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Full text of "The Missionary year-book for 1889 : containing historical and statistical accounts of the principal Protestant missionary societies in Great Britain, the continent of Europe, and America"

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Kiunfrjm^qiLess and fallen. 

^lU *- . ^"^y — 

"^(fn/r^ tED\\^BJ?c\VV^HX)MAS, Secretary of the LONDON FEMALE PRE- 



>/« iED\\^BJ?c\V^^^^^IAS, Secretary of the LONDON FEMALE 
''^5y'fi?N^vE\iwfa REFORMATORY INSTITTJTION, APPE^ 



, _ ^ REFORMATORY INSTITTJTION, APPEALS to 

^ thft rcaiisf-^tsf^ GUINEA SUBSCRIPTION. 

■ m^ I Contributions sent are for the daily maintenance of the young Women and Girls in 

the Homes, as subjoined, in iSSg. 
> i i i t H »,£&B^HENTIVE HOMES, especially for Friendless Girls in their teen— 
/J / Q //i> No. of Inmates. Total. 

• £^ I / sO The Jubilee Home, 7, Parson's-green . . . . . . 50 

^l^HBf',^^, .,»jgij, Hampstead-road, N.W. 18 

459, Holloway-road 30 

98 

P^ .. ..SESC^MATORY HOMES— 

■•■•■*" 200, Euston-road, N.W. 24 

35, Eden-grove, HoUoway 33 

Milton-house, Brompton 30 

The Holt- Yates Memorial Home, 5, Parion's-green . . 30 

117 

OPEN ALL-NIGHT REFUGE- 

37, Manchester-stieet, W.C. Visited every morning by 
INIr. Thomas, to endeavour to arrange permanent help 
to all new-comers . . • . . . . . . . . . 20 20 

Total number of inmates to maintain 235 

The great object sought is to seek to establish the reclaimed in respectable service, 
or otherwise permanently restore them. 

DONATIONS may be sent to Bankers, Lloyds Bametts Bosanquet's Bank, 54, St. 
James's-street, W. ; 72, Lombard-i-treet, E.G. ; Francis Nicholls, Esq., of the Com- 
mittee, 14. Old Jewry-chambers, E.G. or EDWARD W. THOMAS, Secr.^ary. 

Xo. 200, Euston-road, N.W. ' -^ 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING FEMALE EDUCATION 
IN THE EA ST. 

President— 

Hon. Secretaries— Miss ELLEN RUTT, Lower Clapton, N.E., and 

]\Iiss L. HOPE, 7, Ovington Gardens, S.W. 

Secretary— ^Iiss WEBB, 267, Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W. 

Casll Secretary— Miss TAIT, 68, Wilberforce Road, N. 

Yp<IFTY-THREE years have elapsed since the establishment of the 
W SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING FEMALE EDUCATION IN 
THE EAST. It was formed for the purpose of giving instruction to 
women in the Zenanas of India, and in their own homes in China. Thus it 
is the oldest Zenana Society in existence. Beginning with India and China, 
the work of the Society was subsequently extended to other countries also, 
and now includes Japan, the Straits, Africa, the Levant, and Persia. 

The object of the Society has been strictly evangelistic — that of carrying 
the Gospel to the homes of the East. 

The work of the Society may be thus briefly summed up : — Zenana 
Missions ; ]\Iedical Missions ; Village Missions ; work among the crowds 
assembling at native festivals ; house and hut visiting ; boarding, day, 
infant, and Sunday Schools ; Bible and sewing classes ; training native 
Zenana missionaries, district visitors, schoolmistresses, and Biblewomen ; 
mothers' meetings ; also branches of the Bible and Prayer Union, and of 
the Young Women's Christian Association. 

The Committee very earnestly appeal for funds to enable them to carry 
, — «T,^ fr> ^YtpnH. their various operations. 

BV 2361 .Al M5 "" , 

j 

The Missionary year-book fi 



UNIVERSAL BENEFICENT SOCIETY, 

Founded to assist in various ways those in necessity, of good 
character, without distinction of class, nationality, or sect. 

Offices: 15, SOHO SQUARE, W. 



Fa^ron-U.R.U. THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, K.G. 



The Main Object of this Society is to afford relief to persons who 
are not classed as the poor in the general acceptation of the term, but who, 
(nevertheless, suffer hardships and privations all the more severe because 
■of the position they formerly held, and who not unfrequently shrink from 
making their distressed condition known. Such unfortunate people are 
often to be found in a state bordering on destitution, from which, if they 
are not adequately relieved, the end must be absolute pauperism. 

Subscriptions and Donations in aid of this beneficent work are 
earnestly solicited, and will be thankfully received by the Society's 
Bankers, Messrs. Coutts & Co., 59, Strand, or by 

G. STORMONT MURPHY, Secretary. 

ZENANA MEDICAL COLLEGE, 

58, ST. GEORGE'S ROAD, S.W. 

(Xear "Victoria Station), 

HAS for its object the training of Christian ladies for MEDICAL MISSION 
WORK in India, China, and countries where women only are allowed 
medically to attend on women, and is undenominational. The curriculum is 
for Two years, and the Students after passing the Examinations in Medicine, 
ScRGERY, and Midwifery receive the Society's Diploma. 

Ladies wishing to take the INIIDWIFERY COURSE alone may do so, and the 
Diploma of Obstetric Society. The ]\Iidwifery Cases and Courses, also the Practical 
Pharmacy Certificates are '" recognised " by the various Colleges. 

The Year consists of Three Terms. Fees (including Board, Residence, and 

Instruction) 50 Guineas per annum, payable in advance, in three 

equal proportions of £17 10s. 

Thie Committee m.ake an earnest Appeal for Funds to enable tliem 
to form additional free, or partially free, Scholarships to meet 
the many applications they constantly receive from ladies with 
limited means, who desire training-. 

Donors or Collectors of 100 Guineas have the right of nominating a Student 
for two years, including Board, Residence, and Instruction, 

A Bible Reading is held at the College every Sat^irday front 12.0 to 1.0 o'clock p.m. 

Hon. Treasurer: G. J. GREEN, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary: Dr. G. de GORREQUER GRIFFITH. 




ZENANA BIBLE % 
MEDICAL MISSION, 

OR ^ 

Indian Female Dormai School 

AND INSTRUCTION SOCIETY. 

hi Co-operation with the Church Missionary a7id other 

Frotcsta7tt Missionary Societies in India. 

Founded 1852. 

2, ADELPHI TERRACE, 

LONDON, W.C. 

^rrasurrvs. 

The Right Hon. LORD KINNAIRD. 
* SIR WILLIAM MUIR, K. C.S.I. , LL.D., D.C.L. 

( PrzHCtfal of the Edutbm-ffh University.) 

Tlie 01>je<»t of tliis Societ.r 

Is to make known the Gospel of Christ to our 
fellow-subjects the Women of India. 

The A GENCIES it employs are as foUotus :— 
I.— NORMAL SCHOOLS to train European, Eurasian, and Native 
Young Women as Teachers. 

ir. -ZENANA MISSIONARY LADIES sent out from England to 
superintend the various branches of work carried on at the stations. 

TIL— MEDICAL MISSIONARY LADIES and NURSES; the 

former fully-qualified Medical Practitioners. 

IV.— FEMALE VERNACULAR SCHOOLS for Hindu and 
Mahomedan Children. 
V. — BIBLE WOMEN. Native Christian Women, of suitable age and 
consistent character, who read and explain the Scriptures to their 
countiywomen in hospitals, jails, villages, or houses. 

T/ie Committee very earnestly APPEAL FOR FUNDS 

towards the mai7iteiiance of their 

217 Missionaries, Teachers, Nurses, &c. Four fully-qualified Lady Doctors. 

63 Girls' Schools, &c. Two Hospitals, and Four Dispensaries. 

Besides Zenana and Village Work. 

£t\C\C\C\ ADDITIONAL INCOME MUST BE RAISED 
^^ A \J\J\J during the present year to carry on efficiently 
the operations of the Society. 

CONTRIBUTIONS will be thankfully received by the Treasurer, Lord Kinnairit, 
or by the Hon. Finance Secretary, W. T. Paton, Esq., 3, Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C 

Bankers : Messrs. BARCLAY, RANSOM & CO., i. Pall Mall East, S.W. 

[To face Title. 



THE 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK 



FOR 



1889 

CONTAINING 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL ACCOUNTS 

OF THE PRINCirAL 

^rotcstant ||IisstonariT Societies 

IN 

6rcHf ^Untaiit, i\t Continent iDf 6urope, anb §.mevica 



LONDON 
THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 

56 Paternoster Row; 65 St. Paul's Churchyard 
AND 164 Piccadilly 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



A Plea for Missions, 



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LIST OF CONTENTS, 

IVif/i Nanus and Addresses of Correspondents. 



PACE 

Introduction i 

SECTION I. — GENERAL, WOMEN'S, AUXILIARY. 
AND MISCELLANEOUS SOCIETIES IN GREAT 
BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

New England Company 17 

W. M. Venning, Esq., I, FiirjiivaPs Inn, London, E.C. 

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ... 22 
The Secretaries, Nortliumberland Aveiuie, W.C. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel ... 24 
The Secretaries, 19, Dclahay Street, IVestminster, S. IT. 

Baptist Missionary Society 36 

A. II. Baynes, Esq., 19, Fnrnival Street, London, E.C. 

EoNDON Missionary Society 49 

Rev. R. Wardlaw Thompson, 14, Bio infield Street, London, E.C. 

Church Missionary Society. ...... 70 

The Secretaries, Church Mission House, Salisbnry Square, London 
E.C. 

Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society .... 96 
The Secretaries, Wesleyan Mission House, Bishopsgate Street Within, 
London, E.C. 

General Baptist Missionary Society 106 

Rev. W. Hill, 60, Wilson Street, Derby. 

United Presbyterian Church loS 

Rev. James Buchanan, College Buildings, Castli Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Bible Christian Missionary Society 113 

Rev. I. B. Vanstone, 73, LLerbert Road, Plumstcad, Kent, 



vi Contents. 

PAGE 

Methodist New Connexion 114 

Rev. J. Tovvnsend, Richmond Hill, Ashton-imdcr-Ly)ie. 

Church of Scotland 116 

Rev. John M'Murtrie, M.A., 22, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

United Methodist Free Churches 121 

Rev. John Adcock, 443, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 

Irish Presbyterian Church 125 

Rev. Wm. Park, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

Free Church of Scotland 12S 

Dr. George Smith, C.I.E., 15, North Bank Street, Edinburoh. 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 138 

Rev. Josiah Thomas, M.A., 28, Breckfield Road South, Liverpool. 

Primitive Methodist 144 

Rev. John Atkinson, 71, Freegrove Road, Holloxoay, London, A'. 

South American Missionary Society 147 

The Secretaries, I, Clifford's Inn, Fleet Street, London, E. C. 

Presbyterian Church of England ..... 154 
John Bell, Esq., 13, Fenchurch Avenue, Londoji, E.C. 

Universities' Mission to Central Africa .... 157 
Rev. W. H. Penny, 19, Delahay Street, Westminster. 

China Inland Mission 163 

B. Broomhall, Esq., 2, Pyrland Road, London, N. 

Strict Baptist Mission 166 

Josiah Briscoe, Esq., 58, Grosvenor Road, ITiglibury K'eio Park, 
Londoji, N. 

Friends' Foreign Mission Association . . . .168 

Charles Linney, Esq., Hitchin. 

Friends' Syrian Mission 173 

Dr. Kingston Fox, and Wm. C. Braithwaite, M.A., LL.B., 
12, Bishopsgate Street ]Vithout, E.C. 

Rock Fountain Mission 174 

Mrs. Fothergill, Pierremont C^-escent, Darlington. 

Scottish Episcopal Church 176 

Rev. C. R. Trape, D.D,, Findhorn Place, Grange, Edinburgh. 



Contents. vii 

PAGE 

Salvation Army 177 

The Secretaries, loi, Qtieen Victoria Street^ London, E.C. 

Society for Promoting Female Education in the East . 179 
Miss R. A. Webb, 267, Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, S, W. 

Church of Scotland Ladies' Association . . . ,181 
Miss Helen C. Reid, 22, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

Free Church of Scotland Ladies' Society . . .183 
Rev. Wm. Stevenson, M.A., Free Church Offices, Edinburgh, 

Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society. 186 
W. T. Paton, Esq., 2, Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C. 

Wesleyan Missionary Society, Ladies' Auxiliary . . 188 
Mrs. Lidgett, 69, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. 

British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission . . . 190 
Miss Annie Poulton, 18, Hoinejield Road, Wiinbledon, Surrey. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, Ladies' 
Association 192 

Miss L. Bullock, 19, Delahay Street, Westminster. 

Baptist Missionary Society, Ladies' Association . . 194 
Mrs. Angus, The College, Regent's Park, London, N. W. 

Irish Presbyterian Church Female Missionary Association 196 
Mrs. Park, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

Presbyterian Church of England Women's Missionary 
Association ......... 197 

Mrs. M. J. Stevenson, 58, Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 

Church of England Zenana Missionary Society . . 198 
Colonel G. R. S. Black, Church Mission House, Salisbury Square, 
London, E.C. 

United Presbyterian Church of Scotland Zenana Mission 199 
Rev. James Buchanan, College Btcildings, Castle Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Zenana Medical College 200 

Dr. G. de G. Griffith, 58, St. Georgis Road, Lojtdon, S. W. 

Christian Faith Society 202 

Rev. Canon Bailey, D.D., West Tarring Rectory, Worthing. 

Coral Missionary Fund 203 

The Editor Coral Missionary Magazine^ 2, Paternoster Buildings, 
London, E.C, f 



viii Ccvifiiifs. 

Missionary Leaves Association ... . . 205 

H. G. Malaher, Esq., 20, Coniplon Terrace, Upf^er Street, Islington, 
London, N". 

'The Net' Collections 206 

Miss Eliza Wigram, Moor Place, Hord/iam, Herts. 

Lebanon Schools Committee ...... 207 

Andrew Scott, Esq., York Buihiings, Edinburgh. 

Cambridge Mission to Delhi 208 

Rev. J. T. Ward, St. Jo/ui's College, Cambridge. 

Mission to Lepers in India 209 

Wellesley C. Bailey, Esq., 17, Glengyle Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Turkish Missions' Aid Society .210 

Rev. T. W. Brown, D.D., 32, The Avenue, Bedjord Park, Chis^oick, 
London. 

Mission to the Chinese Blind 214 

William J. Slowan, Esq., 224, West George Street, GlasgoTc: 

English-Egyptian Mission 215 

Miss Jourdan, 21, IVestbourne Park Villas, London, JF. 

North Africa Mission 216 

Edward H. Glenny, Esq., 19 & 21, Linton Road, Barking, London, E. 

East London Institute for Home and Foreign Missions . 21S 
Mrs. H. Grattan Guinness, ILa?iey House, Bo-w, London, E. 

SECTION II.— MEDICAL MISSIONS, PUBLICATION 
SOCIETIES, MISSIONS TO THE JEWS. 

Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society . . . .223 
Rev. John Lowe, F.R.C.S., 56, George Square, Edinburgh. 

Delhi Female Medical Mission 225 

R. L. Hunter, Esq , 51, St. George's Square, London, S.IV. 

Medical Missionary Society, London 226 

Dr. James L. Maxwell, M.A., 104, Petherton Road, Lyndon, N'. 

Friends' Medical Mission among the Armenians . . 227 
William C. Braithwaite, Esq., 312, Camden Road, London, N'. 

Jaffa Medical Mission 227 

Miss Cooke, 68, Mildmay Parky London, K. 



Contents. ix 

PAr.E 

British and Foreign Bible Society 229 

The Secretaries, 146, Queen Victoria Street^ London, E.C. 

National Bible Society of Scotland 232 

Rev. W. H. Goold, D.D., 5, St, Audrezos Square, Edinburgh. 

Other Bible Societies 233 

Trinitarian Bible Society ....... 234 

Rev. E. W. Bullinger, D.D., 7, St. PauVs Churchyard, Loudon, E.C. 

Bible Translation Society 234 

Rev. J. Trafford, M.A., 83, Lordship Park, Stoke N'eiuingtou, Loudon, 

N. 

Religious Tract Society 235 

The Secretaries, 56, Paternoster Rozu, Loudon, E. C. 

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge . . . 237 
The Secretaries, Northumherlaiul Avemie, London, IF.C. 

Other Tract Societies 239 

American Tract Society 239 

The Secretaries, 150, A^assau Street, Aeza York. 

Christian Vernacular Education Society .... 239 
Henry Morris, Esq., 7, Adam Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

Association for the Free Distribution of the Scritturks 241 
Mrs. A. E. Robertson, i, Oak Llill Park, Hampstead, London, X.W. 

Religious Tract and Book Society of Scotland . .241 
Rev. George Douglas, 99, George Street, Edinburgh. 

Book and Tract Society of China 241 

A. Cuthbert, Esq., 14, Nezvtoji Terrace, Glasgow. 

London Society for Promoting Christiantiy among the 

Jews 242 

Rev. W. Fleming, LL.B., 16, Lincoln's Lun Fields, London, JT.C. 

British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

among the Jews 245 

Rev. John Dunlop, 96, Great Pussell Street, London, JV. C. 

Free Church of Scotland's Mission to the Jews . . 247 
Rev. William Affleck, B.D., Aiichteruiuchty, Scotland. 

MiLDMAY Mission to the Jews 248 

Rev. J. Wilkinson, 79, Mildmay Road, Luvulon, iV. 



X 



Contents. 



PAGE 

Church of Scotland Mission to the Jews . . . 249 

Rev. John Alison, D.D., i, South Lander Road^ Edinhirgh, 

Church of Scotland Ladies' Association for the Christian 

Education of Jewish Females 250 

Miss Tavvse, ii, Royal Terrace^ Edinburgh. 

Other Missions to Jews 251 

SECTION III. — MISSIONARY SOCIETIES ON THE 
CONTINENT OF EUROPE. 

United Brethren or Moravian Missions .... 255 
Rev. B. La Trobe, 29, Ely Place, Holborn, London, E. C. 

Paris Society for Evangelical Missions . . . .261 
j\L le Pasteur Boegner, 102, Boulevard Arago, Paris. 

Missions of the Free Churches of French Switzerland . 263 
M. Paul Leresche, Lausanne. 

Basel Evangelical Missionary Society .... 265 
Herr Inspector Th. Ohler, Evang. Missions- Gesellschaft, Basel, 
Stvitzerland. 

Berlin Evangelical Missionary Society .... 270 
Dr. Wangemann, Georgenkirchenstrasse 70, Berlin. 

Rhenish Missionary Society 272 

The Secretary, Rheinischen Missions- Gesellschaft, Barmen, Germany. 

Gossner's Missionary Society 272 

Pastor Lie. Theol. Plath, Gossnei's Missions- Gesellschaft, Berlin. 

North German Missionary Society 276 

Pastor F. M. Zahn, 26, Elhorn Street, Bremen. 

Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society . . 278 
Dr. F. Hardelandj Evangelisch-Lutherischen Mission, Leipzig, 
Germany. 

IIermannsburg Evangelical Lutheran Mission. . . 279 
Pastor Egmont Harms, Hcrmannsburg Missions ■ Gesellschaft, 
Hermannsburg, Germany. 

Netherlands Missionary Society . . . . .281 

Dutch Missionary Society ,281 

Pastor B. J. Gerretson, Rotterdam, Holland, 



Contents. xi 

PAGE 

Dutch Reformed Missionary Society 283 

Rev. F. Lion Cachet, Rotterdam^ Holland. 

Utrecht Missionary Society . . . . . . 286 

Pastor A. A. Looyen, Utrecht^ Holland. 

Mennonite Missionary Society 288 

Pastor F. Kniper, Amsterdam^ Holland. 

Danish Government Mission to Greenland . . . 289 
Provost Vahl, N'orre Alslev, Denmark. 

Danish Missionary Society 290 

Rev. W. Holm, Gladsaxe, Denmark. 

Other Danish Missions 291 

Norwegian Missionary Society 293 

Rev. L. Dahle, Stavanger^ Norway. 

Schreuder Mission 297 

Provost Vahl, Nor re Alslev^ Denmark. 

{Swedish Missions 297 

Swedish Missionary Society 298 

Missionary Committee of the Swedish CxHURCh . . 299 

Swedish Missionary Union 301 

Rev, H. W. Tottie, Upsala, S^ueden. 

Swedish Evangelical National Society . . . 302 

Mr. O. Janzon, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Other Swedish Societies 3^3 

Rev. H. W. Tottie and Provost Vahl. 

Finland Missionary Society 304 

Pastor G. C. Totterman, Pletsingfors, Finland. 



SECTION IV. — MISSIONARY SOCIETIES IN THE 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 

General Correspondent, Rev. J. T. Gracey, D.D., 202, Eagle Street, 
Buffalo, New York. 

Missions to Pagans in North America . . . .309 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 311 

American Missionary Association 321 



xii Confeuts. 



American Baptist Missionary Union . . . . . 

Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention 



Free-Will Baptist Foreign Missionary Society 

Baptist General Association 

Consolidated American Baptists 

Seventh Day Baptist Missionary Society . 

German Baptist Brethren .... 

Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 



329 
332 
333 
333 
333 
333 
333 



Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Protestant 
Church 341 

Mission Board of the Evangelical Church . . . 341 

Wesleyan Methodist Connection 344 

Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church . . . . . . 344 

Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South 344 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in '.he United States of 
America .... 347 

Reformed Episcopal Church 353 

Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church 354 

]]oard of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States (Southern States) . . . 362 

Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America . . 365 

Reformed Presbyterian (General Synod) in North America 367 

United Presbyterian Church of North America . . 369 

Board of Missions of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church . . . 374 

Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church in 
America (Dutch) 376 

Board of Foreign Missions of the General Synod of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States . 380 



Contents, 



xui 



General Council Evangelical Lutheran Church 

Board of Missions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 



I'AGE 

r,82 



(South) 



Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church (German) in 
the United States 382 

Friends 385 



Foreign Christian Missionary Society . . . . 

American Christian Convention 

United Brethren in Christ ...... 

Mennonites 

American Bible Society 

Summary of Foreign Missionary Societies in the United 
States 



386 

387 
387 
387 



Women's Missionary Societies in the United States 

CANADA. 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the C 
OF England in Canada 

Methodist Church in Canada .... 

Presbyterian Church in Canada 

Canadian Baptist Foreign Missionary Society . 

Baptist Convention of the INlARrnME Provinces 

Women's Foreign Missionary Societies of Canada 



• 3CO 

392-404 



lURCH 



• 405 
. 406 

• 407 
. 408 
. 408 

410-412 




General :Map of India. 



INTRODUCTION: 

Vv^ITH NOTES ON ALLEGED MISSIONARY FAILURE. 



The present Year-Book is in part a re-issue of the Handbook of 
Foreign Missions published in 1888; with large additions and 
alterations, and with statistical information brought down to 
the latest available date. Most of the sections have been 
specially prepared, and nearly all of them have been revised 
by the Secretaries of the different Societies : and the chapters 
on American Missions have been furnished by the Rev. Dr. 
J. T. Gracey, of Buffalo, New York, Secretary of the International 
Missionary Union. For much useful information, incorporated 
with other matter throughout the volume, the Editors are also 
indebted to the Rev. John Mitchell, B.D., of the Enghsh 
Presbyterian Church, Chester, who has devoted much time 
and pains to the preparation of a complete list of Missionary 
Societies in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Perhaps there never was a time when the Missions of the 
Church have aroused a more intelligent and solicitous interest 
than at present. No doubt, this interest has been greatly 
quickened by the Missionary Conference held in London, June 
1888. The representatives of many Societies and of many lands 
were then brought face to face. There was much discussion of 
principles, much comparison of plans ; information and explana- 
tions were freely given, difficulties and discouragements, mis- 

B 



2 Introduction. 

takes and failures were candidly confessed : new enthusiasms 
were enkindled ; there was a marked awakening of the spirit 
of prayer. The result has been to inspire a deeper belief than 
ever in the obligation of the work and in the promise of the 
Master ; while closer and holier bonds of fellowship have 
united multitudes of fellow-workers from various Christian 
communities and from far-separated fields of labour. The 
Report of the Conference is a cyclopaedia of missionary 
information ; it also gathers up and presents the thoughts of 
many minds on almost every topic connected with the advance- 
ment of the Kingdom of Christ among men. 

It was only to be expected that with this increased interest 
in missionary enterprise there should also arise new ques- 
tionings and criticisms from the doubting and the unfriendly. 
From many quarters the work has been disparaged ; prevailing 
missionary methods have been challenged ; the warfare of the 
Church with heathendom, carried on through almost a century, 
has been pronounced ' a failure.' Nor is the attack only from 
the side of unbelief. Some who profess to believe in Christ 
would still place Christian missions upon their trial, or would 
at least suggest that the churches have wrongly read His great 
command to ' go and make disciples of all the nations.' 

In view of such allegations, and of the difficulties felt by 
many earnest and enquiring minds, it seems important to 
consider what success and failure really mean. 

It must be borne in mind, at the outset of any such 
enquiry, that the law of Duty stands before any question of 
failure or success. Obligations are not to be measured by 
results ; and the degree of our obedience cannot be tested by 
the consequences of our work. All that we have to do is to 



Introduction. 3 

ascertain, and in faithful simplicity to follow, the will of the 
Master. Once to a prophet it was said, ' Thou shalt speak My 
words unto them, whether they will hear or whether they will 
forbear.' 

Another truth to be remembered is that delay is not failure. 
' The husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, 
and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and 
latter rain.' It is true that the husbandman has his calendar, 
and can tell with some exactness how long his patience must 
be exercised ; whereas we know not the seasons that in their 
course are to bring the great harvest of the world. Of this, 
nevertheless, we are assured, that ' the Lord is not slack con- 
cerning His promise, as some men count slackness.' What 
appears to us delay not only tests the Church's faith, but prepares 
for the final issue. This the analogy of all Divine working 
confirms. Men of science tell us of the long geologic ages 
which elapsed before God looked upon the creation, and pro- 
nounced it ' very good.' We know what generations of hope 
deferred reduced the ancient Church almost to despair, before 
' the fulness of the times ' appeared. What wonder that we 
sometimes should cry, ' Lord ! how long ? ' But as in these 
cases, could we see all, we should assuredly discern that not an 
hour has been wasted, that the most apparently inactive season 
has been a time of real preparation, that there has never been a 
mysterious disappointment, or strange disaster, or unexpected 
catastrophe, which has not contributed its share to the con- 
summation ; and that even when the Church was readiest to 
say, 'I have laboured in vain, and spent my strength for 
nought and in vain/ it might have added in triumphant con- 
fidence, ' yet surely my work is with Jehovah, and my reward 
with my God.' 

B 2 



4 Inirodiutioil. 

Again, failure in one direction may lead to success in another. 
There are great lessons to be learned even from abandoned 
mission-fields, and from the disappointments of noble men like 
Bishop Mackenzie in the African Highlands, and Captain Allen 
Gardiner in Tierra del Fuego. To the Churches, as to in- 
dividuals, the most salutary experiences are often brought by 
their very mistakes. It may seem a paradox to say so, but it 
is nevertheless true that the history of Missionary Failures, 
could it be honestly written, would often be the most in- 
structive introduction to the history of Missionary Success. 

But already there are facts all over the mission-field which 
may encourage us, as certainly as the first green blades of 
early-springing corn forecast the coming harvest. We are not 
to limit the work of the Divine Spirit to the actual membership 
of the churches, or the number of apparent conversions, from 
year to year. These indeed are the signs of progress which the 
faithful missionary longs and delights to see; but there are 
others, less manifest, yet as truly hopeful, which may exist when 
these are withheld. A recent critic, after dwelling upon the 
smallness and apparent decline of certain missionary churches 
in India, goes on to add that * there never was a nation more 
ripe for Christianity than India.' ^ What has made India ripe ? 
Has it not been the blessing of God on missionary labours^ 
undermining the foundations of the old idolatry, and awakening 

^ ' The spirit of Christianity has already pervaded the whole atmosphere 
of Indian society, and we breathe, think, move, and feel in a Christian 
atmosphere. Native society is being roused, enlightened, and reformed 
under the influences of Christian education.'— Baboo Keshub Chunder 
Sen, Lecture published by the Brahmo Tract Society, Calcutta, 1883. 

' The lapse of a few years will, I believe, show a very large accession to 
the members of the various Christian churches. The closest observers are 
almost unanimous in the opinion that the ground has already been cleared 
for such a movement.' — Rcjfort of the Ceusus 0/ British India, 18S3. 



Introduction. 5 

everywhere the expectation of an impending mighty change ? 
Yes ; while Christians are ready to despair, Hindoos and 
Mohammedans are foretelhng the victories of the Cross ! 
That great Viceroy of India, the late Lord Lawrence, in words 
which cannot be too carefully pondered by all who could fairly 
understand the work of Missions, thus gives the result of his 
own observation : " With regard to the popular standard of 
success, mere numbers — as appHed to the results of Christian 
mission work in India, in my judgment such a standard is 
oftentimes very misleading. Surely the great triumph of mission- 
ary work in India is in the strangely altered attitude of the 
people of the country relative to Christianity. Christianity has 
put new forces into the mechanical life of the vast peoples of 
India. The sanctifying saving influence of Christian life and 
death has already brought wonders. It is not only the heads 
of ' converts ' you must count if you would rightly gauge the 
results of missionary labour, but you must take also into 
calculation the great under-current of peaceful revolution in 
the thought and feeling of the people of the land." In like 
manner Sir Charles Aitchison, an accurate and most competent 
observer, recently wrote : " The changes that are being to-day 
wrought out by Christian missionaries in India are marvellous. 
Teaching, wherever they go, the universal brotherhood of man, 
animated by a faith which goes beyond the ties of caste or 
family relationship, Christain Missionaries are slowly, but none 
the less surely, undermining the foundation of heathen super- 
stitions, and bringing about a peaceful, religious, moral and social 
revolution."^ 

From China, from Japan, a similar testimony comes in various 

1 Other facts and testimonies will be found in a published letter by Mr. 
A. II. Baynes, of the Baptist Mission, Feb, 19, 1889. 



6 Introduction. 

forms. Heathen systems of thought and worship are in all these 
empires so manifestly losing their power over the educated 
minds of the people — which in the end control the rest — that 
the pressing question has come to be whether the vacant 
ground shall be abandoned to the waste of infidelity, or shall 
become the site of the spiritual temple of Christ the Lord. 
"\\'e, who believe in the profound adaptation of the Gospel to 
the mind and heart of man, cannot doubt what the answer 
will be. Without a religion men cannot in the long run live 
and die ; and the only possible Religion of the future is Christianity. 

So again with regard to the barbarous nations of mankind. 
To vary only a little the statement just made, we may say, alike 
from the experiences of Polynesia and the auguries of Eastern 
and Western Africa, that the only possible Civilization of the 
future is Christian Civilization. Thus, in the two-fold form of 
our assertion, we may read the world's only hope. 

The membership and the character of the churches already 
gathered from among the heathen confirm our faith. It is 
true that they are by no means faultless, any more than were 
the churches of apostolic times, or than our churches at home 
are to-day. There are drawbacks to be acknowleged, apologies 
to be made. But we do affirm fearlessly that there are in 
these churches often in a very marked degree the fruits of faith 
in holy living ; and often, as recent missionary annals prove, a 
patient endurance and readiness to suffer for the truth's sake. 
The names of Madagascar and of Uganda, to say no more, 
will always have a place in the martyr annals of the Universal 
Church. 

On the whole, let the tables given in this volume be carefully 
studied ; then let the manifold forces, living and working behind 



Introduction, 7 

the facts thus summarised, be considered ; and it will become 
manifest that there is a power at work in the world mightier than 
all earthly forces, to enlighten, to subdue, and to save. In 
briefest summary, while all Protestant churches and societies 
have sent about three thousand ordained missionaries into 
heathen lands, there are already nearly or quite as many ordained 
native pastors, and more than ten times as many native Christian 
teachers, who instruct the young or act as home missionaries 
to their countrymen and countrywomen. The professed con- 
verts to Christianity with their families number three millions, 
and more than 750,000 are regular communicants at the Lord's 
table. 

What are these numbers, it may be asked, in comparison 
with the thousand millions of heathen ? They represent, we 
reply, not merely results achieved, but energies aroused. 
Every church gathered from heathendom is a centre of moral 
and spiritual forces, which act with cumulative power on the 
world around. It is idle to calculate, from the number of 
Christians of one decade compared with those of another, that 
the world will occupy so many hundreds, or thousands, of years 
in its conversion. The spread of spiritual influences is not to 
be reckoned by arithmetical progression ; and, in the order of 
God's kingdom, a sudden change, a great revival, a ' nation 
born at once,' will often indicate the existence of forces long 
and silently stored during a period of apparent inaction and 
monotony. The fuel, prepared and laid through many a weary 
year, waits only the enkindling touch of ' the Spirit, poured 
out from on high.' 

It is not intended that we are to rest content with the old 
methods, and with familiar ways of working. There is room 



8 Inirodtiction, 

for the widest ' diversities of operations,' and every effort, on 
whatever Hnes, to instruct and evangehse the nations, may well 
be commended. Only, let not impatient zeal, or captious 
criticism, too readily account for disappointment by laying the 
blame upon our plans. Improved methods are often suggested 
with especial confidence when they are untried ; and a contest 
of theories ensues, in which practical workers are discouraged, 
and their work proportionately suffers. Of such theories India 
has long been the battle-field. Vernacular education, or 
English education, or simple preaching of the Gospel without 
attempting to educate at all ; a wide itinerancy, or concentra- 
tion at important posts ; a paid or an unpaid native agency ; 
the adoption of Western church systems, or the attempt to 
develope an indigenous ecclesiasticism, have been by turns pro- 
posed and advocated with zeal and plausibility. In every one of 
these plans there are elements of good : there is room, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of the different parts of the field, to 
employ them all. Only, let no one suppose that the secret of 
power will be found in the exclusive adoption of his own 
scheme. 

Just at present the tendency in many quarters seems to be 
to exalt a celibate and ascetic missionary ideal. India, it is 
said, accustomed to fakeers, and identifying a true religion with 
the renunciation of all earthly delights, will never be won to 
Christ by evangelists dwelling in comfortable homes and bound 
by family ties. The system, thus anew commended, was long 
ago urged by Edward Irsdng, in a celebrated sermon before the 
London Missionary Society,^ from the preacher's interpretation 
of the charge delivered by our Lord to His apostles when He 
sent them forth among His own countrymen. It was at the 

' 'For Missionaries after the Apostolical School,' 1825. 



Introdiiciio7i. 9 

time replied that the missions of Europeans to Asiatic races, or 
to African tribes, or to South Sea islanders, materially differed 
in several important respects from that to which the Saviour's 
injunctions applied. That the one great message is evermore 
the same, does not prove that the way of commending it to 
mankind must be uniform. Because Paul and Silas were 
welcomed to the house of Lydia at Philippi, it does not follow 
that the missionary of our own day is bound to wait for the 
hospitality of an Indian hut or an African kraal. There may 
be circumstances in which this may be desirable : we have 
even heard of cases in which Protestant missionaries, like 
begging friars, have carried a bowl for alms. We only say that 
these methods are not normal, and plead for elasticity and 
variety of plan. 

That celibacy, as a general practice, should be urged upon 
the missionaries of our own day, seems to betoken a strange 
blindness to the testimony of Church history, as well as to the 
laws of human nature. Some unavowed belief in the superior 
holiness of the unmarried state may have led to the recommen- 
dation. Against this we will not condescend to argue ; only let 
us consider the mischief of j-^^;;//;/^ to adopt such a belief by way 
of concession to Hindoo prejudices ! It may be rejoined that 
the point is not the sanctity of a celibate life, but the greater 
facility which it must give to itinerant missionary labours. 
This may be admitted, and there are many fields into which 
the servant of Christ must venture, unaccompanied by wife or 
child. But this is fully and practically recognised at present ; 
we only demur to making it a law of missions. On the 
contrary, it is abundantly proved that the missionary's wife is 
often his most efficient helper. But for her the way to the 
homes of the people would often be barred ; and the missions 



I o Inirodudion. 

to women in particular, which now form so large and important 
a part of the work in India, could hardly have existed. There 
also is a measureless influence for good in the habits and spirit of 
a Christian home. The missionary/^/;///}; will commend the 
Gospel far better than the missionary /^y^^dv. 

But has not the question of expense to be considered? 
Would not a celibate mission be less costly to the churches ? 
It is enough to reply that the system which is most efficient is 
also the most economical ; and that if in arranging our plans 
we make the saving of money our chief consideration, we shall 
deserve to fail. As it is, it is well known by all who have really 
studied the subject that the stipends of our missionaries are 
' subsistence allowances ' only ; and in all parts of the field 
there are men and women who with a noble self-denial have 
given up the fairest prospects of worldly advancement for Christ 
and for His Kingdom. Will the churches grudge them what 
only just enables them to live ? We think not ! 

Apart from the question of personal allowances, the charge 
of extravagance against missionary boards is sometimes made 
— although not by their more generous supporters — with an 
ignorant and truly wonderful recklessness. Thus, it will be 
said of such and such a station that it costs the Society so many 
hundreds a year, and all for one European missionary ! Yes ; 
but look into the matter, and it will be found that besides the 
labourer, who is worthy of his hire, and the family, which more 
than doubles the efficiency of his work, there are native 
evangelists and teachers on his staff, church and school 
buildings to be maintained, a boarding-school and orphanage 
for children delivered from the contaminations of heathenism, 
and provision made for an extended itinerancy. The investi- 
gation of such cases has often left the very objector surprised 



Iiitrodtictioii. 1 1 

at the economy, as well as at the devotedness and skill, with 
which so large and varied a work is done. 

It is, no doubt, incumbent upon all missionary managers 
to study economy, but not by the adoption of questionable 
methods. Perhaps there has been too little care in the past to 
adjust the proportion of the enterprise to the resources at 
disposal. It is so hard to decline to enter what seems an open 
door ! One of the deepest griefs of a Missionary Board is to 
be compelled to answer, We cannot afford it^ to the cry. Come 
over and help us I An over-sanguine faith in the willingness of 
the churches to enlarge their contributions may have led to 
imprudences and embarrassments. It may be a mistake for 
societies as for individuals to Hve beyond their income. Yet 
in the former case the error is excusable. For the money is 
there ! It is only for the Spirit of Love to unlock the fountains 
of liberality, and ' the silver and the gold ' will freely flow. 
How far to wait for this — how far to anticipate it — is among the 
greatest problems of modern missionary enterprise. 

For some years past the missionary offerings of the churches, 
at least in Great Britain, have been nearly stationary. Here 
are the figures for 1887, as prepared with great care by the 
Rev. Canon Scott Robertson. The sums mentioned do not 
include any proceeds of funded property, or interest, or 
balances in hand from previous years, or amounts raised and 
expended abroad. 



Church of England Societies . . , 

Joint Societies of Churchmen and Nonconformists 
English and Welsh Nonconformist Societies . 
Scotch and Irish Presbyterian Societies . 
Roman Catholic Societies .... 



L 

461,236 
187,048 

367,115 

202 , 940 

10,420 



Total . . ;^i,228,759 



1 2 Introduction, 

Comparing this sum with that raised in the three previous 
decades, we find the averages as follows : 

From 1873 to 1877 inclusive 1,047,809 

From 1878 to 1882 „ 1,110,463 

From 1883 to 1887 ,, 1,218,163 

Here is undoubtedly an increase, but a very gradual one, 
and not at all in proportion to the advance of the country in 
wealth during the fifteen years. 

The total contributed by the churches of the United States 
for Foreign Missions in 1887-8 is given in the Missionary 
Rcviau of February 1889, as $3,906,967, or nearly ;^8oo,ooo. 
The rate of annual increase appears to have been larger than 
in Great Britain. 

If the sums appear large, they may be contrasted with the 
amounts raised for other purposes. Thus, the expenditure of 
the London School Board for the year 1887-8, amounted to 
^1,972,472. That is to say, the payment for the education 
of children, in the middle and lower classes of London alone, 
has cost the community about ^£"750,000 more than all the 
churches of Great Britain together have found themselves able 
to raise for the evangelization of the world ! 

Who can say after this that the churches have attained to the 
true standard of missionary giving ? 

But the money question, after all, is not paramount. The 
great necessity is that Christian people should study and 
understand the missionary work. There is something con- 
ventional in the way in Avhich it is often commended. How 
seldom, for instance, do we hear a sermon on Christian 
missions, excepting on the stated anniversary, when the 



Introihiction. 



13 



collection is to be made ! Might not the subject occupy a 
place among the ordinary enforcements of Christian obligation ? 
The great missionary problems of our time might pass out of 
the range of committees and conferences, and become a topic 
of general church discussion. Bible classes might include in 
their regular plans of study the principles of the work and the 
facts of missionary life. Our missionary literature, with its 
fascinating details of biography and adventure, should have a 
place among the book-treasures in every Christian home. The 
names of those men and women who now represent both our 
own particular churches and other sections of the Church 
universal in the missionary field should be familiar as house- 
hold words. Were our churches and families thus indoctrinated, 
such attacks as those to which we have referred could do but 
little harm. It has been well said by an able and thoughtful 
observer of missionary methods : 

' This is an age of enliglitenment, and the presses of the missionary 
societies flood the world with interesting information, but there are those 
who will not read them. The Sunday-school is instructed in the details 
of St. Paul's missionary journeys, but knows nothing, or next to nothing, 
of the greater work of the successors of St. Paul. And yet the reports of 
missionary societies, and their periodicals, are filled with greater interest 
than the most fascinating romance, and have the advantage, or perhaps 
disadvantage, of being true. Perils by land, perils by sea, perils by 
robbers, perils by the heathen, perils in the city, perils in the wilderness, 
perils among false brethren : in weariness, in painlulness, in watchings 
often, in hunger and thirst : in fastings often, in cold and nakedness, 
besides the care of all the churches : moving accidents by flood and field ; 
disappointments and successes : triumphs and abasements : all these and 
more are to be found. As the narrative flows on in its simplicity, the 
narrow walls of the room seem to expand, and the reader is transported, 
in thought, to the great cities of Asia, and the vast deserts of Africa. 
There stands an honest God-fearing man, one of the reader's own race and 
kin and language, sent out to preach the Gospel by his church ; and is he 
not something in this cold, self-seeking, material age to be proud of? He 
has given up the prospect of wealth, and honour, and ease, in his own 



14 Introduction. 

country, and has gone out to endure hardship for the sake of the suffering, 
the oppressed, and the ignorant : nor has he gone alone, for by his side 
there moves a form, scattering sweet flowers round his life in those God- 
forsaken regions, attracting to herself hearts of savages by the strange and 
novel sight of the beauty of holiness : they call her in their untutored 
accents an angel: he calls her wife, who like Ruth will not leave him. 
Are such stories as these not worth reading ? ' ' 

We speak and think, perhaps, too much of Societies. 
Rightly understood, the true missionary society is the Christian 
Church. The separate organization, the executive committee, 
and the rest, are but practical methods of combining the 
Church's resources and of carrying out the Church's purposes. 
Every church a missionary institution \ and every Christian 
charged with missionary respo/isibi/ity — such is the ideal : 
how it is best to be fulfilled is, we need not fear to say, the 
greatest religious problem of our times. Its investigation 
demands patience, fearlessness, a large acquaintance with facts, 
and the power of reading them fairly. ; It may lead to some 
new and even unexpected conclusions; while differences of 
opinion, as to modes of working and to matters more important 
still, may remain to the end. But the main lines of duty are 
clear ; and many questions regarding missions will remain 
hopelessly insoluble save by those who approach them in the 
spirit of obedience and simple fliith. Only those who are in 
sympathy with Christ will be able to understand and to carry 
out His will. S. G .G. 

