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r 
St 



I 






LBQMBAI. 
Department of A^riculture^J 



tMiscellaoeous puuxj.ua uxumi */ 



Annual report oA the experimental work of the 
Dhulla Agricultural station* 

Annaal report on the experimental work of the 
Ganeshkhind Botanical station* 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Mirpurkha's Agricultural station* 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Mgnjri Agricultural station and the 
Baramati Demonstration station* 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Nadiad agricultural station* 

Animal report on the experimental work of the 
Poona Agricultural station including 
Kirkee civil dairy and Lancwli Agricul- 
tural station* 

Annaal report on the experimental work of the 
Surat Agricultural station* 



1906-1907. 



& L - 



p< 



Department of ^grtculturk/lSomfcaij. 
ANNUAL, REPORT ' 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

DHULIA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(West Khandesh District,. Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAR 



1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHER, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Deputy Director of Agriculture, 



BOMBAY 
PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 

[Price— 4a. or del] 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

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London. . 
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London. 

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B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Bread Street, Oxford. 
Deighton Bell k Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander ft Sohn, 11, Caristrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Ru6 Bonaparte, Paris, 

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 

P. R. Rama lyar ft Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink ft Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman ft Co., Calcutta. 

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R. Cambray ft Co., Calcutta. 

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Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

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Sander Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen ft Co.* Booksellers, etc.; Bombay. 

N* B Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



department of Agriculture, ttomfeas* 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

DHULIA AGRICULTURAL STATION 



tJCJJ 

landesh 



(West I^handesh District, Deccan) 



FOR THE TEAR 



1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHEB, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Deputy Vireoior of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1007 



MAIIUB. 



SQ%0 



Vernacular names of orops, &o, mentioned in the report with their 
Botanical and English equivalents- 



Botanical. 


English. 


Vernacular. 


Cereals* 










Andropogon sorghum var vulgare ... 

Pennisetum typhcideum •• 
Triticum sativum 

Hordeum vulgare 
Arena sativa 


Great millet 

Bulrush millet 
Wheat 

Barley 
Oats 


••• 

... 

••• 

... 


Jowar (Mothi, Gudghi, 

Chapti, &c). 
Bajri. 
Cahu (Moondi, Bansi, 

Bakshi, Katba, Kempu- 

godbi. Ac). 
£atu, Jav. 


Pukes. 










Cajanus indicns 
Cicer arietinum 
Phaseolus radiatus 


••* 


Pigeon-pea 
Gram 

Black gram 
Saidi beans 


... 


Tur. 

Harbharo. 
Udid. 


Oilseed*. 










Sesamum indicum 
Arachis hypogea 


... 


Pesamum 
Groundnuts 


... 


Til. 
Bhuimu~. 


Fibre plants. 










Gossypium neglectum 
Do. indicum 
Do. herbaceura 

Do. hirsutum 


... 


Kbandesh cotton 

Hinganghat cotton 

Gujarat and Karnatak cotton . 

Dharwar-— -American cotton ... 


Kapus(.Tari, Va:adi). 

Kapus (Eani). 

Kap£j (Broach, GogharU 

Lalto, Kumpta). 
Vilayati-Hatti. 


Condiments. 










Capsicum fruitcscens 


... 


Chillies 


... 


Mircbi. 


Sugar. 










fc acbharurn officinarum 


... 


Sugarcane 


••• 


Us (Gul). 


Vegetables. 










&olanum melongena 

Do. tuberosum 

Hibiscus esculentua 


t 


Brinjal 
Potatoes 
Edible hibiscus 


••• 
••• 


Vang!. 
Batata. 
Bhendi. 


Fodders. 










Modicago sativa 


... 


Lucerne. 


... 


Alfalfa, Lasunghas. 



B 993— a 



£1738100 



THE DHULIA 



AORICTTLTURAL 
1908-07. 



STATION, 



! Established— 1905 ; North Latitude— 21° 10'; Ea%t Longi- 
tude— 7 b° 20'; Elevation— &4A feet above sea level ; Sail — medium 
black; Average rainfall — 22 / 40* ; Temperature — maximum 114° 
in May ; minimum 36° in January. 

Area — 28 J acres. 

Superintendent — Mr, Mohoniraj G. Athalye. 



Season. 





< 


m 


i 

a 




• !*■ 

I ! & 


I 




December. 


v.l 


1 


I 




1 u 


1 II 


i »/ 


, „ 


i 


/ H 


/ w 


/ w 


1 




/ n 


Rainfall (1906-07) „ ... 








7 77 


5 63 


7 19 1 2 24 


16 


M. 


... 


... ,032 




23 31 


Average — 


0) 


006 


390 


5 77 


3 97 


628 


119 


74 


14 


15 ' 03 


14 


22 40 


Temperature (1906-07)— 














' 






1 
| 






Mean maximum 


105° 


108° 


96° 


91° 


87° 


W 


92* 


91° 


90* 


88° ' 88° 


97° 


... 


Mean minimum 


67° 


71° 


71° 


70° 


67° j 66° 


62° 

1 


66* 


47° 

i 


46° | 40° 

1 


D6° 


... 



2. The monsoon began earlier than ususal. 

The germination of cotton sown after the first showers was 
checked to a certain extent by subsequent continuous and heavy 
downpours and the seedlings looked pale. In the first fortnight of 
July cotton gained a healthy appearance and gathered vigour. Later 
rains much interfered with the interculturing operations. Rains 
in August proved very injurious to early sown Bijri inasmuch as 
they washed off the inflorescence and left earheads grainless. 

The failure of October rains spoiled the grain formation of 
Tur and caused a partial loss of the crop. 

On the whole the season was favourable to cotton and Jowdr, 
but less so to B&jri aud Til and still less to Tur and late Jow&r 
varieties. 

It was also very favourable to insect life. There were several 
generations of harmful cotton pests, root worms and borers, all of 
which did considerable damage to the food crops. 

B 9*3—1 



Manurial Experiments. 

3. The chief work of the station is the improvement of the 
local cotton. Incidentally a few manurial experiments were made. 
These consisted in the treatment of (1) cotton with ammonium 
sulphate, farm-yard manure and lime in comparison with no 
manure and of (2) wheat with ammonium sulphate and farm-yard 
manure separately and with both combined. In the case of cotton 
the quantity of farm-yard manure applied was adjusted in such 
a way that its cost was kept nearly equal to that of the special 
fertilizer. 





Thei 


■esults 


are as below : — 












Area. 


Variety 
of Cotton. 


Drill. 


Average per Aero. 


Number 
of plot. 


Yield of 
Manure applied. ! seed 
j cotton. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation 


Net 
profit. 


2 

3a 

36 

24c 


A. g. 

30 
020 
20 
10 




o0 
r-t 


1 

None ... ... 

. Farm-yard manure 7£ tons 
Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt. 
Slaked lime 2,100 lbs 


Lbs. 
740 
908 
714 
406 


Rs. a. p. 
67 4 4 
82 8 9 
6114 6 
86 14 6 


Bs. a. p. 
21 9 5 
32 10 
30 8 2 
28 4 6 


Its. a. p. 
45 10 11 
49 J4 9 
S3 6 4 
8 10 



Ammonium sulphate prolongs the vegetative period and so 
the late formed bolls remain imperfectly developed and do not 
open freely in the succeeding cold season. In the above results 
farm-yard manure has shown a decided advantage over ammonium 
sulphate, which fact is corroborated in the following results of 
wheat experiments : — 



Serial 
numbci 

of 
-wheat 
plot. 


Aria. 

1 


Variety 

of 
wheat. 


Average per. Acre. 


Manure applied. 


Number 

of 
waterings. 


Quantity 
of w ater. 


Yield of 
grain. 


Stalks 
and 
chaff. 


Value 

of 

produce. 


21 
22 

23 
21 
£5 

26 


A. g. 

1 
1 

1 
1 
o l 

1 


i * 

i 

i 


Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt. ... 

Farm-yard manure 5 tons and 
Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt. ... 

Farm-yard manure 5 tons 

Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt. 

Farm-yard manure 5 tons and 
Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt . ... 

Farm-yard manure 5 tons 


"1 
I 

f ' 

J 

\ * 

J 


C. ft. 

{ 

83,2(0 i 

i 

I 
r 

109 120 -J 

1 


Lbs. 
300 
335 

560 
800 

840 
£80 


Lbs. 

680 
080 

880 
1,360 

1,320 

1,400 


Rs. a. p. 
15 14 5 
17 15 9 

27 11 9 

40 2 2 

41 9 7 
43 10 8 



Rotation Experiments. 

4. No permanent rotation series has yet been introduced here. 
However the distribution of this year's crops was done in 
accordance with local rotations. The results obtained are given 
below: — • 



Number 




of 


Area. 


plot. 






A. g. 


2 


30 


\b 


20 


12a 


10 


m 


10 


12c 


10 


Hi 


1 


Hit 


1 


17m 


1 



Previous crops. 



Jowftr 

( i Biijri ... 
I ii Gram failed 

Bajri ... 

Udid ... 

Fallow ... 

Jowar 

Bajri ... 

Fallow ... 




Average per Acre. 



Principal 


By 


Value of 


product. 


product. 


produce. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


740 


••• 


67 4 4 


99S 


... 


90 8 8 


360 


188 


7 14 


104 


160 


4 12 9 


276 


376 


12 8 


680 


1,160 


33 


880 


1,800 


44 3 2 


920 


1,880 


46 3 2 



The results indicate that B^jri is preferable to Jowar as a 
preparation for cotton and irrigated wheat and that a dry-crop of 
gram can also be more profitably grown after kharif Bdjri than 
after Udid. 

* The following table shows results of simultaneous rotations of 
Udid, Jowdr, Til and Tur :— 





Area. 


Crop. 


Average per Acre. 


Plot, 


Principal. 


Subordinate* 


. Seed rate. 


Principal 
product. 


By 
product. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 




A. tf. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bs. a. p. 


Its. a. p. 


14* 


2) 


Udid ... 


Jowar as sprinkling ... 


C Udid 6 lbs. ... 
C Jowar 2 lbs. ... 


412 
1,374 


480 
3,270 


V64 15 8 


28 12 8 


25a 


20 


Jowar 


Udid mixed ... ... 


C Jowar 6 lbs. ... 
Iudid21bs. ... 


1,408 
60 


5,690 
140 


jsO 7 


28 7 3 


256 


20 


Do. 


2 rows of Udid 'after 
every 4 rows of Jowar. 


fJowdrOlbs ... 
\udid 2 lbs. ... 


1,274 
64 


4,860 
260 


53 9 2 


17 8 


26. 


20 


Do. 


Alone M 


Jowar 8 lbs. 


1,302 


6,256 


54 15 8 


19 13 10 


24a 


080 


Til 


Tur mixed 


(Til 4 lbs. 
1 Tur 8 lbs. 


468 
262 


324 


J46 10 


20 14 4 


246 


20 


Do, 


2 rows of Tur after 
every 4 rows of Til. 


( Til 4 lbs. 
(, Tur 8 lbs. 


692 

72 


108 


[56 5 4 


18 6 4 



A mixed crop of Udid with Jowar as a sprinkling appears to 
be more productive than any other mixture or Jowar alone, and Til 
and Tur in separate rows appears to be better than both grown 
mixed. 

Cultural Experiments. 



5. 



Wide and narrow drilling and thinning of cotton were tested 
with the following results : — 



Plot, 


Arci. 


I 

Crop. 


Drill. 


Tillage. 


Treatment. 


Average per Acre. 


Percent- 

of fibre 
to seed 
cotton. 


Seed 
cotton. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


la 
4ft 
§* 

66 


A. g. 
20 
020 
020 
020 


( Khdndcsh cot-} 
(.Dhuliaseed.../ 
( Kh£ndesh cot- ) 
(Chopdasoed... J 


j-21" 
1 18" 
J18" 
1 18" 


) Ploughed for 

> pre y i o n s 
3 grain. 

> Harrowed only 


Thinned ordi- 
narily. 

(Thinned to 4" 
< In rews. 
1. Not thinned. 


Lbs. 
f 834 

I 903 
850 
842 


Be. a. p. 
74 14 6 
90 8 8 
77 4 4 
76 8 8 


Eg. a. p. 
15 16 

17 7 2 
22 8 

18 8 4 


871 
36*5 
40*4 
38-8 



New Crops. 

6. East African Bdjri,. Virginia groundnuts, barley and alfafa 
lucerne were the new crops tried this year. 

Of these East African B£jri and Virginia groundnuts were 
successful and yielded at twice the rate of the local varieties. 
The grain of the former is however inferior,' but it is thought 
that the variety will be useful for breeding purposes. 

Barley and oats were grown under irrigation simultaneously 
with wheat on small half guntha plots. The crops took 6 months 
and did not mature properly, yielding very poorly. 

Saidi beans were grown after Bajri on a small 5 guntha plot. 
The seed was sown after wetting the land. Germination was good 
and two more waterings were given afterwards. But the crop 
after standing 1| months gradually got rusted inspite of the 
removal of diseased plants and died away altogether, yielding no 
grain. 

The four varieties of Turkestan Alfalfa (lucerne) were grown 
to test their drought-resisting property, but they were not found 
superior to the ordinary variety. 



The seeds germinated evenly and plants did well till 
September when they showed signs of drying- Afterwards the 
crop was irrigated whenever the plants appeared to require it, 
care being taken not to supply water unless it was absolutely 
necessary to keep them alive. Till November the crop was poor, 
but afterwards in the cold season it flourished. 

The detailed results are tabulated below :— 



Plot. 



19 
21a 
21b 
14 



Area. 



Crop. 



A. g. a. 

5 Bull ruth millet 



35 5 

9 5 

5 

5 



Virginia groundnuts 
Local groundnuts 
Barley ... 
Oats 



Average per acre. 



Principal 
product. 



Lbs. 
2,240 
2,157 
1428 
145 
260 



product. 



Value of 
produce. 



Lbs. 
6,248 
4,129 
4,501 
2,880 
1,040 



Be. a. p. 

68 8 

118 11 1 

62 12 7 



A statement showing dates of sowing and irrigating the crop 
of Lucerne is given below : — 





Area, 


Crop. 


Date 
of 

■ow- 
ing. 


Data of waterings. 


Weight 
of crop. 


Ho. 
12331 


Name. 

3 "> 


let. 


2nd. 


3rd, 


4tb. 


5th. 


Mb. 


7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


1st. 


Bod. 




A. g. a. 
f 










1 

1 








Lbs. 
f W 


Lbs. 
60 


19 


1 5«f 

{ 


13999 
18391 


5-rf 

i 3 


1 


1 

S9 


I 
* 






9 


§ 

<* 

«* 


iH 


I 


I 


I 


26 
23 


57 
83 




18*36 


a 
En J 






, 


















I 27 


63 



Varietal Experiments. 

7. Several varieties of Jowar, BAjri, cotton and wheat were 
grown for comparison and the results are as follows : — 





Area, 




Crop. 


— 


, 


Arerage per acre. 




Plot 








B y product. 








Name. 


Variety. 


l*rincipal 
I product. 




Value of 




- 




produce. 














Lbs. 


SUlk*. 


Chaff. 






A. g. 










Lbs. 


Lba. 


1U. a. p. 


Ua 


20) 

20 j 


Bajri 


- f 


Nadiad ... 


... 814 


2,720 


••• 


34 8 


in 


Local ... 


...! 852 


1,710 


•»• 


30 12 2 


10 


1 


Cottoa 


•• ••• 


Bani 


... 


27C 


••• 


... 


25 1 


15 


1 


Do. 


t«t ... 


Comma .. 


••• 


325 , 


••• 


. .. 


40 10 


36 


1 


Do* 


••• ... 


Khandeah 


••• 


987 


••• 


... 


89 11 8 


( 


8 


Do. 


•» ••• 


Broach ... 


••• 


80 


*•• 


••• 


8 


21 } 


8 


Do. 


•• ••• 


Kumtha 




66 


... 


••• 


6 9 7 


( 


3 


Do. 


•• ••• 


Goghari... 


... 


93 


... 


••• 


9 4 9 


26a 


20) 
20 j 


Jowar , 


•• ••• \ 


Motbi ... 


... 


1,802 


6,840 


416 


64 15 8 


265 


Gudghi ... 


••» 


906 


6,120 


320 


37 12 10 



The results of wheat are as under : — 





Area. 


Name of Wheat. 


Number of 
waterings. 


Average per acre. 


Plot. 


rv*;« .' Straw and 
Gpa,lu 1 chaff. 

i 


Value of 
produce. 




A. g. 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Moondi •• 

Bakshi ••• 

Bansi 

Katha »•• ••• ... 
Kempu ... 


6 


Lbs. 

1,275 
560 
800 

1,120 
372 


Lbs. 
1,800 
1,720 
1,320 
1,760 

680 


Bs. a. p. 
64 6 11 
31 14 11 
39 14 11 

48 9 8 
18 4 10 



Mothi Jowilr, Kbandesh cotton and Moondi wheat have given 
the highest yields. 

Ginning Experiments. 

8. Several varieties of Indian cottons were also grown — a few 
plants of each — to ascertain the percentages of fibre to seed 
cotton. 



The following are their ginning outturns : — 







i Percentage 






Percentage 








Percentage 


So. 


Name. 


of lint lo 


No. 


Name. 


of lint to 


No. 


Name. 




of lint to 






seed cotton. 

1 






aeed cotton. 






jseed cotton. 
I 


1 


Broach 


1 
i 
...j 3203 


6 


Wagad 


27*3 


9 


Hani 


••• 


26«6 


2 


Kumtha 


25-0 


6 


Mathio 


29*3 


10 


Comilla 


••• 


44-8 


3 


Goghari 


... ! 37*5 


7 


Jari 


30*2 










4 


Naden 


...! 29-6 

I 


8 


Varadi 


35-9 











9. An experiment consisting of the analysis of a field of 
Khdndesh cotton into several types was conducted. 

The number of plants found, yield of seed cotton and per* 
centage of lint of each of the types are given in the following 
table : — 



Name of 


—• — • : 

Name of type. 


Arerage per acre. 


Percentage 
of lint. 


cotton 
analysed. 


Common* 


Latin. 


Number 
of plants* 


Yield of 
seed cotton. 


"5 f 


1 Jari a 


G. Neglectnm Vera 


1,190 


Lbs. 
30 


31-6 


P 


2 Jari b 


G. N. V. Malvensis 


200 


1J 


260 


P 

f . 


3 JTaritf 

4 Varadi a 


G. N. V. Kathiavarensis ... 
G. N. Rosea 


5,190 
12,860 


90 
310 


28*6 
38-7 


c 


5 Varadi b 


G. N. R. Cutcbica 


14,320 


420 


85-7 


I 


. 6 fiani 


G. Indicuui ... ... 


190 


H 


24*3 


■1 


33,940 


852 





Varddi is the predominating type forming nearly 80 per cent. 
of the crop. Its ginning outturn is also the highest. Nos. 2, 3 
and 6 produce cotton worth about 3 per cent, more than the rest 
which, however, form the greater part of the mixture owing to 
their heavier ginning outturn. 



On Crop Breeding. 



10. 91 varieties of indigenous cotton drosses were grown, of 
which gome were retained and their seed preserved for next season. 



The numbers selected and the quantity of seed obtained of 
each are as below : — 





Number 
of crout 


Quantity 
of teed 
from select- 
ed boll* 

Lbe. oz. 
1 


ferial 
No. 


Number 
of croat* 


Quantity 
of teed 
from select- 
ed boll*. 

Lbe. r.z. 
O 2J 


I 
1 

Serial 
No. , 

- -! 

39 ; 


Number 
of croat. 


Quantity 
of teed 

fiom select- 
ed bolLE. 


1 


1,074 


20 


1,138 


1,161 


Lbe. oz. 

i 


2 


1,079 


2 


21 


1,134 


2 


40 : 


3,162 


2 


8 


1,086 


o i 


22 


1,136 


2| 


41 : 


1,168 


3* 


4 


1,089 


2 


28 


1,137 


2 


42 


1,164 


i\ 


5 


3,098 


li 


24 


1,140 


2 


43 


1,166 


O 1J 


6 


1,096 


8 


26 


1,141 


^ 


41 


1*200 


3;' 


7 


1,097 


2 


26 


1,142 


I 


45 


1,201 


11 4 


8 


1,101 


li 


27 


U48 


1 


46 


1,202 


3 


9 


1,10» 


6 


28 


1,146 


1 


*7 


1,206 


o li 


10 


1,111 


5 


29 


1,146 


2i 


48 


1,206 


2 


11 


1,112 


h 


80 


1,147 


2 


49 


1,228% 


\ 


12 


1,118 


i 


81 


1,149 


o i 


50 


1,232? 


if 


13 


1,122 


li 


32 


1,161 


o i 


51 


1,232° 


O 1 


14 


1,125 


5 


83 


1,152 


2 


52 


1,284 


o \ 


15 


1,127 


2 


34 


1,154 


3i 


53 


1,235 


O 1 


16 


3,128 


2 


86 


1,167 


3f 


54 


1,293 


O 6 


37 


1,129 


1 


86 


1,158 


2 


55 


1,312 


4 


18 


1,180 


i 


87 


1,159 


i 








19 


1,131 


li 


38 


1,160 


o 8 









Out of these, Nos. 1096, 1108, 1133 and 1201 produced com- 
paratively much finer lint. Nos. 1133 and 1201 were exhibited at 
the Surat Exhibition for the superior quality of their fibre. 

Across of Dh&rwar American and Varadi from Dh£rw&r station 
was grown* Most of the plants were attacked by leaf blight. 
Seed from selected bolls of healthy and prolific plants has been 
obtained and preserved for next season. 

Grosses were also made between rough but dense fibred 
Comilla and finer and more prolific Jari and Varddi types, and a 
sufficient number of bolls was obtained for sowing next season. 



9 

On Pests. 

11. Last season was particularly favourable for the growth of 
insects and other pests. The following are the more important 
insects that appeared : — 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



Common name of 
insect. 



firin jal 8 tern lorcr . 
Cotton leaf hcppcr . 
Pii*k boll worm 
Cotton bod worm . 
Wire worms 
Do. 



Latin name. 



Ln?ioodes Orbonalis 
Jas»id» family 

Chlorid* Obsoleta .. 



Food plant. 



Brinjal 

Cotton ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 



Bemcdiei suggested. 



.. Picking. 

...' Sprayiog with kcrosino 

, emnUion. 
... Bhendi as t:ap. 



Boots of chillies . \ Allow them to col- 



Do. of ground-' 
nuts. 



lect under piecos of 
potato placed near 

Slants and then 
cstroy them. 



In addition to the insect pests there were attacks of fungoid 
diseases. 

American cottons — both annual and perennial — suffered much 
from rust, while the crop of Saidi beans totally succumbed to rust, 
though the diseased plants were removed as they appeared. 
Some damage was done to the cotton crop by wilt. 

Irrigational. 

12. These experiments. were conducted on several varieties of 
wheat with the object of determining the quantity of irrigation 
required to produce the heaviest crop. 

The results are given in the following statement. It will be 
seen that the produce of wheat grain has varied in many cases 
according to the quantity of water and that later waterings 
produced distinct effects on produce. Moondi has yielded highest 
for each particular amount of irrigation. 



b 993—2 



10 



Xcof 
water- 
ing* 



Quantity 

of wator 

in oabtc 

feci. 



91,424 
64960 
47,010 
16,800 



Mooodi wheat. 



Bakahi wheat 



Yield per acre* 



Yield per aero. 



Grain. 



Lbs, 

1,275 

1,200 

605 

881 



> Ptraw and i 
chaff, i 



Value of 
produce. 



Lb*. 

1,800 

1,280 

1,330 

720 



Ea^a. p. 
61 6 11 
58 9 8 
83 8 
80 2 11 



Grain. 



Lbs. 
560 
440 
147 
192 



Straw and 
chaff. 



Lbt. 

1,7?0 

1,880 

860 

560 



Value cf 
prodncft 



Hi. a. p. 
31 14 31 
24 11 9 
10 15 * 
10 13 2 













- - - — 


1 

1 

1 


Bansi wheat 


No of 'Q°» ntt *y 




cater- 
ings. 


of wator 

in oubic 

feet. 


Yield per acre. 
- - - Value of 






Straw produce. 






Grain. 


and ! 








chaff. ' 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


5 


91,424 


800 


1,820 


39 14 11 


4 


64,960 


695 


840 33 2 6 


3 


47,040 


389 


640 , 10 6 4 


1 


16,800 


277 


020 


14 3 2 



KUhaw 
Yield per acre. 


heat. 




Ke:npu Godi. 


Value of 
produce. 


Yield per acre. 

1 Straw 
Grain. | and 
j chaff. 


Value of 
produce. 


Grain. 


Straw 
and 
chaff. 


Lbs. 
1,120 

702 
4G1 
463 


Lbs. 

1,760 

1,240 

680 

610 


Rs. a. p. 
53 9 8 
31 4 4 
21 13 7 
21 11 11 


Lbs, 
872 
192 
185 
175 


Lbs. 
630 
460 
420 
320 


Rs. a. p. 
18 4 10 
10 o 

9 8 
8 9 7 



New Implements. 

13. The only new implement that received trial was a farm- 
made winnower. 

The machine is economically useful only when there are do 
natural winds or when these are uncertain. It can winnow about 
3,000 lbs. of grain in a day of 9 hours costing per day 8 to 
12 annas. 

Experiments made off the Station. 

14. The sugarcane crop near Chalisgaon belonging to Mr. 
Garud was treated with the following nitrogenous fertilizers, viz., 
ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate singly as well as in com- 
bination with different quantities of farm-yard manure. 

The special manures were applied in two doses — one before and 
the other after the first rainfall. 



11 

The results are tabulated in the following statement* 



Field 
No. 



Plot 
No. 



,1 



Area. 



Manure applied per acre. 



Acre. 



r 

i 

I 



Gun- 
thas. 



Farm-yrird 
manure. 



Chemical 
manure. 



Nitre 
gen gup- 
plied in 
manure 
p?raere. 



I 
10 1 100 Cart loads .' Nil 



t 
10 j 60 

10 75 

io i loo 



Lbs. 
..1 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



400 



400 



10 ! 100 Cartloads. 400 
...J 400 
... 400 



10 


80 


Do. 


10 


73 


Do. 


10 


100 


Do. 






Lbs. 
300 
282 



ill **! 

^ 382 



I* 



342 
102 



..) 



Hi » 

3X> 



Outturn of 
OuL 


Value of 

Qui per 

acre. 






Per 
plot. 


Per 

acre. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


0724 


3,890 


307 15 4 


1,6394 


6,638 


525 8 1 


1.496* 


5,996 


473 14 3 


229 


916 


72 8 8 


1.037) 


4,160 


328 8 8 


861 


3,456 


273 » 7 


465 


1.860 


149 14 2 


318} 


1,275 


100 15 



liemarkf. 



Like last year Am- 
monium Sulphate 
has apparently 
acted as preventive 
against white ants; 
for plot 1 was con- 
siderably damaged 
by white ants and 
the rest were free. 

There was no attack 
of white ants in 
any of these four 
plots. 



Farm-yard manure 
Ammonium Sulphate 
Sodium Nitrate ... 



Poona % 
September 1907, 



.} 



... *5 per cent. Nitrogro. 
... 20* „ ,$ 

... Mr5 .. 



F. FLETCHER, 

Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY: IK1NTKD AT THK GOVEBNMBXT CENTEAL TRESS. 



\y 






i! jsrr 15*937 

i: ty u u u 



H&jpartnunt of ^gricutntrti /^gmfaag. 
ANNUAL REPORT^ 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

GANESHKHIND BOTANICAL STATION 

, (Poona District, Deccan) 

m i 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

G. A GAV1MIE, F.LS, etc., 

Economic Botanist. 



\ 

BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



[Price — 5a. or 6d.] 



c r: *> 



151937 






xti /Uo\ 



Mtpwcimtnt of &grfntltttr^ /Bon xbag. 
ANNUAL. REPORT^ 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

OANESHKHIND BOTANICAL STATION 

, (Poona District, Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

G. A GAV1MIE, F.LS, etc., 

Economic Botanist. 



BOMBAY 
PB1NTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 
1907 



[Price — 5a. or 6d.] 



THE GANESHKHIND BOTANICAL STATION, 

1908-1907. 



Re-established— 1904; North latitude— 16° 30'; East longi. 
ude — 75° 50'; Elevation— 1,850 foet above sea level; Soil — 
eddish alluvial deep loam and medium black ; Average 
'ainfall — 32 inches; Temperature— maximum 109° in May, 
nainimum 45° in January. 

Area — 80 acres. 

Curator — Mr. G. B. Patwardhan. 







i 


i 

a 


.2? 

=3 


i 

/ n 


i 
| 


| 


! 

V5 


i 




5 


i 

J; 
fa 


i 


3 

£ 




, „ 


/ H 


' " 


Rainfall (1900*1907) 


3 31 


... 


8 73 


4 GO 


3 98 


1 5-2 


4J 


2 05 


1 


... 


is 


3 


25 85 


Average 


85 


131 


60? 


8 53 


4 77 


1 3J 


ft 13 


tt 


31 , 


ul 


10 


t2 


31 92 


Temperature (10084907)— 
Mean maximum 


! 10J a 


101° 


S3 


82° 


82° 


82° 


C0° 


80° 


S0° • 


87* 


00° 


C6 # 




Mean minimum 


! of 

! 


7r 


72« 


- 


0J o 


67° 


CJ° 


5s° 


55° 


f»3° 


*s 


01 B 


... 



History. 

2. The Botanical Garden at Ganeshkhind was established 
in 1873 and attached to it was a smaller garden at Hivra in the 
Junnar taluka. The principal object of these gardens was to 
supply the Medical Department with drugs. 

In 1872-1873 the outturn of the garden included 700 lbs. of 
senna, 1,300 lbs. of henbane, and 1,036 lbs. of dandelion. 

In the same year experiments were made with various artifi- 
cial manures — nitro-phosphate, citrate, dissolved bones, nitrate of 
soda, hop manure and superphosphate. 

In 1873-1874 experiments were made with European artificial 
manures, but the result was not satisfactory. It was proved that 
silt from the drains of the Poona City is a valuable manure, at least 
equal for one year's crop to dung from oil-cake-fed cattle. 

B 9S9— 1 



Experiments were also being made in the cultivation of oork- 
oak trees, but they ultimately proved unsuccessful. Experiments 
were also made on the growth of fibre for paper. 

In 1874-1875 the area under tillage was 67 acres, 7 of which 
were watered. It was ascertained that prickly-pear made a 
valuable manure if it was left to rot in a cistern, through which 
the water of an irrigation channel was led. A fairly successful 
attempt was made to grow vanilla. Flax was also grown of fair . 
quality, but of excessive dearness. 

In 1875-1876 the most important new introductions were 
Balsamocarpon brevifolium — a plant yielding pods useful in 
tanning, and the Iiberian coffee. Cereal crops were raised with 
a view to selecting the seed. 

In 1876-1877 experiments in the production of tasar silk were 
continued. 

In 1877-1878 experiments were carried on with mahogany 
trees, the seed of which had been sent from Kew Gardens and 
planted in 1874. The trees could be established if well watered 
during the first two years. 

The blue gum tree (Eucalyptus globulus) was found to thrive 
well for 4 or 5 years and then to die off. Cinchona died in the 
hot season if planted out. Taraxacum was grown with success. 
The tasar silk experiments were not satisfactory. 

In 1878-1879 it was decided by Government that the Gardens 
should be constituted the recognized chief botanic* gardens of the 
Presidency, and that arrangements should be made for forming 
in them as complete a collection as possible of the local plants 
of Western India, a herbarium of which was to be kept perma- 
nently on the spot along with a selected library of diagrams and 
botanical works of reference. Botanical teaching was begun at 
the end of February 1879 by means of lectures at the Gardens 
and at the College of Science and Deccan College. 

Experiments with Nankin cotton showed that it could not 
be profitably grown in the Deccan. 

In 1879-1880 a room was partially fitted as a herbarium. 

Experiments with the thornless prickly-pear, a favourite food, 
when skinned, for cattle, showed that it grows freely as a fence. 

The yield of the forage grass (Euchlcena luxurians) seemed 
nearly the same as that of Guinea grass. A crop sown in November 
and cut in April gave 16 tons per acre of green forage at one 



3 

rutting. Experiments with lucerne grass seemed to prove the 
French variety superior to the acclimatised. The plant was quite 
is vigorous, the stalk was more delicate and the seed was only 
ialf the weight. 

In 1380-1881 a number of full grown specimens of Albizzia 
procera, which had been transplanted in the cold season of 1878- 
1879, showed satisfactory results. 

In 1881-1882 a mangosteen plant from Singapore died from 
cold in November. Potatoes received from the Secretary of 
State grew surprisingly well. In May # 1882 the oarob tree 
yielded a crop of fully 30 pounds weight of pods, the greater part 
of which were equal in size to the imported pods. 

The herbarium building was altered and repaired and numer- 
ous specimens were added. 

Experiments were made in collecting the India rubber-yield- 
ing milky sap of the Cryptostegia grandiflora, a beautiful climber. 
As the plants could not bear tapping more than twice a year, the 
yearly acre outturn would be 24 pounds of coutohouc. 

(Extract Gazetteer.) 

Season. 

3. The south-west monsoon was satisfactory and the cold 
weather fall was less than what is usually expected. An excess 
of rain fell in the hot weather, 3*31 inches being registered during 
the month of April. The total rainfall recorded in the gauge 
was 25*85 inches. 

Distribution of Soils. 

4. The river Mula forms the northern boundary of the Garden, 

and the plots lying on -its bank — 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, lower part of 15. 

and 16 — are composed of a great depth of reddish alluvial loam 

deposited by the successive annual floods. This is an ideal soil 

for tho growth of a great variety of trees and other plants many 

of which refused to grow on the black soil. A large quantity of 

this soil is also used for mixing in flower beds, and it is found 

that vegetables can only be successfully grown on black soil after 

a heavy admixture of this alluvium. The plot marked " Banana " 

on the right is very lotf-lying and is often deeply flooded. It is 

now utilized for the growth of jute. Plots No. 14 and the upper 

parts of 15, 16 are of very inferior murum soil, and attempts are 

being made to use the worst patches for the cultivation of fodder 

grasses and fibre plants. The remainder of the Garden is inter- 



4 



mediate black soil, ranging in depth from 2 feet upwards, 
becoming deeper to the northward. 

Indigenous Trees and Shrubs. 

5. Specimen plants in Botanical Section No. 7 are doing 
well, with the exception of a certain number which are intolerant 
of drought, and these have been transferred to more suitable 
positions in the Garden. 

Rubber Experiments. 

6. Ceara. — The average increment in girth of the first set of 
trees planted in July 1903 is 1*27 inches and that of the second set 
planted in August 1904, 3 inches in the 12 months under report. 
The heights of these vary from about 16 feet to 30 feet. The 
following table shows the progressive increments : — 



Year. 



First set 



Second set. 



Height. 



1904-1905 
1905-1906 
1906-1907 



Ft. inches 

4 9 

5 2-5 




Height. 



Girth. 



Ft. 
2 
6 



Inches. 
- 1-25 

2-5 

3 



In July a plot of about half an acre was selected and planted 
with 392 seedlicgs, 6 by 6 feet apart. These are making satisfactory 
progress without irrigation, and a glance at the plot would convince 
one regarding the irregularity of growth in height of the Ceara 
rubber plant in general. The plants here vary from 2 feet to 
8 feet in height and some of the best are equal in girth to 3-year 
old plants in plot No. 11. The majority of our plants have been 
transplanted into the plot and we find that the check caused by 
this method retards growth in the plants for a considerable time. 
We find that by sowing filed seeds in situ no retardation of 
growth occurs in the first year and the plants are not so suscep- 
tible to drought. This is an important factor in the cultivation 
of Ceara in the Dacoan, because in black soil it is exceedingly 
intolerant of long-continued moisture. During spells of cold nights 
the leading shoots often die ; on recovering, the plants throw out 
forked branches, thus marring their symmetry. In order to 
arrive quickly at some definite conclusion regarding the advisa- 
bility or otherwise of extending the cultivation of Ceara in the 
Deccan and Karnatak we have distributed seeds to Agricultural 
Teachers in all Training Colleges and also to Head Masters of High 



Schools and to a few others interested in agricultural experiments 
who have promised to furnish periodical reports on the results 
attained by them* 

7. Cryptostegia grandiflora. — A sample of this rubber was 
forwarded to the Imperial Institute in order that its quality 
and commercial value should be ascertained. The report received 
runs as follows : — 

" The sample weighed about 13 ounces and consisted of a large porous lump 
of rubber which had been formed apparently by the aggregation of thin sheets 
and scrap. It was dark coloured, slightly sticky, and contained a considerable 
quanitity of vegetable and mineral impurities. The rubber exhibited very 
fair elasticity end tenacity. 

Results of examination* 

''The rubber was examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of 
the Imperial Institute and found to have the following percentage composi* 
tion : — 

Moisture ... ... ... 3*6 

Caoutchouc (true rubber) ... ... 64*3 

Resin ... ... ... 10-1 

Albuminoid matter ... ... 7*9 

Insoluble matter (including ash) ... 14*1 

Ash ... ... ... 8-22 

" The percentages of resin and albuminoid matter are both -a little high, but 
the chief defect of the rubber is the presence of the large amount of insoluble 
matter consisting of vegetable and mineral impurities. The presence of 
mineral impurity points to the contamination of the rubber, possibly the scrap 
rubber present in the sample, by contact with the soil, and precautions should 
be taken to avoid this in future. The percentage of caoutchouc is rather low, 
but this is chiefly due to the excessive amount of the impurities contained in 
the present sample. 

" Two specimens of the rubber of Cryptostegia grandiflora from India were 
examined at the Imperial Institute in 1903. A specimen forwarded by the 
Secretary of the Agri- Horticultural Society, Teynampett, Madras, was 
analysed and the dry material was found to contain 7*9 per cent, of resin and 
2*6 per cent, of insoluble impurity. A second sample from Jalaun, which was 
rather inferior in physical characters, contained 9 percent, of resin and 6*5 per 
cent, of insoluble impurity. Both these specimens therefore contained less resin 
and insoluble impurity than the present sample from Bombay. The amount 
of resin in the rubber varies with the age of the plants, a large percentage being 
present in the product frcm young vines. 

Commercial valuation. 

"A sample of the rubber was submitted for valuation to brokers who 
reported that it was rather sticky and slightly heated and would be worth 
3*. 6d. per pound in London at the present time. For comparison with this 



6 

valuation it may be stated that the current vsilue of fine hard Fara from 
South America (the market standard for price) was 5*. 4i. per pound. 

Conclusions and recommendations. 

" The investigation has shown that this sample of the rubber of Crgptostegia 
grandiflora from Bombay is of very fair quality, and there is little doubt that 
the carefully prepared product would sell readily in the market at remunerative 
prices. The elimination of the vegetable and mineral impurities would consi- 
derably improve the quality of the rubber. 

<c In view of the statement that large supplies of this rubber are available 
it is suggested that a trial consignment of one or two hundredweights should be 
prepared and forwarded to the Imperial Institute for sale in London so that 
its commercial value can be definitely ascertained." 

8. Gastilloa elastica. — After another year's experience and 
observation this plant has proved to be absolutely unsuitable for 
the Deecan and, in company with Hevea brazilienm, it is simply 
grown under shelter as a natural curiosity. 

9. The plants of Funtumia elastica referred to in last year's 
report under the synonym of Kickxia africana are in perfect 
health. Their growth is now remarkably slow and this is said to 
be a characteristic of the plant. Conflicting reports are published 
on the value of the rubber produced by this plant, but the general 
concensus of opinion in India seems to be that the plant is not 
worth growing. 

10. Fiou8 elastica. — We have one young specimen, and the 
following interesting information was received from the Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, on a sample 
of rubher produced by the parent of this plant in the Empress 
Gardens, which is approximately 20 years old. It is gratifying 
to hear that this Assam rubber plant, which would thrive 
admirably in the Konkan near rivers, produces a rubher more 
valuable than that collected in its native country. 

" Here are some figures of the proportion of resin to caoutchouc in the 
latex of Ficus elastica grown in Java : — 

Soebang, 36 years old 

Buitenzorg, 15 „ 

» 19 » 

Tjiandjoer, 9 „ 

Tjipetir, 9 „ 

Blitar, 6 „ 

„ 12 •, .i. 



Resin. ( 


3aoutcko 


... 49 


95-1 


... 8-8 


91-7 


... 6-1 


939 


... 8-9 


911 


... 9'3 


90-7 


... 20-9 


79-1 


... 181 


86-9 



Lingasana, 7 (?) years old 

12(?) „ 
Moga, 8 

12 

Simpar, 9 
12 






Begin. 1 


Catch. 


5-9 


94-1 


5-3 


947 


13-1 


869 


11-5 


88*5 


170 


830 


130 


870 


12-4 


87« 



13 „ 

<? These places are ananged in increasing altitude above sea level : the author 
showing by them that altitude increases the resin, but you see from them how 
age decreases it. 

" I am trying to get materials for working this out in India. 

" Your rubber contains much less resin than the trees of the Government 
plantation of Assam." 

11. The following rubber samples were collected and are 
exhibited in the Garden Museum : — 

Manihot Glaziovii (Ceara rubber). 
Hevea braziliensis (Para rubber). 
Castilloa elastica (Central American rubber). 
Cryptostegia grandiflora. 
Ficus elastica (India rubber). 

Fibre Experiments. 

12. Jttte. — This was tried on two plots— the first situated on 
high ground and heavily manured with poudrette and the other 
on low unmanured ground inundated twice during the con- 
tinuance of the crop. The seed was received from the Director 
of Agriculture, Bengal, and the cultivation and extraction of the 
fibre was conducted under the advice of a Mahomeden jute 
expert cultivator from Bengal.^ The results of the trial are given 
in the table below. Early sowing was considered an important 
factor in the cultivation of the crop and the current year's experi- 
ments are arranged accordingly. No final opinion can of course 
be arrived at through one year's experience but the trial seemed 
worthy of repetition. A preliminary note on the cultivation 
of jute wa3 drawn up from instructions given and carried by the 
expert and embodying the experience of its cultivation at the 
Poona, Mdnjri, Bassein and Lanowli Stations and subsequently 
corrected by Mr. Finlow, Jute Expert to the Government of 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, and is placed on record for future 
guidance. It is given below : — 

Note on the cultivation of Jute in the Deccan. 

Soil and situation. — The medium black soil of the Decean on moderately 
Ugh ground is excellent ; that at the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardnes is 



s 

typioal. The alluvial (red) soil formed of the debris washed from the western 
hill ranges is also suitable. Sandy soils of Bassein and its vicinity are also 
good, provided they are on high level ground. Small stones lying about on 
the surface will not be harmful and even stones of the size of an ordinary 
lemon will not matter at all. In all cases level ground so situated as to 
ensure good drainage should always be selected. [Climatic influences have 
also to be taken into account. — R. S. F.] 

"Preparation and manuring. — The land should be well ploughed and 
cross-ploughed in Fdlgun (February-March) and the weeds, rubbish, knnda, 
etc., collected and destroyed. It should be left open to atmospheric influences 
for about 20 to 30 days and in Chaitra (March- April) it should be dressed with 
manure. Any ordinary manure such as stable refuse, farm-yard manure, will 
do. Poudrette is very good. Costly manures such as oil-cakes are not needed. 
It should be broad-casted into the furrows made by the ploughings. The 
field should then be levelled and covered over by means of a light maind 
or sam&r. The quantity of manure required for any soil would depend 
upon its suitability for jute. Best soils require one cart-load per bigha 
(25,312 square feet, a little more than half an acre). About 6 cart-loads per 
acre are absolutely necessary for inferior soils. [I think many soils would 
require more manure than this. Five tons per acre of farm-yard manure is 
common. — B. S. F.] A large quantity is said to kill the young jute seedlings 
by its tC souring " effect.- [This may hold as regards the Deccan. It is not 
quite correct with reference to Bengal. — R. S. F.J It is absolutely necessary 
to manure every land, however superior it may happen to be, for no jute will 
prosper even in the best lands without a dressing of manure. As a rotation 
crop to sugar-cane fields it will answer well, provided it be manured. 

Sowing.— In the month of VaishAkh (April-May) the land should be 
irrigated thoroughly. In about 4 or 5 days thereafter, the land will have 
become sufficiently dry to allow of the working the harrow or a light dantal 
with which furrows should be made length-ways and cross-ways. The surfacj 
soil at this time should be such that, if crushed between the fingers, it should 
not stick to them. The furrows made by the implements in use here (pdbkar, 
etc.) are at a distance of 9 inches. The Bengal implement used for this purpose 
makes small furrows at a distance of about 2 inches. In the absence of similar 
implements the necessity of cross-furrows with such as are locally available is 
evident in order to secure an even distribution of seeds. The seed is broad- 
casted in these furrows and then covered over by running tha kulav or a 
light leveller. The seed rate is 2 \ seers per acre, [6-9 lbs. per acre is the 
normal rate. Early sowing is a powerful factor in determining the success of 
a crop: Experimental crops in Beh&r sown in July have not been a success 
but those sown in March and even as late as May have. Obviously the time 
of sowing depends on rainfall or irrigation. — R. S. F.] 

"Wending and thinning. — The seed will germinate in 3 or 4 days. In 
about a month the seedlings will grow 10-1 \ inches high. The field should 
now be weeded and seedlings thinned out. Only the overcrowded plants 
should be removed, leaving a space of about 1-1 \ inches round each 
plant. Blanks may now be filled by transplanting from the thicker and 
crowded portion. At this time the land may be irrigated if deemed necessary. 
Generally plants, 9 inches high and above, do not require much watering as 



9 

they are then capable of obtaining it by their roots. Another thinning when 
about 3 feet high 13 needed, and with it weeding should also be done. This 
time the plants should be thinned 3 inehes clew, which provides space to grow 
to a girth of 4 inches or more. If at this time the soil is cracked, or seems to 
want watering, the field may be irrigated. By AshAdh (June-July) they 
will be upto 1315 feet. [I think weeding and thinning operations are of 
great importance. I think the distance between any two plants should not be 
less than 3-4 inches and the final thinning should be done when the plants are 
less than 3 feet high. Bather less than 1 foot would be better. I believe 
that early thinning is a considerable advantage.— R. 8. F.] 

Flooding.— Jute seedlings will not stand flooding when young and will 
certainly die if covered br water. When they grow up to about 5 feet high 
no harm will be caused by floods which usually soon abate. If the land 
selected is likely to be flooded, sowing should be put off till the chance of 
inundation is over. [If the plant has reached 5 feet before the flood it will 
probably not come to harm if it is inundated even though the water remains 
some time. The fibre becomes coarse in the latter case-— R. S. F.] 

Flowering*— The jute flowers in Shrivan (July-August). It flowers 
simultaneously at this time in all localities. If the sowings are late the plants 
will still flower in Shrftvan. Hence it is advisable to obtain the best possible 
development of bark tissue before the flowering season by sowing in good 

time. 

Cutting.— H\xe plants are ready to out for fibre when just about to flower. 
[The Burdwan results indicate that a better yield of excellent fibre is obtained 
by cutting the plant when the fruits are just set. This also may be tried.— 
R. S. F.] They should be cut olose to the ground by means of a 
sickle which has small teeth in the bend. The plants should on no account 
be pulled out ; thereby the outer skin of the root interferes with the bark at 
the time of the bitter's removal. The sticks should now be tied into small 
sheaves or bundles, which should be immediately put in standing water* In 
no case should the bundles be left to dry or neglected before putting in water. 

Retting.— After about one week a trial test should be made to ascertain 
whether the bark is ready for removal. For this one stick should be taken out 
and held between the thumb and the next two fingers and tightly drawn 
between them from top to bottom ; this removes all the eellular matter which 
may have undergone complete putrefication. The thick or lower end of the 
stalk should now be held in the left hand and attempt should be made to loosen 
the bark at the tip; if it has become sufficiently retted, it will come off very 
easily. This should now be stripped off by a small jerk or pulL It should 
now be stirred or waved in water, by which the undesirable constituents are 
washed away, leaving the fibre alone. If the bark is found soft and the fibre 
easily washed clear and is white and shining, then the whole lot may be considered 
ready to andergo the same treatment. If not, they should be left another day 
or two and again tested as before. Every day tests should be taken till it 
seems ready. Usually the bundles are ready for manipulation in from 8 to 14 
days. Oversteeping weakens the fibre, which crumbles to pieces, and under- 
steeping causes it to become hard and dark ; so the utmost attention should be 
maintained on the retting process and every day tests should be made. [In 

B9S9—2 



10 

many cases the sticks are allowed to fie in such a way on the ground after 
catting that while the leafy tops are exposed most of the stem is hidden. 
In this way the leaves are and can be shaken off; the tipper branched portion 
of the stem is then cut away and the plant is immersed. They remain 
thus until the retting process has commenced in the lower portion after which 
the plants are completely immersed. In this way there is even retting 
throughout the plant; if the practice is not carried out the softer upper 
portion of the plant is often overretted by the time the lower portion is 
finished.— E. S. P.] 

Extracting fibre. — All the fibre is extracted and washed in the manner 
described for the test sticks. The bark on separating from the wood should 
never be beaten with a wooden mallet, as is done for the ambddi (Hibiscus 
eannabinus) fibre. That spoils the jute fibre. It should only be stirred and 
washed in water to extricate all the intervening cellular matter. 

Drying. — The wet fibre should be hung on horizontal lengths of bamboos 
in the open air for drying. The knots of these bamboos must have been made 
smooth. The fibre should not be hung on a string. The bamboo admits of 
spreading of the fibres at the points of suspensions, which facilitates 
thorough drying, while on the string the fibres are apt to collect into 
groups which retard drying 'and blacken the fibre. 

Crop on rainfall alone. — Jute can also be grown successfully without 
irrigation, provided the ante-monsoon rains in the earlier part of May soak the 
soil well after it has been made ready, manured, etc., in the manner described 
above. Soon after the seeds should be sown. Subsequent rains in a normal 
season do generally fall at the proper times and the crop becomes a success. 
Indeed, it was grown this year in the Ganeshkhind Gardens without irrigation 
and the showers came on when it was just arranged to irrigate the field, the 
plants being then about 4 feet high. 

Varieties of jute.—* The following are varieties of jute : — 

Dbavla Sunder ... The stalks of this are white. 

Kajali ... The stalks are red. 

Hatia ... Stalks are brownish green. 

Bidda Sunder ... Stalks and leaves are red. 

The white-stalked variety is considered to yield the best fibre. [Opinions 
differ widely about this in different districts*-— R. S. P.] 

The peculiarity of the jute plant seems to be that its full 
flowering period commences in August irrespective of the date of 
sowing so that to insure a chance of a crop of full height, sowing 
must be accomplished by the middle of April at the latest. This 
implies the necessity of irrigation until the setting in of the south- 
west monsoon. In spite of a considerable fall of rain in the present 
season three supplies of irrigation water were also necessary. 
Carchorus capsularia, which is probably the true jute plant, grows 
normally. But Corchorus olitorius which is a common wild 
plant in the Deccan reverts to its unsatisfactory branched and 
stunted habit. In procuring the seed for future experiments 



11 

from Bengal it should be distinctly specified that the seods of 
C. capstdaris only are required. 

Other fibres tried in comparison are denoted below : — 



Plant. 


Are* of 
experi- 
ment 


stalks. 


Weight 

of dry 
fibre. 


Percent- 

fibre to 
stalks. 


Osttsra 
of fibre 
per sere. 


Vslaepsr 
•ere. 


Bemsrks. 


Jute (Corckorus cap- 
Upper plot 


Gnutbss. 
S*8 


Lbs. 
1,4X7 


Lbe. 
36 


Lbs. 
1-45 


Lbs. 
609 


Be. 76 4ft 
Be. 10 4-0 
per Bengal 
me and. 




Iiower plot 


W 


1,089 


31 


81 


308 


Be. 80 QB* 

tfpermaand. 




Scsbanifcacaleat* 


Ml 


837 


t 


8 




«M«M 


Strsy plsnts collected. 
Meeere. Balli Bro- 
thers RajtbM It lacks 
•tronirth and Is an* 
suitable for spinning 
and ropennaklng. 


Hibiscus (6p.) ... ... 


•M 


64 


4 


6-3 


-. 


...~. 


Stalks which had 
seeded were takes. 



13. Ramie fibre. —Further experiments with this confirm the 
conclusion that the soil of the Deocan is unsuitable for this plant 
which requires more evenly distributed rainfall and lighter 
soil than we have in the west. The soil is probably most in fault 
because plants grown in pots in prepared compost thrive fairly 
well. Careful irrigation of the plants in the open is useless. 

14. Sisal Hemp. — In the ordinary course this plantation 
in Plot No. 16 ought to have commenced to pole last year. Few 
of the plants show signs even of ordinary vigour, the leaves of 
most are curled and dry at the tips. This condition is probably 
due to the rank growth of grass around them. All our experi- 
ments go to prove that this fibre plant requires as good cultivation 
as any other crop if it has to yield a profit. Plants growing under 
the shelter of bdbul trees are distinctly superior. 

15. Agave. — Last year half-acre plot* of the following were 
put out with the idea of ultimately arriving at the approximate 
outturn of fibre by area : — 

Agave Wightii. 
Agave Cantala. 
Agave Vera-cruz. 
Agave Siaalana. 
Furcraaa gigantea. 



12 



16. Malachra capitata. — This plant, which grows so well 
round Bombay during the rains, has after two years 9 trial been 
found unsuitable for cultivation in the Deooan owing to its low 
and branching habit induced by the lighter rainfall. 

17. The following local fibres are now exhibited in the 
museum : — 



Agave Cantala. 
Agave Siealana. 
Agave Vera-cruz. 
Yucca gloriosa. 
Malachra capitata. 
Hibiscus panduriformie. 
Corchorus capeularis (jute). 



Agave WightS. 

Furcraa gigantea, 

Sanseveira zeylaoica. 

Musa textilis (Manilla hemp). 

Hibiscus sp. 

Sesbania agyptiaca* 



18. Cotton. — Special investigations in the botany of the 
cotton have been continued. A set of seeds to be grown for iden- 
tification were received from the Inspector-General of Agriculture 
in India, and a long series of seeds of botanical and commercial 
varieties of cottons cultivated in America were received for trial 
and identification from Mr. P. J. T^rler of the* Bureau of Plant 
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. Owing to 
the satisfactory rainfall during the year under report the whole 
of the cotton sample plots were not irrigated. A commencement 
was made this year in the estimation of the average yield per 
j>lant of every variety grown, and the first results obtained in this 
line of enquiry are detailed in the following table : — 



T 



in 






Name. 



Bagar Siah ... 

„ Bated ... 

,, 8iah ... 

„ Safed ... 

„ Biah ... 

„ Safed «• 
Deehi, Multan... 
Bagar Siah 

„ Safed ... 

Lalio 

Broach „, ... 



j! 
13 



Tol 8. 
076 

1-8 

13 

2*3 

03 

24 

1-3 

0*7 

0-8 

6-3 

18 



30*0 
33-8 
33*3 
33'3 
333 
33*8 
33-3 
33-3 
33*3 
312 
8b # A 



I* 



74 
75 
76 
78 
79 
80 
93 
94 
95 
£6 
fc7 



Name. 



Lalio 

Kanvi 

Jowar Hatti ... 
Mungari... m 
Northerns ... 
Prodatur „, 

Haldia 

Bani ... ... 

Dhar«r4r, Niinar 

Tiffania 

Gangri ... 



it 

s§"° 



>% 



III 



Tolas. 
lift 

1-8 

1*4 

0*8 

2*8 

06 

0«5 

1*5 

1*3 

0*8 

1-6 



26-6 

30-7 
33*3 
333 
33*3 
33*3 
33-3 
33-3 
333 
25*0 
33 3 



13 



*4 
O 

IS 

Id 


Name. 


I 
J* 




I* 


i 

fl 

128 


««■» 


i 

i 


H 


* 

i! 


98 


Cawnpor indigeaoafl 


M 


u 


Tola*. 
1-07 


931 


Daihl. Lahore .- ~ ... 


17 


Tolas, 

0*6 


95f 


99 


Chanda, OoW Weather _ 


8 


8*8 


89-8 


129 


Htawr .- ~ ... ... 


U 


11 


3T6 


100 


Yerapatti ••• 


M* — 


16 


0-1 


88*8 


130 


Deehi IoraUpor ~ - 


19 


If 


98*8 


101 


Narma m. 


«. 


• 


8-08 


88-3 


181 


Dharwar Dewae — ••* 


19 


8*8 


88*8 


102 


Deahi, Dehra Gtfnkhtn 


IS 


0-9 


83-3 


182 


DeatdJoaui _ _ ... 


8 


1-8 


39f 


10S 


„ Lodhiana 


M. ~. 


• 


1*8 


88-8 


188 


Kapehl ., _ _ _ 


is 


8-8 


t*9 


104 


„ Rawalpindi 


••• «.. 


IS 


1*4 


33-8 


184 


Banveoa «~ *. 


28 


11 


38-8 


106 


Sutra, Molten ... 


M. ... 


St 


1-1 


333 


189 


Deahi. Sadadabad ^ ... 


6 


1-5 


38*8 


108 


Majh* 


_ 


18 


01 


33*3 


137 


Kadir .«_„.... 


3 


06 


S9-9 


1C7 


Deahi, Laborer 


•*• ~* 


11 


Of 


33-3 


138 


Deahi. UnhtHa ... ... 


28 


0*4 ' 


33-8 


108 


„ Hiaaar ... 


.~ 


10 


0-7 


838 


189 


Abaepu... M . m M 


6 


0*8 


21-0 


109 


„ LyaDpur 


~* _ 


14 


107 


33*3 


140 


Deahi, AUgarti-. M . ... 


14 


o-i 


38*8 


110 


„ Malri ... 


~. M 


19 


07 


33*3 


141 


Jalna _ _ „ ... 


13 


8 


83f 


111 


Wooa ... m« 


• 


10 


1*0 


28-0 


148 


Deahi, Meerat ... 


8 


0*8 


838 


112 


Deahi, Mahri ... 


~. «• 


7 


1*4 


86D 


143 


Was -. ^ w «. 


7 


1*08 


833 


113 


Bana .„ 


... — 


17 


0-4 


830 


144 


MarwariHo.8.. 


8 


1*1 


39-0 


114 


Ban! m ~ 


•~ •» 


11 


ojr 


285 


145 


Deahi MaW No. 1 -. ... 


83 


0*4 


26*0 


115 


Himari ~. m 





81 


0-7 


28*2 


148 


* — Ho. 3 ... ••• 


6 


1*8 


383 


116 


Rajgar ~ ... 


— 


9 


0*9 


88*4 


147 


M Mohikbad w ... 


9 


1*1 


33-3 


117 


SafadKapaa ~ 


... 


12 


1*8 


833 


148 


M Bonurally ... 


9 


1-S 


33-8 


118 


MalviorBani ~. 


~ 


18 


1*02 


388 


160 


„ Kalpahar _ «. 


9 


if 


87*6 


119 


fiftni 


M. 


11 


0-8 


30*0 


151 


„ Monha... ... ... 


7 


0*6 


250 


120 


Thigalia 


... 


15 


0*8 


8if 


162 


m PBhaipvr _ 


IS 


104 


89*0 


121 


Doihi M .- 


~ ~ 


8 


1*9 


81*0 


168 


„ Ialiimnacar _. ... 


