, and the law was 
passed by our request to fit this particular case. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : As there is amotion before 
the House to pass upon this report, I would move as a 
substitute, that we defer any action on this report until 
the committee shall settle these legal points of law. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : The legal question 
will not affect the face of the report submitted here this 
morning. 

Clerk : The original motion was seconded, the sub- 
stitute was not ; the motion is on the approval of the 
report as read. 

(Motion was carried.) 

Clerk : We have on the desk a letter addressed to 
this meeting, from the Women's Christian Temperance 
Union at Portland, Maine. 

(Tetter of greeting from Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was read. See Minutes, Minute 83.) 

Clerk : What action do you wish to take in reference 
to this letter ?' 



OF THE CONFERENCE 333 

Robert W. Douglas, Indiana: I think we should re- 
spond to it, and I move that the clerks be authorized to 
send a response to this letter of greeting. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : You will remember 
that on this platform Zenas I/. Martin had a part assigned 
him, and he yielded his place to others, and I would sug- 
gest that at the final introduction of this business Zenas 
L,. Martin be requested to speak not to exceed ten 
minutes, as he has yi elded his time to other individuals 
on other occasions. 

Question : Are there other reports on the table ? 

Clerk : There is other business that we can take up. 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington: I suggest that we 
continue the business, as there are other reports to come 
from this American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. 

Clerk : If it be the pleasure of the Meeting, we will 
call up in connection with the subject when it comes up, 
as it will later. 

Thomas C. Brown, Western : We will consent to that. 

Clerk : Has the Business Committee or any other 
committee anything we can dispose of in the time of this 
session ? 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The question has been asked, if 
in the course of five years any of the members of these 
Boards or Committees should die or move out of the 
limits of the Yearly Meetings, how these vacancies should 
be filled. The Business Committee offer this Resolution : 

' ' Resolved , that all vacancies occurring in Boards or 
any Committee in the interims of the sessions of the Five 
Years Meeting be filled by such Boards and Committees 
themselves where not otherwise provided for." 

The Recording Clerk re-read the resolution, and on 
motion it was adopted. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The Business Committee pro- 
pose that an Executive Committee of Five be appointed 
by the Five Years Meeting to make all the necessary pre- 
liminary arrangements for holding the proposed confer- 
ence on the liquor question, and carry on the necessary 
correspondence and make all the arrangements in the 



334 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

other churches, and these five to be delegates at large to 
that conference. 

We recommend that James Wood, Rufus M. Jones, 
Timothy Nicholson, Benjamin F. Trueblood and Edmund 
Stanley be that Committee. 

And we further propose that the delegates from the 
several Yearly Meetings propose one additional name 
from each Yearly Meeting, and if the developments shall 
be such that an additional number of delegates would be 
advisable, the Executive Committee shall report such ad- 
ditional numbers as the Committee may recommend to the 
different Yearly Meetings. 

It means that those five persons shall be appointed to 
make all necessary arrangements and to attend this con- 
ference if the meeting is held in the year 1906 ; and that 
we ought to appoint one from each Yearly Meeting, these 
to be appointed by the delegates, to unite with them in 
this matter, and then if the other denominations should 
appoint large delegations, and the Committee thinks the 
Society of Friends ought to have a larger delegation, they 
will call on the Yearly Meetings to make up that number. 

On'motion, the recommendation of the Business Com- 
mittee was adopted. 

Mary A. Sibbitt, Kansas : I rose to say that we 
ought to have a representative in the far West. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : This work has to be done by a 
very few persons ; we wanted to get them as close to- 
gether as possible: 

The Business Committee recommend that the entire 
subject of advanced Biblical Study be referred to the 
Committee on Education. 

On motion, the subject was referred as suggested. 

After prayer the meeting adjourned. 

SEVENTH DAY AFTERNOON, TENTH MONTH 

25th, 1902. 

Clerk : The meeting will now please come to order, 
and we will have a few minutes of quiet waiting before 
the Eord. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 335 

Ira C. Johnson, Esther G. Frame and others offered 
prayer. 

James Wood, of New York : As Zenas L,. Martin 
gave up his time to another speaker this morning, I feel 
that it would be no more than right if we should allow 
him to speak this afternoon. There is certainly time for 
him to speak now. I move that he be allowed ten min- 
utes now. 

(The motion was carried.) 

David Hadley, of Western : I would ask the privilege 
of this Conference that we take one word out of the report 
made by Allen Jay ; that is, if we have the consent of the 
convention, I would like to have the word "advance" 
stricken out. 

A Delegate : I should think this should be referred 
to a committee. 

The Clerk : As it is the wish of this body the word 
will be stricken from the resolution. We are now ready 
to hear Zenas L,. Martin. 

Zenas L,. Martin, of Western : I do not wish to take 
the valuable time of this Five Years Meeting, but I have 
a few things that I would like to say. It would cer- 
tainly be very difficult to embody the work of the various 
departments of a Board in this Five Years Meeting. It 
would be almost impossible to tell how much they will 
develop, and what they will be ready to present to the 
sessions of the next Five Years Meeting. We have a 
child that I wish to introduce to you, and that is the only 
reason I wish to speak to you at this time. He has 
almost grown out of infancy and is a lively, active, grow- 
ing boy. I refer to our missionary work in Cuba, as the 
first real production of this Five Years Meeting, as the 
Missionary Board organized under the convention, which 
was accepted this morning, and his work has presented 
to you some real things along that line. I will briefly 
state how our interests have grown in the Island of Cuba. 
I want to present to this Five Years Meeting the fact that 
it is the missionary field of the Five Years Meeting. I 
am glad that every individual Yearly Meeting has its 



336 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

field, and observation will show that the miss'ionaty inter- 
est of the Friends in America ought to be a growing field, 
and the Quaker Church in this country increasing in num- 
ber, and financial support in a greater proportion than 
any home work ; and while this child in Cuba is an active 
little fellow, we expect to introduce him to you in five 
years in a larger form. The conditions of the missionary 
work among the inhabitants of Cuba may be classed as 
favorable and unfavorable. Of the unfavorable may be 
mentioned (a) The indifference of the Church at home to 
their need ; (b) The unchristian example of Americans 
among them ; (c) Their long schooling in dishonesty 
which has produced a retaliating nature ; (d) The innate 
restlessness of the people aggravated by war which makes 
it difficult to get them quiet and thoughtful ; (e) A grow- 
ing indifference to an}' religion ; (f) Some of the usual 
difficulties met in the Catholic countries, etc. 

Of the favorable conditions may be stated : (a) The 
Church and State having been united in an unhelpful gov- 
ernment that gave no opportunity for encouragement or 
development has placed the people in a bad state of morals 
and practically without a religion. From these conditions 
they have struggled for freedom and have turned as much 
from the Church as from the Spanish government, and thus 
are not held to the dictation of their religious system as are 
those other Spanish- American republics, (b) The lack of 
any educational system worthy of the name of such has 
held the people in a state of ignorance from which they 
are awakening to a new light, making conditions favor- 
able for educational work, (c) The changing political, 
social, commercial and industrial conditions make the 
time opportune for the gospel, and in many ways give 
promise of great results, (d) The financial outlook is 
hopeful, and with a country rich in undeveloped re- 
sources the Gospel applied to its commercial and social 
life will make possible a self-supporting church, (e) The 
time of the readjustment of the policy of the Catholic 
Church to the conditions of the Cuban people is the 
golden opportunity for the Gospel, (f) The domestic 
habits and social nature of the people make an easy access 



OF THE CONFERENCE 337 

to the homes and personal lives of the people, and their 
affectionate nature responds to the nature of the Gospel 
truths. 

There was a notice in the paper that the Catholics 
were going to convert all the Quakers to Catholicism, and 
there was still another stating that our Church was dead ; 
but in the face of it all, we have crowded houses when we 
have services. The outcome looks hopeful. In order to 
care for this growing missionary work, we all know what 
is necessary. We have now spent $7000 or more on the 
buildings, and quite a sum in the maintenance of the 
work. We have no Yearly Meeting to go before. Who 
will take up this work ? We must depend upon the 
interest of this body. The gifts that you may be 
called upon to give beyond the obligations of your 
own Church in the missionary interest of your own 
individual meeting, and we, trust, as we have in the 
past, to this liberality to carry the work on. There 
are some buildings that must be built this year, and 
some that are already built must be furnished. We 
have four buildings and lumber ordered for five, and have 
eight missionaries in the field and must have four more 
the coming year. If this matter comes before you person- 
ally or before any individual of the Yearly Meeting, please 
remember that the obligation of the Five Years Meeting 
rests upon us to maintain the work. Before I close I 
would like to read you a portion of a letter that I have 
recently received. It says : ' ' We are having a large attend- 
ance at church. Sunday evening there was a parade of 
Catholics at 5.30; so after it was all over they came 
around to see how we were getting on. We preached a 
sermon that stirred them up, I'll tell you." 

The Clerk : We are now ready for the first subject 
on the program, " The Place and Function of our Church 
Organization." The further discussion of this has been 
arranged for by the Business Committee. The Business 
Committee announce that they have asked Benjamin F. 
Trueblood to open the discussion. James Wood will 
have a few minutes to open the question . 



338 STENOGRAPHIC RKPORT 

James Wood, of New York : The Business Commit- 
tee have asked me to make a little preliminary explana- 
tion as to why this subject was put upon the program for 
informal discussion. It was put there because the Five 
Years Meeting was in its experimental stage. We did 
not wish to have any formal papers upon it because they 
would emphasize unduly some individual opinions upon 
the subject. We wished to have an informal discussion 
so that all thought upon the Five Years Meeting and its 
place in our Church organization might be thrown out 
for further consideration, that thus we can consider in 
the years that are before us all thought in regard to this 
organization and its future possibilities, without coming 
to any definite conclusion at the present time. Of course, 
the Organization of the Five Years Meeting is all pro- 
vided for in our Constitution and Discipline, but the Five 
Years Meeting itself is not a new invention. It is simply 
the development of and the outgrowth from conditions 
that have existed heretofore throughout our body. We 
have come together in conferences, and these conferences 
have been of great benefit, but they show that we were 
lacking in that we have not been organized for any prac- 
tical work. We have simply gone one step further in the 
development of the idea of the many conferences, and 
this is the whole matter or cause of its being upon the 
program. The committee has given the matter much 
thought; and have decided that the greatest danger of the 
Five Years Meeting is the danger before its dawn is past, 
and I will tell you what this danger is. I and some of 
my family once arranged to take passage on a steamer to 
a foreign land, but when we came to the steamer, which 
had been very heavily loaded with freight, overloaded 
indeed, she sunk ; she sunk in the harbor before she had 
ever moved a foot, and that may be the danger of over- 
loading the Five Years Meeting, so that we cannot put 
out to sea with the possibility of successful navigation, 
but there seems to be no place at which a halt can be 
called, and now the situation is before us. Just one 
thought and I am through. I want to give the Five 
Years Meeting- a fair chance. Do not have unreasonable 



OF THE CONFERENCE 339 

expectations of what it should do and of what it is going 
to do. The Five Years Meeting is going to prove a 
necessity in our organization, but we will do it a very- 
great injustice if we start out with too great expectations 
of what it is going to accomplish. From the very nature 
of the thing it cannot accomplish very much at the start. 
We may look forward to great things. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I suppose 
when we first began to talk some seventeen years ago, 
about a General Conference of American Friends some 
two years before the first convention in 1887 was held, 
none had the remotest idea we would land in Indianapolis 
in 1902, in a General American Meeting of at least eleven 
yearly meetings of Friends in this country. The meeting 
has grown step by step until we find ourselves in what I 
believe is the work of the providence of God. The prov- 
idence of God never moves backward, but it may move 
forward, and whether we wish it or not, we have this 
concern on our hands and we must face it in a manly and 
womanly way, and make the best of it that we can. As 
for myself, I have no fear whatever of this meeting ever 
failing. I have no fear of the vessel sinking in the harbor. 

I look forward to the future without a tremor. I 
know it means work, faith, difficulty, perplexity, and 
feeling our way, thinking our way, and that we have a great 
man}' difficult problems, but we shall come out farther 
along on the other side than we are now. That is my 
faith in regard to the matter. I am asked to open a dis- 
cussion as to the place of this Five Years Meeting in our 
General System. I do not think anybody can define it at 
the present time. What it is going to develop into time 
only can tell, and what that development will be depends 
upon the prayer, faith, and the Christian devotion of our 
numbers. L,et me outline what I believe will be the gen- 
eral place of the Five Years Meeting as we have it in our 
system. Of course, the general purpose of it is the com- 
bination or union of the powers of the various localities 
of the country in such a way that we can throw the whole 
force of our Quakerism in whatever direction we may 
need from time to time. In a general sense it is the union 



34-0 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

of forces not for detailed work, but along general lines of 
Quakerism in America and the world. Now, first, in 
regard to the relation of the Yearly Meetings. I do not 
believe that this body will ever infringe upon the local 
liberty and self-direction of the Yearly Meetings. That is 
all safely guarded in the Discipline, and if it were not, 
we would safely guard it. Our Yearly Meetings will 
remain just as independent in local work, adoption of 
rules and methods for their local work, just as the people 
of Massachusetts are in this regard. In Massachusetts 
we never think of the General Government excepting 
when we come into the larger relations in which we are 
bound to come in relation with Indiana, and Iowa, and 
other States, and I think it will be the same in regard to 
the Yearly Meetings. I do not think the Yearly Meet- 
ings ever think of their local liberties being infringed upon. 
I conceive the work will be to carry the great general 
work and Disciplinary Constitutional principles of Quaker- 
ism. The body will be not the creator of the statement, 
but will be the interpreter of our faith. Then I think 
another factor in the matter will be that this body through 
some committee, some executive body, will become the 
general representatives of all Friends in America before 
other great Christian bodies in their Christian Union life, 
and not only that, but will become the great representa- 
tive of the Friends in the governmental interests which 
concern the advancement of our political interest in the 
national life. Some representative of this Five Years 
Meeting will go before the National Government in great 
matters and great legislation in which we will be inter- 
ested, while the Yearly Meetings will take care of the 
local interests in their particular States. Then it seems 
to me that our Five Years Meeting will necessarily have 
more or less of the direction and advancement in the lines 
of work in which we are engaged, which go into the whole 
world. The great missionary interests which go all over 
the world, will be at least under the advisement, if not 
under the direction of this body ; and so it will meet the 
question of Temperance, and of Peace and Arbitration. 
That I conceive to be stated in the general plan of the 



OF THE CONFERENCE 34 1 

Five Years Meeting. If I had been called upon to outline 
definitely what this meeting would do this year in taking 
up and adopting some of these great general lines of work, 
I should not have thought it would have done one-fourth 
as well as it has done. We find ourselves face to face 
with the responsibility which we practically had to assume 
in starting out this Five Years Meeting. What is to be 
its future ? I cannot conceive a very great change. 
When the thirteen colonies became united in the United 
States of America, the whole American life and principle 
was then established once for all, and there has been no 
change excepting the adding of State after State, and « 
there has been no real modification of the great Con- 
stitutional principles, so that we have the forty-five States 
united to-day, under just the same form as when the Con- 
stitution was signed. So when we come to have the 
Yearly Meetings in every State of the Union, it will 
expand, and take in, and give an opportunity to all. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : That which has 
already been said well outlines the functions and purposes 
of this meeting and its organization, yet I differ just in 
one respect from the speaker. I think he said nobody 
anticipated us just as we are now. I did anticipate this 
from the beginning ; I thought we should reach this 
point. I have looked forward to this point because we 
needed it, and that we must have it in order to unify all 
the forces of the expanding organization of the Society of 
Friends in America. We were drifting apart from year 
to year. I saw the necessity of this unifying of some 
kind and of an organization that would unify, and I think 
we have it. That is what we started out to get. Another 
point was that in the face of a future difficulty which 
might arise between two of these co-ordinate powers there 
might be a body somewhere to which two or three might 
appeal for arbitration and authority to settle difficulties. 
We recommend arbitration to nations and states in 
different portions of the earth ; why not have it among 
ourselves ? I hope it may prevent any great difference or 
difficulty of the body of the Church of the Society of 
Friends hereafter. I think this is one of the functions of 



342 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

this body. I am glad we have this organization. It is 
already on the right line, and I feel that we have nothing 
to fear if unity prevails in the body of the Society of 
Friends in America. 

David Hadley, of Western : I want to say in connec- 
tion with this matter that the principle upon which the 
Society of Friends is organized is destructive of every 
effort to organize congregations, and anything that would 
destroy the relation would be a very fatal thing. When- 
ever we come to the point that this aggregate body with 
its deliberation should be in favor of sovereignty — I mean, 
should interfere with the sovereignty of the Yearly Meet- 
ings — I should be very much opposed to such a power. 
I believe the Five Years Meeting should gather up and 
give force to the statements and doctrines ; but when it 
comes to the matter of legislation affecting the local inter- 
ests of the Church, it would be a very serious thing to the 
delegates of this body. The independence of the Yearly 
Meeting should be kept intact. As a Church we have 
always guarded with a great deal of care the matter of 
ecclesiasticism ; but when we increase the organization 
we increase the power of ecclesiasticism. 

A Delegate : There is one thing I am hoping for, and 
that is that the work of this body shall tend to the unifi- 
cation of those that profess to be Friends on working lines 
if not on all lines. I bless God for the spirit of unity, 
and so I am hoping from the influence that has started out 
from here that there will be a unification of those that 
hold our name. Let each session of this meeting be for 
the glory of God and the uplifting of man. One other 
point. I hope this body will use some way or other to 
get an invitation for every one of the organizations that 
belong to the so-called Friends for a fraternal representa- 
tion, if they cannot unite with us. 

William L. Pyle : I feel quite unable to emphasize 
our success. I have been very much encouraged by this 
meeting and by the progress we have made. A number of 
years ago I said that from my point of view the Uniform 
Discipline was desirable, but I feared it was not practical. 
I have watched its course from time to time, and I have 



OP THE CONFERENCE 343 

become more and more convinced that it is practical, and 
I am in favor of our Yearly Meetings adopting the Uni- 
form Discipline. As a Church organization composed of 
different Yearly Meetings, I consider the strongest point we 
have obtained in this relationship is the coming under one 
confession of faith. That is the strong point which binds 
us together. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New Kn gland : Five years ago 
I had the privilege and honor of reading the paper that 
proposed this Five Years Meeting, and when I finished 
the paper I called attention of the conference to the 
incident that happened when the Constitution of the 
United States was signed in Philadelphia. George Wash- 
ington had been sitting on a chair through the stormy 
debates, and after it was all over and they had gathered 
around to sign the Constitution, Benjamin Franklin 
pointed to the figure of the sun painted on the back of the 
chair on which George Washington had been sitting, and 
said : ' ' Mr. President, through all these weeks I have been 
looking at that picture to see whether it was a rising sun or 
a setting sun , and to-day I know that it was a rising sun . ' ' 
I related that anecdote five years ago and asked if it was to 
be a rising sun or a setting sun. I wonder if there is any- 
body to-day who doubts what the answer is to be, as to 
whether it is a rising sun or a setting sun. We have 
come here to-day from all parts of the United States ; we 
have spoken on the question that touches every aspect of 
our religious life and work ; we have faced all sorts of 
problems with a full understanding of their difficult 
nature, and we have reached out into all lines of Chris- 
tian activity ; we have differences of opinion, but I would 
not belong to a church that did not have them. I would 
undoubtedly leave it if everybody agreed with everybody 
else. You would not have an}>- power, everybody would 
be ready to give up his power. We must have indivi- 
duality to have power. We can have individuality and 
power, and the spirit of love and unity also. There is 
not a person in this meeting that wishes to force an}7thing 
on any one who are not ready for it. No one wants to 
take a privilege away from the Yearly Meetings. That 



344 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

idea does not prevail anywhere, and no one can for a mo- 
ment believe there is such a disposition. Everyone of us 
would have refused in our own Yearfy Meetings to give 
our voice to the Discipline if it was to take away from our 
Yearly Meeting. We want to see a body formed that will 
enable us to bring our followers together for positive 
work. That we have accomplished. At least we are 
going to accomplish it. We can not prophesy, but if we 
may judge the future from the present and past, we 
may well believe to-day that our sun, under God's bles- 
sing, is to be a rising sun. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore : I wish to say 
how extremely glad I am for this conference which we 
are having this year. I believe even the looking into one 
another's faces and hearing the words of encouragement 
will help us, and I believe when we go back to our 
homes we shall be able to do much better work in the 
future. As one who felt exceedingly doubtful as to 
whether this was really a wise move, and while I still see 
danger, I am exceedingly glad to be able to express my 
great thanks for what we have now, and for what seems 
to be before us. I was exceedingly pleased by the prac- 
tical suggestion made by a Friend in the meeting encour- 
aging others in the name of Friends to send fraternal 
delegates to us. I think it would be a very great advan- 
tage to us, and I believe the outcome would be of very 
great value, and I hope this meeting will not allow it to 
pass by without very careful consideration. I would be 
glad if the Business Committee could be encouraged to 
take this into consideration, and see if some definite 
arrangements could not be made by which they might be 
invited to send fraternal delegates if they wish. 

I also believe it would be very helpful to us if we 
could issue a Book of Meetings. There has been no Book 
of Meetings issued for nearly twenty years, and it would 
be very valuable to us if we could have a book giving 
the addresses of the ministers, and stating where there 
are meetings. This would be a very great help to 
Friends who are going to different parts of the country, 
and ministers visiting different Yearly Meetings would 



OF THE CONFERENCE 345 

be able to form some idea of what is before them. I 
should be glad if this proposition could be laid before 
the Business Committee for their consideration. I am 
not used to motions in Friends' Meetings, but I wish 
that the subject of Fraternal Delegates, including English 
and Irish, be referred to the Business Committee, and also 
the matter of a Book of Meetings. 

David Hadley, of Western : I would like us to recog- 
nize the fact that we have two Yearly Meetings here that 
have no connection with this body, and before invitations 
are issued, I should be glad if we could bring some kind 
of an influence to bear to have Canada and Ohio come 
home ; then I would be in favor of fraternal delegates. 
There are a great many Friends in the United States. I 
hope we will not rush too much when we have two meet- 
ings that are not as yet in the fold. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I hope our friend 
will not create a doubt in his mind that the Friends of 
Canada and Ohio are coming in. They will come in, and 
there is no doubt about it. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore : I move that the 
question of the practicability of issuing a book of meet- 
ings be referred to the Business Committee with the 
request to make, if way opens for it, a suggestion. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I fear I 
did not make myself entirely clear with regard to the dis- 
ciplinary aspect of the functions of the Five Years Meet- 
ing in the future. David Hadley 's remark made it clear 
to me that my statement was not clear. What I meant 
to say was that hereafter in the matter of issuing a decla- 
ration of faith, or of general disciplinary provisions, I 
supposed that this body in some way would take the 
initiative, but I had no thought this Five Years Meeting 
would ever assume the place of sovereignty. I believe 
with all my soul in government only with the consent of 
the governed. I speak in a Christian sense. I hope I 
have made myself clear as to what I meant to say. 

Allen Jay, of Western: Our Friend, William I. Moore 
wishes to say a few words. 



346 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : Our Friend, 
Esther Tuttle Pritchard, has just called me up on the 
telephone to ask me to deliver for her a message. " Peace 
be to the brethren, and love with faith from God the 
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." It comes from her, 
and I thought the meeting would be glad to hear it. 

William I. Moore, of Canada : I am glad some one 
called attention to the fact that there is a country called 
Canada. We may be somewhat overshadowed, but we 
still exist. We are going on, and perhaps in five years 
the difference will not be so great ; however, what I want 
to say 7 is this. We come to you with a kindly greeting 
from Canada Yearly Meeting. We are glad to have the 
privilege of meeting with you in this conference. We 
thank you very much for the kind courtesies extended to 
us on behalf of our Yearly Meeting. I think I can say 
that they thank y^ou also. In regard to our position ; 
on this question when this Uniform Discipline was brought 
before our meeting it was discussed and considered very 
carefully at the time, but some of our prominent members 
and active workers were absent. There was some doubt 
about the propriety of adopting it on this account, and it 
was proposed that it be approved, the adoption to come 
into force at a time set at the next Yearly 7 Meeting. A 
committee was appointed to go over the matter carefully, 
and they were not able to make a full report at the next 
Yearly Meeting. The time was deferred, and the com- 
mittee empowered to go on. And this Yearly Meeting 
after prayerful thought decided that it would not be wise 
for us to accept the Discipline. I want to make it clear 
that there is not a lack of unity with the Friends on this 
side of the line. It is, simply, we believe on account of 
our local condition which perhaps you can not fully 
understand. Perhaps we can get a Discipline that would 
not be out of harmony with this, one that would better 
suit local conditions. This is our position. I do not 
think from present indications there is any prospect of 
our Yearly Meeting adopting this Discipline just as it 
stands. We do not want to do anything that would put 
us out of harmony with these Friends. It is with a 



OF THE CONFERENCE 347 

feeling of love and unity for the prospering of this cause 
that is in our hearts to-day. May God bless and prosper 
the work of all the Yearly Meetings in this body is our 
prayer. 

Jacob Baker, of Ohio : Perhaps you would like to 
hear from Ohio. I want to say that there is no thought 
in the Ohio Yearly Meeting that is out of harmony with 
this body. We have come with loving hearts and sympa- 
thizing spirits for your good word and work that is before 
the Friends in your realm. We greatly appreciate the great 
courtesies that have been extended to us. When you 
ask me what about Ohio Yearly Meeting coming into this 
Five Years Meeting, you will have to change, or we will 
have to change radically before we can come in. Not 
because we are fearful, but because we cannot at the 
present with unity adopt the Uniform Discipline. If all 
the declarations that have been expressed here this after- 
ternoon are to be carried out in the future of every 
Yearly Meeting and every Yearly Meeting left for inde- 
pendent action upon the lines of its own conduct, there 
may be a radical change in Ohio. We are now exceed- 
ingly anxious that the blessed doctrine of holiness to the 
L,ord be not impaired anywhere. We are exceedingly 
anxious that the doctrine of the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost may be a potent doctrine of the Friends' Church 
everywhere. I have enjoyed this Five Years Meeting 
greatly. I have entered into sympathy with all the 
speeches and discussions. I think I may speak for our 
delegates that we return to you our sincere thanks. We 
will go back and make the best report we can, and I 
expect we will come back with fraternal or internal dele- 
gates to your next Five Years Meeting. 

Annie D. Stabler, of Baltimore. I want to tell you 
how very much I have enjoyed this meeting and what a 
great privilege I feel it has been to attend this conference. 
I had no fear about this meeting, for- 1 felt it was from 
God and that He would draw us closer together. I have 
been more and more impressed with the fact that God is 
uniting us together and that we are going forward to 
advance His kingdom. I want to say, God bless the 



348 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Five Years Meeting, and may it prosper in every par- 
ticular. 

Harriet Green, of "London : I have nothing great to 
say, only that I noticed that Dr. Thomas mentioned Eng- 
land and Ireland. I do not think you have any idea how 
much good you will do by inviting them to send fraternal 
delegates to this conference ; and let them feel they are 
one with you. Your difficulties and your problems are 
very much like ours, and I only wish you were on the 
other side of the water so that you could help them as 
much as you have helped me. 

Esther G. Frame, of Wilmington : The churches are 
certainly being united. I am ready for it, and I believe 
it is of God, and I believe the churches from the East, the 
West, the North and the South are being bound together. 
Our purpose is to win souls to Christ and His kingdom, 
and to pray to God still more and more. Of course, we 
cannot all see every point alike ; but what we want to do 
is to build up the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ and 
our Church, and I want you to know this. I am in full 
harmony with this. You have my hearty sympathy. 

A Delegate: This is my first meeting of this kind, 
and I want to say that I feel greatly encouraged to go 
back to my work, and I can work with a greater deter- 
mination to be a true Friend and hold up Quakerism. 
We certainly ought to have an abiding faith in Quakerism. 
I am glad to be able to attend this convention where so 
many different people are brought together and there are 
so many different lines of thought. 

Rebecca W. Cadbury, of Philadelphia : I have lis- 
tened and I have heard that all the Yearly Meetings of 
America will be here when Canada and Ohio have joined. 
Where are we, dear Friends ? We of Philadelphia are a 
very small body, I regret to say ; but we are a very earn- 
est body along our line. Most of our families in Phila- 
delphia have traditions, I believe in the truth as it is 
handed down from our fathers, and I have listened with 
wonderful interest to the enthusiasm and life here to-day. 
I have longed that all our Yearly Meetings might get 
some of it. I want to say to you, " Hold fast to that 



OF THE CONFERENCE 349 

which is good ; let no man take your crown." I entreat 
you not to lose sight of Quakerism, but to be loyal to it. 
Quakerism is not dead, for I believe it is the truth of God 
as He has shown it to us ; and I want to say that I was 
exceedingly grieved yesterday afternoon to think that there 
was a possibility of establishing a school for the education 
and training of ministers. We do need to be educated, but, 
Friends, we cannot get all our education in school. I 
think every member of the Quaker Church should be a 
member of that school, for I do not like to see a distinc- 
tion between the laity and the clergy. I trust the power 
of the Five Years Meeting may step across the Alleghenies 
and reach Philadelphia. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : The Business Committee pro- 
poses that a Committee of one from each delegation be 
appointed to make the necessary arrangements for holding 
the next Five Years Meeting. We thought we had better 
make the selection during the recess. I move that one 
delegate from each Yearly Meeting be chosen to make 
arrangements for the next Five Years Meeting. 

The question was voted upon and passed. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I also propose that Charles 
E. Newlin be appointed as Railroad Secretary for the 
next Five Years Meeting. 

The motion was voted upon and carried. [But see 
Minutes, Minute 120.] 

The song, " Draw me nearer, Lord," was sung by the 
congregation. 

We will have five minutes' recess, but we do not wish 
any of our Friends to conclude this is the close and pre- 
pare to go home. 

The Clerk : We will have the report of the delega- 
tion nominating a Committee on Arrangements for the 
next Five Years Meeting. 

(See Minutes, Minute 90.) 

The Clerk : We are now ready for the report of the 
Business Committee on miscellaneous business. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : You will remember that a 
resolution was introduced to appoint a Committee called 
a Publishing Committee. The Business Committee beg 



35° STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

leave to advise that they did not think it advisable to 
appoint a Committee on Publication. 

(On motion the report was adopted.) 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : A resolution was introduced 
to propose an endorsement of the American Friend and 
Missionary Advocate. The Business Committee recom- 
mend that the resolution offered by Albert J. Brown be 
adopted. 

The Clerk : We will now vote upon the resolution 
offered by Albert J. Brown, containing an endorsement of 
the American Friend and Missionary Advocate. 

(The motion was carried. See Minutes, Minute 92.) 

Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting desires to 
impress upon all our meetings the importance of exercis- 
ing great care in the acknowledgment of ministers as pro- 
vided for in the Discipline. 

Robert W. Douglas, of Indiana : Considerable im- 
portance is attached to that suggestion, and I suggest 
that it should be read again. 

(Resolution read again.) 

David Hadley, of Western : I think we should be 
willing to let this matter rest with the present under- 
standing. I think we are strict enough now. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : We certainly do 
want every Yearly Meeting to be just as careful as the 
Discipline requires. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : Now we want 
every Yearly Meeting that has an interest in this subject 
to be very careful ; but at the same time it does look to 
me that this is a little out of place here. 

Robert W. Douglas, Indiana : I think there is no 
doubt that we can pass this resolution if necessary. Our 
Yearly Meeting has just organized under the Discipline, 
and it strikes me that it is a little out of place to call spe- 
cial attention by the Five Years Meeting to one of the 
provisions of the Constitution and Discipline which is as 
yet almost untried. If any Friend knows of any special 
reason why special attention should be called to this, all 
right ; but I do not. I do not think we should be so hard 
on the ministers, as we do not have enough to go around 



OF THE CONFERENCE 35 1 

now. I do not want this resolution, if passed, to act as a 
discouraging influence upon any of our young people 
who are coming forward in the ministry. I feel more 
like encouraging them than discouraging them. If the 
Business Committee have any reason why there should be 
special attention called, I have no objection ; but I doubt 
the propriety of it. 

Charles W. Sweet, of Iowa : How much better it 
would be if there was a clause in the Discipline that 
would obviate the whole thing, and the committee would 
be appointed by the Yearly Meeting to attend to this 
matter, and no trouble would come from it, and there 
would be no trouble in the Yearly Meeting before whom 
they came. 

William L,. Pyle, of Western : It seems to me that 
the point is well guarded in the Discipline, and I do not 
see the necessity of passing a resolution instructing a 
subordinate meeting to observe the laws and rules of 
order as laid down there. I fear it would be discouraging 
rather than profitable. 

Cyrus Beede, of Iowa : I would like to ask whether 
there is a single person in this congregation who is 
opposed to exercising due care and discretion in reference 
to ministers. I believe there is no one here. 

Harry R. Keats, of New York : I think there is a 
pretty strong feeling in this conference. We have not yet 
arrived at some or all wisdom in regard to our ministers. 
I would not only be in favor of strengthening and encour- 
aging our ministers to a state of usefulness, but I fail to 
see the pith and point of this proposition. I do not think 
we want such a resolution as this. I move that this reso- 
lution be sent back to the Business Committee to do with 
it as they like. 

The Clerk : The vote will be taken on the proposi- 
tion to refer this question back to the Business Com- 
mittee. 

The motion was carried, and the proposition was 
sent back to the Business Committee. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : You will remember in the 
Discipline there is a provision made for blanks for the 



352 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

monthly meetings. The Business Committee makes this 
proposition : 

Resolved, That the publication of the uniform blanks 
for records be referred to a committee composed of Rufus 
M. Jones, Peter W. Raidabaugh and William V. Coffin, 
to prepare the necessary blanks and present same before 
the meeting for their adoption. 

Rufus M.Jones, of New England: We have been 
working on something like this. We will try and get 
something in shape to report, but the subject is really too 
large to be done in the allotted time we have. 

Allen Ja}f, of Indiana : It is proposed that a Board 
on the Condition and Welfare of the Negro, consist of 
twenty-two members, eleven at large and one from each 
Yearly Meeting, be appointed to take into consideration 
the best means for elevating the Negroes. This commit- 
tee should have the power to carry the same into effect. 
The following are for the said board at large : 

(See Minutes, Minute 93.) 

The Clerk : We will now hear the Report of the 
Committee on Finance. 

The report was read by the Reading Clerk. 

(See Minutes, Minute 94.) 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : If I understand 
correctly all expenses are proportioned among the Yearly 
Meetings in proportion to the membership. 

The Clerk : That is right, the expenses are divided 
according to membership. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana: The report should 
agree with the Discipline. We have no right to change 
the Discipline. I should like to hear that part of the 
report read again. 

(The Reading Clerk read that portion of the report 
again.) 

A Delegate : It seems to me that as much as there is 
of that, we can hardly begin at it all at once, and I should 
think it should be taken up a subject at a time. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 353 

The Clerk : The Recording Clerk will read a subject 
at a time. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I suppose that this 
means that the Treasurer be instructed to borrow money 
if necessary. Do I understand it correctly ? 

A Delegate : A word of explanation. The Finance 
Committee has had three long sessions upon this subject. 
We realized that it was a great thing to handle. We are 
starting new, and all these things must be arranged and 
planned, for in the future they will always be coining up. 
We anticipated a discussion of the question. In regard 
to the point the Friend has just made, it was decided to 
let it follow the letter of the Discipline. The report 
should be the same as the Discipline. We did not expect 
to have this come before this body in perfect form, but 
we did the best we could with the time at our disposal. 

Josiah Dillon, Iowa : Do I understand that the Trea- 
surer is authorized to borrow money ? And if so, by 
what authority does he borrow it ? 

The Clerk : He is not authorized by this report to 
borrow money. 

Part 2. Approved. 

Part 3. The Yearly Meeting has made an appropria- 
tion which was thought would meet the expenses of the 
Board the coming year. Do I understand that this is to 
be paid into the treasury of this Five Years Meeting or 
shall it be a part of it ? 

Part 4. 

Josiah Dillon : It seems that it would be impossible 
to comply with this. The facts are the Yearly Meetings 
have not made provision for this, for the Treasurer to bor- 
row money before January 1st, and I think I can speak 
for Kansas, as it is certainly the case there. Appropri- 
ations have been made, but I am sure not a sufficient 
amount for all. There cannot be enough until our Yearly 
Meeting convenes again. 

Cyrus Beede, Western : I think it was the thought 
of the Business Committee that, it would be a very easy 
matter for the Treasurer to borrow money and pay our 



354 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

obligations, easier than it would be for the Treasurer of 
the Five Years Meeting to borrow money and pay us. I 
do not think the Treasurer of the Five Years Meeting 
should be called upon to meet the expenses of the Yearly 
Meetings. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : It ought to be remembered 
that the Yearly Meetings are already passed and no appro- 
priation has been made for this expense, and now this 
cannot reach Iowa until January ist. It would be im- 
possible for us to do anything until the next Ninth 
Month. That would be nearly a year from this time. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : Could 
not a permanent Board meet all these cases ? 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : There will be no 
trouble about that. The treasurers of the Yearly Meet- 
ings will feel authorized to pay the money if they have to 
borrow it. It is stated clearly in the Discipline ; we do 
not need any instruction, and when the time comes if he 
needs it he can borrow money. 

Edmund Stanley, of Kansas : I think that will pro- 
bably be the feeling of the Yearly Meeting. 

Part 5. 

Francis A. Wright: I would suggest that we insert 
in that " the appropriation of the railroad fares." There 
is nothing else in the clause of railroad fares. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : That seems to me 
perfectly clear. First, the expenses, second, the railroad 
fares, and I think that is perfectly fair and clear. 

Part 6. 

Solomon B. Woodard, Western : It seems to me that 
it would be better if they would set a time for all the 
Yearly Meetings. We could then all understand it. 

A Delegate : That was thoroughly considered. We 
left it to the Yearly Meetings to decide. 

Part 7. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : We have no power or author- 
ity to direct, but I think that each Yearly Meeting should 
pay the board and lodging of its delegates. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 355 

Cyrus Beede, of Iowa : I am perfectly willing, and 
more than willing, that that kind of a recommendation 
apply to the Yearly Meetings, but I do not believe that 
Iowa ever intends to pay all the expenses of her dele- 
gates. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I do not think my friend 
understands me: I do not mean all of the expenses, 
simply the boarding. 

Isom P. Wooton, of Iowa : I should be perfectly 
willing that the people of Indiana should pay the ex- 
penses, for so many of their people have the advantage of 
attending, and our people are kept away, and I think if 
it is anybody's place to pay the board it should be Indi- 
ana's, and Western's. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : All right ; we will come to 
Oskaloosa next time. 

A Delegate : I think this matter may well rest with 
each Yearly Meeting. 

David Hadley, of Western : It seems to me that if 
we depend upon voluntary collections this is a very small 
body of delegates, and I fear very much the fact that 
we need means. I think official action should be taken 
in this matter. 

Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore (Treasurer) : I should 
like to have some instruction as to just what my duty is. 
I do not know anything about it, and I should like to be 
instructed, 

A Delegate : Some of us would like to know what 
the expense of publishing these minutes will be. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : There has, as yet, been no 
action in regard to the quantity that will be published or 
how much will be published. We have not as yet con- 
sidered that, but it will be brought up later. 