^ ' Observations and Reflections on Matters connected with Missionary 
Societies and Missionaries of all Denominations and all Countries,' by 
Robert Needham Cust. Boston, U.S.A., 1885. 

*** It may, perhaps, prevent some perplexity to readers of the sections 
on European Missions in the Indian Empire, to note that in the ortho- 
graphy of local names Hunter's Imperial Gazetteer of India is for the 
most part taken as the authority. To this, we believe, all Government 
documents and maps are now conformed. 



SECTION I. 



{a.) GENERAL MISSIONARY SOCIETIES IN 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

{/;.) WOMEN'S SOCIETIES. 

(r.) AUXILIARY AND MISCELLANEOUS 
SOCIETIES. 



THE 

MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK 1889. 

THE NEW ENGLAND COMPANY.^ 

FOUNDED 1649. 

It was in connection with the colonization of North America 
that the first missionary impulse was given to British Pro- 
testantism. The early settlers in Virginia at once recognized 
the claim of the red men among whom they had cast their lot, 
and a Society, or, as the phrase then was, a ' Company,' was 
formed in 1588, the year of the Spanish Armada, for the 
propagation of the Christian religion among the Indians. To 
this company Sir Walter Raleigh contributed ;£"ioo, the first 
missionary donation recorded in English Protestant annals. 

Few records of the work survive until the days of John 
Eliot, who, in 1631, followed the 'Pilgrim Fathers' to New 
England, and, having been ordained to the Presbyterian 
ministry, dedicated a long and laborious life to the evangeliza- 
tion of the Indians — teaching them also the arts of civilized 
life. He prepared a grammar, dictionary, and other works in 
the language of the Mohicans, and, above all, translated the 
whole Bible into that dialect. The tribe has long been extinct, 
and the literature to which Eliot devoted such ability and toil 
now exists only as his monument. Before he died he had the 
joy of seeing more than 1000 members of six Indian churches, 
and a college at Cambridge, near Boston, for the training of 
native pastors and teachers. 

The writings of Eliot and his coadjutors, and more particu- 

* For most of the particulars in the following account we are indebted 
to a Paper read before the Royal Historical Society in June 1884, by 
'^V. Marshall Venning, D,C.L,, M.A., Oxon, Secretary to the Company. 

C 



1 8 The New England Company. 

larly some of the tracts known as the ' EHot Tracts,' aroused so 
much interest in London that the needs of the Indians of New 
England were brought before the Long Parliament ; and on 
July 27, 1649, an Act or Ordinance was passed with this title : — 
' A Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ in New England.' The preamble of the Act is 
worth quoting. It recites that — 

* The Commons of England in Parliament assembled had received 
certain intelligence that divers the heathen natives of New England had, 
through the blessing of God upon the pious care and pains of some godly 
English, who preached the Gospel to them in their own Indian language, 
not only of barbarous become civil, but many of them, forsaking their 
accustomed charms and sorceries, and other satanical delusions, did then 
call upon the name of the Lord ; and that the propagation of the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ amongst these poor heathen could not be prosecuted with 
that expedition and further success as was desired, unless fit instruments 
w^ere encom-aged and maintained to pursue 'it, universities, schools, and 
nurseries of literature settled for further instructing and civilizing them, 
instruments and materials fit for labour and clothing, with other neces- 
saries, as encouragements for the best deserving among them, were 
provided, and many other things necessary for so great a work.' 

The Ordinance enacted that there should be a Corporation 
in England, consisting of sixteen persons, viz., a President, 
Treasurer, and fourteen assistants, to be called ' The President 
and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England,' 
with power to acquire lands (not exceeding the yearly value of 
;^2,ooo), goods and money. 

A general collection or subscription was directed by Oliver 
Cromwell, as Lord Protector, to be made in all parishes of 
England and Wales for the purposes of the Corporation ; and 
nearly ;^i 2,000 was raised in this manner, the chief part of 
which was expended in the purchase of landed property at 
Eriswell in Suffolk, which was sold by the Company to the 
Maharajah Dhuleep Singh in 1869, and of a farm at Plumstead 
in Kent, which latter is still in the Company's possession. 

The Corporation at once appointed Commissioners and a 
Treasurer in New England, who, with the income transmitted 
from England, paid itinerant missionaries and school-teachers 
amongst the natives, the work being chiefly carried on near 
Boston, but also in other parts of Massachusetts and in New 
York State. 

On the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, the Corporation 



Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 19 

created by the Long Parliament became defunct ; but, mainly 
through the exertions of the Hon. Robert Boyle, the philo- 
sopher, one of the [earliest fellows of the Royal Society, 
an Order in Council was obtained for a new Charter of In- 
corporation, vesting in the Company then created the property 
which had been given or bought for the purposes of the late 
Corporation. The Charter was completed on April 7, 1662, 
and Boyle was appointed the first Governor of the Company, 
which was revived under the name of ' The Company for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts 
adjacent in America,' and was limited to forty-five members, 
the first forty-five being appointed by the Charter, Lord 
Chancellor Clarendon and other noblemen heading the list, 
which also included several members of the late Corporation, 
and many aldermen and citizens of London. 

Under the will of the Hon. Robert Boyle, the Company 
received a sum, additional to the original Charter Trust Fund, 
'■ for the advancement of the Christian religion among infidels 
in divers parts of America under the Crown of the United 
Kingdom.' In 1745 a further sum was received by the 
Company under the will of the Rev. Daniel Williams. These 
three funds constitute the endowment, and were regulated by 
decrees in Chancery in or before 1836, defining the purposes 
of the Company in substantial conformity with its design as 
stated in the Charter ; viz., for the ' Propagation of the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ amongst the heathen natives in or near New 
England and the parts adjacent in America, and for the better 
civilizing, educating, and instructing of the said heathen natives 
in learning, and in the knowledge of the true and only God, 
and in the Protestant religion already owned and publicly 
professed by divers of them.' 

The Company continued its missionary work near Boston 
and in other parts of New England during the remainder of 
the seventeenth and greater part of the eighteenth centuries ; 
but few records exist of the work then accomplished. There 
were no permanent stations or schools, but the Company sup- 
ported many itinerant teachers both English and native. For 
a few years after 1775, when the American War of Inde- 
pendence broke out, no missionary work was done in America 
at all, and the funds were allowed to accumulate. But when 
the four provinces of Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Con- 

c 2 



20 The New England Company. 

necticut, and Maine (part of the old province of New England), 
together with nine other provinces, had been declared" inde- 
pendent, the Company could no longer, in compliance with its 
Charter, which limits its operations to British North America, 
carry on its work there, and was advised to remove its opera- 
tions to New Brunswick, as the part of America which was 
next adjacent to that wherein it had till that time exercised its 
trusts, and which, in all the Charters of the Crown, was 
considered as part of New England. 

In 1786, therefore, the work was begun in New Brunswick, 
and carried on until 1822, when it was transferred to other 
parts of British America, stations having been successively 
established in various places ; those which have been most 
permanently maintained, and at which the Company has done 
most of its work, being the following : — 

Among the Mohawks and other 'Six Nations'^ Indians 
settled on the banks of the Grand River, on the ' Indian 
Reserve ' between Brantford and Lake Erie. 

Among the Mississaguas of Chemong or Mud Lake, in 
the County of Peterborough, Ontario. 

On the banks of the Garden River, in the district of Algoma, 
near Sault Ste. Marie (the rapids between Lake Superior and 
Lake Huron). This Mission was given up in 187 1. 

On KuPER Island in the Straits of Georgia, British 
Columbia. 

The first of these stations is the most important. At Brant- 
ford the Mohawk Mission Church (built 1782) is the oldest 
Protestant Church in Western Canada, and still possesses the 
Bible and Communion Service presented by Queen Anne to 
the Indian Church in the Mohawk Valley, U.S., abandoned 
during the War of Independence. The Indians on the Grand 
River have increased in number during the last half-century 
from 1,900 to 3,500, so that the Mission is of growing value and 
importance. A large industrial school, known as the Mohawk 
Institution, affords maintenance and education for ninety 
children of both sexes, as well as instruction in agriculture and 
mechanical trades for the boys, and domestic training for the 
girls. Other educational work is aho actively carried on. 

^ The ' Six Nations ' are the Mohawks Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
Senecas, and Tuscaroras. 



Present State of the Mission. 



21 





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( 22 ) 



SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN 
KNOWLEDGE. 

FOUNDED 1698. 

The basis and purpose of this Society are set forth in the 
preamble subscribed by its original members in 1698 : 

' We, whose names are under written, do agree to meet together as 
often as \ve can conveniently, to consult (under the conduct of Divine 
Providence and assistance) how we may be able, by due and lawful methods, 
to promote Christian knowledge.' 

In pursuance of this object, it is the great Publication 
Society of the Church of England, issuing the Bible and the 
Prayer-book in more than seventy-five languages. Its work 
as a Foreign Missionary Society is to aid in the maintenance 
of bishops and missionary clergy for the colonial and 
missionary dioceses, by contributing to permanent endowment 
funds ; in the training of native candidates for holy orders, 
with a view to building up a native ministry ; and in preparing 
native students for lay mission work in such offices as those 
of catechists, teachers, readers, etc., by grants of scholarships. 
In 1888, 26 young men were being trained for holy orders, 
and 68 natives belonging to non-English races were in training 
for lay mission work, by aid of studentships granted by the 
Society. It devotes a portion of its funds to assist in the 
establishment and maintenance of medical missions, and for 
the training of medical missionaries — lay and clerical. This 
latter plan has been extended to include the training of female 
medical missionaries, for the spread of the Gospel among the 
women of India. A great development of this work has 
taken place in the past year, when ^5,000 were voted for its 
aid and extension. ;^ 1,5 00 were also voted towards the 
endowment of bishoprics; ^2,500 towards clergy endowment 
funds; ;£"2,5oo for theological studentships; and ;^2,ooo for 
native lay mission agent studentships. The Society's missionary 
work also includes the erection of churches, schools, and colleo:es 



Missions in the East Indies. 23 

in the colonial and missionary dioceses — aid was promised for 
121 buildings of this description last year — the payment of the 
passages of missionaries to their spheres of work, the maintenance 
of pupils in certain colleges and schools in India, and the pro- 
viding of missionary auxiliaries, such as printing-presses, type, 
magic-lanterns, books, etc. 

The record of the Society in its early days is closely con- 
nected with Protestant Missions to India. ^ Early in the 
eighteenth century it was led to take measures for the con- 
version of the heathen in that country. The Danish Mission 
at Tranquebar, established by the learned and saintly 
Ziegenbalg, was greatly aided by its liberality. For many 
years also it sustained the Trichinopoli Mission, insepar- 
ably associated with the long-continued, self-denying, and 
heroic labours of Christian Frederick Schwartz. As chaplain 
at Trichinopoly, he made that district the centre of missionary 
labour in the regions around, training and sending out 
catechists, and extending his efforts to Tanjore, where he 
eventually took up his residence, and even to Madras, under 
the auspices of this Society. Schwartz died in 1798, after 
forty-eight years spent uninterruptedly in the Mission field. 
The era of the great modern missionary societies was then 
beginning, and the Christian Knowledge Society has by degrees 
transferred its work of directly maintaining living agents to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

For an account of the publication work of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, see page 237. 

* See page 26. 



( 24 ) 



SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE 
GOSPEL IN FOREIGN PARTS. 

INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 170I. 
SUPPLEMENTAL CHARTER GRANTED, 1 882. 

In the latter half of the seventeenth century the conscience of 
English Churchmen was awakened by the condition of the 
newly-discovered lands on which emigrants from this country 
were beginning to setUe. From 1662 the Church had prayed 
daily for ' all sorts and conditions of men,' that God would be 
pleased ' to make His ways known unto them. His saving health 
among all nations.' But the only specific prayer for the 
conversion of the heathen which tlie earlier Books of Common 
Prayer had contained was the Collect for Good Friday, which 
of course was used on only one day in the year. The clergy 
were now beginning to follow their flocks into the American 
colonies, but no order was taken for their being sent forth, or 
for their support. Dr. Thomas Bray, having been appointed 
Commissary of the Bishop of London for Maryland, zealously 
bestirred himself and aroused his friends to meet the press- 
ing need. Accordingly, on March 13, 1701, the Lower House 
of Convocation of Canterbury appointed a committee to 
consider what was to be done for ' the promotion of the 
Christian Religion in the Plantations and Colonies beyond the 
Seas.' Archbishop Tenison applied to the Crown for a Royal 
Charter, and thus the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts was incorporated by King William III., 
consisting of ninety-six members ; it being provided in the 
charter that the two Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the 
Bishops of London and Ely, the Lord Almoner^ the Deans of 
St. Paul's and of Westminster, the Archdeacon of London, and 
the two Regius and the two Margaret Professors of Divinity at 
Oxford and Cambridge should always be members of the Society, 
the mode in which from time to time other persons should be 
elected as members of the Society being further prescribed 



Work in the Colonies, and among the Heathen. 25 

Thus, by the joint action of the Church and the State, the 
Society was founded : 

* For Ihe receiving, managing, and disposing of funds contributed for 
the religious instruction of the Queen's subjects beyond the seas ; for the 
maintenance of clergymen in the plantations, colonies, and factories of 
Great Britain, and for the Propagation of the Gospel in those parts.' 

As soon as it was thus founded, the Society began its work. 
The first places which it assisted were Archangel and Moscow, 
where were settlements of English people engaged in trade. 
In April 1702 it sent forth its first missionaries, George 
Keith and Patrick Gordon, who landed at Boston on June 1 1. 
They were followed by many more, including the Rev. John 
Wesley, and until 1784 the Society laboured at planting the 
Church in what are now the United States of America. 

It extended its work rapidly : it took under its care New- 
foundland in 1703, the West Indies in 1712, Canada in 1749, 
West Coast of Africa in 1752, Australia in 1795, the East 
Indies in 18 18, South Africa in 1820, New Zealand in 1839, 
Borneo in 1849, British Columbia and Burma in 1859, Mada- 
gascar in 1864, Independent Burma in 1868, the Transvaal 
in 1873, Japan in 1873, China in 1874, British Honduras in 
1877, Fiji in 1879. From the first it has aimed at the 
conversion of the heathen, as well as the benefit of Christian 
colonists and emigrants. In the first century of its existence 
several clergymen, besides lay teachers, were employed by the 
Society (as at present) specially for work among the heathen, 
and as early as 1741 it could report that some thousands of 
Indians and negroes had been instructed and baptized by its 
missionaries. 

It may claim to have been in an especial degree the main 
founder of the Episcopal Church in the United States and in 
the many colonies of the Empire. It has promoted the 
endowment of thirty-four Colonial Dioceses, and has maintained 
or assisted twenty-eight Diocesan or Theological Colleges in 
all parts of the world. 

It has been careful to induce Colonial Churchmen every 
year to do more and more towards the support of their Church, 
and twenty-four Dioceses in Australia, New Zealand, and 
Canada are now independent of its assistance. 

With the great growth of the colonies in wealth and power, 
their claims on the Society's treasury become less every year, 



26 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

and the alms of Churchmen are set free to meet the claims of 
our heathen and Mohammedan fellow-subjects in various parts 
of the world. The tabular statement on page 35 necessarily 
includes colonial with foreign work, as the two are carried on 
by one and the same organization. Little more than one-fourth 
of its funds is all that is now spent on our Christian colonists ; 
about five-eighths are spent on the conversion of the heathen 
and on building up native churches within the Empire ; and 
the remainder on Missions in foreign countries, such as China, 
Japan, Borneo, Madagascar, and Honolulu. 

From 1 7 1 2 to the present time the Society has assisted in 
planting and extending the Church in the West Indies. Work 
in Guiana was begun in 1834. 

The earliest connection of this Society with Mission work in 
India was in a donation of ;£2o, sent, with a collection of 
books, to Ziegenbalg and Grundler, the Danish missionaries in 
Tranquebar, about 1709. The assistance was not continued, 
as the definite object of the Society was then to minister to the 
British colonies. The work was, however, in part, undertaken 
by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge; 
and, in addition to the aid thus obtained, a subscription was 
opened for the Danish Mission in India, with a large and liberal 
response. King George I., in 17 17, addressed to Ziegenbalg a 
truly royal letter : — 

'George, by the grace of God King of Great Britain, etc., to the 
reverend and learned Bartholomew Ziegenbalg, and John Ernest Grundler, 
missionaries at Tranquebar : Reverend and beloved — Your letters, dated 
the 20th of January of the present year, were most welcome to us, not only 
because the work undertaken by you, of converting the heathen to the 
Christian truth, doth, by the grace of God, prosper ; but also because that, 
in this our kingdom, such a laudable zeal for the promotion of the Gospel 
prevails. We pray you may be endued with health and strength of body, 
that you may long continue to fulfil your ministry with good success ; of 
which, as we shall be rejoiced to hear, so you will always find us ready to 
succour you, in whatever may tend to promote your work and to excite 
your zeal. We assure you of the continuance of our royal favour. George 
R. Given at our palace of Hampton Court, the 23rd August, A.D. 17 17, 
in the fourth year of our reign.' 

Under the auspices of the Christian Knowledge Society, a 
succession of German Lutheran missionaries, among them the 
renowned Christian Frederick Schwartz, carried on the work in 
Southern India ; Kiernander, with others, in Calcutta. 



The Delhi Mission. 27 

But the earliest sustained efforts of the S. P. G. in India were 
in connection with the newly established bishopric of Calcutta. 
In 1818 the Society voted the sum of ;£"5,ooo to Bishop Mid- 
dleton for ' missionary purposes/ and in the following year gave 
;^45,ooo towards the foundation of the Bishop's College. 

In 1 84 1 the Society commenced a Mission at Cawnpore, 
where two of its missionaries were massacred in the Mutiny of 
1857. In 1852 the Society devoted ;£'8,ooo out of its Jubilee 
Fund to the establishment of the Delhi Mission, which was 
commenced by the Rev. J. Stuart Jackson and the Rev. 
A. R. Hubbard. The progress made almost immediately 
excited the anger of the natives, and in the Mutiny the Mission 
was swept away, and the Rev. M. J. Jennings, the chaplain, 
and the Rev. A. R. Hubbard, the missionary, and Mr. Sandys, 
a catechist, were killed at their posts. 

It was long before the Mission recovered from these terrible 
blows ; but the Rev. T. Skelton, M.A., now Prebendary of 
Lincoln and Rector of Hickling, started for Delhi in 1859, 
where the work of the Church was, in the words of Bishop 
Cotton, who first visited Delhi in i860, 'just recovering from 
total extinction.' He found a powerful coadjutor in Ram 
Chunder, the native Christian master of the Government 
school — one of those ' educated men ' so necessary, as the 
bishop wrote, to the progress of the Mission, ' who should be 
able and willing to enter fully into the language, literature, 
religion, and philosophy of the Hindoos, and so win to the 
Church of Christ some of the educated classes.' 

In i860 Mr. Skelton was joined by the Rev. R. R. Winter, 
who, since the appointment of the former to a professorship in 
the Bishop's College, has superintended the work of evangeliza- 
tion and school-teaching with marked efhciency and success. 
With his colleagues, European and native, he has extended the 
work into out-stations, establishing several branch Missions, and 
gradually extending the work 100 miles in each direction, to 
cities of 40,000 or 50,000 inhabitants, as well as to smaller 
towns and villages. 

In 1863 Mrs. Winter took advantage of the marvellous 
impulse which had been for some time given to female educa- 
tion in the Punjab, and made an energetic commencement, 
with classes of girls and women. 

The work steadily progresses. Increased congregations at 



28 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 

the church services— catechetical classes — the schools and 
orphanages — the extension of branch Missions to Riwari, 
Bhawani, Karnul, and Panipat, made great demands upon the 
energies of Mr. Winter and his colleagues ; while the Kali 
Masjid girls' schools, the female normal school, and Zenana 
classes were the special charge of Mrs. Winter, who succeeded 
in attracting the services of well-qualified ladies. 

In 1877 fresh hfe was infused into the Delhi Mission by an 
organized effort on the part of the University of Cambridge to 
maintain a body of men who should live and labour together in 
some Indian city. Delhi was chosen for this venture of faith. 
The Society encouraged the proposal made to it, and became 
responsible for the larger portion of the maintenance of 
the Cambridge contingent. The Rev. R. R. Winter cordially 
welcomed his new colleagues. The special object of the 
Cambridge Mission, in addition to evangelistic labours, is to 
afford means for the higher education of young native Christians 
and candidates for Holy Orders, and through literary and other 
labours to reach the more thoughtful heathen.^ 

Another Mission of unusual interest in the Diocese of Cal- 
cutta is that of Chutia Nagpur. In 1844 Pastor Gossner, of 
Berlin, sent to Calcutta four missionaries, whose field of labour 
was left to be determined in India. While still in Calcutta, 
uncertain where to go — their thoughts even turning to Thibet 
— they noticed among the coolies employed in repairing the 
Calcutta roads some people of a peculiar type of countenance. 
Struck with the appearance of these men, the missionaries spoke 
to them, and made inquiries, from which they found they were 
Kols, from Chutia Nagpur, and that they belonged to tribes 
that had never heard of the Gospel, and were steeped in 
ignorance and superstition. Here, then, was what these 
missionaries were looking for — a field for Mission work ; they 
started at once for Ranchi, the seat of the local government in 
Chutia Nagpur, and arrived there in March 1845. For five 
years these good men laboured among the Kols, amid dis- 
comfort and privation, having but small provision for their 
wants, building houses with their own hands, and often driven 
with stones out of the villages — and at the end of these five 
years they had not made a single convert. In 1850, however, 

' See page 208. 



Chiitia Nagpur: Madras, 29 

they were cheered by a visit from four Kols, who sought an inter- 
view with them at their mission-house at Ranchi. They were 
invited to attend evening prayers at the Mission. The congre- 
gation consisted at that time of the missionaries and one or two 
orphan children who had been made over to them by the magis- 
trate of the district. The Mission grew rapidly, and in course of 
years the converts numbered 10,000; but with this development 
differences had arisen between the missionaries and the Berlin 
authorities, which ended in a complete severance. As soon as 
this became known among the Kol converts, the greater part 
of them immediately presented a petition to the Bishop of 
Calcutta, praying him to receive them and their pastors into the 
Church of England. The residents also, when Bishop Milman 
visited Ranchi in March 1869, presented an address to him. 
The prayer of the petitioners was in accordance with the 
wish of the founder of the Mission, Pastor Gossner, who is 
believed on his death-bed to have expressed the hope that his 
Mission would one day be associated with the Church of 
England. The result of the addresses to the bishop was that 
he agreed to receive the Kol Christians, who followed Mr. 
Batsch, in number about 7,000, into the Church of England, 
in connection with the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. 

Immediately upon the connection of the Mission with the 
Society being formally recognized, the Rev. J. C. Whitley was 
transferred from Delhi, and he reached Chutia Nagpur in June 
1869. In 1870 Bishop Milman again visited the Mission, and 
preached to a congregation of 1,200, of whom 585 were com- 
municants. He also on this visit confirmed 255 candidates. 
The district within the sphere of the Mission comprised 
300 villages, which were divided into thirty-five circles, in 
each of which a reader was placed, who read prayers, in- 
structed catechumens, and was visited periodically by the chief 
missionary. 

The Society in the year 1826 undertook in Madras the 
work which had hitherto been carried on by the Christian 
Knowledge Society. A District Committee was formed, and 
during the first ten years of its work the number of European 
missionaries employed in this district increased from six to 
thirteen, the number of Christians in the congregations from 
8,352 to 11,743; and the number of children in school from 



30 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

1,232 to 3,258. The progress thus commenced has ever since 
continued. It has sometimes been" more rapid than "at other 
times, but there has been no real falling off; there has always 
been an ascent and substantial progress. 

Madras was constituted a Bishopric in 1835, when Bishop 
Corrie became the first bishop, succeeded in 1837 by Bishop 
Spencer, who, notwithstanding continual ill-health, laboured 
zealously and faithfully for the twelve years of his episcopate 
to promote the missionary cause, especially in connection 
with the Missions of this Society, which in his time were 
wonderfully revived. He was succeeded in 1849 by Bishop 
Dealtry, who devotedly laboured in the cause of Christ for 
nearly twelve years, when he Avas succeeded in 1861 by Bishop 
Gell, the present occupant of the see, who has already been 
privileged for more than twenty years to carry on the work of 
chief pastor in this missionary diocese. 

The Madras Missions are divided into three circles. One 
comprises Madras itself, with a few isolated stations, and the 
Missions in the Telugu country and Hyderabad. Another 
comprises Tanjore and Trichinopoli, including the various 
districts and stations connected with them, together with 
CuDDALORE. The third comprises Tinnevelli and Ramnad. 

The grants of the Society to. this diocese have long been 
larger than the grants made to any other diocese in any part 
of the world. The whole of the grant is expended in payments 
towards missionary work, either directly, in the support of 
missionaries and the partial support of native pastors and 
catechists, or indirectly, in the maintenance of Mission schools. 
Only a very small proportion of the Society's grants has at any 
time been expended on buildings. Speaking generally, it may 
be said that the entire amount has been devoted to the sacred 
work of sowing the good seed of the Word ; and as a propor- 
tion is generally found to exist in every department of work 
between means and ends, between the number of labourers in 
any field and the fruits of their labour, it may naturally be ex- 
pected that Madras shall stand as high in the order of results 
as in the order of receipts. It will appear, we trust, that this 
expectation has been fulfilled. In this diocese, at the date of 
the last accounts, there were 42,192 baptized persons in the 
Society's Missions, besides 11,901 catechumens. The commu- 
nicants numbered 12,550. Of the 85 clergy, 70 were natives. 



Madras: Bombay: Burma: Ceylon. 31 

With Bombay the Society became first connected in 1830, 
but its Missions were feeble and the missionaries few until a 
recent date. The work in Ahmadnagar promises to rival that 
in Tinnevelli. 

To the endowment of the See of Rangoon the Society gave 
;£"2,ooo, and it has had the honour of maintaining all the Missions 
of the Church of England in Burma from the first. It was 
the wish of Bishop Cotton that, while the Church Missionary 
Society penetrated northward, the S. P. G. should go and work 
southward, in Assam and Burma, and thence towards Singa- 
pore and its old Missions in Borneo. The work in Burma 
has from the first been largely educational, but especially 
among the Karens it has also been distinctly evangelistic. 

Bishop Cotton declared that there were three great mission- 
ary successes in India : (i.) The work of the Church in Tinne- 
velli ; (ii.) the work of the Lutherans in the ' peasant Church ' 
of Chutia Nagpur; (iii.) the work of the American Baptists in 
Burma. 

The Society commenced work in Ceylon in 1838. It has 
recently offered ;^2,5oo towards the endowment of the See of 
Colombo, which will not be maintained out of public moneys 
after the incumbency of the present bishop ; and it endowed 
St. Thomas's College with an equal sum. Of the work-in 
general, as connected with the chaplaincies on the island, the 
bishop writes : — 

' If I am to sum up the results of the Society's work in Ceylon, I should 
say : The Society has given a missionary character to all the Church's 
work here. It has supplied a missionary side to the work of almost every 
chaplain and catechist.' 

The Mission to Borneo was commenced in 1847 by a 
Committee, who raised a'special fund to which the Society con- 
tributed. In 1854 the Society took the responsibihty of the 
whole Mission, which it has borne ever since. It gave ;^5,ooo 
towards the endowment of the see, and has recently offered 
;^2,ooo in order that this endowment may be adequately 
completed. 

It is only truth to say, that, under the protection of their 
Highnesses, the late Rajah Brooke and his successor, the 
present religious condition of Borneo, with its numerous 
Christian converts, especially amongst the Saribas and other 



32 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

kindred tribes, previously notorious for their piracy and head- 
taking, is the result, under God, of the care and charity of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Mission work was 
begun in British North Borneo in 1888. 

In Singapore, Penang, Malacca, the chaplains of the 
settlement have at various times initiated Mission work, which 
has eventually been aided by the Society, especially in supporting 
native deacons and catechists. In 1872 the Society sent a 
clergyman, the Rev. W. H. Gomes, from Borneo, and 

'from that time there has been steadily increasing prosperity. We 
have built a beautiful school-chapel, holding 200 people, and a commo- 
dious house for the missionary, with accommodation for divinity students. 
Another Mission chapel at Jurong, in the centre of the island of Singapore, 
is just being begun. Representatives of the many races of populous poly- 
glot Singapore gather together in the Mission building to services held in 
the one language which is common to them all, Malay ; and there are other 
services in Chinese and Tamil : there are some 200 Christians, the fruits of 
the Mission.' 

To the diocese of Victoria, Hong-kong, the Society con- 
tributed ;^2,ooo for the endowment of the see, but it has had 
no Missions within its limits of any magnitude. 

After the first day of intercession (Dec. 20, 1872) a munifi- 
cent layman offered a subscription of ;£'i,ooo per annum for 
five years, on condition that the Society entered on new work. 
At the same time a promise of ;£"5oo, for missions in China, 
was received. 

Thus encouraged, the Society sent two clergymen to Japan 
in 1873, and two to North China in 1874. There are now 
six missionaries of the Society in Japan ; and in China the first 
missionary has been consecrated bishop, and has with him four 
clergymen, besides several young men who are training for 
missionary work. The Society is about to open a Mission in 
the Corea also. 

The Society's annual expenditure in Asia now exceeds 

;^40,000. 

The Missions of the Society in South Africa were com- 
menced by sending, in 1820, a chaplain to Capetown, and a 
second in 1840. In 1847, when Bishop Gray was consecrated, 
there were only thirteen clergymen in the whole of South Africa. 
The Society immediately voted large grants to Capetown, 



China : Japan : South Africa. 33 

including a sum of ;^i,ooo towards the endowment of a 
college. 

For the endowment of the See of Grahamstown in 1855, ^^ 
Society gave ;^5,ooo, and to that of Natal the sum of ^1,500. 
In 1863, the Society made itself responsible for the stipend of 
the Bishop of the Orange Free State, which it continued for 
eighteen years, until the see was endowed, the Society contri- 
buting nearly ^2,000 to that object. It has also made annual 
grants to the Missions in this diocese. The diocese of St. 
John's, which is now assisted by the Scottish Church, was 
originated by the Society, which continues its undiminished 
assistance to it. Similarly the work in Zululand and in the 
Transvaal was originated by the Society. 

Of the work among the Kafirs, the Bishop of Grahamstown 
wrote in 1881 in words still applicable : — 

' That whereas twenty-five years ago we had not a single Kafir convert, we 
are now counting our communicants by thousands, that we have a native 
ministry growing up ; and that the foundation is laid of a native ministry 
fund supported entirely by themselves ; which, but for the troubled state of 
the country, would ere this have grown into a respectable amount. For 
the sums which the Kafirs have of themselves freely contributed towards 
building churches, churches that would not disgrace any European congre- 
gation, especially at Newlands and the Keiskamma Hoek, is a plain indica- 
tion that the natural carelessness of the heathen and the savage, a trait most 
perceptible in them, can be made to give way before the teaching of the 
Gospel.' 

The Society's sphere of operation in the Mauritius diocese 
comprises not only that beautiful island, ' the Malta of the 
Indian Ocean,' but its many small dependencies. These 
embrace the Seychelles Archipelago, Rodrigues, Diego Garcia, 
and about seventy other little islands scattered over a vast 
extent of the Indian Ocean. Rodrigues, the nearest, is 300 
miles to the east ; and the Seychelles group, the most im- 
portant dependency, is nearly 1,000 to the north of Mauritius. 
All are in the tropics. The population of the diocese is about 
376,000 souls, of whom a large proportion are Creoles, ' coolies,' 
and descendants of emancipated slaves. 

In Madagascar the Society commenced work in 1864, and 
succeeded in obtaining the consecration of a bishop to lead the 
Missions in 1874, since which date it has been responsible for 
the support of the bishop and of the whole missionary body. 

An itinerant missionary was sent in 1752 to the negroes in 

D 



34 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

Guinea, and a native African (who had been educated and 
ordained in England) to the Gold Coast in 1765. On the 
Western Coast of Africa the Society now assists the West 
Indian Mission to the Pongas. 

In the island of St. Helena, and in the remote settlement 
of Tristan d'Acunha (South Atlantic), the Society's grants 
have been and are the mainstay of the Church. 

The result of the Society's work in Australia — begun in 
1795 — may be seen in the existence of twelve dioceses, ten of 
which are now independent of the Society's aid. The 
Australian Church is now co-operating with the Society in 
opening a mission in New Guinea. 

The Society's labours in New Zealand commenced in 1839, 
two years before the consecration of Bishop Selwyn. It 
immediately gave considerable assistance to the bishop, and 
contributed largely to the endowment of Theological Colleges. 
The single See of New Zealand has now grown into six, all of 
which are independent of England — Auckland, Wellington, 
Waiapu, Nelson, Christchurch and Dunedin. 

To the Melanesian Mission the Society contributed annually, 
from 1853 until 1880. On the decease of Bishop Patteson, 
the Society was able, by an appeal to the mother-church, to 
raise ;£"7,ooo for the perpetuation of his memory. Of this sum 
^^2,000 were spent in the erection of the memorial church in 
Norfolk Island, ;£"i, 500 were applied to the cost of the mission- 
ary ship, the Southerfi Cross, and the balance was voted to the 
endowment of the Mission. 

The Society is now assisting in the maintenance of clergymen 
in Fiji, in Norfolk Island, and in the Sandwich Islands. 
With regard to the latter, the Bishop of Honolulu wrote a 
few years ago, and the words are as applicable to-day : — 

Magazines : — The Mission Field and The Gospel Missionary ; 
monthly. 

' In viewing the opportunities before us, special account should be 
taken of the Chinese, who form a large and important element in the 
population, and for whose evangelization a special effort ought to be made. 
The islands are thus more than ever a missionary field.' 












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( 56 ) 



BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

FOUNDED 1792. 

The eighteenth century was drawing to its close, and the 
missionary efforts of the churches, as described in preceding 
sections, were still intermittent and circumscribed. No Christian 
community had as yet apprehended its duty, or grasped the 
opportunities which in the increasing intercourse of nations 
offered themselves on every hand. But a new era was 
approaching, and, by an almost sudden revelation of its 
responsibility, the whole Church was aroused to a better 
discernment of its vocation ; so that, before the nineteenth 
century had closed its second decade, every Protestant evan- 
gelical community in Christendom had undertaken missionary 
work among the heathen. 

In this work, William Carey was the great pioneer. 
The tale of the village pastor, schoolmaster, shoemaker, 
pondering in his poverty the dream of a world evangeUzed, 
has often been told.^ In 1786 he ventured to propose at a 
ministers' meeting at Northampton as a subject for discussion 
whether the command given to the Apostles to teach all 
nations was not obligatory on all succeeding ministers to the 
end of the world, seeing that the accompanying promise was of 
equal extent. On this the venerable minister of the place, 
John Ryland, sen.,^ exclaimed, 'You are a miserable enthu- 
siast for asking such a question ! Certainly nothing can be 
done before another Pentecost, when an effusion of miraculous 
gifts, including the gift of tongues, will give effect to the 
commission of Christ as at first ! ' For the time the youthful 

^ See Life and Times of Carey, Marshman, and Ward, by the late 
Joshua C. Marshman, 1859, and the Life of William Carey, D.D., Shoe- 
maker and Missiofiary, by George Smith, LL.D. (2nd ed.), 1887. 

2 Observe, not Dr. Ryland, of whom the story is often mistakenly told. 
John Ryland, jun., D.D., afterwards the well-known President of the Bristol 
Academy, was one of Carey's coadjutors and fastest friends. 



William Carey. 37 

minister was silenced; but he went home, and with much 
pondering wrote a pamphlet : An Enquiry i7ito the Obligations 
of Christia7is to tise Mea?is for the Conversion of the Heathen, 
in which the Religious State of the Different Nations of the 
World, the Success of Former Undertakifigs , and the Practicability 
of Further Undertakings, are co?isidered by William Carev. 
Mr. Thomas Potts of Birmingham gave Carey ^lo to publish 
the MS., and it was printed in Leicester, to which town Carey had 
meantime removed. The treatise ends by suggesting ' the 
formation of a catholic, or, failing that, a Particular Baptist 
Society, of "persons whose hearts are in the work, men of 
serious religion and possessing a spirit of perseverance." ' 
He proposes also, to sustain the effort, ' a subscription of one 
penny or more per week from all members of congregations.' 

At a ministers' meeting held at Nottingham, May 31, 
1792, the Leicester pastor occupied the pulpit. His text was 
Isaiah liv. 2, 3, ' Enlarge the place of thy tent,' etc. ; his 
divisions, Expect great things from God: Attempt great things 
for God, Such was the effect of the sermon that the younger 
Ryland wrote, ' If all the people had lifted up their voices and 
wept, as the children of Israel did at Bochim^ I should not have 
wondered at the effect.' The preacher, after the service, 
seeing that the ministers were dispersing, seized Andrew 
Fuller's arm, and imploringly asked, ' And are you, after all, going 
again to do nothing ? ' His importunity prevailed, and the pastors 
resolved * that a plan be prepared against the next ministers' 
meeting at Kettering for forming a Baptist Society for propa- 
gating the Gospel among the Heathen.' The meeting was 
duly held, October 2, 1792 — henceforth to rank among 
memorable dates in the annals of Christ's kingdom — and the 
Society was formed. Twelve ministers met in the parlour of 
Mrs. Beeby Wallis, in a white house still visible on the 
outskirts of the town from the Midland Railway ; they signed 
preliminary resolutions, and a subscription was made on 
the spot, amounting to ;^i3 2s. 6d. Reynold Hogg of 
Thrapston was the first treasurer, Andrew Fuller of Kettering 
the secretary. From Birmingham more substantial aid was 
soon sent, mainly through the pleading of Samuel Pearce. 
The London ministers, with but one or two exceptions, still 
doubted, but in the Midlands the flame was fairly kindled. 
At this crisis, Mr. John Thomas, a surgeon from Bengal, an 



38 Baptist Missionary Society, 

ardent, enthusiastic man, with a strange, eventful history, 
returned to England, and gave such accounts of the needs of 
India, that the newly formed Committee, who had been contem- 
plating a Mission to the South Seas, resolved to make an 
attempt upon the East. At Leicester, on the 20th March, 
1793, Carey and Thomas were solemnly ordained to missionary 
work. Difficulties on which we need not here dwell, arising 
very much from Mr. Thomas's antecedents, hindered them 
from proceeding to India in an English vessel ; and at length 
they sailed under the Danish flag, and landed at Calcutta on 
the nth of November. The revenues at command were very 
small, and for a time Carey was superintendent of an indigo 
factory, at Mudnabatty, near Malda, thus supporting himself 
while engaged in evangelistic work, estabUshing village schools, 
and translating the New Testament into the Bengali dialect. 
In 1799 the indigo factory was given up; and about the same 
time Carey was joined by Messrs. Marshman and Ward, with 
whom, on account of the still persistent opposition of the East 
India Company, he removed to the Danish settlement of 
Serampur, on the west bank of the Hugli, fourteen miles from 
Calcutta. 

The missionary community at Serampur long lived together 
as one large family, teaching, preaching, establishing schools, 
and translating the Scriptures. Mr. Carey was appointed 
tutor, afterwards professor, of Bengali in the Government 
college at Fort William, Calcutta. Mr. and Mrs. Marshman 
established a boarding-school for the children of English 
residents. Mr. Ward superintended a printing-press, which, 
besides issuing translations of the Scriptures, tracts, and other 
missionary publications, was largely employed in general work, 
and the whole profit of these several employments was devoted 
to the Mission. 

A passage from a speech of William Wilberforce in the House 
of Commons, in 1813, when the expiry of the East India 
Company's Charter raised the whole question of the toleration 
of missionary work in India, shows the view taken of the 
Serampur work by that large-hearted Christian philanthropist. 

