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THE 



fiHitvot 



OP 

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, 

AND 

INSTRUCTION : 

CGSTJOmSQ 

ORIGINAL PAPERS; 

HISTORICAL NARRATIVES ; BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ; MANNERS AND CUSTOMS ; 
TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS ; SKETCHES AND TALES ; ANECDOTES ; 

SELECT EXTRACTS 

FROM 

NEW AND.,EXP,^IlSiy^,W:QAKS; 

FOETRT, ORIGpjLL .^9X>, 9£LSX|Xti> ; 
THE SPIRIT OF THX'(?U«Lt^ jtOURfNALS; 

DISCOVERIES IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES, 



NHW SERIES. 
VOL. III. 



IiONBOK: 
CUNNINGHAM AND MORTIMER, ADELAIDE STREET, 

TBAFALOAS SQUABS. 

1843. 



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lAKDOK: 
ST CHAB1B8 WMWtmSLL, UTTLE PVITEKET 8TBEBT. 



• • ••• I 

* • • • • 

• •• • •• ■ 
•• •• • • 



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MEMOIR OF SIR GEORGE CATLEY BART. 



Mr a time when many expect baUoons are about to traverse the air 
wth regularly-appointed destinations^ as riups pass over the ocean, 
a notice of the Honourable Baronet^wbo may almost be called i^e fiither 
«f English aerostation, cannot be other than acceptable to our readers. 
Though difficulties and delays have oocnrred in rendering it applicable 
foihe ordinary afi&irs of life, the same might once have been said of 
aCaam* Sixty or seventy years elapsed after the art of navigating ships 
fey steam was known, before the discovery was tamed to acconnt More 
iSma that period has not passed since balloons were invented. On one 
of the early spectators of an aerial ascent inquiring " What is the good 
ofitf ' the pertinent rejoinder of Dr Franklin was, "What is the good 
ofa new4x>m infant ?" Aerosta^on^kutn^w^ ^e^jresupgi^^ got through 
its in&nGy, and though we do i^Qspett t6 se& Mr*Hehdoh go back- 
wards and forwards to China almost ^A-jOB^j^ailS/hr ajid as rapidly as the 
omniboses go backwards and for«rards to Pacldid{jtdh,'^eiook for more 
■nportant results than have yet beei? re$ili^»* //^ *-• V 

The subject of this notice was boM'Deceml>er 27, 1773. He is the 
aixfii Baronet since Uie creation of the title, April 26, 166 1. 

It 18 understood the Cayleys were a fiunily of some importance as far 
back as the reign of King John. Colins, in his * Precedents, ' denominates 
SLr Thomas Cayley '* Baron of Backenham, in the county of Norfolk." 
He was summoned, in the eighth year of King Edward the Second, to 
present himself with horse and armour to march against the Scots. He 
held the Castle of Backenham by the tenure of performing the office of 
botler at the King*s coronation, and was possessed of demesne lands at 
Wymondham, Babingle, and Walferson, in that county where the family 
lemainei till they came to Brompton, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
iSb& seat of the present Baronet. 

In the year 1795, Sir George Cayley married Sarah, only daughter of 
Iha Rev. Qeorge Walker, F.R.S., and President of the Literary and 
Philosophical Sjclety of MiTichester, by whom he has a numerous 
fiuaily. A fiue manly portrait. of his son, Digby Cayley, Esq. app ears 
in the exhibition of the present season. GoOqIc 

igi ize y g 



iv MEMOIR OF 

Having been educated under tlie care of Mr Morgan (nepbew of the 
late Dr Price), the tutor of Hackney College, Sir George, during the early 
stages of the French Revolution^ proved himself wannly attached to the 
principles of dvil and religious liberty. He took an active part in 
the meetings of the county, and was, during many years, the President 
of the York Whig Qub. Friendly as he was to the cause of civil liberty, 
he does not seem to have been carried away by the spirit of the times 
into any unconstitutional proceeding. On the country being threatened 
with invasion. Sir George, in the spirit of a true Englishman, prepared 
to repel the foreigner ; and we find him acting as lieutenant-colonel, 
and commanding a corps of five hundred volunteers, when Bonaparte 
threatened to cross the channel with his legions. 

When Mr John Marshall of Leeds became a candidate for Yorkshire, 
he being the first mercantile man that had ever aspired to hold that 
distinguished position. Sir George was requested to nominate him, 
which he did in a speech conceived in a spirit of liberality, commensurate 
with the occasion, and which Mr Marshall's parliamentary conduct fully 
justified. 

The public efforts of Sir George had ever been mainly &ected towards 
a reform in Parliament; and when, in the tide of events, the Reform 
Bill was at length oarried, ^ough too far advanced in life to undertake 
any arduous Payt^i^^j^tai^ d^ty«4ie •«£)(£ immediately returned as one 
of the members fofiho borpngh/>f 'Scarborough. Though Sir George 
seems thus to have iffiapr^ B^^i^ polcbics as a matter of duty, the prevail- 
ing bias of his im^ft etideHjif>4ed iiim to indulge in philosophical 
pursuits. • •*;/•". :* :..• 

Several papers of his, on various subjects, are to be found in 
Nicholson's 'Chemical Journal,' and in the early numbers of the 

* Philosophical Magazine.' He also sent many communications to the 

* Mechanics' Magazine.' 

Aerostation, or, as he always calls it, " Aerial Navigation," has been 
the favourite mechanical object of his pursuit, and the investigation, 
both practical and theoretical, which has been bestowed upon it, and 
published at times within the last thirty years collectively, amounts to 
nearly all that is within the range of sound knowledge, connected with 
this most interesting though difficult mechanical problem. 

The great attention which the subject now commands has led us to its 
investigation. 

The subject of " Aerial Navigation," to adopt the language of Sir 
George, naturally divides itself into two heads : first, when mechanical 
force alone both sustains the weight and propels the machine forward ; 
and secondly, when the buoyant principle of the balloon upholds the 

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SIR GEORGE CAYLEY. 

weighty and mechanical force is only employed to propel it Both 
modes he has folly investigated, and has made many experiments on a 
scale of three hundred square feet of canvas. On the first of these 
principles, which proved that considerable weight could be suspended in 
the air with perfect steadiness of flight and complete steerage in any 
required direction, but the want of any propelling power within the 
necessary limits as to weight confined these machines to an oblique 
descent, and they were necessarily laid aside till some better first-mover 
than the steam-engine (of that date at least when his experiments com- 
menced,) should be discovered. The application of such a new power 
would immediately realize the desideratum. With respect to the 
balloon. Sir George has shown the proper scale of magnitude, without 
which that principle of aerial navigation is useless, and that, even with 
our present steam-engines, when applied to balloons of the proper form 
and magnitude, such a degree of velocity has been attained as may 
eventually be improved into a most valuable means of rapid communica- 
tion, unchecked, as in all other modes of conveyance, by the intervention 
of seas or mouniains. 

Our limits forbid us to go further into minute details on the numerous 
subjects on which Sir George has written. We may remark, however, 
an Essay of his on ths prevention of railway accidents, which deserves 
the attention of the managers of all railways. 

His liberality in promoting science has not been confined to his own 
country alone. We believe we are correct in stating that that great 
vehicle of European knowledge, the < Bulletin Universelle,' conducted 
by his friend, the late Baron de Ferussac, was almost indebted to the 
worthy Baronet for its existence, from his furnishing to the Baron, by 
loan, the original fund, on which he commenced composing with many 
other literary men, that laborious work. 

Sir George is, we believe, an honorary member of several philosophical 
societies. He is President of the York Mechanical JnstitutioD, and 
Chairman of the Royal Polytechnic Institution. He is also an Associate 
of the Society of Civil Engineers. 



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PREFACE. 



Another half-year has dosed, and another volume of The Mirror is 
complete. 

We look back with high satis&ction on the powerM ad^tional sup- 
port ^ich it has recmed in the course of the last six months. The 
modesty of some of our friends has withheld names which would at once 
command eager attention. Happily the merit of their contributions was 
such that it required not a signature to give them currency. The aid 
we were promised at the commencement of the year, has not been 
withheld, and our correspondents increasing in number, we are assured 
will put forth additional strength, and with those peculiarities which 
haye caused this publication to be fsTOurably known in every civilized 
country, fresh features of interest, will give it yet stronger dums in 
every cirde in which Literature and Sdence are cherished. 

New arrangements 'can hardly in any case be made, without dis- 
turbing old ones. Some confusion must necessarily be created even in 
carrying out improvements, which will not escape the acute observer. 
We pray a little forbearance. If any favourite topic have been less 
attended to than formerly, it may be considered that it is suspended, not 
discarded. It will constantiy be our object to throw into our pages as 
much variety as possible, and our means of doing this are such as few 
periodicals extant can command. 

Ambitious as we may feel of laying before our readers superior original 
matter, we shall still make a point of selecting from the most admired 
publications of the day, passages calculated to please at the moment, 
and worthy to be preserved. It will be our object unceasingly to present, 
in addition to what may be called our own, 

*' An essence compounded with art 
Of the finest and best of all other men's powers." 

It affords us pleasure to learn the sketches of Noble Families, recentiy 
commenced, have been warmly approved. We shall be able as they 
proceed, in many instances, to furnish from authentic sources, infonnation 
that cannot but give the whole series, when completed and indexed, more 
than ordinary value for reference. 

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Vlll PREFACB. 

While careful to preserve that unsullied character, which has long 
been recognised as especially distinguishing The Mirror,, the merit oF 
being inoffensive will not limit our aspirings. When necessary, we shall 
not scrapie to attack offenders against taste and good feeling. Not imi- 
tating those "assassin scribes" who assail othera because abuse is 
profitable, our censure will be bestowed only where justice demands that it 
should visit quackery or crime. 

It affords us much pleasure to embellish the present volume with a fine 
Engraving of Sir George Cay ley. It is taken from a photographic picture by 
Beard. We are confident it will be admired as a work of art, and the likeness 
it presents of that veteran enthusiast in the cause of science, is so striking 
that it must be truly valuable to his Mends, and to that public he has' 
laboured so anxiously through a long and honourable career to serve. 



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LITfiRATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION, 



No. I.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1843. 



[Vol. I. 1843. 



^ r '^ -^ -' 




TOXi. UJ. 



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i:i:t|ii|i'ii4,:;i'^i'l|''".'i|,riir'i>'i'lW''^^ 



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THE MIRBOB. 



(Bvig^nal Communicationit. 



ARNOLD DE MELCHTAL. 

The original painting from which this 
engraving is taken is the production of 
Mr. Lugardon, a native of Geneva, whose 
works are extremely popular in his own 
country, for those wnich have obtained 
the greatest success are descriptive of 
some of the most ren^arkabie features in 
the history of Switzerland. 

In the month of November, 1567, the 
peaceable and hardy shepherds of Wald- 
stetten, unable to brook any longer the 
insolence and tyranny whicn was exer- 
cispd ovot them by the haughty minions 
of Aufitria, \}e)^im to tluuk of r^giuning 
tht^ir ancii^tit Bbtrty* For thiB purpose 
a secret mtelinj^ \\B& heldj consisting of 
the niQst intre|iifl and influential miiongst 
them, Mid aftt;r they hml coneerUd the 
measures %vlucU tventuftlty lod to the 
csttiUishmtnt uf their independent;e, and 
haii sworn to remain faithful tu each 
othcT, thfty separated quietly, and re- 
turned to their hoiiujs. Arncmgst the 
foremost of this band of patriots were 
Jiirat, Stauffaeher, and Arnold de BJelch- 
tal — men who, by the aeaii courage, and 
uprightne^f^ f>f intention they displayed in 
tlie cause of their suftering countrymen, 
have secured to themselvei^ ^m\e of the 
brightest pages which adorn the liistoyy 
of their country* 

Not long after the separation of this 
meeting, as Henry Anderhaldim de 
I^telchtal and his son Arnold wert busily 
t't^gag^jl at the plough, which was drawn 
by two fine oxen, they were visited by a 
soldier tiud n party of servants, who told 
old Melehtal tliat thoy had come to take 
away his oxen, by the orders of Landen- 
bcrj^r, the g-overnor of Lanien, 

The old rami inquired what he Yifd 
done, that hcj waa to be doprivcd of hb 
eattic, and Itcgged, before they took them 
from hitn, tlmt they would at leii:it allow 
him to finLsh his pluuj^lmig ; )jut he was 
pushed ruiielj w^'uh by the soldier, and 
told in ilerision, that if he was desirous 
of ploughing, lie might yoke himself. 
Arnold do MekhtflJ, though only armed 
with !i itiek, being unable to repress his 
indi^tiatjou at the insult oliered to his 
father* rushed on tlio Siildierj and wounded 
him; mid then, in of^ler to ejicitpe the 
vengeance of the governor, fled to a fast- 



ness in the mountidns, where he lay con- 
cealed until ihe tyranny of the pet(^ 
despots had goaded his countamnen to 
resistance. He then issued m>m his 
hiding-place, and took a distinguished 
part in that glorious struggle which 
wrested Switzerland from the galling* 
yoke of her oppvessofB. 

Lugpirdcm nas taken for the subject of 
the pamting, which this engraving repie-r 
sents, the scene where the servants of 
Landenberg are about to take away the 
oxen of Melehtal. On the left of the 
picture the servants are seen unyoking* 
the cattle; on the right are young 
Melehtal and his mother. The blood of 
the young man is boiling at the |i|0ult 
offered to his ^Either. He is In tl)e act of 
rushing on the soldier, and his pother is 
endeavouring to restrain him* In the 
centre, the soldier is standing erect, with 
his dagger drawn, awaiting the onset of 
the young n^aa. Old M^chtal and his 
daughter are at the feet of the ruffianly 
soldier, imploring him to sheath his 
weaoon. 

Ilie feelings of the different actors in 
this scene are portrayed with such earnest- 
ness and fidelity, and the incidents have 
so great an appearance of reality, that our 
sympathies are immediately enlisted in 
favour of the victims of lawless tyranny, 
and our indignation is excited, in a pro- 
portionate degree, against the perpetrators 
of so foul an outrage. 
^ This painting excited general admira- 
tion on its first appearance, and so great 
was the value set on it by the inhabitants 
of Geneva, thai they purchased it by 
subscription, and placed it in theit mu- 
seum. 

liatterly, Geneva has become celebrated 
for the number and ability of its artists. 
Amongst the most dbtinguished of them 
are Hcmiung, Diday, and Lugardon. 
Homung excels in colouring and exe- 
cution; Piday is remarkable for the 
beauty and hapnony that he sheds over 
his pictures of mountain and lake ; and 
Lugafdon, full of the glorious achieve- 
ments of h|s heroic ancestors, continues 
to illustrate, with increasing success, the 
most conspicuous portions of the history 
of his native land. 



More &ir than rose at dawning day. 
When May her Zephyr seeks. 

The blossom of the human May, 
Hie rose on virgin cheeks, j 

Bultper, 



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THE lintBOB. 



THE RELICS OF LONDON. 

KO. V. — LIN0OLH*S INN GATEWAY. 

Rbat>be ! . ia weoiding your way along 
Chancefy Lane, has the anoient gate- 
house <» Lincoln's Inn ever attraoted 
your attention F Frebably it haa not. 
X ou haire he«i too deeply engaged-wyour 
mind has heen too husilv employed in 
jmminating. on the piDbabls success of the 
lawsuit, which could be the only oliject 
of ^our visit to that looality, and you 
poflsiblF could not affi»d a guuioe at the 
venerable j^way. Yet thsfe it stands^ 
drowning its eaution upon the inei^wri^ 
enced, and , ap^^eatanily warning th^tt 
a^;ainst treading within the daBjiperDiu ter^ 
ntoiyof Themis. Ay^^^thare it stands, in 
^ its grandeur ; and there it hflis stood &»r 
the last three centurieih^a terrible em* 
blem of the majesty oi the law. . It is, i£ 
I majr so express it, an tmffid builfling ; 
there is semething so dark, so dismal, so 
gloomy » ia its ^pearaBce^<<-so forbiddh^ 
so austere, and, withal, so law-like, in its 
aapect-^tbat I can weU rememher it was 
long the object of my childish awe and 
ternHT. It is essentiauy a lego/l r^c : it 
was erected-^not, as a few remains in 
other inns ai court have been, bv a cbi** 
valrotts (»rder of ^^ tbe knights of old,** and 
subsequently adopted by the students of 
ihe.law; no t^nplar ev^ guarded that 
stately gateway, no white, cross banner 
streamed fi>rth firom its towers — ^it was 
erected by the Society of Lincoln's Ian { 
it is still situated in the vevy ooatre o£ 
the dark and gloomy ehambecs of the 
lawyers ; and ever and m(m, as we gasie 
upon the blackened mass, some counsellctf, 
ia his powdered wig, and silk ^^ long 
robe,** sweeps through its avenue, ret 
Toinding us th^ we are yet in %lm neighs 
bourhooid of the law. 

Linoohx*s Imi, on the western side of 
Chancery Lane, was, as eariy as tha 
thirteenth centui^, erected by He^ry 
{dftoey, Earl of Lmcdn, As hk Ina and 
residence, on the site oi a religious housa 
of J>ominicaa monks, wbo had. previously 
removed to Bkuikfiriars. He, ia 1310^ 
induced a society, of students of common 
law to locate themselves in this house, 
and, dying the eame year, the inn has 
ever since remained in their possession, 
and they have adopted, from this circum- 
stance, the denomination of " The Societv 
of Lincoln's Inn.** The gatehouse, whicn 
is the principal entrance to the society's 
possessions nrom Chancery Lane, was 
erected in 1518. It f^^pears, from the 



register of the sociti^, that, in tiie year 
1506, the members '^ began to make 
bricks, and to contract with masons for 
the stonework of the great gatehouse 
toww.'* In this work they were ma- 
terially assisted by Sir Th^nas LoveUi 
the treasurer of the king's househc^, 
who was . formerly a member of the 
society, and at wnose sole expense the 
timber which was used in it9 constructio* 
was " brought by water from Henley- 
iqion-Thames.'* But the erection pro* 
l^ressed slowly; and Sir Thomas Lovel), 
m 1518, gave a further grant, to assist 
the students in their undertaking. But 
ev0u this pecuniary aid was not sufficient 
to complete it, and in 1520 a tax was 
imposed upon the commons of the inn, 
and a sum of 40/. allowed from its trea* 
sury, to defray the costs ; and in this 
Vear it was completed, the expenses of 
its erection amounting to 153/. 10«. 8£L, 
according to the reom^ls of the society^ 
The gateway has since been thcuroughly 
repaired, and its uniformity and venerable 
^>pearance in a great measure destroyed, 
by the introduction of modem windows 
in place of the ancient casements. Over 
the gateway, and between the square 
towers by which it is flanked, are the 
arms of England, encbsed within a gar- 
ter bearing the national motto. On the 
right side <^ this tablet are the ^Bmoily 
brings oi the linoolns, and on the left 
side, l£ose erf Sir Thomas Lovell. Be* 
neafih these inscriptions is a label, bearing 
the date of the erection, '^ anno dom., 
1518.'* The style of the gatehouse of 
Lincoln's Inn is somewhat similar to 
that of St. John's Grate, Cl^enwell, 
^hich formed the subject of the second 
number of these sketches ; but it is des- 
titute of that classic interest which en* 
veiops the relic of the White Cross 
Knights. The one has merely its an- 
tiquity to recommend it to our notice, 
but the other is associated with remem- 
brances that render it even still more 
interesting. Yet Lincoln's Inn gateway 
does not appear out of place ; it is not an 
insulated relic, like that of Clerkenwell — 
the only surviving remnant <rf a once 
stately pile ; it is in perfect keeping with 
ihe buildings which surround it ; it is si- 
tuated in the vicinity of chambers as dismal 
and gloomy in appearance as itself ; and is 
still devoted to the same purposes as 
when it was first erected— as the entrance 
to the possessions of the learned Society 
of l4nooln*s Inn. 

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THSJMIBBOB. 



A LEAF FROM MY GRAND- 
MOTHBR^S ALBUM. 

A LOTB-LETTEE OP THE OLDEN TIMES. 

- MAi>AM,—Moflt worthy of eitimatlon, 
after long consideration, and much me- 
ditalion, I have a strong incMnatkm to 
become your velatloii; aad on yeup ap- 
probtttion, shall remove my situation to a 



tei^iion, was the soft notes ei a.violin, 
executed by some master-handy proceed- 
ing from a boat, winch apftfurendy had 
been lately oonstructed, to it was orfy 
listened to the shore' by & rope, and was 
heaving j^rondly on the bosom of ihe 
water, 'hie man continued to lisien trf;- 
tenlively to th«^ play^, who, jaftor per- 
lenmng asbort prdude, began'. to uUy a 



Sore convenient stotion, to profess my legato nwvement in "w^^l* 'TJ?^* 



admiration; and if smch obktion l>e 
worthjr of consideration, and can obtain 
coranuseration, it wUl be an agerandiza- 
tion, bey<md all jcajcu^ion, of the joy 
and exultation of 

Yours, sans dissimulation, 

[answeb.] 
Sir, — ^I perused your oration with much 

delibeitttion, and a little consternation . . t, o 

at die «eat in&tuation of your w«ak to produce such sounds, aom avioUnr 
• • h veneration on Thepkyermuat hein thatboat. Imust 



uiteitte tfeeliBg wU^ aoft. and toudiing 
expraflsionv titon ohaingniig theMr, be be- 
gwa to inuti^ the pert r^lyof a<^uette 
«Mthd despairing' acoeats oc a oapncious 
young girl'— bwfste oi laugUer in the 
midst of sigte — and finished wkh an» ad- 
miraUe cveacendo full.of passtim. 

The stnmger, when tbe soH»d had died 
away, oiied, in ecstasy, « A<hasHrable ! 
adimrablel is it pcssihlefovbumaa hands 



imagination, to shew such 
80 sught a foundation ; bdt after exami- 
nation and serious contemplation, I sup- 
pose your animation was the fruit of 
recreation, or sprung from ostentation, 
to di^ilar your education by an odd 
enumeration of words of the same termi- 
natibn, though of great variation in their 
respective signification. 

STow, without disputation, your labo- 
rious application to so tedious an Oc- 
cwpotion deserves commendation; and 
thmking initation a sufficient gnMafioa- 
tion, 

I am, without hesitation, youw, 

'MaKT MODSBATIOIV. 



willlalM shield. 



Om a' fine evenii^ in July, a young mtm 
with a pensive oountenance Wa^ vmlking 
slowly along the banks of the Tvne, at a 
short distance fropi Korth Shields. The 
^un had just set, the stars were twinkling 
in the clear sky, and the gentle murmur 

of the stream and the rustling of the ^ . . 

iMpeeie mingled with the distant noise of one play on the violm ; I may be mis- 
the North Sea— all seemed in keeping taken, but I puesumetbat the sowad came 



know whether it is a demon, a fairy, <a 
an langftl, who coidd have thus moved 

mev^V . 

So.sayiag, he^began toideso^id Afdank, 

whiii, by way ^a hadge, owmected 
^e vessel wim the shore. Just as the 
stranger had reached the middle, the 
ve^d reared its prow, and moved to the 
extremity of the eord, which waar long^ 
than the ptok, the ^ad of the ktler 
dropped^- aad prec^itfited the man into 
the water. At the noise made by the 
fhH, a youbg lad» of about feucte^ jevrs 
of age, sjffang flwm betojw, and ae^ng a 
man stn^ling in the water, leaped in, 
«»d bravtely bofe him to the land. 

^* Thimk y^m, young man,** said the 
stranger. "I am doubly thankful for 
what you have done— you- have saved my 
life ; Mid had it not been fi>r yon, I would 
never have know n what X am so anxious 
to learn.** 

" What is it that you are so cbesirous 
to know?** the lad demanded; "per- 
haps I shall be able to tell you-" 

A few nunutes ago, 1 heard some 



with the solitary wanderer, who suddenly 
stof^^g and, raiskig his head, seemed to 
listen with the air of one whose attention 
has been suddenly awakened. The un- 
known*- as we must a(t present ntjil diim 
— stopped befere a boat-Vuilder*s, where 
here and there pieces of timber and scat- 
tered tools evinced that the daily labourers 
had abandoned their avocations at sunset. 
That which caused the stranger to stop 
so suddenly, and at once to rivet his at- 



from the boat To see the person, and 
to know him, is my most anxious de- 
sire.** - 

" Is that all ?— it was I, sir. I was 
amusing myself a little after the fatigues 
of the day/ 

The stranger did not exactly say to 
the boy thatbe was telling a lie^ but he 
fixed his eyes upon him, looked at him 
from head to foot, took hi& two hfmds in 
his, and said, (^ooal^ 

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tS& lAEBOB. 



I 



** What IS ;fo«r name, boyf wluifcafe 
jou ? and -wialt hasbrottgfat you bere ?" 

"^ My iMfie, sir, Is Wiltiam Shield. 
My father ivas a poor singing'^master, 
who taught me the vrotin v/nen I was 
T«ry voungy so that at eight yeaw c^age 
I cmud play tokmbhr wefi. Two Tears 
ago iB^ poor^ther oied* I new knew 
what it was to have a mothear, for mine 
c^ed' the day Uiat she gave me birth. 
Then I was atone in the world — ^fiither- 
less, moiherleaS) and Mencieas. Bat rou 
knew we most do something to gam a 
livemieod, so I applied to a boat-builder 
to take me as his iq^ppentice, and he ac- 
oepCedme. During the day, I work as 
hard as lean; in the erening, and some- 
tknes dttrmg the middle of the night, I 
take my l^olin^-'tiiy only fiiend and<x>m- 
panion^^MBd I ^kj a liMile wMle, tldnk- 
mg of my d^pwrtcd &ther. I hate told 
yon ell l£i0. At ; but yam must nolt Hunk 
that everybody knows it^-O no ! I keep 
itfircnniJS; lOid the reason that I tell 
you is — ^indeed, I don't know how it is." 

'*'. And what piece wwe you pkving 
to-night ?** inquired ike stranger, without 
takmg his eyes finom the lad. 

'* fi was Gorelli's, nr, witii a little of 
toy own." 

•^^ My ifoed bdy, I am only a vfeitor 
heite— to morr€w I set oat- for London. 
You'will accompany mo, and there-— ^" 
' *^ No^ MT^oh no, I camiott .You will 
excuse me for^refu^ng, but I have still a 
year of tny apprentieeship to iserve. My 
master g6ttefoasdy*reeetv«d me 'when I 
wasin wtress; and now that I am uselul 
lb liim, I shoidd Hke to discharge my 
dtt^.** 

• ** Goody my noble boy," the stranger 
said ;• *^ follow the dictates ciymr grate- 
fol heart — but preoftise that in a year 
from tills, you will come to join me in 
litmtjon." 

" I wiH promise, sir; but how am I 
tofindy^r- 

*^ Aflfe for the composer Cramer— he 
will receive you as his child ; then^ what- 
ever iMy be your destiny, never forgtet 
tha& it was he who cUscover^ your 
genSM/*^ 

William Shield kept his promise, for 
no soon^ had the year expired, tJian he 
wenfttoLotftdon to claim the protection 
of the far-famed composer, whose friend- 
ship for Mm was wattn and truly skicere, 
UmltihiDiiffh whom young Shield was 8<M>n 
afteti^Mttiled leaderof theorchestra of 
the Dunmm theatre; To finish his stu- 



dies, ihe went to Italy, and besides be- 
coming a good composer, he* received 
the patronage of his sovereign. His most 
esteemed q>eras are — "iSe Farmer," 
''Footainbleaut" ''Bosina," and ''The 
Poor Soldier." 

William Shield, when suceeas had 
orowaed his landaUe endeavours, often 
reverted to the time of his f^renticeehip, 
and often shed a tear of gratitade when 
speakimr of the ^goodness of hia bene- 
Mfctor, Cramer. M. K. 

ILfterature. 



Seff-^devdtion; or, the History of Kathe* 
rine Bandotnk. By the Author of 
"The Only l)aughter." 

T«» is the posthumoas publioalaon of a 
highly-sifted young lad^, whose tender 
heart feu, unl^ppily, a victim to the fire 
of genius. In our younger days, when 
reading Byxon^s never-to-be-forgotten 
lines on the death of Kiike White, our 
heart has bkd for departed genius^ and 
we thought how strange it was that those 
who were best qualified to adorn and 
imf^ve human life should invariably be 
the earliest objects at which death aims its 
fell strokes; and now, in perusing this 
tale of merit and engrossing interest, with 
style so pure, so vigorous, so fritt of 
poetry, we can scarcely supfHress a tear 
at the sad, bitter thought, that one so 
younff, vn&i mind so cmtivated, should, 
like ^ li\y, which the poet describes as 
being all purity and life at night, de- 
stroyed at mom, be swept for ever from 
us. Space ynUX not al)ow us to give an 
outline of the story. Suffice it to say, 
that it is a tale of domestic life, of great 
interest^ tdd in natural and flowing 
language, and full of reflection. The 
followmg description pleased us much : — 

A HIGHLAND HOME. 

' ** The moon was shedding her mystic 
and spiritual radiance over a narrow 
Highland strath of most 'surpassing beau- 
tvi* asf a isolitafy horseman turned tiie 
BMrupt angle of l^e road in^iich brought 
hinft to the entmnce of the defile. To 
those %ho nr^ already fkmHiar with the 
sublimity of a Highmnd moonlight, one 
breath upon the cnords of memory will 
recall sufch a scene as I would fain de- 
scribe : to cornmunicate it to the imagi* 
nivtion of those who are ignorant of flie 
T^ty, ail the energies* of the writer 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



e 



THE MtftBOS. 



mav be exetcised In tib* Ilwas % small 
and namw Tftlley, wilh a range of 
glorious raountains on either hand, piled 
one upon another tiU their erag^ged and 
l«oken ottUine seemed to touch the sides, 
and lent to the beautiful and smiling 
glen an aspect of even unusual solitude. 
At one or two points in the short stretch 
which the tale alforded, the hifis seemed 
to recede from one another, forming 
small vistas, which, though all were con- 
nected with the larger straih by one 
ooim»oB ekcle of mountains, severaUy 
revealed a wild hamlet with its knolls, 
and its pine-trees, its silver stream, and 
its own peculiar boundarv. There is 
something in these broken glimpses which 
gives an exquisite variety to a Hifi^hland 
picture ; and in this case, without break- 
ing in upon the seclusion or diverting 
the eye nrom the nobler prospect before 
it, the little outshots, as it Were^ from the 
vale lent to the whole scene an interest 
of a peculiarly sweet and touching cha- 
racter. The glen itself was watered by a 
wandering stream that roamed hither and 
thiliier among the meadows, and gave its 
plaintive music to the night, wmle the 
Mr and velvet sward was rolled back- 
ward to the bases of the hills with never 
a slope until it joined their veiy roots ; 
and the shaven fields left ample space fo^ 
the mysterious shadow of fairy knoll and 
gnarled wych elm, which here and there 
the moonlight flung across the glen, tiH 
it seemed peopled with wizard shapes. 
A small and quiet loch lay sleeping 
under the shadow of two long lines S 
hills, which fell with a sheer and most 
graceful outline to its mar^ — ^fronting 
each other in opposing masses of rock 
and promontory ; and lessening and les- 
sening, till they were closed at last by 
the purple masses of a separate and in- 
tersecting range. Near the margin of 
this loch, where the flat meadow-ground 
rose undulating into brae and hollow, 
where the pines were gathered ihto 
clumps, and the woods took a richer and 
more massive umbrage, a handsome and 
picturesque mansion-house was reared 
upon the summit of ^ lawn, that slq>ed 
ahnost imperceptibly to the waters. 
There was something flmcifal in the ar-^ 
chitecture of the house, with its strange 
blending of English and Gothic taste, as 
if the mind that planned it had been 
whimsical and imaginative in its charac- 
ter ; and yet the building was in perfect 
keeping with the beauty of its site, and 



tsKker eonflrmed than iufHoged opcm the 
effeet of the nolite soenery by which it. 
was surreunded. There were magnifi- 
oent beeches and YAick massive pitiMt** 
trees grouped upon ^ hiwn, yet a cer- 
tahs air ot neglect was visiMe in Hmt 
rushes that overtrrew the sward, and in 
the br^uslras of the stone bahistrade that 
ran al<nig tiie terraced £roiit aeareatto 
theloich. Indeed an atmosphere of de-« 
sdation brooded over the place, for an 
unbroken silence oiveloped it; and dark- 
ened windows, and the absence of all or- 
dinary signs of domestic activity^ seemed 
in very unisen with the pale and melan-r 
eholy light that streamed around. Hie 
moon hung like a lamp of heaven in the 
daik bhie vault between the sumndts of 
the opposbg hills, and flung h^ white 
shimmering radianca on the water, wlale 
the tall chimneys and the arched and 
pointed roof of the house were just sil- 
vered with the beams tiiat rested <m their 
tips. All around the house besides Was 
wTi^ in the glorious shadow of the 
woods and mountains.** 



AinswortlCs Magazine, 

Shouu) our readers, after the effects of 
Chfistmas, experience that eiimtz winch is 
6ften attendant on gaiety, the perusal of 
Uie monthly now under our notice will 
be found gratifying — ^for in point of in- 
terest and varied stoiy^ in judiciousness 
in the choice (^ the articles, talent in the 
writing of them, this part surpassas 
any oi its predecessors. Mr. Ainswortii 
contrives, with admirable tact, to ex^ 
cite our interest by his vivid descrip- 
tions ; and his Herne the hunter, the 
forest demon — ^his Mabel, all gentleness^ 
whose features, says the author^ ^ are 
exquisitely moulded, and of a joyoiis vn^ 
presnon; a skhi dyed like a peadi by 
the sun, but so as to improve rathd^ thait 
to impair its hue ; eyes bright, laughing, 
and blue as a summer sky ; ripe, tmMj 
lips, and pearly teeth; and nii^ of a 
liflht and glossy brown,"— ^will render 
'' v^indsor Castle" as popular a work aa 
that which stamtoed Ainsworth as a 
writer, iii which he so adduraUy brings 
his descriptive powers into opeiution by 
his ^UTfon^s Bide to York. Besides tble 
continuation <rf " "Windsor Castle," we 
hare this mooth several talented artidea, 
both in prose and verse, not the least of 
which is the (me entitiled the ^* fUistcm 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



7HS lORBOIC 



toerriest and clererest MkfW thai evei^ 
bod the sti^,** with oHgkiftl letters of 
iflaiiydisthi^shedjxersonages. To^e 
our readers ttn idea of thte fund of 
anecdote and amusing redital, we editract 

THS POOR ACTOR. 

^* An adveiStfere tctok t>lace abottt thii 
time, wMth, by ohe particulai', was 
rendered somewhat remaricable. A 
musical star being in the ascendant, and 
opera, consequently, the zenith of the 
* biHs,' Elliston*s duties did not call him 
to the theati^ until late in the evening, 
wheh he hiid to play the part of DoH 
Jtton, for about tlie fiftieth tnne. Passing 
down an obscure street, on his way 
ttStlrt*, his ears were suddijnly startled 
by indicsttions of terror and distress, and 
he discorered, on turning abruptly into 
a narrow court, the lower part of a house 
enf eloped in flAmes. The occupiers had 
escaped unhurt, and most of them, 
miserably poor, were watching, either in 
stupid fegOny or with uhftvaiHng cri«, 
tile sure aestmction of their crazy 
chattels; while others, littracted to the 
spot by mere curiosity, looked on the 
scene only as an exhibition prepared f6r 
tiieir Special gfafification, and every fresh 
evidence pf ttiift, hvit aS a conp de the&tre^ 
wMfeh ttey welcomed wira applause. 
Amidst the bewildeiing fl^ypeals of the 
sttrro an ding suiferers, tlie most hewrt* 
rending were those of ft middle-aged 
f^ale, #ho, numing from spot to spot, 
jtfid threa<Sng the crowd without any 
identical purpose of action, exclaimed— 
*Poor Jamie! he's gone — ^he's gone! — 
no one can help poor cbtft Jtoiie?!' By 
the language and manner of the woman, 
it wtis clear some one yet remained un- 
rescticd, and at the mercy of the element, 
laiiston instantly pushed forwwrd to the 
frantic suppliant, and sooft understood 
tiiat, in ah upper Mmrtment, some help- 
less being Was stnl imprisoned, whc«e 
awfhl fate was momentarily expected. 
A. sidc-door of the house afforded still 
the possiWBf^ of mgress. Of thfe chance 
EDistote availed himself— he rushed up 
the staircase, followed fbrtunately by a 
bystander, ^nboldened by this example, 
tod found himself instantatieously in a 
wretched attic, where, oft a still more 
wretched pallet, Wy extended a poor bed- 
ridden b^ing, whose state of idiocy 
seemed roused to a gHhiifiering sense of 
soihe ^roxmotate daftger, but who had 



neitiier power of ttttenuiM nor abil^ of 
liiotion. 

^* Amidfll the Varied evidences of decay 
luround him, this wreck of hunmii^ — 
age, idiocy, and infirmity, With tfieir 
attendant poverty, each in its extreme— 
powerfrilly aflfected him^ Lost ft>r a 
moment to the finghtfiil jnrogress of the 
element, he stood motionless and appalled. 
* 'Tis tiseless!' exclaimed the tnan who 
had followed ten — * he cannot be saved ! 
the^ stairs are ahready in fiames V *' He 
can— he shall!" Maculated Ellfeton— * be 
steady, and we can accomplish it.* Ap- 
proaching the bed, ElHston raised the 
poor creitture in his arms, and binding 
about him the tattered r^nnant of sheet 
and clothing— as much to disarm 1^ 
feeble attempts to be free, as for 'the 
covering it might aflford— Ksarried him to 
the head of t^e staircase. The mingling 
clamour of apprehenskm and encourage- 
ment from the mob below kept his energy 
at its pitch, but to descend the ^f^ waA 
encumbered was impossible. The fire 
was mounting, and suflbcation inevitable. 
With difficulty he had passed to the first 
landing, where, fbreing a side-vnndow, he 
presented his nearly-rescued charge to the 
multitude. But tlie shrieks and struggles 
of the sufferer — ^the difficulty ofmffing 
the crowd understand -that they were 
to assist him from below, all, imperatively, 
the work of a few seconds — had nearly 
left the^ in 6ne common ruinj At 
length, however, by the aid of his c<Hn- 
panion, all was accomplished. The Hving 
burden was lifted on the slU, loif^ered 
by the firagile tackle, and fell^ unhurt, 
into the contrived treillage of the people. 
The two liberators now effected their ow6 
escape — ^not terrific, indeed, in descent, 
but within tfaaree minutes, t^ whole in- 
terior was in fttmes. 

" Disentangling himself from the em- 
braces of the women (as little befitting 
Don Juan as his escape from fire), 
Elliston now, like good Launcelot, ' tck^ 
to his heels and ran,* reaching the 
theatre just in time to see a substitute 
Libettine, like other ragouts, ' dressed 
on the shortest notice,' and ready to be 
served up in his place. An a|5ology had 
been made to the audience for his ab- 
sence, but the cause of it was stiD an in- 
teresting mystery. In a few words, he 
explain^ to his apologist the event of the 
evening, Who, taking the opportunity of 
Elliston*s dressing, afffdn presented liim- 
self before the ourtatoj^i^d repeated the 

)igitized by VjOOQ IC 



8 



THE MSK&OB. 



sligbt accotint he had ireceiv«d witii tatf 
siderable pcnnt. * Don Juan,' he added, 

* as annonnced in th^ bills, haid alrendjr 

* descended in a shower ctf real &re,' but 
having set hb very Me at dtefiance, he 
had effected his return, to receive, tts be' 
richljr deserved, ft still wanner sentence 
at tlfe hands of his judges now ptesent.* 
His welcome, as may be well isup^osed, 
was most enthusiastic. Called ufxin'to 
tell his own story, EUiston i^rw as much 
in his element as. Dim Jnan-^iat he had 
to make a speech ; a faculty which, though 
in after life he greatly improved, be hf 
no means inconsnl^bly possessed' at this 
present. The above incident gave such 
additional attraction . to this dratda, that 
it was sparcely out of the bill&'i^ ilny 
part ofthe season. ' . 

**S<i much for the adventure itsetf; 
but Elliston, who, it will be recidUy i)^* 
lieved,.took the earliest opportunity of 
seardiing out the unha|)py patient he had 
rescujBd, discovered that he had origimlly 
been' ah actor, and freiquenfly a feltow 
labourer with the great Maoklin. In- 
discretions ; and • consequent waivt of 
employ, ^had brought on this ;3 tote of 
mental- abertation and wretciiednesB. 
Elliston coiitinued' his kindness^ to hkn 
tiMi he died.'' 



BUtckwGod* , • 

K££D we mention ^ that BUdckwdod 
abounds in t^seful and amu^C' articles 
this month... Is'it 6ver other'wise ? 'tfpt 
the leaist^ofiwhiiih,' however, are " Greiit 
Britain at the comjUehcdment of the.year 
1843," and " Taste and Music in Eng- 
land." " Two Hours of Mystery" is an 
amusing stOTv, fiill of excitement, ahd 
abounding in Tmmour. *.' AHstdchici'e^ of 
London" contains many shrewd remarics, 
and the «miZe betvveen the butterfly and 
the young noble is veiy happy. A portion 
of it may please our readers, especially 
when that portion may pass for an entire. 

AKISTOCIIACIVS Ot LONDON- LIFE. 

" Tlie ctitnulative or ag^preg^ve pro- 
perty uf ivealth and piwer, and, in a less 
degree^ of kiiowlcdgi, alfeo maJie up in 
time a consolidation f>f those element in 
the bands of particular cliass^s, which, for 
our prcs<*nt purp(fst% we choose to term 
an ar]!^to<^racy of birth, weafthj know- 
ledge, or power, as the case may be. 
The word aristocracy, disttnctiVfe of these 
particular classes, we use in a eonven- 



tk$nal'8en£ie only, audi beg lfi«ve.tt> yro- 
teslfe^ in Umime^ ag^ednit any oHmt SMcptar 
tion of the term. W« use itbf*rword 
because it is poMdarly compvelrtiisive*-^ 
the fA ap^pi ^taguiahed ftom lie oc 
iroXXoc: *' goed men," as i^tfae vakte.of 
goodnesiB in the city; *»the great^"' as 
they are Understoed bypeimeBi ^hMufAt 
able novols; «»taleiited> or ^' a 9011108," 
aa we aay in thecafme*; but noia wovd, 
mark 'yoit,'i^ the absto^ct value of these 
sigiuK^their pautivtB gigni fiaati o pa « g pod 
may be bad; grdat, mfan ; taJenled or a 
genm, ignontnt or a pupf^* * We liaive 
nothing' ta witii ifaat^ 'Iheae ave thy terms 
our Pm>lic ; tium lunb reaj^oiiBtble^arllie 
use toade of them. Thovitistvdio telleat 
us that the'^ttn ines and s«tB^ (wlwdi it 
does not,) and talkest of the good and 
great, wmout knowing idiethci? tiiety are 
gteat and good or '^oi Our buainesB ia 
to bomw youtr reoogbised impotijbritties 
ef <«peeeh .obly so^ &r as ikey wifl aaaiat 
us iri iMildng'ottis^;v«8fniderBtood«< When 
Archimedes, or MUie other gtettouai, 
said that he t^ooldtin&c the earth hanl he 
A pOiiit of raaistoiice Ibr his kven ke 
illustrated, by aii hypdthesisDipbyaioav the 
law of the generation of cnstodracies. 
Aristocracies be^n by havlag ta ieg id 
s^tttnd on, or by getting « finger in the 
pie. The inttmCude, ca the oontnvy, 
never have ^anytlnng, btoaiu»^ihey never 
had', aiiything; tluy wiot iSb^r jpdnt 
' d^afpui^ the ftpringingj^rownd wheiice to 
juinp albote fheir conditios, where^ transn 
ikrmed' by th^ gilded rays of weal^ or 
pov^efir, di0^ar^g their seVend rnkmrn or 
sldughs,; they sport and flutter likejieaflcr 
insects in the sUnHy hutma of aristolmitic 
life. Indeed, We hove oft^ihougkl that 
the transformation ef ^^inseot tribe tvas 
Intended,, by a wise Oiaiiiiridteneef as an 
illustration (for our own benefit) of the 
rise and progress of the mete aristocracy 
of fi»hionable lifo. The first condition oi 
.existence of these dimtnutive crMuses is 
the egg, ix embryo state. This the 
anxious . parent attaches firmly tb some 
letU" or, bought capable of affording suffi- 
cient sustenance to tiie ftetua^e grabs who, 
in due course, eats his way t&ough die 
vegetable kingdom upon which- he is 
tp»^ered for no merit of exertion of his 
own. Mid where hiB cm^er is only to be 
noted by the rav^s of his insatiable 
jaWs. After a brief period of l^thaigy, 
or pupA state, this good-for-noll£ig 
creature fiuteers forth powdered, painted, 
perfuiibec^ andseorning the dirt fhmi wtuch 

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THE MIRBOB. 



9 



he flpMig, «BcL lettdii^.a life of lueleat^ 
ness and vw^, imtil deat^, w t^ s^^cw 
df an aoftKnM sho^r, {nrostraUc himself 
and hts'finevy in the dwi. 

'' How bfeaftrtifol awl eonq^ete k the 
Bmikfgy between the inseet and his 
hft>th^ hottoHly of ftwhioiiable life. 
Whale' y** an emhTfo-^^ wewn, he^gmkv 
his way. through a gdod estate, and tnot a 
li^le^i^y noney. Then, after, a kng 
scjoom in the pv^ or puppy state-^ 
huiger hst thanihiit of any ouer maggot, 
^-he ' etterges. a perfect butteriy^ vain, 
wmptyy ^atteriQg^ and eonodted ; ieffing, 
flirong^ flitniiing, pUlaiidering, tmtil the 
sittmier of hn^on is past, when he dies, 
and' is Manre8tB<V mid expiates a life of 
puflifle vaniW. in piur^iMkory, . ov the 
Qneen's Bemm j 

' *' Let the beginning <MMe be< made-^the 
point of 'eKtreme dej^ressibn onoebe. ^ 
ovtrf 'tei eaies^ c(£> iho daily veeiuTmg 
peorntoesaitiet of li&-H»helter,i elot)m^9 
£K)^l)6'of:no oMmenif let aHMw taste, 



^wagii tt^ be n^ixt to> nothing, of the< deti- 
eiaaa loxnry <»f acommdation ; let him, 



with every hoarded shiUitig^ a hal^orown, 
a penind^ M^iny his dieadi U^^, smiling in 
secseft at- the world and & Mends, and 
liia aristofpwt. of weaiHi as £»rmed ; he is 
retnovedfiir«wrirooft theihand-to-mmi^ 
ftaoiij' ef mun, «Rd yienoJN^h represents 
Ins* b]!«tithes|>Q^et It is the mt^ with 
ihe^ anii^looiat of biith ; som^ ^artKoate 
acoldBBt^&oaiet wellriiiifiad and. amscess- 
M^ftxokeiof pr(»^ga&y,^riPMMre.l!ar6ly of 
virttiei /redeano ab !individiud froni the 
coanon hevd f the tay^^ wtijimpi of royal 
livratarikH ttp^mlvbnj imd h^ l^ to 
l^oai ; his grewl^ is as toe growth of the 
gtUB-itf aa6t8rd->seed, ana in .a little 
whik be.'OYesshadowedi the land; Noble 
and Big]iftfi(me«irAble are his posterity to 
"the end'of time. - 

*' Tbeape h* poor lad sitting biting his 
nails tiU liebilies, them to the quick, wear- 
ing ottt his hettit^fllrii^ in constndned 
ulenoe, on the back iMmehes oi West- 
minster Hail ; he maketh speeches, elo- 
quent, invMurdly, and brieness, mutely 
botbsvelh jadges, and sedueeth inno(^t 
jurisa to his ' JVoside : he findeth put 
nnrtakes.t in hi^ learned' brethren, <u^d 
ehttckleti^ secretly iherefoie : he scratch- 
eth hna- >Yng with a pen, and thii^eth by 
whntttain of cireumstantifd evidence he 
shalLbe able te prove a dmner ; he laugh- 
eib^erisiviily at the income taa^ and the 
eolleotoiFs meveof: yet, when he may not 
haiGeie^Aiib ^UlUe brawn* to f^ wUh, 



ha^y some good angel in mortal shipc of 
a solicitor may bestow on him a brief: 
rwdiing home te his chambelrs in the 
Tensile, he mastereth the points of the 
case, >cQgitatin^/>ro» andcontf : he heareth 
his own vdice m court lor the first time : 
the bottled black-letter of years Meth 
from his lips, like treacle from a pipkin : 
he maketh good his points, winnetp the 
verdict and the commendations cf the 
judge : soUcitors whisper that * there is 
someUidng in him>* iad clerks express 
their conviction that he is a 'trump* : the 

Cig man elo<}uent is rewarded in one 
for the toil, rust, and enforced ob- 
scurity of years : he is no longer a com- 
mon sol(itier of the bar, he steppeth by 
right divine fcnrth of the ranks, and be- 
cometh a man of mark and likelihood : 
he is now an aristocrat of th^ bar — ^perbeq^s 
a Lyndhurst 

Again, behold Uie future spstocrat of 
literary life ! to-day regard him in a suit 
of rus^ black, a twice-turned stock, and 
shirt of Isabel]* cokmr, and an affecting 
hat ; in and out of everv^ bookseller's in 
tiie Bow id he* like a dog in a fair ; a 
brovm-paper parcel he putteth into your 
hand, tne which, before he q>eiiet£, he 
demands how much cash down vou mean 
to give for it ; then, having tmrolded the 
same, giveth you to understand that it 
is such a work as is not to be seen 
every da^, whick yoft may safely swear 
to. He^umeyetn f^m the ^ast to the 
west, from the rbing of the sun to the 
setting thereof, manuscript in han4. ; from 
X<eadenhall-street, where ^nerva has 
her loess, to the street bight AlbenjArle, 
whicn John Murray delignteth to honour, 
but to no, purpose ; his name is unknown, 
and his worl^ are nothing worth. Let 
him once make a hit, as it is termed, and 
it is no longer hit or mi^ with him ; he 
g)etteth a reputation, and he lieth in bed 
all day ; he sbaketh the alphabet in a bag, 
calling it his last new work, and it goeth 
tlu*ough three editions in as ma^y days ; 
he lordeth it over ' the trade,* and wUl 
let nobody have ai^ profit but Imnself ; 
he tumeth up Ms nose at the man who 
invites ham to a. plain dinner, and utterly 
refiiseth evening parties; he holdeth 
coHv^sazione»f where he? talketh you 
dead ; he driveth a chaise, taketh a whole 
house^ sporteth a wife and a minute 
tiger ; in brie^ he is now m aristocrat 
of letters. 

" The materials for growth and pre- 
servation of these sev^ aristocracies 

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TBt mBBCOL* 



ftbottild in LcAdon, sod no wliere an 
earf^ have W6 the same facilitieB fbr the 
study and inrestlgation of ihekr fiunily 
Hkene8s68 and contrasts, their points of 
(jontaot and ircfudsion.** 



OoJJmnCs New Monthly 

Has its attractions this month. Mrs. 
TroUoiqpe plods her way in her usual 
amusing maimer; and diapter xjuuii of 
her ^'Bamabjs in America* is as rich in 
pleasing dialogue as any of those which, 
preceded it. ** My Grandiather*s Dream** 
IS a clever paper ; and we may pass the 
ssmqjuf^nnent on the ''Widow*s Alms-. 
house .** The name of the author, however, . 
will speak more in favour of the latter 
than anytlunR we can say. He who has 
read ** Peter Prigg^'* vnll be right will- 
ing to devote an hour to tiie '^ Widow.** 
** Extracts from * My Indian Diary,* '* by 
the '^ Old Forest Banger,** deserves enco-, 
mium ; while ''The Advertisement Lite- 
rature of the Age** evinces discrimination, 
and lacks not (u humour. Let us try the 
mulium tnparvo system, by reducing the 
article one-third of its length ; but still 
retaining much that is amusing :— 

THE ADVERTISEMENT LITERATURE OF 
THE AGE. 

'^The advertisement has leng shioe 
become an independent department of 
Mteratore, subject to its own canons -of 
oritic^sm, having its own laws of compos 
sition, and conducted by a class of writers, 
who, though they may (we do not assert 
that they ^) acknowledge their inferiorKy 
to the great Imtorians, poets, or novelists 
of the chy, would nevertheless consider' 
themselves deeply injured were we to 
hesitate to admit them into the corpora- 
tion of the ^geru de iettres* 

** A needy variety with his coat out at 
the elbows, accosted Ganick once upon a 
lime, u)d to enforce his suit for relief^ 
reminded the great player that they had 
formerly acted together on the boards of 
Old Drnrjr. GamcVs memory ma at 
fimH, and he begged to know upon what 
occasion he had had that honour. 

"•Don't you recollect,' answered the 
poor devil, * when you played Hamlet, I 
used to play the cock I' 

•* In the same manner, one of our pfo- 
Ibssionid advertisement writers may be 
supposed to address such an author as Sir 
Edward Btdwer. 

** When yott wfote ibB ' Last D»y» of 



P^m^y^'H imlim ffOM ^ in the: 
- — jouHiai.' 

'•The adv er t is e men t writer^ however, 
claims kindred With g^us of all sorts, > 
and considers himself entSfled to a share 
in the glory of all undertakiB^ under tiie 
sun, from the Thames Tomid to the 
manu&otnre of a razor-strop. In fiiet, he 
it to the artist or the sfac^keeper what 
Homer was to Achilles, Tasso to Godfir^, 
Camoens to Gama, or MHton to Orom- 
virelL Without him, what would his^ 
strops avail aMeChi, Mi XX a Guinness, 
his tiUs a Cookie, his Chesterfields a 
Doudney, his locks a Chubb, at his en- 
velopes k Stooken ? 

''He knows the charms 
TiMit cdl fwBOt on saeli centte acts m these, 
And he can waft their name o*er taad and seas. 
Whatever dime the Mm*8 bright dxtie wanna.' 

**The advertisement literstiire of the 
day is therefore always vrorthy of some 
nodce and reoord. Onoe a year, at leaef, 
it is w^ to glanee at it, remark such 
changes as it may have imdergone, and 
ifius^ateits actual state by a few random 
exionples* Looking back over the registers 
of the past year, vtre observe, ki m& finst' 
l^ace, a deoMne of poetry in the linnounee- 
mentsofour merchants and traders. Few' 
London shops appear at present to keetp^ 
poets. Waiten hknself rarely treats bs 
to an ode, and thisscurcity of verse is Hie 
more surprising, when we consider the 
enoflpmons quantity of the cdnHnodity ptfo-- 
duced by the booksellers ; the authors of 
most wmch could not more apprcmrkitely 
employ tiieir poetic powers toan in ^g- 
ing tlie praises of ^rmaoeti candles or 
jet blaokmg. 

*' Over-production is indeed nowhere 
more cot^ouous than in the manufacture 
of rhymes. We trust the opening of the 
trade with China may afford a vent fcne^ 
tins as well as other brandies of our native 
industry, as it certainly vrHl if tiie people 
of the celestial empire stand as much in 
need of fustian as of broad-cloth. We^ 
could spare *the central ftewery knd*^ 
a legion of bards ; and where could that 
flowery frate r nity — out of work at home 
— ^with even the doors (rf No. 80, Strand, 
ckieed against them, — more approprktely 
seek a Mees^nas and a meal ? 

''But if the spirit of song is^dead in 
our trading circles,— if there has been in 
our shops a cocm^-rev<^tion against the 
lady muses — ^tre have the satis&ction of 
perceivhig that no decline in prose com" 
position is visiMe 1» yet in the etabe de* 

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paftotent W« tfe xwt gt^ff to quote 
Geoige Bofoins ; it is stifficiendy gtstifj^* 
ing to Tei»ffk, tint the powers of tms 
cc^ikd iimter oontinae mdndpsitedf and 
that he still renudns the undiajnited head 
c^ his own department, and the greatest 
composer of an anetion^jMl in this or ant 
other country. A few specimens of acU 
Tertising raiias in a lower degree will, 
howevet, he not amiss ; we wall take 
them at random from a few newspapers 
that happen to lie on the tahle. 

^^ How proaoaptiy has the author of the 
following ayalled himself of the recent 
triumj^ of the British arms in the east : 

«< < Thb Cbikbsb Bahd Haech, 
as performed on the glorious ratifidition 
of peaoe with Great Britain, concluded 
hy Sir Henry Potting^, with a splendid 
lithographic frontisxaece, contain!^ k 
distant view of Kankin»* 

*'*' The anticipation here is a fine stroke 
of art, the peace in question not having 
heen ratified up to the last advices from 
China. It reminds (me of the brilliant 
hit made hy Demadea in Timon. 

" Dem. — Hear, my human Jujater, the 
decree I have written concemine thee 
heSore the Areopagistes : * Whereas 
Timan^ a ekampum and ivresUer, was in 
one day victor of both in the Olympic 
games * 

" Tinh^BvA I ne'er saw the Olympic 
games. 

« Dem.— -What of that ? That makes 
no matter; thaashaU see them hereafter.* 



«« Our next spedmen it no less than a 
discovery of a new qveoies of fiberty, for 
which we Chartists and Miss Mary Anne 
Walker will, of course, be duly gratefhl : 

^ ' Morisonian Prises for the three 
best Essays on the Medical Uberiy of the 
Subject For particulars apply to the 
Medical Dissenter Office^ &c. 1' 

** We have long had political Mberty, 
civil liberty, reli^ous liberty, coramer^ 
dal liberty, and now medical liberty is 
a^kled to the number, so that there is 
reason to fear thai liberty will become a 



SWITZERLAND AKD ENGLAND. 

To compare the c<Aditionof Switz^land 
with that of England (toys Chambers, in 
his Tour in SvntseiAflnd) would be ab» 
surd. There is not the slightest resem*> 
bUmee b^tvreen them. The Swisb have 
pitched their stan^rd of happiness at a 
point which, as fkr as tilings not foelings^ 
are conoemed, could, vrith gi^t ease, be 
reached br the bulk of the British popu- 
lation. And here what may be owed 
the unfavourable foaitures of l^ss society 
become prominent, lliere is Ut^ Cumu* 
latite capital in Switzerland. It is a 
country of sinall ffiimers and tradesmen, 
in decent but not wealthy circumstances. 
An active ihan among them could not 
get much. If he and ms femily wrought 
hard, they would not starve, and what- 
■ On 



"The t«i.dealer8, of oouwe, cormder ^^^^ ^^d be their own. 

Chma as their own propertv. Their ^ occasions, iri speaking to respectable 

organsare particularly elo^nt just now. ^idents, the obs^tion on th^ people 

One hjwthefoUowmg burst :--^ was-" They hibour hard, very hard, but 

« *The trade wi^^ Canton bemg now ^j^ y^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ J^ ^w are 

quite open, the pubhc, who suffered so ^^ „ / (^ ^ . .^„ ^^ j^ 

much by the late specr^^^^ W'J^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^her England 

^ .'^P.*^^ iSill^x°5?*.?L^f rP'^''* ^" or iScotland, exercise a reasonable dlgree 

of prudwice, and be temperate and econo- 
mical, he can scarcely fail hi arriving at 
the same practical results as the Swiss : 
nay, I go fiirttier, and will aver that he 
has an opportunity of reaching a far 
higher standard of rational comfort than 
was ever dreamt of by the happiest pea- 
. __^ ^ ' 4, t - '*v swit in Switzerland. The condition of 

important announcement of peace with ^^^ g^.^^ .^ ^^^^ remotely, no doubt 
Chma, we take the eaxhestopport^^ fk)m the shnple form of govertiment, but 

makmg known to the pubfi^that we jftj^ediately and chiefly fh)m the hiduS- 
have commenced selhng all descnpUons ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ economic haWts 



pression. They shaU reap it ! 

" This is Demosthenic. 

"Another is rather Ciceronian, and 
expatiates more copiously on the same 
theme : 

** * The glorious news from the East is 
everywhere hailed with delight and gra- 
titude. Ixi consequence of the highly 



making known to the publi^that we iftj^ediately'and chiefly from the hiduS. 

have commenced selhng aU descnpUons humble d< ' 

of tea much cheaper. ^^^^^ 1^^ 



«f Tiinon, •dited by the Aev. A. Dyce, /or the 
Sbsk^ptrian Sodotir. 



Switzerland is unquesMonablr the para- 
dise <rf ^ worldng^man^ but then it can- 



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12 



TOE iOABOA. 



not be called a poradtse fbr any other ; 
Mid I doubt if the perfection of uie social 
system, if the aHamate end of creation, h 
to §LX down mankind at peasant and woHc* 
mg-man pilch. Both Bowing and Sj- 
mons are in raptures with the cotti^- 
system of the Swiss artisans ; I own it is 
most attractive, and, as I have said, is 
doubtless productive of n^uch happiness. 
But who prevents EngHsh artisans frotn 
having equally good houses with the 
Swiss ? With a money wwe of seme 
seven or eight shiUuigs a week, it is said 
the Swiss operative realizes, by mc^ms of 
his free cottoge, bit of erowMl, and gar- 
den, equal to thirty shilUngs in England. 
My own conviction is^ that fourteen or 
fifteen shillings woidd be much nearer 
the mark ; but, taking it at a larger sum, 
let us inquire if English workman may 
not attain similar advantages. AH, per*- 
haps, could not, but I feel «ss«red that 
6v«ry skilled artisan could— ^^ukt is, every 
man receiving from fifteen to twenty 
sfaillkigs per week, of whom there is no 
snmU number. British operatives are 
taxed to a monstrous degree ; aknost 
everytMng they put in their mouths 
being fiumtiously raised in price in a 
manner pei^ctiy shameful. But they 
possess a freedom known nowhere on tiie 
Continent They can tmvel flK>m town 
to town at all times without begging for 
pasmrts ; they are not called upon for a 
single day's drill ; in sIh^ their time is 
their own, and they may do with it a6 
they jdease. Exercising the Jsame scru- 
pulous^«conomy as the Svi^, and in the 
same manner refhiining from marriage 
tiH prudence sanotkmed such a step, I do 
not see what is to prevent a skilled and 
regularly ^mi^yedBritish opetvlive from 
becoming tiie propirieftor d a small hxj^iufe 
and gar£n, suppo^r his taste to He that 
way. I know several who love realized 
this kkid of pfcHDerty ; indeed, a laige 
proportiim of the Wpabler class of trades- 
men in the ^ottbh country towiJS, vil- 
lages, and hamlets, are the proprietors of 
> tro dwellings in which they reside. Now, 
if some so placed contrive to realize ppch 
perty, wlrf may not others- do so f The 
answer is, that a vast mass of our work- 
ing population thinis of little beyond pus** 
sent enjoyment. Gin, whisky l-Mmt 
xmbery is created ^by these demons every 
city cMi bear sorrowful witness ! Crue% 
taxed, in the first place, by the state, tiie 
lower classes tax themselves still more by 
their appetites. Scetiand spends four 



mifiions of pounds animally on whidiy, 
and what England disburses fbr^ gin teid 
porter is on a scale equally magnificMat. 
Throughout tiie gratid me of Bem&, a 
mile in length, and doiseljr populated, I 
did not see a sin^te JipMt-^op or tavern ; 
I observed, certainly, that several of the 
cellars were used foit th^ .ao^ fA 'vrines. 
In the High Street of Edinburgh, fnm. 
the Castle to Holyrood House, me same 
in length as the main, street of Berne, 
and iMt unlike it in. t^ppearance^ there are 
one hundred and fifty taverns, shops, or 
places, vf one kind or another, in yifhaiek 
spirituous liquors are sold ; tiid in Bose 
Street, a much less populous thorough- 
fare, the number is forty-one. I did not 
see a drunken person in Switzerland. 
Sheriff Alison speaks of ten thousand 
persons being in a state of intoxication 
every Saturday night in Glasgow. 

I take the liberty of alluding to these 
practices, not for the purpose of depre- 
ciating the character ci the (^rative 
orders, but to shew, at least, one pretty 
conclusive piece of evidence why they, do 
not generally exhibit the same kind of 
happy homes as the Swiss. Ii^ i^ ward, 
Bowring and SymcHis, and, I may add, 
Laing, seem to fead to the inference^ Hhat 
ever^inng excellent in the Swiss opera- 
tive and peasants* contfitioii is 6wfng to 
institutional arrangements ; whereas, 
without undervalttiog these, I ascribe 
fully more, as alieady stated, to the tem^ 
perance, humble desires, and extraordi- 
nary economic habits ofthe jjieople. That 
the practical advantages enjoy ea by Swiss 
artisans are also, sQni€;hQ,w, inferior to 
those of similar classes in Britain, is evi- 
dent from the hct tiMt Swiss watofa- 
^la}(ers emigrate to England fof the sake 
of better wages th^ they can rei^iie at 
home ; and that some thousanils of un- 
skilled labourers leave Swkzeriaad an- 
nually to better their condition in foreigti 
lands, is, I beUere, a feet which admits of 
no kind of controversy. Let us, then, 
conclude with this impartial considera- 
tion, tbat,!^ c|iir w9ridpgjM»p^lfitiMi have 
grievances to complain of, (and I allow 
theise grievances are neither few nor 
lijght,) they at the same time enjoy a 
scope, an outlet' for enterprise and^skiU, a 
mefins of enrichment ilnd advaaoement, 
wyeh no people in Cootinental Europe 
can at all ' boast of. Switzerland, as has 
been said, is the parage of the working- 
man. It mighty with equal justiceV be 
added, that a shnilar paradise can be 



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THRIOBBOS. 



13 



reailuped ia the hom^ of 6VQry man w^mis 
willing to foregQ pmonal indulgences, 
and inake hia don^estio hearth the prin- 
eipal scane of bin pleasuresi'the ^anehiary 
ini whkh his affections are e&shnned. 



THE tear;s FABEWELL. 

BT FBANCn BBOWir. 

f 

It C0Qi^,,tIirpugh the wintry tJight, 

A deep, and a solemn strain, ' 
like the voice t>r tlie dlitant torre»t*» inii;bt, 

Or tiie moan of tlie slecplesa maia ; 
But wfld is tlie vnsic of wiod-woke strings, 

la^itB liar and At<vl sweU, 
And swift as tiie passing: of eagle wings 

Is tlie 43ring Tear^ farewell. 

It floats o'er tbe ftded fields, 

Where the reaper's joj bath been, 
Widi the soitf of praise which the peasant yi^ds 

For the harvests he hath seen ; 
But the song grows sad on tite battle-plain 

Of the Brahmin's sun-lit shore. 
For it tells of the vyes that l(y>k in vain 

For th8 loved that come no more. 



It sweeps trough the ancient woods, 

Tbroqgh the ruins vast and dim, 
Bf the shadowy paths of the forest floods. 

By the desert fountain's brim ; 
And it wakes the tones which the wilderness 

Bath long in her silence shrined, 
1!he echoes oTisr forgotten days, 

lliat have left no trace behind. 

It rings throogh the crowded marts 

Of the old MTOrid's weaHh and power. 
And it winds its way to their weary hearts 

In the hush of the dreamy boor ; 
To t|ie yoaiigit sptakB of .their future springs,, 

With the breezes blythe and Uand, 
But it tells the aged of better things 

In the fiur unCuling land. 

And it teUs of the deserts crossM, 

Of the fair forsaken gvonnd. 
Of the jpleasant streams which the heart hath lost, 

And the hidden fountains found ; 
For it speaks of the rock before us deft, 

When its shadow darkly fdl. 
And a blessed lesson of hope is left 

By the dying Year's isreweU. Aihenaum, 



SENTIMENTAL SKETCH. 

It was a damp and dark evening in No** 
vember — ^le wind blew cold, and the 
rain spitekled Mpace. I was hastening 
thronffli Great Binsdl Street, to tn>end 
an evofiing with some friends in Becttbrd 
Square; when 1^ sobs of a boy, sitting 
bj the side of a decent joung woman, 
on the steps • of a door, caught my ear, 
and in a ttOmept arreated my.feet. 



'' Wh^** said I, " is the uaiter f* 

'' Oh, sir!*' relied the Ud, soUbing 
still more yioWly thaa befiq», '* my 
firtherwiUldllmer 

^^ What have you done, then, my good 
fellow?" 

^* Nothing at aU, sir,** said the boy, as 
weHl as he oould speak for crying. 

'' He most, then,*' thoiufht :C "^ be a 
cruel father;** bat this I did not feel ne« 
cessary to say to his son. ^ Who is this 
young woman ?** 

}*> Ohi sirl she is my uster.** 

^ Ajod what is the matter with htv ?** 

" She is mined ! she is ruined!** cried 
the boy. 

" Poflflf girl!** thought I, " well mayait 
thoa husband thy tears, for thy grief' is 
likely to be lasting !'* 

She sat in a state of silent sorrow ; 
her hand suf^^iMrting her clun, and her 
eyes loekii^ up to heaven for the aid 
which she seemed to dei^^ of finding 
on earth. 

'' For God*s sake !** said I, taking htr 
gently by the other hand, which she 
modestly withdrew horn mine, ^^ teU me, 
my good girl, is there no way of yet 
saving you from i^ter destruction V* 

^ None, sir, none,'* sighted she, givmg 
her head the motion of de^[»ir, and 
vnping the tears that now flowed in- 
v(UBn£urily from her eyea. 

'' My dew,** said I, ''be comforted, I 
am m3r8elf a £ikthee, and will ^deavoiir 
to reoonoile you to yours. Though you 
haire lost tha^ irMtnevahle jewel-— your 
virgin in n orcinf> r * * 

'« God forM ! air,** si^wd the young 
woman, with all thft- fin a acas of consdens 

^ What, then, did you mean,** cried 
I, turning to the boy, '' by saying that 
your nster was ruined ?** 

'^ So she is, sir,** retorted the boy, still 
sobbing, *' ftnr she has lost all her clodies, 
and ean*t go to her place.** 

'' And is this all!** said I; '' how did 
she lose them ?*' 

" Why, sir, as I was just now cairykg 
her box to her new plaice, two men came 
behind me, and snatching it off my head, 
ran away ¥nth it down Ihwyt Street. We 
cried oi^ '' Sti^ thief !** but one of them 
came back yntii a large knifo, and threat- 
ened to stab my poor sbt^ if we said 
anothar word, so I was obHged to hold 
my tongue, and she fainted away.** 

^ And why do you think your father 
will be angry with you ?" 



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" BecMM he is a poor ittan, «nd can't 
aflbrd to buy my sistor Hay new clothes, 
so she nmst stay at home oa his hands. 
Besides, my mother begged him to come 
with us ; but he^would go to the public- 
house, and said that I was hie enoufffa. 
So I know very well he'll Idll me ; for 
he is veify passionate, especially wheor 
he's in the wrong." 

«« l^t," thought I, <* is natural enoogir 
with us all. What, my dear," said I, 
addressing the young woman again. 
" might l5 the value of all your clotl^s ?' 

** J^ey cost me, sir," relied she, en- 
deavouring hastily to emunerate— ** I 
dare say, near ten pounds." 

** Tliail is a great deal of money." 

*^ It Is indeed, sir, and I have worked 
very hard for it these three yeal^" 

"How old are you?" 

^ ITineteen, sir.*^' 

I had but one solitary ^^uinea in my 
pocket. Oh, hpw I longed to be rich ! 
A thought, however, struck me. *♦ Fol- 
low me, both of you," said I ; " we will 
see what can be done." 

I knocked «t the dooe, and bidding 
thepi sit down in the hall, nm up stain 
to my Mends. The eompaoy w&pe 
assembled: there were about a dozen 
persons present. 

"^ I am in haste," said I. 

They were all alarmed. ^ What can 
be the matter ?" was impressed on every 
countenance. 

"I am a bad orator,'' continued I, 
H but; nay fi^elings have been much §£* 



fected by those who could speak but 
titiie. A decent young woman, going 
to service, has just had the box whioh- 



contained her all stolen from her brother's 
head.' The poor girl is mined unless 
ten guineas can be raised. I have only 
one. Who will help me ? Gome, you 
ii^usU see what powerml (flrators they are." 
And I jordered them to be brou^t up. 
" My life for it, your money ^<dll not be 
thrown away*" 

Every one was affected. The money 
was raised in an instant ; and, with tears 
of gratitude, they departed, blessing their 
bene&ctors. 

All of us agreed, on pardng, that we 
had never spent a happier evening. How 
cheaply is felicity purchased, if men 
would but carry their money to the 
nf^ market ! 



CONTEMPORARY OCCtJftRENCi» 
OF LIFE. 

Ah infant Qosoius makes its first appear* 
ance pn th^ v^orM's stage at the ^epis^ 
moment when, on the opposite side of the 
way, a veteran, who fbr seventy-six years 
has acted in Uiat jfreat and comj^iofl^^d 
drama called " Li^," is taking his final 
leave of the audience — ^his death-watch 
accompimied by the linkling of a y^mn^ 
lady's pianoforte, which is mintly heard 
from a room in tne adJoinin|^ house ! 

The wailings of a fiunily suddenly 
plunged into irretrievable ruin are drowned 
m the rattk (^ die carriagaa wfaidi throng- 
to congratulate th^ next-do(» neigh- 
bours upon their unexpected accession to 
a fortune. 

After a hasty courtship, a ha^ipy coi^b 
are joined in wedlock for so long aa ti^y 
both shall live, whikt, within &e sound 
of the marriage-bells, an elopemeQt is 
deliberately contriving ! 

The hands of the clock indicate the 
same second of time when (Captain St, 
Orville and Lady Graoe, who are ^ ^urnEied 
for each other,'' are vowing eternal con- 
stant and affection : when Mr. Johnson 
and Miss Jones, "v^ho, for a similar reason, 
are similarly occupied; and J^hen Sir 
Frederick Koverly and his laydy (who 
also were *' formed for each other") are, 
on account of incompatibility of temper 
and mutual dislike, mtUn a twelvemonth 
of their happy union, delightedly signing 
articles of separation *-l£e only act in 
which they ever had cordially agreed I 

Bill Dixon has just g^ven the finishings 
touch to his love-suit to Sally Green, by 
declaring that (le never could consider a 
man *' as sich" who would dare to raise 
his hand against a woman. At the same 
instant Bob Waters, who, bdbre mar- 
riage, had used to declare himself " en- 
tirely of that 'ere opinion, and no mis- 
take," ia beating his ynfd.-^Phfneas 
Qidddy. 

RtJSSIAH PICKPOCKETS. * 

The Fr^uih amhassadcMr was one day 
talking to a prince of the imperial house ^ 
of Bussia ab(Mit the extraordin^y dex- 
terity of the Parisian thieves, and ro- 
uting a varie^ of anecdotes concerning 
th^ feats. The grand-duke exjnressed 
his i^inion that the Petersburg pick- 
pockets were quite aa clever; and to re- 
move all doubt on that point Ibm the 



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TBB lOSBOR 



IS 



miad of the ftmbassacUtf, he oft^d to lar 
him a wager that, if he would dme with 
him on the following day, hefinre <he re* 
moval of the dessert, his watch, ring, and 
everything else helongmg to his tmlet 
that was not firmly ^tened to ]hs clothes, 
should he stolen. His excellency wco&pted 
the wager, and t^ grand-duke immedi*- 
ately d^patched a messenger to the cU- 
rector at the poHee, with a request that 
he would send him the cleverest and 
adroitest pidcpocket tiien in custody. He 
was put into a footman's livery, furnished 
wi^ the neeesMury instructions, and pro- 
mised ezemptioQ from punishment and 
lus Hherty u he^ p^^rmed hk hu^ess 
well. The flmhassador mentioned his 
watch as the article to which the pria<* 
cipal attention both of himself ai\d the 
thief would naturally be directed, and the 
new servant was ordered to give the 
grand-duke a sign as soon as he had se- 
cured it. The dinner commenced; the 
first course came and was removed 5 the 
Greek, Spanish, and French wines, red 
and white, glistened in turn in the glasses. 
The ambassador was particularly careful 
of his watch ; and the grand-duke, ob- 
serving his caution, smiled sometimes 
kindly, sometimes half sarcastically. The 
new footman was always bustling about, 
mingling among the other servants, 
changing plates and handing wine. The 
. dinner was drawing towards a ccmclusion, 
and the grand-duke was still waiting im- 
patiently for the preconcerted sign from 
the thief, who, however, seemed to be 
completely taken up in vwuting upon the 
company. All at once the grand-duke's 
countenance briffhtened up, and turning 
to the ambassa£>r, who was absorbed in 
conversation with his neighbours, he 
asked him what o'clock it was. The am- 
bassador clapped his hand triumphantly 
to his pocket, where a few minutes before 
he had felt that his watch was safe, and 
io the amusement of the.Hvhole company, 
hut especially of the imperial entertainet, 
he drew from it a neatly-^mmed turnip. 
Universal laughter ensuec^ and the am«> 
bassadrar was somewhat disconcerted. He 
would have taken a pinch to compose 
himself, but having felt in all lus pockets, 
he discovered wiiSi horror that his gold 
snuff-box wa3 gone too.. The laughter 
was redoubled. In his embarrassment 
and mortification he clapped his hand, as 
he was in the habit of domg, to his finder 
to turn the beautiful gold seal-ring 'Vvhich 
he wore upon 1% — but that ^ was gpne. 



In shi^ he fimnd that ht wm Minpletely 
plundered of eyenrthing that was net 
firmlv attached to his dreas— rfaig, snuff- 
box, handkeiohie^ ffloves, toothpick, keys^ 
Hie performer of thia sleight or hand was 
then orouffht forward, ^he grand-duke 
(ff dered l£n to restore the stcSen articles, 
and was not a little surprised to see him 
produce two watches, and himd one to 
tdmself, ttdd the other to the ambosaador ; 
two rings, one of whieh he gare in )ake 
mamier to the grand-duke, and <me to 
the ambassador ; and two snuff-boxes, one 
fbr the grand-duke, and the other for the 
ambassador. The prince now felt in 
amazement in his pockets, aa the ambaa- 
sador had done bef^e, and found that he 
had been plundered hi the v&ty same 
manner as the latter. He assured his 
excellency that he was totally imconseioiu 
of the matter, and vras going to chide the 
rogue soundly, but bethought himself, 
and thanked nim for having enabled him 
in so signal a numner to win hia lra|fer. 
He made him a handsome present, and 
procured his immediate Ubeiatliw, ad- 
monishing him f(^ the iuturp to apply 
his talents to mc^e us^l purposes.-*^ 
KohPs Russia and thfi Busmm, 



AMUSmO CHARACTERISTIC. 

I HAV6 often i^ken of the formalities of 
German offices. In the m^re matter of 
sending a parcel, which any oo$ch-offiee 
in England would forwaird without delflyv 
if oalj wrapped in * bit <rf brown paper, 
and tied with a string, what difficu&ea 
meet you in Germany ! A palroe} muat 
be wraiq[)ed in a certain way. It must 
have so many seals upon it. Its contents 
fmd value must be written outside* If 
of one weight, must go by one con>! 
veyance; If of another, b^a 9ec<;^d} if 
of another, by a l^rd. It must, under 
certun circumstances, be wra{^>ed in an 
oil-doth. Failing any one of tbeie £^p** 
nudities, it cannot go. It is tetumed, (tf 
sent from one office to another, till moi^e 
time is consumed than i$ necessary to 
take it to its destination. A title-deed 
was sent from England for my signature, 
which was urgently wanted back by 
return of post. Though signed and sei^ 
to the packet-post the same day, under 
the directions of our Grerman bankeri 
yet so many obstacles arose, that, after 
several days' delay, we sent it by the 
$»nnibus profarietor to the Steam Com* 



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THE IDBBOS: 



pony at the Bbbie. Two mMitbi tA^r-^ 
wards, the .sehder in England wrote, in 
great distress, to know why the deed 
was not returned ; and on inquiry at the 
omnibus proprietor's, we found it still 
lying in his house ! The Bhine Com- 
mny had not dared to take it, because it 
belonged to the Packet-post department; 
md the poor man could not teU to whom 
to return it. He had even advertised it 
in the little Heidelberg newsputer, which 
we never see; but though there were 
only about six English fiMnilies in the 
place, and he knew it came from one, it 
nad never oocurred to him to send round 
and inquire. A common hostler, or 
boots, in Ei^^land, would have done it in 
ten minutes. In four months the parcel 
neached England ! l-^Howitts Rural and 
Domestic ^fe of Gemuuiy. 

A YovMg Citizen. — ^When I mounted 
to my seat again, I observed a new par- 
cel lying on the coach roof, which I took 
to be a rather large fiddle in a brown bag. 
In the course of a few miles, however, I 
diB<x)veredthat it had a glazed cap at one 
end and a pair of muddy shoes at the 
other; and ftirther observation demon- 
strated it to be a small boy in a snuif- 
coloured coat,with his arms quite pinioned 
to his sides by deep ibrcmg mto his 
pockets. He was, I {uresume, a relative 
or ftiend of ^ coaebman's, as he lay 
a-t(^ of the luggage, with his face 
towards the rain; and ezceiyt when a 
change of position brought his shoes in 
contact wiw my hat, he iqppeared to be 
asleep. At last, on some occasion of our 
stopping, this thing slowly ui>reared 
itself to the height of three feet six, and 
fixing its eyes on me, observed, in pimng 
accents, with a comi^cent yawn, half 
quendied in an obliging air of friendly 
pAtfona§^ ^* Well, now, stranger, I guess 
you %Si this a'most like an English 
afternoon, hey?*' — Dichens^s American 
Notes. 

How to get a Feather Bed.-^^^ In ear- 
ring off even the small thing of a feather 
bed. Jack Tate, the bowld burglar, shewed 
the skill of a high practitioner, for he de- 
soendhered the stairs backwards.** '^ Back- 
wards !** said L«rry Hogan, *' what*s that 
for ?** " You'll see by and bye,** said 
Oroggins ; ** he descencmered backwards, 
when, suddenly, he heard a door opening, 
and a fiiymale voice exclaiming, " Where 



are yim goinff trift that bed?** 'Tm 
going up stwrs with it, ma*am,** said 
Jack, whose backward posilaon &roured 
his lie ; and he began to walk up again. 
V^ Come down,** said the lady, ^ we want 
no beds here, man.** '* lor. SuHivan, 
ma*am, sent me home with it himself^** 
said Jack, still mounting the stairs. 
^ Come down, I tell you,** said the hidy, 
in a mat rage, " th^*s no Mr. Sirilivan 
lives here.** " I beg yourpardon, ma*am,** 
said Jack, turning round, and marching 
6ff with the bed, ftir and aisy. '' Well, 
there was a regular shiUoo in the house 
when the thing was finmd oat, and cart 
roj^s would*nt howld the lady f<»r the 

rage she was tin at being diddled.** 

Lover^s Hamfy Andy, 

Education of a Gemum Lady, — ^The 
education of a German lady is, to us, a 
very singular one. It is composed o£ ^e 
two extremes of household usefulness and 
social ornament. Accomplishments are 
caref^y taught. All that tends to give 
the ladies edat in the ball-ro<»n and in 
large companies, they are more regularly 
drmed into even than ours. Music and 
dancing are indispensable. The French 
language has long been universJal, and 
English is now becoming so, Their greater 
intercourse with foreigners keeps in use 
their French. Music is so much a 
nation^ enjojrment, that not only yoxaig 
women, but almost all young men, ^y 
on the piano, and sing. Hus is not avly 
a great relief to the monotony of private 
life, and an elegant and refining ^oy- 
ment for the evening circle — especially to 
weary men, harassed or exhau^ed by the 
daily tug of their af&irs — ^but is condur 
cive to the pleasure of those agreeal^ 
little parties which abound so much 
among the Germans, where singing, a 
danee, and simple games pass away rapbdly 
the hours. — Howitt^s Germany, 

. Garriek, — A ckrttyman once asked 
Mr. Grarrick why a church congregation 
were seldom moved to tears, when the 
same people, placed in a theatre, would 
be worked up to grief by fictitious db- 
tress ? " The trutti,** replied Koscius, 
" is obvious — we repeat fL fiction as though 
it were a truths you a truth as though 
it were a fiction,^ — Dramatic and Musiccd 
Review, 

London: PubHtked by CUNNINeHAM and 
UOBTIMERt Adelaide iStreet, Trtrfalgar Square; 
and toid by aU Booktelleri and Newsmen. 
T. C. SavUl, Prtoter, lft7» St. Martin's Lane. 



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fTIi^ Mirror 



OF 



LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 



No. 2.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 14. 1843. [Vol. L 184S. 




®iigtncil Coutmutiirattoiid. 



WALSi:\'GHAM CHAPEL, NORFOLK, 



. ___ _^- _ whiL'h formeil 

c>i>e brdihip, was part of the posst'Ss^ions 
c*f the powerful EarU of C:krt\ It ob- 
lafiied great celebrity for centuripa, fmm 
Iho circumstance cjf a widow kdy, R^col- 
Ale Faverches, havings founded a a mail 
chapel in hoiionr of "the Virgin Mary. 
Hey sou, Sir Geffrey Fdverches, cofi- 
Attned the endowments, foimded a prioiy 
for Augustine canons, and erected a con- 
ventnal church. Erasmus, who was ah eye- 
witness, informs us, that Walsingham was 
almost entirely maintained hy its hemg 

TOL. XXd, c 



the great re:iort of travellers, and that 
foreiuiiera of all nations came hither on 
pill^nma^e, aiul that king» and quaens of 
England also paid their dcvoifa to it. 
lie also states, '^ that the eb^l was dia- 
tiJict from the ehurcli, and made of it 
WS& a small chapel of ^votjd, on each side 
of which was a little minnow door, where 
thoae who w ere adniitUid came witfi their 
ofFerinfi;s, and paid their devotions ; that 
it was lighted up with torches, and that 
the glitter of gold, nlver, and jewels, 
would lead yon to suppose it to he the 
seat of liie gods.** 

[No. 1146. ^ 



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THE MDRRCHL 



1 



could lay their hands on. Soldien were 
immediately sent in porsmt of the ma- 
rauders ; but the search proved fruitless^ 
for no one could give any tidings of 
ihem. About three months after the 
attack, in which the warlike qualities 
of tibe Don had shone so consf^uously, a 
messenffer arrived at his dwelling with 
a parcel containing the exact amount <^ 
money that had bc^ so unceremoniously 
bonowed of him on the occasion referred 
to ; and, a few days af|er, he received a 
letter fiom Don Requana, informing him 
that Cecilia had just been married, a<| 
Paris, to a Pdish noble, who had dis* 
tingidshed himself as a soldier, in the 
semce of both France and Spain. This 
news made Don Mendez very reserved on 
the subject of the attack ; but, somehow 
or other, a rumour got abrcMid in the 
town of Santander, that the numerous 
body of Carlists who had pillaged the 
house of Don Mendec, consisted of only 
four Polish officers, in the service of 
Spain, who, finding that the Spanish 
treasury was too poor to pay them their 
arrears, had resorted to this rather un- 
justifiable mode of paying themselves. 



FIELD LANE ; 

cm, THE JBWISH P£BSUASIOK ! 

A man mueh lued to obterralaon, 
AmoDgtt the thriving Jewish natioOf 
Made a large bet, deaign'd to shew 
How well that crafty people know 
When to lie close, and when be craving 
To suit their plans for gain or saving ! 

Said he, « Til thus my footstens bend, 
Thro* all Field Lane, from end to end j 
And simply thus the bet shall be — 
That everv Jew shall gpiak lo me ! 
But sav tne word — the wager by. 
It shall * eome otP this very day! 
To-morrow-^toking the same track. 
Then every Jew shall turn hii back /*' 

The bet agreed, away he goes 

Midst all the World's most friendly foes ! 

His wardrobe somewhat coarse and (dain, 

He takes a saunter down the Lane ! 

Instanter all seem'd quite officious. 

It was so perliBctly delicious 

To see a Stranger, slow of gaii^ 

Not jogging, at the usual rate ! 

Whilst each one hoped, amid the din — 

" Shure shum of us vil take him in !** 

One oflfers hats, another shoes, 

His onlv plan— all to refuse — 

Yet still to keep alive the pother 

On one pretension or anotner ! 

"^hat to make of him none can tell: 

** You vil not puy ; den vat you shell ?" 



Oat boldly waals to cbaaga'liia toit. 
And take a trifleali just to boot ! 
Tin tired at last of Dsdesi <* barking," 
At last thqr all set up a^larking ! 
•' Well ^ op a}l yiHi bavto compbto. 
And mam you packing down de Mhreet.** 
AH tenda to what he most woald gaiii — 
A word from each throughout thf Lanel 
No matter : let them have their whimy*— 
But ev*ry Jew hid spoke to him ! 

Thus fiur, at least, bis wager p»a*d ; 
The harder portion yet remamfd ! 
To send diem snuaking to their holBt» 
Instead of Boeking ont in shods ! 
He play*d, hotire*er, the sace reflector. 
And dressing like a Tax CoSedor, 
He, aa if bent to fleece or wioog * 
Willi pen and ink-horn daah'd an 
The feUow, too, had got the noose 
To stare about, from noose to housed 
As if just thinking, peradventnre^ 
Which he afaouM fix on first to enter ! 

The ruse aucceeded to a hair ; 
The shops were left completely bare ! 
The tribe of Levi slunk away» 
If but to 'seaoe for one short day ! 
Not stajrin^ e en to play die snarkr. 
Each geto inaconeed in his back parfeor ! 
As much annoy'd by the ofiender. 
As if they'd seen the Witch of Endor ! 

Thus ending his advent'roos range. 

He riiouts •« oM clothes to shell or change !** 

Ronsiog jigain the honesht folks, 

Tho' sore perplezsh'd to sift dM hoax ! 

His friend stood ling'ring on the fret. 
And own'd, he*d Curly won the bet ! 

Thus Jews still hoU biift one belief, 
Tho' in thriving or in grief ! 
Jews still wiU aetf, whoe'er way rue it, 
If Pertinacity will do it .' 
Or, pay-day coming, roidce Evasion — 
Jews only are of one pcrsuasion ! 
J.y. 

I^pirit of ^ottifpi Iftftatutf • 
THE POET. 

{From ike FrmuA of E, de LaheMHerek) 

Let US attempt to describe the haMts 
of this singular class of individuals. A 
hundred years ago La Metrmnanie at- 
tempted it, periMps succeeded, and, on 
referring to him, we &k1 tiiat the poet 
of his day differed in Httle f^m the poet 
of the nineteenth ceatufy. Then, as 
novir, he was an unequal, flmtastlc per- 
sonage, always dreaamg, always ahsent- 
min<ted. It is true tiuBt his. hair is no 
longer powdered, but under the imw 
flowing curls the same eccenrtric ideas 
take root ; no longer an uM>ff(»sive swopd 
dangles by his side, y«t his glut jb not 



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THE MIimOB. 



21 



the less awkwaid and, inreffnlar^rapid as 
a locomotive engine, or slow as the cart 
of the waM^ner. His dress is no lonaer 
sormoimted with lace, bedaubed with 
shuff 5 bttt his ^pitating breast, in which 
the fire of genitis bums, is still swollen 
with pride and vanity. 
* When a schoolboy has scribbled five 
stanzas, he imagines he possesses both 
fiune and fortune, and hastens to read 
his production to his friends. He be- 
comes the lion of parties, receives invi- 
tations, ' which he rarely accepts: To 
leave a stanza unfinished to seek a cravat 
or a waistcoat; to barter his pien for a 
brush or a razor; to descend from the 
heights of PariMissus to the thousand- 
and-one details of the toilette ; to waste 
precious moments, which should be con- 
secrated to genius, for the gratification 
of making ms bow in a drawing room, 
or of wmsperihg soft nothings to stiff 
and affected women, ill become him. No, 
the poet usually remans at home, which 
ultimatelv, if not driven from it by 
poverty, becomes his seat of bliss. But 
ihe gai^et, unfortunately, has now be- 
come his almost invari^le abode; and 
he, unlike Seneca, is ever descanting on 
file advantages of wealth. Lately, a 
man of fine feeling and distinguished 
talent, was so far reduced, as to & com- 
pelled to ask five francs for a |K)em that 
was to appear in the followmg day's 
paper, for bv tfcas means he could only 
procure a dinner. " Call again to-m6r- 
row" was ^ne answer he received. 

It is invariably the case, that a poet 
has a great aversion to marriage, not 
wiahinp to associate a wife and children 
witii his miserable destiny. Besides, he 
loves t09 BMieh the ffMe sex in ^^eral, 
to attach himself to one woman in pisir- 
ticular. To range from flow6r to flower 
—to be quickly caught-^to be as soon 
released'^to dream of the fiwr hair of 
tiiia, the dark ringlets of that; the 
bright eye of a iMrd, and the mielan- 
ch<3y expresnon of a fourth— to build 
a romance on the grisette he may meet 
in the street — on the &ir and youthful 
peasant girl in the fields ; such are his 
joys and pleasures — ^pleasures free from 
'me ihxmgikiB of possession, and which 
sever dis^b the hapf»ness of ^unilies ; 

geasures sweeter far than reality, for 
Dcy creates the most charming mistress 
—'gracefal, ethereid bdngs, beautiful as 
hcnyris, piure as Mackmsas. The poet's 
independ^t humour, too, would ill 



asdumlate with the matrimonial yoke. 
Liberty of thought and action belong to 
him.' At two o'clock he might take a 
ftncy to admire the landscape by moon- 
light, and quitting his wife and babes, 
tike a; ramme in me fields. If a rhyme 
that he had been l(mg endeavouring to 
find, should occur to him in the middle 
of the night, most probably he would get 
up, excluming, ** I have got it — I have 
got it;" and hy doing so, awakoi an 
mfant whose cnes mignt chase away the 
long sought for words from his memory, 
and make him feel as utterly wretched as 
a fidlen angel — a dethroned king — or a 
martyr at the stake ; for there is nothing 
to which he, has a greater horror than 
being disturbed in his meditations. 

Such are the more prominent charac- 
teristics of individuals given to rhyming. 

Here LabedolKere practically illustrates 
the diversified poems of l^e respective 
poets— elegiac, sacred, classical, light 
pieces, gloomy, familiar, and romantic — 
and closes his talented article by inquir- 
ing into the causes of the unsuccesofiil- 
ness of modern poetry. *^ How comes it 
that poets, generally, have so little suc- 
cess ? asked I of an old friend, whose 
vigour of mind was not impaired by age. 
" Is the form of their poetry defective, car 
lacks it of harmony, apt metaphor, or 
sublime expressions ?" 

" In my youth," our Nestw replied, 
"I observed the commencement of an 
operation, indicative of contempt for the 
past, and bespeaking a complete social 
revolution. All are endeavouring to 
solve an tmknown problem, and each 
fancies he beholds in the social body 
symptoms of an evil, for which there is 
no cure. In the midst of this agitation^ 
what interest, think you, can be token in 
machines, which, like barrel organs, give 
forth sounds in empty words, and v^^iclt 
at all times, in all places, in all seasons, 
in peace and in war, intrude upon us. 
Do you not think that a person would 
be justified in s^ing to the dimderheads, 
* O versifiers, rlato expelled you from 
the republic, and now that the state re- 
quires so many reforms, and so many 
enlightened and patriotic men to carry 
them out, there is more reason for pass- 
ing the sentence of banishment upon 
you. Are ye the partisans of improve- 
ment? Do ye put your should»s to 
the wheel in tne great cause? No. 
When called upon for a work of utility, 
you answer by a rolling-fire of rhyme on 



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THB Mff^tPff P 



some cotnmoii-pbee or thmd-b«i)9 9^ 
ject. Held in cot)l;eiQpt iy the fipr^r 
loiiided, joa caimot even be jclaaeea with 
boffixms, ^r fbe prpyinoe of faired jesters 
yfu to amuse, you only give me to ^nnirt ; 
boffbcns succeed In exciting tbe laugh- 
ter of thdr niAster^, bat when you excite 
Ulster, it is against yourselves.'*" 

This sweeping assertion of my witty 
friend is hx from being correct to tjie 
letter; but there are many poets who 
seem striving to justify it. 

JLftjrrg|tttt. 

jf*he Mttiktry Operations at Cabyii with 
a Jouhuuqf Imprisonment in Aggfian- 
u(an. By Lieutenant Vincent Ey^re. 

!Fhis work, as it touches on late events 
of stirring interest, and as it contains the 
earliest auth^itic accounts of the destruc* 
tio^ of the Briti^ troops in January, 
1842, will command immediate attention. 
Besides, what will render the wori£ of 
more value is the fact that the author 
took an active part in these dreadful 
events, and, solmer-like, has described 
them in a straightforward and unaffected 
manner — censuring where he thoup^ht it 
was due, and commending that which he 
thought praiseworthy. iSie work is pub- 
Uflhed in the form of a jourpaJ, and is 
nrinted by the author's relatives in Eng- 
land, who received it in portions from a 
friend of Lieutenant Eyre, as sent by the 
latter ^ntleman from an A%han prison. 
It consists of two important features; the 
one — remarks on the character and ten- 
dency of the military transactions from 
the outbreak; the other — historical ac- 
counts of the incidents that followed. 
From &e latter, we extract a portion 
relative to poor Macnaughten, whom he 
exonerates from the error imputed to 
him, and maintains that Lord Auckland 
was alone instrumental in bringing about 
the ill-advised reduction of uie annual 
stipends of the Giljye tribes : — 

MACNAUGHTEN»S MURDER. 
" In leaving the cantonments. Sir Wil- 
liam expressed his disappointment at the 
paucity of men on the ramparts, and the 
apparent inertness of the garrison at such 
a critical moment, sayino", * However, it 
is all of a piece with the military ar- 
rangements throughout the siege.* On 
his leaving the gate, only sixteen troopers 
oT the body gtiard were in attendance, 



hut th« remmd^r shortly aficrwDrdst 
Joined, under Lieutenant le G^yt 

^' Sir William now, for the hrst time, 
f'xplttiiitd tt> the ofiicers who acc^jajpanied 
him the olJ€;cU of the preecnt conference ; . 
and Captain LaivTeQc^ was warned tp be 
in readiness to gallop in the Bala Htaw, 
to prepaje the king tur the apprcpach of a 
riegiipent. 

" ^prebensionj^ heing e^q^resiied of 
the danger to ^^eh the scheme might 
eiqpo^e him, in case of treachery on ibe 
part of MahoijEied Akher, hp ri^liJed, 
' r^gerous it IS ; but if it succeeds, Jt 
is worth all risks. The rebels hay^ not 
fiilfilled ev^ one article of the tije^i^ 
and X have no confidence in ihem ; and 
if by it we can only save our honour, all 
will be well. At any rate, I W9^ 
rather su^er a hundre4 deaths, than liye 
the last six weekf oyer again.' 

*' Meanwhile, crowds qf armed A^ 
ghans were observed hovering near |he 
cantonment and aboi;t I^ahomed Shan^fi 
^rt, causing nusgivings in the mindi^ o^ 
all but th|? envoy hun^l^ whose cpur 
fidence rem^ineji unshaken. Qp arriving 
near the bridge, they were met by Ma- 
homed Akber Khan, IVIahomed ^ah 
Khan, Dost Mahomed Khan, ^ocxjik 
Bus Khmi) Azad Khan, and other chiefs 
— amongst whom was the brother pf Apie* 
noollah Khan, whose presence mjajht 
have been sufficient |» convince SirWu- 
liam that he h^d been dupf d. 

'* The usual civilities having p^«e<it 
the envoy presentefl Akber Khan i^i^ 4 
valuable Arab horse, which had onjy t|jat 
morning been purchased for 3000 r^^es. 
The whole p^y tlien sat dpwn i^ear 
some rising ground, "which partially pon? 
cealed them from cantonments. 

'^ Capt. Lawrence haviujg palled atten- 
tion to the number of inrcrior follower^ 
around them, with a view to their being 
ordered to a distance, Mahome4 Akber 
exclaimed, ' !N'o, they are aU in the se« 
cret;' which words had scarcely been 
uttered, when Sir Willian^ ^d his three 
companions found themselves suddenly- 
grasped firmly by the hands £rpm bphin(^ 
whilst their swords and pistpls were ri^^ely 
snatched away by the chie& and their 
followers. The three officprs lyere im- 
mediately pulled forcibly along, and con^- 
pelled to mount on horseback, each be- 
hind a Giljye chief, escorted by a numl]^ 
of armed retainers, who with di^culty 
repelled the efforts of a crowq pf fiwiatip 
Ghazees, wl^o, pn peeiog the 9^^ had 



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TBSMPJM)?. 



fl? 






^gatthem 

blo^i viih thieir long l^piveg 

?»pi fi|:^ by tbiB ^ o£ killiMT ^ chief, 
he i^ortunato Envoy was last sieeii 
struggling yiplentlj- wit^ Mjajboi^ed Jikr 
bpr, / c(^t^^ftatiQn i^nd bpfrpr 4^ictiBiJ 
.on bis .QQ1mte^^nc^/ 

** Oa their ncajing Sfaliom^d Khan's 
fort, reDtwtt] attemptji wery mailu to as- 
sassinate tiie three captive oiEceTs by the 
croTf d there oaaemljled. Capt&m Trevor, 
wh*> was seated behind Do^t IMaliomed 
KhaD, unlmppilj fell to tbe gruuiid, and 
was instantly slain. Captains Lawrence 
and Mackenzie roaehed tli^ fort in safetj-, 
hut the latter was much bruistnl in van- 
uns parts of bis body, and both were 
jrreatly exhausted from the excitement 
tney bad undergone. 

" ^Vt the entrance of the fortj a furious 
ciit was aimed at Capt» iJackcuiiie's head 
hj a ruffian namod ^looUah Momin, which 
was warded off by Miihomed ^hah Khan, 
that chief reeeiying the blow on liis o^v n 
ahoulder. Being taken into a sinall ruoin, 
they found themselves still in continual 
jeopardy iVom repeated assaults of the 
Obazj^es mthout, Tsho were with iht; 
Ifreatest difficulty restrained from sboot- 
m^ them thrrmErh the wMtiI>\\; wht^re tho 
band of §omp "r<Bcpnt European Victifn 
(afterwards ascertamed to be that of the 
envoy himself) was insultingly held up 
to their view. Throughout this trying 
scene they received repeated assurances 
of pcotectioQ from the Giljye chi6& ; but 
Amenoollah Kbfm coming in gave vent 
to a to|xe|at of angry abu$(8, an4 even 
iinrei^tep^4 ^o hlow tnem f|:oin 9, gun. It 
13 dieseryinj^ of notice, that amidst the 
congrati^ions which on all sides met the 
ear qf Mabqmed Shah Ebai} on the events 
of t)ie day^ thp'soUtory yoice of an agi^d 
Moolkb was raised in condemnation of 
th(j deed, which he solemjdy pronoun cutl 
to be ' foul/ and calculated to cast a 
laatuiff disgrace on the religion uf ila* 
homed. At midni^rbt tliey were removed 
to the houae of ^iLihomed Akber Khan. 
As they passed through the streets of 
Cabttt, notwithstanding the excitement 
that bad prevailed tliroug-hout the day, it 
resembled a city of the dead ; nor did they 
meet a single soul. 

" By Akber Khan they were received 
courteoualy, and were now informtsd, for 
tbe first tjm^, by Capt. Skinner, of the 
murder of the Envoy and Capt. Trevor^ 



Six 19111149^ M ^J^ n fH pft ^ n Vfiet Im 
at the hands (4 ^uiEcnaed Akber 
a^lf tj^irp qm be np le^Mimble doubly 
fh»lt^ cl^lpi bad pledged himself to bi« 
coadjutors to seize the Envoy that ^^jh 
9s^a bring him ii^to the city, when tut 
cbie^ hoped to have been able to dictate 
their own termSf retaining bbu a4 a 
bostiage for their fulfilment. Finding it 
impossible, from the strei^uous resistwci^ 
Sir William c^ered, to car^bim o^ 
aliye, and yet detenx^ined f^ot to disap- 
pom|; the public e^of^ctation alto^et}ier,-?f 
infiuencea also by bis tiger passiops s^m| 
the remembrance of bis Ml^r s Yf^oug^-r^ 
^dahoi^ed 4^ber ii^W ^ pistol, thi9 E^t 
voy^s owi^ gifl a jSe w hours before, ^4 
sbo^ bim through tne body, which wa# 
impi^diately ba^ed to pieces by ttie £et 
rocious Gbazpes, by whom the dismexx^<; 
bered tnmk was afterwards carried to tb^ 
city, i^i publicly exposed in the Char 
Cbouk, or principal piart. The bead wa| 
taken to the bouse of ^uwab Zumai^ 
Khan, where it was trifm:ipbai^ly e;f7 
bibited to Capt. ConoUy. 

^^ Such WINS the cruel fate of Sir Wm. 
lUfcnaugbten. the accomplished scbd^, 
the distinguisned politicly, and the re- 
presentative of Great Britain %t the couif 
of Shah Shooj^-pol-MoolJi:;* 



Maimer^ 8 Muneai S^imss. 

Shobtlt after tbb excellent periodical 
forced ftself upon public attention, we 
gave it as our unprejudiced opinion that 
a life of many years awaited it—that the 
talent which bre^bed in eyery p^e, and 
which increased with every number^ 
would »9on be appreciated by thp public* 
"We have nqt been mistaken. It has 
reached a secona volume, and, judgiuj^ 
from the contents of the number for 
January, will, in due course of time, 
reach its twentieth. It opens with a 
cleverly written ad(lress by Mr. Mainzer. 
" It is now/' be says, " eighteen months 
since we planted our standard, ^ Singing 
for the iJpllion,' upon English groi^nd. 
Unaided, unpatronised, we have suc- 
ceeded i^ xnaking it an olject of public 
attentionj in interesting the friends of 
education — the clergy of al} denomina-, 
tions, die scholar, tb,e* man of business,. 
and the mechanic." Afier touchinff on 
the success which has crowned bis effort?, 
be ^eaks thus on {he utility and benefits 
resmtipg from musjc :-::-" Ip many facto* 



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94 



THEMIEROB. 



Ties, we are limy to say, the childr^ 
now enjoy fbr tiie first time, . throagb 
musical inslructicHi, a pleasure nerer be* 
fore drettnt of; ana we know many 
where the Temperance song and tl^ 
Gadl to Prayer are constantly in the 
moate of the children. In a great 
number of flpnifies in tiie humblest con- 
dition of life, the children unite in the 
evening round their Cithers, and sing our 
practical exercises and little choruses. 

^ Muric has gtven a charm to the 
homes of the poor unlmown before ; many 
hare been in the habit of seeking comfort 
and recreation away from their ftmilies 
till they felt the pleasure of this most 
domestic pastime. But this is not all : in 
several lunatic asylums the experiment of 
the effects of music on the mmds of the 
{ntients has been tried, which has abready 
proved so successful elsewhere. Many 
unhappy beings, sequestrated fhrni so- 
iiiety, subdued uid broken down by re- 
peated calamities, and exposed to triab 
Imder which the mental powers have 
sunk into imbecility and second child- 
hood, have been soothed, tranquOUzed, 
and invigorated by tiie balmy mfluence 
of music. Who can doubt its power, 
when we see these poor people count the 
days of the week, and the hours of the 
day, for the arrival of their teacher? and 
when we witness the joy and thankful- 
ness with which he IS welcomed? 1£ 
numerous cures have been accomplished 
and publicly recorded in Paris through 
our musical instruction^ we beg^ with 
entire confidence the same work in 
England.** 

The second article, *< Music and Poetry 
of the Jews,** is talented, and evinces 
great research ; while the life of Mali- 
wan — she whose sweet voice has so often 
wooed us, as it were, fh>m the busy 
scenes of Kfe-^is concise and ftill of 
anecdote, illustrative of the generous 
heart and good dii^ition of that fiiir 
<»ntatrice. In closinpf otir review, with 
the intention of taking' a peep at the 
•• Musical limes'* on a future occasion 
We extract an anecdote ttom the life of 



virtual of the female character. Ftoiged 
at atender age into circumstances of deep 
adversity, her sacrifice to integrity vns 
heroic, and she renudned unooirnpted by 
tiie prosperity oi her latter days. Her 
feelings reta&ed their primitive warmth 
— her tastes, thdr primitive simplicity. 
Notwithstanding the seductions of her 
profession, her pleasures lay in the occu- 
pations of domestu; life, and in acts of 
generosity. Large as was the revenne 
which she derived from the exercise of 
her transcendent talents, it was as wor- 
thily employed as well deserved. Perhaps 
there never was an income earned by tfo 
exertions of a publicpc^rmer — exertions 
which broke her constitution and brought 
her to an early grave — of which so hufge 
a portion * wandered, heaven-directe^ to 
the poor.* She was devoid of ostentation, 
and her beneficent deeds were known to 
few : but they were of daily occurrence, 
for tiiey constituted the crreatest happiness 



MADAME MAUBRANi 

"^ ^* Madame MaHbran possessed in an 
lincommon degree tile iufe<rtion and es- 
teem of those wh» Imew bet; and we 
^ak from our owti knowledge, as well as 
in accordance witii the general voice. 
When we say, that few women Imvo been 
ittore richly endowed with the highest Great Metrqwlis/' &ci 



of her life. Living among the sons and 
daughters of pleasure, her onlv luxury 
was the luxury of doing good; and m 
the midst of wealth, her only profusion 
consisted in beneficence. The regret felt 
by the world for the loss of an admired 
and cherished artist was unquestionably 
feeble, compared vdth tiie grief with which 
many a humble femily lamented the un- 
timely deatii of thdr benefkctress.** 

THE "DR. HORNBOOK** OF 
BURNS.* 
The leave of absence which Joseph had 
obtidned was now within ten days of its 
expiry, and as he intended to return to 
L<mdon by land, with the view of seeing 
as much as possible of the country, he 
resolved on quitting Elgin on the follow- 
ing morning, in oraer tnat he might not 
be obliged to perform the journey too 
hurriedfy. He started at eight o*clock, 
find reached Aberdeen at mnr in the 
afternoon. There he remained that msht, 
and set out next m(»ming at five o*c]ock 
for Glas^w, which citv he reached In 
the evemng at eight o'clock. Curiously 
enough, he met that night, at tiie house 
<^ a friend in which he put up, witii' an 
Individual who occupies a prominent ptice 
m the pages of Bums, and who is, con- 



* From " Joseph Jenkiiw/' a new work^by 
tBe Author of '* Random Rcoollectioot,** " The 



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THE MmBOB. 



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^6<|aeiitly, aa .fiorl^ booked for iaimor^ 
tality as the poet hunself. The individual 
to whom we reler is Dr. Hornbook, the 
hero of the popular poem, entitled '^ Death 
and Dr. Honibook. HomlKx^, as most 
of the readers (^ Bums are aware, is a 
fictitious name ; the real name of the in- 
dividual who is gibbeted in that (dece of 
sarcastic writing was John Wilson. To 
his Christian name, indeed. Bums Ang- 
uishes a clue, iixt in one verse he is called 
** Jock," whieh every Scotchman know^ 
is synonymous with John. In the course 
of the evening, Mr. Wilson — ^who, it may 
be remarked, died onl^ a few years ago — 
referred to tiie sarcastic poem, at the re- 
quest of the mutual Mend of Joseph and 
himself, under whose hospitable roof they 
were. Mr. Wilson, though never alluding 
in promiscuous company, or when in con- 
versation with any stranger, to the hf:^ 
of his identity with the Dr. Hornbook 
of Bums, nev^ betrayed a reluctance to 
refer to it when in Sie society of any 
friend in whom he could repose con- 
fidence. 

The opportunity of hearing anything 
new on such a suoject was too jfood for 
Joseph to lose. He and Mr. Wilson en- 
tered into conversation togetlier, and he 
foimd the latter quite unreserved in his 
revelations on this point — readily and 
fiiUy answering any questions which w^re 
put to him. 

Mr. Wilson mentioned the circum- 
stances connected with his history prior to 
Ihs acquaintance with Bums. These have 
never been correctly given by those who 
have published editions of the poet*s works 
with explanatory notes. Indeed, it voky 
be remarked, that nearly all about to l)e 
mentioned is now publ&hed for the first 
time. Mr. Wilson was Iwed a weaver, 
in tiie west of Scotland, and worked at 
the business for several years. He was a 
most industrious young man, rising up 
early and sitting up U^ and emphati- 
cally eadnff the bread of careMness, in 
order that he mieht save as much of his 
earnings as wouM enable Mm to pay fer 
a course <^ education which would quaUfjr 
lum for beconung a presbyterian nn- 
iiist^ — an object v^iiich was w^ him 
one of eager and unceasing atnbition. 
"WitlCti that view he did engage in the 
necessary ]^rq>aratOTy studies; mithavkig 
become the fidlier of an illegitimate olnld, 
all his clerical proq>ects were blasted. 
He quitted Glasgow, where he had been 
studying^ and retired to the pairish of 
TarboHon, in Ayrslure, in which Bums 



at tittt timd lived. B«Bg a man of sa<- 
perior talents and extensive iofermation, 
be and Bums soon became very intknate 
together. The poet, it ought to be men- 
tioned, was at this time preparing the 
first edition of his works. He was, c<mi- 
sequently, altogether unknown to ^neral 
fimie, 'though the more discermng . of 
those who saw his manuscript produe- 
tions, disonrered and admired the poetic 
genius they disf^ed. None were more 
hearty in their admiration of the poems 
of Bums than Mr. Wilson ; littie imagin- 
ing at the time that he vras destined to 
be handed down to posterity in them, 
under the very unenviable cireumstanees 
in which he is made to appeir. 

Mr, Wils<m having proceeded so fir 
in his narrative, Josejpi inquired whether 
he knew any cause which could have 
provoked the splenetic efiusion. 

"Oh, yes," replied the other, "the 
cause was this. He and I were botii 
member of a Benefit Society, conneeted 
witii the lociJity in which we were living. 
I was treasurer of the society. He was 
always irregular in his parwdioal pay- 
ments, and on one particular occasion 
had Men so fitr in arrears as, in terms 
of the rules and regulations, to be liable 
to have Ins name struck off the roll as a 
member. I at that" 

" I beg pardon fi)r intemmting you ; 
but wa9 his name struck off the iwl ?" 
said Joseph. 

" No, It was not," returned Mr. Wil- 
son. " I prevented that, by not lettmg 
the members generally know the fml 
extent of his short-comings. Just at 
this particular time, he called on me one 
night, and asked the loan of a smaQ smn 
of mcmey. Knowing his careless habits 
—fer he bad already begun to give 
lumself up to drink, tiiough not a coa« 
firmed dmnkard — ^I refiised, adding, or, 
rather, assigning as the reascMO, 'You 
know, Robert, that you are ahready deepty 
in arrears to the society, and that I am 
rendering myself liable foft some of the 
payments you ought to have made^ by 
concecding your deficiendes firem t^ 
other meml>ers.' Stung by the refusal 
to lend him the money, in conjunction 
vritii the circumstance m r^nincbi^ Mm 
of his arrears, he went home and wrote 
the piece in which I am held up to ridi- 
cule." 

" And was the effusion published im- 
mediately on its being written ?" ariied 
Joseph. 

" Oh, no: and I must do him tiie 

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VXX7 XIBBBKft ' if <^»- ' 



ever m^iW4 tp fi»|i})Ush }L He did pot 
no^iW it to l^ H^^pwn 1[^on4 the limi^ 
of ihe pw^h jn w^n 1^ U«red. He, )^ 
thjB fir^ instancy polv shewed it to sieye- 
x*} j^enoQf i^sfi^aiBtea with ^ bodi. 4^ 
tbeir f/simesl;, he allowed the^i to take 
copies. It thpa got into a very aeneral 
Q^UAcript circul^on in the {Mirish. By 
aD4 b^ it got into prixit in the fq^ pf a 
handbill. Thence it round it^ way ipto 
the public jpurpab, Pfitil it became unir 
veirsally known. Jis a further proof that 
he did nq^ mean it to be pttblisae4i it >vaa 
T^ in9(?}rted in the firit edition of in^ 
poems, whicl^ a^eared some tpne af^er 
the POfiA had been wntten." 

** jQid it excite a great sensation in fhe 
locality in which you hotl^ lived?'* inr 
quired Joseph). 

^^ It did : it msed f^ l^ugh at m^ ex- 
pels?, as cleyer ridicule .^avs i^l at 
anybody's expense ^g|lhst whom it is 
1 evelled , Even thr >f p who Jmesy the thing 
tu bii wluJly unfounded, joiped in the 
general kugh. The result was, that I 
could scarcely look a friei^jj ip the fece, 
I was obliged to leave that part of the 
country altogetlier. I feturped with my 
wiie and family — for by this time J was 
married, and had several children — to 
Qlasgow, where I hj^ye ever since re- 
mained.** 

** And you think,** remarked Joseph, 
"tiiat yopr reffisal to lend Bums the 
small sum of money was the sole pause gf 
hi$ penning the bitter piece.** 

'* I am perfectly pertain of it ; fot, 
until that tune, we had bepn two of the 
greatest Mends iu that part of the coun- 
tjpy : and it was only ^ few months be- 
fore, that t repeived a silyp)? snuff-box 
fix)m the spciety to >vhich I have preferred, 
a^ an expression of the sense the members 
e^^tertained of my seryic.es as treasf^rer, 
with a very hand^me poetical eulpgium) 
written by l^ums himself. He ha49 her 
sides, made me several smaU pre^puts, 
some of which are ^till ii^ m^ possession.** 

♦* Oid you .ever meet with him after 
the miblic^tion of the piece f** 

^^l often accidentally met with him; 
hut we neyPT bad wf^j intercourse to- 
gether #er he had written the poem.'* 

** Po ypu think he ever afterwardii 
regretted writing it ?'* 

" I am ^ure of it; for he Repeatedly 
wrote to me, exoressi^g the greatest 
concern that ever ne had pennea ^uch a 
pfe«e!r:«ymg, )^ felt he hid injure! me, 



aB4hflPW*^Wit«r»wi4^f»*b« 
mWSi^ of % mprnen*, afxd wwofd; anv 
view to ptt)a)ipatij(^, I wofdd ove^^k 
the pircusastm^^ ^ be ^fff^ aq. the; 
s^inp fri^iidly fiao»pg with mm {Mf l!>efoye. 
My answer was, ih^ t 4^ not wi^'to 
dherish anv unjqi^dly feelings towards 
him, but that I never could have 9fij 
intercourse wi4^ o^e who ha4 d^oe me 
so gre^ an injurjr*" 

'* Were you,** inquired Jos^^ " Ufitr 
i^g as a m^cal man when mims w^t^ 
lite mece ?** 

** X was not,** r^Ued Mr. Wilson, 
<^ and never Jasid l^n in praf^tii^ f^ 4II. 
I Allowed the yoc^tion of a schpolmasti^. 
He begins the poem with these wordv* 
* ^ome books 9xe lies frae end to end,' 
and so is all bp says abp^t m^-rvith the 
single exception pf the referepce he 
makes to my acquaintance iivith •'Bttdi^n*s 
Domestic Medicine.* That wprk had, a 
short tune before, made its appearanpe; 
and I, feeling that % undej^ooct— 90 «>;- 
body may upderstand-rthe greatest p^ 
of its contents, merely kept a few of the 
mpre common kipds of medieine in qiy 
own house, for the benefit of my &mily. I 
neyer visited ^ny patient in the pretended , 
charscter of a prcfessional man. J. never 
prescjdbed out of my own honse ; ai^d 
\^as not even in the praictice of yending 



Joseph was a good deal sunned at 
this ; i^r he, in commoi^ with ^ POmi- 
trrmep, thought that the Pr. Hprphp<)l^ 
of^vam must have h^PO in the h^f)it of 
mrescribinff for persons who wpre i)l. 
The fi-iend of whose hosp^ality hp aa4 
Mr. Wilson were pftrtakmg, perceivii^g 
an air of increduli^ pp this point abQi:U 
Joseph*s manner, confinned the st^lipm^ 
of Mr. Wilson* as being the assertiop oif 
a &ct which consisted wi^ his osyn per? 
sQnal knowledge. 

It may be right here to rq>eat-r8o 
numy incorrect accounts haviug been • 
given of Mr. Wilson's history previously 
to the publication of ^^ Death and Or. 
Hornbook,** by the editors of Bums— . 
that the ^ippuxs^cy of this ip^armation 
may be relied 09. Not less in^^oiTect. 
haye the editors been in referenpe to tho 
way in which he occuped his timp qii 
his return to Glasgow. They generally 
represent him s^ having engagep, ip. that 
city, in mercantile .pursuits, and as hay- 
ing acquired a handsomp independency. 
Neither statement is correct. He obtained 
an official situation in the Qorbals parish 
0^ Glasgow, in whii^ he settled, which 



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T ffls vi9m^ 



ar 



.p' vas 5i;mcienl to enable mm 
to support fib fiamily in respectability, 
but Wjis not so great as to allow of hU 
saving ^s muclx aa would make him indc^- 
pendent. On one point all the editors of 
Jiums ai'e agreed— «nd on that point tliey 
are eorreci; — nainelyj that Sir. Wili^on 
•was a most \\ orthy man at tlie time tliat 
Bnrns lampooned Jiim, and that h(' conti- 
nued to maintain J ever afterwards, uu 
Uiiblemiahed cliaracter. lie wns held in 
the highest esteem in the piirt of Glasgow 
in which he lived; and received inert) 
than one te&timoni^ of respect fruii^k his 
fellow^-parishioiierB- The author ot this 
ivork is !ji a condition to a^id, that ni>t 
only Avas lie an excellent member of 
fioeiety, hut il mo&t exemplary t'hi'i^tian. 
He was n decidedly pious man : atid 
there can he no doubt tliat it wsis tijc 
ciicumetance of his looking on dl the 
etenta and incidents of time, ^\l the 
trials and troubles of life, t\ ith the eve 
of a sinuere Christian, that enaMed kmi 
not only to forgive Burns for tlie great 
injury fis had done hini^ hut hy luaintaiii 
through life, notwithstanding the morti- 
fication he nmst have t'XpQrieucedj that 
cheerfulness of mannf^r for which all who 
were acquainted with him knew tluvt he 
■yvaa remarkable- 

ISo right-minded person can learn 
these particulars respecting ilr- Wibon, 
ivithout feeling the deepest pain thut so 
worthy a man should haie had \m whole 
ei:iatence embittered by the heartless 
ridicuk heaped upjn him by one -^vith 
whom he had been on tenns of tbe closest 
intimacy, and to whom, instead of ever 
having done any injurious act^ be hud 
repeatedly performed uffices of friendship. 
The disposition to indulge in ?utire is one 
of the most reprehen.sible which a n^an 
tan posJiess ; and, iuiitead of being- i n- 
couraged by society, it ongbt to be de- 
nounced and put down. This tlisposition 
to expose his acquaintances to the jeers 
and epntempt of the world, was a blemish 
in ibe character of Burng. which has 
never beeti sufficiently bfld up to puhlio 
dfc testation p Xointelleetualsuijeriority, 
no ffcnius, however high may be its order, 
ou^t to make that autbur a fa^'ourite, 
who can gratuitously hold up Ins un^ 
offending fellow-men to the f^corn anil 
ridicule of society, lie who pens these 
remarks would not, for ail the fame that 
attaches to the name of Burns, have the 
reflection of having needlessly wounded 



the feflliiMS pf buf mpimfwf^. And 
many of thow acqvaintances whom Boms 
has so merciiessly ridiculed^ were hx 
worthier men than himself in all that 
constitutes mora) greatness— which is, 
after aU, the ooly true greato/e^ of mortal 
beings. The evil oif ridicule, when the 
poisoned shaft is thrown foy the hand of 
a popular author, does not terminate with 
the hfe of him against whom it is directed. 
So {bit ^om beipg intierred with his bones, 
its effects are felt tor generations after- 
wards. Not more ^an four weeks have 
elapsed sipce the author of these volumes 
met with one of Mr. "Wilson's descend- 
ants; and he told him that, though he 
mentioned to him ^s relationship to the 
Dr. Hornbopk of Burps, he stijdiedly 
concealed it from those with whom he 
n«uaUy assocjateid, addiifg, that he live^ 
in a state of constant ^error, lest the 
^l^lationship ^ould hie discaovered. 



MY ap4¥E. 

BT ^OBK KAMSAT, OF ^^Z|lDtXN« 

Far from, fthie atj^fn camti km hxuoi 

Hither let my rdicp coipe ;— : 

Ix)\vjv and lonely be my grayej 

Fast by the streamlet's oozing wave, 

Still to the eende angler dear, 

And heaven^ fair iace reflecting dear. 

No rank luxuriance from the |£ad 

prip^ t^e jgreen turf above my head, 

But cowslipe here and there be found. 

Sweet natives of tbe ballow*d ground, 

DiflFusing Nature's incense round ! 

Kindly sloping to the sun 

Vfaen his cpnrse is oearlv run, 

Let it oatch his farewell pe^ms, 

Br^f and pale* as best beseems ; 

But let the melancholy yew. 

Stall to the cemetery true, 

Defend it from his noontide ray 

Debarring visitant so gay ; 

And when tbe robin's fitful semg 

Is hush'd the darklins^ boughs among, 

There let the spirit of the wind 

A heaven-rear d tabernacle find. 

To warWe wild a vesper hymn, 

To soothe my shade at twilight dim I 

Seldom let fpot pf mw b^ there. 

Save bending towards the house of j^r^er : 

Few human sounds disturb the calm, 

five word of grace or solemn psalp ! 
et would I not my humble tomb 
Should wear an uninviting gloopn. 
As thoMgh there ever broooed near, 
• In fancys ken, a thing of fear j 
And, view'd with supe^-stitious awe, 
Be duly shunn'd, and scarcely draw 
The sidelong glance of passer by. 
As haunt of sprite with blasting eye ; 
Or noted be by some sad tokens ' 
Be4f inj^ a name; in wjliispers s^ken ! 



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Mqitfa^ die Ba4liiA^«tf ttatildtif #otta^ 
^tdB procured m^ Sdoie fttniuseiiiti^, tcoA k 
iatilmude of ^tcimies. 

What I was, 1n^ irri^ I juqrt 
ibkTfi «£EK. — I was s^sible of fneiidsUlp 
Sfid of confidtttce ; tsA I waixtefd notMug, 
btrt tb hare beeli born in the i^ldto ti^^ 
to hftte stood some ohaoeei of being H 
perfect ^tni^etott-^tfaett is^ n g<ood tiuiA. 

Rss«'£ctAbl£ FftrirciPiiEs.-^I neref 
"Iv^ engaged in mxf irfiGif ef nueti^e «p 
of gossip ; I never recommended eitfier ii 
eo&k or a piiysiektn— ^consequently, I 
never attempted the life of any mah. 

Mf Ta8tm<^I was fond of smkll 
soetotifls-Hif a walk in i^ wflbds ; I had 
m inirekmtarf ireneraticm lor ^ snn^ 
and its set^tg IMS often made me mekn* 
choly ; as for cdloars, I preferred bine — 
te} ifi eatings beef and hdrsera^sh ; in 
{h<Mttii6ais, eomady and faree 9 in homab 
li^ngi^ an open and expresske donn-^ 
'^ ance ; humpbacks of both sexes had a 
L for me which I cannot explain. 
It Av^MiOAS. — I alwi^s had ^ db- 
like to fools, scouncbrek^ and female in> 
triguants, who pretended to virtue. I 
W clisgustfed t^ith affectation—pitied 
laiirted dols ef both toxes-^ifilted li- 
qncfui^ ttetttph/sios, and rhttbirb--add 
Entertained a ponthre akrm 9k jusliecr 
and mad dogs« 

AeiAii^sis or mt Lifs. — I wait ^or 
death vfdthout fear and wi^iout impa-^ 
Menee. Mj Hfo has been a beid nido- 
dramai in t^hieh I have pkjred heroes^ 
tyrants, kvers, foAei^s— eir^y^ing bal 
talets. 