Aaron M. Bray, of California : I question whether 
the action we have taken is the best. I refer to' the mat- 
ter of the Treasurers of the Yearly Meetings. I think 
it should come in an official document signed by the 
Clerk of this Meeting. 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas : I am thankful I am 
not chairman, for I never could remember all the points 



356 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

made, but I think as soon as possible that printed copies 
of this report should be furnished to the chairman so that 
they can be handed out. 

The Recording Clerk : I desire to suggest that the 
proceedings of this Meeting will be printed and signed 
properly and sent to the chairman of the delegations. 

Francis A. Wright, of Kansas : We will have these 
parts printed, so that they can be sent by mail. I think 
that would be wise. 

The Clerk : I suppose these will be published at a 
very early date. 

A Delegate : Every delegate should consider as to 
how many of the minutes should be used in the individual 
Yearly Meetings, so that they can give a suggestion to 
the Business Committee in regard to this. We are like 
Iowa, we think every delegate should pay for his own copy. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England: Hereto- 
fore the stenographic report, including the minutes, have 
been printed or published in a book, and this book has 
been sold. That is the way the expense has been covered. 

The Clerk : The Business Committee will take this 
matter in hand and make an estimate of the number of 
copies of the stenographic reports to be published. 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : The Business Committee will 
be very glad for the chairmen of each delegation to say 
how many you will want. 

(" Duties of the Treasurer " read by the Secretary. 
See Minutes, Minute 94.) 

The Clerk : Are you ready to pass upon this ? 

Allen Jay, of Indiana : I move this be adopted. 

A Delegate : I would like to ask who is to pay for the 
bond ? 

The Clerk : The Five Years Meeting. 

A Delegate : May I ask for the clause regarding the 
payment of the Foreign Missionary Board, and what cer- 
tificates will be made ? 

(It was read.) 

A Delegate : Might I ask on what certification the 
expenses of the Five Years Meeting are to be paid ; on 
that of the Clerk and Assistant Clerk ? 



OF THE CONFERENCE 357 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : It should read 
Clerk and First Assistant, should it not ? 

Zenas L- Martin, of Iowa : I wanted to ask that 
question, but it is now clear to my mind, 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : Money that has 
been appropriated to the Foreign Missionary Board, pro- 
vision is made for voluntary contribution to the Mission- 
ary Board, and that would have everything to do with 
the authorization of the expenses of that Board. They 
have the money in their hands, and have the authority to 
pay their secretary. 

Zenas L. Martin, of Iowa: If I mistake not, the 
recommendation of the Business Committee was that the 
expenses of the Board should be included. 

The Clerk : Is that money in the hands of the 
Board ? 

Answer: Some of it. 

The Clerk : Now the question is, whether the money 
will be left in their hands or whether it should go into a 
general fund. 

James Carey, Jr., of Baltimore : I understood when 
I took the position of Treasurer, that we had to pay our 
debts. The first debts to pay, of course, were the debts 
that we incurred first. We do not want to appropriate 
the money subscribed for the Missionary work. My 
understanding is that if we do not have money enough to 
pay our debts we should go back to the money that is 
subscribed for a general purpose. If it is given for cer- 
tain purposes, such as buildings, etc., we could not touch 
that money for anything but that. I do not thoroughly 
understand about this matter. 

The Clerk : I think it will be better to refer this 
question back to the Business Committee, and have them 
settle it for us, and thereby save a good deal of time. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I move that we 
refer this portion of the report relating to the Distribu- 
tion of Funds to be used in the Foreign Missionary 
Board, back to the Finance Committee. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I move to amend 
the motion by referring that portion relating to the 



358 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Foreign Missionary Board back to the Finance Com- 
mittee. 

The Clerk : You have heard the motion. What will 
you do with it ? 

Miles White, Jr., of Baltimore : As I understand it, 
the report of the Committee on Finance has been adopted. 
The other motion was put and adopted long ago. It is 
simply a question of the duty of the Treasurer. 

Thomas C. Brown, of Western : I move that the 
report be approved. 

The Clerk : We cannot do anything further until the 
other motion is disposed of. We will now vote on it. 

(The motion was voted upon and was lost.) 

The Clerk : The question now is upon the original 
motion. 

(The motion was voted upon and carried. The report 
was adopted.) 

The Clerk : We will now adjourn. 

The meeting stood adjourned until 7:0 o'clock. 

SEVENTH DAY NIGHT, TENTH MONTH 25. 

The meeting was called to order and the congrega- 
tion sang " Jesus, Dover of my Soul," after which Achsa 
C. Kenyon led in prayer. 

The Chairman : We have but one subject on the pro- 
gram for this evening. Is it your wish that we take up 
a few matters of business in this session ? 

James Wood, of New York : If there is anything 
ready it might be well to dispose of it in the opening of 
this session. 

The Clerk : If there is no objection we will dispose of 
some of the matters on the table. We will hear the 
report of the Committee on Amendments to the Constitu- 
tion and Discipline. 

[See Minutes, Minute 98.] 

The Clerk : What will you do with the report of the 
Committee? 

Rufus M- Jones, of New England : I move that we 
adopt it. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 359 

The Clerk : You have heard the motion ; have you 
any objections ? 

David Hadley, of Western: I would not like to open 
a debate in reference to this matter, but there is one 
feature of the new Discipline which ought to take a few 
minutes of the time of this conference, and that is the 
question of Associate Membership. 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : This belongs to 
the special committee on the Discipline ; the Business 
Committee had nothing whatever to do with it. 

The Clerk : That proposition has not come to this 
meeting in such a shape that we can take any action on 
it under our present Discipline. 

David Hadley, of Western : That is the correct and 
strictly parliamentary way. In view of the fact that one 
of the Yearly Meetings is not yet corporated under the 
Discipline, if we are going to be so very technical about 
forms and conditions, we shall get into a great deal of 
trouble. I very much approve the idea of working and 
investigating in connection with such an important 
method as was instituted by the Church over two hundred 
years ago ; and to have the question passed without an 
opportunity to amend it, does not seem to me to be in 
accord with the Spirit of God. 

Aaron M. Bray, of Oregon : I wish to say that at the 
present time it is absolutely impossible to change the Dis- 
cipline in any respect whatever. We have at this time, so 
far as this meeting is concerned, the law of the Medes and 
Persians. The Yearly Meetings that have adopted this 
Discipline are compelled to live under it for the next five 
years, for it contains no provision whatever by which it 
can be amended ; but the proposition that has come from 
the Disciplinary Committee provides a way b5 r which it is 
possible to amend the Discipline. Now the only way that 
that can be done is for one or more or all of the Yearly 
Meetings to send to the next Five Years Meeting a propo- 
sition which has been submitted to them ; then, whenever 
that becomes a part of the Discipline, it will be possible 
to change other points. Until this work is done, it will- 
be absolutey impossible to change the report. 



360 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England: I think a few 
words will in a few minutes clear up the matter. If any 
Friend will take the Discipline and study the parts that 
refer to the Associate Members, he will readily see it need 
not cause any difficulty for the next Five Years Meeting. 
It requires that each monthly meeting shall keep a sepa- 
rate list of those who are Associate Members and report 
how many there are. It does not require that they shall 
be denied any function of the work ; they simply have 
to keep separate lists ; that is practically all — the only 
necessary requirement. The Discipline, it seems to me, 
gives great freedom for using Associate Members, as seems 
wise and best. It simply requires that they shall be called 
Associate Members and be kept and counted in a list by 
themselves. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : We need not be 
concerned about that. The only Associate Members that 
we will have for the next five years will be the babies that 
will be born, as very few children will be received by 
request of their parents. There are not many that will 
want to be active members by next meeting. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : The membership of 
the Society of Friends as it is now, is not the same as it 
was at the first organization of the Society of Friends. 
There were no birthright members until 1737. Now this 
is the first change from that. 

The Clerk : The subject of birthright membership is 
not before the meeting. I would like to have you act 
upon the motion before the meeting. You must dispose 
of this question, and then if you wish to take up another 
question we will be ready to hear it. 

David Hadley, of Western : It was understood when 
the Yearly Meetings began to adopt this Discipline that 
we had the power of appeal, and when we did make an 
appeal we were to be heard in connection with the matter. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : May I 
say as chairman of that Committee that the whole subject 
was before the Committee and was thoroughly canvassed 
in several different sessions, and the Committee saw no 
good grounds for making any recommendations whatever 



OF THE CONFERENCE 36 1 

as to any changes. We discussed it in the Committee and 
decided it would be impossible to do anything in regard 
to changing the Discipline on that subject, and so we con- 
fined ourselves practically to getting the Discipline in 
shape to be changed hereafter. I think we found the 
proposition on this subject from Western Yearly Meeting 
had not come up in due form, if I remember correctly. 

Francis W. Thomas, of Indiana : What is the ques- 
tion, please ? 

The Clerk : The question is upon the adoption of the 
report of the Committee as read. The clerk will please 
read that report again. 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : I am, personally, in 
favor of the motion prevailing ; but there are some who 
feel as if we are pressing the thing pretty strong, and so I 
move as a substitute that this matter be referred back to 
the Committee, carrying with it the privilege of being 
heard on the floor of the Committee, to be discussed and 
give persons an opportunity to express their convictions ; 
and after the Committee has heard all of these arguments 
I think that will end the whole matter and people will 
feel better about it ; so I move this be a substitute. 

James Wood, of New York : I second the motion — I 
mean the substitute as offered by Albert J. Brown. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore : I think it would 
be a very great pity to cut people out of talking, that 
have a great burden on their minds, and I think they will 
now feel much better. 

. Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : The Com- 
mittee will be very glad to take up the subject and discuss 
it. It is entirely within the competency of this meeting 
to take it up even though the subject was not referred to 
the Disciplinar}^ Committee. If we see fit to take up the 
subject of Associate Members the Discipline Committee 
has no disposition to suppress anything ; but every mem- 
ber believes in the fullest, freest, frankest open discussion ; 
but we did the best we could, and we shall find that it will 
work very satisfactorily. We recommend a change in the 
original form of the various propositions, recommended 
.all the Discipline references to Associate Members stricken 



362 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

out, leaving birthright membership, and we went over 
the ground and concluded there was nothing to dispose 
of. If this motion is adopted and is approved by the 
Five Years Meeting there is no reason why this other 
cannot come up right here. 

The Clerk : The better disposition of the matter will 
be to vote upon the motion, the original motion ; a motion 
to have that subject considered by a committee, the same 
to give an opportunity for those who wish to present their 
arguments for or against it would then be in order, and it 
would put the Minutes in better shape. The motion is 
upon the substitute. 

James Wood, of New York: I will withdraw my 
second, and I hope Albert J. Brown will withdraw the 
motion. 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : The Chairman is cor- 
rect, and I will withdraw my motion. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : May I 
say I thought the Committee might suggest something 
about the electrot} 7 pe plates, for when this copy is brought 
up we might put it within the power of the Yearly Meet- 
ings to edit the Discipline at a cheap rate in a good form. 

Josiah Dillon, of Kansas : I would like to ask a 
question. Suppose this motion carried, would that shut 
off any further possibility of voting for a change this 
year? We do not want to discuss this matter for fun, 
and it is out of the province of this meeting to make these 
changes that Western Yearly Meeting proposes. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : I believe there was no 
second to that. It occurs to me that we want to get at 
some definite plan. This matter has been taken up by the 
Discipline Committee. After thisitmight be brought before 
this body, which could discuss it much more intelligently 
than to open up the discussion in that way. So I move 
that the Discipline Committee be instructed to take up the 
matter of Associate Membership, and also that persons 
may have the privilege of speaking before the Committee. 
I think this explains what we want. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 363 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England : I do not 
know whether or not I made this plain that we had this 
before us for several sessions. The only way we can do 
will be to take it out of the hands of the Committee and 
bring it in here for discussion . 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : The proposition which 
came from the California Yearly Meeting had a technical 
error in it which made it say what it did not want to say. 
I think we do not want to place any technical errors on file. 

The Clerk : It is moved and seconded that the Disci- 
plinary Committee be asked to further consider the recom- 
mendation from California Yearly Meeting, and also one 
from Western Yearly Meeting, regarding Associate Mem- 
bership ; and that persons having a burden on their 
hearts shall be given opportunity to speak before this 
Committee. 

Milton Hanson, of Western : I think it would be 
better for that motion not to include Western Yearly 
Meeting. 

Levi D. Barr, of California : I think it would be fair to 
state that the question brought into the California Yearly 
Meeting was brought in at the close of the session, and 
there was not over five or ten minutes given to the ques- 
tion ; that it was not fairly discussed, and while it was 
probably the voice of California Yearly Meeting at that 
time, some understood that it was not to be presented in 
the face of the meeting, and I do not think it is a fair rep- 
resentation of the California Yearly Meeting. I felt it 
would be right for me to say this in the face of the 
meeting. 

Timothy Nicholson, of Indiana : I do not see any use 
of this Committee meeting again. There is nothing we 
can do. This Friend over here spoke my mind. It was 
discussed in our Yearly Meeting, and it does not seem to 
me this is the place for it unless it had come up as a 
different proposition that had been approved by the Dis- 
ciplinary Committee. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : I want to say 
that the error was in another case and not with reference 
to the subject of Associate Membership. The Associate 



364 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Membership has been in the hands of a committee for two 
years. The Committee had the matter in hand and 
found it not prudent to act upon it at this time. 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : I think I have done 
my duty in regard to this matter. My sympathies are 
with the matter as it stands. I will withdraw this motion 
and get it out of the way. 

David Hadley, of Western : I would like on behalf 
of these people with deep convictions and out of due 
deference to the people who have put in operation and 
submitted these thoughts, and with the limited amount of 
time we have had to discuss it, to withdraw my motion, 
and do the best we can to carry out our convictions. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Richmond: I was going to 
oppose it since there are Friends that feel very strongly on 
this point, and it would be courteous to let them have a 
hearing, and I should have been glad if the meeting had 
been willing to do it. The members of the Committee on 
Disciplinary Arrangements would be glad if the commit- 
tee decided to do it. I am willing to stick to the second 
or withdraw it. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood : I call for the question so 
that people who have anything to say can say it or forever 
hold their peace. 

David Hadley, of Western : I have no desire to go 
before the committee to relieve my mind. I hope this 
action will be voted down. 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : I think that the best 
thing that we can do is to withdraw this motion. 

Richard H. Thomas, of Baltimore : I will withdraw 
my second. 

Louis E. Stout, of Western : I move that we now 
take up the subject for the evening. 

(The motion was carried.) 

The Clerk : We are now ready to take up the subject 
of the evening — "Theory and Practice of Public Wor- 
ship," by Rufus M. Jones, of New England : 



OF THE CONFERENCE 365 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PUBLIC 
WORSHIP. 

By Rufus M. Jones. 

We can no more discover the origin and beginning 
of worship than we can discover the origin of smiling or 
of loving. Go back to the period when man first smiled, 
or to the time when he first felt that indescribable exper- 
ience which we call " love," and you will find that that 
being was one who worshiped. His worship may have 
been crude and the object of it may seem to us incapable 
of stirring or lifting any noble human soul, and yet we 
must not treat slightingly these beginnings of great things. 
We must read worship at its highest, not at its lowest, 
and, knowing the height to which it may rise, we are inter- 
ested to find it, even in its crude form, among all peoples 
and in all ages. It seems to be an attitude which is uni- 
versal. Where there are men they will worship, for it is 
an attitude which belongs to man as man to attach him- 
self to something outside of himself, to which he gives 
himself, at least for the moment. 

And now we stop to ask what it is that makes man a 
worshiper. How shall we explain this remarkable fact 
which finds its illustration in some form among every 
people we have yet discovered ? It had no artificial 
origin, that is certain. Religion was not invented and then 
inculcated by those who had the patent on it. It springs 
out of the deepest needs of the soul. In the presence of 
the mystery of life and the mystery of death, conscious of 
the mystery of evil and the no less unfathomable mystery 
of goodness, aware of his littleness in the movements of 
events and laws which he cannot control, man instinct- 
ively feels his dependence and his need of a Power outside 
himself that understands him and can help him. This 
sense of dependence and need, this cry of the soul for its 
other self, this yearning for relief from mystery and per- 
plexity predisposes men to become worshipers as soon as 
they find something to worship, and even impels them to 
accept unworthy objects where the soul's eye finds no 
really adorable being. 



366 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

There are, it hardly needs to be said, many forms of 
worship, running up an ascending scale from the crude 
incantation of the savage to the saint's absorption and 
rapture as he dwells upon the goodness and love of God 
who has redeemed him . But all forms of worship may be 
reduced to two main types : First, that which aims to 
change the disposition of the being who is worshiped, to 
win his favor and to make him kind and propitious ; and, 
secondly, that which is mainly concerned with the atti- 
tude and state of the heart and spirit — the whole nature — 
of the worshiper himself. In the first type the effort is 
concentrated upon sacrifice and methods which will induce 
the divinity to take a kindly attitude toward the suppliant. 
Priests, who are believed to have peculiar access to the 
divinity, will be in great demand and elaborate ceremoni- 
als will come into use ; for custom soon renders a sys- 
tem sacred and so more likely to win God's ear. To 
those, however, who know Jesus Christ all this has passed 
away. There is nothing now in the nature of God to be 
changed. He so loved that He gave His only Son that 
men might be saved. His love is prior to our need of it. 
All the infinite wealth of meaning which can be put into 
the word Father — all this is inherently and essentially in 
His nature. He does not withhold His love and Father- 
hood, until we importune Him and win Him by our wild 
cries and sacrifices. He is our Father ; He is love ; the 
initiation of redemption is from Him. There is sacrifice, 
but He makes it. There is a painful search, but it begins 
from above downward. We, therefore, come to worship 
One whose glory is unfathomable goodness, who with- 
holds no blessing which any mortal will receive from 
Him, and who, as a spiritual center of the universe, 
draws to Himself all responsive souls as the beloved 
object draws the heart that loves it. In Christianity, 
therefore, there is no place for an intercessory priest, 
whose function is to win God's favor and change His dis- 
position. The entire business of our religion is to bring 
about a change in man himself, in nature, heart, and dis- 
position — to put him in the right attitude toward God. 
Christian worship does not begin until there is some vision 



OF THE CONFERENCE 367 

of the riches of the glory of God and a positive movement 
of the soul toward Him. It is from the nature of it an act 
which can never be delegated to another. To have been 
where some one else was worshiping differs by the whole 
width of the sky from having worshiped oneself, One 
might as well try to delegate the eating of his daily bread 
or the appreciation of a sunset. If your own heart has 
not caught the glorious truth so that it thrills with the 
joy of it and gives itself in response, you have not wor- 
shiped, however faithful you may have been in attending 
" divine worship." You might as well expect to get a 
comprehension of the meaning of love by attending some 
one else's wedding. Worship is the vital act by which 
the whole spirit of man expresses itself to God, whose 
personal presence it feels. It is therefore the highest 
activity the human soul can engage in. He worships 
best whose thought of God fulfills all his highest ideals, 
and so kindles within him a fixed desire to become ever 
more like the Being who realizes all his hopes, for the 
true worshiper approximates that which he worships. 

What I have said thus far seems to make worship so 
distinctly a personal and private affair, that it raises at 
once the question, why, then, do we have public worship ? 
It is more than a theory ; it is a well-established fact, that 
when men unite together to worship God the community 
of spirit in harmonious activity toward one end increases 
in each one the consciousness of the Divine Presence, and 
exalts in an unaccountable way the devout attitude of 
each soul. There is a blessed contagion in the devotional 
attitude. Where one sensitive soul feels God's presence, 
it helps his neighbor to feel it. 

L,ow breathings stole, 
Of a diviner life, froni soul to soul, 
Baptizing in one tender thought the whole. 

Those who have never known what it means to feel the 
actual presence of God in this united hush through the 
congregation as God pours His life into the souls bowed 
before Him in the worshipful attitude, have, I think, 
missed one of the highest experiences of religion . But at 
the same time it must not be forgotten that a meeting- for 



368 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

worship is by no means complete unless it does more than 
make possible these high occasions of wordless com- 
munion. Nothing more would be needful if all men were 
up to the spiritual height of engaging in such worship. 
But it is a tremendous attainment, and alas ! not all have 
yet attained. No meeting for worship is adequate to the 
situation unless it takes account of the needs of those who 
have not yet found the shekinah within their personal 
spirits, where they meet and commune with a personal God. 

The practical end and purpose, therefore, of a meet- 
ing for worship is two-fold : First, to furnish an occasion, 
for those who are already spiritually minded, to worship 
the Father in spirit and in truth. To afford here in 
this busy and material world the glorious spectacle of 
a company of sons of God who have in their own hearts 
the overwhelming evidence of their personal relationship 
to a heavenly Father and the first-hand assurance that 
their life and joy are in Him. And, secondly, it is the 
purpose of a meeting for worship to help other men who 
are not yet born of the Spirit, or who have not yet attained 
to a strong spiritual stature — to help them get such 
glimpses and visions of God that they, too, say "yes," 
to Him and join in the worship of Him. A meeting 
which ignores men's imperfections and does nothing to lift 
human lives into the light and truth is perhaps not much 
better than the meeting which forgets to recognize the high 
possibilities of true worship for those who are spiritual. 

It is just here that the practical problems of worship 
arise. We have in our congregations all degrees and- con- 
ditions of spiritual experience, from babes who need milk, 
up to the strong, valiant souls who wrestle with God for 
their own blessings ; while probably to most of our meet- 
ings there come some who have never once said to God, 
" I will." How then shall we best work out in practice 
our theory of worship ? Well, I should say that the first 
and most important thing of all is to make everybody 
present realize, even if only dimly, that the meeting is 
a meeting with God. If there is no true sense of this upon 
those who gather — then they have missed the one mark 
or test which distinguishes a meeting for worship from 



OF THE CONFERENCE 369 

any other assembly. It is the first duty, then, of those 
who are spiritual in a meeting to put themselves into such 
an attitude and to conduct themselves in such a manner 
that they will give the impression that they are meeting 
God, are aware of the high import of the occasion. 
Unless they act as though they felt in the presence of 
God, others surely will not catch the spirit of worship or 
rise to an appreciation of God. There will, perhaps, be 
some differences of view as to what will best produce this 
reverent, adoring attitude in a congregation — what is 
most suited to bring upon the hearts of the people the 
consciousness of God. It can be said with positive cer- 
tainty that no dead routine will do it. The moment reli- 
gion falls back into some groove of habit, and a semi- 
mechanical performance is substituted for the rapture ot 
the heart as it responds to God, that is always a religion 
in some stage of degeneration — it is not in its period of 
inward strength or power. This state of decline may 
come equally well through over-emphasizing the import- 
ance of silence. Neither activity nor silence availeth any- 
thing in itself, but a living sense of God. Whatever is 
done must be done with freshness and life. It must be 
done, too, because the life and spirit of the meeting needs 
it and finds expression through it. The spirit of the Liv- 
ing Creature must be in the wheels. If we had some 
infallible method of discovering the mind of the Spirit, it 
would then be easy to work out our beautiful theory that 
each exercise must come as a direct and immediate 
prompting under the inspiration of God. We have, how- 
ever, no infallible way of discovering what is our own 
individual impulse and what is opened to us by the Spirit. 
The whole history of public worship shows this statement 
true. Men have again and again uttered their own preju- 
dices or their own judgments and proclaimed them, sin- 
cerely, no doubt, as the voice of the Lord. Why not, 
then, settle down to a well-regulated and pre-arranged 
system as most of the churches have done, and give up 
the idea that the true way to worship is to have the vocal 
exercises rise out of the spiritual life of the congregation, 
in response to the divine moving ? What is the use to 



370 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

hold to a theory which does not work in practice ? What 
meeting held under this theory, that the true exercises 
must come as the Spirit calls them out, can compare in 
convincing and converting influence with a church which 
is rigidly organized and has a broad-minded, well-trained 
preacher at the head, who directs all its activities with 
the same kind of judgment and insight that a railroad 
president uses to direct the vast interests of his corpora- 
tion ? These are all questions which require careful 
answers. Well, I say that, even if all these things were 
true, yet the world needs above everything else a commu- 
nity of Christians who know that they have direct deal- 
ings with God ; who come together not to be entertained 
with artistic performances, not simply to be instructed on 
the ethical questions of the day, not to flatter God with 
finely-constructed phrases, but to meet with Him, and 
to enjoy Him, and to make their lives, as far as it can be 
done, organs of His thought and will and purpose. That 
blunders will be made we must expect ; that sometimes 
we shall hear poor human talk where we expected a divine 
message is likely. We are still children. But this great 
experiment of ours — to show that Christ can be the Head 
of a meeting — is grandly worth trying ; it has not been 
sufficiently tried yet, and it has never been proved false. 
It cannot succeed, however, if we ignore human needs, if 
we close our eyes to the facts of life and social conditions, 
or if we expect God to work miracles for us while we sit 
with folded hands and closed eyes. 

There is no Christian community in the world that 
can go on in effective power unless its membership is 
continually being edified in the truth. High feeling and 
rapturous emotion never take the place of the positive 
instruction in the truth. There is a limit to the height to 
which you can pile inch blocks. They will eventually 
topple over of their own weight. High structures must 
always have broad .bases. The worshipful spirit of a con- 
gregation always declines if there is nothing done to 
broad-base the spiritual life in the truth. You may as 
well try to dodge the law of gravitation as to dodge this 
law. When the ministry of a meeting dies down to 



OF THE CONFERENCE 37 I 

nothing, or to platitudes, or to chaffy, dry-as-dust talk, 
the worship goes too, and the sound of prayer will be 
low. The height of the meeting will be largely deter- 
mined by its width. The question of ministry in a meeting 
for worship is vital. But the ministry must not be poured 
on from the outside, as water from a hydrant ; it must 
bubble out of the spiritual life of the meeting, and he who 
speaks must speak because he feels that a message has 
been quickened within his soul which will feed, as the 
word and bread of God, the souls about Him. The pre- 
cise moment when the inspiration comes to him is not 
important. It may be within the meeting-house or on 
the street or in one's own chamber. That matters not. 
The prime necessity is to have it. 

Now, what is the practical test by which we shall 
decide whether a meeting for worship is alive or not ? 
How can we tell whether it is a place where the members 
meet with God, or one where they merely go through the 
forms of worship. We can tell by what they do after- 
wards. A meeting for worship which has no permanent 
effect on men's lives after they walk down the aisles was 
held to little purpose. Worship is not truly and com- 
pletely worship until it becomes the business of life, and 
not merely the occupation of an hour. If the hour of wor- 
ship, by its brightness, only puts the rest of our work-a-day 
life in the shade instead of sending its light and power into 
every deed of the week, we are still poor worshipers. 
The great truth which worship reveals is this, that God is 
actually present, and if He is present anywhere, He 
ought to be present everywhere, and our worship must 
bear witness to His continual presence. To "worship 
the Lord in the beauty of holiness " is to practice His 
presence, whether we are sweeping streets or using our 
lips in vocal prayer. " I will go forth in the strength of 
the Lord God ' ' are the words over the door of the little 
parish church in Drayton-in-the-Clay, where George Fox 
sat Sabbath after Sabbath as a boy. The idea is the true 
one. Life is full of struggle. There is some grind in it 
for us all. We do not see the glory at its full in all the 
hours of our life. But we may be sure that we have 



3J2 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

not learned how to worship yet unless for every glimpse 
of vision we live a more victorious life, and for every 
touch God gives us we make a better contribution to the 
redemptive forces of the world. " Immediately I was not 
disobedient to the heavenly vision," says the great Chris- 
tian worker. May we all rise up from our period of 
worship with cleared vision, go to living in the power of 
what we have seen and felt, and if we have really seen 
Him, we shall say as we go out : 

" I may not live a little, petty, self-centered life, 
because the love of Christ constraineth me to reach out and 
realize in my being all that He calls me to be. I may 
not dwell at ease in my narrow tent, for the love of Christ 
constraineth me to care for all who feel the weight of sin, 
the power of temptation, the press of struggle, the pain 
and bitterness of losses. I may not seek to perfect my 
own soul just for the joys of a timeless heaven, for the love 
of Christ constraineth me to find my joy in helping to 
bring the heavenly life into as many lives as possible. I 
may not wear a gloom}- face or lose heart over the trials 
or evils of this present world, for the love of Christ con- 
straineth me to enter into the joy of service, the victory of 
faith and the grandeur of life." 

The Clerk : The subject will be further discussed by 
Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon. 

Edwin H. McGrew, of Oregon : I do not know that 
there needs to be an apology offered for placing one from 
the extreme East and the other from the extreme West on 
this subject. I fear, however, I shall not follow the same 
broad comprehensive line. I have made no attempt what- 
ever at that. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PUBLIC WORSHIP. 
By President Edwin H. McGrew, 

Of Pacific College, Oregoii. 

The little tract or paper entited "A Quaker Service," 
written by one William Cross, is a most beautiful descrip- 
tion of what was to the writer a most blessed and soul- 
enriching hour of worship. He had never attended a 



OF THE CONFERENCE 373 

Quaker meeting. He was charmed by the sweet simple- 
heartedness main ifes ted by dress and words. He was 
greatly impressed by the simplicity of the worship ; and 
the restlessness that at first possessed him in the fear that 
the leader of the meeting was not to be there, gave way to 
great quietness of spirit when the words came to him, 
" Where two or three are gathered together, there am I in 
the midst." The Leader was there. The silence and 
every exercise of the meeting seemed to bring special 
blessing to this devout worshiper. Was it the silence, 
was it the prayer, was it the little address or exhortation 
or sermonette given by one or more that refreshed the 
devout soul ; or was it not in the fact that God was in the 
silence, and in the prayer, and in the discourse to meet 
the longing of the one who sought to worship in all ? 

Theory and practice of public worship — what a sub- 
ject ! Cannot Friends' theory be briefly stated in the rich 
expression of the Christ as He gave that priceless message 
to the Samaritan woman and to the world : " Believe me, 
the hour cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain, 
nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. But the hour 
cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall wor- 
ship the Father in spirit and in truth : for the Father 
seeketh such to worship him. God is a Spirit, and they 
that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in 
truth." 

If the Friends have stood for anything that has char- 
acterized us as a body it is spirituality of worship. This 
is sought in part by casting aside formalities and by great 
emphasis of the doctrine of the priesthood of believers. 
If some things have been put aside, other things have 
been allowed ; nay more, encouraged. These possibly 
may constitute our practices. Shall we notice some 
of Friends' practices ? In the first place, silence in wor- 
ship has not been uncommon. You may say, perhaps, that 
the matter of silence in Friends' meetings has gone well 
over into theory ; and to a degree I regret I am forced to 
admit it ; but I am convinced that a spirit-filled silent 
worship has not lost its power and should not lose its 
place. Perhaps it was never quite the Friends' theory 



374 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

that there should be an hour or two silent, sleepy, 
drowsy meeting, whatever may have been some of our 
practices ; but I appeal to you, have you not known 
times when the only way for our meetings to come into a 
place of true worship was through a brief period of 
silence? Have we not sometimes been found singing 
time away simply to consume time? In my judgment a 
Friends' minister ought to prize the privilege to lead the 
congregation in a period of silence in which they may be 
strangety fitted by the Spirit Himself, to receive His mes- 
sage through the minister. 

In the second place, we recognize that prayer should 
have a place in public worship . I speak especially of the 
larger public meetings. For should we include the 
prayer meeting in this subject I would insist that a 
prayer meeting is a place to pray. Prayer certainly 
does have an important place in our public worship ; 
certainly not formal, cold, unfeeling prayer, but that 
which comes out of a warm, devout heart ; that effectual, 
fervent prayer of righteous men and righteous women that 
availeth much. It is most desirable that the minister, 
the pastor, be very gifted in prayer ; but ought we not 
retain the theory and the practice, under the Hoty Spirit's 
direction, of prayer from the body of the congregation. 
Perhaps some ma3^ take undue advantage of such oppor- 
tunity, but without it some soul, for want of expression, 
must grow lean and powerless. That meeting will come 
close to God that seeks Him and His blessing through 
the medium of Spirit-filled prayer. 

Thirdly, the public preaching of the Word has been 
theoretically a part of the church service or worship and 
has been largely practiced. The efficiency of the earlier 
ministry of our denomination was most marvelous. The 
Quakers have been great preachers. Much has been said 
during this Five Years Meeting of the means toward a 
more efficient ministry, and the remarkable inefficiency of 
our present ministry has been duly emphasized. How- 
ever this may all be, it remains for me to urge that one 
high calling of the Church is to preach the Gospel. In 
our branch of the Church the practice of preaching has 



OF THE CONFERENCE 375 

been observed to a large extent in our meetings, and in a 
measure we have practiced what we have preached. The 
two-fold object of preaching has already been clearly 
pointed out in the paper that has just preceded this. The 
preacher is supposed to bear God's message of truth in 
real ministry to the believer and a message of searching 
power to the sinner. The minister who would measure 
his place and work under the call and leadership of the 
Great Head of the Church must recognize that his call is 
a high calling of God, in comparison with which the vari- 
ous professions of life and business sink into unrecogniz- 
able nothingness. That minister when he looks in upon 
himself cannot fail to recognize his utter helplessness and 
hopeless inability to face the situation. In such spirit I 
cannot conceive of him setting a very high price upon him- 
self for his service as a minister. To every devout minister 
of the Gospel there must come the assurance expressed 
by the apostle, " Our sufficiency is from God." Study the 
lives and life work of the great ministers of the Gospel of 
our Church and of others, and while some have been well 
educated — and all now ought to be, for we are without 
excuse — yet the efficient minister receives his efficiency 
from God. A spirit-filled ministry does have a place in 
our meeting for worship. The measure of a minister is 
the measure of the results of his ministry. They may be 
immediately seen ; they never can be wholly known. Some 
may object to this proposition, but in a large measure it 
must be true. I read of one who preached boldly and 
fearlessty, and when he was through no one thought of 
his sermon's rhetorical smoothness, of its literary merit; 
no one reached out a cold, formal, distant, complimentary 
hand-shake and said, "I congratulate you, Reverend 
Peter, on that masterly address ' ' ; but this is what the 
record says : ' ' Now when they heard this they were 
pricked in their heart and said, Brethren, what shall we 
do ? " — and fortunately Peter was able to tell them what 
to do. A ministry squared by the Word -of God and 
prompted by His Spirit will ever have its place, and 
ought to have every encouragement. 



37 6 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

I have now referred to all the practices in worship 
which exist in some Friends' meetings and to all but one 
which usually are found in others. This one is the prac- 
tice of singing. I have no discussion to enter upon con- 
cerning it ; none is needed. If through the ages God has 
been pleased with the songs of His children ; if psalmists 
and prophets, and Jesus and His disciples sang; if the 
founders of our Church sang, and if song full of Gospel 
truth has cheered the lives and strengthed the souls of 
toiling men and weary women and has brought conviction 
to the sinful, perhaps the practice of singing has yet a 
place in worship. Let us apply to it, however, what we 
have required in the other practices, that it be spirit-filled. 
A song that is merely to fill up time is no more in line of 
worship than preaching or praying or dead silence merely 
to fill up time. It is very pleasant sometimes for us to 
sing just to while the time away, but that singing is not 
necessarily worship. 

Dr. Adoniram Judson Gordon's dream had for him a 
rich blessing, and may have a lesson for us. You know 
the story of it, I suppose. Dr. Gordon had studied late 
on Saturday night preparing for the Sabbath. When he 
retired he dreamed that he was in the Sabbath service. 
With others who came in was a stranger, a man not 
richly clad, but who had in his face a most kindly 
expression. The minister was greatly attracted by the 
stranger and sought to meet him at the close of the ser- 
vice, but before he could reach him he had gone. Dr. 
Gordon asked the gentleman in whose pew the stranger 
had been sitting, who he was, and the gentleman answered, 
' ' That was Jesus of Nazareth ; He has been here to-day 
and He will come again." Then Dr. Gordon meditated: 
"Was He, Jesus of Nazareth, pleased that morning as 
He sat in the service ? Did the arrangement of the church 
please Him — the singing, the prayer, the sermon ? Was 
He pleased. ' ' He has been here to-day and He will come 
again ! Oh, brothers and sisters in Jesus Christ, our 
meetings of public worship have been times of refreshing 
and strength only when we have recognized His presence 
in the person of His Spirit, and as we have sought 



OF THE CONFERENCE 377 

through silence or prayer, or preaching or song, to wor- 
ship and glorify Him who has been with us and will come 
again. 

Rebecca W. Cadbury, of Philadelphia : The idea of 
worship is one of the sublimest beliefs of the Church since 
the early Christian days. We go into other churches and 
we hear ministers sing and preach and pray, and are we any 
better for it ? I do not know but what if we Friends will 
go and sit down in silence before God, and pour our 
hearts before God,' then listen to His voice, that every 
one of us will be ministers. Every one of us is a 
temple of the Holy Ghost, and God speaks to every 
one of us. 

Sophia M. Fry, of London : May I emphasize what 
was said by the last speaker on the value of silence in our 
meeting for worship, which is sometimes to-day in danger 
of being crowded out by vocal solos which take its place. 
Over and over again I have been told by people who have 
been in our meetings for worship for the first time, that it 
was not the sermon that impressed them, but it was the 
time of silence which seemed so very solemn to them. 
There is perhaps no one in this house who has not been 
in a meeting when the congregation met and sat, not in a 
listless, languid attitude of mind, but of waiting expect- 
ancy ; and then there has come over the congregation a 
sense of power and uplifting, and a feeling that the 
Creator was meeting with the creatures ; and perhaps 
those who met there left the house stronger and purer and 
better than they were when they entered it. There is a 
cry, a great outcry, in our country for educated ministers, 
which would lead us to believe that there was no such 
a thing in our Church. I believe the common people 
should have an equal opportunity in our services to 
express themselves ; they would be able to touch the 
various attitudes of man. We should give our ministers 
a good opportunity for an all-around education, but do 
not let us turn them out if they do not have it. I think 
the congregation should take their share of the service. 
There should be no contention about who occupies the 
highest place in the synagogue. 



37 S STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Aaron M. Bray, of California : In view of the fact 
that to-morrow is Sunday, and many of us are rather tired, 
I move that we do now adjourn. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, of California : I wish to express 
a word on the value of prayer. I believe our Church 
should emphasize this and should never get away from it. 
In our meetings of worship every individual is responsi- 
ble for the character of the worship. I trust the time will 
never come in our meetings when one or two persons will 
feel that the entire services of the meeting depend upon 
them. It will be a sad time for our services if ever the 
time comes that there will be a large feeling of responsi- 
bility on one person and not upon the entire congregation 
or membership. They certainly have a part in the ser- 
vice. I think the membership should feel a large respon- 
sibility in regard to worship. It is one of the sweetest 
things that I know of to hear the voices of children min- 
gled with the older ones in the sanctuary. In all parts of 
the congregation, old, young, every one should feel they 
have a part in the services and have a place there. I 
think there is no one preacher that could have as mufh 
power as the whole congregation. I have felt a great 
difference in standing to preach the Word of God when 
\'OU felt that you had the support of the members and the 
prayers of the members of the congregation, especially if 
there has been a free utterance of it, than if you are stand- 
ing in another place where there is a total absence of con- 
ditions for prayer and worship and praise for God. I 
believe we are coming back to it, and I trust that, in hon- 
estly seeking after that which is best, we may find, at 
least, that the individual worshiper throughout the con- 
gregation feels an individual responsibility for everything 
that is proper in our worship. 

John W. Woody, of North Carolina : I like the 
thought that every one in the congregation is responsible. 

The Clerk : There is a motion before the house. I 
feel that it is time for us to adjourn. 

