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Full text of "Miscellaneous essays relating to Indian subjects"

TRUBNER'8 ORIENTAL SERIES. 



" A knowledge of the commonplace, at least, of Oriental literature, philo- 
sophy, and religion is as necessary to the general reader of the present day 
as an acquaintance with the Latin and Greek classics was a generation or so 
ago. Immense strides have been made within the present century in these 
branches of learning; Sanskrit has been brought within the range of accurate 
philology, and its invaluable ancient literature thoroughly investigated ; the 
language and sacred books of the Zoroastrians have been laid bare ; Egyptian, 
Assyrian, and other records of the remote past have been deciphered, and a 
group of scholars speak of still more recondite Accadian and Hittite monu- 
ments ; but the results of all the scholarship that has been devoted to these 
subjects have been almost inaccessible to the public because they were con- 
tained for the most part in learned or expensive works, or scattered through- 
out the numbers of scientific periodicals. Messrs. TRUBNER & Co., in a spirit 
of enterprise which does them infinite credit, have determined to supply the 
constantly-increasing want, and to give in a popular, or, at least, a compre- 
hensive form, all this mass of knowledge to the world." Times. 



NOW READY, 
Post 8vo, pp. 568, with Map, cloth, price i6s. 

THE INDIAN EMPIRE : ITS HISTORY, PEOPLE, 
AND PRODUCTS. 

Being a revised form of the article "India," in the "Imperial Gazetteer," 

remodelled into chapters, brought up to date, and incorporating 

the general results of the Census of 1881. 

BT W. W. HUNTER, C.I.E., LL.D., 

Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India. 

"The article ' In : o touchstone of the work, and proves 

clearly enough the sterling metal It represents th essence 

of the 100 volumes which contain the r i-,ted by 

nnighout each of the 310 districts of India. It ia, moreover, the only 
that has ever been made to six have been ) 

Tidcnce from tho original materials has been for the first time sifted and 
examined by the light of the local research la which the author was for so long 
" fin* 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



THE FOLLOWING WORKS HAVE ALREADY APPEARED: 

Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi. 428, price i6s. 

ESSAYS ON THE SACRED LANGUAGE, WRITINGS, 

AND RELIGION OF THE PARSIS. 

BY MARTIN HAUG, PH.D., 

Late of the Universities of Tubingen, Gottingen, and Bonn ; Superintendent 
of Sanskrit Studies, and Professor of Sanskrit in the Poona College. 

EDITED BY DR. E. W. WEST. 

I. History of the Researches into the Sacred Writings and Religion of the 

Parsis, from the Earliest Times down to the Present. 
II. Languages of the Parsi Scriptures. 

III. The Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis. 

IV. The Zoroastrian Religion, as to its Origin and Development. 

" ' Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis,' by the 
late Dr. Martin Hang, edited by Dr. E. W. West. The author intended, on his return 
from India, to expand the materials contained in this work into a comprehensive 
account of the Zoroa.strian religion, but the design was frustrated by his untimely 
death. We have, however, in a concise and readable form, a history of the researches 
into the sacred writings and religion of the Parsis fr>m the earliest times down to 
rtation on the languages of the Parsi Scriptures, :i translation 

of the Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis, and a dissertation on the Zoroas- 
trian religion, with especial reference to its origin and development." 2'itm.s. 



Post 8vo, cloth, pp. viii. 176, price ys. 6d. 

TEXTS FROM THE BUDDHIST CANON 

COMMONLY KNOWN AS " DHAMMAPADA." 

Wilh Accompanying Naivatives. 

Translated from the Chinese by S. BEAL, B.A., Professor of Chinese 
University College, London. 

The Dhammnpada, as hitherto known by the Pali Text Edition, as edited 
by Fausboll, by Max Miiller's English, and Albrecht Weber's German 
translations, consists only of twenty-six chapters or sections, whilst the 
Chinese version, or rather recension, as now translated by Mr. Beal, con- 
sists of thirty-nine sections. The students of Pali who possess Fausboll's 
text, or either of the above named translations, will therefore needs want 
Mr. Beal's English rendering of the Chinese version ; the thirteen above- 
named additional sections not being accessible to them in any other form ; 
for, even if they understand Chinese, the Chinese original would be un- 
obtainable by them. 

"Mr. Beal's rendering of the Chinese translation is a most valuable aid to the 
critical study of the work. It contains authentic texts gathered from anricnt 
canonical books, and generally connected with some incident in the history of 
Buddha. Their great interest, however, consists in the light which they throw upon 
everyday life in India at the remote period at which they were written, and upon 
the method of teaching adopted by the founder of the religion. The method 
employed was principally parable, and the simplicity of the tales and the excellence 
of the morals inculcated, as well as the strange hold which they have retained upon 
the minds of millions of people, make them a very remarkable study." 7V 

" Mr. Beal, by making it accessible in an English dress, has added to the gi 
vices he has already rendered to the comparative study of religious history." A < 

"Valuable as exhibiting the doctrine of the Buddhists in its purest, least adul- 
terated form, it brings the modern reader face to face with that simple creed and rule 
of conduct which won its way over the minds of myriads, and which is now nominally 
professed by 145 millions, who have overlaid its austere simplicity with innumcraUo 
ceremonies, forgotten its maxims, perverted its teaching, and so inverted its leading 
principle that a religion whose founder denied a God, now worships that founder as 
a god himself." Scotsman. 



TRUBXER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xxiv. 360, price 103. 6d. 

THE HISTORY OF INDIAN LITERATURE. 

BY ALBRECHT WEBER. 

Translated from the Second German Edition by JOHN MANN, M.A., and 
THEODOR ZACHARIAE, Ph.D., with the sanction of the Author. 

Dr. Briti r of Schools in India, writes: ""When I was Pro- 

fessor of Oriental Laniiua-es in Elphinstone College, I frequently felt the 
want of such a work to which I could refer the students." 

1 >\VKi.i.. of Cambridge, writes : " It will be especially useful 

-udents in our Indian colleges and universities. I used to long for 

such a l>ook when I was teaching in Calcutta. Hindu students are intensely 

1 in the history of Sanskrit literature, and this volume will supply 

them with all they want on the subject." 

->or Win INKY. Yale College, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A., writes: 
one of the class to whom the work was originally given in the form 
Miic lectures. At their first appearance they were by far the most 
and able treatment of their subject; and with their recent additions 
they still maintain decidedly the same rank." 

" Is perhaps the most comprehensive and lucid survey of Sanskrit literature 

extant. The 6M*yi contained in the volume were originally delivered as academic 

:uid at the time of their first publication were acknowledged tube by fur 

.earned and able treatment of the Milijrct. They have m>w been brought 

: by the addition of all the most important results of recent i\.>e.-trch 



Post 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. 198, accompanied by Two Language 
Maps, price 123. 

A SKETCH OF 

THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF THE EAST INDIES. 
BY ROBERT N. GUST. 

The Author has attempted to fill up a vacuum, the inconvenience of 
which pressed itM-lf on his notice. Much had been written about the 
languages of the East Indies, but the extent of our present knowledge had 
not even been brought to a focus. It occurred to him that it mi-lit lie of 
use to others to publish in an arranged form the notes which he had collected 
for his own edification. 

y which has ]<>n^ been felt." 

iien a valuable emit i ibution to phflolOftiCftl MittlM. It 

pauses m ft Tact number of language*, and it gh 

i jud^ment-Mif th< 
rs." Saturday Review. 

Second Corrected Edition, post 8vo, pp. xii. 116, cloth, price 5$. 
THE BIRTH OF THE WAR GOD. 

A IVem. I:Y KAI.IPA 

Translated fr-.m tli- Sanskrit info F.n-lish Verse ly 
l:.\i I'll T. II. (;i:ii inn. M.A. 


-ix yean ago, and which we are glad to BVO nia . 

'>'* very ipii o at all 



imagination of it* 
"We are very glad to welcome a second e<l. 

Few tranalatioiw dwu > -Athtweum. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, cloth, pp. 432, price i6s. 

A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY 

AND RELIGION, GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND 

LITERATURE. 

BY JOHN DOWSON, M.R.A.S., 
Late Professor of Hindustani, Staff College. 

In this work an endeavour has been made to supply the long-felt want of 
a Hindu Classical Dictionary. The main portion of this work consists of 
mythology, but religion is bound up with mythology, and in many points 
the two are quite inseparable. 

This work will be a book of reference for all concerned in the government 
of the Hindus, but it will be more especially useful to young Civil Servants, 
and to masters and students in the universities, colleges, and schools in India. 

"This not only forms an indispensable book of reference to students of Indian 
literature, but is also of great general interest, as it gives in a concise and easily 
accessible form all that need be known about the persona^ .f Hindu mythology 
whose names are so familiar, but of whom so little is known outhide the limited 
circle of savants." Times. 

" It is no slight gain when such subjects are treated fairly and fully in a moderate 
apace ; and we need only add that the few wants which we may hope to see supplied 
in new editions detract but little from the general excellence of Mr. Dowson's work." 
Saturday Review. 

Post 8vo, with View of Mecca, pp. cxii. 172, cloth, price 93. 

SELECTIONS FROM THE KORAN. 

BY EDWARD WILLIAM LANE, 

Hon. Doctor of Literature, Leyden, &c., &c. ; Translator of " The Thousand and One 

Nights;" Ac., &c. 
A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with an Introduction by 

STANLEY LANE POOLE. 

"... Has been long esteemed in this country as the compilation of one of the 
greatest Arabic scholars of the time, the late Mr. Lane, the well-known translator of 
the 'Arabian Nights.' . . . The present editor lias enhanced the value of his 
relative's work by divesting the text of a great deal of extraneous matter introduced 
by way of comment, and prefixing an introduction." Tima. 

"Mr. Poole is both a generous and a learned biographer. . . . Mr. Poole tells us 
the facts ... so far as it is possible for industry and criticism to ascertain them, 
and for literary skill to present them in a condensed and readable form." Englitk~ 
man, Calcutta. 

Post 8vo, pp. vi. 368, cloth, price 148. 

MODERN INDIA AND THE INDIANS, 

BEING A SERIES OF IMPKI-xinNs. NOTES, AND ESSAYS. 

BY MONIER WILLIAMS, D.C.L., 

Hon. LL.D. of the University of Calcutta, Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic 

Society, Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. 

Third Edition, revised and augmented by considerable Additions, 

with Illustrations and a Map. 

This edition will be found a great improvement on those that preceded it. 
The author has taken care to avail himself of all such criticisms on particular 
passages in the previous editions as appeared to him to be just, and he has 
enlarged the work by more than a hundred pages of additional matter. 

" In this volume we have the thoughtful impressions of a thoughtful man on some 
of the most important questions connected with our Indian Empire. . . . An en- 
lightened observant man, travelling among an enlightened observant people, Professor 
Monier Williams has brought before the public in a pleasant form more of the manners 
and customs of the Queen's Indian subjects than we ever remember to have seen in 
any one work. He not only deserves the thanks of every Englishman for this able 
contribution to the study of Modern India a subject with which we should be 
specially familiar but he deserves the thanks of every Indian, Parsee or Hindu, 
Buddhist and Moslem, for his clear exposition of their manners, their creeds, and 
their necessities." Times. 



TRUBXER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, pp. xliv. 376. cloth, price 145. 

METRICAL TRANSLATIONS FROM SANSKRIT 
WRITERS. 

"With an Introduction, many Prose Versions, anil Parallel Passages from 
Classical Authors. 

BY J. MUIR, C.I.E., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D. 

"... An agreeable introduction to Hindu poetry." 7 

". . .A volume which maybe taken as a f.-tir illustration alike of the religious 
and moral sentiments and of the legendary lore of the best Sanskrit writers." 
L'.iinburyh Daily A 



In Two Volumes, post 8vo, pp. viii. 408 and viii. 348, cloth, price 283. 

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS RELATING TO INDIAN 
SUBJECTS. 

BY BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON, ESQ., F.R.S., 

Late of the Bengal Civil Service ; Corresponding Member of the Institute ; Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour ; late British .Minister at the Court of Nepal, <fcc., <tc. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

SECTION I. On the Kocch, Bodo, and Dhimal Tribes. Part I. Vocabulary. 
lirainmar. Part III. Their Origin, Location, Numbers, Creed, Customs, 
Character, and Condition, with a General Description of the Climate they dwell in. 
Appendix. 

SECTION II. On Himalayan Ethnology. I. Comparative Vocabulary of the Lan- 
guages of the Broken Tribes of Ndpal. II. Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Kir,m:i 
Language. III. Grammatical Analysis of the Vayu Language. The Vayu Grammar. 
--1V. Analysis of the Bailing Dialect of the Kirunti I-anguage. The Bdhing Gram- 
mar. V. < >"n the Vayu or Hayu Tribe of the Central Himalaya. VI. On tue Kiranti 
Tribe of the Central Himalaya. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 

SECTION III. On the Aborigines of North-Eastern India. Comparative Vocabulary 
of the Tibetan, Bod6, and Gird Tongues. 

SECTION IV. Aborigines of the North-Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION V. Aborigines of the Eastern Frontier. 

SECTION VI. The Indo-Chinese Borderers, and their connection with the Hima- 
layansand Tibetans. c<tii]>:ira:ivo Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers in 
Comparative Vocabulary .1 derers in Tenasserim. 

VII. The Mongolian Affinities of the Caucasians. Comparison and Ana- 
lysis of Caucasian and M 'ids. 

SECTION VIII. Physical Type of Tibetans. 

SBCTION IX, The Aborigines of Centril India. '.ulary of the 

Aboriginal Language 

buy of s iiidoringTr.'' 

Aborigines of the ' "M tin ir Affinities. Supplement to the 

rabul.iries. The Aborigines ..f Sun ion. 

SECTI -opalese Mission to 1'ckin, with Ilcmarks on the Water- 

Shed and Plateau of Tibet. 

SECTION XI. Route from Kathmandu, the C.u \\, to Darjeeling in 

8kim. Memorandum relative to the Seven Cosin of Nepal. 

SECTION XI L Some Accounts of the Systems of Law and Police as recognised in 
the State of Nepal. 

SECTION XI 1 1. The Native Method of making the Paper denominated Hindustan. 
Kepalese. 

SECTION XIV. Pre-eminence of the Vernaculars; or, the Anglicist* Answered: 
Being Letters on the Education of the People of India. 

the lew-known races of India Mr. Brian Hodgson's ' Miscellane- 
ous Essays ' will be found Tory valuable both to tin 
-Ttma. 



TRUBXER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Third Edition, Two Vols., post 8vo, pp. viii. 268 and viii. 326, cloth, 
price 2is. 

THE LIFE OR LEGEND OF GAUDAMA, 

THE BUDDHA OF THE BURMESE. With Annotations. 

The Ways to Neibban, and Notice on the Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

BY THE RIGHT REV. P. BIGANDET, 
Bishop of Ramatha, Vicar-Apostolic of Ava and Pegu. 

"The work is furnished with copious notes, which not only illustrate the subject- 
matter, but form a perfect encyclopaedia of Buddhist lore." Times. 

"A work which will furnish European students of Buddhism with a most valuable 
help in the prosecution of their investigations." Edinburgh !) 

" Bishop Bigandet's Invaluable work, . . . and no work founded rather trans- 
latedfrom original sources presents to th- Western student a more faithful picture 
than that <>f Uishi.p Bi^andet." //"/</( Ai>t. 

" Viewed in this light, its importance is sufficient to place students of the subject 
under a deep obligation to its author." C'cutta Review. 

"This work is one of the greatest authorities upon Buddhism." Dublin A' 

"... A performance the great value of which is well known to all students of 
Buddhism." Tablet. 



Post 8vo, pp. xxiv. 420, cloth, price 183. 

CHINESE BUDDHISM. 
A VOLUME OF SKETCHES, HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

BY J. EDKINS, D.D. 
Author of " China's Place in Philology," "Religion in China," &c. &c. 

" It contains a vast deal of important information on the subject, such as is only 
to be gained by long-continued study on the spot." Athenaum. 

" It is impossible within our limits even to mention the various subjects connected 
with Buddhism with which Dr. Edkins deals." Saturday Jieview. 

" Upon the whole, we know of no work comparable to it for the extent of its 
original research, and the simplicity with which this complicated system of philo- 
sophy, religion, literature, and ritual is set forth." British Quarterly Review. 

"The whole volume is replete with learning. ... It deserves most careful study 
from all interested in the history of the religions of the world, and expre-sly "f those 
\\-ho ;ire romvrned in the propagation of Christianity. Dr. Edkins notices in terms 
of just condemnation the exaggerated praise bestowed upon Buddhism by recent 
English writers." Record. 



Second Edition, post 8vo, pp. xxvi. 244, cloth, price los. 6d. 

THE GULISTAN; 
OR, ROSE GARDEN OF SHEKH MUSHLIU'D-DIN SADI OF SHIRAZ. 

Translated for the First Time into Prose and Verse, with an Introductory 
Preface, and a Life of the Author, from the Atish Kadah, 

BY EDWARD B. EAST WICK, C.B., M.A., F.R.S., M.R.A.S., 

Of Merton College, Oxford, &c. 
" It is a very fair rendering of the original." Times. 

" The new edition has long been desired, and will be welcomed by all who take 
any interest in Oriental poetry. The Guli*tan is a typical Persian verse-book of the 
highest order. Mr. Eastwick's rhymed translation . . . has long established itself in 
a secure position as the best version of Sadi's finest work." Academy. 
" It is both faithfully and gracefully executed "Tablet. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, pp. 496, cloth, price i8s. 

LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL ESSAYS. 

"\VKITTEN* FROM THE YEAR 1846 TO 1878. 
BY ROBERT NEEDHAM CUST, 

Late Member of Her Majesty's Indian Civil Service ; Hon. Secretary to 

the Royal Asiatic Society ; 
and Author of " The Modern Languages of the East Indies." 

know none who has described Indian life, especially the life of the natives, 
with so much learning, sympathy, and literary talent." Academy. 

do justice to any of these essays in the space at our command. . . 

But they seem to us to be full of suggestive and original remarks." St. James's Gazette. 

; -ook contains a vast amount of information, ... of much interest to every 

intelligent reader. It is, he tells us, the result of thirty-five years of inquiry, 

:\. and speculation, and that on subjects as full of fascination as of food for 

.:." Tablet. 

" The essays exhibit such a thoroxigh acquaintance with the history and 

aiKi'iuities ,,f" India as to entitle him to speak as one having authority." Edinburgh 
Daily Review. 

" The author speaks with the axithority of personal experience It is this 

constant association with the country and the people which gives such a vividness 
to many of the pages." Athenaum. 



Post 8vo, pp. civ. 348, cloth, price i8s. 

BUDDHIST BIRTH STORIES; or, Jataka Tales. 

The Oldest Collection of Folk-lore Extant : 

BEING THE JATAKATTHAVANNANA, 

For the first time Edited in the original Pali. 

BY V. FAUSBOLL ; 

And Translated by T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 

Translation. Volume I. 

" These are tales supposed to have been told by the Buddha of what he had seen 

and heard in his previous births. They are probably the nearest representatives 

of the original Aryan stories fn-in which sprang the folk-lore of Europe as well aa 

k, and fr-.in which the Semitic nations also borrowed much. The introduction 

ins a most interesting disquisition on the migrations of these fables, tracing 

reappearance in the various groups of folk-lore legends respectively known aa 

' Msop's Fables,' the ' Hitopadesa/ the Calilag and Damnag series, and even 'The 

^ht.' Among oth-r .'1<1 fri.-mis. \vo inert with a version of the Judgment 

of Solomon, which proves, after all, to be an Aryan, and not a Semitic tale." Time*. 

" It in now some years since Mr. Rhys Davids asserted his right to be heard on 

it.jcct by hi* Ablfl tddhin in the now edition .f thu Kmyrlopwdia 

nica.'" Lcttl* Mercury. 

"All who are interested in Buddhist literature ought to feel deeply indebted to 
Mr. Hi.v- I'.ivj ;.-. HM well-established reputation a> !: is a sull 

guarantee for the fidelity of his version, and the stylo of his translations is deserving 

1 .raise. "Academy. 

" It is certain that no more competent expositor of nu<Mhism r<uM }>o found than 
that ii,.-- Birl -i.e greatest interest and 

importance to students. In the Jataka book we have, then, a priceless record < 
earliest imaginative literature of our race ; and i Mvids is well warranted 

in claiming that It presents to us a nearly complete picture of the social life and 
customs and popular beliefs of the common people of Aryan tribes, closely related to 
ourselves, just as they were passing through the first stages of civilisation. "-M. 

Ja,*t't VnxtH. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, pp. xxviii. 362, cloth, price 143. 

A TALMUDIC MISCELLANY; 

OR, A THOUSAND AND ONE EXTRACTS FROM THE TALMUD, 
THE MIDRASHIM, AND THE KABBALAH. 

Compiled and Translated by PAUL ISAAC HERSHON, 

Author of " Genesis According to the Talmud," &c. 

With Notes and Copious Indexes. 

" To obtain in so concise and handy a form as this volume a general idea of the 
Talmud is a boon to Christians at least." Time*. 

" This is a new volume of the ' Oriental Series,' and its peculiar and popular 
character will make it attractive to general readers. Mr. Hershon is a very com- 
petent scholar. . . . The present selection contains samples of the good, bad, and 
indifferent, and especially extracts that throw light upon the Scriptures. The 
extracts have been all derived, word for word, and made at first hand, and references 
are carefully given." British Quarterly Review. 

" Mr. Hershon's book, at all events, will convey to English readers a more complete 
and truthful notion of the Talmud than any other work that has yet appeared. " 
Daily News. 

"Without overlooking in the slightest the several attractions of the previous 
volumes of the ' Oriental Series,' we have no hesitation in saying that this surpasses 
them all in interest." Edinburgh Daily Review. 

" Mr. Hershon has done this ; he has taken samples from all parts of the Talmud, 
and thus given English readers what is, we believe, a fair set of specimens which 
they can test for themselves." The Record. 

" Altogether we believe that this book is by far the best fitted in the present state 
of knowledge to enable the general reader or the ordinary student to gain ;i fair and 
unbiassed conception of the multifarious contents of the wonderful miscellany which 
can only be truly understood so Jewish pride asserts by the life-long devotion of 
scholars of the Chosen People." Inquirer. 

" The value and importance of this volume consist in the fact that scarcely a single 
extract is given in its pages but throws some light, direct or refracted, upon those 
Scriptures which are the common heritage of Jew and Christian alike. " John Bull. 

" His acquaintance with the Talmud, &c., is seen on every page of his book. . . 
It is a capital specimen of Hebrew scholarship ; a monument of learned, loving, light- 
giving labour." Jewish Herald. 



Post 8vo, pp. xii. 228, cloth, price ys. 6d. 
THE CLASSICAL POETRY OF THE JAPANESE. 

BY BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, 
Author of '* Yeigo Henkaku Shiran." 

" A very curious volume. The author has manifestly devoted much labour to the 
task of studying the poetical literature of the Japanese, and rendering characteristic 
specimens into English verse." Daily News. 

11 Mr. Chamberlain's volume is, so far as we are aware, the first attempt which has 
been made to interpret the literature of the Japanese to the western world. It is to 
the classical poetry of Old Japan that we must turn for indigenous Japanese thought, 
and in the volume before us we have a selection from that poetry rendered into 
graceful English verse." Tablet. 

"It is undoubtedly one of the best translations of lyric literature which has 
appeared during the close of the last year." Celestial Empire. 

"Mr. Chamberlain set himself a difficult task when he undertook to reproduce 
Japanese poetry in an English form. But he has evidently laboured con amore, and 
his efforts are successful to a degree." London and China Exprest. 



TRUBXER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, pp. xii. 164, cloth, price ios. 6d. 

THE HISTORY OF ESARHADDON (Son of Sennacherib), 
KING OF ASSYRIA, B.C. 681-668. 

Translated from the Cuneiform Inscriptions upon Cylinders and Tablets in 
the British Museum Collection ; together with a Grammatical Analysis 
of each Word, Explanations of the Ideographs by Extracts from the 
Bi-Liugual Syllabaries, and List of Eponyms, &c. 

BY ERNEST A. BUDGE, B.A., M.R.A.S., 

Assyrian Exhibitioner, Christ's College, Cambridge, Member of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

" Students of scriptural archseology will also appreciate the ' History of Esar- 
haddon.' " Timet. 

" There is much to attract the scholar in this volume. It does not pretend to 

popularise studies which are yet in their infancy. Its primary object is to translate, 

out it does not assume to be more tban tentative, and it offers both to the professed 

Assyriologist and to the ordinary nou-Assyriological Semitic scholar the means of 

lling its results." Academy. 

"Mr. Budge's book is, of course, mainly addressed to Assyrian scholars and 
students. Tuey are not, it is to be feared, a very numerous class. But the more 
thanks are due to him on that account for the way in which he has acquitted himself 
in his laborious task." Tabltt. 



Post 8vo, pp. 448, cloth, price sis. 

THE MESNEVI 

(Usually known as THE MKSNEVITI SHERIF, or HOLT MESNEVI) 

OP 
MEVLANA (OUR LORD) JELALU 'D-DIN MUHAMMED ER-RUMI. 

Book the First. 
Together with tome Account of the Life and Acts of the Author, 

of hit Ancestors, and of his Descendants. 
Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic Anecdotes, as Collected 

by their Historian, 
MEVLANA SHEMSO-'D-DIN AHMED, EL EFLAKI, EL 'ARIFI. 

Translated, and the Poetry Versified, in English, 
BY JAMES W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S., &c. 

" A complete treasury of occult Oriental lore." Saturday Review. 

"Thu bonk will be a very valuable help to the reader ignorant of Persia, who is 
desirous of obtaining an i: taut department of the literature 

extant in that language." Tablet. 



Post 8vo, pp. am. 280, cloth, price 6s. 

EASTERN PROVERBS AND EMBLEMS 

ILLUSTRATING <>u> TRUTHB. 

BTREV. J. LON<;. 
Member of the Bengal Asiatic Society, F.R.G.S. 

" We regard the book M valuable, and with for it a wide circulation and attentive 
reading."- Rteord. 

,-cthcr, it is quite a featt of good things."- Qlobt. 
" Is full of interesting matter." Antiquary. 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES. 



Post 8vo, pp. viii. 270, cloth, price 73. 6d. 
INDIAN POETRY; 

Containing a New Edition of the "Indian Song of Songs," from the Sanscrit 
of the "Gita Goviuda" of Jayadeva ; Two Books from "The Iliad of 
India" (Mahabharata), "Proverbial Wisdom" from the Shlokas of the 
Hitopadesa, and other Oriental Poems. 

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THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA. 
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]!y Dii. C. P. TIELE. 

V..1. I. Hi STU Y "K THK K<;YITIAX RELIGION. 

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KUirantw rui.l thi- JSWtption ..f tl.- mOOSeslvs r.-l gioni under th.- n].i Kin^i.-n, 

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YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA. 

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LINGUISTIC ESSAYS. 

BY CARL ABEL. 



CONTENTS. 



The Connection between Dictionary and 

Grammar. 
The Possibility of a Common Literary 

Language for all Slavs. 
The Order and Position of Words in the 

Latin Sentence. 
The Coptic Language. 



Language as the Expression of National 

Modes of Thought. 
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The Origin of Language. 

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THE SARV A - DARSANA - SAMGRAHA ; 

OR, REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF HINDU 

PHILOSOPHY. 
BY MADHAVA ACHARYA. 

Translated by E. B. COWELL, M. A., Professor of Sanskrit in the University 

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TIBETAN TALES DERIVED FROM INDIAN SOURCES. 

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UDANAVARGA. 
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\V. WOODVILLK KOCKHILL. 

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:.ist fiom w). irli fic-sist : 

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MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS 



RELATING TO 



INDIAN SUBJECTS. 



BY 

BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON, ESQ., F.R.S. 

LATE OF THE BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE ; 
PONDING MEMBER OK THE INSTITUTE; CHEVALIER OF THE LEGION OF H 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE OERMAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY AND THE SOCI^TE 
\ T1QUE ; MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETIES OF CALCUTTA AND 

S ; OF 1 HE ETHNOLOGICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 

OF LONDON; AND LATE BRITISH MINISTER AT THI: 
COURT OF NEPAL. 



VOL. 1. 



LONDON: 

TRUBNEI: A CO., LUDGATK HIM 
1880. 

[All riyhtt rctcrnd.] 



rz 






PREFACE. 



lie notice prefixed to the " Essays on the Languages, Litera- 
ture, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet" (1874), reference is 
made to the probability of a ^publication of the remaining 
papers of Mr. Hodgson, comprising not only Articles IV., V., 
and XI. of the " Selections from the Eecords of the Govern- 
ment of Bengal, No. XXVII.," which would have found their 
fittest place in that re-issue, but also his various Papers on the 
Tribes and Languages of the Northern Non- Aryans adjacent 
to India, with other Essays of a more general character. That 
probability has now become a reality, Mr. Hodgson having 

ily granted permission to the publishers of the "Essays" 
to bring out in a collected form also his remaining papers on 

in languages and ethnology. And inasmuch as the pre- 
!ume has already proved of essential service to scholars 

!acin;_r within their easy reach materials theretofore acces- 

only to tli" favoured few who could consult the scarce 

serials in which the several articles had originally appeared, 

{resent completion of the re-issue will, it is hoped, be 
of as cordial a welcome. 

To the Papers numbered 1. to VIII. the same value and 
interest attach at the present day as were accorded to them 
when they were published for the first time, hardly any fresh 



vi PREFACE. 

materials having since come to light concerning the tribes and 
languages there treated of. This does not apply in the same 
degree to the various Papers comprised in the Ninth Section, 
which have been incorporated in the re-issue only with a 
view of completing Mr. Hodgson's conspectus of the general 
character and structural affinities of the Non- Aryan languages 
of India. 

Lastly, the Papers, here reproduced in a more complete 
form, on the Pre-eminence of the Vernaculars have lost none 
of their significance even at the present moment, as the 
frequent reference made to them by the Press shews the 
abiding vitality of the subject. 

Almost all the Papers, more especially the longer Linguistical 
Essays, have been reprinted from copies revised and annotated 
by the author himself, who has earned a fresh and lasting 
title to the gratitude of all students of Indian glossology and 
ethnology by allowing the rare and valuable Papers comprised 
in these volumes to be made generally available. 

R R 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



SECTION I. 

ON THE KOCCH, B6D<5, AND DHIMAL TRIBES. 
[" Essay on tlu Kocch, B6d6, and Dhimdl Tribes .-" Calcutta, 1847.] 

PAGE 

PART I. VOCABULARY . . i 

II. GRAMMAR . . . . . . . . 72 

III. THEIR ORIGIN, LOCATION, NUMBERS, CREED, CUSTOMS, 
CHARACTER, AND CONDITION, WITH A GENERAL 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CLIMATE THEY DWELL IN . 105 

APPENDIX 155 



SECTION II. 

ON HIMALAYAN ETHNOLOGY. 

[Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. XXII. pp. 317-4i7 ; 
Vol. XXVII. pp. 113-270.] 

I. COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OP THE LANGUAGES OF THE 

BROKI:N Tuiurs OF >,'I : ;PAL 161 

1 1. VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE 1 7 6 

III. ( In AMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VAYU LANGUA* 2 l6 

THE VAYU GRAMMAR 271 

ANALYSIS OF THE BAHING ]>IAU:<T OF TIII: KIUANTI 

LANGUAGE 320 

1 -KAMMAK 353 

V. ON THE VAYU on Il.\vu TIMI.I; <T TIII: Comui HIMA- 
LAYA . . . 393 

VI. ON THE KIRANTI Tiiin: OF Tin: CENTI : AYA . 397 



SECTION I. 
ON THE KOCCII, BODO, AND DHIMAL TRIBES.* 



PART 


I. V OCA 


B U L A R Y. 






NOUNS. 






IST. THINGS AND 


BEINGS. 




English. 


Kocck. 


Bodo. 


Dhimil. 


THINGS The Universe, 


SongsaV, 






AND Creator, 
BEUfC3 - Creature, 


... 


... 


... 


Matter, universal, 




... 


... 


Spirit, universal, 


... 


... 




Space ditto, 
Time ditto, 


Kal, 


Khdl, 


Khdl. 


Motion, universal, 


Chalan, gaman, 


Thdngbai, 


Hdnka. 


Iramotion or rest, 


Thirta, Rahan, 


Thdbai, 


Hikl 


Action, con- ) 
scious motion, \ 


Korom, 


Habba, 


Kslmpdka. 


Inaction ditto, 




Habbag^yd, 


Kdmmdnthuka. 


Light, lux, 


Jyoti, 


Shrdug, 


Jolka. 


Darkness, 


Andhe>, 


Khomshi, 


Kitikitika. 


Figure or form, 


B*p, 


Rtip, 


Rup. 


Formlessness, 


Arup, 


Rupgeyd, 


Ruprndnthuka. 


Star, 


Tara. 


Hdthotki, 


Phur6. 


Planet, 


Graha, 




... 


Saturn, 


Suni, 


... 




Jupiter, 


Brihaspati, 




... 


Venus, 


Kukra, 






Mara, 


Mongol, 


... 




Eclipse, 


(In-lion, 






Heaven, 


Sworg : De^d, [ 


Nokhoning, ) 
visible arch, ( 






:\-i. 






lk-11, 


Pdtdl, Norok, 






This v. 




... 




The next v 


P6rl6k, 






God, 




Bdtho (the Sfj 
plant), 


Wdrdng-T 
(mas et f 



: .minencc and ext ( my work arc c\ ; 

. and the principle ou wLicb tbo vucauulary m conatructed at pi>. 7 |P"i 
lUhed at Calcutta, 104/.J 

VOJ. I. A 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


THINGS A God, any 


DeVta, 


Madai, 


Dir, Grdm. 


AND Angel or Kalo- 
BE1NGS - demon, 


Sur, DeVta, 




... 


Devil or Kako- [ 


Dait, Rak- ) 






demon, \j 


shas, Asur, ) 







The Devil, 








Fairy, good, 




Madai, 




Ogre, ) 




" 




Gnome, > bad, 


... 


Jomon, 




Sprite, ) 
Ghost, 


Bhtit, 


Gathaicho, 




Witch (/em.), 


Ddkiui, j 


Hdshd-Hinjou, 
Hiujouni Daina, 


Mhdi 'B<5wal 

I Miaina. 


Sun, 


Bdld, 


Shdn, 


Bdld. 


Moon, 


Chdnd, 


Ndkhdbir, 


Tdli. 


Dark half of, 


Bidi, 


Ddn khomshi, 




Bright ditto, 


Stidi, 


Ddti shrdng, 




Body, limited, 


Gotor, 


Modom, 


Dhdr. 


Shadow, 


Chid, 


Sdikhlum, 


Ddpkd. 


Human body, 


Gotor, 


Modom, 


Dhor. 


Human soul, 


Jiu, 






Life, 


Jiu, 


G6thdng,* 


Singlhdka. 


Death, 


Moron, 


Gothoi,* 


Sikd. 


A being, moving, 








A thing, motion- ) 
less, > 




... 


... 


A name, 


Ntfm, 


Mung, 


Ming. 


An animal, 


Pasu, 


Gothing, 




A vegetal, 


Trin, 






A mineral, 


Dhdt.fi, 






Human kind, 


Mdnushi, 


Mdnushi, 


Dydng. 


Quadruped, 


Chdrpav;!, 


Athdng th6nglr^, 


Didloug-khukoi. 


Bat kind, 


Chdm chilka, 


Badamali, 




Bird kind, 


Pokhi, 


Dducheu or Dau, 


Jih! 


Fish kind, 


Mdchd, - 


Gud, 


Haiyu. 


Shelled n*h kind, 


Testudines, 








Lacertine Reptiles, 
Batrachians, 


Imbu, 


... 


Serpent kind, 


Sdmp, 


Jibo, 


Punhid." 


Insect kind, 


Pokd, 


Impho, 


Nhdmoi. 


Mind, under- ^ 








standing, 








Reason, the 


Mon, 


Gasho? 




thinking or- 








In&imct, animal 








reason, 








Meditation, 








thought, re- 
flection, the 


Bhdvana, 




... 


act, 








Consciousness, 




... 




Reasoning, ratio- 








cination, ) 


Debate, argument, Bdda bddi, 


Raijalaiyu, 


Dopka wark?. 



* Rather alive and dead. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. Kocch. 


Bodo. Dhimtil. 


Memory, Phom, 


Shiitrung, Phom. 


BBM* Forgetfulness, Bdphom, j 


B riiT' ^ h ^ lt ' | Phommanth^ 


Sensation, phy- 
sical, 


Dishapcln, 


Ddsmanno, Dishameuka. 


Perception, 






mental, or, 


Phom, 


Gashomanuo, Phom. 


Apprehension, 






Quantity, 


... 


Degree, 


... 


Quality, Gun, 


... 


Number, Ganti, 


Shanno, Gandkd. 


Time, limited, Bdld, 


Bdla\ Bdht. 


Place, ditto, Thin, 


Nupthi, Ch<5L 


Circumstance, 
event, external, 


Britint, 


... 


Condition, state, 
internal, 


Gati, Dasha, 


... 


Constitution, \ 




Temperament, > Swobhau, 


... 


Nature, ) 




Manner, the how, Doul, Prakar, 


... 


Occasion, the 






when, 




... ... 


Object, end in 
view, 


Bishoi, 


... 


Reason, the 
human, why, 


Hdtu, Sobob, 




Cause, causa 


Kdran, 




cauaans, 




... 


Effect, conse- 






quence, 






Feeling, affec- 
tion, passion, 


Maya, 


Wanna, 


Parental affection, Miiyd, 


Wanna, 


Filial ditto, Mayd, 


Wanna, 


Conjugal ditto, Prdrn, Mdh, 


Wanna, 


Appetite, bodily 
desire, 


U'dhar, 


Gashojayu? Mondhiimi. 


Mental desire, 
wish, 


Iccha, 


Gashojiiyii, Mondhuui. 


Motive, induce- 
ment, 


Sobob, kiiron, 


... 


Intention, pur- 






-, design, 


f Sobob, Nimitt, 




aim, 






avour, at- 
ipd 


Chdshta, Ant, 




Act or deed, Kdm, Kormo, 


ba, 


I'.';' -,tiII), 

tein 


Mizdg, 










iuct, 
Demeanour, 


Chalan, 




manners, 






Habit, v. Clidl, 




rice, use, 




Custom, usage, Bhds, Dastur, 


... 



VOCABULARY. 



EAKTH. 



English. 
Use, enjoyment of, 
Use, mere act of, 


Xbcch. 
Bh5g, 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Disuse, cessation ) 








of, f 




... 


. . 


Abuse, wrong use, 




... 




The material ele- ) 
ments, ) 


Panj Bhut, 






Earth, the ter- j 
rene element, \ 


Prithivi, 


... 


... 


Earth, land, ) 
terra firma, ] 


Mdti, Bhumi, 


Ha, 


Bhandi. 


Soil, cultivable, 


Sdruk mjiti, 


Hasharhd, 


Bhandi. 


Mould, 


Sdnik rmiti, 






Marl, 


S;iruk mdti, 






Mud, 


K;'ulu, 


Habdu',' 


Kaddo. " 


Dust, 


Dbuld, 


Hdduri, 




Manure, 


Sa>, 


Hdsdr, 


Sdr. 


Stone, a frag- ) 
ment of rock, \ 


Pdthar, 


Onthdi, 


U'nthur. 


Gravel, the heap, 


Kankar, 






Rock, the mass, 


Pdthar, 


Onthai, 


U'nthur. 


Clay rock, alu- ) 








mina, \ 


. . . 






Potter's clay, 


Kumhdlermjiti, 


Aithdlihd, 


Chikthdli Bhan<5i. 


Limestone, rock ) 








calx, 




... 


... 


Chalk, 


Khdrimjtti, 






Lime, prepared, 


Chun, 




... 


Quick-lime, 


Aiwa, Jhuri, 




... 


Sandstone rock, 








Sand, loose, 


Bdlu, 


BdW, " 


BfCla". 


Flint rock, silex, 


IVithar, 






Gun flint, 


Pdthari, 






Glass, 


Kduch, 






Soda, 




... 




Alkali, 








Acid, 








Rock-salt, 








Salt, any, 


Nun, 


Sankhri, 


Ddsd. 


Saltpetre, 


Jaikhar, 






Borax, 


Sohaga, 




... 


Sulphur, 


Gandarak, 






Antimony, or ) 
mercury, J 


Pdrd, 




... 


Arsenic, 






... 


Talc, 


Ab6r, " 


Alongbdr, 


Bdlapttt. 


Mica, 


... 






Crystal, 


Bilour, 






Mineral ore, 


DWtu, 






Gold, 


Sdna, 


Sona, 


Sona. 


Silver, 


Rupd, 


Rupa, 


Rupa\ 


Iron, 




Shurr, 


Chir. 


Copper, 


Tdmba, 


Tdmbo, 


Tdmbo. 


Tin, 


Rdnga, 






Zinc, 


Jasta, 




... 


Lead, 


Sishd, 






Pewter, 








Brass, 


Pital, 







VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dkimdl. 


EARTH. Bell metal, 








A mountain or ) 


Parbot, 


Hdjo, 


Rd. 


A plain, 


Ddnga, 


Photdr, Hdyen, 


Dhaidhaika. 


A hill top, 


Mdthi, 


Khrd, 


Piiring. 


A hill side, 


Mdjha, 


G^ieY 




A hill base, 


Gor, 


Khibo, 


L^ld. 


A wooded plain ) 
or weald, \ 


Jhdrbdri, 


Hdgrd?* 


Sing bdri. 


A naked plain j 
or wold, \ 


Dhaidhai ddnga, 


Phdtdr, 


Dhaidhaika. 


Dry uplands, 


Dangi, 


Hagung, 


Tika. 


Low flooded j 
lands, ] 


Ddhalla, 


Dohala, 


... 


A valley, large, 


Khdl, 


Hdkor, 




A valley, small, 


Khdl, 


Hakor, 




A ravine, 


Dhordhora, 






A forest, 


Sal bari, 


Hdgrd md, 


Sing bdri. 


A jungle, 


Jhdr bdri, j 


Thuri hdgrd, ) 
or Hdgrd, ( 


Dincha. 


Copse or brush- 
wood, 


Jhdri, 


Joulia, 


Jhdpsi. 


A sandy waste 
or desert, 


Dhudua ddnga, 


Hagung? 


Tikar. 


A marsh, or 
swampy plain, 


D^md^vi, 


Dalbdri, 




A quagmire, or 
quicksand, 


Dhasna, 


Hdbrdng, 




WATER. Water, 


Jal, 


Ddi', 


Chi. 


Salt water, 


Nona Jal, 


... 




Fresh water, 


Mitha Jal, 


... 


... 


Tide, 


... 


... 




Ocean or sea, 




... 




A river, 


Nodi, . 


Doi (water), 


Chi (ditto). 


A great river, 


Bada nodi, 


Ddi gdddt, 


Badka Chi. 


A rivulet, 


Chota nodi, 


Doishd, 


Mhoika Chi. 


Still water, 
Running water, 


Dhi pdni, 
Bohonti pdni, 


Dongo, 


Ddngi. 
Phoika Chi. 


Coast or bank, 


Dhddani, 


Ddijing, 


Ch^ngsho. 


Bay or inlet, 


Gh^nd, 


Miri, 


Gbeltana. 


A canal, 


Ddnra, 






Aqueduct, small 
and crude, 


Shan, 


Phoiri, 


Rdhi. 


A torrent, 


T i rang, 






A rapid, 


\ Khurklmna ) 
[ or Bajna, \ 


Doibdjana, 




A waterf.ill, 


Dhordhorm. 






A lake, natural, 


.Ihil, 


Dhtfngif 


Dl.dngi?' 


A pond, natural, 


,ri, Dobha, 


Doba, 


Ddba. 


A tank, ar 1 _'ii, Choka, 


... 




A wave, 


Dhdyu, 


Doi din., 


Chiko db&>. 


A stream or cur- 
Mlt, 


S.-nt, 

" 




BigM 


A pring. 




Bimu, 




A well, ar 




khor, 




A fountain, do., 


Dl.ard, 







* Forest, and Sing bari the MUD*. 



VOCABULARY. 





Englitli. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 




A bridge, 


Khorkhori, 


Saikhdng, 






A ferry, 


owt, 








A ford, 


Ghdt, 


... 




4 th. 


Ether, the ele- ) 
ment, \ 


Dewd, 


Nokhordng, 




AIR. 


Air, do., 


Batds, 


Bdr, 


Bhirma. 




Wind, moving ) 
air, i 


Batds, 


Bar, 


Bhirma. 




Storm, tempest, 


Dund, 


Biirhurka, 






Atmosphere, ) 
weather, \ 


Samay, 


Din, 


Din. 




Bad weather, 


Bura samay, 


Ham ma din, 


Md elka din. 




Good weather, 


Bhalo samay, 


Ghdrn din, 


Elka din. 




Cloud, 


Ittgh, 


Jam<5i, 


... 




Sunshine, 


Ravad, 


Shandung, 


Sdnd. 




Season, 


Samay, 


Din, 


Din. 




Spring, 


Basaut, 








Summer, 


Grish samay, 


Galam Battar, 


Sa kd din. 




Autumn, 










Winter, 


Jdr samay, 


Gajiing battar, 


Chtimko din. 




The rains, 


Barsh kal, 


... 






Rain, 


Pdni, 


Ndkhsi,'" 


WdL 




Drop of rain, 


Top, 








Shower of rain, 










Thunder, 


Charak^" 


Kharammo, 






Lightning, 


Deva chilak, 


Mu phldmo, 


Kapli gdi. 




Hail, 


Pdthar, 


Krothai, 


U'nthur. 




Snow, 


Hem, 


... 






Frost, 


Pdla, 








Thaw, 


Galay, 








Dew, 


Sit, 


Nihur, 


Nihari. 




Mist or haze, 


Ktihd, 






s th, 


Fog, 


Kuhd, 






FIRE. 


Fire (the element), 


Agni, 


Wdt, 


M6n. 




Temperature, 










Heat, caloric, 


Grish, " 


Gudung, 


Bhe'mka. 




Cold, 


Jdr, 


Gajdng, 


Chunka. 




Fire, any, 


Agni, 


Wdt, 


M^n. 




Flame, 


Jdld, 


Wdt chalai, 


M^tika. 




Smoke, 


Dhuna, 


Wdkan doi, 


Dhuna. 




Fireplace or grate, 


Akha, 


SDou dap, 
Wag dap, 


Me> dhoka. 
Mdn pondho. 




Forge, 


Aphar, 


Wdt gadiip, 


... 




Furnace, 


Bhatti, 


... 






Kiln, 


Bhatta, 








Oven, 


^kba", 


Doudap, 






Still, 


Bhatti, 


Bhdti, 


Bhdti. ' 




Fuel, 


Khori, 


B<5n, 


Mising. 




Wood, 


Lakri, 


Bon, 


Khdtdng. 




Charcoal, 


Angrd, 


Hangdr, 


Angrd. 




Cinders, 










Ashes, 


Mush, " 


Hdtopld, 


Chai Le"6. 




Turf, 


Chokri, 


1'tha, 


Chapra. 




Cowdung, 


Chdn, 


Mushokhi, 


Pid kolishi. 


6th, 


Straw, 


LdrjC, 


Maijigdp, 


Ndrd. 


HUMAN 


The human body, 


G6ix5r, 


Modom, 


Dhdr. 


BODY. 


The head, 


Mura, 


Kh6r<5, 


Purin. 




The limbs, 


Ang, 


... 


.. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


The skin, 


Chamra, 


Bigur, 


Dhdl^. 


BODY. The hair of body 


Rom, 


Khomon, 


Moishd. 


The hair of head, 


Chuli, 


Khanai, 


Poshom. 


The neck, 


Gardhan, 




Nirga. 


The throat. 


Tuti, 


Gardng b,i, 


Totod. 


The arm, all, 


Hath, 


Ndkhjlnti, 


Khurbdha. 


The true arm, 


Bdhiin, 


Yagdo, 


Kliur. 


The fore arm, 


Halli, 


Nakhdnti, 


Bdhd. 


The hand, 


Hdth, j 


Akhai or Nd- ) 
khai, ( 


Khur. 


The palm, 


Tdld,Akhaior) 
Ndkhai, \ 


Thalka, 


Tdld. 




HatheV pith,) 






The back hand, 


*Nakhai or > 


Bikhung, 


Gdndi. 




Akl.ai, \ 






The finger, any, 


Angul, 


Ndshi, 


Khtirsing. 


The thumb, 


Budi angul, 


Nttshiind, 


Meugta khuraing. 


The wrist, 


Hather lulu, 


Ndgddd, 




Finger nail, 


Khul, 


Ndshi g-dr, 


Kh51td.'" 


Thumb nail, 


Kh61, 


Ndshi gur, 


Kh(51td. 


The leg, all, 


The-ngd, 


Gndth^ug, 


Kh6kou 


The true leg, 
tibia, 


M6kcha, 


Yddoi, 


Khdkoi. 


The thigh, femur, Qh<5ru, 


Ph^ndd, 


Whdlt^ng. 


The knee, 


Hatwa, 


Hdnthu, 


Whdlteng Turhui. 


The ankle, 


The'nge'r lulu, 


Yagr^ng, 


Khdi gdnti. 


The heel, 


Gudara, 


Ydphd doudoi, 


Gudni. 


The foot, 


Bh6ri, 


Ydphd, 


Kh6k6i. 


The toe, any, 


The'nge'r angul, 


Ndthdngnashi, 


( Khdkoi ko 
[ khursing. 


Great toe, 


Budi angul, 


Ndshi md, 


Amabundi. 


Toe-nail, 


Khulkd, 


Ndshi gur, 




Sole of foot, 


Tdld, 


Tdlkhd, 


Khursing tala. 


A joint, any, 


Lulu, 


J6ra, 


Gdnti. 


A bone, any, 


Kama", 


B^ng, 


Hdr. 


Flesh, muscle, 


Mdsang, 


Bidat, 


B^ha. 


Blood, 


L6hu, 


Thdi, 


Hitti. 


Blood-vessel, 


Sir, 


Sir, 


Jhire*. 


Sinew or tendon, 




R6ta, 




The face, 


Mukh, " 


Mukhdng, 


Rhuai. " 


The eye, 


Chakhu, 


Mogon, 


Mi. 


The eyebrow, 


I'.hur, 


Mushugur, 


Mi pdta. 


The eyelash, 


rh ;i khun6d, 


Moishrdm, 


Mitiiui. 


The nose, 


Nak, 


Gunthung, 


Nhdpu. 


The nostril,' 


Ndkkabin.1, j 


Belong or Gu- i 
dung, j 


Nhdpii phonga. 


The forehead, 


K<5pdl, 


Jobom, 


Kn,,il. 


The cheek, 




Khonlai, 


Galbung. 


The chin, 


Thutuli, 


Kl.ukh.ip, 




The ear, 




Khomd, 


iiong. 


The beard, 


Dadhi, 


Dddhi, 




The mustache, 


Da/Jhi, 


Da.ll.i, 


ihi 


The mouth, 


M .kh, 


Khougd, 




The lips, 








The teeth, 






ug. 


The jaws, 


Chouwa, 


}\:^m,( 


Jauibai. 



N is frequently a a ipcnwlded aud often a comtuutcd letter. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


HUMAN The tongue, 


Jivha, 


Chdlai, 


Ddtdng. 


BODY. The palate, 


Tdlu, 


JeVkhdng, 


Nui-ko-kilo. 


The chest, male, 


Bukh, 


Jarbd, 


Tiimtd. 


The breast, fern., 


Dudhyd, 


Jarba : Abu, 


Tumtd. 


The nipple, 


Thomona, 


Abu biju ; or 
Ahdrbdnthu, 


Dudti kondshi. 


The hip, 


Choru Jord, j 


Phdncld kani 


AVhdlt^ng-jora. 


The buttocks, 


Tholmd, 


Kithuthdi, 


Lishura thumd. 


The anus, 


Kdti, 


Khibii, 


Lishura. 


The penis, 


Che'nt, 


Chuchi, 


Tau. 


The testes, 


Bicha, 


Ladoi, 


S^shd. 


The vulva, 


Mdng, 


Chiphd, 


Li. 


The womb, 


Bacha Dhtikri, 


Bishdkh<5, 


Chdnterdng. 


The back, 


Pith, 


Bikhung, 


Gaudi. 


The belly or front, 


PC*, 


U'ddi, 


Hdmdng. 


The stomach, 


Bhtftf, 


Bhdnddr, 


1 'dtdm. 


The bowels, 


Ldr, 


Bibu, 


T&^ng. 


The navel, 


Ldbhi, 


Wdthu mai, 


Botereng. 


The liver, 


Kuljd, 


Bikha, 


Tumsing. 


The lungs, 


Phe"phe*ra, 


Sompholo, 


Khiisld. 


The heart, 


Gotma, 


Moikhun, 


Mdkcha : khon- 
<Utng. 


The gall-bladder, 


Pitt, 


Biklo, 


Pitd. 


The spleen, 


Tilli, 


Xnkhabir, 


... 


The bladder, 


Pdni mutdri, 


Chithdp, 


Pdni mutdri. 


The kidneys, 


Gila, 


Gila, 


Ke"hd. 


The skeleton, 






... 


The back bone or ) 
spinal column, \ 


Lilddrti, 


Chinchiri, 


Lilddrd. 


A rib, any, 


Panjdr, 


Khamihdr, 


Panjdr. 


The skull, 


Khdpri, 


Khdr6 bdge'ng, 


Puring ko hdr. 


The brain, 


Gidhu, 


M^l^m, 


Pii nhtii. 


Marrow, 


Magaz, 


M^l^m, 


Dung. 


Spittle, 


Thtipd, 


Jdmudoi, 


Thopchi. 


Phlegm, 


Gh^ngdr, 


Hdgdrdoi, 


Hdkd. 


Snot, 


Singani, 


Gung grdi, 


Nhdthi. 


Turd, human, 


Guh, 


Khi, 


Lishi. 


Horsedung, 


Lddi, 


Gorainikhi, 


O'nhya-ko-lishi. 


Cowdung, 


Chdn, 


Mushunikhi, 


Pia ko lishi. 


Wild beast's do., 


Guh, 


Mdchdnikhi, 


Kliiina ko lishi. 


Urine, human, 


Muth, 


Hdshu doi, 


Chicho. 


Cow's urine, 


Muth, j 


Mushiini 
hdshu doi, 


Pid ko chicho. 


Sweat, 


Jhdns, 


Galdm d6i, 


Bhe'uiti. 


Semen, animal, 


Brij,' 


Ph^dd, 


Ton ko chi. 


Menses, 


Mdtdghdsa, 


Boti chinam, 


Li-ko-chi. 


Pus, 


Pujh, 


G<im6 doi, 


Biti. 


Bile, 




Bikloni doi', 


Pito-ko-chi. 


Fat, 


Charbi,'" 


... 


... 


Grease or Tallow, 


Charbi, 






Gravy, 


MdsangeVras, 


Bidatni ddi, 


BeTid ko chi. 


Slime, 


... 






Spray, 


Phen, 


... 




Moult, of birds, 


Kurich, 






Casting hair, of \ 








beasts, j 


" " * 






Rust, 


Murchd, 


Mdmurkhi, 





VOCABULARY. 








English. Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 




Mildew or blight, S<511d, 


Mairting, 


Patna. 




Mouldiness, Sdwd, 


Soyo, 


Soulung. 




Rot, putrescence, Pocha, 


Gdchdo, 


Pdch. 




Paring, peel, Chhdl, 


Bigtir, 


Dbdld. 




Lees and refuse ) 








of expressed > Sitti : Chimri, 


Chdbd, 


Ch<5nchd. 




seed, &c., ) 








Litter, dirt, Kutd, 


Jdbdr, 


Jdbdr. 


7th, 


Cobweb, Jdlshi, 


Bdmdddng, 






Hunger, Bhuk, 


UTtiddng, 


Mhitu. 


I-IONS, 


Thirst, Pids, 


Gdngddng, 


Chiara. 


AND 

:oNS. 


Nakedness, Le'ngta'pan, 
Cold, pain of, Jdr, 


Gajdng, 


Chung. 




Sexual desire, ) m, , * ( 


Hinjouni lubi | 
dong, \ 


Mondhdpka. 




Animal heat, fern., Rajh, 


Gunndng, 






Libidinousness, ir-lm 

T7i/irkiio rVtlUJj 


Chuchi thengai, 






VIClOUSj 








Gluttony, 


... 






Drunkenness, 








Idle talk, Ke'ch-ke'cb, 


Phdtphe% 






Foul-mouthed- 
ness or Abu- 


Gdli, 


Rdi khdm, j 
Rdi chiid, i 


Naika. 




siveness, 










Slander, back- 
biting, 


Mukhu, j 


Chokhu pora \ 
kothdsondong, \ 






Censure, blame, Ninda, 


Shubudong, 






Praise, approval, Prasan, 




... 




Continence, 


Jitindratd, 








bodily, 










Continence, 


.. 








mental, 


a, 


... 






Incontinence, 










bodily or sen- 


Indribas, 








suality, 










Incontinence, 
mental, 


Mattatd, 




... 




Virtue, ' Pun, 








Vice, Pdp, 




... 




Error or fault, Ghoti, 


Boua, 






Love, charitas, 


M..b, mdyd, ) 








benevolence, 


Chdma, \ 








Hate, malevo- 
lence, 


Ghin, 


Xinohdya, 


Chikd. 




Hope, rd, 


... 






Fear, Hatds, D6>, 


Giyir, 


Uchi. 




Justice, : mi. 








Injustice, Adharam, 








Right, JUHt, 








Duty, obligation, 








Cunning, deceit, 


... 








risy, 


a ' 


, 






Candour, open- 










MB, 










Modesty, shame, Ldj, sharam, 


Ijdjyo, 


Uwr. 




Impudence, jta, 








Joy, ib, 








Sorrow, Khdd, 


Jingdsio, 





10 



VOCABULARY, 



English. 

APPETITES, Avarice, covet- 
AFFECTIONS, ousness, 
PASSIONS Generosity, li- 
berality, 
Pride, vanity, 


Kocch. 
Ldbh, 
Ddnsilta, 


Bodo. 


DhimaL 


Humility, 










Industry, 


Maskat, kismat, 


Habba inoucho, 


Kdmpdk; 


i. 


Idleness, 


A'las, 


Budong, Biiyu, 






Truth, 


Sacchouti, 


Chale-yd, 


Saccha dopka. 


Falsehood, 


Jhutapan, 


Chaldyo, 


Micha dopka. 


Patience, 


Tap, 


... 






Impatience, 


Asantdp, 








Rage, anger, 


Prdptong, 








Mercy, gentleness, Doya, 


Wdnno, 






Cruelty, savage- 
ness, 


Kdthu, 


Wannd, 







Bravery, 


Hup, 


Gutu'ulong, 


Jivddhdmka. 


Cowardice, 


Nihup, 


Gikho, 


Jive mhoika. 


Good manners, 










politeness, 


Sishtdchdr, 








grace, 










Bad manners, 
vulgarity, 


Dustdchdr, 


... 






Curiosity, 










Indifference, 




... 






Revenge, 


Bodol, '" 








Forgiveness, 


Khe"ma, 








Perfidy, 


Kapat, 


Chirnak/ 


.. 


, 


Fidelity, 


... 








Jealousy, 


... 








Sanity, mental, 










Madness, 


Pdgla pan, 


... 






Idiocy, cretan- 










Bth, ism, 








* 


FOOD. Food, victuals, 


Khc5rdk, 


Janai jinis, * 


Chdka jinis. 


Eatables, 


Khdbar khordk, 


Jdnai jinis, 


Chdka jinis. 


Drinkables, 


Pivar khordk, 


Longnai jiuis, 


A'mka jinia. 


Animal food, 


Mdshong, 


Bidot, 


B^hd. 




Vegetable food, 


Phalhdr, 


Mdigong, 


Sdr. 




Fish meat, 


Mdcch mdshong, 


Gndbidot, 


Haiyu B^ha. 


Fowl meat, 


Murgh mdshong, 


Don bidot, 


Kiya kobeha. 


Flesh meat, 


Mdshong, 


Bidot, 


lx'h;i. 




Grain diet, 


Phalhdr, 








Fruit diet, 


Phalhdr, 








Hot condiments, 


Garam masdla, 








Cold condiments, Thanda inasala, 


Water, 


Jal, 


Ddi, 


Chi. 




Fermented liquor, 


Jou, 


Yu. 




Distilled liquor, 


Madh, 


Pitika, 


Phatika. 




Milk, 


Dudh, 


Dudu, 


Dddhe. 




Buttermilk, 




... 






Whey, 


Mdthd,'" 


... 






Ghee, 


Ghiu, 


Ghiu, 


Ghiu. 




Curds, 


Dahi, 


Dudu, 


Dahi. 




Roast or grilled 
flesh, 


Bhdjd, 


Manbai, 


Khinka b^hd. 


Boiled flesh, 


Jhdl, 


Bidai, 


Jhdl. 




Beef, 


Gaiko mdsang, 


Musho bidot, 


Pid ko b^hd. 



VOCABULARY. 



I I 



English. 


Kocck. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Mutton, 


Bheri ko mdsang, 


Menda bidot, 


Mdnda ko Wha\ 


Goat flesh, 


Bakri ko masang, 


Burma bidot, 


E^cha ko b^hd. 


Pork, 


Suwar ko masang, 


Yoiua bidot, 


Pdyd ko beha". 


Venison, 
Breakfast, 


Mriga ko uidaaug, 


Moini bidot, 
Phunjdni jdyd, 


Ydnga ko bdha. 
llhduia chdka. 


Dinner, 




Sdujiphuuioi- ) 
khain, \ 


Miinjh Wldchdka. 


g th. Supper, 




Bil^youioikham, 


Ditima-chdka. 


Clothes : dress, 


' Kapra, 


Hi, 


DluiUt. 


Man's dress, 




Hiwj'mi Hi, 


Wjiwal ko Dhiiba. 


Woman's dress, 




Hinjouni Hi, \ 


Bdwal ko B6nd or 
bolha. 


' headdress, 


Pagri, 


Phdli, 


IVituka. 


Woman's ditto, 


Ghungar, 


Klulkliikdong, 


I'.rwal ko puchara. 


Mau's upper vest, 


Pachura, 


Buchula, 


Dhabd. 


Woman's ditto, 


Khdri, j 


Dokna matta, ) 
Dokua-glou, \ 


Bolhd. 


Man's lower vest, Photi, 


Gdmcha, 


Dhiiri. 


Woman's ditto, 


Phota, Patani, 


Dokua matta, 


Bolhd. 


M;m's foot-cover, 


Jota, 


Jota, 


Jota. 


Woman's ditto, 


Jota, 


J6ta, 


Jota. 


Cotton clothes, 


Sukuld kapra, 


Higuphtit, 


Kapaiko Dhdbd. 


Linen clothes, 








Woollen clothes, 


Lui ko kapra, 




... 


Silk or satin 
io*A. clothes, 


Pdt ko kapra, 


Injini hi, 




GAMES A sport, game, 
pastime, 


Khe1d, 


Ge'tenai, 


Ghalld. 


Chess, 






... 


Drafts, 








Dicing, 






... 


A dice, 








Card-playing, 






... 


A card, 




... 




Kite-flying, 








A kite (paper), 






... 


Putting the stone, 


Hockey, 








ling, 




... 




Fencing or ) 








single-stick, ) 




... 


... 


Ram-fights, 




... 


f 


Cock-fights, 








Hunting, or the 
chase, 


Shikdr, 


.. 


... 


Visiting, society, 


Sdkajdt, 


Lago manno, 


iv.whd. 


An assembly, 
soiree, 




Gotha jiidong, 


Mgjomhi. 


Afeart, 

nth, 


Bhnj. J 


Maddihudung ( 
(sacr- 


i ; ,[pi. 


An ornament, 








KMT*. personal, or 


Gahana, 




... 


A Ml 






... 


A bracelet, 


Matha, sakho, 


Ndchdng, 




An armlet, 








An anklet, 






... 


ing, 


Anguthi, 


Naahit 





12 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DltimdL 


An ear-ring, 


Phulkori kadama, 


Onti, karan-phu] 


,0nti. 




A nose-ring, 


Phul, 


N iik ha phul, 


Chatia. 




A necklace, 


Hdsuli, 








A chain of gold, 


Sikal, jhinjiri, 








A chain of silver 


, Sikal, jhinjiri. 








A precious stone 




f> 






Diamond, 


' Hird, 


p> 


tm 




Pearl, 


Moti, 




M 




Coral, 


Munga, 


.. 






1^ Firoza, 










ANIMALS, Animal, 


Pasti, 


t< 






QUADRU- Mankind, 


Manushi, 


Mdnushi, 


Dyang. 




PEDAL. 

Quadruped, 


Charpaya, j 


Gndthdng ) 
thungbr^, \ 


Didlong-khokoi. 


Bat, common, 


Chdmchila, 


Rldd mdli, 


Chdmchil. 




Pteropine or 


| 








frugivorous 


> Bogdor, 


Bilin, 


Bogdor. 




Bats, 










Monkey, Macacus, Bdndor, 


Mokhora, 


Nh6yd. 




Monkey, Semno- 
pithecus, 


| Hulmdn, 


Thijl mokhora, 


Hulmdn. 




Cat, domestic, 


Bilai, 


Mouji, 


Menkou. 




Male cat, 


Bilai, 


Mouji jola, 


Ddnkha menkou. 


Female cat, 


Billi, 


Mouji jo, 


Mabjoti menkou. 


Kitten, 


Bilaidr ch(5d, 


Mouji galai, 


Menkou ko chan. 


Wild cat, Vi- 
verriceps, 


; Happa, 


Happa, 


Happa. 




Chaus lynx, 










Tiger, 


Bag, 


Mochd,"' 


Khund.' 




Leopard, 


Tukd bdg, 


Chitia mdcha, 


Ndkshi khuna. 


Dog, domestic, 


Kukur, 


Choimd, 


Kliid. 




Male dog, 


Kukur, 


Cho'imd jold, 


Ddukhd khld. 


Bitch, 


Kukurni. 


Choimd jo, 


Mahani khia. 


Young or whelp, 


Ch<5d kuki'ir, 


Choisya galai, 


Khid ko chan. 


Wild dog or j ~,, ,, 
Cudn, Kuh<5k, 


Cbiku, 


Dincha ko 


khid. 


Hyaena, 


LeTcrd, 


Lokra, 


Lx&ra. 




Jackal, 
Wolf, 


Siyal, 


Siyal, 


Siyal. 




Fox, 


KheTd, " 


Khak aid'i, 


Kh<5ki. ' 




Mungoose, 
Herpestes, 


Biji, 


Nyulai, 


Nyul. 




Civet, large, 
Viverra, 


Mdtch gai, 


Murti, 






Civet, small, 
Viverricula, 


Katds, 


Gaudouri, 


Katds. 




Paradoxurus, or 










screw-tail, 


... 




... 




Weasel, mustela, 










Marten, martes, 










Otter, Lutra, 


U'd, 


Mathdm, 


U'd. 




Bear, Helarctos, 


Bhoul, Bhdndd, 


Mi'iphur, 


Naibhri. 




Bear, Prochilus, 


Bhdudi, 


Khak bhdlu, 






Ratel, Mesobema, 


Hedgehog, 




... 


... 




Musk shrew or 
sorex, 


Chikd, 


Chikd, 


Cbikd. 




Mole, 


Pari nindu, 


... 


... 





VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


ANIMALS, Elephant, 


Hathi, 


Mo'iddt, 


Ndria. 


QUADRC- Male elephant, 


Hathi, 


Moidet jola, 


Dankha ndria. 


Female elephant, 


Hathni, 


Moi'det jo, 


Mahani ndria. 


Elephant's trunk, 


Sunr, 


Sundi, 


Sunddng. 


Elephant's tusk, 


Hathi duut, 


Moidet nipatha 


i, Ndria ko shitong. 


Rhinoceros, 


Genda, 


Gdnda, 


Ldyd. 


His horn, 


Khag, 


G^nda ni g<5ng, 


Layd ko sing. 


Hog, tame, 


Siivar, 


Nong yoma, 


1'ifva. 


Male hog, 


Pangar, 


Y6ma jola, 


Dankha pdyd. 


-le or sow, 


Pathi, 


Ydma jo, 


Mahani pdyd. 


Wild hog, 


Banwa sxivdr, 


Hdgrdni yoma, 


Dincha ko pdyd. 


Manis, 


KeVat, 


Kbgotai, 


Kdwata Hdyd. 


Ox, tame, Bos, 


Gorii, 


Mushd, 


Pia. 


Bull, 


A'udhia, 


^lusho ddmra, 


Dankhapid. 


Cow, 


Gdi, 


Musho jo, 


Maiiani pid. 


Calf, 


Bdchru, 


Muaho galdi, 


Pid ko chan. 


Bibos or Gaur, 


Gouri gdo, 


Bdns bolod, 


Dincha ko pid. 


Buffalo, tame, 


Bhainsa, 


Moisho, 


Did. 


Male buffalo, 


Rdngd, 


Moisho jola, 


Ddnkha did. 


Female buffalo, 


Sdral, Dhdni'i, 


Moisho jd, 


Mahaui did. 


Bison or Yak, 


Khopoli, 


BimaKhukuli 
pao, 


Chouri pid. 


Wild buffalo, male, 


Arnd, 


Hdgrdni Moi- 
sho jola, 


Ddnkha did din- 
cha ko. 


Ditto, female, 


Ami, 


Hdgrdni Moi- 
sho jo 


Mahiini did diu- 
cha ko. 


Antelope, black, 


Latti, 






Ditto, four-horned, 




>t 




Ditto, Gorai, 






... 


Ditto, Thdr, 


... 





... 


Goat, domestic, ) 
male, \ 


Chdgol, 


Burmd, 


Ee-chd. 


Ditto, female, 


Bdkri, 


Burma jo, 


Mahani Edchd. 


Kid, 


Pdtha, pathi, 


Burma galai, 


Edcha ko chan. 


Wild goat or ) 
Hermitragus, \ 




M<5ish thdngd, 


... 


Domestic sheep, 


Bhdrd, 


M^ndd, 


Mdndd. 


The ram, 
The ewe, 


Bhdra, 
Bhdri, 


Mdnda phdntd, 
Mduda jo, 


Ddnkha mdnda. 

M.iliani nu'iida. 


The lamb, 


Bdchd, 


Mduda galai, 


ia ko chau. 


Wild sheep, 








Stag, Elaphus, 


Gonr, 




Gdud. 


Stag, Kusa, 


Gawaj, 


... 


... 


Cervus, all, j 


Harin, 


M<5ch<5, 


Ydnghi. 


Axm, ch; 


Phutka khdtia, 


Khdtia phdgld, 


IM.utki. 


Stylocerus or ) 
Stilt, i 


Sdkra, 


Mochdi, 




' 


Kaaturi, 


Kasturi, 


r lt -i. 


Hot-.-.-, in.iU- 




Gorai tli;i 




Man-, 


Gbori 


Gorai tli . 


>nyha. 


rod, 






i ko chan. 


Am 


Gftdha, 


(JR.: 




Kate, 




ii.ir, 


bar. 




linlur, 


Injud, 






JS'aka: 


Injuil ingini, 




Marmot, 








Rhizotnyn, 




Injur buugw, 





VOCABULARY. 





English. Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimril. 


ANIMALS, 


Lagomys, 


... 


... 


QUADRU- 


Hare, Sasai, 


She*sd, 


Sosai. 


PEDAL. 


Porcupine, Che'da, 


Mudd'i, 


Chdda. 




Squirrel, Ddl gdnora, 


Mdntdp, 


Ddl gounra. 




Fl} T ing squirrel, 


... 


... 




A herd, Hdnja, jhdnk, 
A flock, Hdnja, 


Phalwa, 
Phalwa, 


Jhdkwa. 

Jhiikwa. 




Tusk, Kukur dant, 








Talon, Angsd, 


Asigur, 


Khursing. 




Muzzle, Thatama, 


Guthutri, 


... 




Horn, Singh, 


Gong, 


Dang. 




Hoof, entire, Tdp, 


Yakhung, 


Tdp. 




Hoof, cloven, Khurd, 


Yakhung, 


Khur. 




Tail, N<*ng6r, 


L:inj;ii, 


Ing, 




Mane, Jhul, 


Bdboi, 


Jhul. 




Fur, Rom, Poshom, 


Khainan, 


Mi.ishu. 




Hair, animal, Rom, 


Khaman, 


tu'i. 




Hide, raw, Khdl, 


Bigur, 


Chain. 




Hide, tanned, Sdbar, 


... 


Khal. 




Peltry, prepared 






i3<A, 


furs, 






BfRDS. 


A bird, P<5khi, 


Dou chen, 


Jihd, 




Vultures, Vul- ) Q . 
tur, Lin., 1 BNrt 


Siguu, 


Sigun. 




Eagles, Aquila, 
Lin., 


Bdj, 


Dou le*ngd, 


U'wd. 




Pernes or fish- 
ing eagles, 


H<5k6s, ktirwa, 


Dou pho, 


Kurwd. 




Falcons, Falco, Bdj, 




... 




Hawks, accipiter, Bdj, 








Kites, Milvus, Chil, 


Sila, 






Buzzards, Buteo, Alichdpra, 


... 






Owls, all, Strix, L., Pe"chd, 


Dou khi'i, 


P^chi" 




Goat-suckers, Bhirki, 


Dou thumphoi, 


Thddar. 




Swallows and 
swifts, 


Ndk-kata, 


Dou bldkhur, 


Ndk-kata. 




Blue-throats or 
Eurystomus, 


S6n kowd, 


Dou khatdng, 






Kingfishers, 
Alcedo, Lin., 


Mdtchrdngd, 


Dou ndthut, 






Bee- eaters, Me- J -,, , , , 
rops, Lin., \ ^ atr6n a > 


Mdthlanka, 


... 












Hoopoes, Upupa, 
Lin., 


Bdnia b6hu, 


Dou khdnjong, 


... 




Sun -birds or 
Nectarines, 


Madh chusi, 


... 






Trogons, Trogon, 




... 




Horn-bills, Bu- 
ceros, 


Hukulkulli, j 


Dou ching, 
Dou wdng, \ 


Lenjd. 




Barbets, Bucco, 


Dou khun thulo, 


Hutuk tdk ; 




Thrushes, Tur- 


Be"swdri, 


Akaisikai, 






dus, Lin., 










Chattering 










thrushes or 


Sdth Bhai, 


Golia sin khoudi, 


Gdididui. 




Garrulax, 










Orioles or man- j Haldiard 








go birds, \ 








Bulbuls, Ddmnd, 


Bulut, 





VOCABULARY. 



English. 

Harewas or Chloropsis, 
Fly-catchers, Muscica- 

pa, L., Macharias, 
Phanbudi, Phudki, or 

Tiny Sylvians, Sylvia 

antiq, 

Pahils or Copsychns, 
Syanias or Grillivora, 
Stone-chats or Saxicola | 

Piddas, or Sikoulas, \ 

'.tacilla. L., 
.njaiis or Dhou- 

bims, 
Tit-lurks or Anthus 

Masardchi, 
Butcher - birds, or 

Lanius, L., 
Black ditto, or Edolians, 

CUT., 
Cotton-birds, or Grau- 

culus, 

Magpies, kitta, 
Jays, Garrulus, 
Crows, Corvus, 
Grackles, or Mainas 

Gracula, Lin., 
Starlings, Sturnus, Lin., 
Weavers, Bslyas, Ploceus, 

Amadines, Amadina, Sw., 

Thick-billed finches, 

Pyrrhulines, 
Common finches, 
Sparrows, Passer, 
Finch larks or Pyr- 

rhulanda, 

Larks, Alauda, 

>ts, Tdta, 
Parr.-ikeets, Siiga, Pa- 

loeoruis, 
Swin^ii)^ parrakeets, 

Latkan Psittacula, 
Wood-peckers, Picus, 

up cuckoos or 
Mahokns, l'i. 
phaua c 
pus, &c., 
Black cuckoos or koila, 

;i ys, 

Common cuckoos, 
Pigeons, com in 

1 1 H, green, Vihago, 
Cuv., 

Turtle-doves, 
Peacocks, Pavo, 
Pheasants, Phaaianus, 



Kocch. 
Thdpi, 

Choti pokhi, 
Duyal, 

Chitkdn, 

Bharia, 
Chdtdk, 
Jhdnchu, 
Kapaswa, 

Kag, Kuwa, 
Sard, 

Khoksdro, 
Chonch, 

Chud pani, 

Ram goura, 
Goura, Chonch 



Khupiiria 

chilchilia, 
Tota, 

Patani, 
Latan Sua, 
Khuta kdti, 

Cl.nk.'il din- J 
.uichor, ) 
Kdil, 

wdl, 

Ghugu, 
Ittir, 



Bodo. Dliimal. 

Thdphleng, Lati tipa. 
Khurjdng, 

Phursi, Chitkon. 
Dou shibing, 

Phiringa, Chdutiii. 

Gugligdug, Thergogo. 

Dou kha, Kowa. 

Dou sdri, Sdrd. 



Thuni, and [ p , . 
Dousit, i 1 



Ghor Chdkha, 

Bdthd, Tota. 

Putani, Koltia. 

Dou thi : n.i. 



Pario, 



Budhdng. 

Parho.' 
Haritdl. 



Dou tlitf. 
(ai. 






i6 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 
BIRDS. Fowl, pheasants or Ka- ) 

liches, Euplocomus, j 
Fowls, gallus, 
Wild fowl, 
Domestic fowl, 
Cock, 
Hen, 
Chicken, 

Partridges, Perdix, Lin., 
Quails, Coturnix, 
Three-toed quails or 

Ldwds, 

Bustards, Otis, 
Indian Bustards or charaj, 
(Edicnemusaut or Car- | 

vdnacks, \ 

Plovers, charadrius, Lin., 
Lapwings, Vanellus, Liu., 
Curlews, Numeuius, 

Ibises, Ibisaut,* 

Tantali, 

Demoiselles, Anthopoides, 

Cranes, grus, 

Storks, Ciconia, 

Adjutants or Leptoptilos, 

Jabirus or Mycteria, 

Gaping storks, Ana- 

stouius, 
Herons, Ardea, 
Little white herons or 

Egrets, 

Sand-pipers, Tringa, Lin., 
Stilts or Hiinantopus, 
Snipes or Scolopax, 
Gallinules or Water Hens, 
Jacanas or Parra, 
Spoonbills or Ddbil, 
Flamingoes, Phoanicop- ) 



Kocch. 



Ch<5rhd, 
Ban chorha, 
Chorha, 
Murghrf, 
Murghi, 
Chdngn*, 
Tithar, 
Batoi, Bhdti, 



Ddber, 



Nitdli, 
Gdngtitti, 

Kdkrdl.'ka- 
doghoka, 

Sdras, 

Sdras, 

Laglag, 

Hdrgil, 

Jhdngil, 

Ldb6jdng, 



Bagla, 



Heoni, 



Bodo. 
Dou gurut, 

Dou mashar, 
Dou mashar, 
Dou or Tau, 
Dou jola, 
Dou jo, 
Dou syd, 
Dou thitiri, 
Dou bathar, 



Dhimdl. 



Kid. 
Chd kid. 
Kid. 

Dbdngdi kia. 
Bhundi kia. 
K66 chan. 
Tithiri. 
Mugum. 



Dou ddber, Ddber. 

Sdtrnar, Gdng titi. 

Kddo ghdka, Kddo ghoka. 



Dou bo, 



terns, 


1 


... 




Gulls, Larus, Lin., 






... 


Terns, Sterna, Lin., 


Gdngchila, 




... 


Grebes, Fulica, 




... 


... 


Divers, Plotus, 


... 


... 


... 


Pelicans, 


Bhdru',' 


Naishaka, 




Corvorants, 


Cowdr, 




... 


Geese, Anser, 


Hdngs, 


Hdngs," 


Hangs. 


Ducks, Anas, 


Hangs, 


Hdngs, 


Hangs. 


Teal, Querquedula, 


Gairi, 




... 


Egg 


Dimd, 


Dou doi, 


Tui. 


Yoik, 


Kusmd, 


Gumd, 


Kekalai. 


Shell, 


Kholta, 


Don doikhon, 


Kholta. 


Feather, 


Pdkhana, 


Gdng, 


Pakhana. 


Down, 




Tuuld, 


Muiahu. 


Plume or quill, 
Beak, bill, 


Kh6l, 
Th(5t, 


Dou g;ing, 
Kbougd, 


Thdtwa. 



* Eupodotis v. Sypheotides. 



VOCABULARY. 





Enylish. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 




Wing, 


Ddna. 


Rang khong, 


Dam. 




Tail, 


Phdeha, 


Liinjai, 


Metong. 




Nest, bird's, 


Bhfea", 


Bithop, 




Den, wild beast's, Khor, 


Mudua, 


... 


REPTILES. 


Amphibia or 










Reptiles, 


1 








Alligator, 


Kummir, 


... 






Crocodile, 


Thona gui, 


... 






Tortoise, land, 


Dura, 


Khubchuug, 


Ruhd. ' 




Ditto, water, 


Pani mitten, 


G^ltdp, 


Ghukut. 




Lizards, generic, 


Khaklus, 


Ldtna khaudai, 


Ch^ndeu. 




Monitor or G6h, 


Guhi, 


Mupho, 


Ko'iya. 




Snakes, 


Sdnap, 


Jibu, 


Puuhid. 




two, 


Ajangor, 


Jibo yiit, 






Coluber, 


Dhauina, Bdra, 


Jibo dauda, 


B6rd. 




Cobra, 


Gohoma, 


Ridl, 


... 




Toad, 


Kotarai, 


Itnbu chitro, 


KcStnU. " 




Frog, 


H61d, 


Imbii bougl.i, 


H.Ha. 


FISH. 


Fisb, all, 


Match, 


Gnd, 


Jlivu. 




Carp, 


Rohi, 


Ruhi, 


Ruhi. 




Mullet, 










Eel, 


Bdmuj, 


Liiugdur, 


Bdtni. " 




EMran, 




... 






Souli, 


Soul, 




... 








... 






Kktlhonga, 


Th<5n{i," 


Kh^ng killi, 


Th6na. 




Phalli, 


Phalli, 


Gn laibu, 


Giichi. 




Kursa\ 


Kursd, 


Karsa, 


Kursa. 




Chittal, 


Chittal, 


... 


... 




Crustaceans, 




... 






Crab, 


K : ik(5r,'" 


Kan kharai, 


Kihl 




Prawn, 


Nichd, 


Guii thut, 


Tanhia. 




Oyster, 


... 


... 






Cockle, 


Guzuri, 


Sydraak, 


ChudaY." 




Mussel, 


Sarnbuk, 


Larai, 


Dudukri. 




Snail, any. 


Sydltina, 


Khorikata, 


L6i6t. 




ail, 


... 


Jinai khoug, 


Jliol tdog. 




Nude snail, 






Ltfttft, 




Sh.-ll, any, 






it! 


Ix-n r- 


Insects, 


PdktC, 


Impho, 


1'oka. 




Beetle, 


Dhandhania, 


Khi l>ruma, j 
Kilin'itiua, \ 


I'-innaluri. 

Dbikuri. 




Fly, 


Mdchi, 


Thampol, 


Tunha. 




(fedflj, 




Dam 






Spidi-r, 






Makra. 




i fly, 


Chitti, 


ola, 


Cliitti. 




Moth, 


Kukti, 


Kant- 


Chitti. 






Mohuniarhi, 








Wa-p, 


Bh<$m<5r<51, j 


T.iiiiri in.ira, ) 
( 


Baghi. 




M't, 


Biighi, 


.'rai, 






Moachito, 


Mo-ho, j 


li"i ) 
gangjang, j 






Bug, 


U'ra^ 


Urow, 


U'rtU. 




LOOM, 


Nakuni kl, 


| 

TiplMll, j 


Kbit 




Flea, 


Chotka, 




Chutki. 




Grauhopper, 




Guiuagnin, 






I. 






B 



i8 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


INSECTS. Locust, 


Thdri kukti, 


Giiyong, 


Jharidp. 


Ant, 


Nutipipara, j 


Mocha rdm, 
Hasha brai, 


| Nhdmui. 


Termite, 


U'ri, 


Rai khun, 


U'ri. 


Centipede, 


Chidra, 


Chdldmld, 


Tamia. 


Scorpion, 


... 




... 


Earth-worm, 


Chdrd, 


Khanchiri, 


Doria. 


Intestinal worm, 


Pdt chdra, 


Phila, 


Chdrd. 


Leech, 


Jdluk, , 


Bddlou, 


Chamilhii. 


Fish scale, 


Aisha, 


Gnd bigur, 


Aisha. 


Fish fin, 


Dtfntf, 


Gnd gdng, 


Bhir. 


Fish gill, 


Kdnkashi, 


Galpbd, 


Kan kashi. 


Spider's web, 


Jdlshi, 


P.i'ma dong, 




Cacoon, 


Thushi, 


Bithdp, 


Thushi. 


Caterpillar, 


Pdka\ 


Chikri, 


Poka. 


Chrysalis, 


Ldtsi, 


Bithop, 


... 


Imago, insect, 


Chitti, 


Chikri, 




Honey, 


Madhu, 


G6d6i, 


Shdrti'." 


Wax, 


Mum. 


Mushuthd, 


Puring. 


Beehive, 


Chhdt, 


Bejdldp, 


Chatta. 


Fur, 


Pashatn, 


Khomon, 


Moi8hu. 


Silk, 


Rdsham, 


Phdt, Indi, 


Rdsham. 


Wool, 


Rom, 


Khomon, 


Moishu. 


VEOETALS. Vegetabilia, 


... 


... 




(iR4iN. Grains or Cerealia, 


L6khi," 


Ldfchi, 


Ldkhi! 


Rice, dhdn, 


Dhsin, 


Mai, 


Bhdko om. 


Rice, choul, 


Choul, 


Mairong, 


U'nkhu. 


Rice, bhdt, 


Bhdt, 


Maikhom, 


Oni. 


AY heat, 


Gohom, 


Gohom, 


Gohom. 


Barley, 


Paira, 


Phoira, 


Poira. 


Rye, 


... 




... 


Buckwheat, Fagopyrus, 








Millets, 


... 


... 


. 


Kudrum or Kudruva, 








Jowdr or Karbi, 


... 


.. 




Jandra, 








Bajara or Bitjra, 


... 


... 




Kodo, 






... 


Mania" or Marwa, 


Marwa, 


Thekoro, 


Mdndu, 


T;iiigan or Tangni, 






... 


Kangani, 






... 


Sdmd, 




... 




Chini, 


... 


... 




Kodai, 


... 


... 




Makara or Makara-jdl, 








Bhatwfe, 


... 


... 




Pulse, Ddls, 


Ddl, 


Kalai, 


Kalai." 


Mattar or Pease, 


Motor, 


Shobaima, 


Ghontal. 


Karau, ditto, 








Channa, 


But kalai, 


But, 


But. 


But, 






... 


Rdhla or Rawla, 


... 






Arhur or Kahar, 


Altai, 


Khokleng, 


Lahdn" 


Khesari, 


Khisiri, 


Kbisiri, 


Khisiri. 


U'rid, 


Thakori, 


Thakori, 


Thakori. 



41 Piddington's glossary of ]>l.-uits will give tho Engli.-h read'.-r tli'.. 1 n<u:il I>. 'taiuo.-il equiva- 
lents; which, however, are too unsettled to induce me to postpone to them the natr* 



VOCABULARY. 



THRKADS. 









English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Kalai, 


Mash, 


Wasong, 




Mash, 




... 


... 


Mung, 


Miing, 


Mi'ikh kalai, 




Kurthi or Kulthi, 


Kulthi, 


Kulthi, 


Kulthi'.' 


Mastir, 


Masuri, 


Miisuri, 


Miisuri. 


r Mdthi, 






... 


Bhiringa or Bhring-raj, 






... 


Textile materials, 








San, 


Son, 


Son, 


Son. 


Pat, 


Pdtd, 


X;irjai, 


Pata. 


Bhtfag, 


Bhang, 


Bhang, 


Bhang. 


Munj, 


Muja, 






Tisi or Alsi, 


Tisi, 




... 


Spinal, 
. the plant, 


Simla, 
Kapas, 


Syumli, 
Khun phang, 


Ldshing. 
Kapai sing. 


Bardach, 






... 


Mdnwa or Malwa, 


Marwd pat, 






Resham, 


Reshain, 


Tndi, 


Indi. " 


Tasar, 




Indi,* 


Indi. 


Wool, 


Poshoni, 


Khomon, 


Muishu. 


Oil plants, 








Tori, 


Turi, 


Bishwar," 




Rdi, 


llai, 




... 


Sarsun, 


So>sya, 


Bishwdr, 


Jingshe*. 




Tisi, 


... 


... 


Til, 


Til, 


Sibing, 


M^sh^. 


, or Post, 


Posot, 


Phosto, 


P6s. 


Re"udi, 


E'nda, 


E'nda, 


E'udi. 


Kusum, 


Kusum, 


Khustim, 




Nimb, 


... 




... 


wa, 


... 






Naril, 


Ndriyul, 


Ndlikhor, 


... 


Greens, 


Torkilri, 


Moikri, 


Sdr. 


'iza, 


Khormunj, 




... 


ta, 








Kohara, 


Kumla, 


Khdklu'," 




rka, 


Lahu, 


Luu, 


Lahu. 


lu, 


Kaddu, 


... 




Khira, 


Swas, 


Thai Rvumu, 


Thaishi. 


Kalii. 


Bangi, 

Koilla, 


Thai l.V-ng, 
U'dashi, 


K5rla.'" 


or Shim, 


Chima, 


Gorshi, 


:,sd. 






... 


... 


Lo*ba or L<5bia, 








BM, 




Ilia, 


:ta. 


1 


hi.lhcosi, 


ngi, 


])u<lh c<5si. 






Jink 




al, 








<>r Genora, 




Pli.'u- 

,ila, 


rd. 


"g, 


"g, 


... 












;iyi, 








S edible, 


::>l'll. 






.; phalli, 






... 



* Wild ilkworui, different s|ctea from that uhkh yield* Taur. 



20 



VOCABULARY. 



Tl'BKRS. 



SPICES. 



DYES. 



DKUGS. 



TREES. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdi 


Pdkchi, 




, .. 


... 


Arwi, 


MitnsJ, 


Mflnd, 


Manl 


Alu, potato, 


Alu, 


BiUti Tliii, 


Bilati Lin. 


Find dlu or Banda, 


Sakarkaud, 


Rangdlu, 


Thd gun. , 


I'ga lin. 


Spices and con- 
diments, &c., 


Masdla, 


... 




Haldi, 


Halad, 


Haldoi, 


Yuntrui. 


Adrak, 


A'dd, 


Haijdng, 


Ytfnkhtf. 


U'kh, 


Kusiydr, 


Kusiyar, 


Kusiydr. 


Tambdku, 


Taniku, 


Tdinku, 


Tainku. 


Paun, 


Paun, 


Phatai, 


Pauu. 


Gdtch niirich, or 

Cayenne, 


Morich, 


Bdnjalut, 


Morchi. 


Large or Capsi- 


Bada, 


Bdnjalut 


Bada. 


cum, 


Morich, 


thopa, 


Morcbi. 


Lahsun, 


Roshan, 


PaVler, shamb- 
rang, 


Roshan. 


Piaz, 


Pi^j, 


Piagi, 


Tango. 


Jira, 


Jira, 


... 




Long, 


L<5ng, 


L6ng, 


Long. 




Ilaclii, 


... 




Kala iniricb, 


Golmorich, 


J;iti morich, 


Golmorchi. 


Jowain, 


Jowni, 


Jowni, 


Jowni. 


Jdiphal, 


Jdiphal, 


... 




Somph, 


Gwdmuri, 


Gwdmuri, 


Gwdmuri. 


Sont, 


Sont, 


... 




Pipd, 


Pipli, 


Chimphrai, 


Pipli. 


Dvi-s, 


Hong, 


... 


... 


Nil, 


Nil, 


Nil, 


Nil. 


Ku-sum, 


Kusum, 


Khiisum, 


... 


Haldi, 


Halad, 


Acho (plant), 


Ludhl'" 


Tund, 


... 


... 


Tdngwd. 


Munjit, 


Man jit, 


Mai jitti, 


Mai jatti. 


Bakum, 


Bokom, 






A'l, 






... 


Supdri, 


Supiri, 


Shuphari, 


Shiiphsiri. 


Kath, 


Kath, 


Kwoiro, 


Kbdir. 


Te'su or Tens, 


... 




... 


Ge"ndji, 






... 


Harra, 


Hurra, 


Silikha,'" 


Horkdti. 


Drugs, &c., 






... 


Bikh (poison), 


Bish, 


Bisb, 


Ning. 


Bikbma, 


... 




... 


Singhia Bikh, 


Singhia, 


Singia, 


Singi. 


Harina Bikh, 


Harina, 


Harina, 


Harina. 


Dudhia Bikh, 


Dudhia, 


Rub, 


Tub. 


Te"jpdt, 
Lai chandan, 


Tejpjit, 
Rakt chandan, 


Thdjp.it, 
Chandan, 


Tbdjpdt. 


Dhupi chandan, 


Dhupi, 


Chancian, 


Chandan. 


Charaita, 


Chirita, 


Khdbititd, 


Khaba". 


Jainti or Bhutkes, 


Jata uiaugsi, 


Jata Masi, 


... 


... 


Trees, generice, 


Gdcch, P^d, j 


Pitting, 
B(5n phjing, 


Sing. 


Sisti, 


Sisrong, 


Sisrong, 


Sisrong. 


Sak\va, 


Sdl, 


Sal, 


Sdl. 


Tund, 




... 


.. 






YUUA 


JJULAKY. 




21 


BngUtk. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimril. 


TREES. Sa^wan, 




... 




ill, 








Khair, 


Khair, 


Kwoiro, 


Khair. 


Biins, common, 


Bans, 


W;i, 


Pit sing. 


Bans, small, 


Bish bzius, 


... 




B<5nt or Cane, 


B^nth, 


Raidong, 


Rddh'iu 


Champa, 


Champa, 


Champa, 


Champa. 


.al. 


Simla, 


Syuxnli, 


Losing. 


Re*ndi, large tree, 


... 






Mohwa, 


... 






Sahajna, 


Raikhaujan, 


... 




Nimb, 


Nim, 


Nim, 


Nim. " 


Barr, 


B6r, 


B6r, 


B<5r. 


Pipal, 


Pipol, 






lakar, 


Pakuri, 




... 


Adambar, 


... 






Palas or Dlufk, 


PanaX" 


Phalds," 


Palas." 


Mada> or Ekonia, 


Madar, 


Mdnddri, 




Jamalgota or Bhdgrduda, 


Kdnikdl, 






Sij or Euphorbia, 


Siju, 


B<itho si jo, 


Sijo. 


>:i'.rphaui or Cactus, 


Nara siju, 


Maibung-sijii, 




Asoka, 


... 


... 




Tal, * 


Tdl, 


Thai, 


Tdl. 


Khajur, 


Khajur, 


... 




-il, 


Ndrdl, 


Nalikol, 


... 


Stipari, 


Supjlri, 


... 


... 


KRI-IT A'm or Amba, 


A'm, 


Thaikjo, 


T6red! 


TREKS. Amrud, 


... 


... 


... 


Sharifa, 








A'tta, 


Atta, 






<har, 


Kathal, 


KhantaX 


Ddmshd. 


Baraliar, 


Bohor, 






Narangi, 


Santala, 


Santara, 




Niinbu, 


Jjimir, 


Cholonga, 


Choishd. 


Bair, 


Bobori, 


Boigri, 


Bsigri. 


Tut, 


... 


... 




Imli, 


Tdtdli, 


Tetali, 


TettiiV 


Kdla,* 


Kollo, j 


Thali, } 
Laiphang, \ 


Ydmphi. 


PARTS 


OF PLANTS. 






.in, 


Lokhi, 


Ldkhi, 


I/.khi. 


Straw, 


Pual, 




N.it.ui. 


Chaff, 


PaWn, 


(Il'll)U, 




Bran, 




Gun-: 


Akaml'i. 


bble, 






N.u-.i. 


Hunk, 






Tusi. 


.long, 
I capatile, 


ClH-ur, 


Chochd, B- 


Thuknt. 




Shia, 




Shis.' 


Barb <.f <-;ir, 




Klii.-' 




Stalk, 
Kind; 


Cat.-h, 


'"g, 


Ch<5nch;(. 



For t: rricH HlxillM id 

pi CM, Alder, Willow, Dn 
plant, liuttcr-troc, Catnclia. 



22 



VOCABULARY. 



English. Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimrif. 


PARTS OF Pulp, Mdso, 


Modom, 


Beha. 


PLANTS. Core, Sdns, 






Seed or stone, Bichi, 


Bigot, 


Bichi. " 


Flower-bud, K6rha, 


Tropidong, 


K6rha. 


Flower, Phul, 


Bibai , 


Lh^p. 


Pollen, Bhufcong, 


Shumu, 


Dhula. 


Fruit, Phal, 


Bithai, 


Si ha. 


Root, Sikor, 


R<5dji, 


Shikdr. 


Bole or stem, Solsol, 


Gudui, 


Gdrd. 


Bark, Chdl, 


Bigor, 


Chdm. 


Wood or timber, Manja, 


Bouphiing, 


Manjd. 


Branch, Ddl, 


Tdlai, 


Daldng. 


Leaf, Pdt, 


Lai, Bilai, 


Lhabd. 


Grass kind, Triu, 


Taroi, gdngsho, 


Dmchaniiinio. 


Creeper kind, Neoshi, 


Edndong, 


Le6shi. 


Air-plant kind, Laut, 


Rott, Bisld, 


Alogrot. 


Reed kind, Bdtdli, 


Khagra, Kliaini, 


llatali. 


" ** i ?T, 


!N;ingdorbilai, ) 
Tharai, j 


Hokola. 


Gum, Atha, 






Glue, A'tha, 






Nat, resin, of Pine, Dhiina, 






Ditto, ditto, Saul, Dhund, 


Dhuna, 


Dhund. 


Prepared ex- ) 






tract, Pitch or [ 




... 


Tar, ) 






Juice, any, Ros, 


Bidai, 


Singkoclii. 


Gdb or gluten, Gab, 


... 




NATURAL AND POLITICAL TIES.* 


A man, Beta chod, 


Hiwa, 


Wdval. 


A woman, Beti chod, 


Hinjou, 


B^val. 


An infant, sucking, Chod, 


Galai,f 


Chan. 


A child, weaned, I ^hengra, 
' [ (Jhengri, 


| Gotho,* 


Dhdmka-chan. 


A mature man, Gdbhur, 


Jholou, 


Whdn: 


A mature woman, Gdbhur, 


Sikhlou, 


Whdntdkd. 


A dry nurse, Ddi, 






A wet nurse, Ddi, 


Bima bdtul, 


Mousi 


A midwife, Dai ydni, 






A bride, Kwoina, 


Bihi, 


Kaina.' ' 


A bridegroom, B<5r, 


Bishai, 


Bor. 


A husband, Bhatdr, 


Bishai, 


Ke\ 


A wife, M6ghi, 


Bihi, 


B^. 


A widow, Rand, 


Randi, 


Rdndi. 


A widower, Rdndra, 


Balundu, 


R4ndra. 


An orphan, Mouria, 


Mouria, 


Mouria. 


A virgin, Kumsiri, 


Sikala, 


Dhdui. 


A whore, Noti, 






A whoremonger, Ldphandar, 






A corpse, Mora", 


Gathoi, 


Sika. 


A sexton, burier ) 






or burner, \ 






A mourner, 







These headingrs to the several parts of the matter should have been given throughout. 
I have subjoined tLeiu oil the margin where deficient, 
t All young. J Human young only. 



VOCABULARY. 



NATURAL 



Ayittft, 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhiindl. 


Parent, 


Janain jata, 


Biphn, 


Aba. 


Child. 


Bdta, 


Bisha, 


Chan. 


Guardian, 




... 




Ward, 








Minor, 




... 




Bastard, 


Jdrwa, 


Bipha yonga, 


... 


Adopted child, 


Posh bdta, 


Dharam Bisha, 


Poshya chan. 


Heir, 


Wdris, 


Khunigdr, 


Hdrkhun. 


Ancestor, 


Pirhi, 


Pirhi, 




Descendant, 


Choii re'chod, 


... 




A relation of blood, 


Gotri, 


Hdrkhun, 


Hdrkhun. 


Do. of marriage, 




... 




Kinsfolk or rela- ) 
tives of blood 
and marriage, ) 


Kutumbh, 


Gushti, ) 
Gouini inanu- V 
shi, \ 


Gushthi, 
Tai ko diang. 


Own family or ) 
household, ) 


Alabds, 


Nooni manushi, 


Sdko guthi. 


Other folk, strangers, 


P<5rl6g, 


Malaicho, 


Boomi. 


A householder, 


Giri, 


Giri, Grd, 


Giri, Gra. 


An ascetic, 


Bairdgi, 


Houria, 




Father, 


Bdp, 


Aphd, 


Aba. " 


Mother, 


Ma, 


A'yd, 


Amma. 


Brother, 


Bhai, 


Bida, 


Yolla. 


Sister, 


Bahin, 


Bina nou, 


Rima. 


Son, 


Bdtd, 


Bishd, 


Chdn. 


Daughter, 


Bdti, 


Bishu, 


Chdnidi. 


Boy, 


Chdngra, 


Hiwa gotho, 


Wdjan. 


Girl, 


Chdngri, 


Hinjou gotho, 


Bdjan. 


Pat. grandfather, 


Aju, 


Abo, 


Aju. 


Grandchild, 


Nifchi, 


Bichou, 


Ndthi. 


Mat. grandfather, 


Ndnd, 


Abo, 


Aju. 


Pat. grandmother, 


Abo, 


Aboi, 


Ajai. 


Mat. grandmother, 


Ndni, 


Aboi, 


Ajai. 


Father's sister's ) 
husband, \ 


Pisha, 


Amai, 


Pisha. 


Father's sister, 


Pisai, 


Ano'i, 


Pisai. 


Father's brother, 


Jdtho, Khurd, 


Ayong, Adoi, 


Jdtha, D,L'1'> 


Brother's son, 


Bhatija, 


Biyaddi, 


Bhatijd. 


Mother's brother, 


Mama, 


Amai, 


Mduiu. 


Mother's sister, 


Mashi, 


Madoi, 


Moushi. 


Sister's son, 


Bhdgina, 


Hanaicho, 


Blidgioa. 


Brother's daughter, 


Uhatiji. 


dot, 


Uhatiji. 


Sister's daughter, 


Bhdgini, 


Biyd noi, 




Paternal coi; 


Dddd, 1 


Ada, Agai, 


Dai, Yolla. 


min, 




Ada, Agai, 


Dai, Yolla. 


r-in-law, 


Kibaji, 


A) >lia, 


.1 u \v;L 


Son-in-law, 


.I.nnai, 


Bija inadoi, 


Mhdwa. 


law, 




Hilindng, 




Siater-in-1 i 




Bibndng, 


s'ili.' 


Foster brother, 


Dudhia I'.lini, 






K.MfT hlStI, 


Dudhia Ualnn, 






Friend, 


S.tkhi, 


Guhthi, 


Taikodidng. 


'7t 


Hi.ri, 




Bairi. 


Neighbour, 


Pasponti, 






Stranger, 


Noudhia, 


Aidahi. 












Client, 









VOCABULARY. 



English, 


Kooch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


NATURAL Partner in trade, ( 
Af!D &c., / 
P ' AL Fellow caste man, 


Ludu, ) 
Bhagijtra, i 
Ekjatia, 


Rannai, 
Jongni B6td, 


Btintha pahi. 


Own country, ) 
natal soil, \ 


Janam Bhum, 


Jongni raijo, 


Tai ko nijyo. 


Fellow - country- ) 
man, \ 


Ddsbhai, i 


Jongni raijoni 
mdnushi, 


Nal sakhii. 


Alien, foreigner, 


Porde'si, 


Gtibun raijoni 


Bordjyo-ko- 

dy;ing. 


Host, 


Ghorgrihasth, 


B.irthjtn hodony, Gwoipika. 


Guest, 


Sohor, 


Alilshi, 


Cbulilehd. 


Traveller, 


Porbasia, 


... 


... 


Master, 


Munib, 


Gnt, 


Gr.l 


Servant, 


Chdkor, 


Arpho, 


Chitkor. 


Debtor, 


Dharu^, 


Dhjlrjdyd, 


])h;irclisiika. 


Creditor, 


M.ihajan, 


Dhdrhoua, 


Dbdrpukd. 


Freeman, 


S;idhin, 


... 


... 


Slave, 


1-a.Hld, 






Predial slave, 






... 


Menial slave, 


Bdndd, Bdndi, 






Born slave, 


... 


... 


... 


Bought slave, 








Domestic servant, 


Kamjiii, 


Arpho, 




Male ditto, 


Kamail, 






Female ditto, 


... 






Mistress of house, ) 
manager, \ 


Girthdni, 


... 




Steward, outhouse j 


D66n'& 






manager, \ 


' 






Sovereign, 


Rdja, 


Raja, 


Raja. 


Subject, 


Praja, 


Porja, 


Porja. 


King, 


K;ija, 






Noble, 


Kulin, 






Peasant, bourgeois, 


Dhelcara, 






Gentleman, 


Kulin, 






Plebeian, 


Dh^kara, 






Landlord, 


Giri, 


Grd, 


Giri. 


Tenant or lease- | 
holder, j 


Mast,ijir, 


Grd, 


Giri. 


PROFES- Hunter, 


Bviidhi, 






SIONALSAND Fisherman, 


M'dtchua; 


Mdla, Ja'lua, 


Jalud. " 


1 H ADESMKS. ( 








Herdsman, 


Majathi,' \ 


Gwdl, 


Gwjtl. 


Agricultural culti- j 
vator, j 


Kirsdn,Chjtsa, 


Porja, 


Porja. 


Gardener, 


MaU 






Hired labourer, 


Kdrnla, 


Bhdran boyo, 


B^nihdr. 


Ploughman, 


Halwdhd, 


Halwa, 


Halwtii. 


Merchant, wholesale, 


Dhoni, 


Mdhdjan, 


Mahrfjan. 


Trader, retail, 


Dokdni, 


... 




Banker, money- { 


Sarrdfi, 






dealer, \ 








Bankrupt, 


Khdngta, 


... 




Manufacturer, 








Artisan, craftsman, 


Mistrij 


D;igrjt, 




Artist, liberal, 


Silpiwdr, 


... 




Priest, cleric, 


Pujak psitak, 


De\5shi, Dhimi, 


De\5shi, Dlnmi 


Layman, laic, 









VOCA 


\BULARY. 




25 


English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


PROFES- Guru, 


Gosain, 


... 




KNn Che'la, 
Purobit, ) 


Bhogot, 
Purohit, ( 


Deoslii, ) 


DAJshi, 


Pujari, \ 


Pujdri, j 


Dhdmi, ( 


Dhdmi. 


Witch, male, 


Dakin, 


Hiwa daiua, 


Dhaina. 


Ditto, female, 


Dakini, 


Hinjou daiua, 


Mhdi. 


Sorcerer or magician, 


Khot komi, 
Jddugar,Joutri, 


i - 




Diviner or augur, 


... 




... 


Astrologer, 


J<5tshi, 






Fortune-teller, 


Nat, Rind, 






Exorcist, 


JhaY phunk ) 
kornia, \ 


Ojha, 


Ojha. 


Clerk, scholar, man of j 
letters, j 


Pondit, 


... 




Teacher, 


Guru, 






Learner, 


Sish, 


... 




Minister of state, 


Mantri, 


Dewdn, 


Dewkn. 


Prime minister, 


Mdl mantri, 






Finance ditto, 


Diwdn, 


Diwin, 


Diwitn. 


La\v ditto, 


Dharmddhikdri, 


... 


... 


Foreign ditto, 


... 




... 


Knvoy, 


Dtit, 






Judge, lawyer, 




... 


... 


V mi lire, single, 


Sdlis, 




... 


Jury, Panchdyat, 


Panchiiti, 




Dijimi. 


Pleader, attorney, 


W6kil, 


Wokil,'" 


Wokil. 


Plaintiff, 


Phainidi, 






] )cf.-nd;int, 


Asdmi, 






Witness, 


Gowa, Sdki, 


I'ssit, 


I'sdt. 


Civilian, 




... 




lier, 


Sipdhi,'" 


Siphai, 


Sinliai. 


Officer, 


... 






Private, 


... 




... 


Commander-in-chief, 


Sdnapati^ 


... 




: , boatman, 


K.V.nia.Mall.'th, 






Physician, 


R<5jhd, 


Ojhd, ' 


Ojbi' 


Surgeon, 








Druggist, 


Pasdri, 


Pakh.-lli, 




Poet, 


Kal)intj, 


... 




iter, 


Wal;tk6r, 


Mali, 


Mdli'.' 


Architect, 








Sculptor, 


... 


... 


... 










on or houBe-hniltlor, 


Mistri, 


Thavui. 


Ddri.' 


i f<r metal, 








i Her, 








raver, 


... 


... 


... 


Metallic engraver, 
















aid maker, 


Kui,,h;il, 


Kun.: 














dial. 


NukliuiM lapgra, 


Sa.i.imka. 










r, 


Kun.i 










uir, 


| 


nith. 








i'crainith, 


Kiiuihar, 







26 VOCABULARY, 


English. 


KoccJi. 


Bodo. 


Dhinuil. 


PROFES- Brazier, 


Kdmhar, 




... 


SIGNALS AND Pewterer, 
TRADESMEN. Bell . maker> 


Thatdri, 


Thatdri," 


Thatdri. 


Gold and silver J 
smith, \ 


Bdnia, 


Bdnia, 


Bania. 


Cutler, 


Kdmhdr, 




... 


Cook, 


Bhanddri, 






Barber, 


Nowa, 


Nowa, 


Nowa. 


Tailor, 


Dorji, 






Shoemaker, 


Chumdr, 


ChfimdrV 




Currier, tanner, 


Chuindr, 






Miller, 


... 






Oilman, 


Tdli, 


Tdli, 


Tdli. 


Dyer, 


Rangsdz, 


... 




Confectioner, 


Bowri, 


Bhujdri, 


Bowri.' 


Butcher, 


Kassai, 






Baker 








J>iiK.Cl , 

Distiller, 


Sundi, 


Sdndi,' " 


... 


Brewer, 




... 




Turner, 






... 


Cloth-printer, 


... 






Spinner, 




Khuniudong, 


Kapai kdtika. 


Weaver, 


Tdnti, JoUha, 


Ddgrd, 


Dhdwa thirka. 


Basketmaker, 


Hari, Dom, 




... 


Cordwaiuer, 


... 


... 


... 


ABSTRACT FORMS OF ABOVE NOUNS.* 


Carcase, animal, 


Mura, 


Gothoi, 


Sikd. 


Corpse, human, 


Mord, 


Gothoi, 


Sikd. 


Sex, 


Li nir, jitti, 






Male sex, 


Pu ling, 






Female ex, 


Stri liug, 




... 


Age, how old, 


Boish, 


Boish, 


Boish. 


Birth, sheer, 


Jonom, 


Jonom, 


Jonom. 


Infancy, 


Chdd Wish, 


Gothobld, 


Di'ulujim b. i.-li. 


Childhood, 


Chengra boish, 


Khat gugurbld, 


Wdjan boish. 


Puberty, 


Gdbur Wish, 


Jholou slo, 


Whdntd boish. 


Old age, decrepi- ) 
tude, j 


Budha boish, 


Braibla, 


Waning boish. 


Youth, 


Juan boish, 


Gothobla, 


Whantd boi,h. 


Parturition, 


Phonfcd, 


Upzidong, 


Chanjdnka. 


Delivery, ac- } 








couchement, \ 








Baptism, naming, 


Janam kushti, 


Mungddna, 


Mingtapika. 


Weaning, ) 
weaned state, \ 


Bhdt chuilui, 


Maikhamdoa, 


Omchdka. 


Toga virilis, ) 








coming of age, > 


... 


... 




the mere fact, ) 








Marriage, nj ere act, 


Bdhd, 


Habba, 


Bdhou. 


Wedlock, state of, 


Bibdhota, 






Celibacy, 


Abibdhota, 






Virginity, 








Whoredom, 


Kosobgiri, 






Divorce, 








Courtship, 


... 







* That is, the nouns from p. 22, or Natural and Political Ties. 



VOCABULARY. 



27 





English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


ABSTRACT 


Betrothal, 


Somond, 




FORMS OK 


Burial, mere act, 


Mdti deva", 


Goti phopni 


ABOVE 

Xur vs 


Cremation, ditto, 


Jolava, 


Goti syouni 




Mourning, state of, 


Chuii, 


Badua, 




Progenitorship, 








Ancestry, 








Succession or line of ) 








inheritance, \ 








Relationship of blood, 


Somond, 






Ditto, of marriage, 


Somoud, 






Ditto, of adoption, 


Somoud, 






Legitimacy, state of, 








Bastardy, ditto, 








Adoption, ditto, 


... 






Status by birth, 


Jati, 


Jati, ' 




Status by vocation, 


Be\v6sa, 


... 




Lineage, race, stock, j 
sect, tribe, clan, \ 


Bongs, kul, 


Bodo,* 




Class, order of men, 


Boron, 






Vocation, means of ) 
livelihood, i 


R6jga>, 


Rojgar, 




Profession, liberal art, 








Craft, art, mechanical, 


Kiirigari, 






Trade, commercial status, 


Beopdr, 


Bephflr, 




Service, menial, 


Chdkari, 


Cbdkari, 




Friendship, 


Dosti, 


Lagugaman, 




Enmity, j 


Dushmani, ) 
Bair, j 


Gasho brap- 
dong, 




Neighbourhood, 








Partnership, 








Fellowship, any, 


Sangat, 






Fellowship of caste, 


Ekjatyata, 






Ditto of trade or craft, 








Freedom, 


SiidhintjC, 






Slavery, 


G61ilmi, 






Sovereignty, status or act, 


Bijttri, 






Subjection, status, 


Proj;lp;in, 






Nobility, gentry, status, 


Kuiinta, 






Peasantry, bourgeoisie, ) 


A Jati, ka- j 






ditto, j 


ininta, \ 






Nomade or erratic state, 


Paikilsht 






Agricultural or tixnl / 


Khodkiisht, ] 


i 




htate, | 


(ir.thasthi, j 


i 




Proprietary class, landed, 








Tenantry, status, 








thood, status, 


: ! 


iul.lii. 

! Dhdmi l.la, 



Dhimul. 



Chud. 



Jdii. 
Jdti. 

Rojgar. 



Laic state, 
Miiiintry of state, 
Clerk*) 

act or status, 

:iip, 
Pupilage, minority, 



rigari, 



PBOFK88ION8, ]>KTAM>. 



"iin 



Own uminc of own roo, i.e. M<ccL. 



28 



VOCABULARY. 



RELIGION. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 




Convocation, reli- 
gious sessiou, 


| Dharm Sobhd, 




... 




Doctrine, 


... 








Discipline, 










Rubric, ritual, 










Heresy, 










True faith, 










Miracle, 


Aschorj, 








Calendar, 


Pattra, 








Date, 


Tdrikh, Tithi, 


... 






Lucky day, 










Unlucky day, 






... 




Festival day, 


Bhojer din, 








Fast day, 


Updsaker din, 








Religion, 


Niyom.Dhorom, 


Ndm nisht, 


N6m nishti. 




Sin, 


Pap, ' 


P% 


Pdp. 




Repentance, re- 
morse, 


P6stdn, 


Jingdsi<5, 


... 




Forgiveness, re- 










mission of .-in, 




... 


... 




Purification, 


Shudan, 


Udraibai, 


ShudhaV j^hika. 


Purificatory rites 
Impenitence, 


, Shudh kirya, 
Ogydn, 


Phardl chuibai, 
Jinga sid. 


Deojal pdtia. 
Ogy^n. 


Excommunication, Jdt ma*ran, 


Ydt gdrbai, 


Jdti sihi. 




Conscience, 




... 






Salvation, 


Rakyji,"' 


Rakya,'" 


Tdini.'" 




Damnation, 


Nfc, 


Nasti, 


Nas. 




Religious rite or 
sacrament, 


Korom kfrya", } 
Bhos, j 


Bh6s, 


KdmpjikjL 




Natal rites, 


Jaman kirya, 


Uptan bhos, 






Baptismal rites, 


Na*m korom, 


Mungdono, 






Weaning rites, 


Bhdt chutini, J 


Galaino mai- ) 
kham dobai, \ 


Cha"n&5mchapai. 


Toga virilis 


Chura korom, j 








rites, 


Harinjlm, \ 








Marriage rites, 


Bibdh kirya, 


Habba bhos, 


Bihou pdk,-i. 




Marriage proces- 
sion, 


Boir^ti, 


Boiniti, 


Boirdti. 




Funereal rites, 


Miran kirya, 


Machou bhos, 


Sika bhos. 




Ditto, procession, 


Kathulia, 








Ancestral rites, 


Shridh, 








Public worship 
at a temple, 


Puj^t, 


Madai Lodong, 


Dir puja. 




Offering, 


Porsad, 


... 


... 




Burnt-offering, 


Horn, 


... 






Bloody offering 
or sacrifice, 


Bali, 


Thoi h<5yu, 


Hitti. 




Isht puja or do- 
mestic worship, 


Isht puja, 








Kul puja or an- 










cestral peuate ' 




... 


... 




worship, 










Prayer, petition 
to God, 


Suharan, 


B,-ltho su- ) 
haran, ( 


Waning bening 
sohoran. 


Thanksgiving, 


Ti'if i 








thanks to God, 


iUtl, 


.. . 






Church service, ( 
prayers, ' 


Pujd pdt, 


Madai hodong, 


Dir puja. 





VOCABULARY. 



29 



English. 

RELIGION. Church service 
preaching, 



Kocch. 



Bodo. 



DJdmdl. 



Witchcraft, Diihinpana, Dain hobba, 


Dhdin paka. 


f TI ./ i < i \ Oihii nainu, ) 
Exorcism, Jh ; ir phunk, j ^ ho ^ j 


Bhtipi, 
Ndpara^li. 


.. POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION. 




-Treaty, Dhorom patra, 




AVar. Larai, Panjalai, 


Larai. 


Peace, Saluk, Mi.-iia mishi, 




Tax, Kliajana, Kliajana, 


Khojana. 


Land-tax, Khajana, Khajana, 


Khajaua. 


House-tax, Bhitari khajana, 




Capitatioo.^, j gj^J^. j 


Ghongwai. 


^riH^e, " h'^'. <"**H, 




Tax on consumption, ) uvf * i Sundini ) 


Sundini 


excise, i AD " j khajana, j 


khajaua. 


Tax on fairs, Gaudi, Tola, Gaudi, Tola, 


Giiudi. 


Tax on manufac- 




tures, excise, 


... 


*Z!atlr *!;** GWtku ""- 


Ghdt ko kouri. 


Tribute from foreign 




states, 


' * " 


Tax on office-bearers, 


... 


, JrmciAL ADMINISTRATION. 




JUSTICE. Adjudication of rights, Hak, Nisdf, Dharam bichdr, 




i isbment of wrongs, Sasti, >;i>t i, 


Sasti. 


Plaint, NiiliBh, Arddsh, 


Ardash. 


Answer, Jawab, 


... 


Trial, Tajvij, 




Proof, Gawahi, Isdtbla, 


Isat. 


Oath, K -mi, Shomai, 


Kira. 


Ordeal, Porik, Phorika, 


Porik. 


Summons, Talal., Linghot, 


Kaike*. 


Bail, Jamini, .I;imini, 


Jamini. 


Arrest, 1)1 1 or pokoij Homdong, 


Rhim. 


Decree, sentence, llukum, 


... 


Punishment, corporal, Sajai, ^-jai, 


Sasti. 


l^.'.nr, (iunakliar? 


Chindra ? 


Confiscation, ; -os, 


Sorbos. 


Ph;it.-i. Phsinsi, 


Phdnsi. 


:<!), ', Da'iiL-aru, 


Pal. 


Impri.-onm-iit, Kliot, 


Kaid. 


Manacle, t Biri, 




1 ' Chouki.l-Iri 




1 




rh"i. 




EhoriQ, 


Khonil. 


Mart nf In: 


ikokhormL 


.1 kh'iral, 


k., khoral. 


.1, B.iino kli 


ko khoral. 


Ditt i k..ni, l'h.inii..k 


Pikokl 


nge, li koul, Slainokli- 




.ug, Bhdra koul, Bibaukli 


ko khoral. 



VOCABULARY. 





English. 


Koccli. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


JrsTH.'K. 


Contract of alter- ) 










ing or manufac- > 


... 


... 


... 




turing, ) 










Ditto of service, 


Bochormdri, j 


B6ch6rche, ) 
khortll, \ 


Bdch or ko 

khonil. 




Wages, 


Dormdha, 








Lease of land, the ) 
instrument, \ 


Potta, 


Phdtd, 


Potta. 




Verbal promise, 


Koul, 


Khogainojachyd, 






Note of hand, 


Ri'ikkd, 


... 






Bond, 


Tammasuk, 


. . . 






Inherited property, 


Wilrsi Bhdg, 








Own acquisitions, 


Jtfhutidri, 


Johuntia, 


Kangko jokitya. 




Dower, 


Ddn, Dahdj, 


Jophop tdka", 


Be wjil ko tdka. 




Appanage, 










Testament, will, 


Ddn potro, 








Gift, deed of, 


Ddn potro, 








Sale, ditto, 


Kinna potro, 








Theft, 


Churi, 








Kobbery, 


Dukaiti, 








Housebreaking, 


Sindh, 








Murder, 


Khun, 


Khun, '" 


Khun. 




Battery, 


Miirdang, 


Shojalaibu, 


Ddugshuka. 




Mayhem, 


Ghdil, 


Phej^n, 






Adultery, 


Chindra, 


Dan do, 


Chiudro. 




Incest, 


Horou, 


Dando, 


Chindra. 




Other illicit com- ) 


Horon, 


Dando, 


Chindra. 




merce, \ 








IL 


False witness, 


Micha e;iki, 


Onga" Isat, 


Mdelkd Isat. 


41/1, 
An MS. 


Military adminis- i 


Shastrer \ 








tration or art, \ 


1'i.lya, i 




* . 




Army, troops, 


Fouj, 


Phoudo, 


Phoudd. 




Cavalry, 










Infantry, 










Artillery, 










Musket, 


Bonduk, 


Shilai, " 


Shilai. " 




Cannon, 


T6p, 


Th6p, 


T6p. 




Powder, 


B,lrud, 


Biiruj, 


liaruj. 




Shot or ball, 


Guli, 


Guli, 


G6U 




Sword, 


Tarwdl, 


Tordl, 


TortBL 




Shield, 


Dl.jtl, 


Dhdl, 


Dlutl. 




Bow, 


Dhanuk, 


Jillit, 


Dhanuk. 




Arrow, 


Tir, 


Bdld, 


Tir. 




Quiver, 


Thorko, 


Th<5mka, 


Thomka. 




Ensign, flag, 


Nishdn, 


Nirshau, 


Nirshina. 




Mail, armour, 






... 




Spear, 


Ballam, 


T(5ng, " 


Khdpor. 




Battle, 


Jujh, 


Ddn jalai, 


Larai. 




Victory, 


Jit, 


D6 habai, 


Jit. 




Defeat, 


Ha>, 


Jdn bai, 


Har. 




Conquest, 


Dukhol, 


Ld bai, 


Dokhol. 




Pillage, plunder, ) 
prize, ( 


Li'it, 


Lut, 


Lut. 


5th, 


LITERARY ADMINISTRATION. 


LETTERS. 


Literature, 






, 




Knowledge, 


Gvdn, 


Oyun, 


Gv;in. 




Education, 


Sikkha", 


Phor6ng, 


Dhirk; 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdt. 


I.KTTKRS. Language, 


Bhdkhd, 


Khourdug, Rdi, 


D<5p. 


The alphabet, 


Kophdld, 






A letter, 


AkhoY, 






A word, 


Shobdo, 






A vowel, 


Phala, 






A consonant, 


Akhor, 






A sentence, 


Kathd, 






Noun, 








Pronoun, 








Adjective, 








Verb, 




... 




Kthics, 


Niti, " 


'.. 




Politics, 


Rdjniti, 


_ 




Arithmetic, 


Gonti, 






Geography, 








Astronomy, 


... 






logy, 


... 






Medical science, 


Baidiili, 






Grammar, 


Byakoron, 






A continent, 








Island, 


Mdjhati, 






Peninsula, 


... 






Frontier, 


Sim, 


Sim, 


Sim. 


Boundary, any. 


Sim, 


Siui, 


Sim. 


Boundary mark, 


Nishin, 


Nirshan, 


Nirshin. 


An epistle, 


LcSkha", 


Ldkhd, 


Lekhd. 


A seal, 


Mohor, chdp, 


Chdp, 


Chdp. 


A signature, 


Sdhi, 


Mungdan, 


bohi. 


Reading and writing, 


L^khdpori, 


Nitno naino, 




A book, 


Puthi, 


Puthi, 


... 


A pen, 


Kolom, 


Kolom, 


Kolom. 


Ink, 


K;tli, 


Khdli, 


Kdli. 


Pspor, 


Kdgaj, 


Khdgaz, Lekhd, 


KhdgacU. 


6th P;irchnient, 








ival affairs, 




... 




A ship, 


Jdhdj, 






A boat, 


Nau, 


Nau, 


Ndwdr. 


A baggage-boat, large, 


Ghdrnau, 


Jl.ak, 




A baggage-boat, small, 


:iga, 


Sorougo, 




A pleaure-bo:it, 


Sorongo, 






V or canue, 


Sorongo, 


Sorongo, 




Hull, 


Toli, 


Thdld, 








... 






Agdl donp.i, 


Agdl <i 




Sfc-rn, 


P.i.-h <J"Hg:. 


.mg.i, 






Nde> t<51i, 


Toli, 


Tholi. 




Mastul, 


CberW, 






Pdl, 


l'i,:il, 


Pal. 


Oar, 




Boithd, 










O'.Ii. 










i chnrges, 
Cargo or load, 


"jiia. 


Nder bliar.i, 

ij'j;i 













DUOA.S.. or art> ^ 


r.iji, 






1 >-.., 


K.ilnl, 




Tuuk.-i. 






(i.ib.ii. 




Prescription, 









VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


MEDICINE Physic, the drug, 


DaVu, B6ti, 


Muli, 


O'har. 


DISEASES. A vomit, 








A purge, 


Juldb, 




... 


Blood-letting, 






... 


Pulse-feeling, 


Nsiri ddkhibaV, 


Shdr naind, 


Shorkhanka. 


Pulse, 


Na>i, 


Sh6r, 


Sh<5r. 


Dysentery, 


Jhdra r<5g, 


Khinai bisld, 


Moidan gilka. 


Diarrhoea, 


L<5hu jhiira, 


Thol khio, 


Hiti moidan. 


Looseness, mere, 


Jhdra, 


Khigobuyo, 


Moidau. 


Fever, 


J(5r, 


Lumdong, 


Misha. 


Ague, 


Jor, 


Lumddng, 


Misha. 


Hepatitis, 


Koljar bish, 


Bikha chddong, 


Tumsing tuiika. 


Asthma, 


Sdshi, Hapdui, 


Dhiii, 


Seshi. 


Pulmonary con- ) 
sumption, \ 


Kas, 


Khastila, 


Shukd. 


Other consump- j 








tion, general > 


Sukana, 


Sukan, 


Chopka. 


wasting, ) 








Belly-ache, 


Pe'te'r bish, 


U'di chjldong, 


Hdman tuuka. 


Head-ache, 


Mother l.ish, 


Kh6r<5 chddong, 


Purin tuuka. 


Ophthalmia, 


Chokur be"nlm, 


Mokonha'ya', 


Mi tuuka. 


Itch, 


Chulkdui, 


Gdchou chorop, 


Kh;la ko tuuka. 


Elephantiasis, 






... 


Leprosy, 


Kudhi,'" 


Khudia, 


Khudia. 


Dropqr, 


PtfniUgrf, 


Doiniing, 


Chit^ughu 


King's evil, 


Karanmul, 




... 


Goitre, 


Ghdg, 


Golondo, 


Golondi. 


Measles, 


Khdsara, 


Ldnthi, 


Khesara. 


Small-pox, 


Boson, 


Honthai, ) 
Bdnsmaria, \ 


Boson. 


Pox, Siphilis, 


Ban ghdvd, 


Noti garai, 


Noti pe<;hara. 


Piles, 


Biinlisor, 


Oros, 


Bindisor. 


Cholera, 


Bhdd bdmi, j 


Hoiahomi, ) 
Thangan mara, \ 


Tanka dhaiu. 


Swoon or Syncope, 


Jhdnk, 


Tai hapmo, 


Chothat nd. 


Falling sickness, 


Teurii, 


Te'uria", 


Teuria. 


Gravel stone in ) 
bladder, j 


Psithari, 


Akhir, 


Pdthari. 


A wound or hurt, 


Ghau, 


Garai, 


Pdchara. 


A cut, 


Kata ghau, 


Garai, 


Pdchara. 


A bruise, 


Thdtdli ghau, 


Khueruma, 


Khan. 


A boil, 


Dumal, 


Guguld, 


Yurncha". 


A pustule, 


Phuusji, 


Chithot, 


Phurkuta. 


A pimple, 


Phutka, 


Chithot, 


Phurkotl 


A fracture of bone, 


Bhsint:;!, 


Baibai, 


Bhoika. 


A dislocation, 


Jora lora, 


Jo*ra Iddidong, 


Jora loika. 


A plaster, 


Patti, 


Muli bilai, 


Tepahika. 


An ointment or | 


Malham, 






unguent, ) 








A liniment, 


... 


... 


... 


An amulet, | 

charm, talisman, \ 


Tdvlz, 


Gou kha"s, 


Oshor. 


Spell, incanta- ) 
tion, bewitch- > 
ment, ) 


Khot korom, " } 
Jontor-moutor, > 
M<5hon, ) 


Dain hobba, } 
Madai horn- > 
dong, 


Dhaina p^ka. 
Mhaidi lagaipi. 


Exorcism, 


Jhar-phunk, j 


Ojha hobba, \ 
Ojha naiuo, j 


Bhupi. 

Ujhakdm paka. 

Napar.i cii. 



VOCABULARY. 



33 





English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 




Omen, 


Lokshon, 


Biphut, 


Ja~tra ^li. 




Auspices, 










Second sight, 










Evil eye, 




Khuga ujlngo, 
Mogou udugo, 


| Mi nojo. 




Palmistry or 










fortune-telling, 










Horoscope, 


Jonom pattri, 






USEFUL 


Pestle, 


Lodha, 


Gotha, 


Gotha.' " 


ARTS OR 


Mortar, 


Sll,' 


Onthai, 


U'nthur. 


TRA 


itre, 


Baudhan, 


Khdtop, 


Jinka. 


DETAILS. 
Itt, 


Hunter's and , 

fisher's craft, ' 


Shikdr, 


Moihdnu, 


Shikdr. 


ING. 


Game, the spoil, 


... 


... 


... 




A noose or snare, 


Jhont, 


Khui, 


Jhdnt. 




A net, 


Jdl, 


Jy<S 


Jiil^. 




A sling, 


Uam ddri, 


Dungdung, 


Dihl 




A pitfall, 


Gadh, 


Hdkdr, 


Giidho. 




A trap, 


Dh^rphi, 


Durphi, 


Dhdrphi. 


and, 


Bird-lime, 


Atha, 


Athd, 


Athd. 


HERDING. 


Herdsman's \ 
craft, < 


Gdni bhdins ) 
pdlan, \ 


Maishumusbo ) 
pliahya. \ 


Did pid poshika. 




Flock, i 
Herd, ' 


Jhduk, Hdngd, 


Phillu, 


Jhdkd. 




Fleece, 


Poshom, 


Khomon, 


Moishu. 




Breeding, act of, 


Pushyd kdm, 


Poshini hobba, 






Shearing, ditto, 










Milking, ditto, 


Ch^nkji," 


Srdddng, 


Chepkd.' 




Churning, ditto, 


M<5han, 




... 




Milk-pail, 


Kdndia, 


Khdndia,' 


Khdndia.' 




Churn, 


Btfhi, 


... 


... 


3rd, 


Shears, 


Kdnchi, 


Kind's, " 


Khainch. 


Ao'l: 


ler, 


Chdni, 


G.lngsho, 




TURK. 


QTMM, 


Ghas, 


Gangsho, 


Naim^. 




Hay, 


Khar, 


Jigdp, 


SiMikii naimd. 




iltural art, 


Chdsdri, 








Grains, genericd, 


Ldkhi, 


Lokhi,'" 


Lokhi.'" 




Grasses, ditto, 


Ghas, Trin, 


Gdngsho, 


Naimd. 




Oils, dil 


T^l, 


Thau, 


Chuiiti. 




Dyea, d 


Rong, 


lloug, 


Kong. J 




1 Stuffs, 

ditto, 


Sutpdt, 


Khu lulling, 


Sutd. 




Agricultural 

llCtS, 


Khdtdr jinis, 


Arjun, 


Ldngko. 






Grihasther sdj, 








mail, 






Gdri. 




Waggon, large, 


Bojhdi gdri, 




... 




Carriag*, 














Jhim, " 


Jing. 




Saddle, 




















Sack/ 


Dhukur, 


1 






Basket, 


I'i.uki, 


,.\&, 






fork, 










<>vr t 




Chon 


Bi 




\ 










Rickl*, 


K.i-.-hi .l.iu, 


Kdchl, 


Kdcbf. 




Sc;lhe, 








VOL. 


I. 










54 VOCABULARY. 


English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DUmdl. 


-AcRicuL- Mattock or ) 
TUKE. pick-axe, j 


Khdnti, 


Khdnti, 


Khdnta. 


Spade, 


KoU-tl, 


K6d.il, 


K6ddl. 


Shovel, 


Be-dhd, 


B^dd, 




Hoe or spud, 


Ddhuki, 


Doukhi,! 


Gh6ng6i. 


Bill, ) 
Bill-hook, 


Ddu, 


*Ch^kha\ 


*Ghdng6i. 


Plough, 


Hal, 


Hal, 


Hal 


Harrow, 


M6"i, 


Mo% 


MdL 


Ploughshare, 


Phalli, 


Phalli, 


Phalli. 


Ditto yoke, 


Yongal, 


Jongol, 


Jongol, 


Ditto shaft, 


Nlngol, 


Ndngol, 


Ndngol. 


Ditto handle, 


Muthia, 


Muthi, 


Mutbi. 


Landed property \ 


Milik 






or estate, \ 


1VL111K, 






Freehold, 


Milik, 


... 




Leasehold, 


Ijara, J6t, ) 

G.itch, j 






Farm, 


Jot, 






Kent, 


Khajana, 




... 


Contract of rent, 


Kabuliyat, 






Horticultural art, 


Adhidri biiut, 


Phorjdni rannai, 


Adhid-ko-bdnta. 


])itto products, 


Bde, 




S<5s. 


Flower, 


Phul, 


Bihar, " 


Lh^p. 


Fruit, 


Phal, 


Bithai, 


Siha. 


41!,, Merchant's craft, ' 
1 RADE. Merchandise or ) 
thingsin barter, \ 


Mahajani, 
MahajaneY jinis, 


Be\5phdr, 
Baiyd jinis, 


Bftptir. 

Chol-ko-jinis. 


Bale of goods, 


M6t, 


Bibdh, 


BoTccha. 


Crane, 




... 


... 


Pulley, 








Lever, 






... 


Capital or stock, 


Punji, 


Ponji, 


Ponji. 


Profits, 


Mondfa, 


Bisha, 


Olckji. 


Price, 


Dani, 


Bliau, 


Bhau. 


Market rate, 


Bliau, 


Nirik, 


llakam. 


Dearness, 




Monga jdi, 


J;inka. 


Cheapness, 


ICangft^ 


Ge'er jai, 


Le"nka. 


Barter, 


A.1,.1 bodol, 


Slijalai, 


Soska. 


Purchase, 


Kinna, 


1'han, 


Ch61. 


Sale, 


l>^cli;i, 


Bai, 


Pit. 


Banker's craft, 


Sharat'i, 






Money, any, 


Tak;l k(5ri, 


Baina jinis, 


Choi ko jinis. 


Coin, 


K<51taka, 


Kdltaka, 


K6"lt4k a . 


Credit, trust, 


U'dhAT, 


Dluir, 


Dhdr. 


Silver coin, 


r Jaka, 


Taka, 


Thaka. 


Gold coin, 


I^Iohor, 


Mohor, 


Son mohor. 


Capital, 


Punji, 


Punji, 


Punji. 


Interest, 


Biaz, 


Bislui, 


Ol(5h^. 


Loan, letting, 


Korojd^n, 


Dhdr M, 


Dhdr rim. 


Loan, borrowing, 


Korojl^u, 


Dhar hot, 


Dhdr pi. 


Pawn or deposit, 


Baudhak, 


Bandba, 


Bandha. 


Debit, ) side of 




B^ handng go, 


Rhulika. 


Credit, ] account, 


... 


Imb^ hanang go, 


Pilika. 



* The principal and almost ouly agricultural implement of the M6cch and Dhimdl: a sort 
of bill. 



VOCABULARY. 



35 





English. 


Kocclt. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


TRADE. 


Debt, 


Koroj, 


Dhar, 


Dhar. 




Payment, 


Chukti, 


Jopbai. 






Shopkeeper's craft, 


Dokani, 


... 






;1 trade, 


Paikan, 


... 






A measure, 


Nap, 


Chuyo, 


D<5ng. 




A weight, 


Toul, 


Chuyo, 


Dong. 




Dry measure, 


D<5n, 








Wet measure, 


Kanria. 


Hdchung, 


Ch6nghai. 




Measure of bulk, 


Don, ktlttii, 


Don, k 


Don, katha. 




Ditto of extent, 


Dighol, 


Gallou, 


liuiuka. 




Land measure, 


liassi, 








A span, 


Tdkor, 


Khujilla,' 


Takor!" 




A cubit, 


Hath, 


Muche, 


Khur dong. 




A yard, 


Gaj, 


Ndldm, 


Batong. 




A tolah, 


Tolah, 




... 




A chatak, 


Chatak, 








A seer, 


Se>, 


Phdl, 






A maund, 


Man, 


Mon, 






Scales or balance, 


Tardzti, 


... 






Steelyard, 


Tul, 


Thouli, 


Tul. 




Manufacturer's craft, 


Bamii, 


... 


' ... 




Textile stuffs or ) 
cloths, jj 


Tauter jinis, 


Dayd, Hi, 


SdjM. 




Artisan's craft, 


Kdrigari, 








I m pigment, tool, 


Mistrir hathiar, 


Yaguju, 






n's craft, 


Choporbaudi, 


N66uugra, 


Sti (liiijikii. 




A house, 


Ghor, 


N65, 


JSiL 




A stoivy, 










Ground-storey, 










Mid-storey, 










Attics, 










Foundation, 










Wall, 


Bdrd, f dti, 


Injur, 


B^rhdm. 




Roof, 


Chhal, 


Nukum,! 


Cliali. 




tree, 


Miirol, 


Ma.idali, 


Mandal. 






Muli, Bowna, 


Mudda, 


M.oling. 






Dudr, 


Dwdr, 


Dua.. 




Window, 


Khurki, 








'ase, 


M.H, 


Jdkhla, 


Pahiri. " 




;u or chamber, 


Kothari, 








Bedroom, 


Sutihiir ghar, 


Mudunai, Noo, 


Jim k 




Oil), 




Nishing,^ 






in, 
guest-house, ij 


Dandi ghor, 


M.uulo, 


Choura sti. 




Verandah, portico, 


Cl.ili, 


Chjili, 


] )liap. 




Necessary, cloaca, 












H.iliiri 




I'.iiiira sd. 














Court 


' 


.;ia,' 






r measure, 




Md, 


Don r 




Plummet or level, 










vel, 




















-nt, 


















Stone-qu.irrier'H 




Ston* -graver' H 










Inscription on stone. 









3 r > 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DJtimdl. 


\v- Metal-graver's craft, 








SHIPS. Inscription on metal, 








A mould or die, 








A mallet, 


... 






A graver, 




... 




Miner's craft, 








A mine, 








A vein, 








A flaw, 








A shaft or tunnel, 








A vent, 




... 




Smelter's craft, 


... 






Native ore, 




... 




Metal, pure, 


... 


... 




Dross, 








Matrix, 




... 




Bricklayer's craft, j 


Kumhdler ) 
Urn, 


Kumlmlni \ 
hobba, \ 




Brick, 


I'nth, 


I'nt, 


I'nt. 


Tile, 


Khapra, 


... 




Paving tile, 


... 






ting tile, 








Plain brick, 








Ornamental ditto, 








I'.i-ick mould, 








Tile mould, 








Smoothing implement, 




... 




Carpenter's craft, 


Suta>, ' | 






Carpentry goods, 


Barhdir jinis, 






Furniture, household, 


Ghare"r jiuie, 


Nooni jiuis, 


S;l ko jiuis. 


A door-fr.niif. 






... 


A window-frame, 








A seat, any, 
Bench, 


Asan, Pidha, 
Chdugni, 


Kdmplai, 
Chdngra, 


Ttikhiin. 
CMngni. 


Stool, 


M<5rd, 






Table, 


... 






A chest or box, large, 


Sanduk,' 


Sanduk, 


Sanduk! 


Ditto, ditto, small, 




lakddor, 




Chest of drawers, 








A drawer, 








A trencher or wooden ) 
platter, \ 


Ka"thua, 


Kdthuii, 


Kathou. 


Bedstead, 


Khdt, 


KJiat, 


Khdt. 


Okli Musal to husk rice, 


Chdm gdhin, 


U'lar gdin, 


Shim khondi. 


Wooden utensil, 


Kdthe'r hatiyar, 






Haft or handle, any, 
Knife haft, 


D^nthd, 
Churi de'ntba', 


Biph6ng, 
Biphong, \ 


De'nth-L 


Spade haft, 


K6daler drfntha, 


Biphong, 


Dfothi! 


Plough haft, 


Hal^r muthua, 






Ditto body, 


Hal^r ddnda, 






A plank, 


Phdla, 


Phala,"' 


Phald.' " 


A beam, large, 


Chdkni, 


Sal bonphdug, 


Sili. 


A beam, small cross- ( 


Jhdugi, ) 


q-V 


Rili 


beam, \ 


G61 batti, j 





Oill* 


A plane, 


L6ndd, 






An axe, 


Kurdl, 


Ruii, 


Diiphe. 


A drill or gimblet, 


BLuvar, 


... 





VOCABULARY. 



English. 
v- A turnscrew, 



Kocch. 



Dhimiil. 



A chisel, 


Chouras, 


Baithdl, 


Chouras. 


A hammer, 
Potter's craft, 


Hdthura", 
Kumhdler kdm 


Dakhdli, Daughaishula. 
, Kumhdnihobba, Chokti bonai. 


Pottery goods, 


Kiinihdler 


Kumhdni / 


Kumhdl ko 


crockery, &c., 
A vessel, any, 


jinis, 
Pdtrd, 


jinis, j 
Yagdj^ng, 


jinis. 
Bhtlndd, 


Earthen vessel, 


M;itvr bartan, 


Hdni gojeng, 


Bhonoi" ko 
bhdnda. 


Wooden vessel, 


Khatdrbartan, 


Bonphdngni- j 
g6jeng, \ 


Khatdng ko 
bhanda. 


Metal vessel, 


DhdteV bartan, 






Large earthen vessel 
to store grain, 


Gozina, 


Ddbar, 


... 


Water-jar, large, 


Kolshi, 


Taihu, 


Ktllshi. 


Ditto, small, 


Bdsuna, 


Tikli, 


Basuna. 


Earthen cooking-pot, 


... 






Earthen dish or plate, 


Potter's wheel, 


Kumhdler chdk, 


Shaper, 




... 




Smoother, 


... 






Glazing substance, 








Smith's craft, 


Kdmhdri, 


Kdmdrni hobba, 


Hardware, any, 


Kdmhdler jinis 






Ironware, 


LoheY jinis, 


Shorrni jinis, 


Chir ko jini*. 


Copperware, 


Tdmbe'r jinis, 


Thamdni j 


Tamba ko 






jinis, \ 


J1D18. 


Brassware, 


Pitaler jinis, 






Pewterware, 


Kdnser jinis, 


Khasdni jiuis, 




Chain, 


Jinjdri, 


Jhinjilri, 


Jhinjan. 


Wire, 








Nail, 


J61i, 


Khili, " 


Khili." 


Screw, 


Pech, 


... 




Hinge, 


Kabja, 




... 


Lock, 


Tild, 


Chdki, 


Tdld. 


Key, 


Chordni, 


Airi, 


Chordni. 


Bolt or bar, 


DwdrdeVd 

Idthi, 


Dwdr chunaini 
louthi, 


\ Dwdr gip-k(- 

\ Lithi 


Hook, 


Kdntd, 


Angtha, 


... 


Bell, 


Ghdti, 


Ghdtd, 


Ghdnti. 


Iron vessel, large, 


ihd, 


Kharou, 


EUdM. 


Ditto, small, 


l.uhia, kadhai, 


Lofaora, 




"T vessel, large, 


D.-kchd, 


Thdmjang, 


Thdm 


Ditto, small, 


Ddkcl.i, 








ha, 


Thou or Dou, 


Tasala. 


Metallic cook ing- pot, 




Khanta, 


Ldhi*. 




[ Batlohi, 


1/ohara, < 


Clmkoti. 