U 


Of 


26*0 


121a 


Deshiootton ~. 


... 


23 


0*3 


23-6 


164 


,, Bhadarpor ... M 


12 


1-04 


40*0 


1212 


Laaing Angungba 


~ 


14 


0-8 


88 8 


165 


M Mandated 


18 


8-8 


38*5 


121c 


Khilgifi cotton 





18 


0-8 


83-3 


1S6 


Tlflania ......_•*. 


14 


80 


30*0 


12! d 


Mirpurkbia ... 


~. 


12 


02 


260 


167 


Deahi, Bareillj M . — 


12 


16 


33*3 


12k 


Nnjingyan ... 


••• ... 


14 


0*6 


83-3 


169 


„ Babaaopa 


4 


09 


33-3 


121/ 


Barai ... ... 


.- ... 


8 


0-9 


333 


190 


M B«dhia«. m 


12 


If 


883 


121j 


Deahi ... M . 


... 


17 


0-8 


33*3 


181 


„ Unao ... M . ^ 


6 


1-3 


333 


122 


Mania 


... ... 


13 


0-8 


33*9 


161a 


BboaiKapah ... «. 


. 13 


10 


33-3 


123 


Mr.Jlollison'tBani 




12 


1-9 


375 


162 


Pinipat ^ 


1 


2*6 


26*0 


124 


Narma ••• m. 


.- 


. 4 


1-2 


250 


183 


Kapah ... ^ 


8 


0*9 


333 


125 


Deahi, Dehxa Gazikbaa ... 


8 


28 


33*3 


184 


Deahi Ferospur .« 


10 


I'd 


33*3 


126 


„ Ladhiana 


... 


20 


1-8 


333 


168 


„ JaJandar 


16 


1-1 


33 3 


127 


„ Majha ... 


»t» • • 


18 


2-7 


342 


167 


Kathiapak *•• .« 


20 


15 


333 



14 



© 

If 

1* 


Heme. 


lb 

I 

h 


log, 


*6 
I* 


208 


Name. 


.3 

i 


H 

til 


§ 
1 

!i 


188 


Deihi, Walkot _ ... 


17 


Tolas. 
0*8 


833 


Wapya «. ... aM ... 


9 


Tolas. 
69 


347 


189 


Won>kapah ... 


10 


38 


88*3 


209 


We-gale .. „ 


14 


8T 


88*09 


190 


8indhi OottoD No. 1 .*. 


18 


2*4 


38*8 


210 


Mandalaj - _ ... 


88 


2*1 


317 


171 


N M Vo,% — 


17 


0'2 


33*8 


211 


Shan ... m. —i ... 


23 


0*9 


83*3 


191 


n „ JCapro 


12 


1*2 


838 


2U 


White ootton, Langan ~ 


17 


2*9 


85*0 


178 


H „ Pilhro 


11 


1-7 


83*8 


218 


tt Kynima •*. 


10 


2-3 


33 3 


174 
176 


.• - tfPI*' , Bind 

Frontier. 
Mirwari No. 1 . ~ 


12 
18 


2*5 

23 


883 

83'8 


214 

216 


Wa-gale, Notogyir ^ 
Burma ootton ... 


20 
11 


2*4 

16 


33-3 
28*5 


179 


M No* 2 ••• ••• 


12 


2-1 


38*8 


216 


„ Mandalay ... 


.18 


1*8 


83*3 


177 


Deshi United Prorinoes ... 


9 


2-9 


33*8 


217 


Wa-pya „ 


10 


2-2 


33*3 


178 


„ Allahabad 


6 


10 


26'0 


219 


w*a«pya »m ... w 


22 


11 


33*3 


180 


„ Bahalpnr «. 


11 


102 


83*3 


220 


Wa-bya .. 


12 


2*6 


33-3 


181 


„ Oawnpore •« 


16 


1'4 


38*3 


221 


Wani . M ... 


13 


6-1 


83-3 


188 


„ called Kapis 


10 


22 


33*3 


222 


Wa-bya ••• ... •* ... 


19 


13 


33*3 


188 


„ Shirajpur *• 


8 


2*8 


83*8 


228 


M Myingyan ... . ... 


26 


1-5 


33*3 


184 


Lalfikn ... .- .- 


15 


2*0 


93-3 


226 


Kokati . M ... 


9 


1-6 


33*3 


186 


Hirwani... ••• « 


10 


1-8 


88*3 


227 


Laslnganganba 


23 


37 


28-0 


187 


Mathio ... >h ... «• 


24 


1-4 


883 


228 


Khaki, Bhewbo 


13 


2*8 


333 


188 


Berkley, Belli Brothers ... 


22 


1*2 


383 


229 


Pini 


24 


2*8 


38*3 


188a 


Desk!, Uraballa 


28 


24 


33-3 


230 


Khaki, iAngan. 


13 


2*6 


33*3 


189 


Khnmra ... 


29 


1*2 


33*3 


231 


M Fank Division 


23 


2*4 


33*3 


191 


Bhnrile ... •*• •»• *— 


18 


1-04 


83'8 


232 


„ Mynima M , m. 


16 


2*7 


88*3 


192 


Banwala... .- ••• 


22 


27 


833 


233 


Wani, Allanmyo ... 


19 


1*3 


33*3 


198 


Braiea soft lint « 


16 


1*4 


33*8 


234 


„ Moniva 


19 


1*9 


33*3 


194 


„ coarse lint 


20 


0-5 


81*2 


285 


„ Budalin , M ... 


10 


1*8 


33*3 


195 


Haldia ... ... ... 


26 


1*2 


833 


236 


M Zimbarim 


9 


1*6 


33'3 


196 


Wotha — 


10 


11 


33*3 


237 


„ Mynigyan „. 


1 


60 


25*0 


197 


Nagpor Yellow 


23 


2*3 


44*4 


233 


Kiti .. 


9 


2*08 


33*3 


198 


Chin to white ..« ••• 


21 


0-7 


34*5 


239 


Oeehi, Umballa ... ... 


21 


1*9 


333 


800 


Khong .« m. •- 


15 


2*0 


33*3 


240 


Narma ... . M M 


13 


0*9 


30*0 


201 


Deshi Saim 


9 


l;l 


294 


241 


Abaspur 


16 


1*0 


33*3 


201a 


Kapas, Jowai 


22 


1*3 


833 


242 


Deshi Aligarh ... ^ ... 


14 


107 


33-3 


2015 


Chimpti Khftki 


8 


10*0 


33 3 


243 


Jalna ... *•• , M ... 


17 


1*5 


333 


201c 


Kulthang ••• «* 


14 


2*4 


33*3 


241 


Achena... .. 


15 


06 


25*0 


202 


Lasingangaba ... 


7 


21 


33«3 


245 


Meerat, Deshi ... ... ... 


19 


2*7 


33*3 


204 


Banff ... ... ••• ••• 


20 


3'2 


307 


246 


Waradi 


21 


1-9 


33'3 


205 


Wapya 


15 


1-7 


33*3 


247 


Jari ... 


23 


16 


33*3 



15 



•3 






1 

si 


*l 


| 


V 




| 


U 


1 


h 

■i 
1* 


Name. 




fit 


Cm 




Hame. 


1 


3# 
HI 


l! 










Tola*. 








Tola* 




243 


Supra •** ... 


... ... 


to 


1*8 


38-3 


283 


Aaron Ha 8* ... _ 


21 


17 


883 


240 


Deehi 


~ 


18 


1'6 


833 


884 


Kar ... ... ... ... 


27 


2*9 


847 


260 


Sindhi cotton .- 


... ~ 


18 


1*3 


33*3 


285 


Cbapti Kapah 


10 


1*6 


33-8 


251 


Bednora ..• 


... 


If 


1*8 


33*3 


288 


Da-fctJntii ~ ... 


16 


1*4 


38*3 


252 


Deehi Mnttra .« 


•M —* 


19 


l'i 


333 


287 


Aatam No. 88 


21 


•07 


899 


268 


„ Allahabad 


- ... 


18 


2*01 


883 


288 


Oomlila Khaki... *. ... 


16 


1*0 


88-8 


254 


M Gamkran 


... *~ 


80 


1-8 


88-8 


289 


„ M Bind ... ... 


21 


11 


88*8 


266 


M Aligartu. 


.*• ... 


18 


0-6 


53-3 


880 


Dbowna... — m. ... 


16 


1-6 


83-8 


256 


"Aphakia... ... 


... ... 


10 


11 


33*3 


291 


K-tthi .-....«_ 


11 


1*6 


88-9 


268 


Obouipakla ^ 


- _ 


9 


1-6 


33-3 


282 


Aawm No. 21. ... ~ 


V 


1*9 


88*8 


259 


Delhi, Bakim ... 


- - 


27 


1-6 


883 


298 


Porfjga No* 4 m* _• .« 


V 


18 


88-3 


200 


Knlpahar ~. 


... ... 


18 


208 


33*3 


293* 


Kheltan ~ „ ... 


24 


1-3 


338 


261 


Deehi, Bbelo ••« 


~ ... 


17 


1-7 


33*3 


293c 


Chlmtl ... ... _ 


16 


30 


83-3 


261a 


Mr. Moffiwm't Jari type ... 


24 


14 


38*3 


293J 


Kil -. ... ... 


19 


2*3 


83*3 


2616 


Bird ... 


M. ... 


9 


16 


33-3 


293* 


Mirpwkhai ... ... 


18 


2-4 


88*3 


262 


Hlrawani «• 


... ~ 


11 


1*1 


33*3 


29V 


Burma ootton ... ... 


11 


1*2 


83-8 


263 


Mathio ... «. 


— 


19 


11 


33 3 


294 


Dh&rwarAmerican ... 


27 


1-6 


833 


264 


MothoMathio ... 


~ 


23 


1*1 


33-8 


295 


Upland .„ ... — 


26 


2*5 


30-4 


265 


White cotton ... 


M« M. 


20 


1*1 


33*3 


299 


Jethia ... ... ... ... 


25 


2*4 


339 


267 


Deahi, Hardoe ... 





28 


08 


83-3 


804 


Manchan ... m 


16 


2*6 


3V8 


268 


Khonko ... ... 


.- 


27 


0-9 


333 


307a 


Ban^'American .„ 


18 


11 


36*6 


269 


„ Akao ,.. 


... .- 


22 


1-2 


33 3 


808 


Khaki. Lyallpur ... ... 


14 


2*5 


23*5 


270 


Soru Kapah ... 


... - 


24 


1-4 


33'3 


309 


„ 8ttjabad ... ~ 


21 


1-6 


268 


271 


Bar Kapah 


*M ••• 


11 


16 


333 


310 


Hajardaata ... M 


20 


3*4 


297 


272 


Khunaa ... ... 





24 


1*4 


33*3 


812 


Jogya 


17 


22 


80-0 


273 


Bhang — «• 


... 


14 


1*8 


333 


313 


Narma •— „, . m ... 


17 


82 


27*2 


274 


Kil ,„ .., 


... _ 


17 


19 


833 


314 


PiUKapai ... w ... 


16 


1*8 


37-6 


275 


Nagpor white •- 


t*« «.» 


11 


2-04 


38-3 


316 


Manwa Khakis 


2* 


23 


28*5 


276 


M oreamy white 


12 


2*8 


33*3 


316 


Brown ootton ... 


32 


1-9 


32*0 


277 


Oomiila „. 


•M ... 


6 


27 


33 3 


317 


Vilajti,Jhanai... _. ... 


21 


3*3 


357 


m 


„ Bind 


... ~. 


10 


30 


338 


818 


BaniPeela «. 


9 


4*1 


338 


279 


Ohapti Kapah 


... ... 


13 


31 


33*3 


819 


Narma Khaki ... ^ _ 


18 


5*6 


80*0 


280 


Dhawria m. 


— ... 


14 


3*6 


366 


820 


Vilayti hrown... ^ 


19 


2'5 


83-3 


281 


Khilgiri 





9 


3-3 


33*8 


881 


„ white . M * M ... 


19 


2*1 


34*3 


282 


Kil 


- - 


12 


0*7 


250 













16 

19. The results of the special varieties of cotton that are 
being experimented with are given below. 

Bourbon. — American Cotton No. 2. — A small plot was planted 
in July 1905, the plants standing 8 feet apart. The plot is not 
irrigated but is sheltered from prevailing winds by a belt of trees. 
During the first year the plants did not bolL In 1906 they 
started boiling in * October and continued till the end of 
May. 

Kidney cotton. — American Cotton No. 4. — This was planted 
at the same time as and in a plot adjoining that of Bourbon. A 
number suffered from lack of sufficient humidity in the atmosphere 
in the cold weather. Some, which were sheltered towards the 
west, survived and flowered in 1906, but the number of bolls was 
low. We are disposed to believe that this variety is not promising 
and its requirements of perfect shelter is difficult to satisfy in a 
treeless country like the Decoan. 

Soft Peruvian. — American Cotton No. 1. — This was also 
planted in July 1906. During the first season the plants made fairly 
rapid vegetative growth and some of them were distinctly inclin- 
ed to form bolls also. In 1906 they flowered and boiled quite satis- 
factorily. This tree cotton answers to the definition of a tree 
more nearly than any of the four species we have at present. 
Some stems attain a girth of 14 inches in one year. 

Dhdrwdr-American. — This was tried as an inter-crop between 
the lines of oranges in order to suppress the weeds as far as possible. 
Two separate lines of this cotton planted in July 1905 were 
retained to see whether they would yield well for another season* 
These yielded very meagrely the first year, but the results in the 
second season showed a great improvement in yield. 

Peruvian cotton. — American Cotton No. 3.— Plants put out 
in 1905 have not yet flowered. They are grown without irriga- 
tion. 

Dhdrtcdr- American and OhogdH cotton. — One quarter acre 
was sown along with other annuals to ascertain the yield by 
area. 

Spence cotton. — These were planted in February 1907 and 
are under observation. In the Deccan soil these are not distin- 
guishable from Bourbon. 



17 

Prom the following valuation receiyed from Messrs. Tata & 
Sons, Bombay, it is very satisfactory to learn that Bourbon and 
soft Peruvian, which we consider the varieties of American tree 
cottons most suitable for introduction into the Deooan, have been 
reported on so favourably. The valuation is based on the quota* 
tions ruling on 20th May 1907. 

tg Bourbon cotton. — The sample shows too many yellow stains and is very 
seedy. The class of the cotton is not satisfactory, but the staple is long and 
silky and the fibre shows much strength. We value it at Rs. 270 per Handy 
(784 lbs.). 

" Dkdnodr and Okogdri cotton. — It is seedy, dirty and stained, and we 
can place it in the lowest class, viz., ' good ' (fine, fully good and good). The 
staple is mixed and irregular. Price Us. 165 per Handy. 

" Oossypium neglectum, No. J S5C— It is stained and can be classed as 
'fully good.' The feel is soft and silky and the staple is good. Price 
Rs. 240 per Handy. 

tf Dkdrwdr- American. Stained and seedy and can be olassed as 'good 
fair ' (good, fully good fair, good fair and fair). The cotton is silky and of 
good staple. We value it at Re. 250 per Handy. 



" We may add that the seeds are removable by proper ginning and the 
stains by judicious picking. By removing these two defects you will enhance 
the value of the cotton about 5 per cent. 

u Bour bon cotton (Bassein sample) .—The sample is Kap6s (cotton with 
seed) and not pure cotton. If properly ginned so as to remove all stains, 
seeds and unripe fibres, the cotton may fetch about Rs. 290 per Handy of 
734 lbs. The fibre is very strong, colour oreamy white and feel soft and silky. 
The cotton is good for spinning 40s. 

" Soft Peruvian*— Very long-stapled, white, nice cotton, but fibre very 
weak. Good for spinning higher counts in combination With other varieties 
having strong fibre, of which it would be advisable to make a mixing. Feel 
rather harsh, value today (5th July 1907) about 8i. per pound." 

Below are tabulated the results of these special varieties of 
cottons :— 



s we— 8 



18 



si 

r 




"85 



i 



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CM S * 

m 

B 1i 



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a 
3 



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5 s s 



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lili a - - 



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4 -§*!* 

p a p 



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19 



Camphor (Cinuamomum Camphora). 

20. The following table gives the measurements of girth and 

height of the plants :— 



Situation of the plant. 


PUnttdut 


Height 


Girth. 


Bmmtfci. 






Ft. in. 


Icchen. 

1 




Planted in No. 10 


1903 


3 2 


1-5 j 


^ 


Planted in No. 7 


1904 


2 8 


35 


Girth— one inch from 
ground. 


Near office 


1906 


6 


25 


i 

> 



The plant near the office is sheltered and partially shaded by 
a Duranta tree on the wept but open on the remaining sides, and 
receives an almost regular supply of water from a waste channel. 
This plant is very bushy and seems full of vigour. 

I have hopes that the camphor plant will thrive well, treated 
as a hedge under irrigation, and experiments are being undertaken 
with that view. As the plants we have can be propagated only 
by layers their numbers are increased very slowly. 

Fruit Plantations. 

21. Mango€$. — For many years the lack of produce from the 
great number of mango trees established in this Harden has been 
a disappointing feature. After a long series of observations, 
carried over some years, it was decided that the trees were held in 
perpetual check by excessive irrigation and the consequent rank 
growth of perennial pasture gnasses. It is a well known fact that 
young mango trees should be irrigated at short intervals for two 
to three years after being planted; when they are thoroughly 
established the rainfall of the locality should suffice to carry them 
on throughout the year, with the exception perhaps of the flower* 
ing period when one good supply of irrigation water should be 
given to assist in the formation of the fruit. Grasses should be 
systematically cleared away from the plots. The large trees which 
Have originated from seedlings in this garden cast sufficient shade 
to prevent the undue growth of grass, but grafted plants which 



iO 

never attain large dimensions do not seem to be able to 
smother grass unless very closely planted, when an enormous 
redaction in the produce of fruit occurs. After a few ^ears of 
careful treatment many plants which were once in a moribund 
condition are now strong, healthy trees producing good crops. 
Mango trees seldom bear well two years in succession. Last year 
the crop was very good, this year it was short, and next year we 
expect a good crop again. There are 5 varieties of mangoes grown 
on a pretty large scale, the majority being P&iri, the remainder 
are Alphonse, Cowasji Patel, Borsha, and a set of large country 
mangoes dating from the time of the Peishwas. 

22. Pomegranates. — Seven varieties grown from seeds of 
specially selected fruits were put out in July 1905. All these are 
progressing satisfactorily, many of them already producing frujt. 
Some particularly strong individuals fruited in the first year. This 
is contrary to the general idea that pomegranates only fruit in four 
to five years after germination. 

The following varieties are cultivated : — 

Poona No. 1. — Fruit surface scarlet,, red strips in the 
middle about 1£ inches broad ; basal and apical portions paler, 
black dotted all over. Length 3£ inches; circumference 12 
inches, 7 -angled. Apex tubular truncate ; base hollow ; peduncle 
attached in the hollow. Pericarp tough. Seeds many, attached 
to a short funiculus, oblong, slightly tapering at base, 6-angled, 
deep scarlet at apex. Taste more astringent and less agreeable 
than Poona No. 3. Prult dehiscing on one side only. Weight a 
little over one pound. 

Poona No. 2. — Fruit 5-angled, split on one side near the 
apex. Weight little less than one pound. Apex as Poona No. 1. 
Surface dark red spot at one side of the base, pale red above the 
spot up to the apex, remaining portion brownish white, dark 
spotted on the dark and pale red portions. Length 3£ inches, 
circumference 11| inches. Seeds obTong, 5-angled, conical, smaller 
and redder than Poona No. 1 ; less pulpy and astringent than 
Poona No. 1. 

Poona *No. 5.— Fruit weight equal to Poona No. 2. 
Surface green yellow with black spots all over. Colour one half 
deeper and the other half mixed scarlet. Tube of the calyx 
6-lobed. Seeds equal in size and pulp to Poona No. 1, 5-cornered. 
Taste more agreeable than Poona Nos. 1 and 2. Pericarp thicker 
than Nos. 1 and 2. 



21 

Sangamner No. 1. — Fruit quite similar in all respeots to 
Poona No. 3 except in weight which is a little less. 

Sangamner No. 9. — Fruit 6-oornered, scarlet red all over, 
deeper towards the extremities. Taste rather inferior to Sangain- 
ner No. 1. Calyx tube not conspicuous. 

CabuL — Fruit 8-cornered. Integuments thicker than Muscat 
Tariety. Colour rather deep red mixed with a little pale yellowish 
white. Calyx lobes absent. Base of style distinct and protrud- 
ing, haying the shape of an inverted glass. Seeds have a darkish 
pulp on them and the taste rather bitter which might have been 
due to the fruit being slightly rotten. The fruit was hollow at 
the base, the hollows being surrounded by hard rim on the inner 
side. Weight one pound. Circumference 11 inches. 

. Muscat. — Fruit weight one pound. Length 3 inched. 
Circumference 10 inches at bas« and towards the apex 6 inches. 
Apex hollow. Calyx lobes deciduous. Base of style distinct. 
Surface upper part shining whitish with a red tinge and the 
lower reddish. Pericarp stiff and hard. Seeds 5-cornered. Pulp 
pale red. The fruit was 8-angled, 

The Muscat and Cabul varieties seem plants of dwarf er habit 
and have not grown even half so much as the other indigenous 
kinds, but at the same time they must be considered as being in 
perfectly healthy condition. 

23. Custard apples (Anona squamosa) are making compara- 
tively slow progress, and the same remark applies to the Bullock s 
Heart (Anona reticulata) and Sour Sop (Anona muricata). 

24. Oranges and Lemons, etc. — This area has become infested 
with kunda grass (Ischtemum pilosum). Attempts have been 
made to root it out periodically, and it will take long before the 
pest is completely suppressed. In spite of this difficulty, however, 
the Nagpur and M&lta oranges are progressing very satisfactorily. 
Santra, Mosamhi, Kavla, Sakhar Limbu, Citron, Mah&ungi and 
other species of citrus have grown fairly well. Citron Thranja 
has fruited this year. 

Orange de Societe compared with other varieties seems to 
lack vigour. Pear la Conte, Orange de calbre blood, Lime Deshi 
Kalamba, Citron finger are not adapting themselves to the climate 
and conditions. Steps are being taken to replace the few blanks 
and to bring the weeds under control. 



22 



Aakunda grass is killed out by shade Dharwdr- American 
cotton was grown between the lines of oranges for one year with 
the hope that this would keep the grass down. This year jute 
has been thickly grown with the same object after the land had 
been ploughed and hand weeded, and it is too early yet to state 
whether any benefit accrued. In the course of years the oranges, 
limes, etc., will probably kill this noxious weed with their own 
shade. Kunda grass and lamia (Cyperus rotundus) are the most 
intractable weeds in good black soil in the Deccan* No remedy 
except deep digging and hand picking proves effectual, and being 
drought-resisting even a long period of dry weather does no harm 
to them. 

The following varieties are cultivated : — 



Citron Turanj. 
Citron finger; 
lime at Annui. 
Lime at Annui kala. 
Deshi Kalamba. 
Lemon Florida. 
Lime GalgaL 
Lime Jamberi. 
Lime Jamberi, brown. 
Lime Kagzi. 
Lime Khatta. 
Lime Sylhet. 
Lime Sweet cbickna. 
Lime GalgaL 
Lemon Bijori. 
Lemon Malta. 



Lemon Italian No. 76. 
Lemon Edratin de cilabra. 
Oranges Nagpur. 

Pomeloes from Chimbore (Bom- 
bay). 
Orange de calabra. 
Orange de Soci&e. 
Orange de Malta. 
Orange Sour Florida. 
Feach 9 country, No. 1. 

Do. No. 2. 

Do. No. 3. 

Do. No. 4. 

Pear, China. 
Pear la conte. 



Garden Crops. 

25. Potatoes. — Marseilles and Italian potatoes were tried on 
small plots in November and the yields calculated came to 2 tons 
and i ton per acre respectively. As the areas experimented with 
were very small we do not consider these figures reliable and pur- 
pose repeating the trials on a larger scale next season. 

26. Yarn*.— The following statement shows the varieties 
tested with results : — 



23 



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B989— 4 



26 

27. Sugarcane. — Mr. Meggitt, the Agricultural Chemist, has 
selected a small plot far growing sugarcane with the intention of 
personally selecting individual canes by chemical and other 
methods for propagation. The results will be reported on in due 
course. Very valuable results have been obtained by these 
methods in the West Indies and- only experience will prove 
whether or not they are suitable for Indian conditions. 

Grain Crops. 

28. Bhddli. — An enquiry was instituted on the identity of 
this crop and seeds were obtained from the chief centres of culti- 
vation in the Bombay Presidency. The seed was grown this year 
in the Qaneshkhind Botanical Gardens. It was sown about the 
middle of June 1906 and ripened too late to be included in last 
year's report. 

Bhidli is distinguished from the other small millets by the 
long drooping rarely erect bristly heads. Some of the latter 
are often cylindrical and slightly tapering towards the apex. The/ 
are divisible into 4 types, roughly recognizable by the— 

(1) short or absent bristles. Nasik, Ahmednagar, 

Setaria italica, var. 1. 

(2) long bristles and crowded branches of the panicle. 

Panch Mah&ls. S. italica, var. 2. 

(8) purple colour of the head and much laxer branches of 
the panicle. Bdrsi and Poona Farm. S. Italics 
var. 3. 

(4) this is rather distinct from the others and is known by 
the more slender heads with yellowish bristles and 
the grains (spikelets) arranged in whorls directly 
on the slender axis. Setaria glauca. Kdng* 
Poona Farm (Batnagiri). Navani, Hangal 
(Dterw&r). 

The cultivation of Bhddli does not seem to be of any im- 
portance. Its distribution in the Presidency is as shown below :— 

Acres. 

KhAndesh ... ... ... 4,104 

Nasik ... ... ... 3,985 

Ahmednagar ... ... ... 4,087 

Poona .. ... ... 4,728 

ShoUpur ,♦. ... ... 404 

Paneh Mah&ls ... ... ... 117 

Broach .„ .„ if . J65 



27 

JPanicum pilosum of: Dalzell and Gibson's Bombay Flora 
supplement, page 98, is probably No. 2. 

JPanicum (?) sp. of Dal?, and Gib/s Bombay Flora supple- 
ment, page 98, is probably No. I. 

Panicum (?) sp. of Dalz. and Gib/s Bombay Flora supple- 
ment, page 98, is probably No: 3. 

29. Wheat. — Ten plots making up one aero in all were 
sown with wheat in order to test the soil capabilities and suitabi- 
lity for an elaborate manurial testing scheme, as also to test the 
uniformity of the soil in the different portions of the area selected* 
The crop was very poor and the inequalities between the different 
plots and between portions of the same plots showed the unsuit- 
ability of the soil for suoh experiments and consequently the 
soheme was abandoned. 

The following report and valuations were received from 
Messrs. Ealli Brothers on a number of wheat crosses which have 
been evolved during the last few years : — 

" We have examined the 113 samples of wheat you sent us and find them 
on the whole unsatisfactory. Barring about a dozen samples, amongst which 
there are some very good hard yellows and some fairly good soft whites, all 
the other samples do not oome in the class of wheat exportable from Bombay 
and can only be sold for local consumption. 

" Herewith our report on the various samples. What we would have 
wished to see is the improvement of standard Bombay qualities, viz* — 

Soft white wheat as pure as possible. 

Hard yellow wheat as pure as possible. 

Hard red Dh&rw&r quality as pure as possible. 

u The samples which in our opinion are really very good are Nos. 6, 25, 63, 
65, 73, 103, 107, 112. We may further add that the examination of a good 
many of the samples was rendered rather difficult through their not having 
been freed from their chaff. 

Sample No. 1. 11. 36. Khapli + Kildkusal, spikelets broad. 

Hard red wheat, of no great value. Quality good. 

„ 2. (89a.) Kan grili + Australian 46, very small awns. 

Qlossy wheat, good with fairly easy sale. 

„ ' 8. Naiski (plot 2). 

„ 4. IV. Khapli + Pivla N&ik. 

Undesirable* 



28 

Sample No. 5. 31. Daudkha*i{+ Australian 27. Soft wheat, fairly 
good, contains some immature and small grains, 

„ 6. Siah Das. 

Very good superior hard yellow wheat. 

„ 7. 65. Ghaval K4tba + Khapli. 

Mixed hard red, quality undesirable, 

„ 8. 9. Khapli + PSnsangli. 

Good hard red of the Khapli description. Very little 
of such quality is exportable and as a rule fetches 
a lower price than any other kind of wheat. 

„ 9. Dhayak. 

„ 10. VI. Pivla Naak + Khapli. 

Fairly good hard red. 

„ • 11. Surkb. 

, 12. 70. Khapli + Cbaval Katha. 

Quality undesirable. 

„ 13. VI. c Pivla NAsik + Khapli, Extra grains. 

14. IX. Pivla Ndsik + Khapli. 

15. XII. Pivla Nteik + KAlakusal. 

16. VIII. Pivla Ndsik + Khapli. 

Hard yellow, not very good quality, being small in 
grain. 

; , 17. 11. 3 c. Khapli + KAWkusal, spikelets large. 

„ 18. 31. Daudkhani + Australian 27. 

•Undesirable. 

„ ' 19. Dhayak. 2nd sample of the same name. 

„ 20. Saiok. 

A mixed quality of soft and glossy wheat, immature, 

. . small. 

f} 21* VI. A. Pivla Nrisik + Khapli. Short, congested. 

, „ 22. XII. Pivla Ndsik + KdUkusal. 

Inferior hard yellow. 

„ 23. 40. Katha Nagpore + Khapli. 

Mixed hard red and glossy, of a difficult sale* 

„ 24. LX. Pivla NAsik + Khapli. 



Sample 


No. 25. 


1. Australian 28/32 + Australian 27, 8 grains. 
Very good. 


>> 


26. 


61. K&tha Baroda + Khapli. 


>> 


27. 


62. Khapli + Katha Baroda. 
Fairly good hard red. 


} 


28. 


111. Khapli + Pansingli. 


•9 


29. 


Surkh Kosha. 
Undesirable. 


l» ♦ 


30. 


81. Khapli + Shet of PSrner. 


It 


31. 


Pansdngli 4- K&Ukusal. 
Very good. 


V 


82. 


VII. Pivla Nfaik + Khapli. 

Hard yellow, of fairly good quality, might be im- 
proved. 


:> 


38. 


61. KAtha Baroda + Khapli. 
Undesirable. 


'9 


34. 


63. Pissikhaberia 4- Khapli. 


*) 


35. 


11. 1 A. Khapli + KAWkusal, short head. 


» 


36. 


21. Khapli + Wheat of Parner. 

Bather small, hard red, of not very good quality. 


H 


37. 


89. a. Bangrih + Australian 46. 
White glossy, of very good quality. 


J' 


38. 


1.' K*l*knsal + Khapli. 
Good hard yellow. 


V 


39. 


Naishki, plot 2. 
' Altogether undesirable. 


)» 


40. 


Bolani. 
Altogether undesirable. 


» 


41. 


IX. A. Pivla Nasik + Khapli, head short. 


» 


42. 


11 2 a. Khapli + Kattkusa), long heads. 


Ji 


43. 


VIH. Pivla Nasik + Khapli. 
Good hard yellow. 


-'5 


44. 


Kallah. 

Fairly good white Mnndi. 


t) 


45. 


42. Kempu Godhi + Khapli. 

Although the grains are very small the appearance : 
rather good. 


" 


46. 


Mundi white + Australian 84, long awns. 
Good white Mundi. 



Sample 


No. 


47. 


V 




48. 


V 




49. 


:) 




50. 






51. 
52. 



80 

KtiaGandam. 
Undesirable. 

9. Khapli + Ptfarfngli. 
3 o. Khapli + K&l&kusal, spikelets large. 
2 b. Khapli + KtfUkusal, hairy head. 
8 a. Khapli + Kdttkasal. 
L Khapli + KdUkueal. 
Undesirable. 

53. Safed + Chali 

Undesirable. 

54. 69. Khapli + Hansia Broach. 

Inferior hard red. 

55. 11 3 b. Khapli + KiMknsal, spikelets broad. 
Inferior hard red. 

56. Ill a. KhapU 4- KdUkusal. 

57. Ill c. Khapli + Ptastngli. Head congested. 
68. 74. Khapli + Pissikhabeiia. 

59. Ill a. Khapli 4- PKnsfagli. Head short. 

60. 76. Khapli + Sudhe of Rahuri. 

61. 8. Pansdngli + Khapli. 

62. 71. Khapli + Pivla Khdndesh. 

63. 50. Hybrid N&gpur 4- Muzafarnagar. 

Soft wheat. Had the grains been slightly bolder, the 
quality would be very good indeed. 

64. XI. A. Daudkhani 4- Khapli Extra grain. 

65. 30. Shet of Pdrner + Khapli. . 

Hard yellow, containing some proportion of spotted 
grains. Quality good on the whole. 

66. 75. Khapli + Lfl pissi. 

67. IX. b. Pivla N<sik + Khapli. Extra grains. 

68. VI. b. Kvla NAsik + Khapli. Headlong. 

69. 24. Khapli + Howrah Ntfgpur. 

70. 111. b. Khapli 4- PAns&ngli. Head hairy. 

71. XI. b. DaudhkhAni 4- Khapli. Congested heads. 

72. 11. 1. b. Khapli 4- Kdldkusal. Long head. 

73. Australian. 28/32 22. 

White Mundi. Very good quality. 

74. Hansia Broach. 

Soft white wheat mixed with some hard yellow. 
Cannot be sold by itself in Europe. 



81 

Sample No. 75. 18. DeshiAthnL 

Soft red fairly good, not easily saleable in Europe, 

„ 76. Koni of Jhelum. 

Hard yellow, good in appeaiaaoe but rery email and 
the grains are under-fed. 

„ 77. DaudkhJni. Damon. 

Far from perfect, soft. Just passable. 

„ 78. Mundi of Ludhiana. 

79. DaudkhdniA. 

Soft wheat ; good, bat grains are too small. 

80. Chaval KAtha. BhandAra. 

White, mixed with soft and hard yellow. 

81. Australian. 1/24. 

„ 82. Australian. 84/26. 

„ 83. Jowaria. Damoh. 

Small round grains and unsaleable in Europe; may 
find some demand for local consumption. 

„ 84. KvlaBotka. B4glan, NAsik. 

„ 85. Australian 56/32. 

Small round grains and unsaleable in Europe ; may find 
some demand for local consumption. 

„ 86. Safed of Hoshi&rpur. 

Small hard yellow with shrivelled and glossy grains. 
,, 87. Rangrih of Kangra. 

Small hard yellow with shrivelled and glossy grains. 

„ 88. Qhoni of Silhet. 

Small yellow, containing too many dead grains, 
undesirable. 

„ 89. Kopergaon wheat. 

Hard yellow, of very good quality. 

90. Bansi BAlAghAt. 

Hard yellow, good. 

„ 91. Australian 13/32. 21. 

White Mundi, good. 

92. Australian 29/82— 23. 

Soft white, containing too largo a percentage of 
shrivelled and small grains. 

„ 93. Australian 46/81. 

Spotted white Mundi, not very good. 
„ 94. Dandan of Multan. 

Bound wheat, would only be used for local consumption. 



S3 

Sample No. 95. Australian 26/28. 

Very good, soft white wheat. 
„ 96. Dodi of Muzafargarh. 

Undesirable. 
» 97. Australian 27/29. 

„ 98. Australian 20/20—20. 

White glossy, grains are rather small. 
„ 99. Pivla Pote, Malegaon. 

Undesirable. 
„ 100. Australian 3/20-19. 

Undesirable. 
„ 101. Daudkhdni 0. 

„ 102. Paman Sirsa. 

Soft white, fairly good. 
„ 103. Kdlakusal wheat. 

Very good, hard yellow. 
„ 104. Buddha wheat. 

Soft red, of a good quality. 
„ 105. L£l of Batala. 

Soft red, rather small. 
„ 106. Red Deshi of Audh. 

Soft red, rather small. 
„ 107. Potia, Nadiad. 

Very good, soft red. 
,, 108. Malaya, Belgaum. 

Spotted red, of difficult sale. 
„ 109. Safed of Amritsar. 

Soft white, good quality but rather small. 
„ 110. Dadhak, Amritsar. 

Hard yellow, good quality. 
„ 111. Black awnei Athni. 

Hard red, quality good. 
„ 112. Farner wheal;, obtained at the Nagar Show, 1905. 

Very good, hard yellow. 
„ 113. Shu tar D&ndam. 

Undesirable. 

" Nob. 1, 7, 13, 14, 17, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 34, 35, 41, 42, 48, 50, 61, 
56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72 and 101 are all hard red wheat, 
rendered inferior by an admixture of what is called Khapli wheat, and would 
only be sold on the spot for local consumption. 



88 

" All the numbers on which we fcave net reported represent wheat of a 
decidedly inferior quality/' 

Grass Experiment!. 

30. Panicum bulbosum. — Sinoe last year this is standing in a 
small plot. It seems a perennial grass. It is barely able to 
survive drought and eannot be eat at intervals to furnish a regular 
supply of fodder in summer. The grass propagates easily by its 
bulbs wbich strike root very readily and it may ultimately prove 
to be a good grazing grass but probably not superior to many 
indigenous ones. Further tests as to its feeding value, etc., ean be 
undertaken only whe* it is propagated on a larger scale so as to 
ensure a seed supply for an extended area. 

31. Italian rye grass, perennial rye grass, Dactylu glomerata, 
fettuca elatior, Phleum pratense. — These were sown in separate 
beds but all failed to germinate. 

Silo. 

32. A pit of 1 ,000 cubic feet capacity was dug in ordinary soil 
in the gardens to test the value of ensilage of a large quantity of 
coarse grass. The quantity placed in the pit in September was 
26,821 lbs. On being opened in the month of March the yield of 
cattle feed weighing 20,000 lbs. was abstracted at the rate of 500 
lbs. per day until finished. The Superintendent of the Kirkee 
Civil Dairy reports that the cattle ate it readily and that the 
peculiar strong smell passed away quickly on exposure to air, 
leaving the smell of half dried hay. Arrangements have been 
pade this year for the preparations of 6 siloes in murum ground 
m order to permanently maintain the experiment on a larger scale. 

Trial with new Plants. 

33. The followin^plants have been introduced into tho 
Gardens for trial :— 

Vitis gigantea. | Billbergia decora. 

Vitis latifolia. J Aechmea f ulgens. 

Schimatoglottis crispata. j Aechmea sp. 

Maranta Binote. Karatus spectabilis. 



Mussaenda luteola. 
AusBmia rotundif olia. 
Dieffenbachia Jenmani. 
Scutellaria discolor. 
Amomum "magnificum. 



Carugata lingulata. 
Cryptanthus acaulis. 
Pkssiflora Watsoniana. 
Buddlela diversifolia. 
Caccalia carnosa. 



34. 



Strobilanthus colorata. 
Hernia myrtifolia. 
Psederia f oetida 
Gymnema tingene. * 
Peristrophe angustifolia. 
Eranthemum sp. 
Capparis zeylanica. 
Sikkim orange. 
Tight skinned orange. 
Loose skinned orange. 
Coffea stenophylla. 
Hemerocallii flava. 
Tibochina semidecandra. 
Salvia Betheli. 
Qumquat (Citrus japonica). 
Amndo conspicua. 
Lemon grass. 
Morsea iridioides. 
Persian rose. 
Rose Leschenanltii. 
Dierama pulcherrima. 
Romneya Coulteri. 
Echeveria glauca. 
Aloe horrida. 
Mulberry. 



Oenothera Lamarckii. 
Spiny-leaved Purcrea 
Agave vivipara. 
Impatiene repens. 
Holboellia latifolia. 
Asystasia eoromandeliana. 
Asystasia violaoea. 
Billbergia speciosa. 

Do. raalanthus. 

Do. vittata. 

Do. pyramidalis. 

Do. porteana. 
Yucca glorioea. 
Awyllis Belladonna. 
Crinum Moorei. 
Galtonia candieana. 
Abutilon sp. 
Berrya Ammomilla. 
Marogogipe Coffee. 
Cinnamomam zeylanicum. 
Carica Candamariensis. 
Abutilon pale pink. 
Tacsonia tubuliflora (pink). 

„ „ (white). 



Miscellaneous. 

34. The following Economic products were sent to the Agri- 
cultural Chemist for examination and report as to their oil-bearing 
properties. The results of his examination run thus : — 

1. Andropogon Schcenanthus. — Just before flowering. 

Yielded about "5 per cent, of oil. 

2. Andropogon Schcenanthus. — After flowering. 

Yielded about - 5 per cent, of oil ; showing that the stage 
of flowering is probably not of donsequence. 

3. Andropogon montanm. 
Yielded nothing. 

4. Andropogon odoratus. —Leaves and flowers. 
Yielded *25 per cent, of oil. 

5. Roots of Cyperus rotundus from Lanowli. 

Yielded no oil by distillation with steam, but of course 
might give it by other methods. 



85 

Owing to want of apparatus the quantities dealt with wore 
far too small but arrangements are being made for a larger installa- 
tion during the coming season, as the subject of perfume-yielding 
plants has not received the attention it deserves in India. 

35. Musewn. — The collection now consists of 500 species 
of sample seeds, 500 samples of cottons and about 1,000 mis- 
cellaneous Economic Products including fibres, rubbers, gums, 
etc* 

G. A. GAMMIE, 

Poona, Economic Botanist. 

August 1907. 



BOMBAY: PRINTED AT TUB GOVKBNM1LNT O.NTRAL PKKSS. 



fstpt^ 



**»**im»m of asrtfMlwwJ Asombaj 
^-^VKCTAIi REPORT ' 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OP THE 

MIBPPKKHA'S AGBICULTUBAL S 

CTliar and Pi rka r District, Sind) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1OO6-1907 



BY 



Gr ' & ^^^SON, N.D.A., N.D.D., E xc, 

eCOn<i deputy Director, Sind. 



.^.rr-" AT THE £££, 



CENTRAL PRESS 
1907 



[Price— 8a. or 3d.] 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE* OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

E. A. Arnold, 41 ft 48, Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., London. 
Constable ft Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W. G. f London. 
Grindlay ft Co* 64, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 
Henry S. King ft Co., 65, Cornhill, E. C., London. 

P. S. King ft Son, 2 ft 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 

London. 
Xegan Paul, Trench, Trnbner ft Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 
W. Thacker ft Co., 2, Creed Lane, London, E. C. 
B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street; Oxford. 
Deighton Bell ft Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander ft Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Hanpt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowits, Leipzig. 

Earl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Ru6 Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nqhoff, The Hague. 

In India. 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 

P. R- Rama Iyar ft Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink ft Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman ft Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri ft Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray ft Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker ft Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge ft Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay 

D. B. TaraporevaJa, Sons ft Co., Bombay. 

Sunder Fandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen ft Co., Booksellers, etc., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, BT. K. H. Brass, Allahabad. 



department of agriculture, Komfeas* 

♦ 

ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

MIRPURKHA'S AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Thar and P&rkar District, Sind) 

FOR THK YEAR 



1906-1907 



BY 

G. S. HENDEKSON, N.D.A., N.D.D., etc., 

Second Deputy Director, Simd. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

T007 



Vernacular names of orops, &o., mentioned In the report with their 
Botanical and English equivalent* 



Botanica 1 . 



English. 



Vernacular. 



Cereals. 

Andropogon sorghum tar. vulgare 
Pennisetum ty phoideu m 
Triticnm yulgare 
Zea mays 



Pulses. 



Csjanos indicua 
Oicer arietinuin 
Lens escalenta 



Oil-seeds. 

Araclns hypogea 
Lhrom usitatissimura 
Seeamom indicum 

Fibres. 

Gossypium barbadeuse 
Dot hirsutum 
Do. neglectuin 
Do. arboreum 

Corehoras oapsalaris 

Crotolaria junoea 

Sugars. 

Saehharum officinarum . 
Miscellaneous. 

Phoenix sibrestris 
Trigonclla fccnum groecum 



Great millet 
Bull-rush millet 
Wheat 
Maize 



Pigeon pea 
Gram 
Lentil 
Saidi beans 



Groundnuts 
linseed 



..) Jowar (ChapU, Naroli). 
.. Bajri. 
.. Gahtu 



I 

... Tur 
... Chant* 
... Masur. 



; Bhuimug. 
Alahi. 
Til, Tlr. 



Egyptian and Sea Island Cotton. Abbassi, Yanovitch, kc. 
American Cotton ... Vilayati Kapis. 

Sindhi Cotton ... Sindhi Kapas. 

Tree Cotton .. i Derkapas. 

Jute ... Jute. 

Bombay hemp ... San. 



Sugarcane 



Date palm 
Egyptian clover 
Fenugreek 



Sherdi (Product Gar), 



Khajuri. 
Berseein. 
Methi. 



B9$7 



THE 



AGRICULTURAL 8T?ATI0H, 
1906-07. 




sea level 

/tire — maximum 116° in May, minimum 42° in February. 
Area — 62 acres. 
Superintendrnt—Mr. S. B. Mahli, M.R.A.C. 





1 


i 


J 


$ 

►» 


\ 


( 


i 


* 


1 


1 


i 


1 


• 

1 


Rainfall (1906.1907) - 






060 


OSS 


S S7 


S15 


- 


~ 


••• 




1 18 


OSS 


7 68 


Along* 


- 


8 


66 I 198 


119 


198: ... 


... S 


10 


I 8 \ OSS 


68f 


TempemtuPB <l90WJfJ>- 






' 




i 
] 






1 
i 




Xean m^wtmmn 


100 # 


109* 


io#* ; loo* 


94* 


90° ! 99*> 


98* 


88 


8S* 


78* 8T 


•m 


Mean ninimimi •«• 


70° 


79» 


81 # | 81 # 

i 


80* 


79° ! 78 # 

i 


84* 


66* 


65* 


66* 


84* 


... 



2. This Station was started in October 1904 and has con- 
sequently now been in operation for nearly 3 years. The results 
for the year under report have not been very satisfactory chiefly 
owing to the causes mentioned in the report for this Station for 
the year 1905-06. 

3. The land is typical of much of the perennially irrigated 
country in Sind, where the land, naturally a high class alluvium 
soil, contains alkali patches which are said to be increasing under 
irrigation. The same phenomenon is widely prevalent in the 
United States of America. Irrigation sets up capillary action 
with the highly salt impregnated subsoil layers, with the result 
that the alkali is transferred to the surface layer. 

4. The Station i3 laid off in 1 acre plots for each of which a 
separate cultivation sheet is kept. The plots, however, are useless 
for the purposes of comparative tests, as most of them contain 
Kalar or alkali patches on which no germination can take place. 
It will probably be advisable in the future to group the plots into 
larger areas. 

For these reasons also, manurial experiments especially those 
with artificial fertilisers are at present of little value for comparison. 



2 



5. The neighbouring Zemindirs were inclined to criticise the 
Station management owing to the amount of labour expended in 
preparatory cultivation for the different crops. An effort will be 
made in future to keep cultivation charges, etc-, within the range 
of the ordinary cultivator. With a knowledge of the soil and 
with proper use of water all the cultivation operations can be done 
cheaply and efficiently with native implements. 

Season. 

6. The season under report was as usual marked by hot winds 
from April to June. They have an adverse effect on all vege 
tion, especially on Egyptian cotton. The leaves wilt up and all 
growth seems to stop for some weeks ; it is then that the plai 
fall an easy prey to the white ants. It also seems to have con- 
siderable delaying effect on the time of flowering and consequently 
of harvesting. 

Experiments with Fibre Crops. 

7. Bgpptian Cotton. — The yields of the cotton plots are as 
follows : — 



No. 

of 
plot. 


Area. 


Variety of cotton. 


Time of 
sowing. 


1 
Manure, 


Nurcbcr 

of 
waterings. 


Yield per 
acre. 


17 


A. g. 
1 


Abbassi ... ... 


March ... 


6 tons lime 


10 


Lbs. 
C77 


18 


1 


JLsO* ••• ••• ••• 


Do* ••• 


Nil 


35 


442 


20 


1 


Do 


April ... 


4 tons lime ... 


13 


457 


21 


1 


Do. 


March ... 


Nil 


12 


355 


29 


38 


Do , 


April ... 


4 tons lime and 1 
ton bone-meaL 


15 


158 


30 


38 


Do* ••• ... 


Do. ... 


4 tons lime ... 


15 


383 


84 


1 


Dd. seed grown in Sind. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


15 


345 


37 


1 


Do« .•• ••• ••• 


Do. ... 


4 tons lime and 1 
ton bone-meal. 


15 


590 





25 


Yanovitch 


Do. ... 


Nil 


13 


272 



These results are not particularly good, though still profit- 
able on the average yield at a price of Us. 14 per roaund of 
80 lbs. If the land were uniformly "sweet" and proper care 
were taken of the sowing, there is no reason why an average of 
1,000 lbs. per acre might not be expected. " 



8 



8. Upland American Cotton$.~ Thirty varieties were grown 
at the Station ; from these the following eight have been selected 
for extended trial : — 

i. — Texas long staple. 

ii. — Smith's Improved. 

iii. — Truitt. 

iv.— Tata's Allen Hybrid. 

v.— W. A. Cook. 

vi. — Henderson Black, 
vii. — Boyd's Prolific, 
viii. — Texas Big Boll. 

9. Sea Inland Cotton. — Five varieties were grown last 
season but did not seem suitable for the land* 

10. Local Sindhi Cotton*— Two plots were grown of which 
the earlier sown did well and gave a yield of 988 lbs. of seed 
cotton per acre ; its value however is only about Rs. 5 per maund 
of 80 lbs. 

11. Tree Cottons. — Seven varieties were sown in a small 
plot of good land but do not appear to be suitable for the soil 
and climate of Sind. 

12. Jute and San. — The jute was not successful, yielding 
a small crop and poor fibre. San which is grown locally is much 
more resistant and will grow where jute will not germinate. 
The fibre is however not of much value. It is probable that 
hemp would be more successful than jute. It will be tried on the 
Station. 

Cereal Crops. 

13. Wheat. — The following statement gives the results of 
the wheat varieties grown at the Station : — 



No. 
of 


Area. 


Variety. 


Month 

of 
sowing. 


Number 

of 
water- 
ings. 


H arrest. 


Yield per aero. 


Valuation. 


plot. 


April ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ••• 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

March • 

Do. ... 


Grain. 


Straw. 


8 


10 

15 
19 
23 
36 


Acre. 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


Punjab, Red ... 

Sindbi, Bed ... 
biidhi, White ... 

Nandero 

Do« 
Bobak 
1 Delhi, White ... 


December. 

Do. ... 

Norember. 

December 

Do. ... 

November. 

October ... 


2 

2 
3 

1 
8 

2 
8 


Lbs. 
335 

730 
670 

480 
1,050 

54* 
1,520 


Lbs. 
635 

1,220 
1,700 

840 
1,952 

845 
2,130 


Quality poor, 
rust. 
Do. 
Bs. 4-2-6 per 
cwt. 
» 4-3-0 „ 
Do, 
Do. 
1 Do. 



The valuation was made by Messrs, Sanday Patrick & Co. of 
Kardchi. 

Bust was exceptionally bad during this season and yields all 
round were very poor. Consequently the above crops are very 
satisfactory. On the Station the red wheat suffered the most but 
that was owing more to the condition of the plots on which they 
were sown. 

14. Bdjri. — Nine acres were sown with B&jri ; the yields 
per acre were very varying depending on the amount of Kalar in 
each plot. Natal Bdjri was tried against the local variety with 
indefinite results. The best yield per acre was 623 lbs. of grain 
in plot 31. 

A small quantity of Bullrush millet was sown and the result 
is very promising. The yield was 750 lbs. of grain per acre. 
This crop attracted the attention of many cultivators and there was 
a big demand for the seed. It will be tried on a larger scale this 
year. 

15. Jowdri. — Chapti Jowrfr and Naroli from Africa were 
both sown. All plots were however destroyed by the borer. 

16. Maize. — One acre was sown with Jawnpur maize. The 
yield was 613 lbs. grain which was satisfactory. Twelve other 
varieties of maize were grown for observation. 

Experiments with other Crops. 

17. Tur. — One plot was sown in July on a ^ood piece of land ; 
it came up splendidly and gave a dense mass of foliage about 8 feet 
high so thick that the pods could not be gathered till the crop was 
cut in February. The yield of grain was 1,624 lbs. per acre. 
There is however no market for this in Sind but it is being fed to 
the cattle with excellent results. It is being grown this year to 
test its value as a fodder crop and its effect on the soil. 

18. JSerseem or Egyptian Clover. — This crop is particularly 
suited for rabi cultivation in Sind and is the most valuable 
fodder crop that can be grown on perennially irrigated lands. 
It requires great care in the first stages of its growth and 
is not tolerant of a large amount of alkali. Seed for Sind 
is this year being obtained from the northern coast lands of 
Egypt where the conditions of soil more nearly resemble those of 
Sind. Six plots were sown at the Station in December. This 
was probably two months too late and the seed was of poor quality; 
consequently the yield suffered. Some of the plots had a nice 



thick growth by February and there is no doubt that a large part 
of the Station is suitable for the growth of berseem. 

19. Groundnuts. — Several varieties of groundnuts grown at 
the Station did not prove successful, the physical texture of the 
soil not being suited for their growth. 

20. Sugarcane. — One acre was sown with Sets. It grew 
well all through and was much remarked on by visitors. Fart 
was made into Gur and part sold for seed at Rs. 10 per A acre. 
On cutting the cane it was found that much of it was attacked by 
the borer. From 1 guntha cut and weighed 2,680 lbs. cane were 
obtained yielding 335 lbs. Gur. 

21. Among other crops Saidi Beans, Gram, Russian Linseed, 
Til, Fenugreek and Lentils were tried but all did badly. They 
are all unsuitable for growing on alkali land. 

Date-palms. 

22i. Thirteen varieties of date-palms, in all 803 plants, were 
planted at the Station. The Station has not a typical date-palm 
soil but on the whole the plants that are left are beginning to 
show signs of growth. Some were planted on alkali land and 
have died. One hundred and forty plants in all have been 
removed as dead. 

Cross Breeding. 

23. Breeding operations in cotton and wheat are being 
continued but it is still too early for any definite results to be 

shown. 

Mirpurkhds, ) G. S. HENDERSON, 

August 1907. ( Second Deputy Director of Agriculture, 



80HBAT: FWHTBD AT THK QOVJOUaflBfT CWTJUL FJMGB9. 



y 

<g If VJ U u — {, 



&VPti 



department of agriraltttttf/ttomfeas* 
ANNUAL REPORT ^ 

OK THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

mAnjbi agricultural station 

AKDTHB 

bArAmati demonstration station 

(Poona District, Poccan) 

FOR THK YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

p FI^BTCHER, M.A., B.Sc, etc., ktc, 

Ag. Profit* or oj 'Agriculture. 



BO MBA Y 

A T THE UOVEBNMENT CKNTRAL PRE8B 



PB I*T*» l8oT 



[Price— .5(i. or fid.'}. 



OTOCIAL A0ENT8 FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 
E. A, Anold f 41 ft 4S, Haddox Street, Bond Street, W., London. 
Constable ft Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W. 0., London 
Grindlay ft Co., 64, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 
Henry 8. King ft Co., 65, Cornhill, E. a, London, 

P. S, King ft Son, 2 ft 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner ft Co., 43, Gerraid Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Qnaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W„ London. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 

W. Thacker ft Co., 2, ( 'reed Lane- London, E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Kroad Street, Oxford. 

Brighton Bell ft Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander ft Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Halle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Earl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig 

Ernest Leronx, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Pari?. 

Martinns Ntfhoff, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 

V. Ealyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 

P. R. Rama Iyar ft Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink ft Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. E. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray ft Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker ft Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge ft Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bombay. 

Sander Pandarang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

CrOpal Narayen ft Co., Booksellers, etc., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



Department of agriculture, ttombafi. 
ANNCAIi REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

MANJRI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

AND THB 

bArAmati demonstration station 

(Poona District, Deccan) 

FOR THB TEAR 

J 906-1907 

BY 

F. FLETCHER, M.A., B.Sc, etc., etc., 

Ag. Profissor of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRB88 

1907 



Vernacular names of Crops, fto., mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 



Gossypium herbaceum 
Corchorus Capsularis 
Crotolaria juncea 

Sugar. 

Sachharum officinarum 

Condiments* 

Curcuma longa 

Vegetables. 



Cereals. 

AndropcgOD sorghum van vulgare... 

Do. vaiv cernuum. 

Pennisetum typhoideum 
Triticam sativum 
Do. speltum 
Oryaa aativa 

Elusine corocana 
Paspalum scrobiculatum 
Panicum miliaceum 

Do. italicum 
Hordeum vulgar© 
A vena saliva 
Zeamays 
8orghum sachharatum 

Pulses. 

Cajanos indicus 
Cicer arietiuum 
Phaseolus mungo 

Bo. radiatas 

Do. aconitifolius 
Dolichos catiang 

Do. lablab 

Do- biflorous 
Pisum sativum 
Latnyrua sativus 
Ervum lens 

Oil-seeds. 

Arachis hypogea 
Linum usitatissimum 
Carthamus tinctorius 

Fibres. 



English. 



Great millet 

Bo. 
Bull rush millet 
Wheat 
Spelt 
Rice, Paddy 

Muma millet 
Kodra millet 
Common millet 
Italian millet 
Barley 
Oats 



Sorghum 



Pigeon pea 
Oram 

Green gram 
Black gram 
Kidney bean 
Cow pea 
Indian bean 
Horsegram 
Pea 
Jarosse 
Lentil 



Groundnuts 
Linseed 

Safflower 



. Cotton 
Jute 
Bombay hemp 



Sugarcane 



Turmeric 



Ipomsea batatas 
Phaseolus vulgaris 


•*• 

••• 


Sweet potato 
Fieldbean 


Ratalu. 
Shravan Ghevda. 


Fodders. 








Medicago sativa 


... 


Lucerne ... 


Lasun ghas. 



Vernacular. 



Jowir (ehaptt Sbolapuri, 
J GMgap,Miva,Ac,). 
.. ttandhla. 
I Bairi 

.; Gahn (KaJakvsal). 
i Khapli. 

I Bhat (Ambemohor, Dodka, 
! Kamod). 

NachanL 

Kodra. 

Sava, Vari. 

Rala. 

Jav. 

Vat 

Maka. 

Amber, Collier (exotic). 



Tur. 

Harbhara. 

Mug. 

Udid. 

Math. 

ChavlL 

V4L 

Kulith. 

Vatana. 

Lakh. 

Masur. 



Bhuimug. 

Java*. 

Kardai. 



KApus (Broach, Kumpta). 
San. 

Us (Product Gul). 

Halad. 



B 1059— a 



I— THE MA'NJRI AGRICULTURAL 8TATION, 

190647. 



E$tabli*hed—\&d±; North Latitude— 1ST 82'; East Longi- 
tude 74° V; Elevation— 1,860 feet above sea level; Soil— 
medium black and light tnurum ; Average rainfall — 16 inohee ; 
Temperature — ™»Tiwinm 109" in May, minimum 46° in January. 

Area — 62 J acres. 

Superintendent— Mx. Hari Krishna Dandekar. 





s 


i 


* 


i 


! 


i 


| 


il 


i 


i 

o 


• 


t 


i 


BainfallQOOOOT) «, - 








7M 


SM 


247 


100 


o 


000 


ooo 








10 90 


Avuage _ _ _ 





110 


110 


400 


140 


8 f 


01 


on 














10 00 


Tcmpw»tni» (1100 07)— 




























Man msimwft _ 


lor 


101* 






















~ 


Me«»lni»am ... 


or 


ir 


?r 


rr 


or 


•r 


00» 


or 


or 


or 


or 


01* 


... 