' In truth, sir,' said Mr. Wilberforce, ' these Anabaptist missionaries, 
as, among other low epithets bestowed on them, they have been contemp- 
tuously termed, are entitled to our highest respect and admiration. One of 
them, Dr. Carey, was originally in one of the lowest stations in society ; but, 



speech of William Wilberforce. 39 

under all the disadvantages of such a situation, he had the genius, as well 
as the benevolence, to devise the plan which has since been pursued of 
forming a Society for communicating the blessings of Christian light to the 
natives of India ; and his first care was to qualify himself to act a distin- 
guished part in that truly noble enterprise. He resolutely applied himself 
to the diligent study of the learned languages ; after making a considerable 
proficiency in them, he applied himself to several of the Oriental tongues, 
more especially to that which I understand is regarded as the parent of them 
all, the Sanskrit ; in which last his proficiency is acknowledged to be 
greater than that of Sir William Jones himself, or any other European. Of 
several of these languages he has already published grammars, of one or two 
of them a dictionary, and he has in contemplation still greater enterprises. 
All this time, sir, he is labouring indefatigably as a missionary, with 
a warmth of zeal only equalled by that with which he prosecutes his literary 
labours. Another of these Anabaptist missionaries, Mr. Marshman, has 
established a seminary for the cultivation of the Chinese language, which 
he has studied with a success scarcely inferior to that of Dr. Carey in the 
Sanskrit. It is a merit of a more vulgar sort — but to those who are blind 
to their moral and even their literary excellences it may perhaps afford an 
estimate of value better suited to their principles and habits of calculation 
— that these men, and Mr. Ward also, another of the missionaries, acquiring 
from ;:^ I, coo to ,^1,500 per annum each by the various exercises of their 
talents, throw the whole into the common stock of the Mission, which they 
thus support by their contributions only less effectually than by their 
researches and labours of a higher order. Such, sir, are the exertions, such 
the merits, such the success, of these great and good men, for so I shall not 
hesitate to term them.' 

From Serampur as a centre, missionary operations were 
extended to other districts of Bengal. Dinajpur, Katwa, and 
Jessor were first occupied, and in 1809 a place of worship was 
opened for Europeans and natives in Calcutta. In 18 10 the 
work had extended from Bengal to Northern India, where 
Patna and Agra were the first stations. Allahabad was occupied 
in 1 8 14, Dacca and Monghyr in 181 6, Howrah, Birbhum, 
Benares and Delhi in 1 8 1 8. Serampur College was now founded, 
a charter being obtained from the Danish Government in 1829. 

Meantime Carey and his colleagues gave increasing attention 
to the work of translating the Scriptures. The whole or parts of 
the sacred volume were rendered by them and their coadjutors 
in other parts of India into no fewer than thirty-one languages 
and dialects, a number increased before the Jubilee year of the 
Society to forty-four. Dr. Marshman also had translated the 
Bible into Chinese, besides preparing a grammar of that 
language, and a translation of Confucius into English. Most 
valuable aid was rendered in the work of translation by 
Dr. William Yates, who joined the Mission in 18 14, and by 



40 Baptist Missionary Society. 

Dr. Wenger, a native of Switzerland, a philologist of rare ability 
and learning, who went out to India in 1839. 

The history of the Serampur Mission during the first twenty- 
five years of its existence was very chequered. In 18 12 the 
printing-house was totally consumed by fire — a calamity which 
proved unexpectedly and providentially a turning-point in the 
enterprise, by the sympathy it awakened among British Christians 
of all denominations, no less than;^io,ooo being raised in fifty 
days to make good the loss, with a liberality unprecedented in 
the history of Missions. From this time generous gifts to the 
missionary cause have become an ordinary incident of church 
life, and a special need, once fully apprehended, has always 
been met by ready and spontaneous ofterings. 

A more serious peril arose from a prolonged controversy 
between the Serampur brethren and the Home Committee as 
to the administration of the property and income of the Mission. 
The result was a separation, which lasted from 1827 to 1838, 
the two bodies labouring independently. Early in the latter 
year the breach was happily healed, and the unity has since 
remained unbroken. 

The missions of the Society in India, at the date of the last 
report, were carried on in Bengal, at seventeen principal 
stations ; in the North-West, at eleven stations ; in Western 
India in two, Bombay and Poona. The work of trans- 
lation and printing is still actively carried on under the 
direction of the Rev. G. H. Rouse, M.A., of Calcutta, and 
the Rev. J. W. Thomas, Manager of the Calcutta Press ; 
and,' besides the works printed for the Mission, the press has 
also issued between eighty and ninety thousand copies of the 
Scripture books in Bengali for the Calcutta Bible Society. 

The Mission to Ceyi.on was begun in the year 181 2 by 
Mr. Chater, who removed from Burma to Colombo, and was 
at once greatly encouraged in his work, preaching both in the 
Singhalese and the Portuguese languages. The principal 
stations of the Society are now at Colombo, Ratnapura, and 
Kandy. The Rev. F. D. Waldock, the senior missionary, is in 
charge of the Colombo work. Much attention is given in this 
island to Christian education ; and the character of the work in 
general is well indicated by the following extract from a letter 
of the Rev. H. R. Pigott of Colombo, written in 1887: — 



Ceylo7i: Chifia. 41 

' The past year has been one of much blessing and power, and we have 
been cheered on all hands by manifest tokens of God's presence. Sixty- 
five persons have been added to our churches by baptism — 33 in Colombo 
district, 31 in Kandy, and i in Ratnapura. During the year, 102 regular 
services have been held each w'eek, attended by 3,008 persons. In attend- 
ing to their evangelistic work, each month our 22 preachers travel on an 
average 1,743 miles, and speak to 5,790 persons — or over 20,000 miles per 
annum, and neaily 70,000 persons. I'hey have also distributed 37,000 
tracts and religious books. Eight evangelistic missionary tours have been 
made during the second half of the year. Many distant villages have thus 
been visited, and many hundreds of persons have been for the first time 
brought within the sound of the Gospel. We have now a total of 2,534 
children in attendance at our day-schools, being an increase of 344 during the 
year. The total amount of Government school grants earned is 5,757 rupees 
50 annas, being an increase of 461 rupees. I regret to find that so small 
a percentage of our day scholars attend our Sunday schools, and efforts are 
being made to induce the children to attend better in future. The religious 
training of our day scholars is not neglected, for each child receives definite 
and regular religious instruction. Our native brethren have commenced the 
publication of a Singhalese Baptist Magazine^ which will be helpful to our 
churches in many ways.' 

A Mission to China, after some previous attempts, was 
recommenced in the year 1877, and is now carried on mainly 
in two provinces,'Shan-si, the more northerly, and Shan-tung, to 
the south. In the former province, where the Rev. Timothy 
Richard has been the pioneer of much useful work, there are 
four principal stations ; in the latter two, the Rev. A. G. Jones 
being the senior missionary. ' With regard to the work of the 
past year,' writes one of the missionary brethren, ' the question 
of a trained Native Christian agency has occupied a prominent 
place. Our brethren are most anxious to develop and foster the 
Chinese Native Church : a Church that should not be exotic, 
but really and truly a Church of Christ — Chinese in worship, 
discipline, and government. Hence the pressing importance 
of a fitting equipment for suitable native agency; men 
thoroughly acquainted with Chinese modes of thinking and 
living, and who have an insight into the motives, ideas, and 
life of their fellow-countrymen.' 

An important work in training native evangelists has accord- 
ingly been initiated and carried on, especially in Shan-tung, 
under the direction of the Rev. J. S. Whitewright. A Medical 
Mission has also been initiated, of which Dr. J. R. Watson is 
the director. 

With regard to the prospects of the work in China, the follow- 



42 Baptist Missionary Society. 

ing extract from the report of the Society for 1887 is of much 
significance : — 

* The present condition of the Chinese Empire cannot but excite the 
deepest interest. Religious and political forces of a mighty sort are acting 
upon the Government ; the days of her isolation and exclusiveness are 
nearly ended, and the wedges have already entered that must ultimately 
open up ancient China. 

* A new departure, full of significance, and full, we cannot but think, 
with many blessings to the Chinese people, has recently been made by the 
Imperial Government. Conservative and slow to move, it has, notwith- 
standing, taken a forward step which we should hail with profound grati- 
tude to God. A decree has been issued to the high officials of the Chinese 
Empire, calling their attention to the work of the Christian missionaries, 
and defining the attitude which in future is to be taken towards their work 
and towards native converts to Christianity. On the strength of this decree, 
the heads of provinces and high mandarins have issued proclamations to 
the people, calling on them to live at peace with Christian missionaries 
and converts, and explaining that the Christian religion teaches men to do 
right, and should, therefore, be respected. 

' These proclamations have been published in so many parts of China that 
it seems probable that every viceroy in the eighteen provinces has received 
official and positive instructions on the subject. 

' Four years ago the British Minister at Peking, the late Sir Harry Parkes, 
wrote : — 

' ** At length it may with positive truth be said China is on the move, 
even China cannot withstand transforming Western forces." 

' To-day, with even a fuller meaning, may it be said, " China is on the 



move. 



A mission to Japan was established in Tokio in 1879, under 
the care of the Revs. W. J. White and G. Eaves, but it is 
much crippled by the want of labourers. ' Everywhere,' writes 
one of the missionaries, ' the work is prosperous and very 
encouraging. The converts are working zealously. We are 
doing our utmost to follow the rapid progress which our work 
is making, and shall continue to do so ; but we trust you will 
remember us, and, if you can, give us another man.' 

Turning to another quarter of the world, we have briefly to 
notice the eventful history of this Society in the West India 
Islands. Of this work George Liele, a coloured free man from 
Georgia, was the pioneer. Passing over to Jamaica, he gathered 
congregations in Kingston, Spanish Town, and other places. 
He was much persecuted, and more than once imprisoned. One 
of his congregation, named Moses Baker, a worthy, illiterate 
man, carried on his work, and eventually applied to the English 



The West Indies. 43 

Society to send out a white man and his wife. Mr. Wilberforce 
gave valuable advice and help, and at length the Rev. John 
Rowe was sent, arriving in the early part of 1814. He found 
the work in great disorder, owing very much to the opposition 
of the authorities ; but he zealously set himself to the work of 
organizing, preaching, and teaching, with such success that, 
although his career was closed by death in little more than 
two years, he left a name long honoured throughout the island. 
He was followed in 181 7 by the Rev. James Coultart, who 
settled in Kingston, and soon gathered a large church. The 
number of missionaries was now rapidly augmented, Chris- 
topher Kitching, Joshua Tinson, James M. Philippo, Thomas 
Burchell, William Knibb, and many others having been added 
to the number by the year 1824. Large chapels were built 
in many parts of the island ; great numbers of the negroes 
were admitted to the churches, and large day and Sunday- 
schools established for the black children. The returns of 1831 
gave 10,838 communicants in 24 churches, presided over by 
1 4 English missionaries. But troublous times were at hand. 

At the end of 183 1, symptoms of insubordination appeared 
among the negroes, and open revolt soon broke out in many 
places. Martial law was at once proclaimed. The mission- 
aries, who had spared no effort to urge their flocks to quietness, 
diligence, and submission, were charged with having fomented 
the insurrection. Mr. Knibb, Mr. Burchell and others were 
arrested and their lives were threatened. Several chapels and 
other buildings belonging to the Baptists were destroyed by 
angry mobs. The missionaries, being brought to trial, were 
acquitted ; and it w^as determined to send Messrs. Knibb and 
Burchell to England, to lay their case before the churches and 
the public. On the 21st June, 1832, the annual m,eeting of 
the Society was held in Spa Fields Chapel, London, and Mr. 
Knibb boldly declared from the platform that slavery must 
cease. His words found an instant and enthusiastic response ; 
and the Baptist churches of this country contributed no unim- 
portant share to the agitation which led two years after to the 
abolition of slavery throughout the British dominions. On the 
recommendation of the Government a grant of ^5,5 10 was made 
to the Society as compensation for the ruined chapels, and the 
result of an appeal to the Christian public for the remainder 
brought in no less than ;^i 3,000. The work was resumed 



44 Baptist Missionary Society. 

under the happiest auspices, the Christian negroes proved in 
most cases worthy of their freedom, and there was for some 
years so much increase and blessing that the churches were 
led to celebrate the Jubilee of the Baptist Missionary Society 
in 1842, by declaring themselves independent of its funds. 
Since that date, therefore, the work in Jamaica has been mainly 
self-supporting. In the 144 churches connected with the 
Baptist Union of that island, there were at the date of the 
latest returns more than 32,342 communicants under the 
care of British or native pastors, the latter greatly prepon- 
derating. All this is indirectly the result of the blessing of 
God on the labours of the Baptist Missionary Society. 

The Society still maintains the College at Calabar, Kings- 
ton (established 181 8), with a staff of three tutors, the venerable 
D. J. East being president ; the work of the College comprising 
a Theological School for the training of pastors, a Normal 
School department, a High School, and a general Day School 
for boys and girls. The College takes a high rank among the 
educational institutions of the island, and to the churches it is 
invaluable. 

In the other West Indian Islands the Society continues its 
work. The Bahamas were entered in 1833, Trinidad in 1843, 
San Domingo in the same year, and Turk's Islands in 1880. 
Much attention in these islands is given to the education of the 
young, many of the Sunday-schools being large, especially in 
the Bahamas. In San Domingo there is much to discourage, 
through the unsettled state of public affairs. From Turk's 
Islands^and Trinidad the missionaries report large congregations 
and a gratifying increase of membership. 

A sign of spiritual life among the members of our West 
Indian churches has been the eagerness evinced to send the 
glad tidings of salvation to Africa, the land of their ancestors. 
As soon as slavery was abolished the purpose began to take a 
definite form, generous contributions were offered by the 
emancipated negroes ; and the Society at home resolved to 
imitate the effort. The Rev. John Clarke, a missionary from 
Jamaica, and Dr. G. K. Prince, a medical practitioner, were sent 
out to survey the ground, and fixed upon the island of Fernando 
Po, near the mouth of the river Cameroons, in the Gulf of 
Guinea. The Mission was fully inaugurated in the Jubilee year 



Cameroojts : the Congo. 45 

of the Mission, 1842, the Rev. T. Sturgeon was set apart for the 
work ; followed by the Rev. Joseph Merrick, also from Jamaica, 
and the Rev. Alfred Saker from Devonport, with others. The 
work was extended to the continent, and churches were gathered 
and organized. Mr. Saker soon developed rare abilities not 
only as an artizan but as a linguist. He reduced the Dualla 
language, spoken on the mainland, to writing, prepared ele- 
mentary books, translated large portions of Scripture,! and 
taught the people the arts of civilized life. Romanist intrigues 
after a while compelled the missionaries to quit Fernando 
Po ; but they found a foothold on the continent, and formed 
the settlement of Victoria on Amboises Bay, at the foot of 
the Cameroons mountains, devising at the same time plans 
for penetrating into the interior. The coloured pastors Fuller, 
father and son, and Pinnock ; the English missionaries, Diboll, 
Quintin Thomson, and others, formed with Mr. Saker a 
devoted band; and there appeared the fairest hope that, even 
when these brethren were removed, the little colony of Victoria 
would be not only a prosperous Christian community, but a 
fountain of light and life to the regions beyond. Not long, 
however, after Mr. Saker's decease in 1880, unexpected diffi- 
culties arose from the schemes of German colonization on the 
West Coast of Africa, and eventually it was deemed best to re- 
linquish the work into the hands of the Basel Missionary Society. 
This has now been done, and the enterprise, it is hoped, will 
be carried on not less effectually than before by that earnest 
Protestant association. 

The Mission to the Congo, writes the late Treasurer of the 
Society, Joseph Tritton, Esq., owes its practical development 
in great measure, 

* to the publication of Mr. Stanley's record of his wonderful journey " across 
the Dark Continent." The attention of the Christian Church had been 
drawn to the spiritual need of other parts of Africa, besides those of its 
Western and Southern Divisions, where loving hands had unfurled, with 
no mean success, the banner of the cross. 

' In connection with the London Missionary Society, the wanderings, the 
discoveries, and 'the sufferings of Dr. Livingstone, the touching circum- 
stances of his death on bended knee in the hut of Ilala, and the subsequent 
transport of his cold ashes by native hands, to be laid with the illustrious 
dead in our ancient Abbey, had greatly influenced the public mind. While 
the record of the Church Missionary Society's proceedings at Uganda, the 
propagation of the Gospel and its ready reception at the court of King 
Mtesa, further stimulated religious sympathy on the African's behalf. 



46 Baptist Missionary Society. 

' Prayerful thought on the existing need of Central Africa, and the 
possibility of meeting it, had long been working in one benevolent mind — 
that of a Christian gentleman, Mr. Robert Arthington, of Leeds, who, in 
the spring of 1877, thus wrote to the Committee of the Society : " There 
is a part of Africa, not too far, I think, from places where you have 
stations, on which I have long had my eye, with very strong desire that 
the blessing of the Gospel might be given to it— it is the Congo country, an 
old kingdom, once possessed — indeed, it is now — of a measure of civiliza- 
tion, and to a limited extent instructed in the externals of the Christian 
religion." 

* After glancing at the history of the country and its readiness to receive 
some English (*' white men ") if they would come to them, Mr. Arthington 
made the following generous proposal : — 

' "It is therefore a great satisfaction, and a high and sacred pleasure to 
me, to offer one thousand pounds, if the Baptist Missionary Society will 
undertake at once to visit these benighted, interesting people with the 
blessed light of the Gospel, teach them to read and write, and give them, 
in imperishable letters, the words of Eternal Truth. By-and-by, possibly, 
we may be able to extend the Mission eastwards, on the Congo, at a 
point above the rapids." ' 

This proposal, followed as it was by other large-hearted sug- 
gestions and generous gifts, encouraged the Committee to 
undertake the mission. Suitable men were found as pioneers 
for the work, notably Mr. Grenfell, a skilled engineer as well as 
a devoted missionary labourer ; Mr. J. T. Comber and Mr. W. 
Holman Bentley. These missionaries with their companions 
proceeded to San Salvador, and thence to Stanley Pool, the 
entrance of the Upper Congo, from which to Stanley Falls, on 
the Equator, in the very centre of the continent, there is an 
uninterrupted waterway of more than a thousand miles. To 
navigate this river, a steamer was built — again at Mr. 
Arthington's suggestion — and appropriately named The Peace. 
Settlements have been formed on both the Upper and the 
Lower Congo, and a band of twenty missionaries are now 
hopefully and joyously at work. The losses by death have 
been heavy, Mr. Comber himself having been among the 
latest called to his rest ; but recruits are still pressing forward ; 
and as the conditions of health in these regions are better 
understood it is hoped and believed that the valuable lives that 
remain will be preserved. A fire that caused much distress in 
the Mission premises at Stanley Pool, August 1886, like the fire 
at Serampur in 181 2 to which reference is made on page 40 
called forth the sympathy and generosity of the British churches 
in an extraordinary degree, the whole amount of the loss — 

[Continued on page 48. 



( 47 ) 



o > 



5 ^^^^^ 



*:P'T;'nn 



o 2 



-g 



3 ^ t; ^-j 
H) ;=rt CI. ^• 



> 
'I i 



00 OC 00 00 

OJ oo-f>. 4^ 



CC CO 00 

"^ -^ 1-1 



00 00 oo^j 

4^ UJ OnO 



Entered. 



No. of Stations 
and Sub-Stations. 



Missionaries. 



Evangelists. 



W \0 ^J O 



1-1 O VO 

ro Oj 4^ o^ 

KH o O « 



vo 4^ vo 4»- 



Communicants. 



O M W 
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to 00 CO 00 



Sabbath School 
Scholars. 



Day School 
Teachers. 



Sunday School 
Teachers. 



^^ 



4^ U> 
vo 4^ 



^ 



Native 
Contributions 
(Approximate). 



48 Baptist Missionary Society. 

some ;^4,ooo — being raised again in fifty days, and almost with- 
out a special appeal. 

Amid all the pioneering work, spiritual results have not been 
absent. At San Salvador there have been many conversions, 
and in other places there are manifest signs of spiritual influence. 
Not long before his decease Mr. Comber wrote, ' The Congo 
Mission was never so full of promise as to-day. No one can 
study its brief history without seeing most clearly the over- 
ruling hand of God.' 

The language has been reduced by Mr. Holman Bentley to 
a written form : an elaborate grammar and dictionary in one 
handsome volume has been published, and the Peep of Day 
has already been translated. The New Testament and other 
portions of Scripture will soon follow ; and the vast basin of 
the river will, it is hoped, become accessible to the glorious 
gospel. 

In addition to the Missions described above, the Society has 
undertaken work on the Continent of Europe, which does not 
fall within the scope of this manual. It has also adopted a 
mission at Nablous in Palestine (the ancient Shechem or 
Sychar), where Mr. El Karey, assisted by his wife and her 
sister, are labouring chiefly among the Jews and the Moham- 
medans. Two day-schools are also conducted in Nablous, one 
for girls, one for boys. In these, writes Mr. El Karey, ' we 
have Jews, Greeks, Mohammedans, Samaritans, and Protestants, 
bowing their heads together and offering up prayers to God. 
We have only Christian teachers in our schools ; the instruc- 
tion is entirely Scriptural. Many of the scholars have become 
true Christians.' 

Magazines : — The Missionary Herald and The Juve?tile 
Missionary Herald ; monthly. 



( 49 ) 



LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

FOUNDED 1795. 

The Missionary Society^ now called the London Missionary 
Society, was founded in September, 1795, ^^ ^he result of 
conference between the -representatives of several evangelical 
bodies, convened at the instance of the Rev. Dr. Bogue, of 
Gosport. Its founders and first constituents were connected 
with the Church of England, with various sections of the 
Presbyterians, and with the Congregational body. The consti- 
tution of the Society was strictly undenominational, and its 
object was stated in the words, 'to spread the knowledge of 
Christ among heathen and other unenlightened nations.' 

As time went on, denominational missionary societies were 
established, and thus, by degrees, the maintenance of the 
Society was left chiefly to members of the Congregational body. 
But the undenominational constitution of the Society is still 
unchanged. 

In the first years of the Society, openings for foreign 
missionary effort were comparatively few, and thus several 
fields were occupied temporarily, from which, on account of 
more important openings which were presented, it has been 
felt necessary to withdraw. On the other hand, in later years, 
the progress made in some stations has warranted the Society 
in leaving the Christian communities formed by its instru- 
mentality to conduct and support Christian worship and work 
among themselves, with only occasional pecuniary aid from the 
Society. 

Up to the close of 1888, the Society had sent out ^2>Z ^'^^^^ 
and 54 female missionaries. 

The receipts for 1887-8 amounted to ^^124,860 is. 9^/.; 
the expenditure to ;^i 28,254 oj-. 5^. 

A condensed history of the several Mission fields occupied 
by the Society may now be given. 



50 London Missionary Society. 

China. — Soon after the establishment of the Society, the 
attention of the directors was drawn to this great empire ; but 
the strong objections of the Government and people of China 
to the presence of foreigners caused delay in sending out 
missionaries. In 1806, however, the Rev. R. (afterwards Dr.) 
Morrison was appointed to that field, and in September 1807, 
he arrived at Canton. Here he met with many forms of oppo- 
sition, and was exposed to much peril. Consequently, open 
evangelistic efforts were impracticable. In 1808 he became 
translator to the East India Company's Factory in Canton, by 
which his position was made more safe. Here he made known 
the Gospel within a very limited circle, but he chiefly devoted 
himself to literary labour in translating the Scriptures, writing 
tracts, and preparing a Chinese dictionary. Dr. Morrison, who 
during part of his work had been assisted by the Rev. W. 
Milne, died in 1834, and the work in Canton was left to 
native evangelists, who laboured amid much opposition, but 
not without success. 

By the Treaty of 1842 between the British and the Chinese 
Governments, certain ports in China were opened for the 
residence of foreigners, and several missionaries, who had 
hitherto resided in Malacca and the Malayan Archipelago, 
proceeded to China and settled there. 

Thus, early in 1843, Dr. Hobson, leaving Macao, removed 
to Hong-kong, where he opened a hospital. In July of the 
same year he was followed by the Rev. J. (afterwards Dr.) 
Legge. Here for a time Dr. Legge conducted a theological 
seminary, as well as ordinary evangelistic work. But the 
seminary being soon closed, he gave his attention to literary 
labour, which, by degrees, occupied a large proportion of 
his time. His connection with the Hong-kong Mission con- 
tinued until 1873. 

In 1875 female missionaries also were appointed to Hong- 
kong. On the opening of the Mission in Hong-kong in 
1843, a printing press was set up in connection with the 
Society, and with this was combined a type foundry ; but as, 
after a time, other establishments of the kind were commenced, 
those connected with the Society were disposed of. 

In 1843 the Rev. W. H. Medhurst, leaving Batavia, 
proceeded to Shanghai, in company with Dr. Lockhart, 
and commenced a Mission there ; Dr. Lockhart opening 



China. 5 1 

a hospital, which, after several years, was taken up and 
supported by the foreign community, and the Society's con- 
nection with it ceased. In 1847 the Rev. W. Muirhead 
joined the Mission, and is still occupying this field, 
which comprises Shanghai, several out-stations, and a wide 
extent of country in which ISIr. Muirhead and his native 
assistants carry on evangelistic work. At the close of 1887 
two missionary ladies were sent out to this station. 

In 1843, the Rev. J. Stronach, who had been connected 
with the Mission at Singapore, left, and with Mr. Young, 
who had been his colleague at Singapore, proceeded to Amoy, 
and opened a Mission there in 1844. The Amoy Mission has 
been very fruitful in result, several strong and self-supporting 
churches having existed in it for many years. One of the out- 
stations, Chiang-chiu, has recently become a separate head- 
station, at which two missionaries reside, one of them a 
medical practitioner. For many years the missionaries have 
educated native students for evangelistic, pastoral and school- 
work. In 1885 two ladies were sent out to carry on a Female 
Mission. 

In 1 86 1 the Revs. Griffith John and R. Wilson, of the 
Shanghai Mission, visited Han-kow, and formed a station there. 
The Rev. T. Bryson arrived ini 867, and settled at Woo-chang, 
on the opposite side of the river. A medical branch of the 
Mission was commenced some years ago, and a hospital was 
built. This work is still going on, and is under the care of 
Dr. Gillison. 

During the closing weeks of the year a new Mission in 
Ching-king, the commercial capital of the great Sze Chuan 
province, was opened by the settlement of the Rev. J. W. 
Wilson. In May 1861 the Rev. Joseph Edkins, who 
had been connected with the Shanghai Mission since 1848, 
opened a new station at Tien-tsin, where, in 1862, he was 
joined by the Rev. Jonathan Lees. In 1879, Dr. Mackenzie, 
removing from Han-kow, commenced a medical mission at 
Tien-tsin, which, through the patronage and liberal pecuniary 
aid of the Viceroy, Li Hung Chang, has become a very 
important branch of work. Ladies sent out by the directors 
as female missionaries have been carrying on their work 
from 1885. Native students have for some years been in- 
structed by the missionaries, preparatory to their engaging in 

E 2 



52 London Missionary Society. 

the work of the Mission. Several promising out-stations have 
been opened in connection with the Tien-tsin Mission. Some 
of these out-stations, situated about 150 miles south of Tien-tsin, 
have during the past year been formed into a new centre for 
work, and are occupied by two European missionaries, one of 
whom is a medical man. 

Access, for missionary purposes, to the sacred city of Peking 
being ardently desired. Dr. Lockhart visited the city in 1861, 
to test the practicability of establishing a Mission there ; and, 
as a first step, began medical practice in the East City. Mr. 
Edkins in 1862 paid two visits to Peking, and in 1863 settled 
there as a missionary. Their successors have carried on and 
enlarged the work, and from 1884 ladies have been sent out 
to conduct a Mission among Chinese women and girls. For 
many years native students have been educated at Peking with 
a view to missionary work. 

A Mission to the Mongols was commenced in 1819 by the 
Revs. E. Stallybrass and W. Swan, who entered Siberia from 
the west. This Mission was carried on with a small measure 
of success until 1840, when it was suppressed by a decree of 
the Russian Synod. The missionaries during their residence 
in Siberia translated the Scriptures into the Mongolian lan- 
guage — an invaluable legacy for the future. In 1869 the 
work was recommenced, and the Rev. J. Gilmour was 
appointed to this sphere. He arrived in Peking in 1870, and, 
making Peking his base of operations, entered Mongolia from 
the east ; making long tours among the people, and dispensing 
medicines as a means of gaining access to them. In his work 
he has met with some encouragement, but chiefly among 
Chinese residing in or visiting Mongolia for purposes of 
trade. The Mongolian Mission has now found a centre in the 
town of Chao-yang, and Mr. G. P. Smith, M.B., CM., has 
gone out to join Mr. Gilmour in the work. 

India. — Very early in the Society's history, the directors 
turned their attention to India. In May 1798, the Rev. 
Nathaniel Forsyth sailed from England for Calcutta, and 
settled at Chinsurah, thirty miles above that city. This was 
the commencement of the North India Mission, of which, for 
the past seventy years, Calcutta has been one of the chief 
centres. The first Mission in South India was that at 



India. 53 

Vizagapatam, to which Messrs. Cran and Des Granges were 
appointed in 1804. Before the close of 18 10, both these 
brethren were removed by death, but not until they had made 
some progress in school and translation work, and had had the 
satisfaction of welcoming a Brahmin convert to Christianity, by 
name Ananderayer. The Mission was carried on by Messrs. 
Gordon and Lee, and was subsequently reinforced by Messrs. 
Dawson and Pritchett. 

Almost simultaneously with the commencement of the 
Vizagapatam Mission, efforts were made to settle in the native 
province of Travancore. The Rev. W. T. Ringeltaube, the 
pioneer of this Mission, after studying the Tamil language 
at Madras, proceeded to Palamkottah, whence, in the early 
part of 1806, through the influence of the British Resident 
in Travancore, he obtained a passport to enter that province 
The station at Nagarkoil was formed in 1809, and con- 
tinues one of the five centres from which the Travancore 
Mission is worked. In 1805 the Rev. W. C. Loveless 
commenced work in Madras. In 18 10 the Rev. John 
Hands settled at Bellary, and ten years afterwards, his 
colleague, the Rev. Joseph Taylor, removed to Belgaum, and 
commenced a station in that town. In the same year (1820), 
Bangalore was taken up by Messrs. Laidler and Forbes. 
Cuddapah, with its ' Christian village,' owes its origin to the 
Rev. W. Howell, who settled there in 1822. The destination 
of the Rev. Henry Crisp, who had been appointed in 1827 
to Cuddapah, was changed, and he was permitted to found a 
station at Salem, which at the present day is one of the large 
and important centres of work in South India. In like manner 
the Rev. W. B. Addis was transferred from Travancore, and 
became the father of a new mission at Coimbatore in 
1830. 

Turning to the North- West, Benares, ' the sacred city of the 
Hindoos,' became a sphere of the Society's labours in 1820 by 
the appointment of the Rev. M. T. Adam. Its sister station, 
Mirzapur, thirty miles distant, was commenced by the Rev. 
Dr. Mather in 1834; and, in 1850, the hill station of Almora 
was taken up by the Rev. J. H. Budden, at the suggestion of 
some Christian gentlemen residing in the Kumaun province, 
v/ho agreed to meet local expenses. In the evening of life, 
Mr, Budden is now permitted to rejoice in the fruits of nearly 



54 Lo7ido7i Missiojiary Society. 

forty years' labour for the moral, social, and spiritual benefit of 
the native population. 

The foregoing summary is not intended to comprise a 
complete record of the initial work of the Indian Mission. 
During the first forty years of the Society's existence, stations 
were commenced and discontinued, but most of the stations to 
which we have referred are at present in full and enlarged 
operation. 

Apart from translation work and the preparation of a native 
literature, which apply equally to most other missions, the 
operations of the Society in India may for convenience be 
divided into three main departments — pastoral, evangelistic, 
and educational. The training of native young men with the 
view of their becoming catechists, evangelists, and pastors to 
their countiymen, is carried on at Calcutta, Bangalore, Nagar- 
koil, and other places. 

To sum up the present position of the Society's work in 
India : In the North there are seven stations — Calcutta, 
Berhampur, Benares, Mirzapur, Singrouli, Almora, and 
Ranikhet. In Calcutta the various branches of Christian 
effort are being worked with energy and success. In connec- 
tion with the Bhawanipur Institution, the result of the 
university examinations was very satisfactory, fourteen students 
having passed in the First Arts, and five in the B.A. Female 
education and Zenana visiting exhibit signs of steady growth. 
Among its native workers the mission has men of conspicuous 
ability and high character who are rendering most valuable 
service as teachers, pastors, and evangelist missionaries. The 
small native Christian church in Berhampur has held on its 
way without change ; an English service has also been kept 
up. Zenana work is actively carried on. Benares contains a 
Mission College, to which the time and attention of one of the 
three resident missionaries are mainly devoted. Visits to the 
monasteries and temples of the city, evangelistic work in the 
rural districts, and Zenana visitation, are cared for by the 
several members of the Mission staff. The salient features of 
the Mirzapur Mission are its high schools and orphanage. 
There is also a small community of Christians at Singrouli, 
consisting of twenty-three families, ministered to by an 
ordained native pastor, who also preaches in the surrounding 
district. Almora, with its college, and Ranikhet, with 



India: Madagascar. 55 

its mission church, complete the roll of the North India 
stations. 

The area covered by the missions in the South is larger than 
that of either of the other divisions. Travancore, although 
included geographically, is regarded as a separate Mission. 
In South India proper there are eleven stations, viz., Belgaum, 
Bellary, Gooty, Cuddapah, Bangalore^ Tirupatur, Salem, 
Coimbatore, Madras, Vizagapatam, and Vizianagram. There 
are six institutions for higher education, situated respectively 
at Bellary, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Madras, Salem, and 
Vizagapatam. 

The districts south of Bangalore comprise an area of 14,000 
square miles, with a population of nearly 3,000,000. Yet the 
full complement of missionaries for this vast region has never 
been more than five, and for several years past there have 
never been more than four in the three stations. They have, 
however, been ably seconded by an earnest company of native 
agents, whom they have trained for the work, and still, so far 
as possible, supervise and direct. 

In Travancore, where the success of the Mission has been 
most marked and gratifying, there are five principal stations — 
Nagarkoil, Neyoor, Pareychaley, Trivandrum, and Quilon. 
These are worked by eight male and two female missionaries, 
assisted by a band of nineteen native ordained missionaries and 
twenty-five native preachers. In 1852 a Medical Mission was 
commenced at Neyoor by Rev. C. C. Leitch. His successors 
have been Dr. Lowe, Dr. T. S. Thomson, and Dr. Fry, the last 
named being the present superintendent of this special 
department of the work at Neyoor. 

Madagascar. — The first missionaries sent by the Society 
to Madagascar were the Revs. Thomas Bevan and David 
Jones, who arrived in that island in August 1818. Within a 
year from their embarkation, Mr. and Mrs. Bevan and child, 
and Mrs. Jones and child, had fallen victims to the fever of the 
country, and Mr. Jones was left alone. He paid a visit to 
Mauritius, and returning to Madagascar in 1820 reached 
Antananarivo, the capital, in October, and commenced the 
Mission there. Between that time and the death of Radama 
the king, in 1828, fourteen missionaries were sent out, and a 
printing press had been set up in the capital, at which the 



j6 London Missionary Society. 

entire Bible was printed, with the aid of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. Mission schools had been established, and 
instruction in the industrial arts given by lay agents sent out 
specially for that purpose. Preaching in the vernacular by 
Mr. Jones and the Rev. David Griffiths, who had joined him, 
attracted large congregations, and the Mission was showing 
every sign of prosperity; when, on the accession of Queen 
Ranavalona, indications were but too apparent that trouble 
was at hand. In July 1837, the profession of Christianity was 
forbidden. Christian worship prohibited, and every book confis- 
cated. In the same year Rasalama was speared. By the year 
1842, the martyrs numbered seventeen, while many hundreds 
had been doomed to slavery, others happily escaping by flight. 
Another persecution broke out in 1849, when eighteen persons 
were put to death, and more than a hundred, with their wives 
and children, made slaves, and 2,000 fined. Again, in July 1857, 
twenty-one were stoned to death, and sixty-six were loaded with 
heavy chains. 

But a time of deliverance was near. In August 1861, the 
queen died, and her son and only child, Rakotond, succeeded 
to the throne, as Radama II. The views and policy of the 
new sovereign in relation to foreigners were most liberal and 
enlightened. An embassy from Mauritius that proceeded to 
Madagascar reported the number of Christians found in the 
capital, who at their invitation were visited by the Rev. J. J. 
Le Brun, accompanied by the Malagasy refugee David Johns. 
By request of the directors, the Rev. William Ellis, who had 
visited the island in 1856, again proceeded thither, with a view 
to ascertain facts, and to prepare the way for the introduction 
of a new body of Christian labourers. In the following spring 
a party of six missionaries, including a medical man, a printer, 
and a schoolmaster, set out, carrying with them a supply of 
type, school materials, upwards of 10,000 copies of Scriptures 
granted by the British and Foreign Bible Society, and 300 reams 
of printing paper, the gift of the Religious Tract Society. They 
also conveyed some 20,000 volumes of Christian works translated 
into the vernacular. Mr. Ellis remained in the island until 1865, 
to assist in re-organizing the Mission, when, his object being 
accomplished, he returned to England. The result of six years' 
effort, as shown in December 1867, was 90 churches, with 
^,255 members, and a Christian community of about 20,000, 



Madagascar. 57 

There were also loi pastors in and about the city, with an 
equal number of simple chapels erected at the cost of the 
native congregations. In the meantime, at the suggestion ot 
Mr. Ellis, an appeal had been issued by the directors for funds 
to erect four substantial memorial churches on sites rendered 
sacred by the death of the Christian martyrs, which sites were 
secured to the Society in perpetuity by the king. The appeal 
was successful, and the churches are now an ornament to the 
capital, and are filled with attentive worshippers. 

In 1863 Queen Ranavalona came to the throne, and in 1869 
was baptized into the profession of the Christian faith. In 
March 1873, the then foreign secretary, Dr. Mullens, ac- 
companied by the Rev. John Pillans, went on a visit to 
Madagascar, as a deputation from the Society. They were 
favoured with audiences by the queen and prime minister, in 
whose presence a public examination of schools was held. 
The churches in the island now enjoyed much prosperity and 
increase, which prosperity continued with scarcely any 
intermission for another decade. The Mission became con- 
solidated, and its influence widened. If the statistics showed 
a falling off in numbers, it was simply an indication that ' the 
praying' had become more of a reality with the people, and 
that by a careful sifting process the chaff had been separated 
from the wheat. In July 1883, the good queen, after a brief 
illness, died, declaring with her last words her trust in Jesus 
Christ as her Saviour, and charging the prime minister and 
her successor to remember that her kingdom was resting upon 
God. Razafindrahety, the present sovereign, who bears the 
title of Ranavalona III., is a niece of the late queen. 

In recent years the proceedings of the French in connection 
with the island have caused much anxiety to the Mission ; 
but by the blessing of God the work has been continued both 
in the Imerina and the Betsileo provinces without serious 
interruption. 

The total number of churches in Imerina connected with 
the Mission is about 900. These churches necessarily differ 
much in character. Some of the more distant ones barely 
deserve the name of Christian churches at all, so dense is the 
ignorance of the great majority of the people of even the 
elements of Christianity, and so far are they from being 
obedient, not only to the law of Christ, but even to the 



58 Londo7i Missiofiary Society, 

demands of the most ordinary morality. Other churches 
again, especially those in and near Antananarivo, are in a 
comparatively strong and healthy condition, alive to their 
responsibilities, and vigorous in their endeavours to advance 
education and true religion in their midst. 

The number of students, ministerial and otherwise, in the 
college at Antananarivo is 54 ; pupils in the normal 
school, 204; and in the girls' central school, 183. The 
last revision of the Malagasy Bible, which was commenced in 
December 1873, has been completed, and a missionary has 
recently arrived to take charge of the printing- ofifice. 

In the Betsileo province the normal school at Fianarantsoa 
has a regular attendance of 119 pupils, while special efforts are 
made on behalf of girls and women. In the country districts 
Sabbath services, schools, Bible classes, etc., have all been 
vigorously carried on during the year, and in some instances 
with cheering results. 

Africa. — The operations of the Society were at first confined 
to the southern portions of this continent, but they have from 
time to time taken a northerly direction, the limits of which are 
now marked by the Mission on Lake Tanganyika. 

The first sphere taken up by the Society v/as Kafirland. 
Its tribes were located on the eastern boundary of the Cape 
Colony beyond the Fish River. In December 1798, Dr. 
Vanderkemp left England with Mr. Edmonds, both of whom 
in the following year took up their residence among these 
warlike people. Messrs. Kicherer and Edwards, who ac- 
companied them, commenced labour among the Bushmen, or 
Bosjesmans, in the north of the Colony. In i8ot, Dr. 
Vanderkemp proceeded to Graafif Reinet, and in the following 
year he removed with the first Hottentot congregation to 
Botha's Farm, near Algoa Bay. In 1803, in connection with 
the Rev. James Read, he obtained a station at Kooboo from 
the Dutch Government, and named it Bethelsdorp. Dr. 
Vanderkemp died on the 15th of December, t8ii. Ini8i6 
the Rev. Joseph Williams established a Mission among the 
Kafirs at Kat River, but was called to his rest in August 
18 1 8, after a brief period of labour. The Mission is per- 
petuated in the station of King William's Town, at present 
under the charge of the Rev. John Harper. The Mission 



Africa. 59 

among the Bushmen was reinforced by the Rev. C. A. Kramer 
in 1799, when he joined Messrs. Kicherer and Edwards at 
Zak River. This station was reUnquished in 1806, but as the 
result a station was formed among the Bushmen at Colesberg 
in 1 8 14, and the way was opened for reaching the Namaquas, 
Corannas, Griquas, and Bechuanas. In January 1806, the 
Orange River was crossed, and a work attempted among 
the Hottentots of Namaqualand. The missionaries, how- 
ever, soon had to flee, owing to the terror caused among 
the native tribes by the presence of the notorious chief 
Africaner. The Mission was resumed at Pella in December 
181 T, by the Rev. John Ebner, who, four years afterwards, 
removed to Africaner's kraal, where that chief and his brothers, 
with many other natives who had embraced the Gospel, were 
baptized. 

In 18 16 two attempts were made to establish a Mission 
among the Bechuanas at Lattakoo. These having failed, the 
Rev. Robert Hamilton and people removed, in June 181 7, to 
Kuruman, then called New Lattakoo. The Rev. Robert 
Moffat's first visit to Kuruman occurred on the 25th of March, 
1820, and was as a deputation, in company with the Rev. 
John Campbell. In the following year Mr. Moffat removed 
thither from his station at Griqua Town by desire of the chief 
Mothibi. In August 1824, owing to dissensions among the 
native tribes, he, with his family, was compelled to retire 
for a time to Griqua Town; but early in 1825 he returned 
to Kuruman. Various missionaries successively joined the 
station, including the Rev. John Mackenzie, who was ap- 
pointed tutor in the Moffat Institution, and commenced its 
classes in August 1873. Kanye, Taung, Molepolole, and 
Shoshong are more recently-formed stations in Bechuanaland. 