RswAitBS nwM HnATAt.— My su- 
Ifeme blessing iii life has been ml inde« 
pendence of the three great powers thtfl 
^overh EurepOi Rieh, averse to busijiess, 
aiid inditferent to mume, I had notiung 
%Q do with Eo^child^ MetterMdi, er 
llasmni 

Mr EpiTAFHi^Hefe is left to repose, 
fdlli a Ifiiiid fotigved^ li heart exhausted, 
and a body Wdm oul^ to odd felkw 
{meux diabU). Ladies 9xA geii^emen, 
jpttos 06. 

BsDicATemt Ephtlb to the t^iri-* 
uc. — ^Dog^ disdordant orga^ of the (09* 
sions! you who elevate to the dduds, 
and plunge inta ^ mud^^who {wtronise 
and cahmmiate without knowing why ! 
Ikbsrurd iyruit escaped from the mad* 
house ! extract of subtle poisons and of 
tweet foremas! rCTtreseiitative of ^le devil, 
at the court of human nature ! furr in 
ihe vBfAb of human ^himkj\*^ym^^ 



whon i fearedJDi mjfjtnSkti resp e cted at 

maturity, and despisea in iny old age f it 
is to you that I dedieate ^idse menioirs. 
My good firietid, I lim at last oui of jour 
fon^, fbf I a^ dead, and tha*efoiee oea^ 
dulnb, and t>lind; would iJiai you en- 
joyed the same advantages, hx your own 
repose and that of humanity ! 



Mb. FsciEffNin having been coofortecl 
i n te i naily wiA some BiM braa^ aotd 
wateri the eldest Miss Feoktiiiff si^ dffwtt 
to make the tea, yMkAi was idl roi^. In 
the neanthne IheyOttBgMMissPeclnii^ 
brought from tiie kitehen a smdkio^ cBsb 
of aim and eggs, and setting the submi 
before her fother^ took up her station on 
a low stool at his feet, iWeby brii^ing 
her eyes cm a level wi^ the tea^boE^. 

It BBist not be hifer^ed from iMs w 
sitioii of JtundHtl^ that ^ yonra^est Wss 
Peeksniff was so yovi^ lis to tffi| as eoe 
■u^ si^^ forced to sit hpon a stod, \tf 
reaaonef the ^lortnessof her legS^ Vm 
Pecksniff sat upon a stebl beeaosd of hed 
simplieity and innocenee^ wMeh wet^ very 
great— very ^eat. Miss Pe^sniff saft 
wpsa a stool beerase die was all gi#B^ 
ness, and fdayfulness, and wUdnte; and 
kittenish tmoyaney. She was the most 
|ffeh,a&dat^ same time ^lemeM artless 
creature, was the yoitogest Miss Pedn^ 
nifi^ that you can pesfSily iitiagine. It 
was her great chkrm^ She was too fresh 
imd ^n^^^^ <Bi^ ^^ ^oU of child-lil^ 
vivacity, was the youngest Ifiss Feeteniff^ 
to wear combs ih her hidif, of to turn it 
up^ or to friszle it^ or brkid it* She wore 
it in a crop, a loosely dowihg cropj Vldeh 
had so many rows of curls ih it that the 
top row was tody one eufh Moderat^y 
biiniem was het shape^ and qtiite woihanly 
too; but somettm»4— yesy seme^mes-^ 
she even wore a piiudbre; a^d how 
eharmin^^l^^as! Oh i 1^ was indeed 
^* a gfushiM tbon^/* (ai a young gentle-* 
toim has observea in verse in we poet*s 
comer of a provincial newspaper^) waa 
&e youngest Miss Pecksniff! 

Mr. Pecksniff vras a moral man, a gravs 
BUiH, a mm of iioble sentiments and 
speech^ and he had had her ehristened 
Mercy. Mercy! ohj what a charndng 
name for sneh a pilte-souleld being as tl» 
youngest Miss Fedzsniff! Her si8ter*S 
name Was Charity. There ^as a good 
thing! Mercy and C^iarity!- And 

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ChMij, with het' fiAef iirtrti^ sense, and 
hfer mild, yet not te'tioacraitl flpravity, 
was so tr6ll naiiled, ana did so weU set off 
and illustrate her sistet ! What a plea- 
sant sight was that, the contrast they pre- 
sented : to see ejtch loved and loving one 
sympathising with, tod dev6t^ to, and 
letomg on, and yet correcting and 
coimter-checking, and, as it were, antido- 
ting the othef ! To hehold each dtoisel, 
in her very admiration of her sister, set- 
ting np in hushies^ fbr herself on an en- 
tirely different |)iinfcipk, ahd ririnouncine 
iio cohnexion vHth ovet-the-iv^ay, arid n 
the quality of goods at that establishment 
don't blfease Jrott, ttirt are resnectfully in- 
vited to favour M with tl call ! And the 
fcffbwning circumsttotie of the whole de- 
lightful cat^ogfae^a^, thdt both the fdr 
creatures Mrere s6 htterly unconscious of 
01 this ! They had ho idea of it. They 
no mote thotight at dreamed of it thaii 
Mr. Pecksiliff did. Nature played them 
aff against esich other ; th^y nm no hand 
itt it, the two Miss Pefcksniife. 

It has been remarked that Mr. Peck- 
sniff was a moral man. So he was. 
Perhaps there never was a more moral 
man than Mr. Pecksniff; especially in 
iiis conversation and correspondence. It 
was once said of him by a nomely admi- 
rer, that he had a Fortunatus's purse of 
good sentiments in hiS inside. In this 
particular he was like the girl in the 
fidry tale, except that if they were not 
actual diamonds which fell iroim his lips, 
they were the very brightest paste, and 
shone prodigiously. He was a most ex- 
emplary man ; fufler of virtuous precept 
than a copy-book. Some people likened 
him to a direction post, wnich is always 
telling the way to a place, and never goes 
there : but thes6 were his enemies ^ the 
8hadow;s cast by his brightness ; that was 
idl< Eiis very throat was moral. You 
saw a good deal of it. You looked over 
a very low fe^nce of white cravat, (whereof 
no man had ever beheld the tie, for he 
listened it behind,) and there it lay^ a 
valley between two jutting heights of 
collar, serene and whiskerless, before you. 
It seemed to say, on the part of Mr. 
Pecksniff, " There is no deception, ladies 
and gentlemen, all is peace : a holy calm 
pervades me." So aid his hair, just 
grizzled vnth an iron-grey, which was all 
brushed off his forehead, and stood bolt 
upright, or slightly drooped in ki^ed 
action vwth his heavy evelids. So <fla his 
person, which was sleek, though free 



from corpulency. Bd did ..his manner, 
which was soft and oily. In a word, 
even his plain bla^k bt^ and stale of wi- 
dower, tod dangling doiaUe eye-glass, all 
tefnded to the Same t)urpoQe, ami crle4 
aloud, '' Behdd the moral Pecksniff!"-^ 
ITie Life and Adventures qf Martin 
Chuxzkwit, 



PRA€TIG AL MORALITY OF THE 
FBE»OH. 

1'he French are, above all nations of the 
earth, a people of practical wisdom— of 
J)ractieal morality. They make the glory 
of their great men, a household things 
!(?'apoleon is on his delith-bed, his eagles 
fiee upon their goltkn whigi to tlarkness — 
the trumpet wmU ui hla oar— the last 
flutter of his heart rises with the mutter- 
ing drum— at nl " fde (rantUe f h his 
death-sob. , Niipoloon is dead. A J^ 
minutes — the pLiater h poured above^Hto- 
face of imperial claj, and poad;erity is^F 
sured the vera effigies of that thunderbolt 
of a mui juHt n^ the bolt was spent! 
Now that fape, in its dreadful calmness, 
is multiplied in silver — In bronze— ia 
marble— in richest metal and in purest 
stone ! And now^ to teach a daily lesson 
to the common mind, that a.wfui counte** 
nance, with the weight of death upon it, 
is sold modelled in — soap! Thus, have 
we not moral reflections brought to the 
very fingers* ends of the people ? As the 
jnechanie cleanses his pahns, and feels his 
emperor^s nose wasting away in his fingerSi 
he thinks of Marengo and AusterUtz! 
With the imperial mce the pickpocket 
makes his hands cleap from last nighVs 
work, thinking the while of the rifled 
halls and galleries of Italy ; the butcher, 
neW from his nlorning's killing, washes 
his hands v^th the countenance ^ the 
emperor, the while he muses on Waterfoc^, 
and whistles the " Down^ll of Paris j" 
tod th^ philosopher peeps into the tuh^ 
and sees the type and memory of the 
warrior^s deeds in babbles floatmg upon 
dirty water. — PutUih's Letters to his 
Son. 

Great Courage, — ^A couple of heroeS 
of Detroit, who were ready to split, lately 
went over to the Canada side to shoot 
each, other. They exchanged five shots 
each, but could not hit; so, having ex- 
hausted their ammunition, they adjourned 
sine die^ but without any signS of d^ing. 



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' MiMreaC^ Mausoleum, — A white mar- 
ble statue of Madame Malibran has just 
been placed m the Mausoleum which M. 
de Beriot had erected in the cemetery of 
Lacken, to the memory of the cdebrated 
cantatrice. The monument itself is about 
ten feet long, and nearly as many wide. 
The interior is circular, and is crowned 
with a cupola. The door is composed of 
open work, which aUows the statue to be 
seen towards the other end. The white 
-marble is thrown out from a brownish 
ground, so that Malibran appears Quitting 
the tomb, and rising towards heaven, 
where she is about to be received by an- 
gels, painted on the cupola. In the cen- 
tre <}t the eupolA a lamp is placed, which 
abads n aubdued light over the whole sta- 
Oa^ iho front of the pedestal is to 
oei'a basso relievo, representing the 
of !Music bewdling the loss of 
i ctrlebratfit ainger. — Examiner. 

' HigUand MiJtry, — Some time ago a 
Bubscriptioti ws^ commeficed f6r the nur- 
pofi£^ fjf erecting a monument to Hi^and 
Mary^ over the spot where repose her 
ashes in the ^ est churchyard, Greenock. 
Somewhere about 100^ was collected, and 
a monument, designed and executed by 
Mr. Mossman, has now been erected over 
the grave. The inscription on the monu- 
ment, unless good taste prevent it, is to 
be the following bald^conceit: — "Sacred 
to genius and love — to Bums and High- 
land Mary,** — it being considered too 
common-pkee and vulgar to inform the 
stranger that the monument is erected 
over the i^ies of Mary Campbell. — Scot' 
iUk Chtardkm, 

A Silver Mine, — The only mine now 
worked is situated about a mile and a 
|udf to the SJE. oi Gttmischkhana, beyond 
the hills which surround the town ; but 
in order to reach it we were obliged to 
go over the eastern brow or winff of the 
rocky amphitheatre. These hills, which 
rise .in .perpendicular clifis, consist of 
limestone, shales, and indurated sandstone, 
while granitic rocks in a state of decom- 
Dosition also crop out in several places. 
ITotwithstanding my adventures m the 
oopper-mine of Chalwar, I could not re- 
sist the temptation of personally inspect- 
ing this one also, which, although not so 
'deep or difficult as the other, is much 
more dangerous. It was not shafted up 



at all, the gaUesiea beiuff *oidy supnorM 
by the ni^ural rock. The airecbon of 
the principal shaft sloped 20 degrees to 
the south, but other galleries branched 
out in all directions, sometimes spreading 
into capacious chambers, at others passing 
througn low and narrow passages, and 
either descendpg perpendicular chasms, 
or proceeding onwards horizontally. In 
one of these chambers the wet noand 
sloped to a vast lake or reservoir <n greal; 
depth, beyond which I could distinguish^ 
by the light of their lamps, several work- 
men removing the rock^ wall itself for 
the sake of the ore which it ocmtained. 
On the whole there appeared to be neither 
method, order, nor prudence in the man- 
ner in which tiiey worked. The best are 
,is found in lumps or nodules in the 
• middle of the vem, consisting of a soft . 
black clay, v^hich also oontams a small 
quantity of metal. The whole hce of tibe 
hill near this mine was covered vrith the 
remains of old workings and galleries^ in 
which the are had been exhausted. — Re 
searches in Asia Minor, 

The Price of a Sijmdion. — The French 
papers mention, Aat '^ The Print^aa Ja- 
dimerowsld, who died some time back in 
Bussia, has left coiif^idaTable legacies to 
two actors, one for having made her flbtgh^ 
and the other weep. The follomng words 
are found in her ^dl, in allusion to this 
matter: — * Having frequented the theatre 
for three years, imd havitig felt there the 
only real emotions of my lifcT I think 
myself bound to reoon^pensc thoae persoiK 
who caused me so much gratinefl^oB. 
I therefore bequeatJi to Kar^gnm, w^ 
has so often made me shed such d^idovs 
tears, the sum of 50,000 roubles, (about 
200,000 fr.) I also bequeath to a young 
actor, whose name has sh^^ped my memory, 
but whom it will be easy, I imagine, to 
discoyer in France, as being the person 
who used to play .tiie Oamin de Paris at 
the Theatre-Michel, the sum of 30,000 
roubles, for having so well amused me.* 
The French actor is Laferri^re, of the 
Vaudeville. • The testunentary executor, 
in announcing to him this intelligence, 
has stated ths^ the heirs-at-law intend to 
contest the l^;acy ; but that it is belieyed 
they will Mli- 



LowDOX; FubUAed bp CUNNINGHAMl an4 
MOBTJMKB, Adelaide Street, Tm/ioiar Sguarei 
and toid bp mil BaokaOUn and Newimen, 

T. C. Savitt, Printer, i«7, St. Martiii's Lum. * 



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LITBRATUEE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 
<micE rwopsKcs.) 



No. 3.] 



SATD&DAY, JANUARY 21. 1843. [Vol. I. 1843. 




MILTON 

- j^ Jt*^ iLTON Abbey wn» 
'* ■ ' founded by Kiiig- 
Athektan towards the middle of the 
teath centurj. Iji point of style it 
may be rarqperlv termed Gothic, for it is 
neitlier English, Grecian^ nor Roman. 
The mansion forms four sides of a quad- 
rangle; the apartments are numerous, 
and many of them are elegant in appear- 



ABBEY, DORSET. 

It isj ctinj*?f turfiil tliat the Mblfejr church, 
HOW a privata chapel^ was budt in the 
reign of Edward the Second. The in- 
terior is kept remarkably clean, and in 
the chi^l are a few ancient and fine 
monuments. On the south side of the 
altar are a holy-water bason and three 
stone seats, with ornamental canities. 

The following inscription caught our 



ance, and decorated with paintings by observation when passing through the 
ancient artists, the most admired o£ which north aisle : — 



are two heads by Ri^phael and Titian, a 
sea view by Chmde, and the "Feeding of 
the Israelites'' by Bassan. To the south 
of the house is a fine old room, called the 
Hookas Hall. 



VOL. XLr. 



" Nos autem gloriari oportet in cruce 
Dfii nostri Jesu Christ!. 

" Here lyeth Sir John Tregonweli, 
Knight, Doctor ai the Civyle Lawes, and 
,one of the Magisters of Chancerye, who 
[No. 1147. 

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died the xm day of January, in the yere 
of our Lord 1545. Of whose soul Grod 
have mercy." 

The churoh underwent savcral Impor- 
tant repairs hy Mr. Wyatt, during which, 
however, a fine screen, ornamented with 
ancient paintings of kings, was luifor- 
tunately destroyed. 

THE RELICS OP LONDON. 

HO. VI.— CROSBY HALL. 

BiSHOPSGATE-street and green fields I — 
how unnatural does the connexion of the 
words appckur ! Green fields in Bishops- 
gate-street? — ^impossible! Old Joim 
Stowe must surely have poade tk great 
mistake when he wrote about "Targe 
fields lying over a^^EUiist Bishop&gate 
Churchy ai3," and ** on which,'* he cam- 
plains , ''^ Uouaeii &rG being built, much 
pestered with jwople." Iloneat, quaiflt 
old chromcler t could^t thou be [>fT- 
mitted but a single glance at the noby, 
paved, bustling Biiihopsgato -street of the 
present day, witb its cantmuousi lino of 
houses, rea£jiiing*^ay, hn ftir a?) Ilackju-y, 
bow vehemently ^'uuld^it tbou prottr^t 
against tM* inureaatd *' gre&t cau^e of 
infection,'^ 

Scarcely, however, could his sorrow at 
thiji teller bftclunenat on the meadows uf 
**the,^uburbe*^ {to wit, BishopBgiite-streBt 
Without) equal the horror with y^Uoh 
he would hftvfi witReaaed the late i>eTvtr- 
sion of on# of tha proudest mim*ions 
whose magniftcenee ho ^naeords to the 
most igiiominjoiis purposes. If he wuald 
deplore the crowded and noisy state 
which bewilders the p^senger iH B;- 
shopsgate-street, how much greater Would 
be his sorrow at the fallen glory of Crosby 
Hall! Sad transition-r-mim the iA>btt 
dwell}ng of royalty ^d splendo\ir, to 
the dirty, dusty condition, of a packer*s 
warehouse ! The old hall, wnich, in 
days gone by, rang with shouts of revelry 
and joy, has, fi>r years, echoed ouly the 
sounds of business ; the floors, on which 
the great, and the rich, and the learned, 
have so often trodden, have borne the 
weight of merchandise, and been con- 
cealed by the accumulated dust of the 
greater portion of a century ; the fringe, 
the arras, and the drapery, have been 
torn ruthlessy away, to make room for 
the necessary accompaniments of trade ; 
and the beautifiil and the antique — the 
admiration of ages, and the wonder of 
generations — ^have given way to the use- 



ful but inelegant tools of the pecker and 
the warehouseman. But a change has 
again come over the history of Crosby 
Hifdl— 4he clouds which have obscured 
its magnificence so long have passed 
awayt and the sun once more shines 
through its pointed vnndows and illu- 
mines its vaulted roof. The bales of 
merehandise have disa^^peared ; and al- 
though much of its ancient magqificaBce 
is lost, it is new devoted to intelleetual 
purposes, and occupied by those who can 
admire and respect its antique beauty 
and interesting recollections ; and if the 
hapq^eting-room, and the council-cham- 
ber, and the throne-room, are no longer 
the lodgings of the rich citizen, the 
learned statesman, or the royal tyrant, 
the roof of the fine old hall shall once 
more ring witii the harmonies of the ma- , 
drigal— and the stately mansion, rescued 
from iast approaching destruction, shall 
yet stand, a splendid record, not o^ly of 
the architecture of the time when it was 
built, but also of the noble spirit and 
clpsic taste of the gentlemen who have 
contributed towards its restiiration, 

Crosby Hall> or l*kee, or Housa^ — ^for 
it has borne each aiid all of these appl- 
lations in its time,^ — \^■fta orected by John 
Crosby," grocer and \voolmfln, in the year 
1466, on the site of some tenements Vie- 
lon^^ng to the' adjacent priory of St, He- 
len's, which were granted tin him on a 
lease qf ninety-nine jHara, ** for t!ie m- 
i^ual rent," notes our minute old chroni- 
ioler, "of IH. 6#. Sd:* T\\h maiiaimi, 
which was at that time tlie highest in 
London, " wfts built," adda Stowe, ** of 
stcm^ and timber, vpry large and beauti- 
ful.'' The founder was sherifl^ at Jja^- 
don in 1470, and In tlni next y<?aT was 
knighted by the kmg, for assisting in thfl 
defence o^ the city against IHiomw^ Fau- 
conbridge and his troop. After being 
entrust^ with an important embassy tf> 
the court of France, Shr John Crpsby 
died, in 1475, having survived by but a 
few years the completion of his mansion. 
Who was the immediate successor of the 
knight in the occupation of Crosby Place, 
does not appear. Shakspeare, when he 
makes Gloster appoint an interview with 
the Lady Anne " at Crosby Place," 
would lead one to believe that Richard 
was an inmate of the mansion at the time 
of his marriage; and Johnson, in his 
annotations on " King Richard EfL," 
says that this was " a house near Bi- 
shopsgate-street, belonging to the Duke 



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of GfooMiltr.^ Th»k he iri» ft vitltof 
tbtfe, a few yetfs subMquMit to this, is a 
w«il<aMetPtaiii«l ihet. Sb Humias More 
Mmai^ ahak «« the proteotcnp k^ his 
household a* Crosby's Pkoe in Bishops- 
Mfce-^treet;** and it vras here thai he 
nekl the eounoil whioh enoonnged him 
to DiiMiie the ambitioBs schemes that he 
had in oonten^latlon. The next tenant 
mm Bar^lomew Eead, lovd major in 
l&OQ. who made Crosby Flaoe lus man- 
sion-hoisse. Here it is snpfMsed that he 
gave his inangofation dhmeF, which sop* 
passed anytb&g of the kind that had 
mviofidy been known ) and here, too, 
he entemined, in a pfhicely style, the 
Marquis of Bmdenbnrg and mis snite, 
who were sent on an embassy of cen- 
dolg iee from the German eoiirt to Henry 
VH. <m the death of his queen and the 
youngs prince. Prom Sir John Rest, 
lord mayw in 1516, Sir Thomas More, 
the lehmed but unibrtunate chaneellor of 
Henry VIII., mirehased Crosby Place, 
where he spent his le}st|re time in study, 
and frequently entertained the king Mm- 
self. I|i 15S3, More sold the mansion to 
Antonio Bonvice, an Italic merehant, 
one ef Us most ikith^l IHen^ls, who, in 
1547, leased it to William Rcper, the hus- 
band of More's ftvourite dwighter, Mar- 
garet^ and William IRastell, her cousin ; 
but the rigour wiA which EdwfMnl VT. 
put the laws of proscription in force 
agidnst ihe Roman catholics, compelle4 
the himates of Orosbv Place to seek an 
aftylum on the Contpient, and in their 
absence, the mansion and the whole of 
their estate was confiscate and tratti» 
ferred to Lord D'Arcv of Chule. The 
sub^eonent accession of IM^y enabled 
Rasteu and Roper to return, and once 
more take possession of the h9,ll. It i^ 
worthy of remark, that Stowe, miniate 
and accurate as he usually {s in every 
particular, has in his accoimt of Crosby 
Place entirely omit^ all mention of the 
tenancy of the illustrious More and his fa- 
mily, futhough he has given a list of alder- 
men and merchants who were, at various 
tij^es, its Inmate. ProWJy the vf*ry old 
chronicler had his reasons for thus passing 
in sOence over so importanfa circumstance 
}n the history of the hall ; and a sanatory 
re«pect of " the powers that were" mlgnt 
have induced him to "forget" an "event 
whioh had occurred within his own re- 
collection, although he was enabled to 
remember circumstances of less im- 
portance and of earlier date. The next 



tenant was one Peter Crowl, of whom 
ftttle is known, and who was snooeeded 
by Germaine (^oll, the husband of Bit 
Thomas Ghpesham*s oousin. It was during 
the oooupanc^ of Cioll that the princely 
Oresham, the noblest benefrctor the dty 
ever saw, pidd frequent vints to the man- 
non. Wmiam Bond, alderman of Lon* 
don, was his suoeessor, and was a oonsi* 
b«rable enlarger of the halL Among 
other things, it is rseorded of him that 
** he builded a high and fUr turret, the 
like of whioh there was not," bwt of 
which not the slightest vesdge is now 
left. Bond died in 1576, and Crosby 
Place appears then to have he&n used as 
an apartment fi»* the special embassies ^ 
foreign courts,' among which w^ra those 
of Henrr Ramelius, ambassador from the 
King of Denmark, and subsequently a 
minuter from the King of France. In 
1504, Sir John Spencer, generally known 
as ** the rich Spencer," from tfce feet of 
Ins possessing almost a millioR sterling^ 
purchased Crosby Hall, and used it as 
nis mansion-house, during the year of 
his mayoralty. It was here thai he enter* 
tained M. de Rosney, the ambassador of 
flenry IV. of Frapee, who aHerwards 
received the title of the Duke of Sully, 
and who describes Crosby Hall as *^ a 
very handsome house, situated in a great 
square.*^ On the death of *^the rich 
Spencer," his mansion foil into the hands 
of his only daughter and her husband, 
the Earl of Northampton; and during 
their tenancy, another interesting event 
was added to its history. This was, tha 
f^sidence, within its walls, of tiie Coun* 
(ess of Pembroke, Sir PtdUp Sydnev^s 
accomplished and afibctionately-k>ved ats«> 
ter, vvho lived here for several years. 
7he successor to the earl and Ms wifo 
was iheir son Spencer, second Earl of 
Northampton, who enjoyed his magnifi- 
cenfmansion but four years, being killed 
at Hopton Heath in an encounter with 
the parliamentary army in 1642. Crosby 
Half was then leased to Sir John Lang- 
ham, sheriff oi Lcmdon, who converted it, 
1^ is supposed, into a prison far roydists. 
I^ir Ste^nen Langham, son and heir of 
the last proprietor, next became the te- 
nant of Crosby Place ; and an alarmiaf 
fire taking place during his occupancy, 
threatened the entire destruction of the 
noble edifice. A portimi of it, however, 
— ^the hall, the coun^< chamber, and Ihe 
throne-room, — was preserved; and on 
the site of tluit part which was destroyed 



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were erected, in 1677, tome of the bowed 
w^eh still form Croslnr Sqn&re. The 
hall, in 1672, was used as a meeting-^ 
hoi^ oiike Presbyterians, and remained 
in their possession as late as the year 
1768. It was afterwards leased to a 
packer, who occupied it until 18^1 ; 
when, on the expiration of his lease, a 
committee of gentlemen was formedj to 
restcffe what was left g( tins beautiful 
mansion to its former state. On the 
27th June, 1836, the first stone of tlie 
restoration was laid by the lord mayor, 
who presided at a good old English 
breakmst in the h^l. The banners 
which streamed from the walls on this 
ocoanon— -the rushes with whi<^ the 
floor was covered — and, though last, not 
least, the glorious bar^ of beef which 
Ibrmied the centre dish of the table — 
enabled the visitor to form some idea of 
the appearance of tiie mansion in the 
elden timey and to picture— ^untly, it 
may be^-4he ancient magnificence of the 
lofty hall. The restorations w^re com- 
pleted last summer ; and in July, a lite- 
rary society, removed ftom Salvador 
House, took possession of Crosby Hall« 
And long, long may it remain m such 
ffood hands ! — long may it be preserved 
Srom destructbn, and, above all, from 
the possession of a packer; for it was 
during the last tenancy that it received 
tile most serious injury. 

Turning from Bishopsgate gkireet, 
tl^^ngh Uie low archway which leads 
into Crosby Square, the wall of the fine 
eld mansion fe the first object which we 
encounter. Directly opposite to us is 
the hall, with its half-ck)SE^ windows; 
on the left is the council-chamber, and 
above it, the throne-room, each having 
two windows. En the angle formed by 
the walls of the hall and the council- 
chamber is a lofty window, reaching 
f^NMn tiie ground almost to the roo^ 
which has been repaired and embellished. 
The interior of ttie council-chambOT — 
the first apartment which we enter — 
principally consists g{ modem deeoraticms, 
which itis not the purpose of the present 
article to describe. From this room is 
the entrance into the great halL The 
principal objects which here strike* the 
eye are, the antique and beautiful roof, 
lie richly-ornamented window, tiie exte- 
rior of which has been already noticed, 
and the minstrels* gallery at the extreme 
end. The spacioSs, lofty, and elabo- 
rately-worked roof is a splendid^pecimen 



ef the style t>f Uiie j[»^nod when it wis 
built. Jud the eentre is an ap^rtuiey 
formed^ as is generally supposed, to allow 
tiie iree eteape of the smdke; bi^ some 
antiquariea nave imagined^ horn the £iet 
of tiiere being an old-fiiduoned chummy 
and firei^ace, neariy himg the gUfid 
anel wikdow^ that this louvne was in* 
taided for some otiai^ purposcr - The 
fireplaoe is witiiin a pointed ami of great 
Inreadth, similar to one in Uie c<NUMnl- 
chamber. It is, however, most vroba^ 
that tiiese ohimiiey-p&eoes aate tne woik 
of Some mcqre recent pmod. The gnand 
window of the hidf, which haS' batm 
before alluded to, is upwards of ten foet 
in width, and about foty high. The 
summit is omamenled with brautif ully- 
ewrved folii^ among wludi is placed 
the crest of Sir J<>hn Cfosby-Hi ram. 
The minatreb* gaUenr stands- at the 
southern end of t^ half; but its decora- 
tions and gpabellifthmants ava entirely 
modem. This q^ous apartmept, which 
is about fifty-five foet long, twenty-five 
wide, and forty high, is completely paved 
with small square stones, arranged di- 
agonally, and remains much in »s pria- 
tme states By a fiight of stairs, aooess 
is obtained to the tlmme-room, situated 
above the council-diambear, tmi of wluch 
the splendid ceil^, with its ornaments of 
oak, is the prindmd Qi>ject of attraction. 
And this is all t&t now remains of 
the once stately mansion of Crosby "BsJl I 
There are other ornaments and deco- 
ratimis, it is true — but these, being of 
modem erection, do not fall under the 
designation of relics, and consequentiy, 
howev^ wortiiy of notice, cannot, with 
propriety, be enumerated in the present 
article. The ccmi^dl-chamber, the hall, 
the throne-room, and a small fmtecham- 
ber, are the only remains oi the ancient 
edifice, and therefore the only portiops 
which can be included in a notice of the 
" Bdics of London.** 

Alex. Anprews. 



THE WEAVER*S DAUGHTER. 

On tiie first, of November kst I arrived 
in Glasgow. I had been ten years ab- 
sent, the greater portion of wl»ioh time I 
had spent in a foreign land. These feel- 
ings which^ naturally lay siege to tiie 
hc»rt on visiting spots endeared by child- 
hood — spots, the seats of boyish m>lics» oi 
schoolboy fi^its,—^rent the oblivious cur- 



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tern whklk had far some time elmmded 
my nemoty, and every taming, every 
comer, de»cribed, more powerftuly l^ian 
wfjfdsy aa eventful cirenrastance of my 
yoanj^ year»» 

" Where are now my old school- 
Mhws ?^> I hiwai^ly ae^ed. Such aoae 
lived in ^n street— my rival in mischief 
in that one. I called at the houses wfa^e 
■everal had resided, hut could reeeive no 
inttlMffence, save that — * had left a 
short &ne hack for Ftdsley, and that most 
fMPobahly he was still tiWe, as he had in- 
herited several houses by the decease ci 
his grandfSdher, whose prt^rty was in 
that place. 

Buoyed up with the hope of seeing an 
old associate, I secured all l^e infomu^lon 
that could be obtained, jogged cheerMly 
alongtheTron«ite, traversed the *^Broom- 
ielawBr%,^ looked contemptuously on the 
railway carriages that transported the 
** seven'tmie traveller^* for threepence, and 
determined to conform to my old habit 
of walking to the ^' town of sestus/* 

How cWm^ the road ! I ^M>ceeded 
on my way for nearly an hour, without 
meeting « foot pass^ger. The twilight 
was fost i^roaching when I reached the 
well-known half-way house. A dismal 
l^loom hvmst ewer that once jojrous dweU- 
mg : it, J&e the times, had materially 
ehaaged. « 

Dreading neither highwayman nor 
warlock, I continued my route, when sud- 
denfy I heard a strai^pe, c^^^hing seund. 
I stimed, and looked round, but the 
n^^t nad become so dark that it pre^ 
vented me from discerning an object at 
three yards* distance. The sound, which 
did n<^ resemble the footste])s of a hipnan 
being, was rapi^y mroachmg. I foced 
about, gnisped my ^ck^ and after waiting 
a fow minntee in »we and curiosity, guess 
mj surprise, when a poor girl!, about 
Hurteen years of age, barefooted, bare* 
headed, Kalf running, made her Bffear- 
ance. 

" Well, girl,*' I said, while my heart 
bled for the hatt-naked creature, *^ are 
von not cold ? — are you not afraid to be 
here in the dark ?** 

^ No,*' she said, *' Tm ne> foared nor 
cold; but my mother—-" . 

'Vis she behind r 

^ Ko; but she is alone, and she ex- 
pected me home at two o^dock." 

At that time we came in sight of a 
small public-house, and pudgin^ (influ- 
enced a HtUe by ouiiosity to hear the 



ehild*s story) that she was cold, (Mrobably 
hungry, I tmd her I was going to have a 
little refreshment, and that if die liked to 
come in for a fow minutes, I would after«> 
wards conduct her safely to Paisley. I^ie 
consulted, oh my assuring her that I 
would only wait a^ few minutes. 

On entering the house, I fixed my 
looks upon the open and amiable counte- 
nance of the poor child, whose fiur hair 
hung in clustm down her almost naked 
•hottldersj and whose bright blue eye 
lighted 1^ a foce on which adversity had 
begun its destructive operations. I in- 
stantly oardered tea, winch was pipmptly 
servea up. 

"What is your name, my dear?" I 
said, while handing her some bread. 

"Jessy." ' . 

♦* Well,- Jessy, your napie is a fovourite 
one of mine, xou must now eat We 
riiall soon be in Fdsley." 

Jessy reptied not; she gased on the 
cup, then raised her litde hand to wipe 
the tears which filled her eyes. 

" What is the matter?" I said. "Are 
you ill? Cknne, there's a good little gfrl, 
tell me. Tou must know I am almost a 
townsman of yours, and foel interested 
with everything that belongs to Paisley. 
Now, do tell me.** 

" I was thinking of my mother," the 
little eid said, soblmngly. "Oh! that 
she had this, instead of me— it would do 
her good, it would make her wdl 1" 

♦* So youi^, and yet so thoughtful 1" 
{ exekdmed, in surprise. " My good giri, 
take your tea; your mother i£aU have 
plenty to-night 

. Tlie countenance of poor Jessy brig^it* 
ened up ; she fixed her eyes upon me — 
who could describe those eyes.? — to them 
a grateful heart had found its way» 

Jessy eat (^[wingly, after which I pur- 
chased a bcmnet and a pair of shoes.of the 
landlady, who had a daughter about 
Jessy *s age. We continued our jqinr- 
neyt dur^ig which my young, eompanion, 
whose co^dence I h^d gained, spdkQ 
iumliarly with me^ and answer^ freely 
the questwns which I put to her. She 
had been sent by her vndowed mother to 
an aunt, in Glasgow, who was rich, and 
from whom she was to borrow five shil- 
Imgs. On arriving at her house, the old 
lady was out, and the lUtle girl waited 
anxiously till four o'clock without seeing 
her. Fefurfiil lest her mother should ima- 
gine that something had hiq;>pened to her» 
she decided, but with a sad heart, on 



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leaving, fat she knew ii*t h«r iiiolh«r» 
who was iU, depended upon her proourmg 
something fbr their sustoamoe* Sndi 
was the account whidi I gleaned from 
the young girl, and just as it was finiihed« 
we entered the new town of Paisley. 

"WeU, Jessy," I said^ ''are we ftr 
firom your house ?'* 

''No, not very &r. We live at th* 
Seedhili;' 

'^ We shall soon be there,** I said, as w4 
quickened our pace. You must lead the 
way now ; I have almost forgotten every 
thing about Paisley/* 

Jessy did as I desired her. We went 
up one street, down another, till we caDM 
to Bridge-street, then, pointing to an ob- 
scure bftck house, she said, '' This is our 
house ; we live at the top.** 

'' Go on, Jessy,** I lepHed ; «' I win fbl- 
low you.** 

As we ascended the sturs, a door 
qmied, and *'Ib that yon, Jeny?** was 
demanded by a female, in an anxious 
tone. 

" Yes, mother,** Jessy replied. 

''Oh, what has kept you, my child I X 



The poor woman, perceiving me, did 
not complete the sentence, but appeared 
embarrassed. In a few words I explained 
what had occurred. She thanked me 
ftnr my kindncM, then said that she was 
ashamed to receive a'gentleman in her pre- 
sent abode. Hiere wbb ankr a table and 
two stools in the room ; and, although a 
oold ev^iing in the, middle of November, 
thore was no fire. I felt sad at such an 
aspect of poverty— pulled out my purser- 
had much trouble in getting her to ac- 
cept a sovereign — left — and afteorwards 
learned that she was the widow of a man 
who waa respected by all who knew Mm 
—an hcmest weaver, who, a few years 
ago, lived ha^iily by the sweat of hi» 
bfow, and whose death was hurried on 
by the want <«f kbonr, or rather, its con- 
sequence, the want of food to sustain 
those dear to him. 

Bdbre remaining a day in Fdsley, I 
found out, unfortunately, that poverty 
had reached to an apoallmg height ; t^uit 
Uie state of business had rend^ed about 
CHEie-thiid c^the industrious inhabitants 
paupers ; that not less than eleven thou* 
aanci individuals were on the suppfy^ re- 
Odving fiom the town the value of one 
Minyperday. It is said that something 
has alraady been done in Londcm fbr these 
^r people,- but Hbe inqidrer who visiea 



Paisley vnll affirm that the ciofltribtttiont 
made to it, instead of alleviatiag the oKs« 
tress, are only ealoulated to pxdbng life^ 
and to make eaeh individual alive to his 
sufferings. The honest, the intelligunt 
and independent weaver, once the pride 
of the pUMje, is now a beidtf of bygone 
days. The birthplace of TanniOtil^ of 
Professor Wilson, of Wilson the ornitho- 
logist, and of many other great men^ is 
now beo<nning the inrtk^e of pattpeank 
If work oould be obtained, thahihafaitantft, 
so long «haraoterilped ibr their industryi 
would soon attain that which they look 
upon as essential to life-*-indipendenoe* 
It is to be sincerely trusted that Govern* 
ment will, at an earty period, take tiiebr 
eaae into serious o<lnauMrali<m« 



dpitit of jToreisn Eitnatuvi » 

A STOEY^qF VENDEE. 

TowAiUM the lifter part of April, in the 
year 1815, an unusual bustle was oIh 
served in an old cas^ situated on the 
banks of the C^broo, within a f^w leagues 
of Parthenay. The proprietor of tbis 
mansion was an eldeiiy la<fy, named Mar* 
guerite de — -, whose husband was bo^ 
headed, in 1794, for his loyalty and 
devotion to the unfortunate Ixmis. After 
the death of her husbend, Mamierite 
left the abode of her ancestor, Willi her 
inftnt son, to seek nbeUet fn a foreign 
land; but before she cottld accomplish 
her pnnKxie she was overtaken byaparty 
of republicans, who, finding that she was 
the widow of a royalist, dent her to 
Nantes, where ^ was separated firom her 
child and imprisoned. To add to her 
sufierinffs she was infbrmed, after she had 
been a few days in prisofi, that her son 
had, akmg with several more royalist 
children, been drowned in the Loire, by 
tiie orders of Carrier, a man y^ was 
chosen on account of his stem and unre- 
lenting cruelty to put down the royulfets 
in the neighbourhood of Nantes. After 
six month? confinement. Marguerite ef- 
fected her escape out of prfeon, and fled 
to England, where she remidned until the 
emigrants vrere recalled by the first 
consuL She then returned to her native 
country, carrying along with her her 
niece, who v^ras at that time only six years 
old, and took possession once more of her 
ancestral dwelfing on the banks of the 
C^broo, where she Kved in a very retired 
B^miter until tiie re8tor«ti<« ^ ine Skiur*- 

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bona ia lSI4,ilteii ^ QtM9 4f Mkr* 
gtterite WM tfarc^ed with the MAxM 
9tt]^eots of Jm^ Xym., who> in th^ 
exttbeniU^ of th«^ loyuiktyi made the M 
loof ribff, At in days of yoM, wiUi tho 

After thift toagk of f espedt to her 
fightaa Mmveigti, Mii-^ru<^^ rel^«ed 
into h»t qtaa/tt mode of lifb< She wm^ 
howvTei*, not allowed to remain long in 
retir^n^t. The following year the ncwtf 
of Ki^l^onls arrital in Paridi and of the 
depuffifitfe of the Boarbcnifl, caused th^ 
Vencteans to fly to amid in the hope ^ 
makiBg a stand c^|ain6t die nsui^* 
Their head qtart^rs was fixed at the 
dwel^g of Mttfgn^te which circum- 
stance occasioned the bustle spoken of at 
4^ commencement of our narrative. 

A strong body ot Sfapoleon's followed 
was at this time stationed at Fttrthenay 
nnder die command of a gallant young 
officer named Pierretrouv^. The history 
of this y<mng man is most remarkable. 
He was drawn out o( the Loire when he 
waa>bont three years old by an old soldier, 
who sated him at the immhient lisk of his 
own . life* tmd afterwards adopted him* 
At the battle of Friedland he was made 
a drmnmerj boy and receited a wound in 
die leg whieh^compelled him to sit down ; 
mt he Continued to beat the charge as 
oooHy as if he had not been butt. As 
Ni^eon was passing in front ot the 
army, 1^ saw that die kd was wotmded, 
and said to him--- 

•« Go, child, and hatd your woandi 
looked to.'' 

" Yes, sire/ said Ihe undatmted boy, 
" after we hare gained the idctoty ." 

Nftwleon deified one of his attendants 
to look to the lad, and passed on. Three 
months after, the drummer-boy was sent 
to a military school in Palis, and re- 
nudned ther^ until he was sixteen years 
oldi He was then made an officer. At 
seventeen, he fought in Spdb, and two 
years after, at Smolensk and Moskwa. 

The follovdng year he entered the 
young imperial guard, and distinguished 
himself W his courage and activity at 
Lutzen, Dresden,. Montmurail, and J3ri- 
enne. On the abdication of the emperof, 
he was deprived of his rank, and he re- 
tired to a small village not far from the 
castle of Marguerite. In his rambles 
throtteh the ne%hbourhood, he often met 
that 184^ and her niece, Clidr6, and 
being struck witii the beauty of the lat- 
ter, was desirotts of becoming acqtiainted 



witib tiwm ; btt Aey htaring that he 
#as attadhed to ike Usurper^ shunned aQ 
interootirs^ with 1dm. 

When Ni^leoh returned from Elba, 
Pierre was i^pointed to die oommand of 
the iiroops stationed at Pardienay. fiear<« 
ing that the royalists had assembled kl 
arms in great nmnbers at the easde of 
Hargoerite, he went and disk)dged them, 
ttid took the greater part of tiiem fiif* 
soners. Marguerite ^d Claire fled in 
disguise to Parthenay, but on thehr ar* 
rival in that town, they were discovered 
and thrown into prison. About a week 
after the attack on the castk, Pierre re- 
tomed td Parthenay; and in loddng 
over the list of unfortunate beings whom 
die authorities had c<mdemned to be exe- 
cuted, he found the names of Marguerite 
and Clah^. The day appointed for their 
execution was the 28rd of June. 

Early in the morning, on the day of 
exeotttion, a brutal imd excited mob waa 
vfaiting near tiie prison to vntness the 
dying agonies of tnose who were about 
to suffer. Herre had tried to prevail on 
the authorities to spai^ the lives of the 
ladies, but finding that his efforts were 
nnsucoessfiil, he detem^ed to save tiiem 
at the hazard of his life. Having pro* 
dured a couple of dresses like those worn 
by the vrives of the peasantry, he vrent 
to the prison accompanied by a small 
party of soldiers, whom he left at die 
prison door to prevent the mob fhmi folr 
lowing him. When he entered the cell 
where the ladies were confined, they 
started back as if an adder had ap-* 
preached them. Pierre addressed th^n 
respectftilly, and told them that instead 
of coming to harm thom he had come to 
save them. 

" Time presses," said ho ; ** take these 
clothes and disguise yourselves, and t 
will conduct you to a secret passage 
which Uads to the forest. It is your 
only hope now. I have tried every oihef 
means to save you." 

"And what recompence do you ex- 
pect for this service ?** demanded Mar- 
guerite. 

"My recompence," replied Ken^, 
"will consist in the satisfaction I shall 
feel in knowing that I have contributed 
to your safety.^ 

*'But,*' said Marguerite, "have yott 
thought of the reMwnsibility you incur, 
of the riffOUr of military law and oi the 
fiiry of tne people?" 

"Madam" replied Pierre, "I place 



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the dut^ I owe to tibe EmpeMv beipre 
l^t wmch I owe to tiie people; bn^I 
tiiink my honour more sacred than the 
oath that hinds me to Napolecm, . A 
soldier of the empire does not war with 
women ; he dies rather than allow their 
bloQd to stain his uxoform/* 

'I Young num," interrupted Margue- 
rite, *^ we cannot accept nie aid offered 
to us by a soldier of the usurper. . We 
would deem ourselves dish(moux:ed by it* 
We appreciate your conduct, but it must 
not be. Leave us to die !" 

" I Qptreat you, madam, to accept my 
offer, b^cnre it is too late." 

He was interrupted by the loud ex^ 
cratio^s of the mob, who had beaten back 
the soldiers that he had staticned at the 
door of the pris(H), and were preparing to 
glut their vengeance in ihe b}opd of the 
royalists. Pierre rushed out of the cell, 
and exhorted the soldien not. to allow 
their misguided countrymen to perpe- 
trate so loul au act of cruelty as thai 
which they were bent. on. The soldiers 
{)^ed themselves by the side, of their 
yoi^ng commander, and favoured by the 
narrowness of the passage leading to the 
cell of the ladies, which only permitted 
the approach of a few of their assailants 
at a time, they kept them at bay for two 
hours, at the ena of which time they 
were relieved by a strong detaclunent of 
troops, who soon dispersed the mob. 
. Pierre received three severe wounds in 
tiie affray ; and when the mob was beaten 
off, he lay wel^ring in his blood, unable 
to move. His wounds were bound up, 
and he was carried to an ho^ital. ui 
half an houir after, the news of Napoleon's 
defeat at Waterloo arrived; the ladies 
were immediately released, and borne in 
triumph to the castle. The followers of 
Napoleon, who had in any way distin- 
guished themselves during the hundred 
(Jays, were then hunted from place to 
place like wild beasts. Pierre was imme- 
diately marked out ; and although his 
wounqs were not yet healed, he was sent 
to prison, and was soon after sentenced 
to death. Marguerite and Claire, hear- 
ing what had peMen their gallant de- 
fender, went directly to the place where 
he was confined. When they arrived, 
they found him quite delirious, from a 
high fever which had been brought wi 
by the neglect of his wounds, and the 
sorrow he felt for the fate of his master. 
He kissed from time to time a star of the 
Legion of Honour, ^hich Napoleon him- 



s^ had i^ven him lUftder tbe walk of 
Dresden, and spoke in i^ptBres of the 
Emperor aad the grand amiy,. as he re- 
lated, in glowing Imgoage, their as- 
tomshiog exploits. The kdHes, fiBdulg^ 
that the fever did not abate, .left tha 
fmoR ; the next day they retoriKd, 
and found him &st asleep, wraimed up in 
his war cloak: the fever haa left him, 
and he vfos as pale as death. When he 
awoke, he was surprised to. find two 
ladies by his side: he bowed pditely 
to them, and as his eyes met taose of 
Claire, he coloured s^ghtlj^. Maxvuerite 
inquired kindly after •& healw, aad 
^ke to. him of his release. 

^^ There is no hope for me," said ho, 
glowiily. 

" Yott are not sure of that,'* said Mar- 
guerite. " Do you think we have iorgot^ 
ten the man who so generoqsly defended 
us, at the risk even of his owi| life? The 
King has granted me the power to save 
the ufe of any one of those who ai^e qow 
in ihis prison under the s^it^icc of death. 
I need not tell you for whose sake X haire 
solicited this favour. You have only to 
put your name ^ the bottom <^ this peti- 
tion, and you will be firee.*" 

" My bfe," replied Pierre, " is now a 
burthen to me. If I were to accept your 
offer, my place ought to be by the side (^ 
my bene&ctor, on the desola^ island to 
which they have exiled him. Yet there 
is one condition on which I would acoef»t 
my life, but it would be idle to think of 
it— you would belierve me mad — ^I, a s^- 
dier, of birth so obscure that I do not 
know even who or what my parents 
were. No, lady, I cannot acoept your 
offer unless you aooonmany it wim a gift 
still more precious — the liand of your 
niece.** 

Marguerite turned aside to conceal the 
disdam she felt at this proposal ; and Claire 
fell on her knees, and besought her aunt 
to save the life of the young soldier. At 
this moment an officer presented himself, 
and told the prisoner that the hour of his 
execution had arrived. 

" Madam,** said Pierre, as he was about 
to follow the officer, "I hope you will 
pardon my ambition, and accept tnis silver 
cross. It is a strange present fn»m a sol- 
dier ; but I should like to place it in the 
hands of some one whom X esteem, for it 
belonged to my mother : it vras found <m 
me, when I was quite a child, by an old 
soldier, who saved me &om, being drowned 
in the Loire." 



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MfOfgnerite iock the cross, and, after 
looking at it sHentively, she Mid, ** Have 
JOB no recolkclion of your mother?** ' 

" No, madam,** replied Piem ; '* I was 
sefurated ftom lier at too early an age 
to reslember her.** 

Mam^terHe a^^iroached him, and looiced 
earnestly in his face. When she with* 
drew her gaze, she was seised with a fit 
of tremhling which, for a few moments, 
deprived her of the power of utterance. 
After she had recovered a litUe, she tock 
off Pierre's cravat, and having discovered 
a large red mark on his neck, she ex- 
claimed, ^ Oh Heaven, 'tis my own son I** 
She then fell on his neck, and wept akmd. 
The officer again renunded Pierre that he 
was waiting for him. This intimation 
drew a loud shriek from Marguerite. Sl^, 
however, soon recovered her self-posses- 
si<m, and displayed to the officer tiie order 
of €ie King As so<m as he had read it, 
he returned it to the lady,*and retired, de- 
elaring that he had never in his life obeyed 
the orders of his sovereign witii greater 
pleasure ikan he did on wat occasiim. 

A few months aflter this, l^e Mends 
and retainers of Marguerite were as- 
sembled to celebrate the nuptials of Pierre 
and Claire, and the old castle again be- 
owne the scene of festivity and rejoicing. 

The sorrow of Pierre for the fete of Ins 
master became less poignant after this 
event, though he always spoke of him in' 
terms of admiration and respect, and the 
hostility of Margi^rite and Olaire to the 
usurper gradually diminished as they lis- 
tened to the surprising adventures of 
Pierre, who aiwaTS dwelt largfehr on the 
bright parts of the En^ror^s character, 
and soAened as much as possible the 
da^erones. 

liUrattite. 

Ten Thousand ThtTigs relaUn^ to China 
and the Chinese. By W. B. liangdon. 

Antthihg relating to " the celestial em- 
pire** is, at the present moment, eagerly 
sought alter, ccmsequently the *^ ten thou- 
sand things** held out hr our inspection 
by Mr. Langdon hnmediately seciured our 
attenti<m# We perused them with much 
l^easure, and feel bound to admit that 
much useful information and pleasing food 
for digestion are to be found in the 
vdume. To amuse our fair readers we 
vnU extract a story, from which it will 
be found that the hearts of the <^ little* 



(boted lad^** a«e is susce^t&le of what » 
fermed ^* true love** as taoee of our own 
cHme. 

A CHINESE LOVE STORY. 

" Chinese stories are full of examples 
of love that knows no limits. ' TheMT is 
only one heaven,* said a f<nrlom nuoden, 
when her parents iq>braided her f<»r spend- 
ing her days in sorrowful libations of salt 
tears at the tomb of her lover, ' and he 
was t^t heavto to me !* The deep well 
and flowing stream have often borne a 
melancholy witness to the indissduble 
nature of female affection. But the con- 
sented stories of Chinese antiquity will 
not, perhaps, furnish a more pleasing spe- 
cimen of this sort of ccmstancy thim the 
following : — In one of the Dutch Settle- 
ments am(Hig the islands of the Indian 
archipelago, a gentleman of hagh standing 
in the community lost a much-loved wife, 
which rendered home so melanch(4y to 
him, that he forsook it, and endeavoured 
to pass away the heavy hours of mourning 
amimgthe solaces of kind Mends. Among 
his acquaintances was the alderman of tiie 
Chinese ward, or kan^ng, who, with the 
true urbanity of his native country, in-, 
vited the disconsolate husband to apend 
the evenings at his house in some of the 
sociid games for which China is so dis- 
tinguished. The host, being childless, had 
adopted his niece, and had brought her 
up with all the tenderness and hopes of a 
fond parent; the visitor often saw the 
young lady on these occasions, and felt it 
no more than a mattei* of good breeding 
towards the foster-fether to notice the 
object of his esteem. Words, of civility 
were soon exchanged into terms g{ love, 
and an accidents acquaintance ripened 
into a well-founded friendship. As soon 
as the uncle found what had taken place, 
he forbade the continuance of these visits, 
feeling, perhaps, that if Ms niece and 
foster-child should marry a foreigner, his 
name would be put out, and his posterity 
cut off, or be merged in an alien stock. 
Difficulties, however, are often but the 
mere incentives to action; and so the 
lover forthwith sent a message by <me^ o£ 
the young lady*s female friends, in which 
he advised her to make her esciqpe fh>m 
the uncle*s roof. She replied, that for the 
sdce of him she was vdUing to make any 
sacrifice, but she dreaded a curse whicn 
her offended relatives might invoke upon 
her, and tl^ref^n'e she could not come 
Here an effeetual bar was placed in tiie 



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wttjr of Ihdt tttiioB^ and Ifat tiiMfe M«aidl 
Id hav« gai&ed Uft point without the p(MM 
sibiUty of miscanifige. But, alas Ibr all 
his designs I Missj- would neither eat 
bread nor drink water ; and in this reso- 
lotkia she pelndsted till fair ftionds saw 
enljr Ma altemathre-^manS^e with the 
tomgner or the gnlYe, and at me least of 
the two erils, were oompriled to choose 
the Imner. Thete was only one stiffit^ 
lation insisted on and gained by the unele^ 
Whkh was this-^'thait during the life ai 
himself or the aunt the niece should not 
quit her foster-home. Incooiplianoewith 
mB oondition, the husband was obUged 
io take up his abode in a Chinese dwell*' 
ing; and here ltwa» that the writer of 
these r^iariu had fbfst ^ pleasure of an 
interriew* In one of our rides he kindly 
told me this little stoiry of his ootutshipw 
At the ocmetttskm of it, I was very anxious 
to know what SoH; of a companion he had 
found her ) for, thought I, the kidies who 
are bred and brought up in such seques«« 
tered spots, where they hare nothing to 
think m save the adornment of their own 
persons^ or ihe littie gossip of the neigh- 
bourhood, can nerer indulge a thought 
about anything beyond their own gratifi- 
eatkn-f so I asked him if she took anv 
interest in bds enterprisen. He answerea, 
'^ Yes, the greatest ; thei'e is nothing that 
can ^ve me either pleasure or pain which 
escapes her amdety.* " 



TheNatdClvb, By Mr. Barker. 

This work reflects much credit on the 
Old Saibr. It oonnsts of various tales 
illustratiTe of seafaring life, in which 
Are deq>lyHitirriiig incidents, powerfuUy 
workea up and eneotlTely tdd. " Betrt 
Vntkxi," « sketdi of a pmcy in the West 
Indies, is, though detailing the deeds of 
lawless men, a finished '' yam,'' and cal* 
ottlated to raise fear and horror, commit 
seration and aonnow, in the heart dfevetf 
reader. The story of the loss of Kelson^s 
old ship, the Agamemnon, is cleverly 
told; and when the crew is about to 
Abandon her, the author bares the bosoms 
of the sailors, and words their feelings in 
a pathetic stitdn on taking a last look of 
the favourite ship of their old connnodore. 
The short stories, as well as those that 
run over a number of pages, are alike 
olever* The West Indian scenes are par- 
ticularly good. We ^wll con&ie our 
«s(rfiet»totbea: 



A NEGRO PILOT. 

<* It was soon after daylight hi the 
morning, ibaii a small sailing-vessel, car- 
rying a pikitViagf was disooveored olow 
to us; and shortly afterwards a Negro 
oame on board to oonduot the skxip kito 
tiie roads. The pikit was naked^ ^oepl 
A laece of ooarse linoi round Ms loinsf 
and I ooukl not help fueling somewhat 
awkward at seeing one of my own speeiee 
moving about in ttds state, with as much 
uneonosm as if he had been completely 
dressed. He was a stout elderly ma% 
firm in his st^ and independent in hie 
maimer, and fhU of life and humour i but 
judge of my iurprise when I was told he 
was a shive» His first salutation was— 
' I^ masia oaptain 1 how he dov eh ^ 
What news he bring from Englandf 
How him HUy Pitt and King George? 
Portalittly Wt,boy.' 

** The captain stumped towards hhn : 
but no sooner dkl the Negro hear the^ 
dot«*attd-gO-one of the skipper'^ woodei^ 
pin, than he ga^ed more eamestiy aA 
him, and then buint out^* Ky, he Massa 
Haul, eh?* and holding out his hand-— 
*• Me happy fbr see you, Captdn Haul ; 
many long day since me hab de pleasure. 
Massa Death knock down one leg ; t'other 
'tim 'tiff, eh t Miss Nancy tthd fbr see 
you once more; she hab old head now, 



" Old Haul-of'Haul seemed to be ap* 
preteisive that probably some of his pec- 
cadilloes were apout to be e^cposed. and 
ti^erefore stopped the Negro with— 
*Weel, Bai, ye're alive, Tm thinking: 
and now just place me in the auld spot, 
about twa cables length from the jetty, 
mon, and we'll crack of langsyne after 
the uaohor is gone.' 

" ^ Crack, massa I what he call crack ?* 
replied the Negro : but, catchiog sight 
of the purser, who was also an old ac- 
quaintance, he gave a significant look, 
and pointing towards him — * Ah, what 
hab crack dere, eh ? How he do, Massa 
Purser?— stead vlittly bit, boy-*-«o run 
the sloop in de bush. How he do, Massa 
N^pwigP Where de rum lib now V 

** The good-humoured, unembarrassed 
manner m which the naked Black ad- 
dressed the officers, quite dehghted me : 
he had a laugh and a joke for every one, 
and gave his directions for steering the 
sloop with all the air of an admiral ; nor 
would he allow even the captato to inter- 
im with his duties. It wus ceitffnly a 

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tBMUKBSOE. 



curions dglit to sed tids uiidothdd beinfl^i 
without even a coaling to bis head^ 
standliig Ibj 1^ side of Old HMil-of- 
Hatd, arrared in hk fbll miifbrm, with n 
httgg regular tldree«>coniered bat fi^ro^ly 
eoclrad oyeif his left eye, and his hanra* 
soBpended to a broad black belt bnckled 
round bis iraist His amnmnitlon'>leg 
bad recdved a more than usoal polub of 
beeewax, and there he stood anMolpating 
eongratnbitions on bis good fiMrinnd. 

** It is cnstomioy, in conninfl^ a sbipy 
for the m&n at the helm to reply to tho 
eonunands of the pilot for the purpose of 
shewing that they ara beard and under** 
stood ; and in difficult nairigation this is 
Tery essential for the prevention of mis** 
takes. Old Haul, however, bad been so 
accustomed at all times to work bis own 
ship, that be considered no ctfder could 
be ptfoperly executed except it came ft*om 
Mmseif; and on this account he kept re* 
peating the directions of Ben, but which 
the wtter, who looked upon it as an 
infringement of his dignity, did not seem 
to relish. The expression of his features 
was particularly comical, especially when 
the steersman responded to the order be* 
fore the captain could ^v e it utterance ; 
and then he muttered to himself, ' Ky ! 
he no catch *em dere.* 

•• * Steady boy, hearee !' cried Ben, 
addressing the helmsman. 

** * Steady !' went the capfadn, repeat- 
ing the conmumd. 

•* « Steady it is!* answered the heUns* 
man* 

•• 'Port a Httly bit!' cried Ben. 

•••Port a little I' 

•* • Port it is !' responcted the man. 

•* This went on for some time, till Ben 
could bear it no longer. ^ Starboardi 
boy r cried Ben. 

*♦• Starboard r repeated the captain. 
Upon which the nakecl negro stepped up 
to Old Haul, and taking hold of the 
gold-laced lappet of Ins coatexclaimed, 
with the utmost gravity — * Tan, Massa, 
and you please, let one gentleman peak 
at a time. ** 

A Vliw OP WEST INDIAN SOCIETY. 

'^ ' Hie case stands thus, sir : in for- 
mer times intimacies between the female 
slaves and their ovmers orifldnated a race 
of Creoles or coloured people, who, croa- 
ble of enduring all the effects of nils 
infernal climate, are yet softened in the 
l^irbarism of tiieir natures by the mixture 
of Etmipeau blood in thfeir veins. There 



is a gr^ deal in lAood, sir'^-^genteel 
bloody d^end upon it. Now, no white 
man possesidng ten cmins of oommon 
sense would bmg a vmev^ithhim'to the 
West Indies ; for what would she be ?— * 
a perpetual burden, wMoh no art could 
ttghten-^Mmflt fot all the duties which a 
female stetion re<|ulrei-^a helpless bdng, 
that would require otiier bands than her 
own to dress and sustain her. Mind^ 
roung gentieman^ do not mistake me ; it 
h the climate that does all this, and 
therefore is the misfortune of the lady^ 
and not her fouH.* 

'^ • But surely tiiis is not ahravs the 
ease,' said I, my thoughts reverting to 
Mrs. Herbert. •! think I know ona 
European fomaleinthis colony who merits 
a better opinkm : there hi the vrifo of 
Major Herbert, for bistance.' 

** • There is no rule vdtiioat an exoep* 
tlon, young gentleman,' returned He. 
« Mrs. Herbert is the exception to the 
rule. But what has her life been?-^ 
that which would have made any other 
heart but the mi^oi^s aobe. She has 
conquered all her miseries, because she 
has outlived tiiem ; but t^f upon it, in 
nine cases out of ten, my picture is cor- 
rect. European females are wholly un- 
fit fof this cursed country ; thebr seodlii^ 
Hties dwindle into aflbctation, their 
delicacy fe deadened and destroyed by 
the constant spectacle of men and women 
i^yp^irbig in a state bordering upon 
nudity, and the baneful effects of climate 
render them utterly .incapable of self- 
assistance, so that a husband is compelled 
to procure and maintain additional ser- 
vants solely for the purpose of waiting 
On his wife. The settlers found that out 
in time, and came over unmarried ; but 
as female society is desiraHe, and iff 
cases of sickness absolutely reouisite, the 
coloured women are resorted to, who 
undertake all the duties of a wife, but 
bearing only the title of housekeeper, for 
the negro taint is an insuperable bar to 
matrimony ; nor is the woman who thus 
superintends his fimuly arrangements 
allowed even to dt dovm in the presence 
of her master or his quests, and thei* 
children are involved m the same de- 
gradation. Should sickness come, the 
coloured woman is the kind, attentive 
imrse ; in household af&irs, she is the 
careful manager ; as superintendent of the 
Negroes, she is weU-acqnainted with 
theSr habits and their wants; and the 
white man has nothing to vfish for but 



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XHEMIBBOB. 



tiirt poGfh wlucli k gif'en Irf the aeqoire- 
mente of edacatua ; nor h tins it all 
titmeB wuied, for maaj &t the ookmved 
women ne fit sodety to the mtfenar 
ehu of ^^^ ladies. Now, as a 
natvral eooseqneDee of all this, a Tast 
deal ofofopertyin tins and other colo- 
nies wiudescaid to die coloured gene- 
ration; and whether thejr wHl continae 
snUects oi Great Britain or not, remains 
to he seen« One thing, howerer, to my 
riew, is certain—that they nerer wm 
consent to remain a sort of outcast race, 
as they are looked upon at present If 
they axe sent to Ei^land to be educatedy 
(and many of flie cokmredyoong men 
hare been entered at oar UmTemties,) 
they sate treated as gen^emen, and ad- 
nutted into the best society ; hot when 
they return to the West Incbes, tiiey also 
retnm to thdr formernosition cf eom- 
f^lscfy debm c m ent This is a stranan 
anomaly, yet'tis nererthdcas the fiust*^ 



fKiiaJUamni. 

A CUBIOUS CHARACTEB. 

" The next day, as I had just sat down 
to my 'sopa,* my hostess informed me 
that a man wished to speak to me. 
* Admit him,* said I, and he almost in- 
stimtly made his appearance. He was 
dressed respectahlj in the French fashion, 
md had rather a juvenile look, thoogh I 
sabseaaently learned that he was con- 
siderahlyaliove forty. He was somewhat 
above the middle stature, and might have 
been called well made, had it not been for 
his meagreness, which was rather re- 
markable. His arms were looff and bony, 
and his whole form conveyed an idea of 
great activity united with no slight de- 
gree of strength : his hair was wity, but 
of jetty blacloiess ; his forehead low; lus 
eyes small and grey, expressive of much 
subtlety and no less mauce, strangely re- 
lieved by a strong dash of humour; the 
nose was handsome, but the mouth was 
immensely wide, and his imder jaw pro- 
jected considerably. A more singular 
physiognomy I had never seen, and I 
continued staring at him for some time 
in silence. * Who are you ?' I at last de- 
manded. ' Domestic, in search of a mas- 
ter,* answered the man, in good French, 
but in a strange accent. * I come re- 
commended to vou, mi Lor, by Monmeur 
B'^^Myself. (n what nation may you 



be? Are yiNi Ftawh or flptOHk?— 
Mam. GodMidti^Isfaonldbeekher, 
nd Lor, f si rhoonevr d'Hre de la nation 
Crfeeqoe, my naase is Antonio Bodiinl, 
native of Pera the Bdfe, near to Con- 
stairthMple^Jfjve^. And what bfo^;fat 
yonto^ain? — BmMmL lfiLor,jevaiB 
Tons racontar mon tDstoirie dn oennnenee- 
ment jnsqulei : my fiitiber was a native 
di Scobm in Greece, firom whence, at an 
early age, he repaired to Pera, where he 
served as janitor in the botds of various 
amhassadon, by whom he was much res- 
pected for his fidelity. AmoDgst others 
of these gentlemen, he served him of 
jrour own nation: this occorred at the 
time that there was war between En- 
gland and the Porte. Monsieur the am* 
hassador had to escme for his life, leaving 
tiie greater part of his vahiabl^ to tiie 
care of my ather, who concealed tfaenx 
at his own great risk, and when the dis- 
pute was settled, restored them to Mon- 
sieur, even to the most inconaderaUc^ 
trinket I mention tins drcnmstance to 
shew Tou that I am <^ a fiunily which 
cherishes principles of honour, and in 
which confidence may be placed. My 
firiher married a dai^ter of Pa«, et 
moi je suis runique firuit de ce manage. 
Of my mother I know nothing, as m^ 
died shortly after my Inrth. Afimulyof 
wealthy Jews took pity on my fiwtorn 
amdition, and ofFered to bring me up, to 
which my fiither giadly consented ; and 
with them I continued several yearsj 
until I vras a heau gar^on; tb^ were 
very fond of m^, and at last offered to 
adopt me, and at their death to bequeath 
me all they had, on condition of my he- 
coming a Jew. But I am a Greek, am 
roud, and have principles of honour, 
quitted them, therefore, saying that if 
ever I allowed myself to be converted, it 
should be to the fidth of the Turks, for 
they are men, are proud, and have prin- 
ciples of honour like myself. I then re- 
tmmed to my fiither, who procured me 
various situations, none of which were to 
my diking, until I was placed in the 
house of M<>n8ieur Zea. — Myself. You 
mean, I suppose, Zea Bermud^ who 
chanced to be at Constantinople. * * I 
shall not follow the Greek step by step 
throu|fhout his history, which was rather 
lengthy : suffice it to say, that he was 
brought by Zea Bermudez from Con- 
stantinople to Sjpain, where he continued 
in his service for many years, and fh>m 
whose house he was expelled ior marry- 

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XSEMKBOB. 



45 



mg a Gk^^oaOoAn dto^V wlfo was fiUe 
dechambre to Madame Zea; since which 
time it Am>ea3red that he had served an 
infinii^ of masters ; sometimes as val^ 
sometimes as cook, but generally in the 
last cfipacity. He confessed, however, 
tiiat he bad seldom continued more than 
three davs in the same service, on account 
0^ the msputes which were sure to arise 
in the house almost immediately after 
his admission^ and for which he could 
assign no other reason than his being a 
Gr^k, and having principles of honour. 
Amongst other persons whom he had 
served was General Cordova, who he said 
was a bad paymaster, and was in the 
habit of m^treatlng his domestics. ' But 
he found his match in me,' said Antonio, 
'for I was prepared for him ; and once, 
when he drew his sword against me, I 
pulled out a pistol and pointed it in his 
fiace. He grew pale as death, and from 
that hour treated me with all kinds of 
condescension. It was only pretence, 
however, for the affair rankled in his 
mind; he had determined upon revenge, 
and on being appointed to the command 
of the army, he was particularly anxious 
that I should attend him to tne camp. 
Mais je lui ris au nez, made the sign of 
the cortamangar— asked for my wages, 
and left him ; and well it was that I did 
so, for. the very domestic whom he took 
with him he caused to be shot, on a 
ohai^ of mutiny.* 'I am afraid,* said 
I, * that you are of a turbulent disposition, 
and that the disputes to which you have 
alluded are solely to be attributed to the 
badness of your temper.* * What would 
you have, Monsieur ? Moi, je sms Grec ; 
je suis fier, et j*ai des princ^>e8 d*hoimeur. 
I expect to be treated with a certain con- 
mderatioQ, l^ough I confess that my tem- 

rr is none of uie best, and that at times 
am tempted to quarrel with the pots 
and pans m the kitchen. I think, upon 
1^ whole, that it will be for your advan- 
tage to engage me, and I promise you to 
be on my guard. There is one thmg 
that pleases me relating to you ; you are 
immarried. Now, I would rather serve 
a young unmarried man for love and 
fiiend^p than a Benedict for fifty dollars 
per montn. Madame is sure to hate me, 
and BO is her waiting woman ; and more 
particularly l^e latter, because I am a 
married man. I see that mi Lor is wil- 
ling to engage me.* * * I asked him his 
terms, whioh were extravagant, notwith- 
staad^ng h\sprincipes cThameur, I found, 



however, that he wa^ willing to taike one 
half. I had no sooner engaged him, thui 
seizing the tureen of soup, which had by 
this time become quite cold, he placed it 
on the top of his fore finger, or rather on 
the niul thereof causing it to make 
various circumvolutions over his head, to 
my great astonishment, without spilling 
a drop, then springing with it to the door, 
he vanished, and in another moment made 
his appcpance with the puchera, wMch, 
after a similar bound and flourish, he de- 
posited on the table ; then suffering his 
nands to sink before him, he put one 
over the other and stood at his ease with 
half-shut eyes, for all the world as if he 
had been in my service twenty years. 
And in this manner Antonio Buchini 
entered upon his duties.** — B^le in 
Spain, 

READERS OF THE UTDDLB CLASS 
IN GERMANY. 

NoTwiTHSTANBiKo the laige libraries to 
be found in the large cities and university 
towns of Grermany, and the lft)eialit^ with 
which they are opened to the pubhc use, 
vet in ower towrns the subscription li- 
oraries are generally very inferior to what 
we have now in our provinci^ towns, 4nd 
therefore the &cilities for substantial read- 
ing amongst the mass of citizens are less. 
Tms amongst ihe lesser tradesmen and 
mechanics am>lies with still greater force. 
The artisan has his library in most Eng- 
lish towns, and now makes great use of 
it. He reads and discusses every point 
of politics, and acquires thereby a vivacity 
and activity of mind very striking when 
compared with his peer in other coun- 
tries. Thus, in the burgher class in 
Germany, though we should perhaps find 
more wlio would read Schiller and Goethe 
than of the same class in England who 
would read Milton and Shakspeare, yet 
in the Englishman, with a less intel- 
lectuality of taste, a &r greater mass of 
political knowledge and vigorous adapt- 
ability of mind exists. A survey of the 
libraries from which the shopkeeping 
class in England and in Germany derive 
their respective books would shew a cu- 
rious contrast. The Englishman of this 
class has evinced a growing disposition to 
become a member of a subscription li- 
brary, even if it were only of the artisan's 
library. In either of these he reads more 
and more of travels, of history, of the 
best fictions, and works of a misce^eous 



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ohftMcter ; and he has «f late yeaift bought 
largely of the very cheao reprints of our 
standard authors, which have been so ex- 
tensively circulated. Here, the lower we 
go, the wider becomes the difference be- 
tween the spread of general information 
in the two countries. In both, the com- 
mon circulating lilnrary, to use a countnr 
phrase, is pretty much of a muchness. It 
abounds with the worst of trash ; but 
while to the lower class of tradesmen apd 
artisans in England the subscription li- 
braries furnish a hurge and rational re- 
source, in German towns the chrculating 
library is too much left to be the resource 
of the lower burgher and mechanic. And 
what a world of wild aud horpfic matter 
is that f With a thin pprinkling of the 
best authors, Schiller, Goethe, Bichter, 
Herder, &c., what bombastic and horror- 
breathing titles meet us on all sides I 
" The Waudering Spirit;" «* The En- 
chanted Dagger;" "The Blood-red Death- 
torch ;" " The Subterranean Blood-doom 
of Barcelona ;" ♦♦ Drahomeia, with the 
Serpent-ring, or Nightly Wanderings in 
the Dungeon of Horror, atKarlstein, near 
Prague r " T^e Ghostly Mother of the 
Rock of Gutenstem ;" '^The Flammen, 
ritter, or the Death-dance in the Wiener- 
wwd;" **The Prophetic Dream-shape;** 
'^ The Bandit from Honour, and Misan- 
thrope ;" >* Bauhenstein, or the Blood- 
bath in the Hellenen-Thal, near Baden," 
&c. kdj-^^HQwitCs Qermany^ 



MRS, CHALE^rOR, 
It ic only a few short weeks ago that we 
paid a g^entle tribute to a gentle mind, in 
noticing a little volume of poema by Mrs. 
Chalraor, whose amiable nature and feelf 
ings, as displayed in hev writings, inte«> 
tested us much. We lament to say that 
our pruse waa wasted on 

« the dull, cold ear of det^.'* 
She died on the Tuesday prGvioua to ou? 
Satunlaj publication (sec Lit Gaz.y No. 
1352, p. 85r0' Of Mrs. Chalenur we 
have learnt, that, being the Me^t ^\i\ of 
a large ftrnily, in humble, though res- 
pectable, life, she was principal I j em- 
ployed in the houiselinld wort, anfl nurs- 
ing the youn^T children. Her father 
taught her and them writing and mth- 
metic in the morrnng, before going to 
husinesii; and it vvus a check given to 
her copying somo Valentines, at sixteep 
years of ag^, which gave the first impulse 



toher dealfetowrltdoildiialTefBe. At 
the age of twenty-two she married, and 
had been ft>ur yean a widow when she 
died, Dec. IStb, at the age of tklrty- 
seven, leaving three orphan ohil^pen to 
deplore the loss of a mother, who, under 
more kindly and fostering oiroumstanoea, 
might have shone in a brighter sphnm. 
The annexed lines, written in the excea^ 
alve sufibring of a death-bad, not ttiMe 
weeks frooi the end of all on earth (Nov. 
25th), are to us deeply affecting, at net 
only shewing how strong the ruMng paa^ 
sion must have been, but how noble and 
sanctifying its direction : 

Ob, God Almighty! teach my mind 
To meet thy vfuheB, nU resiraV], 

And let no munniirinff ngli 
RebeUious rise against £y will t 
T§ftch me to )i)eav affliction 8til]| 

Qr teach me how to diet 

Hpiv many a Ikir and lovely tiling 
Dwells on this earth to whiah we ding, 

And binds our mortal part ; 
Friends whom we l<yvf^— -nones that we prize» 
^ndear'd by sweet and liinared ties, 

That twme around the heart ! 

Yet still the flowers that bloom so Adr 
In this bright world are touch'd by m^t 

That we may look above. 
And strive by nope and faith to gala 
A respite from our earthly pain, 

Bei^eath thy shelterhig love. 

Nov, 2$, 1842. MAar CHAtairoE. 

Well might we write a homil^y on this 
theme^^the poetry, the aapiyations, th^ 
yearnings, the elevated sentiments, t]^ 
Mth, and tho hopoy of a lowly sIm^ 
keeper. But we will leave refle<^ona to 
those who fe^l ; and conclude by a stanaa 
added to the above (Dec. 27th), by Sarah 
Bead», the sister of the deoeaaed, which 
ahews that litMfature and poe^ is a ia** 
mily inheritanoa : 

Mute are the lips that breathed thai prayer ; - 
The spirit, freed from grief and eai% 

Has lirand eternal rpst ; 
The Power which gave that being life 
]^eca)s it from this world qf stfiff 

To regions of the blest 

LHerqry GazeUe* 



EFFECTS OF DBESS. 

This morning, at thq usual brealdh^ 
hour, I left the " vestry** for the house. 
On the wajr thither 1 was met by the 
major-domo, who, J observed, was very 
polite indeed — ^unusually so. He took 
piy hand and led me into the dwelling, 
wnere the best hammock was opened for 



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my rt<mBon. I sal; down ftnd took a 
swing. Presently the kdf of the numsion, 
who had iMfrived ♦* by ooach** the previous 
evening, made her appemnuiee, droppinff 
me one of hex sweetest oourtesleB, and 
passed out at another door. The children 
al} followed in slowpA>eesslon, giving me 
a similai* sabitMion, until, eventually, I 
was left alone in silent astonishment. 
During this oeremony the Indians were 
peej^g in at the doors, apparently 
awaiting their turn ; and, sure enough, it 
came. They am>roaehed in single file, 
to the number or some thirty, and, as they 
marehed past, partially knelt, and made 
all sorts of ol4isanoes» which were ac- 
knowledged with as much form as my 
inexperienced ^preatness could command. 
I was lost in amazement. I began to 
purvey the room in search of a mirror, to 
see wnat change had ti^en place in my 
perscm ; and the £eict stared me in the 
race. It was my black suit that I had 
imt on in the ipoming, (not being on ^si** 
tigfue duty to-day,) that had given this 
mt impression of my importaneer^ 
having heretofore only appeared in my 
workmg guise before them. In my 
fbture rambles. I shall bene^t by my ex- 
perience in this little affair; and would 
recommend it to the careful consideration 
of all who may hereaiter travel in these 
parts. Alter breakfast I stepped aside, 
and examined the coat m(»re particularly, 
to ascertam ^ow long its newly discovered 
virtues might b^ expected to ^bide with 
it. I was delighted to find that it would 
orob^ibly supply me with all the di^ty 
X should require during my residence in 
the country. — Ngrfti^n f Kcfv^bl^s in Yii-- 
catan. 



A HINT TO GARDEN OWNERS. 

So long as the fhiit is green, it pos- 
sesses to a certain extent the physiological 
action of a leaf, and decomposes carbonic 
acid under the influence of light ; but as 
soon as it begins to ripen, this action 
ceases, and the fruit is wholly nourished 
by the sap elaborated by the leaves, 
l^us the mdt has, in common with the 
leaves, the power of elaborating sap, and 
alfiK) the power of attracting sap from 
the surrounding parts. Hence we see, 
that where a number of fruits are growing 
together, one or moire of them attract the 
sap or nutriment from all the rest, which 
in consequence drop off. As the food of 
the fruit is prepared by the leaves under 



the infhieiiae of solav light, it fotlows that 
the excellence of the fruit will depend 
chiefly on the excellmoe of the leaves ; 
and that if the latter are not sufficiently 
developed, or not duly exposed to the ao^ 
tion of the sun's rays, or placed at too 
great a distance from the fruit, the lattef 
will be diminutive in size, and imperfectly 
ripened, or may drop off befpre attaining 
maturity. Hence the inferiority of fruits 
which grow on naked branches, oy eveu 
on branches where there Is not a leaf close 
to the fruit ; as in the c»se of a, bunch of 
grapes, where the leaf immediately above 
it has heen cut off, or in that of st, goose- 
berry, where the leaf immediately above 
it has been eftten by a caterpillar, Hence 
it is evident, tha-t the secretions formed by 
the fruit are principally derived from the 
mfttter ela,borated in the leaf or le^vep 
next to it; and ^ the sap of sU the 
leaves is mor§ or less abundwit, lujcoyding 
to the supply received from the roots, the 
excellence oi fruits depends ultimately on 
the condition of the roots, and the con- 
dition, position, and exposition of the 
leaves. — LovdorC^ Suburban Horiicul^-' 
rist. 

C^i 0At|ftm 

Une Nuit de Fite, as danced ei Vaim* 
Aa2?.-m-Mrst lady and gentleman enter 
supper box. — Seccmd lady and gentleman 
advance and join them.-^- Waiter advances 
and retires.^---The two couple set to at the 
cold ham.— ^Round of Punch.— *Pirst gen- 
tleman pousaettes with the waiter, and 
then r^res altoge^r.t^Two ladles 0et 
alanned, and dance off. — Second gentie- 
man has to pay.-rr^Right and left between 
the wfdter and secondgaitleman.— ^-Beeond 
gentl^nan performs cavalier eetd in La 
JVisloro^, m Battersea fields, forgoing 
his way home. 

Poverty, — Poverly is ^ gre?.t evil in 
any state of life ; but pover^ is never 
felt so severely as by those who have, to 
use a. common ghrase, " seen better days." 
The poverty oi the poor is misery, but it 
is endurable misery : it can bear the 
sight of men. The poverty of the whilom 
affluent is unendurable : it avoids the light 
of day, and shuns the sympathy of those 
who would relieve it ; it preys upon the 
heart, ^d corrodes the mind ; it screws 
up every nerve to such an extremity of 
tension, that one cool look, the averted 
eye ey^n of a casual acquaintance known 
in prosperity, sim^s the->chord at once, 

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TBEMmmm 



aii4 Wv^t^ sda-deBfrnffA object (^ it a 
meite wr&ck of a man. If he is not a 
maaiac, or does not commit solcide, it ib 
owing to *^ the faith that is in Inm.**-— 
CoU^eLife. 

Pumeers, — ^Their peooliarity of tast^ 
has done much to expedite the rapid set- 
tlement of the wilds. They purchase a 
lot or two of " government lands ;" huild 
a log house^ fence a dozen acres or so, 
plough half of them, girdle the trees, and 
then sell put to a new comer,T-one whose 
less resolute spirit has perhi^ quailed a 
little hefore {be difficulties of the un- 
touched forest. The pioneer is then 
ready for a new purchase, ^ new clearing, 
and a new sale. How his wife and chu- 
Jren tryoy them solves meaiisvliile is mat- 
ter of httJe doubt : but this is a trifle for; 
the pre^nt ; the future — the bright, fSsur- 
nhead, vague, wo%rri future,— is to make 
up tot all. Thti eager adventurer, un- 
seated by difficulty, uu discouraged by 
di^pptantinentT fitill *' chases airy good, 
conteoting liioiself with mere existence 
mi atiemkiid^ forgetting that only to-day 
h his own* — Forest Life. 

" Old Mor{aUty.^---'TiiQ onl^r occupa- 
tion of the^old man was 'v^andering about 
the country, repairmg the tomb-stones of 
the Cbvenanters, travelling from ^one 
church-yard to another, mounted on his 
old white pony, till he was found dead 
one day by the road side. His ^Eunily: 
iexperienced a singular variety of fortune. 
One of his sons went to .^neiica, and 
setU^ at BaUimore,' where he nuide a 
)aige fortune. He had a son who mar- 
ried an American lady, and the latter 
putrHving her husband, became Mar- 
j^ifl^Mfes of W^Hesleyl His daughter 
was «i^a^ed to Jeqrome Bcmaparte, and 
after her. s^paratiDfi frcxm lun^, wedded 
Monsieur ^rruier, the French Consul 
at Baltimore. ^Whatwoidd Old Mor- 
tality have said, as he .pored among the. 
neglected grave-stones in Scotland, had 
he foreseen that the widow of his grand- 
son was to become an English Mar- 
chioness, sister-in-law to the Duke of 
Wellington, and his gvand-daughter 
Queen of Wes^halia and sister-in-law 
of Napoleon ! — Inverness Courier. 

Origm of the Black DcU,^A Sign at 
Rag-shops. — ^This sign originated with a 
person who kept a shop for toys and rags 
in Norton Folgate, about eighty years 
ago. An old woman brought hun a 



large bittMtte fo sale, but desired it imgl^ 
remain unopened till she caUed again to 
see it wei^^ied. Several weeks elapsed 
without . her appearing, wbiofa induced 
the master of Hie shop to open & bundle^ 
when he found a black doU, neatly 
dressed, with a pair of gold earrings ap- 
pended. This he hung tqi over the door, 
for the purpose of beuig oWned by Hie 
woiaan who left it Portly after tUs, 
she called, and piesentod the doll to the 
shopkeeper, as a mark of gratitude ioft 
his havmg by this means enabled- her 
to find out h» bundle. : The story having 
gained circulation, tins figure has been 
^orally used by aealers in rags ever 
since. 

TVcni o&ott^ V /otr /)&]y.-' At Walt(Mi, 
near Chesterfield, the other day, as a 
fiirmer was in the act of devouring an 
apple-pudding, made by. the ser^uit-. 
maid, he suddenly discovered that he had 
something in his mouth more difficult of 
mastication than boiled apple: it turned 
out to be the head c^a moose, which had 
been boiled with the pudding. The girl, 
fi>r. her nuschievdus propensities, was 
chastised with the end of a rope. - Ontiue 
ibIlDwing day, the master went to his 
dinncar, as usuad, and asked what she hadr 
cooked? She told him^^to k)ok in tiie 
pot**' He did so, and 8awDoilSi»g'b6t 
the n»ie*s end! /Vl'had it for cQanetf 
Yesterday,'** said the girl,' ^V and ]t*s only 
mir you should have it to-day.** 

A ^^fortunately simple process*^ — Tp 
destroy worms is fortunately a very sim- 
^e process; for such is the tenderness of 
theur skin, that watering them with any 
caustic or bitter liquid deprives the;m.<^ 
life in a few minutes. The cheapest 
caustic liquid is lime-water; which is 
made by dissolving quicklime, at the rate 
of half a pound of lime to twelve pints 
of water, and letting it staad a few mi- 
nutes to dear. Befc«e pouring it on the 
soil firom a watering-pot with a rose on, 
the Worm-casts ought to be removed ; 
and the effects of the water wiUsoon be« 
come obvious, by the worms rising to the 
swrface, writing about there, and in a 
few minutes dyii^. To hapten their 
death, seme more lune-water should be 
poured on them af^r they come to the. 
surface.' 

LdW&ovt PuMUhtd bp CVNNnfGBAM and 
JUORTmEM, AdeUMe Street, Trafalgar Squmret 
and sold hjf all Booktellen and NewBmen, 

, T.C.8iivm.Plrittt«r,]07,St.MMftbi*sLMie. 

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OF 



LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND mSTRUCTION. 

(PRJO« TWQPEKCS.) 



No. 4.] 



SATUBt>AY. JANUARY 28. 1843. [Vol. L 



1843. 




^ii(pu<il Comuitiiiuattan^. 



rE:trBROK£ castle, PEMBROKKSrnRE. 



1 



WalePj the 
, truo *•- laTul 
; of the moun- 
tain ftud the fl<xvi;' tlu' very S^vitzerlmid 
uf Great BritaiJi^ al>ouiids witli so man^ 
pictOTesquo strongholila, tliat thti artist ia 
n^nyif oewilddAnl with the number of 
stj^iects that xival each other in wild and 
nkmantic heauty, so many spots rich in 
fabtoricBl and traditionary lore claiming 
tile illustration of his ma|^ pencil. Chief 
ahumgst these castellated competitors for 
notice appears the present ohject of our 
sketch — Pemhroke Castle, "which has con- 
tinued, ahove seven hundred years, to in- 
spire veneratbn and wonder m the heatts 
of every spectator. Besides heing the 

VOL. XLI. 



finest iji the priocipnlitY, as well on ac- 
count of its gijyfuntiii ii^o iia from the 
durability <jf the rnnteriflls of ulilch it is 
composed, tfie mtfiless hwid of time has 
pi-e.sttrvtnV from the latter circumstance, 
many parts in almost their primitive con- 
dition ; and tlius^, whilst it redoubles the 
interest felt in visiting the castle, it 
lessens the feeling of danger that invo- 
luntarily comes over the mind when 
standing within the crumbling boundaries 
of a feudal fortress. 

The most considerable of these remains 
is a conical tower, of a circular form, and 
of the most remarkable dimensicms ; but 
neither this nor the gateway is visible 
from the river, whence tJ4s view has been 

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THE MIRBOB. 



taken. The chief featiireslvBfedeIin«tf4e4 
are the chapel, and the natural cavern 
beneath the same, which stands formid- 
ably out in the foreground as an object 
that rivets the attention of the traveller 
by the apparent air of mystery that hangs 
around the precincts. 

The precise date of the castle's ereefion 
is not Known, but it was evidently a 
Norman edifice ; and old Lambarde, the 
historian, says, 'Hhatte when EyngeJohn 
didde make his expedition into Irelande, 
and didde compelle them to putt on there 
the English yoke, he didde prepare vastly 
for his travaile at the lustie castle of 
Pembroke.** From this passage we may 
conclude that it was built about the time 
of Henry I. Much occurs In history re- 
specting this castle in succeeding ages, 
among which, as not the least important, 
we may notice the birth of the jBarl of 
Eichmond, afterwards King Hcinry YII., 
who was, as the writers of the time ob- 
serve, the stalwart leader of the great 
strife that arose upon the question whether 
of the two roses, the red or the white, 
should have the uj^rmoat place in the 
garland. 

Pembroke Castle is inagnificent even 
in its present dilapidated state. It occu- 
pies an elevated position on a rocky poiiit 
of land at the west end of the town, 
where its walls and towers rise maje«» 
tically from the shores of the two bnmohes 
into which the creek li divided by the 
promontory. The view of the cafltfe, as 
seen from the water, is inexpressibly 
grand, and is not surpassed by any other 
in the kingdom. Leland thus describes 
the edifice as it existed in the turbulent 
reign of "bluff Kine Hal." The ♦* castel," 
he says, " standith harde bye the waul on 
a harde rokke, and is exceeding large and 
strong, being double warded. Jji the 
outer warde I saw the chaumbre where 
Kynge Henry YH. was bom, in know- 
ledge whereof a chymnev is now made 
with the armes and badges of Kynge 
Henry the VIl. In the botom of the 
greate stronge ronde tower in the inner 
ward is a marvelous vault, called the 
Hogan. The toppe of this round tower 
is gathered with a roof of stone almost in 
common, the top whereof is koverid with 
a flat millestone." This building must 
then have contained some elegant apart- 
ments, for their remains are plainly visible 
even now. There is on the north of this 
tower a long range of apartments which 
seem of more recent erection, or to have 



Ima uMdemizad by the later owners of 
the plaoe. A staircase leading from this 
|»art of the castle communicates with 
"the marvelous vault called the Hogan,** 
of which Lehmd speftks. Thia is a lai^ 
cavern in the rock opening upon me 
water, and extending a great way under 
tiie buiTdOngs. Its lengtib is computed at 
about seventy-seven feet, and the width* 
is about fiftv-seven feet, the roefbeing at 
the same tune very lofty, partinnkrly 
about the centre. A large decHrway has 
been made by having the entrance nearly 
wdled up, but it hmi scarcely altered its 
external appearance. The name of this 
cavern has elicited much conjecture. It 
is commonly called the Wogan ; tbut the 
word Hogan, as will appear from the 
above, was likewise common. It is, 
doubtless, a corruption of the word c^oti, 
which, in the old Jnitish dialect, signified 
a cave. The uses of this great cave or 
vault are not known, though it is said 
once to have had a spring which supplied 
the garrison with water; since then it 
appears to have been c^efiy employed as 
a military storehouse. 

Pembroke Castle was a place of great 
strength in ninient times \ indeed, so late 
as the seveitteenth century we find it 
holding out bravely apimt the forces of 
the parliament Major- General Long- 
hame, on hia first defection from the 
parliament J had^ in conjunotion with 
Colonels 1^0 well and Pojer^ seizijd on this 
fortress, and made it their head (Hij^rters, 
and the reDdeivous fpr the aAseuiljlij:ig of 
his partisans. Here, after Us overthrew 
at the battle of the Faganp, he retired 
with his Mends, but WM qukkly fi^wed 
by Cromwell, who, on w 91at of Majr, 
1648, arrived under the wells, axid oom- 
menced his operations for the reduetipn 
of the place. jN^otwithstaading, howem, 
the vigour with which he prosecuted ihe 
siege, the garrison, though reduced to 
great extremities for want of food, de- 
fended themselves with great firmness, 
till Cromwell found means to cut off their 
supply of water. All further resistance 
appearing useless, they surrendered at 
discretion. Langhame, Powell, and Poyel^ 
were afterwards tried for high treason, 
and found guilty, when sentence of death 
had been passed upon them. Cromwell con- 
sented that only one should be executed, 
and sent orders that they should themselves 
determine by lot which of them should 
die. The fatal paper was left blank ; on 
the other two was written " life by Gid." 



Digiti 



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a 




1^ mm mm immi J^j^tim, con- UkimiMit.'* 

^mmJlBfy ta an 9gt^emmt betw^eo the rounded the 

parkMmen, aod the lot fell on foyer, who Sahitation o; ^ . 

im i^ ia Coveftt Garden, m the 25th endowinar it with sereral UbenOffrints 

oiAprd, U49, m th« presence <tf » FMt of land m the neighbourhood. It con- 

iBob,wbohadiiisemb)edonthe8Ueof the «i»ted of twenty.&nr monlu, of whom 

pMMdt market to witneit such in extr»- John Lu»tote was the first prior, tnd de- 

OTtoajy ewofttiwi* It has he^a stated ni^edltsMmeaftheChartwaxSiomthe 

thaii from ft peeulNrlj-^mned table of Carthusian order of monks havinir been 

Mdei»t maou^ure stU} exhiUted here, origmallj established at Chartieuz, 



the dlatingwishing titl« of 
htm hem mm to all sui^i 



Peml^ke** 
gi^tfi to au 6ui?b articles of 
ic lumiture that haye been made 
since in a similar manner; bntthisisan 
Mseertion which we do not j^edge our- 
Mlree is to be relied upon. £»X«B. 



THE RELICS OP LONDON. 

HQ, VU.— THB CHAI^TBBUX. 

It has been remarked that London, up 
to the period of the Beformation, con* 
tained a larger number of reli^ous 



France. In 1372, the founds died, and 
was buried in the chapel <tf the mo- 
nastery. The house continued in pos- 
session of the monks until the g^eral 
oppression of such establishments hw 
Henry VIII., who persecuted with un- 
ceawng and peculiar cruelty thk HtiJe 
band of recluses. The prior Houghton 
was, in 1636, executed at Tyburn, and a 
quarter of his body placed over the g^ 
of the monastenr, wmle tiie monks wer» 
confined in ceUs within the cblsters. 
where many of them perished from c<^ 



bouses and conventual establishments and hunger"; and the remaining &w"ab^ 
^an any other city in ^ emigre, la^e juring their religion, this ^nuHis priory 
Black, the Greyv wd the Whit^Friars was suppressed, after an existence of 
—the Knights Templars and the Knights searcely two c^turies, the value at the 
of St. John— monks of every order and time of the suppression being estimated 
of ©wry denominaticm, Dommicans, Be^ at Q4SU. Os, 4Jrf. In 1542, the housa 
nedietiBes, and CarUuttlanso^^^mmiks <rf was converted into a repository for the 
the Cross and monks of the sword--«U king's hunting araaratus— *the same pur- 
had ^bdt *^ horaitals*' in London. But poses for which Si John*s gate was sub* 
the rigour with which Henry Vm. sequwitjy used,— and occujaed by John 
in^pressed the monasteries and religious Brydges, yeoman, and Thomas Ball, groom 
booses thspQ^hout &e country not only of the Idng's holes and tents. Sir Ed* 
4MHi8ed the dissolution of these commum* ward North obtamed the house by a 
tiflsv bat g^amaMy, also, the demolition of grant of the king, dated in 1545, and 
iMt hovMes. iSoit a vestiffe was to be here entertained Queen Elizabeth for t 
^paaPBd*<-not a stone to stand-— not a trace considerable time ; and after he had re- 
to be^ left ; and it is to some ov^fught ceived tiie title of Lord North, he was 
oi^ ikaJt we are indebted fijr the pre« again honoured with a risit from the 
aervatlon of those few relics of Long's queen, who, in 1561, spent four davs at 
BSooastffiPbs which still remain. The the mansi(Hi. The next tenant was his 
meet eonsideraUe of these relics are son, the second L(»*d North, who sdd 
tiiose ^ the Chartreux, a monastery of the property, in 1565, to Gliomas, fourth 
^ ■ " """'j of Nor" - - 



Oarthusiaii monks, situated to 1^ left of Duke of Norfolk, for the sum oi 2500^. 
St. Jdm*s-street, Olerkenweli, and now But scarcely had the scheming duke re* 
^....i^.^* ^u^A Au« nu-^^_TT^«-^ stOTed and enlaiTg^ed the builcfing, before 



eoprmpdj called the Charter^House 

The Chartreux was founded in the 
year 1881 by Sir Walter Manny, the 
▼aliaat knight whose achievements are 
so fiilly recorded by Froissart. The site 
had previously been consecrated as a 
cemetery, in which the victims of the 
j^agne of 1848 were interred ; and ^ in 
coittideration,** says Stowe, ^* of tiie num- 
ber of Christian peo]^e here buried,** 
(** above <me hundred thousand,'* he af- 
terwards adds,) ^* it was considered an 
appropriate situation for a religious estt^ 



his chmdestine correspondence and medi« 
iaAed union vrith Mary Queen of Scots, 
were discovered ; and he was, in 1569, 
committed to the Tower, from whence 
he was suffered to return home in the 
custody of Sir Henry Nevil, on the 
pkgue breaking out in the eastern 
quarter of the town. But being detected 
in a fresh correspondence vrith the Queen 
of Scots, he was, in 1572, executed on 
Tower Hill, and lus estates, and among 
them the Chartreux, or, as it was then 



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52 



THE MIRROR. 



calle<f, Howard House, forfeited to the 
crown. Shc«ily ftfter his death, how- 
ever, Hoe queen rest(»red the mansion to 
hifl fourth son^ Thomas, Lord Howard, 
in whose possession it remained -for up- 
wards o£ thirty years. In 1603, James 
I. held Ins court nere for four days, when 
thepropriet(»r received the title of Earl 
of SuffoUc, and upwards of eighty gentle- 
men were knighted. Eight years after 
this, and on the 9th of May, 1611, the 
«arl sold the Charter-House for 18,000^. 
to 6ir Thomas Suttcm, a wealtl^ mer- 
chant, who removed tliither the school 
and hosniUl which he had founded at 
Hallingbury, in Essex, two years hefiire ; 
wpointing the Rev. John Huttcm, vicar 
of Little bury, in the same county, the 
first master of his new institution. But 
the charter of incorporation was scarcely 
obtained, and the c^blishment was not 
yet completed, when Sir Thomas died, 
on the 12th of December, 161 L In the 
seccmd year after his death, the hospital 
was opened ; and, in 1616, the remains 
of the benevolent founder, which had 
been deposited in Christchurch, were 
buried in a vault within the chapel, and 
an elaborate and costly monument erected 
to his memory. 

• The most interesting portion of the 
Charter- House is the Evidence-room, on 
the northern side of the pile, in which 
lire deposited the records of the founda- 
tion, and with them the original charter 
of Sir Walter Manny. This room is 
carefully preserved, no person being al- 
lowed access to it but in the presence of 
the master, the receiver, and the terns* 
trar. The celling, according to Mr. 
Malcolm's descripti(m, is magnificently 
ribbed, and in the centre is a stone on 
which is carved a large rose, enclosing 
the initials, ** J.H.S. (Jesus hominum 
Salvator), Opposite to the chapel, a 
dhort passage leads into the cloisters 
(still so called), in the back wall of 
which one or two of llie ancient en- 
trances to the cells are vet remaining. 
Several remidns of the original wall may 
be seen near the refectory ; and the tur- 
ret of the chapel is supported by a strong 
buttress, which, with the firagment of 
a tower, still standing at the basement, 
is evidently a portion of the ancient mo- 
nastery. All the other apartments and 
buildings are of comparatively modem 
erection, having been added either during 
its occupation as a private mansion, or 
since its U3e as a public sohod. . 



The Charter-House baia now reteHed 
to purposes very similar to tinae fi« 
which it was ori^nally fouiided ; and aa 
we see- the aged pensioners atrdlfaig 
about the grounds attaehed to the hoapi^ 
tal, l^y remind us forcibly of the daya 
when, five centuries agoj the fi>ar-ai^- 
twen^ devotees rvthred from the wi«ld, 
and dispensed from those Venerable wia&s 
charity and comfort to their ib^yw- 
creatures. The same substantiBl iood ia 
cocked in the refectory foat difltribati0ii 
among the po(M*; and we ean acatfedy 
su^ress a wi^ that thd officer who now 
presid(M over the institution as master 
might esehange his title for that of pviov^ 
and thus the Charter-House hospital of 
the present day be rendered as amilar in 
its constitution, as it is in many of its 
purposes, to the Chartreux hospital of the 
fourteenth c^tury* 

Aua.0 Ahmuiws. 



RAILWAY NIGHT THOUGHTS. 

WB **rLT BY night;" OB A JOtEKBT 
TO BIBMINGHAM FEB MAIL TBAHT. 

EusTON Station. — ^It is now too late to 
draw contrasts between the old and new 
modes of travelling. The sulject has 
been exhausted in all its Protean forma. 
We have exchanged the patter of the 
horses' feet for the clatter of the traia, 
therefore let us look at things as they 
are, and not as they were. You find 
Jirst'dass clerks in pea-coats, who eare 
not a rtuh for the rush ofpaMeDgers, or 
where ihej are going. Their busineaa 
is solely to take money and delivar the 
check which is to accekrate your pro- 
gress. The first proof you meet with oi 
ue march of intellect is a din^y of 
evening p^>ers— the " Sun,*' the *' Globe," 
the former enlightening you whilst paaa- 
ing over the \Mer, Next, the pknorm 
and the promenade, where " those even- 
ing beUes" are heard in such swe^ con? 
verse with their partners, until another 
6«ff interferes to order (^ the train ; and 
lo! in how short a time doea Loi^don'a 
splashy streets, its fi>g8, its bnlliant 
{Mirties, theatres, and Uoms^ all recede^ 
^^ and leave not a rack bdiind.*' 

We are now <m our journey — look 
out, and what do you see? ifothintgt 
Look around the carriage, and what do 
you see ? Three or four sleeping part'^ 
ners ! What is to be done ? Take your 
pencil, and sketch. 



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THE MIRROE. 



58 



The 4K$eiie is now Watford, Fleasaht ^ 
remmiscencea arise of a sc^onm there 
last summer; l>ttt one might as well, 
DOW, be a thoiisand miles firmn the nden- 
did parks of Essex, Clarendon, or West* 
minster — all are in the shade. The 
letter-bags are exchanged for a hogihead 
or two oi water, and we proceed to the 
Tunnd. 

WoiLvsETOH.— This is the half-way 
house ; and here the attendants, instead of 
giving a stanza froiA the cmeniag duet in 
" Rwl and Virginia"—" Do not delay" 
—tell you that ten minutes* delojf is 
allowed; and then what a general arous- 
ing of slumbermg souls iSke& i^e to- 
wards a temp<^arT* refectory, where 
you can obtain— -what does the reader 
think? — hat elder wine out of a tea* 
ketde and Banbury cakes. To be sure, 
the aoooimnodftions are temporary, but 
the Birminghun Railway, with its six 
millions sterling of capital, might allow 
its jMssengers to treat themselves, after 
a nde of between jfifty and sixty miles, 
with jsomething better than trash, only 
fit for children. The subject induces a 
peevish feeling, which, it not being the 
o^ect of this sketch to exhibit as we 
][Hroceed, cares not to " Arise as in the 
elder time, warm.**| 

It occupies about six minutes to pass 
through the famous Kilsby Tunnel, two 
miles in length, which has cost upwards 
of W>,OOOZ. ; but where and what is the 
ttumel? An increased clatter of the 
wheels of the engine and carriages tells 
you that the sound is more reverberated 
than it was just before ; and if vou look 
out, you see the bricks of wliich the 
tunnel is built ruled into lines and 
become a moving panorama. How 
many thousands of muscles of men and 
horses have been from daylight to even- 
ing, for many dreary months, set in mo- 
tion, to bore this immense tube out of the 
solid earth ! and how has the tT^^uity 
of engineers been taxed to accomj^h the 
Work by the shortest ^K>ssible cut ! Why, 
the vaunted " gallenes" of Napoleon on 
the Simploft are fools to it, albeit iVop. 
was no sleepy personage. 

KiLSBT Station. -^ " Passengers for 
Northamj^n, Leicester, Nottingham !" 

• * It it bat instKe to obflerve that this aketeh 
WM writtan before the prMent «' refre^ment 
hdcou*' were biult. and that the accoiiimodatioiui 
at WolTerton, dtbiiiigh satouring strongly of 
tnooopoly in some respects, are» as a Frendimaa 
WonM Mf, negatirelx, ** pot bad.** 



cries the guard of a coach. ^* How 
many have youF"* inquires some in- 
terested party. — *^ Six outsides and one 
in."— "Now, air, this wayl"—" Where's 
my l^igg«ge ?*' — " All safe, sir,— up the 
steps to the right I*'—" Where's your 
bill?— any parcels?"— " Precious cold 
night !"— "But we can have a cigar immc." 
Away they go once more — ^the " six out 
and one in"^— by the " Commercial" to 
the midland cotmties, congratolalang 
themselves on having escaped from the 
train. 

RuGBT, 2 A.M. — ^The schoolmaster, no 
doubt, asleep (even if abroad)^ and all 
the scholars lumpy* The head master 
has laid his head upon the pillow, and is, 
perhaps, dreaming of giving the rod to 
some refractory tail. Gruess what you 
see of Rugby — green fields. 
** 'Tis as the general pnlse of life stood still.'* 

CovBNTET. — Arrived here without 
being sent. The abode of ribbon-men 
and peeping Tom. To Birmingham 
eighteen mues. Just begin to find out 
that we have exercised ourselves with 
mundane affairs long enough ; and whilst 
thinking what sort of a bed we shall get 
at the end of our journey, a sudden burst 
of light announces the arrival at the 
Binmngham station, and eighteen miles 
have been passed over before you could 
say " God bless us !" Again, in the 
busy world at midnight, coachmen, cads, 
omnibuses, and even horses^ once more 
appear upon the scene, dragged out of 
their warm stables to wait tor a train 
which in this case was fully an hour 
beyond its time ; and it would be well to 
understand why seven hours should be 
necessary to travel 112 miles — only six' 
teen miles an hour ! But, to be sure, ten 
minutes* " delay" was allowed on the 
road to drink elder wine out of a tea-kettle, 
Mercatoh. 

, ILtterature. 

Rutland Papers, Original Docmnenis 

iUustraixve of the Courts and Times of 

Henry VIL and Henry VIIL, selected 

from the private archives of his Grace 

the Duke of RuOand^&'c, ^c, A-c. By 

WiUian^ Jordan, F.SA., M.R.S.L., 

Oorresponding Member of the Real 

Academia de la Historia of Spain, &c. 

Thbse documents, recently published by 

the Camden Society, have been edited by 

Mr. Jerdan, assisted by Mr. J. Bruce and 

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54 



THE MIBBOB. 



Mr. T.Wright It is a coHeotion of great 
interest^ and the editor has well perlbrmed 
his task hy directing attention to many 
of the items, which are most worthy of 
notice. Wishing to give our readers a 
cuiioiis moreeau, we abstain ftom lenfftii- 
ened commentary, and select, as that which 
is most likely to gratify the curiosity of 
the London -worlds tiie ** Rememhrauncet 
for my Lorde Mayre of London,** in 15d2y 
on w occasion of the Emperor Charles 
the Fifth paying a state visit to Hemry 
the Eighth. It will amuse our readers to 
find not only that the fare of the foreign 
^ests was different from that which £e 
Emperor of Germany would find if he 
came to England in 1843, hut the localities 
in which he and his great lords would be 
lodged are ooi^deiablv removed firom 
those which received their courtly an- 
oestmrs. In those davs the Cockney, who 
glories in the name ofLondon, will see that 
Paternoster-row, Ivy-lane, and Warwick- 
lane, were something, before the upstarts 
Begent-street, Pall-mall, and Piccadilly, 
were built or thought of. " My Lorae 
Mavre," in the paper we have mentioned, 
is duly remembered. 

*• Fyrst to assign iiy bakers within the 
citie of London to serue the noblemen 
belongyng to themperor that be lodged 
in the chanons bowses Df Paules and wer 
aboutes, and oder places within the Citie. 

"Item, to assign the Kynges wax 
chaundeler to serue them of torches, 
quaryers, prelettes, and sisus. 

"Item, to assign a tallowe chaundeler 
for white lightes. 

"Item, to assign iiy bochers for ser- 
uyng of oxen, shepe, calves, hogges of 
gresse, fleches of bacon, maryboaes, and 
such oder as shalbe ctdled for. 

"Item, to assigne ij fysshemoungers 
for prouision of lynges to be redy waterd, 
pykes, tenches, bremes, caluer salmon, 
and such oder deyntes of the Iresshe 
water. 

"Item, toappouynt ij fyshemoungers 
for prouision of see fysshe. 

" Item, to appouynt iiw pulters to serue 
for the sdd persons of all maner pultiy. 

" Item, to prouide into euery lodegyng 
woode, coole, russhes, strawe, and suche 
oder necessaries. 

" Item, yt ^s requyset that there may 
be alwayes y carpenters in aredynes ta 
fumysshe euery place with suche tiyngea 
as shalbe thought good, as cupbords, 
formes, hordes, trestles, bedestedes, with 
oder necessaries wher lak shalbe. 



- " Item, to see euery lodw^yng fur- 
nesshed witii pewter dysdies [and] sau- 
cers as shalbe thought sufficient. 

^ Item, to tonytoie enory how8« w^ 
all maner kechyn stuf, yf there be anny 
lake of mch lyke within anny^ the 
said houses, asbrochea of dynerteswort^ 
potts and pann^ ladlea, itonera, aryd- 
yrons. with suche od^ stuf as tioBXhe 
named by the officers of to sud noUe- 
men. 

" Item, amK)uyiit iS men to aeroe tor 
an maner of sawces m eury ledegyng* 

" Item, to appouynt ij taflowc chaun- 
delers to serue for all maner of sawcaa.* 

" Item, to wame evry caier of the house 
to putt all thier stuf of hooseholde in 
euery office agaynest there oommyng, to 
be in aredynes. 

"Item, the Kynges grocers to be i^ 
pouynted to serue for all manef of 
spices. 

Jiioiher^ txnd Damhters: a Conuify. By 
Bobert Bdl, Esq., autiwr of " Mar- 
riage," a Comedy ; &c. 
This play wad acted at Covent Garden 
Theatre for the first time on Tuesday, 
and received throughout with shouts of 
applause. The writer has greatiy im- 
proved on his former successfbl effi^rt. 
Most of the g^teel comedies of modem 
date have presented us with elegant ta- 
pestry, too quiet to please. Here we 
have vigorous, well-dkected satire, strik- 
ing incidents, and an ingenious plot. 
We must q[>are further remarks at the 
present moment to make room for an ex- 
tract. Mabel Trevor^ the heroine of the 
pkv, a humble companion to Z€u^f Ma' 
?i|/^rf— treated wim cruelty by her pa- 
troness — has gained the affections of 
San4ford^ who is warned by his uncle, 
on whom he is depending, against a love- 
match. The subjoinea scene, which 
concludes the third act, and which made 
a powerfol impression on the audience, 
win explain the rest. 

Act IU.--SCSNB n. 

Zady Mam/old's. A window at the hack ^ 
opening upon a conservatory, EmUp 
seated in the conservatory. Lady Mant' 
fold landing at the window* 



Lady ManifM, I tell you, my love, 
u don't understand it. His lordship's 



you 



* These two directioiii for the iU] 
ere printed at they stand in the Ml 



•gle 



THE MIBfiOB. 



6& 



attentions to Mibel were quite remark- 
able. You know, nrf dear, I conl<hi*t 
suffer such a scandal to go fbrwttfd in 
my house. 

EmStf Manifold. Fm sure I don*t care 
what attentions he shews her. 

Zadif Manifold (coming forward). 
That's your simplicity, lou have no 
business not to care about amfthing his 
lordship does. Mercy, level what will 
become of you when you're married if 
you don't know when to care, and when 
not to care. 

EmUy Manifold. I suppose HI learn, 
8B you did. 

Lady Manifold. Then the sooner you 
begin Ae better. I tell you that his, 
lordsh^ was most marked in his atten* 
tions to MabeL 

JBmOy Manifold. And I tell you I 
don't care whether he was or not 

Zatfy Manifold. But I tell you, you 
ou^t to care. 

EmUy Manifold. But I tell you I can't 
care, fm trymg to care as fest as I can, 
but I can't. 

Lady Manifold (aside). She hasn't the 
least notion dr being iedous. HI make 
another experiment. (To j^m^.) Emily, 
love, — ^look at me, dear, imd put away 
that 8tQ{^ book ; yonVe not reading now, 
you know. Emily, TVL send Mabel out 
of the house. 

Emily Manifold. Well, you may if 
you like, but I don't see the good of it. 

Lady Manififld. It will prevent Lord 
Merlm from having any opportunity of 
sedngher. 

Emily Manifold. I think, ma, it will 
give Inm mportuni^ of seeing her. 

Lady Manifold. How, my innocent P 

Emily Manifold. Because if he wants 
to see her, he can ibUow her wherever 
she goes, and you can't prevent him ; but 
if you keep her in the house, she can't 
see him wiuiout your permission. 

Ladv Man(fold. That's very true. HI 
ftobid her to see him. 

EmUy Mangold. Tm sure, ma, I 
wouldn't. 

Lady MainifM. Why, love ? 

EmUy Manifold. Because it wiH make 
her think too much of him. Tm sure if 
any one were to say to me that I shouldn't 
see Captain— (c^Atn^ herself) — any one, 
Td never be hiappy tifl I saw tiiem. 

Lady Manifm (aside). What an union 
ofsaffaeityandguilelessness! (ToEmi^.) 
WeU, love, m take your advice, (ringing 
^ be»i) rn onty just ten her that she 



must not — (Enter ^srtxin^— niesire Miss 
Trevor to cwne here--(J^«^ Servant) — • 
that she must not make herself too pro- 
minent when we have company. 

Enter Mabel. 

Mabd jMvor, You wished to see me, 
madam. 

Lady Man^oid. Tes, Mabel, I wished 
to say a few words to you about youx^ 
manners in public. 

Mabel Trevor. Madam t 

Zoci^ Manifold. Tou know, Mabel, 
that when I took you into my house — I 
have no wish to hurt your feelings, and 
you must not let your pride be in thtf 
way of your interest— you know the situ- 
ation it was understooa you w#re to fill. 

Mabel Trevor. I do, madam. You 
were kind enough to say that, knowing 
my famDy, you would not exact any 
menial offices at my hands. 

La^ Manifold. And have IP 

MeSel Trevor. Oh! no, madam. I 
have not been put to any menial services. 

Lady ManifM. But, you mean, you 
have been treated as a menial. 

Mabel Trevor. 1 have not complained, 
madam. 

Lady Mangold. Really, I have no de» 
sire to enter mto an argument with you, 
Mabel ; my object in sending for you was 
simply to renmid you, that when I have 
company in this house, I expect you will 
not K>rffet your position. Youta&edand 
laughed so much wiUi Lord Merlin 
(EmUy checks her) and other gentlemen 
last night, that positively one m^ht ahnost 
suppose you were my daughter's sister or 
oounn, instead of a dependant 

Mabel Trevor. Did I laugh and talk ? 
Oh ! madam, you have made some strange 
mistake, l^t I beg pardon— I am a de- 
pendant— I may not always be one I 

Lady Manifold. You are too proud^ 
MabeL Your spirit is above your plaoe. 
You get up such a catalogue of jpprievancea 
in your £m^ that a stranger might actually 
supjpose you were treated with the coarsest 
cruelty* 

MtUfel Trevor. No, madam, with the 
most refined. 

Lady Manifold. FtAj reserve your 
smart answers for your inferiors. Miss 
Trevor* I must beg that you vrill not 
forget yourself again while you are in mf 
house. 

Mabel Trevor. Indeed, I try, madam^ 
to do as you desire me — ^but you crush 
me with the weight ofyour protection 

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THE MIBBOB; 



Whatever I do is wTong^tnd then the 
distance between us — it chills me. 

Lady Mcadfcid. Distance ! Feihapa 
you expect to be placed on a lerel with 
Miss Manifold^ who has been brought up 
with such expense and care ? Distance !* 
Let me hear no more such observations. 

Mabel Trevor. I am silent^ madam. 

Lady Manifold, I wish you would 
learn to be silent before company. ''What 
will Lord Merlin think of the decorum 
of my house after last night ? I, who am 
so pttfticular abcmt the conduct of young 
people? 

Mabel Trevor. Lord Merfin ? De- 
corum ? Last night ? You are bounds 
madam, in oommon justice, to explain the 
calumny j^u point at me. Were I even, 
humbler than I ain, you ought not, you 
shall not, whisper away my character. 

Lady Manifold. Chiuracter ! Who ever 
thought of your character ? I really 
didn t imagine such an idea ever entered 
your head. Mercy upon us ! but things 
are surely taking a strange turn, when 
our very pensioners must tmreaten us with 
their characters !"* 

Enter Servant. 

Servant. Sir Gregory Plump and Capt. 
Montague are in the library, my lady, 
and they desired me to say tlmt they have 
just come from Lord Merlin's. 

Lady Manifold. We shall be with them 
mresently. {Exit Servant.^ Come, my 
love. I dare say his lordship will be here 
to look at your horse. Miss Trevor, we 
riiall not trouble you to appear in the 
drawing-room tins evening. Come, my 
love. What a sweet colour you have, 
child r (Exit with Emily ^ patting her on 
the cheek.) 

Mabel Trevor. The insolepce of power 1 
•^the abuse of rank and fortune! I 
should sink under this, or die in the 
struggle to redeem mysetf from it, but 
for the new life, and the new love of life 
with which I am inspired. What a 
change a few hours have made in my 
destiny 1 I am no longer desolate, looking 
out in desjMiir upon a living world, in 
which notching lives for me. I am no 
longer alone. Thiank God for tliat! 
Robert — I love even the echo of his name. 
He — he will protect me. I am strong in 
his streng':h--in his pure and high and. 
ennobling love. He will protect me ! — 
{Enter Sandford^ hastily, with a disturbed, 
air.) — ^Ah ! I am so glad to see you ! 

* Omitted iu the representation. 



Sam^brd: My dear MabeH 

MttM Trewr. I was thiiddiig of yon. 
ti that moment. 

Sandford. Indeed! and I— Mabel-^ 
was thmking of you ! 

Mabel Trevor. Are you ill ? 

Sandford. Ill !— No. 

MaM Trevor. . You are vei;y pale. 

Sandford. So my unole says — noting ! 
— ^I comdn*t sleep last night ! — but, M&- 
bel, your hand trembkiH^-has anything 
happened? 

Mabel Trevor, Oh! perhaps I oi^;hEtn't. 
to tell you. 

Sandford. I must know — conoealraentSv 
between us, Mabel, are daneerous. 

Mabel Trevor. There sUl be none. 
Lady Manifold has just been remmding 
me that I am a dependant upon her 
bounty. She has hinted something about 
my laughing and talking last night — it 
seems Iwas in grealrs^mts ! You can 
answer for the cause if it were so I 

Sandford. WeU? 

Mabel Trevor. Well !— it hurt me— 
wounded me, that I should be accused of 
levity— that's all. But then I remem- 
bered that I was no long<CT unprotected ! 
and I thought how proudly you would 
vindicate me, and-— (j9erc«tt7ftRg' gradmaUy 
that he has turned from her<i £e drops kar 
voice.) You are ill ? • 

Sandford {shuddering). No— no— upon 
my hcmour ! 

Mabel Trevor. Honour ! What is the 
matter? — Tell me — I have a right to 
know*-a right to— right? Mv heart 
dies in the word — tlmt I shomd have 
need to use it ! 

Sandford. Come^-come, Mabel ; yoa 
are ^tated. Perhaps you misunderstood 
her ladyslup. 

Mabel Trevor. Is it possible ? That 
you, who only last night were so full of 
indignation at her cruelty, which I hare 
borne so long without a murmur, should 
tell me, now that she has added insult to 
oppression, that I have misunderstood 

Sandford. Mabel, for Heaven*s sake^ 
be cidm. 

Mabel Trevor. Calm 1 I am-n-I am — 
I am stone. 

Sandford .^ What is this ? What have 
I said? Wretched, wretched Sandford ! 

Mabel Trevor. Wretched, indeed, if 
you repent what you have done; 

Sandford. Bepent— no — I love yon 
with my whole being. 

Mabel Trevor, xou do not. If you 

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did, and hettrdthatlhadtie^ ^vi^ooged, 
or thftt bat a llMreatli of sbnder, however 
distant, however £unt, had Men upon 
me, jou would have answered it with a 
look q£ lightning. You do iM>t love 
me! 

Sand/ord. Oh I Bitabel, if yoa knew 
the tortures I suffer— recdlect your own 
words — tile circomstanees you de- 
seiibed — 

Mabel Trevor. I see it now. The 
truth breaks upon me. 

SandfmU To what horrid issue will 
this lead? 

MaM Trevor. You have reconsi- 
dered : — why hesitate ? Take courage, 
^peak. I am again defenceless I. 

SoMdford. No*-no— I will (nrotoct you. 
Why would c(Miventional laws^ restrain 
our love ? 

Mabel Trevor. Have my senses forsook 
their office ? Speak again. 

Sandford, Mabel^ hear me! Like 
yourself, I am a d^ndant. I l)ave no 
l^rtune of my own. My whole expecta- 
tions hang upon my uncle. With one 
word he could consign me to destituti<m. 

Mabel Trevor. You must not offiend 
your uncle. 

SoMdford. I dare not — ^he was kind to 
me when I had no other friend in the 
world. But he has different notions of 
marriajB^e — ofhighconnexions — ^fortune — 
there is my misery. K we could ccm- 
oeal our attachment from him, we might 
be happy— 

Mabel Trevor. Concetd ? It is ended 
for ever — ^what have we to conceal ? 

Sand/ord, You must not speak thus. 
I will never marry* He will be content 
with that. I'm sure he will. I will de- 
vote my life to you, M&hel-r-irttshes for- 
ward to take her hfmd.) 

Mabel Trevor. Do not touch me. My 
hand shrinks from you, as my soul does.. 
Had you the wealth of England imd its 
nobk^t titles, and poured them out at my 
feet, I would scorn them, as I scorn you 
now ! Oh ! how have I been deceived ! 
^Tis over. I exphuned to you my situa- 
tion — I warned you agunst the inequality 
of our circumstances — ^you overruled my 
, feeble reason — ^you wrung from me the 
secret of my woman^s heart. You have 
broken that heart! a heart that loved 
and trusted you. I cannot disguise the 
bitterness of this trial. But even at .this 
moment of agony, that bn^n heart, 
in tiie depth of its purity, revolts frcHoa 



you. B^gcue! We never, never meet 

again. l£xiL 

Sandford. Villain — villain ! where 

shall I hide my disgrace! IBiuhesouim 

ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE LIFE. 

Pbofbssok FhAJrAim's first lecture 
before the Eoyal Agricultural Society 
presents many valuable hints, expreBsed , 
with great felicity. We copy, for the 
gratification of our readers, a most able 
abstract of the discourse, from tiie €[ar'- 
deners* Chronicle: — 

^' YegetaUes effect many chemical 
changes in the food they, take up, anjinaU 
few. Gluten and albumen are the nu- 
trient (urinciples of plants, and in chennoBl 
com|M)8ition they are identical with tiie 
albumen of the white of an eggy of the 
muscle of an ox, or the blood of a sheep. 
The alWnen of blood, of muscle, and of 
an e^, differ in physical, but not in 
chemical characters. The composition of 
these substances, as analyzed by various 
chemists from the animal and vegetaUe 
kingdom, as seen in the foUo^mg taide, 
prove their identity. 



Carbon ... 
Hydrogexi. 
Nitrogen . 
Oxygen . . . 



64'S 
7*6 
1*4 

24*4 



54*1 

7*1 

15*0 

293 



5-5 

7* 

15-7 
22*1 



II 



54*19 
7.5 
15*72 
22*59 






54*11 

7*89 

15*71 

21-56 



These analyses do not differ more than 
the analysis of the same substance. Plants, 
in fact, contain within them the fiesh of 
animals, and all the animal orKanizaticHi 
does in nutrition is to put this Sesh in the 
right place. But animals take up witk 
their food other constituents of plants, 
which contain no nitrogen; such are 
starch, sugar, ^^um, &c. These are not 
nutritive principles; they do not assist 
in making the flesh ; and when animals 
are fed on these alone, they die. But 
animals possess a certain degree of heat, 
and their bodies have genei^ly a tem- 
perature above that of the atmosphere — 
ab^ut a hundred degrees of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer. Whence comes this heat ? 
From the burning of the sugar, starch, 
gum, &c. The air that aninuus expire is 



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TBSUISB/OSL 



ottbonie aeld, the rerr gas liiit k pto- 
daeed by the banung pi wood or chi^^oal 
in a fire. Charooal is carbon, utd anbnals 
take in daily a large quantHy in their 
food. It is the burning or combnation of 
this in the body that produces animal 
heat. In hot countricis animals on this 
account take less carbon. The food of 
the East Indian contains only about twelve 
per cent, of carbon, whflst that of the 
Ureenlander contains sefentr. The taste 
of the Greenlander, who drinks train-oO 
and eats tallow-candles, mi^ht be pitied ; 
bnt it is necessary to his healthy exist- 
ence. Another reason for animals ac- 
^uirine carbonaceous food in cold cli- 
mates 18, that the air is more condensed, 
and the same measure contains a greater 
quantity of oxygen, that gas bemg the 
agent which, by uniting with the carbon, 
and formbg carbonic acid, gives out the 
heat Strong exerdse also demands a 
large supply ^carbonaceous food, on ac- 
count of the oxygen taken in during the 
hard breatUnff thus produced. Oxygen, 
when once taken into the system, never 
escapes uncombined, and would destroy 
the whole fkbric of the body unless a 
fresh supply of material was given. 
Clothes, by keeping in animal heat, render 
less carbonaceous food necessary to keep 
the body up to its proper temperature. 
The following table exhibits tfie principles 
of food necessary for the two great pro- 
cesses—nutrition and re^iration : — 



neBMDti of Nutrition. 


BlemcntsorRespiratkn. 


