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MISCELLANEOUS | 

BABYLONIAN 

INSCRIPTIONS ; 



BY 

GEORGE A. BARTON 

PROFESSOR IN BRYN MAWR COLLEGE 




, \ 



NEW HAVEN 

YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON HUMPHREY MILFORD 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MDCCCCXVIII 



COPYRIGHT 1918 BY 
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



First published, August, 1918. 



TO 

HAROLD PEIRCE 

GENEROUS AND EFFICIENT HELPER IN GOOD WORKS 



PART I 
SUMERIAN RELIGIOUS TEXTS 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

The texts in this volume have been copied from tablets 
in the University Museum, Philadelphia, and edited in 
moments snatched from many other exacting duties. They 
present considerable variety. No. i is an incantation copied 
from a foundation cylinder of the time of the dynasty of Agade. 
It is the oldest known religious text from Babylonia, and 
perhaps the oldest in the world. No. 8 contains a new account 
of the creation of man and the development of agriculture and 
city life. No. 9 is an oracle of Ishbiurra, founder of the dynasty 
of Nisin, and throws an interesting light upon his career. 

It need hardly be added that the first interpretation of 
any unilingual Sumerian text is necessarily, in the present 
state of our knowledge, largely tentative. Every one familiar 
with the language knows that every text presents many possi- 
bilities of translation and interpretation. The first interpreter 
cannot hope to have thought of all of these, or to have decided 
every delicate point in a way that will commend itself to all 
his colleagues. 

The writer is indebted to Professor Albert T. Clay, to 
Professor Morris Jastrow, Jr., and to Dr. Stephen Langdon 
for many helpful criticisms and suggestions. Their wide knowl- 
edge of the religious texts of Babylonia, generously placed at 
the writer's service, has been most helpful. His thanks are 
also due to Dr. Edward Chiera for helpful criticisms of the 
text. He is also grateful to the authorities of the University 
Museum for the privilege of copying the tablets, and to Dr. 
George B. Gordon, the Director of the Museum, for many 
courtesies during the progress of the work. He is also 
deeply grateful to Mr. Harold Peirce whose aid has made this 
publication possible. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

AJSL The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 

B BRUNNOW: A Classified List of Cuneiform Ideographs. 

BA Beitrage zur Assyriologie, edited by Delitzsch and Haupt. 

BE The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, 

edited by Hilprecht. 
CT Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, etc., in the British 

Museum. 

Journal of the American Oriental Society. 
Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, 3te Aufl. 
MEISSNER: Seltene assyrische Ideogramme. 
BARTON: The Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing. 
University of Pennsylvania, The University Museum, Publica- 
tions of the Babylonian Section. 

PSBA Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, London. 
SBAD BARTON: Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents 
from the Earliest Times to the Dynasty of Agade. It is 
Vol. IX in PBS. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE vii 

THE OLDEST RELIGIOUS TEXT FROM BABYLONIA i 

AN OLD BABYLONIAN ORACLE(?) 21 

A HYMN TO DUNGI 26 

A MYTH OF ENLIL AND NINLIL 34 

FRAGMENT OF AN INCANTATION RITUAL 42 

A PRAYER FOR THE CITY OF UR 45 

A HYMN TO IBI-SIN 49 

A NEW CREATION MYTH 52 

AN ORACLE FOR ISHBIURRA, FOUNDER OF THE 
DYNASTY OF ISIN 57 

AN EXCERPT FROM AN EXORCISM 60 

A FRAGMENT OF THE SO-CALLED " LITURGY TO 
NINTUD" ; 62 

LIST OF TABLETS 67 

AUTOGRAPHED TEXTS PLATES I-XXIII 

PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONS.. PLATES XXIV-XL 
CORRECTIONS.. .PLATE XLI 



No. i. 
THE OLDEST RELIGIOUS TEXT FROM BABYLONIA. 

This cylinder, found by Dr. Haynes at Nippur, remained 
unpacked in the basement of the Museum until after Pro- 
fessor Hilprecht's connection with the Museum had been 
severed. It was apparently broken when found, for parts of 
it were obtained from three different boxes. These were 
identified by the writer, and the text pieced together from eight 
different fragments. The Museum attendant afterwards fast- 
ened them together. Parts of nineteen columns of writing 
remain. Not more than one whole column of writing is lost. 

The beginning of column i is unfortunately lost. The 
only proper names beside those of deities that can be identified 
in it are those of Nippur, Kesh, and Khallab (Aleppo). The \> 
interpretation of an inscription written in pure Sumerian would > 
be in any case difficult, in the present instance interpreta- 
tion is rendered doubly difficult by the loss of the opening 
sentences, which, perhaps, contained the name of the writer 
and certainly indicated the occasion of the composition. Under 
these circumstances it cannot be too strongly emphasized that 
the interpretation offered below is purely tentative. The con- 
clusion that the writer has reached is, however, that the inscrip- 
tion was written as a foundation cylinder at a time when the 
temple at Nippur was repaired, and that this repair was prob- 
ably undertaken because of a plague that had visited the city. 
Apparently the plague had made its way to Nippur from 



2 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

Kesh. While the occasion of the inscription appears, there- 
fore, to have been historical, the inscription itself is of the 
nature of an incantation. 

The script in which it is written is that of the dynasty of 
Agade. 1 It is slightly more archaic than the business docu- 
ments of this period, 2 but similar differences are observable 
between the business scripts and those of religious texts in 
every period of Babylonian writing. As the dynasty of Agade 
ruled from about 2800 to 2600 B. C., the incantation here 
recorded is of equal if not greater antiquity than the Pyramid 
Texts of Egypt. 

During the excavations a pavement of the temple 
terrace at Nippur laid by Naram-Sin and his successor Shar- 
galisharri was found. 3 It is, in the absence of definite informa- 
tion as to where Dr. Haynes found this cylinder, plausible to 
conjecture that it was written at the time of this reconstruction. 
The probability that our text comes from one of the two great 
kings of Agade mentioned above is increased by the fact that 
the hold of the later rulers of the dynasty upon Nippur seems 
to have been uncertain, and there is no evidence that they did 
any building there. 4 We now know that these two monarchs 
belonged to the dynasty of Kish and Agade that ruled Baby- 
lonia for 197 years, and the data published in 1914 by Dr. 
Poebel 5 and in 1915 by Professor Clay 6 enable us to fix this 
period as from 2794 B. C. to 2597 B. C. Naram-Sin ruled for 

1 Compare BARTON, The Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing, Part I, pp. 204-221. 

2 See BARTON, Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents from the Earliest Times of 
the Dynasty of Agade. 

3 See HILPRECHT, Exploration in Bible Lands During the Nineteenth Century, 1903, p. 388 ff. 
and CLAY, Light on the Bible from Babel, 1907, p. 117. 

4 See A. POEBEL, Historical Texts, Philadelphia, 1914, p. 133 f. 

6 PEOBEL, Historical and Grammatical Texts, No. 3; Historical Texts, pp. 92 ff. and 132 ff. 

5 CLAY, Miscellaneous Inscriptions in the Yale Babylonian Collection, p. 30 ff. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 3 

forty-four years (2704-2660 B. C.) and Shargalisharri twenty- 
four years (2660-2636 B. C.). The oldest of the pyramid texts 
of Egypt was written in the reign of Unis, a king of the fifth 
dynasty, whose reign, according to Breasted's chronology, 
was 2655-2625. It seems more probable that our text came 
from the reign of Naram-Sin than from the reign of Sharga- 
lisharri. The bricks of Naram-Sin were three times as numer- 
ous in the pavement of the temple court at Nippur as those of 
his successor. Naram-Sin 1 and Shargalisharri 2 each calls him- 
self, "builder of the temple of Enlil," but it would seem prob- 
able that Naram-Sin constructed the terrace early in his reign 
of forty-four years and that Shargalisharri repaired it after it 
had had time to fall into disrepair fifty or more years later. 
If our somewhat uncertain chronologies are correct, Sharga- 
lisharri's reign was nearly contemporaneous with that of the 
Egyptian king Unis, while that of Naram-Sin antedated it. 
It is more probable that a foundation cylinder would be placed 
beneath the structure when it was first constructed than when 
spots in its worn pavement were repaired. It is, accordingly, 
a plausible conjecture that our cylinder was written early in 
the reign of Naram-Sin. In that case it is probably half a cen- 
tury older than the pyramid text of Unis and is the oldest 
extended religious expression that has survived from any por- 
tion of the human race. 

This consideration gives to the text a supreme interest. 
It contains a primitive, but comparatively refined strain of 
religious thought. The men who wrote it entertained the 
animistic point of view. The world was full of spirits of which 
they were in terror, but chief among these spirits were gods, 

1 HILPRECHT, Old Babylonian Inscriptions, No. 3. 

2 HILPRECHT, Ibid., Nos. i and 2. 



4 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

who, however capricious, were the givers of vegetation and 
life. They could be entreated, and man's hope lay in placating 
them. The text exhibits the neighborly admixture of religion 
and magic so characteristic of Babylonian thought. 

When compared with the pyramid texts it presents one 
striking difference. They centre around the king and are inter- 
ested in his fortunes as he enters among the gods. One text 
represents the Egyptian king as a cannibal, who in heaven eats 
gods to obtain their strength! 1 This Babylonian text, on the 
other hand, represents the community. If not the religious 
expression of a democracy, it comes at least from an aristocracy. 
The interests involved are those of the city of Nippur. It 
represents the point of view of a Babylonian city-state. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 

(i) (i) 

i'. e-e-da \' . He came forth, 2 

2'. kes^-ta ba-ta-e 2'. from Kesh he came, 

3'. nik-ku d en-lil 3'. the food of Enlil 

4'. . .da-[an]-til 4'. gives him life. 

5'. d mus-ir pad-balag*(?) 5'. Unto $ir 5 there is a cry; 

6'. -i]n-sag-ga 6'. she grants favor, 

7' nigin. . . .til(?) 7'. makes all live. 

1 See BREASTED, Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt, New York, 1912, 

127ff. 

2 This might, of course be rendered, "It came forth." Since the preceding context is lost, 
it is not certain what the subject of the verb is. From later portions of the text it is tempting 
to conjecture that it was some epidemic which spread from Kesh, as the pestilence is said to have 
spread from city to city in Philistia in i Sam. 5. 

3 The ideogram for Kesh is almost identical with the form of it in the Laws of Hammurabi, 
iii, 32, except that there it is followed by ki while here it is followed by Us, possibly to be read tu. 
At Nippur, the sign tu apparently had the value of ki, for in the "Sumerian Epic," published 
by Langdon, the name of the god Enki is several times spelled en-tu. 

4 The expression pad-balag appears to be a compound phrase for a cry. Pad = qibu (OBW, 
4O7 12 ), and balag = balaggu or balangu, "cry" or "howl." The expression could, apparently, 
denote either a cry of sorrow or of joy. 

5 For a discussion of this deity, see the general comments on this text below. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



(ii) 

i ' ..... su 
2'. idig[na] a^ag a-kib-nun a\ag 

3'. gat a^ag d en-lil 
4'. gar-sag mu-gub 
5'. ib-bi-ge-[gd]l 
6'. gat-b[i] ur[u] 
7'. bar-ba. . iur . . 
8'. ttunuf-ki. . . . 
9' ..... lu. . . .nu 
10' ..... me. . . .bi. . 



1 I . 

12'. 

(iii) 
i'. 

2'. 

3'- 

4'- 

5'- 



[me]s [en]-lil 
[mu-d]a-lag(?) 



. . . . al [lu] 
ama 1 gig al lu 
ama ud al lu 
ama dar al lu 
ama bara al lu 



6'. mu 2 ug-fu singu 3 

7'. dingir ga lu 

8'. ug-gi temen sag-gi 

9'. d en al du-rim 
10'. buru* engur lul al-la 5 



(ii) 

r. 

2'. 

3'- 

4'- 
5'- 



9- 
10'. 

i r. 

12'. 

(iii) 
i'. 

2'. 

3'- 

4'- 
5'- 

6'. 
7'- 



9- 
10'. 



The holy Tigris, the holy Eu- 
phrates, 

the holy sceptre of Enlil 
establish Kharsag; 
they give abundance. 
His sceptre protects(P); 
[to] its lord, a prayer. . 
the sprouts of the land .... 
. . . .man(?). . . .is not(?) 
... .are (?)... . numerous (?) 
The hero, Enlil 
makes bright. 



. . . . protect (?) [man]! 

O lord of darkness protect man ! 

O lord of light protect man ! 

O lord of the field protect man ! 

O lord of the sanctuary protect 
man! 

Clothe thy king in singu ! 

O god be favorable to man ! 

Make strong the new temple- 
platform ! 

O divine lord protect the little 
habitation ! 

O well of the mighty abyss, give 
protection ! 



1 The sign ama is the ideogram for "wild ox." It was also employed as an ideogram for 
emuqu, "strong," "deep," "wise," for btlu, "lord," and for qarradu "warrior"; cf. OBW, 183. 
It was a favorite epithet of Enlil. A whole series of hymns at Nippur is known as the series 
ama-e bara-na-ra, "the wild ox of his sanctuary"; see Reisner, Hymns, p. 33, etc., and Langdon, 
Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms, p. 96 f. The "wild ox of the sanctuary" is in that title an 
epithet of Enlil. In line 5' we have the very expression ama bara, "wild ox of the sanctuary"; 
there can be little doubt, therefore, that the passage is an appeal to Enlil. For al = nas,aru, 
see OBW, 260". 

2 For mu = labdsu, "clothe," see OBW, 48i 30 . 

3 For singu cf. B, 7100. Cf. also 1. 1 1 below. 

4 The sign buru may be due to an accidental perforation of the tablet. If omitted, the sense 
would not be materially altered. It would be "O mighty abyss, give protection!" 

6 Possibly the reading is al-ku here, but, if so, the sense would be unaltered. 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



n'. sig 1 al sig singu 
12'. ui gi-%a. . . .ga-qa-a- 



(iv) 
I*. 

2'. 

3'- 

4'- 

5'- 
6'. 

7'- 



9'. 



10 . 



1 1. . 

12'. 



.... se 

sar ge-ge 

gu nar-ne gu nar-ne 

uru-da ba-la 

e e-mud 

musen a-ba sub-bi 

rug-ma Idl-a-ge {id a-ba-ta sig-gi 

ge edin lal-a e-^a a-ba-ta de 
da-ba la e-gal ru ga mu-rug 
lil-lal 4 gasan lu mud 

musen a-ba sub-bi 

rug-ma lal-a- ge a-ba-ta sig-gi 



n '. A large garment, a singu garment, 
12'. A goat thou bringest (?).... let 
them be offerings (?) ! 



(iv) 

r. 

2'. 

3'- 

4'- 
5'- 
6'. 

7'- 



9'- 



10'. 



n'. 

12'. 



Abundance (?) . .he restores. 

His musician sings; his musician 
sings: 

"To the city he gives protection," 

The temple he strengthens; 

O bird 3 , who can overthrow it? 

My gain is great. The flour by 
whom is it increased? 

A plain is filled. Thy water by 
whom is it poured out? 

His hand makes the overflow of 
great waters; it increases fatness. 

The demon, the cloud-lord is im- 
petuous; 

O bird, 3 who can overthrow him? 

My gain is great, by whom is it 
poured out? 



(v) (v) 

I' .-. I'. 

2'. d nin-gar-sag-da isib-lil 2'. 

3'. a^ag-isib 5 su-na mu-[ru?] 3'. 

4'. d ba-da mu-na e-ni-ge-ge 4'. 

5'. gd-a^ag ga-me gd-rug ga-me 5'. 



To Ninkharsag belongs demon- 
enchantment; 

brilliant enchantment her hand 
[created (?)]; 

Bada opposed to her his word(?) 6 

"The house is bright," may she 
say 5 ! 

"The house is pure," may she say! 



1 Apparently a list of offerings begins here. 

2 Cf. OBW, 593. 

3 Perhaps to be rendered, O Enlil; cf. OBW, 8?. 

4 B, 5940. 

*The sign me (isib) signifies "incantation," "enchantment" (OBW, 4y8 6 ' 6 ) and also sasu, 
"to speak." The context indicates that here me means to "say as an incantation." 
6 OBW, 62'. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



6'. lu tug a^ag-nigin me . 

7'. nu-gu a^ag-gi 

8'. gi bil-erin bi. . me 

9'. su-ni nam-ma-ku-. . 
10'. dug II . . . .mu-na. . . 
1 1 '. // pi. . . .mu-n[a-d\e 
12'. sukum ki ago. ra-a-bi 

13'. dug mu-da-ni-sub 
1 4. d mus-ir pad-balag 
15 



6'. "Which is lofty, brightest of all," 

(may) she say ! 

7'. "Unspeakable with the brightness 
8'. of many cedar fires" (may) she 

say! 

9'. Her power is not overthrown (?) . . 
10'. Two jars they [pour out] for her; 
1 1 '. two large .... they pour out to her; 
12'. the food which she loves they 

bring her; 

13'. a vessel they present to her, 
14. unto Sir there is a cry. 
15 



(vi) 

1 ............................. 

2 ..... de. . . .dug-bi. . 

3. idigna a^ag a-kib-ud-nun a^ag-gi 

4. gat-a^ag uru-mu 

5. d en-lil 

6. lu nam-e(?) 

7. dumu-. . . . 
8. 

9. 
10. 



(vi) 
i. 

2. 

3 



Eu- 



nn-gar-sag-ge 
X*-{i d umun-su igi-du-ni 



1 1 . igi-na ba-na-gar 

12. lag-P kes nam-mi-gub 

13. sig-su ba-ni-il 

14. sig-su uru m:-. . 



15- 
16. 



. . . .poured out many jars(?) 
The holy Tigris, the holy 
phrates, 

4. the holy sceptre of my protector, 

5. Enlil, 

6. man does not bring forth. 

7. The son .... 

8 ................................ 

9. of Ninkharsag. 
10. To the source(?) of life, the divine 

lord, raise the eye ! 
His eye he lifted up to him; 
that which came from Kesh did 

not cease; 

on the weak 3 he laid hold, 4 
14. for the lowly 3 he [withheld (?)] not 
protection. 5 

15 ............ .............. ; ..... 

16. 



219- 2 B, 6509. 

3 The sign is OBW, 527. It may mean either "weak" or "lowly." 

See OBW, 277 1 . 

6 Lines 10-14 are very enigmatical. According to my understanding of the text, col. v 
directs offerings and prayers to Ninkharsag, or Sir, on account of the plague that had 
come from Kesh. Col. vi, 3-6 reminds the worshipper that certain great powers are in the 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



(vii) 

r 


(vii) 

. . . . r 


2'. e(?) mu-na-u 
3'. ud-bi-a rd {al-la 
4'. kisal(?)-bi gub en 

5'. d mus-ir pad-balag 
6' ku. . . . 