Metallic dish, 




( 




Metallic plate, 


da, 


Thomi,"' \ 
Kurui, I 




Metallic drinking- 


IxJta, Gl 


Tlnkli, 


l.-.tu brfti. 


cup, 


Bdri, 


Lota, i 


Tukuri. 


A pot, any. 


'li, 


Du, 


Chok.ti. 


lid, 


Pdrsun, 


Sharai, 




A spoon. 


Htfta, 


rb, 




A ki 




I >.;i>.i. 













VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimrif. 


ARTISAN- Goldsmith's craft, 


Ba'nie'r kdj, 


Bdniani habba, 


Bania ko k.nn. 


SHIPS. Jewellery, 


Gahana, Pitta, 


... 


... 


A Janter, 


... 






A blow-pipe, 


Chungi, 


Wdchung, 


... 


A fan, 


P.ikha, 




... 


Nippers, 


Chimta, 






Bellows, 


Bhdthi, 






Glow, red heat, 


Tau, 


Gudung, 


Sd, 


Cutler's craft, 




... 




Cutlery goods, 








Razor, 


Khar, " 


Khur, " 


Chunt.' " 


Scissors, 


Kdnchi, 


Khdnch, 


Kdnchi. 


Shears, 




... 




Tweezers, 


Chimta, 


Ldph6, 


Chimti. 


Large knife, 


Churd, 


D-.ioa, 




Pocket-knife, 


Churi, 






Sword, 


Tarwdl, 


Thordl, 


Tunil. 


Dagger, 








Arrowhead, 


Ph(51, 


Bid, D6ng, 


Khdp<5r. 


Needle, large, ) 
packman's, \ 


Sui, 


Mohan, 


Bdndi. 


Needle, small, 


Sui, 


Biji, 


Bdudi. 


Thimble, 


Angushtiin, 




... 


Grindstone, 


Etfn, 


Sdn, 


Sdn. 


Emery, 


... 






Barber's craft, 


Khe\5ri, 


Khorichimbai, 


Pu.sha-m.' 


Soap, 


SdtxSn, 


Chdbon, 


Chdbou. 


Brush, 




... 


... 


Lather, 


... 


... 




Shaving, the act, 


Khcuri," 


Khori chimbai, 


Pusham. 


Shaving head, 








Shaving beard, 








Nailparing, 
Tailor's craft, 


Ndngufkdti, 
Dorjerkdm, 


Asigurhdn, 
Hiahugrd, 


Khursingcbi'iui. 
Dhdbii joka. 


Thread, 


Stitd, Butli, j 


Kiindung or ) 
Dung dung, ( 


Shut^. 


Wax, 


M<5m, 


Mushdtha, 


Mom. 


Shoemaker's ) 
craft, \ 


Chdmdrer I 
kdm, 


Chdmdrni, ) 
habba, \ 


Chdmdr-ko-kam. 


Shoe making, 


Juta band van, 


Jota godan, 


... 


Shoemending, 


Juta songot } 
koron, \ 


Jota phdstip, 




Shoe, 


Jota, 


Jota, 


Jota. 


Boot, 








Slipper or sandal, 




Ydpth6ng, 


Champhdi. 


Wooden shoe, 


Khorong, 






Leather shoe, 


Jota, 


Jota, 


Jota. 


Straw or grass shoe, 


... 


... 




Last, 


Pharma, 






Awl, 


Sutdri, 


... 




Cobbler's wax, 








Cook's craft, 


lia'ndhon, 


Chogrd," 


Gdka. " 


Boiling, the act, 


Jhdlan, 


Chongwo, 




Roasting or ) 
grilling, \ 


Bhunjan, 


Yauvo, 




Frying, 


Sdnkhan, 


Hangwo, 




Fireplace, 
Tongs, 


Akha, 
Chimta, 


Doudap, 
Chimta, 


Chimta. 



VOCABULARY. 



39 



ARTISAX- 

8U1PS. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimd'. 


Poker, 


Kalchul, 






Currier's or ) 


Cbdmdrer ( 


Chamdrui- J 




Tanner's craft, \ 


kam, j 


hobba, \ 




Peltry goods, 


Chdmer jinis, 






Leather, any, 


Cham, 


Bigur, 


Dhdl^. '" 


Tanner's vat, 


fftfdh, 


Ddbar, 


Ddbar. 


Tannin or bark, 


Banda, 






Miller's craft, 




Yundung, 


Mhiiika." 


Grinded goods, 


Pisdn, 


Yiiua jiuis, 


Mhdika jinis. 


Flour or meal, 


Atta, maida, 






Bran, 


Bhusi, 


Bdj^ng 


Bhus. 


Mill, 


Jduta, 





... 


Windmill, 




tm 




Watermill, 


... 


t> 


... 


H indmill, 


Jdnta, 






Oilman's craft, 


TelieY k;ltn, 


Telini hobba, 




Oilman's stores, 


Te'lie'r jinirt, 


Phiritni jiuis, 




Oilpress, 


Gye"ch, Ghdni, 


Goehd, 


Ghdni, 'ii. 


Dyer's craft, 


Rongdibdr kain, 




... 


Dyed goods, 


Rongil jinis, 


... 




Dyer's vat, 


Nddh, 




... 


Dyer's press, 


... 


... 




Dye, any, 


Rong, 


Rong, 


Rong. 


Red dye, 


Ldl rong, 


Gaja rong, 


Jika rong. 


Green dye, 


Hara rong, 


Kliangshur ) 
roug, ( 


N^lpd rong. 


Blue dye, 


Nil rong, 


Gochoui rong, 


Duiika rong. 


Yellow dye, 


Pila rong, 


Gammo rong, 


Ydnka rong. 


Sugar maker's ) 
craft, \ 


UTcpiran, j 


Klmsydrphe're't, 


Kusydrpdrika. 


Goor, 


Goor, 


Mithai, 


Mithui. 


Chini, 


Chini, 


... 


... 


Misri, 


Misri, 




... 


Bftkar, 


Sakar, 






Rdb, 


Ndli, 


Ldli, 


Ldli. 


Sugar-press, 


Gydch, 


Gocha, 


Ghdni. 


Confectioner's ) 
craft, j 


Dhujdrer kdm, 


Laduddgra, 


Lddii bonaika. 


Sweetmeats, 


Mithiii, 


Godui, 


Tddka jinis. 


Cake, 


i6L 


Knkrong, 


Bdbor. 


Comfit, 


Lai, 


Hurung, 


Khoildro. 


Lollypop, 


UddA, 


Phe'tta, 


... 


Butcher's craft, 


Kassaidr kdm, 








Masoug, 


Bid.t, " 


B<5hd. 


Garbage, 




('liilij)ika, 


... 


Slaying-axe, 


Garsd, j 


ThuMbri j 


DupkL 


Cleaver, 


ChdpJ, 


Phathdng', 




Block, 




Dinpri, 


Dinirri. 




-ari, 


Ddbd, 


.an. 


Baker's craft, 




... 




Bmd, 




... 




1 1 1 1 *M VMI*'M ' ' ' 








I.-.iv- n.-.l i-rt-.i-l, 








Dough, 


Gandhau, 






1-aven, 










Chula 




Silk, 


Spirituous li'|iiurn, 


Modb, 


Pitika, 


Poatika. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


ARTISAN Still, Bhatti, 


Bhdti, 


Bhdti. 


IPS - Receiver or boiler, Bhatti, 


Bhdti, 


Bhdti. 


Condenser, Adkar, 


Daihii, 


Dtiki. 


Cooler, Nddh, 


Ddbar, 


Hindd. 


Funnel, 


... 




Pipe, Ndli, 


Ndld, 


Ndld. 


Spirits made j M dfa 
from gram, \ 


Pitikd, 


Phatika. 


Do. from flowers, 






Do. from juices, | 






like toddy, \ 






Brewer's craft, Ubdlan, 


Chongno, 




Fermented liquor, Katla, 


Joni jinis or J<5, 


Yu. 


Brewer's vat, Matka, 


Du, 


R(56ti. 


Washerman's craft, Dh<5bir kdm, 






Soap, Sdbon, 


Sdbon,'" 


Sdbon. 


Tub, Powna, 


... 


... 


Beater, Mogdor, 






Block, Phdlld, 






Dirty clothes, Maila kapra, 


Gini Hi, 


Mirhi Dhdba. 


Clean clothes, Safa kapra, 


Hi guphut, 


Md mirhi dhaba. 


Turner's craft, Kunddil, 


Khunddin, 


Kundai katang. 


Turned goods, Kunddil jinis, 


Ktindaini jinis, 


Ktindai ko jinis. 


A lathe, Chouras, 


Baithal, 




Printed goods, Chdpe'r jinis, ' 






Chintz, Chint, 


Chit, 


Chit. 


Coarse chintz, Chint, 


Chit, 


Chit. 


Fine chint/, Chint, 


Chit, 


Chit. 


A stamp, Chdp, 




... 


A press, 






Spinner's art, Sutkdtan, 


Khundtingluye, 


Sutelcdtika. 


Spun goods, Sut^r jinis, 


IKhundungui ) 
jinis, j 


Sut^ ko jinis. 


Spinner's wheel, Charkha, 


JantheY, 


Charkha. 


Thread, Stit, 


Khundung, 


SulxS. 


Skein, Motha, 


Ldmchd, 


Waina. 


Knitter's art, Jabibandil, 


Jdkhana, 


Chiting puika. 


Knit goods, Jaber jinis, 
Weaver's art, Bandvan, 


J^ni jiuis, 
Hiddin, 


Chiting. 
Dhdba thirka. 


Woven goods, Bandil jinis, 
A web or piece, Tdn, 


Danai jinis, 
Gangche', 


Thirka. 
Dhdba. 


The warp, Tdnd, 


Gochong, 


Tdnd. 


The woof, Pdtwan, 


Gdh^n, 


Pdtwan. 


Fine cotton or ) . , 
mulmal, j Mulmal > 


Rubu Hi, 


... 


Coarse do. or calico, GajboYi, 


Hi shima, 


... 


Fine woollen or ) T> /,. 
broadcloth, j Bandt > 


Bdndt, 


Bdndt. 


Coarser or malida, 






Coarsest or ) v , , ,, 
blanket, { K<5mb<51 ' 


Kumbali, 


Kdmili. 


Hemp cloth or ) , . _. 






T. j iMitinErrur, 
linen, ) 






Flax cloth or lin en,* 




... 



The Linum usitatissimum, Tsi, or Alsi, however common and good, is nowhere used in 
1 ndia save for oil. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DUnuil. 


ARTISAN- Sack - cloth of 
San or Pdt, 


Dhokrd, | 


Phdtta, ) 
Chola, i 


Dh(5kra. 


Sail-cloth, finer, 
of San, 


Jhdlok, 
Mdkhari, ( 


Jhdlok, 


Jhdlok. 


Silk or Satin, cloth, 


Injini Hi, 


... 


A loom, 


Sajd, 


Hichan, 


S;tja. 


A shuttle, 


Maku, 


Milku, 


Maku. 


A paddle, 


Khut, 


Gorkhd, 


Niicha naiti. 


A roller for 
winding web, 


Kdrkhi, 


Giindai, 


Djln gda- 1 ;(u ga. 


Weaving, the act, Bandil, 


Ddin, 


Thirkl 


Cord - wainer's 
craft, 


Rasser bandil. 


Doudong, ) 
Chjidong, j 


Dihapeka. 


Cord or thick rope, Dor, rassa, 
Twine or thin rope, Rossi, 


D<5ga, Doudong, 
D6ga mudui, 


Bada-Dih:i. 
Mhoika-Diha. 


Tow, any, 


IMta. 


Phatta, 


Fifed. 


Oakum, 


Bdk^l, 






Lint, 




... 




Rags, 




Hisri, 


Tdkadhdbd. 


Paper-maker's 


[ 






craft, 


... 






Paper made of 
bark, 


Kagaj, 




... 


Ditto of rags, 


Kagaj, 


... 




Bleacher's art, 






... 


Basket-maker's 
craft, 




Hdpma, 


Pfiikd. 


Decorticating, 


Mdthdn, 


S6in, 


Koiikatang. 


The slip or strip 
peeled off, 


Pdti, 


Bishi, 


Pdti. 


Basket, open plat, Changdri, 


Kho, 


Dondora. 


Basket, close plat, Dhdki, 


D6n, 


Bhuturi. 


Basket, any, 


Doura, Douri, 


D6ukho, 




Deep closed 
basket, 


Sapuri, 






Shallow open do. 


Dhaki, 






FIJII ARTS. Fine arts, 








Poetry, 


Kavit, 






A poem, 


Kavit, 




... 


Metre, 








Rhyme, 






... 


A distich, 








Tainting, the art, Chittrakari, 


Mdlini habba, 




A picture, 


Chobi, 






Light and shade, 








spective, 






... 


; ring, 








Hnni.-in j. 


Tazvir, 






Ltadmpt, 








oir-box, 








Ea*el, 








I'.rush, 








Pencil, 








Musical science, 


Gdvan i. 

van ilin. \ 


Knj:i])dam, 




Music, 


Oiivanbajiiwan, 


Ilajdpdam, 


Ix-ika b6ika. 


Musical note, 








The gamut, 


... 







VOCABULARY. 



FINE A UTS. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Harmony, 


... 






Melody, 








Vocal music, 


Gdwan, Git, 


Raja"?, 


Ldika. '" 


Instrumental j 
music, 1 


Bajdwan, 


Ddm, 


B&ka. 


A concert, 


Niitch, 


Musiiyu, 


Hydkil. 


A fife, 


Btfshi, 


Chiphung, 


Muhari. 


A pipe, 


Sahanai, 


Ph^ngphsi, 




A trumpet, 


Turu(5i, 


Turhoi, 


Turhoi.'" 


A drum, 


Dh61, Nagara, 


Nagara, 


Dhul. 


Cymbals, 


EorttfL 


Khowawdng, 


Jlniil. 


A stringed in- ' 


:.S;irill-i, DD- 


Srnja, ) 


S^nja, 


struinent, i 


tdra Biua, 


Duttlra, i 


Dotdra. 


Sculpture, 


Chinni, 




... 


A stone statue, j 
human, ' 


Meinusher murti, 


Ditto of a deity, 


Devater murti, 






An idol of clay, 


Mdtir murti, 




... 


Image, plaything, Chobi, 


Metallic idol, 


Dhatudr murti, 


Architecture, 








the science, 








A pillar or co- 


Filpay, khainba ) 


lumn, 


Powa, 


\ 




A shaft or body, 






... 


A capital, 




... 




A basement, 








Entablature, 






... 


Architrave, 






... 


Frieze, 








Cornice, 






... 


Facade, 




... 


... 


An arch, 








An arcade or 


i 






colonnade, 


i 






*A dome, 


Giimbaj, 


... 


... 


A mina'r, 


Mindr, 






A minaret, 


... 


... 




A pent roof, 


Bangaler Chat, 






A flat roof, 


Sobsdir Chat, 


... 


... 




NOUNS 


OF TIME. 




Time, 


Kdl, 


Kbal, 


Kal. 


Eternity, 


Anant kill, 






Day, 


Din, 


Shin, 


Nhitima. 


Night, 


Rdth, 


H6rr, 


Nhishiug. 


Morn, 


Bdrbhdn, 


Phujani, 


Rhima. 


Noon, 


D6ph6r, 


Ssinjilphu, 


Bela g^nka. 


Eve, 


, G6rudhukani 
[ bdla, 


Bili, 


Bildmji. 


Sunrise, 


Suraj uday, 


Shdnangkhat- ) 
bai, 


B^lal6hika. 


Sunset, 


Suraj asti, 


Shdnang hopbai, 


B&ahadelta. 


Moonrise, 


Chdnduday, 


N6kha"bir ) 
khatbai, \ 


Tdlilohika. 


Moonset, 


Chdndasti, 


Ndkhdbir 
hapbai, \ 


Talihadeka. 


A moment, 


Pal, 







VOCABULARY. 



43 



Enrjliih. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


. Dlilhnal. 


A minute, 


Pal, 


... 




An huur, 


Ghari, 


... 




-k, 


Athdra, 




t< 


A month, 


Mas, 


Din, 


Masha. 




Bochor, 


Bochor, 


Bochor. 


A timepiece. 


Ghari, 


... 




A date, 


Tdrikh, Tithi, 


... 




Sund 


Deobdr, 


DeV5, 


DcU 


Monday, 


Boml 


Som, 


Som. 




MongolUIr, 


Mongol, 


Mongol. 


Wedm-.Mlay, 


Budhbiir, 


Budh, 


Budh. 


Thursday, 


Bishtibar, 


Bishti, 


Bishti. 




Sukal ba>, 


Sukal, 


Sukal. 


Saturday, 


Suniiuir, 


Suni, 


Suni. 


January, 


Mdgb, 


High, 


Magh. 


Febn: 


Pbdgun, 


Phdgun, 


Phitgun. 


March, 


Chaityo, 


Choit, 


Choit. 


April, 


Boisdkho, 


Boisdkh, 


Boisdkh. 


May, 


Joith, 


Jait, 


Jait. 


June, 


Asdr, 


Asdr, 


Asdr. 


July, 


Sdwon, 


Sr&won, 


Sdwon. 


August, 


Bhodor, 


Bhodor, 


Bhodor, 


September, 


A'sin, 


Asin, 


Asin. 


October, 


Kortik, 


Kortik, 


Kortik. 


November, 


Oghou, 


Oghon, 


Oghon. 


December, 


Pus, 


Poush, 


Poush. 


INDECLIXABLES OF TIME. 


To-day, 


A'ji, 


Dinai, 


Ntfni. 


To-morrow, 


Kal, 


Gdbun, 


Jtimni. 


Yesterday, 


Pdchlla ruj, 


Mivu <r Mia, 


Auji. 


Previously, 


irt 


Sigang, 


Ldmpdng. 


Now, 


Elai, 


Ddnd, Dd, 


K'lang. 


Afterwards, 


Pich6, 


Yun6, Ddndng, 


Nhuch(5. 


Always, ever, 


Sodd, 


Orai, 


i-yiuu. 


' 


Konokdld naliin. 


Oraineg^yd, 


Elou mdntho. 


Seldom, 


K<5nok(5no bchi, j 


Hdnobdla hcno ) 
Wla, \ 


Thordng. 


Often, 


BdnS bdr^, 


Phcld plu'l,'. 


Ghaning ghdning. 


Sometimes, 


Konokono bt-la, \ 


Hdno brla 11,-uo / 
bela, 


Thordug. 


Now, recently, 


E'l kharai. 


Danc5, 


l.loin ! 


Ix>ng ago, 


Bh^ld- 


Gubdn choi, 


KVhito. 


When, 


Jdid, 




Jdla. 




MU, 


S.'lai, 







KdnbAa, 


:lai, 




, together, 


luk, 


ri,;,k.-i,,-, 




Gradually, one by one, 




H;i-liin^, 


K'IIU'' i 


Slowly, 




,..-lii. 




Quickly, 




(;.,k.<- ni 


Dl.nnpd. 


Instai 

uu, 




Vun,',. 


ng. 
Y6i 


Early, 


JogoU5, 


Gak; 


Jogotdng. 






... 




Weekly, 




. 




:,ly, 




.. 














... 







44 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 



Kocch. 



Bodo. 



DJiinuU. 



Twice, 


... 






Thrice, 




... 


... 


NUMBERS.* 


One, 


Ek, 


Man-che", 


E'-long. 


Two, 


Du, 


Man-gnd, 


Gnd-long. 


Three, 


Tin, 


Man-thdm, 


Sum-long. 


Four, 


Cha>, 


Man-hre", 


Dia-long. 


Five, 


Pinch, 


Man-bd, 


Nd-long. 


Six, 


Choi, 


Man-d6, 


Tu-long. 


Seven, 


Sdt, 


M ui-sini, 


Nhii-long. 


Eight, 


A'th, 





Y(<-long. 


Nine, 


Nou, 




Kuhi-long. 


Ten, 


Das, 


... 


Td-long. 


Eleven, 


iro, 


... 


... 


Twelve, 


Ba>6, 










( Chokai-bi 


) 


Twenty, 


Bis, 


Thai-khon, 


E-long Bisha. 






f Bisha-ch^, 


1 


Twenty-one, 


Ek<5is, 


... 




Thirtv, 


Tis, 


... 




Forty, 


Chilis, 


Bisha-gnd, 


Gne^l6ng bisha. 


Fifty, 


Pachai, 


... 


... 


Sixty, 


S4it, 


Bisha-thdm, 


S6m-l<5ng bisha. 


Seventy, 


Sohotor, 






Eighty, 


Assi, 


v Bisba-bre\ 
\ Phanai-ch^, 


| Did-long bisha. 


Ninety, 


Nobbi, 




... 


One hundred, 


Sou, 


Bisha-bd, 


Nd-l<5ng bisha. 


One thousand, 


HsijaV, 


... 




Ten thousand, 


Daahajar, 






A lack, 


Lakh, 






A crore, 


Kr<5r, 


t 


... 


First, 


Pahilo, 




... 


Second, 


Drfsni, 


_ 




Third, 


Tisrd, 


,, 




Fourth, 


Chouthd, 


__ 




Fifth, 


Psichin, 






Sixth, 


Chatin, 






Seventh, 


Sdtin, 




... 


Eighth, 


Athin, 




... 


Ninth, 


Ndhin, 


,, 




Tenth, 


Doshin, 


., 


... 


A numeral sign or 
cipher, 


| A'nkho", 


... 


... 




Nouxs 


OF PLACE. 




A place, 


Thdn, Ja"gah, 


Nupthi, 


ChdL 


Presence, 


Hdjari, 






Absence, 


Ghairha'ja'ri, 


... 




A level, 


S6bs6ir, 






A slope, 


H^kakura, 


KhdngUp,' 


Chdlg6r.' " 


Acclivity, 


Ch6rti, 


Gana\ 


Tdnka. 


Declivity, 


Ldmti, 


U'nkhat, 


Khtika. 


The centre, 


Bich, 


G6j6r, 


Mfljhata. 



* The M^ch prefix (man), and the DMml postfix (long), are sometimes omitted, aii : 
are liable to variations, for which see Grammar. 



VOCABULARY. 



45 



English. 


Kocck. 


odo. 


Dhimdl. 


The side, 


Bogol, 


Ging, 


Jdugshd. 


The corner, 


Komi, 






The top, 


Mathi, 


Khr6, 


Puring. 


The bottom, 


Hdnt, 


Khibo, 


Ldttd. 


A nation or kingdom, 


Rfij, 


Rdijo, 


Rdjyd. 


A province or stibah, 


Subah, 






A country or zillah, 


Zillah, 


... 




A parish township or 
pagus 


Bondor, 


Bondor, 


Bondor. 


A guild-hall, trader's, 








A town-hall, municipal 
court, 


) Prodhdner-ka- ) 
f chdri, j 


Mondolni-kacheri 


, Mondol ko-sd. 


A palace, 
A council-chamber, 


Rdjbdri, 
Rdj sobha, 


Rdjbdri, 


Rdjhdri. 


A temple or church, 


Ddotd thdn, j 


Madainoo 
Bdthoninoo, 


Dirko sd. 


A burial-place, 


- I 


Goth oiphop 
Dongni nupthi, 


Lipko-chol. 


A burning place, 


Sdsiin, i 


Gothoi syou- 
dongni nupthi, 


Dii-ko-chol. 


A public office or court, 


Kachdri, 


Kachdri, 


Kachdri. 


Court of justice, 


Addlater Kacheri, 






Ditto of revenue, 


Chdkaldr Katcheri, 






A jail, 


Phdtok, 


Bondon tala', 


Kot-sd. 


A village court, 


Prodhdner Ka- | 
cheri, ) 


Mondolni Kacheri, Mondol ko-.si. 


A college, 




... 




A school, 






... 


A hospital, 








A library, 


... 




... 


A bank, 






__ 


An arsenal for making 








arms, 




... 




A magazine for storing 








arms, 





* * * 


. 


A fort, 


Gorh, 


Kh<5t, 


Killa. 


A cantonment, 


Chouni, 


Siphai thiina, 


Siphai jomka. 


A camp, 








A warehouse, merchant's, K6thi, 


. retailer's, 


Dokan, 


Dokdn, 


Dokan. 


ry or workshop, 


... 






A smithy, 


sdia, 


Khtfmtfrain 


Kdrnhdr-ko-sd. 


A tannery, 


ChdindreV thdn, 






.-use, 






... 


A distillery, 


tikhdna, 


JSundininoti, 


Suudi-ko-sd. 


A brev, 




... 


... 


A farmhouse, 














... 


A grai 


Khalvdn," 


Kh,,lto, 


Khanidr.' 


A Uck, 


Kha, 


Kholto, 


Kh.midr. 




Ddndi ghor, 


Mando, | 

Nnukhali. \ 


Chourd sd. 


A stable, 




1 


Onhya ko sd. 


A cow >houe, 


Uol. 




QwdUi sd. 


A dairy, 








A sheej cote, 


Bhdrir sdla, 




: 


A pigatye, 


buarer khor, 


Yutna ydgi 
Vuiua irocra. i 





VOCABULARY. 



English. Kocch. 
A dwelling-house, Ghor, 
A machdn to watch crops, Kuda, 
A cottage, Kh6prd, 
A hut, Khopra, 
A city, Shohor, 


Bodo. 
N66, 
Noochd, 
Noo, 


DhinuiL 
Sd. 

Sd. 


A town, 




Shohor, 






A village, 


Gd<5n, Bonder, 


Phdrd,* ' 


De-rd. 


A street, 




Gali, 






A square, 


Chouk, 






A road, hit?h, 


Pod, sorok, 


Ldmd, 


Ddmd. ' 


A road, bye, 


A footpath, 


Degtfr, 


Degor, 


Ddgdr. 


An estate, the ubi, 


A farm, ditto, 


A L'arden 


i 


Bdgiche, 






An orchard homestead, 


i'.ari. 


Bdri, 


Bdri. 


Flower-garden, 


Phul bdri, 


Bibar bdri, 


Lhep ko sd. 


Kitchen garden or 
kaleyard, 


Sdg bdri, 


Moikong-b;iri, 


Sdr bdri, 


Field, garden, 


Khdt bdri, 


II li bdri, 


Ling bdri. 


Field, anv. 


Khdt, 


Hu, 


Ling. 


Arable field, 


r.inani bdri, 


Uu, 


Ling. 


Grass field, lea, or 

meadow, 


Khoima, 
Havana, 


j Phtithdr, 


Pid ling. 


Hay field 


t 








Fallow field, N<5tkhila, 


Hdgrd,t'" 


Ldngdho. 


Ridge, 




G<5hi, 




... 


Furrow, 




Gh6s, 






Hedge, 




B<5dhd, 


Che'khoV," 


Chdti. 


Ditch, 




P6ri, Pdghdr, 


Plioiri, khoui, 


Aui. 






IXDECLINABLES 


OF PLACE. 




Separate' 
Together 


y, apart, 
, along with, 


,',!, Alog, 
L6g, e'ksdth, 


un, 
Logoche', 


Bhindng. 
E'ddsdng. 


Towards, 


Ti, 




S<5 ? 


Up to, to, unto, 


Tako, 


Chim or Sim, 


Thikd. 
'J'hdkapa. 


As far, 




Jdithd, 


J<5dong, 


J^so. 


So far, 




Sdithd, 


Slat., 


K6s6. 


Beyond, 


over, 


Pdr, 


Bdt, 


Pdn. 


In, at, 






Sing, hd, ou, 


Td. 


On this side, 


Y^'par, 


Imbd jing, 


Y^pdr. 


On that side, "NVupdr, 


Hobe jing, 


"VVupar. 


On both 


sides, 


Warpdr, 


\ Yt'jungwojung, 
\ Me'bube'bujmg, 




About, around, 


Agolbogol, 


j Jingjiug, 
11 bebu,+ 


Che'nir-ho 
bhdiigsho. 


All round, 


Chdro bhitti. 


Chajncham, 


Ora paring. 


On, upon, 


P6r, 


Chou, 


Khuta. 


Here, 




Hitti, 


| Imbohd, 


Isho, It^i. 


There, 


> POZ 


Htitti, 


( HoWhd, 
j Hujung, 


U'sho, U'tiL 


"Where ? 




Kunti, 


| Mouhti, 


H^sho. 
HeuL 



* See note at p. 10^. PhiirrC and D^r<C are Hindi words. 

t Hrfgra", the waste, jungle ; no fallow. 

J Me"bii be~bii, here and there, corruption of Irnbtfbii-liobebu, this side and that. 



VOCABULARY. 



47 



Eu*. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dkimdl. 


Where, ) . 


Eithi, 


Jc'riino, 


J.'tan. 


There, j rel ' 


Se-ithi, 


1'yuno, 


Kotdn. 


Where ? 


Kunthf, 


j ^^' 1 


H^td, 


Everywhere, 


Sokolthi, 


Boiyaubo, 


Ora pdring. 


Nowhere, 


Konothi ndhin, 


Jirobo goyh, 


Hi'tabii mdutho. 


Hence, 


K'ithe* liatti, 


Imboni phrd, 


Ita song. 


Thence, 


Jcith^ hatti, 


Hoboni phra, 


U'ta song. 


Whence ? 


Konthd hatti, 


\ r-ojon-: phrd, 
\ Mouni phni, \ 


Hota song. 


Wlu-nce, 




Jdjong, 


Jdta sho. 




A'g, 


Bhiging,* 


Ldng, Lamp; i. 


Behind, 


Pach, 


Yund,* 


Nhu cho[>a. 




Bich, 


G^z^r, 


Mdjhata. 


Above, 


U'par, 


Chd, 


Rhxitd. 


Beneath, 


Tola, 


Sing, 


L( ; t t;i. 


Near, 


Nikot, 


Khatai, 


Ch^ngs<5. 


Far, 


Dur, 


Gajdng, 


Durd. 


Within, 


Bhitiri, 


Singou or sing, 


SdMug. 
Lipta, 


Without, 


Bdhiri, 


Bahirou, 


Bdhira. 
Sdtdng. 


NOUNS OF QUALITY 


AND CONDITION, 


vVC. 


Health, 


Ardn, 


Gakhrdngbhi, 


HikapJika. 


Sk-kness, 


Birdm, 


Jobrabld, 


Mdelkapstka. 


Knowledge, 


Gydn, 


Gyitn, 


Gydn. 


nee, 


Ogyan, 


Gydng g^yd, 


i manthu. 


Fatigue, 


Thakdi, 


M^ngbai, 


^I'a.ka. 


Rest, 


Jirdn, 


Jirdbai, 


Mai.4utka. 


Occupation, 


Korom, 






;re, 


Jirdu, 






ty, 
Restraint, 


Chhutti, 
Kdid, 


H<5gdr, 

How;U, 


Ldppika'?' 
Raid. 


ty. 


D<5sdr, 










... 






Bhir, 




Didng j6m. 


lily, 


I'.al, 


Bale, 


J'.alo. 


-S, ditto, 


Nibal, 


Balj. 


Bal mdnthukn. 


Ability, mental, 


P.u.idhi, 






Inability, ditto, 


Kulmddhi, 






. tr'-neral, 


Sak, 


Try f lyjj 
J 1 mjm Or iliia, 


D(5dng. 




Nmak, 


Hi. 


Doang mdntho. 




i^rk pan, 


ran mat no ? 








n matno ? 




I 'Vlfll'---, 




i slo? 




Dumbneo, 


Gtingd pan. 


1'hdgldslo? 


... 


, stammer, 


TiiuUla pan, 


T<5tla slo ? 






D 






ty, 


NMhon 




liuka. 


Scarcity, 




An) 








Satti k;il, 






Akdl, 


Ani. 


Akdl. 












Bdo, 


lian, 


Godd". 




j S6kh, 


Sukh, 


Sukh. 



lu place or time, u in English. Bo Dhlmal 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocck. 


Bodo. 


Dkimdl. 


Misery, pain, 


Dukh, 


Dukh, 


Dukh. 


Beauty, 




Machdngan matno ? 


* 


Ugliness, 




Shapman matuo '{ . 




Straightness, 


Sidhapana, 






Crookedness, 


Terdpana, 


... 




Fulness, 




... 




Emptiness, 








Heaviness, 




Illitnan matno? 




Lightness, 




Rdchdngan matno, 




Greatness, 


Badai, 


( n'-c Irtnaii matno, 




Small ness, 


Chottii, 


Mudoyan mato, 




Length, 


Lambiii, 


Gall6van matno, 




Shortness, 


Chotai, 


Gtichunian matuo, 




Depth, 


Gdhir pan a, 






Shallowness, 


... 






Width, 


Chou<: 


Gudran matno, 




Narrowness, 




G^chdpan matno, 




Height, 


U'cchdi," 


Gaj6van matno, 




Lowness, 


Nichai, 


Gahiiyan matno, 




A round body, 


Gol, 


Tolot or Dolot, 




A square, 


Choukon, 


Kdna manbre", 




A triangle, 


Trikou, 


K6na inatith;iin, 




An angle or corner, 


K6nd, 


Koud manchd, 




Area, 


PanSst, 


... 


... 


Circumference, 


Bdr, 






Diameter, 


Bids, 


... 


... 


A half, 


A'dha, 


Khou (chd-one), 


E'phala." 


A quarter, 


P(5a, 


Khousilingche, 
(chd-one), 


E'p<5d (6 one). 


A third, 


Tihdi, 


Phdn thdm, 
Khou thdm ? 




A part, piece, 


Tukrd, 


Thutnd, 
Chdch^, 


Thumd. 


The whole, 


Samuchd, 


Bimaino, 
Boibo ? 


Tdmdndng. 


Redness, 


Ldli, 






Whiteness, 






... 


Blackness, 








Sound, 


Sobd, 


Shodop, 


Hinka. 


Noise, 


Gondogol, 


Gondogol, 


Goudogo"!. 


Silence, 


Nibhdva, 


Ddrshi, 


Chipakd. 


Echo, 


Ghdng, 


Chatta, 


Chatta. 


A cry, scream, human, 


ShoV, Pukdr, 


Gapchi, 


Rhikai. 


A roar, bestial, 


Ddk, 


The-tnu, 


Dikhdr. 


A low, bovine, 


D6ddri, 


Doddya, 


D<5dai. 


A bleat, sheep's, 


Bhdlbhe*li, 


Gapmo, 


M^mai. 


A bark, dog's, 


Bhunk, 


Chungno, 


... 


A whistle, man's, 


Suskdri, 


Mtishut, 


Suskdri'." 


A whistle, bird's, 


Sitti, 


Gapmo, 


Khdrka. 


A hiss, snake's, 


Susan, 


Ndrvi, 


Phopai. 


A mew, cat's, 


Me'msiri, 


Gapmo, 


Dhui. 


Savour or flavour, 


Swdd, 


Gathou, 


Tda. 


Good savour, 


Acha swa"d, 


Gathou, 


Elk., Tdd. 


Bad savour, 


Buni swad, 


Thouwd, 


Mdelka Tdd. 


Sweetness, 


Mithdi, 


Gad <>i matno ? 




Sourness, 


Khjitapan, 


Gakhoi matno ? 


... 



Machaiig for majaug ; so Dou for Tau, and Gorai for Korai : Euphonic. 



VOCABULARY. 



49 



English. 
Bitterness, 
Ripeness, 
Rawness, 

Soundness, 

Rottenness, 

Odour, smell, 

Perfume, 

Stiuk, 

Roughness, 



Bodo. 



Hardness, 

Boftw 

Dry ness, 

Juiciness, fruit, 
Sappiness, greenness, 
wood, 



Kocch. 
Kbiitapan, 



Gandh, 
Acha gaudh, 
Bura gaudb, 
Rukliai. 
Chikondi, 
Sakhti, 

Sukhdpan, 

Bhijdpan, 

Rosilta, 

Glldpana, 



NOUNS OF MOTION THINGS. 



Dhimdl. 



Gamdnan matno ? 

Gathdngan matno ? 

Ghdm matno ? 

Q6cb66 matno ? 

Mandmo, Nhdmk;(. 

Mandmo-madamo, Elka nhdmka. 

Mandino-khechara, Mdelka uhamka. 



Appearance, 

Disappearance, 

Ascent, 

Descent, 

Advance, 

Retrogression, 

Vibration, oscillation, 

Pressure by own weight, 
Depression, active, 
re.ssioii, ditto, 

tion, loosening, 
Increase, self, 
Decrease, ditto, 
Addition, others, 
Subtraction, ditto, 

-i-n, self, 
Contraction, ditto, 

:;jj, others, 
iitto, 

Conjunction, self, 
Disjunction, ditto, 
Kiiptur*', Bursting, self, 
Fracture, breaking others, 
Melting, telf, 

Congealing, ditto, 



A^a gaman, 

Pdche hatan, 

Hilat, 

Kdmp, 

Ddb, 

Daban, 

Chip, 

Dhilau, 

Barhti, 

Ghotti, 

Barhdwan, ' 

Shattdvan, 

Phutan, 

Mvinjan, 

Khulan, 

Bond koron, 

San jog, 

Biyog, 
Phut, 
Torj.hdr, 
Ghdaa, 

Jaiiiai), 

Galdvan, 

Jamdvan, 



uent, 
Departure, 

Kxit, 

Preservation, 
tion, 
iling, 

voi 



NOUNS OP Ac; 

Nikot dn, 

Dur 

Pobunrli, 

Pra^t 

Bhit' 

Bdhir j.in, 

BUsj 

Bigdran, 



Gadong, 
U'ukhat, 



Mouddng, 

Kichin, 
Ndchin, 
Chip, 
Shougrop, 



Phdd^tin, 

Phtiduin, 

Barsara, 

Khopjop, 

KhAJin, 

Jokhlop, 

Lagomano, 

Gubunslo, 

Gauwo, 

OheW 

Giliin, 

Dakhiiin, 

Gili Loin, 

I'rusoNS. 

; plioin, 

(J .ij in thdugiu, 
' 
T'nkliat, 

bap, 

Bdhir thdng, 

Nat, 



Phirka. 
L^dka. 
Rhdpka. 
Rh^p pdkd. 
Chip. 
Dhil pdkd. 
Dhdm^. 
Shimhd. 



Ldgal nduka. 
Lakka. 

Dhelk 

lili.Mka. 
Gale" hi. 
.Iiini hi. 

pdkd. 



holtf. 
Dhi 

BftltOg waiiir. 
; 

Nasht pdkd. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Koccli. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


A journey, 


Jdtrd, 


Jdtrd, 


Jdtrd. 


A stage or day's journey, 
Expedition, haste, 


Monjil, 
Tdp, 


Shdn chdnildma, 
Gakhri ? 


E'-nhi-ko-ddtnd. 
Dhimpd. 


Delay, 


Ddri, 


Dirong, 


Bilombh. 


A walk, the act, 


... 


... 


... 


A pace, stride, 


Pau, kodom, 


Aedn? 


Tito. 


A run, race, 


Dour, 


that, 


Dhdp. 


A gallop, animal's, 




... 




A trot, ditto, 






... 


A leap, jump, 


Phdn, 


Bdt, 


Tonka. 


A hop, skip, 


Kud, 


Bajalo, 


Hyukd. 


A kick, 


Ldt, 


Joyu, 


Ldt. 


A scratch, 


Achuran, 


Khuro, 


Khaika. 


A bite, 


Kdtan, 


\Vdt, 


Chiika. 


A sting, 


Bin, 


J<5, 


Cl.uka. 


A blow of hand, 


Mdr, 


Sh<5, 


Chour. 


Ditto of atick, 


Ddng, 


Sh<5, 


Ddughai. 


A cut, 


Katdvan, 


Hdyu, 


Pdl. 


A thrust or push, 


Dhakdl, 


Kdjdrdt, 


Dhikaika. 


A pull, 


Kdnch, 


Bubu, 


Tdnika. 


A cast or throw, 


Phdnk, 


Gdrh6t, 


Jhdtdkd. 


A pinch, 


China, 


Khdp, 


Chim. 


A laugh, 


Hongai, 


Mini, 


Ldnkd. 


A smile, 


Mushki, 


Minislu, 


Atoisa Idnka. 


A weeping, 


llowau, 


Gdp, 


Khdr. 


A sneeze, 


Chikan, 


Hdchu, 


Hdchu. 


A cough, 


Khdsi, 


Guju, 


Shu. 


A gulp or gwallow, 
A belch, 


Dh6k, 
Dhdkdr, 


Molong, 


Nil. 
Hito. 


A fart, 


Pdt, 


Kiphoi, 


Li. 


A spitting, 


Thuk, 


Muju, 


Th6p. 


A chewing or mastication, 


Chaboun, 


Chouin, 


llhr katang. 


A talking, 


Bolan, 


Kdin, 


Dop katang. 


Talk, 


B61i, 


Rdi, 


D6p. 


A ki*s, 


Chumd, 


Kh6dum, 


Chum;!. 


Seeing, the faculty, 


Ddkhau, 


Kfln, 


Khsing katang. 


11 faring, ditto, 


Sun an, 


Khundin, 


llink. 


kindling, ditto, 


Sungan, 


Manamchuin, 


iS'hu kataii'/. 


Tasting, ditto, 


Chdtan, 


Chdldin, 


Dddk; 


Touching, ditto, 


Chuiyan, 


Ddngiulin, 


A'.'r katang. 


', the act, 


Mutan, 


Haahuin, 


Chicho katang. 


Shitting, ditto, 


Hdgan, 


Khiyin, 


Lishi katang. 


Eating, ditto, 


Khdvan, 


Jdin, 


Chd katang. 


Drinking, ditto, 


Pi wan, 


Ixjngin, 


Am katang. 


Sleeping, 


Sutan, 


Muduin, 


Jim katang. 


"VYaking, 
Dreaming, 


Jagan, 
Soponkoron, 


Sftedng nuin, 


Chdt katang. 
Sopon khdug katang. 


A dream, 


Sopon, 


Sitndng, 


Sopon. 


Breathing, 


Sansphdkan, 


Hdngldin, 


Sdnslho katang. 


Breath, 


Sdns, 


Hdng, 


... 


Sweating, 


Pasijan, 


Galdmin, 


Bhim katang. 


Sweat, 


Pasina, 


Galamdoi, 


Bhimka. 


Palpitation, 


Kdpan, 


Mouin, 


Phir katang. 


Coitus, impregnation, ) 
generating, \ 


Choda-chodi, 


Khoin, 


Lu katang. 


Conception in womb, 


Gaubhdri h6n, 


Bishuphulin, 


Hdmdngdhamkatang. 


Digestion, 


Pach, 


Gilin, 


P6ch }>a katan_'. 


Indigestion, 


Apach, 


Gilya gdin, 


Poch miipa kataug. 



VOCABULARY. 51 

Nouxs OF RI>I:MBLANCE, AFFIRMATION, <fcc. f AND OF GENERAL 

IMPORT. 



Enylidi. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DhimM. 


Resemblance, 


Somdnta. 


... 




Difference, 


Osomanta, 






Identity, 


E'kta, 


... 




Otherness, 


... 






Doubt, 


San dchi, 


... 




Lnty, 


Nichoita, 


... 


... 


Assent, 


Kdbul, 






Dissent, 


Nakabul, 






Affirmation, 


Sohi, 


Ongo, 


J^nghi. 


Denial, 


Inkdr, 


Onga", 


]\I;ijonghi. 


Offer, tender, 


Clianivan, 


Jdchiyu ? 


K<5rhu. 


Acceptance, 


Kabul, 


lUyo, 


Rhuka. 


Rejection, 


Kakabul, 


Baytf, 


Miirliuka. 


Aid, help, 


Modot, 


Chumphd, 


Moidhop. 


Hindrance, 


Horj, 


... 




Advice, counsel, 


Prdmus, 


Sanjalaiyu, 


Buddhipiika. 


Difficulty, 


Kathinta, 


Gabrdp, 




t'38, 


Sohojtd, 


Althoi, 




Expedient, contrivance, 


Jiigti, 


Jugthi, 


Jiigthi. 


Fitness, 




Somaiyo, 


Sobaikjt 


ness, 




Somaiya, 


Ma sobaika. 


Danger, risk, 


... 


Gabrdp, 


Lachi. 


', safety, 




G6wachd, 


Bdnchi. 


'?e, 


Saran, 


Kirphitt, 


Sorou. 


Abandonment, desertion, 


Ty.ig, 


K;igar, 


Ty^ig. 


ire, mutation, 


Bodol, 


Slai, 


Sh6oka. 


.'able ness, 


Abodol, 


Dd slai, 


Md suooka. 


. hap, fortune, 


Bfaift 


Bhdg, 


Bhag. 


uck, 


S<i bhde:, 


(Jhain bhdg, 


Klka bhdg. 


Bad luck, 


Ku bh;l-, 


Hauimabhjlg, 


M;i elka bhdg. 


Accident, contingency, 


Daiv', Gati, 


... 




_', the act, 


Mil.-in, 


L.iiromano, 




to, 


Juda j;t van, 


c'Jubi'm gubi'm tlui- 


'g, 


fate, 


] >aiv', 


Ddiv', 


Daivd. 


A- ill, 


Sucht'tan, 


(J..uinikhusi, 


ko kl.usi. 


Necessity, compulsion, 


rat, 


... 


... 




Khusi, 


Khusi, 


Khusi. 


; ie, what left, 


]5 ; 'iki. 




Adrd. 


Model, ] a' trrri, 


,a, 








]oul, 








Asal, 






Copy, 


Nakal, 










Bhtff, 


ha. 


nent, 




Thongthdng, 

Gaguju, 


r..wa. 
Glion 






... 




lot, 








1 


Riti, 


"P, 








Cliilai hilai. 




Be i). 




iit-n Lh.il, 


> elka. 




Duht koroin, 


li'-n uiaudo, 


i elka. 




Lot*, 














BhdO. 


vory, 




i.ai, 




Gain, advantage, 


Labh, 


Bbha, 





VOCABULARY. 



Engtith. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdtt. 


Loss, disadvantage, 


Hdni, 


Loksdn, 




Question, 


Sawdl, 






Answer, 


Jawdb, 






Promise, 


Kardl, 


Khardl, " 


Kanil. 


Breach of promise, 








Job, piece of work, 


Kdm, 


Hobba, 




Joke, 


Thatta, 


Sikrai, 


Rouchi. 


Knot, 


Gdnthi, 


Gdnthi, 


Gdnthi. 


Cleft, crack, 


Chir, 


Gouwo, 


Dhdika. 


Hole, 


Gddha, 


Hdkdr, 




Quake, 


Kdmp, 


Mou, 


Phirka. " 


Earthquake, 


Bhui kdinp, 


Ha mouwo, 


Bhandi phirka. 


Point, ) 


Gdjd, 


Gdphdt, 




Edge, > of weapon, 


' Dhdr, 


Dhdr, 


Dhdr. 


Back, ) 


Pithi, 


Gddd, 


CJandi. 


Pair, mas et fcom, 


Jdrd, 


Jdrd, 


Jdrd. 


Pair, sorted, 


Jora, 


Jdrd, 


Jdrd. 


Fee, douceur, 


Indm, 


I'lam, 


I'ldm. 


Atom, 


... 




... 


Inventory or list, 


FeVist, 






A mark, any, 


Chin, 


Chin, 


Chin. 


A .stain, 


IMgh, 


Ddgh, 


Ddgh. 


A lal.t-1, 


... 


... 


... 


Errand of business, 






... 


Message, simple, 








News, intelligence, 
Essence, 


Khobor, 
Mdnja, 


Khopor, 
Mdnja, 


Khopor.. 
Man j a. 


Equilibrium, 


... 




... 


Bus, 

Excess, 


Jyddati," 


... 


'... 


Deficiency, 


Ghotti, 






Sufficiency, 


Bos, 




... 


LXDF.CUNABLES OF AFFIRMATION, 


QUANTITY, MODE, 


&C., INCLUDING 


CONJUNCTIONS AND" PREPOSITIONS.* 




Perhaps, 


Run kdld, 


Mithia? Bid, 


Ndgh^. , 


Certainly, 


Khati, Kichoi, 


Ongthdrgo, 


Nichdi. 


Yes, 


He"n, 


Ongo, 


He". 


No, 


Nauin, 


Ongd, 


Ab6. 


General privative, 


... 


G^yd, 


Mauthti. 


Do not, verbal 
privative, 


Nd Nd koris, 


j Dd, j 
| Ddkhldm, j 


Ma. 
Mdpd. 


Wherefore, ) rel. and 


Je"i tdnd, 




Jei pdli. 


Therefore, \ correl. 


Sdi tdnd, 




Sdi pdli. 


Why? 


Ki trine", 


Man 6, 


Hai pdli. 


Much, 


HlioU'la, 


Gdbanir, 


E'shuto. 


Many, 


Bhdlela, 


Gdhdng, 


E'shtito. 


Little, 


Gutik, 


Kitisi or Tisi, 


Atoi'sa. 


Few, 


Gtitik, 


Kitisi, 


Atdisa. 


Less, 


Kdndk, 


Kitisi, 


Atdisa. 


More, 


Ardr, Phai, 


Aro, 


Aro. 


Enough, 


ids, 


Thubai, 


Jdhd. 


More, i signs of j 


r l'd t4 


Binbo-shin, 


O'kdnhdddng. 


JVi OS 0. I 

) son, j 


Sabd 16, 


Boinobo-shin, 


Sogiuiingko- 
nhddong. 



* For more prepositions see Grammar, p. 75. Add thence Of, To, In, On, From, 
prepositions will le found under Indecliuables of Place. 



VOCABULARY. 



53 



English. 


Kocdi. 


Bodo. 


DJiimil. 


As much, 


Joto, 


J<$ chibang, 


36 jokho. 


So much, 


Toto, 


U' chibang, 


U'dong jokho. 


How much? 


Koto, 


Bechi chibang, 


H(5 jokho. 


How many ? 


Kiti, 


Be'che'ba, Pich^, 


... 


Too much, 


Phai? 


Gabing ? 


S6pd. 


Too little, 


Olop, 


Kitisi? 




Very much, most, 


Oti, 


Boinobo-gabang 
shin, 


Sokap^ S(5kd. 
Saiko sopa. 


Than, 


1 


Shin or Sin, also 
No, 


Nhd or Nhddong. 


As, 


Jdm6n, 


Jirin, 


Jddong. 


So, 


Te'mon, 


U'rin, 


Kddong. 


Thus, poz, 


Wt'-o mon, 


Wo rin, / 
Risha, Idi, 


U'dong. 
Usdug. 


How? 


Kdmon, 


Bre; 


Hc.<;[. 


Like, in manner of, 


Jokho, 


Pv'isd, 


BUaika. 


Unlike, otherwise, 


Nd jokho, 


Dd pusd, 


MJ Dhaika. 


Verily, indeed, 


Thik thik, 






Only, merely, 


Khali kdval, 


Bdnd, 




As long, 


Joto khun, 


Je'che' bon, 


Jejokho bilombh. 


So long, 




Woch^ bou, 


Sejokho bilombh. 


Until, 


... 


... 


Kola. 


Because, 


... 




Koudng. 


If, 


Jdkh<5n, J&ta, 


J<51a, 




Then, 


Tdkhdii, Te", 


Kola, 




But, 


Kintu, 


Kintu, 


Kintu nd. 


And, 


E'vong, 0, 


Bi, Ed? Bo? 


E'ddng? 


Also, 


Aro, 


Aro, 


Aro. 


Again, 


Bdri, 


Phin, 


| Nhd chota, 
( Gndchota. 


Or, 


Ki, 


Nd, 


Nd. 


Both, 


D6no, 


j San-gue,* 
j Man-gnd, 


Nhdmi, Gn<$mi. 
Nh^long, Gn<Slong. 


Either, 


Kdh<5ng, 




Hdshiing. 


Neither, 


Kilhongnd, 


Bibo naugd? 


Ha-ilu'mg mantho. 


Or not, otherwise, 


Natd, 


Ddt^, 


Iff** 


Hush! 


Jhit mdr, 


Shrithd, 


Dhiki pA. 




Ddkhdk, 


Nai h6t or Nai, 


Khdug. 


Hurrah! 


Dhanyo dhanyo, 


Khauomathai, 


... 




Il.ii hai, 


Habap, 


Hai hai. 


With, cum, 


Dosor, Biithe, 


Logo, 


DOM, 


Without, sine, 


Bim'-, 






istrument, 


Diyi, 


Jong, 


Sho, Dong. 


Except, un 


... 


... 




. besides, 


Aro, 


Aro, 


Ar. 


Notwithstanding, 


Tuhon, 


Tobldbd, 




rding to, 


Ba tnojiin, 






<t, nearly, 


AUt, 


Khatid, Hdch<, 


Tlmrdngi. 


, entirely, 


'r.-im.lm, 


HoiuoboT 


D.uighd. 




li kucch, 


Ehi 




Rightly, well, 


Acha koria. 






"giy, in, 


do koria, 






ntly, 


Balil'.tl, 


I'-.-llohlUl, 




Gently, 


re dhire, 


Ushi IdAhi, 





, M.,nnr. tw.. .n.im .A* 



54 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DhimdL 




PRONOUNS, 


PERSONAL. 




I, 


Mui, 


Ang, 


Ka\ 


Thou, 


Tui, 


Naug, 




He, she, it, that. 


Onf, 


Bi, 


Vii 


We, 


Hdmi, 


Jong (chtir), 


Ky^l. 


Y e, 
They, 


Tumi, 
U'ni, 


Nang chur, 
Bi chur, 


Nyel. 
U'bal. 




POSSESSIVE 


PRONOUNS. 




Mine, 


M6V, 


Angni, 


Kdng. 


Thine, 


T6r, 


Nangni, 


Ndng. 


Hia, hers, its, 


O'r, 


Bini, 


O'ko, wang. 


Ours, 
Yours, 


Hdmaro, 
Txirna*ro, 


Jongni, 
Nangshuriii, 


King. 
Ning. 


Theirs, 


U'nndr, 


Bichurni, 


U-balko. 


RELATIVE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONCI -NS 


<fec. 


Self, 


Ap, 


Goui ? 


Tdi. 


Own, 


Apner, 


1 Bithdni, 


Tdiko. 


Thk, 


Ya*hi, 


Imbo, 


Iti or Idong. 


That, 


V6hi, 


Hobo, 


U'ti or U'dong. 


Who,rel, 


Je* 


Je, 


Je"ti or J^d<Sng. 


Who. eorreL, 


S<5i, 


Bi? (He, it), 


Sdti or Kodong. 


Who! 


Kiii, 


Chur, 


Heti or Ha^hu. 


What, that which, 




... 




What? 


Kf, 


M{L 


Hai. 


Any, 


Kuho, k(>t)(>, 


Miingbo?* 


Kdibo. 


All, 


Sob, 


Boino, 


Saiko ? 
Sogiming. 


Anybody, 
Somebody, 


j K*h<S, 


Chtir, 


Hashu. 


Nobody, 


Kaho nahin, 


Chur (Jngrf, ) 

Chur gey ; i, \ 


Md haahu. 
Ha^hiimanthuka. 


Anything, 
Something, 


| Kuccb, 


Jishlsip, j 
Mongbo, ^ 


Haidong. 


Whoever, 


Jehi, 


Jdi, 


Jedong ke^ong. 


Like, 


S^, M6n, 


P6sd, 


Bhaika ? 


Like this, aneh, 


E'mdn, 




I'sdka. 


Like that, such, 


Wem6n, 


U'ri puad, 


U'.sika. 


Like what ? 


Komdn, 


Ere" pdsd, 


Hesaka. 


Other, another, 


Aro, 


Gubdn, 


Bhiuaug. 


ADJECTIVES. 


Good, 


Bhalo, 


Ghdm, 


Elka. 


Had, 


Mondo, 


Hamma, 


Md elka. 


Virtuous, moraT, 


Piini, Dhormi, 


Ghdtn, 


Dharmi. 


Vicious, immoral, 


Pdpi, 


Hamma, 


Pdpi. 


Religious, 


Dhormi, 




... 


Irreligious, 


Adhormi, 


... 




Penitent, 








Impenitent, 








Modest, 


Lajua; 


Laji ganang, 


Laji hika. 


Impudent, 


Niloj, 


Laji yongd, 


L$ij mdnthuka. 


Hopeful, 


Bhordsi, 


Borsa ganang, 


Bhdrsa hika. 



* Miiugbo, to things only. 



VOCABULARY. 



55 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Hopeless, 


Ninisi, 


Bdrsa ge'yd, 


Bhorsa mdnthuka. 


Joyful, happy, 


Horkit, 


Kh6a, 


Khtis. 


Sorrowful, uuhappy, 


U'dds, 


Khus g^yd, 


Khus rndiithuka. 


Cunning, 


Phaktia, 


Phakta, 


Pbakta. 


Candid, 


Sidha, 


S6dha, 


S6dha. 


Malicious, 


Ghindha, 


Miigwino, 


Chlkaka. 


Benevolent, 


Doyasil, 


Wanjano, 


... 


us, 


Hinsok, 


Mogou chanai, 


Hiska. 


Content, 


San tushtit, 


... 


Hiska mdnthuka. 


Proud, vain, 


Diphongi, 


Dunai, 


Dim phulla. 


Humble, 


Garib, 


Thang jang, 


Sdjha. 


Industrious, 


Mahinati, 


Mou chuno, 


Kisri paka. 


Idle, 


Alsia, 


Alsia, 


Alsia. 


True, 


Saccha, 


Bobra, 


Bobra. 


False, 


Jhuta, 


Kholai, 


Ldppa. 


Impatient, ) 


i).(.n, 






Passionate, hasty, \ 


ZwlQU, 






Placid, quiet, patient, 


Dhir, 






Merciful, 


Doyasil, 


Wan gonitng, 




Cruel, 


Dusht, 


Wan gdyii, 




Brave, 


Sdhoni, 


Girouga, 


Mala chiika. 


Cowardly, 


D<5nik, 


Gikho, 


Hataaia. 


Constant, steady, 


Sthir, 


Ghoidaria, 


Gongouda. 


tant, ) 
Capricious, \ 


Asthir, 


Kholai, 


Sbat montina. 


Wasteful, profuse, 


Dhulia, 


Phutua, 


Khoi nasia. 


Niggardly, 


Kirpini, 


Kostia, khalcS 


Koshdi. 


Kind, gentle, 


Susil, 


Glulm, 


Dhilaka. 


Unkind, harsh, 


Kusil, 


Ham ma, 


Chukka. 


Ooodnatured, 


Suail, 


Guroi, ghdm, 


E'lka. 


Illnatured, 


Kusil, 


Hamma, 


\ Mdelka. 
j D6ndua. 


Polite, wellbred, 


Sishtdchdri, 




... 


. illbred, 


Khada, 




... 


Obed 


Maini, 


Giin ganang, 


... 


Disobedient, 


maini, 


Giin ge>i, 


... 


Grateful, 






... 


Ungrateful, 








M,d, 


Pagla, " 


Phagla, '" 


Phagla. 


Idiotic, 


P*gi^ 


Phagla, 


Phagla. 


Licit, morally, 


Kortobya, 






Illicit, ditto, 


Okortobya, 




... 


Legal, 






... 


Ill.-tral, 






... 


Physical or material, 


Bhoutika, 




... 


Immaterial, 


Aitinik.-i, 






..46, 


Thik thik, 






Vague, 




... 




TO 


Rhukil, 


Y.',k : 1 


Mhituk.i. " 


r y 




1 >! kdngdong, 


Chidm lihikv 


BUk*t 


Ndugta, 


/oyd, 


Dhdba Tii.-intliu. 


d, 




Hi gandong, 


DhdbagukaTelhika. 


Libidinous, 


Kdmi, 


Chii. 


Kokhoi hika. 


nous, 


P^tu, 


JaobofrdL 


Shop* chdka. 


Drunken, 


Shardbi, 


Math.jl, 


Yudmkd. 


Foul- mouthed, ) 
Abu.. 


Mukhch.Sr, 


Khuga sbdpnia, 


Naik*. 




Jiwat, 


uang, 


Singlhoka. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DJdmdl. 


Dead, 


M<5rd, 


Gothoi, 


Sikl 


Sick, 


Kiihila, 


Haiya, Jobra, 


Mdddnka. 


Healthy, 




Gakhrung, 


D6nka. 


Asleep, 


Ninddil," 


Mudti Ungdong, 


Ninda Idkha. 


Awake, 


Jdgil, 


Sidi mondong, 


Chdtdnka. 


Mature, 


Sidnd, 


Jholau, 


Whdntika. 


Young, 


Che'ngo'r, 


Gothoni, Galaini, 


Chan hika. 


Old, 


Budha, 


Brai, Buroi, j 


Wardng. 
Bering. 


Strong, 


Bali, 


Balo grd, 


Bal hika. 


Weak, 


Nibali, 


Balo geya, 


Bal mduthuka. 


Free, 








Confined, 


... 






Handsome, 


Songot, 


M<5j4ng, 


Elka? 


u^y, 


Baiya, 


Shdpmd, 


M4 elka. 


Short, I human 


Bdngrd, 


Gah^i, 


Bangra. 


Tall, j beings, 


Tdngha, 


Gajou, 


DhdngtL 


Fat, 


Mdta, 


Guphung, 


Dhdmka. 
Ch<5pka. 


Thin, 


Sukna, 


Gaham, 


Mhoika. 


Tired, weary, 


Thakit, 


Mdng chdo, 


Md'ika. 


Fresh, uutired, 


Athakit, 


Mdngyd gai, 


Md rndika. 


Lame, 


Le"ngra, 


Khora, 


K6hra. 


Blind, 


Kdna, 


Kdua, 


Kdna. 


Deaf, , 


Bahira, 


Bdnga, 


Bahira. 


Dumb, 


Gunga, 


Kdin <5nga, 


Gunga. 


Alone, 


Ekala, 


Hdshing, 


Ekaldng. 


Companioned, 


DosoreV, 


LagoM, 


Dosorhi. 


Learned, 


Gysini, 


Gydn ganang, 


Gydn hika. 


Ignorant, 


Ogydni, 


Gydn gdya, 


Gyan mdnthuka. 


Wise, 


Gydni, 


Gydn, ' 


Gydn hika. 


Foolish, 


Ogydni, 


Gydn geya", 


Gydn mdnthuka. 


Poor, 


Nidhoni, 


Houria, thakageya, 


Dhon mdnthtika. 


Rich, 


Dhoni, 


Dhon ganang, 


Dhon hika. 


Noisy, talkative, 


Ge'ngddia, 


Phidua, 


Phidua. 


Silent, 


Obola, 


Rdyd, thdndd, 


Chika piika. 


Dirty, 


Maila, 


Gini, | 


Mirhi. 
Machikan. 


Clean, 


Safa, 


Guphur, 


Chikan. 


Married, 


Bihdta, 


Noha jabai, 


Mougia. 


Single, 


( Akumdri, 
| Akwdri, 


JJholou (mas.), ) 
Sikala(foem.), j 


Dhtfni, 


Highborn, 


Kulin, 





... 


Lowborn, 


Akulin, 






Dependent, 


Porbos, 


Malaini, 


Bod^s. 


Independent, 


Aponbos, 


Gouini khusi, 


Tdides. 


Taxed, 


Mdlguzdri, 


Girini, 


Girini. 


Exempt, 


Mddfi, 


Mddfi, 


Madfi. 


Designed, 


... 






Accidental, 








Old, 


Ptirdna," 


Gozuim, 




New, 


Naya, 


Goddm, 


_ 


Present, 


Hajir, 


... 


. 


Absent, 


Ghair Hdjir, 




. . 


Ready, 


Tiydr, 


... 


. 


Unready, 




... 




Scarce, rare, 


Thora, 


... 


. 


Common, vulgar, 


Bohut, 




... 



VOCABULARY. 



57 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DktmAL 


Public, 


... 




... 


Private, 


... 




... 


Prosperous, 






... 


Unprosperous, 






... 


Saleable, 








Purchasable, 


... 




... 


Valuable, 


Kimati, 




... 


Worthless, 


Mond, 






Habitual, u>ual, 






... 


Unusual, strange, 








Similar, 


Somdn, 






Dissimilar, 


Asomdn, 


Gubun,'" 


Bhinang. 


Same, 


ETthi, 


... 


... 


Different, 


Juda, 


Gubun, 


Bhindug. 


Doubtful, 


Sanddhi, 




... 


Certain, 


Nichoi, 




... 


Deserted, 


Chon, 


... 


Didng mdnthuka. 


Frequented, 


Bosot bdri, 




Didng youka. 


Easy, 


Sohoj, 


Altud, 


... 


Difficult. 


Kosor, 


Gobrdp, 


Kardkard. 


Changeful, 


Asthir, 


Kholai, 


Lapha. 


Changeless, 


Sthir, 


Bobrai, 


Bobrai. 


Lucky, 


Subhdgya, 


... 




Unlucky, 


Obhdgya, 






Original, 


Asali, 


... 




Copied, 


Nokoli, 


... 




Methodical, 


Doul ad, 


Doul ganang, 


Doul Hik'a. 


Immethodical, 


Andoul se, 


Doul gdya, 


Doul manthuka. 


Fit, suitable, 


Ldik, 


Shomaiyo, 


Sha baika. 


Unfit, 


Na Idik, 


Shomaiyd, 


Mdsha baika. 


Orderly, 


Sdri, 




Sarika. 


Disorderly, 


Osdri, 


Chilai bilai, 


Mdsdrika. 


Profitable, 
Unprofitable, " 
Possessed, ten ens, 


Phalit, 
Ophalit, 


U'daigo, 
U'daiyd, 
Akhai ou, 


... 


Dispossessed, ousted, 




Akhai ou geya, 




Ornamented, 


Rongil, 


]tong gondg, 


Ronghika. 


Plain, 


Sddha, 


Rong ge"ya, 


Rung mdnthuka. 


Useful, 


Phalit, 


ll.inisin, 


... 


Useless, 


Ophalit, 


Hammdsin, 




Quick moving, active, 


Chtfktk, 


Gakhrai inouin, 


Dhimka chukka. 


Slow moving, inert, 


Gor chillak, 


Gdndo mouiu, 


\ Md dhimka. 

1 M:i chukka. 


Cilf.TJi, 


Sosta, 


OhMr, 


I.ankd. 


Dear, 


Mhdnga, 


igO, 


Jiakt. 




Pabitor, 




L.ika, 


.re, 


Opobitor, 




Mlrbl 




va, 


(Jilinai, 


r.n-i, ; 




Ndpochya, 


yo, 


I'odi in.i )>dka. 






Janaini, 


C| i: ika. 


ble, 


Nakhdbar, 


Jdydni, 




Manufactured, wrought, 


lUiiiiil, 






liaw KOU.IH. 




... 




Sharp-edged, 


Chrfkha," 


Gobbo, 


C'lu'ika, 




Bhotora, 


.\a, 


.uka. 


ied, 


Gura, 




>ka. 


Woven, 




:i.ii. 


Joka. 






Khuudong, 





VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Platted, 




Hdpnai, 


Puika. 


Spacious, wide, ample, 


Posdr, 


Guwar, 


Dhai dhaik. 


Contracted, 


Ato, 


Gdtch^p, 


Ato. 


Moving, 


Cholnir, 


Thabaiyo, 


Cholon hika. 


Motionless, 


Sthdvar, 


Thabaiyd, 


Cholon mdnthuka. 


Figured, 


Rupit, 


Rupganang, 


Rup hika. 


Figureless, 


Aurupit, 


Rtip geya, 


Rup mdnthuka. 


Luminous, 


Ujjdla, 


Shrdngui, 


Phor phora. 


Dark, obscure, 


Andhkdr, 


Kdm.shini, 


Chipka. 
Kitikitika. 


Opaque, 


... 


Nuyji, 


Mu <luoka. 


Pellucid, 


... 


Nuy^, 


D65ka. 


Blazing, 


Jolot, 


Jong jong, 


Tiika. 


Extinct, 


Nibhal, 


K.iniut bai, 


Slidka. 


The present time, 


Bartatudn, 


JdaMong, 


I'doug Bdla. 


The past, 


Bhuta, 


Japbai, 


Jdhi. 


The future, 


Bhavish, 




... 


Right, 


Dohiua, 


NiiRdtl, or A'gdd, 


Dam. 


Left, 


Bain, 


Nakchi, 


Lddd. 


Central, 


Madhyika, 


Gdjt<r, 


Mdnjhika. 


Lateral, 


Pda, 


Jiugni, 


Alikd. 


North, 


Uttar, 


Cha, 


Ddhdn. 


South, 


Dakshin, 


Klila", 


Mdhcn. 


East, 


Purab, 


Sanja, 


Nunhdn. 


West, 


Poschim, 


Shanap, 


Dinhdn. 


Passable, accessible, 


Podit, 


Pdt Ijlugii, 


... 


Impassable, ) 
Inaccessible, | 


Apodit, 


Pit haya, 


... 


Cultivated, 


Jotdha, 


Hu mousi, 


Ldng hika. 


Uncultivat 


Unj Ottilia, 


Hdgrdni, 


Dinchaka. 


Fruitful, rich, 


Osdr, 


Ghara, 


Elka. 


Barren, poor, 


AU5, 


Hamma, 


Maelka. 


Sandy, 


Balua, 


Balani Hu, 




Clayey, 


Chik thdli, 


Chik thali, 


Tyuka. 


Calcareous, 


Chunaini, 


... 


... 


Saline, 


Nunia, 


... 




Muddy, 


Ke'char.-i, 


Habduni, 


Kdddoka. 


Dusty, 


Dhuldha, 


Hddrini, 




B rakish water, 


Nunia, 


Shapma, 


Mdelka. 


Fresh, 


Mitha, 


J Gham, | 

1 Majang, ( 


Elka. 


Flowing, 


Bohonti, 


Buyti, 


Phaika. 


Still, 


Dhi, 


Bilu, Dongo, 


Mdphaika. 


Deep, 


Mdni, 


Gatho, 


Bhild. 


Shallow, 


Alpho, 


Thoua", 


K6mka. 


Windy weather, 


Batasia, 






Storm v, 


Andhia, 


... 




Fine, fair, 


Accha, 


Majang, ghdm, 


Elka. 


Cold, 


Thanda, 


Gushti, 


Tirka. 


Hot, 


Gorom, 


Gudum, 


Sddkd. 


Cloudy, 


Me'ghe'r, 


Ndkhdni, 


... 


Sunshiny, 


Ghdmer, 


Sydn dongni. 


... 


Rainy, wet, 


P4ni^r, 


... 




Dry, fair, 


Beh, 


Kokhahdyd, gaini, 


... 


Moist, full of vapour, 


Bhfja, 


Gichi, 


Jhakka. 


Moist, sappy, green, 
Juicy, 


Gila, 
Rasdil, 


Gothdng, 
Bide" gondng, 


Sinka. 
Ros jdnka. 


Juiceless, dry, 


Sukha, 


Bidd geyd, 


Ros mdnthukd. 



VOCABULARY. 



59 



English. 


Koc'-h. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Wet, ) 


Bhija, 


Gichi, 


Jhakka. 


Dry, V clothes, 


Sukhd, 


Grdn, 


Sinka. 


Woo'ded, close, ) 


, Jongoli, 


Hdgra goiiani?, 


Dinchahika. 


Naked, open, \ 


d ' O'sdr, 


Dhai dhai, 


Dhai dhaika. 


Coloured, 


Rongil, 


Rong goi;ang, 


Ika daka. 


Colourless, 


Sdda 


Rong gdya, 


J^ika. 


Red, 


Lai, ' 


Gatchd, 


Jika. 




Dhoula, 


Guphut, 


Jeika. 




Nil, 


Gotchom, 


Ddiika. 




Hara, 


Khdngshur, 


Ndlpd. 




Kdla, 


Gotchom, 


Dddka. 


Yellow, 


Pila, 


Guinnio, 


Youka. 


Sour, 


Titd, 


Gakhoi, 


Dak ha. 


Sw-.'t, 


Mitha, 


Gadoi, 


Taaka. 


Bitter, 


Kailuva, 


Gakha, 


Kl.aka. 


Ripe, 


Pakka. 


Gamnjang, 


Minka. 


Raw, 


I Kachha, 
\ Kancha, 


j Gathdng, 


Sinka. 


Rotten, 


Sara, 


Geche'o, 


Aika. 


Sound, 


Tdja, 


Ghjini, 


Ma aika. 


Stinking, 


Kugandhi, 


Khech ara, 


Ma yokka. 


Well-odoured, 


Sugandhi, 


Madamma, 


Yokka. 


Rough, 


Korkoria, 


Gobrd, 


Khor souka. 


Smooth, 


Chikna, 


Chil chil, 


Chikan. 


Hard, 


Kada, 


Gorra, 


Korkorka. 


Soft, 


Norom, 


Guroi, 


Norom. 


Straight, 


Sidhd, 


j Gotthong, j 
j Thong Jong, j 


' Ghduka. 


Crooked, 


Bekd, 


Khonkra, 


Kooka. 


Full, 


Bhorti, 


Tongo, Biinja, 


Bhdlj.a. 


Empty, 


Khdli, 


j Mungbo gcya, ) 
1 Geja, j 


Mdnthuka. 


Solid, 






... 


Hollow, 


... 


... 






Bhdri, 


Gillit or' 111 it, 


Lhika. 




Holka, 


R^chdng, 


Hdmka. 


(Jreat, 


Dado, 


G^ddt, 


Dhdiuka. 


Small, 


Choto, 


Muddi, 


Mhoika. 


Lon& 


Ldmba, 


Gallon, 


Khinka. 


Short, 


Choto, 


Guchum, 


P6toka. 




Chowra, < 


Gi'idr, 


,i-ka. 


>vr t 


Tanp, A'to, 


Odchi-j), 


Chn.ka. 


High, 


U'tv 


Gajou, 




Low, 


Vid 


[i, 


Btfngi 




Gol, 


Toloiiii, 


Gotaka. 




Chun ko: 


niaiil>r('i)i, 


Did thunika. 


iar, 


,ia, 


i nianchc'iii, 


E'lon^ tip 


Broken, 


Tutd, 




Hhoika. 




. 


( 

Biiiiain.', 


Md bh 


I m porous, 










Khuld, ' 


Kl, 


H,'k;[. 


Shut, 


BonJ, 


J<5khl)j)tn<>, 




Spread, 


Asar, 




: 


FoUl.,1. 


Goto, 


Hutunxlong, 


Join pdka. 


Expanded, Mown, 
a flo 


ntat 


Bdrehara, 


DtfrU, 



6o 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Closed, shut, do., 


... 


Kh6kj6p, 


Chdpka. 


Tight, 


Tdntdn, 


Tdnatan, 


Tdntdu. 


Slack, 


Dhila, 


Gurrun, 


... 


Loose, unsteady, 


Larbaria, 


Ludo ludo, 


L&ka. 


Fixed, firm, 


Thir, 


Gakhrdng, 


Kdrkdrka. 


Cooked, 


Kdndha, 


Gomon, 


Minka. 


Haw, 


Kancha, 


Gothdng, 


Sinka. 


Hairy, 


Romdil, 


Khomon gondng, 


Mu'ishu hika. 


Hairless, 


Cholchol, 


Khomon ge"yd, 


Muishu mdtithuka. 


Feathered, 


... 




... 


Scaly, 


... 


... 


... 


VERBS. 


( 


Komi, ) 


Mouno, ) 




To do, 


Koribar or 


Khldmno, 


Pdli. 


( 


Korinu, J 


Khajdmno, ) 




Not to do, 


Na korinu, 


Moud gaino,! 


Md pdli. 


To undo, 






... 


To do over again, 




Mou phinno, 


Nhe'chuto pali.* 


To shape, form, make, 


... 


Dddno, 


Banaili. 


To change, form, or \ 
alter, j 


Bodol koriiui, j 


Baiuo, 
Slaino, \ 


Shooli. 


To be (ease), 


H6bar, 


Jddno, 


J^ngli. 


Not to be, 


Na h<5bar, 


Jda gaino, 


Mdjdugli. 


To become, 


H<5bar, 


Jdano, 


J^ngli. 


To come to pass, ) 
happen, \ 


Asia poribar, 


Jdd phoino, 


Dhuli. 
Ldtdug wdngli. 


To create, ) , 


Sujibar, 


... 




To destroy, \ g ' 


Nasht korinu, 


Nasht khldmno, 


Nasht pdli. 


To be born. 


Janam hobar, 


Janam jdduo, 


Janam jdngli. 


To give birth to, ) 
produce, \ 


Janam dibar, | 


Gophaino, 
Uptan hotno, \ 


Janam pili. 


To deliver, accoucher, 


... 






To nurse, wet, 


Dudh khilibar, 


Abu d<5no, 


Dvido dm pdli. 


To nurse, dry, 








To live, 


Jibar, 


Thdngno, 


Singlholi. 


To die, 


Mi>ribar, 


Thuino, 


Sili. 


To kill, j 


Mdria pha- ( 
Idnu, 1 


Shitbatno, \ 
Watno, j 


Sheli. 


To grow, 


Badibar, 


D^tno, 


... 


To decay, decline, 


Ghotibar, 


Brai Idngno, 


Wardng j^ngli. 


To be mature, 


Sydn hobar, 


Jholau jddno, 


AVhdntika jdngli. 


To feel, be bodily ) 
sensible of, \ 


... | 


Shutrting khldmno: ) 
Disha khldmno, \ 


Shurti pali. 


To perceive, mentally, 


Chininu, 


Shutrung khldmno, 


Shtirti pdli. 


To think, 


Phum korinu, 


Mithino, 


Ph6m pdli. 


To desire, 


Chdhinu, 


Labaino : ) 
Gasho khajdmno, \ 


Khdngli. 


To remember, 


Ydd korinu, 


Shutrung khajdmno, 


Phdm pdli. 


To forget, 


Bhulinu, 


Bouno, 


Nilli. 


To learn, 


Sikhinu, 


Chul(5ngno, 


Dhirli. 


To teach, 


Sikha dinu. 


Phiirrougno, 


Dhir pdli. 


To educate, 


Pdtdibarordinu 






To read, 


Padbinu, 


Chaldngno ? 


Porhli. " 


To write, 


Lelhinu, 


Litno, 


Leihli. 



* Nh^chiito from gne, 2, and chot, bout, turn, do'jdra in Hindi. It should therefore be 
written Gncduito passim. 



VOCABULARY. 



61 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To sign, 


Doskot korinu, 


Doskot litno, 


Chdp pili. 


To seal, 


Chap inn, 


Chdp thuno, 


Chdp pili. 


To sin, 


Pap konu, 


Pdp khajdmno, 


Pdp pdli. 


To err. 


Bhulinu, 


Bauno, 


Bhuldli. 


To revenge, 


Bodol libar, 


Bodol sophinno, 


Bodol pdli. 


To forgive, 


Madf konu, j 


Doya khldmno, ) 
Ndgdrno, \ 


Doya pdli. 


To repent, 


Patch kdnu, 


Jingjt sino, 


Patch taili. 


To intend, purpose, 


Mansuba korinu, 


Gasho rdkhina? 


Mansuba pdli. 


To endeavour, 


Anthinu, 


Jdngi khaprdno, 


Kdnkni tdpli. 


To persevere, con- ) 
tinue doing, \ 


Kortd rdbar, 


Mouin thdno, 


Pdkatdng hili. 


To desist from, 


Thdkibar, 


Kdgdrno, 


Ldp pdli. 
Ldpli. 


To enjoy, use, 


Bhoginu, 






To use, bring into use, 


Kdinot lagdnu, 






To disuse, lay by, 


Chorinu, nlkhiuu, 


Danno, 


Ldp pili. 


To know, understand, 


Bujhinu, 


Mithino, 


Gdli. 


To be ignorant of, { 
not understand, \ 


Na bujhinu, 


Mithi gaino, 


Md gcli. 


To cause to know, ) 
to explain, \ 


... 


Mithiya hotno ? 


G51i pdli. 


To believe, 


Patidnu, 


Ghdm mithinu, 


Sdpli. 


To disbelieve, 


Na patiana, 


Hammd mithinu, 


Md sdpli. 


To doubt, hesitate, 


Son ddhi konu, 


Ganogoto khldmno, | 


Dommo kommo 
pali. 


To be sure, 


Nichoi jdnibar, 






To make up mind, ) 


Taharounu, 






determine, \ 








To resemble, 


Somdn hobar, 


Somdn jddno, 


Somdn je'ngli. 


To differ, 


Osomdn hobar, 


Dd somdn jddno, 


Masoman jengli. 


To compare, 


Milaibar, 


Rujuno, 


Jora chd pdli. 


To cajole, wheedle, 


Bhur kdnu, 


Bur klaino, 


Bdng pdli. 


To please, 


Khus korinu, 


Khusi khldmno, 


Khus pdli. 


To displease, 


Na khus koi inu, 


Khusi khlamma gaiuo, 


Mdkhus pdli. 


To esteem, 


Bodo mdninu, 


Mdni chuno, 


Manrli. 


To despise. 


Choto mdninu, 


Munya gaiuo, 


Md mandli. 


To decry, run down, 


Badndm konu, 


... 




To deceive, mislead, 


Blitila konu, 


Bouhotno, 


Nilli pdli. 


To per.xu.-ul", 


Maniiini, 


Rodougno, 


... 


To dissuade, 


Bodadinu. ) 

I'.iir.ui korinu, \ 


I?;i<Ia hotno, 


Bddd pil. 


To'attend to, to heed, 


M;iiiiliil, 


M;inino, 


Mdndli. 


To neglect, 


>inu, 


Msiiivd ^ainc, 


Mdmdn.-li. 


To confirm, 


kuril.ar, 


lakhinu, 




To annul, 


: il ;ir, 


Hod kluijutnno, 




To allow, permit, 


B .iil>ar. 






To disallow, pn 




tllM, 


Bddapili. 


rdiot, 


Bada diuu, 




Bdiia pili. 


To succeed, 


Pat inu, 


> : ddhdno, 




To be able, 


Sakinu, 




i 




nnu, 


Haagaino, Jdnno, 


lid dddngli. 


> be able, 


NA sakinti, 




... 


>nder at, 


iinu, 


ino, 


ill. 


-approve, 


.."Till, 

Nd posin konn. 


Phosin khldmno, 
Da phosin khldmno, 


; 
Md posin pdli, 


in- ) 
mend, praise, j 


i korinu, 




Posin pdli. 



62 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To censure, blame, 


Ninda konu, 




Mil posin pdli. 


To hiss, loudly decry, 


Chichi bolibar, 






To cheer, loudly applaud, 


Shdbdshi koriuu, 






To cheer, comfort, ) 
cherish, protect, \ 


Pdshinu, 


Posh khldmno, 


Pdsh pdli. 


To neglect, abandon, 


Tydg korinu, 


Ndgdrno, 


Md posh pdli. 


To encourage, 


Sahos dibar, 


Bhorsa hotno, 


Bhorsa pili. 


To discourage, 


U'dds koribar, 


Gi hotno, 


... 


To abuse, revile, 


Gdlidihtlr, 


Raichdno, 


Naili. 


To frighten, 


D6r kbildibar, 


... 


Uchili. 


To be afraid, j 


Dor khilibar or ) 
khdbar, \ 


Giyuno ? 


Ldchi pdlL 


To tranquillise, 


Sdnt korinu, 






To be tranquil, 


Sdnt hobar, 






To brawl, 


Jhogra korinu, 


Ndng jalaino, 


Naishuli.' 


To brag, boast, 


Badhai korinu, 


Dui Iduo, 


(Jophi dopli. 


To condole with, 


Thdtib diiiu, 


... 


Thdtib pili. 


T<> annoy, vex, tease, ) 
irritate, \ 


Dukh dinu, 


Duk hotno, 


Dukh pili. 


To love, feel affection, 


Mdya konu, 


"VYaiK-hdno, 


Doya pdli. 


To hate, feel malice, 


(Jhin konu, 


Mcigino, 


Chika pdli. 


To hope, 


Bhdrsa konu, 


Gironga jddno, 


Bhorsd udnli. 


To fear, 


Hatda khdbar, 


Gichino, 


Ldchili. 


To tell a lie, 


Jhut bolinu, 


Santha laino, 


Mitcha ddpli. 


To tell the truth, 


Sacch bolinu, 


Thdngjdng raino, 




To rejoice, n., 




Khusi jddno, 


Khusi jdngli. 


To grieve, n., 




... 




To satisfy, a., 








To disappoint, a., 








To command order, 


Hukam dinu, 


Hukam hotno, 


Hukam pili. 


To countermand, 


Bdda dinu, 


1 '.j'u la hotno, 


Biida pili. 


To ..bey, 


Hukdm mdninu, 


Hukam manino, 


Hukain mdndli. 


( 
To disobey, 


Hukam nd ) 
radninu, \ 


Hukam many a ( 
gaino, j 


Hukam mii m;i- 
ndli 


To question, 


Puchiuu, 


Songno, 


HillL 


To answer, 


Jowdp dinu, 


Rili douno, 


Dopli. 


To assent, 


Kabul konu, 


Ougo raino, 


Mandli. 


To dissent, 


Nd kabul konu, 


Ongd raino, 


Mil manuli. 


To affirm, 




Ongo raino, 




To deny, 




Ongd raino, 




To speak, talk, say, 


Bolinu, 


Raino, 


Ddpll 


To repeat, say again, 


Dobdra bolinu, 


Rai phinno, 


Khdchota, ddpli. 


To announce, tell, inform, 


Khopor dinu, 




... 


To summon, call, 


Ddkibar, 


Ling hdtno, 


Kaili. 


To call out, shout, 


Gondogol konu, 


Hdchino, 


Rhi kaili. 


To accost, salute, 


Saheb salamat j 
konu, \ 


Khulumno, 


Domli. 


To invite, 


Nyota korinu, 






To visit, 








To entertain guests, 








To request, solicit, 


Binti konu, 


Binti khldmno, 


Banti pdli. 


To beg alms, 
To refuse, 


Bhik mdnginu, 
Nd dibar, 


Ddu bino, ' 
Dd hotno, 


Dan rhdli. 
Ma pili. 


To ask, interrogate, j 


Jdchinu, 


Songno, 


Hilli. 


inquire, \ 








To offer, tender, 


Bhurkibar. 


Hotno, 


Pili. 


To accept, 


Libdr. 


Liino, 


Rhuli. 


To reject, 


Nd libar. 


Dd Idno, 


Mil rhuli. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


KoccJi. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To help, 


Modod dibar, 


Chumpbduo, 


... 


To hinder, 


Horoj dibar, 


H6mtano, 


Tdnkdli. 
Rhdli. 


To advise, give advice, 


Saldh dinu, 


San jalaino, 


Saldh pili. 


To consult, ask advice, 


Saldh mdnginu, 




Saldh rhuli. 


To quarrel, 
To be reconciled, 


Jhogra kouu, 
Milinu, 


Ndng jalaiuo, 
Bdug jalaino, 


Nai shuli. 
Ldili. 


To curse, 


Snip dinu, 


Snip botno, 


Srdp pili. 


To bless, 


Asirbdd dinu, 


Tbdug baita raino, 


Sing teng hili. 


To forswear, j 


Kirya khdi cbdri j 


Sboinai Idndne ( 


Kirya chdteng Idp 


renounce, \ 


diuu, \ 


ndgdrno, j 


pili. 


To take oath, 


Kirya khabar, 


Shomai Idno, 


Kirya. 

Chdli. 


To give oath, 


Kirya khai dibar, 


Sh6maild hotno, 


Kirya chdpdli. 


j 
To swear falsely, 


Jhuta kirya / 
khabar, j 


Mitcha shotuai / 
Idno, j 


Micha kirya chdli. 


To preserve, 


Bdchd korinu, 






To destroy, 


Jsosht korinu, 






To hurt beings, 


Cbot dinu, 






To in jure, deteriorate ) 
goods, j 


Khardb konu, 







To benefit, 


Bbalo konu, 


Gbdm kbldmno, 


Elka pdl . 


To wrong, 


Biira konu, 


Hainma khldiuno, 


Mdelkapali. 


To converse, 


Bolinu, 


Raino, 


Dopli. 


To be silent, 


Chup honu, 


Sritbdno, 


Chikdli. 


To silence, 


Chup korinu, 


Sritbd hotno, 


Chika p;ili. 


To make a noise, j 


Gondogol ko- j 
rinu, j 


Gondogol kha- ) 
jdnino, j 


Gondogol piili. 


To laugh, 


in, 


Minino, 


L('n^li. 


To smile, 


Miiski hasinu, 


Minisluno, 


Atoisa Idngli. 


To weep, 


Runu, 


Gapno, 


Kharli. 


an, 






... 


To sob, 






... 


To squint, 


Tdra ddkbinu, 


Kbunkd naino, 


K<V,kakhdugli. 




Chikinu, 


Hdcbuno, 


Hftchuli 


L'h, 


Klni^inu, 


Gujuno, 


Sl.uli. 


To BW; 


:nu, 


lioloDgno, 


KS1L 


ch, 


Dliikar konu, 


Gotno, 


])ikaroldli. 


.rt, 


Pat korinu, 


Kii haino, 


Lipaili. 


To spit, 


Ti.uk pi aliuu, 


Mujuno, 


i,i diihli. 


"W, 


Choi 


Chouno, 


Chobaili. 


te, 


Katibar, 






To kira, give, 


.a <libar, 


Kou<loiu liotno, 


rliunia pili. 


To kiss, take, 




:"in lano, 


Chuma rhiili. 




i i 






ulate, 


i modi / 
inn, \ 


Klionio, 


Luli. 


To cause to 






D.-inkha taj ipula. 




hdri liobar. 


pliulino, 




.8t in stomach, 


Hoinj'.ni konu, 


Gilioo, 


Tori, 


'*, 


Mil, 


Clmldno, 




To suck, 


mi, 


110, 


,li. 


To .,..,-, 


Dekhib.ir, 


1 




To bear, 








To taste, 


Chdk 




hili. 


To smell, 


SuflgiUr, J 


Sn'ik ln'ino. j 
Maudtu chuno, \ 


Nhuli. 



6 4 



VOCABULARY. 



English. Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To touch, Chubar, 


Ddngno : chetnaino, 


Vdrli. 


To piss, Mutibar, 


Hdsuno, 


Chich'dli. 


To shit, Hdgibar, 


Khiuo, 


Lishili. 


To eat, Khdbar, 


Jdno, 


Chdli. 


To drink, Pibar, 


Ltingno, 


Amli. 


To cook, Rdndhdn konu, 






To sleep, Sutibar, 


Muduno, 


Jimli. 


To wake, self, Jdgibar, 


Sidi manno, 


Chdtdmli. 


To wake another, Jdgtd konu, 


Phajdno, 


Lhdpdli. 


To dream, Sopon ddkhibar, 


Simang naiuo, 


Sopdn ddli. 


To breathe, Sdns libar, 


Hdugldno, 


UTcds rhuli. 


To sweat, Jhdshibar, 


Galamno, 


Bhdmli. 


To palpitate, tremble, Kdmpibar, 


Modom mouno, 


Phirli. 


To make easy, facilitate, Sohoj korinu, 


Gdndo khajdmno, 


Hdl pdli. 


To make difficult, Kosor korinu, 


Goprdp khldmno, 


Kiii dkdni pdli. 


To risk, put in hazard, 




... 


To escape, Bdcbinu, 


Gdno, gobaino, 


Bda chili. 


To save, deliver, Rakhya korinu, 


Gdn hotno, 


Bdnchd pdli. 


To stay with, abide by, Dosor robar, 


Lagochd thdno, 


Etdndug hili. 


To desert, abandon, ) , , , . 
leave, \ ^> nu> 


Ndgdrno, 


Bhindng haddli. 


To change, be mutable, Asthir hob..r, 


Sldino ? 


Shdbli. 


To make, change, alter, Bodol koriuu, 


Sldi jalaino, 


Shdo pdli. 


To meet, fall in with, Bhdtinu, 


Lagomanno, 


Dusuli. 


To part, go apart, Juda gdnu, 


Gubun gubun thdngno, 


Bhindng hadeli. 


To come together, Song dsinu, 


Lagochd phoino, 


Ddsd Idli. 


To bring together, \ Song li dsinu, < 


Mislaino, 
Lagoche* danno, 


Miso laili. 


To separate, segregate, Jiida korinu, 


Gubtin gubun khldmno, 


Bhindng pdli. 


To crowd, make crowd, Bhir korinu, 


Mdnushi phutumno, 


Didng shdli. 


To contrive, devise, Jugti koriuu, 


Buddhi khldmno, 


Bdddhi pdli. 



To com pel, constrain, 
oblige, 

To leave, option, 

To choose, take option, 

To choose, select, 

To copy, imitate, 
pattern, 

To imitate, take off, 
mock, 

To share out, dis- 
tribute in shares, 

To produce, 

To consume, 

To gain, 

To loose, 

To work, labour, 

To play, amuse oneself, 

To rest, 

To be tired, 

To tire, another, 

To adorn, 

To disfigure, 

To dress, self, 

To dress, another, 
To undress, self, 
To undress, another, 



Chun koribar, 


Sai khono, 


Saltdng chtimli. 


Nokol korinu, 


Nokol khldmno, 


Nokol pdli. 


B; in tin u, 


Rdnno, 


Bdnta pili. 


Kamai konu, 


U'ptan khldmno, 


Kamai pali. 


Khoroch korinu, 


Hdni khldmno, 


Bai pdli. 


Nafa khdbar, 


... 


Nafa chdli. 


Noksdn khdbar, 




Nakedn chdli. 


Kismot konu, 


Habba mouno, 


Leng kdmli ? 


f, Khdlinu, 






Thdkinu, 





" " " 


Thdka korinu, 


... 




Songot korinu, 


Majdng khldmno, 


Elka pali. 


Be'rup korinu, 


Sbdpma khajdmno, 


Md elka pdli. 


Kapra pinibar, | 


Hi gdnno, 
Hi gumno, 


[ Dhdbagupli. 




Hi gitn hotno, 


Dhdba gup pdli. 


Kapra phdlinu, 


Hi khuno, 


Dhdba chibli. 


... 


Hi khu hotuo, 


Dhiibd chip pdli. 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To guide, direct, 


... 


Ldmd dinthino, 


Ddrna dop pili. 


To misguide, 






I);un;i awaili. 


To lead, 


Agot ge*nu, j 


Sigouno, | 
Sigang Idngno, ) 


Lampdng had^li. 


To follow, 


Pacho dsinu, 


Yuno phoino, 


Nhu choleli. 


To clasp, embrace, 


K<51 korinu, 


Gobdno, 


Baali. 


To baptise, name, 


Ndm rdkhibdr, 


Mung ddno, 


Ming tdli. 


To wean, 


An khilibdr, 


Abu ndgiir hotno, 


Dudu Idp-pdli. 


To many, 


Bibah koriuu, 


Habba khla'muo, 


B^h^ chumdli. 


To divorce, 


... 


Hinjou ndgdrno, 


B^wal-du-pili. 


To bury, 


Mdti dibdr, 


Phopno, 


LiblL 


To burn, corpse, 


Phun kinu, 


Shouno, 


Duiili. 


To mourn, for dead, 


... 


... 




To iuherit, 


Wdrsi bh'ag libdr, 






To acquire, 


Kamainu, 






To serve menially, 


Chdkori korinu, 






To cheat, defraud, 


Thaginu, 


Chale"no ? 


Chdldli."" 


To steal, 


Churi korinu, 


Sikhou khouno, 


Churi pali. 


To rob, 


Ddka" mdrinu, 


Luthino, 


Daka pdli. 


To murder, 


Khun korinu, 


Shithatno, 


Khun pdli. 


To beat, 


Pitinu, 


Shuno, 


Ddnghaili. 


To maim, 


Ghail konu, 


... 


... 


To commit rape, 








To commit adultery, 








To promise, give and ) 


Kordl korinu, di- ( 


Kordl Idno and ) 


Kordl pili and 


take promise, \ 


bdr and libdr, j 


hotno, \ 


rhuli. 


To impignorate, 


Bandhak rakhinu, 


Bandak hotno, 


Bdndd pili. 


To redeem, pledge, 


... 


Bandak labono, j 


Bdnda. 
U'Mng pdli. 


To complain, tax with | 
wrong-doing, 


Ndlish korinu, 




... 


To sue, legally, 




... 


... 


To prosecute, ditto, 






... 


To examine, try legally, 


Tajvij konu, 




... 


To prove, establish J 
judicially, j 


Sdbit konu, 


... 


... 


To decide, decree, ditto, 


Hukam dibtlr, 




... 


To sentence, condemn, 






... 


To fine, 


Donr libdr, 


Dimr Idno, 


Donr rhuli. 


To punish. 


Sdsti diUr, 


Sdsti hotno, 


Sdati pili. 


To hang (per collum), 


Phdnsi dibdr, 






To imprison, 


Kaid korinu, 






To give physic, 


Oshod dih.-ir, 


Muli hotno, 


Oshor am pdli. 


To take physic, 


Oshod libdr, 


Muli Idno, 


Oshor amli. 


To bleed, let blood, 


PhiiBt lit.;lr, 






To pay taxes, 
vy taxes, 


na dibjlr, 
Khajana lihdr, 


Kli.tj.-ma hotno, 

KliajntiH l;iii<, 


Khaj.-in.i ]>ili. 
Khajana rliuli. 


To let, 


Bhdra lil-iir, 


Kibjiii lano, 


Bhdra rhuli. 


To hire, 


Bhdra 


M hotno, 


Bhdra pili. 


To appraise. 


i'hou kouu, 


I'lioii klihttnno, 


... 


To coat, 


' ", 


Bhau jddno, 


Ddm jYngli. 


To buy, 


Kinibar, 




1 


To sell, 


B&hiW. 


Phanno, 


1'illi. 


hange, barter, 


Bodol ki.iiu. 


SI aii 10, 


Shuli. 


To calculate, reckon, 


Gonti korinu, 


8hydnii'>, 


Can hili. 


ney, 


::nn, 




Dhdr pili. 


To borrow, 


Dhdr linu, 


i.iii", 


Dhdr rhuli. 


.v, 








VOL. 










66 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To pay, 


Chukti korinu, 




Dhdr sujili. 


To give credit, 


... 


... 




To weigh, 


Toulinu, 


Chuno, 


D<5ngli. 


To measure, 


Ndpinu, 


Chuno, 


Ddngli. 


To build house, 


... 


Nuo luno, 


Sd ddmli. 


To quarry stone, 




Onthai joukhono, 




To make bricks, 


I'nt pdrinu, 


Ithd ddiino, 




To engrave on stone or metal, 
To fuse, make melt, 


... 


Gili hotno, 


Gili pdii. 


To melt, self, 


Galinu, 


Gilino, 


GileU 


To mould, cast, 




... 


... 


To manufacture, 


Banaibdr, 


Ddano, 


Thirli. 


To dye, 


Rong dibdr, 


Rong hotno, 


Rong pili. 


To grind (corn, &c.), 


Pisinu, 


Yunno, 


Mhaili. 


To give edge, 


Bdr dinu, 


Bdr hotno, ) 
Yunno, \ 


Bdr pili. 

Laili. 


To blunt edge, 


... 


Hutromno, 


Bhoi pdli. 


To mine, 


... 




... 


To smelt, 


... 






To refine, 








To polish, 


Chikou konu, j 


Gochong kha- ) 
jdmno, j 


Rhiwapdli. 
Man j ili. 


To glaze, varnish, 


Chikon konu, 






To hammer, 


... 


Dun<5, 


T<56li. 


To saw, 


... 


Chin khouno, 


Chde-li. 


To sew, stitch, 


Silai konu, 


Shuno, 


J6o"li. 


To mend clothes, 


... 


... 


... 


To make clothes, 


... 




... 


To weave, 


i 


Hiddano, ' ) 
Ddano, j 


Thirli. 


To spin, 


Sat kdtinu, 


Khundung luno, 


Kate-li. 


To knit, 




J&kbdno, 


Puili. 


To tan leather, 


Sichibar, 


Chungno, 


... 


To express sugar or oil, 


Pdrinu, 


PheVe"tno, 


Pe>eU 


To shave, 


Mundinu, 


Chimno, 


Kdmli. 


To bathe, 


Sndu konu, 


Dugwino, 


Cheuli. 


To wash clothes, 


... 


Chuno, 


PheU 


To dry clothes, 


... 


Ldmno, 


Shdnli. 


To cook, 


Rondhou konu, 




... 


To roast, 


... j 


Y6phrdmu>, 
Youno, \ 


^ 
i 


To boil, 




Chongno, 


Khinli. 


To fry or grill, 




Hdugno, 


Holi. 


To bake, 


... 






To brew, 




Ch6*ngno, 


Yu gail'i. 


To distil, 


... 


Chouno Jousouno, 


Chuaili. 


To turn with lathe, 






... 


To print cloth, 


Chdpibar, 






To make rope, 




Chdno, 


Bataili. 


To bleach, 


... 






To make basketry, 




He*pno, 


Gothaili. 


To paint, 
To sing, 


Ronginu, 
Gdinu, 


Rong hotno, 
Rojdpno, 


Gabaili. 
Le-e-li. 


To play music, 


Bdjd konu, 


Damno, 


Be&L 


To sculpture, 


... 




... 


To cement, glue, 


Sdtinu, 


Chitapno, 




To paste, 


Le>ibdr, 


Le"i hotuo, 


Ix?i pili. 


To plaster walls, 


Le"pibdr, 


Litno, 


Ldpili. . 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


A'orc^. 


Bodo. 


DhimaL 


To breed, cattle, 


... 


Galai goplmtno, 


Tosh hili. 


To fatten, ditto, 


j 


Guphuug ) 
khlttinuo, \ 


Dhdm pdli. 


To feed, simply, 


... 


Jsihotno, 


Chd pdli. 


To slaughter, 




Danthatno, 


Pdlli. 


To flay, 


... 


Bigur khiino, 


Dlulld Iholi. 


To shear, 




Hdch6 gdrno, 


Che hili. 


To milk, 


... 


Dudii chorotno, 


Diulii chdpli. 


To churn, 






Moheli. 


To cultivate, agricul- | 
turally, j 


Kheti konu, j 


Shyiim ddno,* ) 
Hu mouno, \ 


Ling pdli. 


To dig, 


Khan dibar, 


Joune, 


Tooli. 


To plough, 


JiStibar, chiwnu, 


Humouno, 




To harrow, 


rk'iigil kona, 


Moi hotno, 


Moi pili. 


To maim re, 


Sa> dibdr, 


S4r hotno, 


Sdr pili. 


To sow, 


Chitibdr, 


Pbuno, Gdino, 


Ddlli. 


To reap, 


Kdtibar, 


Hdno, 


Ch&lL 


To transplant, 


Rtfpibar, 


Gaino ? 


Thinli. 


To weed, 


Chikan phdlinu, 


Chdkhd ddngno, 


Chalai upli. 


To irrigate, 


Sichinu, 


Doi" hotno, 


Chi pili. 


To desiccate, 




Doi shdtno, 


Shdp pili. 


To thrash, 


Pitinu, 


... 


... 


To winnow, 


Sup korinu, 


Shibno, 


Om ydpli. 


To stack, 


Kalian konu, 


Hungno, 


J(5m p;ili. 


To germinate or sprout, 


Phutinu, 


Rojdnd, 


Y61L 


To grow, 


Bodhinu, 


Gajo jd4no, 


llanli. 


To flower, 


Phulinu, 


Bdrno, 


BtlrlL 


To fruit, 


Phalinu, 


Thaino, 


Siioli. 


To ripen, 


Pdkinu, 


Monno, 


Miuli. 


To rot, 


Sadinu, 


Cb^ono, 


Aili. 


To blow, as wind, 


Boliinu, 


Bohino, 


Bdhili. 


To blow, apply breath, 


Phukinu, 


Chuno, 


Mluili. 


To shine, aa sun, 


Chamkinu, 


Gongno, | 
Modinno, \ 


Khiwiili. 
Chilkali. 


To rain, 


Bdraibdr, 


Noklid, h^no, 


Waildli. 


To thunder, 


Gargibdr, 


Khoromno, 


Duili. 


Tolighten, flash,aslightning, 


Chomkon korinu, 


Mv'iphldmno, 


Kniwiili. 


To hail, 


1'iit.har porinu, 


Korthai gukliSuo, 




To snow, 


11 rni i Mid in u, 


Hi'tii galaino, 


ITrni longli. 


To freeze, congeal, 


JomibaV, 


lkhikauo, 


Joinli. 


To thaw, 


Gilibtfr, 


Gilino, 


Gsildli. 


To burn, self, 


Joliuu, 


AV<lt jungno, 


Till. 


T> burn, another, 


... 


Sou ^rilrno, 


Ti psili. 


To glow, be of a glow, 


Ihiliakinu, 


\\'at j.ini; bal<5no, 


UlOli. 


To make glow, 


1 ali konu, 


iitil'iouno, 


Lho ].;ili. 


To light, candle or 


Jolot konu, 


Jung hotno, ) 
rio, j 


Tii ptili. 


To extinguish, 


NiUiil konu. 


Klmmatno, 


NiKl.aili. 


To illumine, a room, 


Ujjiila konu, 


Slinlng khajjlinno, 


. 




A'mlliiT konu, 


Kli/unslii klilaiuii", 




To flow, water, 


I'.oliinu, 


I'.'lii laiignn. 


IMnli. 


To make flow, 1 


... 


I'.' 'hi hotno, 




me, 


A'ibar, " 


Phoino, 




Togo, 








To remain, 








To return, 




r 


iuli? 



* To cut down the forwt, a prooeM equivalent 



ti, p*7pl4 tooulttwttoa 



68 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimal. 


To approach, 


Logod dsinu, 


Khatiou phoino, 


Chengsho hadeli. 


To retire, go off, 


Diire jaUir, 


Gatchdn thdngno, 


Bhindng haddli. 


To journey, 


Jatrd konu, 


Jatra khldmno, 


Jdtra pdli. 


To arrive, 


Pohunchino, 


Srikhino, Chono, 


Leli. 


To depart, 


Chalia ge'nu, 


Thdngno, 


Hadeli. 


To enter, 


Bhitor soniiinu 


Sing hopno, 


Lipta wdngli. 


To go out, 


Bahir nikalnu, 


Bahir thdngno, 


Bdhir oldli. 


To make haste, 


.Told konu, 


Gakri khldmno, 


Dhim pdli. 


To delay, 


Bilombh konu, 


Ldshi Idshi khldmno, 


Bilomb pdli. 


To walk, as quad- ) 
ruped or man, \ 


BeVdnu, 


Thdbaino, 


Higilli. 


To fly, as bird, 


LTribdr, 


Birno, 


Bhirli. 


To creep, as insect, 


Reuginu, 


Mdn baino, 


Sureuraili. 


To pace or stride, as ) 
man, \ 


Kodom konu, 


Thabaino, 


Higilli. 


To run, 


Dourinu, 


Khotno, 


Dhdpli. 


To run away, flee, 


Bhdginu, 


Khat Idngno, 


Kbdtli. 


To gallop, horse, 








To trot, ditto, 








To leap, 


Tirpanu, 


Bdtno, 


Tdnli. 


To hop, skip, 


Kudinu, 


Bdjalono, 


Hid gili. 


To kick, 


]jdt mdrimi, 


Jono, 


Ldt hili. 


To scratch, 


Aohuianu, 


Khurchino, 


Khdli. 


To stin?, as bee, 


Binnu, 


Jiiyuno, 


Chuli. 


To strike with hand, 


M.irinu, 


Shuno, 


Ddng haili. 


To strike, beat, with ) 
stick, j 


Mdrinu, 


Shuno, 


Ddng haili. 


To cut, 


Kdtinu, 


Ddno, Hdno, 
Phono,* 


Pd pili. 


To thrust or push, 


l>ht'kiinu, 


Ndgdr^tno, 
Chojaretuo, 


Dhd kaili. 


To pull, 


Tdnnu, 


B6n6, 


Tdn pdli. 


To catch, as thrown, 


Dhorinu, 


Chap khdngno, 


Bimli. 


To throw, 


])!iUm" 1U ' 


Gdr hotno, 


Jhdt&i. 


To throw away, 


Apluilinu, 


Gar hotno ? 


Chipli. 


To pinch, 


Nochinu, 


Khe'pno, 


Chim thaili. 


To swim. 


Porinn, 


Santre'no, 


Noili. 


To drown, sink, self, 


Dubinu, 


Hapno, 


Dubili. 


To make sink or drown, 




Hap hotno, 


Dubi pdli. 


To stand, 


Thdru honu, 


Gochonguo, 


Jdpli. 


To fall, 


Poribdr, 


Gataino, 


Ix5ngli. 


To mnke stand, 


Thar konu, 


Gochong hotno, 


Jdp pdli. 


To make fall or throw ) 
down, ) 


The'lia phaldnu 


, Ndkh laino, 


Thdliteug long pdli. 


To sit down, 


Bosinu, 


Chdono, 


Yongli. 


To get up, 


Uthinu, 


Jhi khdngno, 


Lholi. 


To lie down, 


Ausiinu, 


Sunatno, 


Aus^li. 


To take up, 


Uthaibdr, 


Daikhangno, 


Toth^li. 
Lh6 pdli. 


To set down, 


Rdkhibar, 


Dan no, 


Tddli. 


To put, place, set in | 
place, \ 


Rakhibar, 


Dan no, 


Tddli. 


To fetch, bring, 


L.'asibar, 


Ldbono, 


Chumt^ng l^li. 


To take away, 


Le'jdbar, 


Ldngno, 


Chum poli. 


To carry, bear, 


Bokibdr, 


Bdno, 


Phuli. 



Phono, to fell timber ; Hano, to cut culinarily ; Dauo, to cut generally. 



VOCABULARY. 



69 



. English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


7>him<il. 


To convey away, j 
transport, ' 


Bokldjabar, 


Balilngno, 


Phuchumli. 


To mount, vehicle, 


Chorinu, 


Youg khatno, 


Tangli. 


To alight from, 


Utarinu, 


Gauo, 


Khuli. 


To climb, go up tree 
or hill, 


Chorinu, 


Youg khatno, 


Tdngli. 


To descend, come 
down, 


r'tarinu, ) 
l.ambibar, \ 


Gitno, 


Khuli. 


To stay, 


stop, de- i 


At kaibar chen- \ 


Th;tn hotno, \ 


'!'.{.. n ^i5 


tain, a. ( 


kinu, \ 


Hop tauo, \ 


i ;ui pan. 


To let go, suffer to i 
depart, a. ' 


Jdbar dibar, 


Thang hotno, 


Hdli pili. 


To stop, 
staid, 


be j 
self, n. ' 


Atkinu, ) 
Tdkinu, \ 


Thaptano, 


TaYJi, hili. 


To hinder, impede, , 


Cltt'nkimi, 


HomUno, ( 


Rholi 


prevent, obstruct, a. 


Kokinu, \ 


Thapta hotno, j 


Tail ptlli. 


To put a stop to, a. 


Thdm bhiinu, 


Thdu hotno, J 


Kholi. 
T;'ui psili. 


To set a-goinpr, , 


Cholon konu, 


Thilug hotuo, 


Dingil pili. 


To begin, have be- 
ginning, 


N. Shani hobar, 


Htingno, 


Mhoili, Tdngli. 


To commence, make 
beginning, 


A. Sharu konu, j 


Hiiug hotno, \ 
Moujenno, } 


Mho'i pali. 
Teng ptili. 


To end, have end, 


N. Tatmim ho- ) 
bar, i 


Jap no, j 
Khttugno, ( 


Hoili. 


To finish, perfect, 
complete, make 
end of, 


A. Tamdm ko- ) 
ribar, j 


Mou japno, ) 
Jap hotno, \ 


Hoi p;tli. 


To have 


hold, possess, Bos korinu, 


To lack, 


want, 


nbhslg hobar, 






T-. hold, 


retain, keep, 


Rakhibar, 






To cede, give up, 
relinquish, 


Chdrinu, 


Ndgilrno, 


Lluili. 


T. hold, have in 

hand. 


Dhorinu, ) 
Kakhinu, \ 


Akhaino, ) 
Kitkliino, ( 


Khurtjt rslkhdli. 


-p, hold forcibly, Dhorinu, 


ll'inmo, 


Rimli. 


To relax grasp, 


Hilth dhila konu, 


Akhai ]hurunn<, 


Khur dhila jvili. 


To let go, quit hold of, Cluiri dinu, 


Nu-aruo, 


Lhali. 


To dispossess, take 
ibly, seize, 


K.Lria libar, 


Homno, 


Ghinli. 

Kitnli. 


To take 


imply, 


Libar, 


Lilno, 


Khuli. 


To give, 
gift, 


transfer by 


Ddn konu, 


Hotao, 


Pili. 


To transfer generally, 


Dibar, ^ \ 


Hotno, 


Pili. 


To receive, obtain, 


I'.llxir, ' / 


Manno, | 


X.'nli. 


get, 




1 


I.ano, j 


Khuli. 


To acquiro, f.irn, 
gain by own labour, 


(no, 


Kamai khlamiio, 


uli. 


nd, 


discover, 


y IMnu, / 


Manno, 




- 




HanLi konu, 


Gomilno, 




To search for, 


.bdr, 


Naigrunc, 


Kl.rli. 


.trust with. ., , 


. 4 .- ix^mpiojir. 
commit to, \ 




Luki nlkhinu, 






veal, dicloe, 


Pargot konu, 


hii.Uiiix', 





VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


DUmdl. 


To cover, simply, 


Dhdkibdr, j 


Khopno, ) 
Jokhlopno, \ 


Thumli. 


To uncover, 


Dhdka phdlinu, 


Bot Idpno, 


I>d pdli. 


To lie hid, be hid, j 


LukibaV, ) 
Chhipibar, \ 


Khakmdno, 


Mh61i. 


To show oneself, 


Nikalibdr, 


Nujdno, 


Ol^li. 


To show, exhibit, ) 
display goods, \ 




D6n thaino, 


D<5pdli. 


To put up, put by, 


Raich chhorinu, 


Chiik kldpno, 


Thum pili. 


To hoard, save, amass, 


Songtibar, 


Phutumno, 


Jom pdli. 


To spend, consume, ) 
use, ! 


Khoroch konu, j 


Gdrno, ) 
Hdni khldmno, \ 


Bai pdli. 


To waste prodigally, 


... 




... 


1 o furnish house, 


Sdjanu, 


N6o ch6no, 


Sd Id pdli'.' 


To load, lade, 


Lddinu, 


Bd hotno, 


Ladai pdli. 


To unload, 


Bhdr utdrinu, j 


Yungno, Thun- ) 
gi kh&5m>, \ 




To pack, 


Mot l>:in<lhiini. 


Thungi khdno, 


J<5m pdli. 


T.I unpack, 


M6t khulinu, 


Thungi khe<5no t 


Khuili. 


To tie knot, 


Gdnthinu, 






To untie knot, 


Gdnth kholinu, 


... 


M 


To bind, 


Bdndhinu, 


Khdno, 


Jingli. 


To unbind, 


Kholinu, 


Khoono, 


Khaili. 


To tighten, 


Bhiribar, 


Garra klildmno, 


Bhirili. 


To loosen, 


Dhil koribdr, 


Runno Phuruuno, 


Dhil pdli. 


To erect, put up, 


Khada kono, 


Thuno, ( 
Pochongno, \ 


Jap pdli. 


To pull down, 


Pdria phdlinu, 


Kuklaino, 


L<5ng pdli. 


To sheathe, weapon, 


... 


Chono, 


Whdli. 


To unsheathe, 


... 


Bokh6no, 


Holi. 


To mark, 


Nishdn dibar, 


Chin hotno, 


Chin pdli. 


To erase, 


Me'tinu, 


Khomatno, 




To stain, 
To let in, 


Ddgh dibar, 
Bhitordsibdrdibar, 


Ddgaino, 
Sing Id bono, 


Ddgdli. " 
Lipta wdngli pili. 


To let out, 


Bdhir jdbar dil.dr, 


Bdhir Id bono, 


Bdhir oleli pili. 


To expel, drive out, 


Nikdlya dinu, 


Tan hotno, 


01^ pdli. 


To wring, wet clothes, 


Nich6ribar, 


Chepno, 




To wrench, 


Aintinu, 


Bophaino, 


Thurli. " 


To annex, add to, 


Jodinu, 


Jodinu, 


Jom pdli. 


To denex, detach, 


Alag konu, 


Gubun danno, 


Bhindng pdli. 


To move, self, 


Cholinu, ) 
Hilinu, j 


Thabdino, ) 
Mouuo ? \ 


Leli. 


To move, other, 


Cholon-hilon- ) 
korinu, 




L<5 pdli. 


To remove, displace, 


\ 
| 


Gubun nupthi ) 
Idngno, j 


Bhindng chol. 
L^ pdli. 


To be stationary, 


Thir hobdr, 


Gochongno, 


Japli. 


To make stationary, 


Thir koribdr, 


Posongno, 


Jap pdli. 


To appear, come in ) 
sight, \ 




Nuno, 


Lh61i. 


To disappear, 


... 


Hapno, 


Dubili. 


To rise, sun, 


Uday konii, 


Chouno, 


Lhdli. 


To set, sun, 


Asti konu, 


De'de'nno, 


Dubili. 


To rise, ascend, 


Uthinu, 


Jhikhopno, 


Lbdli. 


To raise, lift, 


Uthya k(5nu, 


Boklopno, 


L16 pdli. 


To sink, descend, . 


Dubibar, 


Hapno, 


Dubili. 


To make sink, depres 3 , 




Chdmno, 


Dubi pdli. 


To advance, go on, 


A'gd jdbar, 


Douldngno ? 


Ldmpdog hadcli. 



VOCABULARY. 


English. 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dkimdl. 


To retrograde, 


Pdche dsibar, 


Inslotno, 


Khdngli ?' 


To vibrate, shake, n., 


Hilibdr, 


Mouno, 


Dailong leli. 
Phirli. 


To make shake, a., 




Chamouno, 


Le-e" pdli. 
Phir pdli. 


To press, by own weight, 


Ddbinu, 


Hap chono, 


' 


To compress, squeeze, 


Chtpinu, 


Che'tno, 


Re*pli. 


To contain, hold in, 


Sdndibdr, 


Chuno, Hapno, 


Wdngli? 


To sustain, hold up, 


Thdmbhibdr, 


Thap thdno, 


Tdkili. 


To stick, adhere, n., 


Lagibdr, 


Bi thdngno, 


T^pli. 


To affix, attach, a., 


Sdtibdr, 


Shithapno, 


To" pdli. 


To come off, n., 


Ifthinu, 


Gugdno, 


LMli. 


To take off, detach, a. , 




Botlapno, 


Lhd pdli. 


To increase, self, 


Badibar, 


De"tno, 


Dhdmli. 


To make increase, ) 
add to, j 


Bodokonu, 


Ph&tetno, 


Dhdm pdli. 


To decrease, self, 


Ghotibstr, 


Duino, She"mno, j 


Shibli. 
Mhoili. 


To make decrease, ) 
subtract from, \ 


Ghotia horibar, 


Phe"dumo, 


Mhoi pdli. 


To divide, 


Kliuiia klmni- i 
konu, 


1 Gubun gtibun j 
j rdnno, / 


Bdnta pdli. 


To expand, self, 


Phutinu, 


Bdrshrdno, 


Phutdli. 


To open, other, 


Khulinu, 


Kheono, 


HeU 


To close, self, 


Munjinu, 


Khop jopno, 


ChoblL 


To shut, other, 


Bond korinu, 


lukh lopno, 


Gipli. 


To exhale, evaporate, ) 
self, \ 


Bdph uthinu, 


( Khund6 kha- ) 
\ Idngno, j 


Dhud Ihdli. 


To exude, ditto, 


Chuya podinu, 


Bide", yung khatno, 


016*11 


To absorb, ditto, 


S<5sibar, 


Chopno, 


Chuli. 


To sprinkle, 


Chitanu, 


Sbdtno, 


Tirthira {nili. 


To moisten, 


Bhijinu, 


Phichino, 


Jhd pdli. 


To soak, 


Susya khilibar, | 


!Chi trono, 
Chi hapno, ( 


Jhd pdli. 


To make dry, 


Sukha konu, 


Rdn hotno, 


Sdng pdli. 


To be wet, 


Bhijd hobar, 


Gichi jdano, 


Jhdli. 


To be dry, 


Sukna hobar, 


lidnno, 


S^ngli. 


To filtrate, 


Che'nka konu, 


Chogorno, 


Chuaili. 


To flash, 


Chtfiukibar, 


Chul gouno, 


Uhiwdli. 


To blaze, 




Jong douno, 


Mdhtili. 


To be extinct, 


Nibhil hobar, 


Gomatno, 


Komhili. 


To extinguish, 


Nibhil korinu, 


Khumatuo, 


Nibhaili. 



PROPER NAM I'.S. 

bdl Malti. ITndo, GumWr, Jidbor, LKSda, BhAnda, lT5p, Enda\ Mdndd, 
Bum 

Dhimdl Female*. Apchi, I' 

Bodo Mala. Gijn- , Gongdr, 

Laidar, Hajo, Gddar, Jdnti, Gakbdng, Naxlong, M 

Bodo FemaUt. Tulut, Mairi, Jijiri, l'.'ijin, Kl,.',i.., Rmidini. 



PART II. GRAMMAR 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

I MUST begin with the remark that I do .not propose to say 
anything of the K6cch Grammar, which is wholly corrupt 
Bengali. The reasons which have induced me to give the 
K6cch Vocabulary are stated elsewhere.* The following 
remarks will therefore apply solely to the Bodo and Dhimal 
languages languages which, as it appears to me, have pre- 
served to a wonderful extent their primitive raciness, both 
in vocables and in structure. Neither of them possesses, nor 
ever did possess, any alphabet or books, and I have conse- 
quently been left at liberty to apply to them any system of 
letters that might seem most advisable ; for various reasons 
I have postponed the Nagari to the Roman, which latter I 
have, I hope, employed in a manner sufficiently conformable 
to that recognised by the Society,-f except that, having no 
actual or prospective occasion to employ Arabic or Persian 
words or sounds, I have uniformly expressed the Indian k 
by the like English letter. The vowels are sounded as on the 
Continent of Europe and in Scotland not as in England; 
and the graver or lengthened sound of each is denoted by an 
accent or mark above thus 4 a very long sound, in some rare 
instances, by reduplication as well as accent. A few sounds 
of this latter kind occur both in the Bodo and Dhimal lan- 
guages, and in the former they subserve the important pur- 
pose of distinguishing the different senses of otherwise similar 

* I have failed to get at the original and true speech of this race, whose ancient 
tongue is fast merging in Bengali. 

t For Mecch read B6do, passim. Mecch is a name imposed by strangers. 
This people call themselves Bodo, which, of course, is the proper designation. 
See note at Part III. Asiatic Society of Bengal, under whose auspices this essay 
was published. 



GRAMMAR. 73 

words : thus, hano, ' to cut ;' haiino, 'to be able ;' jtino, 'to . 
jaano, ' to be/ Instances of this kind are rare in the Bodo, 
and rarer in the Dhimal language. The Bodo and Dhimal 
tongues have an easy and flowing enunciation, which is readily 
represented by our letters. Compound consonant sounds are 
rare any such compounds as the Sanskrit ksha, &c., un- 
known aspirates common. 

The nasal n, denoted by me by a dot above the letter (n), 
is fully as common as in U'rdii and Hindi, and is not unfre- 
quently complexed into a harsher sound, which I have 
denoted by gn. Two concurrent vowels are always to be 
understood as a diphthong* with one blended and long sound, 
unless when the second vowel is doubly dotted (o), and in 
these cases, which are common in Bodo and Dhimal, each 
vowel is to have a perfect and independent utterance. The 
naso-guttural French ^ is frequent in Dhimal, and lias 
sometimes a prolonged and very harsh sound, which I can- 
not represent otherwise than by reduplication and accent, 
thus eecha, ' a goat.' Y is always a consonant. In Bodo n is 
often prefixed to words beginning with a vowel, as Akai 
Xaka'i, and in this tongue the use of ch for/, of t for d, of k 
for g, are commutations constantly occurring, but deemed 
vulgarisms. 

AsnoLsa 

There is no article, definite or indefinite, in the Bodo or 
Diurnal tongue. The demonstrative pronouns ////x and that 
usually, and the numeral one more rarely, stand in lieu of 
articles. 

SUBSTANTIV i 

Nouns, like verbs, have only ont regimen or mode of de- 
clension ; nor is that single uniform mode perplexed with any Gender. 
I'd n ements expressive of gender. Declension is accom j >1 i 

'n, of which, strictly speaking, there is hardly CM. 
8, but by ailixes, or ruth- ixes, analogous to tin* 

r nlii and Hindf post-positions. Number is similarly ex-smni*r 
press* ia, by post- positions. In Bodo there are clearly 

* I use three, <i make* an, 4, at, and 6, ou, e.g., hawfinch, aye, aye, howtver. 
See note at p. 82. 



74 GRAMMAR. 

but two numbers, and I think also in Dhimal, though in the 
latter I have met with some vague traces of a dual, which 
further research may establish. In Bodo the word phur, and 
in Dhimal the word galai, post-fixed simply to the noun, 
express the plural, thus, B., gotho, ' a child ; ' gotho phur, 
' children ;' Dh., chan, ' a child;' chan galai, ' children.' These 
words have, I believe, no meaning whatever. 

By turning to the Vocabulary it will be seen that the 
Bodo and Dhimal tongues both possess a great variety of 
substantive sexual terms, which usually suffice, as in English, 
to denote all that is needful in the distinction of sex among 
human beings. There are exceptions, however, to this rule ; 
and then the defect of specific terms is supplied by peri- 
phrasis. Thus the Bodo tongue has no simple words equiva- 
lent to the English boy and girl, and the sex of minors is 
therefore expressed thus : ' man-child,' ' woman-child/ or hiwa 
gotho,hinjou gotho. InDhiin;il,w;ijanand bejan are simple and 
exact equivalents for ' boy ' and ' girl.' The word chan, which 
properly means the young of all creatures, is likewise used in 
] )lmii;il to express 'boy,' in opposition to chamdi, or 'girl,' which 
last word affords the only and faint trace in Dhimal (none in 
Bodo) of that happy facility of converting male into female 
words, by mere variation of the terminal letter or syllable, 
which characterises U'rdu and Hindi. Sex among animals, 
generally, exclusive of human beings, is expressed in Bodo by 
the post-fixes jola and jo, and in Dhimal by the prefixes dan- 
kha and mahani, equivalent to ' male ' and ' female ; ' thus B., 
mushu bos ; muslni-jola, ' a bull ; ' miishu-jo, ' a cow.' Dh., pii'i, 
chinkha piYi, and mahani pia respectively. There are like- 
wise in both languages a variety of specific terms expressive 
of sex among the domesticated and familiar animals, as in 
English and other languages. These may be found in the 
Vocabulary. They have no grammatical effect or character 
whatever, and this remark may be generalised or applied to 
the whole subject of gender in Bodo and in DhimaL 

The gender of substantives consequently has no influence 
at all on adjectives or on verbs. 

Cases in Bodo and Dhimal are formed entirely by post- 
positions. There is no inflection whatever. Cases are nume- 



GRAMMAR. 75 

rous ; not less than nine were given to me. But all simple 
and direct languages which decline their nouns by means of 
pre- or post-positions have an almost unlimited field for the 
multiplication of cases. I apprehend that the companion- 
ative is a doubtful case, and that the ablative and instru- 
mental are, normally, but one case, and also the dative and 
objective, and that on or upon is no case at all. In that 
event there would be only five cases, for the vocative seems 
wanting. 

To form the plural it is merely required to supply the 
word phur or galai in Bodo and Dhimal respectively, between 
the noun and the post-position. 

All nouns substantive are declined according to the fol- 
lowing example : 



English. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


N. A man, 


Hiwd, 


Wdval, 


0. Of a man, 


Hiwdni, 


Wdval ko. 


D. To a man, 


Hiwd no, 


Wdval e^g, 


Ac. A man, 


Hiwd kho, 


Wdval (Sng, 


t On a mail, 


Hiwd chou, 


Wdval ko rhxito, 


Foe. m.ni ! 


Caret ? 


Caret? 


Ab. From a man, 


Hiwdni phrd, 


Wdval sho, 


Ins. By a man, 


Hiwd jong, 


Wdval (long. 


Loc. In a man, 


Hiwd hd or ou or nou, 


Wdval td. 


Comp. With a man, 


Hiwd lago, 


Wdval dosa. 



Plural, hi'wii phur, hiwd phur ni, &c., in Bodo; and in Number. 
Dhiinal, w;ival galai, waval galai ko, &c., as in the singular. 
Thus it appears that in Bodo ni is the sign of the genitive, 
no of the dative, kho of the objective, chou of the anonymous, 
of the ablative, jong of the instrumental, hd or ou or nou 
of the locative, and lago of the COmpanionative ; and that in 
Dhimal /", /'//'/, ciifj, rhuto, slw, dong, td, and dom are their 

In Latin ami other languages, prepositions govern a vai 
of cases. Post-positions are the equivalents of this part of 
speech in Eastern tongues and in the above declens; D, I 
appears that the Bodo phni, < pial to the Latin ah, ami the 
l>hiin;il rhuto, equal to the Latin supra, govern the 
that is, require tin- -in <>f t be genitive, even wli: 
the j.lar.- ,,f th ablative in declensions. This is an anomaly, 
:--rhap8 to prove that jilini and rluito are not truly 
signs of case or declension, but : lions in th- 



76 GRAMMAR. 

general sense (like some of the others perhaps), that is, not 
signs of declension. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives in both these languages precede or follow the sub- 
stantives, with all the simple directness of English and with no 
more effect on the grammatical structure ; thus in Bodo, an 

121 2 121 2 

ugly son, shapma bisha, an ugly daughter, shapmd bishii ; a 

122 112 2 I 

good boy, hi'wa-gotho ghiim, a good girl, hinjou-gotho gham ; 

123231 i 23 

good child-ren, gotho-pluir gluim ; the sport of good children, 

231 121 

gham gotho-phiirni khel. In Dhimal, a naughty boy, ma elka 

2 I 21 2 12312 

wajan, a nauglity girl, ma elka bejan ; good child-ren, elka chan 

3 12323 i 

galai ; tlio play of good children, <*lka chan galai ko khel. 

I2 3 2 31 

To naughty boys. Bodo. Hamma gotho-phur no. Dhimal. M;i 

2 3 I 

olka wujan-galai eng. 

Nouns, substantive and adjective, of the simple forms 
abound in both languages, and both tongues are miserably 
deficient in abstract forms, whether derivative or primitive, 
such as childhood from child, greatness from great, and sex, 
age, &c. So nearly all compounds are wanting in these 
tongues, that is, that vast class of words which in Greek, 
Latin, and Sanskrit are formed either from a noun or verb 
compounded with privative, intensitive, qualitative, aggrega- 
tive or disjunctive particles, or from two nouns or a noun 
and verb mixed; anarchy, astronomy, agriculture, nirvritti, 
pravritti, dwibhashya, vibritasih, hemachal. Such words, as a 
class of terms, are wanting, though the means of forming 
them are forthcoming, and used to a small extent. These 
are points however which will be best explained by con- 
sulting the copious and carefully-constructed Vocabulary. 
Ellipsis is carried to a great extent, both as to nouns and 
verbs, sometimes with, sometimes without, the sanction 
of concurring vowels, and often in excess of what that 



GRAMMAR. 77 

sanction would cover where it exists. Long-tailed words 
or sesquepedalians nor Horace nor Frere ever abhorred 
more heartily than do these simple races of men; and 
when three even short words come together without a 
verb, one of them, the central, is almost sure to be 
lopt and to lose the first syllable of a dissyllable; thus, 
taller than all, boinobo jou shin, for gajou shin, in Bodo ; 

I 2 33 I 2 

and in Dhimal, tai Mug for taiko bdval dug, to his own \\it\\ 
Similar ellipsis takes place constantly among the verbs, 
especially in Dhimtil, as hanka for hadeangka, ' I will go;' 
jenka for jeangkii, * I will be.' 

There are verbal nouns both in Bodo and Dhimal, sub- 
stantives formed from the root or imperative, and adjectives 
from the participle. There is likewise a very useful privative 
of general application in each of these tongues, which is 
the word geya of the Bodo, and mantho or mdnthuka of 
the Dhimal. Onga in the former tongue (yonga if a vowel 
precede it) has likewise a similar function, but of less cur- 
rency ; and this language has, further, a possessive of much 
value, called gonang. All these are post-fixes, and separately 
viewed are adverbs rather than nouns ; but in composition 
they form adjectives from substantives, and perhaps also one 
class of substantives from another; thus, from dhon, ' wealth/ 
we have dhongeyii or dhon manthuka, 'poor, void of wealth/ 
respectively in Bodo and Dhimal ; and, in the former tongue, 
from rai speech (from speak!) we have rainon^a or ruiyonga, 
' dumb/ ' speechless :' also dhongonang, ' wealthy, possess 
' wealth/ Again, from dharam, justice, we have dharam 
vel manthuka, 'unjust' and 'injustice'? and also, in Bodo, 
dharamgonang, 'just/ I am not aware that adjectives in 
r language are ever transmuted into adverbs, as evly 
from evil, haughtily from haughty. Nor hav<- I met with 
any instance of a diminutive, or li. - <>f forming one, 

ther tongue. 

I should add, before quitting th. su'jcct of nouns, that 
Bodo attempt to form abstract nouns from the sinn.lt> ones 
by means of the post-fixes !<', and Mi, with a 

change of the termination of the primitive word, and that 



78 GRAMMAR. 

they even affirm that of these post-fixes matno belongs more 
properly to things, slo and bid to beings. Thus, from gajou, 
' tall,' is formed gajowan matno, ' tallness ; ' from majang, 
* handsome/ majangan matno, ' beauty ; ' from gotho, ' child/ 
gothobla or slo, ' childhood ; ' from ge*det, ' great/ ge\let nan- 
matno, ' greatness.' More samples of this formation may be 
seen in the Vocabulary, wherein however I have left most of 
the abstract nouns blanks, from doubts as to the authenticity 
of this method of filling those blanks; abstracts are very 
puzzling, yet it is indispensable to test the fact of their 
absence at all events. The Dhimals make no attempt to 
form them, but fairly avow their unqualified astonishment 
that anybody should seek for such strange and useless words! 

COMPARISON. 

There are no distinct words in either of these tongues 
expressive of the degrees of comparison, like agathos, arion, 
aristos, bonus, melior, optimus ; 'good," better/ 'best:' nor any 
incrementory particles serving to the same end, such as the 
Sanscrit ' tar, tarn ;' the English ' er ' and ' est,' and the Latin 
' or ' and ' ssiinus.' 

The comparative and superlative degrees are formed in 
Bodo and in Dhimal as in Hindi and U'rdu, by words ex- 
pressive of 'than that/ ' than all/ binbo shin and boinoboshin in 
Bodo, and oko nhadong, sogiming ko nhtidong in Dhimal, 
according to the following example. 

English. Bodo. Dhimal. 

Tall, -\ o5 Gajou, Dlulngd. 

Taller, ' Biiibo gajou shin, O'k6 nhddong dha'nga'. 

( Sogiining ko nhtidong dhdnga*, 

Tallest, } a Boinobo gajou shin. \ or dhdugd saika. 

Short, Gahai, Bdngra". 

Shorter, Binbo gahai shin, O'k6nh;t<l')ng ba"ngra. 

Shortest, J S Boinobo gahai shin or sin, Bangra saika. 

In the above examples Binbo is compounded of the in- 
flected form of the word Bi, ' him, it, that/ and of the euphonic 
particle bo. Shin or sin is ' than.' Boinobo is compounded 
of the word boino 'all' and bo, 'as before.' In the Dhimal series 
oko is the inflected form of wa, 'him' or 'that' or 'it.' Nhadong 
is the indeclinable ' than.' Sogiming is ' all/ an adjective, and 
saika, I believe, an adverb equivalent to ' very/ ' most/ or the 



GRAMMAR. 79 

magis vel maxime of Latin. It \vill be seen that in the Bodo 
idiom the literal style is ' that or it great than ' for the com- 
parative, and ' all great than ' for the superlative, whereas in 
Dhinuil the Hindi and "Ordii idiom is followed, ' that than 
great' 'all than great.' I have already adverted to the 
elliptical manner of speech so popular with these races. In 
the above examples the Bodo constantly, almost invariably, 
drop the middle syllable of boinobo and the first syllable of 
gajou and of gahai. And in like manner, the Dhimal sink 
the second syllable of nhadong, and the middle syllable of 
sogiming. If my conjecture as to the Dhimal saika be 
correct, we shall have in one form of the Dhimal superlative 
a nearly exact equivalent of the English and Latin idiom 
very pious, most pious, magis pius, maxime pius, except that 
the adverb follows the adjective in Dhimal. 

PRONOUNS. 

The personal, possessive, demonstrative, relative, distribu- 
tive, and reflective or egoistic (self*) pronouns will be all 
found in the Vocabulary. The declension of the pronouns 
seems to be the least imperfect part of the structure of the 
Bodo and Dhimal tongues, and in the latter exhibits through- 
out marks of genuine inflection. The regimen is the same as 
that for the declension of nouns; but, as I have given the 
latter curtly, I will, at the risk of being tedious, give the 
declension of the pronouns more fully. 

Gender affects it not : the numbers are two ; the cases nine, 
as before. 



Ewjlith. 


Bodo. 


DhimdL. 


X. I. 


A'ng, 


Ka. 


me, 


A'ng ni, 


,-ko. 


me, 


A'ng no, 






A'ng kho, 


Ke-ng. 


Voc. Ok mr, 


t? 


Caret? 




Anglnt, <>u. n<m, 






Angni di"ii, 


Kitng k< i ' 


from me, 




Kii.ig iho. 




Ang 


ngdtfng. 


Com. With me, 


Ang lago, 


Kdng doa*. 



* Thii U wanting save in the poaseasive form ' own.' 

The pluralising . r is not usually applied to the first peraon, though 

always to the second and third ; see on. 



8o 



GRAMMAR. 



PLURAL. 




Jong, 


KyeT 


Jong ni, 


King ko. 


Jong no, 


King eng. 


Jong kho, 


King eng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Jong hd, ou, nou, 


King td. 


Jong ni chou, 


King ko rhutd. 


Jong ni phrii, 


King sho. 


Jong jong, 


King dong. 


Jong lago, 


King dosa. 


Nang, 


Nd. 


Nang ni, 


Ndng ko. 


Nang no, 


Ne-ng. 


Nang kho, 


Ne-ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Nang hd, nou, 


Ndng td. 


Nangni chou, 


Ndng ko rhutd. 


Nangni phrd, 


Ndng sho. 


Nang jong, 


Ndng dong. 


Nang lago, 


Ndng < lo.su. 


Nang chur, 


Nye-1. 


Nang churni, 


Ning ko. 


Nang churno, 


Ning e"ng. 


Nang churkho, 


Ning e"ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Nang chur hd, ou, nou, 


Ning td. 


Nang churni chou, 


Ning ko rhuta. 


Nang churni phrd, 


Ning sho. 


Nang chur jong. 


Ning dong. 


Naug chur dago, 


Ning dosa. 


Bi, 


Wd. 


Bini, 


O'kc5, wdnko. 


Bino, 


WcSng. 


Bikho, 


W^ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Bind, ou, nou, 


Wdng td. 


Bini chou, 


Wdng ko rhuta. 


Bini phrd, 


Wdng sho. 


Bini jong, 
Bini lago, 


Wdng dong. 
Wdng dosd. 


Bichur, 


U'bal. 


Bichur ni, 


U'bal ko. 


Bichur no, 


U'bal <<ng. 


Bichur kho, 


U'bal <$ug. 


Caret ? 


Caret? 


Bichur nou, 


U'bal td. 


Bichurni chou, 


U'bal ko rhtita. 


Bichurni phrd, 


U'bal sho. 


Bichur jong. 


U'bal dong. 


Bichur lago, 


U'bal dosa. 



N. TTV, 
G. Of us, 
D. Torn, 
A. Us, 
V. Owe! 
Loc. In us, 
; On us, 
Ab. From .<f, 
Ins. By us, 
Com. With us, 

Thou, 
Ofthee, 
To thee, 
Thee, 
thou t 
In thee, 
On thee, 
From thee, 
H H thee, 
\Vitk thee t 

Ye, 

Of you, 
To you, 
Ye, you, 
Oye! 
In you, 
On you. 
From you f 
By you, 
Witli you, 

He, she, it, 
Ofhim, 
To him, 
Him, 
he? 
In him, 
On him, 
From him, 
By him, 
With him, 

They, 
Of them, 
To them, 
Them, 
they ! 
In them, 
On them, 
From them, 
By them, 
With them, 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS, &c. 

Possessive pronouns precede their nouns. Possessive and 
relative pronouns are seldom employed in the inflected forms 



GRAMMAR. 81 

of the personals, though these forms are common to both. Of 
the use of the relatives in any form the Bodo and Dhimal are 
very shy. Indeed, I doubt if their languages have any such 
words, though I have set down in the Vocabulary the evidently 
borrowed and seemingly perverted terms of others, and the 

pplied ones of their own. 

The interrogative pronouns 'who' and 'what,' they have, viz., 
Chur and Ma in Bodo, Hashii and Hai in Dhimal. These pro- 
nouns are declined after the general model of the personal 
ones. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

As has been noticed, they serve for articles. Imbe is ' this,' 
and Hobe ' that,' in Bodo ; and in Dhimal i and u, or, more 
formally, idong, udong for ' beings,' itji, uta for ' things. 1 1 bal, 
tTbal, signifying ' these ' and ' those ' in Dhimal, are considered 
the most express equivalents of the Bodo imbechur and hobd- 
chur. Thus a good deal of difference is established between 
the third personal pronoun and the demonstratives, though 
of the Dhimal is evidently but the correlative of tin* 
personal pronoun tlbal.* I proceed to exhibit the declension 
of the proximate demonstrative. 

SINGULAR. 

r. 



Of this, 


Imbd ni, 


I'ko, Ydngko. 


To this, 


Imbd n>, 


Yeog. 


This, 


Imbd kho, 


YAig. 


Oh this! 


Caret ? 


('.ret? 


Jn this, 


Imb<5 bd, ou, nou, 


Ydng U. 


On this. 


Imbeni chou, 


ko rhutd. 


From this, 


Imb<5ni pbrd, 


Ydng sho. 


tMit 


Imbfini Jong, 


Ytfogdoog. 


thu, 


IiulxSni lago, 


Ydug dosa. 




PLURAL. 






ImW chut , 


ri.iii. 


'.ex, 


Irnbd ch6rui, 


Il>;il ko. 


' % 


Illlbi' i-ln. 


lluil dng. 


These, 




Ibal 


Oh thttt / 


Caret? 


Caret? 



it jvo 6 and the personal od are probably the same w< 
dirally, Wii hoing htit a vulgar pronunciation of U' vel Voh. The abenc< 
ezpreai tliinl personal u to common in all 1 n,.ua-<-s tlmt :- 

-"I am No. i, yon nrc No. 2, aj r* are nothing at all ; tli.it 

I or thin, to wit, IJlc, 1^ 

| 



82 GRAMMAR. 

In tJtese, Imbdcbur hjl, on, nou, Ibal Id. 

On these, Imbe'cburni cbou, Ibal ko rbuta. 

From these, Imbe'cburni phni, Ibal sho. 

By these, Imbe'chur Jong, Ibal dong. 

With these, Imbe'cbur lago, Ibal dosa, 

Ita makes itang and lita, utang, in the dative singular ; for 
the rest, these words, as well as idong, udong, are declined 
without change by means of the universal post-positions. 
So also the Bodo Hobe, plural hobechur, follows the model 
of Imbe. 

There are two great peculiarities in the use of the pronouns 
in these tongues ; one is, that in both languages the pronouns 
frequently stand as the last word in the sentence, and this 
whether they be personal or possessive. The other pecu- 
liarity is confined to the Dhimui, and consists in the redupli- 
cation of the first and second persons* plural (we-ye) thus, 
from hinli, ' to laugh,' we have kye'l hin kytl, ' we laughed/ 
nyel hin ny6l, 'ye laughed.' Ubal hin, 'they laughed/ 
ceases to exhibit this characteristic mark. The possessive 
pronoun sometimes follows the governing noun, not usually. 
It will be observed from the above examples that the plural 
in most Bodo pronouns, and in many Dhimal ones, is formed 
by the respective postfixes chiir and bal. These are further 
distinctions between the declensions of the nouns and pro- 
nouns of these tongues. 

NUMERATION. 

The cardinal numbers extend only to 7 or 8 in Bodo, to 10 
in Dhimal. Beyond these numbers the method of reckoning 
common to both people is by the Indian ganda and bisa, 
thus, 5 gandas are = I bisa or score, and 2 bisa = 40, 5 
bisa = 100, and thus they contrive to reach the ne plus ultra 
of 200 or ten score. There are no ordinals in either tongue. 
The cardinal series is evidently the same in both tongues, 
and is derived from Tibet the only instance of the kind I 
have noticed in their languages,f but I have not yet gone 
into comparisons of this sort, nor purpose to do so till I have 

* Singular also. See on. 

t 10 of the 60 words in Brown's List are identical in Dhiinal and Tibetan ; 
one in Bodo and Tibetan ; 15 in Bodo and Gaio. 



GRAMMAR. 83 

completed the whole contemplated series of Vocabularies for 
the Hills and Tarai, from the Bramaputra to the Kali or 
Ghagni. 

The following is the cardinal series of numbers, stript of 
their affixes. 

E*gli*h. B6do. Dhimdl. 

One, Che", K. 

Two, Gn<i, Gn^. 

Three, Thrfm, S6m. 

Four, Ere*, Dia. 

five, Ed, N;i. 

Do, Tu. 

Seven, Sini, Nbii. 

/it, 

Nine, Ktihi. 

Ten, ... T6. 