Vegttia)leFibrfaie 


Fat 


„ Mbomm 


Btuvli 


„ Casein 


Gum 


Animsl Fleah 


Sugar 


,. Blood 


Wine 




Siifrtti 




Bmt 



If it were not for some power within the 
animal fobric, it would soon become a 
prey to the chemical action of oxygen. 
The force that withstands this action is 
vitality — a principal independent of the 
mind, and which constantly opposes the 
destructive chemical laws to which the 
body is subject. Disease is the tem- 
porary ascendancy of the chemical over 
the vital force. Death is its victory, A 
dead body exposed to the action of oxygen 
is soon resolved into its primitive elements 
— carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, in the 
form of carbonic acid, ammonia, and 
water ; and these are the elements from 
which plants again prepare materials for 



the lifkig bodr. Theee remarks will 
explain many nets Imown to the agri- 
oniturist, and will assist him in insuring 
mc^e certainly many of the objects ra 
Us labours. It is" well known that 
cattle do not &tten so well in oold 
Weather as in hot. l^e reason is this : — 
Hie&t is a highIy-carb<Hiized substance, 
formed by tiie animal from its carbon- 
aceous food. In cold weather, the carbon 
in this food Is consumed in keeping up 
the heat of the animal, which is at that 
season more n^dly carried off. T^oa is 
illustrated in an experiment made by 
Lord Ducie at Whitfield. One hundred 
sheep were placed in a shed, and ate 20 
lbs. of Swedes each per day ; another 
hundred were placed in the open air, and 
ate 25 lbs. of Swedes per day-^yet at 
the end of a certain period the sheep 
which were protected, althongh they had 
a fifth less food, weighed 3 lbs. a head 
more than the unprotected sheep. The 
reason is obvious : the exposed sheep had 
their carbonaceous food c<msumed in 
keeping up their animal heat, Warmth 
is thus seen to be an equivalent for food. 
This is also illustrated by the fact, that 
two hiv^s of bees do not consume so 
much honey when together as when se- 
parate, on account of tlie warmth being 
greater ; and they have less occasion for 
uie honey, which is their fuel. Cattie, fot 
the same reason, thrive much better kept 
warm than when exposed to the cold. 
The cause of animals getting &t is, tiiat 
they take in more carbonaceous food tiian 
they require for producing animal heat ; 
the consequence is, that it is deposited in 
the cellular tissue in the form of foX. 
Fat is an unnatural production, and its 
accumulation is not necessary for health 
of the body. When stored up, however, 
it will serve the body for keeping up its 
animal heat, and by this means its lifo, 
till it is all consumed. An instance is 
related of a &t pig kept without food for 
160 days, having oeen kept alive by its 
fet -Mother element necessary in the 
&ttening of animals is motion or exercise. 
Every action of the body — nay, every 
thought, is attended with chemical change ; 
a portion of the deposited tissues are tnus 
being constantly consumed. On this 
account, when animals are fiittened, they 
are kept quiet. The cruel practice of 
fattening geese 1^ nailing their feet to 
the floor, and of cooping mgeons and 
chickens before they are Im^d, arises 



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THE MIBfiOB. 



59 



from a knowledge ot this fact.. ^ When 
prizes were eiven hy our agricnltiiral 
societies for fat, and not for synunetry, 
animftb were strictly prevented firom 
taking any exercise. Mr. Childers found 
that sheep which were k^ warm and 
quiet, &ttened much ftster thin those 
that were allowed the open air and action. 
It is very difficult to &tten sheep and 
oxen in July, on account of the flie&» 
which, stingmg, keep them in a state of 
constant motion. The Cornish miners, on 
account of the laborious nature of their 
occupations, consume more food than la- 
bourers with lighter work. Durine the 
late riots in Lancashire, the tmemployed 
operatives found out that exercise and 
cold made them hungry; accordingly, 
they kept quiet in bed, and heaped upon 
themselves all the covering they could 
find. Englishmen in the T&st Indies are 
obliged to take a great deal of exercise, 
because thev eat and drink highly-car- 
bonised foo<Js ; and the heat of the climate 
not allowing the escape of much heat 
firom the b^y, they are obliged to take 
in by exercise oxygen, in order to destroy 
the carbon which would otherwise accu- 
mulate, and produce liver disease. In the 
Scotch prisons, the quantity of food ^ven 
to the prisoners is regulated by the work 
on which they are engaged, the hardest 
workers having the most food. The flesh 
of the stag becoming putrid shortly after 
its death, arises from the quantityjof oxygen 
which it takes into its system during the 
hard breathing of the chase. A hunted 
hare, for the same reason, is as tender as 
one that has been kept for a fortnight 
after being shot The reason is the same. 
In both cases the aijtion of the oxygen on 
the flesh produces approaching decom- 
position — in the one, quickly; in the 
ottier, slowly. Bacon, on the same prin- 
ciple, was at one time rendered more 
ddicate by whipping the pig to death. 
Epileptic fits produce great emaciation, 
on account of the violent action to which 
Aey expose the body. Lord Ducie has 
performed some exj^riments highly illus- 
trative of the foregomg general principles, 
and which also indicated what might be 
expected firom their application to the 
practice of grazing, iirst Experiment. 
Five sheep were fed in the open air 
between the 21st of November and the 
1st of December ; they consumed 90 lbs, 
of food per day, the temperature of the 
atmosj^ere bemg about 44 degrees. At 
the ^d of this tmie they weighed 2 lbs. 



less than when first exposed.— ^2nd Ex- 
periment. Five Bheq> were placed under 
a i^hed and allowed to run about, at a 
temperature of 49 degrees; they con** 
sumed at first 82 lbs. of food per day- 
then 70 lbs. — and at the end of the time 
had increased hi weight 23 lbs.— 3rd Ex- 
periment. Five sheep were placed in the 
same shed as in last experiment, but not 
allowed to take any exercise; they ate 
at first 64 lbs. of food per day— then 58 
lbs.— «nd increased in weight 30 lbs. — 
4th Experiment. Hve sheep were kept 
quiet and covered, and in the dark ; they 
ate 35 lbs. a day, and were increased 8 Ibe. 
These experiments prove the influence of 
vrarmth and motion on the &ttening of 

cattle. 

(lb be amchtM nwt week,) 



THE LANDED INTEREST OF 
SPAIN. 

"Without entering the arena of politics, 
we may glance at the important question 
now on the tapis relative to the com lavre. 
After the partial experiment which has 
been made of abandoning the protection 
formerly deemed indispensable to the 
English farmer, the fouovring informa- 
tion as to the state of Spain, published in 
the Foreign Review in 1829, may have a 
present interest to those whose well-being 
13 likely to be most affected by the ulti- 
mate decision : — 

With the excej^tion of Catalonia, Va- 
lencia, and Murcia, com is conveyed on 
the backs of mules and asses, or in small 
<jarts drawn by oxen. The provinces 
now mentioned import the greater part 
of their supnlies by s^ being too dis- 
tant from tne exporting provinces to 
admit of importation in tiie ordinary 
way. The difference of price ought, 
one should think, to be In proportion to 
the distance, and the difficulty of the 
road. It may be remarked, nowever, 
that the quality of wheat varies so greatly, 
that in some markets it is quoted on the 
same day at 18«. and 34«. a quarter. 
This circumstance renders it impossible 
to trace the effect of contiguity to market 
in the monthly quotations of prices eiven 
in the Madrid (^zette. The rate of car- 
riage is also subject to perpetual change 
from the greater or lesser quantity of 
goods, and the prospect of a return load. 
Under ordinary circumstances, it may be 
calculated at n'om 7«. to 9«. an English 
quwter, for » d«toce^<,f^^l^e., or 



60 



THE HIRBOR. 



100 Enffliflli miles. Seville is almost the 
oily ^^ing port for the exportation of 
the surplus produqe of the lungdoms of 
Seville, CordoTa, and Estremadura. Cor- 
dova, however, yields but little. It is 
from the countiy soudi and east di 
Seville that the finest grain is inrooured; 
i^dmI were these Inmiense itna fruitful 
pjains properly cultivated, the produce 
mi^ht suj^y all Spain. But the pecu- 
lation is so scanty, and possesses so little 
industry, that the price of wheat is there 
generally above the average of the other 
agricultural districts. In prq)ortion as 
prices advance at Seville, supplies come 
from a ^preater distance, from the plains 
of Badajos, and even fi^m IVuxillo and 
Caceres. Estramadura occasionally finds 
an outlet for its surplus produce m Por- 
tugal, the price of wheat being usually 
miich higher in that country; but its free 
intoroduenon is prevented* 

The kingdoms of Old Castile and 
Leon are tl^ granaries of Spain. They 
have their outlets in the north by various 
ports from Gijon to St. Sebastian, the 
jmnclpal being Santander and Bilbao. 
The provinces of Bureos and Fiilencia 
are the nearest points n*om which these 
ports get any considerable suppW^; the 
distance being from 130 to 140 English 
miles from each. The elevated and rich 
camposy which extend from Lo^ono to 
Burgos, and thence on each side of the 
Arhmza and Fisuerga, and along the 
Cannon and numerous other streams 
which water the provinces of Palencia, 
Yalladolid and Zamora, yield immense 
quantities of wheat; and farther to the 
west and on the south side of the Douro, 
the provinces of Toro and Salamanca 
maybe considered as forming a portion of 
the richest wheat-country in Spain. The 
crop is often so abundant for a series of 
years, that the produce of the fields at a 
distance from tne villages is sometimes 
allowed to rot on the ground, the ex- 
pense of conveying it home being con- 
sidered beyond its value ! It was calcu- 
lated, that the accumulated surjdus of 
four or five successive years of eood 
crops in the sUos and granaries of tnese 
plams, amounted, at the close of the 
harvest of 1828, to 6 millions of fkne- 
Ms, or l\ milfion Winchester quarters. 
The ordinary cost of carriage does not 
exceed that already mentioned — viz., 7^. 
or 8«. a quarter for every 100 miles, but 
the means of transport are so defective 
9nd Iwily organized, that when any ex- 



traordinary demand for expoirtation takes 
dace, the rates advance enormously. 
Thus in September, 1828, tiie usual 
price was 7«. or 8«., but in consequeoce 
of extensive demands from England and 
France, it roee two monUis after to 14». 
and 16«» per quarter. 

The roads fnmi Medina del Campo, 
and Bio Seco, YaUadoUd, &o., to the 
porta are pretty good, but frx)m Sala- 
manca and Samora they are hardly prac- 
ticable for loaded carta. The ox-carta 
carry each from 30 to a2 £uiegas, or 6^ 
quarters, a stout mule 2^ fimegas, or half 
a quarter. There are a few waggons 
employed, wluch cany from 90 to 100 
fimeffas, (18 or. 20 quartan) but their 
number is inconsiderable. Taking Bur- 
gos and Palencia as the two central 
pointe whence the shipping porta have to 
draw thdur supplies, the averase distance 
is about 135 English miles, m order to 
deliver 100,000 quarters mcmthly, in 
these ports, 5000 carts, with two oxen 
each, would be required; making the 
journey in 8^ working days, including 
all delays for loading, discharging, and 
weighing, as well as for repairs, (the 
carte having wooden wheels only, and 
subject to continual accidents,) at six 
quarters each 90,000 

and 5000 mules making four 
joumejrs permonth, with half 
a quarter each ... «.. .. 10,000 

Total per month 100,000 

To keep Pal^icia and Buigos con- 
stantly supplied, at least an equal num- 
ber of carta and mules would be neces* 
sary to bring the mdn from the more 
distant places ; and it may well be ques- 
ti<med whether such a number of carts, 
oxen, and mules, could be procured in 
the whole of the adjoining provinces, 
even allowing that every other kind tk 
commerce were abandoned for the time. 
Perhaps, by a very great effort, 50,000 
or 60,000 quarters might be delivered 
monthly in the porta of G^on, Bilbao, 
and Santander ; but when we allow for 
the carriers required to conduct the 
other business of the country, it vdll be 
seen that even this would demand more 
exertion than could under ordinary dr* 
cumstances be accomplished. And in 
confirmation of what has now been stated, 
it may be mentioned, that during last 
January, when the greatest activity pre* 
vailed in the conveyance of wheat on ap* 

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61 



<K>tint of th^ Exports ioEnp^land, about 3006 
fanegftS t^er6 daily deUyered in Bilba6 
from the intericNT, hemg at the rate of 
liboat 18,000 quarters a month, working 
tm Sundays. 

The Atrietos' (carriers, or muleteers) 
have long been accustomed to travel only 
on certain roads, and. hardly any reward 
will tempt them to go out of their heat. 
On this account com from the interior 
haft usuallvtd he leaded and unloaded 
three or four times hefore it reaches itd 
ded^anatdon^ The honesty of the carriers 
and muleteers is put to the proof every 
day, and it is hut j^tice to say, that 
good^ entrusted to them are very rarely 
lost; though between distant places 
packages frequently pass through the 
hands f^ %he. or eight different c^rri^rs, 
without anyreeeipt or road hill. The 
carriers are also the travelling merchants 
of the country, supplying the markets of 
the interior with every kind of produce 
in demcmd. In Spain there are no exten* 
sive c(»ni merchants, as in England and 
oUier countries, whose operations, heing 
e<HidUoted on a large scale, tend to equa-^ 
liize prices throughout the country, and 
from one season to another. The Arrieros 
^igross this hranch oi commerce, con* 
tenting themselves with a moderate re- 
muneration for the mules and servants 
employed. The merchants in the sea- 
ports speculate only cm exportation to 
other countries, rarely on sales in the 
Interior. 



PRODROMUS. 

At the heginning of the twelfth century, 
tired of heroic deeds celebrated in shal- 
low verses, the idea was conceived of 
blending poetry and romance, and thus 
producing epics of common life. 

Theodorus I^rodr(»nus, who made use 
of this vehicle for insinuating a romance, 
lived in the first half of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Gaulmin says that he was a Rus- 
nan by birth, but he passed the greater 
pari of his life in Ckmstantinople. He 
lived by his pen; but although he pos- 
sessed considerable erudition and in- 
dustry, he ^d not live very welL In his 
fiurewell to the Byzantines, on the occa- 
si<A of his quitting Ccmstantinople to fol- 
low the ^<^ishop of Trebizond, he 
talks of leavii^ a city where his literary la- 
bours badmet with no reward. Prodromus 
waaa moBkyil&d i^r W professioii took 



the name of Hilarion. " I write not like 
such,** said he, sneaking at one time ef 
authors distingaished by eleguide of 
style, " I am altogether illiterate, and 
one of those poor monks who possess no«> 
thing." He took good care, however, 
that this hiimhle umguage should de- 
ceive -nobody into a l^lief 6f its truth ; 
as will be seen by the following passage, 
which is preserved by Chardon de la 
Bochette. It is translated from his dia*- 
tribe against a person who had accused 
him of heresy on accoimt of his excessive 
attachment to letters; and this, apparently, 
must have been written after he had 
be<iome the "poor and illiterate monk.**- 
'* I am not*" says he, " of low extrac^on ; 
many people might envy me my birth. 
If I do not enjoy great^strength of body, 
I at least exhihit no deformity. I have 
received lessons fh>m the b^st masters; I 
have learnt gtammar ; I have studied 
rhetoric — ^not that which is vomited by 
your cold SimocateSes and their imita- 
tors, hut the rhet(»ric of Aristides and 
Plato. Were I not afraid of beine ac- 
cused of presumption, I would add th^ 
there is nothing in the philosophy of 
Aristotle, in the sublime concepnons of 
Plato, in the theory of numbers, or in 
geometry, of which I am ignorant. I 
have composed so many discourses, that 
it would be difficult to ascertain their 
number. I speak with fluency; but I 
have one defect which I will not attempt 
to dissemble — ^it is, that my tongue stut*- 
ters, and sometimes re{>eats the syllable. 
Some people con^ctly imagine that this 
is occasioned hy the difficulty it finds in 
foUovring mv fertile imagination ; it he* 
sitates, as if uncertain on what to ^x ^ 
whereas, when reading the works oi an- 
other, it experiences no embarrassment 
at all. If I can ju<^ of myself, how- 
ever, my tone, notwithstanding this de- 
fect, does not come off worst in dialectic 
discussions ; on the contrary, it seems to 
hurl a thunderbolt agdnst my opponents 
—or if by any chance it should hang 
back, my hand comes to its support, 
and my pen finishes the business*" 



VOLTAIRE AM) DENON. 

In the year 1775 M. Denon visited 
Geneva, and was naturally desirous to be 
admitted to Femey ; he accoidingly ad- 
dressed a letter to the pMlosopher, was 
immecbately invited to supper, andwss 



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of eonm UQ%ffeceif»d, and 9i4erte^ 
with ho^t&l%. The jomg ibraaa^ 
fftade m ill return fof the coiurteous 
fiuniliarity of Im vduerable host, md 
proved himself an ung^fnteful glifirt» by 
tha miiapDlicttioa of that temakm^ 
talent fov arawing bj which he was dia* 
tiiMfuished at an earlj age; he made a 
oancatare of Voltaire, whifih waa en<* 
grayed and oirculated in Faria. The 
Bubjeot of the drawing was much annoyed 
at the impertinent and impardonme 
violation of the sanctity of sooial inter* 
course, and these lettm contain his ex^ 
postulalions and complaints, which are 
conveyed wUb so much nuldness, and 
such gentleman^like forbearance, ^t 
they give a v^ £ivourable impression 
€i the disposition of Voltaire; but the 
tone, however subdued, shews how deeply 
the sensitive old man felt the insQ& 
^^Je ne aaupaurfuoi wm nCfmM deitM 
en Huge €$tropi^ avec me tHe penehU 
et WM ewuHe qmbre fou pbu haute que 
Tmire, It would not be ea»y to give a 
leason &r making such a r^resentation 
that would be aatisfiM^toiy to a man of 
honour. If such was in truth theap* 
pearanoe oi Voltaire at that time, on 
that y&ey account ought Denon to have 
absttuned from the treacherous outrage. 



GIULIO COBTESE. 

GwuQ CisAWB CovniB, an admired 
Italian writer, both of verse and prose, 
was bom at Kaples, in the latt«p part cf 
the sixteenth oentury, of gentle hneage. 
He repaired early in life to the oourt^ 
of Ferdinand de Medid, Grand Duke' 
of Tusoany, where ha betMone a fiivoor'- 
its, and soon enlisted among the vo« 
tanas of the Tuscan muse. Having 
&Uen in love ^ndth a maid of honour, 
of princelv blood, he constituted himself 
her kni^t, but omitting first to asc^* 
tain her inclinations. '* Ha followed 
hor,** says the commentator on his wwks, 
^wherever she went, * persecuting her 
with sonnets and madrigals.** The lady 
was haughty, and slighted the poor 
swain; \nio, one day nndinff her alone 
near a window in a ^dl^ of the palace^ 
made her a declaration entreating her to 
heeemrteout to her poor Coriete, She 
resented his presumption, as warmly as 
Miss Coutts could do the persevering at- 
tentions of the aoomnplisned Mr. Dunn, 
and was moving hastuy awi^, when the 



lerar in daflpair aeiaed bar W tbe ami te 
detain bar, but she, iie«g|^ peipl«xed, 
freed h^a^, and taldng ^ one of h^ 
high'heeled sli^peia, gave him a a a and 
drubbing for ms puns. Afibwr this. Cor* 
te9e bidaoieu to toa court and to FlovMice, 
and returned to his native country I and, 
partly to veven^ hi»«^ Iib eooemyed 
theideaofwrituiff asatiriealpoem, Mi 
instead of eow^t damsels, hetookfi»f his 
heroines the vqfMee^ oe ?*^yf ri ftp ^^ 
servants of tradeq[»eople of bis own mtf* 
He wrote bispoon m otkiva Hnuh and 
consisted it m five cantos, styling H Lm 
VeMueeide. It was published in 160i, 
and went thnm^ fifteen editioBa inth« 
couiae of tba ^mrteen years ttiat lol^ 
lowed. 

<* La V^iaasdde'* is a low biirleaau« 
poem, descriUag chiefiy Uie freveSing 
and profijgate bal»ts of the ^eapolitaii 
pqpulaee, and as such we deem it nn- 
translatal^. As a inctnre of kw Bfii 
in ti)ose t^me^F, it ^ ?o fttn l iy i soma hnmiH 
rotts and curious ^cetdiaa. AetioD,pnH 
perly speakings there is none, unleaa w* 
call by that name a s<fft of jpettieoat aoiio 
ppiraey entered into by tibe vt^faeee^ in 
<»rder to oblige their masters to oonsott 
to thdr marrying, and give thmn the 
cuatomary dowry. One ooiqile is mar^ 
ried in the first canto, and in the seoond 
the bride is put to bed; cm which oe« 
casion we have a descripticm of the Ckn 
nethUao mysteries, after haying been 
initiated into those of Hymen in oie pre* 
ceding canto. Anoth^' marriage fbl- 
lows in canto three, and here we have an 
amusing account of a low Neapolitan 
wedding, with dl its finery and trap- 
pings, and its mone substantial provisioiiB) 
especially in oulinary sWk, of ^R^iioh 
these people are seloom fbrgetftd. In 
the troutseau of the bride we find the 
following articles enumerated; a kettle^ 
a spit, a saueepan, a tripod, a bucket, a 
washing^tubb a broom, a placer, and a 
basket^ fhll of wooden rooons, a distaff 
and spindle, and plenty of hemp and &uc. 
The bride was dressed in a gown of yel- 
low stufi^ her ikce painted or rouged,—- 
to this vile custom seems to have been of 
old established among all classes at 
Kaples ; she wore glass ear-rings, and a 
mantilla in the Spaaish fcshion. A large 
company ofrelatlves andfriends assembled 
in the square of the district to witness 
the game of the gander, usual on such 
oocainons. The poor bird's neck being 
well rubbed with soap, the young men 



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THBimnNL 



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a piokpocket iteab a tHk \mg firom one of 
the &ir speoiaAors, bat mstolid of money 
finds it filled with applefl, chetnnts, and a 
piece of saosa^fe. At last, in the fourth 
oanfo, the pnncipaL ooaple, Oittllo and 
OamuMuna, obtain the maiiter*i eonsent to 
their wedding, and we have a third mar* 
riage deseribed ; bat certain soreeneB of 
a wanton, who aaserted prior claims to 
ike toidegroom, have the e£feet of retard* 
ing the happiness of the married conplei 
until at last, by the assistance of Micco 
Passaro, a bravo and bully notorious in 
those times, the charm is broken, and 
matters end to the satis&ction of all par- 
ties. The language is congenial to such 
themes, and a£nirably calculated for the 
meridian of ^e Lavinaro and Puerto, 
ahe St. Griles and the Wapping of Naples. 



LOVE. 

(Tramiated ffon pari nf the Song •f Spring, a 
Sicilian AnaereotUie, by Men.) 

A MAiDXV fair that never love's fire knows, 
Nor feels the gentle tumults of the hearty 
la l&e a Ufelos. painted, waxen rose, 
That ne'er does bloomi or baUnv scent impart ; 
Its l^ves expand not, nor its onarms unfold. 
Thus art thou, Phillis, listless, mutt, and cold ; 
Feels not thy breast love's sweet and hurried 

throes, 
Nor melts thy soul in flames, or sinks in thrill- 

ing woes? 

But the dear glance of those deluding eyes 
Betrays the silent secret of thy breast, 
The warmth within the vivid ray supplies, 
And in the tender look Love stands confest } 
Perhaps the name alone awakes thy fears, 
And wounds thy chaste and unpolluted ears y^ 
But lawful Love unfolds resistless charms 
When pure a£Mion's flamo congenial bosontp 
warms. 

From Heaven deseendinpr, Love itself first came^ 
Bscwing from the blissful skies above : 

. Its cnarmsits great original proclaim, 
(For Heaven's first pow*r, uke that of earth, 

is Love,) 
In its brieht course it kindled Sun and Moon, 
And earth and ocean felt the blissful boon ;— 
A secret jo^ lurks in the sigh sincere, 
And eodsotouii rapture in tht sadly-pletsing 
tear. 

When once the blissful sense of mutual love. 
Shall reign triumphant in thy bosom's th^'one. 
No longer will thy wav'ring fancies rove» 
Nor any other lord save Love^ will own : 
The past is gone } for that 'tis vain to weep. 
The present moment prompts U9 joys to re<ip ; 
The lengthening shade, the rose*s transient 

bloom. 
The flight of time betray,— and our eventful 



Ai UHmM IiQv« Hi fiaki rqr expaa4i» 

Relenting nature feels its sovereign sway, 
The herm and flow'rs that overspread the lands, 
The teeming fieldf and smiling metda loc^ 

Then, Phiiya, daar, with nature nmptihiie* 
Let Love inspire thy breast and melt tl^ine eyea; 
The preaent nour enjoy, aa that alone 
Belongs to thee and m< • the past is dead &n4 
gone. 



LUCIAN. 

This GreeV romancer is supposed to have 
lived in the time of Trajan and after; 
bom in the year 135. He waa intended 
to be a soulptor, but renouncing th^ 
arte at an early age, he left his native 
country. Syria, or perhans Aflsyria, and 
repaired to Grreece. At Antioch he 
studied rhetoric, which he taught after* 
wards in Gaul s hut in the sequel, ffiving 
himself up to philosophv, he resided w 
Athens, ejecting all uie then &shionv 
i^le systems, his aim ^as originality | 
but fifom his sneering throughout his 
writings at the dogma of the immortality 
of the soul, it is thought that he had 
some leaning to Epicureanism. In Im 
old age he neld an honourable employ- 
ment in Egypt; some say the govern- 
ment of a part of the province, and 
others the post of registrar in a superior 
tribunal. As to his death, Suidas in^ 
forms us that he was torn to pieces by 
dogs, in pimishment of the furious zeal 
with which he opposed Christianity; but 
the story is very doubtful. His works 
were read, as M. Letronne informs us, 
by the very Christians themselves, who 
pardoned his want of true religion for 
the sake of his satires on paganism. 

eje 0al^mr. 

The Toad and the Monkey, ^In Ha- 
drid, a newspaper is published under the 
title of « The Toad and the Monkey,** 
and self-described to be '* A Journal of- 
fensive, revolutionary, and disgusting, — 
edited by a brut(d society, and addressed 
to brutes." 

Sepoy Superstition* — In the course of 
the late operations in Afghanistan, a re- 
markable effect of ferocious supexvtition 
vrtA often witnessed. The Sepoys in the 
Enfflish service applied fire to the dead 
bodies of the enemy, that " the curse of 
a bumt &ther" might fall on thmr sur- 
viving ofT 



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«4 



THEIUBBOB. 



Hints to an Indoleni CongregtOUm.^ 
" I like to see," said the Bev. Henry 
Hughes, in the course of a very able 
sennon, preached at the church in Gor- 
don Square, last Sunday mwrning— ** I 
like to see a congregation with their 
Bibles in their hands, referring from 
time to time to the chapters to which 
their attention has been drawn, that they 
may not get into the habit of saying, 
thus says uiis jtastor and thus says ano- 
ther pastor, but that thejr may know the 
truth, and say, "This is the word of 
God." 

RemarkcAle S^'ecm-^^Ai the bottom 
of a wood beloi^^g to W, Turton, Esq., 
of Knowlton, in Flintshire, is a rill of 
-water which empties itself into the river 
Dee, and when a person strides across it, 
lie is in the kingdom of Engli^id, the 
principality of Wales, in the provinces of 
tlanterbury and York, and the dioceses 
of Chester, Lichfield, and Coventry, in 
the counties of Flint and Salop, and in 
two townships. 

Royal Marriages.^^lXi Fraiice it was 
an ancietit u^age when roval personages^ 
married, for nobles and others about the 
court to carry soups and wines td the 
bed of the bride and bride^robm several 
times in the course of the night. Henry 
v., on his marriage with Catherine, re- 
fused to interfere with this custom, in 
order to ingratiate himself with the 
French. '•','[ 

Hie lines on the buried 1^ of the 
Marquis of Anglesea are well kno\ra. 
A work called " Quatre Mois en les 
Pays Bas," published in Fans, gives the 
following as the real inscription placed 
over the detachment: — " C« est enterr^ 
la jambe de TiHustre, brave, ^tient, et 
vaillant Comte d*Uxbridge, lieutenant 
g^n^ral de S. M. Britannique, comman- 
dant en chef ia covalme des alli^, Idesse, 
le 18 Juin. 1815, 4 la memorable bataiUe 
de Waterloo, quit par s<hi h^rolsme ^ 
.eoncouru au triomphe de la, cause du 
genre kumam, sjlorieusement d^cidee par 
r^clatante victoire dwJ^t jour." And he 
savs the following epigram has been 
added by some bel esprit : — 

*^ Lonque viendra le jour dn morts. 
Que j'aurai de ctierain 4 fdire. 
Pour Slier rejoindre mon corps 
Qui doit m'attendre en Angkterre f** 

** A weary day must needs be mine 
Wbea judgmeat-day shidl come, 
And I musi mardi from hence to jdn 
My cctrps that lies at jKUne.''^ 



Wlieii "Hie Conqnfflpw" was last, 
Abefaorch, ^ only «urviYor of her un- 
fortunate cTew, haa for some time one of 
Mrs. Tfaomp»(m*s chiklren, a little ^1, in 
his arms. The unfortunate mother had 
disi^ipeared. ^^ Where is manwna ?" in- 
quii«d the chihL " " She is ffone to 
Heaven," the sailor rentied. ^* And are 
we going to Eng^dr" the poor inno- 
cent asked. That moment a wave burst 
over her, and she rejcnned ber parent in 
the deep. 

From the Gazetteer^ Monday , Mcof 9, 
1774. — ^We are informed that on Tues- 
day last a tomb was opened in one of Uie 
chappies in Westminster Abby, in the 
presence of the dean, wherein was found 
the intire corps of Kii%g £dward the 
First, in his royal robes of silver and 
'gold tissue, and a crimson one over that. 
The jewels that were about him appeared 
very bright. He held a scepter and 
dove in. one hand, and a scepter and 
cross in the other, wHch measured be^ 
tween four and five feet long. They 
lifted up the crown from his nead, and 
his skua appeared bare. His face and 
hands seemed perfectly wbcde. He mea- 
sured six feet two inches. He died on 
the 7th July, 1307, in the &udky;-€^;fath 
year of his age.' The above wa8''m^- 
tion^ in a book called ^' BymerV Fo^ 
dera," at the request of the Society* of 
Antiquaria^s. . 

Projits of Receivers of Stolen 0<Mdt,*-^ 
It. was in uie Court of Common Council 
in January, ld3(S, that there was'tl^ a 
boy, eleven years of age, in NeWgals^ 
who had stolen a watch worth 50/.; fer 
which he got from the receiver no ix&xe 
than eighteenpence ! This, however, was 
nnder the miurk ; bnt in a common way; 
thieves, it was stated, obtain but one 
sixth of the value of the property so dis- 
posed of. It would thence seem that 
robbars are in their turn most mercilessly 
robbed. 

On a Zaie Present heif^ returned. 

Though snarlezs may the Premier joke« — 
Would they their ladies like to see 

Accept from an v one a cloak 
Who seem'd determined to make *'Jree 9" 



Londdh: PubUsked by CUNNINGHAM mnd 
UORTIMSR, Adelaide Street, Trafalgar Squares 
and told hp all Booksellert, and Newemen, 

T. C. SatiU, Printer, 107» St. Martia*a Um. 



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W^c Mivvor 

OP 

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



Ko. 5.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1843. [Vol L 1843. 




(Original Communicationf, 



THE BASTILE. 

A gloomy celebrity belongs to tbis edifice. 
It was built in 1369, and for centuries re- 
ceived within its walls the victims of heart- 
less despotism. Here was known the ex- 
tremity of human misery ; here those 
whose courage or patriotism rendered them 
obnoxious to tyranny, found a living grave. 

VOUXLI. 



To describe the horrors of which it was 
the scene, would fill volumes. The Man 
in the Iron Mask was among the unfortu- 
nates consigned to its cold b3som. That 
unhappy person is said to have been the 
twin brother of Louis the Fourteenth. 
Some modem soothsayer, having predict- 
ed to Louis the Tliirteenth that, if his con- 
sort should bring forth twins, a civil war 
would be the consequence, the paternal 
monarch ordered the birth of the second 
prince to be kept a profound secret, and 



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66 



THE MIRROR. 



caused him to be brought up in the coun- 
try, as the illegitimate son of a nobleman. 
When Louis the Fourteenth ascended the 
throne, the young man was said to have 
given some indications of a knowledge of 
his Royal parentage, upon which his bro- 
ther, in the spirit of " the first-bom Cain," 
or worse, ordered him to be confined in 
the Baslile and to wear night and day an 
iron mask, to guard against the possibility 
of his being recognised. The stem com- 
mand was duly obeyed, and in this melan- 
choly state the prisoner passed his days. 
Many who had the misfortune to offend 
the king or his mistresses, were at differ- 
ent periods torn from their families, and 
without any form of trial doomed to hope- 
less captivity in the Bastile. The building 
was assaulted, taken, and totally destroyed 
by the populace at the commencement of 
the French Revolution, on the 14th July, 
1789. 



SPIDER-SILK. 

In strolling through the Polytechnic In- 
stitution, a day or two day ago, our atten- 
tion was called to the beautiful machinery 
there employed in carding and spinning 
cotUm. This sight, a rare one in London, 
led us into a train of thought upon the 
thousand ingenious contrivances of our 
race for the protection and ornament of 
the human body. Prom the hour when 
the first dwellers upon earth, with their 
own unskilful hands, interiaced the yields 
ing fibres of the fig-leaf^ to the present 
day, all the kingdoms of nature have been 
ransacked; and from the animal, the 
vegetable, and even from the mineral 
world, have the materials of clothing been 
obtained. The covering of fig-leaves socm 
gave way tathe greater protection afforded 
by the skins of animals, slain in sacrifice, 
and for food. Then the garment of wool, 
white as the drifted snow, or dyed with 
the purple of Tyre, succeeded the covering 
of skins. Then the gay pluma^ of the 
Eastern bird lent its thonsfuod col^mrs; and 
the bivalved pinna (a species of shdlfish), 
on the shores of the blve MtditttraneaB, 
threw forth its many threaded byssns to be 
woven into jrarments; — and the shield, the 
scabbard, and the gauntlet of the warrior 
— the calceus of the senator, with its dis- 
tinguishing half-moon, and the calceolus of 
the maiden, were all obtained from the 
animal creation. 

The vegetable world has also largely 
contributed to our comfort and convenience 
in a thousand shapes : — ^in the painted mat 
of the Pacific Islander, the "fine Imen" of 
the delicate Asiatic, and the gorgeous cot- 
tons of the English loom. 



Nor must we forget that to the mineral 
Irorid we owe the " fl[ne gold" with which 
the garments, especially of bygone days, 
were richly embroidered. Nor must we 
forget the panoply of steel in which our 
warriors once clothed themselves, or the 
modem robes manufactured from glass, or 
the mineral asbestos. 

In speaking of the various articles of 
clothing obtained from the animal creation, 
we omitted to mention two fabrics; first, 
the production of the silk- worm; secondly, 
the thread of the short-legged spider. 

With the first our readers are wefl 
acquainted, but many will read now, for 
the first time, the fact that articles of 
clothing, resembling in their appearance, 
texture, and strength, the finest silk, have 
been made from the web of the domestic 
spider. No doubt most 'Arsons have ob- 
served, at certain seasons of the year, 
especially in August and September, small 
silken bags in the comers (^ windows, and 
other partially concealed locaUties, in our 
houses and outhouses. These are the 
bags in which the spider deposits its eggs, 
in fact it is the cococm of that little crea- 
ture ; the filaments forming this mass being 
much stronger, and more glossy than those 
which form the usual web. They vary 
somewhat in coloiu" ; some having a greyish, 
others a brownish appearance, but can. be 
bleached as well as silk itselt About a 
hundred years ago, a jBVench gentlemsu^ 
M. Bon, presented to the Royal Academy 
of Paris, and to the Royal Soci^ ii 
London, both gloves and stockings which 
had been manufactured out of spider^ silk; 
and so enthusiastically did he assert its su- 
periority, both in appearance and Strength^ 
over common silk, that the French Aca* 
demy deputed a well-known naturalist, M. 
Reaumur, to investigate the matter. Aiter 
instituting a swies of comparative expMi- 
ments, the fc^owing objections were urged 
by M. Reaumur. First, the natural fierce- 
ness of the spider : for when c(«gregatod 
together, for re-production, the little ciea* 
tures waged an incessant and extenmo- 
ating war iq>on each other, and the larger 
eai up the smaller. M. Reaumur dis- 
tributed four or five thousand into com- 
panies of fifty each, in different cells, and 
the result just mentioned always followed. 
Secondly, he found that, on the whole, the 
silk was inferior in lustre and strength to 
that of the silk-worm. Thirdly, the silk, 
instead of being wound off the cocoon, as 
the silk-worm's is, must necessarily be 
carded. This is a serious obstacle. 

There were many other objections raised 
in those days, — some of which were very 
absurd. Tlius it was asserted that thi 
web of the spider was poisonous, evea 
when applied to the soimd skin. But thta 



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THE MIRROR. 



67 



is erroneous, for the web has long been 
employed as a styptic in hemorrhage, and as 
an internal remedy (now exploded) in 
spasmodic affections. In fact, M. Bon was 
so convinced of the healing virtues of 
the spider's web, that from it he formed 
an ammoniacal spirit, which he dispensed 
under the name of " Montpelier Drops." 

There are objections, however, worthy 
of notice. The first is, the expense of 
feeding the community of working spiders. 
We must remember that we can not put 
ihem off, as we do the silk- worm, with a 
mulberry leaf for breakfast, dinner, and 
supper. The spider is carnivorous, and 
must have his well-fed house-fly, and his 
dainty "blue-bottle" The trouble and 
cost of collecting a sufiScient number of 
these delicacies, would interfere very much 
with the successful issue of the imder- 
ta^g. The secpnd objection is one of some 
moment. Some naturalists have denied 
that the domestic spider is venemous; but 
we are quite certain that the bite pro- 
duces even more irritation than the sting 
of the nettle. This is a fact known to all 
spider-tamers; and we have ourselves fre- 
quently been bitten in our experiments, 
and have found the parts very much in- 
flamed and swollen. 

It seems almost a pity that this little 
creature cannot be usefully employed in 
spinning for us; for we find, from M. 
Bon's experiments, that the nests af- 
ford more silk, in proportion, than 
the silk cocoons. Thus, thirteen ounces 
of spider's nests produced four ounce* 
of pure silk, two ounces of which were 
sufficient to msJ^e a pair of stockings; 
whereas stockings made of common silk 
weighed seven or eight oimces ! " Seven 
or eight ounces of silk in one pair of 
stockuigs 1" exclaims a reader; "ah, that 
was only the case in the good old times" — 
loquitur vetulus — "ere. the country was 
dduged with the flimsy knick-knackeries 
of modem manufacture, and cotton velvets 
were made to look like sUk." 

Gentle reader, join not in the outcry 
against the discoveries of modem ingenuity, 
or the mighty improvements resulting from 
perfected machinery. It is too common 
for old women of both sexes, to teach as 
a sacred truth, that nothing in the present 
day is good; "the times are out of joint," 
say they; "mankind is degenerate, and 
talent died with the last generation." 

Hoc monstrant vetuloe pueris poscentibus assem, 
Hoc discunt omnes ante Alpha et Beta puelloe. 

JWEKAL. 

Th€ Greatest Navigators. — WTiy are 
washerwomen the greatest navigators? 
Because they are continually crossing the 
line fropa pole to pole. — Punch, 



IMPROVED MODE OF APPLYINa 
AMALGAM TO ELECTRICAL MA- 
CHINES. 

Pbofessor Bachhoffneb, in bis iraried 
experiments with the immense machine 
belonging to the Royal Polytechnic Insti- 
tution, having had occasion frequently to 
regret the loss of time, as well as the incon- 
venience attendant upon the old mode of 
applying the amalgam, turned his attention 
to the subject, and with most gratifying 
success. 

In the old mode of amalgamating, it was 
necessary to remove the rubber entirely 
fromthe plate, an operation attended with 
much trouble and dday, and in many cases» 
from failure, interrupting continuity of an 
experiment, and the progress of a lecture. 
Not only did this occur, but the contact of the 
amalgam with the cushion itself destroyed 
its elasticity, and prevented that close con- 
tact with the plate upon the excellency of 
which a rubber depends. 

The improvement pointed out by the 
Professor, whose experience and scientific 
acumen as a lecturer particularly fit him 
for such discoveries, is at once easy, sim- 
ple, and economical. A piece of coarse 
brown paper, a little longer than the rubber, 
is to be well dried, and upon that a small 
quantity of amalgam is to be spread, barely 
sufficient to cover the paper, which, during 
the operation of spreading, must be kept on 
a rough siurface, or it becomes too smooth 
for the purpose. The paper is then placed 
between the rubber and the glass, and the 
necessary power applied. 'Each, paper 
will last at least a week, even under the 
constant friction applied to the immense 
machine with which Professor Bachhoffiier 
experiments. The improvement is valu- 
able ; first, from the facility it gives for 
renewing the amalgam (and at a very tri- 
fiing cost, as compared with the old mode) 
even during a lecture ; and secondly, be- 
cause of the increase of power this method 
supplies. 



" A POINT OF LAW.'' 

A. owed B. thirty pounds, and ran 
To pay him like an honest man : 

B. took the shining cash at once. 
But thought A. paying it a dtmce. 
And he declared, in merry vein, 
He*d make the noodle pay again. 
Because he quite distinctly saw 
That he could raise ** a point of law." 

A scamping lawyer (you must know 
This was a lot^ long while aao) 
The matter kindly took in hand. 
And very honourably planned 
A scheme to make poor B. pay twice* 
In substance this was bis advice : 



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THE MIRROR. 



•We'll have more moaev from his fob — 
liCt blockheads on the highway rob ; 
"We will not peril blood or bones, 
But get some twelve or thirteen drones, 
Affecting oaths to hold in awe, 
To help us with *^a point of law.' " 

And now in conscious virtue bold 

Ip court great Fumblewig behold : 

The case is called, defendant A., 

Lord Fumblewig declares, must pay. 

'Twas then A.'s son, a foolish youth. 

Who weakly guessed the court-sought truth, 

" It has been paid ! " exclaimed aloud ; 

The judge frowned like a thunder-cloud, 

And fain had crack'd the stripling's napper, 

For having thus let loose his clapper. 

" You show," said he, ** far too much zeal, 

(The wretch could for a father feel 1) 

Such wickedness no man e'er saw. 

You don't regard * a point of law.' " 

Now, with that dignity sublime 

Which cheers the good, but withers crime, 

He tells the jury, " They will see 

They ought to find for plaintiff B. ; 

Injustice may indeed be done, 

But they must take things as they run : 

I, gentlemen, you must infer, 

Sit justice to administer. 

And, therefore, in directing you 

A vile and flagrant wrong to do 

Am authorized to play Bashaw, 

And stand up for * a point of law.* " 

But here a saucy juror spoke — 
" Dread Fumblewig, you surely joke ; 
Do you deem us a set of fools. 
Thus to be made a trickster's tools ? 
When quite as plain to us the case, 
As nose in your amusing face, 
(Which I, sttb rosOf* will maintain 
Is most terrifically plain^') 
Can it, I say, to us belong 
To crush the right — uphold the wrong? 
Tell me, if I must understand 
• This is the law of Britain's land ; 
But let me add, such it's behest. 
Against it firmly I protest. 
And by the oath I took to God, 
I dare not his chastising rod 
In righteous vengeance on us draw. 
By heeding such * a point of law.' " 

His eyes here mighty Fumblewig 

Turned up, just like a dying pig : — 

" You must," he cried, " take law from me. 

And find accordingly for B. 

<)f being robbed, &ould he complain. 

He may approach a judge again ; 

But though he lack a bone to gnaw. 

We, must uphold * a point of law.' " 

The jurymen retired, and they 
Decided for defendant A ; 
In tricke^ they nothing saw 
To consecrate ** a point of law." 

Then Wisdom spoke, a little sour, 
** Your verdict cannot stand an hour : 



Teaeh roffuery law conrti to thun. 
And all the land will be undone. 
What if A. fairly paid the gold. 
Am I for that, pray, to be told 
In Court of Justice he sHall be 
Assisted who mistakes his plea? 
What's * Magna Charta?' Empty wights f 
And what the glorious Bill of Bights, 
If these to filchm^ in the dark 
Restrict the cunmng hungry shark? 
Are there among us who descry 
That law is for society? 
I say, and hear my woids with awe, 
Society was made for law. 
Let the accomplished creeping quirk 
Boldly pursue his dirty work ; 
The lying scamp may live in mirth. 
The honest man be crushed to earth ; 
But never, while he's worth a straw. 
Be spared where there's * a point of law. 



Linfx. 



ftiterattttet 



• Nosey (qy). 



The Pictorial History of France^ Orr 
and Co. 

This is one of those books which is likely 
to receive but imperfect justice at the 
Beviewer's hands. Its length makes it 
difficult for them to go through the whole 
of it at once, and the many calls on their 
attention almost render it impossible for 
■ them to take it up periodically, as it issnes 
from the press, in monthly parts, so as to 
have a dear and connected view of its varied 
merits. We have, however, laboured to 
make ourselves acquainted with so much 
of it as has already appeared, and propose 
attending to it hereafter, as we think it is 
that which our readers will agree may 
be advantageously recalled to their recol- 
lection again and again. 

Considering how interesting the annals 
of France must always be to Englishmen, 
we cannot but feel surprise that no more 
perfect history of our great rival in peace 
or war has been produced than any we 
have as yet seen. Independent of its poh- 
tical importance, it presents a series of 
wild and extraordinary events, which no 
imaginary incidents of an oriental romance 
can surpass. The heroes and heroines of 
its pages, in their stormy career, exhibit 
all that can inspire awe, move pity, or com- 
mand admiration. Its early histoiy is in no 
conunon degree striking, and the picture ex- 
hibited by the varying customs and habits of 
a great nation advancing, Uke the Israelites 
of old, through a Red sea — a sea of blood, 
from savage wildness to high refinement, 
is full of the richest materials for reflection. 
The statesman, the philosopher, and the 
painter of men and manners may read it 
with equal advantage. The early part of the 
work is by Mr Bussey, and it is creditable 
to his acknowledged talents. We extract 



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69 



from his narratiYe of the seyeritiea to which 
the Knights Templars were subjected: — 

" Everyone was loaded with chains, and 
reduced to Hbe most meagre and unpalat- 
able diet ; and when it was found that 
sufficient evidence could not be procured 
voluntarily to convict the assumed culprits, 
an inquisition was organised, and em- 
power^ to apply the most horrible tor- 
tures to extort confession. In Paris alone, 
thirty-six knights died ux)on the rack, 
maintaining their innocence to the last; 
wliile others, less able to endure agony, 
confessed to crimes wliich our reason con- 
vinces us could never have been perpe- 
trated. Even those, however, who were 
entrapped into criminal admissions under 
torment, recanted in their dungeons, and 
nothing remained of trustworthy testi- 
mony, save the imimportant and well- 
known facts that the Templars were gene- 
rally addicted to pride, avarice, and licen- 
tiousness of various kinds — vices, from 
which the king was no more exempt than 
these his persecuted subjects. As a speci- 
men of the kinds of confession elicited, it 
may be noticed that Bernard du Gue, one 
of those who subsequently retracted, ex- 
hibited to his judges, while his feet were 
being exposed to the action of a scorching 
fire, two bones which had been magically 
extracted from his heel; and Americ de 
Villiers, while under excruciating suffering, 
exclaimed in the presence of his tormen- 
tors, that he had personally assisted at the 
death of our Saviour. Some others ad- 
mitted that the devil was frequently pre- 
sent and presided at their secret orgies, 
making his appearance among them at 
times in shape of a tom cat. 

" This persecution lasted for more than 
four years, when the council of Vienna 
decreed, and the Pope [on the 22nd March, 
1312] confirmed the entire aboUtion of the 
order. The extent of misery inflicted by 
these unnatural proceedings may be esti- 
mated from the fact, that, at SenUs, not 
less than nine knights were consigned to 
the flames ; and that fifty-four perished 
together at the stake [12th May, 1310] in 
Paris — all protesting their innocence of the 
ofifences with which they stood accused. 
* We have the failings of men,* said the 
sufferers; *but to have been guilty of the 
wickedness imputed to us, we must have 
been incarnate fiends.* ** 

i^om the monthly part just issued, and 
which completes the first volume, we sub- 
join a portion of the retrospection: — 

" looking back from this epoch, we can- 
not i)erceive that, from the accession of 
Philippe de Valois, great improvements 
were made in science, except so far as 
regards the art of war. In connexion with 
sieges and battles, and generally with the 



work of destruction, the advances witnessed 
in the course of a century and a quarter, 
were certainly of no common order. The 
fashioning an army in the form of a wedge, 
and entrenching the archers behind iron 
X)ointed palisades, were masterly contri- 
vances; they led to great results, and were 
long the boast of the victorious English. 
Eventually they were over-matched by the 
science of the French. The perfection to 
which artiUery was brought by the two 
Bureaux ccmipelled a change in military 
tactics — a close approximation to modem 
warfare. Possessing great superiority in 
this arm, the French soon expelled their 
English invaders. Policy, however, did 
more than artillery. The prince who fled 
in dismay from Agincourt, gained more 
lasting triumphs for his coimtry by the 
prudence which he subsequently exerted, 
than had ever been realised by the re- 
nowned conquerors of Cregy, Poictiers, and 
Agincourt. We cannot, indeed, while fol- 
lowing the progress of arms, discover any 
strong evidence of the march of enlightened 
ideas. To say nothing of the extravagance 
of the claims advanced by Edward and 
Henry to the French throne, we in vain 
ask, when unexpected success was theirs, 
what benefit did England derive from it? 
It is humiliating to see that Edward III 
promised himself no greater reward for the 
splendid horrors of Cresy, than securing 
Calais as an English possession, that he 
might with the greater facility enter, at any 
future period, on a new career of devasta- 
tion and bloodshed. 

" We would, however, willingly suppose 
that refinement, and with it a degree of 
humanity, previously unknown, was the 
sequel to a series of battles. The noble gene- 
rosity with which the Black Prince consoled 
his royal captives, and the boundless hospi- 
tality which awaited him at Windsor, as 
well as the high-minded tone in which 
Henry V soothed his illustrious prisoners, 
command our unqualified admiration. But 
the pleasure we feel in contemplating this 
pleasing picture is interrupted by the dis- 
mal butcheries, which the same great cap- 
tains sanctioned, where less distinguished 
individuals were in their power; and they 
were no longer on a stage inviting the 
world's applause. To the knight who per- 
sonally fought with him, and beneath whose 
sword he had nearly faUen, the EngUsh king 
exhibited great courtesy and generosity; 
but he was with infinite difficulty kept from 
hanging the brave devoted citizens of Calais, 
who had fought for their sovereign, as he 
expected his subjects to do for him. Like 
exceptions may be taken to the conduct of 
Edward the Black Prince and Henry V. 
Irregularly great, if on one occasion they 
were enlightened and magnanimous, on 



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others they were mean and blood-thirsty. 
These, it is true, were English commanders, 
"but their actions belong less to their coun- 
try than to their age. The deeds of blood, 
the renewals of amity, in the everlasting 
struggles between the potentates of France, 
Navarre, and Burgundy, present nothing to 
indicate a general amdioration; and the 
exploits and fate of the Marcels and the 
Artevilles bear out this view of the subject. 
We find the people sensible of oppression, 
ready to follow any influential demagogue 
who offered to be their leader. Extrava- 
gant admiration was followed by cold de- 
sertion or brutal violence, and the idol of 
one day was commonly selected to be the 
victim of the next. They were sensible of 
pain ; they rose in vengeance against wrong, 
but fickle and essentially ignorant, they 
knew not how to seek the right. Always 
restless, they laboured for change rather 
than for reform. They were easily excited, 
and soon appeased or subdued. 

** The national character of France ap- 
pears to little advantage in the scenes to 
which we allude. Meanly crouching to a 
foreign enemy, the King of England was 
greeted with the cry of * Noel * in Paris, and 
the greatest affection was expressed for the 
monarch they hated. The English were 
repeatedly invited to take a part in their 
quarrels, and alternately counted as pro- 
tectors, and massacred or execrated as 
tyrants. 

"Both in France and England supersti- 
tion flourished as vigorously as ever. Ed- 
ward in, during a storm, vowed to Heaven 
that he would put an end to the evils which 
he had brought on France, but thought 
little of his vow when the thunder had ceased. 
The French became bold as lions, the Eng- 
lish timid as sheep, when the Pucelle 
ai^)eared, sustained by * her voices.' Acci- 
dent made her the prisoner of the English; 
and then the frantic bigotry, common to 
both countries, made a horrible sacrifice of 
the guiltless enthusiast. It was not the 
wrath, nor the policy of Bedford, mean 
and hateful as that might be, which doomed 
the imhappy Jeanne to expiate her virtue 
at the stake, the learning and piety of 
France assisted in the atrocious murder. 
Gelu and Gerson were written to in the 
first instance on the subject of her inspira- 
tion. The former returned an elaborate 
treatise in reply, showing that her mission 
might be from God. Gerson does not ap- 
pear to have denied it; yet neither he nor 
the other profound theologian had a word 
to urge in behalf of a suffering captive; 
and the university of Paris, hifluenced no 
doubt by Gerson, ignominiously laboured 
with fatal success to seal her doom. 

" Nor was it only in this instance that 
superstition was in the ascendant, and its 



shameless votaries triumphatit over hu- 
manity. When Richmond seized the Sieur 
de Giac, it was not enough to accuse him a£ 
crimes against the state, but he was con- 
victed of selling one of his hands to the 
devil I Such senseless cruelty, preposterous 
as hateful, forbid us to think that mental 
cultivation had made great advances among 
the people at large, as no personal rancour 
which might di^)ose a captain or statesman 
to destroy an enCTay, woiUdlead him volun- 
tarily to appear ridiculous, as well as wicked. 
The charge preferred, though the accuser 
might not believe it, was one that he ex- 
■pected others would believe. 

" In the habits of the people no striking 
alteration can be remarked. Literature, in 
the midst of the convulsions of the times, 
continued its onward course. The great Eng- 
lish reformer, Wickliffe, gave to the world a 
translation of the bible, and the imx>ortance 
of his labours was soon acknowledged in 
every country in Europe. The clergy took 
the alarm in England, France, and Germany, 
and would fain have dealt with him as a 
heretic. Supported by John of Gaunt, it 
was his good fortune to pass through life 
unharmed. Not so his immediate followers. 
The doings of the council of Constance pre- 
sent a tSe of mournful interest, in which 
we find all that was recognised as pious, 
learned and g^at, differing and at variance 
on many points, unanimous in the resolution 
to shed the blood ofomhappy men, the 
devout John Huss, and the ardent Jerome 
of Prague, whose only crime was a sincere 
desire to enlighten their fellow men. The 
struggle of reason they hoped to imt down 
for ever by the fires of persecution. 

** The real offence of those martyrs was 
their joining with the noble-minded English 
reformer, Lord Cobham, to condemn the 
sordid and dissolute lives of the priests. 
That alone was the cause of their being 
pursued with such unrelenting hate. The 
bishops of that day held that the church of 
Christ would be in danger if its ministers 
were compelled to lead a decent life." 

This history is not exactly a translation, 
but is founded on the Pictorial ffistoiy of 
France byBuretti, and the fine engravings 
of the French work, to the number of four 
hundred, will illustrate it when completed. 
Of these many are very superior works of 
art. The eminent artists, Mr Newenham, 
Mr Lucas, and Mr Brown, better known as 
Phiz^ among other judges, have pronomced 
on them a warm eulogium. The beautifhl 
engraving of the Bastile whteh adorns our 
present number is one of them. We may 
possibly take a future <^portunity of bring- 
ing other specimens bdfbre the readers of 
the Mirror to justify the character we have 
given of this spirited puMicatkm. 



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n 



Jkafy, Claatiotd, Hittorical^ and Pietttrmque. 
By W. Brockedon, F.R.S., &c, Duncaja 
and MiUcolm, London ; and Blackie and 
Son, Glasgow. 

This beautiful work has now proceeded 
to tiie thirteenth number; and whether we 
look to the choice of the subjects, by far 
the greater part of which are altogether 
new to the public, though representations 
of scenes of the highest interest ; or to the 
admirable way in which they are engraved, 
the work is ahnost without a rival in the 
iUostrated publications of this or any other 
country. The plates are upon a scale which 
enables the engravers to do justice to their 
subjects ; and that the most eminent are en • 
gs^ed on the work is shown by the frequent 
recurrence of the names of Brandard, Cou- 
sens, and Willmore. Works of this class are 
too frequently looked upon as mere books of 
prints, and the text is often passed over; 
but we can assure our readers that the re- 
search which has been made for the inform- 
ation which the accompanying text com- 
municates, and the interest of the matter 
given in illustration of the engravings, will 
be found infinitely more important and 
valuable than the usual character of this 
class of literature, and adds to the reputa- 
tion of the artist and author, combined in 
the same talented individual 

We have learned that the work will ex- 
tend to twenty parts, and that those which 
are to follow will contain many fine sub- 
jects, long promised by Stanfield, Harding, 
Front, lidtch, &c, which are now in the 
hands of the engravers. 

ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE LIFE. 

( Concluded from our last, ) 
The food of cattle is of two kinds — azotised 
and unazotised — ^with or without nitrogen. 
The following table gives the analysis of 
various kinds of food of cattle in their fresh 
state : — 



Lentils - 
Oate 
Oatmeal 
Barley Meal - 
Hay - . 
Wheat Straw - 
Tnmlpa - 
Swedes - 
Mangel-wurzel 
White Carrot - 
Potatoes - 
Red Beet 
Linseed Cake - 
Bran 



Water. 


Organic 


16 


SU 


14 


84 


16 


81 


18 


79 


9 


89 


15i 


82) 


16 


76| 


18 


79* 


89 


10 


85 


14 


89 


10 


87 


12 


72 


27 


89 


10 


17 


75J 


HI 


8(4 



Ashes. 



8 
2 
2 

? 



A glanoe at this taUe woidd enable a 
person to estimate the value of the articles 
as diet. Thus every 100 tons of turnips 
contain 90 tuns of water. But the value of 
the inorganic and organic matters which 
these foods contain d^er. Thus Mr Rham 
states that 100 lbs. of hay are equal to 
339 lbs. of mangel-wurzeL It would ba 
seen by the table that that quantity of hay 
contained 76 lbs. of organic matter, whilst 
the mangel-wurzel contained only 34 lbs. 
One result of feeding animals on foods con- 
taining much water is, that the water ab- 
stracts from the animal a large quantity 
of heat for the purpose of bringing it up to 
the temperature of the body, and in this 
way a loss of material took place. The 
mode proposed by Sir Humphrey Davy of 
ascertaining the nutritive properties of 
plants by mechanically separating the 
gluten, is unsusceptible of accuracy. The 
more accurate way is to ascertain the 
quantity of nitrogen, which being multi- 
plied by 6-2, will give the quantity of al- 
bumen contained in any given specimen of 
food. The following is a table of the equi- 
valent value of several kinds of food, with 
reference to the formation of muscle and 
fat ; the albumen indicating the muscle- 
forming principle ; the imazotised matters 
indicating the fat-forming principle : — 



lbs. 




Albumen. 


Unazotised ^matter. 


100 Flesh - 


25 





„ Blood - 


_ 


20 





„ Peas • 


. 


29 


51i 


„ Beans - 


. 


31 


52 


„ Lentils - 


. 


33 


48 


„ Potatoes 


. 


2 


24^ 


„ Oats - 


- 


lOi 


68 


„ Barley Meal 


- 


14 


68 


„ Hay . 


- 


8 


68| 


„ Turnips - 


.. 


1 


9* 


„ Carrots - 


. 


2 


10 


„ Red Beet 


jj 


li 


H 



The analyses in this table are partly the 
result of Dr Playfair and Boussingault's 
analysis, and partly Dr Playfair*s own 
analysis. The albumen series indicate the 
flesh-forming principles, and the imazotised 
series indicate the fat-forming principles. 
By comparing this table with the former, 
it will at once be seen which foods contain 
not only the greatest quantity^ of organic 
matter, but what proportion of this organic 
matter is nutritive and which is fattening; 
or that which furnishes living tissue and 
that which famishes combustible material. 
In cold weather those foods should be given 
which contain the larger proportion of un- 
azotised matters, in order to sustain tilio 
heat of the body. Thus it will be seen 
that potatoes are good for fattening, but 
bad for fleshening. Linseed cake contains 
a great deal of fattening matter, and but 
little nutritive matter; hence, barley-raeal, 
'^^ch contains a good deal of albumen^ 



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may he adtantageously mixed with it. 
Ihmias, a French chemist, states that the 

Srinciple of fat exists in vegetables, as in 
ay and maize, and that, like albmnen, it 
is deposited in the tissues unchanged. But 
Liebig regards fat as transformed sugar, 
starch, gum, &c., which has undergone a 
change in the process of digestion. This 
is why linseed cake is fattening : all the 
oil is squeezed out of the seed, but the seed- 
coat, which contains a great deal of gum 
and the starch of the seed, is left, and these 
are fattening principles. The oxygen in- 
troduced by respiration into the limgs is 
destined for the destruction of carbonaceous 
matter, but there is a provision made for 
taking it into the stomach with the food, 
and this is done by the saliva. The saliva 
is always full of bubbles, which are air- 
bubbles, which carry the oxygen of the at- 
mosphere into the stomach with the food. 
The object of rumination in animals is the 
more perfect mixins: of the food with the 
oxygen of the air. This is why chaff should 
not be cut so short for ruminating as for 
non-ruminating animals, as the shorter the 
chaff is the less it is ruminated, and the less 
oxygen it gets. Chaff is cut one inch for 
the ox, half an inch for the sheep, and a 
quarter for the horse. Some might, in con- 
sequence of this, suppose that cutting food 
is, then, of little use ; but when jtjs. con- 
sidered that niminatibn is a strong exer- 
cise, or that" an aninial will not be. eating 
more food that is rumiuating, it will easily 
be seen how cutting faciUtates fattening. 
In order that food may be properly rumi- 
nated, it reauires a certain amount of con- 
sistency and bulk : hence all watery foods, 
as turnips and mangel-wurzel, should be 
mixed with straw. The opinion is very 
correct; that an animal " cannot chew its 
food without straw." An important inor- 
ganic constituent of the food is salt ; it is 
a chloride of sodium. Whilst the chlorine 
goes to form the gastric iuice, which is so 
important an agent in diarestion, the soda 
goes to form the bile, which is a compound 
of soda. The bile is, in fact, a secondary 
combination, bv which the carbonaceous 
matter is brought in contact with the oxy- 
gen, in order to be burnt. It is thus that 
common s^t becomes so important and 
necessary an article of diet. In the series 
of changes by which the oxygen of the air 
is brought in contact with the carbonaceous 
matters in the body, iron plays an import- 
ant part, and is hence one of the necessary 
ingredients of animal food. There are two 
oxides of iron, the peroxide and the pro- 
toxide ; the first containing a large quan- 
tity of oxygen, the second a smaller quan- 
tity ; the first, on being introduced into 
the blood, gives up a portion of its oxygen 
to the carbonaceous material of the bile, 



carlxmic acid and protoxide of iron being 
formed ; these two unite, forming a carbo- 
nate of the protoxide of iron, which, on be- 
ing carried to the lungs, gives off its car- 
])Ojac acid, and the protoxide of iron ab- 
sorbing the oxygen brought into the hmgs 
by respiration, forms again a peroxide, 
which again goes into the circulation, and, 
ineeting with carbonaceous matters of the 
bile, unites with them' and produces again 
and again the same series of changes. The 
small quantity, then, of inorganic ingre- 
dients in the food performs very important 
functions ; and in the abstract of them, 
animals would die. 



THE HISTORY. OF A PLAY. 
The fkte of the new comedy noticed in our 
last, so far as it can be present known, 
is rather singular. Designed originally for 
the Haymarket, and the principal character 
written for one actor, it was not acted 
there, because Mr Farren did not approve 
of Lord Merlin. That gentleman might 
be justified in declining a part to which he 
could not do justice, but there is nothing 
in the role that another performer might 
not have undertaken with advantage to 
the theatre. When John Bull was in 
rehearsal, Munden refused to be the repre- 
sentative of Sir Simon Rochdale^ but Mr 
Blanchard took it, and the play ran thirty 
'or forty nights. In this case', because ^fr 
Farren would not be in the caste. Mothers 
and Daughters were obliged to seek their 
•fortune elsewhere. At Covent Garden it 
was represented, and if frequent laughter 
and repeated shouts of applause go for any- 
thing, the triumph of the author was com- 
plete. But when the curtain fell, instead 
of being aifnounced for the next night, it 
was given out for Saturday. This notice 
was repeated on the following day in the 
bills, with the addition, that " the success- 
ful new comedy would be performed three 
times a-week till further notice." The an- 
nouncement was continued till the close oi 
the week. On Saturday, it was not repre- 
sented, and other plays were underlined for 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Friday. It is thus dealt with as if it had 
been an absolute failure. Such a sequel to 
success our ** young remembrance cannot 
parallel." It is the object of all managers to 
gratify the town with novelty, but this is a 
novelty which was neither expected nor de- 
sired, and one which at present is very im- 
perfectly understood. We hope some expla- 
nation will be given, that it may not be 
supposed the writer of a play of great 
merit, when he has been, honoured with 
the unequivocal favour of an audience, 
will find the laurels he has gsdned barren, 
and be taught, like Dr Johnson, to regard 
success or failure with rigid indifference. 



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73 




SONS OF SOVEREIGN. 



THJ^.ARUS'TRaVC. 
PRINCE OF WALES. 



NEPHEW OF SOVER EIGN. 





The Royal ensigns armorial are, quarterly first gules, three lions passant gardant, in pale 
. or, for the arms of England impaled with those of Scotland, which are or, a lion rampant 
within a double treasure counterflory, gules ; azure and Irish harp or stringed argent for 
Ireland. Above the whole, a helmet suitable to her Majesty's royal dignity, upon the same 
a rich mantle of cloth, doubled ermine, adorned with an imperial crown, surmounted by a 
lion passant gardant, or crowned with the like for the crest. Supporters, on the dexter side, 
a lion rampant gardant, or crowned as the former ; on the sinister side a unicorn, argent, 
armed, crined and unguled, or gorged with a collar of crosses patee and Jleurs de lis, a chain 
thereto affixed, passing between his forelegs and reflexed over his back, or, both standing 
on a compartment, whence issue two royal badges of her Majesty's chief dominions; 
namely, a red rose for England, and a thistle for Scotland ; and on the compartment an 
escroll with this motto, Dieu et mon Droit, 



ORIGIN OF THE ROYAL FAMILY 
OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Attention has lately been drawn to the 
genealogy of the Queen, who is proved by 
one of our contemporaries to be the repre- 
sentative of Woden. Without going quite 
80 far back, the following tables will we be- 
lieve be found correct. The dates mark 
the commencement of each reign. 

ANGLO-SAXON DESCJENT. 
A. D. 

800. Egbert, founder of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy. 



836. Ethelwulf. (His four sons in succession, 856 
Ethelbald, 860 Ethelbert, 86G Ethelred, and) 
871. Alfred the Great. 
901 . Edward the Elder. (925 his eldest son, Athel- 

stane.) 
941. Edmund I. (946 his brother Edred, 955 Ed- 
mund's son, Edwy.) 
959. Edgar. (975 his son Edward, the Martyr.) 
978. Ethelred II. (The Danish line, 1013 Sweyn, 

1014 Canute.) 
1016. Edmund II., sumamed Ironside. 
Edward, designated the Outlaw. 
Margaret, married Malcolm III., King of 
Scotland. 

It was by the union of Margaret with 
Malcolm Canmore, after the death of her 



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THE MIRROR. 



brother Edgar Athelingwithout issue, that 
the Saxon was joined to the Scottish line, 
which can be traced back to Kenneth Mac 
Alpin, or Kenneth n. From this descent 
proceeded as set forth below. 

SCOTTISH DESCENT. 

843. Kenneth MacAlpin, styled Kenneth II. 

863. Constantine II. (882 his brother Aodh or 

Hugh, and same year Grig, a northern chief, 

followed by Eoch, Kennel's grandson by a 

daughter.) 

893. Donald lY. (904 Constantine IIL, son of 

Hugh. 
944. Malcolm I. (853 InduU; son of Constantine 

III.) 
961. Duff. (965 Culen, son of Indulf, 970 Kenneth 
III., brother of Dufif, 994 Constantine IV., 
son of Culen.) 
994. Kenneth IV., styled the Grhn. (1004 Mal- 
colm, a Moray chief, usually overlooked or 
confounded with his successor, Malcolm 
II.) 
1029. Malcolm II., whose daughter, 

Bethoc, married Crinan, styled Abbot of Dun- 
keld, perhaps a Pictish chief. 
1033. Duncan. (1040 Macbeth, Thane of Moray.) 
1057. Malcolm III., sumamed Canmore. 
1124. David I. 

Henry, Crown Prince of Scotland. 
David, Earl of Huntingdon. 
Isabella, married Bruce of Annandale. 
Robert Bruce, claimant with Baliol. 
Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick by marriage. 

1306. Robert I., the Conqueror at Bannockbum. 

(1329 his son David II.) 
Marjory, married Walter the High Steward. 
1370. Robert II., the first of the Stuart line. 
1390. Robert III. 
1400. James I. 
1437. James II. 

1460. James III. 

1488. James IV. married Margaret of England. 
1513. James V. 

1542. Mary, usually styled Queen of Scots. 
1567. James VI. of Scotland and I. of England. 

It now remains for us to add the Nor- 
man descent of the Queen. 

1066. William I., styled the Conqueror. (1087 his 
second son William II., sumamed Rufus.) 

1100. Henry I. (1135 his nephew Stephen.) Ma- 
tilda married Geoffrey of Anjou. 

1 154. Henry II., the first of the Plantagenets. (1 1S9 
Richard I., his eldest surviving son.) 

1199. John. 

1216. Henry III. 

1272. Edward I. 

1307. Edward II. 

1327. Edward III. (1377 his grandson Richard II. 

Lionel, Duke of Clarence, as representing the 
elder Une. 

Fhilippa, married Edmund Mortimer, Earl of 
March. 

Roger Mortimer, Earl of March. 

Ann Mortimer married Richard, Earl of Cam- 
bridge. 

Richard, Duke of York. 

1461. Edward IV., the first of the House of York. 
Elizabeth, married Henry VII. 

Edward III. His younger line was repre- 
sented by 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. 

John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. 

John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. 

Margaret, married Edmund Tudor, Earl of 
Ricihmond. 
1485. Henry VII., the first of the Tudors, married 
Elisabeth of York. 

Margaret, married James IV. of Scotlft&d. 

James V. of Scotland. 

Mary, Queen of Soots. 



1603. James VI. of Scotland and I. of England 
first of the Stuarts on the English throne. 
Elizabeth married Frederick, Elector Palatine* 
Sophia married Ernest, Elector of Hanover. 
1714. George I., the first of the Hanoverian line. 
.1727. George IL 

Frederick, Prince of Wales. 
1760. George III. (His sons, 1820 George IV., and 
1830 William IV.) 
Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of Geoigs 
III. 
1837. VICTORIA, her present M^esty. 

In tracing back the history of the hu- 
man race, so far as the same can be at- 
tempted, inquiry in the case of many great 
houses, as in that of all great nations, is 
not abandoned, till it is lost in fabulous 
legends. The illustrious family which has 
now for nearly a hundred and thirty years 
been seated on the throne of these realms, 
appears in the well authenticated records 
of many ages. A crowd of splendid names 
adorn it, but, at length we arrive at a most 
fanciful story which gives the supposed 
origin of their famous appellation. 

There is in it so much of the ludicrous, 
that we can hardly venture to relate it, in 
connection with the true history of the 
august ancestors of our Sovereign, but 
however wantihg in dignity, it is too sin- 
gular to be passed over. We give it copied 
from an old writer, exactly as it was pub- 
lished in 1714 immediately after the acces- 
sion of Greorge the First, and as it appears 
in the library of the British Museum. We 
must however observe, the quaintness of 
this style is in fine keeping witii the mat- 
ter. " I come now," says our author, " to 
speak of the original of the G-uelphian 
family, the famous ancestors of the House 
of Lunenburg, Dukes at the same time of 
Bavaria and Saxony, of which they are the 
sole remainder. This family is derived 
from one Guelphus, whence the name pro- 
ceeded. The son of IsenbCTdus, Earl of 
Altoufif in Swabia, whose wife, called Jer^ 
mintrudis, having accused a poor woman 
in her neighbourhood of adultery, and 
caused her to be grievously pimished, for 
having twelve children at a birth, was after- 
wards herself delivered of a like numba*, 
and all of them sons. 

Her husband being absent at the time of 
her delivery, she commanded the nurse to 
destroy eleven of them, fearing it seems 
the like staui and punishment, as by her 
instigation was inflicted on the poor wo- 
man. The nurse gcwng to perform this 
inhuman and wicked command, was met 
by the old Earl, then just returning home 
in <* a providential minute ;" who asked her 
what she had in her apron ; she made an- 
swer " whelps :" he desired to see them ; 
she denied him. Angry at this refusal he 
opened her apron, and there found eleven 
of his own sons, pretty sweet babes and of 
most promising countenances. 
«« Examining the matter, be disooTered 



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THE MIRROR. 



75 



the Tntiiit and enjoining the old Trot to be 
secret in it^ he pat the children out to 
Nurse. Six years being expired, the Earl 
inrited to a Feast most of his own and his 
Iiady's kindred ; and doathing the young 
Boys all alike, presented them to their 
mother, who, by the number of them, sus- 
pecting the matter, with great Contrition 
confessed her offence, and was pardoned by 
the good old Earl, and afterwanis she care- 
fully educated her Children, whom the old 
Earl commanded to be called Guelphs, al- 
luding to the Whelps or Puppies, which the 
Nurse toldhim she had in her Apron. From 
the eldest of these Guelphs or Guelps suc- 
ceeded that Henry Guelph, son of Robert 
3Earl of AltorflT, whom Conrad 11. made 
Duke of Bavaria ; many of whose Posterity 
eojoyed that Dukedom, increased at last by 
the addition of the Dukedom of Saxony, in 
the Person of Duke Henry, simamed "the 
Proud," father to Henry, called " the Lion," 
and grandfather of Henry and William, the 
first Dukes of Brunswick andLunenbotrg. 

** It was from the Guelphs sprung the two 
Brothers, who maintained the two Factions 
in I taly which lasted from Pope Gregory 
VIL, caUed "Hild^rand," to the time of 
Adrian FV. in the year 1154 ; for one of 
the Brothers, named Guelpho, stood for the 
Pope, the other, named Gibellano, declared 
for the Emperor. The Quarrel spreading 
and continuing for many Years, the two 
Parties were called Gudfs and Gibbelins, 
and at last became the Wonder and Amaze- 
ment of the World, insomuch that some are 
of opinion that the Fiction of Elfs and Gob- 
lins, wherewith we used to Fright Young 
Children, was derived from hence; and 
whenever there were any Disputes for some 
Years after, wherein any parties engaged 
themselves in the Pope's Faction, they 
were called, by way of distinction, Guelphs, 
which appellations were much the same as 
Wliiff and Toty at this Day in Great 
Britain." 

The writer then sets forth the succes- 
sion of the family of Guelph, sons of Ro- 
bert, Earl of Suabia, as Dukes of Bavaria, 
Saxony, Brunswick, and Limenburg, down 
to George, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg, 
then King of Great Britain, he having suc- 
ceeded to the throne August 1st, 1714. 
They are thus enumerated. 

•*L Henry Guelph, son of Robert, Earl of 
Altorff ; made Duke of Bavaria by the 
Emperor Conrade. 

n. Guelpho, son of Henry Guelph, or 
Henry V. of Bavaria. 

m. Welpho m., made Duke by the 
Emperor Henry IV. 

rv. Welpho IV. son to Welpho m. 

V. Henry VHL, sumamed the Proud, 
lirother of Guelpho IV. by the marriage of 
Gertrude, daughter of Lotharius, the second 
Duke of Saxony also. 



StTKES or 8AX0ST. 



1125. The tame Henry Guelph, surnamed "the 
Proud," created by Lotharius Duke Elector 
of Saxony. 

1 139. Henry the Second, sumamed "the Lion," Duke 
of Saxony and Bavaria, son of Henry •* the 
Proud," by his first Trife Walfildis, the 
daughter of Duke Magnus, added to this 
estate the countries of Mecklenburg and 
Lunenburg, which he conquered from the 
Solaaes, becoming by that means so great, 
that neglecting his duty to the Emperor 
Frederick, surnamed " Barbarosa," and 
sidinjg with the Pope against him, he was 
by him publicly proscribed, his neighbour- 
ing Princes armed against him, and by their 
joint forces routed of all his estates, every- 
one laying hold of that which lay nearest to 
him ; by means whereof this great estate 
being parcelled and divided into many parts, 
the title of the Duke Elector of Saxon v was 
given by the said Emperor Bernard An- 
halt, son of Albert, Marquis of Branden- 
burg : so that he became the last Duke of 
Saxony of that name, and first of Bruns- 
wick. 

BaVNSWICK. I ITTXENBrKO. 

1195. Heniy, first Earl William, first Earl after 
after Duke of Bruns- 1 Duke of Lunenbunr. 
wick. I * 

1213. Otho, son of William, Duke of Lunenbui^, 
after the death of Henry, Duke of Bruns- 
wick, also, 



BumswicK. 
1254. Albert, son of Otho. 
1279. Albert II., son of 

Albert 
1818. Otho II., son of 

Albert. 



I.UNENBTT&0. 

1252, John, son of Otha 
1261. Otho II., son of 

John. 
1330. Otho III., son of 

Otho. 



1334. Magnus, son of Albert II., on the failing of 

tibe o^er house enjoyed both Dukedoms. 
1368. Magnus II., son of Magnus I. 
1873. Henry, son of Magnus II. 



BRimSWICK. 

1417. William, son of 

Henry. 
1482. William II., son of 

William. 
1503. Henry 11., son of 

Waiiam II. 
1514. Henry III., son of 

Henry II. 
1568. Julius, son of 

Henry III. 
1589. Henry IV., son of 

Jvdius, who married 

the Lady Elizabeth, 

sister to Ann, Queen of 

England, who was a 

daughter of Denmark. 
Frederick Ulrick, son of 

Elizabeth of Denmark 

and of Henry Julius. • 
1634. Augustus, son of 

Henry, Duke of Lu- 
nenburg, succeeded on 

the death of Frederick 

Alredt, and the failure 

of the house of Bruns- 
wick in line, in this 

kingdom. ' 

Ernest Augustus, son of Augustus the 
ilrst, Bishop of Osnaburg, afterwards 
Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg, upon the 
renunciation of his elder brother, John Fre- 
derick, who turned Boman Catholic some 
time before he died, the eldest brother of 
all being the late Duke of CeU or Zell. 
The Emperor Leopold created the said Er- 

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UTStHBTTRG. 

Bernard, brother of Mag- 
nus. 

1434. Frederick II., son 
of Bernard. 

1478. Otho III., son of 
Frederick. 

1514. Henry III., son of 
Otho III. 

1532. Otho IIL, son of 
Henry III. 

Ernest, the brother of 
Otho, succeeded in his 
brother's lifetime, sur- 
rendering his estate for 
an annual pension. 

1546. Henry IV., son of 
Ernest 

1590. Ernest II., son of 
Henry IV. 

1628. Wolfgangus, the 
brother of Henry IV., 
and uncle of Ernest II. 
Duke of Lunenburg. 



76 



THE MIRROR. 



nest Aujifastus an Elector of the Empire in 
1692. He married the Princess Sophia, 
sister to Charles Lodowick. Rupert and 
Edward, all of them the immediate issues 
of the late Lady Elizabeth, daughter to 
King James the First of England, &c., by 
Frederick the Fifth, Count Palatine of the 
Rhine, and King of Bohemia ; by the Prin- 
cess Sophia he had several sons and but 
one daughter, the eldest, Greorge Lewis, 
bom May 28th, 1660 ; Christian, bom 
September 29th, 1671 ; Ernest Augustus, 
bom September 17th, 1674 ; Sophia Char- 



lottawasbom October 1669, and mankd 
to Frederick, late King of Prussia, in 1684. 
George Lewis, the present Duke Elector 
of Brunswick, now Kmg of Great Britain, 
married November 1st, 1682, to his first 
cousin, the Princess Sophia Dorothea, only 
daughter and heiress to the Duke of Cele, 
by whom he had one son and one daugh- 
ter ; the son is now his Royal Highness 
George Augustus Prince of Wales, fiwc., the 
daughter is called Dorothea Sophia, mar- 
ried to the then Prince Royal, at this time 
King of Prussia, of Brandenburg, &c. 




PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Among the recent ornaments to our metro- 
pohs, Messrs Marks and Co/s "London 
Carriage Repository," Langham place, is 
worthy of particular attention. It was 
established in 1789, and has, during the 
past year, been entirely rebuilt. The ori- 
ginal structure, which was designed by Mr 
Nash, was considered handsome, but the 
elevation was lower than the adjoining 
houses. The new erection is a lofty fagade, 
with a frontage of 105 feet, and consists of 
four private houses combined into one mii- 
form design, the division of the building 
within being indicated only by that num • 
ber of entrance doors. The elevation is of 
a striking character, and consists of a 
ground floor and mezzanine (or a range 
of low apartments between the principal 
first and second floors) within arcades, 
whose arches have ornamented mouldings, 
and spring from pilasters ; above these are 
two series of windows, the principal floor 
and the chamber over it, above which are 
attic sleeping rooms that do not show them- 
selves externally, the roof being concealed 
by the cornice and pierced parapet. The 
elevation is divided horizontally into three 
compartments by a slight break in the 
centre, which below forms the entrance to 
the " Repository," and has over that a single 
triple window, and on the level of the cham- 



ber floor an open loggia of three arches. 
Each of the lateral divisions has four win- 
dows, and two entrances below. Though 
the fagade is thus divided, the cornice is 
continued uninterruptedly from end to end, 
whereby the whole is united on the upper 
line of the building. The interior of the 
"Repository," from its lightness and ele- 
gance, particularly attracted our observa- 
tion. After passing through the lofty en- 
trance, the floor of which is ornamented 
by a tessellated pavement, a spacious area 
presents itself surrounded with extensive 
and ornamental galleries, supported by iron 
columns. The arrangement of light is 
judicious, and the end designed (that of 
exposing every carriage to the spectator's 
view), fully effected. " The London Car- 
riage Repository" must be seen in order to 
be appreciated; but we doubt not that 
during the approaching season it will be a 
favourite place of fashionable resort, and 
the public spirit evinced by its proprietor 
meet with an ample reward. 



A MERCHANT S?:VEN HUNDRED 
YEARS AGO. 

In the * Stirling Saga,* published by the 
IcelandicLiterary Society, among other in- 
teresting matter, we find a curious picture, 
of what a merchant should be, written by 



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THE MIRROR. 



n 



SB loelandic sage about the year 1190. It 
18 a filler who is addressing his son on the 
course he ought to pursue ; and some of his 
iiints, thou^ seven hundred and fifty 
years dd, if acted upon, would do no harm 
to some merchants that we could point to 
in the year 1843. The paternal sage thus 
discourses: — 

** A great philosopher has said, * To fear 
Gk)d the Ahnighty is the beginning of wis- 
dinn,* and shall he not be feared as an 
enemy but also as afriend, according to the 
answer of the Son of God to him who asked 
his council, * Thou shalt love God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy strength/ And 
though God is to be loved above all, so is he 
also to be feared when a man feels in him- 
self a tendency to evil, for such desires 
must be controlled by the fear of God, 
whether or not we are influenced by the 
fear of man; and he who has learned this, 
and acts upon it, possesses the truest wis- 
dom and the highest bUss. 

"But you must well imderstand," he 
continues, "the distinction between the 
true merchant and the self-styled mer- 
chants, who carry on dishonest practices 
both in bujong and selling. The true mer- 
chant is one who exposes himself to many 
dangers — no-w on the sea, now in heathen- 
ish lands — and almost always among un- 
known people. He must seriously consider 
whither he ought to direct his thoughts, 
in order that his affairs maybe prosperous. 
The ocean should witness his docile promp- 
titude and persevering gentleness — ^wher- 
ever he tarries, in commercial towns 
especially, h6 should exhibit modesty and 
meekness, and win the kind affections of 
all people. He must have no noisy or 
troublesome companions — he must rise 
early— he must attend the morning mass 
at church, and seek the favour of Heaven 
by psalms and prayers. After thy night's 
repose go forth to thy business. If the 
scene is new to thee, then is thy special 
prudence needful, and thou must study the 
manners and habits of the merchants, those 
who have the most honourable name and 
fame. Take care that thy wares, whether 
thou buy or sell, be honest and undamaged, 
and thorough be thy examination before 
thy bargains are dosed. Seek witnesses to 
aH thy contracts — discreet and honourable 
witnesses. Settle thy bargains, if that may 
be, before thy morning or mid-day meal, 
and, having settled them, prepare thy 
board with white linen, wholesome food, 
and comfortable drink. Keep a good table 
if thou art able, and when thy meal is over, 
take a short rest, or a pleasant walk, in 
order to keep thy spirits cheerfuL Inform 
thyself as to the business that other mer- 
chants are doing, what new merchandise 
is arrived which thou mayest be desirous 
of baying. Returned home, examine and 



take good charge of thy purchases, ieuid see 
that they are not subject to loss or damage 
while under thy roof. If thy wares get 
injured, and it is necessary for thee to get 
rid of them, show the defects openly uul 
honestly, and make the best bargain thou 
art able, lest thou be deemed a cheat. Set 
a fair price upon thy goods, not higher 
than is just, and thou idlt not be deemed 
a higgler (mangari, literally monger), and 
let not thy wares remain long on hand, as 
it is merchant-like to be active in selling 
and in buying, and in making many profits, 
and devote thy hours of leisure to study. 
Learn knowledge from books, and espe- 
cially law books. In these last inform 
thyself thoroughly, and while thou art a 
merchant there is none of them so import- 
ant to thee as the Bjarkeij law.* For when 
thou art well acquainted with the laws, 
not only wilt thou protect thyself against 
injustice from others, but secure thyself 
against illegal dealings towards them. But 
though thou art called upon especially to 
study the laws of other countries, thou 
must not forget to become acquainted with 
their manners and usages, and specially in 
the places where thou"makest thy abode. 
And if thy knowledge is to be perfect, thou 
must study all languages, especially the 
Latin and Welsh (Provensal), which are 
the most widely spoken, yet must thou not 
forget thy mother-tongue. 

" Accustom thyself to a busy and wake- 
ful life, but not so as to injure health by 
over-exertion. Keep aloof from sadness, 
for sadness is sickness of soul. Be kind 
and gay — equable, not changeable. Avoid 
evil speaking, and give good coimsel to him 
who will accept it. Seek the company of 
the best men. Keep thy tongue carefully, 
it may honour, it may also condemn thee. 
If thou wax angry, speak little, and that 
little not vehemently. Men would give 
gold sometimes to buy back a passionate 
word, and I know of nothing that so destroys 
unity as the exchange of evil language, 
especially in the moment of strife; and 
there is no nobler, no higher power than 
that by which a man can keep his own 
tongue from cursing, slandering, and other 
foolish prate. There are other things to be 
avoided Uke the fiend himself, as fulness, 
». e. excess, gaming, dice, wagers, and other 
excesses. These are the roots of many 
more evils, and, unless great care is taken, 
wiU hand thee over to great shame and sin. 

" When thy capital amounts to a con- 
siderable sum, divide it into three parts. 
Invest one-third with honest and able mer- 
chants, who abide in the best trading places; 
the other two-thirds divide in different 
plans, and employ in conunercial journeys, 

♦ The Bjarkeij law is the ancient commercial anci 
maritime code of north-western Europe. 

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78 



THE MIRROR. 



fotHixiB it is not likely that in any case all 
thy fortune should be sacrificed. But if 
thou hast amassed very large stores of 
nrfMlth, then employ two-thirds of it in the 
puidiase of land, the safest of all posses- 
sions both for thyself and thy family ; and 
thnt, if it please thee, thou canst employ 
the other third in thy wonted trade; but 
whon thou art satisfied, when thou hast 
seen the mann^-s of foreign lands, and 
undertaken many voyages and trading 
journeys, thou mayst withdraw. Yet re- 
member all thou hast seen both of good and 
evil, the evil that thou mayst avoid it, the 
good to profit by it, not ajione for thy own 
benefit, but for the benefit of all wIk) will 
be counsi^Jed by thee." 

-Some of the meek London m^^chants, if 
they were to buy back all the passionate 
words they utter with gold, would not very 
soon find it convenient to divide their capi- 
tal into three parts. Conscious of this, Iww 
happy it would be if one and all, acting (m 
the advice of the northern Solomon, would 
** keep their tongues from cursing, slander* 
ing, and other foolish prate." 



LAST MOMENTS OF THE LATE 
MR DRUMMOKD. 

The assassination of Mr Drummond is an 
event which shocks the general observer 
of human affidrs, almost as much as the 
intimate friends of the iU-fated gentleman. 
It now seems beycmd all doubt the object 
of the assassin was to murder Snr Robert 
PeeL FrcHn t^e situation held by Mr 
Drummond — ^not prominent, but fkr from 
unimportant — ^he might reasonaWy have 
hoped to escape those perils which are 

** To men remote from power but rarely known ;** 

but chance has ruled it otherwise, and the 
comparatively unknown Secretary falls in- 
stead of the far-famed statesman. 

Thare was something deeply interesting, 
and we had almost said consoling, in tl^ 
last momaits o£ the sufiferer. He bore the 
course of his indisposition with great forti- 
tude, and almost denied that he was con* 
sdous of pain; difficulty of breathing was 
that of which he most complained. Oh 
Monday evening, at half-past six, a change 
was observed whidi satisfied his medkal 
att^idants that all hope of recovery must 
be abandoned; and the restrictions pre- 
viously imposed were in consequence with- 
drawn. On Wednesdsyr evening no pulse 
could be felt, and he tben inquired, with a 
bland smile, " If all hope were past ?" Mr 
Guthrie replied, that for him hope in this 
world was no moie, and he must wholly 
trust in God. " Well," replied the dying 
man, " I have endeavoured to live honestly, 
doing as much good as I could, and I place 



ngr hq^ in God's mercy for Taywdtrnj^ 
tion." l^n turning to hk raiter, whose 
affectionate attritions had been unr^nit- 
tlug, he said, '*We h&ve lived kmg and 
happily together, and in departing^ my 
only regret is leaving you." He afierwards 
inquired how long he might expect to live, 
and being told ** an hour or two," he said, 
" Well, the sooner the bett^; I feel no 
pain. That ugly f^enoh word mo^oiM most 
fully expresses my burden." Shortly aftsr 
he said, " Will it be wrong for a man in 
my situation to ask for a glass of wine and 
water?" It was handed to him, he drank, 
and in a few moments from that time, he 
searenely breathed his last. 



DESTRUCTION OF THE ROUND- 
DOWN CLIFF BY GUNPOWDER AT 
DOVER LAST WEEK. 

Thsbb different galleries, and three dif- 
ferent shaits connected with them^ were 
constructed in the cliff. The length of the 
gsdleries or passages was about 300 feet 
At the bottom of each shaft was a chamber, 
eleven feet long, five feet high, and foor feet 
six inches wide. In each of the eastem 
and western diambers 5;50Dlb. of gun- 
powder were placed, and in the cenfae 
chamber 7,5001b., nmkii^ in the whole 
18,000 lb. The gunpowder was in bags, 
placed in boxes. Loose powder was sprinkled 
over the bags, of which the mouths were 
opened, and the bursting charges were in 
the centre of the main charges. The dis« 
tance of the charges from the face of the 
cliff was from 60 to 70 feet. It was calou* 
lated that the powder, before it could find 
a ;VeQt, must nK>ve 100,000 yards of diaik. 
The following preparations were made 
to ignite this enormous quantity of pow* 
der:^-At the back of the cliff a wooden 
shed was constnioted, in which three eIec-> 
trie batterfes were erected. Each battery 
coiffiisted of 18 Daniels' cylinders, and two 
common batteries of 20 plates eadi. To 
these batteries were attached wires whidi 
communicated.at the end of the charge W 
means of a very fine wire of platina, whidh 
the dectrie fluk, as it passed over it, made 
red-hot, to fire the powder. The wizes» 
covered with ropes, were spread upon Hoe 
grass to the top of the diff, and then: 
falling over it were earned to the eastern, 
the centre, and tl^ western chamber. 
Lieutenant Hutchinson, of Idie Royal ]^« 
gineers, had the command €£ the tiaee 
batteries, and it was arranged that when 
he fired the centre, Mr Hodges and Ifir 
Wright should sunultaneously fire the 
castttii and western batteries. The wires 
w^e each l,000ie6t in length, anditirss 
ase»*tained by ejq^eriniNit that the dectcic . 

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THE MIRROR. 



79 



fluid wi&fise powder at a distance of 2,aoo 
feetof'wlre. 

At nine o'clock on Thursday morning a 
red flag was hoisted directly over the spot 
selected for the explosion. The wires were 
then tested by the galvanometer, the bat- 
teries were charged, and every arrange- 
msot was completed for firing them. 

Shortly aft^ 10 o'dock the directors of 
the company, accompanied by Mr Cnbitt, 
the engineer, proceeded through the new 
tmmel to the Al^bc^t's Cliff Tunnel, where 
they inspected the works now ia construc- 
tion. Among the number present were 
8k John Herschdil, General Pasley, C6L 
Rice Jones, Mr Rice, M.P., Professor Sedg- 
wick and Airy, the Rev. Dr Cope^ Princi- 
pal of Addiscombe ; and others. 

It was arranged that the explosion should 
take |dace at two o'clock. Exactly at 
twen^-six minutes past two a low, faint, 
indistinct, indescribable moaning subter- 
ranean rumble was heard, and immediately 
afterwards the bottom of the diff began to 
swell out, and then almost simultaneously 
about 500 feet in breadth of the siunmit 
began gradually, but rapidly, to sink, the 
earth (m which the marquee was placed 
tremWing sensibly under the shock. There 
was no roaring explosion, no bursting out 
of fire, no violent and crashing splitting of 
reeks, and, comparativdy speaking, very 
little smoke; for a proceeding of mighty 
and irrepressible force, it had little or no- 
thing of appearance. The rock seemed as 
if it had exchanged its solid for a fluid 
nature, for it ghded like a stream into the 
sea^ a distance of about 100 yards, filling 
up several large pools of water which had 
been left by the receding tide. As the 
chalk, which crumbled into fragments, 
flowed into the sea without splash or noise, 
it. discoloured the water around with a 
dark, thick, inky looking fltdd; and when 
the sinking mass reached its resting-place, 
a dark brown colour was seen on diferent 
parts ai it, .which had not been carried oflf* 
the land. The time occupied by the de- 
scentwas about four or five minutes. The 
first exclamation which burst from every 
lip was— " Splendid, beautiful!" the next 
were isolated cheers, followed up by three 
times three general cheers, and then by 
one cheer more. 

As a proof of the easy, graceful, and 
swimming style with whidi Round-Down 
Cliff, under the gentle force and irresistible 
influence of IHutus and Plmto combined, 
curtseyed down to meet the reluctant em- 
Inaces of astonished Neptune, the flagstaflf*, 
which was standing on the summit of the 
cMT before the e:qdosion took place, re- 
mained afterwards standing and uninjured 
wi the fallen ddms^^Tvmes, Eriday, ^7th 
Jaxnuuy. 



DIVINE WORSHIP IN NEW 
ZEALAND. 

The following is from a private letter 
just rec^ved by a gentlanan at Windsor- 
from the Rev* W. C. Cotton, chj^lain to 
Dr Selwyn, the Bishop of New Zealand, 
dated "Waimate, Bay of Islands, New Zea- 
land, August 18, 1842 :— - 

" I read {prayers fw the first time in 
Maowri (the native language) last Sunday, 
and got on pretty well. I shall soon have 
to preach in the same tongue, for the cler- 
gyman who hasthe chargeof this place is 
going to a new station. 

" The church is large, and built of wood. 
There were between 200 and 300 present 
yesterday. Thedressof someof theladjas^ 
is rather curious. Fancy a fat old woman, 
with a coal-scuttle bonnet on her head, her 
face inside very much tattooed, with a bri^t 
scarlet shawl* a very fanciful printed gown, 
white cotton stockings, and showy sandals. 
This was a great chieftainess. 

" The way in which the Maowries make 
the responses is singular: they all keep 
exactly together, so that their voices re- 
semble a heavy surf heard at a distance. 
They will, I dare say, chant well some day 
when they are taught, but at present their 
singing is the most extraordinary and out- 
rageous thing you can possibly imagine: 
they scream out at the very top of their 
voices, and in some of their times, when 
they go down from one note to a lower one, 
they make a most extraordinary slur, just 
like the soimd produced from the violin on 
running the hand up. A great chief, called 
William Showe, who acts as leader in Wai» 
mate church, got down so low when silk- 
ing a solo, that all that was heard was an 
indistinct grumbling, just like what cc»nes 
from a grinding organ when a misduerous 
rascal has flattened a bar of two of the pegs. 
The grinder goes on turn, turn, wondering 
where in the world the sound has got to. 
Just so was William Showe's organ. 

" I must say the bladdes are very civiL 
I am in no great danger of being eaten, for 
they are all Christians here, and know the 
Prayer-book well, although I have to in- 
form you that an old Pagan chie^ called 
Terains, whom I saw on the river, made a 
meal off some of his enemies the other 
day." 



"Dan Him:''— The jdirase "Dun him" 
is said to have originated in the success of 
a bailiff named John Dun, who lived at 
Lincoln in the time of Henry YII, and tHio 
was so successfrd in recovering debts, that 
when any one was backward in payings it 
became a cononooai question. " Why do you 
not Dun Am f* 



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80 



THE MIRROR. 



Vjbe <Satjbmr« 



B(maparU*8 Campaigning Xifcfflry.— 'Bo- 
naparte considered that he ought to be 
provided with a travelling library, as well 
as a moveable academy of sciences, for such 
was the body of savans that accompanied 
his army, and made out a list of the books 
he wished to take with him. Under the 
head of poUtics we find the Old and New 
Testament, the Coran, and the Vedam. 
Bonaparte never could speU, and his pen- 
manship was as bad as his orthography. 
It was a riddle to make out this list of 
books — ^Duguesclin was written Ducecling, 
and Ossian was sliadowed forth under the 
word Ocean, 

Charlemagne's Cross the Cross of Vic- 
iorg, — On very solemn occasions the Em- 
peror Charlemagne used a cross made out of 
the wood of that on which the Saviour suf- 
fered on Mount Calvary, to render victory 
more certain, more solemn, and binding 
any compact in which he was concerned. 
This is, perhaps, still in existence. It was 
carefully preserved by many of the kings 
of France. In 1468, when peace was made 
between Louis XI and Charles, Duke of 
Burgundy, Phillip de Comines says it was 
produced: his worHs are, "The true 
cross which Charlemagne was wont to use, 
called the Cross of Victory, taken out of the 
King's cabinet, the peace was sworn." 

The Pacha of Egypt—A letter, dated 
Alexandria, De^mber 24th, says, "Egypt 
has become a mere com and cotton field, 
and nothing more. The Facha is in the 
Delta, or at Cairo, or in Upper Egypt, su- 
perintending his farms." This imputes a 
reform in himself surpassing in merit all 
the previous reforms which he is said to 
have accomplished. 

Capeluche, — The French, for a proud and 
high-spirited people, have had strange po- 
pular leaders in their time. Passing over 
the furies of the revolution of 1793, we 
find in earher periods of their history the 
butchers and the carpenters alternately 
gave law to Paris, which gave law to all 
France. In 1418, the great hero of a 
movement which then took place was Ca- 
peluche, the common executioner, who be- 
headed his prisoners in the public streets. 
The Duke of Burgundy (John sans peur) 
did not disdain to smile on this ruffian, and 
took him by the hand in the presence of 
a mob of citizens. He had, however, the 
good judgment to give Capeluche shortly 
after, a taste of his own art, for having got 
rid of the main body of the mal-contents, 
he made his valet cut off the head of the 
headsman In the Halli of Paris. 



A Cure for Hemorrhage, — ^Dr Neg^ie^ 
of Anglers in France, having cut h^iself 
under the nose while shaving, could not 
stop the bleeding which ensued, till he hap- 
pened accidentally to lift up both his arms, 
when it immediately ceased. By subse- 
quent experiments he most completely 
satisfied himself that this effect was pro- 
duced by the action described. 



The King of the French has sent Mr 
Moon a valuable ring, set with a brilliant, 
and a gold pencil case, which he has had the 
honour to submit to her Majesty and Prince 
Albert. 

The late Lord Bolle coming to his West 
India property in 1838, emancipated all 
his slaves, 272 in number, in addition to 
which he gave them in shares the whole 
of the cultivated land, stock, and agricul- 
tural implements. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

An extra Half-Sheet is given this week with Thb 
Mirror, without any additional charge, in com- 
pliance with a wish expressed by many Subscribers 
to avail themselves of the large circulation which 
this Publication enjoys in respectable families. 
Care has been taken tibat the advertisements shall 
not intrude on the miscellaneous matter. In the 
present number we have commenced a series of 
papers on the Origin of Royal and Noble Families, 
which, when completed, wUl be valuable as a work 
of reference, and as containing a series of most 
curious and interesting facts connected with the 
ancestry of the gentry of England. The present 
number will be found to contain articles of import- 
ance from new contributors, whose powerful assist- 
ance will enrich the future volumes of The 
Mirror. 

"Enquirer" is informed it has never been our prac- 
tice, nor would it always be an easy task, to reply 
to every communication which we receive. In 
future we hope to attend to our correspondents 
more closely. Questions on scientific subjects, 
the answers to which are likely to interest the 
public, will receive special attention. 

'• The principle in law by which robbery can be 
perpetrated with impunity," a "Theban" may 
discuss and expose. The facts can be described, 
but personality must be avoided. 

The poems b^ " P. P. P." and " Fanny" are re8pec^ 
fmly dechned. They evince much purity and 
feeling, but want flnisA and power. 

The origin of the Shaftesbury Family is intended 
for next week. 



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Printed by C. Retvell, 16 Little Pulteney street, 

and at the Royal Polytechnic Institution. 



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No. 6.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1843. [Vol I. 1843. 




BYLASJl AUBEY, YORKSIHRK. 



utTt' wOLit to asscm^k". bucli is the 
ciuiracter uf humau gtx?atnesti. Hoirever 
distinguished the warrior, the 6tatesmaii« 
or the sage, his day of glory is Umited 
to a brief span, and not only must he 
pass away, but even his memory, which 
in some exulting moments he flattered 
himself would prove inmaortal, also lades. 

•* Bound to the earth he h'fts his eyes to Heaven," 

but, alas for the truth ! is soon ** no more 
»odon with that pil^ vbere qjxcq they seen," and thw fijTgotten. ^ , 



VLANl) 

ABBE! is one of thost xuiics of antiquity 
▼hkh remind us of departed greatness, 
*nd awaken curiosity not to be gratified. 
The names of many distinguished cha- 
rtcters who once peopled this stately 
hoilding, are doubtless 

"G(me;ghtteriog throiigh the dream of things that 
were;" 

*t least are rarely heard of in con- 



82 



THE MIRROR. 



THE ANEMOMETER. 



The Anemometer, which is seen at the 
Polytechnic Institution, Eegent street, is a 
' meteorological instrument for self-register- 
ing the wind, as to its direction and force, 
and the rain, as to its quantity fallen on a 
given area in a certain time. A dock is 
attached to the apparatus to mark the 
time any of these changes take place; pen- 
cils are placed acting from this instrument, 
and marking upon a sheet of paper, which 
is divided into squares sufficient for the 
twenty-four hours, one square moving 
each hour: this part of the arrangement is 
placed in the buUding; on the outside may 
be seen a large vane to mark the direction 
of the wind, and underneath the point of 
it a pressure plate of a foot square to give 
the force with which it blows; there is 
also a rain-water gauge, three inches in 
diameter, by which the depth fallen is re- 
gistered. 

On the Thiu'sday morning preceding 
that of the Friday which proved so fatal 
to the crew and passengers of the Con- 
queror and other vessels, the wind was due 
East, and remained so until a quarter past 
eight, A.M. It then took a N.W. direction, 
and atnight the direction was N.W. by S. 
But the change taking place here was not 
very unusual, nor was there a pressure of 
more than half a pound upon the foot 
Considerable rain fell during the day, and 
the mercury in the barometer sunk most 
unusually.* 

At one o'clock &&< FHday morning the 
wind took ,the directiMi W. and by S.; 
and from two o'clock until noon, the mean 
was S.E. and by W. Hie pressure upon 
the foot was 6 lbs. The amount <^ rain 
which fell Iwaa, at ten, A.M., '25, or one 
quarter inch. After twelve o'clock noon, 
on Friday, the variations of the tempest 
can scarcely be followed; it veered through 
every pomt of the compass, and but for 
the Anemometer, its wild career would be 
unrecorded, except in its fatal and ,heart- 
rending results. 

It is highly probaUe that we felt the 
effects of the storm in a much smaller 
degree than the inhabitants of many other 
towns did, especially Liverpool; we give 
this opioion, because the greatest pressure 
did not exceed, during the latter part of 
the day, 5 lbs. upon the foot, a compara- 
tively small exertion of force. TMa may 
account for the few accidents which took 
place in London on the 13th instant. 

On the 20th December, 1837, the pres- 
sure of the wind, at twelve o'clock noon, 
rose to 22 lbs. on the foot. 

* Flint glass barometer. inches. 

Wednesday, the nth, at 9, A.M. ♦ * 29,114 
Thursday . ...... 28,738 

]?riid»y,thcd»7omeBtonn , . . 38,3M 



On the 16th Febmary, 1838, we had a 
videntstormfrom the East. Hiemaximimi 
force was 19 lbs, on the foot. 

On March 20th, 1838, we had a tempest, 
exerting a pressure of 23 lbs. 

In the calamitous storm, which passed 
6ver these islands on the 7th of January, 
1839, the force exerted by the wind was, 
at one time, 30 lbs. on the square foot 

From these comparative statements, it 
will be evident that» in the metropolis, 
the tempest was not unusually severe. 
However, we must not measure the mean 
intensity of any storm by its force in one 
locality. A careful analysis of the records 
obtained by Mr Osier, led that gentliranaD 
to conclude that the stonn on tbe 6th and 
7th January, 1839, was a rotat<»y one, 
moving forward at the rate of about thir^ 
to thirty-five miles per hour. The ten- 
dency of this eddy, or whiriing of the air, 
would of course be to produce a vmcuun^n 
the centres, and a strong curr^it upwards. 
The greatest intensity of this storm was 
across Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

The theoretical view 'of , the storm was 
deduced from a careful exajminaticn of the 
records of the an^nometers, at the places 
referred to above, and has been siz^gularly 
borne out by the evidence which has been 
collected from various parts of the oountary. 

Mr Osier has been cotnnjisiiioned to 
place mi anemometer, of the best ccmstrac- 
tion, for the use ci merchants, on our New 
Boyal Exchange. 

To show the power of the wind over a 
ship when taken by a sudden gust, we 
need only mention the force exerted upon 
tiie main-sail of a first-rate, that has can- 
vas spread to an extent of surfeoe of 4,704 
superficial feet; taking the late storm at 
6 lbs. would give a pressure upon it of 
28,224 lbs.-*-and the storm of 7th January, 
1839, at ,the 30 lbs. we get the enormous 
pressure <rf 141,120 lbs.— under such cir- 
cumstances, no wonder we read (tf **her 
sails being torn to ribands." 



THE RELICS OF LONDON. 

NO. Vni. — THE TSMPLB CfiDBGH. 

All praise be to the gentlemen of thelaw, 
for they are the true lovers of antiquity, 
and preservers of its relics I Who can 
look upon the old oaken doors of thev 
chambers or the red-bricked walls of their 
inns, without admiring the scrupulous care 
with which they have been preserved ? — 
Who can wade tiirough the heaps of musty 
records, in their old English pln*a8es 
and their old English characters, wi^out 
glorying in the preservation of thdr 
ancient pages from destruction ? Bat, 
if the gentlemen of the Law, as a body, d»^ 
0er^ our thanks, to the>geDUeQiea oif ibt 

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THE MIRROR. 



83 



Timple they are pecoliariy due, far the 
liberality and taste with which they have 
le-deoorated and restored the Temple 
Camrch. 

Passenger ! turn aside, for a moment, 
from the busy thoroughfare of Fleet street, 
-^disentangle yourself from the liying mass, 
—and in Inner Temple lane you will find 
the Church of St Mary the Virgin,— the 
only surviving, but majestic memorial of 
the grandeur, the wealth, and the piety of 
the celebrated military order of the Knights 
Templars. Pass beneath that elaborately- 
embdlished Norman gateway, and you are 
in the "Round Church"— with but four 
exceptions, the only remaining specimen 
in England of one of the most curious and 
ancient styles of ecclesiastical architecture. 
Mark the groined arch, the rich cornice, 
the 'fluted column; — mark, too, yonder 
grim effigies, dressed in their coats of mail, 
as If ready to defend the honoured dust 
which lies beneath. Remember that sJl 
atm beautiful and intricate work was exe- 
cated seven centuries ago, when the arts 
were yet in their infancy and the power of 
machmeiy but limited ; — and then say, 
does not its magnificence, its grandeur, and 
its beauty astonish and surprise you ? 

It was in the year 1185 that the Knights 
Templars of London completed " the round" 
(rf their church, and Heraclius, the patri- 
arch of Jerusalem, being then, by a fortu- 
nate accident, in England, was prevailed 
upon to consecrate it, and the church was 
acoOTdingly dedicated to " the Holy Virgin." 
Bat the grandeur and the wealth of the 
Templars producing their natural conse- 
qoenoes, rivalry and jealousy, and exciting 
Ae envy and cupidity of those sovereigns 
who had before been the loudest in their 
professions of friendship and devotion, 
csQied their fall and entire dispersion in 
1311. All their valuable possessions 
throughout Christendom were forfeited, and 
their Temple in London granted by Edward 
n. to the Earl of Pembroke, from whom, 
in the next reign, it again reverted to the 
King, who conferred it on the rival order 
of St John of Jerusalem. In the time of 
Edward in, the Temple was granted to a 
j Society of Students of the Common Law, 
In whose possession it still remains. The 
church was repaired in 1682, and again in 
1811, but the most thorough and perfect 
restoration was completed in the early part 
of the present winter, at the expense and 
Bnder the auspices of the Societies of the 
hmer and the Middle Temple. 

How interesting are the reflections which 
Ofowd upon our mind as we look upon 
this ancient pile, and review the associa- 
tions which it suggests. The warlike, the 
b»ve, and the pious of the middle ages 
have worshipped on the spot where we now 
▼«flhip,^4heir ashes slumber peacefully 



beneath our lket,--«&d thcmgh iii flUer 
possessors were hunted down and perse- 
cuted,— thou^ centuries hare passedaway 
since the martial Temnplars were dispersed 
and despoiled, — ^the Temple Churdi yet 
stands, its walls yet echo the sound <^ 
prayers, and firom it still ascends the hynm 
of thanksgiving. Proud and wealthy as they 
were— vain and rejoicing in their strength* 
—where are the Knights Templars now 9 — 
the work of their erection — the walls which 
they had reared, have survived them, and 
the haughty warriors are indebted to this 
last relic for a memorial of their fame. 

Alex. Audrews, 



ROYAL AND PARLIAMENTARY 
TELEGRAPa 
We are enabled this week to make a com- 
munication interesting to men of science, 
curious and most important in itself. Mr 
Cook, the joint patentee with Professor 
Wheatstone, of the Voltaic Telegraph, has 
been conmiissioned to lay down a line from 
the Paddington station of the Great Wes- 
tern Railway to Windsor Castle, and carry 
it thence to the Parliament Houses and 
Buckingham Palace. The effect of this 
wUl be, that on important occasions, when 
the Sovereign may be at Windsor, any in- 
telligence of extraordinary interest can be 
transmitted to her Majesty in a second — 
nay, in less time. The voltaic electricity 
which governs the motion of the telegraph 
travels at the rate of two hundred and eighty- 
eight thousand miles in a second ! This 
has been proved by the delicate instrument 
invented by Professor Wheatstone. The 
new and most singular arrangement will 
be of great value in connexion with the 
p»ublic service. When Cabinet Coundls 
sit on momentous questions, har Majesty 
can be acquainted with the result of 
their deliberations as instantaneously as 
if she were present When the Queen 
presides over the meetings of her Ministers 
in person at Windsor, it not unfrequently 
happens (that information on a particuliur 
subject may be required from the depart- 
ments in London; and hitherto, when this 
has been the case, it of course became neces- 
sary to send an express to town to obtain 
what was called for, before the business 
could satisfactorily proceed. Now it, in 
most cases, will be procured while the 
Coundl is sitting, and indeed in the course 
of four or five minutes, which before would 
have caused a delay of as many hours. 
This will not only be of use on great 
occasions, but in a common way its every- 
day value will be considerable. During 
the session of Parliament, for instance, on 
every question of interest her Majesty can 
learn the division, or the progress made in 
a debate, one moment aito &e House has 

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dividfld, or any particular orator has risen 
to speak or resumed his seat. Thus a 
more rapid communication between the 
Sovereign and her Ministers for the time 
being will be established than has ever 
been known or thought of before. How 
desirable this is, seeing the immense accu- 
mulation of business which the course of 
events has produced in this great nation, 
need not here be descanted upon. We can 



scarcely anticipate that it wilit>e under* 
valued by any one. Those who hold that 
second thoughts are best, will surely admit 
that the first cannot be dismissed too soon 
by correct information; and this scientific 
contrivance largely contributing to the 
rapid dispatch of public afBurs, must tend 
to the further aggrandizement and well- 
being of the country. 



DISSOLVING VIEWS. 

As it is the object of this work to blend 
as much instruction, with amusement, as 
possible, we intend taking up a series of 
the most interesting subjects, which are in 
operation within this great metropolis. 
Among the many hundreds of thousands of 
visitors who have seen those beautiful op- 
tical illusions, the ** Dissolving Views," at 



the " Royal Polyteclmic Institution," how 
few are acquainted with the arrangements of 
theapparatus and thesimplicity with which 
its manipulation is conducted. We will, 
however, endeavour to enlighten the reader 
by a brief explanation. Tlie light employed 
in their exhibition is what is termed the 
oxy-hydrogen liglit, and consists simplyx)f 
a stream of the two gases, oxygen and 
hydrogen, passing through a jet (Jig, 1, a) 




on to a cylinder of lime (6), which cylin- 
der revolves by a clock movement (./>), 
the two gases being mixed exactly in the 
same proportions as the component parts 
of%vater, viz., two volumes of hydrogen and 
one of oxygen. These two gases, as they 
play from the jet, are ignited, and the 
tliuue is allowed to fall on the cylinder of 
lime ; the heat given off by them is very 
great, combustion of the lime is the conse- 
quence, and the beautiful light (which is 
only a very brilliant spec on the hme) is 
the well-known result. The rays are now 
collected by a Large lens (or two plano- 
convex lenses, as seen in the diagram (c c) 
called condensers, and is thence refracted 
through the picture d (which is painted 
on glass)* intended for representation 



through another lens (e) called tlie obgect- 
glass, fi*om which it is transmitted on to tlie 
disc, for the view of the spectator. The 
operatitm of dissolving is conducted in the 
following manner : — In front of ttic two 
lanterns (for be it understood that two 
are necessarily made use of) is placed 
a standard (fig. 2, a) within which is 



* Your glasses should be painted with transparent 
coiours, as those of the ordinary magic lantern. 
Canada Balsam diluted, or tliinned with turpentine, 
is a good vehicle to mix your colours with. The 
bladder colours will do, if properly iclepted, |pr 
(prdinnry puip«e9*. 




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a fack fof 1^ pinion to act upon, whicli 
enables the operator to elevate or depress 
a portion of the apparatus called the fans 
(56) ; these fans being placed (as seen in 
the diagram) in such a position that when 
one of them is in the act of passing over 
the orifice of one lantern (c), the other 
surface should pass away from the other 
lantern, so that when the two fans are in a 
straight line, with the centre of the two 
object-glasses, the picture has that beauti- 
ful indistinct appearance of the change of 
subject, which creates so much delight and 
wonder, each picture at this time having 
only half its proper modicum of illumina- 
tion, consequently only an indistinct image 
of each is seen on the disc indeed it is 
simply like a person opening gradually 
first one eye and closing the other, and 
so on alternately; and as "Tom Cooke" 
facetiously remarked, when the nwdux 
operandi was explained to him — "then 
you do it like winking." 

Let us now caution our young philoso- 
phers who might feci disposed to amuse 
themselves -with an exhibition of this kind, 
that serious accidents might arise from in- 



attention to the following facts, vi^. : they 
must be careful that the gases in passing 
through the pipos from the two gasometers 
are conducted through a wire gauze chamber 
or rather a proper oxy-hydrogen blow pip© 
(which must be prepared on purpose), tor 
should the oxygen gas regurgitate into the 
hydrogen pipe, ixn. explosive mixture of the 
gases would be the consequence, and a 
serious accident might ensue. This appa- 
ratus is also used for illustrating the inter- 
esting lectiu-e on the heavenly systems, 
which will take place during the usual 
season, on the commencement of wliich we 
shall give a further notice. 

In places where it is difficult to obtain 
an apparatus of the kind described, two 
common magic lanterns may be used for a 
room when tlie disc is not more tlian 
eight feet in diameter, with the ordhiary 
lamp-light; let the lanterns be both 
alike, and place them close together, and in 
such a manner as both shall give their 
rays upon the same field of the disc; you 
have only then to make a fan, as shown 
in the diagram, and your apparatus is 
complete. 




Three bolls passant, sable armed or crest on a chapeau, gules turned up ermine, a 
passant sable ducally gorged or to be placed under the arms of Shaftesbury. 



bull 



ORIGIN OF THE NOBLE HOUSE OP 

SHAFTESBURY. 
BhmjrapRT claims few more remarkable 
l^iaracters than Anthony Ashley Cooi)er, 
first Karl of Shaftesbury. His father was 
Sir John Cooper, Bart., of Rickbarn, in 
the county of Southampton. His mother 
was Anne, daughter and sole heiress of 
Sir Anthony Ashley, of Wuiborn, from 
whom he inherited an estate of 8,000/. per 
annum. He was born at Winborn, July 22, 
1621, and educated imder tlie eye of liis 
parents. At an early period he exliibited 
so much talent that extraordinary things 
were looked for from him, and the expec- 
tations indulged, were not disappointed in 
the sequel. When but ten years of age, 
his father died. At the age of fifteen he 
became a fellow-commoner of Exeter Col- 
let Oxford, uader tlie tuiiion of the cele- 



brated Dr Prideaux, who was then rector. 
He remained at the University only two 
years, but when he left he had obtained a 
character for great assiduity and extraor- 
dinary genius. He went to Lincoln's Inn 
to study the law, and at the age of nine- 
teen became member of Parliament for 
Tewkesbury, in the year 1640. When the 
civil war broke out he took his stand on 
the side of the lung. He was friendly to 
peace, and thought concessions ought to 
be made on both sides. Had his opinion 
prevailed, much confusion and bloodshed 
might have been spared to the nation. 
He is said, by Mr Locke, to liave submitted 
to the King, at Oxford, a plan for treating 
with the Parliamentary garrisons. His 
advice was not followed, and he in conse- 
quence became an obiect of suspicion with 
the Royalists Disgusted M this, hq waa 

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induced to eotumlt Md own safety by join- 
ing the Parliament caufle, who received 
him most gladly. He raised troops in 
Dorsetshire, and, inl 644, rendered the party 
whose cause he had espoused some import- 
ant services. The fioysdists still looked up to 
him with hope, and he was engaged in pri- 
vate negotiations between the King and 
DeazH Lord HoUis, at the treaty of Ux- 
bridge, for which he was afterwards called 
to a severe account in Parliament. After the 
Imttle of Naseby he attempted to abate 
the exorbitant power of ParUament To 
effect this he encouraged the " Club-men," 
a body of malcontents, in several counties 
so called, to take up arms, and declare 
themselves a third party, and to insist on 
an arrangement which would restore them 
to the benefits of superseded law, and the 
protection of the Constitution. The plan 
was countenanced by some of the Parlia- 
mentarians, but disapproved of by Crom- 
well, who attacked the " Club-men," killed 
many, and dispersed the rest. The schen^, 
in consequence, failed, but Cooper does not 
appear to have suffered from it, and shortly 
after we find him serving the office of high 
sheriff for the county of Wiltshire. He 
afterwards became a member of the c(m- 
vention which succeeded the Long Parlia- 
ment. In 1654 he was again a member in the 
House of Commons, and here the part he 
acted was singular and extraordinary. 

A man thrown into such various situa- 
tions must necessarily have many enemies. 
Such was the fate of Sir Anthony Cooper, 
He had, however, the consolation of being 
zealously vindicated by admiring friends, 
and though various reverses befel him, the 
result was not so tragical for him as for 
others who had pursued the same ambi- 
. tious course. The truth was, he knew how 
to temper his ardour with patience, and to 
wait for that '* tide in the affairs of men" 
which a greater than he had told "leads 
on to fortune" if taken at the proper mo* 
ment. While Oliver Cromwell ruled the 
land he did not make himself sufficiently 
obnoxious to the Protector, to bring ruin 
on himself without advantage to the ab- 
sent King, bu^ says his admhing biogra- 
pher, 

"With what admirable polity did he 
influence and manage the councils he was 
concerned' in during the interregnum, to- 
wards his Majesty's interest? with what 
exquisite subtUty did he turn all the chan- 
nels of their coimcils to swell this stream? 
And how Tmweariedly did he tug at the 
hehn of state, till he had brought his great 
master safe into the desired port?" 

Though he did not disdam to consult 
prudence, he would not tamely acquiesce in 
all the wrongs done to the people, under 
the profaned name of Mber^. In 1656 
it WAS tTraoucaUy ordered by CromweO 



that thoge who were chosen by the people 
to present them should not be allowed to 
sit in Parliament without a certificate from 
the Government. A copy of the form of 
this remarkable document we subjoin. 
" Comt. Bucks. These are to certifie 

that is returned by Indenture to serve 

in this present Parliament for the said 
County, and approved by his Highness 
CoundL September 17th, 1656. Nath. 
Taylor, Clerk of the Commonwealth in 
Chancery." 

This was of course the subject of great 
complaint, and though Cromwell was thai 
in the zenith of his power. Sir Anthonj 
did not hesitate to join in a very deter- 
mined remonstrance against his unconstitu- 
ticmal proceedings. In this the Lord Pro- 
tector was not spared. The remonstrance 
says — 

"We believe the rumour is now gone 
through the nation, that armed men em- 
ployed by the L. P. have prevented thehee 
meeting and sitting of the intended Parlia- 
ment, and have forcibly shut out of doors 
such members as he and his council sap- 
posed would not be frighted or flattered to 
betray their country, and give up their 
religion, lives, and estates to be at his will, 
to serve his lawless ambition. But we fear 
that the slavery, rapines, oppressions, cruel- 
ties, murders, and confusions that are com- 
prehended in this horrid fact, are not so 
sensibly discerned, or so much laid to 
heart as the case requires ; and we doubt 
not, but f^s the common practice of the man 
hath been, the name oi God, and reUgioo, 
and formal fasts and prayers will be made 
use of to colour over the blackness of the 
fact. We do therefore, in iaithfhlness to 
Grod and our country, hereby remonstrate." 

It afterwards proceeds to describe the 
doings of the Protector and his brother 
State Reformers in still more bitter lan- 
guage. It declares — 

" They now render the people such fods 
or beasts, as know not who are fit to be 
trusted by them with their lives, estates, 
and families. But he and his council that 
daily devour their estates and libwties, wiU 
judge who are fit to counsel wad advise 
about laws to preserve their estates and 
liberties. Thus doth he now opoily as- 
sume a power to pack an assen^bly of his 
confidents, parasites, and confederates, and 
to call them a Parliament, that he may 
from thence pretend that the people have 
consented to become his slaves, and to have 
their persons and estates at his discretion. 
And & the people shall tamely submit to 
such a power, who can doubt but he may 
pack such a number as will obey iJl his 
commands, and consent to his taking what 
part of our estates he pleaseth, and to im- 
pose what yokes he thinks fit to oulBe uft 
draw in." 

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It adds of Olirer Cromwell :— 

" But now he hath assumed an absolute 
arbitrary sovereignty (as if he came down 
from the throne of God) to create in him- 
self and his confederates such powers and 
Authorities as must not be under the cogni- 
zance of the people's Parliaments. His pro- 
clamations he declares shall be binding 
laws to Parliaments themselves ; he takes 
upon him to be above the whole body of 
the people of England, and to judge and 
censure the whole body, and every member 
of it, by no other rule or law than his 
pleasure, as if he were their absolute lord, 
and had bought all the people of England 
for his slaves." 

He was constantly in communication 
with the Royal party, and while care&d to 
avoid giving offence to the ruling powers, 
"his house was a sanctuary for distressed 
Royalists.'' This transpired to his preju- 
^ce in 1659, and he was accused of " keep- 
ing intelligence with the King," and of 
having raised troops in conjunction with 
Sir Giorge Booth to restore Charles the 
S^ond, Aough at that time Sir Anthony 
was a commissioner of the army and a 
member of Parliament ; he was imprisoned, 
and had some difficulty in relieving his 
character from the stain of loyalty ! 

But a brighter scene now opened for him, 
and he had the honour of contributing to 
the peaceful triumph of General Monk. By 
Charles he was named a member of the 
Privy Council, and placed, says his biogra- 
pher, " above his Majesty's royal brother, 
the Ihike of Gloucester, and even General 
Monk himself, whom his Majesty used to 
call hid political father," and about three 
days before the coronation he was created 
Baron Ashley of Wimboum, St Giles's, 
and Lord Cooper of Paulett. 

In 1672 he was advanced in the Peerage, 
and was made Earl of Shaftesbury. 

He filled some of the highest offices of 
the State with credit, and in the year last 
named became Lord High ChancellOT of 
England. In this situation his merits were 
unequal, but there is much to challenge 
admiration. A speech addressed by hkn 
to Baron Thurland, in 1673, deserves to be 



honourably quoted. After strongly insist- 
ing on maintaining the King's prerogative, 
he manifested a most commendable and 
manly anxiety to save the subject from op- 
pression. The exactions of the harpies of 
the Court at that period, rapacious and 
hateful as they have been proved at a more 
recent date, no doubt richly deseryed the 
sharp rebuke conveyed in the following 
wise and humane suggestion : — 

" There is another thing I have observed 
in this court, which I shall mind you of, 
which is, when the court hearkens too 
much to the clerks and officers of it, and 
are too apt to send out process, when the 
money may be raised by other ways more 
easy to the people. I do not say that the 
King's duty should be lost, or that the 
strictest course should not be taken, rather 
than that be ; but when you consider how 
much the officers of this court and the un- 
der-sherifis get by process upon small sums, 
more than the King's duty comes to ; and 
upon what sort of people this falls, to wit, 
the farmer, husbandman, and clothier, in 
the country, that is generally the collector, 
constable, and tythingman, and so disturbs 
the industrious part of the nation, you will 
think it fit to make that the last way when 
no other will serve." 