2'. the temple 1 nourished 2 them; 
3'. at that time 3 satisfaction came. 
4. Its platform (?) stands as an incan- 
tation 4 ; 
5. unto Sir there is a cry. 
6'. ... 


7' 


7'. 


8'. *,.., 

9'. dumu-m[u] gd-as . . 
10'. a-na a-mu 

1 1'. nar(?) . . . .na. . . . 


8'. The house. . . . 
9'. "My son, in the house(?). 
10'. What is my present 5 ?" 
n' The musician (?) 






(viii) 
i' d En pes 
2'. gal-dig-ga mu-rug 
3'. kd-gal Big-gar ba-gar 
4'. gdl-mu su-a mu-. . 
5'. gis. . . .dingir. . 


(viii) 
i' the mighty divine lord 
2'. increases greatness. 
3'. The great gate to bolt he appoints, 
4'. my door for protection he. ... 
<;'. 


6' 


6'. 


7' 


7'. 


8' 


8'. . . 


9' gis-mu-se (?) 
10'. igi an-su ni-il-da 


9' may he be favorable (?) 
10'. To heaven he lifts an eye 



control of the gods, or at all events not in human control. It would seem probable that lines 
7-10, from which so much is lost, contained Ninkharsag's response, ending with the command 
to look to the divine source of life, probably to Enlil. Line 1 1 states that man lifted his eye to 
him; line 12 that that which came from Kesh (by hypothesis an epidemic), did not stand; 
lines 13, 14 tell how he (Enlil) delivered the lowly. 

: The sign is broken; it may have been sa, "net" (OBW, n8 18 ), but the context does not 
favor it. 

2 For the meaning akalu, "feed," "nourish" see OBW, 273 2 . 

3 Probably referring to the stopping of the plague. 

4 An early expression of the idea that the very presence of a holy building drives away evil 
spirits and evil events and acts as a protection to a place. 

6 This sign (OBW, 521) has many meanings. It might be rendered "figure," "image," 
"vessel," "sceptre," "bed," "rest," "love," and "present." The last mentioned meaning seems 
to best suit the context. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



1 1 '. dun gis-fi-dim 
12'. . .du-mu 



M' 



II' 

12'. 

M'- 



opened 1 by the tree of life! 
. . . .my dwelling. 



(ix) 


(ix) 


I 


i 


2 nam-lag-ga 


2 favor 


3. sangu ni-nam 


3. the priest proclaims. 


4. gd-ku ne-da 


4. The firm house he raised up; 


5. ab-laP-bi sag-ga 


5. its nest is favorable; 


6. mas-ra ni-me^-nam 


6. for the prince he appointed it. 


7. kas-kas-dim 


7. Like a heap 


8. gul-fi ge-um-e 


8. may the joy of life be great ! 


g. ki-nam-us-ni 


9. From his cohabitation 4 


10. mus dam-dag-su mu-dim 


10. with Sir, the brilliant wife, he 




created 


n. da dara-gis-dim 


1 1 . a strong one, like a full-grown ibex, 


12. ki gar 5 (t]il n[e-g]u 


12. whom he commanded to guard life. 


o 


13. 




. . . i -j. 




I c 




1 J 

(x) 


(x) 


i . u-uru-a u-uru-su 


i. "The light of the city, 6 in the 




light of the city 


2. na-nam 


2. are they; 



1 Cf. OBW, 427 8 . The translation given above is the only intelligible one the writer can 
make out of the two fragmentary lines. If more of the context were preserved, it might appear 
that the sense was something quite different. As it stands the passage seems to imply a 
knowledge on the part of the Babylonians of a story kindred to that of Genesis 3. However, in 
the absence of the context one cannot build on this. 

2 ab-lal has two meanings, aptu, "a nest" as of swallows, and naplastu, "scales" or "balances" 
(cf. B. 3841, 3842). As "house" is mentioned in the preceding line, the word has been trans- 
lated by the first of its meanings. If the second meaning were chosen, the passage would imply 
that the god possessed scales similar to those that are so often pictured in Egyptian inscriptions 
as belonging to Osiris. 

3 For me-ni-nam, an example of the early Sumerian indifference to the order of syllables. 

4 On this passage see the discussion which follows the translation. 

& Gar menas "a guard;" it can probably express the verbal form of the thought also. 

6 Lines 1-6 are not clear to me. They are capable of at least two interpretations. 1 have 
translated them as though they are an address of the "strong one who was told to guard life" 
(col. ix, II, 12) concerning the demons of sickness. This is one possible interpretation; cf. 
JAOS, XXXVII, 27. 



10 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



3. gig-uru-a gig-uru-su 

4. na-nam 

5. mu-uru-a mu-uru-su 

6. na-nam 

7. ud-na ul-ul 

8. nin-na gir-gir 

9. es en-lil kt 

10. ud-na ul-ul 

1 1 . nin-na gir-gir 

12. dingir-ni di-da 

1 3 . M d urudu-e 

14. &z d da-uru d urudu-e 

'5 

1 6. 



3. The darkness of the city, in the 

darkness of the city 

4. are they; 

5. The people 1 of the city, among 

the people of the city 

6. are they. 

7. Whenever there is gladness 

8. its lady is strong 

9. O house of Nippur. 

10. Whenever there is gladness 

11. its lady is strong, 

12. its god is just." 

13. Urudue speaks 

14. with Dauru. Urudue 

15 

16. 



(xi) 

1 . igi en-gal an-[na] 

2. nin-gal d en-lil 

3. d nin- gar-sag 

4. igi gin-gal an-na 

5. nin-gal d En-lil 

6. d nin-gar-sag-ra 

7. us mu-ni-gu 

8. gi bil-mu-ni erin-bi . . 

9. a-mas vii 

10. kam -mu mun-dag 
n. ki mus-gir-da 

12. bal-bal dingir-da-^a 

13. d id-mag 

14. nig-tur-^u-a mu-da-ra 

15. sig-ra d id-da uru 

16 mu. . . . 

(xii) 

1. d sar-kim? 

2. gu lil-gir ba-ra(?) 



(xi) 

1. before the great lord Anu(?), 

2. the great lady of Enlil, 

3. Ninkharsag, 

4. before the arbiter, Anu, 

5. the great lady of Enlil, 

6. even Ninkharsag, 

7. the exalted one spoke: 

8. "On my fire much cedar 

9. my seven brightnesses 

10. makes brilliant. 

1 1 . With mighty Sir 

12. are the fruits of thy wise divinity. 

13. The great divine river 

14. to thy vegetation comes. 

15. for the overflow of the divine 

river the wall 
1 6 [thou makest(?)]" 

(xii) 

1 . Like the garden god 

2. she commands the strong spirit to 

make 



1 Cf. OBW, 62 34 . 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



11 



3- 8is pi-pi d isgara-nigginakku 

4. lag gestin-a-saru-ba mu-mar-mar 

5. igi lag-lag sir-gal 

6. dingir-da um-e 

7. gasan-me ^id dingir-el 

8. nu-gii gi-aiag ldl-^u 

9. d da-ra-ta-bar-e 

10. gii-li gab nunu% nar se-a 

i 1 . gu-gur pu-gin 

12. gasan-me lu lam-dal-esku-kim 

13. sig d sd-sd-e 

14. lag-^ag-gir an-lag 

15. su-sig sika-til an-ga 
\6. gal. . . . 

(xiii) 
i . bur . . . .si dub 

2. [ d ]mus. . . .bar. . . .gal-gur 

3. lag-fir (?) d en-lil 

4. en-lit 1 -lu 

5. gig-su mu-mar-mar 



6. d tispak-ra ki 



3. The pipi-plants of Iskhara-nig- 

inakku; 

4. among his 3600 vines she sets them. 

5 . Before the sunlight is the great light 

6. to the goddess, the mother. 

7. Our lady, faithful one, brilliant 

goddess, 

8. unspeakable is the brilliance of 

thy goodness ! 

9. From Dara 1 is food ; 2 

10. thou speakest, the gab-grain 

sprouts, abundant is the wheat; 

11. the wide bank is an increasing 

orchard. 

12. O our lady, man is like a sprout of 

three fronds, 3 

13. the planting of the divine begetter. 

14. Strong foundations he establishes; 

15. a full hand, a full vessel, he fills. 
16 

(xiii) 

1 . A libation bowl [he] poured out 

2. [to] Sir [at] the great sanctuary. 

3. The fiery offering of Enlil 

4. at Nippur 

5. on account of the sickness he pre- 

sented ; 

6. to Ishtar from the land of Khalab, 4 



1 Dara, "ibex," enters as an element into a number of epithets of Enlil and Enki; cf. MICHATZ, 
Die Gotterlisten, etc., p. 23. 

2 Perhaps to be rendered "fodder" or food; cf. OBW, 77. 

3 Cf. OBW, QB 26 . 

4 The Sumerian reading of this name is given in CT, XII, 28, 28, though the last sign or 
signs are unfortunately there erased, leaving only ia-ba legible. The ideogram occurs in 
REISNER'S Hymnen, 99, 67, and in slightly different writing in PSBA, XIII, 158, CT, XV, 19, 7, 
and the Code of Hammurapi, iii, 52. ZIMMERN, ZA, III, 97 and Tammu?, 133, HOMMEL, 
Grundriss der Geographic und Gescbicbte des alien Orients, 386, 390, and R. F. HARPER, Code of 
Hammurabi, 7, take it as an ideogram for Aleppo. While this is not absolutely certain, it is 
probable. 

8 lu, as a post-positive equals adi, ana, and ina. Ina in Akkadian sometimes is equivalent to 

"from." I take ki lu in this phrase to be equivalent to ki ia, "from," which occurs 

so often in the temple archives, e. g. HLC, 15, 43; 21, 1 1. 

That an Ishtar from Aleppo should be worshipped in Nippur in this period is interesting, 



12 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



7. gig-su mu-mar-mar 

8. d en-ki-ra {u-ab-su 

9. gig-su mu-mar-[mar] 

10. lag (?Y -sir d en-lil 

1 1 . en-lil kt u-mas-su kii-e 

12. a-mas-su gu-gu 

13. ga-gar-a menari-ne-na 

14. menari-na nu-mu-gdl 

1 5 . ga uru-a nig temen-na 

1 6. 



(xiv) 
i 

2. d en-lil mu-ab-a-gu 
3- *-? * igi-ki-ka 

4. a-uru-a ne-ba-lal-lal 

5 . d en-lil-a ne-ne-e 

6. a-uru-a ne-ba-lal-lal 

7. /m nig-bil-^a 

8. nig-bil mas mu-gdl 

9. tfdm tn temen-^a 



7. on account of the sickness he pre- 

sented ; 

8. to Enki in the deep 

9. on account of the sickness he pre- 

sented 

10. the fiery offering(P) of Enlil. 

1 1 . O Nippur on abundant food thou 

feedest, 

12. of abundant water thou drinkest, 

13. luxurious fatness is in that store- 

house; 

14. that storehouse thou dost not lock; 

15. the fatness of Akkad is the pos- 

session of the temple. 
16 

(xiv) 
i 

2. Enlil declares to him: 

3. "Removed 2 is the sickness from the 

face of the land." 

4. "As a protector thou removest 

it," 

5. Enlil's are they, 

6. "as a protector thou removest it. 

7. The plain is thy royal possession; 

8. the royal possession bears fruit. 

9. The plain is the possession of thy 

temple; 

10. the possession of the temple bears 

fruit. 

1 1 . The great dagger, the ox-devourer, 

O father, is thy possession; 

12. the house of Nippur 

13. it waters, it exalts. 



10. wig tewww TWflS mu-gal 
1 1 . gir-mag gud-ku ad nig-^u 

12. es en-lil[ kt ] 

13. ni-si-bi-a ne-ba-nd 



but not strange. Clay has shown that the dynasty of Agade was of Amorite origin (Amurru, 
190 f.). During its supremacy and even later, there must have been Amorite inhabitants in Baby- 
lonian cities, who, of course, brought their deities with them. 

1 The part of the sign remaining looks like the beginning of um, but is the same sign as in 
line 6. It may be intended for dub or lag (OBW, 270). I have tentatively read it lag. 

2 Cf. B, 11445. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



13 



14. {abar-mag-{u 

1 5 . gan-kul mu-gi gu 

1 6. 



14. Thy great weapon is lifted up." 

15. The seeded field the bird discovers. 

1 6. 



.en 



(xv) 
i. . 
2 nig-gi 

3. d [en-lil] sag-su 

4. gig-su mu-mar-mar 

5. nam-nam-ra 

6. nam-nam-ra 

7. ud d nin-[ga]r-[sag]-a(?) 

8. d nin-urta 

9. mes-lam-ta e 

10. ud ge mag-mag-a 

1 1 . rug gir bar-n[e\ mi-tuk 
12 ug-gi 

13. fag mu-ni-kesda 

14. si-si-ma-ta %a 

1 5 . lal-lal-ma-[ta fa] 

1 6. 



(xv 
i. 

2. 

3- 

4- 

5- 
6. 



9- 
10. 
1 1. 

12. 

'3- 

14. 
15- 

1 6. 



.lord. 



.... possession .... 
for Enlil, the prince, 
on account of the sickness he pre- 
sented. 

"Let it not come ! 
let it not come!" 
When to Ninkharsag 
Ninurta 

coming from Meslam 
day and night with might 
the increase of his cattle protects 

The foundation thou strengthen- 

est for it, 
thou fillest, 
thou raisest up. 



(xvi) 
i 

2 

3- gjg- ...gig.... 

4. su-nigin sar-na-a 

5. gurus-^i [dingir] lam-ma 

6. gurus-{i dingir lam-ma 

7. kd-dug tab-bi de 

8. de. .na ial sig 

9. ama-mu a^ag rd \u-a na-ur 
10. kala-^u sar(?)-na urn-bar 1 



(xvi) 
i. 



3. sickness. . . .sickness. . . . 

4. all, in its entirety. 

5. Lord of life, god of fruit, 

6. Lord of life, god of fruit, 

7. pour out good beer in double 

measure; 

8. pour it out, make abundant the 

wool! 

9. O my mother, brilliant one, come I 

The flour withhold not ! 
10. (may) thy might man's garden (?) 
restore I 1 



f. OBW, 3 oi 3 . 



14 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES. BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



1 1 . ama-mu \dingir\-nin nu-gud me-a 1 1 . O my mother, divine lady, is there 

no might with thee? 

12. dig gig su-su-a ne-sub 12. To expel the sickness, I pray 

earnestly ! 

13. tur-li nu-me a-lil 13. In the fold (may) there be no 

demon ! 

14. a-gig a-bil-a 14. sickness, fever 

15. dig. .' 15. expel. . . . 

(about seven lines are defaced here). 



(xvii) 

8. gig.... 

9. iv iemen-ia mu-ni-da 

i o. sal-me . . . . na . . . . sal-me . . 

1 1 . dup d en-{u tab pu-bi 

12. ki-tur-ra-bi 

13. lal-es ki-a nin-urta ra erim 



(xvii) 

8. The sickness .... 

9. Four (times) thy temple platform 

approaches. 

10. The priestess. 

1 1 . The down-pour of 

deep his well 

12. which he dug. 

13. The sea fills the land; Ninurta 

comes as a laborer; 



the priestess .... 
En-zu makes 



14. [ki} mu-rug {ag [l]i-a. . ... 


14. [who] increases the boundary abun- 




dantly (?) 


15. 


i ;. 


(xviii) 


s 

(xviii) 


i ..... 


i . 


2 


2 


3. nam-l-na 


3. Let him not come ! 


4. ki-am nam-gud-du 


4. Like the wild-ox his strength 


5. mu-me gub 


5. is terrible. 1 


6 gig ki 


6 sickness. . . .the land. 


7. [dingir]-nin . . . .gu 


7. O divine lady, speak 


8 ne-ne 


8 them 


9. mu-. .-dag(?) uru 


9. establish (?) the city. 


10. gu-la na-ra 


10. Let not the full bank overflow! 


1 1. {ag-gi-e ni-kal(?) 


1 1 . The side is strong, 


12. gub-na a-ag-gi 


12. its firmness, complete. 


13. gi-ba ge-mi-de 


13. May its reeds be abundant, 


14. dingir-en-a elim-til-la 


14. O divine lord, living ram 


I 5. 


1 5. 


7 


" 7' 



1 Gub is a predicate adjective after me ba$u; cf. OBW, 2O7* 2 . 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 15 

(xix) (xix) 

i -ni- . . -ru nigin-sar \. when(?) thou makest(?) all vege- 

tation . . 
2. lul. .lu igi-igi-ii-[ni] 2. strong is man; his eyes see. 

3 3- 

4 bar-bar-ra 4 brilliant (?). 

5. kud ga-sub-a-fu 5. The decree do thou establish ! 

6 6 

7 7 

8. engur-al (?)... .bur-bi. .' 8. The deep abyss for a libation- 

bowl 

9. ni-^a-sU nin 9. By thy wind, O lady, 

10. nam-nam gu l m. command not the storm-cloud (?) 2 

n. ra-na d en-{ii ra n. to come! O Enzu, come. 

12. ku-se ge-gana-an 12. Let the meal offering be abundant ! 

13. ki-{u mu-su-es-gub 13. Thy land it establishes. 

14. lu-lu gu 14. Men say: 

5 15 



An interesting peculiarity of the palaeography is the writing 
of the determinative kam, which is often placed after numerals 
as in the cone of Enlitarzi. 2 In column xi, 10, of our text it is 
written on the next line after the numeral to which it points. 
The possessive mu "my" in the same line refers back to the 
noun in the preceding line. 

It is interesting to note that in this text, in accordance with 
a wide-spread conception of early men, water was regarded as 
holy. The Tigris and Euphrates are twice spoken of as holy 
rivers, and the "mighty abyss" (or well of the mighty abyss) 
is appealed to for protection (col. iii, 10). 