To these the Bodo prefix the particles San or Sa, Man or 
Ma, and Thai, according as human beings, other animals and 
things, or money, are in question. The numeral, with these 

2 

affixes, may either precede or follow the noun. Thus, Bihi 

112 2 112 2 II 

suche, one wife; Hiwa sanche*, one man; Burma mache, one 

2 2 I I 2 13 

goat; Thaka thai ch(5, one rupee;* Chokai mantham nu'iidu, 

21 3 

1 2 sheep or 3 gandas of sheep. 

The Dhimals, again, have an immutable postfix, which is 
the word long, void of meaning like the B6do prefixes. Thus 
^ long is one, gnt long two. This postfix is often omitted, 
as well as part of the noun to which the numeral is 
with that love of ellipsis that has been alivady ivm;ukr<l <n. 
Thus one day is properly ^ long nhi'tima; but the I>iiiiii;ils 
nt themselves usually \\iili Knh/. One man is E<i 

and thus it appears that in I'hiinal the 
numeral always precedes the substantive. In 1 '.!(, n the 

the numeral follows it or precedes it ; 
foru. 

* Chokai Vel Jokai, so Dou Vel Tou and Gorai Vel Komi. The muint 
no doubt euphonic and nyitematic, though the people are not aware of this, and 
generally prefer UK: li;.rii- r lctt< r.. I niimt My. The hanh 101. : .re are 

ual and appropriate. Thus K< rai and not Gorai is the 
genuine IJ<Wo commutative of the Hindi uud l"idu Gh6ra. 



84 GRAMMAR. 

THE VERB. 

Verbs express being, possession, or action. Those of the 
two former classes are very rare, or wholly wanting, in Bodo 
and in Dhimal. Those of the third class, if they belong to 
the primitive or simple type, are abundant. Verbs are 
divided by Grammarians into the active and passive, the 
transitive and intransitive or neuter, the personal and im- 
personal, the regular and irregular, the entire and defective, 
the compound and simple, the auxiliary and primary. Of 
these kinds, passives are formed in B6do by means of the 
perfect auxiliary verb to be (jaano) added to the root of the 
primary, which root is the imperative, second person singular. 
In Dhimal there is no passive voice, though there is a past 
participle (nay, two) attached to the active voice, and in con- 
stant use as an adjective. A substitute for the passive voice 
is attempted to be found by the Dhimals in a manner analo- 
gous to the tTrdu and Hindi idiom, according to which a man 
less frequently says, ' I have been beaten by my brother/ 

212 

than ' I have eaten a 'beating from my brother,' Bhai se mar 

3 123 

kli;iy;i. So the Dhinuil says yollasho danghai ne"nchahika. 
But the parallel is not complete, for ne"nchahika is a com- 
pound, made up of ne*nli, to find, and chali, to eat, so that the 
Dhimal idiom, literally rendered, is, ' I have found and eaten 
a beating from my brother.' Transitive and neuter verbs 
are, of course, common to both tongues ; but neither, nor per- 
haps any language in the world, possesses the "CTrdu and 
Hindi facility of transmuting the latter into the former, as 
lithna, uthami ; chalna chalana, samajhna, samjhana, &c., ad 
infinitum. The only contrivance of this sort known to the 
Bodo and Dhimal languages is the compounding of the verb 
hotno, to give, in Bodo, and of the verb pali, to do, in Dhinuil, 
with the root of the neuter verb, which it is proposed to make 
active ; thus from hangno, to begin, n, comes hang hotno, to 
begin a, and from mholili n, rnhoi pali ; a in Bodo and Dhimal 
respectively. In Bodo, japno, to be finished, is made active 
by prefixing the imperative of the verb to do, thus moujapno. 
Of impersonal verbs I have nothing to say. Of reflected or 



GRAMMAR. 85 

deponent verbs I have found no trace. Verbs in general are 
very regularly conjugated according to one regimen, irregular 
verbs being rare in B6do,and rarer in Dhimal. Jengli, to be, 
is an irregular in l>liim;il, as in so many other tongues. I 
scarcely know another instance in Phi nidi ; but in Bodo 
hotno, to give, haano, to be able, phoino, to come, with some 
others, are irregular in one or more tenses. Of defective or 
fragmentary verbs, the B6do auxiliary dong and dongman, 
equivalent, I apprehend, to the him and tha of tJrdu and the 
hou and bhayou of Hindi, and the Dhimal auxiliaries, kln'ka, 
hika, and lingkii, fragments of verbs of similar meaning with 
dongman, are samples. Compound verbs other than those 
already spoken of, whereby neuters are made active, are very 
rare, as I have already hinted under the head of nouns. 
Wherever they exist they are formed in the manner of neuters 
made active. The auxiliary verbs have been already m<-n- 
tioned, in part, as defectives. To those there spoken of we 
must here add the Bodo regular and perfect verb jaiino, to be, 
which is of the highest value, as the sole means of forming 
the passive voice, by postfixing its various inflections to the 
root of the primary verb in the active voice Per se, it is 
little used, the Bodo (and Dhimal) seeming to think that talk 
of mere existence is neither very profitable nor very intelli- 

. The Dhimal auxiliaries, khika, mhika, nhika, hika, 

angka, are of the last importance, as forming the sole means 

of conjugating all verbs. From much inquiry through the 

nu of multiplied sentences not of direct questions, 

'n I found wholly futile and worse I infer that the 
first of the above five words are really one ami the, 
same, only varied for the sake of euj.hnny. 1-ut u]"-n prin- 
ciples ton >ui'til' for ready detection l> ttger; that all 

>*ent tense, indicative mood, of the 
iry vcrh to be or to do;* that hiK urth 

wnrd, represents the past tense of the same or a similar 
and that ;ini:k;i, the fifth w..rd. st.mnN in like manner tW the 

re- tense. These words are modi lied by ^nmi: 

Tnke the tyl* of Knxlinh conjugation as a help to appreciate this peculiarity, 

vo, I will lore, 
t Is this inflection, after all, nothing more than the reduplicated pronoun 



86 GRAMMAR. 

to suit the persons of the singular number, and the whole 
may be tabularised thus : 

SINGULAR. 

1st. person, Kd khika : Kd mhika : Kd nhika : Kd hika : Kd dngkd. 
2d. person, Nd khina : Nd mbina : Nd nhina : Kd hina : Nd dngna. 
Zd. person, Wd khi : Wd inhi : \Vd nhi : \Va Li : Wadng. 

PLURAL. 

ist. person, Kydl khi kyel : * K. mhi k : K. nhi k : K. hi k : K. dng k. 
2d. person, Nyel khi nyel : N. mhi n : N. nhi n : N. hi n : N. dng n. 
3d. person, Ubal khi : Ubal mhi : Ubal nhi : Ubal hi : Ubal dng. 

The three first of these are apparently equivalent to the 
English verbal signs, 'do/ 'am;' the next to 'did/ 'was/ 
' have/ ' had ; ' the last to ' shall/ ' will.' The student will find 
these remarks a key to the whole process of conjugation in 
Dhimal verbs. He has only to prefix the root of the verbs 
lie wishes to conjugate to the above auxiliaries, and lie at 
once obtains all of conjugation that the language exhibits ; 
for the imperative or root, the infinitive and the participles, 
have, eacli and all, a single and inflexible form. 

Should the conjecture hazarded in the foot-note of the 
last page prove well founded and there seems every pro- 
bability of its proving so a very singular state of tilings 
would be the result ; for we should then have the whole 
process of conjugation of Dhimal verbs accomplished by 
affixing an invariable auxiliary verb or verbal particle (viz., 
khi or hi or ang) to the root of the primary verb, with redup- 
lication of the first and second pronouns, both singular and 
plural. Whether that particle or verbal fragment be really 
one or three, and whether significant or meaningless, are 
doubts which higher grammatical skill than I can pretend 
to, may go far to settle.-f The people use their language with 
extreme carelessness, even in regard to those grand distinc- 
tions of time, the past, the present, and the future; and 

added to the root, after the manner of the plural ? Bopp says all personal inflec- 
tion was originally pronominal, and Bunsen in his Egypt gives us samples from 
the oldest language on earth of pronouns used indifferently either as independent 
prefixes or as servile postfixes. 

* The double pronoun is marked by its initial letter only, to save space. 

t I am now satisfied that these so-called particles are fragmentary verbs like 
tha in Udu, and bhaya in Hindi, or ' do,' ' did,' ' will do' in English. ' Must,' 
' ought,' &e., being invariable in form, are yet nearer approximations. 



GRAMMAR. 87 

though I have stated, as the result of much investigation, 
that khi denotes ' the present/ hi ' the past,' and ang ' the 
future,' I cannot deny that I have often found the whole three 
employed promiscuously. Possibly, therefore, the three may 
prove to be only one, and even to have some connection with 
the perfect verb jengli, to be analogous to that which seems 
to conjoin the fragmentary verb hun, tha, hou, bhayou, with 
the perfect verb hona. Hi is often employed in the sense of 



the T)rdu hai, ' is ; ' as, for example, ' who is there ? * Hashii 

2 12 

hi, exactly equivalent to kon hai ? rather kon tha ? in the past 
tense. ' Who was it ? ' as if he were gone.* And though 
hf may be alleged to be a contraction of jelii, which is de- 
duced regularly from the perfect verb jengli, ' to be,' yet, on 
the other hand, I see not any necessity for excluding the 
conjecture of an affiliated fragmentary verb consisting of hi 
solely, and kin and ang may possibly be of the same nature. 
That mhi and nhi are euphonic variations merely of kin I 
have no doubt whatever. Under the head of compound verbs 
I ought to have observed, that in Bodo such as express repe- 
tition or reiteration have the reiterative adverb placed in the 
centre of the verb, between its radical and inflected portions ; 
thus, phoino, ' to come ; ' phoi-^wi-no, ' to come again ; ' and 
that both in Bodo and Dhimiil there is a useful set of quasi- 
compound verbs formed, as in Tjrdii and Hindi, by verbs 
equivalent to their chukna and lagna. These are in B6do, 
khangno and langno ; in l)hinial, lnVili and tengli. I.ul 
as in the former tongues these accessary verbs are 
added sometimes to the imperative and sometimes to the 
infinitive of the primary v-rb (inarrhuka, limir laga), in 
the latter languages they are subjoined solely to the iiiipiM- 
. which in all fnur laiiuMinges alike is lik> 

In most cultivate. 1 tongues t: several ivjim^ns for 

the conjugation of verbs, and under each regimen or i: 
are comprised a great variety of moods and tenses, all which, 

The part tene ii invariably uwd *i I act ii, or ccm to be, over 

and pawed. 



88 GRAMMAR. 

as well as the numbers and persons of each tense, work 
changes upon the radical form of the verb, whether by inflec- 
tive or auxiliary increment. 

In Bodo and Dhimal there is apparently but one regimen 
for the conjugation of all verbs, which is accomplished by 
means of inflection in Bodo, of auxiliaries (immutable, verbal 
fragments) in Dhimal. This regimen exhibits great simpli- 
city in both tongues, there being but three moods, the impe- 
rative, the infinitive, and the indicative,* and the last only 
admitting of a variety of tenses, which are limited to three, 
or, the absolute present, the absolute past, and the absolute 
or simple future. If a Bodo would express the time of the 
action with greater precision, he obtains an imperfect pre- 
sent by means of the auxiliary dong (thus, mou, ' do ' ; mou- 
dong, ' I am doing ') ; an imperfect past by means of dong- 
iiKtii (thus, mou dongman, 'I was doing'); an emphatic 
past by means of the separate verb khangno, ' to be ended ' 
(thus, mou, kar, kluingbai, chuka, ' I have/ ' it is/ ' entirely 
done ') ; or else he marks decisively the three grand divi- 
sions of time, or any one of them, by jorefixing an adverb 
of time (dano, * now/ ' this instant ' ; sigang, ' previously/ 
' in the past ' ; yuno, ' afterwards/ ' in the future '). Of these 
methods of marking time with precision, the last alone ap- 
pears to be available to the Dhimals, although the careless 
manner in which they employ their sole conjugational 
index of time (khika, hika, and angka, supposed to represent 
respectively the ' present/ ' past/ and ' future ') would seem 
to render further expedients more needful to them than 
they are to the Bodo. The Dhimal adverbs of time, cor- 
responding to the Bodo ones just given, are clang, lampang, 
and nhucho respectively, and these likewise are placed before 
the verb as in the Bodo tongue. In Dhimal there is no pas- 
sive voice ; iii Bodo the passive is formed precisely as in 
English ; thus, shuno, ' to strike ' ; shu jaano, ' to be struck.' 
In Bodo, however, the auxiliary follows instead of going 
before the primary verb. There are two numbers, and three 

* There are vague traces of a subjunctive mood in Mecch, formed by the post- 
fix bla ; thus, 'if I should go,' ang thang bla. But in general the future indica- 
tive denotes contingency. 'Power' and 'will' are denoted by separate verbs, 
and ' duty ' also. 



GRAMMAR. 89 

persons in each number, both in Bodo and Dhimal. In 1 Vulo 
number and person have no effect upon the verb, nor in 
Dhimal either, if, as conjectured, the second syllable of the 
Dhimal auxiliaries (khiM, khi?i<, khi, ct sic dc carter is) be 
reduplicated pronouns, and not inflections. The imperative 
mood has but one tense and one person in both tongues, viz., 
the second person singular ; and to this the negative is pre- 
fixed (da in Bodo, ma in Dhimal). In Bodo this proper 
verbal negative (mat in tTrdu) is nearly confined in its use to 
the imperative. In Dhimal it is as constantly applied to the 
infinitive, thus creating a very useful class of contrasted verbs 
(doangli, ' to be able ' ; ma doiingli, ' not to be able ' ; khangli, 
relic, 'to will'; mil khangli nolle, ' not to will' or 'wish'). 
This function is discharged in Bodo by the general primitive 
ge'ya, contracted to gai, and put as usual between the radical 
and inflected part of the verb (haiino, ' to be able ' ; luiiu/aino, 
' to be wiable '). This contrasted negative is likewise univer- 
sally obtained in Bodo verbs by varying merely the terminal 
vowel, whether simple or diphthong (' Do you go or not ? ' 
Thangona thangd? 'Will you go or not go? ' Thangn 
thangd .?). The infinitive mood has only a present tense, and 
there is nothing more analogous to gerund or supine than the 
three participles, viz., a present, a past, and a remote past, 
the extensive use of which in lieu of conjunctions and of 
relative pronouns is very characteristic of both tongues. The 
root of the verb, as already frequently noted, is tin* iinpera- 

and it is peculiar to these tongues that they form all 
tenses and compounds from it, and seldom or never from the 

riples or infinitive. From this rout, in lii'.do, the present 
tense (indicative) is formed by adding - a vwd pre- 

cede) for all the persons of both numliers ; the ].;ist ly ;i (ya, 

vowel ] (recede) or bai ; the future by nai; the infinitive 
resent participle hy in, the past partieij.le (like 

past tense) 1 a vowd go before); and the 

^iple l.y nai. 

In hhirnal the inflective increments, as above (in r 
: khi, ini])er.sonal, or khika. khina. khi for : 

i lait is equivalent to the kar kc of UrdCi, aptly called the conjunctive 

pie. 



GRAMMAR. 



persons ; hi, impersonal, or hika, hina, hi ; ang, impersonal, 
or angka, angna, ang ; li, katang, ka, teng. 

The passive voice in Bodo is conjugated precisely as is the 
active, while in Dhimal there is no sucli thing as passive 
voice. In neither tongue is there anything like honorific 
tenses or phrases of any sort. We may now conclude the 
subject of verbs with some samples of conjugation. 



English. 
Got 
Go not! 
To go, 
Going, 
Gone, 
Having gone, 

1 9, 

Thou goest, 
lie goes, 
We go, 
Ye go, 
T luii go, 

1 in' nt, 

Thou wentest, 
J/e went, 

II V icent, 

Ye went, 

They went, 
I unit go, 
Thou wilt go, 
He will go, 
1JY will go, 
Ye u-ill go, 
They will go, 
Come ! 
Come not ! 
To come, 
Comin'j, 
Come, 

Having come, 
I come, 
Thou comest, 
He comes, 
We come, 
Ye come, 
They come, 
1 came, 
Thou earnest, 
He came, 
We came, 
Ye came, 
They came, 
I will come, 
Thou wilt come, 



Bodo. 


Dhimal. 


Thdng, 


Hadd, 


Dd thdng, 


Md hadd. 


Thiing no, 


Haddli. 


Thdng in, 


Hadd ka tang. 


Thdngd, 


Hadd kd. 


Thing ndnd, 


Hadd tdng. 


Ang thdugd, 


Kd hadd kbikd. 


Nang thdngo, 


Nd lia.ld khind. 


Bi thdngo, 


W;i badd khi. 


Jong thdngd, 


Kydl hadd khi kydl. 


Nang chur thdngo", 


Nyel hadd khi nyel. 


Bichur thdugo, 


l/bal hadd khi. 


Ang thdngd or tbitng- ) 
bai i 


Kd hadd hikd. 


uai, j 

Nang thdngd or bai, 


Nd hadd hind. 


Bi thdngd or bai, 


W.i haddhi. 


Jong thdngd or bai, 


Kydl haddhi kydl. 


Naug chur tbdngd or ) 
bai, ( 


Nyel haddhi nyel. 


Bicbur thdngd or bai, 


ITbal hadd hi. 


Ang tbdng nai, 


Kd badd dng kd. 


Nang tbdng nai, 


Nd hadd dng ud. 


Bi thdng nai, 


Wd hadd dng. 


Jong thdng nai, 


Kyel hadd dng kyel. 


Nang chur thdng nai, 


Nyel hadd dng nyel. 


Bichur tbdng nai, 


LTbal hadd dng. 


Phoi, 


Ld. 


Dd Phoi, 


Mdld. 


Phoino, 


Ldli. 


Phoi in. 


Ld katang. 


Phoi yd, 


Ldkd. 


Phoi ndnd, 


Ld tdng. 


Ang phoigo, 


Kd Id khikd. 


Nang phoigo, 


Nd Id khind. 


Bi phoigo, 


Wd lekhi. 


Jong phoigo, 


Kyel Idkhi kyel. 


Nang chur phoigo, 


Nyel Idkhi nyel. 


Bichur phoigo, 


l/bal Idkhi. 


Ang pboi bai or yd, 


Kd Id hikd. 


Nang phoi bai, 


Nd Idbi nd. 


Bi pboi bai, 


Wii Ichi. 


Jong phoi bai, 


Kyel Idhi kydl. 


Nang chur phoi bai, 
Bichur phoi bai, 


Nyel Idhi nyel. 
l/bal Idhi. 


Ang phoi nai, 


Kd Id dngkd. 


Naug phoi uai, 


Is' a Id dugnd. 



GRAMMAR. 



9 1 



English. 


B6do. 


Dhimdl. 


Iff will come, 


Bi pboi nai, 


Wd 16dng. 


We toill come, 


Jung phoi nai, 


Kyel Iddng kyel. 


Ye will come, 


Nang chtir phoi nai, 


Nyel Iddng nyel. 


They vrill come, 


Bichtir phoi uai, 


I/bal l^dng. 




Jd, 


Chd. 


E'it not! 


Di* 


Mil chd. 


To eat, 


Jdnd, 


Chdli. 


Il 9t 


Javin, 


Cbdkatang. 


Eaten, 


Jdyd, 


Cbdkd. 


Jliiring eaten, 


Jdndnd, 


Cbd teng. 


I eat, 


Ang jdgo, 


Ka cbd khikd. 


1 ate, 


Ang jabai or jdyd, 


Kd cbd bikd. 


I will cat, 


Ang jiiuai, 


Kd cbdngkd (for cbd dngka). 


Speak, 


Rai, 


D6p. 


Speak not, 


Ddrai, 


Md d6p. 


To speak, 


Raino, 


D6pli. 


.<n<j, 


Raiyin, 


D6p katang. 


.--n, 


Riyi, 


D6 l )kd. 


Having spoken, 


Rai i)diu\ 


Ddp t<Sng. 


I speak, 


Aug raigo, 


Kd dop inhikd. 


I spoke, 


Ang raibai, 


Kd <l(5p bikd. 


I will fpeak, 


Ang rainai, 


Kd d6p dugkd. 


Be, 


Jaa, 


J^. 


Be not, 


Ddjaa, 


Md j6. 


To be, 


Jdiino, 


J^ngli. 


Being, 


Jdiiyin, 


Jdng katang. 


Been, 


Jttyi, 


J<5ngkd. 


1 In ring been, 


Jddnsind, 


J^ng tdng. 


I am, 


Ang jddsro, 


Kdjdlnkd. 


I wot, 
I will be, 


Ang jaalwii, 
Ang j&inai, 


Kd bigd liikd. 
Ka jdnkd (for j<5 dngka). 


Strike! 


Sh(5, 


Ddng bai. 


Strike not ! 


Di ah6, 


Ma ddng bai. 


To strike, 


Shtino", 


Ddng baili. 


ng, 


Sh6 in, 


Ddng hai katang. 


Arid 


Shua, 


Ddng hai kd. 


.7 struck, 


Sbtoini 


Ddng bai tong. 


1 strike, 


Ang shogo, 


Kd ddng bai khikd. 


1 struck, 


Ang nhu;i or sliul.ai. 


Kd ddng bai hikd. 


I will strike, 


Ang shonai, 


Kd ddng hai dngkd. 




S1.6 jdd, 




Be thou not .- 


Da sh6 jdd, 




To be struck; 


Sh6 jiWn... 




Bema struck-. 


Shd jsttyin, 




i f>ecn struck, 


Sb<5 jaaya, 




I am rtrnck. 


Ang sho j;Li 




1 was r' 


Ang aho jiiil-.ii. 




he struck, 

. 


Ang H!IO jditnai. 


Khdn*. 


Jtrairr lint / 


kbd, 




Tn </' 


[no, 


igli. 


J>fK\r 


Labaiyin, 


Kbdng katang. 


"1, 


Labaiyd, 








mg USng. 




Ang labaigo, 






Ang labai.v 


Kd nut kbiing khikd. 




Ang labai dong, 


Kd eldn K 


I was desir 


Ang labai dongman, 


Kd lampdug khdng kh.ka. 



GRAMMAR. 



English. 


Bodo. 


Dhimal. 


I desired, 
I mil desire, 


A'ng labaibai, 
Ang labaiuai, 


Kd kbdng hika. 
Ka khdngkd (for khdng dngkd), 


Give, 


H6t, 


PL 


Give not, 


1 hi b6t, 


Mdpi. 


To give, 


H6tu<5, 


Pili. 


Giving, 


Hotnin, 


Pi katang. 


Given, 


Hotnd, Hud, 


Pikd. 


Having given, 


Hotndne', 


Pi tdng. 


1 give, 


Ang H<5yti, 


Ka pi khikd. 


I gave, 


Ang botbai or bud, 


Ka pi hika. 


I will give, 


Ang hogon, 


Ka" pi dng kd. 


Be able! 


HO, 


Ing, 


Be not able I 


I)d hdii, 


Md drfdng, 


To be able, 


Hddno, 


Dodngli (ddngli per ellipsin). 


Being able, 


Hadyin, 


Dodng kataug. 


Been able, 


Hddvd, 


JMdngkd. 


J laving been able, 


Hdd ndnd, 


D6dng txSng. 


1 a m able, 


Ang hdd<ro, 


Kd d6ang khikd. 


I was able, 


Ang Hddbai, 


Ka ilodng hikd. 



1 shall be able, 



Ang Hddnai, 



vulgo). 



INDECLINABLES. 



These highly useful parts of speech which give precision 
to all the others, whilst they connect them into well-knit 
sentences, are sadly deficient in the Bodo and Dhinuil 
languages. Here more than any where, and almost only, 
I trace evidence of systematic borrowing and very clumsy 
assimilation. For the adverbs of place, time, quantity, 
quality, mode, and for the conjunctions the Vocabulary 
must be consulted; nor is there anything needful to be 
added in this place. Conjunctions of pure or unborrowed 
character are very rare * both in Bodo and Dhimal, and this 
circumstance, together with the habitual neglect of those 
post-positions which denote the cases of nouns, causes the 
sentences to hang very loosely together. Euphony, however, 
is studied, and the euphonic particles, which are the chief 
links of the construction, may be properly regarded as con- 
junctions. In Bodo the chief ones are, bo, no, na, a, ya, ma. 
All are postfixes and insignificant, except the last, which 
has an intensitive sense, as hagra, ' a jungle,' hagra ma, ' a 
great jungle or forest.' In Dhimal there are fewer of these 
euphonic links of sentences, and indeed I remember distinctly 
but one, which is sa, and is void of meaning. Prepositions 

* The want is cleverly evaded by means of the participles, a la Turque. 



GRAMMAR. 93 

in these languages, as in others, govern various cases, of 
which some examples have been given, and more may be 
drawn from the subjoined sentences. Adverbs generally 
precede, but sometimes follow, the verb or nouns whose 
sense they qualify, and in close juxtaposition to which they 
are always found. I have met with no method of converting 
adjectives into adverbs, and this may account in part for the 
poorness of these tongues in indeclinables. Participles per- 
form the function of conjunctions, as in Turki. 

Sentences illustrative of the above rules of grammar and of 
the construction of the Bodo and Dhintdl hin'jinnj,^ : 

i 2 34567 

Yesterday I went to the forest to cut timber. To-day I am 

8 9 10 ii 12 

going to the jungle, to cut grass ; and to-morrow I shall go to 

13 14 15 16 17 18 

the village, to choose a fit site for building a house on. 

12 354 

Bodo. Mia ang thanga hagramou, b6ngphong phono. 

68 7 10 9 ii 13 

Ang dine* hagrou thangdong tlu'iiv luino. (Iiibun ling pluirou 

12 16 15 14 18 17 

thaiignai nupthi majang naino, je'nibo nookho luno labaigo. 

i 2 3 545 

Dhimdl. Anji ka hadehika bada dincha tii, sing pdlli. Xani 

8 7 10 9 ii 

mhoika dincha tu, hadukii (for hadekliika), naime che'li. Juinni 

13 12 18 17 15 16 14 

ka di. : rat;i hadeang (ka), sa djimli, clk;i chol (i-iig) klia'ngli. 
123 45678 9 

The big boy beat the big girl, till she began to cry. 

2 i 5 436 

Bodo. Hiwagotho gedetoid hinjougotho L :ma, bini 

7 9 8 

i dongman, 



1245 3 

Dhimdl. Badach.m la.la chaunli'iii: (fordi.'i: .,iiln', 

679 8 

a \v;i kliiiili t'n-lii. 

12 34567 8 

The lariM! j.ig hus given six young, three iii.il>-- anl ; 

9 

iles. 



94 GRAMMAR. 

2154 36 

Bodo. Yoma ge'de'ttta yosha mad6 (kho) * gophaiya ; ma- 

7 8 ?, 

tham jola ; matham jo. 

12453 6 7 

Dhimdl. Bada paya tulong chan jelii ; siiinlong dankha, 

8 9 

sumlong mahani. 

The girl is older than the boy, but the boy is taller than 
the girl.f 

B6do. Hinjougothod gibi, hiwa gothod godoi; toblabo 
hinjougo thowo hiwagoth6a jou (for gajou) sin. 

Dhimdl. Waval chan nlui (dong) bdval chan siiina hi ; tai 
lu'jan nhadong wajan dhanga hi (hi for jehi). 

The horse is fatter than the cow, but the cow is less fleet 
than the horse. 

B6do. Miishujono goraiya giiphung shin ; toblabo mushii- 
JONOBOJ gorai gakhri sin. 

Dhimdl. Piii nhadong onyha gandi hi; tai pia nhadong 
uiiylui chukkii hi. 

This pen is longer than that knife. 

B6do. Imbe* kalam hob(5 daba galou sin. 

Dhimdl. "Cta churi nhadong ita kalam rhinka hf. 

This pen is the longest of all. 

B6do. Boinofo mdnino imb4 kalam galou sin dong. 

Dhimdl. Sogiming nha (dong) ita kalam rhinka. 

What (is) your name ? 

B6do. Nangni your, munga name, m what, mung name. 

Dhimdl. Hai what, ming name, nangko your's. 

1234567 8 9 

When you called me I was within the house, and did not 
hear. 

i 2 4 3 587 6 

B6do. Jela nang angkho linghotbai ang noo singou jaabai, 

9 
khanaye*. 

* Sign of case, or elliptical omission, supplied within brackets, 
t The comparative style not used in this member of the sentence, which liter- 
ally means girl old, boy tall. 

Expletive particles marked by italics ; double expletives by small capitals. 
Literally, than the cow the horse fat, but than the cow the horse fleet. 



GRAMMAR. 95 

123 45 6 87 

DhimdL Jela ua kuihhui ki-ng, ka higahika sako-lipta. 

9 

Ma hinhika.* 

Who is (there) ? It is I. 

B6do. Chur dong. Ang dong. 

Dhimdl. Hashii hi. Ka hika. 

It was so or thus. It is not so now; but it will be so 
again to-morrow. 

Bddo. Risha dongman. Dano uripiisa geya. Galnin risha 
liin nai. 

Dhimdl. tlsang higahi. Elang lisang manthd Jumui 
u?a'ng uhechuto jeiing. 

Why say so 1 It is false ! 

B6do. Mtino idi raigo. Onga. 

DhimdL Hai pale usiing dopkhina. Miccha jeng (for je 
ang). 

As it was, so it is. 

B6do. Jiring dongman, liring dong.-f 

DhimdL Jedong higahi, kodong hi (for jehi). 

Will you go with me to the hills \ 

B6do. Nang angjong hajoha thang nai. 

DhimdL Na kang dosa dangta hangna (for hadeang na). 

I will go. I will not go. 

B6do. Ang thangnai. Ang thanga. 

DhimdL Ka luinka (liatUVingka). Ka ma hanka. 

Did you go witli him ? I did not go. 

lo. Nang bijong (lagoche together) thanga. Tluingi. 

DhimdL Na wj'uig dosa haina (for hadt-hina). 
iiaika (for hadehika). 

Is be here, or not ? 

B6do. ImliMha ja;ii:<>, ua g^ft 

DhimdL Ishu ji'-hi, na inahi (ma j'bi). 

Is it so (fact), or not ? 

B6do. 

/' 'anal. Jrlii, na in;ij('lii. (Precise, 

Yesterday I was beaten by Hi rna fur leaving the calves in 
the cultivation. 



in a sample of shcerly direct con 
t Or, Jiriog jiabai, firing jiijo. 



9 6 GRAMMAR. 

B6do. Ang mia Birnani akhai* jong shojaya, hunou 
miishiigalai phiir (kho) hogarnane. (Past participle always 
if the act be done.) 

Dhimdl. Ka anji Birnako khiirdong dang hai nenchahi, 
lengta pia ko changalai (e*ng) lappikii. 

Alas ! I was yesterday beaten without fault. 

B6do. Chi ! chi ! mia ang d6shgeya (Idmdno) shojaya. 

Dhimdl. Hai ! hai! doshmantho ka anji dang hai nenclm- 
hika. 

i 2 345 

He was killed by a tiger, and when we went to look for his 

6 789 10 

remains, we found nothing but shreds of his clothes. 

213 65 

B6do. Mochajong watjaiibai ; ji-lai jong, bini be"geng imi- 

4 10 9 7 

^runo tli;'ni'_ r ;i, selai hisri ban6 mana, mangbo mane [any 

thing (else) found not]. 

2 136 

Dhimdl. Khuna dong cha ndnchahi, jela kyel wengko luirsi 



10 



^ ^ 

bholi hadelii kyel, te*la theka dhaba (eng) kyel nenhi kyel, aro 
[else], haidong [anything], mantho [not]. 

The mouse was killed by the cat, and the cat was killed 
by the dog. 

B6do. InjotTia mouji jong wathat jaya, moujia choima jong 
wiit phin jaya. 

Dhimdl. Jiiha mdnkou sho she ndnchahi \ithoi mdnkou 
khia dong sh4 nenchahi. 

I struck him and he struck me, and thereon we fought. 

Bodo. Ang bikho shiia bio angkho shua, yiino jong khom- 
jalabai. 

Dhimdl. Ka weng danghai hika, wa k(5ng danghai hi kola 
kyel piichu hi kyel. 

Having so said, he departed. 

B6do. Eisha rainane*, thangbai. 

Dhimdl. Usang dop tdng, hadehi. 

Having beaten his own wife, he fled for shame. 

B6do. Gouini bihi (kho) shiinane, lajinmi khat langbai 
(or khatbai). 

* Literally, by the hand of Birna ; and so in Dhimal. 



GRAMMAR. 97 

Dhimdl. Tai (ko) be (wal) eng diing haiku, leder tdng 
khat nhi (nlii khi or hi). 
He goes laughing. 

lo. Minin minin thangdong. 
Dhimdl. Leiikatang lenkatung hadekhi. 
He comes crying. 

t in gapmin phoidong. 
Dhimdl. Kharkatang khurkatiiiig lekhi. 
]j,. goeg sneaking. 

:ii rail n thango. 

Jthlmdl. I )'>pkatang dopkatiing hadekhi. 
Having come, he will speak. 

lo. Phoinane, rainai. 
Dhimdl. Let rug sd, dopani:. 
Having gone, he finished his business, 
l<i. ThaiiLriKine, hobba (kho) moujapbai. 
':ndt. Hii (de) teng sa kam jehi.* 

I shall be beaten to-morrow for not having finished the 
work. 

Gabiin ang shojaanai, mano, hobbii li;i;ii:ai.*f 
Dh'uiwl Kam ' work,' (eng) 'the,' ma 'not/ p;ik;i Mono,' 
\\Z ' because,' ka anji diin^hai m'nchangka (for clui angkti). 
A beaten dog is good to nothing. 

v;i clu'Yma, m:mi;ln> 'any,' hobb;i//o ' work,' (for) 
.,t (udaiyji ' useless'). 

Dhimdl. Danghai iK-nchaka khiu, liaibo 'any,' k;tm ko 
lot. 1 

re ({iiickly forgot i 
Written w.irds ;ir- not soon obliterated. 

. i:akliri boil jaii bai litnai ; kotli:i, 
.ri ^(matnii. 

//"/'/. l)'ijik;i k(tli;i, dliimpii nilka.* U-kliiK 
:c ?). 
came, but i done previou 

* A strong idiom if correct; literally, the work ' wa,'fuit ; o p. 93, chin 

I wnn unnl.lr for the work. 

; <1 not obtnin the trace of a 

pftwrire save the \ y any vnrif "na, 

| Mi paka in probably a contraction i -iki. 

i. a 



98 GRAMMAR. 

B6do. Bi mid phoiya, kintii habba sigang japbai. 

Dhimdl. Anji lehi ' came/ wa 'he,' kintii kam lampang hoihi. 

If I find him I will beat him. 

B6do. J($la ang bikho mano, old bikho, 'him/ shonai 'will 
beat/ ang ' I.' 

Dhimdl. Jela kii weng nenangka, old weng dang haidngkd. 

Will you eat, or not ? 

B6do. Janai, na jayd (or jayd gai). 

Dhimdl. Changna, na ma chdiignd (chd angnd). 

Will you sit down, or not ? 

B6do. Joonai, nd jowd. 

Dhimdl. Y6ngdngnd, na mil yongdngnd. 

Will you speak, or not ? 

B6do. llainai, nd rdyd gai. 

Dhimdl. D6pangni, nd md d('}uingna. 

Go quickly, I'.irna is gone. 

B6do. Tho (familiarly for tluing) gakhri, Birna* thdngbai 

Dhimdl. Dhinip;i hade, Jii'rnd hadrhi. 

Go alone ; I am going to the village. 

B6do. Thang nang hashing, ting thangdong pharou.* 

Dhimdl. Ekeldng had(5, kd ddrata had(5tingka. 

I am not going to-day. I shall go to-morrow. 

B6do. Din^ ang thanga, Gabun thangnai. 

Dhimdl. Ndni kd md hdnka (for hadddngka) jumni hade- 
angka. 

He was false. He is true. 

B6do. Santale*n jaabai, Gham jadgo. 

Dhimdl. Miccha higdhi, filkd j^hi. 

That boy is fat. That boy is very thin. 

B6do. Imbe gotho guphung dong, Hob^ gotho gaham dong. 

Dhimdl. fdoug chan dhdmka hi, tldong chan chop mhi 
(mhi = khi). 

Father, and mother, and child. 

Bodo. Bi bipha, bi bima, bi bisha. 

Dhimdl. Aba, ama, chan. 

i. Eaten by a tiger. 

* In these two instances the construction is as direct as in English, and would, 
I think, have been found so oftener if the Urdu questions had not told on tLe 
replies. 



GRAMMAR. 99 

2. Ab homine stuprata. 

3. Beaten by a hand. 

B6do. nhlmdf. 

1. Mocba jong jajava. i. Khumi.sho chd n<$n cbsfta. 

2. Hiwa jong kbdi Java. 2. Wdval dong hi ndn chsika. 

3. Akbai jong sb<5jiiy;i. 3. Kbtir sbo ditngbai nen cba'ka'. 

Given tilings how shall I take back? 

B6do. Hotnai juris bre* * how/ laphinnai ' take back shall/ 
ang ' I.' 

DliLindl. Pikii jinis ht'sa 'how/ nlu'chnto 'back/ rhu 
1 take/ anu r ka ' shall I.' 

Heard words why should I hear again ? 

lo. Khan;iy;i kotlui miino raipliinnai ('shall I hear/ 
future). 

/' -mdJ. Tlinka kotlui haipali nhechuto hin ang ka (' shall 
I hear/ future). 

The man who told you so is your own friend. 

B6do. Jai nangkho idi raibai, bi ' he/ guslithi f friend/ 
nangni ' yours.' 

Dhirndl Jai nsang, dopmhi keng wa^ taiko ' own/ di'ang 
' man.' 

1234 5 

The man whom you seek is dead. 

, 2 3 4 , *, , 5 

B6do. Jekho nang naigrugo bi ' he/ thoibai. 

3 4 

nidi, Tidongdiang 'what man/ rlu'khiiia kodong 'that/ 

^ r ' man/ BULL 

bh wlial shall 1 ]>lastc-r this wall? 
B6do. Imb^ injuni inajoiiL: litnai. 

l. Itliai b'rln'in liai// li']i;in;jk;i. 
<! yii want ( and what an- yui savin 
B6do. ]>i 'and.' ni;i ' \\ i wantini:/ li 'an- : 

' what/ i -(HijuiK-tinn repeated : ,s<- 

/' ; II; rlx'kliiiui, liai dnpkhin;i. 

IM-LMIII, mine and sec 

B6do. " gone/ i 

see/ 

'. 



TOO GRAMMAR. 

The natch is over, I will not go. 

Bodo. Mosha khangbai, ang thanga. 

Dhimdl. Hiiili hoihi, kd nui hdngkd (hadeangka). 

Having finished that job, he went to do the other. 

B6do. Hobe habba luuiiuinu (or moujapnane) gubun hobba 
(kho) mouno tilling bai. 

Dhimdl. tltii kdnieng hoipateng, bhinang kam. (eng) p;ili 
hadehi. 

He wished to go with us yesterday, but was not able. 
To-day he is able, and willing to go. 

Bodo. Bi jong jong nnVi tli;ingno labai bai, had (yd) gai; 
Dim'- hddyin. * tli;inu r n<> labaigo. 

Dhimdl. W;i jumni king dosa hali (hadeli) killing hi; ni:i. 
d/>n-lii (dodnghi). Nani hdli dong katang, f wd kluingkhi 
hali. 

Are you able (to do it) or not ? 

y;,,Vo. Nang hddgo, n;i IK'HIUL' (gd for gai). 

Dhimdl. Nd dodng khind n;i ina ddnkhind (dang for doang). 

From Siligori to Dorjiling how many cos ? 

Bodo. Siligori ni phra Dorjiling chim, chewd pichd. 

Dhimdl. Siligori sho Dorjiling thekapa he cos. 

How many sheep and goats in the pen ? 

B6do. MV'iidd lo bunnatya noonou beclu'bd'. 

Dhimdl. Mi'iuld ml uc'chd ssikolipta he jehi. 

Take it from the water, and throw it in the fire. 

B6do. Doini phra bokhdngndne, waton garshiin. 

Dhimdl. Chisho chumateng mentd huiipi. 

In a large house two fires are better than one. 

B6do. Nob' gedt'tnou doudap manche no doudap mangne 
ghamsin. 

Dhimdl. Bada satd elong akha dong (for nhd dong) 
gnelong dkhd nu dlany. J 

12345 6 7 89 

Take it from these naughty boys and give it to those good 

10 

girls. 

* Thus, in every instance, the conjunction is evaded by the use of the participles, 
f* Literally, to-day being able, he wishes to go. 

Strong idiom : this word cannot translate : for ordinary use the word elka 
muy take its place. Elang is probably nothing but a jingle with elong. 



GRAMMAR. 101 

4 5 6 3^2 

B6do. Imbechiir hiiinma liiwa gotliopliiirni phra bikho 

i 8 9 10 10 7 

Linant' hobechur gham hinjougotho phiir (klio) hot. * 

' 4 , , s , 6 31 2 

Dhimdl. Idong im'u'lka wajan galai sho ghinteng wi'ng. 

89 10 7 

udong elka lie j an -galai t'ng pi. 

Call all the children quickly. 

B6do. Boi (no) bogotho (phur) kho gakhri ling hot. 

Dhimdl. Sogiming chan (galai) eng dhini]i;i kai. 

Saheb ! this is our buffalo : give it to us and take it from 
them. 

B6do. Giri ! imbe jongni maisho jYuigo. Jongno hot. I.i- 
churni phra bikho la, 

Dhimdl. Giri ! Idong kingko diii, king eng pi, ubal sho 
gliinteng ' having seized/ rim ' take/ 

He took all the pigs from us, and gave them to Birna. 

B6do. Boinobo yoma phur (kho) bi jongni phra lilyum-, 
I)irn;i?jo hu;t. 

Dhimdl. Sogiming paya (galai eng) king sho ghinti'iig, 
Birneng pihi. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

I know not that anything need be added to the copious 
and careful particulars, the statement of which is just con- 
diuled. It has been my object to make that statement per- 
i adequate to the ends in view, or a full illustration of these 
les as they are in themselves, and as they are in relation 
to one another, and to the larger group to which they belong. 
A few concluding remarks may, however, be expected from 
me; but to avoid useless ivj'ctition I must glance at the 
whole group of tongues which 1 purpose to examine. It has 
been already observed tliat the B6do and Phiiual Ian- 
belong pretty evidently to thr aboriginal Indian tnii^ues of 
j ronomenalised typo.f They seem to me to have re- 
<i to a remarkable degree their primitive character, so aa 

< it used til along to avoid the conjunction. There is not one 
t See note at Tart III., p. 105. 



102 GRAMMAR. 

to constitute very valuable exemplars of the class of lan- 
guages to which they belong ; nor have I any doubt that 
further time would have enabled me to replace many of the 
TJrdiii or Hindi vocables to be found in the Vocabularies with 
others of indigenous stock. Such exotic words are surpris- 
ingly few, considering how long the Bodo and Dhimal people 
have lived in peaceful intercourse witli the people of the 
plains on the one hand, and of the hills on the other ; and, what 
is still more singular, is the broad distinction between the ]'.<'>< lo 
and Dliinuil tongues as compared with one another, seeing 
that these people have lived for several generations, if not 
actually mixed (for their villages are separate, nor do they 
intermarry), yet in the closest apposition and intercourse. 
That the Kocch were originally an affiliated race, very closely 
connected with the Bodo and entirely distinct from the 
Hindus (Aritin immigrant population using the Prakrits), I 
have no hesitation in saying. But since the beginning of the 
sixteenth century of our era, the Kocch have very generally 
abandoned their own in favour of the Hindu (and Moslem) 
speech and customs, though there be still a small section 
called IVini or Halm Kocch retaining them. I failed to ob- 
tain access to the Pani Kocch, so that my Kocch Vocabulary 
exhibits little more than a mass of corrupted Prakrits. There 
are, however, some primitive vocables ; and the Vocabulary, 
such as it is, has been taken in order to preserve a living 
sample (soon to disappear) of that process whereby the Ariaii 
and exotic are rapidly absorbing the non-Arian and indigenous 
tongues of India tongues (the latter) which, if we make a 
general inference from the state of things in the hilly and 
.jungly districts, wherein alone they are now found, must 
have been prodigiously numerous, when they prevailed over 
the whole face of the land ; unless, indeed, the dispersion and 
segregation in holes and corners of the aboriginal population 
have given rise to that Babel of tongues which we now find. 
urn tribes. I n tne sub-Himalayas, between the Kali and the Tishta 
rivers, I know of the following aboriginal tongues and dia- 
lects : * The Cisnivean-Bhotia, the Thaksia, the Pakia, the 

* For a fuller enumeration see Triibner's reprint of my papers at pp. 13, 14, 
and 29, 30. See also papers on "The Broken Tribes," aud on "The Vayu and 
Bailing," in J. A. S. of Beng.il for 1857. 



GRAMMAR. 103 

Sunwar, the Magar, the Guning; the Miirmi, the Newari, the 
Kiranti, the Limbu, the Lapcha, the Haiyii or Vayu, the 
Chepang, the Kiisunda, the Denwar, the Durre, the Bramhu ; 
the above in the hills. In the Tarai, extending our limits 
easterly to Assam, so as to include its south-west skirt, the 
Kocch, Dkimal, IMbha, (laro, Khyi or Khasia, Kacluiri 
or Mecch, or Bodo, IlajYmg, Kiidi, Batar or Bor, Gaiigai, 
Kichak, Kuswar, Thiini, Kebrat, Pallali, Amath, Maralia, 
Dhanuik, Dhekni, besides those of hill-tribes located there 
long ago, and now very different from their confreres of the 
hills, such as Sringia Limbiis, Denwars, Durres, &c. What a 
wonderful superfluity of speech ! and what a demonstration 
of the impediments to general intercourse characterising the 
earlier stages of our social progression ! How far these lan- 
guages, though now mutually unintelligible to those who use 
them, be really distinct, how far any common link may exist 

en them and the rest of the aboriginal tongues of India 

so as to justify the application of the single name Tainu- 

lian to them all are questions which I hope to supply large 

means of answering, when I have gone through the hill ami 

Tarai tongues of this frontier, as above enumerated. Be 

these points as they may, the Bodo and Dhimal tongues will 

be, I think, allowed to be genuine and highly-interesting 

samples of the aboriginal languages of the plains of India 

(whatever their source or connection, matters to be settled 

hereafter), as well as to furnish a good key to the moral and 

ical condition of the simple races using those tongues. 

What can !>< muiv striking, for example, than agriculture 

being expressed by the term ' felling ' or ' clearing the forest ; ' 

than the total absence of any term for ' village,' * for ' plough,' 

horse,' for 'money' of any kind ; f<>r nearly every opcra- 

iiellector will, whether virtuous or vicious; and, 

r almost every abstract idea, whether material or 

immaterial ( Structurally viewed, these languages are distin- 

i>y a frequent absence of inversion that is unwonted 

!igues;-f by the peculiar use of tin- ]>mm>un-, 

ularly in Dhimal ; by the special form and uses of the 

* Arva in annos mutant et luperent nger! See on. 

t As will be seen, the usual structure of kcutenoet is like that of Hindi and 



104 GRAMMAR. 

privatives : by the loose cohesion of the sentences, resulting 
from a want of, and a contempt for, conjunctions, as well as 
a neglect of the signs of case and tense ; by the conjunctive 
application of the participles ; * by a want of precision arising 
from the paucity of adverbs, and also from the features just 
marked ; by a passion for ellipsis, yet an attention to euphony ; 
by extreme simplicity of structure ; and, lastly, by the uni- 
versal and exclusive use, in Dhimal, of fragmentary auxiliars 
in the business of conjugation. 

Adam Smith long ago remarked, that original languages 
might be known from derivative ones, by those auxiliars and 
prepositions of the latter, whereby the complex inflections of 
the former are got rid of. It would be practically very con- 
venient if we lnul any certain marks of this sort, serving to 
distinguish those two classes of languages ; but it is difficult 
to suppose the B6do and Dhimal languages other than primi- 
tive ; and yet if they be primitive, Smith's deduction from 
the languages of Europe cannot be allowed to have general 
validity. 

Urd(i ; but, as already remarked, it must be borne in mind that the Urdu and 
Hindi medium of questioning should be allowed for as necessarily influencing the 
responses, which therefore, perhaps, exhibit too much inversion ! 

* In lieu both of relative pronouns and of conjunctions, thus, instead of * go 
and bring,' we have ' going, bring,' and instead of ' he who brings,' ' he 
bringing. 1 

In the Vocabulary words will be found for most of these things and ideas ; 
but they are all borrowed terms, the nature and sources of which the Indian 
reader will readily recognise, and see how clumsily and imperfectly they have 
been incorporated when any attempt at assimilation is made. 



PART III. 

ORIGIN, LOCATION 7 , NUMBERS, CREED, CUSTOMS, CHARACTER AND 
CONDITION OF THE KOCCH, BODO, AND DHIMAL PEOPLE, 
WITH A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE CLIMATE THEY 
DWELL IN. 



I F we commence our researches into the aboriginal tongues 
and races of India in its north-east corner, or Assam, we find 
that province rich in such materials for inquiry. But the 
majority of the numerous aborigines of the mountains of 
Assam appear to belong to the simpler-tongued or Tibetan 
stem,* with which we have at present nothing to do. A line 
drawn north and south across the Brahmaputra, in the general 
direction of the Dhansri river, and continued southwards so 
as to leave Kachar within it or to the west of it, would seem 
not very inaccurately to divide the simpler from the more 
complex-tongued section of the Himalayan races. Possibly, 

.l, some of the hill tribes to the north of the Brahma- 
putra, although within the limits of the former section, 
as above conjecturally defined, may yet be found to belong 
to the latter ;( but to the south of that river, I think it 
:-.;tty evident that such is not the case, for the KaVh- 
aiian.s, Khasias, and <i tiros, are, in creed, customs, and lan- 

s, either identical with, or most closely affined to, the 
B6do, while the Kuli, h'al.ha, and Hiij.'.n^, if not rather 
nominal than real distinctions (Hajong, Hojai Kadiari), are 
but branches of the great I'.oilo or MVrh family, whose 

.iviilc the Himalayan races primarily into two gmu]>*. distinguished by 
the respective use of simple or non-pronomenalisetl, and of com) 
notnenalined language*. 

the Northern Hills also the Dhansri necms to dcmark the Alpine races of 
Tibet* i isterly with the Lhopa or Bhutancse) from the I):.- 

Akas, Born, A burs, Mishmis, Mirin, and others of a]>parcDtly Chinese or Indo- 
Chinese stock. 



io6 KOCCH. 

proper habitat, be it remembered, is the plains and not the 
mountains. I should add that it is a mistake to suppose the 
mass of the population in the' valley of Assam to be of Arian 
race. I allude to the Dhekras or common cultivators of the 
valley, who, as well as the Kacharis and Kocch of that valley, 
are non- Arian s, as is proved beyond a doubt by their physical 
attributes, and in despite of that Bengali disguise of speech 
and customs which has misled superficial observers. The 
illustration of these Assamese races is, however, I believe, in 
better hands than mine; and I therefore shall proceed for 
the present more westward. Whoso should advance from 
Goalpara in Assam to Aliganj in Morang would, in traversing 
a distance of some 150 miles along the skirts of the moun- 
tains of Bhutan* and Sikim, pass through the country of the 
following aborigines of non-Arian extraction : the Kocch, the 
Bodo, the Dhimal,the IMbhsi, the ILijong, the Kiidi, the Batar 
or Bor, Kebrat, Pallah, Gangai, Maraha, and Dhanuk, not 
again to mention the Kacharians separately, they being 
demonstrably identical with the Bodo, and so in future to be 
regarded, nor further dwelling now on the Khasias and Garos 
than to observe that Buchanan notes them as parts of the 
population of Bangpiir in its old extent.f We may have 
more to say of the rest of these tribes hereafter. Many of 
them have abandoned wholly their own tongues and a deal 
of their own manners. But our present business is with the 
Kocch, Bodo, and Dhirnal, and first with the first. 

In the northern part of Bengal, towards Dalimkot, appears 
to have been long located the most numerous and powerful 
people of non-Arian extraction on this side the Ganges, and 
the only one which, after the complete ascendancy of the 
Arians had been established, was able to retain or recover 

* Bhutan recte Bhutant, ' the end of Bhot,' Sanskrit name of the country, 
which the people themselves call Lho, but, like the Hindus, consider it an ap- 
pendage of Bhot v. Tibet, of which the former is the Sanskrit and the latter the 
Persian designation. The native one is Bod. 

t Fifteen in sixty words of Brown's Vocabulary are the same in Garo and in 
Mecch, and the whole sixty or nearly so in Kachari and Mecch. Again, the 
Kacharis called themselves Bodo, and so do the Mecch ; and, lastly, the Kachari 
deities, Siju, Mairong, and Agrang, are likewise Mecch deities the chief ones too 
of both people, to whom I restore their proper names. These are abundant 
proofs of common origin of Garos also. 



LOCATION. 107 

political power or possession of the open plains. "What may 
have been the condition of the Kocch in the palmy days of 
Hinduism cannot now be ascertained ; but it is certain that 
after the Moslem had taken place of the Hindu suzerainty, 
this people became so important that Abul Fazul could state 
a being " bounded on the north by the kingdom of 

i, which," he adds, "includes Kainnip." Hiijo founded 
this kingdom towards the close of the fifteenth century or 
beginning of the sixteenth, and it was retained by his sove- 

; successors for nearly two hundred years.* In 1773 the 
Company's gigantic power absorbed the Kocch lldj, which 
once included the western half of Assam on one side and the 

:n half of Morung on the other, with all the intervening 
country, reaching east and west from the Dhansri river to 
the Konki, whilst north and south it stretched from Dalimkut 
to Ghoraghdt. In other words, the Kocch liaj extended 
from 88 to 93 east longitude, and from 25 to 27 north 
latitude, Kocch Bihar being its metropolis, and its limits 
being coequal with the famous yet obscure Kamrup of the 
Tantras. Hdjo's representative still exercises jura regalia in 
that portion of the ancient possessions of the family which is 
called Nij J>ih;ir, and lie and the Jilpaigori and lYm^d Rajahs, 
together with the liijni and Darang Rajahs, and several of 
the Lords Marchers of the north frontier of Ka'mrup (IJaruas 
of the Dwdrs) all of the same lineage still hold as Zani- 
indar Rajahs most of the lands between Sikim, Bhutan, and 

:vip, as at present constituted, and a southern lint; nearly 
''of north latitude. Sukla I >ev of the 

:i dynasty divided the kingdom, and tt .s to have 

been in later times a triple Sulianat iixed at llihar. Ranga- 

ihatl The Bajl :uhati and their kins- 

of Darai ! '< i h dnminioM . .1 -; \\ard to 

the M;ijuli or L'lvat island of tin- r.ralinia: 
tic- founder, having no SODS, gave his daughter and 

ss to a Jlulo nr Meccli chief in mania_u r '; and to the 

jtoliey i: poli-y of uniting the. 

aborigines and directing th'-ir united force agai: 
was the founder of the K<>< h dyn;isty indel>t ; suc- 

. .Lanan, lUogpur., vol. iii. p. 419, io. 



io8 KOCCH. 

cess against the Moslems, the Bhutanese, and the Assamese.* 
Nevertheless the successors of Hajo speedily abandoned that 
policy, casting off the Me'cch (Bodo) with scorn, and renounc- 
ing the very name of their own country and tribe, with their 
language, creed, and customs, in favour of those of the Arians, 
who, however resolutely they may eschew the aborigines 
whilst continuing obscure and contumacious, never fail to 
hold out the hand of fellowship to them when they become 
powerful at once and docile. In a word, Visva Sinh, the 
conqueror's grandson, with all the people of condition, apos- 
tatised to Hinduism ; the country was re-named Bihar ; the 
people Riijbansi ; so that none but the low and mean of this 
race could longer tolerate the very name of K6cch, and most 
of these being refused a decent status under the Hindu 
regime, yet infected, like their betters, with the disposition 
to change, very wisely adopted Islam in preference to helot 
Hinduism. Thus the mass of the K6cch people became 
Mahomedans, and the higher grades Hindus: both style 
themselves Bajbansi. A remnant only still endure the name 
of Kocch, and of these but a portion adheres to the lan- 
guage, creed, and customs of their forefathers as it were 
merely to perpetuate a testimony against the apostasy of 
the rest ! The above details are interesting for the light 
they throw upon the character and genius of Hinduism, which 
is certainly an exclusive system, but not inflexibly so; and 
whilst it readily admits the powerful to the eminent status 
of Rajput vel Kshatriya/f it is prone to tender to the humble 
and obscure no station above helotism a narrowness of 
polity that enabled Buddhism not only to establish itself 
in the very metropolis of Hinduism (Bihar, Oude, Ben- 
ares), but for fifteen to sixteen centuries J (sixth B.C. to 

* The Yogini Tantra denounces these three under the appellations of Plov,* 
Yavan, and Saumar, as the foreign scourges of the laud. Buch. iii. 413. The 
Assamese (Saumar) alluded to are the Ahoms, who held upper Assam when the 
Kocch held lower and middle, but with ever-varying limits. 

f- Witness the Khas tribe of Nepal, as to which see " Essay on the Military 
Tribes," L 37 aforegone. 

Sakya was probably born in 545 B.C., and died in 465, and that his creed was 
still flourishing in the eleventh century A.D. is proved by the then solemn repair 
of the great temple at Gaya, The persecution, however, was hot in the ninth. 

* Pluh or Pruh is the Lepcha name of the Bhutanese, and may be the etymon of the 
Plava of the Tantras. The people of Bhutan call themselves Lhdpa". 



LOCATION. 109 

eleventh A.D.) to contest with it the palm of superiority. 
The Yogini Tantra very properly denominates the Kocch, 

lias or aborigines, the fact being imprinted in unques- 

tionable characters on their non-Ariaii physiognomy, and also 

on the language and customs of their unconverted brethren. 

They are called Kavach * in the Tantra just named, Htisa by 

\ucharis or Bodos of Assam, Kamal by the Dhimals, and 

i by tin* Mecch or Bodos of the Me'chi, as well as by 
themselves where not perplexed with Brahman ical devises. 
Buchanan, who was furnished with every appliance for satis- 
factory research, and whose sagacity was not unworthy of his 
opportunities, estimated the numbers of the Koech people 
ears ago at 350,000 nearly. I am not aware 
that any good census has since been taken, and I have failed 
to obtain a general estimate : but from much inquiry, aided 
by Major Jenkins, Dr. Campbell, and Permanand Acharj, I 
conclude that Buchanan missed a great many of them under 
the disguise of Islam, that cultivation has vastly increased 
since his time, that the Kocch abound throughout the northern 
part of Kangpur, Piirnea, Dinajpiir, Mymansing and in all 
Kainriip and Darang, as far as the Dhansri river, and that 
their numbers cannot be less than 800,000 souls possibly 
even a million or million and quarter. In Assam they are 
divided into Kamthali and Madai or Sham, ami Kolita or 
it a, and in Kangpur, &c., into IMji.ansi and Kocch those 
of the Moslem faith everywhere dropping their ethnographic 
designation. Their iirsi priests were. lU'oshi, their next. 

i or Khnltu, and their last, the p.rnhinans or Mullahs. 
Buchanan vouches that their primitive or proper Ian. 
(as Still used by the unadulterated remnant of the. race) has 
no affinity with the Prakrits, and I - ntire 

conformity of the physiognomy of all, and of the < iced and 
customs of this remnant with those of the other aboi ; 

around them. I have already 0tated that 1 failed to get at 

h, and thai my Ynrahif, 
;<> Mi'l this 



i* in identical with K-.cch. the difference being merely that of the Sanscrit 

t forms of the same w 

Observe that this is the name of the extant Dodo and Dhitnal priesthood, 
one of numerous proofs demonstrative of the affiuity of all the three pc< , 



no KOCCH. 

and in the meanwhile I cannot do better than give Buchanan's 
unusually careful and ample account of the condition, creed, 
and customs of this people which, being compared with 
my own subsequent statement of the condition, creed, and 
customs of the Bodo and Dhimal (of whom Buchanan says 
little or nothing), will satisfactorily demonstrate the affinity 
I have insisted on. 

" The primitive or Pani Kocch live amid the woods, fre- 
quently changing their abode in order to cultivate lands 
enriched by a fallow. They cultivate entirely with the hoe, 
and more carefully than their (Arian) neighbours, who use 
the plough ; for they weed their crops, which the others do 
not. As they keep hogs and poultry, they are better fed 
than the Hindus ; and Sis they make a fermented liquor * 
from rice, their diet is more strengthening. The clothing of 
the lYmi Kocch is made by the women, and is in general 
blue, dyed by themselves with their own indigo, the borders 
red, dyed with Morinda, The material is cotton of their 
own growth, and they are better clothed than the mass of 
the Bengalese. Their huts are at least as good, nor are they 
raised on posts like the houses of the Indo-Chinese, at least 
not generally so. Their only arms are spears : but they use 
iron-shod implements of agriculture, which the Bengalese 
often do not. They eat swine, goats, sheep, deer, buffaloes, 
rhinoceros, fowls, and ducks not beef nor dogs, nor cats, 
nor frogs, nor snakes. They use tobacco and beer, but reject 
opium and hemp. They eat no tame animal without offering 
it to God (the gods), and consider that he who is least re- 
strained is most exalted, allowing the G tiros to be their 
superiors, because the Garos may eat beef. The men are so 
gallant as to have made over all property to the women, who 
in return are most industrious, weaving, spinning, brewing, 
planting, sowing in a word, doing all work not above their 
strength. When a woman dies, the family property goes to 
her daughters ; and when a man marries, he lives with his 
wife's mother, obeying her and his wife. Marriages are 
usually arranged by mothers in nonage, but consulting the 

* The classic Zyth, t-vdov, beer without hops, as universal among the Abori- 
gines is the absence of spirits or distilled waters. 



STATUS. in 

destined bride. Grown-up women may select a husband for 
themselves, and another, if the first die. A girl's marriage 
costs the mother ten rupees a boy's five rupees. This sum 
is expended in a feast with sacrifice, which completes the 
ceremony. Few remain unmarried, or live long. I saw no 
grey hairs. Girls who are frail can always marry their 
lover. Under such rule, polygamy, concubinage, and adultery 
are not tolerated. The last subjects to a ruinous fine, which 
if not paid, the offender becomes a slave. No one can marry 
out of his own tribe. If he do, he is fined. Suttees are un- 
known, and widows always having property can pick out a 
new husband at discretion. The dead are kept two days, 
during which the family mourn, and the kindred and friends 
assemble and feast, dance and sing. The body is then burned 
by a river's side, and each person having bathed returns to 
his usual occupation. A funeral costs ten rupees, as se^ 
pigs must be sacrificed to the manes. This tribe has no 
letters, but a sort of priesthood called Deoshi, who marry 
and work like other people. Their office is not hereditary, 
and everybody employs what Deoshi he pleases, but some 
one always assists at every sacrifice and gets a share. The 
Kocch sacrifice to the sun, moon, and stars, to the gods of 
rivers, hills, and woods, and every year, at harvest home, they 
offer fruits and a fowl to deceased parents, though they believe 
not in a future state. Their chief gods are Rishi and his 
>. After the rains the whole tribe make a L r rand 
ice to these gods, and occasionally also, in cases of 
distress. There are no imam's. Tin- godfl Lvt the blond of 
sacrifices; their votaries, the meat. Disputes are settled 

"Ives by juries of Elders, the women hrin^ 
;ded here, however despotic at home. If a man it 

not jiay with purse ; ; \\ith person, be- 

coming a bondman, on food and raiment only, unlr 
can and will redeem him." 

climate of nor; 1 or Korch (including 

ry of the people so ca. 1 of the B6do and 

> well known to ir notice. 

it that of D< 
infest low fevers, which are either propagat 



ii2 CLIMATE. 

the wilds north and east of it, or, more probably, generated 
on the spot by excessive moisture and vegetation in the very 
extensive tracts of waste, still unhappily to be found every- 
where east of the Kosi river. West of that river, or in the 
ancient Mithila, and modern north Bihar, the climate is as 
much more salubrious as cultivation is more diffused. The 
Saul forest everywhere, but especially to the east of the K<>si, 
is malarious to an extent which no human beings can endure, 
save the remarkable races which for ages have made it their 
dwelling-place. To all others, European or native, it is 
deadly from April to November. Yet the Phinuil, the Bodo, 
the Kichak, the Thtirii, the Dhenwiir, not only live but thrive 
in it, exhibiting no symptoms whatever of that dreadful 
stricken aspect of countenance and form which marks the 
victim of malaria. The like capacity to breathe malaria as 
though it were common air characterises nearly all the non- 
Arian aborigines of India, as the Kols, the Bhils, the Guilds, 
who are all fine and healthy races of men, though dwelling 
where no other human beings can exist. This single fact is 
to my mind demonstration that the non-Arians have tenanted 
the wilds they now dwell in for many centuries, probably 
thirty, * because a very great lapse of time could alone work so 
wonderful an effect upon the human frame; and even with 
the allowance of centuries, the fact stands forth as one of the 
miracles of human kind, which those who can explain may 
sneer at the other amazing diversities worked by time ami 
clime on that marvellous unit, the seed of Adam ! The Bodo 
and Dhimals, whom I communicated with, alleged that they 
cannot endure the climate of the open plains, where the heat 
gives them fevers. This is a mere excuse for their known 
aversion to quit the forest ; for their eastern brethren dwell 
and till like natives in the open plains of Assam, just as the 
Kols of south Bihar (Dhangars) do now in every part of the 
plains of Bihar and Bengal, in various sites abroad, and lastly 
in the lofty sub-Himalayas. The Kols are indeed, as enter- 

* There is "no cabalistic virtue " in thirty, as Mr. Lyell observes in reference 
to his theory of the fourfold division of Tertiary rocks. That number exprosly 
is given, however, because about 3000 years back is the probable date of the 
immigration of the Ariau Hindus. 



PHYSICAL TYPE. 113 

prising as industrious, and they should be employed by every 
European who seeks to reduce and cultivate any part of the 
malarious forests of India. * But it must not be forgotten 
that the very same qualities of freedom from disabling pre- 
judices, cheerful docility, and peaceable industrious habits 
and temper, which render the Kols now so valuable to us, 
are the inherent characteristics of most of the aborigines, 
requiring only the hand and eye of a paternal Government 
to call them forth, as in the case of the Kols. Ages of inso- 
lent oppression drove the aborigines to the wilds, and kept 
them there till their shyness of all strangers had become 
rooted and intense. But I can answer for the Bodo and 
lUiiniiil possessing every good quality of the Kols in an 
equal or superior degree, and the B6do have already shown 
us with what facility those qualities may be put in action 
for our benefit as well as their own. 

The physical type of the Kocch, as contrasted with that oi 
the Hindu, is palpable, but not so as compared with that of y 
the Bodo and Dhimal. In other words, the physical type in 
all the non-Arians (of tbis frontier at least) tends to oneness. 
A practised eye will distinguish at a glance between the 
Arian and non-Arian style of features and form a practised 
pen will readily make the distinction felt but to perceive 
and to make others perceive, by pen or pencil, the physical 
that separate each group or people of Arian or of 11011- 
iction from each other group, would be a task 
indeed! In the Arian form (Hindu) there is height, sym- 
. mid tlexihility : in the Arian face, an nvul 
contour with ample forehead and moderate jaws ami mouth ; 
aroundchi: -.dirular with the forehead ; a regular set 

of distinct and tine features; a well-raised and um-.v 
nose, with elliptic i: '.ell-sized and finely-opened e\ 

: directly across .no want of eyebrow, eye- 

lash, or beard; and la>tly, a clear 1 

:er than that of the most southern Kur-. perms. 

In the nn-.\ 

v comes it that the Dcyrnh grantees, whom the malaria disables tie 

urc Dh6ngrs in would aniwer thoroughly 

and exactly for the purpose in view? I speak from much experience. 

... I. JI 



H4 BODO AND DHIMAL LOCATION. 

less symmetry, more dumpiness and flesh : in the non-Arian 
face, a somewhat lozenge contour, caused by the large cheek- 
bones ; less perpendicularity in the features to the front, 
occasioned not so much by defect of forehead or chin as by 
excess of jaws and mouth ; a larger proportion of face to 
head, and less roundness in the latter ; a broader, flatter face, 
with features less symmetrical but perhaps more expressive, 
at least of individuality; a shorter, wider nose, often clubbed 
at the end and furnished with round nostrils ; eyes less, and 
less fully opened, and less evenly crossing the face by their 
line of aperture ; ears larger ; lips thicker ; beard deficient ; 
colour brunet, as in the last, but darker on the whole, and, as 
in it, very various. Such is the general description of the 
Indian Arians and non-Arians. With regard to the particular 
races of the latter, it can only be safely said that the moun- 
taineers exhibit the Mongolidan or Turanian type of mankind 
more distinctly than the lowlanders, and that they have in 
general a paler, yellower hue than the latter, among whom 
there are some (individuals at least) nearly as black as 
negroes. Among the Kols * I have seen many Orauns and 
Miindas nearly black ; whereas the Larkas or Hos (says 
Tickell) are as pale, and handsome too, as the highest-caste 
Hindu. The Kocch, Bodo, and Dhimal are as fair as their 
Bengali neighbours on one side, and scarcely darker (especially 
the Bodo) than the mountaineers above them on the other 
side, and whom (the latter) they resemble in the latter style 
of their features and form, only with all the physiognomical 
characteristics softened down, and the frame less muscular 
and massive. The Kols have a similar cast of face, and a 
very pleasant one it is to look upon in youth, exhibiting 
ordinarily far more of individuality, character, and good 
humour than the more regular but tame and lifeless faces of 
Bo.L.fmd the Arian Hindus. For the further illustration of this point 
Location. I beg to refer to the accompanying drawings and appendix, 
and proceed now from the Kocch tribe to the Bodo and 
Dhimal tribes, who occupy the entire northern and eastern 

* K61 is an old and classical name, and the best I think for the great mass of 
aborigines intervening between theBhils, the Gonds, and the Ganges atl< 
\ve know them better. The Orauns, Mundas, Kols proper, and Liukas, seem to 
be distinct, and the chief families or stirpes. 



BODO AND DH1MAL LOCATION. 115 

skirts of the Kmvh country, between the open plains and 
the mountains, both of which sites, generally speaking, they 
avoid, and adhere to the great forest belt that divides the 
two, and which is, on an average, from fifteen to twenty miles 
broad. The Dhimuls, who seem fast passing away as a sepa- 
rate race, and whose numbers do not now exceed 15,000 
souls, are at present confined to that portion of the Saul 
forest lying between the Konki and the Dhorla or Torsha, 
mixed with the Bodo, but in separate villages and without 
intermarriage. But the Bodo are still a very numerous race, 
and extend as foresters from the Surma to the Dhansri, and 
thence, via Bijni and the Bhutan and Sikim Tarai, to the 
Kunki, besides occupying, outside the forest limits, a large 
proportion of central and lower Assam. In the divisions of 
:ig and Chatgari they constitute the mass of the ii.vd 
population: they abound in Chardwar and Noudwar: in 
Nougaon and Tularam's country they are the most numerous 
tribe next to the Mikirs and Lalongs ; in Kamriip next to 
the Dht'kra and Kocch; whilst in the inarches or forest 
frontier of the north from Bijni to Aliganj of Morung they 
form the sole population, except the few Dhimals who are 
mixed with them ; and in the eastern marches from (lauhali 
to Sylhet they are less numerous only than the Gan'x, IMbhas, 
and 1 i not to mention that the two last, if not all tin re. 

are b : ! - in disguise. I look upon the IJaMia as mcn-Iy 
st and most complete converts to Hinduism, who 
almost entirely abandoned th> I'.odo tongue and cus- 
toms, and upon tli- Haj6ngfl 01 II"jai Kacharis of N 

.ide in time and degree of conversion, who now 
very generally alleet a horror at being supposed confreres in 
speech or usages with the I'odo, though ivally su< h. 
have I any doubt that .'3 are at least a more alii! 

race, and no v. <1 with the nion<syllaliie-to: 

around them.* I do in : present in 

i i <<>do, who are 

.lily ill'- M-V1 - Ol 

the east and south; and. so limit, d, this 
numbers not less than 150,000 to 2OO,OOO souls. An 
* See note at page 106. 



1 1 6 BODO AND DHIMAL LOG A TION. 

accurate general census seems out of question except for 
Assam, but the above enumeration is given as an approxi- 
mate result of several statements obligingly supplied to me 
by Mr. Kellner, Mr. Scott, Dr. Campbell, and that enlight- 
ened traveller, Permanand Acharya. Thus the Bodo race 
extends from Tipperah and the country of the Kukis on the 
south-east to Morung and the country of the Kichaks to the 
north-west, circling round the valley of Assam by the course 
of the Dliansri, en route to the north, though Major Jenkins 
assures me that Bodos may be found even east of that river 
in the Assam valley. The latitude and longitude of the 
Bodo country are the same with those of the Kocch country, 
to speak without any affectation of a precision the subject 
does not admit of, and thus we may say the Bodo extend 
from 25 to 27 north latitude, and from 88 to 93 J east longi- 
tude ; and that the Dhinuils are confined to the most westerly 
part of this wide range of country, or that portion lying 
between the Konki ami the Dhorla. My personal communi- 
cations with these tribes were chiefly with those still found 
in all their primitive unsophistication on the banks of the 
Me*chi river, and from much intercourse with these, during 
four months, I conclude that neither people have any authentic 
ancient traditions. Nevertheless the ancient connection of the 
Phimals with the west, and of the Bodo with the east, part of 
north Bengal, is vouched by the facts, that a tract of country 
lying between the Konki and the Mahananda is still called 
.Dhimali; and a still larger tract situated between the great 
bend of the Brahmaputra and the Garo hills is yet called 
Me*chpara, The close connection of the Bodo with Kannup 
is further confirmed by the facts of the mass of the people 
being still found there, though under the name of Kacha'ri, 
and by the intimate affinity of the Bodo speech and customs 
with those of the Garos. The so-called Kiichtir Rajah is a 
new man and alien to the Bodo race, and so is the mass of 
the people of KaVhar. But Tiilaram is a Bodo, and the late 
Eajah of Karaibari another, and the Kalang dwtir chief a 
third ; and among the Lords marchers of the southern con- 
fines of Assam, others might once, if not still, be found ; for 
when the keeping of the northern marches (towards Bhutan) 



STATUS. 117 

was entrusted to the Kocch race, that of the southern dwars 
or doors (towards Garo and Xaiia land) was committed to the 
B6do tribe, that is, to its chiefs. It would not appear that 
any chief of Phimal race now exists: but the scattered 
remnants of this race assure me that they once had chiefs 
when they dwelt as a united people in Morung, on the bank-; 
of the Kaval (Kamla), whence they removed to the Ti'mzwa, 
and ultimately to and across the Konki, sixty years ago, in 
order to escape from Gorkhali oppression. Of the few lately 
extant chiefs of Bodo race, the Karaibari llujah's estate is 
transferred to the stranger, and the Kalang and Tularam 
chiefships are shorn of much of their " fair proportions." 
But in the days of Hajo, the K6cch founder, as well as in 
those of some of his more prudent successors, the Bodo seem 
to have had great political consequence, and if Hajo's de- 
scendants had steadily adhered to the wise maxims of their 
ancestor, their power might longer and more effectually i 
defied its enemies, whereas most of the Kocch Ilajahs followed 
the illiberal Arian maxims of Viswa Sinh, and thus the B6do 
were driven back upon their beloved forests, retreats which, 
speaking generally, neither they, nor the Dhimals, have since 
quitted, save in Assam. I proceed now to the consideration 
of the status, creed, and customs of the Bodo and Dhhnal. 
Upon these points the two people have so much in common, 
that though I have myself gone through each particular 
separately in regard to each people, I shall spare tlie patience 
of my readers by aggregating what is common, and separating 
only what is partieular. to the I'.udo and l)him;il. 

Condition. The condition or status of the Bodo and sttu*. 
Dhimal people is that of erratic cultivators of tlie wilds. 
For a-_ ' ''ending meiBOI^ or tradition, tlu-y ha\ 
beyond the sava.L"- or hunter state, and the nomadic or herds- 
man's estate, and have advanced to the thi; 
grade of social progress, but so as to indicate a not cut 
broken connexion with tin* precedent condition of things; 

'ors, all and >-ly, they are nom 

ators, so little coi with any one spot that ne 

I >himal 1 Besses a name for vil! 

in those wilds, wlim-in t; le of 



n8 STATUS. 

the plains (Ahirs and Gwallas) periodically graze immense 
numbers of buffaloes and cows, they have no large herds or 
flocks of their own to induce them to wander ; but, as agri- 
culturists little versed in artificial renovative processes, they 
find in the exhaustion of the worked soil a necessity, or in 
the high productiveness of the new a temptation, to perpetual 
movement. They never cultivate the same field beyond the 
second year, or remain in the same village beyond the fourtli 
to sixth year. After the lapse of four or five years they 
frequently return to their old fields and resume their cultiva- 
tion if in the interim the jungle has grown well, and they 
have not been anticipated by others, for there is no pretence 
of appropriation other than possessory ; and if, therefore, 
another party have preceded them, or if the slow growth of 
the jungle i, r ive no sufficient promise of a good stratum of 
-ashes for the land when cleared by fire, they move on to 
another site, new or old. * If old, they resume the identical 
ilields they tilled before, but never the old houses or site of 
the old village, that being deemed unlucky. In general, 
Hiowever, they prefer new land to old, and having still abund- 
ance of unbroken forest around them, they are in constant 
movement, more especially as, should they find a new spot 
prove unfertile, they decamp after the first harvest is got in. f 
They are all in the condition of subjects (of N'j>;il, Sikim, 
Bhutan, or Britain) having no property whatever in the soil 
they till, and discharging their dues to the Government they 
live under (Sikim, for example), 1st, by the annual payment 
of one rupee per agricultural implement, for as much land 
as they can cultivate therewith (there is no land measure, ; 
2iil, by a corvee or tribute of labour for the sovereign and 
for his local representative. They calculate that they can 
raise thirty to forty rupees' worth of agricultural produce 



* Arva in annos mutant et superest ager ! So immutable is human nature 
that the descriptions applied to our ancestors in their pristine state are absolutely 
aud most significantly true of similarly circumstanced races now abiding in the 
forest jungles of India. 

f Such are the primitive habits still in use from the Konki to the Mouash, 
and which are most worthy of stmdy and record, as being primitive and as being 
common to two people, the Bodo and Dhinial, though abandoned by the Kaui- 
riipian and most numerous branch of the Bodo. 



STATUS. 



119 



with one agricultural implement, so that the land-tax is very 
light ; and the corvee is more irksome than oppressive. It 
requires them, on the Rajah's behalf, to quit their homes for 
three or four days, thrice a year, in order to carry burdens 
for him into the hills, whenever he has goods coming from 
the plains ; but, on the representative's behalf, to work only 
on the spot. Four times a year they must help to till his 
fields ; also to build or repair his dwelling-house ; to supply 
him with fuel and plates (leaves) whenever he gives a feast ; 
and, lastly, they must pay him one seer of cotton each year 
for every cotton field they have. Very similar is the condi- 
tion, in regard to taxation, of the Bodo and Dhimal.s under 
the Nepal and Bhutan Governments. Under the British, 
the permanent cultivators of the open lands of Kamnip art* 
subject to the usual burdens incidental to our rule, which 
they discharge with ease, owing to their industrious and 
orderly habits. Major Jenkins gives them the highest 
character, observing that " they are a remarkably fine 
peasantry, and have very superior cultivation of the per- 
manent kind." This is abundant proof of the docility of 
the Bodo, and strong presumptive evidence that their erratic 
habits and adhesion to the wilds, elsewhere, are the result 
of oppression, at least as much as of the bias of pristine 
custom. But as the Kainn'ipiaii I>odo have abandoned with 
their erratic propensities a deal of whatever is most ch; 
teristic of them as a distinct race, I resume the delineation 
of them and of the Dhinuils, as still found in primitive 
simplicity between Bijni and M(>ran-_r. There they are 
itory cultivators of a soil in which they claim no sort 

;ory or possessory, but which they 

allowed to till upon the easy t< at ami labour 

because none others will or can enter their \\\\\\ 
>rl limits. There is no separate calling of herdsman 
or shepherd, or tradesman or per, or manufacturer 

alien or native, in these primitive societies, 
:ers amon.^ them, though tiny live on 
: cable tei nei-jh hours, and thus 

hase or barter, t 
1 do not produce tl 



120 STATUS. 

To a person accustomed to the constitution of social bodies 
in India, whether Arian or Tamulian, it must seem nearly 
impossible that communities could exist without smiths, 
and carpenters, and potters, and curriers, and weavers, 
not to mention barbers. Yet of these helot craftsmen, 
whose existence forms so striking a feature of all Indian 
societies, and whose origin and status so much need * illus- 
tration, there is no trace among the Bodo or Dhimals, though 
they live apart from all others, like the Khonds, Gonds, and 
Kols, who have these aliens among them ; and necessarily 
so, for their inaccessible position and predacious propensities 
would otherwise too often cut them off from all aid of crafts- 
men ; whereas the Bodo and Dhimal, who dwell upon the 
plains, and on peaceful equitable terms with their neighbours, 
can always command such services, or rather their products 
in the markets. The Bodo and Dhimals have no buffaloes, 
few cows, no sheep, a good many goats, abundance of swine 
and poultry, some pigeons and ducks. They have no need, 
therefore, of separate herdsmen, unless it were swine-herds, 
and these might be very useful in feeding their large store of 
pigs in the forest. But they have no such vocation among 
them, each family tending its own stock of animals, which is 
entirely consumed by that family, and no part thereof sold, 
though the proximate hill-men would gladly purchase pigs 
from them. But they love not trade nor barter further than 
is needful, and their need is confined to obtaining (besides 
rice) a few earthen and metallic culinary utensils, still fewer 
agricultural implements of iron, and some simple ornaments 

* When we consider the indispensableness of the services of these craftsmen, 
it is remarkable that they should have continued to the present day in a helot 
or out-caste state, not only among the Arians but even among the non-Ari.ins, 
not only in the plains but in the mountains. My belief is, that most of the 
non-Arians, on the Arian conquest, retired to the mountains and jungles, and 
that those who remained were reduced to helotism and became the artizans of 
Arian society, such as we now see them. Ages afterwards some of them passed 
into the fastnesses and wilds occupied by their non-Arian brethren, in freedom, 
and fierce defiance, for the most ]>art, of their Arian enemies. These immigrants 
are the recent helot craftsmen of the O6nds, Khonds, and K61s, such as we now 
see them, non-Arians in origin like the masters they serve, but from whom they 
fail to obtain better treatment than from the Arians. No common tie is recog- 
nised ; and ages of freedom and of servitude have left no common trait of 
character. 



EQ UAL1TYLA IVS. 1 2 1 

for their women all which are readily obtained at the 
Kocch marts in exchange for the surplus cotton and oil-seed 
of their efficient agriculture. Each man builds and furnishes 
his own house, makes the wooden implements he requires, 
and is his own barber, or his neighbour for him, and he for 
his neighbour. He uses no leather, and he makes basketry 
for himself and family, whilst his wife spins, weaves, and 
dyes the clothes of the family, and brews the beer which all 
members of it freely consume. Thus, all manufactures are 
domestic, and all arts. The B6do and Dhinuils are generally 
averse from taking service with, or doing work for, strangers, 
whether as soldiers, menials, or carriers, though there are a 
few soldiers and servants at Dorjiling belonging to the Bodo 
race, who conduct themselves well in their respective capa- 
cities. Among their own communities there are neither Equality, 
servants nor slaves, nor aliens of any kind; and whilst 
their circumstances tend to perpetuate equality of means, 
neither their traditions, their religion, nor their usages sanc- 
tion any artificial distinctions of rank. Though they have 
no idea of a common tie of blood, yet there are no diverse 
septs, clans, or tribes among them, nor yet any castes ; so 
that all Bodo and all Dhimiils are equal absolutely so in 
right or law wonderfully so in fact. Nor is this equality 
the dead level of abject want. On the contrary, the Bodo 
and Dhimals are exceedingly well-fed, and very comfortably 
clothed and housed ; and so soon as you know them for 
they are very shy of strangers their voices, looks, and con- 
duct all proclaim the absence of that i^ro veiling fear and 
cunning which so sin- '.\\ cue's intercourse with tin- 

people of Bengal, and the mass of whom are much worse fed, 
and distinctly worse clothed and housed, than either lit '.do or 

Dhim 

ft It having been already stated that these people Law*, 
are, and have been for ages, in the condition of subjects of 
foreign Governments, I need hardly observe that tl 
no public laws or polity whatever, nor even any traces of 

economy which so pre-eminently <ii>! .ian- 

B, Their habits are too simple and n 
to allow of the existence of the village system, \\ith its ; 



122 LAWS. 

of hereditary functionaries and craftsmen, They dwell in 
the forest in little communities, consisting of from ten to 
forty houses, which they are perpetually shifting from place 
to place. Each of these communities is, however, under a 
head called Gra by themselves, Mondol by their neighbours. 
To the foreign Government they live under their Gra is 
responsible for the revenue assessed, which he pays period- 
ically to the Eajah's representative the Choudri in cowries 
or rupees, the only currency. He has no scribe, nor keeps 
any accounts, his simple explanations to the Choudri being 
verbal. To the Choudri he is answerable, likewise, for the 
keeping of the peace and for the arrest of criminals: but 
crimes of a deeper dye are almost unknown, and breaches of 
the peace very rare. Should a murder or robbery occur, the 
( 'hoiidii would take cognizance of it, assisted by three or four 
proximate heads and elders of villages, and report to the 
Eajah, from whom alone in such cases a decision could issue. 
With regard to his own community, the head of the village 
has a general authority of voluntary rather than coercive 
origin, and which, in cases of the least perplexity, is shared 
with the heads or elders of two or three neighbouring villages. 
Those who offend against the customs of the Bodo or Dhimal 
that is, their own customs are admonished, fined, or excom- 
municated, according to the degree of the offence; the village 
priest being called in, perchance, to give a higher sanction 
to the award. The same jury-like tribunal seems to have 
almost exclusive cognizance of civil law, or the usages of 
each people in regard to inheritance, adoption, divorce, &c. 
Marriage is rather a contract than a rite, and as such is 
dissoluble at the will of either party ; and if the divorce be 
occasioned by the wife's infidelity, the price paid for her to 
her parents must be refunded by them. Dower is not in 
use, and women, in general, are deemed incapable of holding 
or transmitting property. All the sons get equal shares, nor 
is there any nice distinction of sons by marriage, adoption, 
or concubinage. Adoption is common and creditable, even 
if there be one son of wedlock : concubinage is rare and 
discreditable. Daughters have no inheritance nor dower, 
but if their parents be rich and give them marriage presents, 



LAWS. 123 

such are held to be their own, and will be retained by them 
in the event of divorce. Neither Bodo nor Dhimal can 
marry beyond the limits of his own people ; and if he do, he 
is severely fined. Within those limits only, two or three of 
the closest natural ties are deemed a bar to marriage. In 
the event of divorce, the children belong to the father, or the 
sons to the father and the daughters to the mother. If the 
husband take the adulterer in the fact, he may beat him 
and likewise the wife ; but no more ; * and thereafter, if he 

-, lie may put his wife away, when she and the adulterer 
will continue to abide together as man and wife without 

lal, but without marriage rite ; or, if the husband please, 
he may pardon her, and frequently does so, should the offence 
have been the first, and committed with one of the tribe and 
not with an alien. Chastity is prized in man and woman, 
married and unmarried ; and, as a necessary consequence, 
women are esteemed and respected, and divorce and separa- 
tion rare, notwithstanding the bad footing upon which the 
custom or law of these nations sets the nuptial union. 
Siphilis is absolutely unknown among the Bodo and Dhimal 
a fact that speaks volumes, and one that renders it scarcely 
necessary to add that any class of women, devoted to un- 
chastity, is a thing for which their languages have no name, 
and their manners no place. Filial piety is not a marked 
feature in their character, nor perhaps the want of it. Sons, 
on marriage, quit the parental roof, and sometimes pre- 
viously; but it is deemed shameful to leave old parents 
lone ; and the- last of the sons, who by his departure. 
does so, is liable to fine as well as disinheritance. Infanticide 
is utterly unknown, with ever rite allied to it, such 

as human sacrifice, self-immolation, and others, ton frequent 
among rude people. Daughters, on : fciy,ai6< 

and deemed a source T\ man 

must buy hi-? wife with coin or labour, ami 

comes to be nded by th> 

unfor nd. There is no bar to rci: 

satti is a rite held in abhorrence. 

;ong the Parbattias of Nepal the wronged hatband may, nay miut, ilaj 
the ad . 



1 24 LEARNING RELIGION. 

roaming. Of learning and letters the Bodo and Dhimals are totally 
devoid, and always have been so. The numerals of the 
cardinal scale are only seven in the B6do tongue, ten in the 
Dhimals, and they have no ordinals at all. Beyond seven 
or ten they count by the Hindu ways of fours and of scores, 
and in this manner they can reckon to 200. Very few of 
the Bodo or Dhimals have learnt to write the neighbouring 

O O 

Prakrits, but many can converse in them, particularly in the 
corrupt Bengali prevailing from the Kosi to the Brahmaputra. 
To the segregated manner of life of the Bodo and Dhimals, 
and to the practice of both people of marrying only within 
the pale of their own folk, I ascribe the present purity of 
their languages. 

Kciijrion. Religion. The religion of the Bodo and Dhimals is dis- 
tinguished, like their manners and customs, by the absence 
of everything that is shocking, ridiculous, or incommodious. 
It lends no sanction to barbarous rites, nor does it hamper 
the commerce of life with tedious inane ceremonial obser- 
vances. It takes less cognizance than it might advantageously 
do of those great sacraments of humanity, baptism, marriage, 
and sepulture, withholding all sanction from the first, and 
lending to the other two, especially marriage, a less decided 
sanction than the interests of society demand. The deplor- 
able impediments to the business of society, occasioned by 
the Hindu (Arian) Teligion, are too well known to call for 
specification. But even some of the non-Arians are pestered 
with usages, under the guise of religion, which are alike 
injurious to health and convenience, * or are pregnant with 
cruelty, f From all such crimes and mischiefs the religion 
of the Bodo and Dhimals is wholly free. With the most 
striking events or dearest ties of life it meddles little directly, 
confining itself almost exclusively to the propitiation of the 
superior powers by offerings and sacrifices. A Bodo or 
] )him;il is born, is named, is weaned, is invested with the 
toga virilis, without any intervention of his priest, who is 
summoned to marriages and funerals chiefly, if not solely, to 

* Khasias. Robinson's Assam, p. 413, and Buchanan's Reports, vol. iii. p. 695. 

f Garos. Elliott. Asiatic Researches, iii. 29. Khonds. Macphersou's 
Reports and Taylor's Account, vide Madras Journal, No. xvi., and Calcutta 
Review, No. ix. 



PRIESTHOOD. 125 

perform the preliminary sacrifice, which is indispensable to 
consecrate a feast, for no Bodo or Dhimal will touch flesh 
the blood of which has not been offered to the gods; and 
flesh constitutes a goodly proportion of the material of those 
feasts which solemnise funerals and weddings alike. The 
office of the priesthood is not an indefeasible right vested in Priesthood 
a caste, nor is the profession at all exclusive. The priests 
are native P>odo or Dhimal. no way distinguished from the 
rest of the community, either before or after induction. 
Occasionally the son will succeed the father in this office, 
but rarely: and whoever chooses to qualify himself may 
become a priest, and may give up the profession whenever 
he sees fit. More than this, the Elders of the people may 
and do participate in the functions of the priesthood and even 
exercise them alone, so that it is not improbable there 
a time when the civil heads of the community were likewise 
its ecclesiastical directors. This imperfect constitution of 
the clerical office has probably proved, upon the whole, a 
great blessing to these people by saving them from the 
trammels of all refined Paganism (Egyptian, Classic, Indian), 
though it has had the necessary ill effect of keeping th 
religious ideas in a state of extreme vagueness. I am not 
inclined to consider "the natural man" as a savage; and I 
have no hesitation in calling the religion of the amia 
Bodo and IMihnals the religion of Nature or rather, the 
iral religion of Man. It consists, clearly enough, of the 
worship of the most striking and influential of sensible 
"Cts of the "starry host," and of the terrene elements 
wiili a vaL'iie but impressive reference of i i played 

by these sensible objects to an immaterial or moral sum. 
unknown indeed, but still adored as Divine, and even as a 
I- is true tl oneej.tions are 

too va-U'- to be denoniii rictly Bpe 

to thes miK-h Irs-; positive 

r soul, 
for henven, for hell, f,,r sin, for pi 

beirgodaare many, and are. all v 



' I refer the caviller to P j-c'n universal prayer, and to that famous fane of 
antiquity dedicated to the Unknown God. 



126 PRIESTHOOD. 

of definite moral attributes (save when their own meaner 
passions of vanity and anger and grief are occasionally 
ascribed to them). But still, in the pre-eminence assigned, 
however vaguely, to one (or two) of these gods, we cannot 
deny to these simple-minded races the germ of a feeling of 
God's unity ; and when they appeal to Him as the avenger 
of perjury, the sanctioner of an oath ; we must acknowledge 
that the moral sentiments of their own nature irresistibly 
impel them to ascribe like sentiments to the Godhead. Now, 
in every serious matter of dispute that cannot be decided 
by testimony, usually so called ; oaths and ordeals are had 
recourse to and both as substitutes for, and not confirma- 
tives of, evidence, according to the ancient Jewish (nay, 
universal) notions on this head. But oaths and ordeals are 
appeals to the moral nature of the Divinity : nor can it be 
denied that, though the practical religion of the BoJo and 
] )liiiuiils consists of idle offerings and sacrifices to trivial 
deities, supplications for protection from danger, and thanks- 
givings when it is over, accompany these offerings and 
these sacrifices, forming a part, how inconsiderable soever, 
of the religious rites of the people, as conducted by the 
priesthood. The priests, or the elders, superintend the 
administration of oaths and of ordeals : the priests alone 
direct and conduct those high festivals, which thrice a year 
are celebrated in honour of the Elemental gods, and once a 
year in honour of the household divinities ; as likewise 
those occasional acts of worship which originate with more 
or less diffused, or individual, calamity. The calamities to 
which the Bodo and Dhimal stand most exposed are small- 
pox and cholera, which sorely afflict them; and drought, 
blight, and the ravages of wild elephants and rhinoceroses, 
from which their crops suffer not less. Diseases are con- 
sidered to arise entirely from preternatural agency, and hence 
there are no medical men but a regular class of exorcists, 
who are a branch of the priesthood, and whose mode of 
relieving the possessed or sick will be described presently. 
They are called Ojha, and are the sole physicians. Small-pox 
is the direst scourge of the Bodo and Dhimals ; next cholera 
(since 1818); next itch; then diseases of the intestines, as 



PRIESTHOOD. 127 

diarrhoea and dysentery ; then fever ; then goitre : diseases 
of the liver and lungs are very rare, and siphilis is unknown. 
The Bodo and Dhimiil, though healthy races, are not long- 
lived nor prolific. Grey hairs are less common than in the 
hills or plains: sixty is deemed a great age: a family of 
eight or nine living children is hardly known ; five or six 
alive is nearly the maximum, and two to four the mean. 
The hazards and the importance of agriculture to the Bodo 
and Dhimal are sufficiently indicated by their creed, the 
three chief festivals of which have almost exclusive reference 
thereto. Great as are the ravages committed on the crops 
by insects and wild animals, drought seems to be dreaded 
still more than either, so that among all the numerous gods, 
Jupiter pluvius, as typed by the rivers, commands a reverence 
second to none with the Dhimals, second to one or two only 
with the Bodo. All the rivers between the Cosi and the 
Torsha are chief divinities of the Dhimals all those between 
the Konki and the Bar nadi, prime deities of the Bodo. 
Fire, however indispensable agriculturally for the clearing 
of the forest, is by no means equally reverenced ; nor the 
earth, which yields all ; nor the noble forest, so cherished, 
and so many ways indispensable ; nor the mountains whence 
come these very rivers; nor even the sun and moon, which 
alone of the starry hosts are worshipped at all. All these 
deities are worshipped devoutly indeed, but none with such 
stness as the rivers: and yet the rivers flow too low 
to allow of their waters being turned to irrigation, so that 
it is as an index of copious rains, upon which exclusively 

and Dhiinal crops are dependent, that li. 

ntitled to \. 06, though crossing as 

do so frequently and so directly th< "f enmniuni- 

ii the, country of these t is no wonder 

that they hav- unusually commanded attention. V, 

:-ed lists of ad Dhimal d 

at once so numerous and so devoid 

exceedingly ]"Tj>l'-.\ed what to make of these gods, lm\v t< 

rend* one 

a was soon found in nthcon 

anot'. best fn I .ncll, 



128 PRIESTHOOD. 

where the rivers proved to be so many Dii majores. A third 
class of gods, and a very important and characteristic one, in 
regard to the Bodo more particularly, remained, however, for 
solution. These, following the people themselves, I have 
denominated the ' household gods/ because their worship is 
conducted inter parictes. ' National/ however, were the fitter 
term, for these are the original deities of the whole people ; 
and though their worship be conducted at home, or in each 
house, the whole neighbourhood participates through the 
medium of the accompanying sacrifice and feast, and recipro- 
cally at every householder's of the village, once a year in 
solemn pomp, and more frequently and quietly as occasion 
may require. Not to mention that these deities likewise 
share with the elemental gods the high triennial festivals 
above adverted to ; for how ample soever the Bodo or Dhi- 
mal pantheon, their practical religion is as simple as their 
manners, and they dispose of their superfluous divinities by 
adoring them all in the lump ! A good many of the house- 
hold or national divinities of the Bodo are elemental gods, 
ch idly rivers. Batho, however, the chief god of the Bodo, is 
not an cU'iiu-nta! god; but he is clearly and indisputably 
identifiable with something tangible, viz., the Sij or Euphorbia, 
though why that useless and even exotic plant should have 
been thus selected to type the godhead I have failed to ascer- 
tain. Mainou or Mainong is the wife of Batho, and equally 
revered with him ; more I cannot learn of her. The supreme 
gods of the Dhimals are usually termed Warang-Be'rang, that 
is, the old ones, or father and mother of the gods. They 
likewise are a wedded pair, whose proper names are respec- 
tively Pochima and Timai vel Tiuiang, of whom the latter is 
undoubtedly the Tishta river, and the former, I believe, the 
river Dhorla. The Bodo and Dhimals have neither temple 
nor idol, and altogether their religion belongs to the same 
primitive era with their habits and manners, is void of offence 
or scandal, and if any judgment may be made of it from the 
manners and character of its professors, is not without bene- 
ficial influences. 

I proceed now to some details upon this point, in which it 
will be necessary sometimes to speak separately of the Bodo 



PANTHEON. 



129 



and Dhimdl religions, though so little essentially distinct. 
This general correspondence extends not merely to the entire 
substance and character of the religion, properly so called, of 
each people, but to all minor points connected therewith : for 
example, both people have but a vague notion of the existence 
or functions of those Dii ininores called Genii, Fauns, Satyrs, 
and Sylvans by the classic ancients, and Fairies, Sprites, 
Gnomes, Ogres, c., by our Gothic or Teutonic ancestors. 
Neither people is infested with the Gothic bugbear of ghosts, 
or with the Gothic and classic follies of magic, sorcery, divin- 
ing, omens, auspices, astrology, or fortune-telling. On the 
other hand, both Bodo and Dhimal alike and devoutly believe 
in witchcraft, of which they entertain a deep dread, and like- 
wise in the influence of the evil eye, though much less dreaded 
than witchcraft. Omens are very slightly, if at all, heeded 
by either. 

THE CHIEF DEITIES OF THE 



B6do 

Bdthd", chief god ; 
or Sij plant. 



Euphorbia, 



Agrdng, male, relative of above 

pair. 

Khiirgi, male. 
Ab&khungar, male. * 

i, male, river? 
Man!h6, female. River Monda 

or Bonds. 
Brdli, male, river ? styled Brai, 

or the ancient. 

Buli, female, river? styled the 
ancient, or Burui. 

:aira, male, a Rajah. 
.11, male, Yama of Hindus. 
ir, or ) male, Bhutanese 
GMngar, > Deity. 

.|- 

DhoVlabrai, roan., river, hus- 

band of Tishta. 
Dudkosi, female, river. 

.to. 

Kangkai, ditto, ditto. 
Mdnchi, male, river. 
Torsha, ditto, d; 
JoVdaga, ditto, ditto ; the 

Jcrdeck. 
Btflakhungar, ditto, ditto ; the 

i:.i fcn. 

L. I. 






H t- 



Dhimdl*. 
Pochima, mas., father of the gods, 

the river Dhorla ? 

Timai vel| foam., mother of the gods; 
Tirnang, j" the Tishta river. 
LtCkhim, foem., sister of Timai, with 

s >me ; Mahanada ? 
Chimd, foem., sister of Timai; the 

Kosi river. 
Konokchiri, foem., feeder of Konki 

river. 

Kangkai, focra., river Konki. 
Mdnchi, foem., river Mdchi. 
Soudai, mas., the Soran river. 
Bondsi, mas., the Boas or Dods. 
Dhulpi, mas., the Dubdlly river. 
Danto, mas., styled tli* 
Cbddung, mas., styled Rajah, son of 

Tin 
Aphoi, mas., Rajah, son of Timai. 

Aphun, ditto, ditto, <i 
Kipbtin, ditto, ditto, ditto. 
Bdphun, ditto, ditto, ditto. 
tto. 

lion-. in:iH. 

Aika, mas. et foem., styled the Ol-I. 
* 



!uahad<5i, 

mahadol, 

Airi mahadoi, 



) Females all; wives 
r of the 7 sons 
( of Timai abor 

) given; ;. 

1 



PANTHEON. 



brothers. 



B6do 
Mdhdmdyd, female. River Ma- 

hanauda. 
D<5imd, Brdhmaputra ; foem., 

Mater tuagna. 

Chddung. ") 4 

Ge"dung. j 

Brai Bhanddri. 
Jholou Bhanddri. 
Kdthd, male, a Rajah. 
Dipkhungar. 
Phorou khungar. 
Shydnmadai, the Sun, ) , 
Nokhdbirmadai, thd 

Moon. 

Hdmadai, the Earth, foein. 
Wdtmadai, Fire, mas. 
Hdjd, Rajah, mas. 
Ujan, ditto, ditto. 
Bhdti, ditto, ditto. 
Phulibar, mas. 
Malibar, mas. 

Sukra brai, mas., ) styled 
Sukra bardi, foem., ( the Old, 

like several others. 
Dhonkuvir, mas., ) . , 
Kdthdkuvir, mas. ' 

wealth. 

Khumla brai, "| 
Khumla burdi ^' 
Khiiti bur, \ 
Chomkhdbir, | -3 
Dhon bir, J & rivijr< 
Sun<5khi, . The S*>ran 

Bun<5khi, 3 river. 

Auari. 8 g The Bods 

riber. 



and 



Dhimdls. 



( god of 

TheKnmla 

river, 
as inns, et 

loem. 
Thc-Cham- 



, 
.*> 

48 

3 



. , 

or rather re-named 
by the Dhi 



BW 

^1 no mabadoi, 
ir^i u jx- 
Kdlo mahad6i, 

BdU, mas., the Sun. 

Tjili, fcem., the Moon. 

Bhand'i, foem., the Earth. 

Singko Dir, the forest gods. 

Ra" ko Dir, the mountain gods. 

Chambochiri, foam., the Champa- 

mati river. 

Ddvai chiri, foem., river? 
Phul chiri, ditto, ditto. 
Rdvai chiri, ditto, ditto. 
Jivhdnte, ) Males, styled the Young, 
Bdwha'nte', > whdnt^ ; husbands of 
Rdwha'nte', ) above Chiris. 
Nitti, ) Dii minores, male and fe- 
Achdr, > male of each name, equiva- 
Ribhar, ) lent to the B6do Jaman. 

T^i lit I 



EXTRA LIST OF THE PANTHEON OF THE B6DOS, OF ASSAM 

AND KAMtfP. 



Siju Gohain,* . 


. Same as Bdthd. 


Sdsung, . 


. Male, great and malignant. 


R<5ng chiklau, 


O 


Rung madai, 
lior gdm, . 
Sor gdm, . 


' '.Spirits attendant on Sdsung, propitiated on occa- 
sions of sickness, death, or other calamity. 


Pdt bir, . 


J 


Hap busa, . 


. 


Hap busi, . 






* Gohain is a mere corruption of the Prakrit Gosain, the Supreme ; Siju is 
the Sij vel Euphorbia, type of Batho. 



PANTHEON. 



Ranga telda, ^ 




Boja t^kla, 








Mojang Mojdng, 
Jang khalap, 
Jang khilip, 




. 
'. Spirits attendant on the god Hapbusa 
Hapbusi. Goats and fowls sacrificed 


and goddess 
to them. 


Cbdta bir, . 








Mat ho bir, 








Khona khoni, 








Match langkhar, 
Jang khan a, 




Dii minores, get fowls or eggs only in sacrifice. 


Jang khani, 








Bura Gorung, 




Same as Burha Gosain of the Koch. 




Khola Qorung, 




Attendant spirit on last. 




Raj phusaru, 




Male, a Penate. 




' 




Agraug of prior list. 




Khandab, . 
Jol khunj-ira, 




Fluviatile deities, malignant. Pigeons 


sacrificed to 


Jol khunjari, 




iDGtn* 




Ay^orAi,* ^ 


Kdmakhya. 




Maknar, . | ^ -g 


Lakshmi. 




Jomon, . ! ** 


Yama. 




Jal kuvir, ) J* 


' ) 




Thai kuvir | ^ .3 


> Kuvir, Indian Pluto. 




Dhon kuvir, ) J 


If 





I know not that I can add anything worth preserving to 
the foregone list of the deities of the Bodo and Dhimal, save 
what will fall more appropriately under the head of rites and 
ceremonies. The list might have been considerably enlarged, 
but chiefly by importations from the Hindu pantheon ; and 
as these consist of mere names, it seems sufficient to observe, 
once for all, that the Bodo and Dhimal have latterly adopted 
a good many of the Hindu goddesses, particularly the various 
forms of Durga or Kali, but without any of the rites appro- 

o to her worship, or even any images of her. The 
deities of the Bodo and Dhim;il are divided into males and 

!>>, old and young; and the latter distinction is mutt-rial, 
as indicating the relative rank and consideration of the gods : 

tncient or venerable (I'rai-I'.aro'i in B6do, Wardng-B4rdng 

iimal, according to the sex) are the Dii nujores; the 

young (Khuiuar v-1 Jholou i AYlian;<- in Dliimal) 

are the I)ii minores. It will he, noticed that several of the 

ali; and as one of these (Hajo) is 
a ki oric person, it seems probable that thi 

ioB6doand Dhimal pantheon exemplifies the classic and 

iti practice of d( lie mortal benefactors of inan- 

* Unde Ai h6n6, the great festival, presently to be described. 



13 2 RELIGIOUS RITES. 

kind in a word, apotheosis, or hero worship. Madai, in 
Bodo, is a general term, equivalent to Deity, Divinity ; Dir 
and Gram are corresponding terms in Dhimal. 

iirii :ious Eites and Ceremonies. The rites of the Bodo and Dhimal 
religions are entirely similar, and consist of offerings, sacri- 
fices, and prayers. The prayers are few and simple when 
stript of their mummery ; and necessarily so, being committed 
solely to the memories of a non-hereditary and very trivially 
instructed and mutable priesthood. They consist of invoca- 
tions of protection for the people and their crops and domestic 
animals ; of deprecations of wrath when sickness, murrain, 
drought, blight, or the ravages of wild animals, prevail ; and 
thanksgivings when the crops are safely housed, or recent 
troubles are passed. The offerings consist of milk, honey, 
parched rice, eggs, flowers, fruits, and red-lead or cochineal ; 
the sacrifices of hogs, goats, fowls, ducks, and pigeons most 
commonly hogs and fowls. Sacrifices are deemed more worthy 
than offerings, so that all the higher deities, without reference 
to their supposed benevolence or malevolence of nature, 
receive sacrifices all the lesser deities, offerings only. Liba- 
tions of fermented liquor always accompany sacrifice 
because, to confess the whole truth, sacrifice and feast are 
commutable words, and feasts need to be crowned by copious 
potations! Malevolence appears to be attributed to very 
few of the gods, though of course all will resent neglect ; but, 
in general, their natures are deemed benevolent ; and hence 
the absence of all savage or cruel rites. All diseases, how- 
ever, are ascribed to supernatural agency. The sick man is 
supposed to be possessed by one of the deities, who racks 
him with pains as a punishment for impiety or neglect of the 
god in question. Hence, not the mediciner but the exorcist 
is summoned to the sick man's aid. The exorcist is called 
both by the Bodo and Dhimals Ojha, and he operates as 
follows. Thirteen leaves, each with a few grains of rice upon 
it, are placed by the exorcist in a segment of a circle before 
him to represent the deities. The Ojha, squatting on his 
hams before the leaves, causes a pendulum attached to his 
thumb by a string to vibrate before them, repeating invoca- 
tions the while. The god who has possessed the sick man is 



FESTIVALS. 133 

indicated by the exclusive vibration of the pendulum towards 
his representative leaf, which is then taken apart, and the 
god in question is asked what sacrifice he requires a buffalo, 
a hog, a fowl, or a duck, to spare the sufferer ? He answers 
(the Ojha best knows how 1) a hog ; and it is forthwith vowed 
by the sick man and promised by the exorcist, but only paid 
win.' n the former has recovered. On recovery the animal 
is sacrificed, and its blood offered to the offended deity. I 
witnessed this ceremony myself among the Dhimals, on 
which occasion the thirteen deities invoked were Pochima or 
Waning, Timai or Be'rang, Lakhim, Konoksiri, Menchi, Chima, 
Danto, Chddiing, Aphoi, Biphoi, Andheman (Aphun), Tato- 
pdtia (lidphiin), and Shiiti. A Bodo exorcist would proceed 
precisely in the same manner, the only difference in the 
ceremony being the invocation of the Bodo gods instead of 
the Dhimdl ones. 

The great festivals of the year are three or four. The first Festival*, 
is held in December-January, when the cotton crop is ready. 
It is called Shiirkhar by the B6do, Harejata by the Dhimals. 
The second is held in February-March. It is named W; 
leno by the B6do, who alone observe it. The Bodo name for 
the third, which is celebrated in July- August, when the rice 
comes into ear, is Phulthepno. The Dhimals call it Gdvi puja. 
The fourth great festival is held in October, and is named Ai 
Imnn by the B6do Pochima pdk;i by the Dhimals. The three 
first of these festivals are consecrated to the elemental gods, 
and to the interests of agriculture. They are celebrated abroad, 
cot at home (generally on the banks of a river), whence attend- 
ance on them is called Hagron hudong or madai hudong 

1 forth to worship,' in < i inction to the style of t In- 

i great festival, which is devoted to the household gods, 
;.nd is a -Id. rated at home. no or bamboo festival 

B6do I witnessed in the spring of ti :md will de- 

scribe it as a sample of the w Ifl I 1 : .: onto 

I >r. Campbell, we came upon a party of B6do 
hod nf the : ,in th- Saul f.n-st, or rather were 

road by the noise they made. It was a sort of 
chorus of a few syllables, solemnly and musically incan 

ii, on reaching the spot, was fouud to be uttered l.y thir- 



134 FESTIVALS. 

teen Bodo men, who were drawn up in a circle facing inwards, 
and each carrying a lofty bamboo pole decked with several tiers 
of wearing apparel, and crowned with a Chour or Yakstail. 
Within the circle were three men, one of whom, with an instru- 
ment like this ( | | ) in his hands, danced to the music, 
waving his weapon downwards on one side and so over the 
head, and then downwards on the other side and again over the 
head. He moved round the margin of the circle, in the centre of 
which stood two others ; one a Deoshi or priest, and the other 
an attendant or servitor called Phantwal. The priest, clothed 
in red cotton, but not tonsured or otherwise distinguished from 
the rest of the party, muttered an invocation, whereof the 
burden or chorus was taken up by the thirteen forming the 
ring above noticed. The servitor had a water-pot in one 
hand and a brush in the other, and from time to time, as the 
rite proceeded, this person moved out of the circle to sprinkle 
with the holy water another actor in this strange ceremony, 
and a principal one too. This is the Deoda, or the possessed, 
who when filled with the god answers by inspiration to the 
questions of the priest as to the prospects of the coming 
season. When we first discerned him, he was sitting on the 
ground panting, and rolling his eyes so significantly that I 
at once conjectured his function. Shortly afterwards, the 
rite still proceeding, the Ddoda got up, entered the circle, and 
commenced dancing with the rest, but more wildly. He held 
a short staff in his hand, with which, from time to time, he 
struck the bedizened poles one by one, and lowering it as he 
struck. The chief dancer with the odd-shaped instrument 
waxed more and more vehement in his dance ; the inspired 
grew more and more maniacal, the music more and more 
rapid, the incantation more and more solemn and earnest, till 
at last, amid a general lowering of the heads of the decked 
bamboo poles, so that they met and formed a canopy over 
him, the Deoda went off in an affected fit, and the ceremony 
closed without any revelation a circumstance which must be 
ascribed to the presence of the sceptical strangers ; for it is 
faith alone that worketh miracles, and only among and for 
the faithful. This ceremony is performed annually by the 
Rajah of Sikim's orders, or rather with his sanction of the 



FESTIVALS. 135 

usages of his subjects, is addressed to the sun, the moon, the 
elemental gods, and above all to the rivers, and is designed to 
ensure health and plenty in the coming year, as well as to as- 
certain beforehand its promise or prospect through the revela- 
tions of the De*oda. With regard to the festival sacred to the 
national or home-bred (nooni) gods, called Aihuno by the Bodo, 
and Puchima paka by the Dhimals, it is to be observed that 
the rite, like the separate class of deities adored thereby, 
is more distinctively Bodo than Dhimal. With both people 
the pre-eminence of water among the elements is conspicu- 
ous ; but whereas the river gods of the Dhimals have nearly 
absorbed all the rest, elementary or other, the household gods 
of the Bodo stand conspicuously distinguished from the 
fluviatile deities. The Pochima and Timang of the Dhimals 
are one or both rivers ; the Batho and Mainang of the Bodo 
are neither of them rivers, and their interparietal rites are as 
clearly distinguished from the rites performed abroad to the 
fluviatile and other elemental gods. However, the rites of 
Batho and Mainou are participated by deities of elementary 
and watery nature; and, on the other hand, the Dhimals 
assert that Pochima and Timai have a two-fold character, 
one of river gods (Dhoiia and Tishta), and one of supreme 
gods, and that they are adored separately in these two char- 
acters, the Pochima paka or home rite of October being appro- 
priated to them in the latter capacity, or that of supreme 
gods. I have not witnessed the Pochima paka, and therefore 
speak witli hesitation. The Ai* hun6 is performed as follows. 
The friends and family being assembled, including as many 
persons as the master of the house can afford to feast, the 

:d or priest enters the enclosure or yard of the house, in 
the centre of which is invariably planted a Sfj or Euphorbia, 
as the representative of Bath<>, who is the family as well as 

mil god of t >. To Biitln'i thus ivpR'scntcd the 

DexSshi offers prayers and sacrifices a cock. !! thru 
ceeds into the house, adores Mainou, and sacrifices to 1 

uiily. ;ml all thr fririuls pro- 
ceed to some convenient and pleasant spot in tin; vicinity, 

a U the godde Kumakya or Kimr&p, ri genetrix nature, tjped 
by the Bhaga or Yoni. See page 131. 



136 FESTIVALS. 

previously selected, and at which a little temporary shed has 
been erected as an altar, and there, with due ceremonies, 
another hog is sacrificed to Agrang, a he-goat to Manasho 
and to Biili, and a fowl, duck, or pigeon (black, red, or white, 
according to the special and well-known taste of each god) 
to each of the remaining nine of the Nooni madai. The 
blood of the sacrifice belongs to the gods, the flesh to his 
worshippers ; and these now hold a high feast, at which beer 
and tobacco are freely used to animate the joyous conclave, 
but not spirits, nor opium, nor hemp. The goddess Mainou 
is represented in the interior of each house by a bamboo post 
about three feet high, fixed in the ground and surmounted 
by a small earthen cup filled with rice. Before this symbol 
is the great annual sacrifice of the hog above noted performed ; 
and before this the females of the family, once a month, make 
offerings of eggs. For the males, due attention to the four 
annual festivals is deemed sufficient in prosperous and health- 
ful seasons. But sickness or scarcity always begets special 
rites and ceremonies suited to the circumstances of the cala- 
mity, and addressed more particularly to the elemental gods 
if the calamity be drought, or blight, or devastations of wild 
animals ; to the household gods if it be sickness. Hunters 
likewise and fishers, when they go forth to the chase, sacrifice 
a fowl to the Sylvan gods to promote their success; and, 
lastly, those who have a petition to prefer to their superiors 
conceive that a similar propitiation of Jishim and Mishim, 
or of the Chiris, will tend to the fulfilment of their requests. 
And this, I think, is nearly the whole amount of rites and 
ceremonies which their religion prescribes to the Bodo and 
Dhimals ; and anxious as I am fully to illustrate the topic, I 
will not try the patience of my readers by describing all that 
variety of black victims and white, of red victims and blue, 
which each particular deity is alleged to prefer ; first, because 
the subject is intrinsically trifling ; and, second, because the 
diverse statements of my informants lead me to suspect that 
the matter is optional or discretionary with each individual 
priest prescribing these minutiae. I have mentioned the rude 
symbols proper to Batho and Mainou. None of the other 
gods seem to have any at all, though a low line of kneaded 



PRIESTHOOD. 137 

clay attached to the Thali that surrounds the sacred Eu- 
phorbia in the yards of the Bodo is said to stand for the rest 
of the divinities, who, as I have already said, are wont to be 
worshipped collectively rather than individually ; and thus 
the sun, the moon, and the earth, though adored by Bodo and 
by Dhinuil, have no separate rites, but are included in those 
appropriated to the elemental gods. Witchcraft is univer- 
sally dreaded by both B6do and Dhimal. The names of the 
craft and of its professors, male and female, will be found in 
the vocabulary. Witches (Dain and Mhai) are supposed to 
owe their noxious power to their own wicked studies, or to 
the aid of preternatural beings. When any person is afflicted, 
the elders assemble and summon three Ojhas or exorcists, 
with whose aid, and that of a cane freely used, the elders 
endeavour to extort from the witch a confession of the fact 
and the motives. By dint of questioning and of beating, the 
witch is generally brought to confession, when he or she is 
asked to remove the spell, to heal the sufferer means of pro- 
pitiating preternatural allies (if their agency be alleged) bein^ 
at the same time tendered to the witch, who is, however, 
forthwith expelled the district, and put across the next river, 
with the concurrence of the local authorities. No other 
sorcery or black art, save that of witches, is known ; nor 
palmistry, augury, astrology, nor, in a word, any other sup- 
posed command of the future than that described in the 
MO' as the attribute (for the nonce) of the De*6da or 
vates. The evil eye causes some alarm to Bodo and to 
Dhinuil, who call it mogon nango and mi nojo respectively, 
and who cautiously avoid the evil-eyed person, but cannot 
eject him from the community. The influence of the evil 
eye is sought to be neutralised by offerings of parched mil lei 

_'gs to Khoja Kajah and Mansha llajah Dii niinores, 
who find no place in my catalogue, ample as it is. Moisli 
madai, I am told, likewise claims a place in tin; Bodo pan- 
and a distinguished place too, as the protector of this 
forest-dwelling people from beasts of prey, and especially 
the tiger. 

i&thood. The priesthood of the B6do and Dhimals is ivi 
entirely the same, ev< i.itim-, \\ I :i both '"' ' 



138 CUSTOMS. 

people expresses the three sorts of clergy by the terms Ddoshi, 
Dhami, and Ojha. The Dhami (seniores priores !) is the dis- 
trict priest, the Deoshi the village priest, and the Ojha the 
village exorcist. The De'oshi has under him one servitor, 
called Phantwal. There is a D<$6shi in nearly every village. 
Over a small circle of villages one Dhami presides, and pos- 
sesses a vaguely defined but universally recognised control 
over the Deoshis of his district. The general constitution 
and functions of the clerical body have already been fully 
explained. Priests are subject to no peculiar restraints, nor 
marked by any external sign of diverse dress or other. The 
connection between pastor and flock is full of liberty for the 
latter, who collectively can eject their priest if they disap- 
prove of him, or individually can desert him for another if they 
please. He marries and cultivates like his flock, and all that 
he can claim from them for his services is, first, a share of 
every animal sacrificed by him, and, second, three days' help 
from each of his flock (the grown males) per annum towards 
the clearing and cultivation of the land he holds on the same 
terms with them, and which have been already explained. 
Whoever thinks fit to learn the forms of offering, sacrifice, 
and accompanying invocation can be a priest ; and if he get 
tired of the profession, he can throw it up when he will. 
Ojhas stand on the same footing with Dhamis and Deoshis. 
They are remunerated solely by fees ; but into either office 
priests or exorcists the form of induction is similar, con- 
sisting merely of an introduction by the priests or exorcists 
of the neophyte to the gods the first time he officiates. One 
Dhami and two De*6shis usually induct a Deoshi; three 
Ojhas an Ojha; and the formula is literally that of an intro- 
duction ' This is so-and-so, who proposes, ye gods ! to 
dedicate himself to your service. Mark how he performs the 
rites, and, if correctly, accept them at his hands.' 
customs. Customs. Under this head I shall state the usages observed 
at births, naming, weaning, toga virilis, marriage, and death, 
aggregating what is common, and distinguishing what is 
peculiar, to the Bodo or Dhimals. The customs of both 
people have a great similitude, owing to their perfect sim- 
plicity. They are derived, in fact, from nature, and nature 



CUSTOMS. 139 

as little strained by arbitrary devices of man as can well be. 
At births the mother herself cuts the navel-string, so soon 
as she has recovered strength for the act. No midwives are 
found, so that nature must do all, or the mother and offspring 
perish together. But deliveries are almost always very easy, 
and death in childbed scarcely known a blessing derived 
from the active and unsophisticated manners of the sex. 
The idea of uncleanness occasioned by births, and by deaths 
also, is recognised ; but the period of uncleanness and segre- 
gation is very short, and the purificatory rites consist merely 
of bathing and shaving, performed by the parties themselves. 
The infant is named immediately after birth, or as soon as 
the mother comes abroad, which is always in four or five 
days after delivery. There are no family names, or names 
derived from the gods. Most Bodo and Dhimals bear 
meaningless designations, or any passing event of the 
moment may suggest a significant term : thus a Bhotia chief 
arrives at the village, and the child is called Jinkhap; or 
a hill peasant arrives, and it is named G6ngar, after the 
titular or general designation of the Bhotias. Children are 
not weaned so long as their mother can suckle them, which 
is always from two to three years sometimes more; and 
two children, the last and penultimate, are occasionally seen 
at the breast together. The delayed period of weaning will 
account in part for the limited fecundity of the women. 
When a B6do or Dhimal comes of age, the event is not 
solemnised by any rite or social usage whatever. j\Iuni;m: 
takes place at maturity, the male being usually from twenty 
to twenty-five years of age and the female from fifteen to 
twenty. Courtship is not sanctioned : the parents or friends 
negotiate the wedlock, though in so simple a state of so 
it cannot be but the parties have frequently met and are 
well known to each other. Tin- 1 1 indiis wisely and decorously 
attach much discredit to the parent \\lio takes a "e 
tion " for the grant of his dau-jliter in marriage. No such 
delicacy is recognise.1 by B6do or Dliimal parents, who 
riably demand and receive a price, wliieh is called .Ian 
in the language of tin- former, ami (landi in that <f the 

:u ten to lifter n i 



MO CUSTOMS. 

among the Dhimals, from fifteen to forty-five among the 
Bodo. I cannot learn the cause of the great difference. A 
youth who has no means of discharging this sum, must go to 
the house of his father-in-law elect, and there literally earn 
his wife by the sweat of his brow, labouring, more judaico, 
upon mere diet for a term of years, varying from two as an 
average to five and even seven as the extreme period. This 
custom is named Gaboi by the B6do Gharjya by the 
Dhimals. It, of course, implies a good deal of intercourse 
between the betrothed youth and damsel prior to their 
nuptials ; but from all I can learn, instances of opportunity 
abused are most rare. The legal nature and effects of the 
nuptial contract have been already explained under the head 
of Laws : what concerns fecundity, longevity, &c., under the 
head of Medicine, as a branch of religion. The marriage 
ceremony is little perplexed with forms. After the essential 
preliminaries have been arranged, a procession is formed by 
the bridegroom elect and his friends, who proceed to the 
bride elect's house, attended by two females specially 
appointed, to put red-lead or oil on the bride elect's head 
when the procession has reached her home. There a refec- 
tion is prepared, after partaking of which the procession 
returns, conducting the bride elect to the house of the 
groom's parents. So far the same rite is common to the 
Bodo and Dhimtil the rest is peculiar to each. Among the 
Dhimals, the De*6shi now proceeds to propitiate the gods by 
offerings. Data and Bidata, who preside over wedlock, are 
invoked, and betel-leaf and red-lead are presented to them. 
The bride and groom elect are next placed side by side, and 
each furnished with five pauns, with which they are required 
to feed each other, while the parents of the groom cover 
them with a sheet, upon which the De'oshi, by sprinkling 
holy water, sanctifies and completes the nuptials. Among 
the Bodo the bride elect is anointed at her own home with 
oil ; the elders or the Deoshi perform the sacred part of the 
ceremony, which consists in the sacrifice of a cock and a 
hen, in the respective names of the groom and bride, to the 
sun ; and next, the groom, rising, makes salutation to the 
bride's parents, and the bride similarly attests her future 






CUSTOMS. 141 

duty of reverence and obedience towards her husband's 
parents ; when the nuptials are complete. A feast follows 
both with Bodo and Dhimals, but is less costly among the 
former than among the latter as is said, because the higher 
price paid for his wife by the Bodo incapacitates him for 
giving so costly an entertainment. The marriage feast of 
the Dhimals is alleged to cost thirty to forty rupees some- 
times, the festivities being prolonged through two and even 
three days; whereas four to six, rarely ten, rupees suffice 
for the nuptial banquet of a Bodo. 

The B6do and Dhimals both alike bury the dead, im- 
mediately after decease, with simple but decent reverence, 
though no fixed burial-ground nor artificial tomb is in use 
to mark the last resting-place of those most dear in life, 
because the migratory habits of the people would render 
such usages nugatory. The family and friends form a 
funeral procession, which bears the dead in silence to the 
grave. The body being interred, a few stones are piled 
loosely upon the grave to prevent disturbance by jackals 
and ratels rather than to mark the spot, and some food and 
drink are laid upon the grave ; when the ceremony is sus- 
pended and the party disperses. Friends are purified by 
mere ablution in the next stream, and at once resume their 
usual cares. The family are unclean for three days, after 
which, besides bathing and shaving, they need to be sprinkled 
with holy water by their elders or priest. They are then 
restored to purity, and forthwith proceed to make prepara- 
tions for a funeral banquet, by the sacrifice of a hog to 
Mainou or Timdng, of a cock to Batho or Pochima, according 
to the nation. When the feast has been got ready and tlu; 
friends are assembled, before sitting down they all repair 
once again to the grave, when the nearest of kin to tin; 
deceased, taking an individual's usual portion of food and 
drink, solemnly presents them to the dead with these words, 
.>} and eat: hciHoforr you have eaten and drank with 
you can do so no more : you were one of us : you can 
be so no longer: we come no more to you: conn y. u not to 
us.' And thereupon the whole party break and cast on \\\<: 
grave a bracelet of thread priorly attached, to this end, to 



M2 ARTS AGRICULTURE. 

the wrist of each of them. Next the party proceed to the 
river and bathe, and having thus lustrated themselves, they 
repair to the banquet, and eat, drink, and make merry as 
though they were never to die ! A funeral costs the Dhimals 
from four to eight rupees something more to the Bodo, 
who practise more formality on the occasion, and to whom 
is peculiar the singular leave-taking of the dead just 
described. 

Arts. Useful Arts. As already observed, the arts practised by 

the Bodo and Dhimals are few, simple, and domestic. Agri- 
culture is the grand and almost sole business of the men, but 
to it is added the construction and furnishing of the dwelling- 
house in each of the frequent migrations of the whole people. 
The boys look after the domestic animals. The women, 
aided by the girls, are fully employed within doors in 
spinning, weaving, and dyeing the clothing of the family, in 
brewing, and in cooking. The state of the arts will be 
sufficiently and most conveniently illustrated by a description 
of the house, household furniture, clothes, food, and drinks 
of the people, preceded by an account of the implements, 
processes, and products of agriculture. 

Agriculture. The agricultural implements are an axe to fell the forest 
trees, a strong bill or bill-hook to clear the underwood and 
also to dig the earth, a spade for rare but more effectual 
digging, and lastly a dibble for sowing the seed. The axe 
is called Eiia by the Bodo, Duphe' by the Dhimals. It is a 
serviceable implement of iron (the head) similar to that in 
use in the plains, where the head is bought ; the haft being 
made at home. The bill, called Che"kha by the Bodo, Ghon- 
goi by the Dhimals, is a 'jack of all work,' like in shape to 
our English bill, but with the curved extremity or beak pro- 
longed, and furnished with a straight downward edge of some 
three inches. It is of iron, of course, and purchased in the 
Kocch marts. The spade is the ordinary short bent one of 
the plains, where it is bought, and where it is called Kodal. 
The Bodo and Dhimals use it but little, and have no name 
of their own for it. The dibble is a wooden staff about four 
feet long, made by the people themselves. It is like a stout 
walking-staff sharpened at the lower end. The process of 



A GRICUL TURE. 1 43 

culture, emphatically called ' clearing the forest,'* is literally 
such for the most part, and would be so wholly, but that 
several of the species grown being biennials, a field is retained 
over the first year, so that the second year's work consists 
merely of weeding and re-sowing rice amid the other stand- 
ing products. The characteristic work is the clearing of fresh 
land, which is done every second year, and thus axes and 
bills clear away the wood. Fire completes what they have 
left undone, and at the same time spreads over the land an 
ample stratum of manure (ashes). The soil is worked nearly 
enough in eradicating the undergrowth of trees (for the lords 
of the forest are only truncated) ; so that what little addi- 
tional digging is needed may be and is performed with the 
square end of the bill. 'Tis no great matter, and firing is the 
last effectual process. Amid the ashes the seed is sown by a 
dibbler and a sower, the former of whom, walking erect, per- 
forates the soil in quincunxes by sharp strokes of his pointed 
staff (called Shoman by the B6do,and Dhumsi by the Dhimals), 
so as to make a series of holes from one to two inches deep, 
and about a span apart ; whilst the latter, following the dib- 
bler, and furnished with a basket of mixed seeds, drops four 
to six seeds into each hole, and covers them at the same time. 
All the various produce raised is grown in this promiscuous 
style. Chait, Baisak, and half Jetli-f comprise the season 
for preparing and sowing the soil. Sawan, Bhddiin, Kuar, 
and half Kartik^ that for gathering the various products, 
save cotton, which is not gathered till ru-M;iJi.$ The rest 
are reaped as they successively ripen: first, cucurbitaceous 
plants (Knhara, Louka, Khira, Kankara, Karela) ; then greens 
.. mat tar, I'..'ii;jan. < 'liichin<l:i, I'lVi) ; then the several 
e roots (Yam, Arwi, &c.) ; then the condiim-n 
A drak, red peppers); thru tin- millets and pulse Marwa, 
Kulthi, tlrid); then mai/.e ; next rice; then the : 
i or Sarsiin or Til) ; and last of all, cotton. T 
ii are much better rating the jungle than 

* See pp. 103 and 1 1 8 for more samples of the use of a full vocabulary in illus- 
trating ople. 
t March, April, and May respectively. 

'.y. August, September, and October respectively. 
| December- January. 



144 AGRICULTURE. 

those for which the Bengal plough performs the same office, 
are likewise as much better weeded ; and how strange soever 
to mere English ears the huge mixture of crops may sound, 
this mixture does not greatly exceed the practice of Bengal, 
nor is it inconsistent with good returns, though there be no 
artificial irrigation whatever. The cotton is a biennial of 
inferior quality, but it is the main crop, and that from the 
sale of which in the plains the B6do and Dhimals look to 
provide themselves with the greatest part of the rice they 
consume ; for their own supply is very inadequate. Never- 
theless rice is usually spoken of as the crop next in estimation 
to cotton, though maize and even millet seem to contribute 
as much to.the quantity of home-reared food. The rice grown 
is similar to the ' dry rice ' ' the Ghaia ' of Nepal the ' sum- 
mer rice ' of the plains. The other articles grown have all 
been enumerated above, save indigo, which, with the cochi- 
neal of the forest and madder procured from the hills, sup- 
plies the Bodo and Dhimals with dyes. Arhar and a few 
more of the superior agricultural and horticultural products 
of the plains are occasionally grown by the Bodo and Dhimals, 
whose chief products, however, are those given above, and of 
them not absolutely all in one field and year, though from 
twelve to fifteen are always there, and include a good supply 
of vegetables, condiments, and cerealea, but the last deficient 
in the article of rice, which is the principal grain eaten. Of 
vegetables, the favourites are Be*ngans, cucurbitacea, and roots 
(Tha vel Lin in their own tongues) ; of cereals, rice ; of con- 
diments, red peppers. Mustards are grown not for their 
oils, nor as stimulants, but merely for eating like parched 
pease. The oil-seeds are fried, and are relished in that state ; * 
the young plants also are used as greens. The surplus seed is 
sold to the oilmen of the plains, neither B6do nor Dhimdl 
being wont to express oil, of which they consume little, and 
that only for cooking. Lights they use none (save on occa- 
sions of ceremony and of piija), but go to bed early, and sit 
by the fire a splendid wood-fire till then. The small quan- 
tity of oil used for cooking they buy in the adjacent marts of 

* They are fried with greens, and of course yield up a good deal of their oil 
to flavour the vegetables. 



AGRICULTURE. 145 

the Kocch. The cotton crop and the surplus of the mustard 
crop are all the agricultural products which they sell any portion 
of. Cotton is habitually sold, the small portion only that is 
needed for clothing the family being reserved, which may be 
about one-fifteenth of what is raised. The domestic animals 
have been enumerated elsewhere, and must be spoken of 
again when we come to the head of Food. Agriculturally 
viewed, they are a dead letter, not even their manure being 
employed. 

Upon the whole, the agriculture of the Bodo and Dhimals is 
conducted with as much skill as that of their lowland neigh- 
bours; with skill much superior to that of their highland 
neighbours ; and with pains and industry greatly above those 
of either highlanders or Kocches. The following details of 
what is raised by one Bodo cultivator, and consumed by him- 
self, his wife, and three young children, imperfect though 
they be, will help to convey a just idea of his position ; and 
those who care to compare it with the position of a peasant 
in the hills and in the plains will find the means of making 
such comparison in Appendix II. 

Bodo peasant tilling if bigha with the spade. 

PRODUCTS OR INCOME. 

Dhan or rice in husk, . . 24 bisi = 1 2 maunds =400 

Cotton undressed, . .16 bisi = 8 maunds =32 o o 

Maize, .... 3 bisi = \\ maunds =080 

lets and Pulse, . . 4 bisi = 2 maunds = 012 o 

uts, dyes, & greens, 2 bisi = i maund =400 

Total Rupees, . .4140 

EXPENSES. 

in husk, bought, . 3 Pouthi = 48 maunds =1500 

Salt bought, . . . 18 Phol 18 seers -1300 

Cott..n-ti.-l.l pujji, -loo 

Government tax, I o o 

Cotton-seed bought, - I o o 

A i hu no festival, 300 

Oil bought for worship and for occasional lights, 080 

Sickness, fees to the Oj ha, . . . . -400 

VOL. I. K 



146 A GRICUL TURE. 

Presents to sisters and friends who ask aid and 

make visits, =200 

Ornaments for wife, =200 

Fruits bought for self, wife, and children, . =200 
Fish bought in rains when none can be taken 

in the forest, = I 8 o 

Earthen vessels bought, . . , . . =080 

Proportion of price of ChSkha or Bill, . . =080 

Ditto ditto of Jong or spear, r. . =080 

Ditto ditto of metallic pots and pans, =080 

Sundries, =200 

Total Rupees, . . 40 o o 
Balance in favour, 140 

It has been already mentioned that the Bodo and Dhimal 
peasant is liable to a corvee or labour tax, the items of which 
may be added thus for the Rajah, 3 days thrice a year, or 
9 days; for the Rajah's local representative, 6 days; for the 
village priest or De*6shi, 3 days total, 18 days per annum. 
This is so much deducted from his resources, and may be 
stated at two * rupees in coin. A peasant of the plains using 
the plough will earn twice or even thrice as much as a Bodo 
or Dhimal, and yet, what with the wretched system of bor- 
rowing at 25 to 30 per cent., and the grievous extra frauds 
incidental to that system, he will not be nearly so well off. 
The Bodo or Dhimal, again, has abundance of domestic 
animals, and is, moreover, at liberty to eat the flesh of all save 
the cow ; whereas the peasant of the plains has few, and of 
those only the goat that he can eat. And, lastly, the Bodo's 
industrious wife not only spins, but weaves and dyes all the 
clothes of the family, besides supplying it amply with whole- 
some and agreeable beer, whilst the peasant's wife in the 
plains does nothing but spin ; and though this may diminish 
the cost of the family clothing, still it must be bought ; nor 
will there be much thread to dispose it in free sale, apart 
from the clothier. The highland peasantry generally earn 
less than the Bodo and Dhimals, and are proportionally worse 

* If the Bodo pay one rupee of direct and two of indirect taxes, he will be 
nearly on a level, quoad public burdens, with the peasant of the plains. 



HOUSES FURNITURE. 147 

off, though lightly taxed, and exempt from the curse of the 
borrowing system. The Ne*war peasants of the great valley 
of Nepal as industrious as the Bodo and Dhimals nay, 
more so and more skilful too earn more and retain more, 
notwithstanding the heavy rent they pay to their landlord, 
who pays the light tax or Government demand on the land. 
The particulars may be seen in the Appendix. 

Houses. The B6do and Dhimals build and furnish their Houses, 
own houses without any aid of craftsmen, of whom they have 
none whatever. They mutually assist each other for the 
nonce, as well in constructing their houses as in clearing 
their plots of cultivation, merely providing the helpmates 
with a plentiful supply of beer. A house is from 12 to 16 
cubits long by 8 to 12 wide. A smaller house of the same 
sort is erected opposite for the cattle ; and if the family be 
large, two other domiciles like the first are built on the other 
sides, so as to enclose an open quadrangle or yard. The 
houses are made of jungle grass, secured within and without 
by a trellis-work of strips of bamboo. The roof has a hi^h 
and somewhat bulging pitch, and a considerable projection 
beyond the walls. It also is made of wild grass, softer than 
that which forms the walls. There is only one division of 
the interior, which separates the cooking and the sleeping 
portions of the house, which has no chimney or window, and 
but one door. Ten to forty such houses form a village, with- 
out any rigid uniformity or any defences whatever. 

/ 'rniture is very scant, consisting only of a rare bedstead, FO>.: 
some sleeping-mats, a stool or two, and some swin^in_i, r - 
shelves; and all of these are made at home. Household 
utensils are a few earthen vessels for carrying and IK tiding 
water, some metallic cooking, eating, and drink in $ i 
a couple of knives, to which \\<- must add the spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, :md i ii>;iratu8 of the fl All 

the latter are of the simplest possible form and h>: 
The earthen and rnctal and pans are purchased in the 

rts. There are none of iron nor of copper: all 
of brass or other mixed metals that are metallic, ov, 
to the dearaess of iron and copper. There , : 
rn utensils. Baskets of bamboo and of cane and ropes 



148 CLOTHES. 

of grass are abundant, and of home-make by the men, who 
likewise haft all the iron implements they purchase abroad 
for agricultural or domestic uses. It has already been said 
that lights are dispensed with beyond what is afforded by an 
ample fire. 

clothes. Clothes. With both people they are made at home, and by 
the women. The Bodo women wear silk procured from the 
castor-plant worm, which they rear at home in each family. 
The Bodo men and Dhimals of both sexes wear cotton only. 
Woollen is unknown, even in the shape of blankets. The 
manufactures are durable and good, and not inconveniently 
coarse in fact, precisely such as the people require ; and the 
dyeing is very respectably done with their own cochineal, 
morinda, or indigo, or with madder got from the hills ; but 
all prepared by themselves. The female silk vest of the 
Bodos possessed by me is 3 \ feet wide by 7 long, deep red, 
with a broad worked margin of cheque pattern and of white 
and yellow colours, besides the ground red above and below. 
This garment is called Dokhana by the Bodo, and must be a 
very comfortable and durable dress, though it somewhat dis- 
figures the female form by being pressed over the breast as 
it is wrapped round the body, which it envelops from the 
armpits to the centre of the calves. The female garment of 
the Dhimals differs only in material, being cotton. It is 
called Bonha. The male dress of the Bodo consists of two 
parts an upper and a lower. The former is equivalent to 
the Hindu Chadar or toga. It is called Shuma, and is 9 to 
10 cubits by 3. The latter, styled Gamcha, and which is 6 
cubits by 2, is equivalent to the Hindu Dhoti, and after being 
passed between the legs is folded several times round the 
hips, and the end simply tucked in behind. The male dress 
of the Dhimals is similar. Its upper portion is called Pataka ; 
its lower, Dhari; the whole, Dhaba with this people; Hi 
with the Bodo. All cotton clothes, whether male or female, 
are almost invariably white or undyed. Neither Bodo nor 
Dhimal commonly cover the head, unless when the men 
choose to take off their upper vest and fold it round the head 
to be rid of it. Shoes are not in use ; but a sort of sandals 
or sole-covers, called Yapthong vel Champhoi, sometimes are, 






FOOD DRINKS. 149 

and are made of wood by the people themselves. There are 
no other shoes. Ornaments are rare, even amongst the 
women, who, however, wear small silver rings in their ears 
and no.se< al>o, and heavy bracelets of mixed metal on their 

3. These are bought in the Kocch marts, and are quite 
simple in form. 

The sorts of vegetable food have been already Food, 
enumerated in speaking of agriculture. Eice is the chief 
article; wheat or barley unknown even by name. (Jhiu or 
clarified butter is likewise totally unused and unnamed, and 
oil is very sparingly consumed for food. Salt, chillies, vege- 
tables, plenty of rice, varied sometimes with maize or millet, 
and fish or flesh every second day, constitute, however, a meal 
which the poor Hindu might envy, washed down as it is with 
a liberal allowance of beer. Plenty of fish is to be had from 
December to February, both inclusive, and plenty of game 
from January to April inclusive, though the Bodo and Dhimal 
are no very keen or skilful sportsmen, notwithstanding the 
abundance of game and freedom from all prohibitions. They 
have the less need to turn hunters in that their domestic 
animals must supply them amply with flesh. They have 
abundance of swine and of poultry, and not a few of goats, 
ducks, and pigeons, but no sheep nor buffaloes, and cows are 
scarce. Milk is little used, but not eschewed, as by the 

3 it is. They may eat all animals, tame or wild, save 

S cats, monkeys, elephants, bears, and tigers. Fish 

of all sorts, land and water tortoises, mungooses, civets (not 

cats !), porcupines, hares, monitors of enormous size, wild hogs, 

deer of all sorts, rhinoceros, and wild buffaloes, are amongst 

;ld animals they pursue for their llesh, and altogether 

are abundantly provided with meat. 

ilcs and Stimulfinls. The Undo and I>himals use abun- 
dance of a frnnentcd li.pn.r made of rice or millet, which the 
former call -I<'. tin- latter Yu. It is not unpleasant . an<i I ^'nould 
think was very harmless. Its taste is a bitterish sub-a 
and it is extremely like the Ajimana of the Newars of N 
Brewing and not distilling seems to be a charact 
nearh anlian races, all of whom drink and make 

and none of then. 



150 MANNERS. 

cess of making this fermented liquor is very simple. The 
grain is boiled ; the root of a plant called Agaichito is mixed 
with it ; it is left to ferment for two days in a nearly dry 
state ; water is then added quantum sufficit ; the whole stands 
for three or four days, and the liquor is ready. The Agaichito 
plant is grown at home. Its root, which serves for balm, is 
called Emon. I have never seen it. Besides this beer of 
which both people use much they likewise freely use 
tobacco ; but never opium nor hemp in any of the numerous 
preparations of both ; nor distilled waters of any kind ; and, 
upon the whole, I see no reason to brand them with the 
name of drunkards, though they certainly love a merry 
cup in honour of the gods at the high festivals of their 
religion. Among my own servants, the Bodo have never 
been seen drunk; the Moslems and Hindus several times 
excessively so. 