We cannot refrain fipom adding the con- 
clusion of the same speech. It pretty 
clearly tells that the judges of that period 
were, in his opinion, a little too anxious to 
"prepare for a rainy day." The pithy ex- 
hortation which he gives them to live in 
a manner consistent with the di^ty of 
the situations which they filled cannot but 
amuse. He says — 

" In the last place let me recommend to 
you so to manage the King's justice and 
revenue, as the King may have most profit, 
and the subject least vexation. Bakmg for 
old debts, the number of informations, pro- 
jects upon concealments, I could not find in 
the eleven years' experience I have had in 
this cotirt, ever to advantage the Crown ; 
but such proceedings have for the most 
part delivered up the King's good subjects 
into the hands of the worst of men." 
( To be continued.) 




APOLEON BONAPARTE for nearly half a cen- 
tury has been a most conspicuous character in the 
history of Europe. After the numerous histories 
written of hini, it might be supposed that httle 
relating to him remained to be made known; 
there is, however, reason to believe that public 
attention will be attracted in a most extraordinary 
way to what is yet to be told and exhibited before 
many weeks are passed. 

It is known that a Bonapartean museum is to 
be established, in which numerous autographs, 
connected with aU the most remarkable periods 
of his history, portraits, busts, and a vast va- 
riety of rare obiects will appear. "" 



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THE MIRROR. 



tor, a gentleman of fortime, has devoted a 
number of years to those researches after 
them, and expended many thousands of 
pounds to obtain them. The result of his 
labours lias been to give him a much higher 
opinion of Bonaparte's genius, valour, and 
humanity, than he had at their commence- 
ment, and admiration has been raised to 
enthusiasm. He believes the evidence 
which he can bring forward will prove to 
any impartial inquirer, not only that Bo- 
naparte was one of the greatest soldiers, 
but that he was one of the best of men. 

During the war it was the business of 
many writers in tliis country to collect and 
magnify everything relating to Napoleon 
that could inflame the public mind against 
him. The charges preferred by Sir Robert 
Wilson, which implicated him in the mur- 
der of Kleber, and the poisoning of his 
troops at Jaffa, caused many to regard him 
with horror. It has been stated Sir Robert 
afterwards regretted writing on this sub- 
ject as he had done. His French bio- 
graphers treat the former charge with 
great disdain. Tliat he accelerated the 
death (rf some of his troops who were in a 
hopeless state, that they might not fall 
into the hands of a barbarous enemy, has 
been justified as an act of mercy. 

Bourrienne has recorded many noble and 
generous actions which, if he is to be de- 
pended upon, were performed by Napoleon. 
One of these we are alwut to quote, in 
which Bonaparte, it will be remarked, be- 
speaks from his secretary more opportuni- 
ties for showing mercy to the unfortunate. 
Bourrienne writes : 

"I bad escaped for a few moments 
to meet Mademoiselle Poitrincourt. On 
entering I found the First Consul in the 
cabinet, surprised to find himself alone, as 
I was not in the habit of quitting it with- 
out his knowledge. *Wliere have you 



been then ?' said he. ' I have jiut befin to 
see a relation of mine, who has a petition 
to lay before you.' *What is it about?' 
I told him of the melancholy situation of 
M. Defeu (an emigre who had been taken 
with arms in his hands). His first answer 
was terrible. * No pity,' cried he, * for the 
emigres ; he who fights against his country 
is a child that wishes to murder his mo- 
ther.' The first burst of wrath passed 
over, I began again; I represented M. 
Defeu's youth, and the good eflTect it would 
have. * Well,' said he, * write, " The First 
Consul orders that the sentence of M. 
Defeu be suspended." * He signed this 
laconic order, which I sent off instantly to 
General Ferino. I informed my cousin of 
it, and was easy as to the consequences of 
the affair. The next morning I had 
scarcely entered the First Consul's cham- 
ber before he said, * Well, Bourrienne! you 
say nothing more of your M. Defeu: are 
you satisfied?' * General ! I cannot find 
terms in which to express my gratitude.' 
* Ahl ball I— But I do not like to do thuigs 
by halves ; write to Ferino, that I desire 
M. Defeu may be set at liberty immedi- 
ately. I am making an ingrate — ^well ! so 
much the worse for him. Always apply 
to me in matters of this kind ; when I re- 
fuse, it is because it is impossible to do 
otherwise.* " 

*The History of Napoleon,' from the 
French of I^urent de I'Ardeche, now pub- 
lishing by Messrs Willoughby and Ca, 
furnishes many noble traits; but one anec- 
dote, illustrated by the clever sketch which 
appears in this number, shows a kindly 
feeling, apart from theatrical display, to 
which Bonaparte was somewhat addicted, 
towards offending British tars, that chums 
our warmest praise. We give it as it ap- 
pears in the work we have named. 

"During the sojourn of Bonaparte at 




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the camp of Bonlo^pi^, i^o English sailors, 
Mrisoners at Verdun, escaped and reached 
Soulogne, where they constructed a little 
boat, without any other tools than their 
knives, out of some pieces of wood, which 
they put together as well as they could, in 
order to attempt to cross over to England 
in this frail bark, which one man could 
easily have carried on his hack. Their 
labour being finished, the two sailors put 
to sea, and endeavoured to reach an Eng- 
lish frigate, which was cruising in sight 
of the coast. They had scarcely set out, 
when the custom-house officers perceived 
them. Being shortly seized and conveyed 
back to port, they were led before the 
EmiX)ror, who had demanded to see them, 
as well as their small vessel, in consequence 
of the sensation which their daring attempt 
had made throughout the camp. * Is it 
really true,' asked the Emperor, * that you 
coHld have thought of crossing the sea in 
that?'-—* Ah ! sire,* said they, * if you doubt 
it, give us permission, and you shall see us 
depart.*—* I will do so willingly ; you are 
bold, enterprising men ; I admire courage 
wherever it is found ; but I do not wish 
you to expose your lives ; you are free ; 
and more, I will have you conducted on 
board an English ship. You will mention 
in Xiondon, the esteem in which I hold 
brave men, even though they be my ene- 
mies.' These two men, who would have 
been shot as spies if the Emperor had not 
liad them brought before him, obtained not 
only their Uberty ; Napoleon gave them 
also several pieces of gold. Later, he was 
fond of relating this fact to his compan- 
ions in exile at St Helena." 

Eiterature* 



Hussia : St Petersburg^ MoseoWj Kharkofff 
JlL/a. Odessa, ike German Provinces on 
iJie 3altic, the Steppes, the Crimea, and 
the Interior of the Empire, By J. G. 
KohL London : Chapman and Hall. 
The Russian empire is as yet but imper- 
fectly known in England. Much to gratify 
rational curiosity is yet to be told. This 
work will affmrd the r«Eider no small gratifi- 
cation. M. Kohl gives vivid . pictures of 
the people. We hasten Jo quote a portion 
of what he tells of the higher classes. They, 
it seems, call their canaille tshornoi narod, 
which means Uterally, black people ; but 
as tshornoi is often used synonymously with 
dirty, the expression may be taken to mean 
'* d&ty people ;** in short, ** the unwashed," 
and to this comfHrehensive class are consi- 
dered to belong the peasantry, particularly 
when they make their appearance in the 
towns, the street rabble, beggars, and the 
common labourers. — An individual belong- 
ing to Uie tshornoi iiairod ia^catlleda mushib. 



In all tmcivUized conntrief drinking to 
excess prevails. It is well known that, 
during the reign of Catherine the Great, 
drunkenness was universal in Russia. To 
such an extent was this odious and perni- 
cious vice carried even in the best society, 
that it is recorded, at a party where the 
Empress was present, a >vritten notice was 
put up that no lady could enter in a 
state of intoxication. M. Kohl says <tf 
Russia at the present moment — 

'* In the countless booths and drinking- 
houses in St Petersburg in the year 1827, 
brandy and other liquors were sold to the 
amount of eight milUons of rubles ; in 1833 
to eight millions and a half. That gives 
fo§ every inhabitant, women and chil(hren 
included, twenty rubles yearly for brandy, 
or about two and a quarter pailf uls. If we 
exclude tlie children, foreigners, persons of 
rank, and* the sick, we may form an idea, 
what immoderate topers there must renuun 
amongst the adults of the tshornoi narod! 
The government 4s endeavouring to bring 
beer more into use, and thereby diminish 
the consumption of brandy. It is therefore 
consolatory to hear that beer is now better 
made and mjich more 4nmk in St Peters- 
burg than f<\rmerly. In 1827 the amount 
consumed in beer and mead was forty-two 
thousand rubles ; in 1832 seven hundred 
and sixty thousand rubles. In the last 
four years the consumption of brandy 
in St Petersburg increased in the fol- 
lowing ratio :— 100, 105, 110, 115, some- 
what less than the increase of the popu- 
lation ; the consumption of beer as 1, 3, 
6, 11. The finer kinds of brandy and 
liquors show the greatest increase ; a proof 
that the taste is more refined, and that the 
amateiu's must be on the increase among 
the upper classes." 

The picture furnished of the Russian 
character generally is, however, rather 
agreeable. 

** Any other nation in the b9nds of Rus- 
sian despotism and serfdom, among whom 
such roguery and cheating were in practice, 
who were fettered in such a darkness of 
ignorance and superstition, and so plunged 
in sensual excess, would be the most detest- 
able and unbearable people on the face of 
the earth. The Russians, on the contrary, 
with all then* faults and sufferings, are very 
tolerably agreeable, gay, and contented. 
• Their roguery scarcely shows amiss in them, 
their slavery they bear with as much ease 
as Atlas bore the weight of the globe, and 
out of their brandy-casks they swallow the 
deepest potations even with a grace. A 
disease in an otherwise healthy body mani- 
fests itself by the most decisive symptoms, 
•while in a thoroughly corrupted system 
the evil will glide through all parts of the 
body without coming to an explosion, be- 
cauiiB one evil struggles wjth and counter- 



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THE MIRROR. 



9jct» tlie other ; so in RnssU those manifold 
eTils are not seen in the flill light of day 
as in other lands. The whole is veiled hy 
a murky atmosphere, through which the 
right and the wrong cannot be clearly dis- 
cerned. Everything is compromised, — 
smoothed over ; no sickness is brought into 
a strong light, or compelled to a palpable 
revelation. With us the boys in the street 
shout after a drunken man, and pelt him 
with dirt and hard names, which raises a 
disturbance immediately, This is never 
the case iu Russia, and a stranger might, 
fW)m the absence of drunken squabbles and 
noise, be led to conclude that they were a 
sober people, till he observed that th% ab- 
sence of all attention to the fact is the 
cause of his mistake. To his no small as- 
tonishment he will see two, three, or four 
people, apparently in fuU possession of their 
reason, walking together; suddenly the 
whole party wiB reel and stagger, and one 
or the other measure his length in the 
mire, where he lies unnoticed, unless by 
his brother or a police-oflScer. 

"Our German drunkards are coarse, 
noisy, and obtrusive ; intoxication makes 
an Italian or a Spaniard gloomy and revenge- 
fvX, and an Englishman brutal ; but the 
Russians, the more the pity, in the highest 
degree humorous and cheerftil. In the 
first stage of drunkenness the Russians 
begin to gossip and tell stories, sing and 
fall into each other's arms ; at a more ad- 
vanced stage even enemies embrace, ab- 
juring all hostility amidst a thousand pro- 
testaSons of eternal firiendship ; then all 
strangers present are most cordially greeted, 
kissed, and caressed, let them be of what 
age or rank they may. It is all * little 
father,* 'little mother,' 'little brother,' 
* little grandmother ;' and if their friend- 
liness he not returned with a like warmth, 
then it is *Ah, little father, you are not 
angry that we are tipsy ? Ah, it's very 
true, we're all tipsy together ! Ah, it is 
abominable ! Pray forgive us — ^punish us 
— beat us.' Then ensue new caresses ; they 
embrace your knees, kiss your feet, and 
entreat you to forgive their obtrusiveness. 

" It is curious enough, however, that even 
in drunkenness a Russian's native cunning 
never forsakes him ; it is very difficult to 
move him, be he ever so drunk, to any 
baseness not to his advantage. The deeper 
a Russian drinks the more does the whole 
world appear to him coulewr de rose, till at 
last his raptures break forth in a stream of 
song ; and, stretched upon his sledge talk- 
ing to himself and all good spirits, he re- 
turns at length to his own home, whither 
his wiser horse has found his way un- 
guided." 

Now for the ladies : — 

" Since the Emperor Nicholas has intro- 
duced the old Russian costume fbr ladies 



at his court (the gentlemen keep their 
imiforms), there is no other court in the 
world that presents so splendid an appear- 
ance on gala days. The chief garment is the 
sarafan, a wide open robe without sleeves ; 
underneath is worn a fuU long-rieeved 
gown. The sarafan itself is generally made 
of velvet, richly embroidered with gcdd, of 
different colours, and varying in the em- 
broidery according to the rank of the lady. 
The under-dress is lighter in colour, gene- 
rally of silk, and the long sleeves clasped 
at the wrist with gold bands. The hair 
is braided smooth, and adorned with the 
kokoshnik, a kind of diadem, crescent- 
shaped, with the points turned towards 
the back. This kokoshnik, richly set with 
pearls and precious stcmes, and from the 
back of which descends a long veU, gives 
every lady the air of a queen." 

On the subject of the Arts we read— 

" The most celebrated artists (^ the St 
Petersburg Academy are Bruloff, Orlowsky, 
and Tolstoy. 

" Orlowsky has devoted himself to caln- 
net paintings, the subjects firom Bussian 
life, which will long continue to afibtd 
abundant materials where the artist knows 
how to choose them. Orlowsky, the Rus- 
sian Horace Vemet, is particulariy fittaoos 
for his horses, which he has studied in the 
Steppes. One of his best, and best-known 
pictures, is his 'Courier.' A Russian troika 
is carried on at full speed by three wild 
horses. The animals themselves are all fire 
Mid spirit, from nostril to the extremity of 
every hair; the carriage rushes on over 
stock and stone through a whirlwind of 
dust ; the bearded courier sits upright as 
a dart upon his seat, firmly grasping the 
reins, and securely guiding the steeds, who 
fly onwards as if borne on the wings of 
the wind. 

"Tolstoy is known as a sculptor; his 
subjects modelled in wax are executed with 
the greatest precision and taste. The cam- 
paign of 1812 has been illustrated by him 
in a series of bas-reliefe. 

" Briiloff is the most celebrated <tf ^e 
three, yet he has only produced one abso- 
lutely original picture, the 'Destruction 
of Pompeii.'" 



,AinswoMt Magazine, 
* Windsor Castle' is continued, and il- 
lustrated with twelve engravings, em- 
bracing the varieties of curious, interest- 
ing, and beautiful. The ' Introducticm to 
Mr O'Connell,' is a brisk "Much ado about 
Nothing." In the 'Town Life of the Re- 
storation,' Mr Bell, the author of 'Mar- 
riage,' and 'Mothers and Daughters,' 
comes forward. He is somewhat redun- 
dant in his poetical quotations, but this 
proves him thoroughlumbued, with tiie 

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iidjeefc to wliidi he ha« now turned his 
aUe pen. His pictures of the Strand when 
it was a bleak, rugged highway, and of 
PallmaU, when it was a stretch of neglected 
pasture ground, called St James's fields, 
are canoct and striking; and as this Essay 
ii marked Part I, we find in it goodly pro- 
mises that the Farts which are to foUow 
wiU be rich in information, and rare 
amusement. There are other articles of 
merit which we cannot particularise ; but 
we are denrous of extracting * Kecollections 
of an Execution in China,' as valuable at 
this moment, from the insight it affords us 
of the manners, civilization, and humanity 
of our new friends. 

** Soon was heard a loud hum, appearing 
to proceed from a distant part of the town : 
gradually it neared, and might be recog- 
nised as the clamour of loud voices, and 
the trampling of hurrying feet. In a few 
moments thousands rushed in through 
eyerjr avenue of the square; and in an in- 
credibly short space of time, the large area 
was filled with a mass of people of almost 
every nation. Here and there were small 
dusters of English or American seamen, 
standing almost a head and shoulders 
above the under-sized Chinese and Portu- 
guese; here, was a white turban — ^there, 
3ie showy head-dress of the Lascars, with 
their fine but savage eyes, peering like 
balls of fire from the mass by which they 
were surrounded. Not a sound was to be 
heard, except an occasional shuffling among 
the sailors, who seemed inclined to jostle 
aside the foreigners, that they might them- 
selves obtain as favourable a view as pos- 
liUe. Presently was heard the monotonous 
rattling of a drum, and almost at the same 
time the mournful procession appeared, 
escorted by a few mandarins of mferior 
rank (and amongst them the one whom 
the culprit had wounded, and who carried 
his arm in a sling), accompanied by about 
twenty or thirty official servants. 'Kiese 
pressed forward, the crowd eagerly making 
way for them, and ranged themselves 
Jffoond the table, the mandarins standing 
at each end. Lastly came^ the criminal, 
guarded by two well-armed Chinese soldiers, 
and looking as unconcerned as if he were 
^sAag to his dinner! But his countenance 
soon changed; and on perceiving the in- 
strument he trembled excessively, shud- 
doed, and turned deadly pale: indeed he 
seoned as if, until that moment, he had 
not thought of the death to which he 
was doomed, and then the dread of it came 
upon him in excess. He was conducted to 
the head of the table, and immediately four 
of the officials, who proved to be the 
executioiier and his three assistants, step- 
ped forward and received him from the 
•oldiers. His hands, which were tied be- 
hmd hii hods \>j the ynistB, weie then 



unbound, and in no very gentle numnet he 
was lifted, or rather thrown, upon the 
table. 

" The chief executioner now called aloud, 
inquiring whether any of the sufferer's 
fHends wished a final interview. Inunedi- 
ately I felt a shock in the crowd behind 
me, and there rushed forward a man who, 
I afterwards understood, was the brother 
of the imhappy wretch ; he was much 
troubled, but quickly produced about a 
dozen pieces of circular paper, about the 
size of shillings, covered with tin-foiL 
These he gave his brother, and then pro- 
ceeded by means of steel, flint, and touch- 
paper, to obtain a light, which he held, 
that the prisoner might bum his paper 
antidotes against suffering in the other 
world. He did so ; lighting one after the 
other until they were consumed : there 
were eleven of them. The brother then 
embraced him for the last time, and di- 
rectly afterwards, setting up a loud, wail- 
ing cry, and covering his face with his 
hands, rushed amongst the crowd. 

" The executioner now called again ; and, 
as he said, for the last time, making the 
same inquiry. No one answered; and the 
cidprit was then placed in the position in 
which he was to suffer. He was now 
dreadftiUy affected, and seemed almost 
dead with fright. The rope at the head of 
the table was then placed over his neck— 
his face being upward ; the rope at the foot 
was placed over his ankles, and his hands 
were bomid to the staples I have mentioned, 
by the wrists. Bach of the executioners 
produced a handle like that of a grindstone, 
and fixing it on the spindle of the ndler, 
stood awaiting the signal to commence 
their horrid operations. It was given by 
the wounded mandarin ; and the rope over 
the neck was soon drawn tight. Still they 
turned— tighter and tighter it became: the 
sufferer's fece grew black and livid — ^his 
eyeballs seemed starting from their sockets 
— ^the blood spouted from his eyes and nos- 
trils — ^his tongue protruded from his mouth, 
and was much swollen — his hands, too, 
were swollen almost to bursting— his ankles 
were broken, and his feet almost separated ' 
from the legs by the cruel cord. They 
wound the handles with extreme slowness, 
evidently anxious to protract the poor 
wretch's sufferings. 

** During this time neither of the manda- 
rins had spoken, or in any way interfered; 
and on looking at them at this juncture, I 
perceived on the countenance of him who 
had been wounded by Sam-se, a most dia- 
bohcally malignant smile. As his foe's 
pain increasecj so evidently did his plea- 
sure. He seemed to drink in unutterable 
gratification in thus beholding the igno- 
minious death and agonizing sufferings of 
the poor culprits And in/dds maik— thJ4 

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THE MIKROft. 



mandariiHwaft fiilly derebped the despicaUe 
character of the Chmese as a nation; dia- 
bolically reyengeful, dishonourably crafty, 
and despairingly brare. 

"The sufferer was now writhing in a 
dreadful agony. He raised his head, 
knocking it violently on the table; but on 
repeating this action two or three times, 
<Hie of the executioners seized his hair, and 
hdd his head to the table. At this time a 
drizzling shower fell, and for a few moments 
the executioners suspended the turning. 
The rain, which visibly refreshed 8am-se, 
threw an indescribable gloom over the 
multitude, who had imtil now remained in 
awM silence ; but now, when the prisoner's 
sufferings were thus inhumanly protracted, 
load threatening murmurs arose, which 
caused a mandarin to command the re- 
sumption of the labour of death. It was 
now plain that the dreadful scene was 
about to dose, for the sufferer was ' appa- 
rently insensible. After a turn or two 
more he heaved two or three short gasps, 
and all was over. 

" On a signal from one of the mandarins 
the turning ceased, and immediately the 
rope was removed from tlie neck, showing 
the head ahnost severed from the body. 
The interval between the first and lait 
signal was nineteen minutes! Such is their 
barbarous protraction of a culprit's suffer- 
ings." 

Cdd Water Cure, with Directions for its 
Self-applicationy and a full Account of 
the Cures performed hy its Discoverer, 
Vincent Priessnitz. Strange, Pater- 
noster row; E. Smith, Wellington street. 
Strand. 

It is announced that the fourth thousand 
of this work is now on sale ; we may, 
therefore, conclude that the public have 
not thrown cold water on the German pea- 
sant doctor. The statements here sub- 
mitted we cannot vouch for, but they are 
most important if true ; and the subject is 
one of sufficient moment to deserve the 
l)e8t attention of the faculty. "Whatever 
•exaggeration they may suspect on the part 
t)f the cold water cure discoverer, all 
that is advanced cannot be false; and the 
5>revailing system of medicine in this 
tsountry is not so perfect as to make im- 
j[)rovement appear altogether impossible. 

The Hand Book of Water Colours, By 
W. Winsor and H. C. Newton. Tilt and 
Bogue, Fleet street. 
^OT for the public generally, but for water- 
colour painters, including of course tliose 
who wish to become such, is this little 
work designed. Th6 writers have given 
much attention to the nature of the pig- 
laenta or materials Crom wl^icU the artist 



must draw fais tinttf, a&d it will b6 Ukely 
to save the painter or amateur an infinity 
of eiqperiments, by at once showing him 
the path to the result he looks fear. 

— Dr Southey, it may be said, is no 
more of this world. His lady, formerly the 
celebrated Caroline Bowles, in a letter tea 
friend, gives a deeply aflfecting account of 
the present situation of the poet of " Tha- 
laba." He has been wholly deaf for the 
last two years; and all that his accom- 
plished and affectionate wife can flatter 
herself with in regard to him is, that he 
appears to know her. 

" Fair promised sunbeams of terrestrial bliss ; 
Health, gallant hopes, and are ye sunk to this !" 

— Mr Braham has returned from Ame- 
rica, and is again in the field as a vocaliFt 
From the time he reached the age of fifty, 
certain papers have been pleased to amuse 
tliemselves with magnifying his years. 
They have now succeeded in bnnging 
them up to seventy or eighty, and are 
likely soon to reach a hundred. The 
lovers of song will perhaps be consoled to 
know that Mr Braham originally came 
out at the Koyalty, as a boy, hi 1789, 
being then nine or ten years of age. He 
must therefore now be about sixty-four. 

GHOSTS. 
It is astonishing how little we hear of 
ghosts now-a-days, at least in London. 
Tlie provinces, we beUeve, are not exactly 
in the same situation. Spectres, like popa- 
lar plays and exhibitions, having had their 
day (night, perhaps, we ought to say, speak- 
ing of shadows of the depaurted) in the cks^- 
tal, are ^vithdrawn for the amusement of 
those who reside in the country. Even 
there, however, they seem to have ahnost 
had their run, as many months have 
elapsed since the last weU-attested simper- 
natural visitation was recorded. 

Yet there were x)eriods when any re- 
markable tragedy was almost invanaUy 
followed by startiuig apparitions, and fsx 
centuries this was believed generally to 
occur when the victim or victims who had 
fallen had not been duly interred in C0!1- 
secrated ground. Such a perswiBJcn in the 
middle ages, it has been inaiiTiiated by some 
modem writers, origim^ted in the interested 
representations of the clergy, who, in fa- 
vouring such ideas, had a View to their 
own benefit. It is, however, in proof that 
a like feeling prevailed at a much earlier 
date than that supposed; if not in favour 
of consecrated ground, at least in favour <rf 
consecrating lire. 

Suetonius Tranquillus, as transUted by 
iPhilejpQn Holland^ ia.4£BCXij;iu|g theeod^ 

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tlifi MIRROR. 



oi 



Cfeatts C«sar OKgula, A. U. C. 794, offers 
the following authentic narration: — 

"Vpon the ninth day before the Kal- 
ends (rf Fetamarie about one of the clocke 
after noone: Doubting with himselfe, whe- 
ther he should rise to dinner or no? (for 
that his stomacke wtis yet rawe and weake 
upon a surfait of meate taken the day be- 
fore), at last by the peaswasion of his 
friends hee went forth. Now, when as in 
the very cloisture through which hee was 
to passe certaine boyes of noble birth sent 
for Out (tf Asia (to sing Himnes, and to 
skirmish martially upon the Stage) were 
preparing themselves, he stood stiU and 
stded there to view and encourage them. 
And but that the leader and chiefetaine of 
that crew, said. He was very cold, hee 
would have returned and presently exhib- 
ited that shew. But what befell after this, 
is reported two manner of waies. Some 
say, that as he spake mito the said boyes, 
Chaerea came beMnd his back, and with a 
drawing blow grievously wounded bis neck 
with the edge of his sword, giving him 
these words before, Hoc age, i, " Mind this :" 
Whereupon, Cornelius Sabuius, another of 
theCk>nspiratours,encountred him a-front, 
and ranne him through in the brest. Others 
write, that Sabinus, after the multitude 
ahout him was avoided by the Centurions 
(ifho were privie to the Conspiracie) called 
for a watch- word, as the manner is of soul- 
diers, and when Caius gave him the word, 
lupiter, Chaerea cryed out alowde, Acci- 
paratum, i. ** Here take it sure :" and with 
that, as he looked behind him, with one 
sladi, cut his chaw quite thorough : Also 
as he lay on the ground and drawing up 
his Uimnes together cry:d still. That he 
was yet aUve, the rest of their complices 
with thirtie woimds dispatched and made 
an end of him. For tliis mot, Rppete, i. 
" Strike againe," was the signal of them all. 
At the very first noise and outcrie, his Uc- 
ter-bearers came running to helpe, with 
tbeirUtter-staves : Soone after, the Germans 
that were the squires of Ixis bodie came in, 
and as they slew some of the murderers, 
so they killed certaine Senatours also that 
were meere innocent. 

" He lived 29 yeares, and ruled the Em- 
pire three yeares, 18 moneths and 8 dayes. 
Hia dead corps was conueyed secretly 
into the Lamian hortyards, where being 
scorched onely, or halfe burnt in a tumul- 
tuary and hasty funerall fire, covered it 
was with a few turfs of earth lightly cast 
over it: but afterwards, by his sisters now 
returned out of exile, taken up, burnt to 
arfies and enterred. It is for certain knowen 
and reputed, that before this Complement 
was p^ormcd, the keepers of those hort- 
yards were troubled with the walking of 
vfknts and ghosts: and in that uery house 
vrbordn he wa^ miurdred there passed uot 



a night without some terror or fearfull ob- 
ject, imtil the uery house it selfe was con- 
sumed with fire. There dyed together with 
him, both his Wife CsBsonia, stabbed with 
a sword by a Centurion, and also a daughter 
of his, whose braines were dashed out 
against a wall." 

Hence it is perfectly evident that the 
dead of antiquity were supposed to be quite 
as restless while their mortal remains were 
unburnt, as the more modem dead could 
be, of not being committed to consecrated 
ground. By whom the belief was first en- 
tertained it is not easy to prove; but it is 
quite certain that Christian ministers had 
notliing to do with the impostor. 

Grcrman men are either writers of poetry 
and romance, or of strictly scientific and 
philosopliical matters, and such things as 
female writers of first-rate eminence are 
extremely rare. A Caroline Pichler, a 
Grafin Hahn-Halm, a Bettina von Arnim, 
a daughter of Tieck translating ShakspCTC, 
are rare exceptions. In fact, literary ladies 
are looked upon as a sort of pretty mon- 
sters: and, accordingly, such a series of 
fine-minded and noble-minded and glo- 
rious women as adorn the world of Eng^sh 
literature, do not, and cannot, exist in 
Germany. — Rural and Domestic Life in 
Germany, 



HOW TO MAKE A LORD MAYOR. 

Take some thousands of guineas, with a 
quantity of India Bonds, Bank Stock, 
Kailway or !Mining Shares, a calf s head, 
turtle soup, champagne, old port, and a 
loving cup ; cover these with a scarlet doak, 
and seeing the same with a golden chain ; 
mix altogether till they form one mass in 
which none of the ingredients can be dis- 
tinctly marked but the scarlet cloak, the 
golden chain, and the hue of the red port. 
Place the whole on a bench to settle, under 
the care of a Marshal; add a little wisdom 
and wit, or if these are not handy, a few 
slices of Mr Hobler and essence of Tom 
Hains will do as well. Half-a-dozen jwnny- 
a-iiners must then be thrown in, and the 
preparation will be immediately fit for use. 



HOW MR TIXE C^V31B TO BUILD THE ROTAL 
EXCHANGE. 

*Twas asked, who should erect this pile, 
When Lambert Jones, the City wight, 

Thinking of something else the while, 
Exclaimed, " the ablest, Blow me I Tite,** 



WOOD LAVEMENT. 
Sir Peter Laurie, it isi understood, 

Has awful things Of the new paverafettt said ; 
Conteading ther« Is mischief dire in «Worf. 

How could 80 h9Td » thought approach hU head f 



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THE MIEROE. 



GARDENING HINTS. 



To KiU Instcts for Hw Cabinet.'—'Far 
SliGh CJoleoptera, Dennaptera, Orthoptera, 
Hemiptera, and H<Hnoptera, as have not 
bright coloars, the readiest way is to shake 
them out oi the boxes into which they 
have been collected, into a cup ci boiling 
waler; th^i lay thwn upon blotting-paper, 
to absorb the moisture. For gay-coloured 
species of these orders, and such Hyme- 
noptera and Diptera as will allow of the 
ordinary mode of setting by means of a 
pin passed through them, plunge the box, 
if of tin, into the boiling water, or hold 
them to a fire for a few moments without 
removing the lids. All the Lepidoptera, 
except the small Tortricidae and Tineidas^ 
and all the Neuroptera, Trichoptera, the 
larfer Hymenoptera, and Diptera, and in- 
deed any insect, may be most expeditiwisly 
Idlled, by piercing the imder side of the 
thorax of the specimen with a pointed 
quill dipped in a saturated solution of ox- 
atic add. To lull minute Lepidoptera, 
wMeh are collected into separate pill- 
boxes, elevate the lid of each box a little, 
and pile the boxes thus partially opened 
under a large tumbler or bell-glass, and 
biun a brimstone match underneath. Such 
minute Hymen<^tera and Diptera as are 
mounted on pieces of card-board for the 
cabinet should be thrown into boiling 
water, as directed for the majority of the 
Coleoptera, &c.; judgment ought to be 
used in placing Afferent genera into one 
bottle or box, or he may find, after a hard 
day's cdUecting, that a Cicindela or Crabro 
has in^triously converted his collection 
of insects into one of mere legs and wings. 
In using spirits of wine and corrosive sub- 
UmsAe to kill mites, &c, Uie loss or change 
of every bright colour wiU be the result 
The safe plan is to bake the infected in- 
sect for a few minutes in a slow oven or in 
a tin-box. 

Egtfptian 5»i*.— There is a plant very 
common <m the banks of the Nile, both in 
Upper Egypt and Nubia, and at Dongola. 
The silk is manufactured into cords and 
ot^er substances of domestic use. It 
usually grows four or five feet high, has 
Ififfgish leaves, which generally have the 
appearance of being sprinkled with white 
powder, and bears star-shaped purple flow- 
ers, with white eyes, about the size of 
Auriculas. The pod, when green, has the 
appearance of a large green pach, but is 
quite empty with the exception of a small 
core containing the seeds (enveloped in the 
silk), which is attached to the skin by 
small fibres. It is called by the Arabs 
" Oshour." [This is the Asclepias (now 
called Calotropis) gigantea, which Fors- 
kahl tells us is called by the Arabs 
** Oschar/' It is too tender to live out of 



a greenhouse in this country. The tSSky^ 
substance surrounding the seeds is of bean* 
tiful texture.] 

Ca6u^— Several ancient writers describe 
the Macedonians, under Alexander, to have 
been thrown into an extacy of delist at 
the discovery of ivy at Nisa (which is 
generally believed to be the Cabul coun- 
try), where alone it was to be found in the 
East. The Silphium, spoken of by Arrian, 
has been conjectured by the late lamoited 
Sir A. Bumes to be the Assafoetida wbidi 
abounds about Cabul; and fircon him we 
learn that grapes are there so {djOitiful as 
to be given to the cattle for three months 
of the year. This circumstance is a 
strong corroboration of the identity of 
Cabul with Nisa, the birth-plaoe and 
favoured spot of Bacchus. 

— When the peaches and apricots are just 
ready to open their blossoms, you must be 
ready too with a wash of lime, soot, sul- 
phur, and soft soap, to paint them aU over. 
The later this is done the better. For the 
other trees on the wall, or in the orchard, 
six weeks hence will be time enough to 
wash them; but for any of those on whidi 
you have noticed any red spider for the 
last season or two, you must mix a portion 
of sulphur with the soot and Mme. 

— Let not another day pass without unp 
covering half-hardy plants that have been 
so thickly covered in anticipation of a hard 
winter. Let there be no delicacy at all 
about this matter; strip them all; and if 
you find that any of the shoots or eyes 
have made a blanched growth, cutth^n 
off, and leave the plants quite exposed; 
but keep the coverings at hand, to be put 
on whenever the thermometer fblls four or 
five degrees below freezing. If you hear 
anything about "sudden changes,'* say 
they are very dangerous on paper, but 
hannless in the open air, this mild season. 
— Oardenera* Chronicle. 

Nitrate of Soda. — The rate at which tiiis 
has been successfully applied to strawber- 
ries is 3 oz. to the square yard. The proper 
season for using it is when the plants are 
just beginning to grow. 
' Verbenas. — ^If Verbenas are wanted for 
blooming in pots, they should be kept re- 
gularly shifted into pots of a larger size as 
they require it, and should be grown eith^ 
in a pit or greenhouse, where they receive 
fhe full benefit of the sun and air. Any 
tree, rich soil will suit them. 

Gravel Walks. — The best method of ex- 
tirpating grass which springs up from 
beneath a gravel walk, and spreads over 
its surface, is to break up the walk and 
pick out carefully all the under-Mound 
runners which may be met with. Where 
it is not desirable to disturb the walk, the 
best way is to spread salt in jCxmrndwaUA 

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THE MIRROR. 



dS 



qoaotities oyer its whole snrfSace; and if 
after the first application it is found that 
poirtions of the grass still exist, let another 
coftting ci salt be applied, which will efifec- 
taallj destroy it. Care must be taken, 
however, if the walk is edged with Box, 
that the salt does not come in contact with 
i% otherwise it will destroy the edging also. 
Tulips. — Tulip-beds require to be pro- 
tected from fix)st, rain, and snow. If they 
are covered in mild, open weather, the 
plants will become drawn, and will conse- 
quently flower weakly. 



%it (fiatjberer* 



WooUett the Sngraver.^WsB Elizabeth 
S^hia Woollet, the daughter of the cele- 
brated engraver of that name, is now, at 
the age of seventy, among the applicants 
to the National Beoievolent Institution for 
relief; Mr Woollett died in 1785. In 
1817 the family were driven by necessity 
to make over to Messrs Hurst and Bobin- 
BQD, publishers, all Mr Woollett's plates 
and prints, for the consideration of an an- 
nuity for two lives. In six years the firm 
of Hurst failed ; and the only surviving 
daughter, reduced to penury, and in broken 
health, depends upon the success of her 
present application for support. The 
friends of art will surely do something for 
the unfortunate lady. When such a sup- 
liant iq^pears " Can pity plead in vain r* 

A Chinese Lady's NaUs. — Before the 
encuation of Ningpo, a report was brought 
one morning to Mr Gutzlafi^ that the head 
ofhisChH]^ police had disappeared, as 
alio one of his wives, while the other lay 
modered in the house. Mr Gutzlaff and 
myself proceeded to inspect the house. 
yh found the woman on the floor with her 
throat cut. She had been dead some 
boors. I observed what appeared thin 
Isown slips of bamboo loosely fastened 
roond her wrists, and remarked to Mr 
Gntzlaff how singular it was that they 
dwuld have found it necessary to bind her. 
But he exclaimed, ^ Those are her nails,** 
It appears that fine ladies are in the habit 
whai going to bed of softening their nails 
in warm water, and then winding them 
rwmd their wrists to prevent their being 
injnied.— 7%« Last Year in China, 

An Ancient Death-bed. — In sickness, 
among the Greeks, branches of rhamn and 
Jwrel were hung over the door, the for- 
iMr to keep away evil spirits, and the 
latter to propitiate the god of physic. 
Some <rf the hair of the dying person was 
cot ofi^ and sacrificed to the infernal dei- 
ties ; his friends took leave of him with 
Noises and embraces ; and evil spirits and 
FbantQQ8v«Ke driyea from hupiUowftt 



the mcmient of departure, by the (Kmnd of 
brass kettles. 

State Polio/. — *' It is a pity," said 
Fouche in coiAdence to Bourrienne, ''that 
Napoleon's wife does not die ; for sooner 
or later he must take a wife who will bear 
children. His brothers are revcrftingly 
incapaUe ; his death will be a signal of 
dissolution, and the Bourbon party will 
return." 

Casiilian Wisdom. — ^During the reign of 
Charles the Second, of Spain, a company 
of Dutch contra6tors off^ed to render the 
Mansanares navigable from ibbdrid to 
where it falls into the Tagus, and the latter 
from that point to Usbon. The Councilor 
Castile took this prq;K>sal isto ccmsidera- 
tion, and after maturely weighing it, pro- 
nounced the singular dedskm, ^ That if it 
had {leased God that these two rivers 
should have been navigable, he would not 
have wanted human assistance to have 
made them such ; but, as he has not done 
it, it is plain he did not think it propet 
that it should be done." 

French Wtfe'seUing.—A letter from Poi- 
tiers states that a curious trial is to take 
place there, in consequence of the husband 
of a woman, of the arrondissement of 
Niort, having sold his wife to a neighbour 
for llOf. and five sheep. The money and 
the sheep were duly delivered ; but, when 
the purchaser went for his new acquisi- 
tion, he found that she had taken to mght, 
and gone home to her friends. 

The Press in Europe. — There are pub- 
lished in Europe 1,720 daily, weekly, 
monthly, or quarterly journals. 

Small Change — llie smallest coin in 
circulation in China is of the value of a 
hundred-thousandth part of six shillings, 
and bears (in Chinese) the inscription, 
** Reason's glory's circulating medium;" it 
is round, with a square hcle in its c^itre. 
Our forthcoming half-fiirthings will be 
something by the side of this portion of 
the Chinese circulating medium. 

Anecdote of Queen Elizabeth. — When 
Nicholas Clifford and Anthony Shirley, to 
whom Henry IV had given the order of 
St Michael, for services in the war, had 
returned, llie Queen sent them to prison, 
and commanded them to return the order. 
She thought, that, as a virtuous woman 
ought to look on none but her husband, so 
a subject ought not to cast his eyes on any 
other sovereign than him God hath set 
over him. " I will not," said she, ** have 
my sheep marked with a strange brand ; 
nor suffer them to follow the pipe of a 
strange shepherd." 

Extraordinary Horse-driving. -^ A week or 
two back a Mr Hughes undertook, at Cork, 
to drive thirteen in hand. The animals 
w^re harnessed to a small coach, and he 
diore th^Qi with m much tMo «id j^tpoi- 



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rion as if he had only been occupied with 
a tandem. 

Spartan Zoc&m.— Among the Spartans, 
the females had games of their own, at 
which they appeared naked, to contend in 
nmning, wrestling, throwing quoits, and 
shooting darts. They also danced and 
sung nf&ed at the solemn feasts and sacri- 
fices, while the young men stood round 
tiiem ; and all this, we are told, without 
offence to true modesty. 

7^ Good Old TifM9,*'Jxi ancient Greece 
the state was tasked, so to speak, with the 
duty ci amusing the citizens. AH Greece 
crowded to the Olympic games, to hear 
Herodotus read his history. At Athens, 
the flmds of the theatre were provided be- 
fore those of the fleet ; and the affairs of 
the repubhc, after bemg settled in assem- 
blies, where every free man took a part in 
the discussion, were regularly dramatised 
into a comedy by Aristophanes. Keligious 
festivals, gynmastic sports, political deli- 
berations, meetings of the academy, orators, 
rhetoricians, philosophers, all followed each 
other in uninterrupted succession, and kept 
the citizens always animated, and always 
in a crowd. 

Price of Bread in France. — ^Bread of the 
first quality in Paris is 30 cents, per kilo- 
gramme, about 5^. per 4lb. English, and 
the price of bread in London at the full- 
priced bakers being Tjd. per 41b. loaf, it 
follows that bread is 46^^ per cent, dearer in 
London than in Paris. 

Robespierre a Lover of the Fine Arts, — 
During the^rage for changing everything, 
which characterised the fSrcnch Kepubhc, 
it was decided by the government that the 
national costume should be altered; and 
M. Denim, who, so that he might be per- 
mitted to engrave, was always ready to 
work for angel or devil, was employ^ 
about the intended transmutation of the 
coat of the Frenclunan into the Koman 
toga. He was summoned, M. Coupen writes, 
by the Committee of Public Safety, to re- 
port the progress of the work on which he 
was employed; twelve o'clock at night was 
the time appointed. He arrived at the pre- 
cise hour, but the committee was sitting with 
closed doors, to discuss, as he was told, 
matters of importance, and M. Denon was 
obliged to wait. Two hours passed, during 
which he heard occasionally loud bursts of 
laughter, that afforded a strange contrast 
to the kind of business with which the com- 
mittee was conunonly engaged, and proved 
that their conversation was not so serious as 
he had been informcdi At last Kobespierre 
cswne out, and imexpectedly entered the 
jroom where M. Denon was sittmg. On 
perceiving a stranger, the savage counte- 
paoc9 9f tbe tribwie coDtracted, and as. 



sumed dri expressicm of tehtot, mingled with 
anger* He asked the unhappy artist who 
he -was, and what he was doing there at 
that hour ? M. Denon thought he was a 
lost man: he told his name, however, and 
answered that he came in obedience to the 
summons he had received, and was waiting 
until he should be called. Kobespierre un- 
mediately softened ; he conducted M. De- 
non into the chamber, passed part of the 
remainder of the night in chatting with 
him, and during the whole of their conver- 
sation endeavoured to convince him that 
he was a lover of the fine arts, and had the 
tastes and manners of a man who had seen 
good society. 

Chinese Proverbs, — " Man perishes in the 
pursuit of wealth, as a burd meets with 
destruction in search of its food." — " Those 
who respect themselves will be honoura- 
ble ; but he who thinks lightly of himself, 
will be held cheap by the world." — " Tune 
flies like an arrow ; days and months like 
a weaver's shuttle." — " Li making a candle 
we seek for hght, in reading a book we 
seek for reason ; li^t to illuminate a dark 
chamber; reason to enlighten man's heart.'* 

A Chinese Maiden, — ** There is only one 
heaven," said a forlorn maiden, when her 
parents upbraided her for spending her 
days in sorrowful Ubations of salt tears at 
the tomb of her lover ; — ** and he was that 
heaven to me !" 

Paris Academy/ qf Sciences, Jan. 24.— A 
paper was read on the respiratorv func- 
tions of the human species at the mfferent 
periods of life, and according to sex, by M. 
Bourgery. M. Bourgery deduces from his 
experiments that the respiration of a 
healthy man of thirty years of age is equal 
in strength to that of two weak men« or 
two strong or four weak women, or two 
boys of fifteen, or four boys of sev^n, or 
four old men of eighty-five. 



TO COBRESPONDENTS. 



Delta's parcel will be left for him at the office 
with a note, in a day or two. 



TERMS OF ADVERTISING. 



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MORTIMER, Adelaide Street, Trafalgar SqwrU 
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•Pd at the Royal Polyt«^ Iwti^^— 



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MTERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(frice twofence.) 



Ho. 7.] 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1843. 



[Vol. L 1843. 



I; 




4||p({nal Communications. 

OPENING OF 1806. 

I any nation more fond of glory 

nee. The tremendous price she 

p it dwells not in her memory, 

as ready as ever to rmi a new 

Lson frowns on War's unequal game, 
ousands bleed to raise a single name." 

ATing above, for which we are 
I to * The History of Napoleon,' 



published by WiUoughby and Co., of which 
some numbers corrected and improved 
are before us, is a portion of the grand 
spectacle prepared for the gratification of 
the Parisians on New Year's Day, 1806, but 
which we cannot at present further notice. 
The year which then closed had been fruitful 
of glory to both France and England. Eng- 
land had gained the great victory of Tra- 
falgar, but had lost Nelson. France, though 
humbled on the sea, had been eminently 
successful on land. On the 1st of Decem- 
tt [No. 1151 

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9S 



THE MIRROR. 



her the combined armies of Austria and 
Russia niet, ^ The Child ai^Qha^^ipil9f 
Jacobinism/' as he was calle4 if Pitt 1^ 
marked an error which they had committed, 
and predicted that before another sui) 
should set, they would be in his power. 
The battle was fowght pa the 2nd. It 
presented on each side a display of most 
obstinate valour. At one time the Rus- 
sians, under the Emperor Alexaivkr fgtid 
General Kutusoff, compelled the French to 
give way, but the timely arrival of Rapp, 
with a fresh body of cavairy, turned the 
tide of battle, and victory deelared for 
!Franee. Fifteen thousand men were left 
on the field, and twenty thousand more 
made prisoners. Soult drove a large divi- 
sion of the Russian army on a smooth 
space, covered with snow, which he knew 
to be a frozen lake. Then, instead of firing 
at the men, his cannon-balls were turned 
upon the ice, which, after some time, gave 
way, and the retreating army— men, horses, 
and guns — ^were involved " in one prodigious 
ruin." The result of this was, Prussia 
was compelled to abandon the neutrality 
Bhe had till then professed, and declare for 
the victor ; the Russians were permitted to 
tetum to their own country, and Austria, 
on the 26th of the same month, was com^ 
pelled to accept of a peace, which tQc4c 
from her three millions of subjects and 
1 ,600,000^. of annual revenue. Thes^ great 
achievements fiUed all France wi^ jof , 
and (he disaster oi TralSUgar was foi^* 
ten. It was th^e«|!Od resdv^A^lo^v^ 
to the hero, wl», by th« |^im%ie8 
he had performed, ttm^e^ed eulogy in^os- 
sible, a testimony of tdsg^mthnjhf^f ftM 
gratitude, which «ho«ld remain lmftrii%* 
able as his glory." 

In consequ^iee ^ tihis ratohitilM* **(ki 
the 1st January, l«d«, t^^ovigt fltfi 
given to the senate by ibe Emf^ror W0t§ 
conveyed to the I^ucemburg bf the trilm* 
nate in a body, ^c^wed by th« auHiofitias, 
with military mvilc and apefi of ^ p»* 
risou of P»fis. The iirdi«cliaiHMilor and 
all t^e mmisters woi* fresent at 4^ alt* 
ting. The senate, presided over 1^ the 
grand elector, signalised the reo^)tion of 
Sie glorious present which was about to 
decorate their palace, by decreeing, in the 
name of the French people : 

<* 1st. That a triumphal mcmunient should 
be consecrated to Napole^ the Great. 

'' 2nd. That the senate In a body should 
go bef<»re his imperial and toysX Majesty, 
and present him with the homage of the 
admiration, of the gratitude, and of the 
love of the French people. 

"3d. That the letter of the Bmperor to 
the senate, dated from Elchingen, die 26th 
Vendemiaire, year fourteen, should be 
engraved on marble tablets, and placed in 
the hall where the sittings of the senate 
were held. 



"4th. That at the foot of thsi letter; 
l^ould lijkMW be engraved the following: 

" *%^iof^ flags, and fourteen others, 
added to the first by his majesty, have- 
been brought to the senate by the Tribun- 
ate in a body, and deposited in this hali^ 
on Wednesday the 1st January, 1806." 

Did our limits aduiit j it would be desir- 
able to trace the consequences of this mag- 
ni^ceot scene. It would be found preg- 
nant with the bitterest, most humiliating 
mortification for France. In 1814 they 
saw all their trmhies trimphaatl^ oiattEMd 
by those Hiey liad been accuitffiSMt to 
Tanc|ui8n. 

In vain did the newly restored king 
intercede and call upon his allies to 
spare the treasures so dear to France. 
The sternly appropriate answer was, 
"By the chance of war they became 
yours — the chance of war now restores- 
them to the nations you formeiiy plun- 
dered," Were this properly borne in 
mind, youn^ France would be Jess eager 
to pursue the idol glory, in itself so de- 
ceitful and evanescent ; in its results so 
often, in the bi#tory CKf all nations, the 
source of detp regret and inexpressible^ 
aHiction. 



i^iGHf All f AJPERS ON BmmmE. 

Thx present age Mfraiight wUliiii«e99»rie» 
which, if not so important to Hm f^blic 
weal, 8fs, in a sdentifie point oi view, 
almost as Intoresting as at any fierlpd since 
the rescua of aeSiSOoe from the abssi^d dog- 
mas of the anoients by the Bac<mlasif^stem 
of^iilosopliy. 

Thste is, paitiaps, no dep^rtnient of 
•cStfnee (nm which so many inlopesting 
oflbcts h^¥9 bien i^oduced as th«t niUting 
to the eUiiS of agoots termed igioeiMlirable, 
viz., ligkt, boat, and ^betriefty. Their 
lafiuenoo in «linMt overr phonom—pn of 
i>rganlzid I^ is now bemg gra^u^ de- 
rmxfj^f and^ extraordinary ooMl^xion 
eziiiing bftwnan them In all ^m^ opera- 
tions appears to be fM iMding 1^ way 
to the (K^utiim <^ the long-sought problem, 
viz., whether we are to consider light, heat, 
and electricity as subtle and higlily attenu- 
ated matter, emanating from the excited 
body, or the undulations of Ha^. pften- 
quoted but unknown ether; or whether 
they are mere pr^;>erties 9f master more 
or less common to all bodies. I^otvith- 
standing the high poaita<Hi of scmc^ a( 
the present time> and the e^ensiv^i^eisearcl^ 
dis|>layed by its numejDous votartei^ we ari^ 
entu^ly at a loss to assign causes, exs^ 
hypothetically. We have, it is trwfe, M 
aocumulation of facts, seining to a:^i^ 
only the keystone of the a£ch at oim to 
raise the superstru^iire ^9i a Hhea^ CUX' 
sonant with the economy and ^aroi^a^ oT 
nature. ^ , 

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mc-mt&sE. 



ISm^^bOs^ pr^mmA hfomm ^tter of 
i^be» Jigentt, or perim^ ca^jtStitlf, of tiaa 
wjbote, In tfpestijBg al; oii« tit»e, «nd pfo* 
motaBg <^ otbera, tiie f]3itiiiAl acd(tt of 
inetgiu^ bodies upon ^ead^ oth^r, has, 
w^hjaibeae lew ftm§t led to ti^editeov^ery 
^ Tssmy kitei^stiair f«9ito. la Dti&i^ifit 
to light, the almost ma^cal effects pro- 
duced by its presence on certain cbenxically 
prepared surfaces, as in the photogenic, 
daguerreotype, caiotype, and chrysotype 
processes, and more recently the thermo- 
type or scototype. From the latter we may 
be aJmost led to infer that light exists, like 
heat, in two distinct states, the one s^i- 
sibl^ the other latent, or perhaps the 
whole may be referable to certain electri- 
cal effects produced by its presence ; for if 
magnetism is due to the dynamic action of 
electricity, smd the experiments of Mori- 
liini and Mrs Sommerville be correct, light 
may be employed in lieu of electricity in 
^educing magnetism. If, then, we adopt 
the well-known axiom of not assigning a 
new cause for an effect, when a previous 
l>ne will suffice, ergo^ light and electricity 
are the same, or that the former is capable 
of eliciting the latter. 

Many are inclined to consider that light, 
heat, and electricity are produced by the 
same cause imder different modifications. 
Electricity appears (if not) identical with 
MbJb former, — ^to be so intimately associated 
with them, that it is almost impossible to 
hare the one in a state of activity with- 
out eliciting the other. 

The effects produced by these agents in 
modifying and controlling the more obvious 
effects of matter, either chemically or me- 
chanically, have given rise to several inge- 
nious and valuable processes, the details of 
which will form the subject of a series of 
papers, in which the effects of light and 
electricity, and the applications arising 
from their actions, will be fully explained. 

Jn our present article we shall endeavour 
to show the mode of applying electricity 
as a moving power for cKcki. 

BADT AND BABWlSfi^S ELBOTBO-MAaiTBTIC 
CLOOCS. 

The inventor of this and other important 
applications* of electro-dynamic action 
(Mr Bain) was, by the assistance of Mr 
Barwise, the eminent chronometer maker, 
of St Martin's lane, enabled, in the month 
ti Jan. 1841, to obtain a patent for his 
invention, and although up to the present 
moment little has be^ done in the way of 
tiieir general introduction, yet the time 
may probably arrive when every public 
doSt in this metroprfis, if not " through- 
out England," wiH by this unerring mode 
be iHade to indicate the same time with 

* Electro-magnctie prmtiag tekgraph, 
electro-magnetic deep-sea lead, &c. &c. 



tise oae grand regulator placed, ire wifl 
nmoee, in tibe centre of Iioadcm. 

ISie merest -iyto in ^lectncal scienot la 
aware that if a eurrent cf voltaic ^eetti- 
Q^ be made to circulate in a q^nral diree^ 
tica nmnd a bar of iron, that during its 
flow the . two ends oi the bar eaBMbk tiie 
usual effects of the permanent magnet, and, 
therefore, have a tendency to attract maasea . 
of iron or steel in their immediate vicini- 
ties ; and furthermore, that this action 
ceases the instant the electric current ia 
withdrawn, but which effect may be re- 
x^wed as often as the current circulates. 

This simple contrivance constitutes the 
moving power in the electro-magnetic 
clock, and as the electric cunrent in its 
passage to the bar of iron may be made to 
pass through several mUes of wire, and to 
act at the same time upon other bars of 
iron placed within and forming part of the 
cirouit, it follows that several (fistant effects 
may, from the rapidity with which the 
electric current circulates, be produced at 
the same instant. 

A clock is simply an instnmient so con- 
trived to mark, by the position of the hand 
upon the dial-plate, how many times a 
vibrating body, called the pendulum, passes 
to and fro in a given portion of time, and 
as the grand ^vision of time is deduced 
from the motions of the heavenly bodies, 
we will assume it to be from the sun being 
on the meridian to-day, and its return to 
it on the morrow, embracing a portion 
of time called the solar day. Now, a 
vibrating body in London, whose length is 
39*139 inches, would make 86*400 such 
vilHrations in the 24 hours, or 60 every 
minute.'*' Such a clock is said to mark 
mean time, and the vibrations made by 
the pendulum are termed isochronous, be- 
cause equal spaces are described in equal 
times. 

The pendulum is therefore the most im- 
portant part of the clock, and if we c(Hild 
always insure its maintaining the same 
absolute lengthf for the latitude for which 
it was adjusted, then the difficulty would 
cease and all the clocks in the ssmie lati- 
tude would indicate the same actual instant 
of time. This desirable end can only be 
obtained by employing the compensating 
pendulum, which from its costly nature is 
beyond the reach of the man^. To re- 
move this difficulty is the object of the 
present invention, for any system of clodcs 
upon this principle would be synchronous 
in their action. 

Two clocks of this description have been 

• This supposes the sun's motion to be 
equable, but the clock and the sun only agree 
four times a year. 

t Every variation of temperature causes 
a correspencfing elongation or contraction of 
the pendulum rod. 



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too 



THS MIRROR. 



^ action for some months piuBt at the 
Boyal Polytechnic Institution, one a large 
inaminated turret dock on the &cade in 
Regent street, the other a bracket dock in 
the reading room of the Polytechnic As- 
sociation in Carendish square, the two 
hdng worked by the same power. 



An explanation of the accompanying 
diagram win enable the reader to under- 
stand the mode of supplying the electrical 
current, and the mechanism employed. 

Fig. A, is the one regulating dock pro- 
vided with a compensating pendulum, luid 
may therefore be considered as making 




constantly the same number of vibrations 
in a given time. B is the point round 
which the seconds hand of the dock re- 
volves, carrying at the same time a small 
projecting pin, C ; from the position of D 
and C it is evident that once in every re- 
volution, or evary sixty vibrations or se- 
conds, C andD must touch each other, and 
in touching they complete the circuit of 
wire commencing at the galvanic battery 
P, passing to the large dock G, round the 
smaller one K, returning back to the 
battery as shown by the direction of the 
arrows; through this wire, when C and D 
touch, the electricity of the battery passes. 
This flow of the current can only exist 
during the short interval that C and D 
are in contact, and as this occurs but once 
in each minute, so the docks GandE 
are affected but once during that time. 



The large dock is very similar in its gene- 
ral construction to any ordinary dock, 
saving the pendulum and the parts con- 
nected, which in these docks is no longer 
necessary; in its stead we have an electro- 
magnet, which is a bar of iron, around 
which passes a portion of the circuit wire, 
and on the electricity being let on by the 
contact of C and D, the bar of iron becom- 
ing magnetic, and by its attractive power 
polls forward a piece of iron I, which at 
the same instant detaches a stop, allowing 
the wdght K (by its gravity and the 
cord wound round the barrel) to 
descend, as in the ordinary clock, 
moving the train of wheels, and conse- 
quently the hand through one nunute on 
the dial plate, the whole is then inactive 
until the dectric current again drculatefl 
for the instant through the wire. 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



THE MIRROR. 



101 



The smaller clock (fig. iT) is somewhat 
differently constructed, the electricity in 
this is made to deflect a coil of wire placed 
oyer a i>ermanent magnet ; this causes 
the stop O to move the Urge wheel, and by 
the usual train the hands are made to 
mark the minutes and hours simultaneously 
with the regulator A, and the lar^ clock 
6. Figures 1, 2, 3 incUcate the positions of 
other clocks worked by the same battery, 
which may amount to several thousands. 
R 

Fuller's Etuth. — ^This formation, curious 
in a geobglcal point of view, firom the few 
{daces it is found in, is a soft, greyish- 
brown marl, generaHy with a greenish 
cast. The largest known deposit in the 
world is near Reigate, in Surrey, on the 
out crop of the green-sand formation. The 
present price obtained in London for it is 
\l per ton. Its component parts are — 
silex, 51*8; alumine, 25*0; lime, 3*3; mag- 
nesia, 0*7; oxide of iron, 3*7; water, 15*5; 
total, 100 }>arts. It is also occasionally 
found in Hampshire and Bedfordshire, on 
the green-sand out crop. 



HUMAN CURIOSITIES. 
Two eccentric characters, long known at 
Nottingham, have lately ** shuffled off this 
mortal coiL" A passing notice of their 
peculiarities wiU not be unacceptable to 
those who like to contemplate the yarie- 
ties of life, habits, and character, presented 
by our race. 

" The Old General" was a character well 
known to every resident in Nottingham. 
His name was Benjamin Mayo. The NoU 
Hnjgham Review says, '' He was humble and 
idiotic, but tmiversally esteemed; esteemed, 
not on account of moral worth or the or- 
dinary qualifications which ensure the re- 
gard of others,^but through certain recol- 
lections treasured up in the breast from 
youth upwards. 

"The glory <rf* Ben' was always at its 
meridiui on Middleton Monda^r. To the 
school-boys in the town it has invariably 
been almost a general heyday; and though 
the ' General ' was great on all occasions, he 
was especially so then, for, compared to 
him, the mayor, the coroner, and the mu- 
nicipal authorities, were subordinate officers 
in the estimaticm of the youthftil tribes. 
Previous to the Middlttton jury conun^c- 
ing the annii^l survey of the liberties of 
the town, away trotted the 'General,' with 
several hundi^ of boys at his heels, to 
secure the sacred and inviolable right of a 
holiday. Two or three urchins, with shin- 
ing, morning faces, led the way to their 
own schoolmaster, who, in violation of 
* the orders of the day,' was seated amidst 
the few children whose parents refused to 
grant a holiday, and therefore dared not 
to * play truant.' Some * devoted Dedus' 



in miniature, would th«i venture ii, on 
the forlorn hope of procuring liberty fijr 
the rest. Down would drop books, pens, 
and pencils, to the cry of ' Out, out, out I ' 
The commander-in-chief would arrive, 
amidst the cheers of his enthusiastic and 
devoted troops, would take up his position 
opposite to the door, and command the 
onset. The advanced guard would assail 
the portal with redoubled blows of their 
pocket-handkerchiefs, and old rope-ends, 
knotted into tommies^ and the main body 
of the belligerents would throw mud. Ere 
long, not unfrequently a random stone 
would break some window; a second and 
perhaps a third crash would succeed; the 
master sallies out to seize the culprit, his 
sentinels are overpowered, the invaders 
rush in, the besieged are immercifully be- 
laboured till the capitulation is completed, 
but no sooner do they join the * liberating 
army,' than a shout of triumph is raised, 
and the place is abandoned. The aide- 
de-camps would then report to the * Gene- 
ral,' what other fortresses held out, and the 
nearest of them would be attacked in the 
same way. It often happened that a par- 
ley was demanded, and the « General' 
shamelessly received a bribe to desist. 
Alas ! that one so devoted to the cause oC 
liberty should have been so easily cor« 
rupted— twopence would induce the com - 
mander-in-chief to withdraw, with b Is 
faithful followers, of fickle principle, a* nd 
leave the anxious garrison to the unc on- 
troUed power of its wily governor. 

"By eleven o'clock, the * General,' with 
his forces, would have drawn up ir i front 
of the Castle lodge, and have demap ^ded ad- 
mittance into the Castle yard — a s ummons 
always evaded by the distribution of a 
quantity of cakes, buns, and gr ngerbread. 
On the General's word of corumand, the 
precious sweets were thrown , one by one, 
over the gate, and the caaftision of an 
universal scramble ensued. After the whole 
was distributed, the popvjarity of the Ge- 
neral rapidly waned ; hundreds were re- 
duced to scores, and scores to ones — at 
noon he generally was 

' Deserted in his utmost need 
By thow his fonner bounty fed.' 

In memory, however, of his departed great- 
ness, he never deigned to work for the rest 
of the day. 

" Before the approach of Middleton Mon- 
day, fifty times a day the important ques- 
tion would be put to the General, * When 
will be Middleton Monday?' Once he 
replied, * I don't know yet, the mayor hasn't 
ax'd me what dayll suit me.' Cto the fol- 
lowing Saturday he answered, * The mayor 
sent his respects to know if I'd let it be 
Middleton Monday next week; and I sent 
my respects, and I'd come.' 

" His vestment generally consisted of the 
* hodden grey' unBTimn <^ (the pauper, bu 



TM 



TH£ MIBRjDE. 



liutterij, wkai in poUic; he wore fl^ tearlet 
008t» wil& mititarf epaulettcB^ ]u» tbixt 
collar was usvaU; uobiuttoiied, and cUb^ 
placed liift cfiq^per-eoloured botom. 

" like otiMT militacy gentlemen, the * Ge- 
neral' waaafitTOuzite with the ladies^iluuH 
nuich as he was known equally to high 
and bw, and made premises to all indi»' 
Qriminately (who pleased him) that he 
would marry them * next Sunday morning;' 
at the some time, he was accustomed to 
caation the fayoured £ur not to be later 
than half-past seven,. ' for fear somebodj^ 
else should get him.' 

**■ Of the many anecdotes related- of the 
< General,' the following authoidc ones will 
display the union of shrewdness and sim*^ 
l^city common to perstma of the order of 
intelligence which he possessed* — On a- 
certain occasion, when public attenticAi 
was directed towards the late Duke of 
Vork, one erenin^ in the twilight, Ben be- 
gan, * Here's the grand and noble speech 
as the Dnke of York made yesterday.' 
A -person, who had heard nothing of sudi 
a speech, immediately purchased one, and 
on approaching a. window; found himsdlf 
possessed of a piece of blank paper. * Ge- 
neral,' said he, * here's nothing on it.' * No, 
sir, the Duke of York said nowC.' — ^Being 
f^, at the workhouse, to turn awheel, he 
did so properly enough for abont^ half an 
hour, Imt becomna^ tired^ he inuaedlatdy' 
be^an to turn backwards, nor could be^ be 
persuaded to the c<»itrary. — ^Hewas^ <«oe 
observed to run about tlie streets, shontini^' 
in a breathless nwmner, 'They've got: me 
in, dei^ ! They've got me in, dead ! ' — 
at the 89ime time pointing with his- finger 
to a particular passage in a newspaper he 
held, stating the General wa»dead, mean^ 
ing some personage in the army. — ^A bloek»- 
h^ tried to make him quarrel wit^ an 
idiot lad, as they were emploj^ in 8w^eep*> 
ing the street together; *0h !* sfdd he, 
*he is a poor soft lad, and beneath m^ 
notice.' There is a strong instance of his 
dislike of work : having been set to weed 
part of a garden, he performed the task by 
pulling up all the flowers and herbs,, and 
leaving the weeds growing.— He once found 
a sixpence, and ran up the street shouting 

* Who's lost a sixpence, who's lost a six- 
I)ence ? ' * It's mine, General,' said one. 

• But had your's a hole in it ?' * Yes,' said 
he. * But this hasn't,' rejoined the General, 
and away he ran." 

An accidental fall in the workhouse, 
a fortnight back, caused his death, and 
the coroner's inquest found accordin^y. 

The Nottingham Review adds, to " the ac- 
count of the. fall of the Generic," that a 
London niercliant, with all the interest 
that belongs to early associations, has sent 
a subscription of a guinea to perpetuate 
Ben Mayo's memory. This suggestion 
eems likely to be acted upon. The Lon- 



don flMiclii&t ir&i |frdbaUyr In the pBfu 
liae, flsd i* animfltedby gsfttkaderM ^nfcS 
as '*the intttneil; wbieh bel^igt to eai^ 
aModadtti," in wisbuig to perpetuate the 
window-bmdier'»]»CTiovy, of course by a 

The other oddity deceased ^i«8 ft peAioM 
naaaed WiHiam A^ieSraged sizty-«ixyeaiiv 
who fdl while -whedhig coals; and nevet 
(qtoke more. Knowing he could get a bar^ 
row load of coaia halfi>ensy cheaper two> 
miles off than he oouldr in his own village, 
he went aH Idiat ^ttfnoe witti &e barrow, 
but, on retumingv tiie exertion was too 
much fbr a man o£ his years, and be fdl 
upon the snow and sfaor% after died» 
about the l>5th or 20tb of last month. Jt 
had been> Imown. to ^le neighbours finr 
s<»ne time,, that ""(M Billy A^ier" had 
saved money, and was poaaMsed of landed 
property. His ftether had kept an inn at 
the house AMiec lived in, which belonged 
to debeased^. wiHi ta^ro on tinree cottagea,^ 
and aboiut tnvelve acres of land. But it 
WW wdL known he must have aecuwa- 
lated money, from receiving rente and 
spending none, — and, as he lived by him- 
self, and would allow scarcely any one to 
come into tlie h0uso,^n any pietenoe, they 
wtNre vei^ glad to have anopg^ertunitj it 
saitisfykt& iheit' cnriesity. The body wa» 
coBvee^ed to his house,, and ere it was. well 
c<^ tite neigbbouxe commeneed a. seaccht 
for his- vahiablfiSf but could find nothing; 
The newest relatianfr ag^ed to Mr 
Samuel Maples, solicitor, of this town».aod 
he paroeeeded to rimq^eet tJiiapsemises. Se 
seardied' every room, leavings no hole or 
c<»ner umnoleked, and the- result was, the 
finding prop^y^ ifi^ich had esGa{>ed the 
thrcmg* In a beam m: a law cellar, art* 
fv^y grooved oujt,, he found a beautiful 
lai^ silver tankard ; ia the mouth of a 
malt miH^ adjoining hi» house, he found a. 
silv^ watch ; crao^ned in a hole, vmd&c 
the house cupboard shelf wae a sovereign^ 
wrapped ia a bit of rag^, m the bedstead, 
which the viSagcsrs had forsptten to yoU 
freaBct the wall^ he found two 5/. notes, & 
TJMg^ aUv^ spooas, a great quantity of 
pewteir platev two rec«pt& from Wright's 
bank Uat 750Z. and &15/., several ]^^nd» 
weigbt (^^Burtlimgs, and a great variety of 
other i^perty. On the dresser of the 
lower room, where he slept ev^ siace an 
attempt to rob liis house some tinne a^^ 
was chalked the figure of a key « and '* liook 
among the rushes " beside it. Tliere waa 
a quantity of rushes on the stairs, and 
amongst tliese rushes wa* found a key 
which unlocked the top room, in which 
was a chest filled with deeds, papers, &c. 
relating to his property. It is a proof how 
little he allowed any one to ctnne into his 
house, that no one knew he was in the 
habit of chalking thus on^the dresser, but 
it appears he^hed th 



TSXJiBuum. 



im 



Wt. 0a^ €fl thes^ wiul ft memoraadoifii of 
liitviErg p^d a t)^ of o»^ halfpeMi0 to a Mif 
f»€i6i&iai, for pmingfwegaf^-e^gtit it«^ til 
«ie shoe, itfid so Mafiiy iR ^ otiiet ft« it 
n^iijll/c^, ^Q^iitio&iix^ tlt€f diiflibcb!'« Ano- 
€^ #a0 ft m^^sjofa&dtHtf that hd hftd pro- 
n^^i^ Mil ...o^ iiofiie»kee]f>, whto be bought 
the las#h«y of him (Ashet). A thMwad 
41 Meffi^ot^dimiQf ^ree men heing seen in 
his yft^ on such a n^ht, no doubt intend- 
Mg to 4leal. A fomth iras, that his rope 
iA Ih^ hity-i»^dgliew irdghed dght ounces, 
showing' Mfnseff partieSlar to eren an 
dtmce. A fifth ir as a snatch of poetry. A 
siitk ir'as a promise' of some person to give 
hhn an equirafent M ^e next bargain they 
had t^^er^ lor something he had lost. 
Sooks of ax^ounti (from the yeAT 1784), 
J'eceipti^ fof pet^ bill# in copper, and nn-* 
meroutf Other nrftlift^ filled up the drawers. 
H6 had a list by him of i^hat each drawei' 
Contained, e^n ah old tooth-brui^ with- 
out any hairs, a hit of soap, &c., being put 
do^n^ He mended hi» own clothes, cooked 
l^oim vioei«tfe, and £d ^ the household 
work. 

'Siftty hQWS&fhmhblet he took a Hst 
ii fk€ ^fffkeh pane» before letting and idTter 
kiting, bM had even comity ^e numbei* 
«f holet M ih6 maH-Mht floor, which weife 
fttt do#« on pap^i" as 84,^40, with the day 
fiieyw^^eeowiwd. But tlwfgl^test proof 
-^lllftd««tfrefo|^mo£fey was ih MttMy 
^fesSfkgg- 1»f leejing hay for at long time^ 
ie«ie years of^, fe nMwie 600/. prc^t in oticf 
ifenp,ow&igtOa8caj^C!i^, and *^mirig thai 
gttek titt*e# IrOidd coAie a^alin, he kept hirf 
stacks till his death, and could not be pre- 
ta^d trpott to sett them. He had one or 
i^ teOnff fkm im years old, and the 
eSi/^bStiStk ijf tttef passed years stg6, irouM 
^tfhfeoitf cM My Asifer's slacks by the 
tmi si<ltf, «Ad i^te tb^ age and tho 
^chatfacleiir of their owneif, to the passengers. 

Jhietty the whole of the deceased's writ- 
i»g» y^ere oit fho backs of old printed 
lentidl^Elf $M j^aeards, to save the esipense 
<i}s/ttyisg paper, and his? way of making 
almanacks was most ingenious. He l^l'ote 
i* ttttf margin of m old booi the days and 
dafe* thj^y ifel! on, making «tch page Serve 
for one Month, said thfe ho carried on for 
thirty y^Eirs, to sdve the e3Cpen«6 of ahna- 
tf^ks. Ghe bodk had ate years in it, and 
He harfeveh got aw far aS ApiH, I8f43, in 
cottstr«s«&ig hisr 1^, when de^th closed 
hfscare^. 

l^eople ofteii i(M Mm h6 wi^ tich, and 
tbwWflsgd tb cbmo and rob him, in joke, 
htitr he cflwajls deism that h^ had toy 



money, laykig h« wa« pMT, aftd nol woitii 
iNOibmg. Everything he had in hi^ house 
had particular marks en them^ and theM 
marks he copied on to slips of pi^r, so 
tiiat he might swear to them when re*^ 
oovwed. Every tin pan, kettle, stool, &c. 
was marked and enrolled in his docmnents. 
He wa« wont to put down even the loss of 
a nail off his field gate, and the date it was 
takon. One of his hills was-^" Paid 2 Jd. 
for mendkig my spectacles-^twenty days 
after, they came in two very easily." 

It is said his property altogether is worth 
about three thousand pounds. 



ORIGIN OP THE NOBLE HOUSE OF 

IJord Shaftesbury activdy promoted the 
declaration for liberty of conscience. It 
is generally believed that he had no part 
in the negotiatioH ^th Louis XIV, the 
object of which was to make Charles the 
French King's pensioner. He favoured the 
Dutch war, and is said to have advised the 
issuing of writs for the election of members 
of Parliament during a recess, and to have 
used the influence of the Crown to procure 
returns in favour of tlie Court. 

He had filled the situation of Lord Chan- 
cellor a year, when he opposed the princi- 
ples which had then been adopted by the 
Sttiart family. This brought upon him 
the hatred of the l>uke of York, afterwartte 
James the Second, who hsid the ear of the 
King. The consequence wa^, in November 
U73, his M^esty Sfetft for his l«pdship to 
Whitehall, and took from him the Great 
Sea!. At the? sam6 time he if as dtsndssed 
fitom the post of tmder-treasurer to the 
i^icheqii^, which place was conferred on 
JKr Joim DuncombO in the afternoon of the 
same day. the Earl was visited by l*nnco 
Rupert a«d other distinguished personages, 
wheii they gave honouraWe testimonials of 
tiieir aAnirat}(MS of M-s upright conduct in 
the high Situation which he had lately 
filled. He boTft this reverse with great 
equaUnnity, and is said to have lost none of 
his cheerftdness on the occasion. 

The changes which he had seen having 
thrown him into the ranks of opposite fac- 
tions, he was? viewed as a restless intriguer, 
nor was it remembered that from the first 
he had laboured for peace, to give others 
security as ^etL as himself. He was re- 
presented to be hostile to the King, but the 
trttth was, he y^sts in advance of the age, and 
clearly saw those peculiarities in the suc- 
cessor of Charles, which, at a future day 
caused the natron to throw him off for ever. 
He sought to avoid the evils which lie 
cfrea<fed from the accession of James, 
Duke of York, and therefore v^shed the 
Duke of Monmouth to be declared next hi 
succession. To dccomplii^ this object he 



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THE MHtaC^ 



WM said to be ready to ma all rwks. A 
pamphlet of the time gives the following 
anecdote of him : — 

" The Earl of Shaftesbury, having re- 
ceived, or pretended to receive a letter in 
an unknown hand, bustled away to court, 
* as fast as his legs, man, and stick would 
carry Wm.' The Duke of Monmouth, 
who was supposed to be privy to the search, 
being asked by the Lord Chamberlain 
what this great affair was, answered, with 
a modest air of self-denial, that it was 
something concerning himself, in which 
Lord S., as usual, took a deeper interest 
than he desired. Meantime Shaftesbury, 
applying for admittance to the King's pre- 
sence, was told by the lord in waiting 
(Feversham), that as he heard he had busi- 
ness of importance, he would conduct him 
to his Majesty. * The busy Earl told bun 
he was willing to be conducted by so 
honest a man as his lordship, drolling, and 
thinking himself guilty of a shrewd irony.' 
Being introduced, he produced his letter; 
and the plan, for seeming the peace and 
religion of the nation, turned out to be a 
proposal for settling the crown upon the 
I)uke of Monmouth. The King said, he 
wondered that, after so many declarations 
on the contrary, he should still be pressed 
on that subject; adding, that he was none 
of those that grew more timorous with age, 
but that, rather, he grew more resolute the 
nearer he approached the grave. Upon 
the earl's expressing himself mightily con- 
cerned to hear such a word, the King said, 
he might assure himself that he was as 
careful of his own preservation as any of 
those persons could be who affected so 
much concern for his personal safety, but 
that he would much sooner lose his life 
than alter the true succession to the crown, 
which was repugnant both to law. and con- 
science. *For that matter,' replied the 
Earl, * let us alone, we will make a law for 
it.' To which the King relied, *if this is 
yomr ccmscience, my lord, it is not mine, 
and much as I regard my Ufe, I don't think 
it of sufiBcient value, after fifty, to be pre- 
served with the forfeiture of my honour, 
conscience, and the laws of the hmd.' " . 

However anxious his lordship might be 
to alter the succession, it is not probable 
that he would speak so lightly of the law 
in presence of his sovereign, that sovereign 
whom he had offended by his not very un- 
constitutional declaration that a preroga- 
tive for fifteen months was equal to a dis- 
solution. 

His conduct having rendered him ob- 
noxious to all who sided with the Duke of 
York, on the 16th Felntiary, 1676, he was 
sent to the Tower by order of the House of 
Lords, for an alleged contempt. The Earl 
of Salisbury and Lord Wharton were com- 
mitted at the same time. He held the 



proceedings to be iUegat, and on the 27tl^ 
and 29th of January, 1677, he caused himr 
s^ to be brought on the return of an 
alias h(Aea8 corpus^ directed to the constable 
of the Tower, when his counsel prayed that 
the return might be filed. The fHday 
following was appointed for debating the 
sufficiency thereof^ and his lixtlship was 
remanded till that day. On the Friday he 
appeared and spoke for it, but his ar- 
guments proved ^no avail. The judges de- 
cided against him, and he was sent back to 
the Tower. In the following month he made 
his submission to their Lordships, and peti- 
ti(»ied to be released, but his petition was 
rejected. He made a more submissive appeal^ 
which being considered, their Lordships 
resolved that it was a l»reach of the privi- 
leges of that House, for any lord'oommit- 
ted by the House to bring an Habeas 
Corpus in any inferior court, to free It- 
self from that imprisonment during the 
session of Parliament. The Earl was in 
consequence brought from the Tower, and 
kneeling at the bar, heard the resolution 
which the House had adopted read. His 
lordship acquiesced in the resolution, and 
apologised for the error into which he had 
fallen, and asked pardon of their Lordships^ 
This satisfied the House; they addressed 
the King in his behalf, who ordered hia 
lordship to be discharged. 

As a friend to civil and religious liberty 
he had distinguished himself, and especially 
by the exertions which he made to pass 
the Habeus Corpus Act. He promote^ it 
he did not originate, the bill for excluding 
the Duke of York from the succession to 
the throne. To him is imputed the Papist 
plot in 1678, which, if it were not a scheme 
of his own, received at the time hia 
most strenuous support, and led to the 
overthrow of Lord Danby's administra* 
tion. 

Th^ Earl was now named President of the 
Privy Oounc^j and pursued those accused 
of being parties to the plot with severity. 
He in consequence became an Object of 
hatred with parties who favoured the ac- 
cused. Lady Powis was swd to have 
ofiered one D^gerfield 500/. to acoomidish 
his assassination, and actnally to have paid 
20/. on account, but accident prevented tho 
execution of the deed. His biographer 
writes: — 

"One day Dame CeDier demanded of 
him whether he had dispatohed the afofe- 
said earl, and he reifying that he could 
have no opportunity to come at hint;. 
* Give me the poniard,* says she, * ywi 
shall see what a woman can do for the 
Catholic cause.' And accordingly, bv 
the instigation of the devil, and a heUish 
rage, which the Pi^ists miscal a ho^ 
z^ she addressed faeradf to the e^ecaUom 
of that execrable deiign. She mmkea a 



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THE MmROR. 



105 



Ti«it to the earl, under pretence of paying 
her thanks for favonrs obtamed through 
hi« means; but the consecrated dagger 
stUl hurked under the skirt of her gown, 
ready to haye expressed her gratitude bv 
opening the veins of this Protestant peer s 
heart. He had no reason to be over fond 
of tlie conversation of such cattle, and 
therefore in short time she was dismissed 
without having an opportunity of putting 
her felonious and treacherous design in 
execution." 

He was applied to by a man who said he 
could make important discoveries relating 
to the Popish plot, and the murder of Sir 
£dmundbury Godfrey, provided that he 
might be requited with a free pardon. Tlie 
man being taken before the Privy Council, 
instead of giving the expected information, 
accused his lordship of endeavouring to 
suborn him. His lordship, on this infor- 
mation, apx)ears to have been apprehended 
on the 2nd July, 1681, and after an ex- 
amination by the King in council, com- 
mitted to the Tower. There he remained 
four months, though he took every legal 
means to get himself brought to trial or 
admitted to bail, according to the prin- 
ciples of tlie Habeas Corpus Act. On the 
24th of October a bill was presented to the 
grand jury in the Old Bailey against his 
k)rdship for high treason, but the witnesses 
brought against him were so infamous that 
no credit could be given to the evidence 
they offered. The bill was thrown out, 
and the defeat of his enemies was a sub- 
ject of great rejoicing among the people. 
A medal was struck on the occasion in 
honour of his triumph. This produced a 
bitter satirical poem from the pen of Dry- 



den, who had previously attacked him in: 
his *Abso!om and Achitophel.' In this 
celebrated performance his lordship was 
assailed in very good company; but the 
poet paid a tribute to the importance of 
the noble Earl by the measureless rancour 
of his verses. He declares "his name to 
be to all succeeding ages curst," and 
describes him to be 

" A darinp^ pilot in extremity ; 
PlMs'd with the danger, when the waves went high 
He sought the storms ; but for a calm unfit, 
Would steer too nigh the sands, to boast his wit. 
Great wits are sure to madness near allied ; 
And thin i>artitions do their bounds divide; 
Eise, why should he, with wealth and honour blestr 
ReAise his age the needful hoius of rest? 
Punish a body which he could not please ; 
Bankrupt of life, yet prodigal of ease? 
And all to leave, what with his toil he won, 
To that unfeather'd^twoaegg'd thing, a son." 

Hateful, however, as Dryden makes him 
appear, in conclunon he eulogises his 
merit as a lawyer, and says of his lord- 
ship — 

" Y€t, fame desenr'd, no enemy can grudge, 
The statesman we abhor, but praise the Judge." 

Such praise could not be other than me- 
rited. 

After the Earl regained his liberty, his 
health and spirits declined. He had, up 
to that period, resided in Thanet house, 
Aldersgate street, but was now induced to 
visit Holland, in the hope of regaining his 
strength. He proceeded thither in No- 
vember, 1682, and in the following January 
died at Amsterdam. His body was em- 
balmed, brought to England, and buried 
with his ancestors at Wimbome, St Giles's. 
His lordship had been three times married. 
An only son survived him, who succeeded 
to his title. 




The arms of the Earl of Munster are those of King William the Fourth (without 
the eacutcheon of the arch treasury of the H. B, empire, and without the arown of 
Hanover), delmiised by a bar sinjster azure, charged with three anchors or. Crest 
on a diapeau gules doubled ermine, a lion statant gardant, crowned with a ducal 
coronet crest or, and gorged with a collar azure charg^ with three anchors or. 



GEOllGEt EARL OF MUNSTEB, 
Bom JaBuary 29, 1794, was the eldest son 
of mag William the Fourth by the cele- 
brajM^etaresSyMrs Jordan. He was named 



after George the Fourth, then Prince of 
Wales, w1k> always regarded him as his 
protege. He was educated at Dr Moore's 
school, at Sunbury, and at the Boyal Miti- 



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IM 



THfililEBOIL 



taiy CeHege, Marl^w. On reacWng the 
age of thirteen he tree appointed Cofnei in 
^ Prince of Wales's regiment of HnsMirs. 
In 180S he served with his regknent in tlie Pe- 
ninsula^ where he greatly distinguished him- 
self at fuentes Onores, but being wofbnded 
and his horse houghed under hun^ he was 
made prisoner. He, haweyer, noticed that 
several French hussars fell dead aoronnd 
him, and without being hit, he also feQ, 
and remained on the ground appaxentljr 
lifeless, tiU« in the confusion which enraed, 
he found an opportunity for getting away. 
He was promoted on his return to England, 
b«t in \B\4 he wae again at the seat of 
war, and was severdy wmmded at Toidottse 
in leading a charge agiain«t the enemy'i 
eavalry. 

Ha^ng exchanged fram the 10th Hxm* 
mf inle the aoth light Dragoons^ in 
January, 18)5, he sailed lor InSa, where 
he became Aide-de-canqr to the Kai^nls 
of Hastings. At the conclusion of the peiee 
with Sciikie he was selected to carry home 
overland the despatches, and leaohed Eng- 
land in June, 1818* In March, 1^2, be 
was appointed to a troop in the 14th 
light Dragoons, and in 1824 to an unat» 
tached Llentenant-Coleneley. On the 12th 
of lifay, 1830, hewasraised to the Peerage 
by the titles above-mentioned ; his surviv- 
ing bro^iera and sisters (not already of 
higher rank) at the same time receiving 
the precedence of the younger ehildren of 
« A^rquis. The title of Earl of Munster 
had been borne by his Royal father when 
Didce of Olarenee, md was generally used 
AS his travelling name (m the Centinent. 

In iht brevet which £[^wed the birth 
of the Prince of Wales, the Earl of Munster 
received the rank of Major-General, No- 
vember 23, 1841. He was appmnted to 
command the troops in the western dis-^ 
trict of England, and was to htfve com- 
menced his residence in garriseA at P^- 
mouth on the 15th of last Apnly b^t 
unhappiUy his health declined, and his 
reason failed. In the month of March his 
medical attendants pronounced his sanity 
to be seriously affected. Their report was 
too weU borne out, for shortly trfter ^eir 
opinion had been declared his Lordship, 
being left alone, put an end to his life with 
a pistol. He was buried in the parish 
chnrch of Baanptofty March 31, 1842. 

The Baxl married October 18, 1819, 
IVtoy Wyndham, a daughter of ttke hrte 
Eari of EgiKmont, and sister to Col Wynd- 
ham, M.P. for West Suamex. He had issue 
by that lady, who survives him, three s<»a 
and three daughters. WiUiain George, 
now Earl of Munster, was bom in 1824. 

The lale Earl wa» elected President of 
the Royal Asiatic Society in May, 1841. 
He wa» a pataron of Htiarature, wrote many 



important papers^ and teok ^iMttsg pari 
hi fimnding the ** Oriental Xrsnristii 
Fund." 



AMCD01!£S OF tltED^BlRlCK l!Hl 

GREAT. 
In the v<dumee just poblidied of this me* 
narch's life we find the feUowiug i — 

Ck>]fiio]rana von Goon OiricauMrt** 
*' I know not how it is," said the Idi^ eae 
day at table, ** that commoners are nti 
good for mnoh as oOoers, fnr&i th<ragh I 
omobie them." — ^^^ Begging ymur mi^esty's 
pardon," replied one of the company, ** we 
have in the army the brave Ck>lond &, 
who could prove tiie very reverse." The 
king appeared tobethkik himself, lepei^ed 
the colonel's name several times, and at 
length said: '«But 111 tell you what; I 
know better than you) Ck>tenel B. is ef an 
old noble fiuniiy." This wae not the ease; 
but here we see with what pertinncity the 
king would defied a positi<m whi<^ be had 
once taken up. 

A C«BAT SOBEBIfED. — Ib AugUtty 1761^ 

when tlM king had taken poet wilk 
his army in the vidnity <^ Sc^weidaits^ 
orders wete given to throw up a redoubt 
in the eiinir chy ard ef the v^bge of Janer* 
nick^ and a great nnmber of men betog- 
ing to difoen^ regiments were sent to 
work at it, under the superintendaM)e ef 
one offioer. In tmnmig up the e«rth the 
men found «i(M pot Pidling it out veiiF 
cnrelessiyf tMy broke ii at the top« and 
perceived tiui4 it confined money. They 
were ready to sdee it« when the officer 
drove thens Mfiiy, and took ehargpe of tiM 
pot himself saying tiiat the money whie^ 
was in it should be fairly divided among 
them when they were relieved. The men 
were content. The pot was deposited in 
the church porch. The officer retired, 
pulled off his stocldngs, put on his boots 
over his bore feet, poured the money out 
oithe pot miebserved, put his stockings 
at the lK>ttom of it, and covered them wiSi 
a small qnanrtity of the pieces of coin. Ab 
soon as ^e men were relieved they de- 
nmided the pot of the officer, who imme- 
diately produced it, pouied out the money, 
and showed them that so far from contain- 
ing nothing else, it was partly filled with old 
rags. The scidiers fou#y declared that 
they were cheated, whicfr provoked t^ 
officer to threaten them' With his cmL 
Just at that moment th»l^g arrived id 
inspect the redor^, Ife inquired Wfisl^ 
wae the matter, the soldiers related the 
whole affitir, and the king desired te see 
the money and the rags in question. An 
oM grenadie]' had the latter ia his h^Ad. 
" Your majesty,'" said he, " fliese a*e not old 
rags, but jt pair of worsted stockings, with 



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TWilOMEtaib 



fWF 



a^MBflftTiywrthinT.'' Atth>iwfit tinr he 

pepeeiv^d^ the name with* which the^rwom 
morited. The king, osdered the affieorto 
lie calledy aacL ask^ w4iat wofr hhrmune; 
Ifhe offleer mentioned the same" that wtm- 
on the stockingef. *' Wdl» thm,'' said his 
nftjes^ **it.i8K3]eaBtha«^thft mnney helbngv 
to jou. Tour aneeslaBi mnst'hay« buried 
it- hece. There is the name iq^eft 1^. 
Atooking as ^BGsih as* if it WOB- only jnat 
paL into the cot TIL tell yon whaiv my 
bid^" 8»d hBs turning to the soldiers,. 
** let the Gffleer kei^Jus money; I will har^ 
the pot filled with two-groschen pieces^ aad 
these shall be equally divided among all 
that are^hsaeei Arejovt satisfied?'* — ^"*0 
yes, your majesty," was the unanimous 
reply: and well tiiey mi^t be, for the 
coins in the pot were old, small, and partly 
copper. By this expedient the king extri- 
cated the oAcer from the dilemma in 
which he had involved himself, and left 
him mute and covered with shame. 

An EBaoBr GORRfiOTED* — On (me occa- 
sion, wh€ai the king had been displeaaed 
with ana officer, and. was about, to strike 
kfaii-widbfaiff cane, the- <^lcer escs^ped at 
fun fffXLoipi the king pursued?hikn in vain. 
The^flfccr requEested hi» dismission fmrn 
his commander, " The gallant General W.," 
ivho eooctreated a short delay. In the mean 
time, ttiB king, had that da^r & large 
company to dinn^. The conveDsaticmr 
tmad on the mauAUvxe. Fredrick as- 
cribed the sQCcess of the seoond ea^ieri^ 
iMnt.to titoadmkahle disection which the 
^enwal's regiment had given to thsr whole, 
and bestsmeed' the highest praise berth upon= 
it and its* coDunander: The gen^ar wa& 
of course highly gratified, but observed,, 
^vith hiruBuid ftarlessness, *'That capitaT 
nuuuBuvi^ deprivesmy regiment of its bests 
officer.'* — ^Hdw so?" asked the- king ea^ 
geriy. ** lieutenant M.,. whom youmuriesty 
promoted fiEOOLprivato hussav t& officer on^ 
thefieId<€batlIei,a£tertheafiiur:Qf3urk6r8* 
dodl soUdta his dismissicm*" The generaT 
paused. Rpedericlc was silent fm some^ 
momentSb He then* ariced— *' Is the lieute- 
nant really such an excellent ofBcer?"— 
"I know not one who surpasses him.'*— i 
"Why does he desire his dismission?" The- 
g^eral explsdned the cause, in the most 
um^served manners The king said no 
mofe, and. a new^ subjeet of conversation 
was presently started. The troops wwe 
to manoeuvre agam on the following morn- 
ing. The regiments were drawn up, and' 
M. was in firait of liis division when the 
Idngapproadied. **ls not your name M.?** 
inquired Frederick. The lieutenant re- 
pl&d m the affirmative. ** Hark you, my 
son," resumed the king, with his peculiar 
benignity^ ** you are captain. I woidd have 
told you so yesterday, but could not over- 



triasjpQSb^ 'SbwsSdftBke th« ttt^deviL'*' 
Wi^theae wads, he passed on. 

J^adag' the- einalfttion' of the base- 
mon^, a gvea^qnantity of nMeh cennste^ 
o# pieees of six pfennings, the sc^dien^ the 
wQibnient pact oi the salaries of the civif 
and miiitaaxy offieenn^ were paid in tfaia* 
raeney, but it was noit received at the royal 
tieaimry* One day, as Frederick wa» 
passiBg the door of a baker, he sawhimr 
diluting with acountsyman. He inquired 
the reason, and was tokithat the baher 
insist^ on pa^mg the man for his ceftn irt 
six pteniagpieces, which the oountrymMi 
refused to take. Ftederiek* stepped up to 
the man. ''Why will you not ta^ tlMt 
money?^' he ai^ed. The peasant, looking^ 
hard at the king, peevishly r^o^ied r 
"Wouldstthoutske it thyself?" The kin^ 
said no more, but passed on. 

FlUEDBRIOK'sTltBJLTlISNT 09 Coi^OBSOfBO' 

CBuanALSi— If Frederick wished capital 
puttii^ment to be inflicted without unne- 
cessaiy tratnse, he was e^ualhf- solicitour 
that its elffilctB should not be weakened. 
9e could not overlook the mischief likely 
to result from the offlcums seal of certains 
dergymen for the c onver s io n of cnrhninals 
under sentence of death; ftom the self- 
omn|dacent comnieikUktions of the proeessr 
by whidi men who all their lives h^ been 
stooped, body and sofid^ in crime, were sud- 
denly transformed^ as it wa» blaeoned 
abroad^ vaadtat the operation of cUvine 
grace, into patterns of piety and heirs of 
assured salvation ; and fh>m>the practice 
of aooompanying maieftictevs, as it were' 
in triumphal procession^ to the place of 
execntien. The baneftd^ efibcts of such 
exhibitionsi Gtt> the inms^tfon of unen- 
lightened prasens nnist^ be self-evident. 
^^B king; ^srefore, onberad that ddminids' 
should* be oondnnted to exeoiUion unat-* 
tended by decj^gnnen and without the sing^ 
in^of hymns.. The wisdom of this inno- 
vati(»v whieh at first inoutred severe cen- 
8m:e, and wa» ascribed to the irreligious' 
spirit of the king, was in the sequel uni- 
vj^mlly acknowledged. 

€lbriga£ TmoKSBT. — Nothing excited 
in the king gceatsr indignation ^an reh- 
f^ns firaadsL On one of hi» journeys in 
Silesia, hewas^infoormed, iMfore he reached 
Bceriau, that? the Capuchins- were selling^ 
agnus dds atr nz kreutzers each to the 
credulous country'peo^, as- a ^secific 
against a disease then^ prer^ilkig- among 
the cattle in that province. They were 
di^eeted-to mii?tfaem up with the fodder of 
the beasts, which would be sure to recover. 
Indignant atthis impontion, the king sent, 
on the very same evening that he arrived 
at Bresiau^ for the ^ree superiors of the 
Capuchin co n ventthere, and received them 
with one of his most withering looks, and' 



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Hub apoBtioplie: ** Ah, yog ffliakers^ haw 
dare you presume to adl to the country 
people for a tri0e that which in yofor le- 
gion is accounted Uie moat reneraUe and 
Sie most sacred? Nay, more — ^you sell it 
to be eaten by cattle! Along with this 
impiety you have the effrontery to assure 
the bigoted peasants that this representa- 
tion of your God is an infallible remedy 
for the distemper among the cattle. Shakers 
you, are ye not afraid that aU the world 
will set you down for the miserable hypo- 
crites ye really are? But what do you do 
with the money, you who want for nothing, 
but are abundantly supplied with alms for 
your support by your credulous people? — 
buy riUbons, perhaps, for your concu- 
bines ?'' Here one of the Capuchins would 
have spoken, probably to rebut the charge, 
but Frederick, with flashing eyes, cried, 
•* Silence! If it is not you, it is your reli- 
gious, or rather the irreligious and impious 
monks under your authority. 'Hiey do it, 
I know. If you know it, you are guilty; 
if you know it not, you are equally so. I 
ought to put a stop to the public scandal 
by punishing you, but this time I will 
spare you. But, beware ! Depend upon 
it you shall be narrowly watched; and woe 
betide you if anything of the kind should 
happen again! I would have all your 
bea^ shared off. Now march!" Trembling 
beneath the lightnings of the king's eye 
and the thunder of this harangue, the Capu- 
chins retired, and they were prudent enough 
not to repeat the offence. 

A Singular Equiyoqub. — ^When his 
sister, the Duchess of Brunswick, was at 
Berhn, Frederick one day made a present 
to Count Schwerin, his grand equerry, of 
a snuff-box, on the lid of which was painted 
an ass. No sooner had the count quitted 
^e king than he seat his valet to Berlin 
with the box, and directions to get the ass 
taken off, and the king's portrait put in 
its place. Next day, at dinner, the count 
affected to leave his box carelessly on the 
table, and the king, who wished to amuse 
the duchess at the expense of the grand 
equerry, spoke ci the box which he had 
given to him. The duchess asked to see 
it. The box was handed to her; she opened 
it, and exclaimed, ** Bless me, what a hke* 
nessl the resemblance is perfect! Upon 
my word, l»other, this is one of the best 
portnnts of you I have ever seen." The 
king was quite disconcerted, and thought 
that the joke was carried too far. The 
duchess handed the box to her next neigh- 
bour, and it was passed frOiJi one to another 
round the taUe, every one joining in admi- 
ration of the resemblance. The king knew 
not what to think of the matter, till the 
box, coming at length under his inspection, 
he discovered the trick, and joined in the 
laugh. 



Habd NAiai.<^An old mliloinan once 
solicited permission, in compliance ;vn^ 
the will of a lady who had left him a large 
fortune, to add her name to his own. " Th^ 
man has a name already," replied Frede- 
rick ; "what does he want with two?* 
General Zaremba had a long Polish nanpa 
The king had heard of it, and one day said 
to him: — **What is your proper mmMb 
Zaremba?" The general repeated it at ft41 
length. — "Why," exclaimed Frederidc# 
" the devil himself has not get such a m^aei" 
— "No, your migesty," rejilied Zaremba 
drily, " but then he does not beUHig to my 
family." 



ART UNIONS. 



Whenlmbedlity assumes the pen, 
To school the morals and the acts of men, 
And in the language of an age of cant, 
Pretends ^ith generous zeal for art to pant; 
Can Honesty the drivelling fool exempt. 
From censure, though he merit but contempt ? 

What can that fussy poor old lady know. 
Who prates of " Lottery^' and of " lattle-go ?" 
What if from triflers or from sots we win. 
Crowns that would else be spent on cards or 

gin. 
To buy a picture ? Shall we understand 
Such outlay needs must " sadden all the land," 
If thus a painting or a print we call. 
To deck what else woiud be a dreary wall, 
Can this make humble men from honour starts 
Offend the taste or vitiate the heart ? 
Hence then the rubbish that an honest 
scheme 
Denounces as a sordid trickster's dream ! 
To make a market for the artist's work 
Might shock a savage or outrage a Turic, 
Not Englishmen, who boast refinement 

known, 
Even from the lonely cottage to the throne. 
The useful prefect cleverly devised, 
Howe'er by mean hypocrisy despised. 
Shall still, though ridiculed by critic lout. 
Be nobly patronized and earned out. 
While the defeated skmderor, standing by. 
Deplores the failure of his weekly lie. 

Condemning lotteries some art-unions wish 
Identified with former pranks of Bish. 
But mark this variance, those who urge them 

make 
No paltrv gain from th' adventmrer's stake^ 
All that he offers in the cause, of trade, 
Is honourably to the artist paid. 
Unfortunate, he something still may choose ; 
** Heads" he may win, but " tails" he cannot 

lose; 
Hence with the folly that would laud the dead. 
But yet withhold from living genius bread. 
Those who such ** Little-goes" would fitin en- 
thral, 
Wish painters of the day "no go" a| all* 
Let then art-unions' friends feel not ashatacd 
Because they're Little-goes or lotteries named. 
" That which we call a Rose," wid deem a treat, 
** By any other name would smell as svi-eet.'*' 



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r( -mfSOASD CARULB, 
ilft CAiu^tLE, the w«ll known writer, died 
%a- Iftpiday last. It will be remembered he 
4lifine twenty years ago made himself very 
t^s|)ici]oniB by publishing the works of 
!Paine. Being prosecated for doing so, in 
OtHirt he put the obnoxious works in as 
part €f his defence, and Judge and Jury 
Ittd to listen to the reading of the whole, 
which occupied many hours. The fatigue 
was enormous to the Court, as however 
▼%Wous his mind, Carlile was anything 
4Mit an animated reader. He was con- 
victed and^ suffered a long imprisonment. 
At one period he exhibited uncouth ^gies 
representing a Bishop and the Devil in his 
windows in Elect street. Latterly his 
opinions seemed to have undergone some 
change, and he treated the Scriptures with 
respect before denied. He had the mis- 
fortune to be associated with a person 
called the Bev. Robert Taylor and a crowd 
of female lecturers and free-thinking 
spouters. With Taylor he had a dreadful 
quarrel, in which the former received a 
Wotr. He gave the foUowfiig account of it 
in verse— we must not say poetry — ^in a 
Kttfe publication called * The Scourge.' 

BOBBY THE JESTBr's VAGARIES. . 

TuNB-." The King of the Cannibal Islands," 

Oh ! what a row there^'s been of late, 
Betwixt two public men so great, 
Carlile has broken Taylor's pate, 

The pate of Bobby the Jester. 

Though abvaya cracitt, the reverend Bob, 
Had ne'er before a broken nob ; 
He roar*d just like a blubbering boy, 
Amudng ail the people nigh ; 
His " darUng wi;fe" in all her charms, 
He press'd within his trembling arms, 
And planted on her lips, in swarms. 

The kisses of Bobby the Jester. 
He goes on to tell that Taylor resorted 
to a police office, and incidentally mentions 
that his reverend friend had married a 
'diarmer of sixty -two. 
There he hsurangued about his " loveT 
His " dear P* his ** sweet!" his " turtle dove /" 
Said, when she saw his ear had bled. 
She on her bosom nurs'd his head, — 
KiBS'd from his eheek the dropping tear. 
Declared she thought he*d die with fear. 
And she no little Bobs could rear — 

For want of Bobby the Jester. 

** Come, come," exclaim'd the magistrate, 
J " No silly nonsense here relate, 
"** But tell us of your broken pate, 

" You silly Bobby the Jester." 
At this Bob bristled up in wrath, 
^si^tch'd up the book to take an oath ;— 
-•* But hold awhile," defendant cried, 
" Your love,of truth shall now be tried ; 
?. Flap well 'tis known to every friend, 
^, An oath your conscience cannot bind, 
**.lTn^«8. you've lately chang'd your mind." 
^ " I have !" said Bobby the Jester. 



HUi bath b«bg to*cn, without delay. 

He said aH that he had to say, 

Defendant had three pounds to pay, 

JFor thrashhig Bobby the Jester. 

This specimen will suffice to prove that 
Carlile was not a very powerful satirist, at 
least in rhyme. He is represented to have 
been latterly in moderate circumstances, 
and to have died applauding himself for 
strug^es made in the cause of truth. His 
bod^, by his own request, was made the 
snbiject of an anatomical lecture by Mr 
Grainger, on Tuesday. 



THE RELICS OF LONDON. 

NO. IX.-^THE TOWBB. 

AvAUNT, gloomy spectres I away, dismal 
apparitions T the days of the Richards and 
the Edwards are gone, and the Tower of 
Lcmdon is no longer a prison of state. Its 
dungeons are thrown open, its cells are 
empty ; the gajoLer and the torturer have 
long since left it ; the drawbridge is down, 
the gates stand back, the portcullis is 
raised, and the Tower has passed from a 
prison to a garrison. Yet, as I look upon 
those gloomy walls, and whisper with a 
shudder of awe and terror, " that is the 
Bloody Tower," "that is the Traitor's 
gate," these terrible appellations conjure 
up gory skeletons, and my imagination 
roams back to the days of yore. As I look 
upon those rugged walls, fancy can picture 
the attacks wliich they have withstood ; a 
glance at the heavy and nail-studded doors 
is accompanied by the reflection that those 
massive portals have often closed upon 
some unhappy prisoner, separating liira for 
ever from the world and hope ; the narrow 
windows remind me of the captives whose 
hearts were, perhaps, for a moment cheered 
by the ray of sunshine that struggled 
through their apertures. Reflection goes 
thus fe,r — ^fancy succeeds ; and then, me- 
thinks, I can see the hapless infants strug- 
gling in the murderous grasp of their 
uncle's minions ; I can see, " in my mind's 
eye," the glittering axe falling upon the 
snowy neck of the discarded Anne, or the 
pious Jane ; I can picture such scenes and 
such horrors as make my blood run cold 
and cause me to start with terror at the 
visions I have conjured up. And then» 
perchance, a hissing steam-boat passes 
down the river, and destroys my dismal but 
interesting speculations, reminding me that 
the captive has long ceased to pine, and 
blood to flow, within the Tower. 

A city within a city is the Tower of Lon- 
don, with its streets and lanes, its taverns 
and its shops ; — and only such a city, in 
extent at least, once was that of which it 
now forms but a portion. A dismal place. 



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and so gUxmy/^^^i^e^ i^ mufh i»k» of 
l^ood mi toroiv-'-H^iey' Bfmkao kitedligi- 
1>^«f HMwdur and ei^iiivitnr, that all the 
ffifiiB$, Atones oi our oluldiiU ^^€»cp aie at 
pncelvoi^t to our xecQUec4(». 1^ ia a 
iFide field for the uoagu^tioQ «f the pge( 
er the noyeUst to roaw in, for eroiy inch 
<»f gi^uud rc^nin^ us of |i tr^gedj -.-a r^ 
Ixagedy, as saau^ of the actors 1kb»w £ajyi 
ireU to their pain and cost ; e^erf 6t(»ie 
jHiggests a tajie of horror, and tise' hi^;orr 
of some deed of darkness dls^ to ev^ry 
fragment. Here a wretched prisoner has 
liegiiiled his time in tsacing characters 
upon the wall — ^there a young life, budding 
forth in h<^ and promise, has been ab- 
ruptly closed bf the hand of the execu- 
tioner ; this dungeon was the prison of 
persecuted innocence — ^that spot tfee lowly 
graye of towering ambition. A long his- 
tory of tyranny, cruelty, and murder do 
thoise same gloomy waUs record ; scenes (^ 
bloodshed haye they witnessed sufficient 
to make them, stone as they are, tremble 
to liieir foundations ; and now they stand 
firowning as angrily as when they echoed 
the shrieks of the tortured or the moans 
of the captiye. But their gloominess is out 
of place, for they, of all the neghbourhood, 
lire the only yestiges of the barbarity pf 
the middle ajjpes;— au around them belongs 
to our more ciyilised and christian times. 
Where is the ra<^ ? where are tiie thumb- 
screws ? — ^where ^he scaffold? — all — all 
haye yanished, let us hope, for ever, and 
implements of peace and industry occupy 
the rooms that cmce were filled with im- 
plements of torture.^ It is true, swords and 
pistols, bayonets and muskets, still remain, 
but they are to be used in honourable war- 
&re, not in midnight murder. Frown as 
ye will, then, gloomy walls, — ^threaten as 
ye may, dark cells, none who enter the 
Tower rww need fear you ; none pass 
through those heayy gates, prisoners to- 
day, to be corpses to-morrow ; — the Tower 
is a garrison, not a prison ! 

Whether the Tower of London owes its 
foundation to Julius Caesar or to William 
the ConquenM*, antiquaries haye been 
unable to decide. William I^ltzstephen, 
wlio wrote only a century after the Norman 
inyaslon, makes no allusion to its origin, 
but merely remarks that "the Palatine 
Tower, on the east of the city, is a fortress 
of great size and strength," the mortar 
which cements the walls " behag tempered 
with the blodd of beasts." Stukely, 
and some of the more enthusiastic of 
Iiondcm's antiquaries, haye attempted to 
ahow that the Bomans were the founders 
of the Tower, but the accurate and matter- 
of-fkct John Stowe, at once denounces 
these surmises as haying ''none assured 
ground," and therefore proceeds, on •* more 



grounded Anfikseiif,*' to "tiiiee 4be hxBtaty 
of 4he foEtzess X9 ^e time of the Mm^m 
jCoB^ueior, who, in 1978, er^e^ **the 
Great White Tow^r." Bh moasmfn^ 
WilUam Rufos 1^ Henry the Wigctk, Ai- 
ded to the vqrkt and in ihe f€^^ 0f Ih0 
latter monarch it was appropdfcM t# 
the purposes of a state fffis(«i, ^ ^^sAn^ 
of I>urham bdng pae fir^ f43iBen«r wibw 
was confined th^ ^ U1M), the T^mm 
W9» surrounded by a ditch ^and 0m. out- 
ward wall of stone," wjnm X^n^^elMmft, 
]3^op of My, d^GanAed it s^aiBst Jolni 
during the crusade and 9hfi^^ees( Bidbftrd 
th^ first. From the tin^ <^ Stei»hen m 
the reign of Charles the Second, t^e Tover 
was frequently used as a royal palafee tiDd 
a retreat for the monari^ duwg any 
pogular commotions^ 

To trace the Wetojry fd the Tower iatom 
the period wh^ it first bectme wa. edifiee 
of importance-^-terril^ importance, indeed 
•^would be a task of too fpeat QMgjiStude 
to suit my pres^M; purpose ; an outline 
of the more int^^s^ng ev^^itts wtiidb lea^ 
der its navae ee famous i» aH that can he 
attempted. Nether wo^d such a iroric he 
in s^ct accordance with the ^an whick 
has been laid down on entering viffsi these 
sketches. History teUs us of kings wi\Q 
haye been niurdered, of prisoners who 
haye been confined, of combats wi»ch hare 
been foug^, of ehartees whi^ luiy« been 
signed within the Tower ; but it is in a 
few eases <mly that it points out the spot 
wh^re these oecurvenees haye ^keoL j^iiice. 
The present notice has to do with 4^ local, 
not the general history of the 6>r^pess, and 
in describing the more importairt of its 
relics niiieh are left, it would be as im- 
proper as imnecessary to allude to such 
portions as are now no longw standing. 
Pass we, therefore, over the general history 
of the Tower to the particidar history of 
its rdics ; and first, of the "great square 
White Tower," the most ancient andtiie 
most conspicuous building in the fortress. 
Stowe fixes the date of its erection in Hie 
year 1078, but in 1090 it was so "sore 
shaken by tempest of wind " as to require 
consideraWe repairs in the reigns of Wil- 
liam the Second and Henry the first ; and, 
with these repairs, it has been enabled te 
braye the attacks of time, and yet remains 
firm and untottering ; the strongest though 
the oldest portion of the Tower, lie 
ancient and magnificent Norman chi^ 
within the White Tow» is, perhaps, the 
most perfect of its chambers ; it was first 
used as the priyate chi^l of the Caati in 
the thirteenth century, but has now been 
conyerted— perhaps the word peryerted 
would be more appropriate — into a d^- 
sitory for legal records. Another rery in- 
teresting renc in the White Tower is the 
prison of Sir Walter Haleigh-a small, 



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ifprie, «b4 ifidomy ee^, ia whieh he wa0 
^•nfliied lor thirteen jnears ; and where 
he ^>rfote hie 'Bkt^ry of the Worid.* 
IVom this room he "wan led forth to the 
9C9^B(M, and thus was his miserable cap- 
tiidty terminated. On yarious parts of the 
wi^ of this Tower may still be discerned 
the isscriptions whidi the hapless captives 
traced ; all bewailing thehr dismal fkte, 
aany expressive of the wUdest despair, a 
few of the calmest lesignaUon. Here, too, 
it was that ^e young princes, Edward ttie 
Fifth and his bro<lier the Duke of York, 
9Ste supposed to have been murdered by 
their imde's orders— a supposition which 
the discovery of human bones behind the 
▼all of the adjoining gateway, has tended 
9Biu(^ to B^ngthen. 

The Beaudi^p Tower has idso fearful 
associations coupled with its name. It was 
tort osed as a prison in 1897. The rude 
inscriptions which litendly cover the walls 
«f this Tower, tell harrowing tales of 
misery, but of all the memonsls which re- 
main, none are so interesting, none sug- 
^t such melancholy reflections as the 
word "lANE," rudely carved upon the 
wall, most probably by the distracted hiis- 
|)and of the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey, 
the most amiable and the most inpocent 
captive that ever pined within the Tower. 
Pined, did I s^? no I the pious Lady 
Jane repined not, but submitted cheerfully 
to her fate ; her cultivated mind was capa- 
ble of feeling and appreciating the con- 
■olatioQs of reUgion, and she hud her head 
upon the block calmly and with resigna- 
tion, beseeching forgiveness for her mur- 
derers. Poor Queen Jane I of all the 
legends which are connected with the 
Tower— dismal and gloomy as most of 
them are — ^there is none so interesting, so 
piunfuUy interesting, as thine, Queen, 
indeed, of thy sex and pattern of woman- 
hood! Long uve thy memory in connexion 
with everything that is pious, amiable, and 
lovely ; long Uve the memory of thy 
charity, thy piety, and thy beauty I 

The Bloody Tower (ominous and dismal 
name that it is!) Corande's Tower, the 
Broad Arrow, and Robin the Devil's 
Towers, the Salt Tower and the Bell 
Tower, the Martin Tower, the Watergate 
and the Byward Towers, ail have been 
prisons in their time ; in each and aXL have 
the victiwf to jealwsy, to revenge, to 
avarice, nr to fear, lingered day by day, 
until they were brought to welcome even 
the painM death prepared for th^n. 

The unhappy wife of the brutal Henry, 
ite unfortunate but bigoted Mary, Queen 
i^^QQita, t^ **gQod Queen Bess" ana hot 
hapless Essex, have sighed witlUn these 
dratry TQw«r«, tiirowiog into the i^ada 
the tim os a nds of obscuinr captives who 
have left their sad memorials upon the 



walls. Ilia mangled remains of many of 
these unhappy prisoners ware buried a» 
stealthily as they had been murdered, be- 
neath the pavement of their cells, and the 
little chapel of St Peter contains the dust 
of many more. 

The stoutest hearts have quailed, an#^ 
the most buoyant spirits given way, as the 
heavy portcullis of the Traitor's Gate 
descenwd, an impassable barrier between 
them and liberty. Queen Anne Boleyn 
and Queen Jane — ^both were denied their 
rightful titles during their lifetime—pas- 
sed through that dismal portal, never to 
return into the world ; a brutal husband 
murdered the former, his sanguinary 
daughter, the latter ; and the crowds of 
less celebrated prisoners who have been 
dragged up the same stone steps to capti- 
vity, torture, and to death, are unrecorded* 
But the fearful tragedies which are known,, 
the dreadful histories which have been 
handed down, are sufficient to make us 
shudder as we read them, and to look upcnt 
the Tower as the most dismal, the most 
terrible, and yet the most interesting of 
London's relics. 

AL£XA2n>EB AKDILBWS. 



Charity Extraordinary, — It has been 
stated in the papers that Wt Carpenter 
Smith, of ISouthwark, as r^)orted, a be- 
nevc^nt gentleman, after buying an an- 
nuity of 500/. for himself has resdved to 
devote the remainder of his property, 
about 200,000/., to the building of forty 
almshouses, the inmates of which are to 
receive 126. a week each. Supposing this 
statement to be strictly correct, after 
securing the endowment proposed, neariy 
198,0007. will remain to be laid out in 
building, which ought to produce some- 
thing rather handsome in the almshouse 
way! 

Steinle. — The celeteated painter, Steinle, 
has just finished his designs for the fres- 
cos ne is about to execute in the Cathe- 
dral of Cologne. 

Statesmanship.-^When the King of the 
Netherlands, m 1821, wished to make a 
difference between the duties paid by 
foreign ships (chiefly English) in the ports 
of Holland and those paid by his own sub- 
jects, he very gracefully accomplished his 
object by granting a bounty to the latter. 

Chinese Ot>n;uror«.— Extraordinary in- 
geniuty, in a work recently published, is 
ascribed to the Chinese jugglers. Two of 
them entered a company m the drawing 
room of a foreign resident at Canton. One 
handed to the other a large duna baain^ 
•Riis, after a few flourishes above his head» 
and being turned upside down to convince 



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THE MIEEOR. 



the spectators that it was empty, the ex- 
iiibitor suddenly allowed to &11, bat 
caught it before it reached the floor. This 
movement brought him into a position 
Testing upon his heels, the basin being now 
hidden from view by the folds of his gar- 
ments. In that attitude he remained for a 
Jew seconds, with hands extended, but in 
no way touching the basin. With a sud- 
den spring he stood upright, and displayed 
to the astonished spectators the basin fiUed 
to the brim with pure clear water, and two 
j[old fishes swimming in it 

The Tfteodotiin Code.— The celebrated 
collection of edicts and rescripts known as 
the Code of Theodosius, contains those of 
vsixteen Emperors, and dates from 312 to 
438, thus extending over a hundred and 
twenty-six years. It opens with the first 
Christian Emperor. 

Paganim, — The Bishcm of Nice — so tiie 
continental journals inform us — ^has fool- 
ishly denied permission for the entrance of 
Paganini'sr^nains into consecrated ground. 
The body, embahned, is lying in state, in 
a house appropriated to the purpose, while 
the aSalr is under discussion at Bome. 

German Justice^ — In the olden time, he 
who killed another's dog was to hang the 
slain animal up by the tail, the nose just 
touching the ground, and then to cover 
him with wheat, so that not a hair could 
Jbe seen ; and the heap of wheat was the 
compensation due to the owner. 

The Came of Earthquakes. — The Edda, 
an ancient Icelandic record, ascribes earth- 
quakes to the terrible Loki, the Satan of 
Scandinavian mythology ; a similar power 
is attributed to the warlike movements of 
his son Yormungandar or Midgardsorm, 
the monstrous sea-serpent that girdles the 
world, and holds his tail in his mouth to 
make a sphere-encircling belt. 

Chateaux en Espagne. — It was stated, at 
the late meeting of the proprietors of the 
JNorthem and Eastern llailway Company, 
that the following were the results of the 
traffic on the line as compared with the 
original estimates: — Ponder's End passen- 
ger traffic, estimated at 191/., produced 
only 48/. per week. IMmonton passenger 
-traffic, estimated at 361/. per week, actu&y 
produced only 17/. 10s. 

No . Little-go, — Tlie other week the 
Woodhouse bellman, Yorkshire, announced 
a raffle for a woman, at a shilling per head ! 
— Notti-ngham Review. 

Miracies.—The'Rey. T. Foley, of Youghal, 
has pubUshed an ace >imt of a series of 
miracles now in operation at a convent in 
that town, which promise to equal the 
Alpine miracles witnessed and described 
by Lord Slurewsbury. He states that 
there is a young nun in the convent, a re- 
lative of his own, on whose hands, feet, 



and side are depicted the wounds of tiie 
Saviour; and that at the conununioa 
blood is seen to flow from those ai^aient 
wounds. He adds that many witnesses 
will verify the miracle upon oath. — Fg^fie* 
Worms and Corrosive SubUmate. — Ifix 
one ounce of corrosive sublimate in forty 
gallons of water and sprinkle the liquid on 
the grass, and it will be found instaa- 
taneousl^ most £aktal to the reptites whose 
destruction is necessary. 

Anecdote of Mr Canning. — In January, 
1826, Sir Charles Bagot, ambassador at 
tiie Hague, received, while attending the 
King's court, a despatch in cjrpher. He 
had not with him the key of the cypher, 
and he was in a state of great anxiety 
during the interval occupied in procuring 
it. The following is a literal copy of this 
important oommmiication . 
" In matters of commerce, the Ikult of the Dutch, 
Is giving too little and asking too much: 
"With equal advantage the French are content, 
So well clap on Dutch bottoms a twenty i>er cent. 
Twenty per cent., 
Twenty per cent, 
Nous frapperous Falck with twenty per cent 

GEomoE CAXTNUrG." 

— A comedy from the pen of Martinez de 
la Rosa, formerly one of the Queen Begent's 
ministers, has been performed at Madrid 
with great applause. It is called *The 
Spaniard in Venice.' 

— Dr Bailey, who is now under sentence 
of transportation for life, and whose case 
exhibits the. blackest depravity that ever 
sullied the name of a minister of religicm, 
when Dr Dillon had committed himself, 
was most bitter against him and all who 
commiserated his distress. In his opinion 
those who attempted to comfort a fallen 
man were deeply culpable. " Blessed are 
the merciful, for they shall find mercy." 

— On Monday a Mr Gregory offered to 
act Hamlet qX Covent Garden Theatre. Bills 
were posted in the principal streets, signi- 
ficantly addressed to " The Gentlemen of 
Ix)ndon," stating the new performer to be 
" Mr Gregory, the Editor of the * Satirist.' " 
At night he was violently opposed. He 
was not listened to at all, and the play did 
not proceed beyond the second act. 



ON SEEING A SERVICE OP PLATif PBOPOSEl> 

to be given to the puschaseb op a 

newspaper! 
The liberals who this plate prepare, 

Have very well their work began ; 
The ewer and tongs are wrought with care. 

The Spoons will all be nicdg done. 



LoNDOw: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 
MORTIMER, Adelaide Sheet, Trafalgar Square; 
and Sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

Printed by C. Rctxxll, 16 Little Pulteney street, 
and at the Royal Polytechnic InskitutioB. 



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in^e Mivv^ 



OP 



LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



Ko. 8.J 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1843. [Vol. L 1843. 



\^:;m^^^^^ 




iBt^naX Commttnicationigf. 

THE LAST DAYS OF POPE 
BONIFACE Vm. 

Much of the dreary strife, and many 
of liie startling crimes which swell the 
history of the middle ages, grew out of the 
arrogant pretensions of the bishops of 
Borne. They claimed to exercise a con- 
trolling power over all the kings of Chris- 
tendom. The success of the experiment 
niade on the wretched ; English tyrant 

VOL. XLI. 



John, was through the succeeding cen- 
tury often proudly held up in terrorem to 
reflractory princes ; and their priest'ridden 
subjects could not but shudder at the 
awfid consequences which their fathers re- 
ported to them resulted from a papal inter- 
dict being laid on an offending nation. 
Hence the Popes were emboldened, in 
furtherance of their own sordid views, 
to interfere with the internal arrange- 
ments of every kingdom, and it was 
often done in a manner which set at 
naught the authority of the kuig, andi 
1 ^No. UJ2. 



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THE MIRROR. 



at the same time ii^jured^ his. finances. 
Out of these circumstances the most 
fearful discord arose. The Pope was 
used by the monarchs of that time to for- 
ward every evil design they formed, and to 
relieve them frpm any oath they might 
have sworn, when its observance became 
inconvenient ; but when they touched the 
patronage and profits of the king, he usu- 
ally api^ed to his Parliament or Barons 
to resist such interference as unlawful, and 
not to be endured. 

Pope Boniface the Eighth, when more 
than fourscore years of age, was ambiti- 
ous of filling the holy seat with vigour. 
He thought proper to nominate certain 
parties to bishoprics in France, as a mat- 
ter of right, without troubling himself to 
obtain the king's consent. Philippe the 
Fourth, indignant at this proceeding, re- 
solved to make head against the haughty 
representative of St Peter; and accord- 
ingly, on the occasion of one Bernard Sais- 
setti, a creatm^ of his own, being made 
bishop of Pamiers by Boniface, Philippe 
caused the new prelate to be arrested in the 
night, and sent him to prison under a 
charge of treason, heresy, and blasphemy. 
The rest of the stoiy, the remarkable 
struggle between the King and the Pope, 
tre copy from *The Pictorial History of 
France,* to which we lately called the at- 
tention of our readers. The animated 
representation of the strange affiront put 
upon the proud Pontifl'is one of the admi- 
rable engravings (four hundred in number) 
which ifiustrate that interesting work. 

" Boni&x;e remonstrated against this 
outrage and violence in a bull known in 
history by its opening words *Ausculta, 
fill,* in which he asserted his power * over 
nations and kingdoms, to root out and 
pull dowji, to destroy and to throw down, 
to build and to plant,' and concluded by 
informing Philippe that he had summoned 
all the ^perior clergy of France to an 
assembly at Rome on the 1st of the follow- 
ing November, in order to deliberate on 
the remedies for such abuses as those of 
which the King had been guilty. Philippe, 
by no means intimidated by this measure, 
convoked a full and early assembly of the 
three estates of his kingdom, to decide 
upon the conduct of him whom the ortho- 
dox, up to that time, had been in the habit 
of deeming infallible. This [10th April, 
1303] was the first meeting of a ParUa- 
ment, properly so called, in France. It 
was hdd in the church of Notre Bame de 
Palis, in separate chambers— each order 
deliberating apart, and all being dissolved 
at the dose of a single day. In these as- 
semblages the question at issue between 
the king and the Pope at once became a 
n9>tionalone. The chambers unanimously 
approyed and applauded the conduct of 



the king, and resolved to maintain the 
honour of the crown and the nation finMn 
foreign insult or domination ; and to mark 
their decision more conclusively, they con- 
curred with the sovereign in prohibiting 
the clergy firom attending the Pc^'s sum- 
mons to Rome. The papal bull was burned 
as publicly as possible— the act being pro- 
claimed with trumpets through the streets 
of Paris, after having been read and exs. 
plained to the wondering people. The 
Pope, alarmed at these novel and bold pro- 
ceedings, sought instantly to avert their 
consequences by soothing explanations; 
but Philippe would not now be turned 
aside from his course. He summoned a 
convocation of the Gallican prelates, in 
which by the mouth of William de Nogaret, 
his chancellor, he represented the occu- 
pier of St Peter's chair as the father of 
lies and an evil-doer *, and he demanded the 
seizure of this pseudo-pope, and his im- 
prisonment imtil he could be brought be- 
fore a legitimate tribunal to receive the 
punishment due to his numerous crimes. 