As was to be expected the principal deity mentioned in the 
text is Enlil, though Enki is also prominent, and Enzu and 
some minor gods are also mentioned. The name Ninlil does 



** 



l d. OBW, II, p. 251, note 

2 See ALLOTTE DE LA FUYE, Documents presargoniques, No. 32. 



16 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

not occur. The spouse, of Enlil is here called by two other 
names, Ninkharsag and Mush or Sir. That Ninkharsag was 
one of the names of the consort of Enlil has long been known, 
but the new light that the text throws on the Snake goddess 
Sir is important. That she was a goddess down to the time of 
Esarhaddon has long been known, 1 though Jastrow in his great 
work, Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens- appears to have 
overlooked it. In an inscription of Esarhaddon published in 
BA, III, 3 Sir is defined as il be-lit, "the divine lady," while in 
another copy of the text we find Sir il bel.* The scribes of Esar- 
haddon were therefore uncertain as to her sex, a fact that 
indicates that she was actually in process of being transformed 
from a feminine to a masculine deity. 6 Zimmern 6 supposes that 
Sir was identical with the dragon-serpent Tiamat, but the 
references to her in our text disprove that view. She was 
regarded as a beneficent goddess, a friend to mankind. 
Although Sir appears in this text as a goddess, the serpent 
deity was also from early times sometimes regarded as a god. 7 
According to our text Mush (Sir) was a spouse of Enlil. She 
was very wise. Her counsels strengthen the wise divinity of 
Anu (xi, n, 12), a statement which reveals a point of view 
similar to that of Genesis 3*: "Now the serpent was more subtle 
than any beast of the field." 8 Snake worship is very old and 
has been widely scattered over the earth. It is not strange, 
therefore, that one of the roots of the cult at Nippur should 

1 Cf. ZIMMERN, KAT 3 , 504 ff. 

2 Vol. I, 55, 105, 163 ff. So also WARD, Seal Cylinders, p. 127, and LANGDON, Tammu^, 120 f. 

3 P. 297, 42; cf. p. 238, 42. 
4 Cf. BA, III, 307, 34. 

6 See the writer's Semitic Origins, pp. 120, 125, etc. 

6 Loc. cit. 

7 See WARD, Seal Cylinders, No. 362 f., and LANGDON, Tammuf, 120 f. 

8 In later times Sir appears mainly on the boundary stones; cf. W. J. HINKE, BE, Series 
D, Vol. IV, p. 229 and the translations passim. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 17 

have been the snake-goddess. One passage concerning her is 
very interesting. "From his cohabitation with Sir (Mush), he 
begat one strong as a large ibex, whom he told to guard life." 
(ix, 8-1 1). This statement embodies an idea very wide-spread 
among men, that important acts of creation are the result of 
cohabitation between a god and a goddess. This idea is 
expressed in lines 22-30 of a tablet which describes the origin 
of a city and the beginnings of agriculture, published by 
Langdon, and which he calls the Sumerian Epic of Paradise, 
the Flood, and the Fall of Man, 1 as well as in No. 4, line 22 fT., 
and in Nos. 4 and 8 of this volume; it appears in the 
Japanese myth that all things were generated by the union of 
Izanagi and Izanami, 2 in Indian myths, which represent the 
earlier Vedic cosmogonic ideas, and which refer to acts of cre- 
ation as acts of generation. 3 

Another point of interest which the text makes prominent 
is the connection of Ninkharsag with enchantment. To her 
is attributed the function of enchanting the demons, or of 
keeping them away by incantations. If I rightly understand 
the text, a number of sentences are given, the utterance of 
which by her, was supposed to banish demons from the temple. 
A recollection that some such function attached to Ninkharsag 
is found in one of the Ritualtafeln 4 published by Zimmern, in 
which divination by oil, connected with the name of Enme- 
duranki is somehow also connected with the name of Nin- 
kharsag. A line in the text is broken, so that it does not appear 
whether it is divination by oil, or Enmeduranki himself that is 

1 See G. A. BARTON, in American Journal of Theology, XXI, 576 ff., and JASTROW in 
AJSL, XXXIII, 112 f. 

2 See G. W. KNOX, The Development of Religion in Japan, New York, 1907, p. 21 ff. 
8 Cf . A. A. MACDONNELL, History of Sanskrit Literature, New York, 1900, p. 132. 

4 H. ZIMMERN, Ritualtafeln fur den Wabrsager, Leipsig, 1901, No. 24, I. 26. 



18 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

called "a creation of Ninkharsag," but the text attests a later 
belief in her connection with the subject. It appears that in 
the lapse of time her patronage was transferred from enchant- 
ment to divination. In this connection it is stated that a 
deity named Bada, who is otherwise unknown to me, opposed, 
or was hostile to Ninkharsag. From the point of view of 
suffering men, Bada, then, if not an actual devil, was one of the 
not-altogether-friendly divinities that had in him the potenti- 
alities of devilship. Perhaps this is too strong a statement 
of the case, for, in Babylonian thought, the gods were subject 
to all the passing moods of men, and Bada may have been 
thought to oppose Ninkharsag's beneficent restraint upon 
demons, not of settled purpose, but on account of some tem- 
porary dislike of men. 

In column x, 13 mention is made of Urudu-e, or the Bronze 
god. In CT, XXIV, 49, 5b Urudu is defined as Ea. It is 
probable, therefore, that in our text Urudu is an epithet of 
Enki. The lists of gods in CT, XXIV further record a god 
Urudu-nagar-dingir-e-ne, literally "The bronze-carpenter of the 
gods" or "The metal-worker of the gods" (cf. CT, XXIV, 12, 
25; 25, 8yb), and Urudu-nagar-kalam-ma, "The metal-worker 
of the world" (CT. XXIV, 12,24; 25, Sya). 1 The simple phrase, 
"the Bronze god," suggests a god represented by a bronze statue, 
but the name may have originated because the god of wisdom 
was believed to have imparted the knowledge of working metal. 
As Ea is the Semitic name usually applied to Enki, it is probable 
that in our text Urudu-e is Enki. 

The passage that mentions Urudue says that he spoke with 
a deity called Da-uru. In CT. XXIV, i, 13 Da-uru is given as 
one of the names of Anu. When it is said in our text that 

1 Cf. PAUL MICHATZ, Die Gotlerlisten der Serie An ilu A-na-um, Breslau, 1909, p. 19. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 19 

Urudue spoke with Dauru, it is but another way of saying that 
Enki addressed Anu. 

As among all early peoples the presence of the temple, the 
abode of deity, was thought to afford protection to the land 
(col. vii, 5 ff.). This idea persisted in Israel down to the time 
of Isaiah or later, (cf. Isa. xxxi, 4, 5). 

In col. xii, 3, the name of a deity is expressed by nigin, 
the ideogram for double enclosure, or grand total. CT. XXIV, 
1 8, Qb gives the Sumerian name of this deity as Ishkhara- 
nigginakku, and the Semitic as the goddess Ishtar. 

This goddess who is said by her ideogram to sum up the 
totality of deity, is said to be the possessor of & ^pi-pi, i. e. the 
pi-pi-tree or pi-pi-plant. This plant is mentioned in K jib, 
iii, 21, a tablet published by Kiichler, 1 where the writing is 
* am pi-pi. It was a plant believed to have medicinal properties, 
since in the tablet published by Kiichler it is an ingredient of a 
medical prescription. 

Another interesting statement is found in col. xv, 8 if., 
where the phrase mes-lam-ta-e, or as formerly read sid-lam-ta-e, 
follows the name of Ninurta or Nin-ib. This phrase is in later 
texts connected with the name of Nergal, and later still, with 
the planet Mars. 2 The phrase means, "the hero who comes 
forth from lam," or "the prince who comes forth from lam." 
The only known meanings of lam are "sprout," "to bear fruit," 
and ninsabu, perhaps, "be blown away" from the stem nasabu, 
"to blow," a meaning applicable to the falling petals of a 
flower, or to the pollen of a fruit-bearing plant. The sign lam 
itself probably originated in the picture of a ploughshare, thus 
suggesting growth and fruitfulness. When this phrase describes 

1 Beitrdge %ur Kenntniss der assyriscb-babylonischen Medium, l.eipsig, 1904. 

2 Cf . JASTROW, Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens, \, 64, 185, II, 18, II, 628 f. 



20 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

Ninurta as "the hero who comes forth from lam," what does it 
mean? May the meaning not be suggested by two seals pub- 
lished by Ward on which a god is represented as a walking 
tree? 1 In each case a human form takes the place of the tree- 
trunk, the head is surmounted by the horns that are emblem- 
atical of deity, and from the body the branches of a tree 
grow. Probably we see in these figures the picture of the 
"hero who came forth from vegetation" (lam}. It is this 
hero who comes forth day and night from vegetation, as our 
text says, who protects the increase of the cattle. This deity 
is declared to be Ninurta or Ninib, rather than Nergal. It 
thus becomes probable that the deity referred to under the 
name Mes-lam-ta-e in the time of Dungi, 2 of the dynasty of Ur, 
was Ninib rather than Nergal. 

In conclusion it should be noted how closely sickness is 
associated in the text with the work of demons. In col. x, 18, 
according to one interpretation, 3 a demon is adjured not to fly 
to the darkness of the city, the light of the city, or the people 
of the city. The Babylonian view that sickness was demoniacal 
possession was so all-pervading that its primitive character does 
not need demonstration. The evidence of this text on the 
point is, accordingly, what we might expect. 

1 Cf. WARD, Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Nos. 374, 378. 

2 CT, V, 12217 and IX. 35389. 

3 The rendering given in the text s^atis more probable, but the passage is difficult. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



21 



No. 2. 
AN OLD BABYLONIAN ORACLE(P). 

This text is very enigmatical. The interpretation of it 
here put forth is given with great reserve. 



TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 



(i) 

1 . gal-X 1 kud-du 

2. garas-bar ^id-da 

3. Al-la- d Kal 

4. mega-isib-bi ama gub 

5. nam-sir-ge 

6. men mega-isib bur-pad-da 

7. gal. . . . 



(i) 

1. The great victim (?) is cut open; 

2. the oracle comes forth. 

3. O Alla-Kal, 

4. the wise priest firmly establishes 

(it). 

5. Of the apparent fate 

6. I, the wise priest, am beholding 

the whole. 

7. The great .... 



(ii) 



bur-dub 
d En-lil-lal 
d En-ki-ta 
ge-gdl-ne 

5. ki- d En-ki gub 

6. nam-sar-a-ge-a 

7. en mu-ge-gdl 

8. me-gi-la 

9. [men] mega-isib-mag 
10. [ki] d En~iu na 

(iii) 

i . dingir-dingir-ra 
2. an-sar-m 



(ii) 
i. 

2. 

3 

4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 
9. 
10. 



The destructive axe 

Enlil 

from Enki 

verily will take. 

Standing with Enki 

in wisdom 

the lord verily will receive it; 

verily he will guard i,t ! 

I, the wise high priest, 

whom Enzu exalts, 



(iii) 

1 . the gods 

2. address. 



1 See p. 23 ff . 



22 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

3. ki-dingir-a ni-i[n]-da 3. Unto the god I say: 

4. ge-gub 4. "May there stand 

5. utu-utu 5. the dwellings 

6. erin-erin 6. of cedar." 

7. w2 an-babbar 7. His mouth he opened, 

8. d En-iu an-da 8. Enzu said : 

9. fo d En-%u ni-utu 9. "Where Enzu dwells 

(iv) (iv) 

1 . ni-utu i . he dwells. 

2. 01 nun-me-su [ni]-mag 2. As one of the bearded princes he 

is exalted. 

3. dingir-ri-ne 3. His god 

4. an-se-ter-da 4. shall fasten 

5. iag-du 5. the foundation firmly; 

6. <?rm ni-dim 6. with cedar he shall build. 

7. su-e-e 7. Strong are the houses; 

8. utu siris 8. the dwelling is of aromatic wood, 

9. gal-unu 9. the great dwelling 
10. d En-lil-lal 10. of Enlil." 



The text here presented is enigmatical and difficult, and it 
must be confessed that its interpretation is uncertain. That 
offered here is merely tentative. If I rightly understand it, it 
is an oracle obtained from the inspection of a victim by a seer 
for Allu- d Kal, who wished to rebuild the temple, or some build- 
ings that formed a part of the temple at Nippur. The building 
was to be constructed of cedar. I take it that the destructive 
axe which Enlil is to receive from Enki is the axe with which 
the cedars are to be cut. Enki, the god of wisdom, was supposed 
to be the inventor of working wood as well as the discoverer of 
working bronze. This axe and its work, it is declared Enlil will 
guard. The priest then adjures the gods, addressing Enzu in 
particular, requesting that the dwellings of cedar may stand, 
and he declares that in reply Enzu assured him that Alla- d Kal 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 23 

dwells where he (Enzu) dwells, that he (Alla- d Kal) is exalted as 
one of the bearded princes, that the foundation shall be firmly 
laid, the dwellings constructed of cedar, and the great dwelling 
of Enlil of aromatic wood. 

The sign which I have rendered victim (?), =00$, is an 
unidentified sign. It is, apparently, an older form of 5fnjfl a 
sign which Langdon in AJSL, XXXIII, 48 ff. reads sub and 
equates with shepherd. His evidence for this is that in a sylla- 
bary of the time of Lugal-usum-gal published by Schileicho in 
ZA, XXIX, 79 gal-jjjJTJmi occurs next to gal-sab, which Langdon 
translates "great shepherd" and reads sub. It has the value 
sab according to all the syllabaries, and means "great priest" 
or "great baru-priest." Langdon's inference that because the 
two words follow each other in the syllabary they are therefore 
synonyms is likewise fallacious. Moreover the Sumerian word 
for shepherd is not sub but sib or siba. In Clay's Miscellaneous 
Inscriptions of the Yale Babylonian Collection, No. 12, there is 
published a larger duplicate copy of the syllabary ascribed to 
Lugal-usum-gal in the ZA text. A study of this makes it clear 
that the larger part of the syllabary is occupied with a list of 
Sumerian words before which gal, "great" could be written. 
Thus in col. i we have gal-kal, "large laboring-man;" gal-mus, 
"large serpent;" gal-dim, "large dim-grain;" gal-sangu, "high 
priest;" gal-sangu-e, "large priest-house;" gal-ti, "long life;" 
gal-pa-sag, "large palm grove"; gal-mus pa, "large fearful(?) 
serpent;" gal-tuk(?), "long hair;" gal-kesseba, "great image;" 
gal-mus -\-mus -\-sir, "great sbinbiltu-tree;" gal-pa-bi, "great terra 
cotta sceptre;" gal-pa-urudu, "great bronze sceptre;" gal-e, 
"great house." Col. ii is mostly occupied with a list of garments, 
but in line 11 we find gal-numun, "abundant seed;" in 1. 13 



24 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

gal-sil, "large prayer-offering." Line 14 has the heading nun-me, 
"princes" or "great men." Naturally therefore 1. 1 5 begins gal- 
sangu," high priest" a term which here occurs for a second time. 
The end of the second column and the beginning of the third 
are defaced. When col. iii becomes legible we read: gal-li, 
"great unguentary (of a temple court);" gal-kisal, "great temple 
court;" gal-sab, "great barn-priest;" gid-sab, tall baru-priest; 

then g0/-tSH2|, the phrase in question, which is followed by 
gal-tur, "a great court-yard" or a "great fold." It is clear from 
this list of words that because one word follows another they 
are not necessarily synonyms. The context of the expression 

in the Nippur inscription suggests that some meaning 

like victim would be appropriate, and it would not in the sylla- 
bary be inappropriate for a victim to be followed by the fold 
from which the victim was taken. I accordingly tentatively 
translate "a large victim." 

If I am right in taking the Al-la- d Kal as a proper name it 
is proof that al-la, though sometimes the name of a deity pre- 
ceded by the determinative dingir, 1 is not, when not so pre- 
ceded, always a deity as Huber supposes. 2 It is a predicate 
element here. The name means, "the god Kal protects." 

Mus in col. i, 5 is spelled with the sign for serpent (OBW, 
328). Here it apparently represents a phonetic spelling of Mus 
"appear, appearance" (OBW, 115). 

In col. iv, 2 the phrase as-nun-me-su, "one of the bearded 
princes," is interesting. Nun has the meanings "great," 
"prince," "strong," "lord," and preceded by the determinative 

1 See E. HUBER, Personennamen in den Keilscbrift-Urkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur 
und Nisin, Leipsig, 1907, p. 45 f., and G. A. BARTON, Haverford Library Collection of Cuneiform 
Tablets, Philadelphia, Vol. Ill, 1914, p. 12. 

2 Op. cit., p. 185. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 25 

for divinity may denote Anu, Ea, Bel, or Sin. The Sumerian 
deities are pictured on the seals as bearded, although the 
Sumerians themselves were beardless. Eduard Meyer has 
shown that this is because the Semites were the first settlers in 
Mesopotamia, and that, after the invasion of the country by the 
Sumerians, the Sumerians adopted the local traditions of var- 
ious Semitic deities and pictured their gods as bearded. Since 
this is the case, may not the phrase be a hint to Alla- d Kal that 
he may be deified as were Naram-Sin, Gudea, Dungi, Bur-Sin, 
Gimil-Sin and others? 



26 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. 3. 
HYMN TO DUNGI. 

The colophon to this tablet states that it is the first of a 
series addressed to "My King," and the contents make it clear 
that the king was Dungi. The tablet was originally consider- 
ably larger than at present and contained six columns of writing. 
Columns i and ii have suffered at the ends by breaking; col- 
umns v and vi, at the beginning; while columns iii and iv have 
been almost destroyed. 

Similar hymns to Dungi have been published by Langdon 
in BE, XXXI, Nos. 4 and 5 and in PBS, X, No. 7 (translation, 
p. 136 f.). Such compositions appear to have been introduced 
into Babylonian worship in the time of the dynasty of Ur, and 
were continued into later dynasties. Thus two hymns to 
Ishmi-Dagan of the dynasty of Nisin are published by Lang- 
don, BPS, X, Nos. 9 and 14. A text to Ibi-Sin of the dynasty 
of Ur is also published below. 

This custom seems to have been introduced with Dungi. 
Was it begun during his life-time, or only after his death? Mer- 
cer has contended (JAOS, XXXVI, 360-380) that no Baby- 
lonian king was worshipped during his lifetime, but that all 
such worship developed after their death. He overlooked, 
however, the fact that his contention is nullified by proper 
names that were given during Dungi's reign. On one tablet 
(HLC, II, pi. 53, No. 10) the following names occur: d dun-gi- 
ra-kalam-ma, "The land is for the god Dungi;" d dun-gi- 
kalam-ma-gi-li-bi, "The god Dungi, the land is his delight;" 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



27 



d dun-gi-a-us, "The god Dungi is the strength of man;" ka- d dun- 
gi-ib-ta-e, "The word of the god Dungi goes forth;" ama- d dun- 
gi-ra-ur-ru, "The mother of the god Dungi is the goddess 
Urru;" d dun-gi-u-nam-ti, "The god Dungi is the food of life." 
On another tablet, HLC, I, 12, No. 52, 9, occurs the name 
tab- d dun-ki- d nannar, "The god Dungi is the twin of the god 
Nannar." This tablet is also dated during Dungi's reign. If 
such praise could be given him by means of proper names dur- 
ing his lifetime, there can be little doubt but that laudatory 
hymns such as this were composed in his honor while he was 
yet alive. The script of our tablet shows that this copy was 
made during the time of the First Dynasty of Babylon, but 
that does not preclude an earlier date for the composition of the 
original. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 



1 . lugal mu g[ud-gal a]-gu-nu 

2. mus-rus igi ug-ga 

3. sib dun-gi gud-gal a-gu-nu 

4. mus-rus igi ug-ga 

5. amar-tur-bi gal-la sar barun 

6. gibil bar mar-ri silim-ne 

7. lig-ga-gi ur-sag-ga tum-ma 

8. gi-ten kalam-ma-na 

9. us-gi d utu ki gar-si-di 

10. sag-a-su gat-da gub-bi 

1 1 . ug-i-i-da ga-{i ku-a 



(i) 
i. 