*«<«.-Thet«Bp«tai 
dsteftviUafcfe 




Dtarol 


lor Poo 


MSB 


flttoff 


. Tfc» 


mlnfeJ 


IftTWI 


ffoUf 


orO ji 


■n m 


dy for 


vnJcfc 



I.— History and Aim of the Station. 

2. This Station owes its beginning to the difficulties that were 
experienced in carrying out the sugarcane experiments at Poona. 
Up to 1894 sugarcane experiments were carried at Poona. When 
it became necessary for sanitary reasons to discontinue these 
experiments there, a tract of fi. acres was leased at M&njri 8 miles 
from Poona on the Poona-Shol£pur road, in the heart of the sugar- 
cane growing tract, watered by the Mutha Bight Bank Canal. 
In 1895. 13 acres were purchased including the 9 acres already 
leased* In 1902. 81 adjoining acres were purchased. In 1905, 
an additional area of 17 acres was purchased. 

8. This Station has from the very beginning had for its main 
line of work experiments connected with the cultivation of sugar- 
cane ; and the best methods of utilizing when under irrigation the 

b 1069-1 



shallow soil areas found so frequently alternated with a better 
class of soil throughout the Deocan. It is a very representative 
tract of the region. 

4. The following lines of experiments for sugarcane were 
suggested : — 

(1) To study the more economic system of manuring 
cane. 

(2) To ascertain the most profitable way in which bone- 
manure can be used. 

(3) To test the various methods of cultivation. 

(4) To acclimatize newly imported varieties of sugar- 
cane from Mauritius. 

(5) To compare sugar sorghums with cane as sugar 
producers. 

Questions 2 and 5 have been quite thoroughly settled. 

Question 4 has been carried on for 13 years. During the 
year under report attention was maidly given to question No. 1. 

11/— Area and Character of the Soil. 

5. M^njri Station consists of four Survey Nos^61 to 64 
inclusive, a total area of 62 acres 10 gunthas. Of this area 2 L 
acres 38 gunthas are deep black soil, 6 acres light soil and 1 acre 
31 gunthas rooky or nrnrm&d soil. The new and old buildings and 
the ndla occupy about 8 acres. 

III.— Plotting. 

6. For the convenience of experiments the whole area of the 
Station was permanently plotted this year into five series, leaving 
a space between each series. Each series was then divided into 
square one acre fields and the end portions of the series and near 
the canal were left as irregulars* Each one acre field was then 
divided into four 10 guntha plots. In all the whole area was 
divided into 45 one acre fields and 8 irregular fields. 

IV.— Lines of Work. 

7. Manure experiments to test potash and phosphoric acid 
requirements for sugarcane and the trial of mineral manures 
compared -with cake and poudrette as top-dressing, water 
demonstration plots, varieties for distribution that were carried 
on last year with new cane are carried on this year with 
ratoon cane. 



Varieties of make, B&jri, Jow4r and sweet potatoes were 
grown for testing, selection and distribution. 

Growing of irrigated cotton, was continued. Various crops 
were grown for study of their cultivation, as fieldbeans, Kulthi, 
Math, Mug, Udid, N&ohani, Kodra, Siva, Van, B&la, paddy, 
barley, oats, Khapli, peas, gram, Lang, Masur, and Tur. 

V.— Meteorology. 

8. The season was on the whole a favourable one. There 
wore no ante-monsoon showers; the preparation of the fields was 
therefore difficult. On the 7th and 8th of June it rained 3 inches 
60 cents. The work of sowing was continued from 19th of June 
to the 4th of July. The crops were looking well till the end of 
July. In the first fortnight of August only 2 cents of rain was 
recorded. The Station crops were therefore irrigated. . But in the 
second fortnight of August 2 inches 46 cents fell which saved all 
the crops. The whole of October was without rain. The rabi 
crops had therefore to be sown under irrigation. Although the 
total amount of rain was only equal to that of the last year, it 
was better distributed for the kharif season, in the year under 
report 

VI— Area planted to different Crops. 

9. The statement below shows the area cropped and the 
purpose of each crop : — 



Field 
No. 


Khari erop* 


Area. 


PQipOM. 


Rabi erop. 


Area. 


rurpose. 


Bemarsm, 






A.g. 






A.g. 






1 


Fieldbeans ~. 
Kulthi «. 


10 
10 


1 


}Barley ... 


020 


iTo study the 
mostprofttable 






Hath - 
Mug 


10 
10 


To ■todr the most 
profitable cteofthc 
light entrant eoil> 
of the irrigated re- 


[Oats 


020 


use of the 
light mwrum 














soils of the 




2 


Udid 


10 


Khapli ... 


Olo 


( irrigated regi- 
■ ons of the 






Nachanl _ 


10 


' gionsofthe Deocan 
Also selection of seed 


Peas 


10 






Kodra ... 


10 


Oram local ... 


10 


Deocan. Also 






Sta 


10 


and methods of cul- 
tivation. 


Oram Kabuli 


10 


selection of 
seed and me- 




3 


Vari 


10 




Masnr — 


010 


thods of eul« 






Bala 


010 


; 


Lang _ 


10 


j tiration. 




3*4 


Bog&rcsne ... 


30 


Eiperiment* in bar- 
resting and boiling. 





... 








Do. 


30 


Study of the sj stem ol 
planting and oultrfa- 


•.•m 


... 


•— - 




A 


Do. 


18 


For distribution 


...... 


... 


...... 




B,5to8 


Do.. 


4 


Manorial experiments , 


..... 


... 


...... 




9 


Do. 


1 


Water experiments ... 




... 


...... 




10 


Bajri 


020 


Comparison and seed 
selection, 


English peas. 


20 


New crop. 




10 All 


Cotton 


30 


To test ratoon cotton 
nnder irrigation. 












Flsld 
Mo. 


Kheriferop, 


Area. 

A.g. 


Purpose* 


Rett erop, 


Area. 


Purpose. 


— 










A.g 






11 All 


Bfijrl - 


180 


Comparison and seed 


vNB ... 


080 


) 










oolsotlon. 


Manor _ 

Lang m. 


080 
080 


V Seed selection. 




IS 


Cnsrll lid 
Mate. 


1 


rodder ~ .~ ~ 


Wheat _ 


1 


Selection of eeed 
and distribution. 




14 


Cotton 


080 


To tost the growing of 
title type of cotton on 
the light soU. 


iw.m 


— 






14*16 


Bejri ~ 


110 


ISced oeleetJon and 
f equalising the land. 


•MM* 


... 


IW'< 




16 to 86 


Jowar 


10 










16 


Do. - 


1 


To demonstrate the 
adrantagee of tillage. 


•*•«•• 


... 


— 




n 


Sugarcane «• 


1 


farther test of the 
Mauritius rariety. 




- 


— 




ae 


Do. _ 


1 


To test the most profit- 
able eete for pbnttng. 




•"• 


•••— 




so 


Sweet potMoM 


1 


Oomnariaon of the 
▼erfetUe and raising 
esttings for dlstribu- 
skm 

8too>oftheemmratton 
of this erop ss rotation 


— 


... 






80 


Tor 


1 o 


•M«M 


- 


— 


- 








crop* 










tl 


Maiac _ 


1 


1 










SB 


Sorghum ... 


1 


1 Seed selection and dle- 


Wheat ~ 


8 


Peed selection and 




88 


Sundhia 


1 


f trthotion, 






distribution. 




64 


Maise 


1 


J 


















Linsssd — 


060 


For fibre 


Fibre was not 
extracted si 
the plant* h»4 
branched too 
much. 










Semower ^ 


010 


8eed (election. 


16*16 


Cotton ••• 


8 


To asotrtain the beet 
time for planting 
Gujarat cotton. 


mm 


m 


~~ 




67*68 


Sugarcane ... 


8 


To aeeertain the best 
rotation for sngmreane 
iuthoDeooan, 


•••••• 


... 


•— ~ 




86 


Cotton 


080 


Do. M 


•*..*• 


M. 


M*«M 






Ban for fibre ~ 


080 


Do. ~ 


*M — 


•M 






40 


Lucerne 


1 


To aseertain the eorreet 
quantity of water re- 
quired for lucerne. 




... 


-•"• 


















41 


Groundnuts — 


080 


To ascertain the beet 
rotation for sugarcane 
in the Deocan. 


M..M 


... 


...... 






Bin green 


080 


Do. 


••••«• 


•M 


...... 






manure. 














48 


Bare fallow ... 


080 


Do. 


• ••.*• 


... 


—.- 






Cotton 


080 


Do, 


.M 


... 


...... 




46 


Tor 


0-80 


Do. 


»*•••* 










Cotton 


080 


Do. 


...... 


... 


••••«« 




44 


Jowar 


1 


To ascertain the quan- 
tity of water required 
for Jowar. 


■*"* * 


"" 


*••*** 


Not undertakes 
this year as 
the gwxs *** 
not ready* 


46 


Rlee varieties... 


080 


For comparative test ... 


Jval 
















080 


To ascertain the 


Mot carried OQ 




Riot M 


080 


Water experiments ~. 




effect of pulses. 


this year « 
the beds eouW 
















not hold water 
















owing to the 
















new embank- 
















ments* 


Ir.D 


***tm 


... 


—*— 


American 


18 


For seed* 




E 


Groundnut ... 


080 


For seed ... M . 


p6 ^ 








Ir.I 


Jote 


10 


For fibre 


Khaptt"* _ 


0*10 


For green fodder. 




J 


Groundnut ... 


18 


For seed* and distribu- 
tion. 


*•«••• 




...•«• 






Tumeric ... 


8 


For seed „. 


«*•..• 


... 


• •MM 






Nilva 


030 


Do. „ ... 


Sweet pota- 
toes. 


80 


For cuttings. 





VII.— Experiments in Care and Cultivation of Crept* 

A.— MAKTJEB EXTBUXMBHTfU 

10. Potash manure for sugarcane. — Last year a series of four 
plots was selected and manured with potash at the rate of 60 lbs., 
100 lba, 160 lbs. and 200 lbs. per acre in the form of sulphate of 
potash in addition to 850 lba of nitrogen from safflower oake. 
This year the same experiments are carried on with ratoon, but 
two-thirds of potash and nitrogen of the last year hare been giren. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below for comparison. 



Manorial treatment par acre. 


Beeoltoperaeiej erop PmndJe case 

(plant cane, 180606 ; ntooa 

cane. 1906-07;. 


i. 


Kind* manure. 


"&r 


Cootainhw 


Ooatof 


Ho. of 


Weight 
if caaea 
Aripjjed 

topped. 


Weigh* 

of 


Weftjhi 


4 1 


«. 


*2<* 


Xfi. 






L«k 


Lba. 


Lba. 


Lba. 


Re. a. p. 




Lba. 


Lba. 


Lba. 


'{ 


Safflower oak* — 
Sulphate of potaah. 


MM 


W 


99 


101 


j 116 16 


r2H8»0 
180,860 


64,070 
89,400 


12.906 
18,724 


47,040 
04,009 


'{ 


Safflorwer oake ~. 
Sulphate ef potaah. 


MM 
56 




90 


m 

27 


Jill 6 


1261120 


07,208 
10.440 


13,716 
11,260 


4OJ690 
62,000 


'{ 


Safflower eake _ 
Sulphate of potaeh. 


8,408 
lift 




10 


m 

60| 


J 117 10 6 


4 26,064 
t 86460 


10,204 
86*676 


14.029 
16,978 


•MM 


•( 


Safflower cake ~ 
Sidphete of potaah. 


8,408 
lift 


an 


10 


<ftf 
<ftf 


jlM 1 


I 24\646 
181,049 


72*26 
86,172 


14,006 
16J26 


68406 
06,006 


*l 


Kind of manure. 




■uha par acre i erop Pandla m 

ratffffli tano. It 


at"-"**' 


4 


Per- 
ot 

Juice 
to cane. 




Per- 
centage 

Quito 


Per- 

Quito 
cane. 


Ooatof 
cultivation. 


Value ol 
outturn. 


Profit, 


Year. 








Lba. 






Be. a. p. 


Be, a,p 


Ha. a. p. 




"( 


Safflower oake 


74>8 


9.460 


19*8 


14*7 


271 9 4 


691 4 


819 10 8 


1900-07 


Sulphate of potaafa. 


Tft-8 


10.444 


16-1 


12-6 


291 14 4 


098 4 9 


404 6 11 


190646 


'{ 


Safflower cake 


72"6 


9,066 


18*6 


18*6 


278 16 8 


666 


287 4 


190607 


Sulphate of potaeh. 


78-9 


8306 


161 


11*8 


288 11 


569 11 11 


271 11 


190606 


'{ 


Safflower oake 


75-9 


10,280 


19-S 


14-6 


29ft 4 C 


642 8 


847 4 


1008-07 


Solphaie of potaah. 


786 


11,462 


16-8 


u-s 


818 6 8 


768 7 4 


446 8 


1906*06 


i 


Safflower oake 


7*9 


10,262 


19*8 


U-8 


800 12 


640 12 


640 


1906-07 


Sulphate of potaah. 


760 


11,690 


17*9 


181 


826 12 4 


774 10 8 


446 16 4 


1906-08 



e 



These fesults dearly dhow that there is an increase of outturn 
by potash manure. Further experiments with increased quantity 
or potash are necessary. 

11. Phosphoric acid requirements for sugarcane.-^M^nj 
questions were received from cultivators with regard to the use 
of bones in some form as a sugarcane manure. To settle this 
question a series of four plots was laid out last year and manured 
with 50 lbs., 100 lbs., 150 lbs. and 200 lbs, of phosphoric acid in 
the form of superphosphate in addition to 350 lbs. of nitrogen 
from safflower cakes. This year the same experiments are carried 
with the ratoon cane, but two-thirds of phosphoric acid and 
nitrogen of the last year have been given. 

- . Plots 1 and 2 being manured alike last year as the quantity 
of cake contains more than 100 lbs. of P 2 6 , plot 1 was 
converted into a complete manure plot this year and hence 
sulphate of potash was also given in addition to cake and super- 
phosphate. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below for comparison. 



Mannrial treatment per sort. 


Besults per acre ; crop Pundia 

cane (plant cane, 1906-06T; 

ratoon cane, 1906-07). 


I 


Kind of manure. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Containing 


Cost of 
manure. 


Vow of 
oanes. 


Weight 
stripped 
topped. 


Weight 
tops. 




N. 


P 2°6. 


tf 2 o. 




4 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Es. a, p. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


" r 


Safflower cake 


8,408 


28*} 


7b 


89| 


^ 


/ 28.496 


67,716 


12.896 


4 


Sulphate of potash 


196 


... 


... 


83| 


Vl6Q 9 


< 






t 


Superphosphate ... . 


184 


... 


68} 


... 


J 


1 85,943 


87,944 


17,136 


•f 


Safflower cake 
Superphosphate .« 


3,408 


238} 


70 


891 


i 116 JO 


f 22,920 
\ 26,284 


66.100 
65,288 


12,092 
11,732 


•{ 


Safflower cake 


3, 408 


238} 


70 


89} 


|l32 1 


C 32,024 
X 80,C88 


48,4*4 


10,272 


Superphosphate ... •» 


88 


... 


30 


•M 


86,740 


15,444 


i 


Safflower cake 
Superphosphate • 


3,406 
184 


233} 


70 
68} 


89} 


J 131 3 


C 18,096 
^ 29,366 


38,656 
77,724 


8,724 
13.048 



«3 


Kind of manure* 


Basalt* per acre ; orop PnndU (plant caoe, 1006-00 
retoen ease, 190847). 


1 


6 

i 

© 
o 
6 
ft 


Weight 

juice 
ob- 
tained. 


Per- 
centage 
of 

jnioe 
to cane. 


OoL 


Per- 
centage 
oP 
Oolto 
Jvtoe. 


Per- 
eeotige 
of" 
Quito 

cane. 


Cost of 

coiUfa- 
tion. 


Valne 

of 

onttorn 


Profit* 


Year. 


■f 

•! 
•1 


Safflower cake f 
Sulphate of potato < 
Superphosphate V. 
Safflower cake 
Snperphoiphate .- 
Safflower cake — 
Superphosphate 
Safflower cake 
Superphosphate •- 


Lbs. 

41,808 

OBjOOO 

88,680 

88,000 

64,716 < 

0B ,000 

96,788 

60,000 


7S5 

77-8 
70 01 
70* 
716 
78-4 
604 
77«02 


Lbs. 
8,006 

11,062 
7,680 
0,296 
6,688 

11,876 
6,161 

10,406 


10'S 

17*6 
10-0 
17*0 
10*1 
17«4 
19*6 
17*6 


14* 

186 
14-0 
14 S 
137 
18-7 
18*6 
186 


Be. a. p. Rl ftp 
S97 600 ( 

291 S 8 70S IS t 

S67 480 ( 
S79 S 4 619 11 i 
2*7 S 414 8 t 
807 U t 791 IS 1 
240 10 ol 3*8 4 1 
SU IS 4, 70S 10 b 


Be. a p. 

209 0190647 

406 10 180646 
238 0)190647 
349 9 4 1906-06 
167 6 100647 

484 2 Ij 190646 

78 10 ol 190647 

389 IS 4j 190648 



. These results show that there is no increase in the outturn by 
using larger amount of phosphoric acid. These experiments may 
therefore be discontinued* 

12. Top-dressing for sugarcane. — To compare the value of 
different nitrogeneous manures, including mineral manures, a 
series of five plots was manured last year with 200 lba of nitrogen 
in the form of farmyard manure and 150 lbs. nitrogen in the 
form of various top-dressings, plot 1 receiving all nitrogen 
from farmyard: manure in the beginning. 

This year the dressing given to these plots was similar to 
that of the last year's top-dressings, but only 233£ lbs. of 
nitrogen per acre was supplied. Plot 1, which received only one 
application of farmyard manure last year, received the same 
dressing as the second plot and the residual effect of the farm-* 
yard manure will be observed. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below for comparison. 



• 


lUnuzial treatment per acre. 


Reenlta per acre; erop Pundia (plant cane, 
1906-06; ratoon cane, 1800-07). 


i 


Kind of manure. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Containing 


Goat of 
manure. 


Number 
of 


Weight 

etrtjmed 

and 
topped. 


top*. 


Weigh* 

of 
juice 




N. 


'A' 


K f O. 


obtain- 
ed. 








Lbe. 


Lbe. 


Lbe, 


Lbe. 


Be. a. 


P- 




Lbe. 


Lbe. 


Lbe. 


1 


Safflower cake 


~ 


8.408 


2S8 f 


70 


3H 


116 10 





r 20,800 
1 14,450 


44,204 
40,308 


8.670 


31.492 
28,000 


a 


Do. 


... 


1,408 


938* 


79 


391 


116 10 





(■H.624 
(.80,304 


49.800 
40,828 


10,018 
18,044 


34,444 
36,000 


t 


Nitrate of eoda 


— 


1,00ft 


*»* 


- 


- 


171 6 





1*1.908 
129,208 


60.718 
68,816 


11,672 
11.710 


35,32) 
40,000 


4 


Poudrette 


M« 


23*807 


283* 


H9f 


198i 


'200 





r«M78 
126,744 


61,996 
62.848 


13,462 
9,740 


36.088 
40.000 


I 


Grade nitre 


- 


1*00 


tssi 


*•• 


- 


206 





(.27.788 


74,840 
71,128 


16.684 
16.088 


62.498 
6M80 


i 


Kind ol manure. 




Reenlta per acre ; erop Pundia (pUnt eane, 1808-08; ratoon 


eane, 1908-07). 


\ 

1 


Percent- 
age of 
joioe 

to cane. 


Weteht 
Gal. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul to 

jniee. 


Percent- 
age of 
Quito 
cane. 


Goat of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value 

of 

outturn. 


Profit, 


Year. 










Lbe. 






Be. a. p. 


Be. a. p. 


Be. a. p. 




1 


SeJHower eake • 


"{ 


71-1 
09-8 


6.680 
6,088 


17H 
182 


120 
12*0 


241 14 
221 11 4 


848 12 
S38U 9 


107 14 
118 6 


1006-07 
1906 06 






-{ 


08-8 


0.104 


177 


12*4 


247 4 


881 8 


134 4 


1800-07 


s 


Do* 


78*4 


6.804 


17*2 


124 


248 2 8 


413 9 11 


166 7 8 


190646 


3 


Kttrate of eoda. 


-1 


08-0 
701*2 


0,420 
6.868 


18*2 
17-4 


127 
13'4 


804 
344 8 4 


401 4 
403 7 6 


97 4 
118 13 7 


1906-07 
1906-06 








706 


0,818 


18*6 


131 


883 8 


486 12 


102 8 


1906-07 


4 


Po»drette ...« 


75-8 


7.812 


18*03 


130 


299 13 


480 12 10 


180 18 10 


190646 


5 


Grade nitre 


"{ 


Ton 

79'8 


9.724 
9,032 


18-8 
17D2 


13*9 
18*6 


227 16 
888 3 8 


006 12 
042 2 8 


877 13 

269 8 7 


1903-07 
1906-06 



From these results it will be seen that the plot of crude nitre 
comes first, of poudrette second, and that of nitrate of soda oom.es 
third in point of outturn. 

13. Mineral manures. — As mineral manures have been 
brought to the attention of cultivators considerably of late, it is 
deemed advisable to compare them with safflower cake. Two 
plots were therefore manured, one with nitrate of soda and the 
other with safflower cake. 



9 

The application of nitrate of soda was made in three dressings 
last year. Two-thirds of the manures were given this year, but 
nitrate of soda was given in 21 applications before an equal 
number of waterings. 

The results with the outturn of last year arj tabulated 
below for comparison. 



15 


Man aria! treatment 


per acre. 






Results per acre; crop Pnndia (plant 
cane, 1BU6-06; ration cane, ) 006-07). 


8. 

X 

4> 


Kind of manure. 


Quan- 
tity: 


Containing"* 


Cost of 
manure. 


Number 

of 
oanes. 


Weight 

of eanes 

•tripped 

and 

topped. 


WcUrbt 

of 
tops. 


Weight 

of Juice 

obtain* 

ed. 


C 


N. 


Vr 


K 3°- 


i 

2 


Safflower cake 
Nitrate of soda ... 


Lbs. 
3,4% 

1.606 


Lbf. 
233* 

2834 


Lbs 
70 


Lbs. 


'(85.518 
115 10 \ 

1 (88,888 

(28.56* 
171 4 0'{ 

; l28 f 80i 


Lbs. 

53,038 
80,888 
50,888 
70.-4J 


Lbs. 
13.483 
13.644 
13,38! 
10,600 


Lbs. 
37,481 
64.000 
33,558 
58,000 



i 


Kind of manure. 


fiesults per acre ; crop Pundia (plant cane, 190C-06; latoon cane 1808-07). 


'a 

X 

o 


Percent* 
age of 
juice 

to cane. 


Weight 
Gui. 


Percent- 
age t<f 
Gul 

to juice. 


Percent- 
age of 
ttul 
to cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit 


Tear. 


1 
2 


Safflower cake 
Nitrate of soda ... 


( 70*6 
[ 78-1 
( 69'5 
[ 79-7 


Lbs. 
7,140 
11,378 
6,521 
9,492 


19t) 
17-8 
18 3 
16 9 


135 
14-07 
12*8 
185 


Rs. a. p 
85i 8 
235 6 8 
302 12 
473 1 8 


Rs. a. p. Rs. a. p. 

416 4 | 181 12 

1 
758. * I 481 11 6 

407 13 | 105 

632 12 8 150 11 


1906-07 
1905-08 
180J807 
1905-06 



The safflower cake gave more outturn of Gal. 

14, An experiment with a balanced manure containing all the 
elements of plant food was attempted last year. The crop received 
only two-thirds of the manure this year. It is interesting to 
compare this plot with the first plot of phosphoric acid manure 
experiment as this plot has also received a similar dressing. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 

below. 



B 1059—2 



10 



J 


Manurial treatment per acre. 


Results per acre ; crop Pondia (plant cane, 
1905-06 ; Batoon cane, 1906-07;. 


4> 


Kind of manure 


Quan- 
tity* 


Containing. 


Cost of 
manure.. 


Number 

of 

canes. 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
tops. 


Weigbt 

of Juice 

obtain- 

ed. 


O 

1 


N. 


Va. 


K,0. 


( 

1 


Nitrate of soda ... 
8olphate of potash. 
Superphosphate ... 


Lbs. 

1,606. 
139 

m 


Lbs, 
283* 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 
>142 14 

J 


rsa.4oo 

i 

U*.712 


Lbs. 

88,696 

97.C88 


Lbs. 
17,768 

17,040 


Lbs. 
59,144 

78,000 


i 

I 

e 

■8 
c 


Kind of manure. 


Remits per acre ; crop Pondia (plant cane, 1906-06 ; Batoon cane, 1906-07). 


Percent- 
age of 
Juice 

to cane. 


Weight 
G°ul. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul 
tojuic • 


Percent- 
age of 
Gui 
to cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit. 


Tear. 


K 

1 
I 


Nitrate of soda ... 
Sulphate of potsah. 
Superphosphate ... 


;78-2 


Lbs. 
11,840 

13,044 


19-2 
17*2 


186 
18*4 


Rs. a. p. 

318 8 

691 12 4 


Bs. a. p. 
708 12 

660 9 7 


Rs. a. p. 

890 4 

384 13 3 


1906-07 
190606 



B.— Ieeigation Experiments. 

15. Sugarcane,— A demonstration irrigation plot was put 
down to Pundia cane and the results are in accordance with those 
of the previous year, that is apparently in favour of the smaller 
supply of water. 

The details are given below. 



Details of Irrigation. 


Results per acre j crop Pundia (ratoon). 


Each 
watering 
equal to 
inches of 
rainfall. 


Interval 
between 

each 
watering 

Days. 


Number 
of water- 
ings. 


Quantity 
of water 
incnbie 
feet ex- 
clusive of 
rainfall. 


Number 
of canes. 


Weigbt 
of canee 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
of tops. 


Weight 

of juice 
obtained. 


Percent 
age of 
juice 
to cane. 


2* 
4* 


10 
15 


31 
20 


223,862 
269,237 


26,674 
21,534 


Lbs. 

55,330 
46,720 


Lbs. 

13,484 
10,816 


Lbs. 

39,466 
33,758 


713 
72*2 



11 



Results per acre ; crop Fundi* (ratooo). 



Weight 
of On). 


Percent- 
age of 
Qui 

to juice* 


Percent" 
age of 
Onl 
toeane* 


Costcf 
cultivation. 


Valne of 
outturn 


Profit. 


Outturn of 

Qvllaai 

year. 


Lbs. 
7,940 
6,582 


14-4 
14-1 


2C-1 
19* 


Bs. a. p. 
268 9 
246 


Bs. a. p. 
4S6 4 

411 6 


Bs. a. p. 
287 11 
166 6 


Lbs. 

7,228 

4068 



16. Lucerne. — To ascertain the quantity of water required 
for lucerne a field was divided into six plots* They were irrigated 
as follows : — 



Plot. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



QaanUty of 
Inches of rain. 

1 

2 



S 
2 

S 



Interval of days. 

5 

5 
7 
7 

10 
10 

Lucerne was sown on the 28th of April, but it was attacked 
by mealy wings (Aleurodidae). It was therefore resown on the 
22nd of November. 

As there was only one cutting till the end of March the 
outturn is not given* 

0. — New Methods of Cultivation. 

17. Sugarcane. — The methods used in the cultivation of 
this crop in the Deooan are so labourious that they could only be 
employed in a land where labour is very cheap, and even here it 
is thought that part of the expensive process of weeding and earth- 
ing could be done by bullock power* Different widths between 
the rows are being tried to see which will be the best for bullock 
cultivation. The usual dressing of farmyard manure and safflower 
"cake has been given. 

The results are tabulated below. 



System of 
planting. 


Besulti per acre ; crop Pundia (ratooo). 


Num- 
ber 
cf 
ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


Dig- 
tance 
between 
the rid- 
ges in 

feet. 


Number 

of 
oan6S. 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

topped. 


Weight 
of tops. 


Weight 
of Juice 
obtain- 
ed. 


Per- 
cent- 
age of 
Juice 

to 
sane. 


Weight 
of On). 


Per* 
cent- 
age of 

Gul 

to 
juice* 


Per- 
cent- 
age of 
Gnl 
to 
cane, 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit 


1 
2 

3 


2 
3 

.81 


29^48 
20,552 
21,672 


Lbs 
69,698 

69,898 

69,784 


Lbs, 
11,444 

8,692 

9,180 


Lbs. 
50,040 

29,200 

12,000 


71-8 
65*5 
61V 


Lbs, 
8,620 

0,528 

7,220 


17*2 
16* 
175 


12*4 
10-9 
10*2 


R*. a. p. 
371 S 

366 1 

360 15 C 


694 g*o 
450 3 4 
501 13 4 


As. a. p. 
223 5 

65 3 4 

163 14 4 



12 

18. Jotcdr.— Of the two plots of Jowar one was intercultured 
with the Planet Junior hoe every week as long as the bullocks 
were able to walk through the rows and the other was not 
intercultured. 

The intercultured plot being the end plot of the series was 
so much attacked by birds that the outturn of the two plots 
cannot be compared. 

The yields are given below. 



Number 

of 
experi- 
ment* 


Tillage, 


Yield per acre ; crop Jowar. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Cost of cul- 
tivation. 


1 
2 


Not intercultured ... 
Intercultured ••• ... 


Lbs. 

110 

224 


Lbs. 
0,800 
6,060 


Bs. a. p. 
26 2 8 
28 12 6 


Bs. a. p. 

27 5 2 

28 7 2 



I). — System op planting. 

19. Several times in the past, experiments with the 
planting of the tops and butts of sugarcane have been tried at 
Manjri, but it is not carefully recorded what is meant by tops. 
In some places only the leafy portion of the top is planted. 

Three plots have been planted this year as follows : — Plot 1 
top or upper third of the cane ; 2nd butts ; 3rd mixed as they 
come. An experiment in ratooning and transplanting cuttings 
has been added. All these plots are manured with fish manure 
and gurdl ashes. 

The details of the experiment are given below. The trans- 
planted plot being very late has not yet been harvested. The 
result is contrary to those ordinarily obtained from experiments 
on this point. 



Num- 
ber 
of ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


System of planting. 


Results per acre ; crop Fundia. 


Number 
of canes. 


Weight 
of eanes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
of tope. 


Weight 
juice. 


Percent- 

. age of 

juice 

to cane. 


Weight 
of Gul. 


1 
2 
8 


Tope ... 

Butts 

Mixed, as they come 


24,168 
80,280 
27,976 


Lbs. 
69,832 
70,912 
71,185 


Lbs. 
12,052 
12,528 
11,452 


Lbs. 

47,120 
48,756 
48,143 


67-6 

688 
67-6 


Lbs. 
9,001 
9,380 
9,043 



13 



Num- 


System of planting. 


Results per acre ; crop Fondia. 


ber 
of ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


Percent- 
age of 
Qui. 

to juice. 


P |EdN Costof 
On? C * Wv * 

JSL\ ^ 

i 


Valnc of 
outturn. 


Profit. 


1 
2 
3 


Tops ... ••• 

Bulla 

Mixed, as they come 


19-6 
19*2 
17-9 


' Rs. a. p. 
12*3 410 11 
13*2 414 6 
12-7 487 4 8 

I 


Rs. a* p. 
620 16 4 
616 14 4 
628 11 6 


Rs. a. p. 
210 4 4 
232 9 4 
186 6 10 



E. — Rotation Experiments. 

20. Rotation experiments for sugarcane for block system 
of irrigation. — To ascertain which are the most profitable crops to 
rotate with sugarcane in the block system of irrigation, 6 acres 
are devoted to rotation experiments and three-year, four-year, 
and six-year rotations have been made out. 

The following is the list of the rotations : — 



Hot. 


Rgt&tions, 1 


Year. 


Crop. 


Plot. 


Rotations. 

j 


Year. 


Crop. 


1 


Three-yew 


1906-07 


Bare fallcTw. 


8 j Four year.- 


1906-07, 


Cotton. 


i 


1907- 08 


Cane. 






1907-08 


Groundnut. 






1908-09 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 


Cane. 


2 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


San for manure. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


Cane. 


9 


Do. ... 


1906--07 


San for fibre. 






1908-09 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


Fodder Jowfr. 


3 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Groundnuts. 






1908-09 


Cane. 






1907-08 


Cane. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 


Cane ratoon. 


10 


Six-year . 


1906-07 


Cane. 


4 


Do. .*. 


1906-07 


Cane. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


San for fibre. 






1909-10 


Tur, 


5 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cane. 






1910-11 


Jow£r. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1911-12 


San for fibre. 






1908-09 


JowAr. 


11 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cane. 


6 


Four-year. 


1906-07 


Cotton. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1807-0* 


San for fibre. 






1908-09 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


Cane. 






1909-10 


Groundnut. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1910-11 


Jow&r. 


7 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Tur. 






1911-12 


San for fibre 






1907-0fc 


Fodder Jowar. 


12 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


Cane. 






1907-08 


San for fibre. 




. 


1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 
1909-10 
1910-11 
1911-12 


Wheat, 
JowAr. 
Cane. 
Oane ratoon. 



14 



In all these oases of rotations the usual country manures, viz. 
fish manure and oilcake, etc, will be supplied to sugarcane. 
Other plots will be manured as they require it. As these plots 
have been replaced by a more complete and definite series, the 
yields are not given. 

P.— Treatment of Mueum Soils. 

21. Cotton. — A portion of the irrigated tracts of the 
district consists of light murum soil, and the best and the most 
economical system or managing these soils is under investigation. 
One of the crops suggested for these soils is cotton of the 
Hirsutum type, and as the Dh&rwar- American is the only variety 
of which seed was available it has been selected. It was sown 
according to three different methods. The first plot was sown in 
July according to the Dh£rw&r method, the second plot in July 
on ridges 3 feet apart, and the third on ridges 3 feet apart in 
September. The following are the results of the experiment :— 



Crop, cotton Dh&rw&r-Ameriean. 



Plot. 



Method of sowing. 



Ordinary 

Three feet apart on ridges 
Do, 



Date of sowing. 



Per acre. 



Outturn Cost of 
seed cultiva- 
cottoc. tion. 



July 
July 
September 



Lbs. 

904 

132 

20 



Be. a. p, 

28 2 
82 8 
19 1« 



Value of 
outturn. 



Be. a. p. 
26 5 4 
11 
110 8 



Loss. 



Bs. a. p. 

2 12 8 

21 8 

18 3 4 



22. Cereals and Pulses. — The remaining portion of the light 
soil area was divided into ten 10-guntha plots. Eive plots were 
cropped with kharif pulses and rabi cereals and the other five with 
kharif cereals and rabi pulses, to see which of the systems or which 
crops are most paying and what manures are necessary for them. 

The statement below shows the details of the experiment. 



♦ 


Results per acre. 




Name of Crop. 


Outturn 
grain. 


Cost of 
cultivation 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit ( + ) or 
loss (-). 


Remarks. 


Kharif— Fieldbeans t.. 
Rabi— Barley 


Lbs. 
840 
480 


Bs. a. p. 
17 8 7 
21 2 


Bs. a. p. 
70 
12 


Bs. a* p 

+ 52 12 6 
—9 2 




Total ... 


... 


88 5 7 


87 


+ 43 10 5 




Kharif— Kultbi 
Rabi-— Barley 


820 

480 


17 8 7 
21 2 


8 
12 


—9 8 7 
—9 2 




Total ... 


••• 


38 5 7 


20 


—18 6 7 


4 



15 





Crop. 




Results per acre. 






Name of 


Outturn 
grain. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit ( + )or 
loss(-). 


Remarks. 


Kharif —Mug 
Rabi— Oatt 


••• 

Total ... 
••• 

Total ... 

••■ 

Total ... 

••? 

Total ... 

« ... 

Total ... 

•uli 

Total ... 

Total ... 

... 
Total ... 


Lbs. 
640 

784 


Ba. a. p. 
17 3 7 
21 2 


Rs. a. p. 
16 
23 9 8 


R«. a p, 

—13 7 

+ 2 7 8 






... 


38 5 7 


39 9 8 


+ 1 4 1 




Kharif— Math 

Rabi— Oats 


66 

784 


17 3 7 
21 2 


1 6 4 

23 9 8 


—16 13 3 

+ 2 7 8 






»•• 


38 6 7 


25 


—13 5 7 




Kliarif— Udid 
Rabi— Khapli 


952 
808 


17 3 7 

23 14 


23 13 
20 1 8 


+ 6 9 5 
—3 12 4 






... 


41 .1 7 


43 14 8 


+2 13 1 




Kharif — Nachni 
Rabi— Peas 


660 
32 


10 14 
10 15 


16 8 
19 7 


+ 5 10 
-8 7 6 






... 


21 13 


18 1 7 


—3 11 6 




Kharif— Kodra 
Rabi — Gram 


300 
952 


10 14 
12 4 


7 8 
31 11 10 


—3 6 

19 7 10 






••• 


23 2 


39 3 10 


+ 16 1 10 




Kharif— Sava 
Rabi— Gram Kat 


152 


12 4 


5 10 


—7 3 


Grubbed up as it was 
not promising. 




... 


12 4 


5 10 


—7 3 




Kharif— Vari 
Rain — Masur 


376 


17 


... 
18 12 10 


+ 1 12 10 


Grubbed up as it was 
not promising. 




«•• 


17 


18 12 10 


+ 1 12 10 




Kharif— R&la 
Rabi— Lang 


424 
1,288 


10 14 
17 


10 8 
51 8 


—0 6 

+ 34 8 






••• 


27 14 


62 


+ 34 2 





VIII.— New Crops. 

23. Cotton.— The great demand for cotton has led to try 
every possible means of growing a long stapled cotton. It does 
not seem possible to raise with profit the Egyptian or American 
varieties anjrwhere on the black cotton soil; but the Broach type 
of cotton will grow very well in soils where there is sufficient 
supply of moisture. Experiments were commenced in 1904 
to ascertain the value of this crop and the best methods of 
growing it. Th May 1905, 30 gunthas of Broach cotton were 



16 

sown. This gave a fair outturn; but an inoppurtune rain in 
January caused a set of bolls to fall. As the cotton was bearing 
in May 1906, it was decided to carry the plants over to see what 
results will be obtained with the plants two years old. The plants 
were pruned to half their growth and manured and intertilled. 

The results of the experiment with those of the last year are 
tabulated below for comparison. 





1905-06. 


1906-07. 


Crop. 


attorn 

per acre 

seed cotton. 


Value of 
Outturn. 


Outturn 

per acre 

seed cotton. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn* 


Broach 


Lbs. 
429 


Be. a. p. 
36 12 


Lbs. 
143 


Rs. a. p, 
29 5 4 


Rs. a. p, 
14 4 9 



24. The best time for sowing Broach cotton under irriga- 
tion has not yet been established ; to ascertain this eight plots of 
10 guntha each were sown half with Broach and half with 
Eumpta cotton at an interval of a fortnight from the 15th 
of March. 

The following statement shows the inconclusive results of 
the experiment : — 

He suits per acre, 



Date of 

sowing. 



15th March .. 



Do. 
1st April 

Do. 
15th April 

Do. 
1st May 

Do. 
15th May 

Do. 
1st June 

Do. 
15th June 

Do. 
1st July 
Do.« 



Variety. 



Broach 



Kumpta ... 
Broach 
Eumpta .. 
Broach 
Eumpta ... 
Broach 
Eumpta ... 
Broach ... 
Eumpta ... 
Broach 
Eumpta ... 
Broach 
Eumpta ... 
Broach 
Kumpta ... 



Outturn 

seed 
cotton. 



Lbs. 
680 



872 
480 
872 
392 
768 
672 
661 
704 
592 
624 
504. 
464 
368 
440 
448 



Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 




Value of 
outturn. 



Rs. 

r?4 



L72 

>i S 
) 72 

;39 

i 64 

| 67 

| 65 

;70 

149 

| 62 

42 

46 

,26 

;44 



a. p 




10 8 
C 



10 

3 



3 

5 

6 

5 





6 
10 8 



Profit (+) or 
loss(-). 



Rs. a. p. 
-19 9 8 



-30 15 

-33 13 8 

-9 3 8 



-37 2 
-12 5 

-4 6 
-16 4 
+ 13 10 

-7 6 

+ 2 8 
-17 7 

-5 1 
-24 12 
-1111 8 
-19 7 8 



Remarks. 



This plot received 
extra water from 
the adjoining field. 



17 



25. Ji$te.— Jute was sown on a small plot of 11 gunthas. 
Half was sown with drill and half was broad-casted. It was sown 
in blaok soil. As the seed was received very late, it was not sown 
before the 3rd of July. This plot was adjoining to the main 
irrigation distributary and hence reoeived seepage water. The 
plants were 4 feet high when they were out. The cost of extrac- 
tion of the fibre is small compared to San. 

The statement below gives the outturn. 





Name of crop. 


. 


Remit* 


per acre. 




Outturn of 
fibre. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Juto 


••• 


• •• 


Lbs. 
72 


Rs. a. p. 




26. Siigarcane—Mi. Mollison imported two varieties of 
sugarcane from Mauritius, and these have been grown at this 
Station ever since. The red variety yielded, in 1904, 55| tons 
of stripped canes which is over 10 tons higher than Pundia, and 
although the Gul obtained was less than that from the Pundia, it 
seemed desirable to try this variety on a larger area. Accordingly 
one acre was put down to this crop dressed with fish manure, 
gurctl ashes and safflower cake. 

The following statement gives the results; these cannot 
apparently be compared with any of the Pundia plots : — 



Results per acre. 



Crop. 



No. 

of 

canes. 



Red Mauri 

tins 



i6,816 



Weight 

canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 



Weight ! We * ht 

to! i **• 
*** obtained 



Percent- 
age of 
juice 

to cane 



Lbs. 

84,816 



Lbs. 
11.235 ! 



Lbs. 
64,403 | 



75-9 



iv-|j»ht .Percent-, Percent- 

JZ. Quito Quito 
Gul « ' juice, cane. 



Lbs. 
8.453 



131 



99 



Cost 
of 
cultiva- 
tion. 



Rs. a* p. 
431 3 2 



Talaeof 
outturn. 



Rs. a. p. 

882 16 C 



Profit. 



I 



Rs. a. p. 
151 12 3 



IX —Comparative variety tests. 

27, Bdjri.— Two varieties of Bajri (Nadjdd and Bhdvnagar) 
are found in Gujar&t which yield larger outturn of superior 
character to the ordinary country Bajri. If tlies« are grown on 
lands full of plant food from sugarcane cultivation and watered a 
little they will yield a paying crop. 

» 1069—3 



18 



The statement below gives the results. 









Besolts per acre. 




Kameofcrop. 


Outturn. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Valne of 
outturn. 


• 
Profit. 


• 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Nadiad 
Bhavnagar ... 


Lba 
],080 
1,120 


Lbs. 

6,200 
5,230 


Rs. a. p. 
. 26 5 8 

27 2 4 


Bs. a. p. 

62 

63 7 8 


Bs. a. p. 

35 10 4 

36 5 4 



Aimed Bdjri. — The awned character of this variety is not 
thoroughly fixed. To fix this and to select the seed 1 acre 20 
gunthas were sown with this variety. 

The following statement shows the outturn and cost of 
cultivation : — 





Results per acre*. 


Hame of crop. 


Outturn. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn* 


Profit. • 


Remarks. 




Grain. 


Pcddcr. 


Awned Bajrl 


Lbs. 
466 


Lbs. 
1,724 


Rs. a. p. 
10 6 7 


Rs. a. p. 
24 3 10 


Rs. a. p. 
7 14 3 


Much attacked 
by birds. 



28. Jowdr. — In order to equalize the land for next year's 
sugarcane experiments, 5 varieties of Jow£r were grown for seed 
selection and distribution. As these plots were between the two 
series of sugarcane the outturn was much lessened by birds who 
found shelter in the sugarcane crops, although special care was 
taken to scare them away. Varieties which ripened late were 
most affected. It has been decided to discontinue growing 
Jow£r for seed from next year at this Station. 

The following is the outturn of each variety :— 





Results per acre. 




Kama of variety. 


Outturn. 


Cost of 


Value of 
outturn. 


Remark** 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 




8nolapuri 

Perio 

Cbapti 

Ehondi ... 
Gidgap 


Lbs. 
533 
378 
345 
806 
73 


Lbs. 

7,484 

7,651 

6,857 

5,238 

6,270 


Bs. a. p. 

28 12 7 
30 4 10 

29 4 1 
27 6 6 
26 6 3 


Bs. a. p. 
41 5 3 
31 10 1 
30 2 4 
37 4 
20 15 9 


All the Jowar varieties were 
much attacked by birds and 
hence the outturn so low, and 
as the watching charges were 
heavy (Bs. 14-0-0 per acre) the 
cost of cultivation is high. 



19 

29. Jlice. — Three varieties of paddy were grown for com- 
parison. At the same time to see if there is any advantage in 
growing rabi pulses in the rice beds, half the plot of each variety 
was sown with Yal this year in the rabi season. 

The following statement gives the results of .the experi- 
ment : — 



Hero 1: a per acre. 



Crop. 



1 Outturn of 
grain. 



Co»t t.t 
cultivation. 



Value of 
outturn. 









Lbs. i 


Ra. 


a. 


P» 


Rs. a. p. 


Ambemohor 


... 


... 


926 | 


51 


6 


8 


29 4 


Kamod 


. •• 


• »• 


840 


51 


6 


8 


26 4 


Dodka 


••• 


•• 


1,212 


51 


6 


8 


87 14 3 



30. Fodder crops for grain. — A large amount of seed is 
required for sowing fodder on the agricultural Stations. Two 
varieties of Jowar — Sorghum and Sundhia — and two varieties of 
American maize — Golden Beauty and Yellow Dent — were grown. 
Golden Beauty was much damaged by wild pigs. 

The following statement gives the outturn of these 

fodders : — 







Outturn per acre. 




Kame of crop. 


Oat 
Grain. 


tarn. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 




Fodder. 


Sorghum 

Sundhja 

Golden Beauty 

Yeilow Dent ... ... 


Lbs. 

985 
1,050 
1,321 

865 


Lbs. 

2,520 

1,470 

2,010 

l,zzb 


Rs. a p. 
20 i 11 
20 11 11 

24 4 

25 1 


Rs. a. p. 
33 3 
38 6 7 
41 11 6 

3; 1 6 



X— Miscellaneous crops. 

31. Gram, Masur and Lang were grown after Btfjri to 
improve the land. Gram was damaged by wild pigs. 



.20 

32. Three American varieties of sweet potato were grown for 
further test and for distribution. Much damage was done to 
sweet potatoes by wild pigs. These varieties are inferior in taste 
to the local ones. They were therefore sold very cheap at one- 
Hiird the average price of the local sweet potatoes. 

33. Blue and white flowered linseed were grown for fibre, 
but as the plants were branchy they were allowed to go to seed. 
As the seed of Russian linseed was not available the plot was sown 
with safflower. Safflowef was very badly afteoted by aphides. 

„Kerosine emulsion was tried on a small portion, but it produced 
no effect. 

34. Tut (Arhar) was grown for seed distribution, but as it 
was affected by wilt disease, all the plants were uprooted as they 
withered. 

35. Wheat (KdlAkusal) was grown after harvesting fodder 
Jow£r and maize. This variety of wheat was found at the 
Nagar Exhibition last year. The seed is hard and heavy. 

36. Pondioherry groundnuts were grown on a small area. 
This seed was newly imported. The germination of this was 
not good. 

The statement below shows the results of these miscellaneous 
orops. 



. . 


Bcstilts per acre. 


• - - * - 


Name of Crcp. 








Remarks. 




Ott&tnro 


Cost of 


Vahie of - 






of grain. 


cultivation. 


outturn. 






Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




(J ram 


78C 


14 10 


26 3 2 




Masur 


850 


16 8 


37 8 




Lang . *.j ... ... 


1,504 


24 13 6 


60 2 6 




Eansemond 


2,667 


) 


m 




Virginia ... 


1,884 


92 6 


31 4 


Watching charges too high. 


Linseed, blue flowered . . . 


824 


> 




These sweet potatoes are 


398 


17 32 


16 2 8 


not liked by the public and 


u white flowered • • 


588 


17 12 


24 8 


hence they were sold at 


-Wheat (Katekusal) 


285 


20 13 9 


14 6 6 


low price. 


Groundnut (Pondicherry) • 


3,377 


80 6 


68 13 6 




Vai .... ..- 


657 


27 12 9 


17 6 6 





37. The experiments referred to in this report were planned 
by Mr. Knight. ; 



JPoona, \ 
September 1907$ 



E. FLETCHER, 
Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



II.— THE BAllA'MATI DEMONSTRATION STATION, 

1906-07. 



Established— 1906 ; North Latitude— 18 3 8'; .EM ZoNpt- 
/acte — 74° 37' ; Elevation — l f 774i feet above sea level; Soil — light 
and heavy blaok ; Average raiitfaU — 22 inches. 

Area — lOf acres. 

Overseer — Mr. P. K. Bhagwat. 

Season. 





0. 


i 

* 


• 
3 


i 


§ 

< 


I 


- 
1 1 

i '1 


i-i 


i' 

J 









o 

6 


1 


Bdrdmati. 

RaiufeH (1906 07) 

Average ... „♦ 

Waigaon (near Hoi). 
Rainfall (1906-07) 








as 

2 17 

1 6 


t a 
3 00 

456 


1 
166 

67 


10 3 
1 53 

10 02 


o u 
6 65 

2 82 


/ » » » 

1 2 10 
3 81 69 

3>3 


/ 7 / * 

IS 


o lo 


1 1 

23 m 

21 30 
23 25 



I.— Introduction. 

2. These demonstrations consist of three detached plots. 
Two near the town of Bardmati and one at Hoi about 17 miles from 
Baramati. One of the two plots near Baramati is a light soil plot 
and measures one acre, the other plot has a heavy black soil and 
measures 3 acres 27 gunthas.' These two plots are rented at an 
annual rent of Us. 54. 

The plot at Hoi" has been lent by Rrio BAMdur B. M. 
Keniale on the condition that the Agriculture Department is to 
supply only the manure and the owner to take the produce in 
return for the cultivation charges. 

.4 11 the three plots are under the command of irrigation 

from the Nira Canal. 

The plots near Bdrdmati are devoted to the cultivation of 
Broach cotton under irrigation and the plot at Hoi to irrigation 
and manurial experiments with sugarcane, 



22 

The demonstrations were commenced in 1906 under Govern- 
ment Resolution No. 5126, dated 25th May 1906. They had their 
origin in the investigation of the question of water-logging and 
saline efflorensenoe in the Bdr6mati tract. 

II.— Meteorology. 

3. The monsoon commenced timely in June and was suf- 
ficient for sowing of kharif crops. In the month of July rain was 
in defect of the average, but was sufficient for the standing crops. 
The rainfall in August was much in excess of the usual quantity. 
Heavy rain in the third week of September caused the cottou 
plants to lodge. The crop continued in fairly good conditions 
till January when cloudly weather caused bolls and flowers to fall. 
The unusual rain in April 1907 affected the outturn of cotton which 
was then being picked. The season was on the whole a fair one. 

III.— Cotton Experiments. 

JL The rented land came into the hands of the Agricultural 
Department by the 23rd of June, which was rather late for 
preparation of the field. On account of heavy rain by the end of 
June the deep soil field had become inaccessible for several days. 
The preparatory tillage was complete by the 7th of August when 
the field was divided into two equal plots. One plot was planted 
according to the ordinary method (bed system), and the second 
according to the ridge system. 

In the former system seed was dibbled 3' apart in rows and 
in the latter, the field was put up into ridges 4' apart and 5 seeds 
were dibbled on the side of the ridge one foot apart. Sowing was 
done on the 7th, 8th and 9th of August. In all three waterings 
were given to the plots. One in August, the second in October, 
and the third in January. Picking commenced on the 1st of 
April 1907 and was finished by the 24th of May. 

In a similar manner, the light soil area was divided into 
two half -acre plots which were sown according to the bed and ridge 
systems. These plots were sown on the 24th and 25th of July 
1900. They received five waterings, first on >lst July, second 
on 12th August, third on 15th September, fourth on 1st JSovember, 
and the 5th on the ard of February. Picking was commenced at 
the end of Maroh and ended by the lbt of May 1907. 



23 



The outturn results are tabulated bolow. 



Survey 

No. 


Area 

under 
experi- 
ment. 




A. g. 


107 


188} 


»» 


1S3J 


126 


020 


" 


20 



System* 



Besults per acre* 



Bed 

Ridge 



Bed 
Bidgo 



Seed 

cotton. 



Lbs. 
261 

] 159 



806 
618 



Value of C * 01 
produce. tlon 



Number 

of canal 
waterings. 



I 



I 



Be. a. p., Rs. a., p., 

28 19 •» | 

9 13 



CO 8 61 U S 
38 10 SO 8 a 



Remark* 



SoU heavy ; germination fair ; hem 
r tf nB . »*»*»»* and September 
affected the plana conrtfimbty : 
several plant* on ridges lodged, 
growUi •touted ; owing to clondy 
weather botla and flowers dropped 
I in January lanhidcs appeared in 
the crop in February j by the end 

2 f S? "I ?* 11 J*" 1 " *PP«*red 
healthy, but many bolls dried 
when young. 
SoU light; germination uneven; 
heavy rains caused the plants 
grown on ridges to lodge ; bolls snd 
flowers dropped in January 
aphides appeared in February ; on 
ttie whole the crop nas healthy. 



K.B.—The cost of cultivation is rather h'gh owing to the watching chtrges which were necessary en mnmi 
of the isolated position cf the fields. ' WW,B * 

On account of heavy rainfall, the sowing could not be under- 
taken in time in the heavy soil and the effect of late sowing has 
shown itself in the poor outturn. The over-saturation of the 
field from the adjoining, sugarcane plot may have also affected 
the outturn. 

In the light soil plot the sowing was also rather late, but the 
heavy rain does not appear to have affected the yield much, and 
in spite of aphides the crop yielded 618 lbs. of seed cotton in the 
ridge system and 808 lbs. in the bed system. 

IV.— Irrigation Experiments with Sugarcane. 

5. These experiments were divided into two blocks. 

In the first block the sugarcane was planted on the 1st of 
February 1906 ; the experiment was commenced on the 27th of 
May, when the crop stood about 4' high and had received about 
ten waterings. At this time the cane crop was almost, even in 
growth in all the plots. 

In this block the following was the scheme of experiments : 

Plot I— To receive water equal to 8" of rainfall every 10 days. 
„ II— To receive water equal to V of rainfall every 10 days. 
j, HI — To receive water equal to 3" of rainfall eyerr 10 Jays. 
„ IV— To receive water equal to 2£" of rainfall at an interval of 
6 days in the hot weather and 8 days .in the cold 
weather. 



24 



The following table shows the results : — 





Water 
equal to 
inchee of 
rainfall. 


(Intervals 
-between 
watering* 

Days. 


No. 

of 
water- 
ings. 


• 


Results per acre. 




Percentage of 


No 

of 

plot 


Quantity 

of water 

in cubic 

feet. 


Weight 
of canes 
topped. 


1 
Weight ' Weight 

tops. ; juice. 


Weight 
of Gul 


Juice 

to 
cane. 


Gul 

io 

juice. 


Gul 

to 

cane. 


I 

11 

HI ... 

IV 


8" 
4' 
8" 
2J" 


10 

10 

10 
6 in hot 
weather 
and 8 in 

cold ( 
weather. 1 


28 

20 
24 
36 


813.120 

877.620 
261.360 
475,092 


Lbs. 

104,947 
102.449 
97,432 
99.296 

t 


Lbs. 
15.162 

16,760 
17,557 
18,533 


Lbs. Lbs. 
1 80,406 ! 13,704 
80,139 i 13,400 
78.055 [ 12*733 
80,133 | 13,197 

i 

1 , 


76*0 
782 
80-0 
80-7 

1 


172 
167 
16*3 
16*4 


13 

13 
13 
13 



The results are inconclusive. 

6. In the second block sugarcane was planted on the 1st of 
March 1906. At the time of the commencement of the experiment 
(27th May), the cane crop was 3' to 3^' high and had received 
about 8 waterings. 

In this block the scheme of experiments was this : — 

Plot I— To receive water equal to If of rainfall every 5th day. 
„ II— To receive water equal to 2" of rainfall every 7th „ 
„ III— To receive water equal to 2$" of rainfall every 10th „ 
„ IV— To receive water equal to 4" of rainfall every 15th 

The outturn results are tabulated below. 





Water 
equal to 
inches of 
rainfall. 


Interval 
between 
water- 
ings. 


No. 

of 
water- 
ings. 


Results per acre. 

m .. 


Percentage of 


No. 

of 

plot. 


Quantity 

of water 

in cubic 

feet. 


Weight 
of canes, 
topped. 


Weight 
tops. 


Weyht 
juice. 


Weight 
of 

Gul. 


Juice 

to 

cane. 


Oul 

to 

juice. 


Gul 

to 

cane. 


I 

II 

HI 

IV *. 




6 
T 

10 
15 


63 
89 

23 
18 


890 650 
283,140 
351,680 
261,360 


Lbs, 

98,086 
101,699 
95,033 


Lbs. 
18,151 
13,464 
16,077 
16,807 


Lbs. 

78.683 
79,475 
86,112 
79,635 


Lbs 
12.779 
13,397 
14.776 
13,402 


799 

810 
840 
83 


16*2 
16-8 
17-1 
16*8 


130 
13-6 
145 
14-1 



From the above statement it will be seen that the plot 
receiving 2§" of water every 10th day has produced a compara- 
tively high outturn (14,776 lbs.). The crop in plot I was rather 
poor at .the commencement of the experiments. The other plots 
II and IV have given yields above the average. The percentages 
of juice to cane and Gul to juice are comparatively hi^h in 
all the plots. D 



26 

V.— Manorial Experiments with Snrgaxeane. 

7. The soil was medium red and had grown a crop of gram in 
the previous season. The field was divided into seven 10 gunfha 
plots* The planting of cane was done between 25th and 27th of 
March 1906 and crashing was finished in June 1907. 

The following was the scheme of experiments : — 

Plot L— 'Poudrette manure applied in two drawings. 

, ; IL— Farmyard manure before planting + Safflower cake as a 
top-dressing. 

„ III.— Farmyard manure before planting + Nitrate of Potash 
as a top-dressing. 

„ IV. — Farmyard manure before planting + fish as a top-dressing. 

j, V.— Farmyard manure before planting + ashes + fish as a 

top-dressing. 
„ VI.— Farmyard manure before planting + castor cake as a 

top-dressing. 

„ VII.— The usual quantity of manure ordinarily applied by the 
cultivators. Farmyard manure, castor cake and fish 
manure were used. 