" Boniface now declared that the French 
king was excommunicated, and cited him 
by his confessor to appear in the papal 
court at Rome within three months, to 
make submission and atonement for his 
contumacy. Philippe, however, caused the 
bearers of this missive to be waylaid and 
imprisoned ; and publiididd a formal accu- 
sation of the Pope, in which that venera- 
ble father was charged with the grossest 
and most absurd crimes. A war of docu- 
ments ensued, in which the king, the 
pontiff, the barons, the cardinals, the peo- 
ple and the priesthood all took part, in a 
manner which certainly threatened to pro- 
duce a premature dissolution of the unity 
of the Catholic church. While this un- 
seemly quarrel, however, seemed to be 
growing interminable in its complexities, 
the daring of a few men opened a shorter 
path to its end than could have been an- 
ticipated. 

" WilUam of Nogaret associating to him 
Sciarra Colonna, a noble Roman, who, 
having been driven from his native city 
by Boniface, and subjected to various 
hardships, had found refuge in Paris, 
passed, with a train of tl^ee hundred 
horsemen, and a much larger body of 
picked infantry, secretly into Italy, with 
the intention of surprising the Pope at his 
summer residence in his native town of 
Anagni, and repeating upon his person the 
outrage that had been practised upon the 
Bishop of Pamiers. Boniftu^ it waa 
known, had prepared another bull main- 
taining that * as vicar of Jesus Christ he 
had power to govern kings with a rod of 
iron, and to dash them in pieces like a 
potter's vessel ;' and he had appointed ths 
8th of S^tember, 1303, the annlTersary 



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THE MIRROR. 



U& 



oCthe nativity of the Virgin, for its pro- 
miUgation. It was so arranged, therefore, 
that the attach shotild be made on the 7th, 
and accordingly at about seven in the morn- 
ing of that dSy, Nogaret and Colonna with 
their supporters, bearing the banners of 
France, rushed into Anagni, shouting 
* Success to the King of France — ^Death to 
Pope Boniface !" The papal palace was 
captured after a feeble resistance, and the 
cardinals and personal attendants of the 
Pontiff fled for their lives. Boniface, how- 
ever, seeing that no means of retreat for 
himself h^ been left op^, prepared to 
sustain with becoming dignity the last 
outrage his enemies could inflict. * Since 
I am betrayed,' he cried, * as my Saviour 
was betrayed, I wiU at least die as befits a 
Pope.' He then clothed himself in his 
official vestments, with the mantle of St 
Peter on his shoulders, the crown of Con- 
stantine on his head, and the keys and 
cross in his hands ; and seated himself in 
the pontifical throne. Sclarra Colonna 
was the first who penetrated to his pre- 
sence ; and he, when he beheld the vene- 
rable form and composed bearing of the 
old man, who had attained his eighty-sixth 
year, seemed suddenly to relent in his 
fiercer purpose, and his revenge did not 
prompt him to more than verbal insult. 
Kogaret followed, and approaching the 
Pope with some external show of respect, 
informed him that he must at once pre- 
pare himself to be present at the council, 
forthwith to be summoned on the subject 
of his misconduct. The Pope replied firmly 
to his captor — ' William of Nogaret, from 
thee and such as thee— a heretic and the 
son of a line of heretics, who have atoned 
for their errors in the flames — I can pa- 
tiently endure any indignity. 

" The Condottieri engaged in this enter- 
prise, then dragged the Pope from his 
throne, and conveying him into the street, 
moimted him upon a lean horse witliout 
saddle or bridle, with his head to the ani- 
mal's tail, and thus conducted him in a 
sort of pilgrimage through the town. He 
was then consigned prisoner to one of the 
chambers of his palace and placed imder 
guard ; while the body of his captors dis- 
persed themselves through the splendid 
apartments in eager pursuit of plunder. 
Aree days were thus occupied ; but at 
the end of that time the aggressors found a 
resistance they seem never to have calcu- 
lated upon. The people of Anagni, by whom 
the pontiff appears to have been belo ved,hav- 
ing recovered from the panic of theirfirst 
surprise, and discovered the weakness of 
the assailing force, took arms in behalf of 
their fellow-townsman and spiritual father, 
and falling upon the French while still in- 
dulging in the licence of the sack, drove 
Nbgaret wid Oolonna from their quarters, 



and either expelled or massacred the whole 
of their followers. 

" But though they were thus enabled to 
restore the aged Boniface to freedom, they 
could not heal his wounded honour. Ren- 
dered furious by the disgrace of his cap- 
tivity, he hastened from Anagni to Rome, 
breathing vows and threats of vengeance. 
The violence of his passion, however, 
speedily overpowered his reason, and he 
simk at once into abject imbecility. His 
eyes were haggard, his mouth white with 
foam, and he gnashed his teeth in silence. 
He passed the day without nourishment 
and the night without repose ; and refused 
to allow any attendant to enter his cham- 
ber to offer liim food or consolation. After 
an interval, liis domestics burst into his 
apartment, and there beheld his body 
stretched on the bed stiff and cold. The 
staff which he had carried bore the marks 
of his teeth, and was covered with foam. 
His white locks were stained with blood — 
produced probably by some violence of the 
French soldiers — and his head was so 
closely wrapi)ed in the counterpane thait 
he was believed to have anticipated his 
end by violence and suffocation [11th Oc- 
tober, 1303]." 



THE SHIRTLESS HAPPY MAN. 

From the German of Langbein, 

Erst on his couch, opprest with grief and pain , 
A monarch lay, nor thought to rise again ; 
No help he found in powder, draught, or pill, 
So sad his case, — it mock'd the doctors' skill ; 
On him a fierce disease was seen to sport. 
Which baffled both the council and the court. 

The scenes of pleasure were no longer gay. 
Their doors were clos'd, and fiddles ceas'd to 

play; 
A decent sorrow In the halls was seen, 
And sad regret was stampt on ev'ry mien ; 
From Paris too, 'tis confidently 88^, 
They order *d mourning as for one that's dead. 

The royal jester, faithful to his post, 
Was there, but seem'd as tho' his tongue 

were lost ; 
E'en he, who chatter'd at no common rate, 
As ever like a starliog he would prate, 
'Midst doctors, like a ninny, silent stood. 
Or some rude satyr in his saddest mood. 

But suddenly the jester silenee broke,— 
Fair speech unlock'd his lips, and thus he 

spoke : — 
" Ye big-wigg'd fellows useful are indeed 
" To those in health, who never med'cine need, 
** But, spite of Greek and Latin, they must Ml 
"Whom ghaistly Death commands, — who 
summons all.*' 

"E'en now before your wondering eyes you 

see 

" His powerful grasp, — he spares not majesty i 

" To seize your potent king he's not afraid,— 

"Your vain attempts he scorns, and mooki. 

your aid: 



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THE MIRROR. 



** Begone ! I know a warrior of renown 
** Prepared to fight, and drive him from th 
town." 

•• Not one of you with him compared can be, 
** So great his power, — ^a noted wizard he ; 
•* Able to cast out wicked sprites he*8 found, 
''And thus he's known to all the country 

round ; 
** His words are tnie, his prophecies are sure, 
** And he has wrought full many a wond*rout 
cure." 

"'Tis arrant nonsense all. What knows a 

fool!* 
£xclaim'd a Doctor of the learned school ; 
**Hold! silence," said the king, ''attend to 

me, 
** He is my faithful servant known to be. 
** Now John my jester, ne*or the doctors heed, 
«* Be off, and bring thy sorcerer with speed !" 

Hard by a nelghb'ring fence that clos'd a 
wood. 
In humble guise, the sorcerer's cottage stood; 
And tho* the wizard tott'ring was, and lame. 
He hand in hand with John the pester came ; 
Advanced in years, like Nestor he appear'd. 
And showed, like him, a flowing silver beard. 

The kinff "with hearty welcome — in distress 
And feeble voice, exclaim'd, " You're come tc 

bless! 
»* Hail, worthy prophet, surely such are you, 
" Now freely speak your mind, and tell me 

tnie, 
" Must I on you for added years depend, 
" Or from my throne into the grave descend ?'* 

" I cannot speak at once," replied the sage, 
•' As I must with the glitt'ring stars engage ; 
" In solemn silence I am bound to ask 
" Yon rolling orbs, ere I perform the task ; 
" But, ere the sun shall gild the eastern sky, 
" The truth will I declare, — ^to live or die." 

Then went the wizard on his own affairs. 
And left awhile the monarch to his cares ; 
But, on the morrow, back the sorcerer came, 
The truth, as he had promised, to proclaim ; 
He bore a book of riddles in his hand. 
Which none on earth, but him, could under- 
stand. 

" My lord," said he, " Death stands in dread 

array, 
" And fiercely seeks to take your life away ; 
" Yet, in a twinkling, health you may secure, 
" If anyhow you can a shirt procure, — 
" A shirt of mortal, it must here be shown, 
" Who never aught but happiness has known.' 

The courtiers laughed; — a whisper went 

around, 
" Was e'er before so great a madman found !' 
The anxious monarch differ'd from the rest. 
And thus he his prime minister address'd, — 
" To you alone the task belongs, Count Stirt,— 
" The only man are you to get the shirt ! 

" But prithee why so thoughtful and so pale 
" You boast, e'en now, your services avail 
" My kingdom to enrich,— and thro' the land 
•* Is surely seen full many a happy band ; 
" If then so many there are known to be, 
" One you will find, if only one, for me !" 



Thus said the king,— the statesman left the 

place 
With downcast looks, as in a hopeless case ; 
Straight to his study he repair'd, and there 
In silent sadness, mourned the whole afifair ; 
Ten grey>goose quills were cut in haste, ana 

then 
This proclamation issued from his pen. 

" Bc't known to all that Death, with eager 

strife, 
" His power exerts to rob us of our life ; 
" But still a prophet says, in language plain, 
" Anon we should at once our health regain, 
'* If wrapp'd within a shirt, it can be shown, 
"Of one who naught but happiness has 

known. 

" To such as know nor pain nor grief we send, 
" Requiring them such garment straight to 

lend; 
" How coarse we heed not, it must here be 

told,— 
" The rightful owner shall be paid in gold ; 
" And more than this, whate'er his station, he 
" To highest honours shall promoted be." 

Scarce had this proclamation issued been. 
Or scarcely dry, but thro' the town 'twas seen ; 
On ev'ry house and wall 'twas plac'd with 

speed. 
And folks with outstretch'd necks were there 

to read; 
All said, or seem'd to say, they had excuse. 
As nothing of the kind they could produce. 
(To he continued.) 

STEAM ELECTRICITY. 
In the month of October, 1840, Mr Arm- 
strong communicated to Professor Farraday 
the following: — "A few days ago I was 
informed that a very extraordinary electri- 
cal phenomenon connected with the influx 
of steam from the safety valve of a steam- 
engine boiler had been observed at Seghill, 
about six mUes from Newcastle," and he 
added, " without further preface I shall 
proceed to narrate what I saw on the spot. 
— There is nothing remarkable in the con- 
struction of the boiler, which is supported 
upon masonry in the usual way;" and he 
states, " that the steam issued from a fis- 
sure between the boiler and its connexion 
with the body of the safety-valve, caus ed 
by the packing having given way. On 
placing one hand in the jet of steam, and 
the other upon the boiler, a spark of elec- 
tricity was seen, and a considerable shock 
felt." This was first noticed by the engi- 
neer. Mr Armstrong, possessing a mind 
of great research, did not let this simple 
fact lie idle, but, from a series of scientific 
and laborious experiments, has laid before 
the world a discovery of great importance. 
He made a further communication to the 
scientific world in the following November, 
the substance of wliich is, that he obtained 
sparks varying from a quarter of an inch 
to an inch in length from all the boilers 
he had tried experiments upon, and that 



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THE MIRROR. 



117 



he afterwards, in conjunction with Mr 
Nicholson, the engineer, tried experiments 
on the locomotive boiler, and obtained, 
from the steam blowing off, abundance of 
electricity. He says, ** In trying the steam 
in the first instance by standing on an 
insulated stool (that is, a stool with glass 
legs), and holding in one hand a light iron 
red immediately above the safety-valve, 
while the steam was freely escaping, and 
then advancing the other hand towards 
any conducting body, sparks of about one 
inch in length were obtained, but it was 
soon observed that by elevating the rod in 
tlie steam the electricity was increased, and 
tlie maximum effect was not obtained until 
tlie end of the rod was raised five or six 
feet above the valve, at which point the 
length of the sparks occasionally reached 
two inches. In 1841 Mr Pattinson and 
Mr Armstrong made a joint communica- 
tion to the world, calculated to afford the 
explanation of the phenomenon of Cram- 
lington — see PhUo. Mag. vol. xviii, p. 100. 

Mr Armstrong about this time con- 
structed a boiler of three feet six inches 
in length, with cylindrical ends, and one 
foot nine inches in diameter, resting on an 
ordinary iron framing, and the whole was 
supported on four glass legs. On trying 
the experiments he raised the steam to a 
pressure of 70 lbs. on the inch, and ejected 
the steam from a small orifice of one-tenth 
of an inch in diameter; there is no limita- 
tion to the number of orifices, so that more 
are not made than the boiler will well 
supply, and each orifice will give off the 
same quantity of electricity from the steam. 
The result he announced was, that from 
his small boiler he made a comparison with 
that of a plate electrical machine of three 
feet in diameter. The effect of this was 
as follows on a half-gallon Leyden jar :— 
Number of spontaneous discharges of 

the jar per minute from the plate 

machine - - - 29 

Ditto from the boiler - - 220 

being an increase in favour of the boiler of 
nearly 10 to 1. 

Proceeding in his exi)eriments, Mr Arm- 
strong has obtained sparks of a foot in 
length from his small boiler. One of about 
the size alluded to has been made for Mr 
Addams, the celebrated lecturer on experi- 
mental philosophy, which wiU be soon ex« 
hibited and lectured upon at the Royal 
Institution. The Polytechnic Institution, 
foremost on all occasions to promote the 
cultivation of science, without regard to 
expense, have ordered one for their Insti- 
tution of the magnificent size of six feet by 
three, and it is now being made, with every 
improvement, imder the direction of Mr 
Armstrong. It is presumed that it vn\\ be 
of 20 times the enonnous iK)wer of the 
colossal electrical machine they have at 



present. Thus it will be seen that the 
mighty agent, st^am, is brought to bear 
in science as well as in power. As soon as 
any important result is obtained, it will 
be given immediately in the colunms of the 
'Mirrw.' When matters so interesting 
and important are on the tapis we shall not 
be found sleeping. 



INSECTS GENERATED BY 
GALVANISM. 

THE ACARU8 GALVANICUS, OR ACUllJS 
CR08S1I. 

It was discovered some years ago that 
certain insects, a new species of Acari, had 
been called into existence incidentally, by 
some electric experiments of Mr Crosse 
These experiments have been of late suc- 
cessfully repeated by Mr Weekes. Mr 
Crosse has long been occupied in produc- 
ing, artificially, various mmeral substances, 
essentially the same as those elaborated 
by nature. With the conviction that elec- 
tric agency was the secret instrument in 
the hand of nature, he was led to operate 
upon earthy solutions by slow voltaic 
action, continued without remission for 
weeks. He was endeavouring to obtain 
crystals of siUca, and had prepared the 
foUowing solution :— the powder of black 
fliint, having been exposed to a red heat, 
was quenched in water, and then mixed 
with three times its weight of carbonate 
of potassa : after the mixture had been 
submitted to a furnace heat for a quarter 
of an hour, it was reduced to powder and 
dissolved in warm water. Tliis solution, 
by means of a strip of fiannel hanging over 
the edge of the basin in which it was 
placed, was allowed to fall in drops upon 
a piece of red oxide of iron, obtained from 
Mount Vesuvius — that mineral being 
chosen for no other reason than its po- 
rosity. On either side of the iron-stone 
rested two platinmn wires, proceeding from 
a voltaic battery of nineteen pairs of five- 
inch plates excited with common water. 
On the fourteenth day after the com- 
mencement of the exi)eriment IVIr Crosse 
observed, by means of a lens, a few small 
whitish excrescences of nipples projecting 
from about the middle of the electrified 
stone, and near the spot on which the fluid 
was dropping ; on the eighteenth day these 
excrescences enlarged, and seven or eight 
long filaments made their appearance on 
each ; on the twenty-second day these 
appearances became more distinct ; and 
on the twenty-sixth each figiu-e assumed 
the form of a perfect insect, standing erect 
on a few bristles, wliich forme:! its tail. 
IIU then Mr Crosse w^as not aware of the 
nature of the objects he had Ixxjn daily 
contemplating : he had no notion tliat 
anything other than an incipient mineral 



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MS ^BE MIRROR. 

formation was before him; but when, 
on the twenty-eighth day, he poroeived 
these little creatures move their legs, 
his astonishment was beyond measure 
great. He detached some of them from 
their birth-place with the point of a needle, 
.but they invariably died, which compelled 
him to wait a few days, when they separ- 
ated themselves, and moved to and fro at 
pleasure. In the course of a few weeks 
about a hundred made their appearance, 
and of these only five or six were bom on 
the south side of the stone, the creatures 
having an instmctive antipathy to light, 
always avoiding it when possible. From 
among the specimens transmitted to emi- 
nent physiologists, one was presented to 
the i^ench Academy, by Mr Robertson, 
and was carefully examined by M. Tur- 
pin, who pronounced it to be a new species 
of the Acarus race. Acarus (from the 
Greek uKapif^ indivisible) is the generic 
name of those creatures popularly desig- 
nated mites ; their characteristics, accord- 
ing to Latreille, being a body very soft, or 
without a scaly crust, and forked palpi or 
feelers, either concealed or very short 
The species discovered by Mr Crosse, and 
on that account designated Oo^^u, or, from 
its locale, Galvanici, differs from the cheese- 
mite and the meal-mite, by the absence of 
the false corselet, and of the two longest 
and most slender joints, which precede tiie 
tarsus or terminal joint ; it also differs in 
having its body shorter, of a more oval 
form, and more bent, and in having its 
back covered with long and numerous 
hairs. It is said more nearly to resemble 
the Acarus dimidiatus of Hermann, but to 
differ in wanting the short hairs which 
cover the surface of the eight limbs of the 
latter. 

M. Turpin conceived " that the means 
which Mr Crosse has employed, even sup • 
posing them in this case indispensable to 
the appearance of the animal, have only 
been simply stimulants, which, like those 
that excite and iavour the germination of 
a grain of wheat, have hastened the hatch- 
ing of the eggs, similar to those contained in 
the female individual sent by Mr Crosse him- 
self; — eggs which were laid or brought on 
the surfece ctf the Vesuvian stones used 
in the experiment." That the success of 
the experiment, however, w^s in no degree 
due to the presence of the Vesuvian stone, 
was an early opinion of Mr Crosse, which 
has since been amply confirmed. The 
most simple solution which occurred to 
him was, " that they arose from ova de- 
posited by insects floating in the atmos- 
phere, and that they might possibly be 
hatched by the electric action." But it 
ir4S difiScult to imagine how an ovum could 
shoot out filaments, which eventually be- 
came bristles, nor could he, at any time. 



detect the rem«iBS of a shelL He next 
im a gine d that they might have originated 
from the water, but no traces of th^n 
could be found in the cells of a water- 
battery, furnished from the same souroe. 
He now placed 2^ piece of brick in a a^ution 
of silicate potassa, which was electoi^yaed 
by a battery of sixty-three two-inch pairs. 
After many months, the insects af^eared 
on the wet outside of the glass vessel ccm- 
taining the solution, and on the edge <^ 
the fluid within, and finally l^y spresHl 
about the whole surface of the table on 
which the apparatus stood, instinctiveJ^ 
hiding themselves wherever they couid 
find shelter. The table was closely ex- 
amined with a lens, but nowhere on it could 
he discovered the whitish excrescence indicative 
of their incipient state. A piece of day- 
slate was operated upon in a similar solu- 
tion by a battery of twenty two-inch pturs ; 
similar insects in their inc^>ient state 
were observed forming around the edge of 
the fluid within the jar, which, when per- 
fect, crawled about the inner surfiice of the 
paper cover of the jar with the greatest 
activity. 

ORIGINAL PAPERS ON SCIENCE. 

NO. U,— PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS. 

The origin of tliis most interesting and 
important process, must unquestionably be 
traced to 1^ accidental discovery made by 
the alchemists of the compound now caUel 
chloride of silver, and the powerful action 
of the s(4ar ray in changing it from white 
to black. But it does not appear that any 
attempts were made by them either to in- 
vestigate the cause or to apply the edSect. 

In the year 1802, Sir H. Davy and 
Mr Wedgewood made a series of ex- 
periments, and which may be considered 
as the first systematic inquiry in the art 
now denominated Photc^s^hy ; these gen- 
tlemen could not succeed in permanency 
fixing the pictures they obtained, and seem 
to have given up the task as hopeless. 

From this date nothing appears to have 
been done in furtherance of this art until 
1814, when M. Niepce, the elder, of Cha- 
lons, on the Soane, turned his attention to 
tlie production of pictures by the ageney 
of light, and which process he termed 
Heliography. Although the effects he ob- 
tained were most interesting and extraor- 
dinary, still the tedious nature of the pro- 
cess, and length of time requidte to pro- 
duce the results, could only render the 
Heliographic pictures ol^ects of curiosity 
without any practical utility. Subsequent)^ 
M. Niepce and M. Daguerre, who, like the 
former, had been engaged for some time 
on this subject, agreed to prosecute their 
researches together, and the result <^ their 
labours was the discovery of the beautiful 



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process, absurdly named the Daguerreo- 
type. This was made public in the month 
of July, 1839, but not until Daguerre and 
Nlepce had each obtained from the cham- 
bers a pension for themselves and widows 
for life, and I^guerre, in addition, had 
secured to himself an exclusive patent for 
this coimtry— appjurently in direct con- 
tradiction to the stipulation of M. Arago, 
that it was to be thrown open to all the 
world.* 

The process of Daguerre*s was totally 
different from any attempt hitherto made, 
and the result altogether so extraordinary 
and unexpected, that it appears impossible 
that anything like inductive reasoning 
could have led to the results which it is 
more than probable were accidentally 
obtained. 

The enthusiasm with which this dis- 
covery was taken up by all parties soon 
led the way for many improvements upon 
Daguerre's original process. One of the 
first attempts, and which with Daguerre 
was certainly not very successful, was that 
of portraits from life ; the length of time 
necessary for the sitter to be fixed without 
even moving a muscle, rendered it not only 
exceedingly irksome, but almost impossi- 
ble to perform. 

Mr Woolcott, of America, was enabled 
greatly to diminish the length of time re- 
quisite in the process, by employing a 
camera, having a concave mirror or specu- 
lum, as shown in fig. 2,t which admitted 
of more light being thrown upon the pre- 
pared plate than by the camera, fig. 1, as 
employed by Daguerre. 

And so successful was he m taking por- 
traits by this mode, that a Mr Johnson 
was mduced to bring the plan over to this 
country, but the difference in the^ two cli- 
mates made a considerable alteration in 
the utility of the improvement. In this 
stage of the proceedings Mr Beard, the 
present patentee, embarked a considerable 
sum in attempts to improve the process, 
so that by diminishing the time, to make 
it availalue for taldng miniatures from life 
Mr Goddard having the management of 
the experimental room fitted up by Mr 
Beard in Holbom, after some months* la- 

* The writer <rf this article, in mentioning 
this circumstance to a native of France, ob- 
tained a very different meaning to the expres- 
sion of Arago, **tout k monde." "Ho!" said 
thePari^an, ** that is a very common expres- 
sion in France, but when employed it refers 
rfmply to the French as a nation ! ! !" 

t A A is the mirror, B a stop or diaploary 
for correcting the abberation ; C is a small 
door,wluch is sometimes convenientin watch* 
ing the state of the process ; D the door at 
ytiach the plate is introduced for takhig the 
portrait. 



hour succeeded in obtaining a compound^ 
which appeared fully to answer the re- 
quired end. Mr Beard then made arrange- 
ments with the directors of the Polytech- 
nic Institution for the hire of one portion 
of the building in Cavendish square ; Mr 
Beard opened the first establishment for 
taking mioiatures by light, termed by him 
Photographic portraits. The extraordiDary 
success which attended their first introduc- 
tion, and the utter impossibility of execut- 
ing at one establishment the numerous 
commissions, led him with considerable 
spirit and apparently regardless of expense, 
to open two other establishments in the 
metropolis, one in King William street. 
City, and the other in Irarliament street, 
Westminster, together with several others 
in the provinces. 

These portraits are produced only upon 
surfaces of silver, and great care is neces- 
sary, not only in the qimlity of the silver, 
but in the mode of finishing the surface, 
which must be brought to the highest 
possible degree of polish, for upon this 
much of the excellency of the picture de- 
pends.* In rendering the plate sensitive to 
the influence of light, Daguerre employed 
the vapour of pure iodine, and if time is 
not an object, it is certainly equal to any 
of the more sensitive compounds. The 
compoimd alluded to above, as discovered 
by Mr Goddard, was, I believe, one of the 
chlorides of iodine ; since then broumine 
has been added by other experimentalists. 
The former preparation is readily ob- 
tained by passing perfectly dry cldorine 
gas over pure and drjr iodine; the two 
combine and fotm a mixture, which even 
in this country is so sensitive, that when 
applied to the plate, a very few seconds 
during sun light is generally sufficient, 
and seldom more than a minute, when the 
operation is practicable — for there are 
many days in this country, mo^ particu- 
larly in the metropolis, in which it is use- 
less to make the attempt from the smoke 
and fog. 

In taking a portrait, the sitter is ar- 
ranged opposite the camera, and the proper 
focus obtained ; the plate bemg previously 
polished is placed in the frame (fig. 3), which 
acts as a cover to the earthenware vessel 
holding the sensitive compoimd ; the plate, 
with the silver surface downwards, is then 

* The mode at present employed in 
making the plates is as follows :— Two shnilat 
blocks of copper have each a plate of silver 
soldered on the surfece, the silver being then 
brought to afine polish ; the two silver aarfiices 
are placed together, and extended under the 
rc^rs in the usuid manner: this mode of 
rolling removes much of the labour formerly 
attendant upon polishing the plates. 



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THE MIRROR. 




exposed to the vapour evolved ; this com- 
bines with the silver and causes the latter 
to assume a deep golden colour, almost ap- 
proaehinjr to brown ; when this is obtained 
the plate is transferred to the camera (fig. 
1 or 2) ; in the latter it is placed before the 
mirror and retained in its position by the 
spring E ; in the former it is attached to a 
board and introduced at the back of the box 
as at B ; in this position the plate receives 
the image formed by the light reflecting 
from the sitter, and then undergoes that 
mysterious change produced by tlie action 
of the light on those parts only of the 
plate on which the light had been allowed 
to fall, the effects being in proportion to 
the amoimt or intensity of what are termed 
the chemical rays ; the plate, on bemg with- 
drawn from the camera, should not exliibit 
the slightest trace of a picture; if any 
should be detected, it proves that the plate 
was exposed for too long a time to the in- 
fluence of the light, and the beauty of the 
picture is much diminished. Tlie plate is 
now to be placed in th^ mercury box, fig. 4, 
at tlie bottom of which is fixed an iron 
I>an C, containing the mercury, the plate 
sUr^mg into a groove on the lid of the box, 
as^hown at E, the mercury being heated 



to 140'' (Fahr.), the volatised mercury ad- 
heres only to those parts of the plate on 
which the Ught had previously acted. When 
the picture is fully brought out, it must 
be removed from the merciuy box, and 
placed into a basin of distilled water, from 
thence into one holding boiling salt and 
water, or a cold solution of the hydro- 
sulphate of soda. Either of these will 
remove the sensitive compoimd from the 
plate, which is then transferred back to 
the distilled water, and finally placed on a 
wire frame C C, fig. 5, and introduced into 
the washing apparatus, fig. 5. A is a ves- 
sel of distilled water, which iiemiits of 
the water flowing into the zinc or copper 
trough B, and passing off at the sjwut E. 
Tlie flow of water is then turned off, and 
the spirit lamp A applied, which boiling the 
water in B, admits of the plate, by the 
heat thus given, when slowly withdrawn 
from the bath, driving off in vapoiur the 
adhering water, thus preventing the spot- 
ting so frequently observed in pomring the 
water simply over the plate, as recom- 
mended by Daguerre. It then only re- 
mains to iiiace the picture in a frame and* 
glass, and the process is ccmpleted. 

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121 




Arms. Sa on a cross engrailed between four eagles displayed, or, five lions passant^ 
gardant of the field. Ctest. A demi-heraldic tiger, salient sa, armed ducally, gorged and 
tufted or. Supporters. Two heraldic tigers sa, ducally gorged, tufted, maned, and tusked 
or. . Motto. Per il suo contrsmo. 



ORIGIN OF THE NOIJLE HOUSE OF 
ANGLESEA. 

William Paget, Serjeant at Mace of the 
city of London in the time of Henry the 
Seventh, left, with other children, a son 
named after himself. At the projKjr age 
William commenced his education under 
the celebrated Lily, in St Paul*s school. 
He was afterwards sent to Cambridge, and 
entered the family of Stephen Gardiner, 
Bishop of Winchester. His connexion with 
the prelate introduced him to i)ul)lic busi- 
ness, and in the reign of Henry the Eighth 
he was sent to France on a somewhat curi- 
ous mission, namely, to ascertain the sen- 
timents of learned theologians there, on 
the subject of the king's divorce from 
<Jueen Katherine, which was then contem- 
plated. Til at he acquitted himself to the 
satisfaction of Henry is clear, from his 
being afterwards employed in various deli- 
. cate and important negotiations. He rose 
very high in King Henry's favour, who 
made him Secretary of State, and knighted 
him. In his latter days he named him one 
of his executors, appointed him a member 
of the Council to his successor, and be- 
queathed him the sum of 300/. Sir William 
Paget acted with the Protector Somerset. 
He was elected a Knight of the Garter on 
the 14th February, 1546-7, and summoned 
to Parliament as Baron Paget of Beaude- 
sert, county of Stafford, January 23, 1552, 
When Somerset was disgraced, the for- 
tunes of Sir WiUiam Paget also gave way: 
the insignia of the Garter was taken from 
liim, he was committed to the Tower, and 
ordered to pay a fine of 6,000/. This was, 
liowever, soon remitted, and he received a 
pardon for all offences against the crown, 
and of course was liberated. His opinions 
seem to have l)een flexible, for when Mary 
ascended the throne he espoused her cause, 
and obtained a seat in the Privy Council; 
his honours were restored, and several 
grants were made in his favour by the 
Qiicen, and he was appointed Lord Keeper 
of the Privy Seal. On her death, in 1558, 



he, fi-om choice, withdrew from pubHe 
affliirs. Elizabeth, according to Capden^ 
though he was not numbered among her 
servants, " retained an affection and value 
for him, though he was a strict zealot of 
the Roman Catholic church." He died about 
five years afterwards, and was succeeded 
bv his eldest son Henry. 

'The Pagets which successively inherited 
the honours gained by the first William 
Paget, acted, in many instances, a distin- 
guished part in the public business of the 
periods in which they lived. Henry, the 
seventli Lord Paget, who had been created 
Baron Burton, of Burton, C6unty Stafford^ 
1712, in his father's life-time, was advanced to 
the Earldom of Uxbridge, October 19, 1714. 
In 1769, the Earldom of Uxbridge and Barony 
of Uxbridge became extinct, but the Barony 
of Paget being in fee, devolved upon the 
eldest surviving son of the deceased Caro- 
line Paget, daughter of Brigadier-General 
Thomas Paget, who was son to William, the 
fifth Earl. The lady had married Sir Nicho- 
las Bayly, Bart., of Placenwyd, son and suc- 
cessor of Sir Edward Bayly. The son of the 
above-named Caroline* Paget was Henry 
Bayly, Esq., who thereupon assumed the sur- 
name and arms of Paget alone. His lordship 
was created Earl of Uxbridge, Way 19, 1774, 
and died March 13, 1812. At that date the 
present Marquis of Anglesey succeeded to 
the Earldom. His lordship was born May 
17, 1768, and obtained the Marquisatc hy 
creation, June 23, 1815. The noble ISIarquis 
was twice married ; first, July 25, 1795, to 
Caroline Elizabeth, daughter of George, 
fourth Earl of Jersey, who died in 1835. His 
lordship's second consort was Lady Charlotte 
Cadagon, daughter of the first Earl of Cada- 
gon. Eight children were the offspring of 
the former, and six of the latter union. The 
public services of the noble Marquis, both in 
war and in peace, are too numerous to be 
here detailed, and too generally knowu to 
need description. He served through the 
Peninsula war with great distinction, and 
he contributed largely to the memorable 
triumph of Waterloo, in which, at the close 
of the battle, he received a wound in the 
knee which rendered amputation of the limb 
necessary. 

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THE MIRROR. 



THE LOST LEG. 
{From the German of Tschokke,) 
In the autnmn of the year 1782, Lewis 
Thevenet, a surgeon at Calais, received a 
written invitation from an unknown indi- 
vidual, to come on the following morning 
to his country-house, which was situated 
on the Paris road, and to bring with him 
the necessary instruments for the amputa- 
tion of a limb. Monsieur Thevenet was, 
at that time, acknpwlec^ged to be one of 
the most skilful men in the profession, and 
indeed It was no unusual tlung for him to 
be sent for to England by those who wished 
to profit from has skill 

He had long been in the army, and his 
appearance and manners were somewhat 
hiarsh, but yet no one could help loving 
him, on account of his kind-heartedness 
and gpod-nature. 

He was somewhat put about upon the 
receipt of this anonymous epistle. The 
time, the hour, the place, all were specified 
with the greatest nicety, but, as already 
mentioned, the letter was without a signa- 
ture. "Well," thought he to himself, 
*^ some of our wags want to play me a trick, 
I suppose !" — So he made up his mind not 
to go. 

Three days later the invitation was 
repeated, but much more pressingly, in- 
forming him, that at nine o'clock on the 
following morning a carriage would be 
sent to fetch him. 
The next day, as the clock was striking 
^ nine, a neat open carriage appeared at his 
door. The doctor made no further ado, 
but entered it. 

As he was getting in, be said to the 
coachman, "To whom are you going to 
take me?" 

He relied in English, " *Tis no concern 
irf'mine." 

"So, sol an Englishman, I perceive. 
You are certainly a great down," said 
Thevenet. 

The coach moved on, and at length 
stopped before the door of a country 
house. "To whom am I going? Who 
lives here ? Who is sick here V exclaimed 
Thevenet to the coachman before he got 
out. The son of the whip gave him a 
similar reply to the one obtained before. 

A young man, about eight-and-twenty, 
received him at the door of the house, and 
conducted him up-stairs into a large and 
handsome room. The stranger was an En- 
glishman. The doctor addressed him in 
his native tongue, and was replied to in 
the most affable manner. 

"You have sent for me, sir," said the 
surgeon ! 

"lam exceedingly obliged to you, sbr, 
for coming," said the Englishman. " Praj 
make yourself quite at home. Here is 
coffee, chocolate, wine, or anything you 



choose to partake of, before commencing 
the operation." 

"I should first, sir, like to see the 
patient, and examine the injury, to ascer- 
tain whether amputation is necessary or 
not," 

The stranger replied, "I have the 
greatest confidence in you. I beg you will 
listen to me. Here is a purse containing a 
hundred guineas, which I intend for you 
as payment for the operation: but I shall 
not confine myself to that small remunera- 
tion, provided you are suoeessM in your 
labour. K, however, you refUse to c<Hn- 
ply with my wish, here is a heavily-loactecl 
pistol. You are in my power, and, by 
heavens ! I will shoot you." 

" Sir, I fear not your pistol. Tell me 
what you want with me? Come to tl^ 
point at once, without all this prefacing ! 
What am I to do here ?" 
" You must take my right leg off." 
" Why, sir, you are insane." 
" Do not let that concern you, M. The- 
venet." 

"Why, what has that beautiful leg 
done?" 

"Nothing! Have you made up your 
mmd to take it off?" 

"Sur, you are a total stranger to me. 
Let me have proofis of the soundness of 
your mind." 

" Doctor, once for all, do you choose to 
comply with my request or not ?" 

"As soon, Mr, as you can give me a 
sufficient reason for suffering yourself to 
be rendered a cripple for life." 

" At present I must observe silence upon 
this point. Perhaps in a year hence the 
secret may out. But m bet, doctor, ay, 
and to any amount too, that you yoursdf 
will acknowledge, at the expiration of 
twelve months, that my motives for getting 
rid of this leg were of the noblest kind." 

" rU undertake nothing, sir, imless you 
inform me of your name, residenoe, family, 
and profession." 

"You shall know all that by-and-bye. 
At present I can say nothing. I beg, how- 
ever, you will regard me as a man of 
honour." 

" A man of honour, sir, does not threaten 
his medical man ¥dth pistols. I have 
duties to perform, even towards you, as a 
stranger. I will not cripple you without 
an absidute necessity be shown. If you 
wish to become the assassin of the inno< 
cent fiather of a fEunily, why then, sir, here 
I am, shoot me." 

" No, M. Thevenet, I will not be your 
murderer," said the Briton, seizing his 
pistol, "nevertheless I will force you to 
amputate my limb. What you will not do 
to oblige me, nor for the sake of reward, 
nor out of fear for yoxu^ life, you certainly 
will out of compassion." 



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128 



" Wl»t do you mean, sir?" 

" I will shatter my leg to pieces before 
^ureyes with this pistol, and thatim- 
nwdiately." 

The Englishman sat himsdf down, took 
his pistol and held the mouth of it just 
above his knee. M. Thevenet ran to him 
to turn it aside. ♦* Do not -stir an inch, 
doctor, or I will pull the trigger. Give 
me a final answer to my only questicm: 
are you willing unnecessarily to lengths 
out and increase my sufferings." 

" My dear sir, you are mad. HowevCT, 
I will comply. I will take your leg off." 

EverytMng necessary for the operation 
was placed in order. The young man 
hghted his pipe and swore it should not go 
out from the first incision made in his leg 
to its final dressing. He kept his word. 
The leg presently lay on the floor. The 
Englishman was still smoking his pipe. 

M. Thevenet performed the operation in 
a very skilful manner, and the patient 
soon recovered from the effects of it. 
He generously rewarded his surgeon, to 
whom he became daily more attached. He 
expressed his gratitude to him with tears 
of joy, and returned to England the happiest 
of mortals, with his wooden stump. About 
eighteen months after the departure of the 
I^lishman, M. Thevenet received a letter 
from him, the contents of which were as 
follow:— 

"Dear ^ir, — ^Enclosed you receive, in 
testimony of my grateful feelings towards 
you, a draft upon Monsieur Pauchaud, 
banker, at Paris, for the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty guineas. You have ren- 
d»ed me the happiest of humMi beings, by 
depriving me of a leg which stood in the 
way oi my earthly felicity. 

" Excellent man! Learn now the reason 
of my foolish whim, as you were p^^ased to 
call it. You thought proper to assert that 
no reasonable motive could be advanced 
for crippling myself for life. I offered to 
lay you a wager about it. It was fortu- 
nate for you that you did not accept it. 
Mtet my -second return from the East 
Indies, I became acquainted with the most 
accompUshed of women in the person of 
Emily Harley. I adored her. Her f<M*- 
tune and €axialy connexions were evident 
to my relations: to me, only her beauty 
and her all-accoa^lished mind. I mingled 
with a host of her admirers. Ah I my 
dearest ^lievenet, I was happy enough to 
be the most miserable of my rivals; she 
laved me — me above all the rest — she did 
not conceal it, and, on that very account 
rejected me. In vain did I seek to obtain 
her hand; in vain did her parents; her 
friends even interceded for me. She re- 
mained immovable. It was long before I 
could ascertain the cause of her imwilling- 
ness to go to the altar with me, though 



she confessed her sincere love. One of her 
sisters at length divulged the secret. "b^aB 
Harley was a prodigy of beauty, but sfa^ 
had but one leg, and on this account she 
feared to become my partner for life. She 
trembled at the idea that I might thinJb 
lightly of her for it. 

** My resolution was taken in an instant. 
I resolved to become like her. Thanks to 
you, dearest Thevenet, I am now so. 

" I returned to London with my woodai 
leg. It had already been nmsed abroad 
that through a fall from my horse I had 
broken my leg, and was under the neces- 
sity of having it taken off; indeed I 
had already written to England to the 
same effect. When Emily saw me for the 
first time after my return, she instantbf 
fainted. For a long time she was inconsol- 
able, — ^but «he became my wife. It was 
not till the day after the wedding that I 
made her acquainted with the sacrifice I 
had made to obtain the object of my 
wishes. This served but to increase hep 
affection fw me. O noble Thevenet, if I 
had ten legs to lose, I would suffer the loss 
of them all without moving a muscle, for 
my dearest Emily. 

" As long as I live I shall feel grateful to 
you. Come and pay us a visit in London, 
form an acquaintance with my amiable 
partner, and then tell me if you are still <tf 
the same opinion, and if you think I am a 
fool! "Yours truly, 

" Charles Temple." 

M. Thevenet oftai told the above anec- 
^te to his friends, joined in many a hearty 
laugh over it, and generally concluded by- 
saying, " He is a fool after all! " 

The following is a-cc^y of his answer:—? 

"Sir,— I am obliged to you for yoat 
very kind present. Such I consider it, 
for I can by no means call it payment 
for my insignificant services. 

" I wish you much happiness upon your 
marriage with the fair Mton. The loss 
of a leg is a great, a v6ry great sacrifice, 
for a beautiful, virtuous, and amiable wife, 
yet, perhaps, not too ^^eat, if in the end 
we are not deceived. Adam obtained pos- 
session of his wife through the loss of a 
rib, other men have obtained their object 
vriih the loSs of their heads. 

" But allow me, my dear sir, after taking 
everything into consideration, to adhere to 
my old opinion. Perhaps, I grant it, fiw 
the present, you are in the right: yours 
is now the paradise of the matrimonial 
honey-moon. But my opinion is the right 
one, depend upon it, but with this differ- 
ence; my opinion, like every other truth 
which we reluctantly receive, is slow in 
ripening. 

" Now, my dear sir, mind what I am 
about to say : I am afraid that in the 
course of a couple of years^ou will begin 

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THE MIRROR. 



to repent haying J<Hur leg taken off abore 
the knee. You will think it might as well 
have been below the knee. In three years 
you will feel conrinced that the loss of the 
foot would hare been quite enough. In 
four years you will say, ah ! I wish I had 
only consented to have ported fhnn my 
great toe ; in five years you will think the 
little toe would have been quite enough as 
a sacrifice ; and in six years you wul be 
prepared to confess to me that the paring 
of your toe-nails would have been quite 
sufficient. 

" I say aU this without the slightest 
prejudice to your beloved partner. Women 
can preserve their beauty and their virtue 
much longer than men can their opinions. 
In my youthful years I would have sacri- 
ficed my life for the sake of my beloved, 
but not the loss of a limb; the former I 
should never have repented of^ but the lat- 
ter all the days of my life. For if I 
had done it, I should ever say to myself, 
Thevenet, you were a fool. In so sa3ring 
allow me to have the honour to remain, 
** Your obedient servant, 
" G. Thevenet." 

In the year 1793, during the Reign of 
Terror, M. Thevenet, who had been 
brought into suspicion with the aristocracy 
by a young surgeon, fled to Ixmdon to 
escape the knife of the all-destroying 
guillotine. 

In order to pass away his time he 
inquired after Sir Charles Temple. He soon 
found him, and was graciously received. In 
a well-stuffed, easy arm-chair, b^ore a 
rousing fire, with Ws wine beside him on 
the table, and surrounded by twenty news- 
papers, sat a corpulent gentleman ; he 
could scarcely rise from his chair, he was 
so lusty. " Bless my stars ! M. Thevenet; 
welcome, thrice welwme," exclaimed the 
stout gentleman, who was no other person 
than Sir Charles himself. " What, is it 
really you, doctor? Excuse my getting 
up, but tliis cursed wooden leg of mine is 
always in the way. Perhaps, friend, you 
have come to see whether your opinion is 
ripe yet ?" 

" I am come rather, sir, as a refugee, to 
seek protection." 

" Come, then, and welcome ; you shall 
live along with me, for indeed and in truth 
you are a wise man. Had it not been for 
this most unfortunate wooden leg of mine, 
M. Thevenet, which has rendered me use- 
l^s for all active service, I might tliis very 
day have been Admiral of the Blue. Here 
I sit, reading the papers to see how things 
are going on, and curse myself black and 
blue because I cannot mix myself up with 
them. Do, doctor, come and comfort me." 

" Your dear partner will be better able to 
console you than I can." 

" Kotshe, indeed. Her wooden leg hin- 



ders her from dancing, and so she give» 
herself up to card-piaying and to ta&ing 
scandal Indeed there is no agreeing with 
her ; but, however, she is a good wife." 

** Why, then, it appears I have been in 
the right all along." 

**Yes, perfectly so, dear Thevenet, but 
do not let us talk about it now. I have- 
done a very foolish action. If I had but 
my leg again, I would not give up the- 
puing of a single nail I Between you and 
me, I have been a fool, but keep this con- 
fession to yourself. ** T. H. N.** 

THE CHINESE, THEIR RELIGION 
AND LANGUAGE. 
So little has liitherto been known of China, 
that everything connected with their habits 
and manners is read and listened to with 
eagerness. Of their rehgion and language 
we have much before us that is curious. 
Sketches of both will entertain. 

BOODHISM. 

The principal religion of China is Budd- 
hism or Boodhism, which also prevails over 
Birmah, Siam, Ceylon, Japan, and Cochin- 
China. The founder of this religion is- 
said to have been a son of the King of Be- 
nares, who flourished about 600 years B.C., 
and that he had, in various ages, ten in- 
carnations. The Boodhists do not betieve 
in a First Cause ; they think matter eter- 
nal ; that every portion of animated exist- 
ence has its own rise, tendency, and destiny,. 
in itsflf; that the condition of creatures cm 
earth is regulated by works of merit and 
demerit ; that works of merit raise us to 
happiness and the world to prosperity ; 
while those of vice and demerit degenerate 
the world, until the universe itself is dis- 
solved. They suppose a superior deity, 
raised \% that rank by his merit ; but he 
is not Governor of the World. To the 
present period they assign five deities, four 
of whom have already appeared, the last 
being Gandama or Boodh^ whose pre-emi- 
nence continues 5,000 years, 2,384 of which 
are gone by. At the end of liis 5,000 years 
another saint will obtain the supremacy. 
Six hundred millions of human souls are 
said to be canonized with each deity, but 
Boodh took only 24,000 of his company to 
heaven with Mm. The lowest estate is 
hell — ^the next, souls in the forms of brutes ; 
and both these are states of punislunent. 
The state above is probationary — ^that of 
MAN ; and still above degrees of honour and 
happiness, up to deities, and demi-gods to 
which man, if found worthy, ascends ; or, 
on the contrary, goes into tlie lower states 
of punishmciit. The Boodhists believe 
there are four superior heavens ; below 
these, twelve other heavens, with six other 
inferior heavens. After these comes the 
Earth ; then the world of snakes ; then 

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ihirtj-two chief hells, and ofie hundred 
and twenty hells of lesser torment. The 
Buddhists believe that persons who ob- 
tain a knowledge of things past, present, 
and to come, have the power of rendering 
tiiemselves invisible, and are absorbed 
into the Deity. Those who perform works 
of merit become great among men, and are 
received into some oi the heavens, in all of 
which the enjoyments are sensual. But 
those who do evil, go into a hell propor- 
tioned to their crimes. They believe that 
at the end of a ** Kulpu," — ^a length of time 
too great for human calculation — the imi- 
Terse will be destroyed. Five commands 
are delivered to common Buddhists, — ^not 
to destroy animal life; to avoid theft, adul- 
tery, ^Eilsehood, and the use of spirituous 
liquors. Other commands, restraining dress, 
luxury, &c., are given to the higher classes. 
They all consider their adoration as paid 
to a being or beings of exalted merit — not 
to a Creator. Priests worship daily in the 
temples, and are forbidden to marry. Many 
of the Chinese consider the Grand Lama 
as the highest priest on earth. Tliis pottti' 
fex maximus resides in Tliibet, and the 
Tartar population of China pay him ho- 
mage. 

To us the Chinese seem barbarous. It 
need not be told that they return the com- 
pliment, and with ominous interest. Their 
intolerable arrogance, and the contemptu- 
ous outrage they thought they might ven- 
ture on with impunity, were the proxi- 
mate causes of the chastisement they have 
received from British arms. With all the 
apparent defects, however, the system of 
China has admirers. Teen-ke-shee, one 
of its philosophers, thus exultingly feli- 
citates himself on the circumstance of 
his being a son of the Celestial Empire : — 

" I felicitate myself that I was born in 
China! It constantly occurs to me, what 
if I had been born beyond the sea, in some 
remote part of the eartli, where the cold 
freezes, or the heat scorches; where the 
people are clothed with the leaves of plants, 
eat wood, dwell in the wilderness, lie in 
holes of the earth, are far removed from 
the converting maxims of the ancient 
kings, and are ignorant of the domestic 
relations. Though bom as one of the 
generation of men, I should not have been 
different from a beast. But Imw happily 
I have been bom in China I I have a house 
to Hye in, have drink and food, and com- 
modious furniture. I have clothing and 
caps, and infinite blessings. Truly the 
highest felicity is mine." 

" The Chinese language," D'lsraeli says, 
**i8Hke no other on the globe; it is said 
to contain not more than about three hun- 
dred and thirty words, but it is by no 
means monotonous, for it has four accents, 
the even, the raised, the lessened, and the 



returning, which multiply every word into 
four; 2S difficult," says Mr Astle, **for an 
European to understand as it is for a Chi- 
nese to comprehend the six pronunciations 
of the French e." In fact, they can so diver- 
sify their monosyllabic words by the dif- 
ferent tones which they give them, that the 
same character, differently accented, sig- 
nifies sometimes ten or more different 
things. 

P. Bourgeois, one of the missionaries, 
attempted, after ten months' residence at 
Pekin, to preach in the Chinese language. 
These are the words of the good father — 
God knows how much this first Chinese 
sermon cost me ! I can assure you this 
language resembles no other. The same 
word has never but one termination ; and 
then adieu to all that in our declensions 
distinguishes the gender and the number of 
tilings we would speak; adieu, in the 
verbs, to all which might explain the active 
person, how and in what time it acts, if it 
acts alone, or with others: in a word, with 
the Chinese, the same word is substantive, 
adjective, verb, singular, plural, mascu- 
line, feminine, &c. It is the person who 
hears who must arrange the circumstances, 
and guess them. Add to all this, that all 
the words of this language are reduced to 
three hundred and a few more; that they 
are pronounced in so many different way», 
that they signify eighty thousand different 
thiiigs, which are expressed by as many 
different characters. This is not all : the 
arrangement of all these monosyllables 
appears to be imder no general rule ; so 
that to know the language after having 
learnt the words, we must learn every par- 
ticular phrase : the least inversion would 
make you unintelligible to three parts of 
the Chinese. 

" I will give you an example of their 
words : they told me chou signifies a hook ; 
so that I thought whenever the word chou 
was pronoimced, a book was the subject. 
Not at all ! Chou^ the next time I heard 
it, I found signified a tree^ Now, I was 
to recollect chou was a book or a free. But 
tliis amoimted to nothing ; chou^ 1 found, 
expressed also great heats s cliou is to relate i 
chou is the Aurora; chou means to be ac- 
customed ; chou expresses the loss of a 
wager J &c. I should not finish, were I to 
attempt to give you all its significations. 

" Notwithstanding these singular diffi- 
culties, could one but find a help in the 
perusjd of their books, I should not com- 
plain ; but this is impossible ! Their lan- 
guage is quite different from that of sim- 
ple conversation. What will ever be an 
insurmountable difficulty to every Euro- 
pean is the pronunciation; every word 
may be pronounced in five different tones, 
yet every tone is not so distinct that an 
unpractised ear can easily distinguish it. 

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These monosyllables fly with amazmg 
xapidity ; then they are continually dis- 
gnised by elisions, which sometimes hardly 
leave anything of two monosyllables. 
Erom an aspirated tone you must pass im- 
mediately to an even one : from a whist- 
ling note to an inward one : sometimes 
your voice must proceed from the palate : 
sometimes it must be guttural, and always 
nasal. I recited my sermon at least fifty 
times to my servant, before I spoke it in 
public ; and yet I am told, though he con- 
tinually corrected me, that of the ten parts 
of the sermon (as the Chinese express 
themselves), they hardly understood three, 
fortunately the Chinese are wonderfully 
patient, and are astonished that any igno- 
rant stranger should be able to learn two 
words of it." 



MESMERISM EXTRAORDINARY. 

A Mr Spencer T. HaU has lately been 
entertaining a select party at Barker-gate 
Chapel, Nottingham. Some little inter- 
ruption was given to the performance by a 
Mt Noyes, who would not be quiet. A 
very fine exhibition was at last pre- 
sented. 

A man named Wilmot, a file-cutter, of 
Sheffield, a favourite, came forward, and in 
one minute was mesmerised. 

Mr HaU expressed his willingness to 
touch any bump required, in order that a 
manifestation might follow. (Applause.) 

Mr Goodacre assured the lecturer that 
all which had been said on his side of the 
house, by Mr Noyes, himself, and those 
around him, was simply with a view to 
elicit truth. 

A voice — I tell you what, you respect- 
ables, I wish you would hold your noise a 
bit. (Laughter.) 

Wihnot was capital; he sung, and 
stamped, and spouted. On the organ of 
elocution being touched, up he sprung, and 
accompanied with theatrical attitude, he 
spoke from beginning to end, not omitting 
gesture and various movements of the 
hand and head, the wdl-known piece 

■" Sad stood EUza on the wood-crowned height, 
Cer Minden's plain, spectatress of the fight." 

And when he came to the passage, " They 
run, they run," he stepped forward so far 
and so hastily, though held by Mr HaU, as 
nearly to st^ off the platform. Occasion- 
ally he made a sudden stop, owing to the 
pressure on the organ ceasing, but on its 
being resumed, he invariably commenced 
at the place he had left off at, and pro- 
ceeded without faltering or mistake to the 
end, in a tone that might have been heard 
outside the chapeL 

Mr Noyes remarked, this was too good. 
(TTproar,) 



Mr Ooodacre said the circumstanoeft 
reminded him of the tale of the stone lion 
on Northumberland house. One day, a 
wag declared that he saw the Hon wag ita 
tail, and very soon afterwards the Strand 
was crowded by hundreds who woriced 
their imagination to beUeve that they also 
reaUy saw the phenomenon, and that the 
lion actuaUy wagged its tail I (Laog^t^.) 

Mr HaU then touched the largely de* 
veloped organ of adoration, wh^ down 
went WUmot on his knees, with an etkct 
upon the audience almost equal to an 
electric shock. (Enthusiastic applause.) 

A voice — Now, what do you think of 
your lion's tail? (Tremendous laughter.) 



THE ACTRESS NUN. 

Mb8 Wood, formerly Miss Faton, the 
singer, has retired into a convent in York- 
shire. Beport gave out that this was 
in consequence of iU-usage from Mr 
Wood, but the lady has written a letter 
declaring her husband to have been 
always most kind and indulgent. On a 
former occasion there were rumoura 
abroad that unkindness from another had 
caused the attachment which sprung up 
between her and Mr Wood, and the foUow- 
ing verses, supposed to have reference to 
it, appeared in one of the journals :— 

THE SLIGHTED ONE. 

I sought not wealth — I sought not fame— 

Before unloosed the maiden zone ; 
Nor did I ask to bear his name, 

I gave up aU for love alone : 
The world's reflections I could bear, 

My gold spent unrepinhig see, 
Such matters were not worth my care. 

For he was aU the world to me. 

Bat when inconstant, harsh, and cold. 

He learned my fondness to despise, 
'Twas then that Grief to Reason told 

How vast had been my sacrifice. 
May's glory fell on hill and glade. 

And flowers embellished every tree ; 
But this bright scene, alas I was made 

A cheerless wilderness to me. 

What then remained?— To bear the smart ? 

To groan in uncomplaining woe ? 
And suffer with a throbbing heart 

Th* averted eye, the taunt, or blow ; 
NO) from this boscnn, warm and true. 

His dearly-cherished image torn, 
I res<^utely from me threw, 

And threw it with a woman's scorn. 

The world must judge me as it may. 

But ere you call me fickle one, 
PfiKies of severest virtue say, 

" O, teU me what would you have done?** 
When bounteous love wakes grovelling a^^tey 

Such baseness, ere we press the sod. 
Nature commands us to requite. 

And Nature's voice is that of God. 



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Ntm Invention. — On Wednesday, Mr 
Longbottom, the Secretary of the Poly- 
technic Institution, submitted for pubUc 
exhibition an instrument for displaying 
opaque objects by the oxyhydrog^i light, 
a desideratum long looked for in the scien- 
tific world. The pictures produced by the 
Daguerreotype, Photographic, and Calo- 
type arts, busts, drawings, paintings, &c. 
&c., can be viewed mider the magnifying 
power of this instrument. 

Alcohol — ^An experiment has been made 
at the Theatre of Montpellier, of a new 
principle of lighting— from alcohol. It is 
important to the vine-growing districts of 
France, as a fresh vent for their produce. 
The light is stated to be of dazzling bright- 
ness, and without either odour or smoke. 

5ee«.^— At the Entomological Society a 
paper was lately read by the president, 
Mr Newport, proving that bees are enabled 
to distinguish their own hives by the sight 
only, not by their peculiar scent or the 
sounds created by their inmates. 

National Taste in Building, — A military 
people delight in pavilions ; in the Tuil- 
?ries the hbae of tents is terminated with 
two, distinguished by the name of Pavi- 
lions de More and Marsan. A maritime 
people delight in their ships : the English 
apartments convey the idea of " between 
decks," and the larger buddings are often 
like the man-of-war hulk laid up in ordi- 
nary. In Russia the palaces have the air 
of barracks ; vast and forlorn, they remind 
the spectator of the plains of Siberia. In 
Egypt, the Troglodite excavation was re- 
vealed in the temple palace ; in Greece, 
the log house in the temple structure ; in 
Cluna, still the tent, in its simplest form. 

Hardening of Matter, — Not more does 
the strong limbs of the ostrich differ 
fiom the soft yolk where it was matured 
than does the full-grown plant from the 
speck generally out of which it is elabo- 
rately formed by the inscrutable powers of 
nature. Wonderful is the process in either 
case! In the one we have a gigantic 
feamework of hard bones derived from a 
little fluid and delicate membrane ; in the 
other, we have timber still harder and 
more enduring, the beginning of which was 
a speck of gum. 

Matrimony in Ancient Times. — The Spar- 
ta marriages took place by stealth and 
in the silence of night. When matters 
were arranged by means of the female 
friend who acted as the match-maker, the 
lover stole into the chamber of his mis- 
tress, and the union was completed. No 
^gns'appeared in his conduct of what had 
taken place j he lived in public as usual ; 
and if he was seen at any tune stealing 
towar^jthe habitation of his mistress- 



wife, he was exposed to the rude raillery 
and laconic jests of his comrades. Th^ 
inventions, the stratagems, the escapes, 
the doubts, hopes and fears — ^the thousand 
feelings and adventures of forbidden love 
— continued to the last to lend their sUmu* 
lus and charm to this romantic union. 

Coueh- Grass, — ^It is not generally known 
that this pest (Triticmn repens), may be 
easily got rid of by trenchingt If care be 
taken to bury all the roots at least six 
inches deep, they will never again reach 
the surface. It is a much cheaper and 
more effectual method, even in field-cul- 
ture, than the tedious and imperfect one 
of ploughing, scarifying, and harrowing^ 
— Lusor, 

The Sexton and his Wt/&— A provincial 
paper mentions that a few days ago, at 
Laverstocke, Wilts, died John Hayter, at 
the age of 73. Some years ago his wife 
died, and he being clerk of the parish, dug 
his wife's grave, officiated as clerk at her 
funeral, covered her over with earth and 
made her fast when service was over. After 
that he ordered his own coffin, which he 
kept in his house, until the same solemn 
ceremony was performed for him. What 
the rural Editor means by "made her 
fast" is involved in some doubt; there 
was nothing very remarkable in making 
a dead woman ^f/ Could he indeed have 
made her quick, John Hayter would have 
been a clever fellow. 

Kite-flying, — The Chinese are said ta 
exceed all other nations in kite-flying. A» 
a nation their superiority in this respect 
may be unquestionable, but it is believed 
there are individuals in the city of London 
who would beat the best kite-flyer in th^ 
Celestial Empire. 

St Marykbone Bank for Savings, No. 6 
Welheck street, — It appears, from the seve- 
ral Reports read to the meeting last 
week, to have made a satisfactory progress, 
no less than 2,386 new deposits having 
been made in the last year. 13,349 de- 
posit accoimts remained open on the 20th 
of November last, of which no less than 
8,536 held balances averaging less than 
4/. 10s. 2d. each. More than 285,382/. 
was at that time invest^ with the Com* 
missioners for the reduction of the National 
Debt. This amount has since risen to 
293,9822., and is still rapidly on the ad- 
vance. This proves that the working 
classes are willing, and happily, m many 
cases, able to save. 

Eccentric Charitable Bequest, — Bequest 
to awaken Sle^>ers, and whip Dogs out of 
Church. — ^Amongst other directions men- 
tioned in the deed of fe(^ment, 23rd Au- 
gust, 1659, whereby Richard Dovey,. of 
Farmcote, granted certain premises to John 
Sanders, and others, viz. cottages or build- 
ings, over and adjoining the churchyajrd 



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THE MIRROE. 



4Uid churchyard gates of the parish church 
of Claveriey, is to phice in some room of 
the said cottages, and to pay yearly the 
rsum of 8s. to a poor man of that parish 
who should undertake to awaken sleepers, 
and to whip out dogs from the church of 
Claveriey during divine service. 

Capital Punishments, — ^The executions in 
New South Wales in the year 1830 ex- 
ceeded the whole numher of executions in 
England and Wales in the same year; 
which, taking the proportion of the popu- 
lations of the countries, it was calculated, 
made capital punishments upwards of three 
himdred and twenty-five times as frequent 
as in the mother country. What propor- 
tion would they hear to those inflicted 
imder our present life-sparing system ? 

The late Gales, — Upon reference to 
Lloyd's hooks and other authentic docu- 
ments, it appears that the number of ves- 
sels lost during the hurricane of the 13th 
ult. was about 180, and that the nimiber 
of persons who perished with them 453. 
On the coast of England 154 vessels were 
wrecked, and 190 lives lost ; on the coast 
of Ireland, five vessels, with 104 lives ; on 
the coast of Scotland, 17 vessels, with 39 
lives ; and on the coast of France four 
vessels and 100 lives. The value of the 
vessels and cargoes have been rouglily es- 
timated at 585,000/1 On the tliree follow- 
ing days after the 13th, numerous other 
wrecks occurred, to the extent of nearly 60, 
the losses on which were upwards of 
240,000/. ; this, mtli the Others, making a 
total of 825,000/. 

Boz ami the Americans, — The following 
passages form part of a commentary on 
*^otes on America,' by Mr Ritcliie, said 
to be " one of the oldest and most amiable 
and kind-hearted of American editors, who 
speaks as follows:— * We have read the 
work with disapjwintment, regret, much 
disgust, and we must add, some uuligna- 
tion. We expected from Mr Dickens's ta- 
lent, and the professions of gi'atitude he 
evinced, a much better production — ^more 
just in its views of American society — 
more Uberal in its temper — ^more worthy 
of him and of ourselves. We had admired 
many of his works — and, we confess, liked 
the man. But the present production will 
lose him friends in America. It will nearly 
cut off the whole region of the south, once 
his most ardent admirers, from the circle 
(rf his readers.* " 

Cicero and Casar, — Cicero had nineteen 
villas, and it was in one of these that 
Caesar honoured him with a morning call, 
and paid him the very high compliment 
of taking a vomit in order that he might 
do justice to his limch. In another he de- 
lighted to ornament his library with Greek 
paintings and sculptures, which his friend 
Herodus Atticus was collecting for him. 



Cfoethej Scott, an<i%ron.-*Goethe did not 
enthusiastically admire Scott's novels ; he 
seemed to think that he could easily haTC 
manufactured plenty like them, had he been 
desirous of money-making. He usually 
spoke of Lord Byron with great affection. 

— Mr Gregory declares the opposition 
given to him when he came forward as 
Hmnkt, was got up by blacklegs and others 
who had fSallen under the lash of the ' Sa- 
tirist.' He censures Bartley with bitter- 
ness for stopping the performance, declares 
the malcontents would soon have been put 
down, and claims a new trial 



PETER AND «THE POULTRY." 

A fib when Simon Peter told 
The poultry shocked at speech untrue ; 

To shame the base apostle bold. 

Thrice, one brave Cock, against him crew. 

A modern Peter tells a bounce. 

Would make a horse or donkey start ; 

But no Cock dare the sin denounce, 
" The Poultry'' seems to take his part. 

'Tis fit the public to acquaint 

What gives Sir Peter his excuse : 
The poultry then attacked a saint, 

"The Poultry" now supports a goose. — ItjiOU. ' 

1^ 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



T, S. A.'s Poem we are obliged to divide. The mm^ 
cltuhn will appear in our next. *\: 

We are obliged to the Gentleman who dates from FrfHK^' 
street/or his hints, and intend to avail ourselves, il/^' ' 
his friendly offer. 

The verses on "Spring" with lines on "J Summat: 
Evening" " True Happiness^" " The ImmortsHM: ' 
of the Soul," and the *' Epitaph on the Grey MarS,^ 
are declined, with thanks. 

A. L. next week- 

" Common Sense" we really do not understand. 

''Points of Law" originally appeared in * TkS 
Mirror.' The 'Penny Satirist' is not the onlff 
publication that has quoted it without acknowledge 
ment. 

An Old Stager we are inclined to think right tn saytng 
there is something ludicrous in the announcement 
of the benefit of 'a theatrical proprietor, lessee, or 
manager, as for his benefit the doors are presumed 
to open every night. Mr Macready, without earing 
to go uyaiiut Hie stream, has made a very great 
satirical hit at the practice, by announcing for 
his benefit **Much Ado about Nothing." 

Reviews of Books intended for our present number 
are unavoidably postponed till next week. 



TERMS OF ADVERTISING. 

£.8. «L 

Eight lines 036 

For every line additional - - - 4 

A quarter of a page - - - - 8 O 

HjUfapage 15 0' 

A whole i>age - - - - - -18 0] 



Lokdok: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 
MORTIMER, Adelaide StreH, Trafalgar Squwre: 
and Sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

Printed by C. Rktnsli., 16 Little Pulteiiey street, 
and at the Royal Polytechnic Institution. 



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ffib^ Mivv^' 



LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



No. 9.] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 4, 1843. 



[Vol. I. 1843. 




®rigtital Commttnicatiiini^. 



CHAPEL OP THE HOLY TRINITY 

AT BOEHAMPTON. 
The little village of Roehampton was on 
Monday last the scene of unusual excite- 
ment ; of excitement vastly different from 
that which disturbed it a year ago. Then, the 
crime of murder filled all with consterna- 
tion—now, the completion of a new temple 
of worship in honour of the Deity filled 
every heart with pious thankfulness. Tlie 
beautiful little edifice we are about to 
describe is no common ornament to the 
piaoB, and the gratitude of the humble in- 
habitants is especially due to those who 

yOL. XLh y 



have so bountifully come forward to relieve 
their spiritual wants. Not only is a com- 
modious chapel erected, but the great- 
er portion of it, including many of the 
best seats, are given up free to the poorer 
parishioners. 

The Chapel, dedicated in honour of the 
Holy Trinity, stands upon the site of an 
ancient Chapel, which it appears was 
erected in the time of Charles the First, 
and consecrated by Archbishop Laud. 
Owing to the dilapidated condition of that 
building, and its insufficient accommoda- 
tion for the present neighbourhood, the 
inhabitants determined upon the erection 
of a new place of worship, and selected the 

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THE MIRROR. 



design" of B. Ferrey, Esq[., arddtect, as 
most appropriate. The Chapel is designed 
in the early English style of architecture, 
its form is a simple paraUelogram internally, 
though it has rather a cruciform appear- 
ance outside, owing to the vestry and 
porch heing placed opposite each other in 
the second compartment from the west 
end. The Chapel is divided into five bays 
(lonfitudinal) by bold water tabled but- 
tres9e6, and each bay is lighted by lancet 
windows, arranged in couplets. The east 
end has a triplet of lancet windows, over 
which is a large rose window. The west 
end is surmounted by a simple double bell 
turret, containing two bells. The general 
design of the bmlding is very simple, but 
is rendered sSketive by the use of Kentish 
rag stone, with which the whole Chapel is 
faced, except the cnttamentai dressings, 
which are executed in Bath stone. This 
pododet a soHd and ancient effect, and it 
is mudi to be hoped that in these days of 
church baHding, oommon brick fadng will 
no longer be tolerated. It is in vain that 
we expect o^ churches to look like 
chviehes of old (however respectable in 
d#^|^1 imtil they are clothed in the same 
mat«rutl We dk) not mean by this expres- 
sion that churches should {dl have fairhewn 
stone sttrfaoes,* it is only the wish ^ stone 
of any kind, such as may be most easily 
and cheaply procured, in preference to 
brick. The mterior is remarkable for 
^ight and effect, produced by the forma- 
tion of the chief timbers of tho roof. 
The rose window in the east gabie is 
iUJed with rich stained glass, by Wailes, of 
K«wcaitle, and was given by J. H. Bowden, 
Esq. The rer»dos,f consisting of seven 
trefoiled arches, or purbeck marl)^ shafts, 
is highly enriched by painting and gilding. 
TheTDecalogue. Lord's Prayer, and Creed, 
occupy the three central compartments, 
written in black letter, and illuminated 
initials upon a draperied ground. The 
altar is of Painswick stone, decorated by 
quatrefoils, filled in with purple velvet. 
The carpet and the sacrarium, or space 
within the altar rails, was worked and pre- 
sented to the Chapel by IUrs Poulett 
ThompscMi. The font, of elaborate work- 
manship, was given by Miss Edkins. The 
seats throughout are executed in deal, but 
with wainscot ends and carved finials. 
The ground on which the Chapel stands 
was partly presented by B. Gosling, Esq., 
who also contributed to the fund. Among 
the chief contributors may be mentioned 
Lady Dover, Mrs Poulett Thompson, the 
Marquis of Bristol, Lord Longdale, Vice- 

* The stone used is smidl pieces about the 
rinB of ordinaiy road paving stones, such as 
an adopted for the fac^ of Windsor 
Castle. 

t Screen at the back of the altar. 



ChanceDw Brace, J. H. Oughton, Esq., 
J. W, Bowden, Esq., Sir C. Ogle, the Hon. 
L. Melville, A. Robarts, Esq., Sir G. Lar- 
pent, D. B. Chapman, Esq., B. Gosling, 
Esq., and T. Beaumont, Esq. The Chapel 
is fenced from the high roiad by a dwarf 
stone wall, with deep moulded coping and 
a stone arching. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury arrived 
at half-past ten o'clock on Monday 
last at the residence of J. H. Oughton, 
Esq., and robed, receiving his clergy, 
amounting to nearly forty in number, 
who came to be present at the cere- 
mony. They proceeded then to tiie Chapel, 
situate at the comer of Mr Gosling's ground. 
Sur H. Jenner Fust read the consecration 
deed, and the venerable Archbishop conse- 
crated the Chapel. Prayers were rwd by 
Dr Beiber, and the sermon, by order rf the 
Archbishop, was preached by the Bev. C. 
RoMnson. 

The whole ceremony, deeply impressive 
was listened to with the most prt^rand 
attention, though the pomp and ostenta- 
tion in which Archbishop Laud indulged 
two centuries ago, perha^, on this vary 
spot, was not witnessed. How that ui^- 
tunate Prelate thought it prudent aad be- 
coming to act on such an occaskxi may be 
seen from the account handed down to w 
of the consecration of St Catherine's ehsatib, 
as collected from Kushworth, Whitdo^, 
WehiTOod, and Franklyn, by Hume. 

" <Jn the bishop's approach to ^ w«st 
door of the church, a loud voice cHed, 
* Open, Cfpm, ye everlastmg doors, that the 
King of Glory may enter inl' Laimediatdy 
the doors of the church flew open, and the 
bishop entered. iPallixigott his knees, with 
eyes elevated and arms expanded, he ut- 
tered these words: *This place is hdy: 
the ground is holy: in the name d^the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I pronounce 
it holy.' 

" Going towards the chancel, he several 
times took up from the floor some of the 
dust, and threw it in the air. When he 
approached, with his attendants, near to 
the communion-table, he bowed frequently 
towards it •, and on their return, they went 
round the church, repeating, as tliey 
marched along, some of the psalms ; and 
then said a form of prayer, which con- 
cluded with these words : * We consecrate 
this church, and separate it unto thee as 
holy ground, not to be profaned any more 
to common uses.* 

"After this the bishop, standing near 
the communion-table, soleninly pronounced 
many imprecations on such as should 
afterwards pollute that holy place by mus- 
ters of soldiers, or keeping in it profane 
law-courts, or carrying burdens through 
it. On the conclusion of every curse, he 
bowed towards the east, and oried, * Let all 
the people say, Amen.'OOQTC 



THB MIRROR. 



131 



<<Th6 impreeaiionB being all so pioosly 
finished, there were poured out a number 
of hlessslngs on such as had any hand in 
framing and building that sacred and 
beautiful edifice, and on such as hadgivent 
or should hereafter give to it, any chalices, 
plate, ornaments, or utensils. At every 
benediction, he in like manner bowed to- 
wards the east, and cried, *Let all the 
people say. Amen.' 

"The sermon followed ; after which, the 
bishop consecrated and administered the 
sacrament in the following manner : — ^As 
he approached the conmiunion-table, he 
made many low reverences ; and coming 
up to that part of the table where the 
bread and wine lay, he bowed seven times : 
after the reading of many prayers, he ap- 
proached the sacramental elements, and 
gently lifted up the comer of the napkin 
inwMch tlje bread was placed : when he 
beheld the bread, he suddenly let fall the 
napkin, flew back a step or two, bowed 
three several times towards the bread ; 
Ihen he drew nigh again, opened the nap- 
kin, and bowed as before. Next, he laid 
his hand on the cu^, which had a cover (m 
it, and was filled with wine : he let go the 
cup, fell back, and bowed thrice towards 
it : he approached again ; and, lifting up 
the cover, peeped into the cup : seeing the 
wine, he let fall the cover, started back, 
and bowed as before: then he received 
the sacrament, and gave it to others ; and 
many prayers being said, the solemnity of 
the consecration ended : the walls, and 
floor, and roof of the fabric were then sup 
poaed to be sufficiently holy." 

After the service on Monday the par- 
ties already named, with Lady Lascelles, 
Lady Bruce, the Hon. Miss Ponsonbys, 
Mips Talbot, and about two hundred and 
fflty gentry residing for the most part in 
the neighbourhood, returned to the man- 
sion of J. H. Oughton, Esq. There a 
^lendid dejeuner d la fourchette waj^ pro- 
Tided, and everything that taste could 
TOggest, and unsparing liberality supply, 
set before the venerable Prelate and the 
honoured guests who accompanied him. 
The lady of Mr Oughton was led into the 
banqueting room by the Archbishop, and 
while the entertainment was strictly "the 
feast of reason and the flow <rf soul," the 
fl^ of champagne was not restricted, 
though it did not pass the bounds of tem- 
perance. Many objects of interest in con- 
nexion with the business of the day, 
want of room precludes us from noticing ; 
but we must not forget to remark in con- 
clnsion, that the rich carpets and cushions 
w the altar, worked by the fair hands of 
afrs Poulett Thompson, assisted by the 
ladies of the hamlet, were the theme of 
warm admiration, and greatly assisted the 
fine and memorable eflect of the whole 
spectacle. 



THE CONVicrS WIDOW.* 
We passed through many s drMury day. 

Our means were icanly, hard oai lot ; 
With difficulty paid our way. 

But comfort sometimes cheer'd our oot. 
For n^dst those scenes of anxious strilRs, 

We still had hope in one above ; 
And wanthig other joys in life, 

'Twas mhie to boast a husband's love. 

We hoped for better tuae% when lo I 

In that our day of utmost need 
Was heard the cry of frantic woe ; 

Some fiend had done a murderous deed ! 
And dreumstanoes made it seem 

My spouse anotiier's blood had spilt : 
It seems a wild terrific dream ! 

On him was thrown the load of guilt I 

The charge he solemnly denied, 

And called to witness the most High ; 
The Judge and Jury hoth decide 

Against him->4ie is doom'd to die. 
And few indeed the hours were then 

The Convict miffht retain his breath ; 
" But fewer," cried reflecting men, 

«* His 'dctim had to meet his death." 

« O that an angel might declare," 

He sighed, "whose was indeed the crime t** 
But he was checked, and told « in prayer 

To make the best use of his time." 
And thus admonished he was borne 

Back "to the place from whence ke 
came ;" 
Thence on the Monday to be torn 

To meet a dreadful death of shame. 

I saw him in the Castle hold. 

And I besought him to repent ; 
And yet within me something told 

He teas — he must be innocent. 
Ah ! at that thought my brain grows hot ! 

Reflecting how his heart I wrung 5 
While earnestly I prayed him not 

To die with falsehood on his tongue. 

The day arrived, the dreadful day. 

When he existence must resign ; 
And I apidied myself to pray 

That his last moment mignt be mine. 
I nuAed among the giddy crew, 

That seem'd impatiently to wait 
The sufierer coming to their view, 

A dreadful deed to expiate. 

" ^y ^*»" yo« «wfc» " tliis awftd sight ? 

Why brave tiie rabble's crush and roar ?" 
Because that moment lost, I might 

Behold my husband's face no more ; 



* Our correspondent's poem is, of course, 
partly imaginary j but one of those mourn- 
ful revelations, which from time to time 
remind man what a weak and erring 
creature he is, has recently been made. 
A wretched being has passed to his account, 
and dying, confessed that he was the mur- 
derer of two females twenty-six years ago, 
for which crime four innocent men were 
executed. The mind shudders to contem- 
plate the guilt accumulated on one miserable 
conscience ; and a natural eagerness is felt 
to recai the peculiar circumstances of th^ 
case. 



183 



THElURItOR. 



BaoMue^ I mttiiioii it with aw«, 
When ceased his Agoniziiig throes — 

The terrible behest of law 
Denied Ids form the grave's repose. 

Upon the scaflbld he appears^ 

His step is film, thougn pUe Ids cheek, 
A thousand murmurs ml my ears. 

And now the doomed attempts to speak. 
And now to Heayen he lifts his eyes, 

** Though countless my transgressions be,'* 
He cried, ** of that for which I die, 

God knows that I am whoUy free.'' 

He fell, and the beholders there, 

The gentlest,— many a deep dgh fetch. 
That he should in his last despair 

Have perished such a hardened wretch. 
And I and mine as on time ran. 

Were named where suit we might prefer, 
The wife of «the unhappy man," 

** Th0 children of that murderer." 

Weary and sad has been my road. 

Through poverty and chilling scorn ; 
But on my desolate abode, 

Gleams now one ray of radiant mom ; 
And Heaven at length has proof supplied 

That he for whom I still must sign — 
An unoffending victim died : 

Passed guiltless to eternity. 

I Mess the Eternal's holy name, 

That ere the grave on me has closed, 
He to redeem my husband's fame. 

Has mercifully interposed. 
Yet must I mourn in lue's decline, 

My children slighted or despised ; 
They, harder still their fate than mine, 

Were with their father sacrificed. 

Heaven in its goodness will make clear 

No doubt in its appointed time ; 
Why sorrows such as mine are here 

]>escend on those who know no crime. 
But hearts that feel how hard our fate, 

How sad our pilgrimage below. 
Will pitying stnve to mitigate 

An aged helpless mourner's woe. A. 

The following details are from the news- 
papers of the time : — 

" On Monday, September 7th, the Ben- 
dleton murderers, W. Holden and the three 
Ashcrofts, one (tf whom is the father, the 
other the brother, and the second the son, 
were executed. They were tried on the 
.preceding IMday, and after a trial of twelve 
hours, the jury found them guilty. The 
evidence was wholly circumstantial They 
were tried for the murder of a Mrs Eams- 
den and Hannah Partington, the servants 
of Mr littlewood, of Pendleton, near Mon- 
mouth. It was proved that they got into 
the house between three and four o'clock 
in the afternoon of April 26th, and that 
after robbing it and carrying away some 
plate, linen, and a considerable quantity of 
bank notes and gold, they murdered (as it 
is supposed), witti a butcher's cleaver and 
the kitchen poker, the unfortunate domes- 
tics above named. The robbery and murder 
were committed in mid-day, in a populous 



village, and within two miks of Manches- 
ter. 

" The jury found them guilty without even 
retiring from their box, and the Lord Chief 
Baron instantly pronounced sentence, and 
they were taken from the bar making cla- 
morous appeals to Heaven. The three Ash- 
crofts were creditable looking men, appa- 
rently much above the ordinary condition. 
They severally addressed the Judge. 

** James Ashcroft said, * This is murdering 
us in cold blood. God will reveal this in- 
justice. I pray earnestly that he would 
now send two angels to declare, upon that 
table, who committed the murder. We are 
all innocent, we will declare so to the last." 

''Daniel Ashcroft invoked God, and pro- 
tested his innocence. 

"James Ashcroft, the younger, said, *If 
I must suflfer for a crime I never commit- 
ted, I implore your Honour to look In 
mercy on my poor wife and children.* 

** The wife was in court, and at this mo- 
ment, unable to contain her feelings, she 
shrieked aloud and was carried out in a 
fainting state. 

" William Holden, pointing up, said 
* There is a God who knows that we are in- 
nocent, and who will make up for this.' 

" The Judge exerted hunself to put a stop 
to these speeches, but Daniel Ashcroft told 
the Chief Baron that he hoped God would 
not let the wrong done to them always re- 
main unknown ; and James Ashcroft said 
he should meet a higher Judge with a con- 
science clear of this guilt. 

" The executions took place on the follow- 
ing Monday. At a quarter past twelve 
the door leading from the chapel to the 
scaffold opened, and William Holden, a 
strong-buUt, middle-sized man, was brought 
forth, pinioned both at the wrists and 
elbows. Before the cap was put on his 
head, he turned round to the unmense 
multitude of spectators, and with a firm 
and loud voice said, * I am innocent of the 
crime for which I am to suffer as the child 
unborn. May God take away all my sms, 
as I am innocent of this murder.' The cap 
was then drawn over his face and the rope 
tied round liis neck. Daniel Ashcroft was 
stationed next to him. He spoke to this 
effect, with frequent repetition of the same 
observations. • I am glad to see so many 
persons looking on as I see, to testify to 
them that we are all ignorant of this crime. 
I do protest to you all, before God, as I 
am now going, I trust, to glory, I wouldjiot 
for the whole world die with a lie in my 
mouth. Every one that sees me is as 
guilty as I am. We are all perfectly in- 
nocent. I would not say so if we had any 
connexion in any way with the concern. 
May God bless the town of Manchester. 1 
know that many have thirsted for oar 
blood, but they have sorer hearts than we 
have. May God find out the true murder- 



THE MIRROtt. 



163 



eM, and may you see l^iem stifTer in this 
plao^ and hear their confbssion of their 
guilt.' Holden exclaimed, *I can only an- 
swer for myself^ I am imiocent' James 
Ashcroft the younger, who had been 
brought out in the mean time, and on 
whom the cap and rope had been put, cried 
out, * We are all innocent. May the grace 
of God be with yoii now and for ever. 
Amen.' James Ashcroft the elder, a tall, 
tMn, grey-headed man, came mat last He 
advanced in front of his son, kissed him, 
and then took his place by his side. He 
said nothing. They joined the clergyman 
in repeating the Lord's prayer aloud. 
David Ashcroft continued praying, * liord, 
take away my sins, and save my soul, for 
the merits of Jesus Christ* Holden repeated 
the same expression. All four then began 
to sing, David Ashcroft repeating line after 
line as they sung — 
* I'U praise my Maker wliile I've breath, 
And when my voice is lost in death , 
My days of praise shall ne'er be past, 
While Hfe and thought and ' 

The drop fell, the voices ceased, and they 
were soon no more. Many of the specta- 
tors were in tears." 

[It perhaps ought to be added, since the 
confession above mentioned was made, it 
has been authoritatively stated that the 
sufferers, though not guilty of murder, 
were notoriously men of bad character.] 



FALSE REPORTS AND FURIOUS 
SERMONS IN THE TIME OF 
CHARLES THE FIRST. 
Among the means used to inflame the pub- 
he mind against the imfortunate Charles 
the First, false reports are mentioned in 
the pamphlets written after the Restora- 
tion, to have been in constant requisition. 
One of them, called * A Seasonable Memo- 
rial,' offers amusing specimens of them. 
A sample is added : — 

** We must not forget the design upon 
the life of Mr Pirn, by a Plague Plaister, 
that was wrapt up in a letter and sent him, 
which letter he put in his pocket for evi- 
dence, though he threw away the plaister. 
And there was another discovery that 
came as wonderfully to light: a tailor, in 
a ditch in Finsbury fields, ovei^eaig^ two 
men talking of a plot upon the life of my 
Lord Say, and some other eminent mem- 
bers of both Houses; and so the design 
never took effect." 

Upon Twelfth-night, 1641, the aty was 
alarmed at midnight with a report of 1,500 
horse that designed to surprise the City: 
** whereupon a matter of 5,000 men were 
presently in arms, and the women at work 
in the streets, with joynt stools, empty mask, 
and other lumber, to interrupt tneir pas- 



The same writer contends that iJie pul- 
pits laboured fltrennonsly to bring about 
the murder of the King; and in poof of 
this the following quotations are given: 

From a sermon preached bdEbre the 
House of Commons, Nov. 5, 1644, by a 
minister named Herle: — " Do justice to 
the greatest; Saul's sons are not spared; 
no, nor may Agag or Bcnhadad, though 
themselves kings. Zimri and Cozbi (tibe 
princes of the people) must be pursoed 
into their tents. That is the way to con« 
secrate yourselves to God." 

From Strickland's sermon, preached on 
the same day, the subjoined sentences are 
copied: 

** The execution of judgment is the Lord's 
word; and they shall be cursed that do it 
negligently. And cursed shall they be that 
keep back their sword in this cause. You 
know the story of God's message unto 
Ahab, for letting Benhadad go upon com- 
position." 

An extract from Cockayn's sermon, 
preached betbre the House of Commons 
Nov. 29, 1648, is thus introduced: 

" But now you shall hear^the Murtbbk 
of his most sacred Majesty press'd more 
particularly in these wcwds : — * Think not 
to save yourselves by an unrighteous sav- 
ing of them who are the Lord's and the 
people's known enemies, you may not una- 
gine to obtain the favour of those against 
whom you will not do justice. For cer- 
tainly, if you act not like Gods in this par- 
ticular, against men truly obnoxious to 
justice, they will be like Devils agamst 
you.' Observe that place, 1 Kings, 22, 31, 
compared with chap. 20. It is said in 
chap. 20, that the King of Syria came 
against Israel, and by the mighty power of 
God, he and his army were overthrown, 
and the King was tijcen prisoner. Now 
the mind of Grod was (which he then dis- 
covered only by that present Providence), 
that justice should have been execute up- 
on him, but it was not Whereupon the 
Prophet comes with ashes upon his face, 
and waited for the King of Israel in the 
way where he should return ; and as the 
King pass'd by he cry*d unto him, * Thus 
saith the Lord, because thou hast let go 
a man iif hom I appointed for destruction, 
therefore thy life shall go for his life.' Now 
see how the King of Syria, after this, 
answers Ahab's love: about three years 
after Israel and Syria engaged in a new 
war, and the King of Syn& gives command 
unto his soldiers, that they should fight 
neither against snaall nor great, but against 
the King of Israel Benhadad's life was 
once in Ahab's hand, and he ventured 
God's displeasure to let him go. But see 
how Benhadad rewards him for it: Fight 
neither against small nor great, but against 
the Bang of Israel Honourable and worthy, 



184 



THE MIBKOR. 



if God do not lead y<m io do justioe upon 
those that hare been great acton in sli- 
ding innocent bloody never to think to gain 
their bve by sparing of them ; for they 
win, if opportunity be eyer offered, return 
again ixpoa you; and then they will not 
fight against the poor and mean ones, but 
against those who have been the fountain 
of that authority and power which have 
been emproyed against them." 

Brooke's sermon before the House of 
Commons, Dec. 26, 1648, ofEers these re- 
flections: 

** Haye you not sins enow of your own, 
but will ye wrap yourselves up in this 
treachery, murther, blood, cruelty, and 

tyranny (Mothers ?"--P. 17 *' Set some of 

those grand malefactors a mourning (that 
have caused the kingdom to mourn so 
many years in garments rolled in Uood) 
by the execution of justice."— P. 19. 



THE SHIRTLESS HAPPY MAN. 
( Condudedfrom our lastJ) 
They heav^ losses mouni*d with many a sigh, 
l^eU-knowing they could not the court sup- 
ply; 
£gch knew, howe'er he tried, and knew with 



No sEirt liad he, or none to give relief; 
Thus many an anxious day and night was 

spent, 
But, after all, not e'en a rag was sent 

** Plague on%" exclaimed the minister, <*Ifear 
'*The world will shortly see some mischief 

here; 
** Out with my coach !"— From door to door 

he drove, 
And as he went, right earnestly he strove 
Such men to l^d, as were supposed to be 
From pain exempt, and free from misexy. 

The worldly rich he sought, or such as 
rdl'd. 
As wish*d their ever-craving hearts. In gold ; 
These tried in vain, he straightway sought 

the great. 
Who dreamt they merited a heav'nly state, 
So good they thought themselves^— but, luck- 
less there, 
He went to many a newly-married pair. 

<* Dear friends," ssld he, *< the court, with much 

surprise, 
Has learned the tact^— from you we've no 

supplies ; 
<^ And surely 'tis a most astounding thing 
•* That you his majjes^ no shirt can bring ; 
** If you are not estranged to grief and care, 
« And aU the ills of life, what mortals are r* 

Both sexes redden'd as they heard the tale, 
"While very many, wonder-struck, tum*d pale ; 
On each a hard and heavy biirdeu lay, 
All had thefar cares, but what, they fear'd to 

say; 
They to the Count their chests had rather 

show 
Than he the KQxeU of th^ hearts should 

know* 



Then shirU were broo^ too nutt'ronfl to 

be told, ^^ 

A load too bulky fi>r the coach io hM ; 
Shirt upon shirt thoughout the palace Isy, 
And hei^ of flaxen gannents Iln'd tlie way ; 
Each aSmt, in haste, the monarch tried, but 

still 
With all hte eare and eagerness,— was UL 

M I thought as much!" exdaim'd the fool, 

** and then 
*< With all respect to these our learned men, 
** N<me but a goose, I say, would seek to find 
** True bliss among the nch of human kind, 
«For theirs is ^eSfa circle, fiU'd with pri^ 
*^ A round of mimicry,— « mere outside !" 

** That's true !" the King replied, « and say 

lean 
** My jester John speaks like an honest man, 
** Away, Count Stirt, nor ever let me see 
** Your face again, till you have thought to 

me 
^ What much is needed; quickly go your 

round, 
** And seek till you the healing shirt have 

found!" 

Stirt at the jester cast an evil look,— 

*^ Tou wretched knave!" said he, and th«H 

he took 
A nobleman of note, to suit his case. 
And off they started on their, wild-goose 

chase; 
Four tedious weeks they wander'd up and 

down 
By various ways, thro' many a country tows. 

While seated in the vehicle were they, 
A trumpet-blowing herald led the way. 
And, as he rode^ he questions put to au 
In ev'ry town or village— great and small^ 
** Is there a man among you who can show 
« He's free from sorrow ?" all responded* 

«No." 
<< All this is useless," said the Count, "'tis 

plain, ^ 

** We'll go no farther— coachman, turn agsm 1 
** The jester April fools of us has made, 
•* Full well I know— for jesting is his trads ; 
** Fo^ dread our purpose— -while we &iriy 

state, 
** A rise of taxes, or an extra rate." 

" You're right," exclito'd the noble, "so 

think I, 
^ Black bread and sausage let's no longer try ; 
" Fot courtiers 'tis too coarse, I'm wwl aware^ 
"Methinks we've had enough of humMe 

fare; 
« 'Tisrfiseless all,— I verily believe 
«* This crazy wizard would the King deceive." 

And now retum*d these nobles of renown 
With stately pace, towards the imperial 

town; 
'Mong other by-ways then they made thetf 

round 
In quest of Fortune's star,— and there they 

fcmnd 
Full many a man 'midst happiness and joy, 
But none who pleasure drank without alloy. 

One morning, journeying at the break oi 4ay, 
As thro* a verdant vale they made thehr wsf) 

)igitized by VjOOQIC 



IHEMIREOE. 



1?$ 



There in a thicket, as they pass'd along, 
Hard by the way-side path they heard a 

song; 
Such loud and lively notes were heard to 

flow 
In cheerful language— as you'll ate below : 

" Hurrah, hurrah ! " a man was beard to ^ng, 
« Who's blest as I,— I'm happier than a king 1 
" For Mammon's sons, true na^^pineis denied, 
" Their gold I spurn,— their nehes I deride ! 
« Hurrah, hurrah ! I've riche$ in myself— 
« I've peace and joy, and scorn theur boasted 

pelf!" 
They stopp'd the coach, alighted, poss'd 

along 
With hasty steps, attracted by the son^ ; 
Still moving on, the songster they descned— 
A rustic swaiu at breakfast they espied, 
Who from his little pot of porridge ate ;-— 
His joyous looks bespoke a happy state. 

With what delight he fed on homely food I 
His sparkling eyes evinc'd a merry mood,— 
And, what could ne'er be thought an evil 

there. 
Close at his elbow sat a damsel fair ; 
In form as graceful as the beauteous vine. 
Her eyes the diamond's lustre far outshine. 

He play'd, and kiss'd, and dealt in harmless 

fun, 
The grave beholders thought their task was 

done; 
"Ton honour," cried the Count, « 'tis plain 

tome 
" He feeds on dainty food, — a glutton he ! 
" His humble fare with kisses he can spic&» — 
" What epicurean dish was e'er so nice I " 
They nearer drew, — transported with the 

sight,— 
<* What ! friend," said one, *<so soon aa ap- 
petite? 
^ So well indeed you fare, to me tis plain 
** A stranger you to sorrow, care, and pain : 
" If naught deceive me, confident am I 
" In happy Fortune's peaceful lap you liel" 

" 'Tis here I sit," the honest rustic said, 
"Hy arms and hands procure me daily 

bread; 
" I've her I love, — and tell me, sir, beside, 
" Where I can find so beautiful a bride ? 
" Does she but smile, or signs of love evince, 
"I would not change my fortune with a 

prince ! " 

" Our King, alas I to fever lies a prey," 
Exclaim'd the Count, " and easily you may 
" (So says a sage and able sorcerer) save 
"A wise and worthy monarch from the 

grave: 
" His 1^ to save no other shirt will do 
"Than that you wear— the very man are 

you I" 

•' A shirt from me ?" exclaimed th' astonish'd 

Guy, 
" To serve your Excellence no power have I; 
" Tm truly happy— IVe my fill of bliss— 
" Ko worldly cares have I,— I've all but this, 
"Yet shirt, or whole or ragged, I have 

none— 
" To aid you I'm unable— I have done." 

"idasl" exclaim'd the Coont,— and her4 
turned pale, 



« No shirt the happiest man,— how sad the 

tale! 
«*^This is indeed a most unlucky case— 
« 'Twill all the kingdom shook, and me dit- 

{peace!" 
Back with the doleful news the statesman 

hied, 
AAd» jusi at he retum'd, the monarch died. 

T. 8. A. 

>>■ ' I'l l' " l"l ■'■■!■■ '■* ■ .... I ■■ I.. 

MIEROB LEVITIES. 

ON MBS HONEY BEING FINED FOR ACTING 
AT THE LIVEE THEATHB. 

Tears that ought almost to swell a river. 
Are shed for thee, an unhappy start: 

The late complaint about the Liver 
Has ahnost broken Honey's heart, 

ON MR Newport's experiments on bees- 

First of his name ! For evermore 
His praise let poets join to sing. 

Who makes, it ne'er was done before. 
New-port exhibit the Bee^s winfft 

The Italian Poetess and the English Ar- 
chitect — The Academy of Saint Cecilia, at 
Rome, hafi admitted as one of its honorary 
members the Italian poetess, Rosa Taddei: 
and our countryman, Mr Barry, the archi- 
tect, has been elected a member of the 
Academy of St Luke. He is, it is stated, 
the only EngUsh member. The following 
celebration of his advancement has been 
privately circulated ; 

" Barry, whoM talfints all revere, 
Who very rarely met rebufcea. 
His friends are now concerned to hear, 
Was lately taken to St Luk^sJ* 

— "Much ado about Nothtng, and The 
Thumping Legacy for Miujready's ben^t," 
exclaimecl Bunn, on reading the rival les- 
see's bill of fare. " It is very remarkable, 
but they were the very performsnces with 
which he fiarmerly dosed at Dniry-lan© 
theatre^ «y den^." 



Duelling in Bavaria. -^The practice of 
duelling among the students at Miudch 
has risen to such a pitch, that the King of 
Bavaria haa given notice on the " Black 
Board" of the University, that in case o£ 
death in these combats, besides the punish- 
ments now in force against the survivor, 
the corpse of his antagonist must be buried 
in a hurried way at an early hour, with no 
decoration of garlands, no mourning pro- 
cession, and no oraticm either of a priest 
or fellow-student over the grave. 

— The library of the late M. Huzardj. 
Inspector-General of Veterinary Schools^ 
is to be brought to the hammer. It con- 
tains 40,000 volumes, on matters connected 
with the veterinary art. 

—•It has never rained, during the me- 
mory of man, at Moscow m^ecemberor 
January. 



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i8« 



THE MtBJUm. 




Arnis. A fesse embattled gu, therefrom isstdng in chief a dexter arm embowed. 9 
armom' ppr, garnished or, encircled by a wreath of laurel; the hand supporting the 
French invincible standard in bend sinister, also ppr in base, a chev Indented gu be^recn 
three boars' heads, erased az. Crest A bee ppr, and over it the motto " live ict rtwu." 
Supporters, Two greyhounds, per fesse ar, and or, collared and lined, charged on tiie 
shoulder with a thistle ppr. 



ORIGIN OF THE NOBLE HOUSE OF 

ABERCROMBY. 
Descended from an ancient Scotch fa- 
mily, Ralph Abecromby was bom in 1738. 
On the 23d of May, 1756, he commenced 
his military career as a comet m the 2nd 
Dragoons; and making gradual progress 
in his profession, on the 3rd of November, 
1781, he was appointed colonel of the 103d 
Foot, and major-general in 1796. He 
served on the Continent, under the Duke 
of York, in the war wliich followed the 
French Revolution. He commanded the 
Guards on their retreat from Derventer to 
Ochensaal, in the winter of 1794-5. In the 
latter year he succeeded Sir C. Grey as 
commander-m-chief, in the West Indies, 
where he captured, within the space of two 
years, Demerara, Essequibo, St Lucia, St 
Vincent, and Trinidad. For these services 
he was requited with the red ribbon, on his 
return to Europe, in 1797, and the com- 
mand of the Scotch Greys. He was ad- 
vanced to 'the rank of lieutenant-general, 
and entrusted withjthe governments of the 
Isle of Wight, Fort George, and Fort Au- 
gustus. He was subsequently conunander- 
in-chief in Ireland. There his services 
were of vast importance. The result of 
his labours, however, was not what he had 
hoped they would prove; and he, in con- 
sequence, resigned his command. In 1801, 
Sir Ralph was appointed to command the 
army dispatched from this coimtry to ex- 
pel the French from Egypt. 

Tlie gallantry for which he had l^een 
long conspicuous was eraiiicntly displayed 
in the expedition to Egypt. He had to 
contend with an enemy very superior in 
nimfibers, and with an inhospitable cUmate. 
The opthalmia raged in his army and 
greatly abated its efficiency. To triumph 
under such circumstances require<l patience 
as well as valoiur. He was wanting in 
neither, and eventually, had the glory of 
gaining a complete victory over the French. 
The battle of Alexandria, fought March the 
2l8t, 1801, commenced at half-past three in 
(he morning and wm over by ten. Sir 



Ralph died of the wound whidi he had re- 
ceived, but continued, actively engaged in 
the performance of his duty, though the 
blood was seen trickhng from his dothes. 
Growing faint he was put into a hammock 
and conveyed in a boat on board Lord 
Keith's ship. After much suffering, which 
he endured with great fortitude, he ex- 
pired. on the 28th of March. . 

The following tribute to his memory is 
from the pen of Lieutenant General Hut- 
chinson, afterwards Earl of Donoughmoit, 
who succeeded him in the command : — 

"Head Quarters Camp, four miles from 
Alexandria, April 3, 1801. 

** We have sustained an irreparable loss 
in the person of our never-to-be sufficiently 
lamented Sir Ralph Abercromby, who was 
wounded in the action, and died 28th of 
Msurch. I believe he was wounded eariy* 
but concealed his situation from those 
about him, and continued in the field, 
giving his orders with that coolness and 
perspicuity which had ever marked his 
character, till long after the action was 
over, when he fainted through weak- 
ness and loss of blood. Were it permit- 
ted for a soldier to lament over one who 
has fallen in the service of his country, I 
might be excused for lamenting him more 
than any other i)erson ; but it is some con- 
solation for those who tenderly loved him, 
that as his life was honourable, so was his 
death glorious. His memory will be re- 
corded in the annals of J lis country, and will 
be sacred to every British soldier, and em- 
balmed in the recollection of a grateful 
posterity." 

From 1774 Sir Ralph represented the 
county of Kinross in the House till 1780. 

In grateful remembrance of liis many 
services, liis son (Lonl Abercromby, re- 
cently deceased) was raiseil to the Pe»- 
age May 28th, 1801, by the title of Baron 
Abercromby of Aboukir and TulUebody. 
His other son, late Speaker of the House 
of Commons, has also been raised to the 
Peerage by the title of Lord Dumfermliw. 



THE MIRROIl. 



187 



ng.l. 



%.2. 




EDGE'S IMPROVED GAS-METER. 

PATENT GRANTED NOV. 1842. 

¥ig, 1. — Section of the front of the meter. 
Fig. 24 — Side section of the meter. 

A represents the patent index, which 
enaUes the inspector and the consmner to 
ascertain the quantity of gas used, with 
ease and certainty. The figures revolve 
instead of the hands (as in the old meter), 
and, as only the figure required on each 
plate can be seen at a time, no mistake can 
arise ; B repriBsents the patent lever valve, 
the object of which is to prevent the 
iramerous complaints of the consumers, 
and the very heavy losses to the com- 
panies, by the lodgment of the old valve, 
consequent on the corroaon of the grade 
wires ; this lodgment can rarely, if ever, 
be proved by ocular demonstration, as the 
slightest movement will cause the valve to 
fall into its seat— but still it is proved 
daily, and beyond all question, by a dimi- 
nished registration ; and it is not the less 
objectionable, as an evil, for being a secret 
and invisible one. Every gas company 
in existence may be appealed to in proof 
of the disputes which occur with the con- 
sumers, in consequence of a variable 
registration. The consumer refers to one 
or more quarters when the meter has, in 
truth, registered less than it ought to liave 
done (owing to this lodgment of the valve), 
and he insists, whenever the real quantity 
used is shown, that it then errs, that it has 



got out of order, and has become a false 
and decep^nre instrument. The lever valve 
completely and eflfectually remedies this ; 
it also indicates a deficiency of water much 
earlier than the old valve, and the shield 
protects it at once from any sudden rush 
of pressure, and the arts of the dishonest 
constmier ; it may, ia fact, be considered 
perfect in its action, and unassailable on 
every point. C represents the patent 
syphon, and D the waste water chamber — 
the value of which two improvements can- 
not be over-estimated, for, in the first 
place, they remove the only dangerous 
part of the meter — viz., the outlet from 
the syphon pipe, which is now sealed off; 
in the second place, they prevent the 
fraudulent abstraction of the water, to 
the serious injury of the company ; and, 
thirdly, they prevent th^ accumulation of 
the water, by which the consumer is de- 
prived of his full measure. The top of the 
sjrphon pipe being placed on a line with 
the water level, every surplus drop must 
fall into it ; and as the passage of the gas 
will be entirely stopped before the water 
fills the syphon, it is evident that the 
action of the meter must entirely cease 
before there can be the slightest excess in 
the meter itself— consequently, it serves as 
a protector alike to the consumer and the 
company. It will be observed, that there 
is only one outlet screw instead of two, as 
in the common meter, and the removal o€ 
this screw, B, will at once^how whether 

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138 



tHE MIRRCA. 



the stoppage arises from the closing of the 
yalre, or j^m the accumulation of water 
in the syphon pipe, and will lessen the 
occurrence of mistakes by persons not 
thoroughly acquainted with the old sys- 
tem. — Mining JournaL 



THE RAIN GAUGE. 
This is an instrument constructed for the 
purpose of indicating the amount of rain 
which may fall at any given place. It is 
usually a tin or copper vessel exposing an 
area of a square foot. The rain, as it &Ils 
into the box, is made to act upon a train 
of wheels somewhat similar to the gas- 
meter, and the quantity in l-lCMHh of an 
inch is registered by a hand upcm a dial 
plate. Tlifere are several modifications of 
the instrument, but it is seldom that any 
two register the same amount of rain, even 
if placed within a few yards of each other, 
except there be little or no wind at the 
time. Another still greater source of error 
is the difference of adtitude, for it is found 
that by placing the rain gauge at dif^rent 
heights the results will be different, and 
the quantity of rain indicated by the in- 
strument will be in an inverse ratio to the 
altitude ; much diversity of opinioa pre* 
vails as to the cause o€ this singular result. 
By many electricity is conceived as the 
acting cause : thus it is supposed, when 
two clouds oppositely electrified come 
within the sphere of mutual attraction 
they will rush together, and the electricity 
will be equally difiused throughout the 
whole mass of cloud, the particles of water- 
ing vapour common to each cloud will 
then unite themselves into drops, and by 
their weight, descending to the earth, a 
shower will be produced ; as this rain 
descendsthrough the atmosphere, the latter 
being but feebly charged with electricity, the 
drops will be constantly dischsurging their 
electricity, and therefore increase by coali- 
tion, and consequently a much larger quan- 
tity of rain will fisdl in a given space near 
the surface of the earth than at any alti- 
tude above. 



PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 

Animal Life in the Shod of a Dog.^On 
the presence of etitozoaries in the blood of a 
dog, MM. Gruby and Delaftmd^s paper re- 
ported the discovery of animal Hfe in the 
blood of a dog. There has hitherto been 
no authenticated case of such phenomenon 
in warm-blooded animals, excepting lords. 
The presence of animal life in the blood 
of cold-blooded animals, particularly frogs, 
is common. 

Cure of Cancer. — On the use of Arsenic 
as an external application for the cure of 
Cancer, M. Mance states that, in most of 
the cases in which it has be^ tried, mixed 



with ointmait, for the cure of cancer, either 
radical cures have been effected, oc the ex- 
tension c£ the ^&B99a» has been checked. 
The secretions, says M. Manoe, fat some 
days after the administration of theteme- 
dy, give proofs of the presence of the ar- 
senic, but none oi the ii^urious effects of 
the poison are manifested in the system. 

Gold Mines in Russia, ~^ At a recent 
sitting of the Academy of Scimces, Paris, 
a paper was read on the discovery of a 
mass of native gold, weighing 36 kilo- 
grammes (about 80 English potmds), on 
the eastern side of the Oural. This enor- 
mous mass, double the size c^ any hitiierto 
discovered, was found a few teit beneath 
the surfiice. M. de HumboMt, who made 
the communication to the Academy, added, 
that such is ,the prodigious increase of 
washed gold in Russia, and especiaPy in 
Siberia, to the east of the southern dm 
of the Oural, that the total produce in 
the year 1842 amounted to 16,000 kilo- 
grammes, of which Siberia atooe favBishes 
7,800 kilogrammes. 

Black Marble Chimney'pieces, — The bitu- 
minous carbonate, or black marble ^Der* 
byshire, takes a very high polish, and is 
wrought into ehimmey- pic ccs cmI • fnit 
variety of useful and ornamental articles, 
which are often embellished by figures, the 
manner of producing which is as mllows:— 
The subject is sketched upon the marWe, 
and those parts intended to retain the po- 
lish are covered with a varnish which wffl 
resist acid; when the varnish is dry the 
article is immersed in a solution of sul- 
phuric acid and water. This decomposes 
those parts of the marine uncovered, and, 
when sufficiently corroded, it is washed in 
dean water, and the varnish removed with 
spirits of turpentine ; the corroded parts 
will be of a lighter colour, and without 
polish, produeing a pleasing contrast. 

Eudionuter. — This instrument is of valu- 
able application in the mines, for ascer- 
taining the purity of the air. By it could 
be discovered, in ai^ part of the workings, 
not only the quantity of oxygen, but also 
the per centage of carburetted hydrogen 
or other gases, without which their pro- 
portion and state of dilution by atmosphe- 
ric air from ventilation, and the consequent 
sa^ty of the mine, is mere guess w<^k. 
This instrument is indispensalde in eve^ 
weU-regulated colliery. 

— Several men of science have died in a 
scientific manner. HaUer, the poet, phil»^ 
sopher, and physician, beheld his end ap- 
proadi with the utmost composure- He 
kept feeling his pulse to the last momait, 
and when he found that life was almost 
gone, he turned to his brother physiciaa, 
observing, "My friend, theartwy ceases to 
beat," and abnoit instaja^yezEm. 

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TBE MlRRCMt. 



BELICS OF LONDON. 
NO. X— ST Bartholomew's, 
The strange who» now-a-days, visits 
Smitbfield on a market day will, dooJbtless, 
be too iatent on the pFeserration of life 
and limb amidst the constant bustle and 
coo&ision, tmd too anxious to escape from 
the mud and dirt of the busy scene, to 
allow himself to be led a Hew paces from 
his path to look on at the remains of ^e 
tmaa& j^nory of St Bartholomew ; nor is 
the shouting of drovers, the roaring of 
bulis, or the bleating of sheep in entire ac- 
cordance with the calm reflections which a 
iriew of an ancient ruin usually suggests. 
Yet there may be s(Hne whose ardour for 
aatiquarian research would induce them 
to consider a visit even to such a place as 
Smithfield amply repaid by an examina- 
tion cf the relics that lie behind it, and to 
such— if such there be — ^I would more par- 
ticularly dedicate the present paper. 

The priory of St Bartholcwnew was 
founded by one Rahere, a courtier of King 
Henry I, in tJie year 1102, the spot on 
which it was erected being " a right un- 
clean and filthy marsh used as a public 
laystall, on which offenders against the 
law were executed.'* On such a soil it 
appeared almost a hopeless task to raise a 
foundation, but the zeal of the pious Ra- 
here triumphed over every difficulty, and, 
by dmt of ingenious devices, he obtained 
the assistance of the inhabitants, and sub • 
sequently even the countenance of the 
King himself. Eahere was the first Prior, 
and continued at the head of the canons 
until lus death, twenty-two years after- 
wards, when he was succeeded by Thomas 
of St Osyth, who enjoyed the prelacy for 
thirty years, Henry U granted to this 
Priory the privilege of holding annually a 
feir at Whitsuntide, which, although now 
rapidly becoming obsolete, is still known to 
us as Bartholomew Pair. Bolton was the 
last Prior, when the monastery was sup- 
pressed by Henry VHI, the annual value 
then hemg 653^1 15s. In 1544 the Priory 
was granted to Sir Kichard Rich, Knight, 
andSthough, in the reign of Mary, the 
Black Friars were allowed to take posses- 
sion of it and use it as their convent, the 
subsequent accession of Elizabeth com- 
pelled them to abandon it, and it was after- 
wards appropriated to other purposes. 

The most conspicuous reUc of the Priory 
is the beautiful gateway on the eastern 
Ride of Smithfield, with its ribbed arch, its 
mouldings, and its ornaments. This gate- 
way leads to the church, a portion of which, 
especially the tower, is of more modem 
erection than the Priory. The southern 
wall of the churchyard, which forms the 
side wall of a tavern, is evidently a frag- 
nieut of the original structure, and, con- 



nected with it, a large chamber, now 
divided into several smaller rooms, the 
arched ceiling of which, with its shield 
and cornice, has a very antique appearance. 
Beneath thb tavern there is a ceUar — also 
a portion of the Priory. In the wall of a 
smith's workshop, adjoining, several arches 
may be traced, and in a narrow court we 
find, on one side, Are arches, while oppo- 
site to them is a single arch ;— this was the 
eastern cloister. At the end, and crossing 
from the east to the west side, is a broad 
arch, supposed to be also original, and be- 
yond that, closed in by a brick wall, a con- 
siderable portion of the cloister, with the 
groined roof and noWe arches, still remains. 
Nearer to Bartholomew close is the Be- 
fectory, now a tobacco manufectory, the 
carved oaken roof of which is a magnificent 
specimen of the grand style of the struc- 
ture. Beneath this hall is a beautiful and 
very perfect crypt, with a double row of 
aisles. The Prior's house, now occupied 
by a fringe-manufacturer, is situated at the 
eastern end of Middlesex passage, the walls 
are of inunense thickness ; on the stair- 
case is a pointed arch, and, in the wall be- 
side it, an alcove. The dormitory of the 
canons is at the top of the house, where 
also are still remaining three arches with 
fluted capitals and square pillars. On the 
exterior of the church of St Bsfftholomew, 
and at the end of Middlesex passage, are 
the remains of the south transept— the 
wall and a handsome arch, which may still 
be faintly traced. The interior of the 
church, and more particularly the choir, is 
almost entirely original. At the north- 
eastern comer of the latter portion is the 
tomb ctf the founder, on which a full-length 
effigy of Bahere is reclining. The monu- 
ment was restored at the expense of Prior 
Bolton, and is still in a very excellent state 
of preservation. The tomb bears the in- 
scription, ** Hie jacet Raherus, primus cano- 
nicus et primus prior istius ecdekcB," (Here 
lies Habere, the first canon and first prior 
of this church.) 
Peace be to his ashes ! / 

Alex. AndInsws. 

A TROUBADOUR'S STRAIN— NOT 
OF LOVE. 

It is generally assumed that the song of 
a troubadour must, as a matter of course, 
be a love ditty. Such is not in accordance 
with history. They not only sung the 
charms of ladies "bright and fair," but 
they were the satirists, the privileged cen- 
sors, who deemed it their proper office to 
vindicate pubUc morals, and to chastise 
those who offended by gross misconduct. 
In the middle ages the French clergy, by 
their dissolute conduct, as well as by their 
rapacity, made themsdves very hateful in 

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140 



tnz MIRROR. 



the eyes of *»those of the common sort.'* 
They were not spared by the wandering 
mmstrel, bnt were hi many cases visited 
with much severity. M. Capefigue gives 
the following as a troubadour s strain, ad- 
dressed to an offending son of the Church : 
** Ah, false minister ! traitor I liar ! per- 
jurer ! debauchee ! Thou committest every 
day so many public disorders, that the 
world is thrown by them into trouble and 
cimfusion. Saint Peter had never rents, 
nor castles, nor chateaux, nor domains ; 
never did he excommunicate or curse. 
Let it not be thought that I censure all 
priests. Among th^ there are good men, 
but the greater part refuse to give up for 
Christ their splendid attire and their daz- 
zUng plate. They have no ardour but for 
the delights of love — ^know no other God. 
I find but too many peof^ in the church 
who shine but from their worldly magnifi- 
cence, and who scruple not to marry a 
nephew to the female they have had for a 
mtulam ! If the Holy Spirit would listen 
lo my vows I would break thy pride, O 
Rome ! in which all the perfidy of the 
Greeks is collected. I know she will wish 
me evil for the attack I make on the false 
and the ignorant, who are the cause of the 
decline in morals and reUgion." 



literature* 



Tfie Tuft Hunter. By Lord William 

Lennox. 3 vols. 
There have been instances of memory 
passing itself off for imagination, and wor- 
thf in^viduals have given to the worid, 
us their own original thoughts, the ideas 
which they recoUected f rom reading the 
works of others. Of such things we have 
heard, and some specimens of the confu- 
sion consequent upon them we have seen. 
A few years ago a drama was brought out 
at one of the theatres as an original per- 
formance, which, under another title, had 
been acted almost verbatim forty or fifty 
years before. The book before us is a good 
deal in that way, but instead of being a 
revival of some connected whole, it is a 
hash of parts of a hundred other things. 
What the object of liord William can have 
been, we are at a loss to decide. If he 
meant it as a quiz on the plagiarists of the 
day, he might quite as efficiently have 
effected his object without writing these 
volumes. Can his memory have played 
him such a jade's trick, that he fancied 
he was putting on paper something that 
might pass for his own, when he handed 
the following passage to the printer ? 

" The coroner's inquest being justly con- 
sidered as one of the most important and 



valttaUe institutions of our country, its 
functions in the provinces are commonly 
delegated to the most obtuse and ignorant 
members of the community 1 'Ae rich 
and the intelligent have always infloenoe 
enough to evade its duties, so that the 
'crowner's quest law* generally devolves 
upon some dozen dunder-headed hcxkm, 
who serve habitually as jurymen fior the 
parish in which they may happen to rende. 
They follow implicitly their leader, the 
foreman $ who as implicitly follows his 
leader, the coroner ; the latter penKmage 
being usually a perfect Dogberry, fumiiriied 
with a few techmcal terms and legid dis- 
tinctions, which enable him to decide be- 
tween Accidental Death, Found Drowned, 
Wilful Murder, Justifiable Homicide, and 
Eelo de se. Whether Mr Quillet, the offi- 
cial functionary of Ravensbrook, beknged 
to this class, will be seen by the proceed- 
ings." 

Could he, we say, have imagined that he 
had anything to do with the authorship of 
what we have quoted, while the following 
passages from Hood's * Tylney HaU' were 
before his eyes ? 

" The coroner's inquest, involving an in- 
quiry into the cause of any sudden termi- 
nation of life, is justly considered as one 
of our most important and valuable insti- 
tutions, and accordingly its functions are 
commonly delegated to the most obtuse 
and ignorant members of our community. 
The rich and the intelligent have influence 
or tact enough to elude its duties, so that 
the inquisition generally devolves on siomc 
dozen of logger-headed individuals, who 
serve habitually as jurymen for the parish 
in which they may happen to reside. They 
follow, as impUcitly as a fiock (rf sheep, 
the lead of their foreman, whose opinion 
goes in the wake of the coroner's, like a 
boat in tow of a ship. The latter per- 
sonage himself is sometimes little better 
tlian a Dogberry, furnished with a few 
technical terms and legal distinctions,which 
enable him to direct the random reccnrds of 
Visitations of God, Found Drowned, Wilfhl 
Murder, and Felo de se. Whether the 

ofilcial functionary of belonged to 

this class will be seen by the evidence," 
&c. 

This cannot be called " plagiarism.' There 
is no attempt at disguise. It is wholesale 
appropriaticm. Numerous instances of the 
same sort of repetition, equally gross and 
preposterous, occur; and the effect of the 
whole is so ridiculous (we say nothing of 
the unfairness of thus dealing with what 
is not his own), and the cases so numerous 
and so obvious, that had the compiler not 
been a Lord, we can scarcely believe any 
London pubUsher would have brought out 
" The Tuft Hunter.;^ , 

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THE MIRBOR. 



141 



Ckmddei oftke Careworn *, or Walks and 
Wanderings, l&y Edward West. Cun- 
ningham and Mortimer. 
If a beneTolent motive can entitle a book 
to favour, the author of * The Careworn ' 
ought not to appeal to the public in vain. 
He seems smcerely anxious that the hand 
. (rf mercy should be stretched out to aid 
the unfortunate. Nine weekly numbers 
have now appeared, and in these the writer 
exhibits a series of scenes in wluch the 
misery of the indigent is powerfully de- 
picted. That his selections are always the 
best that might be made, we dare not 
assert, but to those who are not inclined 
to hear or read — "with a disdainful 
smile," not "the short and simple," but 
the long and complicated " annals of the 
poor," they will present much to interest 
and gratify curiosity. His colouring some- 
tfanes verges on extravagance, but too 
many of his pictures, we fear, are founded 
on reality. We wish he may be able to 
offer some plan by which the general 
mass of distress can be abated. But where 
is the man that can do this ? In the pre- 
sent state of society it is but too probable 
that charity the most ardent and exalted 
can suggest notliing which, if attempted to 
be carried out, would not interfere with 
some existing interests and provoke fierce 
oppositions. Year after year passes, and 
those who languisli in penury sigh for re- 
lief in vain. In great attempts we are 
told " it is glorious even to fail," and Mr 
West, if he cannot accomplish the object 
he avows to be his, adds one to the 
number of pitying philanthropists who 
have tried to benefit their fellow creatures 
and failed. Some of his scenes are of a 
very startling character. We can only 
find room for a brief extract. It pre- 
sents to us a poor dress maker, exhausted 
by the slavery to which she is doomed, 
unable to rise from her slumber in time to 
escape from her dweUing, which is on fire. 
Her story is thus concluded : — 

"Even in her every-day life this poor tired 
girl had been working her own winding 
sheet : for scanty food, late hours, and hard 
labour, are sufficient to crush the vigour and 
min the energv even of blithesome sixteen. 
But more rapidly was her death now draw- 
ing nigh, and yet from the same sad causes ; 
for intense fatigue had induced the death- 
like stupor which nothing could disturb. 
* Strange,* said some strong man who was a 
spectator of this scene, 'strange that a girl 
can sleep in that way, for I myself could not 
do 80 after I had partaken of very different 
fare to that which she is likely to get* It 
was not strange. For this strong man, in 
the maturity of his powers, had never worked 
u that thin weak girl had toiled and striven 
for her daily brei^ ; and therefore he had 
never known what it is to be thus weighed 
down by and crushed under the burden of 
exertion. 



« The fire continued to spread. The peo- 

Sle besought the firemen to ascend by a lad- 
er, but they refused. * It was as much as 
their lives were worth. The house was about 
to fall, and it would bury them under the 
ruins, as well as the female they were trying 
to save.' 

" One ornament— and one only—graced the 
poor girl's apartment : by her side was 
placed a conunon-looking bottle, which con- 
tained a flower— a solitary and blighted rose- 
bud. 

" Her dress now caught the flame, and all 
the little apparatus of her trade, helped to 
form, alas ! with what a truthful emblem^ — 
her funeral pile ! It would be worse than 
useless to describe such a harrowing spec- 
tacle in detail. The element which had con- 
quered brick and mortar, and triumphed 
over wood and iron, had but an easy task in 
mastering a small quantity of poor flesh and 
blood. The belles would have their finery ; 
but she whose repose was sacrificed for its 
manufacture now entered on a sleep which 
could never be interrupted by the anxieties 
of a ball room I" 



Captain Sir Edward Belcher, in his book 
just published on voyages round the 
world, states in reference to the Feejee 
Islands : — 

" Cannibalism to a frightful degree still 
prevails amongst this people, and, as it 
would seem, almost as one of their highest 
enjoyments. The victims of this ferocious 
slaughter were regularly prepared, being 
baked, packed, and distributed in portions 
to the various towns which fdmished 
warriors, according to their exploits ; and 
they were feasted on with a degree of 
savage barbarity nearly incredible ! They 
imagine that they increase in bravery, 
by eating their valorous enemy. Garin- 
garia is a noted cannibal, and it is asserted 
that he killed one of his wives and ate her. 
This he denied, and accounted for her 
death (which took place violently by his 
order) on other grounds. He did not at- 
tempt a denial of his acts at Banga, nor 
did Phillips. These occurrences are of 
late date. I am told they threw one or 
more of the heads (which they do not eat) 
into the missionary's compound. The 
population of the Feejees are very tall, fer 
above the height of any other nation I 
have seen. Of five men assembled in my 
tent, none were under six feet two inches. 
It was rather an awkward subject to tax 
Garingatia with in his own house, and 
solely attended by his own dependent, our 
interpreter ; but he took it very quietly, 
and observed that he cared not for human 
flesh, unless it was that of his enemy, and 
taken in battle. When he used this ex- 
pression, I could not help thinking that his 
Ups were sympathetically in motion, and 
that I had better not make mysetf too hos- 
tile. I therefore bid him good evening.'" 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



142 



THE MIRROR. 



A Genealogical Tree, ^e., of the Royal 
Family of En^£md. Compiled by JcHm 
Jaines Yates. Bell and Wood, Fleet 
street. 

*^Midtum in Parvo^* seems hardly the 
proper description of the v£^^t sheet now 
before us, but if we look at the immense 
time and labour which it has cost, as well 
as the time and labour it is likely to save 
the student who may henceforth possess 
it, much, rery much information we find 
within comparatively, very narrow limits, 
for a small price. The several dynasties 
are indicated by colours, so that the eye 
can pass at a glance through the long line 
of those who ** the reins of empire held,** 
and find, without opening a book, the por- 
minent events in'each monarch's life, from 
William the Conqueror to Queen Victoria. 
A summary is given of the duration of the 
several Royal Houses, which appears to 
have been as follows : — 
Norman line, from 1066 to 1135— 69 yrs. 
Blois - - 1135 to 1154— 19 „ 
Plantagenet - 11 54 to 1399— 245 „ 

^^^^^^^5 1399 to 1461- 63 „ 

York,or White Eose 1461 to 1485— 24 „ 

Tudor - - 1485 to 1603—118 „ 

Stuart - - 16a3 to 1688— 85 „ 

Orange - - 1689 to 1714— 25 „ 

Hanover - - 1714 - —128 „ 



GARDENING HINTS. 

Flower Garden, — Rosary may have the 
spring^dressing, and as much rotten cow- 
manure as can be got for the purpose. As 
to pruning roses, the later they are 
pruned the later they will flower, and vice 
versa. Walks and grass require great at- 
tention from this time. All the perennial 
tribes of herbaceous plants may now be 
divided and arranged for the season. 

Kitchen Garden, —Forsley requires the 
longest time to vegetate ; the seed should 
therefore be one of the first sown. The 
earliest and the red cabbages may be sown 
on a warm border ; also some more radish 
and lettuce-seeds. All these early-sown 
seeds in the open ground require to be 
protected from birds by throwing a piece 
of net over the beds : hardly anything will 
frighten them so early as tliis, when their 
fo^ is scarce. 

Literary Industry.—- Aviosto wrote one of 
his stanzas sixteen different ways, and the 
version he preferred was the last ; and 
Petrarch made forty-four alterations of a 
single verse. The existing manuscripts of 
Rousseau display as many erasures as 
those of Ariosto or Petrarch. The memoir 



oi Gibbon was odmpofl^ seTen or nine 
tunes, and after all was left unfinished ; 
and Buffon tells us that he wrote his 
Epoques de la Nature eighteen times be- 
fore it satisfied his taste.— X)'/«rae/i. 

Paris,— A spirited translation of a paper 
by Jules Janin, in the Liverpool Standard^ 
gives the following animated picture in 
nttle :--Paris is full of such contrasts. Sedc 
you for crimes ? we will furnish yon with 
proofs. Seek you for virtues ? Paris con- 
tains them. Within its waUs the gayest 
and saddest images, prayers and blasphe- 
mies, the gibbet and flowers, present them- 
selves without ceasing before us. This is 
not a city ; it is a whole world. On the 
days of disturbance, when it disgOTges 
itself from every isolated cross way, the rest 
of the city goes to the opera, without ques- 
tioning how much blood runs down the 
gutters. On the day of the Revolution of 
July, when the cannon thundered— when 
the pavements were torn up — ^two men, in 
grey caps, met each other under the arches 
of Pont Neut The water was dear and 
limpid as any stream that has not been 
disturbed for three days ; the arch of the 
bridge threw a fii,vourable shadow upon 
the head of one of these men ; both of them 
held a fislilng line in hand. To see these 
two men thus happy and calm, and com- 
pletely occupied with their innocent pas- 
sion, who would have said that around 
theur heads the most august and illns- 
trious throne in the empire was about 
being broken into a thousand burning 
particles? 