A hundred and sixty miles north of Shoshong the traveller 
reaches the southern boundary of Matebeleland. On the 
28th of October, 1859, the Society's missionaries, Messrs. Sykes 
and Thomas, arrived at Moselekatse's Town, but, owing to 
numerous delays, it was not until the end of December that 
they were able to settle in the valley of Inyati, which had been 
granted to them by the chief for their occupation. The 
present missionaries are Messrs. Elliott and Rees. 

A second Matebele station was opened at Hope Fountain in 
the year 1872, by the late Rev. J. B. Thomson, a missionary 



6o London Missionary Society. 

from Inyati. The present missionaries are Messrs. Helm and 
Ciirnegie. 

About twenty years since, it was resolved, in view of the 
claims of the districts unworked, to reduce the number of stations 
within the colony itself, with the purpose of devoting the 
resources at command more largely to the regions beyond. 
The result has justified the wisdom of the step, and during 
the above-named period the few remaining churches in the 
colony have become independent of the Society's aid. 

The latest development of Missions in the dark continent — • 
that on Lake Tanganyika — took place in the year 1877. In 
the month of April, the missionaries embarked for Zanzibar, 
and on the 24th of July, six in number, they left the coast for 
the interior with their waggons and oxen. This mode of 
transit proving a failure, the missionaries rested during the 
rainy season in the hills at Kirasa, near Mpwapwa, and at the 
end of May 1878, four of their number went forward in two 
parties. The first proceeded via Urambo, where a Mission 
was commenced in 1879 by the invitation of the chief. On 
the 6th of August, the town of Ujiji, on the eastern shore of 
the lake, was reached. The past ten years have witnessed a 
series of almost unprecedented trials, owing to the failure of 
health and deaths in the Mission circle. But others have come 
forward to take the places of those who have fallen ; and at the 
present time the prospects of the Mission are most hopeful : a 
steamer has been placed on the lake, and reinforcements, 
including a medical missionary, have been sent out during the 
past year. 

The West Indies. — The work of the London Missionary 
Society in the West Indies embraced the colony of British 
Guiana (including Demerara and Berbice) and the Island ot 
Jamaica ; with (for brief periods) Tobago and Trinidad. 

In 1807 a pressing request was received from Mr. Post, the 
Dutch occupier of a plantation named Le Resouvenir, on the 
east coast of Demerara, that a missionary might be sent to 
instruct his slaves. In response to this appeal the Rev. J. 
Wray was appointed, and settled at Le Resouvenir in February 
of the following year, Mr. Post almost entirely supporting the 
Mission by his liberal contributions. Before his death, in 
April 1809, he secured to the Society the chapel and dwelling- 



IVes^ Indies : The South Sta$. 6 1 

house, together with a small endowment. In 1813 Mr. Wray 
removed to Berbice, to undertake the religious care of the Crown 
negroes there. His successor was the Rev. J. Smith, who 
laboured with much success for nearly seven years (1817-23), 
but who, on a charge of alleged complicity with a revolt among 
the negroes, was tried by court-martial, and died in prison on 
the 6th of February, 1824. The Society's work at Le Resouvenir 
was then brought to a close. 

On the ist of August, 1834, the Emancipation Act came into 
force. This was the signal for further effort on the part of the 
Society on behalf of the negro races. A Mission was com- 
menced in Jamaica, by the appointment of six brethren, for two 
of whom accommodation in Arcadia had been kindly offered by 
W. A. Hankey, Esq. 

The object from the first was to found Christian churches, 
and gradually to lead on the members of those churches to 
self-management and self-support. In accomplishing this, 
institutions at George Town, Demerara, New Amsterdam, 
Berbice, and Kingston and Ridgemount in Jamaica, rendered 
good service. Pure literature was also placed within reach of 
the natives, and every effort was made to encourage and stimu- 
late them in self-help and moral and spiritual development. 
' Congregational Unions' were an aftergrowth. 

The Rev. J. Foreman, the sole superintending missionary in 
Guiana, died during the past year, but a successor has now 
been appointed. The Society has now no English missionary 
labouring in Jamaica. 

The South Seas. — On September 25, 1795,11 was resolved by 
the directors that the first attempt of the Society should be to 
send missionaries to Otaheite (Tahiti), or some other islands 
in the South Seas. Accordingly a vessel — the Z^?/^— was 
purchased, and thirty missionaries, who had been appointed, 
sailed for that island, where eighteen of the number landed on 
March 6, 1797. Of the rest, ten settled on one of the Friendly 
Islands, and two went on to the Marquesas. Of those who 
landed on Tahiti, four were ordained missionaries, the Revs. 
J. Cover, J. Eyre, J. Jefferson, and T. Lewis ; the remainder 
were artisans. Of these Messrs. Bicknell, Henry, and Nott, 
were the most prominent in the subsequent work of the Mission. 
From various causes — the hostility of the natives, hardship, 



62 London Missionary Society. 

death and secession — the number by January 1800 had been 
reduced to four, Messrs. Eyre, Jefferson, Bicknell, and Nott. 
In March of this year (1800) the first chapel was built, 
Pomare, the chief, supplying much of the material. In 
December 1798 a second party of thirty missionaries was sent 
out in the Bu^, but on their way the vessel was captured by 
the French, and all the missionaries returned to England, where 
most of them resigned their connection with the Society. 

In November 1808 a rebellion broke out in Tahiti, and 
Pomare withdrew to Moorea (Eimeo), a neighbouring island, the 
missionaries retiring for a time either with Pomare to Moorea, or 
to New South Wales. After a time Pomare regained his former 
power in the island, the missionaries, at his request, resuming 
their work. The king's renunciation of idolatry, his acceptance 
of Christianity and his baptism, in connection with his victory 
over the rebel party, and his lenient treatment of the prisoners, 
led the people with few exceptions to accept the new doctrine. 

During these years the missionaries had acquired the language, 
had translated or prepared elementary school and other books, 
and had also given much attention to the translation of the 
Scriptures. A press was also introduced, by which portions of 
the New Testament and other small books were printed. The 
Mission had now taken a settled shape, services were regularly 
held, Christian churches were formed, schools had been opened, 
and were being conducted with much success. In May 1818 
an Auxiliary Missionary Society was established, of which 
Pomare became the president. In 181 9 a code of laws was 
framed. In 182 1 artisans from England arrived to instruct 
the people in handicraft weaving and agriculture. 

In 1836 two Roman Catholic priests arrived, but were not 
allowed to remain. This led to interference by the French 
Government, to the arrest and expulsion of the British 
Consul, and to the suj^pression of the work of the Society. 
The then queen was virtually deposed, and a French Pro- 
tectorate assumed. But several years before matters had 
arrived at this stage the entire Bible in Tahitian had been 
distributed among the people. Numerous Roman Catholic 
priests had been introduced, but as the native Christians were 
Protestants, French Protestant missionaries connected with 
the Paris Missionary Society were sent to the island, and were 
supported by the French Government. Only one of the 



The South Seas. 6^ 

Society's missionaries remained in Tahiti, the Rev. J. L. Green, 
and his control over the Protestant teachers and the native 
churches had been set aside and given over to the French mission- 
aries. Under these circumstances, the London Missionary 
Society in 1886 withdrew from this their earhest field, after 
having occupied it for about eighty-nine years. 

The evangelization of the Society Islands, consisting of 
Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Porapora, was soon attempted 
by the missionaries connected with Tahiti. 

In 1807 Huahine was visited by Messrs. Nott and Hay ward, 
but in 1808, on the temporary withdrawment of the mis- 
sionaries from Tahiti, some of them took refuge in Huahine, 
and began a Mission ; but when the state of affairs in Tahiti 
permitted, most of the missionaries returned. 

In 18 18 the Revs. W. Ellis and C. Barff settled in Huahine, 
and entering into the labours of their predecessors, were soon 
fully occupied in holding services, organizing churches, 
and conducting schools both for adults and children. Besides 
this, Mr. Ellis had brought with him a printing press, 
which was soon in full use in printing elementary books, etc. 
In 1822 Mr. Ellis went to the Sandwich Islands, and the 
Mission was left in the sole charge of Mr. Barff, who 
retired from active work in 1864, and was succeeded in 1867 
by the Rev. A. T. Saville. Mr. Saville left in 1874, from 
ill-health, and for a time native pastors carried on the 
work ; eventually the Rev. E. V. Cooper became the resident 
missionary, and he still occupies the field. 

A Mission was established in Raiatea and Tahaa in 181 8 
by the Revs. L. E. Threlkeld, J. Williams, and J. M. Orsmond, 
who settled there in consequence of the earnest invitation of 
Tamatoa, the principal chief of those two islands, who, after a 
long visit to Tahiti, was led to renounce idolatry and accept 
Christianity; his people, after some resistance, following his ex- 
ample. Under these brethren, the Mission made rapid progress ; 
but in 1820 Mr. Orsmond left, and in 1824 Mr. Threlkeld 
withdrew. Under Mr. Williams, now alone, every department 
of the work went on successfully. To the ordinary branches of 
the Mission, this great missionary added instruction in carpentry, 
smith's work, agriculture and shipbuilding. He also educated 
native students, many of whom rendered valuable pioneer work 
in other islands. In 1834 he returned to England, and did 



64 London. Missionary Society. 

not resume work on Raiatea. Under his successor the 
Mission steadily developed, the establishment of a training 
institution and a printing press being among its most 
interesting features. During the past year the French have 
asserted and established a protectorate over the Society 
Islands. This change of Government and the very un- 
expected death of the Rev. W. E. Richards have led the 
directors to decide upon withdrawing from this field of labour. 

The island of Porapora was first evangeUzed by native 
teachers sent from Raiatea. In 1820 the Rev. J. M. Orsmond 
settled there ; but in 1824 he was succeeded by the Rev. G. 
Piatt. From 1874 the work in the island has been conducted 
by a native pastor, the missionaries in the Society Islands 
exercising a general superintendence. 

Three of the Hervey Islands have been principal stations 
of the London Missionary Society, viz. : Aitutaki, Rarotonga, 
and Mangaia. 

In 182 1 the Rev. John Williams visited Aitutaki, and left 
two teachers there from Raiatea, as pioneers, through whose 
teaching and influence the natives were led to abandon idolatry 
and profess acceptance of Christianity. In June 1839 the 
Rev. Henry Royle arrived as the first resident missionary. 
He wisely paid much attention to education, and was very 
successful in preparing young men as candidates for the 
Training Institution in Rarotonga. On his retirement in 
1876, the work was carried on by two native pastors, under the 
superintendence of the missionaries in other islands of the 
group, until 1885, when the Rev. W. N. Lawrence removed 
from Mangaia to Aitutaki. 

The island of Rarotonga was visited by the Revs. J. 
Williams and R. Bourne in 1823, with a view to placing 
teachers there ; but the hostility of the natives deterred the 
teachers from remaining. One, however, from Aitutaki, 
volunteered to remain there alone and make the trial. The 
attempt proved eminently successful. But the presence of a 
missionary being required, the Rev. C. Pitman settled there 
in April 1827, being accompanied to the island by Mr. 
Williams, who spent some months there, during which time 
he built the Messenger of Peace, as a means of visiting other 
and more distant islands. This vessel was launched in 
November 1827. In February 1828 the Rev. A. Buzacott 



The South Seas. 65 

joined the Mission. These brethren, with Mr. Williams, 
devoted much time to the translation of the Bible into 
Rarotongan, as well as to the preparation of school and 
elementary books. A revised version of this translation was 
taken to England by Mr. Williams in 1834, where it was 
printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society. Among 
the missionaries who have worked on this island may be 
mentioned the Rev. J. Chalmers, who left for New Guinea in 
1879, and the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, B.A., who retired from 
foreign service in 1883. The Training Institution, which was 
estabhshed in Rarotonga in 1839, has educated a large number 
of native teachers, who have been located in numerous heathen 
islands in Western Polynesia, and have also been sent to take 
part in the work in New Guinea. 

In 1823 Mr. Williams and Mr. Bourne unsuccessfully 
endeavoured to land teachers on the island of Mangaia. In 
1824 two teachers, members of the church in Tahaa, 
volunteered for work there. They were favourably received, 
and proved successful in evangelizing the island. In April 
1845 the Rev. George Gill arrived as the first foreign 
missionary. In March 1852 the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill joined 
the Mission, and on Mr. George Gill's removal to Rarotonga 
in 1857 the whole charge rested on him, until April 187 1, when 
the Rev. G. A. Harris arrived and took part in the work. But 
on Mr. Wyatt Gill's leaving to return to England, Mr. Harris 
was left alone in the island, where he is still conducting the 
work. 

Other smaller islands in the group, as well as several more 
distant islands to the north-west, are occupied as out-stations, 
under the care of native pastors under the supervision of the 
missionaries on the three larger islands. 

The island Niue (Savage Island) stands alone, not being 
connected Avith any group. Many attempts to land mis- 
sionaries on this island having been unsuccessful, a native 
teacher from Samoa succeeded in establishing himself there in 
1849 ; and in 1857, when missionaries visited the island, they 
found that remarkable progress had been made. In August 
1 86 1 the Rev. W. G. Lawes arrived as the first resident 
missionary there, and was very successful, not only in evan- 
gelistic, pastoral, and school work, but in the training of native 
students, some of whom became useful teachers in their native 

F 



66 London Missionary Society. 

island, and others were efficient pioneers in other islands in 
Polynesia and in New Guinea. Mr. Lawes also devoted 
himself to the translation of the Scriptures and other books. In 
1868 he was joined by his brother, the Rev. F. E. Lawes, who, 
in 1874, took sole charge, when Mr. W. G. Lawes left for the 
New Guinea Mission. 

The Samoan group (Navigators' Islands) consists of eight 
larger and smaller islands, but the missionaries of the Society 
have, for the most part, only resided in the three largest, 
Tutuila, Upolu, and Savaii, visiting the others as circumstances 
required. Mr. Williams sailed for Samoa in The Messenger 
of Peace, May 1830, accompanied by Mr. Barff and eight 
native teachers. The visit was highly successful, and the 
teachers were located with hopeful prospects. In 1832 Mr. 
Williams, on again visiting Samoa, found that great progress 
had been made, as did Mr. Barff and Mr. Buzacott, who 
visited Samoa in 1834. In 1844 a Mission Seminary for 
training native teachers was opened at Malua. This seminary 
still keeps up its high character, and the students educated in 
it are now spread widely over the Pacific, engaged in Christian 
work. 

Out-stations have been formed in the Tokelau, Ellice, and 
Gilbert groups. These island stations are under native pastors 
who were educated at Malua, whose work has been productive 
of very remarkable results. One of the missionaries from Samoa 
annually visits these islands in the Society's vessel, the John 
Williams. 

The Loyalty Islands were visited by the Rev. A. W. 
Murray in 1841, when he left two Christian teachers in the 
island of Mare, one from Rarotonga, and the other from 
Samoa. These teachers madej good progress in instructing 
the people, though often working in circumstances of danger ; 
and when missionaries visited the island in 1844 and 1846, 
they found the Mission in a prosperous condition. In 1853 
two missionaries were appointed to the Loyalty Islands, the 
Revs. John Jones and S. M. Creagh, both of whom settled 
on Mare. In 187 1 Mr. Creagh removed to Lifu, and Mr. 
Jones carried on the work alone, establishing also an institution 
for the training of native teachers. The establishment of a 
French protectorate over these islands in 1864 has seriously 
interrupted the work of the Mission. But the efforts, first of 



The South Seas. 67 

Romanist missionaries, and afterwards of a French Protestant 
minister, have been directed to draw off the people from the 
Enghsh missionary. The people were prohibited from at- 
tending at the Mission chapel, and the public work of Mr. 
Jones was for the most part suppressed. At length, in 
December 1887, Mr. Jones was expelled from the island by- 
orders from the Government of France, and the Society's 
Mission in Mare was brought to a close. 

The first Christian teacher in Lifu was Paio, a native of 
Rarotonga, educated at the institution there. He was taken 
to Mare by Mr. Buzacott in 1842, and having been appointed 
to Lifu, proceeded to that island alone, winning much favour 
from the people. In 1845 missionaries visited the island, when 
laone, a native teacher, who was with them, volunteered to 
remain as the colleague of Paio. From 1864 to 1866 the 
work was much interrupted by the oppressive action of the 
French authorities, as in Mare. The Rev. S. McFarlane, 
one of the first resident missionaries, gave much time to the 
translation of the New Testament into the Lifu dialect, 
which was completed in 1866. In 187 1 Mr. McFarlane was 
required by the French Government to retire from Lifu, and 
Mr. Creagh, removing from Mare, took his place. In 1886 
Mr. Creagh was succeeded by the Rev. J. Hadfield. He is 
still there, and has now sole charge of the work. 

Native teachers from Mare introduced the Gospel into Uvea 
in 1856; but Romanist priests having arrived in 1857, the 
efforts of the teachers were much opposed. To support them, 
the missionaries in Mare and Lifu arranged to spend a short time 
upon the island in turn. In December 1864 the Rev. S. Ella, 
who had been previously in the Samoan Mission, settled in 
Uvea as an EngHsh resident, and in 1865 was allowed to 
remain as a missionary. But he soon encountered opposition 
from the Romanist priests and from the French Government, 
while severe persecution was carried on against the native 
Protestant Christians. In 1876 Mr. Ella left the island, and 
three years afterwards was succeeded by the Rev. J. Hdafield, 
who for ten years maintained his ground amid much opposition 
from the Roman Catholic priests and their native partisans. 
In 1886 Mr. Creagh's retirement from the more important 
island of Lifu rendered it necessary for Mr. Hadfield to remove 
thither. Uvea is therefore now without a resident missionary . 

F 2 



SS London Missionary Society, 

The Society's work in New Guinea was commenced in 1871 
by the Revs. A. W. Murray and S. McFarlane, who took 
with them eight teachers from the Loyalty Islands, who were 
located at Darnley, Saibai, and Dauan Islands in Torres Straits, 
the missionaries returning to the Loyalty Islands. 

Mr. Murray having in 1872 been appointed to take charge of 
the Mission, returned to New Guinea October 1872, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Murray and fourteen teachers, eight from the 
Loyalty and six from the Hervey Islands, who were located at 
various places. Having settled at Cape York, Mr. Murray visited 
the teachers as often as opportunity offered. In 1873 he placed 
teachers at Port Moresby, which has become the central station 
of the work in connection with the east of Torres Straits. In 
1874 Mr. McFarlane, who had been absent in England, returned 
to New Guinea and settled, in 1877, at Murray Island, which 
became the centre for the western branch of the Mission. 
Here he opened an industrial school and teachers' seminary, 
from which numerous teachers have gone forth for work in 
the islands and on the coast of Torres Straits. In 1886 
he retired from the Mission. In December 1874 the Rev. 
W. G. Lawes, after spending some years as a missionary in 
Niue, joined the New Guinea Mission, and settled at Port 
Moresby. Here, after a time, he commenced a Training Insti- 
tution, from which many students have gone forth to evan- 
gelize their fellow islanders. In 1877 the Rev. J. Chalmers, 
leaving Rarotonga, arrived in New Guinea, and settled for a 
time at the eastern end of the southern coast. He afterwards 
removed to Port Moresby, and was very successful in opening 
up New Guinea to the east and west. In 1887 the Rev. A. 
Pearse left Raiatea to co-operate in the New Guinea Mission. 

Through the hostility of the natives in the early days of the 
Mission, some teachers lost their lives, but a far greater number 
have been carried off by fever. At the close of 1887 there 
were 18 teachers connected with the western branch of the 
Mission, and 44 with the eastern; but since that time the 
number of teachers has increased. Three small vessels are 
employed in the work. The results now seen are very 
remarkable and highly encouraging. 

Magazines : — The Chronicle ; and The juvenile Monthly and 
Quarterly News of Woman's Work, 



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( 70 ) 



CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

FOUNDED 1799. 

The Church Missionary Society was founded on April 12, 
1799. Its object was to send the Gospel of Christ to the 
heathen and Mohammedan world, whether within or without 
the dominions of Great Britain. At that time no clergyman 
of the Church of England had gone out as a missionary to the 
heathen or Mohammedans. The Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel had been founded ninety-eight years before, but 
its work was then, and continued up to 1826, purely colonial.^ 

The Society was one of the most important fruits of what is 
known as the Evangelical movement. The leaders in the one 
— Wilberforce, Thornton, Simeon, Scott, J. Venn, Pratt, Bicker- 
steth — were the leaders of the other ; and the great truths 
they taught, the doctrines of Holy Scripture and of the Articles 
and formularies of the Reformed Church of England, have 
always been those upheld by the Society. Its main principle 
from the beginning has been that expressed by the formula, 
'Spiritual men for spiritual work.' But in the fundamental 
laws there is no limitation to membership, and the only quali- 
fication mentioned for the governing body is membership in 
the Church of England or of Ireland. 

The Society's missionaries comprise (i) ordained University 
graduates ; (2) ordained men who have received a theological 
and general education at the Society's College at Islington ; 
(3) laymen, viz., medical missionaries, schoolmasters, evan- 
gelists, etc. ; (4) ladies, for educational and general work. All 
candidates are carefully tested as to their qualifications, 
physical, mental, spiritual. 

The Society has sent out about 1,000 missionaries, not 
reckoning the wives, nor over 90 other female teachers. Of 
these, more than 500 were trained at the College at Islington, 

^ See page 24. 



IVes^ Africa. 7 1 

and over 200 were University men. Twenty-one missionaries 
have been raised to the episcopate, and twenty-three to the 
office of archdeacon. The native clergy ordained in connec- 
tion with the Society have numbered about 360, and of these 
266, pure natives, are still labouring in its service. There are 
3,600 native lay teachers of all classes. 

The last returns showed 185,538 native Christian adhe- 
rents, of whom 47,531 were communicants. In 1887, 9,734 
adults and children were baptized by the missionaries of the 
Society. 

The Society's ordinary income for 1887-8 was ^£"194,557, 
besides ;£26,773 ^"^r various special funds. This does not 
include large sums raised by the missionaries among friends 
at home or from English officers and civilians in the Mission 
field, particularly in India, nor yet the contributions of the 
native Christians towards their own church funds, which 
together probably amount to ;^3 0,000. 

West Africa. — This was the first field entered by the 
Society. Its first two missionaries were sent to the Susu 
tribes on the Rio Pongas. In 18 16 the Society's efibrts were 
concentrated upon the colony of Sierra Leone, which had, 
since the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, become the 
depot for negroes rescued from slave ships by the British 
cruisers. Much blessing attended the labours of W. A. B. 
Johnson and other missionaries, and in 1822 nearly 2,000 of 
the freed slaves, adults and children, were in the Mission 
schools, several thousands were attending public worship, and 
some hundreds had become sincere Christians. The work 
continued to prosper, but at a great cost of life ; fifty-three 
missionaries and missionaries' wives dying between 1804 and 
1824. In 1 85 1 the bishopric of Sierra Leone was founded, 
and the first three bishops — Vidal, Weeks, and Bowen (the 
two latter missionaries of the Society) — died within three years 
of their consecration. In 1842 a parliamentary committee 
attributed the ' considerable intellectual, moral, and religious 
improvement ' of the people to ' the invaluable exertions of 
the Church Missionary Society more especially.' 

In 1862 the native Church was organised on an independent 
basis, and undertook the support of its own pastors, churches, 
and schools, aided by a small grant from the Society. It now 



7 2 Church MissioJiafy Society, 

also carries on the outlying Missions established by the Society 
in the Bullom, Quiah, and Sherbro countries. The Christian 
population of the colony, according to the census of 1881, is 
39,000, of whom one-half are reckoned to the Church of 
England. 

The Society still retains the charge of the Fourah Bay 
College, the Grammar School, and the Female Institution ; 
and has an outlying Mission at Port Lokkoh, on the high road 
to the interior, with a view to reaching the Mohammedan 
tribes. The Fourah Bay College is affiliated to Durham 
University, and African students have taken the B.A degree 
and the theological licence with credit. Other young Africans, 
sons of Sierra Leone clergymen and merchants, are graduates 
of Oxford and Cambridge. 

There are now about fifty ordained African clergymen on 
the West Coast (including Yoruba and the Niger). Four of 
them are Government chaplains. 

The Society's missionaries have reduced to writing several 
of the West African languages, and published grammars, 
vocabularies, portions of the Scriptures, and other works. 
Susu, Bullom, Timne, Vei, Mende, Foulah, Yoruba, Hausa, 
Ibo, Nupe, may be specially mentioned. The last three 
are used in the Niger Mission. One missionary. Dr. Koelle 
(subsequently at Constantinople), compiled an important 
work called Polyglotta Africana, comprising specimens of 
more than 100 lansjuaa^es. 

Yoruba. — From this country, which is 1,000 miles east of 
Sierra Leone, had come a large proportion of the freed slaves 
gathered at the latter place. About 1840, many of them, 
having now become Christians and traders on their own 
account, returned to their fatherland. The result was the 
establishment of Missions at Badagry and Lagos on the 
coast, and at Abeokuta, Ibadan, and other towns and villages 
in the interior, which were for many years worked most 
zealously by Townsend, Hinderer, S. Crowther, and other 
missionaries, both white and black. The seed sprang up 
rapidly, at Abeokuta especially, and the converts manifested 
much patience and steadfastness under bitter persecution. 
Abeokuta has repeatedly been attacked by the King of 
Dahomey, but without success. In the defence of the town 
the Christians have taken a prominent part; and, in 1875, ^ 



Nigeu 73 

night attack by them, under a Christian chief, issued in the 
retreat of the whole Dahomian army. 

At Lagos, formerly a principal slave-mart, and now a 
prosperous British possession, there is now a Native Church 
organised on the same plan as at Sierra Leone. Connected 
with it there are six churches, ten native clergymen, and 
5,426 native Christians. One of the clergy is the Rev. James 
Johnson, who was ordained in 1863, and has been connected 
with the Society for over thirty years. While on a visit to this 
country in 1887 he had conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of M.A. by the Durham University. The Society still 
retains the charge of a Training Institution, a Grammar School, 
and a Female Institution. 

There are also stations at Ebute Meta, Leke, and Ode 
Ondo ; the whole country occupied being some 200 miles 
square. 

Niger. — In 1841 a Government naval expedition accom- 
panied by a missionary of the Society, the Rev. J. F. Schon, and 
by Samuel Crovvther, a liberated negro slave (now Bishop of the 
Niger), explored this great African river, the course of which 
had but lately been discovered. In 1854 a second expedition 
penetrated up the stream 500 miles, and found the natives 
everywhere ready to receive Christian teachers; and in 1857 
Mr. Crowther, accompanying a third expedition undertaken for 
commercial purposes, laid the foundation of the Niger Mission 
by establishing three stations. Other places have since been 
occupied, and there are now twelve altogether (three occu- 
pied in 1886), all manned by native African clergymen or 
teachers, under the direction of the bishop — Mr. Crowther 
having been consecrated at Canterbury Cathedral on St. 
Peter's Day, 1864. The principal stations are Bonny and 
Brass, in the Delta, and Onitsha and Lokoja, higher up. The 
furthest station, Shonga, is 400 miles from the sea. 

The superstitions of the people, and demoralization caused 
by the increasing European traffic, have proved formidable 
obstacles to the spread of the Gospel ; but more than 2,000 
persons have been baptized, including several influential chiefs, 
and the converts have exhibited much Christian fortitude in 
enduring persecution, and liberaHty in contributing to the 
building of Mission churches, etc. 

At some stations the work has suffered from evils resulting 



74 CJmrch Missionary Society. 

naturally from the isolation of the native agents, and from 
the imperfect supervision due to the want of facility of 
communication. With a view to remedy this, a steamer, the 
Henry Venn, was provided for the use of the Mission ; two 
Native Archdeacons were appointed, the Ven. Dandeson C. 
Crowther (son of the Bishop) for the Delta^ and the Ven. 
Henry Johnson, formerly of Sierra Leone, for the Upper 
Niger ; and an English Clerical Secretary was appointed. 

The openings on both the great branches of the river, the 
Quorra and the Binue, invite extended missionary effort. In 
1879, the Henry Venn was taken several hundred miles up the 
Binue, into thickly-peopled regions never before visited by the 
white man, not yet overrun by Mohammedanism, and open to 
the Gospel. 

In 1888 the Committee had the pleasure of once more 
welcoming Bishop Crowther to England. Almost an octo- 
genarian in years, he might well have pleaded to be excused 
so long a journey ; but he cheerfully consented to represent 
his vast diocese at the Lambeth Conference of Bishops of the 
Anglican Church, in order to be present at the discussion of 
those questions which affect the life and progress of Native 
Churches. 

Eastern Equatorial Africa. — In 1844 the Society's 
Missionary, Dr. Krapf, having lately been expelled from 
Abyssinia, sailed down the eastern coast of Africa in search of 
a fresh field of labour, and estabhshed himself at Mombasa, 
about 150 miles north of Zanzibar. In the following year he 
was joined by the Rev. John Rebmann, who laboured on the 
coast twenty-nine years. Their remarkable journeys into the 
interior led to all subsequent geographical and missionary 
enterprise in East Africa. 

For several years the Committee, aware of the desolating 
influence of the slave trade in East Africa, sought to rouse 
public interest in the question, and to induce Government 
to take more vigorous measures for the suppression of the 
trafiic. It was chiefly through the Society's efforts that the 
Parliamentary Committee of 187 1 was obtained, which led to 
Sir Bartle Frere's Mission to Zanzibar in the following year ; 
and when the news of Dr. Livingstone's death reached 
England in 1874, the old connection of the Society with 
Africa was illustrated by the fact that some of the faithful 



Easter7i Africa. 75 

followers who had preserved his body were Africans brought 
up at the Society's Asylum for Freed Slaves at Nasik in India. 
The sympathy of the Christian pubhc being now thoroughly 
awakened, the Committee took steps to revive the Mombasa 
Mission. An experienced Indian missionary, the Rev. W. S. 
Price, formerly in charge of the Nasik Asylum, was sent out, 
with several assistants ; some 200 African Christians, from the 
freed slaves entrusted to his care, were collected as the nucleus 
of an industrial colony ; and land was formally purchased for a 
settlement, which was named Frere Town, in honour of Sir 
Bartle Frere; and some 450 rescued slaves were received from 
H.M. cruisers, and housed, fed, instructed, and led to work for 
their living. 

For some years past the work of evangelization has been 
carried on among the neighbouring Wanika tribes at Kisulutini, 
an inland station founded by Krapf, and in the Giriama 
country. Altogether, over 2,600 souls are connected with the 
Mission. A Mission was started in the Taita country in 1882^ 
and in 1885 a further advance inland was made in the founding 
of a Mission in the Chagga country, at the base of the snow- 
capped mountain Kilima Njaro, where the work as yet is slow 
and difficult. 

For this Mission and the Nyanza Mission, a new bishopric 
was estabhshed in 1884, with the title 'Eastern Equatorial 
Africa,' and the late Rev. J. Hannington was consecrated the 
first bishop on June 24, 1884. He was cruelly murdered on 
October 29, 1885, when trying to reach Uganda by a new 
route. His successor. Dr. H. P. Parker, formerly a missionary 
of the Society in North India, was consecrated on St. Luke's 
Day, October 18, 1886; but his episcopal career also was of 
short duration. He died from fever on March 26, 1888. A 
steamer for the Mission has been provided as a memorial 
to the late Rev. H. Wright, and named the Henry Wright 
after him. 

The investigations of Dr. Krapf and Mr. Rebmann into 
the languages of East Africa laid the foundation of our present 
knowledge of them ; and their dictionaries, translations of 
parts of Scripture, etc., in Ki-Swahili, Ki-Nika, and Ki-Kamba, 
have proved of great value, though in part superseded by the 
later work of Bishop Steere, of the Universities' Mission. 

An event of the greatest importance has been the granting 



76 Church Missionary Society. 

of a Royal Charter in favour of the Imperial British East 
Africa Company, formed for the administration of the coast 
and the extensive area under British influence in the interior 
between the coast and the Victoria Nyanza, for the opening 
up and carrying on of commercial enterprise. Their head- 
quarters will be at Mombosa. 

Nyanza Mission.' — The first impetus to the exploration 
of Africa from the east coast was given by the Society's 
missionaries. Krapf and Rebmann penetrated some distance 
into the interior, and discovered the two snow-capped 
mountains Kilima Njaro and Kenia ; and subsequently a map 
was prepared from native information, showing a great inland 
sea two months' journey from the coast, which led to the 
journeys of Burton, Speke, and Grant, influenced the later 
travels of Livingstone, and thus indirectly caused the ex- 
peditions of Stanley and Cameron. Krapf had entertained a 
scheme for a series of Mission stations across Africa, and as far 
back as 185 1 the Society was hoping to make some advance 
in that direction. For a quarter of a century, however, the 
project slumbered ; but in November 1875, in consequence of 
information sent home by the traveller Stanley, of the readi- 
ness of Mtesa, King of Uganda, a great potentate on the 
shores of the largest of the African lakes, the Victoria 
Nyanza, to receive Christian teachers — and of two anonymous 
donations of ;!^5,ooo each being offered to send a missionary 
expedition to his dominions — the Society resolved, in depen- 
dence upon God, to organize such a Mission. 

A well-equipped party proceeded accordingly to East 
Africa in the spring of 1876; and several other parties have 
followed, one of which, in 1878, went via the Nile, under the 
auspices of the late General Gordon, then governor of the 
Egyptian Soudan. The first leader, Lieut. G. Shergold Smith, 
R.N., and Mr. T. O'Neill, were killed on the Island of 
Ukerewe. The Mission had a cordial reception by Mtesa in 
July 1877, although the caprice of the king, the hostility of the 
Arab traders, the presence of a rival party of Romish mis- 
sionaries, and other circumstances, subsequently interfered 
seriously with the work. 

Mtesa died in 1884, and Mwanga, his youngest son (ac- 
cording to the custom of the country) acceded to the throne. 
Through the efforts of the hostile chiefs, the new king, early 



Nyanza Mission. 77 

in 1885, was led to regard the missionaries with suspicion, 
and for a time the Mission was in danger. The storm 
reached its chmax in the arrest of several of the native 
Christians, and several youths were cruelly tortured and after- 
wards burnt to death. 

Mr. Mackay, who was one of the first party in 1876, and has 
not since been to England, was there till July 1887, when he 
was compelled to leave ; but another missionary, the Rev. E. C. 
Gordon, immediately took his place, and in March, 1888, the 
Rev. R. H. Walker, one of the missionaries who went out with 
Bishop Parker in 1886, sailed in the mission vessel to join him, 
and had a very gratifying reception by the king. 

The position of the Mission now seemed more hopeful ; but 
on January 11, 1889, the Church Missionary Society received 
from Zanzibar the following startling telegram : ' Missionaries 
plundered ; expelled Buganda ; arrived Usambiro ; ' and later 
in the day a long telegram in a second edition of the Times 
confirmed the terrible news. Briefly it was as follows : The 
king had purposed some treachery to his bodyguard. They 
had discovered it, and attacked his palace. The king fled, 
and his, elder brother was placed on the throne. The new 
king at once distributed the principal ofiices among adherents 
of Christianity. At this the Arabs became enraged, and murdered 
many of these men, replacing them by their own adherents. 
Then the Missions, English and French, were attacked, the 
premises burnt, converts massacred, and the missionaries 
compelled to flee. This they did in the small Church 
Missionary Society's mission-boat, and arrived safely at 
Usambiro, at the south end of the lake. 

But though the Mission has for a time been destroyed, God 
has not left Himself without witnesses. The missionaries 
while in the country made considerable progress in reducing 
the language to writing, and by means of a small printing-press 
the whole of St. Matthew's Gospel, other portions of Scripture, 
and of the Prayer Book, alphabets. Scripture texts, etc., have 
been printed and circulated in large numbers, the people 
eagerly learning to read them. Many among all classes were 
acquainted with the Gospel. The first five converts were 
baptized in March, 1882, and 250 other baptisms, almost all 
adults, have taken place since. 

Intermediate stations between the east coast and the lake 



78 CJmrch Missionary Society. 

have been established at Mpwapwa and Mamboia, in the 
Usagara hills — at Uyiii, in Unyamwezi — and also near the 
south end of the lake, where valuable work has been done. 

Palestine.^ — The original object of the Missions generally 
grouped under the heading of the ' Mediterranean Mission,' 
which were begun at Malta in T815, at the close of the great 
war, and which were afterwards extended to Egypt, Abyssinia, 
Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, and Palestine, was twofold ; firstly, 
to revive the Eastern Churches ; and, secondly, through them to 
evangelize the Mohammedans. Some very able and devoted 
missionaries have been employed in this work — Jowett, Gobat, 
Krapf, Pfander, Koelle, Klein, Zeller, etc. But the hopes of 
the first founders of the Society were not fulfilled. Oriental 
Christendom manifested no readiness to be quickened into life 
by emissaries from the West; and Moslem fanaticism, which 
barely tolerated Greek and Armenian Christianity, utterly 
repudiated the Gospel when presented in a pure form. Despite 
treaties and concessions on paper, missionary effort among the 
Moslem population of the Turkish Empire is carried on under 
the most vexatious restrictions, and a Mussulman can only 
become a Christian at the imminent risk of liberty and life. 

The work in the Levant has for some years been confined 
to Palestine, to which the Society was invited by the late 
Bishop Gobat in 185 1. Here the door is more open, and 
Jerusalem, Jaffa, Nablous, Nazareth, Salt, Gaza, and several 
smaller places, are occupied. 

In 1887, the Jerusalem bishopric, first founded in 1841, was 
revived, the Society assisting the Archbishop of Canterbury in 
providing the necessary funds. The new bishop, Dr. Blyth, 
speaks very warmly of the Society's work. 

Egypt. — As above stated, the Society had formerly a mission 
in Egypt, as part of its scheme for the revival of the Eastern 
Churches. Many of the Coptic clergy, and one bishop, were 
trained in the Society's Seminary at Cairo ; but the visible 
results were small. In 1882, in response to the appeals of Miss 
Whately, and in consequence of the British occupation of Egypt, 
the Rev. F. A. Klein, formerly of Jerusalem, was sent back to 
Cairo to begin a new Mission among the Mohammedans. 
The work is on a very modest scale, but is not without en- 



Arabia: Persia. 79 

Arabia. — The claims of Arabia had long been pressed upon 
the Society; and in 1885 the committee were led seriously to 
consider them on the representation of a Christian officer, 
General Haig. The committee appointed to Aden a medical . 
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, and also appropriated to 
the Mission a sum of ;£'i^ooo, specially given for new work 
among Mohammedans. 

During 1887, General Haig, with a view to discovering 
openings for missionary work, visited the ports on both sides 
of the Red Sea, viz., Yambo, Jeddah, and Hodeidah in 
Arabia ; Suakin, the port of Nubia ; Massowah, the port of 
Abyssinia ; and Zeila, Bulbar, and Berbera, on the Somali 
coast. He also made an interesting journey through Yemen, 
the south-western province of Arabia. 

Persia. — Until a very recent period, Persia was quite closed 
to the Gospel. Henry Martyn stayed ten months in the country 
in 181 1. Since 1834 an American Mission has laboured with 
much blessing among the Nestorian Christians. In 1869 ^^^ 
Rev. R. Bruce visited Persia on his way back to India, and 
finding the Moslems of Ispahan and its neighbourhood not 
unwilling to discuss religious subjects, he took up his abode 
there, and gathered round him some few of these, and a 
considerable number of Armenian Christians who were dis- 
satisfied with their corrupt form of worship, besides opening 
schools, etc. In 1875 the Society formally adopted his work 
as one of its Missions. Dr. Bruce has also been engaged in 
the work of the Bible Society, and in 1881, while in England, 
he completed a revised translation of the New Testament in 
Persian, with the assistance of the late Professor E. H. Palmer. 
There is also a Medical Mission. In 1883, Dr. French, late 
Bishop of Lahore, visited Persia under a commission from the 
Bishop of London, ordained an Armenian Christian, and held 
a confirmation. 

As in Palestine, so in Persia, the Mission, as regards the 
Moslem population, can only be of a preparatory character 
under present circumstances ; yet Colonel Stewart, the traveller, 
and Bishop French, speak in high terms of its influence. 
In 1882 the Mission was extended by the occupation of 
Baghdad, which, though in the Turkish Empire^, is a place of 
great importance for Persian work, and is in the immediate 



So Church Missionary Society. 

neighbourhood of the sacred places of the Shiah Mohamme- 
dans, and therefore the resort of thousands of pilgrims from all 
parts of Persia. The language too is not Turkish, but Arabic 
and Persian; so that Baghdad is linguistically, as well as 
geographically, a link between the Palestine and Persian 
Missions. 

India : — Lutheran missionaries under the Propagation Society 
laboured in India in the last century, and thousands of converts 
were baptized ; but the Missions, after the deaths of Schwartz 
and others, languished, and at length only a few Christians 
remained in the South. For some years prior to the renewal 
of the East India Company's charter in 1813, no missionaries 
were allowed to reside within the British dominions, and 
Carey, the famous Baptist missionary, and his companions, 
had to take refuge in the Danish Settlements. Among the 
Government chaplains, however, there were men like Brown, 
Buchanan, Henry Martyn, Corrie, and Thomason, who did 
what they could to prepare the way for future work. The 
Church Missionary Society had an important share in the 
establishment of the Bishopric of Calcutta in 18 14, by its 
publication of Claudius Buchanan's work on the subject ; and 
it granted the first Bishop, Dr. Middleton, ;£"5,ooo, towards 
the cost of Bishop's College. 