2. 



O my king, great warrior, lord(F), 1 
O mighty, lion-eyed serpent, 

3. O shepherd, Dungi, great warrior, 

lord(?), 

4. O mighty, lion-eyed serpent, 

5. Offspring of the fold who pro- 

tectest the improved garden, 

6. O brilliant flame, thou bestowest 

its welfare. 

7. Wise ruler, hero, come ! 

8. Give rest unto the land ! 

9. A faithful hero, a sun-god, who 

art just, 

10. At the head with the sceptre thou 

standest; 

1 1 . O exalted lion, the fat of life thou 

eatest. 



J Cf. 8,6575. 



28 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



12. 



13- 



15- 

1 6. 
'7- 



18. 
19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

23- 
24. 

25- 
26. 

27- 

28. 
29. 
30. 

31- 
32. 

33- 

(ii) 



gud kas-gar elim-gal su-sar-da 
sd-^a kur du a^ag-ga sa sd 
lugal sag-men-na gi-li-bi 

dun-gi nimgir-gi-dim 

ge-ul-bi 

ago. kesda nam-dingir-ra gub-gub 

lugal-an-ni-mu dug-ga sd-a 
sib iid-a si tun 

d en-lil-lal 
nin-gi d nin-lil-lal 
ki-aga-sag-bi-na 
lugal-mu ia-dim 
a-ba an-ga kal 
a-ba an-ga-a-da sa 
a-ba-^a-dim 
sd-ta gtS ku-pi ga 

su-ama mu-ni-in-gu 
.... ur-sag dib-u 
e e 

. . . . C- C- 

. . . .ga tun-la 

. . . .e 

.... ga-a me-li 



. kur-nam-bi 8tS ru-gdl d nannar-ka 

2. kalam-ma-ka mi-ri-a 
3 . ra-ra m$-li l 

4. ama-ii ama-gal su-sar-da dim 

5. e-mus gu-nu me-li 2 



O ox, mighty wild ox, O ram great 

to bless, 
Thy word breaks the mountain, 

holy and just. 
O king, as commander in chief 

thou rejoicest, 

O Dungi, as a faithful steward 
thou art glad ! 
The crown, bound to divinity, 

abides. 

O my divine king, speak favor ! 
O shepherd, to the faithful give 

increase. 
Enlil, 

The faithful lady, Ninlil, 
Whom he loves in his heart, 
O my king, are like thee. 
Who brings favor to man? 
Who brings justice? 
Who is like thee, 
By whom the broad weapon is 

carried? 

The powerful mother calls: 
.... hero, come ! 
.... come forth, come forth ! 



12. 

13- 

1 4 . 
15. 

1 6. 

1 8. 
19. 

20. 

21. 
22. 

23- 
2 4 . 

25- 
26. 

27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 

31- 
32. 

33- 

(ii) 

1. O mountain of fate, the firm bow 

of Nannar 

2. For the land thou carryest; 

3. To fight is gladness! 1 

4. Bull of life, great bull, thou rulest 

to bless; 

5. Great serpent art thou. 2 



. . . .verily thou art. 



1 Cf . B, 10391; M, 7917, 7918. 

2 Mt = balu (OBW, 478 15 ); li=atta (OBW, $8 3 ). No one meaning of mi-li suits all its occur- 
rences here. It seems to have been purposely employed in different senses. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



29 



6. gar-su gll ginar gar-ra-an-na sig- 

ga-me-li 

7. gir-ni gtS ku-dim rim-ne gdl } -la 

{U-U 

8. d en-til tul-li me-li 

9. gis-ama(?)-dul d en gub {ag-ga- 

ru-a dim 

10. rim-kal-a me-li 

1 1 . dup-fi bi-na-da-a-dim 

12. igi-e sd dug-ga-me-li 

13. dun-al-a^ag-dim 

14. d nin-lil gal-ama 

1 5 . sal-%i dug-ga me-li 

1 6. **erin a-ga ur-ri md-a-dim 

1 7. ***|i| dug-ga me-li 

1 8. lugal-mu %a-dim a-ba an-ga kal 

19. fl-&<? an-ga-a-da sd 

20. #-&# ia-dim sd-ta stS ku-pi ga 

2 1 . g ^tun mu^ni-in-gu 

22. nam-tun sag %u-u gat ge-e-e 

23. nam-lig-ga-fu-u sal-dug ge-e 

24. 527> dun-gi-a %u. . . .a-ga 

25. #-foz dingir-ri. . . . 

26. awm ba-fu d nin- .... 

27. mu-u-tu. . . . 

28. dingir {u-a%ag an- .... 

29. mu-u-tu(?) .... 



6. The possession of the chariot gives 

joy to the road, 

7. Its course is like a javelin;- its 

running thou appointest; 1 

8. Enlil below 2 thou art ! 

9. Great bull of the dwelling, divine 

lord, standing like a builder's 
wall, 

10. A wild-ox of a man art thou ! 

1 1 . The tablet of life thou makest for 

them; 

12. Beholding justice, thou art good. 

13. As the great, holy dun-an\ma\, 3 

14. Ninlil, great mother, 

1 5 . Woman of life, preserver of gladness. 

1 6. Like abundant cedars, a growing 

wall, 

1 7. A grateful shade thou art ! 

1 8. O my king, who like thee favors 

the working-man? 

19. Who brings justice? 

20. Who is like thee by whom the 

broad weapon is carried? 

21. The axe, thou demandest it ! 

22. Fighting exalts thee! Bring forth 

the sceptre ! 

23. Verily thy might increases abun- 

dance. 

24. O shepherd Dungi, thou .... 

25. Who, O god,. . . . 

26. The mother bore thee, the god- 

dess Nin .... 

27. She bore. . . . 

28. O god, thou holy one, she. . . . 

29. She bore .... 



Cf. OBW, 87 20 . 



3 The pictograph from which the sign dun is derived was apparently that of a pig (see OBW, 
427). The female of the species was sacred to the goddess Bau and the sign could designate 
that deity. Langdon regards the ^ww-animal as the zebu or bos indicus, but there is no evidence 
known to me in favor of such an identification. 



30 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



(iii) 


(iii) 


i . ud . . . . 


i. When.... 


2 . im .... 


2 


3 . nu-dim .... 


3. Not made. . . . 


4. gis tur-tur .... 


4. Great and small. . . . 


5 . mi .... 


5. 


6. gis-am-dim .... 


y 

6. Like a great bull .... 


7. "<*&-&* .... 


7. The tablet .... 


8. sal-{i mu-. . . . 


8. Thy wife 


9. ud-ba .... 


9. At that time. . . . 


10. d mu-lil. . . . 


10. Mulil. ... 


1 1 . dub mu-u .... 


1 1 . The tablet .... 


1 2 . waw mu-u- .... 


12. Fate. . . . 


13. d nin-lil. . . . 


13. Ninlil. . . . 


14. sigissi-sigissi-a r[a. . . . 


14. With prayers. . . . 


i 5 . sa im-ma-an- .... 


15. Which.... 


1 6. aw &i nam-tar-tar. . . . 


1 6. Heaven and earth the fates. . . . 


1 7. na-nam na-nam .... 


17. They, they. . . . 


1 8. ba-lag-lag-gi .... 


18. It brings. . . . 


19. m'w jf/^ zgz nim-lu uku. . . . 


19. The beloved slave looking to the 




exalted one, the people .... 


20. d en-lil lugal kur-kur .... 


20. Enlil king of countries. ... 


21. nam-sib-bi ma-bi-. . . . 


21. His shepherding. . . . 


22. lugal-mu {a-dim a-b[a. . . . 


22. My king who like thee. . . .? 


22. a-ba an-ga. . . . 


23. Who favors [man]? 


23. a-ba an-. . . . 


24. Who [brings justice]? 







(iv) 
['. 

2'. 

3'- 
4'- 
5'- 
6'. 



(iv) 



. . . .mm 

gu gud-gal 

gis-ki lig-ga . . . 
nam-ur-sag-g[a . 
edin-li im-. . . . 
kal si-su ga-a- . 
na-mu. . 



8. lugal ki. . . . 



Said the great warrior. . 

With greatness strength . 

Heroism .... 

The luxuriant plain he. . 
6'. Man with crushed-grain 
7'. Give not(?). . . . 
8. King of the land .... 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



31 



(v) 

r 

2'. tu[m u]g. . . . 

3'. gud li-a si-ka. . . . 

4'. sag-bi sagar . . . . 

5'. i-i-na %id-bi . . . . 

6'. iid-bi-a nam-umun. . . . 

7. sagar ses 1 gi-ib. . . . 

8'. gis-gid-da ib-ma 

9'. su-ner mu-ub . . . .a-an-ru 
10'. e-ntar-ur-. . . . ga-a-an-ta- . . 
H'. gt *ban-mu. . . .gir-dim 
12'. lag ga-ma-bal-bal-ri 
13'. til-ka igi-mu-ht nam-dim ge-bur- 

bur 
14'. gi-bar-bar-ra su-tin-gu-gu. . . . 



15'- 
16'. 



I?'- 
18'. 



ka-ag-ga-a ga-ma-an-es 3 .... 
im-ku-da til-a kalam-ma ga-ma- 

im-. . . . 

im-bi-gi-ni &ll ku 
me-ba-ra ama-um ga-ma-ab-. . 



19'. sd-bal-a kalam tar-tar-ra. . . . 

20'. g * s m-{u ib-uru mu-. . . . 
21 '. nam-dim ga-am-mi-ib ur-. . 

22'. [ga]-e su-mu so. sag-kalam-ma-ka 
23'. gug sar ga-mu-u-ag-ga 

24'. i gtS ku dingir mu-u-gu-in nam- 

lu-ad 

25'. a-dim ge-im-bal-e 
26'. gtS ku ga-{i-in-da tab-ba-mu-u 



2'. Bringing strength(F) .... 
3'. Warrior, the abundance of bright- 
ness .... 

4'. His head the dust. . . . 
5'. In glory his right hand. . . . 
6'. By his right hand lordship. . . . 
7. The dust the blood 1 received .... 
8'. The tall tree grows, 
9'. The shaft 2 (?) one makes. 
10'. In the quiver verily carried(?) it. 
1 1 '. My bow like a mighty . . 
12'. The right hand verily draws, 
13'. Of life before my eyes according 

to fate verily he is bereft. 
14'. By the strong snare the sudim- 

birds .... 

15'. For eating are caught .... 
1 6'. He who hunts the life of the land, 

verily I [will destroy !] 
17'. I will seize the weapon, 
1 8. By its might the gracious mother 

verily .... 
19'. By justice perverted the land is 

destroyed .... 

20'. Thy bow protects, it. ... 
21'. Like a swallow verily I will cut 

them off ! . . 
22'. Verily my power and leadership 

of the land are great ! 
23'. Bright will I make the garden 

land! 
24'. Exalted is the weapon; the god 

subdues human-kind ! 
25'. Like a flood verily he is mighty! 
26'. The weapon verily is lifted up, I 
raise it; 



1 Cf. OBW, ago 4 . 

2 Literally "pillar," "column;" cf. B, 7198. 
6 Cf. OBW, 93 18 and . 



32 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



27'. ki-ib-ne tun-bi-a 

28'. gu-ul(?)-sd gu-ul l ga-mu-u-ag-ge 

29'. ba(?)-bi gi ga^a-dim 

30'. ub-sag(?)-e-ni ne-ni-gid 

31'. sa-gub sa-gub-ba kalam si-$u. . 

32'. la. . . .lu idim-a-dim 
33'. ki-in. .tur(?) in-da-. . 
34'. la gu. . . .su mi- .... 
35'. uru-gir. . 
36'. kur-ra. . . . 
37'. e d utu 

(vi) 

r gal. . 

2' ib-idim-e 

3' la mu-ta-a-sig 

4' gum-gum-ma-ni 

5 umun mu-u-sud-e 

6 ga(?)-ra sag-lu gu mu-ni-al- 

si-rd 
7 uru-ra na-a-bi 

8. \uru-d\a ga-am-mi-ga^ 

9. bad-da na-a-bi 

10. bad-da ga-am-mi ga{ 

1 1 . mu-u-da-rd-a-bi 

12. ug-tum ga-am-mi-rd 

13. nu-mu-u-da-rd-a-bi 

14. sd-ba ga-am-mi-gaz 

1 5 . kur-ra tur-tur-bi ma-a ga-am-mi- 

ib-bar-ru 

1 6. gal-gal-bi su-ge-ta ga-am-ge 



7 mu-u-ge-lu 
7 mu-u-ami-e-sd-a 
19. w<f mas-su ba-da-es ugu ra-al 



27'. Those who are strong are des- 
troyed ; 

28'. Destruction on destruction it 
makes; 

29'. Its. . . .it seizes by killing; 

30'. They lift it up, it pierces. 

31'. Blessing, blessing to give the 
land . . 

32'. And. . . .a man like a demon 

33'. Who enters( ). . 

34'. And. . . . 

35'. protector of the wall (?).... 

36'. The mountain. . . . 

37'. Water(?) of Shamash. . . . 



(vi) 

r. 

2'. 

3'- 
4'- 
5- 
6. 



1 7. 

1 8. 



. . great .... 
. .he cries out(?); 
. . and he is filled 
. .his meadows 
. the lord made wide, 
.to the temple (?) as its head 
the prince comes; 
7 by the beam he stands; 

8. By the beam verily he 2 prays; 

9. By the wall he 2 stands, 

10. By the wall verily he 1 prays; 

1 1 . He 1 departs. 

12. Let the roaring lion come, 

13. He shall not depart; 

14. Let his plan be frustrated ! 

15. On the mountain his whelps I 

verily will seize; 

1 6. His grown ones with a snare I 

will verily catch; 

17. As lord I will catch them; 

18. As lord I will hold them! 

19. When the prince approaches them 

the pack departs. 



1 gu-ul for gul; cf DELITZSCH, Sum. Glossar, p. 108. 

2 Directions for the ritual begin at this point. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



33 



20. lugal me-li 

2 1 . lu-ur-ma ga-am-ge 

22. gar ki-em-gi-ra ba-a-gu-la 

23. kur-ra ga-am-mi-ib-gu-ul 

24. uru ba dingir-bi 

25. ne-ba ga-am-mi-. . 

26. sukkal gu si-sag 

27. d kal si-sag-ga 

28. bar-su ga-am-ta-an-rd 

29. gan ii sar lag-ga-bi-e 

30. sukkal-gid ama ga ne-ni-sar 

3 1 . gis-luli- gud 

32. egir-ba ga-kul sum-sum 

33. gis-ama-gal bi-e 

34. ama-gir ga-am-gu 

35. *s tfwr-fo 

36. tftttw . . . . gi ni-ib-bal 



37. gw . . . . ba-sar-a-bi 

38. a-uru-na .... for 



20. O king, there is gladness ! 

21. May power exalt my city! 

22. Food for Sumer be abundant ! 

23. The land be great ! 

24. The city is the creation of its god; 

25. May its power. . . . 

26. The pasisu-priest cries: "Be gra- 

cious !" 

27. The guardian deity is gracious; 

28. To its border he comes; 

29. The field is bright, the garden 

brilliant. 

30. The great pasisu-priest the mother 

turning blesses. 

31. "A mighty man, exalted is the 

warrior, 

32. Unto him let prayers be many; 

33. A man beloved, great, is he/' 

34. The mother without (?) says: 

35. "The man is a prince." 

36. Advancing, the faithful (priest) 

pours a libation. 

37. Saying. . . .,, bless it!" 

38. "For the city a blessing!" 



COLOPHON. 



gi-ba dup-sag lugal-mu gud-gal a-gu- 
nu 



The whole of it, tablet one of "My 
great warrior, lord(?)" 



34 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. 4. 
A MYTH OF ENLIL AND NINLIL. 

This tablet, though fragmentary, as the copies show, con- 
tains a more complete text of a myth, a portion of which was 
published by Pinches in 1911 in PSBA, XXXIII, 85 ff. The 
text of Dr. Pinches contained an Akkadian translation; the 
Philadelphia text is in Sumerian only. The myth concerns the 
irrigation of Nippur and the establishment of its prosperity, 
the first line of Dr. Pinches text read "At Duranki, their city 

they dwelt" instead of At their Nippur(?) they dwelt." 

A colophon at the end of his tablet states that it was "First 
tablet, At Duranki, their city. Not finished." In reality his 
text covers only parts of columns i and ii of our tablet. The 
two texts in general agree closely, though there are minor 
variations here and there. 

The myth itself is of great interest. It represents the 
courtship and marriage of Enlil and Ninlil. He was a young 
hero; she a handmaid. She was standing on the bank of a 
canal, when he saw her, ran to her, and kissed her. Her heart 
was captivated; she yielded to him, and from their marital 
union fertilizing rain was born. The story is not unlike that of 
the union between Enki and Nintu in the Epic of Paradise 
published by Langdon. 1 The idea of creation by birth from the 
marital union of deities appears to have been particularly popu- 

1 PBS, X, No. i. For the interpretation cf. JASTROW, AJSL, XXX HI, 112; also BARTON, 
in Am, Journal of Tbeol., XXI, 576 ff. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 35 

lar at Nippur. The creation of men occurred in this way 
according to the myth published below as No. 8. 

After the creation of irrigating waters and the settling of 
some marital differences between the god and goddess, they 
proceeded to Nippur accompanied by fifty great gods and 
seven gods of fate; they cast out the poisonous plants and gave 
intelligence to the inhabitants. For these and other blessings 
our text ascribes praise to Enlil and Ninlil. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 

(i) (i) 

i en(?)-lil ;t -na-nam na-an-dur- \. At. . . .their Nippur(?) they dwelt; 

[ru-ne-en-ne-en] 

2. en]-ltf n uru-ki-na-nam na-an- 2. At Nippur, the city which is theirs, 

dur-ru-ne-[en-ne-en] they, dwelt; 

3. dur-sag 1 uru-ki-na-nam na-an- 3. At the favorable dwelling, the city 

dur-re-ne-en-ne-[en] which is theirs, they dwelt. 

4. id sal-la 1 id a^ag-ga na-nam 4. The wide river is their holy river; 

5. kar-pigu-na 3 kar-bi na-nam 5. Its close-shut dyke, its dyke is 

theirs; 

6. kar-a-sar* kar gtS md-us-bi na-nam 6. The crowded dyke, the dyke of 

its large ships is theirs; 

7. tul-lal 5 tul-a-dug-ga-bi na-nam 7. The good well, the well of sweet 

water is theirs; 

8. id nun-bi-ir-rd gud-mul-bi na- 8. The canal Nunbiirra, its star- 

nam bright one, is theirs; 

9. ib-ta-bu-i-ne buru-gan-seg-ga gar- 9. They reap a bur of irrigated land; 

bi na-nam its food is theirs; 

10. d en-lil gurus-tur-bi na-nam 10. Enlil, its young hero, is theirs; 

1 Possibly Dur-lag should be read as a proper name. It has been translated to give the 
English reader the meaning. 

2 Pinches takes Idsalla as a proper name. 

3 Pinches reads Kar-geliin-na, which is quite possible, and takes it as a proper name. That 
would mean the "vine-dyke" or the "wine-dyke," which seems to me improbable. I have pre- 
ferred rather to interpret by OBW, 2I3 4 . 

