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V. I 





# « 

OF ' • 




History J ^AntiquUiesy Topography^ 



VOL. I. 



And (he other BookMlteiv in GkttgDW. 



R. Chapman, Printer. 



• • • 

» ^ 

•<^- 1^>»* 










I. Maule's (of Melgiim) History of the Picts ; with Sir 

Robert Sibbald's Observations. 

II. Monipeimie's Summarie, or AbridgemeDt of the 

Scots ChroDide; with a Description of the 
Western Ides. 

III. History of the Feuds and CcmfficU of the Caana 

— Namtiye of the Massacre of Glencoe. 
















Explaining ^jfroper names anddifficuii words of the HUtory. 


By Robert Chojpman. 



%^»^i » %»%%'<^<»^>» 

XHE author of this history is not so oertunly 
known ; some name Sir James Balfour, Lyon King 
at Arms, in King Charles I. time, for the author 
of it, because the ori^nal manuscript in the law- 
yers library at Edinburgh, seems to be the same 
hand with his annals, which unquestionably is an 
autograph. But others more probably think that 
Mr. Henry Maule of Melgum is the author, since 
he subscribes his name to the copy of verses which 
is subjoined to this. 'Tis true, they are very general, 
and little could be inferred from them, if it were 
not that they run in the same strain with the author^'s 

But the truth is, it is of no great importance which 
of them was the author, since they were both veiy 
learned and worthy gentlemen. 

I have taken care to compare it exactly with the 
original, and do not question but that it will meet 
with kind entertsdnment, since it bears so near a 
relation to our Scots history, and may be of use to 
any who would do some thing more fuU on the 


r < 

> ■ . J 




Through the blind labyrinth of life's meanders, 

To guide our steps, a threed of story renders ; 

It is the chiefest treasure-house of wit, 

A shop wherein we may but danger nt, 

And our estate, as in a glass, behold. 

Matching the present, with the times of old ; 

A wittie mistris that schools all degrees, 

A two-fac^d Janus, which both ages sees. 

Yet as the stories which adorns the pen. 

Can not be matched with those of yertuous men. 

That is the quintescence of stone. 

That is the image, no, it is self glorie ; 

Whilst other stories singles out events. 

In lively shape the antique this presents. 

Heney Maule of Melgum. 

A.% history is the theatre of man's life* whereby 
all may learn one common lesson by the goodly 
examples she represents unto their eyes, ears, and 
understandings^ even so she invites all men to woo 
her : what language soever she' speaks, what sub- 
ject she trea,ta of, what time she notes, and what » 
person soever she Represents ; thus offering herself 
to all, with this excellent use, deserving justly to 
be imbraced. E^^perience* verifying the testimo^- 
nies which wise antiquity doth odPer, that She is 
the mistris of mans life, the testimony of truth, the 
recorder of justice, the resplendent beams of virtue, 
the register of honour, the trumpet of fame, exam- 
iner of actions, comptroller ^ the timesj the ren- 
dezvous of diverse events, the soul of good and 
evil^ and the soveraigne judge of all men and all 
exploits. This praise is common to all historiesr; 
but, as in a general action, every man ought to 
have a particular care of what concerns his privat 
duty, so in the general bist<^y of all nations, every 
man is bound to be particularly informed of that 
which concerns him^lf, and instructed in the niian^ 
agement of the estate under which heis boro;.,by 
reason whereof I hold the complaint of Thucrydides 

viii PBSFACS. 

(one of the chief architects of historic) Very consi- 
derable, that it was a great shame for Grecians to 
be like strangers in Greece, when, as busying them- 
selves in forreign histories, they were ignorant of 
their own; the very Hke may I truly say, that it 
is a great shame for Scots to be strangers in Scot- 
land ; for why should the ignorance of our history 
be more excusable in us than theirs in them, doubt- 
less we seek for that a far off, which is near our 
s^ves at home; I cannot but commend the dili- 
gence of some of our men in seardiing out of for- 
x&gne histories stuff for thdr own; but if it be 
lawful for me to speak of this subject, (as one c^ 
the vulgar sort) I dare boldly say (without flatter- 
ing my self with the love of my own countrey) that 
there is but a few nations that have better histori- 
cal materials fotr the-frameing of a goodly piece 
than we have, the defect (in these days of ours) 
being rather to be imputed to the lack of a skilful 
architeeter and craftsman, than of stuff for building. 
The task then I here undertake, and which I in- 
tend in some measure to unvail with the path I 
mean to trace, by pelting some slender observa- 
tions, scarce answerable to the dignitie and great- 
peaa of the subject (worthy in truth of a good 
writer) yet rather fitting for that obscure age, 
wherdb the antient Druides had a maxim not to 
write at all ; or of these which have left us these 
sniall abridgements, the which for want of better 
we are now forced to use, and, without all doubt, 
iC that our historie had encountered such gallant 
spifits as the Greek and Latin did, it had been 
nothing inferiour to them in beauty and profit. 


Our subject then being an bistorie of the Picts, 
from their first entry into North Britain, to thdr 
final extirpation, with their original manners, 
babits, condition of living, extent of dominion^ 
descent and marriage of their kings, famous battles 
by them fdught agtunst the Romani, Britains, and 
Scots, together with the gigantick Saxons, in all 
which I will endeavour myself to use all the means 
possible, briefly to ^ve my courteous reader in some 
measure content ; and of their original I shall lay 
the. ground stone of my building. 







. L 

9 • 

H ISTORIANS f^ antiquity^ hath next, after 
the BritainSy accounted the PietA^ wiio^ according 
to tbe-oi^bir dP Bbethim, vrete-^ people" iir €rer- 
iDOBy, now called Danmark, and fenoerlj- the 
nearer S^j^hia, who betaking themsel^^s^ to sea 
fer tfte acquiring of a new halntation ; the sinall 
Mimt» of their racient habitation' being pestered 
with^ the multitudes of vagabonds, and' not able 
neiliier to contain nor maintimi tbenr, did vomit 
as it were* furth this swarm, who cloyed with 
ambition of their aneient victories, and thirsting 
after the gldry of a. new conquest, did first shew 
diemselves to the Southern Britains, then to the 
inhabitants of the Hibernian coasts, (impatient of 
such neighbours,) were by force compelled to visit 
the north west parts of Albion ; who, according to 



the opinion of some did first settle themselves in 
the islands of Orcades, and finding that compass 
too small abounds'for their 4x>undless ambition, did 
shortly thereafter encroach on the country of Cor^^ 
nanani and Catania (now Catbnes and Sutherland) 
from whence still marching foreward, in a small 
time they became possessors of the neighbouring 
countries of Ross, Murray, Buchan, Mems, and 
AnguSf driving from thence the nations who did 
live in companies together, feeding their flocks and 
herds in the plains, without houses, strengths, or 
castles ; likeas now do the neighbouring Arabs of 
Palaestina and India. ^ 

Boethius wou^d willingly derive them from the 
AgaJthyrn ; Pomponius Ls^tus and Aventinus from 
the G^mans, others from the Pictones in France, 
and Beda from the Scythians. It happened (saith 
he) that the nation of the Picts came in long ships, 
and these not many, out of Scytfaia, as the report 
goeth, unto Ireland* 

Bishop Lesly, a late writer of our history, follow- 
ing the opinion of some otb^*B, will have the entry 
of the Picts in Scotland to be about the 78 year of 
our redemption, in the reign, of Galdus kjing of 
Scots, three years before the emperor Titus, the 
son of Vespasian, sacked Jerusalem, and in the 
second year of Cletus, bishop of Home. But anent 
the precise time of their ai^rival, I find a great dif- 
ference among historians. Eaph of them producing 
a year after their own imagination, which contro- 
versie I will rather shun, than with a magnifying 
glass, press to read the outworn ceiphers of so an- 
cient a date, and with Cambden content myself 
that they have written so. 


Tacitus, in the life of his father^inJaw Agrioola» 
affirms the original of the Scots to be from Sfiain) 
and of the Ficts frmn Germany. 

Others again looking further back into times 
past, will have them to be the remmnder of the 
ancient Hunnsy (whereof great inundations did 
overwhelm all Italy,) who, expelled from thar own 
country, and seeking new habitations, did plant 
their army?, then their colonies, in Britain. 

I, for my part, in so great a variety of opinions, 
being involved into such an inextricable labryintb, 
scarce knowing which of them to follow, (yet that 
I may speak ^at I suppose to be true, and deliver 
my own judgment,) were it not that in this point 
the authorities of venerable Beda and learned Boe« 
thius^ did overweigh the conjectures of all others, 
I would assuredly with Cambden think, that the 
Picts came from no other place at all, but were the 
very natural Britains themselves, even the right 
progeny of the most ancient Britains. Those 
Britains I mean, and none other, who, before the 
coming of the Romans, were settled in the north 
part of the islands, and of those who afterwards 
casting o£P the yoke of bondage, as th^y are a na* 
tion most impatient of servility, repaired into those 
of the north ; likeas when the Saxons overcame the 
isle, those Britains which would not forgo their 
liberty, convoyed themselves into the western parts 
of the island, full of craggie hills, as Wales and 
Comwel, even so, doubtless, when the Roman war 
grew hot, the Britains, lest they should undergo 
servitude, (which is of all miseries the extreamest) 
g(rt them unto our northern parts, frozen with thf 



Utter cold in wintery full of rouff^ and rugged 
passages, full of jakesy Taabesy and s^Madwgmeeres^ 
where being armed, not so nudi with weapottB^ 
as with the sharp air and diBMt, thej grew up with 
the native inhalntants^ which tliej here found, unto 
a mighty and populous notion. For Tadtus r»* 
porteth, that the ruines of the Britains, were^ by 
his wifeV father Agrioola, drrren into this* pai^t, as 
it were into an other island. And no doubt, but 
Britains they were that inhabited the most remote 
parts of this island ; for dtaiH we dreafm> thatt all 
those Kitaitts, enemies to the Bomonsy which 
brought out thirty thousand anned'^uieA into the 
field against Agricola^ who gare unto die emperor 
Severus so many overthrows, tliat of the Bomans 
and associates, he lost in one expedition and 'jour* 
ney seventy thousand, being killed every mothers 
son, and none left for seed nor procreatiHfD, that 
they might give room to foreigners out of Scy tfaia 
and Cimbria ; so far am I ffom believing of tlnsy 
altho Boethius, Lesly, and Beda, have* written so^ 
by relation from others, and upon trust ; that I 
wouM rather affirm they were so multiplied, that 
the very soil was not able either to retmn or receive 
them, and were inforcM therefore to overiow the 
Boman province, as we know it came to pass when 
the Romans came in among them. 

But because Boethius hath written, and Beda 
also, as others at that time reported, I may, with 
Cambden and Speed, be easily brought to believe 
that some also out of Scandia, caird in times past 
Scythia, (as all the northern tract beside) came by 
the isles, that by a continued tract lyes between 


uato our aorthem Britaios; jet hmi msjr 
fibMid ihttk that I iniagiiielDeouateiwiifleaftkk 
canyii^ a likelyiicxii and fwobability of tmth ; 
me diinks I am able to prove duU the Ekta ivety 
very fintam indeed^ by demeaDCMiry aame^ and 
famgaage, of Pidif where in the foUowiiig cbi^pter 
we shall «ee tibat tfaej agree paeai^g well with Bri* 

CHAP. 11. 

OF rme vamb asib iULxavAas cor ths juigibkt 


That the cMCom of painting and ataining them* 
ad^ea with ooloure» was cGnoaaaon both to Britaini 
aad PietB it ia v^&tteviiet^. Aa lor the Britaina 
maimer of paiwlftDg, Caaabdai^ page SI, 32, and 
46^ hath at length aet down, to whom I refer the 
emioin reader ; and aa ftr the Piota, the poet 
Cfamdiaa firove&k it for oa, who writeth tiius^ 


'Nec/aUo nomine Pictos 

And in another place, 
'Ferroque notatas. 

Periegit exammes Picto morientejiguras* 

Wtiieh Irid«e dodi die«r mare pfauoljr ; dieaa. 
^lemoS tbe PietS) myes he, have « name dwwn, 
wren frau A«r bo^ee, fer tlmt ^ Ae «jttifi«arf 



prickisg therein of small holes -with a needle, the 
wo^k-man working out the juke of green grass, 
incloseth the same within, that their nobility and 
gentry thus spoted, may carry those stars about 
with them in their painted pounced limbs, as badges 
to be known by. Shall we think now that these 
Picts were Germans, who nevei: used this manner 
of painting, or the Agathrysi of Thracia, so far 
distant from hence ; the relicts of the Hunnes, or 
rather the very Britains themselves, seeing they 
were in the same isle, and retained the same fashion 
of painting. 

Neither are these barbarous people, who so long 
time made such incursions out of the forrest Cale- 
donia, and from our farthest northern coast, found 
the Romans worH, otherwise called than Britains ; 
of the ancient writers, Dio, Herodian, Vopiscus, 
and others. Tacitus, who describeth at large the 
wars of Agricola, his wife's father, in this uttermost 
coast of Britain, calleth the inhabitants by no other 
name than Britains, and Britiuns of Caledonia.; 
whereas notwithstanding our later writers have re- 
corded, that the Picts, new comers thither, were 
arrived here few years before ; a thing I would have 
you to note, considering that Tacitus in that age 
knew not of them at all, neither would these Ro- 
man emperors who warred fortunatly against them, 
to wit, Commodus, Severus, with Bassianus, and 
Geta, his sons, assumed unto their other titles and 
stiles, Britannicus, after they had vanquished them, 
unless they h^ been Britains. Certes if the Ro- 
mans, . for whose magnificence every thing made 
that was .strange had subdu'd any other nation be- 


ade the Britiuns, and the satne befofe time Qoknown 
(mepe they called Scots or Picts) they would no 
doubt have been known by the titles otScoHciu and 
Pktieu$^ in their coins and inscriptions. 

Tacitus gnesseA by their deep yellow bush of 
fcoir and their large iimbsi that they had their be- 
ginning out of Germany, but strelgfatways after, 
and more truely, he attriboteth afl to the climait 
and positure of the air and heaven, which yeildeth 
unto bodies their complexion and feature, whereanto 
VAruvtus would seem to consent; writing thus, <<un* 
der the northern pole are naticMtB bred and fostered 
big and tall of body, of colour broun, with hair of 
head even and streight, and lliat ruddy .^ 

In like manner that the Caledons (without all 
question Britains) were the self same nation with 
the Piets ; the panegyrick author after a sort doth 
shew, writing thus, the woods of the Caledons and 
other Picts, &c. and that these Caledonians Vfere 
Britains born, the po^ Martial in this verse of his 
implyeth : 

QumU Cakdonioa Ovidi visure Brtktfmos. 

Ausonios likewise, who sheweth withal that 
they were painted, while he compareth their colour 
with green mosse distinguished with gravel between 
in this verse : 

Tmam dutingua gkrea museum. 

Tola CaUdonUs taUa esty pictura BritannU* 

But as these for a long time were no otherwise 


18 HISTOET )0F THE PI<^8. 

known than by the name of Britains, and that by 
reason of their de-painted bodies, so afterwards 
.about the tin^eof Jfaaptmmuxiiand DiocUaian (neither 
before that find we the name of Picts in any wri-^ 
ters) when Britain had so long been a province, 
that the inhabitants had learned the proTincial 
Latin tongue then as it seemetb, began they to be 
, called Picts, for distinction sake, that they might 
be known from them that were confederate with the 
Romans, and called Britains. 

And whence should they be called Picts, if it 
wtsre not because they de-painted themselves. Now 
if any one there be that believeth not that the Bri- 
tains used not the provincial Latin tongue, little 
knoweth he certainly, how earnestly the Romans 
laboured that the provinces might speak Latin, 
neither seeth he what a numbei of Latin words 
have crept into the ancient British language. That 
I may not urge the authority of Tacitus, who 
payeth, that in Domitians time, the Britains a£Pected 
very much the eloquence of the Latin tongue. 

And as touching the name of the Picts, the au- 
thority of Flatius Vegettusy may soon clear this 
doubt, who shews us after a sort, that the Britains 
nsed the word (Pict) in the very same sense for a 
thing' that is painted or coloured, as the Latins do. 
For he writeth that the Britains called these light 
pinaces of Espial Pictasy the saills, cables, and 
other tacklings whereof, were dyed with a blue or 
watched colour. Likeas the soldiers and mariners 
to them belonging were clad in blue apparel. Surely 
if the Britains called ships for their sails and tack- 
ling stained with the saye-blue colour, PicUu^ what 

;HISTOKy 0F.T1$B FICT8. 19 

letteth but they should •cafl the people JNctif who 
were painted with sundry oolouts, but especially 
with blue, that is the colour that Wood ^veth* 

This also mattereth for. us, that the northern 
Ficts, whom St. Columban by preaching the word, 
and by his good eKdmple, brought unto Christiap 
nity, are in the ancient English annals named Bri- 
tain PeoAc ton, *as one would say Britain Piets. 

The cause wherefore we draw not many proofs 
from the language is this, for that the Picts tongue, 
there can be scarce 'two words gathered out of 
authors, yet me thinks that it seemeth tq be the 
same with the British. Beda wrote that the Bo- 
nian wall made against the incuruons of the Picts, 
began in a place, which in the Pictish language is 
called Pennahelj and Penguall amongst the Britains, 
expressly signifieth the beginning or head of the 
walL Moreover, throughout all the tract of the 
island which the Picts held longest (and yet was 
the east part of Scotland,) the most part of the 
names as yet do savour of British original ; as for 
example, Moria^ Maria^ for that they be countreys 
adjoining to the sea, coming of the British word 
Jlfotr,.that is sea, Aberdeen^ Aberlothmty'Aberdore^ 
Abtmtthf^ Aberbroth^ Aberlemno, Aberchirdare^ &e. 
that is the mouth of Done, 2>ee, Ihrr, Neth, Lemnoy 
Loth, &c. from the British word Aber, which signi- 
fieth the mouth of a river. As also Strathenh 
StrathdeCf Strathaven, Strathbogiey Strathore, that 
is the dale or valleys of Earn, Dee, Aven, Bogte, 
Ore, &Cf coming from the British word stratk^ 
which signifies a vallie, yea more, the royal seat of 
the Pictish kingdom, their, I mean Edinr 



bur^, beareth no other name originalj but a 
British, which Ptolomjr caOeth Caatrum Alalmmj 
that 169 the winged eoBtUy for Edtn in British is a 
wing. Neither will I (by way of proof) take hold 
of this argument, that some of the British petty 
kings were called SrMii^ which is as much in the 
Britidi language as de-painted; out of these premi- 
ses, without any absurdity, we may Terily conclude, 
that the Pictish language and the Britains differed 
not, and therefore the nalions were not diverse, but 
one and the same. 

Ammianus MaredUnus devideth the Picts into 
DiCakdimiana and Vedurionea, I would rather read 
Deucakdantanay and do think that they were planted 
dxnit the western coasts of Scotland, where the 
Deucaledonian sea breaketh in, -and albeit I have 
been of opinion that they were so called, as if a 
man would say Black Cidedoniana, (for Dee, in the 
British language signifies black) like as tb^ Iridi 
now a days name the Scots inhatnting that tract 
Duffe^tbatm, that is. Black Scota^ and likewise the 
Britains called the pirats and rovers which out of 
these parts did much hurt at sea, VHn dUf that is, 
the Black Army, yet now me thinks we may guess 
(fflnce guesses are free) that they took that name 
from their situation, for Deheucakdomi signifieth 
the Caledonians dwelling on the right hand, that is 
west-ward, like as the other Picts who ke^t on the 
left hand, that is east-ward, which Ninua calleth 
the left fflde, were named Vecturimtay by a word 
haply drawn from Ckuithic, which in the British 
tongue Mgnifieth left, and these some do think are 
corruptly calPd in Ptolixny Vemiconea. I have 


seen an old Saxon book which seemed to give them 
the name of Petpeom^ for so they term an enemy 
nation to the Britains, whereas the ancient Angles^ 
or English, calPd the Picts theniselvefl PMis and 
PheoiaSi or PehoktaSi and hereupon it is that we 
read every where in WhkkindifSf PekUi for Pieti^ 
and this for the name and language of the ancient 



I AM of opinion with the best antiquaries who 
have lived in our . age, that the Picta in manners 
apd customs did little or nothing differ from the 
more southern Britaini^ wherefore I thought it not 
unfit to insert here, some, notes and observations as 
touching their manners and cuBtoms, collected word 
for word out of ancient authors. 

C<rMir, the BrijUun^ (or Picts) uses for their 
money briizen pieces, or rings of iron duly weighed 
and to ju9t pc^v To taste of starr, hen, or 
goose, t})ey. think unlawfully howbeit these they 
keep for their delight and {deasure. They wear 
the hair of their beads long, and shave all the parts 
of their body^ save their heads and upper lip. Ten 
or twelve of tbeni use'tUeir wives in common, and 
especially br^threii partake with brethr^^n, and 
parents with their children : but look what child- 





Ken th^ faring foilfa, theirs they 9xe who first mar- 
ried thtm yivffm^ 

In ballile, tar the most part they were wont to 
employ their ciiariot& First, these ride about linto 
all p«rts of the battle and sling darts, and with the 
very fearfuB sight of horse, and with the ratteUng 
noise of die wheds, diey do most part break their 
ranks, and put them in disaray, and when thi^ 
have once got themselves within the troops of the 
horsemen, they ali^ irom thm chariots and^ght 
on foot. 

Strabo makes them to be taller in stature than 
the Giauls, their hair not so yellow, nor their bodiea 
so weU knit and firm. For proof of their taflness^ 
I saw my sdf, says he, «t lUmie, Tery youths and 
springals higher by half a foot than the tallest men. 
They ham hut bod feet to suj^port them. As for 
aU^rther lineaments of Ihe body, they shewdlgoodl 
maiking and proportionable fieature; fordisporitiw 
and nature^ they partlie retendbie die Gauls, partly 
they be more plain, more rude, and iar more batbft* 
lous, m so nmdi, diot some of them cannot make 
any chieses, tho^ they have fdenty of milk. Others 
agwi are altogether ignorant in planting of gardens 
and orchards, and other points of hfisbaMfay. Many 
lords and potentates they have amongst ^em. la 
their wars they use chariots like unto the Gauls; 
woods stand them instead of dties and towns, finr 
when they have by felling of trees rnvmied and 
fenced a plot of ground, there they buM fer them^ 
selveft huts and cottages, and for their cattel -arts tip 
strils and fdds, but these fer the present use» and 
not to serve long. 

Ihodarus Siadi» Tceords of them, tbat tbey lired 
ftfbr the manner of those in llie old worid : they 
tne ebarioCs m fight (as the report goes of the m« 
eient Greeks in the Trojan war,) their houses are 
for the most part of reid of wood. Faor eoadKtion*d 
they are, of plam md upright dealings, fi» from the 
craft and subtilty of our men ; their food whereon 
they five is simplei nor no dainties like the full fare 
e£ rich men ; their island is replenish t withpebple« 

Herodian says, they know no use at aQ of gar-« 
mentsf, but about their belly only ond^ neck, they 
wear iron, supposing that to be a most goodly ar^ 
nament, and a proof of their weidth, like aa all 
other barbarians esteem of gold. For why ? their 
very bare bodies they mark with divers pieturres, 
representing all manner of living creatures. Clad 
they mil not be^orsooth for bidding their painted 
bodies^ uliskil^l how to use ather heknet or 
oorslet, supposing the same to be a hinderance to 
them as they pass over thebogs and maiishgiounds. 
Yet they area most warlike nation, and very grtedj 
of slaughter, content to be arm'd with a narrow 
shield and spear, with a sword beside hanging down 
by their naked bodies* 

PKnius says, they wore rings on their middle fin** 
gers, and that they do manure their ground with 
marie instead of dung. It is most sure, that they 
branded themselres, and enamled (as it were) with 
certain marks, which TertwlKcm termeth BHtOTwrum 
Stigmata^ that is, the Britains mark. 

Solinua shewetb, that by means of artificial in- 
cessors of sundry forms, have from their childhood 
divers shapes of beasts incorporate upon them, and 


as they come to age, and wax l»gger and taller^ so 
does the marks ; neither do these savage nations of 
the Britains repute any thing to signify their pa- 
tience* more than by such durable scarsi to cause 
their limbs drink in much painting and colour. 

Dio NtcenuSf out of the epitome of XiphUinusy as 
touching the Britains in Caledonia, seated in the 
north part of the island, writes that they till no 
ground, but lives on prey, venison, &c. Fruits, 
although of such there be exceeding great plenty, 
they will not tast. Their abode is in tents naked 
and unshod. Wifes they use in common, most 
willing they are to practise robbing. In war their 
service is but of chariots ; the horses they have, be 
little and swift of pace, ' their footmen run most 
speedily, whilst they stand they be strongest. The 
arms they use is a shield and a short spear, in the 
nether part whereof hang^th a round bowel of brass 
like an aple, that when it is shaken the sound there- 
of may terrifie their enemies. They have dagers 
also, but principally, and which is most of all, they 
can endure hunger, cold, and any labour whatsom- 

For sticking fast in the bogs up to the head many 
days together they will live without food, and with- 
in the woods they live upon barks and roots of trees. 
A certain kind of meat they provide ready on all 
occasions, whereof if they take but the quantity of 
a bean, they are not wont either to be hungry or 



' CHAP. IV. 


. HBKT. 

THEIR government was monarchical, in which 
they made no distinction at all in the sovereignity 
betwixt male -and female, but either of them ao 
cording to the disposition of the Almighty, were 
admitted to the royal throne, so they were capable 
to gdvem. 

Cornelius TacitU9 writeth, that it was an usual cus* 
tom amongst the northern Britiuns (for so he called ' 
the Picts or Britains of Caledonia,) to seek for the 
direction of the Gods, by looking to the inwards of 
beasts, and to make war under the conduct of wo- 
men, neither mattereth it' which sex did bear rule 
over them. Whereupon learned men do think that 
Aristotle speaketh of the northern Britains, where 
he writeth that certain warlick nations beyond the 
CtlUsj were subject to the government of women. 
ArUtoU Politicwrum, lib. 2- cap. 7. 



AS for their reli^on, they were very much a- 
dicted to magick and divination, as Plinius writing 
of ma^ck notes ; but why should /, soya Ac, rehearse 
these things in an art that h(Uh passed over the ocean 


ahoi sofar as beyond which nothing iatohe discovered 
but air and water. Atd }^tn tiJtthis day^ it is in Bri^ 
tain highly honoured^ where the people are so wholly db- 
Voiediinto *, and that withitH ti^mpHmtftt^f-eertfimnieSi 
as if a man would think thai the Persians learned all 
their magickjrom them. This same Plinius records, 
that thete groweth aii b^Vb in Cr&til, Kte unto 
'^lantin^ called. ISldstum, (thit is t^dade) -With the 
juice of which, tlie \vomfe'n bfBritdn, as Veil their 
married wives a^ their young daughters, anoint a:nd 
dye their bodies all oVer, resembling by thUt tt>lDUr 
the ^Ethiopians, in which manner they u^e at sofne 
solemn feasts and sacrifices so t6 ^ntdrthe t^tnples 
of their tiods. 

Neither will I too much insist Upbn theit anci^nit 
religion, which i$ not verily to be accounted reli- 
gion, but a most lamentable afid confused chaos of 
superstitions. For when satan had drowned the 
true doctrin in thick mists of daf-ki^^ss, the ugly 
specters of Britain, (saith Gild^s) Wfefe tiJe6f diabo- 
lical, exceeding well near in number these of Egypt, 
whereof some we see within or \vithout desert walls, 
with deformed lineaments, cal-rying grim and stern 
looks after their wonted manner. 

The South Picts, so called because they inhabit- 
ed Scotland besouth the river Forth, ad Australem 
Plagam Maris Scoiici, Fordoun Hist. Scot. lib. 9. 
were converted to Christianity by Ninianus, a most 
holy man, in the year of grace four hundred and 
Tourty. But they which '\cerfe in the ncfrth and 
north-west, who ^ere secluded from the southern 
by the huge ridgies of the Ocellidn and Grampian 
tiiQuntains, were, by CofooHtenu^ a Scot> amonk 

likewiflQ of pa^^ng gr^t hgUn^sii in t}ie year five 
hundred and sixtie five, who taught then\y whereso* 
ey^ he l^an^e^ it;^ to cel^rat the feast of Eiistert 
b^fiwixtr th^ fourtenth d^ of the mpon in M^rcbjt 
imtp the ^w^ty, but nlwiie on th^ Lord's day, 
4^ i^lio tQ qse^giher ms^mi^r of too^MTe of shaving 
their heads than the Ron^ns di4» tp wits reprefent- 
ing the imperfect form of a coronet ; about these 
ceremonies hard hold there was and ^figer disputa* 
tion for a long time in this island^ unt^l that Neo> 
tanus^ a king of the Picts» brought J^in ancient 
subjects with much adoe to the Homaii. observance* 
In which age very many Picts with a great devo* 
tmn (as the days were tl^eQ); frequented the chapels 
and shrines at Rome ; and amongst /Htl^rs, ha that 
is mentioned amongst the antiguities ot St* Peter^s 
chqrcbx in these words, JMmM» cq9K« Pictomm c( 
S^a eun^ mff V^t^ •ote<?r?i tbrt isj Asterius, a 
CDW^ pr df^rl pf the Yi^tj^ 9Xki 5y W,. with tbeir 
^iwwlyi p^jdfrriwd their vpws. 



A^ for the limits of th^ Pi^tish, kingdoip, they 
arQ ppt sp stiif^igbtji tba^^ pne in a few word^ can 
be^f tp i^^t^r^ them; if we. should not look 
upo9 tbfwft with.tb^ (^bridgers of our bistpry, who 
wavl4 hgijif^ tj^em only in effect tq have pow^^sed 



Provindas Illas Scoctte jacentes intra Chaevioti et 
Grampii Monies. 

But Boethius, out of Veremundui the arch-dean, 
setteth down the provinces of the Pictish kingdom 
thus ; the other provinces (says he) now held by the 
Scots, which pertained to the PictBy were (Boethius, 
lib. 2. fol. 12. paragraph 1.) 

r . 






Bertha cum territorioi 


Withagteat part of Caledonia, and the best of the 
country of the Damni cum Castro Doloroso. 

Lothiani they wholly enjoyed, which diey tiamed 
the land of the Picts, with the Maiden-castle and 
the city thereto adjacent. 

They possessed also the countries of Deera and 
Marchia, with all the tract of ground lying betwixt 
the river of Tyne, and the ancient town of Ordfo- 
luehiumy which now contains the provinces and 
countries of Northumberland, a part of Cumber- 
land, and the shiriffdom of Berwick ; the inhabi- 
tants of which were anciently named Ordoluchians. 

They didlikewise inhabit and possess the country 
of Atholiay bynorth the Grampian mountains, (and 
by Beda and Veremundus were called Picti Trans* 
montani,) by permission of the Scots, who willingly 
licenciat them that habitation^' in respect of the 

BWiPifKlipUsoftl^ixanei^iit d9gui4 to|J)flfn4 
they might the mosi^e locreaaQ f^ J^Mltjp^y if^ l^W9b 
ber* fpr tlti^ ipost pfi^t of bptl^ iia^ipnfi^ S^q^ f nd 
Pict%, were killed hy t|i^ flpmflBs # tb|^ erud 
l^tjJ€» o€ <74^/Qn, |»^ f he ri;irf c Caftoj^ % tb^ 
wqiQbp 'Of t^^ PictUff womea b^pg ^W^ fri^UfilH 
th^p tb? S(B9^, li2^ thk coRPjtry, «3 }t vfr^ oqt iiji 
a pqlitick consideration for^ plaice of pro^rei^tioq 
hy the S^otft fiUptted to theip, beij^g f^fe a^ i( iff^r^ 
frop tb^ ij^cuircflaiis of the Bon^ui Ic^ipi^. 

J^fi^ither vil} I for a truth affirjoa th^U wb^ob spiy^e 
of PUT ^i^cien^ u^opkisb apd abjl^f writera ba?eley|\ 
to post0r>t;y» an4 would jb^v^ tlji^B^ for % verity bfir 
lieve, tliat t}ie Pw?ta did lij^ewis po68As« the iskipds 
Orca4^W^ ip PpWIJia fijpst setlied their monarchy, 
haviog tbree kin^ who succeeded each oth(3r, and 
their reignedi T)ie las| of whilst L&Uha by pame, 
being a mighty and valiant man, subdued the great 
island lying west from the Orcades^ which did be* 
long to the ComanU and from himself nam^d it 
Leuthesy now Lewis. This same Leutha, say they,^ 
transported a great army in flat bottomed boats, to 
the promontory of Dumna^ where he vanquished, 
and overthrew the ancient Catania Cornanu and 
Lugii^ possessing their countrys, and froip thence 
expelling all the nations. Qui seipsos innemortbus, 
M&nJLi^m Crepidinibu9% ft Collia^m Fissuris^ abscon* 
debarUy who for fear of the enemy had retired to 
bide themselves ia woods, clifts of rocks, and tops of 
Atountains* They record likewise, that he reigqed 
dxty-seven years, dying without issue, whose death 
for a time made the Picts not to attempt any further 
ags^inst th^r neighbours in the coQtipenb b^t tp liv? 


withia their own orb^ and allowed the affrighted 
Ccmani to breath a little securely. 

I read in an old record of the priory of St. 
Andrews, that the Picts not only possessed the is- 
lands Orcades, and the countrys heretofore spoken 
of, and from them Pictland firth hath the name, 
which to this day it doth retain the name of Bos^ 
phorua Pictua, but also they enjoyed these tw6 is- 
lands lying in nnu Maria Scoticiy in the bosom of 
the Scotish sea. One of which, Kttua^ king of the 
Picts, did from his own name call KiUineh^ (now 
Inch'keth) and the other after the name of his best 
beloved queen, Maya Inaula^ or May island. 

They enjoyed also all these small islands scat- 
tered in the said gulf, from May island to the city 
of Centroaae ; and this shortly, what I have found 
of the bounds, limits, and extent of the ancient 
Pictish kingdom. 



LET any who so lists, peruse and cast over the 
histories and annals of all nations from their very 
first beginnings, (scarce in my opinion) amongst 
them all, shall be find such an handfuU of people, 
limited within so small a portion of ground, from 
the verdant south to the frozen north, who have so 
valiantly and manfully withstood the rageing tor- 


rent of so powerful ambition and cruel enemies, 
and that well near the space of a thousand one 
hundred and seventy-one years. 

And first of all then, we shall see what exploits 
and victories worthy of memory, they have gained 
over the South Britaibs. 

CiethuSf the second of that name, king of the 
Picts, with a mighty army of thirty thousand men, 
in the quarrel of Reutha, king of Scots, encountered 
SisitiuSf king of the Britains, whom he defeated and 
put to rout, having killM above twenty-four thou- 
sand of his army. This cruel battle was fought in 
the country of Ridderddlej in the county of LugtOf 
in the year of the world three thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty-seven, and before the redemption 
of man, one hundred and ninty. 

ModredtiSi likewise king of the Picts, with a great 
army encountert:d Arthur king of the Britains at 
the mouth of the river Humber, whom after a long 
and bloody conflict he overthrew. Thus was the 
great Arthur of Britain, (famous amongst poets 
and ballad-makers,) kill'd with thirty thousand of 
his army, ~ his fbest beloved queen Guanoray and 
cousin Valuanus taken prisoners, with a hundred 
more of the British nobility, and led captive to the 
country of Horrtsiiay where for extream grief queen 
Guanora died, and was nobly inter^d in Agro de 
Meigle. The ruins of these ancient British monu- 
ments being there at this day to be seen. This 
battle was fought in the year five hundred ai^d 
fourty-two of our salvation, the eight year of the 
reign of Eugenius, king of Scots, and twenty-third 
of Arthur king of Britains. 

S2 HisTaav or Tax ncn* 


* * 


AS for their victories against the tyrannieal and 
bellicose Roman proconsuls^ pratora^ pmpraiors^ 
deputu$^ lieutenatUSf and legats^ they were many in 
number and great atchievemeot. A few only of 
the most memorable will I mention* 

ConkistuSf king of the Picts, much repining at 
the ty rrany of Aldus PlatUius, the Roman proprsetor^ 
whom every day he not only did perceive to en^ 
croach upon his territories, but on his royal prero- 
gative also, (a progress as intollerable as pernicious 
amongst great personages,) he with all expedition 
levies a powerful army, to whose aid as against a 
common enemy came also Caractacusj king of the 
Soots, with seventeen thousand well appointed men* 
Valiantly and ambiguously was it foughten on both 
sides, till the going down of the sun, which em^ 
braced the Scots and Picts with rays of victory, 
and wrapt the Roman legion in a confusion, being 
by their enemies sore pressed upon, which brought 
forth suddain amazement and flight ; so that Plau- 
XiuB having lost nine thousand of his soldiers, and 
tile rest of bis army put to rout, himself likewise 
being sore wounded, l»aved his life by speedy flight. 
In this battle perished also Arviragus, king of the 
Britaiiis, with seventeen thousand of his auxiliary 


Thara, king of the Picts, did fight a notable 
battle at York againist the emperor Vespasian, and 
killed, besides many of the common sort, seven 
thousand of his most choice soldiers, yet for the 
victory obtained by him in his retreat being slackly 
guarded, was beset with a ttoop of Gaulish horse, 
and killed fighting valiantly. 

Conktstus the II. of that name, king of the Picts, 
' a courageous and valiant ^^arriour, in two cruel 
battles,' vanquished and overthrew the Roman le- 
gats, Ostarius and Mantius ; the qne near the city 
Deera, and the other on the confines of Oriulusia, 
with the loss of 17,000 of their followers. 

Lugthacusy king of the Picts, did so fiercely en* 
counter Lucius AniitumSf the Roman proconsul, near 
the brink of the river Tina, whose streams with 
blood of slain Romans was dyed with a crimson 
colour ; yet of 7000 veterans and 37,000 legionary 
soldiers, scarce retired there 700 with the leader tq 
Trinobantwm, to relate the news of that day^s cal»* 

Thetargus, king of the Picts, with an army of 
23,000 men, in defence of Carantius, king of the 
Britains, with such force and valour so on beset 
the Roman army, conducted by the legat Bassianua, 
and the praetor Hircius ; yet of 40,000 scarce did 
there one thousand escape, either killed or taken 
prisoners. This battle was fougbten in the province 
of West^MariOf in the fourteen year of the reign of 
Thetargus, king of the Picts. 

Drustus, king of the Picts, having received diverse 
injuries from< the Roman general Victorinus^ with 
which he could hardly rit at rest, levies with all 


possible diligence, a great and powerful army of 
fourty thousand jnen, to whose aid comes Fergus 
the I.I. of that name^ king of Scots, with twelve 
thousand men to the river Carron, wh^re they gav9 
Victori»U8 A very hot salutation; fpr the space oC 
fourteen hours was it most coura^usly foughten 
on both sides, till the night approached, idtk sqch' 
a gre^t deludge of rain, (th(? like in AtbioUi not 
being seen) did with suQh a flood iioap^tuously carry 
the slmn bodies to the river, whose then purtii^ 
streams did Uush for sorrow, the loss being bq gr^^t^ 
on both sides, that the armies were foro^ e^^^, tq 
retire to their camp. The Romaiis. lost thut dfQr. 
weU niear (as historians make account) m^ thou- 
sand, with their leader Victorinm horn away sox^^ 
wounded, and Drmtua thirteen thousand. Fergus^ 
king of Scots, received such a mortal wound ii;i this 
head, thalt not long aOier be died of llie same ; al^. 
though Boethius and Fordun wUi have him to con* 
valesce and live two years aftev this cpnAict^ wbiph 
I do not verily believe, in respect neither Tergal: 
nor yet Veremondt hath recorded it, who lived tiupie 
hundreds of years before the other two. 




TH£SE Piotish trophies brought on ^edestruo- 
tion of the great and powerful aemiM of the bloodjr 

WStORY OF »HE WCr*. as 

wA gigMfick Saxons \ as they were gr^kty «o wefe 
tbey tnuch tnore to be wondered at. For Awnlima 
Afhi^&^sj king of the Bt4llftilM, overwhelmed al- 
itoostwith these great inundations of Saxons, kd 
by Hengist their king, demands iAA against the 
common ettemy, fmrn the Scotish and Picti^h kings, 
Whom he thought to be the most impregnfable ram- 
parts and ablest bulwarks to withstand the r^lng 
ior^Bt tdf ft cruel &nd barbarous people ; to whose 
Succour in person goes Lothus^ king of the Picts, 
With'dn army of twenty* two thousand, and C^anus 
iMi ten thousand Scots. The rencounter of the 
'ttiree great armies was at Mahtsbt (Makes Beltuna^ 
the place so named from their conflict with the 
Saxons) ; for a long space was it with much valour^ 
and no lesd blood foughten, till that Hengist per- 
ceiving the rear of the Scots and Picts to inviron 
him, makes haste to renew the battle on Jtirel/t^sside, 
but ^1 in vain, for at the first encounter Hengist 
himself having his horse killed tinder him,' and not 
able to recover himself, was forthwith strucken 
dead, etsicfuit Regis Hengisti cadater inter hostes 
ad LUdtbrium expositwm^ says Veremunde. Veremund 
Hist. 'Scot. lib. 2. page 16. The arch-dean Oura^ his 
brother, with the ruines of the Saxtm army, fled t6 
the mountains. This great victory thereafter did 
move the Britains more to commiserate than to fear, 
all those of the Saxon race able to bear arms being 
exiled the island, Reliqai ^says Guildas^ Hist. fd. 
120,) ad strnitutem redacti^ the Scots and Picts va- 
liant service in this memorable victory, was nobly 
rewarded by the British M\t\g AureWiS^ for by and 
attour a league offensive and defensive concluded 


with both nations, he gave his eldest daughter Anna 
in marriage to Lothus king of the Picts, and his 
second, Ada^ to Coranus general of the Soots, who 
attained the crown after the death oi Congaibts, 
and was the 45th Scotish king. 

Lothus^ king of the Picts, arms himself against 
Occai the son of OtstuSf king of the Saxons, who 
with fire and sword had invaded the Northumbrians 
without mercy, neither sparing sex nor age, over- 
runing all that country, even to the walls of the 
city Deera^ whom he rencounters on the brink of 
the river Ttceda, with thirty-four thousand chcnce 
men ; betwixt both armies was it couragiously 
foirghten, the Picts being sore prest by their ene- 
mies till Lothus by his expectation perceiv'd the 
Saxon van-guard to give gr%und by little, and then 
in sudden with their leader Colgemua to fly, did 
so force them, by main strength, to take the river, 
where they were for the most part all drowned. 
Occa seeing his general to fly, and then to be quite 
put to the rout and slaughter, betakes himself with 
all the speed he could to the mountains : notable 
was this victory king Lothus did obtain of the 
Saxons, in which was then above fourteen thousand 
of them killed ; for these whom the tops of the 
Caviothian mountains did not shelter, were all 
either by dint of sword or rage of the river dis- 
patched and made away. 

HunguSi king of the Picts, with thirty thousand 
men, to repress the ambition of Aththtein, king of 
the east Saxons, who in hopes to enlarge the limits 
of his dominions, had encroached on the countries 
of the DerianSy being a part of the Pictish monarchy, 

UfttbEV of THX ^ktTV« 37 

vmtiWcfmikttf.wlfhlaM^h itk Lb- 

tia^^ Iftejj^ df biXafe tb tiiisi day retifin&ig th^ 

ntiiM iif&Me8:'ttian AMhq^oM ; diverse of our 
hiiltioiSuk allStt!biit3i iSAb Vietdry rather to the valour 
of llitg iti^XbiUr v^ Ms'ten tftousand Sooto, thaik 
to^ JTtffij^' kiAg of t!he Piietis ; Which doutraversy 
anMM^^'th^ IB lidt mucSi woHh the standing on ; 
oiify Ibt xiie i^^llih ibudi, that this was the battle 
mbit Wdrthli^ dT fattie and^ meibory that ever was 
fio^ht bytheSikifsi^dPibts against any foreigner 
fxt Wfiikgityin reii^eet that tire nbblH aiid honour- 
aKK order of icnighthddd nMli'd of St. Andtew aiid 
tb^ Tbiflde, had itk ori^&l aitfaik dme; and thes^ 
sUoftly ore the mbst niemii^rabie rencounters of the 
Piets iqrainsithe Saxoiis, which fiime and antiquitie 
bath recommend^ to posterity* 

iiiiM 'iiiii v.iir 


BATTLBB ^OUGHtEK BV Ttis' iPldtS^ AKb VlCtOlllks 

BKUDEyking of the Picts^ taking it h'ighlj to 
bdtrt that Ali^in, king of Seots, with two thousand 
meb^ ahMld have invaded XoifMt^rii, exercising all 
crndty on the inhidiitants; tleithbr sparing sex nor 
age^ ; in the preceding year levies a great army, 
Cfbgses the. liver l^y, near the castle orGaledonia, 
attd^ inarehe{{ with all the speed he could to the ' 
cdtintreyof J^offw^w, where he encahips on the 



Side of a hill soine thirteen or fourteen ,fiurlo>Qgf, , 
from the town of Alectunif where he is.uuetlbjrking,. 
Alpin with twenty thre^ thpu«an^. Soots.'. jWitJi., 
much blood was it fqughten fpr.^ many hours tog^« . ^ 
ther, till Alpin with great fcxrce giviog a ^resh 
charge on his enemies, was. unfortunately taken; 
the Scots no sooner seeing the^r kipg takpn^ ,J]iut^., 
they betake themselves to the mountaips, so. that 
the Piets that day remained victors^ who tiakq theii: . 
prisoner king Alpin and beheaded hitn^ leaving the 
body behind them, and carrying the .head .to their 
city ,of Qamdon^ where in derision th^ affiled it 
aloft on a |y)le, in the middle of their rcity. The 
chief cause of that great victory obtained by the 
Ficts that day was attributed, to a stratagem us^4 
by king Brude, who, when he had done bis utter- 
most with' his army, made a, great, multitude of 
women and boys that follow'*d his camp, come from 
the top of the adjoining mountains, with hideous 
vociferations' and outcrys, doun to the battle, which 
made the overwearied Scots believe that they were . 
fresh supplyes come to their enemies aid ; which 
stratagem and policy us'd by Brude^gain'd him the 
victory, and the Scots the greatest overthrow that 
ever they did receive from the Picts* 

Another cauise of much bloodshed did ari^e, 
which did prove very hurtful both to Picts and 
Scots, for in the preceding year, at a matcb^hunt- 
ing in the forrest of Caledonia; after some disdain- 
ful words given by a Pictish gentleman tp a Scot, 
they fell by the ears together so rpundly, that in. a 
very short space there was above a hundred Picts 
killed, and about half as many. Scots^. which bred. , 


such a rancour in the Pictish stomachs, that again 
it dilated the old sores, which scarcely above a 
twelve months space had been tyed up ; so that 
NectanuSf king of the Picts, having his breast full 
charged with indignation^ meditates revenge ; for 
the execution thereof, he levies a mighty and strong 
Army of the valiantest and most expert wariours in 
tfB his dominions with all diligence : marching to 
the fronteird of Caledonia^ where he is welcomed by 
^ngusimusf kmg df Scots, with seventeen thousand 
welt armM with bdws and arroWs, darts, laqnces, 
and swords ; the bftttl^;iii both sides was for many 
hours cdntinued with great f tiry , till lining Angusianus 
seeing his rear able to be brought under, leaps from 
his horse, taking a sword in his hand, and coUragi- 
t>usly restoi^es the battle, tiU over- wearying, and al- 
most fainting under so m^y lethal wounds, was 
^eedf in 8d great a press to give place to destiny, 
mtfd 96' expited ;' the Scots betaking themselves to 
the- mountains, and in their retreat being withstood 
by a wing of the Pictish array, commanded By the 
kih^' himself, so confusedly did on beset them, And 
with such despair so laid about them, in killing 
all who withstood theni, every mother's son ; King 
Nedtdhi^ himself itiot' being able to withstand' their 
ftiry, was thene htt gasping on the ground; being 
rtin ' through with a lance. *rhis victory, altho^ 
gamed bjf| the Picts was hotwithl^tanding tittle j^lea- 
^Mkt ib thttis, in respect of the death of their king. 

' • . i •■.■•-• , * -.1.1 • ' • . . • ' t ' 

.5,1 •>-: ; -f .» ' 

t(!';/0 ji{? » 

^ WJ^wr p» ?«f «!»• 




EMPIRE3 m^ m<m9x^Hm, U^ fi|| 9^^ mhkk- 
Dary thingp^fl^ subject to fdf«l9^opj||pd4mW^>«^ 
Iher ciui Uiey inorp Aap the gopid <^<^R|M!lr «W(«P 
their predeciti^t^ ^mf^ Wld Q|t^ f^l^WROW"* 

for U^eir uiiqjiities, hp wiU fc^t tfflt^ tfew «^ H 
were 3pt|i I palip^le 9^[i4 %W*i«^ liai^«* ^ 
that the J dinnpt 1;)^ i|hl^ to p^rceiye the yial^Qf his 
wrath which ace ipe^j. to be, po^re4> mKIU thwi ; 
(2¥a9 |ier(Zer< «i|^ f^,th«(^iq[> 

of this people bring at the ^ii^y li^g^^ VS¥Pjli^ 
tate t(hem^)ves in a dpnies^^ war ; l^i^disyRg 
it the means of their ^tteir de$^H(s^o|^asi4 t^lmwi^ 
nation out of this isli^nd* 

Brude» therefore, the la^t ^fffr^lPf^9iM^^ 
j^icta, havioig recrived two gr^t oy^h^'W^^'f ^ 
Soots, in the hist of whiph h^, hixfif^' was lfUl#dL 
had for sucees^our in th^. ?icti^ 4*^^ J^ml^^ 
a subtile and c^ueLfos^ 9^^g.4^^^^f'Wtf^ 
and glory of the Pictish ip<^i^f<% tp. ^^ffly^ fjPr 
solves rather to opms^ aU to^ the hMar4 of (mf^ 
battle» than to let it dye an^ fff^ 9f smha jyingai>- 
ing disease ; for in pleurisies and rotten feavers^ 
physicians for remedy often limes prescribe die 
opening of a vein, 'which maxim in a wise man's 
eyes might have appeared fatal» as indeed the event 

proved, fik' Druiicein in' isiuch fervtncy isiridlieai'of 
cfaoler, having broiight to the field till.of both sex 
under the Pictifth monarchy able to bear arms, was' 
rencountercfd by Kenneth, the son of Alpip, kiii^ 
of the Scots, with a'mighty and tirell ordered army, 
Whkh being' divided into three battles^ and a battle. 
of succours, (as the manner of miarishalling then' 
was) were conducted by three brave and valiant 
commanders, such as heretofore many ages had 
neither seen nor tryed the like ; the right wing, or ' 
first battle, was* commanded by Barr,a noble and 
couragious captain ; the left, or second battle, was 
coknmanded Irjr Dungal, and the main by Donald,' 
the king^s brother germah ; the battle of succk)urs 
consisting of horsemen, was a part <;6nducted by 
the king himself, to be ready on all occasions to 
reKeve all such as should be distressed. The ha- 
rangue King Kenneth used to his soldiers, out of an 
old fragment, I thought good for the antick style 
thereof, to set down in my monkish authored own 
words ; CofnmtlitioneB utrum Scoti Pictus, an Picti 
Scotis hgea daturt sintj hodiemus ostendet dies* VtC" 
torifE autempramium Pictorum toties petitum regnumj 
perenne decus, et in kostes^ Imperium^ erit ; contra 
fuga, supplicia, Pariaa casus Infalixy vita Interttus, 
dedecusy et Ignominia, ad posteritatem relinquendum 
est : Hosies igitur aggredimni, et vos depatria vere 
natos Ostendtte* 

No sooner was this speech uttered, but in conti- 
nent the Scots make the onset, and for a long time 
was it fought with great fury and heat, till the 
Scots horse, who were led by the king, gave such a 
ten;Jble onset on the main battle-^ of the Picts, so 


4^ H|fiW|iill OF tff^Wih. 

awfounding tbcocia^kiB^ l^t thq(.ii[^;e4ttrrw«)il<^ 
tQ gut thei^Bielii:es iii.qFdeif^ag|fiiii«^ M thia rtnootm* * 
ter waf Druakw^ kii^af tH^^icta, Iqlled, bJA wliok 
army ^ther killed oir put ta ro^ty and the g^^at: 
momurcby . of the PicU bcoug^t to ita last p^nod'; 
seven several ^nns^^ts^ did th^^ Sfiote make 0i|i tfa^- 
Picta this day, that of fourty*four thousand) Sji^^poe 
was there ope mother^s, child: 1^ 

Alter which vic^toryy^ Kenneth, to mak^ a. final 
epd of this w^^ ent^ with fye^ and swpvd.tbe 
couQtri^ of Hjorrtfitiop OthiUmoj, VMOfiiggf^ and^ 
Pictlandiajf 4rf* neither spi^ru^ Eex^m^jigg^ so kkDg . 
as apy bearing tha ni|n;i^<of i^.^?iQt co^M;be,.foi^^ 
This grei^t subversion .oftbePicts. was at JZctfcifo^^ 
in the country ofJlorreaia. Thehattle thus ended> 
K^ng Kenneth cau^ ta|Le tl)earms of ]Qngi>rNi- 
kein, with his. other ornaofienibi^ and conseqcaj^k. 
them to St. Columban^s church inVoao. therefor 
ever to rf^amin^tp posterity^, as pnblick trppbie^of . 
so great a victory* 

After, this King Kenneth, my^yhps .tq XJamehUf 
whicji, after three days siegei^ he, tak^s^ ai^d so 

ilurougb thGcq\xJ^t,m^p{.Pktl^ndifi^lkeraft^^ 
dolu^ia^ all which he incorporal^s nc^der th^ name^ 
of the .Scptiffh kingdom; chs^^gj^ the a^ci^t pames 
of provinces, makes rigorous laws for the extirpa;-. 
tionof the Pictish nsa^ blood, allxers, a^dgo-p, 
vernment, of whom to this day there is little, or no 
more left. 

Npw in this bloody battle wf re the valiant Picts. 
altogether defeat and slain^ their name with them<<( 
selves being razed from the face of this island about 
the seven ^h^mdred an4 fourty year of man^s re- 

dempdon, and by l | t t l|fr iiy) J tl i ^ |€».i|»rf»<(S^^ 
under the Soat^ii)We,ii|^li«rtipiV>w]M4iiMp 
chanced to the puissant nation of the 6«ils» who 
fa^gBuWlwd of the Erwkf l^.liUlettMl^litltey 
lik;g^ji«et were turpfri tQ^eir,owiM^.md withilbffir 

Mscpu^^^% AHA AOAnrioK' Tir tsb sscohi^ 


WHEREAS the panegyrick author g^veth some 
inkling that the Britains, before Canards time, used 
to skinnish with their enemies the IKcts and Scots, 
half naked men ; be .s^emf flv to speak after the 
manner of the time wherein he hved, but surely in 
those days there were none known in Britain by 
the name of Picts, notwithstanding of all that 
poedcal panegyrick used by Sifdanius AppoUinarisy 
to his wife's father. 

SignUy Caled^q$H«^,.tf!«9M^i(?d oiiMS; 

Fuderit et quanqam Scolum, cum^Sfo^i^e PlCTBMi 

^Neither^ aok I cboise tmt/ withi anotlii^ poet to 
cry out in this .wise/: - 

'Sit fiuO^Jidfs ot^Mf^^M^t^^-)'^'"^^ 

J I 

44 HISTOBr OJT t Ae 

Bdifive item notf Men they'^ teach. " \- '*' *' 

« Fott" Od^flar, Who-is '^ery-bftcfhtob^ prodigal in his 
own ^vai^ie, would never have c6riceal(^d thode ek- 
ploits, if he had ever perfomiecF Aem ; Wit'th^ ' 
men seem not unlike tolhose honest writers in our 
age, who, while they jjatdf together any history of 
Csesar, write (forsooth) how he had subdued the 
Franks in Gaul, and Englishmen in Britain; where- 
as in those days, the names of English and French 
were <not so much as heard of, either in thd one or 
other country, as who inimany ages afle^ ean^einto 
these regions. 

. . 1 


' * * i * 



■' ' ^ 

1. Cruthenus CameloniuSy the first Pictish king, 
who built the city of Camelotij afler his own name, 
on the brink of the river Carron ; h&b^ilt likewise 
the town of Agweday in Pictland. 

2. Cnnutf was the second Pictish king, in whose 
reign the office of great justiciar, with the justici- 
aries, ayeirs, and courts, were first institute and 
established by Mainus, king of Scots. 

1map^r on t^z skcvs. 45 

S. ThaarOf by u$am wmi Th^f^. the third 
Pictiah king, did reigyi wd hsfe ii| tin tiijii^ of Dor- 
nodilbh king of Scot^* 

4. jr«(ic$, ttie.fpu)^ Pi(Bti«i| kiigp whOie queen 
WW if OMb Ibftt btavliful Biitiah kwly. . 


^ s « 

5. atthusy ti^^Oh^ Bwtikb kiiig^ did pve Us 
daughter in marriage to Reuthery king of Soots. 
Thifl king Cktkm wasfdam by ^Ate Siwta in battle, 
ai thft mty •f Bearegoniunii 

6. CteliBs^ teoond of Ibat name, and sfacfh king 
of the Picts, together with Beutherus^ king of the 
Seots^ fbugbt that noble battle otMidderdak, against 
SMtim^ kii^ of the Britlstns. 

7. CUthuSy third of that name, and seventh king 
of the Picts, g^ve 1^9 on]y daughter,, a beawtifnl^ 
wgin, Sikra^ iti martia^ Xfy Evwis^ king of the 

8. dranitf, the eight Pictlsh ki)Qg, was taken pri- 
soner by the emperor Ctaudiusy in the Orcades tis- 
knds, whpm l^e le^ as cfi^tiye thi?>n^ 9oib« in 
his triumph* 

.1 >• 1 

9. CScm{;t«tf<(,^ the ninth Pictish king^ rei^p^ io 
the time of Caractaeus, king of the Scots. 

IQ. iU'jffj&arafQ)iglitmApyj;io^ 
the. ei^it^r Vespa^i^^W wd^^i^ J%^^ B^ 
man pro-consul^ <N[4'i9W^>tl^e,^i^^ 



11. Thard^ the eleyenih'Pictish king, was slain 
in battle at York, by the Romans, in the twelfth 
year of the reign of CaractacuSy king of the Scots. 

12 Conil:i5A»,' 'the second of that naxiie, and 
twelfth king of the Hcts, in • two several battles 
vanquished the Roman generals Ostcrius the con- 
sul^ and JUhnlUts Vakimshhe prfetor ^ 


13* JCaranatkuSj or (as some name him) Koran' 
tiuSy the thirteenth Pictish king, gave many defeats 
to the Roman army conducted by Julius Agricda, 
He built the town of Jlectum in Soraatbu. > 

<: . 

14. Granardus^ the fourteenth Fic|idljiin& over- 
threw the Roman army commanded by Lucius^ Ai^ 
tinous the legate. He reigned in the time of Gal' 
dus, king of the Scots. , . >.;^ms ^ 

15. Phiaius Albus, the fifteenth Pictish king, 
reigned in the time o( lAigthacus, king of the Scots. 

16. Thdargus, the sixteenth Pictish kiujgy over- 
threw in battle Crathelinthus^ king of the Soots. 

17. Nectanus, the seventeenth Picfisn king, with 
the most part of his army, and AngusianmSi king 
of Scots, were, both killed in a battle. fiouffht be- 
twixt them in the confi^nes of the Ca^ei^onian foi^« 

isi- JV«?fantej the secontf of >Kat tiatbe,' anA' Ihe 
dj^liteehth Picjtish king, dejlirtedi this lif^ ayotith, 
in the Wn of Crfttrea, in ffonestiai " ' '^ ' 


J[9<K ,Ij[m'gfisft^ the ]9iiiteei(tb,F.iqtish kingt oyer- 
thi:ew,,thjB,;Sco^s^.king F^tkdifwplmK i^ a buttle] 
foi|ghti?fl;at|he.|)iw!i,of5the; ^Y^r Edca^, io JSTer- 

' • I 

20. HunguSi the twentieth Pictish king, con 
eluded aipe^toewiththe^BoiMn defmtie Jlfetotnii^, 
to tl»'€fid.lfe might the imoMs frectljr without ^r 
wara^ainfi^ JSfqgeiit««^ king of Scdtii ; buthe«eeikig* 
matters not to frame with him according to his 
mind/, he'htoged himself itt a rope the eleveiith 
year of his reign. 

• ; I II. 

21. Drustusy the second son -cit king HungtiS, 
succeeded his fatal father, and was the twenty* 
first Pictish king ; he reigned in the time « of 
Fergus, the second of that name, king of Scots. 

23. Drusius Secundus succeeded his father, and 
was the twenty-second Pictish. kuig. 

23. Drustus Tertius, the twenty-third PictiA. 
king, vanquished the Roman legions led by the 
legat PlaciduSf in three noble batdes fought in the 
^country of West-Maria. He reigned is the time of 

King Fergus the II. of Scotland. 

24. Galanusy the twenty-fourth Pictish king, 
vanquished the Britains, with th,eii; commander 
Guiiellio. He reigned in the timepf CongaU^ king 
of Scots. 

,\ \ 

25. Lothus, the twenty^ftb ?ictirfi king, did 

49 uinwvr of> thib Htw. 

as^t Jur^iuB Amiro8i»9 iXie \aikg oFfte Btitahn, 
agftiiKl the 8ax<Mi9 led %^ i^bigi^f thor ki^ 
in t:iN> several grtot and dreadM- battles they d^ 
feat He married Anna^ eldest daughter to Auri^Ata 
AmbroriuSf king of the Britains. 

9& JlfMf^dM|tfaeflM€f £olAiit»wat4li»twaitf* 
ristb Picdth kmg* He reigned in- tlie tine of 
IS^fiMlfH.the third l^ikg of that naiiie in Soodmd. 

27. Brudmsf the nqphew of king Lothuff by his 

brother Melothen^ succeeded his cousin ModreduSf 

and was the twenty-seventh Pictish king* He 

^ reigned 19 the time of Canvallus, the fourtynievei^ 

Scotish king. 

28; Gamardus SecunduSf the twenty-eight Pictish 
king, gave his daughter Spontana in marriage to 
Eugeniusy the seventh of that name, king of Scots. 

89. Hungus SecunduSf the twenty-ninth Pictish 
king, with the help of Achaius^ king of Scots, over- 
threw^ in a great and famous battled, the east Saxon 
king Atkektein, on the valley of the river Tyne, 
near the town of Haddina^ in Fictland. This king 
HungUB was the first that ever did adorn the en- 
sign^s with the cross of the apostle St Andrew ; 
and by some of our old monkish writers^ is thought 
to have established, in memory of that notable vic- 
tory, the noble and famous order caird of St An- 
drew and the Thistle. 

30. Doater LargM succeeded his brother HungixSy 
and wa^ th^ thirtieth king of the Picla. 


31. EgoHus^ the son of HmguA^ succeeded his 
uncle Dosier LofgiiSy aud was the thirty-first king 
of the Picts. 

32. FeredethuSf after the death of king EganuSf 
violently intruded himself on the royal throne, over 
the necks of most of the Pictish nobility, and was 
the diirty-second Fictisb king. He was killed in 
bsttle by AfyiUf king of the Scots, in the country 
of Horrestia, and was interrM in Agroforfarienn. 

93. Brudus^ the son of the usurper Feredeihus, 
was a very valiant warriour, but, to his own, cruel 
and inhumane. Overthrew the Scots in a terrible 
battle fought near die town of Alectum^ in the 
country of Horrestia at a place then nam^d Pas* 
Alpine, (id est mors AlpiniJ now Pit'Alpie, in which 
battle he took king Alpin prisoner, and then pre^ 
sently caused chop off his head from his body, 
carrying it to the town of Camdon, where, in a 
triumphing manner, he affixed it on a pole in the 
middle of the city. 

34. 2>rtij;i!:t»fi5,brother-germantoi?ruduff,whom 
he succeeded in the Pictish monarchy, and was the 
thirty-fourth king, and the last of the Picts that 
ever reigned in Albion ; he being killed in batde, 
his people were in five several conflicts killed every 
motber^s son, by Kenneth the son of Alpin, king of 
the Scots, and their monarchy incorporated into 
that of the Scots, under wluch taame to this day it 




This foUowmg catalogue^ whieh for the reader^ 
sfttisfactioii, I h^:« exhibit to the world, io mj. 
judgment was more meet to be smothered in the 
ruins of these cloysters from whence it came, than 
to be set abroad to contradict so nuii^ fandous au- 
thors; but, unpolished and umnatruct^oi these old 
ignorants have left it, you may here bdioldy and 
according to its merit let it have its entertwmieot. 


1. Crentheminache^ryme 60 

d. Ged^r 190 

3. Ebram * 100 

4. Duchy ffa - 20 

5. Dougell '20 

6. Deckochie 40 

7. Carmach'-Oriche 20 

8. Oamard 9 

9. Viponochie 90 

10. Canacuttnel 6 

11. Deubrtenache 1 

12. Ferdinache 1 

13. Oamard IL 40 

14. Catargrange 25 

* This catalogue appears to be the same as that m Winton^a 

turn Jnnos xnxUy et eentian bMa pmglL 

16. Golatgfi^Maek Ckmmmda 10 

17. KeUamot gQ 

18. Dnat Corintioh^m 13 

19. JDncsf QagimiH ^ 
SO* Hodrenne g 
91. Drusius Quarius 4 
9B. Gormach Signortm g 
83. Gagalaid g 

25. JDrust Mach$mtich$ 5 

S& Brude qui a Sancto GOHmbana/ii^ BopH^ 
ratus in Anno apatfuButm Virgink 165 
B^nwHt Afmo9 

87. CUirmadt 

S8. Trgnd Mackkchm 20 

30. jBrtkftf Holarge 20 

31. GMargum 20 

32. Gormach McDonald 

33. JDrusteR-aterGormaci^siScuJus regno jhrtiF' 

it Sanctus Servanus Abbas 

35. Gormach MackferAwd 

36. i%r^fii5 J^i?r^u5<m 

37. .^m JUadt Mai^us 

38. Jiniitfe Mfick Talb^^am 

39. T^Ktogiowi 

40. ;K;g«alm ^i^ i fMdaivit Bo$semarijfm in Jnno 

Salv. 600 

41. Etan 

42. ilfarcM 


St Hrsvosr OF fHis n(CV8« 

43. Beams IL 2 

44. T\dinige 5 
46. Cansiantinus jBhis Fergusii qui Fundavii 

Dunkelden et Regnavii Annos 40 

46. Hungus qui debeUavit Begm^ AthdBtain, " 

OrcenUdium Saxonum, et Fundaoit Fanum 
Seguliy Begnavit Annos 10 

47. Drustalarge 4 

48. JS^oacAn^n 30 

49. FeredeiA 30 
^. Ferechat Filius Bodot, Sirelinius BdlaUn' et 

NobUis Miles Begnamt Annos S^etll dies. 

51. Kenneth Mackfederetk 1 

52. Brude MarJIfechell 2 

53. DrustersUmey or rather as I do conjecture^ 

DruAein, the last Pictish king in Albion, 
killed by Kenneth king of the Scots* in a 
fight near Sooon, after having reigned three 
years and seven days* 


■ V 

1. Atdius Plautius 

2. Ostdrious Scajpula, (qui male a Forddnio 

Aslerius dicitur) CoUega SabeUii Bafiid 
vidieri est in institutionibus, Justiniani, 
lib. 3. 

3. Didius GaUus 

4. Verantius 

IL Snetanim PauU$mi - 

7. TrebMm Mmitms 

8. Vectius Bokmus ctffus frequens est meriHo afmd 

Saiimn in Sk/hi$ 

9. PttUuB^ Ckreali9 

11. JuUua Agrkcta 

18. iMfttt JMxipni stA Claudio haftraUMre 

This roU of the Bomaa oomnmndert against tbe 
Fiets and ISooti, I bare colleclad out of direna 
authors, but espeoally from the Botnan hiilories of 
Tacitus, Livius, Herodian, Plutarch* A{^[»od^ and 
Suetonius, which will serve for understanding di* 
verse passages in this history. 



Jgail^sif a nch people, bordering upon the 
Scythians, and anciently taken for the inhabitants 
(by some hiatoriaiis) of Denmiwk and Scaodia. 

Agneda^ the cajdial city of the kingdom now 
named Edinburgh^ and by Ptokmy Casirum Ma^, 
torn, by the BriUuns Edanj which signifies a wing. 
It was founded by Crtdhenm CamehniuSy the first 
Picdsh king* 

Albicnj the ancient name of Scotland, as many 
conjecture, so named, ab AMm MmntUms^ from the 



high Grampian mountaing, whose tops to the sea-r 
man seem covered with snow ; or, as Bbethius wHl 
have it, ab JUns Btgribusy from the white craigs 
and rocks. 

Alectum Oppidum^ now the town of Dundee, in 
Angus, within the sheriffdom of Forfar, by the 
Scots Highlanders named Dun^Tay, that is, a hill 
near the river Tay. 

Athelstaina^Foordf a passage or ford of the river 
Tyne, in Louthiani near the town of HaddingUnmf 
where Hungus did behold Athelstain» king of the 
east SaxcMis to pass the river, a little before he gave 
him battle, and there overthrew his whole army, 
and killed himself. 

' Beregonium^ or Reregonium, a strong castle in 
Lochaber, built by King Fergus the I. in prospect 
of the islands Hybridesy or ^buda, the usual dwel- 
ling of the ancient Scotish kings, the vestige of its 
ruins being scarcely discemable at this day. 

Bosphorus Ptdust now called Fictland firth, and 
by the vulgar Fentland firth. 


Caledania anciently comprehended the countries 
of Stratheam, Argy le, Canty re, Broadalbine, Athol^ 
and Perth ; it was some times taken Synecdochice 
for all Scotland, as in that of Ovid.— Caledonio 
i)clat Brittania numstro. And after the same man- 
ner by Buchanan likewise, Nympha Cakdonia qua 
nunc feliciter ores. 

Missa per Innumero$y &c. 

BSTTomYOF rats picvflk 59 

CakdmdM Sgha was a.grelit wood tfaU rein alongsl 
tbe faces of ihose hills of Caledonia. Jt divided 
the Soots and Ficts> and being well furnished with 
wild game, especially with fierce white bulls and 
kine» it was the place of bot^ their huntings, 
and of their gpreatest controversies* Some say it 
took its name from CaUen, which signifieth an 
haad, or common nut-tree. The Roman historians 
delight much to talk of the furious white bulls which 
the forest of Caledonia brought forth. 

Cdedonu it Caledomi^ the people of the Picts and 
Scots that inhabited the east and west side of that 

Caledonmtn, or Cakdmnorum Oppidumy Dunkell, 
or Dunkelden, in Perthshire, a little town and 
bishop seat upon the north side of Tay, ten miles 
above St. Johnstoun. 

Camelodunum Oppidum^ seated on the brink of 
the river Carron, a great city and head town of the 
Pictish kingdom, built by CruikenHs Camehnusi the 
first Pictish king, and named aAer himself. It was 
seated in the country of the Damniif now Strevtling 

Camm Fluvius^ tbe xi ver on which the great town 
of CameUm was seated. It jriseth out of the hills of 
Campne, and running east, falls into the firth of 
Fordi, in the Carse of Bath-Eennor. 
Castrum AUUum^ now Urquhart castle in Murray. 
Castrum DohrMunh by Ptolomy so named, and 
seated by him in the country of the Damniiy now 
cidled Strevding castle. 

Cdta^ a people in France, that, in Caesar the 
perpetual dictator's time, were divided from the 

M smMT w VHXonoMb 

Belgiaof by tbe met Sehu^ mA fibiA lib&d^tQiilto* 
MMMby die Garron. Thtj were tkeandent CUitk, 
and beibre that posBessed ike middle r^iknis of 
FiMioe^ firom the Britkh left to Ab Mcditefranetto. 
They were so tiumeious, that they tpiead tbrfr 
colonies over a gr^at part of Italy, Spain, Germany^ 
Britain, the .Alps, Thessafie, and into Asia its^. 
Of them there were many nations, and from them 
all tbe north-west part of Europe was cMbd by the 
old Grecians Ceitf^Styihia, 

Ckaiviot Mantes^ or that great ridge of highjulls 
lying in length irom the mouth of the river Sfdnay^ 
in the west of the river JBn, and town of Ani^ok 
in Northumberland ; they dinded the ooontries of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, in JBngland, from 
the sheriffdom ci Roxburgh and Tiviotdale, in 


Dttray the county of Northumberland, lying be* 
twixt the rivers Tyne and Tweed. 

Deucahdcfnii^ these Caledonians, or Picts, that 
dwelt in the west countries of North Britain, from 
the British word Dekeu, which sign^s west. 

Dmiie$y or DrviiMy they were the andent heathen 
priests, and judges in France and Britain ; and 
because they for the most pairt, did iJl those 
offices under 09k trees, from them they reoei?ed 
that name. For so oaks are called in the Greek 
and old CdiO'Siythick language. ' 

Dumna Promontorium, now named Dungsbey«^ 
head, or Duncansbayhead, in Cathness, a great 
rock running from the continent and firmland of 


Cathness, in the northern sea, over against the 
islands cS Orkney. 


Edtmhwrgumi tt Edinum^ the town of Edinburgh, 
in Mid-Lothian, lying near Forth* It is the chief 
city of Scotland, where all the great meetings are, 
and their diief courts of ju^ce conveen. 


Jp*tfa^ the countrey of Fife. It lyeth betwixt the 
firth of Forth and Tay, being all encompassed with 
the sea, except where it joins with the Ochils, and 
is in form of a peninsula, and therefore was called 
in the ancient language Bo8$. 

Fortha, the river of Forth. It risetb in the 
Grampian hills above Stirling, and having made 
diverse windings above and below that town, it 
enlargeth itself into a vast loch below AUow^, 
called the Firth, and so keepeth its course betwixt 
the fertile lands of Fife and Lothian, until it enter 
at St. AbbVhead, in the German ocean. 

'Crampiu»3 the mountain of Granxebeny commonly 
caUed the Grampian hills. They run from Aber* 
deen in the north, to Dumbarton in the west ; and 
contain the braes of the Meams> Ai^s, Perth* 
sbire^ and the Lenox, and diverse countrey s beside. 

HaMifH»Oppiivm% the town ofHadMngtoun, and 


the lieaol bu|gh of £«ster X^oftbtas, seated bwni by 
the river Tyne, twelve miles be-ea^ Sidiidiurg^. 

Hengiatua Saoco^ Hengist the Saxon, one of the 
princes of Low-Saxony, that exercised piracy upon 
the coast of Britain. He was called ia by tbe Sri-* 
tains, to assist them for pay, against the Soots and 
PictSb After they were beat back U> the Boman 
wall, he and his Saxons pict a quarrd with their 
hirers, and not being able by force, by treachery, 
under treaty, murdered the whole nobility of the 
Britaina ; and did subdue or expel the rest oitt of 
all the plain ooimtrey, and possessed hita^^ ac4 
hia Saxons thereof; which ^Kve first begiQmftg to 
the English kingdom in Britmn. 

Horreatia, a part of the Pictish kingdom^ Bow 
Mmed Angus> the inhaUtanta whereof were nam'd 

SbtmhcTy the name <tf a river in England^ beioig 
one of the greatest in it, by old geographers called 


tma Insula^ an ishmd lying in the Deucaledonian 
sea, now call'd Icolm-kill ; it is two miles long and 
one over, and lyeth within two miles of the south 
end of MulL It was in old timet beantilled with 
diverse monasteries, chiisdies^ and dbap^< One 
of the monasteries, with a l^tk town beldngiiig 
to it, was called iSbdom, which gave the see and 
the title to the bishop of the Isles ; both before 
and after, he, with the Scots, were expelled the 
Isk of Man. It hath the boriaki^hoe of nkany 
Scots> some Irish, and Norwegian kings ; and was 

tfae mother and nurse of dl the monks that fie* 
quented Scotland, Pictland, and Irdand ; where- 
fore, some writers that were strangers, do not stick 
to call it some times an Irish isle ; and others take 
it to be an ishund that belonged to the Pi^a. 

Keiha^ Inch-Eeth, that Ijreth mid-firth almost 
betwixt Xicith and Kinghorn ; it is rocky, atid hath 
a fresh water spring thereon. 

Latkusy the name of the twenty-fifth king of the 
Picts, who as some authors assert, gave his name 
to Lothian, comprehending the sheriffdoms of east, 
mid, and west Lothian* 

lAtgia^ the county of Durham* 

Mare Scoticum^ the Scots sea^ now called the 
Firth, and is that great inlet of the ocean dividmg 
Fife firmn Lothian, and swallowing up the chrystal* 
fine streams of the StuJcie Forth, It is usually in 
oU eridenees oalkd Mare Seoticttvu 

Marday the countrey of the Merst or AfarcA, 
commonly called the sheriffdom of Berwick. It 
hath to the east the Scots sea ; to the south, the 
river of Tweed, which divideth it from England. 
To the west, Tweed and Lidder, which iadarch it 
from Teviotdale and Lauderdale ; and Lanwr^mmr 
divideth it, together with the Den^rn that water 
Dunglassy from Lothian, to the north. . 

Marciani, the March-men ; they were of old a 


warlike people, but now are much decayed as to 
their old families. 


NamuSf the river Nairn, that riseth out of the 
hills that divide GlenAarf from StratMierin, and 
dividing Strath-wimt; itkeepeth its course north- 
east, until it fall into the same bay. It maketb no 
safe harbour, and when the water is fallen, there is 
to be seen the ruins of an old castle, which some 
judge to be Castrum Alatumi for its situation agreeth 
best with the account of Ptolomy. 


Ordolvcium Oppidumt now called Berwick. 

Ordolucaf the inhabitants otMers and Tiviotdale, 
by Ptolomy thought to be a part of the GadenL. 

f)thiliniaj the ancient name of Fife shire* 

OthiliniU the inhabitants of Fife, Kinross, and 
Clackmanah shires. 

OcdU Mantes are that great ridge of high green 
mountains from the east comer of Fife, stretching 
along the countries of. Fife, Stratherne, till the 
Doun of Monteith westward, or as other limits 
them, from the Bishop^s Ferry and Tents Moor in 
the east, to Streveling bi^dge on the west 


Pictlandia, now taken strictly for the sheriffiioms 
of easter, middle, and wester Lothian only. 

Pictlandi Jktimtes, Pictland hills in Lothian, near 

jnffrdBardprvaB< turrit W 

JRkti ShimkoAtdMrynm^the^ wbibbiiShaF 

-' iFaslA^ldtte ^ii\e.iMin A^pinij 4fae pla«e ill An- 
gix^ sbir^ where JBriide; kiiigbf the PidU, bek«tid^ 
Mfktij kingtof^e Sooto^'aqintimiksfiVoniDAiiclee, 
now vulgarly called Pittalpty. 

PueUarum Caatrum^ the castle of Edinburgh^ so 
named the Maiden dastl^^ because the Pictish vir- 
rins of the blood were .there closely kept^ ^ 

Restenotunif or jRe^i^^na^&pnpiy standing a mile 
to the east.of Eorfar, in Ang^^ QQcompa9S^q round 
with a Ipcti, except at oQepassaget. it had a 

'deep grauff anq a 4raw--|bridge ; it belong^ to the 
monks of Jedworthj who here k^pt all their papei^ 
and other precious ^ufF ; from which it received 
the name J?e« Teneits. 


Sinus Scoticusf (Vide Mare Scaticum^) it is also 
called j^stuarium Fortha. 

Stormondia^ the country of Stonnont> lying be- 
twixt Gowry on the south, Athol on the north, and 
Angus on the east, now within the sheriffdom of 
Perth. It anciently belonged to the Picts, and was 
inhabited bv the Horestiu 

Scandia is that vast country that is extended like 
a "peninsula, betwixt the Baltick or Swedish seas, 
and the north ocean. It containeth Noroway, Swe- 
den, and some other provinces ; and the inhabit- 
ants are Scandiani, the Norts, Sweeds, Lappsy and 



S^Ud, the phoe from ivhidi the Piets came ; 
authon suppose to be the Cheirstmess Cmbriea^ that 
promontory that is now called luUlandy in Ger- 
many, and the isbnds in the Baltick and Scandia^ 
whidi contain the kingdoms of Denmark, Swiun,' 
and Norroway. 


TriwAantum OppUum^ by Ptolomy so named, 
the inhabitants whereof were named TriwAanUa : 
it contains the countries of Middlesex and Surrey, 
with some more which Cambden will show you : it 
was a colony of the Romans, and by them called 
Auguatai now it is named London, or Luddom^ nay, 
rather Ludeatone^ from their first founder King 
Lude, as some writers will have it, as Ayton in his 
funeral elegy, that famous doctor. 

de nomine Cites. 





^Mm ipn^^s. 




ifitt mti itittroM. 