North India.— Before India was open to missionaries, a 
corresponding committee was formed at Calcutta, of which 
the above-named chaplains and several influential laymen 
were members. Under Corrie's auspices Henry Martyn's 
solitary convert from Mohammedanism, Abdul Masih, was 
stationed at Agra in 1813; the Society's first agent in India 
thus being a native. Abdul Masih was ordained in 1826 by 
Bishop Heber, to be the first Indian clergyman of the Church of 
England. Two English missionaries were sent to Calcutta in 
1816 ; and Meerut(^/' Mirat) and Benares were occupied about 
the same time ; but many years elapsed before the North India 
Mission was worked on a large scale. Great interest was aroused 
by a remarkable movement in the Krishnagar district, Bengal, 
in 1838, when some 3,000 persons forsook heathenism, and on 
one occasion 900 were baptized in the presence of Bishop 
Daniel Wilson. A remarkable work was done by W. Smith 
and C. B. Leupolt at Benares, which began in 1832. In 1853, 



India, 8i 

St. John's College at Agra was opened by T. V. French, late 
Bishop of Lahore, and E. C. Stuart (the present Bishop of 
Waiapu). The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 destroyed much of the 
Society's property, but the deep interest aroused by it caused a 
great extension of the work afterwards. Lucknow was occupied 
immediately on its re-conquest, on the invitation of the Chief 
Commissioner, Sir R. Montgomery. Allahabad was also occu- 
pied, and Christian villages have been established there and 
at Gorakhpur. Work was begun among the Santals, an 
aboriginal tribe in Bengal, and the Santal Mission now com- 
prises eight stations and out-stations, with 2,900 native 
Christians. The Punjab work was also strengthened and 
extended; but this is now a separate Mission. The North 
India Mission is limited to the Diocese of Calcutta, and may 
be divided into three parts : — 

(i) Bcfigal: comprising Calcutta, where there are several 
native congregations, various evangelistic agencies, important 
schools, and a Divinity College ; the rural Mission in Krish- 
nagar, where there are over 5,000 native Christians ; stations 
at Bardwan and Bhagalpur; and the Santal Mission above- 
mentioned. 

(2) The North-West Provijices : comprising Benares, Gorakh- 
pur, Jaunpur, Azimgarh, Allahabad, Lucknow, Faizabad, Agra, 
Aligarh, Muttra, and Meerut. 

(3) Central Lidia: comprising an important and well- 
worked station at Jabalpur, and Missions among the ab- 
original Gonds and the Bhil tribes of Rajputana \ both of which, 
though still young, have given cheering evidences of success. 

A specially encouraging feature of the work in North India 
has been the sympathy and material support given to it by 
Christian men in official positions. The majority of the 
stations have been successively occupied at the earnest 
invitation of leading officers or civilians on the spot, who have 
themselves opened the way, both by personal evangelistic 
effort, by large donations towards the missionary agencies set 
on foot, and by active labours on local committees. Some 
^16,000 is thus raised and expended every year in India, 
independent of the Society's home income. 

In North India, more than anywhere else, the missionary is 
confronted by the moral degradation of Hindooism, the tre- 
mendous power of the caste system, the intellectual arrogance 

G 



82 Church Missionary Society. 

fostered by the union of Brahmin pride with rapidly spreading 
European culture, and the unchanging bigotry of the Moham- 
medan ; and we cannot wonder that the results have been 
comparatively small, even with such missionaries as Weitbrecht, 
Sandys, Long, Hasell, Vaughan, in Bengal ; and Leupolt, W. 
Smith, Hoernle, Pfander, French, in the North-West. Yet a 
long series of remarkable individual conversions of men of the 
highest Hindoo castes, or steeped in Moslem pride, bears witness 
to the power of Divine grace, and invites to more strenuous 
effort and more patient waiting upon God. 

Divinity Colleges for Bengal and the North-West Provinces 
have been established at Calcutta and Allahabad. There are 
high schools at Calcutta, Benares, Lucknow, Agra, Jabalpur, 
etc. ; normal schools at Krishnagar, Benares, Agra ; boarding 
schools for Christian children at Calcutta, Benares, and Agra ; 
orphanages at Agarpara (which celebrated its Jubilee in 
February 1887), Bhagalpur, Gorakhpur, and Agra; Christian 
villages at Gorakhpur, Allahabad, Secundra, Dehra Dun Valley. 
Native church councils have been established for Bengal and 
the North- West respectively. 

The Society's operations in North India are carried on in 
the Bengali, Santali, Hindi, Hindustani or Urdu, and Gondi 
languages. 

Punjab and Sindh. — The Punjab Mission was begun in 
185 1, soon after the annexation of the province to British 
India, by the Rev. R. Clark, who is still the senior missionary. 
The first station was Amritsar, the sacred city of the Sikhs, 
which is now a centre of important missionary agencies of all 
kinds. _ Here, every year, meets the Punjab Native Church 
Council, comprising the native clergy of the province, and lay 
delegates from the congregations — men of good position, 
Government officials, land-owners, lawyers, etc. — converts from 
Hindooism, Mohammedanism, and Sikhism. Among the clergy 
may be especially mentioned the Rev. Imad-ud-din, formerly 
a learned Moslem moulvie, now an able Christian preacher, 
lecturer, and writer, and author of Commentaries on the 
Gospels and the Acts, and who in 1884 received from the 
Archbishop of Canterbury the degree of D.D., the first native 
of India thus honoured. 

At Lahore, the capital of the province, is the Divinity 
College, founded in 1870 by the Rev. T. V. French (afterwards 



Punjab and Smdh, 83 

the first Bishop of Lahore). Multan is also occupied, and 
Kotgur and Kangra in the Himalayas. 

In the rural districts, important itinerant Missions were long 
conducted by the Rev. R.'Bateman and the lamented Rev. 
G. M. Gordon. In recent years the work in the villages has 
been much developed by Miss Clay and other ladies of the 
Zenana Mission, and by a Medical Mission conducted by Dr. 
H. M. Clark ; and there is now a growing movement among 
the rural population towards Christianity. The baptisms in 
1887 were the most numerous on record. 

Mr. Gordon (who was killed at Kandahar, Aug. 16, 1880) 
also established, mainly at his own expense, stations at Find 
Dadan Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan, the latter as a base for 
work among the Beluch tribes. Several other stations fringe 
the British frontier, the most important of which is Peshawar, 
where a Mission to the Afghans was established in 1855 under 
the auspices of Sir Herbert Edwardes, then Commissioner of 
the district. This Mission has gathered in some interesting 
Afghan converts, and its influence in the Afghan villages is 
remarkable. A handsome church, built in the Saracenic style, 
was opened in 1883 in the heart of the city, in the presence 
of many English; ofticers and Afghan chiefs. A Mission was 
begun in 1886 at Quetta, the British outpost beyond the Bolan 
Pass. The Rev. G. Shirt, of the Society's Sindh Mission, 
began the work there, but died suddenly on June 15, 1886. 
A clergyman of experience and a medical missionary are 
now supphed. 

In the valley of Kashmir a Medical Mission was started by 
the late Dr. Elmslie in 1865, which has been a great blessing 
to the people, especially during the famine in 1880, and the 
earthquake in 1884. 

The work in the Punjab is deeply indebted to men like 
Lord Lawrence, Sir H. Edwardes, Sir R. Montgomery, Sir D. 
McLeod, Generals Lake, Taylor, and Maclagan, Colonel 
Martin, and others, who have nobly exerted themselves to 
bring the Gospel to the people under their administration. 

The Sindh Mission is older in date, having been begun in 
1850, but is far behind in progress, owing mainly to its having 
always been quite undermanned. Yet important fruit has been 
granted to the patient labours of the Rev. J. Sheldon and 
others at Kurrachee and Hyderabad. 

G 2 



84 Church Missionary Society, 

The Urdu language is used in both Missions, in addition to 
Sindhi in Sindh, Punjabi in the Punjab, Persian, Pushtu, and 
Beluchi on the frontier, and Kashmiri in Kashmir. 

Western India. — The work of the Society in the Bombay 
Presidency is carried on at Bombay (1820), in the Deccan 
(1832), and also in Sindh, as above-mentioned. At Bomba)^ 
there is the Robert Money School, a special Mission to the 
Mohammedans, and various other agencies. Near Nasik is the 
industrial Christian colony at Sharanpur, where were trained 
Livingstone's ' Nasik boys ' and other liberated African slaves 
(see East Africa). At Malegaon is a central station for work in 
Khandesh. At Aurangabad, in the Nizam's territory, a most 
successful Mission is carried on by the Rev. Ruttonji Nowroji, 
formerly a Par see, some hundreds of converts having been 
gathered from among the out-caste Mangs. A Divinity School 
was established at Poona in 1886, but the paucity of the 
missionary staff has hindered the development of this and 
other agencies. 

Several able and devoted missionaries have laboured at 
Bombay and Nasik, and there are now congregations under 
native pastors, the fruit of their faithful labours. But the staff 
has always been quite inadequate to the needs of the Mission ; 
hence the results have not been large. 

The languages in use are Marathi and (for the Mohamme- 
dans) Urdu. 

South India. — The Tamil country south of Madras was the 
scene of the Propagation Society's Missions in the last century 
before referred to. But the first two clergymen of the Church 
of England who went to India as missionaries were sent to 
Madras by the Church Missionary Society in 18 14. There are 
now more than 88,000 native Christians connected with the 
Society in the South Indian field. 

(i) In the city of Madras^ large Tamil congregations are 
ministered to by native pastors (one, the Rev. W. T. 
Satthianadan, well-known in England), and their affairs are 
conducted by their own Church Council. The Society has 
also a special Mission to the Mohammedan population, the 
chief agency of which is the Harris School. 

(2) Timievelli. — In 1820 the Rev. J. Hough, chaplain at 
Palamkotta, drew the attention of the Society to the claims of 
this southernmost province of the Indian peninsula, where there 



South India. 85 

was already a community of 3,000 professed native Christians, 
an offshoot from the Propagation Society's Lutheran Mission 
in Tanjore. Two missionaries were at once set apart for this 
work, and from that time to this, through the labours of 
Rhenius, Pettitt, Thomas, J. T. Tucker, Hobbs, Sargent, etc., 
the Gospel has not ceased to spread among the Tamil popula- 
tion, chiefly among the Shanars, or cultivators of the palmyra 
tree. In North Tinnevelli a vigorous Itinerant Mission was 
established by Ragland, D. Fenn, and Meadows. There are now 
more than 1,000 villages in which there are Christians in the 
Church Missionary districts alone (besides many others in those 
worked by the Propagation Society). The former has 61 native 
clergymen, and the native lay agents are so numerous that 
Tinnevelli has been able to supply evangelists for the Tamil 
coolies in Ceylon and Mauritius. The ten districts have each 
its Native Church Council, which manages all local concerns ; 
and these Councils are represented in a Provincial Council. 
Nearly ;^3,ooo is raised annually by these poor Shanar 
Christians towards the support of their own pastors, churches, 
and schools. The educational organization is particularly 
efficient. The Sarah Tucker Female Institution, with its net- 
work of affiliated branch schools, may be especially mentioned. 
The senior missionary of the Society, Dr. Sargent, and the 
senior missionary of the Propagation Society, Dr. Caldwell, 
were consecrated on March 11, 1877, as assistant bishops to 
the Bishop of Madras for the native churches. A few years 
ago there were large accessions from among the heathen in the 
districts of both Societies, owing mainly to the indirect influence 
of the Famine Relief Funds. ' Theconviction prevailed,' wrote 
Bishop Caldwell, ' that whilst Hindooism had left the famine- 
stricken to die, Christianity had stepped in, like an angel 
from heaven, to comfort them with its sympathy and 
cheer them with its effectual succour.' The increase in the 
Society's stations in 1878 was about 10,000. Bishop Sargent 
celebrated his fiftieth year of service in Tinnevelli in July, 
1885. 

(3) Trava?ico7'e ajid Cochin. — The Mission in these semi- 
independent native States, which occupy a narrow strip of 
country on the south-western coast of India, between the 
Ghat mountains and the sea, was estabUshed in 18 16 at the 
invitation of Colonel Munro, the British resident. For twenty 



86 Church Missionary Society. 

years it was worked by Benjamin Bailey, Joseph Fenn, Henry 
Baker, sen., and others, mainly with a view to the reform of 
the ancient Malabar Syrian Church, which claims to have been 
founded by the Apostle St. Thomas. Ultimately the effort 
failed, owing to the internal dissensions of that Church, and its 
unwiUingness to abjure errors in doctrine and abuses in ritual. 
Since 1837 the missionaries have worked independently, the 
result of which has been not only the adhesion of many Syrians 
to our purer worship, but an active reforming movement within 
their own Church, which was much fostered by the late Metran, 
Mar Athanasius. The labours of Peet, Hawksworth, H. 
Baker, jun., and others, among the heathen population, 
particularly the lowest castes, the slaves, and the Hill Arrians, 
have been also greatly blessed ; considerable progress, as in 
Tinnevelli, has been made in the organization of the native 
church ; and there are eighteen native pastors. The Kotayam 
College has been a great blessing in providing a high class 
Christian education ; and the Cambridge Nicholson Institution 
trains native agents. On July 25, 1879, the Rev. J. M. Speechly, 
a missionary of the Society, was consecrated first Bishop of 
Travancore and Cochin. In 1885 the bishop appointed the Rev. 
Koshi Koshi, one of the Society's native pastors, to the office of 
Archdeacon. Mr. Koshi is the first native clergyman admitted 
to this ofiice in India. 

(4) The field of the Telugii Mission is an extensive country 
on the east side of India, through which flow the great rivers 
Kistna and Godavari. It was begun in 1841 by two of the 
most devoted men on the roll of our missionaries, Robert 
Noble and H. W. Fox. Noble started the famous English 
school at Masulipatam, now known by his name, worked it for 
twenty-four years, and died at his post in 1865. Several 
Brahmins trained in it have embraced the Gospel, and it has sent 
forth five native clergymen to labour among their countrymen. 
Fox was a preaching missionary, and thus set the example of 
those itinerating and rural missionary efforts which have resulted 
in the foundation of an increasing Telugu Native Church, chiefly 
drawn from the Malas and other low-caste or out-caste people. 
There is also a Mission among the Kols, a non-Aryan tribe on 
the Upper Godavari, which was founded by General Haig in 
i860, and has ever since been the object of his sympathy, 
liberality, and personal labours. 



Ceylon. 87 

The languages in the Society's South Indian Missions are — 
Tamil for Madras and Tinnevelli, Malayalam for Travancore 
and Telugu. In Tamil there is an extensive Christian litera- 
ture, to which the Society's Missionaries have largely contri- 
buted; and in Malayalam one of them (B. Bailey) translated 
and printed (after having cut and cast the greater part of the 
type) with his own hands the whole Bible. A Commentary in 
the Telugu language on the New Testament has also been 
prepared and published by the Rev. J. E. Padfield. 

Ceylon. — This Mission, commenced in 181 7, comprises 
evangelistic, educational, and pastoral agencies, among both 
Singhalese and Tamils, the two races (with distinct languages) 
forming the population of the island. There are several 
Singhalese congregations at Colombo (the seat of government), 
Cotta, Baddegama, and Kandy (one of the ancient capitals) ; 
and Tamil congregations at Colombo, Kandy, and three or four 
places in the Jaffna peninsula, in the extreme north, as well as 
in several places in the coffee districts. Some of them are 
ministered to by native pastors. Considerable progress has 
been made in self-government and self-support ; and Native 
Missionary Associations have been formed for the spread of the 
Gospel among the surrounding heathen. 

In connection with or beyond this settled work, there are 
two Evangelistic Missions of special interest and importance, 
the Kandyan Itinerancy and the Tamil Coolie Mission. Both 
work in the hill-country in the centre of the island, covering 
nearly the same area. The former is among the Singhalese 
village population, among whom its labours have been much 
blessed; the latter among the Tamil cooUes on the coffee 
estates, some 1,700 of whom are now on the roll of native 
Christians, besides many who have returned to their native 
country. South India. The Tamil Coolie Mission has for more 
than thirty years been mainly supported by a Committee of 
coffee planters, who have raised more than ;i^i,ooo a year to 
maintain catechists, schools, etc., the Society providing the 
superintending English missionaries. 

h The educational agencies comprise Trinity College, Kandy, 
and important schools of various kinds at Cotta and Jaffna. The 
present Bishop of Colombo (Dr. Copleston) has visited all the 
Society's Missions from time to time, inspecting, confirming, 



88 Chm'ch Missionary Society, 

and preaching in the churches and chapels and in the open 
air. In December 1886, he held an ordination in the Singha- 
lese language and in the midst of the people, the first ever 
thus conducted. 

Mauritius. — Though geographically most nearly connected 
with Africa, this little island is, in a missionary sense, a de- 
pendency of India. Two-thirds of the population are coolies, 
brought from Bengal and South India to work on the sugar 
plantations ; and among these are labouring Bengali and Tamil- 
speaking missionaries, whose work has been much blessed. 
Some 5,000 have been baptized, the majority of whom have 
returned to their own country. 

An Industrial Home was founded in 1875 in the Seychelles 
Islands, for the liberated African slaves landed there. 

China. — This great empire was opened to missionary effort 
in 1844, when the Treaty of Nanking, which closed the first 
Chinese War, gave England the possession of Hong-kong, and 
the right of residence at five leading ports ; and more fully in 
1858-60, by the Treaty of Tientsin and Convention of Peking. 
Shanghai was occupied by the Society in 1845 ; Ningpo in 
1848; Foo-chow in 1850; Hong-kong and Peking in 1862 
(the latter after the taking of the city by the allied English and 
French forces); Hang-chow in 1865; Shaouhing in 1870; 
Canton in 1881. 

South China. — China, south of lat. 28°, is under the 
episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Victoria, Hong-kong. 
The first Bishop, Dr. G. Smith, and the third, the present one, Dr. 
Burdon, were missionaries of the Society ; and the second, Dr. 
Alford, an active member at home. The Society has a Mission at 
Hong-kong, and several out-stations in the Quang-tung Province 
worked from Canton as a centre ; and a new Mission has just 
been started at Pakhoi. But its chief work in South China is 
in the Fo-kien Province. 

The Fo-kien Mission has a truly remarkable history. The 
first eleven years passed without a single convert appearing. 
Two out of five missionaries had died in the interval, and two 
had retired. The fifth died soon after gathering the first-fruits 
of his labours, leaving a new-comer, the Rev. J. R. Wolfe, in 
charge. Up to 1864 the work was confined to Foo-chow city. 



China. 89 

In that year and the following three or four, other large cities 
were occupied by native evangelists. In 1866 the first two or 
three converts from these were baptized. And now, after 
twenty-three years' further labour, what do we find ? We find 
7,000 converts in 130 towns and villages, of whom 2,142 are 
communicants; 7 native clergy, 100 catechists, about 130 
voluntary lay-helpers, 20 regularly built churches, and 70 
preaching chapels; also a Theological College, Boarding 
Schools, and a Medical Mission. The principal districts, 
Lo-nguong, Ning-taik, Ku-cheng, etc., have their own Church 
Councils ; and the Annual Provincial Council at Foo-chow is 
attended by some 200 delegates. The work has been done 
almost wholly by native agency ; and during many years there 
were not more than two English missionaries in the field. 
New converts have told their friends, and in this way the 
Gospel has, without effort, spread from village to village. But 
not without persecution. Bitter opposition has been shown by 
the mandarins and gentry ; the Christians have endured much 
personal suffering, and more than one has been martyred. In 
1886 Bishop Burdon visited many of the stations, and confirmed 
900 candidates. 

Mid-China. — China, nordi of lat 28°, became a separate 
diocese. North China, in 1872; Dr. Russell, a missionary of 
the Society, being the first bishop. In 1880, after Bishop 
Russell's death, it was divided into two, and Dr. G. E. Moule 
became Bishop of the new see of Mid-China. The Society's 
chief Missions are in the Che-kiang Province ; and there is a 
small Mission at Shanghai, under Archdeacon A. E. Moule. 

In the province of Che-kiang are the cities of Ningpo, 
Hang-chow, and Shaouhing. In the earlier years of the 
Mission, much success was, by the Divine blessing, achieved 
in the numerous towns and villages around Ningpo; achieved, 
too, notwithstanding frequent changes in the Mission staff 
through sickness, and the hindrances caused during several 
years by the Taiping rebellion. Many of the Christians in 
these villages have manifested exemplary Christian steadfastness 
and zeal. Four of them were ordained in 1875-6. Within the 
last few years there has been a most interesting movement in 
the Choo-ki district, an oft shoot of the Hang-chow Mission, 
and more than 300 converts have been gathered in from about 
twenty-five villages. At Hang-chow itself there is a Medical 



90 Church Missionary Society. 

Mission, and a new Hospital and Opium Refuge was built in 
1885, mainly at the cost of the William Charles Jones China 
Fund ; but many English and Americans in China contributed, 
and even the mandarins of Hang-chow. 

Although the Chinese have only one written language, in 
which the whole Bible exists, they have many spoken dialects. 
Portions of Scripture, the Prayer Book, etc., have been pub- 
lished in several of these dialects in the Roman character, this 
being found the easiest to acquire by the large classes of the 
population that cannot read. 

Japan. — For two hundred and thirty years, in consequence of 
the political intrigues of the Jesuit missionaries in the sixteenth 
century, Japan was absolutely closed to the outer world. It is 
about thirty-five years since the long-sealed empire opened to 
European influences, and in that time the country has made 
most extraordinary progress in the adoption of Western civili- 
zation. Still more recent is the toleration now tacitly (though 
not avowedly) accorded to Christian effort. American Mis- 
sionaries arrived in 1859, but for several years they could do 
scarcely any direct evangelistic work. In 1869, just after the 
wonderful revolution which restored power to the Mikado, the 
first missionary of the Society landed at Nagasaki. He also 
could only use quiet and indirect methods of making known 
the Gospel, and the few converts vouchsafed to his labours 
were baptized secretly. 

Within the last sixteen years toleration of Christianity has 
become virtually complete, and the Mission has been extended 
and strengthened. Not only Nagasaki, but also Tokio (Yedo), 
Osaka, and Hakodate, are occupied by the Society. Nagasaki 
and Osaka, especially, are the headquarters of expanding 
Missions. Native evangelists have been trained, and many 
outlying towns and cities have been occupied by them. There 
is also a Mission to the Aino aborigines of the northernmost 
island of Yezo. The first-fruit of these was baptized on 
Christmas Day 1885, and others have since been baptized, 
making a little Aino church of six souls. A good school was 
started in 1888, of which the first Aino Christian has been 
appointed schoolmaster. 

. Arrangements were made by the late Archbishop of Can- 
terbury for the establishment of an English Bishopric in Japan, 



New Zealand. 91 

and the present Archbishop nominated the Rev. A. W. Poole, 
late missionary in South India, to be the first bishop. He 
was consecrated October 18, 1883. But in the mysterious pro- 
vidence of God he was permitted to labour for a few months 
only; he died in July 1885. A worthy successor has been 
found in the Rev. E. Bickersteth, of the Cambridge Delhi 
Missions, son of the Bishop of Exeter. 

In February 1887, Bishop Bickersteth admitted three native 
agents to Deacons' Orders, the first ordination of Japanese 
natives. He has also appointed the Society's senior missionary, 
the Rev. H. Maundrell, to be his Archdeacon. 

New Zealand. — The Mission to the Maoris of New Zealand 
was the second of the Society's Missions in order of time. It 
was undertaken at the invitation of Samuel Marsden, Chaplain in 
New South Wales, who landed on the Northern Island, with the 
first three men — lay agents — sent out as pioneers, in 18 14, and 
preached the first Christian sermon to the natives on Christmas 
Day of that year. Other missionaries followed, but their lives, 
which were entirely in the power of a race of ferocious cannibals, 
were frequently in apparently imminent danger, and for eleven 
years no results whatever were seen. The first conversion 
took place in 1825, and no other natives were baptized for 
five years. Then began the marvellous movement which 
resulted in almost the whole Maori nation being brought under 
Christian instruction and civilizing influences, and which led 
Bishop Selwyn, on his arrival in his new diocese, in 1842, to 
write, ' We seej here a whole nation of pagans converted to the 
faith. . . Where will you find, throughout the Christian world, 
more signal manifestations of the presence of the Spirit, or 
more living evidences of the Kingdom of Christ?' Twelve 
years later, Sir George Grey, then Governor of New Zealand, 
informed the Committee that he had personally visited nearly 
all the Society's stations, and ' could speak with confidence of 
the great and good work accomplished by it.' 

In 1840 New Zealand was made a British colony, and emigra- 
tion on a large scale ensued. The vices as well as the benefits 
of civilization were introduced, and the inevitable conflict of 
race began. The continual disputes about the sale and pos- 
session of land led to prolonged and bitter wars, which shook 
the native Church to its foundations. In 1864 arose the 



92 Church Missionary Society, 

' Pai Marire ' or * Hau-hau '. superstition, a strange compound 
of Christianity and heathenism, which spread rapidly among 
the natives. It was a party of Hau-haus who so barbarously 
murdered the missionary Volkner in 1865. 

The condition of the native Church is now generally 
prosperous. The statistical returns sent home for 1887-8 show 
18,207 church members, who are ministered to by thirty-one 
Maori clergymen (altogether forty-eight have been ordained, 
but some have died. Two of the most able were accidentally 
poisoned in 1887). There are 388 voluntary lay-helpers. The 
Christians build their own churches, and in part support their 
own ministers. In 1887 the native contributions for religious 
purposes amounted to ^^2,01 7. Several native Church Boards 
are working well. The comparatively small bands of disaffected 
and semi-heathen natives headed by Tawhiao (the ' Maori 
King') and other leaders, are now showing readiness to 
receive Christian teaching. 

In 1883 a Mission Board, comprising the Bishops of 
Auckland, Waiapu, and Wellington, and other members, was 
established to administer the Society's grants, which will 
diminish annually, and cease (subject to personal claims) in 
twenty years. 

The whole Bible and the Prayer Book have been rendered 
by the missionaries into the Maori language. 

North-West America Mission. — This is a Mission to the 
remnant of the Red Indian tribes scattered over the vast 
country formerly known as the Hudson's Bay Territory, now 
included in the Dominion of Canada. In 1822 the Rev. John 
West arrived at a trading settlement on the Red River, a little 
south of Lake Winnipeg, and began to gather the Indians 
round him. The first step in the great extension of the 
Mission in recent years was the sending forth from Red River, 
in 1840, of Henry Budd, a native teacher trained up by Mr. 
West from his boyhood (afterwards the first native clergyman), 
to open a new station at Devon, five hundred miles off. 

The Red River district is now the flourishing colonial 
Province of Manitoba, and a large part of the Society's work 
has developed into the settled ministrations of the church in 
the colony. ^ One of the Society's churches has become the 
Cathedral of the diocese of Rupert's Land, which was founded 



North-west Americd, 93 

in 1849. That diocese, which has been highly privileged in its 
two first bishops, Dr. Anderson and Dr. Machray, was sub- 
divided in 1872 into four parts, the three new dioceses being 
those of Moosonee, Athabasca, and Saskatchewan. To the two 
former sees missionaries of the Society were appointed, the 
Rev. John Horden and the Rev. W. C. Bompas, and to the 
third, an active co-worker in the country. Dr. McLean. In 
1884, in pursuance of a scheme formed by the Provincial 
Synod of the Province of Rupert's Land, the diocese of 
Athabasca was divided, Dr. Bompas taking the northern half as 
Bishop of Mackenzie River, and the Rev. R. Young being 
appointed to the southern division as Bishop of Athabasca. 
A new see was also formed of the civil province of Assiniboia, 
consisting of portions of the dioceses of Rupert's Land 
and Saskatchewan; to which Dr. Anson was consecrated as 
Bishop of Qu'Appelle. Doctor Pinkham, of Manitoba, was 
consecrated on August 7, 1887, in succession to the late 
Dr. McLean, Bishop of Saskatchewan. A Provincial Synod 
held in the same month sanctioned the constitution of a new 
diocese, to be called the Diocese of Calgary, as soon as an 
endowment for the same can be raised. In the meantime Dr. 
Pinkham's title is ' Bishop of Saskatchewan and Calgary.' 

The diocese of Moosonee includes extensive territories round 
the shores of Hudson's Bay, and stretches to the borders of 
Canada. Bishop Horden's labours have been most successful, 
and the great majority of the Indians now profess Christianity. 
The diocese of Saskatchewan includes missions to the still 
heathen and untamed Plain Crees, Sioux, and Blackfeet, of the 
great Saskatchewan Plain. In the diocese of Qu'Appelle the 
Society's one station has been transferred to the bishop. The 
dioceses of Mackenzie River and Athabasca, which are far the 
largest in extent, comprise missions to the Chipewyan, Slave, 
Dog-rib, and Tukudh tribes. Among the Tukudh, who are 
found beyond the Rocky Mountains and within the Arctic 
Circle, on the Youcon River, the spread of the Gospel has 
of late years been rapid. Some 1,500 have been baptized 
since 1863, and a still larger number are under Christian 
instruction. 

At various points in the Moosonee and Athabasca districts, 
fringing the Arctic Ocean, are found bands of Eskimoes 
They have been visited here and there by bishops Bompas and 



94 Church Missionary Society. 

Horden and others ; and three missionaries are now set apart 
for their evangeUsation. 

Several distinct languages are spoken by the Indians of 
these vast territories. The whole Bible and the Prayer Book 
exist in Red River Cree : and considerable portions, with 
hymn-books, etc., in Moose Cree, Ojibbeway, Soto, Slave, 
Chipewyan, and Tukudh. 

North Pacific Mission. — In 1856 Captain Prevost, R.N., 
drew the Society's attention to the savage state of the Tsim- 
shean Indians on the coast of British Columbia, and a school- 
master was sent out. A great blessing was vouchsafed to his 
labours; and in 1862 the Christian setdement of Metlakahtla 
was founded. Owing to internal dissensions, the settlement 
was for some years not prosperous, but it is hoped that the 
difficulties have at last been met, and that the work will again 
be blessed. 

There is another settlement at Kincolith, on the Naas River, 
and Missions also among the Kitiksheans of the interior, the 
Hydahs of Queen Charlotte's Islands, and the Kwa-gutl Indians 
of Fort Rupert. At all these places an excellent work is being 
done by zealous missionaries of the Society. The whole 
Mission is under the charge of the Bishop of Caledonia, Dr. 
Ridley, formerly a missionary of the Society in India. 

The Church Missionary Society exists for the purpose of 
assisting in the fulfilment by the Church of its Lord's one last 
great command, to evangelise the world. Not to convert the 
world — that is not man's part — but to proclaim the Gospel to 
the world. ' This Gospel of the kingdom shall be preached 
in all the world, for a witness unto all nations, and then shall 
the end come.' 

Magazines: — The Church Missionary IntelligeJicer ; The 
Chtirch Missionary Glea?ier, and The Juve?iile Missionary 
Instructor. Monthly. 



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{ 96 ) 



WESLEYAN METHODIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

FULLY ORGANIZED, 1816. (wORK BEGUN 1 786.) 

The care of British Methodism for those in other lands found 
its earhest expression when in the Yearly Conference of 1769, 
Mr. Wesley appointed Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor 
to go and help the brethren in America. The Methodism 
which was thus encouraged and strengthened gradually spread 
throughout the American colonies. Emigrants, soldiers, 
Government servants, and others carried the Gospel into 
Canada, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick. 

It was in 1786 that Dr. Coke, then on his second journey 
across the Atlantic, sailed with a company of three missionaries, 
in order to reinforce the Churches in Nova Scotia, where 
Freeborn Garrettson and James D. Emmett, sent thither by 
Bishop Asbury, were representing the Methodism of the States. 
It is not necessary now to tell the story so often told, and 
which the lovers of missionary enterprise will never cease to 
tell, how the stormy winds fulfilled the unspoken word of 
Him whom winds and seas obey, how He directed their 
wandering bark whilst He prepared their way. The Christmas 
Day of 1786 will remain as the inaugural day of Methodist 
Missions, when Dr. Coke and his companions landed on the 
island of Antigua. There William Warrener entered upon 
his labours — a true-hearted Yorkshireman, with his equally 
true-hearted Yorkshire wife. 

During the next thirty years the work spread. In 1804 the 
first Continental station was occupied by the appointment to 
Gibraltar of the Rev. James McMullen, whose grandson is now 
the Clerical Treasurer of the Society. 

In 181 1 the first Wesleyan missionary was sent to Western 
Africa. It was not the first attempt that had been made. Ai 



A Review. 97 

early as 1769 Dr. Coke had already conceived the missionary 
idea, and had sent out a surgeon with a party of mechanics, in 
the hope of civilizing the Foulahs. The enterprise failed, as 
has been repeatedly the case with others of the kind. But in 
181 1 George Warren led the way for that long line of faithful 
messengers who since then, at risk of health or cost of life, 
have maintained the testimony of Jesus among the tribes of 
Western Africa. 

Dr. Coke's own Mission to The East comes next in order. 
In 1813 he voyaged eastward, with his band of devoted helpers, 
ordained, as the event proved, to hallow sea and land, he by 
his burial, and they by their labours, founding as they did in 
the island of Ceylon, churches which have never ceased to 
prosper and extend. 

It was the year after that John McKenny was sent as the 
first missionary to Southern Africa ; and although in con- 
sequence of the difficulties which arose he was moved to 
Ceylon, yet almost immediately his place was supplied by 
Barnabas Shaw, who, before the close of 18 15, had with his 
devoted wife settled in Little Namaqualand. 

In the same year Samuel Leigh left England for Australasia, 
and landed after a voyage of nearly six months in New South 
Wales on August loth. 

And thus it came to pass that when the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society was organised in 1816, the Missions for which it was 
to care were already found in every part of the world. 

Taking a general view of Wesleyan Missions to the heathen 
fifty years ago, it will appear that in the Far East success had 
attended the efforts put forth ; but the progress of extension 
was slow. The churches in Ceylon were growing apace. 
Continental India had been entered. The Madras Mission 
was begun in 181 7, and Bangalore, in the Mysore territory, 
was for a short time occupied in 1820 : but Bombay, to which 
the Rev. John Horner was appointed in 181 7, was abandoned 
in 182 1, and in 1837 was still unoccupied. The same may be 
said of Calcutta, to which two ministers had been appointed 
in 1829, and shortly after withdrawn. 

At the close of 1836 Madras was the only District formed 
in Continental India. The conversion of a Brahmin, afterwards 
known as Wesley Abraham, marked the beginning of a new 
era. The district was wide, and included Bangalore, Mysore, 

H 



98 Wesleyaji Methodist Missionary Society. 

Negapatam, Melnattam and Manargudi. Mr. Cryer reported 
encouragement in the streets of Negapatam and the surrounding 
villages. A temporary school chapel was about to be erected. 
At Bangalore the Tamil and English departments were fairly 
prosperous, and it was also rising into importance as a Canarese 
station under the care of Thomas Hodson. 

Yet this was all that had been done, and, so far as the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society was concerned, the vast popula- 
tions of the East were otherwise untouched. 

Greater changes had taken place in the Southern Seas. On 
the island continent of Australia the only Mission established 
was that of New South Wales ; although plans were already 
formed for the extension of the work to other colonies. 
Methodism had been introduced into Tasmania by soldiers con- 
verted in New South Wales, and in 1821 William Horton was 
put in charge of Hobart Town. At the close of 1836, Hobart 
Town, Port Arthur, and Launceston were the only stations 
occupied, but they were prosperous. Two additional mission- 
aries had been sent out in 1836, and two more were to follow. 

Methodism in New Zealand may be said to have begun 
with the visit of the Rev. Samuel Leigh in 18 18, although the 
first appointment was not made until 182 1. Arrangements 
were at once made with the agents of the Church Missionary 
Society to prevent any appearance of rivalry or waste of 
labour. Many were the hindrances and the disappointments : 
so that at the close of 1836 only one station was held, and 
that was Wanganui, on the west coast. There, however, the 
prospect was one full of promise. 

The brightest spot in all the Southern Seas was Vavau, in the 
Friendly Islands. The London Missionary Society had sent 
out its agents to these islands as early as 1797, but after three 
years the ground was abandoned. In 1822 the Rev. Walter 
Lawry visited Tonga from Sydney. About the same time 
three native teachers, connected with the London Missionary 
Society, were sent from Tahiti, but these too failed. In 1826 
John Thomas and John Hutchinson arrived as the first appointed 
Wesleyan missionaries. Eight years after, in 1834, there was 
a wonderful work of grace in the islands, and one result was 
the resolve to attempt the evangelisation of the islands of 
Fiji. The Mission was actually begun in October 1835, and 



General Review. 99 

in 1836 the Friendly Islands Auxiliary Wesleyan Missionary 
Society was organized. Such was the result of less than ten 
years of toil. The news reached England at the beginning 
of 1837; but no missionary had been sent from this country, 
nor had the appeal of the Rev. James Watkin, ' Pity poor 
Feejee !' as yet stirred the hearts of British Methodists. 

In South Africa the work of evangelisation was advancing 
amid many difficulties, arising oftentimes from tribal wars. We 
have seen how Barnabas Shaw started in 1815 on his pil- 
grimage to Little Namaqualand. In 1820 a Mission was 
begun in Capetown itself. The same year William Shaw 
went out with a party of emigrants to the Eastern Province, 
where his first sermon was preached in Graham's Town in the 
house of one Serjeant-Major Lucas. From that time progress 
was steady. At the close of 1836 the Cape Town District 
included Khamiesberg and Great Namaqualand, which in 
1825 William Threlfall essayed to enter, and where he fell the 
victim of savage cruelty. 

The District of Albany and Kafirland covered a wide area, 
including Graham's Town and Bathurst, Wesleyville as the first 
station in Kafirland, Clarkebury among the Tembus, Bunting- 
ville, founded by Mr. Boyce, among the Pondos, and Port 
Natal, not yet occupied by a resident missionary, among the 
Zulus. The year was made memorable by its Kafir war. 

There was also a Bechuanaland District, the scene of the 
brave endurance and repeated efforts of Samuel Broadbent and 
others. But when it is remembered that the centres of Mission 
work were at Thaba 'Nchu, Plaatberg, and Umpukane, it will 
be seen that the Bechuanaland of those days included southern 
lands which have long since passed under other names. The 
Baralongs, in the upper regions of the Vaal River, had been 
defeated in war and scattered by the Matabele from the north, 
and they had wandered southwards until they settled at Thaba 
'Nchu, north of the Orange River. It was thence that in 
after times some of them travelled northwards once more and 
settled on the banks of the Molopo. 

Much had thus been accomplished, and yet South African 
Methodism was only in its infancy, and no one dreamed 
of a Connection and a Conference which should include wider 
territories and states with more varied forms of government. 

H 2 



loo Weskyan Methodist Missionary Society. 

The West Coast of Africa was as yet all included within one 
District. The death roll was already a long one. The 
principal stations were three, Sierra Leone, St. Mary's-on-the- 
Gambia, and Macarthy's Island. A settlement had been 
attempted on the Gold Coast, where the Rev. Joseph Dunwell 
landed on New Year's Day 1835, and died within six months 
of his arrival. Two other missionaries and their wives were 
sent out at the close of 1836; but all of them fell victims to 
the climate before the end of 1837. Nevertheless, the land 
had been claimed for Christ, and volunteers for service there 
were never wanting. 

In the West Indies, together with Demerara, the Society re- 
ported at the close of 1836 a membership of nearly 4,700, under 
the care of 85 missionaries, and upwards of 2,500 other agents. 

In various parts of the world there were employed 306 
missionaries, 1,955 P^i*^ agents, and 3,156 gratuitous teachers. 
The membership was 64,691, and the number of scholars 47,106. 

The income raised during 1836 from all sources was 
;!^75,52 6, of which ;£"5 2,242 was the Home Contribution. The 
total expenditure was more than ;^7 0,000, and one-eighth of 
the whole amount was spent in the East. 

Taking only those fields which are now occupied by the 
Society, the number of missionaries was 51, the paid agents 
143, the unpaid agents 51, and the membership 3,196. 

And now another fifty years have passed. 

First of all, it is satisfactory to know that with two ex- 
ceptions, Sweden and the Mauritius, no Mission field occupied 
in 1836 is deserted now. Stations have been changed, and 
workers have been transferred ; but the old lands are tilled and 
yield their harvests, though it be to toilers who depend no 
longer upon us. 

Ceylon. — The subdivision of South Ceylon into three 
districts, Colombo, Kandy and Galle, has been justified by the 
results. 

In Colombo progress has been very marked, the number of 
conversions giving cause for much encouragement and thank- 
fulness. The school returns, too, show a most satisfactory 
advance. Higher education is provided for the more elevated 
classes of society, but the expense is defrayed by Government 
grants and school fees. 



Ceylon: Contlnoital Lid id. tot 

A distinct branch of the Mission in Colombo is the ' Book- 
room,' including the Printing and Publication department. 
Here are being constantly prepared and issued editions of the 
Holy Scriptures, school books, hymn books, and other religious 
works. 

In the Kandy District the work has had many cheering 
features. The new Uva Mission has been considerably 
enlarged, but the people are very ignorant and superstitious, 
and the work progresses slowly. The Society's aim is to 
spread practical elementary education in the vernacular, 
coupled with industrial training. 

In the Galle district the educational work meets with a large 
measure of success. 

The growth of the work in North Ceylon has rendered 
division necessary there also, and it has been decided to 
distribute it between the Jaffna and Batticaloa Districts. In 
Batticaloa, a regularly qualified medical lady, sent by the 
Ladies' Committee, at the request of the native women, has 
begun work with much promise of success. 

The returns from the Jaffna District indicate progress in 
every department of the work. 

In Continental India, the field is now divided into seven 
districts, viz., Madras, Negapatam and Trichinopoli, Hydera- 
bad, Mysore, Calcutta, Lucknow, and Benares and Upper 
Burma. 

Every class of Missionary labour is now carried on by the 
Society in India. Medical work is the last venture, the 
introduction of this branch being too recent for any result to 
be given. 

Brahminism is being assailed in its great centres ; the 
grosser superstitions of the villages are being swept away ; the 
industrial interests of the people are being promoted ; and 
native churches are being built. 

The work is, at present, in a somewhat critical condition, 
owing chiefly to the extraordinary accessions of converts from 
the villages of some of the districts. This makes it imperative 
that a careful and adequate supervision shall be maintained, 
which means undiminished European force and the immediate 
extension of the native agency. 

In Upper Burma, occupied by the Society in 1887, 



I02 ir<:s/,j'(ru ]\I(iJiodisl JSIissioiiary Socicly. 

Mnndiilay, witli a populalion of 175,000, lias been seleeted as 
ilie lieacl(]uartcrs of the Mission. 'I'he learning of a new 
language always presents a great difriculty in the way of 
mission work, but a good beginning has been made. Regular 
Sunday and week-day JUirinesc services have been cstablislied, 
and a verna(ailar and an lOnglisli scliool have been opened. 
FAcellent work is also being carried on among tlie soldiers 
stationed in the country. 