Albert J. Brown, of Western : I believe we ought to 
adjourn, for our Sabbath-school is at 9.15 in the morn- 
ing, and while [the congregation is in the state of mind 



OF THE CONFERENCE 379 

that it now is I believe that we ought to adjourn so that 
we can get rested for to-morrow. 

(By permission, before adjourning, the following 
proposition was introduced.; 

Rufus M. Jones, of New England : I would like to 
ask the privilege of introducing one subject. The Busi- 
ness Committee, in its leisure hours that it has had since 
the rise of this meeting, have been considering the attitude 
of the people during prayer and during devotion. It is 
desired that a resolution be sent out in reference to it, and 
I was asked to prepare this resolution and submit it, and 
I will now read it. It can be adopted without discussion. 

(Reads a resolution. See Minutes. Minutes ioo, 119.) 
I now move that this be referred to the Business Com- 
mittee to be brought up in a resolution by them. 

''The motion was carried.; 

'The motion to adjourn was carried.; 

The Clerk : We will arise and stand with bowed heads. 

After several vocal prayers, the meeting adjourned 
till Second day morning at nine o'clock. 

SECOND DAY MORNING, TENTH MONTH 27. 

The meeting was called to order at 9 A. M. 

The devotional exercises were led by R. Esther 
Smith, of California Yearly Meeting, which were opened 
by singing, " Let the Lower Lights be Burning." Then 
followed exhortation and prayer by R. Esther Smith. 
Lewis E. Stout, Isom P. Wooton, J. Walter Malone, and 
others. 

Clerk : We will now have read the Minutes of the 
different sessions of Seventh day. 

(Minutes of the morning session were read and ap- 
proved.; 

(Minutes of afternoon session read and approved.; 

Ell wood O. Ellis, of Indiana : I am requested to say 
that the Finance Committee, to whose report Minute 
number eleven of this session alludes, requests the privi- 
lege of having the report referred back for verbal changes, 
and requests unanimous consent to it. 

(By consent, the report was referred back.; 



380 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Minutes of evening session were read and approved 
with slight correction. 

Clerk : We will now take up the reports of the 
Standing Committees. First, the report of the Legisla- 
tive Committee will be introduced. 

(See Minutes, Minute 103.) 

Clerk : You have heard the report of the Committee 
on Legislation, what is your pleasure ? 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I see by the wording 
that it might be misunderstood where it speaks of the 
articles of incorporation to be considered by the sub-com- 
mittee and that they are to be signed by the committee. 
It is not to be signed only by the sub-committee, but by 
the whole twenty-two, two from each Yearly Meeting. 

Albert F. N. Hambleton, Iowa : The incorporation 
of the Five Years Meeting would necessarily have to have 
a place designated where it will meet. If the meeting has 
any direction to make or preference to give it would be a 
good time to express it. 

Clerk : Do you wish to take up that matter before 
passing upon the report ? 

Milton Hanson, Western : Cannot that be left with 
the Business Committee ? 

Clerk : If the meeting so orders it may. 

(On motion, the report was accepted.) 

Clerk : Will the Business Committee bring in a 
proposition covering the point that has been raised ? If 
there is no objection, it will be left with the Business Com- 
mittee and it will come in at a future time. We will now 
have the report of the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board. 

Report was read by Reading Clerk. (See Minutes, 
Minute 104.) 

Clerk : What is your pleasure with reference to the 
report of the Evangelistic Board ? 

(On motion, the report was adopted.) 

Charles H. Jones, New England : In connection with 
these reports it is necessary, according to the Discipline, 
that the names of all the ministers of the Yearly Meet- 
ings be in the hands of the Secretary of this Committee. 



of the conference 381 

Some of the Yearly Meetings' Minutes contain the names 
and addresses of the ministers of the Yearly Meeting, 
others do not. And it is also necessary in carrying out 
our work that this Executive Committee of this Board 
should be in possession of the Minutes of all the different 
Yearly Meetings, and I move that the Chairman of each 
delegation be instructed to provide the Secretary with 
copies of the Minutes of the different Yearly Meetings, 
and also where the names of the ministers of the Yearly 
Meetings are not printed in the Minutes, that the Chair- 
man of each delegation be instructed to provide the names 
and addresses of these ministers. 

Delegate : I think the entire Board ought to receive 
the Minutes of the Yearly Meetings. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : I think the Chairman, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer would constitute the responsible 
members of the different Boards, and I would, therefore, 
offer an amendment to the motion that they furnish the 
Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer with copies of the 
Minutes. 

Charles H. Jones, New England : I accept the amend- 
ment. 

Clerk : It is moved and seconded that the Chairmen 
of the several delegations be asked to furnish the Chair- 
man, Secretary and Treasurer of the Evangelistic Board 
copies of the Minutes of the several Yearly Meetings, 
accompanied with full lists of the names and addresses of 
the ministers of the several Yearly Meetings. 

(Motion was carried.) 

Clerk : Are there other reports on the table ? The 
Friends' Board on the Condition and Welfare of the 
Negro. Clerk will read. 

(See Minutes, Minute 106.) 

Clerk : You have heard the report from this Board, 
what will you do with it ? 

(Motion to adopt the report carried.) 

Richard H.Thomas, Baltimore: I would like to 
make the statement that we have decided to try to get on 
with voluntary contributions as far as possible, and 
we are going to ask our representatives in each Yearly 



382 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Meeting to do what they can to raise $25 toward meeting 
the expenses. There will be a considerable amount of 
expense as there are so few of us really on the ground, not 
sufficient to take the responsibility ; and we will have to 
have money to use in furnishing Friends information, 
and we will have to have a careful review of the whole 
situation, and a considerable amount of correspondence 
will be necessary, and a certain amount of travel, and we 
need funds very much, and we hope that Friends as they 
go home will bear in mind that each Yearly Meeting is 
asked voluntarily, not officially, to contribute $25 toward 
the expense. 

Clerk : Are you ready for the next report ? We 
have had many requests to close the business at noon 
to-day, and we will try to do it ; but we must not rush 
through matters so quickly that we will not settle them 
satisfactorily. We will have the report of the Committee 
on Finance. 

(See Minutes, Minute 107.) 

The report was approved. 

Clerk : We will take up the Report of American 
Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. Clerk will read. 

(See Minutes, Minute 108.) 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington : I move that the 
report be adopted. 

(Motion carried.) 

Clerk : We will now have the report of the Commit- 
tee on Bible School Quarterly, Catechism, and Hymnal. 

(See Minutes, Minute 109.) 

Clerk : You have heard the report of the Committee, 
what is your pleasure in regard to it ? 

Delegate : I move the report be adopted. 

Harry R. Keates, New York : My sympathies are 
with the committee and the difficulties they have encoun- 
tered. The proposition came to us five years ago, and 
after a very lengthy and warm-hearted discussion this 
committee was appointed to consider the matter and the 
committee have labored for five years ; they were given 



OF THE CONFERENCE 383 

power, and they might have gone on and involved us 
financially, but they did not think it wise to do so. Now, 
there is that in the recommendation of this committee 
which shows that they appreciate somewhat the position. 
This is not theory, it is practice, but the question is that 
sooner or later hymns shall be passed upon as suitable for 
use in our meetings. Too often we find our people sing- 
ing perhaps something that we do not heartily assent to. 
The time is not far distant when many of the trashy 
things which pass as hymns shall be swept away from us 
and in the place of these we will have some that will 
stand the test of time and which will appeal to the human 
heart. The doctrinal truths which we hold should be 
embodied in our hymns and be a means of encourage- 
ment to the older ones and which shall be instructive to 
our young people. I am sorry that the report comes 
in the form in which it has, yet I realize that the recom- 
mendation was in place. 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington : It seems to me that 
these three unrelated subjects could not be well associated 
together. The proposition for a Quarterly and the propo- 
sition for a catechism coming to this Five Years Meeting 
as new propositions which have never been considered, 
might be considered together. But the proposition for a 
Hymnal is an entirely different matter, but as Harry R. 
Keates has well said, it was very thoroughly and care- 
fully considered five years ago. The committee was 
appointed by the Conference and empowered with equal 
powers with that intrusted to the Committee on the pre- 
paration of the Uniform Discipline under which we are 
here to-day. The Church has passed upon this question 
that it wants a Hymnal. There is a long-felt desire all 
over this Middle West, and some of us who have been 
concerned on this matter for the last five years, have been 
astounded at the wide-spread wish that has come to us 
from all over the Church wanting us to hasten the pre- 
paration. Because we felt that we needed the endorsement 
of another conference, and because of the difficulties we 
found in our way, making it impossible for us to be ready 
with the issuing 1 of the book until close to the time of this 



384 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

meeting, and we thought the Church might pass upon it 
again. I believe that it would be a most serious disap- 
pointment to our younger Friends all over the country, 
and a most serious detriment to the worship of Almighty 
God through the service of song in all our meetings, and a 
most serious blunder in every consideration for this confer- 
ence to finish the matter as it is proposed to do in this 
meeting. I move, as an amendment to the motion that 
is before us, that these three subjects be considered separ- 
ately and passed upon separately. I move that as a sub- 
stitute. 

Clerk : It is moved and seconded, as a substitute to 
the motion before the House that these three subjects be 
considered separately. 

(Motion carried.) 

Clerk : The Recording Clerk will read the report 
upon the first subject named. 

(The Recording Clerk re'ad the part of the report 
referring to the Quarterly.) 

(On motion of Zenas L,. Martin, the report was 
adopted.) 

Clerk : The Recording Clerk will read that part of 
the report referring to the proposed catechism. 

(The Recording Clerk read report.) 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I had hoped that some 
conclusions could have been reached upon this question 
that would settle the difficulty. In connection with this, 
there is a very valuable little catechism prepared by Edgar 
Williams, of Iowa, "The Juniors' Friend." I do uot 
know whether Friends know of it or not. We do a great 
deal with them, and I wanted simply to call attention to 
the fact that the "Juniors' Friend" is very valuable to 
place in the hands of young people. 

Mary C. Woody, North Carolina : Let me say just a 
word. The committee did not think a catechism was not 
a worthy thing, but as the request came from only one or 
two Yearly Meetings, it felt that the catechism already 
published would be valuable without undertaking the 
thing in the Five Years Meeting. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 385 

David E. Sampson, North Carolina : I would have 
been glad if we could have at least recommended some of 
these catechisms for those who feel the need of it. We 
have a great need of something to instruct many of the 
new members, as well as those of the young ones, that are 
coming to us. Could we not in some way name some of 
these catechisms, and the place where they might be 
obtained ? 

Harry R. Keates, New York : While I think probably 
we are not ready at the present time to prepare a cate- 
chism, as a representative of this body, I trust we will 
carefully consider the value of such a work. We some- 
times complain that our views are not understood. If we 
desire that these views should be understood, we must 
begin with the children. In New York Yearly Meeting 
we have upon the shelves of the Book and Tract Commit- 
tee a catechism, an excellent little book prepared some 
years ago by Ruth S. Murray. I had not seen that edition 
until it was sent to me a few months ago. On looking it 
over and comparing it with other catechisms of our own 
denomination, and with the catechisms of other churches, 
I was struck with its simplicity and force. While the 
delegates may possibly feel that they are not able to speak 
for their Yearly Meetings in favor of the proposition at 
this time, I do trust that the time is not far distant that 
we may have such a work to place in the hands of our 
children, that when asked they may be able to give posi- 
tive reasons why they are Friends, and positive reasons 
for the doctrines that we hold as the truth as it as in 
Jesus Christ. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : I heartily endorse 
the speech our brother has just made. In our evangel- 
istic work sometimes when a number of young people 
have been awakened and looked forward to joining 
Friends, we have had these young people come and say, 
What are your doctrines ? and we had nothing but the 
Discipline. We had some other things, but they were too 
large. What we want most is to set out our beliefs. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : I rise to ask 
if this matter could not be disposed of by being referred to 



386 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

the Educational Committee, or some other one, the proper 
one to refer the matter to. I think the matter is of im- 
portance enough not to be dropped at this time, but it 
should be referred to a suitable committee. 

James Wood, New York : It seems to me that the 
statement has been called for, and I think it is right for 
me to say that New York Yearly Meeting has an official 
catechism adopted a few years ago after having been in 
charge of the representative meeting for two or three 
years. If you wish copies of the catechism for personal 
examination and use in the Sabbath-school, you can 
leave your order at the desk over there and you will be 
supplied. 

Rebecca W. Cadbury, Philadelphia : I wish to say, 
our Friend James Wood some time ago wrote a very 
excellent paper on the doctrines of the Society of Friends 
that we in Philadelphia have found of great use not only 
among the young people but others ; and James Wood 
had a letter from Japan asking that a number of this little 
document should be sent there, and I can speak of its value. 

Delegate : I would like to ask James Wood what use 
is being made of the catechism in New York Yearly 
Meeting. I remember well we spent a long time on it. 

James, Wood, New York : Some use is being made 
of it ; how much I cannot say. I have not followed it up. 

(The motion to adopt this part of the report was 
carried.) 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa : I would suggest that in 
the interim we might adopt the catechism used by New 
York Yearly Meeting. 

James Wood, New York : I think that would not be 
advisable, but if you wish it they can be obtained. I do 
not think it is wise for this meeting to give its approval 
to anything put out by any Yearly Meeting until it has 
examined it. 

Delegate : I move that the chairman of each delega- 
tion select a member from their delegation to constitute 
that committee to have this matter in charge until the 
next Five Years Meeting, and if possible report a cate- 
chism suitable for the needs of the Yearly Meetings. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 387 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore : I believe that there 
is very great use for an independent catechism prepared to 
meet certain needs ; but before we put such an authority 
or power in any work in the hands of any committee, we 
ought to remember what we are opening the way for. Many 
of the catechisms that have been spoken of are very easily 
obtained ; some are better in some places and some in 
others ; and let us be free about it, and not have a cate- 
chism which will be very difficult to prepare and of very 
little value when it is prepared. 

Carolena M. Wood, New York: I think we have 
been very unwise to bring up so important and far-reach- 
ing a subject at this last session as this subject of a cate- 
chism. It is a very serious matter, and I think, appar- 
ently, we have not found out what the catechisms are that 
have been prepared, and so I would suggest that we keep 
this matter before us, that we get these catechisms that 
have been spoken of, examine them, bring them to the 
next Five Years Meeting, and let us get in touch with the 
catechisms and understand exactly what we wish ; and in 
the meantime that we make all the use of what we have 
that we can. I think it would be unwise to take this 
matter up with the amount of attention that has been 
given to the work. 

Clerk : I fear the motion is not understood. The 
motion is that this matter be submitted to a committee for 
consideration, they to report thereon to the next Five 
Years Meeting. No authority to be given to the commit- 
tee to take official action. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : I am in favor of this 
motion with the exception of a little part. I believe the 
committee ought to take this matter in hand with no 
further instruction ; so I move that we amend this motion 
before the House by striking out " to prepare a draft." I 
think that is what we want. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New Kngland : That is 
what I meant. I would like that to pass that way. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I would like to know if we appoint 
a committee to take the matter under consideration and 



388 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

they be allowed to prepare a plan if way opens for it, 
would there be any danger in that ? 

Albert J. Brown, Western: The purport of my 
motion is to that effect, but that we do not instruct the 
committee to do it. 

James Wood, New York : I hope this amendment 
will prevail. I wish the committee to appreciate the 
momentous importance of their purpose. I have had 
experience in work of this kind, and if you had had this 
experience you would approach this with the greatest 
possible hesitation. 

Milton Hanson, Western : The chairmen of these 
delegations, although persons of ability, were not ap- 
pointed with special reference to work of this kind, and it 
should be placed in the hands of a committee who are the 
best that we can find among all the Yearly Meetings in 
America ; and that is a reason why the amendment should 
prevail. 

(Calls for the question.) 

Chairman : It is moved and seconded that the matter 
concerning a catechism be referred to a committee, con- 
sisting of one member from each Yearly Meeting, to be 
chosen by the chairmen of the several delegations ; said 
committee to have the authority to prepare a draft or 
plan and submit the same to the next Five Years Meeting 
for its consideration. An amendment to strike out the 
clause providing for the preparation of a draft of a cate- 
chism to be submitted to the Five Years Meeting, has 
been proposed and seconded. The motion is upon ^the 
amendment. 

(Amendment was carried.) 

Josiah Dillon, Kansas : I wish to propose another 
amendment, that the delegations instead of the chairmen, 
should select the committee and not leave it wholly with 
the chairmen. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I was about to say, 
but we seem to have so many amendments, if we are not 
going to do anything with this, can we not refer it to some 
committee already in existence ? 



OF THE CONFERENCE 389 

Delegate : This is an extremely difficult question. I 
think it would be almost impossible to prepare a cate- 
chism that would be what we would want, and it seems 
to me it could hardly be adopted without passing through 
the Yearly Meetings, therefore I wish that the whole 
thing might be voted down. 

Mary C. Woody, North Carolina : The discussion is 
just the same as it was in the committee. Our conclu- 
sion was that if these catechisms that have been men- 
tioned could be mentioned in the American Friend, and 
the places where they can be obtained, and if it is 
not out of order, I move that the motion be laid on the 
table. 

Chairman : The motion is in order. 

(Motion carried.) 

Delegate : I hope that we shall not lose sight of the 
fact that the place where these catechisms can be obtained 
shall go into the American Friend. We have had calls 
for these, and I have never known where to get a copy. 

James Wood, New York : I wish to make a motion 
to relieve the Recording Clerk, that the Clerk, in the 
final preparation of his minutes, only refer to the action 
taken by the meeting, and that the various amendments 
should be not recorded as such, but leave it to the discre- 
tion of the Clerk to state what the action of the meeting 
was without referring to all these amendments. 

(It was so ordered by unanimous consent.) 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore : I would like to make 
a request that if any one here knows of any catechism 
published by any member of the Society of Friends, or by 
any Yearly Meeting, or Quarterly Meeting, or Monthly 
Meeting, that he will send me the name and place where 
it can be obtained, and I will see that a list of all such 
catechisms is published in the American Friend, with 
information where each can be obtained and at what cost. 

Chairman : We will now have the third clause of the 
report, in regard to a Hymnal. Clerk will read. 

(Report in regard to a Hymnal was read.) 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I move we accept the 
report. 



390 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : I move to amend the 
report, that we refer the question of a Hymnal back to 
the committee appointed by the last Quinquennial Con- 
ference on the subject, with the power to take such action 
as they shall deem best without incurring the Five Years 
Meeting in any obligation except for the expenses of the 
committee meeting. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : That cannot be done. 
Many of the members appointed five years ago are not 
here. This is out of order now, it seems to me. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I do not think that we can refer 
to a committee that is dead. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : I feel like second- 
ing Francis Wright's motion. 

Clerk : We can hardly refer a matter to a committee 
that is not a committee of this meeting. That committee 
received its appointment from another body. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : I would like the 
reappointing of the same committee to consider the mat- 
ter, and if they find it right to have a Hymnal that we 
should give them authority to go forward. I think the 
crying need of our Church to-day is for good substantial 
Hymnals, and not that kind which teaches ungodly truths. 

Josiah Dillon, Kansas : It seems to me that the same 
causes that we objected to the appointment of a commit- 
tee with reference to a Catechism should come in force in 
this. Our reason in asking for another is that we may 
have one in which the doctrines shall be taught and the 
importance of this must be very apparent to all, and it 
seems to me that it is of such a magnitude that it would 
be very unwise for this meeting to consent to this, as this 
is a document from this meeting, and I should object to 
leaving the matter to such a small committee, or to a 
committee at all, without first coming before this body 
for its approval, and I shall certainly object to author- 
izing anything of this kind or giving such a privilege, 
although it incurs no expense to the meeting. 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore : Before we take action 
I think there is one point which ought to be brought 
forward — the great expense of such an undertaking. Who 



OF THE CONFERENCE 39 1 

is going to run the financial risk ? Hymns cannot be 
written to order. We have to take those already written. 
All the good hymns, except the old ones, are copyrighted. 
Who is going to pay for the privilege of the copyright ? 
It is a practical question- I think if we want a Hymnal 
there are plenty of good ones. 

Robert E. Pretlow, Wilmington : I do not suppose 
that it is the idea that Quakers are going to write a lot of 
new hymns and then publish them. We want the good 
inspired hymns of all the ages, and we don't want trashy 
hymns mixed up with them if we can help it. The com- 
mittee appointed five years ago gave careful thought to the 
point just raised, and it is just because we have found out 
absolutely that it can be published, and can be published 
without financial obligation on the part of this body that 
the report was brought in. We have learned that it is 
exceedingly practical, that we can do it, and that we can 
get the best songs that have ever been placed on the 
market, and have a uniformity and dignity that has been 
wholly lacking in the years past. I hope this meeting 
will see fit to vote down Francis A. Wright's amendment, 
and take up this matter and push it to completion. 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa : L,ast year we placed the 
Gospel Hymns up to No. 6 in our church, and I feel that 
our church needs something of this kind, and I move as 
an amendment that this be referred to the Kvangelistic 
Committee with power to act in this connection without 
financial obligation, if the mover will accept. 

Lindley A. Wells, Western : It seems to me that it 
would be unwise to refer this matter to the Evangelistic 
Committee. I am sure that it is the feeling of a great many 
that we are very much in need of such a work, and I would 
like to see it placed in the hands of those who have had 
this matter in hand and know how to touch this question. 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa : If the second will consent, 
I will move that the names of the committee appointed 
by the conference five years ago be reappointed to act as 
a committee on this subject. 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : I will accept that 
amendment. 



39 2 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Clerk: We will have the names read. 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore: I confess a very- 
great hope that we shall not adopt this method. There 
is no desire on the part of any one to restrict whatever 
any people feel to be right in this matter. There are some 
of us who would be very sorry to have an official Hymnal 
issued by the Society of Friends for which we should be 
made constructively responsible. The feeling in regard 
to worship and methods of worship which some of us 
have is not consistent with the issuing of such a Hymnal, 
and while we have the broadest feeling of love for those 
who do not see as we see, we have a certain amount of 
feeling about being compromised by the action, and I 
cannot see why each meeting cannot act as it seems best in 
that matter. I confess from a business point of view I 
agree with my brother, and it does not seem to me that a 
Hymnal published by the method proposed by Robert E. 
Pretlow is likely to give us a really good one and one 
that would be of permanent value ; so if I wanted a 
Hymnal I should vote against it. 

L,. Lyndon Hobbs, North Carolina : Just one word. 
I wish we might adopt the report of the committee for 
about this reason, that we can trust to our friends pretty 
largely to use their own good judgment in the selection 
of such hymns as are already in print, and it seems to me 
at this late time in the Five Years Meeting to take up this 
subject upon which we are clearly not all united and go 
back on the suggestion of the committee, is hardly wise, 
and I wish that we might adopt the report of the com- 
mittee. 

Robert L. Kelly, Indiana : I am very much in favor 
of leaving this matter to this committee to consider again, 
with all due deference to the last two speakers ; for at the 
present time a great many of our congregations use sing- 
ing in their worship and will keep on using singing in 
their worship, and it becomes a question as to what class 
of hymns they will sing. I certainly do not feel as Presi- 
dent Hobbs has just suggested. I must say that our con- 
gregations cannot be depended upon to select hymns, as 
they do not work out very well. I have heard hymns 



OF THE CONFERENCE 393 

sung in our congregations, and I want to be impersonal, 
but they were absolutely immoral ; they were unreligious 
and immoral in their sentiment and immoral in the irrev- 
erent jingle, and I do not feel that since we are bound to 
sing, we do not want this kind of songs, and we ought to 
have a book of hymns that will appeal to the hearts of 
the common people in our worship. I think there ought 
to be a consolidation of the committee ; we ought to know 
that some of the members of this committee have moved 
away from the Yearly Meetings by which they were ap- 
pointed, and whether some members are suitable to go on 
or whether some changes are not of importance. I would 
like that to be looked into. I only make this as a sug- 
gestion. 

Clerk : I suggest that we allow the delegations here 
to take the matter under consideration, and to make any 
changes in the committee that they may think advisable ; 
allow the delegates to substitute other names than those 
on former committee where it is desired. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : I am opposed to this 
motion by Francis A. Wright on this ground, unless we 
carry with that motion they are to compel the local meet- 
ings to use this Hymnal we cannot avoid the difficulties 
which have been set forth here, and they certainly never 
will carry such authority. If a congregation wishes to 
sing a jingle they will sing it. 

Francis W. Thomas, Indiana : I want to say a word, 
and if any man has a right to speak I think I have, as I 
originated the question of using song in our services ; but 
the question resolves itself in my mind at our present 
stage, and accustomed as we are to hearing, singing and 
using Hymnals, and I think you know what I say is true, 
our taste as to the hymns that would suit us. In certain 
localities and in certain interests hymns could be used 
that would not suit in others. When we have arrived at 
the stage of a benefit at large in this regard of introducing 
it and endorsing it for the whole Church, I question it 
very much. I believe we had better not take up the 
matter at the present time, much as I love it and believe 
in it when property conducted. 



394 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Delegate : After hearing Dr. Thomas and Albert J. 
Brown and some others, I move that we table this question. 

Harry R. Keates, New York : Our Clerk a while ago 
said he would like to make a speech on this matter of the 
original proposition. While time is pressing, I am sure 
that we have a little time to spare, and I move that we 
give him all the time he wants. 

(Motion carried.) 

Edmund Stanley, Kansas ; I do not want to take 
your time. I wish to say, however, that we are forming 
tastes with the songs we are singing. If our children, in 
the song service in our meetings for years continue to 
sing a certain kind of jingle, if I may call it such, the 
very use will create a taste for that kind of song. The 
question, in my mind, resolves itself into just this: 
Shall we allow matters to continue for another five years 
with many kinds of questionable songs introduced into 
our meetings all over this broad land, or shall we set 
apart a cautious, careful, conservative committee to take 
the matter in hand? They can, as they report, get per- 
mission to take some good book, or books, and glean 
them and give us the real wheat, cutting out the chaff, 
the questionable matter ; so that we can say, if you want 
singing in your services, here is something that is safe for 
you to use. Those who live in the older settlements, in 
the older parts of our country, and belong to the meet- 
ings that have been long established, do not realize the 
situation as those on the frontier and in the newer meet- 
ings that are often made up largely of people who know 
little about Friends. The proposition as it comes from 
the committee means this : That the proposed committee 
be authorized to take this matter in hand and submit 
something for use in Friends' Meetings, prepared by the 
committee or approved, if a book is found that is satis- 
factory. If we do not wish to use it, we need not ; but it 
will go out with the stamp of the Church upon it, and 
with such approval or endorsement, we might hope for its 
adoption and use in the place of many books now in use 
against which there is much criticism. In the choice 
of reading matter, instead of turning a child loose to read 



OF THE CONFERENCE 395 

anything and everything, we recommend something that 
is good and elevating, and if we succeed in getting him to 
read something that is indeed good, by and by he will 
have formed a taste for good reading and good literature. 
Just so with song ; safety is found in the creation of the 
taste for that which leads the mind toward pure and lofty 
sentiment. 

Jesse Edwards, Oregon : I move that this matter be 
referred to the committee as provided, without any 
instructions whatever ; they would be under no obliga- 
tions ; they can report to the next Five Years Meeting, 
and if we see fit to adopt a Hymnal we can do so. I 
offer this as a substitute. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : I think the 
committee which has had this in charge is the proper one. 
I think it is a good thing, but I don't think any of us 
want to compel Dr. Thomas and his friends to sing if they 
do not wish to sing. 

Francis A. Wright, Kansas : As the mover of the 
motion, I have it written here and will read it — " That 
the question of a Hymnal be referred to the following 
committee, with power to take such action as they shall 
deem wise, without involving the Five Years Meeting in 
financial obligation, excepting for the necessary expense 
of the committeee.'' 

Milton Hanson, Western : Would the mover consent 
to refer the appointment of this committee with instruc- 
tions to make such changes as are necessary ? 

(Motion carried.) 

Charles H. Jones, New England : With the unani- 
mous consent of the body, I wish to amend the action of 
the meeting a few moments ago in regard to sending the 
Minutes of the different Yearly Meetings, to include the 
additional members of the Executive Board, Esther G. 
Frame and Levi Gregory, and I request that the two 
members be included. 

(Taken by consent.) 

Peter W. Raidabaugh, Western : I understood the 
Business Committee would have another matter to present 
to the delegates, and would it not be well to receive that? 



396 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Delegate : I think we ought to take a five minutes' 
recess at this time. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The Business Committee should 
leave the room as quickly as possible when we adjourn. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : Cannot the delega- 
tions get together and present to our chairmen whom we 
want? 

Clerk : That is to be done. The Secretary will read 
the names of the former committee. 

(Names of committee were read who had had charge 
of the matter of the Hymnal.) 

(Five minutes' recess.) 

Clerk : The report of the Finance Committee was 
referred back this morning for some verbal changes that 
they desired to make. They are now ready to submit 
their report. 

Chairman of Finance Committee : The Committee 
have decided to eliminate from its report the words relat- 
ing to the Foreign Mission Board, as that Board has been 
incorporated and organized and acting under the various 
Yearly Meetings for the last two or three years, and is 
already regulated ; we decided best to eliminate any refer- 
ence to the Foreign Mission Board, and also to make the 
financial year close Ninth Month, 30th. 

(The report was approved and the changes allowed.) 

Clerk : We will have the names from the several 
delegations to constitute the committee which was re- 
ferred to just before our intermission. 

(For names, see Minutes, Minute 112.) 

Charles W. Sweet, Iowa : I wonder if there can be a 
meeting of this committee before we go away. 

Clerk : I think you might make a call for a meeting 
of the committee. 

(Call was made.) 

James Wood, New York : I would like to have a 
statement as to what is referred to this committee so that 
we might have it distinctly on our minds. I should like 
to hear Francis A. Wright's motion read. 

Clerk : The Recording Clerk will read. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 397 

Recording Clerk read as follows : " That the ques- 
tion of a Hymnal be referred to the following committee, 
with power to take such action as they shall deem wise, 
without involving the Five Years Meeting in financial 
obligation, excepting for the necessary expenses of the 
committee." 

Ell wood O. Ellis, Indiana : Would it not be a good 
time to get a report from the delegations on the Commit- 
tee on Temperance ? Three names are on the table, the 
others are not. 

Albert J. Brown, Western : Were the delegates in- 
structed to appoint such a person ? 

Delegate : We didn't understand it so. We thought 
it was the committee on arrangements for the conference 
that was proposed. We did not understand that it was on 
Temperance. 

Ell wood O. Ellis, Indiana : It is not in the form of 
the Minute only, as the meeting approves the report of 
the committee, and it says, " We further propose that the 
delegates from the several Yearly Meetings name one 
additional delegate for this proposed Conference on Tem- 
perance." 

(On request, the whole report was re-read.) 

Albert J. Brown, Western: We had overlooked this 
matter, and ask the privilege to withdraw and attend to it 
at this time. 

(Consent was given, and the delegation from Western 
Yearly Meeting withdrew.) 

(Report of Committee on Education was read. See 
Minutes, Minute 114.) 

Clerk : It has been moved and seconded that the 
report carrying with it the recommendation of the com- 
mittee, be adopted. Are you ready for the question ? 

Richard H. Thomas, Baltimore : I personally doubt 
the advisability of our Five Years Meeting selecting one 
of our educational institutions. I like " in our institu- 
tions " better than " in one institution." 

Zenas L,. Martin, Iowa : It seems to me that it may 
be that we will want a separate institution entirely. 



398 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Chairman : I think that is provided for in the recom- 
mendation. 

(Motion carried.) 

Aaron M. Bray, Oregon : I would like to ask if that 
carries with it the suggestion made in regard to the ap- 
pointment of certain members to receive the appointments ? 

Robert L. Kelly, Indiana : This is the plan of the 
committee, and they wish to know if that is what the 
meeting wants. The suggestion is made that this board 
be appointed by the Committee on Education. 

James Carey, Jr., Baltimore : I think the incorpora- 
tion should be made, otherwise the committee will be of 
no use in a number of places. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : I rise to a point of order. I 
believe this motion was passed, and I want the meeting to 
say whether it is proper to discuss a matter after it has 
passed. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : I was going to 
remark that this is a point that we ought to attend to 
before passing away from it. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : It seems to me that the com- 
mittee will look after it. 

Robert E. Kelly, Indiana : Those of \ t ou who will 
take the pains to read the recommendation again, will 
notice the question of incorporation was not under the 
consideration of the meeting. Some arrangements were 
left with the committee in reference to the matter, so that 
some laws of the State might be complied with. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : If the Five Years 
Meeting is incorporated, the greater will cover the less, 
and this will cover all these committees of this organiza- 
tion. The Foreign Mission Board need not have been 
incorporated if we had waited until we had incorporated 
this Five Years Meeting. The incorporating of this Five 
Years Meeting incorporates all its work. 

(The epistie prepared in response to the epistle of 
Eondou Yearly Meeting, was read by Robert E- Kelly, of 
Indiana Yearly Meeting. 

(See Minutes, Minute 115.) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 399 

(After discussion of several clauses, some slight 
changes were made and the epistle adopted.) 

The Clerk will call up the next report. 

(The Report of the Committee on Arrangements for 
the next Five Years Meeting was read and approved.) 

(See Minutes, Minute 116.) 

Clerk : There are no other reports on the table, but 
the Business Committee has three items yet to be heard 
from. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The Business Committee has 
this to offer : 

(Reads resolution in regard to Sabbath Observance.) 

(See Minutes, Minute 117.) 

Chairman : You have heard the resolution, what is 
your pleasure in regard to it ? 

(On motion of Charles E. Tebbetts, of California, the 
resolution was adopted.) 

Allen Jay, Indiana : " Resolved, In the event of a 
vacancy occurring in the position of Treasurer, the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements is hereby authorized to fill the 
vacancy. 

(On motion, the resolution was adopted.) 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : With the consent of 
the chairman of the Business Committee I have a resolu- 
tion here to offer in connection with the office of Trea- 
surer, which I learn from him was overlooked by the 
Business Committee. You will find that a number of 
the Yearly Meetings have made do arrangements for the 
raising of their proportion of expense of this meeting, and 
as the Finance Committee suggested in the paper that 
was read, that everything should be done on a cash basis, 
and as it has heretofore been our practice to instruct the 
Treasurer to pay promptly all bills presented for the 
expense, I wish to present a proposition: "Resolved, 
That the Treasurer be authorized to pay all bills pertain- 
ing to the expense of this Five Years Meeting when draft 
is approved, and is hereby authorized, if necessary, to 
borrow money for this purpose," and I move its adop- 
tion. 

(Motion carried.) 



400 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Chairman : Has the Business Committee anything 
further to offer ? 

Allen Jay, Indiana: It is proposed that the proceed- 
ings of the Five Years Meeting be published in one volume, 
to contain all the papers read, the conclusions reached, 
and a brief statement of the discussions. The number to 
be printed to be referred to the delegations and the chair- 
man of each delegation is directed to report the number 
of copies desired for his Yearly Meeting to the Committee 
on Publications. 

I do not suppose you will be able to do that now, but 
just as soon as you can after you return home ascertain 
the feelings of Friends and send them to us. 

Clerk : It is understood that these reports will not be 
published at the expense of the Five Year's Meeting ; but 
that Yearly Meetings ordering certain numbers will be 
expected to pay for the same. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England : It will be 
impossible for the chairmen to tell whether any certain 
number will be wanted. They will have to be published, 
and we will have to send for them. 

James Wood, New York : Heretofore each Yearly 
Meeting has taken a number and given them away, or 
sold them, just as they saw fit. 

Cyrus Beede, Iowa : It occurs to me that these dele- 
gations at the present time are just as well prepared to 
state the number that they will want as they can be after 
they go home. 

Chairman : According to the resolution, they have a 
right to do this if they so elect. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : Friends, it is a very 
difficult problem. Five years ago it was referred to the 
Publishing Committee to decide itself how many copies 
should be printed. The conference could not do it, so it 
was left to the Publishing Committee, and they decided 
by correspondence, and ascertained as best they could, 
how many would be wanted. We announced through 
the papers that cloth copies would cost so much, postage 
paid, and in paper they would cost so much, postage 
paid, and whatever was sold was deducted from the cost 



OF THE CONFERENCE 401 

of publishing. It is a very difficult problem to know 
what to do. Heretofore we have sent down to the Yearly- 
Meetings the conclusions and suggestions in four or five 
pages in a separate leaflet. The Publishing Committee 
have been instructed to do that ; those things that imme- 
diately concern the Yearly Meetings in condensed form. 
I should be glad if we could give a good deal of liberty 
to this Publishing Committee. 

Zenas L,. Martin, Iowa : In speaking of the report 
with reference to the publishing of papers and discussions, 
it occurs to me that it would be far better that the discus- 
sions be printed in full the same as papers, not extracts. 
I should prefer that we should have the discussions. 
Have it all published in the proceedings. 

Chairman : The motion is upon the adoption of the 
resolution. 

Albert J, Brown, Western : How much does this reso- 
lution include. Does it include the clause by which the 
delegates shall say how many shall be taken for their 
Yearly Meetings ? 

(The resolution was read again.) 

Allen Jay, Indiana : It is proposed that the proceed- 
ings of the Five Years Meeting be published in one vol- 
ume, with a brief synopsis of the discussions. The num- 
ber to be printed is referred to the delegations, and the 
chairman of each delegation is directed to report to the 
Committee on Publication the number of copies desired 
for his Yearly Meeting. 

Peter W. Raidabaugh, Western : The Business Com- 
mittee's idea was that the delegates right here might 
approximate the number, if not, the chairman will have 
to refer to the Yearly Meeting, and the chairman can 
report at any time to this committee how many their 
Yearly Meeting will likely need. It does not make it 
absolutely necessary to report at this time, but the thought 
was that the delegations might confer together and tell 
approximately what they would need and others perhaps 
could tell exactly what they want, so we will have to rely 
on the report of the chairmen. 



4-02 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Albert J. Brown, Western : That means that the 
delegates, if they report now take the responsibility, 
which I should not want to do. I would rather refer 
it to the Yearly Meetings. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : It would be easier 
to do if the expense was known . 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana: The Publishing Com- 
mittee can form a pretty accurate estimate of what they 
will cost after a while, but of course it depends on the 
number of copies taken, the kind of paper and the style 
of binding. Heretofore the expense has been borne by 
the Treasurer, and the bills were divided according to the 
'membership of the different Yearly Meetings. As to the 
suggestion to publish the discussions in full, I think you 
will find it will make the volume too large to publish all 
the speeches we have been making here. Some of us 
would not care to see them in print. 

Josiah Dillon, Kansas : What we want is that our 
membership shall be informed of the actual proceedings 
of this meeting, and it seems to me the better way would 
be to publish the minutes of this meeting in a separate 
book, and the minutes be sent down for distribution to 
the members of the Yearly Meetings. The speeches can 
be published in another book, and can be sold to those 
who want it. I believe if we want it to get to the Yearly 
Meetings we will have to place the work before them in 
such a way as they can take it. If we send it out in a 
large publication the meetings will not be informed. 

Clerk : That has been done in the conference. 

Delegate: I understand Rufus M. Jones that -.the 
absolute cream of the matter is to appear in next week's 
issue of the American Friend, which will reach the mem- 
bers of the Yearly Meeting. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : I should be very sorry to 
send out a book with less than a fair report of the discus- 
sions that have been made. 

C yrus Beede, Iowa : I move that the discussions 
be published with the minutes. I unite with the remarks 
of Zenas L. Martin. 