• > > 

f , . f . ' 






Julius CJSSAR, in his commentary de hello 
Gallico, lib. 5. hath these words, << The inhabitants 
of the inland parts of Britain say, that it has been 
delivered down to them by tradition, that they are 
the indigenous natives of the island ;^ which sheweth 
that they were such ancient possessors of the inner 
part of the country, that they thought themselves 
Jbarigtnes* And Diodorus Siculus, in his Bibliothe- 
- ca, is of the same opinion ; and the panegyrist Eume* 
niua, in his panegyric on Constantine Caesar, where 
he preferreth the actions of Constantine in Britain 
to the exploits of Julius Caesar there. He sheweth, 



that the Ficts were in Britain long befcnre Caesar 
came there, in these words : << Moreover^ the na* 
tion, he (Julius Caesar) attacked was then rude ; 
and the Britons, used only to the Ficts and Irish 
as enemies, and being yet themselves but half naked, 
eaaly yielded to the Roman arms and ensigns*'' 
And these Ficts, even in Fife, were in Agricola's 
time so numerous, ahd their forces so aboundant, 
that Tacitus says, cap. 35. of the life of Agrioola, 
<< In the mean time, we had advice tliiat the enemy^s 
design was to divide and attack us in many places ; 
whereupon, lest he should be under disadvantage 
by the number of the enemy, and th^ knowledge 
of the country, he likewise divided his army into 
three bodies.^ 

We are now to inqun« what people they were^ 
and from whence they came hither. Tacitus, cap. 
11. coBcludeth, friHa the halriit «f their body, that 
they were Germans. ^VThey thatli/veia Caledonia 
are red headed and long limbed, whidi speaks them 
of a German extraction.*^ And the venerable Bede 
^9 nmdi of the sam^ opinion, EcolesnMst; Hist Kb, 
]. cap. 1. <^ It happened that the nation of the 
Ficts entering tb.e ocean from Scythia, as is rer 
ported, in not many large ships.^ And below he 
saith,^ << The Ficts going to 3f Uain began to inha- 
bit the northern parts of the ic^d.'^ Tbb c^ir 
nion of Bede is well expliuned and confirn[ied by 
the learned Dr. Stillingfieet, in his OrigioesTBritaB- 
mc99 cap, 5. p. 845« thus : /* Besides these two 
(people) he makes a third race of men in Britain> 
whom he fetches out of Germany, ancl these w^it 
the Caledonian Britains; but betakes GermMy in 

a very largie ^i(iu^ ap iw to extend as Aur a« the 
Sam^J^ «^ to ccMoprebend un4^r it the Dorth% 
em nfUioas^ of th^ Cimbri, the. Oothonei^ aad tbe 
Soeonee^ froyn wbpm it si^ema wry. probable^ that 
the Caled(MiiiMI Biitains pete desoanded^ aa tha 
^uthem BiitflpHis came frcnpa the Celta^ wboia hn^ 
gaage and reli|^pp were kfiipt up ^niQ^ the^^ Sat 
the Caladonians came f rom the EMiK^peeti S^y thiaae» 
to wbo^^ Qsiasts they lay mvich nearer tbaa to tboea 
of the CeUap» and their larger proporttoM) whida 
Taoilus obBerveSf agree very well with, this suppo^ 
sitiQi!. . ,. -• • 

«<.And tb^fie, if I mistake not^ wdre the original 
PietB, but. not; called by that nasaei tiU nair oofenial 
came over tp peo{j0 tha^country^ afber the terrible 
devastalipn of it by the coatiauanee dC tW Bbman 
wars : for Claudian, de quarto (DoneuL Honoriiy 
makes Tbule the country of the Picts ; and, after 
all tlie disputes which hav^ been about it, Olaus 
Rudbeck hath made it very probable in his Atlan- 
tica» c. 19. that Scandinavia is meant by it; which 
he proves, not only from tbe testimony of Prooopius^ 
who affirms it, but from the exact agreement of 
the relattoBS of FyXbiits, Isidonis, and others with 
that, and neither with Iseland, nor any other 
place;" V . 

Besides, Bede, lib. 1. c^. 1. saith, << the com- 
mon tradition was, that the Pict came out of Scy- 
thia, which is affirmed by Matthew Westminster 
and many others ; but they do not mean the Asian, 
but the European Scythia, which comprehended 
under it all the most northern nations. Hector 
Boethius' conjecture. Hist Scot. foL 4. is not at att 


iiiiprobd>le, who deduces the Pidi from the Jga^ 
tfyrtif L e. from the maritime inhabitants of the 
Baltic sea ; <», as he expresses it, from those who 
came first out of Sarmatia into the Cimbric Cherso- 
nese, and from thence into Scotland*** * 

This is the opinion of Hector Boethius. Mr. 
Greorge Buchanan likewise makes the Ficts to be 
descended from the Goths, in these words : ** But 
sedng the Picts marked thmr skins with iron, and 
stigmatised them with the pictures of divers ani- 
mals, the best way will be to inquire what nations, 
^ther in Scythia, Germany, or the ndghbouring 
bountries, did use that custom of painting their 
bodies, not for terror, but ornament. And first, 
we meet in ThnuHa with the Gekmi, according to 
Virgil, of whom Claudian speaks in his first book 
against Bufinus : 

The Gehnt love to prtni^ 

Their limbs with iron instrument. 

We meet also with the Get» in Thrace, ihen- 
tioned by the same poet : 

Skin wearing GeUs consult^ with hair unhom. 
Whose marked bodies numerous sears adorn. 

Therefore, seeing the Geloni, as Virgil writes, 
are neighbours to the Getes, and either the Grothu- 
ni, or Getini, according to Arianus, are numbered 

*"Thir pepyll war callit Pictoe, outhirforthayrsemelyper. 
Bonis, or ellis for the variant colour of thair detbing, or ellis 
thay war namit Pyelitis, fta the Pychtfa namit Agathizsanis, 
tlisir anciaiit fiideriflB'* 


amoii^ ^e Getes ; and ii^qBC^the Qothnmi, as 
TMtua says, qpeak the (srallic language ; -what 
hinders hot that we may beVcsire the Pids had: 
theb origin firom thefice ? Bu^^ from whataotver 
province of Oemiuiy.they oame^ I think it proba*> 
hie,, that.t^y .wc^. of the anc^eiat odlonies of tfie 
Chmhy.iflip pealed themselvce either on the Swiedbh 
sea, or onr tli^ D^iuibf^/'i 

jpiidianan^^ iffffiipfa^ad^.thsC the* Pids #ere'oP 
a Gotl^b vfH}e;9Q4,QXtPact». b^oaiiM: as the Gratha 
cut %w^ '^ip^n^ilmr, bodies^ the JPiots £d. the 
Kb^ 11^ :flsQyfi^ , 4»at:. the Goths did aut sAob 
figwas iipon , tli^ir bqdlf s from the poet Chaidiaii; 
N4nr th;^ ilhfi. piots. ^% . i^Mff figurra npta their 
b^esb> .is,9leair.ffllD)>.Chbydi^p;al0o>; lib.: dabella 

„,..», * ^ ^ * ^ ^i' 

_ r 

Tht Itgym cavMih^ HMoM.i?f>eott9 giMard, 

i'^l- 'It i.. ^i ., .«v<l^^. ^t - • ' 

• } )i<^e:^4|U€^llsv^vii} qitations-Jtd'tbe same pat^ 
yofm, .h#e#li^ .tbeyjittusteat^ jEtuiich ohb asothisr^ 
and i9^m:Bi)^anan'^.q9i|toQi^ £ictaare 

defi|(|9»iid^.;^tD| tjb4gf,.GoA% .eaiieciaBy tbb tribe of 
them: ef ^iKU(^^;ilrgyi€Aoto»t(0 ^was, theiiehiief, ; who 
PQMfeif^t .tiW l«€!ry oountcy- *ht<ih;iis the subject of 

thifk.,l(9p;ri^.«.^; ;.;.;:: if',/;_^ I,.;-. , ..'... -.i^ i ;• . > 

1% is d^aif fiQfti Ta^tUt^ in Us tireailsede OerM 
maqidy wbaV Ihf9 y^ure jai^,.wiy . of Uving.x)f the 
Gkffifi|Ui9 til. hi^i JWfte .Vi»et: iaA whoever witt 
compare what Sid0ni<i» AfioUinarishas said of the 


habit <»f the Goths, and compare that with what 
Caesar says d some of the Britains, and with the 
habit of those who Kve in the isles and north parts 
of this couAlrf, will find that the Picts, their pre- 
decessors, were of a Gothish extract. 

I begin with Csesar, he says of the Britains, 1. 5. 
de hello Gallico, that « Many of them who dwell 
in the inner part of the country, sow no corns, 
but live upon milk and fiesh, and are doathed 
with skins."* Then Tadtus, L de Germanid, says, 
^ Thdr cloathing is a loose coat, joined together 
with a broach, but ibr want of that, witfi a thorn ; 
being uncovered as to any thing else, they ly bask- 
ing whole days upon the hearth by the fire. The 
most wealthy are distinguished by a garment, not 
flowing like the Sarmathians and Parthians, but 
closs, and representing every j<nnt* They wear 
also the skins of wild beasts^*^ 

Sidonius ApoUinaris, Ej^st. 20. 1. 4 describing 
the habit of the Gothish princes, says, << The dress 
of the Grothish princes connsts of a robe of white 
dlk, splendidly adorned with scarlet and gold, re- 
sembling by these ornaments the redness of their 
hair and sldn. Their appearance is terrible even 
in peac^ On their feet they wear shoes of the* 
rough hide ; their limbs are naked ; a dose party- 
coloured tunic scarce reaches to their bare thighs ; 
its sleeves cover only the upper part of their arms ; 
swords hung by belts, and green mantles trimmed 
with purple borders, fall from 4he shoulders on 
ih^ waists, which are bound up in dose vests 
made of skins, and fastened with broaches. When 
thus attired, they are armed with javelins, axes. 


and darts, and defended by shields, having thor 
outer edges painted white and the bosses of a deep 
yellow, calculated to dazzle the sight, the intended 
effect oftbe mixture of these glaring colours.* Who- 
ever did see an Higblandnian armed, will find this 
an exact description of him, eqperially of one of the 
better eort« 



ALL languages are apt to change much in conti- 
nuance of time, by the nuxture of other people 
among the natives ; and upon this account, no lan- 
guage is pure and without mixture of foreign words. 
The old noother languages are the standards we 
are to examme them by : the Scythian tongue was 
the mother of the Gothic, Saxon, and Danish ; 
and the latiguage we use now in the north part of 
Scotland is composed of these three, with some 
Latin and French words introduced by the Ro- 
mans and French when they were here. The far- 
ther north the country stretcheth, the language 
Cometh the nearer to the Gothic ; and in Orkney 
and Shetland, the common people do speak a dia- 
lect of the Gothic, which they call Norse, a speci- 
men of which Dr. Wallace has given us in the ac- 
count of the islands of Orkney, printed at London 
in 1700, in the 68th and 69th pages, in the Lord^s 

72 unroftT of the picts. 

prayer^ in that Norse language, ' which they haire 
derived to them, either flrom the Pictft, or aotne 
others who first plairfed Orkney, which h/& remarks 
has little of the Norwe^n language as it is now, 
and'seems to be the old Grothic. * 

The learned Basbeqoius, in his epistles concern- 
ing his journey to Constantinople, has givmi ik 
a few words of some Goths he saw there, who 
lived near the Preeop*T«rtan, which agree much 
with our language. And Runolph Jonas, in his 
small Islandick dictionary,. printed with the learn- 
ed Dr. Hicks's Grammaticse Anglo^Saxonicss, has 
some thousands of words which have much the 
affinity with what we caD broad Scots. In it you 
may trace the Gothic tongue in such words as 
^gnify the parts of our body inward or outward, 
Our.cloaths and vesture, our eating. and drinking, 
but specially in matters telatii^'totthesea^sndto 
, the .Utbouring of the ground, in which the commons 
are tnost employed ; and in our numbers, in the 
days of tbe week, and in ^at lUaileis talcindred, 
aikd in several words .b^lotigifi|^ f» neligixHi and 
th}Qg9 Sadred, Our geographbal aDdbydrogri^phi- 
cal words are pure Gothic, such as Ross, Ness, 
Sund, Ey; for land environed with' watery With 
.which Ey, the:names of many ialiBs.tehiuniite,*and 

* Favor ii^i chimri. 8. Helleur ir i naiQ thite. 3^ Cilia coddum 
thite cumma. 4 Veja thine mota vafa gort o ywnit anpa gort i 
chimrie. 5. Ga vus da oh dadalight brow vora. 6« Firgive vya 
sinna vora sin vee firgive sindara mutha v\iSt 7..Ljve us je i 
tuntotion. 8. Miti delirem vus fro olt ilt. Amiefn ; or, on sa 



Ibe .many monosyllaUe words which are in use 
amongst the vulgar still, are Grothic. I shall ad* 
duoe a few> which we pronounce as the Groths do*- 

Ate, to eat 

Aed, an oath 

Ande, endej our lireath 

Back, the back 

Band, a bond . 

Barn, a bairn. 

Bed, our bed 

Beine, a bane, or bone 

Ber, bare, naked 

Bid, to pray 

Byde, to stay 

Bir, force, might 

Blad, a blade, or heft 

Braud, bread 

Bure, a hour 

Dyn, noise 

Gang, going, and rank 

Gape, hiare 


Glass, glass, vitrum 

Gled, glad, joyful 

Hdite, heat 

Hight, height 

Hola, a hole 

lit, ill, evil 

Kol^ a coal 

Kross, a korsse, cross 

Land, earthy ground 

Dyr, a door 
Drift, snowing 
Ele> ale 
Eg^, an egg 
Ey, an isle 
* Fal, fai ca8U9 
Fas, face 
Fet, foot 
Flag, yield, flee 
Folk, people 
Foder, paMum 
Frise, frize, gelare 
Frost, glacies 
Fugle, fowl 
Gagn, gain 
Bid, rescued 
Byf, frequent 
Ryse, to rise 
Rot, corrupt 
Saal, saule, soul 
Saar, a sair, wound 
Sell, to sell 
Syd, to seetb, boil 
Skade, sked, skeith^ hurt 
ShjUy to shine 
Skill, art 
Ship, nams 
Slae, to slay 

t4 -fttStOSY OF Tflfr VtCtt. 

BcfrdCf yerd, earth Sttig, "ptt^tetiee^ 4i 'rittdiMr 

XiVfe) vfta Stinly toistraiten 

Jjoi, prsi^ Btir, to iftdYe 

Lost, tint, Sturtj commotion 

List, pleasure, will Stour, dust inmottOB 

Malt, ma«itt Tale, a tale 

Mila, a mile ' Tal, tak, wxtdber 

Mill, a miln Torf, a tulf 

Milde, mild Ugla, an owl, hotrkt 

Mold, a mould UU, oul, wddl 

Nafn, a nanre Var, warry, 'beware 

Ny t, nit, neat, new Vetic, wark^ 'Wtnrk 

Puke, an ill spirit Zeed, geed, weitt. 
Reek, riek,jr«mf» 

These words are yet used not only in Fife, "(wiiM^ 
was the chief part of the Fidtish kingdom^) f>ilC 
also in all the coast of the Grerman sea, ^emii as flar 
as the Humber> to <which the possession of iSie 
Picts reached ; and smce they possessed ttueh dt 
that country upwards of a tiboossnd y^ears, tmA 
were not exterminated all of them (as Iball be 
shewn afterwards) but most of the oonitkidn people 
were, upon their submission, incorporated with 'Uie 
Scots, and these wfio conquered their cmjmtrj : 
there is no doubt our language, and flie dialeet 
which prevaileth, and is yet in use as ficr'as'Htfitt* 
ber, retaineth still tnuch of that tongue and many 
of their words, and the same way of pronouncing 
them. The learned John Ray has fttrnished us 
a strong argument for this, in his collection -df 
English words, not generally tisedi with their ng- 
nifications and original, in two alphttbeticai cata? 

logfUBB, th« QM qC aufih as «xe pvqper to the nortb- 

en^.tbt odiir W tbe unAem oounlie^ printed at 

LMdm MiK^ 1674. Xb<> fiwt o^alogw jg. of the 

vorthenr w^mtor; Imauset iatbe wxtik eip<ecU%» 

ttke kMfpuagt «f th<» cDOMDpD p«Q|ile if to a stiangec 

▼ci)p dffi<aiU to b» viMlefst<K)4» and iodeed* tbe 

ttoil: «f tb49e^«iffib«m woid9 be gkn^ijx accouoC of 

ui Mb alpbabat of oivrthtra wovds, are sucb aa aa^ 

▼our oT.iHAiail wa caK iNPond 9cot8» in distinctioa to 

&eIBg^toldfflllnwganyg,aadthe tefimd langiuga 

of tbe 8»tr}r> wiAsik Iba maopa podita peopla aoiqiy 

UB do t]S€^ tod i» mada i^p.of Savpo^ Fr^ob, and 

l4ilt&irairdi» I gntetx tb(| bad j of tbe Gotbic laar^ 

guag^ ciwa aa id waa vpokffn bjr tba opmowftt pepN 

pie kt tlie v^slbam aoualiM af ScptIaod> aod in 

Orkney and Shetlandi had many woida wbicb $m 

aal nmA aovr^aia^aa wa vaaat within tbe primied 

Urtoria^of Sia WiHiaaa WaHaea, Oia .floveraor of 

Sortiand^ and of KaigBMiart l»we^ ai^dintba 

old aila of paaliameat Knd Keg^wq JJ^^t^^astateaii 

aid kk ibe wniiKi0$ of Sir David Liadaay and 

BidlG|ft Qai^ioL Xk>uglaalt and otbainsr ', thfre bei^ 

ifek dHnI aoteval iNrrda of a^ Sela^aiw eQctracts and 

>adi aa waa uaad of (M bgr tli^ Q0b» wbo dw^ 

aponthecmtoiQf the Bdtkl aoai apd ii> Norway, 

X^aiiaiadfii aad Swadaa^ fropft ^hj^oca, the Picta 

caM tb our islaa and nortli oouolietti aad tbaia 

^ fifit poisMt at) the cotftt of U^ ^f Fioan sea to 

tbe Humber ; as Ktrkua, the name of the royal 

burgh ib die aniiland of Qrk^y i and Ae May, 

to tint dayi^ the name of an i^aad m the aioiitb of 

tbe Fardi oF Foath» wUch in the aifeiaiit Qathic* 

«gQifieth a greeik i«bMid^bcaAia#<<if llP a<mmad\oas- 



76 BtisTOftY ot THS picrsi. 

Bess for pasture, for it is all green grass. These 
and sereral others I met with in the MS. I^egister 
of the priory of St. Andrews ; such as MtmeehatOy 
afterwards oilled Monichif perhaps the same whieh 
is now caUed Mounzie, and DotdanachOf called in 
that register afterwards Chondro^hedaH^fif Hyrkat' 
nachten, Machchirb, Hadnaeien afterwaixdsy and now 
Nachtonf a place upon the north coast of Fife. 
MuckrosSi afterward Kylfymont, and now St An- 
drews ; which clearly show, that the old kngui^ 
of this shire was the Gothic, used by i^te Picts, the 
ancient possessors of it, who continued in the sole 
possession of it, and of these other counties above 
mentioned, according to the report of ancient his- 
torians, as well English as Scots, for more than a 
thousand years. 

These words, with the other remains of that lan- 
guage we call broad Scots, which is yet used by the 
vulgar, abundantly prove, that the Picts were a 
Crothic nation, and -their language was a dialect of 
the Grothic, distinct from the Saxon, whi<;h is the 
mother of the language i^ken in that part of Bri- 
tain besouth the Humber, of which the learned 
Mr. Ray giveth an account in his alphabet of sooth 
and east country words, many of which are not un- 
derstood by our common people, nor even by these 
who dwell in the north counties of South Britain* 

The poet Claudian, Car. viiL ver. 31 and32,'8ays, 

<< The Orcades vtere moist with Siixon gort^ 
Warm with the blood of Piets flowed Thtde^a shore ; 
And whilst itB head, each Scotsman's tomb uprears,. 
Icji Juverna all dissobtes in tears.'*' 

In which he points at the dwellings of these people» 
makes the Thule to b9 the eQvmUy possessed by the 
Ficts ; which Thulci in an essay reprinted with the 
last editioo of Carobd^n aA LondoDy 1695^ I ha^ve 
shown, is to be u9d^stood Qf th« north part of Bri* 
tain, separated from the rest by the firths of Forth 
aiKiC)yd^aadtbefili]»oflattdb«(wixttii0Qi. And 
it WW upon tins account that the i^emraibie Btde 
calkd the Fiett and Scots «« Tn^ttsmariiiie ttatioflSy 
not because they were situated out of Brirtaia, but 
because they were divided ftom tbe Bntena by two 
gulfAa of the sea, tise one en the east a^d the other 
on the west^wfaiah penetrates far into the country.* 
I think by this ttme it appeaveth to be clearj that 
die FictSy for die arguments adduced, wore of a 
Gethislk extract, aind oune from Norway aiid the 
pkees Wjpon the Bakic, to our isles and continent. 
I shall conclude it behoved to be so from what 
Prooopius says, who wrote the^history of the Goths, 
1. % Versionis Orotians?, p. 899> he gives there an 
aoeount of a conference betwixt Belisarius and some 
6€>tbish ambassadors who were sent to him. The 
Goths say. ^ We give to you Sicily, that targe and 
rich islimd, without which your possession <^ Africa 
is msecure.'* And Belisarius in return, said, ** We 
yidd Britain to the 6oth«, which is much largor 
then Sicily, and which belongs to the Romans by 
ancient right.^^ I ask who these Goths in Britaui 
were that Belisarius speaketh of, if they were not 
the FieiB ? which certainly they behoved to be, by 
the preceding arguments. 





TO give, an account of the manners, policy, and 
religious rites of the Picts, we must have our re*' 
course to the vestiges of them which do yet remain, 
amongst us, and to the Latin historians* 

The governments and civil policy of the Picta 
was like to that of the Germans from whom. they 
sprung : of them Tacitus remarks, 1. de Germanifi,. 
cap. 7.. << They make choice of their kings for their 
noble extraction, their commanders and generals 
for their courage. Nor have their kings a bound- 
less and unlimited power : their captains they pre- 
fer more for example than command, if active, if of 
presence c^ mind and behave themselves well at 
the head of the army. But it is not permitted to 
reprimand, nor put in chains, nor indeed chastise^, 
to any but the priests ; not as if it were for a 
punishment, or by orders of the captiun, but as it 
their gods commanded it, whom they believe assist- 
ing, in their engagements. They carry the eiBges 
and certain banners taken down from the groves 
into the battle ; and what is the chief incitement to 
their courage is not chance, nor a fortuitous em- 
l^y^iigf which composes the squadron on pointed 
battle, but their own fainily and nearest relations* 
and hard by are their children ; from whence the. 
lamentations of their women, and cries of their in- 
fants may be heard : these are the most sacred wit- 


neBses^ and the highest applauders of every man^s 
bravery. To their mothers and wives they declare 
their hurts, nor are they afraid to number or suck 
their wounds ; they carry provisions toj and ani- 
mate them when they are fighting. It is recorded, 
that certain troops beginning to stagger and giving 
ground were made to rally again by the women, 
by their importunities, the exposing of their own 
breasts, and demonstrating their approaching cap- 
tivity ; which upon the account of their women, 
they bear with much more impatience ; so the af- 
fection and faith of these clans are the more effeo- 
tually secured, to whom (inter obsides puella qua^ 
que nobiks imperanturj orders are given to send 
amongst their hostages the noblest virgins. More- 
over, they think there is something sacred in them, 
and provident and foreseeing ; neither do they re- 
ject their counsel, or neglect to follow their advice.^ 
He sdiys, cap. 11. *^ Of little affairs the princes,, 
of greater all in general advise : so notwithstanding, 
that, these things, whose arbritrationis in the power 
of the populace, are fully canvassed amongst the 
princes.^' And in another place he S£uth, << Silence 
is commanded by the priests, in whom there i» 
lodged then the coercive power ; by and by the 
king or prince, according to every one's age, their 
quality, reputation gained in the wars, or talent in 
rbetorick, are heard, more by theauthority of per- 
suading, than the power of commanding ; if the 
opinion displeases, it is rejected by a murmuring ; 
if it pleases, they clash their weapons : it is the 
most honourable manner of assent to applaud it 
with their arms.^^ 

80 HitTOftT 09 vni ncM 

This WM the poliey fonongst; the GtramnHj the 
Mcestors of the Picts ; and who will oompane the 
yesliges of the Pictish govemmetil which are flieii* 
tioned in the Roman writers, will see the Picts bad 
the flame. Thus Tacitufl teils us of Galgacus^ who 
oommaaded thearmy of the associated Cakdoiiian% 
oottsisting of Scots wad Picts, th^ <« he was prefer* 
rei for his high birth and greet virtue/^ And Dio, 
in. bis account of Sev^rus, says, that when the 
emperor was treating a peace with iht Caledonians^ 
ArgentooOxas Caledonius treated with htmi and 
he was the chief of the clan, which was named from 
the painting of their body with a red colour, as 
those who were of a Gothic eactract marked their 
bodies as the Ooths did with cinnaber, as is ia^nu* 
ated here by the word eocA, which signifies a red or 
scarlet colour. That the kings of the Picts"* power 
was limited, is clear also fiom what Tacitus saith 
m the life of Agricola, cap. 12. ^^ They were for^ 
merly governed by kings, but now they are divided 
into factions and parties, by some ringleaders.^ 
And Dio, in Sererus, saith of them, ** The people 
for the most part hath the government ;" which is 
to be und^stood, as Tacitus represented the go« 
vemment of the Germans in the place dted before : 
for Tacitus telleth us, that the Caledonians had 
their conventions, in which they consulted about 
the matters of greatest importance ; cap. S7. in 
Agricola thus : " The Britains supposing them** 
selves defeated, not by the courage of their adver- 
saries, but conduct of their general, who had watch- 
ed his opportunity, abated notlring of their arro- 
gance, but listed the stoutest men they had, and 


canied their wives and children to places of the 
greatest security. The clans confederated together, 
meeting frequently, and by religious rites and of- 
fering up sacrifices, confirmed their assodation.^ 
And it is very like, in these meetings, the same 
order and manner was followed, which was obser- 
ved, as was said, by the Grennans thnr ancestors. 
Our historian John Fordun, gives us a list of the 
Pictish kings, in the tenth and twelfth chapters of 
his fourth book of his history of the Scots : Titulo^ 
de Catalogo Begum Pictorum, thus : 


« Chap. X, 



1 Cmythne,* son of Eynn^ the judge 

€» rwn. J- To these two are ascribed 
3 Tharan} 


4 Dmarthettfy 

5 DuchU 


6 Duordeghd 

7 Decokheth 




8 Combust 


9 Caranathereth 


10 GamaboJger 

11 Wyp<^^th 



Thoafr marked thus * axe not fouiid in Chron. Pict 

1 From the name of this king, the Irish, fond of patron^rmics, 
called the Picts Cruitnich, or wheat eatera. 

2 In the list of the Pictish kings, taken Irom Chron* PicC 
there will be found 14 betwixt Cruythn^ and Ghed^, there cal- 
led Oilgide. The improbability of the statement of Fordun, 
that two kings rdgned «50 years, sufficiently marks his list asr 

anrrimT or vbm nemk 

19 Metrehanertg^ 17 

IS . J'VbcAim tke wIlHe 9ft 

14 TheOarger Amfrnif^ 1« 

15 Canatabntl S 

17 Fer^httkf^ son ef Fjrny«l ^ * 

18 earlarrf «he rich 60 

19 J5hrgti^,*8cmofFerg» SPf 
a& T^lofaig^w-, sow of Eeothep W> 
21 2>ttr5e, othefime called NecffarTiT, 9ott <tf If& 4ft 
23 ThalargeTy son of Am jle 2 
S3 Nectavt Chaltamoth 10 
M XXur^e Gortnoch 90 
M Gaham 15 

26 Durst J son of Gigunim 9 

27 Duraty son of Ochtred 8 
28^ Gamardj son of Gigurum 6 
21^ Kelturany his brother 6 
SB Thalarger, son of Mordeleth 11 
$1 Durst, son of Moneth 1 
92 Thalagath 4 
99 Brude, son of Merlothon 19 

In his reign^ St. Columba havmg «obw to 
Scotland,' converted him to ChiiilMMnly* 
Bede says^ that St« Columba came into 


1 Veneiab]eBedefawwbettetbavtonyftbatSt.CQl«nifaft 
Gitt«toS60tluMltoiKeMfaWtb«kiiigoftlMPkt9. Iti»cuiious 
that flonluii aboold mske tlus awBrtion»in optMii^Q to the 
Torj^ ftathorit J whieh he quotes* Odumba ooaverted Bradtf ^aod 
most of the northern Piets, i e. those to the north of the Grun- 
pummounUdnsytheDicaledonesy i^ the ninthjear of th»i«igD- 

misnwr n ybb ncn. gg 

FMaxkd in tke ninth yen of ihe reigi 
ofBmd^, UtemofMerkiliM^ Awiy 
powerful prince, whidi wmiim ftmt of 
Christ, 565. . 

This is die «aUil&gue of die Pirtinh Hny^ wfc# 
it seems w€*e iieitbMs^ thvo^ sone of 4iiiir ^e^ 
pie Airere Christians son^ time hefinw tUs. . So 
Brud^ the son of Meriothon, was the iinstOfaristian 

M Gamardf son of Dompiiatfa. 80 

fie £N«aded AJberne&hy' 
36 Nectaie, son of Irb H 

86 KenelySon of LuchtiPW 14 

•7 Nectave,* son of Fode 6 
38 Brudcy son of FatbAa 

89 Tkalargery son of F(irtb«ver 1} 

' 40 TalargeM^ son of Amfeod 4 

41 Gamardy son of Dompnal $ 

i*2 Durstf his brother 6 

43 Brude, son of Bil^ . 11 

44 Gharauy son of Amsedeth 4 
46 Brude, son of Derili 21 
46 Nectave, his brother 18! 

1 The register of St. AiMireirs 4»e]ibes the foundation of 
Aliemettij-tothe auooessor of Garaard^Neotaye, or Kethan II.: 
and if we judge fKHOi et3n3iolo^, it munt have^baenibundfid 
by one of this name, Aber^Nethan. 


He, according to Bede, received letters out 
of England, about the observation of the 

. feast of Easter.^ 
♦7 Gamardy* son of Feredeth 14 

48 Oengusa,^ son of Fergusa 16 

40 Neetaioey* son of Derely, nine months 
50 OengusGy* son of Brud^ six months 
61 Jlpin, son of Feredeth, 26 years and six 

. months 

52 Brudi,* son of Tenegus 2 

53 Alpiuy* son of Tenegus 2 

54 Bursty son of Thalargan 1 

55 Thalargery Druskcn* 4 

56 ThaktrgeTy son of Tenegus 5 

57 Constantiney son of Fergus 40 
He built Duntreldon, which some MSS. 

read Dunkeld' 

58 Hungusy son of Fergus 10 

59 Durstohrger 4 

60 Eqghancy son of Hungus 3 

61 Feredethy son of Badoc 3 

62 Brudcjy son of Feredeth, one month 

63 Kenethy* son of Feredeth 1 

64 Brudcy* son of Fotehel 2 

65 DrttskeUy son of Feredeth 3 

2 Ceol&id, Abbot of Wiremouth, wrote his fiimous letter on 
this suligect to Nethan in 715, which seems to have incited him 
to expel the monks of lona in 716, because they had taken the 
oppodte edde to him in the question about Easter, then agitated 
betwixt the British and Irish churches. 

3 This Prince (Hungus, son of Fergus) was the greatest war- 
rior since Burst, and he extended the Pictish dominions over 
the greater part of present Scotland. 


In this tieign the FkAs entirely lost their 
kingdoBi, which was transferred to Km« 
netiit kii^ of the Soots, «ad his successors. 

Any vAio coinpaveth these names of the Pictiflli 
kings with ^he namesof llie Soots idngs, will see 
they mnst hare been of a diffsrent origin and ex- 
tract. The iMnes of the Piots axe such as are in 
use amongst die Gennans and Goths. EenelFiHus 
Luchtrefi) bow Luthren, is liuther, a name proper 
to the Germans. Several of those names are re- 
corded in tlie ancient register cS the priory of St. 
Andrews, of whidi there will be occanon to speak, 
when we give an account of a Pictish record men* 
tioned there. 

The chief seat of the kings of the Picts (while 
their government stood) was at Aberoethy, where 
they had pubhc schools of learning, and professors 
of sciences and mrts. The chief administrators un- 
der the kings, (when they were heathens) in rdi- 
gious matters, were the Druids, and (when they 
were Christians,) the' Culdees : and in cirii matters 
the Shanes and Abthanes had the management, 
who came with the FIcts from their ancient seats 
in Germany, especially from the Baltic, Norway, 
and Denmark, where, as Buchanan says, *^ In for- 
mer times, there was no name superior to that of a 
knight, except that of a Thane, i. e* governor or 
sheriff of a province or county, which custom as I 
hear, is yet observed amcmgst the Danes.^-— BucI^ 
anan, vol. 1. cap. vi. * 

* Tbane was a titk coniQion in the southern part of the islands 
bat that it was known among the Hcts. ceatoon no authority- 



It seems that in the Pictish time, the Abthanes 
and Thanes were all, who for the degree were cal- 
led Earls in after times ; they were such' as the 
sheriffs are now, they collected the king^s rents in 
the counties they were set over, and were judges in 
matters civil and criminal. The Abthane was, (as 
Fordun sheweth, Scoti Chronicon, K4. c..l9.) ^^The 
chief of the Thanes, their master, under the king, 
to whom they were obliged to account yearly for 
the royal revenues collected in their respective pro- 
vinces* The Abthane himself had the management 
of the exchequer, and thus he held the office of 
treasurer, or chamberlain.'*^ * 

The qualities and manners of the Pictsare to be 
gathered from the ancient authors also. Herodian, 
in the history of Severus, saith of them, " That 
they were a warlike people, and loved to shed 
Uood : they used a narrow shield and lance^ and 
a sword hanging by their naked side, and made no 
use of coat of mail or helmet.'^ Tacitus, in his 
account of Germany, says, •* The bodies of that 
nation are hardned, their Umbs compact, their coun- 
tenances threatening, and their courage greater;'^ 
and the Caledonians, their offspring, were in these 

No proof has been produced that it was used in this country be- 
fore the time of Malcohn lit* who introduced Saxon names 
and customs ; though the ignorance or the flattery 6f some an- 
nalists, as is often the case, has led them to bestow a dignity, 
fioniliar to themselves, on men who lived befive it was known. 
* The office of Abthane is a creation of the author of Scoti 
Chxonicon. It seems to have been fabricated to give greater dig- 
nity to Crinan, the husband of Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm 
II., and father of King Duncan, and consequently pateriial 
ancestor of the royal fimily of Scotland. 


things like to them. Dio, in Severus^ says, << That 
thsj had whingers also.^ And he addetb, that 
*^ They indure hunger and cold, and all sort of 
toil, and feed in the woods upon the barks and 
roots of trees ; but they have one sort of meat, of 
wbich, upon all occasions, they take the bigness of ' 
a bean, which sustains them for some days.^ What 
Tacitus observed of the hospiti^ty of the Genu.insy 
is yet remarkable in those descended of them : *^ It 
^was held a crime to turn any out of doors ; every 
one treated answerable to his fortune; when the 
provisions were all spent, he which last entertained, 
was a guide and companion of his guest, and, 
though uninvited, they go to the next houses nor 
is it taken ill : they were received with the same 
civility, no one distinguished the known, and un- 
known, as far. as related to the right of hospitality : 
their diet 'wa^siBtiple, wild fruits, fresh meat, or 
curds, without dainties; they expect hung^ ; ale 
was their drink, made of barley •'' &c. 

'As to their religit>us rites, (in the time before 
they were Christians) they must be collected from 
the hint Tacilxis giveth of them, and from the ve»- 
tiges of them which yet remain in .the country. « 
Tacitus, in his 87th chapter of the life of Agrifola, 
says of the inhabitants of this country, " That after 
the fight they had with the forces of Agricola, when 
they attacked the ninth legion in their treinches, 
and were beat off by the comii^ up of Agricola 
with the rest of his. army, they prepared for ano- 
ther battle : The clans confederated together, meet- 
ing frequently, and by religious rites and sacrifices, 
confirmed their association," Tacitus, in hl^ account 


88 HxrroBT •f vhb ficti • 

of Gernumy, cap 39^ Aowb the nolare imd quality 
of those Msembliei^ where he treats of the Sem- 
noiies* << The Semnones report, that they are the 
most anoiei!^ and ncbk of the Suevians: the truth 
of their antiquity is oonfirmed by their re%ioii. 
At a set time, all the people of one blood asaemble 
by their embaseies in a wood, aaerad by the augii- 
.ries or oracles of their ancestors, and by an ancient 
TeneratioD, and celebrate die horrid bq^mui^ of 
their barbarous rites by pubUcfy killing a man. 
There is also another reverence paid to that grove : 
JDo one alters into it, unless bound l&e im inferior 
persop, and pro&ssing openly the power of their 
god : if by <^Mnoe he falls down, it is not lawful to 
be taken away, or rise up, but he is rolled off the 
gvound : and thither all their superstitiou tends ; 
and from thence were derived the origin of their 
nation, that there was God, rder of all, diat all 
beside were sulgect and oheying*^ 

Our Caledonians descending from them did ob- 
serve the fike riteis^ which were performed by the 
Druids, their priests, whose chief residence was in 
the Isle of Man, which is ritoated betwixt Britain 
and Ireland : they came there from Ireland, whidi, 
in ancient dmes, was called the Holy Island ; Sfooi 
this ide they came first over to the south coast of 
Britain, and from thence spread all over the island, 
of which Pliny, writing of the Druids and thdr 
magic art, says, in the first chapter of the xxxth 
book, «< Why need I mention these things of an 
art, that has passed over the ocean, and been car- 
ried to the extreme boundaries of nature ? And to 
this day Britain celebrates it with as many ceremo^ 


IflSTO&Y OF THE FICT8. • 69 

Hies as could be offered among the Persians.^ And 
besides what Tacitus says of the rites of the Druids 
in Britain, Caesar, in his sixth book de be]lo Gallico, 
where he describeth the religion of the Druids fully, 
says, '^ Their religion is found in Britain, and they 
who wish to understand their discipline thoroughly, 
must go there to learn it.^ And in another place, 
he gives us the articles of it, thus, *' They hold 
that the soul does not perish, but passes after death 
from one body to another ; and they think by. thus 
teaching a contempt of death, that they best excite 
the courage of their disciples. They discourse o^ 
and deliver to the youth, many things about the 
heavenly bodies and their motions; the extent of the 
universe, and of this earth ; the nature of things, 
and the attributes and government of the gods.'^ * 
They maintained the immortality of the soul, and 
were both divines and philosophers ; they were the 
priests virho performed the sacrifices, and they were 
the judges in all controversies both civil and cri- 
minal, and they were the phy^cians to whom they 
had recourse in their sickness, and they were the 
prophets who foretold what was to come to pass 
among them ; as may l^e seen in Caesar's commen- 
taries, and in Pliny's natural history. All their 
religious rites were performed in woods and groves, 
under such trees as spread most, and the Druids 
had their name from the oak tree which they 

* There is little probability that Druidism was established 
in Pietland. It is of the southern and western parts of Britain 
onlj that Csesar speaks, of the northern he had no knowledge. 
The Zhruids seem to have been confined to the Celtic tribes, 
and to have been unknown to the Scandinavian or Germanic 


90 HISTORY OF rat ncTB. 

esteemed moBU There ate muny vestiges of them 
lemaining amongst the country people, especially 
in the north and the isles, and every where they 
are apt to make use of charms, notwithstanding 
that ever nnce the Christian religion was recaved, 
care has been taken to extirpate them. 

It is very probable that some particular persons 
amongst the Picts may have been converted to 
tile Christian religion by the Scots, who very soon 
embraced it : but the sera of the conversion- of the 
Picts in Fifeshire, is by our historians deduced 
from the arrival (in the east nook of fifeshire,) 
of St. Regulus, whom they cfdl St Rule, and his 
companions, with the reHques of St. Andrew. 

They differ somewhat about the time when this 
happened : our great historian Archbishop Spottis* 
wood, condescendeth on the year of Christ 370, 
when Hergustus was king of the Picts ; and others 
agree that it was when Hergustus was king. Mr. 
Maule, in his MS. history, makes Regulus to have 
arrived here in 363, in the feign of our king Fethel* 
machus. The extracts I have out of the great 
register book of the priory of St. Andrews, make 
Constantius to have wasted the city of Patras, where 
the relics of St. Andrew were kept ; and to have 
carried them away in 345 ; and that the third night 
before the emperor came there, St. Rule was warned 
by a vision to take some of the reliques to bring 
them hither, and it was some years thereafter be- 
fore he arrived here. Fordun, lib. 2. cap. 46, 47, 
and 48, has the history of this, and says it was some 
years after the first viinon before Regulus left Pat* 
ras ; and that he had a second vision, commanding 

Blfm>BT OF THB HCTt. 91 

Uai to bring tbem liitber; upon wbidi be took 
ycyiLge hy 8ei^ wkb bis cranpniiotiS) And near two 
years tbi^eafter, sufiered shipwreck at Muokross, tm 
the Fife cottsf^ when Hiifgast, the son of Foif;his^ 
whom he calls (in the catalogiM of the Piotish 
kings) Forgso, reigned h^e; and be says, that 
** King Hungusy building his pdaoe in the same 
place near the church, granted as a perpetual alma- 
gift to St. Regulus and his companimis, oertrai 
lands, to be cultiyated for rainng com/' Fordun 
caileth Regulus an abbot ; the excerpts of the old 
register of St. Andrew caileth him a bishop^ and his 
companions his clerks ; and showeth, that after- 
wards they travelled through the country, and 
built several churches, (which in those times were 
built (^ wood, with which this country abounded,) 
the manuscript mentioneth three, one at Forteviott 
a town then, one at Monecbata, which was after- 
wards called Monichi, and beyond the Monetb, 
one at Doldanha, called afterwards Chondrobedar 
lion. It is not known where these towns stood, 
the buildings being then of wood, perished, and 
there is no vestige left of tbem. 

Regulus made his abode in the east nook of 
Fifeshire, and is reported to have lived there 38 
years after his arrival, serving God devoutly in 
cells, and gave the rise to the CuldeeS) who lived 
there for many ages thereafter. Boethius^ Hist, libb 
6, says, << That Hurgust built near his palace a 
church, dedicated to St. Andrew. It is reported to 
be the same that is still standing in the common 
burial ground of the aUiey, in which there ajre 
many ancient but nameless tomb-stones* This 



church was fonnerlj caUed Kilreul, t . ۥ the church 
of St. Regulus, or rather the church built by the 
•persuasion of St. Regulus. It is now called the 
old church of St. Andrew.^ After Hurgust, their 
greatest benefactor was king Hungus ; the extracts 
out of the old register of St. Andrews show us, that 
<< Hungus gave for a parish to the church of St. 
Andrew all the lands lying betwixt the seas Is- 
hundenema and Sletheuma^ and bounded by a line 
extending from Largo, by Ceres, to Hyhatnachtea 
Machchirb, now called Hadnachton. And the king 
gave this district, t. e. Eilrymont, to God and St* 
Andrew his apostle, with its watery, meadows, fields^ 
pastures, muirs, and woods, in a pe^rpetual alms- 
gift, with this peculiar privilege, that its inhabir 
tants should be exempted from levies, the building 
of castles and bridges, and all taxes imposed by the 
state. In confirmation of this privilege, the king 
in presence of his nobles, brought a turf, cut from 
that land, and laid it on the altar of St. Andrew.^^ 
The excerpts of the manuscript register tell, that, 
<< after the destruction of the Fictish kingdom by 
the Scots, the interests of the church flourished or 
decayed, in proportion to the devotion which the 
kings and nobles paid to St. Andrew. The royal 
residence was at Rymont (t. e. Eingshill) which 
Hungus gave to St< Andrew." This is confirmed by 
Buchanan, who says, <^ Kenneth translated the epis- 
copal see which the Picts had placed at Abernetby, 
to the church of St. Rule, which was afterwards 
called St. Andrew." And that Brude, the sou 
and last king of the Picts, gave to St. Servan and 
the Culdees the isle of Loch-Leven. 


CHAP. tV. 



WHEN such of the Picts as wilUngly submittsd 
lo OUT kings were incorporated in ose kingdom 
with the Scots^ there were several of the chief men 
amongst them who persistedln opposing our kings, 
and were therefore forfeited^ and their lands ^ven 
to those who did best service in the subduing then : 
some of those chief men who were forfeited remo- 
Ted, with liieir followers and adherents, to Norway 
and Denmark, from whence they had their descent 
and origin : others y^&aX to Northumberland and the 
adjacent Aunties in England^ where they fixed their 
abode, and iofested wil^ their incuruons these oeua« 
ties iti Scotland which lay nearest to them, which 
is <;knr from the history c^ Isgulphus^ lately pub- 
lished from the manuscripts. He says, ^< After the 
death of the renowned King Edward^ Athelstane 
his son succeeded. Against him Anlaff, son of 
Sitric, formerly king of Northumberland, rebelled 
and carried on a cruel war. Having entered into 
a confederacy with Constantine, king of the Scots, ' 
and Ow<m» king of Cumberland, and many other 
barbarous chiefs, he (ought the king of England. 
The army which Anlaff drew together, consisted of 
a vast multitude of Danes and Norwegians, and 
Scots and Picts,^ &c And \n another place, he 
saith, *< He had passed the troops of the Orkney 


94 flisToay of the nets. 

men and the Picts.'* * And it is certain, there were 
some of them under the name of Picts in England, 
in the time of William the Conqueror, as appeareth 
from a statute of his (we shall give you,) which the 
learned Selden furnisheth to us, from an imperfect 
copy of Hoveden, the English historian, and from 
William Lamhard's Codex de Priscis Anglorum 
Legibus, wherein he says, " There are published 
several of the ancient laws of England, which, how- 
ever, do not every where agree with the copy I 
use." He judgeth it fit to exhibit it in his notes 
and Spicelegium ad Eadmeruln, page 189, thus : 
<* William, by the grace of God, king of the Eng- 
lish, and duke of the Normans, to all his subjects 
of France and England, greeting.—- Law li. Of 
religion and the public peace.— *-We ordain, in the 
first place, and above all, that one God be worship- 
ped through all our kingdom^ and that the faith of 
Jesus Christ be kept inviolate, that there be peace, 
security, concord and justice, betwixt the English 
and Normans, the Franks and Batons of Wales 
and Cornwall, the Picts and Scots of Albany,'' &c. f 
It is to be remarked, that Albania here is to be 

' * In the middle of the 10th centuiy, therefofe, when Con- 
stantine III. reigned oyer the united nations of North Britain^ 
the Picts were still recognised as a distinct race. The number 
of the army of the allies^ collected chiefly by the inilaenoe of 
Constantine, to whom Anlaff had fled for protection, was very 
great. It was conveyed to the Humber in 615 ships. 

t William obtained the crown of England in 1066. This 
statute, therefore, if correctly edited, points out the existence 
of the Picts as a separate people toward the end of the Itth 


taken, as Luddus and Pricieus make it, to contain 
the country benorth the Humber. • 

Others of the Picts went to the isles of Orkney 
and Shetland, where their language oontinueth yet 
in use amongst the commons, and is by them called 
Norse. These Picts who went to Orkney, Shet- 
land, and Norway, brought the Danes first to invade 
this country ; for Boethius telleth us. Hist. Scot. 1. 
10. f. 206, that the Danes, for the cause of the war, 
pretended that the miserable remains of the Picts, 

* Albany was at this time the proper name of the north and 
eaat parts of Scotland, the ancient seats of the Picts. It was no 
unnatural figure to call the people of Northmnbria *«of Alba^ 
nj/' as thej were descended of the inhabitants of that country ; 
or from the nimiber of them in the north of England* it may 
for a while have obtained the name of the mother country. That 
the Picts possessed the north of England up to the Humber, as 
conquerors of the Britons, for about a century, and that they 
afterwards remained as subjects to the new invaders of that di»* 
trict, the Jutes and Angles, is well entertained. Venerable Bede, 
and also Gildas, mention, that the Picts in 426 had seized all 
the country to the waU of Gallio, between the Sol way and the 
Tyne,and that about 448, they had extended their sovereignty 
to the Humber, and that they retained their dominion till about 
550 or 560, when Ida founded the kingdom of Bemicia, and Ella 
that of Deira, to which princes they submitted. The ordinance 
of the council of Calcot, or Calcuth, in Northumbria, in 787, 
against thenoted practice ofstaining their bodies, ascertains that 
they still remained a distinct race, probably the most numerous 
people of that kingdom, which then included both Bemicia and 
Deinu Thus the Picts are to be traced in the north of England, 
irom die beginning of the 5th to the end of the 1 1th century, 
when they became so mixed with the Danes, Jutes, and Angles, 
that they were no longer to be distinguished. As all these na- 
tions had the same origin with the Picts, the language of the 
north of England remains very similar to the common Scotish, 
and is more Gothic than that of any other English province. 
Pink. VpL 1. Part III.— Henry, Chap. ii. § 1. 

96 mi TOEY «F THK FXCT$. 

wlio had fled to th^ oouotry, had tmoBferTed to 
them all the right to the kingdom they had in Al- 
bion. The Danes lint invaded Fif<^ under the oon- 
dnct of Hubba and Hangar (as Boethius nam^ 
them) two of the idng^s Inothers. Buchanan ^ves 
several oauies of the war* the first is, that they were 
invited and iatreated by the Picts to make war up- 
on the Scots. And the second is, that Buemeus 
(whose wife had been debauched by Osbreth,) de« 
Ani them to make war. The third is, that the 
Danes, of all the Germans, abounded most with 
wealth, and their young people did so increase, that 
there was a necessity of seeking new seats for them. 
And dius they were induced to pass into Britain 
with a great fleet It is like some Picts in dieir com- 
pany persuaded them to land in Fife, which belong- 
ed formerly to them. By thdr incampments near 
to the water of Leven, it is like they landed in the 
bays where Bruntisland, Pettkur, Snghom, Sjik- 
aldie, and Dysert stand, and from thence marched 
up to the inner parts of th# country : They killed 
aU they met with, and burnt the churches and 
houses wherever they came. This.bappened when 
Constantine II. son of Kenetb II. was king of the 
Scots, anno 874. He soon raised an army, for 
none refused to take arms. against su(^ cruel ene- 
mies as the Danes were. The camps of the Danes 
were about two furlongs distance from each other, 
and the water of Leven run betwixt them. As the 
Scots army were advanctng towards the camp upon 
the north side of Leven water it rained mudh, and 
the water rose so high, that for two days it could 
not be passed : when it grew fair, Constantine took 



hold of the opportunity to fight these in the north 
camp, when, because o£ the spate of the water, the 
Danes in the camp upon the south side of the wa* 
ter could not assist their fellows in the north camp. 
Constimtine^s men first sdsed those who were fbrap 
ging^ and bringing proTisions to the camp. This 
did so vex the Danes, that they co«U not he kept 
in their, trenches as their commanders inclined they 
should, to wait tiU those in the other camp should 
join them. They came out of thmr trenches in 
confusion, their fierce countenance and the bulk of 
their bodies, being Ug men, the different arms they 
used, and the accoutrement they had, wearing white 
shirts, stitcht with rednlk, upon their armour, 
made them terrible to the Scots at their first ap- 
prondiittg to them: but after they had viewed each 
othet a while, the Scots fell in upon them with a 
loud shout. The fight, continued long face to face, 
with great fierceness^ till that the Danes, oppressed 
by the vast numbera of the Scots, (who at the same 
time attacked theni in the front and rear.) flung 
away their arms, and fled towards their trenches, 
many of them were killed by those who met them 
as they went thither ; some taking the water were 
drowned, some got safe to the other side, and 
amongst them was Hubba their general, who, by 
his skill in swimming, did escape; others perished 
in the water, being carried down with the spate. 
' There is, not far from the place where this battle 
was struck, in a bank to the south of Ddctan, in 
Singlassie parish, a pillar of hewn stone set on a 
pedestal ; it is about five or six feet high, one foot 
thick, and two broad : the broad faces of it are to 


98 HI9T0ftT OF THB MCTff» 

the east and the west, and the figiues aie upon tihe 
side of it towards the east. The upmost part q£ it 
seems to have been done for a beast^9( head prami* 
naU; below it is the figure of amanoahorsdiacky 
with like a scroll aboyjs him; it is hat a conall 
figure : the north, south, and west sides, have up- 
on them only aaroe omamental carving ; itismudi 
defiu^ed by die weather, andiatom intbetop; no 
vestige of any letter coidd be discexned iq^n it. 
This is certainly Danish, and seenis to have been 
set up where some chief commander was killed, 
whether at this %ht, or at another which happened 
afterwards, near Eii^iors, is uncectaiif. 

Not long after the fight at Leven watery there 
was another at Crul in the east nook, where the 
Scots, too confident of th^ power, were overthrown, 
and the king was taken and beheaded in a oove, 
now called the Devil's Cove, because of that black 
execution. This battle happened in 874. Bochanan 
says, << Some lay the Uame of this unlucky accident 
on the Picts, who being admitted'iato Constantine's 
£Mdty and army, were the first that ran away, and 
drew the greatest part of the army after them.**' And 
Fmrdun says, << It was thought that the barbarous 
Picts, not yet completely subdued, privately in- 
vited them (the Danes) to Scotland, as indeed 
might seem probable from the event/^ And in 
another place, he saith, « The king engaging them 
fiell with many of his people; nor is this to be won- 
dered at, for he took with him to battle, like a ser- 
pent in his bosom, many of the Picts but lately 
subdued^ And they flying as soon as the engage- 
ment began, induced the rest to. follow them.^ 



or VBE 




toXTIHB29T cor •0OTLANP« 

IF die PtetB ivtre tif a Godiic extractioB, asmoit 
authors rajipMe^ ^ iiovtfaeni eoiiiilie8 and islaadi 
were tbe {iliik»» where tkey flrek settled, odd wb^re 
Aey ukimetely relitedl to upoii tbe total overthrow 
of ^eir inotiarchy, aad tlieit iDoovpofmiBoii wkb the 
Sootish »ikioft« - The BUore arieteot momiBients of 
Pt^tish aUtiqultkii^ are in Orkney, and tbe cooatiet 
of Caithtiess^ Sutfacriandv aad Ross. We theH 
therefore extract fiom Barry's history <£ the Ork- 
neys bis deseriptieb of the Pictirii antiqiiities which 
remain In tlft»e iBUaids. 

l%e first df theife- we shaH mention, are those 
tntnuii, or barrdwsj whieh so often present tben»> 
selves to the eye, in wanderfaig over the sarfiKse of 
tfiese islands; and which are phunly the rude memo^ 
riab of persons of note in early days* Tbe moat 
ancient method of dispositig of the dead was by iii^ 
term^it^ The eitirliest Ote^eks adopted ttes custom. 


m which they were imitated by the Bomans, in 
the infancy of their state. And the Celts, a yery 
ancient people, seem also to have preferred this 
method ; and, on the graves of illustrious persons, 
they gathered heaps of stones into a pile, which 
they called cairns, or cromlechs, to distinguish them 
from those of the multitude* 

The remains of people of the same eminence 
among the Gk)thic tribes were treated in a di£Perent 
manner. Though their enemies and the inferior 
ranks were interred, the bodies of men of distino^ 
tion were either wholly or in part consumed to 
ashes, which were carefully collected, either into 
an tim, or a coffin, formed generally of flag stones, 
and a heap of earth, or tumulus, was rused over 
them. Hence the number of these tumuli, or bar* 
rows, spread ov«r the countries inhabited by the 
different branches of that ancient people in Norwayt 
Sweden, Denmark, £i^§^nd^ and the east coast oi 
Scotland, as well as in Iceland and the Orkney iales. 
The numbers found hei^ are oonBideraUe ; seldom 
inngle, but two, or three, or moise, in the same place, 
all of a circular form, and different in dimensions, 
placed without any distinction of hill or dale, by the 
sea, or inland, generally in dry places^ and for the 
most part on sandy ground. Some few of them are 
endrcled with stones set on edge around their hot* 
tcMns; a remarkable one has two stones set upright 
on its top, and when curiosity has penetrated their 
interior, they are almost all found to exhibit con« 
tents in which there is much similarity. As in 
England, those that have been opened have disco* 
vered, some of them, urns with ashes ; some stone 

BisTbar 07 thx nets. 101 

eoflns, in^ which the bodies Imre beenf deposited ; 
and some, naked skeletom; so here, also, whdi 
looked into, they ha^e been Iband to eontidn the 
same things. Bdt besides these, which at& the 
principal, several other artictes have some times 
been found along with them ; euch as the bones of 
some Aofmestic animal, swords of metal, or of bon^, 
helmets, combs, with other things, the use of which 
cannot now be discovered. 

The eye can scarcely be dii^cted to a field, in 
which these' tumoU are situated in any number, 
without the opinion being formed, that this has 
been a field of baittk, and these the graves of the 
brave that had been slain ; the similarity of form^ 
and difference of size, pointing out their respective 
rank, their merit, or their eminence. That these 
were th^ rude monuments exclusively appropriated 
to perpetuate the deeds of noted warriors, is render- 
ed probable, not only from arms being found in 
them, but because among that people military vir* 
tues alone were deemed worthy of honour. Before 
closing this article, it is necessary to observe, that 
we ought not to confound these tumuli with those 
that are similar in almost every respect, but placed 
on the highest or most conspicuous part in every is* 
land. To convey intelligence readily from one place 
to another, and particularly to spread the ahum in 
case of the approach of an enemy, the latter were 
generally thrown up on the highest hill, and had 
fires of wood and other combustible matter lighted 
on them; and the name of Wartsy or Wardsy which 
they at present bear, has a manifest attosion to this 



To the aame people perhaps, and about the same 
period, must be refened another class of objects, 
that in different places liaise their lofty heads to 
arrest the attention of the curious. These are the 
huge standing stones, one or more of which may be 
seen in most of the islands. They are commonly 
from twelve to twenty feet in h^ght above ground, 
their breadth five, and thickness one or more ; and 
as the most of them seem, from the places in which 
they are erected, to have been carried from a con«- 
derable distance, it may justly excite wonder, how, 
in the ignorance of mechanical powers, this could 
be effected. Numbers, and perseverance united, 
will achieve deeds, to concdve which would baffle 
the efforts of ima ination. 

Hy whatever means they were brought, or in 
whatever manner erected, they are rude blocks of 
hard stonet of the same shape in which they were 
raised frpm the quarry, without any marks of an 
instrument, without carving, inscription, or hiero- 
glyphics; they are plunly the monuments of an 
early age, when the people were ignorant of arts 
and letters. 

For what purpose, or with what design they were 
erected, antiquity furnishes iis with no account; 
records are silent; and tradition, to which recourse 
must be some times had, in the penury of other 
evidence, ventures not, in this case, to hazard an 

Some have supposed them intended to mark the 
spot that contained the bones or the ashes of a be- 
loved prince^ a .brave chieftain, * r dear departed 
fiiend ; or to serve as a boundary between the ter- 


ritoiies of one great man, and those of another ; 
-while others have imagined them designed to pre- 
serve the remembrance of some noted event that 
concerned the safety, the honour, or the advantage 
of the.coinmunity. 

Since no tumiUi, urns, or graves, have ever been 
found near them, they cannot certainly be conn- 
dered as memorials of the dead; nor is it more 
probable that they were intended to mark the limits 
of contiguous proprietors; as land-marks, equally 
well calculated to serve the purpose, might have 
been erected with infinitely less labour. If, there- 
fore, they were not intended so serve the purpose 
of places of worship, they were most likely raised 
to preserve the remembrance of some fortunate 
event, or perpetuate the memory of some noble 
action ; and the rough simplicity of their appear- 
ance sufficiently justifies us in referring them to an 
early age, and to the first inhabitants of these is- 

A third kind of monuments, which ought to be 
considered as relics of the same people, are those 
ancient structures, or ruins, well known in many 
places by the name of Burghs-castles, or more com- 
monly Picts-houses. Some times they stand in little 
holms in the midst of lochs, with a road formed of 
stones to connect them with the island; some times 
on high land by the sea, near the brink of precipi- 
tous rocks; but much oftener on the skirts of sandy 
bays, and in the vicinity of landing places. Encir- 
cling the shores of the main land, as well as those of 
the other islands, they stretch in a chain from one 
headland to another, in full view of the harbours. 


and of the ocean ; and are evidently so arranged 
as to communicate one with another. Far from 
being confitied to any place, they are found, and 
diat too in similar situations, in the country from 
which the Picts originally came, as well as in those 
that constituted their once extensive domiioion. In 
proof of this it may be observed, that there is a re^ 
markable one of that kind at Sualsburg, near Dmn- 
theim ; another caUed the castle of Ymsburg, in 
Westrogothia. Many of them are still to be seen 
on the chores of Caithness, of Sutherland, and of 
East Ross. The vale of Glenelg, near Bomera, 
contains no fewer than four. The foundations of 
several have been discovered on a plain near Perth; 
and that of Dornadilla, in Strathnaver, is na less 
distinguished for its structure, than the very large 
one at Dunrobin castle, which seems to have with- 
in its precincts several smaller ones, its connexions 
or dependents. But turning from these, if we di- 
rect our attention to the north, with a view to ex- 
plore the Fictish territories in that quarter, we shall 
find these ancient structures perhaps in greater num- 
ber, but certwnly more entire, of a more curious 
form, and of much larger dimensions. Those found^ 
in Shetland, and known every where in that coun- 
try by the name of Burghs, are much superior in 
these respects to what are in the Orkneys, or even 
perhaps to any in Scotland. In the south, and in 
the east coast, there are but few of them now entire, 
having been demolished, partly from curiosity to 
know their structure and contents, and partly in 
order to carry off their materials to enclose lands or 
build farm-houses. But among the sister islands to 


the north, where there has been no want of mate- 
rials for these purposes, these curious edifices have 
been suffered to remain unhurt, in testimony of the 
respect that the inhabitants have entertained for the 
works of their ancestors. 

They are almost, without exceplbn, of a dreular 
base, rising into the shape of a cone, with its top 
some what blunted; and as they are generally every 
where in ruins, their outside is covered with a thxA 
sward of fine grass, and, on a superfidal view, they 
have very much the appearance of large tumuli, or 
barrows. Stones of a conv^iient form, and of a 
large nze, without any sort of cement, are the mi^ 
terials of which they have been constructed ; and, 
on a more narrow inifp^ction, they appear evidently 
to be of two kinds, differing from each other in both 
their structure and dimensions. The smaller, whidi 
seem to be the oldest, conaist of one thick circular 
wall, in the imdde of which there are some times 
places that might have served for beds ; and this 
form, we are told, was agreeable td a mode of builcU 
ing among the people of Icehmd, and other Scan- 
dinavian colonies. In some of them at a greater, 
and in others at a less height ; this wall bq;ins to 
converge gradually towards the top, till oidy a small 
hole remained, which seems to haine been either 
covered with flal; stones, or suffered to be open. 

The larger are fiir more complicated in their in* 
temal structure. Bendes the outer wall, which they 
have in common with the former, they have also an 
inner one, concentric with, and distant about two 
feet from the other; and these walls are so formed 
as some times to meet at no great height, andthua 


eadose a ipme around the bottom of the btiikKng. 
In the form <vf others of thi» kind, there is still 
greater varietj. Like the fornix they have two 
imllsy but these neither meet nor converge, but 
ascend parallel to each other at die distance of little 
more tban two £^t; and this space, which is entered 
by a door of two feet high from without, is occa« 
{md by a stair of a winding spral form, fitim the 
bottom to the top of the building. The krgeist kind 
^ieb are here, as well as in other places, denomi* 
sated Burghs, are surrounded by a broad deep 
ditch, and a sort of rampart. 

To one' or other of these, it i» probable, must 
bdhmg that winch has been discovered at Qimn* 
terness. As wovks of that nature faaye never been 
clearly understood, though tl»y h4ve excited much 
cariosity in men who take pleasure in studying the 
progress of the human mind, by looking back to 
CM'ly ages, the utmost attention has beea given to 
examine Aat Picts-house with care^ to measure its 
Amennons accurately, and to delineate the form dT 
aU Hs paJrts with precimon. fi^uated on a gentle 
deoUvity, under the brow of the hifl of Widefard, 
it looks towards the North Isles, has a fdll view of 
the bay of Frith, and the pleasatit little island of 
Dansey, from whidh it is not far dikmt, and lies 
little more than a fnile west froin the road w hair* 
hour of Kirkwall. Like the rest, it bears exlterhally 
the form of a truncated c6ne, the height of trHich it 
about fourteen feet, and the cii^cumference at ihi 
base three hundred and eighty^btir; but whetfa^> 
ftke them also, it be surrounded by one or two ctr* 
ciilar wallSf the quantity of rubbish prevented us 

msTOiiT OF VHS If eva, 107 

fiom diflooTeni^, tiwugh that k Umbo it very prob** 
Ue. In one re&peet it differs from most ^f then, 
«i it alaods alone and at a distanee from the shore; 
whereas in general tbej are situated on the shorea 
of the sea, and leveral q£ them at no great distance 
from and in £aU view of one aaosbery as if tfaej 
were somcf way or other onmected, or had been in- 
tended lor mutual oomtDunicatioiL 

Internally it eonusts of several cells or apartments^ 
the principal one of which is in the centre, twenty- 
one feet six indies long, six feet six inches broad^ 
and eleven feet six indies high, hoik without any 
cement, with large flat stones, the one immediately 
above progecting over that beloW) so as gradna%: 
to ccmtract the space within aiG^ the building risesy 
till the opposite walls meet at the top, where they 
are bound together by large stones laid across, to 
serve as it were for k^-stones. Six other apart* 
ments of an exactly dmilar form, constructed with 
the same sort of materials, and united in the same 
maaiier, but of little more than half the dimensions, 
' communicate with this in the centre, eadi by a pas- 
sage about two feet square, on a level with the floor; 
and the whole may be consid^ed as connected to- 
gether by a passage of nearly the same extent from 
without, which leads into this chief apartment* So 
far as can now be discovered, there does not appear 
ever to have been, in any part of the building, 
either chink or hole for the admission of air or light, 
and this circumstance aloiie is sufficient to show that 
it bad not been destined for the abode of men. The 
contents were accordingly such as might have been 
naturally expected in such a gloomy mandion. None 


of those thiiigs whieh have been disoovered in u- 
mihur places were found here; but the earth at the 
bottom of the cells, as deep as it could be dug, was 
of a dark colour, of a greasy feel, and of a fetid 
odour, plentiftilly intermingled with bones, some of 
which were almost entirely consumed, and others 
had, in defiance of time, remained so entire, as to 
show that they were the bones of men, of birds, and 
of some domestic animal. But though many of 
them had nearly mouldered into dust, they exhi- 
Inted no marks of having been burnt; nor were 
ashes of any kind to be seen with any part of the 
building. In one of the apartments, an entire hu* 
man skeleton, in a prone attitude, was found ; but 
in the others, the bones were not only separated 
from one another, but divided into very small frag^ 

But what use could be made, or what purpose 
was intended to b^ served, by piles of such a form, 
of such a size, and in such ntuations ? 

Neither the number of the whole, nor the quan- 
tity of accommodation in each, will suffer us to en« 
tertain any rational belief that they were the first 
rude attempts to obtain permanent places of abode, 
and served the inhabitants at large as ordinary ha- 
bitations. Little better are they calculated,' in ap« 
pearance» to serve the purpose of storehousesi which 
indeed in that age would not be deemed necessary. 
That they weate not the residence of the rich among 
that celebrated people, may be surmised from their 
darkness, from the want of windows frcmi without^ 
their dampness, on account of the thickness of the 
wallS) and the air having less access or free circula* 


^.simU) ^^^ p^i!^(mq cspuld ney^ra^odji and ior 
4^4 09( 4^ym 3it upiagUt; 7N^ tf Uus bi^ not be^o 
^ 0$89j AcQT do not «9i^t^p KKH9 •uificieBt to ap- 
.iK>B|i<i0dali^ 9\4Qb fWMtifiB». m^ their servaats and 
depQndiliite* It jui tru|e». indent a celebrated mo- 
d^ 3mti({Mary, t^ who^ qpinip^, in. a matter of 
tihis lm(di w^ia^v^ disposed to pay tbe utmopt d^e- 
irencdf ba$ ima|^iied» that, ftom thw beiog called 
Duns in the Highlands, and several of them being 
ffom^ tim^fi found togetb^r in glens, and sheftered 
placQgi ik^y blive been. U^ winter retreats of the 
o^qlent; to\ vfaicb^ in libat season, tb^ bad re- 
course for atntual semrity, ^^widsbip, and eopver- 
aalioQ* But ibis ooMld not have been the <;ase in 
^enar^lv' sinea in Sh^tJand they commonly stood 
single, either on the high bills, or on the brink of 
stupend<His rpeks skirting the islands ; and in Su- 
therhmd) Culbness, and Orkney, at np great dis- 
tance, and in full view of each pther, on the shores 
and in exposed situiition^. 

From a reiH^Wf then, of their different sites, 
dngly, iqid'in relation to one another ; their ferm, 
their dimensions^ jand internal stjFvicture; it is ap- 
^ehended, they will appear to have been fit for^ 
:9nd perhaps served the purpose of w#teh towers^, to 
.^iiai^ against surprise from an mtmyi of places to 
.HecuapeMniUtary arm^ and otb^ preeipus articles; 
nnd of garrisons, t(> prevent hostile boats frpm land- 

wg- : , 

. : Such are the.n)onuniex)$s of that anc^nt peofde, 
wbi> have bem cbaraeteria^ as. a. tall; (sir^ comely 9 



robust, generous, sort of men $ with manners of 
such a nature and influence as to serve them instead 
of laws ; discovering an ignorance of many of the 
useful arts, a love of son^e of them, and a contempt 
of others ; subjected to a government, in which li- 
berty and civil order were happily combined ; and 
displajriog a warlike spirit that had seldom been 
equalled, and never surpassed; which was inflamed 
almost into madness by the peculiar genius of their 

The remains of Pictish antiquities in Shetland 
are known by the name of Burghs, Borgs, and 
Duns. These buildings have engaged much of the 
attention of antiquarians, auA their form and struc- 
ture have been repeatedly described. They are 
arranged in such a manner as to keep up a line 
of communication almost over the whole country. 
They occur in every variety of situation ; on the 
tops of hills, though seldom on the very highest of 
each range; on precijntous head-lands; on islands 
in the lakes, communicating by a bridge with the 
shore, and in bays near landing places. They are 
of a circular form, are built of smooth flat stones, 
without -any cement ; and the largest kind, which 

< are by far the most numerous, are very commodi- 

< ous,;a]!idf have various compartments. The smaller 
* ones appear to have no oitrance but from the top, 
; which may have arisen, in some instances, from the 
•demolition of their external walls. Some of these 

castles, as they are called, are comparatively of easy 
t access, <» but others are fortified by walls, and sur- 
irounded^both'by wet mid dry ditches of consider- 
able extent. 


The most perfect examples of these buildings still 
extant in Shetland, occur in the island of Mousa^ 
and at CuUswick) in the parish of Sansting. These 
are very large, and appear to have been constructed 
with great care, and resemble exactly those burghs 
or castles which have been generally ascribed to the 
Picts. The one at CuUswick stands on the project- 
ing eminence of a high rock, and is surrounded by 
a deep ditch. It has been sadly dilapidated of late^ 
to obtain stones to build a house in a n^ghbouring 
parisfa, which has not only impaired the appearance 
of an ancient structure, but taken away an useful 
^and-mark to vessels approaching the coast. 

The castle in Mousa was in a state of p^ect iiw 
t^rify about the year 1164^ when it was occupied 
by Earl Eriend, and it is probable that it was built 
long before that time. The present proptietor of 
the island has been at great puns to preserve it 
cntixe, mid it fo still an interesting object 

There are several Ptctish antiquities in the parish 
of Clyne, and county of Sutherland ; in particular, 
a strongly fortified bill^ on the'sonth side of Loch 
Brora, called Craig Bar, which Id esteemed almost 
impregnable by any force, even assisted by artillery. 
—Upon a rock in the black water of Strath Beg, 
about a mile and a half north from the junction 
of that water with Brora, stand the ruins of Coles 
Castle. It is a circular building, fifty-four yards 
in (Circumference round the base on the outside^ 
and twenty«seven in the interior. The walls are 
four and a half yards thick at the base, built of 
large stones well connected, without any cement. 



The buildijtg indibcA nitie inches in tkree feet in- 
wards. The d66r jrti the fioitth<^ea8t side is three 
feet and a half higli^ liod two and ahidf hroad. In 
the middle of tfa^ wall, 6n aush sid» of thi^ passage 
into the inteiior^ is a smUl apartmentabt fel^ square, 
and five high, as if intended for « gisairl to watdi 
the entry* The inghe^ patt of the wali is ekreki 
feet, but old peopterremember it twice that faei^t* 
Beyond this buildings and six feet from the wall^ 
is anocb^ outer 'wall; joined to the oastle by large 
flags, leaving a passtige six feet bmad and seven 
high, in which theiif lOattle were driven in tlie night 
time. On the vei^^ of the n>ck wasr tfaeik* garden^ 
twedty^seyen yinrdsJong and eighteen liroad. 

In the parish of 'Durlsess, in Strathnaver, is the 
fhmous Piotisfa tower called Dun DbminfiUa, situ-^ 
ated in the. valley of Strathnrare^ itt A f^mote and 
pictupesqne spot, full seven Inikt flom tUe iea It 
has been bmtt like Coles Castle^ imcl Mlier edidttts 
of the kind, without any eemint) wlieniiie us^ of 
iron was unknown* It is built in the circular form, 
lapeifing in the ontsid^ like a sugar l6af, fifty yahis 
in circumference externally, twenty^seven feet dia* 
meter in the intmdr, whidi is built perpendiculalr. 
jt contains three distinct rows o( apartments, wbidi 
d6nftnun^cate by stairs, £md are all lighted fhwi 
within. The wall in some jdaces is nearly thirty 
feet highi in others not above e^hteen, the door 
has b^en six feet high, but one half of it is at pre- 
sent ohcAed up with rubbishi This building is 
unquestiodAUy the most ancient remain of anti* 
quity in the idand. 


Another monument of antiquity, supposed to be 
Pictisby is situated on the nortb side of Cockburn 
Law, in Berwickshire. A little below the middle of 
the hill are the ruins of a very old building, called 
Woden's, or Edwin^s hall. It consists of three 
concentric circles, the diameter of the innermost 
being forty feet, the thickness of the walls seven 
feet, and the spaces between the walls seven and ten 
feet. The spaces have been arched over, and divi- 
ded into cells of twelve, sixteen, and twenty feet. 
It is remarkable in this structure, that the stones 
are not cemented by any kind of mortar. They 
are chiefly whinstone, and made to lock into one 
another with grooves and projections, executed with 
vast labour. 

The round tower at Brechin, and that at Aber-* 
nethy, are with great probability ascribed to the 
Picts. Antiquarians are divided in their opinion 
concerning them ; some are of opinion, that they 
were erected for religious purposes, others, and we 
tbink with greater likelihood, suppose them to be 
intended for watch towers ; and as both have only 
four windows at the top facing the cardinal points, 
that at Abemethy commanding a view of the Frith 
of Tay and the valley of Strathearn, and this one 
the valley of Strathmore, this conjecture is not al- 
together destitute of some probability. The tower 
of Brechin is a circular column, of great beauty 
and elegance, eighty feet high, and a kind of spire 
or roof twenty-three feet more, making the whole 
height one hundred and three, and the diameter 
eixteen feet. The building consists of eighty-four 



^xnirses of stdAe, not v^y r^gulai^ tiOwever, some 
of them measui^ twenty-one, and others only -nine 
inches; the fabric seems to have sustained very lit* 
tie injury from the lapse of years. The inside of 
this tower is quite empty; formerly, when the bells 
of the church were fixed in it, there was a kind of 
platform erected at intervals^ which were ascended 
by ladders, but no staircase of any kind. The door 
of entrance is about six feet and a half from the 
ground^ two feet wide, and' six feet high ; the two 
sides are formed of a block 6f granite, nearly in the 
middle of each stands a human figure, on a kind 
of bracket ; the lintal is another block of granite, 
cut into a semicircular arch; over the centre stands 
another figure in a difierent drapery from the other 
two. The sole is another block of stone, on each 
side are the figures of two animals, with long claws 
and tail; that on the left hand seemingly in the act 
of devouring something. The whole entrance is 
ornamented with a border of diamond figures. 

The tower at Abernethy is in the church-yard, 
and consists of sixty-lbur courses of hewn stone, 
seventy-four feet high, and forty-eight in drcumfe- 
rence. It is hollow in the inside, and has no roof, 
but four small windows at the top, facing the car* 
dinal points. 

The only religious edifice of undoubted Pictish 
origin, is the chapel and tower of St. Regulus, or 
Rule, at St. Andrews. It is situated about forty 
yards to the south-east of the cathedral church, and 
the chapel and steeple are contiguous to one ano- 
ther, the former joining to the latter on the east 


dide. The chapel, of which the walls itiU reman 
entire, is in length thirtj-^one feet and a half, and 
in breadth twenty-five. It has four windows, two 
on the north side^ and two on the sooth, exaotlj 
corresponding to* one another, both in chmensione 
and distance from the ground. They are each 
about five feet by one and a half, and twelve high 
from the sole to the ground. There is a large 
arched door to the east, in the gable of the chapel^ 
and directly opposite to it, in the steeple, there has 
been another door of the same dimensions, but 
which has been afterwards built up, and only a 
lesser one left of six feet high,- by four in bfeadtb^ 
The two large doors just mentioned, are each of 
them twenty-four feet by nine. 

The chapel has had, at difierent times, three 
several roofs, of difibrent«beights, as appears ftom 
the marks and raggling still observable on the side 
of the steeple to which it joins. It has been a neat 
little place, and well contrived for religious exer- 
cises 9n a small scale. It was ornamented, when 
entire, by a turret on its eastern gable, which, with 
its other decorations, has long since disappeared. 

The steeple is a square prism of one hundred and 
eight feet in height, and the side of its base, without 
the walls, is twenty feet. It is said to have had 
formerly a small sloping spire, of no great height; 
but this is gone, and there is now a platform of lead 
on the top, surrounded by a parapet^ high enough 
to render a visit to the summit of the steeple quite 
safe ; and as the stairs are perfectly entire, and in 
good case^ the stranger will be repaid for the fatigue 

116 HISTOET 6F the PICT8* 

be may have in asoendiog them, (provided he dded 
8o in a clear day») by the beauty and extent of the 
surrounding prospect. He will see delineated, as 
upon a map, the city and environs of St. Andrews, 
and he will get a most delightful view of the bay, 
and of the opposite coast of Angus. The steps by 
which we ascend are one hundred and fifty-twa 

From the engravings on the common s^ of the 
chapter of St. Andrews, as well as from the nig- 
gling still to be seen on the wall of the west side 
of the steeple, it appears that there has been also 
a small building oh that ^de, less, however, and 
shorter, than that on the east; and the steeple, 
standing in the middle betwixt the two, formed one 
continued edifice with them. 

This small chapel to the west has been consider- 
ably higher in the walls ihan the other ; but there 
is now no vestige of it whatever to be seen, except 
the mark of its roof on the west side of the steeple. 
It is said to have likewise had a turret on the west 
end, and a door to the south. 

It may not perhaps be amiss, before finally taking 
leave of the Picts, to say some thing of that wall or 
rampart, first raised by the Emperor Adrian, and 
afterwards repaired by Severus, generally known 
by the name of the Picts wall. This appellation it 
received from being intended as a bulwark against 
the inroads and encroachments of these barbarous 
invaders. It extended from a place called Bowness 
on the Solway firth, across the whole island, from 
sea to sea, to a place called Wallsend, below New- 
castle, on the German ocean, be^g in length about 


eighty miles. It consisted oFa ditch in frbnt, tak$, 
a wall of earth, br'stoim, twdlve feet high and eight 

But this Btructture, however, was not aUe to stop 
the incursions of the enemy; for to sooner had the 
Bofhana left Britain, but the Picts and Scots sur- 
prise them, make an'aifempfanpoA thewall, pull 
down the guards with their crooked Weaptxis^ break 
through the fortifications^ make a stnu%« haVoek 
c^ Britain, which i^as before almost ruined with 
civil warS) and a moat grievous famime* QiMas, a 
Briton, who lived not long after, describes the de- 
plorable calamities of those times in the8e%voTds3 
^* The Rbnmiui being drawn faome^< there descend 
in great crowds from the little narrow bores of theif 
CtOTfl^e^, or Cartg^ * wherein they were brought 
ov^r the Stitiok Vide, f about the ti^ddle of smniner^ 
in a toarblmig IiDt se»ion^ a dttskish.swarili of ver* 
mio, or hidcotnciiidw^of Soots atld Biets, eomeitfhat 
differenll in mampdrsy bnt idl Alifcje tfaicbfing after 
bbod; who finding that dieir old cdtifedarates (the 
Boibans) wa« muchtd faK)me, and infused to re^ 
turn any more, put on greater bcddiless than ever^ 
and possessed th^bselves of all die nottfa and the 
remote parts of tUe kingdom, to the very wafl, as 
if they were the true native proprietors, to wiri*- 
stand'this invasion^ the towers (along the walls) are 
defended by a laay garrison, uiidisciplined, and'tdft 
cowardly to engage aii ^tiemy ; hekng ehfeetded with' 

* The Highlanders caU their boats Caroghes. 
t Supposed to be the SolWay ]?rith. 


continual sloth and idleness. In the mean while, 
the naked enemy advance with their hooked wea« 
ponSy by which the miserable Britons are pulled 
down from the tops of the walls, and dashed against 
the ground. Yet those who were destroyed thus, 
had this advantage in an untimely death, that they 
escaped those miserable sufferings which immediate- 
ly befel their brethren and children. To be short, 
having quitted their cities and the high .wall, they 
betook themselves to flight, disbanding ifato a more 
desperate and hopeless dispenaon than ever. Still 
the enemy gave them chase, still more cruel punish- 
ments were prepared; as lambs by the bloody but- 
cher, so were these poor creatures hewed down by 
their enemies. So that they may justly, by thdr 
stay there, be compared to herds of wild beasts; 
tor these miserable people did not stick to rob one 
another for supply of victuals; so that in-bred dis- 
sentions enhanced the misery of their foreign suffer^ 
ings, and brought things to that pass by this spdl 
and robbery, that meat (the support of life) was 
wanting in the country, and no comfort of that kind 
to be had, but by recourse to hunting.^ 

That part of the wall where the Picts and Scots 
commenced their attack, was on the borders of Nor- 
thumberland, betwixt the river Irthing and South 
Tyne, and is still called Thirlwall, from its bang 
Whirled or pierced in many places by these invaders. 
The mode of attack is thus described by Foitiun : 
<< The Picts and Scots having conquered the coun- 
try on both sides of the wall, began to settle them- 
selves in it; and summoning in the boors^ (with 


their mattocks, pick-axes, rakes, forks and shovels,) 
caused wide holes and gaps to he made in it, thro^ 
which they might readily pass and repass. From 
these gaps, this indented part got its present name; 
for, in the English tongue, the place is now called 
Thirlwall, which rendered in Latin, is the same as 
. Murua perforatusJ^ 

Thus we have seen the manner how the Picts 
invaded South Britain, as far as the Humber, and 
were found in England, as we have shown elsewhere, 
even in the time of William the Conqueror. 

TBE £N>. 

Qiugom : Printed Ivy R* Cbapman.— 1818. 





CHOWBEIT the whole number are not extant,) WITH 








A true description of the whole reahne of Scotland^ and 
qftheprincipall Cities, Tonmes, Abbies, Fortes, Castles, 
Towers, and Rivers, and of the commodities in e^ery 
part thereof and of the Isles in general; with a me* 
moriall of the most rare and wonder/ fdl things in Scot* 


Printed at BrittainM Bunae, by John Budge. 1612* 

By Hobert Chapman. 