The results are tabulated below : — 



b 1059-4 



26 



& 

3 



I 

5 



q 

Il 



lis 




lilt 1 ?!; 



Hal* hi 



8*1 






5 a 






H 



1*1 



s 



1L- « 






S £ 



i S * 

2 5 5 



i 



* 3 



8 



8- 












51 



*S 






5 § 



© © "* 

© © IO 



S S SS! ^ ^9 S U M S S 

r>4 r-4 C-l C* i-« i-H 






*6- 



. ^ 9 3 $ i $ § s s n | «• n s 



S 8 S 



n 2 « 



1 I I £ S | | | 



" I 



« i : I 



§ i 1 

fill 

I I 1 1 
£ a & s 



e 



I * 

a ^ o 

a * s 

^ pk ^ 



3 I 1 



I * 

S ^ 5 (u 



I : 






27 

From the above statement, it will be seen that the farmyard 
manure + nitrate of potash has given the highest outturn. 
Foudrette and farmyard manure + fish plots have comparatively 
produced low yields. 

The plot No. 7 treated according to the cultivator's method 
of manuring has not given high yield when compared with the 
value of manure. 

The results require verification after a further trial. Not 
more than about 500 lbs. of nitre should be applied per acre. 

8. The demonstrations referred to in this report were planned 
by Mr. Knight. 

Poom, | F. FLETCHER, 

September 1907. ) Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY t rBXKTKU 47 IBS 00VSBKUBN7 CKXXlAt fUttL 



- '151937 
^ u u u 

©tpattuum of ^grtcultuj^/ltombaB. 
ATSTNCTAIj REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

NADIAD AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Kaira District, Gujarat) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1900-1907 V 



BY 

F _ FILETCHEK, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



BO MBAY 

_ rt a/e ™e government -central press 

PRINT*** 19Q7 

[-P>-tce— 6a. or 7d.] 



I 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 
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Constable ft Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W. C, London. 
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P. 8. King ft Son, 2 ft 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Xegan Paul, Trench, Trnbner ft Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Qnaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 

T. Fisher TJnwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C. 

W. Thacker ft Co., 2, Treed Lane. London. E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Bread Street, Oxford. 

Deighton Bell ft Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Priedlander ft Sohn, H , Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Halle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Earl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 

P. R. Rama Iyar ft Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink ft Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman ft Co., Calcutta. 

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R. Cambray ft Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker ft Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

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Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons ft Co., Bombay. 

8under Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen ft Co., Booksellers, efc\, Bombay. 

N* B. Mathur, H. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



department of agriculture, ttomtaji* 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

NADIAD AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Kaira District, Gujar&t) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHEK, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Deputy Director of Agriculture, 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE UOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1007 



Vernacular names of crops, &o., mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 



Oryza saliva 

Peonisettum typhoideuin 

Panicam BCrobicalatum 

Hordeum vulgare 

Andropogon sorghum ?ar. Tulgare... 

Do* cernuum 
Klosine cozacana 
Tritioum yulgare 

Pulses- 

Cajanus indicus 
Cicer arietinum 
Phased us mungo 
Phaseolus radiatus 
Dolichos lablab 
Cyamopsis psoralioidea 
Glycine hispida 

Oilseeds. 

SesaiLum indicus 
Rieinus communis 
Arachiflbypogea 
Eruca sativa 

Fibre Plants. 

Gossypium herbaoeum 

Bo. neg^ectum 
Hibiscus cannabinus 
Crotolaria juncea 

Condiments. 

Cuminum cyminum 
Capsicum frutescens 
Pimpinella auisum 
Allium cepa 
Brassica juncoa 

Sugar* 

Pachharum officinal urn 
Narcotics. 

Nicotiana tabacum 

Vegetables. 

Solanum melongtna 
Solarium tuberosum 
Moinordica charantia 



English. 


Vernacular. 


Bice 


Dingar (Sutarsal, Kamodj. 


Buirush millet 


Bajri, Bairc, 


Kodra millet 


Kodra. 


Barley 


' Jac, 


Great millet 


' Jowar. 


Do. 


; rHindhia* 


Muma millet 


Bavto. 


Wheat 


Ghau. 


Pigeon pea 


' Turer. 


Gram 


j Ghana. 


Green gram 


. Mag. 


Black gram 


! Adad. 


Indian bean 


I Val. 


Field vetch 


j Guvar. 


Soy beans. 


i 
1 


Sesamum 


TaL 


Castors 


DWeli. 


Groundnut 


Bhoising. 


...... ••• 


Jamb ho. 


Gujarat and Dharwar cotton . 


Broach, Ghog&ri, Kumta, 




Ac, kapas. 


Do. ••• 


Kosi karas. 
Sheria, Aoibadi. 


Brown bemp 


Bombay hemp 


San. 


Cnmine 


Jiru. 


Chillies 


Marcha. 


Anise 


Variali. 


Onions 


Kanda, 


Mustard 


Rai. 



Sugarcane 



Tobacco 



Brinjal 
Potato 
Bitter gourd 



Sherdi. 



Tambakhu. 



Veni 



vensan. 
Batata. 

Kareli. 



One guntba — & of an acre. 



b992— a 



THE NADIA'D AGRICULTURAL STATION, 

1906-07. 



Established— 1903 ; North Latitude— 22° 44' j Eaet Lon- 
gitude — 73? 0'; Elevation— approximately sea level ; Soil — alluvial 
loam (Var. Qoradu) ; Average rainfall— $4' 61" ; Temperature— 
maximum 114 c in May, minimum 43° in January. 

Area — 14 acres. 

Superintendent — Mr. Dattdtraya Hari TagAre. 



Season. 



Bainfall— 
(1906-07) ... 

Aveiaga 

Temperature (l906-07>— 
Mean maximum . 

Mean minimum . 





» a 

1 

105' 
74 # 




16 

103° 
83° 



§ i t 



6 35 11 16 

' * l ' * 
4 49 li 9 



97° 

85° 



81° 



II 



1116 

' m 

906 



12 
6 16 



78 # 





' n 

44 



72° 




37 

94* 

•r 



o o 

' m 
6 

90° 



o 

' m 
3 

88° 



76 

' m 

16 



56» 



2 

» » 

6 

88* 
64° 



20 67 

» n 

14 61 



2. The monsoon commenced early; The first shower of rain 
came on the 16th June and by the 29th June there was sufficient 
rain to sow all crops. Since the famine this was the first year in 
which sowing could be commenced in June. The rain was quite 
favourable for germination. During the first fortnight of July, 
there was slight rain and cultivators were very anxious to have 
heavy rains for transplanting rice. Seedlings of rice were rather 
overgrown as they could not be planted till 25th of July. Heavy 
rainfall on the 24th and 25th of July damaged the young cotton 
plants to some extent. ' There was only an inch of rain during the 
first fortnight of August. Bajri, Tal, Tuver, etc., crops grew 
vigorously. Bajri grew very vigorously and promised a good 
yield. About the middle of August, Eodra plants began to wither 
in some places. On the 26th August there was a heavy rainfall 
and the fine crop of Bajri was badly laid. The flowers were washed 
off and the subsequent constant rain for a week caused the ears to 
rot. This season there was Bajri smut very prevalent in the 
district and naturally the farm suffered along with the rest, with 
the result that the Bajri crop was a total failure. Some of the 
cultivators did not even take the trouble to harvest the crop as it 
consisted of nothing but inferior Bijri straw. 

» 992-1 



Owing to the favourable time of transplanting even the small 
seedlings of tobacco were planted; but on account of constant 
rain, they rotted and there were several blanks in the fields. The 
scarcity of seedlings was much felt this year and many a cultivator 
made a profitable business in selling extra seedlings. Kodra, 
barley, rice, etc., were much benefited by this rain. In the month 
of September there were only 365 inches of rain. On the whole 
it may be said that the season was a favourable one for crops in 
general when compared with the past few years. 

Manurial Experiments. 
3. Irrigated Tobacco. — The object was — 

(1) to compare the effects of the following manures : 

(a) Farmyard manure, 
(fi) Castor-cake, 

(c) Farmyard manure -+• castor-cake, 

(d) Farmyard manure -f nitre, 

{e) Farmyard manure + sodium nitrate,^ 
if) Farmyard manure + ammonium sulphate, 
(g) San ploughed in as green manure ; 

(2) to compare tobacco grown in rotation with tobacco 

grown continuously ; 

(3) to compare the effects of ordinary and deep ploughing 

on tobacco. 

By deep ploughing is meant ploughing with an English Turn* 
wrest plough followed by a country wooden plough in the same 
furrow. 

The following table shows the details of cultivation of the 
several tobacco plots ; — 



3 



M 



P 



I* 






1 I 



1 



-J 



II 



p, o o « o ©•*<* 

* s a a * • • • 

2! oo oo S» ct 000000 



00 000000 00 © © GO 00 © 

00 OOlOiH © Ui l-l ?-l © •«* 

£ 8 3 8 S S S » S [: 



p,«00OO 004O © 00 

SBfHrtr-liHfHrl iH 



©00 © « <4I <* ^* 04 

© ■«* »iioeoM»«D«o 

3 3 f: fe 'i? S S 2 






i a i I « i I I i i § i g. I 1 s $ 1 



i-l 04 M r-t r^ 



is 






I £ £ <£ s S <3 



£ £ a i i & a s a 



i I 

-a 



4 £ £ 



9 t.-5 



I & 



a a 



£ £ 



£ £■ £ 






-8 « 

a! ! 



6 



: : i : : 

J* j § & 



&JR 



s Q fit 



s s 






s 






"8 



a . 



•5 • 2 a » a 

1 H o + SflX 2 & 



: ! 5 8 

8 * • 2 . 

I 3* HI 



4 5 






8 • 
I 



a 

■8 



• -8 ' ' 

. i 

h o f»< jz; 



I I 

£ 1 



P P 1 



: «u "3 



pi 1 
S Si 



5 p, £ p, 



13 13 



II I If! till 



I 3 

Q O 



! 



: : i : i : : 

££££££ £ 



! ! : t 

I £ S <S 



•: i 



& & & & « 



ft 



o © 






© © © © © 



© © © © © © © © M 



fl <H C* CO CO -of 



8 ft 



0» M n 



Owing to the saltish irrigation water the cured leaves were not 
bright in colour. The nitre and sodium nitrate plots were severely 
damaged by wilt disease. Green manure (San) has produced a 
better yield. The cured leaves are thinner and rather whitish in 
appearance. This green manure makes the soil very soft and is 
likely to encourage the growth of Vacumba (Orobanche Nicotiana). 
No conclusions can be drawn as some of the plots are damaged by 
wilt disease. 

4. Jiice, — The object was — 

(1) to compare farmyard manure with nitre, 

(2) to compare rice manured and irrigated with rice manured 

but not irrigated, 

(3) to compare rice grown unmanured and unirrigated with 

rice grown manured but not irrigated. 

The variety of rice grown was Sutarsdl. 
The results are as under : — 















Manure. 




Yield 
per acre. 






Plot 
No. 


Area. 


Crop- 


Tillage. 








Irrigation. 




Value 
of 


rcostof 












cultivS" 


Gun- 








Kind. 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 
applica- 
tion. 




Grain. 


Straw. 


produce. 


tion. 








1 








Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Us. a. p. 


Rs. a, p. 




than. 






fl F.Y.M. ... 


7\ tons*. 


June ... 


1 










90 


6 


Rice ... 


Ordinary i | + 






}Nil ... 


1,280 


2,046 


40 8 2 


57 8 6 










1 1 Nitre ... 


80 lbs. ... 


August... 


/ 










01 


6 


Do. ... 


Do. 


...! Nil 


Nil ... 


Nil ... 


1,200 


2,148 


44 10 5 


36 4 


93 


ft*ft 


To. ... 


Do. 


J, F. Y. M. ... 


7\ tons ... 
7} tons... 

80 lbs. ... 


Juno ... 


Nil ... 


1,127 


2,061 


42 O 8 


60 10 11 


94 


6 


Do. ... 


Do. 


| F. Y. M. ... 
(.} Nitre ... 


June ... 
August*. 


}»£» 


1,988 


2,418 


66 7 8 


64 6 


95 


8*6 


Do. ... 


Do. 


•■ . * • I • Ma ... 

1 • i 


7\ tone... 


June _ 


Do. ... 


1,629 


1,915 


54 1 4 


58 8 6 



The crops are all below 1he average; owing to the sandy 
nature of the soil these rice beds cannot at present hold sufficient 
moisture. Nitre has apparently produced a considerable increase 
in the irrigated rice. On the irrigated plots the addition of nitre 
(worth Rs. 8) to farmyard manure increased the value of the crop 
by some Rs. 14. 

Rotation Series Experiments. 
5. Series L — The object was to see the effects of ordinary and 
deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it with 
others : — 



l8tye ar-{$^ 

2nd year — Sundhia. 

3rd year — Kodra and mixture* 



The following statement shows the details of plots tnd enlthra- 
tion in this series : — 











Menu* 








Area. 


Crop. 


lUes*. 




In rotation 

or 




Plot 
No. 


Kind. 


QMS** 

per acre. 


Tina of 

"fir 


Irrigated 
or not. 








8 


Gunlhae 

R 


(« ) Bajri 
(>) Jim 

Kareli 


Ordinary 


Nil 
F.T.M.- 


VB ~ 
10 tone- 


~ 


In rotation... 


NIL 
Irrigated. 


19 


10 


Da 


Deep 


«*- 


Do. _ 


Da M 


la rotation ... Do. 


6 


10 


8undhia 


Ordinary 


Kfl M 


W ... 


— 


Do. J. NO. 


17 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


vn ~ 


NU - 


... 


Do. J ML 


7 


10 


Kodra and mix* 
tare. 

Do. M 


Ordinary ~ 


Nil _ 


Nil _ 


~ 


Do. ... ! Nil. 


18 


10 


Deep 


Nil ... 


HO - 




Do. ».j HIL 



The results of Bajri and Jiru are as under : — 





IToiNaSordiDarUypJoogbed. 


Pk*Notl9dee]^pk>efbe<L 


Crop. 


TieM 
per acre. 


Value 

of 

prodnee. 


Coal 

of 
cuTCretton. 


Yield 
peraere* 


Value 
of 


Coat 
of 




Grain. 


Strew. 


Grain. , Straw. 


cnlUfation. 




Lbe. 


Lbe. 


Be. a. p. 


Ba. a. p. 


Lbe. Lbe. 


i 
Be. a. p. < Be. a. p. 


Bijri ... _ ... 


MO 


4.838 


»1( 4 


19 IS 8 


024 4,880 


» I 4 . 12 5 8 


Urn M m. m. 

Kareli _ ~ ~ 


470 


... 


84 9 4 


88 IS 8 


888 •« 


07 81 831 8 






N o 


t flni 


a b a dJ 


1 
1 



The yield of Bajri is below the average owing to heavy rains at 
the end of August. 

The Jiru was a promising crop but was damaged seriously by 
rain in February. The quality of the produce was inferior. 

The results of Sundhia are as under :— 





Plot No. 8 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 17 deep!y ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce* 


Coat of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre 


Value of 


Coat of 
cultivation. 




Grain 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


produce. 


Sundhia ... .*• ... 


Lbe. 

128 


Lbe. 
5,1*2 


Ba. a. p. 

26 


Ba. a. p. 
19 9 4 


Lbe. 
212 


Lbe. 
8,780 


• 
Be. a. p. 

SI 4 8 


Be. a. p. 
83 9 



6 





The results of the Kodra mixture are as under : 


— 






Crop* 




Plot No. 7 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot Ko. 18 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre* 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Groin. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


critintian. 








Lbs. 


Lb* 


Rs, a. p. Ra. a. p. 


Lbc Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. ». p. 


KoJrm 


... 




262 


648 


4 15 4 . 


' 


189 ' 548 


3 12 4 ^ 


Tal 
Shcria 


••• 


- 


80S 

146 


Fibre 
80 


26 | 

1 
7 7 4 


-17 8 


372 

1 Fibre 
96 ; 44 


31 6 
4 7 


-JO 


Turer 


... .*• .. 




556 


668 


90 7 


J 


416 i 600 

i 


15 4 8 


) 




68 13 8 


• 




64 14 





The crop of Tal was very good. 

6. Series II. — The object was to see the effects of ordinary 
and deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others : — 

1st year ... ... ... B&jri, Math and Tuver. 

2nd year ... ... ... Kodra and mixture* 

3rd year ... ... ... Sundhia. 

The following statement shows the details of plots and culti- 
vation under this series : — 



Plot 


Area. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 

or 
continuous. 


Irrigated 


No. 


Kind, 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 
application. 


or not. 


11 

32 



20 
10 
21 


Gunthas. 

10 

10 
10 

10 
10 
10 


Bfijri, Math and 
Tuver. 
Do. 
Kodra and mix- 
ture 
Do. 
Sundhia 
Do. 


Ordinary .„ 

Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 

Ordinary ... 
Deep 


K. T. M. ... 

Do. ... 
Nil 

Nil 
Nil 
Nil 


6 tons 

Do. 

Nil 

Nil 
Nil 
Nil 


Jnuc 
Do. 


In rotation. 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. „. 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 


Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil 
Nil. 
Nil. 




There 


suits of B 


djri, Mat! 


handT 


uver an 


e as unc 


ler : — 







Plot No. 11 ordinarily ploughed. 1 Plot No. 22 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acra 


Value of 
produce. 


Yield per acre. 
Cost of ; 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


8traw. 


cultivation. ' 

j Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 


B*jri 

Matji 

Tnyer 


Lbs. 
228 
212 
808 


Lbs. 

2,284 

1,«96 

344 


Rs. a. p. 

12 3 4 

8 11 

11 4 4 

32 2 8 


Rs. a. p. Lbs. 

") ! 272 
J-32 1 4 180 

) | 408 


Lbs. 

2,272 

1,204 

364 


Rs. a. p. 

13 11 

7 4 

13 6 


Rs. a. p. 
1 34 9 4 






34 4 





The yield of Bajri is much below the average. There is not 
much difference between ordinarily ploughed and deeply ploughed 

plots. 

The results of Sundhia are as under : — 





Crop. 


i Plot No. 10 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 21 deeply ploughed. 




, Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 

Rs. a. p. 
21 8 


Yie'd per acre. . 

. Value of 


Coat of 




i 
Grain. 


Straw* 


i * produce. 
Orain. | Straw. 


cultivation. 


Sundhia 


~ ••• 


; Lbs. 

368 

1 


Lbs. 
4.462 


Bs. a. p. 
33 14 


Lbe. 1 Lbs. , Re. a. p. 
412 ; 4,132 S3 6 4 

1 1 


Re. a. n. 
24 4 8 



The results of Eodra 


are as under :— 












Plot No. 9 ordinarily ploughed. . 


Plot No 20 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 

prodaoe. 


Coat of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 


Kodta ... 

Tal ... 

Sheria . M „ 

TftYrt * ... ... 


Lbs. 

4S2 

60 

133 

432 


Lbs. 

868 

Fibre 

72 

4C0 


Re. a. p. 
8 « 8 
4 11 8 

6 11 
15 12 4 


Rs. a. p. 

[• 19 6 8 

J 


Lbs. 
628 
120 

110 

312 


Lbs. 
1,100 

Fibre 

76 

352 


Rs. a. p. 

10 4 4 

10 2 

7 14 

11 7 


Re. a. p. 

1 21 11 8 




96 9 8 


38 14 8 





There is no difference between the two plots ; the value of 
produce is similar. 

7. Series III. — The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 

rin — 

... Tobacco manured with farmyard manure. 
... Kodra mixture. 



with others 

(a) 1st year ... 
2nd year ... 

(b) 1st year ... 
2nd year ... 

The details of plots and cultivation in the series are as under : — 



... Tobacco manured with green manure, 
... Kodra mixture. 







1 


Manure. 






riot 

No. 


Area in 
gunthos. 


i 
Crop. ! Tillage. 




In rotation 

or 
continuous. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


Kind. 


Quantity 


Time of 






i 


per acre. 


application. 






25 


10 


Tobacco ... Ordinary ... 


Green 


manure (of 


San) 


In rotation. 


Irirgated 


96 


10 


Do. ... Deep 




Do. 




Do. .. 


Do. 


24 


10 


Kodra miiture 


Ordinary ... 


Nil 


Nil 


••«*«• 


Do. . M 


Nil. 


36 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


Nil 


Nil • 




Do. ... 


Nil. 


27 


10 


Tobacco 


Ordinary ... 


F.Y. M. ... 


15 tons ... 


June 


Do ... 


Irrigated. 


38 


10 


Eo. 


Deep 
Ordinary ... 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do, ... 


Do. 


26 


10 


Eodra mixture . 


Nil 


Nil 




Do. ... 


Nil. 


37 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


NU 


NU 


...... 


Do. ... 


Nil. 



8 



The results of tobacco have already been noted (page 3). 
The results of Kodra grown in rotation with tobacco manured 
with green manure are as under : — 





Crop. 


Hoi Xo. 34 ordinarily pkmg had. 


Plot Ho. 36 deeply plowed. 




Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Coat of 
eultiTatton. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Coat of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 






Lba, 


Lba. 


Ba. a. p. | Re. a. p. 


Lba. 


Lba. 


Bs. ft. p. 


Ra. a. p. 


Eodra 





Ml* 


3,150 


v a s<| 


1,304 


2,944 


25 11 2 


1 

^22 14 
( 


Til 
8fceria 


: : : 


00 
269 


fibre 
100 


5 10' 

|}-20 
14 4 4 J 


112 
163 


**• 
Fibre 
84 


9 7 4 
7 12 


Tnrtr 




3*4 


360 


11 13 4 




491 


402 


1013 4 


1 

J 




68 11 4 


68 11 10 





Yield of both the plots is similar. 

The results of Eodra grown in rotation with tobacco manured 
with farmyard manure are as under : — 





Crop. 


Plot No. 26 ordinarily ploughed. 


not No. 37 deeply ploughed* 




TieM per acre. 


Value of 
prodnoe. 


Coat of 

cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Valve of 

prodnoe. 

Ba. a. p. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cnHivatiaa. 






Lba. 


Lb*. 


Be. a. p. 


tie. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Ba. ft. p. 


godra 




1,203 


3,372 


24 6 4 


^ 


1,272 


3,512 


23 9 7 


f-23 4 


Tal 
Sfceria 


... *•• ••• 

••• — M. 


229 
218 


Fibre 
120 


10 4 

11 13 


- 20 12 


206 
9 


Fibre 
44 


1*8 8 
4 7 


Stiver 




752 


049 


27 12 


) 


030 


ess 


22 4 


J 




83 3 4 


70 13 3 





If the above four plots be compared, it seems that Eodra after 
a crop manured with farmyard manure grows better than after a 
crop manured with green manure. 

8. Series IF.— The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and compare it with 
others : — 



1st year 
2nd year 

3rd year 



... VariAli. 
... (a) B<jri 

(4) Onions. 
... Kodra and mixture* 



9 

The following table gives the details of plots and cultivation 
in this series ; — 



Plot 
No. 



3> 

41 



39 
29 
40 



Area In 
guntnaa. 



10 
10 



10 



Crop. 



Tillage. 



Kind. 



Man ere. 
- lM "J 11 * 1 ' IrritfateJ 

Quantity . Time of continuous.) or uat * 
per cere, application. ,' ; 



Variali 

Do. 
(«) Bajri 



... Ordinary 
... Deep 
... Ordinary 



6) Ouio.s ... Do. 

10 j Do. ... Deep 

10 Kodrt mixture Ordinary 

10 Do. ... Deep 



... F. Y. M. ... V2\ tons 

D>. ... P% 

...Nil ... Nil 

... Castor-cake, s-nll* 

Da ... Do. 

... Nil ... Nil 

... Nil „. Nil 



June 
D>. 



Inrotit:on. IrH/atcd. 



... Ja» u .ry ^ 
l>>. ... 



II-. 



Do. 
D. 



Nd. 

Irri rated. 
Do. 



Do. _ Nil. 
Do. ... Nil. 



The results of Vari&li are as under :-— 



Cro/. 



Variali 



Plot No. 3") 


ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 4 
Yield per aere 


1 deeply plou?be I. 


Yield per aere. 


Value of i C«M of 
produce. | cultivation. 

i 


Vidua of Cost of 


Grain. [ t?lraw. 


ft rain. Mraw. 

LI*. 
3.IV4 


produce, cultivation* 


t 
Lbd. | 
1.744 | ... 


Re. a. p. lis. a> p. 
140 5 8 11 s a 


Rm. a. p Rs. a. p. 
170 9 4 i)k 8 



The results, of Bajri and onions /ire as under : — 





Plot No. 8 ordinarily pluugl ed. Plot No. 39 deeply ploa^he 1. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
pr duce. 


Yied per acre. 
Cost of 


Value »»f 
produce. 

Rs. a. p 

24 

2 1 13 6 


O wt of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 

Gain. 


Fodder. 


c i.tivati »n« 


A. Bajri 

B. Onions ... 


Lbs 
19,2f0 


Lbs. 
6,1^2 


Rs. a. p 

29 5 8 

210 10 4 


tt«. a. p Lbs. 

L>0 13 | 631 

112 4 4 19, -70 


Lbs. 
-\702 


R*. a. p. 

■J3 5 

117 4 4 



Bajri was a very promising crop but was damaged by late 
rains* Both the plots of onions are similar in yield. 

The results of Kodra are as under : — 





Plot No. 29 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No, 40 deeply ploughed* 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 

produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation . 


Yield per acre. 


Value of . Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


F dder 

Lbs. 

94S 

Fibre 
68 
623 i 


produce. 

Rs. a p. 
8 15 
20 9 4 

6 12 4 

20 1 8 


cultivation. 


KoJra 

T:d 

8heria 

Tuver ~ 


Lbs. 
460 

288 

128 
612 


Lbs. 
052 

Fibre 
OS 

;o2 


Rs. a. p 
9 
24 4 8 

6 4 
23 10 8 


Rs. a. p 
j IS 4 


Lbs 
4c 6 

144 

552 


Its. a. p. 

> 20 12 

1 




62 5 8 




£6 6 4 





» 992—2 



10 



9. Series V. — The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with other 8 : — 

1st year ... ... Bijri and mixture, 

2nd year ... ... Kodra and mixture. 

8rd year ... ... Bivto, V61 and castors. 

The following table shows the details of plots and cultivation 
in this series: — 





Area in 
gunthas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 
or continuous. 


Irrigat- 
ed or 
not. 


Plot 
No. 


i 


Time of 
appli. 
cation. 


83 
44 

31 
42 
32 

43 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 


BAjri and mixture .j Ordinary 

Do. ...J Deep 
Kodra and mixture.) Ordinary 

Do. ...i Deep 
Kavto, castors and 1 Ordinary ,. 
Val. ! 

Do. ... Deep 


P. Y. M. 

D>. ... 
NU ... 

Nii 
Nil 

Nil 


\ 

5 to-s ... June ... 
Do. ... Do. ... 

\'f'l 

Nil 

NU ... 

Nil 

! 


In rotation ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

DO. .M 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 


NU. 
\'U. 

yu. 

NU. 

su. 

NiL 



The results of B4jri mixture are as under : — 





Plot No. 32 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 43 deeply ploughed. 


Cror> 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Valne of 
produee. 


Coat of 




Grain. 


Poddcr. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 


Bajri 
Math 
Mag 
Tnver 


Lbs. 

304 

44 

360 

308 


Lbs. 
2,632 
296 

2,698 
428 


Rs. a. p. 

15 10 
1 11 

16 6 8 
11 7 


Rs. a. p. 

36 6 8 


Lbs. 

34* 

40 

289 
184 


Lbs. 
2,680 

2S8 
1,816 

216 


Kg. a- p. 
17 8 4 

19 4 
12 6 

6 12 8 


Rs. a. p. 

(s8 12 8 




45 2 8 




38 4 4 




The read 


tsof I 


Coira J 


mixture 


are as i 


under 


■ 









Plot No. 81 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 42 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per arte. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


Koto 
Tal 

Sheria 
Taver ,.. 


Lbs. 
1,1 2S 
48 

196 
232 


Lbs. 

2,084 

Fibre 

81 

260 


Rs. a. p. 
22 2 4 

4 8 

8 12 4 
8 7 8 


Rs. a. p. 
H8 12 

J 


Lb*. 

1,076 
244 

276 
272 


Lbs. 

2,040 

Fibre 
100 
300 


Rs. a. p. 
21 2 8 
23 9 4 

11 7 4 
10 15 4 


Re. a. p. 

1 

J-21 4 

1 

) 




43 7 


63 2 8 





11 



The results of Bdvto, castors and V61 are as under : — 



Crop, 



Plot No* M ordinarily ptooghed. 

Yield per acre. 

1 Yataeof Cost of 
, produce, cultivation. 



Grain. 



Fodder. 



Plot No, it deeplj ptongned. 
Yield per acre. 



Onto. [Fodder. , 



; Value of 

' | pT'dlK*. 



Crmtot 
cultivation. 



B4vto 
Castors 

V41 green pods 
Do. Graio 




Ra, a. p. | Lba, | Lbs. Be, a p. I Re. a. p. 



1.33! 

3*8 
711 



IS! ■ 3.5** 47 6 4 S 

I** ... , 16 12 If.. 

ril - I 9 14 © l 

H : ... i io o J 



8 



I 70 9 4 



10. Series VI.— The object was to see the effects of ordinary 
and deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others : — 

1st year ... ... Sugarcane. 

2nd year ... ... Chillies. 

3rd year ... ... Brtjri 

The following statement shows the details of plots, crops, 
cultivation, etc., in this series: — 



Plot 
flo. 



Area 

in 
jran- 
thas. 



45A 
53A 

45B 

53fi 
46A 
54A 

48B 



54B 

40 

67 



5 
10 

10 

10 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



Crop. 



Tillage. 



Manure. 



Kind. 



<*»£**»! Time of 
P* r . application. 



Sugarcane. 

Do, .. 

Do. .. 

To. .. 

Do. ... 

Do. .. 

Do. ... 



Do. 

Chllles 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Bdjri 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 




In rotation or 
oontinnona. 



;} 



8,000 lbs. 

no. .. 

,000 lbs. 

4X) lbs. 

Do. 
4.000 lbs. 

400 lbs. 
Do. 
t,000 lbs > 

200 lba. I 

200 1b. f 

PC. J 

1,000 lb. 

Do. ... 
2,000 lbs. J 

600 lbs, j" 

Do. ... 

Nil ... 
Nil 

Nil ... 

Nil ... 



Ma; 



ij-Jnlj 



In 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do- 

Do. 
Do, 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



rotation 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Dj, 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
D«». 
Do. 



Irrigated 
or not. 



Irrigated. 
Do, 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Da 

Do, 
Da 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Sugarcane was planted in May but on account of white ants, 
germination was very poor. It was also attacked by borers after- 
wards and the crop was ploughed up. 



12 



Results of Bajri are as under : — 





Plot No». 47-48 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot > T os. 65-5« deeply plouj, 


hcd. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Yalae of 
produce. 

R*. a. p. 
IS 4 2 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 




Grain. 

Lb?. 
644 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Bjri ... 


Lbs. 

6,503 


Rs. 8. p. 

19 12 4 


Lis. 

578 


Lbs. 
6,972 


Rs. a. p. 

150 10 


Rs. a. p. 

22 4 4 



The crop was damaged by late rains. 
The results of chillies are as under :- 



Plot 

No. 



Crop. 



40 ! Chillies 



67 

eo 



69 



Do. 
To. 



Do. 



Tillage. 



Ordinary 

Deep 
Ordinary 



Manure. 



Deep 



... Castor-cake 

.... Do. 

...I Superphosp hate 
I + castor-cuke. 
Do. 



Yield 

per 

acre. 



Lbs. 

752 



2,639 
1,7«6 



Value cf Cost of 
produce, cultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 
15 10 8 

64 14 8 
37 3 4 



I 



Rs. a. p. 
119 11 

138 13 4 
132 14 4 



107 8 I 150 15 4 



Remarks. 



Totally damage il 
by white ants. 



The results are very poor. 

11. Series VIL — The object was to see the effects of deep 
and ordinary ploughing on the following rotations and to compare 
it with ethers:— 

1st year ... ... (a) Bajri, 

(/;) Wheat. 
2nd year ... ... Kodra and mixture 

The details of plots, crops, cultivation, etc., are as under:— 





Area 
in 

gun- 
thas. 


Crop, 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 
or continuous. 




Plot 
No. 


Quantity 
Kind. | per 
-acre. 


Time of 
application. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


62 

60 
61 
69 


10 
10 

»{ 

10 


Kodra mix- 
ture. 
Do. 
(a) Bajri ... 
(6) Wheat ... 
Do. ... 


Ordinary ... 

Deep 

[■Ordinary . . 
Deep 


yu 
yu 

fl\ Y. M.. 

yu 


m 
yu 

10 tons ... 

yu 

yu »m 


[■June ... 
June 


In rotation... 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Nil. 

ya. 
ryu. , 

\ Irrigated 
V: 



13 



The results of Kodra mixture are as under :— 



Plot No. IS ordinarily ploughed. 




Ploi No. 60 deeply ptitttgfced. 



Tir Id per acre. 



Fodder. 



Valneof 
produce. 



Cost of 

cultivated. 





Lbe. 


Lbe. 


Rs. a. p. ' Be a* p. 


Lbe. Lbe. 


Re a. p. 


Re. a. p. 


Kodra 


we 


1.188 


io o n 


934 1 S.088 ! 


M0 4 * 


T.l 


8k 


... 


7 14| 


80 | ... | 


6 10 








Fibre 


; Y IB 18 


; Fibre •• 




>tl 1 


Shem _ 


ise 


58 


8 7 0> 


114 . M i 


6 6 




Twer .- 


860 


880 


» 9 4 ; 


441 | 628 


16 8 4 

1 






44 8 


46 11 4 



1 The results of Bajri and wheat are as under : — 



Crop. 



Plot No. 61 ordioarU>- ploughed. 



Plot No. 69 deeply ploughed. 



Yield l 



Grain. Fodder. 



A. Bajri 

B. Wheat 



Lbe. 
74S 



983 



Lbe. 

6,408 

1.984 



Taloeof 
produce. 



Re. a. p. 

31 8 

86 16 4 



(Vet of 
coltiration. 



Yield per aero. 



Grab I Fodder. 



Ha. a. p. I Lbe. 
48 6 4 



Lbe. 
676 j 5,408 



I 



60 



i.<38 ! J,:;* 



Value of I Coetof 
prodoee. (cultivation. 



Be. a. p. 
89 IS 



60 7 4 I €8 14 



Re. a. p. 
44 IS O 



The yield is below the average. 

12. Series VIIL— The object was— 

(1) to compare the effects of farmyard manure -+ castor- 
cake + green manures ; 

(2) to compare the effects of deep ploughing ; 

(3) to compare the effects of taking 3 crops in a year with 

those of taking the same crops in 2 years. 

The details of plots, crops and treatment are as under : — 













Manures. 


1 








Area 

in 

gUJH 

thas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 






1 


In rotation 
or continuous. 




Plot 
No. 


Kind. 


(Quantity 


Time of I 


Irrigated 
or not. 








Iter acre, i 


application. 








( 


Bain ... 
Potatoes ~ 


Ordinary ... 


F. Y. M. ... 


10 tons... 


June „. 


Continuous ... 


XiL 


(1 


10{ 


Do. ... 


Castor-cake... 


8C0 lbe. . 


December ... 


Do. 


Irrigated. 




\ 


Sundhia ... 


Do. ... 


xa ~. 


At* ... 


xa ~ 


Do. _ 


71 


10 


Do. ... 


Deep 
Ordinary ... 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 




( 


Potatoes ... 


Ban 


Green 


manure 


) 




63 


10 \ 










August 
AtT 


> In rotation ... 


Do. 




\ 


Sundhia ... 


Do. .. 


m 


m „ 


j 




72 


10 


Do. .. 


Deep 
Ordinary ... 


Do. 


Do. -. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 




( 


Potatoes ... 


Caster cake . 


8J0IU. . 


December ... 


) 




61 


10 \ 












} In rotation ... 


Do. 




\ 


Sundhia ... 


Do. .- 


XU 


mi ... 


Nil 


J 




74 


10 


Do. ... 


T>eep ~ 


Do. .« 


Do. ... 


Do. m 


Do. 


Do. 


63 


10 


Bajri ... 


Ordinary ... 


Ail 

i 


Jfil ... 




"1 1st year Bajri. 

2nd year 

y Potatoes 

1 with green 


XU. 


7J 


10 


Do. 


Deep 
Ordinary ... 


i Ml 


Nil 





j manure. 


Xil. 


05 


10 


Do. 


Nil 


xn ... 





^ let year Bajri, 


Xih 
















2nd year 


















V Potatoes 


















1 with castor- 




75 


10 


Do. ... 


Deep 


Hit 


Ail ... 


1 


J cake. 


At*. 



11 

The results of B6jri, potatoes and Sundhia grown in one year 
are as under : — 



Plot No. 61 ordinarily ploughed. 



Plot No. 71 deeply ploughed. 



Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 


1 Grain. 

i 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. Bajri 

B. Potatoes 

0. Sundhia 


Lbs. 

680 
4,080 


Lbs. 

6,028 

6,068 


Rs. a. p. 

31 11 8 
66 15 4 
30 6 4 


Rs a. p. 
98 11 8 
137 11 4 
29 12 


Lhs. 

79« 

4,9 JO 


Lbs. 
5,463 

5,516 


Rs. a. p. 

86 10 
68 
37 9 4 


Rs. a. p. 
41 3 8 
144 7 4 
34 12 



The results of potatoes and Sundhia grown in rotation with 
the above plot are as under : — 



- 


Plot No. 62 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 72 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. Potatoes 

B. Sundhia 


Lbs. Lbs. 
7,520 
... , 4,616 


Rs. a. p. 
103 2 
23 1 4 


Rs. a. p. 
133 10 8 
31 2 


Lbs. 

8,4' K) 


Lbs. 
6,724 


Rs. a. p. 

115 3 

33 10 


Rs. a. p. 
138 8 
36 10 



The results of potatoes and Sundhia grown in rotation with 
the above plot are as under : — 





Plot No. 64 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 74 deeply ploughed. 


Crop* 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 

Lbs. 
1J924 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. Potatoes 

B. Sundhia 


Lbs. 
6,180 


Rs. a. p. 
84 12 
45 10 


Rb. a. p. 

140 

32 12 


Lbs. 
6,860 


Lbs. 

8J248 


Rs. a. p. 
94 1 4 
41 4 


Rs. a. p. 

141 1 

39 



The results of Bajri grown in rotation with potatoes manured 
with green manure are as under : — 





Crop. 


Plot No. 63 ordinarily ploughed. 


riot No. 73 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per aero. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per a?re. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


culti vafcon 


Bajri 





Lbs. 

688 


Lbs. 

5,428 


Rs. a. p. 
31 4 8 


Rs. a. p. 

27 14 4 


Lbs. 
024 


Lbs. 
6,311 


Rs. a. p. 
33 6 8 


Rs. a. p. 
SO 6 4 



18 

j The results of Bajri grown in rotation with potatoes manured 

with castor-cake are as under : — 





Crop. 


Plot No. 65 ordinarily pic 


«gbed» 
Cost of 


Plot No. 78 deeply pbuybel. 




Yid 1 per acre. 


Value of 


TloM pe * tcre. • 

Yft]u«af 


Cmtof 


- 


i l 

1 Grain. Fodder. 


produce. ' cultivitioj. 

i 


Gra'u. 


produce. 
Fodder. 


cultivation. 


Bijri 


~ ... 


I Lbs. ! Lbs. 
...j 678 | 5.980 


Bs. a, p. 
83 9 


Rs. a. p. 
47 18 


Lbs. 
851 


Lbs. Bs. a. p. 
8,018 { 88 14 4 


Bs. a. p. 
80 7 8 



B£jri in all plots is below the average owing to the damage 
done by the late rains. Potato cultivation was costly owing to the 
high price of seed potatoes. The seed was purchased at Rs. 2-8-0 
per maund and the produce was sold at As. 10 per maund. This is 
due to the variation in the market. The plot m mured with green 
manure and deeply ploughed has alone given an average outturn* 
Salt water of the well seems to have had some effect on the potatoes. 
From the Jowar plots it seems that the green manure leaves less 
manurial residue for the next crop than farmyard manure. 

13. Series IX.— The object was to compare the effects of 
deep and ordinary ploughing on the following crops and rotations 
and to compare Rozi cotton with Broach cotton : — 

(a) 1st year Eodra and mixture. 

2nd „ Brijri mixture. 

3rd „ Broach cotton. 

(b) 1st year Kodra mixture and Rozi cotton. 

2nd „ ... ... Bijri do. 

The details of plots, crops, cultivation, etc., are noted below : — 



Plot 

No. 


Area 

in 

gunthas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


fa rotation 


Irrigated 
or not. 


Kind. 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 
application. 


or 
continuous. 


63 

78 
66 

76 

07 

77 
70 

80 
69 

79 


10 
1* 
10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 


Kodra mixture. 

Do. 
Bijri and mix- 
ture. 
Do. 
Cotton 
Do. 

<t>dra mixture 
and Rozi 
cotton. 
Do. 
Bajri mixture 
and Bozi 
cotton. 
Do. 


Ordinary .. 
Doep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 

Ordinary ... 
Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 


NU 
Nil 
Nil 

Nil 

P. T. M.... 

Do. 

Nil 

Nil 

F. T. M.... 

Do. ... 


Nil 
Nil 
NU 

Nil 
6 tons 
Do. 
NU 

Nil 

5 tons .., 

Do. 


June 
Do. 

Jane 
Da. 


In rotation. 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Do. .„ 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

K z 

■» ... 


Nil. 
Ni\ 
Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 



16 



Results of Kodra mixture are as under : — 





Plot No. 08 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 73 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per aoie. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultiration. 


Yield per acre. 


1 

Value of 1 Coat of 




Grain. 


fodder. 


Grain. 


Folder. 


produce, cultivation. 


Kodra 

Tal 

Sberia 

Tuyer 


LI*. 

2,060 

40 

800 
624 


Lhs. 
4,44) 

Fibre 
168 
723 


Rs. a. p. 

41 4 

3 6 

15 6 8 
22 14 4 


Ra. a. p. 

M8 4 8 
1 


Lbs. 

1.520 

44 

149 

828 


Lbs. 
3,080 

Fibre 

R4 
941 


Rs a. p. 

30 O 

3 11 4 

7 10 4 
30 5 8 


Rs. a. p. 

1 

J- 20 12 8 

1 
J 




83 11 


71 11 4 





Kodra mixture was a very good crop. 

The results of Bajri mixture are as under : — 



Plot No. 66 ordinarily ploughed. 



Plot No. 76 doep'.y ploughed. 





Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of • 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Coat of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


Bajri 
Math 
Mug 
Tuver 


~ 


Lbs. 
5S4 
48 
208 


Lbs. 
5,2*0 
308 
1,148 
Nil 


Rs. a p. 

7 9 
1 12 9 

8 12 8 


Rs. a. p. 
1 81 15 4 


Lbs 
480 
44 
160 


Lbs. 

5,066 
288 
493 

Nil 


Rs. a. p. 

26 5 
1 11 
12 4 


Rs. a. p. 

[aw 4 




40 13 4 


34 12 4 





Bajri crop is below the average. Tuver plants were totally 
smothered when the Bajri plants were laid down by rain. Math 
and Mag also suffered. 

The results of Broach cotton are as under : — 





Plot No. 67 ordinarily ploughed 


Plot No. 77 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acie. 


Vulne of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation 


Yield per acre. 


Valuo of 1 Cost of 




Peed rotten. 


Seed cottou. 


produce. 

Rs. a. p. 

80 7 


cultivation. 


Broach cotton 


Lbs. 

828 


Rs. a. p. 
67 4 4 


Rs. a. p. 

GO 14 8 


Lbs. 
993 


Rs. a, p. 
33 6 8 



On these plots cotton was not attacked with wilt disease. 
The outturns were very good. The deep ploughed plot has given 
the better yield. 



17 

The results of Kodra mixture with Rozi cotton are as under :— 



Plot No. 70 ordinarily ploughed. 



Plot Xo. 80 deop'y ploughed 



Crop. 



Kodra 
Tad 

Sherla 
TuTer 



Bozi oottoo ... 



TieM per acre. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Lbs. 


LU. 


864 


1,748 


52 


... 




Fibre 


140 


84 


60S 
Seed 


724 



Value of Goat of 
produce, cultivation. 



Yield per arc. 



Gr»:n. F> rider, 



VaJceof 
produce. 



cotton I 
42 



Rs. a. p. Be, a. p 

17 3 1 

4 

774 V 17 H ft 
22 6 4 i " 8 



2 10 J 



63 15 8 



Lbs. I 

83) i 

3e 

1*4 

Scd 

c jtton 

26 



"1" 



Lbe. 

! Fill- i 
10) 
4*1 



Co* Of 
ttltlTatlttU 



B« a p , 

17 H «> > 

3 8 



9 '. ft | 

II U 8 ' 

1 10 

43 3 4 j 



R» ft. p. 



. 2) 8 



The results of B 


[jri mixture ; 


ire as under 


• ~ """" 








Plot No. 69 < 


.rdinarily ploughed. 


P 

Yidd p 


lot No. 79 deeply ploughed* 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost '.( 
cultivation . 

Bs« a* p. 

[ 37 8 4 

1 

1 
> 


er acre. 


Value of 
pr -due*. 


Coat of 




Grain. 


straw. 


Grain , Straw. 

J 


cultivation. 


B4jri 

Math 

Ma* 

Tuver ... ... 

Rozi cotton 


Lbs. 
572 
24 

2.0 
88 i 
Seed 
cotton 

15 


LU. 

4,310 
1E2 

1.264 
440 


R*. a. p 

28 2 4 

14 4 

9 6 4 

14 3 4 

15 


LU. 

474 

W 

3i* 

1« 

R^el 

cotton 

16 


LU. 

3,<MM 

90 

1,714 

210 


IU. a. p. 
23 13 

9 4 
13 11 

7 2 8 

10 


Re. ft. p. 

t 40 4 

1 

1 

J 




58 9 4 | 37 8 4 




40 4 


40 4 



14. Series X. — The object was to find out which of the follow- 
ing crops, viz. Tal, Tuver and Tal and Tuver mixed, leaves a better 
residue for the next crop. Tal + Tuver and Tal Tuver were sown 
last year. Bajri was sown on all these plots thi3 year. 



The following are 


the details : — 










i 

*J* j Area in 
plot. ; S" nthas - 

1 


Tillagre. 


Last year's crop. 


This year's 
crop. 


Yield p 
Grain 


era re. 
Straw. 


Value of 
produce." 


Coat of 
cultivation. 


S3 

84 

86*88 


10 
]0 
20 


Ordinary ... 
Do. 
Do. 


Tal 
Tuver 
Tal + Tuver 


Bairi 
Do. 
Do. 


LU. 

672 
546 


LbR. 
6 220 

4,t2> 


K«. a. p. 
S3 3 
23 10 8 
35 3 10 


Rs a. p. 
23 2 4 
22 14 4 
19 5 10 



The yield of all the plots is b low the average. The plot of 
Tal has produced a better yield than either Tuver or Tuver + Tal 
together. 



B 992—3 



18 



15. Series XI. — The object was to investigate the theory of 
rotations. Tobacco and B£jri are the crops experimented with. 
All the plots mentioned below are to receive 20 loads of farm- 
yard manure every second year. This wiJl always be applied 
to tobacco when this crop is grown on the plot. The following 
are the details : — 





Ana 

in 
gnnthas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 

or 
continuous. 




Plot. 


Kind. 


Quantity 
p r 
aere. 


Time 

of 

application 


Irrigated 
or not. 


106 
100 
1)0 
111 
111 
113 
114 
116 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


Tobacco 
Bairi 
Tobaooo 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Bajri 
Fallow 
Tobaooo 
Fallow 
Bajri 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Ordinary ... 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

DO. 

Do. 
Do. 

Ordinary ... 

Ordinary ... 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 


F. Y. M.... 

Nil. 
F. Y. M.... 

D>. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

F.Y M.... 

F. y.'m... 

Do. ... 
D». ... 
Do. ... 


10 tons ... 

Nil. 
19 tons ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

10 tons ... 

10t"ns ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. 


June 

Nil. 
June 

Do. 

Dd. 

Do. 

Do. 

June 

June 
Po. 
Do. 
Do. 


In rotation. 

Do. 
Continuous. 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Rotation ... 

Do. ... 
Rotation... 

D>. ... 
Continuous. 

Do. ... 

Do ... 

Do. ... 


Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 



N H. — Rots Nos. 112, 113, 118, 119 are ring plots to teat tli9 oante.xi- 
poraneous effects of a fallow and are not under experiment. 

The results of Bajri are as under: — 



Plot 


Crop. 


Manure. 


Yield [>cr qcto. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Remarks. 


No. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


109 

114 

118 
1)9 
120 
121 


Bajri 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


NU 

Nil 

Farmyard manure. 

Do! 
Do. 


Lbs. 
•olQ 

636 

621 

308 
410 
508 


Lbs. 

3,741 

4,648 

4,912 
4,1 
3,4»J8 
8,728 


Rs. a. p 
21 4 8 

26 7 4 

30 12 4 
17 12 
21 14 
24 J2 


Kb. a. p. 
16 9 8 

39 15 

38 13 
37 7 
36 9 
84 1 


In rotation witb 
tobaoo. 

In rotation with 

fallow. 

Continuous. 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 



The crop is below the average. 

The results of tobacco are as under : — 



Plot 


Crop. 


Manure. 


Yield per 
acre. 


Value of 
produce 


Cost of 
cu.ti ration. 


Remarks. 


No. 


Cured 
leaves. 


108 

110 
111 
112 
113 
116 


Tobacco 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Farmyard manure. 

To. 
Do. 
Do. 
Uo. 
Do. 


Lbs. 
280 

328 

038 

816 

1,024 

1,400 


Rs. a. p. 
22 6 4 

26 3 8 
58 1 4 
05 4 4 
61 7 
84 


Rs a. p 
45 6 6 

16 6 4 

61 A 8 
£0 8 8 
67 8 

62 


Damaged by wilt. 

Do. 
Damaged by rain. 

Damaged by iaia. 
Do. 



id 

Experiments on crops grown continuously. 

16. The object was — 

(1) to see how long the following crops can be grown 
profitably without any manure on the same plots; 

(2) to see the effects of deep and ordinary ploughing on 

Kodra mixture and on Bajri mixture grown continuously. 

The following crops were grown continuously : — 

(a) Bajri and mixture. 

(b) Kodra and mixture. 

(c) B&jri. 

(d) Cotton, Broach. 

(e) Tobacco (dry). 

The Bajri and Kodra mixtures were grown on the following 
plots : — 

Plot No. 137. — Area 5 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Bdjii and mixture. 

Plot No. 139. — Area 5 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Kodra and mixture. 

Plots Nos. 138, 140. — Area 5 gunthas each, deeply 
ploughed, otherwise crops and treatment same as in plots {37 
and 139 respectively. 

The results of Brijri mixture are as under : — 



Crop. 


Plot No. 137 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 188 deeply ploughed. 


Yield per acre. 

! Value of i Coht of 


Yield per acre. j 

i Value of 

I ' produce. 
Grain. | Straw. } 


Cost of 


Grain. 


1 produce. I cultivation. 
Straw. | 


cultivation. 


Bajri 

Math 

Mag 

TavtT 


Lbs. 

472 

16 

466 

376 


Lbs. Rs. a. p. ! Bs. a. p. 

3,6: ?« 2* 3 b ,^ 

96 9 4 / „ u 
2,330 I 13 12 f - J " 4 
408 1J 11 * J 


Lbs. 1 LU. 

360 ! 3,118 

24 | 139 

400 1 2,282 

296 ' 32 J 


Bs. a p. 

19 8 
13 4 
16 15 4 
10 12 8 


Ba. a. p. 

32 3 1 


Total ... 




! 56 9 4 29 11 4 


~ 


... 


48 1 4 


32 3 4 



, The results of Kodra mixture are ; 


s und<*r : — 








Plot No. 139 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No 140 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cort of 




Grain. > Straw. 


Grain. , Straw. 


cultivation. 


Kodra 

Tal 

8beria 

Tttver 


Lbs. Lbs. 
94* , 1,936 
200 
112 66 fibre 

652 1 6J6 


Ra. a. p. 

18 7 4 
16 14 O 
6 6 8 
20 3 4 


Bs. a. p. 
1 10 3 4 


Lbs. ! Lbs. 
ttltf 1 1,272 
200 ! 
152 1 80 fibre 

403 j 453 


Rs a. p 
12 4 
16 14 
7 8 R 
14 14 8 


Rs. a. p. 
> 21 11 4 


Total ... 


... j ... 60 16 4 


19 3 4 


1 
1 


61 7 4 21 11 4 



20 



Cotton, Biijri and tobacco crops were grown on the following 
plots : — 

Plot No. 97. — Area 6 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Broach cotton. 

Plot No. 98. — Area 6 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown wiih Bajri. 

Plot No. 101. — Area 4J gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, planted with tobacco. 

The results are as under : — 



Plot 


Crop. 


Manure, 


Yield par acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation* 


No. 


Grain. 


Straw, 


C7 
98 

101 B 


Cotton 

lijjri 

Tobacco 


Nil ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 


Lbs. 

Seed cotton. 
263 
360 

Cured leaves 
633 


Lbs. 

27833 
••• 


Rs. a. p. 

21 6 2 

22 3 

42 6 10 


Rs. a. p. 

13 13 1 
25 3 10 

38 S 1 



Bdjri was damaged by rain. More than half the area of cotton 
was destroyed by wilt. 

Cultural Experiments. 

Series I. — The object was — 

(1) to compare B^jri and Bdjro sown 1/ apart withBdjri and 

B&jro sown 1^' apart ; 

(2) to compare the yield of B&jri with that of B6jro ; 

(3) to compare Broach cotton sown 1|' apart with cotton 

sown 2' apart, 

B£jri and Bajro were grown on the following plots : — 

Plot No. 104. — Area 10 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Bajri 1' apart. 

Plot No. 105. — Area 10 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with B£jro 1' apart. 

r Plot No. 122A. — Area 8-g- gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, 
not manured, sown with Bajri 1£' apart. 

Plot No. 122B. — Area 8£ gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, 
not manured, sown with Bajro 1 J' apart. 



21 



The results of Bdjri and Bajro are as under : — 



Plot 
No, 



Crop. 



Treatment. 



104 
12A 
105 
122B 



Bajri 
Do. 
Bajro 
Do. 



,,; Kown 1' apart .. 
. , Sown 1 i' apart . 
J Sowu 1' apart .. 
,.' Sown 1^' apart. 



Yield per 

5CC. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Lbe. 
i 464 
480 
221 

J 2S7- 


Lbs. 
4,472 

4,<m 

3,068 
2,626 



Vaineof 
prod ace. 



Cost of 
culfrration. 



Bs. a, p. 

25 8 

23 6 3 

17 12 

15 3 6 



Ba» a. p.* 

16 IS 8 
18 5 3 

17 5 8 
17 11 10 



The crops are below the average. Bijri sown 1' 
given the better return, while Bdjro sown 1 J' apart has 
better outturn. 

Cotton was sown under similar conditions in the following 
plots : — 

Plot Nos. 102-103.— Area 10 gunthas each, 

ploughed, not manured, and sown with Broach 

apart. 

Plot Nos. 106-107.— Area 10 gunthas each, 
ploughed, not manured, sown with Broach cotton 2' 

The results are as under : — 



apart has 
given the 



ordinarily 
cotton l|' 

ordinarily 
apart. 



1 

Plot 
No. 


Crop. 


Treatment. 


Yield 

of seed 

cotton per 

acre. 


Vain* of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


102 
103 
106 
107 


Broach cotton 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Sown 1}' apart ... 

Do. 
Sowu 2' apart 
Do. 


Lbs. 
228 
694 
394 
3S4 


Bs. a. p. 
18 8 4 
56 7 
32 4 
31 3 4 


Rs. a. p. 

17 4 

18 4 4 
16 13 a 
15 9 



The plots were much affected by wilt disease. 

18. Series II.— The object was to compare Bajri and Guwar 
sown as separate crops with Bdjri and Guw£r sown mixed 
together. 

Plot Nos. 123-124.— Area 1 acre, ordinarily ploughed, 
not manured, sown with Bdjri and Guw£r mixed together. 

Plot Nos. 125-126.— Area 1 acre, ordinarily ploughed, 
not manured, sown with Guwdr. 

The results are as under : — 



22 



riot 

No. 



104 
125,126 

12$, 124 | 



Crop. 



Bajri 
Guwar 
Bajri 
Gawar 



Manured. 



Yiold per 
acre. 



Grain. 







1 


Lbs. 


- Nil 


464 


, Do. 


865 


' Do. 


852 


IDo. 


880 



Fodder. 



Lb*. 
4,172 

844 
4,266 

855 



Value o- 
produce. 



) 



Rs, a. p. 

25 8 

23 5 8 

29 2 4 



Cost of 
cultivation. 



Bs. a. p. 
16 !3 8 
30 13 10 

21 12 8 



B6jri was damaged by rain. This year Guwdr alone seems 
to be profitable. 

Trial of new crops. 

19. Cotton. — The object was — 

(1) to introduce Ldlio and W£gad cottons which are exten- 

sively grown in the Ahrtoedabad District ; 

(2) to see whether Lnlio cotton can be grown profitably 

with irrigation. 

The results are as under : — 



Plot 
No. 


Area. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


Yield 
of sec d 

cotton 
per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


81 
82 

127. 
128 


J 20 

20 
20 


Ulio ... 

Do. 

Wag*d ... 


Ordinary . 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 


F. Y. M. . 

Nil 
Do. 


Irrigated . 

Nil 
Do. 


Lbs. 
709 

491 
311 


Bs. a. p. 
57 11 

39 14 4 
25 4 4 


Us. a. p. 
52 7 8 

15 6 i 

16 8 2 



L&lio irrigated was a very promising crop but nearly half 
the area was destroyed by " wilt disease." 

20. Dhdrwdr* American cotton. — About 20 gunthas were sown 
with this cotton. The germination was not satisfactory. The ger- 
minated plar ts were attacked with white ants and wilt disease. 
The whole plot was ploughed in. 

The following varieties of cotton were sown on a small area 
to see the variation in the percentage of lint due to differences in 
soil and climate : — 



23 





i 






j Pereeniap' of 


No. 




Name of the cou»n variety. 




lint to roe J- 








!•• •• 


cotton. 


1 


Devkap&s 


• • • % 


25-3 


2 


Rozi 


• • • i 


)»» .. 


268 


3 


Naden 


• •• « 


•• • • 


81-6 


4 


Wigad 


•• • 


>•• • • 


28 


5 


Kampta 


• •• i 


• • •• 


27-5 


6 


Broach 


••• i 


>•• . • 


31-8 


7 


Goghari 


... 


• • • • 


383 


8 


Mathio 


... 


• • •• 


27-2 


9 


Jari 


• • • 


»•• •• 


286 


10 I 


Vairfdi 


••• i 


»•• •• 


35-2 


11 


Contilla 


• •• 


•• •• 


44-5 


12 ! 


Bani 


• *• 


.. 


26 



21. Bdjri. — The following new varieties were grown : — 

(1) Natal Bdjri. 

(2) West African Bajri. 

The results are as under : — 



Plot 
No. 


Area 

in 

gnnthas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


Yield per 
aero. 


Value 

of 

produce. 


Co* 
of 


Grain, 


Fodder 


cuftiration. 


96 

142 


13 
6 


Natal Bajri ... 
VVeit African 
Bajri. 


Ordinary . 
Do. ... 


Nil ... 

00. ... 


Lbs. 

323 
1,066 


Lbs. 