In the Madras J)istrict, Mr. Cobban has told in ])art the 
story of the villages. From Calcutta, Mr. Macdonald has 
chronicled the doings of the sons of Wesley in their encamp- 
ment. The I/Ucknow District has recorded through Mr. 
]^irs()n how the Gonds have gladly welcomed the victory of 
Jesus. And other appeals there are, such as that from 
Calcutta in behalf of the Santals, and now again from the 
Mysore, which pleads for help in the eftbrt to evangelise the 
Nagar. This section of the Mysore territory has a scattered 
population of more than 800,000 adults, of whom very many 
are dissatisfied with what religion they have, and are longing 
and hoping for something belter. There is no newer work and 
none more full of i)romise than that which seeks to enter ' the 
great dark Nagar.' 



China to-day is everywhere open throughout its vast 
territory. Two Methodist Districts, Canton and VVoo-chang, are 
in working order ; and success proves that with am])le resources 
at command there might be twenty. 'I'he Medical Missions 
are everywhere ])owerful for good. M'he Lay Agency has been 
reinforced, and the Ladies' Auxiliary has reoccui)ie(l (.'hina, 
but there is need for more. In and around Te-ngan, where 
so much has been endured, the work is extending. One of the 
earliest converts has given up business, and devoted himself 
without charge to the evangelisation of his countrymen. 

It is worthy of note that the special feature of the work in 
both Districts is the power attending the daily proclamation of 
the Gospel. 

In AusruAT.ASiA progress was rapid. P.etween 1836 and 
1838 Methodist So(Meties weie formed in South Australia, West 
Australia, and Victoria : and (hieensland followed in its turn. 



Aiisiralasia : Sotithcni Africa. 103 

111 1840 New Zealand became a British possession and a Crown 
colony, and the change was in many respects an advantage. 
In 1838 the first company of missionaries was sent from 
England to Fiji, and among them were John Hunt, long since 
deceased, but never forgotten, and James Calvert, who in 
youthful old age is with us to-day. In 1854 the whole of the 
Methodist Societies in Australasia were placed under the care 
of the Australasian Conference, represented by the four 
Annual Conferences of New South Wales and Queensland, 
Victoria and Tasmania, South Australia, and New Zealand. 
In 1874 Fiji became a part of the British Empire. 

So also in Southern Africa Mission extension had more 
than kept pace with colonization. Despite the evils of tribal 
wars, and the mischief caused to confiding and loyal natives, 
sometimes by the action and still more by the vacillation of 
British Governors and Governments, Methodism had become 
so widespread and so strong that in 1882 the South African 
Conference was formed, and all the stations and societies south 
of the Vaal River were committed to its care. To the north 
of the Vaal, recent extension has been rapid, especially within 
the Transvaal Republic. The district still under the charge 
of the Society includes also Swaziland, Zululand, Stellaland, 
and the Protectorate of British Bechuanaland. The recent 
discovery of gold in various parts ^of the Transvaal has had 
the effect of attracting multitudes of natives from homes in 
regions which are at present out of the Society's reach. To 
these much earnest effort is being given, with the hope that 
some at least may return to their homes charged with the 
precious seed, and by their words and influence may possibly 
lead others to Christ. Figures do not always and sufficiently 
represent facts; but it is instructive to note that in 1880 what 
is now the Transvaal District was reported as having 3 mission- 
aries, 3 principal stations, 9 chapels, and 8 preaching-places, 
and 599 members. Of these members 489 were connected 
with the Molopo Mission. There are now 32 principal 
stations, having 26 chapels and 73 other preaching-places, 
under the charge of 12 English and 6 native pastors, assisted 
by 9 catechists and 9 day-school teachers, 102 Sunday-school 
teachers, and 98 local preachers — the number of members 
being 13 17, with 490 on trial. 



104 iVesleyafi Methodist Missionary Society. 

On the West Coast of Africa work is carried on in the 
Sierra-Leone and Gambia District and the Gold Coast and 
Lagos District. The fifty years (1836-1886) have been years 
of deadly conflict with the climate and with unhealthy con- 
ditions which the climate has aggravated. This has grievously 
interfered with both extension and supervision. Tribal wars 
have hindered progress into the interior, and have sometimes 
compelled the suspension or abandonment of work already 
begun. Nevertheless there are signs of the coming of a 
brighter day. Sanitary conditions are improving, the neces- 
sities of the climate are better understood, and the average 
term of service is gradually lengthening. To advance is the 
one desire of every district, and recent extensions in Limbah 
and Yoruba are already bearing good fruit. The reports of 
educational work in the Sierra-Leone and Gambia District are 
especially satisfactory. 

In the Gold Coast and Lagos district difficulties and en- 
couragements fairly balance each other, but much satisfactory 
work is being done which cannot fail, under God's blessing, to 
produce larger results in days to come. 

The West Indies, our oldest Missions, now belong to the 
youngest Conference. The formation of that Conference in 
1884 was a bold experiment. Three-and-fifty years ago slavery 
was rampant throughout those islands ; fifty years ago it was 
modified only by the evils of the apprenticeship. Habits of 
mutual confidence and of self-government can be developed 
only by lengthened training. 

The Bahamas still remain with the Society ; and on the 
mainland of Central America the Honduras District is giving 
signs of increasing energy and evangelistic zeal. A new 
venture in Spanish Honduras, at San Pedro, promises to be 
the beginning of an advance which ere long may help to 
link the Spain of the Old World with its representatives in 
the New. 

Magazines : — Weskymi Missionary Notices and At Home 
and Abroad, Monthly. 



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( io6 ) 



GENERAL BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1 8 1.6. 

This Society was founded at Boston, Lincolnshire, June 26, 
1 81 6, chiefly by the Rev. J. G. Pike, author oi Persuasives to 
Early Piety. Its operations are carried on in Orissa (India). 
Its first missionaries were WilUam Bampton and James Peggs, 
who reached Cuttack, the capital of Orissa, February 12, 
1822. They were joined, in 1823, by Charles Lacey, and in 
1825, by Amos Sutton. 

For two thousand years Orissa has been the Holy Land of 
the Hindoos. It is the principal seat of Jagannath worship, 
the chief shrine being at Puri. ' Of all the regions of the earth,' 
says a Hindoo sage, ' Orissa boasts the highest renown. 
From end to end it is one vast region of pilgrimage.' 

' It is impossible,' says Sir W. W. Hunter, * to reckon the total number 
of the poorer sort who travel on foot at less than 84,000. It is equally 
impossible to reckon their deaths in Puri and on the road at less than one- 
seventh, or 12,000 a year. Deducting 2,000 from these for the ordinary 
death-rate, we have a net slaughter of 10,000 per annum.' 

The population, including the portions situated in Madras 
and the Central Provinces, is about 8,000,000. When the 
Mission was commenced, widow-burning, human sacrifices, 
and other barbarous religious rites prevailed, and throughout 
the land there was no church, chapel. Christian school, or book- 
room. The first native convert, a Telugu, was baptized by 
Mr. Bampton, at Berhampur, December 25, 1827. The first 
Oriya convert — Gunga Dhor, a high caste Brahmin — was 
baptized by Mr. Lacey, at Cuttack, March 23, 1828. The 
principal stations are : Cuttack, Pippli and Puri, Berhampur, 
and Sambalpur. 

The work of the Mission comprises services in English 
and Oriya, Sunday and Day Schools, Temperance work, the 
sale of pure religious literature, Itinerant Evangelistic work, 
Bible and Tract distribution, the conduct of an important 
Mission Press at Cuttack, training native converts for the 
Ministry, and the maintenance of two orphanages, one for 
males, the other for females. 



General Baptist Missio?iary Society. 



107 



The Orissa Press being a very special feature of this Mission, 
a short account of its establishment may not be out of place. 

* The first printing press was brought from England by the Rev. C. 
Lacey, who on his return from furlough arrived in Cuttack on the 1st 
March 1838. He states that on the arrival of the press several persons 
called to look at it, and appeared to view it as half a miracle. The Ji7'st 
tract printed was hastily composed for the Puri festival in June, 1838, 
and was entitled "The wonderful advantages of a pilgrimage to Jagan- 
nath." The evils of that pilgrimage are there detailed. Many of the 
tracts were circulated. On the establishment of the Press the Friend of 
India observed, " We have received a copy of a tract printed at Cuttack 
at a Press which the missionaries have this year established at that station. 
It is printed in the Oriya character, and for neatness of execution is not 
exceeded by any similar brochure which has issued from the metropolitan 
presses in Calcutta." 

' Dr. Sutton, the Superintendent, soon announced that one'press was not 
sufficient ; in about twelve months' time another one was secured, and the 
Report of 1839-40 says, " The two presses have been kept in full employ 
during the past year." In 1863, 1869, and 1876, respectively, new 
presses were obtained and a Wharfedale printing machine in 1884. The 
Press was originally carried on jn the present College building, but 
about 1846 the Press building was erected; in 1863 it was re-roofed and 
additional rooms made ; in 1873 a- wing on the left was added, and in 1875 
another on the right. At the present time the building is much too 
small. Since the establishment of the Press the Government Acts and 
Bills in Oriya have been printed here, and also the Government Oriya 
Gazette, which was started in 185 1.' 

More than 2,000,000 copies of the Scriptures, tracts and 
religious books have been published by the Press since its 
estabhshment. 



SUMMARY. 
Licome for 1888, £,^^^0"] is. 4^. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. c^u„ Native 

(Approxi- ^^Jf , Contri- 

mate.) | ^^^^- j butions. 


Orissal 
(India)/ 


1822 


18 


Or- 
dained. 

9 


Fe- 
male, 

8 


Or- 
dained. 

22 


Fe- 
male. 

12 


3,816 


1.344 


25 1,330 


£10 



Magazine : — The Missionary Observer. Monthly. 



( i<^8 ) 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH MISSIONS. 

ESTABLISHED 1 82 I. 

This Church had its origin in a secession from the Established 
Church of Scotland in 1733, and was at that time and for long 
known as the ' Secession Church.' Another secession took place 
in 1 7 61, those seceding at that time being called the 'Relief 
Church.' These were united in 1847, and the Church has 
been known since as the ' United Presbyterian Church.' 

Early in this century two Missionary Societies were formed 
— the Scottish Missionary Society, for the purpose of sending 
missionaries to the West Indies, and the Glasgow Missionary 
Society, for the purpose of sending missionaries to South Africa. 
A large number of the missionaries connected with these two 
Societies were ministers of the Secession and Relief Churches. 

Jamaica and Trinidad. — The first missionaries sent to 
Jamaica by the Scottish Missionary Society were the Revs. 
George Blyth, James Watson, Hope M. Waddell, John Cowan, 
and John Simpson, while in 1835 the Revs. James Paterson 
and William Niven were sent out by the Secession Church. 
These brethren were formed into the Jamaica Presbytery in 
1836; and in 1847 the United Presbyterian Church took over 
the whole Presbyterian Mission in Jamaica. The Mission has 
steadily grown from year to year, until now there are 46 con- 
gregations, and a number of out-stations, with a membership 
of 8,814 ill full communion, an attendance of 8,000 at the 
Sabbath-schools, and 6,213 ^^ the day-schools. The congrega- 
tions are now divided into four Presbyteries, and together form 
a Synod, which meets once a year. Substantial churches have 
been built at all the principal stations and dwelling-houses for 
the pastors. A thoroughly equipped Theological College for 
the training of a Native ministry has been established at 
Kingston, presided over by the Rev. Alexander Robb, D.D. 
The Church in Jamaica supports two missionaries in Old 
Calabar, and one Zenana agent in Rajputana. 



Old Calabar: Kaffraria. 109 

The first missionary to Trinidad was the Rev. Alexander 
Kennedy, who was sent out in 1835. In this island there are 
now three congregations, two of which are under the charge of 
European pastors, and one under the charge of a pastor who is 
a native of Jamaica ; while Mission work is carried on among 
the Coolies. 

Old Calabar. — The Mission here was begun in 1846. 
The Rev. Hope M. Waddell, one of the Jamaica missionaries, 
with several teachers, went, at the request of the Jamaica 
Church, and with the sanction of the mother church in 
Scotland, to carry the Gospel to West Africa. He was followed 
some time afterwards by the Rev. Wm. Jameson, the Rev. Wm. 
Anderson and the Rev. Hugh Goldie, the first of whom died 
very soon after his arrival in Africa, while the other two are 
still at work. Ignorance, superstition, and cruelty everywhere 
prevailed. But in the face of innumerable difficulties and 
dangers the work has been steadily carried on. The language 
has been reduced by the missionaries to written form, and a 
dictionary and grammar prepared. The Old and New 
Testaments have been translated, and also other books, such 
as Pilgn7}is Progress^ the Holy JVar, and numerous tracts and 
school books. Many of the old barbarous customs have been 
abandoned, and a new life has been infused into the community. 
In 1853 the first two converts were baptized, one of whom is 
now a native pastor, and the other was the eldest son of the 
king. Now there are six congregations, — at Duke Town, 
Creek Town, Ihorofiong, Ikunetu, Adiabo,— while new stations 
have been opened at Ikotana, Unwana and Emooramoora. 
These are under the charge of 10 ordained pastors, who are 
aided by 7 lady agents and a large number of native evangelists 
and teachers. Five of the pastors are Europeans, including 
the veterans already named, Messrs Anderson and Goldie ; 
two are natives of Jamaica, and two are natives of Calabar. 
A printing press is at work, and a steamer has been provided 
for making journeys into the interior. It is expected that 
other stations will soon be opened further into the interior. 

Kaffraria. — This Mission, which was begun by the Glasgow 
Missionary Society, was divided in two in 1837, one section 



no United Presbyterian Church Missions. 

joining the Free Church in 1844, and the other joining the 
United Presbyterian Church in 1847. Notwithstanding the 
wars that have ravaged that land, the work of the Mission has 
been steadily carried on. The first missionary was the Rev. 
AVilliam Clialmers. Tiyo Soga, a son of one of Gaika's chief 
councillors, was trained under Mr. Chalmers, and having 
completed his education in Scotland, was ordained as a native 
missionary, but after a brilliant career died at the early age of 
forty-four. The Mission now consists of 4 congregations in the 
Colonial district, and 7 congregations in the Transkei. The 
number of European missionaries is 11, one of whom is the 
Rev. Dr. W. A. Soga, the eldest son of Tiyo Soga. 

India. — After the Mutiny of 1857, the United Presbyterian 
Church resolved to begin missionary work in India. Careful 
inquiry was made as to a suitable sphere, and Rajputana, a 
region in the centre of North- Western India, with a population 
of 11,000,000, was selected. The Rev. Williamson Shoolbred 
(now Dr. Shoolbred) was sent out as the first missionary, and 
he began his work at Beawar in i860. Other agents followed, 
and stations were opened in rapid succession at Nusseerabad 
(1861), Ajmere (1862), Todgarh (1863), Jaipur {or Jeypore) 
(1866), DeoH (187 1), Oodeypore (1877), Alwar (or Ulwar) 
(1880), and Jodhpur (1885). During the great famine of 1869^ 
two of the missionaries, the brothers William and Gavin Martin, 
devoted themselves with self-sacrificing energy to the help of the 
sick and dying, and specially to the gathering in of hundreds of 
orphans who were left in destitution. This had a marvellous 
eftect upon the people, and gave the missionaries generally 
a firm place in their confidence. The two brothers, first 
Gavin, and then a few years afterwards WiUiam, were removed 
by death when in the very midst of their usefulness, but their 
memory is still a power throughout Rajputana. A large staff 
of workers are now in the field. Two of the pastors are natives 
settled over the congregations at Beawar and Nusseerabad, and 
several of the converts have been licensed as preachers of the 
Gospel. A Mission press is successfully at work at Ajmere. 

China. — Manchuria. — Some Mission work was carried on 
by this Church at Ningpo by means of a medical missionary 
from 1862 to 1870^ when a station was opened at Chefoo, 

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112 United Presbyterian Church Missions, 

under the Rev. Dr. Alexander Williamson. In 1873 work 
was begun in Manchuria by the Rev. John Ross and the Rev. 
John Macintyre, and in 1885 the whole Mission was trans- 
ferred to Manchuria, Dr. Williamson alone remaining in China 
proper, and devoting himself to the preparation of Christian 
literature for the Chinese. The Manchuria Mission has been 
very successful. Stations have been opened at Neu-chwang, 
Hai-ching, Liao-yong, Mookden, and Tieling. It is hoped that 
new stations will soon be opened, and that an advance will be 
made into Korea, for which preparation has already been laid 
in Mr. Ross's translation of the New Testament into Korean. 

Japan. — When Japan was opened up in 1863, the United 
Presbyterian Church sent several missionaries to engage in the 
work there. They united shortly afterwards with the mission- 
aries of the American Presbyterian Church (North), and the 
(Dutch) Reformed Church in forming the Union Church of 
Japan. This united Church has now 58 organized congrega- 
tions, with a membership of 6,859. The work of the 
missionaries has been much blessed lately, the membership 
of the churches under their care having considerably increased, 
while other signs of progress have not been wanting. The 
development of self-support in the Japan Mission is very 
noticeable ; wherever a congregation has been formed, its 
desire is to have a native pastor of its own, whom it strives to 
support. The work of the Christian Church in Japan will 
soon be very largely in the hands of the Japanese themselves. 



( 113 ) 



BIBLE CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

FOUNDED, 1821; EXTENDED TO CHINA, 1885. 

Income^ ;^7,094 5^". 10^. 

This Society was formed in 182 1, for the purpose of sending 
missionaries into dark and destitute parts of the United 
Kingdom, and other countries. 

In 1 83 1 two missionaries were sent to North America, one 
to Canada West, and the other to Prince Edward Island. The 
Mission became prosperous and extensive, and the members 
numbered about 7,000 when the Union of all the Methodist 
Churches in the Dominion was effected in 1883. 

In 1850 two missionaries, Messrs. James Way and James 
Rowe, were sent to South Australia, followed by others to 
Victoria, to Queensland and New Zealand. As the stations 
became self-supporting they were removed from the list of Mis- 
sions to the list of independent circuits. Several of the most 
prosperous circuits were once Home Mission Stations. 

In 1885 it was decided to send two missionaries to China, 
under the auspices of the China Inland Mission, and a special 
fund was inaugurated to meet the expense, which has been 
liberally supported. Six missionaries are labouring in the 
province of Yun-nan, three in the capital, Yun-nan, and three 
in the city of Chan-fung-foo. The progress of the work 
is very cheering. A ten days' mission recently held in 
the capital has resulted in the conversion of many of the 
Chinese to Christ. A native church has been instituted, and 
a school for boys commenced with most encouraging prospects. 

In China the stations occupied are : — Yun-nan (Revs. T. G. 
Vanstone, S. Pollard, and Mrs. Vanstone), and Chan-fung-foo 
(Revs. S. T. Thorne, F. J. Dymond, and Mrs. Thome). 



( "4 ) 



METHODIST NEW CONNEXION MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY. 

FORMED, 1824; EXTENDED TO THE HEATHEN, 1859. 

At the Conference of the Methodist New Connexion held in 
1824 a resolution was passed to the effect that, 'Sincerely 
deploring the ignorance, superstition and misery prevalent in 
Ireland, an effort be made to diffuse the blessings of Pro- 
testant Christianity in that island.' The plan was developed 
at the Conference of 1825, since which time an important 
and useful mission has been conducted in Ireland, with its 
headquarters in Belfast. In 1837 a mission was opened in 
Canada by the Rev. John Addyman, who was afterwards 
joined by the Rev. H. O. Crofts, D.D. ; and the field has 
been cultivated with such success that the work from 1874 has 
been self-supporting, the Connexion being thus set free for 
labours in the heathen world. 

Already, in 1859, it had been resolved to seek an entrance 
into China, and the Revs. J. Innocent and W. N. Hall were 
sent forth to seek a suitable opening. After looking about for 
some time, they settled in Tien-tsin, then virgin mission ground, 
but since then adopted as the headquarters of several Societies. 
They were greatly blessed in their labours, and were able to 
rejoice in numerous converts, some of them very remarkable 
characters. After some years spent in earnest labour in Tien- 
tsin, a remarkable work of grace appeared in the northern part 
of the Shan-tung province, through the instrumentality of an 
old man who had been arrested by the message of the Gospel 
in Tien-tsin, and who carried the news to his native village. 
Agents were sent down to the scene of this revival, and 
upwards of fifty churches are now scattered over an area of 
300 miles round the village, which is the headquarters of the 
Mission. An opening also has been effected for mission-work 
in the neighbourhood of the Tang collieries at Kai-ping, in 
the north of the province of Pe-chi-li. The Mission has a 



China : Australia. 115 

training college in Tien-tsin for the education of young men 
for the ministry, also a church where English service is held 
for the foreign residents, besides parsonages and three chapels 
in the streets of the city. It has a medical mission in Choo- 
kia, Shan-tung, and has recently built an institution in 
Tien-tsin for the training of Chinese girls and Bible women. 
It is taking steps also to build a hospital for 24 in-patients in 
connection with the medical work carried on in Shan-tung. 

In 1862 a mission was estabUshed in Australia, with head- 
quarters in Adelaide and Melbourne. Under the conviction 
that the necessities of China and other heathen lands demanded 
help rather than colonial cities now well able to sustain the 
Gospel themselves, the Conference of 1887 resolved to with- 
draw further financial aid from Australia, so as to have more 
funds to spend on more needy spheres. 



SUMMARY. 

Income^ 1887-8, ;^6,o84 3^*. ^d} 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 

Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


China . 


1859 


52 


Or- Lay. 
dained. 
6 2 


Lay. 

46 


Fe- 
male. 
3 


2,64s 


1.245 


6 


187 


195 



1 Including the sums spent in Ireland. The Mission in Canada in 1874 united 
with the various other Methodist bodies in the Dominion, and thus was formed ' The 
Methodist Church of Canada.' 

Magazine : — Gleanings in Harvest Fields^ Monthly. 



I 2 



( 1x6 ) 



CHURCH OF SCOTLAND FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY. 

The entrance of Scotland on the mission-field is not quite so 
late as is generally supposed. 'In 1699/ says Dr Charteris in 
the St. Giles' Lectures, first series, ' the General Assembly 
" missioned " four ministers to accompany the ill-fated Darien 
expedition, not only to labour among the Scotch settlers, but 
also for the conversion of the natives, and in 1700 touchingly 
encouraged them.' In 1709 the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge was incorporated, at the instance of the 
General Assembly. David Brainerd was its missionary to the 
North American Indians in 1743, and John Martin was sent 
by it to the Cherokee Indians. 

In 1818, Dr. Inglis began to plead in Scotland for Missions 
to the heathen. A few years later, in 1823, Dr. Bryce, then 
one of the East India chaplains, sent home a memorial from 
Calcutta, urging entrance on the work. In 1825, the General 
Assembly, on the motion of Dr. Inglis, appointed its first 
Foreign Mission Committee. The Committee consisted of 
Drs. Brunton, Chalmers, Dickson, Gordon, Grant, Hunter, 
Inglis, Muir, Paul and Ritchie. The names are here mentioned 
in order that those who know the history of the Church of 
Scotland two generations ago may perceive that its Foreign 
Missions did not originate with any one party in the Church. 

Only 59 parishes and 16 chapels responded to the first 
appeal for a collection. But improvement began when in 1829 
Dr. Duff went forth as the Church's first missionary to India. 
Aided by other labourers he served the Missions of the Church 
of Scotland for 13 years. His aim was to raise up a native 
ministry, and the missionaries accordingly resolved that educa- 
tional seminaries of the highest character should be opened in 
the great centres of population. Though they did not know it, 
they were shaping the educational future of India. Moreover, 
the Scottish Educational Missions conferred an inestimable 



India. 117 

benefit on all future Missions in India, by taking measures that 
the inevitable shock to the old faiths, arising from contact 
with Western thought, should impel the educated classes towards 
Christ, and not towards unbehef. 

In 1843, tl"'^ missionaries, one lady missionary excepted, 
joined the Free Church. The Church of Scotland has never 
grudged the Free Church of Scotland her great advantage of 
beginning her career with a Mission (except the buildings) and 
a Mission staff ready to her hand. The Free Church has felt 
the stimulus ever since, and the blessing to India has been 
large. The Missions of the Church of Scotland were speedily 
reorganised, and new stations have gradually been added, both 
in India, and at later dates in Africa and China. 

The Fields Occupied. 

Calcutta. — Mission founded in 1830. Staff: 4 ordained 
European missionaries, i ordained native minister, i native 
licentiate, 3 native catechists, 4 Christian teachers or Scripture- 
readers and I colporteur. In the Missionary Institution (the 
Rev. Wm. Smith, M.A., Principal), while the best secular 
education is given, qualifying for the University examinations, 
religious instruction both in Bengali and English is carefully 
attended to. There are 487 in the college department, and 
552 in the school, together 1,039. Evangelistic work is carried 
on both in Calcutta and at the sub-stations of Mattiabrooz 
and Samnagar. The native Christians number 153, of whom 
7 1 are communicants. 

The Three Missions of the Darjeeling District. — Great 
blessing has rested on this threefold Mission. There are now 
upwards of 1,000 native Christians (by the last report 993), of 
whom about 320 are communicants. There is a monthly 
mission newspaper in the vernacular, the Masik Patrika ; and 
the magazine Life and Work circulates with an English local 
supplement, linking the European residents with the Mission. 
Both European and native Christians contribute liberally to 
Missions. The particulars of the Threefold Mission are as 
follows : — 

I. Darjeeling Division. — Mission founded 1870. The Rev. 
A. Turnbull, B.D., has under him 13 native catechists in 



ii8 Church of Scotland Foreign Missions. 

charge of churches and districts, 14 Christian teachers, 2 native 
doctors, and i colporteur. There are 419 baptized native 
Christians in 9 stations. There are 18 day schools, with 739 
scholars, and Sunday-schools, Bible-classes, and prayer-meetings 
all over the district. 

2. Kalimpong Division. — Mission founded 1870. This 
Mission is now supported by the Church of Scotland Young 
Men's Guild. Their first missionary, the Rev. John A. 
Graham, M.A., has just gone to India (February 1889). 
He has under him 5 native catechists, 9 Christian teachers, 7 
Christian pupil-teachers, and i colporteur. There are 535 
baptized native Christians in 4 stations. There are 9 day- 
schools, with 281 scholars, and Sunday-schools, Bible-classes, 
and prayer-meetings. 

3. Scottish Universities' Mission. — Founded 1886. The 
field is Independent Sikhim. The Training Institution is at 
Kalimpong. The Mission is supported by the Missionary 
Associations of the four Scottish Universities. The Rev. W. 
S. Sutherland, M.A., has under him i catechistand 5 Christian 
teachers. The Institution has 2)^ students. There are 2 
schools in Independent Sikhim. The native church has 
39 baptized Christians. 

Madras. — Mission founded 1836. Sub-stations at Vellore 
and Arkonafn. Staff at all the Madras stations : 2 ordained and 
2 unordained Europeans, 2 native ministers, i native licentiate, 
26 catechists and Christian teachers. The Madras Mis- 
sionary Institution is now a second-grade college, with an 
attendance of 634, and there are 541 scholars at Arkonam, and 
398 in the Vellore schools. There are 371 baptized native 
Christians, of whom 155 are communicants. 

Bombay. — Mission founded 1823, transferred to Church of 
Scotland 1835. Staff: 2 European missionaries, one of them 
ordained, and 2 catechists. The Missionary Institution has an 
attendance of 276 ; and there are 45 baptized native Christians, 
of whom 19 are communicants. 

Punjab. — Mission founded 1857. This Mission has 3 
stations: (i) *S/^/^'^/ and district ; (2) Gujrat 2.vA Wazirabad \ 
(3) Chafnba. Staff: 3 ordained Europeans, i medical 

{Continued on p. 120, 





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120 Church of Scotland Foreign Missions. 

European missionary, 3 native pastors, more than 45 catechists 
and Christian teachers. There are 1,670 scholars. There has 
been great blessing on this Mission lately, specially around 
Sialkot. Twelve hundred have been baptized from heathenism 
in the last two years. At last Report there were 1,380 baptized 
Christians, but this number has since been much increased. 
So many are recent Christians that as yet only 144 have been 
reported as communicants. 

East Central Africa. — Mission founded 1874. Principal 
station, Blantyre, Other stations, Do7?iasi and Chiraziilo. 
Staff: 3 ordained European missionaries, 2 medical European 
missionaries, i lady missionary ; other 6 unordained Europeans, 
of whom 2 are teachers, one is a general agent, and 3 are 
artisans. There are about 6 Christian native teachers, and 
about 300 scholars. There is a native church at Blantyre. It 
is hoped that some of the young men who have been baptized 
will hereafter be ordained missionaries. All the stations are 
elevated, and, for Central Africa, healthy ; and the whole 
Mission is full of promise. But, in common with the other 
Missions of the region, it is at present beset with trials and 
dangers ; on the one hand, from the Arab invaders — cruel and 
treacherous Mahommedans — whose aim is to expel the white 
men, and hold the land as a preserve for slave-hunting ; on the 
other hand, from the Portuguese, who threaten to annex 
Blantyre and Nyassaland. 

China. — Mission at /(://^;/§- founded 1878. Staff : 2 ordained 
Europeans, i European medical missionary, 5 Christian native 
teachers, &c. But the Mission has just been weakened by the 
illness of the medical missionary, and the deaths of 2 of the 
native agents. There is a native church with 28 communicants. 

No part of the staff, work, or revenue of the Church of 
Scotland Ladies' Association for Foreign Missions is included 
in this account. For a full view of the Church's Missions to the 
heathen it is therefore necessary to add the statistics at page 182. 

Magazines : —The Mission Record^ Morning Rays^ Monthly. 



( 121 ) 



UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCHES HOME 
AND FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1 837. 

Previous to the amalgamation of the Wesleyan Association 
with certain churches of the Wesleyan Reformers in 1857, the 
former had commenced Foreign Missionary operations in 
Jamaica and our Australian colonies. 

Within a few years after the union of the said churches, 
Missions were commenced in New Zealand, East and West 
Africa, and China. 

The Rev. Thos. Pennock, ex-Wesleyan Minister, of Jamaica, 
with certain churches under his care, desired to be united 
with the Wesleyan Association churches, and they were 
received into the Connexion. In January 1838, the first 
ministers (the Revs. J. Blythman and J. Parkin) were sent to 
Jamaica, and were present at the time of the liberation of the 
people from slavery. The increase in Church membership 
since that period has been most gratifying, while upwards of 
two thousand boys and girls attend the day-schools. 

The Australian Mission was commenced in or about the 
year 1849 by the Rev. J. Townend. 

There are now in Australia 33 ordained ministers, assisted 
by 88 lay-workers, the communicants numbering 2,324, with 
4,767 scholars in 72 Sunday and day-schools. In New 
Zealand, also, entered in 1864 by the Rev. J. Tyerman, there 
are 11 ordained ministers, with 37 lay assistants, 946 Church 
members, and 2,503 scholars in 22 schools. 

West Africa. — A body of Christians in Sierra Leone were 
received into the Connexion in 1859, and the Rev. Joseph 
New was sent as a Connexional Minister, and afterwards, in 
addition, the Rev. Charles Worboys. Mr. New died from 



122 United Methodist Free Churches Missions. 

fever, after a brief but profitable ministry. Mr. Worboys had 
to return to England through failure in health. The names of 
the Revs. J. S. Potts, W. Micklethwaite, S. Walmsley, T. H. 
Carthew, and T. Truscott, stand honourably connected with 
the history of our Sierra Leone Churches. 

Two native young men, Messrs. Nicholl and Thompson, have 
entered our Ministerial Institute as students, with the hope 
that an inteUigent native ministry may be created. 

The climate of Sierra Leone, so unfavourable to Europeans, 
necessitates the temporary or final retirement of brethren after 
comparatively brief periods of service. 

New houses of prayer are now being erected to replace 
others no longer safe to worship in. 

East Africa. — To the late Charles Cheetham, Esq., of 
He)^ood, we are chiefly indebted for the commencement of 
our operations in East Africa. Deeply impressed by a work 
written by Dr. Krapf, of Germany, he sought an interview 
with him, and as the result, the doctor consented to conduct a 
small band of brethren to East Africa, and select for them a 
locality in which to begin their work. Two brethren, the Revs. 
Thomas Wakefield and James Woolner, were selected, and two 
young men from Switzerland accompanied them. They left 
for Africa in 1861. 

After a veiy brief period, the Rev. Thomas Wakefield was 
left alone. Dr. Krapf 's and Mr. Woolner's health failed them, 
and the two Swiss returned home. The Rev. Charles New left 
England for the Mission in December 1862. For several years 
the brethren AVakefield and New toiled on, amid many dangers 
and suffering many privations. Mr. Wakefield visited England 
in 1868, Mr. New in 1872. The fervent, deeply interesting, 
and eloquent addresses to our Home Churches of these two 
brethren raised a fine spirit of missionary enthusiasm, and 
created a strong affection for our East African Mission. 

Mr. New returned to the work in 1874, intending, if possible, 
to open a new mission. He was treated, however, with great 
cruelty by a savage chief, and attempted to return to Ribe, but 
died on the journey. No white brother or sister was near him 
in his last moments. Mr. Wakefield went with the purpose 
of meeting him, and ministering to his necessities; but ere 
he reached the place the spirit of brave Charles New had 



East Africa : Chiiia. 123 

departed. He was a man of great enterprise, arduous labour, 
and self-sacrifice — one of those who enrich communities by 
their words and deeds. 

Mr. Wakefield continued his labours until 1887. He has 
done, by the blessing of God, a good and lasting work. 
Portions of the sacred Scriptures and hymns have been 
translated into the language of the people. Useful arts have 
been taught by him and his colleagues. New Mission premises 
have been erected at Jomvu, Golbanti, and Duruma, involving 
an outlay of ;£"2,ooo. 

A coloured minister from West Africa, the Rev. W. H. 
During, was added to the staff in 1886, and continues con- 
nected therewith. He has proved himself to be a most trust- 
worthy agent of the Society. 

In 1886 the Revs. John Baxter and John Houghton joined 
the Mission. Mr. Baxter returned home broken down in 
health after a brief period of labour. We regret his loss to the 
Mission. Mr. Houghton and his wife, with many of the native 
converts, were massacred at Golbanti. This dreadful tragedy 
most painfully affected our home churches, but it was resolved 
to persevere with the work. 

The establishment of a Mission to the Gallas has been a 
long and cherished desire of the Rev. T. Wakefield, with which 
our committee and contributors have strongly sympathized. 

The pioneer work is and will be costly, but the object is 
worthy all our effort and all our sacrifice. 

China. — Our Mission in China was commenced in 1864, at 
Ningpo, by the Rev. W. R. Fuller. He was joined, after a 
short time, by the Rev. John Mara. 

The Rev. F. W. Galpin arrived in China in 1868, and has 
continued his valuable services to this date. In 1869 Mr. 
Galpin was left alone, but in 187 1 the Rev. Robert Swallow 
was appointed as his colleague. 

A third missionary being desired, Mr. R. I. Exley, of Leeds, 
was appointed, but in a very few years he was cut off by 
consumption. 

Mr. Galpin visited England in 1887. His accounts of the 
moral necessities of China, and the progress of the work in 
that empire, greatly interested the audiences he addressed, and 
induced the missionary committee to resolve upon the opening 



124 



United Methodist Free Churches Missions. 



of a new Mission at Wan-chow, Mr. W. S. Soothill, as the 
successor of Mr. Exley, being selected as its minister. 

The prejudice created in the minds of the Chinese by the 
war with France led to extensive rioting at Wan-chow, in the 
midst of which our own and other Mission premises were 
destroyed. The Chinese Government, to their credit, made 
full compensation. New and more extensive premises were 
erected, and the work of the Mission was resumed. 

Mr. Swallow visited England, with his family, in 1886, and 
received a very hearty welcome. His visit was attended with 
benefit to the Mission cause. After a time, and having passed 
through certain medical studies, he and Mrs. Swallow returned 
to their scene of labour. 

All the brethren are faithfully discharging their duties, and 
Mr. Swallow's medical work is affording him increased facilities 
for evangelistic labours. 



SUMMARY. 

Income^ 1887-8, ;£"2 1,028 os. Sd, 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered, 
A.D. 


No. of 
Stations 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Sunday 
Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


China . . . 
East Africa. . 
West Africa . 
Jamaica . . 


1864 
1861 
1859 
1838 


3 

6 
6 
10 


Ordained. 
3 

4 

5 
9 


Lay. 
10 

14 
89 

53 


329 

209 

2,729 

3.403 


4 
5 
10 

31 


72 

176 

1.373 

2,172 


39 

24 

1,046 

1,187 


Totals 


25 


21 


166 


6,670 


50 


3.793 


2,296 





1 This total includes the sums expended in the colonies of Australia and New Zealand, 
well as in heathen lands and in Jamaica. 



Magazine : — Missionary Notices, Quarterly. 



( 125 ) 



FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE IRISH 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

ESTABLISHED 1840. 

In July 1840 'the Synod of Ulster' and 'the Secession 
Synod' became united under the name of ^ the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.' The first 
act of this new Assembly was the setting apart of its first 
missionaries to India. The Rev. Dr. Wijson, of Bombay, had 
suggested to the Irish Church the propriety of their taking up 
Mission work in the province of Gujarat. This suggestion 
was accepted. The Rev. James Glasgow, who is still living, 
and the Rev. Alexander Kerr, were the first missionaries ; and 
in 1842 they were followed by four others, two of them being 
Rev. Robert Montgomery and Rev. James McKee. These 
missionaries began work, not in Gujarat proper, but in the 
adjoining peninsula of Kathiawar. Their first stations were 
Rajkot, Porbandar, and Gogo. Inside the first ten years 
Surat was also taken possession of. This is a large town, of 
more than 109,000 inhabitants. The London Missionary 
Society had been working there since 1815 ; but, feehng the 
isolation of their Gujarat Mission, they transferred the work to 
the Irish Church in 1846. Surat is one of the chief centres of 
the Parsi population. 

The first baptism took place in Porbandar ; Abdur Rahman, 
the Moonshi, or Mussulman teacher, was baptized on the 
8th of October, 1843. He was the ' man of knowledge ' of the 
whole region, and his baptism made a deep impression. At 
the time of his baptism his confession was as follows : ' Jesus 
is mine, and I am His ; and He knows my heart' 

In the first ten years there were only 2 1 baptisms. But the 
Word of God had been preached far and near, and a large 
portion of the Bible had been translated into the Gujarati 
tongue. During the second decade the work was much ex- 
tended. Ahmadabad, the largest city of the province, with 
a population of about 127,000, was now attacked, though 
formal possession of it was not taken until the year 1863. In 
i860 the London Missionary Society put into our hands their 



126 Foreign Missions of the Irish Presbyterian Church. 

work also in the Kaira district, and gave over to the Irish 
Church their premises in Borsad. Already a very interest- 
ing work had begun amongst the Dhers there. When the 
first of these Dhers, or outcasts, was admitted into the 
Church, the Christians of caste immediately withdrew, and 
only six of them returned. It was a terrible ordeal for the 
Mission to pass through ; but it was passed successfully. 

In the third decade the growth was much more rapid. 
Borsad became a great centre of Christian work. Nor was 
the Church there recruited from the Dhers only; many 
Dharalas, Patidars, and other caste people became Christians. 
The town of Anand, in the same district^ was taken possession 
of. Quite a number of churches were built throughout the 
district, and in Borsad at present there are 440 baptized persons, 
and 87 communicants. The total Christian community of the 
place amounts to 652, while in Anand the numbers are 689. 

The total numbers in connection with this Mission in India, 
according to the reports at the end of 1887, were as follows : 
baptized persons, 1,544; communicants, 315; total Christian 
community, 2,158. 

A number of other things may be mentioned briefly about 
this work in Gujarat. Six agricultural villages have been 
formed ; several thousand acres of land have been granted on 
easy terms by the Government ; ' and there has grown, and is 
growing up in them, a population of robust and independent 
Christian farmers.' 

The Orphanages of the Mission give shelter and education 
to 96 children. There is a very vigorous Gujarat Tract and 
Book Society in connection with the Mission, which issued 
more than 4,250,000 pages of printed religious matter during 
the year. There are at present in connection with our Indian 
Mission 10 ordained missionaries, 2 superintendents of high 
schools, and 9 missionaries of the Female Association. The 
account of this Association is given in a separate section. 
There are also 21 native evangehsts, 6 colporteurs, and 52 
school teachers, who are all Christians. There are 813 
children in the high schools; and in the vernacular schools 
there are above 2,600. 

A very interesting stage in the history of this Gujarat 
Mission has now been reached. There is a number of native 
congregations each requiring the services of a pastor ; and 



China. 



127 



several of the native evangelists, who for years have been 
under the training of the missionaries, and working under 
their superintendence, are qualified to be settled over them. 
Two of these men have recently been licensed to preach the 
Gospel, and been ordained over native churches ; and before 
long it is expected there will be a number of self-supporting 
congregations, each with a native pastor of its own. 

In 1869 a Mission was begun to China by the Irish Pres- 
byterian Church. At present there are only three missionaries 
in the field, but as the year ends, a Medical Missionary is 
being appointed to assist them. They work in the province 
of Manchuria. Starting from the port of Neu-chwang, long 
journeys have been made over the regions away to the far 
north j and the missionaries are at present arranging for taking 
possession of some of the large towns in the interior. 

The income of the Foreign Mission for the year 1887-8 
was ;^ 13,054, including ;£"2,559 contributed in India, as well 
as the income of the Female Association. 



SUMMARY. 
Annual Inco7ne, ;£ 1 3 > o 5 4' ^ 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Central 
Stations. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


India (Gujarat) 
China (ManO 
churia) . ./ 


1840 
1869 


7 
3 


Or- 
dained. 
10 

3 


Lay. 
2 


Fe- 
male 

9 


Or- 

dained. 

2 


Lay. 

79 
9 


Female. 
12 (about). 


Totals . 




10 


13 


3 


9 


2 


^Z 


12 


Fields of Labour. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native Contributions. 