^0 THE Host high and k launr homaIich 


Sy. the Grace of Gody King of Great Britainc^ 
France^ and Ireland^ Defender of the Faitkj ^c* 

It may 1)efe by many justly (most gracious Soveraigne) 
imputed to mee for no small presumption to present unto 
your Royal Majestic^ a Prince of so great learning and 
excellent judgement^ these simple fruits of my unskilful! 
endeavours^ taken in this short abridgement.: In most 
humble and obedient manner^ I doe pr^ferre unto your 
Highnesse these my weake and ^unlearned labours^ ac- 
cording to my abilities which, though unworthie they bee 
of so great a princely favour^ as well for the meannesse 
of mee the writer^ as for the plainnesse and rudenesse of 
the stile, yet if for the worthinesse of the matter, and of 
your Majesties great accustomed cFemeAcie, you voucli* 
saf them your Highnesse favourable regard, they shall 
hee as fortunate as if they had beene composed by greater 
•and more learned men ; wherein briefly may be scene the 
great and infinit mercie of God towards your Royal Per« 
son ; that it hath pleased his superexcellent wisdome, 
by his mightie power to preserve your Highnesse ancient 
kingdome of Scotland unconquered, under the eropyre 
and government of an hundreth and sixe kings, your 
Majesties royal progenitors ; and in special when almost 
the whole world was brought under the Romane empyre 
by the sword. Also to reduce in one peaceable monarch 
these ancient mightie lands and many islands, which 



have been divided in many several! kingdomes, one of 
Britons^ seven of Saxons, one of Scots, one of Picts, one 
of Orknay, and sixe of Ireland ; ako some of the valiant 
and illustre noble actes of your Highnesse most royall 
and ancient progenitors, and of their raignes, lives, 
deaths, and burials. Accept them, most Mightie Mo- 
narch, I most humblie beseech your Royal Majesty, in 
your Highnesse gracious protection, and according to 
my bounden dutie, incessantly, with all humilitie, I will 
pray the great God of all might and power (to his etemall 
glory) long to preserve your Royall Majestie, and your 
gracious Queene, in blessed health and peace, to raigne 
over these your Highnesse great united kingdomes, and 
to enlarge the same, and your Majesties most royall and 
hopefull posteritie to the world's end. 

Tour Majesties most humble 

And obedient subject, 





With a short description of (heir original^ from the 
comtning of Gathelusy their progenitour^ out of 
Gracia into Egypt, and of their kings and go-' 
vemours in Spaine, Ireland, and Albion, {how* 
beit the whole number be not extant J : with' a true 
chronologie of all the Icings lineally descended 
from Fergusius^ the first king of Scotland, untill 
his sacred Majestic, now happily raigning over 
all Great Britaine, Ireland, and all the Isles to 
them appertaining* 

^JTATHBiiffs, son of CecTops, king of Athens, by 
liis insolence made many invasions in Macedonia, 
and. Achaia in Graecia. And because he could 
not sufTer correction, bee with many 'valiant Gre* 
cians came into Egypt, and followed Pharao in 
his warres against the Aethiopians, who with 
great crueltie had wasted the most part of Egypt, 
unto Memphis, the principall citie of that realme*- 
Pharao, with support of Gathelus, vanquished and 
overcame the Aethiopians in a most dangerous 
battell. And Gathelus valiantly vanquished and 
wanne their principall citie> called Meroe. After 



this great victorie, he being a lustie person, strong 
of bodie, and of a great spirit, wanne great favour 
with the king and his familiars, that the king^s 
daughter, Scota, was given in marriage unto 6a- 
thelus, with many lands. Shortly after, Pharao 
dyed, and another Pharao succeeded, who opprest 
the Israelites with great servitude and^tyrannie. 
Gathelus abhorring such crueltie, conferring with 
Moses, also having response of the oracles of 
Egypt, was foreseenie of the plagues to come upon 
Egypt, made provision for all things necessarie for 
sayling, and tooke shipping with his wife Scota 
and his valiant Grecians, and many Egyptians, 
from the river Nilus, the year of the world 2453. 
After long sayling and travell, hee arrived at the 
land of Numidia : being stopped to land, he pull- 
ed up sayles, and with a dangerous and paine- 
full passage through the Straites, hee landed in 
one part of Spaine, then called Lusitania, by 
his arrival called Portgathel, now Porthingall: 
at his landing, the old inhabitants came against 
him with arrayed battel!, whom he vanquished* 
He builded one city upon the river Munda, then 
called Brachare, now called Barsolona. Then 
after, he came into the north part of Spune, now 
called Galliciay where he builded a ettie called 
Brigance, now Compostella, where he reigned 
with princely dignitie, and instituted lawes, and 
named his people Scottes, after bis wife Scola, 
for she had borne unto him two sonnes, twinnes, 
Hiber and Himecus. He brought with him from 
Egypt the marble fatdl chayre, which was trans* 
ported • to Ireland, and to Albion, now called 

cHEamctss of seoTZrANB. 7 

SeotlAod, wherein all tbeir kings were Gvownedy 
untill the time of king Edward the first, who 
transported the whole ancient regall monuments 
of Scotland^ with the marble fatatl cfaayrei to 
Westminster, where it remaineth to this day. 

The ScoU skdll bro9ke thai regime at naim 

(If wtirda faUe not) ifih^re ever tkia ciayre i§ 

Gatbelus sitting in his marble chajre^ witbin 
this city of Briganoe, goTerned his people with 
princely dignity peaceablie, and instituted lawes^ 
.^jaA seeing bis people increase with micb great 
mdititude, and not willing to violate the band 
made with the old inhabitants; being informed 
by divers expert explorators, that there was an 
isle (^o»t€t to Spaine, oa the north, which a rade 
people inhabited, having no lawes nor manners^ 
therefore he brought all the ^ippes he could get 
with expedition to the next sea port, with sul^ 
fictent provision, with Hiber and Himecus, ao» 
companied with valiant warriours, and ordained 
Hiber to be admirall to possesse the said isle, 
which they obeyed; and so hoysing up sayle, 
with fortunate winds, arrived the fifth day adfter 
in the said island, v Immediately landing, their 
people then pitched their tents on the next 
trenches* The rude inhabitants, amazed at the 
arriving and landing of such a multitude of war-^ 
rioursy fled with dieir cattell and gofids into their 
caverneSk Hiber commanding certakw of his war* 

8 THtt ABRIDGEJCeUT t>t TttE . 

nours to passe foorth, and if the inhabitants would 
bee willingly subdued, no slaughter to be commtt*- 
ted upon them. The inhabitants bmng brought 
as prisoners to the admirall, and seeing him mer- 
ciful, rendred themselves and thar goods; and 
hee received them with such benevolence, that he 
suffered the (dd inhabitants to increase with his 
people, under one name and law, and t^led the 
land Hibernia, now Ireland. Hiber turning into 
Spaine, left his brother Himecus with a strong 
garison of valiant warriours, with wives and chil- 
dren, to inhabite the land, and to hold the same 
under obedience and subjection. At his return 
into Spaine, his father being -deceased, hee suc- 
ceeded king, and augmented his empyre, and 
conquered sundry lands from the Spaniards, hav- 
ing with him at all times a strong guard of va- 
liant men. By bis puissance and ebivalrie, he 
subdued the people in such map'er, that he was 
holden in great estimation and reverence, that 
they were constrained to seeke his peace, the land 
beeing named after Hiber, Hibernia; the Scots 
and old inhabitants grew under one name and 
blood, with such tender and friendly benevolence, 
(not remembering of cid injuries,) each one will- 
ing to defend his neighbour, (as well in peace as 
wars,) as his brother or father. Of Hiber de- 
scended, by long progression, a great posteritie 
lineally succeeding^ amongst whom were many 
noble and famous kings ; bowbeit, the , whole 
number of them are not extant. 

I^imecus governed Ireland in great felicities 
justice^ and tranquillity, both the Scots and the 


old inhabitants, during his life time. Immediately 
after his decease, arose an odious controversie be- 
tweene the Soots and the old inhabitants, for the 
government, every nation contending to have a 
govemoure of their owne blood, which contention 
enduring long time, at last they created two go» 
vemours, betweene whom were continual batteUs 
and great slaughter on either side, through ambi- 
tion and burning desire to be sole govemour of 
all Ireland. After long and dangerous battells, 
the two people, broken with sundry displeasures, 
were constrained to take peace ; howheit, the same 
endurefl but a short time, each one of them par- 
suing other with battell, and yet they dwelt many 
yeares together, by interchange of peace and 
warres, while at the last the Scots suffering many 
injuries, soit their ambassador to Metellius, who 
was then king of Scots in Spaine, desiring to have 
support agamst the old inhabitants pf Irdand, de- 
claring them to be a rude wild people, impatient 
to suffer any empire above them, so that the Scots 
can have no tranquillitie, unlesse the siud people 
were the more speedily tamed and subdued. This 
foresaid message was the more acceptable to the 
King Metellius, for it concerned the common- 
wealth both of the Scots nation in Spaine and 
Ireland, descending (by long progression) of one 
lineage and blood, and willingly sf^tisfying the 
aforesaid ambassadour^s request, trusting the same 
to be no lesse honor and glory to himselfe, as 
profit to his friends. Therefore, the king sent 
his three sonnes, Hermoneus, Ftolomeos,, and 
Hibert, with a great armie of valiant meo, into 

10 tHE ABRlbGKinKNT Of ^ttE 

Ireland, where they with right dangerous battelld 
vanquished the old inhabitants^ and brought them 
under subjection. Hermoneus returning into 
Spaine, left his two brethren to governe the land, 
who gorverned the same long time after in great 
tranquillitie and justice, instituting lawes, imd in-^ 
structed the priests to make incense and sacrifice 
in the same maner as the Egyptians used; so 
both the people increased many yeares in great 
felicitie, peace, and riches, during the government 
of Ptolomeus and Hibert, and long after their 
decease. But too great prosperitie engendreth 
-evil maners, and causeth men to work often dis- 
pleasures upon themselves, finding no fd>raigne 
enemies to invade them at .home. The people 
after long peace were divided for the government, 
^contending for the same with great rigour and 
'slaughter on both sides, tintill the one had almost 
utterly destroyed the other, if they had not beene 
reconciled by a nobleman named Thanaus, prin« 
tsipall ambassadour sent by the king then raign- 
ing over the Scots in Spaine, (rejoycing of the 
felicitie succeeding to his friends,) and to cause 
them by his prudent consultation, to increase to- 
gether under one niinde. Thanaus being a pru- 
dent man, bearing neutrall affection to both the 
parties, perswaded them at sundrie conventions 
to remove ali contention, and to tflect one (whom 
they thought most expedient) to bee their king, 
and to bee obedient to him in all their govern- 
ment. Through the perswasion, the whoJe peo- 
ple had such fervent desire to have a king, that 
all old injuries being forgotten, they appoynted 


Thanaus to eleet a king, whom hee thought most 
expedient, and hee, seeing their minds willing to 
have a neutral! king, declaring to them that there 
was in Spaine a noble prince, of great severitie 
and justice, named Simon Brek, well accustomed 
with their lawes, and lineally descended from the 
ancient King Metellius, whom he thought most 
fittest to be their king. The whole people hear« 
ing the name of Simon Brek, were well content 
to have him their king, because that name was 
esteemed verie fortunate in those dayes. Then 
a&er, with the consent of the whole people, am- 
bassadours were sent into Spaine to request the 
said Simon to come into Ireland to bee their 
king. Hee knowing by grave advisement the in- 
tent of the ambassadours,. provided a great fleete 
of shippes, with all things necessarie ; and finally, 
by prosperous winds arrived in Ireland, where hee 
was solemnly received, and crowned in the chayre 
of marble> which bee brought out of Spaine, es- 
teemed as a most rich jewell in those days ; from 
the beginning of the world 3314 ; from the flood 
of Noah 1658; from the building of Rome 103; 
before the birth of Christ 651. Hee reigned witb 
great felicilie peaceably fourty yeares^ being spe« 
cially counsailled by the aforesaid Thanaus, tOv 
whom he gave sundrie lands, lying in the soulh 
part of Ireland, beside the river Birsus, wUch 
lands are now called Dowdall, where hee dwelt 
with the people hee brought with him out of 
the famous citie Brigance, now called Compos- 
tda : They were called Brigandes, ol whom 
after^ by procewe of tkne, descended many va^ 

^ I 


liant and noUe men, who came with Fergi»u& 
the fint king in Scotlimd) by whom all the lands 
now called Galowaj» were then called Brtgance» 
whose inhabitant* were ever full of manhood^ and 
strongest enemies against Romanes, Britaines, 
and Pictes. SioKm deceased, his sonne Fanduf 
succeeded king; after Fanduff succeeded Etbion ; 
after Ethion succeeded Glaucus; after Glaucus 
succeeded Natfaasil; after Nathasil succeeded 

Rothesay was the fost khig that brought Scots 
with him in Albion. The first isle that hee inbabi- 
ted| he called after his own namet Rothesay, the 
remnant isles were called Hebrides, after Hiber, 
the eldest sonne of Gatfaelus. Rothesay hearing of 
the death of his father Nathasil, he i«turned into 
Ireland, and was there crowned king. The yeare- 
thal Scots were brought out of Irdand into Al-* 
Inon, was from the empyre of Simon Brek in 
Ireland, 216 years; from the beginning of the 
world 3530. The Scots spread in sundry parts 
of Albion, lying farre north, and inhabited many 
isles. The first part that they tooke possession 
of was named Ardgae), from Gathelus, which 
now is called Ardgile, They being divided in- 
to sundry tribes, ele^ed certaine captatnes to 
every tribe^ to governe iSiem both in peace and 
warre, having the name of their captaiae in g»eat 
reverence, swearing by ibeir names ; whidi cus* 
tome was long observed in those ides and the 
higb lands. Then after about 150 3^are^ a ba> 
nished people named Pietes, came forth of Den- 
marke to search a dtrelliiig place, and after liiey 


were inhibited to land in France, Britaine, and 
Ireland. They landed in Albion, first in Ork- 
nay, of olde called the olde realme of the Picts. 
The seas betwene Orknay and Caithncs is called 
Pentland Firth, and the lands now called Louthe- 
an^ (was of old called Pentland,) after the name 
of the Picts. Then after they came into Caitlv- 
nes, Ros, Murray, Merns, Angus, Fiife, and Lou- 
thean, and expelled all the olde inhabitants. ' They 
were a civill people, right ingenuous and crafty 
both in peace and warres. After their planting 
in the aforesaid parts, they elected a king to go- 
veme them, and hold them in justice, and made 
great policy in building of munitions, townes, and 
castles. And because they knew all people with- 
out issue to succeede, should perish, they sent 
their ambassadours to the Scots, to have their 
daughters in marriage, showing (though they were 
of strange blood) they should not be so smally re- 
garded, seeing they with no lesse prudence than 
manhood, have sustained incredible dangers both 
by sea and land ; and now lately conquered 
(through the benevolence of the gods) right plen- 
teous lands, with such peace and tranquillitie, 
that no other people may claime them by reason : 
trusting surely (if gods support them), by their 
owne industrie to be equall to any of their neigh- 
bours, both in peace and warres. Further, if the 
Scots condescended to their honourable desires, 
it might be, they increasing together, (so strong 
under one blood,) that they might resist the fury 
of thm enemies the better, when it hapned them 
lo be invaded. This ambassage was not pleasan 



to the Scots at the first, thinking it unwortbie to 
have any society or marriage with an unknowne 
and banished people : but by grave advisement, 
and being profoundly resolved, and finding them- 
selves as yet not able to resist .the force of the Bri- 
tons, their old enemies, they determined to give 
their daughters to the Picts in marriage, and to 
have a band of peace with them, with conditions 
that everie one of them shall enjoy the lands 
which pertained unto them before the marriage, 
and to concur together with the whole puissance, ' 
as oft as they were invaded by enemies. Any that 
did offence to any of them, should be reputed as 
enemies to them both. And as oft as the crowne 
of the Picts should come in question for lack of 
an heire, the king to bee elected of the nearest of 
the woman's blood. These conditions accepted 
on all sides, the Scots gave their daughters in 
marriage to the Picts; Tlie Britons suspecting 
this marriage, and dreading the increasing of this 
confederat people under one blood in short time, 
that neither might the Britons for the time pre- 
sent, nor their . posteritie, resist the puissance of 
these two united people. Therefore, being mind- 
ed to destroy them both, and to invade them with 
fraudulent slights, rather than with any force of 
batiell; and sending their ambassadours to the 
Picts, allured the Picts to violate their band with 
the Scots. By this perswanon and craftie dealing 
of the Britons, the band was dissolved ; and mo* 
ving occanon of battell against the Seots,' com«> 
manded by generall edtict, no Scots to be found 
io^their bounds at ft prefixed day, under paine of 


death. The day being expired} all Soots within 
their bounds were killed without nierciet as break- 
ers of their lawes* The Scots, impatient to sus- 
taine such injuries, killed as many of the Picts ; 
so there followed continuall killing and murther 
on all sides, not regarding affinitie, blood, time, 
nor fAoce.^ In this maner the peace dissolved, the 
Picts denounced battell to the Scots ; then after 
followed continuall incursions and invasions on 
either parties. The Scots assembling in Ardgile, 
were sufficiently resolved, that the battell that 
tfaey were to hold, was not only against the Picts, 
but also against the Britons. Therefore it was 
agreed to send their ambassadours to their ancient 
progenitors and friends in Ireland, to have their 
support and counsell in this most dangerous mat- 
ter : and for that pluralitie of captunes, (as often 
occurreth,) raiseth sedition, the best is to elect one 
to have empyre above the rest, by whose manhood 
and counsell they might defend their lives and 
liberties, against a false and perjured people, in- 
vading them without any occasion. The ambas- 
sadours being directed to Ireland, complained of 
the wicked offence done by the Picts, and desired 

Ferquardus, (then being king of the Scots in 
Ireland,) greatly moved for the displeasure done 
to his friends in Albion, sent his sonne Fergusius, 
a wise and valiant prince, with many valiant sdul- 
diters ; and to give them the more esperance and 
assurance of permanent and good fortune, he sent 
with them the fatall marble chayre. Fergusius 
was the more pleasantly received by the Scots of 


Albion, because their commonwealth approached 
to great danger, by a most perilous apparent bat- 
tell. Then after a counsell was called in Ard- 
gile, where Fergusius made a large oration and 
acceptable speech. Therefore, by grave consul- 
tation, they condescended to be governed by the 
empyre of one king, as well in peace as in any 
trouble appearing against their enemies. Fur- 
thermore, to remove all suspicion of hatred, (be- 
cause everie tribe desired a king of their owne 
linage,) they elected Fergusius, both for his noble 
blood, and other his excellent vertues, to be their 
king. Moreover, he was so approved in mar- 
tiall deeds and justice, that no captaine of the 
tribes might be any ways compared unto him. 

1. Fergusius, the first king of Scots (in Albion, 
now called Scotland), son to Ferquhard, king of 
Ireland, was crowned in the fatall marble chayre 
which he brought with him, (by respons of the 
gods,) to establish his reign in Scotland ; the year 
from the creation of the world 3641 ; before the 
coming of Christ 330; in the first year of the 112 < 
Olimpiad; in the 421 year after the building of 
Rome; about the beginning of the fourth mo- 
narchy, when Alexander the Great vanquished 
Darius, the last monarch of Persia, in the reign 
of King Chimarus, king of Britons. The king 
employed his whole mind to resist the injury of 
this battell moved by the Picts; he calling all 
the captaines, ordained them to bee prepared 
with forty dayes provision, to passe with him: 
he made an agreement and concord amongst 'all 
his nobles and captainesi commanding his people 


to be obedient to their captaines, bee making 
sacrifice to his gods, (as the custome was,) praying 
the gods to take vengeance of the partie that was 
the first occasion of battell against other^ and to 
grant him felicitie in his just defence, that victory 
might succeed to him without any great damage 
of his people* The Picts assembled an army» 
with many Britons concurring to their support, 
appeared on either side a wicked and unnatural 
battell betweene two confederate people, friends, 
fathers, and sonnes. The Picts came first into 
the Scots lands, against whom, with no lesse 
courage than manhood, the king with his valiant 
Scots, with ancient armes displayed in forme of a 
banner, in which was a red lion rampant, in a field 
of gold. Whilst the Scots and Picts were ih ar- 
ray in each others sight, the armie of Britons stood 
in array also, devising what way they might de- 
stroy them both ; with firme purpose, when the 
Scots and Picts were vanquished, the one by the 
other, that the party victorious should utterly be 
destroyed by their fresh armie ; and when both 
these peoples were destroyed by this slight, the 
Britons might enjoy both their realmes in Albion 
without any impediment. This subtill slight was 
discovered to King Fergusius by a banished Bri- 
ton ; through which both the armies, moved no 
lesse by fear of enemies, than by their owne pro- 
per damage, prolonged the battell certaine dayes. 
King Fergusius desired communication with the 
king of the Picts, who willingly, with some of his 
nobles, had communication a long time together : 
after long bonference and deliberat consultation 



with their counsellers on both parties, and rutb- 
full crying of the Picts^ wives, being the Soots^ 
daughters, peace was finally concluded betweene 
the two confederat people, under these conditions, 
redresse of all injuries being made on all parties. 
The Britons (movers of this battell) shall be re- 
puted as enemies to them both, all other charges 
to be at the pleasure and will of the two kings. 
And when any enemy occurred, -that they and 
their people should conjoyne together under one 
minde and ordinance* This peace being more 
strongly corroborat, the kings returned home* 
King Fergusius, in a most dangerous battell, as- 
sisted by the Picts, vanquished the Britons, which 
time King CoyI, or Chimarus, (unwarilie keept 
by his nobles,) was killed in the land after his 
name, then called Coyl, now Kyle, in Scotland. 
After this victorie, the king called his whole no* 
bles and subjects to a generall convention, and 
bee making a large and plausible oration and 
speech, the nobles and subjects condescended and 
agreed, that King Fergusius and his posteritie 
shoulde possesse the crowne of Scotland ; where- 
upon charters and evidences were granted to him 
and his successors for ever. 

The kingdome. of Scotland being confirmed to 
King Fergusius, his heires and successors, with 
deliberat counsell of his nobles, bee divided the 
whole lands then inhabited by the Scots, amongst 
his nobles and captaines of the tribes, by lots or 
cavils. The first lot chanced or fell unto Cor- 
nath, captaine, and his tribe; viz. the lands of 
Caithnes, lying over against Orknajr, betweene 


Donnisby and the river of Thane. Secondly, to 
Captaine Lutork, the lands betweene the water of 
Thane and Nesse, now called Bos. This Lutork 
came with a band of valiant men but of Ireland, 
with King Fergusius, into Albion. This land of 
Bos lyeth in breadth from Cromartie, to the wa* 
ter of Lochtie. In this countrie was the famous 
castle of Urquhart, of which the ruinous walles 
remaine,in great admiration. Thirdly, the Cap* 
taine Warroch, the lands lying betweene Spey 
and Nesse, from the Almaine to the Irish seas; 
the people inhabitants of this part (after their cap* 
taine) were called Wars, being seditious, they were 
expelled, and the Murrayes possessed the land, 
and called the same land Murray land. Fourthly, 
to Captaine Thalis, the lands of Boyne, Aynie, 
BogewelU Gariot, Farmartyn, and Bowquhan, 
These lands were then called under one name, 
Thalia, by the name of their captaine. Fiftly, to 
Captaine Martoch, all the lands of Marre, Bad- 
zenoth, and Lochquhaber. The sixt, to Captaine 
Novance, the lands of Lbrne and Eyntier, with 
the high places and mountaines thereof, lying 
from Marre to the Irish seas. The seventh to 
Atholus, the lands of Athole, for he was descend- 
ed of the Scots of Spaine, and came out of Spaine 
into Ireland, and with Fergusius hee came, into 
Scotland. The eight to Creones and Epidithes, 
two captaines of the tribes, the lands of Stra* 
brawne and Braidawane, lying west from Dune 
keld. The ninth to Captaine Argathelus, the 
land3 of Ardg^le, his people were named Arga; 


theleS) from Gsthelus, their first progenitor, but 
now they are called men of Ardgile. The tenth 
to Captaine Lolgonas, the land of Lerenox and 
CUddisdale. The eleventh to Captaine Silurch, 
the land of Siluria, which region is now divided 
into Kyle, Carrike, and Cunningham ; the inha- 
bitants were right ingenious and strong* The 
twelfth to the Brigandes, the lands of Brigance, 
nqm called Galloway. 

Sing Fergusius, after the dividing of these lands, 
instituted lawes to represse vice ; hee builded the 
castle of Berigone in Lochquhaber. He past the 
remnant of his dayes in good peace with the Bri- 
tons and Picts. At the last hee was elected as 
judge arbitral! to discerne upon certaine high 
controversies chancing amongst his friends in Ire- 
land* He, accompanied with certaine of his no^ 
ble% past into Ireland, and pacified them of all 
matters: returning home, by a verie dangerous 
tempest, perished with all his nobles that were in 
bis company, upon a rock in the sea called after 
his name Craigfergus, the five and twentie yeare 
of hb reign. In his reign was Morindus, king of 
Britons, and Cruthneus .Camelon, king of Picts, 
who builded upon the water of Carron the city of 
Camelon, the principal! and strongest city of the 
Picts, which resisted the Aomans and Britons, 
luitill that Kenneth, king of Scotland, (who exiled 
the Picts out of Albion,) brought it unto utter 
subversion. This Cruthneus Camelon builded 
also the towne and castle of Edinburgh, some time 
called theMaidto Castle, for all the noble young 


women of the Picts were nourished and learned 
in all skilfull labour of their hands, untill they 
were ready to marry. 

Fergusius departed this present life, as afore- 
said, a convention was holden by the nobles for 
electing of a king. After a long disputation and 
reasoning, it was concluded by plain consent of 
parliament, and enacted, when it hapned their 
king to decease, and having heires begotten of his 
bodie, being children, the nearest of the king^s 
blood, and fittest to doe justice, shall possess the 
crowne for his time: after his death, the kbg^s 
Sonne shall succeed to the crowne without impe^- 
mentf if he were able thereto. By the same act 
it was prohibited children to be kings. This 
custome endured long time, which rused much 
discord in the realme of Scotland, for the father^s 
brother raigning in the minority of his nephewy 
cast the chiefest business to destroy him, and 
likewise the nephew, to the father'^s brother, for 
ambition to the crowne, through which occurred 
continuall killing of kings and nobles, to the 
great damage of the realme and commonwealth. 

2. Feritharis, brother to Fergusius, by the afore- 
said act, began his reign in the year of the world 
3666 ; before the coming of Christ 305 ; from the 
beginning of the reign of Scotland, 26 yeares. 
He was a good king, and severe justicer, and was 
willing to have discharged himself of the kingdom, 
in favour of Ferlegus, eldest sonne to his brother 
Fergusius, which his nobles would not condescend 
Vinto, because of the statute and act of parliament 


lately made, which continued untill the time of 
the reign of King Eenetus the third} almost 1205 
yeares. He was killed by the aforesaid Ferlegus, 
the fifteenth year of bis reign. Ferlegus, the 
murtherer, and all others participant with him, 
being banished, were fu^tives among the Picts ; 
and finding no securitie of his life, bee past into 
Briton, where he spent the rest of his dayes in 
great misery. 

3. Main us. King Fergusius^ second sonne, suc- 
ceeded in the year of the world 3686; before 
Christ 291; after the beginning of the reign 41- 
Hee was a noble king, a good justtcer, for bee 
exercised justice aires for repressing of trespas- 
sers, and ratified the old league with Critius, king 
of Picts, holding good peace with his confederates 
and BritonSk He died peaceaUy the nine and 
twentieth year of his reign. 

4. Dornadilla succeeded his father Mainus, in 
the year of the world 3709 ; before Christ 262 ; 
after the beginning of the reign 70. He was a 
good king, and confirmed peace with the Picts 
and Britons. He delighted greatly in hunting, 
races, and hounds, made certaine lawes profitable 
for hunting, which were observed many yeares 
after. He died peaceably the eight and twentieth 
year of his reign. 

6. Nothatus succeeded his brother Dornadilla, 
(whose Sonne Rewther was a child, not able to 
governe by virtue of the foresaid statute,) the 
year of the world 3738 ; before Christ 233 ; after 
the beginning of the reign 98. He was an ava- 

tSHtOMICtXI lOr 8COTX.AVl>. 9ft 

riteKius cruell tyrmt. Hee was killed by Dowall^ 
one of his noUe^, captaine of the BrigandeS) the 
twentieth year of his xeign. 

& BeutberuS) Dornadilla his soniw^ woeetded 
the year of the world ^3758 ; before Christ 913 ; 
a&er the r^gn 1 18. Hee bnng young, (aari^ed 
by Dowall,) raised great cxxitantion by the per- 
swasion of Ferquhart, eaptaine of Kintire and 
Lorne} (cousin to Nothatus the tyrant late killed,) 
a man of subtill wit, and having great ambkion to 
the crowne. Betwene the aforesaid parties there 
were cruel! warres* Ferquhart being fugttiye in 
Ireland^ returned, being assisted with many Irish* 
ixien> with the inhabitants of Kintire, Lome, Ard« 
gile', Caithnes, Murray, and with a great anasiew 
Dowall resisting, can>e with a ^eat power, (ac* 
companied with the young king, and the king of 
the Ficts,) and many other his friends. T%ere 
was a cruell battell and killing of ehieftaines and 
nobles on both parties: The king of Picts, with 
many of his noUes, pitifully killed. Reutherus, the 
young king, pursued and taken at the castle of 
Calender. By this unhappy battell was such ter- 
rible slaughter, that neither Scots nor Picts were 
l^t living sufficient to inbabite their realmes, nor 
to withatand their enemies. Afterwards the Scots 
and Picts were most cruelly invaded by the Bri* 
tons, and a gvcat multitude killed, the rest exiled* 
King Reutherus and his people past into Ireland,, 
and the PieU past into Orknay. King Reutherus 
returning from Ireland, and the Piets with their 
Sing Getbus returmng from Orknay, they gave 
battelL to the king of Btitons, and obtaining 'vio- 


tory by the high and soveraigne manhoodt and 
Taliantnesse of the foresaid King Reutherus : the 
Britons rendred all the forts, landes, and townes, 
pertaining to the Scots and Picts, with faithfull 
promise never to return to invade them in time 
coming* This peace being concluded, the Scots, 
Picts, and Britons, continued in great tranquility 
many yeares after. The king enduring the rest 
of his dayes, had good peace, and died the sixe 
and twentieth year of his reign. 

7. Brheuda succeeded his brother Reutherus in 
the year of the world 3784 ; before Christ 187 ; 
after the beginning of the reign 144. He was a 
good king, he caused sepultures to be made for 
noble and valiant men ; he brought artificers into 
his realme, and instituted sundry good lawes. In 
his time came certaine orators, philosophers, from 
King Ptolomeus of Egypt, who were pleasantly 
received and well entertained, because they were 
descended of the Egyptians his ancient forefathers. 
These orators did write and consider the situation 
of the hilles, mountaines, vallies, rivers, loches, 
frithes, isles, townes, and forts, within the realme 
of Scotland, and the lands thereto pertaining, as 
also to the Picts. He reigned peaceably sixteene 
yeares, and resigned the crowne to Thereus, sonne 
to King Reutherus. 

8. Thereus, Reutherus' sonne, succeeded in the 
year of the world 3799 ; before Christ 171 ; after 
the reign 158. Hee appeared in the first sixe 
monthes to be a vertuous prince ; but after^ he be- 
came an unwise cruell tyrant. Therefore, being 
degraded of all honor, he was exiled» and Conan» 

eHBONicLxa or sootlabd. 8ft 

oaptaine of the BrigandeSf elected to be governor,- 
vh« governed the realme peaceably during the 
exile of Thereus, who died in the citie of York 
in miserj, the twelfth year of his rdgn. 

9» Joelna succeeded his brother Thereus^ the 
year of the world 3810; before Christ 161 ; after 
the veign 170; Hee was a peaceable and good 
Ung, ratifying peace with, his confederates the 
FiclSy and also with the Britons. He was a good 
medecinar and herbestar; In his time were brought 
to bis pfesence in Berrigonei two venerable philo- 
soplier% pleasant of visage^ almost naked, being. 
prie$t» of Spaine, passing from Portingall to 
Athens, and ' by unmerciful tempest, were ship 
broken at Ros, theiir ship and companie, with 
manners, all perished, they only saved. After 
refreshing and good entertainment, the king de« 
sired and demancfed of them what they understood 
by their science, of the nature of the ground of 
Soothmd. After good and deliberat advisemait, 
(so fcr as they might conjecture,) tfiere was more 
riches and profit to be gotten within the veins of 
the earth of Scotland, than above, for it was given 
more to the winning of mines and mettais, than 
any production of com. They knew this: by the 
luflotoce b( the heavens* Also they learned the 
people to worship only Grod the Creator, prohi- 
bitihg them to make sacrifice (as the custome was), 
to Isis and Apis, the gods of the Egyptians, but 
only to make their sacrifice^ prayers, and adora^* 
tioli, in iSieir temples (without any imagery), to 
tlie' tttemaii'God, Creator of heaven and earth, 
wliich tbe people for tho most part observed loig 



time. King Josina being a ▼eituous prinee, 

in peace the twentie^fourth year of bis re^pi, and 

was buried at Berigone. 

10. Finnanus succeeded his father Josina^ Ae 
year of the world 3834 ; before Christ 137 ; after 
the reign 1 94 ; a wise and vertuous king, a good 
justicer, with advice of his nobles, rewarding them 
honourably after their deservings, winning the 
hearts of his people, ruled with great felidtie, in* 
creasing in riches* He did institut prelates and 
clerkes to bee in the Isle of Man,, instructing no* 
blemen's children in their youth. This yertuous 
king married his sonne Durstius, with Agafia, 
daughter to the king of BritOns. Hee wan great 
favour among them ; he visited the king of Picts, 
who was vexed with a vehement fever in Camdon^ 
Hee died there the thirtieth year of his reign, aiid 
was brought to Berigone, and there buried among 
the sepultures of his progenitors. 

1 1. Durstius succeeded his father Finnamis, the 
year of the world 3664; before Christ 107; from 
the beginning of the reign 224. Hee was a oruel 
and trayterous tyrant, killed in battell by his no- 
bles, the ninth year of his reign. 

12. Evenus /irmii«, succeeded his brother Dur- 
stius, the year of the world 3873 ; before Christ 96 ; 
after the reign 133 ; a wise, just, and verCuoua 
king. Hee was the first that caused his nobles 
and subjects to give the oath of fidelitie. Hee 
executed justice severly in all parts of his realme* 
At length there came ambassadours from the 
Picts, showing that the Britons were in armour* 
purpcttiog to besiege thdr dty Cameloo.. r'Tlie 

f, to Msist bis oonrederate friends, came with 
expedition against the Britons. Soots and Piets 
went f<Nrw«rd with great courage : the Britons 
with no lesse audacity on the other part : followeth 
a very dangerous battell with uncertaine victory, 
untill the night severed them. The confederate 
kings seeing. their army broken, retired in the 
ni^t. The Britons so broken, and despairing 
of new support, retired in the same maner as dis- 
comfited people ; their campe standing with their 
carriage. The confederate people advertised here- 
of, returned. and parted the spoyle by custome of 
annes. The king returned to Berigone, rewarded 
their friends that were slaine in the battell, and 
promoted others to publick offices, some with 
riehes and goods, and the rest of his dayes he was 
•a severe justicer, and died in peace the nineteenth 
year of his reign, and was buried ior Dunstaffjage. 

IS. Gillus, bastard sonne to Evenus, usurped 
the crowne, and traiterously killed two sonnes of 
Durstius, contending for the crowne, in the year 
of the world 3892 ; before Christ 97 ; after the 
reign 262. A crafty tyrant, killed in battell by 
Cadellus, captain of the Brigandes, the second 
year of bis rdgn, his head cut off, his body buried 
in Dunstaffage. 

14. Evenus steunduBj Donallus sonne. King 
Finnanus brother, succeeded in the year of the 
world 3894 ; before Christ 77 ; after the begin* 
ning of the reign of Scotland 254. Hee was 
,a ipood justicer, civill, vertuous, and peaceaUe 
king. Cadellus, after the killing of Gillus, re- 
taniing out of Ireland with his victorious army, 


96 T9B AftUDQBXftVT. oar TBE 

by rage of tempest were almost all perished. Cai- 
dellas was truely rewarded with iniiny landes by 
the king, and comforted by htm coacemfaig bis 
great losse of nobles and friends. King Evemis 
marrying Siora, datj^hter of Gethus, king of the 
Picts, confirmed the old band. After ibat bee 
▼anqoished Balus, king of Orknay, who finding 
no way to escape, killed himself. Hee died in 
peace the seventeenth year of his ragn, and was 
buried in Dunstafiage. 

15. Ederus, Durstius sonne, succeeded in the 
year of the world 3911 ; before Christ 60\ after 
the reign 271 : a wise, valiant, and gtkxi king. 
Bredus of the Isles, (cousin to Gillus, killed as 
is before^nentioded,) made insurre^ion. Shortly 
after, the king pursuing him and his aasociates, 
they were all taken captives, and many, with the 
said Bredus, killed. Cassibilian, king of Britons, 
sent his ambassadours to the king of Scots, de- 
siring support against Julius Csesar, the Roman 
^nperor, who was ready with most dreadfull 0|^- 
dinance to come into Albion. The king and no* 
bies receiving the ambassadours courteoody. An- 
drogens, special ambassadour, after a large and 
serious oration, the king and nobles being ad* 
vised, sent unto London ten thousand dkisen 
men, under the conduct and government of Cad- 
aHan and Dowall, captaines of the Brigandes and 
Lome. Also an army of Picts came at the re- 
quest of Ederus. The Britons were raised in 
great esperance of victory by the aid of Scots and 
Picts, for they had no little confidence in th^ 
manhood and chivalry. King Cassibilian went 

cHmomoLBft o9 feoTLAit]). 99 

forward with hk whole power against the Ro- 
flMUiB* There ensued a dangerous and doubtful 
iMUtell) at the last the Romanes were fugitive, 
and b^g minded to renew the battell, Julius 
(heiiring of the great destruction of his ships,) 
changed his mind, hoysted sayles in the night, 
and returned into France, leaving behind them a 
great prey of goods, when Julius Caesar was for« 
ced to avoid Albion. The Britons, Soots, and 
Picts, parted the spoyle gotten in his campe by 
eustome of armes, rejoycing of this glorious vic- 
tory. Cadallan and Dowall, richly rewarded by 
Cassibilian, returned with the Scots army, at 
whoae coming the king was greatly rejoyced; 
then followed such love and kindnesse betweene 
the Britons, Scots, and Picts, that it appeared them 
lo live in perpetuall peace. The king passing to 
Innemess, was certainly informed by sundry mer« 
chant strangers, that Julius had pacified France 
to his empire, and making provision for a new 
armie to return into Briton, to revenge the in* 
juries done unto him the last year. He sends 
his unbassadours to Cassibilian, promising (if he 
pleased) to send ten thousand chosen men unto 
his aid and support The Britons (moved with 
vain arrogancy) refused to' have any supply of 
Soots or Picts. Julius returning into Briton, was 
three sundry times put back, but at the last Cas- 
sibilian was vanquished, and his whole valiant 
captaines taken or killed, and his lands made to 
pay tfavee thousand pound oi silver to the Ro- 
mans for tribute. Julius sendeth bis ambassa- 
doors to theScoU and Picts, offering them con- 



di&nift of peace two several tiiiiefi. They li^rii 
resolute to remaine free» not to be subject, and 
refusing all conditions of peace» were willing to 
defend their lives and liberties* Julius beii^ 
minded to invade the Scots and Picts, was ad-» 
vertised of a sudden uproar in France, for which 
cause he passed into France. Murket» Gildus 
his nephew, made insurrection against the king* 
Therefore be sent Cadallan with armed mm^ 
who hanged Murket with his acoomplicesk The 
king continued in good peace the rest of bisdays^ 
He died peaceably the foety-eight year of his reigo, 
and was buried in Dunstaffage* 

16. Evenus tertiua^ succeeded bis father Eckms 
the year of the world 3959; before Christ 18; 
after the reign 319. Hee was a luxurious iivari* 
tious tyrant, retaining a hundred concubines, and 
not being satiate with them.. He was taken in d 
battell captive, and imprisoned, and was killed 
by a young child the first night.' The child was 
executed on the morrow, the seventh year of his 
reign. He was buried at Dunstaffage. 

1 7. Metellanus, Ederus brotber^s scm, succeed* 
ed the year of the world 3966 ; before the coming 
of Christ 4 years; after the beginning of the 
reign of Scotland 326. Hee was a v«ry modest, 
civiil, and good king, peace being universally at 
the birth of our Saviour Christ. The Roman 
Emperor Augustus s«it his ambassadoum into 
Briton, requesting the Britons to continue peac^ 
with whom the king sent many rich jewels to 
Augustus, to be offered in their capitaL Hee 
wan 4sare amity of them, which end«ired kuigw 

In ihifi tiilie irnii^ io Bome^ Virgil, Horace, Otidj 
Tiiltiasy Mftreus Yarn>, Strabo, Titus Liviua, 
SalluMius, with many other learned men* He died 
peaceably the nine and thirtieth year of bis Mgo^ 
and. was buried in Omistaffi^e* 

18» Caratacus, Metellanus sister^a senne, %ut^ 
seeded in the year pf the world 4005 ; in the 
year ol Christ 35 s after the beginning <tf the 
reign of Scotland 365. He enjoying the gt^t 
treasure and riches left by king Meteilaniis, ex* 
ceeded all the kings in Albion in riehest Beill^ 
wise and valiant, pacifying his realme from att 
uproar and rebellion, i^edally iti the islei^ and 
executing severe justice* The Britons at this 
time rebelling against the RoroanSy sent their ani» 
bassadours to Caratacus, desiring support against 
the Bomans, he first reproaching them for thdr 
wilful! refusal. The Scots offering them support, 
wisely counselling them to solicit the Normans, 
Picards, Barteners, and all them on the sea coast, 
to rebel against them, and to kill the souldie^ 
promising assistance of the kings of Albion with 
money and valiant warriours, both by sea and 
land. The Romans shortly after invading the 
Britons, in a dangerous battell vanquished them, 
and killed their king Claudius ; and Vesparian 
coming into Briton, subdCied them again^ and 
passing into Orknay, subdued the same, and 
tirougbt Ganus, king of Orknay, his wife and 
children, in his triumph to Rome. The BritOM 
coming to York, made new insurrections, assisted 
by Caratacus, king of Scots, and Congestus, king 
of JNcts^ against whom Plancius, the Bomi^ gp^ 


vernour, and AruiraguSf then king of Biitonsi 
came with a great army. Caratacus bring elected 
general, there followed a craeU and dangerous 
battel!} with uncertaine victory, untill the night 
separated them on either parties. Plandus on 
the morrow seeing his great losse, specially of his 
borsemeQ, returned to London, and Caratacos 
returned to York. The next year Vespasian, 
with many legions of Romans, were sent into 
ton. Aruiragus assisting with the rest of the 
tons, conveened at York three score and five thou- 
sand chosen men. The confederate kings came 
with three score thousand valiant warriours. There 
was a terrible and cruell battelL The Albions^ 
(notwithstanding their great valiantness,} were 
discomfited by the prudent government of Ves* 
pa»an : the king of Picts killed, the whole Bri- 
tons being killed except sixe hundred, with their 
king. Caratacus returned with a few number to 
Briganee. Vespasian wintered in York, and in 
the spring besieged and wanne Camelon, where> 
in was found many rich monuments and jewels, 
with a precious crowne of gold, set about with 
many precious stones of divers colours, with a 
swoid with hiits of gold, which Vespasian used 
in all his warres. Hee remaining in Camelmi, 
Caratacus assembled a new armie, against whom 
Plancius was sent with a great armie : a cruell 
battell ensued. The victory at last succeeded to 
the Romans. The rest of the Scots (that escaped 
this sorrowful! battell) were fugitive to the moun- 
tains. King Caratacus bring sore wounded, was 
brought with great diflScuIty to Dunstaffiige. ' Ves- 

CHMj&miQimn ov sgotiaiid. S8 

pasian 80fi£tig bis ineBsengert to Carataensi pro** 
noising (if be would be obedient to the Soman 
empire) tbat be sbould reioaiti in honour^ and ba 
reputed and bolden as a friend to the senate and 
people of Rome : who atiswered, tbat the kingdoin 
of Scotland was as free to him as the kingdom of 
Home was to Ciesar, Vespaiian returntng to 
Bpme, Caratacus assembling a new artni^> the 
Romans encoiititeYiag htm with a great miiki* 
tude, there followed a cmell and terrible battell^ 
long with ^noertain victory; at the last the Ro^ 
niao^ obtained Victory. Garatacfus returned to 
DuQstaflbgeb Planeius dying at Cameloo^ Otfeo* 
rius Scapula was sent bjr tb^ enipief<>r inbis plao^^ 
who^ after suodne rebelHofis of the Britons, ooih 
qu«*ed them, as^d came witbiA the bdanda of 
Scotland. Garatabus gatfa^ed a Hew* arftiie tof 
forty thousand valiant men : there ensued a dasH 
gerous and terrible battdU the vietory sueoeedil^ 
at last to the Romans. Caralatus wife^ hifr diii^^ 
ter, and brother, were taken,, faitnself reiumisg to 
Cartamunda, his step mother, queen iuf Seots^ (in 
whom he trusted,) but unworthily he If as by bM 
betrayed, and rendred to the Romans* KiBg 
Caratacus was sent with his wife^ daughter, and 
brother, to Borne, where he Was greatly admired^ 
and honourably of the em^ror entertained, and 
remitted freely with his queen, daughter, and 
brother, to return homts, restoring all bis lands 
again. He remaining the rest of hia dayes in 
good peace, died the twentieth year of hia reign, 
and was buried at Dunstaffage. 

1ft Ck)rbredus primus, sueoeeded his hrcjiihet 


Caratacttfl in the year of the world 40S5 ; in the 
year of Christ 55; after the reign 385: a wise 
king and good justicier. He con vented his noUes, 
and took counsell of VenisiuSj the husband of 
Cartamunda, his step mother, queen of Sc6ts, who 
by crafty slights had taken the aforesaid Venisius, 
her husband, and sundry of his friends, and de- 
tained them prisoners, purposing to render them 
into (the Romans hands. The king impatient 
thereof, came and relieved them, commanding 
her to be buried quicke. After a cruell battell 
betweene the Romans, the Soots, and the Hcts, 
peace was concluded. The Romans shall possess 
the lands of Briton by them conquered, without 
invading of Scots or Picts ; then after, by com- 
mand of Nero, Veraneus was sent into Briton, 
who diortly died. Woada, sister to Corbredus, 
queen of Briton, sent to her brother, complmning 
of her misery and trouble, her daughters deflowred, 
herself shamrfuUy beaten by unmercifuU Romans. 
Ootbredus moved herewith, renewed the band 
with the Picts, and they raising a great armie, 
kiOed all the Romans they might apprehend, and 
wanne in their journey Berwick, being then the 
most populous town of that region. In this time 
there came a people called Murrayes, out of At- 
maine, with their captaine Roderik, put forth and 
expelled out of their native land, being inhilnted 
to land in France and Briton, arrived in Forth 
between Louthean and Fiffe. They were sworn 
ai^nies to the Romans, rcjoydng gready that 
they might have occanon to be revenged upon 
thdr enemies; requesting the oonfederate kings 


to suffer them to pairs formost in support of their 
people ; and (if it chanced the Romans to be Tan- 
quisbed) to g)rant them wives that they m^ht in* 
crease under one blood with the Scots* • These 
conditions were granted to the M urrayes. The 
confederate kings^ with the Murrayes, went for- 
wards> and joining with the valiant queen of Bri- 
tons, Woada, who rejoycing of her brother King 
Corbredus and the king of Picts coming, after an 
oration and comfortable speech made' by her, 
proffering .her, with 'five thousand ladies 'amied» 
to pass in the front of the battel!, against the un« 
mercifull and.sbaniefull deflowerers of virgins and 
matrons, the cruell . Romans. The confederate 
kings allowing her courage, past forwards^ . Cat« 
tus, the Roman governour, with arrayed, armes, 
came to resi^ them* There folk>wed a sharp 
battell; the horsemen of th^ Romans being van* 
quished, the rest, were fugitive wit^ Cattus, sbife 
wounded, escaped, and returned into France. 
The Albions partedl th6 spoyle and riches .of 
this field among them, and killed the Romans 
in all parts where they might apprehend them. 
In all this battell were killed 70,000 Romans^ 
and 30^000 Albions. Had not S wetonius, the 
Roman l^at» come hastily into Briton, with two 
legions and ten thousand warriours of sundry na« 
lions, the Albions had been perpetually freed from 
the Romans. Woada the queen, hearing of the 
new army of the Romans, assembled a new and 
great army of Britons, Sc6ts, Picts, and Mur* 
rayes. There foUowied a bk)ody and terrible bat- 
U^ 4l| ;]^t (the Aiybfiombeingf vanquished, four 


goore thousand killed, the Mtirrayes almost all 
kUied, with their captaine Boderik. Woada kill* 
ed hers^, to esci^ the injury of the Romans* 
Her two daughters were taken and brought armed 
to Swetonius. The eldest daughter was marned 
unio a BoUe Roman^ named Marius, who after 
wai^ l>y command of Caesar, made king of BA- 
tOQB. Corbredus, broken with this sorrowfull bat- 
teU; returned with the rest of his armie into Scot- 
land, and gave to the rest of the Murray es (that 
escaped out of the field) ail the lands betweene 
Spey- and lonerness, which lands were called after 
them Murray land ; for the old inhabitants being 
seditiiotts and troublesome, were partly expelled. 
The Murrayes then were married unto Scottish 
yirgins, and remained under one blood and friend*^ 
ship* CorbreduS, the king, continued the rest of 
lua dayes in peace, and died the eighteenth year 
of his reign, and was buried in Dunstafibge. 

20; Dardanus, nephew Co Metellanns, succeed- 
ed, the year ol the world 4043 ; tfae year of Christ 
79^ after the reign 402. He was well beloved of 
the peofde, being a lustie person, fair of visage 
and body. He appealed in the beginning to be 
ai-good king, but being within three years dege- 
nerat, became an odious tyrant, and would have 
tFMterously caused to be slaine the two sonnes of 
C<»*bredu8, remaining in the Isle of Man under 
disciplii^e. Thi^ tyrant at last was killed ia bat* 
tell, and beheaded by his nobles the ftfurth year 
of fats reign, wichout buriaK 
' /dL Corbredus ««eM<&#^ sumamed GalBusi Gor^ 
breduA prAaiM -sonne, sueceed^d^ an e3tceMnt pei^ 


soD» aidued with sundrie vertues and high prero* 
gatiireS) in the year of the world 4046 ; the year 
of Christ 76; after the beginning of the reign 
406 : a valiant and couragious king. He renewed 
many battells against the Romans, and was often 
yietorioos. At this time arrived in Forth a com- 
pany of Almaines, named Usipians, banished out 
of their native land, for killing of a Roman cap- 
taine and his band. They were pleasantly re- 
ceived, and ordained certaine lands to be inhabi- 
ted by themj beside the Murrayes, for they were 
of one blood, Agricola remaining in Briton eight 
yeares with his Romans, had sundrie victories 
against the Scots and Picts. Domitian, the em- 
peror, envying Agricola^s prosperous state in Bri- 
ton, sent hastily letters for him ; at whose coming 
to Rome, he was poysoned by command of the 
sud Domitian. Guenus Tabellius was made go- 
vemour of Briton. Dissension engendred among 
the Romans for the government. King Corbre- 
dus, sumamed Galdus, (being by his explorators) 
advertised hereof, came with a new army of Scots 
and Picts, against the Romans ; and finally, their 
captaine, with many Romans, were killed. Tlie 
Scots, with the Picts, followed the whole day, and 
killed them wheresoever thcfy might apprehend 
them. The king assembling the Scots and Picts, 
parted the rich spoyle of their enemies amongst 
them, as they had deserved. Afterwards, the 
Scots and Picts pursued cruelly in all parts the 
Romans. The Romans conveening them, elected 
Chdius t9 be their governour. There followed 
a most dangerous botttell; at last the BomaiM 



were vanquished, and pursued with continual! 
killing into Calidon wood. The confederate 
kings came with their armies into Brigance* The 
Romans having assembled themselves in most 
fearfull ordinance, a company of BritonSj (sent 
by Marius, their king, in support of the Romans,) 
came to the confederate kings. There followed 
a terrible and bloody battell ; the Romans being, 
vanquished and compelled to retire to their tents, 
with great killing of them, defended their tents 
with great manhood, until] the night approached. 
The Scbts were very careful and vigilant all night, 
and attended that their enemies should not escape ; 
others were making Engines to break down their 
tents and trenches. The Romans seeing so great 
preparation against them^ and no way to escape 
the danger, sent their orators to the confederate 
kings, most humbly intreating peace, on what 
conditions pleased them. After long consultation, 
peace was granted. The Romans to passe and 
render all lands, forts, and munitions, pertaining 
to the Scots and Picts, with all their goods taken- 
violently from them during the warres, and to re- 
main their friends at all times. Afterwards, this 
most valiant king, Corbredus Galdus, came to 
Epiake, the principall citie then of Scotland. The 
rest of his days he continued in peace, exercising 
severe justice. He died peaceably the five and 
thirtieth year of his reign, and was buried in 

22. Lugthacus succeeded bis father Corbredus 
Galdus, in the year of the world 4080 ; the year 
pf Christ 110; after the retgo 440; an odious 


and cruell tyrant, he was killed by his nobles the 
third year of his reign, and was buried in Dun* 

23. Mogallus, Corbredus secundus sister^s son, 
succeeded the year of the world 4083 ; the year 
of Christ 113; after the reign 442. Hee was a 
good king, and victorious in the beginning of his 
reign, governing his people with great justice, and 
obtained a great victory against Lucius and his 
Romans, by the assistance of the Picts, in West- 
merland and Cumber; obtaining a rich Bpoyle of 
the Bomans, which they parted by law of armes. 
Afterwards the king did degenerat into a cruell 
tyrant. In his time, Adrian the~ emperor came 
into Briton, and buiided the wall of Adrian, di- 
viding the Britons from the Scots and Picts: a 
great wall made of fewell, earth and turves, from 
the mouth of Tyne, over against the Almaine seas, 
to the flood of Eske, at the Irish seas, four score 
miles in length. Hee was killed by his nobles for 
bis tyrannic and odious life, the thirty-six year of 
his reign, and was buried at Dunstafiage. 

24. Conrus succeeded his father Mogallus, the 
year of the world 4119; the year of Christ 149; 
after the reign 479 : a cruel tyrant, degraded and 
imprisoned by his nobles, (and Argadus, cap- 
taine^ of Ardgile, made governour ; a good and 
severe justicer) : hee died in prison the fourteenth 
year of his reign, and was buried in Dunstaffage* 

25. £thodius primus^ Mogallus sister's sonne» 
succeeded the year of the world 41|33 ; the year 
of Christ W3 ; after the reign 493. A good jus- 
ticer, who holding sundrie battelis against the 



Roman captainea» Vktorine, Trebelltu9, and Per- 
tinax, near the wall of Adrian, and ministring 
good justice, oppressing rebels, was traiteroudy 
killed by a harper, (whom he trusted,) the thirty 
third year of his reign, and was buried in Dun* 
staflage. This harper was most cruelly executed* 

26. Satrael succeeded his brother Ethodiusjpn* 
miiSi the year of the world 4165; the year of 
Christ 195 ; after the reign 525 ; a cruell tyrant* 
Hee was slaine by one of bis courtiers the fourtb 
year of his reign, and was buried in Duna>taffage* 

27. Donaldus primus^ the first Christian king 
of Scotland, succeeded hia brother Satrael in the 
year of the world 4169 ; in the year of Christ 199 ; 
from the beginning of the reign of Scotland 529* 
A good and religious king, (in his time, Severua 
the emperor came into Briton ;) after many in«^ 
cursions made by the Scots and Picts in abolish* 
ing the wall of Adrian } Antonius, Severua sonne, 
governed Briton, and builded and repaired the 
wall of Adrian strongly with towers* Severos 
dying, Antonius killing his brother Getu$, wa9 
emperor. This king Donaldus coined gold and 
silver, and embraced the Christian faith. Hee 
died. in peace the eighteenth year of his leign^ and 
was buried in DunstafFage* 

28. Ethodius secundus^ Ethodius J9rtiittt« sonne, 
succeeded in the year of the world 4186; the year 
of Christ 216 ; after the reign 546, An unwise 
and base minded king. The realme was. prudent- 
ly governed by his nobles. He was killed by his 
guard, the sixteenth year of bis reign, and was 
buried ip Dunstaffage. 


89. Atbiroo succeeded his father Ethodius iccun" 
du8, the year of the world 4801 ; the year of Christ 
831 ; after the reign 561. A good prince in his 
beginnings afterwards being degenerat, and pur* 
sued by his nobles for his vicious life, killed him- 
self the twelfth year of his reign. 

30« Nathaloous succeeded the year of the world 
4S12; the year of Christ 343; after the reign 
572. A cruell tyrant, killed by his nobles (usurp- 
ing the crowne) the eleventh year of his reign. 

31. Findocus, Athirco^s sonne, succeeded the 
year of the world 4333 ; the year of Christ 353 ; 
after the reign 583. A good and valiant king ; 
he was killed at a hunting, by instigation of his 
brother Carance, and Donald, lord of the isles. 
The traitors, killers of him, being tormented to 
death, and Carance exiled, the eleventh year of 
his reign, and was buried in Dunstafiage. 

33. Donaldus secundusy succeeded his brother 
Findocus the year of the world 4334; the year 
of Christ 864 i after the reign 594. A good king ; 
be was wounded in battell, and being vanquished 
by the insurrection of Donald of the Isles, three 
thousand of his armie killed, and two thousand 
with their king taken, the third day with melan- 
choly died, the first year of his reign, and was bu- 
ried in Dun8ta£Page. 

33. Donaldus tertiusf lord of the Isles, (usurped 
the crowne,) the year of the world 4335 ; the year 
of Christ 365 ; after the reign 595. , A cruell 
tyrant, killed by Crathilinthus, his successor, (at 
which time there was universal persecution of the 



Christians under the.eQit>ire of Deeiua^) the twelfth 
year of bis reign. 

34. Crathiliothusj Findocus aonne, succeeded 

the year of the world 4247.; the year of Christ 

277 ; after the reign 607. A valiant good justicer, 

and godly king. Hee purged the land of supers 

stition, planting the true Christian religion. In 

this time chanced in the hunting betweene Scots 

and Picts, a. discord so hastily, that there were 

many killed on both parties. Carance, (brother 

to Findocus,) or Carasus, the 77th king of Briton, 

exiled for suspicion of Findocus slaughter, was 

long in the Roman warres with Diodesian the 

emperor, and using himself valiantly, returned 

into Albion with many valiant warriours and 

great riches ; placed his people in Westmerland, 

being reconciled with the king, he at length 

agreed the two long confederate kings and people. 

Carance, assisted by the two confederate kings, 

with a great armie, in three battells, coming to 

York, was resisted by Quintus Bassianus, cap* 

taine of the Britons, whom he killed, with many 

valiant Romans. After this battell victoriously 

wonne against the Romans, and the rich spoyle 

parted according to the law of armes, Carance 

with his victorious armie past to London, where 

he was received with great reverence, and possess* 

scd the crowne of Briton, contrarie to the em[nre 

of the Romans; retaining in his companie two 

thousand Scots and Picts continually for a guard. 

He being assaulted in battell by the Romans and 

Britons, was always victorious. The serenib year 


of his reign in BriUmi hee was killed by Alectn% 
a Boman captaine. King Crathilinthus ended 
the rest of bis dayes in good peace, and (fied the 
twentie fourth year of his reign, and was buried at 

35« Fincormacus, feither^s brother^s son to Cnn 
thilinthus, succeeded in the year of the world 4271 ; 
the year of Christ 301 ; after the reign 631 ; a 
godly valiant king. He was a worthy promoter 
of Christian religion in Scotland ; at which time 
Traberus, a Boman captaine, with many legions 
sent by the Emperor Coostantinus, into Briton^ 
to repress Octavius, then king of Britons, who 
being expelled, fled into Scotland. Traberoa 
assembling a great army against the king ol Soots, 
and Octavius king of Britons, (whom the afore-^ 
said king of Scots refused to render,) being soli* 
cited friendly, and thereafter sharply and proudly 
menaced by the said Traberus, followed a cruell 
and dangerous battell: the Bomans finally Tan* 
quished, and sixeteene thousand ol the Bomans 
killed, and fifeteene thousand Albions killed. Fin* 
cormacus and Octavius pursued until they came 
to York, where the two kings were pleasantly re- 
ceived by the nobles of Briton ; Octavius restored 
to the crowne. Fincormacus, for his assistance, 
had perpetually confirmed with an oath, to him 
and his successors, the lands of Westmerland and 
Cumber, (which Carance had granted in his time 
to the Scots apd Picts, for the assistance of Urn 
by king Crathilinthus against the Bomans) ; king 
Fincormacus continued the rest of. bis. dayea in 
peace with^the Britona mi Pids^ and died the 


seven and fourtie year of his reign, and was buried 
in Dunstaffage* 

36. Romacbus, brother's son to Crathilihthusi 
succeeded in the year of the world 4318 ; in the 
year of Christ 348 ; after the reign 678 ; a cruell 
tyrant, killed and beheaded by his nobles the third 
year of his reign, in whose time Arrius began, and 
Irdand became Christian. 

37. Anguseanus, Crathilinthus brother^s son, 
succeeded in the year of the world 4321 ; in the. 
year of Christ 351 ; after the reign 681 ; a good 
and valiant king. Nectanus, king of Picts, to 
revenge the killing of Romans, gathered an army 
against the Scots. There followed a sharp battel!, 
the Scots being victorious, and many of the no- 
bles of the Picts killed, their king fled unto Ca- 
melon, their principall citie. After that, the Picts 
renewed battel!, and came to the wood of Calidon, 
where the king of Scots with a great army joyned 
batte!!, with great cruelty ; both the kings were 
killed, and many of their nobles, the third year 
of bis reign, and was buried in Dunstafiage, with- 
out succession. 

38. Fethelmachus, another brother's sonne of 
Crathilinthus, succeeded in the year of the world 
4324 ; in the year of Christ 354 ; after the reign 
684. He was a good and valiant king, and vic- 
torious against the Picts, and killed their king in 
battell: He was traiterously murthered in his 
owne chamb^ by two dissembling Picts and an 
harper, the third year of his reign-, and was buried- 
in J)unstaffiige« The murtherers were apprehend- 
ed ud most cruelly tormented. At this time St* 


Andrew^s church was builded by the king of PicU^ 
at the request of St RewelL 

39. Eugenius prmuB^ Finoormacus flonne^ tuo* 
ceeded in the year of the world 4S27 ; in the year 
of Christ 357 ; after the reign 667. A raliant, 
just, and good king ; be was killed in battellf bis 
brother takeui and all bis nobles killed, with fifty 
thousand of his army, by the cruelty of the Ro* 
mans, Britons, and deceitful Picts, and the whole 
naUon of Scots expelled a long time, the third year 
of his reign, 

40. Fergusius secunduB^ Erthus sonne, ionne to 
Ethodius, Eugeniua the firsts brother, returning 
into Scotland, by support of Danes, Gothes, and 
his own countrie men, gathered unto htm out of 
all parts, (where they were dispersed,) conquered 
his realme of Scotland out of the Romans and 
Picts hands, beginning his reign in the year of 
the world 4874 ; in the year of Christ 404 ; from 
the beginning of the realme of Scotland 734* He 
was a wise, valiant, goodj and godly king, being 
confederate with the Picts. He was sundry times 
victorious against the Romans; at the lai|t he was 
killed in a battell by the Romans, the nxteenth 
year of his reign, and buried in Icolmkill. 

41. Bugenius fecundt^, Fergusius aecundua son, 
succeeded his father in the year of the world 4390 ; 
in the year of Christ 490 ; from the beginning of 
the reign of Scotland 750. He was a valiant and 
good king, in sundrie batteUs victorious against 
the Romans and Britons* At which time Maxi^ 
roian, the Roman governor of Briton, made insure 
rection against the Romans, and cruelly invaded 


the land then called Armorica, and killed the 
most part of the people there, that it should not 
be a prey to Frenchmen^ their neighbours. Hee 
brought out of Briton a great multitude of people 
to inhabit the same. Some authors write there 
came an hundred thousand men out of Briton 
with ConanuSy who was made king of that land, 
and called the same land Briton, or Little Briton, 
after the Britons that came to inhabit there. 
Then after they sent into Briton for women to 
be their wives ; at whose request Ursula, (called 
St Ursula,) with 11,000 virgins, were imbarked 
to pass to Briton : they all by'^contrarie and tem- 
pestuous winds, were compelled to arrive in the 
low countries, journeying by land to Briton, and 
were all lamentably murthered and killed, because 
they would not suffer deflowring of their bodies, 
but rather offered themselves to be cruelly and 
unmercifully murthered and killed. After this 
unhappy and cruell murther, other women and 
virgins were sent in great number into Briton, 
who inhabit that land continually to this day. 
Briton being desolate of Roman support, was oc- 
casion that the confederate kings invaded them so 
hardly; for the valiant Graham, (whose father 
was expelled out of Scotland with Ethodius, bro- 
ther to King Eugenius the first, killed in battel!, 
as afore is rehearsed, married with a noble lady 
of Denmark, who was mother to the aforesaid 
Graham,) which Graham married a virgin of the 
blood royal of Denmark, to whom she barje a 
daughter of excellent beauty, who was married to 
Fergusius the second, king of Scots ; of him de- 


scended the ancient surname of Grabam* . Hee 
was a great enemie to the Romans, for be de» 
stroyed to the ground the wall of Abiroome, call- 
ed them after Graham^s Dikes, and past and all 
utterly abolished the wall of Adrian over against 
the Irish seas. The confederate kings, accom* 
panied with valiant Grabamy past with fire and 
sword through all the bounds betweene Tyne and 
Humber. There followed a most dangerous bat^ 
tell, in the which were killed fifteen thousand Bri* 
tons, with the most of the princes and nobles of 
Briton> and four thousand Scots ; and the whole 
Romans being expelled out of Briton by the con- 
federate kings, and peace being concluded be- 
tweene the confederate kings and the Britons, all 
the lands lying beyond Humber shall remain per- 
petually under the empire of the confederate kings, 
and presently to be pud three score thousand 
pound to their men of warre, and twentie thou- 
sand pound yearly to the two confederate kings : 
and for observing hereof, the Britons delivered 
one hundred pledges, being within age of thirty 
yeares, at the will and pleasure of the confederate 
kings. In the seventh year of the reign of Euge- 
nius the second, king of ScotS) Briton was wholly 
delivered and released from Roman tribute, 496 
years after that Julius Caesar began the first tri- 
bute. Eugenius increased in riches and polide, 
his realme with continuall peace. In the same 
time, the Britons falling at great diversitie be- 
tweene the nobles and commons^ there were many 
of both parties miserably killed. He died in peace 


tbt one ami lliirtieth year of his reigo^ and was^ 
buried in lodmkilL » 

i/i. Dongardus succeeded his brother Eugenius, 
the year of the world 4421 ; the year of Christ 
461 ; after the reign 78 L A godly, wise^ and 
valiant king : in, a dangerous and eruell battell 
betweene Constantine, now elected kii^ of Bri- 
ton, there were killed sixteene thousand firitons, 
and four thousand Soots and Picts. The victory 
falling to the confederates, the king of Scots, va« 
liantly fighting, was killed, the fifth year of his 
reign, and was buried in loolmkill, which was 
the burial place for the kings, untill £ng Mal- 
colm Canmor's dayes. 

43. Constantinus j^mtttf, succeeded his brother 
Dongardus, the year of the world 44S7 ; in the 
year of Christ 457 ; from the beginning of thd 
reign 787. A vicious and odious king, killed by 
one of his nobles, whose daughter he had deflowr- 
ed, the twentie second year of his unworthie 

44. Congallus the first, Dongardus son, suc- 
ceeded in the year of the world 4449 ; the year of 
Christ 479 ; after the reign 809. A valiant kbg ; 
he vanquished the Britons in a eruell and danger- 
Mi battel^ wherein were killed 20,000 Britons, 
with many nobles,^ with Gwythell, Prince of 
Wales. Vortiger usurping the crowne of Bri- 
toUf sent into Almaine to hyre warriours against 
the confederate kings. At which time came into 
Briton, Hengist and Horsus, two bre^ren, with 
10,000 Saxons. Immediately the Britons wd 


Saxons past with arrayed battdl to Humber, be- 
fore the ^confederate kings were admonished of 
their eoming, killing in all parts without mercy 
where they came. The king of Picts assembled 
his armie, and joyned battel!, (without support of 
the Soots,) where he was vanquished by tl^ Saxons 
and Britons. The Saxons, proud of this victory^ 
and being resolved to conquer the kingdom of 
Briton, past further; against them came King 
Congallus, with a great armie, with the Picts: 
there followed a cruell battell, with uncertaine 
victory. At last the Britons (that fought in the 
right wing against the Scots,) being vanquished, 
there chanced a mighty shower of hail, with great 
darkness. Hengist, by sound of trumpet, gathered 
his people to his standard. The Scots and Picts, 
(hoping their enemies to be vanquished,) followed 
on the Britons without array. The Britons van- 
quished, and the confederate people without order 
killing and spoyling, Hengist came with his Saxons 
in arrayed battell, and killed all the confederates 
that might be overtaken. This battell was right 
sorrowfuU to the confederate people, and not plea- 
sant to their enemies, for the most part of the 
armie of Britons were killed. Hengist obtaining 
new support out of Saxony, the next summer 
came with Vortimer, King Vortigerus son, with 
a great armie : there followed a cruell and long 
battell, valiantly debated on all parts, with sun- 
^dry chances, for many Scots and Britons being 
killed, and Congallus sore wounded, was brought 
oat of the field. time then after. Ambro- 
sias, (when hejiad vanquished Vortiger,) and 



being crowned king of Briton, confederate wtib 
the Scots and Picts, assisted by them, killed witb 
bis own bands Hengist, and expelled the rest of 
the Saxons. King Congallus (holding good peace 
with Britons and Picts, vexed witb long infirmity) 
died peaceably the two and twentieth year of hit 
reign, and was buried at Icolmkill. 

4f5. Conranus succeeded his brother Congallus, 
the year of the world 4471; the year of Christ 
501 ; after the reign 831. A good king and 
severe justicer. In his time arrived in Briton 
Occa and Passentius, sonnes of Hengist, with a 
great multitude of valiant souldiers, (agisted by 
the princes of Germanic,) against whom came 
King Ambrosius. There followed a doubtfull 
and dangerous battel], the victory inclining to Am- 
brosius, yet very unpleasant, for at the same time, 
there were many Britons killed. Nevertheless^ 
they parted the spoyle of Saxons by the right of 
armes. Occa being advertised of the coming of 
the confederate kings to assist Ambrosius, sent 
his brother Passentius to bring great support out 
of Germanic ; by contrary windes bee arrived in 
Ireland, where he gathered a great number of 
hyred warriours, and returned into Briton. Occa 
perswaded one Coppa, a fayned physician, to 
poyson King Ambrosius. The confederate kings 
coming with a strong army to assist Ambrosius^ 
were advertised of bis death : therefore, they not 
knowing who was friend or foe, and being like- 
wise uncertain how he died, they returned home. 
Arthurus being king of Britons, assisted by the 
Scots and Picts, obtained sundrie victories against 


tke Saxons. The confederate nobles abpde cer- 
taine dayes in I^ondon ; and being richly reward* 
^ed by King Arthurus, returned home. The realme 
of Scotland was governed in great felicitieand jus* 
tice by King Conranus. Then after, certaine trait- 
ors, (assisted by Donald, captaine of Athole) 
murtbered the king in his chamber, the thirty 
fourth year of his reign ; in the sixteenth year of 
•tbfe reign of King Arthurus, and in the twentieth 
year of the Emperor Justinian, the year of Christ 
535 : be was buried at Icolmkill. 

46. Efvigenius tertius^ Congallus the first^s son, 
aucceeded in the year of the world 4505 ; in the 
year of Christ 535 j after the reign 865. A wise 
godly king, and good justicer: he continued in 
peace all his dayes, and died the twentie third 
year of bis reign, and was buried at Icolmkill. 

47. Congallus secundust succeeded his brother 
Eugenius tertiua^ the year of the world 4528 ; the 
year of Christ 458 ; after the reign 888. A good, 
just, and godly prince; he instituted many godly 
lawes concerning churches and churchmen. He 
died in peace the eleventh year of his reign, and 
was buried in Icolmkill ; in whose time was St. 
Colme and St. Miingou 

48« ' Kinnatillus succeeded his brother Congal- 
lus aeoundusf in the year of the world 4539 ; the 
year of Christ 569 ; after the rcign 899. A good 
and godly king : hee died in peace the first year 
of his reign, and was buried at Icolmkill. 

49* Aidanus, Conranus son^ succeeded in the 
year of the world 4540 4 the year of Christ 570 ; 
after the beginniiig of the reign of Scotland 900. 




Hee was a valiant and good king» and severe 
jtnticer; he confederated with the Britons against 
the Saxons and Ficts. There followed sundrie 
battells ; at last the Britons and Scots came into 
Northumberland against the Saxons and Picts, 
and vanquished them in a dangerous battell : the 
tenth part of the spoyle obtained in the field, was 
dedicated to the churches of Scotland ; and the 
banners or ensigns gotten at that time, sent to 
Icolmkill. He died in peace the five and thirty 
year of his reign, and was buried in IcolmkilL 

50. Kennethus prtmusf Congallus secundus son, 
succeeded in the year of the world 4675 ; the year 
of Christ 605 ; after the reign 935 ; a good and 
peaceable prince : he died the first year of his 
reign, and was buried at Icolmkill. 

5L Eugenius quartus^ Aidanus son, succeeded 
in the year of the world 4576 ; the year of Christ 
606 ; after the reign 936. Hee was a godly and 
good justicer, and instituted many godly and good 
lawes for the commonwealth of his subjects. He 
reigned peaceably, and died in peace, the fifteenth 
year of his reign, and was buried in IcolmkilL 

52. Ferchardus primus^ succeeded his father 
Eugenius quarim^ the year of the world 4591 ; 
the year of Christ 621 ; after the reign 951. A 
vicious tyrant, degraded by his nobles, and im« 
prisoned. He killed himself in prison the eleventh 
year of his reign. 

53. Donaldus quartm^ succeeded his father 
Ferchardus, the year of the worid 4602 ; the year 
of Christ 632 ; after the reign 962. A good and 
religious king, holding peace with his neighbours. 


He being 4it fishing with his servants for pastime, 
perished in Lochtaji the fourteenth year of his 
reign ; his body being found, was buried in I^- 

54. Fevchardus aecundusf succeeded his brother 
Donaldusyin the year of the world 4616; in the 
year of Christ 646 ; after the reign 976 : he was 
an avaricious tyrant, and was bitten by a wolfe 
in hunting (whereof ensued a dangerous fever) ; 
being penitent of his evil life, died the eighteenth 
year of his reign, and was buried in IcolmkiU. 

S5— Malduinus, Donaldus guartus son, succeed- 
ed in the year of the world 46S4 ; in the year of 
Christ 664 ; after the reign 994. He was a godly 
and wise king, and a severe justicer, holding good 
peace with bis neighbours. He was strangled by 
his wife in the eight, on suspicion of adulterie, 
the twentieth y^ear of his reign, and was buried in 
leolmkill. »On the morrow his wife was taken 
with her accomplices, and burned to death. 

66. lEugemus ^quintus, Malduinus brother^s son, 
succeeded in the year of the world 4654; in the 
year of Christ 684; after the reign 1014. Hee 
was a valiant and good king ; he obtained a great 
victory against Edfreid, king of Northumberland^ 
who was killed, with ten thousand Saxons ; and 
Bredius, king of Pict-s, fled away. He died the 
fourth year of bis reign, and was buried in Icolm- 

57* Eugenius aextua^ Ferchardus secundus son, 
succeeded in the year of the world 4658; in the 
year of €hrist 688; after the reign 1018. Hee 
was a good, xeligious, and peaceable king. Hee 


died in peace the niatb.year of faift'mgn^tmd'wii 
buried ID Icolmkill. 

58. Amberkeletbad succeeded in the year of 
the world 4667; the year of Christ 697; after 
the reign 1087: an avaricious evil king; he^was a shot of an arrow, the second' ylaar of 
his reign, and was buried in* Icohnkill. 

59. Eugenius septmui^ succeeded hts brother 
Amberkeletfaus, in the year of tb^ world 4669; 
in the year of Christ 699; after the reiga 1029i 
A good king, contracting peace witb the king* of 
Piets, then called Gamard, who married his 
daughter Spontana ; she being with child, in the 
next year, was murthered in her bed, in^tted of 
the king, by two brethren of Athole, (who bad 
conspired the king^s death). The murtherera 
were at length apprehended, and cruelly put to 
death. He continued a religious and vertuous 
king, and he endowed sundrie churches liberally, 
holding good peace with his neighbours, and died 
in peace the sixteenth year ci his reign, and was 
buried in Icolmkill. 

60. Mordacus, son to Amberkelethus, succeed* 
ed in the year of the world 4685 ; in the year of 
Christ 715; after the reign 1045. An humble 
and liberal prince ; he caused peace to be made 
in all Briton, amongst the Britons, Saxons, Scots, 
and Picts ; he repaired many decayed churches, 
and builded Quhitthorne. In his time was St. 
Beda. He died peaceably the sixteenth year of 
his reign, and was buried at Icolmkill. 

61. Etfinus, Eugenius septwimwn^ succeeded 
* in the year of the world 4700; in the year of 


Ctm^t 730; after the neign 1060. A godly wiafc 
kiDg, and a severe justicer, holding his realme' in 
gbod peace, his peofde increialsiiig in riches sikid 
religion ; he being aged, elected fbur regents, vim* 
the Thanes of Ardgiie, Athole, Galloway, and 
Murray, to do justice to his subjects, which was 
not observed. He died in peace the one and 
thirtieth year of his reign, and was buried at 

68. Eugenius oeiavus^ Mordacus son, succeeds 
ed in the year of the world 4731 ; in the year of 
Christ 761 ; after the reign 1091 : A good larig 
and severe justicer in the beginning, for he eke* 
cuted to death Donald the tyrant, Lord of the 
Isles, and the Earl of Galloway, for assenting to 
hb vices; then after, he being degenerat unio all 
abominable vices, was killed by his nobles the 
third year of his reign, and was buried in Icolth* 
kill; his familiars and servants assisting to faSs 
vicious life, were all hanged upon gibbets, to the 
great contentment of all his sul^ects. 

63. Fergusius tertius^ Etfinus son, succeeded 
in the year of the world 4734; in the year of 
Christ 764; after the reign 1094. He marri^ 
Ediiolia, daughter to the king of Pictsr he was a 
letdierous adulterer, and being admonished, con* 
tinved still in whoredom : at last he was murther* 
ed by his wife, and sundrie of his familiar ser*^ 
vants, who being therefore sharply accused, his, 
queen hearing thereof, came into judgment and 
relieved those men. She confessed the fact, and 
immediately stabbed herself to the heart with a 
dagger, and died in presence of the whole ^ple. 


The kiag was buried in IcolmkiU^ the third year 
of bts reign. 

64. Soluathius, Eugenius ectot>t» son, succeed- 
ed in the year of the world 4737 ; in the year of 
Christ 767; after the reign 1097. A noble and 
valiant king ; he married the king of Briton^s 
daughter, who bare to him two sonnes and one 
daughter. He being troubled with the gout, go- 
Temed his peoj^le by his captaines and command- 
erSf sererdiy executing justice, and subdued sun- 
drie rebels, especially Banus, captaine of the Isle 
of Tyre* who assembled a great companie of re- 
bells, and called himself king. He died peaceably 
of the gout the twentieth year of his reign, and 
was buried in Icolmkill. 