Manners. The manners of the Bodo and Dhirnals are, 
I think, a pleasing medium between the unsophisticated 
roughness of their highland neighbours and the very artificial 
smoothness of their neighbours of the plains. They are very 
shy at first ; but, when you know them, are cheerful without 
boisterousness, and inquisitive without intrusion. Man's 
conduct to woman is always one of the best tests of his 
manners ; now the Bodo and Dhimals use their wives and 
daughters well, treating them with confidence and kindness. 
They are free from all out-door work whatever, and they are 
consulted by their husbands as their safest advisers in all 
domestic concerns, and in all others that women are supposed 
likely to understand. When a Bodo or Dhimal meets his 
parent, or one of the elders of the community, he drops his 
joined hands to the earth, and then raises them to his fore- 
head ; and if he be abroad, he says, ' Father, I am on my 
way ; ' to which the parent or senior answers, ' May it be 
well with you.' There is little visiting, save that which is 
inseparable from the frequent religious feasts and festivals, 
already sufficiently described ; nor are amusements or pas- 
times for young or old common. Indeed, children or women 
seem to have none, and the men so little heed them that 
neither Bodo nor Dhimal tongue has a word of its own for 



CHARACTER. 151 

sport, play, or game ! The young men, however, have two 
games, which I proceed to describe summarily. In the light 
half of October, on the day of the full moon, a party of 
youths proceeds at nightfall from village to village, like our 
Christmas wakers, hailing the inhabitants with song and 
dance, from night till morn, and demanding largess. This is 
given them in the shape of grain, beer, and cowries, where- 
with on their return they make a feast, and thus ends the 
pastime, which is called Harna-harni by the B6do, and 
Harna-dhdka by the Dhimals. Again, in the dark half of 
the same month, when the wane is complete, the youths 
similarly assemble, but in the daytime, and dressing up one 
of their party like a female, they proceed from house to house 
and village to village, saluting the inhabitants with song and 
dance, and, obtaining presents as before, conclude the festival 
with a merrymaking among themselves. The Bodo name of 
this rite or game is Chorge'le'no ; the Dhimals call it Ch6r- 
dluikii. And now we shall conclude the subject of manners 
witli a statement of the ordinary manner in which a B6do or 
Dhimal passes the day. He rises at day-spring, and having 
performed the offices of nature and washed himself, he pro- 
ceeds at once to work in his field till noon. He then goes 
home to take the chief meal of the day, and which consists of 
rice, pulse, fish or flesh (on alternate days), greens and chil- 
lies, with salt never ghiu seldom oil. He rests an hour 
or more at noon, and then resumes his agricultural toils, 
which are not suspended till nightfall. So soon as he has 
got home he takes a second meal with his family, then chats 
a while over the fire, and to bed betimes, seldom two hours 
after dusk. If the children be young, they sleep witli their 
parents ; if older, apart. The B6do call their first meal San- 
juphuni inkham; their second l.ilini inkham. The Dhimal 
name for the first is ManjlM-la-rhaka ; for the second Dilima- 
chaka. Wives usually eat after their liusl>;m<ls. children 

Character. The character of the B6do and I >liimal, as will Character. 
be anticipated from the foregoing deta 11 of amiable 

qualities aii'l almost entirely free from such as are unami- 
able. They are intelligent, docile, free from all hard or ob- 
structive prejudices, honest and truthful in deed and \\ 



152 CHARACTER. 

steady and industrious in their own way of life, but apt to 
"be mutable and idle when first placed in novel situations, and 
to resist injunctions, injudiciously argued, with dogged obsti- 
nacy. They are void of all violence towards their own people 
or towards their neighbours, and, though very shy of strangers, 
are tractable and pleasant when got at, if kindly and cheer- 
fully drawn out. The Commissioner of Assam, Major Jen- 
kins, who has by far the best opportunities for observing them, 
when drawn out of their forest recesses, gives them, as we have 
seen, a very high character as skilful, laborious cultivators 
and peaceable respectable subjects; whilst that this portion 
of them want neither spirit nor love of enterprise is suffi- 
ciently attested by the fact, that when the Dorjiling corps 
was raised, two-thirds of the recruits first obtained were Bodo 
of Assam.* Neither the Bodo nor Dhimal, however, can be 
characterised, upon the whole, as of military or adventurous 
genius, and both nations decidedly prefer, and are better 
suited for, the homebred and tranquil cares of agriculture. 
They are totally free from arrogance, revenge, cruelty, and 
fiertt ; and yet they are not devoid of spirit, and frequently ex- 
hibit symptoms even of that passionate or hasty temperament 
which is so rare, at least in its manifestations, in the East. 
Their ordinary resource against ill-usage is immovable, passive 
resistance ; but their common demeanour is exempt from all 
marks of the wretched alarm, suspicion, and cunning that so 
sadly characterise the peasantry of the plains in their vicinity, 
and which, being habitual, must be fatal to truth. The Bodo 
and Dhimal in this respect, as in most others, more nearly 
resemble the mountaineers, whose straightforward, manly 
carriage so much interests Europeans in their favour. Op- 
pression and its absence beget these different phases of char- 
acter. The absence of all petty trade likewise contributes 
materially to the candour and integrity of the Bodo and 
Dhimals. Among all mankind, women, wine, and power are 
the great tempters, the great leaders astray. Now the Bodo 
and Dhimals rise decidedly superior to the first temptation, 
are not unduly enslaved to the second, and, from the perfect 
equality and subject condition of the whole of them, are en- 

* See also Griffith's Journals. 



CHARACTER. 153 

tirely exempted from the third. Power cannot mislead those 
who never exercise it ; where women are esteemed, and no 
artificial impediments whatever exist to prevent marriage, 
women are a source, not of vice, but of virtue ; and, lastly, 
where " honest John Barleycorn " is free from the dangerous 
alliance of spirits, opium, and hemp, I know not that he, even 
if assisted by the " narcotic weed," need be set down as a 
necessary corrupter of morals. True, the Bodo and Dhimiil 
do not pretend to the somewhat pharisaical abstemiousness 
vr cleanliness of the Hindus. But I am not therefore dis- 
posed, particularly on Hindu evidence, to tax them with the 
disgusting vices of drunkenness and dirtiness, though these, 
and obstinacy, if any, are the vices we must lay to their 
charge, as the counterpoise of many and unquestionable 
virtues. Peasant, be it remembered, must be compared 
with peasant, and not peasant with people of higher 
condition; and if the comparison be thus fairly made, it 
may perhaps be truly decided that the Bodo and Dhimal 
are less sober and less cleanly and less tractable than the 
people of the plains ; more sober and more 'cleanly and more 
tractable than those of the hills. The B6do and Dhimals 
are good husbands, good fathers, and not bad sons; and 
those who are virtuous in these most influential relations are 
little likely to be vicious in less influential ones, so that it 
need excite no surprise that these people, though dwelling in 
the forest, apart from the inhabitants of the open country, 
are never guilty of blackmailing or dacoity against them, 
whilst among themselves crimes of deep dye are almost 
unknown. To the ostentatious hospitality of many nations 
whose violence against their neighbours is habitual they make 
no pretensions ; but among their own people they are hospi- 
table enough, and towards the stranger invariably 
and temperate. 



( 154 ) 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1 
PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES. 

THE physical characteristics of these races have already been 
summarily stated. But it is desirable to be more particular on 
this head. A young man named Birna, a Bodo, has been selected 
to represent his nation, and through it the Dhimals and K6cches 
also, for the traits of face and form are so nearly alike in all 
that neither pen nor pencil could satisfactorily set them apart.* 
I Urn a is about twenty-one years of age (for, like a true B6do, 
he knows not how old he is), so that we are obliged to give his 
age conjecturally. The mistake, however, cannot exceed a year 
or two. 

His dimensions are as follows in English feet, inches, and 
quarters : 

ist time. 2<l time. 

Total height, 53! 5 3^ 

Crown of head to hip, . . . . .23 2 2^ 

Hip to heel, 31 31 

Length of arm, 2 3i 2 3l 

Length of foot, 09 09 

Length of hand, . . . . . o 6| o 6| 

Greatest girth of chest, . . . . 2 7 J 27 
Greatest width across shoulders, . . . i 2f i 2j 

Girth of pelvis at hips, 23 25 

Greatest width of pelvis, at hips, less, . .on o loj 

Greatest girth of head, . . . . .19 
Greatest length of head, chin to crown, . o 9 
Greatest width of head, across parietes, . o 
Greatest girth of thigh, . i 

Greatest girth of calf, i 

Greatest girth of arm, o 

Blrna's colour is an olive or brunet, clear and pale as that of 
a high-caste Hindu. Though a stout youth, of twenty-one or 
more, he has not yet the least symptom of beard, and but a very 
faint show of moustache. He expects, he says, to have more or 
less of beard in five or six years, but shall carefully eradicate 
the stray hairs, more majorum ! He has no want of eyelash or 

* Pages 113, 114. 



APPENDIX. 155 

eyebrow, aixd the hair of his head is copious, straight, strong, and 
glossy. He has no hair on the chest, but as much as usual on 
the armpits and elsewhere. He is well made and stout enough, 
sufficiently fleshy, but without any striking muscular develop- 
ment. His calves, in particular, though not quite equal to those 
of the mountaineers, are very superior to anything of the sort 
to be seen amid the people of the plains. His legs are long in 
proportion to his trunk, but not awkwardly so, and his chest is 
finely formed, broad and deep. His head is well formed and 
well set on the shoulders, the great foramen having apparently 
a central aperture. There is no defect of cranial development 
anteally or posteally, and the skull is well shaped and round, 
though not so ample in the frontal region as in fine specimens 
of the Arian vel Caucasian family, and the face is larger in pro- 
portion to the head than in such specimens. The length of 
the head to that of the body is as one to seven nearly. If the 
features are not straight, or perpendicular, to the front, the 
want of right line is caused less by recession of the forehead or 
chin than by the advance of the jaws and lips, which are botli 
large. The mouth is too wide and the lips too thick for beauty ; 
but there is no ape-like or negro-like deformity, nor do the finely- 
formed teeth project forward. The chin wants the rounded pro- 
jection of the Arian type ; but it is not ill formed nor retiring. 
The forehead has sufficient height and breadth, though there are 
L6 indications of contraction and backward slope as compared 
with very fine heads. The eye is sufficiently large and sufficiently 
well opened ; but the cavity around it is too much filled with 
flesh, and the angles of the aperture have a tendency to obliquity, 
the outer one upwards and the inner downwards. The nose, 
sufficiently long and well raised between the eyes, has a good, 
narrow, straight bridge, but a somewhat thickened or clubbed 
extremity ; and the nares are wide, inclining from the elliptic to 
the round shape. The ears are somewhat large, and stand rather 
apart from the head, but not remarkably so. The oval form to 
which the contour of the face inclines is broken by the proj < 
of the cheek-bones, between which the fan- is noticeably wider 
than anywhere else, but only in a small degree; and. upon tlm 
whole, the ill effect of the somewhat laru r e and quasi-Moiii- 

.:es is redeemed by their cheerful and UftiabU exprettion, 
_'h the human t\pe indicated i.s clearly railu-r U 
icasian. 



156 APPENDIX. 

No. II. 

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF A NEWAR PEASANT OF THE 
VALLEY OF NEPAL, CULTIVATING WITH THE SPADE SEVEN 
STANDARD ROPiNi OF NEPAL.* i man, i wife, and 3 small 
children. 

Household Utensils and Agricultural Implements. 

Iron pots and implements, domestic and agricultural. i Lohya or 
Ta-kya ; i lamp, Dip or Dallu ; i spoon, Daru or Dhouwo ; i 
spade, Kudal or Ku ; 2 sickles, Hasud or If ; 2 spuds, Basuli or 
Kokaicha ; i knife, Churi or Chu-pi ; i cleaver, Pahasiil or 
Khuni, 2136 

Copper pots, domestic. 4 plates or Thais; i drinking-pot, 
L6tah or Tahan-po ; 2 cups or saucers for greens, &c., 
Katora or Khola, . .....400 

F.nrthenpots. 2 large vessels, Hdndi or Kousi ; i water- 
drawing, Merita or G6pah ; i to hold water, Gharra 
or Dhapa ; 4 dishes, Parai or Bheg6, . . .020 

Sundries. i Pestle and mortar, Silalora or Loh6ma; i 
winnow, Dagara or Has4 ; i broom, Jharu or Tiiphi ; 
i rope, Dora or Lakha khi, . . . . .063 

1 sleeping mat, Chatai or Sukhu ; i blanket, Kamal or 

Sangd, . . . . . . . . . i i o 

} 'I'd/nan's weaving apparatus. i spinning-wheel, Charka 
or Yong; i cotton cleaner, Phatka orTima; i loom, 
KarigA or TAnjolong, . . . . . .183 

Production, annual. 

5 Ropini of wet rice-land or A Lakhabu ist crop, Malsi 

dhan, 20 muri = 40 man, . . . . . 40 o o 

2 Ropini of dry rice-land or U'labu istcrop, Ghaia- 

dhan, 5 muri=io man, . . . . .800 

Gleanings of both the above, Phulowa, 10 Pathi= i man, o 12 o 
Second crops, or summer crops, Jari or See Lakhabu 

Se Wheat, 2 muri = 4 man, . . . .800 
U'labu See Greens, roots, and red peppers, i i muri = 3 

man, 300 

Straw and bran of rice and wheat of all crops, 36 loads 

(mans), . . . . . . . .280 

Wages earned as a carrier in cold months, . . 24 o o 

Wages for odd jobs all the year round, . . .1200 



Total earnings, . . 98 4 



Earnings from the soil, .62 o o 



* Four ropini equal one bigah, or thereabouts. 



APPENDIX. 157 

Monthly Expenses. 

Rice for all the family, lyth pathi = i man 27 se"r, -333 

Salt for do. do., 2 mana = ij se"r, . . . .040 

Oil, eating, do. do., i bok6che"=i se>, . . .020 

Tobacco, do. do., i badhani= i| ser, . . .030 

Greens, roots, red peppers, do., 2f pathi= n se>, .040 

Fuel, Louna or Chusi, 3 loads, . . . . 3 3 

Lights (burn pine-sticks of own cutting), . . .000 

Grain for brewing and distilling, 3^ path! =13 ser, 

yielding i ser spirits, 10 se"r of beer, . . .080 

Daily luncheon, Jalpan or Diko,* . . . . o 12 o 

Per mensem, . . . 5 7 6 

Per annum, . . . 65 10 o 

Annual Expenses. 

Twelvefold of the above expenses, . . . . 65 10 o 

Landlord's rent on the Lakhabu, called Peon, . . 20 o o 

Do. do. on the Ulabii, do. do., . . . . .400 

N.B. Second crops are rent free ; landlord pays the 

land-tax. 
Government capitation or house tax, viz., sawani, 

o i 6 ; phagu, o i 6 ; shri panchami, 009, . o 3 9 

Government corvee or bith, composition for, . .0120 

Mendicant tax or J6gi pa, 006 

Barber, . . . . . . . . .060 

ir and tear of implements and utensils, . i n o 

Cotton to make clothes, 2 dharni - 6 ser, . . .200 

Total expenses, . . 94 1 1 6 

Balance in favour, . .346 



Peasant of the plains (Azimgurh) cultivates 6 standard bighas 
with the plough. Family as before. 

Agricultural Implements or Stock. 

Two oxen for the plough, 1600 

One plough, . i o o 

One harrow, &c., i o o 

One Dunnus or smoother, 020 

..'il or spade, . . . . . .100 

Two Khurpi or spuds, . . . . . .020 

Two Hasua or sickles, 030 

* Tin nese details the natire terms hare been given to secure ar 

ilitate reference. The first term i Hindi ; the second, Newari, a language 
no little known that the Hindi equivalent U added. 



158 APPENDIX. 



One Hatha or irrigating shovel, .... 


o 



o 




4 
i 

i 
i 




3 

6 
6 


One Panel) a or rake, 


Household Utensils. 


19 
o 

2 







I 
I 




15 

o 

4 
8 

4 
7 

2 

8 
7 


12 

4 


6 














Brass pots, i I6tah, i thai, 
Earthen pots for cooking, drawing and holding water, 
Wooden utensils Okli miisal, to husk rice, 
Plates, dishes, &c., 
Leathern utensils, Chalani, Sup, <fec., .... 
Stone utensils, pestle and mortar, .... 
Two bedsteads, ....... 
One blanket, ........ 
Bed-clothes, Dohar, Chadar, 
Wife's spinning-wheel, 


540 

Annual Production. Two fasals or crops, Kharif and Rabbi- 
Wet rice-land, three bighas. 

First crop, kharif Dhan or rice, 20 mans, . . 20 o o 
Jane>a, 8 mans, . . . . . . .800 


Tangan, i man, ....... 
U'rid, i man, ........ 
Kaukari, i man, 
Second crop, Rabbi Wheat, i J bigha, i o man, 

Sugar J bigha, 10 mans giir, 

co r uo r U ibi ^ mixe M!-n s s; : 

Dry or wheat land, 3 bighas, i crop. 
Barley, 2 bighas, 20 mans, 
Wheat, i bigha, 10 mans, 
Straw, bran, &c., of all the crops, 80 khacha, 

Total raised, . 

Annual Expenses. 

Government tax, ....... 
Interest at 25 per cent, on whole stock, raised on loan, 
Seed, . 
Wear and tear of implements ..... 
Wagon or cart hire, ....... 
Cotton bought to make thread, 
Pujas or worship, 



2 

13 


8 


12 

5 






3 


44 

25 
8 
8 

20 

J 3 
U 


9 




o 



5 




3 







4 




130 


10 


8 


12 

2 9 

8 
i 

o 



5 




o 
8 



8 

4 

o 







o 






APPENDIX. 159 

Pur6hit or family priest, . . . . . .080 

Weaver's charge for weaving wife's and children's 

clothes from own thread, 200 

Wear and tear of pots and pans, . . . .040 

Kepairs of house, o 12 o 

Earthen pots, 080 

Physician, . . . . . . . .080 

Fees to miller, i o o 

.erman, barber, smith, . . . . .200 
Man's clothes bought, . . . . . .400 

67 12 o 
Monthly Expense?. 

Barley for food, 3 mans, . . . . . .300 

Pulse, do., 20 seVs, . . . . . . .100 

Salt and oil, 2 ser of each, . . . . .080 

Tobacco, 2 se"r, . . . . . . . .040 

Food of two oxen, 200 

Flesh and fish for family, 080 

6150 



Per annum, . . . 83 4 



Total expense per annum, 151 o o 
Balance against, . . 20 5 4 

Thus it appears that the productive energy of the Ne"war, 
working with the spade upon the same extent of land or there- 
abouts, is to the productive energy of the B6do working some- 
what similarly that is, without aid of plough as 3 to 2 ; and to 
that of the peasant of the plains, using the plough, as 3 to 2 also. 
The Ne"wars, indeed, are the best cultivators in Asia. 'Tis hard 
to compare the Bodo with them. I have no materials yet for 
comparison witli the highlanders of Sikim, who, however, I know 
y well, cannot compete with the Bodo, whose productive 
I that of the lowland peasant, aided by the plough, 
by one-seventh. With regard to the peasantry of the plains, it is 
nt that it is not the weight of Government taxation 
which crushes them, but the borrowing system the mi-- 

of never laying by a sixpence ot living upon loans 
annually taking up their whole stock from the capitalist at an 
< st never less, and <>f:< n HH.IV, than 25 per cent., so that, as 
say themselves, their life is spent in filling a vessel full of 
the bottom, and beneath which vessel 

belonging to the usurer! The above details shew that the 
Government tax is but one-eleventh of what the 
peasant raises from the soil; and also that th-- i > an 

uually pays is nearly (in fact fully) threefold of the public 



i6o APPENDIX. 

demand Thus the poor peasant is perpetually plunged into 
difficulties such as the present account may fully explain, whereby 
it is seen that the annual deficit is equal to one-sixth of the 
annual gross produce raised by this cultivator. Now, look at 
the Bodo cultivator's account. Here is no debt ; and small as 
the whole earnings are, I can testify that they suffice for such 
comfort as no peasant of the plains has any conception of. But 
the B6do, it may be argued, is nearly exempt from taxation.* 
Look, then, at the Ne' war peasant of Ne"pal, whose burdens equal 
two-fifths of all he rears from the soil one-fourth of whatever 
he annually produces by all his industrious toils. Nor does it 
in the least matter to the present question that what he pays is 
rent, not tax ; for in the plains of India the Government stands 
in place of landlord, and if it did not, the peasant's position 
cannot be at all affected by the quarter or denomination of his 
payment, but only by its positive and relative amount, including 
every permanent charge, such as that incurred by the Hindu to 
those craftsmen whose services his scrupulosity and his indolence 
compel him to pay for. On the other hand, the simpler and 
more active habits of the Ne" war peasant and his wife enable him 
to dispense with these craftsmen, and to add, besides, nearly a 
third to his agricultural income by labour apart from, and in 
excess of, that devoted to the soil. And thus the N6 war peasant, 
whilst living far more comfortably than the Hindu peasant 
better fed, better clad, and better housed by much, yet never 
exceeds his income, and paying not a sous to the usurious 
capitalist, or rather loan-monger, whose indirect frauds are as bad 
as his direct extortions can sustain cheerily legitimate agricultural 
burdens great as those I have recorded ! 

DARJEELING, June 4, 1846. B. H. HODGSON. 

P.S. I have said that I do not propose to go into comparisons 
till I have accumulated a large mass of materials. But I may 
mention, as a sample of the prospective fruits of this inquiry in 
reuniting the so long and so utterly scattered members of the 
Non-Arian family, that the identifying of the Gdr6s and Khasias 
(as well as of the Kacharis) with the B6do is already nearly or 
quite established, and that points of arbitrary similitude in creed 
and customs and speech, indicating radical identity of race, are 
rapidly multiplying in relation to the aborigines of this frontier 
and those of South Bihar, viz., the K6ls or Dhangars.f 

* It has been shown above that the real pressure of taxation is, in fact, equal 
in both cases. 

t Since this paper was written, Mr. [now Sir Walter] Elliot of Madras has shown 
that the Gond language of Seoni (north of the Nerbudda) is in vocables and struc- 
ture very closely allied to Tamil; that is, to the typical speech of the Aborigines. 



SECTION II. 
ON HIMALAYAN ETHNOLOGY, 



I. 

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 
OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF 



DARJILINO, October ^th, 1857. 



The Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



SIR, I have the honour to transmit to you herewith foutf 

series of Vocabularies of Himalayan tongues, comprising (in. 

two parts), ist, the languages of the broken tribes of the 

Central Himalaya; and, 2d (also in two parts), the several 

dialects of the Kiranti language, which likewise is proper to 

the same part of the chain, or, to be more specific, to Eastern 

languages included in the two parts of these two 

: s are 

Broken 

1. Dahi or Darhi. Dadhi. 

2. I>.']iw;ir. 

3. Pahi or Padhi. 

4. Che*]* 

5. Illinium. 

6. V;iyu or ll;iyu. 

VOL. I. 



S. KiWmda. 

9. I'akhya, unl>r< 

10. Tluiksya, unlr- 

11. Tharu. 



162 VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 

Tribes of the Kirdnti People. 



1. Chamling or Rodong. 

2. Biingchhenbung. Bontawa. 

3. Chhingtang. Bontawa. 

4. Nachhereng. 

5. Waling. Bontawa. 

6. lYikha. 

7. Chourasya. 

8. Kulum?. 



10. Bailing. 

11. Lohorong. 

12. Lambichhong. 

13. Balali. 

14. Sangpang. 

15. Dumi. 

1 6. Khaling. 

17. Dungmali. 



9. Thulung. 

The arrangement and nomenclature of these, made some time 
back, are not quite correct, but they will serve the present end, 
and can be corrected when we come to particulars. At present 
it will suffice to say that 9 and 10 of the " broken tribes" can- 
not well be classed under that head, the Pakhya and Thaksya 
being still unbroken. 

Of the Kiranti tribes, the value of the subdivisional names 
is not always equal. I have indicated this on the right hand. 
Thus, 2, 3, 5, as to language, &c., could be unitised under the 
common name of Bontawa; and 5, 12, both classed first as 
"\Vtiling, and then as Bontawa, the larger aggregate. These 
minuter affinities are pretty well indicated by the dialects. I 
was obliged to begin in the dark as to what varieties of the 
language would be fittest for selection as dialects, and those I 
hit on were not always of equal value. 

As samples of the broken tribes and of the great Kininti 
people, I have lately selected for special study the Vayu of 
the one and the Balling of the other. I shall forthwith submit 
these ample essays,* and then may find time to advert to some 



* These also will be found in the sequel, but awkwardly blended by a common 
heading with the empirical comparative vocabularies of the languages of the broken 
tribes and of the Jialects of the Kininti language, which two latter also are simi- 
larly confused. Neither have anything to do with the complete analyses following 
them. The whole of the papers consist of (i) comparative vocabularies of the 
languages of the broken tribes ; (2) ditto of the dialects of the Kiranti language ; 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF N&PAL. 163 

general considerations. If not, they will be found in the new 
essay on the " Physical Geography of the Himalaya " now issu- 
ing from the Calcutta press as No. XXVII. of Selections from 
the Kecords of the Government of Bengal. I am, Sir, your 

obedient servant, 

P>. H. HODGSON. 



(3) grammatical analysis of the Vayu tongue ; (4) ditto of the Bahing tongue, 
(5) description of the Vayu people ; (6) ditto of the Kiranti people, of whom the 
Bahing are a sept. The two first papers form the sequel of that long series priorly 
given with a view to furnish primd facie evidence of the affinity of all the Turanians 
in and near India. But after these two papers had been completed, they were held 
back in order to that fuller style of investigation which is exemplified by papers 3 
and 4. Suddenly, however, I found myself obliged to quit India ; and then, deem- 
ing it wisest on the whole no longer to delay the publication of the several papers, 
I sent them all to press, and in my hurry forgot to erase from papers i and 2 certain 
hints for correction or addition which grew out of my increasing knowledge, but 
which, not having been worked out, should have been erased from these two papers 
before they were forwarded for publication. This, with my inability to correct the 
press, will explain what else might seem odd. 






VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 



I 1 - 1 llfll-sl.llilllll^ls 



Ls^l 



a -5 

3 13 






sj 3 43 2 - 
W o 08 u > 




ffiV-f -S Jf *.* b 

, TT^"-'',4j 

i^MAb 



i 1 

s 



,^ 



os 2 



<rt 

,C ' 

O 7 

v5.3 - 

v ^ -C J bflv 

^ ^ K*l I 



otSf 



". rt 



I 



j 

.3 



g g 

- _= r- 



- 



--3 ~ J lS> 



5 _ , _ _ , .__..., 

Q SStelsoMSMSi'SB^SiaSooo 



^11fi 

i = ^j3 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF N&PAL. 165 








v*fc 

,*v<3 = 

J - - 



I3 g 






sg<3;3s<5 



*>H 



^^-- w> 
1 io 3 s| s | 5 I 

6 & 



o 

I I 

"~ H 



egg 
.*S *r 



s 



1 



= 



a g ! 



Illll: 






1 sl I 1 111*11 1 1 y e 2 J.i i f&l 1 1 

>*&- - ; ssa; 



iLl. 



5 ii 
i 5- 



-22 



*5 

*' 



o*' o 
S.-8 



888.9 



i c - > 
14^! 



*a|8* 

.s o o 5 ja 

I Mi? 
4i||l 

Ifill 

|fl|5 

03} 



; z : i - 

m 

Tl! 



1 66 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 




x 

u H w 



? c ,al2! 

n:>3 c " H S 

S<noSOOSOOSW^ P 



|.h^5 |f- 

sfllilSFfl i i 

< < ~ ~-i < \ x -^ 5 6 C 



- 



. 3 

4l 




1 






M 

5 

X 



Z- .- T* . J o r 'w **^ w 

| |? || f|S|S I 

StewJ4o < *" a " 



w 



J5 



jj : I 



a 






1 



I I I 

H P S H 






J 



a 






I I 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF N&PAL. 



167 






Is 




s 



J33 

WQ 



J 









fc jj *U'JL*-*dlL* 









- 

W O 6 6 5 H 



3 

2 ?! 



I 



s ** 

W> 3 

I s 

'2 .1 

o '^ 
a o 

O XMl ^- 

o o 



. 

bo- 13 

5 



i 

al * ? Sllil2,f 111! A 3! 

^ I a*!i^ai^b^!^^a3sJl iJ 



2i 



I 



n ta 



.! 

5 



I s itt N, s s|!l 
a g I iStg5|^^i|ep^3l 



i^i 






S ,! 



a 






1 5 



111 



i y 

1 



168 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 




II 
* I 

c _. . S 



JlfeMljt .M 

fl J.I3 OM*^li H^^^J^g^,^ ijl _ v2 i 3 =J 08^!^: Jv5^ ' J3J3 

M^u^aaa^M^Q^H^MMa a^^^a M^oaoMMM 



?? g 



I 

5 



3 &5?!<3S^l5^3 's 5 

S ^^baaoigag^MBB ts 



'li 

01 O 



sl 



vS|>^ 



^ a J^p^A ^ 



M 



.o Iff 
UOO 





i 



s. 



II 



' 



11 1 lll 

^b s s S 1 



CB * 

^ e ^?>, 



^5 i 

^ "2 

ggg 







OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF NEPAL. 












O A o< v-i "" 

>> cs C A -g A 

|*lj*J 
J J5 ^g'S'S'S'i "? "S "S "S "S "S "S "S " | 'f -^ ? ? 

Zf Iggag^g^l I Halalgl I g I g g A 






I f. I * IJjiS i 









I6 9 



- 



I-H 3 C 5 

^ to a 

"5 3 <u o 

3 a* 



11 



^goa 



5 06 



g 






III 






M(i*lMjiiiii =? 

J, C S to at 3^5^8 SC 

ilx^li 



U f fl 

M * S ? 



In 



;i^ 



s ,l^fe a- -a 

hyiii^ iiltj 



B t, * i 

4nT^ 



'I 



170 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 



K 



Hdyu, or V 



.8 



. 

W } 



as 

vo ,::?,: g 3 -3 

& <! HosMO 



,c.3 o 

-- 















= 2 ^ . : 7 : - 






u jrf*" c8 

l 1 III ill Illfl 




si, 



= 



w m 



H 



Ill 

o! -. 

fii 

3|3 
"S S 

l| 

S*J 

j>ll 

SS? 



2?U 
I3f 



I& 

"S ? ** 

t. i> i -^ 
1.SI.S 

o ?llll 

^ fl _ >^ Jd 

f jjffll 

2 & o ^ = . > 

a o s >. v g - 



! 

*1 ll 



i:J 



a 



3 s;~ 

s:!l s " 

OJ NN ^3 . CC 



ill ilnlJSl 

"33," ' * <" o - > 

|S-5 -^1I5 
SSud ^iS-rr 

IP! ILII 

^2 S 2-:?l5 

"Utifgi 




! =^u.::=^ 



B-iflfl 



r ^ 



" - o " ~'c! a - 

fill 

ai-s-r Jjrf 

s^^i^^:^^ 

-j i - a. -- > - i_" v 



5 i * 
^Pi-sJSfS^ 



*** 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF NEPAL. 



171 



Continuation of the Comparative Vocabulary of tfie Languages of the 
broken Tribes of Nepdl. 



'fish. 


Ku&nda. 


PdVhya. 


Thdksya. 


Thd. 


Air 


Kai 


Bayalo 


Nammar 


Bayar 


Amaranth, ) Tn 
the grain f Bhutu 


Bethy4ng 


Bhendo 


Ramdana 


Ant Pyai ki 


Krimula 


Nato 


Doka 


Arm ITaiibi 


H4t, H. K.* 


Y4" 


Hat 


Arrow 


Muyu 


Kddha, H. K. 


Tum^ 


Khandha 


Barley 


Jo 


Jou, H. 


Chika 


Jau 


Bird kind 


Kotau 


ChAda, H. K. 


Nom'ya 


Chirai 


ya kotau 
:mi kotau 


Bhalya chada, K. 
I'6thi chada, K. 


Nom'ya dh6 
Nom'ya iso 


Chirai 
Chirai 


Bitch 


A'gaigimi 


Kyataichlx.uri 


Nagamoma 


Pilli 


Blood 


Uyu 


Ragat, H. K. 


Ki 


Lohu 


Boat 


Won 


Duga, K. 


I saba 


Nan 


Boar 
Boiled rice 


Ydssgya. Higya 
Kaddi 


Baigan harra 
Bhat, H. 


Tili 
Bhat, H. 


Suwar 
Bhat 


Bone 


Gou 


Had, H. 


Nati 


Had 


Boy 


Tala sal 


K^t'a, K. 


Kala chaja 


Keta 


Buffalo kind 


Mahi 


Bhainsa, H. K. 


Mai 


Bhai.sa 


Ditto, male Mahi-gya 
Ditto, female Hahigimi 


Bhainsarango, K. 
Man bhainsa 


Mai rago 
Mai moma 


Bhaisa 
Caret 


Bull 


Xogmwa gya 


Ballasadh, H. 


Hmcyese 


Sa-jha 


Cat kind 


Biralo 


Billo, H. 


Nobar 


Birala 


Ditto, male 


Biralo gya 


D4o biralo 


Nobar kho 


Birala 


Ditto, femal 


Biralo-gimi 


Chhauri biralo 


Nobar hmo 


Kuala 


Calf, male 
Calf, female j 


viichyachigy 
Nogmwachyachi- ) 
gimi j 


Bachho, H. K. 
Bad 


Hmechaja 
Elmo chajasimo 


B&chha 

Bachhi 


Child kind 


Gitas^. Chyachi | 


Chh6ra chh6ri ) 
K^tak^li, K. f 


A'lopicham 


Ladikabala 


Child, male 


Gitas^ 


Keta. Chho ra, K. i 
Nanubalakha,H. | 


Kalacl.aja 


La.likii 


Cow 


Nokmwa gimi 


Mi, II. 


Imt'-mama 


Gaye 


1 


Tab'gya 
Kauwa H. 


il.alvakukuddo,K. 
K4g,H. 


Caret 
Jh4brang 


Mur'ga 
Kauwa 


Daughter 


Taks4 


Chh6ri, K. 


}hame 


Mti 


Day 


Dina 


Diiiso, K. 


Sar 


>ina 


Dog kind 


Agai 




Naga. Nak'yu 


Kutta 


Dog, male 


Agai g/a 
Chyaii 


vyatai dango 
K4n, H. 


>fak'yughyutya 
ina. Nha 


Kutta 
Kau 


Earth 


Doma 


Mato, H. 


la 


Mati 


ant 


Ghri 

-va 


hul. K. 
II. 


}hhyarkyaphuni 
AOtrboohlM 


Vn'.ia 
lathi 




imi 


Makuna. If. 


/ijii'lx.cliliemhyo 


Hathi 








; h vu mama 


Bheti 


Eye 


<'hinin- 


\kh:i. H. 


f 


\nkh 


Face 


H.l/^MKi 


II 


Li 


luhu 


Father 






X'1,0 


MM 




Ja 


A'go, H. K. 


Im.r 


A'gi 




in;-, -TV 


I,,:.: :,. II. 


'r.ni- i:na 


I...-).hcri 


flora 






U> 




,ind 


Ta,. 


. K. 






Foot 






.in male 


iagoffida 


: 


1 


Phala. H 


1mm 






r:,k,.- 




Int. 


.a-l.ki 




Kadiyun 


Caret 


?aret 








K. 


amo 




ale 


W& 


Boko, K 


Ramogyi 




i for Hindi. K. f<. r Rhu ; nco note at nasre 165. In the Thlni column I hare not 
thought it worth while to indicate tho cndlewi borrowing*. For ibo Ktuunda a;. 
tribes, see J.A.8.B., or No. XXVII. afore cited. 



172 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 



English. 


Kus&nda. 


Pdkh'ya. 


Thdksya. 


Thdru. 


Goat, female 


Mijha gimi 


Bakhro, K. 


Ramoma 


B ,. 

aghiya 


Hair 


Gyai-i 


Rawa 


Chham 


Bar 


Hand 


Gipan 


Hatkela 


Yayathin 


Tar hatti 


Head 


Chipi 


Manto 


Ta 


Mudi 


Hen 


Tap gimi 


Kukhurako ) 
pothi, K. / 


Caret 


Murgi 


Hog kind 


Hi. Yasa 


HaVra 


Tili 


Suwar 


Horn 
House 


Iping jing 
Bahi 


Sing, H. K. 
Ghar, H. K. 


Ru 
Ghim 


Sing 
Ghar 


Husband 


Dfiw6i 


L6g nya, K. 


Mrinthin 


Caret 


Iron 


Phalam 


Khadar 


Phr6 


Loha 


Leaf 


Uak 


Pat 


Lhi 


Pata 


Leg 


Nawagichan 


Goda 


Phale. Bhalethin 


God 


Light 


Jina ikya 


Urt'batti 


Muthnangmu 


Anjoriyo 


Maize 


Makai 


Ghoga 


Makai 


Makaya 


Man kind 


Mih'yak 


Manchlia 


Mli 


Manhai 


Ditto, male 


Mih'ya dawai 


Log nya, K. 


Pyung 


Caret 


Mare 




Caret 


Tiimama 


Ghodi 


Millet or Kongani Kwa chh6 


Caret 


Dheya 


Tag nun 


Millet or Kodo 


Madyi. Mazyi 


Kodo 


Rangre 


.Maduwa 


Monkey, male 


Ugu 


Badar, H. K. 


Pangdar 


I lunar 


Ditto, female 


Ugu gimi 


Badarni, H. 


Pangdarsya 


Badari 


Moon 


t 
Jun 


Clian'tli-aiiKi- | 
bel', \\. K. \ 


L4tign4 


Chand'ra- 

inajun 


Mother 


Mai 


A'ma 


A'ma 


Mahatari 


Mountain 


Parbat 


Pahar, H. K. 


Yedadhyu 


Par'bat 


Mouth 


Birgyad. Birgyang 


Mukha, H. 


Sung 


Mukha 


Mosquito 


Caret 


I'ukha 


Polorinaba 


Mas 


Name 


Giji 


N4 u, K. 


Min 


N4u. Ji 


Night 


In- i,'ai 


Rati, K. 


Mun 


llati 


Oil 


Jing 


Tel, K. 


Chhigu 


Tela 


Old man 


Caret 


Caret 


Kheba 


Budha 


Old woman 


Jigel. [Xogmwa 


Caret 


Kln'jijyu 


Budhiya 


Ox kind 


Nwagwa. Nogo. 


Caret 


Mekiuba 




Paddy, or rice ) 
in husk j 


Chhusum 


Dhan, H. K. 


Mlasam 


Jadhan 


Plantain 


Mocha 


Kela, H. K. 


Tatung ro 


Kera 


Ram 


Bhantak. Ghologya 


Caret 


Ghyu kidaba < 


Baigan- 
bhat4 


Cleaned rice 


Kadiyun 


Caret 


Mia 


Ch4ur 


River 


Gimmekona 


Khola, K. 


Umdakyu 


Khola 


Road 


\V,n 


Bato, K. 


Ghy4m 


Rasta 


Salt 


Hukvi 


Nun, H. K. 


Chacha 


Nun 


Sheep kind 


Gholo 


Caret 


Ghyu 


... 


Skin 


Gitan 


Chhala, H. 


Dhi 


Ch4m 


Sky 


Ug&i 


Sarga 


Mu 


Caret 


Snake 


Tou 


Sapa, H. K. 


Piulhi 


Sapa 


Son 


Tala sai 


Chhora, K. 


.Tha 


Taranggan 


Star 


I ni,' gai 


Tara, H. K. | Sar 




Stallion 


Caret 


Caret 


Ta 




Sow 


Higimi. Yasagimi 


Baigani harra 


Tili moma 


Sugarni 


Sun 


Ing 


Gh4ma,H.K. | 


Ghan gni. ) 
Saughini j 


Rauda 


Tiger 


Daja kaiili 


Bagha, H. K. N4 


Bagha 


Tooth 


Toho 


Data, H. K. Gyo 


Data 


Tree 


r 


Rukha, K. Ghyung 


Gachh 


Vegetable 
Village 


Mai ghyak 
Lahang 


Sag, H. 
Ga u, H. K. 


Dhap 
H41 


Sag patta 
Ga won 


Water 


Tang 


Pani, H. K. 


Kya 


Pani 


Woman 


Ning dai 


Baigini 


Mrin 


Meraru 


Wheat 


Gabun 


Gahurj, H. 


Karu 


Gohun 


Wife 
Yam 


Ningdaimyahoa 
Bvalougolaudan 


Baig'ani 
Caret 


Mrinhmi 
Hmau dau 


Jani 
Hanmul 


T 


Chi 


Ma 


Ghyang Hang 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF N&PAL. 



173 



English. 


KusHnda. 


Pdlch'ya. 


TkdVsya. 


Thdru. 


Thou 


Nu 


Ta 


Gna 


Tong 


He. She. It | 


r si. it'. Tok'- ) 

pya? Gida ) 


UTcya 


Ghana. H'mi 


Utu 


We two. Dual 
Ye two 


Tok'jhig'na 
Nok'jhig'na 


Caret 
Caret 


Ghyangsi 
Gnisi 


Hangdu 
Tongdu 


Thev two 


Gidajhig'na 


Caret 


Hmi si 


Unudu 


We all. Plural 


rimbaki [raki 


Caret 


Ghyang cha 


Hang log 


Ye all 


Nokibaki Toga- 


Caret 


Gna cha 


Tusal 


all 


Gidabaki 


Caret 


Hmichd 


Usal 


Mine. Mv 
Thine. Thy 


Ohlyi 

Nfyi 


Mero, K. 
Tero, K. 


Ghyang ge 
Gna ye 


Caret 
Caret 


His. Hers. Its 


GKdayi 


Usai ko, K. 


Hmi ye 


Caret 


Ours. Dual 
Yours. Dual 
Theirs. Dual 


Tokjhignayf 
Nokjhignayf 
Gidajhignayi 


Caret . 
Caret 
Caret 


Ghyang si ye 
Gni si ye 
Hmi si ye 


Hnmarnu hye 
Caret 
Uduwonko 


Ours. Plural 
Yours. Plural 


Takibakimida ) 
Chobakiyida j 
Nokibakiyida 


Caret 
Caret 


Ghyang cha ye 
Gna cha ye 


Hamlogkau 
Taharasabake 


Theirs. Plural 


Gidabakiyida 


Caret 


Hmi cha ye. ) 
Hmi ye ke j 


Unakara 


One 


Goi sang 


Yek v 


Di 


Yek 


Two 


Ghfgna 


Dui *> 


Gni | 


Dui 


Three 


Dab a 


Tin 2 


Som 


Tin 


Four 


Pinjang 


Char 2 


Bla 


Ch4r 


Five 


Pagnangjung 


Pach 


Gn4 >> 


Pache 


Six 


Caret 


Chha \Si 


Tu 3 


Chha 


Seven 


Caret 


Sat f 5 8 


Gnes -S 


Sat 


Eight 


Caret 


A'th 


Bhre ^ 


A'th 


Nine 


Caret 


Nau 3 


Ku 


Nau 


Ten 


Caret 


Das 


Chyu | 


Daa 


Twenty 


Caret 


Bis / in 


Gniyu 


Bis 


Thirty 


Caret 


Tis, H. K. 


Sombu 


Tis 


Forty 


Caret 


Chalis, H. 


Blibyu 


Chalis 


Fifty 


Caret 


Pachas, H. 


Gnasyu 


Pachas 


Hundred 


Caret 


Saya, H. 


Bhra 


Sau 




Nata igin 


Ko, H. 


Chaye 


Keha 


To, dot. and ace. 


La i, K. 


La, T. 


Dhyari 


Kerake 


From 


Jang jai 


Bato, K. 


Kyache 


Paidadekhalbat 


nstrumental 


A'i 


Le, K. 


Kau 


Le 


With. Cum. 
ut. Sine. 


Tangche 
Kautha i 


Saga 
Bholi 


Gnayero 
A'robhoja 


Saga 
Nahiho i 


In 


Tai 


Beli 


Hisono 


JJakinahi 


Now 


IE? 


Yeso 
Caret 


Ghyangchye 
Khaghangchye 


Amai. Abhai 

Nabhai.Tabhai 


When? 


A'sahi 


Caret 


Tigni 


Kabahu 


To-day 


Itwaji. Ipwaji 


A'ja, K. 


Nani;i 


Aju 


trow 


Gorak 


151, 61 i, K". 


TOa 


Kalhi 


Yesterday 


Bfnifi 


K. 


Kcmichuri 


liyihan 


Here 


Tau wa 


Y6td, K. 




Yehara 


Tli. r.- 


Up 


U'ta, K. 


Khataikhanti 


Uhara 


Where? 


A'i,:,ka 


K. 


'I'oini 


Kan ha 


Above 


Drasu ok 


Hapra 

K 


Caret 
Masi 




it Outside 


: 




ri 
Phelori 


Biclie 






. K. 


Nhari 


I'.lntia 




Iiiinha 






Uh4 




Ista 


NfMi 

'. 


VMM 

OhipH 


IhyA 


Much 


Mnng gni 




D 




How much ? 


A'.ina 


K. 


nya 


K. !;,!:. -i 


As 


Natiya 


Caret 




.laisaii 


So. 


Nipawai 


Caret | 


KhaprihA ) 
khaju / 


\Vuiiaian 



174 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGES 



English. 


Kustinda. 


Ptikh'ya. 


Thdk'sya. 


Thdru. 


How? 


Natuwan 


Caret 


Khajulaba 


Caret 


Thus 


Tantan 


Caret 


Ho alaba 


Hare 


Yes 


A'yabakiho 


Hoho, K. 


Hin 


Nahiba 


No 


A'yewa 


A'sin 


Ai 


Nahi 


Not. Prohibitive 


Hya 


Na, H. K. 


Kino 


Rahare 


And 


Caret 


Ra 


Jiikiyang 


K4 


Or 


Caret 


Caret 


Howochuchhy^ng 


Ihe 


This 


Ta i. Ta. 


Yehi. Y6, H. 


Pa ang kyungpa 




That 


Issi. It 


Wohi. U', H. 


Cha. Khapami 


U 


Which ) T , ( 
Who } Jon { 


Hagim'ya hak, ) 
vel hag-it J 


Jimauchha 


Khanangp6mhi 


Kunmanai 


Which ) T , ( 

who ; T6n i 


Nataim'ya hag- \ 
it vel hak J 


Jaunaman- ) 
chha, K. j 


Khajupernhi 


Umanai 


Who ) v , 

which } Kon 


Natat { 


Kaunainan- \ 
chha, K. j 


Ta 


Kaunmanai 


What? 


Natang 


Kya, H. 


Kliajupero 


Ka 


Anything 


Nataum'ya hagit 


Kehibastu, H. 


Kliajang pemhi 


Kunbastu 


Anybody 


Nataim'ya hak 1 
vel hyak } 


Koliiman- ) 
chha, H. J 


Sabadhyangpa 


Konamana 


Good 


i 

Waiyaki 


Bahiya. Ni- ) 


A'sbA { 


Nitnan. Bad- 
hai 


Bad 


Ka ingbarai 


<:hat'iva. Behoi 


Naasba 


Tniman 


Cold 


Khang go 


Chiso, K, 


Sim 


Thandi 


Hot 


Bhrok 


T4to, K. 


Lhap 


Cluihan 


Etaw 


Ben 


K4cho, K. 


A'telieba 


Kacha 


Ripe 
Sweet 


Pakog 

A'hal 


Pako, K. 
Guliyo, K. 


'JVahejiba 
Koghiba 


Pakal 
Mitha 


Arriil, pungent^ 










(as red pep- > 
per, &c.) J 


I'.yu 


Piro, K. 


Swob4 


Tin 


Bitter 


Katuk 


Tito, K. 


Kamba 


Tin 


Sour 


Dam tan 


A'milo, K. 


Kinibii 


Khatta 


Handsome 


Waiyaimya hak 


Ramro, K. | 


Bastu. Mhik- ) 
yahepa j 


Besmanai 


Ugly 


A'ingbarai 


Caret 


Mhi aky4hop4 


Bauramaui 


Straight 


Caret 


Tersai, K. 


Tananphirphai 


Sojh 


Crooked 
Black 
White 


W,1ng kang 
Pang siug 
A'sai 


Bang go, K. 
Kalo, K. 
Seto, K. 


Yeba 

Malang 
Tarpa 


Tat 
Kariya 
[Jiar 


Red 


B:i/< uba 


Rato, K. 


Wal4 


Lai 


Green 


Haiiyo, K. 


Hariyo. K. 


Phia 


Hariyer 


Long 


Hwang gai 


Lamo, K. 


Hrimba 


Lanibii 


Short 


Poktok 


Chhoto, K, 


Uiiuba 


Chhot 




Phiyone 


A'go, K. 


Bauchhenba 


Uchcha 


Short ) man i ' Poktok" 


Hocho. K. 


Putulu 


Nicha 


Small 


Hungkoi 


Sanu, K. 


Changba 


Chhot 


Great 


Wogonrai 


Thulo, K. 


Theba 


Mot 


Round 

Square 


Mang gni 
Charapate, K. 


Batulo, K. 
Chara}>alo 


Ghighirba 
Bhilirchhowa 


Gola [1. ate 
('hurakuiia- 


Round 


Dallo, K. 


Dallo, K. 


Bhumrfba 


Dnela 


Flat 


Chyangkang 


Pafoilo, K. 


Pabapilhe 


Paiiarabang- 
i>aiiang 


Fat 


Biji 


Moto, K. 


Dhum'wa 


Mot 


Thin 


Gharau 


Hariyako 


Jyaiba 


Dabar 


Weariness 


I'.alaugba 


Galelagyo 


Bhal&pji 


Tluikali 


Thirst 


T4p yau 


Pamitis, H. K. 


Kt-juphiji 


Pipai 


Hunger 


Iddng 


Bliok lagyo, K. 


Phothanji 


Bhok 


Eat 


A'm | 


Gau. Khu- ) 
wa, H. K. { 


Lhila 


Khai 


Drink 


Tang gonong 


Piu, H. K. 


Piu { 


PiyaL Pila- 
yaba 


Sleep 


Iptu (? Causal) 


Saira, II. 


Nhuko 


Sutali 



See note aforegone at page 169. 



OF THE BROKEN TRIBES OF 



'75 



English. 


Kustinda. 


PaVhyd. 


Thdkfsya. 


Thdru. 


Wake 


Blengwoto 


U'tha, H. 


R^to 


Uthali. Jagal 




Au 6. Au wo 


Harihal 


Lhau. Lau 


Kara 


Do not 


Anibil 


Janahara 


Thalau 


Nakara 


Laugh 


Nakyaba 


Has, H. 


Gneto 


Kahasal 


Weep 


Jhama 6 


Sanchha 


Tako 


Karo 61 


Be silent 


Abaganebin 


Chochira 


Lhemthalo Chupraho 


Speak Pwaktoba (Caret 


Tyato Bolai 


Do not speak ' A'noktabiu 


Janabol 


Tha tyato i Nabol 


Come 


A ''-a 


A'ija, K. 


Khau 


A'w4. Yawha 


Go 


Da 


Baija 


Hero 


Jaj4 


in standing 


Loengwoto 


I'aklianataba ! Pranhogntu 


Khadarahawa 


up, get up 


Loeugwoto 


Utha, K. 


Gnajurpa 


Khadah6 


Sit down 


Bhingw.'ito 


Basa, K. 


T6pa 


Baith 


Walk or move 


Aban 


Hat, H. 


Hero 


Chal 


Run 


Gorgow6to 


Phalala 


Gninahero 


Dhdba 


1 


A'i 


Deu, K. 


Pino 


Dada 


Take 


Ma 


La, K. 


Bhakau 


I.al.a 


Strike 


Pungb6go 


Kut, K. 


Tail. Thopati 


Mar. Marau 


Kill by cutting, ) 
cut down J 


Puwago 


Kat, K. 


Thagothapati 


... 


Kill anyhow, ) 
i.e., destroy, ) 


Wagdago 


M4ride6, K. 


... 


Mar 


Kill with stoue ) 
or other missile j 


Yuphwago 


Han, K. 


Prino 


KM 


Bring 


A'i 


Lyalya, K. 


Bhakau 


Lyare. Lea re 


Take away 


Wi 


Lalja. K. 


Bhoro 


Lrjare 


Lift up 


Yulinggwajo 


Bok, K. 


Thithouko 


Utha o. I^ad 


Put down 


Gyag'mo 


Bisa 


Thauo 


Rakhare 




Mang'bo 


Suna, K. 


Nagnino 


Suna 


Understand 


Caret 


Bujha 


Ghau 


liujhare 


Tell or relate 


AVoiigdago 


Kaha. K. 


Bhighp 


Kahare 


I heat 


Ki-pomatanha-u 


Ma/i kut'chhu * 


Gnajai toba 


Hama marila 


W- two beat. ) 


Tokjhignai ( 


Hamidwi ) 


Gnigni to- j 


Hamadunu 


Dual ] 


l<inatanhai ( 


kut'chau ) 


bak& 1 


marila 


11 beat. ) 
Plural J 


Tokkhagyai \ 
pomatauha'i ( 


Hamiliaru ) 
kut'chau// j 


Gnignichai ) 
tobomu J 


Raura marila 


Thou beatest 


Nupomatawa 


Ta kut'chhas j 


Chyang chai- ) 
toba f 


Raura marila 


vo beat. ) 

Dual 


Xokjliegna ( 
pomatawa 1 


Timidwi \ 
kut'chhau j 


Natnagni to- ) 
bamu J 


Rauradunu nul- 
rila 


i beat. ( X"kkhagpoma- j 
Ph f| tawa } 


Timiharu ) 
kut'chhau ) 


Xamacha to- \ 
bamu ( 


Man rapa utr- 
clianinarila 


He, she, it beats Gida pomatawa 


U kut'chha 


The tobamu 


U marala 


<;idajhigna ( 
1'omatawa ( 


Undwi kut'- ) 

chlia ) 


Thamagni to- 1 
bamu J 


rdunu inarila, 


They all b( .1 poina- j 
Plural tawa ( 


Unharukufc'-) Hmi.-lmka ( 
chhan ) tobamu ( 


Unaloga ma- 

lala 


I am beaten j T "ft *hn P h!I!F" \ 


Malai kut'chha 


Gnazir tol-amu 


Haiiuik. 


We two are i 
beaten. Dual) 


Tokjhigai po- \ 
( 




<;ni-ni to- ( 
bamu ( 


urakl 


We all are beat- ) 

al f 


Tokhkadai po-( 
\ 


inlai 1 






He, &c., i. ) 
beaten f 


iai i TTlni ku 
I'ungniataha ( cliha J 


Caret 


Woke marila 


two are 1 
beaten. Dual/ 


; ^i- i 
putigmataM ( 




Caret 


mArila 


are all ) 


"aigi ( 


i I 


( 


Wok nnakt 


'Uatan. PI,. 




kut.: , ' - 1 ""' ^| m4rila 



The rot of this c<>; itya. M also all the other word* having the 

e mid inccMant to need a 
< . like the Kooch and to many other* 
D, U fait merging In the proximate At laii ton^UM ; aud no aUo the Hill dialect* into Kliaa. 



7 6 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF THE SEVERAL LANGUAGES (DIALECTS) 
EASTERNMOST PROVINCE OF THE KINGDOM OF N^P^L, OR THE BASIN 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


Rtingchhtnbung. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhertng. 


Air 


Hyu 


Heek. Hak 


Him'ma 


Hi. r 


Amaranth 


Lung'ma 


( 'hlu'nnn. U-chen 


Chhenna 


Chipa nam 






na* 






Ant 


Chikare'pa 


Sachakawa. 


P6ngkhar6k 


Chhdmpalyu 






Chikyang 






Arm (see Hand 


Chhu 


Chhuk. U-chho* 


Muk 


Huu. Huhu 


Arrow 


Bhe 


Bhye\BheU'bhe* 


Phesuk. Phesuk 


Bei 


Barley 


Yewa dam. 


Tongchhong 


Jama. Jawa 


Chhong kha 




Wadam 








Bird kind 


Wttt 


Chh6ngwa 


Wasa 


Chho wa 


Bird, male 


Wasaopa 


O'pa chhongwa 


U'pa wasa 


U'pa chho wa 


Bird, female 


Wasa 6ma 


O'ma chh6ng-wa 


U'ma wasa 


U'ma chho wa 


Bitch 


Khlima 


O'ma kochuwa 


U'ma kochuwa 


U'ma haaga 


Blood 


Hi. Haa 


Ha. H6u 


Hali 


Hi 


Boar 


Opab6. Huipa. 


O'pa-ba. Yutpab4 


U'pa phak 


U pa boo 




Hwipa 








Boat 


Nawa 


Nawa 


D6ng' ga 


Dung' ga 


Boiled rice or 


R6 


Kok. Eoo 


Kok 


Ja. Rakoja 


Bhat 










Bone (see horn] 


SarVa. Saru- 


Sa yuba. Yuwa. 


Saruk wa 


Tupru. Tupru 




waf 


(Pi yuwa, cow's 










bone) 






Boy 


Sorron chha- 


Du wachhachh4 


Y6m bichh4 


Wachchha 




chha 






chha 


Buffalo kind 


Bahira. Maisi 


Sangwa 


Sangwa 


Meis4. Meis 


Buffalo, male 


Um'pa maisi 


O'pa sang'wa 


U'pa sangwa 


Um'pa m^isa 


Buffalo, female 


U'mma maisi 


O'ma Sang'wa 


U'mma S6ngwa 


Um'ma meisa 


Bull 


Pi umpa 


O'pa pit 


U'papit 


Tfachchha 










piya. Um'p& 










peya 


Calf kind 


Pi umchha 


Pitchha.Pih'chha 


Pitchil 


Pimi umchha \ 


Calf, male 


Pf umpa um- 
chha:!: 


O'pa pitchha 


U'pa pitchild 


Pinii umpa- ( 
chha > 


Calf, female 


Pi umma um- 


O'ma pitchha 


U'mma pitchile 


Pimi umma-| 




chha 






cbha 


Cat kind 


Bera 


Sur'ma. Minima 


Pus6 


Manima 


Cat, male 


Be rapa 


O'pa minima 


U'pa pdsfi 


U'mpa manima 


Cat, female 


Be'rama 


O'ma minima 


U'mma pusu 


U'mma ma- 










nima 


Child 


Chhachi. 


Chha chL Ma- 


Chh'a che 


Chhamu wa 




Yayachha 


nachha 







* U prefixed is the pronominal definitive ; 6 of <5pa and <5ma is the same. U' vel 6: eu is 
best ; French eu in heure, beur. 

t In this and the following columns the srf prefixed is the generic definitive (si = flesh). 

or the 'jeneri. d.-"nitr. 
'of column 2 is liyu'baor niyu'ha, 
this column the word is given in all three 
hdkwa, Ubok'wa, a'nd'sabok'wa. 

t Pf liiupa limchh^, literally cow, its male, its young (pee the words for father and mothre, 



T ill LUIS ami uie luiiuwiiig uoiuiiius ine sa preuxeu la ui 
Very generally words used singly must have the pronominal 
composition both fall away, especially the latter ; thus, " bone " < 
but cow's bone is pf yiiba. In "skin " of this column the woi 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



J77 



OF THE CELEBRATED PEOPLE CALLED KlRANTIS, NOW OCCUPYING THE 
OF THE RIVER A'RUN, WHICH PROVINCE IS NAMED AFTER THEM, KlRANT. 



Wdlimj. 


Ydkha. 


Chouras'ya. 


Ktilung'ya. 


Thulung'gya. 


Him'ma. Hak 


HigVa phak 
Hik'gwa 


Phurim 


Hik' pa 


lu 


Chh6nna 


Magann 


Gosarani 


Lung kupa 


Lung kupa 


Chhikyang 


Khelek. 


Po urung'ma. 


Khii leiu 


Kh&Hm 




Khelem 


Pw6rum'm 






Chhuk 


Muk 


La 


Huh'u 


Lwa 


Be. Bhe 


Pisik'. Pishik' 


B16 


B^'i. B^ i 


N6 p!6 


Tong chhong 


Chi-chama 


B6gja 


Jeu. Chhongki 


Jeu, J^ u 


Chhong wa 


Nua and Nwa- 


Chak bwa 


Chh6wa 


Chakpu 




wachi 








A'po chhongwa 


I'ba chhano- 


A'po chak bwa 


Wapchho wa 


Grok'pu-Chak' 




wachi 






pu or Upap 










chakpu 


A'ma chhong- 


I'ma chhano- 


AT>omo chakbwa 


W&mchh6-wa 


Umam' chakpu 


wa 


wachi 








A'ma kwachu- 


I'ma chha kwa- 


Ch41infma. A 


U'makh^ba 


Umam khlc ba 


wa 


chuma 


bom6chali 






Hi. Ha 


Hel'la.Hel'wa 


U'sfi 


Hi 


Sisi 


Bepha. Apo- 


Ipachha phak 


A'po pa 


Lema 


U'pa bo 


khong 










Dung'ga 


Dung' ga 


Ghag 


Bokho 


Dung' ga 


Kok 


Chama 


Hepa 


Ja 


Jam 


Sar'wa. Sai wa 


Se'ng khok' wa. 


Rusu 


Tapri. Tap ri 


Sasar 




Seng khog' 










we 








Du wachha 


Wengpha picha 


U'chobeba 


Wahchhachha 


Wes'chwe-' 


Sang wa 


San wa 


Beiso 


M4si 


M^si W ' 


A 'pa sang wa 


I'pa chha Ban 


A'po be i so 


Mesi mipa. Um'pa 


Upap m6si 




wa 




m^si 




A'ma tang wa 


I'ma chha sun 


A'bom6 be i so 


U'm'ma mesL 


Umam msi 




wa 




Mesi ininia 




Caret 


I'pachha pik 


A'po biya 


U'mpapi. Pimpa 


I'M 11W.I 


/ 


Pikaichwe 


Biya nunu 


Pim'chha 


Gaikamuchw6 


1 


Pikaichwe 


Apo biya nunu 


U'mpa pim'chha 


(Jaikinn upap- 


Caret I 


ipachha 






uchwe 


j 




Abomo biya nunu 


Um'ma pim'chhu 


(;;iik:iin umaiii- 


| 


imachha 






Ucli\ 


Mii nima 


Pusuma 


Bir'mo 


Bir4li 


(Tbirma 


Apa munima 


I'pachha pu- 


A'po bir'mo 


U'mpabin'ili 


I'p.ip liir'ma 




Buma 








Amamunima 


i-4 pu- 


A1>6m6 bir'mo 


U'm'ma birali 


Um&m bir'ma 




Hl'niia 








Chhachi 




Boba 


Nukcha. Chh&- 


Chw4 chwe\ 








rliliaina nian- 


hem 








i liliama. Cha- 


chwechwd, 








B-cha 


liuiii.inv.iuni:) 


also used as sex signs, and the third t>ose*siTe pronoun, conjunct form). As noted at " 1 



words tjned singly must have almost al wy* dsf i 

.. ar samples of the one, an *.. 
M = ; . "day N ha the pron-'i 

column i precisely the reveree is the case. 
"e<rg ".Tciirs in all three way.- 
to \\i> 

f Oika borrowed ; dcfinitirc '111 annexed. 

VOL. i. 



. 

. Inri-gard 



178 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


R&ngchhen b ung. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhereng. 


Cow 


Pyu pa. Pi 


Pit. Pih' 


Pit 


Pi 


Cock 
Crow 


Wapa 
Ouwa 


Wapa. O'pawapa 
Ka ga. Kah' wa. 


Rang gaba 
Ghak wa 


Wapa 
G6gok pa 






Gab' wa 






Daughter 


Marchha chha. 


Mech' chha chha- 


Mech'chha chha 


Mimchha chha 




Chhachha 


chha. U mech'- 








ma 


chha chha chha 






Day 


Kholu 


Ukholen 


Nam 


M16pa 


Dog-kind 


Khii 


Kochfiwa 


Kochfiwa 


Haga 


Dog, male 


Khlipa 


O'pa kochfiwa 


U'pa kochfiwa 


Haaga 


Ear 


Napro 


Naba 


Narek 


N4ba 


Earth, little ) 


'RAL-K/J J 


Bakha. Henk- 


Kh4m 


Baha 


Earth, whole J 


xSokna \ 


hama 






Egg 


Dai. Da i 


Uding. Wadfn 


U thin 


Dii 


Elephant-kind 


Hatti 


Hati 


Hati 


I lathi 


Elephant, male 
Elephant, fe- 


U'mpa hatti 
U'mma hatti 


O'pa hati 
O'ma hati 


Upa hati 
Um'ma hati 


r'mpahathi 
Um'ma hiithi 


male 










Ewe 


U'mma bheda 


O'ma bhda 


Um'ma bh6da 


Um'ma Ifisa 


Eye 


Michak 


Mak. Maak 


Mak 


Mik'sa 


Face 
Father 


Ugnalung 
U'm' pa 


Gnalfing 
Eu pa. U'pa. O'pa 


Gn41fing 
U'pa 


N4bwa 
U'pa 


Fire 


Mi 


Mi 


Mi 


Mi 


Fish 


Gnasa 


Gna 


Gnasa 


Gna 


Flower 


BAngna 


Bfingwai 


Phfing 


Bfi 


Fowl-kind 


Wa 


Wa 


W4 


W4 


Foot (see leg) 


Philfi 


Langtemma. 


Lang 


La. L6phoma 






Wukhuro. 










U khuro 






Fruit 


Bada. Y6da 


O siwa 


Siwa 


Susa 


Girl 


Chhamarchha 


Mechchhachha- 


Machchhachha 


Mim chha chha 






chha 






Grain 


Cha 


Chama 


Kwak. Kok 


Cham'ma 


Goat-kind 
Goat, male 


Chhong gara 
U'mpa chhong 
gara 


Chh6ng gara 
O'pa chhe'n gara 


Mendiba 
U'pa mendiba 


Chhangara 
CTmm 

chliiingara 


Goat, female 


U'mma chhong 


O'ma cheng gara 


U'mma mendiba 


U'mma 




gmn 






chhangara 


Hair 


Mus'ya. Tw6ng. 
Ta = head 


Ma a 


Tang'phfikwa. 
(Tang = head) 


Taa sam. 
(Taa=head) 


Hand (see arm) 


Chhuku phe- 


Chhfikhu phema, 


Mfik 


Hfifi* 




ma, arm flat 


arm, flat 






Head 


Taklo. Taklo 


Tang. Eutangf 


Tang 


Taklo 


Hen 


Wama 


O ma wama 


U'ma wa 


Wam4 


Hog-kind * 


B6 


Ba. Y4ngb4, the 


Phak 


B66 






wild 







* Vowel repeated marks the pausing tone here and everywhere, 
t En prefix is the same as 6 and ti elsewhere, e.g., oma, u baw, u sanppn, &c. 
j Abo-rao adds the male to the female designation. The two are in Tibetan bo-n.o or 
ba-ina: in Lcpcha, a-ben, a-mot. 
Myek-cui, Myet-si, Burmese. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



179 



Wdling. 


r<a-/m. 


Chouras'ya. 


Kul&ng'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Gai 


I'machha pik 


Bia. Biya. 


Pi im'ma. (Jm- 


Gai 






A'mobia 


mapi 




W4p4 


I'pachh4 wa 


B6 gnapa 


W4p4 


Grokpupo 


G6w4 


A f h' gwa, A 


Gagb6 


G4gah' p6 


Gapwa. G4 po 




g w a 








Machha 


Chiya mech 


Iftba 


Mimchhdchha 


Maschw^chwe. 




chh4 






Mis'chechwe- 










chw6 


Wo khote. 


Leh'ni 


Duk'go 


Lep4 


N^mphii 


Namdiya 










Kotima, Ko- 


Kochdma 


Chali 


Klu'b 


Khl4b4 


chuwa 










A'pa kochuwa. 


I'pachha ko- 
chuma 


Chali gnapo. 
A'pochali 


Um'pa kheb4, 
Kh^mi p4 


Up4p khleb4 


N4ph4k 


Naphak 


D6bfi 


Nobwa, N6 bo 


N6kphla 


Pakha 


Kiiuiu 


Kanski 


B6h6 


Kw4 


Dim 


In. Wa in. 
(Wa = fowl 


B4b4ng'gya. 
(Ba = fowl) 


U'mdi. Wadi. 
Di. (Wa=fowl) 


Dii 


Hathi 


H4tti 


Hatti 


H4tti 


H4ti 


A 1 pa hathi 
A'ma hathi 


I'p4chha hat t i 
I'machha hatti 


A'po hatti 
A'b6m6 hatti 


Hattimp4 
H4ttim ; m4 


Upap h4ti 
Umani hati 


A'ma bheda 


I'machha 


A'b6m6 bheda 


Bhedim' m4 


Um4m bhe<la 




bhenda 








Mak 


Mik 


Bisi 


Muk'si 


Mik'si 


<;nalang 


Nachik 


Kuli 


Gnobwa. Gno bo 


Kal 


Papa 
Mi 


a- 


A'po 
Mi 


Um'p4 
Mi 


P4p. U'p4p 
M6 


Gna 


Gnasa 


Gn6s6 


Gna 


Gn6s4 j| 


Bang 


Phfing 


Phdri 


I'.un- 


Bung'ma 


Wi 


Wa 


B6 


W4 


P6 


Langkutcm 


Lang tapi 


Losu 


L6ng 


Ph^mkhel^J 


Sangsi wa ** 


Icha 


Ching'chi 


Sisi 


Sisi 


Machha 


Mechchh4 pi- 


Bicho beba 


Mimchb4chh4 


Musche clixv.'- 




cliha 








Ch4 


Chal.ak 


J4ma 


Chasfim 


M4 


Bakara 
A'pa bakara 


Mengthibak 
I'pachha 


Sangara 
A'po angara 


Chh4ng gara 
Chhang garampa 


rpap chinv.i/i- 




mengthibak 






ra 


A'mab41cara 


I'machha 
tefthibAk 


A'bom6 sangara 


Chhang garainina 


I'liiaiu 

chliwanra 


Ting muwa. 


Tan-i.i.a,^' 


S6m 


Mui. ToMun. 


S. in. S\v, in 


Qg 


wa. (Tang 




(T6 = head) 




hMdj 


= head) 








Chhdk 


MOkt&pi 


u 


HuliVh4ma 


Lwabl^m"! 


Tang 


Tukh rGk. 




T.'.ng 


Btf 




uruk. 










Tfi khruk 








Wam.-i 


I'machha w& 


A'bom6 bo 


Wama 


Pwa. r'.naiu 










nwft P6, 










Umani po 


f ! 


FhH 


P4 


Boo 


Bwi. Bo 













J Final U vel ri i* tho tf <.nerio sign or dcflniUve u tued throughout tbU c 

5 Under "foot" and " lian-l." Me and compare "laff M and "arm." To the names of the 
latter the sign -f flat things i added to form word* f..r the forme . 
Seng tree ii the generic definitive. 



i8o 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


R&ngchhenlung. 


Chhingtdngya. 


NAchhertng. 


Horn 


Rung. Tong. 


Usang'ga 


Sing' ga 


T4a* 




Umtong 








Horse-kind 


Ghoda, H 


Ghoda, H 


Ghoda, H. 


Ghoda, H. 


House 


Khim 


Khim 


Khim 


Khim 


Husband 


A'tumi. Tumi 


Caret 


Papho. A'tumi 


Umtopo 


Iron 


Phalam 


Phalam 


Banchhuwa 


Phalam 


Kid-kind 


Chhong gara 


Chhen garachha 


Meudibachha 


Chhangara um- 




umchha 






chha 


Kid, male 


Chhong gara 
umpachha 


Chli6n gara 6pa- 
chha 


Upa m^ndiba- 
chha 


Chhangara um- 
pachna 


Kid, female 


Chhong gara 


Chhong gara oma- 


U'ma mendiba- 


Chhangara um- 




ummachha 


chha 


chha 


machha 


Lamb-kind, 


lU.f.li umchha 


Bheda umchha 


Bhedichha 


Lusa umchhd 


Lamb, male 


Blu'.li umpa- 


Bh^da opa chha 


liht'ili upa chha 


Ln-a u in pa 




chha 






chha 


Lamb, female 


Bhedi umma- 


Bh^da oma chha 


Blu'di uma chha 


Lusa umma 




chha 






chha 


Leaf 


Lib* 


Ubawa euchha 


Laphowa 


Sam. Saa ma 


Lfght 


Philu 
Narachha. Kha 


Lang 
Ulawachhami, 


Lang 

KLalamtha 


L66 
Wujy&lo 




wiya 


sam. 






Maize 


Makai 


Makai 


Makai 


Bapsti sa 


Man-kind 


IWma 


Mana. Ma a na 


."Mapiiii. Mah'mi 


Mina. Min 


Man, the male 


Soro/ichha. 


D6 wachhi. 


Pa 


Wachechha 




Soronchha 


[Mech-chha- 








mina 


chha, woman 










chha homo] 






Mare 


U'maghoda 


O'ma ghoda 


U'mma ghoda 


U'mma ghoda 


Millet (Kan- 


Phe>o 


Phesa^ 


Phesa 


Pisa 


gam) 










Millet (K6d6) 


Char'ma 


Sampicha 


Sambok 


Chercha 


Monkey-kind 


Tongbhu. N6i 


Helawa 


Helawa 


P6pa 


Monkey, the 


U'mpatongbhti 


CKpa helawa 


U'pa helawa 


U'mpa popa 


male 










Monkey, the 


U'mma tong 


O'ma helawa 


U'mma helawa 


U'mma popa 


female 


bhu 








Moon 


Ladipa 


Ladima 


Lathfba 


Ldnima 


Mother 


U'ma. Umma 


O'ma. U'ma. 


U'ma 


U m-ma 






Euma. 






Mountain 


Danda 


Bhar 


Bour 


Danda 


Mouth 


Dy6 


D6 


Thurum' 


Gnocho 


Musquito 


Tungkaroa 


Lamkhutya 


Twang gyomma 


Supyal 


Name 


Naug 


Nang 


Nang 


Na 


Night 


Khosai 


Ukhdkhwai. Uk- 


Ukhakhuit. Uk- 


Umsyapa 






hako 


hakhuit 




Oil 


Bfli 


A'h'wa 


Kiya 


Tel 


Old man 


Pachha. Pa- 


Budha khokpa 


Budhapa 


Passou 




chha kowa 








Old woman 


Machha. Ma- 


Bhuda khokma 


Budhima 


Massou 




chhakoma 








Ox-kind 


Pi 


Pit 


Pik 


P6h' yal 


Paddy 


Rong 


Cha 


Chaya 


R4a 



* The vowel repeated represents the pausing tone, which, as also the abrupt tone, is 
very decided. 

t On (in Balali, un. vel eun ; in Lohorong, en) recalls Dhimalf, on-hya ; and all the more 
in that so few of the Himalayan tongues have a word for liorse. 

t In Kid we have the form with genitive sign and definitive prefix. Here we have both 
dropt. With them the terms would run bheda-kam-uch (for um) chwe or bhera-kar-u-chwe. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



181 



Waling. 


Ydkha. 


Chouras'ya. 


Kulung'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Khu ung tang. 


Itang' 


Koso 


U'mpitta. Pitta 


R4ng. Um 


Atam'uii khak 








r4ng 


Qhoda 


O'nf 


Gh6d4 


Ghoda 


Ghoda 


Khira 


Pang 


Kudu 


Khim 


Nem 


Apa sang' Wempha 


O' ch6. W6 cho 


Umtuppo. Tuppo 


Kha 


Phalam 


Chek chi 


Phal4m 


Sel 


S41 


Uakaruchhachi 


Menthubaich- 


Sangar m'mu 


Chh4ngarachh4 


Chhw4rakam 


A'pa bakara- 


chya 
Ipaciiha men- 


S4ng4r tawa 


Chh4ngarachha- 


uchwe 
Chhw4rakam, 


ehhi 

Ama bakara- 
chha 


thubaichchya | 
Imachha men- Sangar tabe 
thubaichchya 


ump4 
Chhdugarachha- 
urama 


uchwe iijcih 
Chhwarakam 
uchwe umam 


Bhedachhachi 


Bhedaichwe BheMa mum 


Bhedamchh4 


Bh4d4chw^ J 


Apo bheda- Ipachha bhe- Bheda tawa 


Bhedumpachh4 


Bhedupapchwe 


chhachi daichwe 






Amo bhera- Imachha bhe- Bheda tabe 


Bhedummachh4 


Bhedumaru- 


chhachi daichwe 






chwe 


Sung'phak. Ba Sum phak 


Sapha. Moli 


Siba. La. Urn 


S6 blam 






boa 




Lang Lang 


L6au 


Long 


Khel 


Wujyalo. Kh4- , Wop'na 


Dwam somo 


Kod4ta. N4m- 


Hwah'w4ya, 


dai .. 




chhowa. Mi- 


sam. 






wal'ma 




Makai Makai 


Groboma 


Makai 


Makai 


Mana. Mina Yap' mi 


Muyo 


Mis 


Michyu 


Aduwa. Duwa 


AVengpha 


O'cho 


W4chchh4 


W4schwe 


A'ma ghoda 


Imachha won 


A'bomo ghoda 


Ghod4m ma 


Umam ghoda 




(on) 








Pbesa 


Peya 


J4 


P^si 


Sar 


:cha 


P;inc gv;i 


Cliarja 


Lisi 


Li'ser 


Hel4wa Pubang 
Apa he"14wa Ipachha pu- 


Poku 
A'po poku 


Pupwa 
Pupwamp4 


Nuk'syu 
Nuk'syu upap 


Ama helawa 


hang 
Imachha pu- 


A'bomo poku 


Pupwamm4 


Nuk'syu um4m 




bang 








Ladima 


La 


Twasy41. Tosyal 


La 


Khly^, Khlr 


Ama 


I'ma 


A'mo 


Umm4 


Mam. l'n,..;it 


Tw6. Do 


Kwangu 
Muiaphu 


Kw;uua 
Duli 


T4m' him 
Gno 


Bro 
Si 


S6py4L Tokli. 


Thokthoki ling 


Gang'gayumo 


Kwongthuli 


MM 


N.tn- 
Umkbakhu. 


Ning 

St-h' n i 


Di 
Domsa. Dwang. 




Nang 

Dum'ma. 


Akhakhwi 




]>n me. Dom- 




Duiigma 


All 1 w4 


Kiwa 


paimt 

Tilvam 


Khil4m 


Tel 


rtmmi 


Th4p' pa 


(in,, wa 


M ilr h.llll NV.i- 

rhha 




M.^.-.n- 


Th4p'ma 


QntM 


Manch4m mini- 
chha 


(inan.i 


Pik 


Riya 




( ' uvt 


K.i;. .1 'Cham 


Garji 


M 


R^epma (ma 


1 






graiu) 



But gcnitirc ka la borrowed, and lum in = ka-um. 8e remarks on genitive dgns in soqucl 
(BahfiwOnmaatr) 

I What bracketed WM one of th^M hint - f ,, r ftirther rwmnrch referred to in the flrxt loaf, 
pro See .Waling, wherein duwa i mn ; duma, woman ; or, with the doflnttirc, aduwn, 



;.-.; 
.. . .U..1. 



1 82 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


ftfingchhtnlfing. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhertng. 


Plantain 


Gn6si * 


Gnak'si 


Gnaklasi 


Li gnaksi 


Ram 


U'mpa bheda 


O'pa bheda 


U'pa bh6da 


U'mpa lusa 


Rice or choul 


Charang 


Chay6ng 


Cha srak 


Sira 


River 


Wa hwai 


Hongku 


Wahdh' ma 


Hung kwama. 










Hung koma 


Road 


Lam 


Lam 


Lambo 


Lam 


Salt 


Rum 


Yum 


Yum 


Ram 


Sheep-kind 
Skin 


Bheda 
Hule'pa 


Bheda 
Hokwa. f Uho- 


I'.li.-ja 

SahoV wa 


Lusa 
Sahok 






k'wa. Sa hok 






Sky 


Nam 


Narnchok 


Namchhuru 


Nam chho 


Snake 


Puchho 


Puchham 


Puchh4 


Puu 


Soil 
Son 


B6h'kha 
Sor6nchhachha 


Httagkhama 
DOwachhachha 


Thang'pu 
Chhai 


Thampu 
Wach'chha 










chha 


Star 


Pitipya. Pit- 


Sang gen 


Chok chong i. 


Sangger'wa 




appa 




Chok choi 




Stall!,. n 
Stone 


Umpa ghoda 
Lung' to 


O'pa ghoda 
Lung'ta 


U'pa ghoda 
Lunggwak' wa 


U'mpa ghoila 
Luu 


Sow 


O'ma bo 


O'ma ba 


U'mma phak 


Um'ma boo 


Sun. Sun- 


Namliya. Nam 


Nam 


Nam 


Nam 


shine 










Tiger 


Chabha 


Kiwa 


Kibha 


Dhing'tra 


Tooth 
Tree 


King 
Song puwa 


Kang 
Sang' tang 


K^ng 
Sang' 


Kaa 

Saa 


Vegetables 


Sag 


Limkham click- 


Saga 


Sankhai 






kham 




lunkhai 


Village 
Water 


Tung ma 
Wa 


Chawa 


Chu wa 


Tyal 
Kaaw4 


Wife 


Mai. Umai 


Mechchhachha 


Mechchha 


Yuh'u 


Wheat 


Dhhong. 


Nuh'chhong 


Jawa 


Docher 




Nambo 








Wood 


Sang 


Sang 


Sang 


Sou 


Woman 


Marchha 


M^chchhachha 


Mache 


Mim'chha 


Yam 


S6ki 


Saki 


Khi su wa 


Khi yok'sa 


Young man 


Walalichha 


Phanta. Phan- 


Wanchabang 


Solo 






tachha 






Young woman 


Klamaichha 


Kamechha 


Ksimechchha 


Solome 


I 


Kagna. Ka. 


Uuka. Angka. A'ka 


Kagna. Ka 




Ingka 


Ang 






Thou 


Khana K liana 


Haua 


A'na 


He, She, It || 


Khu. Tyako Oko. Moko. 
Hyako Euhyako. 


Mo?o. Mogwa. 
Yoko. Mogo 


Manka. Yako 




Euyauko 






We. Plural 


Kai. Kai 


Ungkan f 


Kanana. Kan- 


Kai 


inclusive 






ga na 





* In all the words si vel chi vel cha is the generic sign for all fruits. So also cha vel ja, 
= all grains, in the words for barley and rice : ma in Thulung (resepma). 

t See notes at "calf "and "bone." U the pronominal, s the generic definitive t.y., 
yu-a or sa"-yiiba, bone ; sa or u-sa, flesh ; hokwa or sa-hokwa, skin ; hen or sa-heu, blood, aud 
also u-heu ; hokwa, skin ; stf-hokwa, flesh-skin ; sing-hokwa, tree-skin or bark. 

{ Sf = sa is the generic sign ; kok = hok, vel hokwa, ante. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



183 



Wdling. 


Ydkha. 


Chourax'ya. 


Knifing 1 'y a. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Gnaksi 


Chcmokla 


Balchi 


Li gnoksi. Li- 


Leg noksi 








gnoksi 




A'pa bheda 


Ipachhabheda 


A'po bhe^a 


Bhe<i4mp4 (for 


U'p4pvh6da 








Bheda ampa) 




('haying 


Yamechchhu 


Mr* 


Sen 


Soar'. So ai' 


Hong' ma 


Hong'ma 


Gulo 


Yowa 


Karku 


lAm 


Lam' bu 


Lam 


Lam 


Lam 


Yum 


Yum 


Yok'si 


Gum 


Yo 


Bheda 


Bheda 


Bheda 


Hlu-da 


Bheda 


Sahok 


Siho warik 


Kwa'k' te. 


Soko war i 


Kwok'si. Kok'- 






Kok' te 




Bi.* Kok'te 


Sag'ra 


Tang khyang 


Dw4m 


Chhuburi. Net- 


Dwamu 








wa. Neto 




Puchhap. 


Puchak 


MM 


Pu 


Phu chyfi 


Puchham 










Bakhu 


Khambema 


Kak'si 


Th4m'pu 


Kwa 


Chha. Dfcwa- 


Chya. Chwe 


T4wa 


Wachha chh4 


Chye. Chwe. 


chha 








Waschhwe 










chwe 


Sang gen ma 


Chokchigi 


Soru 


Sungger 


Swar 


Apa ghoda 

Lung-tak 
Amopha. 


Ipachha won 
Lungkhok' wa 
Imachha ph4k 


A'po ghoda 
Lung 
A'bomo pa 


Gho dam'pa 
Lung 
Bwam m;i. Bo 


U'papghoda 
Lung 
U'mam bwu 


Khongma 






oma 


Umam 1><> 


Mamchhowa. 


N&m 


Dwam 


Nam 


Nepsung. Nem, 


Sunshine 








sunshine 


Dhi na ra. 
Dhiura 


K'iba 


Gupso 


N4ri 


Gupsyfi 


Kang 
Sangu 


H4. Hachi 
Ing thap. 


Gum'so 
Sing 


Kang 
Thonam 


Lyu 

Dhak'sa 




Sing gaithap 








Biff 


Phiyakhya 


Silim 


Khaiyu 


Sag 


Teng 


Ten 


Del 


Tel 


Del 


Chawa 


Mang chuwa 


Ka-ku 


KM 


Ku 


A'masang 7 


Mechchha 


Bicbo 


Yuh' u 


Kha|| 


Chayong' 


(.'hicha ma 


Caret 


Docher 


JtfMC 


chhong 










BMC 

Aduma 
Sakhi. Yak 
Ph&ng' ta 


Caret 

.M.-,-i;lili:i vapini 

Khe. SQchigwa 
Wengcba 


Sing 
Bichomuyo 

Rang'jalu 
8414 cho 


Sing 
Mim'chlia 
Khe 
Solo 


Sang 
Wo-chyCi 
Bdak'pa 

Swalachw^ 


Kamechha 


Kime 


Salame 


Solome 


Twalame 


Ingka. Angka 


Ka 


l-n.-o" 


K.. K na 


Go 


Hana. Khnna 


Ing'khi. 'N khi 


Gnome. U'nu 


A'na 


G4na 


Aya. Hayako. 


Khena. Vona. 


Time. Yome. 


N4ko. Muko. 


Hana 


Mok.; 


Yona. 


Yame 


Netako 






Mona. Tona 








Ika. U'ki. 


Kan, 


U'ng guticha 


Keki 4, Ko I 


Goku 


Ing kai. 










ani 











| Yd is wife in Lepch* and in Tumil. U, ind. art , = ' ' prefix in tboM tongue*, t-yti 
and ta-jrd ; Uyd u-vd or yiJ-ii u cent only. 

I Kh = husband or wife. Husband and wife Khtbuug'. 

1 ThU dual in one of i b, - t he dialect- have n 

with mcluive and exclusive form* of ,the first t>eron. Note t p. 184 ua iLvm fur ti.c Uung- 
c&ben dialect. See on to grammars for the three persons of the dual. 



1 8 4 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


Rtingchheribting. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhertng. 


We. Plural 


Kai. Ka 


Ungkanka 




Kai ka 


exclusive 










Ye. Plural 


Khaini. 


Khananin. 


Hananina 


A'nnimo. A 




Khan a i 


Khana na 




uai 


They. Plural 


Hay i. Khu 


Moko* 


Yo go. Yo 


Yak mowa. 




chu. Khu- 




gwana. Mo 


Yako i. Ma 




Tyai 




go na 


kai 


Mine, disjunct. 


Angp ma 


Ang'ko 


A'kwa. Akoo 


Angmi 


My, conjunct. 


A'. Ang 


Ang 


A' 




Thine 


Khamo 


A'mkof 


Hana. Hana- 


An mi. A'mmi 


* 






yakkwa 




Thy 


Ka 


Am 




Am 


His, Hers, Its, 
disjunct. 


Khumo 


Moso. Ya u BO 


Mogwasekkwa 


Yakmi. Man- 
kami 


His, Her, Its, 


U'. &. Urn. 


O. Eu vel TJ 


U/ 


U'. Urn 


conjunct. 


Ung 








Ours ) 
Our j 


Imo. A'imo 


A'inkwa 


K4nugnaikkw4 1 


Wokimi. ) 
Woki f 


Yours 
Your 


Khamo ) 
Khaimo J 


A'mno 


Haniyakkwa 


Amnimowa 


Theirs 
Their 


Khu i' mo i 
Khumo f 


Myaucho 


Hungcheikkwa 


Yakmomi 


One 


Aura. Itto* 


Eukchha. Euk- 


Thitta 


I'bhou 






pop. Eukta 






Two 


Hakara 


Heuwang. Heu 


Hichche 


Nisbhou 






sa. Heu wa 










pop II 






Three 


Sum'ra 


Sum ya. Sum- 


Sumche 


Suk'bhou 






pang. Sum 






Four 


Lyura 


kapop 
Laya. Lawang. 




Lik^hou 






La wa pop 






Five 


Gnara 


Gndya. Gna- 


... 


Gnak'bhou 






wang. Gna 










kapop 






Six 


Tuk'karu 


Tuk-ya. Tuk- 


... 








wang. Tuk 










kapop 






Seven 


Raikara 


Bhangya. 


... 


... 






Bhangwang. 










Bhangka pop 






Eight 


Bhok'kara 


Reya. Re wang. 
Reka pop 


... 




Nine 


Supura 


Phang ya wang 






Ten 


[apura 


pop 
ipu. Kip. 




... 






Dheukya- 










Dheuk pang. 






Twenty 


... 


Dheukka pop 
Caret 




... 


Thirty 




... 







* Third pronoun, like nouns, transfers sign of number to adjective or verb. 

t Dual, Ungka-cheua, exclusive ; ungka-chi, inclusive : Kbaua-chi ; Moko-cbi, vel Oko- 
cbi, vel Euyakochi, for the three persons of the dual. 

t See and compare the table of numerals in the sequel. 

Euktaisthe separate unchangeable form; so also hensa, 'two,' and siimya, 'three.' 
Eukchha is the major and eukpop the minor of gender. To these chha and pop suffixes 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



185 



Wdliwj. 


Ydkha. 


Ckourasfya. 


Kiilung'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Kong kaika 


Kani. Ka 






Goi 


Iluuani 

Haya ni. 
k Mo- 
koni 

A'ngpik 

Ampik 


Inkhi ni. 
Ningkhi. 
'Nkhi nL 
Ichi khu 
I'khi ni. 
Yona ni 
A'ga 

I'n ga '" 


Gnometicha. 
Unu 

Tometicha 

Aleme 
A' 
Ileme 


A'ni. Ana i 
Nakoni 

A'mmi 


G4ni 

Hanommim. 
Hanom nu 

A'm4 
A' 
Yema 


Am 
Hayek pik 


I'ga. Yona ga, 
<tc. 
I' 


Gnemeleme 


Nakwami 
Wa 


r 

O'kam. Han- 
om k am 
U' 


A'ngkapik 


Aenga 


Ikileme 


Wokhimi 


A'kima. Ikima 


Hayckkapik 


Ning ga 


Mdyemleme 


A'mnimi 


Inimii 


Kayankapik 
Aktai. Akta 

Xi. Haaa. 
Hasak 

Syum' ya k 


Ichiga 
Ik'ko 

Kichchi 
Sum'chi 


Gono maticba- 
leme 
Eolo 

Nik'si 

Suni'makha 


Kwacbimi. Na ) 
kwachimi ) 
Ubdm 

Nib'chi 
Sup'chi 


Hanommikam 

Kwong vel 
Kong, hu- 
mans. Kole, 
animals 
Nichi, humans. 
N ale. animals. 
Ni, root 
Syum, humans. 
Sule, animals. 


La yak 


Lichi 


Phibakha 


Lichi 


Bli. Bleule 


Gna ya k 


GnAchi 


... 


Gimchi 


Gno. Gnolo 


Tuk ya k 


Tuk'chi 




T6k'chi 


Ro vel Ru. 
Rule 




Nuchi 




Nucbi 


Seren. Set. 
Serle 




Phang'chi 
Yecchi 




Recbi 

BongVl.i 


Yet. 
Yetle 
Gu. Gale 


I'bong. Ik' 
boog 




UkTx>Dg 


Kong'dyum or 
Kwong dyum 




ng 
SCim'bong 




('.nit 


Kong utang. 
Kwonguiang 
Kwonguung* 
kodyum 






pop of the other di&lecU. Wang and pop recall the numeral dgni 
o thoee of Kiranti. Me and compare note of page 191 and note f 

' 



--,, n, f- t.. 



k'niiniii.-ir in M'JIH I 'linn- w;m w ; ,i,!]i, K (.. DMk .,ut ti.iM ]N,n,t m 

; but in the Runffchhen it eeemi clear that in eu-k-U, one, the * U ' 



111 



' a pronominal definitive, and the ' k ' a copula merely. 

i;, MM " ; it. 



were !. t !'ii y 



1 86 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Eodong, or 
Chdmling. 


Rtingckhdnbting. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhertng. 


Forty 










Fifty 




... 






Hundred 










Of 


Mi. Mo, pro- 
noun. Mo', 


No sign, geni- 
tive first of 


Caret. O, pro- 
noun 


Mi, pronoun 




noun 


two nouns * 






To, dat. and 


Caret 


Caret 


Ufl 


,.. 


accus. 










From, out of 


Daka. Dano 


Dangka 


Gna 


A'm 


Towards 


... 


Yatni. Yatnung. 










Yatnung on 










level f 






By, inst. 


Wa 


Ya. A' 


Gna 


A' 


By, close to, 


Chakda, side in 


Chakda, ditto 






near 










With, cum. 


Pida 


It 1 nan 


Nung 


Gnang. Maug 


Sath in Hin- 










di and Urdu 










Without, sine. 
Bina in Hindi 


Madang 


Madang. Man- 

(I'm" 


Mangchi 


Mangdi 


In 


Da 


Da 


Be. Pe 


Pi 


On, upon 
This, conj. 


Choda (top in) 
Hyao 


Chokdo. Dungda 
0' ) 


O'ko. Bago. Nago 


U'nu. Angna 






V 






This, disj. 


Hyaoko 


Oko J 






That, conj. 


Tya 


Mo 


Khokh6." Mogo. 


Khan kou. 










Yakgna 


That, disj. 


Tyako 


Moko. KhokhoJ 






Now, 


W6sara. Wos- 


Hangde. Hande 


Bagari ' 


Ha 


Then, 


Kh6nglo. Tes- 


Kh6ml6. KhoUo 


Uilhe 


Kh6ntalo 


When ? 


pa 
Delo 


De'mkhe 


A'nam 


A'dem 


To-day 
To-morrow 


A'i. Ale. 
Sen la. Sen 


A'ya. A'i 
Mangkol6n 


Pdyam 
Waraugda 


A'se 
Sala 




lam 








Yesterday 


A'se 


A'kh6mang 


A'sinda 


A'spa 


Here 


Wada 


Oda 


Baye. Bayetni 


Ik. Yeksa 


There 


Tukhe. Tuku 


Euhyana. Eudha- 


Y6tni 


Meksa. Miyaya 






ko. Moda. Mi- 






Where? 


Ehoda 


yanung 
Khada. Khada- 


Hnkrt 


Happa. Hap- 


Above 


Dhala. Dhalo 


nung 
Euchokda. 


Ut^nbe 


bale 
Itwa ta. Ito ta 




I Mudhani ) , 










U'dhani r ia 










Euchongda. 










Eukhukda 






Below 


Hila. Hwiluo 


Mupuni. Uyuni 


Moba 


U' yuyu 


Between 


Mra. Maru 


Lumda. Hudoa 


U'rhabe 


Umlam 



* See notes to the Bahing Vocabulary further on. 
t See voc"e He, pane 206. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



Wdling, 


Ydkha. 


Chouras'ya. 


Knlting' ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


O 


Ligit 

Gnagip' 

Maknaibong 
I'. Ga, pro- 
noun 


Caret. Lemd, 
pronoun 


Mi, pronoun 


Naasang 
Naasang ko 
dyum 
Guosang 
Kam 


Caret 


A' 


... 


Caret 


Caret 


Pangkwa 
Dang ka 


Dwng 


Logno 


Gna. A'. Pika 


Dang. Rang 
Honthyo 


A' 


Gna 


Kho 


A' 


Ka 

Phar'da 


PL Eda. Inan 


N6ng 


Bilo 


G4mpL Lo 


Nung 


Mochhi 
luan. Da. Ida 


Mdnnung. Met- 
ning 
Be. Songbe 


Sokho 
Lo 


Mandi 

Pa. PL Gopa, Pi- 
tfi. Themtu 


Mantlii 

N4. Da. Du. 
Deuda 


O' gna. O'k6. 
Ipigna. 

Kbogna. Kho- 
ko. Hayaya 


Khena!" Na. 
Nam4. A'me 

Yona. '"Y6- 
nama. I'me 


... 


Ingkong. In- ( 

Mungkoug. Na- 
kong. Nakopi 


Wn. -\V6ram 
Wo chi. Dl. 
Wo mini. PI. 

Hauuni 


Isgharing 
Hulong 


Akku '" 
I'kh6ning 


Bokkemse. Bo- 
kemmo 
Ingyeld 


Wadolo!" Woll6 
Khodolo 


Atha '" 
Meh6mlo 


Dem'kha. Khi- 
iiiiiu 
A'il... A'yo 
Hamaye. 
Mangkolen 
A'se. Akomang 


Honing. Heh'- 
ning 
Hoh'yen 
Wang'di 

A'cbben 


A'sel6 

Tianso 
Dis'na 

Saiso 


Hadolo. Hade- 
miye 
Yese 
Desa ah' 

I.'pa 


Ham syuku 

Anep 
Dika 

r.ast;i 


I'yak. Wada. 
Wava 
MuyaL Modo. 
Hoyi 


Kin'. Nakht- 

Y6na. Ynkliya 


Alo. Amna. 
Alvi 

Ulianala. Bliana. 
,n6ua 


Yeksa. Ing- 
kwiol 

Meksa. Na- 
kwapa. Naya 


A'no. A'i. 
Asinda 
Hano. Hanop- 
ua 


Khini. Khada. 

Ita. Adhani. 
Angyuui 


H6h'na. Hn- 

nclic 
T6 


Thalo 
Bh&ta. Imtola 


Hapise. H4k- 
wade 

.].t-i. M6- 
twaka. Metyoka 


p.ut,-. Bftato, 
Dmula 


Itu. Akhukyu. 

U'mrane. 
Aridha, 


M6 

Hum 


Bhaya. Bhayola 

Kharl.i. Kl.a- 


r'lniih.'.kpu. 
U'roripi 


Coy ii 
Th6U 



t O , lid, conj. ; Oko, Moko, dlnj. ; all gendem. Khokho, not prwent pnwm, 
relative. | No^ and lira art po-ittto. IM note at pag ^ 



1 88 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


Rtingchhtnbting. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhereng. 


Without, out- 


Bung ya 


Ubungya. 


Bahari H. 


Pakha 


side 




Udungya. 










Huviya 






Within, inside 


Kung ya 


Ukonghud'ya. 


U'kumbe. Khim'- 


Kliimgwa. 






Uk6ng ya. 


bayu 


Khimgo. 






Kongda.* Eu- 










hun'ya 






Far 


Mokha. Miae. 


Mangsa. Mang- 


Mangnwa. Mang- 


Chhiburu 




MOM 


khiyada. Mnng 


no 




Near 


Gnan'. 


Nek-ta. Nekkhi- 


Tanghe. Tangne 


Caret 




Gnan' ge. 


da. Neek 








Nen ge 








Little 


Pichhe 


Chi chi 


Mih'ino 


Chichha 


Much 


Kebha 


Bnddho 


Dhera. B4dhe 


Antkhopa 


How much? 


Dum no 


De"m ye 


A'suk 


Del 


As, rel. Jaisa 


Caret 


Caret 


H6khyakkha? 


Dakhto? 


H. 










So, corr. Taisa 


Kyaskwa. 


Khoinsa 


Hun'gkhyakkha 


Khangtokgna 


H. 


Kyasokwa 








Thus, pos. Aisa 


Tyaskwa ngo 


Woinsa 


Bakhyakkha 


Antok gna 


H. 










How,KaiBaH.t 


Daskwa. Da- 


Khainsaki. Kha- 


H6khyakkha 


Dakht6 




s6kwa 


inse 






Why? 


Dema 


Dena. Dene 


Mechchha 


U'mu 


Yes 


Ou. Ai 


Ang gna 


Ye. Yet 


Le. H6 


No, negative 


Ai na 


Mu ung 


Mah4 


.Ma. Ma a 


Not, privitive 


I', suffix and in- 


Eu, prefix, anc 


I', infix 


I s-a, infix 




fix. 


Nin, infix ^ 






Not, prohibi- 


Mi. Mai. Da 


Man 


Ma. Th4 


N6 


tive 










Also, And 


Caret. Pini. 


Caret. Ning. 


Ye. Nang. Yang 


Sa. L6 




Piti. Gno 


Chhang 






Or 


W6 


He 


Yang 


Le 


Which \ rel. 


Ty6s6 


Sang 


Hokkogo 


A's 


Who J j6u 










Which ) corr.t 


Tyakwa. Chi 


Kh6gna 


Hoen 


Khan 


Who f ton 










Which? kon, 


S6 


Khawa Sang-y^ 


Hokkogo 


A'snale 


chhu 










What? kya, 


Dako 


Diye 


Them 


U'le 


chhu 










Who? kon, su 


Sa 


Btef 


Hokkogo. Salo 


A's 


Any thing, gu- 


Du-i. Dyeu. 


Dichhang 


Them-yang 


Usa 


gu, kucch 


Nyu 








Any body, 


Isama. Soi 


Sangchhang 


Salo-y&ng 


A'sa 


guhmakoit 










F . ( dual 


Ch6 


Ch6. Chacheu 


Cho-ha. Cho-a 


Chu-u 


* t plural 




and Chachi, D. 










Chanum, PL 






Drink 


Dugn6. Dugnu 


Dugn6. Dugna- 


Thu-wa. Thu-a 


Dungo 






chu, D. Dug- 










nanum, PL 






qi ( dual 


Im'sa. Imsana Im'sa. Imsachi, 


Ip'sa 


I'msa 


? tp lural 


D. Imsanin, PL 







* Final da = in, is a true post-position ; but there are few such. Nouns in the possessive 
or locative replace in part or wholly. Here hud is a hole, and kong an interior, each word 
with the preposit. definitive inhering. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



189 



Wdliny. 


Ydkha. 


Chouras'ya. 


Kulting'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Hibu. Bung- 
khaya 


Caret 


Bhana. Twala, 
Gota 


Hochho. Potel. 
Hachhopa 


Ch^pnoa 


KhimTco. 
Akungya 


Caret 


Kudukwaya. 
Koya 


Gopa 


Gona. TJgwa 
ana 


MangTchaya 


Mangduna 


Bhana 


Chhugri 


Chhyubat 


Mumikgna, 
Neh'yaug 


Ning'dang 


A'mna 


N6nTcha 


Gnepa 


A'chichi. Achi 
Dherung. Bad- 
he 
Tern. Dem 

Hugm- kai:na 
Mugnek 

Mugnek 


Misyhaa 
Pyagha 

Ingkh6g ha 
Irok ha 
Ikh6k ha 

Naktogha. Na 


Chig'napu 
Yetikholse 

A'skwalo 
A'sijokcho 

Imsimegnii 

A'msi me 


Chichha. Gichha 
Wnddetwa. Wa- 
detto 
Deiye. D6i 

Datukwa 
Khuntukwa 

Wantwa. Wa- 


Kichwe 
Dhek6ng 

Hala. Hayu. 
Hamko 
Heka. Hek- 
gnam 
Mehomka. Mi- 
lu'.pina. O'- 
hnpma 
Ohom 


Hagnkagna 

Deh4 na 
Han an. O'. A' 

Main. Ma ang' 

I', suffix 
Ma ye. Mai 


N4h6k 

Ir6kha. Ir6k 
Ikhi 
Munna. Im- 
unna 
Ni. Nin, infix 

An, prefix 


A'si chokcho 

A' se. A'ma 
Time 

A'tti 

A, prefix 
A'. N6 


U'd4im. Daim 

D4i. Datfikwa 
Ye 
Ma 

I', infix. Ma, pre- 
fix 
Na 


Hesaka. Heka. 
He 
Hagna, Hamta 
Misi. B(i 

mi 

Ma, prefix 


Chha 


Y6. A'ng. 


Ye 


So 


Nung. B6 


H. 
Kbtf 


E 

Isa 


Ke 

Thdme 


Yo 

Asa 


D6 
U'hem 


KhiC* 


Ikhi 


Em6 


Kho 


Myo 


Kha6 


Isa 


Tham6. A'chti 


A's. A'sdatukwa 


Sy6 


Tikwa 


I. E 


A'md 


U'so. U'i 


H4m 


Dei 

Ti ikcl.hu 


Hetnama. Het 
na 
Icha 


A'chQ 
A'ma 76 


A'se 
U'so 


Syu. U'hem 
Hamhwa 


A sakchhu 


UMsl 


A' chfi y6 


Aso. A's 


Syubwa 


Cho 


Cho 


Jakata 


Cho 


PI 


Dugno 


U'gnfi 


Tnkata 


Dung'gnu 


Mpi 


Im'sa 


IP-- 


Glomti 


Im'M 


A'm's 



t See note at P. 169. The Meond Mt of natiro terms U Ncworl ; the first is 1 ! 

' ere are two set*. 
ko, wl.itc, cu-um-nuiko, tiut wUite. 



190 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodong, or 
Chdmling. 


R&ngchhtnlung. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhertng. 


Wake 


Pukalenda. 


Puwalonta. Dl. 


P6gak 


P6ka 




Khrupsa 


chi. PI. nin 






Laugh 


Riya. Rya 


I'ya. I'sa, chi, 


R^ta 


Rhesa 






D. nin P. 






Weep 


Khapa 


Kha-wa, chi nin 


Ha-ba 


Khapa 


Be silent 


Maiche'pda. 


Waiwaiyut gna. 


Wayeb 


AVahe 




Chyoma 


Manchehada, 










chi nin 






Speak 


Che"wa. Pul'sa 


Chewa. Khang- 


Che"-wa 


Nina 






m^ttu,* chi 










nin 






Come 


Bana 


Bana, chi nin 


Thaba 


T4wa 


Go 


A'ta. Pung'sa 


Khara, chi nin 


Kha-da 


Khata 


Stand up 


Pukalenda. Re 


Puwalonta, chi 


Vc-ba 


Repa 




ta 


nin 






Sit down 
Move, Walk 


Yugna. Higna 
Pong sa. Lam- 


Yugna, chi nin 
Lam duma. Bi 


Yuba 
Phana 


Ty6wa 
Lamdima 




tya 


ya-chi nin 






Run 


W6na 


Lwaya. L6ya, 


Ping'da 


Bal'sa 






chi nin 






Give \ 


I'd6ng. I'du 


Puang. Chang, 


Puang. Pu 


Pi a wa. Piyo 


(to any 




D. Nang, P. 










Pu, chi nin f 






m i ( from me 


Ne\ Pukji. 


Ne.* Battu. Chu, 


Khatta 


Ne. Behyu 


( from any 


Pudyu 


D. num, P. 






Strike 


Chaizyu. Chai 


Mo u. Moa chu, 


Te"na 


Yop'su 




dyu 


D. Moa num, P. 






Kill 


Setyu 


Se"ru. Sera chu, 


S^ra 


Situ 






D. Sera num, P. 






Bring 


Baizyu. Baidyu 


Battuki bana, 


Thap ta 


Beh' yu 






chi nin 






Take away 


Pugzyu. Pug- 


Khattuki khara 


Khattu khara. 


Kheyu 




dyu (take and 


(take and go), 


Khattu lonta 






go) 


chi nin 


(take, get up) 




Lift up, raise 


Puku. Sandyu 


Thentu. Thenta- 


Khura. Thedak 


Thettu 






chu,D. Thenta 










num, P. 






Put down 


Gnasyu 


Yfingsu. Sachu, 


Yung 7 su 


Yuk' su 






D. Sa num, P. 






Hear 


Yenyu 


Yenu. E'nu. Ena 


Klu-rn sa 


Y6na 






chu. Ena num 






Understand 


Kammu. Mui 


Mittu, chu num 


Pitta 


Chiyu 




dyu 








Tell, relate 


Rag'na 


Yeng mettu. 


Ch^pta 


Puu 






Khangmusa? 










Khangmettu, 










chu num 






, ( dual 
Good I plural 


Nyo. Kregne 


Nuwo.f Nuwo- 
chi, D. Manu- 


Nuno 


Nada. Nat. 
Natkhi 






wo, P. 






Bad 


I'se. I'seko 


Euwo. A'nuninko. 


It'no 


Is'da 






Euko. Euttko 






Cold 


Chiso 


Ke'ngko. Keng- 


Rem no 


Chhik' da 






mangwa 







* Khangmettu = show, causal of Kliang, to see. 

t Puang, give to me, has dual chang and plural nang ; pii, give to him, to any, has chi 
and nin respectively. Again, woids ending in u, as battu, md u, seru, change the u into a, 
and have chu, num, for dual and plural. " Give" and "take" are given as samples of that 
expression of the object which the genius of these tongues so rigidly demands (see on the 
Bahing grammar). If the verb, being adjective, cannot express the object, as n = take, then 
the sense is very limited ; and, e.g., I can only use lie" if I tender something at the time. 

t D., Ne khanachi ; P., Ne" khananin, BonUwa. 

Battuki bana = take and come. 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



191 



Wdliny. 


Ydkha. 


Chouras'ya. 


Kalang'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Thing' ta 


Ch^ng' da 


Bukata. Saista 


Poka 


Baka 


I'ya 


Yuttuchaya 


Keuda rosti 


Gesa 


Risa 


Kha wa 

Wayt-p 


Haba 
Swak waya 


Khr4pt4 
Liha 


Khapa 
Wait waya 


Khrdpda 
Liba 


Chewa 


Ch<5kta 


Daksta 


N6na 


Jfcft 


Bana 
Khara 

Ye wa. 


AT>a 
Khy4 
Pug4 


Pik4t4 
Uftetf 

Vainstu 


B4na 
Khata 
Th6r^pa 


Bika 
Dak'sa 
Y^p'da 


Yugna 
Biya 


Yugna 
Lama 


Baksta 

Haltd 


Tfiwa 
Lamduma 


Gainsa 
Lamdiya 




L(ik'ta 


Pr6kata 


Wirn 


W4nda 


PQang. Pu 


Kapyang. Pi- 
ang. Pi 


Gaka. Gokta 


Piya. Piyfi 


Gw4 4ng. 
Gwaka 


m. B4ttu 
M6-u 


Kw^. A'ktu. 
Kettu 
Mok'tu 


Ne. Paista 
Tdpt4 


N^. Khafi. 
Khayu 
K6ru 


N4. Bn'ya 
Yalsa 


Se'ru 


Chenu. Sisu 


Syatta 


S^tu. Kh6ksyu 


EMdR 


Battu 


Ap'tu 


Phitta 


B4h' yu 


Phfda 


Kbattu 


Kh^ttu. Yang- 

khcttu 


L6tta 


Khayu 


Dad da 


The'ntu 


Khfi. Thendu 


Rotta 


P6ka 


Ph6kd. 
Kwaksd 


Yang 7 u 


Yfik'su 


Ch6pt4 


Y6ksu 


Jila 


Ye-nu 


Khep'su 


Th6kata 


Y&m 


Thy6sa 


Mittu 


Mittu. Mettu? 


Bimsta 


Miii'nu 


Mim'da 


Khouj sa 


Yok'm5ttu || 


Sokata 


P6a 


Sing'da 


.upunti. 
Amwa. I' 


Nuhu 


Ducho 


N6. N6f. N6yu 


Nyfipa 


V.i. 
Wachd yang 


Xfininha 

Clulia 


h6 
ChU6 


Man'noi. Mann6 
Chhike. Chfa 


Minyfipa 
Chhakpa 



I Mottu U the frencral cauMtiTe, and yok mottu = y engine tt u < : is cause to see, 

.tr, make known, toll. 

^ The generic nigns would teem to adhere to the numeral* rather than to the qualitlvo*, 
:i to both, M.in New art. TIHIN, in Kungchhcn one good man U eukchha nuwo man a. 
literally, one head good where** in Newark it in chha lnu.i I>|HK hma manu, of 

'l ! '< 'iti>. it i' I. A .' 1 1 :i. i '!. /.' " \ k till'' 1 n ! 1 i '. \ < ':U | ! ' liinv.i rlillj'l 

ieo Rcncr; 

. The dual an<l lural are alwas formed as 



! '< 

more clearly 

in the samples given un icr " g 



: 



192 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



English. 


Rodonff, or 
Chdmling. 


R&ngchMnb&ng. 


Chhingtdngya. 


Ndchhering. 


Hot 


Kurek'wa. 


Kuko. Ku mang- 


Kuno 


Semi wa 




Kureko 


wa 






Raw 


Mo. Ummo 


Womang. U 


U mang 


Mapc 






maog 






Ripe 


Tupsako. Mat- 


Tumawo 


Uthubai 


Du wak 




tako 








Sweet 


Lam'chho. 


Lemko. Lemchi, 


L^m' no 


Lemda 




Walye, Wa 


D. Malem, P. 






Sour 


Sure 


Sun chakwa 


Sunta 


Chocharpa 


Bitter 


Khike 


Khakwa. Khako Khak' no 


Khik' da 


Handsome 


Khan nya. 


Khang nuwo (to 


t^chununo (to 


Khan nada (to 




Sangnya (to 


look at good) 


look at good) 


look at good) 




look at good) 






Ugly 


Khai'se (to look Khan euttko (to 


Uchih' no. 


Khfiisada (to 




at bad) 


look at bad). 


Uchui no (to 


look at bad) 






Khangeuwo 


look at bad) 




Straight 


S6jho, K. 


S6jho, K.* 


Chang no 


Sejh6 


Crooked 


Hang go. Koko 


Yektu.* Uku- 


Byangkruk 


Bang-go 


Black 


MakchUma 


dak dak 
Mak chakma 


Makkachukma 


Mokchibpa 


White 


Pay6n ma. 


Omko. W6m- 


Bathruma 


Uml6k'pa 




Umpayonyon 


yang. Wopi- 










yangma 






Red 


Hipakima 


Halala mang. 


Halachekma 


Halalapa 






Hala chakma 






Green 


Hariyo, H. K. 


Hariyo 


Chak' la 


Hariyo 


Long 


Kile 


Aki bang. Amyet- 


Kemeh' no 


Baipa. Repa 






pang. Metta 






Short 


Inangkile. Pa- 


Adung-pang. 


Baun no 


Yetebaipa. 




kile 


Dung-ta 




Chichhabaipa 


Tall ) 


Kile. Run'de 


Kiyang. Kong- 


Keno 


Bhai pa. Repa 


V man 




yang. Kwangta 






Short ) 


Inang kile. Pa 


Simta. Simyang 


Unno 


Yeterepa. Ye- 




kile 






tebhaipa 


Small 


Inangko 


CT'chuk pang 


Mikha 


A'msikholcho 


Great 


K6. Mahipma 


Utok pang. Ut- 


Thekha 


U'm dheppa. 




Mahippa 


wapang 




Yetikholcho 


Round 


Buplungma 


Boptitiwo. Bopi- 


KalabokOjo 


U'mkoldu. 






riri. Hitriri 




Pftpulpa 


Square 


Plangpachima 


La akuna, four 


Charaupatya 


Pheph6 ya 






corner 






Flat, depressed, 


Phlempa 


Phemdag wa. 


Phempedepma 


Phremphrem 


compressed 




Phebda' wa. 




ya 






Phebdapma 






Level, as a 


Tern ma 


Asemtontu. 


U'semt6ndokto 


U'mtelma 


plain 




Atemma 






Fat 


LfM 


Leyangko. Tok- 


U'samtano 


U'mdhep p4 






pang.f Chhu- 




Lidda 






yangko. Chhuwo 






Thin 


Palete. Si- 


Yomyangko. 


Rong si 


Ram da 




mamyo 


Ropyangko 






"Weariness 


IK.sa 


Hottang 


U' hottang 


Haya 


Thirst 


Waima 


Wait ma. Wa- 


W4ik ma 


Wami nr.4 






iiiitnia 






Hunger 


Saka 


Saa. Sungsawa 


Sangsawa 


Saka a 



* After noun or before. 

t Tokpang, fit, is the same as Ittokpang, great, just above, and which answers to m-i uk- 
pang, small. To-k and chu-k are the crude* = ta" and chi of Newari, and eu, vel u, w- 
is the pronominal definitive, as pang suffixed is the generic one. The fact is, that Rungchhen 
applies its pronominal definitive equally to substantives (eu-pa, father; e ma, mother), to 
adjectives (eu-tok, big; euchuk, small), to pronouns (eu hyaoko, that), and to numerals 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



193 



Wdling. 


Ydkha. 


Ckouras'ya. 


Kulting'ya. 


Thulungg'ya. 


Kuyang 


Kuha 


T4to 


H6ke 


Glyoglem 


Umpawa. Aa- 
mang 
Sum'sa. Tup'- 
sa. Bhang sa 
Lem. Lemya 


Nusumha. 
Inggrik 
Us4ha. Tup- 
s4ha 
Limba 


Kr4b6 
Thichd 
Jijiluch6 


Mamtumkbdpa. 
Mamdupa. M6p^ 
Tumkhapa. 

Lema 


Uchakhli 

Thik'ta. 
Thokta 
Jijin 


Sunta 
Khak 
Kbang' nu (to 
look at good) 


Siia. Suha 
Kbika. Khigba 
Ichcbununa (to 
look at good) 


Jurch6 

Khaclio 
Ranch6 


Jujur 
Kbike 
Gnali nupa 


Jyurpa 
Khepa 
Jyopa 


Khan i (to look 
at bad) 

Sejho 

Bunggo 

Makchuma. 
Makebakchak 
Botbruma. 
Wompichichi 


Ichchugnana 
(to look at 
bad) 
Sojho, K. 

Yc^-kna. Yek- 
yang 
Makhruna 

Phuna 


A'ranch6 (not 
handsome) 

Sojho, K. 
Ulgumcho 

Khucbyamo 
Bubjoma 


Gn41i ipa 

Tw4ipa 
Mantwaipa 

Gugrupa 
W6mlopa 


Mijy6pa 

Jongpa 
Mijou'gpa 

KOkOma 


Harchhokma. 
Halachakcbak 
Cbak'la 

Badhemet. 
Rhnibo 
Achimet 

Kiyang 


Phana 
Phina 
Kena 
Lukluk na 
Kena 


Lakachima 

Sisijokcho. Sisi- 
joma 
Hik'bo. Yoti- 
hicho 
Abikb6. Amsi- 
hicho 
Robo. Rocho 


Halal&pa 
Gigipa 
Wadbhdipa 
Chibhai ipa 
Wadr^ppa 


Lalam 
Gigim 
Dhyupa 
D6kh6ndhyupa 
Y^pa 


Duiyang 


Luklukna 


A'rocho. Aro bo 


Chireppa 


D6kh6n-y^ pa 


Achokpa 
At6k'pa 


Mih' na 
Makna 


Yokka 
Kbol bo 


Chisma 
Dheppa 


Kichem 
Dokpu 


Kalab6kb6k 
Laya kbuktang 


Kakliktikara. 
1'ukpukna 
Lichina yusuk 


Khitiriri. Dolo 
Charkun6 


Jumjumpa. Pul- 
Lih kbongla 


Pfipulma 
Khiker-ma 


Phimpichichi 


Ph^kphekn& 


Pl&n plim m6 


Phemphempa 


Plem plem ma 


T6mtu 


Id;m ma 


Koyogni 


Tel ma 


Dhcp d<5 


Chitpo. Bad- 
hepo. L6b 

Bong yang. 
Achitp6 
U' hotting 
Wiik inu 


Yemnaba 

Hdchig6kna 

^':ik ; v:iir_'ii:i 
WaitiiJiiii" 


KLolbo 
Yokk4 

H.,1 in,'- 
Dakkh6 


Oamsipa 

G6m6 

Wan.nui 


Jerpa 

i di 
C6dl 


Sfeagttwi 


Itt 


,ho 


Saka 




(cu-kU, one), and tliim shows the extreme prevalence of that feature of the language 
t iicMj Turanian tongues, more or les ; 
and tok, cut- k. cutok-pung may be compared to great, the or a great, the or a great one. 
A-myc:-(<ang and a-dung-pan^ . and a-tok-pa and n-chuk-pa of column 5, are 
'1 precisely like the above. EUewhoto bo, pu - ba, pa, U the formative, and 



again we have ko M in omko, leyaugko, Ac. 
VOL. I. 



194 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



w 3 

j- a 

4o <D 

3 43 

6 



JalJS - s 

OP P P 



a s > 
P GW 






- bo 
^ S 




w 



isl 
1 S 8 

*?! 



S 3 



-' T A 

i.gg> 3 a a 

*3 j 

W H? O 



43 O 
W^5 



If i 

-S-a ^3 

f Pvd t-^ 

? : ^3 ^a ^ 
TSbal ^flR ^ 

igp p p W H 







a 
&* 



b : 



y 



IS! 5 4] II |i 

r: ^ PH ftE-i OM ob 



te "^ 

d 1, 



2 
j 

II 



I S 



6ch 



13 

3^ 



'5T 5 



.& 5 g 
= * II 

?44^ g|, 

-- 2 tO fee *' 

1^1 = - 



*2N 5 

60C8 ? = J! 

cd.cc?-> N=J 
^"5 os- 

?Ih s i^ 

jptoiU 

^pp p 



bO 3S 

-- z, 
^ ? ce 

rt *^ fl 

5^ .EP,S^ 
W P ftu 



o 

,l 

^ o 

o o 



^s J 

*-3o%^ 



-5 1 



ba s 






w 



OF THE KIR.iNTl LANGUAGE. 



'95 



jS j= 

P P p P 



s-p 



** 

^"gs.sa 

5P P 



o at 



1 

l 1 

s =3 



il 

a* 4 

it a 

HP P 



s*i 

>a|s 

Kji 



53 



Mt> 






3 S 



C ^.-3 

f S w 

P Pn 



L i 

C-3 C 

- - fi 

P P 



it 5 







1 i 



p 

^ 




b 


< '^3 

b 




si 

b 


= a 

n 

so 


s 
b 


PH 










%cg 






N05 






A 


f 




1 




s 


a 




*c5 


p 


> 









3 








f' 


to 


^"'Ei v8 




s 


3 


I 


*= 


| 


*/. 


Iiniiiii s;i 


E.7 i 

- :L^-i ~ 

-=;- 

l-ii 


p 
o 

i 

a 


p 


11 

11 
1 = 


| 


'v n 

vrt-5 

-' c - =3 

vOS * ^ 

S5~ 

Q 









boy ; 



i 



196 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



1 I 

S 3 

p p 



1 1 



b 



.2 ,.;, 3 



' I'l 1 

l at 3 i : 

2 3 - .a | g 

3 * s 5 .s _s a -3 

&b P P 5 a 




O M 



- 

3? a 

ffip P 



1 I 



"Z SK-J p\ 

5 5 S 



a ^3 
>3 55 

III 

i P 



111! 



all I 






* 

1 1 



^ " fl 

I II 



as 



1 
1 

b 



11 

il 



fl 
gem 






1 



I 

A 



a 



s - 




11 



- -43 4 

A , v^ 

s a 5 ? -S 

HHlS S A ^ 



111 



3 s 



8 



.4 



4 S 



l?s|s|lil > 

2|3|apipsp gi 



5 



.~ V 

J-s 



- I 

3 5 j a 2 3' 

053 ^O 7 5 5 5 

f-^ Jig -agw^-S 1 1 

s& J^ f2?|8. a .a 



I 



11 



.jd M 

be bo 



W 



OF THE KIR ANT I LANGUAGE. 



197 



I | s ; 



=i m 



= 







- 



*, 

= ,(8 S - 

^3 f 






I | 

pq .M 
2 

bo j~* 



- ~ 



_ 

3 I 

- 



?:-! 

o & 



II 



i 



1_I 

[53 -s 

loco S. 



i-l 



y 

^n 

5 






iri, 



i 

' 



I 



u 



ill 



! ll^iii 

1 Sl3S" 




lMisraai*i3 

eSc<3 Cfe OJ3 go 9S 

S & 8 J I 1551 ;. 
?j*tifil..ii 



j*j rtf 

1 ^- ^M <u !. 



- H1V||i III 5|i; 

" HI* siC 'fiiiilK 

i Pills' n^iil^t 



198 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



S <e v^ * 
^S-Hl 
o oto 






il 1 

H to 






li 

32 
oo 



II 

s* 




a 
111 

00 






I 



U 11 I 



Ifri 

a (in 
l^oo 



a 

*<> 

. a 









* I 



6 



gag, 
5to 



a 
3 

l-ill 



|& 

pi 

. s 



WQ 






M 

J" 



ikli 



?|J3 

? -ris* 

6 l i^fsi 

II 32^jH.- 
^o ga to 



O 

It 

SI 



^a 

1 |l 

i 111 
f!7 s 1 



m 



Bl 



c9 

3 ri 

E ^ 



5 S 






a 

O^j 



Mithuba 
U'mpa mithuba 
or Uiuprupa 
mithitli i 



ba 



ili^J ( 
I! 

& E= pa H 



mru 
"Wam 
W 







sa 






?sa as^ 



_ 

. a *- . 



SI h 

11 Hi 

oS to 



& 







a 

^ s (- 

3 ^ * 
o .b 
O AH 



2 

I -^ 

,, .Hi 

PnOO 



? e 



.1 a || H 

5S IF 



4 



* 2J 

s g 
o oo 



1 I 



tf T3 



W 



.s s^ 









SJ. '-3 

3 Cr^ 

C 3 C .- 

KM ^W 




OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 

& 



S i 



s 



I 1 HI 

5 



. -5, * 2 

J v* t= -o ;* X* rf| 

g I * 1^| ! II 

^ a j a^a j5 ^^= 

S b S w^U> P 2 



>, 
Jq 



di 



if I 

^ 3 



ag'fl 

= =- 



s-ll Jl I 
t? a SM J 



i 

i 

p 



T. -r 

^ s 



* % 3 

wf- - e f, 

J^p p ^ 



I 



1 



? 






y5- 
^sis ^1 






dc'Sffl 





I 



, 5 

a 5 

a a 

1 1 

fa 3 



60 



_ r: -__= 
S tc 
P 55 



Ii 



^ ic^i 

S 



I I 



a 



i 



I 



ii 






If 



b 







H 



! 



2 _5 

'^1-2 
& 1 g 
s a 3 









-C u -d 

S'l 4*31 

>- -^ O w 



200 



VOCABULARY 



THE 



. 

PH WO 



M 



2 *b 

5 a" 



1 









gvS 

II 



s I 



s 




I! 



1*1 



oJ d <* 

1:2 j? 



,.5 



-1 

> p, 






F 



si Y 



H 









Sice 

-I SI 

2 S 3 



l -?-! 



. 

M 



ii 



tt 



I 



>I- 



c 5)&, 

Hi 



! 



to 

.-= 4 

= "~ S-3 

Fj 4llif 

"^ S 



& 

c/: 



i3 ^ 









3 I' 



a 



ttCQO 



O 






.a 3 

53 -S ^ -3 
5^^ 

S^l 



, 



K 



s 



I 

s S 

I i 4 

iO2 W 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



201 



= 2 






il i 



II! 

5 f ? 






- I 

M 2 



.,1 



:'! 

5 




* 

- f|1 

f (3 

-1 J?i 

,-5 * 



I 






X 

02 O 



iii 

^ c S 

3 I ; 






1 1 




a. 



HI 



:rs 



la i : 




iifi 

draiiau 

rrr'^U 



202 
M! 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



BlllJfl II 



II 



Ja 





S 






b b 



S o 



BP^ - 3 

5 a e ~ 

jag I i ^ s 

5S iH O >H >H ^ 



t = 

b < 






fc3 

-a V 



- 3 3 IS 

a ^ 1 IJ 



I : 






M 









d i; 



- e S.2 S MS 

llsllali 









t .^ 



f 1 11.^ 

^ = rt W^J^.- 

.= - 1-3-5.3 

W M >< M 



M 



m 



g j 

O CQ 



^=2^ 

5^ S^ 



J | 



J 



to rt 

.S .5 

, 

M W 



< 



IJ 
O O 



6 -3 5 
O O O 



fco to 

c a 

g 



i 






OF THE K1RANTI LANGUAGE. 



203 



. 



E"S s"3 "3 
! S 3 






la 



S 1 



8 



. 
& li ti 

S ci 



! 4 



6 6 



S. 



11. 

= H 



> 



.... g 



a -s-g -g 



P Ja - 

P-jl b 

'i^' 

^ ' ' 



a 



.3 

| 









i 1 1 3 

in 1 1 i-i 

.^4 \<-^ =. .= .55j 

M M M M 




I , I -si I 3 .3 f 

t Z '< '< 3 Is 



!11 



al- .^ 

- W 



1 1 

I- 



J a J 



See no 
ex 



f all grains. 
inutely 8 I )eci 
97. 
-ug sing itangl 



ed from the nam 
" aPt tO *" 



See Father, p. 1 
niu kha ; kakha' 



v 
* 



n, deri 

atiVe8 ' 

all others. 
gli nuyuk 



! l Ch< * f thl * 8erie * is the & eneri 

rerv tk..^tow^ ^^"evel^Uh, 1 ^Tc deD1 n 
t A only with the word* for father and mother. Wa 
f His tree is not good, my tree is good, Akoim siug 



2O4 

- 



gabi 



VOCABULARY 



eel 

><fe 3 

lice 5 

3^1 






DIALECTS 



! I 

a v3 



K 



I I | 

b B S 



Y&kampo 






a! 



nhampo 



Mi I % 

** CQ CQ PQ 



1 1 

c o 5 

sal 
< < S 



A 

"i i . -? 
l illj 

S ft) (B 



.9 

tOO 



^j 
tf 



iU il li 3-2 fl P * 

w a ffi s S"jj = HB >5j 



. rt 
- 



IJ 






ill 



I 



il 
1 





& s 



&' B 



c 1 'S* 

^ 



^^ e, 



^ -S 



rs 5 o 

e- 2 a 



all 

I 1 ! 



is^ 



la 



ujl fl 



a .^ 



pr^5 C.S.^otO -a! 

43 ^f - '= ^ s -s .S c , g 

li] 



. 







r- 




tpccr-; 



i III 1 1 1 

1*0 QQ r-H fX| , &4 

I f-gtf A' I 



O 



S S 

|S g 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



205 






i ij. B g 

NT .* JT^ ^ = 

I Hi,; 

H M H 5^4 J4 



5 



~ 







; ?|g a 
3 . .11 ^ 



32 









bO 

5 I 



. | 

a S 



S3a S 






3 y, r i 

t liiiii^i 

? 8 ^ S S So J 



2 . 5 

>J . J S 

Q . 



djum 



s i 3 



! !i 1 1 {As 
I Kllififltif 

I PBW"* 




III 



see full treatise of sequel, and for the other di 
rest, is neuter : bang for men only, animals are n 
, hiec, hoc ; chi, things and animals ; bang, men 
ne cow. hisali-pi, two cows, samkali-pi, three 
men. Itta i* tue separate unchanging for 
made ad vocem and Grammar in sequel. 
andong of Gyaruug and maan of Newari, 




206 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



Dti 



. . 

tr 

0^) 

3 









s w w w 



2.1?:2 I* Is! "2 

n c3 q 
b bw b 



&o 
a 

I I 



s 



3 ll 



|| 

i t 



-^ ^ - \c3 -" 

- ^ S ia-S 

^ *^5 .-^ v,-* - 



<8 -S 



So P o 



d 

i 



M 

1 1 s I i 

52; s a s s 



at, 

|s 
EJM 
s s 

<5^ 



1 





l 



^ 



is 



II 



4 



\d *O 

H a 

Hl'i 

-S S S' 

g I S |: 



a I 

S 

I g 



s 

to 
d 



l,il i1 






sa. I. -a 
1 1-3 ."S i .^ ri 

^ 3^^ g^^j g S 
2|2>1I|1|J 

1 a s ^ 



I i 



>> 03 



j|l^a ; 



.? S 



W w W 



r:o 
.5 



F H-- 

>> = 5^ 



2 ,. 
-r*5' 






| ^ 
* J 



. >- , o 
<~ ^- 



=w 

^ rt 



i 



.2- 



THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



207 






05 

S.S 

^JE 

E-r- 



p 

j jsj^M 

-2 "n I| jl 



O * 

4f a 



. s 



f f 3 

^ = * 



-p; 



h * : . 






* i a 



'* I , 

". ~~ 



;i 

fiU O >H 



1^ II 






I 3 






>._r < 
! 525 



bO 

I 



,li 



i S3 
* 

Mrt^ 

=-H^ 

^" O' 

c -^i' 



gU. .5<5 

< a <i^ JH 







1111 t | 
- = ~ >j < ^ - g * 



I * 



& "^ 



wx 



J ,<4 

imm 

SJH oo^ Q 














11 



208 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



M 



bfl 

bo 3 

C si 






I 1 

M 3 



W 



S Jill 4 



B , 









a 




L 









3 i -9 O a 
w a .- 






i So 5 
1.22^-5 






I 

w ,S 



1 



.0 



II 



8 



. 



M.1 



O - 



s 

'S .i 
ss 

,11 



-n S 

& <5 






OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



209 



>> 

I 1 



3 

s a 
- 



s I 
B 






S 



! ! 



s 



*H I 1 ~ 



f O tr 

I I S 

vJ S 



.--.= H 25 ^ o ' c" - -3 .5 < 

--- ^ ---->H C ;A .--5 -2 C^ c^QPng 

--~.^ .r. -^ .-5S w " .'.- c| 

.: '= ~ ._' '= "^ ^ -" > w > <*' I J ._- j 2 S 



4-- 2 

6 



.-- , -.- . - 

'= 



-j :L'=.--.-g > S 

M^^Js-s-i fl 



-s^ 



1 

I 

J 



II 



- - -^ d J* d *>' 

Jg TjLjB cT ja5i aT w 

9uC"S'u3off aJoc^l I -"oc:eBo{ 

llTfiiTl ; [a I I JTTg 

: rC.- i 




E^ 



* c 

4) 

IS 

S 

JJfl 



2 2-sp 

IBS 

^^5-i^ 
5^5& 

I^ll 

IHL 

g^-i^? 

ra?| 

i^e-s 



"Wj 

.S^5 
^ 



Ifll 

'U! 

f^U! 

ii 



- -v ; r' 

1"" 



VOL. I. 



210 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



D& 



.ft 



00 



4 A 



Kha-Je, S. 
Khade chie, 
D. Khade 
ningye, P. 



.r fc 












|S 

S fl 

1?o 
o 



I 



2 
i 



1 

i 






M 



s 






1! 

sllif 



* 2 _ * * 60 



i i 






/ . 

^ ^-ST-S 5. 



. c g^ 2 c^Q^ 

,-7 * f S oT 

ad \ - - ; Jfl H 

2 O . o S 



-<J<i 

Q 






"*" CQ 

V 

6j.! 

-w ^ -3 



PH Cb 3 



Q S 



77/.E KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



211 



Qv3^ >> 

c J2 



03 , 



. OJ T b . . t z; 

wO* rf-bS ^ W PH' 

,T T= S H w''^ .u" 

-b-^'S f ^ S 5 -J. 5 rf ' 

X S H: : 



5' 






I 



--sj 

-* i) *-3 



9 



I 



5 



II !! 

M W 




.1 1 

a^g 

I? 1 

G * 

isi 

S3 

i j 

r-^ 

3 

si 



1 1 






(I 

B 



212 



VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS 



jfs 

if! 






i ,. 






5S> 



5 



^' c j* 



-1 









3 g 

i i* 




M 



hunfi-yu-kha 



I 







iSwJl I 



. 

iha. 



Liing-kuye. 
Cheng-ye. 
chia-mi 
Kho-kho. 
O'ok' ye 



J 

>.S 

.S^ 



2^.55 

'T'T =^^S 

I 1:1 I I 






lljll 

M " 



J g 5 ^ g 

I T7 I T 



j& 

i?, 

^j = 
-. 






At 

H 



BQ 



& s 



OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



213 



02 " 


P ^ 


-~ i> oT 6"*" 2,-^* 02 O'~ o^L 


^ i 




-* 


s&ffl Ill^lI^I^fii^ 


3 -3 

a 1 3 


"o - " ~ - 
3~ - 


y.' ~ 

4 g~*W 


f|||l Q -||||^|^|| W ^ fi -| = ailll 


3 C3 
t 1 







a w ' s Q I 


>> :? 
a 






? 


a 3 
S 3 






"i 


8 | 


O 


g 


1 ? -I 1 


*o r 
1 ^ 


^| 


J^ 


^ tO O f? 


"5 a" 







a o Q 


"3 * 








! | 


3 




g 


'5 43 


J 


a 


c "* 


a 




3 


1 lit 


1 | 




M 


X ^____|__B 


o " 









* 8 




e. 


5 


5 




| 


rt Q 


1 1 




1 


3 is : ^ 


O 

& ^ 
2 ^ 








j|l 






rt * 






8- 


? 1 c. 


*l i 


i 





1 III 


is - 




ee 

^ 


ee 


ii | 


eejrf 


2-3 

;.J 


~ : -^-^ ? ^ 


1 3 


> - 








HI 


- C 


;=^ ej >. ,~ ^ 


P.C * * 


X 


b 


^ M p 


|S 







p; , pj 




c -J 


K 


' S -| 


j-|Hl 


; 


J 

3 


jr C> M -g "7i 
"~ '- - 9 ^- x W 5 

in -^ ! -in I I 
a S M e 


llill 


i 


'a 


f j i |ff 


kcketed refers to t 
to which see the i 
ireetnot; khik-nl 
i kng) nuye, goo 
taVBMTOkLk 








S||| 


J 




i J I S 


!~{ 



214 



VOCABULARY. 






PQ 






- o> 

^O K S 

$* 



.4, S 



ttrf' 



3 J 

2 1 



|| 

III 






hyom 



I I 

I 2. 

5 (S 



Sdngp 



M 

'S, 
fi 






o ijg 

3 ^^ 5-a 

S ^ ^5 

'S 5 V, 2S 



|ii 
^ 



ichi vuk'- 
Michi-yu 



euyuk'-k 
Theu yu-1 



il 

H M 



1 



|I1 |iS 



1] 

" "o 
2 I 

5 



s^ 
^^ 

o.o 



i 









1112 
O M 



II 

h5S 



.2? 




- 3 



! tc"o ,'" 

!5Qi 



^ ^ 



( 215 



S- \ -r-S 



.5 

II 



. i (I 

= ^a 
o^ 



& 

5 x8 



6 I 



r i n 



1 



1-i 

So 



i! 'liii i 

r Jll-sl I 



216 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



III. GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE V/YU LANGUAGE. 



A. VI YU VOCABULARY/ 
i. Nouns Substantive. 



English. Vdyu. 


English. Vdyu. 


Air (wind) Hojum 


Bear No word 


Affection, love Chhansa 


Beard No word 


Abuse Jesi 


Boar L<mcho pok 


Abode Mulung 


Body Chho 


Agriculture No word 


Burden, load Klmli 


Agriculturist K6duvi. Vikpovi 


Bone Ru 


Amaranth (grain) No word 
Aqueduct Dunri. Til6m 


Breast Ripcha 
Breast, nipple Chuschu 


Ankle Lethulung 


Bow Liwo 


Arm-all Got 


I'.owman Liwo-wo 


Arm fore G6t 


Bottom, lowest liutti 


Aunt, paternal Nini 


part 


Aunt, maternal Yeng-yeng 


Boy Loncho, choc. Tawo 


Ant Chikibula 


Buffalo-kind Mechho 


Anus P6-ching 


Buffalo, mala Loncho mechho 


Arrow Bio 


Buffalo, female Mescho mechho 


Axe Khoyong 


Buffalo, young Mechho choh'mi or cho'- 


Alder-tree Lichhin- 


mi mechho 


r.;i^. l'.;i>ket Guh'mif 


Bull Loncho gai (see Ox) 


Marlry S;,k:i 


Breath Hemchi 


Bamboo Pholo 


Branch, bough Rama 


Bark of tree Sing kokchho 


Brother Bolo, elder. Bulu, 


Back S6nti 


younger 


Backbone Gatachu 


Brethren, uterine Bolungcho 


Belly Muli (organ). Bimli 


Calf Gai cho'mi 


(whole 


Calf, male L6cho gai cho'mi 


Beast, quadruped No name 


Calf, female Mescho gai cho'mi 


Box, chest No word 


Can, cup Boguna 


Bat-kind Pdkcheun 


< 'art No name 


Bird-kind Chinchi 


< 'at-kind Dana 


Bird, male Loncho chinchi 


Cat, male Ixmcho dana 


I5ird, female Mescho chinchi 


Cat, female Mes'cho dana 


Bird, young Bengali chinchi 


Cat, young Cho'mi dana 


Beer Soe. Swe 


uter Sing chuk'vi 


Bread Pipra 


Cheek Gwong-gwong 


Bitch Mescho uri 


Chestnut-tree Se lu 


Birch-tree Toura 


Chin Ku inching 


Bed Blem'chum' 


Child -kind Choo. Tamtawo-Bokvi 


Bedchamber Imlung t 


Child, male Tawo|| 


Bedtime Imsing t 


Child, female Tami || 


I'.ee Singwo 


Clay Nakchyongko 


Blacksmith Got thutvi. Khak- 


Cloth -Iu\va 


chingtuvi 


Cloth, cotton Rowa jewa 


Blood Vi 


Cloth, woollen Belisong jewa 


Buttocks Petuna 


Clothes, raiment Jewa 


Battle, fight Pat 


Cloud Kowal 


Boat Dunga 


Cold (frigor) Jungsa 



* This analysis is divided into (A) a vocabulary and (B) a grammatical portion ; but both 
are so framed as to bear on the structure of the language and to dispense with a separate 
array of rules. 

t The h thus marked h' denotes the abrupt tone, which is of very frequent occurrence. 
The h is often omitted, as cho'mi, little ; to'po, strike ; cho'no, the nose, &c. 

t Im is the verb to sleep, and lung and sing are affixes of place and time respectively, but 
useable only with verbs, with which, however, they form very many useful terms e.g., 
mulling = abode. 

The repeated final vowel marks the pausing tone, which is as common as the abrupt tone. 

y T is the crude, = Sontal and Uraou DC, and wo, mi, are the suffixes of gender. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



217 



English. Vdyu. 


English. 


Vdyu. 


Colour No word 


Its father 


The same 


Cane (calamus) l>i 


Fever 


Jun'gsa 


Cock Lo n ch o kh och o * 
Cousin, paternal ) Bo'lu 


Fair, market 


Inglungthamlung (buy- 
ing and selling place) 


Cousin, maternal f Balu (see Brother) 


Fear 


Ramsa. Ram 


Cow Gai 


Ferry 


Theklung. (Lit. cross- 


Cough Khwen khwen 




ing place) 


Copper No name 


Fire 


Me 


Cowherd Gai tuuvi 


Fire-place 


1'luilung 


Cotton linwa 


Field, arable 


Wik. Vik 


Crow Gagin 


Finger 


Blemen 


ter 


Finger-nail 


Demen, got demon 


r-in-law Choyongmi 

II. .ii 


Fellow-country- 

inun 


Angki mulung-wo-mi. 
Angki namsang-wo-mi 


Day Numa. N6mo 


Fellow-tribeman 


Angki thoko-wo-mi t 


Dust Pi/jko 


Fish 


Ho 


Darkness Kwung-kwung 


Fist 


No name 


No word 


Flavour, taste 


No name 


Desire, wish .sa 


Flesh 


Kwun. Kon 


Deer hho 


Flint 


Bo-chha lumphu 


Dispute Phwe 


Flour 


Madi 


Dog U'ri 


Flea 


Ri'michhing 


Dog, male I/wcho (iri 


Flower 


Pung'mi 


Dog, female Mes'cho uri 


Ford 


Theklung 


Dog, young U'ri cho'mi 


Fly 


Jama 


Dog, wild Gharfmu uri. Be"ne uri 


Food 


-Tatan^ 


A'mung 


Fog 


Kow-al 


Drink Tuntaang 


Fowl-kind 


Khoi-ho, or Khwocho 


the K6 


Fowl, wild 


Rikkho 


P^rth, a little K 


Fowl, male 


Loncho khocho 


Nok'-chun'g 


Fowl, female 


Mescho khocho 


Egg Chaluug 
Elephant 


Fowl's egg 
Foreigner, m. 


Chalung. Kho-chalung 
Gyetinam'saug-wo-mi t 


Elephant, male Lowcho h&ti 


andf. 




at, female Mescho hati 


Forehead 


Tanglang 


Ewe Mescho beli 


Filth, dirt 


Peuki 


MtV (abrupt tone) 


Foot 


L6 


row :' kwuyu 


Form 


Narung 


Elbow Koko-chus'-chu 


Forest 


Vik. Ghari 


Evening Nomothipsing 


Fruit 


Se. Si 


Exorcist Balung 


Frog 


Boyukwong. (Khwo- 


Earthquake Dukku 




cho is toad) 


in 


Garlic 


No name 


Feather Clnnchi swam" ( = bird 


Oiri 


T.,mi. Mcschochoo. 






Cho'-ini 


Feast, festival No word 


Glue, cement 


No word 


Father 


ithi-r 


Kiki 


Father-in-law Chakhi 


Grandmot 


I'ipi 


her Ang upu 


God 


is tlir 


.ther Ung upii 
His father m upu. 




usual object of . 
fcfon) 


I'liung upu. Minim- 


Gold 


llrldiiii^nii. (Lit. the 


Tin- >.un 


Goat-kin.1 


low) 

1 



tittered like kw, deep in the throat. 

f Anjfki tboko in our tnle ; aiigki niimnjinjr, our nmrll ; Rngkl imilrim'. <>tir d 
place. Therefore the sufflxe* wn, mi, horo form derivative nubut u tyman 

from country. So alnn li-wo-mi, male and female arc>> 

mi, a mole and female of the Newar ttibe (pogo 240 in the m; v , v and 

i om ta. a cliil'i, t bone nufflxe* arc mere sigiM of n< 

y form odjectiven from abstract substantiTea. Boo and compare 


rally on* of another melL It anawera to angki namaang wo, 

wa, a male child, and ch,o'ml, a girl. anwrrinjr to U-wo and 
cbu'mi is now chiefly used fur a little one, and ratbor adjcctiwl^- tl.an mil> 
tautively. 