4 Kar-a-lar (spelled Kar-ular] is regarded by Pinches as a proper name. 

5 Tul-lal (read Tul-amar-uduk) is taken by PINCHES as a proper name. 



36 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



1 1 . d nin-lil ki-el-tur-bi na-nam 

12. d nun-bar-se-gu-nu l du um-ma-bi 

na-nam 

13. ud-ba ki-el ama mug-na sd-na 

mu-un-di-di 

14. d nin-lil-li d nun-bar-se-gu-nu 

sd-na mu-un-di-di 

15. id a^ag-ga nu^-nunuf-e id-a^ag- 

ga-am-a-nam-m i-tu-tu* 

1 6. d nin-lil-li gu id nun-bi-ir-ka 5 

nam-mi-in-gub-ne 

17. i-de a^ag-ga-am u-mu-un i-de 

. . . .ba-si-bar-ri 

1 8. kur-gal a-a d mu-ul-lil i-de a^ag- 

ga-am i-de ba-si-bar-ri 

19. sib-na ne-nam-tar-tar-ri i-de a%ag- 

ga-am i-de ba-si-bar-ri 

20. a-i gal gur mu-bi-am-i-i-kar-an 

mi-su-ub-bi 

21. sag dam-a gi-li sag-gi sa-lal-na- 

am mu-un-sd ni-ib-ru-ru 

22 mu-un-ni-in-ri ga-mu-us-su 

si-mu-na-si-ag 

23. [id a{ag-g]a-am sal-e id-a^ag-ga- 

am im-ma-ni-tu-tu 

24. [ d nin-lil]-H gu id gu nun-bi-ir- 

ka 5 -i im-gub-ne 



11. Ninlil, its young maidservant, is 

theirs; 

12. Nunbarshegunu, the exalted, its 

mother, is theirs. 

13. At that time the handmaid, the 

mother who bore her, verily 
helped, 

14. Ninlil Nunbarshegun verily helped. 

15. The holy river, the woman Ida- 

zagga, did not flow. 

1 6. Ninlil stood on the bank of the 

canal Nunbiir; 

1 7. With holy eyes the lord of .... eyes 

looked upon her; 

1 8. The great mountain, father Mulil, 

of holy eyes, with his eyes 
looked upon her; 

19. Her shepherd, he who determines 

fate, of the holy eyes, with his 
eyes looked upon her; 

20. The exalted father rising, ran; 

he seized her; he kissed her; 

21. The heart of the lady exulted; 

her heart was captivated; she 
wished it; she yielded 6 to him; 

22 he received her; he cohabited 

with her; he caused it to rain. 

23. The holy river, the woman Ida- 

zagga, flowed; 

24. Ninlil stood on the bank of the 

canal, the bank of Nunbiir; 



1 For this goddess cf. CT, XXIV, 9, 34; 23, i6b. Perhaps we should read Ninbarshegula. 
In these passages the spelling is slightly different, but the goddess is doubtless the same. She 
was evidently a grain goddess. 

2 The Semitic translation published by PINCHES shows that the nu is a prepositive phonetic 
complement; it repeats the first syllable of nunu^. 

3 For the meaning "woman" cf. OBW, 348'. 

4 For the word tu cf. M, 51 56. 

6 The sign ka may also be read du (OBW, 1 5 6 ). I have taken it as the genitive particle, but 
it may be the final syllable of the name. 

6 Literally "gave herself"; cf. OBW, 69". 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



37 



25. [ d en-lil igi a{ag-g]a-am lugal-e igi 

a^ag-ga-am igi im-ma-si-in-bar 

26. [kur-gal a-a] d en-lil igi a^ag-ga-am 

igi im-ba-si-in-bar 

27. [sib-na ne]-nam-tar-tar-ri igi a%ag- 

ga-am igi im-ba-si-in-bar 

28. [dam gir]-bi-e-gii-mu-na-ab-bi nu- 

ur-ra-si-ib-se-gi l 

29. [ d nin-lil-l]i gir--bi-e gu-mu-na- 

ab-bi nu-un-da-ra-si-ig-ge 

30. ... .[nu-mu-un]-ra-am-pigu*(?) 

nu-mu-un-fu 
31 [mu-ni]-i-ra-am-se-su-ub 

mu-un-fu 
32 dib*-mu ib-sig 5 -gi 

33 su-dur e -bi mu-e-en" 7 

34 bi-mu-me-e ba-na-silig-gi 

35 gu-mu-na-de-e 



25. Enlil of holy eyes, the king with 
holy eyes with his eyes looked 
upon her; 

26. The great mountain, father Enlil, 
of the holy eyes, with his eyes 
looked upon her; 

27. Her shepherd, he who determines 

fate, of the holy eyes, with his 
eyes looked upon her; 

28. To his wife in anger he said: "Did 

I not yield to thee?" 

29. To Ninlil in anger he said: "Did 

I not yield to thee?" 
30 "Did I not embrace(?) thee?" 

"Did I not know [thee]?" 
31 "I kissed thee; I knew [thee]"; 



(ii) 



32. . 

33- 

34- 
35- 

(ii) 



. . ."thou didst sieze me; I sub- 
mitted; 

..."thou didst lie down; thou 
didst gain the mastery 8 ; 

..."thou wast [enticing?]; 
wast mighty. 
. .he said. 



thou 



(About 8 lines are broken away.) 



r. 


lugal. . . . 




r. 


King 




2'. 


us-bi-na mu-un-gii 


[gir-bi-na 


2'. 


To her husband she spoke; 


to 




mu-un-. .] 


1 




his anger she. . 




3'- 


a-a d en-lil dup-gi .... 




3'- 


Father Enlil, the tablet of fate . 




4'- 


us-bi-na mu-un-gu 


gir-bi-[na 


4'- 


To her husband she spoke, to 


his 




mu-un-. .] 






anger she. . . . 





1 See DELITZSCH, Sum. Glossar, 262. 

2 Cf. OBW, iSs^and 35 . 

3 Cf. OBW, 2I3 4 . The rendering is most uncertain. 

4 Cf. OBW, 4 82 2 . 

5 See OBW, 249 80 . 
6 Cf. OBW, 481". 
7 Cf. OBW, ii2 4 . 

8 On account of the fragmentary condition of the text the rendering of the last lines of the 
column is most uncertain. 



38 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



5'. ur-ur-na su-ni ba-an-. . . . 

6'. us-bi-na mu-un-gu gir-bi-na 

mu-un- . . 
7'. dur-ki a-tur-ra-su im-ma-da-ab- 

nd 
8'. us-bi-na mu-un-gu gir-bi-na 

su-ub 
9'. us-as sag-ga-ni gd l -as su-ub-ba-ni 

10'. a d en-lil-na-na? gub lag-e sd mu- 

na-ni-ri 

n'. d en-lil ki-ur im-ma-ni-in-rd-rd 
12'. d en-lil ki-ur dib-dib-da-ni. 
13'. dingir-gal-gal eninnu ne-ne 
14'. dingir nam-tar-ra umun-na ne- 
ne 

15'. d en-lil. . . . im-ma-ni-tug-ga-ne 
1 6'. d en-lil sam-ug-gi uru-ta ba-ra-ne 

17'. d nu-nam-nir* sam-ug-gi uru-ta 
ba-ra-[ne] 

1 8'. d en-lil ni-la d nin-li-[li in-gdl] 

19'. d nu-nam-nir ni-gub ki-el mu- 
un-. . 

20'. d en-lil-li bi-e-gal-ra gu-. . . . 

21 '. lit ka-gal lu gti si-gar . . . . 

22'. lu gti su-da lu, si-gar-e 



23' 
24' 

25' 
26' 

27 



nin-fu d [nin-lil]-li-i im- . . 
e-da-li mu mu-ra-tar-ne 
. ia-e ki-mu nam-mu-ni-in-pad-de 

. d nin-lil-li mu-lu kd-gal-ge gu-. . 
'. mu-lu ka-gal mu ^[si-gar] 



5'. His hand grasped it. ... 

6'. To her husband she spoke, to his 

anger she. . . . 
7'. In a dwelling with offspring thou 

shalt lie down. 
8'. To her husband she spoke; to his 

anger she gave a kiss; 
9'. Resting her head on her husband, 

she kissed him. 
10'. Standing brilliant by Enlil, her 

husband, her heart rejoiced. 
1 1'. Enlil, the hero came; 
12'. Enlil, the hero, entered. 
13'. The great gods, fifty are they; 
14'. The gods of fate, seven are they; 

15'. With Enlil they marched. 

1 6'. Enlil cast the poisonous plant (?) 

from the city; 
17'. Nunamnir cast the poisonous 

plant (?) from the city; 
Enlil came; Ninlil [descended,] 
Nunamnir came; the handmaid 



18'. 
19'. 



20'. Enlil to him of the palace called: 
21'. "O man of the great gate! man of 

the lock ! 
22'. Man of the strong wood; man of 

the lock ! 

23'. Thy lady, Ninlil, [comes]! 
24'. If a name he shall ask of thee, 
25'. Thou shalt not tell him of my 

place." 
26'. Ninlil 1 to the man of the great 

gate spoke: 
27'. O l man of the great gate, man of 

the lock, 



1 Cf. OBW, 230". 

1 The construction is peculiar; we should expect d en-lil a-na-na. The lacunae are supplied 
from DR. PINCHES' text, PSBA, XXXIII, 85 ff. and from col iii. 
3 In DR. PINCHES' text it is Enlil who speaks here. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



39 



28'. mu ai *$u-di-es mu-lu [^si-gar 28'. O man of the bolt, man of the 

a^ag-ga] holy lock, 

29'. d mu-ul-lil u-mu-[un kur-kur-ra] 29'. Mulil, the lord of the lands. 

30'. dingir-[%u lu sti [si-gar]. . . . 30'. Is thy god', O man of the lock. 



(iii) 
i gi git mu-e-kal .... 

2. d mu-ul-lil u-mu-un kur-kur-ra 

3. d rnu-ul-lil u-mu-un ^u ni-mi-dun 

4. lag-da nin mu-me-en-ne su-^u- 

tu-mu du- . . 

5. a u-mu-un ba-a lag-lag-ga sa- 

gd-ni-. . 

6. a d en-lil ne-a-lag-lag-ga sa-gd- 

ni. . . . 

7. a lugal-mu dingir-su ib-rd-a mu- 

ki-$u-bi . . 

(About 1 8 lines 

25 [ d mu-u]l-lil u-mu-un kur- 
kur-ra . . 

26. d mu-ul-lil u-mu-un itu-ni git- 

dim u- . . 

27. ud-da nin mu-me-en-ne su-^u- 

lu mu-ib-tag-tag .... 

28. a u-mu-un %u-a lag-lag-ga sag- 

gd ni-gdl 

29. a d en-%u na-a lag-lag-ga sag-gd 

ni-gdl. . 

30. a lugal-mu dingir-su ib-rd-a mu- 

ki-su ib-rd-. . . . 

31. a-mu a-lugal-mu-dim-ma ku-ib 

im-ma-rd. . . . 

32. d en-lil-li lu id-kur-ra-dim da 

ga-na- na 

33. us im-ma-ni-in-gu-ne-en im-ma- 

ni-in-su-ub 

34. us-as dug-ga-ni us-as su-ub-ba- 

ni 



(iii) 
i. 

2. 

3- 

4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 



Mulil, lord of lands; 

Mulil, lord, thou didst create, 

"In brilliance, O lord, art thou; 

by thy hand thou created (?) . . 
Father, lord, thou dost illumine 

their heart! 
Thou, father Enlil, dost illumine 

their heart ! 
O father, my king, mighty god, 

thou comest, thou dwellest .... 

are broken away.) 
25 Mulil, lord of lands .... 

26. Mulil, lord of the month, like a 

tree. . 

27. When, O lord, thou art in thy 

might thou overthrowest .... 

28. O father, lord, thou art brilliant; 

the heart thou liftest up. ... 

29. O father Enzu, exalted one, brill- 

iant, the heart thou liftest up. . 

30. O father, my king, mighty god, 

thou comest, thou abidest, thou 
comest .... 

31.0 my father, as my king thou 
advancest, thou comest .... 

32. O Enlil, who, like the river of 

the land, mightily risest, 

33. O hero, thou speakest to them; 

they have rest ! 

34. With the hero is their preserva- 

tion; with the hero is their rest. 



40 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



35. a d nin a-ba lugal-su us-mu gu- 35. O father, divine lord, who is 

lub-mu-. . . . against the king? My hero, 

verily thou overthrowest him. 

36. d en-lil ni-rd d nin-lil in-g[dl] 36. Enlil comes; Ninlil descends; 

37. d nu-nam-nir ni-ra ki-el mu-un- 37. Nunamnir comes; the handmaid 



(iv) 
i. 

2. 

3- 

4- 
5- 



. .-mu 
. .ul-rad-du 
. . mu mu- .... tar-ri 
. .mu nam-mu-in-ni-si-sub-ne 
. . gti ma a-sig-bi- gis-$ukum 
dir-ra d nin-lil im-ba-ni 
6 gti ma a-sig-bi gis-sikum dir- 
ra ga 

7. [ d mu-u]l-lil u-mu-un . . . . ku ma 

.... lugal 

8. [ d nin-lil]-li mu-ba-si lu-lag-ka 

mu-ni-ba-sig-gi 

9. mu-sag-sag-ga sag-ga-ba-ra mu- 

da-ab-gu 

10. d en-lil-li sag-sag sag-ga-ba-ra 

mu-da-ab-gu 

1 1 . [^nity-lil i ni-in-tar d nin-lil i ni- 

in-im-te . . 

12. gur ub-gi-da mu-mu tu-ne l sig 

in-. . 

13. [ d ]mu-ul-lil u-mu-un ku-ta gur- 

ne el-su ab- 

14. ud-da nin mu-me-en-ne su-[{u]~- 

su mu-i[b-tag-tag] 

15. a u-mu-un [{u]-a l[ag-lag-ga sag- 

ga ni-gdl] 

1 6. a d en-lil u-[mu-un lag-la}g-g[a 

lag-ga ni-gdl] 

17. a lugal kur-[kur-ra sag]-ga-{u 

mu- . . 



(iv) 
i 

2 

3. My. . . .determined, 

4. My. . . .does not overthrow them. 

5 the boat for the ferry Ninlil 

makes; 
6 the boat for the ferry comes. 

7. Enlil, lord of. . . .king; 

8. Ninlil fills the flock with favor, 

she gives verdure; 

9. She is gracious, to her beloved she 

speaks ; 

10. Enlil is gracious to his beloved he 

speaks. 

1 1. Ninlil, the exalted, gives decisions; 

Ninlil the exalted thunders;. . 

12. Turning she establishes, she 

clothes the weak, she. . 

13. Mulil the lord with the weapon 

turns in brilliance he. ... 

14. When, O lord, thou art in thy 

might thou overthrowest . . 

15. O father, lord, thou art brilliant; 

the heart thou liftest up; 

1 6. O Enlil, lord, thou art brilliant; 

the heart thou liftest up; 

17. O father, king of countries, thy 

favor thou . . 



1 Cf. M, 5866. 

2 The lacunae in this and the following lines are supplied from the corresponding lines of 
col. iii. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



41 



1 8. a-mu a-lugal[-mu-dim-ma k]u- 

i[b im-ma-rd}-. . 

1 9. en-lil-li nam- .... e-da .... 

20. us im-ba-ni-in-gu[-ne-en im-ba- 

ni-in-su-ub] 

21. [u$-as] dug-[ga-ni us-as su-ub- 

ba-ni] 

22. [a] d en-lil.... 

23. en %a-su. . . . 

24. [ d en]-lil en ia-\e .... 

25. [ d nu]-nam-ner [ni-rd ki-el mu- 

un-] . . 
26 gir si. . . . 

27. us(?~) mu-ma-ma. . . . 

28. en an-u en an-. . . . 

29. d en-lil e[n] d en-lil lugal. . . .si 

30. d en-lil lugal gar nu . . . . lu 

31. sag-sar-ru sag-ru-ru-a-m nu- 

bal-e-ne- 

32. ^ag-sal-dug-ga ama d nin-lil-li-su 

33. a-a d en-lil ^ag-sal 



1 8. O my father, as my king thou 

advancest, thou comest . . 

19. Enlil. . . . 

20. O hero, thou speakest to them; 

they have rest ! 

21. With the hero is their preserva- 

tion; with the hero is their rest. 

22. O father Enlil(?). .'. . 

23. O lord, to thee. . . . 

24. O Enlil, thou art lord .... 

25. Nunamnir comes; the maiden. . . . 

26 

27. The hero makes. . . .grow. . . . 

28. The lord creates, the lord .... 

29. Enlil is lord; Eniil is king. . . . 

30. Enlil, the king does not [deny] 

food to man 

3 1 . The prince, creator of all, does not 

deny them intelligence ! 

32. Full praise to mother Ninlil! 

33. To father Enlil praise! 



42 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. 5. 
FRAGMENT OF AN INCANTATION RITUAL. 

This text, though fragmentary, is of great interest. The 
tablet contained four columns, but columns i and ii are entirely 
erased. Indeed few lines of columns iii and iv have been pre- 
served entire, nevertheless, if the following translation, which 
on account of the condition of the text is necessarily tentative, 
at all represents the original, the text affords an interesting 
example of the ritual by which it was believed destructive 
storms could be averted. Such storms were frequent in Baby- 
lonia: cf. Reisner Sumerische Hymnen, No. 7 and Peters, Nippur 
I, 258, 259. 



TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 



(iii) (iii) 

i' ..... gis ---- g* gur ---- i' 

2' ..... us(?) gu-ra ki mu-ni-a-ni 



4'. gi *gibil V-la VH-ia. ... 



2'. The. . . .man(?) for the bird thou 

presented l 
3'. d[ug]-dug-til ii-ra pu-ka mu-[gu] 3'. Words of life for thee at the well 

will speak (?). 

4'. On the fire by fives, by sevens. . . . 
5'. eii gibil-md X-ta XV-la gub-ne- 5'. My fire by ten, by fifteen he shall 

place. 
6'. e-gibil ago, d gu-la e X-. . . . 6'. The fire beloved of Gula, the 

house ten .... 

7'. X am ' ma -ra ab-lag-. . 7'. by ten shall illuminate. 

8'. e-gibil aga mu-ul-lil LX[X . . 8'. The fire beloved of Mulil seventy 



'SeeOBW, 521". 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



43 



9'. [ gis gib]il-bi LXX-ta X am - ma ne- 

[gub] 
10'. . .sugus-uru nu-tug nu-uku. . . . 