Peter W. Raidabaugh, Western : By action a few 



OF THE CONFERENCE 403 

days ago it was put in the hands of a committee appointed 
for that purpose. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : I think it should be 
left where we have put it. 

Clerk : It certainly is the intention that all the neces- 
sary discussions be included, all that is needed to give a 
full and clear and fair statement of the trend of thought 
presented in this meeting. 

Nathan Brown, Kansas : It was stated in our Busi- 
ness Committee by Rufus M. Jones that perhaps in a 
week or two a very full statement of the subjects pre- 
sented here and the conclusions reached would appear in 
the American Friend, and it seemed to me, and I think to 
many others in the Business Committee, that that would 
fill the place of printing the Minutes, that that would be 
sufficient, and the membership throughout the Yearly 
Meetings would get the information referred to, and it 
would not make it necessary for us to print the Minutes. 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore : The matter will have 
to be left to the judgment of the committee, for a full 
stenograpic report would make a very large volume 
which would cost not less than $1.50, and perhaps more. 
I do not suppose many of us would care to pay for a full 
stenographic report. In the end it will have to be left to 
the judgment of the committee as to how much to pub- 
lish. We do not want to publish everything. We sim- 
ply want the committee to publish the facts and conclu- 
sions reached, giving a fair report of the proceedings. 

Zenas L. Martin, Iowa : As this motion is not sec- 
onded, I will move that we amend it by ordering that all 
discussions immediately following each paper be printed 
in the proceedings. Of course, we will leave the minor 
discussions on motions and resolutions ; but those discus- 
sions immediately upon the papers are important, and 
those papers and all lines that have been discussed freely, 
and we will not get at the consensus of the opinions of 
this Five Years Meeting without having these discussions 
on the papers. And it seems to me it will be sending out 
a wrong impression of the conclusions if these discussions 
do not appear following the paper. If we do not wish to 



404 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

put in the discussions, it would be far better that we did 
not put in the papers. 

James Wood, New York : I am sorry to call atten- 
tion to Allen C. Thomas' statement that this book would 
cost from $1.50 to $3.00 I do not see that the book 
could be published for less than $2.50 to $3.00, if it be 
possible at $3.00. There would not very many want 
them at that figure. If several thousand were taken it 
may be it could be done for less money. But at $3.00 per 
volume a great many would not be taken. 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, New England: I hope the 
plan of Zenas L. Martin will not be adopted. The 
publication of a fair synopsis will be all that is required. 
Some of us have had a great deal of experience in this 
line, and we have found that it is possible to condense the 
discussion and yet preserve all the sentiment of it. 

Milton Hanson, Western : I think the phrase " a 
synopsis of the discussions," is ample and sufficient for 
all that we want. It has been apparent we sometimes 
have blundered considerably away from the subject, and 
I would not want in a volume of this kind everything that 
was said on every subject. Many of us would not like to 
have a full report of what we have said. Leave it to the 
judgment of this committee. 

Aaron M. Bray, Oregon : The question that has been 
discussed for the last ten or fifteen minutes is all out of 
order. We have passed upon this two or three days ago. 

Clerk : The question is upon the amendment. 

(Motion was lost.) 

Clerk : I should like to give this committee authority 
to cut down speeches and take extracts from the papers. 

Charles E. Tebbetts, California : I want to ask sim- 
ply in regard to the motion as it now stands, Is the 
expense to be borne by the Yearly Meetings in proportion 
to the membership or the number they order ? Do we pay 
for them when we get them ? 

Clerk : There will be no assessment on the Yearly 
Meetings to pay for the expense of this publication. 
Each Yearly Meeting will pay for the books ordered by 
its delegates. (The motion carried.) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 405 

Allen Jay, Indiana : Yon will remember a resolution 
in regard to prayer which was referred to the Business 
Committee. The Business Committee offer the following : 

" Resolved, For the spiritual life and power of our 
meetings, and our entire church work in the world, true 
living and reverent prayer are essential. As there is a 
tendency too frequent in our time to treat prayer lightly, 
to pray as though the congregation was addressed instead 
of the Lord, and as though no effect were expected, we 
desire to see prayer kept in its true place in the life of the 
Church. And we also urge the great importance of spe- 
cial care on the part of our members to maintain a 
reverent attitude while prayer is being offered." 

Chairman : What will you do with the resolution ? 

John W. Woody, North Carolina : There is one 
point I do not like ; that is the criticism in regard to how 
we should pray. I do not believe we pray enough, and I 
think any criticism of this kind will have a tendency to 
suppress many persons. 

William L,. Pyle, Western : Dear friends, it seems to 
me a very critical question for us to take up and legislate 
upon as to how prayer to God should be offered in our 
congregations. It does seem to me to be a matter that 
we cannot enter into upon a resolution by this meeting. 
It is a very delicate subject, and I am not in favor of 
legislation upon this subject. I have no doubt that there 
may be a criticism to offer in regard to vocal prayer, but 
I am with Professor Woody, of North Carolina, that it 
will have a tendency to suppress many persons from pray- 
ing in our assemblies. 

Isom P. Wooton, Iowa : I would like to endorse the 
same sentiment with the thought that the fact that there 
is a tendency in that regard is shameful enough, and I do 
not think we ought to put it out in publication. 

Mary C. Woody, North Carolina : I wish the Busi- 
ness Committee would withdraw that Resolution. Per- 
haps its reading there will have the desired effect. It does 



406 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

seem to me to be hardly in the province of this meeting 
to pass a resolution like this. 

James Carey, Jr., Baltimore : There is a tendency to 
treat prayer too lightly. I have noticed it in our own 
meetings among Friends wherever I go. There is not a 
reverent attitude observed during the time of prayer. I 
have come into Friends' Meetings when I could not tell 
whether it was prayer or preaching, owing to the fact 
that the congregation were sitting upright, even though 
they might have had their eyes closed. There is a clause 
in Scripture in reference to that. " 'Abstain from all appear- 
ance of evil." I think if this Five Years Meeting, will 
advise Friends everywhere to observe a reverent attitude 
in time of prayer that will be a far better way than the 
way we have been doing. 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore: I think there is a 
little misconception as to what has been proposed. It 
is not legislation ; it is simply a recommendation that we 
take account of this very serious subject, and- if the 
Friends will pardon me, I think this very Five Years 
Meeting has shown the necessity of our thinking a good 
deal about it. I myself have come into this room more 
than once — I do not like to say it — when I was not aware 
by the appearance of the meeting at large that prayer was 
being offered. If we do this without thinking, it is a matter 
which needs attention . In regard to the character of prayer 
which is being offered, it often happens that the person 
tells the Lord a great many things that He knows a great 
deal better than we do. Prayer frequently partakes more 
of the character of preaching than of real petition to our 
Father in Heaven and the placing ourselves in humility 
at the feet of a loving Father and just God. I think the 
Society at large ought to think of these things. The 
Resolution says, " a tendency." and I appeal to everyone 
in this meetiug to know if there is not a tendency in that 
direction. 

Clerk : I fail to see any reason for objection to advice 
of this kind. It seems to me to be very timely. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : I think for the most 
part it is right. I do not think an}- body has the right to 



OF THE CONFERENCE 407 

tell us how to pray, but we do need this caution with 
regard to reverence in prayer, reverence to our Father. I 
have been often disturbed by somebody turning leaves to 
find out a song. I think when we are in prayer every- 
body should be in silence whether you like the man or 
woman or not, be quiet when that soul is before God in 
prayer; but as to telling how people shall pray. I do 
not believe we have a right to do that. What we want 
to do is to keep in reverence, not to turn over books, do 
not look out of windows. It is not giving reverence to 
man or woman, but because some one is talking to the 
Lord. 

James Wood, New York : I beg leave for a moment 
while this is under consideration. We are all agreed that 
there is a lack of proper reverence. There is often a very 
great lack of reverence in our meetings. There is no use 
finding fault with the people. Strike at the cause. Why 
is there a want of reverence while prayer is being offered ? 
It is because the name and form of prayer are prostituted 
to uses other than what we mean by prayer. It is almost 
universal in the churches that the audiences are too fre- 
quently addressed instead of God, and as long as that is 
the case you will cry for reverence and it will have no 
effect. Let the reverence be in the prayer, and it will be 
in the congregation, if we pray with the Spirit and as the 
Spirit gives us utterance. But if we prostitute the real 
name and form of prayer to other uses than that legiti- 
mately intended, we must expect the congregations to 
recognize just what this is, and take it at its worth and 
turn their backs upon it, and they will look out of the win- 
dows, look to see the next hymn, look to see who is in 
the house, and look to see the bonnets there on exhibi- 
tion. But if prayer is the sacred thing it ought to be, it 
will be felt by even' man and woman in the congregation. 
There is no use talking about this matter with the people. 
The people are not responsible. There is a cause for it 
all, and let us look for this cause. 

(The motion was carried.) 

Clerk : Has the Business Committee anything further 
to offer ? 



408 STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

Allen Jay, Indiana : The Business Committee pro- 
pose that the publication of a Book of Meetings be referred 
to the Evangelistic and Church Extension Board. 

(The proposition was adopted.) 

Allen Jay, Indiana : They also propose the following : 

" Resolved, That the Five Years Meeting of 1907 be 
held in the city of Richmond, Indiana." 

Lewis E. Stout, Western : I move the adoption 01 
the Resolution. 

Samuel L,. Haworth, Iowa : There might something 
arise in five years that would make it very inconvenient 
and impractical to hold the meeting at that place. There 
is no provision made for a change. 

A Delegate : The Discipline provides that it be set- 
tled now. 

(Motion adopted.) 

William V. Coffin, California : Charles E. Newlin 
was appointed Railroad Secretary to the conference. 
Charles E. Newlin has been consulted, and since the con- 
ference is to be held in Richmond, it will be better to 
have a Railroad Secretary there, and therefore I move 
that the action of this meeting be rescinded, and that Ben- 
jamin Johnson of that place be appointed as Railroad 
Secretary. 

Chairman : It is moved and seconded that the name 
of Benjamin Johnson, of Richmond, be substituted for the 
name of Charles E. Newlin as Railroad Secretary. Are 
you ready for the question ? 

(The motion was carried.) 

Allen Jay, Indiana : This is my last appearance. 
Resolved, That the kind and generous hospitality of the 
Friends in Indianapolis is warmly appreciated by the 
Friends of the Five Years' Meeting, and that we return to 
them our hearty thanks for all they have done to further 
the transaction of the business in this meeting and to 
make so very pleasant our sojourn among them. 

Timothy Nicholson, Indiana : Let us rise. 

(Rising vote was unanimous.) 



OF THE CONFERENCE 409 

James Carey, Jr., Baltimore : The question comes to 
the desk whether any means is provided for making 
stereotype plates of the Uniform Discipline ? The stere- 
otype plates are in existence and can be used at any 
meeting. 

Allen C. Thomas, Baltimore : The stereotype plates 
are at the printing office in Philadelphia, and they can be 
used and alterations can be made with very little difficulty 
and with very little expense. 

Chairman : We understand that changes authorized 
in this meeting will be provided for. 

Esther G. Frame, Wilmington : I have not found a 
paper that tells us what makes an efficient ministry. 
There has been a great deal said about the support in all 
departments of our work save the support of the ministry. 
It has not been urged at all. It has not been pressed. 
There is a necessity in our Church — I know there is an 
exception sometimes. I cannot understand why we sup- 
port our missionaries, pay them well and still fail to sup- 
port our pastors at home. I am not pleading for myself, 
I am pleading for my Church. 

Allen Jay, Indiana : I ought to say that there was a 
feeling also in the committee that we owe a vote of thanks 
to the presiding officer and clerks for what they have done, 
but we thought Friends were not in the habit of passing 
resolutions in regard to their work. 

Clerk : Does any one know of other business which 
should come before this meeting ? If not we will have 
the Minutes of this session read that you may adopt them 
before we adjourn. 

(The Minutes were then read.) 

Clerk : Do you approve of the Minutes as read ? 

(Approved.) 

The Minutes are approved, and so far as we know, 
we have now completed the business that should come 
before this Five Years Meeting. What is your pleasure ? 

Harry R. Keates, New York : I do not know whether 
we would consider it Quakerly or not, but in an informal 
way we desire to express thanks to the clerks and officers, 
and I would move that Timothy Nicholson be asked to 



4IO STENOGRAPHIC REPORT 

take his place and put this motion ; as many as are in 
favor please say aye. 

(The motion was carried, and Timothy Nicholson 
took charge of the meeting.) 

Harry R. Keates, New York : I feel that we are very 
much in debt to the presiding officer, the clerks and to the 
Business Committee for their services during this meet- 
ing. I therefore move that the very best thanks of the 
Five Years Meeting be given to these officers and that we 
express them by a rising vote. 

(The motion was carried unanimously by a rising 
vote.) 

Clerk (Edmund Stanley) : I could not ask you to 
remain long ; but I desire the privilege to say that we 
thank you for your patience and for your readiness to 
compfy with every ruling that has seemed to be for the 
best interest of this meeting. If the Society of Friends 
lives as we believe it will live, and prospers and grows 
strong as we expect it to prosper and grow strong, filling 
its place among the churches of the land, then you have 
been making history during this past week that shall go 
down on the records of this branch of Christ's Church in 
the land. 

We thank you for your readiness to respond and for 
your heart} 7 support to everything that has come before us 
for decision and for action. We most heartily thank you 
for passing, with the sweet spirit that has ever been mani- 
fested, the many mistakes, the errors you must have 
observed, in the part that we have taken in the exercises 
of the past few days. And now, in conclusion, with 
thankfulness in our hearts for all that we have enjoyed in 
association, in interchange of ideas, and in the discharge 
of the Master's work, we pray God that He may add His 
richest blessing to all of His people represented here, and 
that He will direct in the carrying out of the work that 
has been planned in this meeting, that it may redound to 
His glory and to the honor of His name. 

Are you ready now to close this meeting ? 

Allen Jay, Indiana : Chair, please, I propose that 
we have a few moments of silence. 



OF THE CONFERENCE 41 1 

Clerk : Before adjourning, we will have the conclud- 
ing Minute read, which will become a part of the records. 
Let us have a moment of silent waiting before God. 

After a moment of silent waiting Richard H. 
Thomas, of Baltimore offered prayer. 

Clerk : The Recording Clerk may read the conluding 
Minute. 

The concluding Minute was then read. 

Clerk : We will stand and be dismissed. 

Singing, " Praise God from whom all blessings 
flow." 

Benjamin F. Trueblood, of New England, then 
offered prayer, and the Five Years Meeting of 1902 
adjourned without a day. 



INDEX 

NAMES OF DELEGATES, ALTERNATES AND SPEAKERS 



Armstrong, Eliza C. . . . 2, 10 

Armstrong, Thomas .... 11 

Aydelott, Phebe S. . 1,9,123, 

207, 309 

Bailey, Albert A 11 

Bailey, Hannah J 1,9 

Baker, Jacob . 2, 12, 10S, 249, 347 

Baldwin, Charles 11 

Baldwin, Mary E 2, 10 

Bales, Leah 3, n 

Barr, Levi D. . 3, 11, 83, 92, 109, 

125, 137. 154, 241, 271, 363 

Beede, Cyrus . 2, 10, 138, 230, 

3°S, 35 1 ) 353) 355 
Berger, Olive ...... 11 

Binford, Joseph O. . . 10, no 

Binford, Martha J xo 

Blair, Jane H, n 

Bray, Aaron M. . 3, n, 205, 266, 

307, 355 359. 393 

Brown, Albert J. . .2, 10, 88, 

231, 248, 308, 309, 318, 361, 

362, 363, 364, 388, 393 

Brown, Mary A n 

Brown, Mary M. . .3, 11, 123 

Brown, Nathan . . . 3, 11, 403 

Brown, Thomas C. . . 10, no, 

in, 113, 154, 185, 231, 331, 

332, 333. 358 
Burgess, Emilie U . 1,9, 229, 301 
Butler, Esther H. . .2, 12, 169 

Cadbury, Rebecca W. . 12, 104, 

348, 377 

Cadbury, William W. ... 12 

Carey, Anna K 1,9 

Carey, Arthur L n 

Care}', Eliza H n 

Carey, James, Jr. . 9, 179, 245, 

33i, 357, 4o6 
Carson, Joshua 2, 10 



Cartland, Mary E . . 1,9, 224 

Chase, Mary L 1,9 

Clark, Lindley D 9 

Coffin, Emma F 11 

Coffin, William H 11 

Coffin, William V. . . . . 3, 11 

Cook, Amos 3, n 

Cook, John n 

Cope, Frederick J 12 

Coppock, Laura 11 

Couch, Eusebia S n 

Cox, J. J 1, 9 

Cox, William E n 

Dale, Alma G. . . .2, 12, 247 

Davis, Ruth S 11 

Deane, L- Maria 10 

Dillon, Dillon H 3, 11 

Dillon, Josiah . 3, n, 308, 353, 

362, 388, 390, 402 

Douglas, Robert W. . 2, 10, 83, 

93, i°7, 140, 333, 35o 
Dunlap, Samuel n 

Edwards, Jesse . . . 3, n, 394 

Edwards, Mary n 

Elliott, Fannie 10 

Elliott, William 11 

Ellis, EUwood O. . . 2, 10, 76, 
153, 232, 397 

English, N. C 10 

Estes, James M 2, 12 

Farlow, David, Jr 10 

Ferree, Evan H 2, 10 

Ferris, Robert M 1,9 

Folger, Thomas ... . . n 

Frame, Esther G. . .3, n, in, 

190, 214, 330, 348, 390, 

406, 409 

Fry, Sophia M. . . 12, 122, 377 



412 



INDEX 



4*3 



George, F. M u 

Gildersleeve, Elmer D., i, 9, 104 
Goddard, Joseph A. ... 2, 10 
Goddard, Mary H. ... 2, 10 

Green, Albert W 2, 10 

Green, Hannah T 11 

Green, Harriet . . 12, 90, 173, 

308, 348 

Gregory, Levi . 3, 11, 102, 247 

Guyer, Henry 2, 10 

Hadley, David . 2, 10, 81, 84, 93, 
124, 310, 324, 335, 342, 345, 
35o, 355. 358, 359, 360, 364 

Hadley, Emilie V 11 

Hadley, John T 2, 10 

Hadley, Joseph C. . . . . . 12 

Hadley, Washington . . 3, 11 
Harnbleton, A. F. N. . . 2, 10, 

213, 321 
Hammond, Hiram .... 11 

Hanson, A.J 2, 10 

Hanson, Milton ... 2, 10, 80, 
211, 213, 310, 363, 388, 404 

Harris, William 2, 12 

Harris, William H 12 

Harrison, William J. . . 2, 12 

Hartley, L. Ella 11 

Harvey, Elsie R 11 

Harvey, Enos 2, 10 

Hawkins, Jesse 11 

Haworth, J. Elmore ... 2, 10 

Haworth, Samuel L. . . 2, 11 

in, 153, 214, 306 

Haworth, William P. . . 2, 11, 

113, 140 

Hedges, Emma 2, 10 

Henderson, Dinah T. . . 2, 10 

Henley, Ida S 2, 10 

Hiatt, Charles E 2, 10 

Hiatt, Esther A 11 

Hill, Elizabeth J 2, 10 

Hinshaw. L. Clarkson . . 2, 11 
Hobbs, L. Lyndon .1,9, 199, 392 

Hobbs, Mary M 10 

Hodgin, Cyrus 296 

Hoge, Sara H 9 

Hollowell, Sue V 1, 10 

Howard, John 11 

Hunnicutt, Jesse 11 

Hussey, Timothy B 9 



Janeway, Elisha H 11 

Jay, Allen . 2, 10, 99, 123, 125, 
137, I4i, 152, 153. 214, 230, 
231, 288, 2S9, 333, 334, 349, 

35o, 35i. 352, 354, 355, 4oo, 

401 

Jay, Mahalah . . . . 2, 10, 155 

Jay, Naomi H 2, 10 

Jenkins, Elizabeth M. . . 2, 12 

Johnson, C. Bevan 11 

Johnson, Fleming 10 

Johnson, Ira C 2, 10 

Jones, Charles H. . . 1, 9, 213, 
242, 395 

Jones, Elizabeth B 12 

Jones, James R 10 

Jones, Mary 11 

Jones, RufusM. . . 1, 9, 84, S9, 

90, 93, 95, 112, 114, 126, 151, 

201, 215, 218, 271, 324, 343, 

346, 352, 3 6 o 

Joyce, Anna S 10 

Keates, Harry R. . . 1,9, 103, 

242, 351, 394 

Kelly, Robert L. . 10, 107, 125, 

250, 326, 392, 398 

Kelsey, Sarah A 10 

Kendall, Enos 2, 10 

Kenworthy, Isabel . . . 2, 10 
Kenworthy, Murray D. . 2, 10 
Kenyon, Achsa C. ... 2, 11 
Kessinger, Calvin C. . . 3, n 

King, Sarah J 2, 10 

Kirk, Rachel . . . . 3, 11, 134 

Larkin, Elizabeth . . . , 3, 11 
Leonard, Nancy A. C. . . 3, n 
Lindley, Alfred H. ... 2, 10 

Lindley, Eliza 2, 10 

Lindley, Elizabeth .... 11 
Lindley, Isaac 2, 11 

McGrew, Edwin H. . . 3, 11, 
202, 227 
Malone, Emma B, ... 2, 12 
Malone, J. Walter . . 2, 11, 244 
Martin, Zenas L. . .2, 10, 89, 
155, 189, 335, 397, 403 
Maxfield, Alice W 9 



414 



INDEX 



Maxfield, Daniel C 1,9 

Header, Olney T 1,9 

Mendenhall, Eli B 11 

Mendenhall, R. J 11 

Miars, Mary E 9 

Mills, Joseph John . . . 2, 10 

Mills, Seth 2, 10, 281 

Minard, Elias G. ... .1,9 
Mitchell, Andrew F. . . .2,10 

Morrison, Edwin 10 

Moore, William I. . .2, 12, 346 

Mott, Edward 2 

Murray, Robert I. . . 1, 9. 2S8 

Naylor, Rebecca 11 

Neave, Samuel R 1,9 

Neville, Rhoda 2, 10 

Newlin, S3dvester .... 2, 10 

Newson, Ruth W 2, 10 

Nicholson, Josiah 10 

Nicholson, Timothv . 2, 10, 75, 
77, 83, 84, 87, 88, 93, 109, 
120, 150, 205, 213, 214, 267,. 
309. 3io, 352, 353. 354, 356, 
360, 363, 388, 390, 398, 399, 
400, 402 

Osborne, Catharine H. . . 2, 11 
Osborne, Charles W. . . 2, 10 
Overman, David .... 2, 10 

Paige, J. Ellwood . . 1, 9, 262 
Painter, Lydia Tavlor ... 10 
Parker, Eli G. .".... 11 

Pearson, Morton C 10 

Peelle, John B 3, 11 

Pinkham, William P. . . 2, 12, 

200, 270 

Pitts, James 11 

Potts, Joseph 9, 305 

Pretlow, Robert E. . 3, n, 80, 

Si, 82. 91, 123, 154, 190, 225, 

231, 311, 330, 391 

Purdy, Ellison R 10 

Pyle, William L. . . 2, 10,342, 

35i, 405 

Raidabaugh, Peter W. . . 2, 10 

322, 395, 401 

Rhoads, Edward G 12 



Rich, Isaac N 2, 10 

Rogers, Elias 2, 12 

Romick, Lida M 2, 12 

Rosenberger, Absalom, 2, 10, 191 
Rounds, Louisa Painter . 3,11 
Rowntree, Wilfred . . . .172 
Rowntree, Delia 173 

Sampson, David E. . . . 1,9, 

239. 271 

Scott, Thomas L. .... 3, n 

Scull, Sarah M 12 

Sibbitt. Mary A. . . .2, II, 327 

vSlack, Philip 11 

Smith, Hannah Lewis . . 2, 10 
Smith, R. Esther . . , . 3, 11 

Smith, Viola 11 

Sopher, Joseph 2, 10 

Stabler, Annie D., 1, 9, 307, 347 

Stanley, Edmund . . 2, 11, 75 

106, 114, 227, 394 

Stanley, Sarah T 3, 11 

Starbuck, William A. . . ."II 
Stout, Lewis E. ,10, 169, 202, 310 
Stranahan, Edgar H. ... 11 
Stribling, John W. ... 2, 10 

Stubbs, Bertha 10 

Sweet, Charles W. . . 2, 10, 113 

330, 351, 391 

Swift, D. Wheeler . . . . 9 

Swift, Sarah J ) 

Tatum, Mary, T 12 

Tebbetts, Charles E. . 3, 11, 92, 

no, 113, 19S, 211, 231, 253, 

329. 352, 363 

Terrell, Paul Tasso . . . 3,11 

Thomas, Allen C. . . 1, 9, 149, 

325, 3 8 9> 39°. 403.406 

Thomas, Anna B. . . . 189, 301 

Thomas, Francis W. . . 2, 10, 

136, 152, 171, 229, 328, 341, 

350, 360, 378, 393 

Thomas, Mary T 10 

Thomas, Richard H. . 1,9, 80, 

86, 93, 150, 246, 251, 285, 

2S9, 304, 307, 344, 345, 361, 

392, 397 

Thorndike, Anna G II 

Tomlinson, Anna 10 



INDEX 



415 



Townsend, Emma S. . . 3, 11 

Townsend, Esther 11 

Townsend, Laura P. . . 2, 10 

Trueblood, Alpheus . 2, 10, 236 

Trueblood, Benjamin F. . 1,9, 

81, 84, 90, 108, 140, 152, 188, 

203, 212, 213, 215, 252, 271, 

302, 329, 331, 345, 356, 360, 

3 61 , 3 6 3> 395. 404 
Trueblood, Ransom .... 10 
Trueblood, William . . . 2, 10 
Tylor, Rachel's 12 

Ufford, E- S 249 

Wall, Anna C 11 

Warder, Anna A 2, 10 

Ware, Alfred T 9 

Watts, M. Elizabeth .... 11 
Wells, Lindley A. . . 10, 391 

West, Eliza A 3, 11 

White, Charles S 11 

White, Mary J 10 

White, Miles, Jr. . . 1,9,114, 

213. 355. 358 
White, Thomas W. . . . 2, 10 
White, W. Alpheus . . . 1, 10 



Winslow, Orestes A 11 

Winston, Johu C. ... 12, 126 
Wood, Carolena M.,i, 9, 174, 310 

Wood, Daniel H 12 

Wood, James . . 1, 9, 77, 78, 79, 

80, 81, S4, 85, 87, 89, 92, 94, 

95, 108, 124, 137, 141, 150, 

152, 198, 212, 215, 229, 250, 

251, 252, 267, 323, 335, 388, 

389, 404, 407 

Wood, S. Adelbert . . 2, 12, 204, 

269, 338 

Woodard, Isaac A. . . . 2, 11 

Woodard, Solomon B. . . 2, 10, 

248, 354 

Woody, John W. . . 1,9,124, 

141, 151, 251, 267, 405 

Woody, Mary C. . . 1,9, 107 

16S, 389, 405 

Wooton, Isom P. . .2, 10, 243, 

268, 289, 309, 332, 354, 355, 

4°5 

Wooton, William S 11 

Wright, Ellen C 3, 11 

Wright, Francis A. . 2, 11, 80, 

84,87,89,212,231, 328,354, 

355. 356, 390, 395 



GENERAL INDEX 



Arrangements for Meeting in 1907 39, 55, 73, 399 

Associate Members, Discussion, relative to 359, 364 

Bible School Quarterly, proposed 230, 382, 384 

Boards, List of Standing . , 67 

Catechism proposed 230, 382 

discussed 384 

Committees and Boards, Appointment of — 

Business Committee 15 

On Publication 17 

On Amendments . . 17 

Evangelistic and Church Extension Board 21 

Legislation 22 

Education 23 

Disciplinary Provisions 23 

Foreign Missions 23 

Finances 25 

Arrangements for Meeting in 1907 39 

Condition and Welfare of the Negroes 41 

Hymnal 51 

Committees, List of Standing 67 

Committees, Reports of (See Reports.) 

Cuba, Mission -work in 335 

Delegates — 

To Quinquennial Conference 1 

" Five Years Meeting 9 

Fraternal Delegates 12, 40 

Five Years Meeting in 1907, where to be held 57, 408 

Hymnal proposed 230 

Discussed 382, 389 

Committee on 51, 396 

Resolution on 397 

Legislative Committee empowered to act 250 

Liquor Traffic, Discussion on plans for — 

Suppression of 26, 215-229 

Address to other Christian Bodies 37 

Relative to Conference 36 

Delegates to Conference 52, 397 

London Yearly Meeting — 

Epistle from 13 

Members present from 12 

Epistle to 53, 398 

Negro, Board on Welfare of, etc., discussed .......... 251 

Organization of Five Years Meeting 16 

416 



GENERAL INDEX 417 

Papers read — 

" Scope and Work of the Evangelistic and Church Exten- 
sion Board of Five Years Meeting," Isom P. Wooton 96 

Do., Allen Jay 99 

"Scope and Work of the Committee on Legislation, " 

Edmund Stanley 114 

Do., Timothy Nicholson 120 

"Friends' Associated Work for Indians," Edward M. 

Wistar 126 

Do., Rachel Kirk 134 

" Present Condition of the Negroes and the Work to be 

Done for Them," John W. Woody 141 

' ' Present Condition of Foreign Missionary Work of 

American Friends," Mahalah Jay ...."•... 155 
"Scope and Work of the Board of Foreign Missions," 

Carolena M. Wood 174 

" Organic Development of Friends' Foreign Mission 

Work," James Carey, Jr 179 

"Scope and Work of the Board of Foreign Missions," 

Thomas C. Brown 1S5 

" Scope and Work of Committee on Education," Absalom 

Rosenberger 191 

" Finances of Five Years Meeting," Timothy Nicholson . 205 

" Systematic Giving, " Phebe S. Aydelott 207 

"Methods of Practical Work Among Rural and Urban 

Communities," Ellwood O. Ellis 232 

Do., Alpheus Trueblood 236 

" Practical Aspects of the Present Trend of Religious 

Thought," Charles E. Tebbetts 253 

Do., John Ellwood Paige 262 

" How Can We Develop a More Efficient Ministry ? " Ben- 
jamin F. Trueblood 272 

Do., Seth Mills 2S1 

"Our Present Duty to the Cause o Peace and Arbitra- 
tion," Richard H. Thomas 289 

Do., Cyrus Hodgin 296 

" Our Church Literature," Robert E. Pretlow 311 

"Place and Function of Our Church Organization," 

James Wood and others 338 

" The Theory and Practice of Public Worship," Rufus M. 

Jones 365 

Do., Edwin H. McGrew 372 

Peace Association of Friends in America endorsed and adopted 

3 2 . 304 

Prayer, On tbe Value of 378 

" Resolution regarding 57, 379 

Propositions from Yearly Meetings 15, 27, 230 



41 8 GENERAL INDEX 

Quinquennial Conference — 

Organization i 

Proceedings of 8 

Adjournment sine die 8 

Railroad Secretary appointed 57 

Reports of Committees and Boards — 

American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions . . .50,54, 382 

Bible School Quarterly 50, 382 

Catechism 50, 382 

Condition and Welfare of Negroes 49, 381 

Disciplinary Provisions 45, 358 

Education 52, 397 

Evangelistic and Church Extension Board 48, 380 

Finances, Plans 41, 288, 352, 396 

Organization, etc 32, 49 

Hymnal (See also Hymnal) 4, 27, 50 

Organization 16, 106 

Uniform Discipline ... 3 

Resolutions, Summary of 58 

On Lawlessness 29, 250 

Lynching 30, 250 

Condition of Negroes 30, 251 

Associated Executive Committee on Indian Affairs . 

30, 141, 152 

Peace Association of Friends 304 

Vacancies 36, 333 

Biblical and Religious Study 36 

Conference on Liquor Traffic 36 

Endorsing American Friend and Missionary Advo- 
cate 40, 350 

Uniform Blanks and Uniform Records 40, 352 

The Sabbath 56, 399 

Publishing Proceedings 56, 400 

Prayer 57, 405 

Book of Meetings 57 

Place of Meeting in 1907 57^408 

Thanks 57, 40S, 409 

Acknowledgment of Ministers 350 

" Throw Out the Life Line " sung by author 29,250 

Treasurer's Report (Quinquennial Conference) 4 

Treasurer, Duties of 43, 56, 399 

Vacancy, how filled 56, 399 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Greeting from, and 

reply 3 6 



MINUTES 



OF THE 



Five Years Meeting 

of the 

AMERICAN YEARLY MEETINGS 
OF FRIENDS 

HELD IN RICHMOND, INDIANA 

Tenth Mo. 15, to Tenth Mo. 21, 1907 



PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO. 

1908 



NOTICE. 



The attention of Clerks and members of the different 
Yearly Meetings is called to the following Minutes: 

Minute 18. — Information from Five Years Meeting. 

Minute 52. — Amendment of the Constitution and Dis- 
cipline. 

Minute 70. — Inter- Yearly Meeting Correspondence. 

Minute 86. — Associate Membership. 

Minute 97. — Raising funds for American Friends Board 
of Foreign Missions, and for the Board on Evange- 
listic and Church Extension work. 

Minute 99. — Printing of Papers in the Proceedings. 

Minute 121 . — Nebraska Yearly Meeting. 

Minute 121. — Proposed changes in the Constitution and 
Discipline regarding the Meetings on Ministry and 
Oversight. 

Minute 127. — Regarding Membership on the Boards and 
Committees of the Five Years Meeting. 



MINUTES 



OF THE 



Five Years Meeting 

OF THE 

AMERICAN YEARLY MEETINGS 
OF FRIENDS 

HELD IN RICHMOND, INDIANA 

Tenth Mo. 15, to Tenth Mo. 21, 1907 



PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF THE FIVE YEARS MEETING 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO. 

1908 



" 



MINUTES OF THE FIVE YEARS, MEETING, 1907. 



1. The Second Five Years Meeting of Friends con- 
vened in Richmond, Indiana, Tenth month 15, 1907, at 
7.30 p. m. The meeting was called to order by Ed- 
mund Stanley, clerk. In the solemn silence which char- 
acterized the devotional period, many prayers ascend- 
ed to our Heavenly Father for wisdom and guidance 
during the coming sessions. Dr. J. J. Mills, read a pas- 
sage from the Hebrews, emphasizing the fact that "we 
must run with patience the race that is set before us." 

2. In the absence of the assistant clerk, Mabel H. 
Douglas, of Oregon, was appointed clerk for the evening. 

3. The following named delegates were present 
from their respective Yearly Meetings : 

New England. — John Elwood Paige, Rufus M. 
Jones, Phebe S. Aydelott, Charles M. Woodman, Ben- 
jamin F. Trueblood, Mary Amy Gifford, Hannah J. 
Bailey, Thomas J. Battey, Thomas Wood. 

New York.- — James Wood, Robert E. Pretlow, 
William H. S. Wood, Abijah J. Weaver, J. Lindley 
Spicer, Willard O. Trueblood, Mary J. Weaver, Anna 
P. Birdsall, Eliza Heaton Taber. 

Baltimore. — Allen C. Thomas, Miles White, Jr., 
Samuel R. Neave, Lindley D. Clark, Sara H. Hoge, 
Margaret T. Carey. 

North Carolina. — J. Elwood Cox, George W. White, 
Mary M. Hobbs, Mary C. Woody, Jabez R. Mendenhall, 
Joseph H. Peele, Annie E. Williams, L. Lyndon Hobbs, 
Alice N. White, Eula Dixon, David Farlow, Jr., Eli Reece. 

Wilmington. — Albert J. Brown, Emma S. Town- 

(3) 



4 Minutes 

send, Samuel Haworth, Nannie C. Hawkins, Richard 
R. Newby, Thomas C. Hiatt, Jesse Hawkins, Levi 
Mills, Lavinia Barrett, Laura P. Dunham, Josephus 
Ho skins. 

Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson, Allen Jay, Francis 
W. Thomas, Robert W. Douglas, Mahalah Jay, Joseph 
O. Binford, Luke Woodard, Elizabeth P. Hill, H. R. 
Pearson, Robert L. Kelly, Joseph Goddard, L. Ella 
Hartley, William Taylor, Emma Hedges, Elisha B. Rat- 
liff, Mary E. Baldwin, Edward Gardner, Alfred T. Ware, 
Flora Sayers, Charles E. Hiatt, Alpheus Trueblood, 
Charles 0. Whiteley, Elbert Russell, Clarence M. Case, 
Daisy Barr. 

Western. — Josiah Morris, George H, Moore, Charlotte 
E. Vickers, Lewis McFarland, David Hadley, Seth Mills, 
Richard Haworth, Eliz. C. Armstrong, Nereus M. Hod- 
gin, Theodore Reynolds, Joseph R. Cox, Perry Kendall, 
John Henderson, Margaret E. Cox, Lydia Taylor Painter, 
Julia Macy Woodward, Thomas C. Brown, Peter W. 
Raidabaugh, Amos K. Hollowell, Sylvester Newlin, 
Murray S. Kenworthy. 

Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger, William Jasper Had- 
ley, Charles W. Sweet, Albert F. N. Hambleton, Charles 
S. White, E. Howard Brown, Susan B. Sisson, N. 
Blanche Ford, Harlan C. Carter, Ellison R. Purdy ; 
Philip Slack, William I. Kent, Alfred J. Hanson, Rebecca 
Lewis, Herbert J. Mott, Lester Kersey, William Mather. 

Kansas. — Calvin C. Kesinger, Edmund Stanley, 
Elvira H. Parker, Rachel Kirk, L. Clarkson Hinshaw, 
James Pitts, Eliza H. Carey, Mary A. Brown, Edgar H. 
Stranahan, Thomas Folger, Francis A.Wright, Orestes A. 
Winslow, Achsa C. Kenyon, Abigail C. Haworth, Eusebia 
Haworth, Richard A. Cox. 



MINUTES 5 

California. — Charles E. Tebbetts, R. W. Kelsey, 
Addison W. Naylor, George Taylor, John Chawner, 
Andrew F. Mitchell, Lydia J. Jackson, Rhoda M. Hare, 
William H. Coffin. 

Oregon. — John F. Hanson, Edwin McGrew, E. H. 
Woodward, Mabel H. Douglas, H. Elmer Pemberton, 
Isabel Kenworthy, Aaron M. Bray. 

4. A delegation from Canada Yearly Meeting pre- 
sented the following communication and it was the 
ruling of the Chair that Canada Yearly Meeting came 
into this Meeting as all the others had done, simply by 
her own act and that no farther action was necessary. 

The delegates are Elias Rogers, Joseph J. Mills, 
Joseph A. Cody, Edith A. Harris, Abram B. Saylor, 
Albert S. Rogers. 

The following are extracts from the Minutes of 
Canada Yearly Meeting of Friends, held by adjournment 
from Sixth month 28 to Seventh month 2, inclusive, 1907 : 

Minute XXXVI. — After discussion, this Meeting 
is united in recommending the appointment of delegates 
to the Five Years Conference with power to commit the 
Yearly Meeting to the adoption of the Uniform Disci- 
pline, if after conference with the Five Years Meeting 
they deem such action desirable and find no obstacle in 
the way. 

The following names as delegates and alternatives 
to the Five Years Meeting at Richmond, Indiana, com- 
mencing Tenth month 15th, next, were appointed: 

Elias Rogers, Joseph J. Mills, Joseph A. Cody, 
Phebe D. Manning, Edith A. Harris, Abram B. Saylor. 
Alternatives. — William P. Firth, Albert S. Rogers, 
Cinderella Saylor, Albert A. Colquhoun. 