218 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



English. Vdyu. 

Goat, male Loncho cheli 

Goat, female Mescho cheli 

Goat-herd Cheli tunvi 

Grain Jomsit 

Groin Chhlagalung 

Hammer Topchyang 

Hammerer To'vi * 

Hand Got 

Handle LufAchyang (English th) 

Spade handle Chukha luf/ichyang 
(English th) 

Hair Sworn 

ll.iir of head Puchhi swora 

Hair of body Dukhu sworn 

Herdsman Gaimechho-tunvi 

Head Puchhi 

Heart Thum 

Heel Konteng 

Hail Bopuni 

Hemp Lapchhyo 

Hen Mescho khochi 

Hip Gangpangru 

Hope No word 

Hoof, cloven, solid Khokhek 

Hog-kind 1'uk' 

Hog, male Loncho pok' 

Hog, female Mescho pok' 

Hole Horn (like kh). Horn- 
lung 

Hoe, spade Chokha 

Husk Ingsu 

Hook, peg Khondu 

Horn Rung 

Horn, goat's Che'li rung 

Honey Singwo khudu 

Horse-kind No name (Gocla used) 

House Kern 

Home, dwelling- Mu-lung 
place 

Hunger Suk'sa 

Husband Rocho 

My husband Ang r6cho 

Thy husban<l U'ng rocho 

Her husbaud I'uung rocho. Minung 
rocho. Wathim ro- 
cho. A' rocho 

Instrument, Pochyang 
Implement 

Intestines Chyot 

Iron Khakchhingmi (Lit. the 
black) 

Jaw Ra 

Joint Thulung 

Juice Bulung 

Knife Yukchyang 

Knee Khoka'li 

Knot No name 

Kitchen Khoklung 



English. Vdyu. 

King Pogu 

Lamp, torch Tuphi 

Language, speech Dabo. Davo 

Lip Kumching 

Leaf L6 

Tree's leaf Sing 16 f 

Leather Kokchho 

Leg all Lu 

Leg true Poktolo 

Light, lux Dang-dang 

Lightning Dangdang bikup 

Life llrmchi (breath) 

Liver Ding 

Louse Be'mere 

Lungs lot* 

Loom Punc'hyang 

Load Kholi. Khuli 

Maize Makai, 11. 

Master M6 

Mark No name 

Market Inglung thamlung 

Mason Kern povi 

Mankind Singtong 

Man, male Loncho 

Man, female Mes-cho 

Man, adult Ban^cho, male. Bang- 
mi, female 

Maker, doer Povi 

Madder Laru 

Mare Mes-cho goda 

Mill, hand Rechyang 

Mill, water The same 

Millet (kangni) Levi 

Millet (kodo) Dusi 

Millet (juwar) Densom 

Millet sarna) Nawali 

Milk DQda, H. 

Mist Kokcho (cloud) 

Manner, mode, Ba 
way 

Monkey, MacacusPhoka 

Monkey, Senmo-Phoka 
pithecus 

Measure Pokchyang 

Medicine No name 

Mind Thum 

Moon Cholo 

Month Cholo 

Music Dumku 

Mother D'mu 

My mother Ang umu 

Thy mother Ung umu 

His, her mother I'nung umu. Minung 
umu. Wathim umu. 
A' umu 

Mountain Chhaju 

Mountaineer Chhajuwo. Chhajubo 
mut'vi 



* Topchya"ng is the instrumental, and to'vi the agentive participle. See grammar in 
sequel. 

t Tree alone is singphum. See it and the note there. 

t Buying and selling place. 

I Chhuju-wo-mi, male and female mountain-eer. Chhaju be mutvi, one (m. or f.)who 
dwells in the mountains. So also in sequel at native of the plains. Mutvi, the participle of 
mil, to dwell, has the pronoun inherent, and can be used, like every other word of the sort, 
us adjective or substantive. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



219 



English. 


Ydyu. 


English. 


Vdyu. 


Mouth 


Mukchu 


River 


Bingmu 


Moustache 


Mukchhu sworn* 


Rivulet 


Gang 


Moaohito 


Kananang 


Root 


Rochhing 


Morning 


Nomoloksing 


Rust 


Kee (pausing tone) 


Mouse 


Chuyu 


Rudder 


No word 


Nipple 


Chuschu 


Road 


Lorn 


Noise 


Sangma 


Rope 


Dainla 


Neck 


Chhidi 


Roof 


No name 


Name 




Rhododendron 


Than-kapu'li 


Night 


.. Yeksa 


Salt 


Chia, culinary. Jikhom, 


Net 


N-> name 




other 


Needle 


Pichyang. Chuschung 


Silence 


Gfwon 


Nose 


Cho'no 


Spade. Spud. 


Chokha 


Nostril 


Cho'no humlung f 


Hoe. 




Navel 


Solipnn'g 


Spear 


No word 


Oar 


Yo'king 


Shape, form 


Nnuig 


Oil 


Ki 


Sheep-kind 


Beli (Bhenglung is the 


Oak-tree 


Chyakphen 




I'.urwal) 


Odour, smell 


Namsang 


Spirits (distilled) 


Bukc'ha 


Onion 


No word 


Spindle 


Chingchyang 


Ox-kind 


No word. (Gai is now 


Spinner 


Chingvi 




used) 


Skin 


K6kchho 


Ordure 


\\-pi 


Skull 


.1'uchhi ru 






Shoe, sandal 


Khokhek 


Palm of hand 


Peuteng 


Sole of foot 


I^e pengteng 


Penis 


Tholu 


Seed 


R(i (bone) 


Place 


Lung (in composition 


Sieve 


Yayai.g 




with verbs only) 


Sleep 


I'mpi 


Plant 


Levi 


Sail of boat 


No name 


Pleasure 


Bong 


Sand 


No word 


Plough 
Ploughman 


Rukchyang 
Kukvi. Rukcho-wo- 


Spittle 
Silver 


Cheku 
Dawangmi. (Lit. the 




mi 




shining, the white) 


Plain 
A native of the 


Tengteng 
Tengteng-wo-mi. Teng- 


Sport, play 
Sisterhood, the 


No word 
Nunung-cho 


plains 


tengbe mutvi 


Sister 


Nunu, elder. Diyu, 


Plate, dish. Plat- Talung 




younger 


ter 




Sitting chamber 


Mulung 


Parent 


Phokvi. Bok'pingvi 


Spider 


No name 


Plantain 


Risa 


Smith 


Khakching tovi 


Pine (tree) 


Thong chhing 


Snake 


11. l.u 


PpfWT 


No name 


Sky 


Nomo (sun) 


Potter 


Ko-ch<invi 


Son-in-law 


Janwai 


Peach 


Powanse || 


Son 


'JYiwc, 


Priest 


None. (Pater familias 


My son 


IWO 




performs the part) 


Tiiy son 




Ram 


>-beli 


His, her son 


.. Watliimtawo. 


Rat 


Chuyu 




I'nungt&wo. Minuug 




Nanum 




tawo 


Raini, the 


Nanum tokvfnuma IT 


Shoal 


I'haka 


Kice in husk 


Mi 


shfpherd 


!'..! i ti'uivi 


Rice, unhuaked 


.'ga 




; Khuk 


Rice, \> 




Star 


men 



Mukchhu wom = mouth hair. 

t Place where nose l*perfortd. 

t Wo it masculine nutfix ; mi, feminine = hal-waln-wali of Hiii li. 

-:vi, who begeU, a mrant, aoswera to bokvi, who ia born, a chi 

sitiTc, informed normally from bok, to be > tnn 

Uunnitive formative, pinffko ; and hence bokpingko = phokko, and, at pic < 
which \ a iioul.1 caudal in the SC&M> of to cauao to be born, or a Miin f <-nnne 

to beget. Thia ulivinff of tranaitive and cautwl and thin making of double cauaala arc I 
dian traito common, like many more traita, to Vayu and to Kiriuti, not to add more 
liimal tmigoee. 

\ generic eign, aa phum in for tree*. 

Literally, ram pelting daya, or rainy teaaon. 



220 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



English. Vdyu. 

Summit, top Wani 

Snow Liri 

Steam Hilili 

Smoke Kulu 

Strength Choti 

Song Kwom 

Sow Mescho pok' 

Sun Nomo, Numa 

Sunshine Lo-gang 

Sunrise Nomo-loksing 

Sunset Nomo-thipsing 

Still Bukcha pochyang 

Stone I.u/fphu 

Stomach Muli (the organ) 

Shade, shadow Veli 

Straw Khisti 

Sword No name 

Tail Mun 

Testicle Chalung (egg) 

Tiger Bilu 

Thigh Phekteng 

Thirst Tidaksa 

Tooth Lu 

Turmeric Si/iphi 

Toe L4 btemen 

Toe-nail L4 d6men 

Tongue Li 

Time No name. (Sing in com- 
position with verbs) 

Thread No word 

Thundrr N<>mosangma * 

Thief Khdtumun 

Theft Khutu 

Tree Singphum f (Phum in 
composition) 

Tree bark Sing kokchho (= tree 
leather) f 

Uncle, paternal Pongpong 

Uncle, maternal Kuku 

Urine Chipi. Chepi 

Man's urine Singtong chipi 

Goat's urine Che'li che"pi 

Vein Vichho lorn 

Vegetable, wild Chokphi setung 
herbs and roots 

Vetch, pea No word 

Village No word (Mulung = 
dwelling-place, is used) 

Victuals Jatang 

Vice, sin No word 

Voice Sangma 



English. Vdyu. 

Summer Jekhom numa 

Storm Kungjum 

Valley No word 

Vulva Juju 

Wall Khoksu 

Water Ti 

Water spring Ti vok lung 

Drinking-water DakmungtiJ 

Cooking-water Khoschyang ti 

Washerman Up'vi 

Washing-water Upchyang ti 

Weight (instru- Pokc'hyaug 
ment) 

Weight, heaviness No word 

Wife Romi 

My wife Ang romi 

Thy wife Ung romi 

His wife Wathim romi. A' romi. 

Minuugromi. I'nung 
romi 

^ /Our wife Angchi romi, excl. 
Ungchi romi, incL 

3 ) Your wife Ungchi romi 
V. Their wife A'chi-romi 

or A'- f 

orW&thim-J nakphum 
or Minung- j romi 
or I'nung- ^ 

~- /Our wife || Angki romi, excl. 
* J Our wife Ungki romi, incl. 

S) Your wife Unni romi 
f ^PU^C ,..:f~ A i i.i. .,* 



I Their wife 



Wax 

Wheat 

Winter 

Wi/.ard 

Witchcraft 

Witch 

Wealth 

Weaver 

Weed, grass 

Woman 

Wood 

Wool 

Work 
i Wound 
] Wrist 
lYear 



A' khata-romi. I'nung 
khata-romi. Watliim 
khata-romi or Mi- 
nung khata-romi 

Dikphi 

No name 

Jungsa nomo 

Jochh4ng povi 

Jochhang 

Jochhang povi 

Penku. Gosta 

Jeva pungvi 



Mescho 

Sing 

Beli sworn 

No word. Kam is used. 

Buma 

Got thulung 

Thoug 



* Nomosangma, one word ; literally, sky sound. 

t See tree's leaf, where also sing only is used. So also in branch of tree, root of tree, 
flower or fruit of tree. Newari is the same, si hau = sing lo. With the entire tree of all sorts 
phum is suffixed, as risa phum, plantain-tree = ke"la mi, Newari. 

t Khoschyang is the instrumental and dakmung the infinitival form. See Grammar. 
Both these sorts of words are used as adjectives constantly. Note how nicely the more active 
agency of the water in cooking is discriminated. 

The possessive m, mu, is repeated or not, and given either with the pronoun or with the 
numeral, thus : "of them the two the child" is Wathim nakpom cho'mi or Minung uakpo 
cho'mi. 

|| Wife or wives is the same. The plural sign khatais seldom or never added to the noun 
when the pronoun conveys the sense, or when the verb conveys it, e.g., mescbo imchimen, 
the women sleep. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 
2. Pronouns. 



221 



English. Vdyu. 


English. Vdyu. 


I, ego Go 


Which, What, Hanung, subs, and adj. 


Thou G6n 


Who, Relative, Hanung nakpo, m. f . : 


He, she, it Wa'thi. Mi. I'. 


of all genders, Hanung nayung, n. : 


We two Gouakpo 


subs, or adjec- Dual 


incl. excl. 


tival, and 


Ye two Gonchhe * 


Which? What? Hanung hanung or 


They two I' nakpo Wathinakpo.* 


Interrogative, Hanung khata, PI. : 


Minakpo 


relative, Which m. f. n : inter, and 


We all Gokhata 


of several ex- relative 


iiu-1. excl. 


hibited persons 


Ye all O.'.ne. G<5nekhata 


or things: subs. 


They all Mikhata. Wathikhata. 


ndj. in. f. n. 


I'khata. 


Who? Su. Suna, m. f. Suna 


I'.-f all three genders 


nakpo, Dual. Susu, 


Tiiat . Mi, ditto 


Suna suna or sukhata, 


These, dual I' nakpo : m. and f. 1' 


PL m. and f. : subs. 


nayung : n. 


and adj. 


These, plural 1' khata: m. f n. 


Whoever Sunado 


Those, dual Wathi nakpo. A' nakpo. 


What? Mische, n.: subs. Mis- 


Minakpo, m. f Wa- 


che nayung, Dual. 


thi nayung, &c. n. 


Mische khata. Mis- 


Those, plural Wathikhata (all gen- 


che mische, PL 


Mikhata J ders 


Whatever Mischeda 


Self, selves None 


Either I' ki wathi. I' ki mi 


Myself, thyself, None 


Both Nakpo, m. f. Nangmi, 


himself 


f. Nayung, u. 


Own, my, thy, None 


Several No word 


his own 


My Ang ^ 


me (koi) Su:Suna, D. Su nakpo, 


Thy Ung 


person PI. SukhataorSusu; 


His, her, its A' ! all three 


m. and f. subs, and 


Wathim j genders 


adj. 


1'nung 


Any. some Mische : n. subs. only. 


Minung j 


(kucch) thing Mische nayung, D. 
Midche khata or Mis- 
che Mische, PL 


fOur Angchi. excl. 
Ungchi. incl. 
| Your Unchi 


Many, much Ohhinggnak /m. f. n. 

;ttle ;iak j subs, and 


3 { Their 1'nakpum. || Minak- 
Q pum. Wathim nak- 


How much, many Hatha ) adj. and 


pum. A' nakpum or 


V adv. 


I A'chi 


So much, many Mitha 


fOur Aniiki, excl. Ungki, incl. 


All rofd 


IS 1 Your Uniii 


The whole Khiri. Khulupiniiuin- 


JHThdC A'kliata. Wathim kha- 


ing 


S 1 ta. Minung kliata. 


Half I'hak : com. pen. subs. 


t 1'nung khata 


i.lj. P>a, adj. only 


Ang mil 



* Chhc, the dual *ijn of and pronoun, is not used with itt and 3rd. Tho numeral two 
(nk|x>) i nubstituted. 

i ve the pausing tone. 1 10096110108 represeuta it by doubling the 
Towel, n 

t E.g., HanntijT pothat<.'ptin(fmi mil n<5nii I ntrnck |>:iin mo ; 

ruoi eschew 

, iti thin WHY . 

i nut-ecu wit: . olasa. 

So aluo you can * > him come " lianuugdu < 

.kl. XiikjK,, m. ; Kangi 

oo sign* are pming out of uc, and nakpo now uttcn unod for all persona, male or 
tauta 

|| I nnk pum, or Inung nakpn, r Inung nnk 

inn ..r 
uiiuhomu, of here, o.' ^uow, 



222 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Vdyu. 


Englis 


Thine 
His, hers, its 


Ung mu 
A' mu. Wathim mu. 


-3 f urs 


(Ours 


Minung mu. I'nung mu 
Angchimu. excl. 


M } Yours 
* (Theirs 




Ungchimu. incl. 




-3 1 Yours 


Ungchimu. 




* -{ Theirs 


A'chimu. Wachim nak 




1 


pomu. Minung nak 






pomu. I'nung nak 




I 


pomu. 





Vdyu. 

Angchimu. excl. 

Ungchimu. iucl. 

ITnnimu 

Wathim khatamu. Mi 
khatamu. A' khata- 
mu.* A' khatamu, 

or rather 

Minung khata mu. 
Inung khata rau. 



3. Adjectives. 



Crude. Affiant. 


Good Noh'ka wo m., mi f., mu n.f 


Bad 


Mdng noh'ka wo m., mi f., mu n. 




Chek piingsing wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Cunning ) -, . . ni. f. 




Deceitful j no affix 




Candid Diksa hotvi , m. f. 
Truthful Noh'kathum gotvi j no affix 
Malicious Ydngsa hdvi ( ,.. . 
Benevolent Bring havi i d 
Iiiihi.itrious Kara povi ) J:it _ 


No affix, being par- 
. ticiples, like all of 
the same form that 
follow ; m. and f.:}: 


T 11 - 


Hanvi. Mutvi 




1(116 


Katn mdng povi ) 






Diksa wo m., mi f., mu n. Diksa 


True 


= truth 




Diksa hotvi no affix ; participial 


_, . 


Mang diksa wo m., mi f., mu. n. 


e 


Diksa rusing hotvi no affix 






Risi bukvi m. f. 


participial 


Passionate, hasty 


Risi not'vi no affix 




( Risi wo m., mi f. Risi is anger 


Placid, patient 


i Mdng risi bukvi vel notvi m. f. ; n 
M'inir risi TVO m I 


o affix 
nif. 




Cowardly 


Riinvi \ m. f. 
Ram not'vi f 




B 


Mang ra"nvi ^ no affix 




Constant-minded 


Rainmsl uot'vi ) 
w ) 


> participial 


Unchangeable 
Inconstant 
Changeable 


Wonvi 1 
> ditto 
Mdng wonvi \ 




Wasteful, profuse 


Hokcho wo m., mi f. 
Ho'vi m. f. : no affix : participial 


Niggardly Khali wo m., mi f. ; no 'neuter 



* I or inung, that is, the genitive sign, is repeated at pleasure. Nung and ni, as well as 
m and mu (and also mi), are genitival and inflexional. Inung, of this person ; ini, of this place. 

t Wo and mi for rationals ; mu for other beings. 

t True adjectives are rare ; most are participles (see on to grammar). In participles the 
relative pronoun inheres. They can be used as adjectives- or any substantives without :aiy 
affix beyond their own signs (vi ta tang). Thus h<5nvi, literally who obeys, is used for 
obedient and for the obeyer. Adjectives that are not participles, if used in the Iniur way, 
should have the wo, mi, mu affixes, but need them not if used in the former way t.a., noh'ka 
loncho, a or the good man; but ka of noh'ka is probably formative from noh", to be good. 
Possessive mil also makes adjectives from substantives, as chhomu, l>< dily, from chho, the 
body; thumruu, mental, from thum, the mind ; chhinji, sweetness, chhinjimu, V* 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



223 





Crude. 


Atixes. 


Kind, gentle 


Yansa mdnghavi 


no affix 


Unkind, harsh 


Y;in<ahavi 


no affix 


Obedient 


Honvi 


m. f. ; no affix [ 


Disobedient 


Mdnglyonvi 


no affix / participial 


Mad, idiotic 


Thumnasidumta 


no affix 


Licit 


Patting, n. 


no affix 


Illicit 


Jlting paiang 


ditto 


Bodily, physical 


Chbonui 


) genitival, n. Chho is body ; 


Mental 


Thummu 


) thum, mind 




Suksa 


wo m., mi f. Suksa is hunger 


Hungry 


Suksa metvi 
Suksa meta 


no affix j P artici P ial 




Tidaksa 


wo m., mi f. Tidaksa is thirst 


Thirsty 


1 Tidaksa metvi 


m. f. j , . . . , 




Tidaksa meta 


no affix \ ^ ar 


Naked 


iGunangsenti 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 




Luphta 


m. f. n. ; no affix v 


Libidinous man 


Loncho daksa metvi 


m. ; no affix j 


Libidinous woman 


Mescho daksa metvi 


f. ; no affix 


Gluttonous 


Chhing gnakjovi 


m. f. ; no affix /participial 


Drunkard, drunken * 
Foul-mouthed 


Chhing gnaktunvi 
Jit'vi 


ditto, ditto j 
m. and f. ; ditto ' 


Abusive 


Jisi 


wo m., mi f. Jisi is abuse 


Alive 


Kenki 
Gotvi 


wo m.,+ mi f., mu n. 
m. f. \ 


Dying 


Met'vi 


m. and f. 


Dead 


Me'ta 


m. and f. 


Sick 


Met'kenvi 


m. f. 


Sickening 


Ma*ng phat'vi 


m. f. 


Sick, sickened 
Healthy, healthful 
Sleepy, asleep 


Met kinta 
Phatvi 
I'nvi. Impi yot'vi 


f Participial ; no 
/ affix of gender 


Healthful 


Imta. Impi yos'ta 




Wakeful, waking 


Si'vi. Bok'vi 




Awake, intr. 


Sipta. Bokta 




Awakened, tr. and ] 


Sipta. Sip pingta 


J 


causal ' 


Pokta. Pok pingta 


/ 


Young 
Youthful 


Cho'mi 
Ithijila(= small) 


' m. f. n. ; no affix + 


Mature, in prime of life 


Bang-cho 
r-mi 


m. ; cho affix 
f. ; mi affix J 


Old, aged 


kta 


m. f. n. ; no affix ; participial 


Strong 


Choti 
Choti notvi vel khotvi 


wo m., mi f., mu n. and coin, 
m. f. n. ; participial 


\Vc.L- ! 




\ro in., mi f., mu n. 


\ 'TilK 


'hoti kotvi 


no affix ; ; 


Free, freed 


kta 
Teahta 


in. f. n. ; mi .-itlix / % ... 
m. f. ... ; Doafflij P artlc 'P- 



'.:. cannot be applied to a belt h beaten, 

seen, &c., <.i passive ocnuo in the peat ]> 

reaaon ; irticiplc of txuuiutivoa it aorfot i 

Tuiitaii what in <ii 

., :n .1 tui : no of rationalH ; mu for irrationals, but often 

m a f-ijfii of common ger 
t The word* bangcho, b:n . bingmi, ro now c< mnionly uwd n 

mi. So aUo ro 

tering, ready, are, like nnh'ka. Rood, true adjectlTox, needing therefore no affix. Such addi- 
: made, has the aame effect aa that of adding wrfla, wall, toqualitivt 



224 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 





Crude. 


Affixes. 


Handsome 


Bing-cho m. 
Bing-mi f. 


f rationals * 




Bingmu n. and c. ; bestials 


Ugly 


Mang bing-cho mi 


f., mu n. 


Tall, high 


Jongta m. 


f. n. ) no affix 


Short, low- 
Great, big 


Mang jongta ditto \ 
HontV ditto ( Participial 


Small, little 


Cho'ini 
Ithijila See 


note * 


Fat, fattened 


Lniita dit 


;o 


Thin, thinned 


Gerta m. 


f. n. no affix 


Tired, weary 
Fresh, not tired 


Jyopta m. 
Mang jyopta ditl 


f. n. no affix 




Lame 
Lamed 


Khokhappovi m. 
Mang khokvi no 


f. n. all participial 
iffix 


Blind, blinded 


Mang yenvi in. 


f. n. 


Deaf 


Mang thatvi m. 


f. n. i.e., rationals & beasts 


Dumb 1 


Mang hot'vi m. 


f. n. 


Alone, solitary 


ChhaMing cho 


m., mi f.. mu n. and com. 


Companioned 
Wise 
Foolish 
Learned 


Kdcho gotvi m. f. ; no sign \ 
Juk'vi. Set'vi m. f . ; no sign 1 
Mangjukvi. Mangsetvi ditto V participial 
Lista m. f. ; no sign I 


Ignorant 


Msing lista ditto ) 




Got'vi m. 


r . ; no sign ; participial 


Rich 


Ppnlflm W0 


m., mi f., no, n. 




1 C 71 K 11 11 -r 


enku is riches 




Mang gotvi no affix ; participial 


Poor 


Mang penkhu wo 


m., mi f. 




Penkhu rnang gotvi m. 


:. ; participial 


| 


!Da*vo povif 




Noisy, talkative 


Hotvi 
Itvi m ' 


'. ; no sign 


1 


Botvi part 


icipial 


Silent 


Giwon ponvi f m. f. ; no sign 


_ 


Penki wo 


rn., mi f., mu, n. and com. 


Dirty 


P 


euki is dirt 




Penki notvi 




Clean 


Wota m. 


'. n. ; no sign ; participial 


Cleansed 


Penki mang notvi. 






' Ro-cho m. 


ior Rochowo 




Ro-mi f. 


Rochomi 




Ro-cho-gotvi, f . : Romi ) 




gotvi, m. \ participial 




^ Bia pota, m. f. ) 




Not married, single 


Mdng rocho m. 
M&ig romi f. ' 
Bid" mdng pota c. 
Ro-cho-romi ma"ng gotvi 


or Mang rochowo-mi 
no affix 


Taxed 
Exempt 


Phengvi j ^ 
Ma"ng phengvi \ 


. n. participial 



* See note J on previous page, 
t From pako and pdnche respt 



ipectively. See prnmmar. 

J Rocho and romi are so generally used substantially for mm and wife tbat there is 
some hesitation about the adjectival use of them, though " cho " an 1 " mi " as suffixes are de- 
nionstrably equivalent to wo, vo, and mi. Still, as they are somewhat obsolete, the 1 itter are 
often now superadded, bing-cho-wo = pulcher, bing-cho-mi=pulchra. Other words of the 
same form, as bangcho, adult or an adult, are also used in the s^me two ways, viz., bancho, 
bangmi, and bangchowo, bangchomi. C"mpare lon-cho, a mm. an I i '.ID:IM, 

among the substantives. Bo-chho=the white-bodied, a white man, is quite a different 
affair. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



225 





Crude. Affixes. 


Old 


Yukhang 
Mithong 


wo m., mi f., mu n. and c. 


New 


Nyesi 


wo m., mi f., mu n. and c. 
See note at Baugcho 


Ready, prepared 


Chusta 


(clothes, food, &c.) 


Minta f 


Unready, not ready 


Mang chusta > n. ; no sign ; par icipial 
Miing minta 


Ready 


Tering 


wo m., mi f., mu n. See note 
at Baugcho, p. 223 


Unready 


Ming tering wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Common, abundantly 


Lingtang. \ 


procurable 


Chhing gnik lingtiug 




Scarce, rarely procur- 






able 


Ying gndk lingtang 




Public, assert, revealed, 






patent 
Private, secret, con- 


Khunta 


m. f. n. ; no sign ; participial 


cealed, latent 


Khista 




Successful 
Prosperous 


Hokvi * 
Hokta 
Hoktang 


ra. f. n. 


Unprosperous 
Unsuccessful 


Ming hokvi 
Ming hokta 
Ming hoktang 




Saleable 


Thimting / m. f. n. 


Sold 


Thamta m. f. n.\ 


Purchaseable 


lugtiug m. f. n. 


Purchased 


Ingta m. f. V no affix; participial 


Similar 


Tot'vi m. f. n. I 


Dissimilar 


Ming tot'vi. m. f. n. ) 


The same 


Kwongmuf } 
Kwong nirungmu > genitival, all genders 


Different 


Gegetnu ) 


Another 


Gyetti. Gyeti see note at Baugcho 


Easy 
Difficult 


Mang chamta, m. f. n. 
Cbamta, m. f. n. 


past participles ; no sign 


Changeful 


Jyapvi 


participles pr. and f. ; m. f. n. ; 


Changeable 


mgt 


no sign 


Changed 


Jyapta p. part. ; no sign 


Chan gel CM 
Unchangeable 


;,' jyapvi 
Mang jyaptang 


id fut. participles ; no 
affix 


Unchanged 


Mang jyapta 


Orderly, set in order 

1 


.sta) m. f. n.; participial ) , 
Khilim khulim pota m. f. n.; participial \ 


Havinir, possessed of, 




tenens 


Got'vi. '1 ^ m. .; participial; no affix 


Din..--. --, 1 


( Mang gotVi ) 


J'IJ' (I ' f .- 1 

Ourted 
Not having 


) Mang goU 
j Mang tota 
nta 


v 111. f. . i : no affix 


Ornamented 
Plain 


chopota 
Ming liing chopota 


m. f.; parti 



',* neuter verb, in the source. 

i come* from kwong, one; and nftrungmu, fron> 

he poMeMive sign U needed. Not so in g*g<< and gy4ti, wc are 
pure a jectiven. See note at n. 293. 

"o agree M being derived from intrannitivo verb jyapche. Jynj.ri, who or what 
changes ; Jyapt44Hg, who or what is wont or liable to change. 

P 



226 


VAYU VOCABULARY. 




Crude. 


Affixes. 


Useful 


Kammu, genitival 


Kam povi, m. f. ) no affix ; 
Kampachyaug, n. participial 


Useless 


Mang kammu 
Kam mdng povi 
Kam mdng pdchydng 


negatives of Kammu ; no 
affix; participial 


Quick-moving, active 


Plakvi 


m. f. ; no neuter> 


Slow-moving, lazy, inert 


Gatvi 


m. f. ; no neuter 


Wholesome, eatable 


Jdtdng 


n. 


Unwholesome, uneatable 


Mdng jdtang 


n. 


Manufactured-wrought 


Pota 


n. 


Unwrought 


Mdng pota. 


no affix 


Sharp 


Ye'vi 


n. (verb yep') 


Sharpened 


Yepta. Yeppingta. 




Blunt 


Guumvi 


n. (verb Gnun) 


Blunted 


Gnuta. Gnut'pingta 




Grinded 


Rata > 


I 


Woven 


Pungta 




Spun 
Platted 


Chiugta 
Pungta 


> past participles 

1 


Spacious, wide, ample 


Byengta , 




Contracted, narrow 


Mdng bye"ngta 




Moving, capable of 




participial 


motion 


Duk'vi 


m. f. n. 


Movable, capable of 






being moved 


Thuktdng 


m. f. n. 


Motionless, n. 


Mdng dukvi 


m. f. n. 


Moved, a. 


Thukta 


m. f. n. 


Moved, n. 


Dukta 


m. f. n. / 


Immovable 


Mang thuktdng 


no affix ; participial 


/ Ndrung 


wo m., mi f., mu n. and com. 


Figured 




Narung is form 


i 
FigurelesB 


Ndrung notvi 
Ndrung md notvi 
Miing ndruug 


no affix; participial, 
wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Figurable 
Unfigurable 


Ndrung pdtang 
Ndrung hdtang 
Ndrung mdng pdtang 
Ndrung mdng hdtang 


no affix ; participial 


Luminous 
Shining 


Dang dang mu 
(Dang dang dumta 
Dang dang notvi 


mu affix ; genitival 

1 


Illumined 


Dang dang pota 


> no affix : participial 


Illuminated 


Dang dang thumta 




Illuminable 


Ddug ddng md pdtdng , 


1 


Dark, obscure 


!Kung kung mu 
Rung kung no'ta . 


mu affix ; participial 


Darkened 


iKuug kung pota 1 
Kuug kung thuuita, 


I 


Flaming 


Navi, candle 




Burning-self * 


Jotv'i, fire 


> no affix ; participial 


Kindled-self 


Ndta josta 




Kindled ) 


. Ndta. Josta* 




Lighted > other 


( Nat' pingta y 


[ 


Inflamed ) 


Jot' pingta. Dupta 





* One great defect of this language (largely participated by the cognate tongues and even 
by English) is rendered peculiarly observable in its adjectives, owing to their being so very 
commonly the same with its participles. The defect is this, that all sorts of verbs (neuter, 
reflex, and transitive), and even the various forms of the same verbal root, are confounded in 
the participles ; that is, they take identical forms as participles, though the senses be often 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



227 





Crude. 


Affixes. 


Burnt, consumed by fire 


\ Yemta, general ' 
| Umta, a corpse 


\ 


Burning, in process of 


Yemvi 




destruction by fire 






Extinguishing self, 
going out, dying 


Met'vi 


i no affix ; participial 


(flame) 




( 


Extinguished self, gone 


Me'ta 




out 






Extinguished by other, 


Met'pingta. Sishta 




put out 


t 


/ 


The upper, superior 


Lonkha * 


cho m., mi f., mu n. 


The lower, inferior 


Yonkha 


cho m., mi f., mu n. 


Right 


Jdjd-mu v 




Left 


Kluinjd-mu 




Central 


Mddum-mu 




Eastern 
Western 


Nomo loklung-mu 
Nomo thiplung-mu 


genitival. Mu is the geni 
tive case sign 


Northern 


!Liriphum-mu 
Lonkha-mu 




Southern 


Yonkha-mu / 




Passable or accessible 


Khoktdng 
Khokmung 


no affix ; participial 
no affix ; infinitival 


Impassable 


Mdng khoktdng 
Mdng khokmung 


negatives of two preceding 


Cultivated (soil) 


Rukta. Dota 


\ 


Uncultivated 


Mdng rukta. Mdng dota 1 


Cultivable 


Ruktang. Dotdng 




Uncultivable 


Mdng ruktang. 
Mdng dotdng 


no affix ; participial 


Fruitful, rich (soil) 


Hokvi 




Barren, poor, sterile 


Mdng hokvi 


) 


Sandy 


No name 




Clayey 


Chotdng 


no affix ; participial 


Calcareous 


Chunmu ^ 




Saline 


Jikhommu 




Muddy 


Pes-chyongmu 


mu affix ; genitival 


Dusty 


Penkimu 




Brackish (water) 


Jikhommu 




i 

Frpah * 


Ddktdng (desirable) 




J I *- r I i < 


Chhumta (sweet) 




Flowing 


Gik'ri 




Deep 


Mdng gikvi 
tat 


no affix ; participial 


Shallow 


Mdng Mosta 




Storm* i weather 


Hojumpovi 




7 ) 


1 





ichc, kindle thvaelf or be kindled, and nrfko, kindle it, and ndto, 
i, all alike give navi and nata; and a* there in no separate f tin <>f the agent. 
Painn are taken by the mul; . 



kindl" 

i,.i.-i I- nl-.. t:., ksi, liar. 

aorta of action dintinct ; l-nt tho h. 



of rooUi to keep the 

intransitive, aud tr 



action are lmt in the pai laogiiage, Thua - 

killed and killed by another, and naU ii> 



pingta, the causal, may be used to expreaa the latter aense. Tlie dcfcctn of Knglfoh 

tboa of Viyu. Thua a lamp that baa \- i i!- it LM?.-. ,- R 

ligbtedUin] . laat word seema to Infer what i pant In Viytl y OQ 

ay niri or naU tuphi, though iiiivi (trail*.) be also the 

you cannot aay the lighting Innip for the 1 

cannot uac the wor ; - appropriated to <! . flre. 

^. a, yonkha, like jaja, khanja, which come next, can U- used without any 
t Sec note at p. 243, au<l - of verb* in tho (iranm a, naata, U the 

true form, and ao riata, rutten, infra, aud mutU, acated, and waata, abandoned, A 



228 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 





Crude. 


Affixes. 


Fine, fair 


Noh'kamu vel nohka 


see note at p. 224 


Cold 
Hot 


Juugsamu 
Jeta. Jekhommu 


i, 3, genitival; 2, participial 


Cloudy 


Kokohhomu. Kokchho 
uot'vi 


I, genitival ; 2, participial 


Sunshiny 


Logdngmu 
Logdng katvi 


genitival 
participial 


Rainy, wet 


Ndnummu 
Ndnum tok'vi j 


genitival. Nanum is rain 


Dry, fair 
Moist, full of vapour 


Ndnummdng tok'vi 
Kowdl not'vi ] 


no affix ; participial 


Moist, sappy , 
Green (wood) f 


ChhiTldnginu 


genitival ; mu affix 


Juicy (fruit) \ 


Bulummu 
Bulum notvi 
Bulum md notvi 


genitival ; mu affix 
participial ; no affix 


Juiceless, dry 


Sosomu 






Mang bulummu 




Wooden 
Leathern 


Singmu 
Kokchhomu 


mu affix ; genitival 


Stony, made of stone 


Lumphumu 




Stony, stone-bearing 


Lumphu notvi 




Wet (clothes) 
Dry 


Na'ta. Nasta * 
Dungta. Bo'ta. Sunta 


no affix ; participial 


Wooded (land) 
Open, naked 


Thimthimmu 
Lilkaliikamu 


genitiral ; mu affix 


Coloured 


Chikta. Blekta 




Colourless 


Mifag chikta 
Mang blekta 


no affix ; participial 


Colourable 
Fit to be coloured 


Chiktang 
Blektang 


ditto ditto 


Red 


Ldngchhing 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


White (thing), 


Ddwdng 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


White (man) 


Bochho 


wo m., mi f. 


Black 


Khakchhing 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Blue 


No name 




Green 


Girung 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Yellow 


Heldung 


wo m. , mi f., mu n 


Sweet 


Chhingjimu 


mi affix ; geuitival 


Sour 


Juta (from Juto, make' 






sour) 




Bitter 


Khata (from Khdto, 
make bitter) 


no affix ; participial 


Ripe, ripened 


Minta. Jishta 




Ripening 


Minvi. Jitvi 


) 


Raw 


Chhiihing 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Rotten 


Rista. Wonta 


1 . . . 


Sound, fresh 




ta j no affix 5 P ar 


Coarse 


Hokhro 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Fine 


Ndpi 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Rough 


Hokhro 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Smooth j* otou <* 
\ to eye 


Liku 
Likyep 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 
wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Polished 
Unpolished 


Likyep pota 
Likyep md pota 


no affix ; participial 


Straight 


Cheug-cheng 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


fVoolrpfl 


Kojuldng 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 


\sl UUKcti 


Kwonghhet 


wo m., mi f., mu n. 



* Sje note (t) on previous page. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



229 





Crude. Affixes. 


Full, filled 


IPhul wo ., mi f., mu n. 




Damta no sign, m. f. n. 


Empty 


Polling wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Self -emptied 


Poling no'ta vel dumta ) 


Emptied by another. 
Causal of the last 
Solid 


Poldug pota > no affix ; participial 
Poling pdpingta ) 
Phul * wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Hollow 


Poling wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Heavy 
Light (levifl) 


Lista no affix ; participial 
Ok&lng wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Great 


Honta (size or rank) no affix ; participial 


Small 


JCho'mi (size and rank) 
Ithijila (young) 


see note at p. 223 


Long 


Phiuta \ n. 


Short 


Miing phinta j n. 


Wide 


Byengta ( ditto \ No affix ; par- 


Narrow 
High 

Low 


Mdng byengta i ditto | ticipial 
Jongta all genders 1 
Mingjongta J ditto ) 




Tdsre wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Angular 


No word 


Hound 


Teltel wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Spherical 


Kulkul wo m., mi f., mu n. 


Pointed 


Kyerkyer wo m.. mi f., mu 11. 


Edged 


Ye'vi. Yepta 




*( round things 


Reta (self) 
Kheta (by other) 




Broken, long things 


Jekte (self) 
Chikta (by other) 


> no affix ; participial 


Torn 


Jekta (self) 


<s 


j. urii 


Jita (by other) 




Split 


Chita f 






!By negative prefix to all 


Entire 


or any of the above 




seven words 


Porous 


Jot'vi \ 


I m porous 


Ming jot'vi 




Opening 


Hovi 






Hota 




Shutting 


Thikvi 




Shut 


Thikta 




Bemad 


istaj 




Folded 


Khosta 




Expanded, blown (flower) Bo'ta 




Expanding (ditto) 
Closed, shut = not ex- 
panded (ditto) 


Bot'vi 
' Mdngbo'ta 


no affix ; participial 


Unblown, not blowing 


:gbot'vi 




Tight 






Mb 


Woso. Wotomu 




LOOM, unsteady 


/ 




Shaking 


> Hokvi. Hoktang 




Shakable 


\ 




. firm 


DottaJ y 




Unshakable 


DofpingU ' 



Phifl, pdlang, and t*rt may all b used without affix, and therefor* may be adde.l to 
the nnall Dumber of primitive qualitlve* ; abo w<)*o, slack, infra. 

t Tbe*e six are nearly equal to Urdu and Hindi ttfta, tor ; phtita, pbtfra ; phata, pb ira. 



230 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Unshaking 

Cooked 
Boiled 
Roasted 
Grilled 

Hairy 
Hairless 

Feathered 

Falling (on ground) 
Falling (from aloft) 
Fallen 

About to fall 
Ready to fall 
Falling (tree) 
Fallen (tree) 
Felling (man) 
Felled (tree) 
About to be felled 
Rising. Standing 
Erect. Risen 

Raised. Made erect j 

Lifted up, aloft 

Put down 

Sitting 

Seated, self 

Seated by other 

Lying down. Recumbent 

Laid down. Reclined 

Prostrated. Laid down 

Wakened ) 

Awake i n - a ^a. 

Awakened, causal 

Waking 

Wakening 

Sleeping 

Asleep 

Sleepy 

Put to sleep 

Foreign 

Home-bred, of one's 

own race 
Written 
Read 
Desirous 
Desired 

Desirable 



Crude. 

Ma"ng hoktang 
Mdng hokvi 
Khosta 
Tibe khosta 

** D * a Ulebe khosta 
Chota ) 

Sworn gotvi 

Sworn mu 

Sworn md got'vi 

Mdng swommu 

Chinchi swommu 

Chinchi sworn notvi 

Rukvi 

Dukvi 

Rukta. Dukta 

Ruktang. Duktang 

Likvi 

Likta 

Photvi 

Phosta 

Phostang 

I'vi. Buk'vi 

Ipta. Bukta f 

Ippingta. Bukpingta. 

Puktat 
Reta. Guta 
Tdta ' 
Mutvi 

Musta (Muphta) 
Mut'pingta 

LikTi 

Likta (self) 
Likpingta (by other) 

Sipta 

Sippingta 

Sipvi 

Sippingvi 

Imvi 

Imta 

Impi yot'vi 

Impingta 

Gyeti namsang 

Angki namsaug 

Angki thoko 

Blekta 

Lista 

Yotvi, dakvi 

Yosta, dakta 

Yostang, yot'mung 

Daktang. Dakmang 



Affixes. 



no affix ; participial 



genitival 

I, 4, participial ; 2, 3, geni- 
tival 



ra. f. 
m. f. n. 



m. f. n. 



no affix ; parti- 
cipial 



wo m., mi f., mu n. 
wo m., mi f., mu n. 
wo m., mi f., mu n. 

no affix ; all participles save 
those in mung, which are 
infinitival 



* Me be khosta, literally cooked in or with fire ; and ti' be khosta, cooked in or with 
water. 

t Ipta if previously seated, bukta if lying down. 

t From neuter buk, transitive puk = bukping ; and double causal pukping, fonned like 
bukping. These are all normal traits. See on to Grammar. 

Literally of auother smell, smelling differently from one's own folk. See note at p. 217. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



231 



Eaten 

Drank 

Loving 

Loved 

Amiable, fit to be loved 

Payable 

Paid 

Well pdoured 

Stinking 

Tibetan 

Nepal ese 

Of the plains of India 

Woollen, made of wool 

Woolly, wool-bearing 

Wooden, made of wood 

Timber-bearing, woody 

Golden 

Iron, adj. made of iron 

Silver, adj. made of silver f Ddwdng-uri, f . 

Hairy, made of hair Swommu 

Hairy, bearing hair Sworn not'vi 



Crude. 
Jota* 
Tungta 
Chhanvi 
Chhanta 
Chhantang 

Phentang. Phengmung 
Phengta 

Noh'ka namsang 
Mdng noh'ka uamsang 
Chhugong 
Hen gong 

Beliswommu 
Beliswom notvi 
Singmu 
Singnot'vi 
Heldung-mi, f. ? 
Khakchhing-mi, f. ? 



Affixes. 



no affix; all participles save 
those in mung, which are 
infinitival 



wo m., mi f., mu n. 
wo m., mi f., mu n. 
wom,mif mun. ) 
wom.,mif,mun. 
wom.,mif.,mun. ) 
n. ; mu affix ; genitival 
m. f. ; no affix ; participial 
n. ; mu affix ; genitival 
n. ; no affix ; participial 

/ genitival ; mi affix ; adjectives 
l or substantives 

n. ; mu affix ; genitival 
m. f . ; no affix ; participial 



As great as he 
Greater than he 

Greatest of all 
As small as she 
Smaller than she 

Smallest of all 

Very great 
Very small 
Very cold 
hot 
Cold 

Colder 

Coldest 

Hot 

Hotter 

Hottest 



COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

Wathim bdhamu honta 
Wathim khen honta 



khen honta ' or Sabim khen - honta 



khen cho'mi 



Wathim- 
Minung- 

M,ou S ng ku- 

Chhing gn&k honta 

Chhing gndk cho'mi 

Chhing gna"k khimta 

Chhing gndk jeta, or jikhommu 

Khimta 



Ini- 
Mini- 



khen khimta 



khata khen khimta, or Sabim khen khimta' 
Jeta, Jekhommu 

khen jeta, or jekhommu 

khata khen jeta or jekhommu, or Sabim khen 
jeta 



Ini- 
Mini- 



The English senses of the participle* eating and drinking must be variously expressed 
by the participle*, infinitive, and gerund*, thua, Don't hinder the eating man, Jovi or JOT I 
ingtong thrf thikto. I). i,y *xc*s* of eating, h- w,ll K et ill, Jahe jalie ndmi 

(no to be ill and to be). Eating is better than drinkintr. Tungmungkben jamun? noh'ka. 
By drinking to excess ha got intoxicated, Chhinggnak tungtun^ha vimi. Drinking water, 

t These last throe word* moan literally the yellow, the black, and the shining or white. 
Tery much a* in English, they are of the same form as *ubstantive* and adjective*. 
appear to be regarded a* feminine*, because they have the feminine twfflx formative, or mi 

S I' and Mi the demonstratives make ini. muiur. mini, minting, for casiu oonatnictus : 
but a* khata, the plural sign, seldom > vo, which 1* 

required by the preposition, is attached to the pronoun in singular, sometime* to both, 
khaiam. Newari agree* so far that in all the construct case* it reject* the plural *ign. 
Thus ji-ping, we; wo-ping, they, make ji-mi, wo-mi, our*, their*. 



232 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



4. Numerals. 



I. Kolu 


( Kom-pu vel 
1 Kwong-pu 


2. Nd-yung 


' Nd-k-pu 


3. Chhu-yung 


Chhu-k-pu 


4. Bli-ningj 


Bli-k-pu 


5. U-ning 


Ung-pu ? 


6. Chhu-uing 


Caret 



FEMININE. 



Kwomi vet 

Kwongmi 

Ndng-mi 

Chhung-mi 

Bli-ng-mi 

Um-mi? 

Caret 



NUMERAL COLLECTIVES. 



NEUTER AND COMMON. 
Kolu 

Ndyung 

Chuu-yung 

Bli-ning 

l/-ning 

Chhu-ning 



5. Kolu got' khulup = one hand entire, or five fingers. 
10. Ndyung got' khulup = two hands entire, or ten fingers. 
15. Ndyung got' khulupha kolu got' khulup = two hands, plus one hand. Xa- 
yung got' khulupha bd khulup = two and a half (bd) of the whole handa. 
2O. Le got' khulup = hands and feet or fingers and toes complete. 
20. Cholok a score, also kolu cholok. 
40. Ndyung cholok = two score. 
60. Chhuyung cholok = three score. 
80. Blining cholok =. four score. 
100. Uning cholok five score, or Kolu got* cholok = one hand of scores. 



There are none such. 



ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

No first, second, third, &c. 

ADVERBIAL NUMBERS. 



No firstly, secondly, thirdly, &c. 



Once 
Twice 
Thrice 
Four times 
Five times 
Ten times 
Twenty times 



K6phi 
Nakphi 

Chhukphi 
Blikphi 

Kolugot khulup-phi 
Ndyung got khulup phi 
Le got khulup phi or 
cholop phi 



And so on to 100 by adding "phi," 
a turn or bout, to the numerals. 
The interrogative particle " ha " can 
be similarly used. How many 
times ? Hd-k-phi. Phi is the crude 
of the verb to come, thus K6-phi 
= one coming, &c. 



NUMERATION OF DAYS. 

1. Kobuk'. 

2. Nabuk'. 

3. Chhu buk'. 

4. Blibuk'. 

5. Ubuk, or Kolu got khulup buk'. 



NUMERATION OF WEIGHTS. 

1. Koti. 

2. Nakti. 

3. Chhukti. 

4. Blikti. 

5. Ukti ur Kolu got khulup ti. 

Remark. The adverbials are declinable like the cardinals, and may be regarded 
as compound substantives, which should therefore in strictness be put in the 
locative case, thus, kophe phine, come ye all at once. But this nicety is little 
regarded, and kophinakphi la'lam is = he went once or twice. So Newdri has as 
the equivalents of the above chha ko lang wd and chhdko niko wana. In general 
the adverbs, when not gerundial, are subject to declension like the nouns. 



5. Adverbs. 

ADVERBS OF TIME. 

To-day Tiri 

To-morrow Nukun 

Yesterday Tenchong 

Day after to-morrow Isiha 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



233 



Day before yesterday 
This year 
Last year 
Year before last 
Year before that 
Coming year 
Year after that 
Year after that 

Then 

When ? When 

Since when ? 

By and by 

Instantly 

At once 

Before, priorly 

After, in composition 

Afterwards 

Since 

Till, until 

Till now 

Hitherto 

Till then 

Till when ? 

From when ? 

Formerly, long ago 

At present 

X\v-a-days 

Whilst 

Henceforth 

Hereafter 

Thenceforth 

Thereafter 

Ever 

Never 

Often 

Sometimes 

Early (shortly) 

Soon (quickly) 

Late (slowly) 

At night, in the night 

In the day 

All day 

Daily 

At sunrise 

At cockcrow 

At dawn 

At sunset 

At dusk 

At nightfall 

night till morn 



s'ht 

Till noon 
At noon 

To-morrow morning, 
to-morrow at dawn 



Nithibuk 

Tin thong. Tthonge 

Kinganung. Mithong& 

Chhukthongnung 

Blikthonge 

Ningahe 

Chhukthonge 

Blikthonge 

Abo. fthe. Umbe ) ithi-hfc = in this, and mithi-he 

Mithe i = in that (time) * 

Hakhe. H;lkhanung. Interrogative and relative 

llakhanungkhen 

Omop'he. Later. Omhe 

Waliga 

Kophe (Kophi h6) 

Hubong, Houko 

Ehen 

Nungna 

Hakhauungkhen 

Bung 

> Umbe bong, ftham bong. Abo bong. Abonung bong 

Mithanung bon<r. Mithong bong. Mithe bong 
Ilakhebong. Hakhanung bong 
Hakhekhen. Hakhauungkhen 
Mithong. H6nko 

Tiri nuktin 

Not'he (in the being) 

Ithekhen. Umbekhen. Abokhen. Tirikhen. Ithong- 
khen 

Mithekhen. Mithougkhen. Mithongnunkhen 

No word 
Hstkhele 
Giri giri 
Kophi nak'phi 

Plak'plak'ha (literally, having hastened) 

Gat'gat'tha (literally, having loitered) f 
Eksahe. Eksa nung. Yeksa-nuug-he 
Nmna nung. Numa he 
Nuiiia khiri 
n uma 

N.'ino loksinghe 
Khochho oksinghe 

.ing dumsinghe 
Nomo thips 
KungkuiiL- 'luiu-inghd 

lumkhen 
Eksakben nomolok bong 

.^e nuina 

-ne numa bong 

Kli/Ul^.-- IIIMI..I )l- 

N ukuu cULng*cULng dam he 



t Oerunda ooncUntly, R* here xemplifl* stipply tlio lack of ad verb* (see on t< 
adve-ha In sequel); more rarely, nouus in the ablatiTe or iuitruniciil-il auc, c.y., cbutibc, 
forcibly. 



234 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Yesterday night 

Yesterday at night 

In two or three days 

In one or two days 

In three or four days 

How long ? 

At once, at one time 

Once 

Twice 

Thrice 

Four times 

How often 

Again 

Here and there 

He re ward 

Thereward 

Here 

There 

Where? 

Hence 

Thence 

Whence ? 

Which way 

By what way ? 

By that way 

By this way 

This far 

That far 

How far 

By that way 

Near 

In the near 

From the near 

Far 

In the far 

From the far 

To, up to, the far 

How far? 

Thus far 

How near? 

This near 

That near 

Nearer 

Nearest 

Very near 

Rather near 

Further 

Furthest 



Tenchong eksa 

Tenchong eksa dum he 

Nak buk'chhuk buk'he 

Kwong buk'nak buk'he 

Chhuk buk blik buk'he 

Hrtkbuk* 

Kophe 

Kophi 

Nakphi 

Chhukphi 

Blikphi 

Hakphi 



Ko-phi, &c., are regarded as compound sub- 
stantives in the nominative case. In the 
locative, kophe, &c., best agree with our 
idea of adverbs. But they are used in 
either case. All are regularly declinable. 
Ph<5, verbal root, to come, occur. 



Minhe* 

Used also relatively, and minhe correlatively. 
So also the interrogative of time 



Minungkhen 



ADVERBS OP PLACE. 

rtha" dokha" 

Inirek. Inungrek. ftha 

Minirek. Dokhd. Minungrek. Wathimrek 

Inhe 

Wdthe. 

Hdnhe 

Inikhen" 

Minikhen. Wjithimkhen. 
Hdnikhen. Hdnungkhen 
Hdnung lorn 
Hdnung lorn khen 
him lom khen 
I lom khen 
Inibong. Inungbong 
Minibong. Minungbong. Wathimbong 
Hdnibong. Hanungbong 
Mi.f Wdthi lom khen 
Khe'wa 
Khe'wabe 
Khewakhen 
Kho'lam 
Kho'lam be 
Kho'lamkhen 
Kholam bong 
Uiitlia kholam 
Inhe bong 
Hdtha khewa 
ftha khewa 
Mitha khewa 

Inikhen-khewa. Minikhen-khewa 
Minung khdta khen khewa 
Chhing gndk khewa 
Yang gnak khewa 

Inikhen-kholam. Minikhen-kholam 
Inung khdtakhen-kholam. Minung khdtakhen kholam 



* " In," the locative, has two forms, be" and 6 or he". Wath6 = wathi-he and minhe = 
mini-he, in that ; so wanhe = wani-he, in the top. Again, in the band, eye, head, fire, is be* ; 
gotbe, mekbe, puchhibe", mebe. In the house is kerne", and in the tree, singphum-& The 
present gerund has he", phit-he" ; also nung, phit-nung. The words for place and time, or 
"lung" and "sing," cannot be used with pronouns, only with verbs (mu-lung = place of 
sitting; lok-sing = time of rising); and hence now and then, here and there, are but in this 
or that. There is no real difference between the two. The inflective signs ni and nung are 
equally applicable to both. - 

t Mini or Minung lomkhen and Wathim lomkhen are the inflected phases of the term. 
They are as usual and more correct. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



235 



Rather far 

Very far 

Down 

Up 

Above 

Below 

From above 

From below 

From top to bottom 

Under, by under way 

Over, by the top 

Towards 

Upwards, towards the top 

Downwards, towards the 

bottom 

Between, in the midst 
From between 
By the middle 
By the midway 
On the right 
On the left 
From the right 
From the left 
Towards the right 
Towards the left 
Out 
In 

Through 1 

Across I 

On this side 

On that side 

On both sides 

From this to that side 

Round 

Before 

Behind 

Aside, at, or on the flank 

To the side 

By the side 

Face to face 

Opposite 

Abreast 

Straight 

Onwards 

Forwards, on 

Backwards, back 



Yang gnak kholam 

Chhing gnak kholam 

Youkha 

Lonkha 

Wanhe (wani-he, in the top) 

Huthe (huti-he, in the bottom) 

Wiinikhen 

Hutikhen 

Wanikhen hutim bong 

Hutikhen. Kudi kha 

Wanikhen. Kha khakha 

Rek 

Wdnim rek 

Hutim rek 

Ma"dumbe. Madumna 
Madum khen 
Madum na 
Mddum lorn 



Khanja be 

Jjijd khen 

Khdnjii khen 

Ja-jd rek 

Khjinja" rek 

Tong ma 

Bhitari 

Thekthekha (crossing) 

Kudikha (undering) 

Madumna (midways) 

Khak khakha (overtopping) * 

Imba 

H<5mba 

Imba homba 

Imba khen homba bong 

Vinvinha (literally, having rounded 

Honko 

Nungna 

Khukbe 

Klmkn-k 

Khukkhen 

Kakphdng 

Chelchelba. Kwongha 

Kakphdng 

Chyeng chyeng ha 

Honko 

Nongna 



ADVERBS OF MANNER, CAUSE, QUALITY, QUANTITY, ETC. 

How? HaVna. HJgndha\ Hdnuog bdha 

Tim*, in this way I'mha". Inung bdha 

Mirahii. Minting ball* 
\VI, y ? 

How much ? Hithi. Hayung, n. 

thaM we the third are gerunds of wt time, and therefor* should be Englliihed, 

croiwed, Ac. A verb must iiocoad, M, thekthok i 

ily thtM ezpreM the mod en 

wtaMHinfbMlBf tteoo|anotion M aad. imm . . .:. . i.-i mottr*) 

make up the rest of thoM link*, pracUelj M In the DraTidlan language.. 



2 3 6 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



How many ? 

As much 

So much 

As many 

How often ? 

How great ? 

How small ? 

Well, rightly 

111, badly 

Neither well nor ill 

Wisely 

Foolishly 

Hungrily 

Thirstily 

Angrily 

Gladly, or 

Joyfully 

Willingly 

Unwillingly 

Strongly 

Weakly 

Genth 



Uently 

Noisily 



Silently 

With blows 

Evenly, straightly 

Unevenly, crookedly 

Much, a great deal 

A little 

Neither more nor less 

More 

Most, very much 

Less 

Least, very little 

Again (afresh) 

Back (the same) 

Thoroughly 

Completely 

Partially 

By halves 

Heavily 

Lightly 

Tightly 

Slackly 

Greatly 

Increasingly 

Trivially 

Decreasingly 

In cowardly way 

Boldly 

Modestly 

Impudently 

Secretly 



tastily 
Slowly 
Jestingly 



Hakpu, m. f. 

Hdtha ? Hdyung ? Caret 

Mitha 

Hakpu, m. f. 

Hdthdphi. Hakphi 

Hdtha honta 

Hiitha chomi. Ilatha ithijila 

Biugchoha. Bincho biiha 

Mdng bingchoha. Ming bingcho bdha 

Bing chole md mdng bing chole md 

Sit'sit'ha. Juk'juk'ha 

Mdng sitsithd. Mdug jukjukhd 

Suksa met'met'hd 

Tidaksa met'hd or met-met'hd 

Kisiha. Kisi uot'ha. Risibukbukha 

Bongbongha, or 

Bongnibong 

Yot'yot'ha. Yot'ni yot'.* Thumha. Thumsengha 

Miing yot'yot'hd. Miing thumha. Mdng yot ni yot. 

Mdng thumsengha 
Chotiha" 
Mdng chotihd 
Pomha. Pomhana 
Tamtamha. Tamnitam 
Giwonha 
Topnitop 
Chyengchyengha 
Kwonchydngving chydngha 
Chhing gndk 
Ydng gndk 

Chhing gndk le md ydnggndk Ic md 
Khapkhapha 
Chhiuggndk khapkhapha 
Ydng ydng ha 
Chhing gudk ydug ydng ha 
Gessa 
Liplipha 
Chhinggndk 

Klinluphd. See Numerals 
Ithi 
Phakha 
Lid'lid'ha 
Oksangha 
Khwdt'khwat'ha 
W6so-w6so-hk. Woao bdhk 

Chhinggnakha 

Ydnggnakha 

Ramram ha 

Mdng ramram ha 

Khot'khot'hd 

Mdng khot'khot'ha 

Khita bdha. Khit'khit'ha 

Khunta bdha. Khun-khuuha 

Plak plakha. Waliga 

Gat'gat'ha. Pomhana. 

Wdsong pdpdha. W T dsong pdnipd 



* Yotniyot is the iterative form of the verb, as ia bonguiboug, above, aud tamuitam, 
below. Yotyotha, die., is the ordinary gerundial form. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



237 



Seriously 

Mortally 

Skin deep 

Together 

Separately 

Singly 

One by one 

Solitarily 

Afoot 

On horseback, or 

mounted 
Truly 
Falsely 
Similarly 
Differently 
Look upwards, up 
Look downwards, down 
Look forwards 
Look backwards 
Look here and there 



Diksa pdp;(ha 
Met'bong 
Kokchho bong 
Kolube.* Ko'na 



Kwongpu kwongpu, m. 

Kolu kolu, n. 

Chhjile chhaUe 

Khokkhokha (literally, having walked) 

Changchangha (literally, having mounted) 

Diksa pdpdha 

Mang diksa pa"p;iha 

Tot'tot'ha. Kolu ba~ha 

Mng tot'tot'ha. Ma"ng kolu bdha 

Lonkha chusto 

Yonkha chusto 

Kakphang chusto. Honko chusto 

Nongma chusto 

I'tha dokha chusto' 



DECLENSIONAL SIGNS. 

0. Mu, ni, nung ; ni and nung to pronouns only. If two substantives come 
together the sign is usually omitted, and the first in the genitive 

D. None 

Ac. None 

Abl. Khen, with inflexion if pronoun 

Inst. Ha", without inflexion in any case 

Loc. Be", hd, 6. Both commonly used with ; the latter always if the governed 
word be a pronoun 

Soc. Nung 

- Up to, as far as Bong 



with 



' * 1 ** if P ronoun 



Off, under 



Huthe 



6. Prepositions. 



At this time 

At that time 

At this place } 

At that place 

In this year 

In a little time, shortly 

By and by, after a little 

more delay 
During, pending this year I'thong notTie 
Pending hia coming Wilt hi truing phitbong 

At home Kdm-d 

At our house Angki kemd 

In the house K- , 



I'the (liba-he*) 

Mithe (mitha-he*). Writhe (wathi-he') 

Inhe (ini-hd). I'tha 

Min-he (mini-he'). Ddkha J 

I'thong-he 

Omop, he 

Omho* 



Lung, the affix of place, can be used only 
See declension (in 



Kolube, literally in one, means in one place. 
with verb*. 

t Wnnhe = wani be, in the top; hiith = hdtl he. in the bottom. 
Grammar, and where, by tbe way, these "tevfl" should have stood. 

I I tha,d<5kha = idiier, i; . i.rr and thither. - 

and there ; the first with lewi of rest and definiteneM. An already noted, the words for time 
and i iace (fting .n.J Idng) can only be used in composition with verbs, e.g., mulung, abode ; 
nomoloksing, morning. 



238 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



In the wilderness 
In my hand 
In, at Darjiling 
Go into the house 
In me, thee, him 
Come into the house 
Go into the house 
Go into the water 
Come out of the water 
Inside the house 
Outside the house 
Out of the house 
Come from the outside 

of the house 

Come out from the house 
Come out from inside or 

within the house 
Go with me 
Sit by me 
Come near ma 
Sit beside me 
Sit on my knee 
Sleep in his bosom 
Put on my shoulder 
Put in or on the fire 
Put on (above) the fire 
Take from off the fire 
Put on, upon, the table 
Take from off the table 
Get on the horse 
Mount the horse 
Get off the horse 
Dismount from the 

horse 

Put on the horse (goods) 
Take from off the horse 
On the head 
Under the feet 
Put cap on head 
Put straw under thy feet 
From above the head 
From below the feet 
On the head ) ( 

Under 



Gha'ri-be' 

Ang got be" 

Darjiling-e" 

Kerne la'la or kem bhitar bekld 

Angbe", ungbe", miuungbe' 

Kem bek' 

Kem bekla" * 

Tibe bekltl 

Ti khen lok' 

Kemmu bhitari. Kerne* 

Kemmu tongma 

Kem tongma 

Kemmu tongma khen bek 

Kem khen tongma lok 
Kem bhitari khen lok 

Ang nung la'la 

Ang be musche 

Ang khe*wa phi 

Ang khuk be uiuschd 

Ang binili be inusche 

A bimli be imche 

Ang phiika be cho'ko (chokko) 

Me be tdko 

Me wanhe tako 

Me" wanikhen thosto 

Mech wanhe tdko 

Mech wanikhen thosto 



| Ghorabe chydnche 



Ghora khen lische 



Ghoramu wanhe (or senti be) tdko 

Ghora wani (or senti) khen loko 

Puchhibe. Puchhi wanhe 

Le huthe 

Puchhi be topi chupche. Puchhi wanhe topi chupche 

U'ngle huthe-khisti tdko 

Puchhi wanikhen 

Le hutikhen 

Puchhi wauhe 



feet ) 


Ld huthe 




Above ) / v V Puchhi khenlonkha t 


Higher > the head 


2 




than ) 


"o 1 




Beneath j < 


| / Ld khen-yonkha t 


V til 6 feet 


^ 




JLowcr l 


1 




than ) 


a ; 




Above the mouth is 






the nose 


Mukchhyu wanim rdk cho'no ; mukchhyu hutimrek 


Below the mouth is 


kamching 




the chin 







* Observe that bek is come in ; bekla, go in. La thus added to other verbs expresses 
fromness. Bek is enter, consequently the borrowed bhitari is superfluous. 

t Lonkha and yonkha refer mainly to the course of the water in this mountain country, 
and to relative position on a hill slope. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



239 



To, up to, as far as 

As far as him 

To, as far as, Nepal 

Towards Nepal 

North of Nepal 

Near Nepal 

Far from Nepal 

Towards night 

Cruel toward his children 

Sit above me 

Sit below him 

Between us two 

On me (touching) 

Under me (touching) 

The water comes from 

above and goes below 
On the top of the hill 
In the mid ascent of the 

hill 

At the base of the hill 
From top of hill 
From middle of hill 
From base of hill 
He dwells above me 
He dwells below me 
Sit on me 
Pressed under me 
Underneath the chair 
Lower than the chair 

(in position) 
Put under the table 
Take out from under the 

table 

Go through the door 
Go through the hole 
Go through the river 

(wading) 
Go over the river (by 

boat) 
Go over (by over) the 

couch 
Go under (by under) the 

couch 

Come with me 
Go without me 
Strike with force 
Strike without force 
Sit before me 

hind him 

Before* behind the door 
ite, in front of, 

via-a-vis 
Sit at my side, on my 

flank 
Towudi thr H.I. 



Bong 

Inung-bong 

Nepal bong 

Nepal rek 

Nepal khen liriphumbe 

Nepal khewa 

Nepal khen kholdm 

Eksa dumhe 

Ang tamtawo rek vdnsa povi 

Angkhen lonkha rnusche 

Minung khen yonkha * rnusche 

Ungchi mddumbe 

Ang wanhe 

Ang huthe 

Lonkhd rek khenti yumi, yonkha rek giklam 

Chhdju puchhibe or wauhe 

Chhdju inadumbe 

Chhdju phumbe or huthe t 
Chhdju wanikhen 
Chhdju madumkhen 
Chhdju hutikhen 
Ang khen lonkha muschem 
Aug khen yonkha muschein 
Ang wanhe musche 
Ang huthe napta 
Chouki huthe 
Chouki khen yonkha 

Mech huthe or hutibe tdko 
Mech hutikhen thosto 

Kdmung khen lokla 

Horn kudikha, or Horn madumbe thekla 

Gang the'k thekha la'la 

Gang thek thekha la'la 

Khdt lumlumha la'la 

Khdt homlung khen lok'la or kudikha la'la 

Ang nung pin 

Ang md nosa la'la 

Chotiha to'po (toppo) 

Choti mdng khot'khot'ha to'po (toppo) % 

Ang honko imiHche 

Anuugna musche 

ung-hoiiko-nungna 
Kakphang 

Ang khuk be muuche 
Ki.uk rek 



BM Mil MI "ii pnriMM 1 1 " 

t Pdchbi U, in the head, top - wanhfe ; pbum b*. In the UH< 

rike ; and of couma the precedent t 
KpTMMd similarly, tbough there the liuun iu the instrumental CAM U preferred tu thu 



240 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Before nightfall 

After nightfall 

At nightfall 

Just as night falls 

Since dawn 

Since I came 

After my arrival 

After to-morrow 

By nightfall 

Up to night 

Until night 

Towards night 

Towards dawn 

At dawn 

During the night 

While it was night 

By the time I arrive 

Before my arrival 

After my coming 

Round about the house 

About the house 

In the middle of the 

village 

On this side the river 
On that side the river 
He pierced him through 

the body 
Go by the door 
At a distance from the 

house 

Near to the fire 
Near me 
After that 
Before that 
Instead of that 
In lieu of him 
For the sake of me 
For the love of me 
On this side of, short of, 

not so far as, the house 
On that side of, or be- 
yond, the house 
Far from the house 
With a house, i.e. having 
Without a house, want- \ 

ing \ 

With me, accompanying 
Without me, leaving 
For the purpose of, on 

account of, the house 
In the middle of the 

house 
Even with the table, on 

level with table 
Through the house 
Through the thigh 
With a will (bon gre) 
Without, against the will 

(mat gr) 
Willy, nilly 



Eksa rnddumsa 

Eksa dumkhen. Eksa dumdumha 

Eksa dumhe 

Nomoloksing khen 
Ang phit* khen 
Ang dong khen nungna 
Nukun khen 

Eksa bong. Eksa dum bong 

Eksa let'he 

Dang dang dumhe 

Nomo lokhe 

Eksa nung 

Eksa not'nung 

Ang dongsinghe 

Ang dong sinpkhen honko 

Ang dong singkhen nungna 

Kemmu thelim phoksit' 

Kemkhukhe itha dokha 

Mulungmu mddumbe 
Qangmu imba or Gang hnba 
Gang homba 

Chho chepchepha sastum 
Ktimung lomkhen la'la 

Kem khen khohiiu 

MS khewa 

Ang khewa 

Minung nongna 

Wdthim honko. Minung honko 

Inung let'chhing 

Inung jyapchhing. Minung jyapchhing 

Ang lisi. Ang dull kheu 

Gochhan chhanha 

Kem khen imba or Kemmu" itha 

Kem khen homba or Kemmu dokha 

Kem khen kholdm 

Kem not'he or got'he. Kem not'nam. Kem not'khen 

Kem ma"ng not'he. Kem mdng nosa. Kem mdng 

not'khen 
Ang nung 

Go wat'wat'ha. Angina" n<5sa 
Kem lisi 

Kem ma" dumbe 
Mech nungteng tengha 

Kem kudikha. Kemmu ma"dumna or mddum khen 
Phekteng sat'sat'ha or nuCdumna 
Bong ni bong. Bougbonghd. Bonghd 
Mdng bongl <>ngha. Mdug bongha 

Bongha mdng bongha" 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



241 



In spite of her husband 
For the love of her hus- 
band 
After the manner of the 

Newars 

In the form of a fish 
After the manner of the 

Tibetans 
In the guise of a Tibetan 



Rocho ma'ng-honhonha * 
Rocho chhan-chhan'ha 

Hengong-wo buha t 

Ho ndrungmu 
Chhogongwo ba"ha ' 

Chhogongwo narungbe or naVungha" 







7. Conjunctions. 


And 


No such word 


Also, likewise 


Le\ Nung 


Or 




No word. Ki is used 


Nor 


Ma"ng (not) 


Nor this, nor that 


Tl mdng, mu mdng (ii, mii, the pausing tone) 


Moreover 


Mekhen 


Besides 


Wdnikhen 


In excess of 


Wanhe 


Thau (comp.) 


Khen 


As 




Hftgnado 


So 




Miuiha 


As, 


so 


Tmha. Mimha 


As 


well as 


Ha^nado noh'ka 


As 


illaa 


Hdgnado ma"ng noh'ka 


But 


No word 


Nevertheless 
Notwithstanding 


No word 


Though, yet 


Mithele + 


If 




Sa. Nam, with present tense. Phen, with preterite 


If not 
Unless 
Except 


Can only be used with a verb ; ma"ng nosa, if there be 
not ; nulpo nam, if he do not 


er or not 


Nole ma" nole 


In the meanwhile 


fthe 


Thereon, upon that 


Mithe 


To 


.t is to say 


Id'he. It h 


Because 




Since 


Mischepd 


As 






Wherefore 
I'H cause 


Iprfnung 


Therefore 


Mipdnung 


For that cause 


Wdthi pdnung 


Ye 
No 


i (assent) 
(dissent) 


No words 


Verbal negative 


Ming (prefix) 


Verbal prohibitive 


i (pre6x) 



husband not having obeyed; and the next is husband loved the usual 



t Beogong means wbatin India to called a 1 

In th- j.l in,- . v. TV DOS * SStli I bo* In . in ' 

tribe*, who seldom ha* 
rom that clt 
* M$ proci46 00nso of non^ori^w^. 4 

nnme for Tibet . 
t PaMionate, yet gowl ; 

noh'ka or r oihuk'ri mithcle yinaa m<ng potri. 
f If I come or shall come, phlgnomun . if I 
VOI 



. 
. rUiwo mithelo 



242 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Noun primitive 
Alas ! 
Bravo ! 
Hurrah ! 



. Md (prefix) 
No words 

8. Verbs. 



Cause, tr. 

Cause not 

Be born, n. 

Cause him to be born, tr. 

Cause thyself to be born or to be born 
for thyself 

Cause ine to be born, &c. 

Beget or give birth to 

Beget or produce me or for me J 

Beget or produce for thyself 

Beget for another 

Cause to beget or to be begotten or pro- 
duced 

Cause thyself to beget or to be begotten 
for thyself 

The same for another 

Cause me to beget or to be begotten 

Be not born 

Cause not to be born 

Beget not or give not birth to 

Beget not for self 

Beget not for another 

Beget not for me 

Live, n. 

Live not 

Cause him to live 

Cause me to live 

Cause thyself (or for thyself) to live 

Cause to live for him, for his sake 

Do not cause to live 

Do not cause thyself to live 

Die, n. 

Die not 

Cause to die 

Enable to die 

Cause thyself to die 

Cause me to die 

Cause not to die 

Cause not thyself to die 
Kill, tr. 



Pha"-(s)-to.* Pingko (see on f) 

Thapha"-(8)-to. Tha* ping 

Bok' 

Bok ping ko. Also phoko, which 

see 
Bok pingche 

Bokpingsung 

1'ho'ko (phok-ko, conj. xi.) 

Phoksung 

Phokche 

Phokto 

Phokpingko 

Phok pingche 

Phokpingto 

Phok pingsung 

Thii bok' 

Bok' tka" ping 

Th* phok' 

Tha" phokche 

Tha" phokto 

Th;l phokgno 

G6 

Thg<5 

Got'phdto (phasto). Got'pingko 

Got'pingsung. Got'phassung 

Got'pingche. Got phasche, 

Gotpingto. Got phasto 

Got tha" pha"'to. Got tha" ping 

Got tha" pinche. Got tha" phasche 

Met' 

Tha" met' 

Met'pingko 

Met'phd'to (phasto, conj. vii.) 

Met'pingcbe 

Met'pingsung 

Met' tha" ping. Met' tha" pha"'to 

(phasto, conj. vii.) 
Met' thd pinche. Met' tha" phasche 
Sisto. Sissung. Sische (couj. vii.) 



* The "s" is essential, a<? proved by the whole conjugation, which see at pages 200 ff. 
Nevertheless, in the imperative, as spoken, the sibilant is replaced by an abrupt tone or 
accent, thus represented, pha'to. AB the comparative strikes the keynote to the whole con- 
jugation, its proper form needs much care. In the Grammar I have spared no pains to be 
correct. To it I refer, merely noting here that in verbs of the 7th conjugation, to which 
phasto belongs, the abrupt tone stands for a dropped sibilant, which must be restored ; and 
that in conj. viii. and xi. it stands for a dropped consonant, identical with the consonant 
of the root, and which must be similarly restored. Thus, for to'po we must write toppo, and 
for pho'ko, phokko, &c. <tc. 

t These two verbs are used to make causals. Pingko and phttsto are often identical ; at 
other times, more or less discriminated in a way that may be^best appreciated by a sample. 
Thus, khut pingko is cause to steal, and khut phasto, make a thief of. 

I See note at page 261. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



243 



Kill thyself or for thyself, or do thou 

thyself kill, int. 
Cause to kill or be killed 
Cause thyself to kill, or to be killed, 

or to be killed for thyself 
Cause him to kill or be killed for another 
Kill me or for me 
Kill me not or do not kill for me 
Cause me to kill or be killed, or for me 
Cause not, &c. 
Be, n. 
Be not 
Cause to be 
Cause to be for self 
Cause to be for me or me to be 
Cause it to be for him 
Do not cause to be 

Do not cause me to be or it to be for me 
Because, n. 
Because not 
Cause to become 
Cause to cause to become 
Cause me or for me to become 
Cause thyself or for thyself to become 
Be able, ac. iiitr. 
Enable, tr. 

Cause to be able or to enable 
Do, perform, make, tr. 
Do not 
Do for me 
Do not for me 
Do for self 
Do not for self 
Do for him 
Do not for him 
Do me, passive 
Do self (see Grammar) 
Cause to do or to be done 
Cause me to do or to be done to me 

or to do or be done for me 
Cause thyself to do or be done to or for 

thyself 

Cause to do or to be done to, for another 
Keep doing, intr. 
Cease doing. Desist, intr. 
Cea*e doing it, tr. Desist from it 
Suffer, endure ) b ^ n 
Submit thyself j * 
Brace thy mind to sufferance 
Observe, take heed of, examine, think, 

ObMrve it, take heed of it, think of it, tr. 

Observe me or for me 

Cause to observe or to observe it, or it to 

be observed, tr. 

Cause to observe or to be observed for 
nelf or thyself, intr. 



Sische 

Sit' pingko 
Sit' pingche 

Sit' pingto 

Sissung 

Tha" sit gno 

Sit pingsung 

Sit thd, piuggno 

N<5 

Thd n<5 

Not' pingko 

Not' pingche 

Not' pingsung 

Not' pingto 

Not' thd, ping 

Not' tha" ping gno 

Dum 

Thd dum 

Dum pingko. Thumto 

Thum pingko 

Thurn sung 

Thumche. Dum pingche 

Phdsche. Wouche 

Phd'to. Phdsto. Won to 

Phdt pingko. Won pingko 

Pdko (conj. x.) 

Thdpo 

Pdsung * 

Tha j'd^no 

Pdnche 

Tha" pdnchc 

Pdto 

Thd pdto 

Posung * 

Ponche 

Pdpingko 

Pdpiugsung 

Pdpingche 

K'to 

Pdnapd no". Pdpdha musche 
Wdsche 

Wd' (s) to (conj. vii.) 
Konche ) These two reflex verbs scrv 

to convey the o:, 
he ) vague idea of passivity. 
Chusche. Chikche. 

Clmphto (Chusto). Chikto 
Chtissang. ('ink-nil^' 
Chut pingko. Chik pingko 

Chut pingche. Chik pingche 



* 8* romwka on the verbs Pako, Tiko, and Jdko. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cause me to observe or me to be ob- 
served, quasi passive 

Understand, intr. 

Understand it, tr. 

Cause to understand or to be understood 

Understand me or for me * 

Understand thyself or for thyself, or 
simply understand 

Understand it for him or on his account 

Understand not 

Understand it not 

Remember, intr. 

Kemember it, tr. (see Observe) 

Remember not 

Remember it not 

Do not cause to remember or to be 
remembered 

Forget, intr. 

Forget it, tr. 

Forget me or for me 

Forget me not 

Forget thyself (-err) 

Forget not thyself or do not thou forget 

Forget him or it 

Forget him not 

Cause to forget ( = deceive) or to be for- 
gotten 

Cause mo to forget or to be forgotten 

Cause thyself to forget or to be forgotten 

Cause him to forget or to be forgotten " 
on a third party's account, or cause 
it to be forgotten by him 

Desire, n. and p. 

Desire it or make him desire 

Cause to desire or to be desired (per 
alterum, haud per se) 

Do not cause to desire or to be desired 

Cause me to desire or be desired 

Cause thyself to desire or be desired 

Cause him to desire or be desired on 
another's account, or him to desire it 

Love or love it, trans. 

Love thyself or love simply, intr. 

Love me, p. 

Love him, tr. 

Love not 

Love not it or him 

Cause to love or to be loved 

Cause me to love or to be loved 

Cause thyself to love or be loved 



Chut pingsung. Chik pingsung 



Sesche 

Seko 

Se pha"to (phasto) 



conj. x. 



Seche 



Seto 

Tha" seche 

Tha so 

Chikche 

Chikto 

Tha" chikche 

Thu chikto 

Thdchik pha'to (phasto, conj. vii.) 

Mrfngche 

Mdngto (conj. vi.) 

Mdng sung 

Thd mdng gno 

Mdngche 

Tha" nidngche 

Ma"ngto f 

Tha" mdngto 

Mang pingko. Mdng pha'to (phasto) 

Miing pingsung 
Mdug pingche 

Mdng pingto (pingkto). (Doubly ob- 
jected transitive) 

Dak't 

Dakto 

Dak pingko. Dak pha'to (phasto) 

Thd dak ping. Thii dak phd'to (phaato) 

Dak pingsung 

Dak pingche 

Dak pingto (pingkto) 

Chhanto 

Chhanche 

Chhansung 

Chhdnto 

Tha" chhanche 

Th chhdnto 

Chha"n pha'to (phastoX Chha"n pingko 

Chhdn pingsung. Chhdn phassung 

Chhrin pingche. ChhjCn phasche 



* The wor.1, when used in the latter sense, with lisi, on account of, is frequently put in 
the transitive form ang lisi seko, understand it for me. The alternative results fro:; 
imperfect development of the voices. 

t Compare the transitive and causal transitive. Verbs in t<5 have no form 
&c., or the transitives in ko. The transitives in p<5 have this form, thus topo has topto ; ipo, 
ipto ; pipo, pinto, A-c. 

I D;ik, like B<>t: tell is used rather as a passive than active. Its form is r-i=- 
eense both apparently. Dak gnom, I <iesire or am desired. Dakungtni, 1 desired or was 
desired. In Kkis, Newari, 4c., it is much the same. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



245 



Cause him to love or be loved on an- 
other's account 

Hate or hate it, trans. 

Hate thyself or hate simply, intr. 

Hate me, p. 

Hate him or for him (see note voce for- 
get) 

Cause to hate or to be hated 

Cause thyself to hate or be hated 

Cause him or it to hate or be hated for 
another's sake, or him to hate it 

Be modest, n. 

Cause to be modest 

Laugh, ac. intr. (ride, Latin) 

Laugh at, tr. (irride, ditto) 

Cause to laugh 

. n. 
p for, tr. 

Cause to weep 

Dance, intr. and tr. 

Sing, intr. and tr. 

Hope 
. n. 

Fear not 

Frighten, tr. 

Frighten not 

Frighten me 

Frighten thyself 

Cause to frighten or be frightened 

Cause me to frighten or to be fright- 
ened 

Cause thyself to frighten or be frightened 

Cause him or it to frighten or be 
frightened for another's sake 

Tremble, ac. intr. 

Cause to tremble by own act or make 
him tremble, tr. 

Cause to tremble through another's 
cy or cause him to be made or to 
make to tremble 

Tremble not 

Make him not tremble 

Cause him not to be made to tremble or 
to make tremble 

Be good, n. 

Make good, tr. 

Make thyself good, intr. 

Be glad or gladden thyself, ac. intr. 

Gladden, tr. 

Gladden me 

Gladden thyself or cause thyself to be 
gladdened 

Cause him to gladden or to be glad- 
dened 

Cause him to gladden or to be glad- 
dened on another's a- 

Cause me to gladden or to be gladdened 



Chhdn pingto. Chhdn pha"'to (phjlsto) 

Chekto 
Chekche 
Cheksung 
Chekto 

Chek phd'to (phasto). Chek pingko 
Chek pingche. Chek phjlsche 
Chek pingto. Chek phjlsto 

Khd 

Khdt' phd'to (phasto). Khot' pingko 

Yische 

Yisto. Yissung. Yische (conj. vii.) 

Yit'phil'to (phasto). Yit pingko 

Ok 

Okto 

Okpha~'to (ph&to). O'k pingko 

Holi pdnche, iutr. Holi pa"ko, tr. 

Kwom ptinche, intr. Kwom piiko, tr. 

No such word 

Ham 

Thi ram 

Kam pingko. A7<am to (Arabic kh) 

Kara thd, ping. Tint Mam to 

Kam piugsung. AVtamsung 

Kam pingche. A'Aamche 

A Aani pingko 

A'Aam pingsung 

A'Aam pingche 
A7<am pingto 

Hokche 

Hokto. Hoksung. Hokche (conj. 

vii.) 
Hok pingko 



Tli;i 

Tlul hokto 
Hok tl.a ping 

Noh'ka dmn or ponche 

N'.h'ka tliuinto or i-ako * 

N< h'ka thumche or ptfnche 

Bongche 

Boogto 

Bongsung 

Bong pingche 

Bong ping ko 
Bong ping to 
Bong pingmmg 



Neuter dum becomes normally tr.uuith' -h alike can take the causative 

pingko, and double caiuals like tbumpingko can b made at pleasure. 



246 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Be not glad 

Gladden not 

Be sad, vexed, or sadden thyself 

Sadden, vex, tr. 

Cause to sadden or to be saddened 

Cause thyself to be saddened 

Cause to sadden or to be saddened in 

lieu of or on another's account 
Cause not, &c. &c. 
Speak, utter, n. 
Utter not 

Utter thyself or for thyself, iutr. 
Do thou not utter for self 
Utter in lieu of another, or for him 
Utter not for him 
Cause to utter or to be uttered 
Speak to, tell, narrate, talk to, tr. 
Speak to me, tell me or for me 

Speak to thyself or tell it for thyself 
Cause to tell or to be told 

Cause not to tell or not to be told 



Tha" bongche 

Tha" bongto 

Thukche 

Thukto 

Thuk phd'to (phasto). 

Thuk pingche 

Thuk ping to 



Thuk pingko 



Tell on his account, tell his tale 

Tell on my account, tell my tale 

Let speech be had 

Tell on your own account, tell your own 

tale 

C;iuse his tale to be told for him 
Cause thy own tale to be told 
Cause my tale to be told 
Be silent or let silence be, n. 
Silence, tr. 
Cause to silence 
Silence me 
Silence thyself 
Silence him on another's account or for 

another 

Call. Summon, tr. 
Summon me or for me 
Summon for thyself 
Shout, vociferate, iutr. 
Shout to, for him 
Learn ( = teach thyself^, intr. 
Teach or teach him, tr. 
Read, intr. 
Write it, tr. 

Write for thyself or write simply 
Cause to write 
Ask, question, tr. 

Ask for self, or ask simply, or ask thyself Jiche 
Ask for me, or me Jisung 



Thuk'tha" ping. Thuk tha" ping to 

Hot'. Ddvo pdnche 

Tha" hot'. Dtivo tha" pa"nche 

Hosche (the s like English th) 

Tha" hosche 

Hophto (hosto) 

Tha" hophto (hosto, conj. vii.) 

Hot' pingko 

Ishto. Chhisto. Ddvo pa"ko 

Ishsung. Chhissung. Bo'sung * 
(Bo'to, the transitive, is lost) 

Ishche. Chhische 

It'pingko. Chhit'ping ko. Da"vo pi- 
ping ko 

It tha" ping. Chhif tha" ping. Dsivo 
pit thii ping 

Ddvo pdto (conj. vi.) 

J);ivo piisung 

Dttvo ponche 

Diivo pslnche 



DaVo pa" pingto 
Ddvo pd pinche 
Da"vo pd pingsung t 
Giwon ponche 
Giwon pdko 
Giwon pa" pingko 
Giwon posung % 
Giwon pdnche 
Giwon pato 

Ringto. Khdmto 

Rangsung. Khamsung 

Rangche. Khamche 

Tamche. Sdngma-panche 

Tamto. Sdngma-pako 

Lische \ 

Listo > Couj. vii. 

Lische ) 

Blekto (conj. vi., p. 126) 

Blekche 

Blek pingko 

Jiko 

Conj. 



* This last root, bot', to tell, is only used as a passive. Bot'gnom, I am told ; Bosungmi, 
I was told. 

f All these three .-ire used actively also. Cause him to tell his tale ; cause thyself to tell 
thine ; cause me to tell mine. 

t Compare Davo pasung. This refers to the acrent, do thou make speech for me, whereas 
Giwon posung refers to silence as governing the verb, let silence prevail for me. See remarks 
on the verbs Pako, Tako, and Jako. They show signs of a true passive struggling into exist- 
ence against the genius of the language. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



247 



Ask it for him 

Ask it not, tr. 

Ask not, intr. 

Ask not for me or me 

Ask not for self 

Ask not for him 

Answer or answer him, tr. 

Answer self or for self or answer simply 

Answer me or for me 

Answer him or for him 

Beg, intr. 

Beg it, tr. 

Beg me or for me, p. 

Beg for thyself, intr. 

Beg it for him, tr. 

Approve, like, intr. 

Approve it, like it, tr. 

Cause him to approve or to'approve it, 
or it to be approved 

Approve not 

Approve it not 

Approve me or for me 

Approve thyself or for thyself 

Approve him or approve for him 

Cause me to approve or be approved 

Cause thyself to approve or to be ap- 
proved or cause it to be approved for 
thyself 

Cause it to be approved or cause him to 
approve it 

Cause it to be approved for him 

See, intr. 

See it, tr. 

See thyself or for thyself 

See for him 

See me or see for me 

Cause to see or be seen 

Cause thyself to see or be seen, or to be 
seen for thyself 

Cause to see or be seen for him 

Show, intr. 

Show it, tr. 

Show me or for me 

Show thyself or for thyself 

Show for him 

Cause to show or be shown 

Cause thyself to be shown or to show 

Cause me to be shown or to show 
ac. intr. 
t, tr. 

Hide thyself (liehi.l) 

Cause thyself to lie hid 

Let me hide myself 

Cause him to lie hid 

Cause me to lie hi<i 

Causa it to be hid 



Jito 

ThjCji 

Thd jiche 

Thd jigno 

Tha" jiche 

Tha" jito 

Chhisto 

Chhische 

Chhissung 

Chhisto 

Biche (see Buy) 

Biko \ 

Bisung > Conj. x. 

Biche ) 

Bito 

Yosche 

Yophto (yosto) 

Yot'phd'to (phasto). Yot'pingko 

Thji yosche 

Tha" yot' 

Yossung 

Yosche 

Yophto (yosto, p. 137) 

Yot'pingsung 

Yot'pingche. Yot'phdsche 



Yot pingko 

Yot pingto 

Yengche. Chusche 

Yengko.* Chuphto (chusto) 

Yengche 

Yeng to 

Yengsung 

Yeng phtt'to (phasto). Yeng pingko 

Yeng pingche 

Yeng pingto 

JTAunche t 

/TAunto. 

AfAunsung 

A'Aunche 

A' //unto 

AVtnn pinpko. AVtun phd'to 

A'/Min pingche 

AV/un j.in^Hung 

Kinche 

Khlko. Khiche. Khisting (conj. x.) 

Kinche 

ngyu 
ngko 

K n ping sung 
pingko 



Conj. vi. 



Yengko conjugated like pingko, which Me in Qramniir. 
t The underlined Khlu* harsh Arabic sound. 



248 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cause thyself to be hidden or cause it to 

be hidden for thee 
Hide me 

Cause me to be hid 
Cause it to be hid for him 
Hear simply or hear thyself, intr. 
Hear it, tr. 

Cause thyself to hear or be heard 
Cause him to hear or be heard 
Hear me 

Cause me to hear or be heard 
Hear not 
Hear it not 
Hear not me 

Cause me not to hear or be heard 
Taste, ac. intr. 
Taste it, tr. 

Taste for thyself or thyself 
Taste for him 
Taste for me or taste me 
Cause to taste or to be tasted 
Blow, apply breath, intr. 
Blow it, apply breath to it, tr. 
Smell, ac. intr. 
Smell it, tr. 

Smell for thyself or thyself 
Smell for him 
Smell me 

Cause to smell or to be smelt 
Cause to smell or to be smelt for him 
Smell not 
Smell it not 
Smell me not 

Cause me to smell or be smelt 
Cause thyself to smell 6r be smelt 
Touch, ac. intr. 
Touch it, tr. 

Cause to touch or to be touched 
Cause thyself to touch or be touched 
Cause it to touch or be touched for 

him 

Touch me or for me 
Touch me not 
Eat, ac. intr. 
Eat it, tr. 
Eat not 
Eat it not 
Eat me 
Eat for me 
Eat for thyself or do thou thyself eat, or 

eat thy own share 
Eat for him or eat his share 
Eat not me 
Eat not for me 
Feed, tr. 



Khit'pingche 

Khisung 

Khit'pingsung 

Khit'piugto 

Thdsche 

Thiiko. Thdche. Thdsung (conj. x.) 

Thdt'pinche 

Thdt'pingko 

Thdsung. Ang ddvo thdko 

Thdt'pingsung. 

Thd thasche 

Thd thd 

Thd thd gno 

Thd thdt'ping gno 

Homche 

Hompo (conj. ix.) 

Homche 

Homto 

Humsung 

Hompin ko 

Hosche 

Hosto 

Ndmche 

Nampo (conj. ix.) 

Ndmche 

Ndmto 

Ndmsung 

Ndmping ko 

Ndmping to 

Thd ndmche 

Thd ndm 

Thd nd (m) mo 

Ndmpingsung 

Ndmpiiigche 

Dusche 

Duphto (dushto) 

Dut'ping ko 

Dut'pingche 

Dut'ping to 

Du-s-sung (dussung, vii.) 

Thd dut'gno 

Jdnche (see Buy) * 

Jdko (conj. x.) 

Thd jdnche 

Thd j<5 

Josung (see Posung) 

Jdsung 

Jdnche 

Jdto 

Thd jogno 

Thd jdgno 

A'/twd-s-to f (khwasto, conj. vii. 



* Whenever the action terminates in self, or returns to self, the reflex form is used ; and 
janche is eat ; jako, eat it. So ingche is buy ; iugko, buy it. Compare the Hungarian analo- 
gous forms. 

t Kh. = harsh, guttural Arabic. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



249 



Feed thyself, intr. 

Feed not, tr. 

Feed thyself not 

Feed me 

Feed me not 

Cause to feed or to be fed 

Cause thyself to feed or be fed 

Cause it to feed or be fed for him 

me to feed or be fed 
Drink water 
Drink not water 

Cause to drink or to be drank water 
Cause not to drink or be drank water 
Drink beer, spirits, ac. iutr. 
Drink it, beer, &c., tr. 
Drink not, beer, &c. 
Drink it not, beer, &c. 
Cause to drink or to be drank 
Cause to cause to drink or to be drank 
Don't cause to drink 
Don't cause to cause to drink or be drank 
Don't cause to cause thyself to drink or 

to be drank 
Don't cause him to drink it, or it to be 

drank by him in lieu of another 
Drink me 
Drink not me 

Cause me to drink or to be drank 
Cause me not to drink 
Vomit, ac. intr. 
Vomit it, tr. 
Cause to vomit 
Sleep, ac. intr. 
Sleep not 
Cause to sleep 
Cause not to s'eep 
Cause thyself to sleep 
Help to put hitn to sleep 
Help to cause him to be put to sleep 
Cause thyself to be put asleep 
Wake, n. 
Wake not 
Awaken, tr. 



Awaken not 

Cause to awaken or to be awakened 

Cause thyself to be awakened or to 

awaken 
Cause me to be awakened or to Puk'pingsung 

awaken 
Awaken me 
Awaken me not 



A'Awdsche 

Tha" A'/twaV 

Tha A'Awasche 

A*/<w;i-s-suug. Khwassung 

Tha A'Awat'gno 

A'AwaV pingko 

Kli \\iit pingche 

A'/iwsit pingto 

A'Awdt pingsung 

Ti dak' 

Ti tha dak' 

Ti dak'pingko 

Ti dak* thawing 

Tunche j See note at Eat and at Buy, 

Tunko \ further on 

Thd tunche 

Thd tun' 

Thunto or Tun pingko * 

Thunpingko 

Thdthunto 

Thun thdping 

Thun thdpingche 

Thun thdpingko 

Tun sung 
Thd tun gno 
Thunsung 
Thd thun gno 
Lipche 

Lipto. Li'po (lippo) 
Lip'pingko 
I tnche 
Thd imche 
Im pingko. H<5mpo 
Im thd ping. Thd hem 
Hem che 
Hem to 
Hem ping to 
Hem ping che 
I'uk'. Sipche 
Tha" buk'. Tli:i Mprh,' 
Po'ko (pu'kko).t \ Pukko (conj. xi.) 
; to (couj. vi.) 
TI.;i puk'. 

I'uk'j.in^kc. Sip pingko 
1'uk'pingche 



Awaken thyself or do thou thyself 
awaken him 



Puk'sung 
1'uk'che 



Sea note aforegone at Parent, page aio. Neuter tun makes tratuitivo 1 1 
ki, lie bid, make* traumtive khf, Lide. The double 



bo pukpingko infra. 

t O and u, like e and I, are hardly separable. 



causal* are Uiuupingko and khfpilkgko, 



2 5 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Awaken for him 

Awaken not for him 

Dream, intr. 

Dream it, tr. 

Dream not 

Dream it not 

Cause to dream or to be dreamt 

Cause thyself to dream or be dreamt of 

Fart, ac. intr. 

Fart at, tr. 

Shit, n. 

Shit it, upon it, tr. 

Piss, minge, intr. n. 

Piss it, on it, imtninge, tr. 

Kiss give or take (osculor), tr. 

Cause to kiss or be kissed 

Cause thyself to kiss or be kissed 

Kiss me 

Kiss me not 

Kiss him for me 

Kiss him for him 

Kiss (coe), tr. 

Cause to kiss or be kissed 

Cause thyself to kiss or be kissed 

Kiss me 

Cause me to kiss or be kissed 

Kiss not 

Kiss me not 

Sneeze, ac. intr. 

Sneeze not 

Sneeze at or make sneeze 

Do not sneeze at or make sneeze 

Cause him to sneeze at or him to be 

made or to make to sneeze 
Cause not, &c. 

Do thou make me sneeze, &c. 
Cause me to be made to sneeze, &c. 
Do not sneeze at me or do not make me 



Cause thyself to be made to sneeze, &c. 
Cause not thyself to be made to sneeze 

or to sneeze or be sneezed at 
Spit, ac. intr. 
Spit at, on, tr. 
Cause to spit or to be spat at 
Cause to spit or be spat at on another's 

account 

Spit on me or make me spit 
Cause me to spit or to be spat at 
Cause yourself to spit or to be spat on 
Belch, ac. intr. 
Belch at, tr. 
Cause him to belch or to belch at or to 

be belched at 
Belch me or for me 



Puk'to (conj. vi.) 

Tha" puk'to 

Amung yengche 

Amung yengko 

Amung tha" yengche 

Amung tha" yeng 

Amung yengping ko 

Amung yengping che 

Peshche 

Peshto 

Dak'. Epidak 

Dakto. Epidakto 

Chepidak. Cheche 

Chepidakto. Cheto 

Chugup pdko 

Chugup piping ko 

Chugup piping che 

Chugup posung 

Chugup thd pogno 

Chugup pasuug 

Chugup p.ito 

Hepto (conj. vi.) 

Hep pingko 

Hep pingche 

Hepsung 

Hep pingsung 

Thd hepto 

Tbd hepmo 

Khikche 

Tha" khikche 

Khikto. Khi'ko* (khikko) 

Thd khikto 

Khik pingko 

Khik thd ping 
Khiksung 
Khik pingsung 
Thd khikgno 

Khik pingche 
Khik thdping che 

Tokche 

Tokto. To'ko * (tokko) 

Tok pingko 

Tok pingto 

Toksung 
Tok pingsung 
Tokpingche 
Garat pdnche 
Garat pdko 
Garat papingko 

Garat posung 



* Khi'ko and toTco, like H'po, vomit it, are falling out of use because of the homo- 
phones ; but they are the true forms, aud the others refer to a third party. See the word 
Exchange. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



251 



Belch him or for him 

Cause me to belch or be belched at 

Cause him to belch or to be belched at 

on another's account 
Cough, ac. intr. 
Cough at, tr. 
Cough me, cause me to cough by own 

agency 
Cause me to cough or to be coughed at 

through another's agency 
Cause thyself to cough or to be coughed 

at through same 
Hiccup, ac. intr. 
Yawn, intr., tr. 
Cause to yawn 
Cause me to yawn 
Cause thyself to yawn 
Do thou thyself cause me to yawn 
Do not thou cause me to yawn 
Yawn not, intr. and tr. 
Lick, ac. intr. 
Lick it, tr. 

Cause to lick or be licked 
Lick me or for me 
Lick thyself or for thyself 
Lick it for him 
Cause me to lick or be licked 
Cause thyself to lick or to be licked 
Cause him to lick or be licked 
The same, on account of, or in lieu of, 

another 
Suck, a. intr. 
Suck it, tr. 
Sack me or for me 
Suck thyself or for thyself 
Suck it for him 
Cause to suck or to be sucked 
Cause me to suck or be sucked 
Cause thyself to suck or be sucked 
Cause him to suck or be sucked 
Bite, tr. 
Bite not 

Cause to bite or to be bitten 
Cause not to bite or be bitten 
Bite me 
Bite me not 
Bite thyself 
Bite him 
Bite it for him 
Cause me to bite or be bitten 
Cause me not to bite or be bitten 
Cause thyself to bite or be bitten 
Cause him to bite or be bitten 
The same on another's behoof 



Garat pdto 
Garat pdpingsung 
Garat papingto 

Khwen khwen. pjCnche 
Khwen khwen pdko * 
Khwen khwen posung or pdsung 

Khwen khwen papingsung 
Khwen khwen pdpingche 

Tukum pdnche 

Wakum pdnche, intr. Wakum pdko, tr. 

Wakum pdpingko 

Wakum pdpingsung 

Wakum pdpingche 

Wakum posung. Wakum thd po 

Wakum thdpogno 

Wakum thd pdnche 

Popche 

Po'po (poppo, conj. viii.) 

Pop piugko 

Popsung 

Popche 

Pop to 

Pop pingsung 

Pop pingche 

Poppingko 

Poppiugto 

Pipche 

Pi'po (pip-po, conj. viii.) 

Pipsung 

Pipche 

Pipto 

Pip pingko 

Pip pingsung 

Pip pingche 

Pip pingko 

Chi'ko (chik-ko, conj. xi.) 

Thd chik' 

Clr.k pingko 

Chik thd ping 

Chik sung 

Tint chik gno 

.he 

Chi'ko (chikko, conj.) 
I 
( 'Irk iiinppini^ 

k[iitig gno 
Chik pingche 
Chik pingko 
('Ink pingto 



Hence 700 can my In active intransitive, khwen khwen par) >i?hed = I made 

myself cough ; in the tranaitive, khwen khwen pakungmi. I coughed at him, Tory often used 

I made him cough," which la properly khwen khwen pi>ln-kun>onl ; and 
pataire, khwen khwen poeungmi, I was coughed a waa made to cough, which latter la more 
nicely expressed by khwen khwen pasungmi, showing also the active agency. 



252 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Kick, tr. 

Kick not 

Kick me 

Kick me not 

Kick thyself or kick simply 

Kick not thyself or do not kick 

Kick him 

Kick him not 

Cause to kick or to be kicked 

Cause me to kick or be kicked 

Cause thyself to kick or be kicked 

Cause him to kick or be kicked 

The same on another's behoof 

Strike, tr. 

Strike not 

Strike thyself 

Strike me 

Cause him to strike or to be stricken 

Cause thyself, &c. 

Scratch, tr. 

Scratch thyself 

Push, shove, tr. 

Push not 

Pull, tr. 

Pull not 

Walk, ac. intr. 

Walk not 

Walk it or cause it to walk, thou thyself 

Walk it not 

Cause to walk or to be walked by 

another's agency 
Walk me thyself, cause me to walk or 

be walked, by thy own agency 
Cause to cause me to walk or be walked, 

or have me walked 
Cause thyself to walk or be walked or 

have thyself walked 
Hun, intr. 
Run not 

Run it, cause it to run, thyself 
Cause it to be run by another 
Cause me to run or be run 
Cause thyself to run or be run 
Run away, flee, intr. 
Cause to flee 
Creep, intr. 

Jump, hop, intr. 

Jump it or make it jump, tr. 

Cause to make jump 

Leap, intr. 

Leap it, tr. 

Cause to leap 

Fly, n. 

Cause to fly 



Thes/tto (Eng. th). Thesto 

Tha" thet' 

The* (s) sung 

Tha" thet' gno 

Thes/tche 

Tha" theiAche 

Theshto 

Ths thet' 

Thet' pingko 

Thet' pingsung 

Thet' pingche 

Thet' pingko 

Thet' pingto 

To'po (top-po, conj. viii.) 

Tha" top' 

Top che 

Topsung 

Top pingko 

Top pingche 

Phokto 

Phokche 

Theko. Thesung. Theche (conj. x.) 

Thd th<5 

Khinto 

Thd khinto 

Khokche 

Tha" khokche 

Khokto 

Th khokto 

Khok pingko 

Khoksung 
Khok pingsung 
Khok pingche 

LunlsL Lun 

Thd lunU * 

Lunto 

Lunph^to (phasto). Lun pingko 

Lunphdsung 

Lunphasche 

Rula". Ru 

Ruto. Rut' pingko 

Hobu bdha khokche = walk like a 

snake 

Tuche (see note at Eat, p. 248) 
Tuto. Tu sung. Tuche (couj. vi.) 
Tupingko 
Hopche 

Hopto (conj. vi.) 
Hop piugko 
Bon 
Bonpingko (phasto) 



* Lun without the la makes the passive lungnom, which being also the neuter form, lun 
la^nom, from lunla, is preferred to express the neuter sense, though la also makes latrnoin. 
See note at p. 238 supra. Lun is rail ; luula, run, away, run from me, that is ; for flee is 
another word. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



253 



Enable to fly 

Swim, iutr. 

Swim it thyself or cause it to swim by, 

thy own act 
Cause it, him, to swim by other's agency, 

or have it swam 
Swim me, cause me to swim or make me 

swim (thyself) 
Cause me to be made to swim by 

another's agency 

Cause thyself to swim or be swam 
. ac. iutr. 

ac. intr. = siuk thyself 

Sink it, make him dive, by thy own agency 
Cause to make dive or siuk by other's 
agency, or have it sunk 

: bathe thyself, iutr. 
Bathe him 

Cause him to bathe or to be bathed 
Wash, intr. =waah thyself, only body 
Wash him 

Cause him to wash or to be washed 
Dress, ac. intr. = dress thyself 
Dress it or him 
Cause it to dress or be dressed 
Dress me 
Dress thyself 
Undress (thyself), intr. 
Undress it or him 
Undress me 

Cause it to undress or to be undressed 
Don't undress it or him 
Be naked, n. 
Denude thyself, ac. intr. 
Denude him 

i me 

Denude it for another 
Cause to denude or be denuded 
Cause thyself to denude or be denuded 
Cause me to denude or to be denuded 
Cause me not to denude or to be denuded 
Be hungry, n. 
Make him hungry or cause him to be 

made hungry 
Make me hungry or cause me to be 

made hungry 
Make thyself hungry or cause thyself to 

be made hungry 
Be thirsty, n. 
Make thirsty 
Make me thirsty or enable me to make 

made thirsty 

Make thyself thirsty or cause thyself to 
make or be made thirsty 



Bon ph a* to 

Hilnche 

Hanto (conj. vi. 

Hdnpingko 

Hdnsung 

Hdnpingsung 

Hdnpingche 
Thekche 

Thamche 

Thamto (conj. vi.) 
Thampingko 

Denche 

Dento 

Denpingko 

Upche 

Upto (conj. vi.) 

Up pingko 

Chupche. Waache 

Chupto. Wdsto 

Chup pingko. Wat'pingko 

Chupsung. Waseung 

Chupche. Wdsche 

Lusche 

Luphto (lusto, see Conjugation) 

Lussung 

Lut'pingko 

Lut'thd ping 

Gunang senti dum or ponche 

Qunang senti pdnche 

Qunang senti pdko 

Qunang senti posung (pdsung) 

Gunang senti pa* to 

Gunang senti pripingko 

Qunang senti pdpingche 

Qunang senti pdpingsung 

Qunang senti tliii piping gno 

Suksamet'. Suksametvidum 

Suksa rnet'pingko uot'piugko 

Suksa met'pingsung 
Suksa met'pingcho 

Una met', or Tidakvi dum* 

i met* pingko 
Tidaksa met* pintmng 

Tidaksa met* pingche 



Any lUte of body that r. nUnuon or U to come, like thJnuty, uleepy, is oxprcsn. 
actirr . mpponed complete, like ulovp, by Uio put or poMiv. 

tin)* impi yotvi U sleepy; impi yosta, anlccp. Met .lie, and suksa uict =iio ut hunger: 
UdkM iuef=dio of thirst, or literally, of waut of water.. 



254 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



warm 
warm 

warm 



Be not hungry 

Make not hungry 

Be not thirsty 

Cause not to thirst 

Be sleepy cover sleep, n. 

Make sleepy 

Make not sleepy 

Be cold (being), n. 
Be cold (thing) 

Make cold (being) 
Make cold (thing) 
Make not cold (being) 

Make not cold (thing) 

Be warm, n. 

Warm him or it 

Warm thyself 

Cause thyself to be warmed or to 

him 
Cause him to be warmed or to 

another 
Warm me 
Cause me to be warmed or to 

another 

Be dirty (become), n. 

Dirty thyself, intr. 

Dirty it, tr. 

Dirty it for him 

Cause to dirty or to be dirtied 

Be clean, n. 

Be not clean 

Clean thyself, intr. 

Clean it, tr. 

Clean it for him 

Clean not thyself 

Clean it not 

Be angry, n. 

Make angry, tr. 



Abuse, revile, tr. 

Cause to revile 

Abuse thyself 

Abuse me 

Quarrel, n. 

Cause to quarrel 

Cause me to quarrel or be quarrelled with 

Cause thyself to quarrel or be quarrelled 

with 
Cause him to quarrel or be quarrelled 

with 

Be friendly 

Be united or reconciled, intr. 
Make friendly 
Unite 
Reconcile, tr. 



Suksa thd met' 

Suksa met' thd ping 

Tidaksa tha" met' 

Tidaksa met' thst ping 

Impi yot' or yosche. Impi yotvi dum 

Irnpi yot' phdto. Impi yotvi thumto 

Impi yot thd phdto. Impi yotvi tha 

thumto 
Jumsa met' 
Khimche 
Jumsa met' ping 

Do. do. phdto (phasto) 
Khimto 
Jumsa met' thd ping 

Do. do. phdto (phasto) 
Tha khimto 
Jekhom ponche 
Jeto. Jekhom pdko 
Jeche. Jekhom pdnche 
Je pingche 

Je pingko 

Je sung 
Je pingsung 

Penki or Penkimu dum (become) 

Penki or penkimu no (be) 

Penki or penkimu pdnche 

Penki pdko 

Penki pdto 

Penki papingko 

Wota dum 

Wota thd dum 

Wota pdnche and woche 

Woto. Wota pdko 

Wota pdto 

Thd woche 

Thd woto. Wota tbdpo 

Risi bok' 

Risi phokto or pho'ko (phokko, conj. 

xL) 
Jishto 
Jit'pingko 
Jishche 
Jishsung 
Phwe 

Phwet' phd'to (phdsto) 
Phwet' phdsung 
Phwet' phdsche 

Phwet' phdto (phasto) 

Tosche * 

Totuachhe, D. Toschine, PI. 

Tophto (toshto) 



* The genius of these tongues requires such a ph 
In the dual or plural. So also fight, <bc. 



rase as "be reconciled" to be set down 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



255 



Cause to unite or to be united 

Be not united = unite not yourselves 

Unite not, tr. 

Fight, n. 

Cause to fight or to be fought 

Cause not to fight or to be fought 

Cause me to fight or be fought with 

Cause thyself to fight or be fought with 

Cause him to fight or to be fought 

Be victorious, n. 

Make him victorious 

Cause to make victorious 

Make thyself victorious 

Make me victorious 

Cause me to be made victorious 

Conquer him, tr. 

Conquer thyself 

Conquer me 

Cause him to conquer or be conquered 

Ask aid to conquer thyself 

Cause me to be conquered or to conquer 

Be conquered 

Succumb, n. 

Cause to succumb by thy own act 

Cause to succumb through another's 

agency 

Cause me to succumb by thy own act 
Cause me to succumb through another's 

agency 
Work, trans. 

Work for self, do own work 
Work for him, do his work 
Work for me, do my work 
Cause to work or be worked 
Cause thyself to work or thy work to be 

done 
Cause to work for him or his work to be 

done 

Play = amuse thyself, intr. 
Make him play or do thou thyself amuse 

him, tr. 
Cause him to be made to play or have 

him amused (per alterum) 
Play with me 
Amuse me 

Cause me to be amused 
Be tired, n. 
Make tired or tire it 
Tire thyself 
Tire me 



Tot' pingko 

Thd tosche. Thd totnachhe, D. Thd 

toschine, P. 
Thd tot' 

Pat. Patnachhe, D. Patchine, P. 
Pat pingko 
Pat thd ping 
Pat ping sung 
Pat ping che 
Pat ping ko 
Then 
Thento 
Then pingko 
Thenche 
Thensung 
Thenpingsung 
W..n to* 
Won che 
Wonsung 
Wogpiogko 
"\Yonpinche 
Wonpingsung 

| Ydng. Ydngld (see note at Run) 

Ydngto 
Ydng pingko 

Ydngsung 
Ydng ping sung 

Kdm pdko 
Kam pdnche 
Kam pdto 
Kam pdsung 
Kam pdpingko 
Kam pdpingche 

Kam pdpingto 

Hanche (s'amuser) 
Hdnto (amuser) 

Hdnpingko 

A n nung hdnchef 
ung 
ingsung 

i 

he 
Jyopsuug 



The comparison of the root* then and won will show how these tonfruc* attempt to 
fend off the equivoques reuniting from imperfectly developed gnum. 

ivc*. and pUftdio (not wonche) replace* it with neuter ugml, 

I can fttrike ; Im phnc)p.! Iccp. 

t Literally, amuse thyself with me, along with me. The sense is quite differ- 
that of hanaui *, in which 1 am aolely the amused party. 

t From jyop comes the Newari jjapu, a labourer, though ons tongue has lost the noun, 
the other tLo verb ! Bee Twist. 



2 5 6 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cause me to be tired or to tire 

Cause thyself to be tired or to tire 

Cause him to be tired or to tire 

Be rested, take rest, rest thyself 

Rest it, give rest 

Cause to give it rest 

Cause thyself to have rest 

Do thou give me rest 

Cause me to have rest 

Take not rest 

Give not rest 

Move, n. 

Move it, trans. 

Cause it to be moved or have it moved 

Be still, move not 

Make still, move it not 

Be quick, ac. intr. = quicken thyself 

Quicken, tr. 

Cause to quicken or to be quick 

Do thou quicken me 

Cause me to be quickened 

Cause thyself to be quickened 

Be slow, be dilatory, delay, n. 

Cause to be slow or delay it 

Stay, stop, stop thyself, intr. 

Stay him, stop him, tr. 

Cause him to be stopped or to atop him 

Let him depart 

Be intoxicated, n. 

Intoxicate, tr. 

Tell the truth 

Cause to speak truth 

Tell falsehood 

Cause to lie 

Believe, obey, tr. 

Cause to believe or obey, or to be obeyed 

Disbelieve, disobey 

Forbid, tr. 

Prevent, tr. 

Present, offer, tr. 

Offer not 

Accept, intr. 

Accept it, tr. 

Accept it for self 

Accept it for him 

Accept not or refuse 

Accept it not or refuse it 

Choose, select, tr. 

Cherish, protect, tr. 

Cherish thyself or thy own 

Cherish me 

Cause me to be cherished or to cherish 

Abandon, neglect, leave, tr. 



Jyop pingsung 

Jyop pingche 

Jyop pingko 

Nekche 

Ne'ko (nek-ko, conj. xi.) 

Nek'pingto 

Nekpingche 

Neksung 

Nek pingsung 

Tha" nekche 

Tha" nek' 

Duk' 

Thukto. Duk pingko * 

Thuk pingko 

Tha" duk' 

Thd thukto 

Plakche 

Plakto 

Plakpingko 

Plaksung 

Plakpingsung 

Plakpingche 

GU 

GaVpingko 

Thikche 

Thikto 

Thik pingko 

Lat'pingko 

Vi 

Vit'pbdto (phasto). Vit'pingko 

Diksa hot, n. Diksa ishto, tr. 

Diksa hotpingko. Diksa itpingko 

Mang diksa hot' 

Mang diksa ishto 

Bndhia ha"to 

Budhia ha"npingko 

Honko 

Honpingko 

Tha" hon 

DaVohd thikto (literally, stay by speech) 

Thikto 

Cho'-ko (chokko, conj. xi.) 

Thd chok' 

Doche \ D5ko> d _ chej d0sung (conj, 

-L>oKo f T \ 

Doche ) 

Doto 

Thd doche 

Thsidd 

Lu'ko. Lukko. Luksung. Lukche. 

Lukto 
Tunko 
Tunche 
Tunsung 
Tunpingsung 
Wd'to (wasto, conj. vii.) 



* Neuter duk makes normally transitive thuk=rduk pingko, and douWe causal thuk 
pingko. Elsewhere tue aspirate of the transitive is omitted in a seemingly identical word. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



257 



Confine, imprison, tr. 
Set at liberty, tr. 
Have, intr. 
Have not, want 

Cause him to have 
Cause not to have 

Give, trans. 

Give me or to me 

Give to or for thyself 

Give to him or for him 

Give not 

Cause to give or to be given 

Cause not to give or not to be given 

Give it back, return it to him 

Cause to return or to be returned 

Give again (more) 

Take, intr. 

Take it, tr. 

Take for thyself, i.e., appropriate 

Take it for him 

Cause to take or be taken 

Take it back, quasi, return it to self 

Save, preserve, cure, him (life) 

Save, cure thyself 

Save me 

Destroy (life) 

Keep, preserve (thing) 

Spoil (thing) 

Be handsome 

Make handsome 

Adorn 

Adorn thyself 

Adorn him 

Adorn it for him 

Adorn her 

Grow, animal plant, n. 

Gr"\v it or cause to grow, tr. 

Decay, n. 

Decay it or cause to decay 

Be adult or mature 

Make mature 

Steal' for thyself 

Steal for him, for another 

Cause to steal or be at 



Thikto 

Testo. Tesche. Teasung (conj. vii.) 
Gosche.* Ungbe penku no or dum 
Thd gosche. Uugbe penku thd n<5 or 

th;i dum 

Got'pingko. Wdthim bepenku-thumto 
Tha" got ping. Wdthim. be" penku thd 

thuinto 

Hdto. Mumto 
Hdsung. Mumsung 
Hiinche.f Mumche 
Hdto. Mumto, vi. 
Thd hdto. Tha* mumto 
Hdpingko. Mumpingko 
Hd thd ping or Thd ha" ping 
Lipto (see Take back) 
Lip pingko 
Gessa hdto 
Lasche. Doche J 

Lasto. Doho. (Doko, see Accept) 
Lasche. Doche 
Lashto. Doto 
Lakpingko. Dot pingko 
Lipche (see Give back) 
Cholko 
Cholche 
Cholsung 
Sishto (see Kill* 
Tdko (see Keep) 
Nnsi pdko 

Bingcho dum. Bingmi dum 
Bingcho thumto. Biugmi thuuito 
Bingcho pdko 
Bingcho pdnche 
Bingcho pdko 
Bingcho pdto 
Bingmi pdko 

Jongche. Hon (khon). Liclie 
Jongto. Honto. Lito 
Ri. Rila 
Rito. Ripingko 
Bangcho dun. Bangmi dum 
Bangho pdko 
Khuko (conj. z.) 
KhQche 
KhQto 

Kim pingko || 
Thd khu 



Ung be petiku no, dum ; thco in wealth be, become. 

[*re "Take." The prooomin no Vayu verbs prevent* a good de^l of 

that difficulty which the Turanian* (renomlly experience in ftirnlnhing simple eauivalr. 
the wotxU "give" and "take," becauno the tfcniuii of the Unguac exncU on all occMioiu a 
rigid attention to the raulta of action, the ol.joctive a^ well ax unbjective renulU. Uifforent 
root*, or different modification* of the name rooU, m<it nccowarily convey the idea involved 
in , . ,-,.... 

t See remark at Buy. The ronult of taking in appropriation by self. Hcnoo tbo intr. 

mi are proper to the aexea. See Adjective*. 
I Khfl pba'to (phatto), make a thief of him. 

VOi B 



25 8 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cause not to steal or be stolen 

Deceive, cheat, tr. 

Deceive thyself 

Deceive not 

Deceive me 

Cause me to be deceived 

Accompany, intr. 

Leave, quit, tr. 

Remain with, intr. 

Sit seat thyself, intr. 

Seat, tr. 

Cause to seat or to be seated 

Cause thyself to be seated 

Sit not 

Seat not 

Cause not, do not cause, to sit or be 

seated 
Stand, intr. 
Make stand 

Make stand for another 

Cause to make stand, to be erect 

Stoop, intr. 

Make stoop, tr. 

Cause to make stoop 

Lie down, intr. 

Lay down, make lie down 

Cause to be laid down or to lay down 

Get up, if recumbent 

Get up, if sitting 

Remain standing, intr. 

Fall, on ground, n. 

Cause to fall, ditto 

Fall from aloft, n. 

Make fall or throw down or let fall 

Do not make fall 

Get on, mount, n. 

Mount him, cause to mount 

Get off, dismount 

Put down. Place. Put, tr. 

Put down or place for me 

Ditto, ditto, for self 

Ditto, ditto, for him 

Lift up, raise f from ground, tr. 

Lift up for self 
Ditto, ditto, for him 



Khu tha" ping 

Mdngpingko (see Forget) 

Mdngpingche 

Tha" mdngping 

Ma"ng pingsuug 

Ma"ug pa" pingsung 

Ko'na la'la. Miuung khokche 

WaVto 

Ko'na musche 

Musche (S'asseoir) 

Muphto (Mush to, conj. vii.) 

Mut'pingko 

Mut'pingche 

Tha" musche 

Tha" mut' 

Mut'thtt ping or Tha" mut'ping 

Ipche = erect thyself 

1'po (ippo) erect it or him (conj. 

viii.) 

Ipto = erect it for him 
Ippingko 
Khungche 
Khungto 
Khung pingko 
Likche. Likla. Lik 
Li'ko (Lik-ko, conj. xi.) 
Lik pingko 
Buk' (see Wake) 
Ipche (see Stand) 
Ipipha musche 
Ruk'. Ruk'la. 
Ruk'pingko 
Duk'. Duk'la 
Tu'ko(Tukko), tuksung, tukche, tukto. 

Duk pingko * 
Tha" tuk'. Duk' tha* ping 
Ch&ngche 
Changto 

Lische, n. Listo, tr. 
Ta"ko 
Tasung 
Tnche 
Tito 
Reko (conj. x.), without force. G'uko, 

gukko (conj. xi. +), with force. 
Reche. Gukche 
Reto. Gukto 



* Neuter duk makes normally transitive and causal tuk. See and compare Bahing, in 
the sequel. Both tongues alike make double causals in the same way. Compare "Move," 
p. 412, ante. 

t Raise on the ground is i'po = erect it or him. as ipche is erect thyself = sit up or stand 
tip. For get up, to a sleeping man, you say sipche ; to a sitting man, ipche; to one lying 
down, buk'. Rise, as respects beings, is ipche or buk' therefore ; but as respects t he heavenly 
bodies, the equivalent term is lok' = appear. Specialisation is the soul and body of these 
tongue*, which remedy defects of grammar by multiplication of terms, so as to fend off mis- 
takes in the best way available (see note on Kuko). Quoad falling, ruk' and duk' apply to 
beings only. The word for things is lik'. 

j Reko, like doko and chhuko, belongs to the tenth conjugation, which has the pausing 
tone ; gu'ko, rccte gukko, to the eleventh, with an abrupt tone. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



259 



Lift up for me 

Throw, tr. 

Catch with open hand or spread cloth, tr. 

Catch with open hand for self 

Ditto, ditto, for him 

Catch by grasp, tr. 

Ditto, ditto, for self 

Ditto, ditto, for him 

Keep, tr. 

Snatch from, tr. 

Throw away, tr. Squander, tr. 

Squander your own 

Be near, n. 

Approximate thyself 

Approximate it 

Be distant, intr. 

Distance him, tr. 

Distance thyself 

Bring, trans. 

Bring me or for me 

Bring thyself or for thyself 

Bring him or for him 

Fetch, comp. 

Fetch it 

Fetch it for me or fetch me 

Fetch for thyself or do thou thyself 

fetch 

Fetch for him 

Cause to fetch or be fetched 
Take away, tr. 
Take yourself off or take it away for 

thyself 

Cause to take away or to be taken away 
Send, tr. 

Send it for thyself 

Do thou thyself send or send thy own 
Send it for him or on his account, or 

send his things 
Send me or for me 
Send him or it 
Cause to send or be sent 
Carry, bear, trans. 
Carry it for thyself 
Carry it for him 
Carry it for me or me 
Cause him, it, to carry or to be carried 
Cross orer, act. intr. 01 
Cross it over, tr. 
CroM under 
Crow it under 
Hold, take in hand, tr. 
Grasp, tr. 



Resung. Guksung 

Jupto, jupsung jupche 

Doko (conj. x.) 

Doche 

Doto 

Chhuko(conj. x.) 

Chhuche 

Chhuto 

Tiiko (see Put) 

Lato, la"sung, hlnche (conj. vi.) 

Hopto 

Hopche 

Khewa rid. Khewrf punche 

Khewa pdnche 

Khewa pdko 

Khosche. Khdhimdum 

Khot'phdto. Kholaua tbumto 

Khot'phasche 

Pishto \ 



Pishto 

Bitld (= to bring go) 

Pishto (bdld has uo trans.) 

Bdsung 

Bancbe 

Bitto ? ? (obsolete trans.) 
B;i pingko 
Lakto (conj. vi.) 
Lakche 

Lak pingko 
Pingko (conj. x.) 

Pingche 
Pingto 

Pingsung 

Pingko 

Ping pingko. Ping phato (phasto) 

Kuko* (conj. x.) 

KQnche 

Kttto 

Kusung 

Kupingko 

Lumche f 

Limit" 

Kud.khalaU 

Kudikha latpingko 

Kuk<> (see Carry) 

ChhQko, chhuche, chhuto (conj. x.) 



. >. like all trannitivea of it* claw, give* both the active and paj*Uo of 3d penon, 
nrvterite ; thu, kukum, he carried or was carried. But what we nnmt call the paMlvo baa no 
imperative. From yu, Ui deaoend, you can indec 1 . let thynclf or htm be carried. 

In the cauaal form of the verb both anaM of the imperative are conveyed, and hence the 
causal furro in ..ft en to be regarded M the only representative in the*e tongue* of the paasive ; 
aa, for example, in Newarl. 

t Lumche U croat yourself over, M lakcha (below, TOCO depart) U take younelf off. 



260 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Hold up, support, tr. 

Let it fall or let it be fallen 

Fall, n. (things only) 

Throw down, tr. 

Enter, n. 

Cause to enter 

Admit. Insert, tr. 

Issue, n. 

Cause to issue, expel, drive out 

Ascend, go up, n. 

Ascend, come up, n. 

Descend, go down, n. 

Descend, come down, n. 

Cause to ascend or to be ascended 

Cause to descend or to be descended 

Arrive, n., here, there 

Cause to arrive, tr. 

Depart, n. 

Precede, n. 

Follow, n. 

Attend on, n. 

Appear show thyself, n. 

Make it, him, appear 

Cause to make appear 

Disappear, n. hide thyself, or lie hid 

Make disappear, make hid, or make lie 

hid 

Cause to make disappear 
Make disappear thy own person or goods 
Make disappear for another 
Make me disappear 
Be lost 
Lose, n. 
Lose it, tr. 
Cause to lose it 
Lose it not 
Cause it not to be lost or cause him not 

to lose it 
Search, tr. 
Search not 
Search me or for me 
Search for thy own or for thyself, or do 

thou thyself search 

Search for him, for his, on his account 
Search not for him 
Find, tr. 
Find not 

Cause to find or to be found 
Find me or for me 
Find for thyself or thy own 
Find for him 

Cauae to find for me or me to be found 
Cause to find for self or thyself to be 

found 
Cause to find for him or him to be found 



Doko (see Catch) 

Liklayu 

Lik'la. Lik 

Li'ko (likko), liksung, likche, likto 

Bek' 

Phekto, pheksung, phekche 

Bek pingko 

Lok' 

Lokto, loksung, lokche. Lokpingko 

Bek' 

Jok' 

Yonkhala'la. Yu la" 

Yu' 

Bek'pingko. Jok'pingko 

Yonkha lat pingko. Yut' pingko 

Dong. Dongla * 

Thongto 

Lakche f (see Take away) 

Honko ponche 

Nongna ponche 

Ko'na ponche 

Kbunche 

Khunto (conj. vi.) 

Khunpingko 

Kniche 

Kbiko. Khiche. Khlsung (conj. x.) 

Kinpingko 

Khit'pingko 

Khische 

Khisto 

Khissung 

Damla. Dam 

Th.impo, thamsung, thdmche, tluimpto 
Thampingko 
Thri thiim 
Thdm thdping 

Hoko. 

Th.4 ho \ 

Hosung 

Roche ( Con J' * 

Hoto 

Tha" h5t J 

Le*nko (see conj. of pingko) 

Tha" leng 

Leng pingko 

Leug sung 

Leng che 

Leng to 

Leng pingsung 

Leng piugche 

Leng ping to 



* Dong is arrive here ; donglu, arrive there. Li added implies froraness. So yd is descend 
here ; yuM, descend there. Neuter dong makes transitive thong, as bek makes puek anl (at 
p. 256, voce "move") duk, thuk. 

t Lakche = va-t-en in French, L4, to go, is the root 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



261 



Begin, n. 

Begin it, tr. 

Cause it to begin or be begun 

Continue 

End, n. 

End it 

Cause it to end or be ended 

Come, n. 

Cause him, it, to come or to be come 

Cause me to come or to be come 

Cause thyself to come or be come 

Cause him to come or to be come 

Cause him to come on another's account 

Come not 

Cause not to come 

Go, n. 

Cause to go 

Go not 

Do not cause to go 

Get out of the way 

Clear the way. Make get out of the 

way 

Clear the way for me 
Wait, ac. intr. 
"Wait for, expect, tr. 
Wait for me 
Wait for him 
Cause to wait 
Arrive, (l) here, (2) there 
Cause to arrive 
Depart, n. 
Dismiss, tr. 
Return, intr. 
Make return, tr. 
Increase in height, n. = grow 
Heighten it 

Heighten me. Make me grow 
Increase, in bulk, n., or 
Increase thyself = grow 

Increase it, tr., in bulk, tr. 

Increase me in bulk 
Increase in length, n. 
Lengthen it 
Lengthen me 
Decrease of all sorts, n. 
Decrease it 
Add to, tr. 
Deduct from, tr. 

vate (land), tr. 
Cultivate it fur me or my land 



Tesche 

Testo (conj. vii.) 

Tet pingko 

The root is repeated with the substantive 
verb to show continued action, as gik 
nagik nomi, it is flowing and flowing. 
Topna top nognorn, I am striking 

Chusche 

Chuphto (chusto) 

Chut pingko 

Phi (see On) 

Phit'pingko 

Phit'pingsung 

Phit'pingche 

Pint pingko 

Phit pingto 

Tha" phi 

Phit tha" ping 

La'la (iterated root) 

Lat'ping ko 

Thi la'la 

Lat thd ping 

Kbikche 

Khikto 

Khiksung 

Himche 

Rimto 

Rimsung 

Rimto 

Rimpingko 

(i) Dong. (2) Dongla* 

Dong piugko. Thongto t 

Lokla 

Lokto 

Lishche 

Lishto 

Jongche. Jongta dum 

Jongto 

Jongsung 

//buta <lum 

y/unche + 

//'iito (hard h), or 

7/nnta thumto 

7/onsung 

riiinrhe. Phinta <lnm 

Phinto. Phinta : 

Phinsung 

Ydng. YdngU 

Ydng pingko 

Khapto, khapche, khnpsung 

Yitngto, ydngche, ydngsung 

Vik ye* kof (Yekko, conj. xi.) 

Vik yekaung 



So alto Bek' enter, U font in, and Ifck'U U 90 in. 

,:to gives normally the double causal thongptngko. 
: Italic //U a guttural. *~ 



| Thts word mean* 
and of the people. 



The two phrases are syi 
clear the jungle," and alone suffice* to show the state of the co ictry 



262 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cultivate it for him or his land 

Cultivate for self 

Dig, tr. 

Dig for self 

Dig thy own 

Dig for him, dig his field 

Dig me, for me, my field 

Cause to dig or be dug 

Cause thyself to dig or cause thy own 

field to be dug 
Cause him to dig for another, or another's 

field to be dug for him 
Cause me to dig or my field to be dug, 

or (if the field spoke) me to be dug 
Dig not 

Cause not to dig 
Plough, tr. 
Plough for self 
Plough for him 
Plough for me, or (if the field spoke) 

plough me 
Plough not 
Plough not for self or plough not thy 

own field 

Cause not to plough or be ploughed 
Sow, tr. 

Cause to sow or be sown 
Cause not to sow, or be sown 
Sow for me or sow me * 
Sow me not or sow not for me 
Transplant, tr. 

Transplant not 

Cause to transplant or to be trans- 
planted 
Reap, tr. 
Heap not 

Cause to reap or to be reaped 
Cause not to reap or be reaped 
Gather, pluck (flowers), not greens, tr. 
Gather not 
Gather (cotton) ) . 
Pluck (fruit) \ tr 
Gather not (cotton) 
Gather (greens), tr. 
Pluck up by roots, tr. 
Eradicate not 
Fell tree, tr. 
Fell not tree 
Breed cattle, tr. 
Breed not 
Slaughter cattle, tr. 
Graze, intr. and tr. 
Flay or decorticate, tr. 



Vik yekto 
Vik yekche 
Duko (conj. x.) 

Dunche 

Duto (conj. vi.) 
Dusung 
Da pingko 
Da pingche 

Du pingto 
Du pingsung 

Thd du 

Du thd ping or Thd du ping 

Ru'ko (Ruk-ko, couj. xi.) 

Rukche 

Rukto 

Ruksung 

Thd ruk' 
Thd rukche 

Thd ruk' ping 

Chho'ko (chhok-ko) chhoksung, chhok- 

che, chhokto (conj. xi.) 
Chhok'pingko 
Chhok'thdping 
Chhok'sung 
Thd chhok'gno 
Luphto (Lusto) lussung, lusche (conj. 

vii.) 

Thd lut' 
Lut' pingko 

Peshto, pessung, pesche 

Thd pet' 

Pet'ping ko 

Pet'thd ping 

Tuko, tusung, tunche, tuto I tuko and 

Thdta 1 sekoare 

Seko, sgsung, senche, seto j ^ f COD J' 

Thdse 

Peshto (see reap) 
Photo phosung, phonche 
Thd photo 

Phoko, phosung phoche (conj. x.) 
Thdpho 

Tunko, tunsung, tunche, tunto 
Thdtun 

Sisto (kill). Yukto (cut) 
Gupche, intr. Gupto, tr. 
Td'ko (takko), taksung, takche, takto 
(conj. xi.) 



matical sense. But the other i 



* Sow me (what the seed would say) is the true grammatical sense. But th 
widely, nay alone, iu use, the coustructio ad soiisum still overruling the grammar, 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



263 



Flay not 
Peel fruit 
Shear, tr. 

Shear not 

Buy, ac. intr. 

Buy it, tr. 

Cause to buy or be boughj; 

Buy it not 

Buy not for him 

Buy me or for me t 

Do thou thyself buy it or buy it for 

thyself 

Buy it for him 
Buy it 
Sell, tr. 

Cause to sell or to be sold 
Sell me or for me 
Sell thyself or for thyself, or thy 

own 

Sell him, it, or for him or his 
Sell not 

Exchange or change, ac. intr. 
Exchange it 

Exchange me or it for me 
Exchange it for him 
Exchange not 
Exchange it not 
Exchange it not for him 
Exchange me not or not for me 
Lend, tr. 
Borrow, intr. 

Pay debt, tr. 
Pay not 

Count, tr. 

Count not 

Measure or weight, tr. 
Weigh not 
Piaster, tr. 

Make house, tr. 
Make clothes, tr. 
Make not clothes 
Make clothes for me 
Make for H-lf 
Make for him 
Spin, tr. 
Spin not 



Thd tak' 

Keko, kesung, keche, keto (conj. x.) 

Ye'ko (yekko), yeksung, yekche, yekto 

(conj. xi.) 
Thd yek' 
Ingche* 

Ingko, ingsung, ingche, ingto 
Ing pingko 
Thd ing 
Thd ingto 
Ingsung 

Ingche 

Ingto (Ingkto) * 

Ingko 

Thamto 

Thampingko 

Thamsung 

Thamche 

Thamto 

Thd thamto 

.Tyapche (see Buy) 

Jya'po (Jyap po, conj. viii.) 

Jyap'sung 

Jyap'to J 

Thd jyap'che 

Thd jyap' 

Thd jyap'to 

Thd jyapuio 

Pe'nku hdto, hdsung, hdnche 

Pe'nku lasche (see buy), lassung, 

lasto 

Thengko, phengsung, phengche, phengto 
Thd pheng 
Hito, hisung, hinche, Into (conj. 

vi.) 

Thd hito 

Po'ko (pokko), poksung, pokche, pokto 
Thd pok' 
Siito, susung, sunche. Suto (conj. 

vi.) 

K-III pdko 

Jdwa piko, pisung, pinche, pit<> 
J^wa th:i pi 
Je"wa piaung 
Jdwa pinche 
Je"wa : 

ko, chingsung, chingche, chingto 
Thd ching 



See Bat and Take, and Rxch*nge and Drink, *c. 

returns to self, tuh form in preferred to tbo traniiivo. 
clue. 



In every act, of which the result 
The French tongue affords a good 



t I have already said that buy me seems to be the truer scnao. whence the passire ing- 
sungmi. I was bought. But in the clans of transitive* to which ingko helontfii. li 
also the present and future tense of the active voice, vis., 1 I buy it. I 

the intranmtive, gives iiiRchun. .vill buy) nn<l I b. 

form solve* the difficulty as to two transitive signs following a verbal root, and 
enable* me often to reach the i .bic type of wonis * thing of the highest 

import to special and general philology. [ : nui, if nt all, as a 



I Chingko and pungko are conjugated like pingko, which see in the sequel. 



mere i 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Weave, tr. 
Weave not 
Sew, tr. 
Sew not 
Grind, tr. 
Work mine, tr. 
Work iron, tr. 

Work wood, tr. 
Work clay, tr. 
Cook, tr. 

Be cooked = be ripe, be prepared, n. 

Boil, tr. (see Cook) 

Boil not 

Roast, tr. 

Ditto for me 

Ditto for self 

Ditto for another 

Gril, fry, tr. 

Cut, tr. 
Cut not 

Cut me or for me 
Cut thyself or for thyself 
Perforate, tr. 
Pierce (being), tr. 
Tear, tr. 

Tear thy own, tear for thyself, tear thy- 
self 
Split, tr. 

Break, tear (long things), tr. 

Break it, in pieces 

Burst it (round things), tr. 

Be broken or be burst, n. 

Brew, tr. 

Distil, tr. 

Filtrate. Deficate, tr. 

Be sharp, n. 
Sharpen, tr. 

Be blunt, n. 

Blunten. Make blunt, tr. 

Shake, tr. 
Move, n. 
Move it, tr. 

Be still, n. ( = move not) 
Make still, tr. 

Contain or hold ( = Be contained and 
contain it) 



Pungko, pungsung, pungche, pungto 

Thdpung 

Piko 



Tha" pi 



(conj. x.) 



Rdko, rdsung, rdnche, rdto 

Khdni duko (dig) 

Khakchingto'po (beat) topsung, topche, 

topto 
Sing chu'ko (chukko) (plane) chyuk- 

sung, chukche, chukto 
K5 chydko (knead) chydsung, chyasche, 

chydto (conj. x.) 
Khoko, khosuug, khosche, khoto (conj. 

x.) 

Min, minko, miuche, miuto 
Kh<5ko 
Thd kh<5 

Sunko. Like pingko 
Sunsung 
Sunche 
Sunto 
Chuko, chusung, chunche, chuto (conj. 

x.) 

Yukto (conj. vi.) 
Tha" yukto 
Yuksung 
Yukche 

Saato, sasche, sassung (conj. vii.) 
Chhepto, chhepche, chhepsung 
Jito, jisung, jinche, jito (conj. vi.) 
Jinche 

Hakto. Chi'to chisung, chiche, hak- 

sung, hakche, hakto 
Chi'ko (chik'-ko), chiksung, chikche, 

chikto 

A'heto, Jthesung, thenche (conj. vi.) 

Jik'. JikU. Kdld or Rd 

Swe pophto, possung, posche, posto 

Bukch^pdko 

Chi'po (chippo), chipsuug, chipche, 

chipto 
Yep 
Yep'pingko. Chho'po. Chho'ppo gives 

chhopsung, chhopche, chhopto 
Gnun 
Gntito, gnliaung gnunche (conj. 

vi.) 

Hokto, Hoksung, hokche (conj. vi.) 
Duk' 
Thukto, thuksung, thukche (couj. 

vi) 

Thd duk' 
Tha" thukto 
Vek, vekche, n. Vekto, tr. 



Chingko and pungko are conjugated like pingk. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



265 



Make contain or cause to be contained 
Retain, sustain, tr. 
Retain, intr. 
Cause to retain 
Ooze out, n. 
Make ooze out 
Stop it oozing out 
Be full belly (fill own belly), intr. 
Fill it belly, tr. 
Be full vessel 
Fill it vessel 
Be empty, n. 
ty it, tr. 

Shine, as sun, n. 
Flow, as water 
Cause to flow 
Blow, as wind, intr. 
Grow, as tree, ac. intr. 
Cause to grow, or grow it 
Decay, rot, n. 
Make decay 
Flower, n. 
Cause to flower 
Fruit, n. 
Cause to fruit 
Be ripe, n. 
Ripen, tr. 
Ripen it for him 
Be raw, n. 
Make raw, tr. 
Be cold (things only), intr. 

cold, tr. 

Be hot, intr., n. 
Heat it, tr. 

Be luminous, n. 
Make luminous 
Be dark, n. 
Darken it, tr. 
Liirht it (candle), tr. 

. intr. (Be lighted) 
Kindle it (fire), tr. 



Kindle ) n. or 

Be kindled [ ac. 

Kindle thyself ) intr. 

Burn, i.e., destroy by fire, tr. 

Be burnt ( = go burnt), n. 

Burn thyself or burn it for self, ac. intr 

Bum, corpse, tr. 

Bury, corpse, tr. 
Melt, n. 

Cause to melt 



Vek pingko 

Doko. Doche. Dosung (conj. x.) 

Douche 

Dot'pingko 

Jot' 

Jot'pingko 

Ruto, rusung, runche (conj. vi.) 

Taniche 

Tamto, tamsung, tamche, tamto 

Chinche. Dam. Phul dum 

Damto, dampiugko, Phul pitko, Chinko 

P61iiug dum 

Poising pdko 

KaV. Chok' 

Gikla. Deugla. Gik'. Deng* 

Gik pingko. Deng pingko 

Hujum ponche 

Liche 

Lito, lisung, liche, lito 

Rila. Mela 

Rit' pingko. Met' pingko 

But' 

But' pingko 

S6 

Set'phd'to (phasto), vel pingko 

Min 

Minko, minsung, miuche, ininto 

Minto 

Chhdlang-no-dum f 

Chhalaug pdko, posting, prinche, pdto 

Khimche 

Khimto, khimsung, khimche, khimto 

J^che. Jekhomdum or ponche 

Je"to. Jekhompdko. Jeto gives jesung, 

jenche, jeto (conj. vi.) 
Dang dang dum or ponche 
Dang dang pjiko 
Rung kung dum or ponche 
Kung kung pdko 
Njtko, ndsung, ndche, nato 
Niiche 
Du'po (duppo), dupsung, dupche (conj. 

viii.), dupto. Josto, JOKBUDIT, j 

josto 

Josche. Dupche 

Yemto, yemsung, yemche, ycmto 

Ytmki 

Yemche 

Umto, umsung, umche, umto (conj. 

vi.) 

A"//iinip(, kliniD.Hiing, khumche, kliutnio 
Yekla(sec 1: 

Ye'ko (yekko; see Cultivate, conj. xi.) 
Yek pingko 



* LA added merely conveys the additions! motion of f n.mness. 

t N.. -K-. limn btooa* 



2 66 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Congeal, n. 

Congeal it, tr. 

Congeal thyself 

Congeal me 

Cause to congeal 

Share out, apportion, tr. 

Bring together, collect, tr. 

Collect for thyself, intr. 

Collect for me or me, p. 

Separate, tr. 

Divide, tr. 

Scatter, tr. 