India (Gujarat) 

China (Man-'l 
churia) . ./ 


2,158 
65 


315 

28 


47 


3,449 


\£ I57j collections. 
\£ 885, school fees. 


Totals , 


2,223 


343 


47 


3,449 


;^i,042 (about). 



1 Including those of Female Association. 



( 128 ) 



FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE FREE CHURCH OF 
SCOTLAND. 

Free Church of Scotland organized May 1843. 

The foreign missionary enterprise of the Church of Scotland 
was begun in 1829; and in 1843, on the disruption of the 
Church, the fourteen Indian and six Jewish missionaries, with 
all the converts, passed over to the Free Church of Scotland, 
leaving the property and capital funds behind.^ The following 
account therefore goes back to an earlier period than that of 
the formation of the Free Church of Scotland. 

North-Eastern India, or Bengal. — On the 12th of 
August, 1829, Dr. Chalmers presided at the ordination of 
Alexander Duff, to be the first foreign missionary sent forth by 
the Church as such ; although in 1560 John Knox had pledged 
the Reformed Kirk to 'preche this glaid tydingis of the 
Kyngdome through the haill warld.' On the 13th of July, 
1830, the young missionary of twenty-four founded the great 
evangelizing institution which now bears his name, in the 
native quarter of Calcutta. In one year Dr. Duff made the 
nucleus of his institution, or combined school and college, a 
model for all others, whether those of Government committees 
of Public Instruction, independent Hindoo teachers, or Christian 
missionaries. Soon all the Protestant missionaries then in 
Bengal united in urging that it should be made the one 
central evangelizing institute for Eastern India. But the home 
Churches were too divided for a statesmanlike scheme of 
Christian catholicity, which Dr. Duff was able to see carried 
out only towards the end of his life, and that as yet only in 
Madras. Joined by Dr. W. S. Mackay, Dr. David Ewart, 
Rev. John Macdonald, and Dr. Thomas Smith, he then 
established a series of branch institutions and rural preaching 
^ See pp. 116, 117. 



India, i29 

Stations, within a radius of forty miles around Calcutta. The 
Mission centre is the Duff Missionary College. 

Of the Rural Missions, the most remarkable are the very 
fruitful Santal Mission, 200 miles to the north-west, and the 
Mahanad and Chinsurah Missions. 

Western India or Bombay. — In 1835 the second great 
Mission of the Church was taken over by the General Assembly 
from the old Scottish Missionary Society. The Rev. John 
Wilson, D.D., F.R.S., Mr. Nesbit, Mr. James Mitchell, and 
Rev. Dr. J. Murray Mitchell, were at its head, in Bombay 
and Poona. These, but especially Dr. Wilson, had been for 
years attempting the same work in Western as Dr. Duff had 
been beginning in Eastern India. While the necessities of 
Bengali society led the latter to fight for the use of English in 
teaching and preaching, the state of Bombay favoured the use 
also of the Oriental languages, both classical and vernacular. 
But the first effect of the transfer of the Bombay and Poona 
Missions in 1835 was to develop the English school at the 
former city into a missionary college, in which the first Parsees 
were won to Christ, of whom the Rev. Dhanjibhai Naoroji is 
still spared ; and of the educated Brahman s, the Rev. Narayan 
Sheshadri, D.D., still wins many souls to Christ. The condition 
of Parsee and Maratha society admitted of the early establish- 
ment of girls' schools by the missionaries' wives. From 
Bombay the Mission evangelized among the Jewish community, 
as well as among the Parsees, Hindoos, Mohammedans, and 
Africans. Its centre is the Wilson Missionary College, just 
transferred to a new and splendid edifice. 

South India, or Madras. — In 1837 the Rev. John Anderson, 
having been roused by Dr. Duffs speech in the General As- 
sembly two years before, founded the South India Mission, 
assisted by the Rev. R. Johnston and the Rev. J. Braidwood. 
There also a vigorous Christian Institution was developed out 
of a school ; and, as at Calcutta and Bombay, it soon bore such 
spiritual fruit as the late Rev. A. Venkataramiah and the Rev. 
P. Rajahgopaul, the latter of whom twice visited Scotland. 
Very soon large towns or centres of influence in the interior, 
both Tamil and Telugu-speaking, were supplied from Madras 
with preachers and teachers, especially Chengalpat and Nellore. 



130 Free Church of Scotland Foreign Missions, 

And in Southern, as in Western India, the weakness and variety 
of the castes allowed female education to begin early and 
spread extensively. Under the Rev. W. Miller, CLE., LL.D., 
the Institute has become the united Christian college for all 
South India. There are Medical Missions in Madras and 
Conjevaram. 

Central India, or Nagpur. — Although the Free Church 
of Scotland began with only £2>1^ ""^ its Foreign Mission 
treasury, its two earliest acts were to found a new enterprise 
in Central India, and to undertake a Kafir Mission in South 
Africa. In 1844 it sent to the then native state of Nagpur 
the Rev. Stephen Hislop, a man who, alike by his life and his 
death, was to prove worthy to be ranked with Duff, Wilson, and 
Anderson. Its centre is Hislop Missionary College. Bhandara 
(Medical Mission), Kamthi, and Sitabaldi are other stations. 

All the colleges are affiliated with the universities in India, 
and train Christian converts in divinity to be vernacular as 
well as English preaching missionaries and pastors of native 
congregations on the Presbyterian system. 

Kaffraria. — This Mission was transferred to the Free Church 
of Scotland in 1844 by the Glasgow Missionary Society. It 
had been in existence since 182 1, when there was only one 
other missionary in the whole country, Mr. Brownlee, of the 
London Society. The first missionaries were Messrs. Thomson 
and Bennie. In 1823 the Rev. John Ross began long and 
faithful services to the Church of Africa, which are perpetuated 
through his sons, the Revs. Bryce and Richard Ross. 

The Mission is now in two parts, the South Kafir and North 
Kafir, divided by the great Kei River. Lovedale Institution, at 
Alice, near King William's Town, is the centre of the former, 
evangelizing and industrial, under Rev. Dr. Stewart, M.D., who 
succeeded Rev. W. Govan. Blythswood Institution, under 
Rev. James M'Laren, M.A., is the centre of the latter, which 
stretches north on the main road to Natal as far as Tsolo, 
where Somerville station is placed. 

This Kafir Mission held its jubilee locally in 187 1, amid 
great rejoicings and thanksgivings to God on the part of two 
thousand natives and a thousand Europeans. The one station 
of Kafir huts has grown into ten great evangelistic centres, 



Natal ; East Central Africa. 131 

with seventy out-stations. These are under the oversight of 
fourteen ordained missionaries, of whom three are Kafirs, who 
are pastors of large congregations. 

Natal. — Dr. Duffs visit to South Africa resulted in the 
adoption, in 1867, of a Free Church Mission to the Zulu 
Kafirs. The late Rev. James Allison, who had proved a most 
successful missionary there, continued at its head, and it is 
now represented by Pietermaritzburg station, and by Impolweni, 
fourteen miles distant from that capital. An Institution, in- 
dustrial and educational, is being formed at Impolweni. In 
1874 the Dowager Countess of Aberdeen asked Dr. Duff 
to receive an endowment for the establishment and manage- 
ment of a Mission to bear the name of the Gordon 
Memorial. The Hon. J. H. Gordon, her son, had formed 
the desire to begin a Mission, but was suddenly removed 
by death. Hence a capital sum of ;^6,ooo was vested in 
a trust, consisting of three members of the noble Gordon 
family, and the Convener and two members of the Free 
Church Foreign Missions Committee. This was followed 
by gifts of ;£"4,5oo. The Rev. J. Dalzell, M.B., who was sent 
out, selected a site within a few miles of the frontier of Zulu- 
land. When schools and a native congregation had begun to 
be formed, war with Ketchawayo burst forth, and temporarily 
arrested operations. But peace has resulted in a further 
advance from the Gordon Memorial as a centre. 

East Central Africa. — In the lands around Lake Nyassa 
and half-way north to Lake Tanganyika the Livingstonia 
Mission of the Free Church of Scotland established a station 
at Dr. Livingstone's request, in 1875, the year after his death. 
The enterprise is managed in detail by a Sub-Committee in 
Glasgow, and its secular affairs by the African Lakes Company. 
The first settlement at Cape Maclear, at the south end of the 
lake, has grown into several, at Bandawe on the west shore and 
at Chikuse, N. Angoniland, Chirenji and Chinga on the uplands 
running northward. Since the Rev. Dr. Stewart founded 
the Mission, the Rev. Dr. Laws has conducted it, with several 
medical missionary colleagues, teachers and artizan-evangelists. 
James Stewart, C.E., the first engineer, who sacrificed his 
East India career and his life for the Mission, and others, like 

K 2 



t$2 Free Church of Scotlajid Foreign Missions 

Mrs. Cross, have followed him in the martyr-like sacrifice. 
The missionary work has gone on, notwithstanding the peril 
and loss.causedbyArab man-stealers and Portuguese obstruction. 

The New Hebrides. — Among the audience at Stranraer 
who heard Dr. Duff, in 1837, when preaching his first crusade 
through Scotland, was the late Professor W. Symington, of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church. Fired with new zeal, on 
the next New Year's day, old style, that minister laid the 
foundation of the Foreign Mission which, four years after, his 
Church sent out to the cannibals of New Zealand in 1842, 
and of the New Hebrides in 1852. In 1876 the union of 
the Free and the Reformed Presbyterian Churches brought 
the Mission, which had been in successful operation for a 
quarter of a century, directly under the Free Church. 

The New Hebrides Islands are independent, though coveted 
by the French from the adjoining penal settlement of New 
Caledonia. They are still redolent of associations with Captain 
Cook's visits. They are more terribly known from the murder 
of and hideous feast upon John Williams, the missionary martyr 
of Eromanga, in 1839, succeeded by the similar martyrdom of 
the Rev. Mr. Gordon and his wife in May 1861, and of his 
brother. Rev. J. D. Gordon, who heroically went to take his 
place in 1872. The whole Mission has a peculiar interest, as 
being conducted by nine Presbyterian Churches in harmonious 
co-operation, under a local synod. 

Syria : the Lebanon. — Since in 1839 M'Cheyne and Drs. 
Black, Keith, and A. Bonar were sent on a missionary expedition 
to the Holy Land, many Christians in Scotland have sought to 
evangelize the Jews and Mohammedans and the Eastern 
Christians there. Even before the massacres, when in i860 Lord 
Dufferin secured peace and good government for the Lebanon, 
a catholic agency was established in Scotland for the Christian 
education of its people, termed the Lebanon Schools Society.^ 
Dr. Duff and Principal Lumsden visited the mountain, and 
this resulted in the appointment, in 1872, of the late Rev. 
John Rae, M.A., as an ordained, and, in 1876, of the Rev. Dr. 
William Carslaw as a medical missionary. Of the many 
districts into which the Lebanon is divided; the Meten is 
* See page 207. 



South Arabia, 133 

that In which the Mission works, from Shweir, where a 
congregation of the Syrian EvangeUcal Church has been 
formed, and a church is being built. 

South Arabia : Shaikh Othman, near Aden. — In February 
1885 the Hon. Ion and Mrs. Keith-Falconer projected a Mission 
to the Mohammedans and Somalis around Aden. Having 
surveyed the protected tribes of the neighbourhood as far as El 
Hauta, capital of the Sultan of Lahej, they resolved to settle at 
Shaikh Othman, the well- watered British outpost and village, ten 
miles from Steamer Point. There the British Government has 
granted two plots of garden land for the settlement. They re- 
turned to England to secure a medical missionary, and in 
December 1886 they set out for the new Mission, accompanied 
by Dr. B. Stewart Cowen. The cost of the enterprise was met 
by its devoted volunteer founders. Mr. Keith-Falconer, being 
himself a member of the Free Church of Scotland, and son of 
the late Earl of Kintore, who was long an honoured elder of 
that Church, asked its Foreign Missions Committee to recognise 
him, and to appoint his medical colleague as its representative. 
This the Committee cordially did, and their action was 
confirmed by the General Assembly. But the Mission was in 
all essential respects as catholic in its organization as it is 
in its aims. 

In the first week of 1887 the Medical and Bible Mission 
was begun in Shaikh Othman, in a native house, with remark- 
able success. But on the morning of the i ith May, the beloved 
Ion Keith-Falconer was gently and suddenly taken to the 
Master's presence. The body of the pioneer missionary to 
Arabia was carried by the loving hands of British officers and 
soldiers (H.M. 98th) to the cemetery of Aden Camp. There 
he has taken possession of the land for Christ, as, six centuries 
ago, in the north of Africa, did the noble of Spain, Raymund 
Lully, whom, alike in sanctified learning and self-devotion. Ion 
Grant Neville Keith-Falconer resembled. 

The grateful people implored the Christian physician speedily 
to return. The Right Hon. the Countess-Dowager of Kintore 
and the Hon. Mrs. Keith-Falconer resolved each to guarantee 
£,2)^o a year, as the stipends of two missionaries. 

The staff now consists of the Rev. W. R. W. Gardner, M.A. 
ordained, Dr. Paterson, M.B., CM., medical, and Mr. M, 



134 Ff'^^^ Church of Scotland Foreign Missions. 

Lochhead, assistant missionary. Two Mission houses, with 
buildings for hospital and school purposes, have been erected. 
The Mission has adopted 52 rescued slaves from the Galla 
districts of Abyssinia, girls and boys. The Free Church of 
Scotland has raised ;£"i,2oo for these buildings, and ;^i,7oo 
as a Rescued Slaves Fund. 

Rev. Professor Lindsay, D.D., and Rev. J. Fairley Daly 
and Mrs. Daly are in 1888-9 visiting the Missions as deputies 
from Scotland. 

GENERAL VIEW. 

The Free Church of Scotland's Foreign Missions are thus 
consolidated in seven well-defined fields, and are extended 
among certain great races of marked individuality and influence, 
in the two continents of Asia and Africa. In and to the south 
of Asia the fields are — (i) India, and there especially the 
educated Brahmanical Hindoos, numbering seventeen millions, 
and the simple aboriginal demon-worshippers, numbering seven 
millions ; (2) Arabia, from Aden to Shaikh Othman as a base, 
for the Mohammedan Arabs of Lahej and the interior, and for 
the Abyssinians and Somalis from the opposite coast of Africa ; 
(3) the New Hebrides group of thirty islands in the Pacific 
Ocean to the south of Eastern Asia, containing eighty 
thousand cannibals of the Malay or Polynesian and Negrillo 
or Papuan races ; (4) Syria, where on Lebanon, twenty miles 
to the north-east of Beiroot, there is a medical and educational 
Mission to the quasi-Mohammedan Druses, and to the ignorant 
Christians of the Greek and Latin Churches. In Africa tlie 
Missions are at work among the three principal varieties of the 
great Bantu race of fetish-worshippers, termed by their Moham 
medan oppressors Kafirs. These varieties are — (i) the Kafirs 
of Cape Colony, with whom we ha.ve fought seven cruel wars, 
but who are now peaceful, because largely Christianized and 
civilized around the provincial capital of King William's Town. 
In this great work the United Presbyterian and Free Churches 
are practically, and will be corporately, united. (2) The Zulus 
of Natal are evangelized from Maritzburg, the capital ; from 
Impolweni estate, where an institution is being built like 
Lovedale for Kaffraria proper ; and from Gordon, on the 
borders of purely native Zululand. (3) The Kafir-Zulu tribes 



Fijiance. 135 

of Lake Nyassa region, farther north, are cared for by the 
Livingstonia Mission, under the Rev. R. Laws, M.D., who is a 
United Presbyterian missionary in the service of the Free 
Church of Scotland. 

In the year ending 31st of March, 1888, nearly ^^84,000 was 
raised for and spent upon these Missions, independently of that 
contributed for Missions to the Jews, the Continent of Europe, 
and the Colonies, which made the whole missionary revenue 
of the Free Church for Christ's cause abroad about ^101,000. 
The total cost of administering the ;£"84,ooo was under ^1,200, 
which is believed to be the lowest percentage of charge in the 
history of Missions, not a little voluntary service being done 
for the Master's sake and the Church's good. Three of the 
sources of this revenue are of peculiar interest, (i) The 
natives themselves contributed ;^i7,ii2 of it, partly for 
church and missionary purposes, and more largely as fees for 
school and college education ; Europeans on the spot contri- 
buted ^3,353 besides. (2) The Free Church having left the 
' voluntary ' question open, and its Missions being educational 
as well as preaching, its missionary teachers and professors 
qualify for grants-in-aid, as at home, and in this shape ^^13,053 
was received from the various governments of India and South 
Africa. (3) The most important single source of revenue, spirit- 
ually and financially, is the congregational, created by Dr. 
Duff before the Disruption of 1843, ^iid amounting last year 
to ;£"i 5,544. Dr. Duff's ideal was an association of all the 
communicants in every congregation for prayer and giving on 
behalf of Foreign Missions, and Dr. Chalmers tells us he 
himself was led by this plan to devise the organization of the 
Sustentation Fund. About three-fourths of the 1024 congrega- 
tions of the Church have such quarterly associations, the other 
fourth still adheres to the annual collection at the church door. 
These associations are the sheet anchor of the Church Missions, 
not only financially but spiritually. Through them the whole 
Church becomes missionary ; without them there is a fear that 
the Missions may be cared for by what will be virtually a society 
within the Church. This congregational revenue has steadily 
risen from ;£'4,374 to nearly fourfold. But not more than 
one-third of the whole communicants give for Foreign Missions, 
while, allowing for families and the very poor, the proportion 
should be two -thirds. The whole sum raised in Scotland 



136 Free Chiirch of Scotland Foreign Missions. 

alone by the Free Church for its Foreign Missions since 1843 is 
much above a milhon sterHng. But this is still the day of small 
things to the prayer of faith and labour of love. Like the 
other evangelical churches of Protestant Christendom, the 
Free Church has only begun to play its part in the world 
enterprise for which our Lord prayed the Father (John xvii. 
20-22), and which He committed to every disciple in al] ages. 

The mean annual increment of adult converts to the Free 
Church Missions is 500, or more than an average congregation 
in Scotland. Its whole staff of Christian agents is 644 strong, 
at 30 central and 166 branch stations. It has 64 ordained 
missionaries, of whom 16 are natives, 27 medical missionaries, 
58 European missionary teachers, of whom 34 are ladies, 
exclusive of 31 missionaries' wives, 12 European evangelists 
and artisans, 331 native teachers, male and female, 124 
catechists and colporteurs, 12 native divinity students, and 44 
Bible-women. The members of the Free Church of Scotland 
numbered 333,100 in 1887-8. The number of its ministers, 
exclusive of missionaries, was 11 30 at home and abroad, 
and of its divinity students in the three Colleges of Edinburgh, 
Glasgow and Aberdeen, 318, of whom 88 entered for the first 
of the four years' course of study, after the University course 
in Arts of three or four years. Of these by far the larger 
number held the degree of M.A. ; the others passed an entrance 
examination equivalent to the degree. From this source the 
Foreign Missions of the Free Church of Scotland drew nearly 
all their ordained missionaries. 

Magazines : — The Free Church ; Monthly. The Children's 
Record; Monthly. 





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( 138 ) 



WELSH CALVINISTIC METHODISTS' FOREIGN 
MISSIONARY SOCIETY.^ 

ESTABLISHED 1840. 

The Calvinistic Methodists of Wales began to take an interest 
in missionary work at the time when the London Missionary 
Society was estabUshed. They contributed hberally to its funds, 
and several of the most useful missionaries of that excellent 
Society were trained in their churches. But a desire had been 
growing for some years that the connexion should have a 
Mission of its own, and this ultimately led to the formation of 
the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Missionary Society, 
which was established in Liverpool on the 31st of January, 
1840. The field of its first operations was on the north-eastern 
frontier of Bengal, on the lofty range of mountains which 
separates the plains of Bengal from the valley of Assam. These 
mountains are inhabited by various hill-tribes, the Garos, the 
Khasis, the Jaintias, Nagas, &c. The British Government 
had, about 1834, made a treaty with the Siims (Kings) of Khasia^ 
by which a military station was to be established at Cherra 
Punji, and a road made across the Khasia Hills to the British 
territory in Assam. Soon after this treaty was made, Mr. Lish, 
one of the Serampur missionaries, came to Cherra with the 
intention of carrying on missionary operations, but did not 
remain long. In February 1837, the Rev. J. Tomlin went to 
Khasia, hoping to work his way, in that direction, to the 
southern part of China ; but after a residence of a few months 
on the Hills he returned to England. When the Welsh Foreign 
Mission was established in 1840, Mr. Tomlin called the atten- 
tion of the Directors to Khasia as a promising field, and 
strongly advised them to take possession of it. His advice was 
followed, and the first missionary of the Society, the Rev. 
Thomas Jones, of Berriew, Montgomeiyshire, left Liverpool for 
the Khasia Hills on the 25th of November, 1840, arriving at 
Cherra Punji on the 22nd of June, 1841. He devoted him- 



India, 139 

self at once to acquiring the language of the people, and, as 
they had no literature or books, the task was not an easy one. 
He received some assistance from two young men who had 
learnt a little English from Mr. Lish, the Baptist missionary 
to whom we have referred. In May 1842 other missionaries 
were ordained, the Revs. W. Lewis, Dr. Owen Richards, and 
James Williams. Mr. Williams was appointed to commence 
missionary work among the Bretons in the western part of 
France, where he and Mrs. Williams continued to labour until 
1869. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, together with Dr. Richards, a 
medical missionary, went to Khasia, and arrived at Cherra 
Punji onj the 2nd of January, 1843. After labouring for 
eighteen years on the Khasia Hills, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis returned 
to this country in May 1861. In September 1845 another 
missionary, the Rev. Daniel Jones, of Cilcen, Flintshire, went 
out to strengthen the small band of workers ; but he died in a 
few months after reaching the field. Other workers followed, 
the Revs. W. Pryse, T. Jones, R. Parry, D. Sykes, G. Hughes, 
and H. Roberts. But at times, owing to various circumstances, 
defection, illness, and death, only one or two men were left to 
carry on the work. There are now eight missionaries in the 
field. The progress for some years was but slow and small, 
if reckoned by the number of converts. We have no statistics 
for the year 185 1, which closed the first decade of mission 
work on the Hills ; but we find that at the end of 1850 there 
was one church with fourteen communicants and six candidates. 
The congregation at Nongsawlia — the mission-station near 
Cherra Punji — numbered 80 or 100, but on some occasions 
as many as 200 would come to hear the Gospel preached. 
There were from thirty to forty boys in the day-school, and 
eighteen females were taught by Mrs. Lewis. 

In 1846 a new mission was estabHshed at Jowai, the chief 
village on the Jaintia Hills, and in subsequent years the work 
was extended to various other parts of the Hills. In 1849, the 
Rev. W. Pryse commenced operations at Sylhet in the plains 
of Bengal. The Revs. T. Jones, R. Parry, H. Roberts, and 
G. Hughes, also laboured here for a time; but though the 
work was carried on vigorously and not without some degree 
of success, circumstances occurred which made it advisable to 
limit the operations of the Mission to the Hills. It was hoped 
that some other Society would be able to take over this field ; 



140 IVelsh Calvinistic Methodists^ Foreign Missions, 

but the overtures made with that view were unsuccessful, and 
this large district was unoccupied until 1887, when this Mission 
was enabled to resume the work. 

The Mission field in India is divided into eight districts, 
each under the charge of one or more missionaries. These 
districts are : — 

(i) Cherra. — Here is located the Normal School which 
supplies the various village schools on the Hills with teachers. 
This institution has grown gradually out of the day-school 
established here by the first missionary. The college is now 
under the superintendence of the Rev. J. Ceredig Evans, who 
assists in the general work of the district also. At Cherra, 
too, there has lately been formed the nucleus of a Theological 
Institution conducted by the Rev. John Roberts and Mr. 
Evans. There are in this district 3 churches and 11 
preaching stations, 408 church members, 878 adherents {i.e. 
people who have given up heathen practices, keep the Sabbath, 
and attend means of grace), 727 Sunday scholars and teachers, 
and 563 day scholars. 

(2) Shillong is now the headquarters of the Government 
of Assam. The mission has here a High School for boys and 
girls, and a chapel has been recently erected with accommoda- 
tion for 1200 people. The town and a large tract of the 
neighbouring country are under the charge of the Rev. T. 
Jerman Jones. This district contains 14 churches, 34 preach- 
ing stations, 1864 church members, 2122 adherents, 1897 
Sunday scholars and teachers, and 1274 day scholars. 

(3) Shella. — This district lies to the south-west of Cherra, 
and borders upon the plains of Bengal, and the religion and habits 
of the people combine many of the characteristics of the Hill 
tribes with some of those of their Bengali neighbours. There 
are here 12 churches, 17 preaching stations, 467 church 
members, 777 adherents, 673 Sunday scholars and teachers, 
and 618 day scholars. The Rev. William WilHams is now in 
charge of the district. 

(4) Mawphlang district contains 2 churches, 3 preaching 
stations, 123 church members, 204 adherents, 159 Sunday 
scholars and teachers, and 103 day scholars, Besides the 



tndid. 14 1 

Ordinary missionary work, a Medical Mission is carried On riere 
under the direction of the Rev. G. Griffiths, M.B., C.M. 
Among a people who attribute, as the Khasis do, all their 
ailments, bodily and other, to the operation of demons, and 
who depend for immunity and deliverance from sickness and 
injury upon the conciliation of these imaginary powers by 
sacrifices, a Medical Mission not only provides bodily relief, 
but also strikes at the root of their superstition. Many 
heathens from all parts of the Hills, coming to Dr. Griffiths in 
search of deliverance from physical suffering, have thus heard 
for the first time, and have carried back to the distant villages 
from which they came, the tidings of the way of salvation. 
During 1887, Dr. Griffiths treated 1418 patients, of whom 599 
were heathens. 

(5) Khadsawphra. — This is the territory of the Rajah of 
Nongklow, who was the first of the Khasi chiefs to make a 
treaty with the British Government. The present Rajah, 
U Kinesing Siim (King), is a zealous elder of the church at 
Mairang, and often takes part in the public services in the 
district. There are here 5 churches, 13 preaching stations, 
282 church members, 401 adherents, 433 Sunday scholars and 
teachers, and 336 day scholars. The Rev. C. L. Stephens is 
the missionary in charge. 

(6) JowAi. — Since 188 1 the Rev. John Jones has had the 
superintendence of this district. In March of the present year 
(1888), he returned home on furlough, leaving the charge of 
the district to Mr. Arthur D. Hughes, M.B., C.M., a Medical 
Missionary. It is intended to make Jowai the headquarters of 
a Medical Mission for Jaintia under the care of Dr. Hughes. 
There are in this district 7 churches, 27 preaching stations, 
814 church members, 1262 adherents, 1262 Sunday scholars 
and teachers, and 680 day scholars. 

(7) Shangpoong. — This district, which was formed in 1880, 
comprises the part of Jaintia east of the Jowai district, and 
has since its formation been under the charge of the Rev. 
Robert Evans. At the end of 1887 there were in the district 
8 churches, 14 preaching stations, 443 church members, 748 Sun- 
day scholars and teachers, 855 adherents, and 259 day scholars. 



142 Welsh CalvmisHc Methodists'* Foreign Missions. 

When the missionaries commenced their labours in Khasia, 
the people had no books or written language. Several editions 
of the New Testament have been printed in Khasi, and a 
translation of the Pentateuch ; two editions of The Pilgrivis 
Progress^ translated by Mr. Lewis ; several editions of a Hymn 
Book, the last containing 242 hymns ; the Confession of Faith, 
Mr. Charles's Instructor^ Dr. Watts's Neiv Testament History^ 
Come to Jesus, and many tracts and school-books. The mis- 
sionaries are now engaged in translating the remaining portion 
of the Old Testament. 

The Gospel has wrought a wonderful change in the material 
condition of the Khasis ; the people have become more cleanly 
in their persons and their habits ; they build better houses, and 
have greater comforts in their homes; they till their land 
better, and become more elevated in all their domestic and 
social relations. Many proofs might also be given of the 
reality of their conversion; it is shown (i) by the personal 
efforts made by many of the native Christians to bring others to 
a knowledge of salvation ; (2) by their willingness to contribute 
their money for religious purposes; they build their own 
school-rooms and chapels, many of them exercising much self- 
denial that they may have something to give ; (3) the reality of 
their conversion is shown not only by a life consistent with the 
Gospel, but by their being enabled to suffer loss and persecu- 
tion for the sake of Christ. We are constantly receiving 
accounts of young men and women, and sometimes of elderly 
people, being cruelly treated by their relatives because they 
have cast their lot with the Christians. The story of U Borsing 
Siim is well known — he refused the Rajaship of Cherra rather 
than deny his Christian profession. 

Sylhet District. — The Rev. J. Pengwern Jones and Miss John 
have since the beginning of the present year settled in the town 
of Sylhet, to resume the work formerly carried on here. There 
is here a mission chapel and a few native Christians. Miss 
John has commenced a small school for girls, and hopes to 
have access to the Zenanas. There is in the district of Sylhet 
a population of nearly two millions, without any missionaries, 
except the agents of this Society. 

Brittany has also been chosen as a missionary field by the 
Welsh Mission, because of the interest taken by the people of 



Summary, 



143 



Wales in the Bretons, a people speaking a language very similar 
to their own, and being like them a branch of the old Celtic 
family. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Ijicomc^ £^^^000} 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Khasia and Jaintia'l 
Hills, Assam ./ 
Sylhet^ . . . 


184I 
1887 


7 

I 


Or- 
dained. 

8 

I 


Lay. 

I 


Fe- 
male. 

7 
I 


Lay. 

23 Evan.' 
\ 1 86 Teach. 


Female. 

14 B. W. 
78 T. 
I 


Totals . . 




8 9 


I 


8 


209 


93 


Fields of Lalour. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
municants. 


School^. 


Scholars. 


Native 
Contributions. 


Khasia and Jaintiaj 
Hills, Assam ./ 
Sylhet .... 


6,499 
20 


1,389 


120 


3,833^ 


;^48o 


Totals . . ; 6,519 1,389 120 3,833 


;^48o 



^ This includes the amount spent in the Brittany Mission. 

- The Sylhet Mission was given up 16 years ago, but resumed in 1887. 

^ The workers given are Evangelists, who have been licensed by the 
Presbytery, and paid teachers, male and female, and Bible-women. There 
are some sixty others, who preach every Sunday, and 344 teachers in the 
Sunday Schools. 

■* The above are day-schools only; we have 119 Sabbath schools, 
attended by 5,899 scholars. 

Magazine : — Y Drysorfa ; Monthly. 



( H4 ) 



PRIMITIVE METHODIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1 843. 
EXTENDED TO THE HEATHEN I 869. 

The missionary work of this Connexion, strictly speaking, 
dates from the year 1843; but at first it was carried on exclu- 
sively at home and in the colonies. Stations have been 
established in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, 
Queensland, Tasmania, New Zealand, and Canada, most of 
which are still supported by the Connexion ;^ but it was not 
until 1869 that missions to the heathen were undertaken. In 
that year, a vessel named the Elgiva^ trading between Liverpool 
and the West Coast of Africa, touched at the Island of 
Fernando Po, a Spanish colony in the Gulf of Guinea. The 
captain and carpenter of this vessel were members of the 
Primitive Methodist Church, Boundary Street, Liverpool ; and 
the carpenter, Mr. Hands, having to attend to some work which 
made it necessary for him to remain on shore for a few days, 
gathered as many of the people together for worship as he 
could. He found a few who feared God, and who had been 
members of the Baptist Church, before the Mission conducted 
by Mr. Saker was broken up by the Spanish authorities and 
the missionary expelled. These people welcomed Mr. Hands ; 
and as there had been a change in the Government of Spain, 
and there was then liberty for the people to meet for worship, 
they wished him to stay and be their minister. This he could 
not do, but he submitted the needs of this island to the 
Missionary Committee of the Primitive Methodist Connexion, 
and after a careful consideration of the request made that a 
mission should be established in Santa Isabel, the chief town, 
that request was granted, and in January 1870 the Revs. R. W. 
Burnett and H. Roe, with their wives, sailed for this field of 
labour. They met with a hearty welcome. In 187 1 the Rev. 

' The stations established in Canada now form part of the Methodist 
Church of the Dominion. 



Fernando Fo : Cape Colony, 145 

D. T. Maylott was sent out to join these brethren and help to 
extend the work along the west coast of the island ; but it was 
not till 1873 that this was really done, owing to difficulties 
which interposed. Mr. W. N. Barleycorn, who was one of the 
first converts at Santa Isabel, was associated with Mr. Maylott 
in the West Mission, the headquarters of which were fixed at 
George's or San Carlos Bay. Land was obtained, and, as at 
Santa Isabel, suitable buildings for church and school and 
missionary's residence were erected. In February 1874 a 
catechumen class was formed at the Bay Mission, and several 
young Bubis were regularly met for religious instruction ; but it 
was October of the same year before the first convert from 
heathenism, a young man named Hooree, was baptized. 

The Mission at Santa Isabel has been extended to Banni, on 
the north-east coast of that island, where land has been secured 
and a station formed. Rev. W. N. Barleycorn, who had 
laboured for some years at the Bay Mission, was removed to 
this locality in 1884; but difficulties arising at Santa Isabel 
with the Spanish authorities, he had in a short time to leave 
Banni and return to George's Bay. 

These Missions have been favoured with considerable pros- 
perity, notwithstanding the hostility of the Roman Catholic 
priests and some difficulties with the Spanish authorities. 
Recently, however, a better understanding has been established 
with the Government of Spain, and arrangements made for 
educational work, which it is hoped will greatly enlarge the 
usefulness of these Missions, and lead to the occupancy of the 
whole island. 

In 1869 the Missionary Committee received an invitation 
from Aliwal North, a district of Cape Colony, bordering the 
Orange Free State. After giving to this invitation due and 
careful consideration, it was decided to send a missionary to 
that locality. Accordingly, Rev. H. Buckenham was sent out 
early in October 1870, and landed at Port Elizabeth in the 
latter part of November, from which place he began his journey 
inland, and reached Aliwal on the 6th of December. For a 
short time he had the use of the Dutch Church, but a room 
was soon fitted up for public worship, and early in 1871 Mr. 
Buckenham opened a Sunday School in the same room. In 
the course of a few months he commenced an evening school 

L 



146 



Primitive Methodist Missionary Society, 



for natives, and in the August began a native day school. 
Church and school and parsonage were built, and other 
facilities provided for carrying on the work of the Mission. 
Mr. Buckenham remained till 1875, when he was succeeded 
by Rev. John Smith. The Rev. John Watson followed Mr. 
Smith, who returned to his former field of labour in 1883. The 
Mission has been favoured with encouraging success, and now 
comprehends two European Churches, five native Churches, and 
three native day-schools. The missionary now in charge is 
Rev. G. E. Butt, Mr. Smith having returned to England. 

The Society is making arrangements to send a missionary 
party this year (1889) to the Upper Zambesi in South Central 
Africa, and thus extend their work among the heathen. 



SUMMARY. 
Income^ 1887-8, ;^i4,i28 9J". 11^.^ 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered, 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta. 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 

Contribu- 

tions. 


Santa Isabel and 
Banni, Fernan-l 
doPo . . .( 

George's or San-i 
Carlos 'Bay, . 
Fernando Po . 

Aliwal North 
and James- 
town, Cape 
Colony . . 


1870 
1873 
1870 


2 

I 

7 


Or. 
dained. 

2 

I 
2 


Fe- 
male. 

I 

I 


Or- 
dained. 

I 
I 


Lay. 

I 
I 

16 


97 

19 

310 


2 

I 

3 


150 
20 

186 


£ s. d. 

94 5 8 
19 12 10 

507 15 3 


Totals . 




10 


5 


2 


2 


18 


426 


6 


356 


621 13 9 



This sura includes the amount spent in Home and Colonial Mission work. 

Magazine : — Records of Mission Work ; Monthly. 



( 147 ) 



SOUTH AMERICAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1844; REFORMED 1852 ; RE-NAMED 1864. 

This Society was first established in 1844, under the tide of 
the Patagonian Mission, with a view to convert the South 
American Indians to the knowledge of Jesus Christ — both 
those who dwell in the southern parts, known as Patagonians 
and Fuegians, and the Indians of the more central plains. 

Captain Allen Gardiner, R.N., who was the real founder 
of the Society, spent very many years of his life, and much 
out of his private resources, in visiting various parts of the 
world, and as a layman doing missionary work ; but he 
specially set his heart on South America, as affording a very 
wide and hitherto almost unoccupied field of labour for Christ. 
But, owing to the antagonism of the Romish Church in the 
South American Republics, the hostility of the heathen natives, 
and the lack of support from England, he was baffled in his 
efforts over and over again. Still he did not despair, though 
more than once he had to return to England after fruitless 
labours. His final attempt to make a settlement for missionary 
work was in 1850, when, with six companions, he endeavoured 
to estabhsh himself on one of the islands of the Tierra del 
Fuegian Archipelago, above Cape Horn. They were obliged 
by untoward circumstances to abandon the spot selected, and 
after many months of great suffering, borne with the most 
heroic fortitude and Christian patience, they died one after 
another on the mainland of Tierra del Fuego from disease and 
starvation, the arrangements for succouring them having mis- 
carried. Captain Allen Gardiner was the last survivor, and 
his journals, which he continued till within a few days of his 
death, in September 1851, were most providentially preserved 
and recovered by one of the vessels of Her Majesty's Navy, 
and are now in the possession of the South American Mis- 
sionary Society. The life and labours of Captain Allen 
Gardiner are among the most interesting of missionary records, 
and the account of the sufferings and death of his companions 

I. 2 



148 South A^nerican Missionary Society. 

and himself, their Christian fortitude and resignation to the 
will of God, is one of the most thrilling stories ever told. 

Among his dying words were these : ' I trust poor Fuegia and 
South America will not be abandoned. Missionary seed has 
been sown here, and the Gospel message ought to follow. If 
I have a wish for the good of my fellow-men, it is that the Tierra 
del Fuego Mission may be prosecuted with vigour^ and the work 
in South America commenced.' 

The deaths of this heroic man and his companions at first 
discouraged many persons in England from further attempts at 
Mission work in South America, but they inspired others, and 
especially the Rev. G. P. Despard, to persevere, and in 1852 
the Patagonian Missionary Society was reformed. 

In 1854 a fresh start was made to plant the cross of Christ 
in Tierra del Fuego. The Allen Gardiner mission vessel 
was sent out by the Committee, under the command of Capt. 
Parker Snow, who, with Mrs. Snow, was indefatigable in the 
pioneering work. A settlement was formed under the superin- 
tendence of the Rev. G. P. Despard at Keppel, one of the 
Falkland Isles. The natives of the Beagle Channel were 
communicated with, and many from time to time visited 
Keppel, and learnt somewhat of Christianity and civilization, 
while the missionaries were enabled to learn something of the 
Fuegian language. In 1859 another definite attempt was made 
to found a missionary station on one of the Tierra del Fuegian 
Islands, at a place called Woollya. But again failure was the 
result, and the missionaries and all the crew of the Alle7i 
Gardiner^ except one, were massacred, as they were engaged 
in prayer on the seashore. 

Thus once more all hope, humanly speaking, seemed gone ; 
but brave and loving hearts were still found to carry on the 
work, both at home and abroad. 

In 1863 the Rev. W. H. Stirling went out as superintendent 
of the Mission, and in the following year the Society was re- 
named the ' South American Missionary Society.' 

Mr. Stirling brought four Fuegian youths to England, who 
gave evidence of the success of the work of the missionaries. 

In 1869 Mr. Stirling spent seven months in a small wooden 
hut among the natives at Ooshooia, on the mainland of 
Tierra del Fuego, trusting his life in their hands, and in full 
reliance on God's merciful protection. His faith and bravery 



Tien a del Fuego. 149 

were signally rewarded. He gained great influence over the 
natives, and this noble venture of his has been the means, 
under God, of firmly establishing Christianity and civilization 
in Tierra del Fuego. 

At the end of 1869 Mr. Stirling received a summons from 
England, and at once proceeding home, was consecrated in 
Westminster Abbey, December 21, 1869, first Bishop of the 
Falkland Islands. 

During the bishop's absence the missionaries from Keppel 
made a regular settlement at Ooshooia, which, under the 
superintendence of the Rev. Thomas Bridges, who went out as 
a boy of twelve with Mr. Despard in 1854, assisted by his 
devoted fellow-workers, has become a native Christian village 
and district. 

The Fuegians in their natural state have long been known as 
among the most degraded of all heathen people, and given up 
to every vice and abomination, and without any belief in a god 
of any kind. The late Charles Darwin, F.R.S., who visited 
them many years ago, wrote of them as being in the ' lowest 
state ' of any people in any part of the world, and considered 
them utterly incapable of being Christianized or civilized. 
Moreover, as intimated by Captain Cook in the account of 
his intercourse with them, it seemed doubtful whether they 
possessed what could be called an articulate language. But 
now we have in Tierra del Fuego a Christian Church and 
District, with its schools, orphanage, Bible and mothers' 
meetings, and all the ' machinery ' of an English parish. The 
natives in large numbers, ' clothed and in their right mind,' 
live in cottages with gardens attached, and follow the various 
occupations of civilized life. And what is worthy of special 
record is the fact that they are now in possession of part of the 
New Testament Scriptures, translated into their own language 
by the Rev. T. Bridges. 

These remarkably practical results were brought to the 
knowledge of the late Mr. Darwin, and when he had ascer- 
tained their truth he became a donor to the Society. Not 
many years ago, also, the English Admiralty issued a notice to 
all the maritime nations of the world that within certain limits 
of the Fuegian Archipelago shipwrecked mariners would be 
kindly treated by the natives, who had come within the 
influence of the Society's work. More recently (in 1882) 



150 South American Missio?iary Society. 

further testimony was borne by Captain Bove, the Commander 
of the ItaHan and Argentine Antarctic Expedition, which spent 
a considerable time in the Fuegian Archipelago. In his official 
report to the Italian Government he expresses his opinion that 
from what he saw of the work of the South American Missionary 
Society, the whole of Tierra del Fuego would in a few years be 
Christianized and civilized. 