Greek Priests, — The priests are the worst 
part of the population, so ignorant, that 
they often read prayers for rain when they 
are directed to pray for fine weather; 
many of them, in fact, cannot read, but 
merely learn the service by heart ; so con- 
temned, that often, when convicted of th^ 
they may be seen, two or three working in 
chains on the roads, with their sacerdotal 
robes about them ; so poor that many of 
them are forced to work as bricklayers.— 
Sketches of Corfu, 

Superstitions of the Church.-— The Middle 
Age church was wholly founded on super- 
stitious associations. According to more 
Romano it was enough that the plan de- 
scribed the cross, the universal symbol, 
"in hoc vince." But according to more 
Germano, the Saviour himself was to be 
figured ; the choir, therefore, was inclined 
to the soutli, to signify, that ** he bowed 
his head and gave up the ghost** (John, 
c. XX, V. 34) ; and there are fewcathedrsis 
in whicli this deflection is not remarkable. 
The nave represents the body, and the side, 
which " one of the soldiers pierced*' (John 
xix. 34), considered to be the south as the 
region of the heart, is occupied at Wells 
by a chantrey, at \^c]^eiten Fith the 

)igitized by' 



THE MIRROR. 



143 



dispel of William c^ Wyckham, and is con- 
stantly the pulpit from which the faithf\il 
were reminded ** to look on him whom they 
have pierced" (Zech. xii, 10): who "was 
woandedforonr transgressions" (l8a.liii,5). 
For the same reason the south was con- 
sidered the most hdy : the Old Testament 
was represented on that side, while the 
New Testament, and the local or national 
Hagiology, was placed to the north. The 
same superstition still gives value to the 
south side of the churchyard for huriaL 
At the head oi the cross was the chapel 
<rf the Virgin, at the Fountain of Inter- 
cession with her son. At the foot, the 
west end, was the "Parvis," that happy 
station from which the devout might con- 
template the glory of the fahric, which was 
chiefly illustrated in this front, and from 
whence they might scan the great sculp- 
tured picture, the calendar for unlearned 
men, as illustrative of Christian doctrine 
and of the temporal history of the church 
under its princes and its prelates. Three 
great niches leading into the church, the 
centre one often ahove forty feet wide, were 
adorned with the statues of the apostles 
and holy men, who " marshal us the way 
that we should go;" in front the genealogy 
of Christ, the Final Judgment, the History 
of the Patriarchs, &c. 

Gti/ Wall — Almost the last portion 
of the Old City WaU is tlireatened with 
destruction. A petition for its removal 
has heen presented to the Common Coun- 
cil by the members of the Metropolitan 
Churches Fund. The portion of the Citv 
WaU thus threatened is situate at the back 
of the houses on the eastern side of Trinity 
square, at the back of Postern row. 

Metropolitan Improvements. — From a let- 
ter in the hands of the secretary from Sir 
Robert Peel, it appears that the new 
Commission had commenced its labours by 
inquiring into the expediency of an ora- 
nance survey and map of London upon the 
largest scale, and it was understood that 
the Commission was now engaged in con- 
sidering the various plans proposed for an 
embankment of the Tliames. Mr Martin, 
the painter, states, that for fourteen years 
he had been engaged in promoting the two- 
fold object of throwing open the banks of 
the Thames, and of converting the con- 
tents of the sewers, now flowing into the 
river, to agricultural uses. Mr W. E. 
Eickson observes, that some idea of the 
pecuni^ value of the liquid manure, now 
permitted to be lost, might be formed from 
the fact, that in Paris a new contract had 
recently been signed, by wliich the con- 
tractor agreed to give the city 22,000/. per 
annum for the cesspools of Paris. 

Stalactites are found suspended from the 
wof of caverns in limestone rocks, and are 
formed by water passing slowly through 



the crevices in the rock, and cawying 
minute particles of lime, part of which is 
depositea in p^idant masses; as these in- 
crease, by fresh deposition, gravitation is 
constantly drawing them to a point at the 
lower part, like icicles. A larger portion 
is deposited on the floors of the cavern, 
and forms strata; this is called stalagmite, 
was known under the name of alabaster 
by the ancients, and may be seen worked 
into vases by the Eomans and Egyptians. 
In the late Sir John Soane*s museum there 
is a magnificent sarcophagus, which was 
brought by Belzoni from Egypt. 

The Owl — The owl is one of the gar- 
deners* and foresters* best friends, annually 
ridding them of legions of their foes. In 
some parts of Europe, however, this most 
sensible bird is kept in families, like a cat, 
whom he equals in patience, and (if possi- 
ble) surpasses in alertness. It is a well- 
known fact that wherever the barn-owl 
has been killed off, field-mice have increased 
enormously. They peel, and of course de- 
stroy, the young hollies and other trees in 
new plantations. 

The King of Pnissia and the Press, — 
It is rumoured that the King of Prussia 
must have been bitten, during his trip to 
Petersburg, by the Emperor, or some other 
rabid oppressor of the press, and that the 
virus is now beginning to work in the 
Idngly constitution. Blow follows blow, 
stroke upon stroke : last week it was the 
Leipziqer AUgemeine Zeitunq — this, it is the 
Rheinische Zeitungy at Coiogiie, which his 
Majesty hunts down. — Wecklif Journal. 

besperation and Despair. — It was 
stated by Lord Stanleys in Parliament, 
that the Tartars engaged in the last battle 
fought in China with the British, expect- 
ing no humanity frova. the conquerors, col- 
lected their valuable efffects into one vast 
pile, in which they at once consiuned their 
property, their wives, their children, and 
themselves. 

Cattle. — The depasturmg of sheep on 
cow pastures communicates a nauseous 
and unsavoury taste to the butter and 
cheese produced therefrom. — Cehus. 

Disease in Sheep, J-c— The contagious 
disorder which has now for nearly four 
years attacked the cattle and sheep brought 
to market, has this year returned with 
redoubled violence. On every market- 
day Smithfield market and all the leading 
lines of intercourse fh)m it are crowded 
with sheep, incapable of walking. The 
principal effects on the sheep are sho^vn 
upon the hoof, where inflammation and 
subsequent suppuration takes place, and 
the hoof is at last thrown off. 

— A new newspaper has been published 
in Paris at a very low price, supported by 
the Republican and Carlist party. It is 
called The Nation, ^ i 

)igitizedby VjOOQIC 



144 



THE MIRROR. 



1 



Scu^ure.'^'Ube sculptor'a art affords 
the noblest ornaments to the architect. 
By his aid, the expression which he has 
been labouring to give by other associa- 
tions, and which before was mute, or 
scarcely audible, becomes parhnt Sculp- 
ture may be called the voice of Architec- 
ture. 

Princess Mettcrnlch. — Travellers s^ieak 
much of the beauty, afiability, and kind- 
ness of heart of the Princess Mettemich. 
She is a great patroness of the line 
arts. "Shehasestablislicd" says the Mar- 
quis of Londonderry, ** a rule of asking 
every distinguished stranger who visits 
her for his portrait, to be painted by one 
of the eminent artists who inhabit Vienna : 
of these, M. Draffin is the favourite. No 
one, of course, can refiue so flattering a 
request from a beautiful woman ; and the 
princess has on her table three large folio 
books, containing jwrtraits of the most re- 
nowned or interesting characters in Eu- 
rope who have passed tlux)ugh Vienna since 
her marriage." 

— The librarian of the convent of Santa 
Croce at Rome has just edited, from a 
manuscript of the 11th century which he 
has discovered hi the library conimitted to 
his care, the work, of whicli the first six: 
books only were known, AjHutii Lihri XII 
hi Canticum CmUicornm. 

— A gallery of contemporaries celebrated 
in German art and Uteratiu*e is to be 
established at Berlin. The k^ng reserves 
to himself the right of naming tlie per- 
sons. His first choice has fjillen on Schcl- 
ling, whose portrait is to be painted by M. 
de Begas. 

— The author of TIte Deserted Col- 
lege says, "Between foreign education 
and absenteeism, and their natural conse- 
quences, drunkenness and agitation, no less 
than seven millions of capital is worse than 
lost to the prosperity of Ireland annually. 
Besides this, as much money is expended 
on armies of military and poUce, on poor 
houses and poor schools, as would establish 
railroad or canal communication between 
most of our principal towns. Oh ! that 
Irishmen would duly appreciate the privi- 
leges of theur birthright." 

— A panorama of the city of Edinburgh 
and the surrounding country, from draw- 
ings made during her Majesty's visit last 
autumn, prepared by Mr Burford, is now 
open in Leicester square. It presents all 
the most prominent objects of Auld 
Beekie with admirable force and astonish- 
ing effect. 

— VEsperance of Nancy speaks in high 
terms of an allegorical figure of Winter in 
clay, which has been deposited in the mu- 
seum of that city, and is the work of a 
young peasant named Glome Yiard, about 
twenty years of age. 



— Frederick Adelung, author of several 
dictionaries (^ Asiatic languages, and of 
the Bihlijofheca Glottica, which embraces all 
known idioms, died lately at St Petersburg, 
aged 74. He was durector of the Asiatic 
Academy, and son of a linguist no less 
celebrated than himself. 

— M. Court has recently returned to 
Paris, from Copenhagen, where he painted 
the portraits erf the Kuig and Queen, and 
of the Prmcess Augusta of Hesse Cassel, 
their niece, and niecxj of the Duchess (rf 
Cambridge. His Majesty conferred on M. 
Court, as a mark of his satisfaction, the 
cup of the Danebrog Order. 

— The King of tlie French has sent the 
sum of 500 francs to Mdlle Puget, the niece 
of the celebrated sculptor. 

— The periodical La France Litteraire, 
which has had great success in art and 
literature, is about to enter on the field of 
politics. 

— The University of Paris has just lost, 
at the age of 84, one of its oldest profes- 
sors, in iL I'Etendart, honorary inspector 
of the Academy of Paris. 

— The Duchess of i*arnia and Arefc-^ 
duchess of Austria, JMaria ' Louisa, 
employed the Cheviilier Foschi to 
in aquatint, and afterwards to engrav^ 
steel, the frescos erf Correggio in the < 
dral-and other churches of Parma. 

— The annual statement of accoi 
the l^vident Institution Bank for^ 
ings, estabUsbed at St'Martin's pla6e,S 
the increase of acconntsi^ the last y w 
1,053/., making the total number 32, 
Tlie sum due to the depositors is l,iQ2j 
2s. Ud. 

■— Kicliard Wagner, a pupil of Meyet-* 
beer, and author of the op^^ of Jiienzi^ 
has been appointed Master of the Chapel 
t*> the King of Saxony, in the room of the 
late M. Morlacchi. 

The Louvre Salon will open from the 13th 
of March to the 15th of May. It is expected 
tliat 5,000 works will be sent ; engravings 
and Uthographs are admitted. 




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LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION, 

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SATURDAY, MARCH 11, 1843. [Vou L IMS. 




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itPi^tnal ComtnttnUationj^ 



THE UNION PLATE-GLASS COM- 
PANY'S WORKS, AT ST HELEN'S. 
NEAR MANCHESl^R. 

The Plate Company's establishment at 
Pbcket Nook, near St Helen's (Manches- 
ter), are among the finest objects of curi- 
ority in the kingdom. On their eastern 
side we have the St Helen's railway; on 
the western, the Sankey navigations, and 
a vast supply of water is derived by the 
works tcom a subterraneous river named 
** Boaming Meg." 

The art of glass making, now brought to 
such high perfection, is one that must be 
regarded with great interest, whether we 
contemplate its beauty, its utility, or its 
antiquity. It was known at a very early 
period of the history of mankind. In 1^, 
when that famous city was among the great 

rOiU XLl, K 



of the earth, its glass houses were pointed 
out to the wonder of admiring strangersv 
Fii'es of great intensity, kindled for otheir 
purx)08es it has been supposed, gave the 
first idea of the vitrifying process. Ac-- 
cording to Pliny, some merchants having 
been carried by a storm to the mouth of 
the river Belus, landed there, and made a 
fire on the sands to cook their food, on » 
spot where the herb kali grew in great 
abundance, and the salts of this plant, oa 
its being reduced to ashes, incorporated 
with the sand, or with stones fit for vitri* 
faction, produced glass. Be this as it may,, 
it is clear that the ancient Eg>-ptians pos* 
sessed the important art. Among ther 
tombs at Thebes there have been discov- 
ered smaU pieces of ghss of a turquoises 
colour^ which exactly resemble the header 
and figures on their earthenware. White^^ 
yellow, and green glass have occasionally 
been found, but these, it is true, may have^ 

)igitized by V; £No IL 54 



146 



THE MIRROR. 



been made by the subsequent con^aer<»qs 
ofEgy^t ; we mean the Greeltf Cb^mpiSDB. 
The glass houses of Alexandria were cele- 
brat^ and from these the Romans are 
said to haye obtained their glass. Strabo 
writes that a glass maker told him the 
coloured glass was partly composed of a 
peculiar kind of earth found only in Egypt. 
The Egyptian priests presented the Em- 
peror. Adrian with glass cups sparkling 
vrith a variety of colours, which he so prized 
that he' would only permit them to be 
used on great and state festirals. Glass 
entered into the Mosaic decorations of the 
Romans. Several specimens have been 
found among the ruins of the villa of the 
fJmperor Tiberius, in the island of Cs^. 
In Nero's time liberal encouragement was 
given by that luxurious tyrant to the ma- 
nufacturing of glass, and great improve- 
ment was made in it. So highly was ^ass 
that bore a resemblance to crystal then va- 
Iued,that Nero is said to have given, for two 
cups of moderate dimensions, with handles, 
6,000 sestertia, or nearly 50,000/. of our pre- 
sent money ! 
In Westminster Abbey some specimens 
. like those named may be seen. They are 
on the sides of the tomb of Edward the 
Confessor. They are flat, and a quarter of 
an inch thick. The upper suiface is a 
white tnmspar<eiit ^osb, witii a layer of 
^/gold leaf beneath. 

In the time of the Druids the process of 
glass making was wdl known. Rings of 
glass were found in tiie mihs of those 
places which were 8U{^>oeed to have been 
their temples. Fopuiar superstition gave 
to tiiese objects a strange origin. They were 
reported to be formed by snakes joining 
their heads together and hissing, by means 
of which a ring was formed round the 
head of one of them, which the rest, by 
continually hissinj?, were supxwsed to Wow 
at till it came off at the tail, when it har- 
dened and remained in the state in which 
it was found. Such rings were called 
Glain Neidyr. The lucky finder of one 
of these was to prosper in all his un- 
dertakings. Giain, perhaps it should be 
mentioned, means pure or holy, and Neidyr, 
a snake. 

** The first English glass house," a mo- 
dem writer on the subject says, for the 
manufacture of fine flint glass, was that 
of the Savoy and Crutched friars, esta- 
blished somewhere about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. It appears, how- 
ever, that the EngUsh manufectures were 
for a considerable time much inferior to 
flie Venetian, for in 1635, neariy a hun- 
dred years later. Sir Robert MaUsell ob- 
&dned a monopoly for importing the fine 
Venetian flint drinldng glasses. The art 
of making these was not brought to per- 
fection till the reign of William the Third. 
Bintje then the art of glass making has 



, made a raigd^ogress, and the^lass woili 

'Of Eifs^loidMlsputably excel, at the pie- 

d&nt momen\ those of any other oountiy. 

The area upon which the magnificent 
works at St Helen's are erected, exceeds 
eight statute acres, bounded on the easteify 
side by the Sankey canal, and on the south 
westerly, by a branch line from the Li- 
verpool and Manchester railway, securing 
thereby the utmost possiUe economy ani 
facility of oommunication with all parts (kT 
the kmgdom. Within fifty yards of the 
norther^r end of the works are coal pl^ 
which furnish ample supplies of the best 
fuel at the lowest possible rates. 

The main buildmg, or casting hall, if 
near 260 feet long by 156 feet wide, and 
comprises two foundmg and two refining 
fttmaoes, four pot arches, twenty anneal- 
ing kilns. The casting table is 1 7 feet by 9, 
aiid 6 inches thick, and, with the roller and 
fhune on which it moves» is inwards of 20 
tons. 

There are four founding pots used at one 
time in the foundry fomace, each pot con- 
taining generally one ton of gauged fiaxed 
metal Pots heading one ton and a quarter 
each have been used, but a ton is the ge- 
neral size. The present establishBiatf; 
with one founding and one refining fiinnee 
at work, yields weekly from 5,000 to 6,609 
feet superficial measure of plate glass. 

The machinery department embraees a 
lifting define g£ e%ht-hOTse power, to 
suppfy water of a superior quiEdity ; tte 
condensing water and water f<» ganeHl 
purposes being procured from the aaal 

An engine made by BonltOa and Watt 
contrds the poiidnng and grinding ma- 
chines, as well as the clay, emery, and 
plaster mills, with a power equivalent to 
200 horses. 

The odier buildings subservi^it to ge- 
neral purposes embraoe salthouse, for pre- 
paring the alkali ; sand-washing roixns; 
store and mixing rooms ; pot, day, and 
brick rooms ; gashouse, &b. ; ochre and 
plaster ovens ; smithy j joiner's shop ; 
warehouse, and silvering room ; all of 
which are so arranged as to be tiie most 
advantageous and economical in the appli- 
cation of manual labour. 

Much merit is due to the superior man- 
ner in which the work of each depart- 
ment is not only controlled, but registered; 
and the efficiait manner in which the 
board of directors and manager are fto- 
nished with the results of every depart- 
ment daily and weekly ; thereby grnng 
the best security for producing the artide 
with the least possible amount of waste: 

England it not indebted to the excise 
laws for any improvement in the manuflw- 
ture of plate glass. Expmments are only 
permitted by especial licence, and cvea 
then under the eye of an oflfcer, generd^T 
as obnoxious as intrusive. Th« mtnufltc- 

)igitized by LjOOQ IC 



THE MIRROR. 



14r 



toef is required to hdd a stock which, 
during the processes, absorbs 20,000^ ci 
ebOy alone. The expOTt of no plates but 
iHiat are perfect is permitted. Plates in 
the rough-ground or part-finished state, 
much required in tnipical climes, are 
i^olly excluded ; and thus the article most 
desirable, most economical, and certainly 
the most elegant, in the gla^s manufacture, 
by excessive duty, is restricted from be- 
c<mung what it ought to, and doubtless 
would become — a staple manufacture. It 
is to be regretted that such obstacles 
shouM be thrown in the way of ingenuity 
and enterprise where so much capital has 
Jwen risk«i in a cause which, rightly view- 
ed, is that of the public. 

[This subject will be resumed, and a 
view of part of the interior of these won- 
cterfal works given, in our next, or in the 
fc^owing number, together with a complete 
description of the improved mode in which 
the manufactory of glass is carried on by 
ibe Company.] 



THE LAY OF THE LAST 
HANGMAK 

"Tarewell, a long farewell to all my greatness." 

Vlbx court sat long^ the wind was cold, 

triie hangman was nor sick nor old, 

IBat saddened chedc appeared to say 

Tliat he had known a better day. 

trbe eat, his sole remaining joy. 

Be sometimes laid on orphiui boy, 

(Bat Justice, little now m vogue. 

Me seMom touched a full-grown rogue). 

jRie last of all the Jacks was he, 

Who thought of Newgate's ancient tree. 

For, well a day I their date was fled, 

ffis throttlbaig brethren all were dead. 

And he, neglected, wished his bones 

Reposed with theirs, near Davy Jones. 

No more on lofty platform borne. 

Be bastled light as lark at mom ; 

Ko longer courted and caressed. 

At coimty gaols a welcome guest. 

A rustic group he round him got 

To show how tied the fatal knot. 

Old times were changed, old manners gone, 

A lady filled the Georges' throne. 

The canters of that maudlin time 

Had called his useful art a crime. 

A wandering idler, scorned and poor, 

He toddled now from door to door, 

And Bomethnes begged a glass of gin 

Where once he ord^ed goes within. 

He passed where Newgate's line of walls 
leads on toward Smithfield's pens and stalls. 
He sazed upon the Debtors' door. 
And wished M*Naughten's trial o'er— 
When suddenly, O sound of fear ! 
^Hot Guilty ! " murmured in his ear. 
ffis eves hi sad amazement close 
Arsoleamly he blows his nose, - 
Aai wl^e St Sepulchre's «hmie6 rung, 

Twas thus the latest hangman sung : — 



As varlet who another ^ays, 
This moral land to largtHj pays, 

And saves from future SMnees; 
Bach prudent rogue will go to sdiool 
To learn how he should play the totiH, 

Or on occasion madness; 
Since noW, when human blood is spift, 
We all infer from monstrous guUt 

A wretch has lost his senses ; 
Law's fini^er expects no pel^ 
He may as well go hanar himself. 

Each crime its own defence is. 

For me, I shall pull bolt no more, 
The drop is but a useless store 

And beam to hang upon ; 
To rope, to ci^, and dying knell. 
Ah me ! farewell — a long mrewell, 
"Jack's occupation's gone." 

his 
Jack r Ketch, 
mark. 



ORIGINAL PAPERS ON SCIENCE. 

NO. in. — BLECTBO-PLATING AND GILDING. 

It is now little more than three years ago 
since Mr Spencer called the attention <rf the 
scientific world to the wonderful eflfects 
poduced, and the faithful agent we possess, 
in the galvanic battery, in a paper read by 
him before the Liverpool Society in Sep- 
tember, 1839, * On a new process of work- 
ing in metals by Galvanism.' The same 
was afterwards brought before a London 
audience by Professor Bachhofiher at the 
Koyal Polytechnic Institution, who styled 
the process the Electrotype. A result so 
important, so easily obtained, and withal 
so truly accurate, could not fail in obtain- 
ing myriads of experimentalists, and, as a 
necessary consequence, many important 
improvements upon Mr Spencer's original 
communication, not the least valuable of 
which is that of Electro-Plating and Gild- 
ing, a patent for which was granted to 
Messrs Elkington, of Birmingham, in 
March, 1840. 

This process is an improved mode of 
coating, covering, or plating certain metals 
with silver or gold, by the use of a solution of 
gold or silver, and by the electro-chemical 
agency of the voltaic current. The solu- 
tions employed by the patentees are the 
auro or argento cyanides of potassium, 
which are readily prepared even by those 
unacquainted with chemical manipulation. 
The following simple plan of operatitm will 
furnish them in sufficient purity: 

Take about two ounces of the salt called 
prussiate of potass'*' and dissolve it in dis- 
tilled or rain water, to this add about two 
drachms of the oxide of gold or silver, and 
boil the mixture for not less than an hour, 
then filter through blotting ps^r ; the clear 
liquid passing through the filter is then 
ready for use. 

* Obuioed at any drysfdtfe^. _ _i _ 
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In the emptkmicient ^ this compoond 
womQ litUc care u necesaaiy on the port of 
the operator, as it is a yery deadly pdson; 
in the first ^ace, neyer immerse the hands 
or fingers unnecessarily into it, or hold the 
mouth over it so as to inhale the vapour 
given off. 

The artide to be i^ted or gilt must first 
be made chemically clean, and then im- 
mersed in the solution, together with a 
thin plate of gold or silver accordingly as 
the one or otW solution is employed ;t in 
the silver solution the mere immersion is 
snflBicient to throw down upon its surface 
a thin hut uniform coating of the metal, 
but when thus inflfaned no further deposi- 
tion of silver will take place; in this condi- 
tion, if a current (rf voltaic electricity firom 
a battery of two or three pairs of plates be 
made to flow through the solution from the 
silver plate to the object to be plated, any 
extent of silver may be (kposited, and at the 
same time a corresponding quantity of silver 
will be dissolvedfrom the plate transmitting 
the electricity. 

The value of the gilding process is much 
enhanced as tending in a great measure, if 
not entirely, to supersede the present un- 
wholesome process of water-gilding, when 
:from the fiunes of the mercury given oflf 
during the process, the duration of life of 
those employed is most cruelly curtailed, 
besides while living establishing a train of 
diseases too lamentable to enumerate. By 
tiie above process of plating, &c. a desider- 
atum long required, viz. that of replating 
articles once silvered, when the latter is 
partially worn off, is most readily obtain- 
ed, as the patentees, at their establishment 
in Moorgate, do at a comparatively trifling 
cost replate, so as to restore the article 
to its original condition. 

R 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS. 
Royal Society.-:-* On the Nerves,' by 
James Stark, M.D. — The author states the 
structure and omiposition of the nerves 
consist of a cimgeriesof membranous tubes, 
cylindrical in their form, placed parallel to 
one another, and united into fasciculi of 
various sizes j but that neither these fasci- 
culi nor the individual tubes are enveloped 
by any filamentous tissue ; that these 
tubular membranes are composed of ex- 
tremely minute filaments, phuMsd in a 
strictly l<mgitudinal direction, in exact 
parallelism with each other, and that the 
matter which fills the tubes is of an miy 
Mature, and remaining of a fluid ccmsist- 
ence during the life of the animal, or while 
k retains its natural temperament. Aaoily 
substances are well known to be non-con- 

t By this mode of proceeding the solutionis always 
retained at its original strength. 



diict(»M of electricity, and m the nerrei. 
have been shown by the experiments of 
Bischc^ to be among the worst poau&Le 
conduct<Nrs oi this agent, the authcv &m* 
tends that the nervous agency can be- 
neither electricity nor galvanism, n(»* any 
property related to those powers ; and con- 
ceives that the phenomena are best ex- 
plained on the hypothesis of undulations 
or vibrations propagated along the course 
of the tubes whidi compose the nerves, by 
the medium of the oily ^obules they con- 
tain. 

Geological Society. — ^At the anniver- 
sary meeting the WoUaston medals ^ere 
presented to M^L Dufrenpy and £he de 
Beaumont, distinguished geologists of. 
France, for their maps of the French 
dominions. Sir Henry de la Beche ex- 
pressed the great gratification it aflbrded 
him to receive the medals on behalf of his 
distinguished friends MM Dufrenoy and 
Elie de Beaumont. It would be super- 
fluous in an assembly of geologists such as 
the present to advert to the labours of 
such men : they were known and fully 
appreciated by the geological world. 

Chemical Society. — A communication 
from Dr Balfour was read, announdng the 
discovery of the principle Theine in Para- 
guay tea, the leaves^ of .the Ilex Paraguay 
ensis, as observed by Ihr Stenhouse. The 
infhsion of these leaves forms the beverage 
of a large portion of the inhabitants of 
South America. The plant is found to 
contain the same active azotized princii^ 
as the tea of China, which chemical 
analysis has also found in cofi^.— A 
communication from Professor Croft, of 
Toronto, * On the manufacture of Su^ 
from the stalks of Indian Com ' ( Zea mats). 
By plucking off" the ears of com from the 
stalks, as they begin to fomi, the saccha- 
rine matter is greatly increased, and the 
juice comes to contain three times more 
sugar than that c^ the maple, and equals^ 
or exceeds the juice of the ordinary sugiur- 
cane, as raised in the United States. By 
experiments it appears that one acre of 
maize yield* 1,000 pounds of sugar. This 
crop has also the advantage that it comes 
to maturity in firom seventy to ninety 
days, while the sugar-cane requires 
eighteen months, and is precarious. 

L'ACADEUIE DES SCIENCES, PABIS.— A 

report was read relative to a Memoir by M. 
Alcide d'Arbigny, entitled ' Fossil Shdls of 
Columbia, collected by M. Bonssingault ■/ 
from which it appears that, while tSi local 
recollections have passed from the mind of 
the philosopher, who collected the shells 
between 1821 and 1833, the geologist, who 
has never visited the c^t, has been aUe 
to determine that the strata, whence these 
shells came, correspond to the great for- 
mation of the strata of Europe; wad, more- 



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'erer, to the most ancient of the four 
dhisions into which this fonnation is 
sobdiTided. This is considered by the 
committee, who give in the report, as a 
f eritaUe triumph of zodogical character- 
istics as applied to geology. 

New Method op ixcREASiyo thb Sen- 
sitiveness OF Daguerreotype Plates, 
BT M. BcRRARD. — The plate is prepared 
in the ordinary method of Daguerre,* and 
is then exposed for half a minute to the 
action of chloride mixed with common air 
in a proportion that it may be inhaled 
without a painful sensation ; on placing 
it in a dark room having an aperture into 
a light apartment, about the size of the 
plate, the short time employed in removing 
-and replacing a screen before the aperture 
is time sufficient to produce the image, 
and the picture is completed in tlie usual 
way by the fumes of mercury, and wash- 
ing with the hyposulphate of soda. The 
author states that the light and shadows 
are more distinct b^ this process than any 
S)ther method now in use ; the proportion 
of chloride required is verjr snum, and ex- 
cess must be carefully avoided, and the 
lig^t must be carefully kept away firom 
the plate during the operation. — BibL 
Univ, 



case, however, differed firom his in thin^ 
that the crime was committed on a Ifon* 
day afternoon, on the Friday next follow- 
ing was tried, and on the ensuing Mon- 
day suffered the execution of his sentence* 



THE CASES OF BELLINGHAM 
AND M'NAUGHTEN. 

Whes Mr Perceval was assassinated by 
Bellinghara, many things were stated 
which are strongly recalled by a recent 
melanchcdy event. It was proved that 
BeOingham had been watching in the 
gfiJkTy of the House of CJommons for some 
time, in order to make himself acquainted 
witid the person of the individual on whom 
he proposed to pour his vengeance, and 
Lord Leveson Gower was the party he was 
most anxious to attack. Against Mr Per- 
ceval, personally, he had nothing to say. 
Be had been in Russia, his speculations 
proved unfortmiate, and his miscarriages 
hechajfged on the government or those 
who represented it. The deed of blood 
was perpetrated in broad daylight, and m 
a public p\zce where escape was impossi- 
ble. On Ills trial, insanity was urged on 
his behalf (not by him), and his counsel 
wished the trial to be postponed to afford 
time for witnesses to be brought from a 
distance. The watching, the shooting one 
man for another, the public manner in 
i^hicft the crinie was committed, the com- 
plaij^t against the government party, the 
plea of insanity, and the application for 
P06^[)qnement, have all been repeated in 
the .case. <rf M*Naughten. BelUngham's 

* In tbe last Monthly Put we gave die dlafram 
4U>4 ezplaimtioo of the process as at present used. 



A SISTER'S LOVE. 

The following deeply interesting tate Is 
takai from one of a series of articles called 
* Female Portraits,' which appeared in the 
'Dublin University Magazine.* Thou^ 
necessarily abridged, tl^ powerful km- 
guage of the original is caret uUy preserved 
in the most striking passages. 

It was (m a Christmas eve, about the 
year 17 — , when the inmates oi a secluded 
&rm-house, situated at the head of an 
ocean creek, on the shores of the wild dis* 
trict between the counties of Galway and 
Mayo, had been for some hours retired to 
rest, that the slumbers of the farmer, a 
stout, weather-beaten carle of fifty, were 
disturbed by the light hand ci his favour- 
ite daughter Aileen, applied with gentle 
violence to his shoulder. 

"Father dear!" whispered the beautiful 
apparition, " awake ! awake ! It*s an hour 
since the cry of drowning men on Ihnis* 
moran came moaning on my ear above the 
roar of the gale, and now, when there's a 
bit of a lull, we must help them, else they'B 
all be dead before morning." 

"Help them, Aileen mavoumeen !" re- 
peated the old man, whom a few momenta 
had sufficed to rouse to his long f|i mili ar 
duty ; "sure we'd try to do it any how, 
only bad luck to the day, God forgive me 
(crossing himself), that I should say so i^ 
this blessed Christmas eve. Who's to hel^ 
them, and the boat oar at the mainland, 
and the boys up at the station." 

" I can steer, father, and row a bit, too^ 
for want of better ; and sure you and I are 
all the crew the little boat that's left 
can want or hold, if we've men to bring oiT 
from Innismoran." 

" m soon launch the skiff, and put old 
Mike, for want o' better, at the helm ; but 
for you to risk your life and go with us, 
it's out of the question entirely." 

** Not go, father I and why should I stay 
behind ? D'ye think 'tis for nothing the 
boys oaU me the mermaid ? and have ye 
forgot how the soldier Mcer fh>m England, 
Moriarty's colonel (a bri^^t blush crossini^ 
her cl^ek at the name), stared at the sight 
when he saw me in the corragh, fishing 
alone, miles out in the bay." 

" Ah ! but Aileen, that was in smooth 
water and summer, and not in a winter's 
night that would daunt the stoutest 
heart!" 

It were needless to say which prevailed 
in a contest, an Irish one eraecially, be- 
tween the energy of youth on the one hand» 

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TH£ MIRROR. 



and paternal oantian on the other. The 
effiMTt was made and with success, hut poor 
Aileen nearly fell a sacrifice to her exer- 
tions in the cause of humanity. 

The skiff, steered instmctivdy through 
the intricacies of a well-known channel, 
even hy old Mike, whose services had 
been indispensable to give scope to his 
master's exertions at the oar, was seen by 
Aileen's anxious nurse (who had awoke too 
late to oppose her darling's departure) to 
rise, as she opened the island, on the tops 
of mountain waves, and sink as suddenly 
into their hollows. She gained, however, 
' after tremendous efforts, redoubled by the 
sight and feeble cheers of the six human 
beings cowering on their hourly narrowing 
vantage-ground, the lee side of the rock, to 
which, leaping ashore with the agility of 
a veteran cragsman, the fkther of Afleen 
succeeded in making her fast. But while 
he was surrounded and half drowned by 
the shivering soldiers, who seemed tempted 
to wdcome as an angel from heaven their 
gallant deliverer, the boat, yieldmg to the 
tremendous suction by which larger craft 
are often resistlessly swept away, was for- 
cibly drawn from the rock, lifted a moment 
on the crest of a mountain billow, and then, 
in the very sight of the distracted father, 
capsised and hid firom view. 

A moment of heart-rending suspense 
elapsed ere the floating drapery of his 
daughter showed the " stout swimmer in 
his agony" where to plunge to the rescue. 
Old Wke had been permitted, at his ear- 
nest entreaty, to act as live liunber. A 
swimmer of unparalleled skUl, it was as- 
tonishing with what poodle instinct the 
old, blind fisherman struck out, to the pre- 
cise spot of his darling's disappearance ; or 
h6w manfully, when she rose to the sur- 
face, he supported her till aid more pow- 
erfid, in the shape of her father, came to 
his relief. The rope remaining fkst to the 
rocks, tiie boat was soon righted, and the 
dripping Aileen lifted insensible into it, 
while, as the interval between successive 
waves permitted, the six shipwrecked sol- 
diers — ^their commander, according to the 
British officers' immemorial usage, being 
the last to quit the scene of danger— cau- 
tiously stepped into theur frail convey- 
ance. 

The transport containing a detachment 
of men whom Colonel Sydenham was ac- 
comx^anying fix>m America, had been 
blown, by tremendous westerly hurricanes, 
on the dangerous point of Achill head, 
where she had almost immediately gone to 
pieces. A boat was set adrift from her 
Just as she parted, by some of the more 
^ provident of the crew ; but, weakened by 
their previous exertions, they were unable 
to profit by their own. foresight, and the 
Ikiff was instantly flUed by half a dozen 



of the most robust among the veterans— 4h»> 
simultaneous ofy among whom, evenaodi 
-the care of their own ra&tv, was for that 
of their gallant colonel. Almost in s^ 
of himself he was forced into the host 
(which his gigantic proportions, by the fay, 
had well nigh swamped at the outset), a 
piece of devotion in his rude foUoweis 
which, during that long night of despair, 
when their boat ha\'ing been stove in the 
very act of touching the rock, there seemed 
nothing before them but inevitable de- 
struction, their brave commander repaid 
by the pious eloquence of his counsels, aof 
the animating influence of his example. 

The boat had urged its way through 
comparatively smooth water for a mile or 
more ere rescuers or rescued woke to the 
realities of tlieir situation. 

When Colonel Sydenham, with the cha- 
racter and disposition already described, 
became aware that it was to a woman— a 
young and beautiful one, too— that, under 
Providence, his rescue from inevital^ de- 
struction was due, and that lila life had 
nearly been ransomed at the price of her 
own — ^his old spirit oi enthusiasm and ro- 
mance was up in a moment ; and nerer 
did votary in the isle of saints more dero- 
tedly worship the image of some heavenly 
benefactress than the warm-hearted soldier 
felt inclined to do his long inanimate de- 
liverer. It was on his costly pdisse of 
American sables (thrown into the ship's 
boat after him by the thoughtful Idndness 
of an attached domestic), that the corpse- 
like form of the fair girl reposed ; while; 
kneeling at her feet, he chafed, witb eager 
solicitude, each small cold hand, and gased 
wildly on the still symmetry of the up- 
turned features, round which the hood of 
her country's national cloak half closed its 
shroud-like folds. 

The rescue fh>m the waters had not 
been witnessed in vain from Letrewel f the 
name of the island farm whose inmates had 
so gallantly achieved it). Huge turf fires 
blazed in room and kitchen — a warm bed 
awaited the half resuscitated victim of the 
catastrophe, whilst food and steaming jif s 
of whiskey punch were there to revive tne 
hearts of the sufferers from the wreck. 
Old Oonagh, Aileen's nurse — ^who, happily 
for herself^ had slept through the storms- 
had woke just in time to see her foster- 
chUd drawn dripping firom her nal^ve 
waves ; and to add to thanksgiving (ex 
her safety, the most active and judidous 
exertions for her recovery. 

They were successfiiL The cheek of 
Aileen bloomed once more, and herlblve 
eyes laughed on all around. But acaxoif 
had Undo Guy witnessed even for a diy 
what sunshine the opening of those ^Mii 
eyes could shed upon a joyous bcfoaMUi^ 
oldOonagh'9 leeeli-craft wasagiliite nqmr 



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THE MIRROR. 



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fition ; andfiroat the seeds whkli had been 
hurkmg in him ere he left the vessel, gare 
h6r in the tall soldier gentleman a patient 
of almost infimtine weakness, l^or the few 
hours, howev^, that consciousness re- 
mained, his eyes sought the hoverin|^ form 
of a £Etr younger and gentler nurse ; and 
the last exercise of not very coherent 
speech was to pour out a passionate flood 
of enthusiastic admiration and gratitude to 
his fiirr rescuer, and a faint hope of life to 
testify its sincerity and extent. 

And how did this unlooked-for, and, t6 
one in her staticm, orerwhelming declara- 
tion, from a man of Colonel Sydenham's 
rank, and with personal adrantages to 
boot, which ladies of high degree had 
proved to be irresistible, fall on the ear of 
the Connaught farmer's daughter ? 

It would be unpardonably traducing 
Aileen to say that she felt the slightest temp- 
tation to share the bnUiant lot, one glimpse 
of which had been made to flash before her, 
ere a cloud — ^possibly a fatal one— settled 
down on her gallant admirer. And why 
was she thus callous to so bewitching a 
prospect ? Simply because, already in 
heart if not in rite a soldier's bride, not all 
the colonels and fleld-marslials in his Bri- 
tannic majesty's service could have seduced 
her Mthful heart into one nu»nent's for- 
getlKilness of her cousin and betrothed- 
Corporal Moriarty Carroll, of the — re- 
giment of foot. 

It was happily just at that oblivious 
stage of Colonel Guy Sydenham's fever, 
when even the power of discriminating be- 
tween his two very opposite female nurses 
had for the present left him, that the l(mg^ 
expected sailing orders for the — regiment 
oUiged Moriarty Carroll to claim, however 
UQseasiHiably, his pHghted bride. — ^Letrewel 
was, under present circumstances, no 
house for a wedding, an Irish one espe- 
oally,^ even could the bridegroom have so 
far deserted his colours, or could the few 
rdatives most interested have been there 
assembled. 

But even Aileen had reasons for decid- 
ing—and when she did so, her £Either, as a 
matter of course, acquiesced-xthat as the 
mountain could not go to Mahcmiet, the 
programme should be reversed ; and that 
her father should escort her to the house 
of her maternal grandmother at Westport > 
the vicinity of which to the bridegroom's 
head-quarters at Castlebar, made it the 
most conyenient scene for the nuptials. 
* * * * . * 

There resided under that roof, besides 
Ihe Teserably lady, another near and dear 
one, (HI whom Aileen's thoughts had 
searoely tar a moment, even in the midst 
of her own bridal {Mrospects, ceased of late 
tojon— -her twrn-siater Evelyn. She had 
heen yielded almost in infancy by » 



widowed father to his wife's 
mother, partly in Qompflssioa fox her utter 
desolation, 4uid still more, perhaps, in de^ .^ 
fer^ce tQ that superiority in birth and 
breeding, from which 1^ could not but 
anticipate advantages to his girl such aa 
the rude sluures oi Mayo could never 
afford. 

Mrs Evelyn, kind hearted and inde- 
pendent, had fixed her abode in thctneacest 
town to Letrewel where the means of 
education might be procurable^ on condi- 
tion of having resigned to her charge th» 
elder of the tAvo little creatures, on whom 
their poor mother, in fond anticipation of 
possible reconciliation, had bestowed her 
maternal family name of Evelyn. 

Broken in heart and in fortunes — iotr 
since his wife's death especially, matters 
had gone backward at the farm — ^Maurioe. 

had contentedly made a sacrifice so 

much for his elder and gentler child's ad- . 
vantage ; feeling only enough of natural 
selfishness to clasp the closer to his 
widowed breast the laughing, playful elf, 
whose somewhat hardier roses (though, 
apart, the children were wholly un(5s- 
tinguishable) seemed to bespeak her 
formed to brave a ruder clime. 

The bitterest part of the business had 
been the severing two beings who, for the 
first six years of their lives, had been 
almost as little apart from each other as 
the Siamese brothers. 

Both had felt it acutely ; but at length, 
in the evidently congenial soil into wMch 
she had been transplanted, the gentle 
Evelyn seemed to find her natur^d ele- 
ment; and without losing a touch of 
nature and warmth of her heart, which 
revealed at times her rustic birth and 
kindred to her unsophisticated sister, she 
became to that sister,when they occasionally 
met, an object no longer of childish lovQ 
alone, but of youthM admiration. 

It was not merely her reading with the 
pretty Engflsh accent, that alone sounds 
like gentility in the imtutwed Irish ear— 
or her fluent reading of the "hardest" 
book — ^her sweet singing of more than a 
simple Irish ballad — which made the 
younger sister at sixteen or seventeen gaze 
up at her elder as some being of a higl^er 
and brighter order. It was the namSiess 
distinction in air, and manner, and beann|^ 
which had sufliced to develope Evelyn 
Clare. 

Aileen formed the idea of achieving, by 
the sabstitutk>n of a £Etf superior /ic simm 
of herself as the object of Cohmd Syden- 
ham's romantic devotion, the realizathm 
of the day-dreams^ in which her fancy had 
long vaguely revelled. 

This likeness was still as perfect as when 
in infancy old Oonagh had been fiiin to 
sew fi»t th« bit of green ribbon, denoting 



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THE MIRROlt 



•^[liofity, which it was in those days rare 
^port to Aileen to transfer fW)m her sister's 
arm to her own. The samelocks of Inxn^ 
nant amher wared over the some fiiir 
tinctured skin — though exposure to sum* 
mer suns in the corragh wouM, at that 
«ea6on, lend now, as in in&ncy, a hardier 
<:a8t to the roses of Aileen's cheek — ^while 
«7e-Iashe8of a somewhat deeper hue lent 
A corresponding richness to that of her 
4alder sister. 

But the plan which,'hefore quitting the 
home of her childhood, Aileen had com- 
mitted to the shrewd ear and helping 
hand of her doating and approving nurse, 
and in which on the morning of the day 
that was to see her at once a wife and an 
«xile, she tearfully extorted the connivance 
of her more scrupulous father, could not, 
she felt, he hreathed, with even a chaiMse 
ef success, to its peculiarly sensitive ob- 
ject From even a throne, if attained by 
deceit, would revolt, she well knew, every 
iiseling of that pure and pensive mind. 

{To he continued.') 

MIRROR LEVITIES. 

THE NEW WAY OF GOING TO 
MARKET. 

A TBCE MILE-END 8TORT. 

Soene.— ^ Butcher's Shop, Boy watching 
without, 

Diddkr, That leg <^ mutton's rather nice. 
But tell me, younker, what's the price? 

Bog. ** 'Tis seven." 

Diddter. That's too much I'm afraid ; 
ril take it in and get it weighed. 

{^Enters shop wiui meat in his hand, 
•When you're at leisure, by and by. 
This mutton in your scale just try ; 
I purchased it there— by the gate. 
And think they've done me in the wdght 

Butcher, Do you 8iq>po8e me such a lout, 
To bowl another tradesman out ? 
(Such trick I'm not disposed to play, 
80 vanish t take your meat away. 

Diddkr. Tour conduct, sir, is rather queer. 
[ JSa it, taking the mutton wim him. 

Butcher. Boy, where's the joint that hung 
up here? 

Bog. yy, that's the le^ vot caused the row ! 
And vich you sent avay just now. 

THE PAYING ACTOR. 

05 MR PAUMIER'S appearance IS TB£ 
COMEDV OF *L0VE.' 

Shrewd critics sneer at Pauraier's acting 
whim. 
And run him down as cat would ^lase a. 
inouse; 
But let them name an actor bedde him. 

Who brings, this season, money to the house. 
J only wish his equals I could see 
In those who think themselves so much 
' above— 
Jt'lus of all others is the man for me, 
Who nobly pays that he may *♦ play for 

A. BUNN. 



ON THE 8TORH RAISED AGAINST 
LORD ELLENBCHIOUGH. 

What a racket the Temple of Somaauth 
creates; 
The firiends of the Govenonent join in the 
rear; 
And hint, if my Lord is so partial to gtUes, 
'Twere proper of India to show him the 
door. 

A 'COURT GAZETTE' MOTIVE FOB 

INSOLVENCY. 
Young Smithfield BUU, says it was onlyia 
sport 
He got as he did, rather deeply in debt : 
He wished to approximate City and Court, 
By bringing the Court to ^e * lAXodn^ 
Gazette.' 

Never SatisJted.'^^An oaf of a juror, who 
concurred in a late ridiculous verdict, has 
indulged in the foltowmg lament ^—'^ Last 
week everybody was in tears because four 
innocent men had suffered. Now all is 
regret that a murderer has escaped! I 
wonder what the public want ! " 

PhiL <$^/t>n«.— Great, in one sense, is Mr 
Phillip Stone fh)m the Theatre Royal 
Drury Lane, now property-man at the 
Princess's Theatre in Oxford street. Ks 
account of the close of his engagement at 
the former establishment is rich. It runs 
thus: •** Mr Maeready says to me (I wish 
I may die if it is not true), one night whm 
he played Macbeth, * Give me my dagg^ ! ' 
I said, as I handed it to hun, *Ahl sir,^s 
dagger used to be used by a clever man, 
the late Mr Kean.* * Indeed,' said Mr 
Maeready, then speaking to somebody 
else, *i^n^. this little gentleman another 
home.'" 

— '♦Why," said Sur Claudius Stephoa 
Hunter, " is Loid Ellenbwough, carrying 
off the sandal-wood gates, <mly like all his 
predecessors?" *' Because every Governor- 
General sent out there firomEngland^mutt 
necessarily go to the Hinges,** 

Hair and Wiggs* Conflagration, — A^pUD- 
ter of a century ago, tl£e preniisesof Messrs 
Hair and Wiggs, at Bankside, were burot 
down, l^e event i»oduced a punning ad^ 
dress to the destroying ^men^ whidi cGt^ 
eluded with the following apostrophe ^— 
Why, 0|thou fietA— Last- Sunday* s-Fite^ 
On both these partners f^ thine vk? 

Was it theh* virtues rare? 
Was It tiiat « lovhig as BaU's pigs," 
JJair thou could'st only hurt in WiggSf 

Wiggs but l^ suiging Hairf 

— M. Boojean has conchided, fW>m^z- 
perim^tSy that arsenious add is at^much 
a poison to sheep as to other animate ; ftaX 
it is absorbed in a similar manner,; and 
that, in the event of their surviving k 
dose, they are not fit for food under e%ht 
i>r ten days ftt leMt. 



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THE MlilROA. 



lis 




Arm», Barry of tea, ar and az; over all six escutcheons sa; three, two, and one each, 
charged with a lion rampant, of the first a crescent for difference. Crest, Six arrows In 
Saltier or, barhed and flighted ar, girt together with a belt gu, buckled and garnished 
^Id, over the arrows a morion cap p pr. Supporters, Two lions ermine. Motto, Sero md 
terio. *♦ Late but in earnest'* 



THE NOBLE HOUSE OF SALISBURY. 

The celebrated Lord Burleigh, the great 
minister to whom the fame of Elizabeth is 
mainly ascribed, may be regarded as the 
true founder of the Salisbury family. 
Robert Cecil, his second son, was the first 
Earl of Salisbury. He was a man of great 
understanding, but in person he was only 
moderately ^voured by nature. He was 
deformed; and so feeble in constitution, 
that in his earlier :f ears it was not thought 
prudent to send mm to a public school; 
and he received the first rudiments of his 
education from a tutor, at home, under 
the immediate superintendence of an anx- 
ious and gifted mother. He was bom in 
the year 1550 ; and as he approached ma- 
turity, was placed at St John's CoUege, 
Cambridge, to complete his education. &t 
his principal instruction, that which shapjed 
his course as a statesman, and gave him 
importance in the councils of the nation, 
he receiyed from his father, who wished 
his son to shine in a career which he 
himself had successfully pursued. He is 
first mentioned as being with the Earl of 
iDerby, the English Ambassador at the 
Court of France. In 1596, he was named 
Seci«tary of State with Sir Francis Wal- 
singham ; and when that minister died, he 
be<^mie principal Secretary, which post he 
retained, till it became his own turn to quit 
the world. Between him and the unfor- 
tunate Earl of Essex much ill blood existed. 
Besides the high situation which has been 
mentioned, other offices of great emolu- 
ment were held by him. This probably 
exdted the envy of many of his contem- 
poraries. He was accused of being dis- 
used to grasp everything ; and in some 
ioistaaces he was bitterly opposed by Essex. 
On the trial of that nobleman in 1600, a 
most remarkable scene occurred in which 
be acted a port. It w«a dedtted by tibe 



Earl that he could prove, from Sir Robert 
Cecil's own mouth, that he, speaking to 
one o£ his fellow councillors, had said, 
**None in the world but the Infanta of 
Spain had a right to the ciown of Eng- 
bind." 

The course Sir Robert took upon this 
occasion was a most determmed one. He 
presented himself to the court on the in* 
stant, and humbly prated to be allowed to 
speak to the Earl, which being conceded, 
he addressed him in these words : ~ 

<* The difference between you and me Is 
great ; for I speak in the person of an honest 
man, and you, my lord, in the person 
of a traitor : so well I know, you have wit 
at will. The pre-eminence hath been 
yours, but I have imiocence, truth of con- 
science, and honesty, to defend me ogainst 
the scandal of slanderous tongues, and as- 
piring hearts ; and I protest before God, I 
have loved vour person, and justified your 
virtues : and I appeal to God and the queen» 
that I told her majesty yoiur afflictions would 
make you a fit servant ror her. And had not 
I seen your ambitious affections inclined to 
usurpation, I could have gone on my knees 
^o her majesty to have done you good ; but 
you have a sheep's garment in show, and in 
appearance are humble and religious: but 
God be thanked, we know you, for indeed 
your religion tippeara by Blimt, Davis, and 
Tresham, your chiefest counsellors for the 
present: and by promising liberty of con- 
science hereafter. I stand for loyalty, which 
I never lost ; you stand for treachery, whete- 
with your heart is possessed : and you chaige 
me ^th high things, wherein I defy you to 
the uttermost You, my good lords, coun» 
sellors of state, have had many conferences^ 
and I do confess I have said the King of 
Scots is a competitor, and the King of S^^tln 
a oompetit<Hr, and you I have said arc a com- 
petitor: you would depose the queen, you. 
would be king of England, and call a parlia- 
ment Ah, ny lord, were it but your own 
case, the loss had been the less ; but you have 
drawn a number of noble persons and gentle- 



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^54 



T«^.|llIRRqRv 



-men of birth and quality into your net of re- 
1>ellion» and their bloods will cry vengeance 
ag^nst you. For my part, I vow to God I 
-vrish my soul was in heaven, and my body at 
zest, so this had never been. 

** JSIwea:. Ah Mr Secretary, I thank God for 
my humbling ; that you, in the rust <d your 
bravery, came to make your oration against 
me here this day. 

** Cecil My lord, I humblv thank God that 
yon did not take me for a nt companion fbr 
yon and your humours ; for if you had, vou 
would have drawn me to betray mvsoveralgn, 
as you have done : but I would have you 
name the counsellor you speak of; name mm, 
name him, name him if you dare, if you dare, 
I defy you ; name him if you dare. 

**^88ex. Here stands an honourable person 
(meaning the Earl of Southampton) that 
Imows I speak no fables ; he heard it as well 
as I. 

** Cecil. Then, my Lord of Southampton, I 
adjure you by the duty you owe to God, lov- 
alty and allegiance you owe to your sove- 
leign, by all tokens of true Christianity, and 
1>ythe ancient friendship and acquaintance 
once between us, that yon name the coon- 
aellor. 

** SouthoMpton. Mr Secretary, if you will 
meeds have me name the counsellor, it was 
Mr Comptroller. 

** Whereupon the Secretary, falling down 
upon his mees, said, I thaiik God for this 
day; and upon his knee desired the Lord 
SD(g^ Steward that a gentleman of the privy 
ckunber (or one that might have access to 
the Queen), mig^t go and humbly entreat 
her Highness to command Mr Comptroller to 
come before his grace. 

[Hereupon the Lwd High Steward, calling 
Mr Knevet, a gentleman of her Majesty's 
privy chamber), said unto him. Go, Mr Kne- 
Tet, unto her Migesty, and let her understand 
Mr Secretary's Aemand.] 

** Cecil Mr Knevet, you ^all have firee ac- 
cess unto her Majesty ; tell her that I vow 
before the God of Heaven, that if die refuse 
to send Mr ComptroUer, whereby I may dear 
myself of these open scandals, I will rather 
die at her foot (as her subject and vassal^ 
than live to do her any more service in this 
bonourable degree, wherein her Highnen 
employs me. And withal, let mejac^ure you 
Mr Knevet, that you do n<»t acquaint Mr 
Com|ptroller with the cause why yon eomt 
jbr hun. 

<' Mr Knevet went, and not long after re* 
inmed with Mr Comptrdler, to whom the 
Lord High Steward repeated the cause why 
he was sent for, and demred him to satisfy tlM 
lords whether Mr Seeretaiy did use any such 
speech in his hearing, or to his knowledge. 

** Mr Qmptrolkr, I remember that <moe, in 
Mr Secretary's company, there was a book 
read that treated of such matters ; bat I never 
^d hear Mr Secretary use any siMh woods, or 
to that effect 

*<Wherei^pon Mr Secretary thanked God» 
that though the earl stood there as a traitor, 
Tet he was found an honest man, and a ddth- 
ful subject; withal saying, I beseech God to 
ibrgive you £» thia o;pe& wrong dooft VttU 



me, as I do openly pronounce I for^ve yen 
from the bottom of mv heart 

« E$9ex. And I, Mr Secretary, do cleariy 
land freely forgive you with all my soul ; be- 
cause I wUmi to die in charity." 

-fi^ refutation of the charge was deemed 
perlac^tly satisfactory. 

The correspondence of Sir Robert with 
foreign courts was most extensive. By 
means of this he had credit for defeating 
many conspiracies that were formed against 
Queen Elizabeth. He was stead&st in her 
interest, but did not omit to cultivate the 
favour of James. With him he secretly 
communicated from time to time, oa the 
best means of securing his peaceftd foe-' 
cession. These servioet, on the death ef 
Elizabeth, were duly admowledged by thfr 
new monarch, who made him his prime 
minister, and advanced him to the peerage. 
He created him Baron of Essenden in 1603, 
Viscount CranbOTue in the following year, 
and Earl of Salisbury in 1605, when he 
was ax^inted Chancd^or of the Umyersity 
of Cambridge and admitt^ to the order of 
the Garter, Notwithstanding the accusa- 
tion of Essex, he was most hostile to tilie 
Spanish interests ; and his zeal in the cause 
oi Protestantism was such, that he was 
caUed the " Puritan." James fonnd Mm 
so useful, though it was believed that he 
had no great p^nsonal regard for him, that 
he was chosen in 1608 to succeed the Lord 
High Treasurer, the Earl of Dorset. The 
King's extravagance caused him to hare 
recourse to measures which were com- 
plained of as arl»trary, to frimish hift 
royal master with the means he required. 
His measures, however, had genersJly for 
their object the public good, and he wa» 
deemed the ablest minister of James. Strict 
api^cation to business in all probabfl^ 
shortened his life. He died at B^lbOTOfug^ 
of a decline in 1612, and was buried at 
Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, which seat he 
had obtained fitmi the crown in exchange 
for his estate of Theobalds, near Cheshunt 
His enemies diarged hira with being in- 
sincere and avaricious ; but his ti3ents 
were confessedly great, and his temper and 
his manners mfid and courteous. He met 
death with great f(»*titude. TTie recollec- 
tion of the past did not seem to heig^iten 
the t^Tors of the parting honr. " Ease 
and pleasure," said he, " quake to hear of 
death, but my life, fuH of cares and miseries^ 
desireth to be dissolved." He wrote a 
book against the Papists, and among other 
^ings some Kotes on Dr Dee's BdEbnnt- 
tiom of the Calaidar. 

The honour <^ a Marquisate was con- 
ferred August 18, 1 789. His present Lord- 
ship, by patent of conlirmatioii» took tito 
name «f Qasooigne in 1842, and quaxtxmi 
^ armt in the necond place. 



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THE MIRROR. 



455^ 



SeMtto. 



PhariHaceutiaU Journal and Transactions. 

£dited 1)7 Jacob BelL No. IX. 
We approach this publication with awe. 
**l^irow i^ysic to the dogs," cry the 
readers of the lively Mirrar, ** and save us 
fh>m a work entirely devoted to medi- 
cine ! " It cannot be denied that, in this 
ably-conducted publication, there is much 
that will interest the profession exclu- 
aively; but there are, at the same time, 
some things in it so useful, and some so 
curious, that even common readers may 
peruse it with advantage. The article on 
•*The Competition in the Ihrug Trade," 
presents a clear and powerful exhibition of 
the principles on which commerce and its 
endless fluctuations must always depend. 
** The sale of articles below the natural 
price is much more common, and although 
this might, at first sight, appear to be a 
public advantage, the indirect tendency of 
the practice is no less injurious than the 
opposite extreme. The primary effect of 
competition is a reduction of prices, as 
every merchant or vendor of a commodity 
finds it necessary to reduce his profits to 
meet the state of the market; and when 
there are many persons anxious to sell, 
each endeavours to secure to himself a 
preference by offering the greatest possible 
advantage to his customers. So long as 
this is done without violating the correct 
principles of fair remuneration, the public 
derive benefit from the competition. But 
it often happens that, in individual trans- 
actions, general principles are overlooked, 
and the causes which lead to this result 
require to be considered mxxe in detail. It 
is obvious that the inducement to embark 
in any particular line of business is in pro- 
portion to the existing demand for the 
c<»nmodity in question; and that, so long 
as this demand continues to increase, the 
number <^ aspirants to a share of the pro- 
fits increases likewise. Nor does oompe- 
tition stop at this point, as the success of 
one man in any department frequently in* 
duces a huncbred to fc^ow in his wake, 
each hoping to derive the same benefit. 
A reacticm is the inevitable consequence. 
The market is overstocked, and the profit 
being divided am6ng a larger number of 
persons than it is calculated to support, a 
variety of expedients are resorted to by 
each individual for the purpose of gaining 
•a advantage over the rest A prominent 
future in this struggle is a reduction in 
prices, and this is often carried to an ex- 
trat which involves the parties in heavy 
loss or absolute ruin. Many sacrifices are 
made by merdiants, in cases of emergency, 
whei a disappointment in the sale of goods 
places their credit in jeq^aidy, and press- 
uig demands tost nady money oblige tb«m 
to sell at any price which haptens to be 



ofiered. These occunences impair the 
stability of the market; purcha^rs take 
advantage of the necessities of vendors,, 
who follow the example of each other. Until 
the calculations of profit on the principlea 
of fair remuneration are forgotten in the 
eagerness to do business on any terms* 
Sometimes the competition between two 
or three individuals is carried to such an 
extent, that the ultimate result is depend* 
ent on the length of their respective 
purses ; those who have the smaltost capi- 
tal being ruined, while the successful com- 
petitor finds himself, with reduced capital^ 
master of a trade which no Icmger i^orda 
a living profit." 

The account of " The Summer-Plant- 
Winter Worm," bv Dr Pterehra, is a most 
singular paper. This worm is a caterpillar^ 
out of whose neck a vegetable (fungus or 
mushroom) grows. It is much valued in 
China ; it is found in China and in New 
Zealand. 

" Thimberg states that it is reputed to 
possess cordial virtues. According to Du 
Halde, its properties are considered to be 
similar to those of 5^171^ «2;u;r. It strengthena 
and renovates the i)owers of the system 
which have been reduced either by over- 
exertion or long sickness. The physidana 
of the Emperor of China stated that they 
used it only at the palace on account of its- 
scarcity. Black, old, and rotten specimens- 
cost four times their weight <rf silver. 

" The mode of employing it is very cu- 
rious. The belly of a duck is to be stuffed 
with five drachms of the insect-fungus, and 
the bird roasted by a slow fire. When 
done, take out the insect-fungus, the virtue 
of which will have passed into the duck*a 
flesh. The latter is to be eaten twice a day 
for eight or ten days." 

Journal and LetUra qfthelaie Samuel Curwen, 
an Amsrican Refugee, ^c. %"€, 'By G. Ar 
Ward. Wiley and Putnam. 
There is no law, and there ought to be na 
law, against a gentleman of snoall capacity 
and in an obscure situation, making notes 
of things which he may deem remarkable^ 
and wish to remember. He has a right to 
do this ; he has a right to be as minute and 
as insipid as he pleases. But when he is 
** gathered to his fathers," it is hardly to be 
endured that another shall give his flimsv' 
scraps to the world, as if they were worth 
reading. The evil, however, is one that ia 
likely to carry its appropriate punishment 
with it; and this it is more than probable . 
Mr Ward, or Messrs Wiley and Putnam, 
would find out for themselves, if no land 
friend took the trouble to bring it to their 
notice. 

At the period when Mr Curwen came to 
England, there were men and thinfls occtt* 
pyii^ public attention, that would have 
famished matter which some pm would 

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156 



THE MIRROR. 



have Tendered deeply interesting. But 
poor Mr Corwen kad no talent for descrip- 
tion. A slight feeble entry, to recal to a 
Jog-tiot plodder a few of the affiurs that 
had oome under his observation, was all he 
seems to have aimed at. This was well 
enough; but was it necessary for his Editor 
to publish such a trashy memorandum as 
this? 

** Attended the Exhibition in Piccadilly 
of Society of Artists of Great Britain ; was 
really surprised at the meanness of the 
portraits ; nothing appeared to my eye 
well executed but some fruit-pieoes and 
a few miniatures in crayons and water 
^x)lours. From hence Mr Silsbee and my- 
^eli adjourned to Mr Joseph Green's ; we 
drank tea and passed a pleasant hour. 
Stopped by the way at Ely Palace, so called, 
on ffolbom hill, now sold and pulling down 
to build two rows of houses. There are 
yet stan^g the chapel and hall in the old 
-Gothic taste." 

Or such a hackneyed, ill-told anecdote 
as the following ? 

^ Dr Barton, dean of Bristol and rector 
of St Andrew's, Holbcon, who was, acocwd- 
ing to British mode of expression, dark, 
meaning stone-blind, being of a humorous 
disposition and great self-command, having 
a mind to entertain himself invited four 
eminent persons in the same desolate con- 
dition as he was, to a dmner, none other 
being present but the servants. These 
were Sir John Mdtog, of as eminent a 
<3haractcr in the juridical line as jperhaps 
any man in the civilized world ; mc Stan- 
ley, the weU-known musician, and others 
whose names I forget. After partaking 
of a joyous feast, they took a humorous 
leave and departed." 

Yet these are not un£iivourable speci- 
mens. They are well enough, penned for 
the satisfiiction of the writer, but the ab- 
surdity of puMishing them must strike 
every reader. It is not that his pages are 
<leficient in impudence, or kept down by 
overweening good nature, but there is uni- 
tbrmly a want of point. This will be 
dearly se^ in the subj<mied notices of poor 
-old George the Third, with which we take 
leave of this twaddling affiur. In other 
hands the fects he mentioned would be im- 
l^rtant: 

** Called on Mr Heard at Herald's office; 
there leanied, in a conversation with a 
Mr Webb, of seeming great political know- 
Mge, that at the time the House of Ckxn- 
mons left the late admimstrati<m in a 
minority, or in other words, refused to 
support Lord North's measures, the king 
took it to hearty and resented it so £Eff as 
to declare he would leave them (as he ex- 
pressed it) to themselves, and go over to 
Basover, from whence his &mily came, 



and proceeded .'so £ur as to order the ad~ 
ministration to provide two yachts to trans- 
port himself there ; whereup(« the queea 
interfered, and remonstrated against sudi 
a desperate measure, so fiital to her and kia 
fiunily, as well as his own personal interest. 
Others, too, represented the distressftil con- 
dition to which the nation would be re- 
duced by the absence and want of royal 
authority, though it seemed to little effect, 
so sadly cliagrined and inx>voked was he. 
Lord Hockingham also joined the remon- 
strants, and showed ti^e necessity of » 
change of men and measures, with no 
better success ;-*-8o naturally obstinate and 
pertinaciously bent was he on his favourite 
plan of subjugating his (here called) re- 
bellious subjects in America, and bringing 
them to his feet, till he was told that as 
sure as he set his foot out of the kingdom* 
the parliament would declare the crown 
abdicated and the throne vacant, nor would 
he ever be permitted to re-enter the king- 
dom again, — which argument, it seems, 
brought him to a more cool and juster 
sight of the folly of such a step, and the 
abs<^uto necessity of stooping to a com- 
pliance with the requisitions of the public;. 
* ♦ On the first court day after the ap- 
pointment, when he was in a manner forced 
out of his closet into the room of audience^ 
he received his new servants with a smiley 
and transacted business with them after- 
wards with as much seeming cordiality 
and openness, as if they had been in his 
favour, and in liis most intimate conceits; 
so seemingly satisfied and so serene was 
the royal countenance, that all the newspa- 
pers sounded forth the gracious monarches 
obliging, condescending goodness to the 
pubuc wishes, thou^ nothing was fiirther 
from his heart, had not the necessity of 
his affairs impelled him thereto. At the 
same time coming up to Mr Wilkes, he 
said he was glad of the <^portunity to 
thank him for his very proper and laud- 
able behaviour in the late riot; took notice 
of his looks, which indicated a want of 
health, advised him to a country air and 
exercise, which, said his majesty, I find 
by experience an excellent expedient to 
procure and preserve health; all tliis with 
the same apparent sincerity, as if thej 
had been in a continued course of paying 
and receiving compliments, congratula- 
tions, and acknowledgments for mutual 
kindnesses and good offices, though all the 
work! knows there was not a man in the 
three kingdoms more thoroughly hated, 
nor whom he had taken more foolish and 
imnecessary pains to ruin. The above- 
mentioned interview being told of in com- 
pany, 9ir Wilkes took occasion to remark 
m me IbUowing words:---' To have heard 
the kuig^ one would have thought I was 
cottfli^infl a Qn^ak on the wow^ of my 
hetOtt"' ^ , 

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THE MIRROR. 



157 



Am8warth*8 Mmgazme, for March. 
The number for the present month opens 
-with some veiy stirring scenes in continua* 
tkmof "lifindsor Castle." We cannot enu- 
merate all the varieties which follow, but 
theypresent something to hit every taste.— 
The EUiston Papers go on, and some readers 
will think them too minute. " Town life 
at the Kestoration" is continued. It is a 
fine subject, (M enough to interest from 
age, and not so remote that it cannot be 
distinctly traced; Mr Bell handles it vrith. 
his wonted skill. The Kailroad Adventure 
is a very clever paper. As yet railroads 
have not been worn out in the service of 
Bomance. The essay to which we direct 
attention is divided into tliree chapters or 
parts. No. I shows a gentleman in what 
the Americans would call " a fix," at a dis- 
tance of a hundred miles from London, 
having lost his purse, and being unable to 
prosecute his journey to see a dying rela- 
tive. He meets with incivility from the 
railway officials, and in this distress a 
young lady offers him the loan of a sove- 
reign, which he accepts. The young lady is 
going to reside with some rich relatives. — 
In this situation we find her in Part 11, 
when an eccentric gentleman leaves her 
10,000/. Part III supplies the conclusion. 
**0n a morning in early May, Mary 
Marston commenced her journey, by rail • 
way, to the metropolis. But though a few 
months older than when we introduced her 
to the reader— though her worldly know- 
ledge was somewhat increased, and her 
purse extremely well lined— it was not 
considered proper, expedient, or safe, for 
her to travel, as she had done before, xm- 
protected. Accordingly, an old dependent 
of the family, whose office was something 
between nurse and housekeeper, was de- 
puted as her attendant to London, vhere 
she had other near relatives to receive her. 
We do not attempt to account for this 
different arrangement, we but state the 
fact, and shall only observe that on this 
occasion she wore a remarkably pretty 
bonnet, one indeed which was quite the 
chef-d'oeuvre of a country milliner. A 
strange coincidence, however, occurred, for 
she was handed into the carriage by the 
very same gentleman to whom she had 
lent the sovereign on the former occasion, 
and who it apfteared was returning to town 
by the very same train as herself. Indeed 
he took his seat as before, exactly opposite 
to her ; but after a smile of recognition had 
passed between them, Mary observed an 
expression half-mirtliful, half-scornful, pass 
over his face, as old Nurse entered the 
carriage ; but it was evidently not occasion- 
ed by patrician distaste at the prospect of 
a plebeian feUow-traveller, for he paid the 
respect due to age, and assisted her in with 
care and attention, It was somewhat re- 



markable that no attempt waa made to ad- 
mit any other paasengers into the vacant 
seats of the carriage our traveUert occu- 
pied. What pasB^ on the journey has 
therefore never been deariy ascertained,., 
for old Nurse pleads guilty to having &Uen 
asleep, and the other parties, to this day, 
refuse to give any account of their conver- 
sation. 

**About a month after this event, Matilda 
Lawford received a long letter fhmi her 
cousin l^lary. It treated of divers matters ,- 
and towardis the end, just on a comer of 
the paper, communicated the&ct that she, 
the i^Titer, was engaged to be married, of 
course to the handsomest, cleverest, and 
most delightful person in Eurc^. She 
added, however, tliat he was not rich, 
being yet * struggling upwards at the bar,*" 
and expressed in touching language her 
thankfulness to Providence, for that for- 
tune which would always relieve them from 
the pressure of poverty. The postscript^ 
however, contained the pith of the letter. 
It ran thus; — *I may as well tell you at 
once what you must know sooner or later—. 
don't quiz me ! — ^but Mr Ra^-mond is the 
stranger who sent me the beautiful bouquet,., 
and the white and silver purse. He man- 
aged to procure an introduction to uncle 
William, who knew liim very weU by re- 
port, and has visited here constantly since 
I came to London !' 

'* One surprise, however, was to mount 
on another ; for the next morning's post 
brought a short and almost inc^erent 
letter from Mar>'. From it enough waa 
gathered to contradict some of the ass^- 
tions contained in the former epistle, for it 
stated that though Mr Raymond had been 
for some years * struggling at the bar/ 
he was no longer a poor man, but sole he$r 
— after the payment of a few eccentric leg- 
acies — ^to the immense wealth of ^IMgby 
Randle, who it appeared was his mother'a 
eider and half-brother. * Slanderous tonguen 
had poisoned truth,* and they had been for 
years separated; but on a sick-bed the 
lieart of the kind old man yearned for his 
only relative, and when they met, and the 
past was explained, the pent-up feelings of 
Sir Digby gushed forth, and he seemed 
anxious only to live long enough to make 
amends for past neglect by granting, almost 
forestalling, every wish of his nepheyp^.' 
What induced him to leave Mary Marston 
a legacy, or how Digby Raymond discov- 
ered the precise hour of her return to Lon- 
don, and how he contrived that the re- 
maining seats in the carriage should be 
tmoccupied, we pretend not to determine ; 
but we know * love or money* can perform 
wonders. Why he passed himsefr off as 
still *a straggling barrister,' is another 
affiur ; but it was just the conduct that 
might have been expected from a man who^ 



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158 



THE MIRROR. 



Kaviiig found a heart which poverty had 
failed to render suspicious and selfish, and 
knowing its priceless yalue, was inclined 
once more to test it ; hut — ^by the opposite 
ordeaL" 



amongst it, it must form a perpetaal 
manure, though it is dii&cult to inxagine 
how adding carbon to carbon, as must be 
the case in adding charcoal to peat-earth, 
can exercise any beneficial influence. 



PRODUCTIVE POWER OF THE 
SILK WORM. 
It has been carefully ascertained that this 
useful insect gives fifteen parts out of the 
hundred of the weight of the mulberry 
leaves it consumes to the cocoon of silk 
it spins, and that the average weight of 
•each cocoon is two and a half grains, 
which gives a length of thread averaging 
from 750 to 1,160 feet ; this difierence, of 
course, arising from its variation of thick- 
ness. One pound of cocoons will yield in 
the usual way one ounce of eggs ; and one 
ounce of seed eggs will produce eight 
pounds of cocoons. There are three kinds 
of raw silks— organzine, tram, and flosso; 
the first is used for the warp of silk goods, 
and is of the best quality, and usually con: 
tains from six to eight filaments in one 
thread, and is twisted in the spinning very 
considerably ; the tram is made from in- 
ferior silk, and consists of ten or more fila- 
ments, slightly twisted together. Silk is a 
very hygrometric substance, and will ab- 
florb 10 per cent, of moisture; this property 
causes fraudulent dealers to weight silks 
offered for sale. 

There are two species of silk worm 
reared at present ; one that casts its skin 
three times, which is a small worm com- 
mon to Lombardy ; the other is the worm 
originally bred in Europe, and moults four 
times ; this second worm lives from thirty- 
five to thirty-seven days, and increases 
30,000 times the weight of the egg it was 
produced from. 

PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL. 
The " life of plants" is charcoal. Li propa- 
gating plants, cuttings root freely in it ; but 
if they are not removed into other soil 
directly after they have rooted, the roots 
will almost invariably die off. Whether 
this is from the great supply of carbonic 
acid, formed by the carbon of the charcoal 
combining with the oxygen of the atmos- 
phere, and causing the roots to perish in 
the midst of plenty, I will not pretend to 
say ; but such a result is not improbable, 
as we know that a plant is soon killed by 
supplying it constantly with strong liquid 
manure. "Common wood charcoal," ob- 
serves Liebig (2nd Edit., p. 63), "by vir- 
tue merely of its ordinary well-laiown 
properties, can completely replace vege- 
table mould or humus, and as it is the 
•** most indifferent and unchangeable sub- 
stance known," it must be an excellent 
thing to use in permanent potting of 
plants ; because, if the soil is sufficiently 
porous to admit the atmospheric air 



THE LTTHOTINT PROCESS OP 
HULLMAOT>EL. 
Thb drawing having been flniahed by the 
artist on the stone with titho^aphie ink 
mixed with water to produce the various 
shades, is covered with gum watCT, and 
weak nitric acid, to fix it ; after waiting a 
sufficient time to dry, a solution <^ resin 
and spirits (^ wine is pour^ over the BtODe^ 
and as this ground contracts by drying, it 
cracks into millions of reticulations, which 
can only be discovered by the use of a mi- 
croscope; very strong acid is then poured 
over the aquatint coating, which, entmng 
all the fissures, produces the same effect 
on the stone as the granulations of the 
chalk by the ordinary process. The re^ 
protects the drawing everywhere but in 
the cracks, and having remained a suffi* 
cient time to act on the unprotected parts 
of the drawing, the ground is washed oS, 
and all appearance of the subject on the 
stone vanishes, until, ink being applied by 
a roller in the ordinary way, it is repro- 
duced, and ready for taking off the required 
number of impressions, which in some 
cases have extended to the number of 
2,000. 



CHINESE ARMS. 
The spears of the Chinese nation are 
of all kinds, sizes, and shapes ; and 
which, in coming to dose quarters, we 
found that they infiicted most horrid 
wounds; the favourite pattern of them is a 
long broad blade. They also use pikes, 
and a species of straight scythe, with a 
handle veiy short in proportion to the 
length of the blade. Their bows and ar- 
rows are alike, whether borne by mandarin 
or private, the only difference being in the 
material ; the quiver of the soldier is lash- 
ed tight on his back, and, for the conve- 
nience of carriage, is generally square. The 
Tartars and Chinese troops use bows of 
different sizes and strength ; the Tartars 
use a peculiar kind of cross-bow, throwing 
three arrows. The bow is made of elastic 
wood, covered with horn on the outside, 
and its strength varies from eighty pounds 
to one hundred weight ; the string is made 
of silk and fiax, strongly spun together, 
with three joints to allow of its being put 
away in smaller space, and to prevent it 
from cutting. In shooting the arrow, the 
string is held behind an agate or jade-stone 
ring, worn on the light thumb, the first 
joint of which is bent forward, and the 
string is confined, till the arrow is let fly 
by the middle joint of the fore-finger. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4ffMt sfPOfd is a -vreapon of a very re- 
BuurkaUe and sin^fular construction. The 
blades are carried in the same sheath, and 
neccasarily tiie inn«r side of both is quite 
a&tt while the opposite one is triangular 
A soldier, with a sword in each hand, ad- 
Taoces to the front, goes through a variety 
of extWttKPdinary gestures, all the while ut- 
tering strange cries, varied by terms of the 
greatest opprobrium he can lavish on the 
enemy. One or two of these military 
mountebanks having been picked off by our 
men, they did not latterly exhibit their 
aecxHupiishments so often. The uniform 
of^the soldiers is very much a matter of 
fency ; the jacket is generally made of a 
Uglit blue doth turned up vrith red, or else 
a red jacket bordered with white ; the tu- 
nic or under garment reaches down to the 
knees, and is generally blue. The name 
of the regiment to which the bearer be- 
longs is written on the back and on the 
tewst, with some terror-inspiring word, 
such as ♦* Robust," « Tiger-hearted," &c. 
One partieuliur corjws has a tiger's face in- 
stead of the name, and tlie dress is striped, 
and ma^ to resemble a tiger as much as 
possible. — Mcxkenzie^s Second Campaign in 
China, 



Artists should he Diffident, — Leonardo 
eoDsidered it a good sign, if an artist was 
^isatisfied with his productions, because 
H showed that his conceptions went beyond 
bis present ability, which longer study 
would increase; and^ on the contrary, that 
being satisfied, at once proved the work to 
be too profound for his comprehension. 

The RuUng Influences, — ^A late traveller 
remarks, that you never hear two persons 
in America conversing, without also hear- 
ing the word " dollar." The authoress of 

* Sketches of Corfu' says, "I never listen- 
ed to the conversation of two Greeks, for 
five minutes, without hearing the words 

* oboli,* and * currants.' So you may ima- 
gine to what an extent their minds are 
cultivated. 

Fair Sex in Spain, — Tlie Spanish ladies 
are wholly uneducated, and pass their 
time principally in eating and dressing. 
They consider corpulency to be no dis- 
paragement to their beauty, and they 
sometimes take so much exercise as to 
walk the length of one of the very dirty 
streets, in evening dress, with very tight 
black satin shoes. If they would eat less, 
and adhere to their national costume, 
nothing could be prettier or more graceful 
than their general appearance, shrouded 
XBHAet the Wack mantilla."— i(K/y Gros' 
venor, 

JBti^mg the Moon, — ^A puWican in the 
United States, named Moon, whose politics 



TltE MIRROR. 159 

had made him obnoxious to some of luf 
neighbours, waggishly put up a sign whid^ 
represented the moon, with a human faoe, 
looking down on a group of puppies, that 
appeared to be furiously barking at it, with 
the foUqwing epigraph beneath ^—. 

Poor little dogs, why bark ye ao, 
When I'm so high, and you're so low? 

Art, even in the most adverse times^ 
when Greece was disturbed by various fo- 
re^ irruptions, but more particulariy by 
the check given to its prosperity by tM 
Dorian Invasion, was still supported hf 
religion ; and although slow in its progresfl^ 
it was never, as ¥dth their literature, 
wholly interrupted. Their statues, at eai^^er 
periods of art, were usually of wood or 
clay, or in what is called Toreutic Art 
Pausanias mentions having seen at Lace* 
daemon a statue in brass by Gitiadas, whom 
some antiquaries place at 750 b.c. ; and 
another by Learchus, of Rhegium, said to 
be the oldest existing in that materiaL 
They were of hammered work, and rivetted, 
and, most probably, were — so called — 
Daedalian Art. The colossal head of Her- 
cules in the British Museum, with crimed 
locks of hair, is of the same style. ThiB 
head has, however, other peculiarities than 
those common to art of its supposed ag^ 
in the double marking to the eyelids. 

7%c Modern Greeks.—In the war for 
Greek freedom, the women, before going 
to battle, concealed their children— some 
in the caverns of Tupa, and some were 
fastened to the trunks of trees. Scorched 
by the heat of the sun, sick from hung» 
and thirst, the little wretches cried aloud 
so piercingly, that their cries reached their 
mothers, who seemed inclined to return, 
but Bozzaris retained them. "Wom^* 
he said, " while the battle lasts, all ten- 
derness must be banished; God will hear 
their innocent cries." When the batlte 
was over they came to their children, and 
found them hfeless,''— -Sketches of Cotfu. 

Mars' HiH—Jn 1840, the captain of a mer- 
chant-brig came up from the Piraeus to 
Athens, and called upon the Rev. Mr HiH, 
the well-known American Church of En- 
gland missionary, who, aided by his wife, 
has conferred an invaluable benefit upon 
this country, in the establishment^ of 
schools, and the promotion of educati<»i. 
He found him at home, and swd: "Sir, I 
understand you are a clergyman, and 
would you consent to accompany me to 
Mars' HiU?" to which Mr HiU willhagly 
assented. When arrived there, the captain 
asked him whether this was the identical 
spot Itom which St Paul preached, and 
Mr H. said he had no reason to doubt it. 
The man then took a Bible from hisi 
pocket, read the seventeenth chapter of 
the Acts, which refers to the place, dosed 
it, and wished Mr H. good^oming, vrb^ 

)igitized by VjOOQ IC 



100 



THE MIRROR. 



sugsested to liim that now beliig under 
Ihe Acropolis, and dose to the famoos 
^larthenon, tins was an occasion not to be 
nussed of seeing these celebrated places, 
which he would with pleasure snow to 
him. The man thanked him, but said his 
object was now accomplished, and that 
fleeing anything else might ^stract his 
feelings from the impressions he had just 
recei^ ; — ^and so he returned to his ship. 
— jMdg Grosvenw. 

Lace-makers of NottiMgkam, — It appears 
that the niuuber of the machines, which 
was 1,312 in 1836, has since then a 
good deal diminished, and that the trade 
is Tpassing into . the hands of the larger 
manufacturers. This arises from the 
enormous sacrifice which the rapid changes 
of pattern and the necessary improyements 
demand. So rapid are these nuctuations^ 
that a machine, which cost 1,000/., has 
been sold in a> short time, for 45/. : and in 
1833 and 1834, five or six. hundred of the 
<^ slow machines were broken up, and 
sold for old iron. Their pnces vary fronj 
250/. to 1,000/. Thp short life of these 
costly machines renders it necessary to get 
the utmost possible produce fr(»n them 
while they last; and; hence the hours of 
work are extremely l^^g. The majority 
of these machine^ are. still worked by 
hand. The total value of the lace pro- 
duced in 183S, was found to be 2|2 12,000/. 
About 1,800 bobbins have- to be threaded 
for every machine. . It vnH scarcely be 
credited that this operation is performed 
by children as young as three or four 
years old. 

Cmro and Us Vicinity, -^TSxtvact from a 
letter writtai by a gentleman who has lately 
^<Hned Dr Lepsius:-^" On Sunday morn- 
ing we visited the Great Pyramid. The 
prospect was indeed uni^e, and can scarce- 
ly be described. On the one side the rich 
valley of the Nile, on the other the dead 
and barren wilderness, and near us the 
burial places, over which 5,000 years liave 
passed without being able to efface themi 
We suffer more from, cold tlum heat. Cairo 
is thoroughly east^, and we may fully 
realize here all that We have read in the 
^AraMan Nights.* It is, indeed, a city d 
wonders, with its narrow, closely-packed 
houses, covered with sti^inge, fantastic 
carving, its gigantic mosques, its slender^ 
arrowy minarets, and its rich suburbs 
crowded with palm groves, broad-leaved 
bananas, C3rpresse8, and all the rich vege- 
tation of the Nile, its noisy, half-naked, 
muscular Arab and Egyptian population, 
varied now and then by the solemn Turk, 
riding on his finely caparisoned ass or 
stately camel. In tne evening a magician 
paid us a visit, who exhibited Lord Kelscm 
with his one arm, an exceedingly good 
likeness, in a mirror of ink. T& whole, 
however, was a most ridiculous exhibition. 



iUiKMig others, he gare us a repreaentatiiNfr 
of the pc^ent ^PHace of Wales in fAtck 
trou8er$f and with enomwHS moustackios f ** ' 
Off8ier8,-^One oyster brings forth many 
thousands ; the young or spawn of thei 
are increased in numberiess quantities be- 
tween May and August, yearly, in which 
time none are taken or marketed ; that 
season is called their sickness, in which 
they are not fit to be eaten. The spawn 
or brood oysters are not subject to destrac- 
tion, as the eggs and £ry of many other 
sorts of fish are: nor are ^ey bait or food 
to any other fish ; nor are they marketed 
for consumption if taken, tiU of due size, 
but laid again in the fisheries to grow. 

— Mendelssohu has made another addi- 
tion to the 8t<Mre of coneert music, by ttie 
recent production, at Leipsic, of a grand 
cantata, * Tlie Furst Walpurgis Night' 
Tliis was euthusiasticaUy welcomed, some 
of the pieces receiving a doul^ encore. 

— At Leaminj^n, Mr -l^sdiam gave 
two entertainments, and was received/in s 
most rapturous mamier. . ,His willingness 
to respond to the very fy&qvmxti^ncories^oit^ 
ever arduous might be tne .task, has made 
a lasting impression^ <H> his hear^ mk^ 
frien^s.^ ffis Deeper and deeper stiUwaa as 
thrilling as ever, and in our opinion th^ 
masterpiece or the whole. All who have^ 
listened to tbe ** melody of fcwmer years'* 
that flowed from his Jipsj hailed his ap- 
pearance with the most Unl^undedd(dl>ght» 
and were Ipst in amazement to ^i^^iess his 
extraordinary skiH. it mu$t ^so be ad-> 
mitted by ^ who heard :i%»Ium for thd 
first time on tiiis occasion, that . thore is 
not a living Eaglish singer able tO; com- 
pete With iiim, either in paihos, aptness' ot 
expression, or electrical effect. Mr OharW 
Biiiham, his s<m and pupil, was warmly 
received j his style is entirely: free, from 
ornament— his voice ^xible and of good 
quality — ^these advantages will assuredly, 
in a short time, place him upon the list of 
our most popular favourites. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



S. C. T. takes too monrnful a view of the i-avofd 
made by consumption. A picture intend^ to he 
affecting must he drawn Witk^ icarfful rfferenee to 
truth and probability. 

. Interior oif Roehampton Chapel next week, 

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SATURDAY, MARCH 18, 1843. [Vol. I. 1843. 




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" jjf,|i| Digitized by CjOOgle 

[No. 1155 



162 



THE Mirror. 



THE LATE EARTHQUAKES. 
Attention has lately, we regret to learn, 
been calle<L in more than one instance, to 
some of tSoM tenrible throes of natoe 
which are among the visitations of hot cli- 
mates. St Thomas's, of which we give a 
fine engraving from the 'Illustrated Weekly 
Times,' is one of the places which has sus- 
tained the shock of an earthquake. It wad 
experienced at the same moment at St 
Kitt's and St Thomas's. The shock oc- 
curred on the 14th of last month, and, 
though sufficiently aljurming, was happUy 
accompanied by but little loss of htmian 
life. It was fek about teit In the merniiif^r 
and was over in about two mhiuto^; birt 
such was the edbct pf^dduced within thk% 
brief period, that all b«skiess was kiHtan% 
at a stand; toioiti I'an to the sea shore, ns 
if to fly fronS the dlfta^s of terra firma (if 
dry land might then be so caUed) to the 
, world of waters, and as soon as they had ft 
little recovered from the shock, thankir 
were offered to Divine PfofHdence at the 
several pluces of ^orshtfi, that ihe perijf 
TPaa ni> more. The deslTOi^tLOti of pro- 
perty was very ^eiitt n&t les«, nfjcording 
to some accounts, tUftH KfOMoL 

At GiULdaloupe^ on tli« Sth of the same 
nionth, an earth ijualce occurrwi. The 
Prench Gove roor * Genera K Gourbeyere, 
wririog on the ^th^ give* the lollowing 
mournM pictttre of the c^amity which had 
iSUen on the place :— 

^'Fomt#4-^ltre, Feb, 9, 3 o'clock. 
'^ Pointe-i-'Pilw Is ^tirely destroyed. 
What was spsfed by the earthquake has 
since peTkhfetl by fire, Ts-Mch burs* out fl 
few minutf.9 afi^ the houses fell. I am 
wtiting IB the inite of the ruins of this 
UTifartun^te iiitf, lE presence of a popuk- 
taon withou* food and without H'^yHifll, in 
the midat 6f the fr&nnded^ of wKofti the 
number i^ 6&ti^iTab\Q (it is said ftom 
1,500 to l.fl60 0- The dead aje at 31 tmder 
the minis, m^ ihsir number is ralctilated 
at se^^eral tlie«»ands. The flro is still 
raging. AD th© quarters of the colony 
hBFe sufTered. I'be towTi of Motfle has 
been destroy ed, and 30 persons nre dead. 
The small towil« of St Frances, St Anne, 
Port Louie, Bertrand, and St Rose, have 
been overturned, nud in i\\l th^e ^re dead 
and TTOtinfled," 

A correspondent writing jf5rom Martiniqne 
says — " The ferst person who has arrived 
at Fort Boyalf^om the afflicted island is 
an old retired captain, aged 72, who 
escaped as by a miracle. He #as bmried 
in the ruins, and there remained for more 
than an hour. He states that, at the mo- 
ment after the shock, fires broke out, and 
consumed much that it had sp^ed. In 
this additional calamity the hoiipital waa 
iucMod ) tiach of the patients as were 



^le mtAi fteir escape, but many were 
■ttmt aHf e #ith the building. No calcu- 
lation can yet be made of the number of 
the killed, but it is estimated at one-thiid 
of the population. Among the killed are 
two difltiDguitffaed advocates, IL Borne de 
Grand I*re and M. Cardose.*' 

Another writes, "Women and young giris 
may be seen with two or three limbs frac- 
tured. The scene is a hundred times more 
horrible than a field of battle." 

It is perhaps not genially known that 
in former times the Bermudas had so 
fearftil a name for storms and earthquakes 
thni- saiiora fkred Hot to approEicU tbeoL 
Thpy avoided the coflst as an enchiuited 
iflnd; awi when, frtmi the siupwreck oj' 
Sir ThomAJi Giiti?s and othera. one bMp'ji 
ereir rentwfed there, the latidmir of these 
fndindimle W(w chilled "Tlie Discovery of 
the B^rmndm or the Hoinirjer ialantU." A 
very <;tirkji]a *cf:otifit of this ^* disco rery ' 
w:^s ptibliah^l in leia by oae of the a4- 
vi-nturers, viiioh op^ms in the folloidD* 
Robiru3on-Crtfi^fK**!jke jitrain :^ 

"' Be'm^ in the j^hip called tlic * Sea Yen - 
tiire' AriHi 8ir Thanms Gat^i, our governor 
Sir George Sommers, and Ci^tain New- 
port, three most worthy, honoured gentle- 
man (whose valour and fortitude the warU 
must needs take notice of; and that in the 
most honourable designes) bound for Vir- 
ginia, in the height of tlOTty degrees of 
northerly hititude or thereabouts, we were 
taken with a most sharp and cruel storm 
upoi^ the fiye-and-twentieth day of Jdy, 
1609, which did not onlv sepaaMkte us from 
the rest of our fleet (which were tight in 
number), but with the Tioleat WorkSig of 
the seas, our ship became so shaken, torn, 
and leaky, that she received so Bsii6h waler 
as covered two the of hogsheads above ilie 
balkst, that our men stood utp to l^hr mid- 
eyes with buckets, baricos, and kettles, to 
baile ottt the water, and continued pump- 
ing £or three days and three nights toge- 
t)^ without any intermission, a»d yet tbe 
water seemed rather to increase than di- 
minish, insomuch that all our men, being 
utterly spent, tyred, and disabled for longer 
labdmr, were even resolved, without any 
hope of their lives, to shut by the hatches, 
and to have comndtted themselves to the 
meiK^y of the sea (which is said to be 
merciless), or rather to the mercy of their 
mighty (Jod and Bedeemer (whose mer- 
cies exceed all his works), seeing no help 
nor hope in the apprehension of man's 
reason that any mother's child could 
escape that inevitable danger which eveiy 
man had propO|Sed and digested to himself; 
of present sinking. So that some of them 
having some good and comfortable waters in 
the ship, fetched them and drank one to 
the other, taking their last leave one of 
the other until their more joyful and 
happy meeting in a more blessed world, 
when it pleased Qod^ out of bis most gn 



THE MIRROR. 



HS 



dow^andm^ictfiil ProTidenco^ioto direct 
and^ g;idik ova sWp (being teitt to the merey 
of the sea) for her most advantager t^t 
Siv Gewf^e Somm^ps, sei^ng upon the 
|oope oi ih& Mp {:vf'h&te he sate three 
d^e» aiid mght» together without mealeg^ 
mm^ aad Hitle ov no sleep) cowsing the 
ship to iMep her as u]»nght a« he could 
^r olhetwise she must instantly hays 
lotBldefed) most wishedly and hapinty 
descried land'* 

Tlie writer proceeds t(y gire the sequel 
of theW adventures. He and his com^ 
paaions landed to tlie number of a huttdre<f 
aod My^on the ^th of Ju^, 1609^ He 
sfeaks in the mos^ glowing terms of all ho 
saw on shore. According to him a pcdfec^ 
Paradise had been cBJsoovered instead of 
that^ land of horrors which it had been 
s^^wsed existed there. Every scene he 
foond&ir — ^ti^ecHmate healthM, and the 
abundance of fish, ^h, and fowls so greats 
that there was nothing left to be desh^ 
Sdon after this incident other adventurers 
Tisited the Berit^das, i^^ the islands were 
form^y tt^cumed in )612. 



OAUDRI TH£^ KOBMAH. 

'hie disord^r^ of the^ ttai^ ages prei^t 
marif ext*tord&M£ry scenes. Of the^ not 
the least interefsfingand remarkable is the 
history of €^ndri, the Nerma» bishop. 
M^ Gipt^gtie hais farni^ed avery stvlkhig 
ffikme eft the fiicts. It i» u> suhstafice tm 

foiows^^-» 

Prom snateiefit redofds it appeal*^ that 
t]Mt6wn oif Lapoff wa)» under the fem^onii 
g flt ^^ mart n i of tile prelate ^ho held its 
8^« it ba^ ino pcHioe, and was cofistAntly 
fte sc^w of the ^retftest disorders. The^ 
Bolttes md thedr ft^weTs Seated with 
ortMSty ami i»j«s^6e the h^hers^ the 
Iwi^M^ o^^vessed the peasants ^toid sevf^; 
taa«r woe htieA hf the sterongest^ asid 
pcfpfnetf'irm not reikpeeted. In 1106 the 
KA^ItlBliad beoft got poSsesmofi of, by dist 
of moa&jr, ify oiie eavdri, a l^>rman, who 
&6tBe»«^ t^ alt^ b«t m^e^ s^d wa9 
iBii^la^ gi>f en to htivMs, iiog», aiid teikxm. 
'f^ime tnBto*miytwHW«^ he joined the 

r#8t ervelty ef chur^tctdt. AmOttg 
foSky^erit was* one of those Irilack 
j»yw bfougfet by the bKRms on? their 
Tetisn ttota a crusade. He had been^ 
one of the inst^oBiaits of the bishop^s 
cruelties on the burghers: in the bishop's 
palace he had torn 6ut the eyes of 
one inhabitant of the town, and by his or- 
ders had assassinated another in the me ^ 
tfOpoHtart ehiirch. fhe burghei^s were 
naturdfly eiasperated, aild conspu-ed to 
eStaWfeh a coihihune. Gaudri was at that 
^ in Sng^d with the Norman king. 
The 5Jf ghert addressed |>ro|)6lilti6ns to 
tttgitom afid tie ch^pt^ of the church, 



to jm^Mff tiMol* iin»deiflil Micfr- 
t^^ iDeedtlrefedfftwftti^, fflideoMidet* 
able mmas Of motwy ^^ On hitf Mm 
item Engkndy G««dri ^AMi dMivaiM 
them, ""litemm he had a gmt wSmt «f 
Hioney;' BM the hteh^ hgd soon s^nao^ 
dM?«d, iftherses, dbgs/Mid gambtiog, tM 
money o€ thebmrghers^ Md helbtilid thiM 
the d«^ ^yabie by the town, and fiiMd 
by the tatsemipA difiarte#,.w^^not moiii^ 
to satisfy hie wants. He reBolTcd, f here^ 
fore, to abolish tlHl eomnnne^ fM peiu 
suaded the nobles, and even King liouis 
VI, to second his designs. The king came 
to Looo on IMy Thmrsday, A,Ifc 1 1 12 ; the 
next day it was published by sound e^ 
fe'um|)et that the commune was diiisolvedr. 
and that the burghers shoi^d no longer 
retain their banner, their town-house^ arid 
their befiry. 1'Ihs news created great con- 
fusion; all the shops and hostelrieis were 
imriiedktely shut, and i\iQ burgheri. took 
OTms. Fbrty of them took a.mutuat oath 
to kill the bishop and all the nobles Who 
had threatened the existence of ^e ruSni 
commune. ITie conspiracy got wind,^ a^. 
Gaudri was informed of it. His friwids 
beseeched him Aot to go out on the d«r of 
the Eastei^ procession. He treated their 
prudent advice with levity imd co»tenpt. 
"For shame!" saidhe, "/die by the hands 
of such ^Iks ! If tf ohn, liiy bf ao&, w6re to 
amuse hlmse^ by priUiiig fb riose of tfe 
stoutest tiimong them,, he (Ltit^ not v¥^ 
grumble.'* However, he catised himself t6, 
be surrounded in the prOoesslOA by his 
knights and soi'vants, wh'6 w^ore Arms ten- 
der the^ robes. Whilst the proc6ifi5«» 
wasi wuiding down one Of the sft»eeti§> tie 
mob begfim to tfy " C^mmiime f Cofnriiune /" * 
but owing to some want Of tinde«Stain<fidg 
amoft| themsel^^il, tliis thfio the f>tOj<^ 
of the conspirators feft to the g^tmd. Oft 
Easter ThUrfidsC^, While tli^ Wshop, ifi 
compete security, w^ cofi'f ^tskg wiS &n 
archdOiScon naiued eaUlti^„ tho Crf of 
*^ Commune /'* Wftd ag^ tf^^d. JU this ' 
signal nunibers ci burgheft, armed with ' 
litoces add bows; clubs and aiet, sur- 
rounded the episcopal palace, ^e nObfes '. 
who ran to its sudcou* Wer6 mai^sacl^, 
and the citizens by main force euteited the 
palace, crying, " Where k tfi^ irsatot of a 
bishop, the scoundrel?" Gaiidri hM hid 
himself in a vat, where he Would riot have 
been found but for the t*fe«6li^r|^ of & sof- 
vant. (hie thei»gand, a serf of the^ (^Uf6h 
of St YiUceut, who vs'as the ringfeadOSf Of 
the irism^rectiori, baviug taken otf t^o 
cover of the ttm, struck it with Ks cfeb, 
crying out, "Is the^e anybody T^thi^r 
The trembling bisTiop aiiswered, ^* Ahf it 
is dn unhappy prisoner." "Oh, it il yoU, 
then, master fox," liaid the serf Of St Vin- 
ceUt's, "that have hidden yoUfSdf in this 

tuu?*' Sft^g these w<»ad, he r 

)igitized by ' 



164 



THE MIRROR. 



bishop by ib6 bair (mt of hi« hidinfirpkoe: 
the poor Gandri prayed and supplicated, 
ftam^ng on the Gospel to abdicate the 
bUioprlc^ and leave the oonntry for ever. 
Bat hiB-pmyen were not listened to; and 
tiie serf gave him a Mow on the head with 
Ms: two-edged axe. The second blow 
:>iaiished him. The burghers cut off his 
Uttie ItageTy in order to take his rich pas- 
toralring; his body was dragged into the 
atreet; and every one tiiat passed threw 
mvd and stones upon it 



CURIOSmBS OF MEDICINE. 
Mn JACOB Bell, intending to write a few 
pages to introduce the 'Pharmaceutical 
Jfoumal* to the profession, was led on 
step by step till he had written a goodly 
pampUet of more than a hundred. It is 
iu>w given to the world as a separate 
publication. Besides being a valuable re- 
cced of many things of great importance 
to^ the medical world, but of modem 
^te, he has gone back to former times, 
and inroduced, in aid of his general plan» 
an abundance of rare and entertaining 
matter. We give a few specimens. 

MCTOBS IN TRB BBIGN OP HENRT Tin. 

The first act of parliament relatuig to 
the medical profession was passed in the 
year 1511, and is entitled *An Act for the 
appointing of Physicians and Surgeons.* 
iTie preamble is worded thus:— ** Foras- 
much as the science and cunning of Phy- 
sick and Surgery (to the perfect knowledge 
ofwhich be requisite both' great learning 
and ripe experience), is daily within this 
realm ezerdsed by a great multitude of 
ignorant persons, of whom the greater part 
have no manner of insight in the same, nor 
in any other kind of learning ; some also 
can read no letters on the book, so far 
forth that common artificers, as smiths, 
weavers, and women, boldly and accustwn- 
atdytake upon them great cures, and 
things of great difficulty, in the which 
they partly use sorcery and witchcraft, 
partly apply such medicines unto the dis- 
ease, as be very noxious, and nothing meet 
therefore, to the high displeasure of God, 
great inflEimy to the £Eunilty, and the 
grevious hurt, damage, and destruction of 
many of the King*s Uege people ; most es- 
pecially of them that cannot discern the 
uncunning from the cunning. Be it there- 
fore (to the surety and comfort of all man- 
ner of people) by the authority of this pre- 
sent Parliament enacted, That no person 
within, the city of London, nor within 
seten miles of the same, take upon him to 
exercise and occupy as a Physician or 
^geon, except he be first examined, ap- 
prove^ and admitted by the Bishop of 
London, or by the Dean of St PauVs, for 



the time behig, calling to him or them fbm 
Doctors of Physic, a£l for Surgery, other 
eiroert persons in that fecul^." 

In the year 1518, Thomas Linacre, -tiie 
physician of Henry the Eighth, proposed 
the establishment of a College of ray^- 
dans, which was acccmiplished on the idrd 
of September of that year. The poweis 
of this body were extended in the ypB^ 
1540 : the physicians were exoheitt^ 
from the necessity of attendance on juries 
and parochial offices, and were em^wered 
to enter the houses of apothecaries in Lon- 
don, ** to search, view, and see the apothe- 
cary-wares, drugs, and stuffii,** and to de- 
stroy such as they fbund corrupt or unfit 
for use. In the same year the Iwrbers taai, 
surgeons were imited into one company, 
but the surgeons were prohibited firam 
shaving, and the barbers were restricted 
firom performing any surgical operations, 
except drawing teeth. The physicians, 
however, were allowed to practise surgery. 

CHOICE REOIFB. 

Culpeper says, that ** The head o£ a cole 
black cat being burnt to ashes in a new 
pot, and some of the ashes blown into ttm 
eye every day, hs^ such as have a sUa 
Sowing over their si^t. If there haptm 
any inflammation, moistai an oak leaf in 
water and lay It over the tyeJ* 

AN OLD FASHIONED LAMP. 

A house and shop, with a laboratory, 
were built on the Bedford estate, in Ihe 
year 1706, by Ambrose Godfrey Hanck- 
witz, who had carried on bosiness as a 
chemist in the neighbourhood since 1680. 
He was a maker of phoc^horus and othdr 
chemicals, which were rare at that period; 
and which he 8<^ in drfeent jnarta of 
the country during his travels. His lahof 
ratory was a fiishionable resort in the after- 
noon, on certain occasions, what he per- 
formed popular experiments for tiie amassh 
ment of his friends. It opened with ( 
doors into a garden, which 
far as the Stiand, but whidi is now bnik 
upon. Four curious old priirts of the labo- 
ratory in its finrmer state, are in the pos- 
session of its present prmietors, Messrs 
Oodfir^ andOooke, of Souniamplon street, 
Covent gardm, also a porteiit of Andvrose 
Godfirey Hanckwitz, engraved by Qeorge 
Vertue (1718), which he distributed among 
his customers as a keepsake. 



FINE ARTS. 

GnAC£ is everywhere conspicuous in the 
works of the ancients, as might be ex- 
pected, f^om their assiduous study of 
form. Nothing can be more simple, ea^, 
and natural than the positions of most of 
their statues. We see no affected con- 
trasts-no a^j»|J^^.(r^J^inph«tI. 



'9 »—— - — 



TH£ MIRROR. 



165 



caUv called attUude-^-m waste of effort. 
And vhen gracefdl movanent-was required, 
as in their dancing or floating nymphs, 
nothing can be more beautifully expressed, 
llie most frequent examples of grace 
among tiiie modems are to be met with in 
tke works of Baflaelle, Ludoyico Carracci, 
Paimegiano, and Correggk), though both 
tiie latter, by attempting to carry it too 
&r, occasionidly fell into affectation, than 
wl^ithas not a more irreconcilable foe. 
Ha^cman and Stothard, in our own coun- 
try, may be hdd up safely, andexultingly, 
to the student, as possessmg this fascinate 
ing quality in its greatest purity. In 
treatmg o£formsy next to the human figure, 
tbe theory of drapery demands attention, 
and here again we are deeply indebted to 
the antique. The ancients, who employed 
drapery to decorate, and not conceal, the 
human figure, hare, in their sculpture, lefb 
us most excellent examples of various 
lands, in motion and at rest (some large 
and ample in its folds and texture, some of 
extreme delicacy). The student should 
carefully invealagate these, for although 
paintmg does not, perhaps, always require 
the same degree of precision and definition, 
yethe may gain from the antique, better 
thanr from any other source, an insight 
ii^ the principles on which it should be 
adjusted ; and by reference to nature, and 
to the demands of his own art, obtain a 
knowledge of its true theory, — Howard's 
Lectures on Painting, 

COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHIC 
PICTURES. 
M. Abago has presented to the Academy 
of Sciences some of the above pictures, by 
M.Lechi. The colourmg is effected by 
depositing successive uniform layers of 
ocAmr on each part of the picture, the 
OTcrplus quantity of which is removed by 
passmg the plate through hot water. 
What remains of the colour, after this ab- 
lution, does not in the least injure the ap* 
pearance or alter the form of the image: 
the effect is different from that obtained 
by colouring an image upon paper, in 
whidi, if a uniform colour be put on those 
parts where the tone of cdour is the same, 
it win always be seen that the shadows 
have at first been black. In the specimens 
presented by M. Lechi, the shadows, on 
the contrary, seem to result from the ap- 
plication of several layers of the same co- 
lour. Thus, it seems, that those parts of 
the picture which were at first black, re- 
twn, after being washed, a larger portion 
of colouring matter than the lighter parts. 

Ancient Science, — ^According to Pliny, a 
widge of iron, prepared in a way that ren- 
dered it proof against the action of the 
]jeather, formerly connected the shores of 
the Euphrates, 



A SISTER'S LOVE. 

(CbnttJtvecQ. 
To confirm into rational attachmmt a 
mere transient fancy, Evelyn had but to 
inhabit for a while the same house wi& 
the susceptible soldier ; and to bring tfeds 
about, Aileen had only to hint at hSt fii- 
tfaer's desolate conditicm, and the fiat^ruet 
likely to devdve from tiie stranger's pro- 
tracted illness on theur old faithftd nurse. 
All of deception which the nature of eiter 
sister would permit the one to practise, was 
a request, nipped with what seined an ex- 
cess either of modesty or caution, that the 
subject of the rescue from the wreck 
should, if alluded to by the patient, be 
studiously waived and avoided, and the 
invalid decidedly prevented from expatiat- 
ing on a topic to the excitement of which 
his illness was, perhaps, chiefly due. Kor 
was the unsuspecting Evelyn at aU aware 
of the importance attached by the soldier 
to the share in that rescue of her almost 
ampliibious sister, still less of the senti- 
ments to which gratitude on ^at score had 
already given birth ; and, therefore, the 
more disposed to yield to Aileen's parting 
entreaties, that the poor sick gentleman 
might not, if possible, discover (at least 
till restored to health) the change in his 
youthful attendant 

All this seemed natural enough, and was 
easily and lightly promised : Evelyn en- 
gaging to sit down " as if she had nev^ 
been away," on the low stool, in the as yet 
only half-conscious invalid's sick room-' 
and let him talk as wildly as he chose, with- 
out interruption (save on the matter of 
the wreck) to his, alas ! absent " Aileen.** 
" And you'll let old Oonagh call you so, 
sister dear, just to beguile her into think- 
ing it's her darling that's away ; and for 
my father, you know, he never could frame 
his lips to the name that sounds, alter all, 
only like English for Aileen ; so, you'll just 
be Aileen to them all, till the gentleman's 
better, arid spring comes round." 

Into all these fond arrsLngcracntSt tlie 
affectionate daughter and siister uncon- 
sciously entered. She was quite young, 
and, maugre her to^vn-brtoduig, quite 
merry enough to enjoy the metaniorphosia t 
and when her father seeing^ lor the first 
time, her snooded hair peeping forth in it« 
natural luxuriance from beneath the hood 
of the graceful national doak^ snatched lier 
to his heart, and exclaimed^ '* my own, 
my own blessed Aileiin V- tbe kind •jjirl felt 
as if she never till then had knoim the in^ 
estimable value of a parent's love. 

Colonel Sydenham, had he even been 
more alive than, alas ! his weakness yet 
prmitted, to surrounding objects, must 
nave been gifted with divination, had he 
guessed that the fairy creature, sitting on 
the low stool aforesaid, and humming, 
soHo voccf snatches of Aileen's old favourite 



Id6 



fttEMIMUA. 



ballads, was AB^yier, «&daot t4e same with 
the object of hi§ Mcedjr remembered de- 
rlMrifiTTrr 

jipttf fa^ gyed with yiMiteMXMilj tl^^agh 

Wi4 < ^ft ian ^ fflS ' BCB; * ^ the ^of el^ f^^ffs^i that 

. Mt9w Jpi^v^itf^ JW^uji4 hi6 i^yiowT^-iii the i£- 

4»IW«al i^«Bps<i Miejilhjei there wa*, fire 

■ Silf^ hSS^ >uui €a^i^ of Aikep, the f^k 
.§Hftm0^ k9^ q$i}y heea th^ pbje^^^a pi^y 

. 9M» IH^ J %94 4^1^06^ ^ ouly seiUKM^ 
. #raii^i($vl ^r hi0 pa86jk>«ate bivrat of r^- 
9m4m ffa^i^^t vas 4%nkf^LBes9 th^ 
jE^ haii fi^r^^iid^ a bfidegroom ^ \ju§f 4yv^ 
^g^ IPfl ^t^n, f^ltli ^ j^ioe a martial 
$gvgi^ »A tim e^i^afA 9flt<)^ hefore he^f^od 
.$, faoe/op ^^^ no /sahre^pnto )ud as y^t 
etia;M|)Q4 ^^^ )^9ic J^egQGK^. 

I^ut m .thelfmpy of ^elyu, f^gixifWlmfi 
iNpitied a|»<^> apsift^ Ur h#r i^-fuod- 
in^iliber's rflpoinifffiwjig^ of a lom^ ^ad- 
.r^aai^tHre, irepre (p^ty muoh qooo^ to tbe 
jB^M^puev p^tjm of the^hraryofherljMijIf- 
Dpadical, haV<in$vrtlal ^raod&kthejr, the 
idea^ of e<^u*a and glory were indiseoltthiy 
identified. Though iuatinctiyely Blu^M^king 
fic^^ so do^.as the ni^re iahahi|itMit of a 
'' tmr^cki'' 9he had i<^:ig aig^ to '' MLow 
«^l#Qir" ^;hroygh tf\c stimng^oeoes whi(^ 
yet hyed in Mrs Evelyn's remembrance. 
J^ <;hongh locking up, era lonff, as ex- 
PJQis^ioQ ^adnally fs-illui^uned £18 com- 
faanding ^eature«> to Cok»iel Sydenham, 
iwit^ a ^EejB^pectful ^Admhratioo, Uttie ahor^ 
of iier untntprefl sister's — she felt tk9l thua 
to ^^ ^ through Ufe, 4» one her superior 
in iQgJ^iky .^d %ge, and endowments, was the 
io|; ]wiuch, <^ aU ^ihis £arth could afiurd, 
fweop^d swoetest and most enWable. 

■To tthe subject of his love. Colonel Sy- 
4^hfM»9 sobei^d and aubdued as he was to 
a mofiG rational ^iune of miud by sickness 
and ^^ection^ again reverted. lie had not, 
i^Fey^r) altogether forgotten its hasty 
fbvowal ¥^ader tlie blended excatement of 
gratitude and incipjyont fever; but while, 
^fi legi^Dde^ hlmaelf, theira^tsient £EUicyhe 
fi^4^fbB 4a}]y a§sumW a higlier and far 
^iSss&at (^^araoter, he resolved to be 
$^^4^ i& ur^ii^ a 8vit--to the ineUgibi- 
$ty <xf ^rlndi he was now not whcdly Wad 
r-Afy the degree of redpigc^l feeling which 
iffi ^rmer aimounoement ^lould seem to 
liw>yie awakened in the breast of the lovely 
IBcSBS^rver of his life. 

. <k* the extent and 4qpth of thi^ seBti- 
^Eifii^f he oo^id ^et long remain ignoi^uit, 
and ^ gratified him tlie more from the 
scrupulous care, so opposite to village co- 
qp^y, with which it was veiled from his 
i|Q^ce by one whose heart, he little dreaxat 
he iras as yet, in spite of her utmost 
c^or^, " winning,, unwooed." 

It was n(^ long thus ; for the €i4ouel, 
whose «yes had not, <^ late, been silent, 
Bj^lt;^, ^d i^ra^ ^lo^ueutly. ^nd .though 



he 4id^fiHiaMi^MimitUmmkk^mmi' 
iHons of gr«tit«4e, wUdi, «v)9i ^wUle vis- 
interpretin|r tiiem as sdai/lia^ to hii teoo- 
very ^c&m lUness, Oelyn wmdd ooB«eieB* 
tioufily slnink from a{^ttsopriating. ¥it, 
as he was too delioate either 4o tender liis 
hand asthe price of his rescue, or to idUuk 
to any Ibrmer liasty -step whioh night tear 
tiiat intei^retaUon, these was taodikig to 
induce her to imagine iks4, 4he wgaii, «f 
which Mie bad witnessed, wiiii trpMWii^ 
hope, the gndasl gvow<ii» or 4Jw mkivIs, 
' every tone of which was mnaio tolicrssBl, 
had ever been previonsly diieeCed tok- 
nay, were even stiH addressed to ano(to. 
£fte conyiotion was at ienygth Ibsud 
upon Svelyn, that it was the ppa o awi ci af 
his U^e from Miapwi«ck wiaom Gngr aet 
ouiv imaged he was newardiiag^rith ivk 
and station-T-hnt had hidf moae^isl ii 
inducuig his famMy, in thai ^c^pMtty, to 
tolerate — ^the heart nf the f^oor ^Amuvi 
inexUioably won-^-lier evepgr fariing #• ii- 
dissotobly Iraund «f> wkb tbe faopQ U lif • 
Ing, k* not dj^ng for him, for whev iur 
aiater had h&eo. privileged to peril h^: 4iMit 
it was not in human, pe rfaap a »€ «i t| » wy aot 
in female natiue to <tisdaia tiie dMneCv . 
<Mce his, when the dnyatednets^f feifs 
i^ould have rivetted her dauns on lusii- 
dnlgence, and reeonciled Jumatl^asttaAi 
exd^ge, she trasted to being mdmfi 
with strengtii to maiK the confesiiwi tiiit 
the Aileen of Ins gratitude, andtlie£iisi^ 
of his love, were, alas ! dilfeaent beings. 

To make a long tale ishort. Colonel Sy- 
denham, dubbed* for the twentieth tim in 
his life, on the -saiiie aooie, a Quixote by 
his own relations, and ind(e.mnified for Ibeir 
scorn by the weU-uigh idolatrous reject 
of those of his bride, W98 united for li^ to 
£velyn Clare, just three months a^rjier 
si8fcer*s very diferait wedding; and jual in 
time to oheY a similar hasty summons to 
rejoin tlie head-jquarters of his r^sguneut 
in England. 

Eve^n's first pang— one, too» the m^mfy 
of whidi haunted her through many a^ 
of conscious duplicity^-arose £rom the re- 
mark made by her Imsband on the is^ 
which it never occurred to hef infipeqjUSHS 
nature to sufifress (could «he even b^ve 
done so), on encountering a storm on Hb&t 
passage to Enghmd. ''Never, till nov, my 
Evelyn," whispered the adoring bridegroom, 
'* did I know to what an ^jcff-iionof^itoism 
my preservation on tWt awful m^v^ 
due? For yourself, I see vou can tremble 
like a woman; but^ for owers, yxm «0uld 
dare when man wonld have hes^ted!** 

How truly did Evelyn, on hearing theae 
words, experience that to plunge, in his 
behalf, anud the foaming waters aroupd, 
would require a less effort of courage tk^ 
to say the one word which might mr evfir 
open between them a gulf more tenible 
stUL All8hecoulddo,wastoi»lin|i](fr<W 



immnMo% 



liJT 



9 the subject with such manifest and un- 
^ feigned reluctance — grounded, he jiuppose4, 
K on the remembered horrors of the icene — 
I that Sydenham, in compassicm, never re- 
curred to it himself, and exacted ^ his 
I friends a similar forbearance. 
u For many succeeding, and, Qn the whole, 

i happy years, Evelyn followed her husband 
I to the scenes of his military employn^nt^ 
1 with brief intervals of feverish sohdltude 
■ for his safety, when compelled, by necessity, 
I to separate from him. It was then that 
B the Bemembcpaioe of har usurped place in 
r hii atfections iroae Wka a kn^ £rom ^ 
I very depths of memory; while a remnant of 
I superstition, from which no Irish cottage 
f maiden was ever, perhaps, entirely free, 
I Hide hflr fe^pn:!d the id^al of achild^to 
I M^ (Mammon, or ^heer^iie iMonfulperiod 
I 0^ ibi9(»MC« Willi its «mii^ 
i a f^99lmm&i9^ for p»ab dissimulattoH. 
i A^off9t Aikm «he onitted no oppptivL" 

[I m^M sibtmmag inteUigeaee; th^^MSh in- 
' ^^ jn^HbieA indtireot 1^ csonscious 
i 4»p|i4t9^f ^^M ^hiotw liiUifi iight, beymid 
k t|^i^M)e£liQt0f her«xistoM)e,ont^vicissl- 
i t94Si ^ «^ eomiBon sddier'A lot. Once, 
I |#m^9>«7eii sJ^htat £ftther'9 defttti had 
It wji^lwd Imt of that chanafti of intercourse — 
i ^ h«d beand 4ireotly €tt>m her eiater, 
[I whose caution in wording and addressing 
» iMVilOfiSpiiBioaitioD, idiowed herto hetiie 
I nme geoGvom being as when she &*st 
ii lto>^ ft jaflit^'9 Jdevation. 
! Years rolled on, some ten «r twelve, 

P9fimp9, from their marriage, the latter 
) pNBt ^ .tto» Hngtoddened ^y any recent 
) Ij^Qfs of Aiieen, when Bk Chiy Syden- 
[i \ma$ taugl»t (and knighthood for military 
i t^efib WM t^n a badge of distinc^on 
i ngely aeoe^ded), was appou^ted, in further 
[ reward of his icmg aervices, €k>vemor of 
i aa Island in the West Indies, 
t llie azn^fll of Sir <S4iy and Lady Sydai< 

I ham took place late in liie year; and, will- 
ing as ever to please or foe leased, the gay 
i anii gallant governor fixed for tiie inaugu- 
^ zalioa dinner and boli whidi were to win 
b^ g<dden <^i&iona from has new subjects, 
I OB tibe, to him, ever-dear anniversary of 
QBrigt.inafl £ve. Lady Syden^iam, attired 
V ^ mnnlftopuoe in the &esh gifts which 
m that day never fidled to weigh down the 
l«ea0ton which they glittered, had endured, 
as beat idna pnght, the previous part of the 
entertainnvRBt and the raptmrous reply, 
fravgbt to Aerwith paiitful though ddicate 
idlufionfi, made by her still adoring hus- 
band, wiien his wi&'s health was, as a mat- 
ter of eourse) proposed. Under ttie accla- 
niatiiMUi didted by his speech, its object, 
or rather its victim; contrived to escape, 
a^ gladly turaed, to breaOie freely and 
isdieve her overburdened heart, from the 
illuminated and heated banquet-hall into 
tkfi cpcd mcxnllt verandah irumung round 
every tropical resitoiee. 



T^e goremment house had been fitted 
i^ for, and but recently ceded by, Spanish 
authorities ; and there was much in its 
arrangements of Moorish rather than Spa- 
nish attrition to shade and coolness. In 
front of the slightly-raised balconv where 
Evelyn stood, lay a fountain designedly 
resembling a natural rocky basin, from 
whose interstices towered lofty shoots of 
the umbrageous plaintain tree, from amid 
the broad g^^itering leaves of which rose a 
peroetual jet of crystal s|»arkUng Wiiter, 
whose perennial moisture served tp refreih, 
psiy almpst to nour^, the ^rj»g iCurpet lOC 
gay flowers, which^ in devices of almost 
Turkish intricacy, clothed the elsewhere 
arid |n^iu4r ^ Jpaded the m&pmx m 
widi weft -nigh overpowering fragrance, 
^yond Ihis if^txpus £^3egrou&d, from the 
4^YlMi«4 pM£»raEioii which theeowi>&oiise 
at^^-^ ^lope afl studded with j^idnti^ 
i^J4ii^(m,mM eq a boagm Bd in its separate 
pc^fi gf tall a»d atatdy trees-HBwve^ 1^ 
Its dark outline to set off the more distin^y 
tdi^/tjiaJ^ /fi^^Mloe of sea th;^ atretched be- 
vy^d an4 i^V^ beneath the vnde^dei 
b^ams of « t^^flcal frdl Bioon ~ fimned with 
th^ va^ Atto^ ^f Evdyn's eaj4y remin- 
iseences a c^traat mm oomplete as clid )ier 
pre«opt agitated feelings with ilie cahn of 
night ar<md her. 

The day wa« the first of the Chrisianas 
holidays, whan the inuaemorial Ucence af- 
forded to the slaves, and t^e degree in 
which it was improved for ttie purposes of 
i^rt #nd 1^ joyment, b<H?e equal testimcmy 
to the ]dndBess of theb calumniated mas- 
te^rs, anil to the unconquerable buoyancy 
of the negro character. Drums and hems, 
and shouts moie disoc^rdant than either, 
can»e aa yet softened by distance on the 
ear; while, at intervals, <^e mare mellow 
str$4ns of banda of fenaale singers seemed 
to say th*t there was ^*muac^ in the voices, 
if not the ^'aoula,** of some ^ the joyous 
4W<5ans. 

It waa while issenjiably withdrawn from 
her own «ad ilioughts by the magic and 
novelty of the ac^ie, that Evelyn? atten- 
tion was attracted by two figures. wMdi, 
enn^ipgag from a path leacUng up from the 
harbour, stole silendy round the comer of 
the house towards the verandah. Her first 
esnotion was that of alight alarm, which 
©aye way on percavliM? 4^at one of them 
SL^ least waa appaE;ent^ a w<^an, and on 
h^^^ing, aa she bent over the balustrade to 
rec&M%QUre, a m^ii^iered entreaty from a 
n^o voice that '* Missus, please stand 
stiS and hark a minnte." Her next idea 
was, that the mufiled-up figure mi^t be 
the ja^-pudding which each of the negro 
craJBte at that festive season vie with each 
other in disguising, come as spokesman of 
the reft to obtain some favour, through 
her, from the governor. 

(^Tolfe eoHpUtdedAn^ur next.) 



l68 



THE MlEROtt. 




b^''H«;;^l;*l^l;*r?'^^^**^^'^*- ^^^- a pair ©r wings, ta»ct,ar,chawd with tw« 
mort ^am foedart. *♦ I had rather die than be debased." 



THE NOBLB HOUSE OP ATHLONE. 
The founder of the Athlonc family wa* 
Godart de Ginkell, commander-in-chief of 
Uie army of Kmg William m. Heserved 
in the Irish campaign of 1691, and distin- 
guished himself by intrepidity, presence of 
mind, and superior skill. 

The siege of Athlone was that which most 
recommended him to the favour of his 
royal master. He advanced against it in 
June, 1 69 1 . The enemy resisted with great 
determination and some success. On the 
30th it was debated whether the siege 
should not be raised. The decision of a 
council of war being in &vour of continuing 
the operations, JMSyor-Generals Talmaah, 
IMackay, and others, havmg oflered to cross 
the river and attack the enemy, the de- 
tachment drawn out the day before was 
brought down at the usual hour of reliev- 
ing tlie guards, that the enemy might not 
suspeict anything extraordmary. All being 
ready the signal was given, and " Captain 
Sandys and two lieutenants led the first 
party of sixty grenadiers, all in armour, 
and twenty a-breast, seconded by another 
good body of foot, and with an imparalleled 
resolution took the ford that was a little to 
the left of the bridge, against a bastion of 
the enemies; the stream being very rapid, 
and the passage exceedingly difficult by 
reason of some great stones that were in 
the river; at the same time the English 
great and small shot began to play from the 
works and batteries upon those of the ene- 
my on the other side, who fired again like 
hail upon those that passed the river; but 
at length the latter most gallantly forced 
their way through all the fire and smoke of 
the enemy, and having gained the opposite 
bank, the rest laid jdanks over the broken 
part of the bridge, while others were pre- 
paring the pontoons, whereby the English 
passed over so fast, that in less than half 
an hour they became masters of the town, 
and possessed themselves of the works that 
remained entire towards the enemy's camp. 
Tiie Irish were so astonished at the sud- 
denness of the attack and resolution of the 
English, that tbey quickly abandoned the 



place and fied to the army, though not 
without considerable loss. The besicgew 
had not above fifty men killed in this con- 
siderable action, where they firand now 
more obstruction firom the mblnsh and 
stufi'beatendown by their cannon, thanfrom 
the enemy, which made the soldkrs cone 
and swear bitterly, and gave occasion to 
tllat excellent person, Major*GeneralMac- 
kay, to tell them * they had more reason to 
fall down upon their knees and thank God 
for the victory, and that they were brsTc 
men, and the best of men if they would 
swear less.!" 