Join, what broken, tr. 

Disjoin, undo, tr. 

Mix, tr. 
Unmix, tr. 
Save (money), tr. 
Squander, tr. 
Spread, tr. 

Fold, tr. 

Be shut, intr., or shut thyself 

Shut it, tr. 

Be open, open for thyself, intr. 

Open it, tr. 

Press, squeeze, compress it, tr. 

Compressed be, or compress thyself or 

compress with own hand 
Depress, tr. 

Be depressed, depress for thyself 
Express, tr. 
Be expressed, intr. 
Turn over carefully, tr. 

Turn topsy-turvy. Put in disorder 
Spread in sun to dry (grain), tr. 
Roll up, tr. 

Unroll, tr. 

Be loose, be slack, n. 

Loosen, slacken, tr. 

Be tight 

Tighten thy own or for thyself 

Tighten, tr. 

Cause to tighten 
Gird thy loins, a. intr. 
Bind, tr. 

Unbind, tr. 
Pack, tr. 
Unpack, tr. 
Load, tr. 
Unload, tr. 



Ningla.* Nengla 
Ningto. Nengto 
Nengche 



Ningpingko 

Pleko, plesung, pleche (conj. x.), pleto 

Ko'iia pdko. Hupto 

Hupche 

Hupsung 

Ge'ge' pdko 

Thuto, thusung, thunche 

Hampo 

Thuphto (Thusto) thussung, thusche 

(conj. vii.) 
Chhdko, chhasung, chhdche, chhdto 

(conj. x.) 

Khunto, khunsung, khunche 
Thoto, thosung, thonche \ 
Hupto, hupsung, hupche > conj. vi. 
Hopto, hopsung, hopche ) 
Poko, posung, poche. Hdmpo, hdm- 

sung, hiimche 
Kh<5ko, khtfsung, kh6che 
TLikche 

Thikto (conj. vi.) 
Honche t 

Honko, like pingko 
Napto 
Napche 

Phimto conj. vi. 

Phimche 

Pelto 

Pelche 

Lo'ko (Lok-ko), Loksung, Lok-che, 

Lok-to 

Khdliin, khulim, psiko 
Blento or Bento, blensung, blenche 
Ku'ko (Kukko), kuksung, kukche, 

kukto (conj. xi ) 
Chhalco, chhasung, chhache, chhato 

(conj. x.) 

Woso dum. Woso ponche 
Woso pdko, posung, pdnche, pdto 
Khwa, s., ta dum 
Khwa~sche 
Khwd, s., to khwassung, khwaache 

(conj. vii.) 
Khwat'pingko 
Kikche 
Pdugto, pjlnsung, pdnche. Wampo, 

wamsung, wamche, wauito 
ChMko (see Unroll) 
Khuli pdko 
Khuli chhjiko 
Ku pingko 
Khuli tdko, tosung,tdnche (conj. x.),t(to 



* E and i, like o and u, are constantly commuted. 

t Thikche and honche, shut thyself, and open thyself, addressed to the door. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



267 



Put on, tr. 

Take off, tr. 

Take off (from fire) 

Put in, insert, tr. 
Take out, tr. 

Pour in, tr. 

Catch as poured in, tr. 
Pour out on ground, tr. 
Suspend, tr. 

Take down what suspended, tr. 
Take hold of, tr. 

Quit hold of, tr. 

Throw, tr. 

Catch as thrown, tr. 

Stay, stop, intr. 

Stay it, stop it, tr. 

Stop me 

Let go, tr. 

Enable to go, tr. 

Be clean, n. 

Make clean, tr. 

Wash things only, tr. 

Wash thy own, intr. 

Wash me or mine, p. 

Rub or rob it, tr. 

Rub thy own or rub simply, iiitr. 

Rub me or mine 

Be polished 

Polish it, tr. 

Polish it for thyself 

Coyer, tr. 

Cover thyself 

Cover me 

Uncover, tr. 

Uncover thyself or thy own 

Shoot, with arrow, gun, tr. 

Shoot me or for me 
Shoot thyself or for thyself 
Shoot it for him, tr. 
Stone, hit with atone, tr. 
4 it* neck, tr. 

X not its neck 

clothes, tr. 
Wring not clothes 
Twist rope, tr. 
Untwist rope, tr. 
Resemble, be like 



Cho'ko (chokko), choksung, chokche, 

chokto (conj. xi.) 

Luko, lusung, luehe, luto (conj. x.) 
Yo'po, yoppo, yopsuug, yopche, yopto 

(conj. viii.) 

Kheko, khesung,kheclie,kheto (conj.x.) 
Thophto (thosto), thossung, thosche 

(conj. vii.) 

Kheko, khesung,kheche, kheto (conj.x.) 
Chosto, chhossung, chhosche (conj. vii.) 
Doko, dosung, doche (couj. x.) 
Lukto 
Chisto, chissung, chische. Yeko, 

vesung, veche, veto 
Luko, lusung, luche, luto (conj. x.) 
Chhuko, chhusung, chhusche, chhuto 

(conj. x.) 

Teshto, tesche, tessung (conj. vii.) 
Jupto, jupsung, jupche 
Doko, dosung, doche, doto 
Thikche 
Thikto 
Thiksung 
Lat'pingko 
Lat'phdto (phasto) 
W6ta dum. Wuche 
Woto, w<5sung, wdche (conj. vi.) 
Chhunko 
Chhunche 
Chhunsung 
Khisto 
Khische 
Khissung 
Liku ponche 
Liku pdko 
Liku pdnche 
Rumto. Supto 
Rumche. Supche 
Rumsung. Supsung 
Honko, hongsung, honche, hongto 
Hongche 
Wo'po (wop-po). Wopaung, wopche 

(conj. viii.) 
Wopsung 
Wopoht 
Wopto 

Chilsto, chassung, chasche 
A'ATpo (khippo), khipbung, khipche, 

khipto 
-/lip' 

Pelto, pelsung, pelche 
Thd pelto 

!'l>o, couj. viii.) 
Cbhdko (see Loosen) 
Tosohe. Totvi dum 



po is used only subnUnMvcly, a rope. Just no the root kai moan* 
the hand and to msp in Telegu and Tamil, but to msn only in Newari. Whosoever will 
fAiu March may discover the true extent, quoad word*, of Turanian affinities, not otherwise. 



>oc lire. 



268 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Cause to resemble or liken simply Tophto (tosto). Totvi pilko 

Cause to cause to resemble, or cause to Tot'pingko 

liken 
Be unlike 
Make unlike 

Be white, n. (things, animals) 
Be white (rationals only) 
Whiten it, tr. 
Whiten him, tr. 
Whiten me 
Whiten thyself or it for thyself, or do 

thou thyself whiten him or it 
Whiten it for him 
Be ripe (fruits) 
Make ripe (ditto) 
Be ripe (grains) 
Make ripe (ditto) 
Be wet or wet thyself 
Wet it 

Cause it to be wetted 
Be dry (things only) 
Dry it 

Dry it in sun 
Dry it at fire 
Be flavoursome 
Flavour it, tr. 
Be sweet, n. 
Sweeten it, tr. 
Be sour 
Make sour 
Be bitter 
Make bitter 
Be knotted, intr. 

Knot it, tr. 

Be great, n. 

Make great, tr. 

Be heavy, intr. 

Make heavy, tr. 

Be light (levis) 

Make light, tr. 

Be hard, intr. 

Harden it, tr. 

Cause to harden or to be hardened 

Be soft 

Soften it, tr. 

Be crooked 



Crook it, tr. 



Mitng totvi dura 

M.lng totvi pdko 

Djtwdng dum. Ddwdng ponche 

Bochho dum, ponche 

Diiwdng pstko 

Bochho pjiko 

Ddwdng, or bochho, posting 

Dtlwdug, or bochho, pdnche 

Diiwdng pdto 

Jito, jisuug, jinche 

Min 

Minko, minsung, minche, minto 

Nd'-che (nasche) (conj. vii.) 

NiTto, nasto, nassung, nasche (conj. vii.) 

Nat'pingko 

Dung 

Dung pingko 

Boko or bloko,* blosung, blosche, blosto 

Sungko, suugsung, sungche, sungto 

Chhumche 

Chhumto, chhumsung, chhumche 

Chhinjijf dum or ponche 

Chhinji, thumto or pdko 

Jusche 

J usto 

Khdsche 

Khdsto, khasto, khassung, khasche 

(conj. vii.) 
Rupche 
Ilupto 
//on (Khon) 
//onto, //onta thumto 
Lishche. Lishtadum 
Lishto. Lit phdto 
Oksdng dum 
Oksdng pdko 
Chamche 

Chamto, chamsung, chamche 
Champingko 
Nalcho dum 
Nalcho pdko 
Khokche. Khokta dum 
Kho'ko. Khokko, khoksung, khokche 

khokto 
Khokta thumto 



9. Adverbs and Prepositions compared. 

Come, n. Phi' 

Come in Bhitari phi'. Bek' 



* Every initial labial followed by a vowel admits ad libitum of an interposed liquid, thus 
boko vel bloko and so bekto vel blekto = write. I may here add that v an<i y are constantly 
used both to keep apart concurring vowels and to facilitate the utterance of initial vowels. 

t For chhiuji, sweetness, read chhiujimu, sweet. 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



269 



Come out 

Come back, to rear 

Come on, to front 

Come up 

Come down 

Come back = return 

Come again 

Come once 

Come twice 

Come thrice 

Come four times 

Come at once or in one place or together 

Come at once, at one time 

Come near 

Come close 

Come apart 

Come far away 

Come with 

Come with me 

Come alone 

Come without me thee him 

Come towards me thee him 

Come up to me, as far as my position 

Come as far as this that 

Come quickly 

Come slowly 

Come by and by, after awhile 

Come silently 

Come noisily 

Come early 

Come at sunrise 

Come at sunset 

Come late 

Come loiteringly 

Come over by top 

Come under by under way 

Come through, between 

Come across 

Come to this that aide 

Come constantly 

Come sometimes 

Come ever 

Come never 

Never come again 

Come by this side 

Come by that side 

Come to the right 

Come by the left 

Come from the west 

Come to the east 

Come towards the east 



Tongmaphi'. Lok' 

Nongna phi' or ponche 

Hanko phi'. Honko ponche 

Lonkha or Wanhe phi'. Jok' 

Yonkha or Huthe phi'. Yu' * 

Kbdlip phi' or Lische 

Gessa phi 

Kophi phi 

Nafcphi phi 

Chhukphi phi 

Blikphi phi 

Kolube phi 

Kophe phi 

Khewa phi 

Ko'na phi 

Gege phi 

Kholdm phi 

Ko'na phi 

Ansj nung phi 

Chhdle phi 

Angina" nosa phi'. Ungmd nosa phi'. 

Amd nosa phi 
Ang rek phi'. Uug rek phi'. Wathim 

rek phi 
Ang bong phi 

fnung bong phi. Minung bong phi' 
Wdliga phi 

Pomha or Pomhana phi' 
Omophe phi' 
Giwonha phi' 
Tarn ni tarn phi' 
Honko phi' 
Nomoloksinge phi' 
Nomo thip singhe phi' 
Nongna phi' 
Gd'gaYha phi' 
Wani phi'. Waniin khen phi'. Khak- 

khakha phi' 

Hutti phi. Hutim khen phi' 
Mddumna phi 

Thekche phi t or Thek thekha phi 
Imba phi. Homba phi 
Phina phi ponche 
Kophi nakphi phi 
No such phrase 
Hdkhelef thapl.i' 
Hdkhele gessa thaphi 
Inikh.-n phi 

Mini wathim khenphi 
Jajitb* phi 
Khiinja khen phi 
Nomothip IIIIIK kh>n phi 

lok lung be plti 
Nomolok lung rekphi 



The words yfl, jok' t lok', bek, carry the sense of the adverb* and would always be used. 
I have retained phi' to force the expression of Mparate adverb* M far M nowrible. 

: list U, oroMing coma . having crossed coruo, thek thekha 



phi. The nrund of present time, thekhe. l never usrd on uch oocssions. 
-*hele can only be used with 



the negat ire, like jamaU in French. 



270 



VAYU VOCABULARY. 



Come towards the west 
Go towards the plains 
Go as far as Nepal 
Give a little 
Give much 
Give secretly 
Give openly 
Give gladly 

Give sulkily 
Give to-day 
Give mutually 
Give continually 
Strike forcibly 
Strike gently 
A house 
Of a house 
To a house 
A house 
In a house 
From the house 
By (inst.) the house 

J-fjth. house 



the house 



As far as house 

Towards the house 

Before the house 

Opposite, in front of, the house 

Behind the house 

To the rear of house 

On, upon, the house 

Above the house 

From upon house 

Beneath house 

Below the house 

From under house 

Near the house 

Far from house 

At the house 

On account of house 

In lieu of a house 

Through the house 

Beyond the house 

To right of house 

To left of house 

On this side the house 

On that side the house 

From this side the house 

From that side the house 

With (having) a house 
"Without (wanting) a house 



Nomothiplung rekphi 

Origin mulungrek la'la 

Nepal bong la'la" 

Ydnggndk hrito 

Chhinggnak ha*to 

Khinta baha hato 

Khu'nta baha hato 

Yot'yot'ha or bong ni bong or bong- 

bongha ha"to 
MiCng yot'yot'ha-hdto 
Tiri ha"to 

Ha'ha", pdnachhe, pochhe, Duals 
Hanaba" pako 
Chotiha to'po 
Pom hana to'po 
Kern 
Kemmu 
Kem 

Kern (no dat or ace. sign) 
Kem be 
Kem khen 
Kem ha 

Kem bhitari 

Kem tougma 

Kem bong 

Kem rek 

Kem honko 

Kem kakphang. Kemmu birali be * 

Kem nongna. Kem senti be 

Kem wdni be 

Kem khen lonkha 

Kem wiini khen 

Kem hutti be 

Kem khen yonkha 

Kem hutti khen 

Kem khewa 

Kem khen kholam 

Kem be 

Kem mu lisi 

Kem mu let'chhing 

Kem mu ma*dumna 

Kem wathe or kem homba 

Kem mu jdjd 

Kem mu khdnja 

Kem mu imba or kem imba 

Kem mu or kem homba 

Kem inikhen. Kem imbam khen 

Kem wathi khen. Kem mini khen. 

Kem hombam khen 
Kem not'he. Kem got'he 
Kem ma* not'he. Kem md got'he 



Kem mu bimli be = house of front in ; kem senti be = house-back in. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 271 



B. VAYU GRAMMAR.* 

I. Declension of Pronouns. 

PERSONALS. SINGULAR. 

N. I, Go. 

G. of me, Ang, conjunct = my.t Angmu, disjunct, = mine 

6. No sign 



Ab. from me, Ang khen 

Ins. by me, G'ha" (go-ha) 

Soc. with me, Augnung 

Priv. without me, Ang md nosa J 

DUAL. 

N. Go* nakpu, m. f. Go* ndyung, n. Or Go nakpu, m. Go nangmi, f. 

Go ndyung, n. 

CONJUNCT. 
G. Angchi, excl. Ungchi, incl. 

DISJUNCT. 

G. Angchimu, excl. Ungchimu, incl. 

D. Ace. Gonakpu, m. f. Gonargung, n. 
L. Angchi, be, excl. Ungchi be, incl. 

Ab. Angchi khen, excl. Ungchi khen, incl. 

Ina. Go nakpu ha or or Ghd nakpu ha 

Angchi nung, excl. Ungchi nung, incl. 

PLURAL. 

N. G6 khdta 

CONJUNCT. 
G. Angki, excl. Ungki, incl. 

DISJUNCT. 

Angkimu, excl. Ungkimu, incl. 
J). Ac. Go" khdta. No d 
L. AiiL'ki be, excl. Ungki be, incl. 

Ab. Angki khen, excl. Ungki khen, incl. 

In-. Go khata ha or gha khata ha 

Soc. Angkiuung, excl. Ungkinung, incl. 

Observe that thin examination of the Vayu tongue, like the following one 
tongue, U diTided into H.) M vocabulary and (I I ) a grammatical portion, but that both aro no 
constructed as to complement each other n .,; the Htructuro of the language* in 



. 

t A nif, the conatructive form of go*, means my before a subatantiTe or qualitative tued sub- 
vely, but beiore a tranaitive participle it mean* me or of me, e.p. t ang tovl, who beata 
the beater of me. Yet ang to|>ch yiug ia my club, topchytug being the neuter form of 
i 

o ia no proi>er priTative participle, nor, consequently, case. Ang mA nosa or go* ma 
noaa-if I U not, I not being, or my not being (prssmtX In Khas, man na bhai ; in Newari, 
ji madtuia. 

f Nakpn, nay tmtr U the neoond numeral which is gendered when used a]>.< 
fully I t ).i nk. and still more so when used an M dual sign. 1 find, however, nakpu, naiigmi, 
nayung, for the three genders. Also hie et base uu 



272 VAYU GRAMMAR. 





SECOND PERSON. 


N. 


Gon. 


G. 


Ung, conjunct., thy. Ungmu, disjunct., = thine 


D. Ace. 


Gon. No sigii 


L. 


Ung be 


Ab. 


Ung khen 


Ins. 


Gon ha 


S. 


Ung nung 




DUAL. 


N. 


Gonchhe 


G. 


Ungchhi, conj. Uugchhimu, disj. 


D. Ace. 


Gonchhe. No sign 


L. 


Ungchhi be 


Ab. 


Ungchhi khen 


In a. 


Gonchhe ha 


Soc. 


Ungchhi nung 




THIRD PERSONAL. 


N. 


Wathi. All three genders 


G. 


Wathim, conj. Wathimmu, disj. 


D. Ace. 


Wathi. No sign 


L. 


Wathim be 


Ab. 


Wathim khen 


Ins. 


Wathi ha 


Soc. 


Wathim nung 




DUAL. 


N. 


Wathi nakpu, m. Wathi nangmi, f. Wathi nayung, n. c. 




aforegone 




Wathim nakpum, conj. ) 




Wathim nakpumu, disj. \ 




Wathim nangmim, conj. ) - 
Wathim nangmimu, disj. \ 




Wathim nayung, conj. ) , 
. nr-n . SLi I n - and c - 



See note 



D. Ace. Wathi nakpu, m. Wathi nangmi, f. Wathi nayung, n. and c. 

Loc. Wathim nakpumbe, m. Wathim nangmi be, f. Wathim nayung be, 

n. and c. 
Ab. Wathim nakpum khen, m. Wathim nangmim khen, f. Wathim 

nayung khen, n. and c. 

Ins. Wathi nakpu ha, m. Wathi nangmi ha, f. Wathi nayung ha, n. and f. 

Soc. Wathim nakpum nunsr, m. Wathim nangmim nung, f. Wathim 

nayung nuug, n. and c. 

PLURAL. 

N. Wathi khdta, m. f. n. 

G. Wathim khatam, couj. Wathim khatamu, disj. 

D. Ac. Wathi khata. 
Loc. Wathim khata be. 

Ab. Wathim khata khen. 

Ins. Wathi khata ha. 

Soc. Wathim khata nung. 

NEAR DEMONSTRATIVE. 

N. r. All three genders. 

G. Inung, conj. Inungrau, disj. 

* I', this, and mf, that, ha ve the pausing tone which I sometimes represent hv doubling the 
vowel, i ii, mi i. Tbe abrupt, as well as the pausing tone, is well developed in Vayu, an<l also 
in Kiranti, notwithstanding the pronomeualised, euphonic, and compounding character of the 
languages. . 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 273 



D. Ac. 


I'. No sign. 




Loc. 


Inung be. 




Ab. 


Inung khen. 




Ins. 


I'ha. 




Soc. 


Inung nung. 






DUAL. 




N. 


Inakpu, m. Inangmi, f. Inayung, n. and c. 






Inakpum, conj. ) 






Inakpumu, disj. \ 






Inanguiim, conj. ) - 







Inangmimu, disj. \ 






Inayung, conj. ) ftnd 






Inayungmu, disj. \ 




D.Ac. 


Inakpu, m. Inangmi, f. Iiiayung, n. 




L. 
Ab. 


Inung nakpumbe, m. Inung nangrnimbe, f. Inung nayung be, n. 
Inung nakpum khen, m. Inung nanginim khen, f. Inung uayung 




khen, n. c. 




Ins. 


Inak poha, m. Inangmi ha, f. Inayung ha, n. and c. 




Sue. 


Inung nakpum nung, m. Inung uangmiui nuug, f. Inung nayuug 




nung, n. c. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


ITthata. All genders. 






Inung khatam, conj. Inung khatamu, disj. 




D.Ac. 


1'khata. 




Loc. 


Inung khata be. 




Abl. 


Inung khata khen. 




Ins. 


I'khata ha". 




Soc. 


Inung khata nung. 






REMOTE DEMONSTRATIVE. 




N. 


Mi.* All genders. 




G. 


Minung, conj. Minungmu, disj., &c., as in the last. 






Interrogative and distributive pronoun, m. f. Who ? Any one. 


Some 




person. Su or Suna. Subs, and adj. 




N. 


Su. Suna. 




G. 


Sum. Sundm, conj. Sumu. Suuamu, disj. 




D. Ac. 


Su. Suna. 




Loc. 


Sube, Sunabe. 




Ab). 


Sukhen, Sunakhen. 




Ins. 


Suha, Sunaha. 




Soc. 


Sunung, Suuanung. 






DUAL. 




N. 


Su or Suna nakpu, m. Su or Suna uangmi, f., &c., as before. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


Su or Sunakhata, aa before. 






Interrogative and distributive pronoun, n. What? Any or 


some- 




"g. 






MUche. 






MUchem, conj. Mischemu, diaj., &c. 






DUAL. 




N. 


Miache nayung, &c. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


Miflche khata, &c. 




Relative, interrogative, and distributive pronoun and pronominal adjcc- 
wbicb, what, who. 



* See note (*) on previous p*g. 
VOL. I. 



274 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

N. Ha"nung, m. f. n. 

G. Hinung,* couj. Ha"nungmu, disj., &c. 

DUAL. 
N. Hanung nakpo, m. Hanung nangmi, f. Hanung navung, n. 

Hanung nakpum, m. 

Hanung nangmim, f. > conj. 
Q Hanung nayung, n. 

Hanung nakpumu, 

Hanung nangmimu, > disj. 

Hanung nayungmu, 

And so on, like wathi, except that hanung has no inflexional shape (itself being 
inflexional). Hence it has hanung nakpo and hanung khata where wathi has 
wathim nakpo and wathim khata. And this is likewise the case with the posses- 
sive pronouns, all of which, though but genitives of the personals, are regarded 
as independent, and declined like the personals. 

Thus also are declined the interrogative and relative of number and quantity, 
with its correlative, or Hdthd, Mitha = how much or many ? and so much or 
many. Thus also the adverbs of time and place, Inhe, here, Wathe and Minhe, 
there ; Hanhe, where ? Tthe or Umbe or Abo, now ; Mithe, then ; Hdkhe, when ? 
with all the rest of the adverbs that are not gerunds. 

Observe that these adverbs are derived from the demonstratives in the locative 
case. But where T, Mi, and Wathi, the pronouns, take the inflexional m, or 
Hung (whence come inungmu and wathimmu = his), the corresponding adverbs 
have no inflexional mark, but remain immutable, only adding the declensional 
signs m or rau, be, khen, &c. ; and thus we have ithamu and inhemu, of here, 
and ithakhen, inhekhen, from here, and abomu, of now, abokhen from now, not 
abommu, abomkhen. 

Observe also that the conjunct possessives (genitives of the personals) are 
indeclinable, but that the disjunct are declinable like the personals. Ang, ung, 
wathim inung, minung, are inflexional forms merely, therefore angkhen from 
me. But angmu is a possessive pronoun proper, whence angmukhen-be-ha 
from mine, in mine, by mine. 

2. Declension of Nouns (Substantive). 
I. SUBSTANTIVES PROPER. 

Loncho, a man, m. 

JST. L<5ncho 

G. Ldwcho, conj.f Lo/tchomu, disj. 

D. Ac. L<5ncho 

L. L6/ichobe 

Ab. Ldnchokhen 

Ins. L6nchoha 

Soc. Ldnchonung 

DUAL. 

N. L6ncho nakpo J 

* The conjunct form of the genitive of this pronoun has no sign, being marked by position 
alone, as when two substantives meet is always admissible. Hanung is itself a genitive = of 
whom, of which, e.g. , hanung got ha = of which (and which) hand ; hanungmu= whose, apart, or 
in reply ; hanungmu got = the hand of whom ; hanung got = which hand. 

t The first of two substantives is by position alone a genitive, as loncho got, the man's 
hand. But apart, it must have the sign, as lonchomu, the man's. 

J Generally in the Himalayan languages, the dual and plural signs are eschewed in 
regard to substantives proper, except where ambiguity would arise from omitting them. In 
regard to appellatives and qualitives used substantively, as all maybe, these signs arc always 
annexed, ami also those of gender, because such words (and pronouns of the third j 
also, to which the same rule applies), unlike the former, tell nothing of themselves on these 
points. Vayu, however, freely applies its dual and plural signs and its sex signs, where it 
has any, to all nouns and pronouns, though the structure of its verb renders such use of the 
dual and plural signs superfluous, e.g., be"li imchimem. the sheep are sleeping. Newari, 
though void of such help, lacks a dual and plural of neuters. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 275 

IxSncho nak pum,* conj. Ldwcho nak pumu, diej. 
D. Ac. Lo/jcho nakpo 
Loc. L(5nchonak pube 

Abl. Ltfucho nakpnkhen 

Ins. Ldncho nakpuhii 

Soc. L6/cho nakpu nung 

PLURAL. 

N. Lo/ichokhata f 

G. L<5nchokhatam,* conj. Lo;icho khatamu, disj. 

I '. Ac. L6/icho khata 

L. Loncho khabe 

Abl. IxSncho khata kben 

Soc. L6;icho khata nung 

Thus also is declined the feminine noun mescho, a woman ; the epicine noun 
singtong, mankind ; and all such without reference to gender. Neuters also are 
similarly declined. But I add a specimen 

Sing, wood, a neuter. 
N. Sing* 

G. Sing, conj. Singmu, disj., &c. 

DUAL. 

Ndng sing (ndng is a contraction of N;iyung), or 
Sing nayung 
G. Xang sing, conj. Nang singmu, disj., &c. 

PLURAL. 

N. Sing khata 

Sing khata, conj. Sing khatamu, disj., &c. 

2d. Participles used substantively. (Remark. When they are used adjVctively, 
which they all are to a great extent, they precede the noun, and are immutable 
like all other adjectives.) 

T<5'vi, he or she who beats, the beater, m. and f. 
N. T6'vi, m. f. 

T<5\i, conj. To'vimu, disj. 
I>. Ar. T.Vvi, &c. 

DUAL. 
X. | To"vi nakpu, m. To'vi nanirmi, f. 

T6"vi nak j.n, in. r'-nj. Tu'vi nangmi, f. conj. To'vi nakpumu, m. disj. 

To'vi nangmimu, f. disj., &c. as before. 

PLURAL. 

T6"vi khata, m. f. 

T6"vi kliata, conj. To'vi khatamu, disj., &c., as before 

Topchydng, neuter of the above, what one strikes with, as cli. 

N. vdng 

Q. Topchyiing, conj. Topchydngnm, di.-j., &c. 

DUAL. 

Mg. 

Nang topchyiing, conj. Nang topchy.ingmu, dicj., &c. 
;AL. 

Toprhy:inR kllltta 

O. hydng khata, conj. Topchyiing khaUmu, difij., &c. 

HhnuM rather read tmkpu and khata for the reason pi 

informaol t though they never apply the genitive to the conjunct furm of this caae n 
ingular, do w> in the dual and plural, 
t See note (I) on previous page. 



276 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

So also Topta, who or what has been beaten, m. f. n., with the requisite 
adaptation of nakpu, nangmi or na"ng (ndyung) in the dual. 

3d. Qualitives used substantively, e.g., 



Khakchhing-wo, m. 



= the black one, being or thing. 



Khakchhing-mi, f. 
Khakchhing-mu, n. and c. 

This and all the like are declined as above. And BO also are the qualitives 
which substitute the formative " cho " for " wo " in the masculine, as bang-cho, 
a mature man ; bing-cho, a handsome man, &c. The feminines of these are in 
" mi," as in the last. They have no neuters in this form, but they can superadd. 
the usual m. f. n. signs, as bang-cho-wo, a mature man ; bang-cho-mi, a mature 
woman ; bang-cho-mu, a mature thing ; and then of course they have the com- 
plete hie, hjec, hoc of gender. 

4th. The numerals, inclusive of the adverbial ones. 

5th. Derivative qualitives formed from abstracts, as Daksa-wo, the covetous 
man ; daksa-ini, the covetous woman, from daksa, covetousness. Choti-wo, the 
strong man ; choti-rni, the strong woman ; choti-mu, the strong thing, from 
choti, strength. Suksa-wo, the hungry man ; suksa-mi, the hungry woman, 
from suksa, hunger ; and all such. 

6th. Nominal as well as pronominal genitives, which, with the m or mu forma- 
tive, are all treated as distinct substantives, e.g., singmumu, the wooden one. 
(Remark. The cacophonous iteration of the mu (though often truncated in the 
second syllable, singmum), owing to the coincidence of the genitivul and forma- 
tive signs, makes the use of such words rare when a possessive case meaning 
must be assigned to them. They are used, however, freely in all other cases.) 

7th. Simple or compound words indicating one's country, profession, or avoca- 
tion, and the like, and which are not expressed participially,* form yet another 
class of substantives, as Chhugong-wo = a Bhotia, or native of Tibet ; Chhugong- 
mi, a Bhotiui, or female of Tibet ; He"ngoug-wo (m.) ; Hengong-mi (f.), a male 
and female of Nepal proper ; Gye'timnamsang-wo-mi, a male and female stranger 
or foreigner ; Rukcho-wo-mi, a male and female ploughman ; B<5chh6"-wo-ini, a 
male and female European (white-body) ; Ga"ginmulung-wo-mi, a male and female 
of the plains. In short, nouns of whatever sort (and the above enumeration has 
been made here, though not strictly germain to declension, expressly to show the 
various sorts of nouns and their mode of construction), and pronouns also, 
wherever used substantively or disjunctly, and therefore declinable, all follow 
the above single form of declension. And, on the other hand, every noun and 
pronoun when used conjunctly, that is, preceding a substantive which is thereby 
qualified, is always indeclinable, and, for the most part, altogether unchangeable, 
having no expressed grammatical affections whatever, the signs of genders being 
neglected in use even where they exist. Indeed, qualifying and qualified words 
seem to be as much as possible regarded as constituting a single compound term ; 
and, the more effectually to ensure this, one of the two elements (the one that 
goes first in the compound) is customarily truncated ; thus risa, a plantain, and 
singphum, a tree, make risaphum ; and topmung, to strike, and rmum, I fear, 
make toprdtnurn. And so also the inflexional forms of the personal pronouns 
which are used as qualifying or adjectival words, are to be regarded as quasi 
agglutinated and perfectly immutable prefixes of the substantive, entirely distinct 
from the correspondent pronouns of the possessive kind, which latter stand apart 
and are liable to declensional changes after the above model, like all other 
qualitives used substantively or disjunctly. 

* The participles (in vi, ta, and tang), being inherently relative, assume a substantival 
character without the necessity of affixing the usual appellative fonnatives in wo vel cho and 
mi, though these may be superadded, if to mark the sex of the agent be specially requiifd. 
Thus to'vi, the striker, the he or she who strikes, is not only an adjective, as to'vi ta'wo, the 
beating boy, but an independent noun, the beater. Nevertheless, would you specify the sex, 
you can say to'vi-wo, the male striker, aud to'vi-mi, the female striker. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



277 



VAYU VERBS. 

First. Conjugation of neuters, conjugated from the sheer root. 
Verb Phi, to come. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Affirmative. Phit'mung, to come or to have come, aoristic.* 
Negative. M&ig phit'mung, not to come, &c. 

GERUNDS. 

Phit'he ) ^ ^ c ri^-^r. i Phit'he, with verbs in present tense. 

Phit'nung i r lg j Phit'nung, with verbs in preterite. 

Phit'hephit'he, or Phit'nung phit'nung, continuative present. 

I'hit'phit'ha. Past, having come. 

Phit'ainghe. Present or Future, when coming. 

Phit'khen. Past, after coming, after having come. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Phit'vi. Present and future, who or what comes or will come. Also the 
comer substantival. 

Phis'ta. Past, who or what has come or came. 

I These forms, expressing respectively passive futurity or fitness 
DUDS or habit> and instrumentalit y> locality, and time, are hardly 

or not at all useable, save with verbs more or less transitive. 
See on to them in sequel. 



N . 13. The medial t' and s' are merely enunciative, not formative. 



Singula 



Phi 
Th.i phi 



'sular. 

1. Phignom 

2. PMmi 

3. Phimi 

1. Phisungmi 

2. Phimi 

3. Phimi 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 
Phichhe 

Negative. 
Thd phichhe 



Plural. 
Phine 

Tha phiue 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Future tense, used also for present. 

Dual. Plum!. 

( Phi chhokrai, excl. Phikokmi, excl. 

( Phi chhikmi, incl. Pliikem, incL 

i'iii chhikmi 1'liiiu-in 

Phi chhikmi I'hiinem 

Prekrite ten*. 

( Phi chhongini, excl. Phi kik^ngmi, excl. 

| Phi chhiugmi, incl. I'lii kikeogmi, incl. 

Phi chhem Phinem 

Phi chhem Phimem 



SCBJUNCTIVB MOOD. 
Prttent ten*. 



i-nam-sa 
:-nam-s 



hhiknam 
I'in chhiknam 



Plii kokniro, excl. 
Phi ken.iin, incl. 
I'hine n.itu 

ii.ua 



The InflniUvc U alao UMd ftdjocUvcly, and in nearly the same aa the participle in 
"tan?," ty., tihitmunglom or khokmuDKlom. a way to go by, an accessible road; khok- 
Unglom, a walkable road, a road fit for walking. 



278 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

Preterite. 

\ Phi chhoiig phen, excl. Phi ki k6ng phen, excl. 
I. Phisung phen . phi k - ken 



keng 

2. Phi phen Phi chhe phen Phi ne phen 

3. Phi phen Phi chhe phen Phi ine phen 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 

Present tense. 
Singular. 

1. Phigno ki ind ) And so on, as in the subjunctive ; that is, the terminal m 

2. Phi ki nid > or mi is dropped, and ki md, =or not, is added in lieu of 

3. Phi ki ma" J the subjunctive signs, nam or sa and phen. 

NEGATIVE MOOD. 

There is no separate negative verb. 

The affirmative verb is conjugated with ma", the particle of negation, before it, 
Mu phi gnom, M(i phi sungmi, &c. 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Singular. 

/For all tenses, phasche being aoristic except in dual 

1. Phit' phas chungmi I and plural. Phasche, the reflex form of the verb 

2. Phit' phas chein < phd, is conjugated with the root phi to express 

3. Phit' phas cheiu power. For phasche see iia'che in sequel, or 5th 

\ conjugation. 

PRECATIVE MOOD. 
Slnyular. 
Present. Preterite. 

1. Phi guo" yu Phisung yu j Drops the final m or mi of the ordinary verb, 

2. Phi yu Phi yu and substitutes for it the immutable verbal 

3. Phi yu Phi yu ) participle yu. 

Another form of the precative mood, equivalent to that which is usually joined 
with the imperative in English (let me come, come thou, let him come, &c.), is 
formed by compounding the infinitive of the main verb with the verb to give, 
used as an auxiliary, thus (omitting the 2d person, or imperative proper, which 
never can be mixed with auy other mood) : 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

I. Phimsung hdsung Phimung hdchgong Phimung hdtikong 

3. Phimung ha"to Phimung hdtochhe Phimung ha"tome 

The first ordinary form of the precative may be best rendered in English by 
0! that I may or might come, &c.; this, by, let me come, let him come, &c. , 
literally, give me to come, give him to come, and so on for the dual and plural 
according to the model of transitives in "to" in sequel. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. 



1. Phit' dakgnom Phit' daksungmi 

2. Phit' dakmi Phit' dtingmi 

3. Phit' dakmi Phit' dangmi 



And so on throughout the verb dak, 
to desire or want, which see iu. 
sequel. The root of the primary 
verb is prefixed. 



Remark. Duty, necessity, and propriety, as well as desire, are expressed by 
this mood, often in the impersonal form, mihi oportet vel decet, thus, go phit 
dakmi, I must, I ought to, come, it is necessary or proper for me to come ; you 
can also say, go phitmuug noh'ka, it is good for me to come. 

INCHOATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. 

1. Phit' teschungmi ) And so on, according to the paradigm of intransitives in 

2. Phit' teschem > che ; this mood being constructed from the root of the 

3. Phit' tescheui ) main verb and the reflex form of the verb to begin. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



279 



Singular. 

1. Phit' chuschungmi 

2. Phit' chuschem 
5. 1'liit' chuschem. 



FJNITIVE MOOD. 



And so on, as before noted, cliusche being the reflex 
form of the verb to end. 



CAUSAL MOOD. 



Preterite. 



Present. 

1 . Phit' pingsungmi Phit' ping kungmi 

2. Phit' pingrni Phit' ping kum 

3. Phit' pingiui Phit' ping kuin 



And so on, for dual and plural, 
throughout the verb pingko, 
which see. The root of the 
primary verb is prefixed. 



Singular. 

1. Phina phit'nognom 

2. Phina phit'nonum 

3. Phiua phit'uomi 

1. Phina phit'nosungmi 

2. Phina phit'nonum 

3. Phiua phit'nomi 



1. Phina phit'pdnchung- 

mi 

2. Phina phit'pdnchem 

3. Phiua phit'piinchein 

1. Phina phit'[>dnchung- 

mi 

2. Phina phit'pdnchem 

3. 1'hina phit'pdnehem 



CONTINUATIVE MOOD. 

Present tense. 

Dual. 

( Phina phit'uochhokmi 

( Phina phit'uochhikmi 

Phina phit'uochhikmi 

Phina phit'nochhikmi 

Preterite. 

( Phina phit'nochhongmi 
| Phiua phit'nochhingmi 
Phina phit'nochhem 
Phiua phit'uochhem 

RECIPROCAL MOOD. 

Present tense. 

( Phina phit'pdnachhokmi 

| Phina phit'pdnachhikmi 

Phina phit'pdnachhikmi 

Phiua phit'pdnachhikmi 

Preterite. 

( Phina phit'pdnachhongmi 
{ Phina phit'pdnachhingmi 

I'liiiia ]>hit'i>;(nachheni 
Phiiiu phit'pimachhem 



Plural.. 

Phina phit'nokokmi 
Phina phit'nokem 
Phina phit'nonem 
Phina phit'nomem 

Phina phit'nokikongmi 
Phina phit'nokikengmi 
Phina phit'nonem 
Phiua phit'nomem 



Phina phit'pdchikokmi 
Phina phit'pachikem 
Phiua phit'pdchinem 
Phiua phit'pdchimeui 

Phina phit'pdchikongmi 
Phina phit'pdchikengmi 
Pinna phit'pdchinem 
Phina phit'pdchimem 



Remark. Of the above two the first mood is formed by the root repeated with 
intervening reflex sign, and the substantive verb u<5, to be. The second is formed 
by the same treatment of the root and the reflex form of the verb pa", to do, for 
which see conjugation V. The second, or reciprocal mood, is hardly useable iu 
the singular number. 

According to this paradigm of the neuter verb to come, are conjugated also the 
verbs gd, to be dilatory; ji, to ripen (fruit) ; ri, to rot ; so", to fruit ; go, to liv<- ; 
to descend; vi, to be intoxicat-,1 ; j.hwtf, to quarrel; and, iu a woi< 
- presenting a sheer rt in the imperative, and which are all neuters. 
Essentially the same is the conjugation of neuters having added to the shen 
a conjunct and now (quoad force or meaning) obsolete consonant,* \\ lr,. :. 
sonant, however, according as it is labial, guttural, or dental, occasions some 
light variations in the form of conjugation. Nasal endings make no change 
, dong gnoin, dongmi dongmi). 1 subjoin a sample of each variation. 

Second. Coi f neuters with a conjunct -utturul, <1 ,ik', to desire 

(da-k). 



the so-called "euphonic additions" to the root iu the cultivated Dravidiau 



280 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



ut supra. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Affirmative. 
Negative. 

(Gerunds. Participles. 

Dak he } Dakvi 

Dak nung Dakta 

Dak he dak he I, Daktang 

Dak dak ha Verbal nouns 

Dak sing he Dak chyang ) not 

Dak khen Dak lung j useable. 

Dak sing 

The negative of all is formed as in the infinitive, mdng dak he, mdng dak 
vi, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Dak' Dakchhe Ddngne 

Negative Imperative. 
Thd dak Thd dakchhe Thd ddngne 



Singular. 

1. Dak gnom 

2. Dakmi 

3. Dakmi 



1. Daksungmi 

2. Ddngmi 

3. Ddugmi 



l 



! 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 

Dual. Plural. 

Dak chhokmi, excl. ( Dak kokmi, excl. 
Dak chhikmi, incl. ( Dak kern, incl. 
Dak chhikmi Daknem 

Dak chhikmi Dakmem 

Preterite. 

( Dak'ki kongmi, or Ddki 
Dak chhongmi 1 kongmi 

Dak chbingmi ^ Dak'ki kengmi, or Daki- 

( kengmi 

Dak chhem Dak nem or Ddngnem 

Dak chhem Dakmem 

The other moods as before. 

Thus are conjugated buk', to get up ; bok', to be born ; bek', to enter ; lok', 
to issue, to appear ; gik', to flow ; kdk', to shine (sun) ; chok', to glow (sun) ; 
jik', to be broken ; jok', to come up ; duk', to fall from aloft ; ruk', to fall on 
ground ; ok', to weep ; hok', to be prosperous ; juk', to be wise, and all such 
words, as also the compounds e*pidak, cacare, che*pi ddk, mingere, tidak, to be 
thirsty. 

Third. Conjugation of neuters with a conjunct labial (m or p) : I. in 
m. Dam to be full and to be lost, or to fill and to lose in the intransitive 
senses.* 

Infinitive and participles as before. 



8-3 



Affirmative 
Negative 



Dam 
Thd dam 



IMPERATIVE. 

Damche 
Thd damchhe 



Damne 
Thd damne 



* The Vdyu neuter and passive conjugations coincide, and the expressions often tally with 
the equivalent English ones, as dami, it is lost, and it is filled or full that is, self-lost and 
self-filled. But the Va"yu reflex verb, like the French, can express the latter meaning other- 
wise, viz., by damchem, which is equivalent to dami, used neutrally. Dam la lam is another 
equivalent form, answering literally to khdgaya" in Urdu, thouyh Vrfyu never forms its pas- 
sives like Urdu. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



281 



1. Diimum (Dam- 

mum) 

2. Ddmi 

3. Ddrni 



1. Dam sungmi 

2. Ddmi 

3. Diimi 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 
Dam chhokmi, excl. 
Dam chhikmi, incl. 
Dam chhikmi 
Dam chhikmi 

Preterite. 

( Dam chhongmi, excl. 
( Dam chhingmi, iucl. 

Dam chhem 

Dam.chhem 



( Ddmpopmi 
| Ddmpein 

Damnem 

Ddmem 



I Ddmpi kongmi 
| Ddmpi keugmi 

Damnem 

Dduiem 




The other moods as before. In subjunctive, ddmonam, damnam, damnam. 
Thus also conjugate rain, to be afraid, dum, to become, &c. 

II. in p. Jydp, to be tired. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Aff. 

Neg. Tha" jyop 



Jyop'chhe 
Thd jyop'chhe 



Jy<5mne 
Tha jyop'ue 



-" H ^ M* 

o <u 2 

M 

i 



INDICATIVE. 
Present. 

( Jyop chhokmi, excl. ( Jyoppopmi 

| Jyop chhikmi, incl. ( Jyoppem 

Jyop chhikmi Jyopnem 

Jyop chhikmi Jyopmem 

JJyop chhongmi Jyopikongmi 

Jyop chhingmi Jydpikengmi 

Jyop chhem Jy(5mnem 

Jyop chhem Jydmem 

Other moods as before. Subjunctive has jyop'monam, jyop'nam, jyopnam, 
jyopsung phen, jy6m phen, jy<5m phen. 

Thus also conjugate thip, to set (sun), ydp, to be sharp-edged, &c. 

Fourth. Conjugation of neuters with conjunct dental (t). 

Hot', to utter, talk. 
Infinitive and participles and gerunds as before. 



1. Jyop' mum 

2. Jyop'mi 

3. Jyop'mi 

1. Jyop sungmi 

2. Jy<5mi 

3. Jy<5mi 






Finyular. 
Aff. Ii 
Neg. Thdhot' 



' gnom 

'mi 
3. Hot'mi 



H.'itirni 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. Plural. 

Hoachhe Hone 

Thd hoschhe Thd h(5ne 

icative Present. 

( Hoschhokmi, excl. \ Ilot'kokmi 

{ Hoechhikrni, incl. kem 

hhikmi Dem 

Hoechhikmi mem 

Prtt 

fhtal. Plural. 

( Hoschhongroi \ H"tik.ng mi 

hhingmi ' l(tikengmi 

II.'Bi-lihfTii i<-m 




Thiw conjugate p.it', to fight ; met', to die ; but', to flower, &c. 

Remark. The verb* dung, to be dry ; dong, to arrive ; then. ing, to 



282 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



lose or decrease ; min, to be ripe ; hon, to be big ; bon, to fly ; lun, to run, and 
all others ending in a nasal (u or ug) follow without change the sheer root para- 
digm or phi aforesaid. 

5th. Conjugation of reflex or active intransitive (including also some 
neuters) verbs in che, that is, which have this (the only) reflex sign added 
to their root in the imperative, which always strikes the keynote to the 
several conjugations, always having the formative affix whenever there is one. 



Im, to sleep. 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Aff. Immung. To sleep or to have slept ) 

Neg. Maug iininung. Not to sleep, &c. j ac 

Remark. f-mung is as often used as itninung ; so that i may possibly be the 
root, not iui. 

Gerunds. Partic'qrtes. 



Imvi (invi) 

Imta 

Imtrfng 

Verbal nouns 
Imchyiiug 
Imlung 
Imsing 

Negatives as in infinitive ; that is, by prefixing mdug. 



Imhe \ 

Im nung I 

] manna" >ut supra 

Im sing hd I 

Im kheii / 



not useable 



ut supra 



Singular. 
Aff. Imche 
Neg. Tha" imche 



1. Imchungmi 

2. Imchem 

3. Imchem 

1. Imchungmi 

2. Imchem 

3. Imchem 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 
Im ndchhe* 
Tha" imndchhd 

Indicative Present. 
Imnachhokmi 
Imnachhikmi 
Imnachikmi 
Imnachikmi 

Preterite. 

( Imnachongmi 

| Imnachingmi 

Imuachhem 

Imuachhem 



Plural. 
Imchine' 

Tha iinchiud 



Imchikokmi 

Imchikem 

Imchinem 

Imchimem 



Imchikongmi 
Imchikengnii 
Imchinem 
Imchimem 



Thus are conjugated all reflex verbs whatever having the che sign, whether 
they be primitive or derivative (and all transitives can be so * commuted), as 
chikche, to remember ; msingche, to forget ; lische, to learn ; musche, to sit ; 
ipche, to get up ; khokche, to walk ; pipche, to suck ; sipche, to wake ; lipche, 
to vomit ; popche, to lick ; kifiche, to lie hid ; lunche, to run ; ddnche, to bathe ; 
upche, to wash oneself ; tesche, to begin ; chusche, to end ; khwdnkhwd/i 
pdnche, to cough ; khikche, to sneeze ; liche, to grow (plant only) ; gosche, to 
be rich ; vekche, to contain ; dosche, to sustain or hold up ; diwche, to dig for 



* Consequently every transitive has a reflex form or middle voice as well as an active and 
passive ; but as the middle voice in transitives always tallies with the above paradigm, which 
includes many verbs originally, and some that are solely intransitive, with some neuters even, 
iit must suffice to give it here once for all. The verbs enumerated will show that this conj. 
tii " chi " is very comprehensive, and admits of many fine shades of meaning. Thus, lische, 
^o learn, means to teach thyself, opposed to listo, to teach another. Again, not only func- 
ioual action, but any of which the effort returns to the agent, as in buying and taking, must 
be primarily expressed in this form, e.g., ingche, is buy; iugko, buy it a Hungarian trait. 






VAYU GRAMMAR. 283 

oneself ; phasche, to be able ; wdnche,* to master oneself, be patient or firm ; 
bongche,* to be happy ; giwo?i po/iche, to keep silence ; rusche, to flee away; kwom- 
pduche, to sing ; yangche, to decrease or lose ; jonche, to grow or increase (animal 
only) ; yukche, to cut oneself ; sische, to kill oneself ; tdnche, to put for one- 
self ; senche, to know oneself or to know simply; hdfiche, to give to oneself; 
phokche, to beget or give birth to for oneself ; ingche, to buy ; jydpche, to ex- 
change ; khwdsche, to tighten oneself ; Mwdsche,f to feed oneself ; tunche, to 
Hrink ; jauche, to eat ; ch^che,t to piss ; topche, to beat oneself ; yosche, to 
like, &c. &c. 

Remark. These verbs are aoristic in fact, though in the dual and plural they 
are obliged to accommodate themselves to the inflexible forms of those numbers ; 
and such (by and by will be seen) is the case also with the aoristic transitives iu 
"to." The reflex duals and plurals, however, always retain their own special 
signs, or na and chi, which are interchangeable for the sake of euphony, na being 
preferred to chi in the dual to prevent cacophonous repetition of the ch. 

6th. Conjugation of transitives in " to" not having a precedent sibilant. 
The verb Hd, to give. 

INFINITIVE AFFIRMATIVE. 
Huuiung, to give or to have given, aoristic. 

INFINITIVE NEGATIVE. 
Mdug hdmung, not to give, &c. 

GKRUNDS. 

Ha" he ) p . . ( With main verb in present or future 

H : iiiung !nt ' gmng j With main verb iu preterite 

"tnung hdnung j Continuative present, continually giving 

i ha Past, having given 

Hd singhe Present or future, when giving 

H;i kheu Past, after haviug given, after giving 

PARTICIPLES. 

Who gives or gave or will give, aoristic. The giver 
Past (passive), who or what has been given. The given 
Future passive, what will be given, what customarily given, 
what fit to be given 

VERBAL NOUNS. 

Expresses the instrument, as hdchydng gut, the hand that 
gives. It ia also used subatan lively in a neuter sense ; 
thus, topchyang, a h.miiiirr. Hammerer is to'vi 
Hdlung .ssen tin- place ; hdluug, the place of ^ 

il;i-.i _' sacs the time ; hdsiug, the time of giving 

The negatire of gerunds, participles, and verbal nouns is expressed, as in the 
infinitive, by the prefix indng, mdug hdhe, mdng hdvi, &c. 

iMl'ERATIVK MOOD. 

:lar. l>unl. Plural. 

Aff. Hdto bbt : e|| 

Neg. Thahato ,he Th.lh.ine 

' oscha gives ieibto, Mt free ; woncbe gives wonto, iu oompoailiuu only bo able. See 

A A U the Arabic RuttunL 

-nche of this sort from chdnt. 

/.. li*b laimom. I go giTing; Wnung U' sungml, I went giving. Having giv 

ftiaha U' sungmi. 
I Ilere, when the occurrence of tbe fint tr&n*itive gives occasion to note ibe thing, let us 



28 4 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



Dual and Plural of Object. 
Dual. Hdtochhe' Give to them two 

Plural. Hdtome' Give to them all 

Negative. Thd hdtochhd, D. Tha" hdtome, P. 



Singular. 
I. Hdtungmi 



i. Hdtungchhem 

1. Hdtungmem 

2. Hdtum 

2. + Hdtochhem 

2. +Hatomem 

3. + Hdtum 

3. + Hdtochhem 
3. + Hdtomem 



I. Hdtungmi 

i. Hiitungchhem 

1. Hdtungmeiu 

2. Hdtum 

2. Hdtochem 

2. Hdtomem 

3. + Hdtum 

3. + Hdtochhera 
3. + Hdtomem 



1. Ma* hdtungmi 

2. Md hdtum 

3. Ma" hdtum 



1. Hdtung ki ma" 

2. Hdto ki ma" 

3. Hdto ki ma" 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present or future. 

Dual. Plural 

+ Hdchhokmi, excl. Hdtikokmi, excl. 

+ Hdchhikmi, incl. Hdtikern, incl. 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I give to them two 
I give to them all 

+ Hdchhikmi + Hdnem 

Thou givest to them two 
Thou givest to them all 
Hdtochhem + Hdtomem 

He gives to them two 
He gives to them all 

Preterite. 

( Hdchhongmi, excl. Hdtikongmi, excl. 

| Hdchhingini, incl. Hsitikeugmi, iucl. 

Dual and Plural of Object. 

I gave to them two 

I gave to them all 
+ Hdchhem + Hdnem 

Thou gavest to them two 

Thou gavest to them all 
+ Hdtochhem + Hdtomeru 

He gave to them two 

He gave to them all 

NEGATIVE MOOD. 
Singular Indicative Present. 

Dual and plural in like manner, merely by prefixing 
the negative particle ma". N.B. Hdto and all 
other transitives of its class are essentially aoristic. 
See remark aforegone. 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Singular Indicative Present. 

SDual and plural in like manner, and all the rest of 
the verb also ; that is, cut off the final mi or m and 
substitute ki ma". 



observe, once for all, that the singular, dual, and plural, coming first In the conjugation, 
denote the agents; the dual and plural coming afterwards, the objects. In Vrfj-u, as in 
Bahing, the complete fusion of all agents and objects with the action is the chief pecu- 
liarity of these tongues, indicating their close affinity with the Ho, Sontal, and Munda 
tongues. In the passive voice the position of agents and objects is reversed, if not necessarily, 
at least usually (see on to p. 286). Owing to the inseparability of actors and action, it results, 
first, that in the ordinary conjugation many forms are common to the active and passive 
voices; second, that certain special forms are needed (see p. 287) to eke out all the varieties 
of con j ugation. 

* The starred and bracketed portions express the peculiar forms of this language. 

The mark + before any form signifies that it belongs also to the passive, which aee. The 
difference is expressed in such cases by the use of the separate prefixed pronouns in the 
instrumental case for the active ; in the objective or accusative case for the passive, or g'ha, 
gonha, wathiha, and go, gon, wathi for the three persons singular, and so on for dual and 
plural. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 285 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Singular Indicative Present. 

TT . , . ( and so on through the rest of the verb; w6nto, to 

) can, being conjugated like hdto, the root of'which 
] is prefixed merely (w<5nto is used with transitives. 
( and phdsche with in trans itives). 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 
Singular Indicative Present. 

1. Hd dakgnom ( and so on through the rest of the verb dak, to wish 

2. Hd dakmi or want, as before given. The root of the main 

3. Hd dakmi ( verb is prefixed as before. 

PRKCATIVE MOOD. 
That I may give. 
Singular Indicative Present. 

. ( and so on, after the manner of the interrogative mood 

* ! 1 as to the main verb, to which is added the imraut- 

1 able verbal root expressive of wish in the nature of 
' prayer, hatung y u = o ! si mihi accedat dare. 

Remark. The solicitive form, let me give, let him give, ha" hdsung, ha* hdto, is 
seldom used owing to the iteration of the same root in two different senses. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. Preterite. 

1. Hdtung nam Hdtung phen, } 

2. Hdto nam Hdto phen > and so on for dual and plural 

3. Hdto nam Hato phen ) 

CONTINUATIVE MOOD. 

1. Ha" na ha" n<5gnom,* ) 

2. Ha" na hd n<5num, > and so on, as in the neuter verb phi. 

3. Hd na hd n6mi, ) 

RECIPROCAL MOOD. 

'' na 



a 80 on as before with reflex of the root d 

H na ha * ke ' "** ^ *** 

CAUSAL MOOD. 

Imperative. 

:>tlar. Dual. Plural. 

Aff. Hd pingko Hd pingchhe Hd pingne 

Neg. Hdthdping Hd thd pingche Hd thd pingne 

Indicative Pretcnt. 

(and so on, according to the form of conjugating the 
1 J transitive verb pingko, which see in sequel, and to 

1 which the root of the main verb is prefixed when 
3. Ha plngnu ^ causation is expressed* 

The reflex form of the verb mu, to nit, imperative munche. It nOon naed In this MUM, 
hi na hi tnuclniiunii. rouncbeni, niucobem, Ac., like linche. So NewAri hma blyo cbotia 

t Tbe transitire form uf pi, to do, U ometimet preferred to the reflex, Habi pangmi, 
pomi, \>('>mi, Ac. Bee oooiugat 

I Ca-iMtl verbs have all the complete forma of conjugation proper to primary verbe ; and, 



286 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. Dual. 

Aff. Hdsung Hachhong 

Give thou me f Give thou us two 

Neg.Thd hagno Tha" hdchhok 



Plural* 
H.i ki kdng 

Give thou us all 
Thd ha" kok 



Halting chlie* 
Hasting n6. 
Thil hasung child 
Thii hasting nd 



Singular. 

Hstgnorn = gives 

to me 



Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Do ye two give me 
Do ye all give me 

The negative forms 

INDICATIVE MOOD. ' 
Present. 
Dual. 

V + Hrichhokmi, excl. 
< + Hiichhikmi, incl. 
I = gives us two 



Plural. 

(Hdkokmi, excl. 
J Hiikdm, incl. 
j ^gives us all (sub- 
(. audi ille vel iete) 



J I. Hdgnochhem 
\ I. Haxnomem 
2. Humi 

( 2. Humi 
*) 2. Humi 
3. + Hittum 
j 3. + Hiitochhem 
( 3. + Hiitomein 

Singular. 
I. Htisungmi * j 

( i. Hasungchhem 
* j i. Hasungmem 
2. H;tmi 
( 2. H;imi 

* | 2. + Humi 
3. +Htitum 


Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Give me they two (or ye two) 
Give me they all 
+ H.ichhikrai 
Give thee they two 
Give thee they all 
+ Hdtochhem 
Give to him they two 
Give to him they all 

Preterite. 
Dual. 
Hachhongmi, excl. j 
Hachhingmi, incl. ( 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Gave to me they two (or ye two) 
Gave to me they all (any) 
+ Hrfchem 
Gave to thee they two 
Gave to thee they all 
+ HjCtochhem 


+ Hdoem 
+ Hdtomem + 

Plural. 
Hakikongmi, excl. 
Hakikengini, incl. 

+ Hdnem 
+ Ha"tomem 



as they arc constituted by transitives, they take, like transitives, the reflex and passive and 
double objective forms, being conjugated from pingche and pingsiing and ping (k) to, as well 
as pingko. The reflex of hato is h&nche. conjugated like imche ; the quasi passive is ha^ng, 
for which see On. Hato has no doubly objected form. Itself expresses give it to him or give 
him. 

* These are all of the object, those of the agent coming afterwards. See note |J, p. 283. 
Gives me (not to me) = I am given, <tc. 

f Observe that in the passive I, the speaker, am the object (therefore me is better than 
to me) ; in the active intransitive or middle voice, self, the spoken to ; in the active transitive, 
lie, she, it, the spoken of. Hence h-ung, hi-n-che, ha-to, as the bases of the whole ^y 
of conjugation. 

J The forms marked with a cross precedent (+) are common to both voices. See Active. 
There is no infinitive of this quasi passive. The causal transitive which carries a passive as 
well as active sense has it : thus hamung, to give ; hapfngmung, to be given ; more properly, 
to cavise to give. So Newari has biye, to give, bfyeke (ke the causal sign) to be given or cause 
to give. Newari has no other semblance even of a passive. Vayu, with its suffixed obj 
forms of the pronoun, has, as above seen. But this again is weakened by ti e special restric- 
tion of the suffixes ; thus hanum, gives or gave to thee, / only and no other. 

* The star and bracket as before explained. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



287 



} 3- + Hdtochhem Gave to him they two 


* / 3. + Hdtomem Gave to him they all 


A second passive may be formed by the passive participle and substantive verb, of 
clear meaning, but eschewed owing to the relative sense inherent in the participles. 


Indicative Present Singular. 


I. Hdta ndgnom ( And so on through the verb X<5, to be, an irregular verb 


2. H;ita nonum < which is given in the sequel. Remark. To this 


3. Hdta ndmi ( responds hdvi n6gnom of the active voice. 


Passive potential. >> 


1 ~ jf 


Passive Precatire. ( 


'c J S" 9 5*S 


(I can be given) 


a 'I 


(That I may be given). 


'S o'o-^ a"! 


Present singular. 


lo| 


Present Singular. 


1 3*8 || 


w6*ngnoni 


")-i3 


I. Hdgnoyu 


tp.g "s a ' v ^ 


2. Hd w<5nmi 


: 5 ~ 


2. Hdyu 


C ^ OQ ^ "5 o> 


3. Hd wuntum 


C^.3 


3. Hdtoyu 


^ 111 si 


Preterite. 


c *~~ o 

*1 


Preterite. 


a % *% 


I. Hd wonsungmi 


S'fig'J 


I. Hdsungyu 


* "g -| * :2 


2. Hd w<5nmi 


g^-s 


2. Hdyu 


g^ s^ s s 


3. Hd \v<5ntum J 


3*" 


3. Hdtoyu 


^ &, cx.^3 ^ > 



Remark. Observe that in the potential mood, as in the causal below, the expres- 
sion of the passivity is transferred from the truncated main verb, which shows only 
its crude root, to the secondary verb. 

Passive Causal. 
(I cause to be given, or to give). 

1. Hdpinggnom i. Ha" pingsungmi ) 

2. Ha" pingmi Present. 2. Ha" pingmi > Preterite 

3. Hd pingmi 3. Hd pingnum ) 

And BO on through dual and plural, following the conjugational forms of the passive 
voice of the verb pingko, to send, which see. 

Passive Subjunctive. 
If I be given. 

1. TId gno nam } ( i. Hdsungphen ) 

2. H;i nam [Present \ 2. Hd phen > Preterite 

3. Hdto nam ) ( 3. Hdto phen ) 

Like the precative, only substituting the subjunctive participles for the sin^lo 
precative one. And the interrogative mood of the passive merely substitutes the 
participle of interrogation or kima, hagnoki ma, &c. 

Special Forms. 
Active or passive = agents objective. 

1st I to thee. 

;m <>r gave to thee I only } 

inchhem Give or gave you two I only \ aoristic 

Give or gave to you all I only ) 

2<1. Thou to me. 

yHagnoin t to me them (or In-) ) 

t o me ye two (or they two) > Present tense* 

c to me ye all only ) 



* The form* preceded by the mark y are not HpecUl. but are repeated here to il 
mch an re poci;tl. Coriiiwn- 

397. There are nl 

I it to UJOM 
who so dogmatically tell UH it la not Ivgitimate philology to heed such coincidences. 



288 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

7Hjsungmi Gavest to me thou ) 

7Ha"8ungchhem, Gave to me ye two > Preterite 

Ha"sungnem Gave to me ye all ) 

Thus are conjugated all transitives in "to "that have the root only precedent, 
as woto, to cleanse ; lato, to snatch away ; chito, to split ; jito, to tear ; photo, to 
eradicate ; cheto, immingere ; rito, to cause to rot or rot it ; lito, to cause to grow, 
or grow it ; hito, to count ; jeto, to heat ; kheto, to break ; suto, to plaster ; gnuto, 
to blunt ; ruto, to staunch ; thuto, to divide ; woto, to cleanse ; &c. The verbs 
with a "p " before the sign, as lipto, to vomit ; upto, to wash ; hopto, to squander : 
jupto, to throw ; napto, to compress change the p into m in the plural imperative 
and in the second person plural preterite, as namne, do ye all compress, and 
iiamnem, ye all compressed. Those with a "k" before the sign, as thikto, to 
shut ; khikto, to cause to sneeze change the k into ng, as thingne, do ye all shut, 
and thingnem, ye all shutted it. No other precedent letter makes any change, save 
the sibilant to, which we shall next proceed, as forming a different conjugation. 
Meanwhile conjugate as above, hanto, to cause to swim ; thunto, to drink ; thumto, 
to sink ; dento, to bathe ; another (not self) ; yangto, to make yield ; khunto, to 
reveal ; lumto, to transport ; khungto, to make stoop; yangto, to decrease ; bongto, 
to please ; mangto, to cause to forget or to forget him ; phimto, to depress ; khamto, 
to summon ; fc/iamto, to frighten ; thento, to cause to win ; yemto, to burn ; umto, 
Jo burn corpse ; wonto, to win, to be able * pelto, to wring or extract juice ; tamto, 
to cry out ; damto, to fill, &c., &c. 

Seventh conjugation of verbs in "to" having a precedent sibilant (always 
palpably felt in the reflex, sometimes not so in the transitive, wherein something 
like an abrupt tone, however, indicates in such cases its latent presence, or else a 
sound like English th or ph, as pha'to, muphto, hothto for phasto, musto and 
h6sto. But observe, there is no true tone as in the eighth and eleventh conjuga- 
tions (to'po and pho'ko), and the real euphonic intercalary letter is the sibilant s). 

The verb Si, to kill. 
INFINITIVE. 

Aff. Sit'mung, to kill, to have killed ) . . . 
Neg. Mang sit'mung, not to kill j ac 

[ Gerunds. Participles. 



Sit'he 
Sit'nung 



Sis' 



Sit'vi 

Sista [ ut supra 

Sistaug 



Sit' khen 

VERBAL NOUNS. 
Sischya"ug } 

Sitlung > ut supra 

Sitaing ) 

Their negatives are formed by prefixing mang mangsit'he, mangsit'vi, &c. 



IMPERATIVE. 




Singular. Dual. 


Plural. 


Aff. Sisto Sischhe 


Sitne 


Neg. Thasit Tha sischhe 


Tha sitne 


Dual and Plural of Object. 




* Aff \ Sistochhe" Do thou kill them two 




' i Sistome Do thou kill them all 




# v ( Thd sit'chhik Kill not them two 




eg< | Tha" sit'me Kill not them all 





* This neuter sense of wonto is restricted to its use as a compound, and it is BO used only 
with transitives. With intransitives the r^rtex form of pha, to be able, is emploed; top 
wontum, he can beat ; imphaschem, he cau sleep. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



289 



Singular. 
i. Sinmi* 



I. Sinchhem 

1. Sinmetn 

2. + Sitmi 

2. Sischhikmi 

2. Sitmem 

3. + Sitmi t 



3. + Sischhikmi 
3. +Sitmetn 



I. Sistungmi 



I. Sistungchhem 

1. Sistungmem 

2. Sistum 

2. Sistochhem 

2. Sistomein 

3. + Sistum 

3. +Sistochhem 
3. + Sistomem 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

Dual. 

( Sischhokmi, excl. 
+ j Sischhikmi, inch 

Dual and Plural of Object. 

I kill them two 

I kill them all 
+ Sischhikmi 

Thou killest them two 

Thou killest them all 
+ Sischhikmi 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
He kills them two 
He kills them all 

Preterite. 

, ( Sischhongmi, excl. 
I Sischhingmi, iucl. 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I killed them two 
I killed them all 
-f- Sischhem 

Thou killedst them two 
Thou killedst them all 
+ Sistochhem 
He killed them two 
He killed them all 

NEGATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

1. Ma* sinmi 

2. M;i sitmi 

3. Mi sitmi 

&c. 



Pretent. 

1. Sinki mi 

2. Sitki mi 

3. Sitki mi 



Of the Idicatire Singular. 



Plural. 

( Sitkokmi, excl. 
j Sitkem, incl. 



-f Sitnem 
+ Sitmem 



f Sistikdngrai, excl. 
+ Sistike'ugmi, incl. 



+ Se'uem? Sitnem* 



+ Sistomem 



Preterite. 



1 . M;l sistungmi 

2. M;i sistum 

3. Mil sistuin 

&c. 



INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 



Preterite. 

1. B -IUHL: ki md 

2. SiBfco ki in.-J 

3. Sisto ki mi 



Anotlicr form = sintni, nit ml. Bitmi. is sltvl nognom, sitvi nonum, sitvi nomi, and so 
on, formed by active participle and nubnUntivo verb. 

t Compare with ninmi, sitmi, altmi, tbo corroapondent syAna, syata, syfCta of Newari. 
The root (si, sa vel sya) and tbe augments (n and t) are alike and alike disposed, tlmt i 
augment following the ro >t. So alf><> ^ues the atiK sec-oii'l nn<! 

person, or t, constitutes the passive in all three ]> mi = Newari 

sya-ta, syi-U, sya*ta. The si-t of the one is precisely the sya-t or ha-t of the other, the t 
'tat mii 



being that mark of action, apart from one's own, whereby the pnav .f the 

separate prefixed object i Dgtuc alike) is denoted, v < two 

e all the superfi a In i he Tocabu* 

' <K>U or words used Terbally in <><)> of theno (onguee, 



1 Ui.-'l'i,:- - I .!f. :i 1 ':, 

bare point 

nbstantively in the other, or ol <, the other 



What I would imply is that identical root* and constructive principles may bo found in this 
ici where one wouM 1- 

imperative, must bo an 

.v, (rives aenem and sene reguUrly, as Mto. to kill, gives situem aud sltno. In tho 
we have respectively sonche and tUcUe, 

I. T 



290 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



&c., like dak aforegone 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 

Aoristic. 

1. Sit w6ntongmi } And so on, like hto, which also is aoristic in singular, 

2. Sit wdntum V though in dual and plural it is tensed and also iu the 

3. Sit + wontum ) passive voice. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Present. Preterite. 

1. Sit + dakgnom I. Sit + daksungmi 

2. Sit + dakmi 2. Sit + da"ngmi 

3. Sit+dakmi 3. Sit + d&ngmi 

PRECATIVE MOOD. 
That I may kill. 

Present. Preterite. 

1. Sin yu I. Sistung yu ) 

2. Sit yu 2. Sisto yu > &c., as in the uncompounded verb 

3. Sit yu 3. Sisto yu ) 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. Preterite. 

1. Sinnam I. Sistungphen ) 

2. Sitnam 2. Sistophen > and so on, as in the uncompounded verb 

3. Sitnam 3. Sistophen ) 

CONTINUATIVE MOOD. 

Preterite. 

Sit'nasit' ndsungmi } and so on, conjugating the 

Sit'nasit' n6num > auxiliary after the model of 

Sit'iiasit ndmi ) phi. 

RECIPROCAL MOOD. 

&c., after the model of imche, which, like all 
intransitives in che, is aoristic 



Present. 

1. Sit'nasit' ndgnom 

2. Sit'nasit' n6num 

3. Sit'nasit' n<5mi 



1. Sit'nasit' pdnchungmi 

2. Sit'nasit' pdnchem 

3. Sit'nasit' pdnchem 



CAUSAL VERB. 

As before in all respects. 
See Hdto. 



Singular. 
Aff. Sissung 
Keg. Thd sitgnd 



Aff. 



Sissungchh^ 



Thd sitguochh^ 
Thii sitgnon^ 



Singular. 
I. Sit gnom 

skills me (sub- 
audi ille vel iste) 



PASSIVE VERB. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 
Sischhdng 
Thd sischh<5k 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Do ye two kill me 
Do ye all kill me 
Do ye two not kill me 
Do ye all not kill me 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

Dual. 

+ Sischhokmi, excl. 
+ Sischhikmi, incl. 
= kills us two 



Plural. 
Sisti k6ng 
Tha" sit k<5k 



Plural. 

+ Sit kdkmi, excl. 
f Sit ke~ui, incl. 
skills us all 



I'AYU GRAMMAR. 



291 



i. Sit gnocbhem 

1. Sit gnomem 

2. + Sitmi 
2. Sitmi 



Sitmi 
+ Sitmi 



Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Kill me they two (or ye two) 
Kill me they all 

+ Sischhikmi -fSit'nem 

Kill thee they two (or we two) 
Kill thee they all (or we all) 
-fSischhikmi +Sitmem 



and so only conjugating like 
passive of Ha"to 



Dual and Plural of Agent. 
( 3. + Sischhikmi Kill him they two (or ye two) 

* j 3. + Sitrnern. Kill him they all 

Preterite. 

( + Sischhdngmi, excl. + Sistikdngmi, excl. 

j + Sischhingmi, incl. + Sistike'ngmi, incl. 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
( I. Sissungchhe'm Killed me they two (or ye two) 

* { I. Sissungrne'ui Killed me they all 

2. Sinmi Sischhem Senem? Sitnem 
( 2. Sinmi Killed thee they two (or we two) 

j 2. Sinmi Killed thee they all (or we all) 

3. Sistum Sistochhem Sistomem 
J 3. Sistochhem Killed him they two 

Sistomem Killed him they all 

The negative mood prefixes md as in active voice. 

The interrogative mood drops the final m or mi, and substitutes ki ma", as in 
active voice. 

The potential mood is conjugated by the passive form of the secondary verb 
wduto. 

Present and Future. Preterite. 

1. Sit'wdngnom I. Sit'wdnsungmi 

2. Sit'w6nmi 2. Sit'w<5nmi 

3. Sit'wdntum 3. Sit'wdntum 

Optative mood precisely as in the active voice, dakgnom, meaning I desire 
and I am desired, and the passive expression being removed from the truncated 
main verb. 

PRECATIVE MOOD. 
Preent. Preterite. 

t' gno yu ssung yu ) and so on, by dropping final m or 

* ' yu 11 yu > mi of the passive, and substituting 

t' yu 3. Sibto yu ) immutable precative particle yu 

The subjunctive mood resembles the above, taking only its own signs in lieu of 
yu, the precative sign. 

CAUSAL. 

Pretent. Preterite. 

i. Sit ping gnom I. Sit pingsungmi i and so all through the passive 
- t pingmi 2. Sit pingrni forms of t 

t I'ingmi 3. Sit pingkum ) see at p. 304 

According to the above paradigm of sinto, conjugate also pisto, to bring ; kl 
to rub;f khwasto, to feed ; phasto, to enable (pha'to) ; chato. t<> hit with stone 
(cha'to) ; Mw&gto (khwa'to), to tighten; dosto, to sustain for another (<l<]>)ito) ; 
jisto, to revile ; musto, to seat (muphto) ; tetto, to set at liberty or cause to begin 
(teMto) ; thesto, to kick (t)i- to, to finish it (chuphto) ; cbisto, to suspend ; 

Bracket* and star* before the repeated numbers (answering to three persons 
and the cronae* ( + ), aa before explained. 

:" khisto is a very peculiar sound, verging upon a vaguo th < r hard It or Sanscrit 
ksh ; kk I* bard Arabic, without the leaat vagueness, M m fcAwasto, to tighten. 



292 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

isto, to tell ; risto, to rot it ; josto (jopto), to kindle ; cbhisto, to relate (chhi'to) ; 
wasto, to abandon ; yosto, to approve, like ; nasto, to wet (na'to) ; lusto (luphto), 
to transplant ; thos'to (thophto), to take out ; tosto (tophto), to reconcile, to unite ; 
lis'to, to teach and to return ; pes'to, to reap ; las'to (laMto), to take for another ; 
&c., &c. N.B. The intercalary sibilant varies to sh, ph, and English th. It is least 
obscure with the vowel i ; most so with the vowels a, u, and 6. 

SECOND FORM OF THE PASSIVE. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
n(5t ' mun . to be 



Aff sa 

a dumung, to become 

Van- o- ta i mng not'mung not to be , ... , 

Sta j mang dumung not to become \ kllled 

Gerunds. 

Siata ntft'he, dumhe \ 

Sista not'nung, durnnung 
Sista not'not'hji, dumduuiha >ut supra 
Sista not'singhe, duuisinghe 
Sista not'khen, dumkhen J 

Participles. Verbal Nouns. 

Sista not'vi or dumvi ) Sista not' or dum-chyang } 

Sista no'ta or dumta > ut supra Sista not' or dum-lung > ut supra 

Sista no'tdng, dumtdng ) Sista not* or dum-sing ) 

Negatives by mdng prefixed. 

IMPERATIVE PRESENT. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Aft Shi.)*,,, S i8to |: he jSi.ta 

Neg. By prefixed particle thd. 
INDICATIVE PRESENT. 



no_ r noni 
dumuin 
no*nuin 



} And so on according to the paradigms phi and dam 



1. Sista 

2. Sista 

Q . , ( n6mi 

3. oista , , 

i duuii 

Remark. This form of the passive has a correspondent active form, sit'vi, n6g- 
nom vel diimum, and both are singularly free from doubt as to the sense, and singu- 
larly correspondent with our English idiom, I am killing, I am killed, the phrases 
being in effect, I am the killer and I am the killed. 

But, owing to the inherence of the relative sense in the participles, these forms 
are eschewed. The following correspondent forms in Khas and Newari are equally 
available in those languages, and equally eschewed for the same reason. 

KHAS. 

Active. Passive. 

1. Hdnnya hun Hdnyako hun 

2. Hdnuya bo's Hdnyako h6s 

3. Hdnnya b.6 Hrfnyako ho 

NEWARI. 

1. Ji sydhmakhfi, or ju SyjCnahmakM ) 

2. Chlui syahmnkha, or ju Sy^nahmakha / kha or jiilo * 

3. W6 sydhm.ikha, or jti Syduahtnakha ) 

* Klin and jii are substantive verbs in Newari, whereof the former is immutable, and 
the latter becomes jiilo in the preterite. 



VAVU GRAMMAR. 



293 



D. 

D. 
P. 



SPECIAL FORMS OF ACTION BETWEEN THE TWO FIRST PERSONS. 
First form, I to thee. 

Sit'num Kill or killed or will kill thee (I only) 

Sit'nochhem Kill or killed or will kill you two (I only) 

Sit'nouem Kill or killed or will kill you all (I only) 

Second form, Thou to me. 

"ySifgnom Killedst or wilt kill me thou (or he) 

ySit'gnochhem Kill or will kill me ye two (or they two) 

-t'gnonein Kill or will kill me ye all only 

>it'sungmi Killedst me thou (or he) 

7Sit'sungchhem Killed me ye two (or they two) 

Sit'eungnem Killed me ye all only 



Present and 
Future 

Preterite 



8th. Conjugation of transitives in po not having a nasal (n. ng. 
before it. 

The verb Top', to strike (potius, i6).* 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Aff. To'mung f . .. 

Neg. Ming to'mung * aonstlc 



Gerund*. 
Top'he 
Topnung 

Toptopha ^-ut supra 
Topeinghe 
Topkhen 



Participle!. 



To'vi 
Topta 
Top tang 

Verbal Nouns. 
Topchyjing 
Topluug 
Topsing 



ut supra 



Negatives of all by prefixed mang. 



;nlar. 

Aff. To'pa (toppo) 
Neg. Tha top 



I To'pochhe 
( To'poine 



.. 4 TW topchhik 
eg< j TW top'me 



I. To'mit 



IMPERATIVE. 

Dual. 
Topchhe 
Tha topche 

Dual and Plural of Oljrrt. 
1 > thou strike them two 
Do thou strike them all 

Negath-ff. 
Kill not them two 
Kill not them all 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

+ Topchliokmi, cxcl. 
-t- Topchhikmi, inch 



Plural. 
Tomne 
Tha tomne 



+ To' MMII. incl. 



The root i properly 16. equal to ta vel da of Chineae, Newari, Sontal, and th, the mtno 
aspirated, of Kiuwar. The crude root may be 16, but the whole conjugation proven that we 
mint here write top* and toppo for the irapei alive, whence dual top chhe and plural t< i 

Tiie *!it.!itution. in porikii u r . "f :m V'ru;.! t., t io lr tli- r. .!>i).lH-:it."l ( , us n.mt in tins ,.i.- 
jugatioo recura in conj. xi., p. 242, while conj. x. hae the pausing accent. 

t It U very noticeable that the verb* in po have no mark of the flint per*on ningiilur of 
I tcnue, no generally MBtradiatinguiahed from the aocond and third, or all other per- 
Kvcn Xewar. i-rohcrven kbii jut.ncti..n .i.iyr. -Inyu. uayu (in t U- ],,s: , ,!.,ya, ,i.,U .I.,':,). 



294 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



i. Tomchhem 

1. Tomem 

2. To'mi 

2. Topchhikmi 

2. To'mem 

3. + To'mi* 

j 3. + To'pchhikmi 
j 3. + To'mem 



I. To'pungmi 



Dual and Plural of Object. 
I strike them two 
I strike them all 
+ Topchhikmi 
Thou strikest them two 
Thou strikest them all 
+ Topchhikmi 
He strikes them two 
Ue strikes them all 

Preterite. 

+ Topchhongmi, excl. 
+ Topchhingmi, iucl. 



+ Topnem 
+ To'mem 



+ To'pikongmi, excl. 
+ To'pikeugtui, mcL. 



Dual and Plural of Object. 

I. To'pungchhem I struck them two 

1. To'pungmem I struck them all 

2. To'pum -fTopchhem -fTomnem 
2. To'pochhem Thou struckest them two 

2. To'pomem Thou struckest them all 

3. + To'pum + To'pochhem + To'pomem 
3. + To'pochhem He struck them two 

3. + To'pomem He struck them all 

Negative by prefixed mi. 

Optative mood by conjugating the verb to desire suffixed to the unchanging form 
top' of the main verb. 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Preterite. 



Present. 

1. Tom' ki mi 

2. + Top' ki mi To'po ki mi 

3. +Top'kimi + To'po ki mi 

Subjunctive by substituting nam in present, and phen in past, for the interroga- 
tive ki ma. 



&c " 
and 



ki ma 



1. Top wontungmi 

2. Top wontum 

3. + Top wontum 

Present. 

1. Tom yu 

2. + Top yu 

3. +Topyu 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Present and Past (aoristic). 



I 



&c., as in Halo and Sishto potentials 



PRECATTVE MOOD. 

Past. 

1. To' pungyu 

2. To' pbyu 

3. + To' poyu 



&c. &c. 



1. Top ni top nognom f 

2. Top na* top nonum 

3. Top nd top nomi 



CONTISUATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 

and so on, conjugating the auxiliary verb n<5 after 
the manner of phi, in dual and plural. 



* Tomi with the prolonged tone, instead of the abrupt one, means he places, wherea- 
is he hits. The former comes from tako = place ; the latter from to'po = hit. 

t Top nd top muschungrni (from musche, to sit) may also be used=daya chona of Newari. 
So also the reciprocal can be expressed by top ni top pangmi, or the tmni-itive, which, more- 
over, is apt to blend in sense with the contiimative. So also you cau express the habitual 
present tense by to' vi nognom, literally, I am the striker. 



\VAYU GRAMMAR. 



295 



Present. 

1. Top nd top pdnchungmi 

2. Top nd top pdnchem 

3. Top nii top pdnchem 



RKCIPROCAL MOOD. 



and so on, conjugating pdnche after the model 
of imche. 



CAUSAL VERB. 



As before in all respects. See prior samples. 
Cause to strike, top'pingko (see trans, in ko, p. 304). 



Aff. 



Singular. 
Top sung 

= Hit me ' 
Keg. Tha topmo 



'Aff. 



( Top sungchhe 
| Top sungne 

j Thd topmochhe 
( Thd topmone 



Singular. 

1. To' mum 

= hits me (sub- 
andi, he) 

i I. To' mochhem 
1 I. To* momem 

2. + To' mi 
2. To' mi 

2. To' mi 

3. + To'mi 

3. +Topchhikrni 
3. + Top' mem 

Singular. 
Topsungmi 

I. Top sung chhem 

1. Top aung mem 

2. To' mi 
2. To' mi 

2. To' mi 

3. + To' pum 
3. To' pochhem 
3. To' pomem 



PASSIVE VERB. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 
Top chhong 

= Hit us two 
Tha topchhok 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Hit me ye two 
Hit me ye all 

Negatives. 
Hit me not ye two 
Hit me not ye all 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 

( + Top chhokmi, excl. 
< + Top chhikmi, incl. 
f = hits us two 



Plural. 
To' pi kong 

= Hit us all 
Tha to'pok 



Plural. 

+ 1V popmi, excl. 
+ To' pern, incl. 
= hits us all 



Dual and Plural of Agent. 
They two (and ye two) hit me 
They all hit me 

f Top chhikmi + top nem 

They two (and we two) hit thee 
They all (and we all) hit thee 
+ Top chhikmi + Topmem 

They two (and ye two) hit him 
They all hit him 

Preterite. 

Dual. 

( Top chhongmi, ezcl. 
| To'p chhingmi, incl. 



Pltirnt. 

, j To'pi kong mi, excl. 
( To'pi keng mi, incl. 



Dual and Plural of A : , 
They two (or ye two) struck me 

y all struck me 

+ Top chhem + Tom nem 

They two (or we two) struck thee 
They all struck thee 
4- To' pochhem -f To' pomem 

They two struck him 
They all struck him 



The bracket* and the initial 



(+) refer, M before explained, to forms of t }, 



:trrcly raeOMUtJklS witi. MU ld - ' Mi ju k -;,ti. i,, Bud y.-t 1,1,- . .i.ily s. i-ar.,1,1,. I,. .it, .i,,.|i ,,s 
are so. ami to forms cummon to the active aud paMive voioes: see further on for another view 
of the subject 



296 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



The optative mood is precisely similar to the optative active. The negative mood 
is formed, as before, by merely prefixing the particle of negation, or mi. 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Preterite. 



Present. 

1. To' mo ki md 

2. + Top ki ma" 

3. +Top ki ma" 



Topsung ki ma" 
Tom ki ma" 
+ To'po ki ma" 



Dual and plural by dropping m or mi 
final and substituting the interro- 
gative form 



Subjunctive mood by substituting nam and phen for ki ma, according to tense. 



Present (or Future}. 

1. Top wongnom 

2. Top wonmi 

3. + Top wontum 



Present. 

1. To'mo yu 

2. + Top yu 
3- + Topyu 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 
Preterite. 

1. Top wonsungmi, } and so on, conjugating with the 

2. Top wonmi, passive of wonto like the passive 

3. + Top wontum, ) of hato 

PRECATIVE MOOD. 
Preterite. 

1. Top sung yu ) Dual and plural as in the indica- 

2. Tom yu tive, substituting yu for the 

3. + To'po yu ) final m or mi 



CAUSAL VERB. 

Formed as before with the passive of pingko * added to top'. Top pinggnom, &c., 
top pingsungmi, &c. Like the above paradigm of roots in 'po are conjugated ;ils<> 
chi'po, to defecate ; wo'po, to shoot ; i'po, to raise (make get up) ; du'po, to kindle ; 
khi'po, to make rope ; pi'po, to suck ; po'po, to lick ; yo'po, to take off ; chho'po, to 
sharpen, and all others having no consonant but an abrupt tone (standing for trun- 
cated p) before the transitive sign.f 

A second form of passive is constructed from the past participle and the 
auxiliary verb, as afurenoticed, thus 



1. Topta nognom 

2. Topta nonum 

3. Topta nomi 



&c., according to the model of sheer neuters (see phi) 



SPECIAL FORMS. 

I. I and thou. 

Top num. I (only) strike or will strike or struck thee ) 

Topnochhem I (only) strike or struck you two / Aoristic. 

Top nonem I (only) strike or struck you all ) 

II. Thou and I. 

Thou strikest or wilt strike me ) 

Ye two strike or will strike me > Present and future. 

Ye all strike or will strike me ) 

Thou struckedst me ) 

Ye two struck me > Preterite. 

Ye all struck me ) 

Ninth. Conjugation of transit! ves in po having a nasal (in. n. ng.) Le- 
fore it. 

The verb Horn, to taste. 

INFIN-ITIVE MOOD. 
Aff. Hommung, to taste or to have tasted. Aoristic. 



8.7 Top'mutn 
D.y Top' mochhem 
P. Top' monem 
8.7 Top sungmi 
D. Top sungchhem 
P. Top sungnem 



* For conjugation to pingko, see pp. 304 f. 

t As already remarked at p. 293, this merged consonant must be restored before the con- 
jugation can proceed. 

J See prior verb at p. 292. Here we hare for Vayu active and passive to'vi nognom and 
topta nognom = Khas kutnya hon and kutyako bonand dahmakha, daya'hma kha, of Newari. 

Also used quite like an adjective hommung ti, drinking or palatable water, water fit for 
tasting or being tasted. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 
Neg. Miing hommung, not to taste or to have tasted. 



297 



Horn he 
Horn nung 
Horn hom h.i 
Horn sing he 
Hom khen 



GERUNDS. 

m..- ) With main verb in present or future. 
Present. Tasting j With majn yerb in 

Past. Having tasted. 

Future or present. When tasting. 

Past. After tasting. After having tasted. 



PARTICIPLES. 

Honvi or homvi Who tastes, did or will taste. Aoristic. 

Homta or hotnpta What is or has been tasted. Past and passive. 
Homtdng or homptdng What will be tasted, what is usually tasted, what fit to be 
tasted. Future passive. 



Hom chydng 



VERBAL NOUNS. 

( Expresses the instrument as homchydng li, the tasting 
^ tongue. It is also used substantively hom chysing, the 
taster (organ, not man). 



Hom lung expresses the locality, external to self. 
Hom sing expresses the time of tasting. 

The negative forms of all the above are made by prefixing the privitive particle 
ru;ing. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Aff. Hompo Homchhe Homne 

Neg. Tha" hom Tbsl homchhe Thd homne 



Aff. 



( Hompochhe 
{ Hompome 



Neg. 



Tba" homchhik 
Tha" homne 



Dual and Plural of Object. 
Do thou taste those two. 
Do thou taste them all. 

Negatives of the above. 
Do not taste those two. 
Do not taste them all. 



I. Hom sungmi 



i sungchhem 
I. Hom Bimgmem 

II >m mi 



H'<m chtiikmi 

+ Hom mi 

H'.rnchhikmi 



Horn pungmi 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tente. 

+ Horn chhokmi, excl. 
+ Hom chhikmi, incl. 



Plural of Object. 
I taste them two. 
I taste them all. 
+ Hom chhikmi. 

Thou tautest them two. 
Thou tastent them all. 
+ Homchhikmi. 

He taste* them two 
He tastes them all 

\ -4 1 tigmi, excl. 

) -f Hoin ciihinguii, iucl. 



+ Hom popn 

-I- Hom pern, incl. 



-f Homnem. 



-.ti kon^mi, cxrl. 
11 pi kenguii. 



298 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
i. Horn pungclihem I tasted them two 

1. Horn punginem I tasted them all 

2. Horn pum +Homchhein -f-Homnem 

2. Horn pochhem Thou tastedst them two 

2. Horn pomeni Thou tastedst them all 

3. + Horn pum + Horn pochhem + Horn poruem 

3. -f Horn pochhem He tasted them two 
3. + Horn pomem He tasted them all 

Negative mood by prefixed ma. 

Optative mood by conjugation of the verb dak suffixed to the root (horn) of the 
main verb, horn dak giiom, &c. 

Interrogative mood by dropping final mi or m and substituting the interrogation 
form ki ma, thus 

Present. Preterite. 

1. Horn sung ki md Horn pung ki ma" 

2. + Horn kiraa" Horn po ki ma" 

3. + Horn kima" 4- Horn po ki ma" 

Subjunctive mood by substituting nam in the present and phen in the past for 
ki ma ; thus, horn sung nam, if I taste ; horn pung phen, if I had tasted, &c. 
Potential mood by conjugating the aoristic transitive wonto after the root horn. 

PBECATIVR MOOD. 
Present. Preterite. 

1. Horn sung yu Horn pung yu } thus merely substituting the 

2. + Horn yu Horn po yu precative particle for the 

3. + Horn yu 4- Horn po yu ) interrogative 

CONTINUATIVE MOOD. RECIPROCAL MOOD. 



Horn na horn nognom ) 

Horn na horn nonum > &c., as before 

Horn ua horn nomi \ 



Horn na horn pjinchungmi } 

Horn na horn pdnchem > &c., as before 

Horn na horn pdnchem ) 



CAUSAL. 

By conjugating the root horn with the causal verb pingko, as before. 

PASSIVE. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Aff. Horn sung Homchhong Horn pi kong 

Keg. Tha" hommo Thd homchhok Tha" horn pok 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
( Aff. Horn sungchhe Do ye two taste me 
t 1 Aff. Horn sungne Do ye all taste me 
' ) Neg. Th hommochhe Do ye two taste me not 
( Neg. Thd hommone Do ye all taste me not 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

TT ( +Hom chhokmi, excl. -f Horn popmi, excl. 

j + Horn chhikmi, incl. + Horn pern, incl. 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 

i. Horn mochhem They two (or ye two) taste me 
I. Horn momein They all taste me 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



299 



Singular 
2. + Hommi 

Hommi 

Hommi 

+ Hommi 

+ Horn cbhikmi 

+ Hum mem 



I. Horn sungmi 



I. Horn sungchhem 

1. Horn suugmem 

2. Hommi 
2. Hommi 

2. Hommi 

3. +Hompum 

3. -f Horn pochem 

3. -f Horn pomem 



Dual. Plural. 

+ Horn chhikmi + Homnem 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
They two (and we two) taste thee 
They all (and we two) taste thee 
+ Homchhikini + Hominem 

They two (and ye) taste him 
They all taste him 

Preterite. 

+ Horn chhong mi, excl. + Hompi kongmi, excl. 

-fHorn chhiug mi, incl. + Hompi kengmi, iucl. 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 

They two (or ye two) tasted me 

They all tasted me 

+ Homchhem -f Homnem 

They two (or we two) tasted thee 

They all (or we two) tasted thee 

+ Horn pochhem + Horn pomem 

They two tasted him 

They all tasted him 



NEGATIVE MOOD. 

Is formed, as in active voice, merely by prefixing the privative particle ma. 
OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Concurs with the same in the active voice, dak having an active and passive sense, 
and the neuter form dakgnom being also the passive form dakgnom, I desire or am 
desired ; the latter sense transferred to root. With the synonymous verb yot', to 
like, the voices can be distinguished, yosto being the active transitive and yosuug 
the passive ; hence we have as optative active and passive. 



Active Voice. 



Passive Voice. 



^1' ttt C w l/C 

i. Horn yonmi 
2. Horn yotmi 
in yotmi 
i. Horn yostungmi 
2. H"in yostum 
3. Horn yostum 


Present tense. 
I like to taste. 

Preterite. 


JL U03CC/C f VII, 

I. Horn yotgnom 
2. Horn yonmi 
3. Horn yostura 
i. Horn yoESungmi ' 
2. Horn yonmi 
3. Horn yostum 


D. 

Present tense 
I like to be 
tasted. 

Preterite. 



INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Simply by dropping m or mi final and substituting ki m&. 

SCBJCNCTIVB MOOD. 

Simply by dropping the mi or m and substituting nam for present and phen for 
past tense : hommouatu, homsungphen, &c. 

POTKHTUL MOOD. 
By conjugating the passive of wonto, M before, added to the root limn. 

PRECATIVK MOOD. 
By dropping the final m or mi, and substituting yu : hommo yu, homsung yu, &c. 

CAUSAL MOOD. 

As before, by pingko added to tli- 

: are conjugated nainpo, to smell ; thampo, to lose ; Mtmi|><>. i<> Ixiry ; \\> 
to cause to sleep ; himpo, to spread ; an<l nil similar wonlx. So also are conjugated 
all transit! ves in ko having a nasal before them (n or ng), as pingko, to send ; chinko, 



3 oo 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



to spin and to fill ; punko, to weave ; honko, to uncover ; honko, to obey ; chhunko, 
to cleanse ; tunko, to drink spirits and to cherish ; sunko, to dry at fire ; lenko, to 
find only that the terminations dependent on the transitive change with that sign, 
and as hompo makes hompopmi hompem, so pingko makes pingkokmi pingkem. See 
pinpko conjugated at p. 304. 

N.B. The nasal is n or ng, e.g., lenko vel lengko, to find and see. 



R. 
D. 
P. 



Hompta nognom 
Hompta noniiin 
Hompta norm 



Homnum 
Horn nochem 
Horn nonem 



SECOND FORM OF THE PASSIVE. 

&c., as before, throughout the auxiliary verb 



8.7 Hommum 

P. 7 Horn mochhem 

P. Horn monem 



8.7 Horn sungmi * 
D. 7 Horn sungchhem 
P. Horn sungnem 



SPECIAL FORMS. 

I. I and thou. 

I (only) taste or will taste or did taste thee ) 
I (only) taste or tasted you two ', Aoristic 

I (only) taste or tasted you all ) 

II. Thou and I. 

Thou (or he) tastest or wilt taste me 
Ye two (or they two) taste, &c., or will taste 



Ye all taste or will taste me 

Preterite. 

Thou (or he) tastedest me 
Ye two (or they two) tasted me 
Ye all (only) tasted me 



Present 

and 
Future 



Preterite 



Tenth. Conjugation of transitives in ko not having any consonant nor 
any abrupt tone between the sign and the roott 
The verb Ta\ to place. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Aff. Tjtmung 
Neg. Mdng tdmung 

Gerunds. 
Tribe x 



Aoristic. 



Taming 



Tdsinghe 
Tdkhen 



ut supra. 



Participles. 
Tovi ) 

Tota" \ ut supra. 

Totting ) 

Verbal Nouns. 
Tdchydng ) 

Tiilung / ut supra. 

Tdsing ) 



Singular. 

Aff. Tdko 
Neg. Thd to 



Negatives of all by mdng prefixed. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Dual. 



Tdchhe 
Thd tochhe 



Plural. 
Tone 
Thd tone 



* The mark y placed before some of these forms indicates that they are included in the 
more ordinary forms of conjugation. They are repeated here for illustration. The change of 
eense in dual and plural of preterite shows, in conjunction with the whole system of conjuga- 
tion, how restive the language is under these trammels. 

f There is not only no abrupt accent or tone, but there is an equally forcible pausing tone. 
Conj. viii. and xi. have the abrupt tone, not to add also conj. vii. The present conjugation 
only has the pausing tone. Both tones need close attention for sense sometimes as well as 
grammar, e.g., to'vi and to'mi, with the abrupt tone, mean the striker and he strikes ; with 
the pausing tone to'ovi, to'ome, aa here, they mean the placer and he places. Perhaps I 
ought to have so written the latter. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



301 



Aff. 



f Tdkochhe 
\ Takome 
( Thd tochhik 
Thdtome 



Singular. 
I. Tdngmi* 



i. Tdngchhem 

1. Tangmem 

2. +Tomi 

2. Tochhikmi 



Toinem 
+ Tomi 

4- Tochhikmi 
4- To in em 



Singular. 
I. Tdkungmi 



i. T;(kungchhem 

1. Tdkungmem 

2. Tdkum 

2. Tdkochhem 

2. Tdkomem 

3. + Tdkum 

3. 4-Tdkochhem 
3- 



Dual and Plural of Object. 
Put down them two 
Put down them all 
Put not down them two 
Put not down them all 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. Plural. 

( To" chhokmi, excl. Tdkokmi 

j Td chhikmi, incl. Tdkein 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I put down them two 
I put down them all 
4- Tochhikmi 4- Tonem 

Thou putest down them two 

Thou putest down them .ill 

4- Tochhikmi 4- Tomem 

He puts down them two 
He puts down them all 

Preterite. 

Dual. Plural. 

( Td chhongmi Tiikikongmi 

j Td chhingmi Tiikikengmi 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I placed them two 
I placed them all 
Tdchhem Tdnem 

Thou puttest down them two 

Thou puttest down them all 

4- Tdkochhem 4- Tdkomem 



4- Tdiomein 



He put down them two 
He put down them all 
Negative mood by prefixed ma. 

Optative mood by dak conjugated after the ta root, as before given. 
Intt-rru^ative mood by cutting off final mi or m and substituting the querying 
formula ki ma. 
Subjunctive mood by like truncation, and substitution of nam for present and 

:'r past tense. 
Potential mood by conjugating wonto after the root ta. 

ive by the immutable particle yu substituted for final mi, m. 
Causal by conjugating pingko added to root. 

CONTINDATIVE MOOD. 

and o on, conjugating the substantive verb no", to be, 
after the model <>f phi, to coin.-, aii-1 j-r.-lixing the 
iterated root with na interposed 



1. Td ndtd nognom 

2. Td. ndtd nonum 

3. Td natd uomi 



Singular. 

1. Td natd pdnchungmi 

2. Td natd pdnchem 

3. Td natd pdnchem 



RECIPROCAL MOOD. 

..Uini 
Ukmi 

niki.ii 



Td nat.i 



And so on, for the preterite, after the model of imche and all reflex verbs 



Alto tovi nognom, at t Uowlici e explained. 



302 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



This is formed by the reflex of the verb p, to do, -which is panche added to the 
iterated root as before. The construction ad sen sura, which is the chief rule of this 
tongue, restricts the reciprocal mood in use to the dual and plural. 





PASSIVE VOICE. 






IMPERATIVE MOOD. 




Singular. 
Aff. Tosung 
Neg. Thd togno 


Dual. 
Tochhong 
Thd tochhok 


Plural. 
Tokikong 
Thd tokok 


, a, ( Tosungchhe 
Aff ' j Tosungne 
. w Thd tosungchhe 
"^ JThdtosuugne 


Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Do ye two place me 
Do ye all place me 

| Place me not, ye two, ye all 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 




Singular. 
I. Tognom 


Dual. 
( Tochhokuu 
\ Tochhikuii 


Plural. 
Tokokmi, excl. 
Tokem, iucl. 


Si. Tognochhem 
I. Tognomem 
2. + Tomi 


Dual and Plural of Agent. 
They (or ye) two place me 
They all place me 
+ Tochhikmi 


+ Tonem 


( 2. Tomi 
* j 2. Tomi 
3. +Tomi 

\ 3. +Tochhikmi 
j 3. -f Tomem 


They two (and we) place thee 
They all (and we) place thee 
+ Tochhikmi 

They two (and ye) place him 
They all place him 


+ Tomem 


I. Tosungmi 


Preterite. 
( Tochhongmi 
( Tochhingmi 


Tokikongmi, excl. 
Tokikengmi, incl. 


J I. Tosungchhem 
* | i. Tosungmetn 
2. Tomi 


Dual and Plural of Agent. 
They two (or ye) placed me 
They all placed me 
Tochhem 


Tonem 



2. Tomi They two (or we) placed thee 

2. Tomi They all (or we) placed thee 

3. +Takum +Takochhem +Takomem 

3. + Tdkochhem They two (or ye) placed him 

3. + Takomem They all placed him 

NEGATIVE MOOD. 
By prefixing m& merely. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Ta dakgnom, &c., as in active voice. 

Ta ping dakgnom (the last as a neuter) seems to be more correct, but is eschewed ; 
though dakgnom, if allowed to be a passive, could hardly, one would suppose, create 
the passive sense in the main verb in either form of this mood. 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
Tosung ki md ) and so on, dropping the final 



Togno ki md 
To ki md 
+ To ki md 



To ki md 
+ Tdkokimd 



m, mi, and substituting the 
interrogative ki md 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



303 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

As in the interrogative, but substituting nam in present and phen in past tense 
for the interrogatory form. 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 

&c., like the passive of hdto aforegone. Here also the 
passive sense lost in the truncated root is transferred 
the secondary verb. Taping wonchungmi, I ain able 
be put down, is also admissible 

CAUSAL MOOD. 

Ta" ping gnom 
T ping mi 
Tii ping mi' 

I am set down by another's 
will, &c. 



To" won gnom 
To" won mi 
+ T wontum 



(Ac, 

J Pa 

1 t0 
( to 



&c., by the reflex or passive 
causal of pingko, conju- 
gated like imche and hom- 
po respectively 



CONTINUATITE MOOD. 



&c., the iterated root conjugated with the passive of 
the verb pa", to do, which agrees with to", to place 



Td ping chungmi 
Td ping chem 
Td ping chem 
I am put down by my 
own will, &c. 

Td nata" pognom 
Td natd pomi 
Td natd pomi 

Thus are conjugated jako, to eat ; pako, to make ; thako, to hear ; nako, to 
kindle ; cbhako, to loosen ; chhuko, to seize ; doko, to catch ; khiko, to hide ; duko, 
to dig ; seko, to understand; reko and guko,* to lift up ; khoko, to cook ; boko, to 
dry ; and all others having a nude root before the ko sign. But observe that tako, 
jako, and pako change their a into 6, as in the aforegone paradigm, whereas the rest 
suffer no such alteration. All alike take a half nasal before the intransitive sign che. 
It has already been remarked that transitives in "ko" having a nasal before the 
sign, as pingko, to send, are conjugated like transitives in po with a similarly-placed 
nasal ; but as pingko is the great former of causatives, I give it before closing the 
conjugations, observing by the way that the root ping, which is merely nasalised pi, 
seems to explain the Dravirian causative sign. 



1. Tota nognom 

2. T<>ta nonum 

3. Tota iiomi 



Second Form of the Passive. 
&c., as before. 



S. Tonum 
D. Tonochhem 
P. Tononem 



8.7 Tognom 
D.7 Tognochhem 
P. Tognomen 



8.7 Tosungmi 
D.7 Tosungcbhem 
P. Tosungnem 



SPECIAL FORMS. 
I. I to thee. 

I (only) placed or will place thee 
I (only) jil.icrd ,,r will place you two 
I (only) placed or will place you all 

1 1. Thou to me. 

Thou (or he) placent, Ac., me 
Ye two (or me 

Ye all (only) place me 

Prrt 

Thou (or he) placed me 

Ye two (or they two) placed me 

Ye all placed me 



Aoristic 



Present 



PrtUrita 



* Guko is error ; for it is not gdQko with the pauning tone proper to 

jru'ko (recto gukko) with the abrupt too* ; and therefore gu'ko belong* to tho next conjuga- 
But add to thi, kuk. to carry ; hoko, to March ; pleko, to share out ; hiko, to take 

iiitort ; tcko, to suspend ; poko, to spread ; 



tion. But add to this, kuko, to carry ; tioko. u 
off ; piko, to MW ; doko, to accept ; khcko, to 
biko, to beg ; thcko, to puah or ihove. 



304 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



Singular. 
Aff. Pingko 
Neg. Tha plug 



*AflF. 
*Neg. 



Pingkochhe 
Pingkome 
Tha" pingchbik 
Tha* pingme 



Singular. 
I. Pingsungmi 



i. Pingsungchhem 

1. Pingsunfjmein 

2. + Pingmi 

2. Pingchhikmi 

2. Pingniem 

3. Pingnii 

3. Pingchhikmi 
3. Pingmem 



I. Pingkungmi 



I. Pingkungchhem 

1. Pingkungmem 

2. Pingkum 

2. Pingkochhem 
2. ' Pingkomem 

3. + Pingkum 

3. -f Pingkochhem 
3. + Pingkomem 



Aff. Pinsung 
Neg. Thd pinggno 



*Aff 

' Pingsungne 

*Neg. Tha* pingsungchhe 



I. Pinggnom 



i. Pinggnochhem 
I. Pinggnomem 
2. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Dual. 
Pingchhe 
Tha* pingchhe 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
Do thou send them two 
Do thou send them all 
Dual 
Plural 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

Dual. 

+ Pingchhokmi 
+ Pingchhikmi 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I send them two 
I send them all 
+ Pingchhikmi 
Thou sendest them two 
Thou sendest them all 
+ Pinchhikmi 
He sends them two 
He sends them all 

Preterite. 
+ Pingchhongmi 
+ Pingchhingrai 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I sent them two 
I sent them all 
+ Pingchhem 
Thou sendest them two 
Thou sendest them all 
+ Pingkochhem 
He sent them two 
He sent them all 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Pingchhong 
Tha* pingchhok 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
Do you two send me 
Do you all send me 
Tha" pingsungne 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Tense. 
( Pingchhokmi 
( Piugchhikmi 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
They two send me 
They all send me 
+ Piugchhikmi 



Plural. 
Pingne 
Tha* pingne 



Plural. 
+ Pingkokmi 
+ Piugkem 



+ Pingnem 
-f Pingmem 



Pingkikongmi 
-f- Piugkikengmi 



+ Pingnem 
+ Piugkomem 



Pingkikong 
Tha* pingkok 



+ Pingkokmi 
4- Pingkem 



+ Pingnem 



\\iYU GRAMMAR. 



305 



I. Pingsungmi 



2. Pingmi They two send tbee 

2. Piugmi They all send thee 

3. -f- Pingmi + Pingchhikmi +Pingmem 
3. + Pingchhikmi They two send him 

3. + Pingmem They all send him 

Preterite. 

( Pingchhongmi + Pingkikongrai 

\ Pingchhingmi + Piugkikeugmi 

Dual and Plural of Agent. 
vi. Pingsungchhem They two sent me 

| I. Pingsungmem They all sent me 

2. Pingmi + Pingchhem fPingnem 
\ 2. Pingmi They two sent thee 

( 2. Pinirmi They all sent thee 

3. +Pingkum +Pingkochhem' + Pingkomem 
| 3. 4- Pingkochhem They two sent him 

| 3. + Pingkomem They all sent him * 

Mtven. Conjugation of transitives in "ko" having an abrupt tone 
iterate sign) between the sign and the root. 

The verb pho (phok'),t to beget, or give birth to. 



Aff. Phok mun<* 
Neg. Mang phokmuug 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Gf.runds. 


Participles. 


Verbal Nouns. 


Phokhe 


Phokvi 


Phokchyjlng 


Phoknung, &c. 


Phokta, &c. 


Phoklung 






Phoksing, &c. 




IMPERATIVE MOOD. 




Aff. Pho'ko (phokko) 


Phokchhe 


Phongne 


Neg. Thd pho'ko (phokko) 


Tha" phokchhe 


Thd phokne 




Dual and Plural of Object. 




*Aff J Pho'kochhe 


Do thou beget two 




* n< ) Pho'kome 


Do thou beget all 




kchliik 
g ' | Thd phokme 


1 ' > not beget two 
Do not beget all 






INDICATIVE MM.I>. 




Singular. 


Dual 


Plural. 


i. Phongmi 


k<-]ih"ktni, excl. 
kchliikini, incl. 


Phokkokmi, ercl. 
Phokkem, iucl. 




Dual awl Plural of Object. 




S'tngchhem 


I Ueget them two 




I. 1'ii .TILTH. MM 


I beget them .ill 




2. I'hokmi 


kmi 


Phoknem 


^ j 2. Phokchhikmi 


Tlxm begett'at them two 




* | 2. Phok: 


Th"ii l.-^'ftt'iit them all 




>kmi 


1' kd .ikmi 


Phokmem 


j 3. Phokchhikmi 


He begets them two 




| 3. Phokmem 


He begets them all 





are conjugated all vorlm in " ko " proc -!rd by n i all tho^e cited 

at p. an 1 , or Icnko, cbeoko, houko ; and to theto add phongko, to play ; putigko, to weavo ; 
iugkn. to buy. Ac. 

<"in clearly the right rtn. See note at p. 243. . 
VOL. I. U 



306 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

Preterite. 

T,, ,', . ( Phokchhongmi, excl. Phokikongmi, excl. 

j Phokchhingmi, incl. Phokikengmi, incl. 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
I. Pbo'kungchhem I begot two 

1. Pho'kungmem I begot all 

2. Pho'kum Phokchhein Phonguem 
2. Phokochem Thou begott'st two 

2. Pbokomem Thou begott'st all 

3. Pho'kum Phokochhem Phokomem 
3. Phokochhem He begot two 

3. Phokomem He begot all 

Reciprocal continuative, &c., compound with phok and the verbs no and panche, 
as before. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

No infinitive gerunds or participles save in the causal form, phokpingmung, phok- 
pinghe, phokpingvi, c.* 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Aff. Phoksung Phokchhong Pho'kikong. 

Neg. Tha" phokgno Thd phokchhok TLd pho'kok 

Dual and Plural of Object. 
. ff j Phoksungchhe Do ye two beget me 

' | Phoksungne Do ye all beget me 

Tha" phoksungchhe 
Thai phoksungue 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. 



1. Phokgnom 

2. Phoknii 

3. Phokmi 

Preterite. 

1. Phoksungmi 

2. Phongmi 

3. Phongmi 



Dual and plural and agento-objective as in the last 
conjugation, only substituting phok for to", of 
which the latter shows the td root, internally 
modified ; and the former, the iterate transitive 
sign, elsewhere suppressed, here brought forward, 
for phok-gnom and phongmi both depend on 
pho'-ko being really phok-ko.'t' 



Thus are conjugated ta'ko, to decorticate ; kho'ko, to crook ; pu'ko, to awaken ; 
chi'ko, to bite ; ne'ko, to give rest ; lu'ko, to choose ; li ko, to lay down or thrown 
down ; cha'ko, to put upon, to make come up ; ye'ko, to shear or clear the ground 
for cultivation ; chho'ko, to sow ; po'ko, to weigh or measure ; chu'ko, to plane 
wood ; lo'ko, to turn over ; gu'ko, to raise forcibly ; cho'ko, to offer ; ruko, to 
plough, &c. Observe that in all these the latent iterate sign of the imperative, 
whose presence is only indicated by the abrupt tone (ta'ko), is preserved in the con- 
jugation, whence from a common crude, or ta, to place and to decorticate, comes 
all the difference of tangmi, tomi, tomi and tangmi takmi, takmi in the indicative, 
whilst in the preterite there is only the difference of the abrupt accent, takungna, 
takum, takum, and ta'kungmi, ta'kum, ta'kum. The change of vowel is confined to 
the three verbs tako, jako, and pako. All other transitives in "ko" conjugated 
from the sheer root as S-ko, understand it, follow the paradigm of tako, less that 
change of vowel ; as imperative Se"-ko, se-chhe, Se-ne, indicative, se'ngmi, se"mi, semi, 
&c. Compare with the transitives in 'ko, as above, those in 'po, as to'po, aforegone. 
Both follow the Dravirian rule of iteration, only disguised for the sake of euphony. 

* This holds as to all the conjugations. But observe that the participles in t and tang 
(2 in 3), though ranged under the active voice, are essentially passive. 

t There can be no doubt than in all the verbs of this conjugation, as in all of the eighth, 
the dropped consonant must be restored, yet not so as to obliterate the tone vvMrh i;, 
two conjugations is as decidedly of the abrupt kind as in conj. x. of the pausing kind; and, 
for example, tako (recte takko), here, is tako (taiiko), apud couj. x. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



307 



Singular. 
AflT. La'la 
Neg. Tha la'la 



Singular. 



Twelfth. Conjugation (of Irregulars). 

Lit, to go. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. Plural. 

La'chhe Ldne 

TW la'chhik * Tha" lane 



2, U'lam 

3. La'lam 



1. Ld'sungmi 

2. Lii'lam 

3. La" lam 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

\Dual. 

( Ld'chhokmi, excl. 
| Ld'chhikmi, incl. 
Ld'cbhikmi 
Ld'chhikmi 

Frdcritt. 

Ljf chhongmi, excl. 
La"chhingmi, incl. 
LrfCchhem 
Ld'chhem 



Plural. 

( La"kokmi, excl. 
| Ld'kem, iucl. 

Lane in 

Ldmem 



( Lii'kikongmi, excl. 
( La'kikengmi, iucl. 
Lanem 

L.illH'Ill 



dli. Conjugation (of Irregular.-). 

N<5, to be. 

PRESENT INDICATIVE SINGULAR. 

\ The residue is quite regular (see 1st conjugation), as also 
f in the above verb, and indeed the dual and plural of all 
t verbs whatever are nearly immutable, as will have beeu 
; seen 

Remark. Both the above have an abrupt tone or obscure t' before tbe gerund, 
participle, and verbal noun signs, as lat'he ; not'be ; lat'lat'ba, not'not'ha; lat'vi, 
not'vi ; la'ta, no'ta, also in the infinitive, lat'mung, not'mung. 

Fourteenth and Fifteenth. Conjugations (of Irregulars), being those of 
the verb 1, to go, as used in combination with other verbs. 



1. N<5gnom 

2. N<5num 

3. N6mi or 



I. Witb transit! ves as top', to bdat. 
. 

, nJar. 

1. Top Idngmi 

2. Top lam 

3. Top lam 
Preterite. 

i. Toplaaungmi 

3. Toplachem 



Dual and plural, 
as in the un- 

lagnom, &c. 



II. With neuters, as im, to sleep. 
J ml i cut ire Present 
Singular. 

1. Tin lagnom 

2. Im lam 

3. I in lam I Dual and plural 

are in the se- 

1. I in la sungiui parate verb 

2. I MI lam 

3. Im lam ) 



IMPERATIVE. 
Topla Inila 

Remark. In every conjunction -'no first loses the infn nd is 

used i of passive expro 

subordinate verb, at before illu- it to tins, bito, in tbe sense < 

: ion, thus, let zno strike, is nung ; and topmung hinum, I let thee 
strike. 

above fifteen conjup i accessories (see bracketed portions), 

whole scope of Vayu i.ut a reference to them will show 
that it has been necessary, whilst striving to accommodate our forms to the ; 



8o first conjugation of neuters conjugated from t'.c crude root. 



3o3 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



of this language, to interpolate into the transitives certain forms expressive of both 
agent and object, and likewise to append to the passive certain other forms which 
have been necessarily set apart from all the conjugations ; not to mention the per- 
petual coincidence of active and passive forms. It may now be of use to exhibit 
the whole matter of conjugation in another shape seemingly more accommodated to 
the genius of the language, and which, though exhibiting a deal of repetition, will 
be found convenient for comparisons when we proceed to the Kiranti language, a 
language still richer than the Vayu tongue in pronominal combinations with the 
verb, and wherein, consequently, many of the mere iterations of the following 
diagram will take distinct shapes ; whence we may infer that decomposition has 
proceeded a good deal further in the Vayu language than in the Kiranti tongue. 



The verb jd, to eat. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Eat thou. 



Jdnche, self, as agent or object, eat 

simply 

Jdko, it or him 
Jdto, his or for him 
Jdkochhe, them two 
Jdtochhe, their two 
Jdkome, them all 



Jo" tome, their all 



JiuKiehhe, selves 
Jdchhe, it 
Jdchhe, his, for him 
Jdchhe, them two 
Jdchhe, their two 
Jdchhe, them all 
Jdchhe, their all 



8. J6sung, me 

9. Jdsung, mine 

10. Jochhung, us two 
n. Jdchhung, our two 

12. J6kikong, us all 

13. Jiikikong, our all 

Dual. 
Ye two eat. 

8. Jdsungchhe, me 

9. Jdsungchhe, mine 

10. J6chhung, us two 

11. Jdchhung, our two 

12. J<5kikong, us all 

13. Jdkikong, our all 



Plural 
Ye all eat. 



1. Jdnchine, selves or simple action 

(functional) 

2. June, it 

3. Jdne, his, or for him 

4. Jdne, them two 

5. Jdne, their two 

6. Jdue, them all 



7. Jdne, their all 

8. J<5sungne, me 

9. Jdsungne, mine 

10. Jochhung, us two 

11. Jdchhung, our two 

12. Jdkikong, us all 

13. Jdkikong, our all 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future. 

Singular. 
I eat or will eat. 
I. Jdnchungmi, self, as agent or 7. Jdtungmem, their all 



object 
Jdngmi, it, him 
Jdtungmi, his, or for him 
Jdngchhem, them two 
Jiitungchhem, their two 



6. Jiingmem, them all 



8. Jdnum, thee 

9. Jdnum, thine or for thee 

10. Jdnochhem, you two 

11. Jdnochhem, your two 

12. J<5nonem, you all 

13. Jdnonem, your all 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



2. 



Dual. 
We two eat or will eat. 



selves 



j Jdnachokmi, excl. 
| Jdnachhikmi, incl. 
( Jachhoknii, excl. ) ., 
j Jachhikmi, incl. j lt; 

3. Jdchhokmi-chhikmi, bis, for him 

4. Jdchhokmi-chhikmi, them two 

5. Juchhokmi-chhikuii, their two 

6. Jdchhokmi-chhikini, them all 



7. Jachhokmi-chhikmi, their all 

8. J<5mi, thee 

9. Jdchhokmi, thine 

10. Joehhikmi, you two 

11. Jdchhokmi, your two 

12. Jdnem, you all 

13. Jduem, your all 



Plural. 
We all eat or will eat. 



Jdnchikokmi, excl. ) , 
Jdnchikem, incl. \ 8C 
Jdkokmi, excl. | 
Jdhem, incl. \ 
Jdtikokmi, excl. 
keni, incl. 

4. .hikokmi-kem, them two 

5. Jdti-kokrni-kem, their two 



his, for him 



6. J;(-kokmi-kem, them all 

7. Jdti-kokmi-kem, their all 

8. Jomi or Jokokmi, thee 

9. Jdkokmi, thine 

10. J6chhikmi, you two 

1 1 . Jiikokmi, your two 

12. J<5nem or Jokokmi, you all 

13. Jiiuem or Jiikokmi, your all 



1. Jiinchhem, self 

2. .Ijini, it 

i), his, or for him 

4. Jochhikmi, them two 

5. Jiitochem, their two 

6. Jotnem, them all 

7. Jatoinem, their all 



Singular. 
Thou eat'st or wilt eat. 



8. Jognom, me 

9. Jilgnom, miue 

10. Jdchhokmi, ua two 

11. Jomi, our two 

12. Jokoknii, us all 

13. Jiikokmi, our all 



Dual. 
Ye two eat or will eat. 



I. Janachhikmi, selves 

ihikmi, it 
iiikiui, his 
iliiktni, them two 
.hiktni, their two 
iliiknii, tic- 
7. Juchhikuii, their all 



1. Jiinchinem, selvc-H 

2. Jonetn, it 

3. Janem, iU, hia 

4. Jonern, them two 

5. J i i two 

6. Jonem, them all 

7. Jauem, their all 



8. Jognochhem, me 

9. Jiignochlifin, iniiic 
IO. Jorhhokmi, ua two 

I i. .l.iclihtikini, our two 
}2. J.ikiikmi, oi 

i all 



I'lnral. 

r will eat. 

8. Jognonem, me 

.^'iK.n.-iii. ! 

lihokmi, ua two 
II. Jdchhokmi, < 

k"kmi, UK all 
.iu'kini, our all 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



1 . Ja'nchhem, self 

2. Jomi, it 

3. Jatum, his, for him 

4. Jochhiknii, them two 

5. Jatochhem, their two 

6. Jomem, them all 

7. Jdtomem, their all 

8. J<5mi, thee 

9. J(5mi, thine 

10. Jochhikmi, you two 



1. Jdnachhikmi, selves 

2. Jochhikiui, it, him 

3. Jatochhem, his, it8 

4. Jochhikmi, them two' 

5. Jatochhem, their two 

6. Jochhikmi, them all 

7. Jtitomem, their all 

8. Jdmi, thee 

9. Jdmi, thine 

10. Jdchhik, you two] 



Singular. 
He eats or will eat. 



11. Jachhikmi, your two 

12. Jonem, you all 

13. Jomi, your all 

14. Jognoin, me 

15. Jagnom, mine 

6 ( Jochhokmi, excl. J , 
l6 ' j Jochhikmi, incl. { U8t " 

17. Jiichhokmi-chhikmi, our two 

1 8. Jokokmi-kem, us all 

19. Jdkokini-kem, our all 



Dual. 
They two eat or will eat. 



11. Jochhikmi, your two 

12. Jonem, you all 

13. Jochhikmi, your all 

14. Jognochhem, me 

15. Jagnochhem, mine 

- ( Jochhokmi, excl. ) 
l6 ' j Jochhikmi, incl. j ustwo 

17. Jdchhokmi-chhikmi, our two 

1 8. Jokokmi-kem, us all 

19. Jakokmi-kem, our all 



Plural. 
They all eat or will eat. 



1. Jjfachimem, selves 

2. Jomem, it 

3. Jatomem, his, its, for him 

4. Jdmem, them two 

5. Jdtomem, their two 

6. J<5mem, them all 

7. Jdtomem, their all 

8. J6mi, thee 

9. J6mi, thine 

10. Jochhikmi, yon two 



1 1. Jdtomem, your two 

12. Jonem or Jomem, you all 

13. Jauem or Jatomem, your all 

14. Jognomem, me 

15. Jagnomem, mine 

, ( Jochhokmi. excl. ) 
l6 ' j Jochhikmi, incl. S U8two 

17. Jachhokmi-chhikmi, our two 

1 8. Jokokmi-kem, us all 

19. Jakokmi-kem, our all 



PRETERITE TESSE. 
Singular. 

late. 



1. Jjinchhnngmi, self r own 

2. Jakungmi, it, him 

3. Jdtungmi, his, for him 

4. Jdkungchhem, them two 

5. Jtttungchhem, their two, or for them 

two 

6. Ja"kungmem, them all 

7. Jatungmem, their all , or for them all 



8. J<5num, thee 

9. Jiinum, thine, or for thee 

10. J6nochhem, you two 

11. Janochhem, your two, or for you 

two 

12. J<5nonem, you all 

13. Jdnonem, your all, or for you all 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



Dual 


We two ate. 


I 


Juinchhongmi, excl. ) selves, 


6 i 


. 


Jduachhiugini, iucl. \ own 


' 1 


2. 


Jdchhongmi, excl. 
Jdchhingmi, incl. 


it, him 


* ! 


J Jdchhongmi, excl. 
" ( Jachhingmi, incl. 


his, for him 


8. Jd 
9. Jd 


i Jdchhongrni, excl. 
( Jdchhingmi, iucl. 


them two 


10. J(^ 

11. Jd 


( Jdchhongmi, excl. 
( Jdchhingmi, iucl. 


their two, or 
for them 
two 


12. J6 

13- M 


Plural. 


We all ate. 




Jdnchhikongmi, excl. ) selves, 


6^ 





Jdnchhikengmi, incl. \ owu 


. 


2. 


Jdkikongmi, excL 
Jdkikengmi, incl. 


it, him 


7. 




Jatikougmi. excl. 


its, his, for 


8. J 





Jdtikengmi, incl. 


him 


9. Jt 


4- 


Jdkikongmi, excl. 
Jdkikengmi, incl. 


them two 


10. J( 

n. Jj 


( Jsitikongnii, excl. ) their two, or 


12. J<: 


( Jatikengini, iucl. \ for them two 


13. Jj 



them all 

their all, or 
for them all 



( Jilchhongmi, excl. 
| Jdchhingmi, incl. 

!Jd.chhongmi, excl. 
Jdchhingmi, iucl. 
.Toini, thee 

Jjichhongmi, thine, for thee 
J<5chhem, you two 

11. Jdchhougmi, your two, or for you 

two 

12. Jonem or jdchhongmi, you all 

13. Jdnum or jachhongiui, your all, or 

for you all 



them all 



1. Jdnchhem, self, own 

2. Jiikom, it, him 

;m, his, for him 

4. Jdkochhem, them two 

5. Jdtochhem, their two, or for them 

two 
C. J.ikomem, them all 



Jdkikongmi, excl. 

Jdkikengmi, iucl. 

Jdtikongmi, excl. ) their all, or 

Jdtikengmi, incl j for them all 
Jdmi, thee 

Jdkikongmi, thine, or for thee 
J6chem or jdkikongmi, you two 
Jsitikougmi, your two, for you two 
Jdnem, or jjlkikongmi, you all 
Janein, or jdtikongmi, your all, for 

you all 

Singular. 
Thou at'st or didst eat. 

7. Jdtomera, their all, or for them all 

8. Jtfsungmi, me 

9. Jiisungmi, mine, for me 

10. Jdchungmi, us two 

11. Jdchungmi, our two, or for us two 

12. J<5kikongrni, us all 

13. Jiikikongmi, our all, for us all 



1. .Tdndchhem, nelves, own 

2. Jdchhem, it, him 

3. Jdchhem, its, his 

4. Jdchhem, them two 

t. Jdchhem, their two, for them two 
. Jdchhem, them all 
7. Jdchhem, their all, for them all 



Dual. 
Ye two ate. 

8. Josungchhem, me 

9. Jdsungchheni, mine, for me 

10. Jochhuii^ini, US two 

1 1. Jdchhungmi, our two, for us two 

12. Jokikongmi, us all 

13. Jdkikongmi, our all, for us all 



ichinem, nelves, own 

2. Jdnem, it, liim 

3. Jdnem, bis, ita 

4. Jdnem, them two 

5. Jdnem, their two, for them two 

6. Jdoem, them all 

7. Jdnem, their all, for them all 



7VW. 
Ye all ate. 

8. Jdflungnem, me 

9. Jdsungnem, mine, for me 

10. Jochhongini, us two 

1 1. .1.1 i iiongmi, our two, for us two 

12. Jokikongmi, ua all 

13. Jdkikougrni, our all, for us all 



312 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



Singular. 
They ate. 



1. Jdnchhem, self, own. 

2. Jtikum, it, him 

3. Jdtum, his, for him 

4. Jdkochhem, them two 

5. Jdtochhem, their^two, for them 

two 

6. Jfikomem, them all 

7. Jtitoruem, their all, for them all 

8. J<5sungmi, me 

9. Jtisungtni, mine, for me 

Jfchhongmi, excl. ) 
( Jdchhmgmi, mcl. ] 



13- 
14. 



17- 
1 8. 
19. 



our two, for 
us two 

us all 

our all, for us 
all 



( Jdchhongmi, excl. 

( Jdchhingmi, incl. 

{ Jtfkikongmi, excl. 

| Jokikengmi, inch 

i J;(kikongmi, excl. 

| Jtikikengmi, incl. 

J6mi, thee 

Jdkum, thine 

Jochhem, you two 

Jdchhem, your two, for you two 

Jonem, you all 

Jiinem, your all, for you all 



Di> 
They two ate. 



1. Jtinachhem, selves, own 

2. Jjikochhem, it, him 

3. Jsitochheui, hia, its 

4. Jjikochhem, them two 

5. Jiitochhem, their two, for them two 

6. Jdkochhem, them all 

7. Jtttochhem, their all, for them all 

8. Josungchhem, me 

9. Jilsungchhem, mine 

J<5chh<5ngmi, excl. 

Jdchhingmi, incl. 

Jdchhongnii, excl. ) our two, for 

Jachhingmi, incl. ^ us two 



10. 



us two 



12. 



J<5kikongmi, excl. 
Jokikengini, incl. 
Jdkikongmi, excl. 
Jdkikengmi, iucl. 

thee 

\ 

thine 



us all 

our all, for 
us all 



14. 

( .1 ;ik inn 
>' j Jdkochhein 

16. Jochhem, you two 

17. Jilchhem, your two, for you 

two 

1 8. J6nem, you all 

19. Jduem, your all, for you all 



Plural. 



They 

1. JfCnchimem, selves, own 

2. Jslkoniem, it, him 

3. Jittomem, his, its 

4. Jdkomem, them two 

5. Jittomeni, their two, for them 

two 

6. Jjlkomem, them all 

7. Jdtomem, their all, for them all 

8. Jdsungmem, me 

9. Jjlsungmem, mine 
10. jJochhongmiexcl. ^ 

| Jochhingmi, incl. c 



all ate. 

( Jdchhongmi, excl. ) our two, for 
I Jdchhiugmi, incl. \ us two 

Jdkikongmi, excl. 

J6kikengmi, incl. 

Jdkikongmi, excl. 

Jdkikengtni, incl. 

14. Jdmi, thee 

15. Jdkum, Jdkomem, thine 

1 6. J<5chhem, you two 

17. Jdchhem, your two, for you two 

1 8. J6nem, you all 

19. Jiinem, your all, for you all 



12. 



13- 



us all 

our all, for 
us all 



Remark. The whole of the above forms will, by and by, be seen to exist distinctly 
in the Bahing dialect of Kiranti, and nearly all in the Bontawa and Khaliug dialects. 
In Vayu the principle is the same, and many of the forms exist ; wherefore we 
must conclude that the others have been lost ; or shall we say that the process of 
development was stayed in mid course ? The more anomalies, the more instruction ; 
and it is necessary to put so new and peculiar a matter in several lights in order to 
judge of it truly. So that, instead of apologising for the above almost interminable 
details, I shall proceed to subjoin a comparison of Vayu and Quichua, the latter 
from Markham, ut supra, cit. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



313 



B. 

r. 

r. 



Quichua. 

I love thee, Munaiki 
I love you, Munaikichik 
I loved tbee, Munarkaiki 
I loved you, Muuarkikichik 



I. I thee. 



II. He tbee. 



S. He loves thee, Mundsunki 
P. He loves you, Munasunkichik 
S. He loved thee, Muuasukanki 
P. He loved you, Munasukankichik 

III. Thou me. 

S. Thou lovest me, Munahuauki 
P. Thou lovest us, Munahuankichik 
S. Thou lovedst me, Munahuarkanki 
P. Thou lovedst us, Muuahuarkankichik 

IV. He-me. 
S. He loves me, Munahuanmi 

P. He loves us, Munahuanchik 

S. He loved me, Munahuarka 

T, TT i j i Munahuarkanchik 
P. He loved us, Munahuarkaiku 



Vdyu. 

Chbdnum 

( Chhduochhem, D. 
| Chhdnonern, P. 

Chhdnum 

Chhdnochhem, D. 

Chhduouern, P. 


Chhanmi. 

( Chbdnchhikmi, D. 
j Chhdnem, P. 

Chhanmi 

\ Chh;inchhem, D. 
I Chhdnern, P. 



Chhdngnom. 
( Chhdnchhokmi, D. 
\ Chhdnkokmi, P. 

Chhdusungmi. 
( Chhdnchhongmi, D. 
| Chhdukikongmi, P. 

Chhangnom. 
Chhdnchhokmi, excl., D. 
Chhduchhikmi, incl., D. 
Chhdnkokmi, excl., P. 
Chhdnkem, incl., P. 
Chhansuugmi. 
ChhdnchhoDgmi, excl., D. 
Chhanchhiugmi, incl., D. 
Chhdnkikougiui, excl., P. 
Chhdnkikengmi, incl., P. 

Remark. Chhan, to love, in Vayu = Muna, in Quichua, is not a good word for 
comparison because of its being of the aoristic class of transitives in "to." In a 
tensed verb the resemblance to Quichua would have been more apparent. On the 
other hand, I huve given the Vayu dual as well as plural, because its dual fou. 
or chhik is almost identical with the Quichua plural >i^n or chik, whilst tin- plural 
one differs, an<i nothing is more certain than that these signs are apt to mingle- ami 
; ;il to fall out of use. 

referring to the above paradigm of the verb ja, to eat, it will be seen that the 
Vayu has many other forms expressly representative of the agent and <! ;.-:. and 

f those here collated with the Quichua I 

In Vdyu the only forms which in the present state <>f the 1 .,- LM entirely 

\ in the stream of conjugation are those which express t ,-isin^ from 

me to ; lainf a qjrtim of conjugation with 

suffixed ).;. :. ;ns thus 



, to give. 

Singul ' r. Plural. 

kern 
1 

2. Hanum em 

\ Hdmem 

' Um / Il.it.Mn 



T<5, to strike. 



, l<tr. 

1. '1'o'mum 

2. Toptuuii 

3. To'puni 



Pbvml, 





the following cxplanatii.H <.f the senses of the loading series of those f 
which ia real (the Hubordinatc is wholly hyp ^ ill show how utterly 

notion would mislead. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 

Hdgnom, gives to me thou or he any single person. 

Hrlkem, gives to us any one in all numbers. 

To'rnum, beats me thou or he any one in singular number. 

To'pem, beats us any one in all numbers. 

Hdnum, gives to thee I only. Himi, for any other giver. 

Hdnem, gives to you all any save I. Hjinonein, for me as the giver. 

Topmun, beats thee I only. To'ini, for any other beater or beaters. 

Topnem, beat you all, any save I, in all numbers. 

fHdtum, gives to him thou or he or any single person except me. 
Htungmi, for me. 
Ha"mem. No such word. 
Hdtomem, gives to them any person or persons except me. Hatungmen, 
for me. 

I m > ( struck him any single person but me. Topungmi, for me. 

3. -J im> I strikes him, the present tense is to'nii. 

( To'mem, strikes them all any person whatever. 

Hato, to give, being aoristic hatum, is equally present and preterite. But top, to 
strike, has for the present tomi, which moreover serves for all three persons alike in 
the singular number. 

Thus it appears that num and nem alone offer the appearance of uniformly 
inflected personal suffixes, and that even in regard to these, the singular and plural 
senses are diametrically opposite. 

But there are other complications resulting from the plurality of agents or of 
patients which account at once for the specialities of the above explanations and of 
those which follow. Thus : 

1. Hitgnom, gives to me any single person. 

2. Hdgnochhem, give to me any two persons. 

3. Hdgnonem, give to me ye all only. 

4. Hdgnomem, give to me they all only. 

In the preterite hasting takes the place of hagn6m ; and with the verb top', to 
beat, we have only the euphonic change of gnom to mum, the residue being alike for 
both verbs ; thus we have 

Present. Preterite. 

1. To'mum I. Topsungmi 

2. To'mochhem 2. Topsuugchhem 

3. To'monem 3. Topsungnem 

4. To'momem 4. Topsungmem 

If to the above crowding of agents and patients round the action we add the fact 
that the distinction of activity and passivity in the action itself is almost lost at the 
very corner-stone of the whole structure of conjugation because the sign of action, 
kat' hexoki-n, viz., its having an object, is precisely that which denotes at once the 
transitive verb and the passive voice, e.g., ha-to, give to him; ha-tu-m, he is giveu 
and he gives we shall at the same time perceive how difficult it is to make these 
languages conform to our notions of conjugation (see and compare Tickell and 
Philipps, voce Sontal), and shall also be prepared to hear that a system at once so 
complex and so incomplete has been very generally cast aside either wholly (Newari, 
Lepcha, Bodpa, Malayalim, Burmah, Malay) ; or in part (other Dravirian, Dhimali, 
Namsangnaga, &c.); and in this or that particular mode, one group of tongues 
rejecting the dual (Dravirian cultivated) j another, the sex signs (Himalayan com- 
plex) ; * a third, the whole system of conjunct pronouns (Himalayan simple t and 
those above cited) ; whilst the attempt to blend with the action agents as well as 
patients, and both in the dual and plural numbers, has been maintained only by 
Kiranti and some Oceanic tongues, the Vayu, Sontal, &c., being now restricted to a 
duality and plurality on one side only, viz., that of the agents or that of the objects. 
The Vayu can express (like the Sontal) several agents and one patient, or several 

* The complex Himalayan tongues are Limbu, Kiranti, Hayu, Kuswar, Siinwar, Dhimali, 
Bbrdmu, Chepaug, Eusunda, &c. 

t The simple or nonpronominalised are Newari, Thumi, Pahi, Murmi, Giirung, Magar 
Khiis (mixed), Lep'cha, Paluseu or Syar'pa (Serpa), Bodo, &c. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 315 

patients and one agent, but not a plurality of both. The Kiranti can express a 
plurality of both. But neither the one nor the other has effected the same sort and 
degree of amalgamation of its conjunct pronouns in the case of its nouns as well as 
verbs, as the Himalayan, Kuswar, and the Ugrofinnic tongues generally have done, 
which all alike have perfectly blended suffixes for both; whilst the Kiranti, with 
an equal fusion in both cases, prefers the method of prefix for the nouns; * and the 
Vayu, following the same Dravirian order of arrangement, has not reached the same 
completeness of.development in this respect (therein further agreeing with Dravirian), 
though more in* others. It has a perfectly separate set of possessives for combina- 
tion (ang, ung, a vel u) ; but to the noun has got blended inseparably the third of 
these (ang-upa, ung-upa, a-upa or wathim u-pa), and thus a euphonic combination 
of the whole with the nominal root has been prevented, as in Bodo, which, however, 
as well as Vayu, can and occasionally does use as perfectly fusedf prefix forms as 
the Kirauti, and sometime* both the disjunct and conjunct prefixually, and Dhimali 
likewise. From the verb, Bodo, like Malayalim and several Nilgiri tongues, has 
dropped the pronoun ; Dimali, like Tamil, Uraon, and Male, has kept it ; in Vayu, 
as in Sontal and Ho, the phenomena are complex. (See note at the end of the 
article, further on, on the Kiranti tribe. Double pronominalisation affines our Vayu 
and Kiranti to Ho and Sontal, but different positions of the pronouns differences 
them. The fact of having them and this different use of them what worth? See 
Poole on Egyptian J.R. A.S., p. 313 ; also the analogy with Quichua noted by me.) 

I refer to the head of pronoun for some more remarks on this subject. In the 
meanwhile, and in conclusion of the topic of Vayu conjugation, I beg to suggest 
attention to the following collation of actives and passives of the several types in 
the third persons of the present (or future) and preterite. 






*, 

i-JX), 

a-po, 


my 

thy 
his 


} 


f -it her 


tib-ii, 
tib-i, 
tib-a, 


thou 
he 


1 


strike 



Compare Sontal and Kuswar. 

apu-ini,' dal-engalug baba-ini thatha-im-ik-:m 

:ij)a-iu dal-me-am baba-ir thatha-ir-ik-au 

apa-t dal-c a! baba-ik thatha-ik-an 

t Bodo. Vayu. Dhimdli. Its Verb. 

a-pha run-] a ka-pa dcngkhi-ka 

na-pha urn -pa na-pa denKkhi-ua 

bi-pha a-pa wa-pa deugkhi 

J The full pronominal forms with the nouns are : 

Bo<lf>. rd.yu. Dhimdli. x 

angniapha anj?upa kangapa) (kangka-p:i) whWi la. 

untf upa nangapa - or J. nang na-pa ! 

watbim upa oko apa j ( eko wa-pa 

nangni napha 
biui bipha ' 



316 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 



1 



S3 



aa 








'-s 1 1 1 '-6 i t 



s ~ > > 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 317 



A SPEC-IMF, x OF THE VAYU LANGUAGE. 

Ang ming IVi'-hya nom. Ang tlioko Vdyu nomi (or G6 Vdyu 
irnom) Khdsakhata Hdyu itkem. Ungki ddvo be Vdyu ischikem.* 
Go jekta dumsungmi. Hdtba bong dumsungmi ghd ma sengmi. 
L4 got kulup cbbuyung t waniklien. Dhankuta mu khakcliliing 
pucbbum cliupvikliata poguha bdta vik pAchikokmi. Ang k6 md 
nom. Ang tdvo Gajraj Thdpa nung nomi. Gonha kopbe nakphe 
inang munang watbi yengkum. Wathim ndrung gonha blektum. 
"NVatbim cbho le pokum. Honko d thum rdmi. Captanba tbum 
burning bonpingkum. Ang ddvo lit'nung blining cbolo cbupsit klu-ii 
inbo g6 gonba mutpingkum. Ddvo cliinggnak cliamcbem. Gon 
sencbe. Ungjitd ddvo gb& cbitnum. Ang tbumbe itbaji nomi gonba 
wdlige latpinggoom. Angki tboko k6si blingmu bomba imba mus- 
cbikokmi (our tribe, ice). Nepdl khdral kben Tdmbakosi bong mns- 
chikokmi. G6khdta Awal be mutvi mdng nokokmi. Kuswdr, Buti.i. 
Denwdr, Awal be mutvi nonem. Awal mu ramsa ba gdng kbeva 
md muschikokmi. Vik mdng p6vi, gbddimu chokphi setung jovi. 
kem md p6vi th6ko Kusunda, Cbepdng bdbamu cbbdju pucbbibc ma 
muscbikokmi. Angkinm kem nomi, vik le nomi ; pdgnnmu vik nom, 
memba, makai, dosi, pbdphdr, b6ja, l^vi, r6wa, mdsa, sdkha, gohun, 
Idru, livi vik nom. Angki mulung k6lube, H^ngongwo ball a. Lnn- 
cba, Limbu baba mdng jdhe, cbbdju mddumbe gadhd pdhe, muscbi- 
kokmi. Cbbdju pucbhibe b6ja md licbem, jomsitmu ming miscbe 
! md nom. Hdnung bong jomsit licbem minung bong lat'lat'lia 
muscbikokmi. Gbdkliata ba ruklung be rukkokmi, duklung be 
dukkokmi. Phaldmtu'vi, singcbuk'vi, kochonvi angki tliok lo md 
iniiiH'in. K:uii]i;i'-l]yang, bingcbopdcbydng gyetim got kbcn ingcbi- 
ld kem angki g6t bd pacbikokmi. Angki wdscbydng 
.i vik S('-' i kben roinckhata lid duri cblnchiogha jcwa, 

.1. Vdyukhata kbakcbbingpuchhuin jn'ivi (or chupvi) md 
n6mom. Mi-rii*' pa ,L r y<'-!i namsaiigmu scva md poiin-m. .' 

"-vo ^'.t kb- n raiii'ai JIOMH-IM. L'nrlmkbata dawan^mi j" ; \\ a 
waschimem. Mescbokliata ranirai ]'ta w.Wliimcm An.irki mu ' 
ithijila nomi. Nayung got kulupba biikuluj) kln-n chholupt (or Id 
Qg mu j'ii- a ciiliajii jua iuiiibe itlia dokba liamt 

o form of tl iiiRki)and of t'.c r-flox voice of tJ.o %. 

to denominate (Uchikem), are used ; 

preceding nentenco, if it , the pM*<ivo 

w are called, i.e., all of us Vaju* are call 

md transitive, carries in a n H of the three voices of V4yu 

i*c of numeration. See Vocabulary. 