• 65. Achaius, Etfinus son, began his reign in 
the year of the world 4757 ; in the year of Christ 
787 ; after the beginning" of the reign of Scotland 
1117. A good, godly, and peaceable king ; be 
pacified insurrection both in Scotland and in Ire- 
land, and contracted the band of amitie with 
Charles the Great, king of France, and emperor 
of Germany, which band hath continued invio- 
lably observed unto this present time. He maiv 
ried the aforesaid Charies the Great^s daughter, 
who bare to him three sonnes and one daughter. 
The amitie and confederation of Frenchmen and 
Scots, was to be made for ever, both for the peo- 
ple present, and their successcurs : and for the cor- 
roboration of the said band. King Achaius sent 
his brother Guilliam, with sundrie nobles, into 
France, with foiire thousand valiant warrioiurs, to 
assist the foresud Charles in his warresj in any 


part he pleased to passe against the enemies of 
the Christian faith, at which time the armes of 
the kings of Scotland, were the red lyon rampant 
in a field of gold ; thereto was augmented a double 
tressour, with contrary liliies or flower-de-luce, in* 
eluding the lyon on all parts. Guilliam, Achaius 
brother, assisting Charles in his warres with his 
valiant Scots, purchased great honour, and was so 
beloved and holden in great estimation among 
the princes of France, that he was called the 
knight without reproach, and purchased great 
riches and lands. He prospered greatly in all 
his warres, and vanquished sundrie nations rebel- 
ling against the emperor. He obtained great ho* 
nours the time that King Charles restored Pope 
Leo the Third to his seat, after that he was put 
out of Rome by injurie of the Romans. He ob» 
tained great honours when Charles, passing thro* 
Tuskany, restored the dty of Florance to its 
ancient honours, after it was destroyed by the 
Gotbes. These, and many other honourable acts, 
were performed by Scottish Guilliam, howbeit 
they were done under the name of Charles the 
Emperor, for he remained not long in Italy» btit 
left the charge to Guilliam, who did all things 
with such prudence, that he augmented the d6*> 
minion of Florance greatly. The Florantines, in 
recompenoe of Guilliam^s humanity towards them) 
ordained solemn playes to be made in the dty, 
in which a lyon was crowned with sundrie cere* 
monies ; they commanded also quick lyons to ba 
yearely nourished upon the public purse, because 
the lyon was the arms of Scottish GuiDiam. This 


16 yet observed in perpetuall metnory. GuilliBin, 
after infinit travels taken with Charles the Oreat» 
for the defence of Christian faith, grew in age, 
and because he had no succession of his body, 
(for he was all his days given to chivalrie,) he 
made Christ his heire, and founded many abbeys 
in Italy, Almaine, and Germanie, liberally distri- 
buting unto them rich rents and lands, andior- 
dained that Scottishmeii onely should be abbots 
lo the same abbeys. In witness hereof, are many 
abbeys in Almaine and Germanie, nothing changed 
from the first institution. At the coming first of 
Scottish Guilliam, there came two learned clerks 
with him from Scotland, holden in great honour 
by the emperor for their singular learning ; they 
obtained a place in Paris, which was given to them 
vfith certain lands to sustain their estate, and to 
instruct the noblemen^s children of France in sun- 
drie sciences. To these men came such confluence 
of people out of all parts desiring learning, that 
in short time, by their exact diligence in erudition 
of young children, the citie of Paris was made a 
solemn universitie of resolute men in all sciences. 
The Emperor Charles having great delectation 
that learning began to flourish in his realme, by 
the great Industrie of those two Scottishmen, com^ 
manded that Clement should remain as prindpal 
regent of Paris, and John his colleague to passe 
to Pauy, a town of Lombardy, for increasing rf 
learning there. This small beginning was the 
original of the famous university of Paris. King 
Achatus, continuing in peace, the Roman erapre 
was divided^ for the Emperor Charles being the 


first emperor of Grermanie, was emperor of the 
west, and Constantine emperor of the east. Achaius 
married Fergusian, sister to Hungus, king of the 
Picts, who bare to him one sonnef called Alpine, 
who after succeeded to be king of Scotland, and 
right inheritor to the king of Picts. King Achuus 
being aged, died in peace the two and thirtieth 
year of his reign, and was buried in Icolmkilk 

66. Congallus, Achaius father^s brother's son, 
began his reign in the year of the world 4789 ; 
in the year of Christ 819 ; after the reign 1 149 ; 
a good and peaceable king, Hee died in peace 
the fifth year of his reign, and was buried in I* 

67. Dongallus, Salvatius son, began his reign 
in the year of the world 4794 ; the year of Christ 
824; after the reign 1154. A valiant and good 
king, sending his ambassadours to the Picts, after 
the death of Dorstologus, their king, killed by his 
brother Eganus, who married his brother's wife 
Brenna, daughter to the king of Marches, who 
after murthered the said Eganus in his bed, (not* 
withstanding his guard,) to revenge the murther 
6( her first husband. The Scots ambassadours at 
command, and in the name of Alpinus, King 
Achaius sonne, begotten betwixt him and Fergu« 
sian, sister to Hungus, late king of PictSi (the two 
brethren aforesaid being murthered, without suo* 
cession,) the right and title of the crowne of Picts 
succeeded by the law of God and man, to the 
aforesaid Alpinus, llierefore, desiring the Picts 
to accept him as their natural prince, both of 
Scotland and Fi^tsland, which they refused, and 


elected Feredecfa to be their king, the Scots am* 
bossadours denounced battell to the Picts. King 
Dongallus preparing a great army to pass against 
the Picts, unfortunately perished in a boat as he 
was pasnng ov» the water of Spey, being in the 
seventh year of his reign* and was buried in I- 

68. AlfHUUS, Achaius son, began his reign in 
the year of the world 4801 ; in the year of Christ 
881; after the reign 1161. A valiant and good 
king, being right heire to the crowne of Picts* in 
a dangerous and cruell battell killed Feredech* 
their king. Then after, the Picts elected Brudus, 
his son, king, who was killed the first year of his 
reign, by sedition amongst the Picts. His bro- 
ther Kenneth was made king, who coming with 
an army against the Soots, rent off his coat ar- 
mour, and fled to the mountaines, where he was 
shamefully killed by a countryman, (not knowing 
who he was). The Picts immediately elected a 
fierce and valiant prince, Brudus, to be their king, 
who directed ambassadours to Alpinus, desiring 
peace, all matters to be redressed, and the old 
band to be renewed. King Alpinus answered* 
that he would make no peace untill the crowne of 
Picts were delivered unto him as rightful inheri- 
tor. Brudus raised a great army, and came over 
the bridge of Dunkel to Angus. The night fifore 
the battell, he caused all the carriage-men, and 
women, (that came with his imny,) to stand in 
arrayed battell, with linen shirts above their 
cloaths, with such weapons and armour as they 
nught famish for the time. This done* be or- 


dain^ an hundved horsemen to governe them, 
xpitliout any ncMse ov din, in the next wood, com- 
manding none of them to come in right untill the 
bslteHs Were joyned. King Alpinus was at this 
time in a castle, which was situat on a hill, not 
foe from Dundee, and beheld the armie of Picts 
marching forwards: incon^nent he arrayed his 
Scots, then the battells joyned with great slaugh- 
ter on all parts. Immediately the carriage-men, 
and women, afore rehearsed, came moving for- 
wards upon the back of the Scots, who believing 
that a fresh armie of I^cts were to come against 
them (not looked for), at last the Scots fled ; for 
tins hidden slight before rehearsed, was the. dis- 
comfiture of the Scots army. The Picts followed 
with cruell* killing of all they might overtake. In 
this battell was Eing Alpinus taken and behead- 
ed. The place where he was beheaded is called . 
Pas-Alpin, that is, the head of Alpin ; his body 
was buried at Icolmkill, the third year of his 
reign. After this great victory obtained against 
the Scots, BrudUs, king df the Picts, returned to 
Cai^elon^ and convocated a counsell, making their 
oaths never to desist from battell untill they had 
utterly destroyed the Scots, and made a statute, 
what ever hee was that laboured to have peace 
wi|h the Scots, hee should be beheaded. Some 
of the wise Picts not allowing their oathes and 
statutes, counselled to use victorie with measure, 
who were exiled, and came into Scotland. 

99i Eennethus secufidus^ (surnamed the Great,) 
succeedied his father Alpine in the year of the 
wot4d 48d4 ; m the year of CbHst «36 ; after the 


beginning of the realme of So6tIand 1164. ;*A 
good and valiant king, be married the Lord of 
the Isles daughter, who bare to him three sonnes^ 
The Picts coming against the ScotSy thej Cfm* 
tended amongst themselves for a thing of nought: 
thus was their armie divided^ and maiiy slaine, 
until! night severed them. King Brudus could 
not pacific them, therefore hee with the rest of 
his army passed home, and he shortly after died 
for displeasure. Donsken his brother^ Mra$: elected 
king, and redressed all injuries that he might. 
Three yeares continued sundry incursions on both 
parts. King Kenneth settled his wits to defend 
his realme, putting strong souldiers in all foits ad* 
joining to the borderswof the Picts, and command- 
ed his people to be day lie exercised in chivalrie, 
to be ready against every trouble that might oc- 
cur. In the fourth yeare, King Kenneth made 
a convention of his nobles, consulting how hee 
might revenge his father's slaughter, and obtaine 
the crowne of Picts, (rightfully appertaining unto 
him). Tlie season of the year being expedient to 
raise their army, the nobles not consenting there* 
unto, for the great slaughter lately made on their 
king and nobles, therefore the king convented all 
his nobles, perswading them that he h^d great 
matters to propound. By solemn banquet within 
bis palace, he royally entertained them uotill dark 
night; after, they were brought to severall cham- 
bers within the palace, and when they were in 
profound sleep, the king caused sundrie men to 
passe to every severall bed, (where the nobles did 
)jey) clad with fish skines^ having in their bands 

a clabbe of masoane tree, which, with the fish 
skineB in the dark) did show a marvailous glaunce 
and light all at one time, each one holding in 
the other hand a bugle home, and speaking thro^ 
the home, (appeariyg to be no mortall man^s 
vojcC)) did show they were angels sent by God to 
the princes and nobles of Scotland, to cause them 
to obey the desire of the king, for his desire was 
so just and right> that the Picts, for repulse there- 
of, should be brought to such extermination, that 
no puissance nor wisdome of man could resist: 
their speeches ended, they obscured their clubs 
and skines under their cloathes, their lights va- 
nishing at one time. The nobles seeing thia un- 
couth vision, were astonished, and tooke little 
rest that night ; on the morrow at their conven- 
tion, eadi one declaring their vision, (all being at 
one time,) concluded firmely the same to be no 
fantasie, but. a heavenly vision, assuring them of 
victorie.and felicitie; revealing the same to the 
king, who . assured them that the same vision ap- 
peared to him the same hour, (howbeit, he would 
not .first reveal it, lest his nobles should esteem 
faim glorious). By general statute, all able per- 
sons were commanded, sufficiently prepared, to 
meet the king on an appointed day. In two bat-^ 
tdls.the king being victorious against the Picts, 
to thm utter extermination. King Donsken and 
all his nobles being killed, his sword and coat of 
armour were sent to Icolmkill in perpetuall me- 
morie. The city of Camelon, after long assault, 
was utterly destn>yed, and the Picts, men, women, 
«id children, killed, after thev had reigned in 


64 THB A9Ml9GXMM!XFt €» VHM, 

Albion 1181 yeares. King Keoaeth iotftitutefll 
maDy good lawes, and brought the fatell ohayre 
from Ardgile to Scx>ne, adding the realme of Pi^s 
to bis dominion. Thb victorious king died tbe 
twentieth year of his reign* and was. buried in 

70. Donaldus qutntus, Kennethus seetmiu biti* 
ther, began his reign in the year of the world 
4824.; in the year of Christ 654 ; after tbe reigo 
1184. A vicious and odious king, bis peo{d9 
made effeminate by his vices and sensiHiU plea<^ 
sure$ ; his nobles admonished him to reform bis 
evil life, he continued still without refbraiatioii* 
The Picts thai fled ainongst tbe Englishman!, »«> 
quested Osbred and Ella, two great princes of 
J^ngland, to move w^m^ ag»nst the 3cots« These 
two princes, with Englishmen, Britons* and Pifsts* 
came into the warres, where King Donaldus van^ 
qui^bed them in a great baitell at Jedbutgb. 
Donald, right insolent after this victorie, came 
to the water of Tweed with his armie, and foumd 
two ships laden with wines and victuals, whidh 
were taken and parted amongst his warrioon. 
King Donald was given to such voracity aod lust 
of his wombe, (the whole camp using tbe same,) 
and being full of tavernes, brothels, and whores, 
followed dicing and carding, with contention, kill- 
ing one another. King Osbred being advertised 
hereof, preparing a new army, came suddenly on 
tbe Scots, and killed twenty thousand, being withr 
out armour, full of wine and sleep. And Kng 
Donald was taken in manner aforesaid^ and led 
through the countrie in deriaon to all pec^e. 

At wbieh time King Osbred conquered great 
lands in Scotland, assisted by Britons, so that 
Stripling 'bridge was made marches to Scots, Bri* 
tons, and Englishmen. King Osbred coined mo- 
ney in the castle of Strivling, (by whom the Stri* 
^Filing money had first beginning). King Donald 
being ransomed, returned into Scotland, continu- 
ing in his yicious and abominable life. He was 
taken by his nobles and imprisoned, where he 
desperately killed himself, the fifth year of his 
reign, and was buried in IcolmkilL 

. 71. Cdnstantinus secundus, Kennethus secundus 
flon, began his reign in the year of the world 
48S9 ; in the year of Christ 859 ; after the reign 
11 89. A valiant king, he married the Prince of 
Wales his daughter ; she bare to him two sons 
and one daughter. Hee instituted sundrie good 
lawes for churchmen, and repressed all vicious 
vices engendered amongst his subjects by Donald 
the tyrant, his predecessor. In whose time Hun- 
gar and Hubba, with a great fleete of Danes, 
landing in Fiffe, used great crueltie. A great 
number of religious persons being fled into the 
Isle of May, with Adrian their bishop, were all 
cruelly tormented and killed by the unmerciful 
Danes. Constantine came with a great army 
against Hubba, and vanquished him. The Scots 
being proud of this victory, and neglecting them- 
selves, there followed a cruell and desperate bat-^ 
tell ; at last the Scots were vanquished, and King 
Constantine, with his nobles, and ten thousand of 
his army killed, the fifteenth year of his reign, 
and was buried in Icolmkill. 



7S. Ethus, surnamed the Swifl, Constantiiiiis 
secundus son, began hi« reign in the ]^ar of tbe 
world 4844; in the year of Christ 874; after the 
reign 12Q4* A luxurious prince, tftken by hi^ 
nobles and imprisoned, where, he died the third 
day of melancholy, the second year of biv oreig^ 
and was buried in IcolmkiU. 

73. Gregprius magnusf Dongallq^ 8W,.begaa 
his reign in the year of the world 46146 ; ^be year 
of Christ 876 ; after the beg'^nningof the re^ of 
Scotland 1206. Hee was but two oapathes 0)4 
when his father perished in the witter of Spey. 
A . valiant and greatly renowned prioee in aU 
parts ; he institul;ed gfiod lawes for hia subfi^ol^i 
and being very religious, ordaiaed gQod lawea for 
churches and churchmen ; and thait all Idi^i bis 
successors, at their coronation, should mabe^ tbek 
oath to defend the Christian religion. Heeob*- 
tained a great victory against the Danea aad Brir 
tons ; and recovering all his lands lost in King 
Donald's time, enlarged his bounds .with Nor^ 
umberland, Cumber, and Westmerland; «nd .ber 
ing confederate with Alurede, king of £Dg^aii4» 
the aforesaid lands should remain perpetually t0 
be possessed by the Scots. Tlien after, the king 
to repress Irishmen that were come into Scotlaad^ 
who had robbed the people^ and made sundry in* 
cursions, he followed with a great army, as^laodp 
ing in Ireland, vanquished Brenniua and Corne* 
lius, two princes of Ireland> ^vith tbe whole no* 
bles of Ireland, and vanquished sundry towns, and 
besieged Dublin with a atrong, siege,, whei^ thdur 
young prince Duncan wa«^.to wiipi». tb^ aaw9t 

oas0»icLBa otr icotlanik €t 

of Ireland upptettaitied. At last tfa# towne w«ft 
r!eiidred,(aiKl the kikig made prateetor dofing the 
faJnceV minoriiy^) whh all the foitSi and thrtt 
«eore pl^dg^s. The king returtiiqg with his ^&- 
tcuriouB' ardays and the pledges dl the Dobiei of 
Ireland : holding good peaee the rest of bis dayv, 
and died in peace the eighteenth yeav of his ragbf, 
and was buried in IcohnkUl. He builded ibe city 
of Aberdene. 

74. Denaldos «e»fiiffi son to Constawbnns «ecic]i» 
^u»y beget bis reign in the year of tfae:wioiU>4664'; 
m the year of Christ 894; after tlie reign. I3S1. 
A i^aHant priiiee and godly; be psnisbed with 
great severitie the blasphemers; of the name of 
God : be married the king of Brilaiifs dangbter^ 
who bare to him me son and a daughter* ^ At 
this time Rowland^ king of Denmark, gsdMred 
or conveened a great mukitude of Danes oot of 
En^and, Norway, Swedricke, and Denmark)- anti 
past throi^h Fraace, eoaunilting great erndteis 
upon the people there* And because Charles the 
Great then emperor, was implicat with freqocirt 
warres in Italy against: the Sarazens, the Danes 
raged with sueh open crueltie^ that great boondft 
of Fran^ appet^red to become undier their doMH- 
nion. The Emperor Charles, after his return 
from Italy^ came with a great armie to r«nst the 
Daiiesy anil they (nothihg afraid^) went forwnrd 
to meet him in their awful manner* The prineesof 
France, knowkkg the great foMxaty of the Danes,^ 
proved and exercised in all parts where diey wete 
•assayled* and seeing theoi by frequent victorie so 
ittsolentf that but by gveat skugbter they m^btnot 

be yanqui^iedy penwaded the Emperor Charles 
to make peaee with the said Rowland, that their 
redme: should 'not be in jeopardy^ or put to ex- 
trioam dai]ger5 through the warres both in Italjr 
and France. Peace was corroborat and contracted 
with the Danes on this manner : The Emperor 
flharles his daughter should be given in marriage 
to Rowland) ahd hee, with all the Danes, should 
receive the Christian faith ; and in the Ihame of 
dowry, should have all the lands which were named 
Newstria, lying betwixt Deip, Picatnly, Paris, and 
Bartany. ; These lands were then after Rowland 
called Normandy. : Rowland made king of Nor- 
mandy, by receipt of baptisme, was named Ro- 
bert, and ordained to pay for the said lands one 
yearely tribute to the aforesaid Charles and his 
posteritie, to signifie that the said lands were not 
conquered, but only given from the crowne of 
France in marriage. The year that the Normans 
began to reign in Normandy, was from the incar- 
nation of Christ, 886 yeares. The valiant deeds 
d<Hie by the Danes, in sundrie parts of the world, 
was in great admiration to all people. Rowland, 
called Robert, begat on the Emperor Charles his 
daughter, William, who succeeded after his father : 
to . William succeeded Richard the first : to him 
succeeded Richard the second, ' who had two sons, 
Robert and ;Qul»tard : Robert begat William the 
bastard, Duke of Normandy, who conquered Eng- 
land, and vanquished both Englishmen and Danes, 
and possest the crowne thereof: and Gustard past 
into Italy, and made many crueir invasions in 
CiaOy Calabre, and Naples. In this time the 

Murrajes and Rosms invadtng each other wish 
cruell killiBg. 8000 men were killed on eilhcr 
parties; the king came upon them with a.greall 
amy, and punished the principal movers ot this 
trouUe to death* He died in peace the eleyenth 
year of his reign, and was buried in Icolmkili. 

75. Constantiaus teriiusf Ethos son, began his 
reign in the year of the world 4875 ; in the year 
of Chdst 905 ; after the reign 1245. A raliant 
prince, not fortunat in warres; he married the 
Prince of Wales his daughter, who bare to him 
one son : being vexed with warres in the time of 
Kif^ Edward, jind Atfaelstane his bastard son, be 
beeaine a chanon in Saint Andrews, and died the 
fertieth year of^his reign, and waa boned in I- 

7€L ]Sf ilcdumbus imMBf , Dboaldiia «e«rti« son, 
be^n his reign in the year cf the world'4913; 
in the year of Christ 943 ; after the reign 196a 
A valiant prince and good justicer; bee ouMrried 
the Lord . of Twylth's daughter, who bare to him 
two sons and one daughter* A confederacy was 
made between England and Scotland, that Cum- 
ber and Westmerland should be perpetually an- 
nexed to die prince of Scotland rrigning for the 
time, to be holden in fee of the kings of England. 
By vertue whereof, Indulfus, son to Constantine 
the third,^(a8 prince of Scotland), tooke possession 
both of Cumber and Westmerland. The king 
passed the rest of his dayes in peace and severe 
justice, which caused a conspiracy in Murray4and, 
where thi« noble king was trayterously killed the 
ninth year of his reign, and waa buried in Icofan- 


kill* The murtherero and their assistants all !^ 

prehended, were cruelly tortiiented and put to 


77. Indulfusy ConstanUnus tertim souy begara 

hia reign in the year of the world 4933 ; in the 

year of Christ 953; after ^e reign 1383. A no^ 

ble and valiant prince ; he vuaquished in battell 

Hagon»: prince, of Norway,, and Helrick, prince 

of Denmark, and was killed by a stratagem of 

warre the ninth year of hisr^gn, and was buried 

in loolmkili. . . 

i . 78. ;Duffua^ Miloolumbus primus son, began his 

reign in. the year .of the world 49S1 ; the year of 

Christ 961 ; a^r the .'reign 1391 ; a good pnoee 

and. severe ju«ticer. Hee was traiteroasly mar- 

thered by one Donald, captaine of Forres, and 

j)is wife^ ^nd buried ,uiider a bridge at Einlus, 

|;he:.'suti. nor moone :not shming in six monthes 

;ifterL f The murtherers being i^[jrehended, were 

severely executed and put to death, the fifth year 

0[ bis reigd, al:^ was buried in Icolmkill. 

79. Culenus, Didulfus son, began his reign in 
the year of the world 4936 ; the year of Christ 
966; after the reign 1396. He was married to 
the king of firiton^s daughter, a vicious prince ; 
he was killed by Rodardus, a nobleman, at Mef- 
fen, whose daughter he had deflowred, the fourth 
year of his reign, and was buried in Icolmkill. 

60<Kennethus/er<taff, Duffus brother, began his 
reign in the year of the world 4940 ; in the year 
<tf Christ 970; after the reign 1300. A valiant 
and wise prince, and severe justicer ; for one time 
he caused 500 notable thieves to be hanged on 

gibbets, wd inbibiM ^beir bodies to be taken 
down, beside the oestle of Ber4ba>.tOigi¥e ntaim' 
pie to others. The Danes > with' ii. ^at fleet .of 
shipes, arpved at the inomth pf . Tay, aa4 destroy* 
ed the town of MoMntrode, kMi^ all the people^ 
and dea^li^hiAg the walles, wasting the whole 
country, and coming :through Angus with great 
cruel tie, laying a strong siege to the castle of Beir* 
tha. The king came with a great armies theire 
followed a dangerous and cpuell battell, with u»> 
certaine victory, valiantly defended on both sides, 
At last one Haye, with his two sons, enforcing 
the Scots that MT^re fled, to return, and by their 
valiant courage renewed batteU ; the Dajaes were 
vanquished, and fled, : the most part of them b^ 
ing slaine* The king enriched Haye and bis 
sons, giving them a great part . of tb^ spoyle of 
the Danes, with as much knd as a falcon off a 
man^s hand flew over, until she lighted at a place 
called the falcon^s; stone* So be obtained the 
whole lands betweene Tay and Arjrole, six miles 
of length, and four of breadth. This was the be* 
ginning of the noble and anciejtit surname of 
Hayes, decorate with great honours, riches, ^ind 
landsb valiaqt defenders of the realme of SpoidtOod* 
This noble Ungii. (so l(>9g decorate witih justice), 
the blind and ioitpoderate afle<;tion, that be had 
to bis son, ^as occasion that he. killed by poyisoa 
Malcplme,. prince of Scotland, and Iprd of Cum^ 
ber a^d Westmorland* * Hee abrogated the old 
laweaj^K^pcermng/tthe kings,. And instituted* new, 
vi?* t)ie kjiog b^'f9g<,d^pea8ed, bis eldest spOiiyr ne- 
pheiv^. , ^9t\¥)tf^W^di»g. wbat i^ soe^a? b^ : W^ce. 


cx^ and though he were boroe after hk father'^s 
dealby should sttooeed to the crowne. The ne- 
phew by the king^s son should be preferred be- 
fore the Bephe^ by the binges daughter, and the 
nephew gotten by the king^s brother, should be 
preferred before the nephew gotten on his sister. 
These lawes to be observed amongst all other nob- 
bles in succession of their heritage. When the 
king' is young, one nobleman of great prudence 
and autiiorily shall be chosen govemour of the 
realme, until the king come to the age of four* 
teen yeares, and then the king to goveme his 
realmeby his own authoritie. All other inheri- 
tors shall succeed to their father^s heritage, after 
the expiration of one and twentie yeares^ and 
within that, time they shall be governed by cura- 
tors or guardians, and until those years be out- 
run) they shall not be admitted to daime their 
heritage* H^e procltumed his sonne Malcolme 
prince of Scotland^ and lord of Cumber and 
Westmerland; Once when the king was lying in 
his bed, he heard a voice saying, O Kenneth, be- 
lieve not that the cursed killing of Prince Mal- 
ceime is hid from God : O thou unhappy tyrant, 
wbif^ (for desire of the crowne), hast killed an 
innoeent, invading thy neighbour with treason- 
able murther, which thou wouldst have punished 
with most rigour, if it had beene done by any 
other pers6n- than thy setfe; therefore thou hast 
ifknirred such hatred of God, that thou and thy 
son shall be suddenly killed, fcnr thy nobles' are 
conspired' i^nst thee« The king was :greatl7 
ifiMld oi^ tbia roie% and being very petMtent> oon« 


fessed his offence to a bishop, who comforting 
hin)> he did sundrie good workes appertaining to 
a Christian prince. At thcf last. King Kenneth 
coming to the castle of Fethercairn, was (as ap- 
peared) thankfully received by Fenella, lady there- 
of, where, in the middle of the castle, most curi- 
ously wrought, the same being apparelled with 
tapestries of gold and silke, overlayed or thicked 
with copper^ was an image of brasse, made to the 
similitude of the king, with a golden apple in his 
band. IThe king perceiving the same, (suspect- 
ing no treason,) counselled by the said lady, be- 
ing alone in the tower, tooke the apple with 
violence out of the hand of the image. Immedi- 
ately the titups of the crossbowes, which the said 
image had in his hand,, were thrown up, (being 
mad^.with such engine), and one of them shot the 
king through the body. The lady fled. There 
he died the twentie fourth year of his reign, and 
was buried in Icolmkill. 

81. Constantinus .9uartu$, sumamed Caluus, 
Cuknus son, began to reign (usurping the crown) 
in the year of the world 4964; in the year of 
Christ 994; after the reign 1324. He was killed 
in battell at the town of Crawmond, in Louthian, 
the second year of his reign, and was buried in 

88. Grimus, Duffus son, began his. reign in the 
year of the world 4966; in the year of Christ 
9S6 ; after the reign 1326. A vicious usurper of 
the crowne, killed in battell by Malcolme hid suc- 
cessor*, the eight, year of his reign, and was huried 




83. Miicoluinbiis secundusf Kennethus tertiius 
son, began his reign in the year of the world 4974 i 
in the year of Christ 1004 ; after the reign 1334. 
A valiant and wise king ; he was often victorious 
against the Danes. In his time began the noble 
and ancient name of Keith » whose house is deco- 
rated with great honours, being marshal of Scot* 
land. The king repaired and enlarged the citie 
of Aberdene, then called Murthlacke. Hee was 
killed by a conspiracie of some of his nobles in 
the castle of Glammess, the thirtieth year of his 
reign, having married the Duke of Normandy^s 
daughter, who bare to him three sonnes and two 
daughters ; and he was buried in Icolmkili. The 
murtherersfledin the night, and chanced into the 
,loch or poole of Forfar, being frozen over, cover- 
ed with snow, and were all drowned therein, by 
the righteous judgement of God. 

84. Duncanusj9rmu«, Malcolme ^ecundtf^ daugh- 
ter Beatrix her son, began to reign in the year 
of the world 6004 ; in the. year of Christ 1034; 
after the teign 1364. A good and modest prince. 
In his time was Thane, or Earl of Lochquhaber, 
Banquho. Of whom are descended the andeot 
and royal name of Stewarts. He was traiterously 
killed by Macbeth, the sixth year of his reign, and 
was buried in Icolmkili. 

85. Macbeth us, (Dowoda, Malcolme <eeitfiAc» 
daughter's son,) ^began to reign in the year of tbe^ 
worid 5010; in the year of Christ 1040; after 
the reign 13T0. In the beginning he was a valiant 
prince and severe justicer, instituting many good 
lawes; at last, by illusion of witches and 


«r8, he became a cruell tyrant and oppressor, and 
being vanquished by bis successor. King Malcolme 
Canmore, was killed by M^cdufT, Thane or Earl 
of Fiffe, the seventeenth year of his reign, and was 
buried in Icolmkill. 

86. Milcolumbus tertiust surnamed Canmore, 
Duncan primus son, began to reign in the year of 
the world 6027 ; in the year of Christ 1057 ; after 
the reign 1387. He was a religious and valiant 
king, he rewarded his nobles with great lands and 
offices, and commanded that the lands and offices 
should be called after their names. Hee created 
many earles, lords, barons, and knights. They 
that were called thanes, asFiffis, Menteith, Athole, 
Lennox, Murray, Caithnes, Ros, Angusse, were 
made earless many new surnames began at that 
time, as Calder, Lockhart, Gordoun, Seytonne, 
Lawder, Kennethy, Wavane, Meldrome, Schaw, 
Liermond, Liberton, Strachqiihan, Cargil, Ret- 
ray, Dondas, Cockburn, Mertoun, Menzies, A- 
bererumbie, Lesly. Names of offices, steward, 
durward, bannerman. At this time William, 
Duke of Normandy, coi^quered England, hold- 
ing battell with King Harold, and killed him in 
the year erf Christ 1066. Edgar, within age, 
ri^tful heir of England, seeing the crowne con- 
querei, was desperate to succeed any way to the 
government. To eschew all apparent danger, he 
took shipping with purpose to return with his 
mother and sisters in Ungerland: by contrary 
winds, he arrived in Forth, in a part called the 
Queenes Ferry. King Malcolme was at that 
time in Dumfermling, who came and tenderly 



received the said Edgar, with his mother and sis* 
ters, and married Margaret, eldest sister to the 
said Edgar. William the conqueror hearing of 
his marriage, expelled all the friends of the said 
Edgar ; wherefore there came into Scotland many 
people to king Malcolme, whom he received, and 
gave them lands ; as these surnames, Lyndesay, 
Vaus, Ramsay, Lowvell, Towres, Preston, Sande- 
lands, Bissart, Sowlefs, Wardlaw, Maxwell. And 
sundry names came out of TTngerland to Queen 
Margaret, as Creichton, Fotheringham, Giffard, 
Mellwill, Borthuike. Out of France came into 
Scotland, Fraser, Sinclair, Boswell, Moutray, 
Montgomerie, Cambell, Boyes, Beton, Taylifer, 
and Bothwell. In King MalcolmeV time was the 
redcrosse erected, with the king of England^s imi^ 
on the one side, and the king of Scotland'^s on the 
other. This stone crosse was a march, or mark> 
betweene the two realmes, standing in the middle 
of Stan-moore. At this time Walter, sonne to 
Fleance, begotten on the Prince of Wales daugb* 
ter, came into Scotland, being thankfully received 
of King Malcolme, who shortly thereafter sub- 
dued sundry rebels, with the rebels of the Isles ; 
for which diligence and valiant high vassals^, the 
said Walter was by the king created high steward 
of Scotland; which name the ancient and royal 
name of Stewarts, hath enjoyed to this day. 
Thereafter, a new rebellion began in the north, 
where the king and his army coming to the water 
of Spey, perceiving his standard-bearer to fiibrink» 
and not to shew a cheerful countenance, he pulled 
the banner from him, and gave it to Sir Alexander 


CanroDj who by his new oiBce, obtaified faire 
landes. The king caused to be repaired the 
bishop sees of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Galloway, 
and Murthlake, now Aberdene, and erected the 
bidi<^ sees of Murray and Caithness. He caused 
to be built from the ground the church and abbey 
of Durham, and the church and abbey of Dun- 
fermling, ordaining from thenceforth the same to' 
be the sepulture of the kings. He abrogated that 
wid^ed law made by King Evenus tertius^ ordain- 
ing half a marke to redeeme a woman^s chastitie, 
called mersets of women. Queen Margaret, fore- 
said daughter to Edward, surnamed the Outlaw, 
Sonne to Edward Ironside, a very religious queen, 
after called St. Margaret, bare unto King Mal- 
colme six sonnes, Edward the prince, Edmund, 
Etheldred, Edgar, Alexander, and David, and 
two daughters, Matilda, or Mawde, surnamed 
Bona, wife to Henry the Fourth, surnamed Beau- 
clerke, king of England, of whose vertues are ex- 
tant an epigram : 

Prosperiiie rgcj/ctd her notf to her grief e was no 

Prosperitie qffrayde her ah, affliction was her 

Her beautie was no cause offalU in royaU stale 

nor ptyde, 
HnmbU ahne in dignitie, in beautie onely good. 

She founded the church of Carleil. The other 


loigne. King Malcolme was killed at the siege of 
An wik, by one Robert Mowbray, who unarmed, 
upoi^ a light hdrse, came out of the castle of 
Anwik, with a launce in his hand, the keyes of 
the castle upon the point of the launce. King 
Malcglrae looking. earnestly thereunto^ the afore- 
said Robert Mowbray ran the king through the 
left eyey and ran hastily into the next wood. King 
William the conqueror changed the name of this 
valiant knight, calling him Percey^ of whom are 
descended the earls of Northumberland. King 
Malcolme died the thirty sixth year of his rengn, 
and his son, Priiiee Edward, and both were buried 
in Dum Term ling. 

87» Donald us aepiimusy Malcolme Canmore his 
brother, surnamed Bane, (usurped the crowne,) 
and began tor«ign in the year of the world 5063; 
in the year of Christ 1093; after the reign 1423; 
He was expelled by Duncan, bastard son. of the 
foresaid Malcolme, the first year. of his reign. 

88 Duncan us aecundus^ bastard aforesaid, (usurpi* 
ing the crowne) was killed by Mak-pender, thane 
of Mernis, by procurement of Donald the seventh, 
who was afterwards crowned. Hee gave the 
north and west isles to the King of Nor way, to 
have his assistance to recover the crowne ; hee • 
was taken captive by his nobles, and his eyes put 
out ; hee died miserably in prison, the third yeare 
of his second reign, and was buried in Dunfermling. 

89. Edgarus, Malcolme Canmore-s sontie, be- 
gan to reign in the yeare of the world 6068 ; in 
the yeare of Christ 1098; aft^r the reign 1428; 
a good and religious king, the first aaoyoted > 


king. He huilded the Priory of CoIdiDghaoi» 
and dyed peaceably the ninth yeare of his reign, 
and was bdried at Dumfermling, withput succes- 

90. Alexander the first, surnamed the Fierce, 
succeeded his brother, in the yeare of the world 
5077; in the yeare of Christ 1098; after the 
reign 1437; a good and valiant king. Hee 
bnilded the. castle of Baledgar, to represse 
theeves. Certaine tray tors, entering the king's 
chamber, by convoy of the chamberjaine, through 
a privie, in purpose to have killed the king in his 
bed, by Code's providence the king started outctf 
his bed, and caught a sword in his hand, and 
first killed his chamberlaine, and by singubtf 
manhood six of the other traytors* The res^ fled^ 
and being sharply pursued, certaine of them wjer^ 
taken, and being hardly examined, confused that 
sunderie noblemen were conspired against the- 
king, who raising a great army, pursued the 
traytors, and sent Sir Alexander Carron, with a 
chosen number of the armie, who, in the king^s. 
presence, with a crooked sword, fought valiantly, 
and killed many of the rebels. The king change 
ed his name, calling him Scrimgeour, that is, a 
hardy fighter, rewarding him with many lands,, 
of whom are descended' the noble name of Scrim- 
geours, his arms being encreased with a tarn- 
pant lyon, holding a crooked sword. Hee huilded 
the Abbeyes of Scone and Saint Colpne^s Inch. 
Hee married Sibilla, daughter to Wil]iam,.duke 
of Normandy, the seventeenth year.of hisireigtt. 


He died in peace, and was buried in Dumfarm- 

91. Dlivid primui,^ called St David, King Mal- 
colme the tbird*s youngest sonne, began his ragn 
in the year of the world 5094; the year of 
Christ 1124; after the be^nning of the rdgnof 
Scotland 1454; a good, valiant, and very reli- 
gious king. Hee builded many abbeyes, as Hidy* 
rood-house, Kelso, Jedburgh, Melrose, New- 
bottel, Holmcultrane, Dundranane^ Cambusken- 
neth, Kinlosse, Dumfermling, Holme in Cum- 
ber; two nunneries, one at Carleil, the other at 
North-Berwick. Hee founded two Abbeyes be- 
sides Newcastle, the one of St. Benedicts order, 
the other of white Monkes. Hee founded four 
bishopricks, Ros, Breichin, Dunkeld, and Dun- 
blane, ordaining them great lands, rents, and pos- 
sessions, all out of the patrimonie of the crowne. 
King David of Scotland, in his time possessed 
Northumberland, Cumber, Huntington, and 
Westmerland. Hee married the inheritrix of the 
aforesaid lands, called Maude, daughter to the 
earle of Northumberland and Juditha, daughter'^s 
daughter to William the Conqueror, King of 
England. In the time of King Stephen of Eng- 
land, hee repiured the town of Carleil with new 
waUes. His son, Prince Henry, died with great 
lamentation of ^the whole realme, having thne 
sons and three daughters. King. David caused 
Malcolme, (eldest sonne unto Prince Henry, late 
deceased) to be declared Prince of Scotland. 
After that he past into Northumberland, and 
made William, bis second nephew, earie thereof. 


After hee went to' Carleil, where he made Henrjr 
(the empresse sonne, prince of England) knight^ 
taking oathe hee should never take Northumber- 
land, Cumber, Westmerland, and Huntington, 
from the empire of Scotland, Queen Mawde 
deceased in flourishing age, a woman of exceed- 
ing chastitie and beauty : she was buried in Sconci 
in anno 1132. King David took such griefe. for 
her death, that he would not marrie again, . nor 
accompany with any woman, but gave himself 
wholly to charity, and relieving of poor people. 
He purged his court from all vices, so that his 
whole family were given to exercise of. virtue; 
no riotous banqueting, nor surfeiting dieare, nor 
lascivious words, nor wanton songs were suffered, 
(to provoke sensual lust;) all their words and 
works tending to good and godly uses, nothing 
moving to strife, but all things ordered peaceably^ 
with brotherly love, after the example of their 
king. Afterwards this victorious and religious 
King David died in peace, being greatly honour- 
ed and beloved of his subjects and neighbours^ 
the twenty-ninth year of his reign ; hee died in 
Carleil, and was buried in Dunfermling. King 
James the first, visiting his tombe, called him a 
sore saint to the crowne. 

92i Milcolumbus quartus^ sirnam^ the May«r 
den, nephew to King David, began his reign in 
the year of the world 5123 ; in the year of Christ 
1153; after the reign 1483; a good and milde 
prince, and severe justiciar, repressing many re« 
bels. He killed and put forth all the Murrayea 
out of Murrayland. He founded the Abbey of 


St. Andrews inagniBoently. He builded Cowpier 
Abbey in Anguisse, and subdued sundrie rebel- 
lions; be died at Jedburgh* the twelfth year €^ his 
reign, and was buried in Dumfermling* 

93. Gulielmus, sirnamed the Lyon, succeeded 
his brother Malcolme, in the year •of the world 
5135 ; in the year of Christ 1165 ; after the reign 
1495 ; a good and valiant king, unfortunate. Hee 
married Emigerda, daughter to the earle of Bew- 
mont, who bare to him two sonnes and two daugh-* 
ters. He builded the Abbey of Abirbrothok ; she 
builded the Abbey of Bamerinoch ; at the same 
time the Abbey of Haddington was founded by 
the king^s mother. And David, earl of Hunting* 
ton, returning from the Holy-land, being in great 
danger upon the seas, arrived at length in Tay, 
(without either rudder or tackle,) at a place then 
called Alectum, now called Dundee, he founded 
the Abbey of Lundores, where there are great 
abundance of adders, doing hurt to no man. At 
this time the pope sent his legate to King William, 
with a sword, the sheath and hilts of gold, set 
foil of precious stones, with a hat or diadem, call- 
ing him. Defender of the church. King William 
being at Yorke with King John of England, ther« 
was a nobleman^s child, of great beauty, being heir 
to great possessions, having sundry contrary dis* 
eases, uncurable by any phisicians, cured by King 
William, as appeared by miracle, he being so godly 
a prince, who gave fair possessions to many abbeys, 
and erected the bishop^s see of Ardgile, with suffi* 
cient lands, and came to Bertha, where he remain- 
ed not long; but there chanced such an inundaUon 


of the two rivers Tay and Almond, that through 
violence of the streams the towne walles were borne 
down, and many people drowned. The castle 
demolished, (King William narrowly escaping 
with his wife and children,) his young sonne and 
nurse perished, and sundry others. He founded 
and builded the towne called Perth, and granted 
sundrie great privilieges thereunto, now called St. 
John's town. The king continuing in peace, died 
the forty-ninth year of his reign, and was buried 
in Aberbrothick. 

94. Alexander atcundus succeeded his father in 
the y^ar of the world 5184 ; in the year of Christ 
1914; after the reign 1544; a valiant and good, 
king, and severe justiciar. Hee pacified all rebel- 
lion in his realm. Hee agreed with. King Henry 
of England, and married his sister, retaining Nor- 
thumberland, Westmerland, Cumber, and Hun- 
tington ; and King Alexander's two sisters were 
married unto two great princes of England. Hee 
past into France, and renewed the ancient band, 
and that neither of the princes should receive the 
enemies of the other's realme, nor to marry with 
any stranger, the one not making the other privy 
thereto. In the mean time, Jane, his queen, died 
without any succession. The next year he married, 
at Roxborrow, Mary, daughter to Ingelram, Earle 
of Coucy, in France, of great beauty, who bare to 
him a son, Alexander, who succeeded after him. 
Hee died in peace the five and thirty year of his 
reign, and was buried at Melrosse. 

d6. Alexander tertiu9 succeeded his father in 
the year of the world 5819; in the year of Christ 


1249 ; after the reign 1579 ; a good young prince, 
being at his Coronation nine years of age. After 
that the Kings of England and Scotland, with 
their nobles, conveened in York, where King 
Henry the third'^s daughter of England, Marga^ 
ret, was married to King Alexander of Scotland. 
Enduring his tender age, the re&hne of Scotland 
was well governed by his nobles* He coming to 
perfect age, wilting to execute justice, summoned 
the Earles of Menteith, A thole, and Buchquhan, 
and the Lord of Strabogy, which were all of the 
name of Cummings, and for non-appearance de- 
nounced them rebels. They, with their assistants, 
being a great number, because there were of the 
same name (by the aforesaid lords) thirtie knights 
and landed men, imprisoned the king in Strivi- 
ling a certain space. King Acho of Norway 
came into the isles with many Danes. King 
Alexander, to resist him, came with a great army* 
There followed a dangerous and cruell battell, 
long with uncertaine victorie ; at last the Danes 
being vanquished, and foure and twenty thousand 
of them killed, Acho fled to bis ships : his whole 
navy, by tempestuous storms, being spoyled, re- 
turned with four ships, left of his whole fleete, 
into Norway. Then after, his sonne Magnus, 
renoundng all title to the isles, contracted his 
Sonne Hanigo, to be married with King Alexan- 
der's daughter, one year of age, at their both 
perfect age. About this time lived that notable 
outlaw, Robin Hood, an Englishman, with his 
fellow Little John, a Scottishman, of whom are 
many febles and merry jests. At this time Alex 


ander^ Earle of Carrike, past to the Holy-land, 
having a daughter, Marlhaf vbo vncceeded in 
bis heritage, married a nobleman, Robert Bruce, 
Sonne and heire to Robert Bruce, Lord of Anan- 
dale in Scotland, and Lord of Cleveland in Eng- . 
land. This Martha aforesaid, itiheritrix of Car- 
rike, in the third year bare the noble and invin- 
cible diampion, Robert Bruee, King of Scot- 
land; Margaret, sister to King Henry the third 
of England, bare to King Alexander two sonnes, 
Prince Alexander and David, and one daughter, 
Margaret, married unto HanigOj Magnus sonne, 
King of Norway, who bare to him Margaret, 
called the Mayden of Norway. In this time died 
David, King Alexander's second 8onne« King 
Alexander^ with his queene, being at London, at 
the coronation of King Edward the first, there 
was a Norman in King Edward's court, of passing 
strength, overthrowing all' men in wrestling, till at 
length a Scottisbman of Rosse, descended of noble 
parentage, called Ferquhard, vanquished him, to 
his great praii^. King Alexander, in reward of 
so worthie a Aeed, done in presence of so honour- 
able assemWie, gave unto him the Earledome of 
Rosse for ever, of whom descended lineally five 
earles ; the sixth earle was named William J^osSe, 
alia& Lesly, in whose sonne, the seventh earle,, 
fuled the dignitie of that bouse, for want of success 
sion. Alexander the prince was married a| Rox-« 
burgh, unto the Earle of Flanders^ daughter, 
whereat many of the nobles of Scotland and Eng- 
land were present for the time. The third year 
after, Prince Alexander died at Lundores, the tweu'^ 



tieth year of his age, to the great lamentation of 
the whole realme : for in him failed the whole suc- 
cession of King Alexander the Third, except the 
Mayden of Norway, who was gotten on his daugh- 
ter Margaret before rehearsed. King Alexander, 
by counsell of his nobles, (after the death of the 
first queene,) married Joleta, the Earle of Drux 
daughter in France, by whom hee bad no stic^ 
cession. Hee builded Crosse Church of Peblis. 
In his time came the pestilence first in Scotland. 
Hee died of a 'fall of his horsie, over the west 
craig at Kinghome, the thirty seventh year of 
his reign, and was buried in Dunfermling. The 
day before the king^s death, the Earle of Marche 
demanded of one Thomas Rymour, what weather 
should be to-morrow. Thomas answered, that 
on the morrow before noone, there should blow 
the greatest wind that ever was heard in Scotland. 
On the morrow, being almost noone, the ayre 
appearing calme, the earle sent for the said 
Thomas, and reproving him, said there was no 
appearance. Thomas answering. Yet noone is 
not past. Immediately <;ometh a post, and shew- 
eth that the king was falne and killed. Then 
Thomas said to the earle. That is the wind that 
shall blow, to the great calamitie of all Scotland. 
After the death of King Alexander the third, the 
realme was governed by six regents: for the 
south side of Forth, Robert, Archbishop of Glas- 
gow, John Cumming, and John, the great Stew- 
ard of Scotland; for the north side of Forth, 
William Fraser, Archbishop of Saint Andrews, 
|4akdufFe, Earle of Fiffe, and John Cumming, 


Earle of Buchqiih'ane. They governed the space 
of seven years. During which time, Edward the 
first. King of England, sent his ^ambassadors into 
Scotland, for marriage of the Mayden of Nor* 
way aforesaid. The nobles of Scotland being 
agreed in all poynts with the said Edward, sir- 
named .Longshanks, the ambassadours of Scot- 
land directed to bring the Mayden of Norway, 
the right inheritrix oi Scotland with them.. Be* 
fore their arriving, she was departed this present 
life; by means whereof, great contention arose 
betweene Robert Bruce and John Balioll. The 
deciding of the said matter was, by the nobles of 
Scotland, unwisely referred to the said King Ed- 

96. Johannes Baliollus was preferred before 
Robert Bruce, by King Edward, (sirnamed 
Longshanks,) who being elected judge in the 
foresaid controversie, . admitted him king, with 
condition that the said Balioll should acknowledge 
him for his superiour; which condition (refused 
by Robert Bruce) he, as an avaricious unworthie 
man, received, and began to reign in the year 
of the world 5263 ; in the year of Christ 1293 ; 
after the reign 1623 ; a vaine glorious man, little 
respecting the good of his countrie. In the fourth 
year he was expelled by the aforesaid king Ed- 
ward, into France, where he died long after in 
exile, Scotland Iieing without king or governour 
, for the space of nine years ; during which time, 
King Edward cruelly oppressed the land, de- 
stroyed the whole ancient monuments, and shedde 

much innocent blood. About this time, William 



Wallace, sonne to Andrew Wallace of Craigy, 
knight, of huge stature, and marvelous, strength 
of body, with good knowledge and skill in war- 
like enterprises, and also such hardinesse of stonw 
ach, in attempting all maner of dangerous ex- 
ploits, that his match was not any where lightly 
to be found. Hee bare inward hate against the 
English nation. When the fame of his worthie 
acts was notified, many nobles and commons 
were ready to assist him : therefore he was chosen 
governour under the BalioU, to deliver the realme 
from the bondage of England. At this time many 
abbeys and spiritual benefices were in Engli^ 
men's hands, which he by commiswon of the arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews avoided, and put forth of 
all parts, and receiving the whole army that was 
under the conduct of John Gumming, Earle of 
Bucquhan ; he conquered many castles> forts, and 
strengths, out of Englishmen's hands. King Ed- 
ward being in France, hearing thereof, sent his 
lieutenant Hugh Crassingham, with a great army 
into Scotland, where William Wallace encoun- 
tering him at Striviling bridge, killed the said 
Crassingham, with the most part of his army, 
many being drowned, and few escaping away irith 
life. Great dearth being in Scotland, he gathered 
a mighty army and past into Northumberland, 
wasting and spoyling the countrie to Newcastle; 
for he with hb army remained in England almost 
the whole winter, from the feast of All Saints, 
untill Candlemass, living upon the spoyle of Eng- 
lishmen's goods. King Edward being in France, 
hearing the deeds of Wallace, sent his ambassa* 

CkROKtCLBS OF SCOf LA1^j6. 69 

dour, sore menacing him, that he had invaded liis 
realme, which he durst not have done if he had 
been at home. Wallace answered, that hee had 
taken the advantage as he had done in the wrong-* 
full conquest of Scotland, (he being chosen by the 
nobles as indifferent judge): and further, sent 
word unto King £dward, that (if God fortune 
him to live,) he purposed to hold his Easter in 
England ; and comming with an armie of thirtie 
thousand valiant m^n into England, at the ap- 
poyttted time, Iting Edward was ready with an 
army of three score thousand upon Staines Moor 
to giv^e thetn battle. Being re^ldy to joyne> the 
Englishmen drew back, having at that time no 
lust to fight as appeared. The Scots seeing them 
draw back, would have foUoii^d, but Wallace, 
fearing deceit, stayed them, ftnd Returned (with 
ii)^nit spoyle tod bootyes gotten in that journey) 
into Scotland. King Edward being advertised 
that Wallace was greatly envied by the Cumings 
and Robeft la Bruce, raised a great army and 
came to Falkirke ; and Wallace . not knowing of 
any deceit, raysed a great armie to resist, being in 
sight of Englishmen. There began a great con- 
tention for the leading of the vanguard, and by 
their owife misgoVernance, many noblemen were 
killed. RobeVt Bruce was against the Scottish- 
men that day. Shortly then after^ Wallace came 
and renounced in Perth the government, and aW 
refused great and large offers of King Edward, 
to be his subject and true man, for he remembered 
his school lesson, which was this : 


90 'the ABEXBGltMXKT of THE 

JXco iib£ vtruM, libertaa optima nruiih 
Nunquam atrtUi 9ub nexu vivitoJUu 

My Sonne (I 8ay)» fr^edome is best. 
Then never yeeld to thralls arrest. 

John CuQuniog and Simon Fraser being, admit- 
ted governours* King Edward sent a gieat army 
to Perth) subduing the countrie. The aforesaid 
governours raised an army of eight thousand of 
valiant men* King Edward sent with Ralph 
Comfray thirtie thousand meny dividing them in 
three armies, and to passe in three sundrie parts 
through the country^ and to meet at Boslii^^ 
The governours aforesaid^ encountering with the 
first ten thousand, defeated them ; and so at three 
sundry times in one day, the Scots obUuned the 
victorie. King Edward, impatient hereof, gather^ii^ 
ed a mightie armie of sundrie nations, and suW 
dued with great cruelty the most part of the Scot- 
tish nation. At this time began the surname of 
Forbes, then being called Alexander Boyes, for 
killing, of a beare by singular manhood* About 
this time was WiSiam Wallace trayterously be* 
trayed by Sir John Menteith at 6ias|p>w, and 
delivered to King Edward; and being brought 
to London, was cruelly executed in Smithfield« 
King Edward accused Robert Bruce of a contract 
made betwixt him and John Cumming; and he 
stoutly denying the same, was advertised by the 
Earle of Glocester of the king^s displeasure ; caus- 
ing a smith to shoe his horses backward, m the 


winter, tbe grouBcl bang covered witb cn^w^ hee 
^^me into ScollAQcly bawbeit he wa» afaarply pur- 
sued; and meeting with his brother and some 
friends^ and being advertised tbiA tbe CamoM^ 
was in the Fryers at Dumfries, after hi^ ooaMBaon* 
10^^ he suddenly killed him^ where through be 
purchased many enemies, both Eogltsbmen< aad 
Sooltii^men, and was hardly pursued, topecfiatty 
by the Cummings, being then very potent . a&d . 
rich, and a great number of them* 

97. Robertus Brusnus, nephew to JsabeU^ee^ 
cond daughter to David Earle of Huntiiigtoili 
King William's brother, b^;an hia reign inttbe 
year of the world. 5276; in the year of Gbriit 
1306; after the reign 16»& A vaKatrtkiagigaod 
and wise, (in his beginning subject to great' a& 
Action)^ hisqueene was taken and delay ned^prik 
saner untill the battell of Banmickbinmet; bk 
three brothers, Nigell, Thomas^ and Alexander^ 
with many other noUemen and genttensen of Sang 
^Robert's side, were executed at Carleil and Bei* 
wick^ but being assisted 'by the Eiffletif' Lennox 
and Gilbert Hay, and i^edally by James Dow^ 
glasse, a valiasit man^ (and« cousen to Wiffliaii 
I^amberton, arcUnsbop of St» Amdrews^)^ took all 
hia gold and horses, (the bishop being privy tberv* 
unto,) with' sundrie young valiant men of his 
opinion, who remained with the- sdbd^ Kii% ^Ao' 
bert both in warres and peace, to tbe end of his 
life. Of this James Dowgiasse descended tbe va^ 
liant and illuster surname of Dowgiasse^ the surr 
target and defence of ScotbuuU »b tbese^dd veraor 


' So many good as of the Dowglaase hath beenCf 
Of one surname was never in StoilanA seene. 

King Robert having Tanquished King Edward 
the second of Carnarven, being of sundry nations^ 
of horse and foot three hundred thousand War- 
riours, and King Robert not above thirtie thou* 
sandy old, well exercised, valiant men, at the bat- 
tell of Bannockbume, delivered Scotland free from 
all servitude of England, alt Englishmen being ex- 
pelled out of the land. He married first Isabel!, 
daughter to the Earle of Marre, who bare to him 
Margery, married to Walter the great steward of 
Scotland ; after her death, he married the daugh- 
ter of Haymerus de Burck, Earl of Hultonia, or 
Hulster, in Ireland ; who bare to bim David the 
prince, Margaret, Countesse of Sudderland, and 
Mawdet that dyed young. John BalioU transfer* 
red his right of the crowne of Scotland unto King 
Robert and his heyres. King Robert rewarded 
Robert Fleming (who assisted him in killing of 
the Gumming) with the lands of Cumbemald, 
then belonging to the Gumming. Also two knights 
df Brabant, being first in the English camp, and 
moved at some reproachfuU words spoken against 
King Robert, being sent to King Robertas camp 
by King Edward, were hi^ly rewarded by King 
Robert; who returning to Antwerpe, builded a 
goodly house, called Scotland, causing the Scot- 
tish armes, with the picture at the Bruce, to bee 
set up therein^ and appointed it a house for the 
Seottish nation, as may appeare unto this day. 
In tbb time, Hamton> an Englishman, descended 

CBftOHlCLXS or 8€aVL Aim. 08 

of noUe parentage, for the killiDg of one Speiieer> 

came into Sootlandi and was courteoady received 

by King Robert, who rewarded him with the 

lands of Cadyow, whose posterity is spread in 

great number, now called Hamiltons, endowed 

with great honoar and riches. King Robert dyed 

at Cardrose, the twentie fourth year of his reign, 

and was buried in Dumfermling. After this time 

Sir James Dowglasse, (as most worthie champion), 

was chosen by the nobles to passe with King Ro^ 

berths heart to Jerusalem, and there to cause the 

same to be buried within the temple, beside the 

sepulcher of our Lord, cooforme to the said king:V( 

direction, because he bad avoocbed, or vowed^ to 

have past with w great- army in defence of tUe 

Christian faith, against the Turfces and Sarazena, 

(if he had not beetle hindf td or stayed by warves, 

at home,) and now prevenSed by death. Sir James 

Dowglasse willingly obeyed, as he that most £utliK ' 

fully had served King Robert in his fife tkne; 

and indosing his heart in a case of gold, enbalai- 

ed with sweete spices and precious oyitftments, 

accompanied with Sir William Sinclair and Sir 

Robert Logane, with many other noble and var 

liant n^en, past and buried the said heart with 

great reverence and soleninity, at the place ap- 

poynted; Therefore the Dowglasse beares the 

bloody heart in thdr armes or coat Thereafter, 

Shr James Dowglasse, with his noUeand valiant 

men, accompanied with other Christian^ priness 

then present, many times obtained great victocie 

against the Turkes and Sarazens; so that by his 

often victories, he purchiued great hcMoars to the 

Ui I 


Chri^lian name: he purposing to reCumehoniey 
by tempestuous winds was compelled to land in 
Spaine, upon the borders of Granad, where he 
assisted the king of Aragon in his warres agunst 
the* Sarazens, obtayned great victories. At last^ 
(being negligent of himselfe,) was inclosed with 
an ambushment) purposely laid for him by the 
Sarazens* He and his, most Taliantly defending, 
were vanquished and killed, with all his nobles 
and valiant men. Thus ended the noble and va- 
liant Dowglasse, one of the most worthie and re- 
nowned knights that was in his dayes. It is 
chronicled, that he was victorious against ibe 
Turkes and Sarazens thirteene times, and against 
Englishmen in battell, fifty seven times. In me^ 
morie of the Dowglasse, in our time, there was a 
port or gate in Danskin, called the Dowglasse 
port, now re-edified sumptuously, (called the Ho- 
diindure,) the high port. Also there are sundry 
earles in the easterne parts of that name, and 
specially one was called Grave, or Earle Scotus, 
a great nicromancer ; his title was letonimus Sco- 
tus» Grave, or Earle of Dowglasse : his brethren 
dwell in Italy. 

98. David Brussius succeeded his father in the 
year of the world 5300 ; in the year of Christ 
1390; after the reign 1660. A good prince, sub- 
ject to much affliction in his youth ; he being 
seven yeares of age, the Earle of Murray, Tho- 
mas Randall, a severe justiciar, and a very valiant 
man, was continued govemour ; for he ruled all 
Scotland the last foure yeares. of King Robertas 
reign, und^r whose government the realme of 


Scotland flouristied in wealth and riches, (for the 
rush bush keeped the kow). King Edward of 
England advertised hereof, envying the prospe* 
rous estate of the Scots, he thought good to at- 
tempt that by slight, which he could not doe by 
force ; and finding a monke fit for this purpose, 
who did promise to poyson the aforesaid gover<- 
nour, the monke fayned himself to bee a phyn- 
cioner, and to cure the stone and gravel, (where- 
with the governbur was sore vexed,) and being 
in credit with the Earle, at last he poysoned him, 
bowbeit, at the first it took no efiect* The monke 
returning to King Edward, showed him how bee 
bad poysoned the governour; who immediately 
raysing a great army, came to the borders: the 
Earle advertised hereof, raysed a great power; 
and though he was not able to ride nor goe, bee 
was carried in a Utter. King Edward hearing 
that the Earle was in person there, (contrary to 
bis expectation,) sent a herauld to the Earle to 
entreat for a counterfeit peace: the governour 
finding bimselfe very weake, and hearing of the 
berauld^s coming, arrayed bimselfe in sumptuous 
apparell, that it might appeare he was rather re* 
covered, than otherwise weake and feeble; and 
giving a sharpe and bold answere to the herauld, 
he gave him also his costly apparell. King Ed« 
ward expected the returning of the herauld, who 
reporting that the governour was in health, re* 
turned and dimitted his army, and caused the 
monke to be burnt, for deceiving of bis prince. 
The governour returning home, decea^ at Mus- 
selboTDWy and was buried at Dumfermling, amno 


laSl* After his death, Patricke»'Earie of March, 
and DaTid, Earle of Manre, were choieo gov«^ 
Bours. Edward BalioU, asBisted by King £d* 
ward, and by many Soottuhmen, fugitives in 
England, (promised to hold the erowne of the 
sttd Kng Edward,) entered Soothmd by sea, ac- 
eompanied with the Lord Staffinrd, and divers 
other eapUunes, notwithstanding the contract of 
maniage past between King David and King £d* 
wanTs sister. The Earles of Marre and March, 
govemours, raysed two mightie armies to resist 
the BaKoIl; the Balioll came near the water of 
Erne, and the Ewle of Marre incamped within 
sight of the English army ; and seeing their small 
number, did take small regard of himselfe. The 
Balioll in the night passed the water of Erne, and 
having intelligence of the fioord, by a stake set up 
of purpose, he entred the Earle of Marre^s camp, 
and killed bim in his bed, with many other no^ 
bles, and especially Robert Bruce, Earle of Car- 
rick, Alexander Eraser, knight, William Hay, 
constable of Scotland, with all his finage, so 
wholly, that had not his wife beene great bellyed, 
and afterwards delivered of a sonne; all his suiv 
name had beene utterly extinguished: also Bo- 
hett Keith, marshal, with sundrie other noblemen 
and commons, and many others, were taken. The 
Balioll past immediately and besieged Perth, and 
quickly entered it by fcnrce. The Earle at March, 
the other govemour, being encamped at Ocbter* 
arder, and hearing of the death of the Earle of 
Marre, and the winning of the towne of Perth, 
came with his army and besieged the said towne. 


and filled the ditches, that if hee had given the 
assault, hee might have entred. Hee sud;daiiily 
raised his campe, to the great damraage of the 
whole nation. 

99. EdVard Baliollus, sonne to John Balioll, 
assisted by King Edward the third, usurped the 
crowne, the year of the world 6302 ; in the year 
of Christ 1332; after the reign 1662. The king 
being in Perth, the parties that favoured King 
Bruce, besieged him : whereupon the Lord Max- 
well, with them of Galloway, invaded the lands 
of them that did besiege the Balioll : wherefore 
Earle Patrick, the new Earle of Murray, with the 
Lord Andrew Murray, and Lord Archbald Dow- 
glasse, entei'ed Galloway, and .destroyed all the 
countrie with fire and sword. The King Balioll 
fortifyed the town of Perth, and appoynted the 
Earle of Fife to the keeping thereof. The sonnes 
of them that were killed at the battell of Dup- 
pling, Robert Keith, Alexander Lyndsay, James 
and Simon Eraser, wonne Perth in the third 
month after they had laid siege thereunto ; and 
taking the Earle of Fife, committed him to the 
castle of Kildrummy. Andrew Murray of Tully- 
barden was beheaded. The towne being wonne, 
was put to the keeping of John Lyhdsay : there- 
after, John Randall, Earle of Murray, son to the 
Earle Thomas (of famous memory), and Arch- 
bald Dowglasse, Earle of Galloway, and brother 
to James Dowglasse killed in Spaine, with Simor^ 
Fr^serand others, gathered- a' great army, and 
came with the same against the Balioll, and van- 
quished bim, killed his nobles, and tooke many 


prisoners. After this victory, Andrew Murray, 
a man of great puissance and possessions, was 
chosen to be governour with the Earle of March. 
These two governours hearing ^ that the king of 
England was intended to invade Scotland with a 
great army, sent Sir Alexander Seyton to Ber- 
mckj with other gentlemen, for defence thereof. 
The new governour, Andrew Murray, in a skir* 
mish which he made at the bridge of Rocks- 
borough, pursuing over sharply in the chase, was 
inclosed and taken ere he could be rescued. At 
the same time, William Dowglasse, Lord of Lid- 
desdale, named for his manhood the flower of 
chivalrie, sonde to Sir James Dowglasse, oft be- 
fore mentioned, fought with the Englishmen in 
Annandale, where himselfe was taken, and his 
people discomfited. $dth these noblemen, thus 
taken prisoners, were detayned long in captivitie, 
and then ransomed for a great sum of gold. The 
' realme being thus divided, the one port assisting 
the BalioU, the other assisting King David ; King 
Edward of England jud^ng it a fit time for him 
to make a full conquest of Scotland, raysed a 
mighty army, both of Englishmen and strangers. 
The Scottish nobles sent the Earle of Murray in* 
to France to King David, to purchase aid of the 
French king. In the mean time, the king of 
England besieged Berwick, which was mightily 
defended by the Scots ; at which time, Archbald 
Dowglasse was chosen governour in the place of 
Andrew Murray, who raising a mighty army, 
past to the borders of England, so to withdraw 
King Edward from the siege of Berwick. Kii^g 
Edward advertised hereof, sent a messenger to 


Alexander Seyton, captaine of thetowne, to de- 
liver the towne presently into his hands, or else 
he would hang his two sons whom he had in his 
hands. Sir Alexander refused : his two sons were 
hanged. Then the governour, Archbald Dow- 
glasse, came with an army into Northumberland, 
where a cruell battell was foughten on Halidon- 
hill, Btid the governour killed, with many nobles, 
and then Berwick was rendred, and Edward 
Balioll established king, who sought by all means 
to have gotten Robert Stewart in his hands ; for 
he knew he had (next unto King David) title to 
the crowne. Hee being of the age of fifteene 
yeares, was convoyed to Dumbreyton, and re* 
ceived by Malcolme Flemming, captaine thereof. 
King Edward prepared an arniy both by sea and 
land, to enter into Scotland, but the most part 
of his ships perished in Forth. The king return- 
ing with the Balioll into England, left David 
Cuming, Earle of Athole, governour in his place, 
who seized upon all the lands in Murray and 
Buchan, pertaining to Robert Stewart, and con- 
fiscated all the goods pertaining to the said Stew- 
art^s friends. Robert Stewart, with the helpe of 
DungoU Cambellof Loch-howell, * took the castle 
of Dunnune, and killed all the Englishmen there- 
in ; and assisted with the commons of Bute and 
Aran, he killed Allan Lyle, sheriff of Bute : hee 
granted manfy priviledges to the inhabitants of 
Bute and Aran. There came to him at that time, 
Thomas Bruce, Earle of Carrick. The Earle of 

* Query, — Dugald Campbell of Lochow ? 


Murray came foorth of France, and landed at 
Dumbrejtoni and passing further with their sup^ 
port, reduced much of the countrie to the obey- 
sance of King David, and chased the Earle of 
Athole, governour aforesaid, to the niountaines. 
About the same time was Sir William Dowglasse 
and Andrew Murray, being three yeares in cap- 
tivitie, ransomed, and came home; at their com- 
ming to Edenburgh, where the nobles were as- 
sembled, they elected the Earle of Murray and 
Robert Stewart, governours. Many revolted to 
King David, as Alexander Ramsey, a skillfull 
warriour ; Laurence Preston, John Herring, and 
John Haliburton, knight. The king of England 
invaded Scotland with a great army of 180 ships, 
losing many of them by storme. The king, with 
the BalioU, came with 50,000 men to Perth. The 
Earle of Athole revolted from King David. The 
Earle of Namure, (or, as some hold. Gilder,) 
came with an army to help King Edward. Hee 
was vanquisht by the governours upon the borough 
moor of Edenburgh, and convoyed by the Earle 
of Murray, governour, to the border$« The go- 
vernour was taken by a privy ambush, liud pur- 
posely for him, and brought to king Edward- 
David Cuming, Earl of Athole, was chosen gover- 
nour for the Balioll, who exercised great crueltie. 
Patricke Dumbar, Earle of March, Sir Andrew 
Murray, and Sir William . Dowglasse, raised a 
power to represse the Earle of Athole, hee lying 
at the siege of Kildrummy, gave them a sore bat- 
tell in the forest of^Kilblayn, and had gotten the 
victorie, had hot John Craig, captaine of Kil- 
drummy, with 300 fresh men, come to their sup- 



port, the J being llOO^obtmnedthe victory against 
the said earie, and killed him, hee being about 
SOOO, and tooke many prisoners. After this bat- 
tell. Sir Andrew Murray was again chosen go- 
vemour in the Earle of Murray *s place. The 
new governour beueged the castle of Cowper; 
but hearing that the Cumings and Englishmen 
were rysing in the north, hee came with a great 
army, obtidning victorie, reduced all the north to 
King David's obedience ; and winning the castle 
of Dongard, expelled all Englishmen out of the 
north. Hee besieged the castle of Lochyndoris, 
v^herein the countess of Athole was. King Ed- 
ward came with 40,000 men and relieved ber; 
and with bloody sword came through Murray- 
land, and burnt Aberdene ; and coming to Perth, 
he caused the walles to be re-edyfied. King Ed- 
ward returning againe into England, the gover- 
nour came from the mountaines, and wonne the 
castle of Einclewin, demolishing it. Hee raysed 
a great army, assisted by them of Murray-land, 
Marre, and Bucquhan, and fought a great battell 
against Englishmen and Cumings, at Panmoore, 
in Angus, obtaining a great victorie, with huge 
slaughter of noblemen, with many prisoners. 
Thereafter he past through Angus and Fife, over- 
throwing the castles there, with the castle of 
Lucres, (Cowper castle excepted). King Ed- 
ward hearing thereof, sent two great armies into 
Scotland ; the first being led by William Tal- 
boyes^ a noblenlan ; he was encountered by Wil- 
liam Keith and vanquisht, with his army and he 
taken prisoner. The other army was led by 



Richard Mountford, with whom Laurence Pres- 
ton and William Gordon met, and giving him 
battel), killed him, with most part of his army. 
About this time, Sir William Montagew, Earle 
of Salisbury, and the Earle of Arundell, came in- 
to Scotland with a great army« and besieged the 
castle of Dumbar twenty two weeks, wherein was 
black Agnes, the countesse, who defended the 
same valiantly. One time the engine called the 
Sow, brought against the castle, she said merrily, 
except Englishmen keep their sow better, shee 
would make her to cast her piges. The foresaid 
earles being forced, left the siege and departed. 
The castle of Cowper was left voyd by the soul- 
diers, who hyring a ship to passe into England, 
perished all upon a sand bed* About thi^time 
William Dowglasse came secretely to Edenburgh, 
and killed 400 Englishmen, snorting asleep. Not 
long after, Andrew Murray, governour, deceased, 
to the great damage of the commonwealth, and 
was buried in Rosimarky, anno 1338. King Ed- 
ward falling in warres with France, left the pur^ 
sute of Scotland. William Dowglasse, having 
but forty men, fought at the Craigens with Sir 
John Striviling, being about 500 men. There- 
after he wan the castle of Hermitage, killing 
all that were within it. The next year he fought 
five times in one day with Sir Laurence Aber- 
nethie, principall captaine under the Balioll i and 
being put to the worse at foure times, at the fifth 
time he vanquisht hil^ enemies, and took the said 
captaine prisoner, and sent him to Dumbreyton. 
The said William Dowglasse, being highly com- 


mended for his worthie enterprises, was sent into 
France. to King D/avic^ by Robert Stewart, then 
sole governour, who raysing a mighty army, be- 
sieged Perth ten week^s, losing more than they 
wan, the town being fiercely defended by Eng- 
lishmen, and being almost, out of winn« 
the towne, Sir William, Dowglasse arrived in 
Tay. Not long after, the towne was rendred to 
the governour, and also the castle of Striviling, 
At this time Edward BalioU fled into England. 
The castle of Edenburgh was won by great pp- 
licie by Sir William Dpwglasise, WiUiam! BuLp- 
lockc, Walter Fraser, and John Sandilands, all 
valiant knights. The r^m^ of Scotland being 
clearjy recovered out of.Engl]jshinen& hands^ King 
David, with his queen, jJan^ arrived .safely, with 
many Scots and Frenchmen, at Inne^berwy. At 
.this time, Sir AlepCandeiT 'Kaoisay bf>Dalbousy, 
one of the most ^ya|iaot knights in .bis.dayes, 
gathered a grjeat powers ^and past into England^ 
and in a great battell killed many Englishmen, 
and toqk the Earle of Salisbury and the captaine 
of Roxbrough prisoners t and assaulting Rox« 
brough, wanne it by great force,, wherefore^ the 
king made him captain^ thereof ^ togethftr , with 
the sheriffwicke of Teviotdaleii whereat SirrWil- 
liam Dowglasse was displeased, and. apprehend'* 
ing him in the church of HiaWick, put- him in 
prison in Hermitage, •^here;be dyed in great 
miseries The king being sore offended hereat^ 
Sir William Dowglasse fled^tQ'th^^.mountaines: 
at last he was by Jtojbert StQw^i^jMoncUed with 
the king, and hi« li^9dBi);^/?t9^^:^!rh^ Eadectf 


Salisbury was exchanged for the Earle of Mur- 
ray. King David called a Parliament at Perth, 
wherein he liberally rewarded the sonnes and 
friends of them that were killed at the battell of 
Duppling, and many others that had done any 
▼assalage against their enemies. The king made 
sundry roads in England. At this time Calice 
was besieged by King Edward; wherefore there 
came ambassadours from France, and from the 
king of England, with large proffers, which (un- 
wisely) were refused : whereupon. King David 
raysed a great army, and past into Northumber- 
land, against whom came the earle thereof, with 
a mightie army. The battell was cruelly foughten 
on all bands; at last tlobert Stewart and the 
Earle of March sounded the retreat, in purpose 
to have taken advantage of a little mount. This 
was the occasion that Englishmen coming fiercely 
upon the mid battell, wherdih the king valiantly 
fighting, and were loth tb be taken, but rather 
would have foughten to death, seeing so many of 
his nobles killed: at length he was taken, with 
the Earle of Dowglasse, Fife, Southerland, Wig- 
toun, and Menteith, and many nobles killed, at 
this lamentaUe battle of Durham. The next year, 
the Balfoll, with the Earle of Northumberland, 
came into Scotland with a great army, and used 
great cruelty. Robert Stewart was chosen go- 
vernour } then a great pest came the second time 
into Scotland. Then after^ there were men of 
warre tent by the French king, with 10,000 
crownies^ wberc^d^oii tHli Earle of March, Sir 
Wtiliam Dowgla^se^' and St r Alexahder Ramsey 


of Dalhousy, entering England with o gi^at army, 
killing many, and taking many prisoners, besieg- 
ing the towne of Berwick, won it, with the losse 
of Thomas Vans, Andrew Scot of Balwery, John 
Gordon, William Synclare, Thomas Preston, 
aind Alexander Mowbray, all valiant knights. 
On the English side were many killed, with Alex- 
ander Ogle, captaine, and the Earle of Nortln^m- 
berland's brother* The castle being defended, 
King Edward came to release it, and caused to 
repayre the walles, and used great crueltie against . 
the people with burning, so that this time was call- 
ed the burnt Candlemas. At this time was King 
John of France taken at jpoyctiers, by Edward 
the black prince. At Chrii^^a^, the king of Eng- 
land sat betwixt two captive, kings. After King 
David^s eleven years captiyitie, he being ransom- 
ed, returned to Scotland, and called a parliament, 
and because the sounding of the retreat by the 
Earle of March and Robert Stewart, at th^e bat* 
tell of Durham, was occasion of the losse of the 
field ; hee annulled the act made to the said Ro- 
bert anent the crowne, and ordained the Earle of 
Southerland's son, John, gotten upon his young- 
est sister Jane, to be heir apparent .to the crowne : 
whereupon the Earle of Southerland gave the 
most part of his Ifuidf to the Hayes, Sinclares, 
Ogylbies, . and Gordons; he was disappointed, 
for his son John being pledge in England for the 
king^s ransome, dyed in England. Robert Stew- 
art was reconciled, and made againe heire ap- 
parent* The king ^»lle<^..a couqsell, and acqQffl- 
ing to his promise, ,prp|¥Wjed^ to his. nobles, -if 


they would be content, after bis deatb, (witbout 
heires gotten of his body 9) to have the king of 
England'^s sonne and bis beires, to succeed to the 
crowne. The nobles all answered, so long as they 
were able to beare armour or weapon, they would 
never consent. Which answer pleased the king 
exceedingly ; for there through he was discharged 
of bis promise made to King Edward. He re- 
pidred many strengths, and caused to be builded 
David^s tower in Edinburgh : bee repressed sun- 
dry rebellions. King David (not past nine years 
o{ age,) was convoyed over into France, with 
Queen Jane, (afterwards his wife,) where bee r^ 
mained nine years, and was detained prisoner in 
England twelve yeares ; after bee was at liberty, 
he married the aforesaid Jane, daughter to Ed- 
ward the Second, king of England; after her 
death, he 'married Margaret Logy, daughter to 
Sir John Logy, knight. (The order of the gar- 
ter first invented by Edward the Third, anno 
1344.) He purposing to have past to Jerusalem, 
provided all things necessarie, but he being sicke 
of a bote fever, dyed in the castle of Edinburgh, 
without succession, the fortieth year of his reign, 
and was buried in Holyroodhouse. The nobles 
assembled at Linlithgow for the election of a king, 
and the most part agreed to Robert Stewart ; but 
William, Earle of Dowglasse, came with a great 
power, and claimed the crowne by right of Ed* 
ward BalioU and the Gumming. Robert' Stew- 
art being at last assisted by the Earles of March 
and Marre, and* especially by the Lord Erskine, 
being of great puissance, captaine of the castles 


of Edinburgb, Strivilii^, and Dumbtf'toO) was 
elected king, the Earle of Dowglasse resigning 
bis pretended right. The king» to hare the surer 
frii^ndship of his subject, the Earle, after matried 
his eldest daughter Eufame, to James,^ the Earle of 
Dowglasse sonHe. 

lOO* Robertus Stewartusi the first king of the 
Stewarts, sonne to Walter the great Steward, and 
Margery Bruce, King Robert Bruce his daiigh* 
ter, succeeded his mother's brother in the year of 
the world 5341; in the year of Christ ISZl; 
after the reign 1701 • A good, valiant, and vie* 
tdrious king, who had marrted*£ufanie, daughter 
to Hugh, Earle of Rosae, who bare to him David, 
Earle of Straitherne, Walter, Earle of Athole, 
and Alexander, Earle of Bucquhan, Lord Badye* 
nacb, and sundrie daughters, one was married to 
John Dombar, Earle <^ Murray, and another to 
John Lyon, Lord Glames, and after chancellor 
of Scotland, of whom descended the noble stir* * 
name of Lyons, and after killed by the Earle of 
Crauford. Gunnes were first in use, which were 
invented by a Gomaine, anno 1441. After her 
death, for the affection he bare to his children be- 
gotten before his marriage, he married EKzabeCh- 
Mure, daughter to Sir Adam Mure, knight, who 
had borne to him Jc^n, after called Robert the 
Third, Earle of Carricke, and Robert, Earle of 
JPife and Mentetth, /and Eufame, wife to James, 
Earle o£ Dowglasse. After he called a parliament 
at Perth, intayltng theicrowne to his spnnes, be- 
ginning ati John, his eldest sonne, (after called 
Robert the .Third,) wfaereunto the nobles were 


ftwome* Ininiediately after this time, there were 
sundry ftkinnisbes done upon the borders by the 
Earles ol March and Murray, and Sir John Gror- 
don, who did take Sir John Lilborne and Tho- 
mas Musgrave, captaines of Berwick, prisoners ; 
and upon the west marches. Sir John Johnstone 
fought suiidrie skirmishes with the Englishmen, 
and obtmned the vietorie. After this, William, 
Earie of Dowglasse, came with twenty thousand 
men to the fayre of Fennire, within England, and 
spoyled all the goods there, and brought with 
them the pestilence, whereof many dyed. In re- 
venge wherectf^ the Englishmen came with a great 
army over Sol way, and used great crueltie. In 
the mean lime, the Scots gathered to the number 
6f 500 men, and stood at a straight, and then with 
sudden ncnse and clamour, as the Englishmen past 
by, they set on them; and the Englishmen giving 
baoke^ were drowned in the water of Solway. 
About this time, Edward the Third, king of Eng^ 
lapd, dyed. John of Gaunt, Buke of Lancaster, 
came into Scotland, and intreated to have a peace 
for diree yeai^s : returning home, and advertised 
of the uprore of ihe commons in England, under 
Jaeke Straw, ihee returned againe into Scotland, 
and stayed there awhile. After the peace was 
finished^ Archibald DowglassCf Lord of Galloway, 
with the assistance of the Earle of Dowglasse and 
March, laid a^ strong siege to the castle of Loch- 
maben, and fought with a number of Englbhmen 
that joame oni of Carkil, ; and put them to flight, 
and wan the foresaid eastle, andrkzed it down to 
the eaitb King Biobanl beidriiig^ th«teof, settf 

CHUOaflOMS M iCOTtiANB* 109 

tbe BaroQ of Gvaystocke^ with a certain number 
of meot to forttf^ Boxborough : he being within 
a mile therei^t was taken by the Earle of March, 
and brought to Dumbar, with all his provision: 
the same jear, after the recorerie of the strengths 
ofTividale outof Englishmens hands by the £arle 
of Dowglasse^ he dyed at the castle of Dowglasse, 
and was buried at Melrosse. He was one of the 
most valiant men thai was in his dayes. His 
Sonne James succeeded in the earUome of Dow« 
glasse ; a right fierce and valiant knight, who by 
tbe king^s appoyntment^ passed with an army in« 
to England^ and spoyled the countrie as farre as 
Newcastle, but being oountermaunded hora^, hee 
came to Perth, where hee found the admiral! of 
France, with 940 ships, with warriours well pro«> 
videdy who remained in Scotland; and accom«> 
panied with tbe Earle of Fife, generall of the 
« army, with the Earles of Dowglasse and March, 
with Archbald Dowglasse, Earle of Galloway, 
entered with a great army into England, and 
took the castle of Warke, Ford, and Cornewall, 
and did much hurt in the countrie ; and laying 
dege to Boxbofough and Carleil, the Frenchmen 
and Scots could not agree in whose names the 
sttengths should be kept, if they were wonne. 
King Bichard entred Scotland with a great army, 
and passed through tbe Mers and Louthian with 
gnAt erueltie. After bis returning into England, 
the Earles of Fifo and Dowglasse, with Archbald 
Dowglasse Earle of Galloway, entred into Eng- 
land with a gr^at army; and coming secretly 
thmni^ the water of Solway, came to Cpcker- 



mouthy and broaght a ridi booty together in 
three dayes, and returned safely into Scothmd. 
William Dowglasse, sonne to Archbald Dow- 
glasse, Earle of Galloway, wanne great fame and 
honour at this time; wherefore King Robert ad* 
▼anced him highly, and gave him his daughter 
Gyles in marriage, a lady of excellent beautie. 
Tlis foresaid William Dowglasse was a mightie 
personage, and very valiant, endued with many 
other good qualities; bee was of such strength, 
that whomsoever bee strook, either with mace, 
sword, or speare, down he went, were be never 
so well armed : at one time having 800 men, he 
fought against SOOO Englishmen, of whom 200 
he slew, and brought 500 prisoners into Scotland, 
(as noted John Fordon). In the year 1388, Ro* 
bert, Earle of Fife, and Archbald Dowglasse, past 
into England with a great army. At this time 
came the Irishmen into Galloway, and took a 
great booty ; whereupon William Dowglasse, son 
to the Lord of Galloway aforesaid, followed into 
Ireland, (assisted by his brother the Earle of 
Fife,) and burnt the towne of Carlingford ; and 
finding three score ships in sundry havens, load- 
ing fifteen of them with the spoyle of the towne, 
burnt the rest ; and returning home, spoyled the 
Isle of Man. After this, the king of England 
sent. an/ army into Scotland, who did much hurt 
in the Mers. King Robert, in revenge hereof 
sent two great armies into England; the one 
army led by the Earle of Fife, entered Cumber- 
land, and the other army, led by the Earles of 
Dowglasse and Marche, entered Northumberland^ 



and spoyled and wasted to Durham^ The two 
annies met within two miles of Newcastle. The 
Earle (^ Dowglasse chose out 10,000 men to be- 
siege Newcastle, wherein was the Earle of North- 
umberland, with his two sons, Henry Hotspure, 
and Ralfe, his brother. The said Henry required 
to fight with the Earle of Dowglasse, which re- 
quest the Earle granting, together they ran, be- 
ing mounted on two great coursers, with sharpe 
ground speares. The Earl of Dowglasse in this 
encounter bare himselfe so well, that in the end 
he drave Percy out of his saddle, but he was res- 
cued and brought into the towne. Immediately 
the Dowglasse assaulted the towne, and put lad- 
ders theretpi but the Englishmen defending them 
well, the Scots were beaten back, and the Dow- 
glasse retiring, encamped at Otterburne. Henry 
Percy aforesaid following them with all speed, 
there was a cruell battell foughten, while night 
severed them ; when the moone began to appeare, 
they joyned again, with more malice than afore ; 
the Englishmen fought so eagerly, putting the. 
Scots abacke, that had not Patricke Hepbome, 
with his Sonne and others, come to their heipe, 
they had beene put to the worse : also the Earle 
of Dowglasse had a great mace in. i,his hand, that 
none came within his reach, but down he went. 
Finally, the Scots bare themselves so manfully, 
that the Englishmen were put to flight, and many 
taken prisoners, to the number of 1040, with the 
two Percy es, Henry and Ralfe, above 1800 kill- 
ed. The Earle of Dowglasse was thrice strucken 
through the body, and also mortally wounded up- 

118 THE AB&IJ>6£VgHT OF T0E 

on the head, that immediately be dyed, to the 
great discomfort of bis whole army, eoDoeiving 
more dolor for loese of so wortbie a chieftune, 
than joy for gaine of so great a victorie. Hee 
was buried at Melrosse beside his father; and 
because he had no heires of bis body, An^bald 
Dowglasse, Earle of Galloway, succeeded in the 
earledom. The next year a parliament was call* 
ed at Perth, wherein the king^s second sonne, 
Robert, Earle of Fife, was elected govemoun 
The king by reason of his great age of 75 years, 
was not able to governe. He was a valiant, vio* 
torious, and fortunate prince in all his warrea; 
for his governours and captaines returned idways 
with victorie. He was very constant, and a great 
justiciar, and hearing diligently the complaints of 
the poore, caused all wrongs to be redrest : with- 
out accidentall sicknesse, he dyed of great age, in 
the castle of Dundonald, the nineteenth year of his 
reign, and was buried at Scone. 