A diary of the events which occnmd 
durmg the: progress of the siege is extant; 
two passages from it are suiBcieiitly re- 
markable to extract. . ' 

** The 23rd. This day, about ten ui the 
morning, our tm boats, or poninom^ amnA 
in the camp. Some of our soldiers, going 
among the enemy*8 dead, and several for. 
plunder, heard a voice crying * ftoire, boire* 
that is, in English, * drink, drink,* and 
makmg towards the place, they found it to 
be a French lieutenant-Colonel, who hav- 
ing his back broke, and being wounded in 
several other places, had lain there ever 
since the late action on the 20th. 

" The 24th. About seven this evening one 
of the grenadiers belcmging to the Lord lis- 
bum's regiment perceived a colour of the en- 
emy's floating on the river, just under one of 
the arches of the bridge. He immediately 
stripped and swam thither, and though, I 
beUeve, above a hundred shot were made at 
him, yet the fellow brought it off flying, 
and presented it to the general, who gene- 
rously rewarded him with five guineas.'^ 

Ginkell was raised to the peerage Marclr 
4, 1692, as Baron of Aghrim and Eari of 
Athlone, and at the same time he received 
a grant of 26,000 acres of land, the oonfls- 
cated estate of William Dougate, Earl of 
Limerick. This grant was, however, snb- 
sequently reversed by Parliament, and the 
Earl then returned to his native country, 
where, as a soldier, he again distinguished . 
himself. He died February U, 1720, and 

was succeeded b^ to ,«^Ogle 



THE MtRROR. 



109 



, .-•»».-»-r rf-.f 




THE CHAPEC* OF THE HOLY 
TKINITY. 
Wb this week submit to our readers a 
correct architectural view of the interior of 
tl)e ne\r chapel at Boehampton, of which 
we gave the exteriw in our last number 
but (me. Some idea may be formed of its 
elegance from the pictorial representation 
iUx)ve. It will be found well worthy of a 
vi«t 

In this edifice a remarkable instance is 
pieseuted of the varying views of indivi- 
duals, and a pleasant instance is furnished 
of the amicable way in which a truly 
Christian spirit can adjust di£ferenc%s. Of 
the seats taken by the superior classes who 
worship here, some are mclosed in pews ; 
while others, a^roaching the primitive 
usage, are left open. The eye will be 
struck hy some irregularity which is the 
result ; but the feelings of good-will which 
allow all to exercise their own judgment, 
djemand approval, and are worthy of imita- 
tion. The temple of tlie Deity is not the 
place in which worldly fancies ought to pro- 
voke adverse feelings. Here they exhibit 
variety, but vail is harmony. 

No difference exists between the style 
of the pews or seats of the wealthy and 
those of their poorer Iwrethren, excepting 



that of a carpet or hassock, which the taste 
of the owners may supply. We cannot 
conclude without mentioning the labours 
of the reverend Incumbent, Dr Beiber,who 
is a German by birth, and who has wil- 
lingly brought upon himself a task of great 
labour. At nine o'clock every morning 
throughout the year he is to be found ad- 
ministering spiritual comfort to those who 
may wish to attend the chapel, without 
claiming any increase of stipend, but solely 
actuated by the pious feeUng of liis holy 
calling, fii the view (whidi is in out- 
line) to show more particularly the archi- 
tectural ornaments, it is impossible to 
give the beautiful effect produced by the 
trefoiled arches at the back of the altar, 
which are highly enriched by pamting and 
gildmg, after the manner of the ancient 
churches. 



Egyptian 5Aifl.— The ancient Egyptlansr 
are 1)dieved to have possessed means of 
transporting huge masses which are un- 
known at the present day. How else, it is 
asked, were they able to move masses of 
ro(^ above 800 tons in weight across HO 
miles of desert country, whidi they accom- 
plished? Digitized.byGOQgle 



iro 



^m MIRHOft. 



MIRROR LEVITIES. 



LEGAL OPINIONS. 

" Who shall de^de when Doctors disjigreer 

Talfourd declares Art-Unions all, 
Most come within the Lottery Act ; 

Which poor subscribers will enthral ; 
Kelly and Ckrk deny that fact 

'Tis ever thus tiie sons of law 

Our views coufodnd of wrong and right. 
And make us inferences draw, 

That white is black, and black is white. 

A BROAD HINT. 

Let him whose vanity requires consoling 
Through sneers well earned by fooleriee 
in print : 
No more for «e;^c in a fine ftenzy rolling " 
Mstake a sinister mideading squint. 

Toft Hunter. 

ON THE CXOSINCJ OP DRURT LANJB THEATRE 

TWO NIGHTS IN EACH WEEK BEFORE 

EASTER. 

With Drury's actors, it is said, 
Brief labour wakes great discontent ; 

However little they are paidy 
They never wish to have much Lent. 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS. 

L'AcADEi^uii DBS Sciences. — M. Dhium 
read a report on the memoir of M. Le Dr 
Donne, ' On the constitution of l^lood, and 
on the effects . of injecting milk into the 
Ve^eU,' The author traces i^i blood: 
l»t, the well-knowtt eed globules: 2nd, 
Ijirge white ^obules, eadiied with distinct 
properties: 3rd, globules of chyle, whieU 
are easily cecogniBed. j^Ueviag the latter 
to be aualagous to milk, Jhe has iAJected 
milk into the veins ^off aaiima^s, all of whom 
have borne it vri^oat uioonvcBieDce, ex- 
cept the horse, to wl4om it has been i'atal. 
After a few d9-ys the miUc is i^ssociated 
with the blood. T^e ^licstion to be solved 
if this; imist this complete assimilatiou 
between Uie giobulesx)!' chyle swd those of 
m^k bejBcce^ted? 

lNSTITUTI(»r op CiYlf4 i^«OMfEBRS.^Ill «. 

momkt discussion upon Mr Clay ^s proo^ss of 
making ms^a^e iron art one process from 
hematite ore, it wm 4^own ^th^^, of the 
twenty-five thousand tons of steel made 
annually in this coimtry, not more than 
two thousand ^e hund^d tons were made 
from the best q:uality of ..Swedish iron ; 
the rest being nxade from inferior charcoal 
iron (from Kussia and Germany, or from 
Ep^lish iron), which was not well calcu- 
late4 for converting. It was therefore 
(Jesirable to encourage Mr Clay's process. 
*A description of tlie Roofs over 
Buckingham Palace,- covered with Lord 
Stanhope's Cemposition,* by Mr; Hogg, 



was lately read. The composition, con- 
sisting of tar, chalk, and sand, boiled 
and wdji incorporated, w^ introduced by 
Mr Nash for covering the fire-proof arched 
TooiSt c$UTied by cast-iron beams over the 
palace ; it has also been used at the 
Favilion, at Carlton Terraces, at Ikut 
Cowes Castle, and many other places ; it 
has been often laid on wooden joists. 
Slates or tiles are embedded in it while 
fluid, and thus is fonued a perfectly water 
proof roof, very durable, demanding few 
repairs, and possessing many advantages 
ov^ metal roofs. The cost varied from 
2L 10s. to 5/L 18s. p^ sqijuu^. 

Mechankat Philosophy and its AppUcation 
to the 4rU, By William B. Carpenter, 
MJ). Loodw; W. S. Orr and Co« 

" Science is too dry for ipe," is the ex- 
clamation of many an intelUgent but nme' 
fleeting III;) El. Let Mm open this book, and 
he wilJ Ix^ liktly to fljod that, in taking «p 
such ati idea, l^e has mi&takeu science and 
mistaken liiniiji4f. In the VLirieties of in- 
formation wbidi tlii^ 'Cycl<jpcEdia' amtains 
he will tuid» we venture to finy, a fund of 
rMionsI tiin vis^uient^ liepe t ii Ions of seve- 
ral of t fit' LennimB td to cjcpluiii the experi- 
ments ^n\\ discoveries wfaicli it descrihes 
are uiKivi/iJiible, iuid tbtse may weary 
some impatient readers. It should, how- 
ever^ foe veqaem^MM^ thu^ siioh « wfrlc, to 
be enjoyed, is nojt tp be run through in a 
morning or an evening. To enjoy it % 
reader must lA^xSs.. I^et him do Inis, vA 
the dryness agains^; wjtiich be is disposed 
to protest urili not be Mt. We add an 
extract, which if the wonderfql—if that 
wMch though true is more a§t(»ii8faiBg 
than any of the extravagance found in the 
• Arabian Nights,' or other fidry tales, cap 
amuse, we think will be read with ^yidity. 
It may, perhaps, not be impi»tin«it te re- 
mark, that as the substantive dimensions 
of mind have not yet been aseertaaoed, it 
is not certain tfiat the sn^i^ beings, of 
which two millions of mlHions 9iay be con- 
tained in one cubic incii of sand, '^re inca- 
pable of some degree of reflection. Acnte- 
ness of perception does nf»t ^lepend npoi 
bulk, and we know not where, after ^"^ 
we see, to set bounds ia ima^in^on ^ 
the wonders whidi tj^ Almighty c^n per- 
form. Dr Carpenter says there ar^ 

" Animalcules possessing a complex in- 
ternal structure, having the pow» o^ im- 
bibing and digesting food, of moviug wiA 
great rajadity, and (as ii; wojuld seem from 
their actions) of enjoying fife duir^ the 
brief sp^n allotted to them, whicli are far 
smaller tlian the minutest paitldes of 
blood. The mimitest Idad ef ^ese are 



jmmnmvi^ 



If 



mS^i pi »» 4Mrt^ ai$i^twre .0^ be 

^ ^910^ 4iftij^i;giui4^alde in tia^ bodies^, 
afip^lkrQ]^ iJpie Idling of ipteri<^ .o^vitie» 
wil^flje f^^iip^^M^t jw^t^wiej? 9t" the colour- 
y^ f^^i^K^ii^^, ^w the ^(4e ^%M»iad i» 
|rom IrJlS^OOOtk 4iO ^-^^^QQQt^ part of m 
mci^ u^ fSUamete^, In the «^^yUer qpes ji« 
^jM^ a« four, an4 in the largor 01^ ^ 
si^y as si^, ,<^ i^se 8pot$ cou^ he 4seeni 
mt occi^pyiiig above l^iaif thediafli^r e^^ije 
9fi^m4} Mie di^u^et^r of each cpot, the|::e- 
%-p, 99144 »Qk b^ i^x^ Ithftn Mi4,000fbh 
H^ ^an jindi. li^m the ;roundn^ cf ttiese 
gfi^t&th^ must b^ sevef alpajrticies juieadi ; 
uw4 Qoi^ asfi^i^ three, we ol^taiQ {iroof th«i<t 
tfxeieQ mi|#t be particles of t^e ocdounug 
^^ib^l^l^ljioe diffused tl^ough the wfiter <^ 
«9 i^i^^aa l-4^2,Qboth port (^ m N^ 
in dui^ter. ;E'ur^er, in the jiar£^r ani- 
^ilfcls (k sinailar fracture, it i« seen iksA 
^ 4^K>ts a^e separated by membraneous 
p^ftitions of not i^ater t^iiokness than 
9l^-twe9^4i^ of the 4iai]9<^er of the spot; 
^ th|$ woujd nmJce t^ thic^n^ss of ihe 
purlttipns no moie than 1-2,880,0001^ of an 
i^jntl^ moaads (^ smaller ^ze. Again, 
in j^ jla^^eor species, the active uKArei^ents 
H^ he 4^tinctl^ 4seen to "be 4ue to the 
vi^atiofi oif 4ehQa^ hair-like filaments, 
iei^aed cUia; thoi^ ithese c^iia cannot be 
4^tiiiig;ui8hQ4 ^ ^ smallest mppads, yet, 
as ihe raoyeiiiients are evidently the same, 
Ibey must doubtless ^xist in thepi; and 
tb^ qannot have a gi^ater disuueter tlian 
1-450,000^ of an inch. If t^e same cal- 
cijiatiions were e^^te^4ed to the young ani- 
ifiisf or to species too smfi^ to be dis- 
cerned, exc^ under the most favourable 
dicumstances, the minuteness of the par- 
ticles oi. whose oxistenoe we should then 
liave BYi/^ieofse would be A>¥ii4 iP be still 
miipe incoBGeivable. 

'' i^aiQ, there is found at BUin, in Ger- 
iVpuay, a deposit c^ sUioeous (flinty) cha- 
r|cter, inrhich occupies a surface of great 
exteiit (probably the site of an aiioient 
bjpeX and ^odps sjb^y jiayers ^ four- 
tQ^ jfeet in 4Jiickxiess. This bed sillies 
t^ trifudi use4 by a|:^aus in i^etal for 
p^hing their work, ^n^ also the fuie 
sf«idemploye4 to form moulds for casting 
8)9|jbU articles in ^Berlin iron. For these 
jMirposes its consuaoption in Berhn alone 
li iu>t less thau &om do ^ 60 cwt. yearly. 
It is almost entirely con^posed of the 
slifif^ihs or coverii^s of a kmd 0^ animai- 
qpie, which has me pow&p of separating 
^tv matt^ from the water in which it 
dwi^s, and of yfo^i^eui^ out of this a sort 
of case analagous to the shell of ft crab or 
lobster. The length of one of these is 



4^0ttt ik» jl - ^Jmik %i m imih; M»i it ia 
Im^ce Q^vil9^ t^t iOmt' 89 mil&oti*oi 

m^^ aful 41/>0O miili(ms in a^bic iofilL 
As,a5mbic i»ek reighs 2^ ffcms, ajitpt 
W miikm woiM he ^scptaiiied m a grw 
weight ctf tto «Widi 

^ The mi^^temm of ^ese is y«t SHr- 
passed by that c£ ^he atrnmhiuks of "the 
ijD<^-och^, a ^j^owkik'^imB substance 
iound m ceptmn marshes. Tbeac see otfliy 
9Jx^ i-l^,oaodti of m inch in dianeter; 
m tliat a ^^ubi^; Um wotM tims oaotmi 
1^0 mMm4 Q^ ^em, itud a cubic ioeb 
li^arly ^¥fo miUwtt miiUoas, Yst these mti- 
m4Quto# Wist h^kve each hfl4 * £pbrie con > 
poised q€ a Jiws^r of par^, vho§e mxB 
would be smaH m .^ompArisoa 4o diat «f 
^ whole bo4y. Tb^one se&sis, tbepefofe^ 
no jiimit -sy^iAeYer to the subdirifiioii of 
ms^rial pa^r^les in the o«.turai jprowtli «f 
auimal bodies." 



Life in ^ffixicQ, 4vring a M^sidmce ^ Tw& 
Years in that Country, ^y ms^j^^ 
C^-rr- de la B-T-^. Partn. 

^£¥£iiAJ> of the piotures heee toniidjed sm 
Wgocously pali^tied, but sometimes the 
writer wastes herself on details which can 
Q^y interest those oonaected wl^ the in- 
dividuals described. The^ee is an air o 
spinning out wliich is found wearisome. 
The following sketch of a bail is good. I^ 
teokplace at San Augpostin :-^ 

" Inece were peopie of all classes ; modUtef 
and carpenters, shop-boys, taii(H%, hatters, 
and hosiers, minted wi^ aH the haut ton of 
Mexico. JSvery shop-boy considered him- 
self entitled to dance with every lady, and 
no ladyconsidficed lierse^ as having a riglit 
to refuse him, a^d then to dance with 

aiuother p<»son. The JSenora de , a 

most high-bred and dignified person, 
danced with a stable-boy in a jacket and 
without gloves, and be appeared parUca- 
larly graiUfied at the fixtram^diaary o|^or- 
tunity thus aflEarded him of holding her 
white gloves in his brown fwiws^* 

We must not omit the costumes. 

" The genersd dress of the company con- 
sisted of a sia^ blanket, gracefully dis- 
posed in folds about the person $ so as ^ 
show various glimpses of a bronze skin. 
To this some added a pair of Mexican pan- 
taloons, and some a shirt of a doubtM 
colour. There wece many witii large hats, 
most of which had crowns or parts of 
crowns, but all afiordiiig free enti'ance t«i 
the fresh air. Generally speaking, ho*r- 
ever, the head was uncovered, or cove^red 
only with its native thatching of IcAif , 
bushy, tanked black hair. ^IMs mi^it be 
out of comphmeat to tlie ladies, o£ wfaon 
there were several, aad who ought in polite- 
ness to hare been m e n t i o ned first. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



172 



THE MIRROR. 



'^NoUniig could be tim^r than their 
costume, consisting, of a verv dirty and 
extremely torn chanifle,with short sJeeves, 
a shorter petticoat, and a pair of shoes, 
generally of dirty satin : also a rehoso, and 
the long hair hanging down as Eve's golden 
locks mav have done in Paradise." 

We subjoin a very piquant story of the 
Viceroy KeviUagigedo : — 

*^ A lady of fortune, owing to some com^* 
binatiaii cf drcumstances, found herself in 
difflcultifis, and in immediate want of a 

small sum of money. Don being her 

compadrty and a respectable merchant, she 
went to him to state her necessities, and 
offered him a case of vahiable jewels as a 
security fx repayment, provided he would 
advance her eight hundred dollars. He 
agreed, and the bargain was concluded 
without any written document, the lady 
depositing her jewels and receiving the 
sum. At the end of a few months, her 
temporary difficulties being ended, she 
went to her comjMidre*^ house to repay the 
money, and receive back her jewels. The 
man readily received the money, but de- 
clared to his astonished comvadre^ that as 
to the jewels, he had never neard of them, 
and that no such transaction had taken 
place. The Senora, indignant at the mer- 
cliant's treachery, mstantly repaured to the 
palace of, the vice-king, hoping for justice 
from this Western Solomon, though un- 
al4e to conceive how it could be obtained. 
She was instantly received by Kevillaspgedo, 
who listened attentively to her account of 
the circumstances. 'Had you no witnesses?' 
said the count. * None,' replied she. *Did 
no servant pass in or out during the trans- 
action ?' *No one.' The viceroy reflected 
a moment. * Does your compadre smoke ?' 

* No, sir,' said the lady, asUmished at this 
irrelevant question, and perhaps the more 
so, as the count's aversion to smoking was 
so well known that none of his smoking 
subjects ventured to approach him without 
having taken every precaution to deaden 
any odour of the fragrant weed which 
might lurfe about their clothes or person. 
*Does he take snuff?' said the viceroy. 
'Yes, your Excellency,' said his visitor, 
who probably feared that for once his 
Excellency's wits were wool-gathering. 

* That is sufficient,' said the viceroy ; 
'retire into the adjoining chamber and 
keep qniet^your jewels shall be restored.' 
His Excellency then despatched a messen- 
ger for the merchant, who immediately 
presented hunsell * I have sent for you,' 
said the viceroy, *that we may talk over 
some matters in which your mercantile 
knowledge may be of use to the state.' 
The merchant was overwhelmed with 
gratitude and joy ; while the viceroy en- 
tered into conversation with him iqKni 
variotts affairs connected with his profes- 



sion. Suddenly the viceroy pai his hMi 
first in one podcet, then in the other, irm 
the air of a man who has mislaid soms- 
tMng. *Ah!' said he, 'my snuff-bdt 
Excuse me for a moment while I go to 
fetch it fixmi the next room.' 'Sir!' Slid 
the merchant, 'permit me to hsv^ tl^ 
honour of oiling my box to your Exofl- 
Iw^.' His Excellency received it as if 
medkanically, holding it in his hand and 
talking, till pretending some business he 
went out, and calling an officer, desired hini 
to take that snuff-box to the merchant* « 
house, asking his wife as from him, by that 
token, to deliver to the bearer a case of 
jewels which he had there. The viceroy 
returned to the apartment where he had 
left his flattered guest, and remained in 
conversation with him tmtil the officer re- 
turned, and requesting private speech of 
the viceroy, deUvered to him a jewel-caae 
which he had received from the merchant's 
wife. Revillagigedo then returned to his 
flur complainant, and under pretence of 
showing her some rooms in the palace, led 
her into one, where amongst many objects 
of value, the jewel-case stood open. No 
sooner had she cast her eyes upon it than 
she started forward in joy and amazement 
The viceroy requested her to wait there a 
little longer, and returned to his other 
guest. ' Now,' said he, ' before going far- 
ther, I wish to hear the truth concerning 
anollier affair in which you are interested. 
Are you acquainted with the Senorade 

? ' ' Ultimately, sii^-she is my ctwww- 

dre,* 'Did you l^d her eight hundred 
doDars at such a date?' *I did.' 'Did 
she give you a case of jewels in pledge ?' 
'Never,' said the merchant, vehem^t(y. 
' The money was lent without any security; 
merely an act of friendship, and she has 
invented a story concerning some jewels, 
which has not the slightest foundation.' 
In vain the viceroy begged him to reflect, 
and not, by adding falsehood to treachery, 
force him to take measures of severit;^. 
The merchant with oaths persisted in ms 
denial. The viceroy left the room sud- 
denly, and returned with the jewel-case in 
his hand ; at which unexpected apparition 
the astonished merchant changed cdonr, 
and entirely lost his presence of mind. 
The viceroy ordered him firom his presence 
with a severe rebuke for his falsehood and 
treachery, and an order never again ia 
enter the palace. At the same time he] 
commanded hdn to send hibi, the next 
morning, eight hundred dcdlars with flv^ 
hundred more 5 which he did, and which 
were, by the viceroy's order, distributed 
amongst the hospitals. His Excdlencv \b' 
said to have added a sev^ie reprimsua to 
the ladv for having made a bargain with" 
out writing." 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



THE MIAROR. 



IW 



DmHsB <m the Pot^Cukure of the Orape. 
:Q7 John Means. W. S. Orr&Ca 

Tscts little book is one which, to practical 
men, may prove of considerable service. 
It ii written in a plain, straightforward 
maimer, and is on a subject which Mr 
Meams considers to have been somewhat 
neglected, althoi^h deserving caredE^ at- 
vention from itsr importance, and from the 
medicinal properties of the vine. "The 
amateur," he says, *• will be furnifthed with 
a deMghtfUl source of instructive amuse- 
ment A shigle vine in a large pot, or 
grown as a dwarf standard, in the manner 
^U!tised in the vineyards in the north of 
Ijfance, generally produces from three to 
n&e bunches." But Mr Loudon observes, 
** That by superior management in gar- 
dens in England, the number of bunches is 
prodigiously increased, and that one plant 
of the red Hamburg sort, in the vinery of 
the Boyal gardens at Hampton Court, has 
produced 2,200 bunches, averaging one 
pound each, or in aU, nearly one ton." We 
can hardly add anything more calculated 
to recommend this little book to the notice 
of those who are engaged in horticultural 
porsuits. 

The subjoined extract will show that 
thfi writer has been most diligent. 
, ** The varieties are exceedingly nume- 
lous ; partly from the antiquity of the 
vfaie, it having, as Professor Martyn re- 
marks, been cultivated from the tune of 
Noah ; partly from the influence of soil 
and cUmate in changing the qualities of 
grapes, there being hardly two vineyards 
inl^pe or Italy where the sorts, though 
originally the same, remain long precisely 
alike ; but chiefly, as far as respects this 
comitry at leas^ from the &ciUty wi|;h 
which new sorts are procured from seal 
Tusser, in 1560, mentions only * white and 
red* grapes. Parkinson, who was more 
of a horticulturist, gives, in 1627, a list of 
twenty-three sorts, including the white 
muscadine, which, he says, was *very 
great, sweet, and Arm; some of the 
Inmches have weighed six pounds, and 
some of the berries half an ounce.' Bay, 
in 1688, enumerates many sorts as then 
aiost hi request. Rea, in 1 702, gives most 
of those in Ray*s list, and adds Ave more 
sorts, recommendmg the red, white, and 
tibe d'Arbois, or royal muscadine, the 
Prontignans, and the bk>od~red, as the fit- 
test sorts for Ikigland. Thebestvmes,he 
says, were then on the walls of the physic 
garden at Oxford. 

"Switzer, m 1717, says, ' It is to Lord 
Capel and Sir William Temple that we are 
owing that collection of good grapes now 
seventy iu England ; the latter,' he says 
brought over the Chasselas, Parsley- 
icaved, and Frontignan ; and also the 
Amboyna, Burgundy, black Muscat, and 
grizzly Frontignan j all highly approved, 



and distrOmied ammigst the n o r i e Qrm ep, 
asweU as the nobility and gentry. The 
best grapes,* he tells us, * were grown at 
Twickenham, Isleworth, and Bicfamondi' 
Speechley, from 1760 to 1790, excelled la 
the culture of the vhie at Welbock. The 
mitural soil there and the low damp siiua- 
tion, is perhaps the worst for vines in the 
kingdom, and therefore requiring the most 
judicious management. 

" The most valuable modem additions td 
the varieties of grapes in this country have 
been procured by sowing the seeds of sorts 
ripened in this country. That excellent 
grape, the red Hamburg, was raised frcmi 
seed, about a century ago, by Wam^, of 
Botherhithe, already menticmed. Sfiller 
in the same way produced the variety of 
the black cluster, which bears his name. 
Speechley produced various new scMrts, 
which have now a place in the catalogues 
of nurserymen. Williams of Pitmaston, 
Braddock of Thames Ditton, and, above all, 
the late president of the Horticultural 
Society, have raised several excdlent 
varieties of the Sweetwater, Chasselas, and 
Hamburg grape. The great attention 
paid to natural history by such as go 
abroad has also contributed to the numl^ 
of fi^pes. New sorts have been sent from 
Spain, Italy, and the East Indies, and 
many from France; so that the lists of 
British nurserymen exceed two hundred 
and fifty names. In France, during the 
consulship, in 1801, the celebrated chemist, 
Chaptal, when minister of the interior, 
ordered a specimen of every known variety 
of the grape to be collected from the differ- 
ent departments where the vine is grown, 
and planted in the nursery of the Luxem- 
bourg garden, with a view to ascertain their 
respective merits. Though this assortment 
was never completed, the number collected 
amounted to upwards of three hundred 
distinct varieties." 



Spring Flowers. By Thomas William 
Newton. Haselden. 
The cry has been so long kept up that 
poetry will not sell, that we feel well dis- 
posed to applaud the intrepidity which ven- 
tures on a new collection of poems. We 
find * Spring Flowers' an agreeable little 
volume, giving evidence of an amiable and 
cultivated mind. Mr Newton writes ele- 
gantly, but at times he negligently allows 
a crowd of monosyllables to come together, 
which impair the eff*ect of his verses. Ex- 
perience will give him greater facility, and 
be likely to add force and pungency to 
harmony. 



EPITAPH ON A TIPPLING LADY. 

Her clay beneath this marble lies. 
Whose soul we trust ascends the skies, 
She doubtless, for her tcute and meritSi 
Is happy, — in the world of spirits, 



IW 



THE MIimOB. 



?im9Tmo m wit sulficx. 

fr&ni * £' Univers'^ {Paris,) 

At S« Si^ioe, M. Heim has just pamtod^ 
Mi^neawftkvttie Chapel of the Lost SouIb 
of TxagkMy, two walb aad ft little onpola 
with its i^hes. The titles isscribed be- 
neath the two lavfe lateral comvositioM 
a»e— under that oa the left, " Behgion en- 
courages the Christian to sufitsr in this Bfe 
Ihaft he may esfeape the pains of Por^- 
tory ;" under that on the right, "Prayeir 
for the dead obtains the deUveranee of the 
soi^ which suffer hi Purgatory." The 
fujsject i6 enunently Catholic. The artist 
must undergo the reproach of having con- 
stant^ ahned at melodranta, at JthantaS' 
mBBgot\», The first scene passes round » 
laatw^ bed, with a Gothic head-board, sui'- 
mmated by am Italian Madonna. At the 
head df the bed a kfnp sheds its sombre 
light; at tlte ^e of the dying person 
tapers bum 5 lastly, the rayd of the ntoon 
penetarate by an open window, and the' 
0<3fty of the hearens re^K^es thiii ceiling of 
the chflNBb^. From all these effects, thus 
wretchedly accumulated, there uesuH only 
embarrassment, confusion, wad fiitigue; as- 
well to the artist as to the spectator. The 
sick person, exhausted by suffering, is half 
raised ffom his couch, and appears ex- 
pressly placed to serve for some an'atomi- 
di^ study.. A kneeling monk sustaifti^ the 
dymg man on the ^i^t. On the left stands 
a female, very ugly, her head Surmounted 
by a flame like those used by our repub- 
ticatr artists to adorn the spirits of liberty 
aaS Quality. Behind this wofulfy alk$g6- 
rical per*)nage, tWoieligious^ persons, car-' 
rying lighted tapers, ent^r, arid a monk, 
pi*o^trate near the bed, prays fervently. 
The fiimily oi th6 dying man occupies the 
fore part of the comp6«i<Hon. In tl^ first 
tlace, a woman <^ l^r knees, whom grief 
has not prevented from wearing a rose- 
coloured robe and a green spencer, finds 
sufficient strength to show a face, EngHsh 
and blonde, which makes a grimace rather 
tha» weeps. 

The composition of the second picture is 
no better, but it is more obscure. On the 
first plane steps descend into a gaping pit; 
around are mattocks, unburied bones, a 
cross. At the back of the picture, on the 
left. Death, a frightful skeleton, is seated, 
covered with a cloak, a scythe in his hand; 
behind him flicker flames, over which an ex- 
termin ating angel hovCTs. Before the cross 
persons are ranged in a semicircle, praying* 
A little frizzled angel bears the fearful- 
key 1 Another angel, larger, without wings, 
clothed in white,, casts looks of pity on the 
suppliants: of aUthe celestial spirits of the 
Chiai>el of PutgatOty this is the only one 
that hws a»y fitness. The angels of M. 
H^:h are <R«^ti^sMd b^^ gaiet^^ ; the 

si|i9e 6t mmmMfk^ m^'^ them but 



lit^, an^ th6y g^ tlBi€iii»fi0G§ n^kflll 
para^se t6 1^ uB^Ch>i«tltt gyMMcs^ 
Such is the extravagance of the cem^ 
sition of the clever artist ^ lleim. 



HOW TO CORRECT EfiSOR 

A pamphlet was pul^ished in 1713, ei^ 
tiUed ' >& Asgill's Apology for an Od»b- 
sion iu his late PubUcationy' which cf^mei 
in the following ^piaini manner:-*- 

"^ Without oienee t& tlie laW, I We J 
may tell a piece (^ an old story of a Welek 
Judg: Who bdng to oondem a piisoiMi 
convict of a oapks^ crime, gafve this seH- 
tence upon him : 

* * * Look you !— y ou frisoner ai the "Sail 

" * ITour Country Imve found you giii%i 

" * And the Sentence of the Law is 

*' ' That you go from hence to tie pto 
from whence you came, 

" * And from thenoe to a place of execu- 
tion: 

" * And so I wish naercy to your 80«l' 

" Upon which the Gader was carryki 
away the Prisoner, 

" But a Justice of the Peace next the 
dtudg whispered him : 

" * Your Lordship hath omitted a mih 
terial part of the sentence. That whell W 
comes to the place of executicm he is to t» 
hanged.* 

"*And Well remembered,' siid tM 
.^ndg. 

" And Ori that calk oilt, 

" * Hark ^e, J'ou Oaol6r ! briiig flM f»- 
low back again :' 

"Then «aid, *li6ok yoii, friend, f^ 
must be hanged too.* 

" Now gulce my l^te pubUca^oA I hiffe" 
met vnik this ifeprodf from some of HSy 
reader? : 

•**'*Ils true y6u Kav^ added to f&& 
j^stscript the spe6idl oath of ahjura^oa a» 
a memorandum agfainst periury ; 

" ' But you have omittfed a mateinal Sof 
of Parliament, ^at makes the saift^ ofl^ofi 
High Ti'eason too.* 

" * And well ^emembel^ed * (said I). 

" * And tho'^I can't recal m^ PubHc«6ofi, 

« * ril send this, threepenny jfae'^^fti^ 
arftetit.* 

" Hark ye, you honest men! that jntfticl 
to forsweat yoilrselves, 

" I am no J'udg, nor have any cotnmis- 
sion to pronounce sentence ; 

"But if you'll consult your A^AaBet 
you'll find 

" Tliat Treason, and the Triangle near 
Paddington, both begin with the same 
letter. 

[The Triangle was the popular name for 
the gallows which ^stood permanently ^ 
Tyburn, where the Edgewate road turns oh 
to Paddington, and had three sides or beasM 
from which culprits were suspended.] 

" You know What iHaaeaa: A ww i^ 

the yfl^r igitized byVjOOgle 



7HBM»lK»t 



m 



Vf^ Wui^HHB* 



HMka Practice in Notwtt^.^lA Ik^ 
* Chriatiansand Post * of Monday, Septem^ 
Inr ^, IS42, tfiere is an article reflecting 
in 0t#(»ig terms rxpon the i^rooftedingtf of 
tile "dtete :^ht0fcian'* of tiMkt town, to- 
wttdtf fli Bri^h getflleniait tntreffiikg in 
H^rw^ d^n^g fbe last stoiuner. It ai^ 
peais thist Mr Honston, h London st^geon, 
#heii donyersing with 0atm Mttidi in thie 
Biitamiia Hote^ &t Cbris1aansa»d, abottt 
fbe nuBfeerons find sticcessliil o^rat^ni 
jfor <9ie einre dT strabisMus, &c. Sue. ftc, 
which he had rec^itly performed ift the 
tMthem eoimties of Scotland, was over- 
hettd hy tiief landlord, who aftierwards 
ji^ied in the (^nrersa^n, and requested 
Mr Houston to see a young j^rson, in 
trldtti be fook a great interest, and who 
WtfS mmh ^tisfignred by oMiquity of yision. 
i^ Hbtttton consented, operated, and 
etbtAed a perfect core. The patient's 
Mn^ from tm exuberance of gratitude 
ttd Mtbaiahibent ait the operation for 
s^unt, pre'^^usly unknowiv, or at leastf 
Qiipflic^iged ^ the place, talked much of 
M rarioQS £ures, the report extended^ and, 
$0 usual, received additk^nid embeilish- 
ffi^ts in its progress, so that in a few 
likts th6 Bfftannifl Hotel waS besieged by 
fmot» suibi4ng from <Mseases of the eye. 
Ifr Hoiiston^s levees increased daily fa 
Mfli^er, Which Kt^acted the attention of 
the "State Phyifidan," and he deter- 
nS^ to t«ker advantiige of sonie law 
w^ch had been inl^^iiduced nito thetr 
s^, pr6hiMti»^ " foreigners, Sit." not 
IteHng the sanction of the constituted 
Mthorities^ from practising, intimated 
tkiiirkw t6 Mr Houston through ihe 
Me^taft of th« f oHce, and he, rather 
Mir g^e ofi^nee, ^mnediately ceased to 
pfitMa€, dud declined to see any of his 
pl^Mtd. l^o ^& Houston's great surprise 
Hlf^Til 6t thu panies ib> whom he h«d 
MteiriMl in Horway foUowied hhn to 
LMOdtt, so tbdt the firdhibition h$n only 
Hi ei^t in pi^veht^ Oie poor^ clsfsses 
from following a similar course, which 
eleai^ shows that the proMbitions of any 
country only ^eet the most necessitous, 
—the parties who ought rather to be the 
^^e0ls of espeeiftl cftrc^^Army and Nmp 
SSghier and Woolwich Oazette, 

Lichen on Ffuii 7^ees,^~When frxnt trees 
aie infeMed With lichens and moss, the 
heato 6f the tPeeS is impaired, and the 
fruit also, 'the application of Kme water, 
prepared in the following way, will effec- 
tnaBy displace the lichen: — A common 
Wietet^btf^ei, pWced oii a wheelbarrow, aid 
fifflfid as itSi 61 water as & person can eon- 
vwiIbii% Wlieetit. Put in plenty of quick- 
lime, 1^ M mM b^ be 9o ^k^ as to 



pIreVefti it» being' appHe^ Hrlth » ftytinm 
hsving a cosTse iKm, It w best to «s» it 
as soon as ms^. One penon sboidd Stit 
H while asotfaer syrin^ the ti<ee»: by thw 
meam a portion of the Mme is carried witli 
the water, and adheres bo^ to ibtf wall 
and trees. This mode of destroying liefae» 
is nothing new, but it may not be gene^ 
ni&y known, i kist year tried tM eo^evi- 
ment on two plum trees, and to my g>reat 
satisfaction the Eehens were qiute de* 
stroyed. They now present a healthy 
appearance, and the bark is ^ite clean. 
It IS an almost invariat>]e practice to wasK 
garden-pots thoroughly imier the plants 
have been turned out of them, before tbey 
are made use of again; many of which &t^ 
covered with a green vegetable productk>n^ 
If, after being washed, the pots are^pped 
into strong, elear lime-water, it will quife 
destroy this substance. As the present 19 
a good time for n^plying it to trees, no 
time should be lost where they are attacked 
by this pest. — G, O, Watson^ Vicara^e^ 
Norton f Stockton-on-Tees. 

AH Arm^ o/* CMdren, — As ehildren 
naturally imitate the acfti<ms and mannerf 
of the adults about them, when the cru- 
sades were the theme oi every tongue they 
often wished ta become pilgrims mid knights 
arrant. In the year 1212 many thousands 
of boys and girls abandoned their homesy 
not only in Fraaee, but in Germany and 
Italy, giving dut that they were bent upotf 
deHveiing the Holy Land. The eldest 
wore not more I^An eighteen, ^was in 
vain t^at their parents attempted to 
restrain them. They watched opportuni- 
ties of escape, and got Away by mining 
holes in the walls ; and sallied forth from 
the paternal mansion with as much joy as 
as ^ they had been going to a festival. 
The fate of these tmhappy children, as may 
be supposed, was most unfortimate ; they 
were entrapped in numb^s by merchants 
of Venice, G^oa, ited Marseilles, who were 
at that time engaged hi the infamous 
traffic c^ supplymg the seragHos ef the 
Bast with cMldren. A great many were 
shipped in the Mediterranean ports, and 
many died of hrmger and £Migne in the 
long joumies to which they had volun* 
tarily devoted themselves, but fbr which 
^leir strength was utterly inadequate. 

Blaekwall Hailway.'-^lht finre by the 
second trMn WM raised last year fr^m 
fourpence to sixpence. The traftc in 
^onseqtience ffell off to the extent of fof^* 
one per cent. A return to the formigr 
charges is about tO' take pkcer. Tfie 
GreenWicbr Rai^Ay folks wffi do some- 
thing of the kind, unless ttiey mean to 
gi^^e set#»-eigfhths of th^tr tfafte t<J the 
st^atir bostts. 

Arit?md&rmhy.-^An appfbsclt to uni^eT- 



m 



THE MtftROIU 



meiL tSoine Ideft may be giiren of it in 
few words. Suppose an English diRtionaiy 
to be taken, and the leading words to be 
numbered off in order, and then the same 
numbers to be placed against the corre- 
^mnding words in the dictionary of any 
other language ; it is obvious that a simi- 
lar number will represent, in each case, a 
similar idea ; this is the basis of the plan. 

JVarcoUc, — * On the Cannabis Indica,* the 
Indian hemp ; from which it apx)ears this 
plant is possessed of. extraordinary powers, 
as a sedative, narcotic, and ahti-spiuiniodic 
romHiy- The resin pollt^cted from it' is in 
gf'tionil u^^ as^ rLH intoxicating agent, all 
over the Eaj^t, and from the furthermost 
conflnes of IndiJi to Algiers. ' The iiitox- 
ieatLoii, wliieli is of the tiiost' cheerful Jdnd^ 
lasts about three hours, when sleep super- 
Tenea ; it U Hot folio vrod by nausea or 
sickness, nor by any fiVEii^tom, save slight 
giddine^, worth repording. Thie subse- 
quent ejects are depre.^slon of spirits, and 
relfticjition of the museb'i in a reinkrkable 



Are ArC'tlniom Legal? — Mr ^rjeant 
Talfourd is of opinionthaf Art-Unions are* 
illegal; Mr Fitzroy Kelly, Q.C., and Mr 
Clarke, having been applied to by the Di-: 
rectors of the Polytechnic Union for their- 
opinion, go the- other* way. They say a 
scheme iQce that -submitted to them does' 
not appear ever 'to have been contemplated 
by the liiegislature — certainly has never 
been prohibited by it in' terms. If three 
mi'ii, OLiili^tf wliam w;t^ iul^jIsU^ to purchase' 
a t'prtaln picture, hUouM uprree together^' 
siibfloribo thp amount .ri>rniir« J for its pur-: 
rhafle, aurl Klmxild further aprrpe that, when' 
purchased, tlipy woukl ileteriume by lot 
wlueh of thern slimtUl l>ec*fime thf possessor 
of the pjctiire, or whioh of thorn should 
obtain the credit of preseiitiuf^ H to a pub-" 
llr. ius tit lit ion, tliey Fiiifrht do RO without 
incurring any of the penalties directed 
against those who infringe the provisions 
of the Lottery Acts. It makes no differ- 
ence, in principle, that the subscribers, in- 
ftead of three men are thirty thousand, 
nor that the purchase, instead of being 
confined to one picture, is made to extend 
to hundreds; it is the absence of the con- 
ilicting interests of schemers and of the 
public, and therefore the absence of any 
necessity for legislative protection, that 
renders the statutes inapplicable. 

ExhangtuM €f Land, — ^Land, dead and 
inert as it is, admits of no exhaustion or 
weariness. Bobbed it may. have been of 
some one element (phosphate of lime for 
example), by the crops raised having been 
jrear after year carried off the ground, till 
there remains no more of that element in 
the land, and another crop would starve 
and pine for want of it. Polluted the land 
may have become by matter thrown off 



from the roots of the erop whidi lifts been 
so injudiciously repeated, till the same 
species of plant can no longer lUve in it. 
But this is all that is knowfi Of what is 
called exhaustion. 

Debating iu the Dark, — Formerly it was 
a oonunon thing in Parliament, when a 
member wished to get rid of a subject be- 
fore the House, to move ''that the caacUes 
should be lighted.'* The effect of this was 
curious. In some cases the question was 
debated through the night, and carried in 
the ^ affirmative after daylight had re- 
turned, and then, and not till then when 
they , were not want eil, the messtng^rjj 
proceeded I to li^Hit the caudles. 

• Hftw iff stivt' Lntt**i -Writing, ^OxitmiB 
occasion Bonnyiartc hit upon a laxiUdAp 
scheme fur relieving himself from tlieik- 
tigue of :msw-i3rin{j Jet tern. "Op^in 00 1 j 
the letters." sjiid he to Uuurrienne, "that 
come. by the courier!* extraordiuwy, and 
leave all the rest in the hn^ket for twenty 
days." It Imppeneii (Ms soeretfl.ryadd») 
as Bonai^arte had autieiputed, wl^ti the 
letters were at liLnt mulj a«four-Mhft of 
them hail been uiiswercd by events* 

' D&menlrfi CmnHL^A series of rtiemoirf^ 
of ancient artists (with portraits >, of tlup 
Italian st'hcml, has been commenced in the, 
Illustba I Ko PoLTTiKusic Ri:oEw, The 
last public heel [& Iknnenico Ouriull, csAM 
by his ooinitrymeu, i\n' hh Edcill in makiti^ 
gilrlands, tlie Gliirlondajo.. It wtis m&M 
Curadi's pupiU who originally disoovetfid 
t4ie taJenc of Stiehael Anpfelo. ■ -- 

• —The I'e^iebratixl Theodore C^iJ^*eotte|it 
died about tlu* irth of la^t month, |lf 
had just nuuTleil liis youngest son, and 'Sk- 
seems the delight of Itavin^ eettled : hii^ 
children I ) r^ hUif 1 1 1 o 1 1 >i fl t nf Ri>oplexy . Up 
had been to tlie bull at the palace, iiiid wiy» 
unusually t^ay. Jle returned tiome ior . 
very high spirita; a few hours :tfter he. W3!^ 
ftiubd^a nrrpsc io his hod. He was in- 
terred witfi all due honours, beiu^ a Lieu- 
tenant-Geueral, and Vlee-PreHideut of the 
Council of State. The funeral sermon was 
preached by Eeonomos; and' P. Scootao, 
the poet, pronounced a funeral oration at 
the grave. . 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



We must, decline interUng ewnmunieaUqmMyfMm ter^ 
respondent*, however respectable, which ,onlff ex- 
press a compliment in a dozen verses, which prose 
would convejf in two or three lines, 

T. S. A!s questions we are not at this nument able to 

. answer. He must allow us to hint that he ootM 
employ his pen better than in rendering vapid senti- 

' ment and pointless epigrams from the Welsh. 



Londoh: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 

MORTIMEX, Adelaide Street, Trafaigar Square; 

and Sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

Printed by C. Retnxll, 16 Little Paheney ttneti 

and at the Royal Polytechnic Instftation. 

)igitizedbyVjOOQlC 



81^ 0Urt0r 



or 



UTRRATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



No. 12.] 



SATURDAY, MARCH 25, 1843. 



[Vol. r. 184.1. 




^t0tnal ftommitnication!^ 

MANUFACTURE OF GLASS. 
T«£ engraving represents the casting hall,. 
260 feet long by 156 wide, with the iron bed 
and rtdler, which weighs upwards of 20 
tons, upon which the glass is rolled into a 
sheet; the range of annealing furnaces are 
s^eenon^each iside, and the pot arches in the 
centre. The whole of the buildmg, of 
which we refer our readers to No. 11, is 
thewerk of R. liane, Esq., architect. The 
manu&ctore of glass being the subject of 
the present paper, we shall commence. 

In reducing ores of iron, an art by-the-by 
tf great antiquity, a mass of impurity is 

y©i. xtr. 



Viyi^Ttr- 



formed by the chemical union of the silica 
of the mineral and the lime used as flux« 
and which impurity h termed " .s%." Our 
readers, who iivay have been in the neigh- 
bourhood of iroti f arnaccs, may have seen 
heaps of it lying about, having a purple 
colour and aenii-transparent axvpearanee. 
This ^shg ** is in foet an impure glmBs^ not 
u^ike the materiid of wliieJi the black 
wine and porter iKittks ate now mode. 
From an examination of this substance no 
doubt sprang tlie art of gkLsa-innkiup:. 

We are quite aware that Pliny gives a 
different account of it« origin, tfticing it?* 
accidental djacovery to Phcenician njariuer* 
who were wreckeil at ihc moutli ot' the 



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178 THE MIRROR 

Belus, and who, having kin4)B4 a f^^ vpqa. 
the sand and employed lumps of natron to 
support tlie cooking apparatus, found 
masses of glass after their meal, owing to 
the union -of th^ ^lica of the sand with the 
alkali in the natron. This account is doubt- 
less &bulou8. 

Glass is a salt, being composed entirely 
of metallic compounds. This may appear 
strange to thote who have never considered 
the subject, but we must not fox^t that so 
* abundantly are metals distributed through- 
out the globe, that we can scarcely breathe 
vrithout inhaling metallic vapours, or drink 
even of the pure spring without imbibing 
metallic solutions $ nav, the condiment 
most common at the table — ^we mean salt- 
Is Ji mt tallic fic^mpounil, "being a chloride of 
the met 11 1 9odi m\\. O I tsa, then, is as much 
jv metiiUitj compi>m;d i\-h rock salt itself. 



Ju onler to tbrtii ihlts iinoM material cer- 
tain iirtkzles nrt esstiiitlally necessary. In 
the first place, we must have the compound 
cftU^ silica, an oxn\^ of the metal idUcium 
—and mi alkali— either potassa or siada 
being goiierailj umiI. 

An intense ti^iupt^riitvire being applied, 
the »iUca ami soJa or potassa unite, and a 
iillcatt? of the alkali is Ihrmed. Tliis glass, 
however, is lo sxtremely infusible, that it is 
unfitted for general purposes; and we are 
obliged to add oxide of lead m the form of 
iUharge, at minium^ to make it more fusible, 
dense, transparent, and refractive ; it also 
enables the glass to bear more easily sud- 
den changes of temperature. The disad- 
vantages, however, accruing from the em- 
I^yment of lead are sufftciently great to 
render it desirable to dispense with it if 
possible. Tims glass contaming lead is 
soft and easily scratched ; it is also un- 
e^al in its density, and therefore unfitted 
tsr optkal purposes. 

Boracic acid and borax are sometimes 
used as fluxes in glass-making, but being 
expensive tliey are employed principally 
in the manufecture of the artificial gems. 

Arsenic, nitrate potash, oxide of n?an- 
ganese, &c., are employed as decolourising 
agents; however, an excess of arsenic ren- 
ders the glass opaque, and the addition of 
too much manganese produces an unplea- 
sant puce tint. This tint is removed by 
stirring the molten metal with a pole of 
wood. In manii&uituring plate glass lime 
is sometimes substituted for oxide of lead. 
It, however, wiien added incautiously, 
affects its transpaijency. The mixture of 

these various materials .constitutes a com- ..^„ „. .^„ ^^ , 

pound called frit, which is now ready for, ^^ ^jie pirfTy of the miiwials manofcc' 
the glass furnace. The pots in which the ^^red for tlUs purpose on the spot, as mooh 
; frit is melted are made of Stourbridge clay, - - ' *. -:• c- 

and, by careful preparation, are enabled 
to bear with impunity a very Jiigh and. 
continued temperature. There are gene- 
rally six pots in each furhaci, which are m- 



tjyrely.clpsedr^cept at a small orifice on 
the side, opening into a recess formed by 
the alternate projections of the masoniy 
and the flues, in which recess the work- 
men stand. The iUel eospkif ed is cosL 
The furnace is a reverbaiory one, so con- 
structed as to allow the flame to jA&y 
round each pot. 

The frit is mtfodnoed into the pot 
through the side openings just menti^Ded, 
and after the application of heat for some 
thne it becomes first pasty, and then fiins. 
The whde process requires about forty- 
eight hours. 

After the glass has been cast or moulded 
it has next to be annealed, that is, stdfend 
to cool very slowly, or it would be too brit- 
tle for use,— ^ying to pieces with the tot 
change . of temperature. 

The exaet composition of tiie dUfennt 
kinds of glass is scarosib^ known. Wkblbe 
following ingredients^ however, a very tik 
sample of each kind loay be maotifitt- 
turedf-* H 

FtiKT Glass. 8p«ific gmvitjr about 3i. 
120 parts of fine flfear white send. 
40 w purified pearla^ 
,V> „ litharge. 
18 „ nitre. 
A small quantity of blaek oxide of iii«a|iiefe 

, Crowi^Glajs. or best window glsftk 
200 parts of soda. 
300 H finessnd. 
.33 „ lime. ^ 
250 „ ground fr^Ktt»n:t4 of gM. 

GaUN 9o¥TLX«Gt48i» 

100 partsof sand. 

30 K ooarsekelp. 
leo M lixiviated earth of wood-«iM<« 

SO M fresh wood-ash. 

80 H brick clay. 
100 „ fragments of glass. 

Plate Glass was invented in 1661 by 
Abraham Thevart, and was first mukM 
Paris. It contahis no lead. The mcmr 
ing proportions will give a good result : 

300 pounds of fine sand. 
200 „ soda. 
90 „ IkM. .. .. 

2 „ manganese. 

3 ounces eob^ azure. 
300 pounds cullet, or broken glsas. < 

We have already, in a preceding artiflle, 
called the attention of our readers to wt 
pure plate ^ass, tnaaofactuied more sq^- 
dally at the Pookbt No<h^ Works, St 
Helen's, near Liverpool The ippeat gi- 
periority in this case depends nndoaUsoly 



as on the peculiar formula enipkysd sy 
the company.* ■> 

' * Samples of tfa« riai^may be s«an «t t)ie Cfn* 
piny's Warehouse, Wmdauir street, fiayma^. 



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THE MIRBOft. 



179 



We ihflU iloir fiinrte a. ffiAmMt to the 
Gokmrmg agtnttfimnd in ^£81. 

The metalB then employed as colouring 
imKfeeritliaie, Itt. GoU. ThepurplBtfcoMMiua 
iiaptrts a fine fi% tint. 2Bd. SUver, Ox- 
ide, or sulphate of silver, gives a ifdhw 
colour, ard. Iron, The oxides of iron 
prodnce bhu, green, yellow, and hrown^ de- 
jfft}A^g upon the state of oxidizement 
aad ^nanttty. 4th. Copper. The axides 
cf hopper give a rich green; they also pro- 
duce a r«i» which, when mixed with a small 
proportion of tartar, tends partially to 
Mcnoe the oxide. 5th. Antimony imparts a 
rldi ydbw. 6th. Manganese, The black 
€Sida of tiiis metal, in large quantities, 
tetns %ilack glass; in smaller quantities^ 
imious shades of purj^. 7th. Cobalt^ in 
the state of oxide« gives beantiChl blues of 
vfOElons shades; and with the yelhw of 
am^monif at lead it produces grwn, 8th. 
Cktome produces fine greeM and reda, de^ 
pending on its state of' oxidizement. 

White unameLiB merely glass rend^ed 
mote or less rndky or opaque by the addi- 
t&im of oxide of tin ; it forms the basis of 
many of the coloured enamels, which are 
dn^ with the metallic oxides. IHrectionft 
ibr^^ preparation of several good enamel 
Mwrt are given by Mr Wynn, in the 
'IVaasactions of the Society of Arts/ 1817, 
«&a ^Fhllofiophlcal Magazine/ ii. 



LOUIS XI. AND THE CONSTAKLE 

DE ST POL. 
TttB crafty and cruel Ixmis the Slleventh 
Si not wildly unknown to the generality 
bf Ei^giish readers, but the following pas* 
itj^ from the last number of ' 'Hie Bc- 
tmtl History of France,* fymkish so strik- 
ing a picture of the heartless course of his 
policy, that we do not hesitate to transcribe 
vL St l^ol was an ambitious unscrupulous 
schemer. Louis had resolved to destroy 
bhn, bat fbr a time wished to be thought 
his friend, 

^ Lotos, when dictating a letter to him, 
in tbe presence of Lora Howard and the 
Sieiirde Contay, told the constable that, 
^ to terminate his grand operations, he had 
occasion for a good head like his.' ^ At this 
iMnt he interrupted himself; and turning 
to the Englishman and the Burgundian, 
saidL *lt)tt understand me, I say I want 
V^^nend, I have no occasion for his body.' 
On ^e day of the truce of Soleure, Louis 
pfreseDited himself at the gates of Bt Quen- 
thi, and immediately ordered away the 
dflfeers of the count, with their wives aiid 
chfidren. St Fol had anticipated the blow, 
and had already taken refuge at Mons, in 
Hahiatdt, where he h(med to find saflstr. 
Bti^ there Oerisais, with Gaucourt and St 
•Pierre, soon arrived, with the truce of 
Soleure in theirliatxdsj- totUdm him^ as an 



enemy to the king. Ilie cornet, whom 
Chanes had already caused to be guarded 
in hia hot^ wrote to the duke, *his mudi 
honoured aad great lord,' recommendiiig 
himself to him aaa poor relation, and se- 
calling to mind the recolleattons of the day 
of Montlhery. 'Tell him,' endaimed 
Charies the Rash, 'that in writing thta 
letter he has wasted his paper, and lost idl 
hope.' Nevertheless, Charles hesitated 
some time before he cotdd resolve to gite 
htm up. He was then entering on the ooi- 
qusst of Lorraine, and Louis had sent to 
him on the frontier fhrt^ hundred lanoes. 
The king feared that the province <m6e 
oonqiiersd,the constable wocdd escape ; the 
duke feaivd for his conquest if he first »• 
leased the pledge he held. Such was the 
cotifidenoe they had in each other ! At 
length, Lorraine behighalf reduced, Charles 
■gave orders wat in eight days the con* 
stal^ should be delivered over to the kin^. 
Three hours after thn end nf tho rir^hth 
day a counter 6rdtr wa^ received, hat it 
-was too late. The pates of the Ba$tOe 
closed on the eount on the 27 ih of Novein-' 
berjottthe 19th of Dec^^mber hh trial 
was terminated ; and Jolm rte Popmqouit, 
•the second president of the parliament . 
read to him the sentence, which doomed 
him to be decapitated in tliePbce dc Grfere 
fbr high treason. He dLd ivot expect sUfJi 
severity, and appeared greatly surprised at 
his impending fatc^. He, boTTGrcr, said 
nothing that could lie construed into f 
mark of weakness. ^Grtci he praised!' 
was his exclamatiOTi, 'hm this Is n very 
hard decree! I pruy him to gremt m* 
grace to know him well in this awful da3'.' 
Afterwards, turning to M. de St Pierre, he 
said, ' Ah ! Monsieur d6 St Pierre, it is 
not this which you hare hitherto promis^ 
me.' At three o'clock in the afternoon he 
left the Hotel de Vilte and ascended the 
scafibld. He fell on his knees before the 
church of Notre Dame, and was for a long 
time engaged in prt^yer, kiseinfr, from time 
to time, ivith marks r<i' strong derotiorit a 
rrosg, winch ii c ordelier wild attended him 
presented. He raised himself /it length, 
and E man called Little John, tlio son of 
Henry Cousin, the execut!onpr iTi rnses of 
treason, npproached to bind Ills b&ndi, 
Thjs he submitted to with great resigna- 
tion ; and turning' to the chancellor and 
tlie other lordu who were on the scsflbld, 
beggi?d of th^jm to pray for his souJ. To 
the i>opulac0 he addressed the sarae re- 
quest, and then knelt on n, small s^^itfe 
cusliion, on wliicli the city arms n^peaired. 
Willie they were hflndaj^fj hh cyep, he 
repea^ted additional prajer?, epoke to his 
cnnfessor, and kiita*^ the cross. Xlttte 
John, then taking a fsword whici; W4* 
handed to him by his fatlierT at one yt&^ 
I>roug:ht doini' the ht^cid of the conatabft* 



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;t80 



THE MnmoR. 



His body fell at the. same moment. The 
execntioner took the head, whidi he 
phmged into a sieve oC. water, and then 
t held it up to the spectators assembled, who 
were supposed to exeeed two hundred 
' thousand in munber. 

**Thus fi^ the Count .de St PoL We 
pause for. one moment to give the subse- 
quent extraordinaiy story ($ those, minis- 
; ters of justice, Henry Ckmsin, and his son, 
t Fetit Jean, or Little John. One Oudin du 
. Bust, a carpenter^ having claimed some 
r money owing to him on a deed by little 
Jk>hn, received his debt, but was left to 
bear the expenses of the bond. To revenge 
himself, he prevailed on some disorderly 
.young men, I>u Houlx, a sergeant at 
• Hace, John du Foing, a plumber, and 
« Begpault Goris, a silversmith* to assist in 
;grfllUfying his bloodthirsty rage. The four 
.cons^rators having waylaid little John, 
meeting him at the comer of the rue des 
J Grenelies, Du Houlx took him by the arm 
in a friendly way, and told him to fear 
nothing firom.the others. ^ Qoris then ap- 
. proached, and struck Little John on the 
' head a severe Uow with a stone. , He 
stagwered ; Du Houlx let go his arm ; and 
Du Foing thrust a javeKn into his body. 
' He fell jead on the spcA ; a^d Oudin .then 
. cut off his legs. The assassins iled, and 
.took sanctuary. It was decided that, as 
. the murder had been pre-concerted, they 
f were not entitled to claim the privilege. 
They were doomed to die, and all four suf- 
tiered on the gallows of Paris, being hanged 
ia a row by Henry Cousin, the father of the 
, young man they had murdered." 



THE ART OF WEAVING. 
Weaving, as it is termed by manufac- 
turers, is the art of combining or crossing 
threat^ and interweaving them with one 
ai^other on different planes, so as to form a 

. cloth. , There are many cloths and other 
fleibrics made by merely imiting or combin- 
ing one thread by looping, as is seen in 
stockings; other methods of forming a 

' doth ore made (viz. the articles of bobbin- 

. net aQd lace) by, machines quite differ- 
ent to the loom, called warp and stocking 
fkames or machines, a£ which we shall 

' speak in another paper. The stocking is 
composed of one continuous thread,. made 
in loops; but, in weaving,. the doth is made 

' of distinct threads — ^the one called the warp 
or weft, which runs lengthwise of the piece 
of doth; and the other, the woof or weft, 
which crosses the warp at right angles. 
To be easily understood, let us explain the 
most simple mode of weaving common ca- 
licoes or Irish Imen. Every other thread 
of thewarp is put through a part of the ap- 
paratus of the -loom, called the harness, 
which is a series of threads strained be- 



tween, tiiin bars, of wood or iroti,(^ width 
and number sufficient to suit the pleee of 
doth. These threads have in thdr centre 
. an eye made in the thread, and sometimes of 
metal or glass — ^whai of the latter mate- 
rials, they are called mails. For the weav- 
.ing of the simple fabrics alluded to, .two of 
these harnesses are required; and it is evi- 
dent that, when every other, thread of the 
;warp is passed through one. harness, and 
the other harness is placed immediatdy 
behind it, having the remiEiining threads 
passed through it, that if one Jiamess is 
raised up, one-half of the warp is' earned 
.¥rith it; and in passing the shuttle ^uroi^ 
with the weft, it will lay it between ti^ 
divided warp. At this period, anotherpart 
of the loom is brought into acticHi^ ciSed 
the batten or lay, the service of which is 
to batten up the last weft dose to that pie- 
.viously laid in. The batten is placed in 
the front of the loom, and has a swkiging 
motion, on two centres, alon^ the line ck 
threJods called the warp. To this is at- 
tached a slay or reed, which, to make its 
form more familiar to the reader, has 'the 
appearance, of a fine comb, having the 
teeth held together at the top and bobom. 
These are imide of 'flatted wire — &ier or 
coarser, according to the. quantity of, doth 
.desired. The warp threads paSs t^roHi^ 
the spaces of this comb-Hke stnictl»e:^ 
whole of the width of the" doth to be 
woven ; therefore, when it strikes the weft, 
it lays it dose to the side of that previoudy 
woven. At the moment the weft is ddven 
home, the opposite harness is risea,'and 
that previously up falls. This aetioD 
crosses the weft, which circumstance k^eps 
the weft firm in its place, and the sl^irtoe 
passes back again through the opening 
made. Tiiis operation goes on imtil the 
whole piece of cloth is fabricated. 
. The art of weaving is of eariier date 
than spinning ; for we see, in th^ savage 
nations, a doth made from rushes and 
stalks of plants. The art of making linen 
was communicated by the Egyptians of 
Palestine, and other Eastern naticma, to 
the Europeans. It seems probable that the 
Gauls learned the art from the Greeks; and 
from them it came to Great Britain: yet it 
is stated, on the authority of Julius Csesar, 
that, when he conquered Britain, the-art of 
weaving was unknown here. In tha rdgn 
of Bichard I, the woollen manafactuyee 
became a subject of legislation ; and a law 
was made, a.d. 1197, regulating the sale 
and fabrication of cloth. Edwara III gave 
grea,t encouragement, by the most wise and 
judicious offers of reward to foreigners 
who were well versed in the, art 6i weav- 
ing, to come a^id settle in England : acid in 
the year 1331 two weavers came and set- 
tled in York, and, by their superior akfll, 
and juommunlcating their knowledge to 



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THt MttlROtl. 



lil 



oth^t made a great improVetnent in the 
art. Hauy f'leniish and Dutch weavers 
cAOoe aver to this country between two 
and three centuries since ; and their old 
looms arc to be now seen at work in Spi<^ 
tamelds. 

The art of weaving did not arrive at its 
height -of perfection until the invention of 
Jacquard, whose. singular event in life we 
cannot do better than extract from Br 
Ure*« * Philosophy of Manufectures:' — 

" The history oi the introduction of the 
Jacquard-ioom is a most instructive les- 
-flOQ 9u ^e advantage of free intercourse 
and xivaMup between different countries. 
,The mventor of that beautiful mechanism 
was originally an obscure straw-hat manu- 
iacturer,. who bad never turned his mind 
to automatic mechanics, till he had an 
opportunity by the ^peacQ of Amiens of 
sedttg in .an English newspaper the offer 
of a reward by our Society of Arts, to any 
juan< who should weave a net by ma- 
chinery. He forthwith roused his dot- 
pant fiaculties and produced a net by 
machanism; but not finding the means of 
encouragement in the state of his cotmtry, 
he threw it aside for some time, and even- 
tually gave it to a Mend, as a matter of 
UtUe moment The net, however, got by 
some means into the hands of the puUie 
aalhonties, and was sent to Fans. . After 
a copsideral^le period, when Jacquard had 
iseased to think <^ his invention, the pre- 
^of the department sent for him, and 
ii^ *.Tou have directed your attenti<m to 
the making of net by machinery?' He 
did, not immediately recoUect it, but the 
oet being produced recalled everything to 
his mind. On being desired by the prefect 
to make the machine which had led to 
that result, Jacquard asked three weeks' 
tune for the purpose. He then returned 
^th it, and requested the prefect to strike 
with his foot on a part of the machine, 
whereby a mesh was added to the net. 
On its being sent to Paris, an (urder was 
issued for tl^ arrest of its constructor, by 
Napoleon, in his usual sudden and arbi- 
trary way. He was placed immediately 
in charge of a aendarme^ and was not al- 
lowed to goto nis house to provide him- 
self with necessaries for his journey. Ar- 
rived in the metropolis, he was jJiEu^d in 
the Qmservatoire des Aria, and required to 
make the machine there in the presence 
of inspectors; an order with which he ac- 
cordingly complied, 

"Cki, his being presented to Bonaparte 
and Camot, the former addressed him 
with an air ^ incredulity, in the following 
ooarselanguage : — * Are you the man who 
Intend to do what Almighty God cannot 
do,. to tie A- knot in a stretched string?* 
He th^produped a machine , and exhibited 
^t8 m^ of op^atipn,^ He was afterwards 



<:alled upon to extoiihealoom on which 
from 20,000 to 30,000 francs had been ex- 
pended for maldng fabrics for . Bona- 
p«urte'« use. He undertook -to do, by a 
simpte mechanism, what had been: at- 
tenq^yted in vjun by a very .complicat<»l 
one; and taking as his pattern a inodel: 
raachind of Vaucanson, he produced the 
famous Jacquard-kxHn. Ho returned to. 
his native town, rewarded with a pension 
of 1,000 crowns ; but experienced the ut- 
most difficulty to introduce his machiDc 
among the sHk-weavers, and was three 
times exposed to imminent danger oi as-' 
sassination. The Ctnweil des PrwP hommeg^ 
who are the official conservators d the 
trade of Lyons, broke up his loom in Jite 
public pIiuDe, sold the iron and wood for 
old materials, and denounced him. as an 
object of universal hatred and ignominy. 
Nor was it till the French people were 
beginning to fed the force of foreign com- 
petition that they had recourse to this^- 
mirable aid of their countryman ; since 
which time they have ibund it to be ilie 
only real protection ' and prop o£ their 
ta^e." • 

. The bar-loom was a Swiss inv^tion 
brought into the • neighbourhookl of St 
Etienne by two brothers. They were per- 
secuted for their pains by uie ribbon- 
weavers of the oM school, and driven 
fbrth into the extremity of misery. \Thc 
last of them died not long i^ in an hos- 
pital, a victim of neglect and ann<oranCe. 
Of late years, howevesr, this kxnn has 
become a fiavourite itiechanism, and is 
in almost imiversal use among the^weavers 
of the very district where it was long an 
object of execration. 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS. 

- iNSTiTUTioir OP Civil ENonnssBfti -^ A 
paper by Mr Simms, ' On the Application 
of Horse P6wer to raising Water,^ gave the 
results arrived at from the use <tf nearly 
a hundred horses, working during stated 
periods daily, at eleven shafts drawing 
water by barrels with ** gin rolls," from an 
average depth of 104 feet. The lengUi of 
time diuring which horses were employed 
enabled Mr Simms to make^xtensivp ex- 
periments, which were carefully tabulated* 
with aJl the attendant drcumstanoes, and 
the result appeared to be, that rejecting 
all forced work, horses working constantly 
for three hours raised 32,943 pounds one 
foot high in a muiute ; while, if they were 
forced to work constantly for six hours, 
they could only raise 24,360 pounds one 
foot high in a nunute. These results diflfer 
materially from .the data which have been 
hitherto received, inasmuch as the eight 
hour e;cp^riraem8 g( BouHou and Watt 



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m 



USE MntRot« 



give 33,000 lbs.; IMgold, 27,500 Ibf.; 
SatiTe«r, 94,020 lbs.; and BeMgnHer, 
44,000 Ibi. Mr fiimmt fenmd, tbat if the 
li^^s were worked either a longer thue 
oTiEt a greater qteed, tb^ eoon tdicd, but 
tSiat with an average speed, and frequent 
relay0» they bore thdr wcark welL 

SociiTY Of ABTW.«-Mr Blaahileld de« 
MTlbed the new material to teiselated 

SiTements. Three years ago Mr Prosier 
ieovered that by sulgecting a mixttore of 
palyerized felspar and fine day to a stnmg 
pressure between steel dies, the powder 
was compressed into about <nie*fburth of 
ts bulk, and became acompact body, mnch 
iMtrder and considerably less porous thim 
tlie commoD porcelain. The nrst applica* 
tton of this discovery was to the manufSa^ 
tvre of buttons, which are more doraMe 
and less expensive than those in ordinary 
use. • When removed from the press, the 
tesNro are jdaoed in an oven to undergo 
t^A prooess of baking. These tesseras will 
bear a pressttre of forty tons, and have 
been pat to the most eevere test in respect 
to tike effect of frost on them, havmg been 
immersed in boiling water and then ex» 
pesed to a temperature of thirty-two de- 
gtees* They may also be expiosed to a 
considerable degree of heat, so that flues 
may be constructed below the tesselated 
pavements thus fbrmed without causing any 
i^ury to them. Blue and green colouring 
is- effected by metallic oxides in the process 
of baking, but other colours are mixed up 
before being submitted to pressure. Com-* 
pact and dmrable bricks are also made by a 
sknUar process, but subjected, of course, to 
a. much greater pressure, which is eti^cted 
by the usTe of the hydraulic press. Skbs of 
efeborate design, and inlaid with coloured, 
devices, suitable for chimney-pieces, &c, 
are also made by this process, being sub- 
mitted to a pressiure of 250 tons befor^ 
b&«g. The subject was illustrated by 
specimens; and several tesserae were made 
l^ the machine and distributed among the 
company. 

* Pabis Academy oir Scibkces. — A vol- 
taic pile recently adopted in Germany, the 
invention of M. Beiset, was exhibited. 
Inhere are several glass vases, containing 
^uted nitric acid, in which floats a cylin- 
der of coal. In this cyHnder is plaoed a 
vase of porous earth, containing sulphuric 
acid, wMch has in it a rolled leaf of amal- 
gamated zinc, each leaf being in communi- 
cation, by a metallic conductor, with the 
diaphram of the adjacent vase of coal The 
coal cylinders are made of a mixture of 
bitmninous coal and coke, calcined in a 
mould, and then passed under a lathe, and 
dimped with sugared water, and again cal- 
cined. The pile exhibited was composed 
of forty elements. All the experiments 
performed with it were satisfactory. The 



intensity of the dttfttit is g«e^ «id ike 
expenditure of zino is «mi^«— IOC GrtSsf 
and Delalcmde ooommnloated a dis^svivj 
they had made of worms drovlathig U^^ 
blood of aa aj^areotly healtiby dog^ ^Tkij 
were found in blood from all parts. Tilk 
size is flir less than that of the blood ^Kt. 
Four i»* Ave were foimd in each drd^p d 
blood, or about 100,000 in the adtire mm. 
The Uood of seven^ or eighty dogs hU 
b^en examined without success belrae ^ 
ease; and that of flfteen others^had sifioe 
been examined in vain. 

Gbographicai/ Soonmr.— a paper wis 
read by Ifr Higgs, on the progressive fiie 
of the liver Thames, as indicated by tile 
necessity for constantly increasing ^ 
hdght of the Thames marsh wa&s, and by 
the tauci 6f old causeways, ftc.,ibund bslot 
the present level of high water in the rlnr, 
and by other o^latend evidence. 

Asutic Sooixtt.— The Secretary hH 
a Beview of the Buddhistical and Jain fila* 
rature of India, being a continuation of A 
paper on Uie literature of Bidia genen!|f » 
by J>r Stevenson. Tlie Buddhists and Jaiu 
h4ve many features in eomm^L Boft 
use a language not Sanscrit, but (Mkf 
alHed to it, and vie with the Brahmaosiii 
their extmvnant pretmisions to vB^MUfi 
though it is frilly recognised, that i^am 
at least, the BrahmanlBal- rel%ion is mtxe 
ancient than that of Buddha. Itistme, 
tiiat the Buddha who ^peared in tie 
«^th century before the Christian era, re* 
presented himself as a svcceesor of 6tlrt» 
who had preached the same doctrii^ tag 
many ages befbre; but the Brahmatucd 
tradi(3ons contained in the Pnrahas shot 
Uie origin of this assumption. Buddbisties! 
works are now prineipiuly found in Nepal 
or Ceylaa'j the former in Sanserit or llii' 
betan, the latter in PalL— A short extraet 
was read from the Dulva, a Thibetan work 
on Bauddha Philosophy. The Bfahawamo* 
translated by the Hon. Mr Tumour, is a 
valuahle historical document, though it re- 
quires much pruning of iiUy felwes, as^ 
may be suspected as to matters ocourriBg 
before the sixtJi century b. a 

HOETICfUlTUKAL SOOIETT. — MtS !*▼• 

rence exhibited a handsome spedmen ^ 
Columnea scandetUf its light-green folia||^ 
drooping gracefully around the pot, m 
each shoot bearing at its extremity laigB 
light crimson flowers; Onddxum hifldiumf 
with a small, Glioc<^te-8|K>tted peinaQtli, 
and a large, bright yellow labdlumj Bras* 
savola gloHcti^ in excellent health, ivi^ch 
appeared to be owing to its being |«>wb 
in earth instead of upon a Wock of ^^'T 
From IKr G. Beaumont, Bart, a flslr sw* 
men of the Queen Pfaie, weigWnf ^^ 
10 oz., sent for the purpose of Aowuig vm 
iSruit of this variety may be well sweDea 
m winter^ if kept at a W JteiBpe»t«w^ 



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TH£ MIRROH. 



liis 



the plant from whidi the present fruit was 
dut having been grown in a house never 
higher than from fifty to ^fty-five de- 
grees by night, and from sixty to sixty -five 
degrees by day, unless under powerful! suu- 
shme. 



Then take not this chair! let no mortal 
profane it, 
Who friendship with art or with song 
caoj^ot claim ; 
Oh t worthy alone is that man to retain It, 
Who "Kobcob" can cherish, in mem'ry 
and name. 



COLOUBING daguebbeotym: 

PICTURES. 
Mr Beabb has succeeded in making very 
great improvements in the art.of colouring 
Daguerreotypes. (Some very beautiful iipe- 
eSnens of groups and portraits were shown 
at the Pol3rtechnic Institution at a private 
view on Wednesday. So perfect, indeed, 
were some of the subjects as to the detail in 
cobur, that they appeared nearly as sharp 
^ is seen in the Camera. The coloured 
portraits are very little mor^ cost than 
those originally taken. There is also a 
p^i improvement made in the mpde d 
OMmipulatioh, so much sp as to insure the 
#ter a portrait at each sitting. 



8TAN7AIS» 

SimfesUd by seetM a Ckaify eonstructedfrom a 
mam ofHu Hmutj at Liverpooly in. which 
MotMe the PfMt was bam ; n&w in ike poasez" 
mm of T. MaytTy JEsq., Ltoerp^l. 

nr JJM^B STONSH008E. 

TlOs cfaidr» that the hand of skiU, scitnoe, and 

• tasta, 

. W» laboured with seulfitiire ao fair ta 

adorn, 
^ITss once » broad Umber, which strongly 

smhraced 
The house where a poet most hallowed 

wasboipn. 

B«ieaUi it he gambolled in life's early 

And flroUcke4 the thne (^ his childhood 
. awsyj 

vm heedless of knowkdge, all disdpline 
•comfaig, 
He dwelt—till his talents burst forth Into 
day. 

^as there that the soul caught some 
glimpses of glory^ 
Perehance the first touch to his harp the 
iMTdgave; 
And the wish was engendered of living in 
story 
As waUng the world to the wrongs of the 
davc. 

ttoUttle he thought, from its deepest 

* TUffllBttllj, 

Plf^ns was destined to drag to the 

%Je«(^ IbHiyt Italy richly Mwsises, 
where fiction jwd laot im iu beauty 
mate. 



KailwavS,— Thu rettirufl of trafllc for the 
iveok on tlic principnl lines art^ as follow . 
— Northcni mid Eastern, ],!:>:>/.; Green- 
wich, 684/.; Kaatern Counties, H32i.i Croy- 
donj :?04/. ; Liverpool and Manchester, 
3,6a.'j/,; Bnghton/5,1961.; Gi^nd Jimetion, 
7,007/.; York and Korth Midhnd, 1,359/.; 
Blackball, 463/,; Great Noraj of EnglaiMl, 
M03/.; Mnnchestcr and liGecJ*, 4,060ti 
Mldbnd Counties, 2,076/. j Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, 1,682^.; Blrmingbam and (Jlou- 
Cii^ter, 1,520/.; Birmlnglmiu ai^d Derhy, 
iM-^ii North AOdknd, a^376l j South 
Western, 4,203/. j Great Western, 10,51 Tij 
LondLHi and Biniunglmiii, 1^,909^.; feoutb 
Easturii and Dover. 1,2U5/. j Jfancbester 
and BirniLiiijhani, 2,25^/. — The final olEcUl 
inapectlon of tlit^ new portion of the Eii^t* 
em Co ail ties Kailway^ from Brentwood to 
CokhcsLur, wis made on tlie 8th instaalj 
bj Major- General fas ley, the Inspectflr- 
Gtncral of railways, aci;oitjpanied by tbe 
dircetfjrs and cnpint^r of the luic. i% tb* 
followin*^ day the first c-irgo i>f live stock 
vras transmitted from ColohestiTto Siuith- 
ftuld, and it k midcratood that the whole 
ii[ie will be opetied for passtngtf Iraffiw qh 

Monday next Casting up the weekly 

amt>uiit tiikon by the railway* as abovi 
(wliich are few in coinpjiriseni trt tho whole 
laid do wji iti Great Britain) Wi^: find they give 
Si^'iO^L^ or tlic enormous suniof 3,9l:£tfi*>0/. 
amiually j to this musit be added the cost 
of travelling to and from the staticyus bj 
oiimibusca and other coiirey ance s. All tl^c 
coajeiiuig in the united kingdom could mt 
possibly have produced Mmih a circulatiaD 
of money in the »amc spaee of timt^ or have 
employed a titlie of tlic people nccenjiary to 
upHnia A railroEul in all its h ranches of ea- 
ginccrs, drivers, police, kiboiitcra, Sic. 

mman Z>ccay.~At St Thomas's Hos- 
pital, ou Wednesday cveninjr» a con versa - 
rione was, given, at whiuli Dr George 
Gregory read some vibacrva Lions ' On the 
Iaws which govern thr^ ilode and Ente of 
Decay in the Human Frame/ In an iible 
discourse, rich in vnrkxl information, he 
showed that the same Mighty Power 
which presided over tho formation of niaa 
to mould hhn into symmetry, had with 
equal indulgence provided means for the 
extinction of life, to save him in ordinary 
cases from the pain of dymg from total ex- 
haustion } which, when it did occur, too 
frequently exemplified the words of the 

^^ "ProtwctcdlifeisbtttptoUajt^^WMj^ 



id4 



THE MlRhOft. 




Arm. Oh a fe96e sa., a caeUe trtple-towered, ar. Crest, A tower ar. from the btlt]^ 
meiiis, a cbaplet of laurel ppr. . Supporters. Bexter, a lioi^ ar. mundly crowfied or, gtttged 
«with a wreath of oak, frucUd, ppr. ; sinister, a horse ar. bridled and saddled ppr., muriyy 
gorged -giu Motto, "^raiicez." Advance. , 



THE NOBLE H0U3E OF HILL. ; 
The residence of this noble family in the 
coi^ity of Salop has been traced back to 
the time of Henry HI. Formerlvthe name, 
instead of HUl, was spelt Hull. One of 
the family, named Humphrey, lived in the 
reign of Henry V. From him the present 
family have descended; but he to whom 
f ature generations may be expected to look 
back with most reverence and admiration 
is its late. wearer, the Baron recently de- 
ceased, who placed it on the proud roll of 
the ndbles of England. 

Rdwland Hill entered the army in 1790, 
by joiniiig the 38tli Regiment. His pro- 
motion was rapid. He was in the uirfor-! 
tunate expedition to' Toulon, and was sent 
home with despatches from Sir David 
Dnndas wlien that place .was evacuated. 
He served imder Abercromby in Egypt,' 
with the 90th Regiment. In the battife of 
Alexandria he was wounded rather seri- 
ously by a; spent ball. On the Ist of Jan; 
in the toHOwirig year he wiaB promoted to 
a Brevet-Colohelcy, arid with tlie rank of 
Brigadier-General was , appointed to the 
Irish staff. Oh beingma^e'a M^jor-Ge- 
neral he was placied upon Lord Cathcart's 
staff, on the occasion of his expedition to 
Hanover. 

The great scene of his glory was the 
Peninsida, for which lie sailed from Cork 
in 1808. He was in the battles of Rolica 
:^nd Vimicra, fought by Sir Arthur Wdles- 
ley; and he commanded a corps under Sir 
John Hbore during his retreat, and the re* 
serve at Corunna. When Sir Arl^ur re- 
turned.' to Portugal, General Hill accompa- 
nied him; and in the passage of the Douro, 
May 12, 1809, on Sir Edward Paget being 
woimded, succeeded to his command. He 
successfully withstood suj^erior numbers 
till additional forces came to his asssistance, 
and conipelled Soult.to retreat. 

At Talatera' he was wounded, and ^ the 
manner in whicH he jrepulscd the most de- 
termined attacks of Hie enemy greatly 
added to his reputatiQn. His surprise of 



Arrayo de Molinas was a masterly opera- 
tion. It was deemed a singular comcidencc 
tlmt in that afto a battalion of the 34th 
French Regiment was attacked and .taken 
by a wing of the Eng^h 34th. In destroy- 
ing the bridge of boats at Almarez, hy 
which Marshal Marmont had secured the 
passage of the Tagus, he was next con- 
spicuous for his activity, valour, and sac- 
cess. On the Nive, in the liattle of Decem- 
\ieje 13,- 1813, he was greatly distmgoisbed. 
Soult was here again his opponent, and 
i^as compelled to retire, with the kiss cf 
two pieces of artillery. Lord \VelUngtqp, 
who arrived on the spot immediately after 
the action, congratulated the victor on tha 
triumph, by the exdamation, '^Hill, tin 
day's your own." In numerous other in- 
stimoes he. nobly sustamed the character -of 
the British army. 

In requital of his s^vices he received the 
Grand Cross of the Bath, the govemmept 
of Blackness Castle, the Portugoese ordor 
of the Tower and Sword, the freedom <rf 
the city of London, and the government of 
^ull. He closed his useful career as Com- 
ma nder-in-Chief, where his unceasing at- 
tention to the efficiency of the army cob^ 
luanded the esteem and admiration of all 
parties. His death is so recent that here 
it is unnecessary to recal the feelings which 
it inspired among all classes in the service 
He was raised to the Peerage, SCay 17» 
1 8 14, as Baron Hill. A second patent wa^ 
granted to his Lord^ip, January 16, 1818, 
conferring a similar, mstinction, with the 
additional designation of Hf^^wickc, and 
in remainder to the male issue of his de- 
ceased brother. 



Teiynmuth.^The reUgious sect which 
sprung up ti few years since in Derooafaire, 
under the name of the " Plymouth Bre- 
thren,", have estaUished a branch cha{|el 
in this toAvn. Lord Congleton preached in 
it on Sunday last, and it Btretniy nunib^ 



THE MIKROH 



Heathen Mvtftohgy lUustrd' 
ted. Wifloughby and Co. 
This is a yery pretty and 
a very useful book. The 
mareh of literature renders 
some knoiRledge ci dasiric 
story necessary to those 
who do not pretaid to be 
scholars, and here much In- 
tl;vmation of the ancient 
gods, goddesses, and heroes 
&. ftimished in unaffected, 
inlelKgiUe language, and 
impreased on l£e mind by 
nearly two hundred engrav- 
ings. ; Such a work must be 
acceptable to old or young. 
The child who is too young 
to read wiH be amused with 
the lively pictorial repre- 
8entiiti(«is which almost 
etery page exhibits. Some 
of the embeUishments are 
of a si^erler order. The 
Bacchantes are presented 
to us in the acoompan3r]ng 
siririted groop (a), the£resh 
ness and the^ animation 
whidimust strike everyone* 
The specimens which follow, 
representing Amphitrite 
tfndher Dolphin (b), and the. 
abduction of Proserpine by 
Fhto (c), will give some idea 
of the varied entertainment 
here prepared for them. 

It is, however, but justice 
to say that if the embellish- 
ments, so profusely sup- 
plied, were witihdrawn, the 
pabhcation before us would 
Stan be valuaible. The sto- 
ries of the Heathen Mytho- 
logy are tdd with clearness 
and delicacy, and with ad- 
mirable tact the compiler 
has enriched his pages with 
ipporite quotations from 
the works of our most ap- 
proved English bards. Vast 
industry in this respect has 
been exercised. He might 
afanost be allowed to boast, 
in the words of Dr Johnson, 
that ^ He has made a Com- 
modore - Anson - voyage 
round the whole world of 
English poetry;* for hardly 
one poet of acknowledged 
eminence has escaped being 
made a contributor to this 
vdume, which in fact is, 
besides being what it is 
considered, a new collection 
of "elegant extracts." The 
Totaries of the Muses iriU 




AMPHITRITE AND HER DOtPHlX. (b) 




ABDUCTION OF raOSERTmS BY VIVJO* 



4M 



THE MIRBOR. 



find a rich treat in the modem beauties 
which follow in the train of veneral>le an- 
tiquity. We l)elieYe the plan on which it 
has been done is noyel, but it is one that 
well deserres to be imitated, and for those 
who wish to $M to their claasic stores of 
knpwledge in the pleasantest wa .' possible, 
^ > Heathen Mythology* mav be feirly 
cqmiDended as a treasure which Vould be 
dieaply purchased at tliree or four times 
its priee. 



£tH*r$ Oft S&rUh AmetUrri mmprn^g TrU' 

This work is a Li a tor j' of twpiity-fi vi years* 

refiidonce in the regions wliicli pour their ._^ _^ .^ . 

waters mto the Rio de la Plata. We shall operation; butit w|ui coniyMatiyely $m 
content ouraelr^i with tailing a fbw enter- w^rk tg that of sUnglitirog the wiW 
twniii^ eitracta. In tlte year IHS, when -horsto^the nobte «id unretlnklaidf m 



sort of fhmt armour of hide, so af( to enaUe 
them to scramble in amongrthe thorny trees 
without lacerating their bodies. The woods 
consist almost exdusirely of mimoiis, in- 
cluding many varieties of tha thorny acada. 
.When the men* go^ in anaoog the tiftt 
where the cattle vote rmsiiigi ihqr 
crawled on their kiMMs tAd OMda mm 
th« sleeping tonanti of ^ wood«; m 
armed with sharp Imives, they stnok U)sr» 
in the throats, k^ them to Ueod to deMk 
and returned in the normag toiay tbttt* 
These men carriod, also, a kind (tf hide 
slueld, to defend thorn in.tho ennt of m 
attack from any of the ronsed buUifSlimiU 
ih^ suddenly tarn round upon ^m^ 
There was a picturasque barkarit^ it On 



one of the authors Ituided at Parana with 
mercliandiBe, the diJsLiirbed btuie of the 
country made it doubtful whether he should 
realize a farthing, or be a sacrifice himself, 
when an unexpected visitor appeared. 

" Sitting one evening under the corridor 
of my house, there came up to my very 
chair, on horseback, a tau, raw-boned, 
ferocious looking man, in Gaucho attire, 
wil^ two cavalry pistols stuck in his girdle, 
a sabre in a rusty steel scabbard, pending 
from a besmeared belt of half- tanned leather, 
red whiskers and mustachios* hair un- 
combed of the same colour, matted with 
perspuration, and powdered with dust. His 
face was not only burnt almost to blackness 
by the sun, but it was blistered to the eyes ; 
while large pieces of shrivelled skin stood 
ready to faU from his parched lips. Ue 
wore a pan: of plahi ear-rings, a foraging 
cap, a tattered poncho, blue jacket with 
t^nished red fiax^ings, a lai^ knife in a 
leathern sheath, a pair of potro boots, and 
rusty iron spurs* with rowels an inch and 
a hiuf in diameter. His horse was a noble 
animal, and sweated profusely. His gored 
sides yrere panting, lus nostrils diste^ed $ 
he champed his enormous bit, tossing his 
head till he foamed at the mouth, and 
besprinkled both his own body and that of 
his master with froth.** 

This man turned out to be an Irishman, 
long resident in the country, and was after- 
wards the chief instrument of our author^s 
success. 

The method resorted to by the South 
Americans for killing the wild cattle is 
curious. 

" For shelter during the night they in- 
variably took to the woods, and the • raa« 
tanza,* or slaughter of them took place 
there during the summer months, and by 
moonlight. When the night was dear*-* 
and it was seldom oth»wise-a number of 
men, varying according to the quantity of 
cattle collected, or Mdes wanted, put on a 



nevertheless doomodtoiunittoCtlu^iiatiTf 
forests. At tho time of our aojown in 
Corrientes, these wild horioa and mm 
had so overrun the oountrf, that itw#« 
not uncommon to find particnUr hfrdi (< 
them of five to ton thouMiul in nwnbtr.*. 

Speaking of the value of the bides oC 
horses. 

'' The dried hide beoune more Talqm 
than the ammal itself Unr there wai t» «kl 
to the origmal «ost all the ozpoiBe d 
slaughter, curing the hide^ carting, ^ 
For a great prop^timi of ours in OsmenW 
and Goya, we paid one dollar to Un lilb 
the pesffda, a weight of tWrty -five poQilfc 
equal to about three halfjpence per poniii 
Three months afterwards i^y were add 
in Buenos Ayrea at about fivepenoe bilf^ 
penny per pound ; and perhaps six mpntiM 
after that they iirere sold in liverpool and 
London at from ninopenoe to tenpencs 
per pound, to the tanners. Supposing QW 
hide with another to give twenty shilli9|l» 
it then produoed exactly ten times lbs 
amoimt which tlie South American oottntry 
gentleman recaved fiw the whole aniinil 
on his estate. I have still in my pomih 
sion a contract which I made in GopK win 
an estanciero, for twenty thousand wiH 
liorses, to be taken on hia estate at tbe 
price of a medioBm^; that is to say, ttoli 
pence for each live horse ormaie. He 
slaughter of them cost thre^enoe a h«s4 
more $ the staking and deamng the bidei, 
once more, threepoico ; and lastly, a lilis 
sum for the carting to Goya, making ttj 
whole cost one shiUing ftir each skin. Of 
this contract ten tkooaaad animals was 
deUvered ; the skins were packed hi beta, 
and sold in Buenos Ayres at six rislsof 
three shiUings each, nod they sold flifi- 
mately in England for seven or eight sbii^ 
lings } that is, the skins sold for ahon* 
2,800 to 3,000 per cent, on the first cost of 
the horse fh>m which the sldn was tskeik 
Such is ^e accumulatirc value soioetiniM 



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tBEimBOE. 



Itt 



fi iStte piddott «^eh U taken from the 

liaiBdf ot tiie grower in one cD^ntry befcxrs 

tt'geU into the h&nda of the consumer in 

enethar/' 

-rTh« «athor gives a curions picture of 

tlie Bunpft Zfidlans, as to their food. 

<*yot might fancy yourself inthe Pam» 
PIS, tee assemhM in a large yard, not nn« 
lOtt a knacker's, the tattered and half« 
oaked Indians of tiie Pampas ; two maras 
^y liare jnst killed for dinner, whic^ 
tftay are cutting up with more aridity than 
jpreeision. They lire almost entirely on 
mare's ftash, a dainty whicii they nnftr to 
all others. Now comes titemlt^ the dgar, 
sad best of 1^, the raw spirits, which tibey 
aiwr leave nntii Unlshed ; lihey then wrap 
AaflM^lvea in their ponchoo^ each witii hia 
better half, if he have one, round a l^aaii^; 
lie in w&iter, and in thie summer unAer 
the light of the moon.** 

A SISTOR'S LOVB. 
{Qmtinued). 
But various, antic, and extraordinary 
as are^tha hidiiliments with v^iidx Af^ca, 
America, and even Europe are laid under 
contribution to supply on the occasion, it 
irwAd have puzzled the most original 
•* Ji0hn Canoe" of them all to don a gar- 
iH^t at once so strange and so familiar to> 
^ eye of Svelyn as that in which she 
]^?e9ently saw the female stranger to be 
enveloped. T^o sooner was she within the 
pradncts of the verandah, than dropping 
the hood of the Irish cloak, at sight of 
wMch alone Bvdyn*s heart had flutterfed 
abnost to bursting — Alleen, thin, pale, and 
altered in all save warmth of aflfection, 
stood as a ghost from the grave before her 
bewildered sister ! 

Unlike in external fortunes and outward 
<e6iblance as the once undistinguishaWe 
twins of Letrewel had become, they were 
still one in warmth of heart and feeling ; 
and again it was the afffectionate Evelyn's 
s^r inquiries about her sister's envied 
cMdren. 

^It is well with the children,** sobbed 
out the mother, whose pride they had so 
lately been ; " they are all, save one, with 

Ood. But their father— Moriarty I" 

and here sobs checked the utterance of 
Afleen, and she in return fell, in a bitter- 
ness of grief which knew no respect of 
persons, on the jewelled neck of her 
scarcely less agitated sister. 

^Aileen mavonmeenr cried the latter" 
fondly—" what means this distress? Is 
your husband iH, or in danger, or" — half 
shuddering as led on by silence to rise in 
the climax of misfortune — "he is not 
deadr ' 

**Not dead! no, not yet— if grief and 



fihame haran't killed him since we payM 
-4>ut ft dead man, Evelyn dear, aibte 
three days are over, if you, that aeoncd 
like a bleased angel, when I heard aa in a 
dream that God had sent you and your'a 
•ao nigh me in my aorrow, don't atxetck 
^MTth a helpmg hand to me and mine)" 

'* Ood forbid we ahould do oliiarwiat, 
Aileen," replied her gentle aister, '^ when 
Wh so mpch we both have owed to yon ki 
ottier days." 

"* You can save hia li&," gaaped mit tl|e 
poor wife convulsively; '♦yon and none 
but you on earth have ponrer to do It ( 
and youll not let him cBe, Evelyn dear, 
even if to Area hhn fhxn death, he (mean* 
faig Sir Guy) muat knowthat ye have and 
A«^ a sister !" 

«0h! no, no! God fbrbid I ahonid 6t 
ao eelfi^ and hard-hearted !" fidt&red the 
tremblfai^ Xvelyn; though, at the hart 
thought of the oonipnla<vy avowal wfaidi 
the promise involved, die Alt lowered in 
the duet beneath the suppliant before her. 
"But how can his knowing do Moriarty 
'goodr 

'* Because he nor no soldier <^eer thaii 
ever knew and ^d his duty will pardon a 
man condenmed for murder, unlesa"*-4uid 
the modest Aileen hesitated-*'* unless she 
that bids him do it has good right to aak 
tfeat same." 

''And that you have, if ever woman 
had!" exclaimed the conadoua Svelyn. 
But— did yott—oould you say, Moriarty 
was a murderer?** 

*• God forbid I should say so, and pardon 
them that did! The blood he shed-^and, 
€rod knows, in trying to save Hfe-^es at 
another's door ; Mid yet, sister dear, men 
that never saw the thing happen, nor 
knew the nature of the creature, that he 
wouldn't hurt a fly, have brought him in 
guilty ; and die he must"— a strong shiver 
crossed her frame as she spoke— "on 
Thursdav, if your blessed General doeen^ 
rescue him out of their hands." 

iW tale which, by brokra inteiroga* 
tories, Evelyn extorted in equally Sa« 
jointed fh^ments from her sister, was a 
sad, but in those days of licence and 
favouritism, a less imcommon instance 
than could now occur of the force of preju- 
dice when combined with power. 

Sergeant Carrdl's regiment had hot 
recency landed after dreadful hardshtpa 
and fever, whose ravages had well nijpi 
swept his^ humble hearth, from the coast 
of Africa, on an adjoining island to that of 
which Sir Guy was governor. A young 
commanding dfBcer, whom interest, M«>i 
all-powerful, had enaUed to escape the 
African duty, finding it impossible to 
evade the West Indian, had joined with 
the worst possible grace a corps to the 



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THE MiEROli; 



indivi<iual8 of which, as well as their gene- 
ral habits,' he was necessarily a stranger. 
Had he been amenable, under those cir- 
ciim»tance8, to advice, the unanimous roice 
of oijlcers and men pointed out poor 
CarroH to fill the just-vacated situation of 
sergeant-major, for which his good am- 
4uct, mild temper, and general popularity 
eminently qtialified hinL But that very 
4UiaiMmi^ of rec(»nmendation assumed, to 
a foolish, head-strong ignoramus tfor such 
the new major was) the air of dictation. 
A low-lifed sycophant was petulantly 
raised over the head of poor Moriarty, to 
the disgust of the whole regimeiit, and no 
doubt to his own secret disappointment. 
. Poor CaiToll, nevertheless, all Irish as 
he was, bore the double mortification to 
bis person and country: like a perfect 
angcJ. A lad from the same part of the 
country to^ upon him, much to the an- 
noyance of th&pacific sergeant, the office of 
Moriart}r's champion. Under the joint 
influence of cheap liquor, a hot temper, 
and a broiling stm, this rash lad, in a bar* 
rack squabble, had levelled his fire-lock at 
the obnoxious sergeant-major ; Moriarty 
had interposed (as two persons, the cul- 
prit included, but who were both unfor- 
tunately his own countrymen, testified) 
to beat it dolm. In so doing it had acci- 
dentally gone ofi^, and lodged the contents 
not in the hesbft but legs of the intended 
victim, whose death, though it unquestion- 
ably followed within a very few days, was 
far more justly attributable to new rum 
and a bad habit of body than to the un- 
happy accident of which Moriarty had been, 
in averting worse evil, the innocent cause. 

The commandant, incensed at the loss 
of hijs protege^ got up such a case of insub- 
ordination, revenge, and malice prepense^ 
a|[ainst poor Moriarty, who had been heard 
to say, on the deceased's appointment (al- 
luding to his incapacity), that " he doubted 
if he would be a month sergeant-major," 
that a tribunal of strangers, hastily as- 
sembled from other corps, andmystified by 
contradictory evideince, leaned, naturally 
perhap9t to the commanding officer's ver- 
sion, and found a verdict of guilty against 
poor Carroll. 

The military governor of the island, to 
whom an appeal on behalf of the culprit 
would certainly have been made, was ab- 
sent on a cruise for his health. The day 
fixed for the execution of the sentence was 
clo^e at hand, and hope was well nigh 
dead in the bosom of the resigned and 
manly victim and his agonised wife, when 
some friendly visitor to the prison regret- 
ted that an attempt had not been made to 
ioterest in the cause the upright new gover- 
jifSe of T- — , Sir Guy Sydenham. 

Aileen's heart bounded to her lips with 
renovated hope. 



^ To get at Sir Giiy withlnthe given titr^ 
days was, of course, her first cSqect ; aad 
now did the Mermaid of Innismoran's e«^. 
fomHiarity with ocean perils come caee 
!more to the aid of her womanly devoted- 

ness ; for the small idand of T , bea^ 

lit^ frequented (except incrop-tiine)-b3r 
anything deserving the name of shi^piiig, 
the sde means of conveyance its harbov 
then affi^rded was a *^ caiacn," or caa^ 
hollowed, with Indian nmplicity cf ooo- 
structioin, out of one wild cotton tree, w^ 
length of course hugdy disproportiooed to 
its scanty breadthtand calcolaied for coast- 
ing purposes alene, yet in wluch^ coiU a 
coadjutor be procured, the feitriesi i^ 
was ready to brave the perils of a ten 
hours', run across the trcSu^rous OaiBh 
bean sea. 

A light steady breeze favoured the dar- 
ing enterprise, and ^yen. in tess time tbin 
had been allotted, Aileen stood under the 
roof of the arlnter of her husband's fete. 
(To he concluded in ottrntM.) 



EAETHQUAKE IN CALABRIA, 
IN 1638. 
Fere Kirchbh, an eminent scholar, i^ 
lived at the begim^ of the llih oentoty, 
has left an animated descripti<m of an 
earthquake whic^ swallowed up a cit^i and 
m a few moments converted the site on 
which it stood into an i^^uive pool 1!he 
facts he states are so astounding that 
they cannot but command attention. 

"Having hired a boat, in company with 
four others, we launched from the hAFb9V 
of Mesi^a^in Sicily, and arrived the same 
day at the promontory of Pelorus. Onr 
destinaticm was for the city of £upheiaiai 
in Calabria, where we liad some Inisiness, 
and where we designted to tarry for some 
time. However, Frovidenee seemed wiltfng 
to cross our design, fbr we were obliged to 
tarry three days at Pelorus on aocxwit of 
the weather; a^d though we <^ten put oot 
to sea, yet we were as often driven back. 
At length, wearied with the di^y, we re- 
solved to prosecute our voyage ; and al- 
though the sea became more tlum usaally 
agiti^ed, we ventured f(nrwurd. The golf 
of Charybdis, which we approadied, seemed 
whirled round in such a manner as to finm 
a vast hoUow, verging to a point in the 
centre. Proceeding miward, and turning 
my eyes to Etna, I saw it cast forth vol- 
umes of smoke of moimtainous sizes, which 
entirely covered the island, and blotted ont 
the very shores from my view* This, to- 
gether with the dreadful noise, and the 
sulphurous stench which was strongly per- 
ceived, filled me with apprehensions that 
some moredreadf^ calamity -was imped- 
ing. The sea itself seemed to wear a very 



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THE MIRROR. 



180 



tmuiu^ appeanuicei they who have seen 
a kte in a i^oleiit-^iower of rain, covered 
all over with babhies, will ccmoeiye scmdc 
Sdsa o( its aiiitations. My siu^^rise was 
stUl ineieased by the cahaneas and serenity 
of the weatiier; not a Inreeze, not a cloud, 
. 'vHiich might be supposed to put all Kature 
thus ' into motion. I therefcnre wacned my 
ooBxpanions that mi earthquake was ap- 
proaching; uid, afker some time, making 
ibr^the shore with all possible diligence, we 
landed at Tropea, happy and thajikful fbr 
Imving escaped the threatened dangers of 
the sea. 

' *f But our triumphs at land>were of short 
duration ; for we had scarcely arrived at 
the Jesuits' College in that city, when our 
ears were stunned with a horribd sound, re- 
fiembling that of an in&iite number of 
chariots, driven fiercely forward; the 
.wheels rattling, and the thongs cracking. 
&oaa after IMs, a most dreadful earthquake 
ensued; so . that the whole tract upon 
whioh we stood seemed to vibrate as if we 
were in the scale of a balam^e that con- 
tinued wavering. This motion, however, 
soon grew more violent; and bdng no 
longer able to keep my legs, I was thrown 
prastrate on the ground. In the meantime 
the universal ruin round me redoubled my 
WDazeaaent. The crash of falling houses, 
the tottering of towers, and the groans of 
.the dying, all contributed to raise my ter- 
ror and despair. On every side of me I 
saw nothing but a scene of ruin, and 
dang^ threatening wherever I should fly. 
I copimended myself to God as my last re- 
fuge. At that hour, O how vain was every 
sublunary happiness ! Wealth, honour, em- 
pire, wisdom, are mere useless sounds, and 
MA empty as the bubbles in the deep I Just 
standing on the threshold of eternity, no- 
iifaing but God was my pleasure; aiul the 
nearer I approached I only loved him the 
more. After some time, however, finding 
that I remained unhurt amid, the graeral 
concussion, I resolved to venture fpr safety; 
and running as &st as I could, I reached 
the shore, but almost terrified out of my 
ipeasoo. I did not search long here till I 
found the boat in wliich I had landed; and 
my companions also, whose terrors were 
even greater than mine. Our meeting was 
not of that kind where every one is desirous 
of telling his own happy escape; it was all 
silence, and a gloomy ai^orehension of ,im< 
pending terrors. 

*' Leaving tliis seat of desolation, we pro^ 
secttted our voyage along the coast; and 
the next day came to Bochetta, where we 
landed, although the earth still continued 
in violent agitations. But we had scarcely 
arrived at our , inn when we were once 
xasxe obliged to return to the boat: and in 
about half an hour we saw the greater part 
of the town, and the inn at wUiclx we had 



set up, dashed to the gPOttiSd, and hatjiH 
the inhabitajits beneath the ruins. 

" In this manner, proceeding onward in 
our little vessel, finding no safety on land, 
and yet, from the smallness of our boat, 
having but a very dangerous conttnuanoe 
at sea, we at length landed at Lopizfum, a 
castle midway b^ween Tropea and Euphe- 
mia, the city to which, as I said before, we 
were bound. Here, wherever I turned ray 
eyes, nothing but scenes of ruin and honor 
appeared; towns and castles levelled to the 
ground; Strombolo, though at sixty miles' 
distance, belching forth flames in an un- 
usual manner, ai^ with a noisewhickl 
could distuictly hear. ' But my attention 
was quickly turned fi*om more remote to 
contiguous danger. Tlie rumbling sound 
of an approaching earthquake, which we 
hy this time were grown acquainted with, 
alarmed us for the consequences ; it every 
moment seemed to grow louder, and to ap- 
proach nearer. The place on which we 
stood now began to shake dreadfully, so 
that, being unable to stand, my companions 
and I caught hold of whatever shrub grew 
next to us, and supported o\irselves in that 
manner. 

*'• After some time, this violent paroxysm 
ceasing, we again stood out, in order to 
prosecute our voyage to Euphemia, which 
lay within sight. In. the meantime, while 
we were preparing for this purpose, I 
.turned my eyes towards the city, but coidd 
.see only a frightful dark clOi^ that, seemed 
to rest upon the place. This the more sur- 
prised us, as the weather was so very se- 
rene. We waited, therefore, till the cloud 
had passed away: then turning to look for 
the city, it was totally sunk. WonderftU 
to tell! nothing but a dismal and putrid 
lake was seen where it stood. We looked 
about to find some one that could tell us of 
its sad catastrophe, but could see no person. 
All was melancholy solitude-ra scene of 
hideous desolation. Thus proceeding pen- 
sively along in quest of some human being 
that could give us a little information, we 
at length saw a boy siting by the shore, 
and appearing stupified with terror. Of 
him, therefore, we inquired concerning the 
fate of t^e city; but he could not be pre- 
vailed on to give us an answer. We en- 
treated him with every egression of ten- 
derness and pity to teU us, but his senses 
were quite wrapped up in the contempla- 
tion of the danger he had escaped,' We 
ofi^ed him some victuals, but he seemed 
to loathe the si^t. We still persisted in 
our offices of kuijdness, but he only pointed 
to the place of the city like one out of his 
senses, and then running up into the woods, 
,was never heard of after. Such was the 
fate of the city of Euphemia ; and as we 
continued our melancholy course along |he 
shore, the whole coast, for the space" ctf 200 



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u# 



THB IfntROIt. 



oto, liriiitttttBiXfcteg Imt the remftini 
o^dties, add tnett sesttered, wtthoat s ha* 
bitation, over tbcr fields. Prooeeding thus 
ftkmgt we at lengtli enddd <mr difltreeftM 
vdfi^ hy arriving at Naples, after having 
escaped « thousand dangers hy sed and 
land.'^ 

KSrcher we have already mentioned as a 
well knowii scholan. tt is proper to add 
tiMLt he was devotedly ftmd of antiquarism 
low. *» Everything," says his J'rench bio* 
gr&pher, ** that was ancient, he regarded as 
divine.** Aware of this, some students 
played off a triek on him which Sir Walter 
Scott afterwards introdneed into his novd 
<tf*The Antiquary.' They traced some fan- 
effiil characters on a stone, and ooncealed 
it In a place on which they knew it was 
ilitended shortly to build. In due time the 
bttried stone was discovered, and submit- 
ted to Kircher, who applied himself to 
ascertain the meaning of the mysterious 
hieroglyphics which it bore. He laboured 
With great assiduity, and at last sa^fled 
himself that he had completely succeeded, 
and fdmished a very sublime interpreta- 
tion to that which had reaUy no meaning 
at all. On another occasion they brought 
before liim a leaf of Chinese paper, on 
which were written certain characters, 
which, though he thought he understood 
the Chinese hmguage, he could not de- 
cypher. They then showed that the cha- 
Ira^ters had been reversed, and, holding it 
before a glass, he read them without dif- 
Heudty. 

Hiese &ets exhibit the character of the 
Ittan in such a light, that every one must 
feel to have been in a scene like that 
above described, must have delighted his 
classical heart His narrative will remind 
tttoy of our readers of the younger Plin/s 
i^phic picture (most likely studiously 
iniitated) of Uiat awful moment when a 
city was overwhelmed by ashes, instead of 
b^g, like Buphemia, immersed in water. 

!ftB) PAUMDBaroK.— PAtA'aw, to whom was 
t^CB^ekid the aooomplishment of this vast 
lielign, employed Callierates andlctinus as 
the airchitects: Alcamenes, Agoracritus, 
-O^tes, and other artista of equal ^ninence, 
^pte associated with himself in its exter- 
nal decorations: while the statue of thfe 
goidess, £)r the interi(»r, was reserved fbr 
his own hands. Of no ^>ther work has su- 
periority been assented to^ with the same 
degree of unanimity; and eertahily <^ all 
the known pro<kictions in Art, the sculp- 
ttures of the Parthenon approach nearest to 
perftction« The great care bestowed upon 
th« txecution strikes us with astonishment 
mhet it is remembefed that, in many in* 



stancet, moM espeeUlfy ifl th»€ftg^ oftlMi 
pediment, the gtmniee part of the woHc 
must have been tota^ o«^ of ^ghtv^did 
those portions whidieottld be f^^ viewed, 
were, at the neai^est poAttr ^^ IBM '"tilMi 
120 feet fh>m the iq>eetatoir. Wt leltfB 
ttom the auth(^ty of serven^ wHtti^ mitt 
a c«stom prevailed a£ exposhig wortetf ta 
pttblio view before they were pUiyDed in tSni 
situations thev were destined t6 Odcl^; 
and the ambition the artist would nnXtMSf 
feel to excel, may be adduced as a auAdiiH 
motive for tlm extreme finish t ltfoughO tt t 
of these statues. But, we may reasonably 
infer, that a much higher fodlng-^fhe 
sanctity of the edifice, and the' giory of 
behig associated with a work proposed t^ 
surpass all others in magnificenGie, and to 
be raised in honour, not only of the dltin- 
ity presiding ov€!lP Athens, but at the same 
thne, the hnmefiate protectafess of the A^ 
themselves^would prevail over every dther 
minor motive to caU forth the 'highe9t eii'' 
erg^s of the artist. The form of this tem- 
ple was hypiethral, or in part opeft to iSbte 
sky. It was about 200 feet in length, 100 in 
breadth, and 58 feet in height to the basefbie 
of the tympanum, and 72 feet to t^e s^ex; 
The height from the ground to the metopes 
and Panathenaic frieze was about 46 fe^ 
The latter received its light chiefly by re* 
fleotion, and from between the ooluffins of 
the peristyle. The entrance was at the east 
end, a custom, it appears, observed in al 
Athenian temples, in contradistinc^on to 
the Dorian Greeks, who entered at -the 
west, and addressed the Deity with their 
faoes towards the east, as is generdUy prtrc^ 
ttsed, at this time, in Christian cominutti-' 
tieB.'^Westmacofg Lectures, 

PicTOKiAL Nbws?ap»bs.— The rige ftJp 
illustration of works has newfound it» wiij 
into the weekly press. The success c^i& 
♦ London Weekly News ' has broiight'folf- 
ward many other papers. The * Illustrated 
Polytechnic Review' is a paper wanted, in 
which the illustrations, particularly in 
matters of machinery or sdentiflc appanp' 
tuB, must greatly assist elucidation of the 
subject. The last ntlmber iswell got tck 
and very instructive. Among' the Utwt 
pictorials, one is particiflarly worthy of 
notice, 'The llhisttated Weekly Tim^* 
The cuts are most appropriate and happily 
timed. It might be hnagined they are -got 
xip by steam, for although a week had not 
elapsed since the news of the earthquake 
arrived, they had some beautiftd engrav- 
ings connected with the Interesting su^ ect;, 

China.— From Hong-Kdng we have fii- 
vourable accounts of the rapid advanc^^ 
ment of this, the newest of our colotdal 
possessions. An English weekly ifews- 
paper has been regularly publlsheii,* §»• 
nearly a year, and the advertisenieuti giv^ 
a twibus Inisight into the ptogrt^siS and v^- 



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THE MIRROR. 



191 



qikemMii of citiliflAlkm ia that dittant 
iskuid. Among the ftanouncan^iits at« 
the £itt(^)eaii eoftttforts of aoap, candles, cla* 
n^ champagne, an hotel, a 86liciior, and 
the nle of *' A Manilla hone, an Amor 
mafe md colt, and an omm&tu / ** The fol- 
kming adtreHisffinent, announcing the pro- 
gim of a theatre, may amuse our Tettden: 
•-** Advanoe Hong-Eong ! ! I ^ Theatre 
Boval< MeMTB Dutronquoy and Co. have 
at length tlie satMustion of announcing to 
Ihe nohillty, gentry, and olergy of this 
flomighing and opudent oc^ny, that their 
^eatre is advancing most rapidly towards 
oomidetioh. It is on a most splendid scale, 
and what with the pleees that will he per- 
formed, the soenety that will he intiKKluoed, 
and the splendid assemblage of rank, beauty, 
and fiwhion which they hope to be hon- 
ot»ed with, there is no doubt but that the 
felazeof si^ndour will dazzle the eyes of 
allbehQlders.^ViTAT Rbgika !— N.B. The 
actresses hare arrived during the last 
week-Miheir beauties and talents are only 
to be surpassed by thdr spotless virtues.'* 
It would be as well if we could apply the 
last sentence to our nymphs of the stage. 

*^Thb Wisdom o** trite Nauon is 
Foolishness." — In the year 1671, a pam- 
Diilet was published imder this title against 
tlie abuses which were said to have crept 
in among medical men. As a fair speci- 
ma of the charges then made 6n their 
liapless patients the following is given : — 
.. ** • Apothecarv*s bill for attending Mr 
Driby, of Lu^gate hill, five daj^ total 
amount, 17/. 28. ICkl.' 

"The following ere the items of medicines 
(at one dai/ :^^ 



* AvquBt Uth. 


8. d. 


An emulsion 


. 4 6 


AamdloM . . . 
GeUyofhsjrtshom > 


. ti 4 
.40 


Plaiur^ dress blister . 


. ,. 1 


AnemoUisnt . 


, . 2 6 


An Ivory pipe armed 


. 1 




. . 2 ^ 


The sam6 again , 


. 2 G 


A (jQfdial draught 


. . 2 4 


T)iesaiiieag<dn 

AaotherboEis . . . . 


.2 4 
.86 


AnotherOranght ^ . 
A ^kMS^oordial spirits . 


. 2 4. 
. 3- 6 


Blistering plaster to the anas . 


.50 


The same to the wrists . 


. 5 


Twe boluses again , 


. 5 


Tw6 draughts again . 


. 4 8 


Anotlier ctamlslan . 


. 4 6 


Another pearl julep . 


. 4 6" 



MIRROR LEVITIES. 

The Plum-Bunn Theatre. — Mr Gregory, 
jf\o was lately so violently opposed when 
h^^att^ippted to perform /Tawfe/, is consoled 
for that anneyance, if report be true, by a 
legftcy trf mere thaft a hundred thousand 
poimasi Resolute to obtain a hearing on 



the stage, hb flow iayi, if efury CBMliiit 
theatre shooJ^ be closed against him, be 
will ere<»to&e fbr himself. The new play- 
house. If built, aa it will rise in eonse- 
quenee of the bequest aboTe^metttioned, 
and the course pursued by Mr Buan,^ ft^ 
may not be improper to name the '* IHum- 
J?Mim Theatre.^ 

OV THt: PimUGATIOK OF TON WBSEB'a^ 
POSTOUMOUS WORKa BT THBOSORS HEtU 

A speech more singular than droll 
Poor Weber made, his cronj^ tell; ; ' 

*• By prayer I hope to save my soul. 
The works I leave must go to tteti." 



DOCt HOUSE LAMB. 
« If passed the Boff-Cart Drawing Bill, 
The butchers all the dogs will kiU, 
Their customers to cram." 
. So Berkeley thinks, folks understabda ■ 
And thus he says to all the land — 
" Mind how you cat house-lamb." .. " 

This hint— a searching one, no doubt«- 
The butchcsB all agree to scout ; 

The^ say, « Our hearts can feel — : 

We, did we not the charge despise, 
Might as well siay, ** When Berkeley di«S| y 

Take care how you eat veaV 

LVNX. , 



V]^ HEratjb^tft* 



JRf/Hainr^ Art, — TIjU fidmifetl composer 
is actyused of pa-p( tuiilly reppatmg the 
finmp idea« of modulfitkm in dilreient 
ahupeBi wliicb is deaeribed to be revDlnng 
.■mtl re-revotving ^ithm ^ very narrow 
spherp. Vet such wa^ the iicrfcction of 
his etfbrtfi fio crRtnped, that when only foui-* 
and -twenty years of iig<?, he i^ Jis builed as 
a prsjElijcy by thy wholu iiiusieAl world \ 

B&tfHtfi IIixtori/.~hn'y, commencing tlii* 
fiCconJ half of the first ilecade of hi a liis- 
ton%<jbsetresi that what lie had previously 
r(%ted was obscure by reason of untiquitj*, 
nnd reseniblcd objects seen at a great dis- 
tance- Tills ohsTUrity he attributes to 
two cir[niinHtafH"es ; one, that ^vriting was 
rare in thn^e times— the otht^r, that the 
little which was preserved iutht* eomiuen- 
taries of the Pontifices, and the other 
public and prfvate monuments, had mostly 
perished in the conflagration of the city by 
the Gauls. 

Irish Flax Society,,-^We liavie received a 
report of the proceedings of tbia Society 
for 1842, ftrom which ^ e collect that the 
growth of flax in Ipeland is becoming of 
greater importance ertry year, chiefly 
through the assistance otffrod by the 
friends of the Societr. Belgian flaA- 
growers and dressers have been brought 
oyer fbr the purpose of tcachinp: the IrisU 
how to cultivate and prepare it in the 
manner practised in that Errantry ; and 

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\&2 



THE MIRROR. 



yoong irishmen: hare been sent to Bd|^ttin 
to acquire kno^Hedge on the spot. Ihere 
is no doubt that flax may be grown as well 
in this country as in Flanders, and we 
should expect it to prove, under good ma- 
nagement, very remunerating. 

Sifria. — Intelligence from Beyrout, of the 
8th ult, mentions that Bishop Alexander 
was still there, awaiting the arriral of the 
imperial firman, authorizing him to pro- 
ceed with the construction ^ the Protest- 
ant church at Jerusal^oi. The schismatl- 
cal Greeks of Lebanon had petitioned As- 
sad Fasha to be allowed to appoint a chief 
of their own religion. The Catholic Greeks 
had refused to acknowledge the Maronite 
Kaimacan.- 

Lettish Prove/tbg.—Some of the sayings 
that, fly loose among the inhabitants of the 
North, called the Lettish pe(mle, are rather 
pointed. , A few are transcribed. 

*^ Tou cannot make soup out of a hand- 
some fiice." 

*' To taste the sweet you must eat the 
bitter." 

'' Death can take nothing from an empty 
room." 

^ Boast of the day till it has come to an 
end." 

** Women have long hair, but short 
thoughts." 

Sufferers at Point d Pi<re.— The French 
Government have lost no time in aiding the 
sufferers; and the Chamber of Deputies 
have been called upon to vote 2,500,000 
francs. The King of the French has sub- 
scribed 20,000 francs; the Queen. 10,000 
francs; the Duke and Duchess de Nemours, 
3,000 francs ; the Duke de Moutpensier, 
1,000 francs ; and Princess Clementine, 
1,000 francs; besides which, a strong sub- 
seription is going on in the capital and 
France generally. 

KxpkauUion of the Phenomenon ofLife,-^ 
This world is a stage on which spirits 
come to act a part, and then withdraw. — 
Thibank. 

Natural Magic,'— ^Sx Andrew Coventry 
in a letter to the agricultural interest of 
Scotland, mentions that, among the objects 
which now occupy the scientific world, 
there is one for converting starch into 
cane sugar. In France, small beer and 
brandy are now produced on a great scale 
from potatoes. 

City Improvements.^AXL the obstructions 
between uie Mansion house and the new 
Royal Exchange will be cleared away 
within a fortmght ; and the late Sir F. 
Chantrey's equestrian group of the Duke 
of Wellington, to be erected by the City 
in gratitude for his Grace's services, will 
be opened on the 18th June. 

Bonaparte at Cards, — Napoleon loved 
vingt-un because it was rapid in its pro- 
gress, and because it gave him an oppor- 
tunity of cheating. He laughed a good deal 



at his togtuay when be was not kmA 
out; and the sphrit of the courtiet bad, 
even before he became Emperc^, made such 
progress in his suite, that they often vo- 
luntarily shut their eyes upon his small 
generalship. Gain was not his object : at 
the end of the game he restored his win- 
nings; it was his fortune that he could 
not bei^ to frown upon him any mmre in a 
game of cards than on a HM of bttktie. 
Fortune owed him an ace or a ten as she 
owed him fine weather on the day of an 
engagement; and if she did not give it, 
nobody was to see it. 

Origin of ^S'feaoi— When the Marquis of 
Worcester was a state prisoner in the 
Tower, he one day observed, while his meal 
^as preparing, that the cover of the vessel 
being tight, was, by the expansion of the 
steam, suddenly forced off; and driven np 
the chimney. His inventive mind was led 
on to. a trwn of thought, .obscurely exhi- 
bited in his * Century of Inventions,' whicl^ 
were successivdy wrought out by the me- 
ditations of others;. and an incident, to 
which" we . can havdly. make a formal refe- 
rence without a risible emotion, terminated 
in the noblest instance of mechanical 
power. 

Love of -4it.— The young and classical 
sculptorwho raised the statue of Charles JO, 
in the centre of the late Royal Exchange, 
was, in the midst of his work, advised; by 
his medical frienda to 'de8i8t,;'for his 'ejMT^- 
tions had made fetal inroads on his coiwti- 
tution; but he was wilMn^, he said, to &. 
at the foot (^ his statue. The statpe was^ 
raised, and the young sculptor, wft|i tlie 
shining eye and hectic flush of consump-. 
tiw, beheld it there— returned home-^and 
died! 

— The artists have finished the deoou- 
tions of the superb new saloon in the 
southern wing of the Hotel de VHte at 
Paris, which is for the future to be called 
the Salon Napoleon. 

-— There are tl millions of landowners 
in Fraiu», of whom ](me«ha]f do not pojf 
more than five francs per annunt each, in 
taxes. The. average size .of the diftont 
estates is about u| English acres. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

The MnU of a f' Reader and Sukeeriber dnee 1818 " 
are taken in ifood pari. Some •/ *kem loiU be at- 
tended to, butheU not infdlliUe, and we cmdd Otem 
opinions diametrieaUg opposed to hie, from tkm 
whose judgment he would be likely to deem as nwA 
entitled to respeetfui attention as his own. 

An Old Correspondent is thanked for his eongratw 
lotions and kind oger, but the poetry he hassent 
wUl not suit * The Mirror.* 

L. N.'s elegiac stanzas are declined, 

London: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 

MORTIMER, Adelaide Street, Trafalgar S0ur$; 

and Sold by all Booksellers and Newswten. 

Tfmted by C. Rsyksll, U Little Folteiity stmti 

aR4 at the Royal Pol^techDip In«titiilion. 



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OP 

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



No. 13.] 



SATURDAY, AJPRIL 1, 1843. 



[Vol. I 1843. 




iStizinsX Communications^ 

A PASSAGE AT ARMS. 
Thb reign of Philippe the Third of Prance, 
snmam^ Le Hardi, opened under singu- 
lar circumstances. A series of events oc- 
curred, within a yery short period, to ex- 
tend his dominions and his power. The 
consequence of this was, he indulged 
in greater splendour than his ancestors 
could affect, and made it his glory to dis- 
tingnish his reign by brilliant tournaments 
and {passages at arms. 

h£b father. Saint Louis, died in Africa, 
in the dominions of the King of Tunis, 

yoL, 3SLI. n 



which place he had approached on his way 
to Jeruisalem, having projected a crusade. 
Philippe, who had accompanied his parent 
on his expedition, and brought with him, 
besides the remains of his father, the cof- 
fins of his two brothers, John Tristan, 
and Alphonso of Poictou ; those of Jane, 
who had survived her husband Alphonso 
but one day, and Thibaut n, King of 
Navarre. Each of these deaths had given 
the new king an additional province. 

The love <rfpageantry of Philippe caused 
the opening of his reign to be marked by 
splendid processions. He entered his ca- 
pital May 22nd, 1271, followed by the fu- 
neral trains of the victims to the African 
[No. 1157. 



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climate, which was then a^iaial aftit^oMnr 
is to European life. In solamn poiop* th« 
bodies which he had caused to be trans- 
ported from Tunis were conveyed to St 
Denis ; and the interest of the spectacle 
was height^ied— in the ostimaiiQii of Hht 
beholders — from the part acted on this 
occasion by the king. He assisted to 
carry the coffin of his father on his shoul- 
ders ; and seven small pyramids of stones, 
eroQted-by his command, long marked the 
several spots in the fauxbourg St Denis, on 
wbich he had halted to take breath while 
engaged in this pious labour. 

That duty performed, the vain-glorious 
monarch hastened to display, on a grand 
'scale, the vast means placed at his dis- 
posal ; and his passages at arms, on ac- 
coimt of their extraordinary brilliancy, 
were the d^ight of JPrance and the talk 
of all Jj^HTope. In those scenes, which 
the modern taste for reviving the doings 
of -ancient days has not yet recalled, 
the most distinguished warriors of the 
time were invited to prove their valour. 
Regulatitms were made with respect tathe 
arms that were to be used ; and the ar- 
mour which the combatants wexeto assume 
was so.oarefully arranged, as well as the 
number of Wows which were to be given, 
that it was jMresumed iife would not be 
endangered. "Twenty strokes," Jsays one of 
these chivalrous challiaigers, ^*to be given 
witdiout intermission, aod we may if we 
please seize each other by the body. 
Should it happen (as I hc^ it will not) 
that in the performance of these deeds of 
arms one of us be woimded, insomuch that, 
during the day, he shall be unable to com- 
plete the combat with the arms then in 
vse, the adverse party shall not make any 
aocQunt (^ it, but shall consider it as If 
nothing had passed." 