318 VAYU GRAMMAR. 

(or hamchimem). Angki kem chhdlung singha pota, diha wamta 
liunglung k6ha r6ta, khistiha supta, ge"ge ge"ge pachimem. Kem- 
bhitari ndyung kuna noclihikmi ; k6lu, imlung ; kolu kh6'lung. 
Tawokhata, tdmikhdta ge'ge' ta ma hokmi. Bangchodum khen biak 
pachikokmi. Nayung got kulup ha bd kulup khen le" got kulup * 
bong pe"nku hdhd ha rome ingchikokmi. Pe"nku phen mang wontike 
nam rome upu kembe lat'lat'ha, kam pdpdha, phengkokmi. Mische 
md pdpdha me'ta singtong k6be Mumpopmi. Kh6cho, pnk, chili, 
be"li, me"chho, jachikokmi, Gai, bhdlu, phoka, md jdkokmi. Singwo, 
khiidu, dudu, chdlung, jdkokmi. Sove tungchikokmi, bukclihale 
tungkokmi (note the two forms of the verb). S6ve, angki pota, 
chinggnak tungkokmi. Bukchha, gye"tim g6t khen ingta, yanggnak 
tungchikokmi. Angki chhobe md blekchikokmi. Nokchhung sas- 
chikokmi, mescho le, I6ncho le. Bdlung khen gye"ti suna le md 
dakkokmi. Angki ch6lvi Bdlung. Gye"ti suna le md nom. Vdyu 
thoko mu singtong sunaha Brahman Lama md honmi (or honmem, 
indefinite). Gye"tim lorn md khokchikokmi. Angki vik hakhele md 
watkokmi. Upo met'khen tdwokhata ha chhinggnak yanggnak m^ 
pdpdha lingmem. Tdmikhata ha mische le md lingmem. Imhamu 
ddwo d6vi angki mdjhua nomi. Inung wanikhen povi sund le md 
nom. Angki th6ko gydtim g6t be Idsta, yangta thoko, ndti tolgong t 
bong yangmi. Finis. 

TRANSLATION.:): 

My name is Pachya. I am a Vdyu. The Khas tribe call us Hdyu, 
but our own name is Vdyu. I am an old man. I don't know how 
old; above sixty. I am a cultivator of land assigned by the LYija 
to the soldiers of the Dhunkuta regiment. I have no land of my 
own. My son is in the service of Captain Gajraj Thdpa. You saw 
him here often, and drew his portrait and measured him. He 
thought that very queer, and was a little alarmed. But the Captain 
reassured him, and he consented. I have been here four months to 
help you to learn our language. It is very difficult. You must 
judge of all. I can only answer your questions. I hope you will 
soon let me go home. Our people dwell in the basin of (or along 
the course of) the Kosi river from near the valley of Nepdl proper to 
the Tamba Kosi. We are not ^walias (people inured to malaria or 
dwal). The Awalias dwell in the valley of the river, and are called 

* A phrase of numeration. See Vocabulary. 

t A phrase of measure. See Vocabulary. It is equal to two handfuls. 
I Take notice that this sample of the Vayn language likewise reveals the location, status, 
&c., of tiie people. Therefore revert to it when you come to the article ou u.e Vayu tribe. 



VAYU GRAMMAR. 319 

Kuswar, B6tia, Dduwar, &c. We can't live there by reason of the 
malaria. Nor do we dwell on the hill summits like the Kusiinda 
and Che^pang, who never cultivate, but live on wild herbs and fruits 
and never build houses. We have houses and cultivate the soil, 
growing maize and kodo and buckwheat, and rice, cotton, millets, 
barley, wheat, and madder. We are fixed cultivators, like the 
NO wars, not migratory ones like the Lepchas, Limbus, and others. 
We occupy the central parts of the hill slopes, which we cut into 
terraces. Kice won't grow on the tops, nor any sort of grain. We 
go up as high as grain will grow. We use the plough or the spade, 
according to the nature of the site we occupy. We have no crafts- 
men, smiths, carpenters, or potters of our own tribe. We buy 
utensils and ornaments from others. We build our own houses, and 
our women spin and weave the home-grown cotton of which they 
make our clothes. None of our race are soldiers, nor do we ever 
take service (menial). The Ne"wars dye for us, if we need it ; but 
the men wear plain clothes. Those of the women are sometimes 
dyed. Our villages are very small, usually fifteen to twenty houses 
scattered along the hill-sides. Our houses are built of rough timber, 
plastered and thatched with grass. Two rooms in a house one for 
cooking and the other for sleeping. We have no general dormitory 
for all the grown girls or boys of the village. We marry at maturity, 
buying our wives. A wife costs fifteen or twenty rupees. If we 
have no money, we earn her by labour in her father's house. We 
bury our dead without any ceremonies. We do not tattoo our bodies. 
Our ears we bore occasionally. We have no priest but the exorcist, 
who is also our only physician. None of our tribe follow the brah- 
mans or lamas. We abide by our own creed and customs. We 
eat fowls, pigs, goats, sheep, buffaloes. Not oxen, bears, or moni 
but honey, milk, eggs. We drink beer and spirits. Much of the 
former, as it is home-made ; little of the latter, because we must buy 
it. Our law of inheritance giv-s equal shares to all tin- bc.ys. and 
no share to the girls. Our head vi! ides our dispute-. \\ C 

never appeal from him. Our tribe is a broken one, a: 
:y incon.-. :. umbers. 



Of ANALYSIS OF THE VA"YU LANGUAGE. 



320 



BAH ING VOCABULARY. 



IV. ANALYSIS OF THE BAKING DIALECT OF THE 
KIRANTI LANGUAGE. 



A. BAKING VOCABULARY. 



Nouns Substantive. 



Air (wind), Jft 
Affection, Dwakcho 
Abuse, Waita. Khicho 
A'bode, Bwagdikha 
Adulterer, Ryamnipo 
Adulteress, Ryamnimo 
Agriculturist, Byangsikokba 
Amaranth (grain), G6surani 
Aqueduct, Kulo. Pwalam 
. , (Kh61irm'chi 
Ancle 'i leg joint 
Arm-all, \ rf 
Arm, fore, ( Gfi 
Article, thing, Grokso 



Anger, Sokso 

Ant, Gagachingmo 

Anus, Dyala 

Arrow, Bla 

Ax, KM 

Alder-tree, Bursi 

Bag, Salama 

Basket, Bainso 

Barley. No name. Jou is used 

Bamboo, Palam (all). Rikcho (small) 

Bark of tree, Singkokte 

Back, Ching 

Back-bone, Chinreusye" 

Belly, Koja 



Being, animal, Samthiba 
Box, chest. No word 
Bat kind, Pakati 

( male, A'po pakati 
Bat, s female, A'mo pakati 

(young, Pakati ataini 
Birth. No name 
Bird kind, Chikba 

( male, A'po chikba 
Bird, s female, A'mo chikba 
(young, Chikbaatami 
Beer, Gnasi 
Bread, She"blem 
Birch-tree, Phyekulima 
Bed, B16'cho 
Bed-chamber, Ipdikha 



Bed-time, Ipcho bela 

Bee, Syfira (wasp, Yukuwa) 

Blacksmith, Teupteu'le 

Blood, Husi 

Buttocks, Kosidyala 

Battle, fight, Mocho 

Boat, Dunga 

Bear, Warn 

Beard, Sh<$6 song, mouth hair ; or Ynl 

sw6n,* chin hair 
Boar, A'po po 
Body, Ram 
Burden, load, Kura 
Bone, Reusye 
Breast, Kuchu 
Breastnipple, Neucheu 
Bow, Li 
Bowman, Licha, m.+ Limicha, or Licha- 

uiina, f. 

Bottom, lowest part, Hayu 
Boy, Tawa 
Buffalo kind, Mesye"u 

f male, A'po me*syeu 
Buffalo, < female, A'mo me"syeu 
(young, M^syeu utaiui 
Bull, Bing, A'po bing 
lioundary, R^lu 
Breath, Sam 
Branch of tree. No word 

Brother, 



Brother-in-law, Chaiwa. Wadyalcha 
p lf ( male, A'po bin^ sltami 
au ' t female, A'mo bing atumi 

{P6. Dachom 
Grokso (thing) 
Pwakutucho grokso (water 
to dritik vessel) 
Cart. No word 
Cat-kind, Birma 

( male, A'po birma 
Cat, < female, A'mo birma 
(young, Birma atami 
Carpenter, Sing chokba 
Cheek, Chocho 
Chestnut tree, Syeli 



* S<5ng vel sw6n vel Sw6m. The broad 6 passes into wa and the final nopal is vague, 
t As from II comes licha, so from koja, the belly, kojacha, a glutton ; and from khyim, 
a house, khyioicha, a householder, &c., &c. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



321 



Chin, Teoli. Yoli 
Child-kiud, Ta. Gikba. 
tawa 



Tawa. Tami- 



Children, Tadau. Tawatami 
Clay, Phe-lemkhapi 
Cloth. 

Cotton cloth, Linkhi wa 
Woollen cloth, Unke wa 
Silken cloth. No word 
Clothes, raiment, Wa 
Cloud, Kuksyal 
Colour, Moba 

Cold (frigor){J 

Companion, Warcha 
Claw, nail, talon, Gyang 
Cane (calamus), Guri 



Cow, A'mo bing 

Cough, Sheukhe" 

Copper. No name 

Cowherd, Bing theulba 

Cotton, uncleaned, Linkhi 

Cotton, cleaned, Ruwa 

Courage. No word 

Crow, Gagakpa 

Daughter, Tami (girl) 

Daughter-in-law, Dyalmi 

Dance, Sili 

Day, Namti 

To-day, A'na 

Dust, Dyerbakh&pi (flying earth) 

Darkness, Namring 

Desire, wish, Dwakcho 

Ditch. No name 

Deer, Kisi 

( male, A'po kisi 
Deer, < female, A'mo kisi 

( young, Kisi atami 
Door, LajKiho 
Disease, illness. No name 
Dispute, f Mooho? Khicho? Infinitives 
Dog kind, Khlicha* 

(male, A'po khlfcha 
Dog, < female, A'mo khlicha 

(young, Khlicha ataini 
Death. No name 
Dream, Gna'mo 
J)nnk, Tu'ine. Tuchome 
Drunkard, Dukba. Tuba 



Dyer, Ryakba 

Earth the, 

Earth-a little, 

Ear, Samaneu. (See Nose) 

Egg, Di. Badi (Ba = fowl) 

Elephant. No name 

Echo, Thololamstikha 

Enemy. No name 

Ewe, A'mo bhe>a 

Eye, Michi 

Eyebrow, Kur'mi swon'g 

Eyelash, Michi swo?i'g 

Elbow, Nyaksi 

Exorcist, Jamcha 

Earthquake, Khrinyam 

Evening, Namtheuba 

Face, Kuli 

Feather, Chikbaswong (= bird-hair ) 



Father, A'po 

Father-in-law, Yeppa 

My father, A'pa 

Thy father, I'po 

His, her, its father, A'po 

Fever, Jusara (ague) 

Fair, ) Jyapdikha ledikha, 

Market, J = buying and selling place 

Fear, Nima. Gmma 

Ferry, Hamba gludikha 

Fire, Mi 

Fireplace, Mfmudikha. Bwakal 

Field, arable, Ru. By4ngsi 

Fingr, Brepcho 

Finger-nail, Gyang. Brepchogyang 

(Dwabodyelkem 
Fellow-countryman, < Dwabo dyel dim- 

( muryu || 



Fish, Gna 

Flavour, taste, Br6 

Flesh, Sye 

Flint, Chichilung 

Flour, Phul 

Flea, Chukbe 

Fence, Kh<>r 

Floor, Khapi (earth) 

Flower, Phung 

Ford, Pwaku hambag ludikhaH 

Fly, Sheumo 

.lawame. Jachome. Participles 
Fowl-kind, Ba 



* Oikbo, literally, who U born, answer* to KikU, who begeU or given birth to, a parent. 
The inherency of the relative jiron- mi in the participlea is normal, as in the mode of *lHng 
tran.Hitlve and caunal vcrJ> out of neuters. 

t Klifrjio. verbal, mocho. practical, dispute. 

Newari. The insertion of labial U n i k of these tongues. Bee 

I My ii verb*. f Quill is Bixyut 

| For suffixes kom, dim, nee pp. 777, 375, 330: ke And di me prepoftltionA ; flnnl in. i. ; 
Is a possessive and formative. Qu . ko it can be used sub- 

staijtivcly. InitnimeiiUi participles are formed frutn the infinitive by it, and are usable 
as noon* of either kind, e.g., jschome = food and edib c. 

5 Literally, water (of) far 

Jtfwfme, what he eats. Jschome, what any one eats, an edible substance. See on to 
Conjugation*. 

VOL, I. X 



322 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



| male, Swareuwaba 
Fowl, < female, Chwongkameuba 

(.young, Bukballo 
Fowl, wild, Sabala ba 
Fowl's egg, Ba di. Baadi * 
Foreigner, "Wangmedyeldim. Wangme- 

dyelke 

Fist. No word 
Forehead, Kupi 
Filth, dirt, Riku 
Foot, Kholi blem f 
Form, Moba 
Forest, jungle, Sabala 
Fruit, Sichi 
Frost, Phursa 
Frog, Krukru 
Friend. No name 
Garlic. No name 
Ginger, Peurim 
Girl, Tami 
Glue, cement, Kyapcho 

m,,4-< J Kojacha, m. 
Glutton, J Ko j jacha ' nima> L: 

Grandfather, Kiki 
Grandmother, Pipf 
(;r;in.lson, Chacha 
Granddaughter, Chachanima 
God, a god. No name 
Gold, Syeuna 
Goat-kind, Swongara, Songara 

( male, A'po swongara 
Goat,< female, A'mo swongara 

(young, Swongara ataiui 
Goat-herd, Swongara theulba 
Grass, Jim 
Grain, Jama 

Ghee, butter, Gyawa (oil) 
Groin, Techi 
Hand, Gublemf 
Handle, Rising 

Spade handle, Rukokchom rising 
Hair, Swung 
Hair of head, Cham 
Hair of body, Swong 
Herdsman, Bing mesyeu- theulba 
Heaven, Dwamu (sky) 
Head, Piya 

Heart, Thim. Theum. (French eu) 
Heat, Haulo. Haunam 
Heel, Cheuncheu leu 
Hail, Musi 
Hammer, Thyakch6me 



Hammerer, Thyakba 

Hemp, Gra 

Hen, A'mo ba 

Hip, Kholimichi, or Jilamichi 

Hope. No word 



Hog-kind, P6 

( male, A'po po 
Hog, < female, A'mo po 
( young, Po atami 
Hole, Gwalyum 
Hoe spade, Kokchome 
Husk, Phira 
Hook peg, Chachome 
Horn, Grong 
Goat's horn, Swongara ugrong (goat, its 

horn) 

Honey, Syura. Shura 
Horse-kind, Gh6ra 

( male, A'po ghora 
Horse, s female, A'mo ghora 

( young, Gh6ra atami 
House, Khyim 

Houholde r . 

Home, Bwagdikha 

Hunger, S61i 

Husband, Wancha 

My husband, Wa wancha 

Thy husband, I' wancha 

Her husband, A' wancha || 

Instrument, ( Rupach6me 

Implement, ( Grokso. Rupachogrokso 

T f . ( Bebacha, m. 

Infant, j Bebachauimaj f . 

Ice. No name 

Intestines, Chisye 

Iron, Syal 

Jaw, Ka'kam 

Joint, Michi 

Juice, Pwaku (water) 

,,..,{ Be'tho 

Kmfe '1chwarchom 

Knee, Pokchi 

Knot, Khingna (pp.) 

Kitchen, KidikhalT 

King, Ho'po. Hwang 

Lamp, torch, To'si 

Language, speech, L6 

Lip, Shlo-kokte (mouth leather) 

Leaf, Sw4ph6 



* See note of next page. 

t See leg and arm. To the words for these the signs of flat things (blem) is added to 
make names for foot and hand. 

t Kojachanima, a female glutton. So khyimchanima, a housewife. See householder : 
and so also of all formatives in cha, koja = belly, khyim = house. 

These and many more such are participles of the instrument or object, or of fitness, 
formed from the infinitives, or, less the m, me, suffix, themselves infinitives. They can all be 
used as substantives or as adjectives. 

|| Wa\ I', A', are the pronominal prefixes of nouns and suffixes of verbs, a thoroughly 
Draviriiin trait and a fundamental. ( Jyul u I \ 
Here is a sample of the suffixes d the -| Jyul i Thou rput or place, 
-on = ur, wa, or o. ( Jyui a" He ) 

U Ki'dikha, literally, cooking-places, from the root ki", to cook, and dikha, place; but 
usable only as a suffix of verbs, like lung iu Vrfyu. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



323 



Tree's leaf. Sing swapho 
Leather, Kokte (skin) 
Leg-all, Kho'li 
Leg-true (tibia), Ph6ph61 
Liar, Limochalba 
Light (lux), Hauhau 
Lightning, Ploksa 
Life, Sam (breath) 

Ding 

Louse, Tusyar 
Lungs, Syeuporeu 
T^ J Wapachogrokso 
1XK)m ' 1 Toblosiug. Wapacho 
Load, Kura 
Lowlands, Dhepte 

T A I^ A . ( Dheptecha, m. 
Lowlander, 



Mat, Tharkimo b!6cho 
Maize, Greleuwamo 
Master, Ho'po. Hwang 
Mark, Syancho 
Market, Jyapdikhaledikha 
Mason, Khyimpaba 
Mankind, Muryeu 

(male, Wai//sa 
Man,< female, Mincha 

(young, A'tami. Muryeu ata* 
Maker, doer, Paba. Pabba 
Madder, Deu 
Mare, A'mo ghora 
Marriage, Grochyer 
Mill, hand or water, Khuruwa 
Millet (kangani), Basara 
Millet (kodo), Charja 
Millet (juwar), Binkhuma 
Millet (sama), Sama 
Milk, Neucheu 
Mist, Kuksyal 
Manner, ) ^-i , 
Mode, way, ? Kh6 
Monkey (all), Moreu 
Measure, the instrument, Khapcho 
Medicine. No name. 

;, Theuru 

Moon, Tausaba. La 
. La. 

.ng. Didila 
Music, Tapcho 
Mother, A'm6 
My mother, A 'ma 
"tlit-r, I'luo 
His, her, its mother, A'mo 



Money (copper), Lalajima 
Mountain, Syerte 

Mountaineer, 

Mountain products, Syertedim f 

Mouth, Sheo 

Moustache, Sheoswon. 

Muschito, Syupyel 

Mouse, Yeu 

Nipple, Neucheu (milk) 

Noise, Syanda 

Neck, Sheureu (French eu) 

Name, Ning 

Night, Te"ugnachi 

Net. No name 

Needle, Leumje 

Noon (day), Nam-helscho 

Nose, Neu (French eu) 

Neighbour, Kwaudaubwakba 

Nostril, Neu'lam (nose way) 

Navel, Sheupum 

Oar. No name 

Oil, Gy4wa 

Oak-tree, Sobusarai 

Odour, smell, A'ri. Ri 

Onion. No name 

Ox kind, Bing 

{male, Bing. Apobing 
female, AJmo bing 
young, Biug titiiini 
Ordure, Khli 
Man's ordure, Muryukhli or Muryuukhli 

Tiger's ordure, { Gu P sa ^f Gu P sa 

Pain, Deukha, H. 

Palm of hand, Gublem ugwalla (hand, its 

palm) 
Penis, Bli 
Place, Dikha|| (in composition of verbs 

chiefly) 

Plant, Waba, P. 
Pleasure, Gy 
Plough, Jochome 
Ploughman, J6ba, P. 
Plain, Dyamba 
Plainsman, (Dyajul'acli.i, m. 
Lowlander, I Dyambachauima, f. 
Plate dish, ) p . 
Platter, f * ' 

J'an-l.t, Kikb:i. p.- 

H.intain, Gr&morhi 
1'lantain-tree, Gramochi sing 



Wainsa and Mincha are uMd uUuntivcly and adjectively. Not A'tami. Man's child 
or human child is MuryuaUmi = mail, hi* child. Better ata or itawo : see Child. Tami i 
toed for the yung of all animal*. 

t Hyerte-di m, mountain in of. Bee note | at p. iai. 

. M often eloewhere, we have a noun uea indifTcrently, with or wi- 

nominal definitive. Many initance* have occurn k r one comparative vocabularicn. 

Let a word imply relation of any sort, a* of odour to an odorous body ; and even if, by stand- 
ing alone, it be liable to m> .*t have the definitive j . as in 
EnglUh the article is needed to separate nouns from verbal imperatives ; r.g., a cut from cut, 
a smell 

f In thcfimtof t hcse two forms of expression the two words are regarded an a compound; 
in the nccoixi wr have the ordinary getiltival ntyle : man, hid oidun \n\\a. 

I E.g. , Ip dikba, sloening-place = bed-chamber, i ] >lace = kitchen. 

[ To this answers Gikba - child ; or who begets and who is bora. 



324 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Plantain fruit, Gramochi sichi 

Pine (tree), Tosi 

Pepper (black). No name 

Palate, Kokolyam 

Pepper (red), Dukba 

Potter, Khapi yalba 

Peach, Khwomalchi 

Peach-tree, Khwomalchi sing. 

Peach fruit, Khwomalchi sichi 

Price, Thing 

Priest, Nokso 

Poison, Ning 

Point, Jeujeu or Juju 

Ram, A'po bh^ra 

Kat, Y4u (French eu) 

Rain, Rya-wa 

Rains, the, Ryawa namti 

Rib, Chakh yamreusye 

Rice, unhusked, Bura 

Rice, husked, Sh6ri 

Rice, boiled, M6mara 

River, any, Gulo 

Root, Syangri 

Rust, Gari 

Rudder. No word 

Road, Lam 

Rope, Gra 

Roof, Khyimpu 

Rhododendron, Twaksyel 

R. tree, Twoksyel sing 

R. flower, Twoksyel phung 

R. fruit, Twoksyel sichi 

Salt, Yuksi 

Silence, Licho 

Spade, spud, hoe, Ruk6kchoroe (= ground- 
digger) 

Spear, H6ch6me 

Shape, form (and colour), Moba 

Sheep-kind. No name. Bhera used 

Spirits (distilled), Hena 

Spindle, Panchom 

Spinner, Panba 

Skin, Kokte 

Skull, Piya reusye 

Shoe, sandal, Kholidi paschong 

Seed, Wachyar 

Sieve, Riyangma 

Sleep, Ip'thi 

Sail of boat. No word 

Sand. No word 

Spittle, Richuku 

Snot, Neukhli = nose-filth 

Silk. No word 

Silver. No word 

Sport, play, Chamcho (inf.) 

Sister, elder, Yawa; younger, Loba, see 
Brother 

Sisterhood, Yaba loba bum 



Sister-in-law, "Wadyelmi 
Sitting chamber, Bwagdikha 
Spider, Bajeringmo 
Smith, Teupteule. Teupteucha 
Snake, Busa 



Soldier, Kyakyamkhusiba 
Sky, Dwamu 
Son-in-law, Dyalcha 



(my Wa taM 

Son, < thy I' ta V 

(hisA'-t4 / 



see Child 



Shoulder, Balam 

Shoulder-joint, Balam michi 

Shepherd, Bhera theulbaf 

Side, Chakhyam, Pum 

Star, Sorfi 

Summit, top, Gnari. Juju. Agnari. 

Ajuju 

Snow, Phumu 

Summer, Hau-namti = hot or heat day 
Sweat, Gwaulau 
Storm, Gnolojft (= great wind) 
Steam, Sam (breath) 
Smoke, Kuni 
Strength, Sokti 
Song, Swalong 
Sow, A'mo po. Khomi 
Sugarcane, Byar % 
Sun, Nam 
Sunshine, Nam 
Sunrise, Namdhapcho 
Sunset, Namwamcho 
Still, Hechopu 
Stone, Lung 
Stomach, Koja 
Shade, shadow, Bala 
Straw, Jim (grass) 
Sword, Betho (knife) 
Shield. No name 
Tail, Me>i 
Testicle, Kollosichi 
Tiger, Gupsa 
Thigh, Jila 

Ptt?akudwakcho 



m, . . 
Ihirst, 



Pirakudwaktimi 



Thumb, Bombo 

Tooth, Khleu (French eu) 

Tobacco, Kuni 

Turmeric. Byu'ma 

Toe, Kholibfepcho 

Toe, great, Kholi bombo 

Toe nail, Gyang 

Tongue, Lyam 

Time. No name. Bela used 

To- morrow, Dilla 

Thread, S41e 



* Wa ta-wo, my son ; Wa tami, my daughter ; Wa ta, my child. Ta is child = Sontal and 
Uraon Da. But ti is used also for son, as sa is child and son in Burmese, which language has 
also the mi suffix sanii, a girl = tami Bahing and Hayu. 

t Bhed i is, i if course, borrowed. It is very strange that few of the Himalayan languages 
have names for sheep, or ox (bos), or horse. 

t Sugar is Byar apwaku = juice of cane ; literally, cane, its juice. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



325 



Thunder, Buk'bu 

mu:-f f Kuucha, m. 

Thief, -j Kunchanima? f- 

Theft, Kuuchaniwa 

Tree, Sing. Dhyaksi 

Tree bark, Sing kokte. Dhyaksi kokte 

Tribe, Thok 

Uncle, pat. Popo 

Uncle, mat. Kuku 

Urine, Charnika * 

Man's urine, Murynacharnika 

Goat's urine, Swongara acharnika 

Vein, Sagra 

Vegetable, Cheule pale 

Vetch, pea, Kyangyalyangma 

Village, Dyal 

I--,! ( Dvalpau, m. 

VlUa er 'iDyalpaunim a ,f. 

Victuals, Jachome f 

Vice, sin. No word 

. Syanda (sound) 
Valley. No word 
Vulva. Twarchi 
Wax, Kh6ye 
Wound, Banam 
Wool, Jfhcda sw6n 
Wall. A'tha. Antha 
Weaver, Wapaba 

r, Pwaku 
Water-spring, Pwaku bio 

^ tree ' Phor 8ing 
i fruit, Phoro sicbi 



Wife, Ming 

Wrist, Gublemmichi 

Work, Ru 

Wizard, Krakr& 

Witch, Krakranima 

Witchcraft, Krakraniwa 

Widow, Khlumi 

Widower, Khluwa + 

Whore. No name 

Whoremaster. No name 

Wealth, Grokso 

Wing (bird's), Baphlem (bfi, = fowl) 

Witness, Kw6ba. Taba 

Year, Tho 

Yesterday, Sanamti 

Yeast. No name 

ADJECTIVES. 

(-, f Neuba, m. and c. gender 

*** ) Neubanima, f. 
Bad, Ma neuba. Negative 
Deceitful, ) Hanba, m. and c. 
Cunning, ) Hanbanima, f . 

n ,., (M&hanba. Neg. 
Candid, { A , je Ajebwak | ft 



Benevolent, { Gyersi, { 
Industrious, 



* Muryu or muryeu d chdrnika, man his urine ; songara & charnika, goat its urine. 
t Jachome, literally what tit to be eaten or usually eateu. Participle of the object. 



See 



note at p. 327. 

Hid mi are suffixes of gender. The formative suffix cha is equivalent to wa in words 

like If-cha, a bow man ; kun-cha, a thief, &c. The feminine of wa is mi ; of cha is micha, as 

koja-cha, a glutton ; koja micha, a female glutton ; or it is nima, as kun-cha, a thief; kun- 

ua, a female thief. Pau and p<5 are also masculine signs, whereof the former makes its 

ue by adding nima ; the latter by changing the po into mo, as dyal-pau, a villager; 

dyal-paunima, a female villager; ryamni -po, an adulterer; ryamni-mo, an adulteress. 

The participial suffix ba, which also makes nouns of the agent, and gives qualitives a 
substantival character, as thyak-ba, a or the hammerer ; ueu-ba, a or the good one, is another 
masculine suffix which takes uimu for its feminine. 

But participial nouns in baare < 1 as of all genders, and when used adjectively, 

as all can be use no sign of gender, or number, or case. ;< the 

substantive, which they qualify in their crude form, as neuba waiusa, a good man ; neuba 
vain*adau, good n.' 

the participles enables them to dispense with any forma- 
tive, but if it be specially necessary to express gender, such words, when uned us BOW 
take tbe wa and mi sex signs, and also the signs of number, always supposing that their use 
is substantival. 

iJravi.'n. in p:irt:< !)>]* :r f"rmrd from tl,- ^rniii.l (f.dr ( '.iMw. }}). mid it' d :i formative 
to give them the relative and participial sense. Such is not the cam 
though these when used substantively often take the m, me, formative, and always if the 



participles be of the impersonated 
Observe that the Vocabulary 



lun! 



Bee Verbs. 
Vocabulary throughout is so constructed as to bo a clue to grammar as 

w 11 a* t" vi -at.;. -. 

f Participial, like mofit of the following. Bee and compare the verbs neu, to be good ; 
neu-gna, neu-ye. t o, am good ; neu-ba, who or what i* dcr* ; dual, 

neubedauiii ; plural, neu-badau. Neu = it is good, is tbe root of the verb and 
Newari bhing. which has jl thing, chha bt . -e persons, and hlilng 

hma-K. >nd minor of gend< 

kqtM&tiveaadnu i 
tie 

Kirantl ones/vlsT, there are few proper or primitive ones W 

in ba, stba, na, si. 

diectives from substantives and nouns from veibal Infinitives, 
kern and dim make adjectives from substantives. 



lural. 1 Newari repeats the irender si*' 

dual, while in the plural it ..nut- it wholly, substil 

sign of gender that of number, or ping = dai in Bahlng. What U said of V 
ncrally true of Kirinti one>s, v.*., there are few proper <>r pii.movo on 
participles, such as all those ending in ba, siba, na, and chome. The possessive miff 
forms adjectives from substantives and nouns from vetbal infinitives. So also the suffixes 



326 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



T ,, 
lle ' 



f Chwancha, m. 
\ Chwanchanima, f. 
True, or truth- ) A'je. A'je bwakba, m. c. 
speaking, J A'je bwakbanima, f. 

{Limo.* Limo bwakba, 
m. 
Limo. Limo bwakba- 
nima, f. 

Passionate, ) Soksa, bokba, m. c. 
hasty, j Soksa bokbanima, f. 
Placid, patient, Soksa ma bokba. Neg. 



Brave, Ma niba. Neg. 
Constant-minded, ) Theumj&siba, m. 
Unchangeable, J Theumjasibanima, f. 



Wasteful, ) Warba, m. c. 

profuse, J Warbanima, f. 
XT . n j Kakachvakba, m. n. 
Niggardly, { Kakdchy4kbanimai f . 

p.. * ,.1 j Theum neuba, m. c. 
Kind, gentle, \ Theum neubai ' liniai f . 

Harsh, unkind, Theum maneuba. Neg. 
rvu j- i Biba, Bisiba, m. c.'f 

Obedient, j Bibamnia WsibanimRf f. 

Disobedient, Ma biba. Ma bisiba 
Masculine, Wainsake, 



M:nl, idiotic, A'theum ma neuba 

Sane of mind, A'theum neuba 

Licit, Pachome, m. f. n. 

Illicit, Ma pachome 

]J .dily, Kamke ) Genitival, both of 

Mental, Theumke ) these ; com. gender + 

TT J Soleumi byakba, m. c. 

U11 iy \ Soleumi byakbanima, f. 
Thirsty, Pwiiku dwaktimi byakba 
.T , , ( A'klancho bwakba, m. 
JNaked, -j A ^ lancho bwakbauima, f. 

fMfl,,1 J ^" b ' l m - c - 

Clothed, | Phisiballini ^ f . 
Libidinous (man), Ming dwakba, m. 
Libidinous (woman), Wainsa dwakba- 
nima, f. 

Gluttonous, {">. 
Drunkard, DWkong- { ^LlL, f. 



Foul-mouthed, ( Khiba, m. c. 
Abusive, ( Khibanima, f. 



Alive, ( Blenba, m. c. 
Living, ( Blenbanima, f. 
Dying, Byakchopaba 
P. , ( Byakba, m. c. 
Dead ' { Byakbauima, f. 



Sickened, B ick, 

Getting well, Swachopaba 

r< 4. n J Swaba, m. c. 
Got well, j Swabanima> f> 

TTooUi^ J Neuba, m. 
Healthy, | Neubanimaj f 

Made well, Swapang 
Q. j Sokticha, m. 

Stron e. i Soktimicha, f. 

(Soktimatliiba, m. 
Weak, < Soktimathibanima, f. 

(Sokti manthim, c. 



Waki D g,S,ain K ho- 

Awake, Syai B8 - 

Awakening, Syainsipaba 
Awakened, Syainsipana 
Young, A'kachime, ) e 
Youthful, Yake, f m ' f> 
AI if j Swolacha, m. ). 

alt ' ] Swolami or Swolamicha, ( f ' 



TKimba, m. f. n. 
Handsome, -\ Rimsokpa, m. 
( Kimsongma, f. 
( Ma rimba, \ 

Ugly, < Ma rimsokba, VNeg. 
(Ma rimsongma, j 



ci, 4. i J Dekho laba, m. and n. 
Short, low, { Dekho Ial(a7)ini!1) f . 

P_-_i. w _ / Gnolo, m. and n. 
Great, big, J Gn61onimaj f 

Small, Akachime. Yake.lf See Young 

(Syeneuba, m. and n. (well in 
FatX flesh) 

( Syeneubanima, f. 
J Ryamba, m. and n. 
) Ryambanin.a. f. 



* Limo, in. and f., can be used alone for false. 

t Bfba is the transitive, bfsiba the intransitive form. See Verbs. 

j See p. 330 of Sequel, also the note and references at p. 321, tvpra. 

Byakchopaba is literally who makes to die, and so of all similar words ; but the form is 
doubtful, and in general the participle in W, which is ao-istic, is used in neuter verb* 
exclusively to express both senses of dying and dead, sickening and sick, the preterite 
participle being regarded as an appendage of transitives only. 

1 These two words are samples of adjectives proper. Such are very rare in this tonerue, 
wherein the qualifying words are mostly participles, usable, too, substantivelv, like thu-t^ 
formed by the affixes cha and wa. This is another Dravidi;in trait ; and the rarity of proper 
adverbs and prepositions, and the use of gerunds in lieu of the one and of nouns in lieu of the 
other (see Adverbs and Prepositions), are two more such traits, to be added to those else- 
where set down. 



BAH ING VOCABULARY. 



327 



Tired, ( Balba, m. and n. 
Weary, ( Balbanima, f. 
Untired, j Ma l.alba, \ x , 

Fresh, ) Ma balbanima, J rw * 
T j Sokopa, m. n. 

L:ime ' '( S-.kopanima, f. 
Lamed, Sokopapana, c. 
V1 . , t Makwoba, ra. n. 

Jld ' 1 Ma kwobauima, f. 
Blinded, Ma kwobapana 
-P. . | Ma niniba, m. and n. 
L>eat ' t Ma nimbanima, f. 
T, t , ( Ma nimhapana, m. n. 

deafened, j M;1 ni]nlnil 1 lillial , ;uia> f . 

~ , j Ma bwakba, m. n. 
Dumk ' ) Ma bwakbaniina, f. 
Deaf and dumb, ( Glaud-wa, m. n. 
= idiotic, I Glaudwanima, f. 
Alone, solitary, *CJicha or A'gicha, m. f. 

i ( Warcha thiba, m. n. 
Companioned, { w&rcha thiba ^ im4| f> 

( Jokba. Teuba. Mimba, m n. 

% Jokbanima. Teubanima. Mim- 

( banima, f. 
Foolish, Majokba. Mateuba. Mamimba. 

Neg. 

T j j Parepaba, m. 

Learned, j p^^*^^ f. 

Ignorant, Ma pure piiba 
,,. v ( Thiba, m. n. 
Klch ' i Thibaninia, f. 
p ( Ma thiba, m. n. 

^^ t Ma thilmnima, f. 

Toibo*;^ ) liwakba, m. n. 
alkative, j ]{wak , );miina< f . 

. Lib;i bwakba, m. c. t (silent who 
remains) 

]>j;ty = black, Kekem, m. f. n. 
TV . j j Kekempana, m. c. 
Dirtied, { Kekeml.in.apana, f. 
Clean = whit-. liulmm, m. f. n. 



Cleansed 

' 



Iiubum P ana m - c * 



r.ul.mmiimapana, f. 

ya lyumba, m. 
( Grochya dyumhaniina, f. 
TT i A J Grochya ma-lyuiuba, m. 
Unmarried. im banima,f. 

T * JChAba. m. Ch.'.banini:!. f. 

Taxed 1 Cbochome,n, 

,, . ( M Ma chAbanima. 

jmpt, ^ 

New, Aninta. m. f. n. 

Old, worn-out, AmaJHam, m. f. n. 

iiliitiii (fun ; 

Ready, prepared,-, Mingba ) (dressed as 
' Kina ) food) 

i.>gg!ri 



e, |: 



T> j ( Rimsiba (adorned), m. c. 
!ady > t Himsibanima, f. 



IT o/i,r 
Unready, 



Ma rimsiba, m. 
Md rimsibanima> f . 

Common, abundant, Tachome, n. 
Rare, scarce, Ma tachome. Neg. 
Public, apert, patent, Kw6chome 
Private, latent, not to be seen,Khleuchome 



Successful, 



( Neupaba, caus. pres. part. 



Saleable, L^chome, p. f. 
Sold, Lena, p. p. 
Purchasable, Jy.ipchome, p. f. 
Purchased, Jyamua, p. p. 
Similar, ( Deuba, m. n. 
Resembling, ( Deubanima, f. 
Dissimilar, MA, deuba. Ma deubanima 



Other, different, Kwagname. Wangme, 

m. f. n. 

Easy, doable, Pachome, p. f. 
Difficult, not doable, M& pachome 



Changeful, 



(Phasiba,^ p. n. 



i. (about 



About to be changed, Phachome 
Ciiusod to be changed, Phasipaua, c. ref. 
i'li u puna, c. tr. 

/Mahulsiba, n. 

Orderly, set in ta,] 

VMalipba, tr. 

(Hulsiba, n. 
Disordered, ) Hulna, tr. 
Disorderly, | Limsiba, n. 

v Limna, tr. 

Liable to disorder, ( Hulchome 

About to be disordered, ( Lipchome 
Having, possessing, ( Thiba, m. c. 

tenens, I Thibaninia, f. 

Not having, f Ma Ibiba. in. c. 
Wanting, ( Ma thibanima, f. 



Ad n I Ilin.paiM, tr. 

, Ma rimba 
IMain, Ma rimsiba 

( Ma riinpana 

in.-, p. f. tr. 
Useless, Ma sichotne, Neg. 

Quick-moving, active, t 



", sm alone, U w< giclia bwsgnu, i'K'icha bwangtf, a'gioha bwa 
ooclineM i or remains. 



i.y, hi. 



root bwa, to be (sit) and to speak, en hardly be dMtafuklMd in the participles, 
t Be changed, is pha*o *= change thyself ; change it, is phAto. The former gives for par- 
ph4iiba and pliacoplM - what changes or la about to change; and the latur, 
I>i.4b4. the changer, and ph4na, the changed. 

I Participles of the object (aee Conjugations), and unable equally aa subsUntiTes or M 
adjectives, e.g., jachome is victuals or f Jod st p. 325, while bore it is edible or wholesome. 



328 



BAH1NG VOCABULARY. 



Slow-moving, lazy, inert, Ma grukba, 

Neg. 

Wholesome, eatable, Jachome * 
Unwholesome, Majachome 
Manufactured, wrought, Tana 
Manufacturable, Pachome * 
Sharp, Heba, n. p. 
Sharpened, He"pana, tr. p. 
Blunt, Ma heba 
Bluntened, Ma h^pana 
Grinded, Khrina 
Grindable, Khrichome 
Spun, Fauna 
Woven, Pana 
Platted, Pana 

Spacious, wide, ample, Bhyappa 
Contracted, narrow, Ma bhyappa 
Moving, capable of self-motion, Dukba, f 

n. part. in. f. n. Dukbanima, f. 
Movable, capable of being moved, Duk- 

chome, tr. p. f. 
Motionless, Ma dukba, m. n. 
Immovable, Ma dukchome, tr. 
Moved, % self, Dukba 
Moved, other, Dungna 
< '.i used to be moved, Dungpana 
Figured, self, Ram dyumba 
Figured, other, K;'un dvuiupana 
Figunble, Ramdyum pachome 
Unfigurable, Ramdyum ma pachome 
Luminous, shining, Chyarba ^self), n. 
Self-illumed, Chyarsiba, refl. 
Illumed br other, Chyarpana 
Illuminable, Chyarpachome 
Dark, Namrikba 
Darkened, Namringpana 
Flaming, buruing self, Hoba (fire and 

candle) 

Kindled, \ 

Inflamed, >Hopana 

Made to flame, ) 

S'nmabfe. ^home- 

Burning, in process of being consumed 

by fire, Deupba 

Burnt, consumed by fire, Deumpana 
Consumable by tire, Deumpachome * 
Extinguishing (self), going out, Byakba 
Extinguished by another, Byangpana 
The upper, superior, Hateuugme, 

m. f. n. 

The lower, inferior, Hayungme^ 
Right, Jumrolame 
Left, Perolame 
Central, Alimbudime 
Eastern, Xamdhapdikhalame 
Western. Nam wain Jikhalame 
Northern, Hateulame 
- Southern, Hayulame 



Impassable, Magwakchome 
Cultivated field, Jona 
Culturable, Jochome* 
Uncultivated, Ma j6na 
Uncultivable, M jochome 
Fruitful, rich (soil), Neuba (good) 
Barren, sterile, Ma neuba 
Sandy. No word 
Clayey, Phe"le>heleme 
Calcareous, Chunnungme 
Saline, Yuksinungme 
Muddy, Kyelchome 



Dusty, Byerbakhapinungme 
kish (water) Yuksinungme 



Brac 



Flowing, Gwakba 
Still, Ma gwakba 
Deep, Gleumba 
Shallow, Ma gleumba 

( Junam 
Windy, stormy (weather), < Jukhime 

(jakhitauie 
Fine, fair, Neuba 
( Junamme 
Cold, < Jumi byangme 

( Jukhitame 
( Haulomi 
Hot, < Haulomi byangme 

' Haulau dyunune 
Sunshiny. Namneume 
Cloudy, Koksyalbwalme 
Jlainy, Ryawayume 
Cold (water), Chikba 

TTnf (*, t r \ J Gleugleum, conj. 
t (water), <j Gleugleum . me) disj . 

Moist, sappy green (wood), A'pwaku- 

nungme 

Juicy (fruit), A'pwakunungme 
Juicelesg, sapless, A'pwakumunthime 
Wooden, Singke 

Woody, timber-bearing, ) Singdhyaksi- 
Wooded, ( bwagdikha 

Stony, made of stone, Lungke 
Stony, stone-bearing (place), Lung bwag- 

dikha 

Iron, made of iron, Syelke 
Iron-producing, Syelgiba 
Leathern, made of leather, Kwoksyeuke, 

Kokseke 
Skin-bearing (animal), Kwoksyeu thiba. 

Kokse thiba 

clothe,, 4 ,, 



Wooded 



* See note at p. 327. 

t The participle of neuter verbs is single and aoristic ; dukba is changing and changed, 
et sic de cteteris. 

t Hateu, top, above; hayu, below, bottom. 

Wind and windy, and cloud and cloudy, &c., are confounded usually like "cold" in 
English, which is both substantive and adjective. So also Heat and Hut. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



329 



Open, A'klauchom (naked) 
Jungly, Sabala dyumme 
r*ttimire<i J Ryansiba, self 

ed i Ryangna, by other 
Caused to be coloured, Ryangpaua 

( Bubum (white) 
Colourless, s Ma ryangna 

( M;i ryangsiba 
Colourable, Ryakchome 

. Lalam* 
White, Bubum 
Black, Kyakyam 
Blue. No name 
Green, Gipini 
Yellow, Womwome 
Sweet, Jijim 
Sour, Jeujeum f 
Bitter, Kaba 
Ripe, Jiba 

p: npn .j f Jiba, n. (self) 
Ripened, { Jipanjij tr (otber) 

Raw, Achekhli 

That is raw, Achekhli bwakba 
That is made raw, Achekhli pana 
Rotten (flesh, fruit, &c.), Jyipba 
Rotten (wood, &c.), Chyamba 



Rough, Khwarbekhwarbem 
Smooth, Fhelephelera 
Polished, Phelephelem 
Unpolished, Ma phelephelem 
Straight, Dyomba 

( Gukba 
Crooked, < Gung-gung, or 

(Gung-guiigme 
Full, Dyamba 
Filled, Dyamp&na 

Emptied, A shetipana 
iiba 

. (levii), Hamba 
(m-at, (Jnc.lo 
Small, Yake 
Long, Jhefiba 
Short, Ma jhe6ba 
Wide, Bhyakba 
Narrow, Ma bhyakba 
High, Uha 

Malaba. Dc-kholuba 
Angular, Knnn-bwakba 
irkhinne 
I'ulpulme 

d, Jeujeume^ 
Unpointed, M& jeujeume 



Edged, H^'ba 
Unedged, Ma he'ba 



Broken (long things), Jikba. Jiugna 
Torn (cloth, &c.), j J^| ^ 
Split (wood), {^a, int. ' 

Entire, by negative prefix to all the above 

Porous, Chapba 

Imporous, Md chapba 

Open, Hongsiba 

Opened, Hongna 

Opening, about to open, Hongschopoba 

Shut, Tyangsiba 

Shutted, Tyangna 

Shutting, about to shut, Tyangschopuba 

sp 3 - {HX 

j . {SssSx"- 

Expanded, blown (flower), Boba 
Caused to blow, Bopana 
Expanding, about to expand, Boschopaba 
Closed, shut = not expanded, Ma boba 
Tight, Khimsiba, n. 
Tightened, Khimna, tr. 
Loose, Thyelvim 
Loosened, Thyelvim pana 
Unsteady, loose, or ) Ma jasiba 
Shaking, ) Ma juua 



Cooked, Kin a 

Boiled, Pwakumikina 

Roasted, Gryauma 

Grilled, Cheuna 

Hairy, Swo?i thiba 

Hairless, Swou md tliiba or SWOH manthi 

Feathered, Swon thiba 

Unfeathered, Swon ma thiba or Swou 

manthi 

Rising or risen (sun), Dhapba 
Setting or set (HUD), Wamha 
Issuing, coming out or come out (being), 

Gluba 

Entering or entered (being), "\Vol>a 
I ailing (being), Dokba, n. 
Fallen, Dokba, n. 
About to fall. Dokchopab* 
Killing (tiling), U'ba 
n (thinjj), 1 

(being), Rnpba 
Remaining, risen or 

l.wakl.a 
RUen or stood, Rapba. 



standing, llapso- 
Rapso bwakba 



Lalam adjoctiral. lAlamme siibntantival Newari, I!> Awn- 

lal wala of Hindi, or red and the red one. 80 I: im and Oij. 

4tc. The affix** jokpa (m.) and jongma (f. ) arc often substituted fur me in reference to c 
kyakjajoki, the black. 

ijcurn, literally pointed, acute, nhnrp, from Jcujmi (French m). a point. 

t Jcnlcu vel Jtiju is apex, poin .1 IB a njihcrc, and Kbirkhir, a round but not 



| Uukb. jikha, at pnrtidplci of neuter rerba which are aorittic, wear the for:.. 
aent participle*, aud aa adjectives mean breaking a* well aa broken, Ac, 



330 



BAH1NG VOCABULARY. 



Raising, Rampaba 
PqisWl ) Ramna, tr. 

Jed ' 1 Rampana, caus. 
Putting down (man), Jyeulba* 
Put down (things), Jyeulna 
Sitting, Bwakba. Nisiba 
Seating, Bwaug paba. Ni paba * 
Seated, Bwapana. Nina 
Lying down, Glesiba, Ipba 
T -A A J Glesiba Ipba, n. 

id down, { G i e8ipana F Imi , aua> tr . 

Waking, Syainsiba 

Waked, Syainsiba 

Awakening, Syai/isipaba * 

Awakened, Syaiyisipana 

Sleepy, Myelcho dwakba 

Asleep, Myelba 

Sleeping, Myelba* 

About to sleep, Myelchopaba 

Domestic, home-made, Dwabodyel dim 

Foreign or foreign made, Wangmedyel 

dim 
Rustic, Dyelpo, m. f. 



e 

Written, Ryangna 

1! -;ul, Parepana 

Eaten, Jana 

iMank, Tuna (pausing accent) 

Payable, Chochome * 

Paid, Choona (pausing accent) 

Well-odoured, A'rineubamef 

Stinking, Arimaneubame 



, 

, f. 

Tibetan, or produced ) Leuchadyeldim 

in Tibet (thing), ) Leuchadyelke,m. 
Nepalese, native of Nepal. No name 



, f. 



hills 
ighl^ thing, 



Of person of the ) Dheptechake, m. 

plains, J Dheptechanimake, f. 

Produce of plains, Dheptedim 



European (per- ( Bubum-ramcha, m. 

son), ( Bubum-ranichaniina, f. 

European (goods), Bubum - ramtliiba 

dyeldim 

Woollen, made of wool, U'nke 
Woolly, wool-bearing, U'nthiba 
Hairy, made of hair, Swonke 
Hairy, hair-bearing, Swonthiba 
Iron, made of iron, Syalke 
Golden, Syeunake 
Silver, made of silver, Chandike 
Wooden, made of wood, Singke 
Woody, full of trees (place), Dhynksi- 

bwagdikha 
Jungly, full of jungle, Sabala bwang- 

dikha 

Eye-having (being), Michi thiba 
Foot-having (being), Kholi thiba 
Wealthy (being), Grokso thiba 
Wealthy (place), Grokso-bwagdikha 
Grain-having (man), Bura thiba 
Grain-producing (field), Bura neudikha 
Grain-abounding (place), Bura bwang- 

dikha 

COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

Great, Gnolo 

AB great as this, Yam khwome gnolo 

Greater than this, Yam din;,' ;,'n<>l(> 

Greatest of all, Hau]>u ding gnolo 

Very great, The" gnolo 

Small, Kachim. A'kachim 

Small as this, Yam khomekachim 

Smaller than this, Yamding k.'u-him 

Smallest of all, Haupe dingksichim 

Very small, The kachini 

Cold, Chikba 

Colder, Yam ding chikba 

Coldest, Haupe ding chikba 

Very cold, Th6 chikba 

Hot, Gleuba 

Hotter, Yam ding gleuba 

Hottest, Haupe ding gleuba 

Very hot, The gleuba 



NUMERALS. 



Cardinals. 
One, Kwong 
Two, Niksi 
Three, Sam 



* All these, and numberless otliers ending in ba, siba, na, or ctiome, are participial. See 
further on. The relative pronoun inheres, and the use is adjectival or substantival. 

t Me, m. affix, is a formative of all three genders = lima, gu of NewaYi, save that these 
are major and minor of gender. Me\ like hma, gu, attaches to all qualitives used sul 
lively superadded to the gender sign, as gna-wa, gwa-mi = old (man and woman), whence 
gnawame, gndmime = the old ones, male and female. So swalo-cha-mi = mature, male an.i 
female, whence swalochame, swalomime. 

t Ke (or kern, see p. 321) is the general sign of relation when one substantive only ia 
used. When two are expressed, the second takes the & prefix (his, her, its), unless the rela- 
tion be local, and then dim (diem = in of) is used instead of the a ; e.g., hand of man, muryu a 
gu ; rice of bazaar, bazar dim sh6ri. (See Grammar.) 

Bwangdikha = the place where is ; dikha usable only with a verb ; bwang from bwak- 
esse in loco. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Four, Le 

Five, Gno 

Six, Rukba 

Seven, Channi 

Eight, Ya 

Nine, Ghu 

Ten, Kwaddyum 

Eleven, Kwaddyum kwong, 

= ten land) one 
Twelve, ,, niksi 

Thirteen, ,, sam 

Fourteen, le 

Fifteeu, &r gn6 

Twenty, A'sim, ) Kwong asim, 

= a score j = one score 

/ Kwong asim 
Twenty-one, A'sim kwong, ) kwong,= 

= a score (and) one \ one score 

V and one 
Twenty-two, A'sim niksi. Kwongasim 

ink si 
Thirty, Kwong asim, kwong aphlo 

= one score, one its half 
Thirty-one, Kwong asim, kwong aphlo 

kwong, = one score, one half (and) one 
Thirty-two, Kwong asim, kwong aphlo 

niksi, = one score, and one half and two 
Forty, Niksi asim = two score 
Forty-one, Niksi asim kwong 

two, Niksi asim niksi 
Fifty, Niksi asim aphlo, = two score (and) 

iialf 

Fifty-one, Niksi asim aphlo kwong 
Fifty-two, Niksi asim aphlo niksi 
Sixty, Sam asim 
Seventy, Sam asim aphlo, = three score 

(and) a half 
Eighty, Le ;isim 
Ninety, Le asim aphlo 
One hundred, (iiio asim, = five score 
One hundred and one, Gno asim kwong 
One hundred and two, Gno asim niksi, 

= five score (and) two 
Ordinal!. ?* 

ADVERBIALS. 

Kwabatt 
Twice, Nip pala 

. Sup pala 
times, Lep pala 
Fivet ;.ala 

Six tunes, Ru pala 
Seven times, Chi pala 

. Yapila 
Nine times, Ghu pala 

tries, Kwaddyum pala 
Firntly, ) Wanting, save at they coin- 
Secondly, [ cide with the last 

NUMERAL ADJUNCTS. 
They are doubtfully ascribablo to this 
tongue, or falling so fast out of use that 



what remains is a mere fragment. I shall 
illustrate by comparison with Newari, in 
which these generic signs are undoubtedly 
normal and in full use. Billing, like 
Newari, has no division corresponding to 
the fully-developed gender, m. f. n. It 
has not even, as Newari has, a division 
correspondent to the logical gender, or 
beings and things, which is equivalent to 
the major and minor of gender in the 
plural of Dravirian nouns and verbs also. 



English. 


Newdri. 


Bdhing. 


Beings 
Things 


Hma ) 

ca } 


Li? 


Rationals 


... 




Brutes 


... 




Vegetalia ) 
Plants J 


Ma 


A'pum 


Timber trees Sima 


Sing 


Soft trees or \ 
grasses J 


Ma 


A'pum 


Logs 


Ka 




Weapons ) 
Implements ) 
Pairs 


Pfi 
Ju 


Syal 


Flowers 


Pho 


H 


Fruits 


G6 


Bwom 


String of ) 
animals ) 


Tya. Jh6 


Chyarchyar 


Heap of things, D6n. Pucha 


Khumna 


Days |Nhu 


Kha 



In the use of these signs first comes 
the numeral, then the sign, and then the 
thing or being specified, e.g., Newdri, 
Chha ma si ma, Bahing, Kwong sing 
apum = one (timber) tree. 

Chha ma singhali ma, N. ; Kwo apum, 
Seli apum, B., = one chestnut tree. 

Swo nhu nhi, N.; Sam kha namti, B., 
= three days. Nigo santola si, N ; V 
bwom santola sichi, B., = one orange. 

Chhapukhwon, N.; Kwnsyal b.-t 
one sword. Chhago singhali si, N. ; 
Kwobwom seti sichi, B., ~ one rl, 
fruit. 

"UN8. 

1,06 

Tii. .11, Ga 

He, she, it, Harem, jam, myam 



:ncluive, G6si 
We, exclusive, G6suku 
Ye, Gaiii 

, II iremdausi* 
They, < Yam dausi 

(Myam dau 



For dausi, dau, read daisi, that Is, short a or soft a, with the pausing toot. 



332 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Plural. 

We, inclusive, G6i 
"VVe, exclusive, Goku 
Ye, Gani 

( Harem dau * 
They, < Yam dau 

( Myam dau 

This. Yam ) . , 
That, Myam } A11 g enders J no 81 S n 

Dual. 

These, Yam dausi 
Those, Myam dausi 

Plural. 

These, Yam dau 
Those, Myam dau 
Self, Daubo (Dwabo) 

Dual. 
Dwabo dausi 

Plural. 
Dwabo dau 
Myself, Wadaubo 
Thyself, I'daubo 
His, her, itself, A'daubo 

Dual. 

( Wasi daubp, exclusive 
' \ Isi daubo, inclusive 

2. Isi daubo 

3. Asi daubo 

Plural. 

j ( Wake daubp, exclusive 
\ Ike daubo, inclusive 

2. Ine daubo 

3. Ane daubo 

Any, some, person, Seu; subs, and adj., 
m. and f. 

Dual. 
Seudasi 

Plural. 
Seu dau 
Any, some, thing, Mara : subs, only : n. 

Dual. 
Mara dausi 

Plural. 
Mara dau 
Another, Kwagname 

Dual. 
Kwagname dausi 

Plural. 

Kwagname dau 

Many or much, Dhekong : subs. adj. : 
m. f. n. 

No dual or plural. 

Few. Little, Dekho : subs. adj. : m. f. n. 
The same, Myem 



Dual. 
Myem dausi 

Plural. 
Myem dau 

How many? Iri-i, (subs, adj.: 
And how much ? f Glsko ' 1 m. f . n. 
As many, much, Gisko, ) r , f 
So many, much, Metti, f 
All, Hwappe, ditto 
Half, A'kwaphala, ditto 
The whole, Hwappe Haupe 

Seu. ) Singular, subs. adj. 



Seu daufji Dual 

Seu dau. Plural 
Gyem, sing. subs. adj. 



infor 

inter. 



Dual 

G vein dau. Plural 
I* Myem, sing. subs. adj. n. 
Who? correl. < Myem dausi. Dual 
( Myem dau. Plural 

{Mara, sing. subs, adj., m. f. n. 
Mara dausl Dual 
Mara dau. Plural 
What, rel., Mara 
What, correl., Maem 
Dual and plural, Like 
Interrogative for both 



} Gisko ' 8uba ' 



Dual, Gisko dausi, ) ,., . 

Plural, Gisko dau, ( dltto 

As many, Gisko, ) , 

How miny? Gisko, }twP 

So many, Metti 

Dual, Metti dausi 

Plural, Metti dau 

Either, Yemka. Myemka 

Dual, Yemka dausi. Myemka dausi 

Plural, Yemka dau. Myemka dau 

Both, Nimpho, subg. and adj. m. f. n. 

Several. No word 

My, Wa' 

Thy, I' 

His, her, its, A' 

Dual. 

Our, Wasi, excl.J I'-si, incl. 
Your, I'-si 
Their, her, its, A'si 

Plural. 

Our, Wake, excL Ike, incl. 
Your, Ini 
Their, A'ni 
Mine, Wake 



* See note (*) on previous page. 

t Gyem takes the & prefix and is used interrogatively in a relative sense : which of these 
persons or thiugs will you Uke? A-gyemme ladi, wherein the disjunct form is employed, 
gyemme. 

J The words father and mother in conjunction with then: pronominal adjuncts are 
irregular, a-pa jwasi-po wake-po J 

i-po * ! ( Singular, Dual, and Plural 

a-po asi-po ani-po ) 

Other relations, as p^po, uncle, though but iterations of po, are regular, e.g , wd-popo, i-popo, 
a-pupo, <bc. 



BAHIXG VOCABULARY. 



333 



Thine, I'ke 

His, her, its, A'ke 

Dual. 

Ours, Wasike, excl. Isike, incl. 
Yours, I'sike 
Theirs, A'sike 

Plural. 

Ours, Wakke, excl. Ikke, incl. 
Yours, I'nike 
Theirs, A'nike 
Own, Dauboke 

1. My own, Wa dauboke 

2. Thy own, I' dauboke 

3. His, her, its own, A' dauboke 

Dual. 

( Wasi dauboke, excl. 
' ( I'si dauboke, incl. 

2. I'si dauboke 

3. A'si dauboke 

Plural. 

( Wake dauboke 
\ I'ke dauboke 

2, Ine dauboke 

3. A'ne dauboke 

1. Mine own, Wake dauboke 

2. Thine own, I'ke dauboke 

3. His, her, its own, A'ke dauboke, &c., 

like the disjunctive mine 

BAHING VERBS. 

Cause, Pato, tr. Papato, its causal * 
Cause not, Ma pato 

Can it, be able for it, j 

Do not can it, Ma chapo. Ma chamso. 

Cham pato, tr. 

Champaso, intr. 

Cause to can Champayi, passive 
or enable Champapato, causal, tr. 

Champapaso, intr. causal 

Chimpipiyi, pas. causal 
Enable not, Mi c ham pa to, &o. 



i. 



Give birth to, 
or beget, 



: Gingpdto, tr. causal 
Gingpiso, intr. causal 
Gingpayi, passive causal 



Kill, 



or produce, ^ K in g p ayi, passive 
Be not born, Mi gikko, Neg. 
Beget or produce not, Mi kikko, Neg. 
/'Blenno, n. 
J Blenpito, tr. causal 
j Blenpiso, intr. causal 
VBlenpiyi, passive 
Live not, Mi blenno 

/Byikko, n. 

D . ) Byangpito, tr. causal 
' J Byangpiso, intr. causal 
VByangpiyi, passive 
Sato, tr. 
Siso, reflex tr. 
Siyi, passive 
Sapito, tr. causal 
Sipiso, reflex causal 
Sipiyi, passive 
Be (sum), Ki. Khe. Gno. Irreg. Defec. 

{Bwakko, n. (sit) 
Bwangpito, tr. causal 
Bwangpiso, intr. causal 
Bwangpiyi, passive 
( Dyummo, n. 

Become, \ Dyumpito, tr. causal 
Cause to < Dyumpiso, intr. causal 
become, / Dyumpiyi, passive 

C Thyumto. Dyumpato 

Have, possess, < p^!^ 

Have not, ( M4 thi'wo 
or want, ( Ma bwala 
Make to have, ( Thiyato, tr. 
Cause to possess, \ Bwalapdto, tr. 
/ Pawo, tr. 
I Paso, reflex 

Do, make, < Payi, passive || 
perform, J P4pato, tr. c. 
I Papaso, intr. c. 
Papayi, passive, C. 

ir^ A : J Pawomuklio bxvakho, n. 
Keep doing, } Paaogno Uw4kh0f n . 

Cease doing or to do, Pacho pltino, n. 

j Tyarro, tr. 
Suffer, < Tyarso, reflex, tr. 

lTyari, P M. 



Pito Is the rftti-ativc of alt verbs, and In derived from the root pa, to do or make. It 
ncwen to the H4yu form, "do for another." In Bittiing it i the causative, also bearing that 
MOM. Do, or make, is pawo. 

t The are wonto and woncho of Hayit, the definite and indefinite of Hunimrian ; in 
ngltah, can it, or be able for it, and be able kirn ply. Cl'ipn lortni vorb. 

t Be in a certain place = sit. Sheer entity in ezpreAK< 

| Neuter dyum be- illy trnnnitive and cau-iil tliynm. Both tako tho ordinary 

caoanUvc, which with the latter make* a double catmal tliymnpato, cnuM to cauao to become ; 
pleasure, even a treble one, thyumpapato. ttogikko becomos kikko, whence kingpato 
and kingpapato. 

| Obierve, once for all, that the thrr< iro and causal alike) 

refer to bim (any one), to self and to me (the spca kill him or it; 

thynelf ; *a-yi. kill verb* like to d, the aonno is modified of neceanit 

cntial ohaii^o ; n- 

hence, an will he nccti in 
the language of certain social furnu uf ihe veth aubsidiaiy to the so-called IMW 



334 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Cause to un- 
derstand, 
Explain, 

Feel, 



(Tyarpato, tr. 
Cause to suffer, < Tyarpaso, reflex 

(Tyarpayi, passive 
[ Kwo-gno, tr. (see) 
I Kwo-so, reflex 
Observe or / Kwo-yi, passive 
Examine, ] Kwo-pato, tr. causal 
r Kwo paso, intr. causjil 
Kwo-payi, passive, causal 

iTeuto. Jokko. Mimto, tr. 
Teuso. Jongso. Mim- 
so, reflex 
Teuti. Jongyi. Mim- 
^ ti, passive 
, Teupato. Jongpato. 

Mimpato, tr. c. 
Teupaso. Jongpaso. 

Mimpaso, iutr. c. 
Teupayi. Jongpayi. 

Mimpayi, pas. c. 
( Limle"to, trans. 
Be sensible of, < Limleso, reflex 
bodily, ( Limle'yi, passive 

Mimto, trans. 
/'Mimso, reflex 

Member. fe^^u-al 

I Mimpaso, reflex causal 

Mimpayi, passive, causal 
/Plendo, tr. 

TTnr^t J Plenso, tr. reflex 
Forget, < plendij pasgive 

VPlen-pa-to-so-yi, causal 
( Dwakko, intr. 
Desire, \ Dwakto, tr. 
Lust for, < Dwangso, reflex 
love, / Dwakti, passive 

C Dwangpa-to-so-yi, c. 
/Gramdo, tr. 
, ) Gramso, reflex 
lte ' ) Gramdi, passive 
vGrampa-to-so-yi, c. 

/ Syanto, trs. 
) Syanso, reflex 
Recognise,^ s^nti,' passive 

^Syanpato, &c., c. 
Be modest, Gnune bokko, n. 

|"Gnune bong pa-to-so-yi, 
Make modest, < tr., or 

( Gnune pok-ko-so-yi,tr.* 



Laugh, Riso, n. 

Make laugh, Risipa-to-so-yi, c. 

Laugh at, irride, Rito. Riso. Riti, tr. 

Weep, Gnwakko, n. 

Make weep, Gnwangpa-to-so-yi, c. 

Dance, Silim6vo,f tr. 

Make dance, Silimopa-to-so-yi, c. 

Sing, Swalong pawo, tr. 

Make sing, Swalong papato-so-yi, c. 

Hope. No such word 

Fear, Gnito, n. 

f Gnipato, tr. c. 
Frighten, < Gnipaso, reflex c. 

(Gnipayi, passive 

( Gnipapato, tr. 

Cause to frighten, < Gnipapiiso, reflex 
(Gnipapayi, passive 

{Khiwo, n. 
Khipato, causal 
Khipaso, c. reflex 
Khipayi, c. p. 

Be good, Nyfiwo or Nyuba bwakko, n. 
Become good, Nyuba dyummo, n. 
Nyuto, tr. 
Nyuso, reflex 



Nyuba dyumpaso, refl. c. 
Nyuba dyumpayi, p. c. 
Be glad, I'thim nyula. Gyerso. 
/A'thim nyupato, tr. 
P,, 1 1 ) I'thim nyupaso, reflex 

len ) Wathim nyupayi, passive 
VGyersi pato-paso-i>ayi 



Be vexed, -d, 



Be satisfied, Rugno, n. 
Satisfy, Rupato, c. 

/'Bwakko, n. 

Utter, speak, ) Bwangpato, c. tr. 
Articulate, j Bwangpaso, c. reflex 

VBwangpayi, c. passive 

Relate, teU, speak J 1^ s^e^ 
to or of ^ S6yi> S6di / pag . 

Cause to re- ( Sopato, tr. \ For both 
late, toJ Sopaso, refl. V the 
, P- J 



tell, &c. Uopayi, 



above 



* As dyum becomes thyum, BO bokko becomes pokko-bongpato ; and from pokko, double 
causal pong-pato. (See Grammar.) 

t Sili = a dance. The verb mdvo has the separate sense of to fight, but is used with many 
nouns to verbalise them. 

J Add as Hynonymes of dyumpato, &c. : 

Nyuba thyumto, tr. Nyuba thyumso, refl. Xyuba thyumyi, pas. 

Nytf vel Xeu. French eu, as before explained. 
Means, may I be gladdened. Be glad- 
dened, the sheer passive, cannot be expressed. 

Activt. Passive. 

A'thim nyu'padu Wathim nydpayi 

A'thirn nyifpadi I'thim n\ i. 

gydrsii)tito are much closer expressions for be ( A'thim nyu pada im nydpada 

glad and gladden. The others are formed I 

from thim or theum, the heart, and the con- I (For thim read theum, French eu.) 

junct pronouns. Opposite is the phase of the ) 
active and passive voices. 



I, thou, he, is gladdened = Wathim uyuf 
I'thim nytfpane, A'thim nydpada. The last 
= he gladdens and is gladdened. Gye"rso and 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



335 



Cause to talk 



( 

, < 
( 



L6 i >ap;ito, tr. 
L6 pap&so, reflex 
L6 apayi, passive 



Tell my thy aw* 

his, tale, A'16i6gno 

Be silent, Liba bwakko, n. 

( Liba bwangpato, tr. 
Silence, < Liba bwangp&so, reflex 

( Liba bwangp&vi, p. 
r< *. ( Liba bwang papato, tr. 

H Liba bwanl p^aso, reflex 
silence, ^ Liba bw&ng p ^ yif p . 

( Breto, tr. 

Call, summon, < Breso, reflex 
passive 



( Brepato, tr. 
i, { 



Cause to summon, < Brepaso, reflex 
(Br^payi, passive 
( Syanda pawo, tr. 

Shout, vociferate, < Syanda paso, refl. 
( Syanda payi, p. 

Learn = teach thyself, Chayiwso, n. 

Teach, Chayindo, tr. 

Teach thyself, Chayinso, reflex tr. 



Teach me, Chaymdi. passive 

Cause me to be taught, Chayinsipayi, c.p. 

r> ^ ( No such word. Kwo-gno = see, 

/Kyakko, tr. 

<. tesi';r reflex 

V Kyakti, p. = write for, or to me 

( Ryangpato, tr. 

Cause to write, < Ryangpaso, reflex 
( Ryangpayi, p. 
fHilo p4wo, tr. 

Ask, question, < Hilo paso, reflex 
o p6yi, p. 



Answer, S6-gno, tr. (see Tell) 

mno, tr. 
Beg, solicit, I'UIIHO, refl. 

Cause to beg, < Pun p&*o, reflex 
I I'n 

vo, tr. 
Get, obtain, find,< T4-so, reflex 

pato, tr. 

Cause to get, Ac. < T& p4so, reflex 
IT;. 



(Dwakto, tr.* 

Approve, like, < Dwangso, reflex 
(Dwakti, p. 

( Dwang p&to, tr. 
Cause to like, &c. < Dwang paso, reflex 

( Dw^ng pdyi, p. 
(Madwakto 



( Kwo-gno, trans. 
See,< Kwo-so, reflex 
(Kw6-yi, passive 

( Kw6 pdto, tr. c. 
Show, < Kwo paao, reflex c. 

( Kwo pAyi, p. 

Hide, lie hid, Khleuso, n. and reflex 
Hide it, Khleuto, tr. 
Hide me, Khleuti, p.f 



^Ninno, tr. 
Hear, < Ninso, reflex 
(Ninyi, ] 

(Ninpato, tr. 

Cause to hear, < Nin paao, reflex 
(Nin p4yi, passive 



( Dapto, tr. 
, < Damso, reflex 



Taste, 

(Dapti, passive 

( Dam pato, tr. 

Cause to taste, s Dam pao, reflex 
(. Dam pdyi, passive 

( .Muto, tr. 
Blow, apply breath, < Miiso, reflex 

( Muyi, passive 
( Mfi pato, tr. 
Cause to blow, < Mu paso, reflex 

(Mupayi, paasive 
TNammo, tr. 
Smell, < Namso, reflex 
(Namyi, passive 

( Nam pato, tr. 
Cause to smell, < Nam paso, i 

(Nam payi, passive 

f K 
Touch, 

) Kliiiti. i>:u*ive 

Cause to touch, < Khu juini), i 

sive 

(Jawo. Biw< 
Eat,Oiso. Baso, reflex 

Uyi. Bayi, pnssive 
n M , *. (Japito, tr. Hapn* 

; v - '-!-" i 

(Jipayi, pas. 



xitive is dwakko approve, whence transitive dwakto, approve it, like the 

t verb*, the three- him, r 

it, any being or thin? (khletttoX *<! to self (thjtolf) (khlouso) ; and so prociaoly in the causal 

also, kh'.tu r .-iy , ' 



336 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Make intoxicated, 
or intoxicate, 



fTugno, tr. 
Drink, < Tuso, reflex 
(Tuyi, pas. 

( Tundo, tr. 
Cause to drink, < Tunso, reflex 

(Tundi, pas. 
Be intoxicated, Dukko.* Neutro, pas. 

:Dung pato, tr. 
Dung paso, reflex 
Dung payi 
f MeVo, tr. 
Vomit, < Meso, reflex 
(M^yi, pas. 

( Me" pato, tr. 
Cause to vomit, < Me" paso, reflex 

( Me* payi, pas. 
Sleep, Ippo, n. 

( Im pdto, tr. c. 
Cause to sleep, < Im paso, reflex c. 






( Im payi, pas. c. 

(Ipto, tr. /These are equal 
in sense to the 
Ipso, refl.< last, and exhibit 
) a second mode of 
Ipti, pas. \ making causals. 
Wake, Syayi/tso, n. 

( Syayinsi pato, tr. 
Awaken, < Syayinsi paso, reflex 

(Syayiwsi payi, pas. 
Dream ^ Gnamung m6wo, tr. 
I Gnamung moso, reflex 

Cause to / Gnimuu & mopato, tr. 
\ s Gnamung m6paso, reflex 

1 ' ( Gnamung mopayi, pas. 
Fart, Piso, n. Pisipato, &c., causal 
Fart at him, Pito. Piso. Piti, tr. 
Shit (caca), Waso, intr. 
Cause to shit (caca), Wasi pati, &c., c. 
Caca aupra ali quid vel aliquem, Wato, tr. 



Imminge, Charto, &c., tr. 



Cause to kiss, Chuppa pato, &c., c. 
C Leuwo, tr. (French eu) 
Kiss (coe), < Leuso, reflex 

( Leuyi, pas. 

Be kissed, Leupaso, reflex causal f 
c j Hachhun mowo, &c., tr. 

ieeze ' t Hachhfm mopato, &c., causal 

( Tewo, tr. 
Spit, < Teso, reflex 
(Teyi, pas. 

pato, tr. 



T^papato, &c.,D.C.J 
( Byamne mowo, &c., tr. 
| Byamne m6p ^ to , &c., causal 



Syokh^ mowo, tr. 



Hiccup, J Dikumi dokto&c.tr. 

' ( Dikumi dongpato, &c., c. 

{Dwakko, tr. 
Dwaugso, reflex 
Dwangyi, pas. 
v j Hapsa m6wo, tr. 

wn ' t Hapsa mopato, &c., c. 

( Tukko, tr. 
Lick, < r j\mgso, reflex 
(Tungyi, pas 

( Tung pdto 

Cause to lick, < Tung paso 
I Tung payi 
(Bippo, tr. 

Suck, < Bimso, reflex 
(.Bimyi, passive 

/ Bim pato, tr. 
Cause to suck, < Bim paso, reflex 

( Bim payi, pas. 
CKrato, tr. 
Bite, <Kraso, reflex 
( Krayi, pas. 

(Krapato, tr. 
Cause to bite, < Kra pdso, reflex 

( Krd ])ayi, pas. 

Kick, Ta-to, tr. Ta-so, reflex. Ta-yi, 
paa. 

( Ta pato, tr. 
Cause to kick, < Ta paso, reflex 

(Tapayi, pas. 
C Teuppo, tr. (French eu) 
Strike, < Teumso, reflex 
(Teumyi, pas. 

i Teum pato, tr. 

Cause to strike, < Teum paso, reflex 
( Teum payi, pas. 



/'Bapto, tr. 



Scratch (for ease, ) Bamso, reflex 
itching), J Bapti, pas. 



/Nyapto, tr. 
i, ) Nyamso, reflex 



Bam pato, &c., causal 



Push, 

Shove,') Nyapti, pas. 

vNyampato, &c., causal 



Pull, 



{Syallo, tr. 
Syalso, reflex 
Syalyi, pas. 
Syal pato, &c., causal 



Walk, Gwakko, n. 

( Gwang pato, tr. 
Cause to walk, \ Gwang paso, reflex 

' Gwang payi, pas. 
Walk about, ( Khirso, n. 
Take the air, ( Khirsi pato, &c., c. 
Run, Wanno, n. Wanpato, &c., c. 



* This neuter is conjugated as a passive, duntn, dunge, dnga. 

t The causal reflex is always used to express an act voluntarily suTereu by tlu party 
addressed. 

{ D. C. stands for double causal. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



337 



Run away, ( Jukokato, JK 

flee, \ Juugnikapato, &c. , c. 
Creep, Busa khwongo gwakko, u. 

= Snake-like walk 
Jump, hop, ( Prokko, n. 

lea] i. ( Prong pato, &c., c. 
Fly. Lycrro. n. Byer pato, &c., c. 
Swim. No such word 
Cross over I Hamba glugno, n. 

7eT ' \ Hamba glupato, ic.. c. 
"\Vade across, Gwaktakoor Gwaksomami 

hamha glugno,* n. 
Sink, Wainto, n. 

Drown or cause to sink, "Wampato, &c., tr. 
Bathe, Chiso, n. Chisipato-paso-payi, c. 
Cause to bathe or J^ikto,tr. 

bathe him. 



(Syappo, tr. 
Wool, ) Syamso, reflex. 
**' ) Syamyi, pas. 

V Syampato, &c., c. 
Dress = dress ( Phiso, reflex 

thyself, ( Phisipato-paso-payi, c. 
Cause to dress, (ikto, tr. 
= dress him, 



Cause to cause to ( Phing pato, tr. 
dress or have dres-s Phing paso, reflex. 
sed, ( Phing payi, pas. 

Kleuto, tr. 

Kleuso, reflex. 



(. Kleupato-pa,so-payi, c. 
Be naked, Iklaucho dyummo, n. 
Make naked, A'klaucho pawo, tr. 
Cause to make naked, J A'klaucho-pa- 



\ p&to, tr. o. 
( Sulyumi byakko, n. 
I = hunger by die. 



Be hungry, 

| 

Make hungry, | 

Pwaku dwakko, n. 

iku dwaktimi, byakko. 

Make thirsty, { ^^^ P&t ' 

Be sleepy, Myeldo, n. Ipthi dwangla, n. 
Myel pato, tr. c. 

I>aso, reflex, c. 
Myel payi, pas. c. 
1 1 -tii i dwang pato-paso- 

jiiiyi. 

Be cold (to sentient I J6mi byakko, n. 
being), ( = cold by die. 

Make cold (ditto), { ^p^i* 1 ^ , 
Be warm or hot, Gluglum dyummo, n. 



Make sleepy, 



IGluglum pdwo-paso-payi, 
tr. 
Gluglum dyum pato-paso- 
payi, c. or 
Gluglum thyumto-thumso- 
thumyi, c. 
Be dirty, Keke'm dyumo, n. 

( Kek^m pawo, &c. , tr. 
Make dirty, < K^k^m dyumpato, &c., or 

(, Kekem thyumto, &c. 
Be clean, Bubum dyummo, n. 
Make clean, cleanse, B(U>umpawo or bu- 
bum dyum pato, tr. , or Bubum tbyumto. 
f Bubum pdpato, ] 

n,,. I Bubum pajiaso, I , ,, 

Cause to J B b ^ I doubly 

cleanse, 1 Qr Bubu F m J tl f y l [causal. 

t um pato, I 
Be angry, Sokso paso, tr. reflex. 
Make angry, Sokso pawo, tr. 
Cause to make angr, Soksoaato, &c.,c. 



, pas. 

SSSu I'^ 

Khiwo, tr. 
Khiso, reflex. 
- pas. 

( Khi pato, tr. 
Cause to quarrel, < Khi paso, reflex. 

( Khi payi, pas. 
Be reconciled, Deuwo, n. 
( Deu pato, tr. 
Reconcile, < Deu paso, reflex. 

(.Deu payi, pas 
( M6-wo, tr. 
Fight, < Mo-so, reflex. 
-- pas. 
M6 pdto, tr. 

reflex. 



Be victorious or win, Glwaugno, n. 



Cause to -cu.ub 



f ^ P 4to t, 

I Svcu J,ayi, ,,,, 
(Rfipaw, 

Work,< R(i paso, reflex. 
(Kupayi pas.t 

|.ap&to, tr. 

Cause to work, s Ku papaso, reflex. 
;apayi, pas. 



.tcrolly, haTinjr walked luiie on that side. 

t My informanU ny kleuyi can only be said by the cloth", nml thnt n man must nay 
kleutL give me undroM d or undress me. 80 also klcuso is objectod to. Thus 
i Or and Tain answer Utar, not Utar. 

t Rnn4yi. says the work, do me; rdnati. aayff the n .". Compare BAjQ 

posting and pasting. 80 work is rdpawo, aud work for him nipato. Ra is a substantive 
work. 

VOL. I. Y 



338 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Play, Chamso, n. or reflex. 

( Chains! pato, tr. 

Cause to play, < Chamsi paso, reflex. 
^Chamsi payi, pas. 

( Chamto, tr. 

Amuse, divert, Chamso, reflex. 
= cause to s Chamti, pas. 
play, I Cham pato-paso-payi,* 

L causal. 
Be tired, Ballo, n. 
( Bal pato, tr. 
Tire < Bal paso, reflex. 
( Bal payi, pas. 



. 
ca 



(Balpapato,) , ,, 
Cause to tireX Bal papaso, V. 

lBalpapayi,j 
Take rest, Naso, n. or intr. 

( Nasi pato, tr. 
Give rest, < Nasi paso, reflex. ) caugala 

I Nasi payi, pas. [ ca 
Move, Dukko, n.f Yongso, reflex. 
Cause to ( Dung pato. Dukto, tr. 
move,or< Duug paso. Dungso reflex. 
it, (. 



move it, (.Dung payi. Dukti, pas. 
Cause to cause to ( Dung papato, tr. c. 
move or cause its Dung papaso, refl. c. 
to be moved, ( Dun- papayi, pas. c. 

( Yokto, tr. 
Kemove, < Yongso, reflex. 

I Yokti, pas. 

Be still, ( Jaso, ac. intr. 

Be firm or steady, I Ma dukko. 

/ Ma dukto, tr. neg. 
Make still, stabi- ) Jato, tr. 
litate, or steady, ] Jaso, reflex. 

\Jati, pas. 
Cause to make ( Ma dung pato, c. tr. 

still, or firm, ( Ja pato, c. tr. 
Be quick, Grukko, n. 

( Grung pato. Grukto. 
Quicken, < Grung paso. Grungso. 

( Grung payi. Grukti. 
Be slow, Wakha dyumo, n. 
Make slow, Wakha pawo, tr. 
Stay, stop,t Jaso, n. act. intr. 
Stop it or stay it, Jato, tr. 
Stop me, Jati. 

Cause to be stopped, ( Japato, tr. 
or cause to causes Japaso, reflex. 
to stop, ( Ja payi, pas. 

} tr. 



Lethimdepart, { 
Let me depart, 



PM . 



Let thyself depart, 

( Dukko, n. 
Be intoxicated, < Dukba dyumo or 
( paso, n. 



J refl> 



f Dukba pdwo tr. 
Dukba paso, reflex.' 

Make intoxicated, { Dukba payi, pas. 
I Dung pato-paso- 
L P&yi, c. 

Tell the truth, A'je bwakko, n. 

truth, \ A'je bwkng payi' pas. 



*-** 



{Bito, tr. 
Biso, reflex. 
Biti, passive. 
Bipato, &c., causal. 



Di.believe, 



Negative. 



f Jeullo, tr. (put down, 

place.) 

Present, J Jeulso, reflex. 
Offer, | Jeulyi, pas. 

I Jeul pato-paso-payi, 
I causal 

/Blawo, tr. 

Accept ( = take), < 

(Blapato, &c. causal, 
f Ma blawo, Neg. 

Sheomi cyakko, tr. !l 
Refuse or j Sheomi tyangso, reflex, 
forbid, 1 Sheomi tyangi, pas. 
Sheomi tyang pato, 
L &c., causal. 

/Tyakko, tr. 

Prevent, ) Tyangso, reflex. 

Restrain, hinder, | Tyangyi, pas. 

(.Tyangpato, &c., c. 
f Theullo, tr. 

Theulso, reflex. 
Cherish, ^ Theulyi pas. 

Theul pato-paso-payi, 



Abandon, 
desert, 



causal. 

Wardo, tr. (= throw 

away), 

Warso, reflex. 
"NVj'irdi, pas. 
", &c. causal. 
Plenno, tr. i 



Confine, imprison, 

( Bwala, n. irreg. 
Have, < Thiyela, n. reg. 
(Thiwo, n. reg. 



Plenpato. &c. causal. 



* See Be glad and gladden, and note thereon, p. 334. Initial i and a are the conjunct 
pronouns or pronominal or definitive! of the second and third persons, 
t Dukko, if leave n.'t place. Y6ngso, if you do. 
j Stay, remain, don't go, is Bwako 

{ Jeullo vel jyullo, as afore explained ; and so also teuppo vel tyuppo/stnke. 
|| Literally, hinder by mouth. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



339 




or possess, 



I'.wakba ) , a 

s- 



j rmna 

S3?* 

\Thipato 






<Thipato-paso-payi 
| Mu bwala 
Want, < Ma thiyela 
I M;i thiwo 

( Giwo, tr. Giso, reflex. 
Give, < Gii (Giyi), pas. 

( Gipato-p&so-payi, causal 
( ;ivo back ( L^ti giwo-giso-giyi, 

= return, ( ut supra 
Give again ( Anaiyo giwo-giso-giyi, 
(more), ( ut supra 

{Blawo, tr. 
Blaso, reflex. 
Blayi, pas. 
Blapato-paso-payi, causal 

(L6to, tr. 

Take back (see J Leso, reflex. 
Return), ) Leti, pas. 

V.Le'pato-paso-payi, cans. 
Take again ( Anaiyo blawo-blaso-blayi, 

(more), ( ut supra. 
Be saved, Blenno (see Live), n. 
fBlenpato, tr. 
J Blenpaso, reflex. 
| Blenpayi, pas. 
VBlenpapato-papaso-papayi, c. 
Be well, Neuwo or Nyuwo, n. 

Neup4to. Neuto, tr. 
Neupaso. Neuso, reflex. 
Neup&vi. Neuti, pas. 
Neui.apato-papaso-papayi, 

causal of neuter 
Neupato- paso-payi, c. of tr. 
Khlainto. tr. 
Khlamso, reflex. 
Kiilaini; 

i pAto-pjiso-] 
KUampApilo, double c. 

Him: 

- ' Kiinl..! dyunimo, com. gender 
some, ) Rims6kpa dyummo, mas. 

Make hand- fS* 1 ,? 4 *? 

| Kimsokpa pawo. mas. 

( Swalocha dyurrio, mas. 
;',, ' - sw.,iMi,,i dyumo, fern, (no 

Ull, | 

Make mature, ( Swalocha p&wo, mat. 
or adult, ) Swalomi pawo, f.-:. 



Save, 



Cure, make 
well, 



. .le- 



OOM, 
dflra. 



( Sokticha dyummo, m:is. 
Be strong, < Soktimicha dyummo. fern. 

( (no neuter) 
Make strong, ( Sokticha pawo, mas. 

strengthen, ( Soktimicha pawo, fem. 
Grow, Bare, n. 

/ Bdr pato, tr. 



papayi, double c. 
Decay, Syowo or Sheowo, n. 

Syopato, tr., or Sheo- 

pato, &c. 
Syo paso, reflex. 
Syo payi, pas. 
Syo papato, &c., causal 
/ Kuwo, tr. 

i Kuso, reflex. 
J K ' 

rob ' J Kfipato, &c., causal 

^ Kupapato, double causal 
Murder, Sato (see Kill) 



Decay it, 
make decay, 



c* i 
Steal, 



f Hanto, tr. 
, ) Hanso, reflex. 



Deceive 

cheat, i Hanti, pas. 

V Hanpato, causal 
Accompany (Nung 



Cause to accom 
pany, 



- ( Kwangkho lapato-paso- 
( P^yi, tr. causal 



, tr. 



IWapato, &c., causal 
Remain with, Kwangkho bwakko, n. 
Cause to remain ( Kwangkho b\v;u 

with, \ calls il. 

Sit, Niso, n., compare with the next 



( Nito, tr. 
\ Niso, reflex. 
Seat, < Niti, pas. 

1 Nitpatd, C:ius:tl. 

1 Nipapato, double causal 

Stand, K:i]>i 

Make stand, Ram pato, causal 

K. -mail. wakko. n. 

staii' . i). 

Minkho liwai. 

Stan-. i to. 

JBw6kku or Bokko, n. (to re- 
Be erect. nlent) 

(Rapo (to s 

Make sto<,p. Kln'mi pdto, Ac., causal 



lre Newari lya-hma ju and lyiUo ju, lyU-hm.a juye-ki or y< and lyano juyokl or y.k . 
Alo Hajru ban<r-cho dum, bang-mi dum, bang-cho ptfk< 
pnk<$. The i md piiwo DAVU the usual characterUlics, given 

t In rves the trauBiUYc of rump4to and the neuter 

of bwakko blended in otic 



340 



BAH1NG VOCABULARY. 



Lay down, Gle\sipato-paso-payi, causal | B . / 

Get up (to a sitter), Rappo, n. (see Stand) Kfm^I come 



Make get up, Bwong pato. Ram pato 

Fall (being), Dokko, n. 

Cause to fall, Dong pato-paso-payi, c. 

"SSS-, 



Get on, mount, "Wogno, n. 
Cause to mount, Wopato-paso-payi, c. 
Dismount, Yuwo, n. 
Cause to dismount, Yupato-paso-payi, c. 
/ Jyullo, tr. 

i j \ Jyulso, reflex. 

Put, place, put down, J j* filyi ; pas 

deposit, ) jy ulpa to, causal 

^ Jyulpapato, d. c. 
T , (Bokto. Guppo, tr. 

Take up, J B ongso. Gumso, reflex. 
lift, raise, ^gjg Gum yi, pas. 

( Bong pato, &c., c. 
Cause to take up, { Qum > JgJ &c. , c. 

/Grepto, tr. 

Throw <^ Grepso, reflex, 
Inrow, < Grepti> pag 

VGrem pato, &c., causal 
Dato, tr. 



Catch as 

Dapato, &c. , causal 
Keep, Jyullo, tr. (see Place). 
Reto, tr. 



Ke pato, &c. , causal 
W4rdo.tr. (see Abaadon) 

Be near, Nentha dyfimmo, n. 
Approximate, Nentha dyumpato, tr. 
Be distant, Braba dyummo. Brawo, n. 
,.. . j Brapato, &c., tr. 

istance, | BrdM dyump&tOf causal tr< 

Bring (see Come, ^ Pito, tr. 
piwo ; pi to is ( Piso, reflex. 
trans, or causal f Piyi, pas. 
= make come, ) Pipato, &c., causal 



Yuwo = 
down), 



) Yuti, pas. 
(.Yupfcto, &c., 



Kfipato, &c., causal 
Fetch, Blatha diwo, n. (to take go). 
Blatha dipato-paso- 
payij 
tr. 



Jause to fetch, 



Send, 



VLapato, causal 

'Phli-gno, tr. 
Phli-so, reflex. 
Phli-yi, pas. 
Phli-pato, &c., causal 
'Kurro, tr. 



Kurpato, &c., causal 



/-Si wo, tr. 
) 



Hold, take in J Siso, reflex. 

hand, grasp, j Siyi, pas. 

VSipato, &c., causal 
/ Jdto, tr. 
Hold up, J Jasp,* reflex. 

support, I Jati, pas. 

VJapato, &c., causal 
Let it fall, U'cho giwo 
Fall (thing), U'to, n. and a. 
Make fall or fell, U'pato, c., and U'to. tr. 
Enter, "\V6gno, n. 
Cause to enter, ( W6pato, causal 
Admit, insert, \ "NVondo, tr. 
Issue, Glugno, n. 

Cause to issue, Gltipato. Glundo f 
Ascend = climb tree, Wogno, n. 
Ascend = come up, slope, Kuwo, n. 
Ascend = go up, slope, Hdteu la wo, n. 
Descend = come down, Yuwo, n. 
Descend = go down, Hayu la wo, n. 
Descend = climb down tree, Glugno, n. 

Arrive, {ESShS} n., there, here 
(jwakko. n. 

( Jwangdipato 
Cause to arrive, < Jwanghijiato 

( Jwangpdto 
Depart, G16gno (issue) 
Cause to depart, Glupato, &c. 
Precede, Gnalla yongso, intr. 
Cause to precede, Gualla yongpfito or 

yokto, reflex. 
Follow, N6tha y6ngso, intr. 



* Ji'^o gives jase, it is (self) supported ; and Jaso or jipdso must be used for "be sup- 
ported," though there be a passive formed from jati = support me. All this results from the 
imperfect development of the passive voice, which has no imperative of the second person. 

t Transitive and causal gliindo from neuter gliigno, as wondo from wogno. From the 



former we have normally the double causals glum 5to and wonpito. See on to pp. 345 f. 

gone on the expedients for eking out the lack of true adverbs. One is 



See notes aforegone on the 



the use of the gerunds as instanced in " wade across" at p 337. Endless samples occur. 
Another is the use of verbs minutely specific, and which include the adverbial sense, as we 
say enter, to come in ; but enter means also go in, as ascend does equally come up ai; 
But kiiwo and yiiwo can only be used in the senses of come up, and come down, not go up 
or down. 

Jwakko = arrive simply. The adjuncts tell whether by going (diwo), or by c< ruing 
(piwo). 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



34i 



Cause to folio., 

Attend on, Kwongkho bwakko, n. 
Disappear, Khleuso, reflex, (see Hide) 

Cause to disappear, 



Appear, Kwai/iso paso, reflex. 
Make appear, Kwai/<so pa wo, tr. 
Make me appi-ar, K\vai//so payi, pas. 
Be lost, lose, Sheoto, n. and a. 

to lose, lose it, Sheopato-paso- 
payi, c. 

I Lamo, tr. 

Search, < Lamso, reflex. 
( Lamyi, pas. 

( Lam pato, tr. 
Cause to search, < Lam p&so, reflex. 

{ Lam payi, pas. 
(Tawo, tr. 
Find, < Taso, reflex. 
iTayi. 

( T4 p4to, tr. 
Cause to find, % Ta paso, reflex. 

(Tapayi, pas. 
Begin, Prenso, n. 

C Prensi pito, tr. 
M to begin, < Prensi paso, reflex. 

(Pre'nsi payi, pas. 
End, ) Ryippo, n. 

Be ended, j Ryim pato, &c , tr. 
End it, fTheummo, tr. 

icumso, reflex, 
ended, or*] Theumyi, pas. 
finish, VTheumpato, &c., causal 
Come, Piwo, n. Rawo, n. 

/i'ipato. K;ipato, tr. 
Pipaso. Rapaso, reflex, 
come, ^ Pi payi. Rai>.iyi. ]> , s . 

VPipapato. Rupapato, d. c. 
I )iwo,* n. Lawo, n. 

( Lapato. Dipato, tr. 
Cause to go, < Lapaso. Dipano, reflex. 

(.Lapayi. Dij.ayi, pas. 
nue, Bwakko, n. (nit) 

( Bwdngpato, tr. 
Cause to continue, < Bwangpiso, reflex. 

' l;\va'i-payi. jias. 
it of the way, ( Yongso, n. 
or clear the way, ( Lam pi. nn-., tr. 

Yokto, tr. Laini.l.'n 



Cause to clear the 
way, or make 
out of the 
way 



pato, tr. 

HO, reflex. Lam- 

].!. upas... rcll'-x. 
Yokti, IMU. 
plenpayi, pa. 



/Rimdo, tr. 

Wait for, ) Rimso, reflex. 
Expect, | Rimdi, pas. 

VRimpato, &c., caudal 
A Vo J here, ( Jwang diwo, n. 
lve ' t there, ( Jwang piwo, n. 

Cause to arrive, 



Cause to depart Glupiito, &c., causal 
or dismiss, ( Lapato, &c., causal 
Return, Le"to, n. ) See Take 

Cauae to return, Le"pato, &c., ) back 
lie high, grow, Barro, n. 



Be large, big, Gnolo dyummo, n. 

Make big or enlarge, Gn61o thyumto or 

dyumpato, &c., causal 
Be fat, Syene"uwo,t n. 
Fatten, Sye'neupato, &c., causal 
Be thin, Ryanimo, n. 
Make thin, Ryampato, &c., causal 
Increase, Barro, n. 

Cause to increase, Bar pato, &c., causal 
Decrease, Sy6-wo, n. 
Cause to decrease, Sy6 pato, &c., causal 
Be good, Neuwo, n. 

Neuto, tr. 



Wait, Bwakko, n. (sit) 

Cause to wait, Bwangpato-paso-payi 



Make good, 

Neu pato, &c. , causal 
Be bad, Ma neuwo, neg. 
Make bad, M& neuto, &c., c. n. 

/Gapto, tr. 

Add to, or j Gapsp, reflex, 
augment,^ Gapti, pas. 

vGampato, &c., causal 
Deduct from or lessen, Sy6 pato, tr. 
(decrease) 

Cultivate I Ch6-so, reflex, 
(earth), ) Ch6yi, pas. 

\Ch6pato, &(\, causal 
K6kk, tr. def. 
-... j Kongso, reflex, indcf. 
^K^K^ngyi,:! 

Konc i usal 

J6to. 



{; 



VJ6pato, &c., causal 

<., tr. 

1'liuto, reflex. 
Phuyi,|| pas. 
1'im pato, &c., causal 



* Sea " Take away," lAto = CAUM to > ^od no. 

t 8y6 = flesh ; neub* a good ; neuwo b good, whence neufrna, I am good (neu vcl 

TTi, MJS field, dig me. Dig for roe Is kokUgf, and dijr for him k..k< 
| J6to i* Hindi. 80 that we have hers apparently an Arian word thoroughly incor- 
porated and assimilated. 

| The reflex and p*Mtre forms of the Terbs to dijr, to plough, to nw, mil nil 

s human 



eschewed, because Incaj able of spplication by or to s 



being, and the coustructio ad 



342 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



/Khleummo, tr. 



Gather, 
pluck 
flowers 
greens, 



VKhleum pato, &c., causal 
Rikko, tr. 
Ringso, reflex. 
Ringyi, pas. 
Ring pato, &c., causal 

{Nato, tr. Pre"to, tr. 
Naso, reflex. Pr&so, reflex. 
Nayi, pas. Pre"yi, pas, 
Napato, &c., c. Prepato, &c., c. 
Kukko, tr. 



Rungpato, &c., causal 



Fpll J U/fco > tr ' 
Fe "' iu'yi,pas. 

( Upato, tr. 
Cause to fell, < Upaao, reflex. 

(Upayi,pa3. 

/Theailo, tr. 
Theulso, reflex. 



.Theulpato, &c., causal 
Chwarro, tr. (cut) 



.Chwarpato, &c., c. 
/('liari pawo, tr. 
) Chari paso, reflex. 
' ) Chari payi, pas. 
V Chari papato, causal 
, \V<>kko, tr. 

Flay or decorti- j W6ugso. reflex, 
cate or peel j Wongyi, pas.* 

VWongpato, causal 
/Krito, tr. 
J Kriso, reflex. 
\ Kriti, pas. 
(.Kripfito, &c., causal 
/ Khwarro, tr. 
J Khwarso, reflex. 



C1 
Shave ' 



Buy, 



Sell, 



j Kliwaryi, pas. 

vKhwarpato, causal 

/.lyappo, tr. 

) Jyamso, reflex. 

j Jyainyi, pas. 

V Jyampato, &c., causal 

/L^gno, tr. 
Leso, reflex, 
^j L^yi, pas. 
\ 



Lepjito, c. 

/Phato, tr. 
Change or J Phaso, reflex, 
exchange, j Phayi. pas. 
VPhapato, c. 



/Jyargiwo, tr. 
T A ) Jy* r g* so > reflex. 
Len Mjyar g iyi,pa S . 

V. Jyar gipato, &c., c. 
Jyar blawo, tr. 



Jyar blapato, c. 
Ch6-gno, tr. 



Pay debt 



Cho-pato, c. 
Hikko, tr. 



Hingpato, &c., c. 

/Thapo, tr. 

Measure or) Thamso, reflex. 
weight, j Thamyi, ]>. . 

^Thani pato, &c., c. 
/Khlyakko, tr. 

Plater , wall), 

VKhlang pato, &c., c. 
Make house, Khim pawo (see Make ) 
Make clothes, Wa pawo (see Make) 

/Sale panno, tr. 
. ) Sale panso, reflex. 
bpin ' ) Sale panyi, pas. 

\Sale panpato, &c. , c. 
Weave, Wa pawo (supra) 

/PhyeVro, tr. 
Q j Phyerso, reflex. 
eW ')Phyeryi, pas. 

VPhyerpato, &c., c. 

, Khri-to, tr. 
r, i J Khriso, reflex. 
Gnm M Khriyi, pas. 

\ Khripato, &c., c. 
Work mine, Khani kokko (dig) 
Work iron, Syal teuppo (heat) 

Singchokko, tr. (plane) 



Singchongpato, &c., c. 
Khapi Iwakto, tr. (knead) 
Khdpi Iwangso, reflex. 



Khapi Iwangpato, &c., c. 



Cook, 



/Kiwo, tr. 
) Kiso, reflex. 



Kiyi, pas. 
^ Kipato, &c. , c. 
Be cooked, be prepared ) 
(rice), f 

Cause to be cooked, Ming pato, 

causal 

Be ripe (fruit), Jiwo, n. 
Ripen, Jipato, &c., c. 



sensum still overniling any feeling of grammatical uniformity with my unsophisticated 
informants. The transitive and reflex forms of such verbs often ta'ly with Hungarian 
definite and indefinite. 

* Wongyi, says the skin, and wongso, says man to skin, wokti or woktigf, says one man 
to another, strip off my skiu. So also of " shear," &c. , 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



343 



Boil, Kiwo, (cook) 

/Gr&ndo, tr. 
T> i. ) Gremso, reflex. 
Roast ')Gremdi, r ,s. 

VGr^mpato, c. 

{Cheowo, tr. 
Cheoso, reflex. 
Cheoyi. 
Cheo pato, &c., c. 

tighter) 

vith scissors, Krito (shear) 

{S6wo, tr. 
Se"so, reflex. 
Seyi, pas. 
Sepato, &.C., c. 



(Hoto, tr. 
) 



Perforate or ) Hoso, reflex. 
pierce, ^ Hoyi, pas. 

VHopato, &c., c. 
Be torn, Jito, n. 
/Chito, tr. 
J Chiso, reflex. 
^Chiyi, pas. 
VChipato, &c., c. 
Be split, Yeso, reflex. 

(Ye-to, tr. 
Split, 1 Yeyi, pas. 

to, &c . c. 

Be broken, Jingso, reflex. 
/Jikko, tr. and n. 



> Jingpato, &c., c. 
Be burst, Bukko, n. 

/PwakkoorPukko. tr. 
n.,,f :* ) P^angso, reflex. Pungso, ref. 
Bur8tlt ^Pwan g yi,pas. 

VPwangpato, &c., c. 



paa> 



Bre 



/Kiwo, tr. (cook) 
) Kiso, reflex, 
w ' ) Kiyi, pas. 

I Kipato, &c., causal 
o, tr. 



H.-j.atu. ^r., c. 

/Thyakto. tr. 
Filtrate, ' Thyango, i 
defecate, ) Thyangyi, pan. 
VThyangpito, ,v 
Be sharp, Syamso, reflex. 






., tr. 
Syamso, reflex. 






Sharpe 

Be blunt, Kblnmso, reflex. 

imto, tr. 

Make blunt J KblaOMO, nttt. 
(or ; 

' Khlampato, ^ 

Be shaken, Dungso, reflex. Dukko, n. 
Dukto, tr. 



Make still, H"' tr - 



Be contained, Ringso, reflex. 
% /Rikto, tr. 

Contain, ) Ringso, reflex, 
hold, J Rikti, pas. 

VRingpato, &c., c. 
Be sustained, Jaso (see Be firm) 
Sustain, Jato (see Make firm) 
Be retained, Tyangso, reflex. 

/Tyakko, tr. 

Retain, ) Tyangso, reflex, 
keep in, j Tyangyi, pas. 

VTyanejpato, &c., c. 
Ooze out, Chappo, n. 

/Cham pato, tr. 

Make ooze out, < 

VCham papato, c. 
Be full (belly), Ru-gno, n. 

{Rupato, tr. 
Rfi paso, reflex. 
Rfi payi, pas. 
Rupapa'to, &c., c. 
Be full (vessel), Dyammo, n. 
/ Dyam pdto, tr. 

Fill (vessel) < 

" ) uyampayi. \<. 

V Dyam p&pito, c. 
Be empty, Asye"ti dyumnio, n. 
/ Asy6ti j)Awo, tr. 



Duugpato, &c., c. 



Empty < ^ sy f ? I* 8 ?' reflex ' 
p "* Asy^ti payi, pas. 



VAsye"ti papato, &c., c. 
Shine, Chydrro, n. 

Cause to shine, Chyarpato-paso-payi, c. 
Be dark, Namrikko, n. 

/ Namring pdto, tr. 

Darken < g amr ! n * P^ 80 .. reflex - 
' ) Namring payi, pas. 

V Namring papato, &c., c. 
Be luminous, Hauhau dyi'iniino, n. 
Make luminous, Hauhau pawn, tr. 
Blow as wind, Kliito. n. I'.y^ro, n. (fly) 

<., c. 
>, Ac., c. 
Flow as water, Gwakk'o (go) 
Cause to flow, Gwang pato, &o., c. 
Flower. l',.'.t.. n. 
Cause to flower, B6pato, Ac., c. 
Kiuit. Sito, n. 
Cause to fruit. Si-ji;ito, A 
Be ripe (fruit only), Jiwo, n. 

, c. 
Be ripe as RT, 

Be hot, G16-wo, n. 

Heat, GUnato, Jtc., c. 

Be cold (thing only), Chhikk< 

Make . c. 

Be fotten, ' 

Make rott. n. .lmu 

lie raw, Achckhli dyummo, n. 



344 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Make raw, Achekhli pawo, tr. 
Be lighted (lamp), H6wo, n. 
/Hopato, tr. 

Light (lampJ g^;_ 

VHopapato, c. 

Be kindled (fire), Khryamso, reflex. 
'Khryapto, tr. 

Kindle 't 1 Khryamso, reflex. 



Khryam pato, c. 
Be burnt (destroyed by fire), Deuppo, 
neuter 

/Deum pato, tr. 

-p ., J Deum paso, reflex. 
Burn it, s ' 



pas. 
V Deum papato, c. 

/Chw6-wo, tr. 

Burn (corpse), < 

(.Ch we" -pato, &c., c. 
Be buried (= buiy thyself), Thimso, 
reflex. 



/Thimmo, tr. 

u. J Thimso, reflex. 
itX' 



V.Thimpato, &c., c. 

Be melted (= melt thyself), Yongso, 
reflex. 

(Yongpato, tr. 

Melt it < Y6ng pdso ' reflex - 
' ) Y.'.IIK pdyi, pai. 

V. Y6ng p&p&to, &c., c. 
Be congealed, Jdmidyummo, n. 
Congeal it, .1 ami pawo, tr. 



/Khuppo, tr. 
5. orJ 



Collect, bring, orJ Khumso, reflex. 
put together, j Khumyi, pas. 

vKhum pato, &c., c. 
Be collected, Khumso, supra 
/Hammo, tr. 

c , J Hamso, reflex. 
Spread, 4 Hamy .| ^ 

VHampdto, &c., causal 

/Yokko, tr. 

Share out, J Yongso, reflex. 
apportion, J Yongyi, pas. 

vYong pato, &c., causal 



Set together, Khuppo (see CoUect) 
Chyakko, tr. 



causal 



/'Khryapto, tr. 
) 



Unite, join, what ) Khryamso, reflex. 
divided or broken, j Khryamyi, pas. 
V Khryam pato, c. 
(Sapto, tr. 

Knot it, ) Sam so, reflex. 

join by knot, \ Sapti, pas. 

^Sampato, &c., causal 



Mix, 



Unknot, /Prwakko, tr. 
loosen, ) Prwangso, reflex, 
unseam, | Prwaugyi, i>as. 
unfold, v Prwang pato, causal 
r Bra-wo, tr. 
I Bra-so, reflex. 
Scatter, -\ Brayi, pas. 

j Brdpato, &c., causal 
v. Brapapato, double causal 
/Hul-do, tr. 
J Hfil-so, reflex. 
) Hul-di, pas. 
VHul-pato, &c., causal 
Unmix, separate ) Phwakko (see Sepa- 
what mixed, j rate) 

/Grokso pawo, tr. 

Acquire, gain by '< Jmkso ].;iso, reflex, 
labour, or earn, j Grokso ]i;iyi, pas. 
V Grokso pdpato, c. 
Save (what /Blenpato. Khuppo, tr. 
i-amed). J Blenpdso. Khumso, reflex. 
See Col- J Blenpilyi. Khumj'i, pas. 
lect. vBlen papato. Khumpato, c. 
Wanlo, tr. 
\\';.rso, reflex. 
Squander, "\Vardi, pas. 

Warpato. causal 
W;ii]iapato, double causal 



Fold, 



/Plepto, tr. 

) Plemso, reflex. 

| Plepti, pas. 



Plempato, &c., causal 
/Prwakko, tr. 
TT e 1,1 ) Prwangso, reflex. 
ald ' \ Prwangyi, pas. 

' Prwang pato, &c., causal 

/H6kko v tr. 
Hongso, reflex. 



Open, 



Shut 
ITU ' 



Press, 
squeeze, 
depress, 



j H6ngyi, pas. 
vHong pato, &c., causal 
f Tyakko, tr. 
J Tyangso, reflex, 
j Ty&ngyi, pas. 
V. Tyang pato, causal 
Timto, tr. 



Timso, reflex. 
Timti, pas. 
Tim pato, causal 
Timpapato, double causal 



/Nippo, tr. 

Compress or J Nimso, reflex. 
express, J Nimyi, pas. 

\Nimpdto, &c., causal 

/Lip to, tr. 
Limso, reflex. 
carefully, ^j Lipti, pas. 

\Limpato, &c., causal 
Turn topsy-turvy, Holdo tr. (mix) 
/' Tynllo, tr. 
) Tyalso, reflex. 

Tyalyi,pas. 
VTyal pato, &c., causal 

/Prwakko, tr. (see Unfold) 
Prwangso, reflex. 



. 
u 



Unroll, 



j Prwangyi, pas. 



Prwang pato, &c., causal 



BAH ING VOCABULARY. 



345 



Be loose, slack, Thyelvimdyummo, n. 

Thyelvini pawo, tr. 



Thyelvini papato, c. 
Be tight, Muske dyunimo, n. 
Tighten, Muske pawo, tr. 

{.kko, tr. 
Chungso, reflex. 
Chungyi. pas. 
Chung pato, &c., causal 
Prokko, tr. 



Prong pato, causal 
Kura pawo, tr. 
pi ' Kura paso, reflex. 
** ") Kara payi, pas. 

VKura papato, causal 
Unpack, Prwakko (see Unrol) 
Climb, or get up ( Wogno, u. 

tree, &c., ( Wopato. 
Come down, Yuwo, n. 

, Kwddo, tr. 

Put on (fire), < Kwaso, reflex. 
I K wadi, pas. 
| Nito, tr. 
Take off (fire),< Niso, reflex. 

(Niti. 
( Pikko, tr. Wondo 



Put in 



Won so 



See 



Pingpato, &c. Won- get in 

] ' 

/'Glundo, tr. \ 

Pull out, J Gliinso, reflex. (Seelssue. 
takeout, ) (Jlundi. pas. ( Glugno* 

mp4to,jEC,,c.J 

Pour in (liquid), Pikko (supra) 
Dato, tr. 

-poured, 

Dapato, &c., causal 



I-wakto, tr. 



Lwangp&tn, &o., causal 

{Kut< \ 

reflex. ( See Kuwo, 
. paa. f come up 
r. c. j 

tay (to going I Jaso (reflex, or 
n inn), ) in trans.) 

Stop hi n, Jato, tr. 

pan. 
Cnue him to stop, ) Japato-pa*o-payi, 



{Tyakko, tr. 
Tyangso, reflex. 
Tyangyi, pas. 
Tyangpjito, kc,, & 

Prevent, hinder, forbid, Tyakko, supra 
Let go, Lacho gi\vo 

/Lane chapba pawo, tr. 
Enable ) Lane chapba paso, reflex. 
to go, j Lane chapba payi, pas. 

VLane chapba papato, &c., d. c. 
/Yallo, tr. 

Wl i ) Yalso, reflex. 
Rub ' ^Ydlyi, pas. 

VYiUpitto, .-ausal 
I PhelephOle pawo, tr. 
Polish, < Phel-phele paso, reflex. 

( Phelephe"le payi, pas. 
Be polished, Phelephele dyummo, n. 
Cause to be ) Phelephele dyurm atu- 
polished, ) paso-payi, causal 

{Sheummo, tr. 
Sheumso, reflex. 
Sheumyi, pas. 
Sheum pato, &c., causal 
{Hokko, tr. 
So-gtp^ 1 ' 
Hongpato, &c., causal 
/Appo, tr. 

QV,^ ) Amso, reflex. 
Shoot ' )Am y i,pas. 

VAmpato, &c., causal 



cloth, c. chyi - 1I . li;U( ,, ^ c ., c:ius;( i 

/Che>o, tr. 

Twist or make J Che"so, reflex. 
role, I ' ln-\ i. ] as. 

' ("lu'-i'atc, causal 
Be like, reseml>lr. 1 >i -u-wo, n. 
Make like, Deu pato-paso-payi, 
Be white or clear, Bubum l\uinino, n. 



and cleanse, 
Be wet, Jiso, reflex. 

Wi-t it, ) Jiso, n-flcx. 

make wet, i .In ,. 

.1 1 pato, &c., causal 
!'-. dry. Sy. u-u<,, n. 
Make dry, Syeu-pito-p6so-p4yi, causal 

Dry in sun, N Bloso, r 
I BUti, pas. 
. tr. 

gSJ 

Gram pato, & 



I i lirre the nani- 

tn n in mire. Ku v.i \ . Ailing, wbicli I write p^uliug; but 

eu vcl u. French cu in peur, betir, is often nearer. 



346 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Be flavoursome, Brogno, n. 

-MSB- 

Be sweet, Jijim dyummo, n. 



Be sour, Phokko, n. 

Make sour, Phong pato-paso-payi, causal 

Be bitter, Kawo, n. 

Make bitter, Kapato-paso-payi, causal 

Be knotted, Khingso, reflex. 

/Khikto, tr. 
Knot it, } Khingso, reflex. 

make knotted, ) Khikti, pas. 

VKhingpato, &c., c. 
Be great, Gnolo dyummo, n. 
Make great, Gn61o pawo, tr. 
Be small, Yake or Kachim dytimmo, n. 
Make small, Yake or Kachim pawo, tr. 
Be heavy, Hyallo, n. Hyalba dyummo, n. 
Make heavy, Hyalpato, tr. 
Be light ( Hammo, n. 

(levis), I Hamba dyummo, n. 
Make light, Hampato, tr. Hampapato, c. 
Be hard, Tingko dyummo, n. 
Harden, Tingko pawo, tr. 
Be soft, Lobo dyummo, n. 
Soften, Lobo pawo. tr. 
Be straight, Dyammo, n. 
Straighten, Dyam pato-paso-payi, c. 
Be crooked, Gukko, n. 
(Kukko, tr. 

J Kungso, reflex. 
- 



Come on, to front, Gnalla piwo 
Come up, Yakhateu piwo or Kiiwo 
Come down, Yiikhayeu piwo or Yuwo 
Come back = ( L^toko piwo, or 

return, ( Leto 
Come again (repeat- ( Anaiyo or 

ing), ( Ana-piwo 

Come once, Kwa b.lla piwo 
Come twice, Nip pala piwo 
Come thrice, Sap pala piwo 
Come four times, Lep pala piwo 
Come five times, Gno pala piwo 
Come six times, Ru pala piwo 
Come seven times, Cha pala piwo 
Come eight times, Ya pala piwo 
Come nine times, (Jim pala piwo 
Come ten times, Kwaddyuni pala piwo 
Come together ( Kw&do |nue or rant-, 

(place), ( (verbs in plural) 

' Come at once, ( Kwa bala pine, 

(time), l or nine 

Come near, Neutha piwo 
Come close to him, Wake pumdi pi\vn 
Come apart, Hare piwo 
Come far away, Bniba piwo 
Come with, Kwongkho piwo 
Come with me, G6 uung piwo 
Come alone, Giche 



fvv if 
Crook it, 



I Kungyi. pas. 



.Kung pato, &c., c. 

( Khiwo or 

Be rich = have, < Khiba dyummo, 
( Bwala, 

/Thipato, &c., c. 

Enrich = make, J Thiba dyumpato 
have, j paso-payi, c. 

\ Bwdlapato 
(Mathiwo 

Be poor, < Ma thiba dyummo 
(Mabw41a 

j Ma thiba p4wo 
Impoverish, < Ma thi pato 
( Ma bwala pato 



ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS 

COMPARED. 
Come, Pi wo 
Come in (into the ( Khyima gware piwo 

house), ( or wogno 

Come out (of the { Khyimatola piwo or 

house), ( Glugno.* 

Come back, to rear, N6tha piwo 



there, /Meke sambh piwo 

Come quickly, instantly, Bacheu piwo 
Come slowly, Wakha piwo 



Come silently, Liba piwo 



Come early. Bacheu piwo 

Come late^ Wakha piwo 

Come at sun-rise, Namdhamna'f- piwo 

Come at sun-set, Nam wamtanaf piwo 

Co me loitering, { ^S^"" 
Come over (by top), Khwatokof piwo 
Come under by ( Hayu lang glugnokot 
beneath ( piwo. 

Come through (by middle), { 
Come between, A'limbu lang piwo 



* Khyim & gwrfre piwo, hoxise its inside in come ; Wogna, enter ; Khyim & tola piwo, 
house its outside to come ; Gliigno, issue. In the former phrases Khyim may be omitted, 
but its forthcomingness would be implied by the pronominal definitive (a). The lack of 
proper adverbs and prepositions is made up in one of these two ways. 

t These and all similars are imperatival gerunds. See Verbs. When the expression is 
imperative, the gerund sign is affixed to the imperative form of the verb; when it is indica- 
tive, to the indicative term. Come loiteringly is having loitered, come. This is one of the 
many affinities with the Dravidian tongues. 



RAHIXG VOCABULARY. 



347 



Come ) this ) M i YM hamba \ 
| H.uvhambu )' 
Come constantly, Pisogno bwakko 
Come sometimes, Kayikayi piwo 

Come ever, Sadai, \ , r f* 
( piwo 

Come never, Gyanaiyo ma piwo 
Never com* ; aivo ana ma pi wo 

Come to, at, this side, Yekhola piwo 
Come by this side. Yekholang piwo 
Come to, at, that side, Mekhold piwo 
Come by tliat side, Mekholang piwo 
Come on the right, .Jumrola- piwo 
Come by the right, Jmmrolang piwo 
Come on the left, Perola piwo 
Come by the left, Perolang piwo 
Come to the east, Nanidhapdi khalsipiwo 
Come from the ( Xam wamdikhalang 

west, f piwo 

towards the house, Khyiml& piwo 
from towards the ( Kliyiin laug 

house, \ piwo 

Go towards the plains, 

Go as far as Nepal. NY-pal sambh lawo 

Give a little, Akachi giwo 

Give much. Eko giw o 

Give secretly, Khleuso giwo 

Give openly, Kwainso paso giwo 

Give gladly, Gyarscho giwo 

Give sulkily, M4 gyarscho giwo 

Give to-day, A'na giwo 

Give to-morow, Dilla giwo 

He gave yesterday, Sanamti gipta 

Give mutually, Gi mose* 

Hit mutually, Tyeum mose 

Kiss mutually, Leu mose 

Kill mutually, Sfi, mose 

Give continually, Giso gno bwakko 

Hit continually, Tmpsogno bwakko 

Sleep continually, Ipsogno-bwakko 

Strike forcibly, Soktimi teuppo 

Strike - r.ha teuppo 

A house, Khyini 

Of a house, Khyim kem Khyim dim 

To a house, a house, Khyim (no signs) 

In a house, Khyim di 

i house, Khyim ding 

.-.t.) house, Khyim mi 
Into (inside; f vim& gware 

f (outside) house, Khyima tola 
As far as house, Khyim saml>h 
Towards or at the house, Khyim li 



From vicinity of house, Khyim Idng 

4 e nalla 



Betath, } Chouse (close), { 



From under ) Khyim ke hayu lang or 
house, j hayu ding 

***- {alt 

In the above of f Khyim a taure 01 >T 
house, ( 14. 



Far from house, Khyim ding bniha 

At the ho s ,{^i;;; 

On account of house, Khyim daso 

In lieu of house, or ) v , . , , , 

in exchange for house, \ Kh - vim tt l lhl<1 
Through the house, Khyim a limbu laiiir 

Be^d the house, 



PREPOSITIONS. 

At this time, Yekhona.li 

At that time, Myekhonadi 

At this place, Yekedi 

At that place, Myekedi 

In this year, Yem tho'di 

In that year, Myem tho'di 

In a little while, Gyer Kwonpmidi 

During, pending ( Yem thomal.1 theum 

this year, ( Yem - thol>\ 

Pending his coming, Haremma pi thim 
At home, Khyim di 
In, within, the house, Khyim gware 
In the wild. -in. 'ss. Sahala di 
In my hand. AVa mi di 
In, at Poijiling. Dorjiling di 

to the house, Khyun -ware lawo 

ln X" " 

IIlhmi ' M.nd,, Akedi 

He gave to me, Go giwa 



Mot dual of mown, which apart - mposition of several verb* = do. 

i L< expresses \i . towards, nt, the hounc ; whence Irf in, of 

vicinity and 14-ntf, from vicinity. 80 DI expreMM inne*, kli\ im <li. in () 1 ; 

nj: frut,, in If or me final i attributive. See ndjcctiTcs ami 
t.y., piba-me, I whn come, I the comer, and kwigna me, the other one, mid lula-m, red. 

nn nentha = the houiie U near and near t; in better with 

< niffn ; KG nl"o f.f kh) it ii, the honnc it* Hide in, also prevents 

the equivoque and in the true form for near the bou - as a 

Tiotm cannot take the a. Noun* f place, however, take dim rather than a, a* Khyim .",, 

li, literally, houne in of side in. For poanessive and genitive *\gn see p. 391 supra, 

fra in Grammar. 

| More usual and correct perhaps are the inflective form* Ht.indfn? *crnml. But w<ko U 
also equal to my, waited!, iu tue or mine, and wakodlng, from me or from tny. 



348 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



He took it (Coding-* ) 

from me, < Ga ding- vblapta 
tliee, him, (Harem ding- j 
He struck thee, Ga teupta 
Come into the house, Khyim gware piwo 
Go into the house, Khyim gware lawo 
Go into the water, Pwaku di woguo 



The inside of the house, Khyim a gola 
The outside of the house, Khyim a tola 
Come from the outside j Khyim ke a 

of the house, ( tolang piwo 

Come from the inside f Khyim a golang 

of the house, \ glugno 

Come out from ( Khyim ding a tola piwo, 

the house, ( or Khyim ding glugno 
Go with me, Go nung lawo 
Sit by me, Wake pumdi bwakko 
Come near me, "NVake pumdi piwo 
Sit beside me, Wake la bwakko 
Sit on my knee, Wa phyemtodi bwakko 
Sleep in his bosom, Aphyemtodi ipo 
Put on thy shoulder, I' balamdi jeullo 
Throw in or into the f Me di piko 

fire, ( Mi gware piko 

Put on the fire, Mi taure jeullo 
Take off from the fire, Mi taureng blawo 
Put on, upon, the table, Mej taure jeullo 



Mej taureng biiwo 

Get on, or mount, the ( Ghora taure 
horse, ( wogno 

Get off, or dismount f Ghora taureng 
from, the horse, ( glugno 



As far as him 



Take off from the f Ghora taureng glun- 

horse (goods), ( do or blawo 
On the head, Piya taure 

Under the feet, { 

Put your cap on ( It&ki i piya taure 

your head, ( jeullo 
Put grass under f A' kholi gwayeu (ni- 

his feet, ( chasmen) jim jeullo 



Above your house ( Ikhyim ding hateu 
la till 
dikha 



is the canton- < la tilanga bwag- 



ment, 



Below the mouth ( Shed ha yeu la yoli 

is the chin, ( bwa 
To, as far as, Nera. Pumdi 



Harem pumdi 

Harem nera 
As far as Nepal, Nepal pumdi 
Towards Nepal, Nepal pumla. Nepal la 
North of Nepal, Nepal ding hateu la 
Near Nepal, Nepal nentha 
Far from Nepal, Nepal ding braba 
Towards night, Namringna (day setting) 



. 

In the night, Teugnachidi 

In the day, Namtidi 

Cruel towards his ) Tamitawake la deu- 

cliildren, { kha giba 

Be kind towards ( Wake la neuwo 

me and mine, ( Wa ta ke la neuwo 
Sit above me, Wake ding hateu la bwakko 



Sit below him, A'ke ding hayeu la bwakko 

Put on me, Wake taure jyullo 

Put on him, A'ke taure jyullo 

The water comes from ( Pwaku hateu Inn? 

above and goes be-s yu, hayeu la 

low, ( la 

On the top of the hill, Syerte a gware di 
In the midst of the hill, Syerte a limbudi 
At the bottom of the hill, Syerte a pumdi 
From top of hill, Syerte a gware ding 
From middle of hill, Syerte a limbu ding 
From the bottom of the) Syerte a pum 

hill, t ding 

He dwells below ( Wake ding hayeu la 

me, i bwa 

He dwells above ( Wake ding hateu la 

me, ( bwa 

Sit on me, Wake taure bwakko 
Press under me, Wake hayeu lam chimna 
Underneath, under f Khosingba gwayeu 

the chair, ( or a gwayeu 

Above, upon, the ( Gu taure, or Gu a 

hand, ( taure 

Put under, below, ( Mej a gwayeu jy- 

the table, ( ullo 

Take out from under ( Mej a gwa yeung 

the table, \ blawo 

Go through the ( J^* 10 lan f. lsi ;<, or 
-"6" "" c ^ Lapcho a hmbu lang 

door ' I lawo 

Come through ( Khyim gwarim piwo, or 

the house, ( Khyim a gwa lang piwo 
Go through the hole, A'lam lang glugno 
Go through the river f Pwaku di gwakso 

(wading), ( glugno 

Go over the couch, { ^^ khwakso 

Go over the river in ( Dunga di woso 
boat, ( glugno 

Go under the couch, [ Ipdik 
Come with me, Go nung piwo 



* See note () on previous page. 

t Gware = in, gwayeu = under. To the last answers ha-yeo, the one meaning what 
touches, the other, wl.at touches uot, but lies below; BO taure and hayeu, as to what is 



above. 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



349 



(Am- 
Go with him, < or ^ nung la wo 

( Harem, 
Why should I go ( Ga nung inarcho 

with thee ? \ lagna 
Go without me, Go manthi lawo 
Strike with force, Sokti mi teupo 
Strike without force, Sokti manthi teupo 
Sit before me, Wa gnalla di bwakko 
Sit behind me, Wa notha di bwakko 
Before, behind ( Lapcho a gnalla di 
the door, ( Lapcho a notha la 
>, Vis-a ( Wa gnalla la 
me, i Wa gnalla di 

Sit at my side, Wake pumdi bwakko 
Towards his side, A'ke 4 puinla 
In the middle, A'limbu di 
To, at, the side, Apumdi 

( Namrikso gnalla 

Teugnachi dyumtheum 
Before night, ( Namma riktheum 
| Namm4 wamtheum 
L Nam rikcho beladi 
( ^ j ngna 

At nightfall, <" ' \ wamtana 
( Nam wancho beladi 



(Nam riktako 
Since dawn, Didila mekeng 
Before dawn, Didila gnalla 
After dawn, Didila notha 
Since I came, Gopitina mekeng 
Before my arrival, Gojokpicho gnalla 
After my arrival, Gojokpicho notha 
After to-morrow, I>illa mekeng 
Before to-morrow, Dilla ma dyumtheu 



1 n til night or f Teugnachi sambh 
Up to night. ( Nam wamtana sambh 
Towards the house, Khyim la 
Towards me, Wake la 
Towards night, Nam rikcho pawana 



Toward, dawn, 



At dawn, Nam dhamna 

4 the night, Teugnachi dyumna 
he time I arrive, Pignana 
By the time thou arrivest, Piyena 
By the time he arrives, Pina * 
After my nt mo notha 

!, <Ja ]>iso nothi 
Kound about the 
house. 

the house, Khyim apumdi 



> Khyim harela yesela 



Dyel 4 limbu di 
the river, Gulu yem pumdi 

} Oulu m 7 em P" 30 * 11 



He pierced him through ( Earn hotdko 
the body, ( sata 

He went through f Lapcho lang glutako 
the door, t lata 

Go by the door, Lapcho lang lawo 

Go by the road, Lamlang lawo 

Far from tbe house, Khyim ding braba 
( Mi nentha 

Near the fire, < Mi pumdi 
(Mia pumdi 

Near me, Wake pumdi 

A"- thi., that, { 
Before this> that, J- em 



ke iphle 

For the sake of me, Wake daso 
For the love of thee I ( Dwaktana kopa- 
did it, ( tong 



As far as the house, Khyim a pumdi 
Short of, not so far as, ) v . , 

the house, '}Knyim yesela 

Beyond the house, Khyim harcla 
With a house there ( Khyim dyumna 

may be a marriage ( groche dyum 
Without (wanting) a ( Khyim manthi 

house there cannot < groche ma 

be a marriage, ( dyum 

With a house he} ,,, . 1 , 

will marry if he l Kliyim tln kneda 

have, &c.f j grochepawa 

Without a bouse [Khyim manthi kheda 

he will not< (or mauthi) groche 

marry, ( m4 pawa 

With me, Go nung 
Without me, Go manthi 
With thy father, I po nung 
Without my father, A'pa manthi 
I go not, Ma lagna 
A child without f A'pomanthiba 

father, an or-s tawo. Apomanthiino 

phan, ( tawo 

For the purpose of | Khyim pacho 

building a house, ( daso 

j , > Khyim u limbudi 

nouse, 

Even with, on level ( Khyim nung kwaug 
with, the house, ( KDOtnc 



Without against the ( Magyerstnko 

will (malgre), ( M&gyi-i 
Willy, nilly, (iyrrschi* 

"" 

-f her f Wancha dwak 
huil< ( tnko 

After the manner of ( Ndwar dan khwog 
Newars, t not 



t Klmogno 



Rc T. p 377. 

like ; tbe word for manner or form is kbo. For dau, plural sign, 



350 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



In the form of fish, Gn khwogno 
After the manner of the ( Leucha dau 
Tibetans, { khwogno 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

And. No word for it 

Also, likewise, Yo 

Or. No term for it 

Nor. No word 

Nor this, ( Yam ye ma 

Nor that, ( Myam ye ma 

Moreover. Besides, Myam taure 

Than (com p.), Ding 

As, Gyekho 

So, Mekho 

As, so, like, f Ye" khwogno 

this, that, \ Me" khwogno 
How? what like, Gye khwogno 
How? in what way, Gye"-khopaso 
As well as, Ye" khome neuba 
As ill as, Ye khoine-ma neuba 
But, Naka 

Nevertheless. Notwithstanding, Nakii 
Though, yt, still, Naka 
If, KWda. Khedda 
If not, unless, Ma kheda 
Except, Waso 

Wlu-iher or not, Bwala ma bwala 
In the meanwhile, Yekhona. Mekhona 
Thereon, Myem taure 
To wit, that is ( Daso data 

to say, I .Mara dayena 

AV1 j Marcho 

> " y> t Maragna 
Because, since, ( Yem paptako 

as, ( Myem paptako 

N Yes, Aje (true) 
No, Maa (it is not) 



Verbal negative, M:i 
Verbal prohibitive, Ma 
Noun privitive, Ma 

ADVERBS. 
Adverbs of time. 
To-day, A'na 
To-morrow, Dilla 
Yesterday, Sanamti 
Day after to-morrow, Niti 
Day before yesterday, Nikhabol 
This year, Yemthoche 
Last year, Santho 
Year before last, Niware 
Coming year, Mata 
Year after that, Niwa 



Now, Yekhona 

Then, Mekhona 

When? Gy^na 

When, rel., Gyena 

Then, correl., Mekhona 

Instantly, Bacheu 

By and by, Gyer kwonu'ini 

At once, at one time, Kwongkho 

Before, priorly, Gnalla 

After, afterwards, N.'.la 

Since, Gy^na 

Till, until. No word. It is expressed by 
theum added to the root and the 
negative, or by the negative gerund * 

Till now, ) . , 

Hitherto, f A na sambh ( sambh w Kkas) 

Till then, Metti namti 

Till when? how long? Giskonamti 

Formerly, long ago, Nyeshc 

At present, nowadays, A'nampilli 

Wliilst, Mini, added to a verb, or the 
gerund simply f 



Ever. No word 
Never, Genaiyo 
Often, Y4ko pala 
How often, Gisko pala 
Sometimes. No word 
Once or twice, Kwa bale niniuile 
Once, Kwa bale 
Twice, Nippale 
Tin ice, b^ja 
Four times, Seppale 
Five times, Gno pale 
Six times, Rfr pale 
Seven times, Cha pale 
Eight times, Ya pale 
Nine times, Ghti pale 
Ten times, Kwaddyum pale 
Early, Bachem pasomami 
Late, Wakha pasomami 
In the day, Nam bwoktana 



All day, Nam dongmokho 
Daily, Namtike namti 
At sunrise, Namdhamna 

At cock-crow, {^| r ttpa,ano 
At dawn, Hauhaudyumchopawaua 
. , . ( Nam wain tana 

At sunset, j Nam wamcho pawana 

At dusk. No word 
At.ightf.il, 

From night till | Teugnachi mekeng 

morn, \ didila sambh 

At noon, Namhelschodi 



* e.g., stay till I come, g6mi pign.ina, or g<5 m& jn tbeum, bwrfkkd. 

t e.g., whilst he lives I will not go, Harem bleumiui go ma la^na. W. list he was walking 
he fell clown, Harem gwaktana dokta. 



BAHIXG VOCABULARY. 



351 



At midnight, Teugnachi helschodi 
To-morrow morning, Dilla didiladi 
Yesterday at night, Sanamtiteii gnachidi 
In two or three days, Nikkha sakkha 
In tliree or four days, Sakkha sekkha 
In four or five days, Sekkha gnokkha 
How long? Gisko namti 
As long, rel., Gikso namti 

. '>U-tti namti 
A-aiii, rrpratr.ily, Anaiyo 
... returning, Letako 



Adverbs of Place. 

Here, Yoke 

There, Myeke 

Where? Gyeke 

Where, rel., Gyeke 

There, correl., Meke. Mekegno 

Here and there, Harela yesela 



Hence, Yekeng 
Thence, Myekeng 
<.? Gyelang 
Wiu-nce, reL, Gyelang 
Thence, correl., Myekeng 
By what way? Agyem lamlang 

:s way, Yem lamlang 
By that way, Myein lamlang 
II. .w nrar? Gisko nentha 
How far? Gisko braba 



^ela (where) 

This far, Yeke (here) 
That f:.r. Myeke (there) 
tha 

o nentha 

I low ! t.raba 

From n 

Fn.m n -ar, Ni-ntlia lang 
In the kha di 

In ti. 

That 

Nearer ^ tllR 

' ( Yemdingnnaiyo nentha 

Nearest, Yery ) Hauppeding neutha 

...' nentha 
Rather near. 

upward* (an acclivity ) Hateula 
whence . ) Yakayeula 



From down, from below ) TT i 
of slope, JHayeulang 

Up (perpendicular), Taure 

( Gware 
Down (ditto), < Gwayeu * 

(Apumyeu 
From above (perpendicular), Taureng 

( Apumyeung 
From below (ditto), < Gwareng 

\ Gwdyeung 

Upwards (ditto), Taurela 
Downwards (ditto), Gwayeula. Ymla 
Upwards (on slope), Hateula 
Downwards (on slope), Hayeula 
On the top, Ajujudif 
In, at, the bottom, Apumdi 

From the top, 



From the bottom, Apumding 
Out (issuing), Gluko. Glutako 
In (entering), Woko. Wotako 
Out, outside, A'tola (with noun) 
In, within, Gware. A'gware 
Towards this side, Yesehamba la 
Towards that side, Hare hamba la 
On this side, Yese hainha di 
On that side, Hare hamba di 



on both .ide., 

Round, Khirsoko 
Before, Gnalla 
After, Notha 

Opposite, vis-a-vis, Gnalla 
Abreast, Kwongkho 
Straight onwards. No word 
Onwards, forwards, Gnalla la 
Backwards, Nothala, 



Adverbs of Manner, Cause, Quality, 
Quantity, 



How- in what way, 



Thu., in that way, {"$*, 

gna 
Why? for what reason, < Maragna 

For this reason, Y6 gna ? 
at reason, My6 ^: 

itome 

imllK- " 

H.w nindi? linu .sko 

y, as iinicii. <.i-ko. ? Caret 
So many, * 

How often? Gisko pila 
M..W K riMt? OidcO |D010 

How small? Gisko yake 



Tadrc and ffware (see p. 348) re chiefly prepositions, and ywa-re me*n rather in below. 

.ite answers. Tho verbs exi>tx>ss 

t A' juju di, its summit in. Juju U tree-top or houso-top. gnari. 



352 



BAHING VOCABULARY. 



Neuba pawoko 

Neuba paso 
Well, rightly, Neuba pasomami 

Neuba pawako 

Neuba paptako * 

111, badly, wrongly, Maneuba paso, &c. 
j Josko and Joksomami, &c. 



-r, i vi ( Majoksomami 
Foolishly, Mateusomami 



Hungrily, Solimi 
Thirstily, Pwaku dwaktimi 

A ! J Soksomi pawoko 
Angrily, { gokso ^J" &c 



Gladly, ( Gyersimi. Gyersipaso 

joyfully, I Gyersoko 
Strongly, Soktimi. Spktipawoko, &c. 
Weakly, Sokti manthimi 
Gently, Wakha paso or pawoko, &c. 
N ' ilv J Syandami yandapasoorpasoko 

y ' ( or pawoko 
Silently, Liba dyumso 
With blows, Teupsoinami. Teuptako 
Evenly, on level with, Deuso 
Evenly, straightly, smoothly, Deuso 

Much, a great deal, 

A little, D^kho 
Neither more nor less, Madekho ma the 
Less, Dekho 
More, The 

Again (afresh), Gapti. Anaiyo 
Back (the same), Leti. Letako 
Thoroughly, j Tlieumsomami 
completely, 1 Yako. Hauppe 

( Dekho bwaso 

Partially, < Dekho jyulsomami 
( D^kho jyultako 
/ Helpasoko 
J Helpasomami 



v Helpawako 



( Hampaso 
Lightly, < Hainpasomami 

( Hampattako. Hampawoko 

( Khipso 
Tightly, < Khipsomami 

( Khiptako 
Thyelvim paso * 

o la/ ,v.i w / Thyelvim pasomami 
Slackly, 



Gnitak 



Thelvim pawako 
Greatly, Dhekong 
Slightly, trivially, Dekho 

ID cowardly way, { g^ 

( Gnima manthimi 
Bravely, < Magniko 

( Magnitako 
Mn.lp.tw J Gnunemi. 

8tly ' 1 Gnune pawoko 
Impudently, Gnune mantlii 
Secretly, Khleuscho ma mi 

Openly ! K wa | ns P H8cno 

*' l Kwainsopaschomami 
Jestingly, Rischomami 
Seriously, Ajedaso in ami 
Slowly, Wakha 

(" Gruksomami 
Hastily, < Grukso 

(Gruktako 

Mortally, Byaktam sambh 
Skin-deep, A'koktesambh 
Together, Kwongkho 
Separately, Wang wang 



Singly or one by one, 

Solitarily, I'gicha 

With a companion, Warcha uung 

Afoot, Gwakoko. Gwakso 

On horseback, Wognoko 

m I f Aje dasomami 

y ' ( Aje dyumsomami 
Falsely, Limochelso 



* All these are gerundial, like the great majority of the adverbs ; but if imperatiou is 
involve'!, the gerund sign is added to the imperative, not to the indicative. 

t Or with main verb in indicative, ma jogako for present and ma joktako for preterit 
sense (see note at "Wisely"). This w merely the negative form of the same word, obtained 
by prefixing the particle of negation, or rna. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



353 



B. BAHING GRAMMAR. 
DECLENSION OF BERING PRONOUNS AND OF NOUNS. 

i. OP PRONOUNS. 
First Personal Pronoun. 

1. Nom. I, Go 

r f\t f Conjunct, f Disjunct. 

2. Gen. Of me j Wft J = my j Wake J = mine 

4- Loc. { l n me } Wake gware (interior) 

5. Loc. | {^me 116 } Wake di ( enterin S> resting in) 

6. Abl. From me, Wake ding (removal) 

7. All. Towards me. Wake la (nearing) 

8. From towards me, Wake lang (departing) 

9. Towards me, Wake taure (behaving) 



11. Priv. Without me 

12. Inst. By me, Go mi 



} (privation) 



13. Loc. At, by me, Wa pumdi * (proximity. H. pas) 


Dual. 


3. Gd-i, incl. Gdku, excl. 


i. Odsi, incl. Gdsuku, excl. 


4. f kegwdre, incl. Wakegwdre, excl. 


! Conjunct. ( Disjunct. 


5. f ke di, incl. Wake di, excl. 


I'.-i, incl. < fsike, incl. 


6. f ke ding, incl. Wake ding, excl. 


\V;M. excl. ( Wdsike, excl. 


7. f ke Id, incl. Wake Id, excl. 


3. Gdsi, incl. Gdsuku, excl. 


8. f ke lang, incl. Wdke lang, excl. 


4. faikegwdre, incl. Wdsikegwdre, 


9. f ke taure, incl. Wake taure, excl. 


excl. 


10. Gd'i nung, incl. Goku nung, excl. 


5. fsike di, incl. Wdsike di, excl. 


II. Gdi manthi, incl. Goku manthi, 


6. fsike ding, incl. Wdsike ding, 


excl. 


excl. 


12. Goi mi, incl. Goku mi, excl. 


7. fsike la, incl. Wasike la, excl. 


( Ike- ) . ( incl. 


8. faike lang, incl. Wdsike lang, 


! 3' j Wake- i P umdi j e xcl. 


excl. 


Second Pronoun. 


9. Gosi taure, incl. Gosuku taure, 


I. Ga 


excl. 
IO. Goai nung, incl. Gosuku nung, 


| Conjunct. ( Disjunct. 


excl. 


3. Gd. No sign 


II. GOBI manthi, incl. Gosuku man- 


4. f ke gwdre 


thi, excl. 


5. fkedi 


12. GOBI mi, incl. Goftuku mi, excl. 


6. Ike ding 


{ Ini- ) . ( iiu'l. 


7. Ike la 


**' j Waai- j I>U j elcl. 


Ike lang 


Plural. 


9. f ke taure 


I. Gd-i, incl. ( 


10. Ga nung 


! Conjunct. ( Diji 


i i. <; . in.uithi 


Ike, incl. ] Ikk<>, incl. 


i mi 


Wake, excl. ( Wakke, excl. 


13. T puin.li 



Bee remark in raquel. Tau, gwa, and rUm, M substantiYei or qitaal cueh 



H niii/nwtiiMTvii vi |ii%ni vuvaJ| tJivi iwi j 

lang =. taraf and Urafmj of Urd 
caae mgni. La, meaning pr<>> 
meaning inneex, contact, EM nimilnrly 



take the genitiral pronoun ; and perhape aUo la and 
not ao mi. di, and nnng, which teem to to sheer 
approach, hae poeeeerive lam and ablative i . 
dim and ding ; ke, meaning relation, belongingm* 
Suffix m or me is iU probable equiTalent. Compound prepositions are formed by la ami di, 
like those of Urdu and Hindi-*.?., Khyim dim - ghar men ka * 
VOL. L 



354 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



Dual. 
i. Gasi 

( Conjunct. ( Disjunct 
2 ' j lai j Isike 

3. Gasi. No sign 

4. Tsi gware or fsike gware 

5. Tsike di 

6. fsike ding 

7. fsike la 

8. Tsike lang 

9. I'si taure or Tsike taure 

10. Gasi nung 

11. Gasi manthi 

12. Gasi mi 

13. Tsi pumdi 

Plural. 
I. Gani 

( Conjunct. ( Disjunct 
*' (Tni jlmke 

3. Gani. No sign 

4. Tni gwdre 

5. Tnike di 

6. I'nike ding 

7. fnike la 

8. I'nike lang 

9. Tni taure 

10. Gani nung 

11. Gani manthi 

12. Gani mi 

13. Tni pumdi 

Third Personal. 

1. Harem (all genders) 

( Conjunct. ( Disjunct 

2. ]A JA'ke 

( Haremke, common 
Harem. No sign 
( A'gwaVe or A'kegwdre 
| Haremke gwdre 
Akedi. Haremdi 
j Akeding 
( Haremke ding 
, JA'kela 
7 ' \ Haremke la 
o ( A'ke lang 
' ( Haremke lang 

( A'ke taure 
*' \ Haremke taure 

10. Harem nung 

11. Harem manthi 

12. Harem mi 

13. A'pumdi. Haremke pumdi 

Dual. 

1. Harem dausi 

( Conjunct. ( Disjunct 

2. < A'si. ) A'sike 

( Harem dausike, common 



Harem dausi. No sign 

f A'si gwdre or A'sike gware 

( Harem dausike gware 

A'sike di. Harem dausike di 

A'sike ding. Harem dausike ding 

A'sike la. Harem dausike la 

A'sike lang. Harem dausike lang 

A'si taure. Harem dausike taure 

Harem dausi nung 

Harem dausi manthi 

Harem dausi mi 

f A'si pumdi 

( Harem dausike pumdi 

Plural. 
Harem dau 

(Conjunct. (Disjunct 
< Ani t Anike 

{ Harem dauke, common 
Harem dau. No sign 
( Ani gware. Anike gware 
( Harem dauke gware 
Anike di. Harem dauke di 
A'nike ding. Harem dauke ding 
Anike la. Harem dauke la 
Anike lang. Harem dauke lang 
A'nike taure. Harem dauke taure 
Harem dau nung 
Harem dau manthi 
Harem dau mi 

(Ani pumdi 

( Harem dauke pumdi 

Near demonstrative. This. 
Yam * (all genders) 
( Conjunct. ( Disjunct 
( Yamke. ( Yamke meke 
Yam. No sign 
Yamke gware or Yam gware 
Yamdi 
Yam ding 

Yamke la. Yam la 
Yamke lang. Yam lang 
Yamke taure. Yam taure 
Yam nung 
Yam manthi 
Yam mi 
Yamke pumdi 

Dual. 