Signed on behalf of the Meeting, 

William Harris, Clerk. 



6 MINUTES 

At a Meeting of the Delegates of Canada Yearly- 
Meeting of Friends, held at Richmond, Indiana, Tenth 
month 15, 1907, at which there were present the fol- 
lowing delegates : 

Elias Rogers, Joseph J. Mills, Joseph A. Cody, 
Edith A. Harris, Abram Saylor, and Albert S. Rogers 
(being the full delegation) : After Conference with the 
Committee of Arrangements of the Five Years Meet- 
ing, it was unanimously decided to adopt the Uniform 
discipline of the Five Years Meeting, in accordance with 
the authority conferred by Canada Yearly Meeting. 

Elias Rogers, Chairman. 

The delegation was presented and received a most 
hearty welcome. 

5. Cordial greetings from London and Dublin 
Yearly Meetings containing a list of their fraternal dele- 
gates to this body, were read at this time and are printed 
below: 

MINUTE OF THE MEETING FOR SUFFERINGS OF LONDON 
YEARLY MEETING HELD SECOND OF 8TH MONTH 1907. 

We rejoice to learn that our dear friends John 
Morland, Albert J. and Gulielma Crosfield, Edward 
Grubb and Edith M. Morland, have expressed their 
readiness to attend the Five Years Meeting at Rich- 
mond, Indiana, in Tenth month next. In accordance 
with the direction of our Yearly Meeting we thankfully 
appoint them to represent Friends in Great Britain, as 
Fraternal Delegates at that Meeting. We also appoint 
our dear sisters Sarah Jane Lury and Elizabeth B. 
Rutter, who are visiting America and some of our 
Colonies with separate certificates. 

It is our desire that all these Friends, during their 
visit, may be used of the Lord and may be found faithful 
in any service to which He may call them. They are 
requested to convey to our brethren who assemble at 
Richmond a message of warm brotherly greeting and an 
assurance of our prayers that their gathering may be 



MINUTES 7 

enriched by a deepening unity in our spiritual faith, 
and an increasing knowledge of the Son of God, unto the 
glory of His Name and the extension of His Kingdom 
in the hearts of men. 

We commend our delegates to the kindly care of 
those amongst whom they may go, and we commit them 
to the keeping and guidance of Almighty God. 

"Peace be with all our brethren, and love with 
faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. " 

Signed in and on behalf of the Meeting for Sufferings, 
Robert A. Penney, Clerk. 

MINUTE OF DUBLIN YEARLY MEETING, HELD FIFTH 
MONTH, 1907. 

The Committee appointed to propose the names of 
suitable Friends to attend as Fraternal Delegates, the 
next Session of the Five Years Meeting of Yearly 
Meetings of America, at Richmond, Indiana, in Tenth 
month next, in response to an invitation received last 
year from them, report, that after prayerful considera- 
tion, they agreed to propose the following for this ser- 
vice: William Frederick Bewley, Sarah R. Barcroft, 
Arthur Pirn, Henry J. Allen and Samuel H. Newsom. 

We cordially adopt the nomination of the Com- 
mittee, and commend our dear friends to the guidance 
and care of the Great Head of the Church. We en- 
courage them to engage in such other service for which 
way may open, in addition to attending the Conference. 
A copy of this Minute is to be handed to each delegate. 

Signed on our behalf by the Clerks, and also by the 
Assistant Clerks. 

William F. Rawley, 
Sarah R. Barcroft, 
Clerks. 

Edgar A. Pim, 
Samuel A. Bell, 

Assistant Clerks. 



8 MINUTES 

At a meeting of the Yearly Meeting's Committee 
held Eighth month 12, 1907, specially summoned for 
the purpose, as directed by last Yearly Meeting, in the 
event of any of the above named Friends being prevented 
attending the Conference, report was made that, owing 
to ill health Henry J. Allen requested to be released from 
the appointment. After mature consideration, and 
acting in accordance with the directions of the Yearly 
Meeting, Thomas Edmondson was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. 

Signed on behalf of the Committee. 

C. Frederic Allen, Clerk. 

Fraternal Delegates. 

London. — John Morland, Albert J. Crosfield, Guliel- 
ma Crosfield, Edward Grubb, Edith M. Morland, Sarah 
J. Lury, Elizabeth B. Rutter. 

Dublin. — William Frederick Bewley, Sarah R. 
Barcroft, Arthur Pirn, Samuel H. Newsom, Thomas 
Edmondson. 

6. The Committee on Arrangements made the fol- 
lowing report which was adopted : 
To the Five Years' Meeting: 

The loving message of fellowship and cheer received 
five years ago from our dear Friends of London Yearly 
Meeting, and the cordial response thereto by the Five 
Years Meeting, led your Committee to believe a still 
closer fellowship with our brethren on the other side of 
the Atlantic would be very helpful to us, and might 
prove profitable to them. 

Under this feeling, we forwarded, in 1906, to London 
and Dublin Yearly Meetings, an invitation to send fra- 
ternal delegates to the Five Years Meeting. This invi- 
tation was well received by both Yearly Meetings, and, 
after careful consideration, accepted this year without 
dissent, and we rejoice to welcome their appointees, 
who are now-present. 



MINUTES 9 

Five years ago, Friends of the eleven American 
Yearly Meetings, which had adopted the Uniform Disci- 
pline, and thereby united in an organization, regretted 
that Ohio and Canada Yearly Meetings had not yet 
accepted the constitution and discipline. They had, 
however, shown their good feeling by sending volun- 
tarily, without invitation, fraternal delegates, and as 
the minutes then made by this meeting state, a cordial 
welcome was extended to these delegates, and an invita- 
tion given to participate in the discussions. 

There was also a general desire and expectation that 
before another session of this Meeting, they should have 
become members of the organization. After three 
annual sessions of these Yearly Meetings had been held, 
and no action taken upon this very important matter, 
the Committee of Arrangements sent a communication 
to the clerk of Canada Yearly Meeting, previous to its 
session in 1906, suggesting the subject be introduced at 
its approaching session. This was done and the matter 
referred to the Representative Meeting to report upon 
at the next Yearly Meeting. 

The Committee of Arrangements, through its chair- 
man, also sent a letter to the clerk of the Ohio Yearly 
Meeting, suggesting that the Yearly Meeting, at its 
approaching session, should become a component part 
of the Five Years Meeting. Ohio Yearly Meeting, 
however, did not see the way open for this action. 

To facilitate the proceedings of this Meeting, the 
enclosed program has been prepared by members of 
our committee, appointed by the chairman. This was 
published in "The American Friend, " and four hundred 
copies have been printed for the convenience of the dele- 
gates and others. 

We have also employed a stenographer, Emma 
Newlin, of Indianapolis, who reported the proceedings 
five years ago. As a Friend she is familiar with the 
expressions, phraseology, and conventional terms of 
Friends. 

We have prepared cards for the convenience of the 



10 MINUTES 

chairmen of delegations in arranging the amount of rail- 
road fare and other expenses of the delegates, as directed 
by minute 94, pages 41, 42 and 43 in the Minutes of 1902. 
A statement of the amount of the railroad fare of the 
delegates to be made in duplicate by the chairman of 
each delegation, one to be sent by him to the Treasurer 
of his own Yearly Meeting, and the other to be sent to 
the Treasurer of the Five Years Meeting. 

The Committee has given careful consideration to 
the subject of inviting any Friends who are not delegates 
to participate in the business of the Meeting, and it was 
concluded that as an officially delegated body, repre- 
senting independent Yearly Meetings, it is not proper 
for any to take part in its proceedings who are not duly 
accredited by a Yearly Meeting, either as full or fraternal 
delegates. The Committee recommends that all con- 
cerned Friends who desire to be present at the delibera- 
tions of the Meeting, be cordially invited to do so. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Timothy Nicholson, 
Chairman of Committee, 

7. A full and most heartfelt expression of welcome 
was given to our London, Dublin and Canada Friends ) 
to which they very fittingly responded. 

8. After a five-minutes' recess, the organization of 
the separate delegations was reported, and is inserted 
below: 

New England. — John Elwood Paige, Chairman; 
Mary Amy Gifford, Secretary. 

New York. — Mary Jane Weaver, Chairman; Wil- 
lard O. Trueblood, Secretary. 

Baltimore. — Samuel R. Neave, Chairman; Mar- 
garet T. Carey, Secretary. 

North Carolina. — J. Elwood Cox, Chairman ; Alice N, 
White, Secretary. 



MINUTES II 

Canada. — Elias Rogers, Chairman; Edith A. Harris, 
Secretary. 

Wilmington. — Albert J. Brown, Chairman; Emma 
S. Townsend, Secretary. 

Indiana. — Timothy Nicholson, Chairman; Emma 
Hedges, Secretary. 

Western. — George H. Moore, Chairman; Lydia 
Taylor Painter, Secretary. 

Iowa. — Absalom Rosenberger, Chairman; Albert F. 
N. Hambleton, Secretary. 

Kansas. — Calvin C. Kesinger, Chairman; Francis 
A. Wright, Secretary. 

Oregon. — John F. Hanson, Chairman; Isabella 
Kenworthy, Secretary. 

California. — Charles E. Tebbetts, Chairman; Lydia 
J. Jackson, Secretary. 

9. Each delegation was instructed to report through 
its chairman to the Nominating Committee before 8.30 
a. m., on the following day, the name of one of their 
number to act as a member of the Business Committee. 

10. The meeting adjourned to meet at 9 a. m. on 
the following day. 



FOURTH-DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH 16. 

11. The meeting convened according to adjourn- 
ment. The devotional exercises were conducted by 
Robert W. Douglas. 

12. The minutes were read and with slight change, 
approved. 

13. The following report of the chairmen of the 
delegations was read, the nominations therein becoming 
the appointment of this meeting. 



12 MINUTES 

The Chairmen of the several delegations to the Five 
Years Meeting, as directed, present nominations as 
follows : 

Clerk. — James Wood. 

First Assistant. — Lewis Lyndon Hobbs. 

Second Assistant. — Mabel H. Douglas. 

Treasurer. — Miles White, Jr. 

Business Committee. 

New England, Rufus M. Jones, Haverford, Pa.; 
New York, Robert E. Pretlow, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; North 
Carolina, George W.White, Guilford College, N. C. ; Balti- 
more,. Allen C. Thomas, Haverford, Pa.; Indiana, Allen 
Jay, Richmond, Ind. ; Iowa, Ellison R. Purdy, Oskaloosa, 
Iowa; Western, Richard Haworth, Wabash, Ind.; Kan- 
sas, Edmund Stanley, Wichita, Ivan. ; Wilmington, 
Samuel Haworth, Friendsville, Tenn. ; Canada, Joseph 
J. Mills, Toronto, Can.; California, Addison W. Naylor, 
Berkeley, Cal. ; Oregon, Edwin McGrew, Caldwell, Idaho. 

They recommended that the Clerk of the Meeting 
be a member of the Committee ex-officio, without the 
privilege of a vote. 

Auditors. — Timothy Nichloson, Levi Mills, Amos 
K. Hollowell. 

For the Committee. 

(Signed) A. Rosenberger, Clerk. 

J. E. Paige, Secretary. 

The incoming clerks were accordingly installed. 

14. The Friends in attendance from Philadelphia 
and Ohio Yearly Meetings were heartily welcomed and 
the Meeting was unanimous in its feeling of deep appre - 
ciation of their presence with us. 

15. The announcement was made that Charles M. 



MINUTES 13 

Woodman had been appointed to fill the place left 
vacant by the absence of Charles H. Jones, delegate from 
New England; Josephus Hoskins, the place of Laura 
Townsend, of Wilmington Yearly Meeting; Anna Petty, 
temporarily, the place of Mary C. Woody, of North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting; in Iowa Yearly Meeting the 
following: Alfred J. Hanson, the place of Roscoe C. 
Coffin; Rebecca G. Lewis, the place of Emma F. Coffin; 
Herbert J. Mott, the place of Eli Perisho; Lester Ker- 
sey, the place of Richard R. Newby; William Mather, 
the place of Martha R. Harnaday; in Kansas Yearly 
Meeting, Richard A. Cox, the place of Eber N. Cause; in 
California Yearly Meeting, William H. Coffin, the place 
of Harry R. Keates. 

16. It was moved and carried that the Business 
Committee be directed to nominate a Committee of three 
to act as Press Committee. 

17. The following propositions from Yearly Meet- 
ings were read and referred for consideration to the 
Business Committee, to report at such time as they 
deemed suitable. Privilege was granted Iowa and Kan- 
sas Yearly Meetings to introduce at a later session, prop- 
ositions that in some way had miscarried. 

From Baltimore Yearly Meeting of Friends held in Bal- 
timore, Maryland, by adjournments from the gth of 
Eleventh month to the 14th of the same, inclusive, 
1906. 

To the next Five Years Meeting : 
Dear Friends: 

The subject of interyearly meeting correspondence 
by means of annual epistles has been brought before us 
this year (1906) by our Committee on Correspondence. 
The fact that some of the Yearly Meetings have ceased 



14 MINUTES 

to read the epistles addressed to them, except in brief 
extracts, indicates that to a large extent, such corres- 
pondence does not fulfil its object. After consideration 
this Meeting has concluded to present the subject of 
interyearly meeting correspondence before the Five 
Years Meeting in the hope that that body will take the 
subject into consideration to see whether it cannot 
recommend some modification of the present method, 
or some new system better adapted to the needs and 
conditions of to-day. 

Our clerks are directed to sign two copies of this 
Minute on our behalf and forward one to the Five Years 
Meeting, and one to the chairman of the Committee on 
Arrangements. 

Signed by direction and on behalf of the Meeting. 

Allen C. Thomas, 
Anna King Carey, 

Clerks. 

To the Five Years Meeting to be held at Richmond, 
Indiana, commencing the 15th of the Tenth Month, 
1807: 

The committee appointed in 1904 on the request 
for a new Yearly Meeting in Nebraska, made the fol- 
lowing report, accompanied by explanatory remarks 
from the chairman of the committee, and, after con- 
sideration, the report was unanimously approved: 

To the Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends: — - 

With the approbation of the committee appointed 
two years ago to investigate the request from Platte 
Valley Quarterly for a Yearly Meeting in Nebraska, the 
chairman and secretary of said committee attended the 
Eighth Annual Meeting of the Church and Educational 
Association of Friends, held at Central City, Nebraska, 
Sixth month, 7th to 10th, 1906. After carefully looking 



MINUTES 15 

the field over they made their report to the committee 
and the secretary was instructed to send a favorable 
report to the Yearly Meeting. 

Isom P. Wooton, Chairman. 
Ida K. Johnson, Secretary. 

According to the provisions of Discipline, the clerk 
was directed to forward to the Five Years Meeting, 
information of this Meeting's approval of the proposition 
to establish a Yearly Meeting in Nebraska, this informa- 
tion to be accompanied by the statement below regard- 
ing the various Quarterly Meetings and the extent of 
territory to be included in the proposed Yearly Meeting. 

The proposed new Yearly Meeting is to be composed 
of five Quarterly Meetings now belonging to Iowa Yearly 
Meeting, viz: Hiawatha Quarterly Meeting, in south- 
western Nebraska, with a membership of 112; Platte 
Valley Quarterly Meeting, in central Nebraska, with a 
membership of 633; Union Quarterly Meeting, in 
northern Nebraska with a membership of 121; Spring 
Bank Quarterly Meeting, in northeastern Nebraska, with 
a membership of 336; and Mt. Vernon Quarterly Meet- 
ing, in southern South Dakota, with a membership of 108. 
The total membership of the five Quarterly Meetings 
amounts to 1,310. 

The Friends of these Quarterly Meetings have been 
for some time organized into an association for the 
purpose of carrying on religious and educational work, 
and they maintain a school known as Nebraska Central 
College, located at Central City, Nebraska, with an en- 
rolment the year 1906 of 115 in all departments. 

In the territory of the proposed Yearly Meeting are 
22 recorded ministers and a number of other Christian 
workers. 

Taken from the minutes of Iowa Yearly Meeting of 
Friends held by adjournments from the 28th of Eighth 
month to the 1st of Ninth month, 1906. 

Stephen M. Hadley, Clerk. 



l6 MINUTES 

To the Five Years Meeting to be held at Richmond, Ind., 
commencing Tenth month 15, 1907 : 

A communication from the Nebraska Church and 
Education Association contained a request that if the 
Five Years Meeting should see fit to establish a Yearly 
Meeting in Nebraska it should open on Sixth month 
5, 1908. 

The request was directed forwarded to the Five 
Years Meeting. 

Taken from the minutes of Iowa Yearly Meeting of 
Friends held Eighth month 31, 1907. 

Stephen M. Hadley, Clerk. 

New York Yearly Meeting, 1907. 

Minute 54. — The delegates to the Five Years 
Meeting were instructed to propose to that body that 
uniform regulations be established for maintaining 
records of the whereabouts of absent members and for 
extending such care to them as may be practicable. 
They were also instructed to request the Five Years' 
Meeting to determine the accuracy of sundry details of 
the Uniform Discipline. 

Taken from the Minutes. James Wood> ckrk 

The following proposition is submitted to the Five 
Years Meeting by direction of North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting, held at Guilford College, N. C, in Eighth month 
this year. Lewis Lyndon Hobbs, Clerk. 

Tenth Month 12, 1907. 
The committee appointed to consider the subject 
of Bible School Literature was united in the opinion that 
the subject needs the united action of Friends in Amer- 
ica. Therefore, we deem it wise to request the Five 
Years Meeting to give the matter a thorough investiga- 
tion and recommend or institute a course which shall 
give us a more satisfactory system. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

Mary M. Hobbs. 



MINUTES 17 

Yearly Meetings of Friends for New England, Sixth 
month, 1907. 

The Yearly Meeting requests the Five Years Meet- 
ing to draft a plan by which the functions of the present 
Meetings on Ministry and Oversight should be absorbed 
by the Monthly, Quarterly and Yearly Meetings at large, 
and carried on by ministry and oversight committees of 
these several Meetings. The plan is intended to provide 
for a deeper consideration of the state of the church and 
its pastoral needs in the several Meetings named above, 
and for a closer co-relation of the work of ministry and 
oversight with the evangelistic and church extension 
work. Further that it include the extension of the time 
of the Yearly Meeting so that the entire Meeting may 
consider the spiritual needs of the Church. 

The plan for the union of all Foreign Mission work 
of Friends in America under one strong central board 
has been considered. It is the feeling of the Meeting 
that good results would follow such a course when the 
time shall be ripe for it. The peculiar condition of our 
own work at present, particularly at Ram Allah, how- 
ever, is such that we feel it should remain in our own 
immediate charge until plans now under way shall be 
brought to completion. 

It is the conclusion of the Meeting to bring before 
the Five Years Meeting through our delegates the sub- 
ject of a Bible School Quarterly distinctly our own. 

Extracts from the Minutes of New England Yearly 
Meeting. 

John Ellwood Paige, Clerk. 

FROM WESTERN YEARLY MEETING. 

To the Five Years Meeting to be held at Richmond, Ind., 
beginning Tenth month 15, 1907: 

Minute 35 from Minutes of Western Yearly Meeting of 
Friends Church, held iqo6. 

The following appears on the reports from Plain- 
field Quarterly Meeting, which is referred to the following 



l8 MINUTES 

named committee who are directed to report to a future 
session : 

John E. Woodard, Ruth E. Trueblood, Samuel C. 
Hill, Nereus M. Hodgin, Elizabeth C. Symons, Morton 
C. Pearson, William Henry Matchett, Theodore Rey- 
nolds, David Hadley, Joseph Hall, Horace Reeve, 
J. Farland Randolph, Richard Mills, Ellen Mendenhall, 
Abbie Carey, William C. Pidgeon. 

Petition from Plainfield Quarterly Meeting on birth- 
right and associate membership as set forth in the Uni- 
form Discipline. 

This Meeting respectfully asks the Yearly Meeting 
to petition the Five Years Meeting to eliminate from 
the Uniform Discipline the paragraph providing for 
associate membership. 

Reasons: ist. Associate membership is unscrip- 
tural. for the reason that all children are provided for in 
the atonement of Jesus Christ and are saved members 
of the invisible Church until they have sinned by actual 
transgressions. The promise of Christ extended to 
believers and their households. 

2d. Associate membership provides for a relation- 
ship to the Church which will be lightly esteemed by 
persons holding it, inasmuch as it confers no obligations 
or responsibilities, and has practically no binding force 
to the Church. 

3d. Associate membership opens a wider door for 
leakage in membership than any system the Church has 
ever adopted. 

4th. Associate membership has already and will 
continue to lead to a very serious complication of our 
record books, since two separate lists must be kept, 
together with transfers of names from one to the other. 
This will lead to endless confusion. 

5th. The idea of associate membership, and the 
paragraph referring thereto, are ambiguous. The 
age when a child should join as an active member; 
whether adults may or may not join as associate mem- 
bers; the rights and privileges granted such members; 



MINUTES 19 

whether persons may have a transfer to another Church ; 
all these are left to the discretion of each Monthly Meet- 
ing, and will result in such a variety of action as will 
weaken the Church. 

By authority of Plainfield Quarterly Meeting, held 
Eighth month 4, 1906. 

Calvin Stanley, Clerk. 

Minute 67 from Minutes of WesternY early Meeting, iqo6. 

The committee to whom was referred the matter 
on the reports from Plainfield and Chicago Quarterly 
Meetings in reference to birthright and associate member- 
ship and a change in discipline, presents a report as below. 
The matter is referred to the Permanent Board which, 
having adjourned, is instructed to meet during the ses- 
sions of this meeting and report to next Yearly Meeting : 

To Western Yearly Meeting: 

1 st. After careful consideration of the subject 
referred to us, we desire to report that it is our convic- 
tion that Western Yearly Meeting has the right to elimi- 
nate from its own discipline all sections referring to 
associate membership and to substitute therefor the 
section from former Discipline establishing birthright 
membership. 

2d. If the Yearly Meeting does not so decide, it is 
our united judgment that the Yearly Meeting should 
petition the Five Years Meeting in proper form for such 
a change, as indicated in the request of Plainfield Quar- 
terly Meeting. We express it as our judgment that 
birthright membership should be re-established and 
that we so petition. 

3d. Chicago Quarterly Meetings' request for an 
interpretation of Discipline on associate membership, 
need not be considered if the above action is taken. 

4th. We leave the final decision on matters of 
Request and Estates with the Yearly Meeting. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

John E. Woodard, Chairman. 



20 MINUTES 

Minute 104 from Minutes of 1906: 

A supplementary report of the Permanent Board 
has been read as follows which has the approval of the 
meeting : 

Supplemental report of the Permanent Board. 

Board met Ninth month 19, 1906. 

The proposition from Plainfield Quarterly Meeting 
and referred to this Board by the Yearly Meeting, in 
reference to a change of Discipline, was taken up by the 
Board and referred to a special committee for their care- 
ful consideration. 

We interpret Article IV, Section I, Chapter II, 
Part III, of our Book of Discipline as follows: 

The}'' may be received as associate members at the 
discretion of the Monthly Meeting. 

Amos Carson, Clerk. 

Minute 78 from Western Yearly Meeting's Minutes of 1907. 

Extract from the Minutes of the Permanent Board. 

The action of the Board on the matter of associate 
membership, referred to it last year is presented as 
follows : 

The committee appointed last year to consider the 
proposition from Plainfield Quarterly Meeting, asking 
the Yearly Meeting to petition the Five Years Meeting 
to eliminate from the Uniform Discipline the paragraph 
providing for associate membership, and referred to the 
Permanent Board for consideration, report that in their 
judgment it would not be best to endorse the petition at 
the present time, believing that further time should be 
given to test the wisdom, working, and effect of the 
associate plan, which the Board accepts and directs 
such information to be forwarded to the Yearly Meeting. 
(Signed) Arthur K. Tomlinson, Clerk. 

The matter has again been considered and the 
Meeting directs that it be forwarded to the Five Years 
Meeting as a request from this Yearly Meeting, 

(Signed) Thos. C. Brown, Presiding Clerk. 



MINUTES 21 

1 8. The clerk was instructed to inform all Yearly 
Meetings here represented concerning any action affect- 
ing said Yearly Meetings. 

19. The proposition from Iowa Yearly Meeting, 
regarding the establishment of a Yearly Meeting in 
Nebraska, was read, and it was moved and carried that 
the delegations shall each propose the names of two 
Friends as members of a committee to farther consider 
the matter and report to this Meeting; if the report be 
favorable it should also include nominations for a com- 
mittee — number not to exceed ten — to attend the 
opening of said Yearly Meeting. 

20. The following report of the Treasurer of the 
Five Years Meeting was read, and also that of the Auditor 
The delegations were each requested to report at the 
afternoon session the name of one from each delegation 
to form a committee to whom these reports might be 
referred : 

To the Five Years Meeting : 

Your Treasurer reports that as provided in the plan 
adopted in 1902, the financial affairs of the Meeting have 
at all times been conducted on a cash basis, and no bills 
have remained unpaid after being presented properly 
authenticated. 

The Finance Committee has annually notified the 
Treasurer of the amounts apportioned by said Com- 
mittee among the several Yearly Meetings for estimated 
expenses for the ensuing fiscal year, and though remit- 
tances of these amounts have not all been received within 
the time specified in the financial plan, there has always 
been sufficient in hand to meet every proper demand. 

The Treasurer, early in the year 1903, adjusted with 
the Treasurer of each Yearly Meeting the balance due to 
or from him for the railroad fares of his Meeting's dele- 
gates to the Meeting of 1902. 



22 MINUTES 

The financial plan provided (see page 43 of the 
Minutes) that the Treasurer shall receive from various 
sources "all moneys for the use of the Five Years Meet- 
ing and the various Boards thereof," it being intended 
that his books should show the total amounts received 
from all sources for the needs of the several forms of 
Christian and philanthropic effort represented by the 
various Boards and Committees of this Meeting, and also 
should indicate the exact amount each Board would be 
called upon to account for. It was further recommended 
(pages 42-43 of Minutes) "that voluntary contributions 
shall be made every year in each particular Meeting of 
the several Yearly Meetings, comprising the Five Years 
Meeting, of funds for the use of the Boards of the Meet- 
ing" and forwarded to the Treasurer; and that these 
funds "shall, when received by the Treasurer, be paid 
over to the Treasurer of these respective Boards and 
Committees" (page 44). 

These two provisions have not been fully carried 
out, for only a few voluntary contributions, amounting 
in the aggregate to $464.03, have been received during 
the past five years for the uses of all the Boards of the 
Meetings, although the Treasurer, in Tenth month, 1904, 
sent a circular to the Clerks and Treasurers of the various 
Yearly Meetings and to the officers of the various Boards 
of the Five Years Meeting, calling their attention to 
these provisions and suggesting that they take steps to 
have them carried out. 

From an appeal in the "American Friend" some 
months ago, it appeared that at least one Board" was 
asking for funds and requesting that they be sent directly 
to the Treasurer of that Board instead of through the 
Treasurer of this Meeting. If the financial plan adopted 
is to be successfully carried out, such requests should 
not be continued. 

If the Boards are to do effective work, it is evident 
that very much larger contributions must be secured 
than passed through the hands of your Treasurer. All 
such funds, amounting to $464.03, have been paid over 



MINUTES 23 

to the officers of various Boards, but in some cases those 
making the remittances merely stated that they were 
sent for the use of the Boards, and upon further inquiry 
were unable to specify which particular Board the spe- 
cific remittance was intended for. Under this condition, 
the Treasurer, after corresponding with the chairmen of 
the various Boards, sent the funds to the Board at that 
time in greatest need. If (as provided on page 43) the 
collection for each form of work is taken on the same day 
throughout a Yearly Meeting, and kept separate from 
other collections, the funds contributed would be sure 
to go where the donors intended them. 

The funds raised by apportionment from the several 
Yearly Meetings were paid out in the manner described 
under "Duties of the Treasurer" (page 44), and the 
auditors have so certified upon the Treasurer's books, 
yet as one auditor has in his certificate stated that he 
does "not wish to be understood as approving of the 
items of expenditure covered by the receipts," it is 
suggested that the Meeting define more specifically what 
items are properly administrative expenses, and whether 
or not the certificate of the Chairman and Secretary of a 
Board shall be conclusive as to the propriety of the 
expense so certified being paid, if within the amount 
appropriated for that Board by the Finance Committee; 
especially is this desirable as some of the Boards have 
requested payment of items which the Treasurer con- 
sidered not as administrative expenses but rather such 
as were intended to be provided for by voluntary con- 
tributions and his declining to pay same caused disap- 
pointment to the Boards. 

At the close of each fiscal year any unused balance 
of the appropriation for any Board for that year has 
been returned to general expense account and not con- 
tinued to the credit of that particular Board. This has 
seemed very desirable, especially as the estimated need 
of each Board is provided for by the Finance Committee 
each year, and if a larger amount than the unused 
balance is required the whole of it will be levied for, 



24 



MINUTES 



whereas if a smaller amount is required, the difference 
should not be tied up and kept from use, as would be the 
case if it remained to the credit of that Board. 

The Treasurer has not been called upon to receipt 
for any legacies, donations, or funds, requiring a formal 
legal acknowledgment. He procured and forwarded to 
the chairman of the Finance Committee a bond of the 
Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland, in the sum 
of three thousand dollars, the amount named by the 
Finance Committee. He has received from the Com- 
mittee on Legislation a certified copy of the articles of 
incorporation of the Five Years Meeting, which he will 
turn over to his successor, unless otherwise instructed 
by the Meeting. 

The following is a condensed statement of the 
moneys received and disbursed during the past five 
years : 



Receipts. Payments. 

Quinquennial Conference balance. $50 04 $88 99 
Expense Five Years Meeting, 1902 173 37 

Interest and exchange 89 36 

Publication Proceedings, 1902. ... 305 92 

Yearly Meetings pro rata asses- 

ments 4,961 80 

Railroad fares of delegates, 1902 . . 1,089 °6 1,089 °6 

Foreign Mission Board 3,393 7 1 

Board of Legislation 99 39 

Board Condition of Negro, ex- 
penses 14. 08 

Board Condition of Negro, volun- 
tary contributions 7261 7261 

Evangelistic and Church Exten- 
sion Committee expenses 11 10 

Evangelistic and church voluntary 

contributions 21 41 21 41 

Board of Education expenses .... 79 10 

Board of Education voluntary 

contribution 171 74 171 74 



MINUTES 25 

Receipts. 

Board of Education special con- 
tribution $198 27 

Auditing Committee 

Committee on Hymnal 

Treasurer's bond 

Committee on program meeting 

1907 7 66 

Cash on hand $710 46 

Due by Kansas Yearly 

Meeting 16596 

- — 876 42 



Payments. 


|I98 


27 


12 


21 


9 


25 


3° 


OO 



,654 29 $6,654 29 



A detailed statement of all receipts and expendi- 
tures is attached hereto for the full information of the 
Meeting, from which it will be seen that for the first year 
a larger sum than was used was assessed upon the Yearly 
Meetings and that in each of the subsequent years less 
was assessed than required for current expenses so that 
the surplus of the first year has been gradually reduced. 
The balance now on hand will probably be sufficient to 
pay the expenses of the Meeting of 1907 and diminish the 
amount otherwise to be assessed in Tenth Month, 1907. 

AH of which is respectfully submitted, 

Miles White, Jr., Treasurer. 

The above account has been audited and found to be 
correct. 

Francis A. Wright, 
Timothy Nicholson. 

treasurer's detailed statement of receipts and 
payments of five years meeting of friends. 

Receipts. 
1902 
10 mo. 27. From Quinquennia] Conference, 

its balance $50 04 



26 MINUTES 

ii mo. 18. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, 
balance pro rata share railroad 
fares $447 4° 

12 mo. io. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 
ing, balance pro rata share rail- 
road fares 131 35 

12 mo. 29. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, bal- 
ance pro rata share railroad 

fares 94 3 1 

1903 

1 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 122 

2 mo. 11. From New England Yearly Meet- 

ing, its proportionate share ex- 
penses 1 10 00 

" " From New York Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses 87 50 

" " From Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses 30 00 

" " From Oregon Yearly Meeting, its 

proportionate share expenses . 40 00 

" " From California Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses 42 50 

" " From Western Yearly Meeting, 
balance pro rata share railroad 
fares 401 30 

3 mo. 17. From North Carolina Yearly 

Meeting, its proportion share 

expenses 135 00 

4 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 282 

4 mo. 21. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 
ing, its proportionate share ex- 
penses 155 00 



MINUTES 27 

5 mo. 11. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, 
balance pro rata share railroad 
fares $14 70 

5 mo. 25. From Western Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses 377 50 

6 mo. 15. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, on 

account proportionate share 

expenses 142 69 

6 mo. 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 60 

9 mo. 19. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, on 

account proportionate share 100 00 

expenses 
9 mo. 21. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, 

balance proportionate share 

expenses 362 31 

9 mo. 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 116 



Total receipts to Ninth 

month 30, 1903 $2,727 40 



Payments. 
1903 
1 mo. 28. For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 

T. Nicholson for arrangements $2 30 
For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
Daisy M. Thomas for type- 
writing 10 00 

" For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 

E. O. Ellis for postage 1 50 

" " For Quinquennial Conference, 
paid Ferris & Leach for Uni- 
form Discipline 88 99 

For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
Ferris & Leach for pro- 
grammes 3 00 



28 



MINUTES 



i mo. 28. For expenses Meeting, 1902, paid 
A. K. Hollowell for badges. . . . 

For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
Emma Newlin for stenography 

For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
Ella A. Shera for stenography.. 

For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
Lucas Bros, for books and re- 
ceipts 

For expenses Meeting 1902, paid 
E. D. Evans, Treasurer, for gas 
and janitor 

For New England Yearly Meet- 
ing, paid balance pro rata share 
railroad fares 

For New York Yearly Meeting, 
paid balance pro rata share 
railroad fares 

For Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 
paid balance pro rata share 
railroad fares 

For Oregon Yearly Meeting, paid 
balance pro rata share railroad 
fares 

For California Yearly Meeting, 
paid balance pro rata share 

railroad fares 

3 mo. 7. For Board of Legislation, paid S. 
E. Nicholson, account militia 

bill 

" For Board of Legislation, paid S. 
Nicholson, account militia bill 
3 mo. 17. For Board of Legislation, paid T. 
Nicholson, account Sunday 

base ball 

" " For North Carolina Yearly Meet- 
ing, balance pro rata share 
railroad fares 



$8 15 
62 22 

5 6 50 

14 20 

12 00 

185 08 

137 08 
78 16 

138 75 

437 05 

3 15 
10 14 

16 20 

112 94 



MINUTES 29 

5 mo. 20. For Committee Publication Pro- 
ceedings, paid A. C. Thomas for 
editorial work $53 iq 

5 mo. 25. For Committee Publication Pro- 
ceedings, paid J. C. Winston & 
Co., for printing 228 00 

5 mo. 27. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 
J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 450 00 

9 mo. 26. For Board Condition of Negroes, 

paid R. H. Thomas for postage 4 oS 



Total payments to Ninth 

month 30, 1903 $2,112 68 

9 mo. 30. Balance in Union Trust Company 614 72 

$2,727 40 

Receipts. 
1903 

10 mo. 1. From balance of last year $614 72 

1904 
1 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 7 64 

1 mo. 26. From voluntary contributions of 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting for 

Board of Education 25 00 

2 mo. 13. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, its 

proportionate share expenses, 

1903 • 275 00 

4 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 420 

4 mo. 25. From New York Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 35 00 

5 mo. 4. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 

ing, its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 ; 63 00 



30 MINUTES 

5 mo. 4. From New England Yearly Meet- 
ing, its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 $44 00 

5 mo. 11. From Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 12 00 

6 mo. 7. From voluntary contributions of 

Paonia, Col. Iowa Yearly Meet- . 

ing for use of Boards 3 41 

6 mo. 14. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, its 

proportionate share expenses, 

1904 no 00 

7 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 387 

7 mo. 13. From Oregon Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 
1904 16 00 

7 mo. 25. From Western Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 152 00 

8 rno. 16. From North Carolina Yearly 

Meeting, its proportionate 

share expenses, 1904 55 00 

8 mo. 17. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 203 00 

9 mo. 7. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, 

on account proportionate share 

expenses, 1904 6q 00 

9 mo. 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 580 

Cash on hand Tenth 

month 1, 1903 $614 72 

Total receipts for year 
ending Ninth month 

30, 1904 1,074 92 

$1,689 64 



MINUTES 31 

Payments. 

1903 

10 mo. 17. For Evangelical and Church Ex- 
tension Board, paid J. T. 
Hadley, Treasurer, for Book 
of Meetings $8 10 

1904 

2 mo. 1. For Auditing Committee, paid 
T. Nicholson, Chairman, ex- 
pressage on books 301 

2 mo. 27. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 

J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 450 00 

3 mo. 16. For Committee Publication Pro- 

ceedings, paid J. C. Winston & 

Co., for Conference Reports. . . 24 73 

5 mo. 4. For voluntary contributions for 
Board of Education, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman 25 00 

9 mo. 26. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 
J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 450 00 

9 mo. 26. For Board Condition of Negroes, 
paid J. W. Woody, Agent 
Slater Normal School 10 00 

9 mo. 30. For Committee on Hymnal, paid 
R. E. Pretlow, administration 

expenses 925 

For Board of Education, paid R. 
E. Pretlow, administration ex- 
penses 12 50 

" For voluntary contributions for 
Evangelistic and Church Exten- 
sion Board, paid J. T. Hadley, 
Treasurer 3 41 



32 MINUTES 

9 mo. 30. For Board of Legislation, paid T. 

Nicholson, for copies of charter. $21 50 

Total payments for year end- 
ing Ninth month 30, 1904. . . $1,017 50 
" Balance in Union Trust Company 672 14 

$1,689 64 

Receipts. 
1904 

10 mo. 1. From balance of last year $672 14 

10 mo. 31. From voluntary contributions of 
Baltimore Yearly . Meeting for 
Board of Education 25 00 

1 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 5 o 1 

1 mo. 23. From voluntary contributions of 
Long Beach and Elmodena 
Meetings, Cal., to Evangelistic 
and Church Extension Board.. 18 00 

1 mo. 27. From California Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 1 7 00 

2 mo. 28. From voluntary contributions to 

Educational Conference, J. R. 
Cary, Baltimore, $10; Samuel 
Dickinson, Richmond, $10. ... 20 00 

3 mo. 21. From voluntary contributions to 

Educational Conference, Maria 
Willetts, New York, $25; H.J. 
Bailey, Maine, $5 30 00 

4 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 5 20 

4 mo. 4. From voluntary contributions to 
Educational Conference, James 
Carey, Jr., Baltimore, $10; S. 
8th St. mtg. Richmond, $10. .. 20 00 



MINUTES 33 

4 mo. 21. From voluntary contributions to 
Educational Conference, Miles 
White, Jr., Baltimore $20 00 

4 mo. 22. From voluntary contributions to 
Educational Conference, James 
Wood, Treasurer, 1900 Con- 
ference, balance on hand 48 27 

4 mo. 29. From Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1905 12 00 

5 mo. 10. From voluntary contributions to 

Educational Conference, R. J. 
White, Baltimore, $10; Albert 
K. Smiley, New York, $25. . . . 35 00 

5 mo. 12. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 

*9°5 IIJ 35 

5 mo. 18. From Oregon Yearly Meeting, its 

proportionate share expenses, 

!9°5 l6 35 

6 mo. 9. From New England Yearly Meet- 

ing, on account proportionate 

share expenses, 1905 2838 

6 mo. 19. From voluntary contributions of 
particular Meetings of New 
York Yearly Meeting, for use 
of the Boards 19 01 

6 mo. 22. From voluntary eontributions to 
Educational Conference, Joseph 
A. Goddard, Indiana 25 00 

6 mo. 28. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 

ing, its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1905 62 91 

7 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 3 08 

7 mo. 5. From New York Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1905 33 39 

3 



34 MINUTES 

7 mo. 5. From voluntary contributions of 

particular Meetings of New 
York Yearly Meeting, for use 
of the Boards $7 90 

8 mo. 28. From Western Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1905 152 50 

9 mo. 13. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, on 

account proportionate share 

expenses, 1905 60 00 

9 mo. 15. From New England Yearly Meet- 
ing, balance proportionate 
share expenses, 1905 15 77 

9 mo. 16. From North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting, its proportionate share 
expenses, 1905 56 19 

9 mo. 18. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 
1905 206 09 

9 mo 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 5 01 

Cash on hand, Tenth 

month 1, 1904 $672 14 

Total receipts for year 
ending Ninth month 

3°> 1905 1 ^°5 8 4i 

$1,730 55 



Payments. 