101/Robertus iertius^ (surnamed John Fern* 
yeare,) succeeded his father in the year of the 
world 5360; in the year of Christ 1390; after 
the rrign 1720. He was a modest and peaceable 
prince ; he married Aonabill DrumnuHid, duugb* 
ter to the knight of Stobhall, who bare to him 
David the prince, and James, his seocmd sonne* 
About this time, William Dowglasse of Niddis* 
dale was chosen by the Lords of Spruce, ad-* 
mirall of a great navy of 240 ships, to pass agfuost 
the Turkes. The Lord Clifford appealing the 
Dowglasse to singular combat ; but afore the day 
appoynted, he lay in waite, and killed the said 


Dowglasse, upon the bridge of Danskin, to the 
stay of that journey. At this time, the two clans 
of Clankayes and Clanquhattanes, in the North 
Inch of Perth, before the king and nobles, fought 
thirty for thirty, with sharpe swords without ar- 
mour. All the Clankayes were killed except one^ 
who swam over Tay, and so escaped: eleven of 
the Clanquhattanes escaped with life, but all sore 
wounded, in anno 1396. The third year after, 
the king held a parliament at Perth ; he created 
bis eldest sonne David, (of eighteen years,) Duke 
of Rothsay, and Robert Eu-Ie of Fife, (governour 
aforesaid,) Duke of Albany. These were the first 
Dukes in Scotland. At this time, (peace continu- 
ing betwixt England and Scotland,) David, Earle 
of Crauford, and the Lord Welles in England, 
were agreed to run certmn courses on horseback 
with sharpe speares, for life and death, upon Lon- 
don bridge, upon St. Oeorge^s day ; and running 
together on their mighty horses right eagerly, 
yet they keept their saddles : the people perceiv- 
ing Earle David to sit so stifly^ cried the Scot- 
tisbman was lockt in his saddle ; he hearing this, 
leapt beude^his horse, and light deliverly mount- 
ed up againe armed, to the great wonder of the 
beholders. The second time they ranne without 
any hurt; but the third time the Lord Welles 
was borne out of his saddle, with b: sore fall and 
eVill hurt. Because the Earle vanquished his ad- 
versarie upon St. George^s day, he founded a 
chantorie of seven priests, in our Ladyes Church 
of Dundee* The Earle remained in England three 
montbeS) feasting and sporting among the nobles, 



being bigblj eommended for bis great 
Not long after. Sir Robert Morle/s aa En^Usb-* 
man» came into Scotland to try bis manbood in 
singular baltell; be vanquisbad Arc^bald Ed* 
monston and Hugb Wallace, but being overcome 
by Hugh Trayle at Berwick, be died sbortly of 
melancholy. King Robert, when be beard <me 
of bis sonnes was deceased in Falklasd, by fm^ 
curement of Robert, Duke of Albany, (wbo as- 
pired to the crowne,) and James, bia second son^ 
taken prisoner in bis voyi^ to France, and de-> 
tayned by Englidbmen : be dy^ of diq)Ieasure 
within three days*, the sixte^tb year of hia reign» 
and was buried in Paslay, where bis queene was 
before buried. 

Robert, Duke of Albany, Earle of Fife and 
Menteith, governed Scotland in the year of the 
world 5376 ; in the year of Christ 1406 ; after 
the reign 1736. James the FirsI being captive 
in Fn^and, a noble and valiant prince : hecUed 
the fourteenth year of his government* Printing 
was fir^t invented by a German in the city of 
Mentz, anno 1442. In the year 1411, the uni*- 
versitie of St. .Andrews was founded, and by King 
James the First augmented witb learned men. 
(Jchn Husse was burnt for the go^U). Duke 
Murdo, Earle of Fife and Menteitb, waA made 
governour four yeares« James tbe First return- 
ing home from captivitie, caused tbe said Mturdo 
ajsd bis sonne to be executed for oppressing of bis 

102. Jacobus printu hegui bia rei^ in the 
year of tbe world 63M; in tbe year of Ghriat 


14S4; after the reign 1754. A godly, wie^ 
victarions prince, and a seTere justiciar: he inar« 
ried Jane, daughter to the Duke of Somerset, 
Morqueaae Dorset, son to Joho of Gaunt, thifd 
8<Hi to Edward the Third, the victorious icing of 
England, who did bear^ to him two sons (twines), 
Alexander, who died shortly, and James the Se- 
cond, who succeeded his father, and stxe daugk* 
ters, lif argarety wife to Xewes the Eleventh, dol* 
phin, then after king of France ; Elizabeth, Dat* 
chess of Britaine ; Jane, Countesse of Huntley ; 
Elenor,. Dutchess of Austria ; Mary, wife to the 
Lord of Camphier, and Annabella. There came 
with him sundrie Eoglidimen, gentlemen, and 
Andrew Gray, who by the king^s procurement 
married the heretrix of Fowles ; and so the lord*- 
ship of Fowles remaines to the surname of Grays^ 
with many other lands* The king held hb first 
parliament at Edinburj^. The second parliament 
was holden at Perth, wherein many noblemen 
were convict, and committed to prison, and sun* 
dry executed. The third parliament was holden 
at Striviling, where Duke Murdo and his two 
sonnes were beheaded, with Duncane Stewart, 
Earle of Lennox. Thereafter, Queen Jane was 
delivered of two ik>nnes at one birth, Alexander 
and James ; Alexander deceased, and James suc- 
ceeded. The fourth parliament was holden at 
Perth, wherein Henry Wardlow, bish<qpe of St. 
Andrews, made a pithy oration against surfeytiag 
and superfluous banqueting cheer, wherein severe 
order was taken. The king raysed an army of 
two hundred thousand men, and besie^ Box-* 


boiough fifteene days. About this timei Paul 
Craw, a Bohemian, was burnt in St.- Andrews 
for the gospell. The fifUi parliament was holden 
at Perth, where the Earle of March was disin- 
herited. The king was killed at Perth trayter- 
ously, by Walter, Earle of Athde, Robert Gra- 
ham, and their complices, who were all apprehends 
ed and cruelly tormented to death, the thirteenth 
yiear of his reign, after his deliverance out of Eng- 
land, and the thirty first year after the death of 
his father. Hee was buried in the charter house 
of Perth, which he founded. 

103. Jacobus secundus, succeeded his father in 
the year of the world 5407 ; in the year of Christ 
1437; after the reign 1767. (A prince subject 
to great troubles in his youth) : he married Mar- 
garet, daughter to Arnold, Duke of Gilder, sis- 
ter's daughter to Charles, sumamed Audax, the 
last Duke of Burgundy, who bare to him James 
the Third ; and Alexander, Duke of Albany, who 
married the Earle of Orkney^s daughter, ^nd be- 
gat on her Alexander, bishop of Murray: hee 
parting with her, married in France the Countesse 
of Boloyne, and begat on her John Stewart, Duke 
of Albany, whp was many yeares governour of 
Scotland. The third sonne, John, was Earle of 
Marre ; he dyed in the Canongate mthout suc- 
cession : the first daughter married one Thomas 
Boyd, Earle of Arran ; after his decourting, she 
married the Lord of Hamilton, and by that way 
the house of Hamilton is decorated by the king^s 
blood. This king was killed at the siege of Rox- 
bfoughy by the slyce of a great {nece, being over- 

CXRONICtBil 09 iOMtAHD. lit 

cbarged, and hurt the Earle of AngtiSBe, wkk 
sundry others; he was greatly lamented of his 
subjects^ being not onely honoured as their kingi 
but also greatly beloved as a father, the twentie 
fourth year of his reign, and was buried at H<dy* 
roodhouse. After his death, the queen, a woman 
of a stout stomaeke, came with her Sonne, seren 
yeares of age, to the. siege of the aforesaid E0K4 
brough, and encouraged the nobles and captaines, 
that the castle was wonne and demolished, and 
also the castle of Warke. 

104k Jacobus tertiuif succeeded his fhtfa^r in 
the year of the world 5430 ; in the year of Christ 
1460; after the reign 1T90. A good prineei 
(corrupted with wicked ocnirtters,) he married 
Margaret, daughter to the king of Denmarke 
(surnamed Diues,) and king of Norway, who in 
his favour renounced all title that hee had in any 
manner of way to Orkkiey, Shetland^ and the Isles, 
for ever; shee bare him James the Fourth, 
Alexander, bishop of St. Andrews, and Duke of 
Albany, and John, Earle of Marre ; they died both 
without succession. Hee made peace with King 
Henry of England, who, (like a liberall prince,} 
for the favour hee had received in Scotland) re^ 
stored the towne of Berwick to the king. Thomas 
Cochrane and WilHam Rogers (his perverse eour.» 
tiers) were hanged at the bridge of Lawder. 
The king was killed at Bannockburne the twenty 
ninth year of his reign, and was buried at Cam* 

105. Jacobus quartus, succeeded his father in 
the year of the world 5469 ; in the year of Christ 


1469; after the reign 1819. A noble and oou-' 
ragious prince, both wise and godly: he made 
peace with England, and married Margaret, 
eldest daughter to Henry the Seventh, King of 
England, and Elizabeth, daughter to Edward the 
Fourth, in whose persons the cruell warres be- 
tween the houses of Lancaster and York were 
pacified ; the foresaid Margaret bare to him James 
the Fift. The king of Denmarke, by division of 
his lords, was constrained to seeke reliefe in Scot- 
land, being honourably received by the king, who 
appoynted the Earle of Arran, with lOfiOO war- 
riours, to passe with the King of Denmarke, who 
restored him to his kingdome, and returned with 
great honour with his army. About this time. 
Sir Anthony Darcy, knight. Frenchman, named 
le Sire de la Bawty, came through England to 
Scotland, to seek feates of armes. The Lord 
Hamilton fought with him in armour, right va- 
liantly, so that none of them lost any piece of 
honour. Pope Julius the Second sent an am- 
bassadour to King James, declaring him protec- 
tor and defender of the Faith; and in lugne 
thereof, sent to him a diadem^ or crowne wrought 
with flowers of gold, together with a sword, ha- 
ving the hilts and scabert of gold, set with pre- 
cious stones. * About this time was Bernard 
Stewart, Lord D^Obigny, president of TuUous, 
lieutenant of the French men of warre that came 
into England with King Henry the Seventh, and 
assisted him valiantly in recovering of the crown. 
" I '-■■■ I,. I. . I I , ■ ■ ■ . ■ 

* This 18 the crown and sword found in the castle of Edinburgh. 


This foresaid Lord lyObigny was valiantj and 
obtaiiied great victories when he was the king^a 
lieutenant in Naples. He dyed in Corstorphin, 
in Scotland, where he was borne. The king was 
killed at Flowden in battell, the twenty fifth year 
of bis reign, and was buried in Holyroodhouse. 

106. Jacohii^' quintus succeeded his father in 
the year of the world 5484; in the year of Christ 
1514; after the reign 1844. A wise and valiant 
prince, and severe justiciar: he married Mag> 
dalen, daughter to the king of France, who dyed 
shortly after ; then he married Mary of Lomdne, 
Dutchess of Longeville, daughter to Claud, Duke 
of Guise, who bare to him two sonnes and one 
daughter, Mary. Master Patricke Hamilton, 
abbot of Feme, Doctor Luther^s disciple, was 
burnt for the gospell. Thereafter the field of 
Solway-mose was holden, where Oliver Sinclare 
was lieutenant, and many noblemen taken. The 
king dyed of displeasure at Falkland, the twenty 
ninth year of his reign, and was buried at Holy- 

107. Maria succeeded her father in the year of 
the world 5513; in the year of Christ 1543; after 
the reign 1873. A princesse vertuously inclyned ; 
shee married Francis, dolphin, after king of 
France ; after whose death she returned into 
Scotland, and married Henry Stewart, Duke of 
Albany, &c. Lord Damley, a comely prince, 
Sonne to Matthew, Earle of Lennox, (pronepnoy 
to Henry the Seventh, king of England,) to whom 
she bare Charles, James the Sixt. Afterwards 
she coming into England, was received with great 


humanitie, and after she was captiiref at length 
put to death, the eight of February, 1586: 

108. Now we eome to the reign of a minor king, 
crowned in bis cradle, borne in a turbulent and 
tempeituoua time ; yet he shall have the happiness 
to unite the long divided kingdomes of Briton, in 
such peace and quyetnesse^ as it never injoyed 
from the first beginning. For although the uniter 
of th^ long divided roses lived in peace with the 
princes bis neighbours, yet his entry was by 
blood, where at Boseworth, neare Leeater, he 
overthrew Richard the Third, called Crookback, 
the usurper, who afterwards married Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Edward the Fourth, made an 
end of these civill warres, and by bis issue Mar- 
garet, his eldest daughter, married to James the 
Fourth, who had issue James the Fifth, who had 
issue Maria, who was heire to the kingdom, and 
being married to Francis the French king, bee 
dyed without issue ; she took to husband Lord 
Damley, sonne to Mathew, Earle of Lennox, 
and Lady Margaret Dowglasse, and of this Henry 
and Mary 'queen of Scotland, was b^otten James 
the Sixt, who was borne in the castle 6f^ Edin- 
burgh* the 15th of June, 1566, to the perpetuall 
bai^inesse and felicitie of this long divided island. 
His minoriti^ was governed by four regents^ vis. 
Murray, I^ennoxi Marre, and Mortoun, noUes 
pf high estimation in the commonwealth ; ancient 
by birtb, and in counsells wise and politicke* AU 
which bare rule successively in their plaoe, and 
were all (Marre exceptedt who di^d in his bed), 
jAlifiiUj takw away by untimely Mdsi worthy 


were tbey of farre better, but the times were so 
tempestuous, and feads and factions so great) that 
hardly could a well skilled pilote guide bimselfe 
to his knowne port ; neither was tliere wanting in 
the helme*men, or pilots at the stirrage, skill, 
courage, constande, prudencie^ providence, wise- 
dome, and forecast, how to eshew rockes, sands, 
and difts ; but such were the gusts of adversitie, 
and flawnes of hard fortune, and the turbulencie 
and barbaritie of the untamed multitude, striving, 
for prioritie and superioritie, that if the Almighty 
had not at band planted and propagated this 
small branch, in tiiiie to spread the selfe over the 
whole island^ and to give shelter to the weak un- 
der his boughes, from St. Burian to Duncansbay, 
and from the river of Dee to the river of Yarre. 
Yet shall he have the happinesse, in despite of all 
factions and treasans, led by the hand of the Al- 
mighty, happily to eshew all dangers whatsoever. 
And aftier his reign here, near thirtj? six yeares, , 
we shall see him called to his inheritance of Eng- 
land, where his entry was with such joy, and his 
government with such happinesse and calmnesse, 
that it can be hardly paralelled with any going 
"Before, establishing peace, and settling quyetnesse 
in this long divided and torne countrie, so that 
there is a higher power that hath dominion over 
the kingdomes of men, ^nd giveth kingdomes to 
whomsoever be will, and appointeth over them 
whomsoever he shall please. He was christened at 
Striviling the 18th of September 1566, by the 
name of Charles James: hi? godfathers were 
Charles the French king, md Fhilbert, Duke of 



Savoy, by their ambassadours. The queen of 
England was godmother by her ambassadour, the 
Earle of Bedford, who presented a fount of gold 
weighing 333 unces. He was proclaimed by an 
herauld of armes, James, by the grace of God, 
Baron of Ardmanoch and Ranfrow, Lord of the 
Isles, Earle of Carricke, Duke of Rothsay, prince 
of Scotland. And because there is but an epi- 
tome intended of this king, of whom if all were 
written, would arise to a greater volume, leaving 
it to better and more able penmen. He was, the 
30th of January 1667, crowned king of Scotland 
in Striviling, after a sermon preached by John 
Knox. The Earle of Murray was made regent, 
and the bishop of Aberdeene proceeded to the 
coronation. The earles of Mortoun and Hume 
gave oath for the king, that he should reign in 
faith and fear of God, in maintaining the true re- 
ligion then preached in Scotland. He was anoint- 
ed and had*the royal robe put on him, the crown 
on his head, the scepter, in his hand, and the 
sword by his sydei and to every one of these were 
particular prayers made in the Scottish tongue. 
James, Earle of Murray, was slaine at Linlith- 
gow 1570, by Bothwel-haugh, with a pistol shot, 
who escaped and fled into France. After his 
death, there were excuri^ons on the borders on 
both sides. Thereafter Lennox was killed at 
Striviling, with Spense ^of Wormistoun, who la- 
boured to save him. Marre succeeded, who died 
in his bed, after he had borne ofBce thirteene 
months : to the which place Mortoun succeeded, 
who was beheaded in Edinburgh in 1581. In 


anno 1589, the king shipped at Leith, with my 
Lord Meteilan of Tbirelstane, then chancellor of 
Scotland : and passing the dangerous stormes of 
tempestuous seas, he went to Denmark and mar- 
ried his queen, Anna of Denmark, and happily 
came back io the same port with his royal queen, 
and landed at Leith with great joy of all his 
Majesties true and loyal 1 subjects. The thirtieth 
day of August, Prince Henry was baptized at 
Striviling, the ambassadours of France and Eng- 
land assisted at the christning, together with the 
ainbassadours from the low countries. Hee was 
christned Henry Fredericke, Fredericke Henry, 
Duke of Albany, and Prince of Scotland. Charles 
was born at Dumf?rmling the second of Novem- 
ber, and christned the twenty seventh of Decem- 
ber, Charles James, Duke of Bothsay, Earle of 
Ormond, &c. Anno 1601, the Earle of Marre 
went ambassadour to England to Queen Elizabeth, 
accompanied with Sir Edward Bruce, one of his 
Majesties Senators of the College of Justice, and 
sundrie other gentlemen. The twenty fourth day 
of March, being Thursday, 1603, Elizabeth, 
Queen of England, died at the manure of Rich- 
mond in Surrie, th^ forty fourth year of her 
reign, and in age seventy yeres. She being 
questioned a little before her death concerning 
her successour, she answered, her throne had 
been a throne of kings, and would that, none that 
was base should succeed her. The secretarie 
asked her what she meaned by these words, she 
said, she would that none should succeed but her 
nearest kinsman the king of Scots ; being called 



away the day aforesaid. That same day the coun- 
sel! coBveened, and proclaimed King James at 
Whitehall gate» the counsell of England asusting. 
Sir Robert Cicile, principall secretarie, read the 
proclamation with a laudable vojce^ James, by 
the grace of God, King of England^ Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, the 
true and undoubted heire, lawfully and lineally 
descended of Margaret, the elde^ daughter of 
Henry the Seventh, and Elizabeth his wife, daugh* 
ter to Edward the Fourth, in whose persons the 
whyte rose and the red were united. Hie said 
Margaret was married to King James the Fourth, 
and'on her begot King James the Fifth. Kii^ 
James the Fifth begot on Mary of Lorraine9 
Mary Queen of Scotland, who being married to 
Henry Lord Darnely, sonne to Mathew, Earle 
of Lennox, and Lady Margaret Dowglasse, of 
whom was begotten King James the Sixth, &c. 
After he was proclaimed at Whitehall gate, they 
entred Ludgate to London, where Bob^ Lee, 
major, met him, and accompanied him to Cfaeape- 
syde crosse, where they proclaimed him as before* 
The counsell of England presently dispatched 
into Scotland Sir Charles Parcie and Sir Thomas 
Somerset, to make known the queene's death, 
and to tender their love, dutie, and obedience 
to his majesty, as their liedge*lord. But &x 
Bobert C&iAe brought the first news, who cmne to 
Edinbui^h the 28 of March, where the King lay 
for the time* These news were pleasant to the 
whole nobilitie and commons of Scotland, as also 
to (jie nobilitie and «&mmons of England, to whom 


the name of king was uncouth, because they were 
governed by queenes fifty years. 

The king called a counsell presently for taking 
order of all things within the realme of Scotland. 
Hee began his reign over England the 84th of 
Mardi 1603. And did so much, that the fifth of 
April hee set forward his journey towards Eng- 
land. The first night hee went to Duoglasse, an 
house belonging to my Lord Hume, where hee 
was royally entertained ; the next day hee set for- 
ward to Barwicke, where it was incredible what 
number of people, as well the nobilitie as gentrie 
of Scotland, accompanied him to Barwick bounds : 
U>gether with Baron de Toures the French am- 
bassadour, bdng resident in Scotland for the time« 
And here the governour of Barwick, ^ith the 
wardens of the borders, with the constable, and 
companies of men of war, and the captiunes of 
the horse troopes, met his majestic to conduct 
him to the towne of Barwick. 

This .day was long looked for, and longed 
aft^, and truely it was the Lords pwne doing, 
for what could not be efiectuat neither by force 
nor polioie, was peaceably done that day : the 
praise be given to the Almightie, who bathe the 
hearts of Icings and kingdomes in his hand. The 
Romane, Saxon, Dane, and English, all wooed 
and sought it by what means they could bee 
lord superiour of this island, but the God of peace 
in his owne time would bring a king of peace 
peaceablie, and in that same place where they 
had wont to meet in most hostile manner, not 
without Uudshed, in the same place they met 


126 Tape AimiDOSiiBiiT of the 

with 8ueh love mid joyfuU aodavMiions, mutuoU 
embracings, with all sbewes of love and demon* 
«tration8 of frieodftbip, uiftertaiiiiiig his Majestic 
and his new come guests* with voUyes of small 
sbot» and thundering <^ great ordnance* Heere 
at his Majestie^s entrie at the gate of Barwidc, 
William Selbj, gentleman portei*, presented bis 
Majestie the keys of the towne with great hsuni- 
liation, whom hee honoured with the honour of 
knighthood, delivering to him the keyes backe 
againe. Then his Majestie passed forward and 
was received by the captaines of the wairdes, w^ 
with their armed bands convoyed lum to the 
market crosse, where the major and bm bre&ren 
received him, where Christopher Parker, sonne 
to the recorder, made a speech to him, delivering 
to his Majestie the charter of the towne, with a 
pur^e of gold, in token of their love ; all which 
he gradously received, promising to maintain them 
and their privileges. 'After hee went to chtlrch, 
and gave tbankes to the Almightie God, who had 
beene his protector, and made his entrie so peace- 
able and plausible. At which time there was a 
sermon preached by Tobie Matbew, bishop of 
Durham. From the church, his Majestie went 
to th^i pallace, where was heard agauie a great 
peale of ordinance, with bone fires; expressing 
all signes of joy to welcome him; for never be> 
fore this time was a monarch of Briton lodged 
within their walles. The next day, sundrie of 
the nobilitie came from the south to salute him ; 
amongst whom was Henry Howard, brother to 
the late Duke o£ Norfolk, the Lord Cobham, and 


othen faring aoeompMiied with theae. Hee west 
to the walles^ viewii^ the fortificationst and audi 
oommeEidiDg their milttarie orderi and ao return- 
ed to his palace. The next day, being the 8th of 
April» his Majettie removed from Barwick, re* 
warding eyerie offieer and the aouldiert aooording 
to thdr place. And «o passing the river of T weed, 
he.entred Northumberland, where the shireffe of 
the shire» Sir Nicolas Forrester, received him, 
and convoyed him to Wethrington, at that time 
kept by Sir Rdbert Carie and his lady, where hee 
was royally intertaaned. The tenth day he set' 
forward to Newcastle, where the major and his 
brethren met him, and with humble suhnSisrion 
delivered him the sword and keys, in token of 
their love and obedience, together with a purae 
of gold. His Majestic returned them the sword 
and the keyes, ratifying to them their priviledges 
and customes; and staying there three dayes, 
he, was entertained bountifully upon the towne's 
charge: in which time his Majestie relieved all 
prisonero, (treason and poperie excepted,) and 
giving largely to those that lay for debt. The 
13th of April his Majestie set f<Mrward to Dur« 
ham, where by the major of the towne hee was 
received with an oration, as in other places : this 
night he lodged in the bishop's house. The 14th 
of April his Majestie set forward to the house of 
Mistresse Genison^ called Walworth, where hee 
was bountifully intertained. The 15th of April 
his Majestie advanced towards Yorkshyre, where 
hee was met with by the high shyreffe of the 
shyre, who attended on him to Master Inglbos, 


neere unto Topdiffe. The 16th of April his 
Majestie set forward toward Torke, where the 
shjrreffe of the city met him a great way off, at 
the limits of their libertie, who delivered to his 
Majestie their whyte stasres in token of obedience : 
his Majestie redelivered them ; and conveying him 
neere unto the dtie, the sergeants of the citie met 
him and delivered their maces, which were de- 
livered backe agun ; and at the gate the major 
and aldermen reeaved him with a learned oration, 
delivering him the sword and keyes, together 
with a cup of gold, filled with gold: his Majestie 
delivered the keyes to the majcnr, but about the 
sword there was some difference betwixt the ma- 
jor and the lord president of his Majestie^s coun- 
sell of Yorke ; but his Majestie took it from them 
both, and delivered it to George Earle of Cum- 
berland,, who carried it from the gate to the 
minster; from the minster his majestie went upon 
foote under a canopie, supported by four knights, 
to his owne house, where hee was bountifully 
feasted by my Lord Burleigh, during his abode 
there. The 17th of April he went on foote to 
the minster, where hee heard a sermon preached 
by the Deane of Yorke, Bishop of Limbrick ; so 
after the sermon returned to the palace on foote. 
The 19th day of April his Majestie was feasted 
by the lord major, where hee was bountifully in- 
tertained : his Majestie knighted him by die name 
of Sir Robert Walter. After dinner, hb Ma- 
jestie commanded all prisoners to be set at liber- 
tie, (wilful! murtherers, traytors» and papists, be- 
ing excepted). From Yorke hee removed to 


Grimstone, the house of Sir Edward Stanhope, 
one of his Majestie'*s oouDsell at Yorke, where hee 
was bountifully intertained that highti and dyning 
the next day, being the 20th day, he advanced 
toward Doncaster, where by the way his Majestie 
tooke view of his house at Pomfret ; his Majestie 
lodged at Doncaster at the sigoe of the beare* 
The 21st day of April his Majestie removed to 
' Worsope, the Earle of Shrewsberry his house, 
where by the way the high shyreffe of the coun- 
trie of Nottingham conducted him fo Worsope, 
where he was royally intertained on the Earless 
dharge. The 22d day of April his Majestie ad« 
vanced towards New*warke upon Trent, lodging 
in the castle by the way ; he was met with by the 
corporation of the towne, who presented him with 
foure white cups : and heere there was a cutpurse 
taken in the act, who having great store of gold 
about him, confessed hee had convoyed his Ma* 
jestle from Barwicke ; there was a warrand given 
to hang him, releasing all prisoners beside. The 
82d his Majestie set forward to Belvoyre, the 
Earle of Rutland his house. The 23d he ad- 
vanced to Burleigh, wher^ bee was bountifully 
intertained, which day being Easter day, he heard 
a sermon preached by the Bishop of Lincolne. 
The 84th day his Majestie removed to Hinchin- 
burgh, the house of Sir Oliver Crum well, where by 
the way he dyned at the bouse of Sir AntonieMylcU 
may, who omitted no duty in expressing his love ; 
the dinner \mitg done, hee presented bis Majestie 
with a fair Barbarie horse in rich furniture suitable- 
Then his Majestie rode towards Huntington, 


where the baiUies of the towne met him, deliver^ 
iDg him the sword with an oration: his Majestie 
deliyered the sword to Southampton to be borne, 
who carried the same to the house of Sir Oliver 
Crumwell, where his entertunment was noble and 
bountifuU; and here some of the universitie of 
Cambridge attended his Majestie, where One of 
them delivered him a learned oration in Latine, 
welcoming his Majestic, intreating the confirma- 
tion of their priviledges, which his Majestic most 
wiHingly granted. Heere Sir Oliver Crumwell 
presented him with a faire cup of gold, a goodly 
horse^ deep mouthed hounds, swift haulkes. of 
excellent wings, bestowing gold liberally amongst 
the king^s officers. The 29th his Majestic set for- 
ward to Roystoun, where by the way the King^s 
free tennents of good Manchister met him with 
50 pleughes, holding their land so, that when the 
king shuld first enter their towne that way, to 
present -his Majestie with so many pleughes, in 
token of their husbandrie and obedience to their 
king : his Majestie tooke it kindly, and was glad 
face was the land lord of so maDy good tennents, 
desiring them to make good use of their pleughes 
and husbandrie ; neere hand hee was met by the 
high shyreffe of Hartfordshire, Sir Edward Denny, 
accompanied with a gallant traine, who also pre- 
sented his Majestie with a stately horse, with a 
rich saddle and furniture of great value, which 
his Majestie graciously accepted, commanding the 
shyreffe to mount the horse and ryde on him, 
which hee did, convoying him to Master Ches- 
ter's house, where his Majestie lay that night on 


his owne charge. The 30th his Majestie rode to 
Standon, the bouse of Sir Thomas Sadlers, where 
upon the way the bishop of London met him with 
a. goodly companie of gentlemen in tawnie coats; 
and staying heere all Sunday, he heard a sermon 
made by the said bishop. The 8d of May he re* 
moved to the house of Sir Henry Cocks, late 
cofferer to Queene Elizabeth* Here also met him 
the lord keeper, the lord admirall, with most of 
the counsell of estate, with many of the nobilities 
Heere the lord keeper delivered a learned ora- 
tion congratulatorie, the which his Majestie an* 
swered with great grace and wisedome : his inter- 
tainment he^e was wonderfuU bountifull. The 
3d day of May he came to Theobalds, the house 
of Sir Robert Cicile, principall secretarie to the 
late queene, where he was bountifully intertain- 
ed ; and heese there met bis Majestie, his guard, 
and many other of his officers, which his Majestie 
graciously received^ and heere his Majestie made 
sundry of bis nobles of Scotland of his counsell 
of Gngland, the Duke of Lennoic, the Earle of 
Marre, the Lord Hume, Sir George Hume, trea- 
surer of Scotland, Sir James Elphingston, secre- 
tarie, and Sir Edward Bruce, afterwards master 
of the rolles of England. And one of the Eng- 
lish nobiljtie he made of his counsell, Henry 
Howard, brother to the late Duke of Norfolk, 
and Thomas Lord Howard, sonne to the said 
Duke, whom bee also made chunberlane of his 
house, and after Earle of Suffolke; as also > bee 
made the said Lord Howard of Marnebill,- as^. 
afterward Earl of Northampton, as also Charles 


Blunt, Lord Montjoy, who (for hi^ valour) in ex- 
pelling the Spanish forces out of Ireland, under 
the command of Don John of Aquila, and over- 
throwing the rebellious Irish under the command 
of Tyrone, neere to Kinsayle, hee made him Earle 
of Devonshjrre. Beere his Majestic stayed at 
Theobaldes foure dayes, where he was most 
bountifully iptertained, honouring this Sir Ro- 
bert Cicile with the titles of Baron of Essenden, 
Viscount Cranburne, and Earle of Salisburie, and 
afterwards great thesaurer of England. The 7th 
of May his Majestie set from thence to London, 
where within three miles of London, John Swiner- 
toun, shyreffe of London, as also shyreffe of Mid- 
dlesex, where was delivered to him a learned ora- 
tion by Master Martin, gentleman of Middle 
Temple ; the shyreffe convoyed him to Sandford 
hill, being about three miles from I^^ndon. Here 
the lord major of London, with the aldermen, 
met him in scarlet robes and gold chaines, with 
500 of the citie clad in black velvet and gold 
chaines. The Duke of Lennox here carried the 
sword before his Majestie; and so taking the 
next way over the fields, he entred the charter- 
house belonging to the Lord Thomas Howard, 
staying there foure nights. The 11th of May 
the king rode from the charter house to Whyte- 
bail, and from thence to the tower of London. 

It is to be observed, that all the way the king 
rode from Edinburgh to London, he gave testi- 
monies of love and mercie to all his loving sub- 
jeets; mereie in relieving all prisoners wfaereso* 
ever he came, and boliottring sueh a number with 


ksigMhoodi as in some places twentiei and in 
some thirtie^ and in soiDe fburtiei and at the 
charter-hoiiae eigbtie. As also restoring sundrie 
families to their landsy honours, and dignities. 
This the king^^sso joyful and peaceable entry was 
eeconded firom all die princes of Europe, to oon« 
gratnlate bis peaceable entry to his lawfuU inhe* 
ritancey being now sole monarch of the whole is- 
land : from the French king Monsieure de Bose- 
nay ; from the king of Spaine John Bapdata de 
Taxis, Conde de villa Mediana ; from the Arch- 
duke Albertus, Count of Aramberg; as also from 
the Emperour, from the kings of Poland, Sweden, 
and Denmarke; from the Dukes of Savoy and 
Florence; from the duke and estate of Venice; 
from the estates of the low countries ; from the 
False grave of the Rhyne ; and from all the rest 
of the princes of Germanic : and because I it^eiid 
but an epitome, and cannot relate every thing in 
the due place. Hee had anibassadours from the 
Persian, from the Great Turke, from the king of 
Fez and Moracco ; yea, bee was visited by many 
princes in person, the prince of Vaudamont, the 
Dukes of Brunswick and Wittenberg, and many 
other, tedious to rehearse. The Duke of Holsten 
came to visite him ; as also the king of Denmarke 
came twise in person, where he was royally inter-r 

Scarse was the queene^s death made knowne, 
when presently the borderers made incursions on 
both sides, the which was called the bussie week. 
The king, to take away all discontent from his 
subjects, sent down the Lord Hume, with the 



title of lieutenant, to take away all disordered 
and insolent persons that had Uved upon rob- 
berie* The Lord Hume in short time denaed 
the borders of many licentious persons. After- 
ward Sir George Hume being made Baron of 
Barwick and Earle of Dumbar, being also lieu- 
tenant of the middle shyres, made choyse oi my 
Lord Cranston to bee ciqptaine of the guard, who 
did so much by his care and vigilance, ihat a 
number of out lawes were brought to the place of 
execution, where after lawfull assise they had a re- 
ward of their forepast follies. Whose names and 
surnames for brevity wee omit, some of them who 
might have lived upon their rent, if so they could 
have beene content; but so prone were they to 
imbred vyce, received from thdur forefathers, and 
drunken in their adolescencie, they never leave 
off their first foot steps, while they runne head- 
long to their owne destruction. 


The Romane Ttdliet rose of all that racty 
Offacund Mercurs ; boldly unaffrayde 
In MUosfence^ to Clodiua deface 
This sacred sentence in the senate sayd : 
Nought only for ourselves wire borne to tqyle^ 
But for our friends^ and for our native sqyk. 

iThou wisely weighed hes these words IJinde^ 
Thou cairs to deere thy countreyfrom iAscure ; 
To please thy friends^ thou franCst thy wit and 

And by thy Ught thy countries light ispuire* 
She brought thee forth to light, thou takes like 

Who made thee see, to make her shine againe. 

W. T, 






SCOTLAND is divided from England by cer- 
tiune inarches, from the east sea, called the Scot- 
tish sea, to the west seas, called the Irish sea, from 
the mouth of Tweed, upon the same river, till 
it come betwixt Werke and Hadden, where the 
march leaves the river and passeth south west 
by deium wayes, known only to the inhabitants of 
that country, till it come to Redden^bume, or 
waftr, and so up the said bume, while it come to 
the height of the Fells of Cheviot, and so west by 
the tops of the Fells, till a march ditch, called 
the march ditch, and so ending the meir ditch, 
till it fall in the river of Carshope, and downe ' 
Carshope, while it fall in Liddail, and dowpe 
Liddail, while Eske and Liddail meete, and tak- 
ing affe at the north side of Eske, goeth enlong 
a ditch, while it come to tbe river of Sarke, and 



SO downe Sarke, while it fall in Sulway, where 
the waters of Annan and Nith, runtaing severallj 
in Sulway, all in one channell in the Irish sea» 
make plentie of fishes ; ako by flowing and ebbing 
of furious tides, made through many lands ends, 
and partly by inundation of the said waters^ there 
are very dangerous quicke sandes, called Sulway 
sandes, that no man may safely passe over them 
without perill, (except they have one accustomed 
guyde,) because of sinking holes that are irequent 
in them, being every tyde overflowed with the 
sea. The travellers which travell that way, take 
their journey through them at a low or ebbe wa- 
ter. If any man or horse fall in, his fellow tra- 
vellers casting their clokes, or other clothes, about 
that part where hee sinkes in, and so running 
often about, the sand swells up in a height, and 
so vomits out that which is fallen io the sinking 
hole. Upon the banks of Sulway, in June and 
July, the country people gather up the sand 
within the flood marke> bringing it to land, and 
laying it in great heapes; thereafter, they make 
the salt spring water, and cast it upon the sand* 
(with a certaine device,) causing the water to run 
through the sand into a hollow pit, purposely 
made to receive the water; which water being 
boyled in a little vessel of lead, there ia made 
thereof good whyte salt, after the temperance of 
* the weather. This place is called the Salt Coate& 
The reason of Uie variation of the Sacesmd 
marches^ was upon dUiverse debates and coBtrq* 
vevsiea arymg betwiat the bordeis of both the 
reabnesy which being referred to the avbitrknent 

or 8GOTLAMO. tS9 

of sniidry eonmiisttODers of both the natknut were 
aet down acoordiog. to the power of the ptrtyea. 
Thus the marqheB are set foortfa partieuhirly^ be« 
gimiiiig at the Mers, wherein at the roouth of 
Tweede» etande the andent and martiall tewne 
of Barwioke» and a strong castle, well walled and 
strenthned, .the chief towne of the Mers, the Scot* 
tish sea on the east. Next is the towne of Ha(y>* 
mouth, the towne and abbey ot Coldingh«n, the 
strong castle of Fastcastle, Ayton, Huttonhall, 
Blaketer, Elbaike, Gradoun^ Spiiaw, Laindeti» 
Weddurben, Manderston^ Brumhoose^ Eaater 
and Wester Nisjbets, the townes of Duns and 
Langtoun, with their castles, the abbeys of Cold* 
streame and Ecdis, with the house thereoi^ BUlie, 
Blenerne, Butterdeoy Comlage, Cockeburne, Rip* 
pet, Xiochermagus, the castle of Cr^ghome, the 
Earle of Home's special rendencct Mallenstanes, 
Whitrig, the Greene Know, the two PoUarts, 
Grindlay, Wedderly, Spottiswoode, Thomedyke^ 
Crosby, Huntley-wood, Bassenden,' and Colden- 
knowes. The rivers in the Mers are, Ei, Whit* 
titure, Blackitur^ and Edraen water. This ooua* 
trie 16 plenteous and aboundant in all things ae* 
cessary for the use of man. 

West from the Mers lyes TeviotdaiU, Liddia- 
dail, Ewisdail, Eskdal, Wauchopdail and Annan- 
di^ taking their naaies from Tiot, Liddil, Ews, 
Eake, Wauchope, and Annan, running severally 
through the sayd dailes. In Teviotdail lyes the 
andent castle of Roxburgh, the Friers Bridge* 
end, the Loch*bouse» Coabat, Cesfard, the Lord 
Roxburgh^ residence ; Gradane^ Gkutscbawf Mch 

140 AK BRISVX BlSCEirriON . 

we, Hadden, the Mosse Tower, Cndliag, Cnul* 
ingfaall, Litle-dean, Mackerstoun, thetowneand 
dUbey of Kelso, Fluires, the towne and abbej 
of Jedburgh, Brown-jedwart, Feme-herst, An* 
crum, Langnewtowne, Newtone, Bed-reuU, Min* 
to, Htinthill, Hundely, Edzarstoun, the towne 
and abbey of Melrose, the towne and abbey of 
Driburgh, the towne dt Hawicke, Laiwers, Or- 
mistoun, Branxholme, the Balcleuchs residence ; 
Haliden, Riddellj Faldounside, Greene-heade, 
with many other strong stone houses upon the 
water of EalL The rivers in Teviotdail are, Tiot, 
Tweed, Kail, Aushnum, Jed, RewU, Slitrig, 
Borthwicke, and Eall. 

In Liddiedail is the ancient castle of Harme- 
tage, Prickinhauch, Mangerstowne, and Whit- 
tow. In Eskdail is the castle of Langhome. 

In Annandail is the castle of Lochmabane, in- 
▼ironed with a number of loches, replenished with 
divers goodly fishes. The townes of Annandail 
are, the towne of Annanwick, an old castle, the 
towne of Lochmabane, the towne of Meffat, Bon- 
sehaw. New Bred-kirke, Hoddon, Howmanis, 
and Hoddamstans ; next standeth the watch tower 
of repentance. Loch-house, Lochwod, Speldings, 
Ros, and Eirk-Michal. The rivers in Annandail 
are, Annan, Sark, Eirtil Milke, £y, Sinnill, 
Ewan,. and Mofiat, a fertil oountrie, and good 
for pastoring. . West from Annandail lyes Nid- 
diidaiie, taking the name from the water of Nith, 
where stands the towne and castle of Dumfries, 
with' a pleasant bridge of large fine stones ; the 
towne and castle of Sanquhar, the Lord San- 

or «OOTLA»ll» 141 

quha/s speciaH rcsideiice ; the tcmne of DMeaM, 
the colkdge of Lincludea, tiie abbey of Haliwood. 
In Niddiadaile are diverte ancient bouses and 
castles demolished ; and jet standing, the sftrong 
castle of Carlaverocke, Cumlungen, Muswell, 
Torthomii], the Lord Torthorraile^s residence; 
Heoipsfield, Dalswiaton, Closbame : die castles 
of Dmmlainrig) Disdeir, Mortoun, Glen, Carne^ 
Caschogill, and Dawyn. North from Niddisdmle 
lyeth Cliddisdaile, taking the name from the river 
Clyde, beginning at Crawfurd Moore, wherein 
lyes the ancient castle of Crawford ; next lyes 
Crawford-John, Dowglasdaile, Ewendaile, Came- 
wath moore. Bed well moore. The townes of Cfid* 
disdaile are, Lanerk, Hammiltoun towne and pal* 
laoe, the Marquesse of Hatamilton's speciall re* 
sidence^ with the castle, Bouthwdl, whh thejed* 
ledge, and Daaell ; the city and eailte of Glasgow^ 
the ardibishop^s seat, very populoosf with a sump» 
tudus cathcdndl chttroh, contaiinng a lower mid 
over church) covered with lead, also a flourkhing 
uorrersitie in liberall sciences aad theologie : ad« 
jacient to diis dtie is a large stone bridge over 
the river Clyde» wherein falles diverse oth^ rivers, 
as £wan, Monse^ Dowglas, Limehags, with an 
abbey of the same name ; the water of Ewan, the 
water of Cadder, the two Meddens, and Cutter 
water. In Clyddisdaile is the ancient eastle of 
Dowg^asse, the Earle of Angusse his spe<^ msi* 
denee; Caimichael, Symington, Covington, Cor* 
rous, the eastle of Crawfofd*John, Lamingtoon, 
Couthdey, the strong castle of Draifiui. Thk 
eountrie is rery pientifnll of all neeessaries. • In 


the over ward of Cliddiadaile, there is a hill or 
mount, whereout spring three rivers, Tweed, run* 
ning in the Scottish sea, Annan, in the liish sea, 
and Clyde in the great ocean. South east fisam 
Cliddisdaile, Ijeth Tweddaile, named so from 
Tweede ; the speciall towne is Peblis, with a reli- 
gious house, called the Crosse Church ; the towne 
of Bigger, with the castle ; the towne of Lintoune, 
the castle of Drochels, with the strong castle of 
Neidpeth, the Lord Zester^s residence ; Traquaire, 
Grisum, Onpstoun, Cardrono, Horseburgh, Hen- 
derstoun, Dawicke, Drumelzer, Skirling, Possow, 
Smithfield, Cringilty, Dearnehall, Furde, Halk- 
schaw, Gienkirke, Langland hill, , Hartrie, Ro- 
manno, Coltooat* The waters in Tweddaile are, 
Tweede, Quaire, Maner, Bigger, Tarfe, Lyne, 
Peblis water, and Lithnops. This oountrey is 
good for pastorage. East from Tweddaile. lyeth 
Herbt moore, the Stow, Galla water, and Lau* 
deidaile, with die towne and castle of Lawder ; 
taking the name from the water of Lidder, with 
KairdTrae, their being pendicles of other shires, 
wherein are sundry strong stone houses,, for bre- 
vity I omit to descrive. South from Tweddaile 
lieth .Forrest shyre, the speciall towne is Selkirke, 
Hayning, Pfailip-hauch,. Sunderland-haiich, the 
Zair, Elibanke, Hanginschaw, Teinis, Arkewood» 
Kirkehope, Tuschelaw, Thielstane, the two Suin- 
lous, Eikschaw, Huntly, Witscbland, Gakischiek, 
Whithanke, Blindly, the old castle of Newark- 
There are two goodly rivers, Zara and Ethrick, 
both falling in Tweed ; Zara runneth out of a 
grtsat loch, called the Loch of the Lows, wherein 

ov . scoTUHi). 14;) 

18 aboundance of fishes. This oouBtrie is also 
good for pastorage* 

Loathian taking the name from Loth, king of 
Picts, is divided from the Mers by one part call- 
ed the Eyster peece, and bjT Lammer-mure oii 
the south, from Tweddale on the south west. In 
£ast Lowthian is the castle of Dunglasse, Inner- 
wick, Broxmouth, Spot, Beltane, Beill, Smetotiii, 
the old castle, Benistoun, Morum, Stanipetb, 
Whittingham, Linplum, Whitlaw, Nunraw, and 
old castle of Zeister, Bothens, the Lord Zester^s 
residence ; Harmestoun, Blanch, Samelstoun, 
Saltoun, Penkathlane, Eeith, Humbj, Wintoun, 
Qrmestoun, the two Cranstouns, Falahall, the 
castles of Creichtoun and Borthuick; the Lord 
Borthuick^s residence. The townes in Louthian 
are Dumbar, with an old castle, the towne of 
Tuningham, with the house thereof; Skwgall, 
Adam, Gleghome, Whitkirk, Furde, the Lord 
Haliroodhouse residence; the strong castle of 
Tamtalon, the craig of Bagone, Wauchtownct 
North Berwick, with an abbe^, Dirltoun, with 
the castle, the tower of Fentoun, Coiigiltoun, 
Salt Coats, Luthnes, the towne of Abirlady, with 
the house adjoyning, Gosfurde, Readhouse, Byrs, 
Grantoun, Gilmertoun, Bancreitf, Seitoun, with 
the pallace, the Earle of Wintoun^s residence; 
Hadingtoun, with an abbey, Lethingtoun, the 
Lord Thirlstane^s residence; Clerkington, Col- 
ston, Elwingston, Elphingstoun, Falside, Carbary, 
Smetoun, Monton, Meling, Arnestoun, Tempill, 
Gilmertoun, Montlothian, Morfat, Newhall, the 
castle of Boffingt Dredden, Sowtran Abbey, the 



toirii9 of PvertOD, with the lower, the towne of 
Prestoun-pannes, Prestoun-graDge, die towties of 
Tranent, MussUburgb, and Innereaky the house 
of pinky and Walafieldy the town of Dalkeith, 
wkh the castle, the Earle of Morton's residence ; 
the tpwne of Newbottell, with the abbey, wdl 
builded, the Earle of Loulbian^s rcndence; the 
castle of Dalhoussy, the towne of Ldidi, a conw 
modious haven for ships, and the searport of 
Edinburgh, right well rfiipped. 

Edinborgh, the speciall and bead burgh in 
Scotland, cfaiefe justice seat of the realme, strong- 
ly builded with stone. The most part of the 
houses are fi?e, sixe, or seten stories high, whe»e-> 
in is a goodly universitie, flourishing in all sciences 
for instruction of the youth, fortified on the west 
with a most sUrong castle, builded upon a high 
lOeke, kept by the king's captiunes, which castle 
eommands the said burgh, ealled of old the Muden 
Castle, founded by Crutbneus Camelon^ the first 
king cl* Ficts, before the Urth o£ our Sa^riour 
330 yeres, circuit upon the east, south, and west, 
with a stone wall, and upon the north stretq^ned 
with a loch. It is also decored with, the king^s 
pallace and abbey of Holyroodhoufe, upon the 
east part ; within seven miles to tho buigh^ upon 
the east, south, and west parts, and within two 
miles upon the north part, there is of ncUeand 
geQtiemens palaces, castles, and strong buiUed 
towers and stone houses, (not as yet nomiaalcd,) 
above an hundred. Also the town of Oamoad, 
lying upon Almond* The ritnsss in Jjotbine are, 
Ty ne^ A^e^ the Ulster lOf Ltkh* the water ^AU 

or scexxjLiUK 145 

mmi^ jLotldan m. irety pkotecms and right a* 
tMMmdaiil in all things neeesflarie fiur the use and 
sustQQtation of ma&r 

Next East Lothian, lyes in West Lothian the 
sbmefdome of Lanlithgiiw, with the castles of 
Bambugall, Cr^yhall, Dundas, lowne of Queenes 
Feme, Didestourn, NewUstoiui, Kiskltstoim, the 
eaalle of Nedilry» Hiditoun, Dainaboy, Curryhtll, 
LennfiXi BicartoK, the castle and pallaoe of Cad- 
der, Torphican, Kinneil, Banrestonaesse, the 
stxong forts and castle oF Blacknes, the old ca»* 
tie of Abircorne, the tovrne of Linlithgoir, and 
the Idng^s pallace, most suniptu(Miriy builded, 
with a pleasant and conraiodioae paike, and loch 
under the palbce wall : Boltinhard, Neutoan, 
Duntarwy, Blithcart, Gdraing^ Pardoven, Inch* 
niachan, Med<^ Aren water,' whereon there is a 
stone bridge, devides Sterling shyife from West 
LothiaA at the south, the Firth of Forth at the 
noKth, wbidki £rth peece and peece becomes nar* 
row, till it grow to the quantitie of a reasonable 
rivec, neere unto Striviling bridge* There is but 
one water worthie to make account of that mnnes 
thcough it, named Carron.^ There are two little 
earthen knols bnilded, as may aj^Mtare, by men, 
{being ancient monuments,) caUed DuAn pacis, 
difut is,, the kiH>ls of peaee. Two miles downward, 
upon the same water, thei% is a round building 
. widioiit lime, made of hard stone, in su^h sort, 
thut (me part of the uppermost stones areiodent^ 
ed with the stone diat lyes directly under it, so 
that file whole work, by this conjunction mutual!, 
and busthen^oftbe stones, upholds it selfe, grow«- 



ing narrow bj little and little from the ground ta 
the head, where it is open like a dove-coat. The 
common people call it Arthur's oven. Upcm Car- 
ron was situate the famous dtie of Camelon, 
chiefe city of the Picts, founded by Cruthneus 
Camelon, afore the birth of Christ 390 yeres» de- 
stroyed' by King Kenneth the Great, about the 
yeare of Christ 846. In this countrie is the abbey 
of Manwell, the castles of Haning, Powmile, and 
Cummernald, the Earle of Wigtown^s readence; 
with the wood, the T<n«woody and Torewood 
side, the towne of Falkirk* the castles of Kers and 
Calender, the Earle of Linlithgow's readence; 
the castles of Donipace, Harbertshyre, West 
Quarter, Arthy Poffowls, Carnoke, Bruse castle, 
the palace of Elpbingstowne, the Lord Elphing- 
stone^s residence; Easter and Wester Polmais^ 
Polton, Carse, Throsk, and Chartrishall ; the an- 
cient towne, with the. most strong fortresse and 
castle, and sumptuous palace of Striviling, builded 
upon a high rock, with a pleasant and commodi- 
ous park under the cdstle wall. In this shyre are 
the castles and towers of Towch, Gargunnok, 
Broich, Lekke, Dundafie^ Kilsyth, Manners, and 
Powes. Beyond the bridge of Striviling, lyes the 
abbey of Cambuskinneth, with the castle, the 
towne and castle of Alloway, the towne and cas- 
tle of Clackmannan, the castles of TuUiallan and 
Sawchy, Blair, Valeyfield, Kynneder, Aikinhead, 
Menstre, the towne and abbey of Culrosse, with 
the new builded palace. Next a^acent to Stri- 
viling shire, lies Lennox, devided from the ba- 
rony of Renfrew by Clyde, from Gla^ow by the 


water of Kelvin, at the foote of the failles qf 
Orangebean, Loch->Lowniond, runpes downe a 
lowi valley, foure and twenty qiiles of length, and 
dlght iji bredtb, having more tlian twenty foure 
islands within the same. 

This loch, besides abundance of other fishes, 
hath a kind of fish of its owne, named Powan, 
very pleasant to eate* The water of Levin run- 
neth out of Loch-Lowmond southward, running 
^o strong, that no aaan (without danger) may 
passe the same. Levin entretfa iqto Clyde neere 
to the most strong and invincible fortresse and 
'Castle of Dumbarton, standing upon verie high 
rocks, with abundance of fresh water springs ; one 
■spring being in summer wholsome cold, and in 
winter sweete warme, no rocke nor hill being with- 
in more than a mile to the foresaid strength and 
castle. Next adjacent is the towne of Dumbar- 
ton, pleasantly situat upon the river of Levin, the 
ispeciall towne in the duchy of Lennox, within 
the which there are many strong castles, towers, 
and 3tone houses, as the castles and towers of 
Kirkmiehad, Rosdo, Tarbat, Arnecaple, Kilma- 
bow, Ardeth, Kilmaranoch, Buquannane, Drum- 
makeil, Craigivame, Ballindalloch, Eilcrock, Bal- 
glas, Fentrie, Duntreith, Craigbarnut, Gloret, 
Woodhed, Cochnoch, Balquhannaran, Drumry, 
Dunglasse, with sundrie others tedious to declare. 

The Duke of Lennox is superiour to the most 
part of the gentlemen inhabitants in this countrie, 
and many in the barony. Next lyes the barony 
of Renfrew, taking the name from the towne of 
Aenfrew^ wherein the session of justice is kept to 



the oounlrj. It is derided in the midit by two 
waters, Garth and 6ry£fl , The towne of Piuslaj 
is pleasantly utuat upon the river Cartb»^ with the 
abbey thereofy the Earle of Abiroome^s speeiall re- 
sidenoe* with most pleasant orchards and gardens. 
In this countrie lyes the castle of SempUl, the Lord 
SempilPs spedall residence ; the castles and towers 
of Crukstone, Mams» Catbcart, Hag, Upper Pol- 
loke aad Nether Pdloke, Hakket, the Lord Ros 
sidence ; Cardonald, the Lord of Blantyre^s 
deoce; Blackhall» Caldwell, Stanelie, EUersly, 
Johnstowne, Waterstowne, Bamfurley, DoohttU 
Raalstowoe, Biltries, Craigans, Houstoun, Bai^ 
rocbane, Dargewell» Blackstouo, Selwiiand, Wal- 
kinshaw, Inchchennan, Arskin, Bishoptonn, Bog- 
hall, Fynhistoun, New*werke, Grinoke, Ardgow- 
an, Glengamodi, and LadyJand, with many 
other 8troog stone houses, tedious to rehearse. 
These countries aforesaid are plenteous in comes, 
beastial, uid fidiings. Next lyes Caninghani, 
divided from Kyle by the water of Urwine ; at 
the foote thereof is situate the towne of Urwine, 
a goodly marchant towne, with a strong stone 
bridge, the towne of Ejlmamocke, the towne and 
castle of Kilmars, the Earle of Gleocame's resi- 
dence ; the towne and castle of Newmilsy the 
towne of Salt Coats, where great store of white 
salt is made^ the towne of Largs, ^e towne and 
abbey of Kilwinning, the castle of Deane, the 
Lord Boyde^s residence ; the castle and palace cS 
Lowdon, the Lord* Lowdon*s spedall residence; 
the castle of Eglingto^e, Kirelaw, Ardrossin, 
the Earle of Eglington^s rendence ; Cnnningham- 


heady Blair, Bobertland, Gryffine, Eastwood, Cal- 
vreil, RowaUen, Low, Fairly, Kelbume, Arneil, 
Knock, Skelmurly. In the towne of UrwineL the 
judge ordinarily holds justice. Kyle and Cuning- 
ham were cidled of old Siluria. 'Dieir countries 
are fertSl in comes and bestiall. Next lyes Kyle, 
cUivtded. from Carrick by the water of Downe» 
which descends out of Loch-downe, wherein there 
is 'a strong tower builded upon an isle. This war 
ter runaes west in the Firth of Clyde. In the 
midst of Kyle runnes the water of Air, which de- 
vides Kyle in King^s Kyle, and Kyle Stewart, a 
part of the princess principality. At the mouth 
of Che water, on the soath side, is situate the an- 
<sient matcbant towne of Aire, Caking the name 
from the water, the principall burgh of the whole 
shyre, pleasantly builded in a plaine field, hard 
on the sea, very populous, and well shipped, with 
faire stone houses, most covered with blew sklate, 
with a large stone bridg passing to the new towne 
of Air, with a castle and palace. The towne and 
castle of Machling, the towne and castle of Cum* 
nok, the towne of Presik, the justice seat of Kyle 
Stewart, the townes of Gastown and Ricardtown, 
the castles of Dundonald, Sundrum, the Lord of 
Cathcart's residence ; the castles of Ochiltrie, with 
the towne, the Lord Ochiltre's residence; the 
castles of Capriotoun, Gaitgirth, Cragie, Entir- 
kin, Gastoun, Sesnocke, Carnal, Bar, Lochnories, 
Terringean,^ Cars,- Drongane, Some, Dregorae, 
Sorabeg, Monton, Afflec^, and Barskymmin, the 
loch, of Martuane, widi\ strong tower. Loch* 
Fergus, with an isle, with many gromng trees, 



where gml plentie of hmoiis vetortf irith the 
Loch Feal ; there it a decayed flMimteiie in iu 
The rivers in Kyle are^ Air» Luggar^ Fetif and 
Sesnocke ; Luggar and Feal ramiea in the waler 
of Air, and so in the Firth of Clyde. The water 
of Sesnocke runnes in the water of Urwiae^ and 
so in Clyde. This countrie abounds in strong: and 
valiant men, where was borne the most renowned 
and valiant cham|uon William Wallace, in the 
barony called Bieardtoun^ then Ins father's style, 
thereafter of Craigy and Bioaidtowm Five wSH/ea 
from Air is a place called CoePs fields whero the 
king of Bxitons, called Coel, was killed by the 
Scots and Picts, upon the water of Downe. This 
countrie is plenteous of beastiall, irith abundance 
of comes. Next Kyle lyes Carriclce, bordering 
with Galloway, under the Lochrean, of old^called 
Loch-Calpin, deelyning while it come to Clydis* 
firth: in Carricke are two goodly waters, j^n- 
teous of fishes, the water of Siinchar ; at the fbote 
thereof stands the towne c^ Ballintiea, where is 
great pientie of herrings and other fishes ; the 
castles of Arstinchar, Cnagneil, buikied upon a 
strong rocke, with the castle of Knockdolean. 
Upon the water of Girwan are the castles of Bar* 
geny, Blairquhan, Dalwfaarran, Casnls, Dunure 
the Earle of CayiTs residence ; the castles of the 
Koe, Ardnillane, Carletowne, IQikiquhan, Bal- 
tessane, Keirs, Auchendrane, the abbey of Cor- 
sragueL There was a goodly marcbant towne, of 
old called Carricke, founded by Camtaket king 
of Scot$, whereof remaines nothing ; the princi- 
pall towne is now MayboU, where tbe judge or* 

or SQOT&AVO*. 151 

diMrily koUi jadtioB* Next wfytonAi with Cam 
lidce IjtB Qeilowdjf cf oM csalled %igaDti% bar» 
derbg with NiiMMdail^> almost dedyning to the 
aottth, the shyre wbeNof indoieel ; all Am lest of 
that ttde of Seotfanid is more piratifiail atore of 
bestiidl than ooroas. The wateia of Galowmy aiW| 
Ure^ I>ee, Terfe» Fkit» EeaDo, Onoe, and l^me, 
which ruime all in the Irdand tea. There ii aL 
most no great hilb in Oallowayy but it is ibU of 
cragipa knob; the waters gaAcrtng together m 
the Taifeyes betwct those knoli^ Budce aknost io- 
nmaefable lodbeB, fiDia whenee the fiM tfoud 
that comes befcre the aQtumnall aqoinoctiAlI, 
cattseth soch abundance of waters to ruOi that 
theee come foorth of the nod lodkes iiicrediUe 
aamber of edes^ and are taken by the ooantrlo* 
men in wasid cveeles, who sailing theoi) obtune 
no smidl gain thereby. The fiuthest part of that 
side is the Head, called NovantuoH under the 
wfaieh there is a hareii at the mouth of the water 
of Lossby named Berigcxnus* _ la the other side 
of Galloway, orer against this hwirea fimn Clid* 
disfbrth, there eaters another brntet^ named *oobh 
monly Loehryen, Vidogora ; all that lyoih bo- 
twixt ^K)6e two havens, the country peof4e cdl 
the Ryndes, that is, the point of 6afloway ; also 
NoTantiim,^ the Mule, that », the Bee4e. In 
Galloway aiw the townes of Kirfccadbri^, well 
»tnate for « nurchant towne, a good faafbery, 
with a casde. Whithome is the bbhof/Ns seat 
tbero. Wigtonn, a goodly nuffket towne, the 
towne of iaaeitnessaae, Minigooff, and fit. JohnV 
Claehane. The abbey cf New Abbey, Glenkise, 


Salkyde, Dandreium, and Tongland ; the castles 
of the Treave, Barcloj, Hilk, Orchardtoun, 
.Bomby in Loch«Fergu8, Campstoun, Gardenes, 
Wreythis, Kenmure, SLirkgunze. The great 
strength and castle of Crowgiltoun, buUded on a 
rock hard on the sea; the castles of Garlics, 
Large» the great castle of Clare, the castles of 
Dunskay, Corsell, Lochnee. Theloches of Gallo- 
way are, Rufainfranco, Carlingworke, Myretown, 
which never freeses, for any frost that chances* 

The westmost of the hills of Grungebean, make 
the borders of Lennox ; the hills are cutted by a 
little bosome of the sea, named for the diortnesse 
thereof, Grerloch; at the entry thereof standeth 
the castle of Roseneth ; beyond this loch there is 
a greater loch, named from the water that run- 
neth in it, liOch-Lowng; this water is the mardi 
betweene Lennox and Cowali: this Cowall, Ar* 
gyle, and Knapdail, altogether called Argyle, are 
divided in many parts by many narrow creekes 
that run out €£ the Firth of Clyde into them. 
In .Cowall is the castle and towne of Dunnone, 
where is the Bishop of Argyle his seat : there is 
one most notable loch, called Lochfyne, which is 
in length three score miles; upon Lochfyne is 
situate the castle, palace, and towne of Inararay, 
the prindpall residence of the Earie of Aigyle; 
also doth the shyreffe of Argyle keepe his. courts 
of justice. This loch is most plentiful! of her* 
rings and all other fishes. On this loch are si- 
tuate diverse castles and gentlemen^s places, as 
Castle Lau^lan, the Oiter, and Dunetrewne. 
In Knapdail is Iioch-how, and therein a little ide. 

ov seottAirft. . 153 

Iff here there k s stroiig caslle of the mine name ; 
there is also die castle of Tarbat. In Argyle is 
the strong easde of Canriekey builded apon a 
Tocke within Loebgoyle ; there is also the college 
of Kilmun.' The water of Awe runneth out of 
Loch-howt and is the onely water of all that 
countrie that doe rudne in the Deocalidon sea.. 
South and by west from Knapdally lyeth £atire. 
The head land of the eountrie right orer against 
Ireland, devided by the sea of the breadth of 16 
miles only. In Kyntire are the castle? of Dana- 
▼erty and Sadell, the towne and castle of Hllkei^ 
raine, situat on the loch of the same ninne: Kin- 
tyre is nxne long than broad^ joyning lo Knap- 
dall by so narrow a diroat* about one mle of 
bredth> which ground is sandy, and lyeth so plain 
and lowy that narriners drawing along thdir Tea- 
sels, as gsllies and boats, tbrongh it, make their 
journey a great deale shorter than to paase about 
Kintyre, which is the common paange. Iionie 
lyes next, and contaygue with Argyle, on the back 
thereof, where standetb the most ancient oastle of 
Dunstidbge, 4n which were the kings of Scotland 
in old times crowned, where also the fatail marble 
chayre remained more than one thousand yeares. 
In Lome are also the castles of Comaeery and 
that of Makdules, buiU upon a rtg^t rodtie nuNm- 
tain. The countrie of Argyle, KnapdaU, and 
Cowell, doe abound of beastiall, kye, sheqpe, and 
great store of venison, and idiiundant in fishes. 
Lome nardieth still with Argyle, untiU itooase 
to Haber, or rather Lech-haber ; a plain courf- 
trie, not unfruitfulL The countrie where the bilb 

154 AK JIAXBFS ]>£8CRlPTtOll 

of Gnuigebean bee^ are most eane to be travelled, 
named firoad-AIbiOf that is to say, the highest 
part of Scotland ; and the highest part of Broad- 
Albion is called Drumalbin, that is, the backe c£ 
Scotland^ so termed, for forth oi the backe, wa- 
ters doe run io both the seas, some to the north, 
and . some south : Haber, or rather Lochaber, 
marcheth with Badzenoch> which hath as it were 
a backe running out through th^ midst of it, 
which spouts forth water in both the seas. Loch- 
aber marohing with Badzenoch, tendeth by little 
and little towards the Deucalidon sea : a oountrie 
aboundant in comes, and great jJenty of fishes, 
for beside the abundance of fresh water fishes, 
produced by a great number of waters, the sea 
arunnes within the countrie in a long channel, and 
lieiDg narrow at the mouth, the water kept in be- 
twixt two high banks, and spreading wide inward, 
makes the form of a stank, or rather of a loch, 
a place where ships may lye sure as in a haven. 
Adjacent with Clackmananshyre, lyes Fiffe, be- 
ginning at the. towne of Torre-bume, with the 
castles of Torre, Crumby, Fitfirran, Pittincreiff, 
the towne of Dunfermling, and abbey thereof, 
founded by King David the first. The kings 
of Scotland were buried there a long time: the 
palace thereof now repayred by the king^s majes- 
ties command and charges, where the Earle of 
Dunfermling, chancellor of Scotland, had his re- 
sidence. The towne of Lymkellis, with the cas- 
tle of Bossy th, the towne of the Queensferry up- 
on the north. In the middle of Forth, upon a 
xdck^ is the fortresse and decayed castle of Inch- 

07 SCOTLAND. 155 

gttrvy. 'By east lieSi in the same water, St. Coliii's 
Inch} with a demolished abbey , abundant with 
conies^ and good pasturing for sheep. Next in 
the mid Firth, lyes Inchkeith, with a demolished 
fortressie, fertile of conies, and gud for pasturing 
of sheep. East from Inchkeith, within Forth, 
lyes a Terie high and big rock, invironed with the 
sea, called the Basse, invincible, haying upon the 
top a fresh spring, where the Solaine geese r&- 
payre much, and are very profitable to the owner 
of the said strength. Next the Basse, in mouth 
of Forth, lyes the Isle of May, a mile long; and 
three quarters of a mile in bredth. There was a 
religious house, with many fresh water springs» 
with a fresh loch, abundant with eeles. This Isle 
is a goodly refuge for saylers in time of tempest; 
By east the Isle of May, twelve miles from all 
land, in the Germayne seas, lyes a great hidden 
rocke, called Inchcape, very dangerous for navi* 
gators, because it is overflowed everie tide. It 
is reported, in old times, upon the said rocke 
there was a bell fixed upon a tree or timber, 
whieh rang continually, being moved by the sea j 
giving notice to the saylers of the danger. This 
bell or clocke was put there, and maintuned by 
the jabbot of Aberbrothok, and being taken down 
by a sea pirate, a yeare thereafter he perished up- 
on the same rodce with ship and goods, in the 
righteous judgement of God. Returning -to the 
aundent towne of Innerkething, adjoyning there* 
to, is the most comfortable and safe refuge ^r 
saylers in time of stcmne, called St. Margaret's 
hope, Diinnybersill, Da^atie^ and Fordeil, the 


^VM mi mwlle of Aberdour« llie loch id Gov* 
fltoUBf OtUflitouii« the tovne ot Brunt-island, 
vith lbs caslk; th» casllea of B«lmutQ> Balw«y» 
If rill ffnirdnij mi Baitb; the toinie and castle of 
Kngome^ the castles of SeyfieU and Abbotahall, 
the tomoa of Kirkcaldie» the castles of Bogy and 
&vraot4ieiieli^ the Lord ISadaris apectaU iosh 
dtnoa^ the Umu» of Dysajrt, the towae of Waa- 
tafwasMr and the casAfe, the castle of Easterwems, 
the Lottli ColweiU hia chief residence ^ the tawnes 
of BiackbAYen and Levyns rnonthy so named firom 
the riTer of Levin, wUcb Qo«es out of Loch* 
Leiki, the towne of Keoneway, the castles of 
Jhmy% Li«idy, and Largov, wilh the toime there- 
of;. Ihe castles of Rires». Bulchares, and Kinao* 
chaiv with the loch thereof, the town of Eades 
Venty> the castka of KeHy and Ardtosse, the 
towne of £Ii, with a comiaodious harbery, the 
toMpne and caslle of St Mooanes, Cambie, and 
Balkaslue, the tovae and abbey of Pittenwems^ 
ihe Lovd of Piitinweme's residenee: the townes 
of Anstrutheff with the castle, the towne of Aber»> 
crondiy, taking the name from the andent name 
of Abereroasby, in King Malcolme Canmofe*8 
dayea; Bnayt Pkterthy, the townes of Innei^dly 
and Sihm^dikes, the castles of £r^, third pacl^ 
West^Bems, the towne of Cnule, with the pio- 
vastry, Bakomy, Wormstoun, Bandesstoun, New- 
hid, Camno, Kif po, Pitmille, Knkdl, Strawithy, 
Lambedetbam» Lathochar; the dtie of Sanot 
AndsDSt the metropoGtan and arddiishopV seat, 
mlh a slfong^ castle and abbey, deoored adth three 
umTeffnties. In old time die eboidica in this dty 


<eot% bv£lded. From ibis city west, 1:9011 
liie water of £dxlin,Jye ibeicaslles of Nidj, Rum* 
gfxjt BuiMey* Blebo; the towne of Covper, 
the cbiefe justice eest; Oanstoun, the castle of 
StmthsKt the Loitd Lindsay^s principal resideoec} ; 
Scot8*Tarwet, OraighaUt Careslon» Cirkforthar, 
and Bamsayes Fortbar, Bamorvy, Bruntoun, 
Congland, Bandone, Balgony, the towne of Merk« 
laacfae, ihe towne of : Falkland, with the kingfs 
palaoe, with a pleasant parke, aboundant with 
deeres and other iwUd beasts, with;a pleasaot new 
palace, .builded by. the Lord of Scone ; the' towne 
of Stramiglo, with the eastle, the Loch of Bossy, 
witb the. tower, Monymeal, Hall-hiil), the towne 
of OehteemutDhty, HU-Comey, and Nachtount 
the two Xiotnndndfi, the towne of Lesly, witb the 
eastle, Amat, and Strath-endrie, the Joch of 
lochgaw, with the castle, the castle ^f Dow«hiU, 
Killerny^ Ady» £!leiscb, the loch of Loch-Levlq, 
wjtth. a strong. castle,. abundant in all fresh rfisbes, 
with tbe new house adjacent thereto ; the caatle of 
Burl^, the Lord Burleye^s resi(fence; the mmb* 
tie of Ballnanrd, the towne of Newbroiigh, tbe 
abbey of liundors, the Lord of Lundor^s veA* 
denee:; the castle of Bambr»ch, the Barle of 
Botbous spteiall residence; the abbey of Baloner- 
inoob, Colkroyt Feme, the two Bamkeloius, 
Perhroth^ iMordocarny^ Macquhany, Forret, Kyn* 
ttw, the towne oF Lucers, witb Earles Hall, and 
their castles^ of old f>ertainin<; to the Lorxl Monny*. 
pemqr ; at which time a valiant man, named Snr 
]>af(id Bruce, atcbieved in ifranee great bonouxs 
^d buuls, jealled Ascariot, the which he e»Jiaiiged 


with the said lands of Earles Hall, Lucera, a|Mi 
other lands of the aaid Lord Monnypennie^s in 
Scotland, which Lord Monnypenny then having 
no sonnes but daughters, his name utterly perish- 
ed in France. Colluthy, the townes of East and 
West Ferries. The rivers in Fife are. Levin, 
Eddin, Ore, Lochty, the two Quiches> waters of 
Largo, Kendlie, and Stramiglo. 

This countrie abounds in comes, fruits, bes- 
tiall, and all sorts of fishes, coales, and salt ; 
all the aforesaid sea townes very populous and 
well shipped. Staitherne taking its name from 
Erne, which runneth out of Locherne. The prin- 
cipal! countrie of Perthshyre is divided on the 
south from part of Fife, Kinroshyre, and Clak- 
mananshyre, by the Ochal hilles, the tops of the 
hills serving for march, for as the water springs 
do fall towards the north, they belong to Straith- 
erne, and as they fall towards the south, they ap- 
pertaine to Kinroshyre, Culroshyr^, . and Clak- 
mananshyre, by ambition divided ; in old times 
all these three shy res were under the jurisdiction 
of Perth. The stewartrie of Menteith lyeth in 
Perthshyre, wherein lyes the Abbey of Inchmaho- 
mo, with the castles and towers of Cardroae, 
Archopple, Balinton, Quohe, Burnbanke, Row, 
Keir, Knockhill, Calendar, Leny, Cambusmbore, 
Torre, and Lainricke, lying- upon Teith water, 
giving the name c^ Menteith. The strong fort 
and castle of Downe, Newtown, Argatie, and 
Kirkbryd, the Earle of Menteith^s residence. 
Next lyes in Perthshyre the city of Dumblane, 
the bishop of DumUane'^s reodenoe ; KippiDroae» 


Cromlix, Buttergrasse, and Castle Campbell. 
Returning to the town of Abirnetby» some time 
the metropoliiane city of the Picts, lying in Straith- 
era, it marcheth with Fiffe; where the Earles of 
Angus have their sepulchres. By Mugdrum and 
Balgony^ runneth the river of Erne in Tay, which 
is the greatest river in Scotland, At the foote of 
the Oehells lyes the castles and towers of Craig- 
poty and Knightpoty, FordeU Ardrose, Balman- 
no, Exmagirdlcy and Forgon« where the water of 
Meth flowed from the Ochells» giving name to 
the castle of Innerraetfa, the Lord of Innermeth^s 
residence ; the castles and towers of Condy^ Kel- 
tic, Garvoke, Duncrub, Newtowne» Glainaigles, 
the towne of Doning and Auchtirardour, the cas- 
tle of Kincardin, the Earle of Montrose his spe- 
<aall residence ; the castles of Nether Gaske and 
TuUibardin, the Earle of Tullibardin his speciall 
residence; Auchtermachbnie, Orcbel, Pannels, 
Ardoch, Braikocb, and Craigrossie; the castle 
of Drymmen, the Earle of Perth's residence; 
Balloch, Petkellany, and Moreland. 

Betwixt Erne and Tay lyeth Easter and Wes- 
ter Rindes, Fingalke, Einmonth, Elcho abbey 
and castle, Easter and Wester Montcriefies, Ma- 
lar, Petthewles, Balhbussie, the ancient bourgb of 
Perth, pleasantly situate upon the river of Tay, 
betwixt two commodious greene fields, or inches, 
founded by King William, sirnamed the Lyon, 
after the abolishing of the castle of Bertha by in- 
undation of waters, about the year of Christ 1^10 ; 
the king giving great and ample priviledges to the 
aaid burgh, decored with a large and long stone 



bridge over Tay of eleven archest and now lately 
dtoajed : haviog reasonable comiiiodkie«. £sp ship- 
piagV with goodly fishings; of old desoved.wth 
suodria monasteries, and specially th« cbartsffw 
house^ DOW demdished; the strong^ castle of Diip* 
plHii the Lord OliphantVspeciallresideiiee;.. t]ie 
castles of Hunt ingtore> (of old called Btithwei^, 
the castle of Methwen, Bachilton, IjogyaJbOa&od 
eaatle, Cultmalindis^ Tibberonire, Ttbbermallow^ 
Keillouo Gorthy, Trewn, and Strowane^ the 
towne of Fowler, Cultoquhey, Abireamj, Iik^ 
hreky, Mony vard, Carriwechtery Bordee, Comne^ 
Williamstoiivn, and Dondurn^ wilh the towsaa of 
Creiffe, Ochlirtii^ev and Miloabe.; the abbey cf 
Inchaffrey^ the Lord of Incbaffivye's residences 
Idnerpefiireyi the I^rd of lonerpeffreyV spedall 
dwe}Kng> BetVixt Almond and Tay lyes, the 
Slortnond of- Straitherne^ wherein are the caalles 
ttod towers- of Strathurd, Upper Barchels» Incb- 
strewy, Ochtirgewin, Arlywicht, Tulltbeltane» Ia- 
nernity^ Inchstuthill, Murthlie> the ancient demo- 
lished castle of Kindevin, where the water of Isla 
runneth in Tay» In these countries .are; theia^ers 
of Farg, Meth^ Erne, Urdachy^ Schkchj^ and 
Lochty^ £diing in Almond, where loose werke 
made of stone, receives a great channel of water, 
passing to Perth, whereon stande many miUes, 
and filling the ditches to Spey tower ; the; rest of 
Perth i» compassed with a stone wall. The otty 
of Duakeld, the bishops seate, situate upon Tay, 
with Little Dunkdd, the water of Brane £dls in 
1*Ay» giving the, name to Strak^brane, wherein b 
the cattle of Trochatry : adjacent to Dunbeld lyss 

or SCOTLAKD. 161 

llie castles and towers of Rotmell, Carny^ Cluny^ 
iMh and castle, Gowrdy, MekHhour, Letbandy, 
Olesdun, Drumlochy, Gormoke, Blaif) Ard* 
i>lair, Craighall) Rettray, and Forde. In Straith- 
ardell, named from the water of ArdelU lyes the 
ciustles and towers of Morkley, Assin tulle, and In- 
tiertbrosky. In Athole lying in Perthshyre^ is the 
great and strong castle of Blair, the Earle of 
Athole^s speeiall residence; Strowane, Fascaize, 
Ballachan, Balladmin, the olde castle of Muling, 
the olde demolished castle of Logyrait, where the 
"water Tymell flowes in Tay ; the castle of Garn* 
tuliy^ the strong fortresse of Garth, upon a great 
rocke, the castles of Weme, Balloch, Finlarge, 
Ganurquhar, Lawers, and Miggerny in Glenlyon, 
where the water of Lion runneth in Tay. The 
water of Tay cometh fborth of Lochtay, in 
Broad* Albin, which loch is 24 miles of length. 
"There are other countries '(as Rannoch, Balqu- 
liidder), lying betwixt Athole, Argyle, Lome, 
and Lochaber, unknowne to the autfaour. Re- 
turning to Go wry, and the rest of Perthshyre ly- 
ing betwixt Tay and Angusse, where lyes the 
castles and towers of Stobhall, Campsey, Byrs, 
Petcur, Ruthwens, Banff, Comno^ Balgillo, Mon- 
cur, Inchstur, the ancient and renowned abbey of 
Scone, where the kings of Scotland were crown* 
ed, from the extermination of the Picts, unto the 
time of King Robert Bruce, at which time the 
fatall marble chayre was transported to West- 
iBinster, by Edward the First, (sirnamed Long- 
shanks,) king of England. This abbey was sump- 
-tuously builded, now wholly decayed; a pa:rt 


IM AM BumvB owcwntotf 

wbtreoris re*edtficd, and pImmiiiIy w p ayfJ bjr 
the Lord of SooDe» beeing his. spedall rendeoee ; 
the castles and towers of Poktoill^ Pitandiet Bdk 
thiok. Rait, Kilspndie^ Fingaskt Kjroiiardet liar 
giDshe, Murey» Hill» Petfour, the toame andpa^ 
lace of Arroll, the Earle (^ Acrall!s nesidcoca; 
Leyis, InchmartiDe, Monorguod, Huatlajb and 

These couatries (all ia Perthshyre)» are Qg)U 
plenteous and abundant in all kinde of 
beastialU ^nd all sort of fishes* and all otlier 
eessaries for the sustentation of oMin.;, and* Athok 
dx>unds in all kinds of wild beasts' and foarlas^ 
with wild horses^ 

Next adjacent to Gowry lyes Angusse» .bfgu»- 
ning at. the bridge ci Innergowrie» with the csatla 
ef Fowles, the Lord Graye^'s residence; tha 
ties of Balfourt Lundy, and Dinnun; the to^ 
oC Kethens, the towoe and abbey of CufMue^ the 
castle of Newtyle, the towae and castle of GlaaoH 
mesy the Lord Glammes speeiall residaBce; the 
lowne of Killy-mure» the ca<$tIes'aod towers, of 
Lowry, Brigtoun, Thorntoun, lanerrichtie, Kil* 
kaudrum^ Quicb, Clovoy, with parkes and woods, 
Knnerquharitie, Gen-ilay, Wain, Dysart, Bos«ae» 
the castle of Fyn haven, the Earle of Crawfurd'a 
ffBsidence; the castles and towers of Meiguadt 
Vieoiingtoun, Woodwre, Banoabreicb,. Old. Baa, 
with the parke, Carrestoun, and BaihaS,^ 
aod castle of Brechin,, the bishop^s rasideoca; 
the castles aod towers of Dua, Craig,^ .Bdaril^ 
Bulaordy, and Ne?¥toun ; the tawne or/ buigli of 
Dundee, slvo^gly builded with stone hoi»se»,ji^g)il 


ffigpvimini and induBlrious^ with good sbippini^ 
and ft oommociious^ hav»Q ; % pleasaot^hurclif wMi 
aifi^tliigb.6toiiesteaple; the eastle of Dudcbpa 
and AurlHerhoiis9| tbe Eark oC Biiquban?a. tpc^ 
cuU^retidenee ; tka eastlea and towers oC Strickr 
marliiiy Ciawers, Mayns, Wester Ogyall, BaU' 
liunbjr* and Claypots;^ the. strong fortresae. and 
castle of Brudity, upoa a^ rock invirpned almoit 
with, the^ 8ea« Tbe towaes of Nortb Ferrtj^ and 
Monyfuth; tbe castles of Qraiage^, Aucbinledc, 
Easter and Wester Powres, Gim$, DramlulbD^ 
andTelingi the tovne of Forfarre^, with an old 
eastli^ with a.locb and an isle therein,, with a 
tower; CasMe,, Loigrmegle^ Baraacurd,; Inner- 
kelpur, the old abbey of Bestennetbt with alocb* 
and the ioch of Beskoby« the castles and towers 
<jt Woodend, Balcneshannoch, Hakerstoun, Bal- 
mady, with a loch,. Balgays demoUshedt tbecais- 
ttesaod towers of Tarings, CMrsegowiiy^ Guthrie, 
Game, Ferneil, and Bosbane, the Lord QgUbie% 
^^all residence; the townesof Barre and-Paa- 
Isride; tbe castles of Dumkeo, Paninure«, and 
Kelly, the towne and ancient abbey of Abirbip- 
tbok, with the ^stle, Seaton, Lethaine, and Etby, 
where a falcon, engenders yearely upon a big^ 
rock, past roemorie of man; the castles of Kia- 
btethmont. Ley, Calistoun, Boysucke^ A^rdbeky, 
and the Red Castle ; the castles and towers of Dnn- 
nenald, Usum, Craig, Bonytoun, and Kinnard. 