1 1 . 

12'. 

13'- 
14'. 

15'- 
16'. 

1:7'. 

18'. 
19'. 
20'. 

21'. 
22'. 
<23'. 
24'. 
25'- 



.... ab-ba nu-tug nu uku .... 
. . . .mu-un-ra-la-ni mu-un-. . . 
e-gibil-bi sd d gu-la .... 
[ gt *gibil] gd-tur-ra mi-ni-ibi . . 
....ki-sagguVIII kam - ma .. 
[ d e]-lum l e-gibil mu-un-. . . . 
dingir me-e im-ma-a-da-gibil . . 
d e-lum-e mu-rug-in-ni gi-li. . 
gibil-in-e-ni me-e im-ma-a-us . . 
d mu-ul-lil mu-rug [gi-li] 
gibil-uru uku-ni .... 
ma du-n-a-ni . . . . gts gibil-ni 
mu-^u du-ri-a-ni . . . .an 
gu-ni-ma-md gu-ni- .... %u-an 
uru-a-si nin-a uru 3 . . . ra-am 



26' a-gi-in-i. . . .ni. . . .ra-am 

27'. uru-a ki-el mu-kur-ra-da .... 

28'. g[ur] kal-kal mu-ad-du-ni . . . 

ra-a[m 
29'. dug-ga mu-tu-ni du su-ba... 

du-ga. . 
30'. udu uru-ma ag-%u na-sag. . . 

su-sik-. . 
31'. nigin dingir ni-ib-rd-e-ne . . . 

LXIX.. 

32'. mu-^u-na ag-na. . . .[n]e 
33'. gts gibil aga mu-ul-[lil 
34'. mu-^u-na ag mu-pad-ne . . . . 

35'. ud-da gan ga-ga-ba-da. . . . 



10 . 

i r. 

12'. 

f3' 

14'. 

15'- 
16'. 
17'. 
18'. 
19'. 
20'. 

21'. 
22'. 
23'. 
24'. 
25'- 

26'. 
27'. 



32'. 

33- 
34'- 

35'- 



His fire by seventy in tens he 

shall place (?) 
. . protected foundation, neither 

leader nor people .... 
.... neither leader nor people .... 
. . shall fill it for thee, shall . . 
His fire verily Gula. . . . 
My fire(?) shall [protect?] the fold. 
. . In the land eight talents. . . . 
" Bel the fire will. . . . 
I am the god who kindles (?) .... 
Bel increases gladness .... 
I kindle fire, I lift up. ..." 
Mulil increases gladness. . 
The protecting fire his people. . . . 
His foremost ship .... his fire 
He knows 2 his foremost. . . . 
He calls, he calls. . . . 
The raging whirlwind, O lady, the 

flood .... 



The whirlwind the maid captures 



28'. Turning(?) men stand. . . . 

29'. 

30'. 

3i'- 



With a cry they stoop, lifting up 

their hands. . . . 
The sheep, O my protector, which 

thou lovest .... 
All its gods are coming. .. .sixty 

nine. . . . 

They recognize it they love .... 
The fire beloved of Mulil, 
He recognizes it, the beloved . . 

he sees .... 
When the field is favored 4 . . 



1 B, 5889 

2 We might read mu-rug = "He makes great." 

3 Ci. OBW, 57 1 . 

4 ga may here be equal to aldku. In that case 
the field . . . he recognizes it; the beloved he sees, 
be made in lines 37', 38'. 



the rendering would be, "When he comes to 
Taking this value a similar change would 



44 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

36'. mu-fu-na ag mu-pad-ne. . . . 36'. He knows it, the beloved he sees 

37'. e-dag e-su-md-md ga-ba-da . . . . 37'. The dwelling Eshumama is fav- 
ored .... 
38'. mu-(u-na ag mu-pad-ne . . 38'. He knows it, the beloved he sees 

(From this point the text is too broken for connected translation.) 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 45 



No. 6. 
A PRAYER FOR THE CITY OF UR. 

It is most regrettable that this interesting composition is in 
such a fragmentary state. From the portions that can be 
translated it appears to be a prayer for the city of Ur at a time 
of great danger and distress. It seems impossible to assign it 
with certainty to any particular period. The hymn to Dungi 
(No. 3) and that to Ebi-Sin (No. 7) show that during the period 
of the dynasty of Ur great homage was paid the sovereigns of 
that city at the temple at Nippur. It is tempting to conjecture 
that this long composition was written during the last days of 
Ebi-Sin, when Ur was tottering to its fall. The conjecture is 
plausible, but cannot at present be confirmed. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION OF COMPLETE PORTIONS 

OF THE TEXT. 

(ii) (ii) 

i sim i green grass(?), 

2 uru-mu HI 2 my whirlwind is the w^-bird, 

3 p-gi-gi 3 

4 sag-sag 4 favorable, 

5 uru-ma nu-me-a-me-a mu(?) 5 my whirlwind no command 

ta-an-bal-rd transgresses; 

6. dingir. . . .sis-ab ki nu me-a-me-a 6. O God. . . .Ur no command trans- 

mu-ib-bi-bal-rd gresses. 

7. me-l[i] . . . . gd-tur sir-ra-rd lid sig 7. Joy [from] the fold is snatched; 

ge-dug-ga-rd the storm the cow cuts off; 

8. d lu. . . .sib-na kid pi-el rd 8. The sheep god(?) ... .for the shep- 

herd a bedraggled garment is 
bringing; 



46 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



9. 1y ba-ne-sub 9. The thicket of reeds he over- 

throws. 

m. me-li. . . .uru-ta e a-du-im nu 10. Joy is borne away by the whirl- 
sim-gid ago, wind, by the wind no tall grass 

isleft(F). 
n. d lu. . . .e gan-ta e-e \\. The sheep-god(F) has gone forth; 

from the field he has gone 
12 ..... il-ne-dam 12. with his. ... 

13. i-%u-kas[kal . . . .tu(?) ^u-a-ni 13 ................................ 

14. e-gar-ra. . . .a-gar-bar 14. Ekharra. , . . 

75. sag-a-. . 15 ................................ 

16. e-gar-ra mu-[du]g-ga d$-a dug-ga 16. Ekharra [speaks] the uttered 

.... curse; 1 

17. ki-ba nam-uru mu-na-kar-si-ne 17. Its land, the whirlwind extends 

(?) .... over it. 

1 8. nin-mu nam-ma-a-dim mu-na-te 18. O my lady by fate thou destroyest 

it. 

19. nam-ma igi-ur a-an mu-[na]-te 19. The fate agreed upon who can 

resist? 

20. nam-uru igi-ur-na mu-na-kar 20. The sin of the city graciously wilt 

.... gig-ni .... thou forgive, .... its disaster 

. .? 

21. me-li-e-a na-ag uru mu-ga(?}- 21. Gladness there is not; the whirl- 

am-ma wind removes it; 

22. na-ag uru mu-gig-ga 22. It is not; the whirlwind has 

brought disaster! 

23. nin rd gd-gul-la mu-ga-am-gu 23. O lady, come! The house is 

destroyed. Speak! 

24. na-ag-ga mu-gig-ga 24. It is not; thou has brought dis- 

aster! 

25. se-ib sis-ab kt a-dug-ga mu-a- 25. A gathered seed is Ur; the cry 

gir am-a-mu is strong (urgent), O my lord! 

26. ga-ii mu-ri-tug-tug dam-ba mar- 26. Thy house I protect for thee; 

ra-mu its lady appointed me. 

27. ur-ra gd-{i gul-la-^a 27. The servant of thy house thou hast 

destroyed; 

28. ba-e-ne in-nu-u-nam 28. Broken he lies prostrate. 

29. ub-sub ba-dim-in nik-ku-ta ba-ra 29. He has fallen; he is thus; in his 

mu-da-ge-ge misery he is overthrown; he 

is siezed. 

1 Cf. OBW, 298 4 . 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



47 



3O. ii-ta e-ru-a-bi bul-la-a gul. ... 30 



31. nu-bi l -rd-ab sis-ab kt sukum d ln- 31 

inni bi-ni-ba pap-gal .... 

32. gd-nun-a^ag-ga bil-bil-la-mu la- 32 

la ga-nu-du-a-mu 



33. uru-mu ru-a-la ba-du mu-ta-as 
si-ur a-mu 

34-35. pu-gul. . . .ni-ga-nun. . . .gul- 
la mu-ta-a-as-si-ur a-mu 

36-37. a-da-al-lam ud-gul gig. . . . 
si-ga mu-da-la-ba ge-e 

38. sis-ab kl -ma ga d en-{u na-mu- 

39. gul(?\-u-bi gig-ga-am 

40. ki-sub-bi-^a dug ba-am 

4 1 . a-su-mu a-gan-mu 

42. gis-gi-gal ki sub-gu-da-kam 

43. la ki. . . .mu-un-ba-ni-til-li 

44. d nin-sd a-dim-ni mu-un-a-da-ni- 

til-li 

45. ub-^i-sub-ba-da gul-la 

46. ni-ne-lu-dim ni-ab am-md 

47. d nin-gal lu kalam-ma e-ba-til gan 

48. la-dim a-kim in-mu- .... 



- 33 



(iii) 



ga. . . . gul-la ni-ne-dib-ni e-g. . . . 
gd-gd-^u im-ma-gul-la pisan-a- 

dim ru-mu-un 
uru-^u uru-kur-ra ba-ab-gar-ni 

ne-ku-ni e-am-ser 



From life he goes forth; by 
oppression he is grievously des- 
troyed. 

May it not happen to Ur! Ishtar- 
cakes we make, O great father! 

The great holy house is burned; 
it is submerged; Verily it is 
not raised up, my father! 

My city, built for protection, it 
crushes, it makes sad, O my 
father! 

34-35 destruction makes sad, O 

my father! 

36-37. Now is an evil day; complete 
disaster o'erwhelms; verily it 
transfixes. 

38. Ur is the temple of Enzu; let it not 

39. be bestroyed with disaster. 

40. Thy down-trodden land is inno- 

cent. 

41. O my Strength, my Brightness(P), 

42. Equally the land is destroyed ! 

43. O protector of the land. . . .thou 

wilt make it live. 

44. O lady, its creator, thou wilt make 

it live! 

45. Thou art strong; .... 

46. disaster like a .... covers .... 

47. O Ningal the men of the land 

thou makest alive; the field 

48. in the midst thus thou. . . . 

(iii) 

i' 

2'. Thy temples are destroyed like a 

jar that is smashed. 
3'. Thy city, the second which thou 

foundest, is struck down; it 

cries out. 



1 pi for bi; cf. BARTON, SB AD, 4, iii, 7 with 6, iii, 5. 



48 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



4'. gd-{u a-igi es-ba-an-ni di-ib gar 4'. Thy house weeps; O speak, lift it 



5'. uru-^u-a-dim ru-mu-un 
6'. uru-{U tus-dam-ba gar-ra-^a 

7'. gu-bi-nu-rd 

8'. ga-^i gtS al-a {u-ab gar-ra-^a 

9'. sim la nin-mul-e-en 

\o'. e-. . . .la-ba-ab- gub-gub-^a 
i 1'. nin-bi. . . .la ba-an-tur-ri 
\2 f . a-igi-ne-a-ra ba-ab-gar- 

13'. ka aga-^u nu-sag-sag 

14'. a-igi so. ne-rd nu-tuk-a tar-tar im- 

ba-an-ku 
15'. gu-na-bi igi-^u gar-ka-sig-dim 

1 6'. dug-su ba-ni-ib-ku 

17'. uru-fu-su sd-im-ba-an-gar-ni ne- 

dib e-am-sir 
1 8'. gd-iu. . . .-gid ga-ba-an-ru. . . . 

{u-a-dim ru-mu-un 
19'. lis-ab ki gub-ba-e im-ba-an-gar- 

20'. ni ne . . . .-dim ni-dib e-am-sir 
2\'. gar-rad-bi ge-gub-ba iu-ra mu-un- 

gub 

22'. sd-^u. . . .ru-mu-un 
23'. en-bi gig-ga-ra %u-ra mu-un-til 

24'. ni-ne-ku-ni e-am-sir 

25'. dam-ga-lu suslug-e ki-ag-e 



up! 

5'. Like thy city it is overthrown. 
6'. Thy city, the dwelling of its 

lady, didst thou establish; 
7'. let it not be moved ! 
8'. Thy dwelling, the yoke of the 

abyss, thou didst establish 
9'. As a plant protected of Ninmul, 

the lady; 

10'. The. . . .thou didst found. 
1 1'. Its lady as protectress entered. 
1 2'-! 3'. On her weeping thou thinkest ; 
thy anger is unfavorable! 

14'. Heartfelt tears flow; they are 

not checked; they fall. 
15'. She cries before thee with 

thoughts, 

1 6'. A loud voice she lifts up: 
17'. "Unto thy city give rest; it is 

caught" she cries. 
1 8'. Thy house. . . .verily is shattered 

like thy. . . .it is smashed. 
19'. Ur was founded, it was estab- 
lished; 

20'. Like a .... it is caught, it cries out. 
21'. Its ruin verily abounds; for thee 

it abounds; 

22'. Thy heart. . . .is broken; 
23'. Its priest in darkness for thee 

dwells 

24'. he is cast down; he cries out. 
25'. The man, the priest whom thou 

lovest, 
26'. The priest does not approach thee 



26'. suslug nu-mu-ra-ma-dim 

(From this point the text is too broken for connected translation.) 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 49 



No. 7. 
A HYMN TO IBI-SIN. 

This fragment of a hymn to Ibi-Sin is a portion of a large, 
finely written six-column tablet. Unfortunately it is so broken 
that in only a portion of columns ii and v are there complete 
lines. These portions are herewith translated. In line 5' of 
col. v he is addressed as lugal-mu, "My king." It is probable 
that the hymn belonged to the same series as No. 3 the hymn 
to Dungi. Ibi-Sin was an inglorious king. Under his rule the 
extended empire built up by Dungi gradually dwindled and was 
finally overthrown, but the tradition that he was a god, inher- 
ited, perhaps, from the great Dungi, persisted, and loyal court- 
iers and priests in the language translated below addressed him 
as the source of all blessings, and with servile adulation lauded 
him as a god. The hymn must, one is compelled to think, 
have been composed during his lifetime, for there was nothing 
in his career that could, so far as we know, induce later genera- 
tions, in a city like Nippur, to address him in such language. 
He was the last of his dynasty, and fawning priests and 
courtiers were soon compelled to make their peace with a con- 
queror to whom his memory was hateful (see No. 9 below). 
The hymn supplies a powerful argument for emperor worship in 
Ur during the lifetime of the monarch. 



50 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 
(As far as col. ii, 8 the text is too broken for translation.) 

(ii) (ii) 

9'. [dingir-dingir] gal-gal mir-gal-e 9'. The great gods (?) the great 

tar-ri steward appointed. 

10'. tu-lal sar ga kaskal gid V 10'. The length (?) of the garden was 

*) kaskal-gid. 
n'. en-te-en e-gu-un gar-ra-ni im-ba- n'. The cold filled the land; it dark- 

mi-ni ened it; 

12'. e-mes tur-ur-sag d en-lil-lal-ge 12'. The houses of the young hero of 

Enlil, 
13'. e nam-til-la e en-lil-lal ba 13'. The house of life, the temple of 

Enlil he built; 

14'. sukum "innin-na sir-ne 14'. I shtar-cakes he prepared, 
i^'.birnin- -bi udu gar-sag-ga 15'. The cattle of his lady, the 

sheep of Kharsag, 
16'. e-mes en-te-en-bi-ta kas-gar sag a- 16'. In houses, apart from cold, drink 

and food with full 

17'. si ba-ni-in-sd-sd 17'. heart are poured out. 

18'. man-na-ne-ne am-gal-ul-ul-dim 18'. Strong are they; like roaming 

wild-oxen 

19'. sd-na ma-an-lag-gi-es 19'. verily they advance. 

20'. d en-te-en-id sur-a ^ag-limmu sur- 20'. The cold-god is mighty; the four 

a-^a walls protect thee. 

21'. se es-nam-na gu-pes-a-na 21'. The grain, luxuriant on the broad 

banks, 

22. gig-ma-a-su-ta im-mi-in-dug-ga-na 22. From its power (?) preserves them. 

23. nu ne-ru-dim bar-ta im-ta-rd 23. Not like an enemy in hostility 

does he come; 

24. uku-bi nu-mu-un-dag-gi 24. His people he does not destroy. 

25. gar-sag en-te-en-ra . .X 1 mu-na- 25. Kharsag for the cold constructed a. 

te furnace, 1 

26. e-mes-a lu+bil ne-in-gar 26. For the houses it appointed com- 

fort (?). 2 

27. e-mes sis-mu im-ki-ma-na-an-es 27. The houses my brethren inhabit; 

28. gar-enbur gar-ge a-e-gal. ... 28. Edible fruits for food the palace . . . 



1 Cf. OBW, 450. The ideogra'phic value is unknown, but as the sign consists of the 
emblem for fire within an enclosure "furnace" or "brazier" does not seem a violent guess. 

2 This sign consists of the sign for "man" within which is placed the sign for "fire" or "heat." 
It is unknown to me elsewhere, but from its elements the meaning "comfort" does not seem a 

rash conjecture. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



51 



(v) 

i '. uru-ntu .... 

2'. na-'a-ib a-an gar-. . . . 

3'. ku nag gal-gal-e {U-. . . . 



(v) 

r. 



My protector (?) . . . . 
2'. Thou art exalted; what. . . .? 
3'. Food and drink abundantly thou 



4'. uku-ta sur-a im-ta-ab-. ... 4'. 

5'. lugal-mu pad a nannar i d en-lil- 5'. 

lal 
6'. i-bi- d en-{u lu-mag-su gur-un-u- 6'. 

ni-su 
"]' . tug-bar tug gar-ne-ba sal sd ba ni- 7'. 

gu 

8'. e^en dingir-ri-e-ne uras-su mu- 8' 

u-ul-ni 
9. dingir a-nun-a III gibil-bar a^ag 9'. 

ba-su-mu-ni-gdl-gdl 

10'. e-nam-til-la ki ku-afag nam- 10'. 
lugal an-ni-gar-ni 

\\'. ki-te sag-gi ki-ta gar nig-dug-ga 1 1'. 
si-ba ni-sd-sd-es 

12'. likir d-lal-si saker-si duk-ki im- 12'. 
ba-mu-na-tuk 

13'. lul tin erim-^a am gar-ra bar- 13', 
gis-la-^a 

14'. ud gig ni-ib-ial-ial-e 14'. 

15'. ga-e lugal kab-kab me-en gu-gu 15'. 

gal-gal me-en 

16'. lu-ni dug-gi ba-ab-ul-me-en 16'. 

17'. . .su-ba-$u mag-lu a-su a-d-ba 17'. 

ni-e-me-en 

1 8' ba-gig e-mei sur ki-en-gi-ra 18'. 