1904 

11 mo. 17. For expenses Five Years Meet- 
ing, paid J. D. Lucas Co., print- 
ing circular of Treasurer. ... $3 50 

11 mo. 17. For voluntary contributions for 
Board of Education, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman 25 00 



MINUTES 35 

i mo. 6. For Auditing Committee, paid T. 

Nicholson, expressage on books $3 55 

2 mo. 1. For Board of Legislation, paid T. 

Nicholson, fees, etc., for char- 
ter 9 50 

3 mo. 31. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 

J Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 443 32 

5 mo. 5 . For Finance Committee and Treas- 
urer, paid premium for Treas- 
urer's bond 10 00 

7 mo. 27. For voluntary contributions to 
Educational Conference, paid 
R. E. Pretlow, Chairman 198 27 

9 mo. 30. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 
J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 325 34 

9 mo. 30. For voluntary contributions for 
use of the Boards, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman 2691 

" " For voluntary contributions for 
Evangelistic and Church Ex- 
tension Board, paid J. T. Had- 
ley, Treasurer 18 00 

For Board of Education, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman, for ex- 
penses and railroad fares, Ex- 
ecutive Committee 60 60 



Total payments for year ending 

Ninth month 30, 1905 $1,123 99 

Balance in Union Trust Company 606 56 

$i,73° 55 



2,6 MINUTES 

Receipts. 

190S 

10 mo. 2. From balance of last year $606 56 

11 mo. 1. From voluntary contributions of 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting, for 

Board of Education 50 00 

1906 

1 1110. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 4 81 

1 mo. 19. From California Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1905 20 43 

1 mo. 25. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 
ing, its estimated share ex- 
penses, 1906 61 98 

1 mo. 26. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, its 

estimated share expenses, 1906. 114 74 

1 mo. 29. From New England Yearly Meet- 

ing, estimated proportionate 

share expenses, 1906 43 3 7 

2 mo. 28. From Oregon Yearly Meeting, its 

proportionate share expenses, 

1906 13 30 

3 mo. 7. From Western Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1906 109 73 

3 mo. 30. From Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1906 8 66 

3 mo. 31. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 617 

5 mo. 23. From voluntary contributions of 
particular Meetings of New 
York Yearly Meeting, for use 
of the Boards 19 83 

5 mo. 29. From New York Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1906 24 90 



MINUTES yj 

6 mo. ii. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 
1906 $154 73 

6 mo. 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 5 21 

9 mo. 22. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, 
balance proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1903 60 00 

9 mo. 22. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, on 
account proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1904 40 00 

9 mo. 25. From North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting, its proportionate share 
expenses, 1906 46 59 

9 mo. 29. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 6 63 

Cash on hand, Tenth 

month 1, 1905 $606 56 

Total receipts for year 
ending Ninth month 

30, 1906 791 08 

$i,397 6 4 



Payments. 
1906 

1 mo. S. For Auditing Committee, paid T. 

Nicholson for expressage on 

books $3 20 

2 mo. 5. For New England Yearly Meeting, 

refund excess payment for ex- 
penses, 1906 10 85 

2 mo. 5. For Wilmington Yearly Meeting, 

for expenses, 1906 15 51 

2 mo. 5. For Iowa Yearly Meeting, refund 
excess payment for expenses, 
1906 28 69 



38 MINUTES 

3 mo. 30. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 

J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses $289 88 

4 mo. 5. For Finance Committee and 

Treasurer, paid premium for 
Treasurer's bond 10 00 

9 mo. 29. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 
J. Carey, Treasurer, adminis- 
tration expenses 342 42 

9 mo. 29. For voluntary contributions for 
Board of Education, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman 69 83 

Total payments for year ending 

Ninth month 29, 1906 $770 38 

9 mo. 29. For balance in Union Trust 

Company 627 26 



$i,397 6 4 

Receipts. 
1906 

10 mo. 1. From balance of last year $627 26 

10 mo. 15. From voluntary contributions of 
Baltimore Yearly Meeting, for 

Board of Education 25 00 

1907 
1 mo. 2. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 481 

1 mo. 18. From California Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1906 23 43 

3 mo. 16. From Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 9 00 

3 mo. 18. From Western Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 114 22 



MINUTE 39 

3 mo. 22. From Iowa Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 
1907 $93 10 

3 mo. 26. From New England Yearly Meet- 

ing, its proportionate share 

expenses, 1907 33 16 

4 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 503 

4 mo. 11. From Oregon Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 1458 

4 mo. 12. From Wilmington Yearly Meet- 
ing, its proportionate share 

expenses, 1 907 48 64 

4 mo. 16. From New York Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 25 61 

4 mo. 29. From California Yearly Meeting, 

its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 26 00 

5 mo. 1. From voluntary contributions of 

particular Meetings of New 
York Yearly Meeting, for use of 
the Boards S36 

5 mo. 28. From voluntary contributions of 
particular Meetings of New 
York Yearly Meeting, for use of 
the Boards 64 25 

7 mo. 1. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 5 06 

7 mo. 22. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, 
balance proportionate share 
expenses, 1 904 7200 

7 mo. 22. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, its 
proportionate share expenses, 
1905 112 64 

9 mo. 9. From North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting, its proportionate share 
expenses, 1907 48 52 



40 MINUTES 

g mo. 1 8. From Indiana Yearly Meeting, 
its proportionate share ex- 
penses, 1907 $152 13 

9 mo. 30. From interest to date on balance 

in trust company 6 03 

Cash on hand, Tenth 

month 1, 1906 $627 26 

Total receipts for year 
ending Ninth month 

3°. 1907 891 57 

$1,518 83 



Payments. 
1907 

1 mo. 14. For Auditing Committee, paid T. 

Nicholson, expressage on 

books $2 45 

2 mo. 19. For Board of Legislation, paid T. 

Nicholson, expenses attending 
Inter-Church Conference on 
Temperance 22 90 

3 mo. 28. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 

J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 293 89 

4 mo. 3. For Finance Committee and 

Treasurer, paid premium for 
Treasurer's bond 10 00 

4 mo. 10. For voluntary contributions for 
Board of Education, paid A. 
Rosenberger, Chairman 25 00 

4 mo. 23. For Board of Legislation, paid S. 
E. Nicholson, expenses attend- 
ing Inter-Church Conference on 
Temperance 16 00 

7 mo. 5. For Committee on Program for 
next Five Years Meeting, paid 
J. B. Wright, expense attending 
meeting of Committee.... 7 66 



MINUTES 41 

8 mo. 22. For voluntary contributions for 

use of the Boards, paid Allen 
Jay, Chairman, Board Condi- 
tion of Negroes $72 61 

9 mo. 26. For Evangelistic and Church Ex- 

tension Board, paid C. H. Jones, 
Chairman, account expenses 
Book of Meetings 3 00 

9 mo. 28. For Board of Education, paid R. 

E. Pretlow for postage, etc 6 00 

9 mo. 30. For Board Foreign Missions, paid 
J. Carey, Jr., Treasurer, admin- 
istration expenses 348 86 

Total payments for year ending 

Ninth month 30, 1907 $80837 

9 mo. 30. For balance in Union Trust Com- 
pany 710 46 

$1,518 83 
Balance sheet Ninth month 30, 1907. 

Dr. Dr. 

Kansas Yearly Meeting $165 96 

Expenses Five Years Meeting.... 710 46 $876 42 

Cash $876 42 $876 42 



REPORT OF AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

We have given attention to the object of our 
appointment, and have audited the accounts of the 
Treasurer at the close of each fiscal year. We have also 
examined the Treasurer's report and find it is a correct 
statement of the amounts received and paid out by him 
during the past five years. 

We have been unable to arrive at a basis entirely 
satisfactory to all of our Committee by which to deter- 



42 MINUTES 

mine what items should be paid out of the treasury of 
the Five Years Meeting. In the plan adopted by the 
Meeting in 1902, for controlling its finances, it is pro- 
vided (see page 42 of Minutes) that the Finance Com- 
mittee shall ascertain "the probable expenses * * * 
for administration of the Board of Foreign Missions not 
otherwise provided for; of the Evangelistic Board for 
correspondence, and of such other committees as may 
have been specifically authorized by the Five Years 
Meeting." It is further provided (see page 44) for the 
payment of funds as follows: 

First. Upon the certification of the clerk and first 
assistant clerk of the Five Years Meeting, the expenses, 
etc., * * * of the Five Years Meeting and any special 
expenses of committees or others authorized by the 
Five Years Meeting. 

Second. "Upon the certification of the chairmen and 
secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions and of the 
Evangelistic and Church Extension Board, and the 
expenses of administration and correspondence of said 
respective boards authorized by the Discipline." 

The action first provided for requires the approval 
of the Finance Committee of the Five Years Meeting, 
but as they are only directed to estimate the probable 
expenses their action does not constitute an appropria- 
tion. The actual disbursement of funds then apparently 
depends solely upon the certification of the chairmen 
and secretaries of the two boards. We do not find the 
Five Years Meeting specifically authorized any other 
committees to draw funds. No one seems to be con- 
stituted with authority to decide whether the amounts 
drawn by these boards and other committees are in 
accordance with the wishes of the Five Years Meeting. 
The second clause of first extract would apparently limit 
such drawings to actual expenses of administration and 
correspondence. The Board of Foreign Missions at first 
considered itself entitled to draw the amount estimated 
by the Finance Committee for each year, as though that 
were a definite appropriation, irrespective of the actual 



MINUTES 43 

amount of its administration expenses. Some of the 
committees have drawn for expenses which, in the judg- 
ment of some Friends, were not strictly expenses of ad- 
ministration and correspondence. During the later years 
these committees have obtained the signature of the 
presiding clerk as an authority on which to draw upon 
the treasury. We question whether it was the intention 
of the Five Years Meeting to constitute its presiding 
clerk as the sole authority to decide whether funds 
should be drawn by these committees or not. We 
think the clause requiring "the certification of the clerk 
and first assistant clerk" was intended to apply to the 
transactions occurring at or near the time of the Five 
Years Meeting, and not to confer special authority on 
the presiding clerk to pass on expenses throughout the 
ensuing five years. 

The Auditors, under the circumstances, did not feel 
that they had authority to refuse to honor any vouchers 
paid by the Treasurer, on the certification of the chair- 
men, secretaries or clerk as above noted. 

We would recommend that the Five Years Meeting 
provide for the making of specific appropriations for the 
use of the various boards and committees, either directly 
or through its Finance Committee. The Finance Com- 
mittee could easily pass an appropriation when it makes 
the estimates of "probable expenses" each year, if the 
Five Years Meeting sees fit to authorize them to do so. 
The amount of such appropriations unexpended each 
year, should either be returned to the treasury, or con- 
sidered in the amount of the next year's appropriation. 

Timothy Nicholson, 
Francis A. Wright. 

21. The report of the Evangelistic Board next 
claimed our attention, together with that of the Treas- 
urer of the Board. 



44 MINUTES 

REPORT OF EVANGELISTIC AND CHURCH EXTENSION 

BOARD. 

To the Five Years Meeting to be held at Richmond, Ind., 
Tenth month 15, 1907: 

Dear Friends: 

There seems to be but little to be reported from the 
Board as way has not opened for any special service 
along the lines indicated by the Uniform Discipline. 
There are neglected fields in all of the Yearly Meetings; 
but each Yearly Meeting is striving to meet the needs 
within its own borders, and the workers and the finances 
are being taxed to the utmost in the efforts that are 
made. Under such circumstances, suggestions or infor- 
mation from this Board to any Yearly Meeting Board 
would seem to be unwarranted. No application for 
financial assistance has been received. 

Ministers recorded in different Yearly Meetings: 
Indiana, 13; Iowa, 10: Kansas, 10; North Carolina, 2; 
New England, 5 ; New York, 8 ; Oregon, 3 ; Western, .5 ; 
Wilmington, 3. 

Regarding a publication of a "Book of Meetings," 
which was referred to this Board by the Five Years 
Meeting, we can only report that we have not been neg- 
lectful of our duty. Very soon after the subject was 
referred to us, we commenced to gather the necessary 
information for such a book. Carefully prepared ques- 
tions were printed and a large number of slips were sent 
to the different Yearly Meetings addressed either to 
members of this Board or to the clerks of the Meetings, 
requesting prompt and explicit replies to the same. The 
responses were few in number and many were very 
incomplete. Realizing that the value of such a book 
depended upon its completeness and accuracy, we sent 
out another supply of slips of questions to the Yearly 
Meetings and to many of the Quarterly Meetings, at the 
same time sending personal letters to prominent Friends 
in the different Yearly Meetings, soliciting their aid in 
seeing that the necessary information was obtained and 



MINUTES 45 

forwarded to us. We also, at different times, through the 
columns of the "American Friend," called the attention 
of Friends generally to what we were endeavoring to 
accomplish and requested the aid of all interested in the 
matter. 

These efforts extended over a period of more than 
three years. Arrangements had been made with the 
"Friends Publishing Association" to publish the book 
as soon as the copy could be secured. We regret to be 
obliged to report, however, that only from California, 
Canada, New York, New England, Philadelphia and 
Wilmington were we able to obtain complete returns. 

Indiana with fifteen Quarterly Meetings reported 
from only thirteen. 

Western with sixteen Quarters reported from only 
six. 

Iowa with twenty Quarters reported from nine 
complete and from seven partially. 

Kansas with fifteen Quarters reported from two 
complete and from twelve partially. 

North Carolina with eight Quarters reported from 
three only. 

Ohio reported from three only, while Oregon did not 
report at all. After all this unavailing effort it did not 
seem wise to this Board to carry the matter any farther. 

We desire to acknowledge our appreciation of the 
kindness of the "American Friend" in supplying much 
information in regard to location, statistics, etc., of dif- 
ferent Meetings, also in allowing us the use of its columns 
from time to time for our appeals for the material needed, 
to enable us to accomplish what we had undertaken. 

We also extend our thanks to Friends everywhere 
who have rendered us aid in any way. 

Signed on behalf of the Evangelistic and Church 
Extension Board. 

Charles H. Jones, Chairman. 
Emma Hedges, Secretary. 



46 MINUTES 

treasurer's report of evangelistic and church 
extension board. 
Receipts. 
1903. 

9 mo. 16. From Rachel Kirk $10 00 

10 mo. 12, From Treasurer, Five Years Meet- 
ing 8 10 

1904. 

1 mo. 21. From Chicago Meeting 12 20 

" From Chicago West Side Meeting 3 09 

2 mo. 23. From Chicago Western Springs 

Meeting 1 67 

" From Salem Meeting (Western 

Yearly Meeting) 338 

5 mo. 25. From West Union Meeting, (West- 
ern Yearly Meeting) 382 

7 mo. 14. From Cottonwood Quarterly Meet- 
ing (Kansas Yearly Meeting).. . 1 00 
10 mo. 17. From Paonia Meeting, collected 

by Miles J. White 341 

10 mo. 2. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, by 

Josiah Binford 34 85 

10 mo. 16. From M. J. White 18 00 

1906 
10 mo. 10. From Kansas Yearly Meeting, by 

Josiah Binford t,^ 54 

1904 
10 mo. 17. From Alimatos Meeting, collected 

by Levi Gregory 2 50 



Total $135 56 

Disbursements. 
1903. 
11 mo. 2. To C. H. Jones, Chairman, post- 
age, etc $1 20 

" " To Levi Gregory, expense in the 

work 6 90 



MINUTES 47 

1904. 
10 mo. 17. To Levi Gregory, expense in the 

work $247 

Postage and exchange to date by 

Treasurer 99 



Total $11 56 

Cash to balance $124 00 



Respectfully submitted, 

John T. Hadley, Treasurer. 
Plainfield, Tenth month 14, 1907. 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary of the 
Board amend her report before publication, by the addi- 
tion of a summary of work done in the various Yearly 
Meetings during the past five years. The chairmen of 
the delegations were held responsible for supplying her 
with the minutes of their respective Meetings. The 
report of the Treasurer was referred to the Auditing 
Committee. 

22. It was decided that this sitting close at twelve 
and the afternoon sessions convene at half-past two. 

23. The report of the Board of Education was read 
and with slight additions is printed below: 

REPORT OF BOARD OF EDUCATION OF FIVE YEARS MEETING 
TO THE SESSION HELD OCTOBER, I907. 

The Board of Education has endeavored to faith- 
fully carry out the instructions given at the sessions of 
1902. Meetings of the entire Board were held at the 
time of the last Five Years Meeting in 1902 and in 1905 
during sessions of the Educational Conference, and 
Tenth month 15, 1907. In these meetings the general 
work was discussed. The subject of a lectureship on 



48 MINUTES 

the "History and Interpretation of Christian Truth as 
held by Friends," was carefully considered and further 
endorsed by the Educational Conference. The Execu- 
tive Committee has had the responsibility of carrying 
this resolution into effect. They made provision for one 
course. Through the generosity of Haverford College 
the services of Rufus M. Jones were secured. He pre- 
pared a series of four lectures upon the following sub- 
jects, viz: 

(i) The Birth of Quakerism and Its Prophet. 

(2) The Message of Early Quakerism. 

(3) The Contributions of Ouakerism to the Progress 

of the World. 

(4) The Message of Ouakerism to the World of 

To-day. 

These lectures were delivered at Wilmington, Ohio, 
Wichita, Kansas, Oskaloosa, Iowa, and Richmond, 
Indiana. Expressions from all those places were to the 
effect that the work was exceedingly valuable, and the 
kind of work ought to be perpetuated covering a broader 
field. The Executive Committee adhered to the policy, 
not to contract for any service for which the means was 
not actually in hand, and to make each series of lectures 
provide the financial support for the next one. Each 
college located where lectures were given pledged in 
advance a sum proportional to its then productive 
endowment fund and has paid such pledge to the Board. 
The traveling expenses of Rufus M. Jones were paid, 
and in addition one hundred dollars for the extra labor 
performed. 

As the Board goes out of office at this time it has 
made no contracts for future work which would have to 
be carried out by a new Board, but stands ready to turn 
over to its successors its balance of $440.00 to be used 
by them in the future conduct of the lectureship. The 
Board strongly recommends that at least twice in every 
five-year period, series of lectures should be given, and 
that as wide a scope of territory should be covered as is 
possible. 



MINUTES 49 

The Executive Committee also made provision for 
an Educational Conference which was held Seventh 
month 31, to Eighth month 3, 1905. The Secretary of 
that Conference reports as follows: 

" The Educational Conference held at Earlham Col- 
lege in the summer of 1905 was a time of much benefit. 

"The program, which contained many topics of 
interest, was well prepared and the papers and addresses 
led to discussions concerning educational methods which 
were very helpful. The occasion was profitable also 
because of the mingling together of educators from all 
parts of the country and the acquaintances thus formed 
and the views exchanged will be helpful, we trust, in 
bringing about a larger degree of unity and co-operation 
in our educational work. 

"Lucy Francisco, 
"Secretary of the Conference." 

Her statement will, I am sure, be most heartily 
endorsed by all who attended. 

Nine sessions were held, each being opened with a 
season of devotion. 

The program was as follows: 
Welcome Address — William Dudley Foulke, Richmond, 

Ind. 
Reports from our Educational Institutions — Robert E. 
Pretlow, Wilmington, Ohio, Chairman Executive 
Committee. 
Ljeader in Discussion — William F. Overman, Friends 
Academy, Moorestown, N. J. 

The Educational Situation: 

(a) The Material Forces — A. Rosenberger, Presi- 
ident Penn College, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

(b) The Spiritual Forces— Charles E. Tebbetts, 
President Whittier College, Whittier, Cal. 

(c) The Outlook — Robert L. Kelly, President 
Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

Discussion—Leader: Clarence M. Case, Pastor 



50 MINUTES 

South Eighth Street Friends Church, Rich- 
mond, Ind. 

The Articulation of our Educational Agencies: 

(a) Secondary Schools and Colleges — Charles E. 

Cosand, Principal Central Academy, Plainfield, 

Ind.; Edwin Morrison, Professor of Physics, 

Penn College. 
(6) The Needs of a Friends' Graduate School — 

Thomas Newlin, The University of Chicago. 
Discussion — Leaders: Royal J. Davis, Professor 

of English, Guilford College, N. C; Murray S. 

Wildman, Professor of History, Central College, 

Fayette, Mo. 
The School and Society: 

(a) Denominational and Public Education — 
Edwin D. Starbuck, Professor of Education, 
Earlham College. 

(b) The College as an Agent for Developing Citi- 
zenship, Don C. Barrett, Dean Haverford Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania. 

Discussion — Leaders: Elwood C. Perisho, Pro- 
fessor of Geology, University South Dakota, 
Vermilion, S. D. ; William C. Dennis, Instructor 
in Department of Law, Columbia University. 
The School and The Church : 

(a) The Method of Religious Education— Irving 
King, Professor of Psychology, Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(b) The School and the College as Evangelizing 
Agencies, William P. Pinkham, Instructor in 
the Bible Training School, Cleveland, Ohio; 
Albert J. Brown, President of Wilmington Col- 
lege, Wilmington, Ohio. 

Discussion — Leader: Rufus M.Jones, Professor of 
Philosophy, Haverford College. 

The School and The Church— 

The Development of Religious Leaders: 

(a) Pastors: J. Edwin Jay, Professor of Biblical 
Literature, Friends University, Wichita, Kans. 



MINUTES 51 

(b) Teachers: L. L. Hobbs, President Guilford 
College, N. C. 

(c) Missionaries: Eliza C. Armstrong, Editor of 
"Friends Missionary Advocate," Plainfield, 
Ind. 

Discussion— Leaders: Carolena M. Wood, Mt. 
Kisco, N. Y. ;Emma S. Townsend, Martinsville, 
Ohio. 

The School and The Church — Continued : 

The Use of Our Literature — George A. Barton, 

Professor of Biblical Literature, Bryn Mawr 

College, Pa. 
The Production of Quaker Literature— T. Harvey 

Haines, Professor of Philosophy, Ohio State 

University. 
Discussion— Leader: Anna M. Moore, Westtown 

Boarding School, Pa. 

The School and The Church — Continued: 

(a) Doctrinal Teachings in our Schools — Elbert 
Russell, Professor of Biblical Literature, Earl- 
ham College. 

(&) The Relation of Our Doctrine to the Modern 
Thought AVorld — James Wood, Mt. Kisco, 
N. Y. 

(c) The Problems of Method — Rufus M. Jones. 
Haverford College. 

Discussion — Leader: Allen C. Thomas, Professor 
of History, Haverford College. 

The School and The Church — Our Educational Ideas: 

(a) The Physical Phases — Leon L. Tyler, Prin- 
cipal Fairmount Academy. 
(6) The Intellectual Phases — Edmund Stanley, 
President Friends University. 

(c) The Social Phases — Walter C. Wood, Princi- 
pal Oakwood Seminary, Union Springs, N. Y. 

(d) The Spiritual Phases, Mary M. Hobbs, Guil- 
ford College, N. C. 



52 MINUTES 

The comparatively small cost of the Conference was 
made possible by co-operation with the Committee of the 
Friends Bible Institute of Indiana, Western, and Wil- 
mington Yearly Meetings. 

The administrative expenses of the Board have been 
met through the Treasurer of the Five Years Meeting, 
and will appear in his report. The further financial 
statement follows: 

Receipts: 

From voluntary contributions $392 26 

From college boards 350 00 

From interest on deposit 247 

Total $744 73 



Disbursements: 



Partial expenses speakers at Educa- 
tional Conference $93 80 

Traveling expenses Rufus M. Jones no 00 

Rufus M. Jones for services 100 00 

Deposit in Savings Bank, Brooklyn, 

N. Y . 440 93 



Total. $744 73 



The balance, $440.93 is drawing interest at 4 per 
cent. 

At the last Five Years Meeting the attention of 
Friends was called to the importance of increased 
opportunity for Biblical instruction. This has been 
receiving much greater attention in all our colleges and 
academies and increased facilities are being offered. 
Courses are now offered as follows : 

Haverford, 7 ; Earlham, 21; Penn, 10; Guilford, 16; 
Wilmington, ; Pacific, 2; Whittier, 6; Friends Uni- 
versity, 17. 



MINUTES 53 

In the above enumeration three courses make a 
complete year's work with one hour per day in the class 
room. 

These courses are designed to give a practical 
knowledge of the history, literary forms and thought of 
the books of the Bible, and to train students in methods 
of Bible study and interpretation. They also include 
the study of Ancient Oriental History, New Testament 
Times, Church History including special attention to 
History of Friends. 

At present we see no better way of increasing the 
efficiency of our young people who are to be the future 
workers in the Church than by sustaining and strength- 
ening these courses in our colleges and academies. 

The past five-year period has been one of growth 
in nearly all our colleges, in buildings and equipment, 
in enlarged courses of instruction and stronger faculties, 
and in largely increased endowment funds. There can 
be no better way of insuring the efficiency and per- 
manency of the Church of the future than by increasing 
the permanent funds of these institutions. Especially 
is this true of the pioneer fields of the west. In this 
connection we desire to call attention to the present 
effort of Pacific College to secure an endowment of 
$50,000. They have a large field of usefulness in a new 
country. They have maintained a leading place among 
the educational institutions of the northwest with very 
limited means. We most heartily commend them to all 
friends who have at heart the interests of our Church in 
that great field. We call attention to Pacific College at 
this time, because they are now in the field with $14,000 
pledged in their own locality on condition the en- 
tire amount of $50,000 is secured before First month 
1, 1908. 

The Executive Committee a year ago authorized 
the establishment of a Teachers' Agency in connection 
with Earlham College. A considerable number of 
Friend teachers have filed their application, but thus 
far few Friends Schools have made any use of it. No 



54 MINUTES 

charge is made to schools seeking teachers. A charge of 
two dollars is required of teachers applying, to cover 
postage and clerical work. 

The Board has not seen its way clear to appoint a 
Financial Board, as recommended in section 4, page 53, 
of Minutes of 1902, during our period of service. But 
we now strongly advise such appointment by the new 
Board. 

Buildings and r-„j„„™,„„4.'Members c,„j„ tr 

equipments. E .™£ £m ent. Facul Studies 

Increase. increase. Increase> increase. 

Haverford $167,000 $350,000 3 21% 

Earlham 105,000 116,000 9 . 51% 

Penn 18,000 8,000 2 17% 

Guilford 20,000 115,000 2 20% 

Wilmington 5,000 25,000 43% 

Pacific Held its own 

Friends University. .None 110,000 5 50% 

Whittier 16,000 150,000 5 50% 

friends' seminary of ontario (known as pickering 
college). 

Sessions discontinued since the main building was 
destroyed by fire Twelfth month 30, 1905. 

Prior to the fire the school was filled to its capacity 
with about ninety residents, besides day students, or a 
total of about 105, with a teaching staff of nine resident 
teachers, including the Principal, William P. Firth, 
M. A., D. S. 

The school was located at Pickering, Ontario, on 
G. T. R., about twenty miles east of Toronto, on ten 
acres of land. 

Buildings, Main, including dormitories, schoolroom, 
class-room, dining-room, etc. 

Other buildings: Brick gymnasium, frame stables, 
frame cottage. 

Present situation: Ruins of main building of no 
value except old brick, etc. 






MINUTES 55 

The Yearly Meeting has decided, for substantial 
reasons, to rebuild the institution at Newmarket, Ont., 
about twenty-six miles north of Toronto. There is 
an active Friends Meeting at this place, and it is the 
center of a large Friends settlement; also the local 
citizens have subscribed specially for that purpose, 
amounts totaling more than the value of the assets now 
at Pickering. 

The College Committee have on hand, and sub- 
scribed towards rebuilding, about $54,000 and require 
about $25,000 additional to rebuild on a moderate plan, 
with accommodation for about 100 to no resident 
pupils. 

Scope of school is secondary residential for boys 
and girls. 

Albert S. Rogers, 6 King street, W. Toronto, Chair- 
man of Committe and Board. 

Other members of Committee ; any of whom would 
be glad to give information : Elias Rogers, Toronto, Ont. ; 
Dr. J. J. Mills, Toronto, Ont.; James A. Cody, New- 
market, Ont.; William Harris, Rockwood, Ont.; W. 
K. Bowerman, Bloomfield, Ont. 

24. The delegations were instructed to present the 
names of those to act on the various boards, as soon as 
possible, in order to facilitate the organization of the 
work for the coming five years. 

25. The minutes were read and, with slight change, 
approved. 

26. The meeting adjourned to meet at 2.30 p. m. 

Fourth-Day, Afternoon, Tenth Month i6th. 

27. The meeting opened according to adjournment. 
Bunji Kida, an evangelist from Japan, was welcomed 
to our gathering. 



56 MINUTES 

28. The following proposal from Iowa Yearly Meet- 
ing was read and referred to the business Committee : 

COMMUNICATION FROM IOWA YEARLY MEETING. 

Minute 21, of Iowa Yearly Meeting of IQOJ. 

The subject involved in the following request from 
Pleasant Plain Quarterly Meeting was endorsed by the 
Meeting, and the delegates from this Yearly Meeting to 
the Five Years Meeting, were accordingly instructed to 
present to the Five Years Meeting, the matter of the 
establishment of a Friends publishing house. 

"As a Quarterly Meeting, we request the Yearly 
Meeting to instruct its delegates to the Five Years' Meet- 
ing to present to that Meeting for its consideration, the 
advisability of establishing a Friends publishing house. 
Taken from the Minutes of Pleasant Plain Quarterly 
Meeting of Friends, held at Woolson, Iowa, Fifth month 
18, 1907." 

Mahlon Roberts, 
Anna K. Kitch, 

Clerks. 
All taken from the Minutes of Iowa Yearly Meeting 
for 1907. 

Stephen M. Hadley, Clerk. 

29. The following report of the American Friends' 
Board of Foreign Missions was read, together with that 
of the Treasurer of the Board. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN FRIENDS' BOARD OF FOREIGN 

MISSIONS. 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

This report covers specially the time since 1902 
when the American Friends' Board, then in the ninth 
year of its existence, was adopted by the Five Years 
Meeting as its Board of Foreign Missions. 

Since then the Board has continued its work on the 
lines marked out in the Discipline. 



MINUTES 57 

It has published two reports annually. Each 
spring it has made a general report of its work, its pro- 
gress, and its needs, to the Yearly Meetings belonging 
to the Five Years Meeting. To this report, also all the 
American Friends' Foreign Mission Boards have been 
invited to contribute brief sketches of their work for 
each last preceding year. The report has been enlarged 
from a sixteen page pamphlet to thirty-two pages to 
give room for these sketches from the other boards 
Three thousand copies of it have been printed and dis- 
tributed annually. It is frequently called for when a 
brief synopsis of American Friends' work in foreign 
Missions is desired. 

The other report is the Statistical Report published 
and distributed every fall. 

In the year preceding the Ecumenical Missionary 
Conference of 1900, the managers of that Conference 
prepared a schedule of heads or items for a world-wide 
statistical report on foreign missions, and sent it every- 
where where Christian foreign mission work was being 
carried on, to collect under these heads information of 
all such work everywhere in the world. This schedule 
has been the basis of such reports from the denomi- 
nations in America generally since then. 

The American Friends' Board eliminated some heads 
from this schedule that were not applicable to any work 
carried on by American Friends, modified a few to adapt 
them to our forms and methods, and added two or three 
new heads, thus forming a schedule of about forty-seven 
heads or items, under which it has collected the informa- 
tion it tabulates for the annual Statistical Report. The 
boards have very kindly, and usually very carefully, 
filled out these statistical blanks, and this report is a 
compendium of missionary information, valuable for 
answers to many inquiries from outside our Church. 
The statistics for the report of 1907 are not yet all 
received, and, therefore, the report is not now made out, 
but from the reports in 1902 and 1906, it is seen that in 
these four years Friends have kept all their old fields 



58 MINUTES 

and entered one new one in Central America, making ten 
widely separated countries in which American Friends 
have missions. 

These reports show steady but not rapid gains in 
the four years included : 

We find the number of stations and In 1 ^ 02 In x 9° 6 

out-stations 58 92 

Number of foreign missionaries.... 78 91 

Number of native church mem- 
bers 2,140 3,578 

Number of pupils in the missions 

schools ' !,5o7 2 ,379 

Annual contributions for foreign 
missions passing through the 
treasuries of Friends Boards 

about $58,000 $78,000 

More such comparisons might be drawn. 



Other Publications. 

In November, 1902, just after the Five Years Meet- 
ing, the Board decided to send out a monthly news- 
letter to keep its members informed and interested about 
the work, chiefly its work in Cuba. These news- 
letters, copied on mimeograph, have been sent out 
since then with an increasing circulation among others 
than Board members; between 250 and 300 copies have 
been sent out of each issue for two or three years past. 

In 1904, the American Friends' Board took the 
initiative and was joined by other boards, specially those 
of Indiana and Western Yearly Meetings, in having 
the Discipline of American Friends translated into 
Spanish and published for the use of Spanish-speaking 
Friends. The translation, first made by Joseph M. 
Purdie, then at Guilford College, North Carolina, was 
critically examined and revised by Luciano Mascorro, a 
competent Mexican Friend, and carefully compared with 
the original English by William Irving Kelsey, the Super- 



MINUTES 59 

intendent of the Indiana Mexican Mission. The print- 
ing was done in 1905, on Indiana Yearly Meeting's Mis- 
sion Press in Victoria, Mexico. One thousand copies 
were printed, and these and the cost of them divided 
among the Boards concerned; 276 copies was the share 
of the American Friends' Board under this division, the 
cost was thirteen cents apiece. The printed sheets of 
these were shipped to Richmond and bound, at a cost 
of eight cents each. The Secretary has supplied them 
to our missionaries in Cuba as they have called for them. 
The remaining copies of them are stored in the fire-proof 
vault in Indiana Yearly Meeting house. After their use 
two years in Mexico, W. Irving Kelsey thus writes: 
"The new Discipline has been a great aid in re-organiz- 
ing the work, and out of the mission is slowly but surely 
rising the Mexican Friends Church, with its congrega- 
tions, and Monthly and Quarterly Meetings, adhering in 
essentials to the established usages of Friends. " 

In the summer of 1904, at the instance of the First 
Friends Missionary Conference in Cuba, a Spanish 
treatise on Christian Doctrine and the Duties and Privi- 
leges of Church Members as taught by Friends, was com- 
piled and prepared for the press by Sylvester Jones. 
A translation of it into English was submitted for exam- 
ination to the American Friends' Board and by it ap- 
proved and its publication authorized. Eight hundred 
copies were published and used chiefly in Cuba. A few 
of them went to other countries. 

In 1905 the Board was inquired of for authority 
and funds to print a tract on "Romanism in Roman 
Catholic Countries," containing also a brief account of 
Friends Mission in Cuba. This tract was prepared by 
Sylvester Jones and intended chiefly for distribution 
among the Christian Endeavorers of Friends in America. 
Fifteen hundred copies were printed in Richmond, Ind., 
under the care of the Secretary of the Board, and 
promptly distributed, some going into every Yearly 
Meeting. The cost of these was donated by the "Book 
and Tract Committee" of Indiana Yearly Meeting. 



60 MINUTES 

Interdenominational Work. 

The Five Years Meeting made it "the duty of this 
Board to represent American Friends in matters per- 
taining to the interdenominational aspect of foreign 
mission work." Quite a number of occasions have 
arisen for the exercise of this function. We mention 
some of them. 

As such central board the American Friends' Board 
has co-operated with various international and inter- 
denominational organizations in gathering and impart- 
ing missionary information ; it has sent delegates to 
some general and international conferences and con- 
ventions; as the Annual Conference of Foreign Mission 
Boards of the United States and Canada; the Inter- 
national Convention at Nashville, 1906, of the Student 
Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions; the Winona, 
and Silver Bay Conferences of the Young People's Mis- 
sionary Movement, etc., and, by a sympathetic attitude 
towards young people's interdenominational organiza- 
tions, it has endeavored to encourage their efforts for 
promoting the cause of foreign missions. It has yearly 
furnished the missionary information for the Friends in 
America, chiefly statistical, to the "Missionary Review 
of the World" and the "American Board's Almanac of 
Missions." Also has furnished information to some 
other periodicals and for some books that were being 
written. It has voiced the views of American Friends 
on several broad and practical subjects; one, the ap- 
pointment, by the International Conference of Mission 
Boards, of a Committee on Reference and Arbitration, 
to which might be referred questions of missionary 
comity on the field; suggestions regarding unoccupied 
fields; negotiations with the government, and other 
questions that might be referred to it from time to time. 

In this connection we may relate that, in 1905, the 
American Friends' Board, being applied to from one of 
the Friends Missions to intervene, lodged a protest with 
the Union Board of a denomination in the United States, 
against a contemplated infraction of the generally 



MINUTES 6T 

accepted rules of missionary comity that foreboded 
injury to the mission of one of the Yearly Meetings. The 
protest was heeded, the proposed infraction was recon- 
sidered, and a kindly letter in answer to our protest 
withdrawing from such purpose was received by the 
Board. 

The Field Work in Cuba. 

The field work of the American Friends' Board in 
Cuba has been reported year by year to the Yearly Meet- 
ings. To these annual reports we refer for the details of 
this work, too long to recount here. The blessing of the 
Lord has rested upon it, under which, through the faith- 
ful services of our superintendent and missionaries, we 
believe a good foundation is laid for its future develop- 
ment, and some precious fruit in souls brought to Christ 
has already been gathered. From the beginning of our 
mission, in 1900, Zenas L. Martin, of Iowa Yearly Meet- 
ing, has been the trusted and efficient Agent and the 
Superintendent of Missions in Cuba of the American 
Friends' Board; and much of the success of the work is 
due to his good judgment and wise management, and to 
his consecrated and self-sacrificing efforts, undiscouraged 
though causes of discouragement abounded, leaning 
always upon the Lord for strength and guidance. 