The ancient town of Montrosse, with a eon- 
aiocUoua>harborough for shipping; this towne b 
att builded with stone, and populous, abouudant 
witbiaU kiade of fishes ; the towae and caitle of 


^Id Montrosse, and the castle of Westerbracky. 
The rivers in Angusse arc, the water of Inner- 
gowTjt deviding Growry from Angusse, the rivers 
of Dichty, Carbat, Isia, Brothat, Lunnen, North 
and South Askis. This countrie of Angusse is 
plentifull and aboundant in all kind of cornes, 
great store of beastiall) with all sort of fishes, and 
other commodities necessarie for man. Next ad- 
jacent to Angusse is the Merns, the townes of 
Kinkardin, Fourdon, Bervy, Cowey, and Stane*- 
hyve, the castles of Halgrein, Lowristoun, Dur* 
ris, and Tuliiquhilly, the most strong castle of 
Dunotter, with many pleasant buildings within 
the same, situate upon a rock, invironed with the 
ocean sea, and well furnished with ordinance and 
of warlike provision for defence, the Earle Mar^ 
shall his residence ; with the castle of Fatteresso, 
with woods and a pleasant parke -, there are also 
the castles of Glenbervy, Pyttarrow, Arbutfanet, 
Thometowne, Balbegenot, Hakertoun, Morphie, 
Benholme, Allardes, and Maters. This countrie 
is plenteous of beere and wheat, abounding in 
beastiall and fishes. The barons and gentlemen 
detest contention in law, remitting and submit- 
ting alwayes their actions debateable to amicable 
arbitrements among themselves. 

North from the Merns is the mouth of the 
water of Dee, where is situate the ancient bourgh 
and marchant towne of Abirdene, well builded, 
and renowned for the salfnond fishing thereof, 

* well shipped. It hath a florishing coliedge for in- 
struction of youth, and a pleasant bridge, build« 

•ed of stones. Neerethe mouth of the river Done, 

OiSSCOTtAllllKi^ ifiS 

W mtilate tbe^ old dty of Abwtkne, wfaidb it*tke 
biabop's seaW where aisa is a goodly anlyemtie 
for learning in sciences^ speciall in. philosopfayf 
with a strong bridge of one arch* 

Betwixt Dee and Done begtoiieth the coumlrie 
of Marre^, grewing always wider and wider^ tBl 
it be threct score miles of length, and oomea to 
Badeaenochi. In Marre is the towne of KinkftiH 
din of N^U the castles of Drum, Leyes^ SiaKin» 
Monimuskey Halforrest» the town of Kinlot, 
the castles of Abirgeldyy X;eoturke^ Corsse, Aslim, 
Sildrimaiy, lunerbucbii^y CIuajt) . Coranda^ Mu- 
chal, Cragywar,^ Cowgartb, Kleoki&dy^ and New 
I^ochaben Badeasnocb and. Marvr co m prehend 
the bredth of Scotland between the.two^seasi. 

Neifl Marre^ upon the norUi^ jyeathedareodiy 
whemn is the towne : of Innerwiy, the(OBfllleir«f 
Balquhan» Bethernerev Qmkjhtuer AuohinhiiiiC^ 
lUMdrimit. Pitcaple* Pittodry, HmtluU : notfiMoe 
dtsUnt is the most high. niOMtttaiBic> of Baanodlif^ 
the highest ioountaine in the norths for sillers 
comming from the caster seas# take upland fint 
l^ this mountaine*. The castle» of LesLy and 
Wardes^, the ancieot castle of Dirniednre^ xnpoit a 
high . mountainet. called the Golden MoitntaiHto, 
by reason oi. the. sbeepet that pastnce therenpony 
whose! teeth arc^ so extraovdiiMirifii yeUo^s^, aa. if 
they ware cdoured with gold; Uiere iadbra.^ 
eastle o£ Drunminor^ thft I^ord Forbes^resid«rioe« 
Noxt Qaieooh^ upoa the. north east|iies Buquham 
whertm it. aituate the towne of Newburgh, .upon 
the water ^ of Itham, aboundant in aahaondi and 
other fishes.;. thetowfiessoliCeterheadilildiFcisset- 


fai|i|rh ; the castles of Fophem, Asselmond, Am* 
age, Tochone, Kelly, Stralocb, UdDey» and upon 
the north east side thereof, there is a^rocke, where 
are found sundry well coloured stones of divers 
hews, verie pleasant, some quadrant, pointed and 
transparent, resembling much the orientall dia- 
mond, for they are proved to bee better than 
either the Virginean or Bohemian diamond. 
There are also the castles of Pitmedden, Hadde, 
Gicht, Fywie, the ancient castle of Slanes, Wat- 
terton, Enderrugy, with the strong castle of the 
Craig of Enderrugy ; the castles of Fillorth, Pit- 
sligo, Feddreth, Towy, Balquhaly, Dalgatie, the 
tower of Torrey, and the castle of Mures. This 
countrie stretches farthest in the Germane seas 
of all the countcies in Scotland, fertile in store 
and comes; and in it selfe sufficient in all the 
other commodities oecessarie for the countrie: 
there is abundance of sal mond and other fishes 
taken in all the waters thereof, except the water 
of Rattry, where unto this day there was never 
any salmond scene. Next Buquhan, upon the 
north, lyes Boyne and Enze; in Boyne is the 
towne of Bamffe, and castle thereof, situate upon 
the river of Divern ; there is also the castles of 
Boyne, Finlatar, with the towne of Culane, si- 
tuate upon the sea coast. Next lies the land of 
Straithbogy, where is the castle and palace of 
Straithbogy, the speciali residence of the Mar- 
quesse of Huntley ; the castles of Fendraugh, Pit- 
lurge, Carnbarrow, Rothemay, the Lord Salton's 
chiefe residence ; Kinnardy, Cromby, Achindore, 
Lesmore, Balwany, Blarsindy, Drimmyn, Dusky, 


Ballindallbcl), Balla Castle, and Aiken way : these 
foresaid countries are plenteous in cornes, beast- 
iail, and in fishings. 

NeJLt upon the north is the water of Spey, 
aboundant in salinond and all other fishes. Neere 
the sea lyes Bogygicht, a faire palace, with fine 
orchards. Endlong Spey lies Murrey-land, with 
the city of Elgyn, upon the water of Lossy, the 
Bishop of Murreye's seat, with a church sump- 
tuously build^d, but now decayed. In Murrey 
are many strong castles and other strong houses, 
as the castles of Blairy, Monynesse, the ca3tles of 
Spinay, with a pleasieint loch, abounding in fishes, 
the castles of Innes and Duffus, the castle. and 
towne of Forres, the great castle of Tarnuaye, 
the principall residence of the Earle of Murrey ; 
the castles of Caddall and Kilravicke, with divers 
gentlemens strong stone houses, adjacent about 
the town of old Erne. In Murrey are. two fa- 
mous abbeyes, Pluscardy and Kinlus, the cai^le . 
of Lovat, the Lord Lovat^s residence. .There is 
also the most ancient towne of Intiernes, and the 
strong castles thereof, situate on the water of 
Nses, which descends froni a loch named Loch 
Nses, thirtie four miles in length : this water of 
NsBS is alwayes warme, and never freeseth^ in 
such sort, as in winter time yce falling into it is 
dissolved by the beate thereof. West from Lodi-* 
ness, there lye eight miles of continent ground, 
and' that small peece is the only impediment that 
the- seas joyne * not, and make the remanent of 
Scotland an island, for all the land that lyes be- 

HTixt ihestcaiit and the Deacalidon sea, is cut by 


MiB AN MuimwM <9Mtiammov 

oMtkes MMiilodies of <ftlt mg.%et jmnmng lanto At 


From the mouth of Nies, where it enlen in tlie 
Gefmene sm» north Ijres fiosse, shooting . m die 
fltft in greet promontories or heeds. The eoim- 
tsie of Bosse is of -greater length than bredth, ex*- 
tending firom the Germane to the Deocalidon sea, 
where it ryseth in craggy and wild hilles ; and jet 
in the phnne 6ekls tberedf, there is as giwat ferti- 
liltf it£ come, as in >any other part of Scotfamd. 
l^ese aie in Bosse pleasant dales, with , waters 
and loches full cxf iishcie, specially JLeoh4>roome4 
it is ibraad at the Deucalidon .sea, and groves 
nanow i^y little and lixtle, turning southward from 
the other shore, the Germane sea (winning it- 
sel|e an «ntrie betwixt high olints), runnes within 
thnlsad in a wide bosorae, and makes an health* 
fnll porttand sure refuge against all tempests and 
starmes ; the entsie of it is^easie, and within it is 
a very sure haven against all injuries of sea,. and 
a haven for great navies of Jihtps* iLoch^bioome 
isiabuadant of salmond and all other fishes. The 
townes m iRusse are» ihe city of the Ohannooise, 
the iiishcp^a seat, with a strong castle, the towae 
df Rosemary, the castles of Read*castle, Ding- 
wall, Hheiabbey of Bewly, the castles of Cromarty, 
Miltoun, Fowls, BaUingoun, the towne of Tane« 
the nasties of CatboU, Torbat, Loselon, and 
XsgrJie, with :many others. The waters, in Bosse 
ave, CroBDarly, the water of Tane, the water of 
Nses ; alsoinountignies of allabaster,.and faiUes eiP 
white .marble-: :there ave many 4>ther pacts >ifl 
Besis, too lengsome toxdescribe. in;theihei|^ 



of Bbi^^lxitdbrmgt yMk^ Soutberiafad and Straiib^ 
BaTeftoy lybs' ABsiatv Ai ooantne full of boastialU 
wbd^e Ae ca&tfe oB ArAwrek* %e8i' Nebft Rossd 
lies SbttlHef land, » the spemll< tbafineis Dbraoreb^ 
mtb a Erf!roBg». castle ; theeadtle^ of Skibow^ Pali- 
rony>i Sfcelbo^ Gljjbtf^t Xhmrbbteev tke Eai-U of 
Soutberkndfn ifeii;leiiee) witlii goodly* orchards,; 
Wihifite groiM^ good/sapbrod>;^ Gbispitoutii Tfa^ 
m^^ard Ft^rrytiuxik;' Sr6i^ }liehiJsdaitU>wuh a 
eiaslle,' abundiEMdt iliisahiNittd and otfaav'fishes^aiid 
gdod^ !Etti>e^^9 beastifafll; th»^«ar^ also bllles^ (»f 
WM«$ marbl^ and4li^ Ord He^d^ l^kig fi^ky high; 
abd^d^ diffimli pasi^gei ^ Iip SOuth^rfiAttd^ bgood 
salt and coales. Three miles above the river of 
Brora, the Earle of Southerland hath one island, 
called Broray, a delectable habitation, and plea<- 
sant for hunting of red deere and roes, in the 
wildness of both the sides of the loch* Next 
Southerland lyes Straithnavern, the castle of Far, 
where the Lord of Makky hath his speciall rcf- 
sidence ; the castles of Tunge, the countrie' of 
Straithy and Dnrines, with the castle thereof, 
with sundry islands, as Ship-land, Hip-land, Mar- 
ten island, Conny island, all unknowne to the 
author. Next lyes Caithnes, where it marches 
with Stranaveme, is the furthest north countrie 
of all Scotland, and those two draw the bredth of 
Scotland in a narrow front. In them are three 
promontaries, or heads, the highest whereof is in 
Stranaverne, called Orcas, or Travidum, the 
other two, not so high, are in Caithnes, Verve- 
dram, now named Hoya, and Befebrum, now 
called Dunsby ; at the foote of this hill there is a 



pretty haven for them that trarell from Orknay 
by sea: there are mountaines called Hobum^ 
heady Maydens Pape, the Castle ot Baridale, 
with a river abundant in salmond and other fishes. 
The castle of Dumbeth, with a goocHy river, 
with the townes of Wak and Thirso, with Ichm, 
a river; the castle of Gremiggo, the Earle of 
Caithnes spedall residence ; the castles of Akers* 
gile, Keisy Freak, old Wcdk, Ormly, Skrabstar, 
Dunray» Brawl, and May ; Dunnethead is a hill 
of marble. The rivers .are, the river of Berridale, 
Dunbertb, W^,' Thirso, Fan. This countrie 
is abundant in comes, beastiall, saltnond, and aU 
other fishes. 



NOW resteth it to speak somewhat of the isles : 
tfaey are divided (which as it were a crowne) in 
three classes, or rankes, the West Isles, Orknay 
Isles, and Shetland Isles ; the West Isles lye in 
the D^uoalidon sea, from Ireland, almost to Orkp 
nay ; upoii the west side of Scotland they are call- 
\ed Hebrides, and by some Aebudse ; they are scat- 
tered into the Deucalidon sea, to the number of 
three hundred and above. Of old the kings of 
Scotland kept these isles in their possesion, un- 
tUl the time of Donald, brother to King Mai- 
4X>lme the Third, wbo gave them to the king of 
Norway, upon condition that hee should assist 
him in usurping of the kingdome of Scotland, 
against law and reason. The Danes and Norway 
pieople kept possession of them for the space of 
' 100 yeeres ; and then King Alexander the Third, 
oivereonmiing the Danes and Norway men in a 
great battdl, thrust them out of the isles ; yet 
afterward diey attempted to recover their liberty, 
partly trusting to their owne strength, and partly 
moved 'by seditions in the maine land of this coun- 
trie, creating kings of themselves asnot loDg agoe, 
John (of the bouse of Clandonald). did usurpe 



the name of king, as others bad done before* In 
foody rayment, and all things pertiuning to th«r 
family, they use the ancient frugality of the Scots. 

Their bankets are buvtiiiig and fishings ; tbey 
seeth their flesh in the' tripe, or else in the skinne 
of the heastB^ ^ing tjjic^sainf M\ p£ iwH^^ iil#w 
and then in hunting, they straine out the blood 
and eate the flesh rAw- Their drinke is the broth 
of sodden flesh. They love very well the drinke 
made of whey, and kept certaine yoaoea, dunk- 
ing 4iie same At Ie«u3ts ; it is .nipusd 4>f tbeM JB/oi*- 
iuinu The juost part loftbemdiinkewAtcc* I^W 
custome is to make th^r iwead of /osftes and baifly, 
•(whioh ace tl^ goely kinds »of grmine liliatjiirQw ia 
-dbose parts). Experience (iwitfa tioa^) halh tailf^ 
4iieBi (to make it in auoh sort, jtfaat it is not un- 
pleasant to eate. They take a little of -it in the 
morning, and so glassing to the hitrtiiig, car nty 
olher busiae^se, conteot tbenselxes tboBewilti, 
-without any other kind pf «aeat till eyxHiing.. 

TJoey deliglttt to wear iBafledddttiesySpeoiaUy 
that hav/e long stripes of sundry eolpuref; tluey 
lov£ 4d>iefly purple and idew. J!bm pDedcceaeiMs 
used Aioxt mantles or playdes of divense, 
sundrije way devided ; and . anwngsl; 8omey.*tbe 
same custoBoe isdbaeryedto this'iday^ -i^ittjCbr'Dhe 
most part now tbey ace brown, .most neere to^tke 
colour of the hadder, to die effect when ihey lye 
j|fiiottgst tiie hadder, the bright eolour sf their 
plains aball not bewray them ; with the irbklp, 
rather 4to]oures than clad, they suffer, ihb- most 
eriieli ^em|«st tbat blow, in the open fields tn .addi 
fiprt, that undte a wryth of snow th^ sleep aDmid. 


In their liimses 'also, they lye upon the ground, 
laying betwixt them and it brakens, or hadder, 
the roots thereof downe, and the tops up, so 
jyrettily laid together, that they are as soft as 
feather beds, and nraeh tnore wholesome ; for 
the tops themselves are dry of nature, whereby 
they dry the weake humours, and restore againe 
the strength of the sinewes troubled before, and 
that so evidently, that they who at evening goe 
to rest sore aiid wearie, rise in the moniing whole 
and aUe. As none of these people doe care for 
feather beds and bedding, so take they great plea- 
sure in rudenesse and hardnesse. If for their 
owne commodity, or upon necessitie, they travell 
to any other countrie, they reject the feather beds 
and bedding of their host : they wrap themselves 
in their^owne plaids, so taking their rest, careful! 
indeed lest that barbarous delicacy of the mune 
land, (as they terme it,) corrupt their natural! 
and countrie hardnesse. 

Their armour, wherewith they cover their 
bodyes in time of warre, is an yron bonnet and an 
babberpon, side almost even to their heeles. Their 
weapons agunst their enemies are bowes and ar- 
rows* The arrows are for the most part hooked, 
with a barbie cm eyther side, which once entered 
within the body, cannot be drawne foorth againe, 
unlesse the wound bee made wider. Some of 
them fight with broad swords and axes. In place 
of a drum» they use a bagpipe. They delight 
nifSx in musick, but chiefly in harpes and clair- 
schoea of their owne fashion. The strings of the 
dairscboes are made of brasse wyre, and the 



in and makes a well large creeke into it ; the en- 
tries whereof are closed by the island Molasy a 
verie sure haven for shippes ; and in the waters, 
which are alwayes calme, is great abundance of 
fish, that sundry times the countrie people taking 
more than may sustaine them for a day, thejr cast 
them in agalne in the sea, as it were in a stanke. 
Next Arrane, lies the Isle Flada, fertil of cofiies. 
Farther in it is ntuate the Ue of Bute^ within 
the Firth of Clyde, 8 miles in length and 4 in 
bredth, firom Arrane 8 miles south east, and fixnn 
AVgyle sotith wiesi hailfe a mile, Cuninghani lyes 
by east of* it six miles. It b a low countrie, 
€0iKi9iodtous for com. and store, with a towne of 

[nd the old castle of Rosa, with 
^w^Bt of kf tkimed Games. 
The IdelMensDCBt m nfl^ of length and halfe a 
nkile; of brbddi, lyeb low^ flouth westwards, wdl 
piutttoed and fertUk Within the Fittb of Clyde 
lyes little CambA, ftrtill of faHow deere; and 
Grreat Cambra, fectill of^ oemes; Fmin the Mule 
of Kitttyre^ a little more thatf h milepis- P^ticasa 
AvonOf ^ttog tfiat name fiom the crieeke cf w»- 
ter that kept the Danes navy there^ al wiiat time 
they had the iaiea in' their hands.' North weal 
from the Mule, over against l;he coast ^aflrdaiii, 
ly^^ . Badiuda. And from Kiatyre foiire miles, 
iB)^ isle Caraia ;. aoDMl not fart e from thenoe 
6jgiua^\ iix^ vuite^ of ^oigdi, and a mile and a 
halfrof.bredtht Twd^e mSes iboai &q;aia lyes 
J»Wh foiirei iaod Jwebtid : inibs : of leilgth» The 
shore i|idQ:.4f!.JMlniKis fiweft •^man|l0edl^:lnldftb0iofc 
ward.p^?^^<^l4te M«niirielia dad:; with :wMd,:fiaii 

I ' 


' A 


OF THfc 

I, . • f . ■. . > 
»• J • . ;« '. ,' . ! 

4*' ■ ♦•t»r' 


IKYING , IN THE DSUC ALlDOy S^A^ B]Ei;^^ ^^9^^ 

, .4ND sc^^TLjf^y, .9b\^t»lajs^ 'U, .,5 <. "'.-; 

THE .&r^t^8 tile. Isle of Man, of old called Bi»* 
hofAf^i tb^e-twas !a. tome ki .it aaoMl B&cbriEi, 
Ae bj«)Hlp.^<jd»e.Ulo8 s^ailu. It« Qy^fa 'aliriost BAib 
«^y : bM)H[|i^ Jrtlbndi < isiaJCuMbwi So . Engfandi 
md GMkfwayriti;! Scotland^ 9li<liinlie6 iiif Ungtfa; 
imdt /1 8} ; io /bn^tbb . nMexti > iititOi> Alan* lia '^AUuy) 
ipto :Ui^. Eirtji! of ^Ogpide,' 'witho^'/^astlc. dimiav 
ailMl J)ard^'high{fcniigioBt«lI ^suteff^eiAteftf at^odb 
antiie) ^KtnmiNiiveQKLi t Tbcreoeefaiesdni^^eat^tiniii- 
\ifirt ot hMea 4heKi td>fishifkeelMiig#.''lMi«lrevaitd 
ilMttj?' ii<SlaieaB(«id 'sofaup;^*j gesK ^:ild ^Itdyes 
bels^iKtj^foda«f]^'iifi6n tbb #eA, CabiiJkeiiupooF' 
the ioutk/.eaatyLftiid.'EiirtyneEiupbk lli^ ti^^h^ 
weftl^ : TtniPty finir o^U^'iVob Ailby, bfiM AtHllie/ 
ahabQlidjf^t iMiih^ fi4iiiiHMo61engtti, -aiia'>ld^of 
bri^h^sl vO^Ub }whcffiirt8)Kid:jyiiseiii«iiii^^^bij|h-'^^ 
iitld»rintaBt«fiM%:t«]iianUmd ebndy^^u^iDiP^h^'!^' 

178 THE Dsscsiptnnr of tub 

in bredth» extended from the south to the ncn^b, 
abundant in store^ cornes» deere* and lead ; there 
is a firesh water in it^ called Laia, and a creeke of 
salt water^ and therein are many idands. There 
is also a fresh water lodi, wherein stands the is- 
land named Falingaoiay some time thei chiefe seat 
of all the isles men. There the govemour of the 
isl^, usurping, the name of king, was wont to 
dwelL Neere unto this island, and somewhat 
lesse than it, is the Bound Island, taking the 
name from counsel], for therein was the justice 
seat, and foureteene of the most worthy of the 
countrie did minister juatioe unto all the rest con- 
tinually, and intreated of the waigbty affaires of 
the realme in counsel], whose great eqiiiUe and 
discretion kept peace both at home and abroad; 
and with peace was the companion ci peace, a^ 
bundanoe of all things^ Betwixt Isla and Jura, 
lyes a little island, taking the name from a cairne 
of stones. At the south of Jsla, doe lye Colurna, 
Mulvori% Ossuna^f Bnigidanay Corskera, the Low 
island, Imersga Bealhid, Texa, Ovicularia, Noa- 
siga, Vinarda, Cava, Tarsheriay the great island 
.Auchnarra, the island made like A man, the isle of 
John Sla^badis.. At the wc^t comer of Isla 
^heB)0%&my where the >sea is most tempMuous, 
and- Ht certain^ houires unnavigaUe. The Idar- 
ohants island, and south westwards from it, Usa- 
biasta, Tanasta and NesB. The Weavers island, 
^ght miles froon Isla, somewhat north, lies Or^ 
•ntfnsa*' Next unto it, the Swinea ishmd, haUea 
diile from Oraao^a^ Cohiansa. NiM^th {fcm Cp- 
. huuisaf lyes the: Mule^ SO miles &om Isla. This 


iale is 94 milesiof Ibigth^ atid a9 milcb in breddi,' 
fruitrull of cornes. There are many Woods in it, 
tad many heards of deere, and a good haven for 
Alps : there are m it t^o waters well Spred rf 
salmond fishra, and some stripes not empty there* 
of. There are also two loches in it, and in every 
one an island, and in every island a tower. The 
sea running m this island at foure sundry parts, 
makes foure* salt water lochias therein, all foure 
abounding in hening. To the north west lyes 
Columbaria, or tlite Dove island. To the south 
east Era, both the one and the other profitable 
for beastiall, cornes, and for fishings* From Ais 
island lyes the island' of Sainet Colm^ two .miles 
of length, and more than a mile of bredtb, ferlUl 
of all things, renowned by the. ancient monuments 
of the countrie. > There were two abbeyes in ,tbis 
island, and a court ot a pariA idhurch, with many 
chappells, builded of the liberality of the. kings of 
Sodtland, and govemours of the isles* There is 
yet remaining amongst the old roines, a bUriaU 
fdace, or church-yard, common to all the noble 
families of the west isies ; wherein there are three 
tombes : higher than the rest, distant one from 
anothefr a little space, and three little houses, in** 
tuated to the east, binlded severally upon the th^ee 
tombes: upon the 'west side are stones gmvi^ 
which stand in the midst, bearii^ this title, th 
tmbea of the kings of Scotland* It is $aid there 
were . 48 kings of Scotland . buried there. The 
lombe upon the right side hath thia inflieri|riioQi 
Ae ibmber of tie kings' of Irebmd. It is reooirdic^d 
that theniiweM foiir kifigs ci Irelandburifwl thev^ 

180 9UM DBflCSSPSillll can THB 

\JpM the left side k hatii'tKif«< ieioriptioiiy the 
tamieS' o^ tkt^ kmgi- af Nonttiy.. The neport' is, 
that.tlifira Here eight kings of thafc natioa. bviScd 
tbeDe. The notable- houaes: of the isler > have their 
tombes in ^ the rest of thecburoh: jard^* severally 
by thems^bres. Ahout this island,* and neere uit- 
totit; there? ane 'six', islands^ r%bt .frUitfiiU, r givea 
bjf^ the ancient lungs ofiSci^and> and gMrernowi 
of the Islesi^. tO' the abbey .o£ Sanct Gobne. Soa 
ia^i^ verie pro6tablfe gr6und' fbo sheepe^ bat) the 
obicle ooamedities > in . i t consist in -sea Ibwles «tlial 
boildi therein, specially of their leggs^ N&H unto 
it 48 the^ftle of Wbmeni then JUidana;! neere ^im* 
to at Bentiray and fVom that Sloeolnia^i halfe a mile 
dttitant XvJtai the Mula Tfa^; seandb (tf it' aboimd 
in« conyesw^' Eive: miles hence, lyes Frosa.» All 
tbeir ides are subject ^ to .Sani^t .Cohae*s» abib^« 
Two I miles fibm .iFnies'lyeth. Vilua, fitremileaof 
length^' froitftiU/ of oorne and store,: ititb a coak^ 
modious haven, finr^* gallies* or. boale^' XJponi the 
south' side of- it • lydth ' Thlnaasn^ wilh< a • wood : of 
nut treesy vMisoaaUei firuitriflL' About > 900 pacfes 
from'' tins island, lyedi Geiai^ra, . tvKit miles- Icngi 
and k)iie mile. lHx>ad, extending . from thei nortSi - to 
tbeeocrthi- Frotn- Gomatra, four miles sauthihii!d» 
I^Uhvtwo ' Stallle, both fUD of harealngi pbaissi 
Ftow tbenoe^' four miles south' east#>J[ye ithc^two 
ftbriinbtirgie^ the' raore^ and* tkiti less^^i.enariion^ 
with* such high sbore^ akkl\funpus\ tiAe»\ thalLby 
their owtte'^ataralliddeneey^^silppofted^semewiiat 
by th|» iadiistvi^ ofimaii,) thi^yiaedialtogethclriii^ 
▼iiiicible; 0ne.esile> irom tlieni ljres\ao<.^islJiBd^ 
thi^' whole< eaithi'id bladkey* whereof vthe> people 


mttke peate« for tfteir fire. Next lyeth Longa, 
two miles of length', and Bacha»balfe as much. 
From Bacha six miles, lyes^ Tiria, eight miles in 
length and three in bredth, most fertill of all the 
isilands; it abouirdeth in store, cornes, fishes, and 
sea fowles. In this island there is a fresh water 
loch, md therein an old castle, with a good 
baretl for boates. From this island two miles, 
lies Sunna, and from Sunna as farre, lyeth Golla, 
twelvef lilSes of length, and two miles of bredth, 
a fertil! island. Not farre from it is Culsa, al- 
most full of wood ; and then two islands, named 
Mekle Viridis and Little Viridis; item, other two 
of the same names. Over against the Mule's head, ' 
and not farre from it, lye two islands, named 
Gkssse, and then Arden-Eider, that is, the high 
land of the Rider. Then Luparia, or the Wolfe 
island; and after it a great isle, lying north from 
Colla, extending east and west^ Then Ruma, 16 
miles in length, and six in bredth : the sea fowles 
Jay thdr ,egges heere and there in the ground* 
In the midde^t of spring time, when the egges are 
laid, any man may take of them. In the high 
iroekes, the solayne geese are taken in abundance. 
From this island foure miles north eastward, lyes 
the Horse island ; from it halfe a mile, the Swine 
island, fruitfull enough in all things necessarie: 
the fklcon builded iq it^ with a good haven. Not 
fkrre from it Jyes Canna and Egga, fertill enough, 
tn £gga are solayne geese. Soabrittella, profit- 
able for hunting. From this island is the Isle of 
^kye» the greatest of all the islands that are about 
deotjand/ lying north and south, forty miles in 


182 THE J>£SCSimoV OF «HK 

lengtbi and eight miles broad in gome places a&d 
in other places twelre mileiv risiog^ in billes, in 
sundry places full of woods and pastorage ; the 
ground thereof fertill in come and store ; and be- 
sides all other kind of beastiall, fruitfull of mares 
for breeding of horse. It hath five great rivers 
rich in salmond, and manj little waters plentie in 
salmond, and other fishes. The sea running in 
the land on all sides, make many salt waters, 
three principally and thirteen others^ j^ rich in 
herring. There is in it a fresh water loch and 
five castles. About the Skye lye little islands 
scattered here and there. Oronsa, fertil in come 
and store. Cunicularia, full of bushes and oonyes. 
Next is Paba ; eight miles from Paba^ south west, 
lyes Scalpa^ which (besides sundry other com* 
moditiesy) bath woodes full of troopes of deere. 
Betwixt the mouthe of Lochcarron and Raorsa, 
lyes Crultngat seven miles of length, and two of 
bredth; there is a sure haven in it for ships; 
th^re are in it also woodes full of bucke and deere. 
H^lfe a mile from CruUnga is Rona, full of wood 
and badger, with a good haven in the innermost 
loch thereof. In the mouth of the same loch, b 
an island of the samis name, called Gerloch. From 
Ropii six miles nprthward, lyes Flada ; two miles 
from Flada, 3Sui)mena. Upon the south side of 
Skye lyes Oronsa, gnd a mile fron^ it Eyna Pa- 
bra, and Great Bina, and then fiye littU islands. 
Next unto them is Isa, fertill iu cprp^s; beside it 
is Quia, then Askerma and Lindella ; ^igfit miles 
from Skye southward, lies Linga and GigarmeoHi 
Benera, Megala^ Paua, Flada, Scarpa, Vemecum, 


WllstftB^ IBLttS OP BtOrXASD. IBS 

Sundara, Vatersa, which by many other good com- 
modities, hath a haven commodious for a number 
of great ships, whereinto fishermen of all countries 
about convene certune times of ihe yeare ordi* 
Harly. These last nine islands are subject to the 
bishop df the isles* Two miles from Vatersa is 
Barra, running from the north west to the south 
east, seven miles in length, fruitfull of comes, and 
abundant in fi^h ; there runneth in it a loch with 
a narrow throat, growing round and wide within. 
In it there is an inch, and therein a strong castle. 
Upon the north side of Barra» there ryseth an 
bill full of hearbs, from the foot to the head, up- 
on the top whereof is a fresh water well*; the 
spring that runneth from this wefll to the next 
sea, carries with it little thingSi like as they were 
quicke, but having the shape of no beast, which 
appeare (although obscurly), in some respect to 
represent the fish that is commonly <;alled cockles* 
The people that dwell there, call the part of the 
shore whereunto these things are carried, the 
Great Sands, because' that when the sea ebbes, 
there appeares nothing but dry sands the space 
of a mile. Out of the sands the people digge 
out great cockles, which the neighboures about 
jiidge either to grow (as it were,) of that seed 
that the springs doe bring from the well, or else 
(indeed) to grow in that sea* Betwixt Barra and 
Wist, lye these islands; Oronsa, Onia, Haker- 
seta, Garnlaaga, Flada, Great Biiya, Little Buya, 
Haya, Hell sea, Gigaia, Lingaia, Foraia, Fudaiay 
Sriscaia. From these islands, Vistus lyes north- 
ward 84 miles of length, and six of bredth. The 

JM turn BsscAiPtieji ^ fA& 

tide of tbe sea ruaiuBg in two places of this isle^ 
cftaseth it to af^peare three islands, but when tbe 
tide is out, it becommeth all one island. la it 
are maoy fresh water locbes, specially one three 
mUes long. The sea hath worne in upon the 
land, and made it selfe a passage to this loebf 
and can never be holden out, albeit the inhabit«> 
ants have made a wall of sixtie foote broad to that 
effect: the water entereth in amongst the stones 
that are builded up together, and leaves behind 
it at the ebbe, many sea fishes^ There is a fish 
IB it like to tbe salmoad in all thii^s, except that 
with the white wombe, it hath a blaoke backer 
and wantetb scales. In this island are many fresh 
water loches, sundry caves covered with hadder. 
In it are five chtirebes. Eight miles west from il 
lyes Helsther Wetularum, pertaining to the laaiu 
of the isle oi lone. A little further aorth riseth 
Hftneskera; about this island, at certaine times 
of the yeare^ are many sealcbes ; they are taken 
by tbe countrie men% South west ahoost sixtie 
miles, lies Hirta, ferttll in' corses and ster^ said 
specially in sbeepe, greater ^baa any other sheepe 
in any other islands. AI>out the 17th day of 
June, the lord of this island sendeth his ebamb«^ 
laine to gather his dueties^ and with bifii: a minis- 
ter, who baptizeth all the children that are borne 
the year preeeding; and if the minister come 
not, every man baptizeth his own child* Tins 
Hirta is the last and farther isle in Albion | so 
that betwixt the Isle of Man, being the first ide 
in Albion, and this isle, there is 377 milea. Re- 
turning to Wistus, from the north poynt thereof 

WttoBBK UtMi Of 8COTtAK0. 185 

IS the island of Velaia, two miles long, and one 
mile of bredtb. Betwixt tbis point and th« is- 
land Harea, lyes Soa, Stroma, Pabaia, Barneraia, 
Emsaia, Kelligira, Little Saga, Great Saga, Har-- 
modra, Scaria, Grialinga, Cillinsa, Hea, Hoia, 
Ltittle Soa, Great Soa, Isa, Great Seuna, Little 
Seuna, Taransa, Slegana> Tuemon. All tbese 
islands are fruitfull in comes and store. Above 
Horea is Sdisirpa; and halfe a mile towards tbe 
west equinoctiall, from tbe Lewes, lye seven little 
islands, named Flanane, some holy place (in old 
times), of girth or, refuge, rising up in hiiles fuU 
<lf bearbes* Further north in tbe same rankej 
lyes Garn*EIlan, that is, the Hard Isle ; Lamba, 
Flada, Eellasa, Little Bemera, Great Bernera, 
Kirta, Great Bina, Little Bina, Vexaia, P)ibaia, 
"Great Sigrama, Canicularia, pkntie of conyes. 
Little Sigrama* The island of the Pigmeis, 
wherein there is a -church, in which the Pigmeis 
were buried, (as they that are neighbours to tbis 
island beleeve). Sundrie strangers digging deep- 
ly in the ground, some times have founds and yet 
to this day do find, very little round beads, and 
other little bones of man^s body, which seemes to 
iq[>prove tbe truth and appearance of the common 
bruite. In the north east side of the island Leo- 
gus, there are two lochs running foorth of tbe 
sea, named the North and South Locbes, where- 
in at all times of tbe yeare, there is abundance, of 
fish for all men that list to lake them* From the 
same side of the lod), somewhat more southerly, 
lyes Fabilla, Adams island, the Lambe island ; 
iUm^ Rulmetiai ViccoiUa, Hana» Rera, Laxa, 



Era, the Dove Islandt Tora^ Affiirtat Sealpa^ 
Fladay Sentet at the east side thereof, there ia a 
paaaage under the earthi vaulted above a fliigbt 
shoote of length, into the which little boates may 
either sayle or row, for eschewing of the violeBl 
tide. Somewhat eastward lyes an island named 
Old Castle, i^ roome strong of nature, and plenUe 
of cornes, fish, and egges of sea fowles, to.nourish 
the inhabitants. At that side where Lochbrien 
enters, is situate the island Ew ; more nortbly lyes 
the island Grumorta, both these islands full of 
wood. The island named the Priests island, liea 
the same way, profitable for pastorage of sheepe, 
and full of sea fowles* Next unto it is Afulls 
and Great Hebrera, then Little Hebrerav an^ 
neere unto it the Horse isle, and then Marta 
Ika. These last mentioned islands lye all before 
the entry of Lochbrien ; and from them north lye 
Hary and Lewis, 16 tniles of length and 16 of 
bredth. These two make an island, which is not 
divided by any haven or port of the sea, but by 
the severall lords the heritoures thereof. Tht 
south part is named Haray ; in it some time was 
the abbey Roadilla, bailded by Jfoccfeude jETarew, 
a countrie fertill enough in cornes and good pas* 
torage, with a high hill, overcovered with graase 
to the vaie top; many sheepe are seene feeding 
there masterlesse, pertaining peculiarly to no man, 
for there is neither wolfe, fox, or serpent, aeene 
there; albeit, betwixt that and Lewis there be 
great woods full of deere. In that paxt of the 
island is a water, well stored of salmond and 
olber fishes. Upon the north side it ia well ina«^ 


nured* Upon the sta side there are four chorebeSf 
pne castle^ seven great running watersi and twelve 
los&e, all plentiful! of salmood and other fishes. 
The sea enters in the land in divers parts, making 
sundrie salt water loqheS) all plentiful! of herrings 
vi^ith aboundance of sheepe* In this oountrie is 
great abundance of barley. In this island is sueh 
aboundance of whales taken, (as aged men report,) 
their tenth will extend to 27 whales : also a great 
cave, wherein the sea at a low water abides two 
fadome high, and at a full sea four fadome deepe* 
People of -all sort and ages sit upon the rookes 
thereof, with hooke and line, taking great multi- 
tude of all kinde of fishes. Soudi east from Lewis^ 
almost 60 miles, there is a fertill island^ low and 
plaine, called Rona, well manured; the lord of 
the ground limits oertaine number of households 
to occupy it, appoynting for every household tew 
or many sheepe, according to bis pleasure, wbere^r 
on they may easily live and pay bis rent^ In this 
island is a chappel dedicated to St Bona, wbere^ 
in (as aged men report), there is alwayes a spade, 
wherewith when any is dead, they finde the place 
of bis grave marked. Besides other fishes in this 
island, is great plentie of whales. Sixteen miles 
from Bona, west, lies Suilkeraria^ a mile of length, 
but in it growes no kinde of hearbe, not so much 
as hadder; sea fowles lay egges there, and do# 
hatch. They of Leogus, next neighbours unto 
^^9 S^^ great profit thereby. In that island is scene 
a rare kind of fowle, unknowne to other couii* 
tries, called Cdca, little lesse than a goo^; tbey 
come in the spring time, and every yeere have and 

108 Tttt DiscftiPTion ot rut 

nourish their young ones. Thej cast their fea-^ 
thersy which have no staike, like unto downe. 

Now follow the isles of Orknay, (of old called 
the realme of the Picts,) lying scattered, partly in 
the Deucalidon seai partly in the Germane sea. 
The common people to this day are verie careful 
to keep the ancient frugality of their predecessors^ 
and in that respect they continue in good health, 
for the most part, both in mind and body, so that 
few die of sicknesse, but all for age. They have 
barley and oates, whereof they make both bread 
and drinke. They have sufficient store of quicke 
goodsy neate, sheepe, and goates, great plentie of 
milk, cheese, and butter. They have innumerable 
sea fowles, whereof (and offish for the most part), 
they make their common food. There is no vene- 
mous beast in Orknay. There is no kind of tree 
except hadder. They have an old cup amongst 
them, called St. Magnus cup, the first man that 
brought the Christian religion in that countrie. 
There are about thirty*three islands in Orknay, 
whereof thirteen are inhabited, the remnant are 
reserved for nourishing of cattle. The greatest 
isle is named. Pomona; the firme land 30 miles 
of length stjfficiently inhabited. It hath twelve 
countrie parish churches, and one towne, called 
Kirkwall. In this towne there are two towers, 
builded not farre the one from the other ; one of 
them appertaines to the king, the other to the 
bishop. Betwixt these two towers stands one 
church, very magnifick i betwixt the church and 
the towers, on either side^ are sundry goodly 
buildings, which the inhabitants name the king^s 

%ssrBto htms of teorLtiND. 16^ 

towne and the bi«boj^^8 Usfwne, The #hole island 

ttinnes out in promontories or heads^ tbe sea t^n* 

ning in, and makes sore haVens for sbips^ mA 

hiurboures for boateSb In s\x sundry places of thi^ 

isle there are laaines of good kad and tin*' as k is 

to he found in any part of Britaioe. This islaod 

is distant fi'om Caidlness about 24 mileS) divided 

by the Piots sea* In this sea are diverse islands 

seatteted here and there ; of whom Str0)i>^» lying 

four mites frnm C!aith«e6$^ is oo^, very fruitful]^ 

the Earles of Caithnes ben^ lord thereof^ Ndrth^ 

ward' lyes South Banalsa, five miles' long, wilk il 

commodiou6 4i&ven^ witi» two littk islands mt 

holmes, good for pastdri^v Toward- the north 

li!es Bur^a, Sana) Flat«^ Farra,- Hoia^ and WalteSk 

In these islands are tbe highest hiUe» thatt iA« in 

all Orknay^ Hoi^ and Wallet are 10 mUe^ of 

lengthy distant from Ranalsay 8 ibilM, and mol^ 

than 20 from^ Dunkirke in Gaithilea» Norlhf ^ 

the isl^ Granida and Cobesbi Siapilisa, tiiVfifing 

somewhat east, lies X^ipo^ miles f\rom Kirkwall^ eVen 

over against it| six miles of length* Bight west 

from Siapinsai ai'c Garsa and Eglisa, foure mi34M 

of lengthk la this island they sily St Magnus is 

buried. Nezt^ dod somewhat neerer the coiitine4t 

land, is Buia, four miles of length, add three of 

bredth^ wdt peopled* Westward lyes ^e island 

Broea. Some islands lye to the north, as Stfonda^ 

nesct Linga, 5 miles of length, and two of bredth* 

Uaa, five miles erf* lengthy and two of bredth* ^ By 

east lies Farai and north from Fara lies Wflistisab 

tunning out in tha sea in promontories or heada 

Above Stro0aab jst the wst md of £tha* lye$ 

Stndft, northward 10 miles of length, and four of 
bredth, most fertill of oomes of all the isles of 
Orknaj) but it hath no kind of fire within it| 
making exchange of cornes for peats^ Bejond 
Sanda lies North Ranalsa, two miles of lengthi 
and two of bredth. Upon the south ^de of Po^ 
mona lyes Rusa, six miles of length ; and from it 
eastward, Eglisa, South Veragersa ^ and not farre 
from it Westraa ; from which Hethland is distant 
80 miles, and Papastronza lyes 80 miles from 
Hethland^ In the midway betwixt, lyes Fara, 
that is, the Pay re island, standing in the sight t>f 
Orknay and Hethland both x it riseth in three pro- 
montories or heads, and shore citug round about, 
inthout any kind of entrance, except at the south 
east, where it growes Kttle lower, making a «ure 
barborow for small boates. Next is the greatest 
isle of ail Hethland, named the Mayne land, 16 
miles of length. There are sundry promontories 
or beads in it, specially two, obe long and small* 
which runnes north, the other broader, in some 
part 16 miles, runnes north east, inhabited upon 
the sea coast. There is good fishing in all these 
parts, the people's tM)mmodity standing most by 
1;he sea. Ten miles north lies Zeall, 20 miles of 
length,- and 8 miles of bredth. The Bremes mar- 
chants do bring all wares needfull. Betwixt this 
island and the maine land, lye Ling, Orna, Big- 
ga, Sanct Ferry. Two miles northward lies Un« 
ata, more than 80 miles of length, and 6 miles of 
bredth, a pleasant oountrie and plaine. Uia and 
Ura, are betwixt Unsta and Zeall. Skenna and 
Buma lye westward from Unsta, Balta, Hunega| 


and Fotlora, 7 miles long ; and seven miles east* 
ward from Unsta, Mecla, with the three islands 
of East Skennia, Chualsa, Nestwada,,Brasa, and 
Musa ; upon the west side lye West Schemniae, 
Roria, Little Papa, Veneda, Great Papa, Valla^ 
Trondra, Burra, Great Haura, Little Haura, 
and many other holmes lying scattered amongst 
them. The Hethlandishmen use the same kind 
of foode that Orknay men use, but yet they are 
most scarce in house keeping. In this island no 
kind of shee beast will live 24 houres together, 
except ky, ewes, conies, and suph like beasts as 
may be eaten. The people are apparelled after 
the Almaine fashion, and according to their sub* 
stance, not unseemely. Their commodity ocm- 
sisteth in course cloth, which they sell to Norway 
men, with fish, oyle, and butter. They fish in 
little cockboates, bought from Norway men that 
make them. They salt some of the fish that they 
take, and some of them .they dry in the wind. 
They, sell those wares, and pay their masters with 
the silver thereof. 





1 ! . ' . — TTT 

HAVING niftde tbis sp^iidl des^^tiption of tbe 
7mIim <tf ^cotUildi Mw t^udhing sMie things 
ocmeermiilg'lihe. same in genertH. >Iii the fiddly 
mid iff fdl places of, t%e iifouatrie, (exeept the parts 
where continuall habitation of pe<^Ie niakes im- 
pediment,) there is great abundance of hares, red 
deere, fellow deere, roes, wild horseSf wolves, and 
foxes, and specially in the high countries of Athole, 
Argyle, Lome, Lochaber, Marre, and Badeze- 
noch, where is sundry times scene 1500 red deere, 
being hunted all together. These wilde horses are 
not gotten but by great slight and policie, for in 
the winter season the inhabitants turne certune 
tame horses and mares amongst them, wherewit|i 
in the end they grow so familiar^ that they after* 


ward gO€ with them to and fro^ and finally home 
into their masters yardes, where they bee tak^n 
and fioone broken to their hands, the owners ob* 
tainin; great profit thereby. The wolves are moat 
fierce and noysome unto the heardes and flodces 
in all parts of. Scotland. Foxes do much nus-* 
chiefe in all steads, chiefly in the moontaines, 
where they bee hardly hui^ted ; howbeity art hath 
devised a mewie to prevent their malice and to 
preserve the poultry in some part, and especially 
in CtIen»mooreSf every house nourishes a young 
&xe» and then killing the same, they mixe the 
flesh thereof amongst such meate as they give un* 
to >the fowles and other little beastiall ; and by 
this meanes, so many fowles or cattell as eate 
herec^, are safely preserved from the danger of 
the foxCf hj the space of almost two monthes 
after, so that they may wander whither they will, 
for the foxes smelling the'flesh of their fdlowes^ 
yet in their crops, will in lib wayes meddle with 
them, but eschew and know such a one, although 
it were among a. hundred of others. - In Scotland 
are dogs of marveylous condition, above the na* 
ture of other dogs: the first is a hound, of great 
swiftoesse, hardiness, and strength, fierce and 
cruell upon all wilde beasts, and eger against 
thieves that ofier their masters any violence: the 
second is a rach^ or hound, verie exquisite in fbl* 
lowing the fbote, (which is called drawing,) whe- 
ther it bee of man or beast $ yea, he will pursue 
any maner of fowle, and find out whatsoever fish 
haunting the lapd^ or lurking amongst the rocks, 



speeially the otter, by that excellent scent of smell- 
ing wherewith he is indued : the third sort is no 
greater than the aforesaid rachesj in colour for 
the most part red« with bladce spots, or else 
black and full of red markes ; these are so skillfull, 
(being used by practice,) that they will pursue a 
thiefe, or thiefe stolne goods, in most precise 
maner, and finding the trespasser, with great 
audacity, tbey will make a race upon him^ or. if 
hee take the water for His safeguard, hee shrinkeUi 
not to follow him ; and entring and issuing at the 
same places where the party went in and out, 
hee never ceaseth to range till hee hath. noysed 
his footing, and bee come to the place wherein 
the thiefe is shrowded or hid. These dogs are 
called Sleuth-hounds. There was a law amongst 
the borderers of England and Scotland, that who- 
soever denied entrance to such a bound, in pur- 
sute made ^ter felons and stolne goods, should 
be holden as accessary unto the thefty or taken 
for the self same thiefe. 

Of fowles, such as (I meane) live by ]H«y9 
there are sundrie sorts in Scotland, as eagles, 
falcons, goshawks, sparhawkes, marlions, and 
such like. But of water fowles there is so gr^at 
store, that the report thereof may seeme to ex- 
ceed all credit. .There are other kinds of fowles, 
the' like are rare to bee seene, as the capercaily, 
greater in body than the raven, living CHiely by 
the rindes.and barkes of trees. There are also 
many moore cockes and hennes, which abstain- 
ing from come, doe feede onely upon badder 


crops* These two are verie delicate in eating: ^ 
The third is reddish, blacke of colour, in quan* 
tity compared to the pbesant, and no less deli- 
cious in taste and savour at the table, called the 
blacke or wilde cocks. 

Salmond is more plentiful! in Scodiand than in 
any other region of the world : in harvest time 
they come from the seas up in small rivers, where 
the waters are most shallow, and there the male 
and female, rubbing their bellies or wombs, one 
against the other, they shed their spawne, which 
foorthwich they cover with sand and gravell, and 
so depart away : from hencefoorth they are gaunt 
and slender, and in appearance so lean, appear* 
ing nought else but skin and bone ; and therefore 
out of use and season to be eaten. Some say if 
they touch any their full fellowes during the time 
of their leannes, the same side which they touch- 
ed will' likewise become leane. The foresaid 
spawne and nlek being hidden in the sand (as 
you have heard), in the next spring doth yeeld 
great number of little fry, so nesh and tender for 
a long time, that, till they come to bee so great as 
a man's fing^, (if you catch any of them) they 
mek away as it were gelly or a blob of water ; 
from henceforth they goe to the sea, where within 
twenty dayes, they grow to a reasonable great^ 
ness, and then returning to the place of their 
generation, they show a notable spectacle to be 
'Considered* There are many linnes or poolea, 
which being in some places among the rocks 
very shallow above and deepe beneath, with .the 



fall of the water, and thereto the iBalmond not 
able to piercse through the chftoneU, either for 
swiftnesse of the course, or d^pth of the discent; 
bee goeth so neere unto the »de of the rbcke or 
dam as he may, and there adventui^ig to leape 
oYer and up into the liniie, if be fei^ weU 4it 
the first, hee obtaineth his desire, if not, he* assay- 
eth eftsoone the second or third time, till he re* 
tume to his bountrie. A great fish- able to swisd 
against the stream ; such as assay often to leape, 
and cannot get over, doe bruse themselves, and 
become meazelled ; others that hdppen to fisll up* 
on dry land, (a thing <^eQ seene,) are taken by 
the people (watching thm time ; some in caw« 
drons of hot water, with fii^ tinder thein, nt up 
on diallow or dry places, in hopes to catch the 
fattest, by reftson at their waigfat^ that do leape 
short. The taste of these is esteemed most de1i-> 
cate, and their prices commoidy great. In Scot* 
land it is straightly inMbited to take any sahnond 
from the eight of September untiil the fifteenth of 
N(>vember. Finally, their i^* no man -that know'- 
etb readily whereon this fish livetb,' for never was 
any thing yet found in their beHies, oAer than a 
thieke slimy humour. In the desart and wiM 
places of Scotiandf there groweth' an bearbe of 
itselfe, called hadder, or bather, verie delicalse for 
aU kinde c^ cattell to feiede upon, and also for 
diverse fowlei^ but' bees especially. This bearbe, 
in June, yeeUeth a purple flower, as sweeteas 
honey, whereof the Pictci, in times past, did maike 
a* pleasant drioke, and verie wholesoaie for the 


body; but sijooe their dme, die manner <^ the 
making hereof is perished in the subveruon of 
the Ficts ; neither showed they ever the learning 
hereof to any bat to their owne nation* There 
is no part of Scotland so unprofitable {if it were 
skilfully searched), but it produceth either iron 
or some other kinde of mettall, as may be proved 
through all the isles of Scotland 






AMONGST many commoditiet that Scotland 
liath common with other nation8> it is beautified 
with some rare gifts in itselfe, wonderfull to consi- 
der : as for example, in Orknay the ewes are of 
such foecundity, that everie lambing time, they 
produce at least two, and ordinarly three. There 
bee neither venemous nor ravenous beasts bred 
there, nor doe live there, although they were tran- 
sported thither. 

In Schetland, the isles called Thtilse, at the 
entering of the sim in Cancer, the space of 20 
^ "dayes, there appeare no night at all. Among the 
rockes grow the delectable lambre called Succi- 
num, with great resort *of the mertrick for costly 
furrings. In the west and north west of Scotland, 
there is a great repay ring of the Erne, of a mar- 
velous nature, the people are very curious to 
XiSLtdi him, and punze his wings that hee fly not; 
bee is of a budge quantity, and a ravenous kind 
as the bawks, and the same qualitie; they doe 


ipve him "suehr sorl of meat^ in great qoailtify at 
osice, that hee Uvea content^ Uierewith 14^ 16» or 
30 dayesf and some of them at moneth*: their iea- 
th^rfr are good for garnishing of anowesy for they 
receive- no nane nor wate^> bat remaine alwajes 
of a durable estate and uno6rruJ)tible ;* the peojde 
doe use them either when! they be a hunting, or 
•at warrefifir In the most of the rivers in* ScMlaod, 
beside the marvelous plenties of i»imond and other 
fishesr gotten there, is a shell fish, called Uie Ebrse 
musdell, of a great quantity, wherein are ingeiK 
dred infnuinerable faire, beautifully* aikl> delectable 
pearles^ eOllvenient for the pleasure of man, and 
profitable for the use of pbisioke;: and some of 
them so faire' and polished, diat thej^ may bee 
<equall toany orientall pearles: ai^dgenemlly^ by 
the providence of Almighty God> w^en dearth 
«nd scarcity of victuals are in tfaeland^ then the 
fisbee are most- ]Jentifully taben fof tfae^ support 
of the people. In Galloway, the one halfe of 
Ldeh MUrton dodi never fre^se. By Inntaie^, 
tbeloeb called Lochnetese, and' the river flowii^ 
frotn thenee into the sea> doth? never freese ; but 
on the contrarie, in the oddest' dayev of winteihr, 
the loch and river doe smdce and reeke, signiiy* 
iDg unto us, that there is a mine of InriBiesCone 
undep it, of a hpte quality; In Carrike are-kysie 
and 0!xen$ delicious to eat, butthdr fatne^se isrof 
a wonderfuU temperature ; all other con^s table 
beasts fatnesse, with the cold ayre.dothicongeale^ 
by the contrary, the fatnes of these beasts wjfelff^ 
petually liquid, like oyle. The wood and^pai^ of 
Commernauld is replenished with kyne and oxent 


and those at all times, to this day, have beene 
wild, and of a wonderful whitenesse, that there 
was never among all the huge number there, so 
much as the smallest black spot found to be uppn 
one of their skinness, homes, or cloove. In Kyk 
is a rock of the height df 12 foote, and as much 
of bredth, called the Deafe Criug, for although a 
man should cry nev^ so loud to his fellow, from 
one side to the other, hee is not heard, although 
hee would make the noise of a gunne. In the 
-countrie of Stratheme, upon the water of Farge, 
by Balward, there is a stone, called the Rocking 
Stone, of a reasonable bignesse, that if a man will 
push it with the least motion of his finger, it will 
moove y«rie lightly, but if hee addresse his whole 
force, hee profits nothing; which mooves many 
people to bee wonderful merrie, when they con- 
sider such contrariety. In Lennox is a great 
loch, ^sailed Loch-Lowmond, 24 miles in length, 
and in bredth 8 miles, containing the number of 
90 isles. * In this loch is observed three wonder- 
foU things, the one is fishes, verie delectable to 
eat, that have no finns to moove themselves with- 
all, as other fishes doe. The seconde, tempestuous 
waves and surges of the water perpetually raging, 
without windes, and that in time of the greatest 
calmes, in the faire pleasant time of summer, 
when the ayr is quyet. The third is one of these 
isles, that is not corroborat, nor united to the 
ground, but hath, beene perpetually loose ; and 
although it bee fertill of good grasse, and rqden- 
ished with neate, yet it mooves by the waves of 

THE WaNDEBFVL tnmCB Itt' 8C0TXA)IX>. 901 

the water^ and is transported scwtie times tdwards 
one pcnnt^ and otherwiles towards anothid!'* ' 

In Argyle is a istone found in divctrs- parts, the 
which lind under straw or stubble, doth consume 
them to fire, by the great heat that k coUcots 
thereby. In Buquhan, at the demolished castle 
of Slanis, is* a cave, from the toppe whereof di»- 
tUles water, which in -short time dotk oongeale to 
bard white stones: The cave is always emptyed. 

In Louthianr, two miles from Edhiburgfa^ sfNitk- 
ward, is a wdl^ring, called St. Eathertne's well, 
flowing perpetually with a kind of black latnesse or 
oyle, dbove the water, proceeding (as- is thought^) 
of the paitet code, being^'irequenl krtlicse parts: 
this fatnesse is of a mwrveylouk nalture, for as the 
coale whereof it proceeds is sudden to conceive 
fire or flame, so is this qyle of a sudden operation 
to heale all salt scabs and humoures that trouble 
the outward skinne of man : commonly the head 
and hands are quickly healed by the vertue of this 
oyle. It renders a martellous sweet smell. At 
Abirdine is a well of a marvellous good quality to 
dissolve the stone, to expell sand from the reynes 
and bladder, and good for the choUicke, being 
drunke in the moneth of July, and a few dayes of 
August ; little inferiour to the renowned water of 
the Spaw in Almaine. In the north seas of Scot- 
land are great clogs of timber found, in the which 
are marvelously ingendred a sort of geese, called 
clayk geese, and doe hang by the beake till they 
be of perfection : oft times found, and keept in 
admiration of their rare generation. At Dunbar- 




iS'tutff^ Hnlf €0nUM0 









From a Manuscript, wrote in the Reign of 


6la0 floln ; 



JU-prtnUd by R* ChapmaUf 







The description of Sath^laiid> : ^ « 
The Conflict of Drumilea^ «« ^, «« 
The Conflict .of Enbp, «« «* . «%- «< 
The Conflict of Beailegh^no-Broi^ i»% 

The Conflict of Clagh-ne-herey^ «« ^ 
The Conflict «f Tuttunwtarwigh^ >U «^ 
The Conflict of Loiii-Harpisdell^ «% %« 
The Conflict of Drum-ne-coub^ «% ^ 
The Conflict of Ruoig*hanset« «%»%«»«% 
The Conflict of Blair-tannie^ «%%««« 

The Conflict of Blair-ne-pairk,v» «%«%«% 
The Conflicts of Skibo and Strath-fleit» ^ «% 
The Cruner slain by the Keiths in the Chappel of St. 

Tayre, ^ ** ** •* •% 

The Conflict of Aldicharrishe, «% «« «% 
The Skirmish of Daill-reawighe> «»«%«» 
The Conflict of Toiran-Dow, ^ «% «% 

The Conflict of Aldine-beh, «« «% v» «« 
The Conflict of Gar-warie^ ^ «% «« «% 
The burning of the Cathedral Church of the Diocese 

of Catteyness^ at Domc^h in Sutherland^ «% 
The Conflicts of Aldgawne aad Leckmeline, ^ 

















Troublesin the West Ides the year 1586, «% «« f4 
The Troubles betwixt Sutherland and Catteyness, the 

years 1587> 1588^ 1589^ and 1590^ ^ ^ 3S 
The Troubles betwixt the earls of Huntlie and Murray^Sfi 
The Troubles betwixt the Forbeses and the Gordons 

in the years 1571 and 1572, *^ «« ^* 50 

The Brige of Dee, «^ *%%««««% 56 
A Tumult in Ros^ the ^etu* of Co4 1597# ^'^58 

The Death of Sir Lauchlan Maclean, the year 1598, ib. 
Troubles in the West Isles betwixt the Clan-Donald 

and the Seil-Tormot, the year 1601, ^ «^ 6l 
The Troubles betwixt the Lord Kintaile and the Laird 

of Glengarrie, «% «^ *^ «« «^ 64 
Some Troubles in the Isle of Rasey, the year of God 

l6ir, «« ^ «*' v» ■ «<» «« 65 


The Troubles of the Lewes, «« v» «« «% 67 
Some Troubles betwixt Sutherland and Catteyness, 

the year of God I6l2, «^ «% «% «^ 75 
The Spanish Blanks, -and what follows thereupon, 

the years of God, 1 59^, 1 593, md 1 594, «« 79 

■ ' & J » • » 


. ■ ■' ' . I '.; • I 

• / 

I » • r • - 

. , I • • ■ r- • • . • • • • 





Our Scottish writers have hitherto erred in 
descriving the situation of Sutherland ; for it bath 
Caithness toward the east and north-east ; Strath* 
naver toward the north ; Assint toward the west ; 
Ross toward the south and south-west ; and the 
German sea toward the south, south-east, and east. 
Sutherland, in the Irish language, is called Cattey, 
and the people Cattigh. Cattey did contain some- 
time all the region lying betwixt Tayne and Dun- 
gesby, being divided in the midst by a mountain 
called Mond, or Ord, which runneth from the south 
sea to the north sea : and the country which is 
now called Catteyness, was first so named, as the 
ness or promontory of Cattey stretching itself 
eastward from the hill Ord. This is the opinion 
of one Andrew, Bishop of Catteyness. And in 
the old English writers, (such as Hoveden, Wal- 
singhame, and others) it is always written Cattey- 




nett : so that Boethius fiuleth in drawing the 
etymology of Catteyness from Catus (the proper ) 
name cf a man) and ness ; which doubtless pro- 
ceeded from the igporanfie o( the Irish language. \ 

) . 

\ ^ 

< i 

V • • '-it 

». • • ** 


ABOUT the }ffeav of Go4.U)31, in tfa^ d^y^ oft 
Makolm the seoo^d, T^^Vg of Soptlan49 tb^ I)|u^& 
and. NoswegifuiSy und^r the ^ oQdM^t p£ Ola^sj^ 
liu^Ufi^ B^edyii^&fffieLyes, in; the. noril^ipafrts-o^ 
Scqtl£(nd^,^nd took the cattle -of Ner|i%;ii^l^^ tljie^ 
became, veiy sUopg^jfrai^ii^^nGpib^i'^^ 
compftfuiesi of soldiers into; the xieig^^uringipipfM 
vinces, not only to prey, builiifewi«e> to «Qa4rjt]^eQl*t 
selves there, as they should find pccasion and 
opportunity. Olanus did, then send .a strong 
company to invade the provinces of Ross and 
$«th^MJUin4>«nd(to'd0st^^ii^^ wb|ch 

AJnne Ithnne of ^utherlfuadr^rceiyipg^. be as^eiiir. 
t^ bis eQu^tffym^ wditb^ iiibabitaiM» of^Bofi^^. 
vitb alfc di%ei|ce ; a|i4i fopght a battle at Cipeigh 
iikSutberIand»agdp0t tb^ Dafes an^'Sorm^ffa^i^, 
vbo had. tbeii) come froqa NeiusN? i^ Morrajy,^ aii4> 
bad I landed in Xh» xmv of f qpftq^Uflute?;, wbid^ 

dividetb Bpsi^ fpoiB|(jS^th(erbini4v AA^r a long 
and^. dovfbtfiU. fight,, tbe, Dan^s^ wei^e: overthrowiii 
and "«b^ed: to tbe« vessefei The mpniwnppkt 
wbeiteof/ i>$iwins'^^;eirei» uQtp iJm day», |U| ^.pb^ 
caUid DfUmii^befoi^ Cr^gb. , 


Tkt Cin^t of EiJio. 

ABOUT the year of God 1259 the Danes and 
Norwegians did land at the ferry of Unes, with a 
resolution to invade Sutherland and the neigh- 
bourinfi; provinces; against whom William Earl 
of Sutherland made, resistance, and encountered 
with them betwixt the town of Dornoch and the 
ferry oJF TJties, at a place called Enbo. After a 
8harj>^ conflict the Danes are overthrown, thor 
Gencfral slain, with many others, and the rest 
chased to their ships: in memory of which a 
mbtouihent of stone was there erected, which was 
called Ri-Chit>ii^he, that is, the king, or general, 
his cross ; which, together with divers burials, is 
therd to be se^n at this day. 

The Cott/Uct of BeaUegh^ne^Bro^. 

ABOUT the year of God 1899 there was an 
msmrection made against the Earl of Boss by 
Boane c€ the people of that province, inhabiting 
the mountains, called Ckn-Iver, Clan-taU-wigh, 
and Clan-Leawe. The Earl of Ross made sncb 
diligence that he apprehended their captun, and 
imprisoned him at Dingwall ; which so incensed 
the H^hlanders, that they pursued the Earl of 
Rosses second son at Balnegowen, took him, and 
carried him along priscmer with them ; thinking 
thereby to get their captaki relieved*. The Monroes 
and the Dingwalls, with some others of the Earl 
of Ross his dependers, gathered their forces, and 

con FXIOT^* . ft 

pfirsMi^. tJba Highkfidietd with all diligtxxc9$. SQ. 
Qy«HAlcingkUiejil »jt 9eakU?gh->n€hl>i:pig^betwif t F^i^- 
ijiii'ydmeU and. I^QcU^fae^ t^^re .^sued a cxw^. 
%bt|^ w^t fpjL^Un on eitb^r^Mde. The Clm- 
Iv^r^ QaiiHtiilWwigh, and Ckn^li^^w^ were alqi^t 
all utit^rljT «|i^tji9g^i^h«d ; th? .Mpnro^s had a sor- 
ix»¥i»l ¥i0t|)r3;^ with. gr^M ^9^ of their me», and 
cam«d>back ag949 th^lSarl of Roi^s his son. T^iq 
lAifid q£ EildUPi wa9 tbsr^ ^lai^.with 9even iH^ce 
of llHi^ si^Da;D9ls:Qf Sting^aU* Rivera of th^ Monroes 
Wfirp ^n ij9 tbi^ conjlipt ; soaii among the resty. 
tberi^ wera b9k)d .eleven of ih^ hou^e of Fquli^^ 
tha^;W<^t?e tQ stt^Q^i.pi^^ 'anQtfaer i so that th^ 
auoo^smft qf FiMiilU feU %intp a cbjild tbien lying in. 
hisicradlfi. JPor mVwh gtervice tb^ Earl of Rosa 
gave divers, laoda to.tb^ Monroes and the Ding* 

- •'♦■■'> 

The- C&nftiisii^ Clagh^ne-herey^ 

, t . ■ _ • 

, AB0U'3f the year of God 1341 John ^^[untp, 
tVtpr of Po^Iis^ travelliog homeward on his journej;: 
fro^ the south of Scotland, towards Ross, did 
i^pofe himself by the way, in Strathardak^ be* 
twixt Saint Johnstoun and Athole, where he fell 
at variance with the iiUkabitants of that country, 
who had abused him ; which he determined to 
revec^ afterward. Beuig pom^ to !%)jsp, he 
^thf red together hi^ whol^ liinsnl^^, Qfaigbbours^ 
flud followers, and de^claii^d unito ti^em how he hacjl 
been vi^, an^d graves their fud to reveiige hLoaself ; 
whefQunto they yi^ld. The]:eyp9n hjs ^ngledoo^ 
^0;t)f the strong^ aod dif^t m^n ^inopg .them^ 


6 tMrLictd* 

and ^ went to Strathardale, which be wasted audi 
spoiled; killed fiome of the people, and carried 
away their cattle. In his return home (as he was 
passing by the Isle of Moy with bis prey) Madntosh, 
chieftain of the Clan«Chattane, sent to him to crave 
a part of the spoil, challenging the same as due to 
him by custom ; John Monro offered Mackintosh 
a reasonable pordon, which he refused to accept, 
and would have no less than the half of the' whole 
spoil, whereunto John would not yield. So Mac- 
intosh conveening his forces with all diligence, he 
followed John Munro, and overtook him at Clagh- 
ne-herey, beside Eessak, within one mile of Inver- 
ness. John, perceiving them coming, sent 50 of 
his men to Ferrin-donnel with the spoil, and 
encouraged the rest of his men to fight. So there 
ensued a cruel conflict, where Mackintosh was 
slain with the most part of his company. Divers 
of the Monroes were also killed, and John Monro 
left as dead in the field : but after all was appeased, 
he was taken up by some of the people thereabout, 
who carried him to their houses, where he recov- 
ered of his wounds ; and was afterward called John 
Back-Iawighe^, because he was mutilate of an hand* 

The Conflict of Ttittwnrtarwigh. 

THE year of Grod 1406 this conflict was foughtin 
at Tuttum^arwigh in the south-west part of Suther- 
land, as it marches with Ross. Upon this occasion 
Angus Maeky of Strathnaver married Maeleod of 
the Lewis his sii^ter, by whom he had two sons, 
Angus Dow, and Bory Gald. Angus Macky 

CDKmCT8« 7 

dyidg, he leaves tbe government of his estate and 
children .1^ bis l)rother Heoebeon Dow Macky. 
Mtfcleod of the Lewes understanding Aat his^ 
sister, the widow of Angus Macky was hardly 
dealt withal in Stratfanaver by Heucheon Dow, he 
takes journey Either to vi^t her, with the choicest; 
men. of his/ coon^. At his coming there, he fiktds 
diat she is'^npt well dealt withal ; so be returned 
borne imalecointeht ; and/ in bis way, be. spoiled 
Strathnaver, .and a great part of Brea*Chatt in 
the height of Sutherland. Robert £arl of Suther- 
land being advertised thereof, he sent Alexander 
Murray of Cubin, with a company of men, to assist 
Heucheon Dow in pursuing Macleod,and to recover 
tba prey. They overtake Macleod at Tuttum- 
tarwigh, as he and his company were going to the 
west sea, where Alexander Murray and Heucheon 
Dow invaded them with great courage. The fight 
was long and furious, rather desperate than reso- 
llnte. ' In end they recovered the booty, wotd 
killed Macleod with all his company. This con- 
flict gave name to the place where it was fonghtin, 
being then called Tuttum-tarwigh, which signifieth 
a plentiful fall or slaughter ; and is so called unto 
this day« 

The Conflict of Loin^HdrpiaddL 

THE year of God 1426 Angus Dow Mkky^ 
with his son NeiU, enters Catteyness with all hos- 
tility, and spoiled the same. The inhabitants of 
Catteyness assembled with all diligence, and fought 
with Angus Dow Macky at Harpisdell> where there 


-WB great slaughter on ekh^r ode* ; Wfaerempto 
King James* I. came to InTerness^ ef iaDentkm t0 
pursue Angus Dow Macky £or tkat and otUer soeli 
Ikke enomitiesu Angus iDow, kearing that the 
ling was at Invertiese,' came aad subMitted htmtetf 
to the King^s aaercy^. and gave bia mi.N^iUia: 
pledgo orhia good obedience ia.tim&iioBiiiig. 
Whmh tubmission the King aoeeptsd^i and aent 
Ncill .Madcy to reaiain in oaptivity^ m> the- Baas ; 
^ho, frotn thence, w^ afterward called Neill- 


I ? * 

The Conjliet tjf B)rum'i9t'Cmdf. 

i • ■ • ' ' 

THE year of God 1427 TfaoniAsMacky {o^ar^. 
wise MacneiU). posusesspr of the hnd^ of Greigb^ 
SpanaedeU and Polrossie. in Sutherli^ido h^id ooo* 
ceived some di^)leasure,agai93t til^ t^ird of Freesh- 
weikt called Mowat, whom "phomaii MacneiU did 
eagerly pursue,: and killed I^ini) near the town itf 
Taipe in Boss, within the icbappel of St* Pufus^ 
and burnt also that chappel, unto the which thi^ 
Mowat had retired hisiself as: to .a sanetoary. The 
King hearing of this cruel fact, he causes proclaim 
and denounce Thomas MacneiU rebel, and pro^ 
mised his land to any that would apprehend him. 
Angus Murray (the sqn of Alexander Murray of 
Cubin above mentioned) understanding the King's 
proclamation, had secret con&reilce with Morgane 
and Neill Macky , brethren to this Thomas. Angus 
offered unio them, if they would as»st him to 
apprehend their brother^ that he would give them 
}iis own two. daughters in Qumriage^andiilflo assist 


theth to get the {)eaceiible posfletbion of StrattHtftver, 
which they.did chjm a» due to them; and^ (as he 
thought): they might then easily obtain the isaine, 
with little or no resistance at all, seeing that NeilU 
Wasse-Macky' (the son of Angus Dow) lay ipriBoner 
in the Bass, and .Angus Dow hhnaelf was unable 
(by reason of the weakness of his body at that time) 
to withstand them9 Morgane Maeky and N^l 
Macky; do cmdeacend and yield to the bargain; 
and presently thereupon they did apprehend thehr 
brother Thomas at Spanzedell in Sutherland,, and 
delivered him. to Angus Murray; who presented 
him to the King, at whose command Thomas 
Maeneill was exequted at Inverness ; and the Iwds 
of.Polrossie and $panzedell, which he did possess^ 
were given to. A^gus Murray' fcir this service; 
which lands his successors do possess unto this 
day. Angus Murray for perforfnanciB of Eis pro* 
mise made to NeiU and Morgane Macky, gave 
tbemhis two daughters in marriage* Then Angus 
deals with Robert Earl of Sutherlatid, that he might 
havehis attoUerance to oonveen some men in Suther« 
land, therewith, to accompany his two sons-in-law 
to obtiun the possession of Stratbnaver. . Earl 
Robert grants him his demand ; so Angus having 
gathered a c<^mpany of resolute men, he went with 
these two brethren to invade Stratbnaver. Angus 
Dow Macky, hearing of their approach, convened 
his eouAtrynien ; and» because he was unable 
himself in person to resist them, he made his 
bastard-son (John Aberigh) leader of his men. 
They encountered at Drum-ne-coub, two miles 
from Tong (Macky his chief dwelling-place) there 


•miied ii cruel and 4shitf(> cscmilkt^ Tiiliatitl|f 'foogbten 
a long litte, : with gr^at slaughter ; adthal^ in the 
end, there remained but f^wBiivt of eitfier ^e« 
NieilVMaoky, Moi^ne MAdcjrr And their iathep* 
>n«4aw (Angus Murray) were tbeoe slam. John 
Aberigb, hartng tost all his men, was left for dead 
in the fields and was afterward recovered ; yet he 
iw^as 'mutilate idl the rest of his days. Angud Dow 
Miadcyylmng'brdugfaft thither tavie^thef^aceof 
the conflict^ and searching foir the' deeld'<^rt}se of 
his'cmiinns,: Mbrgane and N^ill, was there hilled 
with a shot of aii arrowy by 4 Sbtherltad-man) 
tliit was lui4dngin»abush hard by ) after his* ftllM^ 
Uadbeeb slain; This Job^ Aberigbwas^aHietiward 
so hardly pursued by the Earl of ^heriand, dial 
he was^ constraiinedv for safety of bb life, to fiie into 
the isles/ 

' The SoG^tisb histdrie$, in^lesci^ivlkig this bonffiet^ 
dO' mist^ike the place j thd perMM^ and the fact; 
and cb quite change*' thfeWl»4^&^tditt6bFtte 
For the person^ Anguff DbW Ma^ky o^^r^ttfana^er^ 
itSFby some of tbefii called Angtls-IHiff^andt by* oAet^ 
Angus Duff of St^atibefni For the place^ they 
make Angus Duff^of Stnathern,. to- come from 
Strathem (soine say from StratbnaTer)' td Murray 
and Catteyness^ as if diese shirks did ' j<n» together; 
Fortnefdct) they t^duld have Aagud Diiff to ootaur 
finr a prey of goods out d[^ Catl^eynesd and NBurray^ 
which two shires do not inarch^ togelherj havkigii 
great arm of the sea inteij€icted betwixt them, 
called Murray-fritk; and having ftbs); and Sudleiw 
kmd t)et wixt them^^ h;^ land, Biit the truth of this 


Pimfi^i , ^bA ^e focci^n ihorepf} I .have, hepe set 

THE year of God 1437 Neill-Wasse-Macky, 
after his releasement out of the Bass^entered Cattey- 
ness with all hostility, and spoiled all ,that country. 
He skirmished with some of the -inhabitants of that 
j>royince9 at a p}ace,call|^d,^aD8et, wJhfre he over- 
threw: them, witfa^ sl^^ghter Qn either 3ide». This 
jqppflict.was cabled ^pig4i;W8e^9;thptis»i|he Chace 
jA .Sanset. : Shortly t|ic^f^i(^i^ Ji^^iUk^ass^^ dii^d. 

• -J- :^ .y.\. 

Tht C^JUit of Bldir4mme. : 

' * ■ • * 

ABOUT the year of God 1438 there fell some 
variance betwixt the. Keiths and some others of the 
inhabitants qf C^|;^^jn^ss. 'il^he, Keiths,. mistrust- 
ing their ow^* iro;:cQSj^^.seAt ,to A^gus Macky af 
Strathnaver (jtbe son of JiJeill-Wasse) in treating 
him to come to their lud; whereunto he easily 
yielded: so Angus Macky, accompanied with 
John Moir-Mackean-reawi^he, wept into Cattey- 
X^sS'With a band of loen, an4 inv^ed ibfit countirj. 
Then i did. the inhabitants of Ca^teviiess assemble 
in all haste> and^ inet the ^trat))naye:^-mea and the 
Keiths, at -a place in (^atfeyness called Blair-tannie. 
There ensued a cruel fight, with slaughter on either 
side. In end the Keithp had the victory, by the 
means chiefly of John MoirrMackean-reawighe (t^ 
" Assintman) who is very famous in these countries 
for his manhead shewn at this conflict. Two 

18 CO^FtlCTS. 

chieftains and leaders of the inhabitaints of Cattej- 
ness were slain, with divers others. This Angus 
Mack J) here mentioned, was afterwards burnt and 
killed in the church of Tarbot, by the simame of 
Ross, whom he had often molested with incursions 
and invasions. 

The drnflict of Blair-^ne-'pairk. 

' AFTER that the Lord of the Isles had resigned 
the earldom of Ross into the Eing^s hands, the 
jear of God 1477, that province was continually 
vexed and molested with incursions of the Islanders. 
Gillespick (cousin to Macdonald) gathering a com- 
pany of meii, invaded the height of that country 
with great hostility ; which the inhabitants per«i 
ceiving (and specially the CIan-Chein2ie) they as- 
sembled speedily together, and met the Islanders 
beside the river of Connan, about two miles from 
Brayle, where there ensued a sharp and cruel 
skirmish. The Clan-Cbeinzie fought so hardily, 
and pressed the enemy so, that, in the end, Gil- 
lespick Macdonald was overthrown and chased, the 
most part of his men being either slain, or drowned 
in the river of Connan : and this was called Blair- 

, , * 

ne-pairk. From the ruins of Clan-Donald, aiid 
some of the neighbouring Highlanders, began the 
sirname of Clan-Chdtizie, frdin small beginnings, 
to flourish in these bounds : by the ruins also of 
the Clan-Donald, the housie of Argyfe and the 
Campbells became great and potent in the west 
parts of Scotland. 

CQHFXieXS. 13 

The Conflicts of Slcibo and Strath-fjeA. 


ABOUT the same timeMacdoniild of the Isles, 
•ecbmpumed with some of his kinsmen and fol- 
lowers, : to the nijipber of 5 or 600, came into 
Sutheiiand, and encamped hard by the castle of 
Skibo; \wfaereiipon Neill Murray (son or grand- 
child tb Angus Murray sMn at Drum-ne-coub) 
was sent by John £af 1 of Sutherland to resist them, 
in lease they did offer any harm unto the inhabi- 
tants. Keill Murnny perceiving them going about 
to spoiLthe country, invaded th^m hard by Skibo, 
smd killed one of their eapt^ns, called Donald 
Dow^ with 50 others. Maodonald, with the rest 
«if his company, escaped by flight, and so retired 
into their own country. 