We cannot but anile at this tenderness, 
connected with the high-sounding words 
of defiance which were commonly its ac- 
companiment. Such rencontoes, however, 
were not always so harmlaas as the reader 
might be led to suppose. ^Bie excitement 
of the scene was great. Ambition in the 
princip«J .actors, nobly to disfiinguish'Uiem- 
.fielv«s before the high ladies and the proud 
asa^nblies which graced them, s«^|>lied 
,tfae place o£ fury on the field of battle. 
The naoming-star, brought into aetion by 
.a powerful arm, though intended only to 
stun <»rtemporaiily toSisaJble, would scane- 
(times kill. Such was nearly the case in 
iihe " Passage" of wjiic^ a repi»seD*a$i(Mi 
is given at the head of this article. 

In Ahe year 1279, Robert de Clamant, a 
JfeBOtber ^PhiJiK>«, received on his-casique 
1K> BQve^ a biow from a morning-aliar, or 
4von saaice, that it was said to have shak^i 
Jus^brfiin omt^^ its ^lace, imd it deprived 
ilmx .oC his;i«iisiRi to tl»e r^^m^ of his 
life. 



THE JiATE DR SOUTHET, POET 
LAUREATE. 
This eminent poet died on the 2l8t ult, at 
his residence, Keswick. For some years 
previous to his decease his intellect was 
greatly impaired: indeed, at times, he was 
in a state of complete insanity. His 
writings will be handed down to posterity 
among England's standard works. Es 
-parentis, of which 4^ used often toipeak, 
was humble. His father was a-hnendn^, 
in Wine street, Bristol, where his son Bo- 
bert was bom on the 12th of August, 
1774. He was fCTit to school when six 
years of age, to Mr Foote, a Baptist mi- 
nister ; and subsequently taught by a Mr 
Flower, at Corston, near Newton St Loo, 
and by a Mr William Williams, "a Welsh- 
man, from whom little scholarship was to 
be got," being subsequently placed at 
Westminster, in 1783, by his matenal 
uncle, Mr Hill ; and at Baliol College, in 
1792, with an idea of his entering the 
church. His tendency towards Socinian 
opinions made the {dan of life chalked out 
for bun altogether distasteful. Inthstyear 
he published his first poems, la conjusc- 
tion with Mr Lovell, the friends assommg 
the names of Moschus and Bion. In the 
November of the following year, 1795, he 
married Miss Fridcer of Bristol, the sister 
of Mrs Coleridge. In the winter cf the 
same yeair, wMe the author was on his 
way to LUbon, * Joan of Arc* was pub- 
lished. 

Dr Soathey*s JUfe, apart from the books 
he wrote and the bo(^ he pcdlected, may 
be recorded in small compass. On the de- 
cease of Mr Pye, in the year 1S13, he was 
appointed Laureate ; received his Doctor's 
- degree in the year 1821 ; and, Aboat six 
years ago, contrsMrted a second ntapmge 
with Miss Cacoline Bowles, one of ttiejnost 
pathetic amcmg contemporary antb(a«s8es. 
His poems are * Wat Tyler,' ' Joan rf Arc,' 

* Thalaba,' * Metrical Tales,' * Mad«c,' ' The 
Curse of Kehama»' * Carmen Triumphale,' 

• fioderiek,' *The Vision of Judpent' 
His fugitive pieces, small as is their bulk 
among Dr Southey 's literary performances, 
suggest the diligence of their imter ; for 
they range between the remote supersti- 
tions of Hindoo mythology, the early his- 
tory of England, Eraaee, and the Penin- 
sula. 

His prose works comprise translaiioBs 
-of the poems of the Cid, of Amsj^^ 
Pahseidn of England :— Essays, ailoww^ 
the * ;Utt^ of EspiieHa,' * Sir Thaws 
More's Colloquies/ mid tiie sij^ihter ' 0»" 
,imm>,' to boar the aame. Bis^^n^ 
.am(M)ig whieh are * The Bo(* cf *he 
Church,' the 'History (sf the Vemsm 
War,' the 'History of the Braatej'**^ 
Moigr99hy, Forewost in this last i^wj- 
ment we must point to the * JJ^d m' 
^on' as one of the most popular 40d J^' 



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•*rHE MIRROR. 



m 



^Kxt spedvsLBl^ of its dass, noMe in feeling 
♦and finiitless In *tj4e ; to the * Life of 
'Wesley;' the* 15^ of Oowper;* the * Life 
H>f GhAttertbn; ' and the ' Life of Eirke 
White, o( Nottingham.' 

ife'Wasa man of acute sensibility. As he 
advanced'in life, his opinions became ^ftry 
different ftrom what they were at the ont- 
•^et of his career. The amiable feelings 
^ manifested in most of his productions, com- 
manded the admiration of those most op- 
' posed to him in politics. 

The late Lord Byron was one of his 
^fiercest assailants. His * Vision of Judg- 
ement' Yras a bitter sAtire on the Doctor, 
*and on the poem whidi he had published 
tmder the same titte. His lordship, it 
need hardly be told, possessed gigantic 
'l)Ower,'andhe "used it like a giant." The 
tportrait drawn of Dr Southey was rancorous, 
'but not a little striking. According to his 
~ lordship — 
'^* The vffltlet was not an ill-favoured knave ; 

A good deal' like a vulture in the face, 
With a hook nose and a hawk's eye, whidi 
gave 

A smitft «md «ihiirper*looking sort of graee 
"^o his whole aspect ; which, though itUiier 
^Mve, 

Was by no means so ugly as his case. 
But that indeed was hopeless, as miiy be— < 
Quite a poetic felony * de se.' " 

He regarded with indifference the ordi- 
ibary rewards of pul^ men. A baroaetcy, 
«rh«n o^red^ was declined; and he refused 
the honour of a- seat m iBydiament. He 
was an acute critic, and replied to some of 
the attacks made upon him with great 
spirit and stinging sarcasm. His benevo- 
lenee in pri^^te life was tmiversally ad- 
mitted. He was correct in all ordinaiy 
^affairs, a just man, and a sincere friend. 
-Peace to his manes ! 



SIGHTS AT WOOLWICH. 

1:0 THE EDITOR OF THE MIKROR. 

The L(mdon readers of *The Mirror' 
'Heed not be told that at Woolwich thece 
■ are many sights worth seeing. In what^ 
*ever direction the loiterer moves he sees 
•«otBething indicative of that attitude of 
proud defiance which England has so long 
.assumed and maintained. 

To the me^tative mind it suggests nu- 
merous subjects for edifying reflection. 
Do you lean for a moment against a post, 
that which gives temporary rest to you, 
has possibly given eternal repose to -thou- 
sands. It is an old gun, inserted muzzle 
'downwards -in the earth. Could it relate 
the history of what it has seen or done in 
" the tented fi^," or from the side of a 
.man-(tf-war, how eagerly should we listen 
to its speech. This post^ as it is now, may 
•^have been companion to Nelson, Idodney, 



•Boscawen, w Kake : ft may hgSre IhiW- 
dered on X]k^penhagen, Algiers, or Afcre. 

I gazed on the trophies of war— theerirtf- 
mous eingines of death that now standfti 
front of the barracks; the dreadful ag*Wte 
whidi, from hostile fortresses iii distaiit 
^lands, poured destruction on my countty- 
men, now dehght admiring ladies as Ifee 
ornaments of the peaceful parade. 

I entered the Dockyard, and'here worf- 
ders and wonders were -sticcessivefy pre- 
sented to my astonished view. Th^ per- 
fect state of preparation in which every- 
thing is kept for the equipment of a iarge 
army at an hour's notice, commands admi- 
ration ; while the countless ranges of guns 
and bullets which Cover an immense plain, 
'to those who express any apprehension, as 
some have done within the last few years, 
that an enemy might make a descent there, 
seem to give this answer, "And if a foe 
'should present himself there, could he 
hope to get back again?'* ' 

I passed through the vast apartments 
■filled with stores, which have bewi too 
' often described to be here more than men- 
tioned, and then I entered tlie endosure, 
within which the prison is found. Here 
tme of the floating castles, which once car- 
iried British' sailors over the ocean to fight 
•the battles ^f their country, was seen con- 
verted into a todgiflg-house for fire hun- 
dred convicts. 

It wnw on Thursday last (the 23rd inst.) 
that I found mysdM on the spot above m- 
;di(»ted. Turning from the vessel and 
looking towards the door by which I had 
gained admittwace, "And what," said I, 
" are tiiose small biuldii^ just within the 
fence?" pointing to some low cottage-like 
ereetiwis. " The first one," said the fiiend 
'Who accompanied me, "is the deadhousc. 
It is there the bodies of priscmers who dfe 
are carried, pr^aratory to int^anent." 
I a^ioach«d it, but observing some 
functicmaries of the place ^iter the 
adjoining hut to inspect stOTes which 
were there, I followed. It ^{mtified my 
-curiosity to see the substantial hammocks 
and bed clothing provided for the inmates 
of the priscMi'Ship. "These," said one of 
the inag^ectors, "are better than the others 
you had." 

While thus speaking, he turned to a 
convict who was engaged in folding some 
of the jcrticies, and directed bim to open 
one of the blankets. 

The prisoner seemed disposed to obey 
with an air of alacrity. He spread the 
ffiamid wide, 'so as. to display the stripes 
introduced as a distinguishing mark, in- 
stead of the broad '«rrow of the crown. 
He was attired in the daric brown: clothing 
and long oval hat worn by the convicts, 
'His jacket seemed to be quite a new one. 
.His countenance, though notj^markal^y 



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prepossesiing, was intelligent. He was a 
man of small size, and without exJ^ibiting 
hardihood, preserved an air of serenity 
and smiling resignation. Onoe or twice 
his lips quivered, as if he were doubtful 
whether a reply were not expected to one 
or ti^o of t^e brief speeches addressed to 
him, *' but answer made he none." 

YHien we had moved from the spot fax 
eioogh to be out of hearing, my curiosity 
was roused; to ask what (J9fence that pri- 
soner had committed. 

**A most aggravated forgery," said my 
friend, **one that would have formerly 
))een visited with death." 

**It was viewed the more seriously," he 
proceeded, **from the education oi the 
man, and the high and enviable position 
which he held." 

"Then who is he?" 

♦*Dr Bailey." 

"Can that reaUy be Dr Bailey !" I ex- 
daimed. 

"It is." 

Yes, in the unhappy being wearing a 
convict's sombre dr^ss, the fetter on his 
ancle, I had seen him who, as a distin- 
guished minister of religion; had formerly 
warned from the pulpit his fellow men 
against the temptations of life I Yet he, un- 
happily yielding to their seductive power, 
was now reduced to sigh— 

** Ye cheatlag vanities, 
"Where are ye now, and wbai. is your amount ? 
Yezation, disappointment, and remorse V* 

Pitying the deep degradation which I 
had witnessed, I could have wished that 
justice had abated her stem demand. In 
a very few days I learned his removal was 
to take place. He had written to his wife 
to come to him, but it was doubtful whe- 
ther he would not depart before she could 
arrive. Looking at his deplorable state 
and the melancholy prospect before him, 
at that moment I felt all the importance 
of the solemn admonition, "Let him who 
stands take heed lest he &I1." Dr Buley's 
case is evidently a bad one, but if the cir- 
cumstances connected with his former sta- 
tion aggravate his crime, "how fearfully 
do they enhance its punishment I" 

H.H. 

March 27, 1843. 

PIETY OF JAMES IL 
After his expulsion from England, James 
occupied himself at St Grermalns with reli- 
gious exercises. Among the pieces left 
behind him not the least remarkable is the 
following : 

HOLT DESIRE OF DEATH. 

" I am persuaded that the longer I live 
in this world the more I hazard my eternal 
salvation, and that I cannot be in safety 
until my spirit is taken from this corrupt- 
ible body, and united to thee, my God! ' 



When, O Lord ! will that happy day come 
in whk:h I may ei\joy the b€»2ific vision gf 
the saints, aad be associaiied with them 
who praise thee, and will everlastingly 
praise thee ? It will be, O my God,in the 
moment which will please thee; but, Lcurd, 
do not delay it, for I know that I am al« 
ways in daoiger while I remain in this 
world, because it is very difficult to make 
good in practice all that I feel I oaght to 
do as a true Christian." 

If all that be told of him is true, it could 
hardly have been supposed that he would 
have looked forward to passing to his final 
account with such cheerful confidence. 
When Jefireys was dying in the Tower, 
he told Dr Scott, the reverend gentleman 
who attended 14m at that awful moment 
that on the king all the reproach of the 
blood he had shed ought to be tlurown. 
His words were, " Whatever I did then, I 
did by express orders, and I have this f^ 
ther to say for myself that I wae not half 
bloody Plough for him who sent me 
thither." 

JefiEreys was a heartless wretch in the 
prime of life. His accusation of James 
might be untrue. The latter is not known 
to have felt any compunctious visitingson 
the subject of the severity used toward 
those 

** Who ran 
To meet the brave, unhappy man," 

his nephew, the Duke of Monmouth, nor 
did he, when on the eve of his departure 
exhibit any fear of death* 



CARLISTS AND CHEISTINO& 
The celebrated general of Don Carlos, 
Zumalacarregui, though said by his ene- 
mies to be infamously cruel, his friends 
describe as most humane ; but say he 
found himself compelled to act with firm- 
ness because the Christinos presumed too 
much on his aversion to shed blood. The 
Ck)unt de Via Manuel had become his pri- 
soner, and was treated "by him with all 
kindness and respect The sternness of the 
adversary was changed into the bland 
courtesy of the friend. Nothing could be 
more perfect than the cordial good- will by 
which they were severally animated. & 
this situation of things Zumalacarregui 
dispatched a cartel to the Christine con>- 
mander, Rodil, proposing to exchange 
Manuel with others who had been cap- 
tured, for Carlist prisoners of equal import- 
ance. 

The Count had wished this application 
to be made : he was desirous of regaining 
his liberty, and waited with some impa- 
tience for the completion of the arrange- 
ment which Zumalacarregui had contem- 
plated. He little suspected how fatal the 
application would prove to him. 



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It tracr in September 1834 that Manuel 
Bad ^en into the power 6f the Car- 
lists, and in consequence of the pro* 
posed cartel he was fall of hope. The 
messenger returned, and brought an 
a»brupt and even a sarcastic answer. It 
was in substance, ** That the application 
made to him might have been spared, as 
he had n6 Carlist prisoners to exchange. 
AH that had been taken he had caused to 
be shot." Why Rodil should have re- 
turned such an answer is not very clear ; 
but an exasperating reply, the Carlists de- 
•dare Zumalacarregui received. 

When the messenger brought to him 
Bodil's message, he was dining. His noble 
prisoner was sitting with the Chief at 
tible. He read the communication with 
eagerness, and not without emotion. Hav- 
ing finished it he did not long pause ; he 
handed the unwelcome paper to Manuel. 
** Read this," said he, ** it is in the hand- 
writing of your own commander ; read it 
and blush for Rodil. My duty is simply 
«evere. Remembering how other Car- 
lists have been dealt with, you must admit 
that I have no alternative. Count, it is 
necessary that you should prepare to die. 
These repeated outrages must be answered 
by retaliation ; they are not to be endured. 
Were I to spare your life my enemies 
would ascribe forbearance to weakness. 
Make your peace with heaven without 
delay." The Coimt was immediately shot. 

Quesada, formerly Captain- General, 
was a brave but a cruel man. On one 
occasion a Carlist priest, condemned by 
his order to be shot, reminded him that 
eleven years before they had fought side 
by side in the cause for which he was then 
to die — ^legitimacy. " I," said he, " am a 
parish priest, as I was then; you, then 
only a colonel, are now Commander-in- 
Chief. I gained nothing beyond vindicat- 
ing my principles ; you have honour, rank, 
and wealth." — "I am consistent," replied 
Quesada ; " I fought for my legitimate 
King then, and now I fight for my legiti- 
mate Queen." The priest raised his eyes, 
flolemriy appealing to heaven, and was 
removed. Quesada was agitated, and 
seemed absorbed in thought. A volley of 
inuskets roused him from his reverie. The 
priest, his old companion in arms, had 
Men. Quesada's proud distinctions soon 
passed away, and he was brutaUy mur- 
dered, with circumstances of great cruelty, 
by an infuriated mob. The fate of the 
proud general was more deplorable than 
that of the humble priest. 



ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND 
COLONIZATION. 
A NUMBER of gentlemen have formed them- 
selves into a society, which holds its meet- 
ings at Dr Hodgkin*s, Lower Brook street, 



Grosvenor square, Vhose object it is to in- 
stitute inquiries into all subjects connected 
with Colonization. The peculiarities txf 
the lands to which emigrants are for- 
warded, the character of the aboriginal 
inhabitants, and everything that may af- 
ffect the well-being of those who are, at a 
future day, to be sent among them, are 
carefully investigated. On Wednesday 
there waB a very niunerous meeting, and 
an animated conversation was sustained 
for some hours. The living^ and the dead 
of New Zealand were there : the skulls of 
the several races were submitted to scien- 
tific examinations; and a young New Zea- 
land sailor, who has married in this country, 
was present. 

The proceedings throughout were ex- 
tremely interesting. It was stated that 
the New Zealanders receive European 
knowledge with great facility. They make 
good mechanics, and are progressing in 
letters. At one school there are no fewer 
than sixty New Zealand girls in the course 
of receiving an English education. 

Many singular facts were mentioned. 
One gentleman produced to the company 
the universal sun-dial, made at Paris in 
the year 1700, which had been taken out 
by the unfortunate La Perouse. It had 
been carefully preserved by the savages 
where lie i)erished for forty years and was 
recovered in the state in which it was 
now exhibited, wholly iminjured. 

At. a timewhe^ the mass of distress ex- 
isting in this country calls for some mea- 
sure of general relief, and the bankers and 
merchants of London are desirous of co- 
operating with the Government to promote 
emigration on a large scale, the labours of 
such a body as the Ethnological Society 
must prove of immense value ; and, in 
consequence, their proceedings from time 
to time will be of the greatest importance. 
It is to New Zealand that attention is par- 
ticularly directed. 

Some interesting facts relating to this 
newly formed colony are furnished by a 
recent traveller (Mr Diefienbach). He 
mentions that Puakawa, a chief who op- 
posed the sale of Port Nicholson to the 
Europeans, was shortly after found mur- 
dered in the woods, his head cut off and his 
heart taken out. He was supposed to 
have been murdered by a member of a 
tribe who had been forced to withdraw 
from Port Nicholson. Mr Dieffenbach 
tells of the people of Wangaunu — 

" The natives form the tribe of the Ba- 
rewa, and their whole number is about 
8,000, including all those who inhabit the 
valley of the Awaroa. Of all the natives, 
who are under the influence of the mis- 
sionaries, this tribe is the most advanced 
in the arts of civilization. This must be 
ascribed partly to the endeavours of the 
missionaries, and partlj^ to/the^compara- 



19$ Tlte MUUaOB. 

titejur haying beea pQweif jol ejvwgh to r^ 
mt tbe a^ggresiuoDis of E'Ongl fvom tbe 
J^ of IJilaocUi, md of the neighbouriog 
tiim^ The tntyeller does not meet here 
-with thfti; hogging, and griping behaviour 
irhich renders the natives on the coast so . 
iiia^iprtunatef on the contrary » they are a 
qipiet» hard*work|ng people, and they have, 
fcjr a.very small payment, cut a road ihirty- 
two miles long through the primitive 
fcK^t, between Kaitaia andWaimate, in 
the neighbouihood of the Bay of Islands; 
th^ have also cut roads in the neighbour- 
hood of their own village. During my 
stay I saw them reap wheat, and plough 
several acres of land, and the missionaries 
encourage them to exchange their for- 
mer unwholesome food of decayed maize 
and potatoes for bread. Several of the 
natives have one or two head of cattle and 
horses; and I have every reason to believe 
that here at least the missionaries wiU en- 
courage their acquiring them, in order to 
dispose of the increase of their own stock. 

" The village has quite an English ap- 
pearance; a large church, with a steeple 
of kauri boards, has been constructed al- 
most entirely by the natives; gardens with 
roses are betbre the houses, and at the foot 
of the hill wheat alternates with vines, 
with hops, which thrive extremely well, 
and with various fruit-trees and vegeta- 
bles: there are also several patches planted 
with tobacco. 

"The government town of Auckland, 
considering the short time it has existed, 
has made considerable progress. Its po- 
pulation amounts to more than 2,00a 
Th6 thing that cliiefly recommends the 
situation of this place for the central town 
of the northern island, is its easy commu- 
nication with the coast, both to the north 
and to the southward. With the western 
coast, and with the interior, over Manukao 
and the river Waikato, nothing interrupts 
th& water-communication but two small 
portages ; and even with Cook's Straits 
relations can be easily -established, either 
by the river Thames, or the Waikato and 
Waipa^ and the river Wanganui. The 
coast trade particularly is of the greatest' 
importiuice, as the nature of the country 
wiU cause its colcHiization at many different 
points at once: and already a great num- 
ber of small coasting vessels communicate 
with Auckland, We must not forget that 
the Thames and the Piako form an exten- 
sive agricultural valley, and that, as their 
najtnral harbour, Waitemata is preferable 
ify Coromandel Harbour. In short, it ap- 
pears that there can be no question but 
that the place has been very judiciously 
chosen for the site of a town, as com- 
manding a great extent of cultivable land 
in its neighbourhood, great facility of com- 
niwjdcation with the coast and the interior 



oCthe i]0iiih«ni UHbhA, and^ift^bmg ajm- 
traX point for the uto^ ppsnirf ol^ im^j^i 
tribof, the l^^pui to the nortfiwacd, ^j 
Waikato to the southward,, and th& 'Sigkt- 
te-hauwa to the eastward* sftparatioij^.ttoi 
in a military point of viev» b«t, uaiting 
then for the purposes of civilujitioa^aflii 
commarcc^" 

We have the fdlowing account of; the 
boiling springs on the southem^ shore:-<^ 

"ij^e whole of itua assemblage of 
springs covers an extent of about tiKo 
square miles. Many of them are difficult 
and dangeroua to approach, as the whole 
arena seems to be only a thin crust over sub- 
terranean and volcanic caverns. The sur- 
face is hard,^ white, and thin ; below this 
is a whitish, pumiceous, and fi*iable ear^; 
then is a yellowish earth, containing sal- 
X^aite of iron or sulphur ; then a chalce- 
dony, perfect in some places, in others in 
process of formation. The whole is about 
a foot in thickness ; and below this is a 
grey, soft, and generally hot mud. It 
often h^)pens that this crust breaks in,, 
and dreadful scaldings not unfrequently 
occur." 

Speaking of the Rotu-Mahana (wann 
lake) which has a cascade of boiling water 
falling into it, he says — 

" After having crossed a streamlet of a 
blood-heat, we found ourselves up to our 
knees in a muddy swamp, without know- 
ing how to proceed, as our native aUend- 
ants were still far behind. At last they 
arrived, and led us to a liigber piece of 
ground, where we pitched our- tent, as we 
did not venture, though all our provisions 
were exhausted, to go any farther, for our 
two guides, who were well acquainted with 
the place, said there was a very bad 
swamp to be passed before we could reach 
the nativesettlement, and that it was doubts 
ful whether there were any natives there 
They themselves, however, started, and 
promised to be back early in the morning 
with a canoe and food. On rising tbe next, 
morning we found the lake covered with 
waterfowl, among which were the beau- 
tiful porphyiio, ducks, and snipes, and also 
gulls, which feed upon a small fish thatr 
abounds in the lake. Before our guides- 
returned, I had shot a great many of the 
imwary pukeko, or porphyrio, which 
proved excellent game. Scuno natives- 
came in a canoe to fetch us over the lake 
to their settlement, ♦ * The boiJiBg 
pond on the top, which was clearj and him 
could not be ^proached, as the conci^ 
tions at its margin were vesy tbdft w^ 
fragile. The pond was about ten yards 
round, and perhaps one hundred feet aboye 
tho level of the RotUTMahana. The water 
which is discharged into the lake from 
this pond and from other plsAeiv wamf 
Its waters to 35^ Fahr. above ths tepq^ 
rature of the air, thaj^is, toJ9*V 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE JSBKEOJL' 



19»' 



WAGES IN SPAIN. 
The article which appeared in the * Mirror*' 
of the 28th Jan. has caused several inquiries 
to be addressed to us on the subject of 
wages in Spain. We are happy to have it 
in our power to supply the foUowing state- 
ment, which was furnished by the same 
period referred to in the former article, as 
an approximation of the anrerage rates ot 
labour throughout the year : — 

Sup. Infir. Eagr*S^nflr* 
Fann Labourers - - TjAs, S^rls. U.5d.anA15d. 



SONG 



Labourers on the Roads 6 

Masons and Carpenters 9 

Woollen Manufacto-) 
ries and Paper ditto j- 10 
in Alcoy - - - J 

Labourers in RoyalS 
Tobacco Factory at I ,^ 
Seville, via. 2,000 f*" 
men & 2,000 women j 

Ditto in the Mines at > ^ 
Adra, about 10,000 S 

Silk Spinning Facto-) 
ries in ValoxciaJ- 5 
(women) - - - j 

Sak Weavers in ditto > „ . 
(men) - - - - §^* 

Coopers (very scarce) 20 



Is. 2id. 
6 l8.10d.&ls.2|d. 

6 - 28.'a]kdl8.2i^ 



-4-2$. and 10d« 



- - ls.2id. 
4 - ls.aadl0d. 



5 - 4s.l0d.andls. 



Coopers ( 
Working hours from 7 in the morning till 10 in 
the evening. 

The arrieros or carriers, divided into the 
two classes of masters aod servants, fbrm 
the most numerous of the working cdasses. 
The servants recseive from 3 to 4 re^ per 
day (7J(/. to lOrf.), and have their expeflsc* 
paid when on a journey. 
The number of working days i» the year may 
be estimated at .-.--.-.- 278 

Sundays -- 52 

Religious Festivals ... 24 
Only half-work on 32 demi -ditto - - - 16 92 

365 

Labouring servants, boaided with their 
masters, receive in town and country from 
2^ to 4 reals, or from 6jij to lOt/. per day. 

The rates above mentioned are about as 
high as the average of those paid for simi* 
lar description* oi work in Bngland ; but 
when the quantity oi woarfc done is taken 
into account, they axe deeidediy higher. 
Piece-work i» little kncwn in Spain, be- 
cause it lays the erajdoyer under the ne- 
cessity of exercising the most unremitting 
vigilance, in order to secure due care in its 
execution ; and work done by the day may 
be moderately estimated at from a fourth 
taa-thbrd less than would be performed by 
English workmen. One h®u» a-day may : 
be «aid ^ »bei i6st in smoking and U^htxog 
cigars. Ovrenaamki at that period had 
nnie it a rule is all tlieir establishments, 
soeh M thrtobaflcorfiMAwtes, Ac., to engage 
sQdi wovkmes only m would undertftke 
tft laboor e^^ry day\ Sundays notcxoeptedw 
Th«w ate oniy dve or six hoKdays al- 
lowed J and on ^eMiral days mass is per- 
™aid in the 'vMitohopsr in the mormiig* 
^tMsfporirfttcunAringjaflrf mamifacturhig 
e9«i«Uhr»Btt»<ftlUow this exiwwpte, excop**. 
tfcMRthey di» nHenflwcer working on Son* 
tttgw. The faMboftteviiKBeiiB. great retoct* 
ance to sanction these innovations.. 



IN COMMEMORATION OF THE OTESIKQ 
OF THB THAMES TUNmSL. 

Sing we the chief with one accord, 
To whom all other chiefs must yield, 

Jor while they strive with spear and sword. 
He conquers simply with a shield, 

Great Brunei his vast work has sped, 
Sabjectfaig all thiBn to his will, 

And given us undor Thames' bed, 
** In lowest deep a deeper still.'* 

Though none his merit can deny, 

It would be difficult to show 
A name so honourably high. 

For that width is so very low. 

His bosom high may swell with pride, 
His fame most ^read from shore to shore. 

Whose glory is identified 
With England's very greatest bore. 



ABT OLD FRBKCH BPIGHAM. 

Peter from sickness dies ; you ask 
That something of him may be said : 

I hasten to perform the task, 
** Peter has lived, and Peter's dead." 



ExtFtxmtdhmry Catastrorphe at Guada- 
Umpe, — A private letter gives a most 
distreseii^ account of one of tho scenes 
witnessed on the occasion of the late 
earthquake. The houses are almost 
wholly built of wood, and when thrown 
down by the shock, at ten o'clock in the 
morning, the ordinaiy breakfast hour, 
there wa* a fire in many of them, which, 
in numerous casesy ignited the faUen ma- 
terialsw In one instance, a mother and 
lier daughter, a child about ten yeara of 
age, who were half buried in. the ruins of 
their abode, and unable to move 'were in 
such a situaticm that they could see and hear 
each other. The child in vain looked to 
h^ parent for swecour ; the mother could 
not extricate herself. In this painful 
situation they remained a considerable 
time, when the wood of the house caught 
fire. The flames approached the girl ; her 
cries for hdp were redoubled, but unhap- 
pily without effect. The wretched mother 
was obliged to mark, the progress of the 
devouring element, and to hear the agon- 
izing^shrleks^of the dying innoc^t. She* 
herself was snatctred from the danger a 
few niooaents alter the victim had expired. 
Relief cam© when dt was least weicome. 

Ameriean Bmh^ssy to C%i»«*— Congreff 
hJ^e voted 400,000 dolfttr s to cover the 
expense of semMng an omlWfisy to CMna, 
and. Mr Nathan Dunnv tft* proprietor of the ' 
Chinese expedition at IQiightstoidge, ia- 
to be the envoy: 

Expopt ofi J9ielJij»n^-^Tbe gold sent' ouf 
of this cointey fii»e© 183T, is (^eioHy an- 
nonacedf to have araeaiited to^/M>^>2^^fz*9 
thcstiret ta^,$»,n7. byVj^OOglC 



209 



TH£ MIRROR. 




ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE. 

What will posterity think, some two or 
three centuries hence, when they see the 
accompanying representation of the place 
of business of a painter and glazier of the 
nineteenth century ! Will it excite won- 
der and admiration, or will the march of 
improvement render such profusely-deco- 
rated edifices common among the traders 
of England? 

The building to which we refer stands 
in Hanover street, Hanover square. It 
belongs to Mr Fairs : and what it will be 
when finished, it would, perhaps, be rash 
to pronounce ; for eyen since the drawing 



was taken for ' The Mirror,' some tasteful 
additions have been made. 

It is not, however, to be understood that, 
because '^tt Fairs modestly writes up 
« painting and glazing'' in front of his 
house, that his attention is confined to 
those mechanical arts. He is an eminent 
house decorator, and boasts among his 
stores some costly objects of great anti- 
quarian worth. Old paintings and ancient 
stained glass, and the rarest ornaments of 
bygone palaces, may be seen in his reposi- 
tory ; chimney-pieces, elaborately carved, 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth ; and 
the identical ceiling of the celebrated Star 
Chamber. ^.g.^.^^^ ^^ GoOglc 



THE MIRROR. 



201 




Arms, Quarterly ; first, gu. on a bend between three cross crosslets, fitch^e ar., an escnt- 
cheon or, charged with a demi-lion, rampant, pierced through the mouth by an arrow 
within a double treasure, flwy, counter-flory, of the first, »for Howard ; second, gu. three 
lions passant, guardant in pale or, in chief a label of three points, ar. for Brotherton ; third, 
chequy or and az. for Warren fourth gu. a lion rampant, ar. armed and tongued, az. for 
Mowbray ; behind the shield two truncheons, or marshal's staves, in saltier, or enamelled at 
the ends, sa. the insignia of Earl MarshaL Crest, On chapeau gu. turned up erm. a lion, statant 
guardant, his tail extended or, gorged with a ducal coronet ar. Supporters. Dexter a lion, 
sinister, a horse, both ar., the latter holding in his mouth a slip of oak, vent, fructed. ppr . 
Motto, ** Sola virtus invicta," Virtue alone is invincible. 



THE NOBLE HOUSE OF NORFOLK. 
The noble family of the Howards, claiming, 
in its long line, many of the highest dis- 
tinctions in the state, is at the head of the. 
peerage of England. It is next to the 
blood royal 

Sir William DugdaJe, in his baronage, 
commences with a sort of apology for not 
- tracing the Howards back further than to 
the time of Edward the First. " There are 
those," he says, " who will expect that I 
should ascend much higher in manifesting 
the greatness aiid honour of this wide- 
B{ireading family." The learned antiquary 
then proceeds to say that some had sup- 
posed that their common ancestor, in the 
time of the Saxons, had derived his name 
from an eminent office or command j others 
(afterwards) from the name of a place. 
He adds, "And some have not stuck to 
derive them from the famous Hereward, 
the chief conductor of those forces which 
so stoutly defended the Isle of Ely for a 
time against King William the Conqueror 
and his army. But to the last I cannot 
well assent, by reason that Ing^ph, then 
Abbot of Crowland (who was his con- 
ductor) aflOinns that Hereward left no 
other issue than an heir female, named 
Turfreda, wife to Hugh de Evemine, Lord 
of Deping, in Com /Sic." 

Thus cautiously rejecting what he 
deemed apocryphal, Dugdale goes on — 
"I shall therefore satisfy myself (after 
much fruitless search to satisfy myself, as 
well as others, on this point) beginning 
with William Howard, a learned and 
reverend judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, for a great part of King Edward the 
J^t's and beginning of Edward the 
Second's reign, fefore whom there are me- 
Baorials of fines which were levied from 
jvr Joh. Bap. 26 E. I, until crastin S. Joh. 
Bapt. 2, E. n. 

" This William had large possessions in 
Wigenhale, in the north west part of Nor- 



folk, as also in divers places thereabouts; 
became one of the Commissioners of Sew- 
ers for the repair of the banks and drains 
in Middleton, Kingston, and Sechithe, in 
that part of Norfolk, in 22 E. I, and in 23 
of E. L had summons as and with the rest 
of the judges of the Court at Westminster, 
and the King's learned counsel imto the 
Parliament then held there. So likewise 
to the Parliament of 25, 28, and 32 E. I, 
as also of the 1 E. H." 

He was succeeded by his son John, and 
it was a John Howard descended from 
him that, in the reign of Henry "VT, and in 
that of Edward IV, served in France and 
in Brittany. In the twelfth of Edward IV 
he was summoned to Parliament among the 
barons of the realm. On peace being con- 
cltided between England and France, Louis 
XI gave him a pension of 6,000 crowns, 
and " bestowed on this Lord Howard, over 
and above his pension, no less than twenty- 
four thousand crowns in money and plate 
in two years." It was a great point in 
the policy of that crafty monarch to make 
those about the King of England favour- 
able to his views. Lord Howard was never 
compromised'with his sovereign. In the 
reign of Richard HI he was made Earl 
Marshal of England, and the same day 
advanced to the dignity of Duke of Nor- 
folk, on the 28th of June, in the first year 
of that ^ng's reign. Though Dugdale dis- 
tinctly states that he took no part in the 
criminal deeds ascribed to the crook- 
backed murderous tmcle, the Duke of 
Norfolk served him zealously during the 
whole of his brief career, and died with 
him in the battle of Bosworth field, August 
the 22nd, 1485. His son Thomas, who 
succeeded t© his title, had a short time be- 
fore been made Earl of Surrey. He was 
made prisoner in that battle in which his 
father laid down his life, but was shortly 
after received into favour by Henry VH, 
and became one of his Tiir^Coxmi* 

igi ize y g 



202'^ 



THE MIRROR. 



idtntt. 



BAGG'S PATENT PROCESS FOR 
PRINTING SILKS, CALICO, PAPER, 
AND OTHER FABRICS BY VOL- 
TAIC ELECTRICITY. 
A FEW remarks on the nattire of this 
new application of electrical sdenoe, upon 
which the art of electrical printing is 
founded, will be amply sufficient to enable 
any one whh a Ittti6 persereraiiee to 
mMter the detail* of the prooesi; By 
mfeant of this inraitioiij paper, pwerfain, 
esUico, and textile* fabrics' of ertry kind, 
may b6 printed upon in a rariety of 
ccJoura at a single impression, without the 
application of any pigment or colouring 
xnatter. 

We therefore propose to speak princi^ 
pally of its appUcation to calico printing* 

•Befaxe entering into the details of the 
n^Y plan, let us take a hasty glance at 
the method at present pursued in the em- 
bellishment of ooitton goods; and let us 
b^fin with aa iihwtrative experiment. 

If we dis8olY& a smaU quantity of corro- 
sive sublimate in a wine-glass of water, 
and add to. this a little hydriodate of 
pokassa, an immediate change is produced; 
apd the two solutions^ which in a separate 
state were perfectly dear and colourless, 
are instantly rendered opaque by the for- 
mation of a splwidid scarlet pigment, — the 
peciodide of mercury, which gradually 
subsides to the bottcmi of the glass. 

If^ in this experiment, we substitute 
acetate of lead for corrosive sublimate, the 
precipitate is a rich yellow; and so, by 
varying the metallic st^ution and the re- 
agent employed in its precipitation, any 
desired colour may be obtained. In fact, 
it ia by tliis means that colours' are ordi- 
narily formed for the use of the artist.; 
and, by an elaborate extension of the same 
jirinciple^ the calico printer is> enabled to 
adorn the jffoduee of the loom with his 
varied and beautiftd* devices. 

The metallio solutions^- or mordants, 
being previously inspissated with starch, 
gum, pipe-etey* or other appropriate 
thickener, aire ctepesited in their respec^ 
tive places upo» the cloth to be printed, 
by means of a mtachine of grioat cost, and 
complexity. 

After the iaipressioEk is thus -given,* the 
cotton is alkumed a short tune to dry. It 
is then immersed in the dye-bath, a vessel' 
cootainii^ a suitable cersagsskt. As thede^ 
coction^ penetnateS' tbe.dboth it eneoimt^ns^ 
the mordant<r,i prodiKang a number of co* 
loured precipitates so closely, entaagled, 
among its filuress amd incorporated with its^ 
substaoeey a» to »be peirfeetly jHroef - against 
all^subsequenit washing; 

The meet im^pertant mordants in u.«e 
are the a«eitate.e£ ahimina, the^^«etate o£ 



iron, and the {^tomnriateand permuriate 
of tin. 

The^ oolonring matter of cochineal is 
fixed by means of tin with the production 
<rf a seariet, and by the addition of alum 
the seaziet ia changed to crimson. A de- 
coetion of madder may be substituted for 
cochine^ wltfr but little inferiority in the 
result. A beautiful yellow is obtained by 
printing^ifvith acetate of lead, and subse- 
quently immersing the doth in bi-chro- 
male ofpotuea.. 

Bttra it rettdily obtained by printing^ 
wi<fe an ipcm mordaatv and a ft er wards 
passing the doth ttetragh an addicted 
solution of ferrocyanate of^ potassa ; but 
indigo is more commonly employed fbrr 
this purpose. 

By diluting the. mordants the depA of* 
shade is varied, and by their, appropriate- 
admixture compound colours are obtained. 

We now proceed to difcnsathe new ap** 
plication of voltaic electricity to the pur- 
pose already stated* 

Let it be required to print m two colomi^ 
blue and brown. A compound pattern 
must be formed in such a manner aa to 
present to the substance to receive the 
impression different metals in different 
parts of its surface. The metala in this 
case would be iron and copper^ and the 
mode of printing such a pattern will be 
readily understood firom the following' de^ 
scription : — 

Upon a smooth plate of metal, in con- 
nexion with the negative pole of an active 
battery, tWo or three thicknesses* of csdico 
are to be placed, having been previously 
moistened with a mixed mordant of nitrate 
of soda and ferrocyanate of potassa. Cta 
the calico is laid the metallic design. This 
contact, however, produces no effect until 
the upper plate is touched with the posi- 
tive wire; but the moment the electric 
circuit is thus completed, a decompoation 
of the intwpesed solution takes place; 
hydrogen, potassa, and soda pass to the 
negative pole, whilst oxygen, with nitric 
and ferrocyanic acid% are disengaged at 
the positive pole ; where, acting up<Mi the 
metals thus, presented to them, an accu- 
rate copy of the design, in its proper, 
coleuEs, is. instantaneously produced. 'Die 
cause of thi^ ia obvious ; ferrocyanate of 
iron is blue, and ferrocyanate^f "cop^j^r is- 
brown, and thus^ the two pigments «. 
quired ace produced' wherever tlie. tiro/ 
metals touch .the cleth. 

The infreducticm (rf nitrate of soda into, 
the mordant is for* the purpose of faoiiii. 
tating.iihe passage of the dectrieityv Mid; 
of preventing the inerustatioa of insoliible^ 
matter: upoa the metal% whicjli^ withe«b 
this aid, wooldanevitaWytake ptece,. and. 
totally check the operation ait&t two or 
three in^^saioBs^ 

But let: u»»tib8bai»)ther examiMp 



THEIiCBRQiL 



To pnoEifc, m red and bhtt^ tlie cl^^ 
muifcbe softkedia an alunuiumsiiiiDidttiti 
aiid;1^ design, made o£ one metal ak>nfi^ 
iron. Thia is ttmdied' ^m^ tb» positive 
pole of tlie? ^paomtiMf aa in^the instanoe 
jnskgiiviegis aad^ atfter ^e ofuzraat of dec- 
tHdty hat passed, throogh tfaa cloth, the 
latter isi to be immersed in a deeootion of 
maddsr; WhereTeriiie pattern^ comes in 
coDtiuit with the- doth there will be^ a.L . 
bladE iiBf>fesipon >dsvekqied, whilsit the re* 
midning pertdoiifliwill be dyed red. 

Bischarge» may aJso be |«roduoed by 
this meansj or a topical alteration of colour 
oteained when required. 

If a zinc plate be i^aoed upon calico, 
already dyed with Prussian bdue and 
moistened wat^: nitrate of so(ia, and lyii^ 
oa the posititTe pole, of a battery^ the 
moment the zinc is touched with the nega • 
tive wire the blue is changed to a beauti- 
ful brown in those parts of the doth which 
transmit the electricity; for the alkaU no 
sooner reaches the negative plate than it 
decomposes the Prussian blue, taking up 
the add, and prediutating peroxide of 
iron. 

A great variety of these efejts may be 
obtained. Cloth dyed with indigo, and 
moistened with. a sohition of common salt, 
slightly acidulated with muriatie acid, is 
bl^jdied byv the battery at the positive 
pole, whidi, in this case, should be made 
ofplatim. 

It must not be forgotten that in con* 
ducting these eaq)eriDQents it is necessary 
to use stardt, or scnaae other thickener, 
mth the moffdantsv as otherwise the colours 
would run. 

In the meantime we w<Kild refer those 
of our readers who may be desirous of 
obtaining additioaial information, to the 
popular and interesting lectures of Pro- 
fessor Bachhoffner,* who has devoted much 
pains and attentioji to the details of the 
iuveuticMi, which he explains and illustrates 
ia his usual ludd and felidtous mann^. 



Openinc^. of the, Thames 7\mn*/.— This 
TiOBderftiliuadertaking is at length opened 
for the regular passage of .'foot passeng^s*- 
On Saturday last the puil^ were admitted 
fsrthe first timei A. military band led 
the way, and a porocessioQ was formed in 
which Sur L Brunei and the directors led 
^ way, in tl^ presenee of some 3000 per- 
aons. The Lord Mayor, the Earl of Lin- 
cohi, Lord Dudley Stuart, Sir Edward 
Godrington, Sir Robert LigUs, MrHawes, 
^R, Mr Roebuck^ M.R, Mr Hume, M.P.; 
MrWarbmrtOB, Sir L Brunei, Ms son, Mr* 
i Bnmel, Dr H. WoUaston^ Mr a B^>- 
bage, Bf Eaxaday^ llfitos]»> Mkuds^y and 

* Attl»>ftfly»tpQjyt«chjMCfIJBtitetioii.. 



Pidd, attended <m the intemtiog oeeasioiu. 
The ceremony oemmeDeed on the SuRey^ 
side. As the prooession moted ftam tiM» 
tesit a aahite wtm flredfrom the oomptany*^ 
wiuurfi The "visitois"— -sneh mm tha 
order of the progratnmef-were to '^foUow 
the directors," hat s(HBe 2000had oblaiiiect ' 
adEdsfldon to the tnmiel htSast the en^ 
trance of the proeession, and yery heaztilgr - 
cheered it: a& it deaoended ^e shaftwith 
the band playing ^'Sae Hie Conqnaing 
Hera comes.'* The proeeasion, which' hftd- 
a very pleasing ^fect as it wound rottsd 
the staiiease oi the shafts i^b reaching^ 
the tumid proeeeded through the eastern 
arch, aso^ided the shaft on the WappiBg- 
side, deseeoded, aad returned by tlie wes* 
tern arch to the r^reshment tent. The 
bridcwork of the tunnel appeared com^ia* 
rativdy free from moisture* It is lighted 
up with 126 batsiin&g burners fp(xa. lamp> 
po^» placed in the arches formed in the 
longitudinal division of the tumieL 

Horticultural Society, — A paper was read^ 
upon the Tussac grass, being an extract 
from a letter, dated October 1; 1842, from 
the Lieutenaot-Govemor • of the Ealkland 
Ishmds to Lord Stanley. Smne seeds which 
had been sown in the government garden, 
in good soil, but dififev^at from that in 
which it grows naturally, seewied to show 
that it would thrive in any soil," provided 
it were supplied with moisture. In ita 
native state it succeeds best in spots most 
exposed to the sea, and in the rankest peat* 
bogs. So fond are Itorses and wild cattle 
of its herlw^ that their tracks may be* 
seen extending towards it for several miles- 
from the interior, of the country. It is 
recommended, in cultivating the tussac, 
to SDW the seed just bdow the surfiMe of 
ground in patches two feet apart, to be 
afterwards thinned out as the plants grow 
six or seven feet high. The herbf^e 
should not be grazed, but reaped or cut in 
bundles : when grazed it is liable to be- 
injured, particularly by pigs^ who tear it' 
up to get: at the sweet, nut-like roots. The" 
wild west coast of Ireland would, no doubt, 
be well adapted for its cultivation. 

Nitrate of Soda. — In Febniary, 1841, 
some old wora*out garden roses had thia 
salt applied to them, . at the rate of one 
cwt. per acre. It was sown broad-cast all 
over the ground, mixed with . dry sand. 
About the end of April, the ground be- 
came covered with a greenish appearance. 
Ajs the dry weather advanced that appear* 
ance ceased; The plants became healthy, 
and of a fine dark green ; in the autumn 
they appeared far more robust than those 
adiieimi^: they were also less infested 
with ineects* but this may have arisen from 
thdr being in a more h^lthy: state/ I>g^« 
liae were also tried witb nitrate o£ seda, 
eaehplaat hajnng about/ half an ounoe 



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THE MIRROR. 



given to it, mixed with water. The 
plants operated upon became like the 
roses, of a fine dark green, more robust 
and compact in their growth; flowering 
more freely and earlier : it had no effect 
on the colours of the flowers. No further 
result was obtidned when half an ounce 
more was administered to them. Some 
verbenas, petunias, pentstemons, and 
various other plants, were watered with 
the nitrate at the rate of three quarters of 
a pound to the rod, and with the same 
results ; except that they seemed to be- 
come exhausted in the autumn sooner than 
those which were not dressed with the 
nitrate. If applied in dry weather, and 
over-head, it acts in the same way as com- 
mon salt, by destroying the leaves and 
young shoots. It has been found very 
effectual for killing slugs. The solution 
of nitrate of soda is more efficacious than 
lime-water where it can be applied with- 
out touching the foliage.— Procccrfin^* of 
ike Hort. Soc, 

Large Pear-tree. — About 10 miles north 
of Vincennes, Indiana, in the United 
States, there is a remarkable pear-tree, 
said to have been raised from seed about 
35 or 40 years ago, which, at one foot above 
the ground, measures 10 feet in circum- 
ference, and 6^ feet at nine feet above the 
ground. The diameter of the space 
covered by the branches is 69 feet In 
the year 1834 it yielded 134 bushels of 
pears ; in the year 1839 it produced 80 
bushels ; and in the year 1840 it produced 
140 bushels. The tree is a rapid grower, 
a constant bearer, and an enormously pro- 
ductive kind. The fruit is about the size 
of a turkey's egg, ratiag, as to quality, 
with the third grade of dessert pears. — 
Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture. 

To Preserve Eggs. — Take a box or jar of 
the size required, lay fine salt to the thick- 
ness of two inches evenly on the bottom 
of it, and place the eggs, with the small 
end downwards, on the salt, so as not to 
touch each other. Then strew more salt, 
so as to cover them, shake all gently, and 
add a layer of eggs and a layer of salt, till 
the vessel is fulL Put it in your cellar, 
and you will find the eggs good during the 
whole of next winter. — Gardener^ $ Chron, 

A SISTER'S LOVE. 
(^ContinuedJ) 
Evelyn turned towards the house in 
quest of her husband : uncertain whether 
he might not have quitted the dining hall, 
she cast an anxious glance into the yet 
empty ballroom, the contrast between 
which, brilliantly illuminated, arched over- 
head with stately palm branches, and 
decorated with a profusion of exotics, 
which would have beggared the cons^ra- 



tones of half Europe, and the dungeon o^ 
which her sister's husband was the doomed 
inhabitant— smote on her with all the bit* 
temess of life's first stem reality. 

When she fied horror-stricken from this 
scene of ill-timed gaiety, it was to encoun- 
ter, and in a mood equally discordant, her 
unconscious husband. His constitutional 
good spirits, heightened by sober convi- 
viality, and weU-eamed compliment, the 
gay and gallant Guy— his noble martial 
figure as erect as ever, and his step as 
light and commanding — turned, whistling 
a lively air, into the verandah in search of 
his wife, and, as breathless with contending 
emotions, she fairly ran against him, 
snatched her tenderly to his heart, with 
gay and familiar terms of endearment that 
smote on the guilty recesses of her's like & 
knell. ' 

Evelyn mustered from despair the cou- 
rage to say that a petitioner awaited him 
in the verandah, though, on being ques- 
tioned as to this unseasonable intruder, 
she could only falter — ^** Go, go to her for 
God's sake, and for her sake grant a par- 
don to more than one ! " 

It may be figured more easily than de- 
scribed, with what strange stirring of the 
heart the gallant veteran saw before him 
agayi, after the lapse of twelve long years, 
the well-remembered Irish cloak, and with 
what yet greater bewilderment he beheld 
beneath it the saddened, faded image of 
her who had flashed before his eyes a 
moment since in all but youthful beauty. 

Strange as it aU seemed, ere she could 
spc^ one word in a voice whose first tone 
would have brought conviction, instinct 
—the unerring instinct of gratitude — told 
Sir Guy that the preserver of his life stood 
before him. In one instant, ere he could 
prevent it, she was at his feet. The first 
words of the disinterested suppliant were 
— "Oh! bless ye, Colonel, don't ye be. 
blaming poor Evelyn I 'Twas I deceived 
ye for the good of both. I had broke rings 
wid one in my own station months before 
this day twelve years cast ye on Innismo- 
ran ; and ere ever ye came out o' that 
weary fever, I was far enough away wid 
him beyant the sea." 

"I see — ^I comprehend," got out by de- 
grees the astonished listener, whose powers 
of comprehension were nevertheless pretty 
severely taxed by the yet unexplained ap- 
I)earance of his wife's " doppel gaitger,** or 
"fetch" — "and where is your husband 
now, Aileen ? " 

"In the condemned ceU of the gaol of 

T , Gineral, and that's why I am here 

entirely ; for it's you alone that can save 
his life, else Fd niver, niver have come to 
make trouble betwixt you and my own 
blessed sister. And ye needn't be asking 
* may ye do it with a safe conscience ? ' for 



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305 



he's as free o' the blood he's condemned 
for, as your honour's wee nameson Guy, 
that Fye left in the prison beside him to 
keep away ill thoughts wi* his winning, 
laughing ways." 

** I d^ not doubt you," said Sydenham, 
** though (one of his old smiles passing, 
over his manly countenance) you have de- 
ceived me once idready. Even if to blame, 
your husband has strong claims on my in- 
terposition ; if innocent, he has a right to 
command it ; so, cheer up, you can have 
nothing to fear. But there's a culprit 
nearer at hand, and as dear to us both, 
whom we must hasten to put out of pain. 
Come with me to her jessing room, and 
take the food and resft I am sure you 
need." 

And then it was that while a case of 
unexpected business formed the apology of 
the governor to the impatient dancers, and 
reluctance to appear without him the grace- 
ful excuse of his timid lady, confessions 
and explanations were incoherently poured 
forth and accepted with a warmth and 
abandonment .of reciprocal feeling, which 
brought the di^sam-like visions of Letrewel, 
and love, and shipwreck, with all the vivid- 
ness of yesterday before every mind's eye. 
Once more on a low stool at her forgiving 
husband's feet, with Aileen's talismanic 
doakcast by the instinctive tact of its 
, kind owner over the splendour it eclipsed 
but to outshine in Sydenham's eyes, Eve- 
lyn looked so thoroughly the Hebe of his 
first fSancy, while, at the same time, the far 
more fitting object of his maturer choice, 
that his sense how truly the exchange had 
been "for his good," made him view in 
the rescuer of his life the artificer also of 
his happiness. 

To stay the execution of Moriarty *s sen- 
tence, and connnand a revision of the pro- 
ceedings against him, seemed to Sir Guy 
too much an act of justice to be deemed an 
expression of gratitude ; and while the 
now tranquiUised Aileen slept beneath her 
sister's sheltering roof the long sleep of 
exhaustion, it was that sister's first act of 
spontaneous and grateful duty to forego the 
joy of watching beside her pillow, to show 
herself in a far different scene on the arm 
of the proud and delighted governor. 

She retired, it may be imagined, early— 
the more so that Aileen, provided with the 
necessary documents, was impatient to set 
put with the dawn, not, it may be believed, 
in the frail conveyance which had wafted 

her to , but in a light swift-sailing 

schooner, used for communication among 
the islands, which a less influential person 
than the governor would have found diffi- 
culty in Mring for so short and every-day 

a trip as that to T- , 

The trip, though short, was a prover- 
bially stormy one ; and as Evelyn left the 
wll-room, the ominous soxmd of the long 



roaring swell in the offing awakened mis* 
givings for her courageous sister's safe^« 
To dissuade her from a voyage the maia 
purposes of which could be equally acoom* 
plished without hazard to herself, would, 
to one who knew her less, have seemed 
easy. But Evelyn felt that even she herr 
self could have deputed no other to be the 
bearer of life to Moriarty; and wh^ 
morning came, and with it a frightful gale, 
the sole feeling in the devoted wife's bosom 
was the impossibility of getting others to 
risk life and property in a cause where, in 
her eyes, both were as noUiing. 

Sydenham again, though his interest in 
Moriarty's safety fell little short of her 
own, felt the deep responsibility of perilling 
for one life, however precious, those of a 
whole crew, could he even succeed in brib- 
ing or intimidatmg them to set sail j and 
the greater part of the last day but one of 
poor Moriarty's term of existence had 
rolled away in fruitless efibrts to devise 
an expedient for saving him, when one, a 
possible though desperate one, occurred to 
the agonised anxiety of Lady Sydenham. 

If it involved, as it undoubtedly did, some 
risk to her own husband— and that on a 
point where he was peculiarly susceptible 
—she felt that thus, and thus alone could 
he fully discharge his obligations and her 
own to Aileen. Without connnunicating 
to her sister a vague hope which might 
not be realised, she enjoined her, as 8h0 
valued her husband's safety, to exert her 
well-earned influence over the governor to 
obtain a carte blanche for using in his 
name whatever eflbrts might yet be prac- 
ticable to induce any seafaring person on 
the island to give her a passage ; a request 
which — the only alternative being Aileen's 
frantic resolution to perish in the attempt 
in the canoe— he had little difficulty or 
hesitation in granting. 

Furnished with th& precious document. 
Lady Sydenham entrusted to her sister's 
execution a plan in which official de- 
corum would have prevented her firom 
taking an active part, even were not the 
natural eloquence of a wife's pleadings 
far more to be trusted for success than Sn 
the influence of rank or station. 

In the gaol of T there lay a young 

Spanish pirate, of whose fate, notwithstan£ 
ing some palliating and rather interesting 
circumstances, there remained not a sha- 
dow of a doubt. Here, and here only, was 
to be found an individual to whom the 
risk of life could be next to nothing ; while, 
as to that of property, his own little pira- 
tical felucca, lying condenmed in the har^ 
hour, would, Evelyn felt, be cheaply pur- 
chased from the captors by the after sacri- 
fice of all the jewels in her possession. 

" Manage this matter as you best may, 
my dear sister," exclaimed the weeping 
Evelyn (as she enveloped Aileen for the 

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.206 



Tii£MIRBOR. 



oUKstiiniAl ezpeditiOB iA the welKktioini 
.protecting eloak), ** i&r jonr own husbaiid's 
jil^Qod, and with tke least <^ stain on the 
^noor and integrity of n^ne. Oire this 
jgold freely— *- it is yonrs-^to seoore tbe 
esofq>e of the ^amord, if he content to do 
joor errand : mfy^ for his soul's sake, and 
•the lives of othm, swear him first, by the 
.£iuth Tou hold in cominon, to give np for 
ever his wEd calling, and the means of 
ibliowing a better shall not be withheld." 
The sisters exdianged a long mate em- 
ibraee, and parted — the one well knowing, 
the other half suiqiecting, that if sneoess- 
£iil, they wonld not meet that ni^t again, 
-.perhaps on earth no more. What gold 
.might have fiaiied to achieye, the eloquence 
of despair and the hope of life combined 
to accomplish. Pe&t) Garoias— *whose 
confessor, the interpreter between the par- 
ities, facilitated a sdieme whieh h^d out 
opportunities of future p^tence to one 
still young— found little diflioulty in ire- 
possessing himself at midnight of his 
neglected bark, or rejoining the two con- 
cealed survivors oi his crew. The tem- 
pests which the daring hardihood of guilt 
had often enabled them to baffle, were 
braved for once, and under holier auspices, 
on behalf of innocence ; and a few short 
hours before that fixed for the ignominious 
ISftte of Moriarty Carroll, the onter for the 
rerision of his sentence and transfer of his 
perscm to the neighbouring island was 
'4ra?m from the bosom of the exulting 
Aileen. 

None, however — such was her exen^ary 
discretion — ^knew then or since • in the 
tK>lonies, that fiunily conn^Lon had aug^t 
to do with Governor Sydenham's righteous 
interposition — still less with the escape of 
the pirate, Pedro Garcias, who, warned by 
past perils and turned from the ^ror of his 
ways by the eloquence of example in the 
CarroUs, lived to visit as an honest trader 
(when making a trip in quest of baectdeo 
to Galway) Moriarty and Aileen, then 
happy possessors, through Siir Guy's muni- 
:fieenee, of the £Eurm of LetreweL 

Aikl when, indue course of time, there 
*were two Guy Sydenhams in the army 
list, and a fine young comet, the image 
-ef Lac^y S ■ > , was introduced by her 
-husband, on his return from service, as 
the heir to his honours— (whHe a second 
£ve]yn replaced to Aileen the babe i^ 
had early deplored) — few besides their im- 
mediate eonnexions were ever aware that 
a nephew's claim was all he possessed — 
but, oh I how strong were its extent and 
nature on the love, and pride, ajid pro- 
jection of tbe parents whose name he 
.WfifftMly bore. 

The Queem, — ^^r present Majesty is 
the only queen regnant xji England that 
<ever had a Heunily. 



Ci^ffa#mlr. 



A Prt^ftr AfutMretL'^'I/ytd Hcrha tt , 
of Cherbury printed his celebrated book 
called 'De Veritate dittingukur « Bewtk' 
twne,'' in the year 1624. Before pobiishing 
he relates that he sov^ht the immediate 
assistance of Heaven. He thns expresses 
hunself— *' I took my book, *I>e VtnM*; 
in my hand, and kneding on my knees, 
devoutly said tiiiese wOTds-— ^O! thou 
eternal God I author of the light that 
now shines on me, and giver of aU inwaid 
illuminationB, I do beseech thee of thy in- 
finite goodness to pardon a greater request 
than a sinner oii^ht to make : I am not 
satisfied enough whether I shall puhlirii 
this book, ' De VeritMej* If it be for thy 
glory, I beseech thee give me some sign 
firom Heaven ; if not, I shaU-euf^rerait' 
I had no sooner spoken these winrds btttA 
loud, though yet a gentle noise, eanefrtiiki 
Heaven, for it was like nothing on eartii, 
which did «o comfort and cheer me, that I 
took my petition as granted, and that I 
had the sign demanded." 

Mow to km huec^ imtdtdanmmdjfj^l 
spent the years of 1:639 ttid 1880 in the 
soutii of France, and one day walkn^ 
under that k>v^ sky, I was stopped by:a 
large and powerful insect crossing my paiA, 
and running as fast as he could go ftob 
fbar of me (and not without reason), f<Hr I 
took lum up, and held him with dimcuU^ 
in a piece of thick letter-pi^;>er. His^^rug- 
gles to free himself astonished me, f^omthe 
strengUi of limb that he disputed. I was 
near the house of a friend who was -stayii^ 
at Thiers, and while walking thither I 
passed, in one of the vineyards, a laboitfer, 
of whom I inquiredthe name of the insect 
He said it was a taiUe-pied, and that it 
was most destructive to the vines, gnaw- 
ing through their roots. I took it to the 
house of my friend and asked if he knew 
any method of killing imsects in a moment; 
for that, althottgh I was amtioos to t«^ 
him to Gngkad us a iq^ieoimeQ, I would 
let him loose rather than he should suffer 
firom a Hngeriug or painful death. ^ 
friend said he would kill him in ^an in- 
stant, which he did by droppii^ twx)>or 
three drops of ether on his b^kd or back: 
its death was instantaneous. — Gardenen* 
ChronicU, 

The Right of the J9o&ter.— This lin- 
gular title was formeriy that of a feast to 
which military commanders on the con- 
tinent invited their brother officers on tiie 
occasion of their marriage. 

Criminal Offenden in En^and and Scot' 
land. — ^Tke statistics will be derivaUe frem. 
the systematic series ^ returns of criminal 
•prosecutions annually presented. The re- 
•spective returns for Bngland and Scotfaofd 
for 1841 run thus: in fiogland, the xuunhAr 



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/TBE MIRHOR. 



207 



of f)eE80Eis.£oinimUied for tiial, or baUed, 
duriqg the ;ireiur, J6 27,760. This inchides 
- the oaaes wh«re bills wore ignored by grand 
.jurii^ amounting to 2,048; and Mkewise 
cases not prosecuted, amounting to S86; 
. leaving 25,326 cases brought to trial In 
these, the acquittals hj findings of not 
^rmlty were 5,018, feeing 19 and 4-5ths per 
. jeent .of the whole Buu^er tried. In S&A- 
, land, the total number of ** oflfenders" was 
3^62. From this number we have, to de- 
duct 653, who were discharged before trial; 
/when we have 2,909 ^wtuaUy brought to 
. iaeiaL Of these, the number acquitted was 
. 216, or 7 And 2-5ths per cent Yet even 
ithis sm^ number are notseniforth with a 
vague and general finding of not guilty, as 
iujEIngland. In 19 1. cases, the verdict is 
*** not proven" — a declaration of suspicion, 
which tells the world, that the accused 
must produce something more than what 
ajqpeared at his trial before society can 
jreceive him as an innocent man. 

The Drop Mortuaire, — The dead cloth, 
used in France for centuries, was a 
doth in the form of the coverhd of a bed. 
From ancient times it was the practice to 
decorate it with the .figure df a cross, 
, which was black when used to cover the 
corpse of a man, and white when required 
for that of a woman. 

A JBurthened Conscience. — ^In Catholic 
countries those who do not strictly keep 
fast days frequently confess to " putting 
a. glass of wine or a chicken on their con- 
science." 

Important ^'Medical Observations. — In 
his lecture of last we^ Dr Gregory re- 
marked that consumption appeared to be 
the greatest destroyer of mankind. The 
safflicted often sought for reUef by remov- 
ing to a warm climate, but consumption, 
he showed, was as prevalent in warm coun- 
tries as in cold ones. The smedl pox, 
cholera, and other diseases of the old world, 
have not yet appeared in Australia. " The 
. ^owth of men, animals, end trees," said 
Dtr Gregory, " is a daily miracle." We do 
not, from its being common, feel all the 
wonder which it ought to inspire, but it 
is growth that distinguishes, in a most 
striking manner, the woAs ofiAse Almighty 
from those of man. The steam-engine, and 
all the noblest creations of science, as they 
leave ;the workman's hands, must for ever 
remain in the same state. It is for the 
D^y alone to give an object, once formed, 
the power of growing and of increase. 

fhedf&r theMHUon. — Clonnected with the 
-^8ee©ad Report of the CSuMren's Employ- 
ment Commission, we find the foUowiag 
evidence given l>y a IVIr Peter Law, the 
landford of a house caJled ** the Star and 
• Garter," relative to the food of the manu- 
d«cfcuiiiag classes : — " The meat they buy is 
a sort of carrk)n, quite unfit for human use. 
■^Riere are meat-co7inerSf who ought to sei^e 



all thisbad meat, andbumit— butrthey do 
not Does not know why thi^ do not 
The bad meat is chiefly that of premature 
calves, or of cows imt have di^ of some 
disease, most conmionly of diarrhoea. Shetp 
often drc^ dead in the fields, frcnn a dis- 
ease in the head, and are sold to certa^ 
butchers, who deal solely -in diseased anji- 
mals. Some o£ them sell horse-flesh steaks 
for beef-steaks. Can attest this as a fact : 
knows where it is 45till daie repeatedly. 
Fish, which 1^ knows has arrived four 
days in the town, is bought by certain 
masters for their ^prentices, in order to 
give them a change, by a treat of fish, as 
the masters call it. Knows many boys who 
live xLj^oa this diet, who Mxe wretchedly 
thin." 

A Sinavlar Medical Application, — "A 
cloven fowl," or one cut in halves, and 
applied while still living to the person of 
apatient, was formerly recommended by the 
faculty in certain cases. The physicians of 
Henry Prince of Wales, son to James the 
First, caused one to be applied to the 
dying prince. 

Decorations of the New Houses of Par^ 
Uament. — The cartoons or drawii^s in- 
tended for competition, according to the 
notices published in April and July, 1842. 
are to be exhibited in Westminster Hall, 
whither they are to be sent. The names 
of the judges appointed to award the pre- 
miums will be made known. There has 
already been expended on the erectiofis 
380,483i 10s. The total amount of Mr 
Barry's estimate, besides what will be re- 
required for completing the landing places, 
making good the pavings, furniture, and 
fittings, and for decorations by works of 
art, will reach the sum of 1,016,924/. 12s. 9d. 

Chapels of ihe Ancient Religious Houses in 
Newcastle, — ^The rage for unrestrained mo- 
dern improvement has recently swept away 
aU that remained of the Hunnery of St 
Bartholomew, and also of the Gr^ Friars ; 
the Carmelites or White Friars has be«n 
destroyed, and its place occupied by apii- 
vate residence ; the Augustine Friars has 
been replaced by a surgeon's hall, a kitty, 
and aimshouses; 8t MichaeFs (no moa:e) is 
buried beneath tibie walls of tenemented 
dwellings; St James's is destroyed, and a 
modem street occupies its place; t^e de- 
struction of Benwell Chapel is appropri* 
ately and funereally marked by a few re- 
maining grave-stones ; the Maison deBieu 
is changed into a fish market and a lawyer's 
A)£3oe; Beaton Chapel is, like^hers, gone; 
BX Matry's, Jesmond, has been sold into 
private hands, and of it a ruin onlyTe- 
mains; St Lawrence Chapd is nowabotUe 
warehouse; St John's, Crrindon-diare, a 
cellar; the Black Friars has been converted 
mto dwellings and halls of meeting for 
some of the Free Companies ; St Anthony '« 
has entirely disax^ared; and St Thomas'^ 



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THE MIRROR. 



Chapel, though named the last, not leaat 
in woe, has been replaced by shops, ware- 
houses, and offices. Very nearly the whde 
of these sacrifices to the god of this world 
in disparagement of the God who made it, 
have been made under the sanction and 
with the aid of the Corporation of New- 
castle; and this body is now about to add 
to the fearM catalogue of desecrations ar- 
rayed against it, that of the destruction of 
the Chapel of St Mary the VirghL 

Natural lEttory of the Dragon. — ^In Re- 
chelet's French dictionary, published in 
1728, the following definition is given with 
due gravity of the word dragon. "A 
iBort of serpent, of a black red or ashy 
colour, except underneath. There are 
some ten, twelve, or fifteen feet in length, 
or even longer. Many believe that it has 
no venom, and that it kills by its bite. 
The common opinion is, that it is a very 
venomous animal It is found in the 
Indies and in Africa. It hisses much, has 
a quick ear, much vigilance, and endures 
abstinence a long time. The elephant and 
the eim^le are its enemies. It is said it 
fears the latter so much that when it 
hears him on the wing it flies to its 
cavern. There are winged dragons, some 
that have only two, and others that have 
many feet, which are formed like those of 
the goose. Certain species of them have 
crests, and others have the aspect of a 
man's countenance, while others still have 
that of the hog.*' 

Bees and their Hives, — Acorre^nd- 
ent of the * Gardeners* Chronicle* gives a 
curious account of a swarm of bees issuing 
from a hive who were accommodated with 
a new one, but could not be made to stay 
• in it. There was a hive near from which ^ 
the bees had fled, and to this, after resist- 
ing several attempts to settle them else- 
where, they were observed on a sudden 
rushing pete-mele into the old unfurnished 
hive. In a quarter of an hour from thijis 
taking possession, they were observed 
busily employed in bringing out the dead 
bees, small fragments of honey-comb, dead 
insects, and other dirt ; and by the middle 
of the following day a Uttle conical heap of 
their deansings appeared on the ground 
front of the hive; before night, well-loaded 
labourers were entering to repair the di- 
lapidations and reAimish the empty cells. 
In the end, this hive was one of the heavi- 
est of the season, after giving out its swarm 
like an old stock-hive. 

Saving Fatalism. — When the French 
were in 'Egypt, Sidy-Mohamed el Coraim, 
ficherif of Alexandria, was accused and 
found guilty of treason against the repub- 
lic of France, to which he had taken the 
oaths of fidelity. He was condemned to 
die, or to pay 300,000 francs— an alterna- 
tive which a wealthy European in similar 
^cumstances would have been happy to 



accept from ^e hand of power. ^ You are 
rich,^ said Bournenne to him; ** make this 
sacrifice.** He replied, ** If I am to ae 
now, notMng can save me, and I shall give 
my piastres for nothing : if I am not to die, 
why give them? ** He carried his fatalirai 
to the gibbet on the 6th of Sept. 1798. 

The Vine in Western ^twfralta.— -The 
calcareous soil which is to be met with in 
the ci^ny of Western Australia has been 
found adapted to the cultivaticm ci the 
vine, and an extensive plantation of vine- 
yards has recently heia commenced. A 
society has also been formed for encourag- 
ing the culture of the grape, and it is ex- 
pected that, ere many years have elapsed, 
wine of superior quality will be imported 
from the cobny. The following extract 
on the subject is frt)m a private letter 
lately received from one (tf the promoters 
of tlus speculation : — ^^ I have visited many 
^nne countries, and know of none combin- 
ing so many advantages for that 8i>ecies of 
culture as Western Australia. All the 
European wine countries are subject to 
occasional falls of rain during the time of 
the vintage, which completely destroys the 
•bouquet* of the wine. We are, how- 
ever, entirely free from this visitation, the 
long continuance of our dry weather being 
such as always to insure a favourable vin- 
tage. We already possess nearly 300 vark- 
ties of the vine, comprising some of tfie 
best sorts of Frsmce and Spain. There are 
at present about twenty acres contain- 
ing nearly 50,000 vines, systematically 
planted.** 

— The New York Inquirer of the 20thEeb. 
contains a list of bankrupts, occupying sz 
colunms, printed in small type, luod com- 
prising, at the lowest computation, 760 de- 
faulters. This is for New York alone, and 
is said to display, without exception, the 
most frightful picture of insolvency ever 
eidiibited. 

— . The ancient standard of France was 
white, that colour being chosen as a sym- 
bol to . represent the frankness and the 
candour d Frenchmen. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



It not Mr Lowe aware that the information he kat 
sent is given in a more convenient form every week 
in the London Journals t The ulUUy of repeating 
it so long after date does not appear. 

Jf A. A. wiU send the book from which he has copied 
several pages we will make extracts from it, 

" The Cow and the Calf is inadmissible. 

No letter tike that mentioned by Mr Alexander hat 
been lately received. His wish^ should such esm 
to hand, will be attended to. 

" Richmond in Yorkshire witt be inserted. 



LoHDOjr: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 

MORTIMER, Adelaide Street, Trttfalgar Square,' 

and Sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

Pxinted by C. Rstvsi.1., 16 Little Pulteney Btiesti 

and ai the Royal Polytedmio higObatkau 



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W^ Mitvov 



OF 



LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION. 

(price twopence.) 



No. 14.] 



SATURDAY, APRIL 8, 1843. 



[Vol. L 1843. 




(BtisiMl ftommutiicatfonifi. 

THE CHURCH op the HOLY TRINITY, 

ST PETERSBURG. 
The city of Peter thie Great has been so 
often described, that to go over its history 
would be tedious. From the taste the 
Russians have for building, and their love 
of change, it is, however, always presenting 
something new. In England, latterly, it 
has occupied more than one English 
writer, and from an interesting series of 
views taken of the public edifices in St 
Petersburg, recently brought under our 
notice, w^ cannot but concur with those 
who designate it a city of palaces. 

VOL. XLI, ' o 



Unlike the potentates of China, the 
despots of Russia have long delighted to 
engage those distinguished in the arts and 
sciences in other countries. Arbitrary as 
the government has always been, it has 
libenilly requited those who obeyed its 
call Even the proud and severe Cathe- 
rine did not object to let her grandchildren 
gain knowledge from the revolutionist La 
Harpe. It is recorded of her that, on one 
occasion, when the preceptor had been 
discoursing with them on the government 
of S¥ritzerland after his own fashion, she 
wrote on some of the exercises, which it 
might have been supposed could hardly 
prove agreeable to an absolute monarch, 
[No. 1158. 



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THE MIRROR. 



the following approving note : — *^ Momienr 
La Harpe, continnez vos Jesons £li celte 
sorte ; Tos sentiments me plaisent beau- 
coup." 

llie Hermitage and the Taurian Palace, 
in other days, were wonderful in their .wfljr. 
For some years the latter has been Bh<»n 
of its splendour. Half a century ago it was 
thus described :— " The Taurian Fakce 
consists of but a ground floor, but the body 
of the building, the wings whereof extend 
to a prodigious length, has aver the portal 
two stories supported by colnmns, which 
are covered at top by a grand cupola. 
The entrance of the main building leads 
into an open space, in which, on both sides, 
lodging rooms project. Through this is the 
grand entrance into a quadrangular vesti- 
bule, surrounded by columns of ext|:aor» 
dinary magnitude, and lighted from above 
by the windows of the second story. A 
gallery at a considerable he^t runs round 
it, for the orchestra, which is also provided 
with an organ, l^rom this vestibule the 
spectator proceeds into the grsnd hali, 
through a double row of oolumin. If it be 
possible by verbal doscri|Qition to emake the 
impression which the 4ri^:t cdT this temple 
of gigantic architeotave produces, it con 
only be done by thcFiiieitavtleM and simple 
representation. Let dteTcaderthen figure 
to himself a hall upwurds of a imnored 
paces in length, proportlonab^ Isoad, 
having the roof ^nmarted b^ a tflooeble 
colonnade of colossalpOlaTS. At a^^out half 
the he^fht between these pillars aie 'boKei, 
ornamented with sUk^mrtaina and&steon«. 
In the passage fanned by the doiAAe trowB 
of piDars, hang at stated distanoes large 
crystal lustres Arom London, the lights si 
nv^ich are reflected by a minsoriOf imcom- 
mon size at each end of lOievBom. The 
room itself has seiCher Mnmamente nor 
furniture, it being oxi|y designed for grand 
-entertainments ; but hi each of the two 
semicircles that terminate the colonnades, 
stands a vase of camera marble, both of 
which, by their extraordinary magnitude 
and the excellence of their workmanship, 
correspond with the grandeur and magni- 
floence of the whole. Katw^et ^ reader, 
with his inteUectual CQO^msseSt^tnke ont 
a semicircle from one end ef this great 
colonnade to the other, on the «ide facing 
the vestibule by which he entered, and 
this will inclose the winter gsrden, of itself 
. an enormous building ; theoroof of which 
being too large to support itself without 
columns, these are made to resemble .palm 
trees. The warmth is h^t up by nume- 
rous flues in the walls and columns, and 
hy leaden pipes with hot water nmning in 
various ramifications under^xonnd beneath 
the parterres and grass |9lot0. . . « On 
the death of Prince Potenddn the Empress 
.Adopted this MheriiatunnaljpalRoe; lor 



which yvmrno the left wing was length- 
ened by tabng in the whole side of a street. 
In mining the necessary alteraticms fifte^ii 
hundred men were employed, who conti- 
nued their work in the night by the light 
of torches, that it might be ready for the 
coming autumn.** 

If the palaces of Russia are grand, not 
less remarkable are the temples of religicxi. 
St Isaac's church is a magnificent e^^fioe. 
That of our Lady of Easan, and the I&nas' 
taaeSf or Image, astonish all 1[>eholder8. 
Here figures of the saints are exhibited in 
massy silver, said to have been partly con- 
tributed by Cossack piety after the war of 
1814. The image of the Holy Virgin, re- 
moved from Eaisan to Moscow, and from 
Moscow to St Petersburg, is here, and be- 
fore this Kutusow knelt, in 1812, prev»>ns 
to taking the field, imd devoutly prayed, 
and not in vain, that his might be the 
happiness to meet in arms the enemy of 
his country. 

The church of the Holy Trinity at the 
head of this article is selected not as by 
any means the grandest in St Petersburg, 
bat it vnll give some idea of the noMe 
hniUlings there erected in honour of the 
Bei^ ^"'nie exterior," aays Mr Kohl, 
"^ Jknilibes an examplo«of the ^[igularly 
Itotestic mRBoitac in which the Russians 
^nt&amte th^ dnixches. Bdow Ihe firi^ 
■ci ^tbe itt£go-bhie cupola, studded with 
•^SES, an arabesque onnposed of flowers 
and vine leases nms round the church, 
^ieparate ^wreaths are held by ang^ in 
couples, and in the centre, hetween each 
ixnifple jmd the next, is hitrodnoed a cmwn 
of thorns. Bst fbr this pseinftil token of 
ktamn^ I you might f^mcy that you had 
hefbse ysu the chQerful ten^ of some 
Grecian ^flflity." 

Ha^ and the more hnpoartBiithalf of the 
churches of St Petailni^ iate tesn th^ 
present century. 

Jto^w— We le»m thact 6k sport afiEorded 
by Lord CSiesterfield's fox-hounds has 
created a great sensation there : they have 
had some admirable runs in theCampagna ; 
and «knoBt i^ the sriBtoeraqy of Rome 
were assembled, ^tiier -to witness en* jom 
in the chase. Lord C^iesterfield has pie- 
sented the pack to the society there, and 
a htrge subscription has be^ raised to 
kee^ it up.— ^'orio ^ Boma, — [This is 
going to Italy to recnnt a fortune d (a 
CUiesterfield. 

— Mrs Honey ctied on Sunday, of hi- 
fl animation. As a fascinating actress and 
delightful singer, at the Minor theatrss, 
she vi^ be hjog nemenEibered by pli^^- 
goers* fihe^was mamodstsi^een. Her 
hudMBid, £romvi%om !^ ^as gepantad, 
w«s drewned A fiew years haek^ She was 
only twient^HRz yoga «f age. 



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a:H£HmRQE. 



Sll 



3hsMixES, experience has shown, thongh 
kjafied **thc veaker sex," hi trymg situa- 
tions have often exhihited a degree of 
courage and "unfimchmg resolution which 
men could not surpass. The Spanish lady 
whose name 'b at the head of this artide, 
♦was one ctf those bright ornaments of hu- 
>nan nature who, with a heart attuned to 
CT qr yg endCT sympathy, 

<*^i{h every beauty to inspire. 
Of love the soft and chaste desire,^ 

«oold in the w»"H»rt of danger thiow .aside 
4dl ordaacy kai^ili» and brave the can- 
jimi'« TOST in. the ^eaose d her suffering 
countrymen. 

U'wm in 1808 thatithe f'r^ch 'under- 
ioefc the aiege of Zaragoesa. Hi^ had, 
in dhe firrt Jastoaoe, expected it to iall an 
«ai!y ofMiquest, but the fate of the first 
liinilmnti, aU -of whom perished, taught 
.^em that the Arragonese wese fixed to 
defend the^ city to the last. The gallant 
Palafox, then in his thirty-fourth year, 
xionunanded. He was nobly supported by 
the inhabitants, but the enemy accumu- 
Jatod inmense means i^ainst the city, and 
ibs> many the oause seemed utterly hopeless. 
Bariyin the month of Jime a powder ma- 
^gaaiiie in the heart of the city l^ew up, 
4md in a moment reduced one whole street 
to a heap of ruins. Immediat^y afiter this 
<ialamity, the Fr^ich began to bombard 
the place, and twelve hundred shells and 
^gnmdtB weate thrown into the fortress. 
The attack was directed principally against 
the gate called the Portillo. A sand-bag 
hob^ there was boldly defended by the 
besieged. During all these pnooeedings the 
CSeositess fiuita, a young «nd beautiful 
woman, was constantly seen wherever the 
4anger was greatest, cheering every one by 
the anknated zeal she invariably mani- 
^BSted in the cause of her nation. In con- 
nexion with this particular attack on the 
Portillo, a humbler female gained undying 
jdGEone. Augnstma 2^aragoza was a fine 
yomgwooian, then twenty-two years of 
Age, engaged to carry refreshmeats to the 
sien em|^<^6d at the battery. On one 
oocasian the destructive fire of the French 
«ivept away^every man. Those near hesi- 
tated for a moment, and shrunk from step- 
ping into the places of the £idlen. It was 
4hen that Auguttina bounded forward, 
aeked a lightedmatdi which had remained 
in the hands of a dying artilleryman, and 
fteed off a t^wenty-six pounder. At the 
aame inatant sl^ sprang on the gun, which 
«fae vowed not to quit with life during the 
siege. She futhftilly adhered to her reso- 
l^on. Qer ooorage rallied arovnd her 
those wlK>kad at first been dismayed, and 
Ite battery was again wvirked wi^ dread* 
f^ ^f^^ oa tlK QSMiperated eiiein|r. 



; The PreBdi, resolirte to cany ih^ ob* 
ject, pressed the «ege mere closely than 
ever; they destroyed the asdlls which snp« 
^ied the city with floor, and expected that 
the place must submit from want of f ood^ 
er from the £ufaire of ammimition. 

But in the midst, of these diAoalties 
Palafox converted soose oera ae^lte within 
the ci^ into msiDii&ctories of gunpowder 
Monks wereenga^ed mb wsrkn^ ; ail the 
sidphmr within the walls was secured; the 
earth of the streets was washed to ftarnfsh 
ss l tp e tre, sad charoeal was asade of the 
sta^ of hem^. The bombardment being 
coBtin«ed on the night of the 2nd of Au- 
gust, tlie Fotmdling hospital, which had 
been made a Teceptaole for iAie sicdc and 
wounded, cang^ fire. DreadM was tile 
horror and confiision which ensued. In 
tills terrible iscene of YfltferiBg anddread- 
frd apprehension, the Countess BoiitaJand 
the women of the city, dousing every 
danger, braVdyrushed to tiie asslManoe A 
the unfortunate patients, and saved nmn-' 
bers who, but for their ^^enereus eflbrts, 
must have periled in the Asmes. 

Presuming that the disteess which pre* 
vailed, must have prepavedthe besic^ied for 
subm^sion, the F^ndi oemmander, hav- 
ing made a breach mnA entered the ^ty, 
sent the following brief summons : — 

"Head quarters, Santa Engracia. 
"Capitulation." 

Palafox returned an answer almost as 
brief, and quite as determined: — 

" Head quarters, Zanagegs, 
"Wartothekoife." 

The struggle then became most desperate. 
On each ^de of the street Cozo, a broad 
thoroughfare, the French and Spanish bat- 
teries were ndsed. The slat^iter was 
great, and the dead bodies were tiuown 
from the houses into the road. It was 
feared that the accmmulation of putrid mat- 
ter would destrcr^ tiie besi^ed by conta- 
gions diseases ; but a Spaniard could not 
attempt the removal of the dead without 
being shot. Upon this Palafox adopted 
the eiq>edient of sending French prisoners, 
witii TQ(pea attached to their bodies, into 
the road, to bring in their fallen countiy- 
men. They were spared while thus ooou* 
pied by their comrades, and the dreaded 
evil was averted. 

While these startling scenes were in the 
course of being muHipMed, the Countess 
Burita was every where present where the 
peril was greatest or the necessity for re* 
fief most urgent. She had formed a corpe 
«f women who acted systematically und^ 
her ord»*s, on a 0an which she had laid 
down to assist the woun^tod and to carry 
wine and proviskxis to the s^c^ers white 
engaged w^ the enemy. Young, deihcate; 
and accon^lished ia whatever could adoca 



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212 



THE MIRROR. 



the boudoir or the drawing room, she acted 
with all the cahnneat of an old soldier in 
the heat of battle. Though riioto and 
shellt fell around her, she remained pw- 
fectlj ierene. Her orders were given as 
codXLy as if it had been onlj a review; 
and personal danger, so fiir as might be 
jndged from appearances, never enteied her 
thoughts. Ambitious to relieve others, she 
had no leisure to i&Kt for herself. That 
the pail was great, she must however, 
have been momentarilj reminded by the 
slaughtar made of her brave companions. 
The loss of women during the siege was 
fully proportionate to that of the men. 
Their zeal in the cause was such, that 
they sometimes exposed themsdves to the 
fire of the enemy unnecessarily. Nothing, 
nothing could subdue the gallant spirit 
of the Countess. Her effbrts were crowned 
eventually with success. In the night of 
the 13th of August, many of the buildings 
in the possession of the French were seen 
to be in flames; and oia the following morn- 
ing the besieged had the joy of finding 
that their enemy, in despair, had, under 
cover of darkness, commenced his retreat. 
From that moment all was joy within 
the dilapidated waUs. The most enthusi- 
astic gratitude was expressed for the la- 
bours of the noble-minded lady who had 
acted so heroic a part ; and the daring 
Augustina was not forgotten. Her courage 
and devotion were requited with a pension 
from the government, and she wore, as a 
mark of grateful distinction, a small shield 
of honour upon the sleeve of her gown, 
with the inscription " Zaragossa." 



QUACKS IN THB TIME or EDWARD HI, 
MARY, AND ELIZABETH. 

In the year 1552, Grig, a poulterer, in 
Surrey, ** taken among the people for a 
prophet, in curing divers diseases by words 
and prayers, and saying he would take no 
money," was set on a scaffold in the town 
of Croydon, with a paper on his breast, 
declaring him to be an impostor. He was 
afterwaMs set on a pillory in Southwark. 

In the reign of Queen Mary, a great 
number of empirical impostors were pro- 
secuted and punished, not only in London 
but in other parts of the country ; and 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, these 
prosecutions continued, the delinquents 
being fined various sums from 5/. to 20iL, 
and in many cases being imprisoned. 
Some of these quacks were patronised by 
persons of rank^ who wrote to the Presi- 
dent of the College on theur behal£ Sur 
Francis Walsingluun, Secretary of State, 
interceded on behalf of ^ Margaret K^mix, 
an outlandish ignorant sorry woman," but 
the college refused to remit the sentence 
(1581). 



John BoiKsat (1583) was liberated tMoi 
prison on the Interoessioii of a person of 
quality, upon condition that he would sub* 
mit to any penalty the ooU^ mi^^t in« 
flict, if he ever practised again. 

Paul Fair&x (1588) was proeeciited for 
cheating the people by pufflng the rae- 
tended virtues of a water whidi he ctuled 
Aqua CteUttU, He was fined SL and im* 
prisoned. The Lord Chamberiain addxeMed 
the college on his behalf, but to no pur- 
pose. 

Paul Buck (1593), having been im]^- 
soned for illegal practice, obtained letters 
of recommendati^i from Sir Frauds Wal- 
singham, the Lord High Admiral Howard, 
and Lord Essex. 

John Lumkin, a surgeon (1593), being 
convicted of mala praxit on several patients, 
and being committed to prison, propter 
maktm praxim, et immodestos moreg^ obtained 
letters from the Archbishop (tf Cfmterbury, 
and the Dean of Rochester, and was re- 
leased on bail — Belts IiUroductiom^ 



LITERARY PIRATES. 
It really seems high time that some deter- 
mined step should be taken to obtain an 
international law of copyright' The un- 
ceremonious way in which English works 
are seized upon and reprinted at a low 
price in America, is most fatal to the in- 
terest of British authors. What book- 
seller can pay a writer a respectable price 
for his work, if, as in the case of a novel, 
that which is published here at a guinea 
and a half, can, in the course of a month, 
be obtained from America for eighteen- 
pence or two shillings. 

The subject has been especially pressed 
on public attention in consequence of a 
recent piracy. An American journal an^ 
nounces, with some misgivings as to the 
honesty of the parties, that Brande's * Dic- 
tionary of Science, Literature, and Art,* 
is now re-publishing in America at a price 
which precludes the future sale of a single 
copy of the original edition; for those who 
pay nothing to authors can, of course, 
am>rd to seU cheap. On this volume alone 
the Messrs Longman expended more than 
6,000/., whereof above half was paid to att" 
tkors. 

The American editor, while partly cen- 
suring what has been done, labours to the 
utmost to render the nefarious act profit- 
able, by describing the work to be so valu- 
able, that no one acquainted with the al- 
phabet ought to remain without it. For 
such a notice the holders of the book owe 
the censor their best thanks, if they had 
not forwarded to him something more sub- 
stantial. It is, in fact, an advertisement 
that stolen goods are to be had greatly be- 
low their intrinsic vahie; and if on such a 



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THE MIRROR. 



213 



hint Jonathan do not ran to buy, he has 
more morality than John Bull would prove 
himself to possess, nnder like circmn- 
stances. 

Messrs Longmans have thought it ne- 
cessary to notice the dxcnmstance. They 
£urly expose the wrong, and show the 
grievance is great; hut so far as the work 
in question is concerned, we are afraid 
they only make matters worse. There are 
plenty of Englishmen who will be glad to 
obtain such a book so much under price ; 
and the temptation thus offered to smug- 
gling will prove irresistible. All the vigi- 
lance €i our custom-house officers, which 
in certain recent cases has caused onhf 
1,300,000^ to be called for on account of 
losses sustained from frauds on the reve- 
nue ! will not suffice to exclude American 
copies from England. Messrs Longmans 
were in tiiis imfortunate i>o8ition,— they 
were compelled to acquiesce in the wrong, 
or aggravate the evil by protesting against 
it. 

But the complaints made in England on 
this subject are met by assertions from the 
other side of the Atlantic. We are told 
that the works of Fisher Ames, Buck- 
minster, Hillhouse, Pickering, Sigoumey, 
and Ware, are made equally free with here. 

* Most of our readers, we suspect, will be 
of opinion that as yet not much has been 
done in the way of retaliation. The * North 
American Review,' however, comes forward 
with a formidable list. " Who," it is asked, 
" in looking over a list of titles, would sup- 
pose that * Quebec and New York, or the 
Three Beauties,* was the same as * Burton, 
or the Sieges;' and * Cortes, or the Fall of 
Mexico,' a reprint of *The Infidel;' that 

* The Last Days of Aurelian' is no other 
than Mr Ware's * Probus, or Rome in the 
Third Century;' and * Montacute ' only a 
new title for * A New Home ; ' that Mr 
Muzzey's * Young Maiden' and * Young 
Wife' are translated into * Tlie English 
Maiden,' and the '^w^r/isA Wife,' and Mr 
Sparks's * Life of Ledyard, the American 
Tfiraveller,' is only made more attractive as 

* The Memoirs of Ledyard, the African 
Traveller' (anon.); and two volumes of 
his * Writings of Washington,' in twelve 
volumes, are reprinted with the original 
title, and apparently as if complete ? Dr 
Harris's * Natural History of the Bible;' 
Bancroft's Translation of Heeren's Politics 
of Greece ; Mr Everett's Translation of 
Buttman's Greek Grammar, were all re- 
printed and sold as English books. Judge 
Story's ' Law of Bailments,' was * chopped 
into fragments,' and appended here and 
there, by Mr Theobald, in his * Notes on 
Sir WilUam Jones.' These are a few speci- 
mens—in most of them the preface, &c.,is 
sufficiently altered to conceal their origin, 
and in several the author's name is sup- 
pressed. One more may be mentioned: — 



Mr Nieal, of Philadelphia, published, about 
1839, a vdume, called ' Charcoal Sketches,' 
with illustratiODs; his name appended in 
fhlL This volume appears entire, plates 
and all, in the middle of *Pic-Nic Papers,* 
&c., * edited by C. Dickens, Esq.,* 3 volumes, 
Lcmdcm, 1841. Mr Neal, no doubt, would 
have been proud of his ccwapany, if his 
patron had not introduced him as a name" 
lesspentml * A volume has been appended' 
(to make the (orthodox three), 'from an 
American source,' says the editor; 'but 
not a syllable about the name, eiUier of 
author or book!"* 

In this it must be confessed that there 
is something serious. We have not any 
doubt that there are plenty of mean and 
dishonest x)ersons in i&gland, as ready to 
appropriate anything that can be obtained 
from America, as there are Americans 
ready to pirate anyt^g published in Eng- 
land. In proportion as this is true, 
America ought to be anxious to unite with 
us in putting down the nuisance. Con- 
nected with such a state of things, there is 
no interest that a Government pretending 
to anything like dignity or probity ought 
for a moment to protect. The pickpockets 
or the housebreakers in either coimtry 
have as good a claim to favour. Wher- 
ever it occurs it is a course of simple 
thieving, which can only be tolerated 
when it assumes the shape of retaliation, 
but is most disgraceful to all who favour 
it, and likely to prove fatal to the best in- 
terests of literature, both in England and 
America. In the latter country, if it be 
ambitious of a national literature, the evil 
will be even greater than in England. Dr 
Channing says of America, "We must 
lament that, however we surpass other na- 
tions in providing elementary instruction, 
we fall behind many in provision for the 
liberal training of the intellect for forming 
great scholars, for commimicating that 
profound knowledge, and that thirst for 
higher truths, which can alone originate a 
commanding literature. The truth ought 
to be known. There is among us much 
superficial knowledge, but little severe per- 
severing research." 

No, nor can it be expected that there 
ever will be, when, instead of aiming at 
doing something for themselves, the sons 
of America are content to appropriate and 
mangle the literature of England, because 
it pays. 



ROASTING, BAKING, BROILING, 
AND BOILING. 

Da HoDGKiK has supplied, in notes on his 
valuable lectures on 'The Means of pro- 
moting and preserving Health,' some use- 
ful practical remarks on the effects pro- 
duced on meat by the various processes cf 
roasting, baking, &c., which the carefiul 

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THE MIRROR. 



bomiewifenurjrBtuidjr'withadtaiitage; Be 

** ItoafltftN^.— Though this is perhaps, aa 
iSbe n^c^e, l^e hett and most agreeahie 
lidode of (kesshig meal;, the predomhianee 
of which may- be regmrded aa. fomung the 
c^ajraetenstie d l^liih cooloBg, it ia 
neither the mott certain n<yr the most 
economical. The r^narics of I> Kitchener 
Ihdbate tiia* expenence and tact are essen- 
tial to compete success in roasting meat, 
yet I appr&end that a lit^e attention to a 
few ppuxciplea woidd simfify Mid shcnrten 
the road to success, llius, having th& 
meat in the right state for being dressed, 
judgment must be used, in so pladng it be» 
fore the fire that heat may be property 
adapted to the size and shape of the joint, 
lest a thin pM*t may be seorched and in- 
jured, whilst that which is more s<did re- 
mains undone. It is an equally important 
point to adapt the fire to the joint ; wnce- 
it woidd be an injury to the meat, as weQ 
aa a criminal waste of fuel, to consume as 
much upon a smalt piece as would si^9ee 
to dress a very large one. At the same 
time, itwotdd be very false economy to 
employ too little fire and to spoil the meat, 
by attempting to dress it with inadequate 
heat. Gtood management will therefore 
not only at all times economize fuel by 
those contrivances which obtatn the most 
available amount of heat fh>m the same 
quantity of fnel, and by adapting the size 
of the fire to the quantity to be dressed, 
but also by taking care that the fire shall 
be so supplied that it may be most brisk 
at the time when the greatest heat and the 
clearest state are required. The crust 
which forms on the surface of roasted meat 
is, as I have already observed, of very im- 
portant service in retaining the juicea of 
the meat ; but it is essential that this crust 
shoulvl not be formed too soon or too 
quickly, by which the exterior will be 
wasted, and rendered unpleasant and un- 
wholesome, whilst the interior may remain 
in an uneatably raw state. The object 
mufit be, by the due regulation of the- fire 
and the distance of the meat, to secure the 
heating of the whole mass, without scorch- 
ing the surface. This result is no doubt 
emnewhat influenced by the state of the 
Burftice of the meat itself. If the meat be 
wet and moist, it will furnish so much for 
evaporation, thiM; the formation* of the 
erust will be retarded, and, unless the joint 
be very large, the' whole will be more or 
less injured. To av^d this error, it can- 
Jiot' be necessary to sacrifice cleanlmess, hy 
neglecting so much of ablution, as well as 
scraphig, a^ a wholesoBserecollectleNa of the 
hands, not always the cleaoest, through 
which the meat has parsed fifom the 
skw^hter-bouse to Ihe dresser, would 
foggest. 

^ The j^clples kid ^w& with re«peet W 



roasting }Hfi paiitf asf^ly to SBOUunc^ ; hst 
in proportion to tfa« tynnesaoftheHMsak &» 
chop, it is importaat to^ seeure the ea^ 
formation of the crust by which the juiceff 
of ^e meat ase to be retained; imoe, iT 
these are allowed to run out, oraee dowijr 
evaporated, tiie meat wifi be isjured in* 
flavour and nutritive properties. lb pro* 
p<Mrtion to tl» greater exposure to the firr 
is care required l^t ^lis i^KnAi be in a 
inx>per state at the time at wiiioh it is 
wanted. 

''^I have Kttle to siddtoth^opmion Ih»r» 
fdready expressed regarding bakiko ; ex^ 
cept, that the objeettons to wMeh it i» 
liable may greaHy vary in degree, accord^ 
ing to the size of the oven, the i»DBb» (^ 
joints dressed in it, and the sueo^sa of con- 
trivances emplo3Fed to obviate them : per- 
haps the most elegant and efibctual, ancE^ 
one of the least expensive, is that which 
consists in the employment of gas, in a 
ctese chamber of bright tm^ The dianger 
of producing empyxeuma is so completely 
removed, that it is diflicult to say whether 
the process ought not to be regarded aff 
roasting, rather than bakmg. 

*^BoiUng, — ^Although, in subjectteg ar-*^ 
tides of fi)od to the action ci boifingvrater 
there is, in ordinary situations, no notable 
difference in the degree of heat, wlwl^er 
the water boil briskly or merely skmn^ the 
effect produced may be greatly modifed by 
a variety of circumstMices. Thus tl» 
article to be dressed may be put into cold 
water, which may be slowly raised to Ae 
boiling point, or it may be s^tdenly 
phmged in water already arrived at ebulli- 
tion : it may be boiled in much or httle 
water : it may be boiled for a Icmger or 
shorter time : it may be kept in violent 
agitation, or be allowed to remain almost 
motionless. Each of these modes have 
their infiuenee, which it may be desirable 
to shun, or to take advantage of. Thua^ 
immersion in boiling water, or quickly pro^ 
ducing the boiling point, by promptly 
causing the coagulation of whatever ia 
susceiitible of this duMige, is likely to re- 
tain juices and other priiicrples whfch 
might be extracted when a longer time is 
allowed for the subject under operation to 
be brou^t to the highest temperature. 
This method must consequently be un- 
favourable to tlw richness cSrthe liquor : it 
may also occasron too great an inequality 
in the degree of dressing, and be traikvoui^ 
able to tendemesa. Slow boiling, cm the 
contrary, will fttvour ifte extraction rf 
whatever bdUng water can dissolve^ and 
promote tlw tenderness and breaking' upi<tf^ 
the more sold parta. Violent eHulMliBA 
prodtxces a compound efl^ot, ia wUbh tike 
Mfluenee of motion, aa well as^ of hesrt; im 
emicemed ; and it may e£iniy happen that 
whilst the ^[flbrent animal e/r vegetable 
prJBcif^ are softened W he»t and meiff* 

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tore, their parts are more or less broken the opinion of many that the reoent 
t^ and disturbed by the movements resmlt- appearance in the heavens is simply due 



ing from this cause. Vegetables^ lose their 
forms, and joints become detached, whilst 
the lines are deprived of their musdes 
and tendons. The question, whether much 
or little water should be employed,, must 
be decided by the purpose to be served, by 
the Uquor employed, and by the charactec 
of the substance to be dressedJ^ 



to an miusual display of brilliancy, 
although Herschel, South, and Airy seem 
to thii^ that they have caught a glimpse 
of the nucleus of the comet, yet it is, at 
best, bat problematical, for 

"Who ihall decide when doctors disagree t" 

B. 



COMET OK NO COMET. 
CoxBT9, eclipses, and earthquakes Bare . 
always been regarded by the ignorant and 
superstitious as omens of good or evil, but 
more generally the latter, or as a forewarn- 
ing of Providence prior to some mighty 
evrat taking place ; comets were, espe- 
ciaEy, ever cottsiiered by such with in- 
Usaae horror, as bringing with them, as a 
natural consequence, dire diseases, plagues, 
pestilence, war, and famine. To reason 
wilto them upon the fblly of entertaining 
such absurd notions is, in most cases, 
useless. There are mway x>ersons in this 
wide world who delight in contemplating 
the horrible, and who seem to gloat over the 
misery they have careated for themselves 
by so doing. The present appearance of 
a supposed comet, and the recent shock of 
an earthquake at Manchester, are ample 
topics for the lovers of the marvellous, and 
therefore we shall leave them to make the 
most of it. But, addressing ourselves to 
the more sensible portion of the com- 
munity, we are led to inquire if this lumi- 
nous streak of light, as seen by our astro- 
nomers and oth^rS) is really what some 
suppose it to be, the tail of a comet 
whisking in his erratic course through our 
system, or whether it be not an eflfect well 
Imown to astronomers, but seldom seen 
by us in this dimate with such brilliancy 
as on the occasion when it was mistaken 
for the tail df a comet, we mean the zodia- 
cal light, which is always aft its maximum 
intensity at this season of the year; it is 
somewhat shmlar to the well-known ne- 
bulous apx)earaace in the heavens called 
the milky way ; it may be seen in a clear 
evening soon after sunset, about the 
months of March, Aprils and May, and 
before the rising of the sun at the opposite 
seasons^; it consists of a lenticular-shaped 
cone of light extending obliquely from 
the horizon upwasda^ generally following 
tiie course of the sun's equator. 
. Astronomers are stilly in some meannre, 
undecided as to the true cause of this sin- 
gular eSkct That the son is oMieemed 
in its producti<Ni few dispute, bitt whether 
it is owing to some slight nebtdosity of it»afc» 
mosphere^ or to electricUy probably emitted 
with the light, is a problem still mnolved. 
The semita ittnUnomt or zodiacal lights was^ 
first noticed by Cassini in. I68dy and itia^ 



AUCiOTMEin'S OF LAND TO THE 

POOR. 
TkE: quantity of land let out to the poor 
by Lord Lansdowne in the parishes of . 
Colne and Bumhill is 500 acres, in allot- 
ments from half an acre ta two acres each^ 
the number of tenants being nearly 700. 
The price is the same as was given by the 
farmers previous to giving up the land, 
and varies firom 40s. to 60s. per acre. The 
crops chiefly grown are potatoes, the cab- 
bage tribe, wheat, and barley. A Horti- 
cultural Society in Colne has been the 
means of promoting^ much good amongst 
the cottagers by giving prizes annually 
for vegetables, fmaat^ and separate prizes 
for aHotm^it-cultiva4ion. — Sir Henry Bun- 
bury, who is most zealous in the cause, 
writes thus: — ^Five-and-twenty years ago 
I began to assign some small portions of 
land (for I had but little at that time) to a 
few labourers. In every instance I found 
that the man improved in his circumstances^ 
and as his circumstances became more easy 
he became more domestic and respectable in 
his ccmduct. With this encomragement I 
gladly seized opportunities of letting pieces 
of land to cottagers ; and afterwards, having 
a good deal within my power, I extended 
the practice very widely; nor have I ever 
seenreason tadoubt of its beneficial effects. 
I am inclined to suspect that gentlemen 
make the mistake of meddling too much 
with their allotments as to details. I should 
say, do not cramp the labourer— let him 
fek. the pleasure of being a free man — stop 
him when he is going decidedly wrong — 
give him usefulinformation ~ and encourage 
ai pride in him as to his crops, andhis pigs, 
and the neatness of his ground.*' — ^Thb is 
sound sense. 



Mr Fox on the Soul — ^In one of those- 
interesting conversations by his bed side 
which prw^ed the death of Mr Fox, the 
statesman thus es^r^ssed himself on the 
state of the soul after death. ** That it is 
inmiortal I am convinced. Hie existence 
of the Deity is a proof that spirit exists ; 
why not, therefore, tlw soul of man ? and* 
if such an essence as the soul exists, it may 
exist for ever. 1 should havebdieved iir 
the immortaMty of tte soid t^n^ Chris- 
tianity had n0ver^:^stsd, but how it acts 
separated froia the M^ i» beyond my 
capacity," 



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THE mirror: 




Arms. Gu., a lion rampant, within a bordure, engrailed, or. Crut, On a chapeau, go., 
turned up ermine, a lion statant, or., the tail extended. Stqjporters, Two talbots, ar. Motto. 
* Frist tfacconyalir.** Beady to accomplish. 



THE NOBLE HOUSE OF SHREWS- 

BURY. 
Tms truly old English fSEunily can trace its 
origin to a period considerably anterior to 
the Norman conquest. The first person of 
note, however, was Richard de Talbot, of 
whom we know nothing but the possessions 
and the name. He is mentioned in Domes- 
day-book as holding nine hides of land 
from Walter Gifibrd, Earl of Buckingham. 
He married the daughter of Gerard de 
Goumay, by whom he had two sons, 
Geffrey, the ancestor of the Talbots of 
Thornhill and Bashall, in Yorkshire ; and 
Hugh de Talbot, the ancestor of the House 
of Shrewsbury. The latter was appointed 
governor of Plessey Castle, in Essex, by 
his imcle, then in rebellion against Henry 
the First, having put the King's governor 
to death. Hugh, eventually became a 
monk, and retired into the Monastery of 
Beaubeck, in Normandy. One of his de- 
scendants. Sir George Talbot, who was 
charged with being concerned with the 
Earl of Lancaster in the murder of Piers 
de Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall, received a 
pardon for his share in the deed, and was 
summoned to Parliament as a Baron in 
1331. 

Sir John Talbot, the sixth Baron, was 
the first Earl. He was Lord Justice of Ire- 
land in 1412, and Lord Lieutenant in 1414. 
Under the Duke of Bedford's regency he 
distinguished himself as a warrior. He 
sustained a severe defeat from the Maid of 
Orleans in 1429, and was made prisoner at 
the battle of Patay, and became prisoner 
to the reputed sorceress, first the scorn and 
then the terror of the British army. He 
was soon exchanged for Ambrose de Lore, 
and subsequent meritorious services caused 
him to be created Earl of Shrewsbury, 
May 20, 1441. His lordship was again 
appointed to the high post of Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Lreland, and raised to the peer- 
age of that kingdom, July 17, 1445, by the 
title of Earl of Waterford. Increasing age 
did not abate his ardour to serve his coun- 
try, and in his eightieth year, advancing 
to the relief of Chastillon, he gave battle 



to the French besieging army, July 20, 
1553, and received a wound of which he 
died. He had been engaged in forty bat- 
tles and skirmishes. Notwithstanding his 
great age, on the last day of his life he was 
as active as most men are in the vigour of 
manhood. From rank to rank he went on 
a little hackney, animating his men. by 
appropriate exhortations to do their duty. 
They fought bravely, but the improvements 
then recently made in the French artillery 
rendered personal valour comparatively 
unavailing. A shot from a culverin broke 
Talbot's thigh. Dunois immediately ad- 
vanced, and the son of Talbot, defending 
his fallen father, met with a glorious death. 
An archer plunged his dagger in the aged 
soldier's throat, and he expired. The body 
remained on the field that night, it was 
stripped, and was so disfigured by wounds, 
that in the morning it could not be recog- 
nised. An aged herald at length approach- 
ed a corpse supposed to be his, and bending 
over the remains, he put his finger in the 
mouth of the dead man, to ascertain, by 
feeling for a remarkable si>ace left in his 
gum by a tooth Talbot had lost, if it were 
really the General. He instantly satisfied 
himself that it was Talbot. " My poor mas- 
ter," he exclaimed, " it is then really you, 
God have mercy on your souL I have for 
forty years been your herald at arms, and 
have worn this your coat, which now I re- 
store." He then threw his coat on the 
remains of the veteran chief, and caused 
the body to be removed. 

No War with America. — On the other 
side of the Atlantic there is no apprehen- 
sion of a rupture with this country on the 
question of ** Right of Visitation and 
Search." The * New York Albion' de- 
clares it is no new claim set up by Eng- 
land ; and justly remarks — ** Without it, 
ships of war, in time of peace, would be 
useless ; and they would sail the ocean, 
the jest and laughing-stock of pirates, and 
the contempt of mankind. As well might 
we establish a police, without the power to 
arrest criminals." 



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AERIAL STEAM CARRIAGE. 

(^From a Correspondent.) 

The journals have generally teemed with 
the highest praise of Mr Benson's inven- 
tion, and as a text for my remarks, I will 
make my observations upon the article 
which appeared in the * Times' paper, as 
it seems, on reading it, to be the same in 
substance as those which have since ap- 
peared, and remain tmcontradicted by the 
inventor. 



^ When it was announced iome time 
ago, by the ordinary monthly lists of pa- 
tents granted, that Mr Henson had in- 
vented a machine capable of conveying 
despatches and passengers through the 
air, the general impression was, that s(Mne 
moody and enthusiastic projector was 
about to exhibit the produce of his day 
dreams. Our readers may, therefore, tie 
somewhat surprised io learn that this is in 
truth no visionary schemct but a design of 
very scientific conception. 

"We proceed to describe the machine, 
and its mode of flight. Its car, enclosed 
on all sides, and containing the passengers, 
managers, burden, and steam-engine, is 
suspended to the middle of a framework, 
so constructed, as to combine great strength 
with extreme Ughtness, and is covered 
with any woven texture which is mode- 
rately light and dose. This main frame 
or expanded surface, which is 150 feet long 
by 30 feet wide, serves in the most im- 
portant respects as wingB ; yet it is per- 
fectly jointless and without vibratory 
motion. It advances through the air with 
one of its long sides foremost and a Uttlc 
elevated. To the middle of the other long 
side is joined the tail, of 50 feet in length, 
beneath which is the rudder. These im- 
portant appendages efiectually control the 
flight as to elevation and direction, and are. 
governed by cords proceeding from the 
car. Situated at the back edge of the 
main frame are two sets of vanes or pro- 
pellers, of 20 feet in diameter, driven by 
the steam engine. 

" The chief peculiarities of this import- 
ant member of the carriage are the re- 
spectiye constructions of its boiler and 
condenser. The former consists of hollow 
inverted truncated cones, arranged above 
and around the furnace ; they are about 
50 in number, and large enough to aflbrd 
100 square feet of evaporating surface, of 
which half is exposed to radiating heat. 
The condenser is an assemblage of small 
pipes exposed to the stream of air produced 
by the flight of the machine. It is found 
to produce a vacuum of from 5lb. to 8lb. 
to the square inch. The steam is em- 
ployed in two cylinders, and is cut off" at 
one-fourth of the stroke. Our engineering 
readers will be able to gather from these 
particulars, that the steam-engine is of 
about 20 horse power, supposing the eva- 
porating power of the boiler to be equal, 
foot for foot, to that of the locomotive 
steam-engine. 

" The area of the sustaining surface will 
be not less than 4,500 square feet ; the 
weight to be sustained, including the car- 
riage and its total burden, is estimated at 
3,00(Abs. The load is said to be considera- 
bly less per square foot than that of many 
birds. It may assist the conceptions of 
cor non-mechanical readers, to add that 



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zs^ 



THEMIfiROft. 



Itegenenilappeafaafis of tfae.maehiaeis 
ikttt of a gigantie bird widi wta^kmary 
-wingi; that the mechaaical pcmcq^les, 
OQnceraad in it* rapp(»t an strosgly ex* 
cmplified in the caw o£ a kite 9 and that 
itipi08KSs.il maintained hj an ajq^ca- 
tien of power like that which prop^ a 
Btean^boab In Ihe (derations of natnze, 
partieiilarij in iib» flight of birds, will be 
nmnd many strBdng illnstrationi of the 
pdndptes on whi^ the inr^itor hat pro- 

eeded." 

r In the eariv port of the abofe qnotstion 
ilkere it a na^^ .alhi8k)B to the **^da,y^ 
dreams of the projeetc^^" and it need not 
have been ftdlowed up by the additaon,. we 
shoiild be ^ surprised to leasn." Howerer, 
it ia not my intentioii to nuke^aa^ Tiakm- 
atry remarks on a matter wMeh is so 
abondantly Tisionny in itsell I wish to 
notice the subject seriously^ to prove tile 
fii^y' of snch a scheme for poogresaing 
t^iroogh the air. 

Itisnecessar3rfi)rrayargnuBenttoprodaQe 
a scale of the pressure caused by the relo* 
city of the wmd, and I take that accord- 
ing to Bouse, which was collected with 
great care, and itroved by &cts arising 
from a considerable number of experunsnts, 
and puUished by the celebrated Smeaton 
in the 51st toL of the ' Philosophical Trane* 
actions:' — 



Velocity of the 
Wind. 



'Miles 


F«et 


in one 


in one 


hour. 


second. 




1-47 




2-98 




4-40 




5.87 




7-33 


10 


14-67 


15 


2200 


20 


29-34 


25 


36-67 


30 


4401 


35 


51-34 


40 


58-68 


45 


6601 


50 


75-35 


90 


88-02 


80 


117-36 


100 


146-70 



Perpendidxlar 
fturce on one 
square foot in 
Avoirdupois 
pounds. 



Common appella- 
tions of the forces 
of winds. 



•005 
•020 > 
•044$ 
•079? 
•128 f 
•492 > 
1-107} 
1-968 > 
3-075 5 
4-429 > 
6027 > 
7-873 ) 
9*9631 
12-300 
17-715 
31-490 
49-200 



Hardly paxceptible. ' 

Jost perceptible. 

Gentle pleasant 
wind. 

Pleasant g^e. 
Very brisk. 
High wind. 

Vecyhifl^. 

A stonn or tempest* 
A great storm. 
A hurricane. 
A hurricane that 
tears up trees, and 
canries before it 
buildings, &c. 

What I hare to say Ishall endeaipimir to 
prevent without the aid o£ algebnkor frac* 
tional parts, so as to make what I wish to 
conyey perfectdiy intdOigibfe to^ ow^Bpaxyf 
readers. Theareaofthewing8,.orsu8tatning 
surface, is about 49506* s^puK fbet,aad it is 
gaieraUy stated out of doom^that tfaia mar 
chine is to pio greas a^ ftsalrof 10» m ii Bi i an 
hour. rh£» I must sett down asridieidoBfc 
The ytdoci^ of the wmAs, by th* absnre 
scale, shown tiiat e«sn tiees ami hooses 
are carried awayby^ k» yioknce ; ajid it 
matters not whetkaryoo paMt thxns^ the 



air at that vdocity, or the air paeses by 
you, the result is the same. It is stated 
that the machine is to be mored by a 
20 horse engine, and to be under the con* 
trol of a manager. That these assertions 
will not be borne out I can easily prove. 
Let us suppose the wind is blowing, ac- 
cording to the above scale, at 15 miles p^ 
hour (a '' pleasant gale^'* according to the 
above table), and theiefore actin^f with a 
power of 1*107 lb., or rather above one 
pound on the square foot; and we wUl 
then assume that the wings or sails €i£ the 
machine are laid at an angle of 45 degr^*^ 
against the wind, and the machine weighing 
altogether 3,000 lbs., of course we know 
there would be pressmg against the sauls 
of 4,500 feet area, a lifting force of half a 
pound t to each ibot, or 2,250 lbs. We now 
desire that the machine shall pass through 
the atmosphere against this wind at a rate 
of 15 mUes per hour, taking it ^r granted 
the manager can always keep the sail at 
the same angle, 45 degrees. We know that 
we shall then require a force equal to pro- 
polling the machine against a calm atmos- 
phere of 30 miles, viz., 15 miles against us, 
and 15 miles for the power of the machi- 
nery to act When this is accomi^hed, it 
will give a lifting force of one pound to 
the foot, or 4,500 lbs. The horse power 
necessary to drive this machine throu^ 
the air is easily calculated. Takmg, in tiie 
first place, a horse power to be equal to 
Messrs Bolton and Watt's statement, viz. 
32,000 lbs. to be raised one foot high per 
minute. The principle of this machine 
may be easily understood: it is that of a 
kite; for it matters not whether the Idte 
is laid at an an^e against the wind, and 
having the string to hold it, or the kite is 
propelled through the air by a machine at 
the same angle. Each wiU form the re- 
sistance necessary to rise it in the air, pro- 
vided the velocity of the windf or the power 
used, is sufficient to act on the sur&ce of 
the kite to a greater elevating power than 
its own weights 

We will Calculate the power necessary to 
raise the weight of 3,000 lbs., and to pass 
it through the atmosphere as above at a 
rate of 15 miles per hour, and 15 miles of 
resistance by an opposing wind. 

If in one hour you go thirty miles, how 
far do you go in one minute ? — we know 
the answer is hdf a mils. 

Well, we find we travel half a mUe, or 
880 yards, per minute, and we win take the 
statement of the. inv^aitor, thai: hi» ** .^rial 
Machixiev" enginft^ e^;meersy nuamgnfly pas* 
sengpsrs^ kd &&, oo^ m^h 3,000 Iha. 

* I taha this aagle* not rappeeiag it wdU wet b» 
used.; itia more Camiliai ta most persons, and the 
argument is just the same asnpen onemucft smdier. 

1 1 take this on the broad principle, not goiUflT 
inta deciouil' parCB; whie^itt-« matter I&etiri8>it oC 
no importance, but might confUse the reader . 



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THE MIRROR. 



310 



Our nest qnefltkii is 1iii»-*<what number 
of horse :pomeT will it take to driye* and 
sttstaiB 3,00& Ibs», and carry throogh the 
air at a velocity of 880 yards^ or 2,640 
liset; in'a minute ? 

I abstain Ijom giving the figm?es of the 
arithmetical calculation^ but multiplying 
the 3,000 lbs. by the number of feet per 
nnnate, and dividing it by 33,000 (Watt'v 
calculation of horse power), the rescdt will 
be that a 247 horse power will be found 
necessary to travel tiirough the air at the 
sate of thirty miles an hour, taking aU 
for granted that the machinery is p^ect 
ttoA will act. Wfaai can the twenty^iorse 
engine do when it requbes 247 horse power 
to propel it tliirty miles per h»uF ? 

The follo^ving is the description of the 
machine as represented in the engraving; 
which is given without the canvas, that its 
structure may be the more clearly under- 
stood ^— 

A, Ay the main frame, or wings, com- 
posed of the longitudinal pieces, &c., and 
tibe bowwHkeindividual&ames across thenu 

B, B, By B, &c, upright posts, or stand- 
ards, to the upper and lower ends of 
which metaUie braces,, shown by the sm^ 
lines, are attached, supporting various 
points in the frame. 

C, C, a longitudinal piece, which forms 
the outer boundary of liie space required 
for the vanes, or propellers. 

D, Dy D, &c., the vanes, or propellers, 
mounted on shafts, as shown in the figure, 
and drawn by steam-engines by means q& 
bands. 

E, Ef E, E, the tail, turning on a joint 
at F. 

G, the car, containing the steam-engine, 
cargo, conductors, and passengers, in suit- 
able compartments. 

Hy the rudder. 

The coverh^ of the wings and tiul is of 
nlk or lin^i : that of the wings is divided 
into three lengths for each end, joining 
each oth» at the double frames shown : 
this division fheilitates the n^d reefing 
and spreading of the cov«rii^, which is 
efifeeted by the cords runnmg parallel 
with the longitudinal pieces, a, a, a, &c., 
of the wings. The tail and rudder are, 
in like manner, governed by cords pro- 
ceeding -from the ear. 

It may be as well to mention the action 
of the bird, with a few remarks upon it. 
Hie livge pectoral muscles of the bird 
(viz., the breast), which constitute their 
great pofvirer of using the wings for fiight, 
exceed and outweigh, all the other muscles 
of theirbody. The same muscle in man is 
only about one-seventieth part of his other 
mnsdes^ therefere it is f^ile at any time 
^ man to attempt to raise himself by his 
own power aeting on macMnery. The fly- 
ing ef bb4l i» thv»pBrfonned : they sprmg 
ftom&^f^rooBdj and at that moment ex- 



pand their wingt, and by their '?ihratlii|^ 
violently and p^rpendieidariy agpnnsl tiie 
air, raise themselvM % the tasl serves to 
steady the body, and is expanded and eon- 
tracted, raised or depr c es ed^ at t^e will of 
the birdv ta balance itself against ^ffieient 
currents.. The motion of the head to one 
sideer the otlier serves as a gmde to^de* 
termine its coarse, by altering the centre 
of gravitation. Tfcey also have the power 
of using one wing more strongly than the 
other to make a sudden toim* Birds never 
fly upwards in a straight liner but faniL » 
parabola in ascent and descent in a similar 
manner to projectiles. 

The earliest account of mechanical flying 
was made by Archytas, in the fourth cen- 
tury before the Christian era, of a wooden 
pigeon^ and of which **Aulus GeUius'^ 
(Noctes Atticoe, lib. x, cap. 12), gives a 
story that it flew by mechanic^ powers 
and an inclosed spirit. This last sentence 
is enough. Many odi» projects have been 
started, but all have shiured the same fate, 
and a few neeks broken m their futile at- 
tempts. 

SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS. 



Institution of Civil Engineers.^ 
Tbst for SovB&EiaN8.~A p£^er was read 
by Mr Oldham, of the machine invented by 
Mr Cotton, the Governor of the Bank of 
England, for weighing sovereigns. The 
machine exhibited was made by Mr Na- 
pier, and was so delicate that it detected 
with precision a variation of a twelve 
thousand two hundred and fiftieth part of 
the weight of a sovereign. The coins are 
placed in a tube or hopper, from whence 
they are carried on to a small platform, 
which is suspended over a deHcately poised 
beam, to the other end of which is ap- 
pended the standard Wnt weight. On 
setting the machine at work a sovereign 
is placed upon the platform, and if it is 
full weight a small tongue advances and 
strikes it of into a tiU i^pointed to receive 
it; but if it is light the platform sinks and 
brings it within the reach of another tongue, 
at a lower level, which advances at right 
angles to the former tongue, and pushes 
the coin into another till. Other coins 
succeed in rapid rotation, so that the 
machine can weigh and sort 10,000 sove^ 
reigns in six hours, while an expert teller 
can, at the utmost, only weigh between 
3,000 and 4,000 coins by hand scales in the 
same time, and even then the optic nerve 
of the eye, by incessant straining, becomes 
fatigued, and errors occur. 

Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land.— Sir F. MadlreBsie presented a 
statement of his plan fi»r establishing a 
Model Farm m eadi county of Sngtend 
and Wales, by pubfie subscription, at an es- 
timated sum of 1 1 7|997^ 

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220 



TH£ MIRROR. 



ON THE D£ATH OF MBS HONEY. 

gHS falli, she pMiet to the tomb, 
« Not in the oonne of slow decay. 
But in the glory of hex bloom. 
And in ^e senith of her day. 

** Mark t ** taoh the solemn voice of Fate, 
Surrey ed the daszling things of eartii, 
• ** How weak the prop--^iow brief the date 
' Of beauty and inspiring mirth T 



BUBAL SONNET. 

By the author of < Spartaens,' <The Cathedral 

Bell,' and other Tragedies. 

APBUm 

The equinoctial gales are lull'd to rest ; 

The early singmg-birds unite their strains ; 
And timid ApiS, by the sun caress'd, 
Now, with her breath of violets, walks the 
plains; 
And, when her lord, as some enamour'd 
youth, 
I>wells on the changeM colours of her 
brow. 
She* like some maid, heart*certain of his 
truth. 
Smiles through her tears for bliss to share 
his vow. 
The days extend— in many-tinted green, 
The buds unfurl their foliage; and the 
trees, 
Which, promptest, bloom along the rural 
scene, 
Show, like some dress'd regatta, in the 
breeze, 
The swallows re-appear — and, hour by hour. 
Both still, and moving, all mark spring's 
engendering power. 

J. Jones. 
Inner Temple, March 23, 1843. 



A SMART AFFAIR. 

Poor Mrs Sigoumey we blame 
For shewing such a lack of heart. 

She answers — ** I have made a name 
And that I think is something smart" 



The gentleman who dines the latest 
Is in our street esteem'd the greatest ; 
But surely greatest he of all 
Must be, who does not dine at alL 



RICHMOND IN YORKSHIRE. 

" Fuit illium et ingens gloria Teucrorum." 

Mark by yon leaf-clad hill with woodlands 

rude. 
Of birch and plane, where ring-doves nurse 

their brood ; 
Where the tall pine overlooks with haughty 

head 
The rugged banks of Swale's uneven bed ; 
Based on the bosom of the towering rock 
Unscath'd alike by time or tempest's Shock, * 
The gloomy castie's cannon-furrow'd brow 
Majestic frowns upon the woods below I 



Mark well the missive coronal of wall ! 
The ivy mantiet o'er the snni^ haU, 
That seems like desolation's trophiei nread 
Where tsper-gleams reveal the loot and dead ! 
The chapel mark--the bell-tow^s camlNNHis 

weight,— . 
The slanting lattice of th' embattl'd hdgfat ; 
Where wa^g bannerols told the Nonnan 

power, 
Now grows untoaeh'd *<the erimton-tipped 

flower." 

Behold, enshrined in meads of varied