The first missionaries of the Board were sent to 
Cuba in the fall of 1900. They were Sylvester and May 
M. Jones, of Iowa, graduated the summer before from 
Penn College; Emma Phillips, of Indiana, with a quali- 
fication of seven years of missionary experience in 
Mexico, and a knowledge of the Spanish language; 
Maria de Los Santos Trevino, a Mexican girl, converted 
and educated in the Mission of Friends in Matamoros, 
Mexico. These all remain in the work in Cuba. Emma 
Phillips, now Martinez, was married in 1903, and is now 
the head of Wilmington Yearly Meeting's Mission at 
Puerto Padre. In the beginning of the year 1902, Ray- 
mond S. Holding, of Indiana, was sent to the mission, and 
a year later Minnie Cook, of Kansas, now Mrs. Holding, 



62 MINUTES 

came to Cuba. She was married to Raymond S. Hold- 
ing on her arrival. He had charge of the Banes Mission, 
opened directly after their marriage, until he returned 
home on furlough the summer of 1906. Arthur E. L. 
Pain also assisted in the work at Banes for several 
months, when he married a missionary from . North 
Carolina, and they are now the missionaries of North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting, at Jaruco, Cuba. In the 
spring of 1902 Charles C. Haworth, of Kansas, and wife, 
Ruth Orpha, were sent to Cuba. Their work was at 
Holguin most of the time. They are now at home on 
furlough. Clotilde L. Pretlow, of Indiana, was sent to 
Gibara as missionary school teacher in 1903; Mary L. 
Ellis, of Iowa, was sent out in 1904, missionary school 
teacher at Holguin; and Jennie E. Joyce, of Nebraska, 
was sent out as teacher at Banes in 1905; Joseph M. 
Purdie and wife were sent as missionaries to Holguin 
in 1906. Of these missionaries Sylvester Jones and wife 
and M. Santos Trevino have entered upon a second term 
of five years' engagement. 

Three Monthly Meetings of Cuban Friends have 
been established; one at Gibara, opened in 1903; one 
at Banes, opened in 1905; and one at Holguin, opened 
in 1906; with a number of regular meetings in adjacent 
villages. The aggregate of membership in the meetings 
is about 120, i.e. of those in full membership. Half as 
many more perhaps are applicants for membership and 
are being instructed in candidates' classes. 

Sabbath schools are conducted in connection with 
most of the regular meetings. Day schools are estab- 
lished at each of the three principal stations. A suitable 
meeting-house, a school-house, and a residence for the 
missionaries have been built at each of the principal 
stations, Gibara, Banes and Holguin, under the direction 
of Zenas L. Martin (only that the buildings at Holguin 
are not yet quite finished), thus these three stations are 
quite comfortably equipped with buildings. 

Including the superintendent, nine missionaries 
are now on the ground. The return soon of some of 



MINUTES 63 

those away on furlough is expected and desired. One 
Cuban worker has been recorded a minister of the Gospel. 
He has given almost five years of capable service to the 
mission. Another native laborer has general charge 
now at one of the stations, in the protracted absence of 
the American missionaries. 

With many doors opening before them and the 
Macedonian cry from many places, "Come over and 
help us," sounding in their ears, it has been a great 
temptation to the missionaries to extend the work still 
more widely, but an assured and enlarged income to sup- 
port such extension has not been found. 

Union in Foreign Mission Work. 

It has been apparent for years that the trend of 
thought in many of the foreign mission boards of Ameri- 
can Friends is in the direction of closer union in the 
administration of their work. In 1905, four boards 
brought this matter before the American Friends' Board 
at its annual meeting, suggesting that a plan of union be 
sought by which the latter Board should take over the 
general administration of the work of the other boards, 
and unite much that is scattered and isolated into a 
stronger and more effective organization. 

Taking these requests under advisement, the Ameri- 
can Friends' Board called a general missionary confer- 
ence to meet in Tenth month, 1906, to which all the 
foreign mission boards of American Friends, or their 
Yearly Meetings, were invited to send delegates. All 
accepted the invitation, and a conference so composed 
was held and was united beyond expectation in approval 
of such a union. 

A committee was afterward appointed by the 
American Friends' Board at its annual meeting just fol- 
lowing the conference, to endeavor to advance the 
movement by giving further thought to the developing 
of the plan of union, and having something ready to 
present to the new Board which shall be organized this 



64 MINUTES 

fall, for its consideration. The report of that committee 
has been accepted, and has been passed on to the incom- 
ing Board. 

In the meantime, co-operation of boards is being 
successfully tried in Cuba on a small scale. In 1902, 
Wilmington Yearly Meeting's Foreign Mission Board, 
having decided to open a mission in Cuba, proposed to 
the American Friends' Board general co-operation with it, 
while retaining most of the details of management in its 
own hands. Such a plan was agreed upon, the relations 
of the boards defined, and the Wilmington work has 
gone on successfully and harmoniously with that of the 
American Friends' Board, under the same general super- 
intendency. More recently North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting's Foreign Mission Board decided upon making 
Cuba its mission field, and applied to the American 
Friends' Board for an arrangement by which it should 
come under the same general management. The Board 
gave a cordial reception to this proposition, but thought, 
as a general plan of union might soon be arranged, it 
would be better to wait for this than to make a separate 
plan for this one Board. Meanwhile, the American 
or the North Carolina Friends' Board has regarded their 
work as practically a part of the general Cuba field. 
Its Superintendent, Zenas L. Martin, went at their re- 
quest, only a few weeks ago, to their headquarters, to 
look over the work and help them decide upon the 
place to erect their first mission building. 

Thus, naturally and quietly, the union is coming. 
May the Lord's blessing rest on all the work and His 
hand guide in all plans for its future development! 

Thomas C. Brown, President. 
Mahalah Jay, Secretary. 



MINUTES 65 

Summary of Receipts and Expenditures of American 

Friends' Board of Foreign Missions for Five Years, 

ending Third month 31, 1907. 

James Carey, Jr., Treasurer, in account with American 
Friends' Board of Foreign Missions. 
1902. 
4 mo. 1. To balance on hand by last report.. . $1,752 62 
To receipts for five years as follows: 
Administration ac- 
count $3,984 85 

Mission account: 
Sundry re- 
ceipts . .$16,140 76 
School re- 
ceipts . . 2,404 58 

18,545 34 

General building ac- 
count 4,336 64 

Holguin building loan. . 250 00 

Special donation 2,644 43 

Loan account, amount 

borrowed 900 00 

Sundry receipts 49 5 1 

30,710 77 

$32,463 39 



By expenditures for same period: 
Expenses of adminis- 
tration $4,048 33 

Mission expenses 20,130 66 

Cost of property and 

buildings in Cuba. . 7,972 03 
1007 

Loans returned 300 00 

4 mo. 1. Balance on hand this 

date 1237 

$32,463 39 



5 



66 MINUTES 

The reports were received and the plan of union 
therein suggested referred to the new Board. 

30. The Committee on Legislation made the fol- 
lowing report which was greatly appreciated, and extracts 
read from the "Congressional Record" were directed in- 
corporated therein: 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION TO THE 
FIVE YEARS MEETING. 

As directed by this Committee, a sub-committee had 
Articles of Incorporation of the Five Years Meeting pre- 
pared, and signed by all the members and filed as the 
law requires — one copy in the office of the Secretary of 
State, at Indianapolis, and the other in the County 
Clerk's Office, in Richmond, Indiana— the incorporation 
being under the statutes of that state. A third copy 
was also filed with the Treasurer of the Five Years Meet- 
ing. (For copy see Appendix.) 

As provided by the Discipline, several members of 
the Board have given attention to legislation in their 
respective states, and the sub-committee of five mem- 
bers has given attention to subjects before the National 
Congress, affecting our denomination and its interests. 

In 1902, just previous to the holiday recess of Con- 
gress, we learned that a new militia bill had been 
adopted by the House and its consideration almost com- 
pleted by the Senate, and that the bill contained no 
exemption from military service of those persons con- 
scientiously opposed to all war; the first section of the 
bill being, every able-bodied male citizen of the respec- 
tive States, Territories and the District of Columbia, 
over eighteen years of age and under forty-five years, 
shall be a member of the militia. 

During the holiday recess, Senator Albert J. Bev- 
eridge was at his home in Indianapolis, and the chair- 
man of the Board of Legislation, who is also a member of 
the committee of five on National Legislation, with the 
other Indiana members of the Board, and several other 



MINUTES 67 

Friends, met, by appointment, the Senator in his office. 
The interview was very earnest and impressive. He had 
not given much attention to the militia bill, and had not 
discovered there was no section exempting Friends from 
military service. He was very emphatic in his utter- 
ance that such a provision ought to be in the bill, and he 
felt sure if the attention of the Secretary of War, who 
prepared the bill, had been called to it, he would have 
inserted it without objection; but he described the very 
great difficulty of securing the desired amendment. He 
said Senator Proctor, of Vermont, the chairman of the 
Committee on Military Affairs, had hoped to get the bill 
passed by the Senate before the holiday adjournment, 
as many state legislatures were in session and some of 
them wanted to change the state militia laws to make 
them conform to the new militia bill of Congress, and he 
feared Senator Proctor would not consent to any such 
amendment at this stage. 

Senator Beveridge cheerfully promised to do his 
utmost to get the committee in charge of the bill to 
accept the desired amendment; and failing in this he 
would offer it in the Senate and strive for its adoption. 
He urged that all the members of our committee should 
write to the Senators of our respective states, and urge 
their support of the desired amendment. He also prom- 
ised to keep the chairman of your committee advised, 
and instructed by letters, and by wire, if needful. 

All of his instructions were promptly executed by 
the committee, and a large number of our leading Sena- 
tors were thus written to, and our desires clearly stated, 
and in almost every instance a favorable response was 
received. 

The secretary of the committee of five also sent an 
official circular letter to every member of Congress. 
Senator Proctor, however, considered such an amend- 
ment unnecessary and gave no encouragement that he 
would accept it. In their letters to Senators and mem- 
bers of the House, each member of our committee could 
claim to represent the entire membership of the Five 



68 MINUTES 

Years Meeting, and not, as formerly, only those of his 
own Yearly Meeting; and in this way our influence was 
greatly increased. 

Consideration of the militia bill was resumed in the 
Senate as in the committee of the whole, First month, 
14, 1903, in charge of Senator Quarles of Wisconsin, as 
Senator Proctor was ill. Senator Beveridge offered the 
following amendment, as a proviso to the second section 
of the bill, "Provided: That nothing in this act shall be 
construed to require or compel any member of any 
religious organization, whose creed forbids its members 
to participate in war in any form, and whose religious 
convictions are against war, or participation therein, in 
accordance with the creed of said religious organizations, 
to serve in the militia or any other armed or volunteer 
force, under the jurisdiction and authority of the United 
States. " 

The very interesting debate that followed was 
participated in by Senators Beveridge of Indiana, Quarles 
of Wisconsin, Pettus of Alabama, Bate of Tennessee, 
Hoar of Massachusetts, Aldrich of Rhode Island, 
Spooner of Wisconsin, Depew of New York, and Clay of 
Georgia; and at the conclusion of Senator Hoar's last 
resistless argument, the amendment was agreed to with- 
out a division or vote. 

We thankfully acknowledge our Father's leading in 
the matter and His evident blessing upon the efforts of 
Senators Beveridge and Hoar, who were conspicuous 
in their advocacy of the proviso, each being on his feet 
at least a dozen times ; and yet the entire debate prob- 
ably did not occupy more than forty-five minutes. But 
for their great ability and tactful persistence, the amend- 
ment might have been defeated. 

Probably never before was the testimony of Friends 
against war, brought out so prominently before Con- 
gress ; and as a matter of history it would be well if the 
entire discussion, as it appears in the "Congressional 
Record," were made a part of this report. 

The chief objection to this amendment was, that it 



MINUTES 69 

interfered with the right of the states to determine who 
should serve in the militia. Senator Hoar clearly demon- 
strated the necessity of adopting this proviso by Con- 
gress, so as to prevent any state from requiring such 
persons to perform military service. 

The following are a few quotations from the "Con- 
gressional Record:" 

Mr. Quarles. — There are two pending amendments, Mr. 
President, one introduced by the Senator from Indiana (Mr. 
Beveridge) and the other by the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. 
McLaurin). 

Mr. Beveridge. — Mr. President, I offer the amendment 
heretofore introduced by myself, with a change in the form in 
which it is printed, by striking out the word "church" wherever 
it appears and inserting "religious organization." I do that in 
view of the suggestion of the senior Senator from Massachusetts 
(Mr. Hoar) that it would more accurately meet the situation. 
I offer it as it is there now, with those words stricken out and 
the other words written in. 

The President pro tempore. — The amendment as modi- 
fied by the Senator from Indiana will be stated. 

The Secretary. — It is proposed to add as a proviso to the 
second section of the bill the following: 

"Provided, That nothing in this act shall be construed to 
require or compel any member of any religious organization, 
whose creed forbids its members to participate in war in any 
form, and whos Q religious convictions are against war or partici- 
pation therein, in accordance with the creed of said religious 
organization, to serve in the militia or any other armed or volun- 
teer force under the jurisdiction and authority of the United 
States." 

Mr. Beveridge. — Mr. President, this amendment I offer 
to cover two or three well known religious organizations in the 
United States — particularly the Quakers and the Dunkards. 
It is well known that it is one of the fundamental tenets of their 
creed that war in any form is murder, and that they are con- 
scientiously opposed to participate therein. 

While I myself am not in favor of loading a bill with unnec- 
essary provisions, yet I think it is perfectly right that when a 
great and weighty and intelligent body of our fellow-citizens — 
and there are no more intelligent and worthy citizens of this 
United States than those known as the Quakers — ask for any- 
thing of this kind in a bill like this, it should be granted. Cer- 
tainly, if it be their opinion that when they go to war they are 
participating in a species of murder, they should not be forced 
to do so. Therefore*, upon that hypothesis the amendment 



yo MINUTES 

should be adopted. If, on the contrary, it does not compel 
them to do so, then the amendment can do no harm. In either 
event, it would be without injur}.-, meeting the wishes of one of 
the very large and one of the very best elements of the citizen- 
ship of this Republic. 

I hope the amendment will be accepted; and if it is not 
accepted, of course I shall want a vote upon it. 

Mr. Ocari.es. — Mr. President, I certainly hope that the 
amendment will not be adopted, because it is absolutely unneces- 
sary and is not germane, and would constitute defective legisla- 
tion. There is nothing compulsory connected with the militia 
system ; but the organization of the militia is left entirely to the 
states. Each state can regulate for itself the membership of 
the militia. I cannot see why we ought to attach to the bill this 
clause, wholly unnecessary and impertinent as it is, no matter 
how worthy the people may be to whom the amendment refers. 

Mr. Bate. — As to the pending amendment. I think it is 
germane, and that the Senator from Wisconsin is mistaken as 
to that. Like him, I do not see the necessity for the amendment, 
but I do not desire to throw obstacles in the way of its adoption, 
as it can do no mischief and will be a relief to such harmless and 
law-abiding citizens as Quakers and Dunkards. 

Mr. Beveridge. — There is a further consideration with 
reference to this amendment, a consideration entertained in the 
minds of this very large and very respectable body of our fellow- 
citizens. They intend to present their opinions to the various 
state legislatures when the question of militia legislation comes 
up, and there is a very distinct fear upon their part that this bill, 
having the scope that it has, will have influence upon state legis- 
lation, and that this amendment will take off that i nf luence from 
the state legislatures and leave them perfectly free. 

Mr. President, I will not argue with the Senator whether 
or not that fear and apprehension is well founded. I state 
merely that it is •worthy of note and not to be neglected when it 
comes from a body as large and as singularly intelligent as are 
the Quakers, the Dunkards, and other people like them in the 
United States. They are a people who read, a people who think, 
and a people who constitute a very valuable element of our 
;:: i zee -': it: Therefcre. I ;iy that their :'::.::r.£ ur_:r. a su'c;'ect 
of this kind are in themselves entitled to consideration and 
weight. 

Since it is admitted on all hands that the amendment pre- 
sented here can do no possible harm, and since the only objection 
urged against it is that perhaps it is surplusage, I do not see why 
it is that there is any objection to giving our concurrence to the 
clearly defined objection of this very large and exceedingly and 
unusually intelligent body of our fellow-citizens that they would 
be injured, both directly and indirectly, by the bill as it now 
stands. 



MINUTES 71 

I have nothing further to say upon the amendment, though 
I shall surely call for a vote upon it if it be not accepted by the 
committee. 

Mr. Hoar. — Mr. President, it seems to me that the Senator 
from Wisconsin does not give quite sufficient force to the lan- 
guage of the bill. I make the suggestion to him with great 
deference, because I am not, myself, as familiar with it as I ought 
to be before undertaking to discuss it, for my attention has been 
called to other matters which are pending. But, if I understand 
it, the first section of the bill describes who are to be the militia: 

"Every able-bodied male citizen of the respective states, 
territories and the District of Columbia," etc. 

All of those are now members of the militia by law. Whether 
a man so desires or not, it is proposed to make him a soldier by 
the law — the word "militia" means "soldiery," as I understand 
it — and without exception, if a man be within the two ages 
named in the bill, unless he be under the age of eighteen or over 
the other limit, which is forty-five years, he is a member of the 
militia. So a Quaker, who is conscientiously opposed to war, 
is made by law a soldier against his will. It seems to me we 
should not do that unless we wish to constrain a man against his 
conscience. It does seem to me that the amendment of the 
Senator from Indiana is germane and that it is proper, unless we 
mean to make by law all these men soldiers against their con- 
science. 

Mr. Quarles. — That is simply following the old act. 

Mr. Hoar. — I know; but I now understand the Senator 
having departed from that reason is giving another; that is, that 
we should not make this exception becaitse the states are to 
determine who shall constitute the militia, and that it is not for 
us to do it. I ask him, then, if that be the purpose, why it is 
that he does not undertake to determine by act of Congress who 
shall constitute the militia by saying that the militia shall consist 
of so and so, and not leave it to the states? 

Mr. Quarles. — I suppose, Mr. President, that the framer 
of this bill took the old act as he found it on the statute book, 
and undertook to define the two classes of militia, or the three 
classes, as it stood when the bill was originally introduced, fol- 
lowing the exact language of the old law. But I will call the 
Senator's attention to the last part of section two, which recog- 
nizes the power of the several states and territories to determine 
the exemptions from militia duty by their own peculiar system of 
laws. . Of course we recognize them, and have to recognize them; 
but it seems to me that to say that no state should incorporate 
into the militia a certain group of religious people, who live in the 
State of Indiana, for instance, would be beyond the scope of our 
jurisdiction. That, it seems to me, is a question purely for that 
state to determine in its own way. 

Mr. Depew. — Mr. President, in reference to the last remark 



72 MINUTES 

of the Senator from Wisconsin as to the interest there may be in 
this amendment, there is a very large body of Quakers in the 
State of New York. I have received many communications 
from them, and they are very much alarmed as to the effect of the 
bill upon their society or church. It seems to me that it is a 
highly proper amendment to put on this bill, so as to quiet that 
alarm among those very worthy and intelligent people and 
excellent citizens. 

Mr. Hoar. — Mr. President, I think there ought to be one 
further, and perhaps a little more comprehensive, statement 
made in answer to my honorable friend, the Senator from Wis- 
consin, on my right, than what has been said already. He asks 
why we do not leave the matter of exemption to the states. 
We have said that anybody exempted by state authority should 
be exempt from military duty without regard to age. That is 
in the bill now. I understand that the policy of the people of 
the United States is to secure bv national authority, against the 
local opinion and action of the states, the fundamental rights of 
religious and political freedom and of commercial integrity. We 
prohibit the states from impairing the obligation of contracts; 
Ave prohibit the states from trying a man twice for the same 
offense; we prohibit the states from conducting trials except 
with certain securities for fair trials, and the fourteenth amend- 
ment has very much extended those provisions, so that no man 
can be tried by any state without due process of law. 

Now, suppose a state undertakes, against the conscience of 
an individual, to compel him to be a member of the militia and 
to enter into war. I think when the United States is dealing 
with that subject we should by our authority exempt him, state 
or no state. If it should happen that some state should exist 
hereafter, in the far East, or the far West, or the far North, or 
the far South, which had a very great prejudice against Quakers, 
and a war came up, and their opposition to war excited the 
popular feeling of the majority in the state, they should be pro- 
tected. 

Now, during the war of the Revolution the Quakers, 
although as everybody in this debate has said, they are a worthy 
and patriotic body of people, incurred great animosity by their 

refusal to take part therein So it seems to me that 

as we are declaring who shall constitute the militia, giving defi- 
nition, we ought to put in our law the definition and not leave 
it in the power of any state to force a man against his conscience 
to go into battle. 

Mr. Clay. — Mr. President, if I thought that the amend- 
ment offered by the Senator from Indiana (Mr. Beveridge) went 
as far as the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. Hoar) says it 
ought to go, I would not vote for it. I would not vote in favor 
of an amendment exempting any religious organization from 



MINUTES 73 

military duty which provided that a state should not fix the 
qualifications of those to be exempted from military duty. 

Mr. Hoar. — Mr. President, I should be very sorry to have 
the amendment which I favor lose the vote of the honorable 
Senator from Georgia (Mr. Clay), or any other Senator, but I 
think I ought to say that I cannot agree with him in his con- 
struction of the amendment. If the soldiers be called into ser- 
vice and be compelled to serve, it is in consequence of this bill 
and of nothing else. The bill provides that the President shall 
order the state militia into the service. For instance, in the 
fourth section, it is provided that whenever the United States 
is invaded or in danger of invasion or rebellion, the President 
may call them forth and issue orders to them. That is com- 
pulsion, and it is compulsion authorized by this bill, and it is 
the only compulsion under which these soldiers are constrained 
to go into the service and do the work. 

Then the amendment says nothing in the act contained 
shall be construed to compel Quakers to serve (I will use that 
short phrase instead of the phraselog)" of the amendment) or 
other persons like them who are described in it. To say that 
there is nothing in the bill which compels them in any way does 
not address itself favorably to my understanding. It seems to 
me we ought to meet the important question of the right of con- 
science in the proper way, and in the way in which it has been 
met in the United States from the beginning of the government 
of the United States, to wit: That persons belonging to religious 
bodies who have conscientious scruples against military service 
shall not be compelled to violate their conscience. It seems to 
me the proper place for that, the righteous thing to do, is in the 
act of Congress where we define the persons who shall be com- 
pelled by the United States to do that service. 

The President pro tempore. — The question is on agree- 
ing to the amendment proposed by the Senator from Indiana 
(Mr. Beveridge). 

The amendment was agreed to. 

As this House bill must be returned to the House 
for its concurrence in the above and other amendments, 
the committee continued its efforts with the members 
of that body to secure their support of this important 
provision, and it was adopted by the House with little 
opposition. 

Much attention was also given to other bills pending 
in Congress, especially to those pertaining to temperance 
legislation. Senator Beveridge was chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Statehood, and he was urged to 
at least retain in the bill to admit Oklahoma and Indian 



74 MINUTES 

territory as one state, the agreement between the gov- 
ernment and the Indians, that no intoxicating liquors 
should be manufactured or sold in the Indian territory, 
and the Indian Reservation in Oklahoma, and, if possible, 
to extend the prohibition to the entire state. 

As the bill passed, the agreement between the 
United States government and the Indians is to con- 
tinue for twenty-one years, and thereafter until the peo- 
ple should change the constitution of the new state. 

It is cause for profound thankfulness that at the 
recent election, a large majority voted in favor of the 
prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating 
liquors in the entire new state. 

Other members of our committee have in their 
respective states used their influence to promote legisla- 
tion beneficial to their citizens, and to defeat whatever 
they considered unwise or vicious. In some cases in 
conjunction with a committee of their respective per- 
manent boards, they have presented printed petitions 
to the legislature, requesting the enactment of certain 
laws, and the defeat of other pending measures. Among 
these in several of the states, have been important 
amendments to marriage and divorce laws ; more strin- 
gent enactment against the liquor traffic, prison reform 
measures, etc. 

It may be added that a member of the committee, 
at various times during the past five years, has appeared 
at a number of Senate and House committee hearings 
on temperance bills pending in Congress, and the record 
shows that he was speaking in part as an official repre- 
sentative of this Board. These bills include the anti- 
canteen act, the interstate commerce liquor bill and 
other important proposed legislation. 

It is very gratifying to be able to report that at 
least one member of our committee, A. F. N. Hambleton, 
has been for three sessions a very prominent member of 
the Iowa Legislature. In this position he has exerted 
great influence in promoting and securing righteous 
legislation. 



MINUTES 75 

We desire to encourage other Friends to prepare 
themselves and seek opportunities for public service in 
their respective states; for we have fallen far short of 
our duty as well as of our privilege and sadly failed in 
these respects to exercise that influence for good in our 
respective communities which as Christian citizens we 
should have done. 

Timothy Nicholson, Chairman. 
Amos K. Hollowell, Secretary. 
Richmond, Ind., Tenth mo. 15, 1907. 

31. It was decided that the afternoon session would 
close not later than 5 p.m.; sooner if possible. 

32. It was moved and carried that the thanks of 
this Meeting be extended to Senator Beveridge and 
other Senators for their services in the passage of the 
amendment as described in the report of Minute 30. 

33. The report on the Condition of the Negroes was 
listened to with deep interest and is printed below. 

REPORT OF THE BOARD ON CONDITION AND WELFARE OF 
THE NEGROES. 

Our Board has not been unmindful of the important 
work assigned to its care. A work that is important, 
and calls for immediate and wise action. The lack of 
funds has prevented us from doing much successful work. 
The decision of those having charge of the finances, that 
money coming through the Five Years Meeting could 
only be used for running expenses, such as office ex- 
penses and clerical work, has prevented the Board from 
entering the field and doing more efficient labor. We 
sent out an appeal for voluntary subscriptions to enable 
us to do more successful work, but in response only a 
few dollars were sent to our Treasurer. This sum was 
used in assisting young colored people to attend schools 
already established. Much more could have been used 
to great advantage in the same way. In looking over 



y6 MINUTES 

the work done among the negroes during and since the 
war, it was felt by members of the Board that it would 
be right to have a history of this labor preserved, that 
future generations might know the interest taken by 
Friends in this important work. So, after considerable 
labor by Friends in several of the Yearly Meetings, we 
have received condensed accounts of their work. Other 
Yearly Meetings have not responded. We are aware 
that those who did respond have only given a small 
portion of the work done. We have at some expense 
had this information put in shape so that we have it 
nearly ready for the press; and we would suggest that 
the Five Years Meeting provide for its publication in 
suitable form, securing similar information from those 
Yearly Meetings which have not reported. 

While much has been done, there remains much 
more to be done. Among the many things that should 
claim the consideration of every friend of the negro, is 
his present condition socially and politically; especially 
would we call attention to the convict system that is 
carried on in several states of our union which calls 
loudly for a reformation. While this system is not con- 
lined to the negro alone yet he appears to be a great 
sufferer from its cruel practice, a practice that calls 
loudly for every lover of humanity to labor for better and 
wiser laws. 

It is a delicate question to manage, and it is so 
intimately connected with politics and there is great 
sensitiveness on the part of one section of the country 
in regard to the other part meddling with their political 
affairs. 

Our Board suggests the propriety of the Five Years 
Meeting considering the proposition of taking steps to 
see if this subject cannot be brought before the Gov- 
ernors and legislatures of those states where such 
reforms are needed. If the Governors and legislators 
of the several states could be brought to see the import- 
ance of such a movement and take it up on their own 
motion it might result in good. We would recommend 



MINUTES 77 

that each state have a board of associated charities 
appointed with power to act, similar to those who are 
already acting in some of our states and which have 
made great changes for the better in the prison and the 
prison reform work, by this means the moral and physi- 
cal condition of the unhappy convict who falls under 
the discipline of the law have been greatly ameliorated, 
and the law has, to some extent at least, been so admin- 
istered as to become reformatory rather than executed 
as a punishment upon the offenders. As at present con- 
ducted, the convict system is demoralizing and has a 
tendency to harden the poor criminal and turn him out 
on society a far more dangerous citizen than he was 
when he first violated the law. While recognizing the 
great difficulty attending this movement, owing to the 
prejudice against the negro and criminal in general, 
we believe that it is a work that the future Board of this 
Meeting should labor to bring before the proper authori- 
ties in our several states, and especially before those 
where the convict system, is most cruelly practiced. 

We would commend to those who are interested in 
this subject, to read a pamphlet entitled "The Crime of 
Crimes, or the Convict System Unmasked," written by 
Clarissa Oldkeeler, which brings out the dark side of 
this picture in such a clear light that every one should 
feel the necessity of doing something, and perhaps we 
might say that while the convict system is an awful 
disgrace in many states in our Union, yet, perhaps, it is 
not much worse or more degrading than the horrible 
condition of some of our jails and penitentiaries and the 
inhuman manner in which they are managed. This is 
another reform that calls loudly for action on the part 
of every lover of the human race. Again we would call 
the attention of the future Board to another means of 
great blessing to the negro and others who may have 
been in prison, to the society which has care of the dis- 
charged convicts. 

It is sad that there are not more organizations in 
our own country. There are only four or five acting 



78 MINUTES 

societies of the kind in the United States, while in Eng- 
land alone there are ninety ; in France, fifty. In Switzer- 
land it is seen at its highest degree of efficiency ; the most 
valuable feature of the Swiss system, says Mr. Barrows, 
"is the appointment of a person called a patron, who 
makes the acquaintance of a prisoner before he is dis- 
charged and who becomes his guardian after his libera- 
tion. " 

These foreign societies are supported by govern- 
ment aid as well as by private subscriptions. We are 
conscious that what we have said applies to the criminal 
class, both white and black, but we apprehend that the 
blacks are the greater sufferers, owing to their ignorant 
condition and the prejudice that may exist toward them 
as a class. Therefore, we have referred to the subject 
in connection with the negro and would quote from a 
Southern editor, who has declared that no institution 
is more needed, especially for the colored race, than 
institutions for the training of the young, the developing 
of the mind and turning it into the right channels. 

Through the efforts of Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, of 
Topeka, Kansas, a kindergarten school was started in a 
negro settlement in that part of the city, where the 
record for crime was notorious. Now, at the end of 
fourteen years, about three hundred boys and girls have 
been graduated and not one of the number has ever 
appeared before a police court. The work among the 
children resulted in greatly improving the condition of 
the parents. Mr. Sheldon says: "When the country 
shall learn this economic lesson, that it is cheaper in 
every way to make good citizens than to punish bad 
ones, we shall have made a long stride forward towards 
the ethics of criminology. If this government would 
spend as much money some one year as it now spends 
for its battleships, in planting kindergartens over the 
South for the negro, and in the northern cities for the 
slum children, the results would economically pay for 
the investment, I believe, twice over." 

In view of all these facts, we would suggest that 



MINUTES 79 

this Meeting take some steps to bring this matter home 
to our legislators and executive officers, and, at the same 
time consider how we can best secure funds to educate 
the negro and prepare him to become a useful citizen. 

While much has been done, and their condition is 
better to-day than it has been, yet there is much more 
to do. 

How can we enter this field and do our part, is the 
question we would leave with this Meeting. 

Allen Jay, Chairman. 

Treasurer's Report — Board on the Condition and Welfare 
of the Negroes. 
Receipts : 
Received from M. A. Marriage Allen fund, 

Baltimore Yearly Meeting $25 00 

From private subscriptions 10 00 

From the Treasurer Five Years Meeting 7261 

. Total $10761 

Expenditures : 
Postage and printing 10 75 

Balance on hand Tenth month 15, 1907 $96 86 

Joseph A. Goddard, Treasurer. 

34. After the reading of the Minutes the Meeting 
adjourned to meet at 7.30 p. m. 



Fourth-Day, Evening, Tenth Month i6th. 

35. The Meeting opened with a period of devotion. 

36. Clarence M. Case of Indiana Yearly Meeting, 
Benjamin F. Trueblood of New England, and E. H. 
Woodward of Oregon, on nomination of the Business 
Committee, were appointed as Press Committee. 



8o MINUTES 

37. The Business Committee made the following 
recommendations, which were acceptable to the Meeting: 

We propose that the morning session begin at 9.30 
o'clock, with a short devotional meeting; the afternoon 
session begin at 2.30, and the evening session at 8 o'clock, 
and that the doors be closed during the devotional 
period. J. J. Mills, Chairman. 

38. The following proposition from Kansas Yearly 
Meeting was read and referred to the Business Com- 
mittee. 

Kansas Yearly Meeting forwards to the Five Years 
Meeting the following proposed amendment to the Disci- 
pline, which was referred to its Permanent Board for one 
year, and approved by that Board, viz: 

Add to section n, chapter 10, part 2. 

Yearly Meetings may provide for the appointment of 
an auditing committee or auditors in advance of their 
annual meetings, if they desire. 

Edmund Stanley, Clerk. 

39. The report of the Associated Executive Com- 
mittee on Indian Affairs, together with an accompany- 
ing statement, was read and both documents are here- 
with inserted. 

THE ASSOCIATED EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF FRIENDS ON 
INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

A Statement of Information to the Five Years Meeting, to 
be held at Richmond, Indiana, in Tenth month, 1907. 

The ten (10) mission stations which were in active 
operation in the year 1902 have all been continued. 
One other Friends' mission has also been established. 
These eleven posts, together with a number of out sta- 
tions and Meetings which have been opened from time 
to time, include our active mission work on behalf of the 
Indians. Six of the eleven are located in Indian Terri- 
tory, and the remaining five are in Oklahoma. 



MINUTES 8l 

John M. and Rachel Ratcliff continue at Iowa 
Mission, and Elizabeth Test and Lina Lunt, aided by our 
valuable Friend Rachel Kirk, at Kickapoo. With these 
exceptions all the resident mission Friends of five years 
ago have left the field and others have been appointed in 
their places. In one instance two changes have occurred. 

It will be readily understood that such appointments 
call for prayerful thought and much care, and very fre- 
quently an extended correspondence on the part of the 
two officers of the committee, upon whom the responsi- 
bility of such matters has chiefly fallen of latter times. 

To secure Friends who seem to have a live concern 
for Indian mission work, and a call to the service, has 
been a growing difficulty. It has been our practice to 
ask for, and to receive minutes from the Monthly and 
Quarterly Meetings of Friends under consideration 
expressing sympathy and approval with the proposition 
before appointments are closed. No station or regular 
Meeting has been discontinued, however, except in one 
instance for a few weeks within the last year. 

With the close of ten (10) years of strenuous and 
valued service our Friends George N. and L. Ella 
Hartley resigned as superintendents and vacated the 
mission house at Shawnee on first of Tenth month, 1904. 
To fill this major vacancy, the committee, after very 
deliberate consideration, proposed the matter to our 
Friends William Perry and Abigail C. Haworth, then 
resident at Noblesville, Indiana. In due course they 
were appointed, and accepting the place, have con- 
tinued earnest and faithful resident missionaries at 
Shawnee, and as overseers and upholders of the several 
other stations. However willing these Friends may be, 
the duties they have to perform, at times, call for very 
careful judgment and much tact, this is so at all of the 
several posts, if best results are to be reached, but it is 
peculiarly so with our superintendents, and it seems to 
the writer not amiss to solemnly ask the earnest prayers 
of all interested Friends on their account. 

Just here it seems most fitting to mention a loss 



82 MINUTES 

which the Committee have recently sustained and which 
has been keenly felt in a personal way. Our Friend, 
John Nicholson, of Baltimore, until last winter had been, 
for a number of years, the chairman of our standing 
committee on Religious Interests and Education, and in 
this capacity, as well as at our annual meetings, he had 
always been most faithful, judicious and helpful, and 
when, because of physical illness he found he must with- 
draw from the active position he had held, a vacancy 
not to be easily filled seemed to occur; it is, however, 
mentioned with satisfaction that our Friend, Walter 
Smedley, of Philadelphia, was chosen in Sixth month 
last to succeed John Nicholson, and his deep and growing 
interest in the work and other natural qualifications will 
make him a most helpful officer. 

The cordial relations heretofore had with the 
Indian Bureau at Washington, and with those govern- 
ment officers who are our neighbors in the vicinity of our 
missions, have been maintained, and have added much 
to our opportunities for service. 

A report from each station, both statistical, advisory 
and incidental, passes to our superintendents at the 
close of each month. With a letter of general informa- 
tion and suggestion, these monthly reports are then 
received by the chairman of the standing committee on 
Religious Interests and Education and by him com- 
municated to each member of his committee. This has 
been the practice for a number of years past, but since 
our late annual meeting a copy of the superintendents' 
letters and of the several reports with a summarized 
statistical table goes to each member of the general com- 
mittee for their information and use in their several 
Yearly Meetings. It seems not out of place to say we 
hope this monthly care will have some results in an 
increase of interest and sympathy throughout our mem- 
bership, as well as amongst those who are delegates to 
the Associated Committee. 

The printed minutes of our annual meetings, 
together with the full reports therein presented, will 



MINUTES 83 

continue to be sent to all delegates in supply for distribu- 
tion as heretofore. 

The following brief statistics compiled from the 
last five annual reports are submitted, viz: 

Average total of regular meetings held per year, 
1,306. First day meetings per year, 960; with an 
average attendance from 50 to 60. From three to six 
day schools have been under care and from nine to six- 
teen Bible schools. The latter having an attendance 
averaging 40 to 45. A number of school officers have, 
from time to time, been Indians. 

Penny collections for the five years total. $684. 
Twenty-seven thousand one hundred and seventy-five 
(27,175) religious papers have been distributed. Twenty- 
six thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine (26,929) 
texts have been recited. Eighteen thousand six hun- 
dred and eighty-nine (18,689) family visits, many of 
which are esteemed as very helpful, have been made. 
All has not been progress, and all has not been for the 
best interest of our work, we cannot claim so much; 
but the monthly tidings bring much cheer and we feel 
many have been refreshed and helped Heavenward. 

Meetings of delegates regularly called have been 
held each year. It seems proper in this connection to 
let the Five Years Meeting know that of the eleven 
Yearly Meetings that have assumed responsibilities of 
aid and membership in our committee, four have had 
delegations present each year, one had four years, one 
had three years, two had two years, one had one year, 
and the remaining two have not been represented at any 
meeting or taken any active part. One of these latter 
has had no delegate present for twenty or more years 
and makes no contribution to our treasury. 

Those who live in daily contact with this effort, 
which as an organized and associated work is in its 
thirty-ninth year, can but feel the responsibilities of 
their position at times very much. We feel the need of 
the moral and physical support which all the Meetings 
in any wise connected with the committee can give, and 



84 MINUTES 

so submit this phase of the subject to this general meet- 
ing for its advice and action. May we not ask for a few 
more years, while yet the native American is becoming 
obsolete and is being terribly tried and degraded in the 
process, by the greed of the unchristian white man, may 
we not ask, I say, that Friends shall still stand true to 
the history of two and a quarter centuries of the Indian 
and the Quaker and continue to help him with the simple 
Gospel message of the Lord Jesus Christ through the aid 
of the Holy Spirit. That which was given to our own 
forefathers and given to us through trial and much afflic- 
tion and the sufferings and death of the Great Testator. 

E. M. Wistar, Chairman. 
Philadelphia, Tenth month, 1907. 



raper accompanying report of Chairman 0} the Associated 
Executive Committee on Indian Affairs to the Five 
Years Meeting of Friends, held at Richmond, 
Indiana, Tenth month, 1907. 

We have had presented to us to-day a picture of the 
present day work for the Indian, in which the Yearly 
Meetings, comprising this Meeting are directly and 
unitedly concerned. As I have been privileged to fol- 
low it within the past few years through the usual 
reports and conferences as well as by a recent trip to 
most of the mission stations, I am fully convinced it is 
of the greatest value not only in the results attained 
among the Indians, but in the reflex effect upon -those 
who carry it upon their hearts. 