-Shortly thereafter another company of Macdonald 
bis kin and friends vcame to Strath^fleit in Suther- 
land, and spoiled that part of the country, thinking 
thereby to repair the loss they had before received ; 
but Robert Sutherland (Joha Earl of Sutherland 
bis brother) assembled some men in all haste, and 
encountered with them upon the sands of Strath- 
fleit ; after a sharp and cruel skirmish, Macdonald 
his men were overthrown, and divers of them killed. 

The Cruner shin by the Keith in the chappd of 

St. Tayre. 

ABOUT the year of God 1478 there was some 
dissentioB in Catteyness, betwixt the Keiths and 
the Clan-Gun* A meeting was appointed for their 



reconciliation, at the chappel of St Tayre in Caith- 
ness, hard by Girnigo, with twelve horse od either 
side. The Cruner (chieftain of the Clan-Gun) 
with the^most part of his sons and chiefest kinsmen 
came to the chappel, to the number of twelve ; 
and, as they were within the chappel at their prayers^ 
the Laird of Inverugy and Acrigell ardved there 
with 12 horse, and two men upon every horse; 
thinking it no. breach of trust to come twenty-four 
men ; seeing they had but twelve horses as was 
appointed. So the twenty*fbur gentlemen rushed 
in at the door of the chappel, and invaded the.Cru* 
ner and his company at unawares; who,: never- 
theless, made ^reat resistance. In the end, the 
Clan-Gun were all slain, with the most of diese 
Keiths. Their blood may be seen at this day 
upon the walls within the chappel of St« Tayre, 
where they were slain. After William Mackames 
(the Cruner his grand-child) in riev^ige of his 
grandfather, killed George Keith of Acrigell and 
bis son, with ten of their men, at Drummoy in 
Sutherland, as they were travellingirom Inverugye 
into Catteyness. ^ 

The Covfitcts of Aldicharrishe, 

THE year of God 1487 this conflict was foughten 
upon this occasion ; Angus Macky being slain at 
Tarbot by the surname of Ross, as I have shewn 
already, John Reawighe Macky (the son of this 
Angus) came to the Earl of Sutherland, upon whom 
he then depended, and desired his aid to revenge his 
father^s death ; whereunto the Earl of Sutherland 


yeilds, and sent his uncle Robert Sutherland, with 
a company of men, to assist him. Thereupon 
Bobert Sutherland and John fteawighe Macky 
did invade Strathoickell and StraCh'Charron with 
£re and ' sword ; burnt, spoiled, and laid waste 
divers lands appertaining to the Rosses. The 
Laird of Balnigowne {then chief of the Rosses 
in that shire) hearing of his invasion, he gathered 
all the forces of Ross, and met Robert Sutherland 
and John Reawighe at a place called Aldicharrishe. 
Their ensued a cruel and furious combat, which 
continued a long space, with incredible obstinacy ; 
much blood was shed on either side. . In end, the 
inhabitants of Ross, being unable to endure or 
resist the enemy's forces, were utterly disbanded 
and put to flight. Alexander Ross, Laird of Bal- 
nigowne, was there dain, with seventeen other 
landed gentlemen of the province of Ross, besides 
A great number of common soldiers* The manu* 
ficript of Perhe (by and attour Balnigowne) nameth 
tiiese following among those that were slain, Mr. 
William Ross, Angus MaccuUoch of Terrell, John 
Wans, William Wans^ John Mitchell, Thomas 
Wans, Houcheon Wans. 

Tht Skirmish of DailUreawtghe* 

THE year of God 1616 Y Roy Macky of Strath- 
naver dying, there arose civil dissention in Strath* 
naver, betwixt John Macky (the son of Y Roy) 
and Neill Na-werighe (the said Y Roy his brother) ; 
John Macky excludes his uncle Neill (who was 
tbotight to be the righteous heir) and taketh pos-r 


16 C0NSXICT8. 

i^esnoii of Stratfan^er* Neill^ apSu^ alled^ng that 
his nqihews John and Donald were bastaids^ doth 
chum these lands, and 'makes his refuge of John 
£ad of Calteyness, of whocn!he did obtain a com* 
panjr of, men, who were ^ent with* Neiil Ins foiilr 
sons to invade Strathnaver. They- take the poi^ 
session of the coiihtiy frdm John Macky;> who, 
bein^ unaUe to resist their forces, irtftired:' himself 
to the Clanchattane to- seek th^ir suppdtt^ arid 
leaves his birother Donald Mailiy to 'defend the 
country as he might Donald^ in hb bcothei^ 
John his absence, surprized his^ coiisia-germans 
onddr ttlence of the night ai Daill-redwighe, and * 
killed two of his cousins (thlB^ sons of Neiil 
Nn^wetighe) with themost part of their company; 
irhereupon John Maeky returned home, soA took 
peaceable possession of, the country* Thereafter 
Ni^U Na*werighe came and wHlingly rehcfered 
himself to his nephews John and Donald, who 
caused apprehend l3idr undb.:NeM]^ aiid b^ead 
him at a place called Glash^nergep in Str^nayeh 

The Conflict of Tpran-Dow. 

ADAM GORDON, first of that surname Earl 
of Sutherland, having married Elizabeth Suther- 
land heretrix of that county, took journey towards 
Edinburgh, the year of God 1517^ to cBlsfMEitch 
some affairs there, which did concern the settling 
of his estate, leaving the CQmfmtindment. of the 
country, in his absence, to Atex^nder Sul&erl^d 
(base brother to his wife £li2abeth) aUd to Joha 
Murray of Abersoors; which John Macky o€ 


Strathnaver iinderdtandiag (having now appeased 
his civil discords at home, by the death of his 
uncle Neill) he takes this occasion, in the very 
change of surnaoies in Sutherland, to try if he 
could gain any thing by spoiling that country; 
and thereupon assembled together all the forces 
of Strathnaver, Assint, and Eddirachilis, with all 
such as he could purchase out of the west and 
Borth«>west isles of Scotland, he invades the country 
of Sutherland with all hostility, burning and spoil- 
ing all before him. The inhabitants of Suther- 
land do speedily conveen together with all the 
parts of the country ; atid so, under the conduct 
of Alexander Sutherland, John Murray and William 
Mackames, they rencounter with John Macky and 
his company at a place called Torran-dow, beside 
Rogart in Strath-fleit, where there ensued a fierce 
and cruel conflict. The Sutherland-men chased 
John Macky his van-guard, and made them retire 
to himself where he stood in battle-array ; then 
did he select and chuse a number of the ablest men 
in all his host, and with these he himself returned 
again to the conflict ; leaving his brother Donald to 
conduct the rest, and to support him as necessity 
should require. Whereupon they do begin a 
more cruel fight than before, well foughten on 
either side. In end, after long resistance, the; 
Sutheiiand-men obtained the victory ; few of these 
that came to renew the fight escaped, but only John 
Macky himself,'and that very hardly. Neill Macean* 
Macangus of Assint was there slain, with divers of 
his men. There were 216 of the Strathnaver-men 
left dead in the field| besides those that died in the 


18 <;0Klri.iCTi. 

chace. There were Asin of StttheriaadUmen 38; 
Not long thereafter John Maeky sent Wilfiam and 
Donald, two brethren, with a company of men, to 
invade John Murray, with whom they met at a 
phce called Loch-Salachie in Sutherlai»l ; after a 
sharp skirmish, both the chiefbdns of the Strath«> 
naver-men were slain, with divers of thdr men, 
and the rest put to flight : ndther was the victory 
pleasing to John Murray, for he lost, diere, Ua 
brother, called John Roy-Murray. Tbusoond-i 
nued the inhabitants of these countries infesting 
one another with continual qpmls, untiO the year 
of Grod 1522, that Alexander Gordon (Earl Adun 
his eldest son) overthrew John^Macky at Lairgi 
and forced him to submit himself to Eari Adam; 
unto whom John Macky gave his band of manred 
and service, dated the year of God 1322*^ 

Tie Conflict ofAldint^eh. 

DONALD MACKY of Strathnaver (having 
succeeded his brother John) taketh the oocasion 
upon the death of Adam Earl of Sutherland (who 
left his grandchild, John, young to succeed him) 
to molest and invade the inhabitants of SuAerland. 
He came^ the year of God 1542» with a company 
of men, to the village of Knockartoll, burnt the 
same, and took a great prey of goods out of Strath* 
brory. Sir Hugh Kennedy of Griffen-raains 
dwelt then in Sutherland, having married John 
Earl of Sutherland's mother, after the death of 
his father Alexander Master of Sutherland. Sir 
Hugh Kennedy being advertised of Macky his 

COKFUCTft. 19 

tomjug into SutberlaQd, be advises with Hutcfb^Dfi 
Murray of Aberscprs, and with Gilbert Gordoa 
of Gart J, what was best to be done. They re* 
solve to fight the enemy ; and so having gathered 
a company of men, they overtook Macky, una- 
wares, b^de a place called Aldine-beb, wher^ 
they invade him suddenly ; havirfg piRssed his 
3jfHes unseen. After a little skirmish, the Stra^ 
naver-omen fled, the booty was rescued, and Jcim 
Maoean-Macangus, one of their chieftains^ was 
slain» with divers of the Strathnaver-men. Donald 
]Macky, nevertheless, plaid the part of a good s6^ 
dier ; for in his flight, he lulled, with his own 
hand, one William Sutherland, who most eagerfy 
pursued him in the ehace. The inhabitAQts o( 
Sutherland and Strathaaver (la regard of £i^ 
John his minority) did thus continually ve^ one 
Another, until! this Donald Macky was a^prehen* 
ded, and imprisoned in the castle of Fouhs iq Hdsa^ 
Iby commandment of the QueenrBegent and tb^ 
Governor^ where hecontimied agood wl^letncap^ 

"The Conflict of Gar^wark. 

THE Qixeen-Regent having gotten the govern- 
ment of Scotland from the Earl of Arran, she made 
her progress into the north, and so to Invemess, 
the year of God 1555. Then was Y Macky (the 
son of Donald) summoned to compear before the 
Queen at Invemess, for that he had spoiled and 
molested the country of Sutherland during Earl 
John his being in France with the ^ueen-Regent 

20 - eoKFLicfs, 

Maoky relfused to compear; whereupon theri 
was a commission granted to John Earl of Suther* 
land against him. Earl John invaded Strathna* 
ver in all hostile manner, and besieged the castle of 
Borwe, the principal fort of that country ; which 
he took by force, and caused hang the captain ; 
then demolished the fort. In end, he beset Y 
-Macky so, (» all sides, that he forced him to ren« 
der himself) and then was delivered by Earl John 
to Sir Hugh Kennedy, by whom he was convoyed 
Bouth, and was committed to ward in the castle of 
Edinburgh, where he remsdned a long space. 
^Whilst Y Maeky staid in captivity, his cousin 
german, John Moir Macky, took upon him the 
government of Strathnaver. This John Moir 
taking the occasion of Earl John his absence in 
the south of Scotland, he invaded Sutherl^sd with 
a company of the most resolute men in Strathna- 
ver; they burnt the chappel of St. Ninians in 
Nawidell, where the inhabitants of the country, 
upon this sudden tumult, had conveyed some of 
their goods : so having spoiled that part of the 
country, they retire homeward. The inhabitants 
of Sutherland assembled together, and followed in 
all haste, under the conduct of Mackames, the 
I'errel of the Doil, and James Macwilliam. They 
overtook the Strathnaver-men at the foot of ihe 
hill called Bin-moir in Berridail, and invaded them 
beside the water of Gar-warie, where there ensued 
a cruel conflict, foughten with great obstinacy. 
The Strathnaver-men were overthrown and chi^sed, 
above 120 of them were slain, and some drowned 
in Gar-warie. This is the last conflict that hath 


lieen foughten betwix.t Sutberfamd} and'Strathna^ 

The burning of the Cathedral Church of the Diocese 
of Catta/Tieesy at DomogK in Sutherland* 

JOHN Earl of Sutherland, together vritb his 
lady> bang ftAaohed^AhbyearlBiSJi biisiBon Akx^ 
amder (beingyoung) i siiciaeeded' unto biih, whose 
ward and mu'iiage Gefarge J&ril of 'Catt^ynesd had 
nght to, and withal geta the custody of Earl 
Alexander during the time of his ward } whereat 
!Earl Alexander hit i&os^ tender friends- (and chief- 
ly the Miirraya.of Sutheriand) being grieved, they 
lay a jdot^amongtHeifaselves^ toconvey Earl A2exr 
linder from the {lad; of Gatteynesg; which they 
efiectuate, and" deliter hinL to the Earl oif Huntlies, 
mtb whom he staid, tiil' his . ward was expired the 
year 1&73, during which tinike the Earl . of Cat- 
tc^esa kept, possessidn of fhe' land; whereupon 
divers troubles did ensde. The Earl of Cattey«» 
lie&s removed the Mttirays <of Sutherltoid fhom 
their pcissessions ; which, nevertheless, they en^ 
deavoured to keep* Hulx;heon; Murray widi di^ 
^ers of his fHends db possess themselves with the 
town of Dombgh and the adjacent lands, bein^ 
ibrmecly. possessed by them. The Earl of Cattey* 
ness' sent his son John} Master of Gatfeyness^ wfth 
a nambet of men, to remove the * Murrays fimn 
Dorno^. Y Macky. did aka accompany the Mas- 
ter of Cattcyi^ess in this journey* Being come to 
Domoghy they besiege ^e Muvrays there ; whob 
for the ^pate of aome day^ issued forth and skir- 


mished with the enemy. Tn end, the Master of 
Catteyness burnt the town and the cathedral 
church, which the inhabitants could not longer 
defend. Yet after the town was lost they kept 
the castle, the enemy still assaulting them^ but 
in vain, without any success, for the space of a 
month. Then, by the mediation of some indiSPe- 
xefnt friends, they surrendered the castle, and gave 
three pledges, that, within two months^ they 
should depart from Sutherland ; which they did, 
and retired themselves to the Earl of Huntlie, 
with whom they staid untill the expiring of the 
Earl Alexander his ward ; at which time they re- 
covered their antient possesions. Not theless 
•that the Murrays had retired themselves, as they 
had promised, yet they were no sooner departed, 
but the pledges were beheaded. During the time 
that the Sutherland-men staid with the Earl of 
Huntlie, they served him in his wars against the 
Forbesses, and chiefly at Crabstaine, where they 
did good service against the foot-supply that was 
sent by the Regent to assist the Forbesses. This 
burning of Dornogh and of the cathedral church 
happened the year of God 1570. The next year 
following (which was 1571) George Earl of Cat- 
teyness became jealous of some plots which his 
eldest son John, Master of Catteyness, and T 
Macky of Strathnaver had contrived against himi 
and thereupon apprehended his son John, whom 
he imprisoned closely at Girnigo, where he died 
after seven years captivity. Y Macky perceiving 
that John Master of Catteyness was imprisoned 
by his fiither, he retired home into Strathnaver, 

comrLTCTs. 23 

and died within six months thereafter, the same 
year of God 1671. 

The Confiicts of Jldgawne and Leckmeline. 

THE year of God. 1686 George Earl of Cat- 
teyness married the Earl of Huntlie his sister; 
at which time^ by Huntlie^s mediation, the Earls 
of Sutherland and Catteyness were reconciled. It 
was then concluded among them, that the Clan* 
'Gun should be pursued and invaded by the Earls 
of Sutherland and Catteyness, because they were 
judged to be the chief authors of the tix>ubles which 
were then like to ensue ; and to this effect it was 
-resolved that two companies of men should be sent 
4iy the Earls of Sutherland and Catteyness against 
auch of the Clan-Gun as dwelt in Catteyness^ 
thereby ito compass them, that no place of retreat 
might be left unto them: which was done. The 
Earl of Sutherland his Company was conducted by 
John Gordon of Backies and James Macrorie ; 
the Earl of Catteyness his Company was conduct- 
ed by his cousin Henry Sinclair, a resolute gen- 
tleman. It fortuned that Henry Sinclair and his 
company rencountered first with the Clan-Gun, 
who were now assembled together at a hill called 
Bingrime, and with them was William Macky, 
(brother to Hutcheon Macky of Strathnaver, and 
nephew to this Henry Sinclair that led the Cattey- 
ness-men) who was accompanied with some Strath- 
naver-men. Now were the Clan-Gun advertised 
of this preparation made against them ; and no 
■ aooner were they in sight of one another, but they 

24 cofsntcrsi 

prepaied both for'the'fight, wliicli was .'begmi 
without fear or delay on either side. The dan- 
Gun although inferior in number, yet had they 
the advantage of the hill ; by reason of which the 
Catteyness-men came short with their first flight 
of arrows : by the contrary, the Claa-Gkiki spared 
thdr shot until! they came hard by the eaaaff 
which then they bestowed among them wfth great 
advantage. Then ensued a sharp conflict, ai a 
place called Aldgawhe, where' Henry Sinclair /us 
alatn with 180. cf his. company, and the rest efaatsed 
and put to ffi^t^ .who had all been destroyed, 
had' not the darkness of . the night . favoutied their 
flight. . Which c(»kihig to the seara Df' Jiahn Gor- 
don,' James .Macndfie, : and Neil •' Macean-fMaiciril- 
liam, who had the eondiiotbfth^ Earl of - Suther- 
land his men, lliey pufsued *tbe Glaa^Gun, And 
foUowedthemi to LoughrBrok>m»an the be^htjof 
Boss, whitiber they.hftd fled i and there> nffieting 
with them, they invade them at: a {dace cftlled 
Jlicdcmeline. After a shatp^^kiimish, tiie Claor 
-Goji were t)verthroiR^n and chased, 33 o€ them 
slain, and th^r captain, Gedrge, wouniifed and 
4ijBken prisoner, whom they, carry lalong. with them 
unto Dunrobin, i and there they deliver him unto 
Alexander Earl of Sutherland. This happened 
in the year of God 1586. 

Troubles in the West Isles the year 1580. 

THIS commotion in the Western Isles of Scot- 
land did arise, at this time, betwixt the Clan*Do* 
paid and Clan*Lean, upon this oecasion. Dcsnaid 

Gorme Maodonald of Sleat, travdliBg irom the 
isfe of Sky, to visit his cousin Angus Macconald 
of Kintyre, landed with bis company in an island 
called Jutay or Duray, which partly appertaineth 
to Maclean, partly to Angus Macconnald ; and 
by chance he landed in that part of the island 
which appertaineth to Maclean, being driven in 
tlntber by contrary winds ; where they were no 
sooner on shore, but two outlaws, Macconnald 
Tearreagh and Hutcheon Macgillespick, (who 
were lately fallen out with Donald Gorme) arrived 
also with a eompany of men; and understanding 
that Donald Grorme was there, they secretly took 
away, by night, a number of cattle out of that 
part of the island which appertaineth to Maclean, 
and so tbey retire again to the sea ; thereby 
thinking to raise a tumult against Donald Gorme, 
by making the Clan-Lean to believe that this was 
done by Donald Gorme his men, who lying at a 
place called Inver-knock- wrick, were suddenly in* 
vaded unawares, under silence of the night (neither 
suspecting nor expecting any such matter) by Sir 
Laudilan Maclean and his kin, the Clan-Lean, 
who had assembled their whole forces against 
him. Maclean and his people killed, that night, 
above 60 of the Clan-Donald ; Donald Gorme 
himself with the residue escaped, by going to keep 
in a ship that lay in the harbour. Angus Mac- 
conald of Kintyre hearing of this lamentable ac- 
cident fallen out betwixt his brother-in-law Mao* 
lean (whose sister he had married) and his cousin 
Donald Gorme, he taketh journey into the Sky to 
visit Donald Gorme, and to see by what means he 


26 coHrucT8» 

could work a reconciliation betwixt htm and Mac- 
lean for the slaughter of Donald Grorme his men 
at Inter-knock*wrick. After Angus had remained 
a while in the Sky with his cousin, he taketh 
journey homeward into Kintyre \ and in his re- 
turn he landed in the isle of Mull, and went to 
Duart (Maclean his chief dwelling place in Mull) 
against the opinion of his two brethren Coll and 
Renald, and of his Cousin Renald Maccoll, who 
all persuaded Angus to the contrary ; de^ring 
him to send for Maclean, and so, to declare unto 
him how he had sped with his cousin Donald 
Gorme, and how far he was inclined to a reconci- 
liation ; but Angus trusted so much in his bro- 
ther-in-law Sir Lauchlan Maclean, that he would 
not hearken unto their counsel; whereupon his 
two brothers left him, but his cousin Renald Mac- 
Gonald accompanied him to Duart, where Angus 
at first was welcomed with great show of kindness ; 
but he with all his compay were taken prisoners 
by Sir Lauchlan Maclean the next day after their 
arrival, Renald MaccoU escaping, and that very 
hardly. Angus was there detained in captivity, 
untill he did renounce his right and title to the 
Kinnes of lla, which properly appertdned to the 
Clan-Donald, and had been by them given in pos- 
session for their personal service. Angus was 
forced to yield, or there to end his days, and for 
performance oF what was desired, Angus gave his 
eldest son James, and his brother Renald, as 
pledges, to remain at Duart, untill Maclean should 
get the title of the Kinnes of lla made over unto 


> kirn : and so, the pledges being delivered^ Angus 

I bad fais liberty. 

' * Angus M acoonald receiving tbe wrong at Mao^ 
lean his band, besides that which his couun Do- 
nald Gorme had before . received at Inver-knQck* 
wrick, he went about, by all means to revenge the 
isame ; and the better to bring this purposed, re- 
venge: to pass, he useth a policy by a kind of invir 
tation, which wasthns ; Maclean having gotten the 
two pledges into- his possession, he taketh journey 
into Ila, to get the performance of what was pro* 
mised unto him, leaving Renald> one of the pledges, 
fettered in prison at his house of ibuart in Mull» 
and carrying his nephew James (the son of Angus 
iind the other pledge) along with him in his voy- 
age. Being arrived in the isle of Ila, he eneamped 
at Ellan*loch-g0rme, a ruinous fort lying up^n 
the Kiiines of Ila. - Thereupon Angus Maoconakl 
took dcclKUon to invite Maclean to come to' Mul** 
Kii^lr&a, or: Mulndrhea (a dwelling place which 
Angus had well fumished- in the isle of Ila) 
seeing he was better provided of all kind o^ 
provision th^t^, than Maclean could be; ear* 
nestly . intreating him to lye at his bouse, where 
he should be as welcome as he could make him ; 
that they should make merry so long as his pro- 
vision could ' last, and when that was done, he 
would go with him. For this custom the islanders 
have, that when one is invited to another's house, 
they never depart so long as any provision doth 
last ; and when that is done, they go to tbe next, . 
and so from one to one, untill they make a round 
from neighbour to neighbour» still carrying the 



master of the fornix family with them to the next 
house : [moreover, all the islanders are of nature 
¥«y suspidoua, full of deceit and e?U intentioa 
" against their neighbours^ by whatsomever way 
they may get them destroyed; besides this, they 
are so cruel in taking revenge, that neithcsr have 
they regard to person, time, age, nor cause, as 
you may partly see in this particular.*] Sir 
Lauchlan Maclean his answer to Angus Macconald 
his messenger was, that he durst not adventure to 
go unto him, for mistrust. Angus then replied, 
that he needed not to mistrust, seeing he had his 
fK>n and his brother pledges already, whom his 
friends .mif^t kejep in their custody, untill his r^ 
turn ; and that for his own part, he did intend 
nothing agidnst him, but to continue in all Into- 
therly love' and affection towards him. Madeao 
hearing this seemied to be void of all suspidon; 
and so reserves to go unto Angus his house ; he 
carried with him James Macconald the pledge (hia 
own nephew, f^nd the son of Angus) whom he 
kept always in his custody, thereby tp save him* 
self from danger, if any injury should be offisred 
unto him. He came to MuUintrea, aooompanied 


. We are Ho firi^idg to such general reflections { tbaj ■!«, we 
think, too oommonl/ dictated by prejudice of one kind or 
other ; seldom founded on genuine knowledge, or proper in- 
formation* Nothing but the fidelity we owe to the pubfic* 
bywhichwe are bound to exhibit, from the ptem,« 
aijtlj as we find it, 0011I4 have indueed Ui to print this reflec- 

"vtthh 96 of his kinsfolk and servants in the month 
dF July 1586, where, at their 'first arrival, they 
were made welcome with all courtesy, and* sump* 
tuously banquetted all that day ; but Angus, in 
the meantime, had premonished all his friends and 
welwishers within lla to be at his house the same 
night at nine of the clock ; for he had concluded 
with himself to kill them all, the very first night 
of their arrival, and still concealed his purpose, 
tintill he found thts time commodibus, and the 
place jpropbr. 'So Maclean being lodged with all 
his men iri a Ions: house that was somewhat dis- 
tant from other houses, took to be with him his 
iiephew' James, the pledge before^mentioiied, with 
wfaoth he never parted : but within an hour there- 
after^ 'when Angus had assembled his men,/ to the 
numl^r of 3 or 400, he placed them ftll, in order, 
about the house where Maclean then lay. Angus 
himself came and called upon Maclean at the door, 
dffbiTrtg him his reposing drink, which was forgot* 
ten id be given^ hlin before he went to bed. Mao-i - 
leatiarlswered that be desired none for that time. 
Although (said Angus) it be so, yet it is my will 
that thou arise and come forth to receive it. Then 
began Maclean to suspect, and so did arise, with 
his n<^phew James betwixt his shoulders ; thinking, 
that if present killing was intiended against him, 
he would save himself, so long as he could, by the 
boy. The boy, seeing his father with a bare 
sword, and a number of his men in like manner a- 
bout him, cried, with a loud voice, for mercy to 
his uncle ; which was granted, and Maclean vat^ 
mediately removed to a secret chamber till tbe^ 



next morniDg. Tbw called Ai^s to the xenuu 
nent within, so many as would hay^ their own 
lives to be saved, that they should come forth 
(Macconald Tearreagb, and another whom he 
named, only excepted ;) obedience was made by 
all the rest, and these two only fearing the danger^ 
refused to come forth : which Angus pero^ving, 
he commanded incontinent to put fire to the house ; 
which was done, so that the two men were piti* 
fully burnt to death. This Macconald was the 
author of these troubles, the other was a very near 
kinsman to Maclean, and of the coldest of his sir- 
name, renowned both for counsel and manhood. 

After that the report of Maclean his taking 
came to the isle of Mull, Allan Maclean, and some 
others of the Maclean, caused a rumour to be 
spread in Ila, that Renald (the brother of Angus 
Macconald and the other pledge which he bad 
^ven to Maclean) was slain at Duart in Mull, by 
Mclean his friends ; which false report was raised 
by Allan Maclean, that thereby Angus Macco« 
nald might be moved to kill his prisoner Sir Lauch* 
Ian Maclean, and so Allan himself might succeed 
to Sir Lauchlan ; and indeed it wrought this ef* 
feet, that how soon the report came to Angus his 
ears, that bis brother Renald was slain, he re- 
venged himself fully upon the prisoners; for Mac- 
lean his followers were by couples beheaded the 
days following, by Coll the brother of Angus. 
The report of this fact at MuUintrea was carried 
to the Earl of Argyle, who immediately assembled 
lus friends, to get Maclean out of Aingus his 
power } but perceiving that they were not able to 


do it, ritber by force or fiinr meMS, they thought 
necessary to complain to the King. Hi$ Majesty 
directed charges to Angusy by a herald dT amuif 
commanding him to restore Maclean into the 
bands of the Earl of Argyle ; but the messenger 
was interrupted, and the haven port stopped where 
he should have taken shipping towards Ila, and so 
returned home ; yet, with exceeding travel made 
by Captain James Stewart, Chancellor of Scotland, 
and n^any strait conditions granted 1^ Maclean 
iHito Angus, Maclean was at last exchanged for 
Benald the brother of Angus, and pledge before- 
mention^ ; and for perfomiia^ce of such condi^ 
tions as Maclean did promise to Angu$, at his de« 
Kvery, be gave his own son> and the son of Mac-* 
leod of Herris, with divers other pledges to Angus^ 
Macconald, who thereupon went into Ireland 
upon some occasion of business ; which Maclean 
understanding, he invaded the isle of Ila, and 
burnt a great part of the «ame, regarding neittier . 
the safety of the pledges, nor his faith given be* 
fpre the friends at his delivery. Angus Maccon-p' 
aid, returning out of Ireland, did not stir the 
pledges, who were innocent of what was done uq^ 
to bis lands in his absence ; yet, with a great pre*» 
paration of men and shipping, he went into the 
islands, and Tirbie appertaining to Maclean, in vad* 
ing these places with great hostility; where, what by 
fire, what by sword, and what by water, he destroyed 
all the men that he could overtake (none excepted) 
and all sort of beasts that served for domestiad 
xxasit and pleasure of man; and finally, came to 
the very Bin-moir in MuU^ and there killed and 

chased the Clan-Lean at bis pleasure, and so, fully ^ 
revenged himself of his former, injuries. Whilst 
Angus Macconald was thus raging in Mull and 
Tirhie, Sir Lauchian Maclean went into Kintyre, 
spoiled, wasted, and burnt a great part of that 
country ; and thus, for a while, they did conti- 
nually vex one another with slaughters and out- 
rages, to the destruction, well near, of all their 
country and people. ' In this mean time Sir 
Lauchian Maclean did intyce and train John 
Macean of Ardemurchie (one of the Clfl(h«Donald) 
to come unto him unto the isle of Mull, promising 
him that he would give him his mother in mar- 
riage, unto whom the said Joim Macean Kad been 
8 suitor. John being come unto Mull, in hope of 
this marriage, Maclean yielded to his desire, think- 
ing thereby to draw John Macean unto his party 
against Angus Macconald. The marriage was cele- 
brated at Torloiske in MtiU; but the saime very night 
John Macean his chamber was forced, himself taken 
from his bed out of Maclean bis mbther^s arms, and ' 
eighteen of his men slain, because he refused to 
assist Maclean against Angus Macconald. These 
were (and are to this day) called, in a proverb, ' 
Maclean his Nupticds. John Macean was detained 
a whole year in captivity by Mticlean ; and, at 
last, was released in exchange of Maclean his son 
and the rest of the pledges which Angus Macconald 
had in his hands. These two islanders, Angus 
Macconald and Maclean, were afterwards written 
for by the King, and trained into Edinburgh, the 
year of God 1591, with promise safely to pass and 
repass unhurt or molested in their bodies or goods. 

and were oommitted both to ward withia.the Castle 
of Edinburgh, where they remaiiied not long when 
they were mnitted frie, to pass home again, for a 
pecunial fine, and a remission granted to either of 
them. Their eldest soi^ were left as pledges for 
their obedience in time coming. 

The Trouhles betwixt Sutherland and CatteytUBS^ 
the years 1587, 1588, 1569, aitd 1590. 

year of God 1587 there happened some 
dissenmn betwixt the earls of Sutherland and 
Catteyness upon this ooeaaion. Greorge Gordon 
of Maxh m Sutfaeriand (base son to Gilbert Gordoti 
of Gartie) had done divers contempts and indigtu<« 
ties to tjbie Earl of Catteyness and bis servapts^ 
oocairioned thi^ough the nearness of George Gordon! 
bis dwelling place, whieh bordered upon Cattey« 
nesa. These ii^leoeies of George Gordon^ the 
earl of Catteyness <souldiHKt: or would not endure ; 
and so^ assembling a omipany of men, horse and 
foot, be comes, undei5 silence of the night, and 
invades George Gordon, in his own house at 
Harle. Geovgp makes all the resistance he could ; 
and, as they were eagerly pursuing, the house,, he 
slays aBpecial genllemaa of Catteyness, called John 
Sutherland ; therewith he issued out ctf the bpus^ 
aod casts Utmadf into the rir^ of Helmtsdel, wtuchi 
was hard by, tUnkingtosave himself by summing; 
but he was shot with arrowf , and slain in. the water. 
This haj^pened in the month of February 1587. 
• Alexander Earl of Sutherland took the slaiightev 
of George Gordon in evil part^ which he deter- 

34 ObUfLICTS. 

inined to revenge, and thereupon dealt witfi such 
of his friends as had credit at court for the time ; 
by whose means he obtained a commission against 
th^ slayers of George Gordon; which being gotten, 
he sent 200 men unto Catteynes&in February 1586^ 
conducted by John Gordon of Golspitour and John 
Gordon of Backies, who invaded the paroches of 
Dumbaith and Lathron in Catteyness, with all 
hostility, spoiling and burning the same; they 
killed John James-son, a gentleman of Catteyness, 
With some others ; and this was called Creach-laim. 
No soon^ were they returned out of Dumbaith, 
but earl Alexander, being accompanied with Hut- 
eheon Macky (who had been then lately reconciled 
to his superior the earl of Sutfierland) entered into 
Catteyness with all his forces, spoiling all before 
him till he came to Gimigo, (now called Castle* 
Sinclair) where the earl of Catteyness then layJ 
Earl Alexander escaped himself hard by the town 
of Weik, which is within a mile of Grimigo, They 
took the town of Weik with little difficulty, and 
bufkit the same. They besieged the castle of 
Gimigo for the space of twelve days, which was 
well defended by the earl of Catteyness and those 
that were within. Earl Alexander perceiving that 
^ke castle could not be obtidned without a long 
siege, he sent his men abroad through the country 
of Catteyness to pursue such as had been at the 
daughter of (xeorge Gordon, if they could be 
apprehended : so, having slain divers of them, and 
spoiled the country, earl Alexander returns again 
with his host into Sutherland in Uie month of Fe« 


bniary 1568. And this was called Lapne-creigh^ 

The earl of Catteyness, to reveng^ these inju- 
ries and to re<}uit his losses, assembled all his forces 
in the year of God 1589, and sent them into Suther* 
land, under the conduct of his brother the laird of 
Murckle, who entered Sutherland with all hosti- 
lity, and coming to Strath-uUie, he slays three 
tenants of the earl of Sutherland's in Liriboll, 
burning the house above them ; from LiriboU they 
march farther into the country. The inhabitants 
of Sutherland, being conducted by • Hutcheon 
Macky and John Gordon of Backies, met with: 
the Catteyness-men at a place called Crissaligb, 
where they skirmished a little while with little or 
no slaughter on either side ; and so Murckle re- 
tired home into Catteyness. In exchange herectf, 
Alexander earl of Sutherland sent 300 men into 
Catteyness, conducted by John Gordon of Backies, 
the ^same year of GUxl 1589, who entered that 
country with all hostility, he spoiled and wasted 
the same till he came Within six miles of Gimigo, 
killed above thirty men, and returned home with 
a great booty. This was called Creagh-ne-kain- 

The earl of Catteyness, to repair his former 
losses, conveened his whole forces the year of Grod 
1590. He entered into Sutherland with all hosti- 
lity, and encamped beside the Backies; having 
stayed one night there, they returned homeward 
the next davy driving a prey of goods before the 
host. By this time some of tl^ inhabitants of 
Sutherland were assembled, to the number of 5 or 

$8 .epKFLICTS. 

400 odIj» and perteiving the Catt^yness^men upon 
the sands of Clen-trednal, they presently invade 
them at a phice called Clyne. There ensued a 
sharp conflict, foughten with great obstinacy on 
either side, till the night parted them. Of the 
Sutherland-men there were slain John Murray 
and sixteen common soldiers. Of the Catteyness- 
men there were killed Nicholas Sutherland (the 
laird of FcH'Sse his brother) and Angus MactcHrmot, 
with tlnrteen others. Divers were hurt on either 

The next morning timely, the earl of Catteyness 
vetumed with all diligence into Catteyness, for to 
defend his own country ; for whilst he was in 
Sutherland, Hutcheon Madky had entered with 
his forces into Catteyness, and had spoiled that 
ccmntry even to the .town of Thurso : but before the 
esrliof Catteyness could overtake him, he returned 
agiun into Strathnaver with a great booty. 

Thus they infested one another with continual 
qx>ils and slaughters, untill they were reconciled 
by the mediation of the earl of Huntley, who 
caused them meet at Strathbo^e; and a final 
peace was concluded there, betwixt these parties, 
in the month of March 1591. Here ends this 
book of Sutherland. 

The Troubles betwixt the Earls of Huntlie and 


THE instruments of this trouble were the laird 
of Grant and Sir John Campbell of Calder, knight 
The Xaiight of Calder had spent the most part of 

COK7LICT8. 37 

his time in court, ni^here he was very familiar with 
Chancellor Maitland, from whom he received in- 
structions to engender differences betwixt Huntlie 
apd Murray ; which commission he accomplished 
very learnedly, and inflamed the one against the 
other, by the laird of Grant his means, thus, James 
Gordon (eldest son to Alexander Gordon of Les- 
moir) accompanied with some of his friends, went 
to Ballendallegh in Strathspey, to assist his aunt, 
the widow of that place, against John Grant, tutor 
of Ballendallegh, who went about to do her son 
injury, and to detain her rents from her. James 
Gordcm coming thither, 'all was restored unto the 
widow, a small matter excepted ; which, notwith** 
standing, he would have from the tutor, thinking 
it a disgrace to him and to his family if his aunt 
should lose the least part of her due. After some 
contestation, there was beating of servants on either 
^e ; and, being put asunder at that time, James 
Gordon and his company retired liome. Hereupon 
the family of Lesmoir do persuade John Gordon 
(brother to Sir Thomas Gordon of Clunie) to 
marry the widow of Ball^idallegh, which he did. 
The tutor of Ballendallegh grud^ng that any of 
the nmame of Gtirdon should dwell among them, 
he fdl at variance with John Gordon, by the laird 
of Grant his persuasion, and kiUed one of John 
Gordcm his servants; whereat John' Gordon was 
ao incensed, and pursued so eagerly the tutor, and 
such of the Grants as would assist, harbour, or 
muntain him or his servants, that he got them 
outlawed, and made rebels by the laws of the 
kingdom : and further, he move<) his chief the 



earl of Huntlie to search and follow them, bj 
virtue of a commission, as sheriff of that shire.' 
Huntlie beaeges the house of Ballendallegh, and 
takes it by force the 2d day of November 1590; 
but the tutor escaped. Then began Calder and 
Grant to work their premeditated plot, and do 
stir up the CIan*Chattan and their chief Macin- 
tosh to join with the Grants ; they persuade also 
the earls of Athole and Murray to assist them 
against Huntlie. They shew the Earl of Murray 
that how he had a fit opportunity and occasion to 
make himself strong in these north parts, and to 
make head against the house of Huntlie ; thai 
they and all their friends would assist him to the 
uttermost of their power ; that Chancellor Mait- 
land would work at court to their effect against 
Huntlie ; so that now he should not slip this occa« 
sion, least afterward he should never have the like 
opportunity in his time. Hereupon the earls of 
Murray and. Athole, the Dunbars, the Clan^^'Chat* 
tan, the Grants, and the laird of Calder, with all 
their faction, met at Forress, to oonsnlt of their 
affjEiirs, where they were all sworn in one league 
together, some of the Dunbars refusing to join 
with them. Huntlie understanding that the earls 
of Murray and Athole did intend to make a faction 
against him, be assembled his Iriends with all dili- 
gence, and rides to Forress, with a resolution to 
dissolve their convention* Murray and Athole^ 
hearing of Huntlie^s coming towards thep, they 
leave Forress, and flie to Tarnoway, the earl of 
Murray'^s chief dwelling place. The earl of 
Huntlie follows them thither; but, before his 


toiiiing, the eul of Athole, the lairds of Mabkin* 

'tosh, ;6xan1^Xalder, and the sheriff of Murray, 

had tefik the house, and were fled to the mountains ; 

iiHily; the earl of Murray staid,' and had before pro* 

vided all things necessieury toft his defence. Huntlie 

rcomiog within idght of the house, he sent John 

f Gprdcin btfi>re-Bientioned, with some men, to vie^ 

• tli!^ isatne;' biA Johniapproadiing more hardily 

.tfaati^ warily, was shot fnom the house, and slain 

.with a. piece, by one of ^the^earl (^ Murray's ser- 

vaiits.^ , Huntlie perceiving the bouse of Tarnoway 

furtiisbedwith all things; necessary for along siege, 

,and understanding alib. that the most part of his 

enemies :^er^ fled to the ndountidns, Jhe left the 

;h<Hi9e and ' dissolved his * company Uhe 24th of 

^Ndvembw 1-690. ^ Theearl of Huntlie theraipon 

basteiis tathe courts and dQthijreconcil&.himself to 

(Chancellor Maitland, who! shortly .thereafter (not 

JO n^UQh for tbefavour.he botfe.tQ Huntlie^ as f or 

.tbi^ hAt^iedllbe^lhadeonotiiKed a^asnst the earl :of 

^Mumy for BotbiBilli<Jii3'oau^e> did purchase a 

rOQii^ssiQn:toH«iBtlie{ against the earl of Murray, 

.caring 'Uttle^;ki the mean time,- what should becoi&e 

either .(^r. Murray drHiuil^i^. The year of, God 

IdSliiijiuallie sedt, Jin»f^ Maodonell-Duy into 

/Sadetxxjb Against the, Cla^-Chatjtan; aftarasharp 

« skiroAi^.tJIie. Cla|i«Cbattan were chased, and above 

; fifty of them «}&ija« Then Huntlie sent Macronald 

. against the Grants, whom. Macronald invaded in 

; Strathspey, killed dighteeu of them, and wasted all 

'. Ballendallegh his lands. This year of God 1591, 

.tbe^Tth of December, the first raid of the Abbay 

j WM interprised by the earl of Qothwell ; but failing 


of his purpose, be was forced to flie oway^ and so 
escaped. The duke of Leanox and the earl of 
Huntlie were sent into the west with a connmsmn 
against Bothwell and such as did harbour him ; bdt 
Bothwell escaped before their coming. Tlien lock 
the earl of Murray his fat^ and hist jonmrf from 
Tamoway south to Dunibrissil, wfaeve he did 
harbour and reoept the earl of BotfiwelL HuiftBe 
bring now at court, which then sogoumed at Edin- 
burgh, he urges Chancellor Maitland for his oom- 
miasion against the earl of Murray ; and, baring 
Stained the same, he takes joumiey with forty 
gentlemen from Edinburgh to the Qujeensferryy 
and from thence to Dunibrissil^ whers he invades 
the earl of Murray. Huntlie, bef<Nre bis approach 
to the house, sent captain John Gordon (brother 
to William Gordon laird of Gright) to desire the 
eail of Murray to give over the house and to 
render himself; which was not only refused, but 
also captain John Gordon was deadly hurt by a 
piece, by one of the earl of Murray his s^vants^ 
at his very first approach to the gates : ' wfaefeupon 
they set fire in the house, and fovoe tfae entry. 
Huntlie cbmmanded the earl of Murray to be 
taken alive ; but the laird of Cluny, whosfe^ bibther 
was slain at Tamoway, and the laird of Geight^ 
who had his brother lying deadly wounded before 
his eyes, overtaking Murray, as he was escaped 
out of the house, killed him among the rocks upon 
the sea Ade. There was also the sheriff of Murray 
slain by Innes of Innermarkie, which happened 
the 7th day of February 1S91. Presently here- 
opun Huntlie returned into the nordi, 4nd left 


captain J<^n Gordon ^t Iim0i*keithing) untill he 

were recoyered of his wound, v where he was taken 

foy tb^ ear} of Murray's friends and executed at 

Edinburgh, being sciffce able to live one day 

longer for hi& wcMind received at DunibrissiL Sir 

tJdhn Campbell of Calder, Unigbt^ who was' the 

rworker and cause' of tfair* txoublei^' and of the 

riniser^es that etimied thereupon, was afterward 

pitifully lilaih' by his own fflrnan[ie in Argyle. 

llieeiBrl^^Hunftlie was charged by the lead St. 
Colme (iheMte'slath earl of/ Murray his brother) 
•to underly die censure of the law for the daughter 
at DuhibrissiL Hiintlie compeared at Edihburjgh 
at the day appointdd, being ready to abide the 
ixial df an assise;' and unto such time as his peers 
rwere asscfmfaTed to that effect, lie did offer to re- 
main in ward ill) any plaee the King would. appoint 
iiiin : whereupon he was warded in the Blackness 
the ISXhiday of March 1591, aiid was reieaded 
the 20tb day of the same month, upon security 
and caution givien'by fiim that he should enter 
again upon six 'days' warning, whensoever he 
should be charged- to that effect. 
. After the earl of Murray his slaughter at Duhi- 
brissil, the Glan^Chattan (who, of kll that faction, 
most eagerly endeavoured to Revenge his deathy 
did assemble their forces under the ^conduct df 
Angus Macdonald- Williamson, and cam^ to Strath* 
disse and Glenmuck, where they spoiled and in- 
vaded the earl of Huntlie^s lands, and -killed four 
gentlemen .of t!he sirname of Gordon, among whom 
was the old bar6n of Breaghlily, whose death and 
manner thereof was much lamented, being very 



aged, and much pven to hoepitalily. He was 
fllain by them m his own house, after he had made 
them good chear and welcome, never sufi^)ectiag 
them, or expecting any such reward for his kindly 
entertainment, which happened the 1st day of 
NoYember 15921 In revenge whoreof, the earl of 
Huntlie, having gotten a commissian against them, 
assembled his power and raid into Pettie (which 
was then in the possession of the Clan-Chattan) 
where he wasted wad spoiled all the Clan*Chattan^s 
lands, and killed divers of them ; but as the eari 
of Huntlie had returned home from Pettie, he was 
advertised that William Macintosh with 800 rf 
Clan-Chattan were spoiling his lands of Cabereghe; 
whereupon Huntlie and his uncle Sir . Patrick 
Gordon of Acfaindowne, with some few horsemen, 
made speed towards the enemy, desiring the rest 
of his company to follow him with all possible 
diligence, knowing that if onoe he were within sight 
of them, they would desist from spoiling the coun- 
try. Huntlie overtook the Clan-Chattan before 
they left the bounds of Cabereghe, upon the head 
of a hill called Steplegate ; where, without staying 
for the rest of his men, he invaded them with 
these few he then bad ; after a sharp conflict he 
overthrew them, chased them, killed 60 of their 
ablest men, and hurt William Macintosh with 
divers others of his company. 

Shortly afterward, the earl of Huntlie conveened 
his forces, and went the second time into Pettie, 
causing Alexwider Gordon of Abergeldie, Hiintlie's 
baillie in Badenochrfor the time, bring down his 
Higblandmen of Lcchaber, B^enoch and Strath- 



downe^ to ifieet Um at Inverness; .desiring him 
alaoy in bis journey towards. Inverness, to direct 
some men of . MacrcnaldB into Strathspey and 
JBfadenoch, to spml and waste the laird of Orant 
and Macintoshes lands; iirhich was done, and 
afterward Abei^ldie and Macreoald, with the 
Highlandmen, met Huntlie at Inverness, fVom 
whence (joining altogether.) they invade Pettier 
where they wasted, burnt, and spoiled all the rebels 
lands and possessions, killed a number of them^ 
and then returned home into their countriesw 

Whikt the north of Scotland was thus in a com* 
biistion, the Spanish Blanks were discovered, and 
Mr. jQeorge Car, doctor of the laws, was appre- 
hended in the isle of Cumray, and brought back 
to Edinburgh, 1692. Afterward, the year of God 
1594, the Popish earls, Angus, Huntlie, and Erroll, 
were, at the earnest suit of the Queen of England's 
ambassador, brfeited at a parliament held at Edin- 
burgh the penult of May 1694 Then was the 
King moved to make the e^l of Argyle his 
Majesty ^s lieutenant in the north of Scotland, to 
invade, the earls of Huntlie and Erroll. Argyle 
being giad of this employment (having received 
money from the Queen of England for this purw 
pose) makes great preparation for the journey; 
and addresses himself quickly forward ; thinking, 
thereby, to have a good occasion to revenge his 
brother*in4aw the earl of Murray ^s death : so, on 
he went, with full assurance of a certain victory, 
accompanied with the earl of Tullibairne, Sir 
Lauchlan Maclean and divers islanders, Macin- 
tosh, Granty and Clan-Gregor, Macneill-Warray, 


with all their friends and dependen, together with 
the whole simame of Campbell, with sundry others, 
whom either greediness of prej, or malice against 
the Gordons, had thrust on forward in that expe- 
dition, in all above 10,000 men. And, coming 
through all the mountainous countries of that 
part of Scotlandithey arrived at Riven of Badenoch, 
the2Tth of September, the year 1594, which house 
they besieged, b^scauseit appertiuned to Huntlie : 
but it was so well defended by the Clan-Pbersone 
(Huntlie^s servants) that Aigyle was. forced to give 
over the siege, and to address himself towards the 
Lowlands ; where the lord Forbes with his kin, 
the Erasers, the Dunbars, the Cian-^Chenzie, the 
Irvines, the Ogilbies, the Leslies, the Monroes, 
and divers other sirnames of the north, should have 
met him as the King his lieutenant, and so join 
with his forces against Huntlie. 

Argyle came thus forward to Dxummin in 
Strathdown, and encamped hard thereby!^ the 2d 
of October. Huntlie and Erroll hearing of this 
great preparation made against them, they laiked 
neither courage nor resolution ; they assemble all 
such as would follow them and their fortune in 
this extremity. Erroll came unto the earl of 
Huntlie to Strathbogie with 100 or ISO of resolute 
gentlemen ; and so haying there joined with 
Huntlie's forces, they march forward from thence 
to Cameborrow, and then to Auchindowne, with 
1500 horsemen, the 3d of October ; parting from 
Auchindown, Huntlie sent captain Thomas Car and 
some of the family of Tillihoudie, Gordon, to spy 
the fields and view the enemy. These gentlemen 

C0KFLICT8* 45 

meeting, by chance, with Argyle his spies, ihey 
killed them all except one, whom they saved and 
examined, and by him understood that Argyle 
was at hand. This accident much encouraged the 
earl of Huntlie^s men, taking this as a presage of 
an ensuing victory; whereupon Huntlie and 
Gnroll do reserve to fi^t with Argyle before he 
duNild Jcin with the lord Forbes and the rest of 
liiis farces; so they maxch towanfe the enemy, 
who, by this time, was at Glenlirat iii the moun^ 
tains of Strathawen. 

The earl of Argyle understanding that Huntlie 
-was at Jiand, who (as he believed) durst not shew 
his ^unteaance againJEtt such an army, he was 
somewhat astonished^ and would gladly have de- 
layed the battle untili be bad met with the lord 
IVyrbes ; but perceiving them to draw near, and 
trusting \j^ His great number, he began to order his 
)iattle, and to encourage his people with the hope 
of prey, and the enemy^s small forces to renst 
tiiem. Re gave the tommandiAent and leading 
^ his vanguard tk> ^ Laucblan Maclean and to 
Aiichinbreck, which did eonsieft of 4000 men, 
*whereof 8000 men were hagbutters. Argyle him- 
self and TuIIibairne followed with idl the rest of 
the army. The earl of ErroU and Sir Patrick 
^rdon 6f Auichiiidowne, accompanied with the 
laird t>f Geight, Bonietoun Wood and eapUdn Car, 
ted the ^1 of Hiintlie^s vanguard, which consisted 
of 300 gentlemen, Huntlie followed them with the 
rest of his company, having the laird of Cluny 
Gordon upon bis right hand, and Abergeldie 
upon the left, hand : and as he began to march 


forward, he enoouraged his men, shewing them 
that there was no remedy, but either to obtain the 
victory, or to die with their weapons in their hands^ 
in defence of whatsoever they held dearest in this 
world. Argyle his army being all footmen, and 
assailed, had the advantage of the groiind; for 
they were arrayed in battle upon the top of a 
steep, rough, and craggy mountain, at the descent 
.whereof the ground was foggy, mossy, and ftbU 
of peit-pots, exceeding dangerous for i horse. 
Huntlie his forces consisted all in horseinen, imd 
were constrained to ride first through the mossy 
ground at the foot of the hill, and then to ride up 
against that heathy rough mountain, to pursue 
the enemy, who did, there, attend tb^n. .'Before 
that Errpll and Auchindowne gave the first char^, 
Huntlie caused. captwn Andrew Gray (now colonel 
of the English and Scottish in Bohemia) shoot three 
field-pieces of ordnance at the enemy, which bred 
a confused tumult amon^ them, by the slaughtjer 
of Macneil-warray, an ii^l^nder, and^pne of the most 
valiant .men of that partj/^ Huntlie his vanguard, 
seeing the eiQ,emy disorded^ed, presently gave the 
jcharge; the earl of ErrpU; with the most part of 
the vanguard turned their sides towards the enemy, 
and so went a ^t.tle about, directly towards Argyle, 
leaving Maclean and the vanguard upon their left 
I^andy being foiced thereto by the steepness of the 
hill, and the thick shot of the enemy ; but Auchin- 
downe, with the rest of his company, did gallop^ up 
agiun3t the hiU towards Maclean ; so that Auchin« 
,downe himself was the first man that invaded the 
enemy, f n^ the first that was dain by them, having 


lost liimself by his too much forwardness.. The 
fight was icFuel and furious for a while. Auchin^ 
do^ne bis servants and followers, perceiving their 
master fall, raged among their enemies, as if they 
had resolved to revenge his death, and to accom* 
pany him in dyit^g- Maclean agiun playing/the 
part 'of a good conunander; compassed Himtlie his 
vanguard, and enclosed them betwixt him 'and 
Argyle ; having engaged themselves, so far that 
now there was no hope of retreat ; so that they 
were in danger to be all cut in pieces, if Huntlie 
had not come speedily to their support, where he 
was in great danger ,pf his life, his horse being 
slain uqder faiim ; but being presently horsed again 
by Invermarkie, ,he rushed in among the enemies 
Thus the battle was again renewed with great fury, 
and continued two; hours. In end, Argyle with his 
main battle be^n to declinje, and then to flie a-pace, 
leaving Maclean still fighting in the field ; who 
seeing hii^self ^l|us destitytte of succours, and his men 
either fled or slain, he retired in good order with the 
small company he had about him, and saved himself 
by flight ; having behaved him§^lf in the battle, 
not only like a gopd commander, but also like a 
valiant soldier. . Huntlie and his horsemen followed 
tl^e chace beyond the brook of Aldchonlihan, killing 
the enemies till the steepness of the next mountains 
did stay them, being inaccessible for horsemen. 
Argyle his ensign was found in the pjace of battle, 
and brought back with them to Strathbogie. The 
e^ri of Argyle lost in this battle his two cousins, 
Archibald Campbell of !Lochn^ll, and bis brother 
James Campbell, with divers of Auchinbreck his 



fnends, MacDeill-.warray,and TOOeommoEi soldiers*. 
Neither waa the rietory rery pleasing to the earl of 
Huntlie, for besides that the earl of ErroU, the 
lurd of Gejght, and the most part of all Ms com- 
pany were hurt and wounded, Sir Patrick Crordon 
of Auchindowne, his uncle, a wise, valiant, and 
resolute knight, with 14 others, were there slaim 
All their hurt men were carried that night to Au- 
chindowne, where most part of them staid until! 
they were recovered. This battle was foughten on 
Thursday the 3d day of October 1594. 

The lord Forbes, the lairds of Buquhan and 
Drum assembled all their friends and followers, 
with intention to join with Argyle; but hearing of 
his overthrow, - they conclude to join with the 
Dunbars, and the rest of the forces coming from 
the provinces of Murray and Ross, and so to in- 
vade the Gordons when they came from the battle, 
thinking it now an easy matter to overthrow them, 
and to revenge old quarrels. To this effect the 
whole simame of Forbes, with the^Knost part of 
the Leslies and the Irvines, met at Druminour 
(the lord Forbes his dwelling) and so went on, 
thinking to overtake Argyle, and to cause him 
return and renew the battle against the Gordons 
and their partakers ; but as they marched forward, 
a gendeman called Irvine was killed with the shot 
of a pistol in the dark of the night, hard by the 
lord Forbes, the author of which shot was 
never yet known unto this day ; for presently 
all their pistols were searched and found to be full 
This unexpected accident bred such a confusion 

C0KFUCT8. 4d 

— t 

and jtmazemeht in the minds of the Forbe8e9 and 
tlMT followers, beibg sow all afraid of one another, 
that they dissolved their companies and returned 
home. The lesi of the clans in the north, such 
as the Dunbars, the Erasers, the Monroes, and 
the Clan-Chenzie, being conveened at Forbes in 
Marraj, were staid by the policy of Dunbar of 
Munesse, who then was tutor to the sheriff of 
Murray, and favoured the earl of Huntlie, Sir 
Patrick Gordon of Auchindowne having married 
bis mother. 

Whilst the earl of Argyle was thus employed 
against Huntlie, the King came to Dundee, where 
he expected the issue of that battle; which when 
he had heard, his Majesty took journey north 
toward Strathbogie* In this voyage his Majesty, 
fay the instigation of Huntlie and ErroU's greatest 
enemies, permitted (though unwillingly) divers 
houses to be thrown down, such as the house of 
Strathbogie, which appertained to Huntlie, the 
house of Slains, in Buchan, appertaining to the 
earl of Errol, the house of Culsamond, in Garioch, 
appertaining to the laird of Newtoun Gordon, the 
house of Bagayes, in Angus, appertaining to Sir 
Walter Lindsay, and the house of Craig in Angus, 
appertaining to Sir John Ogilvie, son to the lord 
Ogilvie* In this mean time that the King was at 
Strathbogie, the earl of Huntlie, with divers of his 
friends, went into Sutherland and Catteyness ; and 
when hisMajesty returned into Edinburgh, Huntlie 
left the kingdom, and travelled through Germany, 
France, and Flanders; having staid abroad one 
year and five months, he was recalled again by 



the King; and, at his return, both he, Angus 
and ErroU were again restored to their former 
honours and dignities, at a parliament held in 
Edinburgh, in November 1597; and further, hb 
Majesty honoured the earl of Huntlie with the 
honour of Marquis, the year 1599* AU quarrels 
betwixt him and the earls of Argyle and Murray 
were taken away, by the marriage of Argyle his 
eldest daughter to George lord Gordon, Huntlie 
his eldest son, and by the marriage of lady Anne 
Gordon, Huntlie^s daughter, to James earl of 
Murray, son to him that was siam at DunibrissilL 

The Traubks betunxt the Forbeses and the Gordon 
in the years 1671 and 1672» 

THE two families of Gordon and Forbes were 
of great power and authority in their country, both 
of them valiant, wise and wealthy ; both harbour- 
ing deadly feud, long rooted between them. The 
Gordons then lived with great concord and unity 
among themselves ; and, by attollerance of their 
Kings, had, for many years, governed the people 
adjoining unto them, whereby they became wealthy 
and of great power, and purchcwed strength among 
themselves, together with the attendance and follow<« 
ing of other men towards them. When, on the 
contrary, the Forbeses were at wars one with another, 
daily impaired their own strengths, with their own 
slaughters,' and, in «nd, wrought their own harm 
by pressing to strive against the Gordons. These 
two surnames did live together at this time, rather 
in secret emulation than open envy ; because they 

CI0K7LI0T8. 51 

liad (in way of reconciliation) by marriage inter- 
mingled their families together ; but their bid and 
long rooted rancour did now burst forth, not only 
by following contrary factions during these civil 
wars betwixt the King^s party and the Queen^ 
but chiefly because that John master of Forbes 
(eldest son to the lord Forbes) had repudiate and 
put away his wife, Margaret Gordon, daughter to 
George eail of Huntlie, which he did by the insti- 
gation of his unde Black Arthur Forbes, who mor- 
tally hated the Grordons. This Arthur was a 
man of great courage, ambitious, and ready to 
undertake any thing whatsoever for the advance- 
ment and reconciliation of his family. The For- 
bbses, . from the first time of thir civil discords in 
•Scotland, did follow the Eing^s party ; the Gordons 
did always remain constantly faithful to the Queen, 
•even unto the end. . 

The Forbeses, by persuasion of Black Arthur 
Foarbes, had appointed both day and place of meet- 
ing, where they should assemble together, not only 
for their own general reconciliation among them- 
sdves, but also to interprise something against the 
Gordons and the rest of the Queen's favourers in 
.these parts; whereof Adam Gordon of Auchin- 
downe having secret intelligence (his brother the 
earl of Huntlie being then at Edinburgh) he as- 
sembled a certain number of his kindred and fol- 
lon^ers, to cross the proceedings of the Forbeses, 
who were all conveened at Tilliangus above 
Dniminour, in the beginning of the year of God 
1572. The Forbeses perceiving the Gordons 
Mmihg up towards them^ against the hill where 



they then were,' ihey did hxtrench liiemsdlvei 
within their camp, which they had strongly fbrtik 
fied, dividing thdir army in two several oompaniei^ 
whereof Bhidc Arthur Forbes commanded that 
which lay next nnto the Gordons. Adam Gordon 
(far inferior in number to his enemies) presently, 
without any stay, fiercely invaded the &rst cchq- 
pany, his brother, Mr. Robert; fiorddii, set upon 
the other : so, breaking their trenches, they ran 
desperately upon the spears of their enemies. 
After tf sharp and cruel conflict,, oonragiously 
fbughten a lo^g time on either ude. Black Arthur 
Fbrbes, with divers others, gentlemen of his sip- 
name and family, were slain ; the rest were all 
overthrown, put to flgbt, and diaaed even to the 
gates of Draminour, the lord Forbes his chief 
dwelling place ; few of the Gordons were killed, 
but only John Gordon of Buckie^ fiithet to John 
Gordon of Buckie now living. 

The Fcnrbeses attempted nothing afterward in 
revenge of this overthrow, untill the time that 
John master of F<Nrbes (Black Arthur bis nephew 
and chief of that family) hardly escaping from bis 
enemies, hastened to court, where the earl of Mar, 
then regent, had his residence, luring by htm to 
be relieved. The regent gave him five companies 
of footixien and some horsemen, with letters to sudi 
of the adjoining nobility as favoured and followed 
that party, desiring them to associate and jcin 
themselves unto the Forbeses. These then being 
confederate and assembled together with certain 
other families of their afllnity and neighbours, so 
advanced the spirit of this John master rf Forbes^ 


that he now thought himself sufficiently furnished 
against' the forces of his adTersaries, and so pre- 
sently went to Aberdeen, to expel Adam Gordon 
from thence, the year of God 1579, wha knowing 
the preparation of the Forbeses, aYid understanding 
th6 approach of the enemies so near at hand, as- 
sembled such o( his friends and followers as he 
could soonest find at that time, and led them out 
of the town. He sent a company, of musketeers, 
under the conduct of captain Thomas Care, to a 
convenient «place where the Forbeses must of 
necessity pass, there to lye in ambush, and not to 
stir till the battle did join ; then he sent certain of 
the Sutherland bowmen .(who had retired them- 
selves out of their country during the earl of 
Sutherland's minority) and desired them to draw 
a great compass about, and so, to set upon the 
back of the Forbeses footmen and musketeers ; he 
himself, and his brother Mr. Robert Gordon, with 
the residue of his company, stayed the coming of 
the Forbeses at a place called Craibstane, not far 
from the ports of the new town of Aberdeen. 
The Forbeses, being in sight of Aberdeen, began 
to consult among themselves what was best to be 
done ; some were of opinion that the fittest and 
safest course was to go to Old Aberdeen, and 
there seat themselves, and from thence to molest 
the New Town, and compel Adam Gordon to 
depart from New Aberdeen, by the aid and assis- 
tance of these experienced footmen which were sent 
from the regent: but the master of Forbes and 
his kinsmen would not hearken, thereto, desiring 
present battle^ which was then concluded ; and so 



the Forbeses advance with great oounge agnnat 
the Gordons, who reoeWed them with the like 
reaolation. At the very first rencount^, Aucbia 
downe his musketeers, who lay in ambush, killed 
a number of the Forbeses} then both the armies 
joined with great violencie. After a crud conflict, 
with incredible obstinacy on either sdde, the laird 
of Pitsligo (Forbes) his two brethren, with divers 
other gentlemen of the surname of Forbes, were 
there skin ; captain Chisholme with the footmen 
(sent by the regent to their support) were put to 
flight by the Sutherland bowmen, who pursued 
them eagerly with great slaughter. Among the 
rest capt. Chisholme was slain, with three oth» 
captains, which the rest of the Forbeses perceiving, 
they fled apace ; many of the principals were taken, 
with their chief and general John master of Forbes, 
whose father was then very aged, lying i»ck at 
Druminour, expecting the sorrowful news of this 
overthrow. Adam Gordon used this victory very 
moderately, and suffered no man to be killed after 
the fury of the fight was past. When all was 
ended he returned to the church of Aberdeen, and 
there gave thanks unto Gkxl for his happy success. 
Alexander Forbed of Strath-gar-neck, (author of 
all thir troubles betwixt these two families, and 
the chief stirrer up of Arthur Forbes against the 
Crordons) was taken at this battle, and as they 
were going to behead him, Auchindowne caused 
3tay his execution. He intertained the master of ( 
Forbes, and the rest of the prisoners, with great 
kindness and courtesy ; he carried the faster of 

FiMfbes along with bim to Stratfabogie ; and in enc^ 
gave bim and all the rest leave to depart. 

The next ensuing gnmmer after this eonfliot at 
Criubstane, Adam Gordon^ of Auchindowne, fol- 
lowing his victory, entered the Meams^ and be- 
neged the house of Glenbervie, putting all the 
regent^s party within that province into a great 
fear an<| tumult. The earl of Crawfurd, the lords 
Gray, Ogilvie^ and Glames, taking part with the 
regent against the Queen, assembled all the forces 
of Angus and Meams to resist Aucnindowne, and 
to stop his passage at Breicbin, where they en« 
camped ; but Adam Gordon, being advertised of 
their (Hroceedings, left the most part of his men at 
the siege of Glenbervie, from whence he parted in 
the dead time of the night, with the most resolute 
men of his company, to invade these lords ; and 
being come to Breichen, he killed the watch with 
divers others, surprized the town, set upon the 
lords, chased them, and made himself master of 
the town and castle of Breichin. The next morn- 
ing, the lords understanding Auchindowne's small 
forces in regard of theirs, they assembled their 
men together, and came near unto Breichen to, 
fight against him, who met them with resolute 
courage ; but as they were ready to encounter, 
the lords, notable to endure the first charge of 
their enemies, fled a-pace with all their companies. 
There were slain of them above 80 ; and divers of 
them Yrere taken, amongst whom was the lord 
Glames, who was carried to Strathbogie, and 
being detained there a while, he was set at liberty 
with the rest. This conflict was called the Bourd 

56 00KFLICT8. 

of Breichen, Then returned Adam Grordon back 
again to the siege of Glenbervie, and took it ; from 
thence he went to Montrose, and took that town. 
In his return from thence, he took the castle of 
Dun, which appertained to the regent^s cousin, 
and so marched foreward into Angus. The inha« 
bitants of Dundee hearing of his approach, and 
despairing of their own abilities to resist him, they 
sent for help into Fife ; but Auchindowne, hav- 
ing done his pleasure in Angus and Mearns, re- 
turned home into the north, being contented for 
that time, with what he had already done against 
his enemies. By this good success of the Gordons, 
the Queen's favourers in all the parts of the king- 
dom were highly encouraged at that time. 

The Brigt of Dee. 

THE year of God 1588 there were some secret 
emulations and facjtions at court ; the earl of Hunt- 
lie being in favour with his Majesty, obtained the 
eaptainry of his Majesty's guards, which the mas- 
ter of Glames had before ; for this cause the mas- 
ter of Glames and his associates, joining themselves 
to the English ambassador then lying at Edin- 
burgh, do surmise to the Eing'^s Majesty, that 
some letters of the Earl of Huntlie's sent by him 
to the King of Spain, were intercepted in England. 
Huntlie was called to make his answer; he com- 
pears, and refuses these letters to have been writ- 
ten or sent by him, but only devised by his ene- 
mies, thereby to put him in disgrace by his mas- 
ter : yet he is warded in the castle of Edinburgh^ 

OOKFtlCTS. 57 

in the latter end of February, and being tried, he 
is released the 7th day of March following ; where- 
upon the earls of Huntlie, Craufurd, and ErroU 
address themselves unto the north, and take jour^ 
ney towards St. Jdinstoun, where they were ad* 
vertised that the earls of Athole and Morton and 
the master of Glames had conveened forces to in- 
trap them within St. Johnstoun. Huntlie^ ErroU, 
and Craufurd issued forth of that town, with sueh 
small companies as they then had, and rencoun- 
tered with the master of Glames, whom th^ 
chased and apprehended in Kirkhill, and carried 
him prisoner with them into the north. 

Chancellor Maitland and the rest of ^ ioiaster 
<£ Glames , his faction at court, hearing of this 
accident they inflame the king with anger against 
Huntlie and his associates, and do persuade his 
Majesty to take a journey into the n^nrth. Hui^t* 
lie, in this mean time, assembles all hisfrien(foand 
dependers to the number of 10,000 men, and catiie 
forward to the Brige of Dee, with a resolution to 
fight against his enemies, the 80th of April the 
year 1589 : but being certainly informed that the 
King was coming in person against him, he dis* 
solved his army, and submitted himself to his Ma^ 
jesty, withal releasing the master of Glames 'from 
captivity ; whereupon Hunllie was committed^ to 
ward at Edinburgh^ then at'Bortbwick, thereafter 
at Finnevin ; from whence be wtfs shortly after t^ 
leased by his majesty. The earl of Ernd was al* 
so warded in Ecfinburgh castle, where he was* de* 
tained untiU he pays a sum of money, which was 
employed to the use of Cbam^or Maitland. 


A Tumuli in Ross^ the year ofGod, 1597* 

THE year of Grod 1597 there hi^pened an ac- 
cident in Ross, at a fair in Laggivreid, which had 
almost put Ross and all the neighbouring coun- 
tries in a combustion. The quarrel did begin be- 
twixt John Macgillicallum (brother to the laird of 
Rasay) and Alexander Bane, brother to Duncan 
Bane of TuUoch. The Munroes did asmst Alex- 
ander Bane, and the Clan-Cheinzie took part with 
John Macgillicallum, who was there slain, with 
John Mac-Martbow-Mae- William, and three oth- 
ers of the Clan-Cheinzie. Alexandar Bane es- 
caped, but there were killed on his side John 
Munro of Eulcraigie, with his brother Hutcheon 
Munro, and John Munro Roberts-son. Here- 
upon the Clan-Cheinzie and the Munroes began 
to employ the aid and assistance of their friends 
from all parts to inyade one another; but they were 
in some measure reconciled by the mediation of 
indifferent friends and neighbours. 

The Death of Sir Lauchlan Maclean, the year 1598. 

tion, together with his desire of revenge, thrust 
him on to claim the inheritance of the whole isle of 
Ila, being always the possession and ancient inhe- 
ritance of the Clan-Donald, all which Maclean 
thought easily now to compass. Sir James Mac- 
donald (the just inheritor thereof) being young, 
and his father Angus Maodonald aged* Sir 

Ca!i7FLICT8« 59 

Lauchlan assembleth . his whole forces^ and, in 
warlike manner^ invades Ila, to take possession 
thereof by virtue of a new right which he had then 
lately obtained: which Sir James Macdonald 
(Maclean his ^ster'^s son) understanding, he con- 
veened his friends, and went likewise unto the 
same island (being his own and his forbears po8« 
.session) to interrupt, if it were possible, the pro- 
ceedings of his unkind uncle Maclean. Being 
both arrived in the island, such as did love them, 
and desired peace, did mediate a long time betwixt 
them, and took great pains in essaying to agree 
them. Sir James (being the more reasonable of 
the two) was content to let his uncle Have the half 
of the island during his lifetime, although he had 
no just title thereto, providing he would take it in 
the same fashion as his predecessors, the Clan- 
Lean, bad it ever before his time, to wit, holden 
of the Clan-Donald ; and moreover, he offered to 
submit the controversy to the king's majesty'^s ar-> 
bitriment, thereby to eschew all debate wi^h his 
uncle. But Maclean running headlong to his own 
mischief, much against the opinion of his friends, 
who advised him to the contrary, did refuse all of- 
fers of peace, unless his nephew would then pre- 
sently resign unto him the title and possession of 
the whole island. Whereupon they both resolve 
and prepare to fight. Sir James being far inferior 
in number of men, but some of these he had with 
him were lately before trained in the wars of Ire- 
land. Thus there ensued a cruel and sharp bat- 
tle^ at the head of Loch-Groinart in Ila, coura* 
geously foughten a long time on either side. Sir 


JameSy in the beginning, caused Ins vainguttid 
make a compass in fashion of a retreat, thereby 
to get the sun at his back, and the adrantage o£ 
a hill which was hard by. In end» Sir James hav« 
ing repulsed the enemies vanguard, and forcing 
their main battle, Maclean was slain courageously 
fighting, together with 80 of the most prindpal 
men of his kin, and 800 common scJdiers lying 
dead about him. His son Lauchlan Barrach 
Maclean (being sore wounded) was chased with 
the rest of his men even to their boats and vessels. 
Sir James Macdonald was dangerously wounded, 
whereof he hardly recovered afterward, for he was 
shot with an arrow through the body, and was left 
the most part of the ensuing night for dead amongst 
the slain bodies. There were slmn of th^ Clan* 
Donald about 30 in all, and above 60 wounded, 
which happened the year of God 1598. And thus 
the war begun by Maclean, without reason, the 
year of God 1585, ended now, this year, by his 
death. Maclean had three responses from a witch 
before he undertook this journey into Ila ; first, 
desiring him not to land there upon Thursday ; 
the next was, forbidding him to drink of the wa- 
ter of a well beside Groinart ; and thirdly, he tdd 
him that one called Maclean should be slain at 
Groinart. The first he transgressed unwillingly, 
being driven into that island by a tempest on a 
Thursday. The second he transgressed negligent- 
ly, and drank of that water before he knew the 
name of the place, and so he died at Groinart as 
was foretold of him, but doubtfully, and as com- 
monly all such responses be. These brdls and 

uprdtts did so mave.tbe King against the Macdo* 
jprid, .that bis Majesty afterward finding the inhe* 
idtmee^botb erf Kiotyre and Ila to be at his owa 
ditpOsitiony he gave all these lands to the earl of 
Argyle and the Cami^lls ; whereupon proceeded 
ibfi tiroubles tb^^t aixise since, betwixt the Cao^p* 
tmUs fluid the CJan-^donald in. Kintyre and Ila^ after 
bib Majtflly^s coming to the crown of England* 
wbi«b:l'aiQ(iit': to relate; only thus -far, that Sir 
Jamies Macdonald ^was, by Argyle his means* 
warded: in the castle of Edinburgh* and was keeped 
tbere a :long time ; firom whence he escaped by 
the means and diligence c»f bis cousin Macrenald* 
wh0 Aed with Sk James into Spain and Flanders* 
where; they, were entertained by the Spaxiziard; 
fr(»n whence they are now of late (upon the EarL 
pf Argyle his flight thither to the king of Spain) 
both recalled home by his Majesty* the year aS 
God 1680* fmd are now in England* at this time* 
sifitb the^king^ who hath given Sir James a yearly 
pension of. 1000 merJ^ Sterling* and a yearfy pe&<p 
9km. pf 200 merks Steriing to MacrenaM* together 
1¥ith a piirdon for all their bygaiie c^imces* 

TrotAles in the West Iska betwixt the Clan^Donald 
and the StiUTormxaty the year 1601. 

St^utt bad mamed Sir Bory Macleod of the Her* 
lis his sister* and for some displeasure or jealousy 
i^oQ^ived a^nst her* be did repudiate her; 
whereupon Sir Bory Macfeod sent message to Do* 
nald Gonad* d^iring bim to take home his sister. 



Donald Gorme not only reftised to obey his ve- 
queet, but also' intended divorcement against ber ; 
which when he had obtained, he married Kenneth 
Mackenzie lord of Kintidl his sister. Sir Rory 
Macleod took this disgrace (as he thought it) so 
highly, that assembling his countrymen and fd- 
lowers, without delay, he invaded, with fire and 
sword, a part of Donald Oorme his lands in the 
isle of Skie, which lands Sir Rory did claim to ap- 
pertain to himself. Donald Gorme impatient of 
this injury, con veiled his forces, and went into the 
Herris, which he wasted and spoiled, carried away 
thdr store and bestial, and killed some of the in- 
habitants. This again did so stir lip Sir Rory 
Macleod and his kin the Seil-Tormot, that th^ 
took a journey into the isle of Ouyst (which- ap- 
pertaineth to Donald Gorme) and landing there. 
Sir Rory sent his Qousin Donald Glasse Macleod, 
with some 40 men, to spoil the island, and to take 
a prey of goods out of the precinct of Kille-try- 
nud, where the people had put all their goods to 
be preserved as in a sanctuary, being a church. 
John Macean-Macjames (a kinsman of Donald 
Gorme^s) being desired by him to stay in the 
island, accompanied with §0 others, rencountered 
with Donald Glasse Macleod; This small jcom- 
pany of the Clan-Donald behaved themselves so 
valiantly, that, aflet'a shiurp skirmish, they kiHed 
Donald Glasse Macleod with the most part cf his 
company, and so rescued the goods. Sir Rory, 
seeing the bad success of his kinsmen, retired home 
for that time. 

Thus both the parties were bent headlong a* 


ggivtBi others mik a spirit ftiU of rievenge and fu* 
tyif and.sooontmued mutually infesting one an* 
ttther with spoils and cruel slaughters, to the utter 
ruin and desolation of hoth their countries, until! 
the inhabitants were forcedto eat horse, dogs, cats, 
and ether filthy beasts. In end, Dbnald Gorme 
assembled his whole forces the year of God 1601, 
to try the event of battle, and came to invade Sir 
Hory his lands, thinking thereby to draw his ene- 
mies torfight. Sir Rory Macleod was then in Ar- 
gyle, craving aid and advice from the earl of Ar- 
gyle, agmnst the Clan-Donald. Alexander Mac- 
leod: (SirlRorJr his brother) resolves to fight with 
Donald Gforme, though his broths was absent : so 
assembling all "the' inhabitants of his brother's 
lands, with the whole race of the Seil-Tormot, 
4md some of the Seil-Torquille, out of the Lewes, 
he encamped beside' a hill called Bin-guillin in the 
isle of Sky, with a resolution to fight against Do- 
nald Gorme and tbeClan^Donald the next morn- 
ing,' which werl^ no sooner come but there ensued 
41 cruel and terrible skirmish^ which lasted the most 
part of the day, both contending for the victory 
with great obstinacy. . The Clan-Donald, in end, 
overthrew their enemies, hurt Alexander Macleod 
and took him prisoner, with Neill Macalester«R6y, 
and SO others of the chiefest men among the Seil- 
.Tormot, killed tw5 near kinsmen of Sir Rory 
•Macleod^s, John Mactormot and Tormot Mac- 
toritaot, with . maiiy others. - After this skirmish 
; there fcjlowed a reconciliation betwixt them, by 
the mediation of old Anigus Macdonald of Kin- 
tjfep the. laird of CoUe, and others. Then Do- 


Bald 'Oorme ddivdred unto^Sir Rdty Abuledd dl 
iIm pritoners taken at Iffin^gttiBin, tog^k with 
hifl brother Aiexlniider ' Madeod. £&tiiee nnliich tttoe 
they have cotitiiitted in peace afid ' quietnettu 

TTit trotibles betwioct the L&rd Kimia'Slt and the 

, ... . 

Laird of Glengarrie. 

THE year of God 1BQ2, the lord Kbtidle aiid: 
hii kin, the Cbn-Cheintie, fell at Variaii^^mlh the 
laird of Glaiganie (one of the Clan-Dmaki) who 
bong unexpert and un^kilfal in the laws of the 
realm, the Clan-Chan$sie intiiafi^ped Ji^>ft&tnared 
him within the ootnpass therec^ tod due^ld him, 
with a number of his men and fbllowei% to ooBi» 
pear before the justice at Edinbni]g;&; theyhaviag, 
in the mean time, slain two oF hif^ kibsmen* Gtet- 
garrie, not knowing or oeglebtiog the duagtB, 
came not to Edinburgh at the pr^xed; day^ but 
went about, at his own hand, to r^vmge the slaugb- 
ter of his kinsmen. Thereupon thelord of Ktntaile, 
by his credit in council^ doth piuroka&e a obiamii- 
sion against Glengarrie and his country mdi^ ; wUdi 
being obtained, Kintaile (with the asAstancec^ the 
next adjmning neigfaboun^ by virtue of hia' coin- 
mission) went into Moroli (which i^ypectained^tD 
Glengarrie) and wasted all that country ; then, 
in his return from Moroli, he beliegdd the'^caade of 
Strome, which, in end, he took, by treason of the 
captain unto whom Glengarrie had obmmitted the 
custody thereof. Afterward the Clan<-CheiM!rie«Kd 
invade Glengarrie his eldest son, whom they killed 
with 40 of hiir followers, not without soine slaugh- 

t€t of the Clab-»Cb€siisie Kkevise. In end, after 
great si AUghter on eitter side, they came to an agiec* 
liietit, vi^henetn Gl^i^anie (for to obtain his peboe) 
was gliidto acquit and renounce to the loi^ of Kin- 
taile, the perpetual inheritanoe of the Stroniie, with 
the lands adjacent. 

Simie troubles in the Isle of Rasey^ the year of 
':'' God 1611. 