4,997 

5,506 


R*. ».* p. 
19 8 3 
87 15 9 


Ba, a. p. 
17 4 6 
27 2 6 



Natal Bijri was much damaged by rain. The growth was 
just like ordinary Bdjri : the ear was somewhat longer and the grain 
smaller. 

West African Bajri was not much affected by rain. The 
stalks were thbk with plenty of aereal roots. The leaves were 
broader than ordinary Bajri plants and the appearance of the crop 
was like maize. Tne ears were very long, some measuring 21 inches. 
The grain was very small and yellow. 

22. Soybeans. — The following varieties of soybeans were 
grown : — 

I. — Black-seeded. 
II. —Yellow-seeded. 
HI. — Extra early black-seeded. 
IV.— Extra early. 



24 

These varieties were first sown in May. The germination was 
not satisfactory owing to exoesssive heat. The germinated plants 
were parched up. The seed was again sown in the monsoon. 
The germination was fair. The plants were progressing well till 
the end of August, but owing to heavy and constant rains all the 
plants rotted. The yield was practically nothing. A few plants 
only seeded. 

23. Groundnut. — The object was to treat the plots as a pro- 
tection against white ants. 

Four plots, each one guntha in area, were put under ground- 
nut as under : — 

(1) To be treated with Jambho as green. 

(2) To be treated with kerosine. 

(3) To be treated with castor-cake. 

(4) To be treated with nothing. 

The results are as under : — 



Area 

in 

guntfaos. 


Crop. 


Treatment. 


1 


Groundnut . 


Green manure 
of Jambho. 


1 


Do. ... 


Castor-eake-. 


I 


Do. .- 


Kerosine .« 


1 


Po. ... 


Nil 



Number 

of 
water- 
ings. 



Yield per 
acre. 



Good 
Podi. 



Rotten 
Pods. 



443 



1,1 2;) 320 



840 2.0 



OSO 450 



Extent of 
damage. 



33-3 per cect 

27-7 „ .. 
2-3 „ .. 

413 „ .. 



Remark*, 



Jambho was grown in the cold 
weather of 1904 and was ploughed 
iu; a few patches were made by 
white ants. Crop was looking 
rather pale. 

A few plants were seen destroyed by 
whi e ants ; 15 lbs. castor-eake was 
applied in 2 doses. 

K io iue '3lb3. • was applied to 6 
waterings; a few plants were seen 
attacked by white ants. Crop 
looked paler. 

Much attacked with white ants. 
Crop ranch p:.lcr. 



Green manure in addition to its nianurial value seems to have 
some effect on white ants. 

Castor-cake seems to have less effect on white ants than 
kerosine, but appears to influence the yield greatly. 

The kerosine oil appears to have had a good effect on white 
ants. 

24. China mustard.— Two varieties, viz., Cai Trang and Cai 
Sen, were transplanted in December. The plants grew very 
luxuriantly but the yield of grain was very poor. 



25 
The percentages of oil in these varieties are as under t — 



Cai trang 
Cai sen 



30»57 per cent. 
31-42 ft 



25. San.— This year again san was sown for fibre and seed. 
The plants grew very vigorously but owing to heavy rains no 
pods were formed. 

The results are as under :— 





Area in 
gnntlias. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre* 


Vataeof 
produce. 


Cojftof 


No. 


Grain. 


Fibre. 


cultivation. 


9C 


12 


Sua ••• 


Lbs. 
66 


Lbs. 
473 


Rs. a. p. 
25 5 3 


Rs. a. p. 

28 7 



Extracting fibre by hired labour is very costly. A sample 
of San fibre was valued by the Bombay Chamber of Commerce 
at Rs. 60 per candy of 588 lbs. and of Ambadi at Rs. 40. 

26. Kamod rice. — Kamod rice was again planted this year, 
but owing to the sandy nature of the soil it was not successful as 
this variety requires plenty of water. It was watered four times 
from the well. 

The following are the results : — 



No. 


Area in 
gunthas. 


Cro,-. 


Treatment. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 

Us. a. p. 

39 4 7 


Cost of 


Grain. Fodder. 


cultivation. 


92 


7 


Rice 


f.y. m. ... 


Lbs. J lbs. 
C85 . 2,783 

! 


R*. a. p. 
55 9 



27. Barley. — A sample of a six-rowed barley variety called 
Mandeschendi was sown on a small area in the rabi season. The 



seed did not germinate. 



28. Wheat barley. — A sample of wheat barley from Cawnpore 
was sown on a small area. The germination was good. The plants 
did not grow vigorously. Thoy were smaller than ordinary barley* 
The yield was poor, viz., 120 lbs. per acre. 

B992~-4 



29. Tobacco. — The following statement gives the details of 
several varieties of tobacco grown on this farm : — 



Name of the 
variety. 


No. 
of 

leaves. 


Height 
of tbe 
plant. 


Measurement Meatuiement 

of the 1 of the 
top leaf. I largest kaf . 


Eemarks. 


Talwm 
Hftvana 
Java P. 
Wlinri 
Spanish 

Florida 
JavaD. 
Snmatia 


17 
15 
16 
18 
16 

18 
19 
21 


V 10" 
r B' 
8' 6' 
2' 6* 
2' 10" 

3 z r 

8' 5" 
8' 6* 


V xU 1 

e # xir 

6" xlO* 

V xll* 

6i*xi<r 

51"xl8" 

7i w xl2 w 
7" xl2" 


IV xl8" 

18 ¥ xlF 

11J* x 16* 

9*'xl6' 

9" xtf 

V xl5i" 
9*" x 35" 
9" xlS" 


Greenish, thickest, not spotted. 
Beddish, thick, brittle spotted. 
Yellowish, thick, spotted. 
Wliitisb, thick, spotted. 
Reddish yellow, thick midrib, 

very thick spotted. 
Yellowish losses thin and narrow. 
Yellowish, brittle thick i>nd narrow. 
Yellowish, leaves conical* 



All these varieties are more or less degenerating. A curing 
house is now constructed and experiments on curing on improved 
methods will be undertaken next season. 

Pests. 

30. Sugarcane borer (Ohilo simplex). — The attack was detect- 
ed in May when the sugarcane sets were sprouting. The attack 
was severe and the damage done to the young crop was great. 

31. Caterpillars. — The crops of rice, tobacco, cotton and 
brinjals were attacked with caterpillars. The attack was slight. 

32. Kdtras or hairy caterpillars. — In tbe beginning of July 
Kdtras were seen attacking Bajri, cotton, San, etc. They preferred 
San to other crops. The attack was slight. 

33. White ants. — Owing to the sandy nature of the soil white 
ants are very disastrous. The whole crop of chillies and sugar- 
cane was damaged by them. 

34. Smut. — See above. 

The farm seed was steeped before sowing in ^ per cent, copper 
sulphate solution but unfortunately the printed instructions 
followed (not issued by me) were faulty. Correct instructions 
have now been issued, 

35. Wilt disease. — Some of the cotton and tobacco plots were 
very much damaged by this disease. 

36. Bdngdi blight. — A very few plants of potatoes were seen 
attacked with this blight in the young stage. The damage was 
very slight. The attacked plants were removed and burnt. 



27 



37. Mildew. — On account of rain in the beginning of February 
the crop of jiru was attacked with mildew. Subsequently much more 
damage was done to the crop by subsequent rain than by mildew. 

Cross Breeding. 

38. Several crosses made last year were sown this season. 
The following crosses grem vigorously : — 

Tree cotton + Abaori. 
Do. + Sea Island. 
Da + Texas big boll. 

The following table gives the details of crosses made during 
this year : — 



Rough Penman 
Kidney. 


Kidney 

X 

Rough PerurUn. 




Kidney 

X 

16* 




Number of 
flowers 
crossed. 


Number 
of bolls 
formed. 


Number of 

bolls 
obtained. 


Nnmber of 
flowers 
crossed. 


Nnmber 
of bolls 
formed. 


Number of 

bolls 
obtained. 


Nnmber of 
flowers 
crossed. 


Nnmber 
of to Is 
Jotmed, 


Number 
of bolls 
obtained. 


64 


50 


9 


134 


72 


43 


55 


20 


12 



Irrigational Experiments. 

39. To find out what quantity of water is required by each 
irrigated crop, the quantity of water supplied at each irrigation was 
measured either through the rectangular notch or by measuring 
tanks. 

The following table gives the details of the quantity of water 
taken by several crops per acre during the year under report : — 



Crop. 



Tobacco ... 
Variali ... 
Ohillies ... 
Wheat ... , 
Bice 

Brinjals ... 
^ira 

Lalio cotton 
Potatoes ... 
Snndh-a Jowiir 
Onicn ... 





Quantity 


Quantity 




of water 


of water 




at the time 


at the first 




of sowing. 


watering. 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 


... 


Nil. 


41,250 


... 


Do. 


56,260 




Do. 


82,500 


... 


107,500 


76,250 


• •• 


Nil. 


94,117 


... 


Do. 


44 444 




77,600 


43,750 


... 


N:l. 


60000 


... 


97,600 


37,600 


... 


64,650 


66,562 




GO,0CO 


37,500 



Quantity 
of water 
at the 2nd 
watering. 



Gallons. 
40,000 
70.000 
52,600 
80,000 
67.575 
41,666 
37,500 
40.000 
37,500 
42,975 
38,812 



Total 
Number 

of 
wftcr- 
inga. 



3 
9 

13 
7 
2 

32 
4 
3 
7 
6 

14 



Tot J 

quantity 

of water 

applied. 



Gallons. 
112,825 
486,912 
5^2,700 
500,262 
101,692 
524,880 
201,250 
127,250 
313,750 
294,262 
628,487 



28 

New Implements. 

40. Watt's chain plough works well in the moist alluvial 
soils. It is like a Swedish plough with one handle. 

Other implements, such as Turn- wrest plough and the Nile 
plough, continue te give satisfaction. 

Experiments made off the Station. 

41, To make popular special fertilizers sodium nitrate was 
distributed to cultivators for trial on tobacco. The fields were 
manured and irrigated as usual. 

Sodium nitrate was applied at the rate of 120 lbs. per acre to 
half the plot in addition to the farmyard manure. The cost of 
sodium nitrate is Rs. 12 per acre. 

The results are as under : — 













Yield of 




Increment 


Field 
No. 


Area. 


. Manure used. 




cured 
lea ves per 


Value of 
produce. 


in value due 
to sodium 












acre. 




nitrate. 












Lbs. 


Ks. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


c 


14 


Farmyard manure 


... 


••• 


1,045 


104 9 


> 


1] 


23 


Farmyard manure 


and 


sodium 






> 33 14 


I 




nitrate 


••• 


... 


1,381 


138 7 


) 


( 


84 


Farmyard manure 


••• 


••• 


1,283 


128 5 


) 


2 i 


24 


Farmyard manure 


and 


sodium 






[ 2713 O 


( 




nituro 


••• 


••• 


1,661 


156 2 


i 


l 


82 


Farmyard manure 


••• 


... 


2,296 


229 10 


) 


3 I 


32 


Farmyard manure 


and 


sodium 




IS -25 8 O 
204 2 ) 






nitrate ... 


... 


... 


2,041 



In the first two fields the sodium nitrate has produced a better 
outturn. 

Engine and Pump. 

42. The oil engine and pump installed for irrigation purposes 
on this farm are working well. The details were reported in 
the last report. 

Ensilage. 

43. This season the silo was filled with green grass. In 
September 65,000 lbs. green grass was put in the silo within four 
days. The contents were covered with a layer of earth 1^' deep on 
the top. The silo was opened on the 14th April. The grass on the 
sides of the wall of the silo was rotten to the extent of 6" all round* 



29 



The following analyses show the comparative value of silage 
made from grass and green Sundhia. Silage will be of great use 
in the hot weather where dairy cattle are kept : — 





SundbU silage. 


Green grass 
silage. 


Remarks. 


Moisture 

Oil, wax, Ac. 

Albuminoids 

Soluble carbohydrate 
Woody fibre ... ... 

Soluble mineral matter 
Sand ... 


61-69 7364 

1-96 1-31 

2-87 1-70 

21-05 ' 12-26 

15-52 ; 7-77 

2-93 ! 1-45 

3-98 ! 1-87 

• i 


Sundhia silage was 
reported on as a 
sample of very good 
silage, and that of 
the green grass as an 
average sample of 
moderately sour 
silage. 




100-00 ! 100 


Total nitrogen ...! -806 
Albuminoid nitrogen ... 463 


•342 
•272 





JPoona, ^ 

September 1907. ) 



F. FLETCHER, 
Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



u 3*2-5 



BOMBAY: PRINTU* AT THE GOVhRNMl-ttT CHNTKAL FRKSS. 



; V 



,s 

^department of IflifnilhiH j / Bpmi*>1H"'i 




ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

POONA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

INCLUDING 

KIRKEE CIVIL DAIRY 

AND 

LANOWLI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

FOR JHE TEAK. 

1006-1907 

BY 

F. FLETCHER, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

A$. Projetsor of Argicullvre. 



BOMBAY 
tMtlNTBD AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRKSS 

1907 

[Price — 7a. or &d~\ 



UNCIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
NIUGATIOIIS. 

JPfl -SMjpSs^RsT* 

E. A. Arnold, 41 ft*, liaidox Street, Bond Stmt, W., London. 

Constable ft Co., 10, Orss^e Street, Leicester Square, W. 0., London 

Grindlay ft Co* M, Paitianwmt Street, 8. W., Louies 

Henry S. King ft Co* 65, Cornhill, E. C., London 

P. S. King ft Sottt 2 ft 4, Great Smith Stmt, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Fault Trench, Trnbner ft Co., 43, Gerrmrd Street, Soho, W., 
London* 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W„ London. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 

W. Thacker ft Co., 2, Creed Lane. London. E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street, Oxford. 

Deighton Bell ft Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander ft Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 
Rudolf Hanpt, Halle-a-S., Germany. 
Otto Harrassowiti, Leipzig. 
Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipsig. 
Ernest Leroux, 28, Ru6 Bonaparte, Paris. 
Martins Nijhoff, The Hagne. 

In India. 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 
V. Kalyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 
P. R. Kama Iyar ft Co , Madras. 
Thacker, Spink ft Co., Calcutta. 
W. Newman ft Co., Calcutta. 
S. K. Lahiri ft Co., Calcutta. 
R. Cambray ft Co., Calcutta. 
Thacker ft Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 
• A. J. Combridge ft Co., Bombay. 
Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 
D. B. Taraporevala, Sons ft Co., Bombay. 
Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 
Gopal Narayen ft Co., Booksellers, et<\, Bombay. 
N. B. Xathw, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



Bcytttmem of Ogrtnittttre, ttombaj?. 



ANNCJAIi REPORT 

ON THB 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

POONA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

INCLUDING 

KIRKEE CIVIL DAIRY 

AND 

LANOWLI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

FOR THB YEAH 

1906-1907 

BY 

F. FLETCHER M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Ag. Profittor of Argiculturt. 



BOMBAY 

PIUNTBD AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRR88 

1907 



Vernacular names of Oropi, &c, mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical ani English equivalents. 



Botanical, 



Cereals. 

Andropogm sorghum yat. Yttlgare.. 

m Do. var. cernuum. 

rennisetum typhoideum 
Iritioum sativum 

Do. speltum 
Oryza sattra 



Jcorocana 
Patpalum scrobScaUtum 
Panicum millaeeum 

Do. italicum 
A vena saliva 
Zeamays 

Sorghum aachharatum 
Panicom orusgalii Tar. frumenta* 

cenm. 
Setaria italica 
Setaria glanca 
Fagopyrum esculentum 



Pulses. 

Cajanus indious 

Clear arietinum 

Phaseolus mungo 
Do, radiatus 
Do. aconitifolia* 

Dotichos oatiang 

Do. biflorous *■• 

Pisam Batiram 

Lathyrus satirus 

Ervum lens 

Cyamopsis psoralioidej 

Glycine hispida 



Oil-seeds. 

Arachis bypogea- 
Linum uaitatisdmum 
Carthamus tinctoriua 
Ricinus communis 
Pongamia glabra 
Quizotia abissynica 

Fibres. 

Gossypium herbaceum 
Do. hirsutum 
$1005— q 



English. 



Great millet 



Do. 
Bull rush millet 
Wheat 

Spelt 
Bice, Paddy 

Muma millet 

Kodra millet 

Common milkt 

Italian millet 

Oau 

Maiae 

horghum 



Italian millet 
Bottle grass 
Back wheat 



Pigeon pea 
Gram 

Green gram- 
Black gram 
Kidney bean 
Cow pea 

... Horse gram 

... Pe» 
Jarosse 
Lentil 
Field vetch 
Soybean 



Groundnuts 
Linseed 
Safflower 
Castor 



Niger seed 

Cotton 
American cotton 



Vernacular. 



Jowar (TTUraJl, Hundi, 

Sfaala, Nil?*, Chokm, 

be.). 
Sundhia. 
Bairi. 
Oahu (KalAfcuaal, Daod- 

khini, Shot, Ac). 
Khapli, 
Bhat (Ambemohor, Dodka, 

Kamod, Ac.). 
Nachani, Ntgli. 
Kodra. 

Siva, Van, Chino, Dheogll. 
RUa. 
Vat. 



Amber, Collier (eiotic). 
Barti, Banti. 

Kang. 

Bhadli. 

Kutn. 



Tur. 

Harbhara. 
Mug. 
1 Udid. 
Math. 

ULavli, Choli. 
Kulith. 
Vattna. 
Lakh, Lang. 
Masur. 
Quvar. 
(Exotic.) 



Bhuimug. 

Jaras. 

Kardai. 

ErandL 

Karanj. 

Kirhalc. 



KApus (Broach, Kumpta, 

Ooghari). 
Vilayati Kapus. 



Botanical. 




TLbTen— continued. 

Gossvpiam neglectum 

Do, Sndicnm 

Do. arboreum 
Corchorus OapsularU 
Crotolaria junoea 
Hibiscus cannabinus 

Condiment*. 

Capsicum frutesoens 

Vegetables. 

Ipomsaa batatas 
Solanum melongena 
Pbaseolus lunatns 



Grasses. 

Medicago sativa 
Panieam jumentorum 

Do. muticum 
Reana luxurians 

Miscellaneous. 

Monu indica 
Manihot utiUsshna 
Musa aaplentum 
Mimosops hexandra 
Calophyllutn inophyllum 
Tenninalia toraefctssa 



Khandesh cotton 
Hinganghat cotton 
Tree cotton 
Jnte 

Bombay hemp 
Hemp 



Chillies 



Sweet potato 
flrinjal 
lima bean 
Velvet bean 



Lucerne 
Gninea grass 
Water grass 
Teosinte 



Mulberry 
Tapioca 
Plantains 
(limber tree) 
Alexandrian Laurel 
(Timber tree) 



Vernacular. 



Varidl Kapos. 
Bani, Chinda Eapui. 
Dev Kipus. 



San. 
AmMdi. 



Mirchi. 



Batata. 
Vangi. 
Dabbal-bee. 
(Exotic.) 



Lasnn ghas. 
(Exotic ) 

Do. 

Do. 



Tut. 

(Exotic.) 

Kel. 

Rayan. 

Undi. 

A in. 



L-THE POONA AGBICULTTJBAL STATION, 

1906-19*7. 



Established— 1879 ; North Latitude— IS 30' ; East Lonr/i. 
tude — 73° 50'; Elevation — 1,850 feet above sea level; Soil — 
| medium black and£ light rofirwn ; Average rainfall — 32 inches; 
Temperature — maximum 108° iu May, minimum 42° in February, 

Superintendent — Mr. V. K. Kogekar. 

Area — 66 acres. 





i ■■ 








i 


,. 


1 


i 


i 


i 








April 1 
May 


!i 


3 


IS 

I 

< 


i 


i 


s 

I 

ft 

/ * 


/ // 


s 




i 

3 


i 

o 
H 




1 


1 ' " 


t u 


» H 


# /» 


* n 


i tt 


Rainfall (1906-1907) 


26 , ?6 


9 S 


'" 


4 2o 


1 GO 


3 28 


47 


4 


2 




10 


23 2) 


Average •• 


88 | 1 31 


I 6 2 


8 53 


4 77 


433 


5 13 


48 


01 


1 


10 


2 


31 92 


Temperature— 


1 


1 






















Mean maximum . M M . 


103' j 101° 


i 88* 


*2° 


82° 


S2« 


90° 


83° 


ta° 


87* 


90° 


90° 




il van minimum 


67° 


72° 


i 72* 

1 


71° 


©V 


67° 


C3° 


r 


53° 


&i° 


l"' 


61° 

1 





I.— History. 

2 # The Poona Station had its origin in a small piece of land 
taken for the agricultural class at the College of Science, which 
was opened in 1879* In 1882 this area was extended to 66 acres. 
Up to 188S it was in charge of the Lecturer in Botany aud 
Agriculture at the College. But in that year it was handed over 
to the Agricultural Department where it has remained ever since. 
Primarily the Station was for demonstration in agriculture to 
the students. Upon other agricultural problems arising the 
Station was used for experimental purposes* 

A small area has for the last three years been devoted to 
raising varieties for Professor Gammie's classification. 

IL— Area, character of Soil and Irrigation. 

3. The Poona Station consists of Survey Nos. 57, 59 and 60 
of Bopudi, situated about 2 miles from Poona. Of this area about 
I 35 acres are arable while the rest is used for building and pastur- 
age; 26 acres and 19 gunthas are medium black soil and 8 acres 
and 8 gunthas light soil. Survey Nos. 57, 59 aud 60 are irrigable 

B 1096—1 



from the Mutha Left Bank Canal. Survey No. 57, which is 
occupied by the pasturage and most of the buildings, may be 
considered as belongiug to the Dairy. 

Ill— Line of work. 

4. This year the Station entered on a new phase of work. 
Up to this time it was used partly as an educational and partly 
as a fodder-producing farm. But owing to the opening of a new 
Sation in connection with the scheme of a separate Agricultural 
College this Station has become purely an experimental and 
demonstrative one. 

The area which was set apart as a Dairy farm and used 
principally for raising fodder for the Dairy was also utilized this 
year for experimental purposes, the fodders being raised on the 
College Station. 

The principal lines of experiments are noted below :— 

(1) Cultivation of the different types of cottons (a) for 
resting the land successively cropped to fodders, (ft) for 
selection of a cotton better adapted to the Deccan con- 
ditions of irrigated cultivation. 

(2) Growing of tree cottons on light soil portions of 
the Station to determine their productive quality, 

(3) Growing of varieties of Jowir, Bdjri, maize and Tur 
for seed. 

(4) Growing a set of varieties in small plots of pulses 
and millets for classification by the Economic Botanist. 

(5) Growing light soil crops and variety tests. 

(6) Trial of different green manures on wheat. 

(7) Cultivation of rabi pulses in rotation after fodder 
Jowars to hold the land in good condition. 

(8) Fibre crops for comparative fibre test. 

(9) Plant diseases. The work with Tikka disease of 
groundnut and Wilt disease of Tur was continued. 

(10) Growing of varieties of groundnuts on areas not 
known to be affected with Tikka. 

(11) Trial of new crops. 

IV.— Meteorology. 

5. The rainfall was somewhat below the average but was 
well distributed, 



a 

There were no anti-monsoon showers for the preparation of 
the land. The regular monsoon burst seasonably in the 1st week 
of June. Sowing at the Station commenced in the 2nd week of 
June. The rains during the second fortnight of July, Au list 
and September were timely and saved the crops which otherwise 
would have suffered from want of moisture. During long breaks 
the crops were irrigated. The rainfall in the 1st week of October 
was useful for the sowing of rabi crops. Owing to the failure of 
rains in November and December the rabi crops had to be irrigated 
from the canal. 



V.— Area planted to different crops. 

6. The following statement shows the area cropped and 
the purpose of each crop : — 



Field 
Xo. 


J Kharif crop. 

I 


J Area. 

1 


Purpo-r. 
1 


! Rabi crop* 

;*) 


Area. 
6 


Porposo. 


1 


I ■ 


1 , 


7 




I 

1 


A. g. 




A. g. 




* 


Kulthi 


30 


Oreen manure ... Oatj> .. | 30 | For ami. 


1 


i Guinea grass 


20 


; ! 
Forfu'dtr. Pcruiiiial. | ... ...... 


2 


1 

Do. 


10 


Do. ... ..... I 




2 


Cotton, Broach 


30 


fc'ted selection for irri- ' ... 

gated cot to 3. 




2 


Cotton, Ghogari 


20 


Do. 


... 


...... 


2 


Cotton, Kumpta 


30 


Do. 


... 




2 


American cotton 


1 


Further acclimatization. ' 


... 


...... 


3 


Tree cottons 


15} 


Testing the cottons on 

light soil. 


... 





3 


Guinea grass 


41 


For fodder. Perennial .1 


... 





3 


Barti 


10 


For reed ... ...' 


... 


...... 


3 


Maize, Golden Beauty 
and Cftavli (1§ ft. long 
legume). 


10 


Do. ... ...1 -... 

i 


... 




4 


Cotton, Varfidi 


15 


Seed selection for irri-' ...... 

gated cotton. 1 




...... 


1 


Bajri and Tut, red Kban- 
deshi. 


20 


Selection and test of 

samar. 


- 




4 


Groundnut, Pondicherry . 


20 


For seed ... ... 


... 




4 


„ Virginia 


20 


Do. ... ...| Khapli 


20 


For fodder. 




„ Poona local . 


10 


D0 j 


... 





4 


Guinea grass 


10 


For fodder. Perennial . | 


... 





4 


Tree eottons 


1 15 


Testing tree cottons on 
light soil. 





... 




5 


Cotton, Bani 


20* 


Becd selection for irri- 
gated ootton. 


•«u«t 


"• . 






FWil 
So. 



8 
I) 
9 

9 
9 

9 
10 
10 
10- 
10 
10 

11 

J2 
12 
13 
13 
14 

15 



Klu:ifc op. 



fol'.o-'.Chiii'ti 

Buck «htat 

Guinea grass 
Sweet potatoes 
Tapioca varieties 
Tur .« 

8 >}'*l>raiis 
Tree cottons 
Chillies 
Brinjala 
Guinea grass 
Groundnut ... 



Water graBS 

Plantains 
Guinea grass 
Plantains 

Pulses anl millets 
San 

Ambadi 

Sorghum 

Cawnpoi'C maize 

Tur, variegated Bangalore. 

Tree cottons 

Guinea grass 

San, Chavli, S >yboan8 and 
velvet beans. 

Sundhia 

Nilva 

Utavali 

Rico varieties 

Mu'.berry 

Jawnporo Maize and Tur, 
Barnniati. 

Yellow Cholara 

Rcana luturians ... 



Am. 



A. g. 

15 

IS* 

12 

id 

1 11 

18 

1 8 
12 
15 

9 

1 C 



? 

18 

6 

1 
15 

2) 

15 

15 

4} 

2 

'2 2S 

2 G 

11 

11 

11 

31 

83 

£0 

20 

20 



Pu-pose. 


Rabi crop. 


Area, 


Purpose. 


4 


6 


6 


7 






A. g. 




Seed scleotion for irri- 
gated cotton. 




... 




To ttcst the crop on 
light soil. 





... 





For fodder. Perennial • 




... 




For botanical study ... 




... 




Variety identification . 




... 




Study of wilt disease ... 




... 





Variety test 








Botanical study 




... 




Test of yield 




•.< 


...... 


Do, 




... 




For fodder. Perennial . 




... 




Study of Tikka diseisc . 


Khapli 


34 


For fodder. 





Gram 


6 


Study of gram 
wilt. 


To occupy a moist place- 
Perennial. . 









Do. 





... 




For fodder. Perennial . 




... 


...... 


To occupy a moist 
plaee. Perennial. 





... 




Botanical classification. 


...... 


... 





Test of comparative 
fibre. 




... 





Do. 





« 


..... 


1 

y For seed 


Wheat varieties 




Variety tests. 


J 


and crosses. 






Botanical study 




... 




For fodder. Perennial . 


• w... 


... 




Green manures 


Wheat 


2 28 


Variety tea's. 


For seed ... 


tang 


11 


Rotation. 


Do. 


Gram, Kabul j... 


11 


Do. 


Do. 


Masur 


11 


Do. 


Do. 


•».... 


... 


..». 


For starting a planta- 
tion. Perennial. 




... 





For seed ... 





... 





Do. 




... 


..••>« 


Do. 


..... 


•M 


' 



Field 
>*o. 


Khaiff cop. 


Area. 


Tarpouc, 


Uabi crop. 


, Area. 


Purpose. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


f 


! • 


7 




A. g. 






1 A. g. 






African Bajrl and Tor, 
lied BeUary. 


10 


For seed 


. ....- 


i •- 


..... 


... 


Broom Corn 


10 


Do. 




- 






Sindh Bajrl and Castor, 
Peruvian. 


10 . Do. 

1 





~ 




... 


Nilva. 


b 


Do. 




... 


~... 


... 


U&vali 


5 


Do. 




... 


...-. 


... 


Guinea gnus 


o For fodder. Perennial... 

1 


...... 


~ 


...... 


1C 


Jute 


10 ' Trial of new crop 








16 


Garden vegetables 


2 13 i For study of general 
. cnUure. 




1 ... 


•-- 


30 


Guinea grass 


4 ' For fodder. Perennial. 

i 


...... 


~ 


~... 



VI— Crop Diseases and Insect Pests. 

7. Red bugs on cotton, sugarborer on Jowar, catterpillar on 
Sau, bugs and leaf-eating beetles on almost all the crops were 
among the insect pests. The damage from these was not of 
a serious nature. The red cotton bugs were collected and 
destroyed. The other pests were checked by hand-picking where 
possible. 

Smut appeared on both B£jri and Jow£r. The smutted heads 
of Bdjri were sent to the Imperial Mycologist for examination. He 
writes thus: — "This is the first occasion I have seen such a disease 
on this cereal and the fungus is probably a new species." 

The wheats were attacked by rust the common Puccinia 
Qrammonis, and the gram by wilt caused by a species of 
Fusarium. 

8. Tikka disease qf groundnut. — In all five varieties of 
groundnuts were grown on the plot devoted to the study of this 
disease. The varieties were sown on the 3Cth of June. The 
germination of all was fair. The disease first made its appearance 
on the 23rd of July 1906 on three varieties, viz., Spanish peanuts, 
small Japanese and Virginia and gradually spread to all the rest. 

The diagrammatic statements overleaf show the relative 
positions of the plots, the treatment and the yields in lbs. per acre 
for the two seasons 1905-06 and 1006-07. The yields are written 
on each plot : — 



YIELD OF BROUNDNUT IN THE PLOTS OF 
FIELD NS 8 (SEASON 13 O5-06& 1906-0?) 



1905-06. 



n 



Spr*f*f/ 



s 

t56 



S 

233 



M A , 
+6* 



L 

4094 



8/2 



/I25 



1079 



686 



P A 

301 



/363 



4040 



/425 



P O 
IS09 



P (A 

r+9 



/41 



L - 
353 



£ 
//S2 



t X 
toot 



T A r A 5 



/5/7 



i444 



H 



65 



- U 
22/ . 



/042 



U 

928 



— 6 

432 3 



/ 
4503 



O 
833 



770 



S'f* 5* pi SOys/ 2/9t 



p |r a 

US /S6 



A P 

238 



J A 

877 



8/3 



P o 

4483 



c 

4079 



4V A — 



749 



A N 
392 



P A 

/629 



I A 

846 



U /V 
/829 



H £ 
390 



L O 
S04 



it if 

240 



£■ S 
+73 



/V £ 
/008 



<S £ 



8/2 



4464 



* /? 
336 



|C A L 
S92 



#** SO fa/. 50 gal. 



S 

924 



£ " 
23/ 



854 



799 



766 



Y 
Set 



385 

~5C$at* 



it' 



twr/msMj ^ttwc* twfc*. tttu. sn^af**, v spw*S §ace ttric e trice 



N 

A 



Seeofiteeped f 90S ^07 Soetf^nsteeped 



S92 



S 

{'to 



4O20 



600 



J£L 



M A 



132 



P A 



OOP 



720 



P O 

630 



P 



Li J 



IBS 



4010 



N 

34Q 



O O 
433 



/SB 



619 



3/3 



6O0 



A/ A 

2f? 



430 



P £\ 

31o 



740 



C H 

320 



453 



P A 



428 



A N 
2 BO 



/V 



410 



£ 

250 



o c 

340 



/¥ £ ;r 



/IS 



U T 

140 



/ A 



643 



340 



A L 

320 



£ 
56 



460 



is' 



660 



290 



260 



40 



+*' 



*P*&$ <~4*0fd 6*W, g0f$- ~ fat fit* tosqat 76 to/. SO ami 

trettem ^ trice tfnee. trice. SprmoL Strayed ence. Mce. owe. _> 

(At OT TO SCAlk.) 



*99, 



From the statements given it is probable that neither spraying 
nor steeping has had any effect but that the differences in the 
yields of the plots are due to differences in the soil. 

The yield on the average decreases from west to east and this 
may be due to the faot that on the west was a heavily watered plot of 
Guinea grass or that the soil to the east is more seriously infected* 

9. Wilt disease of Tur. — All the nine varieties of Tur, which 
had shown some resistance to the disease last year, were grown on 
the same piece of land. Out of the nine varieties six have shown 
a higher percentage of resistance this year than last year, and 
one has remained the same. The variety Sambalpore No. 9, 
which had shown above 78 per cent of resistance last year, has 
gone down to 48 this year, while the last year's second best 
Bilaspur No. i has inoreased in its percentage to 70. These 
results are probably due to variations in soil and season and not to 
any quality inherent in the varieties. 

The statement below shows the counts taken, the percentage 
of resistance and yield per plant of the nine varieties :— 



JS 



= I Name of variety. 



No. 9 Sambalpore 
No. lBihkspnr 
No. 2Bi»fispar 
No. 3 Bittspar 
No. 8 Sambalpore 
No. 4 Sambalpore 
No* 6 Sambalpore 
No. 10 Sambalpore 
No. SO Variegateu 
Bangalore. 



642 
920 
813 
460 
141 
113 

1,021 
169 

2,502 



i 


t 


i 


t 


i 


i 


1 

ft 


1 


9 


< 


< 


< 


3 2 


I 


* 

1 



I III!! 



900 
790 
4C6 
127 
108 
961 
154 
2,426 



I 582 
l 838 
• 783 
! 446 
126 
i 100 
I 936 
; 151 
2,40% 



678 


678 


893 


883 


783 


73$ 


443 


426 


126 


114 


87 


86 


931 


8S8 


146 


137 


2,382 


J.281 



I 


l| 


i 


i 


1 


! 


1 


3 


661 


660 


866 


864 


726 


724 


426 


426 


108 


100 


78 


75 


884 


866 


136 


136 


2.220 


2,116 



I i 



I 



647 

860 
723 

421 

* , 

64 e4 

860 862 

130 J 125 
2,207 2,201 2,164 

I 



847 I 843 

721 716 
416 ' 407 
91 87 
66 
816 
118 



836 

694 

389 

74 

44 

811 

112 

2,102 



628 

809 

630 

380 

66 

42 

770 

HI 

2,486 



616 

800 

662 

379 

63 

39 

766 

HI 

2,056 



u , 

o 

S : Name of variety . 


© 

ft 

I 

3 


i 

* 

i 

s 

- 


I 

g 


i 

] 


i 

! 


i 


I 

1 


1 

1 


1 

I 


i 


i 

1 


i 


s 


ft 


1 


£ 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


I 




j 


s 


% 1 


1 


g 
^ 


3 


3 


I 


i 






i 


6 

«0 


1 


5 
£ 


1 


No. 9 Sambalpore ... 


614 


615 


D03 


608 


S°! 


600 


499 


497 


445 


-• 

427 


422 


416 


409 


2 


No. 1 Bilfcpar 


793 


783 


76 i 


759 


757 


757 


757 


767 


757 


763 


763 


788 


730 


3 


No. 2 BiljUpar 


633 


652 


629 


6)9 


609 


603 


698 


696 


667 


621 


621 


620 


613 


4 


No. 3 Bilaspur 


373 


870 


36* 


?62 


365 


354 


362 


350 


810 


340 


836 


315 


806 


5 


No 8Sambdpore ... 


60 


66 


52 


51 


i l 


61 


60 


49 


49 


46 


42 


38 


37 


6 


No. 4 Sambalpore ... 


36 


30 


3i 


36 


35 


86 


35 


(3 


32 


82 


30 


27 


33 


7 


No. 6 -ambalpore ... 
No. 10 Sambalpore ... 


767 


746 


743 


731 


731 


728 


7*6 


713 


684 


639 


633 


623 


615 


8 


110 


10S 


103 


103 


103 


102 


98 


98 


92 


88 


86 


82 


81 


9 


No. 20 Variegated 
Bangalore. 


3,037 


2,014 


1931 


1,959 

I 


1,965 


1,947 


1,933 


1,899 


l,82J 


1,757 


1,«7 


1,632 


1,580 



8 



1 


Name of variety. 


i 

A 


i 


i 

1 


s 

r 


1 




$ 


1 

1 




1? 


c 

St 

3. 




IS 

I 




1 


i 


1 


01 


§ 




i 


if 


-si 

£4 




1 


No. 9 SmdImIpoi* ... 


998 


ss? 


377 


861 


360 


361 


319 


313 


4S'7 


77-8 


Drams. 
3 


2 No. 1 Biliipor 


73S9 


726 


726 


719 


•97 


672 


667 


648 


704 


51*6 


•81 


S Ho. 2 BlUUpur 


497 


*m 


437 


431 


899 


387 


378 


863 


46 


8*6 


7 


4 


No. 3 BiHspir 


3*6 


264 


2*7 


257 


226 


811 


200 


190 


390 


ll'l 


9-9 


6 


No. 8 Stmbolpore ... 


Si 


81 


81 


CO 


29 


29 


29 


29 


206 


20-6 


5 





No. 4 Sarrbalpore ... 


22 


1ft 


18 


17 


17 


17 


16 


16 


14*2 


81 


9 


7 


No. • Sambalpote ... 
No. 10 Sam biu pore ... 
No. 20 Variegated 


857 


4fe7 


476 


461 


460 


462 


426 


415 


406 


162 


41 


R 


79 


77 


76 


72 


70 


70 


69 


69 


43-4 


171 


-62 


9 


1,384 


1,363 


1,294 


1.277 


1.203 


1,168 


1,119 


1,(31 


41-1 


22-1 


2-6 




Bangalore. 

























VII.— Experiments with Fibre Crops. 

10. Cotton. — Six varieties of cotton — Broach, Gogh£ri, 
Kumpta of the herbaceum typo, Bani and Cnanda cold weather of 
the indicum and Varidi of the neglectum typo were grown uuder 
irrigation. 

They were top-dressed with Karanj (Pongemia glabra) cake 
and superphosphate at the rate of 1,000 lbs. and 400 lbs. per acre 
respectively. 

The statement below gives the area, outturn, etc , of the 
several varieties grown: — 







I 



8 

•a 



is 

n 

•a. 



_i 









J" 



Sis »i a s s** 

".1*1 U*** ??:S 



1j 



J*i 



Ijl fftjn if 



•5 o • 



SSS-aS. ell 



111] 

1*85! 



a 



8 






8 

is 



s 



8 



|il 



3 



3 



9 



1 

i 
i 



i 



I 



l 

I 



<8 

1 



i 



i 






8 

-"8 

I 



i 



3 



i 



s 

S 



3 



I 






8 

O 



8 

o 



8 

o 






2 a 



a 






b 1095-2 



10 

Tbe yields given are unreliable as the land is of very unequal 
capacity. It will be seen from the above statement that Bani bas 
yielded well. The growth of this variety was very vigorous and 
the bolls opened very freely. It is earlier than all the others. 
The outturn of Cb&tida cold weather is very poor; this is due to 
the lodging of many of the plants owing to the forcing growth 
caused by the liquid manure from the byres, which tbe field had 
received for some time before the crop was sown. The bolls also 
did not open freely. Tbe yields of Kumpta aud Varidfi are 
moderate. The percentage of lint to seed cotton in the case of 
Gogh&ri is higher than any of the other varieties. 

Samples of the above cottons were forwarded to Messrs, 
Tata and Co., for their opinion and valuation. Their remarks are 
included in the statement above referred to. 

11. A few plants of each of the 25 varieties of American 
cottons were grown for trial. The following five varieties, viz., 
(I) Truitt, (2) Whittle, (3) Texas long stapled, (4) Tata's Allen 
Hybrid, and (5) Doughty, were vigorous in growth and yielded fine 
big bolls. 

12. Tree Cottons. — The following varieties of tree cottons, 
0t*. s Bourbon, Peruvian, Brazilian (3 varieties), Caravonica, 
and Tytler's Kidney, have been grown this year on light soil 
portions of fields Nos. 3 and 4, 4 gunthas being planted to each. 

In addition to the above a few plants of each of the varieties 
of tree cottons from the Central Provinces, Madras, Bengal, 
Central India, and a few plants of the arboreum type have been 
planted in portions of the same field. 

All the cottons came up well. During the hot season the 
young plants had to be irrigated to keep them alive. 

13. San and Ambddi — These were grown for test of com- 
parative fibre. 

Tbe following statement shows the percentage of fibre to dry 
: stalks and yield per acre :— 





Name of crop. 


Area. 


Per acre. 




Field 

Ho. 


Dry ripe 

stalks, 

leaves and 

seeds 
, removed. 


Fibre. 


Percentage 
of fibre 
to dry 

stalk. 


9 
9 


San. 

Ambddi ,. 


Gunthas. 
15 * 
2.0 


Lb 9 . 
' 5,619 
2,716 


Lbs. 
679 

658 


1209 



11 

The San pods were attacked by cat ter pi liars, when they were 
just forming, hence no San seed was obtained. Ainbadi yielded 
656 lbs. of seed per acre in addition to the fibre. 

VIII. -Varietal Experiments. 

14. Bdjri. — The following three varieties of Bijri were 
grown for seed with subordinate rows of Tur and castors : — 

(1) Awned or bearded Bajri and red Tur of KMndesh. 

(2) African Bdjri and red Tur from Bellary* 

(3) Sindhi Bdjri with Peruvian castor* 

A plot 20 gunthas was sown with Bdjri bearded, with a row 
of Tur for every second row of Bdjri. After the crop attained the 
height of 15 inches half the portion was'samdred' as is the 
practice in Gujarat, the other half was left as it was for com- 
parison. The following statement shows the outturn per acre of 
the two portions separately :— 



Field 


Num of crop. 


Am. 


Date of sowing. 


Yield per acre. 


Bemarkt. 


Ko. 


Oitin. 


Fodder. 


4 
4 


Bdjri bearded 
Do. 


Gts, 
10 

10 


10th July 1936. 
Do. 


lb*. 
724 

616 


lbs. 
4,480 

4,368 


Samired on 19th 

August 1906. 
Not samfaed. 



There is a slight increase in yield in the case of the Samdred 
portion. The Samdring increases the tillering power of the young 
plants. 

The red Tur of Kbandesh was attacked with wilt and only a 
few plants survived ; these yielded only 40 lbs. of the pulse. 

15. African Bdjri. — The ear-heads of this foreign Bijri are 
long with closely packed white grains on them. It tillers freely 
but is a very late variety. It was attacked with smut, and only a 
few sound heads could be found. These have been selected and 
kept for seed. 

The red Tur from Bellary grown with the Bdjri was wilted 
and gave an outturn Of 57 lbs. of pulse. 



12 

16. Sindhi Bdjri. — A small quantity of seed of this variety 
was obtained from the Bombay Exhibition in 1904, and was sown 
in small plots in 1905 to get sufficient seed for sowing cm a larger 
area. It was sown on a 10-guntba plot this year. It yielded at 
the rate of 836 lbs. of grain and 2,080 lbs. of straw per acre. 

The yield is below the average. This is partly due to smut and 
partly to a portion of the crop occupying a shady place along the 
boundary of the field. 

The castor grown with this was very irregular in growth and 
yielded a nominal outturn. 

17. Jotcdr. — The variety of Jowar known as Yellow Cholum 
is grown in Madras for fodder. The seed was obtained from 
Madras and sown on a 20-guntha plot to get sufficient seed for 
sowing as a fcdder crop in the next year. The seed was sown on 
the 21st of June. The plants grew well and high, but all the 
heads were found to be devoid of grain, and light, owing probably 
to the non-fertilization of the flowers. The stalks were cut down 
und yielded dry fodder weighing 13,652 lbs. per acre. 

18. Sundhia, Nilva, Utdrali and Sorghum. — These four 
fcdder Jowdrs were grown for seed. The following statement 
gives the per acre results : — 



field 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of yield per acre. 


Cost of 

cultivation 

per acre. 


No. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


12 
10 


Pundhia ••• 

NSlva 

UUvali 

PorgUoni 


Gts. 

11 
11 
11 

35 


lbs. 

1,116 
596 
618 
815 


lbs. 

2,461 
10,167 

7,927 
11,733 


Rs. a. p. 

65 13 8 
29 13 2 
80 10 4 
42 


Rs. a. p. 

18 4 10 
50 13 4 
89 10 2 
89 1 9 


Be. a. p. 

28 1 4 
35 18 7 

38 9 3 
58 8 5 



19. Broom Corn. — A plot of lOgunthaswas sown with this. 
The ear beads are developed into a loose panicle, which can be 
used for making brooms after threshing out the grain. This year 
the crop was almost a failure owing to the uneven nature of the 
field ; many of the plants became stunted in growth, others getting 
vellow owing to excess of water in a portion of the field. A few 
heads have been selected for seed for the next year. 

SO. Maize. — Two varieties of maize, viz. (1) Cawnpore, (2) 
Jawnpore, with white Tur from B^r^mati were grown for seed. 



13 



Both the varieties are early. The following statement gives the 
outturn results : — 



Field 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Date of 
■owing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


TUM per acre. 


Percent- 
age of 


Ko. 


Grain. Fodder. 


grain to 
oobe. 


30 


Cawnpore Mali* 

Jawnpore Maiie 
Tar Baramati 


GU. 
15 


Lbe. 
15th June: S3nd July 2^48 
1SKM. j 1908. | 

2Ut June 2nd August' £2 
190S. | 19U6. | ^ 


Lba. 
8,126 

1.080 

Bhnea 

900 


77 
66 



The yield of Jawnpore maize is small owing to the attack of 
parrots upon the inflorescence which interfered with the proper 
fertilization of the flowers. The Bdramati Tur has yielded well. 

21. Wheat varieties and crosses. — The wheat varieties and 
crosses, grown on the Station in the rabi season of 1905, were 
sent to the Chamber of Commerce, Bombay, for valuation and 
opinion. Out of the 113 samples (including varieties and crosses) 
sent, the following 8 were reported upon as good : — 



No. 



Name of the Variety. 



SiahDaf 

Australian || •• 

+ 
Australian 27 
Shet Parner •• 

+ 
Khapli ... •• 
Hybrid Nagpore .. 

Muzafargarh 
Australian f | 22 .. 

Paman Sirsa 
Potia Nadiad 
Pernor wheat 



Clam. 



Remark* by the Chamber of Commerce. 



KAlakusal .. 

I Aust r a 1 i a n 
class. 



5 



} Cross between 
> Popatia and 
J Khapli. 

Inter-cross of 
DaudkhAni. 

Australian 

DaudkhAni .. 

Do. •• 

K&la kuaal •• 



Very good superior 
yellow wheat. 

Very good. 



hard 



Hard yellow, containing some 
proportion of spotted grains, 
quality good on the whole. 
Soft wheat ; had the grains 
been slightly bolder, the 
quality would be very good 
indeed. 
White moondy very good 

quality. 
Soft white fairly good. 
Very good soft red. 
Very good hard yellow-. 



i 



These eight and a few others selected as (a) good yielders, 
(b) showing resistance to rust in 1905-06 wero sown in the rabi 
season of the year under report on a field treated with different 
green manures. The rest of the varieties and crosses were sow a 
in i guntha plots in another field for seed. 



14 

The field to be sown with the selected varieties was divided 
into 5 sections and eaoh was sown with San, Chavli, soybeans, and 
velvet beans respectively, the last and the 5th section being kept 
fallow for comparison. 

The above crops were ploughed in as they came into dowers. 

The following statement shows the dates of sowing and 
ploughing in of the several crops grown : — 



No. 


Name of Crop. 


Date of Sowing. 


Date of ploughing in 
the crop. 


Nnmber 

of 

days 

required. 


1 
2 

8 

4 


San 
Chavli 

Soybeani ... 
Velvet beans ... 

1 


18th June 1906 ... 
Do. 

S2od June 1906 ... 
Do. 


2nd, 3rd, August 19(R 
4th, 5th, 6th, August 

1906. 
29 th, 30th July 1906 . 
19th, 21st August 1906. 


46 
49 

37 
60 



When the field was harrowed on the 25th September for 
preparing it for sowing no portions of any of the crops, except a 
few pieces of San stems which could be broken down by the 
slightest pressure, could be found undecayed. Within about 
2 months 1 time all the orops had thoroughly decayed. In this 
period of 2 months there were good showers of rain in August 
and September which helped the process of decay. 

Each of the five sections was divided transversely into 
23 plots— 4 of 6 gunthas each, 12 of 4 guntbas each and seven of 
1 guntha each and 23 varieties selected according to the above* 
mentioned three qualities, were sown in these. Thus, each 
variety got a treatment of the four green manurial orops and the 
fallow portion. 

The varieties were sown on the 14th and 15th of October 1906. 
The germination of all was fair. All were irrigated 4 times till 
they came to maturity. 

The statement below shows the yield of the 5 portions 
separately of eaoh variety on the different green manured and 
the fallow portion. 



----i 



n 





Name of Variety. 


Beealtepereere. 


Serai 


Oretn 

manured 
withSaa. 


Often 

manured 

wHhChavll. 


Often 

manared with 
Soybean*. 


Often 
manared with 
Velvet beam. 


Fallow, 




Brain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain, Straw. 


Grate 


Straw. 


Grain, 


Straw. 






Lbs. 


Lha 


Lbe, 


Lb.. 


Lbs. 


Lba, 


Lba. 


Lba 


Lba. 


Lbe. 


1 


Shet Paroer + Khapli — 


16) 


2481 


213 


8460 


63 


I486 


68 


1,698 


44 


3,260 


a 


PotJa, Nadiad _ ... 


6*7 


762 


612 


I486 


681 


8.266 


686 


8,013 


680 


8,46* 


8 


Kala Kueal (Foona) ... ~. 


409 


2.262 


676 


8.660 


687 


8,419 


869 


369 


600 


3J69 


4 


Paroer Wheat 


692 


M87 


626 


1*68 


868 


8488 


886 


MM 


636 


8416 


5 


SIaVOm _ _ 


S87 


2,012 


412 


8.876 


487 


8,060 


287 


3481 


600 


84 3 


ft 


Haneia, Broaeh •« «. 


812 


8.012 


894 


4.887 


826 


4.800 


1.681 


2,826 


776 


8,826 


7 


DeaU, Atbni. Belfaam 


668 


1.218 


685 


1.475 


618 


1.487 


660 


1480 


887 


1413 


8 


Malj-a, Belgium 


612 


2.260 


600 


2.500 


613 


I860 


600 


1,719 


1,000 


2411 


9 


Maadi of Ladhiana M 


960 


2.6J0 


600 


8.087 


660 


1446 


863 


3400 


800 


2481 


10 


Panten Sire* «• 


226 


1.500 


462 


3400 


687 


4. WO 


400 


1,144 


880 


6409 


11 


lladhft Wheat ... 


612 


3437 


660 


1.960 


226 


1475 


400 


3487 


963 


9413 


12 


Bed Delhi of Oodh ... ... 


626 


2.(12 


862 


8,000 


860 


3.069 


662 


8,181 


1400 


M13 


13 


Bated of Amritear 


681 


3.C06 


600 


1408 


826 


2,487 


680 


7.080 


1480 


6460 


14 


Australian || 22 ... ... 


660 


2.687 


1.160 


6.370 


1.060 


4,897 


812 


8.060 


1.160 


5400 


15 


Hjbrid Nagpore ♦ Ma&afar- 
garh 


600 


8.287 


650 


2,109 


660 


1,012 


600 


8480 


1,200 


4,887 


16 


AnetraHan ft + Auatralian 27 


876 


8.100 


462 


8,637 


800 


4,867 


681 


4418 


987 


6,100 


17 


Baoei, Baleghat - ... 


200 


2,600 


800 


8.000 


660 


6.760 


460 


6,300 


800 


6.026 


18 


n Kala Knaal + Khapli ... 


600 


6,626 


600 


M26 


800 


6,760 


780 


6,000 


76( 


6.836 


19 


II« Do. 


600 


6.150 


626 


6,660 


760 


8.160 


660 


6.680 


400 


6.8t0 


20 


[1 3« Khapli + Kala Kneel ... 


190 


3.200 


200 


4.000 


126 


6400 


426 


4487 


626 


2.828 


SI 


89 Khapli + Hineia. Broach . 


126 


8.000 


412 


6460 


412 


5.800 


660 


6.000 


760 


7.876 


22 


71 Do, + Pitla Kbandeah. 


200 


2.400 


212 


8.200 


1,200 


1,200 


800 


8400 


1.300 


12.460 


23 


16 Do. + Sudba, RamvU 


800 


4.000 


1,200 


74*0 


1,800 


10,000 


1,000 


6,600 


140C 


9,000 



All the varieties were very badly rusted and tbe value and 
effect of tbe different green manurial crops are not comparable. 
Tbe yields of all are below tbe average. 

Khapli, wbicb is said to be rust proof, was also affected witb 
rust. Tbe rust began from tbe north-west corner of the field, 
when the grains were first forming and gradually spread all over 
the field. 

IX.— Light Soil Crops and Variety Tests. 

22. Five varieties of Soybeans, wbicb bad given hopes of 
proving good yielders at Mdnjri in 1904, were grown on a 



16 

light toil portion of field No. 6. The crop is an early maturing 
one, and can be grown successfully as a preparatory for a 
rabi crop. The many leaves that fall add organic matter to the 
soil. If sown early in the beginning of June, no irrigation is 
required. This year the crop was tried as a green manure crop 
among the different crops tried for that purpose. It comes to 
maturity very early and can be ploughed up early before the close 
of the rains so as to get the advantage of the rains for the 
thorough decay of the crop. 

The following statement gives the dates of sowing and 
flowering of the several varieties and their yield per acre : — 



Ffeld 




Crop. 




Am. 


Dot* of 




Dotoof 


Dote of 




Yield 


Coot of 
cultiva- 


Ho. 






Sowtaf. 




ioworiag* 


riponisg. 




•ere. 


tion per 
•ere. 










aVBthM 












Lb.. 


Bo, a. p. 


• 

4 


8ojtmftY»zl«to 
Da do. 


No. 6... 
No. «... 


8-4 
7*8 


litk June 1806 
Do. _ 


18tfc July 1808. 
ISth do. - 


18fliAofoJ*1808. 
4th do. - 


1,188 ' 
818 


'8 


Do. 


do. 


No. 7.- 


8 


Do. 


••. 


loth do. ~ 


14th do. 


M* 


860 


34 8 7 


• 


Do. 


do. 


No.lS~ 


8 


Do. 


•» 


Do. do. ~. 


13th do. 


M. 


878 




• 


Pu. 


do. 


No. ll~ 


18*8 


Do. 




16th do. ... 


Do. do. 


" 


888 J 



The increased yield in the case of variety No. 5 is due to a 
portion of the crop bordering upon black soil. The beans can 
be used for human consumption. 

23. Buck wheal (Kuttu). — This was sown in another light soil 
portion of the Station in field No. 5. Two varieties of Kuttu seeds 
were obtained from Kalimpong (Darjeeling). One is called Mitha 
Paphar and other Titta Paphar. The yield from both tbe varieties 
is very low. Starch can be prepared from the seed. The use of 
the crop is unknown on this side. But at Darjeeling whence the 
seed was obtained, it is largely used for making bread. 

X^Trial with New Crops. 

24. Jute. — An area of 10 gunthas was sown with jute on the 
2nd of July 1906. On the 3rd day after sowing the seeds germinat- 
ed. The crop was weeded twice on 20th July and 5th August. 
The plants were thinned out, and a few were transplanted to fill in 
the blanks on the 7th of August 1906. The crop was irrigated 
once in August during long break in the rains. On the 4th 
of September the crop was cut when in flower. The height 
of the crop at tbe time was 4| feet to 5 feet. The green 
stems were retted in the river for nine days and the fibre 
extracted. 



±i 



The following statement gives the outturn per acre of olean 
fibre, and the percentage of fibre to green stalks : — 





Name of crop. 


Per aero* 


Field 
Ho. 


Weight of 
graenatalka* 


Weight of 

clean and 

dried fibre. 


Percentage of 

fibre to green 

•talk*. 


16 


Jute • »• ••• 


Lbs. 
11,064 


Lbs. 
272 


2-4 



The fibre was sent to the Indian Jute Mill Association at 
Calcutta for valuation. It was valued at Rs. 8-8-0 per maund. 

25. Groundnut. — Three varieties of groundnuts — Pondi- 
cherry, Poona local and Virginia — were grown in field No. 4 away 
from the Tikka affected field and on areas not sown to ground- 
nuts before. 

The disease appeared upon all the varieties, but the attack 
was very mild, and no serious damage was done to the crop. 

The following statement gives the per acre results : — 



I?it>1«i 


Name of variety. 


Area. 


Per acre yield. 


No. 


Unfcusk- 
ednnta. 


Haulm*. 


Coat of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


4 
4 

4 


Pondicherry 
Poona Local 
Virginia 


Gts. 
20 
10 
20 


Lbs. 

1,800 

948 

2,016 


Lbs. 
3,986 
3,060 
1,692 


Rs. a. p. 

101 6 

81 12 4 

96 13 8 


Rs. a. p. 
116 9 7 

07 12 
112 1 4 



The unevenness of the field has to a certain extent influenced 
the yield, there being great difficulty in distributing water 
regularly. 

26. Variegated Bangalore Tut,— Like other varieties of Tur, 

a few plants of this variety also had become wilted. It gave 

an outturn of 595 lbs. of grain and 844 lbs. of Bhusa per acre. 

Owing to natural cross fertilization, which is so very common in 

Tur, the colour of the seeds has changed. 

B 1095— 8 



18 



XL— Botanioal Experiments. 

27. A. portion of field No. 9 was devoted to the growing of 
pulses and millets for botanioal classification by the Economic 
Botanist, 

The plot was divided into 170 small plots of the dimensions 
of 10' X 20" each. Out of the 179 plots 63 were sown with pulses 
and millets collected at the agricultural show held at Ahmednagar 
in 1905, Eighty-seven were sown with the following varieties : 
16 varieties of Tur, 2 varieties of Kulthi, 4 varieties of Guvdr, 7 
of Mug, one variety of Matki, 6 varieties of Udid, 29 varieties of 
Chavli, 2 N£gli varieties, one variety of each of Banti, Barti, 
Chino, Dhengli, K&og, Bhidli and Kodra, 6 varieties of Vari, 3 
of R41a, and 4 of Sava. The remaining 29 were sown with the 
varieties of Soybeans, Lima beans and peas. 

XII.— Forage Crops. 

28. The statement below gives the yields per acre of the 
Guinea grass in various fields : — 





Name of crop. 
2 


Results per acre. 




Field 
No. 


Outturn. 


Vain, of out- 
turn. 


Co* of 
cultivation. 


Remarks. 


1 


3 


1 

! 