From the time that Fox first realized, after his long 
search, that the Light which filtered through the win- 
dows of his soul, speaking so remarkably to his condi- 
tion, came direct from God; he also realized that in its 
universality it appeared unto all men, irrespective of 
race or condition. 

The movement of his co -laborers toward the shores 
of the Delaware opened up new fields for spreading the 



MINUTES 85 

gospel, and he sought to inspire them to "instruct and 
teach your Indians and negroes and all others how that 
Christ, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man, " 
etc. Again, " and God hath poured out His spirit upon 
all flesh, and so the Indians must receive God's spirit, * 
* * * and so let them know that they have a day 
of salvation, grace and favor of God offered unto them ; 
if they will receive it, it will be their blessing. " 

As this Gospel message came to be disseminated, 
the Indians responded, as has been well said, "as if they 
already knew the reality of the indwelling of the Great 
Spirit," and beneath the Treaty Elm they proclaimed, 
"We will live in love and peace with 'Onas' and his 
children so long as the sun and moon shall endure. " 

This great affinity between the Friend and the 
Indian has enabled them to earry out their promises 
with each other, and the pages of American history are 
redolent with acts of mercy, fair dealing and good fellow- 
ship between them, and down to the present time public 
opinion does homage to the Quaker policy which wrought 
such wondrous results, with such difficult problems con- 
fronting them. 

This opinion was fairly summarized in the familiar 
statement of President Grant in his first message to Con- 
gress. Few had followed more closely the development 
of the plans of our national government with regard to 
the Indians, or had had closer relations with them on 
the western reservations than he, and subsequent to the 
adoption of the new policy, which he inaugurated, no 
less than ninety-four Friends, members of the Orthodox 
bodies, were acting at one time as employees of the gov- 
ernment in the Indian work; eight of these were Indian 
agents, and one a superintendent of Indian affairs. 

Far be it from me to advocate any policy or line of 
work based upon traditionalism, or past records, or, 
indeed, any line of evangelistic work not directly and 
definitely called for at our hands! With this splendid 
record of the past, however, starting with the earliest 
days of our government, having the confidence and good 



86 MINUTES 

will of the Indians and the expressed recognition of the 
value of our work by the public, I see but one path open 
before us at the present time. We must face the prob- 
lems that confront us in a calm and dispassionate spirit, 
and just so long as we find a brother weaker than our- 
selves, reach out and share with him the joys of God's 
salvation. 

As I view the situation, there is still a great work 
to be done. The fields are white unto the harvest; the 
laborers are few and the earnest sympathy and living 
zeal of the initial bodies I fear, are at too low an ebb. 

The present Indian population in the United States 
is approximately estimated at 284,000. Most of these, 
of course, are located on reservations throughout the 
central and western part of our country, and notwith- 
standing the many efforts made to protect and guard 
them, they are constantly subject to influences from the 
frontier white civilization, which are far from beneficial, 
if indeed not positively degrading. 

Our work, operating from the mission centers, 
including the family visits, reaches directly about 1,500 
of this number, irrespective, of course, of the wider 
influence which such centers exert on the community 
at large. 

I believe this concern and the work of the various 
Yearly Meetings is being cared for through the Asso- 
ciated Executive Committee and through a superin- 
tendent of missions located in the fields, in the right way. 
The work is thoroughly systematized and dovetailed in 
together as much as possible, and with the harmony 
existing between the Friends of nearby stations an 
interchange of interest, sympathy and assistance, tends 
greatly to the improvement of the work. 

As has been mentioned, the Associated Executive 
Committee holds one meeting each year, usually in the 
Fifth month and at a point as nearly accessible as possible 
to the majority of the members expecting to attend. 
The sessions, together with the various sub-commit- 
tee meetings, occupy the greater portion of two days. 






MINUTES 87 

At these meetings the chief work of course, is the con- 
sideration of existing conditions at the various mission 
stations; this is taken up station by station and con- 
sidered in detail, that the physical as well as the spiritual 
conditions may be developed and maintained at as high 
a standard as possible. 

At our meeting this last spring, it was decided, 
and the chairman of committee on Religious Interests 
and Education was instructed, to duplicate the monthly 
reports and statistics and forward a copy to each member 
of the entire committee, instead of forwarding to the 
members of the sub-committee only, as had been done 
heretofore. This change emanated from an earnest 
desire that each member of the committee from each 
Yearly Meeting might be placed in direct monthly 
touch with the work and the workers in the field, and 
they in turn seek to build up and maintain a vitalizing 
interest in the work throughout the Yearly Meetings. 

We wish to impress upon Friends that this work, 
as indeed every other, to be vital and of real value, must 
emanate and be maintained in the life from the various 
Meetings, that the committee is simply the agency 
through which their work can be furthered and made 
effective. 

The same concern in the committee broadened also, 
to encourage all members of the committee and others 
who bear the work deeply upon their hearts, to com- 
municate their love and sympathy to those who are 
bearing the burden in the field, and as we are thus bound 
together in the unity of the Spirit, earnestly desiring 
to forward the cause of truth and righteousness among 
these weaker brothers of the frontier, we shall richly 
partake of that never failing reward that is so freely 
bestowed upon those who do His commandments. 

Walter Smedley, Chairman. 
Philadelphia, Pa., Tenth Month 15, 1907. 



56 MINUTES 

40. The Finance Committee, appointed in 1902, 
made the following report, which was referred to the 
Auditing Committee arranged for in Minute No. 41. 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

The Finance Committee appointed in 1902 report as 
follows : 

On adjournment of the Five Years Meeting the 
committee met and appointed A. K. Hollowell, of In- 
dianapolis, chairman: W. P. Henley, Carthage, Ind., 
secretary; since which time there has been no meeting 
of the committee in person, but the business of the com- 
mittee has been conducted by means of circulating 
letters, so that each member has had an opportunity of 
an expression on matters which concerned the committee. 

One member of the committee, Olney T. Meader, 
of Boston, Mass., has deceased since our appointment. 

The committee has annually ascertained the prob- 
able needs of the several boards for " expenses of admin- 
istration and correspondence" (as provided for in the 
Minutes of the Five Years Meeting, page 42), by writ- 
ing to the chairman of each board. When the amounts 
for such purposes were ascertained the whole was then 
submitted to each member of the committee in writing 
for his approval or modification, and the total amount 
to be raised has been agreed upon each year. The amount 
to be raised has been pro-rated among the eleven 
Yearly Meetings, according to their membership, as 
provided in the minutes of the last meeting. Then 
the Treasurer of each of the Yearly Meetings was notified 
the amount his Yearly Meeting should pay, and re- 
quested to remit the same to Miles White, Jr., Treasurer. 

Some of the boards included in their estimates of 
probable expenses for the first year items which subse- 
quently were thought by some to be for expenses 
intended to be provided for by voluntary contributions 
rather than by assessment upon the Yearly Meetings, 
and a protest against allowing such items was received 



MINUTES 89 

from, the officers of one meeting, and were thereafter not 
included in the amounts pro-rated upon the various 
Yearly Meetings. 

The committee suggest that the Five Years Meeting 
give more definite instruction as to what each of the 
boards may include in its items of probable expenses 
for administration account so that the committee may 
know what items to allow and what to reject. 

The boards, with one exception, have not generally 
used the amount for which they made request and which 
was appropriated for their specific use. Where amounts 
were not used they have been carried forward by the 
Treasurer into a general fund, so that an appropriation 
for each board was made each year. The Treasurer's 
report will show the amount expended by each of the 
standing boards of the Five Years Meeting. 

The amount requested to be raised for the various 
boards for the year ending Ninth month 30, 1903, was 
$2,041.65; the assessment was $2.50 for each one 
hundred members; membership 82,071, producing 
$2,037.50. Amount requested for the year ending 
Ninth month 30, 1904, was 1,675.00; cash on hand, 
$614,72; the assessment, $1.00 for each one hundred 
members; membership, 82,095, producing $819.00. 
Amount requested for the year ending Ninth month 30, 
1905, was $1,370.00; cash on hand, $672.14; amount 
assessed, $1.00 for each one hundred members; member- 
ship, 82,800, producing $828.00. Amount requested 
for the year ending Ninth month 30, 1906, was $1,135.00; 
cash on hand, $606.56 ; assessment, 75 cents for each one 
hundred members; membership, 83.842, producing 
$628.99. Amount requested for the year ending Ninth 
month 30, 1907, was $1,085.00; cash on hand, $627.26; 
assessment, 75 cents for each one hundred members; 
membership, 86,421, producing $648.31, making the 
total amount assessed for the five years, $4,961.80. 

The Treasurer's books will show how much of the 
amount assessed has been collected. A smaller assess- 
ment than seventy-five cents per one hundred members 



90 MINUTES 

would have secured the amount needed for year ending 
Ninth month 30, 1907, but as this was a small assess- 
ment and the expenses of the succeeding year would be 
much increased by the Five Years Meeting of 1907, it 
was deemed proper to assess the same amount as the 
previous year, rather than to decrease it this year and 
increase it the following one. 

The committee, in conformity with instructions on 
page 44 of the Minutes, determined that the amount of 
the Treasurer's bond should be $3,000.00, and the chair- 
man holds a satisfactory corporate bond in such 
amount. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Committee. 
Amos K. Hollowell, Chairman. 
Tenth month, 10, 1907. 



41. The delegations reported the names of the 
following Friends to act on the committees which they 
had been instructed to appoint in Minutes 19 and 20 : 

Auditing Committee. — Thomas Wood, of New Eng- 
land; William H. S. Wood, of New York; J. Elwood 
Cox, of North Carolina; Margaret T. Carey, of Balti- 
more; Joseph A. Goddard, of Indiana; Peter W. Raida- 
baugh, of Western; Levi Mills, of Wilmington; Thomas 
Folger, of Kansas; William Mather, of Iowa; E. H. 
Woodward, of Oregon; John Chawner, of California; 
John S. Rogers, of Canada. 

Committee to Consider the Proposition to Establish 
Nebraska Yearly Meeting. — Benjamin F. Trueblood and 
Thomas J. Battey, of New England; Abijah J. Weaver 
and Eliza Heaton Taber, of New York; Mary M. Hobbs 
and Eli Reece, of North Carolina; Lindley D. Clark and 
Sara H. Hoge, of Baltimore; Alpheus Trueblood and 
Daisy Barr, of Indiana; David Hadley and Charlotte E. 
Vickers, of Western; Richard Newby and Laura S. 



MINUTES 



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Oregon. 
Western 
Wilminji 





92 MINUTES 

Dunbar, of Wilmington; Herbert J. Mott and Charles S. 
White, of Iowa; John F. Hanson and Elmer Pemberton, 
of Oregon; Elvira Parker and L. Clarkson Hinshaw, of 
Kansas; Abram Saylor and Joseph A. Cody, of Canada. 
42. The Meeting adjourned to meet at 9.30 a.m. 
on the following day. 



FIFTH-DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH 17TH. 

43. The Meeting convened according to adjourn- 
ment, and the devotional exercises were conducted by 
Arthur Pirn of Dublin Yearly Meeting. 

44. The following propositions originating in the 
Business Committee were approved by the meeting: 

REPORT OF BUSINESS COMMITTEE. 

We recommend that arrangements be made for a 
Devotional Meeting to be held from 8.00 to 9.00 a. m., 
and we nominate Daisy Barr, Harry R. Keates, Clarence 
M. Case, William Jasper Hadley, Emma S. Townsend 
and Mary M. Hobbs, as a committee to have care of 
these meetings. 

On the proposition to establish a Friends Publishing 
House, it is the judgment of the committee that the way 
is not open for such a move at this time. 

45. The meeting approved of the following request 
from the American Friends Board of Foreign Missions: 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

The American Friends Board of Foreign Missions 
requests from the clerks of the Yearly Meetings, or the 
Yearly Meetings' delegations, credentials for the new 



MINUTES 93 

Board of Foreign Missions, and that the Five Years 
Meeting direct that hereafter the appointment for this 
board be reported with the names of the delegates to 
the meeting. 

Morton C. Pearson, Chairman. 

46. The Business Committee was instructed to 
nominate names for the members at large for the care of 
the Negroes and Indians. 

47. The committee appointed by delegates to con- 
sider the financial propositions in our reports, Minute 20, 
was instructed to propose names for the Finance Com- 
mittee. 

48. The Business Committee was requested to pre- 
pare a register of all Friends in attendance at these 
sessions. 

4Q. A paper was read by Rufus M. Jones, entitled, 
"The Present Opportunity for Friends," and the dis- 
cussion was opened by Rayner W. Kelsey, of California 
Yearly Meeting. An interesting discussion followed. 

50. The meeting adjourned to meet at 2.30 p. m. 

Fifth-Day, Afternoon, Tenth Month 17TH. 

51. The meeting opened according to adjournment. 

52. The following report from the Business Com- 
mittee was read. The propositions therein contained 
were approved and the nominations became the appoint- 
ment of this meeting : 

REPORT OF THE BUSINESS COMMITTEE. 

Referring to the proposition concerning Bible 
School Literature, we propose that the matter be re- 
ferred to a committee of five who shall give it careful 



94 MINUTES 

consideration and report to the next Five Years Meeting, 
and we nominate: 

Thomas Wood, New England Yearly Meeting; 
J. Elwood Cox, North Carolina Yearly Meeting; Richard 
Haworth, Western Yearly Meeting; J. Lindley Spicer, 
New York Yearly Meeting; Albert J. Brown, Wilming- 
ton Yearly Meeting. 

We propose that the clause of Minute 98 of last 
Five Years Meeting, referring to the amendment of the 
Discipline, be sent by the clerk to the clerks of the 
Yearly Meetings, asking for action thereupon. 

53. A communication from a committee represent- 
ing Indiana, Western and Wilmington Yearly Meetings, 
was referred to the Evangelistic Board. 

54. A paper entitled "Methods of Evangelization" 
was read by Robert E. Pretlow and the discussion was 
opened by Richard Haworth. 

55. The report of the Peace Association of Friends 
was received and is inserted below. 

REPORT OF THE PEACE ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS IN 
AMERICA TO THE FIVE YEARS MEETING. 

At a meeting of the Peace Association of Friends 
in America, held in Richmond, in Third month, 1900, 
the following organization was effected : 

President, Dr. Richard H. Thomas; Vice-President, 
Professor Cyrus W. Hodgin; Secretary, H. Lavinia 
Baily; Treasurer, Charles A. Francisco; Executive Com- 
mittee, Allen Jay, Naomi Harrison, Mahalah Jay and 
Professor Elbert Russell. 

Anna B. Thomas was appointed editor of the "Mes- 
senger of Peace," and for the three succeeding years 
the paper was issued from Baltimore. In the summer 
of 1904 the severe and continued illness of Dr. R. H. 
Thomas rendered it necessary for his wife to be relieved 
of the care of the paper, and for some months it was 
edited by the secretary while still issued from Baltimore. 



MINUTES 95 

On the 3d of Tenth month, 1904, our beloved 
Friend and President, Dr. Richard H. Thomas, was 
removed from us by death. Our Association and work 
have felt keenly this great loss, which has been shared by 
Friends throughout the world. He was the embodiment 
of peace : the sweet spirit of love was in his every word 
and act. His finished scholarship, his wide acquaintance, 
together with his deep interest in the work, made him 
stand out almost alone. 

We were most fortunate in having for our Vice- 
President, Professor Cyrus W. Hodgin, who has since 
filled the position of President. 

More recently we have suffered the loss of our 
Treasurer, Charles A. Francisco. He lived his Christian 
life among men in a way to win the admiration due to all 
the great principles of Christian teaching. His home 
being in Richmond, he was readily available as an 
adviser and helper, and his loss is greatly felt. Isaac 
Wilson, a member of East Main Street Meeting in Rich- 
mond, has succeeded as Treasurer. 

On account of the absence from this country of 
AnnaB. Thomas, occasioned by the death of her husband, 
the "Messenger of Peace" was again issued from our 
office at Richmond, the duty of editor being added to 
those of the Secretary, H. Lavinia Baily. We believe 
much might be gained to the cause by enlarging the 
"Messenger of Peace" from eight to twelve pages, 
adding a young people's department, with occasional 
illustrations. 

Beside the monthly circulation of the "Messenger 
of Peace" through these years, other literature has been 
circulated, either by sale or gratuitous distribution,, and 
much of it through the agency of Peace committees 
appointed by the Yearly Meetings. Copies of some of 
our most valuable books and pamphlets have been sent 
to several of the leading colleges in Indiana, Illinois and 
Maryland, and by request of the Librarian, a selection 
was sent to the city library of Ackworth, Iowa. 

Thus a door of great usefulness and promise has been 



96 MINUTES 

opened into which our Association may enter and find 
profitable use for unlimited funds. In the past two 
years excellent results have attended the offering of 
prizes for essays written b}^ college, academic and high 
school students. A commendable spirit of emulation 
and of investigation has been aroused in this way. The 
consideration of the subjects of peace and war has 
attracted the minds of the youth in a most gratifying 
measure. The prizes, ranging from five to twenty-five 
dollars, have been provided through the liberality of 
Friends in different sections who count it a privilege to 
take this generous part in extending the educational 
phase of the Peace propaganda. Several of these prize 
essays have been published in the "Messenger of Peace. " 

We believe that one of the most promising methods 
of propagating the principles for which the Association 
exists is through the lecture field. The people are wil- 
ling to hear this subject discussed as they never were 
before. The inconsistencies of war in a civilization pro- 
fessing to be Christian ; the dangers of misunderstand- 
ings among nations always ready for war, and alert for 
causes of conduct; the enormous tax on the people 
required by the sharp competition of the great nations, 
in keeping abreast of each other in warlike preparations ; 
the political and moral degradation which inevitably 
eat into the vitals of a nation that strives to build itself 
up by conquest or by the bluff of military power; the 
domestic sorrow that hangs like a pall over nations 
engaged in bloody strife, all are subjects for which the 
masses of thoughtful people have an open ear. On the 
other hand the wonderful possibilities of material and 
moral conquest under a regime of international peace 
and good-will are even more attractive subjects of pub- 
lic discussion. 

We further believe that if there could be organized 
by the Peace Association of Friends, with the counsel 
and support of the Five Years Meeting, a Peace Lecture 
Bureau, much good may be accomplished. If there can 
be found one or more persons in the Yearly Meetings of 



MINUTES 97 

the Atlantic States, one or more in the Yearly Meetings 
of the Central States, and a like number on the Paciffc 
Slope, who will canvass their respective sections with 
clear, convincing, statesman-like addresses, we feel 
assured that new interest in the peace problem would 
be awakened, and the people be educated, and that such 
a course would prove financially helpful to the Associa- 
tion. 

Dr. Richard H. and Anna B. Thomas gave much 
time to public addresses on Peace; the latter doing 
effective service with stereopticon views in connection 
with her addresses. The Association owns a good 
stereopticon, and a set of peace slides, which have been 
used by speakers in the Yearly Meetings of Indiana, 
Wilmington, Iowa and elsewhere. 

Professor Cyrus W. Hodgin, Professor Elbert Rus- 
sell, Dr. William G. Hubbard and others in our several 
Yearly Meetings have given addresses under the auspices 
of the Association. 

We submit the following suggestions : 

The Five Years Meeting having adopted the Peace 
Association as the channel through which to do its work 
in this line of the Church's activity, we respectfully 
request that the Meeting at this time appoint a repre- 
sentative Peace Committee of one Friend from each of 
the Yearly Meetings; and also that it appoint Friends 
to fill the following offices in the Peace Association : 

President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, and 
an Executive Committee of five members. 

And we further request that the suggestion be 
extended to each Yearly Meeting represented that the 
fullest moral and financial support will conduce to the 
success of our united work. 

At least two thousand dollars annually is needed 
for the work of this Association, and each Yearly Meet- 
ing is earnestly desired to contribute its respective 
proportion. 



98 MINUTES 

On behalf of the Representative Committee of the 
Peace Association of Friends in America. 

Cyrus W. Hodgin, President. 
H. Lavinia Baily, Secretary. 

The recommendations therein were referred to the 
committee appointed in Minute 41. 

56. The meeting adjourned to meet at S.00 p. m. 

Fifth-Day, Evening, Tenth Month 17TH. 

57. The Meeting opened according to adjournment. 

58. Edward Grubb read a paper on the subject 
"The Social Mission of the Society of Friends." Mar- 
garet T. Carey opened the discussion. 

59. The subject of Inter- Yearly Meeting Corres- 
pondence was presented by Charles E. Tebbetts. Lind- 
ley D. Clark opened the discussion. 

60. The appointment of Trustees for the Five Years 
Meeting was referred to the Business Committee. 

61. The meeting adjourned to meet at 9.30 a. m. on 
the following morning. 



SIXTFI-DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTFI iSth. 

62. The meeting opened according to adjournment, 
and the devotional exercises were conducted by Luke 
Woodard. 

63. The Minutes were read and approved. 

64. It was moved and carried that the Business 
Committee bring forward names of three Friends to act 
as printing committee. 

65. On nomination of the Business Committee, the 
following named Friends were appointed Trustees of 



MINUTES 99 

this Meeting: D. William Edwards, Indianapolis, Ind. ; 
John H. Johnson. Richmond, Ind.; John B. Peelle, 
Sabina, Ohio; Edwin S. Jay, Richmond, Ind.; Robert 
W. Furnas, Indianapolis, Ind. 

66. The Board of Foreign Missions presented its 
proposed constitution for the approval of this Meeting.* 
The Board was instructed to have copies printed for the 
use of the delegates. 

67. Papers concerning "The Province and Duties 
of Superintendents of Evangelistic Work" were read by 
W. Jasper Hadley, J. Lindley Spicer, Lewis E. Stout, 
Thomas Wood, Eliza H. Carey. Samuel R. Neave gave 
a short and pithy address. 

68. The Meeting adjourned to meet at 2.30 p. m. 

Sixth-Day, Afternoon, Tenth Month iSth. 

69. The Meeting convened according to adjourn- 
ment and the discussion concerning Evangelistic Super- 
intendents was resumed. 

70. Mary C. Woody read the concluding paper on 
Inter- Yearly Meeting Epistolary Correspondence. The 
following recommendation from the Business Committee 
was approved : 

" On the matter of Inter- Yearly Meeting Corres- 
pondence, we are united in recommending that epistles 
be made brief, and covering matters of present vital 
interest within the Yearly Meeting sending them; and 
that the mode of presentation of the epistles be left 
entirely to the judgment of the Yearly Meeting receiv- 
ing them." 

71. The proposed Constitution of the Board of 



* Sections 9 and 1 1 were referred to the committee ap- 
dointed hi Minute No. 41. (For Constitution see Appendix.) 



100 MINUTES 

Foreign Missions next claimed our attention. It was the 
sense of the Meeting that the approval of the articles 
submitted be given on condition of the necessary steps 
being taken for the surrender or modification of the 
incorporation of the American Friends Board of Foreign 
Missions at as earl 3^ a date as ma}- be found practicable. 
All action in reference to the surrender of said incorpora- 
tion was deferred until proper legal advice be obtained. 
Articles I, II, III, IV, V and VI of the proposed 
Constitution were approved. Article VII was amended 
by placing the period after the words "entrusted to it," 
and striking out the rest of the Article. Articles VIII, 
IX and X were approved as recommended by the Board. 
72. Consideration of the remaining articles was 
postponed until after the consideration of a communica- 
tion which is cited below as amended and approved by 
the Meeting. 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

Your committee to whom was referred the sugges- 
tions made in the reports of the Treasurer and the chair- 
man of the Finance Committee, make the following 
report, viz: 

We construe the phrase "Costs of Administration" 
of the respective boards of the Five Years Meeting, to 
include expense of correspondence, including stationery 
and postage, necessary printing, and the traveling 
expenses of the members of the Executive Committees 
of said boards, incurred in the attendance of the meet- 
ings, deemed necessary and ordered by said respective 
boards. 

That the cost of administration of the Board of 
Legislation may include the traveling expenses of its 
members, not exceeding two, in their attendance at 
Washington, D. C, and other places, when such visits 
are made necessary, in order to secure and promote good 



MINUTES 101 

and useful legislation by the Congress of the United 
States. 

We recommend that the expenses incident to the 
"costs of administration" of the respective Boards of 
this Five Years Meeting be paid by the Treasurer upon 
the certification of the chairman and secretary of the 
boards, and the endorsed recommendation of the chair- 
man of the Finance Committee of said Meetings. 

We also recommend that the attention of the chair- 
men of the various boards of this Meeting be called to 
the method provided for raising voluntary contributions 
for the use of the boards, and they be requested to carry 
out the same. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Wood, Chairman. 

Levi Mills, Secretary. 

73. Article XI amended to read "The administra- 
tive expenses of the board not otherwise provided for 
shall be paid from general funds." Article XII was 
approved. 

Article XIII was amended to read "by consent of 
the Five Years Meeting." 

74. The constitution as a whole was approved, 
provided the necessary steps be taken towards the 
surrender of the charter of the American Friends Board 
of Foreign Missions. (For Constitution see Appendix.) 

75. The Meeting adjourned to meet at 8.00 p. m. 

Sixth-Day, Evening, Tenth Month i8th. . 

76. The meeting convened according to appoint- 
ment. 

77. The names of Friends constituting the new 
Board of Foreign Missions were read and are printed 
in the Appendix. 



102 MINUTES 

78. The following named Friends were appointed 
as members of the Evangelistic and Church Extension 
Board: 

Evangelistic and Christian Extension Board. — New 
England, Thomas Wood, Charles M. Woodman; New 
York, Elmer D. Gildersleeve, J. Lindley Spicer; Balti- 
more, Samuel R. Neave, A. Morris Carey; North Caro- 
lina, Mary E. Cartland, Eli Reece, Josiah Nicholson; 
Wilmington, Richard R. Newby, Emma S. Townsend, 
Jesse Hawkins; Indiana, Alfred T. Ware, Emma Hedges, 
Charles E. Hiatt, Daisy Barr; Western, Lewis E. Stout, 
Thomas C. Brown, Lewis W T . McFarland, Charlotte E. 
Vickers; Iowa, William Jasper Hadley, Charles W. 
Sweet, N. Blanche Ford; Kansas, Edmund Stanley, L. 
Clarkson Hinshaw, Eliza H. Carey, all of Wichita; Cali- 
fornia, Levi Gregory, Lydia J. Jackson; Canada, Joseph 
P. Rogers, Joseph Allen Cody. 

79. The following named Friends were appointed 
as our Education Committee: 

Board on Education . — New England, Seth K. Gif- 
ford; New York, Robert E. Pretlow; North Carolina, 
Lewis Lyndon Hobbs; Baltimore, Margaret T. Carey; 
Wilmington, Albert J. Brown; Indiana, Robert L. Kelly; 
Western, Seth Mills; Iowa, Absalom Rosenberger; 
Kansas, William L. Pearson, Wichita ; Calif ornia, Charles 
E. Tebbetts; Oregon, W. Irving Kelsey : Canada, Joseph 
J. Mills. 

80. Benjamin F. Trueblood and Joseph J. Mills 
presented the subject of "Friends in Public Affairs. " 

81. The meeting adjourned to meet at 9.30 a. m. 
on the following day. 



MINUTES 103 

SEVENTH-DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH i 9 th. 

82. The Meeting opened according to adjourn- 
ment and the devotional exercises were led by Margaret 
T. Carey. 

83. The subject referred to in Minute No. 71 in 
reference to the surrender or modification of the charter 
of American Friends Board of Foreign Missions was refer- 
red for future consideration to the Trustees of the 
Five Years Meeting with the power to act. 

84. The following proposition from North Caro- 
lina Yearly Meeting was referred to the Business Com- 
mittee : 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

We would suggest to this Meeting that it recommend 
to each Yearly Meeting comprising the Five Years 
Meeting that the Discipline be so changed at the next 
meeting as to admit of the appointment by the Five 
Years Meeting of a Permanent Board (to represent this 
Meeting during the interim) consisting of one member 
from each Yearly Meeting and an additional member for 
each eight thousand members and fractional part thereof 
above five thousand, to serve for five years. 

North Carolina Delegation. 

85. The following recommendation from the Busi- 
ness Committee became the action of this meeting : 

The Business Committee recommends that the ar- 
ticles of incorporation of the Five Years Meeting be 
printed in the Proceedings of the Meeting this year. 

86. The following proposition from the Business 
Committee was approved : 

The Business Committee does not see its way clear 
to suggest any modification in the regulations of the 
constitution and discipline regarding associate member- 
ship. 

The committee would, however, suggest that the 



104 MINUTES 

attention of the Yearly Meetings be called to the fact that 
the regulations regarding membership place no time or 
age limit upon the admission of associate members into 
full membership. . 

The admission into full membership as well as the 
propriety of dropping the names of associate members 
from the list under certain circumstances, is left entirely 
to the judgment of the monthly meeting subject to such 
regulations as its Yearly Meeting may adopt. 

87. Allen C. Thomas, Robert E. Pretlow and 
Rufus M. Jones were appointed as members of the print- 
ing committee with authority to edit and publish. 

88. Papers dealing with the subject "The Pastoral 
Needs of our Congregations," were presented by James 
Wood, Mary M. Hobbs and Clarence M. Case. 

89. The meeting adjourned to meet at 2.30 p. m. 

Seventh-Day, Afternoon, Tenth Month 19TH. 

90. The meeting opened according to adjournment. 

91. The following nominations became the appoint- 
ment of this meeting: 

Committee of Arrangements for Meeting in IQI2. — 
New England, Rufus M. Jones; New York, James Wood; 
Baltimore, Samuel R. Neave; North Carolina, L. Lyndon 
Hobbs; Indiana, Elbert Russell; Western, Peter W. 
Raidabaugh; Iowa, A. Rosenberger; Wilmington, Jo- 
sephus Hoskins; Kansas, Edgar H. Stranahan; Califor- 
nia, John Chawner; Oregon, Mabel H. Douglas; Canada, 
Joseph J. Mills. 

Board of Legislation, — New England, John H. 
Meader, Hannah J. Bailey; Baltimore, Lindley D. 
Clark, Sara H. Hoge; New York, James Wood, Albert 
K. Smiley; Indiana, Timothy Nicholson, Benjamin F. 



MINUTES 105 

March; Iowa, Albert F. N. Hambleton, William Mather; 
Kansas, Calvin C. Kesinger, Leavenworth, Kan., Al- 
bert L. Cox, Lawrence, Kan.; North Carolina, J. Elwood 
Cox, Delia N. Blair. Raleigh; Wilmington, Levi Mills, 
Joseph I. Doan; Western, David Hadley, Murray S. Ken- 
worthy; Oregon, Aaron M. Bray, Jesse Edwards; Can- 
ada, Abram B. Saylor; California, John Chawner, William 
V. Coffin. 

On Negroes.— Baltimore, John C. Thomas; New 
York, John R. Taber; Indiana, Joseph O. Goddard; 
New England, Timothy B. Hussey; North Carolina, 
John W. Woody, William A. Hollowell; Kansas, 
Mary C. Wright; Iowa, Alfred J. Hanson, John Fry; 
Wilmington, Isaac T. Johnson; Western, Solomon B. 

Woodard; Oregon, H. Elmer Pemberton; Canada, ; 

California, William V. Coffin. 

92. The following report of the committee to con- 
sider the founding of a Yearly Meeting in Nebraska.was 
approved, and the committee therein nominated, was ap- 
pointed by the meeting. The Treasurer was likewise 
instructed to pay the traveling expenses of said com- 
mittee. 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

The committee to consider the proposition from 
Iowa Yearly Meeting in regard to the establishment of a 
Yearly Meeting in Nebraska have considered the sub- 
ject referred to us and we unite in recommending the es- 
tablishment of the proposed Yearly Meeting. 

We nominate the following named Friends to at- 
tend the opening of said Meeting and assist therein: 
Allen Jay, David Hadley, John F. Hanson, Eliza H. 
Carey, Eliza C. Armstrong, 

Signed on behalf of the committee, 

Mary M. Hobbs, Secretary. 



106 MINUTES 

93. The nominations for Finance Committee, as 
printed herewith, became the appointment of this meet- 
ing: 

To the Five Years Meeting: 

Your committee to whom was referred the nomina- 
tion of Friends to constitute the Finance Committee, 
propose the following, viz., Amos K. Hollowell of West- 
ern Yearly Meeting, William P. Herley of Indiana Yearly 
Meeting, Albert F. N. Hambleton of Iowa Yearly Meet- 
ing, Thomas Wood of New England Yearly Meeting,Miles 
White, Jr., of Baltimore Yearly Meeting. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Wood, Chairman. 
Levi Mills, Secretary, 

94. The request of the Board of Foreign Missions 
that the President of the Board might be ex-officio mem- 
ber of the Five Years Meeting, was referred to the Busi- 
ness Committee. 

95. The subject of The Federation of Churches 
was introduced by Robert L. Kelly, and it was decided 
that Friends should unite with that organization. The 
Business Committee were instructed to present six 
names to represent us in the Federation. 

96. The subject, "Ministry for the Present Day," 
was presented by Elbert Russell and Ellison R. Purdy. 

97. Robert E. Pretlow presented the subject of 
raising funds for the immediate use of the Foreign Mis- 
sion and Evangelistic Board. A subscription was taken 
of $4,443.50, of which $363.00 was in cash. It was the 
sense of the Meeting that local Meetings be directed 
to appoint a First-Day near Thanksgiving time in which 
to continue similar subscriptions for the use of the two 
boards already specified in this minute. 






MINUTES 107 

98. The problem of "A Friends Meeting in a Large 
City," was discussed by Albert J. Brown and Charles 
W. Sweet. 

99. A discussion in regard to the printing of all 
papers under the cover with the Minutes was partici- 
pated in, and it was decided that no exception be made, 
it being understood that this does not carry the en- 
dorsement of this meeting of the contents of said papers. 

100. The meeting adjourned to meet at 8 P. M. 

Seventh-Day, Evening, Tenth Month 19TH. 

10 1. The meeting opened according to adjourn- 
ment. 

102. A greeting was read from Salem Quarterly 
Meeting, New England. 

103. The following report was read and approved, 
and the nominations therein contained became the ap- 
pointment of the Meeting: 
To the Five Years Meeting: 

Your committee to whom was referred the recom- 
mendation of the American Peace Association, makes 
report : 

We nominate and recommend the appointment of 
the following Friends who have been suggested by the 
delegates from the various Yearly Meetings, to consti- 
tute the Representative Committee, of said Peace Asso- 
ziation, viz., Mary Amy Gifford of New England Yearly 
Meeting, Flannah Collins of New York Yearly Meeting, 
Anna B. Thomas of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, Frank- 
lin S. Blair of North Carolina Yearly Meeting, H. 
Lavinia Baily of Indiana Yearly Meeting, Horace L. 
Reeve of Western Yearly Meeting, E. Howard Brown 
of Iowa Yearly Meeting, William P. Trueblood of Kansas 
Yearly Meeting, Jonathan B. Wright of Wilmington 
Yearly Meeting, John F. Flanson of Oregon Yearly Meet- 



108 MINUTES 

ing, Robert C. Root of California Yearly Meeting, Elias 
Collins of Canada Yearly Meeting. 

And that the following named Friends be appointed 
members of the Peace Association from this meeting at 
large, viz., Cyrus W. Hodgin, H. Lavinia Baily, Isaac 
Wilson, Allen Jay, Elbert Russell, May Morrison, George 
H. Moore, Laura S. Dunham and James B. Unthank. 

We recommend that the committee thus consti- 
tuted organize by the election of its own officers., 

And further that this Meeting endorse and carry 
out the proposition suggested by the report of said Peace 
Association as to its finances. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Levi Mills, Secretary. 

104. A request from the Christian Endeavor Union 
of Friends, that their work be recognized as a depart- 
ment of the Five Years Meeting; also the selection of a 
place for the next meeting, were referred to the Business 
Committee. 

105. The subject, "The Expansion of Quakerism," 
was presented by Isaac Sharpless,- J. Elwood Paige and 
Alfred T. Ware. 

106. The meeting adjourned to meet at 9.30 a. m. 
on the following Second day. 



SECOND-DAY, MORNING, TENTH MONTH 21ST. 

107. The meeting opened according to adjourn- 
ment. Joseph Elkinton of Philadelphia led the devo- 
tional exercises. 

108. The following proposition and nominations 



MINUTES 109 

from the Business Committee were approved by the 
Meeting : 

The Business Committee recommends that no pro- 
vision be made for the appointment of ex-offlcio mem- 
bers. 

The committee has given careful consideration to 
the proposition made by the delegation of North Caro- 
lina Yearly Meeting in regard to a Permanent Board for 
the Five Years Meeting, and it is concluded that the 
Trustees of the Five Years Meeting, the Committee on 
Legislation, and the several other boards and committees 
provide the means for all the needs that may arise. 

We nominate as members of the Board on the Con- 
dition and Welfare of the Negroes, Allen Jay, John W. 
Woody, J. Elwood Cox, Peter Raidabaugh, Carolena M. 
Wood. 

The following proposition of the Christian En- 
deavor Union is approved by the Business Committee 
and the names suggested by that proposition nominated. 

To the Five Years' Meeting: 

At a convention of the International Christian En- 
deavor Union of Friends held at Wilmington, Ohio, 
Seventh Month, 1906, it was decided to ask the Five 
Years Meeting to accept and make this work of the 
young people of the Church a department of the Five 
Years Meeting; and that the present Executive Com- 
mittee of the above Union be constituted the committee 
of the Five Years Meeting on Christian Endeavor Work. 
On behalf of the committee, 

Alfred T. Ware, President. 

Officers of the International Christian Endeavor 
Union of Friends appointed at Wilmington, Ohio, July, 
1906: 

President, Alfred T. Ware, Richmond, Indiana; 
Vice-President, Richard Newby; Secretary and Treas- 
urer, Mary Lewis, Sabina, Ohio. 

The Business Committee nominates Charles E. 
Tebbetts, James Wood, Robert L. Kelly, Charles W. 



110 MINUTES 

Sweet, Josiah W. Sparks, Sylvester Xewlin. to represent 
the Five Years Meeting in the councils of the Federation 
of Churches. 

The Business Committee recommends that the next 
Five Years Meeting take up the consideration of the ap- 
pointment of a general secretary. 

The Business Committee has given care to the action 
of the Five Years Meeting in regard to the expenses of 
its boards, and the committee recommends that the Meet- 
ing authorize the payment of the expenses of the mission- 
ary board in the attendance of its annual meetings as has 
heretofore been the practice. 

ioq A proposition from the Business Committee 
that our next meeting should be held at Richmond, 
Indiana, was negatived, and it was decided that our 
next meeting would take place in Indianapolis, Indiana. 

no. The following report from our Trustees was 
approved, and the following decisions of the American 
Friends Board of Foreign Missions determined upon, in 
accordance with said report, were read at this time: 

The Board of Trustees of the Five Years Meeting 
of the Society of Friends respectfully report: 

That as directed by the Meeting we conferred with 
John L. Rupe, the attorney for the Indiana Yearly Meet- 
ing, under whose advice the American Friends Board of 
Foreign Missions and the Five Years Meeting were in- 
corporated, and were advised that it would not be neces- 
sary to abandon the incorporation of the Board of Foreign 
Missions to accomplish the purpose the Meeting seemed 
to desire. 

After consultation with the representatives of the 
Board of Missions and the attorney named, it was 
thought the best plan of reaching the end desired would 
be to prepare and submit to the Secretary of State of In- 
diana an amendment to the articles of incorporation of 
the American Friends Board of Foreign Missions, which 
should in terms declare that Board subordinate to the 
Five Years Meeting:. 






MINUT