Yam dausi + 
( Yam dausike 
( Conj. and disj. 
Yam dausi. No sign 
Yam dausike gware 
Yam dausi di 
Yam dausi ding 
Yam dausike la 
Yam dausike lang 
Yam dausike taure 
Yam dausi nun^ 
Yam dausi mauthi 
Yam dausi mi 
Yam dausike pumdi 



* Yam or yetn, and so Myam or myem. All vowel sounds are extremely vague 
the relative, is evidently a derivative of yem. . 

t For dausi and dau read daiisi and daa ; i e., da with the pausing tone. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



355 



Plural. 
Yam dau * 

in dauke 
| Conj. and disj. 
Yam dau. No sign 

iYam dau gware 
Yam dauke gware 
Yam dau di 
Yam dau ding 
Yam dau (ke) la 
Yam dau (ke) lang 
Yam dauke taure 
Yam dau nung 
Yum dau mam hi 
Yam dau mi 
Yam dauke pumdi 

Remote Demonstrative. 
Myam f (all genders) 
\ Myamke, conj. 

mk meke, disj. 
Myam. No sign 
Myamke gwitre 
Myam di 
Myam ding 
Myamke la 
Myamke lang 
Myamke taure 
Myam nung 
Myam manthi 
Myam mi 
13. Myamke pumdi 

Dual. 

I. Myam dausi 
I Myam dausike 
{ Conj. and disj., &c., like singular 

Plural 

1. Myam dau 

( Myam dauke 
' | Conj. and disj., &c., ut supra 

Interrogative and Dittrilu 
Who? What person? Any one : m. 
and f. Substantival and adjectival.^ 

<ke 

2. <Conj. or disj., or 
( Sukemeke, disj. 

3. Su. No sign 

idi 

6. Su ding 

7. Sula. Sukela 

8. Su lang. Suke lang 



i. 

2. 

3- 
4- 

5- 
o. 

8.' 

9- 
10. 

ii. 
u. 
'3- 



3- 

4- 

6! 

8.' 

9- 
10. 
ii. 

12. 



9. Su taure. Suke taure 

10. Su nung 

11. Su mauthi 

12. Su mi 

Su ?i pumdi 
Suke pumdi 

Dual 

1. Su dausi 

2. Su dausike, &c. 

Plural. 

1. Su dau 

2. Su dauke, &c. 

Interrogative and Distrllutirc X> n/ t r. 

What? What thing? Any thing : 
Substantival aud adjectival. 

1. Mitra 

2. Mdrake, &c. 

Dual. 

1. Milra dausi 

2. Miira dausike, &c. 

* Plural. 

1. M;(radau 

2. Mara dauke, &c. 

Relative of all genders. 
He, she, who ; that, which : substan- 
tival and adjectival. Ii 

1. Gyem 

2. Gyemke 

Dual. 

1. Gyem dausi 

2. Uyem dausike, &c. 

Plural. 

1. Gyem dau 

2. Gyem dauke 

Reflective. -S (/". 
I. Dau bo or Dwdbo 
.:. lw s (boke 

3. Dwdbo. No sign 

,ibo gware 
(bodi 

iing 
too la 
lang 

10. Dwdbo nung 
12. I'\v;ii... mi 

ptamdl 

Dual ami plunil us lu-fore. 
So also are doclin-<l h\v..|.po nr 1 
all and every ; gisko - bow man 



S- Mil ': 1 r < HIM } ..-. 



356 



SAHING GRAMMAR. 



as many ; metti = so many ; dhe kono = 
many and much ; dekho = a few, a little; 
gisko = whoever and whatever ; kwang- 
name = other, another; myem = the same 
(see that) ; nimpho = both ; and, in a word, 
nil primitive or personal pronouns. Pos- 
sessive pronouns are formed from the 
genitives, except in the case of the three 
leading pronouns. I, thou, he or she or 
it, each of these has two distinct forms 
quite separate from the personals ; thus 
go has wa = mei and incus, in English, of 
me and my ; and wake = English mine. 
So also ga, the 2d pronoun, has i and 
ike ; and harem, the 3d, has a and ake. 
The first of these two possessive or geni- 
tival forms are pronominal adjectives, or 
rather adjuncts of nouns and verbs (and 
adverbs also) by prefix and suffix respec- 
tively. The second are pronouns proper, 
like mine, thine, in Knglish.* The former 
are indeclinable ; the latter are declin- 
able, like nil other proper possessives, 
though with some confusion, originating 
in the imperfect development of the in- 
flective element, its frequent coincidence 
with the genitive sign, and the variable- 
ness of that sign. 

However, the case signs generally and 
their mode of annexation being uniform, 
out of this essentially one declension order 
is obtained, despite the disturbing causes 
adverted to. I give here, as a sample of 
the possessives : 

Dauboke = own 
I. Dauboke 
J Caret ? 
" j Dwabokekef 

3. Dauboke 

4. Dauboke gware 

5. Dauboke di 

6. Dauboke ding 

7. Dauboke la 

8. Dauboke lang 

9. Dauboke taure 

10. Dauboke nung 

11. Dauboke manthi 

12. Dauboke mi 

13. Dauboke pumdi or Daubo a" pumdi 

Daubo = Ap ; dauboke = apna. Ap- 
imk't can only be separately expressed by 



the cacophonous iteration of the guttural. 
Nor is this defect remedied by the use of 
the conjunct pronouns, wa, i, a ; for 
wadwabo, myself, gives wadwaboke, of 
myself and my own ; and idwabo, thy- 
self, gives idwaboke, of thyself or thy 
own. See more on the genitive in the 
sequel. 

2. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 
Substantives proper. 

Wai?isa, a man, in. 
I. Wainsa 
2 I Wait i sake, disjunct, or 

| Wainsa a", conjunct 
3. Wainsa. No sign 

j Wainsa gware, or 
*' | Wainsa d gware 

5. Wainsa di 

6. Wainsa ding 

7. Wainsa la 

8. Wainsa lang 

9. Wainsa d taure 

10. Wainsa nung 

11. Wainsa manthi 

12. Wainsa mi 

13. Wainsa u pumdi 

Dual. 
I. Wainsa dausi 

j Wainsa dausike, disjunct 

( Wainsa asi, conjunct 
3. Wainsa dausi 

( Wainsa dausike gwaYe 
" I Wainsa dausi dai gware 

5. Wainsa dausi di 

6. Wainsa dausi ding 

7. Wainsa dausi la 

8. Wainsa dausi lang 

( Wainsa dausike taure 
"' / Wainsa dausi dsi taure 

10. Wainsa dausi nung 

11. Waiusa dausi manthi 

12. Wainsa dausi mi 

13. Waiuaa dausi dsi pumdi 

Plural. 
1. Wainsa dau 

( Wainsa dauke, disjunct 
' ( Wainsa dau dni, conjunct 



* The formation of these from the my, thy series, by the addition of " ki" or "kr," is 
quite Turkic. Wa = my, wa-ke = mine. So Turki benim = my, benim-ki = mine. Only 
Bahmg use? the conjunct form merely (quasi im, imki) of the pronoun, which in that tongue, 
moreover, is a pr.-fix, in Turki an affix, of nouns. The existence of disjunct and conjunct 
forms of the pronouns, and the use of the latter as verbal formative* as well as to give the 
possessive sense to nouns, are traits of language very widely diffused, since they arc found 
in the Egyptian and Semitic tongues. And it is queer that the vulgar or spoken K^vptian 
(Coptic) prefixes these verbal formatives, whereas the learned, or hieroglyphic, suffixes them. 

+ Compare uskaka in Hindi and Urdu. 

J \' risi, and ani are the conjunct forms attaching to nominative which follows penitive, 
thus wainsa dau lini ming, or waiusa dauke a"ni ming = the wife of several men ; lit< 
men (of) their wife or woman. The use of the same form in the next case ].n'\e^ v\sa to he 
a substantive used as a preposition, like Ihitar in Hindi, aui y ware = their interior. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



357 



5. 
6. 



3. Wainsa dan. No sign 
( Wainsa dauke gware 
/ Wainsa dau a*ui gware 

5. Wainsa dau di 

6. Wai nsa dau ding 

7. Wainsa dau la 

S. Wai nsa dau lang 

( Wainsa dau ke taure, or 
"' | Wainsa dau a"ni taure 
10. Wainsa dau uung 
1 1. Wainsa dau manthi 
12. Wainsa dau mi 
1 5. Wainsa dau a"ni pumdi 

So also is declined mincha, a woman, 
and ming, a wife, and all feminine nouns. 

DECLENSION OP A NEUTER. 
Substantive. 

Grokso, a thing. 
i. Grokso 

| Groksoke, disjunct 
| Grokso-d, conjunct 

3. Grokao 

4. Grokso a* gware 
Grokso di 

. Grokao ding 

7. Grokso la 

8. Grokso lang 

9. Grokso a" taure 
10. Grokso nung 

1 1. Grokso mautui 

12. Grokso mi 

13. Grokso a* purndi 

Dual. 

I. Grokso dausi 

( Grokso dausike, disjunct 
| Grokso dausi asi, conjunct 

3. Grokso dausi, &c. 

Plural. 
I. Grokao dau 

J rokso dauke, or 
' \ Grokao dau sini, &c. 

suits from the above that there is 
but one declension ; that gender ha* no 
grammatical expression; tli 
like case, ii expressed by separate post- 
, umber going first; that all 
nouns uns take the signs of 

number, neuters as well as other- 
ttome of the signs of case are still signi- 
ficant (gware, the interior; tarn 
!: ]'i,M i. the side); that kr is tin- 
general gem . but rarely used 

are when the noun stands alone, as in 
reply to a question, thus, whoM? the 



man's, is suke, wainsake ; that when two 
substantives come together the former 
is the genitive, and has properly no sign 
(no qualitive ever has), though the "ke" 
be sometimes superadded to the special 
denotator, which is a, the third pronoun 
(his, her, its), or dim, whose sense is in, 
of. Dim expresses a relation of locality 
or inness (what is contained) ; a, almost 
all other sorts of relation. Dim is used 
conjunctively and disjunctively, as, of 
where the tooth ? gyelame khleu : of 
the mouth, sheodim. Both precede the 
second substantive or nominative thus 
wainsa a ning = the man's name ; grokso 
a syanda = the thing's sound ; ru dim 
khan = vegetables of the garden ; bazar 
dim she'd = bazaar rice, or rice of the 
l>azaar ; pu dim pwaku, water of the 
cup; so that this latter may be called the 
general way of expressing the relation of 
two substantives which are both named 
the former the general way of express- 
ing relation when the qualitive noun 
only is named, for genitives are all quali- 
tives, e.g., singke = wooden, ramke = 
bodily. Lastly, that pronouns and nouns 
are declined throughout and in all re- 
spects in the same way, there being no 
difference whatever between them. As 
to the genitive relation, it should be 
further noted that the first of two sub- 
stantives is by position alone a genitive ; 
that very close connection and depend- 
ence is expressed by a, e.g., the calf of 
the cow, bing a tami ; that "ke " can be 
used with a, as wainsake a ning, the 
man's his name ; that where ke is for- 
mative as singke = wooden, from sing, 
wood its conjunctive use is indispens- 
able, like that of the ba and na, the 
participial formatives; thus, syelke be"tho, 
the iron blade ;* neuba muryu, the or a 
Z"<><1 man (properly, tin- man who is 
good), from syel = iron (subs.), and nm, 
to be good. Observe, further, that the 
topical sign di both asks and answers, as 
in -liin khan, garden vegetables; u 
where? the garden's, gyelam (or gy61anie), 
rudiin. 

In this latti-r instance wo may observe 
that, gyela being where, the final ra or 
me of gyolam, gyelame, has, in respect 
of adverbs, a genitival force, and to in 

f in in. possessive, ng, fromness, 
formative* ; ke also takes the formative 
m (see note at p. 353) and la nlso ; ami in 
vet we constantly find a * 

iti..M (I'liKum wliii<-, lalam-red, 
kwagname other, Ac.), so that the m 
final is shown to be generally pos< 
and more especially as its itci 



ObMtre that the Iron of the blade Is Wtho A nyel or btho ke syel. But thr : 
hft of the blade in necewiarily Wtho t Juju and betho a rising. Hoe note I at p. 347, with the 

pl.u-cs therein rcitrrc.l t". 



358 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



mme = the white one, lala-mme = the 
red one, kwagnamme = the other one) 
expresses the disjunct form of the same 
relation. Thus, which one will you have? 
the red one or the greeu ? agyeme blavi, 
lalamme ki gigimme, a sample wherein 
the possessive a is welded to the relative 
pronoun gyem. By turning to the par- 1 
ticiples it will be seen that all those I 
which have not a sign of their own (ba or 
na) are made participles by the annexa- ! 
tion of the in or me particle juju-m, 
ohho-me.* This is, in fact, the general 
attributive affix, and its suffix ture trans- 
forms all qualitives (including adverbs) 



into substantives or words used substan- 
tially, like the hma gu affix of Newari, 
and like also the Dravirian van, val, 
which seem to me to be the unquestion- 
able prototypes of the Prakritic wan, 
wal, war (gaon-war, sheto-wala, gari wan, 
marne wala, &c.) I subjoin a few com- 
parative samples, drawn from Bahing and 
Kewari, which will also show that nearly 
any word in these tongues can be used 
substantially, and that all qualitives, in 
particular, can by the appropriate affix 
be made substantival, e. y., singke, 
wooden ; singkeme or singkem, the 
wooden one. 



* At all events, the participles in chome would seem to be formed from the infinitives in 
oho, the general infinitival sisrn ; e*g. t jacho, to eat ; jachome, edible ; pacho, to do ; pachome, 
double; duke bo, to desire; dakchome, desirable. But see the various examples of words in 
m or me in the vocabulary. Infinitives are regarded as nouns substantive (e.g., dakcho, 
desire), and such nouns take m, me, to make them qualitive, e.g., juju, a point; juju-m 
pointed ; cliho, the body ; chhome, bodily. Thus m, me, is formative and possessive, ami it 
can be added to case signs wherever poesessiveness is implied, hut it is no sign itsdt any 
more than ke, f.g., juju-m =8iugkeni, why not siugem or aingtne ? agyeme? a-gvl-uie, gye, 
what? lalarn? lala-m? lala, what? 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



359 




O -> 



a . * - s 

OlJft" 



cT ~ ~ . 

cf a | & g-.S 

B 3 " as ^3 to 



O . . 

n a 






r = - a J . ca" 

^3bocs**:,sg --^oOrt'^ciSoS^S? 

jii&tti ^iiiiiin 

o^^ = ~ ^ 






^ 



gbObObCtOfO i v 

^ 33&& 

o -^----^-.-^-i >2 p o 











f 
I 




- ci ro 



360 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 






ef cf s . . 

^ -g ^ Vl S ^ 
" 



" 



Sc 



i-iciNWW N 




. 
a s - a 



a 



^^Srt^^sss^ >> 5 a 2&jo 

.-.S.S.5cDfefeflcajaj ^=-5'2a>2 =3= 

ca 



afla 

s s| g . a a a g a g s 

1313 

--.^ t 

QQ 



g 






.1 
1 



- 

^ H 

!>. 00 




The son-in-law's 
The daughter-in-law 



BAH ING GRAMMAR. 361 

Remark. The above list affords, it -will be seen, collateral information as to the 
formation of gender in qualitives used substantially. It also shows that the forma- 
tive suffix cha is apt to be equivalent for the suffix me, in ; and as cha still leaves a 
substantival word (e.g., khyim-cha = householder; li-cha = bowman), the genitival 
sign ke is often introduced before final me, to express possessiveness, as, whose bow is 
that ? the bowman's, suke li, lichakeme. But licha being bowman, lichame may be 
used for bowman's. Newari avoids all vagueness by its hma and gu signs, repeated 
toties quoties with the genitive sign ya, e.g., Ji-hma, mine, m. and f. ; Ji-gu, mine, 
n. ; Ji hma ya hma, Ji hma ya gu, Ji hma ya hma ya, Ji hma ya gu ya, Ji gu ya 
hma ya, Ji gu ya gu ya, &c., express any number of variations in the possession of 
beings and things ; and so also in all qualitives used substantively, thus : toyu bm a 
ya hma, the white man's animal ; toyu hma ya gu, the white man's thing ; toyu hma 
i ya, of the white man's thing, &c. Compare Bailing khyim-cha-me with 
Kewari chhen-ya-hma, and it will be seen that cha = ya has a quasi-adjectival force, 
though khyiiucha means householder. Such vagueness is normal. 



CLASSIFICATION OF BAKING VERBS.* 

I. Transitives in " wo." Infinitive Bla-cho, to take. Imperative Bla- 
wo, take it. 

Indicative active, sing, number. Indicative passive, sin;/, number. Causal !m- 
Present. Preterite. Present. Preterite. pcnitivc. 

1. Bla-gna I. Blaptong I. Blayi (i) I. Blati Bla-pdto, tr. 

2. Blayi (i) 2. Blapteu 2. Blaye (e) 2. Blate Bla-paso, r. 

3. Blawa 3. Blapta 3. Blawa 3. Blata Bla-payi,p.t 

Thus are conjugated me"wo, to vomit ; cheuwo, to grill ; glwo, to give ; se'wo, to 
saw ; chwewo, to burn corpse ; bra wo, to scatter ; tawo, to get or find ; jawo and 
bawo, to eat ; khi-wo, to quarrel with ; ku-wo, to steal ; kiwo, to cook ; pa-wo, to 
do ; leu-wo, to kiss (coitus) ; si-wo, to seize ; te'-wo, to spit on ; mo-wo, to fight ; 
w6dipa-wo, to assay; and all compounds of like kind, i.e., of a noun and the verb 
to do or make. 

Intransitives in " wo." Infinitive Picho, to come. Imperative Pi- wo, 
come. 

1. I'i-gni Pi-ti ... ... Pi-pato, tr. 

\6 (e) Pi-td ... ... Pl-paso, ref. 

3. Pi Pi-ta* ... ... Pi-payi, pas. ' 

;s are conjugated ra-wo, to come ; glewo, to be hot ; h6-wo, to be lighted ; ka- 
wo, to be bitter ; la-wo and di-wo, to go ; ku-wo, to come up (slope) ; yu-wo, to come 
down (slope) ; khi-wo, to tremble; neu-wo, to be good ; deu-wo, to be ric.mciliMl ; 
shtio-wo, to decrease or decay ; aye" neuwo, to be fat ; bhlu-wo, to slip or slide down ; 
shu-wo, to itch ; ji-wo, to be ripe, &c. 

II. Transitives in "gno." Infinitive K \v6-cho, to see. Imperative 
Kw6gno, be 

..;-gii<i Kw<$-t<5ng i. Kw<S-yi (i) Kwu-ti I . tr. 

2. Kw6-gui Kwo-t-eu 2. Kw(5-gno (c) two^U K\\. pa-M-. : 

llli'. 
; v Kw<5 Kw<5-ti 3. Kwd 

Thus are conjugated 6-gno, to tell ; 16-gno, to sell ; tu-gno, to drink (water) ; 
ch6-gno, to cultivate and to pay debt ; phli-gno, to tend, &c. 

' See ob*enrtion at p. 285. 

f The cam*! forms are the same throughout : pnto, followlnf the mutable trnnnitivoa in 
PMO, all Intraositivee whatever In "so;" and piyl (i*Q, all pucivcs n. i, 



tiy. 
TliU claMi 



ificatinn rmtR on ttio indicative niti(rnl.-\r. The inflnltlvo and imperative and 

* (' t 

> . 85. 



Cftuaal are given chiefly as cluec to the root an<l to the euphonic change* (' the 

claMincation u throughout the same i, 2, 3 refer to the three poraou*. > 



pwak-ko vel pukko, to burst ; ryak-ko, 
ko, to enrage and to revile ; rik-ko, t 
tyak-ko, to hinder ; wok-ko, to flay ; k 



362 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Intransitives in "gno." Infinitive, Glwau-cho, to win. Imperative, 
Glwau-gno, to win. 

Indicative active, sing, number. Indicative passive, sing number. Causal 
Present. Preterite. Present. Preterite. imperative. 

1. Glwau-gna Glwau-ti ... ... Glwau-pa-to, tr. 

2. Glwau-gue Glwau-te ... ... Glwau-pa-so, refl. ' 

3. Glwau Glwau-td ... ... Ghvau-pa-yi, pas. 

Thus are conjugated ru-gno, to be filled (belly) or satisfied ; le-gno, to return ; 
wo-gno, to enter ; glu-gno, to issue ; ming-gno, to be ripe ; bro-gno, to be flavoursome. 

III. Transitives in " ko." Infinitive, Pok-cho, to make get up, or raise 
(not lift). Imperative, Pokko, raise him. 

1. Pog-ti P6k-ix5ng i. P<5ng-yi ? (i) Pdk-ti Pong-pa" to } 

2. Pog-i P6k-teu 2. Pong-ye (6) P<5k-t<$ Poug-p&o ( ut 

Pd-nye" ( supra 

3. Pog-d Puk-ta 3. P6-gd P6k-td Pong-pdyi ) 

Thus nre conjugated tuk-ko, to lick ; chuk-ko, to bind ; rik-ko, to reap ; kik-ko, 
to beget ; hik-ko, to count ; kuk-ko, to crooken ; yok-ko, to share out ; prwak-ko, 
to unknot ; nok-ko, to rub ; tok-ko, to make fall ; hok-ko, to open ; jik-ko, to break ; 

to write or colour ; jak-ko, to know ; kin y:\k- 
to reap ; kok-ko, to dig ; ruk-ko, to eradicate ; 
khlyak-ko, to plaster ; phwak-ko, to separate ; 
chyak-ko, to divide ; pik-ko, to pour or put in ; dwak-ko, to swallow. 

Intransitives in "ko." Infinitive, Bok-cho, to get up. Imperative, 
Bok-ko, get up. 

1. B<5ng-gna B6k-ti ... ... Bong-pa-to 

2. Bong-gue, nye B<5k-te ... ... Bong-pa-so 

3. B6ng B6k-ta ... ... Bong-pa-yi 

Thus are conjugated gruk-ko, to be quick ; jwak-ko, to arrive ; jik-ko, to be 
broken (n. and sx.) ; buk-ko, to be burst ; bwak-ko, to remain and to speak ; guk-ku, 
to be crooked ; phok-ko, to be sour ; gwak-ko, to walk ; duk-ko, to move or shake ; 
prok-ko, to jump or leap ; byak-ko. to die ; gik-ko, to be born ; gnwak-ko, to wee]) ; 
dwak-ko, to desire ; dok-ko, to fall from aloft (being only). 

IV. Transitives in " ro." Infinitive, Phye"r-cho, to sew. Imperative, 
Pher-ro, sew it. 

1. PhyeY-ti Phyer-tdng i. PhyeV-yi (i) Phye"r-ti Phye>-pa"to ) 

2. PhyeV-i PhyeY-t-eu 2. PhyeV-3 Phydr-tx< Phy^r-paso V 

3. Phye'r Phy^r-td 3. Phy^r PhyeY-trf Phy^r-pdyi ) 8 

Thus are conjugated chwarro, to cut ; kurro, to carry ; tyarro, to suffer, endure ; 
khwarro, to shave or scrape or scratch (violently). 

Intransitives in "ro." Infinitive, Byar-cho, to fly. Imperative, Byarro, 

fl y- 

1. Byar-gnd Byar-t-I ... ... Byar-pdto ) 

2. Byar-fS Byar-t-^ ... ... Byar-p&o \ " c 

3. Byar Byar-t-d ... ... Byar-pdyi ) 

Thus are conjugated barro, to increase ; chyarro, to shine, as sun, &c. 

V. Transitives in "lo." Infinitive, Jyul-cho, to place. Imperative, 
Jyullo, place it. 

1. Jyul-ti Jyul-tong I. Jyul-yi (i) Jyul-ti Jyul-pdto 

2. Jyul-i Jyul-teu 2. Jyul-^ Jyul-te' Jyul-pdso 

3. Jyul Jyul-td 3. Jyul Jyul-td Jyul-pdyi 

Thus are conjugated syallo, to snatch away ; theullo, to cherish ; yallo, to rub ; 
limo challo, to tell lies. 



ut 
supra 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 363 

Intransitives in " lo." Infinitive, Bdl-cho, to be tired. Imperative, 
Ballo, be tired. 

Indicative active, siny. number. Indicative passive, sing, number. Causal 
Present. -rite. Present. Preterite. imperative. 

1. Bal-gnd Biil-ti ... ... Bdl-pdto 

2. r,il-e- Bal-te- ... ... Bdl-pfco 

3. Bui Bul-tu ... Bdl-pdyi ) 

Thus are conjugated hyallo, to be heavy, &c. 

VI. Transitives in "po." Infinitive, Teup-cho, to beat. Imperative, 
Teuppo, beat him. 

1. Teub-u Teup-tong i. Teum-yl (i) Teup-ti Teura-pdto ) fc 

2. Teub-i Teup-teu 2. Teum-e' Teup-te* Teurn-pdso 

3. Teub-d Teup-td 3. Teub-d Teup-td Teutn-pdyi ) 8 

Thus are conjugated gup-po, to lift (a light thing) ; bippo, to suck ; syappo, to 
wash and sharpen ; khuppo, to collect ; jyappo, to buy ; thappo, to weigh ; chappo, 
to can it, to be able for any work ; nippo, to express ; appo, to shoot. 

Intransitives in " po." Infinitive, Rap^cho, to stand. Imperative, Rappo, 
stand up. 

I. Ram-gnd Rap-ti ... ... Ram-pdto ) . 

ai-e' Rap-te* ... ... Ram-pdso [ 

Rap-td ... ... Ram-pdyi } 8u P ra 

Thus are conjugated ippo, to sleep ; ryippo, to be ended or to end, n. ; dhappo, to 
shine as sun ; deuppo, to be combust ; jippo, to be rotten, &c. 

VII. Transitives in "mo." Infinitive, Lam-cho, to search. Imperative, 
Lammo, search for it. 

1. Lam-u Lam-ix5ng i. Lam-yi (i) Lam-ti Lain-pdto } . 

2. Lam-i Larn-teu 2. Lain-e* Lam-to" Lam-pdso > 

3. Latn Lain- Id 3. Lain Lam-td Lam-pdyi ) 

Thus are conjugated nam-mo, to smell ; theum-mo, to finish or cause to become ; 
khleummo, to tntn>i>l:int ; )>licmmo, to take in one's arms; sheummo, to cover; 
tiiimmo, to bury ; hammo, to spread. This conjugation agrees with IV. and V. (see 
-III.) 

Intran.-itivrs in "mo." Infinitive, Dyum-cho, to become. Imperative, 

.lino, bcc'.ni.-. 

i. I>yum-gni ;n-ti ... ... ]>ymii-p;lto i . 

um-e' 'i\-t6 ... ... I >\ uin-pilso > 

3. Dyum m-H ... ... Dyum-pdyi ) 8 

Thus are conjugated rimmo, to be handsome ; dyammo, to be full ; hammo, to be 
light (levis) ; khummo, to stoop ; ivammo, to be emaciated or thin. 

VIII. Tian-itiv.-s in * no." Infinitive, Pun-cho, to bi-^. li 
Pun-no, Ley it. 

i. Pun-u Pun-t<5ng i. Pun-yi (i) Pun-ti Pnn-pdto i 

ii-i Pun-tu I'lin-ti- run-|>ao V 

3. Pun Pun-t4 3. Pun Puti-td Pun-i>dyi ) 

Thus are conjugated ninno, to hear ; plenno, to release or set at liberty ; sale- 
panno, to pin, ic. 

N.B. This agrees with the la \ . \ 1 1 . \ III. are one, n,l it 

seems likely that the cotnmon imperative sign n)io\il<l }>< " ( >," however near that IKJ 
to " wo " or the sign of the very different first conjugation. The four specified agree, 
moreover, in not being uhject to any euphonic changes in conjugation. They n 
be unitised as transitives in a liquid or nasal. 



364 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Tntransitives in "no." Infinitive, Wan-clio, to run. Imperative, 
Wan- no, run. 

Indicative active, sing, number. Indicative passive, sing, number. Causal 
Present. Preterite. Present. Preterite. imperative. 

1. Wan-gna" Wan-ti ... ... AVan-pato ) 

2. Waii-6 Wan-te ... ... Wau-paso [ 

3. Waii Wan-ta ... ... Wan-pay i ) 6 

Thus are conjugated Blenno, to live, &c. 

IX. Transitives in "to." Infinitive, brecho, to summon. Imperative, 
Br6-to, summon him. 

1. Brdt-u Bre'ttdng I. Bre't-i Bretti Bre'-pa'to ) 

2. Bre't-i Brdtteti 2. Brdt-d Bre'tte' Bre'-pa'so J- 

3. Brdt-d Br^tta 3. BreVa" Bre'ttd Bre'-payi ) 

So are conjugated rito, to laugh at ; dato, to catch ; nfto, to set down ; khleuto, 
to conceal; neuto, to make good; mu-to, to blow (breath); khuto, to touch; 
gruk-to, to quicken ; bi-to, to obey ; rok-to, to lift ; dwak-to, to approve ; khryapto, 
to kiudle ; rik-to, to contain ; gap-to, to add to ; duk-tu, to shake it or cause to 
shake ; grepto, to throw ; dapto, to taste ; nyapto, to shove ; mirnto, to remember ; 
blato, to dry at fire ; jito, to wet ; chamto, to amuse ; teuto, to know ; yokto, to 
remove ; le-to, to take back ; syanto, to recognise ; hanto, to cheat ; jato, to stop, 
di-tain ; khlamto, to spoil ; Iwakto, to put upon ; bapto, to scratch for ease ; plepto, 
to fold; timto, to squeeze; lipto, to turn over. N.B. Those which have a con- 
sonant before the sign, as rok-to, dap-to, dwak-to, cham-to, ban-to, ami khlam-to, 
&c., do not double the " t " in the preterite of either voice ; and consequently in the 
passive there is no mark of the distinction of time, c.rj., dapti, is I am tasted and I 
was tasted ; * and again, daptu is I taste, daptong, I tasted, but dapta is he tastes 
or he tasted the last, however, is a general trait. 

X. Transitives in "to" which change the "t" into "d." Infinitive, 
Sa-cho, to kill. Imperative, Sa-to, kill him. 

1. Siid-u Siitong I. Sayi Sdti Sd-pato ) 

2. Siid-i Sateu 2. Sitne" Silts' Bd-ptfM>> 

3. Sad-d Sdta 3. Sddd Sdtd Sd-pdyi ) 

Thus are conjugated wa-to, abandon or leave ; ta-to, to kick ; yeto, to split : uto, 
to fell ; la-to, to take away ; pato, to do for another ; kra-to, to bite ; kleo-to, to 
undress ; moto, to tell ; chito, to tear ; pito, to bring ; ku-to, to bring up ; limleto, to 
feel ; yu-to, to bring down ; ja-to, to make steady or firm ; phu-to, to sow ; nato 
and preto, to gather ; pha-to, to exchange ; khri-to, to grind ; ho-to, to pierce ; 
he-to, to distil. 

Intransitives in "to." Infinitive, Gni-cho, to be afraid. Imperative, 
Gni-to, be afraid. 

1. Gni-gna" Gni-ti ... ... Gni-pa"to ) 

2. Gni-nd Gni-t^ ... ... Gui-pa'so } ' , 

3. Gni Gni-td Gni-pdyi ( ( 

So are conjugated ji-to, to be torn ; kha-to, to be in pain ; u-to, to fall (on ground) ; 
sheo-to, to lose ; 16to, to return ; jyukokato, to flee ; heto, to be sharp ; br6-to, to 
vociferate. 

XI. Neuters in " to." Infinitive, Bo-cho, to flower. Imperative, Bo-to, 
flower. 

1. B6t-u Botti ... ... Bo- pato ) 

2. B<5t-i Butte ... ... Bo-pasoV 

3. B6t-a Botta B6-payi ) 

* In such cases the sense is determined by the use of the separate prefixed pronouns in 
the instrumental and objective respectively. Difference of time by an adverb. 

t U'to and sht oto, like jikko elsewhere, are both neuter and transitive. See them under 
the respective heads. Khfwo. to tremble, is neuter; to quarrel is transitive. Bre'-to, to cry 
out, is neuter ; bre'-to, to summon, is active. 



PAHIKG GRAMMAR. 365 

Thus are conjugated khito, to blow ai wind ; sito, to fruit ; wamto, to sink or set 
as sun. But the last gives, owing to the consonant before the sign, wamtu, wamti, 
wamta; wamti, wamte, wamta: infinitive, wam-cho (see kwado and sodo). Si-to 
is often conjugated sidu, sidi, sida ; siti, site, sita. 

XII. Trsmsitivi-s in "do." Infinitive, Gram-cho, to hate. Imperative, 
Grain-do, hate him. 

Indicative active, sing, number. Indicative passive, sinf/. number. Causal 
Present. Preterite. Present. Preterite. imperative. 

1. Granulu Gramtong I. Gramdl Gramti Gram-pdto } t 

2. Gramdi Gramteu 2. GraradtS Gramtd Graru-pdso V 

3. Grain ild Gramta 3. Gramdd Gramta" Grain-piiyi ) ' 
Thus are conjugated chyurdo, to wring ; rimdo, to expect ; chayiwdo, or chyendo, 

to teach ; kwado, to put on the fire ; wando, to put or pour in ; wardo, to throw 
n\vay ; plendo, to forget ; chamdo, to divert, amuse ; glundo, to extract or take out ; 
jyuldo, to place for another ; tundo, to cause to drink ; s6do, to tell for another ; 
gremdo, to roast ; heldo, to mix. But kwado and sodo, having no consonant before 
the sign, double the t, as in IX., thus 

1. S<5-du Sdttong I. S6-di S6tti S6-pato ) 

2. S6-di S6tteu 2. S<5-de S6tte S<5-paso 

3. S<5-da S<5tta 3. S6-da Sdtta Sd-payi ) 8Upra 
N.B. This, like sogno of Conjugation II., makes infinitive s6-cho and causal 

s6-i);ito, &c. ; and in fact the various modifications of the verbs by voice, and in the 
peculiar manner here in question (so-gno, tell ; so-do, tell for another), are sadly 
deficient in correspondent forms of the infinitive and participles. See on. 

Intransitive in "do." Infinitive, Myel-cho, to be sleepy. Imperative, 
Myel-do, be sleepy. 

1. Myeldu Myelti ... ... Myel-pato ) 

2. Myeldi Myelte ... ... Myel-paso } 

3. Myelda Myelta ... ... Myel-payi ) 

N.B. This nearly agrees with XL, only that the root having a final consonant, 
the preterite " t " is not doubled. So are conjugated (I have found no other verbs of 
this conjugation). 

XIII. Intransitives in " so." Infinitive, Nis-cho, to sit. Imperative, 
Niso, sit down. 

. gna NS-s-ti ... ... Nisi-pato ) 

2. Ni-se Ni-s-te ... ... Nisi-' 

3. Ni-se Ni-s-ta ... ... Ni.si-psiyi ) 8upra 

This conjugation interposes its reflex sign, or " s," between the root and the 

ordinary intransitive conjugational forms. Nearly all transitives can be conjugated 
in this form aa a middle voice. But it has aln many primitives, as will be seen by 

stances given. So also are conjugated wao, cacare ; charso, mingere ; 
cn-piturn facere ; naso, to take rest; chy^nso or chayins,,, to 1< am ; khleuso, to lie 
lii-i ; HyinBo or nhnyfnuo, to wake ; saso, to kill DIM-'H hdf ; t-uinso, 1 -self; 

batnso, to scratch one's nelf ; riso, to lau-h ; -l.-so, to lie down; chiso, to 1 
pbi*o, to dress; chamso, to play ; prens 

CONJUGATION OF BAKING VERBS. 

L Paradigm of Verbs Tr.m-itive in "wo." 
Boot, Ja, to eat. Imperative, jd-wo. 

A C T I V 1 : VOICE. 

IMIT.KATIVK M 

nyular of Age*L Vwd of A Plural < 

', eat it Jd-M, ye two eat it Jd-ne, ye all eat it 

41 8* note next pago. 



366 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



2. Dual of Object. 
Jtt-wosi, eat them two 



Dual of Object.* 
Jd-ue"si, ye all eat them tw 



Dual of Object. 
Jd-sesi, ye two eat them 
two 

Plural of Object. Plural of Object. 

Jilsemi, ye two eat them all Jdne'mi, ye all eat them all 

Negative Form. 
By ma" prefixed, md jd wo, &c., and so in all the subsequent moods. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future Tenses. 



3. Plural of Object. 
Jii-womi, eat them all 



Singular of Agent. 



1. Jd-gna, I eat or w 

eat it 

Dual of Object. 

2. Ja-gnasi, 

I eat them two 

Plural of Object. 

3- Ja-gna-mi, 

I eat them all 



i. Ja-(y) i 

2- J;i-(y)-i-si 

3- Jd (y)-i-mi 

1. Ja-wa 

2. Jd-wa-si 

3. Jd-wa-mi 



1. Jd-tong 

2. Jd-t-ong-si 

3. Jd-t-<5ng-mi 



1 



Dual of Agent. 
First Person. 
, incl. 

Ja-suku, excl. 
( We two eat it 

Dual of Object. 
( Ja-ea-si, incl. 
< Ja-sukusi, excl. 
( We two eat them two 

Plural of Object. 
-mi, incl. 
J.i-suku-mi, excl. 
We two eat them all 

Second Person. 
Jd-si 
Jd-si-si 
Jd-si-mi 

Third Person. 
Jd-se 
Jd-se-si 
Jd-se-mi 

Preterite Tenfe. 
First Person. 
Jd-td-sd, incl. 
Jd-td-siiku, excl.J 
\ Jd-td-sd-si, incl. 
Jd-td-sukti-si, excl. 
Jd-td-sd-mi, incl. 
Jd-td-sti-ku-mi, excl. 
N.B. The intercalated n and k are devious. See on. 
Second Person. 

1. Jdp-t-eu Jd-td-si 

2. Jdp-t-eu-si Jd-td-si-si 

3. Jdp-t-eu-mi Jd-ta-si-mi 

N.B. The intercalated p and n are devious. 



Plural of Agent. 

Jii-ya, incl. 
J;l -ka, excl. 
We all eat it 

Dual of Object. 
Jd-ya-si, incl. 
Jd-ka-si, excl. 

We all eat them two 

Plural of Object. 
Ja-yami, incl. 
Ju-k.-i-ini, excl. 

We all eat them all f 

Ja-ni 

Jd-ni-si 

Ja-ni-mi 

Jd-me 

Jd-me-si 

Ja-ine-mi 



Jdn-td-yo, incl. 
Jak-td-ko, excl. 
J;in-ta-yo-si, incl. 
Jak-td-k<5-si, excl. 
Jiiu-td-y6-mi, incl. 
Jdk-td-ko-rni, excl. 



Jdn-td-ni 

.T;iii-til-ni-8i 
Jau-td-ui-mi 



* See note || at p. 283. The peculiarities in question hold as to both tongues, and are even 
more developed in Bahing than in Vayu. 

t The furm of the conjugation in the remaining persons of the indicative mood being the 
same as in the first person (and also in the imperative), it is needless to load the paper with 
repetitions of the names of the numbers, agentive aud objective, or with the English equi- 
valents. 

J Observe that the separation of the syllables is merely to facilitate the student's com- 
prehension, and that I shall do so no further, for the genius ol the lun-u:ige is avtrse to any 
such treatment of its finely-blended elements. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 367 

Third Person. 

1. Ja"p-t-a Jd-ta-se Jjim-ta-me 

2. Jjip-t-asi Jti-td-se-si Jam-ta-me-si 

3. Jdp-t-a-mi Jd-ta-se-mi Jjiin-ta-me-ini ' 
N.B. The intercalated p and m are devious. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Jd-cho, to eat or to have eaten, aoristic.* 

PARTICIPLES. 

(Take notice that all the participles are essentially relative, and that they corre- 
spond as to sense with nouns, substantival or adjectival, ad libitum.) 

I. PARTICIPLE OF THE AGENT. 

Impersonal form. 

Ju-ba, the eater, who eats, or ate, or will eat ; aoristic. 
N.B. This participle has no personated equivalent. 

2. PARTICIPLE OF THE OBJECT AND OF THK INSTRUMENT, ALSO EXPRESSIVE 
OF HABIT AND OF FITNESS. 

Present and future time. 

Impersonal form. 

Jacho-me, eatable, what is usually eaten or is fit to eat (to be eaten), what or 
whom any one eats or will eat (food), and what he eats or will eat with (teeth). 

3. PARTICIPLE OF THE OBJECT AND OF THE INSTRUMENT. 

Past time. 
Impersonal form. 
J;i-na, eaten, what or wherewith anyone ate (also what has been eaten). 

4. PERSONATED EQUIVALENT OF SECOND PARTICIPLE, SUPRA. 

First Person. 

jular of Agent. Dual of Agent. Plural of Agent. 

Jasaiue, inch Jayame, incl. 



Ja-gndtne, the one that 
I eat 



Jasukume, excl. Jakame, excl. 

the one that we two the one that we 



eat all eat 

Dual of Object. Dual of d 'of Object. 

I Jasaaitne. incl. >ime, incl. 

/nasime, the two ) Jasukusime, excl. Jakasime, excl. 

that. ) the two that we two tin ,vo all 

( eat eat 

Plural of <> f of Object. 

(Jaaamime, incl. ind. 

3. Jagnamime, the all JJasukumime, excl. Jakamime, excl. 

that I eat ") the all that we two the all that we all 

( eat eat 

Second Perron. 

ime Jaaime ime 

2. Jayixirne Janiniino 

3. Jayitnime .! <- ;u ui time 

When purpoM to involved the Ign tba Ukes the place of the sign oho ; t.g., ht went to 
ummon, for tbe purpoeo of summuuiiig, bretha WU. 



368 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



Third Person. 

1. Jawame Jaseme Jameme 

2. Jawashne Jasesime Jamesime 

3. Jawamime Jasemime Jameniirne 

These (second and third person) of course mean respectively what or wherewith 

thou and he (or she) eats or will eat, &c. See note to first person of indicative 
mood. 

5. IMPERSONATED EQUIVALENT OP THIRD PARTICIPLE, SUPRA. 

First Person. 

the one Jittasame, incl. Jttnt.iyome, incl. 

Jtitasukume, excl. Jaktakome, excl. 

J&tasasime, incl. J;iutayosinie, incl. 

Jdtasuku&irne, excl. Jaktakosime, excl. 

Jatasamime, incl. Jjintayomime, incl. 

Jsitasukumime, excl. Jaktakoinime, excl. 

Second Person. 

Jdtasiine Jjintanime 

Jdtasisiuie J;intanisiine 

Jataaiuiirae Jdutanimiine 

Third Person. 

J,itaaeme Jdmtameme 

Jiitasesime Jsiintamesirue 

3. Jiiptamiiue Jdtaseiuime Jiintanimime * 



1. Jii tongme, 

that I ate 

2. Jiitongsiine 

3. Jdtongmiuie 



1. Jiipteume 

2. Jiipteusime 

3. Ja~pteunritue 

1. Jiiptame 

2. Jitptasime 



GERUNDS. 
Gerund of the present and future time impersonal. There is none. 

Gerund of present and future time personated. 
i. With main Verb in Present or Future Time. 





First Person. 




Singular of Agent. 
I. Jagnana, I eating it, 
shall do so and so. 


Dual of Agent. 
( Jasana, incl. 
\ Jasukuna, excl. 


Plural of Agent. 
Jayana, incl. 
Jakana, excl. 


Dual of Object. 
2. Jagnasina 


Dual of Object. 
( Jasasina, incl. 
| Jasakusina, excl. 


Dual of Object. 
Jayasina, incl. 
Jakasina, excl. 


Plural of Object. 
3. Jagnamina 


Plural of Object. 
( Jasamina, incl. 
| Jasukmnina, excl. 


Plural of Object. 
Jayamina, incl. 
Jakamina, excl. 




Second Person. 




I. Jay in a 
2. Jayisina 
3. Jayhniua 


Jasina 
Jasisina 
Jaaimina 


Janina 
Janisina 
Janimiua 




Third Person. 




I. Jawana 
2. Jawasina 
3. Jawamina 


Jasena 
Jasesina 
Jasemina 


Jamena 
Jamesina 
Janiemiiia 


* The above forms of the 
particles to the several teuse 


participle nnd pcrund add 
forms; .being "me" for 


merely the re-p^ctive formative 
tue participle and "ua" for the 



gerund. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 

2. Same gerund personated with main verb in the preterite. 
First Person. 



369 



I. Jatongna, I eating it, 
did so and so 

2. Jatongsina 
3. Jatongmina 


Jatasana, incl. 
Jatasukuna, excl. 
Jatasasina, incl. 
Jatasukusina, excl. 
Jatasamina, incl. 
Jatasukumina, excl. 


Jantaydna, incl. 
Jaktakdna, excl. 
Jantaydsina, incl. 
Jaktakdsina, excl. 
Jantaydmina, incl. 
Jaktakdmina, excl. 




Second Person. 




I. Japteuna 
2. Japteusina 
3. Japteumiua 


Jatasina 
Jatasisina 
Jatasimina 


Jantanina 
Jantanisina 
Jantanimina 




Third Person. 




I. Japtana Jatasena Jamtamena 
2. Japtasina Jatase.-ina Jamtamesina 
3. Japtamina Jatasemina Jamtamemiua * 
Gerund of past time, impersonal, Jaso and Jdsomami.t 


I. Same gerund personated with main verb in present or future. 




First Person. 




Singular of Agent. 
I. Jagnako, I having ate 
it, will do so and so 


Dual of Agent. 
Jasako, incl. 
Jasukuko, excl. 


Plural of Agent. 
Jayako, incl. 
Jakako, excl. 


Dual of Object. 


Dual of Object. 


Dual of Object. 
Jayasiko, incl. 
Jakasiko, excl. 


Plural of Object. Plural of Object. 
T ., ( Jasamiko, incl. 
3. Jagnamiko j Jasukumi ' k0| excL 


Plural of Object. 
Jayamiko, incl. 
Jakauiiko, excl. 




Second Person. 




I. Jayiko 
siko 
3. Jayimiko 


Jasiko 
Jasisiko 
Jasimiko 


Janiko 
Janisiko 
Janimiko 




Third Person. 




Z. Jawako 
2. Jawasiko 
3. Jawamiko 


JiMMko 

Jasesiko 
Jasemiko 


Jameko 
Jamesiko 
Jamemiko 


2. Same gerniul with main verb in the preterite. 




First Person. 




I. Jatangko, I having ate 
it, did so and so 

2. Jatongsiko 
3. Jatongmiko 


Jatasako, incl. 
JaUsukuko, excl. 
Jatasasiko, incl. 
Jatasiikufliko, excl. 
Jatasam k->, in.-]. 
Jatasukumiko, excl. 


Jantayoko, incl. 
Jaktakoko, excl.' 

.MCl. 

Jaktakosiko, excl. 

:k.\ illd. 

Juktakomiko, excl. 


The above form* of tho pnrUHple and jft roly the ronpectivo forma! ire par- 
ticle* to the MTeral tonne form*. t*intf : . \ " fur the gerund, 
f See remark in the sequel on Js*'>gno with the auxiliary. 
VOI 2 A 



370 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Second Person. 

1. Japteuko Jataeiko Jantaniko 

2. Japteusiko Jatasisiko Jantanisiko 

3. Japteumiko Jatasimiko Jantanimiko 

Third Person. 

1. Japtako Jataseko Jamtameko 

2. Japtasiko Jatasesiko Jamtamesiko 

3. Japtamiko Jatasemiko Jamtamemiko * 

REFLEX TRANSITIVE, OR MIDDLE VOICE t OF THE 
TRANSITIVE VERB TO EAT. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 



, eat thyself j J "* " ** *" "* ^ 



INDICATIYE MOOD. 
Present and Future Tense. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

, . . ( Jds-cha, incl. Ja*siya, incl. 

1st Per. Jteigna | Jfc-chuku, exci. Jasika, excl. 

id Per. J&e Jas-chi Jfoini 

3d Per. Jase Jds-che J&iine 

Preterite Tense. 

i*t P* To*fi i Jastasa incl - Jastayo, incl. 

1st Per. Jasti j Jastasuku, excl. Jastako, excl. 

zd Per. Jaste Jastasi Jastani 

3d Per. Jasta Jastasa Jastame 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Jascbo, to eat, or to have eaten one's self, aoristic. 

PARTICIPLES. 

I. Participle of the agent, impersonal. 
Jiisiba, the self -eater, one who eats, or will eat or ate himself, aoristic. 

2. Participle of the object and instrument, present and future 

time, impersonal form. 

Jaschome, his own that any one eats or will eat, self-eatable, what is self-eaten 
or wherewith to eat self. 

* Here, as before, the gerundial impersonated forms are constructed by merely adding the 
past gerund sign or "ko" to the several forms of the tenses ; and as iu the indicative mood 
there are thirty-three personal forms proper to either time (present or future and preterite), 
so there are sixty -six forms of the gerund of past time, and in like manner are there sixty -six 
of the gerund of the present time, besides two impersonal forms in all, 134. Of the parti- 
ciples there are sixty-six personated and three impersonate forms of the latter, making in all 
sixty-nine ! This is a more than Manchuric luxuriance of participial and gerundial growth. 
I have now gone through the most essential and characteristic forms of the verb, and sh ill 
reserve the less essential, or the several other so-called moods, &c., for the sequel, proceeding 
first to the reflex or middle voice, and then to the passive, upon the present model. The 
gerunds are purely verbal, with no touch of the noun, and they are essentially continuative, 
serving in lieu of the conjunction "and." 

f There are a great many primitives or neuters in "so," besides the derivatives or reflex 
forms of the trausitives, which I call their middle voice. All transitives make their middle 
voice by changing their appropriate sign into "so." This form is perfectly uniform for 
all primitives and derivatives. The French amuser and s'amuser, = cham-cho and cham-s-cho, 
give a good idea of it. 

t There are of course no objective forms of an intransitive verb, and all verbs in "so," 
whether primitively neuter or derived, as here, from transitives, are so regarded. See and 
compare the transitive forms in the active voice aforegone. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 
3. Same participle of time past, impersonal. 



371 



Jasina, his own (flesh) that any one ate, or what has been self-eaten by any 
one ; and wherewith it has been self-eaten,* or his own (teeth) wherewith any 
one ate. 



4. Impersonated equivalent of participle second in "chome." 



ist Per. 

2d Per. 

3d Per. 

ist Per. 

2d Per. 
3d Per. 



Singular. 

( Jasigname, my own that 
{ I eat or eat with 
Jaseme 
Jaaeme 



Dual. 

Jaschame, incl. 
Jaschukume, excl. 
Jaschime 
Jascheme 



Plural 

Jasiyauie, incl. 
Jasikame, excl. 
Jasiniine 
Jasimeme 



5. Impersonated equivalent of participle third in "na." 
Jastime, my own that j Jastasame, incl. Jastayome, incl. 

I ate / Jastasukume, excl. Jastakome, excl. 

Jasteme Jastasime Jastanime 

Jastame Jastaseme Jastameme 

GERUNDS. 



Gerund of present and future time, impersonal. There is none. 
l. Gerund of present and future time, personated with main verb in same time. 



i at Ptr. 

2d Per. 
3d Per. 



itt Per. 

zdPer. 
3d Per. 



Singular. 
Jasignana, I eating my 

own flesh, shall do so 

and so 
Jasena 
Jasena 



Dual. 

Jaschana, incl. 
Jaschukuna, excl. 

Jaschina 
Jaschena 



Plural. 

Jasiyana, incl. 
Jasikaua, excl. 

Jasinina 
Jaaimena 



2. Same gerund personated with main verb in past tense. 
| Jastina, I eating my own ( Jastasana, incl. Jastayona, incl. 

| flesh, did so and so | Jastasukuna, excl. Jastakona, excl. 
Jastena Jastasina Jastanina 

Jastana Jastasena Jastamena 

There is none. 



Gerund of past time, impersonal. 

I. Same gerund personated with main verb in present or future. 

( Jasignako, I having 

< eaten my own fleah, 

( shall do so and so 

2d Per. Jaaeko Jaschiko 

3d Per. Jaaeko Jascheko 



Iff P,r. 



Jaschako, incl. 
Jaschukuko, excl. 



Jasiyako, incl. 
Jiisikako, excl. 

Jasitiik" 
Jasimeko 



2. Same gerund with main vi-rli in the preterite. 

itt Per. Jastiko, I having eaten j Jaataaako, incl. Jastayoko, incl. 

my own, did BO and so { Jaataaukuko, excl. Jastakoko, excl. 
2d Per. Jaateko .1 ..-t.i.-ik.. Jaataniko 

j'//Vr. J.i.-t.ik.i Jactaseko Jastameko 

PASSIVE VOICE OF THE SAME TERR 
(Boaia, Jayi = eat me.) 

IMI-EKATIVB MOOD. 

cct. Plural of 

I. Jjiyi, eat me t . JiUiki, eat >( | Jalci, eat ua all 



The participle* in cho-me and tn na are ncarcoly unable in derivative vcrbw in "*o" 
like J.IM ., but m<>re freely in primitive* of the a*me formation, *uch aa wa*o cao< 



i.ii. voidable ordim; aad wMaa i:i.ii foi Iwlordor* thai la,theorduw^ i i i 
wUl be and baa been voided. 



owa the 



of neuter verbe to paaaivea. 



ve bent of Uteae participlea. and the affinity 
ofYert*. 



372 

Dual of Agent. 

2. Jdyisi, eat me ye two 

Plural of Agent, 

3. Jdyini, eat me ye all 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Dual of Agent. Dual of Agent. 

Jasikisi, eat us two ye two Jakisi, eat us all ye two 

Plural of Agent. Plural of A gent. 

Jdsikini, eat us two ye all Jdkini, eat us all ye all * 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future Tense. 



First Person. 
Dual of Object. 
Jdso, incl. 
Jiisiki, excl. 

We two are eaten by 
him 

Dual of Agent. 
Jasosi, incl. 
Jasikisi, excl. 

We two are eaten by 
them two 

Plural of Agent. 
Jaaorai, incl. 
Jasikimi, excl. 

We two are eaten by 
them all 

N.B. The agent is always of the third person, he, she, or it; if it be second 
person the conjugation is another. 

Second Person. 
jasi 
Jasisi 
Jasirni 

Third Person. 
Jawasi 
Jasesi 
Jamesi 

Preterite Tense. 

First Person. 
Jataso, incl. 
Jatasiki, excl. 
Jatasosi, incl. 
Jatasikisi, excl. 
Jatasomi, incl. 
Jatasikimi, excl. 

Second Person. 

1. Jate Jataai Jan tan i 

2. Jatesi Jatasisi Jantauisi 

3. Jatemi Jatasimi Jantanimi ' 

* Observe that of the active voice of the transitive the object is him or her or it ; of the 
middle voice the object is self, and of the passive the object is me ; but that the order of 
arrangement of agent and object is reverse i in tlie passive as compared with the active voice, 
and so also in the indicative mood. This is done in conformity to the genius of this language', 
which requires the attention to be primarily fixed on the agent in one voice, on tlie obj 
the other. It will be seen in the sequel that there are further special forms of the verb to 
denote the action which passes from me to thee, and from thee to me. These are neo 
complement -;ve voice in a language, which makes the mention of a^euts and 

patients inseparable from that oi the action. Compare note ||, p. 283. 



Singular of Object. 

1. Jiiyi, eats me he 

I am eaten by hi in 

Dual of Agent. 

2. Jayisi, I am eaten by 

them two 

Plural of Agent. 

3. Jayimi, I am eaten 

by them all 



1. Jaye 

2. Jayesi 

3. Jayemi 

1. Jawa 

2. Jase 

3. Jame 



1. Jati 

2. Jatisi 

3. Jatimi 



Plural of Object. 
Jiiso, incl. 
Jdki, excl. 

We are all eaten by 
Lira 

Dual of Agent. 
Jasosi, incl. 
Jakirti, excl. 

We all are eaten by them 
two 

[Plural of Agent. 
Jasomi, incl.] 
Jakimi, excl. 

We all are eaten by them 
all 



Jani 

Janisi 

Janiini 

Jawami 
Jasemi 
Jamemi 



Jataso, incl. 

Jjlktaki, excl. 

Jatasosi 

Jdktakisi 

Jatasomi 

Jaktakimi 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 373 

Third Person. 

1. Japta Japtasi Japtami 

2. Jatase Jataseei Jatasemi 

3. Jamtamo Jaintamesi Jamtamemi 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
There is none properly so called. 

The sense is conveyed by placing the separate pronoun in the objective case before 
the verb in the active voice ; g6 jacho to eat me = to be eaten. 

PARTICIPLES. 

1. Participle of the agent in " ba" is of course -wanting. 

2. Participle of the object in "chome " is rather passive than active, though used 
in both voices ; as we say in English, what (or whom) any one eats or is wont to eat, 
or what is wont to be eaten by any one. 

3. Participle in "na"is yet more purely passive; ja-na, what has been eaten. 
But it is used with more than English license, as though it belonged to the active 
voice, what any one hath eaten. 

4. Personated equivalent of the second of the above. It is formed by adding the 
formative suffix "me" to the several tense forms of the indicative present and 
future of this voice, e.g. 

Singular of Agent. Dual of Agent. Plural of Agent. 

( Jasome, incl. Jasome, incl. 

j Jasikime, excl. Jakime, excl. 

and so on through the whole ef the thirty-three forms above given in the indicative. 

5. Personated equivalent of the third of the above participles, or that in " na." 
It is formed, as above, by adding the formative "me " to the several forms of the 
preterite indicative of this voice, e.g. 

T , . ( Jatasome, incl. Jatasome, incl. 

j Jatasikime, excl. Jatakime, excl. 

and so on through all the thirty-three forms of the three persons of the preterite 
passive. Jayime means I who am the eaten of him, and jatime, I who was the 
t-att-n of him ; and so on of all the rest. 

N.B. The impersonal forms in this, and of the active and middle voices, are 
declinable like nouns. The personated in "me," which take so much of the verb 
character, are indeclinable. Both are thoroughly and intrinsically relative in sense. 

GERUNDS. 

Gerund of future and present time impersonal. There is none. 
I. The same gerund personated with the main verb in same time. 
It is formed by the addition of the appropriate formative, or "ua," to the several 
forms of the present aud future indicative of this voice, e.g., 

,'dar. Dual. Plural. 

, . ( Jasona, incl. Jasona, incl. 

*' Jft y mi 1 Jasikina, excl. .I.-ikina. tzol 

and so on through all the thirty-three forms of the three persona of the indicative. 

2. The same gerund -personated with the main verb in the preterite 
It is formed by suffixing the " na" to the preterite indicative forms, e.g. 

T . ( Jatasona, incl. Jataxona, incl. 

' J f Jatasikina, excl. Jatakinn, 

Samples of the sense Being eaten I shall cry out, jayina brcgna ; being o:r 
..ut, jatina 1 

Gerund of past time, impersonal. There is n 

{Observe that the root bra, to cry out, i here conjugated an an intransitive. Elsewhere 
I have given the same root conjugated as a tr 

rative (bre-bo, bre-to) are identical. This double indicative conjugation 
t he ssme root of word* having nearly 

i-o broken and to break, Ac. Breto, the intransitive, is o: 
gnito, to be afraid, the type of regular intrauaiUves in 



374 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



I. Same gerund personated with main verb in present or future. 
It is formed by adding the formative " ko " to the several forms (thirty -three) of 
the indicative present and future, e.g., 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

T ., ( Jasoka, inch Jasoko, incl. 

' Ja y jko j Jasikiko, excl. Jakiko, excl. 

2. Same gerund with the main verb in the preterite. 

It is formed, as above, by adding "ko" to the several forms of the indicative 
preterite, e.g., 

( Jatasoko, incl. Jatasoko, incl. 

j Jatasikiko, excl. Jatakiko, excl. 



T , ., 



and so on through nil the thirty-three forms of the indicative preterite of this voice. 
The senses respectively of jayiko and jatiko are, having been eaten I shall be, and, 
having been eaten, I was or have been (forgotten) ; and so of the rest. 

PARADIGM. 

Of certain special forms of conjugation supplementary of the passive, and denoting, 
first, the action that passes between me as the agent and thee as the patient ; 
second, that in which thou art the agent and I the patient. The first of these forms 
is very distinct, but is confined to the indicative (and subjunctive) mood. It has no 
imperative or infinitive. The second runs much into the ordinary passive, and 
has an imperative. See on. 

FIRST FORM, I THEE. 
(Verb Ja, to eat, as before.) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future Tense. 
Singular of Agent* Dual of Agent. Plural of Agent. 

by ml j ^ eal ' we two eat thee J ^ emi ' we a11 eat thee 

Dual of Object. 
Jasimi, we all eat you 

Plural of Object. 
Ja mi > We a11 eat J 011 



Jatemi, we all ate thee 

Jatasimi, we all ate you 

two 
Jantanimi, we all ate you 

all 



There are none of the impersonal form. 

Participle of the future personated. It is formed, as in the ordinary conjugation , 
by adding the appropriate particle of " me" to the forms of the indicative, e.g. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Janame Jayesiine Jayemime t 

and so on through all the nine forms above given in the indicative present. 
Participle of the past personated. It is formed from the preterite by adding the 





Dual of Object. 


Dual of Object. 


2. 


Janasi, I eat you two 


\ Jasisi, we two eat you 
) two 




Plural of Object. 


Plural of Object. 


3- 


Janani, I eat you all 


( Janisi, we two eat you 
{ all 






Preterite Tense. 


i. 


Jantana, I ate thee, 


} 




or thou wast eateu 


> Jatesi, we two ate thee 




by me 


\ 


2. 


Jantanisi, I ate you 


Jatasisi, we two ate you 




two 


two 


3- 


Jantanani, I ate you 


Jantanisi, we two ate you 




all 


all 






PARTICIPLES. 



* This form is rather allied to the passive than active, and may be called the supplement 
of the former, which is very incomplete, and alien to the genius of the tongue, being cramped 
at the threshold by taking the first person objective for its starting-point ; thus, jayi = e;>: 
There is no Be thou eaten. And here janaand its participial jananie look to the object chiefly, 
thou art eaten by me and thou who art the eaten of me. 
t The "y " is merely to keep the vowels apart. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 375 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Jantaname Jatesiine Jatemime 

and so on through the above nine forms of the preterite. 

The sense of janame is, thou who art the eaten of me ; of jantaname, thou who 
wert the eaten of me ; and so of all the rest. 

GERUNDS. 

There are none whatever not personated. 

The personated forms are, as in the ordinary conjugation, four, two of the present 
and two of the past, and they are constructed, as before, by adding respectively 
*'na" and " ko " to the tense forms above ; e.g., 

Gerund of the future and present with the main verb in same time. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Jauana Jayesina Jayeuihia 

and so on through all the nine forms of the tense. 

Same gerund with the main verb in the preterite. 
Jantanana Jatesiua Jateoiina 

and so on through all the nine forms above. 

Gerund of the preterite with main verb in the past time. 
Jantanako * Jatesiko Jatemiko 

and so on through the nine tense forms. 

SECOND SPECIAL FORM, THOU ME. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Singular of Agent. Dual of Agent. Plural of Agent. 

1. Jayi,f eat me thou, or ) 

let me be eaten by > Jayisi Jayina 
thee. ) 

Dual of Object. Dual of Object. Dual of Object. 

2. Jaaiki Jasikisi Jasikini. 

Plural of Object. Plural of Object. Plural of Object. 

3. Jaki Jakisi Jakini 

N. B. This tallies with the ordinary passive, as will be seen by reading the 
vertical columns of the one with the horizontal of the other. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present and Future Tense. 

1. Jayi, thou eatest me, ) 

or I am eaten by > Jayisi Jayini 
thf-e ) 

2. Jasiki Jasikisi Jasikini 

3. Jaki Jakisi Jakini 

Preterite. 

1. Jati Jataai Jatini 

2. Jataaiki Jataaikisi Jataaikini 

3. Jaktaki JaktakUi Jaktakini 

2V. B. These agree respectively with the present and preterite of the passive, tare, 
first, that there are here no inclusive form* ; and, second, that the personal sign ni 
stands here in the place of the passive mi 

Samples of the above gerund*. Eating the* I shall fill my belly, janana rugna ; eating 
thee I filled my belly. JanUna ruti ; having eaten theo I will go, janako lagna ; having eaten 
thee I slept, lantanako iptt ; we all having eaten thee, were pleased, Jatemiko gyerstako ; 
we two, having caUu theo, will flee, jayesiko jnksukasuku ; we all eating thee, fled, jau>- 
minajukkauko. 

.m is the formula of the passive, because the passive only requires that tho first person 
be the patlr m the second or third to be the agent, and hence the indicative of this 

form so nc.irly Ulhua wit!, tij.i'. uf ti.o i-asaivi-, j..yi, c:tt me .c or thuu. &c. 



376 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

"Wanting : the ordinary infinitive is used with the separate pronouns in the 
instrumental and objective cases, garni go jacho. 

PARTICIPLES. 

There are none of the non-personated kind. 

The personated are formed, as usual, by the "me" suffix added to the tense 
forms, e.g. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Jayiine Jayisiine Jayiuiine 

and so on through the nine tense forms. 

Jatime Jatisime Jatinime 

and so on through the nine tense forms above. 

The senses of jayime and jatime are, I who am the eaten of thee, and I who was 
the eaten of thee. The sense would be equally expressed by thou who art my eater; 
but eater, jaba, is purely active, and cannot be admitted into an agento-objective 
verb. 

GERUNDS. 

Impersonated, there are none. 

The personated of the present are formed, as before, by "na" suffixed to the 
several tense forms, and those of the past by "ko" similarly affixed ; e.g., jayiim, 
jatina, and jayiko, jatiko, equivalent to thou eating me wilt do so and so, aud did 
so and so ; aud thou having ate me wilt do, and did, so and so. 



PARADIGM OF TRANSITIVES IN 



"TO," 



NOT CHANGING THE 



Singular. 

1. Breto 

Dual of Object. 

2. Bretosi 

Plural of Object. 

3. Bretomi 



1. Bretu 

2. Bretusi 

3. Bretumi 

1. Breti 

2. Bretisi 

3. Bretimi 

1. Breta 

2. Bretasi 

3. Bretami 



"T" INTO "D."* 
Boot Bre, to summon. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 
Bretise 

Dual of Object. 
Bretisesi 

Plural of Object. 
Bretisemi 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future Tense. 

First Person. 
J Bretisa, incl. 
| Bretisuku, excl. 

SBretisasi, incl. 
Bretisukusi, excl. 
Bretisatni, incl. 
Bretisukumi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Bretisi 
Bretisisi 
Bretisimi 

Third Person. 
Bretise 
Bretisesi 
Bretisemi 



Plural. 
Bretine 

Dual of Object. 
Bretinesi 

Plural of Object. 
Bretinemi 



Bretiya, incl. 
Bretika, excl. 
Bretiyasi, incl. 
Bretikasi, excl. 
Bretiyami, incl. 
Bretikami, excl. 

Bretini 

Bretinisi 

Bretiuimi 

Bretime 

Bretimesi 

Bretimemi 



* Those that change the ti of the imperative into d in the indicative do not take the 
incrementive ti of the dual and plural present, nor the double t of the preterite, and they 
have i, not ti, in the passive. These peculiarities are in fact confined to the transiti\ 
unchanging "to," but are partially shared by the changing transitives and by the neut 
See Classification of Verbs, pp. 361-365. For paradigm of transitives iu " to " which change 
t into d, see on to p. 390 n". 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



377 



1. Brettong 

2. Brettongsi 

3. Brettongmi 

1. Bretteu 

2. Bretteusi 

3. Bretteuuii 

1. Bretta 

2. Brettasi 

3. Brettami 



Preterite. 
First Person. 
Brettaea, iucl. 
Brettasuku, excl. 
Brettasasi, iucl. 
Brettasukusi, excl. 
( Brettasami, incl. 
\ Brettasukumi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Brettasi 
Brettasi si 
Brettasiini 

Third Person. 
Brettase 
Brettasesi 
Brettasemi 



Brettayo, incl. 
Brettako, excl. 
Brettayosi, iucl. 
Brettakosi, excl. 
Brettayomi, incl. 
Brettakoini, excl. 

Brettani 

Brettanisi 

Brettauirui 

Brettame 

Brettamesi 

Brettarnerui 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Bre-cho, to call or to have called, &c. 



PARTICIPLES. 
1st, in ba, Bre-ba, who calls or called 

2 d, in cho-ne, Brechome, 



4 tb, in me, Bretuoe. & o., j 

5 th, io oe, Bretto,, gm e, fc,, j ^Thas Sc.lled by m e 
Gerund of the past, impersonal, Breso or Bresomami. None of the present. 

GERUNDS PERSONATED. 

1st, in na, Bretuna, &c., I calling (will do so and so) 
2d, in na, Brettongna, &c., I calling (did so and so) 
3d, in ko, Bretuko, &c., I having called (will do so and so) 
4th, in ko, Brettougko, &c., I having called (did so and so) 

MIDDLE VOICE. 
Bre'so, call thyself. Precisely like Jaso. 



1. Brdti 

2. Brdtiai 

3. lii 



1. Breti 

2. Bretiai 

3. Bretimi 

i. I'.rete 
temi 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Bretisiki 

Bretihikifti 
Bretisikiui 

First Person. 
Bretuo, incl. 
Bretisiki, excl. 
Bretisow, incl. 
Bretiaikisi, excl. 
Bretinonii. incl. 
>. inii, excl. 
,S <-../ J'trtnn. 
Bretui 
Breticisi 
Bretiaimi 



Bretiki 

Bretikisi 

Bretikiui 



Bretiso, incl. 
. excl. 

HretinoBi, incl. 
Bretikiai, excl. 
Bretisoini, incl. 
Bretikiiui, excl. 

aimi 



373 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



1. Breta 

2. Bretise 

3. Bretime 



1. Bretti 

2. Brettisi 

3. Brettimi 

1. Brette 

2. Brettesi 

3. Bretterni 

1. Bretta 

2. Brettaae 

3. Brettame 



1. Bretina 

2. Bretinasi 

3. Bretinani 

1. Brettana 

2. Brettanasi 

3. Brettanaui 



Third Person. 
Bretasi 
Bretisesi 
Bretimesi 

Preterite. 
First Person. 
( Brettaso, incl. 
( Brettasiki, excl. 
Brettasosi, incl. 
Brettasikisi, excl. 
Brettasomi, incl. 
Brettasikimi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Brettasi 
Brettasisi 
Brettasiini 

Third Perton. 
Brettasi 
Brettasesi 
Brettamesi 



Bretami 

Bretisemi 

Bretimeini 



Brettaso, incl. 
Brettaki, excl. 
Brettasosi, incl. 
Brettakisi, excl. 
Brettasomi, incl. 
Brettakimi, excl. 

Brettani 

Brettanisi 

Brettanimi 

Bretta mi 

Brettaseini 

Brettameim 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Brecho, precisely as in the last verb * 

PARTICIPLES. 

1st, in ba, Wanting, as in the last 
2d, in chome, Brechome, precisely as in the last 
3d, in na, Brena, ditto, ditto 
4th, in me, Bretime, &c., as before 
5th, in me, Brettime, &c., as before 



GERUNDS. 

1st, in na, Bretina, \ 

2d, in na, Brettina, r 

3d, in ko, Bretiko, I 

4th, in ko, Brettiko, ; 



&c., as before 



SPECIAL FORM I. 

Indicative Present. 
Bretesi 
Bretisisi 
Bretinisi 

Preterite. 
Brettesi 
Brettasisi 
Brettanisi 



Bretemi 

Bretisimi 

Bretinimi 

Brettemi 
Brettasimi 
Brettani uii 



Noue. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Gomi ga brecho expresses the sense. 



PARTICIPLES. 
Impersonal, none. 



ist personated, Bretiname, &c. 



2d personated, Brettaname, &c. 



* See remsirk at p. 375. There is no infinitive passive in Bailing any more than in Va"yu, 
nor any impersonated gerund ; but of the three impersonated participles, two, or those in 
chome and na, are essentially passive. 



Indicative Present. 




Bretisi 


Bretini 


Bretisikisi 


Bretisikini 


Bretikisi 


Bretikiui 


Preterite. 




Brettisi 


Brettini 


Brettasikisi 


Brettasikini 


Brettakisi 


Brettakiui 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 379 

GERUNDS. 
Impersonal, none. 

1st personated, Bretinana, &c. 3d Personated, Bretinako, &c. 

2d ,, Brettauaua, &c. 4th ., Brettanako, &c. 

SPECIAL FORM II. 
Impei'otive. 

1. Breti Bretisi Bretini 

2. Bretisiki Bretisikisi Bretisikini 

3. Bretiki Bretikisi Bretikini 

1. Breti 

2. Bretisiki 

3. Bretiki 

1. Bretti 

2. Brettasiki 

3. Brettaki 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
There is none. Garni go brecho expresses the sense. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Impersonal, none. 

1st personated, Bretime, &c., ) ,. v t j j j. AI_ r 

2( j r ' Brettime &c I &a " e * ore > "7 me added to the tense forms. 

GERUNDS. 
Impersonal of the past (none of present), Br&o or Brdsomami. 

Ditto personated. 
1st personated, Bretina, &c., \ 

2d ,, Brdttina, &c., f as before, by "no"" added to the several f>nu.s 

3d ,, Bre"tiko, &c., ( of the tenses. 

4th Bre"ttiko, &c., ) 

PARADIGM OF VERBS INTRANSITIVE OR NEUTER. 

Not having the sibilant sign. 
A neuter in "wo," Pi-wo, come thou. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

"far. final. Plum I . 

Pine 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Preifnt awl Future Ten$($. 

p p . ( Pisa, iiit-1. Pira, in.-l. 

istPer.Piga* ,'ku, excl. Pika; excl. 

2d Per. Piye 

PiM Pime 

Prtterilt Tente. 
... ,, T- . j Pitaiw, iucl. 

} PitMuku, excl. 'kn, excl. 

2d Per. Pite Pitaai 1 mi 

3d Per. Pita l'ita 



380 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Picho, to come or to have come, aoristic. 

PARTICIPLES. 

First of the Agent, impersonal, aoristic. 
Piba, who or what comes, or will come or came. 
Second of the object and instrument. 

Present or future, impersonal. 

Pichome, fit to come by (road), and fit for coming with (feet), and what any 
one will come by (road). 

Third the same, past time, impersonal. 

Pina, what any one came by (road), and what he came with (feet). 
Impersonated form of second and third. 

It is formed by "me" added to the several forma of the tenses, pigndme, 
pitime, c.* 

GERUNDS. 

That of present time (future). 
Pignana.f &c., with main verb in same time. 
Pitiua, &c., with main verb in preterite. 

That of past time. 

Pignako, &c., with main verb in future. 
1'itiko, &c., with main verb in past. 

All intransitives not having "so" in the imperative are conjugated as above, 
except certain ones in "to," which I shall distinguish as neuters, and which are 
conjugated as follows : 

PARADIGM OF NEUTKRS IN " TO." 

Root B<5, to flower. Imperative, Bo- to. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

B<5to B<5tise Btftine 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present and Future. 

. ol PM . TJX,, ( B<5tisa, incl. Botiya, incl. 

ist Per. B6tu j B<5tisu ' kU) excL B(5ti a> excl 

2d Per. B(5ti Bdtisi Bdtini 

3d Per. Bota Bo*tise B<5time 

Preterite. 

lit Prr TMtti ) Bottasa, incl. B<5ttayo, incl. 

1st Per. Bdtt j Bottasuku, excl. B<5ttako, ezcl. 

2d Per. B<5tte Bottasi B<5ttani 

^d Per. B(5tta B<5ttase Bdttdme 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

B<5-cho. 

PARTICIPLE of the agent in " ba." 
B<5ba, what flowers, or will flower, or has flowered. 

N.B. The second and third participles in " chome " and " na " are wanting,* and 
so also their derivatives in " me." 

* e.g., Pigname kholi, the feet which I come with ; pigname lam, the road which I come 
by ; pitime kholi, the feet which I came with ; pitime lam, the road which I came by. 

t e.g., Pignana pagna = I will come and do it ; literally, I coming will d<> it. 

j These participles can rarely be used with intransitive or neuter verbs, never with such 
of the latter as relate to the action of things. They imply an agent who produces that effect 
on a thing which these participles express relatively to future and past, time respectively. 
Out of the vast number of intransitives enumerated elsewhere hardly a dozen make use of 
these participles. Some'of these exceptions are bwakko, to speak, which gives bwangna Id = 
spoken words ; bokko, to get up, whence bongna blocho, =the bed whence any one has 
risen ; niso, to sit, whence nisina-khosiugba, the chair on which any oue has sat, &c. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 381 

GERUNDS. 

1. Butuna. Bo"tina ' Bdtana, &c. 

2. B<5ttina Bottena Bdttana, &c. 

3. Botuko Bdtiko B<5tako, &c. 

4. B<5ttiko Btftteko B<5ttako, &c. 

AVhat, as opposed to the above, called neuters (see conjugation XI.) for distinc- 
tion's sake, I have elsewhere called intransitives in "to," as jito, khato, &c. (con- 
jugation XA are all regular and conjugated like the verb to come above given. 
In fact, all the so-called intransitives, whatever their sign, have one uniform con- 
jugation, those in "so," merely interpolating the reflex sibilant, as may be seen by 
comparing the aforegone samples of both. But the neuters in "to," here ensamph-d 
by boto, are quite unique, leaning to the model of unchanging transitives with the 
same sign, for which see breto aforegone. 

By comparing the above samples of complete conjugation with the summary view 
of the same subject which precedes it,* it will be seen that there is at bottom but 
one conjugation, because all transitives and intransitives follow the one general 
model, with the material exception, however, of the" singular indicative. Of that 
the various forms are therefore brought together in the classification of so-called 
conjugations ; and it is only necessary to add, that beyond the singular indicative 
of transitive verbs there are no deviations from the one model of conjugating in the 
three voices. The whole force of conjugation is, it will be seen, thrown upon the 
actors who do and suffer. Of the action itself there is little comparative heed, 
only two moods and two times being developed, and the active and passive voices 
being perplexed. There are not in fact any inflexional or inherent verbal forms to 
express the various modifications of the action. Nevertheless these modifications, 
of course, have periphrastic means of expression ; I shall call them moods, and now 
proceed to enumerate them. 

SUBJUNCTIVE OR CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
If, or should, I come* 
Indicative Present. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

t D-. r><,~, vu AA~ $ Pisa khedda, incl. Piya khedda, inch 

j Pisuku khedda, excl. Pita khedda, excl. 

2<l Per. Piye khedda Pisi khedda Pini khedda 

3d Per. Pi khedda Pise khedda Pime khedda 

Preterite. 

* ~. T>< ^ 1.1, AA \ Pisawa khedda, incl. Piyawa khedda, incl. 
ist Per. Pigndwa khedda j pi8ukuwa khe j da> exd Pi awa khedda ; exc , 

2d Per. PiyOwa khedda I'fshva klu-dd.-i Piniwa khedda 

3d Per. Piwa khedda mi khedda Pimewa khedda 

The negative in formed, as usual, by ma prefixed. 

Another negative, alli.-d if not equivalent, is impersonal, and substitute! the 
particle theum fur khedda, adding the separate pronouns personal in lieu of the 
pronominal suffixes of verbs. 

Should I not come, &c. 

Present Tente. 

n~ ,ix m < (*K i 0(58i mit ritli' 1 ""'. incl. Go"yf rod pitheum 

ist Per. G<5 ma pitheum j Q^^ pitllt . um> excl> a; j ,. um 

/Vr. Ga rod pithemn Gasi md i>ftlinun i md pitlu-um 

ZdPtr. Harem ma pitheum Harem dauni md j.ltliiMitn Harem dan md pitheum 

The preterite of thin is f< 'in^ the " wa " above gone to the correlative 

'/the senteuce ; as, had I not come, he would not bare come, go mi pit! 
harem m& piwa. 

resent or future it i go ma jn'th. ithoul<l I 

hewi nl, w4, added to the indicative, 

takes the place of the regular preterite pit i, pite, pita. 

To wit, Classification of Verb*, pp. 361-365. 



382 



BAH ING GRAMMAR. 



Singular. 

1. Ldne chappo 

2. Ldne chapposi 

3. Ldne chappomi 



CONTINGENT MOOD. 
I may (perhaps) go. 

It is expressed by the future in the alternative way, e.g., lagna ma lagna, ma 
teutu = I shall go, shall not go, I don't know = I may go, or perhaps I shall go, 
perhaps not (root, la, to go). 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 

It is formed by adding ne to the root of any main verb (e.g.^ la, to go), and then 
subjoining the several conjugational forms of the subsidiary verb to can, which is a 
regular transitive in "po." This not having been given above, shall be fully set 
down here, though it differ not much, save euphonically, from the foregone samples 
of transitives, especially breto.* 

Root, Chap, to can. Infinitive, Chap-cho. 
Imperative. 

Dual. Plural. 

Ldne chapse Ldne chainne 

Liine chapsesi Liine chamnesi 

Ldne chapsemi Ldue chamnemi 

Indicative Present (Future).^ 

Firtt Person. 
Ldne chapsa, incl. 
Ldne chapsuku, excl. 
Liine chapasi, incl. 
Liine chapsukusi, excl. 
Ldne chapsami, incl. 
Lane chapsuku mi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Liine chapsi 
Liine chapsisi 
Liine chapsimi 

Third Person. 
Ldne chapse 
Ldne chapsesi 
Liiue chapsemi 

Preterite. 
First Person. 
( Ldne chaptasa, incl. 
I Ldne chaptasuku, excl. 
j Liine chaptasasi, incl. 
( Ldue chaptasukusi, excl. 
( Ljine chaptasami, incl. 
| Ldue chaptasukumi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Ldne chaptasi 
Ldne chaptasisi 
Ldne chaptasemi 

Third Person. 
Ldne chaptase 
Ldne chaptasesi 
Ldne chaptasemi 



1. Ldne chabu 

2. Ldne chabusi 

3. Ldne chabumi 



i. 



Ldne chabi 

2. Ldue chabisi 

3. Ldne chabimi 



Liine chaba 
Liine chabasi 
Ldne chabami 



1. Ldne chaptong 

2. Ldne chaptongsi 

3. Ldne chaptongmi 

1. Ldne chapteu 

2. Liine chapteusi 

3. Ldue chapteumi 

1. Ldne chapta 

2. Ldne chaptasi 

3. Ldne chaptami 



Ldne chamya, incl. 
Ldne chapka, excl. 
Ldne chamyasi, incl. 
Lane chapkasi, excl. 
Ldne chamyami, incl. 
Ldue chapkami, excl. 

Ldne chamni 
Ldne chain nisi 
Ldue chamnimi 

Ldne chamme 
Ldne chammesi 
Ldne chammemi 



Ldne chaptayo, incl. 
Ldne chaptako, excl. 
Ldne chaptayosi, incl. 
Ldne chaptakosi, excl. 
Ldne chaptayomi, incl. 
Ldne chaptakomi, excl. 

Ldne chaptani 
Liine chaptauisi 
Ldne chaptauimi 

Ldne chaptame 
Ldpe chaptamesi 
Ldne chaptamemi 



* Compare chap-cho, chap-po, chab-u, chab-i, cbab-a, chap-tong, cham-i, with br<--cho, 
bre"-to, bre"t-u, breVi, bre"t-a, bret-tong, bre-ti; and observe in regard to the former tl: 
radical p becomes b before a vowel and m before a nasal (n. m.), but remains p before a 
sibilant or hard dental. It is so in all transitives in po, of all which chappo is a perfect 
sample. 

t There is no present tense. The present is regarded as an inappreciable time. An not 
is not such till it is performed ; hence the past is the main tense. But an act can be contem- 
plated as during in intention and preparation ; a blow falling till it has actually descended 
future teuse. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



383 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Ldne chapcho. 

PARTICIPLES. 

1st, in ba, Ldne chapba, \ 

2cl, in chome, Ldne chapchome, > Impersonal, as before. 
3d, in na, Ldne chamna, ) 

4th, in me, Ldne cbabume, &c., j Personated, and formed by adding "me" 

5th, in me, Ldue chaptongrne, &c., \ to the tense forms. 

GERUNDS. 

1st, in na, Ldne chabuna, &c., \ Personated all, and constructed as before by 
2d, in na, Lane chaptongna, &c., I adding na or ko to the several tense forms. 
3*1, in ko, Ldne chabuko, &c., f The impersonate past gerund is Ldne chdpso 
4th, in ko, Line chaptongko, &c.,) or chapsomami. 

MIDDLE VOICE. 
Ldna chamso, and so on, precisely as in the verbs to eat and to summon. 



1 . Ldne chamyi 

2. Lane chamyisi 

3. L;iue chamyini 



1. Lane chamyi 

2. Ldne chamyisi 

3. Ldne chamyimi 



Ldne chamye 
Ldne chamyesi 
Ldne chamyemi 

Ldne chaba 
Ldne chapse 
Ldne chamme 



1 . Ldne chapti 

2. Ldnechaptisi 

.c chaptimi 

ne chapte 
2. Ldne chapteai 

i-h.i|.t.-iiii 



Ldne chapta 
Ldne chaptaae 
Ldne chapUme 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Ldne chapsiki 
Ldne chapsikisi 
Ldne chapsikini 

Indicative Present. 

First Person. 
Ldne chapso, incl. 
Ldne chapsiki, excl. 
Lrfne chapsosi, incl. 
Ldne chapsikisi, excl, 
Ldne chapsomi, incl. 
Ldue chapsikimi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Ldne chapsi 
Ldne chapsisi 
Ldne chapsimi 

Third Person. 
Ldne chabasi 
l.;iue chapsesi 
Ldne chammesi 

Preterite. 
Firtt Person. 
Ldne chaptaso, incl. 
Ldne chaptasiki, excl. 
Ldne chaptasosi 
Ldne chaptasikisi 
Ldne chaptasomi 
Ldne ch;i]tasikiini 

Second Person. 
Ldne chaptaai 

r*on. 

Ldne chaptai 
' 
Ldue'chAptameti 



Ldne chapki 
Ldne chapkisi 
Ldne chapkini 



Ldne chapso, iocl. 
Lilne chapki, excl. 
Ldne chapsosi, incl. 
Ldne chapkisi, excl. 
Ldne chapsomi, incl. 
Ldne chapkimi, excl. 

Ldne chamni 
Ldne chamnisi 
Ldue chamuimi 

Ldne chabami 
Ldne chapsemi 
Ldne chammemi 



Ldne chaptaso, incl. 
Ldne chaptaki, excl. 
Ldne chaptasoai 
Ldne chaptakisi 
Ldne chaptaaorai 
Ldue ch.i])takiuii 

Ldne ch.ij.- 
Ldne chapt.i : 



cl,:ij.t:iini 

Ldne 



IvraimvE. It u wanting, aa in all the passive*. 



384 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



1st, in ba, wanting 

2d, in chome, Ldne chapchome 

3d, in na, Ldne chamna 



PARTICIPLES. 

4th, in me, L<ine chamyime, &c. 
5th, in me, Ldne chaptime, &c. 

GERUNDS. 



1st, in na, Ldne chamyina, &c. 3d, in ko, Ldne chamyiko, &c. 

2d, in na, Ldne chaptina, &c. 4th, in ko, Ldne chaptiko, &c. 

Remark. The precedent is given in full, first, because it affords a sample of 
transitives in "po ;" second, because it demonstrates that these so-called moods are 
merely compound verbs, which (like the case signs) can be multiplied ad infinitum, 
but have little to do with grammar. 

Duty, necessity ; I must, or ought. 

It is expressed by the impersonal use of the verb dyum, to become, put after the 
main verb in the regular infinitive, with the separate objective pronoun preceding 
both. 

IMPERATIVE wanting. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. 

( G<5si Idcho dyum, incl. 
| G<5suku Idcho dyum, excl. 
Gasi Idcho dyum 
Haremdausi Idcho dyum 

Preterite. 

G<5si Idcho dyumta 
Gosuku Idcho dyumta 
Gasi Idcho dyumta 



Singular. 

1st Per. G6 Idcho dyum * 

\ 

2d Per. Ga Idcho dyum 
3rf Per. Harem Idcho dyum 

1st Per. G6 Idcho dyumta j 



Plural. 

G6yi Idcho dyuin 
Guku Idcho dyum 
Gani Idcho dyum 
Hareindau Idcho dyum 



2d Per. Ga Idcho dyumta 
$d Per. Harem Idcho 
dyumta 



1. Wa tola dwdng 

2. f tola dwdng 

3. A tola dwdng 



Goyi Idcho dyumta 
Goku Idcho dyumta 
Gani Idcho dyumta 

Harerndausi Idcho dyumta Haremdau Idcho dyumta 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Wish, desire. 
Indicative Present. 

First Person. 

( Isi Idla dwdng, incl. fke tola dwdng 

( Wasi tola dwdng, excl. Wake tola dwdng 

Second Person. 
fsi Idla dwang. fni tola dwdng 

Third Person. 

Asi tola dwdng A'ni Idla dwdng 

Preterite. 



I. 



tola dwakta 

2. T tola dwakta 

3. A tola dwakta 



Tsi Idla dwakta, incl. 
Wasi Idla dwakta, excl. 
fsi Idla dwakta 
Asi Ida dwakta 



fke Idla dwakta, incl. 
Wake Idla dwakta excl. 
Tni tola dwakta 
A'ni Idla dwakta 



Formed of the conjunct possessives of lala, a verbal noun from la, to go, and of 
dwang, dwakta, the third person of the intransitive dwakko, to be desirous. Pre- 
sent and preterite used impersonally. 

PRECATIVE MOOD. 

Oh ! that I might go. 

Let me go. 

Imperative. 

1. Ldcho giyi Ldcho gisiki Ldcho giki 

2. Ldcho giyisi Ldcho gisikisi Ldcho gikisi 

3. Ldcho giyini Ldcho gikisi Ldcho j:ikiii 



Quasi mihi ire fit, i e., decet vel necesse est, in Kl>a, manlai janu parcha. 



1. Ldcho giyi 

2. Lacho giyisi 

3. Ldcho giyiuii 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 385 

Indicative present. 

First person. 

Ldcho giso Ldcho giso 

Ldcho gisiki Ldcho giki 

Ldcho gisoki Ldcho gisosi 

Ldcho gisikisi Ldcho gikisi 

Ldcho giaorai Ldcho gisomi 

Ldcho gisikimi Ldcho gikimi 



And so on, conjugating the transitive giwo, to give, in the passive voice, like the 
B of jfiwo. to eat, aforegone. Lacho giyi = let me go, give me to go. But 
observe, that in order to say let him go, you must use the active voice, as below. 



Remark. If to these forms we add those of 
the middle voice, S. Ldcho giso, D. Lacho 
gische, P. Lacho gisine, we have a good clue to 
the character of the three voices in this language, 
which are based upon the idea of me, the speaker, 
being the exponent of the passive ; of self, the 
spoken to, being that of the middle ; and of him, 
or her, or it, the spoken of, being that of the 
active voice. Gi-wo = give him : gi-so = give 
thyself : gi-yi = give me, are respectively the 
starting-points of the active, middle, and passive 
voices. 



ilar. 

Let me go, Idcho giyi 
Let him go, Idcho giwo 

Dual. 

Let us two go, Idcho gisiki 
Let them two go, Idcho giwosi 

Plural. 

Let us all go, Idcho giki 

Let them all go, Idcho giwomi 

INTERROGATIVE MOOD. 
It resembles the indicative, lagna, I shall go, or shall I go? 

PROHIBITIVE AND NEGATIVE MOOD. 

There is no separate form of the negative verb as in Dravidian tongues, nor even 
any prohibitive particle distinct from the negative. 

prefixed expresses verbal negation and prohibition, and also nominal privation ; 
e.g., ma jawo, eat not ; ma jagna, I do not eat ; ma neuba, not good = bad. 

INCKPTIVE MOOD. 

It is formed by subjoining to the ordinary infinitive form (cho) of the main verb 
the subsidiary intransitive verb pre'nso, to begin, or the transitive pawo, to do, to 
make: e.g., tiicho pawo, begin to drink; tucho papta, he began to drink; jacho 
-u, begin to eat ; jacho prensigna, I begin to eat. 

FINITIVE MOOD. 

It is formed as above, but substituting for pawo or pre'nso the transitive theummo 
.'io), e.g., jacho theummo, finish eating ; jacho theumtong, I have done eating. 

men "ne " * replaces the infinitival "cho " of the main verb. 
/>'. The neuters ryipo (desino) and dyummo (fio), to be ended or to end, cannot 
be used in this way, and prenso, to be begun or to begin (self), is much r:ir< r in such 
use than pawo. K\ n>.-:.o p&wa is, it nears its end, literally it makes to an end, or 
to be ended. 

CONTTNUATIVI Mm. p. 

It is formed by adding s/>gno (sense doubtful) to the root of the main verb, and 
Tith conjugating the i: n (s <-.,nj. III.'. 

,ue eating, jasogno bwakko. N.B. The definite present and past are also 
thus expressed. 

'tar. Dual. Plvral. 

Jaso-gno bwakko, eat con- 1 

tiniKiualy or keep eat- > Jaso-gno bwakse, incl. Jdfto-gno bwangne 

ing ) 

* The infinitival sign rarien, not always Intelligibly. Where purpoM is n. 
the sign, as jatha lati, I went to drli.i a put-pom; of .1. ii.kn./ \vi,, ?.- , . Tnmcnco- 

ind end are exprewed, "no" is mow frequr < umu, 

I nhull begin to en', and 1 shall have done eating. Ho also whcro winh in cxpreMed, JAno 
dwaktong. I wished to eat. But cho' is the common form, and always used alone, as jacho 
ma jacho a<ryem neu, which U better to oat or not to eat. 

VOL. I. 2 B 



386 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Indicative present. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

1st Per. Jdso-gno bwang- ( Jdsogno bwaksa, incl. Jilsogno bwanuya 

gna ( Jasogno bwaksuku, excl. Jasogno bwakka 

2d Per. Jasogno bwangye Jasogno bwaksi Jasogno bwangni 

3^ Per. Jasogno bwaug Jasogno bwakse Jasogno bwamme * 

Preterite. 

1st Per. Jasogno bwakti, } bwaktasa . incl . Ja8Og no bwaktayo 

or I was ea"n U g U 7> | Ja^no bwaktasuku, excl. Jasogno bwaktako 
2d Per. Jasogno bwakte Jasogno bwaktasi Jasogno bwaktani 

%d Per. Jasoguo bwakta Jasogno bwaktase Jasogno bwaktame 

Infinitive. 
Jasogno bwakcho. 

Participles. 

1st, in ba, Jasogno bwakpa (ba). (Surd requires surd.) 
2d, in chome, Jasogno bwakchome. 
3d, in na, Jasogno bwangna. 

4th, in me, Jasogno bwanggnarne, &c., eleven forms, ut supra. 
5th, in me, Jasogno bwaktiiue, &c., ditto, ditto. 

Gerunds. 

1st, in na, Jasogno bwanggnana, &c., eleven forma. 

2d, in na, Jasogno bwaktina, &c., ditto. 

3d, in ko, Jasogno bwanggnako, &c., ditto. 

4th, in ko, Jasogno bwaktiko, &c., ditto. 

Remark. The above is given in full as an exemplar of intransitives in "ko." 
The transitives of the same conjugation (III.) have the like euphonic changes, ami 
for the rest (their conjugation may be determined by analogy with the help of the 
premises already supplied. The indicative present singular alone varies, and that 
is set down in the classification of verbs. The radical " k " becomes " g" in the 
active voice, and "ng" in the passive and causal, e.g. pok-ko, pog-u, pong-yi, 
p6ng-pato. 

ITERATIVE MOOD. 
Raise repeatedly, pdkko, m6kho, bwdkko. 

It is formed by adding to the imperative of the main verb, whether transitive or 
intransitive, the word mokho (sense unknown), and to it subjoining the verb 
bwakcho, to remain, as in the last mood to which this is very nearly allied in sense. 
There, however, we have compound conjugation according to the sense of the pri- 
mary and secondary verbs, which are both conjugated with mokho, immutable, 
between them, e.g. 

Tpo m<5kho bwdkho, sleep repeatedly Pokko m<5kho bwa"kko, raise repeatedly 

Tmgna mdkho bwanggna, I sleep re- ( Pdgu m6kko bwauggna, I raise re- 
peatedly | peatedly 

fpti mdkho bwakti, I slept repeatedly j **%***" ^^ * "^ 

And so on through the whole of the intransitive conjugation in "po " (VI.) and of 
the transitive in " ko " (III.) The definite sense of the present and preterite, 
I am sleeping, I was sleeping, I am raising, I was raising, in likewise thus expressed. 

Conjugation with auxiliar and substantive Verb and Participle. 
Of the four substantive verbs, ka, khe\ gn6, and bwa, the three first express 
essence and entity, the last presence, being in a certain place, corresponding re- 
spectively to the Khas ho and cha, and to the Newari kha and du, or chona. Of 
the Bdhing four, the last, or bwa, is alone used as an auxiliar, and it is compounded 
with the (apparent) participle or gerund aforegone, or Jasogno, in order to make a 
definite present (or future) and past tenses of any and every verb in the manner 

* Observe the change of the radical k into ng and m, bwak-ko, bwang-gna, bwam-me 
It is constant in all verbs ueuter iu " ko." 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



337 



there seen, e.g., pisogno bwanggna, I am coming ; pisogno bwakti, I was coming; 
teupsogno bwanggna, I am beating ; teupsogno bwakti, I was beating. 

Remark. Jasogno, which gives the continuative and the definite form of the 
tenses above, seems to spring from the impersonal past gerund in "so," jaso vel 
jasomami. But that is not clear, though it be so that, whatever else jasogno is, it 
is a form of every verb usable with the auxiliar in conjugation. 

Jasoguo bwanggna = I am eating. Pisogno bwakti = I was coming. 

Jasogno bwakti = I was eating. Brdsogno bwanggna= I am summoning. 

Pisogno bwanggna = I aui coining. Brdsogno bwakti = I was summoning. 

Compound Verbs with each element conjugated. 
Jwagdiwo, to arrive.* 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual. Plural. 

Jwagdise Jwagdine 

Indicative present. 

\ Jwaksadisa, incl. Jwangyadiya, incl. 

\ Jwaksudisuku, excl. Jwakkadika, excl. 

Jwaksidisi Jwangnidini 

Jwaksedise Jwangmedlme 
Preterite. 

( Jwaktasaditasa Jwaktayodintayo 

| Jwaktasuditasuku Jwaktakod intake 

Jwaktasiditaei Jwaktanidintaui 

Jwaktaseditase Jwaktamedimtame 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Jwakohodicho. 

Participles. 

4th, in me, Jwanggnamediguame, &c. 

Stb. in me, Jw a k t im editi m e, *, 

Gerunds. 

Impersonal of the present none. 
Impersonal of the past, Jwaksomamidisomani or Jwaksodiso. 

Personated Gerunds. 

I \vanggnadignana, j f 3d, Jwanggnadignako, 

2d, Jwaktiditina, j P 1 4 th, Jwaktaditako, 

Causal Verbs, t 

All verbs whatever can be made causal by adding to their root the transitive verb 
pato, from p4, to do or make. But pa makes its regular transitive in " wo," pawo. 

vaTcko it an intransitive in " ko," meaning to arrive, and it con bo conjugated 
separately ; but, with that love of specialisation which is so characteristic of Kintnti verbs, 
it is always used in conjunction with the verb to come (pfwo) or to go (dfwo). Jwn^di'wo 
as a single word can be also to conjugated. The remarkable thing is that each verb 
compound can be conjugated. 

can also say Jwakkodfwo, using the full form of each verb ia the imperative as in 
the indicative. 

t Besides its ordinary use, the causal form of the verb is frequently used, especially in 
ito middle voice, as a passive. Thus, Japaso is be thou eaten, or suffer thyself to bo eaten, 



jular. 
Jwagdiwu f 



1st Per. Jwanggnadigna 

2d Per. Jwanggnediye 
$d Per. Jwangnidi 



1st Per. Jwaktiditi 

2d Per. Jwaktedite 
3rf Per. Jwaktadita 



1st, in ba, Jwakpadiba. 



past 



implying voluntarinoM on the part of the patient ; and so hempaso is let thyself be kissed. 
All three voiots, however, can be used thus, and frequently 
ilisation of the primary verb causes embarrai>iiment 



are so, whenever ' 
The passive use of the causal 



pronomi 

is very common in Himalaya, and is often, as in Newari. the only substitute for a pas 
in so crude a tongue as Newari : it is so, however, in the Kitanti 






suffixes and its power of euphonic 
the agents and too little to the act 



secret of the most refined conjugation in its neat personal 
nding. Owing, however, to too much atu i 



agents and too little to the action, the Ktranti verb, with all its constructive richness on 

nne M-l", -.IIT.VH . ., ,:.! j. .-.. rt v n ,i ..tl,,-r. !.n>l 1 .-tn . tin- |.:V-MV,- u-r ,,( t),,- r.-rr .1 !<.rm. 

I The root p*, pT, in Vayu, an allied llimalayan tongue, is the tame as the Dravidian 
causative. 



338 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

Pa wo is do ; pato, do for him, on his behalf ; and this leads me to observe that every 
transitive verb, save those in " to," has the following six forms : 

1. Teuppo, strike him, active transitive in "po." 

2. Teum-so, strike thyself, reflex transitive, or middle, in " so." 

3. Teum-yi, strike me, passive in "i. " 

4. Teup-to, strike it for him, active transitive in " to." 

5. Teum-so, strike it for thyself, middle in " so." 

6. Teupti, strike it for me, passive in " ti." 

So also pa, to do, has pa-wo, paso, payi ; pato, paso, and piiti : and kw6, to see, 
has kw6gno, kw6so, kwoyi ; kwoto, kwoso, and kwoti : and pok, to raise, has pokko, 
pokso, pongyi ; pokto, pokso, pokti ; and in like manner every other transitive, 
except those in " to" as the primary form. It is the secondary form of the tran- 
sitive of the verb to make, or pato, which is used for constructing causals, but yet 
it takes the passives in "i," not "ti,"when thus employed, though, when used 
separately, it assumes its regular form in " ti" an anomaly, like that of the use of 
the reflex or middle voice in one form and two senses (2, 5). 

But besides the regular causal formed by pato added to the root of the main v>rl 
(e.g., kwopato, cause to see), there are other means of constructing causals, which 
shall be first mentioned before proceeding to exhibit the conjugation of the former. 

These means are, first, the hardening of the initial consonant of an intransitive, 
as 

Dokko, fall. Tokko, cause to fall 

Dyummo, become Thyummo,* cause to become 

Gukko, be crooked Kukko, crooken or make crooked 

Gikko, be born Kikko, beget or give birth to 

Jito, be torn Chito, tear 

Bokko, get up Pokko, raise, or make get up 

Bukko, be burst Pukko, burst 

Second, by dropping the intransitive sign, whatever it be, and substituting the 
transitive sign in " to," or " ndo " (do). 
Piwo, come Pito, bring 

Rdwo, cotne Ra"to, bring 

Diwo, go Dito, take away 

Ldwo, go Ldto, take away 

Kuwo, come up Kuto, bring up 

Yuwo, come down Yuto, bring down 

Dwakko, be desirous or long Dwakto, desire it, or long fur it 

Tugno, drink Tundo, cause to drink 

Wogno, issue Wondo, extract 

Glugno, enter Glundo, insert 

Chjlyinso, learn Chtfyindo, teach, i.e., cause to learn 

Niso, sit Nito, set down, or seat him, or cause to sit 

Khleuso, lie hid Khleundo, hide it 

I need not point out what nn important analogy with the Dravidian tongues the 
first (nay, both) of these two processes presents, but I may add that this analogy is 
in perfect keeping with the further habit of this Him&layan language of hardening 
or doubling the indicative present sign by way of making a preterite, as 
Myelda, he is sleepy Myelta, he was sleepy 

Sdda, he kills Sdta, he killed 

Kwa"da, he puts on the fire Kwdta, he put on the fire 

Gramda, he hates Grain ta, lie hated 

Teuba, he strikes Teupta, he struck 

Bre'ta, he summons Bre'tta, he summoned 

Khleuta, he conceals Khleutta, he concealed 

Soda, he tells it Sotta, he told it 

Add the absence of conjunctive (relative) pronouns, and of conjunctions proper 
(and), with the manner in which these are replaced, and all sentences held together, 

* Perh-ins tyummo ; hardening or aspirating, rarely both. But there are a few instances 
of it in Bahing aud also in Vayu as dum, become ; thumto, cause to become. 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 389 

by participles carrying an inherent relative-pronoun sense, and by gerunds which are 
essentially copulative. It is, however, but fair to add that these are traits by no 
means exclusively Dravidio-Himalayan. Still they are a sound part of the answer 
which may be given to those who, like Caldwell, assert that there is nothing Dravi- 
diau in the languages of Himalaya.* 

Add to these analogies the common habit of Bahing and Tamil of annexing the 
conjugational sign to the imperative, and that that sign is differently applied to 
intransitives and transitives (leaving the style of the indicative to difference them) ; 
and further that the conjunct pronomenalisation of their verbs and nouns is by pre- 
fixing in regard to the nouns and suffixing in regard to the verbs, not to mention 
several other analogies cited in the sequel, and Messrs. Miiller and Caldwell will find 
it difficult to maintain their assertion that there is nothing Dravidian in the struc- 
ture of the Himalayan tongues ! 

Many verbs identical in form in the imperative, yet differ in sense, as khiwo, n., 
tremble, and khiwo, a., quarrel ; uto, n., fall, uto, a., fell. Many, again, materially 
change their sense in passing into the causal or transitive form from the intransitive 
or neuter ; and, lastly, the causal form of neuters and of transitives, though very 
generally of the normal construction in pato added to the root (ippo, sleep ; impato, 
cause to sleep), yet in the case of many verbs of both sorts in "po" and in "gno " is 
not so, the alteration being effected by changing their sign into the transitive "to" 
vel "do" sii:n, as ippo, sleep; ipto, cause to sleep (a synonyme of impato) ; tugno, 
drink ; tundo ( -- tupato), cause to drink. When the sense is much altered in such 
transition, the derivative causal of a neuter is constantly regarded as an independent 
word and primitive verb, and the neuter takes the normal causal form, thus law.-, u. 
= go, has lato for its causal ; but lato being used to signify take away, lapato is 
made to express the precise sense of cause to go. 

All this shows, when taken in connection with the general transformability of all 
lives not primitively in "to"' into that form, the pre-eminent transitive and 
preterite character of that widely-diffused sign. 

It also shows how apt causal is to be equivalent to transitive, another widely- 
prevailing Turanian trait, and one harmonising with the almost identity of neuter 
and intransitive. And here we may remark another special characteristic common 
to the Himalayan and Dravidian tongues, viz., double causation. Thus, in Bahing 
(and it is the same in many others of our tongues), ippo, sleep ; impato, cause to 
sleep; iinpapato, cause to cause to sleep. Gikko, be born ; kikko or gin^pato. cause 
to be born ; kingpato or gingpapato, cause to cause to be born ; to which we may 
add kingpapato, expressing causation in the third degree from the primitive gikko ; 
ne like holds good with regard to every neuter undergoing a similar change with 
gikko. 

I proceed now to exhibit an exemplar of the normal causative form of verbs, 

taking the instance of the verb to eat. Root, ja ; causal transitive, japato ; causal 

reflex, japa&o ; causal passive, japayi. The prefixed root docs not affect the gram- 

matical form of the auxiliars save as above stated. Pato, therefore, in this com- 

. >n, will afford a sample of all transitives in " to '' which change the t into d. 

' if the unrhaiix'ing transitives in "to 1 ' I have given a model in breto. I shall here 

i'ito in full in its combination with ja, aa a sample of the changing conjuga- 

111 "t" (see conjugation X.), merely premising that paso, as an intransitive in 

"so" (see conjugation XIII ), and payi, as a passive in "i " (yi to keep the vowels 

;i]trt merely f), have already been given in full, as also the passive in "ti" (vide 

See not* t p. 356. 

- " 



'/" ' '> 1 ; :4 " ', ( .....in tally to identity. Here, then, 

!l l*.!n ' thc a " e * ed SSo!* of ' 

MSB" 

t M al*o require* the y ; for ex*mpl< ' Hkes me, be, or tbou I am struck ; nee 

remarks aforegone. It in because the o0*n{ may be he or thou (11.17 our) in thc pOMive, that 
the passive runs so Dear parallel with Uic sccuud tpeeial form of ibe * ci b. 



390 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 



Singular of Agent. 

1. Jdpdto 

Dual of Object. 

2. Jdpdtosi 

Plural of Object. 

3. Jdpdtomi 



Singular. 

1. Japadu 

2. Jdpddusi 

3. Jdpddumi 



1. JdpaMi 

2. Jdpddisi 

3. Jdpdditni 

1. Jdpdda 

2. Japddasi 

3. Jdpddaiui 



1. Japdtong 

2. Japdtongsi 

3. Jdpdtongmi 



1. Jdpdteu 

2. Jdpdteusi 

3. Japdteumi 

1. Jdpdta 

2. Jdpdtasi 

3. Jdpdtami 



Paradigm of a Causal Verb. 
ACTIVE VOICE. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Dual of Agent. 
Jdpdse 

Dual of Object. 
Jdpdsesi 

Plural of Object. 
J a pi we mi 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present and Future Tense. 

First Person. 

Dual. 

Jdpdsa, incl. 

Jdpasuku, excl. 

Jdpdsasi, incl. 

Jdpdsukusi, excl. 
( Jdpdsami, incl. 
| Jdpdsukximi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Jiptfd 

Jdpdsisi 
Jdpdsimi 

Third Person. 

Jdpdse 

Japdsesi 

Jdpdaemi 

Preterite. 
First Person. 
\ Japiltasa, incl. 
| Japdtasuku, excl. 
( Jiipdtasaai, incl. 
| Jdiidtasukusi, excl. 

i.-ami, iucl. 
\ Japdtasukumi, excl. 

Second Person. 
Jdpdtasi 
Jdpdtasiai 
Jdpdtasimi 

Third Person. 
Jdpdtase 
Jdpdtasesi 
Jdpdtasemi 



Plural of Agent. 
Japdne 

Dual of Object. 
Jupdnesi 

Plural of Object. 
Jdpdnemi 



Plural. 
Jdpdya, incl. 
Jdpdka, excl. 
Jdpdyosi, incl. 
Jdpdkosi, excl. 
Jdpdyomi, incl. 
Jdpdkomi, excl. 

Jdpdni 

Jdpdnisi 

Jdpdnimi 

Jdpdme 

Jdpdmesi 

Japdmemi 



Jdpdtayo, incl. 
Jdpdtako, excl. 
Jdpdtayosi, incl. 
Jdpdtakosi, excl. 
Jdpdtayomi, incl. 
Jdpdtakomi, excl. 

Jdpdtani 
Jdpdtaniai 



Jdpdtame 
Jdpdtamesi 
Japdtainemi * 



* Observe for a moment the singular neatness, euphony, and precision of these forms. 
The single words japatamesi and j^pktamemi must be rendered into English by they all fed 
them two and they all fed them all; into NewaYi, by amisang, aminihma yata nakala. .111 1 
:iniis:\ng amita nakala. And but for the happy term to feed in English the distinction 
would be greater still. In Khas the equivalents are, uui heru le li uwi lai khuwaiyo and uui 
heru le u heru lai khuwaiyo, or seven words for one ! 



BAHING GRAMMAR. 39I 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Japdcho, aoristic as usual. 

Participle*. 

1st, in ba, J^pdba, who feeds or will or did feed. 
2d, iu chome, Jdpdchome, feedable, whom or with what any one feeds or will 

feed. 

3d, in na, Jdpjina, fed, whom or with what any one has fed. 

4th, in me, J.-ipddume, &c., thirty-three forms. Feedable by me: whom or 
with what I feed or will feed, &c. 

5th, in me, Jrfpdtongme, &c., thirty-three forms. The fed of me; whom or 
with what I fed, &c. 

N.B.i-$ are impersonal, as before ; 4-5 are personated. 

Gerunds. 

Non-personated of the present and future, none. 
Non-personated of the past, Jdpaso, or Jupdsomami. 

Personated Present. 

1st, in na, Jtipdduna, &c., thirty-three forms. 
2d, in na, Jdpdtougua, &c., thirty-three forms. 

Personated Past. 

1st, in ko, JiipaMiiko, &c., thirty-three forms. 
2d, in ko, JdpdtxSngko, &c., thirty-three forms. 



SPECIMEN OF THE KIRANTI LANGUAGE (BAKING DIALECT). 

Kw6ng muryeu h6po ke di bre"tha * lata. Gye"khopaso bretha 
davaiia. Wa khyim di kw6ng muryeu, rasogno bwaktako, wa ming 
iiiuig dw4ngm6se. G6 harem gy4naiyo ma tagna, syti, syii. Ike 
nyau asra jajulso, my em sicho, Idma, daso, binti t papta. 

ling hopomi harem kwong rl nyiiba gyawa dyanipattame 

slsi giptako chyanta, yem sisi i ming giptako, syiiyo m& giwo, daso, 

I6paso, gfwo. Hdrem miiryeunii myem kh6gno papta. H6pomi y 

chiwacha <lau linitamiko chyantami. Syuke di rinyuba gyawa 

. iiiy.-ni nicho. 

M. n. .in- ryamnfpo Ix'laf kw6somami ming ke di dfta. Myem 
mingmi \\a-li i inyuba gyawa khlyakti giptako m6cho pr&ista, mara 
dayana, wa wancha mi syti (or su) m4 giwo m6time bwa. Naka ga 
wa ram khome bwagne, i kamdi mara kh6da syu ke kam di ra data 

SeeJnoM on the InfinitiTo at p. 167. 

t A*. 5. Nyau. aura, hiuti. and Mia are Hindi term* haring no preci*e quiralen 

i tongue. Though it would be eaejr to turn the phra*e K> M to replace them by 
Kiranti termii, I leave them an amplec of a prooeee everywhere going on in the Central 
Himalaya, whose .till priuiiUve UiiguagN will probably In time become flr.t mixed aui 



392 BAHING GRAMMAR. 

(or mota). Me"keding ryamnipo khyim ding glutana chiwachadaumi 
a ri tamtameko, myem simtameko, h6po ke di ch6tha dimtame. 

Mekeding h6pomi a wancha bretako, m6ta, yem i ryamnipo, 
dwakti khedda chyaro, dwakti khedda plyenti giwo (or plyenotako) 
daso data. 

TRANSLATION. 

A certain person went to his prince to complain of a man who 
was in the habit of coming constantly to his house to make love to 
his wife, but whom he could never contrive to identify. To his 
sovereign he said, " Relying on your justice, I appeal to you to have 
this man arrested." The Rajah thereon gave the petitioner a phial 
filled with scented oil, and said to him, " Give this phial to your wife, 
and caution her at the same time not to give it to any one." The 
man did as he was bade, and the Rajah, when he was gone, in- 
structed his spies to look after the matter, and to seize and bring 
to his presence any person they might detect coming from the 
plaintiff's house whose clothes had the scent of atter. 

By and by, the lover, finding an opportunity, went as before to 
his mistress, who rubbed the atter on his clothes, and said to him, 
" My husband desired me to give this atter to no one, but you are 
my life, my soul, how should I refuse it to you ? If you like it, take 
it. I can have no other use for it," 

As the lover, thus anointed with atter, thereafter left the house 
of his mistress, the spies of the Rajah, who were on the look-out 
for him, seized him and carried him to the Rajah. 

The Rajah thereon sent for the woman's husband, and said to 
him, " This is your wife's lover. If you please, kill him ; if you 
please, let him go." 



END OF BAKING GRAMMAR. 



VAYU TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HUlALA YA. 393 
V. 

ox Tin: VAYU OR niYU TRIBE or THE CENTRAL 

HIMALAYA. 

THE Viiyus, vulgarly called Hay us, inhabit the central Hima- 
laya, and the central region of that part of the chain.* 
They are subjects of Nepal, tenanting the basin of the river 
; between the confines of the great valley of Nepal proper 
and that point where the Kosi turns southwards to issue into 
the plains. The Yayus belong to that interesting portion of the 
Himalayan population which, in the essay adverted to, I have 
denominated the broken tribes tribes whose status and i < ni- 
di t ion, relatively to those of the unbroken tribes, sufficiently 
demonstrate that they are of much older standing in Himalaya 
than the latter. The Yayus are in an exceedingly depressed 
condition, gradually passing to extinction probably. Their 
numbers do not now exceed a few thousands how many, I 
have no means of ascertaining. 

Their high antiquity and the complex character of their 
language, give them, especially in connection with other tribes 
of Himalaya similarly characterised, very great interest as an 
element of Himalayan population. They consider themselves 
as a single people distinct from all their neighbours. Their 
uage, which has no marked dialects, and is quite unint ri- 
le to any but themselves, supports this view. So also 
their perfect community of habits and customs, though 
recognise certain distinctions among themselves, of no 
tical importance, but marked by specific designations, of 
which the chief are Yakum, Dojtliom, Konsino, JJalung, 
rhoncho, KamaliVhho, &c. 

Balunir, I know, means exorcist in the Viiyu tongue; and 
the other terms probably point to some perhaps now forgotten 
avocations. At all events, the people cannot now explain the 

>f the terms. 

They have a tradition of a very remote time win -n they 

were a numerous and powerful people; but never having had 

i king, their remote past is too vague for ascertam- 

<- DPW edition of Essay on Physical Geography of Himalaya, printed < 
the auspices of Governmeut. 



394 VAYU TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 

ment : no foreign and cultivated people having ever noticed 
and recorded * their existence. The religious ideas of the 
Vayus are extremely vague, nor does their language afford any 
term for the, Deity, or even for any deity ; though they have, 
as usual, an exorcist, who is their only priest and physician, 
and to whom they look for relief from all those evils which 
malignant influence, whatever it be, afflicts them with. They 
are a very inoffensive industrious race, employed in the culti- 
vation of the earth. Their use of the plough is noticeable from 
its rarity in these regions. 

As it has been the chief object of this paper to illustrate 
the highly interesting language t of the Vayus, I shall not at 
present say more of their status, manners, and customs th;m 
by a reference to their own account of these conveyed in tin*. 
statement subjoined to the language, as a sample thereof, and 
of which translation was there furnished. J 

But the physical traits of the Vayu are of an importance 
second only to that of his language, and the following descrip- 
tion will help to illustrate them : 

Dimensions of a man named Pate, a Vayu of the Ydkum caste, aged tweniij- 
eight years, in the service of Captain Gajrdj Thdpa of Ndpdl. 

ft. in. 

Height, ... ..50 

Crown of head to hip, , . . . i 1 1 \ 

Hip to heel, . . . . . 3 o 

Length of arm and hand, . . 2 2\ 

Girth of head, . . . . .19 

Girth of arm, . . . . .09 

Girth of forearm, . . . .09^ 

Girth of thigh, . . . . . i 6~ 

Girth of calf, . . . . .11 

Girth of chest, . . . . .211 

* Are not our Hayus, or Haiyus, the Haivas of Lakshtnidhara's Shadbhashachan- 
drika, wherein he truly calls them Mountain barbaroi ? See Muir's Sanscrit Texts, 
ii. 59. See also i. 181, voce Haihayas, Haihayas Haivas Haiyus Hayus = 
Vayus. 

f I meant to have prefaced the linguistic details by a few general remarks under 
the usual heads of Article, Noun, Pronoun, &c. ; but time runs short, and the 
philological reader will readily apprehend these from the details themselves, whilst 
other classes of readers are little likely to pay any attention to the matter. 

See pp. 317-19- 

See xxvii. Report for several of the other tribes. 



VAYU TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 395 

Pate is rather below than above the standard height of his 
fellows, which may be taken at about five feet three inches. 
His colour is a pure isabelline brown, without the least trace 
of ruddiness in the skin or hair. The eye is dark hazel, and 
the hair long, straight, black, ample on the head, scant every- 
where else. 

: -al view of the head oblate ovoid, rather wider behind 
than before, but not much, and flattish behind. 

Bachycephalic. Facial angle very good, the mouth being 
only moderately salient, and the forehead of good height, for- 
wardness, and breadth, but the chin defective. Eyebrows even, 
scantish. No beard or whisker, and a very small moustache. 
Eyes small, flush with the cheek, oblique, very wide apart, 
drooping upper lid bent down at the inner angle. Nose rather 
short, straight, depressed between the eyes, moderately salient 
elsewhere, broad at end, and having large round nostrils. Mouth 
moderately salient, the peculiar thickening of the upper gum, 
which chiefly causes the saliency, being not great, and the lips 
not tumid, only moderately full. Teeth vertically set, strong, 
white. Chin retiring and small. Zygomata and cheek-bones 
very salient to the sides, and profile flat. Front view of the 
face squarish, owing to the large angular jaws, which are MB 
salient laterally as the zygomata. 

Remark. This young man's physiognomy is distinguished 
by the full Turanian breadth of head and face. Two others of 
his race whom I examined a man of fifty-eight years and 
another of thirty years had not the same breadth nor tin' 
same perfectly Kalmac eye. These men measured nearly live 
feet five inches, and were several shades darker in colour than 
; and upon the whole I incline to regard them as more 
normal samples of the race than Pate. In a word, 1 think that 
I have sufficient grounds for concluding that the Yayu> :nv in 
general somewhat darker and of a less decidedly Mongolic cast 
of countenance than the Lepchas (for example), from whose 
perfectly Turanian type they lean towards the Turkic nn-l 

vidian sub-types, which a^ain approach the Ariau. an-: 
seen in the Kirunti tribe of ; Himalaya more clearly and 
iitly than in tin- \Yivu tribe. 

The the two ii; i \ i'luals above I to 1 was 



396 VAYU TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 

enabled to examine rapidly whilst Mr. Scott photographed him. 
He was five feet four inches and a half in height, moderate -ly 
fleshy, and dark brown. Vertical view of the head oblate. 
Wider and flat behind, greatest breadth between the ears, rising 
pyramidally from the zygomata to the crown of the head. 
Facial angle not bad, the forehead retiring, and narrowing only 
slightly, the mouth not being porrect, nor the chin retiring but 
pointed. Eyes remote, not small, but the upper lids flaccid and 
somewhat down-curved at the inner cantlius. Nose pyramidal, 
not levelled between the eyes nor the extremity much thick- 
ened, but the nares large and round. Mouth large but well 
formed, with neatly-shaped lips and vertical fine teeth. 

The younger man above alluded to was five feet five inches, 
and as dark as an ordinary native of the plains, whom he further 
resembled in his unflattened face, though his eye wanted the 
nil ness and shapeliness of that of the lowlanders beside whom 
I placed him. 

When these Hayus were placed beside some Dhangars of the 
I r;ion tribe, the impression made upon me by a comparison of 
the whole was, that the physical type is one and the same in 
the highlanders and lowlanders; that the type is flexible to a 
lai^e extent; and that the general effect of the northman's 
residence for ages in the malarious and jungly swamps of the 
plains is to cause the Turanian type to incline toward the 
Negro type, but with a wide interval from the latter. The 
Union, compared with the Vayu, has less breadth of head and 
face, more protuberance of mouth, and a better-shaped, larger 
eye, not down-curved next the nose ; and it is thus, I conceive, 
that the Negro type differs from the Turanian. 



VI. 

ON THE KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL 
HIMALAYA. 

It has been the main purpose of one of the preceding papers 
to examine the grammatical structure of the Kiranti language, 
as a second sample of that class of Himalayan tongues (the 



KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 397 

Yayu tongue, already examined, being the first) which I have 
elsewhere denominated the pronomenalised or complex.* 

The opinion of such scholars as Mtiller and Caldwell, that 
the Himalayan tongues have nothing Dravidian about them, 
can thus be tested, and, I think, shown to be a mistake; and it- 
will be further demonstrated, I trust, by these and other inves- 
tigations which I hope soon to complete, that the Himalayan 5 
are closely connected as well with the southern as with the 
northern members of the family of Tur members by no means 
so disjoined and dissimilar as it is the fashion to represent them. 

As a supplement to the grammatical details, I will now give 
such a sketch of the Kiranti people, as at present existing in 
Ne*pal, as will, I hope, add to the interest and value of the philo- 
logical portion of my essay. 

The Kirantis, on account of their distinctly traceable anti- 
quity as a nation and the peculiar structure of their language, 
are perhaps the most interesting of all the Himalayan races, not 
even excepting the Xewars of Nepal proper. 

By means of the notices contained in the classics of the East 
and West, we are assured that the Kiranti people was forth- 
coming in their present abode from 2000 to 2500 years back, 
and that their power was great and their dominion extensive, 
reaching possibly at one time to the delta of the Ganges. More- 
over, the general tenor of these classical notices is confirmed by 
the Vansavalis, or chronicles of Ne"pal proper, which show a Inn- 
line of Kiranti sovereigns ruling there from the mythic age of 
i kings (G6pal) down to the fourteenth century of 
our era. And, lastly, these distinct historical data harmonise 
with a well-known tradition, which assigns a very unusual (in 
these regions) amount of power and population to the "inanv- 
tODgued" K.:..:iti. We know not when the Kirantis v 
expelled from th<: plains of India; if indeed they rvi-r held 
.iianent possession there. But it was tin- Mall dynasty of 
Ne*pal proper which, about the middle of the fourteenth rent 
expelled them from the great valley ; and ; f the oa 

or Vijayapur branch of t anis, by whom tl 

dence in the mountains, probably about the same period, 

' See Easily 1 Geography of Himalaya, and other papers, issued under 

the auspices of Govenuncut. 



398 K1RANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIM ALA YA. 

greatly trenched on ; whilst the Stihs of the house of Gorklia, 
now sovereigns of the modern kingdom of Nepal, completed the 
subjection of the Kirantis about a century ago. 

Adverting to the high recorded antiquity of the terms Kmit 
or Kirant and Kirati or Kiranti (vague nasal), as applied respec- 
tively to the country and people even to this hour, it is remark- 
able that the Kirantis themselves do not readily admit the 
genuineness or propriety of those terms, but prefer the names 
Khwombo vel Khombo and Kiniwa as their general personal 
designations, and seem to have none at all for their country. 
But the Kirantis, always ignorant of letters, have been now for 
a long time depressed and subdued ; and, huddled as they now 
are into comparatively narrow limits, they are yet divided among 
themselves into numerous tribes and septs, speaking dialects so 
diverse as not to be mutually intelligible ; and hence they are 
wont to think only of their sectional names, and to forget their 
general or national one. 

It is difficult, owing to the varying limits at diverse eras, to 
ascertain the precise force of the territorial term Kirant in the 
view of the people themselves. But the following statement of 
boundaries, divisions, and included septs may, I believe, be con- 
sidered sufficiently accurate for all present purposes : 

Kirant. 

i. Wallo Kirant or 2. Manjh Kirant or 3. Pallo Kirant or 
Hither Kirant. Middle Kirant. Further Kirant.* 





Respective tribes. 




Yakha. 


Bontawa. 


Chourasya. 


Limbu. 


R6dong. 




L6horong. 


Dungmali. 




Chhingtang. 


Khaling. 






Diimi. 






Sangpang. 

--v , 7, . *' 






Balah. 






Lambichhong. 






Bahing. 






Thtilung. 






Kiilung. 






Waling. 






Nachhereng. 





* Khas terms, and bearing topical reference to the Khas metropolis in the valley 
of Ne"pal proper. 



KIRAXTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIM ALA YA. 399 

This is Kiriint in the larger sense, and including Khwomlmaii 
or Kinint proper, and Limbuan or the country of the Limbus. 
The popular inclusion of the latter people is important and, I 
believe, well founded, as also that of the Yakhas, though both 
are often alleged to be not Kirantis. They are at all events 
closely-allied races, having essential community of customs and 
manners with the Kirantis, and they all intermarry; nor, pro- 
bably, do the dialects of the Limbus and Yakhas differ much 
more from the Khwombu * tongue, than that tongue now does 
from itself, as seen in the several dialects of the septs set down 
above under " Middle Kirant." The comparative vocabulary 
already submitted to the Society will go far to decide these 
questions, when taken in connection with that grammatical 
analysis of the Limbu tongue which I am now engaged on. 
The boundaries of Kirant, in its three subdivisions, are : 



Such are the territorial limits of the extant Kininti race, in 
the larger sense. Their numbers probably do not now exceed a 
quarter of a million ; but the tradition, which I referred to 
ve, assigns two and a quarter millions as the amount of their 
population at some remote and not well ascertained period, 
when their country was customarily spoken of as the "no lakh 
Kinint," and the phrase was interpreted to mean that a house- 
tax, at two annas per family, yielded nine hundred thousand 
annas, whence, if we allow five souls to a family, we shall 
obtain two and a quarter millions of people for tin- Kinmtis, 
inclusive <>f the Linilais and Yakhas, f and possibly the Ya 

ubo. The intercalated "w" is a .li.l., ti, peculiarity of Bahin^. 
inpa, whence \s< i,,,y inf-r that the Kirantis came from Eastern 
Tibet or Kham. 

e Tennant's " (' Aborigines, and there called Yakkhos. 

us, more especially ait them in much rt>< 

nen. :md . u atoms between the aborigines of the Himalaya and 
t.y., the " devil dance " of the Yakkhoiof Ceylon tallies won.. 
ceremony described by me in the essay on the " Kocch, U6do t nn<i I 
133 f. The Mahavansa refers to a certain Yakho who dwlt in Himalaya and 
became a teacher of ]tu<l<lliiHtn. This, too. is significant, and imports that one of 
the Yakha tribe* of Himalaya was converted an.l Instructed i-y - m- I'...-. 
age .jatablishmeut, and scut into the hills to make proselyte* " 

the hill- 



400 KlRAtoTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 

also. The Kirantis occupy the central or healthful region of 
the mountains, and never descend, to dwell there, into the 
lowest and malarious valleys of that region. Consequently, 
they are not reckoned among the Awalias, or tribes inured to 
malaria. Nor can they be placed among the broken tribes, 
great as is their antiquity and devoid as they long have been 
of political independence, and, moreover, allied as they are by 
the character of their language to the above two sections of the 
population of Himalaya or the Awalias and the broken tribes 
(see Essay referred to above). The chiefs, or kings, of the 
Kirantis were called Hang or Hwang. There are, of course, 
none such now, nor have been for five centuries. Their village 
headman they still denominate Pasung, equivalent to llui in 
the Khas tongue of their present masters the Gorkhalis. The 
Pasung has still, under the Gorkhali dynasty, a good deal of 
authority over his people. He collects their taxes and adjusts 
their disputes with but rare reference or appeal to the Rajah's 
courts. 

Unlike most of the subjects of Kupiil, the Kirantis retain 
possession of the freeholds of their ancestors, which they call 
walikha, and the owner, thangpung hangpa. Each holding is 
extensive, though not generally available, owing to the hiu r h 
slope of the surface, for the superior sort of culture. The 
boundaries of an estate are defined by the run of the water. 
The tax paid to the Government by each landholder, or thang- 
pung hangpa (literally, lord of the soil), is five rupees per 
annum, four being land-tax, and one in commutation of the 
corve'e. 

The general style of cultivation is that appropriate to the 
uplands, not the more skilful and profitable sort practised in 
the level tracts; and though the villages of the Kirantis be 
fixed, yet their cultivation is not so, each proprietor within his 
own ample limits shifting his cultivation perpetually, accord- 
ing as any one spot gets exhausted. 

Arva in annos mutant et superest ager. The plough is some- 
times used, but very rarely, and the use of it at all is recent and 
borrowed, nor has the language any term for a plough. The 
produce is maize, buckwheat, millets, pease, dry rice, and cotton. 
The general, almost exclusive, status of this people is that of 



KIRAXTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 401 

agriculturists. They did not till lately take military or menial 
service.* They have no craftsmen of their own tribe, but buy 
iron implements, copper utensils, and ornaments for their 
women from other tribes, and supply most of their simple 
wants themselves. The useful arts they practise are all 
domestic ; fine arts they have none, nor ever had ; no towns, 
and only small villages of huts raised obliquely on the outer 
side on wooden posts some three to six feet, so as to get a level 
on the slope of the hill, size small, because the children separate 
on marriage, walls of thick reed, plastered, and the pent roof 
of grass. Each family builds for itself. The women spin and 
weave the cotton of native growth, which constitutes their sole 
wear, and the men and women dye the clothes with madder 
and with other wild plants whereof one, a climber, yields a 
fine black colour. They make fermented and distilled liquors 
for themselves, and use the former in great quantities the 
latter moderately. 

The Kirantis have not, nor ever had, letters or literature.f 
Their religious notions are very vague. They have no name 
for the God of gods, nor even for any special deity whatever, 
though the term " mang " may be construed deity, and that of 
" khyimmo " or " khyiminang," household deity or penate. Nor 
is there any hereditary priesthood, or any class set apart and 
educated for that office. Whom the mang inspires, he is a 
priest, and his duty is to propitiate the Khyimmang or Penate 
of each family by an annual worship celebrated after the 
harvest, and also to perform certain trivial crivm:i:.'3 at 
marriages and deaths, but not at births. The priest i 

and lie has, moreover, once a year, to make offer- 

.'jiaiK-s (samkha) of the ancestors of each house- 

T t< all the deceased members of cadi family. 

The < believe heartily in tluj black ar 11 its 

professor K , &c. The professional anta- 

<ng Bahadur has lately rained some Kiranti regiment*. He i* wiw. and has 
seen in time and provided against the risk of a too homogeneous army. The 
ve of Inte freely taken menial service with us 

t 'I . Ilk-- tin* Lepchas, hw :\\\ i.lj.lml.rt ie 

I 

knn, nnd wan fc -:ld not be 

; t<> any In<!-< !hines4 > ly received a like dis- 

i of Tibet. 
Vc; 2 C 



402 KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIM ALA YA. 

gonist of this formidable person, who undoes the mischief, 
bodily or mental, which the other had done, who is at once 
exorcist and physician, is named in the various dialects, 
Janicha, Mangpa, &c. 

There are only two religious festivals per annum : one to the 
Khyimmo or Penate, and the other to the samkha or souls of 
the deceased. 

As already said, birth is not attended by any religious obser- 
vances. 

The Kirantis buy their wives, paying usually twenty-five to 
thirty rupees, frequently in the shape of copper household uten- 
sils. If they have no means, they go and earn their wife by 
labour in her father's family. They marry usually at maturity 
nay, almost universally so. Divorce can always be had at the 
pleasure of either party; but if the wife seek it, she or her 
family must give back the price paid for her, and all the chil- 
dren will remain with the husband in every event of divorce. 
The marriage ceremony is as follows : The priest takes a cock 
in his left hand and strikes it on the back with the blunt side 
of a sickle till blood flows from its mouth. According as the 
blood marks the ground, the priest prophesies that the offspring 
will be boys or girls ; and if no blood flow, that the marriage 
will be childless. This is the essence of what passes, and it 
seals the contract. 

The Kirantis bury their dead on a hill-top, making a tomb 
of stones loosely constructed. The burial takes place on the 
day of decease. The priest must attend the funeral, and as he 
moves along with the corpse to the grave he from time to time 
strikes a copper vessel with a stick, and, invoking the soul of 
the deceased, desires it to go in peace and join the souls that 
went before it. The law of inheritance gives equal shares 
to all the sons, and nothing to the daughters, unmarried or 
married. Concubines are unknown. Polygamy is allowed and 
not uncommon. Polyandry unheard of and abhorred. 

Tattooing is unknown. Boring of ears and nose common 
with the women; rare with the men. The hair is usually 
worn long and so as to hide the Hindu-like top-knot that is, 
however, always forthcoming. The general character of the 
Kirantis is rather bad among the other tribes, who consider 



KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 403 

them to be somewhat fierce and prompt at quarrelling and 
blows, especially in their cups, a state very frequent with 
them. But at Darjiling they have now for fifteen years borne 
an excellent character as servants, being faithful, truthful, and 
orderly, so that their alleged fierceness should, I think, be 
called manly independence, or be referred to their long-past 
days of political independence and martial habits. 

I proceed now to the physical character of the tribe. Premising 
that I have long been habituated to these physical observations, 
by no means confined to the hills, I would repeat once * more 
that the Himalayan type, though upon the whole Mongolian, is 
not to be judged (any more than the African one by the Negro) 
by the Kalmak exaggeration of that type; and, moreover, that 
the type exhibits here, as to the north and to the south of us, a 
large range of variation, indicating, like the lingual type, that 
the Himalaya has been peopled by successive imiiiiir.ations of 
northmen belonging to many, probably to all, of the various 
sub-families into which the restless progeny of Tur has been ( I 
think prematurely) divided by European philologists and ethno- 
logists. I think, moreover, that I can discern this sort of ac 
between the physical and lingual types, to wit, that the tribes 
with simple languages have more, and the tribes with complex 
languages have less, of the Mongolian physical attributes, ai 

iul elimination of the presumed e fleets of mixture of breed 
(and such facts are always notorious on the spot) where such 

:i place. Thus a Lepcha, or Gurunj. r M. 

or Mini. imple language unites a palpable Mongolian 

physiognomy a n<l frame; whilst a Kn-\\;n.;i I Miiinal, or a Kinmti, 
lage much allied to the hi-h.T Turkic, I'-rolinnic, 
and l)ravi(iian types f possesses a face and form tending 
same way. 

See my Essay on K6ech, BAdo, and lU.in,:.] j.. 
+ The OOI riicnalinnl. 

with Mullcr's Ku'rxlivision, embracing, as fur a* we jet know. II ; 

s of renemblance of th- tlised 

ilayan tongue* to the cultivated I have been pointed out, here and 

there, in the coune of the foregoing analy- 

and Sontnl. rir, mtlix jM-moi 

Kir4nti. like Dhimali, follow tin- I fixing 

to noun, suffixing to verb. This difference aeemi grem really 

r the vulgar and sacred dialects of Egyptian, which were, ssys Poole, one 

tongue, nevertheless hud thii diffc 



404 KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIM ALA YA. 

I will now describe my samples, adding, lest I should be sup- 
posed to have selected them unfairly, that they are men long in 
my own service. 



Dimensions in English feet and inches. 



(i) JJunfiiicit. (2) tiithing. (3) Tku. 

Total height, . . . .54 5 5 2 

Crown to hip, . . .25 22 23 

Hip to heel, . . . .32 211 3 

Fore-and-aft leiiirth of head, .09^ o 8| o 8J 

Side-to-side width of ditto, .06 o 6 j 06 

Girth of ditto, . . i pj i 9 J i 8 

Breadth of face, . . o 5J Si 5i 

Length of arm and hand, .25 2 si 2 4 

Girth of ami, . . .010 9 9f 9i 

Ditto of fore arm, . . .09^ 9J I0 

Girth of thigh, . . .16 i 6 i 6 

Ditto of calf, . . . i o. 1 , i oj 10} 

Girth of chest, . . .29^ 2 10 2 loj 

No. i. A Bontiiwa, age 55. Head long, narrow, vertical view 
elliptic, equally wide fore and aft, widest between the ears. 
Front view of the head and face oval, with the cheek-bones little 
protruded and the forehead not narrowing upwards. Profile or 
side view good, nearly vertical, the mouth not being at all 
inclined to prognathism, and the forehead very little retiring, 
but chin somewhat defective. Forehead of good height and 
breadth, nearly as wide as the cheek-bones. Eyes of good size, 
remote; upper lid flaccid, but hardly perceptibly bent down 
next the nose. Nose long, straight, pyramidal, well elevated 
though thick, and with the nostrils elongated, not round. Mouth 
well formed, not protuberant, of good size, and having shapely 
lips and vertical teeth not at all exposed, chin not retiring, but 
not advanced, and rather defective. Jaws neither heavy nor 
square. Colour a clear light brown, deeper and less olive than 
usual. No trace of ruddiness. Hair jet black, ample, straight, 
glossy, strong but not coarse. Moustache full and jet black. No 
whisker. Eyebrows scanty and horizontal. No hair on chest. 
Figure good, but trunk and arms long, and legs short. Very 



KIRAXTI TRIBE OF THE CEXTRAL HIM ALA YA. 405 

moderate development of bone or muscle for a Highlander, and 
scarcely more than in a plainsman. 

No. 2. A Bahing,* 30 years old. Head broader and shorter, 
:cal view oblate ovoid, wider behind than before, but not 
flattened behind. Front view of the face shows (like the head) 
more breadth than in No. i, and is somewhat square, owing to 
the projection of the cheek-bones and of the angles of the jaws. 
Profile vertical, as in the last, with very little saliency of the 
mouth, a vertical but somewhat narrow forehead, and a chin 
flush with the front of the jaw. Forehead less fine than in the 
last, vertical to the front, but somewhat narrow, or rather seem- 
ing so, owing to the lateral projection of the jaws and cheek- 
bones. Eyes of good size remote, showing faintly but distinctly 
the usual flaccidity and deflection towards the nose, of the upper 
lid. Nose, as in the last, long, straight, pyramidal, broad, but 
not depressed. Nostrils large and round. Mouth of good size 
and shape, with moderately full lips, of which the upper has a 
tendency to advance more than the lower, owing to the normal 
thickening of the gum. Teeth fine and vertical, and not at all 
exposed. Chin devoid of the prominent roundness of the part, 
flush with the jaw in front. Jaws heavy and angular. Colour, 
as in the last, pale ruddy brown, deeper and less dull than 
usual isabelline colour. Hair jet black, straight, strong. No 
ker. A scanty moustache. Eyebrows full. Chest, legs, 
and arms hairless. No more development of bone or muscle 
than in the last, and figure, as before, good, but rioticeable for 
h of trunk and arms. 

No. 3. A Thulung, 22 years old, has the breadth of head 
and face of the last, vertical view of the head showing great 
and remarkably uniform width in proportion to lenirli Profile 
line vertical, as before, and all the details of the features 
.'lorfully similar, as in a strong family likeness, and figure 
also and colour. 

* I* oar Bahing the Itthik of Muir's Sanicrit Texts, ii. 482? Hi* Aratta may be 

the Aratt of Sikim, and hi* Kh.-is i no .loubt the now dominant tribe of N4p4L 

1 says that were a Sanscrit speaking race, but that 

may he armu!,;,,! f,,r by this ignorance displayed by Brahtnanical writers on this sub* 

jcct, and by thdr !-! to find degraded Ksbatriyas in all the great nation. 

>ples bordering on Aryuvartta; e.g., the Burmese are with them 
Kshatriyu ! ! 



4o6 KIRANTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIM ALA YA. 

General Remark. All these three men have a depth of colour 
and defect of bone and muscle assimilating them to the lowland 
Turanians, generally and differencing them from the highlanders 
generally, but especially from the Palusen or Cis-himalayan 
Bhotia, the Gurung, the Siinwar, the Murmi, the Magar, and 
the Lepcha; and the Bontawa has a head and face carrying 
on the resemblance with the lowland Turanians, and which I 
believe to be so frequent among the Kirantis as to deserve 
to be called the rule, not the exception. In conclusion, I may 
perhaps be permitted to say, as the result of long years of 
practised observation, that the effect upon the Turanian north- 
men of passing from the cold high-and-dry plateau of " Asie 
Centrale," down the various steps of the Himalayan ladder 
into the hot and moist plains of India, is to diminish the volume 
of bony and muscular development, to diminish also the 
extreme breadth of head and face, with the consequent wide 
separation of all the double organs of sense, and to modify the 
defects of the eye, giving it a freer and straighter aperture and 
less flaccid upper lid; moreover, that such tribes as, in the 
throng of successive immigrations, have been broken, barbarised, 
and driven to seek refuge in malarious tracts, seem to manifest 
a tendency to pass from the low Turanian to the low African 
or Negro type ; * and lastly, that after these effects have been 
produced in the course of numberless ages, it must always be 
unsafe to dogmatise upon physiological or philological grounds 
only respecting the special relations and characteristics of any 
given tribe without abiding advertence to the general relations 
and characteristics of such tribe, and to the proof of both that 
may be had by carefully seeking out and weighing all the 
available evidence, whether physiological or philological, moral 
or traditional. 

The evidence of any reflux towards the north of the great 
tide of Turanian population flowing wave after wave over India, 
through the numberless passes of the Himalaya, and also, 
perhaps, round the Western and Eastern extremities of the 

* Narrowness of head and face and projection of mouth are the great marks of 
the Negro type. Now, I have an Uraon in my service in whom these marks united 
to a very dark skin are conspicuous, and his lips are very thick and his eye good, 
and his hair crisply curled, but not at all woolly. 



KIRAXTI TRIBE OF THE CENTRAL HIMALAYA. 407 

chain, is faint, seeming to be confined to the Ndwiir tribe of 
Ne*pal proper, who have a tradition of their return to K. 
after having reached so far south as Malabar. Nor are there 
wanting coincidences of arbitrary customs, of the shape and use 
of agricultural and other implements, and of words, and i 
of grammatical forms, to countenance and uphold that tradition, 
as I have already adverted to in my paper on the Nilgirians. 



END OF VOLUME I. 



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