6 


1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
7 
9 

10 
15 
Id 


Guinea grass. 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Average ... 
Water gra«s. 


lbs. 
21,152 
11,736 
17,342 

3,144 

6,217 

13,129 

6,462 

13,815 

16,228 

1,470 


Rs, a. p. 
105 15 4 
58 12 
86 11 4 
15 12 

31 8 
65 10 4 
82 5 

69 1 2- 
81 1 10 

7 5 7 


Bb. a. p. 
67 8 4 

34 14 
38 9 
62 1 

79 3 11 
38 14 
73 6 9 

35 5 7 
38 2 
61 2 4 


Plantation started 
this year. 
Do. do. 

Plantation started 

this year. 

Plantation started 
this year. 

"Very old plantation. 


8 


11,062 
81,660 


55 5 4 
15 13 3 


52 14 8 
57 14 8 



19 



A portion of about 20 gunthas of the plantation of this grass 
has been removed from field No. 10 as this field has been under 
guinea grass for a long time. 

Field No. 13 was formed into a rice field by puttiog dykes 
after removing the guinea grass plantation. Border portions of 
fields Nos. 4, 6, 9, 16 situated under a shade have been planted 
with this grass this year. The average per aore 11,062 lbs. has 
slightly increased over that of the last year. 

XIIL— Miscellaneous. 

29. Three rabi pulses — Lang, gram and Masur — were grown 
after fodder Jow&rs as a rotation crop. The pulses were grown 
solely under irrigation. 

The following statement shows the yield, etc., per aore : — 



Field 
No. 


Name of crop. 


Area. 




Per acre. 




Grain* 


BhiiM. 


Co* of 
cultiTation. 


Valve of 
outturn. 


IS 
12 
12 


Lang 

Gram, Kabali 

Masur • ... 


Gunthas. 
11 
11 
11 


Lb*. 
809 
607 
309 


Lbt. 

1,447 
618 
636 


Re. a. p. 
26 15 

••• 
••• 


Re. a. p. 
88 10 1 
88 14 11 
24 18 5 



XIV— Ensilage. 

30. A pit of the dimension of 10' X 10' x 10' was dug in 
the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens for a silo. It was filled with 
26,821 lbs. of green grass from the gardens in September last. 
It was then jpressed down with a layer of earth 2 feet thick. 
The silo was opened in May when therq was deficiency of green 
fodder for the Dairy animals and they ate it readily. The grass 
was found to be shrunk to 6 feet. The colour of the silage was 
greenish-brown. From the total quantity of 26,821 lbs. of grass 
put 16,876 lbs. of silage was obtained. The silage has been sent 
to the Agricultural Chemist, Bombay Presidency, for analysis. 



Poom, \ 
September 1907.) 



F. FLETCHER, 
Ag. Professor of Agriculture. 



20 

IL-THE KIEKEE CIVIL DAIRY, 
1906 07. 

I.— Introduction. 

The objects of the Dairy are : — 

(1) To afford instructions for the students of the 
College of Agriculture. 

(2) To serve as a model Dairy to the public. 

(3) To give opportunity for experiments in feeding and 
dairying. 

(4) To improve dairy breeds. 

(6) To supply pure milk to the invalids and children of 
Poona. 

(6) To allow owners of milch cattle the free services 
of good bulls. 

1 1.— Health of animals. 

2. The Dairy was seriously handicapped in this year's work 
owing to outbreaks of two contagious diseases, viz. foot-and- 
mouth disease and rinderpest. No animals were lost from the 
former, but their milk yields were appreciably reduced. 

Rinderpest was very common in the district and as a precau- 
tionary measure the entire herd was inoculated in November and 
again in January. The disease made its first appearance in the 
herd in February and a third inoculation was performed. But 
even in spite of the three inoculations 18 animals were attacked 
and 10 succumbed to this deadly disease. Among the cattle kept 
at M&njri Kuran, which had also undergone two inoculations, there 
were 34 attacks but the mortality was less as only 4 died. 

Rinderpest was more fatal in the case of Australian animals, 
English-Indian hybrids and Adens. Only one Gir was attacked! 
Among the second class was the hybrid short-horn Aden known 
as Harishi whose milk record for previous 4 years averaged 
nearly 6,000 lbs. "The Dairy has two heifers and a bull out of 
her. The Aden herd was reduced to two bulls, one cow and a 
calf ; but two more have been purchased recently. 

Twelve buffaloes aborted soon after the casting for inocula- 
tion, rendering them useless for the season. 



J 



21 
III.— Milk Supply. 

3. The milk supply was greatly affected as shown above. 

220,572 lbs. of milk were produced during the year. The 
Sassoon Hospital contract was continued. No branch dairy was 
established at Mah&baleshvar, but all milk was sold in Poona and 
Kirkee, and no Ghee was made. 

Some cows have been selected to furnish milk suitable 
for infants. These animals are always those that have freshened 
within five months. They are never fed with oil-cake, cotton 
seed, or green food, and are never allowed to graze. The demand 
for this special milk is increasing. 

IV— Yield. 

4. The largest yields for the year under report are as 
follows : — 

Among cows, the first in yield for the year, now that 
Harishi, the cross bred English-Aden has died, is Pit&mbari 
(Sindhi) 4,430 lbs., second Buldkhi (Sindhi) 3,778 lbs., third Shendi 
(Sindhi cross) 3,750 lbs , fourth Bhavali (Gir) 8,712 lbs., fifth 
Yeshi (Sindhi cross) 3,571 lbs., and sixth Budhi (Gir) 8,552 lbs. 

Among buffaloes, Ratan (Jafferabadi) 4,815 lbs,, Kiveri 
(Surati) 4,504 lbs., S&lu (Dehli) 3,147 lbs., Ganga (Surati) 3,033 
lbs., and N£ndi (Deccani) 2,798 lbs. 

The usual milk record is given below with the necessary 
explanatory notes. 



22 









Total 


Besults during the period shown in 
















No. 


NftOBW. 


Age. 


nwnuvr 

of yean 
under 


Total 




Avenge 










utnufia 


number 


Total 


of 


Average 








tion. 


of 


dry 


Maximum 


daily 
yield* 








days in 
milk. 


days. 


daily 
yield. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 




Cows L 


Y. m. d. 








Lb*, oz. 


Lbs. ox. 




Aden* 














1 


Bakuli 


8 1 10 


»A 


1,044 


81 


16 4 


7 12 


S 


Bbigi 
Gulfbi 


. Aged ... 


, 8 


2,881 


680 


15 4 


10 5 


8 


4 8 89 


n 


828 


86 


8 13 


5 7 


4 


Midi 


7 Oi 


H 


784 


299 


7 12 


7 6 


6 


NAri 


10 9 11 


7 


1305 


710 


15 


10 1 


6 


Harishi (cross) 


> Medium ••• 


5 


1,202 


600 


27 6 


16 6 


7 


Shiti 

SiAdhi. 


8 8 11 


... 


129 


... 


13 4 


9 9 


1 


Ambi 


6 420 


U 


888 


70 


18 9 


9 1 


2 


Annapura* 


7 8 25 


8 


765 


830 


10 1 


6 3 


8 


Bhasmi 


10 11 22 


7 


1481 


1,074 


14 9 


8 12 


4 


Bulakhi 


8 9 16 


1* 


, 445 


•*. 


15 18 


10 13 


6 


Giti 


8 8 19 


H 


889 


17 


16 7 


9 1 


6 


Houshi •• 


. Medium ... 


5 


1,761 


64 


14 10 


9 12 


7 


Kinii 


Do. ... 


5 


1,868 


417 


12 14 


8 8 


8 


Kesar •« 


, Young ••• 


8* 


718 


467 


11 5 


6 7 


9 


Ehiliri 


4 4 4 


U 


426 


35 


12 5 


9 5 


10 


Lahlrl 


. Medium ... 


5 


1,838 


487 


16 14 


8 4 


11 


Makhmal 


Do. 


6 


1,235 


690 


11 10 


7 3 


18 


Mhatiri 


. Aged 


5 


1,286 


544 


11 13 


7 3 


13 


Mori 


. Medium ... 


6 


1,528 


297 


14 18 


8 9 


U 


Mutri 


6 8 18 


21 


866 


124 


11 7 


8 2 


16 


P4rl 


. Medium ... 


7 


1,887 


718 


14 8 


8 14 


16 


Pin 


11 2 29 


8 


8£78 


647 


13 12 


8 16 


17 


Pttambari 


. 11 7 18 


8 


2,558 


362 


16 14 


10 5 


18 


PoUri 


. Medium ... 


7 


1,640 


916 


16 9 


9 3 


19 


Putali 


Do. ... 


7 


1,575 


976 


14 11 


8 6 


SO 


BAdhi 


Do. 


6 


1,894 


427 


18 3 


8 18 


21 


Hlra 


Do. ••■ 


*i 


>,298 


873 


13 8 


7 10 


82 


Dabi 


7 2 7 


2f 


382 


654 


11 13 


7 


88 


Sabani 


• Medium ... 


8 


1,720 


1,200 


18 8 


9 3 


24 


Samarthi 


14 


8 


2,095 


825 


11 8 


6 13 


25 


Son! •• 


4 2 22 


n 


406 


62 


... 


••• 


26 


Sukhi 


7 10 4 


H 


1,149 


251 


12 8 


7 13 


27 


Tambbori 


7 10 4 


5 


1,388 


434 


12 14 


8 6 


88 


Tufani 


. Medium ••« 


H 


986 


778 


14 8 


9 6 


29 


Zankir 


Do. 


5 


1,504 


821 


18 2 


11 9 


80 


Mohan 
Sindhi- Cross. 


4 2 27 


... 


8 




11 


••• 


1 


Kara 


9 8 10 


6 


1.867 


823 


15 1 


10 2 


2 


Mekini 


Medium ... 


8 


2,204 


704 


16 


10 11 


8 MungU 


5 2 8 


H 


444 


••« 


16 4 


10 o 




<rr 















23 



column 4. 








Financial multe for total period shown In 
column 4. 








Yield 

of milk 
during 
















































ATerege 


Remark*. 


Yearly 


1906-07. 


Value of 


Cost of 




Coetol 


I 








net 




average 
oat-pot. 




milk. 




feeding 


• 


attendance* 


Net pronv. 


profit 
per 




























year. 




9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


15 


16 


Lbs. 


Lbs. oz. 


Bi. 


a. 


V* 


Re* a. 


P- 


Be. a. 


P- 


Be. 


•• 


p. 


Be. 




2,641 


2340 8 


685 








341 





68 





291 








94 


Died. 


2,885 


8,273 8 


2,013 








736 





304 





973 








121 




1,588 


1,477 12 


154 








80 





18 





61 








62 


Died. 


1,695 


406 8 


460 








252 





46 





172 








49 


Do. 


2,604 


2,793 


I,*** 








608 





252 





776 








110 


Do. 


8,726 


8,444 -8 


1,629 








679 





153 





897 








179 


Do. 


••• 


1,240 


108 


6 


4 


81 


7 


9 4 


8 


18 





6 


••• 


Hew. 


2,828 


2,411 


294 








129 





22 





143 








114 




1,591 


2,028 4 


894 








214 





39 





141 








48 




1,861 


587 12 


1,178 








693 





280 





255 








98 




8,857 


3,778 12 


402 








125 





81 





246 








197 




8,026 


8,095 8 


294 








115 





25 





154 








182 




8,451 


8,383 


1,673 








504 





164 





715 








188 




2^55 


1,486 4 


1,032 








445 





138 





449 








88 




1,426 


1,333 8 


442 








265 





80 





147 








75 


Sold. 


8,181 


2,904 


332 








117 





26 





189 








151 




2,217 


3,364 8 


982 








800 





152 





6*0 








105 




1,776 


1,242 4 


807 








352 





186 





819 








64 




1,854 


235 4 


850 








801 





180 





419 








88 




2,632 


2,943 4 


1,177 








497 





153 





527 








113 




2,560 


3,109 8 


566 








186 





44 





886 








119 




2£41 


2,172 8 


1,472 








564 





242 





666 








95 




2,542 


3,305 


1,844 








676 





802 





866 








108 




8,307 


4,430 


2,295 








878 





814 





1,103 








162 




2,166 


2,209 8 


1,335 








552 





244 





539 








77 




1,871 


1,690 12 


1,153 


9 





620 





231 





402 








67 




2,467 


2,015 12 


1,119 








440 





141 





538 








107 




2,144 


565 4 


845 








482 





135 





228 








62 


Sold. 


940 


982 8 


224 








134 





18 





72 








24 


Do. 


1,982 


40 8 


1,388 








717 





280 





891 








88 


Died. 


1,787 


1,047 12 


1,242 








621 





287 





384 








41 






2,290 


279 








115 





21 





143 








114 




2,851 


8,344 8 


754 








257 





62 





435 








113 




2,341 


2,512 


1,047 








431 





148 





468 








94 




1,922 


2,826 8 


886 








315 





117 





404 








79 


Sold. 


3,476 


3,059 8 


1,549 








501 





153 





895 








185 




••• 


52 8 


4 


6 





1 11 


3 


6 


2 


2 


4 


7 


••• 


New. 


2,312 


2,910 8 


1.234 








671 





107 





466 








77 




2,949 


2,463 8 


2,013 








784 





293 





966 








^120 


Died. 


3,660 


3,515 12 


871 








136 





18 





217 








173 





24 









Tote! 


ReiulU during the period shown in 








number 
of 




















Ho. 


Nam©. 


Age. 


yean 


Total 




Average 










under 


number 


Total 


of 


Average 








observa- 


of 


dry 


Maximum 


daily 
yield. 








tion. 


days in 


days. 


daily 










milk. 




yield* 




1 


B 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Cows I—co*td. 


Y. m. d. 








Lbs. os. 


Lbs. os. 




Sindhi'Crosft— 
















continued. 














4 


Sfraji 


14 9 10 


8 


2,487 


438 


13 14 


7 8 


6 


Khendi 


6 8 19 


It 


477 


••» 


16 8 


11 2 


6 


TiH 


Young 


5 


1,524 


298 


18 10 


7 16 


7 


Yeahl 


Do. ... 


Hi 


1,008 


87 


17 15 


9 10 


8 


Sfatngi 


7 620 


851 


214 


14 9 


6 16 




Gift 














1 


Bhavati 


Young 


8 


520 


801 


17 12 


12 5 


2 


Bhudhi 


Do. 


627 


290 


15 2 


9 14 


8 


Qodi 


Medium ... 


«f 


1,034 


121 


15 5 


8 6 


4 


Kabari 


Young 


398 


433 


12 


6 11 


6 


Kamali >.. 


Do. 


2A 


691 


801 


11 14 


7 5 


6 


Lahiri 


Do* ... 


*A 


761 


131 


15 2 


9 7 


7 
8 


Lingidi 
MnUiaraa 


Medium ... 
Do. 




393 
618 


499 

247 


9 13 
18 10 


5 12 
9 2 


9 


Narbali 


Do. ••• 


409 


832 


13 8 


7 2 


10 


Pavall 


Do. 


If- 


621 


872 


14 7 


7 9 


11 


Sngafan 


Do. 


307 


644 


8 8 


6 6 


12 


Umbari 


Aged 


2A 


424 


126 


13 


8 6 


18 
14 


Kaiali 
Mabali 


Young ... 
Do. 




268 
273 


••• 

••• 


11 4 
13 8 


... 


16 


TApl 

Gir Croat. 


Do. 


"ii 


190 


345 


10 8 


'5 12 


1 


Btgul ••• 


Medium ... 


8 


2,808 


608 


13 5 


8 4 


2 


Pandhari 


Do. 


1* 


229 


220 


3 4 


4 12 



Note— The average yearly yield per cow comes to 2,101 lbs. ; the average daily yield 7 It*. 
8 os. ; the average cost of feeling the cow Be. 95-15-1, and the average net profit per eow Bs. 67-7-10. 

Column 7.— The maximum day's yield of the year is always quoted at a sale as an indication 
of an animal's productiveness and the average of these record yields for the whole period of 
observation is here given as affording a fair basis for comparison between the various animals when 
in milk. 

Column 6*— Gives the average for the whole period inolusive of days dry. 

Column 11.— -The price of milk has varied for customers from 10 to 14 lbs. per rupee, but an 
attempt has been made to fix a slightly higher arbitrary figure to cover cost of distribution. It 
mutt however be remembered that these statements are only intended to afford a basis for com* 
parison between animals and the figures do not give an accurate indication of the total profit or 
loss. Sales of dairy produce in the shape of Qhee and sometimes .butter when the demand for 
milk is very small are generally unprofitable, andan£in such cases the price estimated for mift 
is not realised in practice. Charges for supervision, etc, are also not taken into account is 
estimating these comparative net profits per animal. 



25 



column*. 


Yield 
of milk 
daring 
1906-07. 


Financial results for total period shown in 
column 4. 




Yearly 
average 
out-pat. 


Value of 
milk. 


Cost of 
feeding. 


Oostof 
attendance. 


Hot profit. 


Average 

net 

profit 

per 

year. 


Remarks. 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


14 


15 


16 


Lbs. 

2^46 
3,980 
2,416 
3,823 
1,737 

2,856 
2,318 
2,714 
1,174 
1,800 
2,982 

985 
2,274 
1,166 
1,639 

708 
1,707 
••• 

729 

2,394 
8C9 


Lbs. o& 

1,799 8 
3,750 
2,204 4 
8,571 4 
144 8 

8,712 
3,652 12 
1.959 12 
1,066 4 
1,162' 8 
2,175 12 
1,680 8 
2,189 12 
1,446 
1,916 8 

63 4 
2,070 4 
1,997 
2,794 

••• 

3,128 12 


Rs. a. p. 

1,665 
442 

1,089 
838 
471 0. 

535 
436 
774 

220 
362 
601 
187 
394 

221 
330 
137 
297 
166 
283 

72 

1,645 
82 


Rs, a. p. 

628 
117 
896 
287 
223 

181 
191 
297 

168 
203 
232 
135 

169 
144 
172 
184 
147 
129 
109 

67 

663 
45 


Rs. a. p. 

294 0. 
32 

147 
57 
42 

35 
34 
48 
16 
27 
39 

20 
29 

21 
24 
12 

20 
14 

21 
8 

302 
12 


Rs. a. p. 

690 
293 
546 
494 
181 

319 
210 
429 

46 
142 
330 

32 
206 

66 
134 

•••■•• 
180 

23 
108 
—3 

680 
26 


Rs. 

to 

220 

108 

169 

' 71 

146 
82 

135 
20 
54 

136 
13 
98 
24 
54 
—80 
61 
••• 

*" 8 

85 
28 


Died. 
Died. 
Died. 

Sold. 

Sold. 

Loss. 

New. 

Da 

Sold. 

Bold. 



Column lg<-The* figures are actuals. It may be noted that oostof feeding and »«endanee 
varies with different animali according to period of lactation, sine, yield of milk and individual 
idiosyncrasies* 

Column 18.— These figures are actuals for the last three years and approiimate estimates for 
preceding years. 



B 1095— 4 



20 









Total 


Reeults during the period ebown in 




Names. 


Age. 


number 

of 
years 










No. 


Total 


* 


Average 










under 


number 


Total 


of 


Average 








obsei ra- 


of 


dry 


Maximum 


daily 
yield. 








tion. 


days in 


dayi. 


daily 








4 


milk. 




yield. 




1 


2 


3 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Buffaloes IL 
Jaffarabadi. 


Y. m. d. 








Lta. os. 


Lba, ox. 


1 


Kondal 


Medium 


4 


889 


671 


17 5 


11 2 


2 


Batui 


Do. 


4 


1,076 


380 


23 O 


14 11 


8 


Sardari 


Do. 


2A 


709 


182 


22 2 


14 5 


4 


M*kna 

Delhi. 


Do. 


14 


349 


195 


18 


8 6 

1 


1 


Mabalan 


Aged 


7* 


1,773 


903 


29 9 


15 14 1 


2 


Rambha 


13 11 19 


8 


1,839 


1,061 


13 4 


9 2 i 


3 


Sa> 


Medium ... 


2* 


600 


245 


17 12 


12 13 I 


4 


Sarali 


Do. 


2» 


469 


486 


10 14 


8 14 1 


6 


Godi (croai) 
Surati. 


Young 


A 


146 


••• 


15 


... 


1 


Aditwari 


Medium ... 


2A 


599 


352 


12 6 


7 


2 


Bawbi 


Do. 


4 


1,021 


439 


16 15 


11 


3 


Biyaja 


16 6 24 


8 


2,046 


874 


14 12 


8 13 


4 


Bbandari 


Aged 
Medium ... 


8 H 


1,022 


379 


15 4 


7 13 


5 


Bhavari 


p 


686 


270 


14 1 


7 10 


6 


Bhori 


Aged 


2,829 


591 


15 6 


10 8 


7 


Chbabeli 


14 9 11 


8 


2,196 


755 


16 12 


11 13 


8 


Cbandani 


iged 


4 


646 


816 


13 8 


7 6 


9 


DalbhaVi 


14 4 9 


n 


1,934 


896 


14 14 


10 4 


10 


Durga 


Young 


4 


947 


613 


13 7 


8 6 


11 


Gabina .., 


Medium ... 


«A 


595 


175 


16 10 


10 8 


12 


Gajari 


Aged 


8 


1,920 


996 


16 15 


10 8 


33 


Gang* 


8 


2,062 


868 


17 8 


12 14 


14 


Gb4ri 


Medium 


8 


2,061 


865 


17 4 


12 5 


1* 


GhortU 


Young 


2j 
2A 


765 


190 


12 3 


7 16 


16 


Ghumbari 


Medium ... 


629 


326 


11 4 


8 6 


17 


Girji 
Gujer 


Do. 


664 


291 


15 6 


9 10 


18 


Aged 


8 


1,838 


1*78 


13 8i 


8 6 


19 


JamAdar 


14 8 27 


8 


1,965 


951 


15 91 


10 


20 


KaVerl 


14 3 17 


8 


2,221 


696 


19 7 


12 7 


21 


Maini 


Young 


*A 


436 


102 


11 4 


5 11 


22 


Mangi 


13 8 18 


e* 


1,364 


bOl 


12 7 


812 


23 


Mori 


Medium .. 


*& 


787 


164 


14 16 


9 8 


24 


Paroli 


Do. 


8 


1,999 


911 


14 14 


8 8 


25 


Patengi 


Young 


*& 


657 


288 


19 6 


14 14 


26 


Putali 


Aged 


7 


1,672 


879 


12 4 


9 15 


27 


Ranga 
Rupi 


Medium .. 


5 


999 


822 


17 12 


11 o 


28 


Young .. 


2A 


719 


876 


13 3 


9 16 


29 


Sherri 


Medium 


4 


962 


558 


16 104 


\ 9 8 


30 


Tnvali 


Young 


2| 


786 


216 


16 13 


10 9 


31 


Fajaui 




••• 


1G3 


202 


18 8 


... 



27 



eohmrn*. 


Yield 


Financial remits for total period shown in 
column 4, 
































of milk 
during 
1906-07. 






















Average 


Betrarka. 


Yearly 
average 


Valaeof 
milk. 


Cost of 
feeding 


» 


Coetof 


Net profit 


net 

profit 

per 




out-pat. 
































year. 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


16 


16 


14*. 


Lbe. om. 


Re. 


ft. 


p- 


Be, a. 


P. 


Re. ft. 


P- 


Ra. 


a. 


p- 


Ra. 




2474 


2,235 8 


807 








351 





93 





863 








90 




3,966 


4,816 


1,289 








809 





114 





866 








216 




4,236 


2,617 4 


858 








246 





42 





566 








234 




1,942 


268 4 


248 








824 





16 





—97 








—118 


Died. 


3,883 


1,767 


2,187 








846 





281 





1,061 








149 


Died. 


2,107 


1,600 4 


1,809 








714 





288 





307 








37 




3,292 


8,147 8 


640 








218 





40 





882 








168 


* 


1,433 


... 


190 








147 





20 





28 








12 


Sold. 


••• 


1,466 12 


122 








120 





11 





—9 








... 


New. 


2,021 


356 8 


435 








196 





27 





212 








87 




2,818 


2,606 12 


912 








366 





96 





461 








112 




2,257 


2,036 


1,410 








788 





282 





310 








44 




2,046 


8 


613 








318 





88 





287 








59 


Died* 


2,512 


2,346 


540 








226 





38 





176 








107 




3,071 


1,899 


1,906 








924 





291 





691 








86 




3,246 


2,207 


2,061 








875 





293 





886 








112 




1,180 


280 8 


384 








244 





75 





65 








16 




2,533 


743 


1,541 








727 





283 





631 








68 




1,974 


1>631 12 


641 








316 





87 





208 








62 




3,000 


2,177 4 


520 








224 





84 





262 








125 




2,631 


413 8 


1,679 








778 





264 





677 








78 




3,314 


8,038 4 


2,084 








882 





300 





902 








113 




3,157 


2,821 12 


1,981 








847 





302 





832 








103 




2,354 


1,365 4 


507 








248 





31 





283 








90 




2,038 


670 4 


439 








261 





26 





152 








58 




2,462 


2,095 


628 








222 





35 





271 








106 




1,926 


269 


1,194 








688 





282 





224 








28 




2,468 


3,271 


1,553 








767 





297 





499 








62 




3,458 


4,504 12 


2,179 








908 





811 





960 








119 




1,763 


1,147 12 


208 








146 





16 





47 








33 




1,753 


1,135 


977 








674 





229 





174 








256 


Died. 


2,910 


2,577 8 


626 








226 





40 





860 








107 




2.132 


1,812 12 


1,339 








729 





290 





320 








89 




8,294 


2,481 4 


709 








240 





38 





481 








112 




2,874 


1,220 4 


1,266 








661 





240 





855 








61 




2,208 


675 4 


892 








478 





136 





278 








56 




2,779 


2,900 8 


599 








220 





42 





837 








130 




2,268 


2,881 


736 








325 a 





99 





312 








78 




3424 


2,188 12 


692 








249 





88 





405 








147 




«•• 


2,284 


190 








110 





17 Q 





63 








... 


New. 



28 









Total 


Besults during the period shown in 








number 
of 


















1 


Ko. 


Names. 


Age. 


years 


Total 




Average 










under 


number 


Total 


of 


Average 








observa- 


of 


dry 


Maximum 


diily 
yield. 








tion. 


days in 
milk. 


days. 


daily 
yield. 


1 


2 


8 


4 


6 


6 


7 


a 




Buffaloes II 

— continued. 
Deooani. 


T. id. d. 








Lbs. ox. 


Lbe- ox. 


1 


Qhevada 


Medium ... 


i 


288 


66 


11 12 


..» 


2 


Kevada 


Do. 


280 


74 


10 


>*• 


8 

4 


Chandrl 
Rumali 


Aged 
Do. 


f 


262 
206 


42 

98 


13 12 
10 


... 
... 


6 


Hira ••• 


Medium ... 


i 


244 


60 


9 8 


... 


6 


Hangami 
Hanoi 


Do. 


1 


245 


69 


7 12 


... 


7 


Young 


i 


304 


•*• 


13 4 


mm* 


8 


Gharol 


Do. 


238 


66 


18 4 


... 



Note.— The average yearly yield per buffalo comes to 1,887 lbs. ; the average daily yield 8 lbt> 
2 oa. and the average cost ox feeding the buffalo Bs, 95-13-10, and average net profit per * 
buffalo Bs. 49*8-0. 

Column r.— The maximum day's yield of the year is always quoted at a sale as an indication 
of an animal's productiveness and the average of these record yields for the whole period of 
observation is here given as affording a fair basis for comparison between the various animals 
when in milk. 

Column 6— Gives the average for the whole period inclusive of days dry. 

Column 11*— The price of milk has varied for customers from 10 to 14 lbs. per rupee, but 
an attempt has been made to fix a "lightly higher arbitrary figure to cover cost of distribution. 
It must however be remembered that these statements are only intended to afford a bails for 
comparison between animals and the figures do not give an accurate indication of the total profit 
or loss. Sales of dairy produce in the shape of Ghee and sometimes butter when the damand 
for nrilk is very small are generally unprofitable, and in Euch cases the price estimated for milt 
is not realised in practice. Charges for supervision, etc., are also not taken into account in 
estimating these comparative net profits per animal. 

Column lj?.— These figures are actuals. It may be noted that cost of reeding and attendance 
varies with different animals according to period of lactation, size, yield of milk and individual 
idiosyncrasies. 

Column 15.— These figures are actuals for the last three years and approximate estimates for 
preceding years. 



29 



column 4. 


Tield 
of milk 
during 
1906-07. 


Financial results for total period shown in 
column 4. 




Yearly 
average 

out-pat. 


Value of 
milk. 


Cost of 
feeding. 


Cost of 
attendance. 


Net profit. 


Average 

net 

profit 

per 

year. 


Bemarks. 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


16 


16 


Lbs. 

••• 
••• 
••« 


Lbs. os. 

1,866 
1,617 
2,432 
1,783 8 
1,168 
1,499 8 
2,798 8 
1,968 8 


Bs. a. p. 

166 
120 C 
203 
144 
97 
126 
238 
168 


Bs. a. p* 

97 

106 

97 

93 
92 
96 

110 

94 


Bs. a» p. 

18 
11 
18 
18 
9 
11 
21 
16 


Bs. a. p. 

46 
10 
88 
88 
4 
18 
102 
64 


Bs. 

••• 
••* 

... 


} i 

1 



30 

V.— Strength of the Herd. 

5. The following statement shows the strength of the herd 
on the 1st of April 1907 as compared with that on the 1st of 
April 1906:— 





Strength 
on 
1st 

April 

low. 


**n~ 


Decrease. 


Stren- 
gth 
on 1st 
April 
1007. 


Valuation. 


Increase 


Description. 


Pill* 

ohaaed 

or 
Trans- 
ferred. 


Born. 


Total. 


Bold. 


Died. 


Trans- 
ferred. 


TotaL 


« 


1007 


or 

decrease 

during 

the 

year. 


Oowt. 


























ghed-buUs. 


n 


2 


•w 


2 


8 


M« 


... 


8 


10 


660 


620 


-40 


Cows 


eo 


2 


•M 


2 


8 


10 


... 


18 


44 


3,806 


2,415 


-890 


Heifers ••• ••• 


s 


8 


... 


8 


1 


•M 


2 


8 


8 


55 


06 


+85 


Cowcalves 


82 


-. 


20 


30 


82 


7 


8 


82 


20 


206 


212 


-48 


Bull*oelvea 


M 


... 


24 


24 


80 


11 


9 


48 


15 


211 


172 


-89 


Total ... 


140 


7 


44 


61 


64 


28 


7 


90 


02 


4,626 


3,509 


—1,017 


BuffiOoM. 


























Buffalo-bulk ... 


5 


1 


.« 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


6 


260 


840 


+80 


8he-bnflaloes ... 


88 


10 


•** 


10 


1 


6 


... 


e 


42 


2,876 


1,565 


—1,310 


Heifers 


6 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


2 


2 


4 


166 


186 


-80 


Buffalo-cow- calves 


26 


4 


18 


17 


18 


18 


1 


82 


11 


126 


107 


-19 


Do. bull-calves 


17 


... 


10 


12 





14 


1 


24 


5 


87 


22 


—15 


Total ... 


01 


ie 


28 


41 


28 


87 


4 


04 


68 


8,468 


2,160 


— 1,204 


Dairy cart bones . 


2 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


2 


800 


260 


-50 



From the above statement it will be seen that there is a 
decrease of 71 in the total number whioh is principally due to 
the fact that on account of low prices the casters of the previous 
years were held over and disposed of this year. 

VI.— Breeds kept. 

6. Three breeds of cows — Karachi or Sindhi, Aden, and Gir— 
and four of buffaloes, — Jaffarabadi, Dehli, Kaira or Surati, and 
Varadi or Deccani — are kept. 

As already stated the Adens were nearly wiped out by the 
rinderpest. The present Gir herd has only had three seasons at 
the dairy ; it contains some good cows but they have not been in 
the dairy long enough to have off-spring in milk. 

Very little has been done in breeding of buffaloes at Poona 
as only the Deccanis really do well here as youngsters; but the 



31 



Dairy has some good representative animals of Jafferabadi, Surati, 
Dehli and Deooani. A few fine females of the Deccani breed 
have been obtained and they will be crossed with a Kaira bull. 

The Sindhi cows have been bred continuously for about 11 
years and we now have 29 farm bred heifers and cows ; of these, 
17 are in milk. Pit&mbari (3,307 lbs. average for eight years) 
out of J&nki (record 3,481 lbs. of milk) stands first. Bulikhi as 
a three year old gave over 4,000 lbs. and had her second calf 
without going dry a day, Giti with 8,400 lbs. as three years old, 
are some of the most promising. 

The four breeding Sindhi bulls are: — Daulat, bought in 
Sind ; Battashia out of the cow Batt&shi (daily yield of 22-8 lbs. 
and a record of 2,871 lbs. in 333 days,) sired by Mansur, bought 
in Sind ; Rdja out of Devri (daily yield 19-12 lbs., 4,705 lbs. in 
420 days,) Sire Mansur; and Bansia out of Houshi (average for 
5 years 3,451 lbs.,) sired by Bat&shia. 

VII.— Servioe of balls. 

7. Free service of bulls is given to the public for healthy 
animals. 

VIII.— Farm. 

8.. No feeding experiments were carried out in the year 
under report. Fodder was grown on the Agricultural College 
lands and the usual statement is appended. The total area 
cropped was 75 acres and 33 gunthas. The details ore given in 
the following statement : — 



Snrvty 
No. 


Plot 


Sharif crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Babicrop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Remark*. 








A.*. 






A.* 






137 


1 


Bajri and 
Chavli mixed. 


2 O 


Green fodder. 


Bajri ra 
tjon. 


2 O 


Green fodder. 




• •• 


2 


Do. ... 


2 


Do, ... 


... 


... 






... 


8 


Do. 


2 


Do. ... 


••• 


• •• 






... 


4 


Do. 


2 


Dry fodder . 


... 


• ... 


...••« 




160 


3 


Nilva 


2 8 


Green fodder. 


••« 


... 






151 


2 


Do. 


7 18 


Do ... 


••• 


... 






152? 
25$) 


2 


Snndhia 


35 


Dry fodder . 


••• 


••• 






153 


1 


Hondi Ratoon 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Hnndi ... 


2 20 


Greenfodder. 


Hundi was sown 
in March and 
the Ratoon 
crop was 
taken in 
kbarif, hence 
shown under 

1 kharif. 



32 



Surrey 
No. 


Plot 


Khaiif crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Babicrop. 


Area* 


Purpose. 


Remarks. 




1 


•••••• 


A. g. 


•••*•• 


Maiie ... 


A. g. 
5 


Green fodder. 




••• 


2 


Hundi Batoon 


2 80 


Green fodder. 


Hundi ... 


2 80 


Do. ... 


Hundi was sown 
in March and 
the Ratoon 
crop was taken 
in kharif, 
hence shown 
under khaiif. 


... 


2 


•*•••• 


••• 




Maize ... 


2 80 


Do. ... 






8 




••• 


....«* 


Do. ... 


84 


Do. .- 




••• 


4 


Lucerne 


17 


Green fodder. 
Perennial 


... 


... 






... 


6 


Hand. Batoon 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Hundi ... 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Do. 


••• 


5 


... •• 


... 


, 


Peas&OaU 


1 84 


Do, 




••• 


6 


Sorghum ... 


038 


Green fodder. 


Bbalu ... 


38 


Do. ... 




••% 


7 


Utivali ... 


1 2 


Do. ••• 


Maize ... 


1 26 


Do. 


, 


... 


8 


Sundhia ... 


2 20 


Dry fodder... 


Do. ... 


220 


Do. ... 




... 





Maize ... 


1 8 


Green fodder. 


... 


... 






••• 


10 


Lucerne ~ 


1 2 


Green fodder. 
Perennial. 


... 


• a. 


•«.*•• 




.«• 


11 


Sundhia ••• 


8 20 


Green fodder. 


Maiae ... 


320 


Green fodder. 




154 


2 


UUvali 


1 4 


Do. ••• 


... 








••• 


8 




... 


...... 


Knapli ... 


2 10 


Greenfodder. 




156 


I 


Nilra 


488 


Green fodder. 


... 









157 


1 


UtAvaU ... 


1 28 


Do. ... 


Peas&Oats 


128 


Greenfodder. 




158 


1 


Suudhia •• 


4 


Do. 


• a. 


... 






••• 


2 


Bajri 


15 


Do. ... 


... 




••••». 




••• 


8 


Mixed Jo war. 


10 


Do. ... 


... 


... 


...... | 



IX.— Fodder Crops. 

9. The following statement gives the outturn, cost of 
cultivation, etc., of the several Jodder crops grown : — 







Per acre. 


Oostof 
100 lbs. 
of the 
fodder. 








Name of crop. 


Area. 


Outturn 

of 
fodder. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Date of sowing. 


Date of 

(lowering. 


Remarks. 




A. g. 


Lbs. 


Be. a. p. 


3s. a. p. 








Bajri and Charll 


6 


6,413 


8 13 6 


o i a 


16th June 1906 ... 


29th July 1908 M . 


1 


(mixed). 










24th June 1906 ... 
31st July 1906 ... 


2nd August 1908 . 
4th October 1906. 


(Sown in three 
f Plots. 


Nllva 


926 


6,026 


13 9 


8 8 


22nd July 1907 ~ 
Do. 


24th September 
1907. 
Do. 


1 Sown in two plots. 


Sundhia 


730 


7,9*9 


13 6 


9 8 


19th June 1906 ... 
13th July 1906 ... 


6th August 1906 . 

10th September 
1906. 
19th June 1908 ... 


i Sown in two plots. 


Hundi 


730 


16,668 


45 6 a 


4 7 


2nd March 1906... 


) 












12th April 1900... 
14th May 1906 ... 


16th June 1906 ... 
22nd July 1906 ... 


\Bown ic three 
| plots. 



33 





Area. 


Per acre. 


Co* of 


1 


Date of 

flowering. 




Name of crop. 


Outturn 

of 
fodder. 


Cert of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


100 lbs. Datoof 
of the sowing, 
folder. 


Benurk«. 




A. if. 


Lbs. 


Be. a, p. 


ft*, a. p. 






HondiBatoon.*. 


780 


1,817 


8 9 9 


7 7 2nd March 1908... 
12th April 1909... 


12th Auguaft 1906. 
14th October 1906, 


[Sown In th-ce 










14th Ifaj 1808 ~ 


20th October 1906.1 j 


Maize 


12 23 wfjCCS 

1 


32 12 7 


9 8 4th May 19C* ... 

, 16th May 1908 ... 

8th August 1C06 . 


12th June 1906 M .| 1 
17th June 1906 .. J | 
24th October 1906. | 










25th September 
1906. 


lstJanuao 1907. 


[Sown In teren 
plots. 










i 27th October 1906. 


Do. 




Sorghum 


038 


6,098 


20 5 2 


i 10th December 
1906. 

16th December 
; 1906. 
A 3 i 9th June 1906 ... 


16th February 

1907. 
14th February 

1907. 
29ch July 1900. 


- 


Shalu 


038 


2,488 


15 12 7 


10 2 29rd October 1908. 


6ih February 1907. 




Peas and oats 
(mixed). 

Utavali 


3 17 
829 


3,078 
6,970 


33 9 2 

11 7 


1 1 2 16th Norember 
1906. 
26th December 

* 1906 
2 11 , Tid July 1906 ... 


19th February 
1907. 
5th March 1907 ... 

26(h August 1908. 


| Sown In two plots. 

'.Sown in three 
> plots 


(Mixed) Jowar... 


10 


2,920 


12 8 8 


20th August 1908. 

' 30th August 1908 

6 10 25th January 1907 


6th tcseniber 

19 J6. 
9th December 

1908. 
29th March 1907. 


Khapli 


2 10 


5,857 


15 13 


8 10 26th January 1907. 


Da 




Bajri 


015 


3,689 


12 8 


5 4 ' let Angoat 1908~ 


27th September 
1906. 




Bajri Ratoon ... 
Dry Fodderi. 


3 






•*• 




The ttandln* crop 
was fed to the 
bullocks, the 
ratooncrop being 
too poor. 


Bljri 


2 


702 


6 4 11 


012 1 


Slat July 1908 ~. 


22nd November 
1906. 
3rd September 




Sundhia 


3 15 


4,884 


27 4 


8 10 


6th June 1908 ~ 


) 












8th July 1908 ~ 


1906. 
16th September 

1908. 
11th Norember 

1906. 


> Sown in two plots 


NilTa 


433 


4,808 


8 15 7 


2 11 


29th July 1906 ... 


/ 



b 1095—5 



35 



III—LANOWLI AGRICULTURAL STATIOH, 

1906-07. 

Established— 1901 ; North Latitude— IS 45'; East 
Longitude— 1& 27'; Elevation— 2,039 feet above sea level; 
Soil — light ; Average rainfall — 186 inches. 



Area— 30 


acres. 




















Overseer — Mr. A. R. Nikam. 


. 




1 


6 

§ 


1, 


i 

s 

I 


| 


© 


1 
J 

' 1 


vt 
ill 


1 


i 




i n 


/ H 


1 1 


' 


f' m 


' 9 


i 


» *r 


1 u 


Rainfall (1906-07) 


~. 


... 


21 93 64 9 35 76 


19 71 63 i ... 


... 


«. 1 »• 


64 


140 7* 


Average 


043 


87 


29 3 71 8l| 66 46 

1 

1 | 


236ft 3 9 084 


02ft 


5 8 




183 56 



I.— Introduction. 

2. This Station consists of 6 survey numbers and is situated 
at a distance of about two miles to the south from the Railway 
station. This area is situated in the Bhusi village. The follow- 
ing statement shows the areas, rent and assessment :— 



Survey No. 


Are*. 


Sent. 


Awettment. 






A. g. 




Rs. 




Rs. a. p. 


51 
91 


••• •«• 
... • ••• 


4 37 
7 10 


} 


75 


( 


9 
18 


74 


... ••• 


3 6 




15 




5 


100 
104 


• •• ••• 

•*• ••• 


3 11 

7 2 


} 


100 


{ 


9 
3 


102 


Total ... 


4 U 




6* 




12 




30 17 


240 


39 8 



Out of this area, 11 acres and/* gunthas were under cultiva- 
tion, the rest of the portion being hilly. 

3. FlotUnff.-*Q}he six survey numbers were divided into 
16 fields for convenience. Field V was divided into 14 half-guntha 
plots and 8 one-guutha plots. Field Vf was divided into 18 half- 



86 

guntha plots and 8 one-guntha plots. Field No. VII was divided 
into 4 one-guntha plots. Field No. IX was divided into 9 quarter- 
guntha, 12 half-gun tha and 5 one-guntba plots. Field No. XII 
was divided into 3 two and a half guntha plots. The above 
fields were devoted to raise seedlings of experimental plots. The 
seedlings of varieties were raised in field No. XIV. The fields 
I, II, III, IV, VIII, X, XI, XIII, XV and XVI were divided 
into several plot3 to receive the seedlings raised on different kinds 
of r&b and manures. All the varieties were transplanted in field 
No. XVL 

In the hilly portion of survey No. 104, two varieties of Ndgli 
(Mutki and Zipri), Van and Sava were grown. The tree cottons 
transplanted in 1905 occupy a part of this hilly portion. 

II.— Season. 

4. During the year under report there were no ante-monsoon 
showers. The seed was broadcasted in rab beds as usual by the 
end of May. The monsoon broke out on the 7th of June. The 
rainfall during the months of June and July was falling almost 
daily with breaks at intervals. This was quite favourable for the 
growth and transplantation of seedlings. The transplantation 
commenced by the middle of July and was finished by the end of 
the month. In the second fortnight of July the rainfall was heavy, 
viz. 36f inches. In August the rain fell just when wanted. 
From the latter part of September the rainfall was deficient for 
the standing crops. This deficiency has reduced the outturn of 
rice considerably. There was a thunderstorm on the 8th of 
October followed by strong winds. This caused the vigorous 
growing crops to lodge. Harvesting of rib experimental plots 
was commenced on the 26th of October and was over by the 24th 
November. During the season 135 inches of rain was recorded 
against 106| inches of last year. 

III. -Rab Experiments. 

5. Rice may be sown direct in the field or may be sown first 
in seed-beds and then the seedlings transplanted to the field. In 
the preparation of seed beds in this tract it is the custom to cover 
them with a layer of branches, grass, leaves or cowdung or a 
mixture of all and slowly burn. The ground is then lightly 
starred with a harrow and the seed sown. The burning of this 
material constitutes the process known in vernacular as " Dadha 
Bhajane " and the material used as " R£b ". 



3* 

6. Objects of the present experiments. — The practice of 
rabing as at present carried on is very injurious to forest 
growth and in the case of cowdung, there is a great loss of 
inanurial substance. The present experiments were instituted to 
investigate the following questions : — 

I, — TV hat does the efficiency of rab depend upon ? 

II. —What rabs are most beneficial ? 

III. — Can any substitute for the present custom be found ? 

IV. — Will any after-treatment of the crop secure the 
effects of r&b ? 

7. Treatment of seed-beds. — The experiments were divided 
into eleven series which were further sub-divided into 63 plots. 
Series la, 16, III, VII and IX had duplicate plots. 

Series la. — Object. — To ascertain the merits of the practice 
of r&bing. 

Plot No. 1.— Am loppings covered with the usual quantity 
of grass and earth. . All materials were weighed and burnt. 

Plot No. 2. — This was treated with ashes obtained in the 
following way : An equal quantity of Aiu loppings, grass and 
earth was spread on corrugated iron sheets in the same thickness 
as in Plot No. 1. The material was weighed and burnt. Ashes 
were collected, weighed and spread out equally on the plot and 
mixed lightly with earth by rakes (Dantale). 

Plot No. 3. — No treatment of any kind. 

Plot No. 4. — The soil in this plot was pulverized until the 
condition of dust. 

Plot No. 5. — The earth to the depth of 3 inches was taken 
off and spread in a layer 3 inches deep on sheets of corrugated 
iron raised on stones, one foot high. The earth was heated for one 
hour by burning fuel underneath the sheets. When the earth was 
cooled down, it was collected and spread again evenly on the plot. 

Series lb. — Plots 6 to 10. — Received the same treatment as 
Series I (a), but the rib used was mixed branches. 

Series II. — Object — To compare different kinds of rib. 
Plot No, 11.— Ain rdb as usual. 
„ No. 12.— Cowdung r£b as usual. 
,, No. 13. — Mixed branches r£b as usual* 
„ No. 14.— Grass v&b. 
„ No. 15. — Leaf rab. 



88 

Series IIL — Object — To ascertain the usefulness of certain 
possible substitutes to be applied to the seed bed in lieu of r&b. 

Plot No. 16.— Treated with mixed branches rib, 20,000 lbs. 
per acre, 

„ No, 17. — Safflower cake, 12,S00 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 18. — Treated with cowdung r£b, 44,240 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 19. — Poudrette f 44,240 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 20. — Fish manure, 12,960 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 21, — Sheep manure, 2,880 lbs. (6 bags) per acre. 

„ No. 22. — Nitre, 8,400 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 23, — Outside ashes, 16,000 lbs. per acre. 

Series IV. — Object — To ascertain the most economical method 
of applying cowdung for raising seedlings. 

Plot No, 24.— Cowdung r£b, 44,240 lbs. per acre. 
„ No. 25. — Cowdung ashes, 12,280 lbs. per acre. 
„ No. 26. — Cowdung ploughed in 22,120 lbs. per acre. 

Series V. — Object — To ascertain the comparative value of 
oilcakes. 

Plot No. 27. — Manured with safflower cake, 6,480 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 28. — Undi cake manure, 16,000 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 29. — Karanj cake manure, 11,080 lbs» per acre. 

„ No, 30. — Niger cake manure, 13,000 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 31, — Riyan cake manure, 13,000 lbs. per acre. 

Series VL — Object — To ascertain the most profitable quantity 
of safflower cake required for raising seedlings. 

Plot No. 32. — Treated with safflower cake manure equal 
to the value of cowdung rib at normal 
price, 9,600 lbs. per acre. 

„ No, 33.— Treated with cowdung rab, 44,240 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No, 34. — Manured with safflower cake, 8,000 lbs, 
per acre. 

„ No. 85. — Manured with safflower cake, 4,000 lbs. 
per acre. 



39 

Series VII. — Object — To ascertain the most beneficial 
elements of plant-food for raising seedlings. 

Plot No. 36.— Manured with safflower cake, 15,920 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 37. — Manured with sulphate of potash, 1,920 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 38. — Manured with superphosphate, 22,880 lbs. 
^ per acre. 

„ No. 39. — No treatment of any kind. 

„ No. 40. — Cowdung rdb ... 44,160 lbs. per acre. 

t Safflower cake ... 25,920 

„ No. 41.— < Sulphate of potash 1,920 

(. Superph osphate . . . 22,880 

vr * 9 ( Safflower cake ... 25,920 

„ im 44. | s^ate of potash 1,920 

TVTn a ** f Safflower cake ... 25,920 

" n°.***— I Superphosphate... 22,880 

^ AA J Sulphate of potash 1,920 

„ no. *a. | Superphosphate ... 22,880 

Series VIII. — Object — To ascertain lime requirements*. 
Plot No. 45. — Cowdung nib ... 44,240 lbs. per acre. 
„ No. 46.— Lime ... 2,400 „ „ 

„ No. 47. — No treatment. 
„ No. 48.— Lime ... 6,000 „ „ 

Series IX (Duplicate). — Object — To compare field manuring 
with seed-bed manuring. 

Plot No, 49. — Mixed branches rib as usual. 

„ No. 50. — Cowdujag rfib as usual.. 

„ No. 51. — No rafb. 

The seedlings raised in each of the above plots (49, 50 and 
51) were transplanted in 5 two-guntha plots and manured in the 
fields as under : — 

(a) Manured with cowdung manure 7,360 lbs. per acre, 

(b) Safflower cake ... ... 720 „ „ 

(e) Poudrette ... ... 7,360 „ „ 

(d) No treatment. 

{e) Nitre .„ ... 380 „ 



19 


99 


9* 


99 


9> 


99 


99 


99 


91 


i* 


if 


9> 


99 


99 


$9 


99 


» 


99 



40 



Series X — Object— -To compare field manuring with seed-bed 
manuring. 

Plots Nos. 52 to 59.— The seed-beds were treated with cow- 
dung nib as usual and the transplanted area received different 
manures as follows : — 

(1) Sulphate of potash ... ... 380 lbs. per acre. 

(2) Safflowercake ... ... 360 

(3) Superphosphate ... ... 100 

( 330 

(4) Manures same as plots 1, 2 and 3, i. e. «? 360 

( 100 

(5) No treatment. 



99 

99 

99 
99 
99 



?9 

99 



(6) Manure same as plots 1 and 2 

(7) Manure same as plots 2 and 3 
(6) Manure same as plots 1 and 3 






330 
360 
360 
100 



... { 83ft 



100 



99 
91 

99 
99 
99 



99 

9t 

19 
99 

99 
99 



Series XL — Object — To compare field manuring with seed- 
bed manuring. 

Plots Nos. 60 to 63. — The seed-beds were treated with cow- 
dung r£b as usual. The transplanted area received the field 
applications as below : — 

(1) Lime ... ... 1,600 lbs. per acre. 

(2) Lime and cowdung ... < q'oqa " 

(3) Cowdung manure only ... 3,680 

(4) No treatment. 

The following statement shows the quantity of rib materials 
used for different plots and their cosW: — 



99 

9> 



99 

99 

99 



No. of 
plot. 



Ares. 



Gunt lias. 




Quantity of rib materials 
pat on in the seed-bed. 



Lbs. 

240 branches of Ain 
112 grass 
93 earth 
265 branches of Ain 
126 grass 
124 earth 



l\ 



Cost of rab 

materials and 

application 

charges. 



Rs. a. p. 
14 

14 



41 















Cost of rib 


No. of 


Area. 


Kind of treatment. 


Qsaatisj of rib materials 


materials and 


plot* 


pat on in the seed-bed. 




application 














charges. 






Series I -A in duplicate— 

oontinutd. 












Gunthas. 


Lbs. 






Bs. a. p. 


2 


* 


Ashes of Ain lib ... ... 


122 aahes of Ain branches ... 


18.0 


7 


* 


lsO. ••« ... 


115 do. 




... 


18 


3 


i 


No treatment 










8 


I/O* •*• ••• 


«•»... 









4 


* 


Earth polTeriied 


•«•■<*• 






6 


9 


* 


Do. 


•»* *• 






6 


5 


* 


Earth heated 








1 12 


10 


1 


Do. 


..*»«• 






112 


- 




Series I-B in duplicate 
( 


260 branches 






) 


1 


* 


Mixed branehea rib ... < 
l 


120 grass 
94 earth 
260 branches 


••• 
... 


... 


y o 14 o 
1 


6 


i 


Do. ••• < 


128 grass 


»•• 




1~ 14 






] 


124 earth 


... 


... 


J 


2 


i 


Ashes of mixed branehea 


142 aahes of mixed bran- 


10 








ches. 








7 


i 


Do. 


175 do. 




... 


12 


3 


* 


No treatment 


••*... 








8 


i 


Do. 


• «•••»• 








4 


i 


Earth pulverised 








o 6 o 


9 


i 


iJOt •%% ... 








6 


( 


} 


Earth heated * ... ... 








1 12 


10 


* 


Do, 

Series II. 








1 12 






Ain rib 


880 branches 


... 


... 


) 


1 


f 1 


171 grass 


••• 


.. 


i 2 4 








217 earth 


... 


... 


) 








1,106 cowdnng 


... 


... 


( m 


2 


1 


Cowdnng rib ••• 
Mixed branehea rib ... 


162 grass 
155 earth 
588 branches 


••• 


... 


> 8 8 

) 


8 


1 


159 grass 


... 


... 


} 2 8 






' 


185 earth 


... 


... 


) 


4 


1 


Grass rib 


415 grass 
155 earth 


... 


••• 


] 10 






Leaf rib 


887 leaves 


... 


... 


) 


6 


1 


160 grass 


... 


... 


v 200 






i 1 


198 earth 


••• 


... 


) 






Series III in dupliea e 
( 


260 branches 






) , . 


1 


i 


Mixed branches rib ... < 


145 grass 
124 earth 


~. 




f ISO 






Do, \ 


255 branches 


... 


... 


i 13 


9 


i 


128 grass 


... 


... 






( 


93 earth 


... 


... 


I 


2 


J 


Safflovrer cake ... ... 


162 safflower 


... 


... 


1 11 4 


10 . 


4 


Do. 

( 


162 do. 
653 cowdung 


... 


... 


1 11 4 


3 


J 


Cowdtmg rib ... < 


112 grass 


••• 


... 


[ 2 10 






t 


80 earth 


... 




) 



B 1095—6 



42 



Ko.of 
plot 


Am. 




Ounthaa. 


11 


■ 


4 


i 


12 


i 


5 


i 


13 


4 





1 


14 




7 


} 


15 


l 


8 


{ 


16 


i 


1 


l 


3 


l 


3 


l 


1 


l 


a 


l 


3 


l 


4 


l 


5 


l 


1 


i 


2 


* 


3 


. i 


4 


i 


1 


* 


10 


i 


2 
11 


$ 


3 


i 


12 


i 


4 
13 


1 


6 


i 


14 


i 


4 


i 


15 



Kicdef 



Series III in duplicate— 

eonti»*9d % 

Cowdung rib ••• 

Poudrette 

Uo. ... 

FUh 
Ho. 

Dung from folded sheep 
Do. 

Nitre ••• 

Do* ••• 

Outride ashes ... 

Do. .~ 



Series IT* 
Cowdung rib 



Ashes of cowdang ••• 
Cowdung ploughed 1n . 

Series V. 



- i 



••• 

••• 






Safflower cuke 
I'udi cuke 
Karanj cake 
Niger cake 
Mayan cake 

Series VI. 

Ssfflower cake 

Cowduug rib 

SafBower cake 
Do. 



Series VII in duplicate 

Safflower cake 

Do. 

Sulphate of potash 

Do. 

Superphosphates 

No treatment 
Do. 



Cowdung rib 



Do. 

Safflower cake . 

+ sulphate of potash . 
+ superphosphates 



Quantity of rab material! 
pat on in the seed-bed. 



Lbs. 

453 cowdung 
114 grass 

60 earth 
653 poudrette 
6*3 do. 

52 fish 
162 do. 
260 sheep*dung 
£60 do. 

SO nitre 

80 do. 

200 outside ashes 
200 do. 



1,106 cowdung 
198 grass 
*!66 eirth 
807 aahes 
663 cowdung 



162 safflower cake — 

400 Undicake 

2*7 Karanj cako ... 

825 oiger cake ... 

826 Rayan cake ... 



120 safflower cake ... 
653 cowdung ... 

100 grass .- 

75 earth « M 

100 safflowercake ... 

50 do. 



162 safflowercake ... 
162 do. •„ 

12 sulphat i of potash 

12 do. 

143 superphosphates 
143 do. 



Cost of rib 

materials and 

application 

cha.gea. 



2*6 cowdung 

60 grass 

36 earth 
276 cowdung 

60 grass ... 

86 earth 
163 safflower 

12 sulphate of potash 
143 superphosphates 
Do, 



BS. a. p. 



2 10 



6 12 
1 6 
1 6 
8 10 
8 If 
6 
6 



8 7 



3 8 
2 2 



1 11 4 
14 2 O 
7 0S 
3 6 
6 4 



14 9 
1 12 

1 1 8 

8 10 



110 4 
1 10 4 
13 
1 8 O 
11 14 11 
11 14 11 



1 o 

10 

14 10 3 

14 10 3 



43 



No. of 
plot. 


Area. 




Gunthas. 


7 

13 


i< 


8 


*) 


17 
9 


i 
*{ 


18 


i 


I 


i 


2 
8 

4 


* 


1 


n 


4 


H 


2 


21 


5 


2i 


3 
6 


24 
2| 


1 


1 


2 
8 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


1 


2 
8 
4 


1 
1 
1 



Kind of treatment 



Series VII in duplicate 

— continued. 

Pafibwercake 

+ sutphate of potash 

Do. 

Siffiowercake 

+ superphosphates 

Do. 
Sulphate of pot- ah 
+ superphosphates 

Do. 



••• 
••• 
••• 



Series VIII. 

Cowdung rib ••• J 

Lino ... •• 

No treatment 

Lime ••• •• 

Series IX in duplicate. 
Mixed branches rib ... \ 



Do. 
Cowdung rab 

Do. 

No rib 
Do. 



Series X. 

Cowdung rab 

Do. 
Do* 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Series XI* 
Cowdung rib 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



- I 



Quantity of rib materials 
pat on in the seed-bed. 



Lbs. 

182 ssfflower cake ... 
12 sulphate of potash 
Do. 
182 Sfcffiow<ar cake 
143 superi>hnsphatos 

Do 
12 sulphate of potaah 
143 superphosphate! 



£63 cowdung 
KO grass 

1± earth 
80 lime 

75 lime 



8 cartl 
445 gnus 
810 earth 



branche 



••• ••• 



3 cart loads branches 

4 7 grass 

360 tarth 
2,7**5 cowdung ... 

3<>0 grass 

170 earth »~ 

2,765 cowdung ... 

300 ferass 

170 earth 



1,108 cowdung 
144 grans 
V3 earth 
Same as above 

Jo. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



1,106 cowdung 
144 gra»a 
03 earth 
Do 

Do. ••• 

Do. ••• 



Cost of rib 

materials and 

application 

charges. 