19' fid-bi tum-tum-ne 19'. 



For the people as protector thou . . 

My king, known of Nannar, 
exalted one of Enlil, 

Ibi-Sin, in exalted power he is 
alone. 

In brilliant garments, lamkbussu 
garments his wife and he con- 
verse; 

The feasts of the gods as seer he 
celebrates ; 

The great god, the spirit of bright 
fire, brilliantly he raises up; 

The house of life with the bright 
weapon of royalty he estab- 
lishes; 

Below favor, below food, a good 
possession, in fullness he pours 
out; 

In the midst 1 full pails, festal 
vessels 2 full for watering 3 he 
makes abundant. 

Mighty one, life of thy soldiers, 
exultant warrior, the enclosure 
thou didst protect, 

day and night thou dost illumine. 

The palace of the king is fortu- 
nate; great are the acclamations! 

His beneficent power gives joy. 

With his...., with majesty the 
seers at his side go forth; 

.... strong houses of Sumer 

... .at his right (?) they go 



1 The sign written is kis (OBW, 377); probably likir (OBW, 376) was intended. 
2 Cf. OBW, I 7 o 8 . 
' Cf. OBW, 1 5". 



52 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. 8. 
A NEW CREATION MYTH. U . 

This important text was found by the writer among some 
then uncatalogued tablets that had just been unpacked. It 
belongs to the cycle of myths of which No. 4 above is an excel- 
lent example. It is also in some respects parallel to the myth 
published by Langdon in PBS, Vol. X, No. i, called by him 
a "Sumerian Epic of Paradise," etc. Takku (read by Langdon 
Tagtug) is one of the deities who figures in this new myth. 
Like the myth published by Langdon, this one begins with an 
elaborate statement of the non-existence of many things once 
upon a time. Most interesting is its statement that man- 
kind was brought forth from the physical union of a god and 
goddess. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 

Obverse. 

1. gar-sag-an-ki-bi-da-ge \. The mountain of heaven and 

earth 

2. erim-an-ni dingir-dingir a-nun- 2. The assembly 1 of the great gods, 

na im-tu-ne-es a-ba entered, as many as there were. 2 

1 In the script of this period the sign may be either tu (OBW, 337) or erim (OBW, 347). 
The latter suits the context here. 

2 a-ba may be the interrogative pronoun "who?", the adverb "afterward" or mala, "over 
against," "in comparison with," then, "as many as there are." Possibly we shou'd read a-{u = 
"wise ones." 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 53 

3. mu d e{inu nu-ub-da-tu-da nu- 3. A tree 1 of Ezinu had not been 

ub(?)-da-an-sig-ga born, 2 had not become green, 3 

4. kalam-e*-bi d tak''-ku nu-ub-da- 4. Land and water 4 Takku 5 had not 

an-dim-ma-al created, 

5. d tak-ku-ra temen nu-mu-na-sig- 5. For Takku a temple-terrace had 

ga-as not been filled in, 

6. 'u(?) nu-gu(?)-a pugad nu-ub-ra 6. A ewe 6 (?) had not bleated 6 (?), a 

lamb had not been dropped 7 , 

7. anse(?) nu-me-a-am numun dug- 7. An ass(?) there was not to irri- 

ra gate 8 the seed, 

8. pu-e x-a-bi nu-ub-tu-ud 8. A well and canal '(?) had not been 

dug, 10 

9. anse-ra 11 bir-a-bi nu-ub-tu-ud 9. Horses 11 (?) and cattle had not 

been created, 

1 mu more often means name, but the context here requires "tree"; cf. OBW, 62 9 . 

2 The sign is so badly written that it may be either mu (OBW, iyo 3 ) "grow," or tu. Either 
reading makes good sense in the context. 

8 As written on the clay and blurred this sign is illegible. Some lines have to be supplied 
in imigination. The phonetic complement ga shows that some syllable ending in g stood here. 
I at first read dug but was never fully satisfied with it. sig (OBW, 308) is possible and fits the 
context better. 

4 The sign e is blurred on the tablet and the reading is not absolutely certain, but is the 
most probable, kalam-e-bi might be "his land," possibly meaning "his Sumer." The instances 
below, however, where bi is the postpositive conjunction, together with the nature of the things 
in the immediate context that are said to be still non-existent, make it probable that kalam-e-bi 
mean "land and water." A possible reading would be uku-e-bi = "His people" (Takku had not 
created). 

5 The sign tak as it occurs here is distinguishable from tik (for which 1 at first took it) only 
with the greatest difficulty. The god here referred to is, however, clearly the being that 
LANGDON calls Tagtug. For a discussion of his character and functions see the writer's article 
"New Babylonian Material Concerning Creation and Paradise" in the American Journal of 
Tbeology, XX 1 , 586 ff., 595 ff 

6 The reading gu is conjectural. The sign was partly erased by the scribe; 'u is also uncer- 
tain, being partly chipped away. 

7 Cf. OBW, 287 22 ; employed here of the birth of a lamb. 
8 OBW, 353 30 ; the reference is to an irrigating machine. 

9 The sign seems to be OBW, 606. The translation of it is wholly conjectural. Perhaps 
we should read 'u-e pugad-bi and render " The ewe a lamb had not brought forth." 

10 Fortu = baru, "dig" see OBW, 57*. 

11 The ra of this line is blurred; it looks more like ra, but may possibly be e. If we read e 
the reading is "asses;" if ra we must suppose that the reference is to "horses" and that kur 
has been accidentally omitted The appearance of the sign on the clay and the mention of the 
ass in line 7 incline me to the reading ra. The line might also be rendered: " Hors;s(?) (or 
asses) had not brought forth their young." 



54 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



10. mu d e%inu lil l -sud-umuna-bi-da- 10. 

ge* 

1 1 . d a-nun-na 3 dingir gal-gal- e-ne \ \ . 

nu-mu-un-fu-ta-am 

12. le ses* erim ulu-am nu-gdl-la- 12. 

am 

13. le-ses erim eninnu-am nu-gdl-la- 13. 

am 

14. se-tur-tur se-kur-ra se-id-dam- 14. 

afag-ga nu-gdl-la-am 

15. su- gar tus-tus-bi nu-gdl-la-am 15. 

1 6. d tak-ku nu-ub-tu-ud men nu-il \ 6. 

1 7. en d nin-ki en' kal-kal nu-ub-tu-ud 1 7. 

1 8. d ug mas tum-ma Ia 6 -ba-ra e 18. 

19. nam-lu un-^u 1 erim-nun-a gd*-e- 19. 

ne 

20. gar-ku-si 9 -bi nu-mu-un-fu-us-am 20. 

2 1 . tug-gal tuS-tus-bi nu-mu-un-^u- 2 1 . 

us-am 

22. usu gt *gi-am-na-dur-bi mu-un- 22. 

turn 



The name of Ezinu, spirit 1 of 2 

sprout and herd, 
The Anunna, the great gods, had 

not known, 
There was no M-grain of thirty 

fold, 
There was no M-grain of fifty 

fold, 
Small grain, mountain grain, 

cattle-fodder, there were not, 
Possessions and dwellings there 

were not, 
Takku had not been brought 

forth, a shrine not lifted up, 
Together with Ninki the lord had 

not brought forth men. 
Shamsah as leader came, unto her 

desire 6 came forth ; 
Mankind he planned; many men 

were brought forth; 
Food and sleep he did not plan for 

them; 
Clothing and dwellings he did not 

plan for them; 
The people with rushes and rope 

came, 



1 This sign and the following long puzzled me. They are so written on the clay as to 
appear to be one sign, and were so taken in my preliminary rendering. It now seems better 
to transliterate as above taking them for OBW, 295 and 325. 

J The last sign looks on the clay clearly like apin (OBW, 55); it may however, be a badly 
formed ge (OBW, 269). The last makes better sense. 

3 With an added ki we should have here the Anunaki, or spirits of earth. The ki is how- 
ever wanting, so that the expression seems to be a symbol for dingir gal-gal which follows. 

4 The grain se-fes occurs in ZIMMERN'S Ritualtafeln, 42, 26, where he renders it "Bitterkorn." 
Cf. alsoCT, XX 11 1, 1,2. 

6 For en = adi, "together with," see OBW, 1 12 1 . 

6 La = lal&, "splendor," "beauty," "desire" (OBW, 54*). In the Gilgamesh epic it is used of 
the female generative organ (see HAUPT, Nimrodepos, p. 1 1, I. 22 f.). Probably it is so employed 
here. 

7 Perhaps to be rendered: "For mankind he knew her." 

8 For gd = aladu see OBW, 23O 1 . 

9 For this meaning of si see OBW, 412". 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



55 



23. tus-dim-ka ba-[ni]-m-ib usbar 23. By making a dwelling a kindred 

was formed. 

24. a-sar-sar-ra . . . .im-gu-gu-ne 24. To the gardens they gave drink; 

25. ud-ba-ki sig. . . .e-ne- 25. On that day they were green; 

26. gis-bi. ... 26. Their plants. . . . 



Reverse. 



i ............................. 

2. [a-a- d e]n[-lil] 

3. . .no. kar . . . . 

4. [nam] lu-ge. . . . 

5 ..... ba d en-ki. . . . 

6. a-a d en-lil. . . . 

7. du-a^ag-ga dub-ba-da dingir . . . . 

8. du-a^ag-ga lag-ga dingir ba- 
da-ra-ab-uru(?) 

9. d en-ki d en-lil-bi gu-a^ag-ga 1 ku 2 - 

n[e-. . 
10. surim s - d e{inu-bi du-a^ag-ta im- 

ma-da-ra-. . 

1 1 . surim-e amas-a im-ma-ab-gab (?) . . 
12. u-bi e-gar-ama-ra mu-un-na-ba- 

e-ne 



13. 



gan-e mu-un-imi*-es-ne 



14. lil-apin uras-lag-bi mu-un-na-ba- 

e-ne 

15. surim amal-a-na gub-ba-ni 
1 6. sib amas-a gi-li du-dii-a 

1 7. d e$inu el-nam-na* gub-ba-ni 



2. Father Enlil (?).... 

3 

4. Of mankind. . . . 

5. . . creation (?) of Enki. . . . 

6. Father Enlil. .. . 

7. Duazagga is surrounded, O god, 

8. Duazagga, the brilliant, I will 

guard (?) for thee, O god. 

9. Enki and Enlil cast a spell. . . . 

10. A flock and Ezinu from Duazag 

[ga] they cast forth, 

1 1 . The flock in a fold they enclosed (?) 

12. His plants as food for the mother 

they created. 

13. Ezinu rained on the field for them; 

14. The moist (?) wind and the fiery 

storm-cloud he created for them ; 

15. The flock in the fold abode; 

1 6. For the shepherd of the fold joy 

was abundant. 

17. Ezinu as tall vegetation stood; 



1 Cf. B, 750. In our text ga appears to have been written for gal. 

2 Cf. OBW, 481". 

Cf. OBW, 449. 

4 OBW, 34 (nut) employed for OBW, 358. 

Cf. OBW, 7 1 5 . 



56 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

1 8. ki-el l sig-ga- gi-li-gur^ sub-am 18. The bright land was green, it 

afforded full joy. 

19. gan-ni-la sag-^i* il-la-ni 19. From their field a leader arose; 

20. dumu-gdr-an-na-na rd-rd-a-ne 20. The child from heaven came to 

them; 

2 1 . lurim d e{inu-bi pa-e mu-un-ag-et 2 \ . The flock of Ezinu he made to 

multiply for them; 

22. ukkin-na ib-gdl mu-da-an-ga-i- 22. The whole he raised up, he ap- 

l pointed for them; 

23. kalam-ma-gi-sag-gdl mu-da-an- 23. The reed-country he appointed for 

gdl-'i-es them ; 

24. me 6 dingir-ri-:-ne si im-sa sa- 24. The voice of their god uttered just 

e-ne decisions for them. 

25. gisgal-ma kalam-ma-ne gar mu- 25. A dwelling place was their land; 

ni-ab-rug-rug uku-as food increased for the people; 

26. x 1 kalam-ma-ne gig* mu-un-ne- 26. The prosperity of their land 

gal-as brought them danger; 8 

27. ab-uku-ra sagar-ki us-sa-ba-as 27. They made bricks of clay of the 

land for its protection. 

28. u-mu-un mu-ne-es-ib-gdl mu-da- 28. The lord caused them to be; they 

an-gdl-li-el came into existence. 

29. man-na-ne-ne (a 9 -ki dam 10 ne-ne 29. Companions were they; a man 

ba-an-gub-bu-us-a with a wife he made them dwell ; 

30. gig-bi gan u -a gar tag-me-es 30. By night, by day they are set as 

helpers. 

31. LX SU-SI LX 31. Sixty lines. 

I ki-el may be taken as equal to ardatu, "slave," "slave-girl" (B, 9831), but the context 
favors the literal meaning. 

2 OBW, 308 

3 For gur with this meaning see OBW, 277*. 

<Cf. B, 3555. 

B One is tempted to think dumu-gdl a mistake for dumu-^i and render Tammuz from 
heaven. The line seems to mean that children were born to them, but its exact meaning is 
obscure. 

6 Cf. OBW, 478* . We might read ilib (OBW, 478") and render "The priest of their god." 

7 Literally "favor"; cf. OBW, 241*. 

8 gig means "heaviness," precipice" (OBW, 401), hence "danger." 
Cf. OBW, 523". 

10 The sign dam, like many of the characters on the tablet, is badly formed. It might be 
}u, but I think dam was intended. 

II gan = nabatu sa umt, OBW, 119". It appears to be employed here in contrast to the 
darkness of night. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



57 



No. 9. 

AN ORACLE FOR ISHBI-URRA, FOUNDER OF THE 
DYNASTY OF ISIN. 



Obverse. 



1. a-a d en-lil dug-ga-dug-ga-ni tug- 

ga-da 

2. en-na ses-ab kt -ma lu erim sa- 

3. mu-un-me-ri-a 

4. is-bi-ur-ra lu ma-ir k '-ge 
<j. sugus-bi ba-sir-ri 

6. ki-en-gi ge-ag-e 

7. gar-din-nam ne-in-gu 

8. la tukundi-bi- pa-te-si uru-as-as 

9. ni-gar-gar-ri-en-^i-en 

10. dug- d en-lil-lal-ta is-bi-ur-ra 

1 1 . ni-bal-e-es-a 

12. lu-usbar-dim uru-erim-ra 

13. ba-sig mu-na-ta 

14. sa %a-e uru-na se-kak-dim 

1 5 . is-bi-ur-ra nu-mu-un-su l -a 

1 6. i-de-su gu-dug-ga ge-ge-de 

17. lul-du-du sa-da ge-ni-ib-da-tum- 

mu 

1 8. uku-ba d en-%u ge-ag-e-ne 

19. ^a-^ na-an-kin uku ugu-mu 2 -su 

20. nam-masi-du-un 



1. Father, Enlil, his words to the 

oppressed, 

2. The lord of Ur, the hostile man, 

3. verily he has subdued; 

4. Ishbi-urra, the man of Mair, 

5. his foundation has broken. 

6. "Sumer I truly love," 

7. thus he said, 

8. "and quickly as Patesi, of two(?) 

cities, 

9. I present (him) to you " 

10. According to the word of Enlil, O 

Ishbi-urra, 

1 1. thou shalt subdue them. 

12. Like a seer to the hostile city 

13. thou shalt hasten, thou shalt enter 

it, 

14. And thou, his servant, like a reed 

15. O Ishbi-urra, he will not break. 

1 6. Formerly a favorable response he 

returned; 

17. The rebellion, crushed, was 

brought to naught. 

1 8. Its people verily Enzu made. 

19. Do not thou deliver the people to 

destruction; 

20. let them not go to it. 



su=lalalu, "spoil," OBW, 8 10 . 
, OBW, 62 s3 . 



58 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

21. su-ni uru ki-a nam-ne-ib-sd-sd 21. With power the city did not assist 

the land. 

22. lu ma-ir kt -ge mega-ur-ri 22. O man of Mair, the hostile plotter 

23. nam-en-na-an-na-ag-e 23. did not do it. 

24. i-de-m mar-tu kur-bi-ta 24. Formerly Amurru from his moun- 

tain 

25. d en-lil a-tag-mu im-ma-^i 25. Enlil, my helper, seized; 

26. elant kt ki-fag mu-un-tag-gi 26. Elam, the strong land, he over- 

threw, 

27. sd is-[bi]-ur-ra mu-un-ku-bi 27. and Ishbi-urra he raised up; 

28. kalam tus-bi ge-ge-ne 28. The land, its dwellings he seized; 

29. nam-lig-ga kur-kur-ra ge-{u-^u 29. The might of the mountains he 

took; 

30. a-ma-ru gu-^a-e nam-tab-ku-se- 30. The tempest did not shake (his) 

ne-en throne. 



Ishi-urra, the founder of the dynasty of Nisin, lived about 
2340 B. C. He is here, as elsewhere, described as a "man of 
Mair," a city in northern Babylonia. He was not a native of 
Nisin. Similarly Lugalzaggisi, though king of Erech, was not a 
native of that city, but of Umma. The oracle apparently 
encouraged Ishbi-urra to attack Ur. In order to encourage 
Ishibi-urra in the enterprise, victories that Enlil, presumably 
through former kings, has achieved over Amurru and Elam, are 
cited. The text appears to have been composed at a later time, 
and states that, in consequence of the oracle Ishbi-urra's throne 
was firmly established. 

"The lord of Ur, the hostile man" of line 2 is evidently 
Ibi-Sin, king of Ur, whom this text says that Ishbi-urra subdued. 
This confirms the statement on the chronological tablet pub- 
lished by Hilprecht (BE, XX), "Ur, its dominion (?) was over- 
thrown; Nisin took the kingdom." A rival theory had been 
that Ibi-Sin, the last king of Ur, was taken captive to Elam. 
Sayce, PSBA, XXXIV, 166, so states without giving any 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 59 

authority. Langdon, BE, XXXI, ^, repeats the statement on 
the basis of a text at Constantinople, which he there translates. 
The line on which he bases this theory is, however, broken. It 
has lost its verb. Langdon supplied "was taken," making it 
read "Ibi-Sin to the land of Elam (was taken)" (op. cit. p. 7). 
On this authority the statement is repeated by Clay, Miscellan- 
eous Inscriptions of the Yale Babylonian Collection, 42. Our 
text shows that all this is erroneous. The broken line in BE, 
XXXI, 7, (/. e. No. 3, rev. 5), must have contained a different 
verb. 



60 



YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. 10. 
AN EXCERPT FROM AN EXORCISM. 

After this fragmentary text was in type, it was discovered 
that it is an excerpt from a longer text (CBM, 14152) which 
has been copied by Dr. H. F. Lutz. Dr. Lutz has kindly per- 
mitted me to see his copy and interpretation of the text. The 
part of the text copied by me forms lines 5-24 of the reverse of 
Dr. Lutz's tablet. Some of the lines on my tablet are frag- 
mentary, and can be completed from his. I would render the 
portion published here as follows: 



Obverse. 

i. kur-kur-ri sag ni-[{u x l sig-gi] i. The countries, O pritice, thy terror, 

darkness, smites. 