IN the month of August 1611 there happened 
ah accident in the isle of Rasey, which is among 
the West Isles^ where Gillcolme laird of Rasey 
and.Mnrtb0w: Mackenzie (son to the laird of Gar- 
logb) with some others, were slain, upon this occa* 
sion. ' The lands iifGarlogh did sometime pertain 
to the laink of Basey, his predecessors, and when 
the surname of ^Clati-Cbeinzie began first to rise 
and ft»urish, oneoftfiem did obtain the tlurd part, 
bf Garloch in wadsel ; and thus on^e getting foot- 
ing therein, «hartiy thereafter doth purchase a 
preteiided. right! of the whole, which the lawful 
inheritors did neglect ; whereby, in process of time, 
the Clan Cbeittzie do challenge the whole, whereof 
this laird of Garlogh his father obtains the posses- 
luon,' excluding ihe laird of Rasey and his kin, the 
Clan-Vio' Gillcolme; whom Garlogh and the Clan- 
Ohein^ie did pursue, with fire and sword, and 
chased them out of Garlogh. In like miEinneri 
the Clan.yic*Gillco|me invaded the laird of Gar- 
logh and bis country with spoils and slaughters. 
Xn end, « the laird, of Giarlogh apprehended John 
!M«caUen^ ami/ctM^ed J^n Holmogh, twoprinci- 


|nl men of. the race <£ Cku!i«'yi&-6U)cofal(ie, and 
near cooaas to the laird of Bewy ; ai whidi akir* 
niA there was daughter cm dUier Ah, the year 
of God 1610. The hdid of Oarlo^ not fuUy 
satiified herewith, he sent hit mm Murthow^ 
accompanied with Alexander Bane (aon and heir to 
Alexander Bane of TuUoch) and some others, to 
search and pursue John Hdmogh ; and to this 
effect he did hire a ship (which then, by chance, 
happened to ly upon that coast) to transport Us 
son Murthow, with his company, into the irie oi 
Skie, where he understood John HoImogE to be 
at that time. But how soon Murthow with his 
company were embarked, they turned their coilraa 
another way, and (whether of set purpose, or con- 
strained thereto by contrary winds, I know not) 
arrived at the isle of Ras^, running headkmg la 
thm own destruction. The UiioA of Basey^ per« 
oeiving the ship in the harbour, went aboard to. 
buy some wines and other cotnnibditiesyaccompanied 
with 12 men. How soon Bf urthow did see them 
coming, he, with all his company (least they ^should 
be known or seen) went to the lower rooms of the 
ship, untill the other perty had gone away. The 
laird of Rasey entered the ship, and having spoken 
the marinells, he departed with a resolntioa to 
return quickly. Murthow understanding diat 
they were gone, came out of the low^r rooms ; and 
perceiving them come again, he resolved not to 
conceal himself any longer. The hard <^ Basey 
desired his brother Murthow Macgilkscdme to 
follow him unto the ship, i^th more company, in - 
anothet giffiey^ that tb^ imght carry to the shore 

3aioe wine Ikadiolh^i' pfoviaion^ infhicb'te bad rft 
rioted to h\tj from' the iDatinells x so the laird of 
Bajs^y vetiDmii^g to titc; sbip^ add findingf Garlogh 
his 8011 there beydiid' bis eicpeetation,, be adTiseth 
wkh hi» meD, afid thereupon resolveth to take him 
prisoner, in pledge of his Cousin John MacaUen, 
Vbom Churlogb detained in captivity. They began 
fin^ to. quatrei, then to %ht in the ship, wbieh 
condnui^d /ali the daylong; inef)d, the laird of 
Basey was slain, jabd. div^rd of bis iam\ so^was 
Murtbow the son of GMrlogb and Alexander Bane 
lAWeAyfriAh their baill oiMa}pany,thfeeonIyexcepted$ 
who fdiq^bt so manfldlyy that they killed all'thobe 
tlM(f came into the ship mtfa the liurd of Basey^ 
and.hiifft\a numbeif of tb6$e that iVere with Mur« 
thow Macgtlkolme in two galleys hofly pursuing 
them ; at last, feeling themseiteHi deadly hurt, and 
not able to eddnre any longer, they sailed awagr 
iidth a prosperous wind, aild dild shortly thereM 


. ' J •. 

. ' ' The t)rmbl9$ of the LMts. 

RORY MACLEOD of the Lewesr had three 
wt^ed ; - he tauMtied first Barbara Stewart^ daughter 
to the Lord Meffen^ by; whom be had Torquill 
yii9> who diedy befi^e bis. father, without issue i. 
after Barbara Ste>iFart> death, Bory married Mac. 
kenasieV daughter, who bore Torquill Connaldagb> 
whom Bcsry would not aeknowledgeasbis son, but 
beki him alwajjra a bastard ; and repudiating* bia 
inalher, he marified Maclean fais>. sitter, by whom 
heliad TorqviU Dow und Tonmt. Beaides these^^ 

08 eOKFLtCTA* 

Rory had three base soiis,NeiIl Madeed, Roiy-CKg") 
and MurthowMacleod. After the death of old Hory 
Macieod, his son Torquill Dow Madeod (excluding 
his brother Torquill Connaldagh as a bastard) doth 
take possession of the Lewes, and is acknowledged 
by the inhabitants as the lawful inheritor of that 
island. Torquill Connaldagh (by some called 
Torquill of the Cogigh) perceiving himself thus 
put by the inheritance of the Lewes, he hath 
recourse to his mother^s kindred the Clan«Cheinzie, 
and desires their support to recover the same. The 
lord Kintaile, Torquill Connaldagh, his brother 
Murthow Macleod, and the Brienre of the Lewes, 
met altogether in Ross^toadviseby what means Tor<^ 
quil Connaldagh might obtain the possession of the 
Lewes, which they were out of all hope to effectuate 
so long as Torquill Dow was aliVe ; whereupon the 
Brienreof the Lewes undertook to slay his master 
Torquill Dow, which he brings thus to pass ; the 
Brienre, being accompanied with the most part of 
his tribe (the Clan-vicgill-voir) went in his galley 
to the isle of Roriey ; and, by the way he appre* 
hended a Dutch ship, which he brought by force 
along with him to the Lewes ; he invites his master 
Torquill tyow unto a banquet in the ship ; Tor- 
quill Dow (suspecting no deceit) went thither 
accompanied with seven of the best of his friends, 
and sat down in the ship, expecting some drink : 
instead of wine, they bring cords; thus were they 
all apprehended -and bound by the Brienre andr 
his kindred, wbo'brought them tothe lord of Kin* 
taile his bounds, o^ there beheaded them every 
man, in July 1597. Neither didt^ advwce 

aqxixiCTSk 69 

Torquill Connaldagh to the pdssessiiHi of ii^ 
Leweft; for bis brother NieiU Mucleod opposed 
hinlself, and pursued the'Brieiire tod his kin, in a 
part of the island called Neisey which they bad 
fortified; where he killed diyers of them, aad 
made them leave the streilgth* Thus did Neill 
MadeDd possess the ida&d, to. the behoof of hii| 
brotber Tonnot^ and the .children of Torquill 
Dow, whom, he did acknowledge to b^.ri;ghtQOus 
beirs ot the idand. Torquill Connalda|^ htA now 
loat bodi bis |H>na, John and Neill^ Md had ijiarried 
bir daughter to Bory Mackenzie (the l<^i^ Smtdle 
, bis braither) ff^g^ her in^ marriage the la^ids of 
^S'fl^ HeDeupoD Kmtaile begiufi to think and 
advise by what nieans he ih^t pufohase tb himself 
the inheritance bf that island, having now Torquill 
Connaldagh and his brother Moifthow MjE^leod 
altogttber at his. devotion, and having Toi^ot 
Madeod in hiii otistodyi,. whom be t66k from tb^ 
soboolft ; . no rtbat he; bad none, td ofspose unto his 
designs bot Neill Madeod, whom be might easily 
OTcrdiityw: Eantaile deals eirneitly with TorquiU 
Cdnnaldagfa, and^ in i^nd, petsUade» him to resign 
die right of the idand into bki favours^ add to 
defiver bim dlthe old rights and .efrjdentrof the 

In this mean tinle, the bartxis.and gendemen of 
tifb, hearinjff tUeSe troubles^ werie intysed, by the 
penuadon of scbne that bad beed there, aiHd by this 
TOfiort «f the fettility of the idaad, to Undertake a 
dHflbeite and hard' interpriael T^ey condude to 
send a colony thither, and to.dviltse (if it welt 
pMfibk) the infaabitalittt of 'the isUnd : To this 

70 eoKFtiCTfl* 

dTect, they obtain, froor the -King, a ^ft of the 
Lewes, the year ot God 1599, or thareabouts^ 
which was alledged to be then at his Majesty's 
disposition. Thereupon the adventurers, being 
jcnned' together in Fife, they assemble a company 
of soldiers, with artificers of all sorts, and did 
transport them into the Lewes, where they erected 
houses and buildings, till, in end, they make & 
pretty little town, in a proper and convenieni 
place fit for the purpose, and diere they encamped 
themselves. Neill Macleod and Murthow (the 
sons of old Rory) withstood the undertakers; 
Murthow Macleod invaded the lurd c^ Baloofany^ 
whom he apprehended together with his slup, and 
killed all his men : so, having detained him six 
months in captivity in the Lewes, he released him 
upon his promise to pay him a ransom. 

Now Neill Macleod was grieved in heart to see 
his brother Murthow intertain the Brieore and lus 
tribe, bdng the chief* instruments of thra*: brother 
Torquill Dow his slaughter ; and thereupon Neill 
apprehended his brother Murthow ; iiiiicb, when 
the undertakers had heard, they s^it message unto 
Neill, shewing, that if he would ddiver unto them 
his brother Murthow, they would agree with him- 
self, ^ve him a portion of the island, and assbt 
him to revenge the slaughter of hi^ brother Tor^ 
quill Dow. Whereunto Neill heaykened, and 
delivered his brother Murthow to the undertakers ; 
dien went Neill with them to Edinburgh, and had 
his pardon from the King for all faSa by past offences* 
Murthow Macleod was executed at SA. iAndrews. 

Thus was the earl of Kintaile in despair to poiy 


efaase or obtain the Lewes ; and therefpve he bends 
all his wits to cross the undertakers : he setteth 
Tormot Macleod at liberty, thinking that at his 
arrival in the iUand, all the inhabitants would stir 
in his favours against the undertakers ; which they 
did indeed, as the natural inclination is of all these 
islanders and Highlanders,, who, of all other people, 
are most bent and willing to hazard and adventure 
themselves, their lives, and all they have, for thdr 
lords and masters. The King was informed, by the 
undertakers that the lord of Kintaile was a crosser 
and hinderer of their interprize ; whereupon he was 
brought intoquestion, and committed to ward in the 
castle of EdinlMirgh, from whence he was released, 
without the trial of an assize, by the lord chan- 
cellor his means. Neill Macleod returning into the 
Lewes with the undertakers, he fell at variance with 
tbemj; whereupon he went about to invade their 
camp, and they began, in like manner, to lay a 
snare 'for him. The laird of Wormistoun, chusing 
a very dairk night, sent forth a company to appre* 
hend Neill ; who, perceiving them coming, invaded 
them, and chased them, with slaughter, to their 
camp. By this time came Tormot Macleod into the 
island, at whose arrival the inhabitants speedily asr 
sembled,and came to him as to their lord and master. 
Thereupon Tormot, accompanied with his brother 
Neill, invaded the camp of the undertakers, forced 
tt, burnt the fort, killed most part of their men, 
took their commanders prisoners, and released 
them, after eight months captivity. Thus, for a 
while, Tormot Macleod commanded in that island, 
untm the undertakers returned again to the Lewes^ 

72 .cwiiWTiu 

bdog asosted by Ibe fauces of all tbe peig^ibc^is- 
iog countries, by virtue of tbe King's cpniiiiis^ian, 
directed against Tomjot Madeod.^ Jriskin the 
Seil-Torquill. How soon their forces were landed 
in the island, Tormot Mncleod i^nder^ himself to 
the undertakers, upon their promise to c^J ^ 
safe to London, and to obtain him 4 r^wis^ipo ^9^ 
bis bypast crimes ; but Neill MacleQd_#«pd out, 
and would not submit himself^ Tori^pt beii^ 
eome to London, the King gives hm a pardon j 
but withal he sent him home into SooUandj to he 
keeped in ward at Edinbui^ ; where h^;ren(\»ned 
tmtill the month of March 1616, thftt tb^ l^ng 
gave him liberty to pass into. Hdland, a^bepe he 
ended his daysi Tormot lims !wrarde4.ii>. Edin- 
burgh, tbeadventiimrsdid settle tb^)»si^lves ^;ain, 
for a little while, in the Lt^wes; where, at last, thp 
undertakers began to wewy ; many of the advfn* 
turers and partners drew baek from the interpri^e ; 
some, for laok of means, were not ^ble ; P^I^ers 
died; others had greater Deatsiotisandbusipess 
elsewhere to abstract them ; mmj of tbism h^;an 
to deeline and decay in their estates ; and so, being 
eontinually vexed by Neill Macleod, they left the 
island, and returned into Fife. 

Tbe lord of Kintaile, pero^ving all things IJhus 
fall out to his mind, did now shew himself openly 
in the matter ; he past a gift of tbe island, in his 
own name, under his Majesty's great .seal, by tbe 
lord chancellor his means, by virtue of the old 
right which Torquill Connaldagh had b^ore re- 
signed in his favours: some of the adventurers 
Gomiduned herepf to the Sin^s Majesty> who w«s 

I|igjtty dkpleltsed with Xaiitaile» and made him to 
Tmga hit. r^t into his Majesty^s hands ; iv'hioh 
Hght b^Dg n6w at his ^ajesty^s dispontioB, he 
gpjve the same to three of the undertakers^ to wit, 
the ilord BahDermachs Sir James Spence of Wor^ 
mi«ftWQ»'and Sir Qieof^ Hay : who, now, having 
idith^ rightfintJbieir.persOiid) assembled their Ibrces 
toga^ti/^f with the aid of/ most part of. all ^ 
n^ghboimi^^CQUntrieft; and so, under the con^ct 
of Sir Crforge Hay and Sir James Spenoe, they 
invaded the Lewes again, not only to settle a 
d^Qftiy there, but also to searclh [for Neiil Macleod. 
;(Tbelor4 Kintaile (yet hunting after the Lewes)* 
did/ underhand assist Neill, and publicly i£d aid 
theiipde^takers by virtue of the King^s com mission ; 
Kintaile seirt a Bupply of victuals^ iQ a ship from 
Boss, to the adventinrers ; in the mean time he 
sendeth quietly Neill Macleod, desiring him to 
t§H^ the $h||^>by the .Way, that the undertakers, 
trcistiog tQ thpse victual^ and betdg difiappmntesi 
thereiiif, jsiight be forced 4o reftire, and abaadon 
tb[e island ; which fell out accordingly : for Sir 
James Spence and Sir George- Hay, faiH^g' to 
appi^hend NeiM, and being scarce of victmals toi 
fiprnish th^ir. army^ ' th^y b(^n:lo weary»^ aadiso 
d^^QuJised iijl (heiueighbofiirin^'forcas; : SirCiebige, 
Hay apd'Worniistcfun did then retire iiito iEtfe^y 
leaving eqitie men, in Che island to defisnd and ke^ 
the fort untill they did aesnd them a fresh aupifly' 
of men and viiQtuals.: whereupon Neill, beiog asp. 
sii^t^d by hie nephew Malct>Im Macleod (tbieisoa of 
I^y-Oig) ti«vadj9d the . undertakers icao^),. :bumt 
the samei <^prebended aU. those which were left • 



behind in the island, atnd sent them home safely : 
sinoe which time they- never returned again into 
the Lewes. Then did the lord Balmerinoch, Sir 
Gkorge Hay, and Sir James Spence begin to weary 
of the Lewes, and sold their title of that island to 
the lord of Kintaile for a sum of moiiey : whereby,' 
in end,.afler> great trouble atid ihutih blood, he 
dl)tained that island.. And th us did this interprize 
of the Fife undertakers cdme to no effect, after 
they had spent much time, and most part of their 
means about it. 

Eintaile was glad that he bad now at last catched 
his long expected prey ; and tbereupdn he went 
into the island,, where he was no so(Hier landed, 
but all the inhabitants yield unto him, e!xcept 
Neill Macleod and some few others. The inhabi- 
tants yielded the more willingly to Kintaile, because 
he was t^eir neighbour, and might still vex them 
with continual incursions if they did stand out' 
against him ; which the undertakers Were'not able 
to do. NeiW; Macleod was now forced fo- Retire 
unto a rock, within the sea, called Berrisay, which 
he kept fbr the space of three years ; during the 
time^-of his: stay in the -fort of ^Berrisay, there 
arribed anr/Englisli pj^itein the li^wes, Wh6 had 
a-;^ip>ftimi8hed'with' great wealth; this pkate 
(ciftlttd P^er Lowe) entered in friendship and 
fainiHarity with ^Neill, being botfa^ rebds : at last, 
NMl took him prisons with all his mi^n, whom 
he sent, together wit| the iship, to the council of 
Scotland, fhinking fhweby to get his -own' pardon, 
and Hi& brother Tbrihot relasised out of prison; 
but nehherof them did be obtain'.' and all. the 

CpKFtlCTB. 75 

EnglisbttidDy with their captiun (Peter Lowe) were 
iiai^red at Leitfa, the year of God 1613. Neill 
Mocleod being wearied to remain' in the' fort of 
Berrisay, did abandon the same, and disfjiersing 
$31 his eompany several ways, he retires into 
Herrifes, where he reumiiied a certain while itf 
sedrct': then he rendered himself unto his eousin 
Sir Rory Macleod, wtioin he intreated to carry 
iHa hitd lEikg^d to his Majesty ; which Sir Rory 
tmdertoolbkio da ; and comirig to Glasgow; with a 
resolbtion to embark there for Etsglahd, he was 
efadrged there, under the pain of treaifon, t(vdeliv!9r 
Neill ; - whom he 'piteAented. . beipre ' the coihcil at 
Edinbiirgh, w^here he was executed in April 161 S. 
After th^ death • of Neiil,' ' his h^pfacrw Mdcolm 
Macleod (the son of <RoryiO%») ^^i^piag Ironi the 
tutor of Eintaile^ did tastociate^ himself to the Clan* 
Dotiaki^ in Ilti and Kintyre, during their troubles 
agiui^t the Camfdb^lH the^ years of Go4 IGl^, 
IdlS^'^od^ 16l6h ^at v^ich time Malcolin made a 
journey from Khityte into t(|e Li^w^^s^,'. and t|iere 
biUed two geitletiien: i>f ihe Clan^Cheinzie ; then 
beW^nt idto Spaing* and there v^nmined iifi Sit 
Sixn&s Maodonald'his' "coibpeby, ^ifb whom be i^ 
ttd^ag^inireturned into England, the year of God 

162i9l h'jiui'j!\,>r^- '.r ■•••./:.. . ."JJ.. 

'^Smjctrmibtts'hetw und Cattiyness, 

^ ' ; ' the year tyfXiod IQU. 

L . \: . ••■■ • -1 •>' 

. THE year of God 1613 there :happened some 
discord and dissension betwixt • Sutberland • and 
OotteyneBS^ wUicb troul^led^ a little; the peace i»f 


79 eoHinjtcvs. 

that part of the kiagdoieu Tb^ oonunoa vm Ais; 
one Arthur Smiith, (a false ccHflier) faeuigf tbg^ikei 
ivitb his aerviinti. ftf^efaeoded Ibc inakiitg and 
striking of fake noiiey, wf^^ both seat to £(&i* 
bttrgh, the year of God :16^99» where Ua servant 
WAS exeeuled; but Arthur himself escaped^ aild 
jcedred into Catteyaeeeb and dwelt f bete. with the 
earl of that cou&trey* The report h^r^ comkig 
to the King's ears^ the year of Giod : 161% . Us 
Ms^tdty gave a secret commissioD to? hik aenrant 
Sic BdbM. Gordon (the earl of Sutfaefflawi his 
boolher) for apprehending this Arthur Smitki bill 
as SicBobect'waa gtnilgiabout topeifomonihe sainet 
he feii^eaived a conunandment from Ins .Majesty td 
aocoai|ME&y Sir Alexanddt Hay (then seertstary (^ 
Scotland) in af^o^nding JTdin Ledie of New 
Ledtie^ and some other rd)d&f in Gereag^; which 
Sir Bobert cibc^edy and committed the exetotictn 
of the OQiAinission aj^ioat 4^hikr.Siiiith, unto' his 
n^bew Donald Mackyof Farr, ^dbn' Gocdod of 
Gotpelier younger (bephew > t^ Geoi^ Gordoi^ 
slain at MarW'the year i£67) as^tei John GrotdoSf 
aon to iJohnr Gordon of Backieak These thr^i 
pjEirting from Sutherland with 86 j]ien^calBe4Qth^ 
town .of Thurso in Ciiltteynesa, where' Arthiir 
Smith then dwelt, and there apprehended hinmi 
which when John Sinclair of Skirkag (the earl of 
Catteyness bis nephew) understood, he a99en^4ed 
the inhabitants of the town, and opposed himself 
to the King's commission. There ensued a sharp 
skirmish upon the streets of Thurso, where John 
Sinclair of Skirkag was slsun, and James Sincbor 
of Dun left there deadly hurt» l^ing upon the 

git^uAd 'i ^ J^iMt l^duf b Was there likewise slidn : 
idivks^ 0if t*lS# Sulheridnd teen weife hurt; but they 
peteeitiBg^tnith Aeadi they lefV lliui'8b,'^nd r^« 
tired themselves all home into their own couiiti^y. 
'Thereupon both the parties compeared before 
the secret douncil at Edinburgh ; the eia)rl bf Cat- 
l^ybeiss-'did' pursue Sir Robert Gordon, Donald 
Maicky^ and' John GordoQ) for th& islaugfaterof his 
ilbpMew;'\h^se, again, did ^rsue'the inbabitikrtts 
of iCatt^yiie^s^r i^esibtlng the Ktng^-s coihmiissioners. 
^heseci'et council (having special commMidiq^faft 
from hid Majesty to that e&ect) ' dealt earif€fl^t!y 
• niith 'both the' patti^;. 'and/ in- end, perstiatdea 
thein tb'Subniit thebe'quiestionMiandVl^alt^ 
Arbhnknen't>>ot^ #iriepds< A certain nutnb^i^ of^fhe 
IcH^^^i cdutJdfl were ^sen flis^Ai^nds^'for eithet' 
phi^tyv the Archbishop of St. Andrews 4nd th6 
ea^l df Dodfermiiiie; Ch^tiiceHor of Scotknd, were 
appointed oversmen by consent of both the parties. 
These friendly judges having heard the business 
reasoned in their presence, and finding that the 
examination thereof would prove tedious and in- 
tricate; they direct a power to the marquis of 
Huntlie to deal in the matter; desiring him to 
try, if, by his means and mediation, these conten- 
tions might be settled, happening betwixt parties 
so strictly tied to him by blood and alliance, the 
earl of Sutherland being his cousin-german, and 
the earl of Catteyness having married his sister. 
The marquis of Huntlie did his best, but could 
not prevail, either party being so far from condes- 
cending to others demands, and so he remitted the 
business back again to the secret council ; which 


78 ooK?UCTs. 

hempfffA the Kiag^s 
Majestj for a pardon to Ponald Macfcy, John 
Gordofi, and their asaodates, for the daii^ter of 
John Sinclair of Skirkag; which his Majesty 
eattly gnuoted^ seeing it was committed in the 
execution of his Majesty^s service : yet, neverthe- 
lessi there still remained a grudge in the minds of 
the parties, searching by all means and oceasioiis 
to infest one another, unttll the year qi God 1619» 
that the earl of Catteyoess atid Sir Robert Gm^on 
(then, by his brother's death, tutor of Sutherland) 
were . reconciled by tb^ mediation of Oeorge lord 
Gordon, eajl of Eozie ; by wlipse trufvel and dife- 
genc^yaU partiicqlars betwixt the: hot|se& of Suth^*- 
l^md and Catteyness wei^ finally sirttledj: m^ then 
went bo|h of them familiarly to Others houses t 
whose perfect reeonoliation wit} doubtle^ tendtp 
the peace and quiet of tbe$e purts of the kingdom. 

« .- I • « 

' ■ ," . , . ' . ■ I ' ■, , ; • . < I . I 

» il' ir .i 

I' ' 




aUd ■ ■'"''"! 

TM YtaifB o/* G^ ljf9a> 1593, awi^im^^ 

'1^,,! ' . ' ■'?- 

' * ° I . ' • «r»%%«%»%«4M^ 

1 I 

* I t 

year of God liSdS the mmifftiy flmd chuvob 
of Scotland thdug&t it neoessar^ tbat aUigiiolr as 
frdt&fB^ the ^ Romati * telij^n • in ; the ^kingdom, 
should either be cbnipelled t<» ewbriice tbe veforniel 
reltgion, or else that > tiiC' cdntare of exoomoiotiicaM 
tion ahould be used againai them^and their goods; 
dbcemed to appertaiii to' the King so long as thejri 
remdned disobedient. Mr* George- Cat^ doctoi^ ^i 
the laws, was the first th|vt Wltbstocid, aild.waa ex^iJ 
oomttkunicate j ^e next was Ddvid iGrabam of 
fintrie. This Mr, George Csari considering that 
hereby he could have no quiet rendence^withip' 
his native country, did deliberate with himself to 
pa^s beyond sea into Spain ; and therefore, that 
he m%ht be the w^kbmer there, ha devised eer« 


tain blanks, as if they had been subscribed by 
some of the Scottish nobility, and directed from 
them to the king of Spain, to be filled up at his 
pleasure : which project was first hatched by the 
Jesuits, and chiefly by. father Crightoun, who, for 
some discontentment had, few years before, left 
Scoitland and fled- into Spi^n: yhere ^e end^- 
v6ured to insinuate hiitnseff into 'King Philip Iiis 
favour, and published a, book concerning the gene- 
alogy of his daughter, the Infanta, married to the 
Archduke ; wherpini he;did hi&best to prove, that 
the two crowns of England and Scotland did ap- 
pertain unto her : and, that this cunning Jel^it 
might the rather move King Philip to make war 
against the King of Scotland, he writeth books and 
pamphlets in the disgrace of .his own native prince* 
Then he adviseth with himself that his next and 
readiest way was to solicite some of his friends in 
Scotland,. :whQ were offais failkt and. to this €ffe<tt 
he wctteth letters tjiis ye»i: of God ISI92 to. this 
Geoirge Oar, ondito such of fhia.oMh isdlle^ue^tbo 
/ Jfisuttfl as wer&thesf in !tbiakipg!dbm> whereby he* 
made them underafeami >whiat-(^eat favour and. 
credit he had with the King of ;SpaiQ»' who by his 
persuasions, was resolved: both to invade England, 
and to>esjtablldh the CathOlick . faitb m .Sjbotland ;. 
but first, ' that King' PhiKpf ;w!ouitd , be a«s^red of 
die good will <tf tbd Catbolieks of Scotland !; where- 
fore he behooved to have icei'taii^ blanks subscrived 
by the CathoUcs, and that he should cause them 
tube, filled up afterwards ; which, if he did ob- 
tain^ be. had . promise, of the Kiiig of Spain, to 
send them 250,000 crowns to b^ distributed among 

sax SS^AmSSL BLAJIXf* 81 

tbem. After tfaiB advertisemeiit 6B filler 
toil's, this G«orge Car' (by tb> lidvioe of th^ 
suits Ihen resident in * Scotland) 'devised: tUete 
Uanks, to the e£^ct th!at Gebvge Cat *might trans^ 
poirt then^ into Spaim Ca^ addressed himself to 
the towin 6f Air to hav6 taken shippong thiere^^ add 
iyvig in tbe isle: oE Cqinrayv attending a fifttr^vind^ 
b0:wa9s di!spoueQ^% thttindiaeoetion^of Jbthetf A«p 
ber^rosnUe^i and appreh^n^edlaft the- ship; fisafal 
wbende He ^Was csirriied 'bsiek 'tor Aii^; and'^fhom 
tfal^me ccm veiled' to Eidiiibnr^b : y^ith faihi) ^'$^ 
feimd a padcet-^ of ktteri^ directed (astt'^efo) 
fronii some .SeotU^Tioyeobeq^fdtOiSpinn land 9ome 
pa^ts of Franoe: theif^iiii'-wete. fotoUn blanks 'il^ 
leged subscrhned' by- the ^edri tt j^ngusy '• ths^ eiilrl«af 
Huntley^ tbe ebvl of flrvoUj : a^ Sir Patrick Crotv 
Aim of Auchindowney unde tbitheearlbf Humitey. 
The blanks iviere thlis^ Iinpqimis^ twbl missive biHll 
d»ected to tfaerking of :Spiii|i<; tiiis 6n& subscriTied 

ieuri' Fhinf0U^iiic^H^ ^'JB^ aintitbei^' bo this 
tdaftner, d^iAtvii JUaJfetlte ti^ bmMtyH trii 

another Uaab subsoviivod ^by 'them aU foury asit 
were hfi^kmotitmtxKi^^^ otiKgatbnf'^bnjonod^ 
tims, Q^iiMUf'^ jhtgutAe l<!omtS^ 'Gp(iPgikiii}(M^ 

sei^Y^d i^art hyFi^mxisffiii^'Eittdi^iC^ ibmi 
0ii&hf^€Ofgk»^'^&i/kt$ d» Jir«iu%i;i itemV' otfe^'^y 
Ouliitmui Aigtitim C1iM94;> : Hbrte^n: tbe >ia«ois^ 
tflps seii&somttibf the ipl'li^y oooAtnl'to'th^'hin'g^il 
AUoway (trhei^ liis lni^ity< (tbehl lojr) 4o advertise 


of these blanks. Tl^ King came to Editt* 
burgh,; where, all the matter was debated to him 
at length partly hy Mr. Bowes Leiger, ambassa- 
dor for. the Queen of England in Scotland, and 
partly by Mr. Robert Bruce, principal ministejir 
at Edinburgh, ;shewing that the cealm of Scotland 
was in aflparent dangpr o£ Spaniards to be broag^ 
in by ^e forenamed earls .bfeibg! Papiusts; and 
thereby, both his Majesty^s crown was in danger, 
and'the established reUgiohinihazard toUe altered* 
That Mr. George Car had sufficiently defetedrthe 
(whole dreumstance of the bustness in his confes* 
fitoD, dus»ising: the. Popish lords ^iguUty .of ^ these 
^nkssl^ndthUs,' taking the matter. already pro 
eoiifesBOj^ 'they ur^e tb^businesS' viebeinently, and 
dO'])ntreat:his Majesty. to proceed against thetn 
with; all celerity and ngoun . Then was David 
Graham of ■. Fintrie • apprehended, arrai^ed, and 
executed at Edibbui^ j -da > Febi*uary this . yeas 
459S,' (or 1593 stilth novo) whoj tlun^og U> vsa^^ 
hiinself thereby^ did. write a long letter,^ sub^rWed 
nithhiA own hand, directec^ lil.the'King^ wbereio 
he made metition that the. Roman €adioUaks of 
' Scotland had undertaken to .ireoeiVe such. 'a dum- 
ber of soldiers as the King of .Spain) and his coun^ 
dl should appoii\t ; atid in .oti^ ha, wotdd jb^slcdis 
any money for levying of ^enviiei\eV t^ey. should 
both i^Ulin^y iconyoy tfie KiDg^'ai^AEOj^. irttQ £ng*i> 
land, and.retiua a certain i»umbtr in Scotlahd, for 
rrformation bf,religiol3, a^d jta pund^iSK^rUb^y. of 
conscience : that hd himself bad gjiVen. oSruiAsiel 
thereuiito diveristAimes^ ai^r jt^at the.imatjber wm 
communicate tot him i>y^ the Jesuits^ ^n4 becaiis^ 

THE spAKtfent mank:^. saf^ 

he fore-knew thw purpose,- ^nd concealed the 
ttlide, he Wftsdn danger of the kw : for this cause 
he desired not to be tried by a jury, but offered 
himself unto the King^ mercy and will, when he 
was arraigned at ^i.. Ko.. The King (not the less 
rif tills his voluntary confession^ ^''^----'^ded t 
proceed agiunst hhn according Uo the law ; whien: 
waii'doneV .• .'.; ii ••■.':. ^ • 

After this^ theEing^s Majesty (believhig cer- 
tainly that ^hese^ blanks,** together with the infor- 
mations and intelligence of. father Crightoun con- 
oerning > the Spamish - King, were ' true indeed) ad- 
dressed hktfsetf to the north; of Scotland^ for pro- 
secntkigof sHun(de}% Angus, and Errol> and made 
bis 'Majesty ^8 residence at Aberdeen. Themselves 
and their dependers were, by open proclamation, 
at their dwoIHnig places, required to show their 
ob^ietice and appearance before the King : but 
they baying understood before the King^s coming, 
mid how hts Majesty was incensed and stirred up 
against them, they hacl all left their ordinary ha- 
bitations void. The countesses of Huhtley and 
iErrol came to the King, to whom he granted their 
houses and rent^, without making any account 
tb^eof to his Majesty^s thesaurer for the supposed 
transgression of their husbands. 

In this mean time, the Queen of England sent 
an extraordinary ambassador into Scotland, whom 
the King received at Edinbrgh, after his Majesty's 
return from Aberdeen. This ambassador required, 
that the peace and confederacy concluded and con- 
firmed at Leith, after the e}q)ulmng of the French 
army from Scotland, should now> de novoy be rati- 


fied by his Majesty in bU perfeiet ^ge ; and fur- 
ther, that he *oiild^ "w^ithout ddaj!, jmawh th^ 
lordg and gentlemen suepect of treason, and tried 
by their own writs and messages ; that he should 
grant them no favour, but eyt»^>«^ rigour; for 
fear of the ^n«^'*^^o^ ^^^^ ahouJd follow upcfix 
^L.^ ffi^^ed pretences, if they were unpunished, 
when both time and occasion permitted the fSunfa. 
Still the English ambassador and the Scottish 
ministers urged the King to call thc^ Cadioliq'k 
lords to a trial qf their peers ; but the Sing pro- 
cured to the ministers thus tQuch' for tbetn, that, 
by their favours, they might be broii^t to be 
tried withoat warding; and thdreafter to make 
such satisfactipn as should be thought requisite ; 
that in case they were found culpable, to be punished 
as justice should riequire.; anid^ if it were. other- 
wise, that 4iey should be absolved : but the minisi* 
ters would not yield unto the. King's pleasure 
therein, nor. permit that the Popish }<»rds jjiould 
have any trial, till they should be first wardad 
qntill the.notde8 should conveen to try them. The 
King refused to ward them unttll they were found 
guilty ; knowing, by this time, their i^npcence : 
for George Car had lefused what he had before 
through fear, confessed against the lords, touchii^ 
the Spanish blanks. His majesty was earnest with 
the ministers that no excommunication should pass 
against the lords before their trial ; which was 
refused : whereupon there was a convention of 
the estates holden by his Majesty at St. Johnatoun» 
the year of God 1593, to curb th^ power cf the 
presbyterial ministers. There it was reeved (to 


iupptcsft tbeir liberty) the estate of bishops should 
be erected and reslored. Within a few days after, 
the King' went frcnn St. Jdinstoun to the abby of 
Halyrudhoose ; whither also, came secretly the 
earls of Huntley, Angus, and Erroll. The next 
day, the King riding at Lawder to visit chancellor 
MaiMand (who was then sicic) these three earls 
came to his Majesty on the highway ; and there 
bumbling themselves, in a few wcnrds demanded 
licenoe to be tried, which his Majesty granted. 
But the Sing thereafter, in respect that he had 
promised bolih to-the ambassador of England and 
to the ministers at Edinbui^h, that he should 
nmther receive them, nor admit them to his pre- 
senoe and fiivour, till they were tried ; he directed 
the master of Glammes and the lordLindores unto 
the ambassador and the ministers, to certify them 
of thmr coming to his Majesty on the highway, at 
such time and place as looked not for ; and although 
he had used but some few words unto them, yet 
he ^rould proceed no further, nor show them any 
other fiivour, but according to justice and reason* 
Th^i the ministry assembled themselves, by their 
oommissioners, at Edinburgh, together with certain 
faoroils and balziesof burghs (the King being then 
at Jedburgh for some affairs of the commonwealth.) 
They oomiluded, all in one vdce, some articles to 
be> presently demanded of his Majesty; which I 
omit to relate, as fitting to be supprest. 

Whereupon the affairs of the King and of the 
church were directly opposite and repugnant to 
obothet: the King caused proclamations to be 
made, cdmman&ig all bis lieges and subjects fa 




reset and receive the eiais of Angus, Hantlej> and 
Erroll, which should not be imputed unto them as 
a crime at any time thereafteir ; whereby also licence 
was granted unto them to pass and repass freely in 
any parts of the country publickly, as best should 
please them : The ministers, upon the contrary, 
offered their proclamation in the churches, io 
their parochiners, commanding the people to abhor 
them, and to refuse their companies in any kind of 
way,and exhorting all men to be upon their defence^ 
and to arm themselves for expelling of these earls 
and their adherents: moreover the ministry, by 
their solicitation, had drawn a great, number of 
people into Edinburgh. Whereupon his Majesty 
did call a convention of the estates, and caused a 
proclamation to be made, and published in divers 
capital towns of the realm, charging all and sundry 
his Majesty^s subjects, of what estate, quality, <^ 
degree soever, that none of them should resort or 
repair to the burgh of Edinburgh, or place of his 
Majesty^s residence, upon whatsoever colour or 
pretence, during the handling and ordering of 
these matters in question, except such persons as 
were appointed and spiecially written for, or that 
did crave and obtain his Maje$ty> licence foi» their 
coming. Iii this commission, which waa appmnted 
at Edinburgh for decision of all dontroversies^ 
there were nominate six earls, six lords, nx baron% 
six burgesses and six ministers, elected and chosen 
by his Majesty and his qouiicil; and although the 
six ministers were well qualified men, and such as 
the rest of the brethren could justly find no fault 
withal; yet„ because they were not nominate by 


l&e&teelTes in general V(»ces» they were afraid to be 
prejudged in their authority and estate ; and tbere- 
^e; not only opponed against them, but also sub- 

' orned them which were chosen by the King and 
the council : therefore the King, with advice of lus 
council, commanded their names to be blotted out, 
that no minister thereafter should be nominate in 
cbmmisaon^ but that they all, or some certain 
number, by command of the rest, should only be 
supplicants, if they had any thing to orave, and no 
otherwise : and thus were the ministers themselves 
the cause that their authority was diminished. 

The commisttoners'did assemble at Edinburgh, 
as was Appointed ; and after some few days disputa- 
tion and reasoning, amongst divers oth^ things, 

, -they decerned that the three Popish earls and 
Achindowne riiould not from thence forth be aceus* 
ed for the criiae they were sumnioned for, founded 
iqpon the blanks ; but the same to remain abolished 
and in oblivion and lo be null thereafter : which 
was proclaifaied, fay edict, at the market cross of 

The adverlisment of this edict being sent firom 
Edinburgh to the. Queen of England by her am- 
baabador^ ske sent the lord Southe into Scotland, 
wsDUig'libe lining to' remit his lenity towards the 
GhUdUc lords^ aiod deal plainly with rigorous 
j^BticTf as,. the cause and good reason required. 
The two .ambajssadors of England fdloweid the 

.JDiig fiiom Edinbuigh to Stirling, by whose 
^igenbe and procurement letters, i^rere directedt 
charging the Roman Oatbdlick earls; to enter their 
persons in prison, under the pain of treason. 



There was abo a pafUamebt psocli^med, to lie 

holden the 15th of April next easuing^ In the 

meatf time, great inataiice was made bjr the miniBieis 

of Scotland and by the ambassadurs of Ehiglsod^ 

tliat the Ronum Catbolick krds should be ram* 

ffioned to hear and see the prooeiBsof farfaltiftre led 

jigainst them* In end ibey do previul ; and dip 

rectimi was given for the sane agaiftisi tlie parlin* 

menty which was appointed io be in April 1694k. 

Not^heless of all this, the ambassadors of £i^ 

land, and the ministers of Scotland, tbinkii^ that 

the King and his connsellors mcere more ncf^igeut 

in prosecuting of die Popish lords thahwas {MtnBed 

or expected ; it was secretly devised that the earl 

of Botfawell, being an outlaw, sbcMiU invade Scot* 

land, by the assistance of England, upon two pr^ 

tenees; the irst was, that, by tbe help of the 

minbters, he might bonbh the Popiab lords out of 

the realm of Scotland, and that the Qndeti oF £ng» 

land should support him with money ; which being 

known and revealed, didaoineeiisetfw Xthgagainat 

her ambassador, that a special gentleman of the lovi 

Southe^s was committed to piiaon in die casde o£ 

Edbburgh, who confessed, dlAt, by the command 

of the ambassador, he had ipoketi with' the esri of 

Bothwell and widi Mr. John Golvitt^BoAwallUa 

chief counsellor.) The sbcond pi^terice iraa fd 

revenge the earl of Murray his dekith against 

Hundey and his paitakers; and to ibrtify Ikk 

purpose, the. earls of Argyle and Athole should be 

ready in arms, attendKng BothweH his comings iA 

join wkh him against Huntley. 

Hie Eia^ heaiiag of these %¥ro jptBientn^ 
thought expedient, with advice of his council, td 
make a general prodamatiim ihaX no manner of 
persons should convocate his lieges ill arms, fee 
wbaitsoever oeca&ion, without his Migesty^s lioenoe^ 
under the paiaof dead). Wheneupon. Bothwdl 
eame tai Kelso,, and.frqm thlBDce t6 I«drthy die.9d 
of;A|iril IvSM. The Sing bttog adtesttsed cif his 
toming, went tb sernmi that monnng in the Hi^ 
Church of Edinburgh ; and there, : serason being 
ended, he made great ioeitancb lo the people,, tiiat 
Aey. woidd assist him to sopptess jdirir:9emnK»t 
eiiemi|r Bodtwell; and, tQ.dMmate jtfie, ininiistr^ 
iad ^e pedfH, > he: promised, iii dieir prtoenoe^ 
that he ehould herer lay down anhis, tUl be cither 
suppressed or bankhed the Popdi iards and their 
adherents: so, the King kd the people^ ottt of 
Edinburgh towards Leitb; and, betwikt Leith 
ind Edinburgh, there wasm compan^r deleteU <out 
6f the army, which, undervthe cpaduet of the kvd 
HisraeaM Weiin^ ColifiU^ sboiiM Invade Botb* 
weU ; who^ peroeiting. the King mardiing out of 
Edmburgfa, with his ttnofy towards Leith ; and 
seeing that .the earls of Atgyle and Athole had 
faflfd^htai^ he Teihrte from • Leith> with Ins: (iom-» 
pany^ and' takes . the way to Musiiliiurgh, ali4 so 
tof'etijri^'iiita Englatid : but die loiU Ham^, wMi 
his trun, overtakea Bothweil beside Duddistoua^ 
wheib, afWr li' little skirtmsh, the lord Hume was 
ot*erthra«^^ and dU bfo people beaten and chased 
blkdc ' a^tk «o ' Edinbai^i ' Bbcfawell, perceiving 
ihSit^thls kiag was seridihg more fences against himr 


retired tomrards the south borden, and so into Eng- 

The earl of Bothwell being thus gone, the King 
Teturns to Edinburgh, and seeing no other means 
to satisfy the ministers, and all utterly to suppress 
Bothwell his rebellion, he condescends to the for-^ 
faltnris ol the Popish lords, being forced, to yield 
to the present necessity. A parliament was holden 
at ISdinburgb the penult day of May 1594; all 
and whatsoever petitions then craved by the mi-> 
nistera were assented to by this parliament, where 
there were, pnesent but only three earls and six 
lends ; by reason whereof things were violently 
carried by the ministers. The criminal cause of 
the P<^ish lords being read and considered by 
the few number of nobles there present, they would 
gladly have delayed. the determination thereof un-» 
till al fuller convention of. the nobility were as- 
temUed ; but the miittsters and commissioners of 
bnrghs being the greater humbeir, prevailed ; and 
found their hilridi^rita! by 'witnesses oognosoed; 
the rest wab passed dver^ as proven by presump- 
tion ; the nobles suspended th^ir voices, because 
the Popish lords intentions were not proven judi* 
cially ; always they were forfalied. and made pro- 
script by plurality of such voices as • itere there 
preseni, and their ^ms were riv.ea ia^ilhe^ juattce 
place, in presence of the parUament. ; ^ 

These noblemen being thus forftked^. the King 
was also moved to make, tk^ tarl of ,Aigyle hia 
Majesty's lieutenant^neral iik tbe^nfiTtb .of Stotn 
land, to invade the eark of Huntley and £rrol ; 


whereupon followed the battle of cionHirAt m no^ 
tober 1594; which happened as I have declared 
already ; and were afterward restored the year ot 
God 1597. 


R. Chapman, Printer, Trongate. Glasgow. 








Commission given by his Majesty 



THE 20th day of june^ IdQS. 

By R* Chapman, 



THIS action of unexampled barbarity disgraced 
tbe government of William in Scotland at the 
commencement of the year 1692. The rigour of 
the warrant, the circumstances of its execution, the 
mask of friendship under which an unsuspecting 
and unarmed people were butchered by soldiers, 
could scarce be exaggerated by the enemies of 
William, or defended by his friends. The blame 
was laid by the latter on the minister. They a& 
firmed that the king, ever slow in transacting bu« 
siness, had signed the warrant, among other pa- 
pers, without inquiry. Some, with a mixture of 
absurdity and injustice, defended the measure it- 
self, as consistent with the laws of Scotland, oth- 
ers averred, that the officers extended their rigour 
beyond the letter of their orders. Though the 
opponents of William owned, that he was insti- 
gated to the measure by Dalrymple, they would 
not allow that he could be ignorant of the con- 
tents of a paper, which, apparently to screen his 
secretary, he had signed both at top and bottom. 



T? ^8^ men^i "^ "^ "^ "«^' «»d 
•"^ "« «in* ^*° '^«« not at the time actu- 

"***^»»«fs of A • ^"^ **ey said in .™L • 





TOR iKiiuianro zxto the 


* n »*m**>nmt0*m* » »»Mit»*»t »»» 

Subscribed at Halyrudhouse,the 20(h day of June, l6dS. 

» m »f*m* m* *»0* »* **f > »f»^*»*0** 

John Marquis of Tweedale, Lord High Chan- 
cellor of Scotland, William Earl of Annadale, John 
Lord Murray, Sir James Stewart his Majesty's 
advocate, Adam Cockburn of Ormistone, Lord 
Justice Clerk, Sir Archibald Hope of Rankdller, 
and Sir William Hamilton of Whitlaw, two of the 
senators of the College of Justice, Sir James 
Ogilvie his Majesty^s solicitor, and Adam Drum* 
mond of Meggins, commissioners appointed by his 
Majesty, by his commission under the great seal, 
of the date the 29th of April last past, to make 
inquiry, and to take trial and precognition about 
the slaughter of several persons of the simame of 
MacDonald, and others, in Glenco, in the year 



1692, by whom, and in what manner, and by what 
pretended authority the same was committed, with 
power to call for all warrants and directions given 
in that matter ; as also, to examine all persons who 
had a hand therein, with what witnesses they should 
find necessary, either upon oath or declaration ; and 
to report to his Majesty the true state of the said 
matter, with the evidence and testimonies to be 
adduced before them, as the said, commission more 
amply bears; having mett, and qualified them- 
selves by taking the oath of allegiance and assu- 
rance, conform to the act of parliament, with the 
oath dt fiddly as use is in such cases, did, according 
to the power given to them, chuse Mr. Alexander 
Monro of Biercroft to be their derk; and he 
having also qualified himself as above, they pro- 
ceeded into the said inquiry, to call for all warrants 
and directions, with all such persons as witnesses 
that might ^ve light in the sidd matter: And 
having considered the foresaid warrants and direct 
tions produced before them, and taken the oaths 
and depositions of the witnesses under named, 
they, with all submission, lay the report of the 
whole discovery made by them before his Majesty^ 
in the order following. And !«/, Of some things 
that preceded the said slaughter, idly^ Of the 
flatters of fact, with the proofs and evidence taken, 
when, and in what manner, the same was committed. 
3<%, Of the warrants and directions that either 
really were, or were pretended for the committing 
it. And, lasibf^ The commissioners humble opinion 
of the true state and account of that whole business. 


Tbe things to be remarked preceding tHe said 
slaughter were» That its certain that the lairds of 
Glenco and Auchintraitten, and their, follower^ 
were in the insurreGty)n and rebellion made by 
some of tbe Highland clans, under the command, 
first, of the Viscount of Dundee, and then of 
Major General Buchan, in the year 1689 and 1690. 
This is acknowleged by all: But, when the Earl 
of Broadalbine called the heads of the clans, and 
inet with them in Auchallader, in July 1691, in 
order to a cessation, the deceased Alexander M^Do* 
nald of Glenco was there with Glengarry, Sir John 
Maclene, and others, and agreed to the cessation ; 
as it is also acknowledged: But the deceased 
Glenco's two sons, who were at that time with 
their father in the town of Auchallader, depone^ 
That they heard that the Earl of Broadalbine did 
at that time quarrel with the deceased Glenco, 
about some cows that the Earl alledged were stolen 
from his men by Glenco^s men ; and that, though 
they were not pr'^sent to hear the words, yet their 
father told them of the challenge ; and the two 
sons, with Ronald MacDonald indwellerin Glenco, 
and Ronald McDonald in Innerriggin in Glenco, 
do all depone. That they heard the deceast 
Glenco say. That the Earl of Broadalbine, at the 
meeting pf Auchallader, threatned to do him a 
mischief 9 and that he fear'd a mischief from no 
man so much as from the Earl of Broadalbine, as 
their depositions at the letter A in the margin bear. 
And Alexander MacDonald, second son to the 
deceast Glenco^ doth further depone^ That he hath 


often heard from his father and others, that there 
had been in former times blood betwixt Broadal- 
bine's family and their clan, as his deposition, at 
the same mark, bears. And here the commis- 
aoners cannot but take notice of what hath oc- 
curred to them, in two letters from Secretary Stair 
to Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton, one of the 1st, 
and another of the 3d of December, 1691 ; wherein 
he expresses his resentment, from the marring of 
the bargain that should have been betwixt the 
Earl of Broadalbine and the Highlanders, to a 
very great height ; charging 3ome for their despite 
against him, as if it had been the only hindrance of 
that settlement: Whence he goes on, in his of the 
3d of December, to say, That since the govern- 
ment cannot oblige them, it is obliged to ruin some 
of them, to weaken and frighten the rest ; and that 
the MacDonalds will fall in the net ; and, in effect^ 
seems even from that time, which was almost a 
month before the expiring of the Eing^s indemnity, 
to project with Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton, that 
some of them should be rooted out and destroyed. 
His Majesty^s proclamation of indemnity was pub« 
lished in August 1691, offering a free indemnity 
and pardon to all the Highlanders who had been 
in arms, upon their coming in and taking, the oath 
of allegiance, betwixt that and the first of January 
thereafter: And, in compliance with the procla- 
mation, the deceased Glenco goes, about the end 
of December 1691, to Colonel Hill governor of 
Fort- William at Inverlochy, apd desired the Colo- 
nel to minister to him the oath of allegiance, that 


Be might have the Hingis indemnity ; but Colonel 
Hill, in his deposition marked with the letter B^ 
doth further depone. That he hastened him away 
all that he coukl, and gave him a letter to Ardkin- 
lass to receive him as a lost sheep; and the 
Colonel produces Ardkinlass^s answer to that letter, 
dated the 9th January 1691, bearing, that he had 
endeavoured to receive the great lost sheep Glenco, 
and that Glenco had undertaken to bring in all 
his friends and followers, as the privy council 
should order: And Ardkinlass further writes, 
that he was sending to Edinburgh, that Glenco, 
though he had mistaken in coming to Colonel 
Hill to take the oath of allegiance, might yet be 
welcome; and that thereafter the Colonel .shoulfl 
jtake care that Glenco^s friends and followers may 
not suffer, till the King and coundPs pleasure be 
known, as the sidd lette^, marked on the back 
with Uie letter B, bears. And Glenco'^s two sop^ 
above name do dopone in the same manner, thi|t 
their father went, about the end of Decmber, to 
Colonel Hill to take the oath of allegiance ^ but 
finding his mistake, and getting the ColonePs 
letter to Ardkinlass, he hastened to Inveraray, as 
soon as he could for the bad way and weather, and 
did not so much as go to his own house in his way 
to Inveraray, though he past within half a mile of 
it ; as both their depositions at the letter B bear^* 
Ancl John McDonald, the eldest son, depones fur- 
ther, at the same mark. That his father was taken 
in the way by Captain Drummond at Barcfddei)<^ 
and detained twenty-four hours* 


Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinlass, sheriff-depute 
of Argyll-shire, depones, That the deceased Glenoo 
came to Inveraray about the beginning of January 
1692, with a letter from Colonel Hill to the effect 
above mentioned ; and was three days thiere before 
Ardkinlass could get thither, because of bad wea- 
ther ; and that Glenco said to him, that he had 
not come sooner because he was hindered by the 
storm. And Ardkinlass farther depones. That, 
' when he declined to give the oath of alle^ai»e to 
'Glenoo, because the last of Deceniber, the time 
appointed for the taking of it, was past, Glenoo 
begged with tears, that he might be admitted to 
take it ; and ^promised to bring in all his peo|de, 
within a short time, to do the like ; and if any of 
them refused, they should be imprisoned, or sent 
to Flanders : Upon which Ardkinlass says, he did 
administer to him the oath of allegiance, upon the 
6th of January 1692, and sent a certificate thereof 
to Edinburgh, with Colonel HilTs letter to Colin 
'Campbell sheriff-clerk of Argyle, who was then at 
Edinburgh ; and further wrote to the said Colin, 
that he should write back to him whether Glenoo*s 
taking the oath was allowed by the council or not, 
as Ardkinlass^s deposition at the letter B testifies. 
And the said Colin, sheriff-clerk, depones. That 
the foresaid letters, and the certificate relating to 
Glenco, with some other certificates relating to 
some other persons, all upon one paper, were sent 
in to him to Edinburgh by Ardkinlass; which 
paper being produced upon oath by Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, clerk to the secret coundl, but rolled and 


scored as to Glenoo's part, and his taking the oath 
of allegiance ; yet the commissioners found, that it 
was not so delete or dashed, but that it may be read 
that Glenco did take the oath of allegiance at Inve- 
raray the 6th day of January 1693. And the said 
Colin Campbell depones. That it came to his hand 
fairly written, and not dashed ; and that, with this 
eertificate, he had the same letter from Ardkinlass, 
(with Colonel Hill's above mentioned letter to 
Ardkinlass inclosed), bearing how earnest Glenco 
was to take the oath of allegiance, and that he had 
taken it upon the 6th of January; but that Ard- 
kinlass was doubtfull if that the council would 
receive it. And the sheriff-clerk did produce 
before the commissioners the foresaid letter by 
Colonel Hill to Ardkinlass, dated at Fort«william 
the 31st day of December 1691, and bearing, that 
Glenco had been with him, but slipt some days^ 
out of igUOTance ; yet that it was good to bring in 
a lost sheep at any time, and would be an advan- 
tage to render the Eing^s government easy. And, 
with the said sheriff-clerk, the Lord Aberuchili, 
Mr. John Campbell writer to the signet, and Sir 
Gilbert Elliot clerk to the council, do all declare. 
That Glenc6*s taking the oath of allegiance, with 
Ardkinlass^s foresaid certificate as to his part of it, 
did come to Edinburgh, and was seen by them, 
fairly written, and not scored or dashed ; but that 
Sir Gilbert, and the other clerks of the council, 
refused to take it in, because done after the day 
appointed by the proclamation : Whereupon the 
said Colin Campbell, and Mr, John Campbell, 


went, as they depone, to the Lord AberuchiU, 
then a privy councillor, and desired him to take 
the advice of privy councillors about it: And 
accordingly they affirm, that Aberuchill said, he 
had spoke to several privy councillors, and party 
to the Lord Stairs, and that it was their opinion, 
that the foresaid certificate could not be received, 
iridiout a warrant from the King; and that it 
would neither be safe to Ardkinlass, nor profitably 
to Glenco, to give in the certificate to the clerk of 
the council : And this the Lord Aberuchill con* 
firms by his deposition ; but doth not name therein 
the Lord Stair. And Colin Campbell the sheriff- 
clerk does further depone. That, with the knowledge 
of Lord Aberuchill, Mr. John Campbell, and 
Mr. David Moncrief clerk to the council, he did 
by himself, or his servant, score 'or delete the 
foresaid celrtificate, as now it stands scored, as to 
Glenco's taking tbe oath of allegiance ; and that 
he gave it in so scored or obliterate to the said Mr. 
David Moncrieff clerk of the council, who took 
it in as it is now produced. But it doth not ap- 
pear by all these depositions, that the matter was 
brought to the council-board that the council^s 
pleasure might be known upon it, though it seems 
to have been intended by Ardkinlass, who both 
wrote himself, and sent Colonel HilPs letter to 
make Glenco^s excuse ; and desired expressly to 
know the counciPs pleasure. 

After that Glenco had taken the oath of allegi« 
ance, as is said, he went home to his own house ; 
and, as his own sons above named depone, he not 



•nly Bved there for some days, quietly and securely, 
but calM his people together, and told them he 
bad taken the oath of ^le^ance, and made hU 
peace ; and therefore desired and engaged them to 
five peaceably under E. Willtam'« government ; bb 
the depositions of the said two sons, who were 
present, marked with the letter E, bear. 

These things having preceeded the slaughter, 
which happened not to be committed untill the 
13th of February 1692, six weeks after the de- 
ceased Glenoo had taken the oath of allegiance at 
Inveraray ; the slaughter of the Glenco men was 
in this manner, viz. John and Alexander McDo- 
nalds, sons to the deceased Glenco, depone, That 
Glengary's house being reduced, the forces were 
called back to the south ; and Glenlyon, a Captain 
of the Earl of Argyle's regiment, with Lieutenant 
Lindsay and Ensign Lindsay, and six score soldiers, 
returned to Glenco about the Ist of J^bruary, 1693; 
where, at their entry, the elder brother John met 
them, with about twenty men, and demanded the 
reason of their coming ; and Lieutenant Lindsay 
shewed him his orders for quartering there, under 
Colonel Hill's hand; and gave assurance, that 
they were only come to quarter ; whereupon, they 
were Ulleted in the country, aVid had free quarters 
and kind entertainment, living familiarly with the 
people, until the 13th day of February. And 
Alexander further depones. That Glenlyon being 
his wife's unde, came almost ^very day and took his 
morning drink at his house ; and that the very 
night befoite the slaughter, Glenlyon did play /at 



cttrds in his own quarters with both the brother8« 
And John depones, That old Glenoo bis father 
had invited Glenljon, Lieutenant Lindsay, and 
Ensign Lindsay to dine with him, upon the very 
day the slaughter happened: But, on the ISth 
day of February, being Saturday, about four or 
five in the morning. Lieutenant Lindsay, widi a 
party of the foresaid soldiers, came to old Glenco's 
house, where having called in a friendly manner, 
and got in, they shot his father dead, with several 
shote, as he was risiag out of his bed? and the 
ipother having got up and put on her cloaths, the 
soldiers stripped her naked, and drew the rings off 
her fingers with their teeth ; as likewiae they Jcilled 
one man more, and wounded another grievously at 
the same place : And this relation they say they 
had from their mother ; and is confirmed by the 
deposition of Archibald McDonald' indweller in 
Glenco, who farther depones,. That Glenco was 
shot behind his back with two shots, one through 
the bead and another through the body ; and two 
more were killed with him in that place, and a 
third wounded, and left for dead : And this he 
knows because he came that same day to Glenco^s 
house, and saw his dead body lying before the 
door, with the other two that were killed, and 
spoke with the third that was wounded, whose ;^ 
name was Duncan Don, who came their oQcasion- .' 
ally with letters from the Brae of Marr. The 
said John McDonald, eldest son to the deceased j* 
Glenco, depones, The same morning that his i 
father was killed, there came soldiers to his house 


befote day, andoaUed at his winddw, which gave 

him the alami) and made him go to InnerriggeDf 

wbene 61eiilyon was qaartered ; and that he found 

Glenlyon and his men preparing their arms, whidi 

made the deponent ask the cause ; but Glenlyon 

gave Um only good words, and said, they were to 

inarch against some of Gledgary^s men ; and, if 

there were ill intended, would not he have told 

Sandy and his niece? meaning the deponent's 

brother and his wife i which made the deponent go 

borne, and go again to his bed, until his servant, 

who hindered him to sleep, raised him ; and, when 

be rose and went out, he perceived about twenty 

men coming towards his house, with their bayonets 

fixed to tbeir muskets ; whereupon he fled to the 

bill; and having Auchnaion, a little village of 

Glenco, in view, he heard the shots, wha*ewitb 

Auchintraiten and four more were killed; and 

that he heard also the «hots at Innerriggen, where 

Glenlyon had caused to kill nine more, as shall bq 

hereafter declared. And this confirmed by the 

-concurring depontion erf* Alexander McDonald his 

brother, whom a servant waked out of sleep, saying,. 

It is no time for you to be sleeping when they are 

hiUi>V your brother at the door, which made 

Alexander to flee, with his brother, to the hill, 

where both of them heard the foresaid shots at 

Auchnaion and Innerriggen. And the said, John, 

Alexander, and Archibald McDonald, do all depone, 

That the same morning there was one Sergeant 

Barber laid hold on Auchentraiten^s brother, one 

.of the four, and asked htm if he were alive : He 

answered^ that he was; and chat he desired to die 



withouVrathar'thjui within. '• Baxber said, that^ tus 
his meat that he had ekt^iy he irottld do him 
the favour to kill liim without. But when the 
man was brought out^ and soldiers Iwoi^t up to 
shoot him, he: having his plaid loose, flung it 
over th^ faces, and so escaped ; and the other 
three broke through the back of the bouse^ and 
escaped: And this account theidepaanents had 
firom the men that escaped^ And at Innerrigeny 
where Glenlyon was quartered, the soldiers took 
other nine men, and did bind them hand and fimt, 
killed them one by t>ne with shot: And wben 
Glenlyon inclined to save a young man of about 
twenty years of age, one Captain Drummond eame 
and' asked how came he to be saved,- in respeet of 
the orders that were given ? ' and shot lum dead : 
And another young boy, of about 13 yeart;, ran to 
Glenlyon to bs saved ; he was Mewise shot dead : 
And In the same town there was a woman, and a 
boy about 4 or 5 years of age, killed : And itt 
Auchnaion there was also a child missed, and notih* 
ing found of him but the hand. There were like* 
wise several killed at other places, whereof one 
was an old man about 80 years of age. ' And all 
this the doponents say they affirm, becauoe they 
heard the shot, saw the d^ bodies^ and had an 
aooount from the women that were left. And 
Ronald Macdonald, indweller in Glenoo, farther 
depones. That he being living with his father in a 
little town of Glenco^ some of . Glenlyon*s scddiers 
came to his father^s house, the said 13ih<tf Febru- 
ary, in the morning, and dragged bb &ther out of 
his bedy and knocked bim down for de^id, at the 


door } which the deponent seeing, made his escape ; 
and his father recovering, afler the soldiers were 
gone, got into another house ; but this house was 
shortly burnt, and his father burnt in it ; and the 
deponent came thereafter, and gathered his father^B 
bones, and burnt them. He also declares. That 
at Auchaaion, where Auchintraiten was killed, he 
:saw the body of Auchintraiten and three more, cast 
out, and covered with dung. And another witness 
of the kame declares. That, upon the same 13th of 
'February, Glenlyon, and laeutenant Lindsay, and 
their soldiers, did, in the morning before day, fall 
upon the people of Glenco^ when they were secure 
in their beds, and killed them ; and he being at 
Innerrigen, fled with the fif^t, but heard shots; 
and had two brothers killed there, with three men 
more, and a woman ; who were all buried before 
he came back. . And all these five witnesses oon« 
cur. That the foresHid slaughter was made by 
-Glenlyon and. Us soldiers, afiev they had been 
^(lartered, atad lived peaceably land friendly with 
\the men of Glenco, about 13 days; and that the 
^aumber of those whom they knew to be slain were 
about 25 : And that the soldiers^ after the slaugh* 
ter, did burn the houses, barqs, and goods; and 
cari'yed away a great spoil of horse, nolt, and sheep, 
AboVe a thousand. And James Campbell soldier 
in the castle of Stirling depones. That in January 
1698, he being then soldier in Glenlyon^s company, 
marched vi^ith the company from Inverlochy to 
Glenco, where the oonipany was quartered, and 
very kindly intertained, for the space of 14 days : 




That' he knew nothing of the dedgn of kitting the 
Gleneo men till the morning that the fllaughler 
W9M committed; at which time Glenlyon and 
Captain Drummond's companies were drawn out 
in several parties^ and got orders from Glenlyon, 
and their other oflBicers, to shoot and kill all the 
country-men they met with ; and that the depo» 
nenty being one of the party which was at the town 
where Glenlyon had his quarters, did see serersl 
men drawn out of their beds; and particularly he 
did see Glenlyon^s own landlord shot by his 
prder, and a young boy of about twelve years 
of age, who endeavoured to save himself by 
taking hold of Glenlycm, offering to go any where 
with him, if he would spare his life ; and was shot 
dead by Captain Drummond^s order: And the 
deponent did gee about eight persons killed, and 
several houses burnt, and women flying to the 
hills to save their lives. And, lastly. Sir Colin 
Campbell of Aberucehill depones. That, after 
the slaughter, Glenlyon told him, that Mao-Do* 
nald of Innerriggen was killed, with the rest of 
the Gleneo men, with Colonel HilPs pass or pro- 
tection in his pocket, which a soldier brought, and 
shewed to Glenlyon.-— -The testimonies above set 
down, being more than suffi<»ent to prove a deed 
so notoriously known, it is only to be remarkeil, 
that more witnesses of the actors themselves might 
have been found, if Glenlycm and his soldiers were 
not at present in Flanders with Argyle^s regiment. 
And its further added, that Lieutenant Cdond 
Hamiltm, who seems, by the orders and letters 


dM shall be hereafter tiet down, to have had the 
particular charge of this execution, did inarch, th^ 
night before the slaughter, with aboutiOO men; bat 
the weather falling to be very bad add severe, they 
were forced to stay by the way, and did not get to 
Glenoo against the next morning, as had been con* 
certed betwixt Mkjor Duncanson and Lieutenant 
Cdonel Hamilton: So that the measures being 
broke, Lieut-Colonel Hamilton and his men came 
not to Olenco till about eleven of the clock after 
the slaughter had been committed : which proved 
the preservation and safety of the tribe of Glenco; 
rince by this means the far ^eater part of them 
escaped. And then the Lieutenant* Colonel being 
come toCanneloch-Levin, appointed several parties 
for several posts, with orders that they should take 
no prisoners, but kill all the men that came in 
their way. Thereafter, some of the J^ieute* 
nant*Coloners men marched forward in the glen, 
and met with Major Duhcanson's party, whereof 
a part dnder Glenlyon had been' sent by Lieute* 
nant-Colonel Hamilton to quarter there some days 
before ; and these men told how they had killed 
Glenco, and about thirty^-nx of his men, that 
morning ; and that there remained nothing to be 
done by the Lieutenant-Colonel and his men, 
save that they biirnt some houses, and killed 
an old man, by the Lieutenant-ColonePs orders, 
and brought away the spoil of the country : And 
this in its several parts is testified by John Forbes, 
Major in Colonel Hilfs Regiment^ Francis Far- 
quhar and. Gilbert Kennedy, both lieutenants in 


that regiment, who were all of the Lteutenant-Ctv 
lonePs party, as their deposdtions mc^e fully bear. 
It may also be here noticed, That some days after 
the slaughter of the Glenco men was over, there 
came a person from Campbell of 

Balcalden, chamberlain, i» e. steward to the earl 
of Broadalbin, to the deceast Glenco^s sons, and 
ofiered to them, if they would declare under their 
hands, that the Earl of Broadalbin was free and 
dear of the foresaid slaughter, they might be as* 
sured of the EarPs kindness for procuring their 
remisnon and restitution ; as was plainly deponed 
beibr« the commisaoners. It remains now, to give 
aa account of the warrants, either given, or pre- 
tended to be given, for the committing of the fore* 
said slaughter; for clearing whereof, it is to be 
noticed. That the King having been pleased to 
offer hj proclamation, an indemnity to all the 
Highland rebels, who should comci iti and accept 
thereof, by taking die oaths of alle^ance, betwixt 
and the first of January 169S ; after the day waa 
dapsed^ it was very proper to give instructu>ns how 
such of the rebels as bad refused hb Majesty^a 
graGe,should be treated; and therefore,his Majesty, 
by his instructions, of the date the 1 1th January 
1698^ directed to Sat Thomas Livingstone, and su-> 
perdign^andoountersigned by himself, did, indeed 
order and authdrise Sir Thomas to march the. 
troops- against the rebels who had not taken th^ 
benefit of the indemilttty, and to destroy them by> 
fire and swonl ; (which is the actual style of our 
commissions against int^roommuned rebels ;) bud 
with this express mitigation in the fourth article. 


▼10. That the rebels may pot think themselves 
desperate, we allow you to give terms and quar* 
teirs, but in this manner only^ That cfaiefl^ns and 
heritors^ or leaders be prisoners of war, their lives 
only safe, and all other things in m^cy; they 
taking the oaths of alliance, and rendering th^ 
arms and submitting to the govenmient, are to 
have quarters and indemnity for their lives and 
fortunes, and to be protected from the soldiers ; as 
ihe principal paper of instructions, produced' by 
Sir Thomas Livingston, bears. After these in* 
fltructions, there were additional ones ^ven by his 
Majesty to Sir Thomite Livingston, upon the 16th 
of the said month of Jantiary, .supersigned and 
countersigned by his majesty, aiid the date marked 
by S^ecr^ary Stair^s hand ; which bear orders for 
giving of passes, and fi>r receiving the submission 
of certmn of the rebels : Wherein all to be noticed 
to the present purpose is. That therein bis Ma^ 
jesty doth judge' it muich better that these two 
took not the baiefit of the indemnity in due time 
should be obliged to render upon mercy, they 
atill taking the oaths of allegiance ; and then its 
added, If Mackean of Glenco, and that tribe, can 
be well separated from the rest, it will be a pro- 
per vindication of the public justice to extirpate 
iiuA sect of thieves. And of these additional in* 
struction a principal dupUcate was sent to Sir 
Thomas Livingston, and another to Colonel Hill, 
and were both produced. And these ware all the 
instructions given by die King ia this matter. 
But Secretary Stnr, who sent down these instruc* 

99 MAssACftx or olbncok. 

tiansy as bis letters produced, written with hi^ 
bands to Sir Tbomas, of tbe same date with theiSy 
testify, by a previous letter of the date of the 
7tb of the said month of January, written and 
sulisceibed by him to Sir Thomas, says. You 
^how in genera], .that these troops posted at 
Inverness and Innerlochy will be ordered to take 
in the house of Inver^urie, and to destroy entirely 
the country of Lochabar, Locheairs lands, Kep- 
poch% GlengaryX and Glenco ; and then adds, 
I assure you your power shall be full enough ; 
and I hope the soldiers will not trouble the go* 
▼emment with prisoners. And, by anoth^ letter 
of the said month of January, which is likewise 
before the instructions, and written to Sir Tho* 
mas, as the former he hath diis expression. That 
these who remain of the rebels are not able to op* 
pose, and their chieftains being all pafnsts, it is 
well tbe vengeance falls there : For my part, I 
could have wished the MacDonalds had not di- 
vided ; and I am sorry that Kejqpoch and Mao 
kean of Glenco are safe. And then afterwards 
we have an account, that Locbeall, Macnaughton, 
Appin, and Glenco, took the benefit of the indem* 
nity at Inveraray, and Keppoch and others at In* 
verness. But this letter of the Uth of January, 
sent with the first instructions to Sir Thomas, 
hath this expi«s»on : < I have no great kindneas 
to Keppoch nor Glenco ; and its well that people 
are in mercy/ And then, < Just now my Lord 
Argyle tells me, that Glenco hath not taken tbe 
oath : At which I rejcnce. . It is a great work of 


MfASSACftS OV '<SLE19C0S« 23 

e)Mnity ta be ex&ct in rooting out that dainnable 
sect ; the worst of the Highlands.* But in his 
letter of the I6th of January, of the same date 
with the additional inatructionis,^ though he writes 
in the first part of the letter, « The king does not 
at all incline to receive any after the diet, but no 
mercy C yet he thereafter adds, < But, for a just 
example of vengeance, I intreat the thieving tribe 
of Glenco may be rooted out to purpose.' And to 
confirm this, by his letter of the same date, sent 
with the other principal duplicate, and additional 
instructions to Cdonel Hill, after having written, 
that- such as render on mercy may be saved, he 
adds : <I MM entreat you, thlit, for a just ven- 
geance, and public example, the tribe of Glenco 
may be rooted out to purpose : The Earls of Ar- 
gyle and Broadalbine have promised that they 
shall have no retreat in their bounds ; the passes 
to Banach would be secured ; and the hazard cer- 
tified to the laird of Weems to resett them : In 
that case, Argyle's detachment^ with a party .that 
may be posted in Island Stalker, must cut them 
ofip; and the people of Appin are none of the best/ 
-This last letter, with the instructions for Colonel 
Hill, was received by Major Forbes, in his name, 
at Edinburgh ; and the Major depones. That, by 
the allowance he had from the Colonel, he did 
unseal the packet, and found therein the letter and 
instructions, as above, which he sent forward to 
Colonel Hill. And that, in the beginning of Fe- 
bruary 169S» being in his way to Fort William, he 
met some ccHnpanies of Argyle's regiment at Bel- 


liahieldsi and was surprised to understand that they 
were going to quarter in Glenco ; but wd nothing 
till be came to Fort-William, where Colonel Hill 
told fainif that Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton had 
got orders about the affiur of Glenco ; apd that 
therefore the Colonel had left it to Lieutenant- 
colonel Hanulton's management^ who, he appre- 
hends, had concerted the matter with Major Dun«- 
canson. And Colonel Hill depones, That he 
understood that Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton and 
Major Duncanson got the orders about the Glenco 
men which were sent to Lieutenantrciolonel Hamil- 
ton : That, for himself, he liked not the business, 
but was very grieved at it j That the King*s in- 
structions of the 16th of January 1698, with the 
Master of Stair^s letter of the same date, were 
brought to him by Major Forbes, Who had received 
them, and unseeded the packet at Edinburgh ; as 
as these two depositions dobear* Yet the execution 
and slaughter of the Glenco men did not immer 
diately take effect ; and thereafter, on the SOth of 
the said month of January, the Master of Stair 
doth agidn write two letters, one to Sir Thomas 
Livingston, which bears, < I am glad that Glenco 
did not come in within the time prefixed : I h(^ 
what is done there may be in earnest, idnce the 
rest are not in condition to draw together to help : 
I think to harry (that is, to drive) their cattle, and 
bum their houses, is but to render them desperate 
lawless men to rob their neighbours ; but I belieye 
you will be satisfied it were a great advantage to 
the nmofa that thieving tribe were rooted out, and 


cut off: It must be quietly done, otherwise they 
will make shift for both their men and cattle : Ar- 
gyle's detachment lies in Letrickwell, to assist the 
garrison to do all of a sudden C And the other to 
Colonel Hill, which bears : * Pray, when the thing 
concerning Glenco is resolved, let it be secret and 
sudden, otherwise the men will shift *you; and' 
better not meddle with them than not do it to 
purpose, to cut off that nest of robbers who have 
fallen in the mercy of the law, now when there is 
force and opportunity, whereby the Eing^s justice 
will be as conspicuous and useful as hia clemency 
to others/ I apprehend the storm is so great, that, 
for some time, you can do little ; but, so soon as 
possible, I know you will be at work ; for thesQ 
fidse people will do nothing but as they see you in 
a condition to do with them.* Sir Thomas Living- 
ston having got the Eing'*s instructions with Secre- 
tary Stair^s letter of the 1 6th of January, and know<* 
ing,by a letter he had from the Master of Stair, of 
the date the 7th of January 1693, that Lieutenant- 
colonel Hamilton was to be the man employed in 
the execution of the Glenco men, in pursuance of the 
secretary's letter, he writes to Lieutenant-colonel 
Hamilton,upon the 33d of the said month of Japuary, 
telling him, * That it was judged good n^ws that 
Glenco had not taken the oath of allegiance within 
the time prefixed, and that Secrett^ry Stair, in his 
last letter, had made mention of him ;' and then 
adds, < For, Sir, here is a fair occasion for you to 
show that your garrison serves for some use ; and, 
seeidg that the orders are so positive from court to 


me, not to spare any of theni that have nottiinely 
come in, as you may see by the orders I send to 
your colonel, I desire you will begin with Glenco, 
and spare nothing which belongs to him ; but do 
not trouble the government with prisoners; as this 
letter produced by Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton 
bears.^ And Sir Thomas being heard upon this 
letter, declared, That at that time he was immedi- 
ately returned from his journey to London, and 
that he knew nothing of any soldiers being quar- 
tered in Glenco, and only meant that he should be 
prosecuted as a rebel standing out, by fair ho6ti« 
lity ; and in this sense he made use of the same 
words and orders written to him by Secretary Stair. 
Thereafter, Colonel Hill gives his orders, to be 
directed to Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton, in these 
terms : < Sir, you are, with 400 of my regiment^ 
and the 400 of my Lord Argyl^^s regiment, under 
the command of Major Duncanson, to . march 
straight to Glenco, and there put in due execu- 
tion the orders you have received from the com- 
mander in chief. Given under my hand, at Fort- 
William, the 1 2th day of February 1692; And 
this order is also produced by Lieutenant-colonel 
Hamilton. Then, the same day. Lieutenant- 
colonel Hamilton wrote to Major Duncanson in 
tHese terms : ' Sir, pursuant to the commander in 
chief and my colonel's orders to me, for putting 
in execution the service against the rebels of 
Glenco, wherein you, with a party of Argyle^s 
regiment, now under your command, are to be 
concerned ; you are therefore to order your affairs 


k 80» that you be al the sewrd posts assigned you, 

I by asven o£ the dock to morrow morning being 

. Saturday, and' fall in action with them ; at which 

^ time I will endeavour to be with the party from 


thb place. at the post appointed them. It will be t 
necessary that the iivenues minded by Lieutenant 
Campbdl on the south sid^ be secured, that the 
old fox, nor none of Us cubs, get away. The 
orders: are, that node be spared, nor the govern- 
mebt troubled^ with prisoners/ And the copy of 
this last order is product under Lieutenant* 
Cdionel Hiamilton's own hand. And aocoidingly 
the slaught^ of iarlenco and his poor people did 
ensue the nesct' niorning, being the I3th of Febru* 
ary 1692,.ih.the(mahniec narrated. And upon the 
whole-miatterttcis the opipidiixif the eopamissioner, 
Jbr^ 19aa,X it; wairi a greiEit wronjg that Glenco's case, 
and diKgemie as to his taking, the oath.of alliance, 
with AfdkiidasS'S certificate of basctaking the oath 
ci alfegianoe. en thf .6tb of Janaaiy 1692,. and 
Colonel mUVIettar to Ardkinlass^ and Ardkinlass's 
kttmr to Cohn Campbell sbeii£P^lefik, for' clearing 
GIeiM»^8 di^gence md imMx^iice,were not presented 
to the Lords of his Majesty^s privy coundl', when 
they were aent in. to Edinburgh in the said ^onth 
of Januiiry ; and that those who advised the not | 
piieaenthig thereirf* .were in the wrong, and^seem to \ 
fatte had a jnafieious design against .Glenoo; An4. { 
thaAjitiwas.a further wrong, that the! certificate as 
to GlenooV taking the oath of allegiance wasddetb 
and 4)bliteraie after it came to Edinburgh ; and 
that being so obliterate, it should neither have been 


88 mu9JteMM€m 

pTf rut H f r nr f ilrrn in hjr fhr rif fi nf thf rii— i il, 
without an etptem warauid ficm die 
Seecmdfyf That it uppean to hatre 
London, and partiealarly to the Ifartar of Slabs 
in the month of January 1691^ Aat GIcbod had 
taken the oath of all^^anee, though after the day 
perfixed; forhesaith, in his letter of the SOdi of 
January to Sir Thomas LiTingsto% as abore le- 
markedy ^ I am glad that Glenoo came not m 
within the time prescribU' Tkirdfy^ Thattkoe 
was nothimr in the Elnsf s instructions to wanand 
the committing of the foresaid slaughter, even aalo 
the thing itself, and far less as to the manner of it ; 
leeing all his instructions do plainly import, that 
the most obstinate of the rebels mi^t be received 
into mercy^ upon taking the oath of allegianop, 
though the day was long before elapsed ; and that 
be ordered nothing cone^ming Glenoo and his 
tribe ; but that, if they could be well separated 
from the rest, it would be a proper vindication of 
the public justice to extirpate thai set of thieves ; 
which plainly intimates, that it was his Majesty's 
mind, that they could not be separated from the 
rest of these rebels, unless they sull refused his 
mercyi by continuing in arms and refusing the 
allegiance ; and that, even in that case, they were 
only to be proceeded against in the way of pubKc 
justice, and no other way. FcurMy, That Seeae* 
tary Stair^s letters, eqiecially that df the ildt of 
January 1692, in which he rqeioea ia^ hear that 
Olenoo bad not Utum^ Ae oaA, aadrduil of thr 
Mdt of January, of the same dale with the Siii!g^s 


additkmal xnslnHABi^, Mfrthat of the 30th of the 
same month, were no ways waiiantoJ by» but quite 
exceeded the Eing^s foresaid instructioia^ Sbam 
the said letters, without any insinuation of any 
method to be taken that might well separate the 
Glenco men from the rest, did, in place of pre- 
scribing a vindication of public justice, order them 
to be cut off, and rooted out in earnest, and to 
purpose, and that suddenly, and secretly, and 
quietly, and all on a sudden ; which are the ex- 
press terms of the said letters ; and, comparing 
them and the other letters with what ensued, ap- 
pear to have been the only warrant and cause of 
their slaughter ; which in effect was a barbarous 
murder, perpetrated by the persons deponed 
against. And this is yet farther confirmed by two 
more of. his letters, written to Colonel Hill after the 
slaughter committed, viz. on the 6th March 1692, 
wbenmt aAar hmamg ssii' tbttt tfaeea. was much 
tidk at London, that the Glenco men weremm^ 
dered in their beds after they had taken the alle- 
giance, he continues^ < For the last I know nothing 
of it. I am sore neither you, nor any body im- 
powered to treat or ^ve indemnity, did give Glenco 
the oath ; and to take it from any body else, after 
the diet elapsed, did import nothing at all : All 
that I regretis, that any of the sort got away ; and 
there is a necessity to prosecute them to the utmost.' 
And another from die Hague, the last of April 
1692, wherein he says, ^ For the people of Glenoo» 
wiiea jott d» yoer do^ iI^» d^aq^ to Beeen^ 
ridd the country of thieving, you need not tiouble 


youndf to take the paAis to vindicate yourself, by 

shewing all your orders which are now put in the 

Paris GfMcette: When you do right, yon need fear 

nobody ; All that can be said is| that, in the execu* 

tion^ it wi|s neither so fuU nor so fiiir as it might 

hafre ]|3een.* And this, their humble opuvon, the 

eommisuoners, with all submisnon, return and lay 

before his Majesty,, in discharge of the foresaid 

commission. >^ 

Sie StAwribitur^ Tweedale; Annandale^nowMar^ 

quis of AnhandiBtle, and Presi* 

dent of the Privy Couacil; 

Murray, now Duke df Athol^ 

and Lord Privy Seal ; Ja^ Stew«> 

art, her Majesty^ Advocate; 

Adam Cockburn,. late Xiord 

Treasurernlepute ;! W. Hamii» 

ion; Lord WhiUaw, one ckf the 
Lords of Sessiogi ; Ja, Ogilviei 

now E» of Seafield, and Lord 
High Chancellor; A. Dnuu* 

F I K I s* 

R. Cbapnum, Printer, Trongatt^ Glasgow.