Rs. a. p» 



4 

4 



2 13 

2 72 
13 8 3 
18 8 3 
13 11 
13 11 



1 12 

7 8 

0*12 10 

7 

7 6 

9 13 

9 12 



2 9 



2 


9 





2 


9 





2 


9 





2 


9 





2 


9 





2 


9 





2 


9 






2 9 

2 9 

2 9 

2 9 



44 



8. Besults with regard to seedlings. — During the year under 
report the seedlings from Series IA, IB and IX were very much 
damaged by crabs. The following statement shows the area 
actually transplanted and the cost of raising seedlings sufficient 
for transplanting an acre :— 







Area 


Corrected 


Cost of raisins; 


No. of 
plot. 


Kind of treatment. 


actually 
trans- 


eaten 

portions 

and blanks. 


seedlings sufficient 
for transplanting 






planted. 


one acre. 




Series IA. 












Gunthas. 


Gunthas. 


Rs. a. p. 


1 


Ain r&b ... ... 


H 


2 


28 2 


2 


Ashes of Ain r&b ... ... 


It 


2 


33 2 


3 


No treatment ... ... 


H 


n 


4 1 


4 


Earth pulverized ... ... 


n 


2 


10 6 8 


5 


Earth heated ... .. 
Series I-B in duplioate. 


n 


2 


37 14 8 


1 


Mixed branches rib ... 


n 


2 


20 6 8 


6 


Do. 


2 


2 


20 6 8 


2 


Ashes of mixed branches 


li 


2 


25 6 8 


7 


Do. 


2 


2 


22 14 8 


3 


No treatment .... ... 


u 


1* 


3 12 8 


8 


Do. 


H 


1* 


3 12 8 


4 


Earth pulverized ... 
Do. 


H 


2 


10 6 8 


9 


1* 


2 


10 6 8 


5 


Earth heated 


n 


2 


37 14 8 


10 


Do. ... ... 

Series II. 


u 


2 


87 14 8 


1 


Ain nib ... „. 


5 


5 


20 6 a 


2 


Cowdung rib ... ... 


8 


8 


)8 15 9 


3 


Mixed branches rib 


5 


6 


22 6 a 


4 


Grass r&b ... 


5 


5 


10 6 


6 


Leaf rib 

Series III in duplioate. 


5 


5 


b 6 a 


1 


Mixed branches rib 


2* 


2* 


21 5 4 


9 


Do. 


2* 


2* 


21 5 4 


2 


Safflower cake ... 


2f 


2f 


25 15 4 


10 


Do. 


2, 


2} 


25 15 4 


3 


Cowdung rib 


2* 


2* 


30 14 8 


11 


Do. ... ,. 


21 


2* 


30 14 8 


4 


Poudrette ' 


2| 


3 


25 6 4 



45 



No, of 


Kind of treatment. 


Area 
actually 


Corrected 

for crab 

eaten 


Corf of rairing 
seedlings sufficient 


plot. 




tram- 
planted. 


portions 
and blanks. 


for transplanting 
one acre. 




Series III in duplicate.— «o»t<*. 












Gunthas. 


QunthjM. 


Rs. a. p. 
20 9 4 


12 


Poudrette ... .. 


2* 


2i 


5 


Fish manure 


3 


3 


92 3 6 


13 


Do* ... .. 


2* 


£* 


110 10 8 


6 


Sheepdung 


2k 


n 


23 5 4 


14 


Do. ... «• 


*t 


2i 


23 5 4 


7 


Nitre 


. 2i 


2* 


175 6 8 


15 


Do, 


n 


2 


140 5 4 


8 


Outside ashes ... .. 


2{ 


2* 


9 2 8 


16 


Do. 

Series IT. 


H 


2 


7 5 4 


1 


Cowdung r£b 


5i 


6 


24 4 9 


2 


Ashes of cowdung 


5 


5 


30 6 


3 


Cowdung ploughed in 
Series V. 


6 


6 


15 2 2 


1 


Safflower cake ... •• 


6 


6 


12 8 6 


2 


Undi cake 


6 


6 


90 2 2 


3 


Karanj cake 


6 


6 


45 14 4 


4 


Niger cake 


7 


7 


22 6 


5 


lUyan cake ... 
Series VL 


6i 


6* 


33 4 6 


1 


Safflower cake 


2* 


H 


23 1 4 


2 


Cowdung r&b 


2\ 


24 


30 5 4 


3 


Safflower cake 


2 


2 


25 


4 


Do. 
Series VII in duplicate. 


2 


2 


13 15 4 


1 


Safflower cake ... 






42 15 6 


10 


Do. 






42 15 


2 


Sulphate of potash 






31 8 2 


11 


Do. ... .. 






31 8 2 


3 


Superphosphates ... 






300 2 1 


12 


Do. 






300 2 1 


4 


No treatment ... # . 






2 14 8 


13 


Do. ... 






1 13 2 


6 


Cowdung rdb 






SI 5 4 


14 


Do. 


n 




26 13 2 



46 







Area 


Corrected 

for crab 

eaten 

portions 

and blanks. 


Cost of ral-lns; 


Ko. of 
plot. 


Kind of treatment. 


* actnaUj 

tians- 
planted* 


•eedlingt aatfui at 

far tnnt; 'Anting 

one km. 




Series VII in duplicate.— eontd. 










• 


Guntbas. 


Gunthas. 


Bs. a. p. 


6 


Safflower cake + Sulphate of 










potash + Superphosphates ... 


n 


n 


470 13 4 


15 


Do. do. 


i* 


i* 


367 IS b 


7 


Safflower cake + Sulphate of 










potash ••• ... 


n 


n 


91 


16 


Do. do. 


i 


i 


113 12 


8 


Safflower cake + Superphos- 










phutes ... ••• 


u 


i* 


» 434 1$ 4 


17 


Do. do. 


i 


i 


543 8 8 


9 


Sulphate of potash + Super- 








18 


phosphates 

Do. do. 

Series VIII. 


u 

• 2 


2 


283 13 10 
262 9 8 


1 


CowduDg rib ... •• 


2* 


?* 


30 5 4 


2 


Lime ... «•• 


H 


H 


11 1 


8 


No treatment 


H 


H 


2 10 O 


4 


Lime ... ••• 
Series IX in duplicate. 


i* 


i* 


24 10 4 


1 


Mixed branches r£b 


10 


10 


32 7 4 


4 


Do. ... ••. 


5 


10 


32 7 4 


2 


Coirdung rib ••• •. 


12* 


12* 


33 9 


5 


Do* ••• ••• 


8 


1** 


83 9 


3 


No rab ... 


9 


9 


a 4 o 


6 


Da ...• ... 
Series X. 


2 


9 


3 4 


1 


Cowdung rib 


6* 


6* 


17 2 6 


2 


Do. ••• ••• 


6* 


6* 


17 2 6 


8 


Do* ... .*• 


«* 


6* 


17 2 6 


4 


Do. ... ••• 


5 


5 


22 14 


5 


Do. ••• ..- 


5 


5 


22 14 


6 


Do. 


5 


6 


22 14 


7 


Do. ... ... 


5 


8 


22 14 


8 


Do. 

Series XI* 


5 


5 


22 14 


1 


Cowdung rib 


5 


5 


22 14 


2 


Do. ... «•' 


5 


5 


22 14 


3 


Do. 


5 


5 


22 14 


4 


Do. ... ••• 


5 


5 


22 14 



47 

The area of the seed beds was not the same in all cases* 
The cowdung nib plot of one guntha supplied seedlings sufficient for 
transplanting 8 gunthas, and almost all oilcake plots, poudrette 
and fish manure plots supplied seedlings for 6 gunthas each. 

The co9t of raising seedlings varies greatly and is very high. 
The Ain and mixed branches had to be brought from long dis- 
tances and the artificial manures were very costly. The Undi 
cake was brought from Ratnigiri and Bdyan from Nadi&d. 

9. Remits cf field crops. — The seedlings from cake, fish, 
poudrette and cowdung plots were healthy and vigorous in the seed 
beds as well as in the transplanted area. The seedlings raised on 
artificial manures wero healthy and strong in the seed beds, but 
they fared poorly in the transplanted area. 

So far as the figures given below prove anything, they indi- 
cate that cowdung rao has justified its reputation nmonj cultiva- 
tors as the best preparation fur the seed bed. Tue yields are 
however much too uneven to be reliable. 



48 



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55 



10. Remits from seed-beds.— On the whole the outturn results 
of seed-beds are superior in yield to the transplanted area, and 
especially so in the Series III, VI and VII. 





Plot 
No. 


Kind of treatment. 


Coat per Acre. 


Outturn per Acre. 


Profit <+) 

or 
toss(-). 




Field 
No. 


Coat of 

raising 

seedling* 


Coat of 
coltifs- 
ttoninthr 
trans* 
planted 
Area. 


Total 
ooetof 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Total 
value of 
outturn. 


Beeaarks. 






Series 1A. 


Ba. a, p. 


Ba. a. p. 


Ba. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Be. a. p. 


Be. a. p. 




6 


1 


Ainrab 


38 3 


30 


48 3 


1.800 


1.780 


60 8 6 


+U 8 




»i 


t 


AsnesofAIn ~ 


33 8 


SO 


S3 3 


889 


1.440 


37 8 


—16 10 




.. 


3 


No treatment ... 


4 10 


~ 


4 10 


~. 


~ 


•m 


-4 10 


BeedHags washed 
awajbyrain, 


»> 


4 


Earth imlferisei... 


10 8 8 


30 


SO S 8 


880 


1,880 


86 10 8 


+6 810 


»» 


6 


Earth heated 


87 14 8 


SO 


8714 S 


880 


MM 


40 


♦17 10 8 








V* B.— Seedling* from the duplicate seed-beds were enough 
only for transplantation area. 








Series IB. ... 


Seed 


lings snffl 


dent for 


traa 


.plant 


atlon 


area only. 








Series II. 


















5 


1 


Ain lib 


SO 8 


38 10 8 


47 8 


1.800 


1.630 


67 14 6 


+10 18 10 




»f 


a 


Cowdnng rib m 


18 13 8 


36 10 8 


46 10 8 


1.880 


3,180 


10 


+34 6 7 




»» 


3 


Mixed branebssrab. 


33 8 


39 10 8 


43 8 


1.440 


1.440 


63 8 


+3 7 4 




»• 


4 


Grass rab 


10 8 


38 10 8 


37 8 


1.330 


1,800 


48 8 


+ 13 8 7 




M 


6 


Leaf zib 

Series III. 


18 8 


38 10 8 


48 


1.380 


1,880 


51 4 


•+6 3 4 




6 


• 


Mixed braoehet rib. 


81 6 4 


S3 8 


43 13 4 


1,780 


1.030 


66 


+81 3 6 




9 


1 


Do. 


81 6 4 


37 1 4 


48 8 8 


2.340 


8.040 


86 13 3 


+38 8 7 




6 


7 


Sefflower aaka 


38 13 4 


S3 8 


49 7 4 


3,730 


3,880 


100 


+61 6 8 




9 


3 


Do. 


38 18 4 


37 1 4 


88 8 


3.349 


080 


03 8 


+88 7 4 




6 


8 


Cowdnng rib 


30 14 8 


S3 8 


63 8 8 


9.680 


9,880 


96 


+41 4 




• 


3 


Do. 


3014 8 


37 1 4 


68 


3,3*0 


8,380 


87 8 


+30 8 




6 





Poodrelte 


80 8 4 


S3 8 


43 i 4 


8,680 


9.880 


86 


+61 14 8 




9 


4 


Do. 


38 6 4 


37 1 4 


88 6 8 


8,330 


3,840 


93 8 


+40 1 4 




6 


10 


Fiah manors 


10 10 8 


SS 8 


183 8 8 


8,778 


5.130 


113 1 


—81 1 8 




9 


8 


Do. 


03 3 8 


37 1 4 


110 4 10 


3,400 


4,180 


98 10 8 


-3310 4 




6 


11 


Sheep dnng 


38 8 4 


S3 8 


46 13 4 


S.847 


8,088 


80 7 8 


+48 11 




9 


6 


Do. M 


S3 8 4 


87 1 4 


80 8 8 


1,100 


8,880 


8810 8 


+88 8 10 




8 


13 


Nitre „ 


Seedli 


age ejuBl 


slant for 


trans 


ptanfta 


Hon sr 


m oolgr. 




9 


7 


Do. 


148 8 4 


t37 1 4 


187 8 6 


1,780 


3,309 


7110 


-86 18 3 




e 


13 


Ashes „. 


SeedH 


ngs sojffl 


dent for 


tram 


piaata 


tioa ar 


am oar/. 




9 


8 


Do, 


9 3 8 


37 1 4 


38 4 


1.930 


3.880 


70 S 8 


+43 14 6 





so 





Plot 
No. 


Kind of treatment. 


Cost per Acre. 


Outturn per Acre. 


Pro8t (+) 

or 
loss (-). 




Field 
No. 


Cost of 

raising 

seedling*. 


Cost of 

cnltira- 

tion Id the 

trans* 

planted 

Area. 


Total 
cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Grain Straw. 

i 


Total 
value of 
outturn* 


Remark*. 






Series IV. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs.a,p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




6 


6 


Cowdung rib 


24 4 4 


26 10 8 


60 16 


1,020 


3,160 


71 4 


+20 6 




M 


7 


Ashes of cowdung .. 


30 6 


26 10 8 


67 8 


1.440 


1,840 


64 9 3 


-2 7 6 




M 


6 


Cowdung ploughed 
in 

Series V. 


16 2 3 


26 10 8 


41 12 10 


1,920 


2,440 


73 11 8 


4-30 14 6 




9 


81 


Safflower cake 


12 8 6 


26 


87 8 6 


1.920 


4,080 


81 4 


4-43 11 6 




•k 


83 


Undi cake 


90 2 2 


26 


116 8 2 


1,840 


3,600 


76 8 


-38 10 2 




»> 


88 


Karanj cake 


46 14 4 


85 


70 14 4 


1,84a 


3.680 


76 13 8 


4-4 14 11 




»» 


84 


Niger cake 


22 6 


26 


47 8 


1.280 


2,720 


64 3 6 


+7 2 




•» 


26 


Rajan oake 

Series VI. 


38 4 6 


26 


68 4 6 


1.280 


2,640 


63 12 


-4 8 6 




6 


9 


Safflower oake ... 


S3 1 4 


26 10 8 


49 12 


2.240 


2.880 


65 


♦ 35 4 




»» 


10 


Cowdung rib 


30 6 4 


26 10 8 


67 


1.760 


2,240 


67 11 3 


4-10 11 3 




•» 


11 


Safflower cake 


28 


26 10 8 


61 10 8 


2,240 


2.890 


85 


+33 6 4 




•• 


18 


Do. 

Series VII. 


13 16 4 


26 10 8 


40 10 


2.160 


2,660 


80 18 3 


+39 3 3 




9 


9 


Safflower cake ... 


43 16 6 


36 


77 16 6 


1.920 


8.840 


80 


4-2 6 




»» 


10 


Sulphate of Potash. 


31 8 2 


86 


66 8 2 


1.920 


3,340 


80 


+18 7 10 




$» 


11 


Superphosphates ... 


300 2 1 


36 


336 8 1 


3,240 


3,840 


90 


—246 8 1 




»» 
•» 


18 
13 


No treatment 
Cowdung rib 


2 14 8 
34 6 4 


86 
85 


37 14 8 
69 6 4 


2.240 
2,660 


2,660 
4.480 


88 6 3 

108 6 3 


+45 6 7 
+83 15 11 


Received manure 
from adjacent plots. 


#» 


14 


Safflower cake + 
sulphate of potash 
+ superphos- 
phatee. 


470 13 4 


36 


606 13 4 


1.280 


5,120 


66 10 6 


-439 2 10 




»# 


16 


Safflower eake + 
sulphate of potash 


91 


36 


126 


1,280 


6.400 


73 6 


-62 11 




»f 


16 


Safflower oake + 
superphosphates. 


434 13 4 


36 


469 18 4 


1,280 


6.120 


66 10 6 


—403 2 10 




»f 


17 


Sulphate of potash 
Hhsuperp hot- 
phates. 


288 18 10 


36 


323 13 10 


1.280 


3.840 


62 


-261 13 10 








N.B.— Seedlings from the duplicate seed-beds were just 
enough for the transplantation area. 








Series VIII. 


















9 
ft 


18 
19 


Cowdung rib 
Lime ~. 


80 6 4 
11 1 


26 6 8 
26 6 8 


65 12 
86 7 8 


1,120 
1,280 


8,080 
1,920 


46 13 3 

50 O 


-•14 9 

+18 8 4 


Sofl rocky. Crop 
I thin and eaten 


»* 


80 


No treatment 


210 


26 6 8 


28 8 


800 


860 


86 


46 16 4 


by crabs. 
J 


w J 


21 


Lime 


Seedli 


ngs suffi 


cient for 


trans 


plantation ar 


ea only. 





67 



Plot 
No. 



Kind of treatment. 



Cost per Acre. 



Coetof 

raising 

seedlinge. 



Coetof 




cultiva- 


Total 


tion in the 


coetof 


trans- 


cultiva- 


planted 


tion. 


Are*. 





Outturn per Acre. 



Grain. Straw, 



Total 
▼aloe of 
outturn. 



Profit (+) 

or 
U»e(-). 



Remarfce. 



12 



Series IX. Be. a. p. 





3 


6 


14 




15 


„ 


16 


», 


17 


>j 


18 


*» 


19 


,, 


20 


>> 


21 


7 


1 


>» 


2 


„ 


3 


» 


4 



Mixed branches rftb. Beedli ngs enffi 
Cowdungrfb ^ 32 7 4 



No rib 



Beedli 



Be. a. p. 



I 
nge enS 



Be. a. p. 
cient for 

64 7 4 
cient or 



Lbe. Lbe. Be. a, p. 



trene 



trane 



plantation area only. 



I 
1,520 Ul 14 (• 

I 
plantation ar 



Be. a. p. 



-12 8 10 
ea only. 



N. B.~ Seedlings from the duplicate seed-beds were not 
enough for transplantation. 



Series X. 

Cowdung rab 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do* 

Series XI. 

Cowdnng r£b 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



17 2 6 
17 2 6 
17 2 6 



24 9 4 
24 9 4 

24 9 4 



41 11 10 ; 1.640 U.800 



22 14 ' 24 9 4 
22 14 ' 24 9 4 



22 14 
22 14 



24 9 4 
21 9 4 



22 14 ; 24 4 



22 II 



24 



22 14 24 6 



41 11 10 
41 11 10 
47 7 4 
47 7 4 
47 7 4 
47 7 4 
47 7 4 

47 4 
47 4 



22 14 0'24 60[l7 40 

23 1*0,2460 47 40 



1,600 
1.64) 
1,320 
1,360 
1.480 
1,160 
1,320 

1.560 
1,560 
1,560 



1,720 
1.720 
1.410 
1.600 
1.560 
1,360 
1,560 

.800 

,680 
1.720 



1.490 1,640 



60 10 

58 15 3 

60 3 8 

49 1? 

50 18 3 
54 6 
43 6 ? 

6 

58 2 

57 8 

57 11 3 

54 13 6 



413 14 2 

4-17 3 5 

4-18 7 6 

+14 8 

+ 3 6 11 

+6 1* 8 

-4 2 1 

+1 14 8 

4-10 14 

+11 4 

+ 10 7 3 

+7 8 6 



Variety Jtests. 

11. Fifty -four varieties of rice from the Bombay Presidency and 
253 varieties from Bengal were tried this year on a very small area. 
Only fifteen bunches of each variety were transplanted. The yield 
from each bed varied from 2 to 8 ozs. The produce has been preserved 
for sowing in the next year. 



B 1095— 8 



58 



The notes as to the characteristics of the Bengal varieties are given 
in the statement below : — 



No. 


Name of Variety. 


Colour of 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length, 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 








Ft. 


In. 


Inches. 










1 


Uraitrotta (old) 


White... 


2 


8 


7 


30th May. 


19th July. 


24th Sept 


29th Oct 


2 


Samharpuchhi 


»» ••• 


8 


8 


8 


Do. 


Do. J 


28th Sept. 


30th Oct. 


8 


Chitrakot (old) 


Reddish 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Sept. 


18th Oct 


4 


Sailo 


White .. 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


21st Sept. 


24th Oct. 


5 


Sont 


}i ... 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct 


9th Nov. 


6 


Chhatrl 


» • •• 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept 


30fch Oct 


7 


Suwapankhi 
Dndhkhoa (old) 


»t ••• 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


9th Nor. 


8 


ft 


2 


8 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Nov. 


9 


Radhavalnne (old) .. 


9t ... 


3 


8 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


9th Nov. 


10 


Ponga 


It ... 


8 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


n 


Kakeri rice (new) ... 


n ••• 


3 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Aug. 


31st Oct 


12 


Amagoli 


Reddish 


3 


6 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


20th Sept. 


Do. 


13 


Chinnor 


>* 


3 





10 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


16th Nov. 


14 


Telasi 


Greenish 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Sept. 


16th Oct. 


15 


Haradgonda ... 


White... 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


9th Nov. 


16 


Ponga 


»> 


3 


2 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. 


17 


Tedi 


» ••• 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


18 


Pandhari (old) 


i» *• 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept. 


31st Oct. 


19 


Karl Eonj ... 


» ••• 


2 


5 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct 


9th Nov. 


20 


Garar Koth 


n ... 


2 


4 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. 


21 


Chipda 


» ... 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


16th Sept 


18th Oct. 


22 


Garadkat 


tt ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept 


1st Nov. 


23 


Mahurdheti 


a ••» 


2 


3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


Do. 


24 


Chinga 


a ... 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


15th Sept. 


16th Oct. 


25 


Bagmuchhi (old) 


n 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Sept. 


16th Nov. 


26 


Bhera Eawar 


it ... 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Sept 


31st Oct. 


27 


Rupraj (old) 

Padanuar 


tt ••• 


2 


7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


1st Nov. 


28 


9> ••• 


2 


4 


7 


£°- 


Do. 


29th Aug. 


29th Sept. 


29 


KariKonga 


it ... 


2 


11 


8 


£°- 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


9th Nov. 


80 


Nonga 

Sontb 


tt ••• 


2 


6 


C 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Sept. 


llth Oct. 


81 


tt •«• 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd Sept 


31st Oct. 


82 


Samudrasoakh 


» ... 


3 


9 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


30th Sept 


1st Nov. 


98 


Chinlkapur 


M ••• 


3 





C 


Do. 


Do. 


28th Sept. 


Do. 


34 


Sooapankh 


ft ••• 


3 





8 


Do. 


Do. 


29th Sept 


31st Oct 


35 


Bhakwa 


)» ••• 


2 


9 


6 


D<» 


Do. 


3rd Oct 


1st Nov. 


86 


Chinga (old) 


a 


2 





6 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Aug. 


25th Sept 


37 


Nagsar 


tt ••• 


2 


5 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Sept. 


9th Nov. 


38 


Tnlsizak 


it ••• 


2 


4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


39 


Terhi 


Greenish 


2 


9 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct 


Do. 


40 


Ramkel 


White... 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


28th Sept. 


Do. 


41 


No name ... 


» ... 


2 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


24th Aug. 


Do. 


42 


$$ ... ... 


t» ••• 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


Do. 


43 


w 


n ••• 


1 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct 


Do. 


44 


»» ... 


»t ••• 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Aug. 


4th Oct 


45 


99 ••• ••• 


»» ••• 


3 


4 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


9th Nov. 


46 


it ••• 


,» ••• 


1 


9 


5 


Do. 


Do, 


30th Aug. 


2nd Oct 


47 ., 


j) ... 


2 





6 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Sept 


4th Oct. 


48 


M • 


„ ... 


2 


2 


6 


J>o. 


Do, 


22nd Sept 


24th Oct 



50 



Kamc of Variety. 



Colour of 
atom. 



FitiaT 
bdgbt. 



Length 
of «ar. 



Dated 
sowing. 



Date of 

transplant- 
ing. 



Date of 

flowering* 



Date of 

arvftfti 

teg. 



No name 



... •• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• •• 

■•• •• 






White. 
Reddish. 

White, 

Reddish. 



White.. 



Kamniayalal 
Chatteparneclai 
Chavannaga Aryan 
Ponnachatta Aryan 
No name 



••• 
••• 



Karanai sora (Bankral) 
KamalBhog 

Ramsal 

Mota Balane 
Pankharas ••• 
Bhoourlr tylhet .« 
Laniml Bhandar 

Bank Told 

Hoorie (heavier yield) 
Palnai Nabason 
Bankari ... •• 
Yatukulma ... 

Marich Shal 

PatnaiBhoginal 

Sylhet 

Komrah Qorh 

KamalBhog 

HariMayee ... 
GolapSaru ... •< 
Kusumsal ... •« 
BadshftBhoy 
Kalam Katbee 



» 

Reddish! 
White... 






Reddish. 



White.. 

ft •• 

Reddish. 

White. 
f> ••• 
» ••• 
i> 

|9 ••• 
N ••• 
»» M 



Ft. In* 



laches, 

6 

6 
6 
8 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
4 
7 
6 
7 
6 
8 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
6 
6 
7 
9 
7 
9 
7 
9 
7 
* 
8 
6 
7 
6 
7 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
9 
7 



80th May. 


19th July. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do, 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


► ** 



8th Oct 
8th8ept 
0th Oct 
23rd Sept, 
7th kept. 
lOth&pt 
7th Sept 
27th Aug. 
21st Kept 
3rd Oct, 
29th Aug. 
7th Oct. 
Sid Sept. 
1st Sept. 
9th Kept. 
8rdOct 
20th Kept 
26th 8ept. 
6th Sept. 
10th Oct. 
21st Sept. 
17th Kept. 
1st Oct 
26th Sept. 
20th Sept. 
12th Sept. 
27th Sept 
26th 8ept 
26th 8ept 
10th Sept 
27th Sept. 
11th Oct 
10th Oct 
6th Oct 
7th Oct 
3rd Oct 
28rd Sept 
9th Oct 

Do. 
3rd Oct. 
8th Oct 
12th Sept 
8rd Oct 
10th Oct. 

Do. 
3rd Oct 
13th Oct. 

Do. 
10th Oct 
144hOct 
18th Oct, 
17th CS 



9th Nor. 
11th Oot 
9th Nor. 
1st Not. 
11th Oct 
18th Oct 

Do. 
29th Sept 
24th Oct 
19th Not. 
4th Oct 
19th Nor. 
6th Oct. 
2nd Oct 
18th Oct 
19th Not. 
24th Oct 
1st Not. 
23rd Oct 
19th Not 
1st Not. 

Do. 
19th Not. 
2nd Not. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
19th Not. 
2nd Not. 

Do. 
19th Not. 

Do. 
26th Not. 
19th Not. 
26th Not. 
19th Not. 

Do. 
26th Not. 

Da 

ltfthNOT 

26th Not. 
21st Oct 
19th Not. 

Do. 
21st Not. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Da. 
27th N<m 



60 



Name of Tariety. 



Colon* oi| Final 
height 



Length, 
of ear. 



Date of 
•owing. 



Date of 

transplant- 
ing. 



Date of 
flowering. 



Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 



Marich Fal ... •• 
Dholay Meti 

Ghandan Sal 

SaghaBitchi Patni .. 
Baguii 



Nilkanth ... 
Dadahal 
Dhaleakalum 
Banakehnr ... 
KalmUal 
B ona ••• 

Madhu Malti 
Mogi Balam ... 
Nagra 

Marioh Sal ... 
Hingcheyloga 
BansQoRal *•• 
Melegorh 
BaukCkor ... 
Panik 8al ... 
Gonth 
Dadhiyftoun 
Salaybat 
Sita Sal 
Candheswaxi 
Man* Bhog ... 
UttnriaBal ... 
Kanak Char ... 
Lona ... 

Rnpthai ••• 
Mahipat ... 
Uthuxiakhna 
Chiby 

Kanakchnr ••• 
Bolam ••• 

Rupehal 
Baukchnr ... 
Kannoul 
Bnpaal 

Gayahahi ... 
Katwhoby 
A vat 

Shankchnr ... 
Bhankni ••• 
KeUybaAkciMU 
Bankemciki ••« 
Khijoor Chari 
Dndkaln>a ••• 
Thaia ••• 

151 I Gognibali . ••• 

152 Sftban ••• 



;.. 



White... 



Reddish. 

White!!! 
Blue .. 
White. 

M •• 

»> ... 

p ... 

M ••' 

f» .. 

„ ... 

n ••« 



Reddish. 
White 



Reddish. 

White... 

» ••• 

9) ••• 



Reddish. 

White... 
ft 



99 ••• 

» 

3* 



Reddish. 
White. 



Ft. In. 

2 10 

a 6 

2 7 

2 9 

8 4 

8 5 

2 10 

8 10 

8 5 

8 2 

2 10 

2 9 

% 7 

2 11 

2 10 

2 10 



2 11 
2 6 



2 7 

3 4 
8 8 

2 10 

2 10 

2 10 

2 7 

3 2 
2 3 

2 6 

3 8 
3 5 
2 11 

2 7 
8 4 

3 
2 11 



2 


4 


2 


8 


8 


6 


2 


10 



8 5 
2 jIO 
2 9 



Inches. 

7 
8 
7 
9 
9 

10 < 
8 
7 
10 
8 
9 
7 
8 
9 
8 
9 
9 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
6 
9 
7 
9 
8 

10 
7 
7 
7 
8 
6 
6 
9 
8 
9 
8 
8 
8 
9 
6 
9 
7 
7 
9 
6 
7 
8 
7 
8 



30th May, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

J>o. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 

Do. 
'Do* 



10th J*ly. 
Do, 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do.* _ 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



8th Oct. 
11th Oct. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
8th Oct. 
12th Oct. 
9th Oct. 
10th Oct. 
12th Oct. 
8th Oct. 
9th Oct. 
8th Oct. 
6th Oct. 
10th Oct. 
11th Oct. 
10th OoU 

Do. 
26th. Aug, 
9th Oct. 
11th Oct. 
9th Oct. 
23rd Sept 
11th Oct. 
5th Oct. 

Do. 
8th Oct 
Uth Oct. 
SrdOct. 
8th Oct. 
5th Oct. 
9th Oct 
8th Oct. 
10th Oct 
12th Oct. 
2nd Oct 
12th Oct. 
8th Oct 
6th Oct. 
8th Oct 
11th Oct. 
8th Oct. 
5th Sept 
l8thOct 
Tth Oct. 
25th Sept 
16th Oct 
14th Oct. 
18th Oct 
10th Oct. 
18th Oct 

Do. 



16ih Not. 

Do 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
26th Not. 
21st Nov. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 
4th Oct 
21st Not. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
26th Not. 
22nd Not. 

Da 

Da 

Do. 

Do. 

1)o. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

** J>0 ' 
SG&Not. 

^2nd Not. 
2nd Not. 
*tt ec. 
22nd Not. 
2nd Not. 
22nd Not. 
1st Bee. 
26th Nor. 
22nd Nov. . 
26th Nov. 
Do. 



6i 



l 

No. 


Name of Variety. 


Colour oi 
stem. 


Final 

height | 


Length, 
of car. 


Date of 
sowing. 

6 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


i 

Bate of 
flowering. 


Date of 

harrest* 

ing. 

i 


1 


2 


8 


4 


1 


6 


7 


1 8 


9 








Ft. 


In. 


Inches. 










153 


Bank Tulsi 


White,.. 


2 


10 


7 


30th May. 


19th Jaly. 


11th Oct. 


26th Not. 


154 


Khoshkhani or Shit- 


** ••• 


2 


3 


5 


Da 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


22nd Not. 


155 


ghhoga. 
Katmanu ... 


» ... 


8 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


8tb0ct 


Do. 


156 


Kanakcbur .. 


» ••• 


2 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


27th Not. 


167 


Patnai (long) 


» ••• 


2 


6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct 


22nd Not. 


158 


Changoasal 


» ... 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Not. 


159 


Panlay 


Beddish. 


3 


8 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


26ih Not. 


160 


Sarobati 


White... 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Not. 


161 


GovindBhoj 


t> •• 


2 


4 


7. 


Do. 


Do. 


15th Oct. 


Do. 


162 


Balam 


ii ... 


2 


'4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Da 


163 


Kamioi Sara 


$t ••• 


2 


1 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


164 


Badshalbhog 


99 ••• 


2 


4 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


Do. 


165 


Yamai Lara ... ... 


99 ••• 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


6th OcU 


Do. 


166 


Hatl-Sal 


» ••• 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


Do. 


167 


Da&khani 


99 ••• 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Not. 


168 


Kali Mane 


II ••• 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


169 


Piprebank ... 


Keddiab. 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Ang. 


4th Oct. 


170 


Ora 


White... 


3 





8 


Do. 


Do. 


18th Oct, 


26th Not. 


171 


Eanakohar 


»i ... 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct 


Do, 


172 


Ash Kul 


•• ... 


2 


11 


T 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


173 


JhigguSal 


Beddish. 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


Do. 


174 


Muoguray .„. 


M ... 


2 


3 


1 7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


175 


Khair Mori 


White... 


2 


9 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


176 


Lai Kalama ... ... 


Beddish. 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


177 


Karbi Bangi 


White.. 


2 


7 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


178 


Padshsbhog 

Sunder Mnkhi 


99 ... 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


Do. 


179 


$9 • •• 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct 


Do. 


180 


LaxmiKajal ... 


99 ••• 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Da. 


15th Qct 


Do. 


381 


M <>* 


•9 ... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


18th Not. 


182 


Amon ••• ... 


ft ... 


2 


3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


183 


Mardu Baj 


99 ••• 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


184 


Dbali 


99 ••• 


2 


10 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct 


Do. 


185 

186 
187 


Bonbota 

'Khirshey bhog 
PaddiShal 


» ... 
99 ••• 
»» ••• 


2 
2 
3 


10 

8 

4 


i 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


19th Sept 
4th Oct. 
11th Oct. 


89th Oct 

18th Not. 

Do. 


188 


Horkol •- 


Reddish. 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


189 


Gandhia Viraja 


„ .«. 


2 


5 


i 10 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


Do. 


190 


•£oagra ... 


,, ... 


8 


O 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


ttthOcs. 


26 th Not. 


191 
192 
193 


Begum Bicby 
Bhathi Sal ... 
Madan Mohan 


„ ... 
White?.. 


3 
2 
8 




10 




9 
8 
8 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


-Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


4th Oct. 
15th Oct 
10th Oct. 


18th Nor. 
Do. 
Do. 


194 


MaganSbal 


Beddish. 


3 


5 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 
Do. 


195 


GandhaMalti 


White... 


3 


1 


X 2 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


196 
197 
198 


Megi Ban! 

Pairanri 

Bandhani Pagal ... 


Beddish! 

9$ ••• 


3 
3 
3 


1 
1 



7 
9 
9 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


12th Oct. 
10th Oct. 
12th Oct 


26th Not. 
18th Not. 
Do. 


199 
200 


Khejra „ # ... 
Laxfmi Bilas 


19 ... 

White... 


2 
3 


10 

4 


8 
8 


Do. 
Do. 


Do. 
Do. 


10th Oct 
3rd Oct 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


201 

202 
203 


Hingchog Loghn ... 

Banafnti 

Lalkalma ..• ... 


Bed ... 

99 ••• 

Beddiah. 


3 
3 
3 


6 
3 
b 


7 
8 
9 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

< 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


9th Oct. 

Do. 
3rd Oct 



No. 


Name of Variety. 


Colour of 
item. 


Final 
height 


Length 
of car. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1 




Ft. In. 


Inches. 










204 Karlick Bangi 


White.. 


8 


9 


80th May. 


19ih July. 


8th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


206 


Monlata 


tt •••• 


3 5 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


206 


Parabat Bangi 


w ••• 


2 10 


6 


Bo. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


207 


Yamai Lara ... 


ii ... 


2 9 


8 


Bo. 


Do. 


23rd fcept 


Do. 


208 


Hannra Kuli 


»• ... 


3 4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct 


Do. 


209 


KenlaShal ... 


Reddish. 


2 6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Not. 


210 


Govind bhog 


Greenish 


3 4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


4f h Oct. 


Do. 


211 ' Shamoti . M 


White... 


2 10 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


2nd Oct. 


Do. 


212 1 Murara Shati 


tt ••• 


2 8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct 


Do. 


218 ' Kaiindi 


Reddish. 


8 2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 


214 


Farabat Gin 


Wblo... 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


215 


Kale Gira 


tt ••* 


3 9 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


216 


Horin Kbura ... 


$t ••• 


2 7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. 


217 


Bans Mugoor 


ft ... 


2 8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct 


1st Dec. 


218 


Kala Mod ... 


Beddish. 


2 11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


27th Nor. 


219 


Kocho 


White... 


2 6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct 


1st Dec. 


220 


Paranasal 


»# ... 


2 4 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Nov. 


221 


Alegi ••• 


M ••• 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct 


1st Dec. 


222 


Durga Megi 


tt ••• 


2 6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


223 


MalaBati 


ft ••• 


2 8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


224 


Keley Bokrah 


tt ••• 


2 5 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


Do. 


225 


Piprueshal ••• 


t% ••• 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Sept. 


2nd tfov. • 


226 


Baldar 


Reddish. 


2 8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


27th Nov. 


227 


Longra ... ... 

Tat Mugoor • 


White... 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct 


Do. 


228 


»i ••• 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


18th Oct 


1st Dec. 


229 


Mahipal ••• ... 


it ••• 


3 4 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oot. 


17th Not. 


230 


Sowera 


Beddish. 


8 2 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd b'ept. 


Do. 


281 


Gagameli 


White... 


2 11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


282 


Black Ambemohor 
Girga. 
Ambanali ••• 


Greenish 


2 10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oot. 


Do. 


233 


White... 


3 2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


Do. 


234 


Lhaba Mugud ... 
KothimbirSali 


91 ••• 


3 1 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd Sept 


3rd Oct. 


235 


II ••• 


S 10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


10:h Sept. 


17th Nov. 


236 


Lhaba Mugud ... 


»• . /• 


3 2 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Kept 
4th b'ept. 


30th Oct. 


287 


Antu Kali ... ... 


Reddish. 


4 5 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Not. 


238 


White Ambemohor ... 


White... 


3 9 


10 


Da. 


Do. 


13th Sept. 


Do. 


239 


Mal-dodga ... 


i> ... 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


D?. 


9th b'ept. 


13th Oct 



The rest of the Bengal varieties did not germinate. 



63 



The following statement gives similar notes for the 54 varieties 
of this Presidency :— 



Name of Variety. 



Colour of 



Final 
height 



Length 
of ear. 



Date of 
towing. 



Date of 

transplant- 
ing. 



Date of 

flowering. 



Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 



7 Ambemohor Halva... 
9 Halva Ambemohor... 
20 Ambemohor Garva.. 
45 Ambemohor Lam 
boda. 

49 Amoemohor Botka.. 

50 Konkani Garva 

51 Konkani Halva 
54 Kamod 
48 Eoned 

12 Ghudya Sani Garva 

13 Tulsia Sani Garva... 

25 Rajawal Garva .. 

28 Bodka Garva 
6HalvaMah4dl 
19 Garvi Patni 

17 Garva Dodka .. 

18 Malbhaft Halva .. 

26 Nirpunji Garva .. 
18 Kachora Garva .. 
44 Kali Sal 

52 Chiman Sil 

42 Sal White 

40 Dangi or Danger .. 
23 GhoaAlwel Garva .. 

4 Ghosawel „ 
1 Km U\ Halva .. 

22 Tavsal Garvi 

53 Tamb Kudal 

41 Welchi 

46 White Eolamba .., 

43 Kamod Jiri Patni.., 
80 Barka Kolamba ... 

29 Zina Kolamba 

27 Mahadya Varangal 
21 Sonwel Garva 

16 Barki Mahadi .. 

31 Dodka 

33 Kndurthi (Thana). 

47 Thiii Paki Endai.. 
3 Halvar Halva ., 

5 Bhadas Halva .. 

10 Halvi Patni 

11 Dodka Suni Garva.. 

32 Dodka (Ehadak 

wasla). 

34 Patni (Thana) .., 
36 Torna (Thana) ... 
39Bhnra ... 



White. 



n 

Bed 



White., 



Reddish 
White... 



Reddish 
White.., 
Reddish 
White.., 



Bed . 

» •« 
White- 



Red . 
ft • 

White., 



i 



Ft. In 

2 9 

3 
2 7 

2 10 

3 2 
2 10 

2 6 

3 4 

2 6 

3 5 

2 10 

3 2 
2 10 
2 3 

2 8 

3 4 



2 2 
2 8 



2 10 
2 4 



2 H 
2 2 



2 5 
2 4 



2 8 

2 6 

2 7 

2 8 

2 10 

2 7 

2 8 



Inches. 

6 

7 
8 
9 

9 

9 

7 

7 

9 
10 

8 

8 

9 

5 

8 
10 

5 

5 

6 

7 

5 

6 

8 

7 

6 
6 
5 
7 
G 
7 
5 
8 
6 
6 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

8 
6 
6 



30th May 
D;. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

D». 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

J>o. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



21st July. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 

Do. 
Do. 
Dc. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
23rd July 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



29th Sept 
19th 8ept 
10th Oct. 
26th Sept 



23rd Sept 
6th Oct 
18th bept 
26th Sept. 
1st Oct 
26th bept 
19th Sept. 
30th Sept 
4th Oct 
21st Sept 
11th Oct. 
4th Oct 
18th Sept. 
4th Oct. 
25th Sept 
4th Oct 
3rd Oct 
29th Sept 
19th Sept 
26th Sept 
6th Sept 
17th Sept. 
2nd Oct 
17th 8ept 
7th bept 
2nd Oct 
10th Oct. 
5th Oct 
6th Oct 
10th Oct. 

Do. 
6th Oct 
10th Oct 
17th Sept. 
4th Oct. 
21st Sept. 
18th Sept. 
23rd Sept 
16th Sept. 
17th Sept, 

21st Sept. 
8th Sept. 
17th Sept. 



6th Nov. 

Do. 
10th Nov. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 

6th Nov. 

16th Nov. 

5th Nov. 

Do. 
23rd Oct 
6th Nov. 

Do. 
24th Oct 
10th Nov. 

Do. 
16th Nov. 
14th Not. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
24th Oct. 
7th Nor. 

Do. 
16th Oct 
24th Oct 
7th Nov. 
24th Oct. 
15th Oct. 
8th Nov. 
14th Nov. 

Do. 

Do. 
8th Nov. 
14th Nov. 

Do. 
13th Nov. 
17th Oct. 
14th Oct. 
16th Nov. 
16th Oct. 
lethNov. 
14th Nov. 
17th Oct. 

24th Oct. 
16th Oct. 
24th Oct. 



64 



No. 


NAme of Variety. 


t 

Oolottr 
of stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length 
of ear. 


Date of 

sowing. 


Date of 

transplant 

ting. 


Bate of 
flowering. 


Date of 

harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


8 4 

1 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


48 
49 
£0 
51 
62 
68 
64 


14 Homdl ... ... 

15 Khiri Patni 

24 Jada Kolamba ... 
2 Mahadi 

86 Mahadi 

87 Rate 

8SMundaBat» 


Reddish. 
Red ... 
White... 
Bed ... 
Reddish. 

whW« 


Ft. In. 

8 2 
8 1 
2 11 
2 4 
2 8 
2 4 
2 8 


Inches. 

7 
7 
8 
5 
6 
6 
7 


80th May. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


23rd July. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


23rd Sept. 
5th Oct. 
4th Oct. 
19th Sept, 
22nd Sept. 
10th Sepb 
15th Sept. 


7th Nov. 

Do. 

Do. 
17th Oct. 
24th Oct. 
17th Oct. 
Idth Nov. 



12. Fourteen selected varieties of the Bombay rice were grown on 
a little larger area (2 gunthas for each variety). The outturn results 
from field plots as well as from seed-beds are tabulated below : — 





A 


Name of Variety. 


| 

•5 


Coat per acre. 


Outturn per acre. 


3 


Cost of 


Cost of cul- 
tivation in 


Total coat 






Total 


* 




raising 


the trans- 


of cultiva- 


Grain. 


Straw. 


value of 


l 




i 


seedlings. 


planted 
area. 


tion. 






Outturn. 


16 




Field plot*. 




Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 




1 


BarkaMahidya 




■* 






1,080 


1,400 


41 6 




2 


Garva Dodka 










1,040 


1,440 


40 




8 


Tamsal Garri 










800 


800 


29 2 6 




4 


Patni 










680 


1,280 


27 14 6 




5 


Mah&U ... 


3 








840 


1,200 


82 8 




6 


Kali Sal ... 


* 








1,040 


1,120 


38 5 3 




7 


Ambemhor Lamboda ... 


60 








960 


1,400 


87 4 6 




8 


Zina Kolamba 


a 

B 


37 18 8 


12 13 8 


50 11 4 


1,080 


1,280 


40 6 6 




9 


Dodka ... 


% 








920 


1,200 


35 




10 


Kamod Jiri Patni 


o 








800 


1,200 


81 4 




11 


Chiman Hal 








1,000 


1,280 


37 14 6 




12 


Kamod ••• 










807 


1,067 


33 14 3 




18 


Tin Paki Kudai 










853 


1,013 


31 14 9 




14 


Ambemohor 




- 






1,280 


1,440 


47 8 


14 




Seed-beds. 
















1 


BarkaMahadya 




; 






2,000 


1,600 


70 IS 




2 


Garva Dodka 










1,440 


2,400 


67 8 




8 


Tamsal Gam 


i 

60 
g 








1,600 


1,600 


58 5 




4 


Patni 








880 


1,760 


36 10 




5 


Mahadi ... 








960 


1,760 


89 2 6 




6 


Kali Sal ... 


.87 13 8 


3 8 5 


41 1 1 


1,600 


2,003 


60 6 6 




7 


Ambemohor Lamboda. . . 


i 






2,000 


2,560 


75 13 3 




8 


Zina Kolamba ... 








2,000 


1,600 


70 33 




9 


Dodka ... « M 


Q 








1,520 


1,920 


67 8 




10 


Kamod Jiri Patni 










1,860 


1,920 


52 8 




11 


Chiman Sal 










1,680 


2,880 


67 8 




12f 


No seedlings remained 


















to? 


after transplanting for 
these seed-bed plots. 












i 




14( 


► 


i 









65 

13. In the present season, weights (dry) were taken of 
the seedlings from differently treated plots. The statement 
below gives details : — 





Average weight of seedlings (in grammes) 




in each of the triplicate plots. 




Treatment* 






A. 


B. 


c. 


Mom 










ofalL 




Weight per plant. 




Safflower cake 


0-4097 


0-4987 


• * • 


0-4532 


Ain rab 


0-0879 


*• • 


• •• 


0-0879 


Mixed branches rAb 


f 0-2181 


01708 01430 


01773 


Ashes of mixed branches rib 


0-0797 


01 094 , 0-0954 


0-2948 


Cowdung ploughed in ... 


0928 


00772 


0-0850 


Cowdung r&b 


0-2561 


0-3172 : ... 


0-2866 


Earth pulverised 
Earth heated ... 


0909 


00625 j 01000 


0-0845 


0*3582 


02968 0-2276 

1 


0-2935 



In the case of the " earth heated " plot the soil was excavated 
to a depth of 3 inches, spread on iron sheets and heated from 
below to a temperature of between 200° and 230° P. The soil 
was on the sheets for a period of about an hour before this 
temperature was reached. After cooling down it was replaced in 
the seed-beds. 

Probably neither the "earth heated " plot nor the rdbed 
plots did as well as they would ordinarily have done owing to the 
fact that the soil was moist, an unseasonable shower having 
fallen a few days before the date of burning. This undoubtedly 
prevented the earth in all cases being heated to so high a 
temperature as ordinarily. 



B 1005— 9 



66 



Experiments off the Station 

14. Experiments were continued as last year on cultivators' 
fields in Karjat, Kalyan and Salsette T41ukas. 



Name of the village and district. 


Number of 
plots. 


Area treated. 




Xola'ba District. 




• 


Ganthas. 


Bhansoli 
Chincholi 


•••)TAluka Karjat 
Tha'na District* 


•••{ 


12 

19 


12 

28 


Maharal 

Kambe 

Kalve 


; # *}TiUukaKaly<ii 
... TAluka SiUsette 


••• 


18 
9 

21 


18 
18 
27 



The selection of site was made in the month of May and the 
plots were measured by the Circle Inspectors. 

15. The following varieties of rice were grown in the manured 
fields :— 



Name of place. 



>'ame of variety. 



Bhansoli 

Chincholi 

Maharal 

Kambe 

Ealve 



... 



••• 



Eolamba and Halvi Patni. 
Podka and Kolamba. 



The manures were applied to the fields in the month of 
August — in Karjat on the 3rd ; in Kalyan on the 8th and in 
S&sette on the 10th and 11th August. The seedlings were 
well established at the time of the application of the manure. 

Throughout the growth of the crop there was enough of 
rain, but was rather insufficient at the time of the formation 
of seed. 

The statement below shows the details. 



67 



Name of 


Surrey 
No. 


Plot 
No. 


Name of rice 
variety tried. 


Kind of manure. 


Quantity 

of manor* 

applied 

per acre. 


► Value of 
manure. 


Outturn per acre. 

Value of 


Tillage. 


fcdrain. 


Straw. 


OUtUUIL 


1 


3 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 












Karjat Series. 


Lbe. 


Rs. a. p. 


Lbe. 


Lee. 


Be. a. p. 




^ 


' 3 


Haki-Patui 


•{ 


Nitre 
Do. 


600 

600 


| 60 
! 60 


2/40 
1,960 


9,040 i 61 14 3 
3400 j 60 1 4 






:i 


Do. 


/ | Ohm Saltpetre 

( ] Do. «. 


193 


21 16 6 


1.620 


2,400 | 38 13 4 






183 


j 21 16 6 


2,200 


3.390 ! 16 4 


ansoli ... 


21 


3 
2 


Do. 

Do „ 


-{ 


Sulphate of Potash - 

Do. 
Superphosphate 


63 
63 
65 


| 6 8 

|680 
'684 


3,040 
1,020 
1.760 


3,200 
8,320 
3.660 


63 1 4 
40 3 6 
44 11 4 






De. 


66 


• 684 


1.760 


3.040 


46 1 






,:) 


Do. 


( Safflowercake 


728 


24 4 3 


1,840 


2.600 | 46 9 f 






"j 1 Do. 


728 


! 24 4 3 


3,080 


8.240 


63 4 






12) 


Do. 


£ No manure 

I ; Do- 

1 




! 
1 


2.C40 


3,160 


53 2 






... 


: ■- 


J600 


2,630 


40 12 11 








Kola nib 


1 
1 
/ I Chili Saltpetre 

"( j Do. 


192 


21 16 6 


2,120 


3,120 


66 11 4 






Garra 


103 


.1 K> 5 


3,240 


3.8C0 


70 14 6 






"I 

18J 


Do. 


/ Sulphate of Potato ... 


62 


5 8 


2,C00 


3,240 


68 2 10 






"M 


Do. 


62 


6 8 


2,240 


3,680 


TO IS 10 






"1 

20J 


Do. . 


••{ 


Superphosphate 
Do. 


66 

• 


6 8 4 
6 8 4 


1,920 
2,320 


8,000 
8,?00 


60 14 2 
72 16 3 






21 J 


Do, ...< 


SafBower cake 
Do. 


728 
728 


24 4 3 
24 4 3 


2,280 
2,160 


3,720 
3,600 


72 10 
68 5 2 






17 


Do. 


... 


No manure .„ 


... 


... 


1,880 


3,040 


69 6 2* 






22 


Do. 


... 


Do. 


••• 


... 


3,000 


3,380 


63 3 4* 


Inchol ... 


31- 

Pot 

No. 1. 


23 
24 


Do, 
Do! 




Nitre 

ChiU Saltpetre 


600 

102 j 


60 
21 15 5 


1.P80 
1.880 


2,600 
2,620 


69 4 
68 5 7 




23 


Do. 




Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


6 8 


1,860 


2,660 


68 7 5 






26 


Do. 


... 


SaperphoBpbate .. 


62 


6 8 4 


1,860 


2,620 


68 6 7 






27 


Do. 


... 


Ammonium Sulphate .. 


144 ! 


13 


2,200 


2,680 


68 12 3 






28 


Do. 


... 


Safflower rake 


» : 


24 4 3 


... 


... 


— 






20 


Do. 


... 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


6 8 


2.260 


2,760 


68 3 7 






30 


Do. 


... 


Superphosphate 


C5 


5 8 4 


M. 


■ M 


*.. 






31 


Do. 


... 


SaflBower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


2,800 


2,760 


71 li || 




< 


32 
33 


Do. 
Do. 


} 


No manure (in dupli- 
cate). 


... 


•a. 


/ 1.840 
1 1.780 


2 640 

34B9 


*7 13 5 
5 16 7 



68 



Name of 
Tillage. 


. 1 
Survey i 


Clot 


Name of rice 
variety tried. 


Quantity 

Kindofnaamrc. oI a ^Jj2f 

per acre. 


Value of 
manure. 


Outturn per acre. 


Valve of 


No. ' no. 

1 

1 


Grain. 


Straw. 


outturn. 


1 


t 


8 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 














Lbs. 


Re. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 












Kalya'n Series. 
















34 


Dodka-Garva 


..• 


Nitre 


5C0 


60 


2,080 


3,000 


55 5 1 






86 


Do. 


... 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


1,920 


2,600 


50 12 6 






96 


Do. 


~ 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


6 8 


1,760 


2,320 


46 7 1 






37 


To. 


... 


Superphosphate 


65 


5 8 4 


2,0C0 


2,400 


62 6 2 






38 


Do. 


... 


Ammonium Sulphate ... 


141 


13 


3,040 


4,080 


80 5 7 


Maharal ... 


42 


39 


Do. 


... 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 




... 


.» 






... 


Do. 


... 


Sulphate of Potaeh ... 


63 


5 8 


3,600 


6,160 


95 11 1 






... 


Do, 


... 


Supei phosphate .. 


63 


5 8 4 




~ 


... 






40 


Do. 


... 


Safflower cake .. 


728 


24 4 3 


2,240 


2,000 


68 8 5 






41 


Do. 


... 


Poudrette 


5,0C0 • 


20 


2,960 


3,800 


77 15 1 






12 


Do. 


... 


No manuro ... 


... 


... 


2,080 


2,480 


54 7 3 






43 


Kolamba-Garra. 


Nitro 


500 


50 


1,760 


2,920 


47 7 1 






44 


Do 


... 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


1,702 


3,000 


46 9 9 






43 


Do. 


... 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


6 8 


2,000 


2,920 


53 4 






46 


Do. 


... 


Suporphophate 


65 


5 8 4 


1.9T0 


3,040 


51 8 2 






47 


Do. 


... 


AuimoDium Sulphate ... 


141 


13 


1,C00 


3,020 


51 15 11 




74- 


43 




f 
I 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


i 










*m 


Do. .. 


Sulphate of Potash" ... 


62 


5 8 


M,»20 

J 


3,280 


51 14 8 






... 




Superphosphate 


65 


5 8 4 










49 


| Do, 


... 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


1,840 


8,080 


49 10 8 






50 


! Do, 


... 


Poudrette 


5,000 


20 


1,400 


2,320 


37 11 9 






61 


Do. 


... 


No manure 


... 


... 


1,800 


2,840 


48 4 5 






52 


Do. 


... 


Nitre 


500 


50 


2,040 


3,020 


66 11 7 






53 


1 Do. 


... 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


2,080 


2,460 


67 O 






54 


Do.- 




Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


5 8 


1,740 


2,120 


66 4 4 






55 


Do. 


... 


Superphosphate 


66 


5 8 4 


3,280 


4,080 


205 2 11 






56 


Do. 


... 


Ammonium Sulphate"... 


144 


13 


2,880 


4,000 


93 9 G 


Kambe ... 


Alien- 
ated. 


57 


r 

Do. .J 

i 


Safflower cake 
Sulphate of Potash ... 


728 
62 


24 4 3 
5 8 


>3,000 


3,780 


97 5 






... 




1 


Superphosphate 


65 


6 8 4 










68 


Do. 


... 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


3,660 


5,080 


38 8 1 






59 


Co. 


... 


Poudrette 


5,000 


20 


2,680 


3,420 


86 9 3 






60 


Do. 


... 


No manure ••• 


... 


... 


2,800 


3,200 


89 15 10 



69 



Name of 


Survey 
No. 


Plot 
No. 


Name of Hoc 
variety tried. 


Kind of manure. 


Quantity 

of manure 

applied 

per acre. 


Value of 
manure* 


Outturn per acre. 


Value of 


village. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


outturn. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 






1 




Lbs. 


Be. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a, p. 






l 


Salsette Series. 














' 


61 i Kolamba-Garva, 


Nitre 


600 


50 


1,760 


2,490 


57 6 8 






62 1 Do. 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


1,760 


2,080 


57 11 






63 ' Do. 


Sulphate of Potash 


62 


6 8 


1,8(0 


2.800 


69 2 7 

i 






61 Do. 


Ammonium Sulphate ... 


144 


13 


3.(40 


4.900 ICO 3 2 






65 ; 1 o. 


Superphosphate 


65 


5 8 4 


2.C0J 


2,760 (6 13 


Kalve 


82- 

Pot 

No. 2 


00 1 ( 
... Do. .J 


Same wer cake 
Sulphate of Potash 


728 
62 


24 4 3 

5 8 


U.100 


3.440 j 71 10 






I 


Superphosphate 


63 


5 8 4 


I 

j 










67 


Do. 


Safllowcr cako 


728 


24 4 3 


2,000 


3,000 


65 7 8 






68 


Do. 


Poudrctte 


5,000 


20 


3,360 


4,920 


110 12 11 






. 69 


Do. ... 


No manure 


... 


... 


1,840 


2,880 


CO 7 






' 70 


Dodka 


Nitre 


600 


50 


1.080 


2,400 


54 12 10 






71 


Do. 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


1,680 


2,600 


65 2 2 






72 


Do. 


Sulphate of Potash 


62 


5 8 


1,760 


2,760 


57 13 2 






7* 


To. 


Superphosphate 


66 


5 8 4 


2,080 


2,840 


67 10 4 






74 


Do. 


Ammonium Sulphate 


144 


13 


2,960 


4,840 


97 3 


Kalve 


172. 
Pot 


75 




SaflBower cako 


728 


24 4 3 


} 








No. 1 


... I Do. .„J 


Sulphate of Potash, ... 
Superphosphate 


62 
65 


6 8 

5 8 4 


f*.C80 


3,440 


68 10 4 






70 ! Do. 


Bamower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


1,P60 


3.0(0 


64 4 4 






77 Do. 


Poudrette 


6,000 


20 


3,200 


4,680 


104 9 6 






, 78 


Do. 


No manure 


... 


~ 


1,920 


2,880 


62 13 9 






79 


Kolamta 


Superphosphate 


05 


5 8 4 


1,560 


2,840 


68 9 1 






80 


Do. m. 


Ammonium Sulphate ... 


144 


13 


1,800 


3,040 


66 12 1 






81 


f 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


} 






Kalve .». 


103 - 
Pot 

No. 8 


82 


Do. ...«{ 
Do. 


Sulphate of Potash ... 
Superphosphate 
Safilower cake 


62 
66 
728 


6 8 

5 8 4 

24 4 3 


>1.760 
1,760 


3,040 
3,080 


66 6 1 
65 7 3 






83 


Do. 