2-3. e^en-gal-gal-ba uku-e \nam\-ge- 2-3. Its great festivals inundate the 
[a ug-ga mu-un-di-ni-ib-ni-e people with abundant light. 

4. a en-lil-li d urta-a^ag gi-li du-du- 4. O Enlil, holy seer-god, abundance 

a-{u thou makest to abound. 

5. fu-ab bara a^ag-ga gal-bi turn- 5. Mightily thou enterest the deep 

ma-^u as a holy sanctuary. 

6. kur-sig x* a^ag-ki im-te-en-ta- 6. On the low mountain of the brill- 

en-ba iant shrine thou restest; 

7. im-me-ne-bi dingir-gar im-us 7. Thou 3 art the protecting god ; 

thou exaltest; 

8. aiS gig-bi kur-kur-ra-as mu-un-lal 8. Their protection for the countries 

thou raisest up; 

9-10. mu$-bi an-sag-ga 4 mu-ba mu- 9-10. Their form as the horizon thou 
un-til-til-ne didst make, thou didst complete." 



, 232. 2 OBW, 239. 

*The duplicate text inserts a line between 6 and 7, which makes this and the following line 
refer to E-kur. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 61 

1 1 . en-en-e bar-bar-ge-ne 1 1 . The priests of his sanctuaries 

12. sukum-a ininni-a^ag-gi si-ni-in- 12. Make holy Ishtar-cakes, 

di-[es] 

13-14. g]u l -{urd-iur-ra sa gul mu-un- 13-14. Words of blessing and destruc- 

[na-gd-gd-]ne tion they utter. 

15. *en]ilil sib igi-fu bar-ra-^u 15. "O Enlil, shepherd, thy eyes are 

bright ! 

16. dug-ii de-a kalam-ma il-la-^u 16. The word of life speak! The land 



raise up 



17. kur-gis-ni*-su kur-ne-ni-su 17. On the inaccessible mountain, on 

his strong mountain, 

1 8. kur-ra ki-gid gis-bi gu mu-na-ab- 18. The mountain which is distant 

gd-gd-an and great, the prince dwells. 

19. a-ri-sa-dim[du-a]garki-sar-ra-ge 19. Like a just shepherd appoint 

the command for the whole land, 

20. gi-gi-ri-a gu kaldm dugud-da-bi 20. With bright reeds make the sur- 

face of the land dark, 

21. sag-dug in-il(?) e nig-ga-ra-ka 21. Offerings will it bring(?) to the 

treasure-house 

22. e-uag si-di sukum mnini si-ne- 22. For Emakh, the temple, Ishtar 

in-sa cakes it will make. 



* an-lag-ga = Hid same. 

2 gif-ni = putikkee (M, 4017). 



62 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 



No. ii. 

FRAGMENT OF THE SO-CALLED "LITURGY TO 

NINTUD." 

This text contains a fragment of the text that Dr. Langdon 
has named the "Liturgy to Nintud on the Creation of Man and 
Woman," a designation which the writer is inclined to believe 
will have to be abandoned, when the whole text is known. A 
fragmentary form of the text is preserved on a prism in the 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. It was published by Langdon 
in his Babylonian Liturgies, Paris, 1913, plates LXV-LXVIII, 
and translated on pages 86 if. Three other fragments of the 
same text have also previously been published: one by Radau 
as No. 8 of his "Miscellaneous Texts" in the Hilprecht Anni- 
versary Volume (1909), and translated by Langdon on p. 19 of 
his Sumerian Epic of Paradise, the Flood, and the Fall of Man, 
(1915); another by Langdon in BE, XXXI, (1914), pi. 22; 
and a third by Langdon in his Sumerian Liturgical Texts, 1917, 
pi. LXI. Of these three, the first and third are in the Uni- 
versity Museum in Philadelphia, the second in the Imperial 
Ottoman Museum at Constantinople. Unfortunately, even with 
the addition of the new material here presented, it is impossible 
to reconstruct the whole text of the work. The Ashmolean 
prism has suffered greatly from disintegration, and the other 
texts so far recovered are mere fragments. The text of this com- 
position was divided into sections. At the end of each section 
there was a colophon giving the number of the section. The 
Ashmolean prism contained eight such sections. The new 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 63 

tablet which is published herewith was the second of three 
tablets on which the text was written in nine sections, three 
on each tablet. Our tablet contained sections four, five, and 
six. Section five corresponds to section four of the Ashmolean 
text and the text of BE. XXXI; section six, to section five of 
those texts. Section four, accordingly (the first section of our 
tablet), is a section previously unknown. The text of sections 
five and six of our tablet is much broken, but as these sections 
overlap sections in BE, XXXI and the Ashmolean prism, the 
lines of which are also fragmentary, the three sources supplement 
one another in a very satisfactory way, and make it possible to 
restore several incomplete lines. 

The nature and purpose of the composition are still obscure. 
Langdon (Babylonian Liturgies, 86) says : 'The occasion which 
gave rise to the compostion appears to have been the corona- 
tion of a patesi king of Kesh." The evidence for this view is 
far from convincing. Kesh is mentioned in some broken 
lines, where it is impossible to make out the meaning, but 
so is Surippak. Several sections later a patesiat is also 
mentioned in a broken line. Apparently the text celebrated 
the primitive (or very early) conditions in some town; possibly 
the founding and growth of the town, but beyond this we can 
confidently affirm nothing. We must await the recovery of the 
whole text. 

So far as the writer can see, there is no allusion in the text 
to the creation of man. True, allusion is several times made to 
the goddess Nintu, the mother of mankind (see above, No. 8). 
The sign lu which Langdon renders "man" the present writer 
renders "which"; cf. OBW, 289.* Langdon renders "Like 
Enkkar may man bear a form"; the present writer: "Like 
Enkkar verily was the form which it bore." As Enkhar was a 



64 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

place, it seems clear that the comparison refers to a place and 
not to a man. Men do not resemble places! The reading 
gis = "man" in Babylonian Liturgies, LXVII, 22 (the line is 
numbered 19 in his translation on p. 91 !) is confessedly uncer- 
tain. It is partially erased and the other copy which contains 
the line omits it. If gil really stood in the text, it could with 
greater probability be rendered "tree" rather than "man." 
In the writer's judgment, therefore, the nature of the text is 
still an enigma. 

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION. 

Obverse. 

i im-e-ar-an-ni mu-mag sd \ makes it bright, exalts the 

word; 

2 gal d en-Ul-H nam-ma-ni gal 2 Enlil fixes its destiny as great; 

tar-ri 

3. \e\-a-nun-gal dingir-a-nun-ge ne- 3. Eanungal of the great god he 

un-gar-su ne-mu founded, he named; 

4. e-su-ba-im egir-gid dingir gal-gal 4. Eshubaim for the distant future 

e-sar the great gods blessed ; 

5. e-an-ki-bi-da ^gar-bi ni-gar-me 5. The house of heaven and earth, 

el-su ba-e-i its structure he built, to brill- 

iance he exalted it; 

6. E-kalam ki-gar-ra ^ag-gar-ra us- 6. Ekalam is a structure appointed 

sa as a sanctuary; 

7. e-kur ge-gal gu-ni ud-ni-ir li 7. Ekur abundance proclaimed; then 

there was abundance; 

8. e d nin-gar-sag-ga {i-kalam-ma 8. The house of Ninkharsag is the 

ki-bi-su gar life of the land; for its land 

there is food ; 

9. E-gar-sag-gal su-lug-ga tum-ma 9. Ekharsaggal is devoted to cere- 

nam-ma-ni ni- pab monies; its fate he established; 

10. e-uiug-da nu-ka-as-bar nu-gd-gd 10. Eutug 1 had neither oracles nor 

decisions; 

1 "The house of the demon." 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



65 



n. E-. . . . -lar-kalam ama-tu lal-a 

12. . .kalam- y sar u-tu numun gis-kir 
sar tuk-tuk 

13 lugal u-tu nam-kalam-ma 

tar-ri 

14. [e] bar-bar-gan suslug ma-bi ag- 

ne 

15. [en-gar] kt -dim rib-ba lu si-in-ga- 

an-tum-ma 

1 6. [ur-sag]-bi [ d ]as-sir-gi-dim rib-ba 

ama si-in-ga-am-u-tu 

17. [nin-bi] d nin-tu-dim rib-ba-ra a- 

ma-a si-in-in-tug 



11. E . . . . sharkalam for the mother 

was raised up; 

12. . .The whole land was born; the 

seed of the Jh'r-tree the garden 
received ; 

13. . .the king was born, the fate of 

the land determined 

14. Ebarbargan, the brilliant, as his 

dwelling he made; 

15. Like Enkhar verily was the form 

which it bore; 

1 6. Its hero, like Ashirigi 1 in form, 

verily the mother bore; 

17. Its lady, like Nintu in form, gives 

the land abundance. 



1 8. [gu l\V kam-ma-am 



1 8. Section 4. 



19. [gan 2 in-ga?-]am uru in-ga-am 

sag-bi a-ba-a mu-un-su 

20. [gan 2 en-gar k * ur]u in-ga-am sag- 

bi a-ba-a mu-un-su 

2 1 . [sag-bi ur]-sag-ur-sag-e-ne si-mu- 

un si-di*-e-ne 

22. [es-bar-kin dug]-ga su-gal 5 mu- 

un-ul-ul 

23. [gan 2 -e gu]d-udu gud-am-ma 6 -ge 

m[e-e]n 

24. [erin-e ib-ba]-ab-[an sukka]l-suk- 

kal-e-ne 

25. [gan-e gud sar]-ra-[am al-gu]. . 

26. [gan-e udu sar-]ra-[am al-bi(?)]- 

su-um (?) . . 



19. To the field he went, to the city 

he went; into it who shall enter? 

20. To the field of Enkhar, to the city 

he went; into it who shall enter? 

21. In it their heroes were collected; 

they were noble; 4 

22. In decisions rendered, the word of 

all the gods, 5 they rejoiced; 

23. The fields, the sheep and oxen 

were like an ox of the stall; 

24. The cedars spoke; they were their 

messengers; 

25. The field invited the oxen all of 

them; 

26. The field strengthened (?) the 

sheep, all of them; 



1 I.e., Urta or Ninib; cf. B, 45. 

2 LANGDON reads this sign e = "house," though he has copied it like gan = "field." In view 
of the preceding section, perhaps it should be e. 

3 The lacunae are supplied from LANGDON'S Babylonian Liturgies, pi. LXV1, 25 ff., and BE, 
XXX I, 22, obv. cil. ii. 

4 si-di = isaru, Hebrew, yasber,, "upright one," "hero." 
6 Cf. B, 7203-4. 

6 Literally, "house." 



66 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES, BABYLONIAN TEXTS 

27. [ g '*ma]-e-ne gu[ stS ma] . . . . ma-gdl- 27. Their fig-trees on the bank the 

l[i\ boat filled; 

28. [ g **ku] nin sag . . . . il 28. The weapon the lord, the prince 

.... lifted up ; 

29. [ gt *]a-tu-du-su dam-dingir-da pi- 29. The luluppi-tree of the wife of the 

pi-sal. . . . god, the pi-pi-p\&nts of. ... 

30. [gar]-sag-da sar-a dingir-da sig- 30. In Kharsag the garden of the god 

sig were green .... 

31. [en-gar kt -dim rib-]ba lu [si-in ga- 31. Like Enkhar was the form which 

an-]tum-mu verily it bore; 

32. [Ur-sag-bi d as-sir-gi]. ... 32. Its hero was Ashirgi. . . . 

Reverse. 

1. [gan. . . .a-ba-a mu-un l ]-tu-ma i. The field. . . .who shall enter? 

2. [sag-bi a-ur-sag-ur-sag]-e-ne [si- 2. In it were their heroes collected; 

mu-un si-di-e-ne] they were noble; 

3. [ d nin-gar-sag-ga] ulum-a an-na 3. Ninkharsag, unique in heaven and 

k[i .... earth .... 

4. [ d nin-tu ama] gal-la tu-tu [mu-un 4. Nintu, the great mother, the beget- 

.... ress .... 

5. [ d dun-pa-]e pa-te-si-ge n[am-en 5. Dunpae for the Patesi, the lord- 

mu- .... ship .... 

6. [ d a$-si]r-g[i] ur-sag-ga es mu-un 6. Ashirgi, the hero, the dwelling. . . . 

7. [ d ]dim-me nimgir-gal-e edin-na 7. Dimmi, steward of the plain, made 

mu-da-an-til . . . . alive. . . . 

8. [e]-e siqqa lulim-e gu am-ma- 8. The house of the wild goat and the 

gur-ri ram occupied the bank .... 

9. en-gar M -dim rib-ba lu si-in-ga- 9. Like Enkhar was the form which it 

an-tum-ma bore ; 

10. ur-sag-bi d as-sir-gi-dim rib-ba 10. Its hero, like Ashirgi in form, 

ama $i-in[-ga-am-u-tu] verily the mother bore; 

11. nin-bi d nin-tu rib-ba a-ma-a si- n. Its lady, like Nintu in form, gave 

mu-ni-i[n-tug the land abundance. 

12. [gu] VI [kam]-ma-am 12. Section 6. 

13. [e-ud-dim-ki-gal\-la gub-ba 13. Euddimkigalla stands. 2 

1 The lacunae are supplied from BE,, XXXI, 22, rev., col. i and from LANGDON'S Babylonian 
Liturgies, pi. LXVII. 

' This is the first line of section 7, with which the next tablet began. 



MISCELLANEOUS BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS 



67 



LIST OF TABLETS. 



TEXT 


PLATE 


MUSEUM 
NUMBER 


DIMENSIONS 


NATURE OF CONTENTS 








L. D. C. 




I 


1-3 


8383 


6^X5X16^ 


Foundation cylinder contain- 








B. T*. 


ing an incantation. 


2 


4 


8322 


3>^X2f^X^ 


An Old Babylonian Oracle. 


3 


5-7 


I 1065 


7X5^X1^ 


A Hymn to Dungi. 


4 


8-1 1 


9205 


6^X4^2X1^6 


A Myth of Enlil and Ninlil. 


5 


12 


II932 


7XX4XiX 


Fragment! of an Incantation 











Ritual. 


6 


3,4 


1 2204+ 
| 2270+ 


9X4^X1^ 


A Prayer for the City of Ur. 






[ 2302 






7 


15-17 


8310 


5XX4f<Xl^ 


A Hymn to Ibi-Sin. 


8 


l8,I9 


14005 


5X2^X1^ 


A Creation Myth. 


9 


2O 


7772 


3^X2^XlyV 


An Oracle for Ishbiurra, Foun- 










der of the Dynasty of Nisin. 


10 


21 


8317 


3^X2^X1^ 


An Excerpt from an Exorcism. 


1 1 


22,23 


8384 


5><X2^Xi^ 


Fragment of the So-called 










"Liturgy to Nintud." 


12 


23 


2225 


2#X2fgXX 


Fragment of a Hymn to Nan- 










nar. 



* The thickness is always measured at the thickest part of the tablet, 
t The fragment is irregular. These are its greatest measurements. 



AUTOGRAPHED TEXTS 



PLATE 



Cot.. I. Cot.. II. Cok. III. Cok. IV. Co... v. cou vi. Cok. VII. Cok. VIII. 




CONTINUED 



PLATE II 



COLIX. 



C I-X- COL. y.1. COL. XII. Coi-.Xlll. Cou. XIV. Cou.XV. 




PLATE in 



CONTINUED 

COC.XVI. COU.XVH. COi.. XVIII. CO*.. XIX. 








IB 




ED 




55*5 






Ut^J-i 

IlKjgf 



PLATE IV 



OBVERSE 




"p^-^^3 



.1- -^' 



REVERSE 



COL. IV. 




PLATE V 




30 



CONTINUED 



PLATE VI 




t=f 




f 



T, 




PLATE VII 



CONTINUED 




CONTINUED 



PLATE VII 



15 




[PLATE VIM 



25 



30 










y VL 

T^_^ j. w& fctn S? 5ff-r t ~^w 
HE^ <^=r ^ g^ ^ ^ ^ *^ ^ 
^^ C4 K ^^t^'S'lg 

S^ TT-W 5 ^It-fTT ^ <^ ^^ tte ^ 




PLATE IX 



CONTINUED 

COU II. 




PLATE X 



CONTINUED 

COL. III. 




PLATE XI 



CONTIN UED 
cot., iv. 




PLATE XII 




PLATE XIII 



6 




PLATE XIV 



CONTINU ED 



COL III. 




35 



4S? 



'^WTFiitfc- ti~S 1^ 
i*$ 




S? #*> ^ 

E^teT ^:&<^ /^ 

fe=t ^ 

Tf ^tf 



^ t^r 

t= ^ 

Tf ^^F 



O 




PLATE XV 



COL. I. 




CONTINUED 



PLATE XVI 




PLATE XVII 



CONTINUED 




PLATE XVIII 




PLATE XIX 



CONTINUED 
REVERSE 




PLATE XX 



W 



15 



leu. 



20 



30 



TT Tf 






V 



on 



< 



- 






PLATE XXI 




PLATE XXII 




PLATE XXIII 



CONTINUED 



JO' 




^ 



\ 



12 




70 



PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONS 



PLATE XXIV 




No. i, columns i-vi 



PLATE XXV 




No. i, columns v-x 



PLATE XXVI 




No. i, columns ix-xv 



PLATE XXVII 




No. i, columns xiv-xix 



PLATE XXVIII 




No. i, columns xviii, xix and i-iii 



PLATE XXIX 





PLATE XXX 




No. 3, obverse 



PLATE XXXI 




No. 3, reverse 



PLATE XXXII 




No. 4, obverse 



PLATE XXXIII 




No. 4, reverse 



PLATE XXXIV 




No. 7, obverse 



PLATE XXXV 




No. 7, reverse 



PLATE XXXVI 




No. 8, obverse 



PLATE xxxvn 




No. 8, reverse 



PLATE XXXVIII 




_o 




PLATE XXXIX 




No. 1 1 , obverse 



PLATE XL 




No. 1 1, reverse 



PLATE XLI 



CORRECTIONS 
PLATE VIII 7 



PLATE IX , 77, n Head jft-T /or 

PLATE X ,3. Head & fc> V 

5 . Read T7 /or ^ . 
*5./,earf ^ ^ 1^ /0 r 
^1. ffearf ,!>< for 
PLATE XVIII, ^./^a- 44 ^ /or 
PLATE XXI^ 3, 4 , 5 . Head 5j> 
6 . Read )g^f f or 



/?. ffearf ~Tp for ^TT. 

20. t-^^ Mistake of scribe for 
^" 



I '<> U 






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