Poudrette 


6,000 


20 


ym 


%m 


70 11 




^ 


84 


Do. 


No manuro 


••• 




1,600 


3,720 


59 £ 11 



B 1096-10 






70 

16. Karjat Series. — The yield of the duplicate plots is nearly 
equal to one another, while the outturn taken in general averages 
from 1,700 to 2,300 lbs* of rice per acre. 

17. Kalydn Series. — The complete manure plot gives the 
highest outturn. The results of outturn are in favour of the 

.poudrette and ammonium sulphato plots. In survey No. 74 the 
poudrette manure plot shows very low yield. In the alienated 
village the safflower cake and superphosphate plots show the best 
results. The yield in other plots is fair. 

18. Sdlsette Series. — The per acre results of rice in Survey 
Nos. 82 and 172 are in favour of poudrette and ammonium sulphate 
plots, while those of nitre, Chili saltpetre and sulphate of potash 
are comparable. The outturn from the safflower cake plot is 
moderate. The complete manure plot does not show any appreciable 
increase in yield. The increased yield in the unmanured plot may 
be due to the washing of manures from the adjoining plots. 
When the value of manures is taken into consideration the super- 
phosphate plot shows better results. The outturn in field No. 103 
is proportionately low as compared with the above fields. 

19. It is impossible to draw conclusions of any kind from 
these experiments, the variations between duplicate plots being 
often greater than between either of the plots and the " no-manure " 
plot. The plots are too small (^acre usually) and the difference 
in the water-supply probably produce a greater effect than 
differences in the manure applied. The figures are given for what 
they are worth. 

Poona, \ F. FLETCHER, 

September 1907. ) Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



tOKBAYf FniflTID AT TOT GOVEBNVBMT CFNTRAl HUBS. 



' ^ i. '-'ran I 



IBejmrtment of &griculturt , / ttoiirtaj?. 
ANNUAL REPORT^ 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

SURAT AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Surat District, Gujardt) 

FOR THE YEAH 

1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHElx, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



[Price— 6a. or 7d.~\ 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 48, Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., Loudon. 
Constable ft Co* 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W. 0., London. 
Qrindlay ft Co* 64, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 
Henry S. King ft Co* 65, Cornhill, E. C., London. 

P. S. King ft Son, 2 ft 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 

London. 
Kegan Panl, Trench, Trubner & Co* 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 

London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W„ London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelpbi Terrace, Ixmdon, W. C. 
W. Thacker & Co* 2, Creed Lane : London, E. C. 
B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street, Oxford. 
Deighion Bell ft Co* Cambridge. 

On the Continent, 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, IlaUe-a-S., Germany. 

Ot£o Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Ru6 Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 

In India. 

Higginbotham ft Co., Madras. 

V- Kalyanarama Iyer ft Co., Madras. 

P. R. Rama Iyar ft Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink ft Co* Calcutta. 

W. Newman ft Co* Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co* Calcutta. 

R. Cambray & Co* Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge ft Co* Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons ft Co* Bombay, 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bomhay. 

Gopal Narayen ft Co* Booksellers, etc., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



Department of &sr(culturt, Bombay 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

SURAT AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Surat District, Gujarit) 

FOR THK YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

JF. PLETCHEB, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Jhpmty Virtetar 'if AgricnUmre. 



• BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRK8S 
1907 



Iiist of Vernacular names of crops mentioned in the Report together 
with their Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 


English. 


Vernacular. 


Cereals. 


• 




Andropogon sorghum var. vulgarc ... 

Do. var. cernuuni ... 
Pcnnisetum typhoidcum 
Triticiim eativam 
Zca mayo 
Oryza 3itiva 


1 Great millet 

1 Do. 

1 Bulrush millet 

I Wheat ...' 
1 Maizo 

! Uice 

| 


Jo war (Chapti, Perio, 

Sholapuri). 
Sundhta. 
Bajri. 
Ghau. 
Makai. 
Dan gar. 


Pulses. 


1 

l 




Ca janus iudicus 
Phascolus radiatus 
Vigna catiang 
Cyaraopbis psoralioides 


Pigeon pea 

Hack gram. 

Chinese bean ... 

Field vetch ...' 

Saidi beans 

• 


Tnver, Tur. 
Udid t Adad. 
Charli, Chela. 
Unvar. 


Oil-seeds. 






Scsamum indicum 
Arachis hypogea 


ttcsamuui 
Grcnndnct 


Tal. 
Bhoising. 


Fibre Plants. 






Gcssypinm herbaceum 

i 
Crotolaria juncca 


Cotton 
Bombay hemp 


Dishi Kap£s (Broach, Gho- 

ghdri, etc.}. 
San. 


Sugars. 






Sdcliharum officinarum 


fcru^arcane 


Slurdi. 


Grasses. 






Medicago sativa 

Panicuin jumentorum .. e 


Lucerne 
Guinea grass 


Lasun Ghas. 


Miscellaneous. 






Zingiber officinal© 


Ginger . i 


Adu. 



£990— « 



THE SURAT AGRICULTURAL STATION, 
1906 07. 

Established— 1896 ; North Latitude— 21° 12' ; East Longitude 
— 72° 52"; Eleoation— Approximately sea level; Soil— Black 
cotton; Average rainfall— 38' 42" ; Temperature— Maximum 106* 
in May, minimum 51° in February. 

Area.— 84 acres arable and 150 acres pasture. 

Superintendent. — Mr. BhimbUai Morarji Des&i. 



Season. 





I 

r 

-1 


£ 

a 


• 
3 


a 


4 

§> 

o 
-< 


•I 

! 

! 


6 


i 

§ 

55 


! % 


u 

«• 



SB' 


f . 

? 

2 




Rainfall - 






, .j. „ 


' u 


' ff 


, „ 












/ * 


(1906-07) ... .- ... 


II 


* M 


10 10 51 


7 89 


1 61 


10 




," 


r\ 


' * 


,"» 


30 17 


A wag© — ... — 


07 


05 


7 65 17 83 


77 


6 6 


118 


17 


5 


6 


12 


1 


33 43 


Temp erat are (1PC6-07;— 
Mean maximum 


104° 


98» 


91° 


87° 


83° 


92' 


94° 


93° 


83° 


89° 


81° 


91° 




Mean minimum 


70° 


80° 


89° 


79° 


70° 


76* 


71 a 


65° 


Gi* 


«./• 


C3 # 


OS 9 





2. In February a little abnormal rain fell \rliioh did neither 
good nor barm. The monsoon burst favourably on the 9th June but 
the season was on the whole unfavourable. With the exception of 
a few days, there was rain almost every day till the end of the 
month, General sowing was, therefore, delayed till the first week 
of July. During this period, weeds grew unchecked and there 
was no time left for preparing the fields before sowing. 

Weeding and interculturing operations were very much in- 
terrupted by continuous rains in July from the beginning of the 
second week till the end of the month. A very short time was 
therefore available for kharif sowings, which, together with the 
fact that the heavy rains had encouraged a vigorous growth of 
weeds, prevented many fields from being sown. Owing to too 
much moisture the crops assumed a yellow appearance and many 
of the germinating plants diffr, so that some fields had either to be 
re-sown or the blanks in them filled up by dibbling seed. 

Similarly in nearly the whole of August and the first half of 
September there was more or less rain almost every day, thus 
seriously interrupting weeding and .other agricultural operations 

* 930-1 



„'/«*«> 



2 

and favouring the growth of weeds. Thus this very long wet 
weather made the plants moisture-sick, retarded the growth 
badly and turned them yellow. The total rainfall was only 
about fths of the average, but the number of rainy days was 
perhaps unprecedented. The rains stopped abruptly in the middle 
of September. Want of labour was then badly felt because all 
agricultural operations including weeding, interculturing and 
preparing land for winter sowing oame on simultaneously. 

Owing to the absence of rain in the latter half of September 
and early half of October both the kharif and rabi crops (espe- 
cially cotton) suffered to a greater or less extent throughout the 
district except in the eastern portion of the Mdndvi, B£rdoli and 
JaUlpor Tdlukas. The rice crop was in most cases below 
normal. 

Manorial Experiments. 

3. The experiments were laid out with a view to see whether 
costly artificial manures such as nitre, sodium nitrate, ammonium 
sulphate, etc«, could be profitably applied to such dry crops as 
cotton, Jowdr, Tuver and Tal, &o. Owing to abnormal seasons 
of the previous years no practical conclusions had hitherto been 
possible. 

This year, too, on account of want of one rain towards the 
close of the monsoon, the cotton crop suffered from want of 
moisture and failed to give a normal yield. But the crops of 
Jowaff, Tal and Tuver gave a fairly normal yield. 

The results were as follows ;-— 



I 

1 

3 



*3 



I 

Ha 



i 



i 



t 



a 

o 



•po^iino are siinsoj oqj 



3 



i 






I 

1 



i 



a 
O 



J3 



s 



*3 



© 






w 






J 



2 

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Each of the 36 plots was $ acre in area. 

Of the G cotton plots, the first three which were "better 
established than the other three, gave superior returns. The 
superphosphate + sodium nitrate gave the best results. Unlike in 
the previous years of scant rainfall, the no-manure plots yielded 
less than any of the manured plots (except the sodium nitrate 
plot). The sodium nitrate plot has throughout not done so well 
as the other manured plots, but the results might have been 
changed to some extent with sufficient rain. A normal rainfall 
would doubtless have enhanced the increase due to the artificials. 

The results due to these manures are more marked in the 
case of Jowar than cotton. With one more rain the yield would 
have been still bettor. The application of sodium nitrate in 
conjunction with superphosphate has increased the yield of grain 
by about 25 per cent, and practically doubled the yield of Kadbi, 

The Tuver crop was greatly damaged by hares and deer and 
practically no grain was obtained and hence the results are omitted. 
The experiments will be continued next year. 

The increments due to each of the manures and the cost 
thereof are given in the following statement. 









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6 



4. The experiments to test the effect of gypsum with farm- 
yard manure and no manure on Jowar, cotton and Tal plus 
Tuver were also continued in the year under report. The results 
were as tabulated below : — 







Yield per acre. 


Manure applied per acre. 


Cotton, 
in reed. 


Jowar. 


Tal and Tuver mixed* 




Tal. 


Tuver. 




Grain. 


Kadbi. 


Grain. 


Stalks. 


Grain. 


Stalks. 


Gypsum, 2,000 lbs. 

Ho manure .- 

Farm yard manure, 5 tone 


Lbs. 

• 

381 
851 
261 


Lbe. Lbs. 

2 5a 
1.030 1,597 

256 
1,063 1.529 

25c 

1.115 ! 1.795 

1 


Lb*. 
190 
173 
139 


Lbs. 

2 
437 

2 
472 

2 
434 


Lbs. 
7« 

lb 
2 

7c 


Lbs. 
39 
35 
8S 



* Average yield of plots 20 and i& 

In the case of Jow4r, the farmyard manure plot has yielded 
a little better than either the gypsum or no manure plot. Tho 
plot gave similar results last year with cotton. 

In the case of cotton and Tal plus Tuver, the gypsum plots 
have yielded best, and the farmyard manure plots the worst 
just in the same way as these plots did with Jowdr and Tuver last 
year. The difference in yield might possibly be due to the 
reasons given last year at the end of paragraph 4. The following 
sketches show the plan of these experiments : — 



Experiment* in 1905-06. 



Experiments in 1906-07. 




B r o 


Plot 26 

B 
a c h C o t t 


A 
on. a 




a 

" 

a 


* Plot 2d 



B 

a 
u v 




BE 

o r. 


cS 

K 

Jowar 


a Plot 27 

a B 

and Tuver 

o 


mixed. 


c9 



Tal 


Plot 28 

B 
and Tuver 


A 

mixed. 



O 


Plot 25 

B 

o w a 


A 

i 






- 

s 

~ B r ° 


U Plot 26 



B 



a c h C o t t 




A 
o n. 


U 

fS 

K c 

3 Tal 

14 


a Plot 27 

a b 

and Tuver 

© 


p. 

A K 

mixed. 


fa 

C 

B r o 


Plot 28 

B 
a c h C o t t 


A 

o n. 



5. A plot of Jowar of 30 gunthas manured with superphos- 
phate of lime at the rate of 400 lbs. per acre yielded only 771 lbs. 
14 ozs, of grain, which oould not pay the extra oost of manure ; 
the yield being only equal to the ordinary yield of a good 
cultivator. This plot grew cotton last year and was manured 
with the same manure. 

6. Night-sail Experiments of previous years.— The plots, as 
re-arranged last year, were sown with selected seed of Perio Jow£r 
and Bazar Jowar in rotation with the cotton sown last year 
without further application of manure. 

The results are tabulated below :— 





Bub- 

Urision 

of 

Plot. 






YieW por son. 






• 


Plot 33. 


Plot 33. 


Plot 31. 


Manure applied. 


X 

Perio 

Jowar 

relooted 

s?ed. 


Y 

Perio 

Jowar 

baz*r 

seed. 


X 

Perio 
Jowar 
selected 

seed. 


Y 

Perio 
Jowar 
bazir 
seed. 


X 

Perio 
Jowir 
selected 

seed. 


T 

Perio 
Jowir 
bsxir 
seed. 






Lba. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lis, 


Night-soil applied in beds in 1904, 
b „t no manure since .„ 


hi 


a. 987 
C. 310 
K. 5,010 


1.232 

236 
3.608 


1,237 

318 

6,261 


1,5*5 

339 

3,416 


1,153 

292 

3,131 


1.256 

301 

2,513 


No manure in 1901, bnt SO loads of farm 
yard raannre applied in 1905*5 make 
it even with other plots, no manure 
since 


}■{ 


Q. 768 
C. 2fi9 
K. 1,322 


752 

176 

1,200 


852 

235 

1,303 


fi83 
160 
960 


699 

177 

1,153 


669 

141 
1.115 


Farmyard mannre applied in 1904, but ) r f 
no;ie since ... , ... i J 


O. 1,006 
O. 803 
K. 1.8J7 


934 

208 

1,60) 


85 1 

209 

1,638 


836 

2J9 

1.313 


961 

837 

1.6J7 


999 

356 
1.816 


Night-soil applied in trenches ir ad 3 by ) ( 
T. W, plough in 1904, bat no manure } D { 
since ... ... ,„ J (• 

1 


a. 1,302 
C. 339 
K. 4,377 


1.2T7 

807 

3,903 


1,144 

307 

3,885 


1.533 

330 

3303 


1,231 

307 

2,969 


1,603 

374 

3,440 



G. =- Grain ; G. « Chaff ; K. » Kadbl. 

Note j— A, B, C, D represent sub-divisions of plots acoording to the manorial treatment, while X and Y represent 
the sub-divisions of the plots according to the seed sown ; the latter sub-dirision is made at right angles ti the 
former. -o — • «• 

From the above statement it will be seen from the weight of 
the Kadbi and chaff that the crops grown on the plots treated with 
night-soil still continue to grow more vigorously and give much 
better outturns except in the case of plot 32 where it is only 
927 lbs. ; this is due to want of moisture. 

That the results of Bazar seed are better than those of 
farm selected seed is due to the impossibility of obtaining an even 
stand of plants owing to the character of the season. The Baz4r 
seed plots had to be reaown while blanks in the selected seed 



8 

plots could, owing to lack of surplus seed, only be filled in by 
transplantation. It wa9 observed that transplanted plants in 
the no-manure and farmyard manure plots did not fall behind 
the original plants grown from seed, but this was not so in the 
case of the night-soil plots where the originally sown plants 
grew very vigorously and far outstripped those which were trans- 
planted. 

It is notioeable in some cases in plots treated with night- 
soil, that the proportion of Eadbi to grain increases enormously. 
This was mainly due to the deficiency of one rain at the end of 
the season ; a very forcing manure promotes quick and vigorous 
growth of the crop and requires therefore more moisture than 
ordinary manure for its full benefit to be felt. Lastly, the effect 
of a heavy application of night-soil and farmyard manure is 
greater in the 8rd year after its application than in the first or 2nd 
year as will be seen from the fact that the plots which received 
these in 19U4 did better than those which got them in 1905. 

From this and last year's results and those of one or two 
favourable seasons to come, it will be possible, it is hoped, to 
suggest a practicable and profitable method of applying fresh 
night-soil to ordinary dry crops even though the application 
involves fallowing for a season. 

7. Another set of manurial experiments on cotton and 
Jowdr with rotted cactus manure and farmyard manure gave 
the following results : — 





Yield per acre. 


Manure applied per acre. 


Cotton. 


Jow&r. 




Grain. 


Kadbi. 


Rotted cactus 5 tons 

No manure 

Farmyard manure 5 tons ... 


Lbs. 

IB 
122 

16 

177 
ir 

169 


Lbs. 

C 16 

1,760 

B 16 

1,480 
B 17 

3,640 


Lbs. 

B 

3,512 

A 

3,278 

A 

3,580 



jft>M— »The figures and letters in italics show the plots and their sub-divisions. 

In the case of cotton, the no-manure plot has givfen hetter 
results than either of the manured plots and the farmyard 
manure plot yielded hetter than the rotted cactus manure plot. 



But in the case of Jowar, tho results arc different ; rotted cactus 
manure yielded the highest and farm yard manure gave better 
results than the no manure plot. 

This year the rainfall was not deficient for a Jowar crop 
except in the case of the night-soil plot, but it was so for 
ootton. 

The rotted cactus manure was made from fresh oaptiis out 
and buried in a pit for a full year. The total cost of labour for 
making a ton of rotted manure came to Rs. 2-2-0, i. e. % very nearly 
the same price as that of farm yard manure near, a big town or 
where cultivators know the value of manure woll and pay a gcod 
price. But in country districts where farm yard manure can be 
had cheaply, say about Be. 1 a ton, the cactus manure will be 
dearer. 

The plots under these manures will be continued this year 
to see the after effects of the manures without adding any fresh 
supplies. 

8. Another manorial experiment on a crop of cotton with 
ammonium sulphate versus no manure gave the 
results : — 



following 





Area. 




Per ficro. 






No. of 
plot. 


Crop. 


Manure. 


Yield of 

coUol J**"- 
1 


Remarks. 


3C 
31 


1 Broach cotton 

1 Do. _ 

i 


Ammonium sulphate 

100 lbs. 
No manure 


Lbs. 

202 

187 


Lbs. 

770 

•50 


On account of want of rain 
the result is not conclusive. 



9. Plots 38a and 38ft which grew Broach Deshi cotton 
and Perio Jowdr respectively were manured with ammonium 
sulphate for comparison with other plots getting artificial manures, 
but the yield of cotton was only 164 lbs. even less than in other 
artificial manure plots and the yield of Jow£r is 1,313 lbs. of grain 
and 3,682 lbs. of Kadbi which is nearly equal to other artificial 
manure plots. 

Rotation and manorial experiments. 

10. As noted in last year's report the old cropping scheme 
of the permanent series of experiments (in old Panas area) was 
abandoned. Series I was sown throughout with Jowar, while 
Series II was sown throughout with cotton except the first four 
plots, half of each of which was treated differently and the yield 

3 990-2 



10 



of these plots was therefore calculated on half their area. Simi- 
larly in the year under report Series I was cropped throughout 
with cotton and Series II with Jowar except in the case of plots 
1, 2, 11, 14, 24 and 25, the northern halves of which were treated 
differently ; and hence the results of these plots are calculated 
from the yield obtained on their southern halves. 

No manure was given to any of the plots. The plots were 
all even and uniform in growth. 

Cotton suffered from want of moisture on account of scant 
rain. It also suffered from * Dahido,' a mite (Phy toptus). 

The results are tabulatod below but the review is published 
separately : — 

Series I (Cotton). 



terial 




1 


i 

Yield per acre. 


Ko. of 


Crops of the ! 
rotation. | 






Utter of 

r* tfjki inn 


plot. 


1 


treatment. 


ri/vni tun* 





i 
i 


Seed-cotton. 

Lbs. i 


euiks. ; 




1 


Lbs. 




M 1 
b { 


1 
2 
3 
4 


Jow&r ... 
Cotton 

JowdrandTuvei 
Cotton 


2S4 
313 
314 
318 


976 
1,152 
1,060 

980 


I 5 tons of farm yard 
> manure to each 
I plot every 2 years. 


c 


5 


JowtCr 


801 


1,084 


■< 


° i 


6 


Tnver 


320 


860 




i 


7 


Cotton ... 


363 


1,072 




■{ 


8 


Jowdr 


296 


962 




9 


Fallow 


326 


900 




10 


Cotton ... 


334 


960 




f 


11 


Jowrfr 


628 


2,704 


5 tons of farm yard 


E ] 


12 


Fallow 


Fal 


low. 


>■ manure to each 


I 


13 


Cotton 


490 


1,356 


plot every 8 years. 


„ f 


14 


JowAr 


1 533 


2,648 




1 1 


15 


Fallow 


Fal 


low. 




( 


16 


Cotton 


457 


1,392 




( 


i 17 


Jowdr 


255 


880 




G 1 


i 18 


Fallow 


226 


! 800 




I 


i 19 


Cotton 


278 


i 860 




( 


i 20 


Jowir 


254 


836 


'500 lbs. of castor 


H 1 


1 




) 




- cake to each plot 
j every 2 years. 


I 


21 


Cotton 


247 


736 


( 


22 


JowAr 


272 


960 


\ 5 tons of poudrelte 
/• to each plot every 
j 2 years. 


I ] 










c 


23 


Cotton 


252 


1,028 


' { 


24 
25 


Jow£r 
Cotton 


252 

437 

1 


680 
976 


v No manure. 



11 

Series II (Jowar). 



Serial 


No. of 
plot. 


Crop of the 
rotation. 


Yield per acre. 


Previous manorial j 


letter of 
rotation. 


Grain. 


Kadbi and 
chaff. 


treatment. 




1 

2 
3 

4 


Jowar 
Cotton 
Jowar and 

Tuver. 
Cotton 


Lbs. 
1,112 
1,190 
1,371 

1,487 


Lbs. 
2,239 
2,208 
8,259 

3,383 


1 5 tons of farm yard 
y manure to each 
| plot every 2 years. 
J 


c -j 

D ■] 


5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Jow&r 

Tuver 

Cotton ... 

Jowar 

Fallow 

Cotton 


1,244 
1,432 
1,496 
1,332 
1,316 
1,532 


3,540 
2,872 
3,876 
3,520 

2,876 
4,428 


V 

1 5 tons of farm yard 
> manure to each 
j plot every 3 years. 


E •! 


11 
12 
13 


Jow£r 
Fallow 
Cotton 


1,764 
Fal 
1,754 


4,453 
low. • 
4,400 


•s 


P 1 


14 
15 

16 


Jowar 
Fallow 
Cotton 


1,826 
Fal 
1,799 


4,245 
low. 
4,403 


5 tons of form yard 

> manure to each 

plot every 3 years. 


G ■! 


17 

18 
19 


Jowdr 
Fallow 

Cotton 


1,394 
1,250 
1,659 


3,442 
2,877 
3,992 




H j 


20 
21 


Jowar 
Cotton 


1,304 
1,324 


2,948 
3,192 


} 500 lbs, of castor 
> cake to each plot 
3 every 2 years. 


I -j 


22 
23 


Jowar ... 
Cotton 


1,710 
1,745 


8,793 
3,770 


^ 5 tons of poadrette 
> to each plot every 
) 2 years. 


' { 


24 
25 


Jow^r ,.. 
Cotton 

[ • 


962 
1,171 


1,908 
2,598 


\ No manure. 



11. A new manurial experimental series with its duplicate 
was laid out in the, newly acquired area of Bhath&r in order to avoid 
the end error as already pointed out in the report for 1904-03 and 
further confirmed last year by taking the yields of each row or a 



12 



set of rows of each plot separately. The plots were made broader 
and shorter than the old series. Even this precaution was found 
insufficient and the whole series has this year been recast, each 
plot being protected from external influence by a protective ring 
plot 6' wide surrounding it. As the area was altogether a new 
one acquired only just before the rains, no manures were applied 
and no other treatment was given to the plots, but as was 
expected the yields differ in several cases owing probably to the 
previous cropping and treatment of the owners. The results are 
given below as showing what a good cultivator would have got 
from this land in its present condition and as indicating also the 
large differences in yield of various crops within a small area 
and the consequent difficulty that must always be met with in 
attempting to ascertain the average state of a crop in a district, 
in a tdluka or even in a village. 



Serial No* 

of 
rotation. 


No. of 


plot. 


I 


1 


11 


2 


HI 


3 


IV 


4 


v { 


5 
6 


v,j 


7 
8 


Vllf 



10 


vmf 


11 

12 


H { 


13 
14 


f 


15 


x { 


,.{ 



Crop. 



Cotton 

Jo war 

Tuver 

Tal 

Cotton 

Jowar 

Cotton 
Jowar 

Cotton 
Jowar 

Cotton 
Tuver 

Cotton 
Tal 

Cotton 
Jowar 
Tuver 



Kcw Scries I. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. 



Lbs. 
279 
86 ) 
464 
Did not 
186 
... 1,565 



SUlka and 
cbaff. 



151 
1,520 

175 
1,418 

116 
260 

183 
227 

108 

800 

65 



Lbs. 
910 
2,950 
1,414 
germinate. 
1,040 
S.860 

620 
3,470 



585 
3,396 

595 
1,083 

770 
460 

670 

2,040 

304 



New Tories II. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. 



Lbs. 
93 
970 
273 
107 
155 
1,070 

134 
1,130 

152 
1,080 

208 
366 

264 
191 

197 

760 
27 



Stalks and 
chaff. 



Lbs. 

790 

2,400 

1,300 

280 

840 

2,380 

650 
2,520 

1,090 
2,510 

870 
1,090 

980 
495 

8!0 

1,810 

131 



13 



- 


Ne.of 




2few Series I. 


New Series II. 


Serial No* 


Yield per acre. 


Yield per sere. 


of 


plot. 


Crop. 








rotation. 














Grain. 


BUtkiaad 
chaff. 


Grain. 


Stalks Md 
chaff. 








Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


XI { 


17 


Jowar ... 


977 


2,738 


810 


2,240 


18 


Tuver 


288 


1,166 


210 


780 


f 


19 


Jowar ... 


1,117 


2,921 


740 


2,260 


XII 1 


20 


Tal 


205 


416 


182 


897 


I 


22 


Jowar 


903 


2,471 


860 


2,290 


XIII { 


Taver 
Tal 


27 
214 


86 
4,355 


3 

219 


41 
480 


XIV { 


23 


Tovcr 


369 


1,392 


261 


920 


24 


Tal 


175 


369 


235 


580 


r 


25 


Cotton 


3i4 


960 


278 


800 




26 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XV- 


27 


Cotton 


275 


980 


248 


960 




28 


Do. 


160 


1,020 


160 


770 


k. 


29 


Do. 


182 


830 


206 


690 


r 


SO 


Jowar ... 


1,227 


2.948 


1,480 


3,710 




81 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XVI- 


32 


Jowar 


1,123 


2,947 


1,350 


3,150 




33 


Do. 


820 


2,200 


1,330 


2,580 


k. 


34 


Do. 


726 


2,183 


1,330 


3,220 


f 


35 


Tuver 


435 


1,381 


874 


1,400 




36 


Fallow 


Fall 


OW. 


Fall 


ow. 


XVII< 


37 


Taver 


333 


1,266 


261 


1,240 




38 


, Do. 


216 


1,036 


112 


1,070 


k 


39 


Do. 


275 


1,293 


192 


1,100 


r 


40 


Tal 


261 


512 


149 


507 




41 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XVIII- 


12 


Tal 


240 


542 


271 


677 




43 


Do. 


234 


501 


271 


612 


< 


44 


Do. 


212 


468 


223 


535 


XIX { 


45 


Cotton 


238 


700 


169 


760 


46 


Jowar ... 


1,030 


3,310 


1,260 


3,220 


XX { 


47 


Cotton 


112 


770 


103 


960 


48 


Jowar 


1,050 


3,100 


1,160 


3,160 



14 



' 


Crop. 


New S< 
Yield l> 


;rie« I. 


Kew Series II. 


8*WK* ' No. of 


craerc. 


Yield per acre. 










i 




Grain. 


Stalks Mid 
ch»0. 


Grain. 


b'talks and 
chaff. 




. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


(', 49 


Cotton 


JIO 


980 


114 


740 


XXl| 50 { 


JowAr 


1,200 


2,830 


1,320 


3,240 


Turer 


24 


129 


2 


27 


xxii { j» 


Cotton ... 


133 


780 


#•• 


••• 


Jowdr 


1,800 


3,100 




... 


XXIII {; H 


Cotton • • • 


111 


760 


... 


• •• 


Jow&r ... 


1,180 


2,810 


... 


••< 


VV1 « r 1 00 


Cotton 


110 


700 


• • * 


... 


xxiv {] 66 


JowAr ... 


1,210 


2,880 


... 


... 



12. An attempt was made to demonstrate the toxic effect of 
Jow£r roots when used as manure by manuring with this material 
small areas (about a yard square) lying in a plot otherwise treated 
naturally. Both ootton and Jow£r failed on the spots containing 
Jowdr roots. It is probable that the almost universal practice 
of collecting and burning Jow£r stubble in the fields constitutes 
an attempt to obviate this toxic effect. The whole question 
forms the subject of a separate publication. 

Cultural experiments. 

13. The plots under deep and shallow cultivation of last 
year were continued this year, with the change that the plots 
under Jow&r last year were sown with cotton in the year under 
report and those under cotton were sown with Jowar. 

The results were as under :— 





Yield per acre* 


Cultivation* 


Seed cotton. 


Jowar. 




Grain. 


Eadbi. 


Deep cultivation #•• ••• 
Shallow cultivation ••• 


Lb?. 
307 
411 


Lbs. 

910 
882 


Lbs. 

2,460 
2,340 



15 



In the case of cotton the deeply cultivated part apparently 
absorbed more moisture than was required for a young cotton 
crop when grown according to local custom and hence most of 
the plants died on account of too much moisture and this part 
had to be resown, while the crop on the shallow cultivated 
area survived. Hence the difference in yield* 

In the case of Jow&r the results are better in the deep 
cultivated plot than those in the shallow cultivated plot, as Jowar 
plants can withstand more moisture than cotton plants. 

Possibly by sowing the cotton at a longer interval after rain 
a good stand might be obtained ; in this way only can a real test 
be made. 

14. A set of plots under cotton and Jowar was set aside to 
ascertain the most suitable distance at which they should be sown. 

The results were as under : — 





Jowar. 

Yield per acre. 


l 

l 

i 

DUtanco 
between rows. 


Cotton. 


No. of 

riot. 


No. of 
riot. 


Yield of 


Grain. 


Kadti. 


Beed cotton 
per aero. 


21 A 


Lbs. 
1,983 


LbB. 

4,212 


i&* 


21 B 


Lbs. 
314 


22, A 


2,038 


4,274 


22" 


22 B 


337 


23 A 


1,929 


3,470 


28* 


23 B 


415 


21 A 


2,172 


3,700 


82* 


24 B 


392 


24 C 


2,027 


3,688 


86* 


24 D 


493 



The plots were under a green manurial series last year but 
owing to unfavourable conditions the land was practically fallow 
except plot 23A which produced a middling crop of Udia which 
however was not ploughed in. Spacing has had little effect on 
Jowdr, but the quality of Kadbi in the wide spaced plots is poor, 
being thick stemmed/ In the case of cotton the wider the spacing 
the greater the yield under the conditions of the experiment. 

15. Groundnut under irrigation treated differently gave 
the following results :— 



16 






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21 

A study of the above statement shows that — 

(1) The heaviest yielding varieties remain the same, viz., 
Virginia, Japanese big and Pondicherry, but in the reverse order. 

(2) The average yield of all the varieties is less than that 
of the previous year as the varieties were sown about a month 
later. On account of the continuous rainy season it was not 
possible to prepare beds for sowing ; but the average yield of the 
heaviest yielding varieties can be safely taken at between 
3,500 lbs. and 4,000 lbs. per acre under favourable conditions. 

(3) The charges of harvesting the varieties have been com- 
paratively less than those of the last year partly due to the 
difference in yield and mostly due to the fact that they were 
harvested soon after irrigation water was applied, i. e., when the 
soil was sufficiently moist Cultivators generally follow this 
system to minimize the expenditure and sell off their produce 
soon after it is lifted in order to secure more weight. But this 
practice will not suit on a farm where fully matured and dried 
seed has to be collected. This year's experience shows that the 
produce thus harvested takes several days to dry the nuts on a 
threshing yard. 

The " lifting " charges have been less for local than for 
Virginia as the crop .was not fully established. 

(4) It will be seen from the statement that many of the 
foreign varieties are commercially superior to the local in havin<* 
a higher percentage of seed to husk and also to a higher pe£ 
centage of oil in them. In the current year the percentage of 
oil has remained almost the same in many of the varieties, except 
the Spanish peanut, where it has fallen by about 3 per cent., and 
in the Japanese big and local by about 1 per cent, each due 
mostly to the quality of the produce^ 

(5) Some of the foreign varieties, viz., Spanish peanut, 
Japanese small and big, ripen much earlier than the local, $ 9 &, in 
about 5 to 7 weeks; other varieties, too, ripen 2 to 3 weeks earlier 
than the local. 

On account of the early ripening qualities of the first three 
they can be grown as a kharif crop without any irrigation, makin* 
them most suitable for cultivators who cannot afford to irrigate 
or who have no wells. Two varieties, Spanish peanut °and 
Japanese small, were tried as kharif crops, and though sown 
about 3 weeks later than they should have been, have yielded a 
fairly good outturn which can equal the good profits which can 
be realized from either Jowar or cotton. One more. trial will be 



22 



made with these and Japanese big, also with the newly introduced 
most promising varieties, Senegal and Mozambique. 

(6) Of the newly introduced varieties, Mozambique and 
Senegal seem to do best. Each of them is found to bear more 
than 175 nuts to a single plant, t. e., nearly three times more 
than any of the old or newly introduced varieties. 

(7) Application of lime seems to do more good in the Athva 
area than in the Pands area. 

(8) As will be seen :from the statement, the application of 
lime for checking Tikka disease has not given satisfactory results 
and a further trial seems necessary. 

16. The following table compares the percentage of oil as- 
certained by Dr. Leather last year with that ascertained by 
Mr. Meggitt, Agricultural Chemist, Bombay, this year :— 



Name of variety. 


Percentage of oil 
in 1905-06. 


i 

, Percentage of oil 
in 1906-07. 


Virginia 




4721 


47-21 


Pondicherry 
Japanese big ••• 


• 


48-31 


4830 


* ••• 


47-68 


48*21 


Japanese small ... 


» • • • 


50-40 


50-48 


Spanish peanut ... 


• ... 


51-43 


47-31 


Surat Local 


••* 


47-43 


46-64 


Egyptian 


• • » 




46-43 


Mauritius 


... 




4643 


Mozambique ••• 


... 




48-32 


Senegal 


... 


4 


45-36 



17. Groundnut under irrigation treated with slaked lime 
to see if Tikka disease eould be .checked by it and also to see if 
the disease could be carried by the infected soil gave the following 
results : — 



No. of 
Plot. 


Area. 


Name of crop* 


Treatment. 


rieldof 

Nuts per 

acre* 


15A, 
16A 8 


Qunthas. 
0-7 

0-7 
0-6 


Japanese small 

Do. 
Do. 


Soil Inoculated with Pcona in- 
fected soil. 

Ordinary • ... 

Soil inoculated with Poona in- 
fected soil and manured 
with 2\ tons of lime per acre. 


lbs. 
1,217 

1,497 
1,280 



23 



Originally plots 15Ai and ISA* were intended to be sown with 
diseased seed from Poona, but as the seed was not reoeived these 
plots were all sown with Surat seed and the soil inoculated with 
Poona soil whioh had grown diseased groundnut for several years. 

The sowing was delayed for some time in the hope of getting 
diseased seed torn Poona and hence the very low yield. 

Plots A! and A 3 were affected more than plot A 2 and hence 
the yield is less in both of them. From the above it can he said 
that lime does not seem to have any effect on the disease. 

Similarly plot 20B was divided into three sub-plots and 
20B a and 20 H s were to be sown with Poona diseased seed but not 
inoculated with Poona soil. But as seed was not received the 
area was sown with Spanish peanut, and small and big Japanese 
very late in the season for the purpose of obtaining seed and hence 
the outturn was very poor as tabulated below : — 



No. of 
Plot. 



Area. 



Name of crop. 



20 B. 
SOB, 
201i, 



Gunthas. 
0-6 
0-7 

0-7 



Japanese large 
Spanish peanut 
Japanese small 



Yield of Kub 
per acre, 



775 
682 



18. Unirrigated Groundnut — The two early ripening erect 
varieties were tried as kharif crop which gave the following 



results : — 



No. of 
Hot. 



35\ 
35B 



Area. 



A. g 

20 
20 



Variety. 



! Yield of 

| Nuts per 

acre. 



Japanese small 
Spanish peanut 



Lbs. 

522 
590 



Value of 
produce. 



Rs. a. p. 

32 10 
36 14 



Cost of 
prcduction. 



Bt. 



a. p. 



24 6 
22 10 



Charges for 
lifting, 



Rs, :l p. 

9 8 G 
8 2 



N.B* — Date of sowing, 4th July 1906 ; of harvesting, 8th November 1906, 

A cultivator would have harvested it 10 or 15 days earlier, 
but for seed purposes fully ripe fruits are necessary. 

The above varieties, though sown about three weeks later 
than they should have been, have yielded a fairly good outturn and 
if sown' earlier appear likely to prove a profitable dry-crop. 
Further trial will be made with these and the large Japanese, also 
with the newly introduced varieties, Mozambique and Senegal 



24 

Experiments with new crops. 

^ 19. Eight new varieties of groundnut, eiz., Java, East 
Africa, Egyptian, Brazil, Barbados, Mauritius, Mozambique and 
Senegal, received from different parts, were tried during the year 
under report. Most of them naturally did not germinate well. 
But by observing the growth of the surviving plants and count- 
ing the number of nuts borne by each of the varieties, Mozam- 
bique and Senegal seem to be the most promising. They will all 
be tried during the current year under irrigation. The two best 
will also be tried as kharif crops. 

20. The following 17 varieties of Tuver from different parts 
were also tried at the Station : — 

(1) Bilaspur No. 1. 

(2) Do. No. 2. * 

(3) Bo. No. 8. 

(4) Sambalpur No. 4. 

(5) Do. No. 5. 

(6) Do. No. 8. 

(7) Bo. No. 9. 

(8) Do. No. 10. 

(9) Bangalore. 

(10) Variegated. 

(11) Bellari No. 35. 

(12) Do. No. 40. 

(13) Do. No. 43. 
(14} Arhar. 

(16) Nadiad red. 

(16) Do. white. 

(17) Khdndesh early. 

Of these, the following having done well are to be tried this 
season for cross-breeding : — 

(1) Bilaspur No. 1. 

(2) Sambalpur. 

(3) Bangalore. 

(4) Nadiad. 

(5) Khandesh. 

(6) Local. 

Of the above, Khandesh Tuver (early) was tried on a fairly 
large scale to see if it could be introduced in the district for 
mixture with Jow&r and B£jri in order to minimize the trouble 
of the cultivator of watching the late'Tuver long after the main crop 



25 

*is harvested. It would also give the oultivator a sufficiently 
long time for preparing his fields owing to its being cut early. 
But the Tuver is inferior, being small grained and red in colour and 
there is no sale for it ~ in the market. It yielded 442 lbs. per 
acre. It also took a longer time to ripen than is the case in 
Khdndesh. 

21. Nine varieties of Tai received from Poona were tried 
on the Station ; some were eaten . up after germination, while 
others failed to germinate, and there was no moisture left in the 
soil for re-sowing. 

An indigenous variety of Tal known as Tali, which is grown 
generally as a kharif crop on light soils, was tried to see if it would 
pay and whether the area sown by it could be ploughed after 
harvest with an English plough as the crop matures in Septem- 
ber. But the yield was very poor, 53 lbs. per acre, as the 
germination was defective owing to excessive moisture. 

22. Saidi beans from seed received last year were also tried 
again, but as the seed was old they failed to germinate. 

23. Ohavli was also tried on the Station in the year under 
report. The seed was treated before sowing with inoculating 
material received from America.. The germination and growth in 
the beginning were very good. But just before the flowering period 
the crop was badly attacked by a stem-borer and never recovered, 
yielding only 85 lbs. of grain per acre* 

24. Four varieties of maize received from Poona were 
tried at the Station. Their growth and yield were not promising. 

25. Ratoon rice received from the Director of Bengal 
entirely failed to germinate at all. 

26. Four varieties of lucerne seed, t?te.— 

Name. Locality. 

(1) Turkestan alfalfa Imported, 

(2) do. do. Montana, 
(8) do. do. Texas, 
(4) do. do. Etah, 

were received, and though sown thrice were every time eaten up by 
insects when the seeds were germinating or soon after germination. 

27. Two hundred and seventy-nine varieties of Jowar were 
grown on the 'Station for determining their botanical characters. 
They grew very well. As the work of classifying is now over, 
only four varieties, viz., Lalu, Lalio, Egyptian white and red, have 
been selected for sowing next season for cross-breeding and all the 
rest are to be discontinued, 

b 990—$ 



26 



Breeding Experiments. 

28. Breeding of ootton was continued on the lines previously 
followed. 

29. Preliminary experiments in breeding on Jowar were also 
made this year, but as the work was commenced late it was con- 
fined to an investigation of the process of pollination as it occurs 
naturally in the field. 

Pests. 

30. During the year under report all the cotton crop on the 
Station as well as in the district was attacked by a disease locally 
known as " Dabido " — a mite. 

Another disease which made its appearance on the Station 
was the stem-borer in Ohavli. 

Young seedlings of Tal were in some oases attacked and 
eaten up by a kind of caterpillar. 

Boll- worm« the common disease, was also present to a greater 
or less extent. 

There were casual attacks on young Jowar plants by beetles 
and on the little advanced plants by sugar-borer. 

Irrigation Experiments, 

31. These experiments, started last year, with Broach 
Deshi cotton and lucerne were carried during the year under 
report with slight modifications, mz. % (1) last season half the area 
under Broach cotton was watered twice after the rains ceased, 
while the other half received no artificial watering. In the season 
under report the area was divided into 3 parts. One of these 
received 3 waterings, the second two waterings and the third no 
watering after the cessation of the rains. (2) In the case of lucerne 
the interval of 20 days between waterings was changed to 
30 days. 

32. The results of cotton are given below : — 



No. 
of Plot 



Area. 



DftUof 
•owing. 



Pates of watering. 



1st, 



2nd. 



3rd. 



Yield per 

acre of 

seed 

cotton. 



Remarks. 



MB 
20 A (1) 
20A(2) 



A.ff. 
020 



10 
010 



20th Jnne 
1906. 

Do. 



Do. 









Lbs. 






None 


None 


None «•< 


329 


^1 The plots were in 

full flower at the 

1 time of the 2nd 


6th Novem- 


25th Novem- 


•••••• 


339 


y watering ; the 3rd 


ber 1908. 


ber 1906. 








watering was sriven 
when the fruits 


8rd Novem- 


22nd Nov* 


10th Decem- 


Oil 


J 


were forming. 


ber 1906. 


ember 
1903, 


ber 1906. 







27 



It will be seen that the yield in the unirrigated plot is nearly 
the same as in the twice irrigated plot, a result quite contrary to 
that of last year when under a rainfall of only 20* the 
twice irrigated plot yielded 3£ times as much as the unirrigated 
one. The watering appears to have heen most effective when the 
bolls are forming. 

The plots were very even in germination and the difference 
in yield is only due to irrigation water applied. 

33, The results with lucerne are shown helow :— 



61 !-;>r. 


Area. . 

i 


Crtigh 


' Interval 
Date of sowing. ] between 
' waterings. 


Yield 
per acre. 


Value of 
prodnee 
per acre. 


Be marks. 


ifct 




Lth'cnio 


p». 18th October 15darg ... 
| 1905. ; 


Lbs. 
3i\fl63 

1 


Rs. a. p, 
333 6 7 


Seed inoculated and 
sown on ridges. 


t$ 


u t$ 


D.. 


To. ...j Do. 
i 


22,056 ! 

1 


275 11 2 


Seed uninoculated and 
•0*1 on rltigc** 


Jif 1 


o 7i 


Do. 


- October 1901 ... Do. 


24,389 


301 13 9 


Com] are with 11' 2. 


H.-3 


o *2 ! 


l>a 


Do. ...30 days ... 


18,289 


228 9 9 


Com i*i re with He 1. 


m 


o n | 


Dj. 


-. L8th October' 15 days ... 
1 1903. 


28,154 . 


352 9 


DnpUcmW fAUa. 


JH 


o 77c, 


Do, 


Do. ...' Do. 


25.148 , 

i 


289 5 7 


Duplicate onU. 


Uf 


| 

1 


D* 


L6th October; Do. 
1906. 


19,289 

1 


241 1 9 


Seed iuociibTnl au4 
«wn in bed*. 



It will be seen from the above that though the seed inocu- 
lated last year failed to give the highest results that year, still it 
has given the highest results this year. 

It will also be seen that plots receiving irrigation every 15 
days have yielded much better than the plot receiving irrigation 
water every 30 days, and that the lucerne sown on ridges does far 
better than that sown in beds. It is also less liable to disease 
than that sown in beds. Established lucerne appears to give 
much better results in the 2nd year than in the year of sowing. 

34. The following statement shows the outturn of Guinea- 
grass and fodder Jow&r (both irrigated). Guinea-grass has been 
grown from 1898-99 and fodder Jowdr has been added for compa- 
rison onl£ since 1905-06. 



28 



Tear. 


Yield per acre. 


t 

Value of 
Guinea-grass. 


Cost of 
production 
of Guinea- 
grass. 


Value of 
fodderJowar. 


Co,t of 
production 


Guinea- 
Grass. 


Fodder 
Jowar. 


of fodder 
Jow4r. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Ks. a. p. 


1698 90 


28,680 


••• 


190 8 


172 6 




•••••« 


1899-1900 


29,546 


... 


196 16 6 


116 7 






1900-01 


42,594 


••• 


. 212 15 6 


169 11 2 


•« ... 




3902-03 


29,341 


... 


| 146 11 3 


175 1 4 






1908-04 


; 25,835 


... 


172 3 9 


175 13 






1904-06 


13,972 


••• 


93 2 4 


166 15 9 




i 


1906-06 


18,618 


19,2-10 


124 1 4 


193 9 9 


128 4 6 


68 15 7 


1906-07 


13,484 


8,126 


j 89 14 


113 7 


54 4 


• 41 4 9 



The Guinea-grass plot was specially planted in the Athva area 
near the buildings to remove the excess of water from the manure 
pit and so long as it was kept there and received liquid manure 
from the manure pit the yield was good. But when the planta- 
tion was removed elsewhere to compare its yield with a plot of 
fodder Jowar the Guinea-grass proved inferior to the latter. 

It will be seen from the statement that depriving Guinea- 
grass of liquid manure has reduced the yield to less than half. 
Of the total yield, nearly two-thirds is produced in the monsoon 
season when there is no necessity for this grass. The raising of 
a Jowar crop is apparently much more profitable to a cultivator 
than growing Guinea-grass, It is also not advisable for a cultivator 
to cultivate Guinea-grass which does not give him green fodder in 
fair weather when he requires it. 

The yield of Jowar in the year under report was less because 
it was grown on the same plot as that of 1905-06. No manure 
was given either to Jowar or Guinea-grass. 

The experiment is considered to be conclusive and is dis- 
continued, 

Measurements of irrigation water applied to crops. 

35. These experiments as planned out last year with the 
objects stated in paragraph 18 of the last year's report were 



2d 

continued daring the ourrent year. The results may be sum- 
marised as under :— 

(1) That orops like luoerne, groundnut, &o„ grown on the 
black soil of Surat either in beds or on ridges require irrigation 
water equal to between 4 to 5 inches of rainfall after a month 
or a month and a half from the time the rains stop, and that sub- 
sequent waterings are required at intervals of 15 days equal to 2 
to 3 inches of rainfall. But should irrigation be given only once 
a month instead of every 15 days then an application equal to 
3" to 4" of rainfall should be given. As the season advances and 
the temperature goes up a heavier application will be found 
necessary so that in the hot weather an increase equal to 1" of 
rainfall over the ordinary cold weather amount should be 
given. 

In the case of drilled Deshi cotton two to three months after 
the rains cease, when the soil has not cracked so badly as it does 
later on in the hot season, irrigation water for the first watering 
equals 5^ to 6£ inches of rainfall and the subsequent waterings 
at intervals of twenty days require water equal 3 to 3J inches 
of rainfall 

Trials with new implements. 

36. Two iron hand-gins and three iron 'mots' (buckets 
for raising water) were tried on the Station during the year under 
report with the following results :— 

The iron hand-gins were received from the Inspector-General 
of Agriculture in India. They are on the principle of McCarthy 
gins, but have no moveable knives and the roller is studded with 
small pins. Every effort was made to get them to work, but the 
cotton always stuck to the roller and was gradually chopped into 
fine particles. 

Of the two iron c mots/ one was [received from Ndsik and 
another from Belgaum. 

The first worked like the Sundhia leather ' kos ' with the 
only defect that it took a very long time to fill. This makes it 
useless. The price is Es. 9. 

The second from Belgaum weighs 50 lbs., i.e., double the 
weight of an ordinary c kos/ It is circular in shape and though 
it works well if cautiously used, it has some drawbacks, viz., 



So 



(1) that when the bullooks go a little further than the stopping 
point, the whple adjustment of the frame with the lower pulley 
is upset ; (2) that the price of this c kos ' is Bs. 15, i.e., the 
sam9 as oi the leather one. Unless it shows more durability 
than the leather ' kos 9 it is not profitable . 

Manorial Experiments made off the Station on 
cultivators' fields. 

37. Experiments on the effect of nitrate of soda, crude 
nitre and ammonium sulphate on rice were performed on culti- 
vators' fields in the villages of At and Amalsad, taluka Jalalpor, 
and on rice in the village of Shiker, taluka Bardoli. 

The results of rice experiments are tabulated below :— 



o 


Survey 

No. 


l 
Area. 


Manure applied. | 


Manure 


Yield per plot. 


Yield p* 


■r acre. 




H 






per 








Keuiarks. 




Kftnio of mature. 


Quantity 
applied. 


acre. 


Rice. 


Straw. 


Rice. 


Straw. 




if 


59 


A*. 
31 


Ammonium Bui' 
phate. 


Lbfl. 

150 


Lbs. 

200 


Lbe. 

2,720 


Lbs. 

4,946 


Lbs. 

3,200 


Lbs. 

5,708 




I 


•*• 


096 


Nitre 


160 


200 


8,000 


8,220 


3,333} 


5,800 




•M 


32 


No manure ... 


... 


». 


2,230 


4,320 


2,787J 


5,400 




( 


450 


9 


NKre —• ••• 


80 


200 


460 


502 


2,044* 


2,231 1 






4(9 


6 


No manure .«• 


... 


... 


200 


262 


1,333$ 


1,746| 




1 


483 


20 


Sodium nitrate ... 


100 


200 


1,000 


1,096 


2,000 


2,180 




I 


38 to 41 

A 54 to 

57 


02S 


Nitre 


160 


200 


1,040 


1,140 


1,600 


1,754 




h 


433 


SO 


No manure 


... 


... 


700 


862 


1,400 


1,724 




r 


9 


oie 

10 


Nitre 

No manure 


100 


200 


1,000 

680 


960 
525 


2,500 
2.720 


2,400 
2,100 


This crop at At was 
attacked by the 
"rice hispa" and 
hence though, tho 


i< 


197 


9 
32 


Sodium nitrate ... 
Ammonium ; mil- 


60 
175 


200 
200 


620 
960 


616 
1,155 


2,756* 
1,200 


2,733J 
1,4431 


growth was good 
the results are 
unreliable. 




... 


• 18 


phate. 
Nitre 


100 


200 


760 


750 


1,900 


1,875 






191 


20 


Sodium nitrate ... 


150 


230 1,160 


975 


2,320 


1,950 






. 177 


12 


No manure ... 


... 


... 1 400 


325 


1,333} 


1,083^ 





The owner of the field at Shiker was much impressed on 
seeing the results of the manure, especially as the manured 
fields were in muoh poorer condition than the no-manure plot. 
He has asked for either a repetition of the experiment or a supply 
of manure for which he is prepared to pay. The extra yield from 



31 

the manured plots only pays for the extra expenditure incurred on 
the manure. Had oonditions been equal the value of the extra 
yield would have exceeded the cost of the manure. 

At Amalsad the rioe crop seems to be a 12-anna one due 
to want of water. 

33. Similar experiments with the same manures were made 
at the villages of Amalsad and Kaohholi, tdluka JaWlpor, on 
sugarcane. The results are tabulated below : — 



32 



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3 990—5 



34 



'The term " no-manure plot " in the above statement is used 
only in contrast with the plots artificially manured. Otherwise 
the unmanured and manured plots have had an even treatment 
given by their owners which is given below against each survey 
number referred to in the above statement : — 



Survey 
No. 

474 



476 
467 
528 
485 
488 
496 

277 

407 
408 
290 
406 
269 
287 



AmaUad. 



Artificial tmtttenfc given. 

(a) Ammonium sulphate 
(J) No manure 

(c) Ammonium tulphate 

(d) v o manure 

(a) Sodium nit ate 

ib) No manure 
a) Sodium nitrate 
(>) No manure 
(?) Sodium nitrate 

(b) No manure 
(*) Nitre 
(6) No manure 

(a) Nitre 

(b) No manure 
(a) Nitre 
(6) No manure 



Treatment by the eoltiYaioi. 



... ) 



...^ Manured with farm ya*d manure at 
the rate of 35 cart-loals per acre. 
' Cane grown after ginger without any 
manure. 

Green manured with San. 

• . . ) Too-dressed with silt from surrounding 
... ) drains, 

... i Cane grown after ginger ; no manure 
•••/ given to cane. 

#,, | Same as above. 

... t Manured with farm yard manure at 
... j the rate of 35 cart-loads per acre. 

*** \ No manure was given to the crop. 



Kachholu 



(«) Sodium nitrate 
(b) No manure 

(a) Ammonium sulphate 

(b) No manure 

(a) Amm nium sulphate 

(b) No manure 
(a) Sodium nitrate 
(6) No manure 
(a) Nitre 

(4) No manure 

(a) Sodium nitrate 

(b) No manure 
(a) Nitre 

(6) No manure 



... \ Cane grown after ginger without any 
... ) manure. 

"• > No manure given. 
••• ) 

** # 1 Green manured with Udid. 

•••y 

... ) Cane grown after ginger without any 

... j manure. 

'"!» Same as above. 
•••J 

*•• [ Same as above, 

"' \ No manure given by the cultivators. 



Note, — In the group of garden villages the ginger crop gets the best 
possible treatment. It is grown in fields which are manured wth green 
roanuea* far as possible; any available farm yard manure is also given and 
the crop is finally top dress d with castor cake at tbj rate of 20 to 30 maunds 
per acre and it is also earthed wrh silt from the surrounding drains. The 
general practice there is to grow a sugarcane crop after ginger so as to get the 
advantage of heavy manuring given to ginger. 



36 



In the oase of Survey Nos. 467 and 528, the results of the 
uomanured plot are better than those of the manured plots. The 
difference may be due to differences in the soil which cannot 
be ascertained from the appearance of the crop when very young. 
As far as these results go they appear to indicate that of the 
manures tried, ammonium sulphate alone will pay. 



Dairy Herd- 

39. Tho following statement shows the strength of the 
herd on the Surat Station : — 



dairy 





I* 


Increase. 


Deersa^e. 


2 

53 


Valuali - 




Description* 




i! 


i 


!' 


1 


, 


1 


3 


8*: 

8 

f§ 

X 


1U06. 


15)07. 
ltd. 


Of Do 
crease* 




• 


















lis. 


Hi. 


BUkJ bulk 


3 


... 


... 


... 


2 


... 


••• 


2 


1 » 


2tt 


IK 


— yj 


Cowg ~. 


12 


... 




- 


... 


... 


«. 


«. 


» 


5&i 


W5 


+JO 


Heifers 


8 




»•• 




... 


... 


«. 


... 


8 


lit 


"30 


+89 


Cow calves 


6 


~ 


• 


tt 


... 


... 


... 


•^ 


12 


Hi 


UJ 


+90 


Bull ealvee 


3 


... 




... 




-. 


... 


... 


2 


Go 


L«M 


+35 


Total ~. 


31 


... 


6 


c 


« 


~ 


... 


o 


33 


1,18-2 




+15* 


Ho buffaloes 


1 


~. 


M. 




w. 


... 


~. 


... 


1 


51 


;q 


-2p 


She-buffaloes 


11 


3 


— 


3 




~ 


... 


... 


u 


57 1 


1,010 


+435 


Heifers 


1 


... 


... 




... 


... 


1 


1 


... 


33 


... 


^as 


She-buffalo calves... 


8 


1 


2 


3 


... 


1 


... 


1 


10 


88 


131 


+» 


Sua buffalo calves . 


9 


1 


6 





6 


3 


1 





c 


61 


80 


■f -'• 


Total -. 


30 


5 


7 


12 


6 


4 


11 


31 


804 


1,234 


+*30 


Grand Total ... 


61 


6 


13 


18 


8 


« 


1 


13 


60 


1.85- 


Atlfl 


+5E1 



40. The following statement shows the monthly milk yield 
of each cow and buffalo, average monthly milk yield and dates of 
calving of each animal during the year : — 



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41 

These experiments w^re started to test the milk-increasing 
properties of the different folders, dry and green. They were also 
made last year, hut on account of want of sufficient green fodder 
it the time and other difficulties the results were not conclusive. 
This year, too, difficulties had to be faced The supply of green 
fodder did not last for the period for which they were to he made, 
and either the fodders had to be substituted by others or the 
experiment stopped. As the cattle are not box fed the experi- 
ments have to he conducted when they do not get anything to 
graze outside. The fodders were given in such a way that the 
dry weight of the green fodders was equal. The concentrated 
foods remained the same as usual. 

It will he seen that the fortnightly average milk yield of the* 
four animals under trial previous to the commeneenieut of the 
experiment was lbs. I0«8, lbs- 10-9, lbs. 17-1 and lbs, 13-10, 
respectively. The average rose during the second fortnight to 
lbs, 11-8, lbs. 13-9, lbs. 17*11, lbs. 15-15, respectively, for each 
animal. During the third fortnight the yield was nearly maintain- 
ed without any green fodder except in the case of the fourth 
animal, which was ill for three days. Daring the fourth fortnight 
no guinea grass or green fodder was available and lucerne was 
given to all animals, but that too lasted only for a week, during 
which period the milk yield went down a little, 

The yield would have showed a bigger difference when the 
animals were fed both with dry and green fodder if the animals 
were all newly calved; but such animals were not in the dairy 
when the experiment was conducted, as many animals at that 
period go dry or arc nearly at the middle of their milking period. 

The trial showed that no appreciable difference in milk yield 
was obtained by the changes of rations tried, 



F. FLETCHER, 
Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



Poona, September 1S07. 



rQ9Q-Z 



Hi lUUYi l«IUNTKi> AT Tliit uuVfeKMUfibT CUBHLlL I&KSS. 



14 DAY USE 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 

LOAN DEPT. 

This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on tbe date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 


JAN 31 19678 








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