At the annual meeting of the Society, in 1883, a letter, 
accompanied by a gold medal, was read from the King of 
^aly, in acknowledgment of aid rendered by missionaries of 
this Society, at the Ooshooia Station, to the shipwrecked crew 
and passengers of an Italian exploring expedition. After 
referring to this subject, the letter continues : 

' His Majesty has been made aware how thoroughly these apostles of 
universal civilization have maintained the character of their holy calling 
when coming in circumstances so critical to the aid of His Majesty's 
subjects. His Majesty has also learned how it is due to their indefatigable 
Christian labours that the very savages of Tierra del Fuego, who were 
formerly such an object of dread, have shown, at their very first meeting 
of our shipwrecked crew, to how great an extent their old ferocity has 
been laid aside. This had been beyond the hopes of that great man 
Darwin, when he wrote his first work, the harbinger of such advances in 
science, yet in a short lapse of years the work of the missionaries had 
sufficed to transfer the natives of that island from the depths of savagery 
to such a level of improvement as drew forth the praises of Darwin 
himself, and led him to enter his name among the subscribers to the South 
American Missions. To this commencement of civilization, and therefore 
to the missionaries and to your Society, we owe the rescue of our country- 
men. His Majesty the King has given orders that thanks should be 
tendered to the President of the Committee of South American Missions, 
and that the expression of these thanks should be accompanied by the 
presentation of a gold medal bearing His Majesty's effigy and the inscrip- 
tion : — ^'- Demersis ccquore nautis athilit Religio saluteiny " Religion has 
brought safety to the mariners rescued from a watery grave." ' 

The mission steamer, Alle^i Gardiner^ has been altered to a 
sailing schooner after completing some important investiga- 
tions of the channels, and is usefully assisting to develop and 
extend the Southern Mission, and is in full work. 

The Society has during 1888 commenced a mission to the 
Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco, and trusts that, under the 
blessing of God, similar results may eventually be brought about. 

Ministerial work is carried on in the interest of many 
thousands of British subjects resident in South America, and 
of sailors who visit its ports. Merchants, 'with their staffs of 



Tierra del Fiiego ; South America. 151 

clerks and their families, persons engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, miners, factory hands, and artificers of all kinds, are 
settled in the towns and country districts of South America. 
Were it not for the intervention of the South American 
Missionary Society, these would be as ' sheep without a 
shepherd.' 

The abolition of the Government Consular chaplaincies 
made it more than ever necessary that the Society should 
develop its ministerial work; and hence, in 1864, it estab- 
lished its system of chaplaincies. Clergymen and lay agents 
were sent out to different centres to minister to the wants 
of our fellow-countrymen ; and from all sides reports have 
from time to time come to hand of the thankful appreciation 
with which their services are regarded. 

From the first institution of the chaplaincies the following 
centres have been or still are benefited : — (Brazil) Rio Janeiro, 
Pemambuco, Santos, San Paulo, Rio Claro ; (Argentine 
Republic) Rosario, Cordoba, Tucuman, Frayle Muerto, Buenos 
Ayres Province, Bahia Blanca, Alexandra Colony, Patagones, 
Chubut ; (Uruguay) Fray Bentos, Salto, Concordia, Paysandu ; 
(Peru) Lima, Callao ; (Chili) Arica, Chanaral, Santiago, Lota ; 
Panama. 

The establishment of these chaplaincies was at first very 
much opposed by the Roman Catholic authorities. At Lota 
an attempt was made to burn down a room which had been 
procured to serve as a church and school. At Santiago every 
window in the first Protestant church was broken ; and, 
generally speaking, the laws of the States were adverse to the 
work of the Society. Now, however, through the dissemination 
of juster notions of truth and freedom, reHgious toleration exists 
in every State in South America, with the exception of Peru. 

The Society's chaplains are, however, strictly enjoined not 
to be aggressive, or to court controversy, but to be open to 
all inquiries after truth. 

Thus the Society is * preparing the way ' for the diffusion of 
light among the population of South America, and of the know- 
ledge of Christian faith and practice, ' as the truth is in Jesus.' 

For Siwunary, see next page. 

Magazines : — The South Americaji Missionary Magazitie^ 
Monthly ; The Juvenile Gift, Quarterly. 



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( 154 ) 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ENGLAND FOREIGN 
MISSIONS. 

ESTABLISHED 1847. 

The Rev. W. C. Burns, the first missionary to the Chinese 
from the Presbyterian Church of England, arrived in China in 
the year 1847. For the first four years after his arrival, 
Mr. Burns carried on evangelistic work in Hong-kong, Canton, 
and the neighbourhood. In 185 1 he was providentially led to 
visit Amoy, and this city, with the region around it, was the 
first centre of the organized work of the English Presbyterian 
Church. This organized work really began in 1853, when the 
Rev. James Johnston was sent out to join Mr. Burns. Mr. 
Johnston was obliged to leave for home in 1855. He passed 
on his way home the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, who went out 
that year to commence work as a missionary of the Church. 
Dr. Douglas was a great power in China, remarkable for his 
evangelistic zeal and for his high literary attainments. To 
him is mainly due the organizing of the Mission work in its 
several departments, Evangelistic, Medical, and Educational. 
The lines upon which the work in these several departments is 
conducted were laid down by Dr. Douglas. He saw that the 
wise way to work in China was steady and persevering labour 
from a fixed centre, and the results that have followed; abun- 
dantly testify to the value of the methods under which they 
have been obtained. The great aim in carrying on this Mission 
has been to raise up a native church, self-governing, self-sup- 
porting, and aggressive, and this aim has been steadily kept 
in view. 

The spheres of labour are — 

1. The Evangelistic and Pastoral. 

2. Medical. 

3. Educational. 

4. Voluntary work by natives. 

5. Woman's work. 



spheres of Labour. 155 

(i) The evangelistic and pastoral work consists of preach- 
ing the Gospel, organizing and overlooking the native congre- 
gations as these are formed, constantly breaking up new ground, 
and doing all that can be done to stimulate the independence 
and missionary zeal of the native church. The main idea has 
been that the missionaries are leaders and trainers. This work 
dates, of course, from the establishment of the Mission. 

(2) Medical. This department was begun in i860, and it 
has proved an invaluable agency. At present the church has 
seven medical missionaries in China and one in India. There 
are five large hospitals in China, and three dispensaries in 
Rampur Beauleah, Bengal ; and more than 30,000 patients are 
annually treated in these. Native students are being trained 
for medical work. Our medical missionaries take part in the 
evangelistic work, as well as conduct the properly medical work. 

(3) Educational. Immediately after the formation of con- 
gregations, the native Christians and the missionaries felt that 
Christian schools were necessary ; and so congregational day- 
schools were established. These began in 1855, at the Amoy 
centre. Almost at the same time there began the education 
and training of natives for evangelistic work. This has now so 
grown that there are four theological colleges in connection 
with the Mission, and more than eighty students in them. 
These students are being trained for the work of pastors and 
preachers. 

In 1879 middle schools were opened. These serve as a 
connecting link between the ordinary day-schools and the 
colleges. 

(4) Native work. Since the opening of the Mission, native 
Christians, to a large extent, have zealously tried to spread a 
knowledge of the Gospel. The native church at Amoy and in 
Formosa support Mission work amongst people beyond their 
own region. They willingly and generously contribute for this 
purpose j and thereby show that the native church, when pro- 
perly guided, will be the great evangelistic power in China. 

(5) Woman's work. In connection with the Presbyterian 
Church of England there is a Woman's Missionary Association.^ 
This Association has sent out nine lady missionaries to China 
and three to India. These missionaries carry on work in girls' 
boarding and day schools, in the training of Bible-women, and 

^ See page 197. 



156 Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions, 

visiting native women in their homes. This work was begun 
by missionaries' wives. The Association's work began in 1879. 
In China, this Mission has four fields, Amoy, Swatow, 
Formosa, Hak-ka country; in the Straits Settlements one, 
Singapore j in Bengal one, Rampur Beauleah. 



SUMMARY. 

Income for 1888, ;£i 6,360. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


China and Sin-1 
gapore . ./ 

India (Ram-j 
3ur Beau- \ 
eah, Bengal)) 


1847 
1876 


106 


Or- 
dained. 

»5 


Lay. 
8^ 

I 


Fe- 
male. 

9 
3 


Ox. 

dained. 

5 


Lay. 
85 

4 


Fe- 
male. 

8 


Totals . 




106 


15 


9 


12 


5 


89 


8 



Fields of Labour. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Commu- 
nicants. 


Schools. Scholars. 


Native Contributions. 


China and Sin-1 
gapore . ./ 

India (Ram-j 
pur Beau-> 
leah, Bengal)) 


7,000 


3,553 


about 
202 

8 


about 
400 

316 


;^i,Ioo 


Totals . 


7,000 


3,553 


28 716 


/l,IOO 



^ Six medical missionaries, 2 teachers. 
^ These numbers are only approximate. 

Magazines : — The Presbyterian Messenger ; The Children's 
Messenger; Monthly. 



( 157 ) 



UNIVERSITIES' MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA. 

ESTABLISHED 1859. 

This Mission to East Central Africa was proposed by David 
Livingstone in 1857 ; and undertaken in 1859 after a second 
appeal by Robert Gray, Bishop of Capetown. Charles Frederick 
Mackenzie, Archdeacon of Natal, was consecrated Bishop for 
the Mission, January ist, 1861, at Capetown. 

The Mission was settled, under Livingstone's guidance, at 
Magomero, July 1861. Slaves then released formed the first 
nucleus for the Mission. Magomero, though high and cool, 
was found too distant from all sources of supply. In January 
1862 Bishop Mackenzie died from exposure and fatigue. Other 
deaths soon followed among the missionaries. When Bishop 
Tozer and Dr. Steere arrived in 1863 to reinforce the Mission, 
it was found impossible, owing to the country being desolated 
by war, famine, and pestilence, to continue in that particular 
district, and after a short stay on the Morumbala mountain, 
near the coast. Bishop Tozer resolved to settle in Zanzibar, as 
the true capital of Eastern Inter-tropical Africa, there to devote 
himself to training released slave-children, in the hope to form 
with them Christian settlements on the mainland at a later 
date, feeling sure that by natives alone could the work be most 
surely carried out. 

About ten years of quiet preparatory work in Zanzibar 
followed, under Bishop Tozer and Dr. Steere. The Mission 
was very generally forgotten, if not despised, while the founda- 
tions were being soundly and laboriously laid for future work. 
Children, rescued from slave-dhows by English cruisers, were 
taken charge of by the Mission, instructed, baptized, and taught 
useful trades. Their languages, especially Swahili, were care- 
fully studied, and reduced to writing : grammars and dictionaries 
were prepared by Dr. Steere, and portions of the Holy Scriptures 
were translated. 

The mainland was not forgotten in the meanwhile, and so 



158 Universities' Mission to Central Africa. 

early as 1867 the station of Magila, in the Usambara country, 
which has since developed so largely under Archdeacon Farler, 
was formed by Dr. Steere and the Rev. C. A. Alington. 

In 1876 a half-way station to Lake Nyassa was formed at 
Masasi, being in fact a Christian village, peopled by freed 
slaves once torn from that same region by slave-dealers. 
Both Magila and Masasi continued for some years prosperous 
centres of Mission work, round which were formed sub-stations. 
The higher ideal of life set by the Christian villages before 
the heathen tribes made deep and favourable impression, 
though suspicion was slow to be allayed, and actual conver- 
sions for some years very few. 

In August 1882, Bishop Steere died at Zanzibar. He had 
been attached to the Mission nineteen years, had been eight 
years its Bishop, had translated into Swahih the whole New 
Testament, a large part of the Old Testament, the Book of 
Common Prayer, and the Book of the Prophet Isaiah. 

On September 15th of the same year, Masasi was surprised 
and pillaged by the Mag^vangwara, a fierce tribe of marauders, 
of Zulu origin. Of the native Christians a few were killed, and 
many were carried away into slavery. 

In 1885 the pieces of the Charles Janson were taken up the 
Zambesi and Shire, and carried round the Shire cataracts on 
the road constructed by the Scotch Mission, and successfully 
put together at Matope. The vessel was solemnly dedicated 
by the Bishop in September, and is now plying on the lake, 
having its headquarters at the Island of Lukoma. 

Bishop Smythies, during 1886 and 1887, travelled on foot 
again to all the stations of the Mission, has made his hazardous 
visit to the Magwangwara, and has obtained permission to send 
a missionary to their country. 

The Mission is at present, broadly speaking, engaged in three 
separate branches of work : — 

1. In Zanzibar island, with the released slaves captured and 
set free by the British cruisers. 

2. On Lake Nyassa, one of the great sources of the slave- 
trade ; and 

3. Mission stations on the mainland in two widely divided 
parts — the Usambara and Rovuma districts — which are situated 
respectively 5° and 12° south of the Equator. 



Zanzibar ; Lake Nyassa. 159 

In Zanzibar island the work is being done at three places : 
one in the city itself, the others along the shore, but in sight of 
the city. 

In the heart of Zanzibar city we have a Christian colony on 
the site of the great slave-market ; here now stands a handsome 
church, a marvellous testimony to the skill and perseverance 
of Bishop Steere. Close by stands a large Mission house, where 
some 60 young boys are given a home and carefully trained, 
and a dispensary affords relief to sick Europeans and Africans. 

Near by is a second Mission house, where school-work is 
maintained for the benefit of the colony of married freed slaves, 
who live in houses built on the rest of the old slave-market, and 
under the shadow of the large church referred to above. 

Here a staff of 10 missionaries is actively engaged, and 
here the mainland workers come to be nursed when they fall 
sick, as is too often the case in the unhealthy cHmate where 
the work has to be done. 

About a mile outside the town, along the sea-shore to the 
south, stands a large house called Kiungani. In this house are 
some 100 of the elder boys — some of them raw slaves from the 
dhows, others sons of chiefs, etc., from the mainland; these 
are taught to read and write and to learn some trade. The 
education given here is in some cases of the higher grade, and 
there is, in a promising stage, a Theological College, with 
scholars intended for Holy Orders, and from this house we hope 
to send out and maintain a Native Ministry, Three Africans 
are already ordained, and four schoolmasters were sent from 
the College to sub-stations on Lake Nyassa in; 1888. This 
house also trains schoolmasters and teachers for the mainland 
stations ; some, so trained, are already at work on the mainland. 

On Lake Nyassa, the Mission maintains a church-steamer, 
which was carried there in small pieces and put together. The 
headquarters on the lake are on an island — Lukoma— about 
mid-way in its length (300 miles), and near its eastern shore. 
Schools are set up here, and the ship, Charles Janso?i^ carries 
the members of the Mission to and fro on visits to the many 
towns scattered along the eastern shores of the lake. 

This field is of the first importance, as being in the very 
heart of the slave-yielding region. The African teachers here' 
were trained at Kiungani. 



i6o Universities' Mission to Central Africa. 

It was to this lake that Livingstone attempted to guide 
Bishop Mackenzie in the earUest days of the Mission. 

Also, on the Mainland, along the Rovuma river, about 
twelve degrees south latitude, we have a chain of stations 
reaching towards the lake. The places occupied are Masasi, 
Newala, and Chitangali. Some released slaves have here been 
restored to the mainland, and here is a home for some 30 boys 
who are being educated by the Mission. Formerly there was 
another station nearer the lake, at Mataka's, but this was broken 
up through the intrigues of the slave-dealers, who use this route 
largely for their inhuman traffic in our fellow-creatures. 

As one sign of what Christian teaching has effected here, we 
may mention that eight of the porters who went with our Bishop 
to Lake Nyassa and back last year were men from Masasi, and 
of these one was a Christian, and all the rest are under Christian 
instruction either as catechumens or preparing to be so. Cer- 
tainly all behaved admirably, and the Bishop had no fault to 
find with them throughout the journey. 

It is pleasant to think that some of them helped to build the 
first real church at Lukoma on Lake Nyassa. 

About the fifth degree south latitude, in the Usambara 
country, there are three scenes of work — Mkuzi, Misozwe, Umba 
— each with its school and its home for boys, and the usual 
Mission work and buildings. 

These three places belong to the large central station Magila, 
where there is a fine stone church and a home for 115 boys. 
The place is the scene of the busiest activity ; English working 
men of several trades are here surrounded with African ap- 
prentices, and the African is not only taught to read and 
brought to know God and His love, but is now willing to work 
regularly for daily wages. Habits of cleanliness, unknown in 
the country before, are now adopted by the people, and the 
advantages of peace and security are recognized and cultivated. 
The work hitherto has been among the men only, but now 
three Sisters and two other ladies are settled here, and devote 
themselves to woman's work among women. 

'Twelve years ago,' writes Archdeacon Farler, *this station consisted 
of a mud hut, the residence of the missionaries, a few sheds, and a small 
iron building used as a church. The natives were always fighting : no man 
could travel alone safely. They clothed themselves w^th goatskins, and 



spheres of Labour, 1 6 1 

their only means of exchange were strings of beads and Americans—/.^, 
cotton sheeting. Now the excellent granite of the country has been 
quarried, lime has been burned, a large and beautiful church capable of 
holding 700 people, with nave, aisles, and arches, has been built in 
granite ; a large hospital has been erected, with schools, house for the 
missionaries, dormitories for boarders, and dining hall, all have been built 
by our native converts in granite, under the superintendence of an English 
mason. 

* At this moment as I write I can see eleven masons, native converts, 
nine of them being apprentices, hard at work building a large house for 
sisters of mercy. I see other converts, native carpenters and their appren- 
tices, bringing up the doors and windows they have just made to fix into 
the new house. I am writing at a table made by native converts. Not 
far off is a large workshop, well fitted with tools, also a forge and anvil, 
full of busy native converts learning carpentering and blacksmithing. 
Around about are many native converts, some bringing planks or rafters, 
which they have cut in the forest, others working as masons' labourers, 
others digging — more than we want every morning eagerly pressing for 
work, lasting from 7 A.M. to 5.30 p.m., under strict supervision, with one 
hour's rest at noon, for the wage of fourpence a day.' 

One feature of the work deserves special mention ; it is, that 
there are as many laymen as clergy engaged in the work. Many 
of the laymen are artisans engaged in their own proper craft, 
and all the laymen but three or four are doing in Africa what 
they were trained for here in England. Each member of the 
Mission — clergy, ladies, and laymen alike — is offered ;^2o 
yearly for clothes and private expenses ; and the necessaries of 
life are provided at a common table and from a common store. 

The Bishop spends six months in each year travelling on foot 
from station to station. 

The work of seventy Europeans, including their own charges 
and outgoings of every kind at home as well as abroad, is done 
at a cost of ;£"23o a year for each worker. 

In August 1888 the Germans took over from the Sultan of 
Zanzibar the coast line behind which the Mission has its most 
important and successful group of stations. The rash and 
insolent behaviour of individual Germans wounded the sus- 
ceptibilities of the coast population with regard to their 
country's flag, their religion, and their homes. The entire 
population has risen in arms, has expelled the Germans, and 
has said to the Sultan, ' We will obey your Highness, but we 
absolutely refuse to be handed over to such people as the 
Germans.' 

M 



l62 



Universities' Mission to Central Africa. 



As we go to press, the members of this Mission remain in 
the country with the goodwill of the population. How long 
their friendship will be proof against the temptations of war 
remains to be seen. Reprisals have already appeared in the 
insurgents at Pangani seizing the stores of the Mission going 
to the up-country stations, because the ransom promised by a 
captured German is retained by the authorities in Zanzibar. 

On Nyassa there is a Hfe-and-death struggle between Arab slave- 
traders and the African Lakes Company, the avowed object of 
the Arabs being to drive away white men out of the country. 
We await the issue of this duel at the north end of the lake 
with the utmost anxiety. 

Speaking generally, it is not exaggeration to say, both in the 
island of Zanzibar and at each group of mainland stations, the 
Mission is in considerable peril. 



SUMMARY. 

Income for iSSS, ahut /^i6,$oo. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 
A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Zanzibar Island 
Nyassa. . 
Rovuma . 
Usambara . . 


1864 

1884 

1875 
1867 


3 
2 

3 
4 


Or- 
dained. 
8 

5 
6 

7 


Lay. 
II 

8 
2 
4 


Female. 

12 

2 

"5 


Or- 
dained. 

I 
I 


Lay. 

2 
7 

13 


Female. 

6 
2 


Totals . 




12 


26 


25 


19 


2 


23 


9 


Fields of Labour. 


Adherents. 


Com- 
municants. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native Contri- 
butions. 


Zanzibar Island 
Nyassa 
Rovuma . 
Usambara . 


127 
704 


312 

64 
153 


5 
5 

2 

4 


- 


254 
90 

30 
300 


08 


Totals . 


1,281 


529 


16 


674 





Magazines 
Monthly. 



'Central Africa, The Children's Tidings; 



( i63 ) 



CHINA INLAND MISSION. 

ESTABLISHED 1 862. 

The China Inland Mission owes its origin to the missionary- 
zeal and enterprise of the Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, M.R.C.S. 
Mr. Taylor first went to China in 1853 as a medical missionary, 
under the auspices of the Chinese Evangelization Society. 
He resigned his connection with that Society in 1857, and on 
account of failure of health returned to England in i860. 
Throughout the voyage home his earnest prayer was that his 
return to England might be overruled for good to China, and 
made instrumental in raising up at least five missionaries for 
the province of Che-kiang. In January of the same year he 
had written to a friend in England as follows : — 

' Do you know of any earnest, devoted young men, desirous of serving 
God in China ; who, not wishing for more than their expenses, would be 
willing to come out and labour here ? Oh, for four or five such helpers ! 
They would probably preach in Chinese in six months. In answer to 
prayer the means would be found.' 

In 1862, the first of the young men thus desired sailed for 
China; and in 1865 he was followed by four others. By this 
time continual thought upon the spiritual destitution of China 
had deepened concern for its people, and had led Mr. Taylor 
to resolve to attempt something on a larger scale than he had 
previously thought of. The result was the formation of the 
China Inland Mission. It was particularly desired that its 
formation should not in any measure divert either men or 
money from existing missionary agencies ; but that whatever 
might be done through its instrumentality should be over and 
above what might otherwise be done to meet China's need. 
How urgent the need for further effort to spread the Gospel in 
China was, was made painfully evident by the fact that there 
were then (1865) only 97 Protestant missionaries among the 
hundreds of millions of people in that land. These were all 
located in ten or eleven ports, situated principally on the sea- 

M 2 



1 64 China Inland Mission, 

board of the six maritime provinces ; the only exception being 
one mission station in Hankow, in the central province — 
Hoo-pe. The other eleven of the eighteen provinces of China 
proper were without a resident Protestant missionary. These 
provinces contained a population variously estimated from 
about 100 millions to 150 millions, and it was with the definite 
and avowed purpose of commencing missionary labour in these 
interior provinces that the China Inland Mission was formed. 
Methods somewhat unusual and peculiar were adopted for 
^vorking the newly-proposed organization. 
It was determined : — 

' I. That duly qualified candidates for missionary labour should be 
accepted without restriction as to denomination, provided there was 
soundness in the faith in all fundamental truths. 

' 2. That all who went out as missionaries should go in dependence 
upon God for temporal supplies, with the clear understanding that the 
Mission did not guarantee any income whatever ; and knowing that, as 
the Mission would not go into debt, it could only minister to those con- 
nected with it as the funds sent in from time to time might allow. 

' 3. That there should not be any collections or personal solicitation of 
money.' 

On the 26th of May, 1866, Mr. Taylor sailed again for China, 
taking with him fifteen missionaries. This was the formal 
inauguration of the work of the China Inland Mission. The 
work has been continued up to the present time on the lines 
first laid down, and the success has been remarkable. 

The income, which for the first ten years averaged about 
;^5,ooo, last year (1888) nearly reached ;^34,ooo, exclusive 
of donations in China. The gifts have varied in amount from 
three penny postage stamps to ;^3,ooo. 

The Mission Staff, which at the end of the first ten years 
numbered 36 missionaries and 16 wives of missionaries, now 
numbers 335, including 62 wives of missionaries, most of whom 
were missionaries before marriage. 

The catholicity of the Mission has been maintained, and the 
Mission staff consists of members of the Church of England, 
Presbyterians, Wesleyans, Baptists, Congregationalists, and 
Brethren. These greatly vary in social position : some being 
persons of wealth, who have gone out at their own charges, 
and have, besides, liberally contributed to sustain the work ; 
while others are from the humblest positions. Some have had 



China Inland Mission, 



165 



all the educational advantages which our Universities can give, 
while others Have had nothing more than a plain English 
education. 

The China Inland Mission has 70 stations, in which there 
are resident missionaries, and 67 out-stations. These are 
situated in the following provinces : Che-kiang, Kiang-su, 
Ngan-whi, Kiang-si, Hoo-pe^ Ho-nan, Sze-Chuan, Quei-chow, 
Shan-si, Kan-suh, Shan-tung, Shen-si, Yun-nan, Pe-chi-li, Hoo- 
nan, and Bhamo, in Upper Burma. 

It will be seen from the above the measure of success which 
has attended the efforts of the Mission to commence and carry- 
on work in ten of the eleven provinces, which, before the 
Mission was formed, were without Protestant missionaries; 
and in the remaining province — the province of Quang-si — 
some missionary journeys were taken in 1877 and 1878 by 
Edward Fishe, George Clark, and James Cameron, of the 
China Inland Mission. The number of the communicants 
exceeds 2000. 

The year 1887 will be memorable in the history of the 
Mission, as during its course 100 new missionaries were sent 
out. During 1888 there was a further addition of fifty-five new 
missionaries. 



SUMMARY. 
Income, 1888, pf33>924. 



No. ot 
Stations and 
Out-stations. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contribu- 
tions. 


137 


Ordained 
and Lay. 

153 


Fe- 
male. 
123 


Or- 
dained. 
12 


Lay. 
120 


2105 


220^ 


482 



^ Approximate. 
Magazine : — Chi?ta's Millions ; Monthly.' 



( i66 ) 



STRICT BAPTIST MISSION. 

ESTABLISHED 1 86 1. 

This Mission, representing that part of the Baptist denomi- 
nation which practises * strict communion/ was constituted 
simply as a church institution, being based upon the principle 
of individual church action, and direct communication with 
the missionaries. It is now supported by] upwards of fifty 
churches, besides others in the United States and in Australia. 
The Secretariat, as from the first, is filled gratuitously, and no 
official expenses are incurred beyond the items of printing, 
postage, etc. 

Its special spheres of labour are in India and Ceylon. The 
work was commenced, in 1861, at Tulleygaum, a populous 
village between Bombay and Poonah ; Mr. Fenwick, the son of 
an Anglo-Indian officer, being its first missionary, who was 
succeeded by a native Hindoo convert, Gyanoba Powar, 
under the superintendence of Mr. H. P. Cassidy. Owing to 
the decease of Mr. Cassidy — November, 1866 — the work at 
Tulleygaum was relinquished. In the meantime, a station 
had been opened at St. Thomas's Mount, about nine miles 
east of Madras, under the charge of Mr. H. F. Doll, the 
present superintendent of the Society's Indian Mission, Mr. 
Henry Thomas being first engaged as missionary, and on his 
superannuation in 1874, Mr. Henry Noble, from the Madras 
Army Scripture Readers' Society. 

After an effort of some years' duration at Perambur, in 
the Madras Presidency, a church was formed at Poonamallee 
in 187 1. The missionary church at St. Thomas's Mount is 
now under the charge of Jacob John, a native convert, and the 
church at Poonamallee under that of Abel Michael. In these 
churches no caste is tolerated. There are also English 
churches in both places. All the members of both English 
and native churches practise total abstinence from intoxicating 
drinks. 

The wife of the above-named Jacob John carries on Zenana 
work (commenced in 1881), and teaches the Hindoo caste 
girls' school at St. Thomas's Mount. 



Tinnevelli : Ceylon. 



167 



The Tinnevelli Mission was commenced in 1882, Mr. Doll, 
jun., being appointed missionary, on the decease of a faithful 
man named Arulappen, who had for some time given himself 
to evangelistic work. In 1883, 33 natives were baptized in 
the village of Elavarasananthal, and 16 in the village of EUiari- 
punni. These converts (with three others previously baptized 
by Arulappen) were organized into two churches of 33 and 19 
members respectively. The work has since been attended 
with much success ; two new stations have been added, and 
the Mission staff has been increased. Several converts have 
been baptized and received into the Church. 

Eight chapels have been built, in some cases entirely by the 
native Christians. 

Mrs. Doll is assisted by a Bible woman in carrying on 
Scripture-reading work. They have also the care of a girls' 
school. 

The Mission in Ceylon has been carried on since 1868. 
One station is at Slave Island, Colombo, and two stations have 
recently been opened at Jaffna, a peninsula in the north-west of 
the island, viz., Uduvile and Nunavile. Mr. Noble 'has charge 
of all the stations. Mrs. Noble is also earnestly devoted to the 
work ; she conducts a Bible class, and assists in various ways. 
There are two school-teachers at Colombo, and two at Jaffna, 
most of whom are able to preach the Word. 



SUMMARY. 

Iiicofne, ;£"688. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


En- 
tered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Work- 
ers. 


Native Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


Madras . . 
North Tinne-\ 
velli . . ./ 
Ceylon . . . 


1866 
1882 

i868 


2 

8 
3 


Ov. 
dained. 

I 


Or- 
dained. 

3 
2 

5 


Lay. 

5 

8 

3 
16 


Fe- 
male. 

2 

2 


Ueturnj 


25 

294 
34 


6 
9 
4 


202 
157 
150 


r About 
iRs. 120 
Nominal 

Rs. 45 


Totals . . 


• • 


13 


' 


a 1 ... 


353 


19 


509 


Rs. i6s 



Magazine : — The Olive Branch, Monthly. 



( i63 ) 



FRIENDS' FOREIGN MISSION ASSOCIATION. 

FOUNDED 1865. 

Many gifted men and women in the Society of Friends have 
from early in its history been led to visit foreign countries to 
preach the Gospel of Christ, and in some of these instances the 
visits have been extended over a wide area, as when later 
Daniel Wheeler, of Sheffield, visited the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean in the years 1834 to 1838; and James Backhouse and 
George W. Walker travelled in South Africa and Australia from 
1832 to 1840. But these were only isolated cases, and those 
engaged in such visits did not feel any call to remain and 
labour steadily in one field. In the year 1833, however, the 
subject of Missions to Foreign Lands was brought definitely 
before the Society of Friends as a body. In that year the ques- 
tion came prominently before the central Yearly Meeting in 
London, which called upon Friends to see how far they might 
have any service for God in this direction. 

In 1859, George Richardson, of Newcastle, wrote with his 
own hand sixty long letters addressed to his fellow-members up 
and down the country, in which he urged the claims of the 
perishing heathen upon this branch of the Christian Church. 
This was, in the ordering of God, as the lifting of the banner of 
missionary enterprise, and the means of re-awakening the 
matter in the councils of the Society of Friends. In 1861, an 
address was issued by its central governing body ' on what was 
due from them towards communicating the knowledge of the 
Gospel to the heathen in foreign lands.' This action was 
emphasized by appeals from the late William Ellis, the veteran 
Madagascar missionary, who urged the opening for Friends in 
that country in the way of education, then urgently needed. 

In the year 1865, a Provisional Committee was formed to 
promote the cause of missions to the heathen amongst English 
Friends, and in 1866, the first missionary, Rachel Metcalfe, 
sailed for India, having as her primary object to assist in female 



India. 169 

education, especially of an industrial character. The seed 
sown by the late W. Ellis was also, under the Lord's blessing, 
now about to bear fruit; and in the same year, 1866, the Pro- 
visional Committee received offers for service in Madagascar 
from two American Friends, Louis and Sarah Street, and from 
Joseph S. Sewell, of Hitchin, who had long felt that God was 
calling him to work in that island. 

This led, in the Divine ordering, to the establishment of the 
Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which, whilst entirely in 
harmony with the general Society, could more easily take the 
responsibility of the foreign work. An Executive Committee 
was formed, to which James Hack Tuke, of Hitchin, became 
Treasurer, a post which he still retains. Henry S. Newman, of 
Leominster, was appointed Honorary Secretary, and somewhat 
later, Charles Linney, of Hitchin, Secretary. 

The Friends' Foreign Mission Association has hitherto only 
taken up three fields of labour, viz. : India, Madagascar, and 
China. 

The Mission in India was commenced very simply in 1866 
by Rachel Metcalfe, who took part for some time in industrial 
school work at Benares. On the arrival in 1869 of two more 
missionaries, Elkanah and Irene Beard, of Indiana, U.S.A., a 
separate mission was commenced in the city of Benares, which 
was moved in the following year to Jabalpur, at the east 
extremity of the Nerbudda Valley, in the Central Provinces. 
E. and I. Beard were, however, only permitted to continue in 
their labour of love for a short time, being compelled by ill- 
health to return to America in 1872. But the work was not to 
be left undone. Again the call of India's millions was felt by 
the Society at home, and in February 1873 a young English 
Friend, Charles Gayford, joined R. Metcalfe at Jabalpur. 
Finding that a large district in the middle of the Nerbudda 
Valley, comprising a population of three or four millions, and 
having its central point in the city of Hoshangabad, was 
totally unoccupied by any Christian Missions, our friends 
decided to settle there, and thus take up work in an entirely 
new district. 

Accordingly, in 1874, the Mission was established at the 
city of Hoshangabad, which has since remained the liead- 
quarters of the Indian work of the Association. Situated in 



lyo Friends' Foreign Mission Association. 

a fertile wheat-growing district^ studded with villages, the 
city itself is the base of operations from which, in the cold 
seasons, itinerant journeys are regularly made to village 
bazaars, melas, etc. In 1878 fresh labourers, Samuel Baker 
and John H. Williams, took up the work, and shortly afterwards 
a branch station was opened at Sohagpur, a small town about 
thirty miles away, where John H. Williams and his wife are still 
actively engaged. Whilst few converts can be pointed to as 
the result of the labours in this Mission as yet, there is a most 
marked change in the natives. The Boys' and Girls' Schools 
are well maintained, and the preaching of the truth as it is in 
Jesus is listened to with respect and attention. The first mis- 
sionary, Rachel Metcalfe, who continues at her post, has for 
several years had a small orphanage under her care. A large 
and commodious building has now been erected on the Mission 
Compound, capable of accommodating 50 girls, and the 
orphans were transferred to this in February 1888. They are 
now under the care of Anna L. Evens, a lady whose mind 
was strongly drawn to this work. Zenana work is carried on by 
the ladies of the station, who visit about 54 houses regularly, 
the women being glad to receive them, and listening attentively 
to the Word of Life. 

In Madagascar the work of the Association was commenced 
by Joseph S. Sewell and Louis and Sarah Street, who arrived 
out in 1868, just at the juncture when the adoption of the 
Christian religion by the Queen had given an immense impulse 
to the existing Missions. Finding themselves alongside the 
London Missionary Society, whose missionaries were exerting 
every power to cope with the eager cry for Christian instruction, 
the Friends at once set to work to aid these brethren, and for a 
time joined in the educational department of the London Mis- 
sionary Society. The rapid growth of all branches of Christian 
effort, however, soon made it needful to divide the central pro- 
vince of Imerina into districts, a.nd in 1870 the large district 
attached to the Ambohitantely church was placed under the 
care of the two Friends. Here a most active and interesting, 
as well as extensive, field was found, and the work has steadily 
grown and progressed ever since. The district allotted to the 
Friends' Foreign Mission Association, comprising an area of 
2000 square miles, stretching west from Antananarivo to the 



Madagascar. 17 

Sakalava border, had in it, when taken in charge first by Joseph 
S. Sewell, in 1868, six chapels, but by 1872 this number had 
increased to 62 congregations with 37 schools. A large boys' 
school was established in the capital, which was speedily filled 
by 200 scholars, whilst Sarah Street took charge of a girls' 
school with 170 in attendance. This lady retiring firom the 
Mission in 1878, the school was actively carried on by Helen 
Gilpin, whose earnest labour for several years amongst the 
women and girls has been much blessed, but who has in turn 
withdrawn from the care of the school, which now numbers 
230 girls on its books. As knowledge increased, it was 
soon necessary to add a Training College for young men, 
and this formed another step in the development of the Mis- 
sion. Under the care of Frank, a young Malagasy, partially 
educated in England, this college has been a source for the 
supply of teachers for the country schools, the need for which 
was soon apparent. 

The blessing of God has rested manifestly on this Mission. 
Beginning in 1868 as above, there are now 139 congregations, 
with 3300 members^ and z^^z^o adherents — the average 
attendance at chapels each Sunday being 19,500. To meet the 
spiritual needs of these, there are now 370 native preachers, 
and 40 pastors (also native); 130 schools, with nearly 15,000 
scholars on the registers. These are all under the care of a 
small number of European missionaries, who visit throughout 
the district at regular intervals, examine schools, give Bible 
lessons to the pastors and teachers, dispense medicine, etc., etc. 

An active and valuable work is carried on at tlie printing 
office, founded in 1872, under the care of Abraham Kingdon. 
In the first eight years of its existence 539,000 publications 
were issued by this press, and it has since expanded its area. 
The native lads are not only taught printing, but some of them 
lithography, map making, etc. A monthly magazine is issued 
for adults regularly, and one for children (illustrated). 

In 1880, the Hospital and Medical Mission at Analakely 
came under the Association's control, jointly with the London 
Missionary Society, being re-opened in that year by Dr. J. T. 
Fox, who has just retired from the work. Not only have the 
wants of the sick and distressed been alleviated, but native 
Malagasy students have been trained for medical work, native 
nurses taught, and finally, largely through the efforts of Dr. Fox, 



172 



Friends' Foreim Mission Association, 



assisted by his colleague Dr. Allen, and by the Norwegian Mis- 
sionary Society's medical officers, a Medical Mission Aca- 
demy has been set on foot, with a regular course of study for 
native medical men. The hospital, which is the only one in 
the island of Madagascar, and will accommodate about 35 
patients, has usually been full^ and an average of from 4000 to 
5000 out-patients are dealt with annually. 

As showing the advance in Christian life and thoughtfulness 
made during the past nineteen years in Madagascar, it may be 
added that the native churches themselves now maintain a 
Native Missionary Society, and an Orphanage for Boys, 
managing both institutions themselves. 

With regard to China, two Friends, Robert J. and Mrs. 
Davidson, went out in 1886 to the western part of that vast 
empire, and are now at Han-chong, in the Province of Shen-si, 
but expect to move this year to Tungchwan-fu, in the neigh- 
bouring province of Sze-Chuan. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income^ about ;^8,5oo. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Mem- 
bers. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


India . . 
Madagascar 
China . . 


1866 
1867 
1886 


2 

2 
I 


Lay. 
3 

6 

I 


Fe- 
male. 
6 

9 

I 


Lay. 

6 

^70 


Fe- 
male. 
2 


36,360 


19 
2,951 


2 

130 


ICO 

14,500 




Totals . 


... 1 5 1 10 


16 


376 


2 


36.360 


2,970 


132 


14,600 


L-^is 



Magazine : — The Friend of MissioJis ; Monthly. 



( 173 ) 



FRIENDS' SYRIAN MISSION. 

FOUNDED 1867. 

This Mission originated in religious visits paid to the East by- 
Eli and Sybil Jones, of New England, U.S.A., in 1867-8-9, 
accompanied by the late Alfred Lloyd Fox, of Falmouth, and 
Ellen Clare Miller (now Pearson, of Wilmslow). It consists of 
two departments : (a) Grants in aid of Female Schools in 
various parts of Syria and Palestine, under the care of other 
societies. These grants have been diminished as the work of 
the Mission in other directions has extended, and now amount 
in all to ;^62 per year. 

(b) Brumana Mission Station, Mount Lebanon, Syria, under 
the general superintendence of Theophilus Waldmeier. Here 
are carried on — • 

(i) Religious Meetings, Sunday Schools, Bible Classes, etc. 
A Meeting House to seat 200 was erected in 1887. 

(2) Boys' Training Home, containing 30 boarders, besides 
day scholars ; L. Riskallah and Thomas Little, Superintendents. 
Admission is eagerly sought by large numbers. Lectures and 
other agencies carried on. 

(3) Girls' Training Home, 15 boarders, under Emma M. 
Bishop and M. Fareedy. 

(4) Hospital of 15 beds. In-patients, in 1887, 102. Lady 
Superintendent, Ellen Clayton. 

(5) Dispensary, 5667 patients in 1887. Lady Superintendent, 
Maria Feltham. 

All the medical work is under Dr. Beshara J. Manasseh, 
who also paid 1489 visits to patients' homes in 1887 ; many of 
these were distant. 

(6) Day Schools in 7 villages of the district, under native 
teachers ; also Religious Meetings in several villages^ and some 
itinerant Bible-reading and tract distribution. 

(7) Mothers' Meetings, under Susanne Waldmeier, over 100 
in attendance. 

(c) A second station at Ramallah, near Jerusalem, is main- 



174 



Rock Fountain Mission. 



tained under Dr. George Hessenauer, with Meetings, Schools, 
Cottage Hospital, Dispensary, etc. This was under the charge 
of the Mission until 1888, when it was transferred to the 
Foreign Mission Committee of New England Yearly Meeting 
of the Society of Friends, U.S.A., in exchange for the share 
formerly taken by that Committee in the Brumana Station. 



SUMMARY. 
Annual Income^ £2^2>Z1' 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Schools. 


■Scholars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


Brumana and^ 

district . . j 

Schools Assisted 


1874 
1867 


Lay. 
2 


Female. 

5 


Lay. 

^5 


Female. 

9 


9 
6 


420 


;^284 


Totals . . 


... 


2 


5 


15 


9 


15 


420 


^284 



MISSION TO ZULU KAFIRS OF ROCK FOUNTAIN. 

Ixopo, Natal. Commenced 1879. 

This Mission was commenced by Elbert S. and E. Clarke 
eight years ago, amongst Kafirs who had never heard the 
Gospel. They have proved friendly, and have Hstened with 
interest to the Gospel message. Their customs, superstitions, 
and mode of life make it extremely difficult for them to come 
out as Christians. There is much, however, to encourage con- 
tinued effort. In one tribe both the chief and many of the 
people have recently avowed themselves Christians, and at the 
earnest desire of the chief, Sakayedwa, a Mission station has 
been established adjoining his location, with school and regular 
religious services. This centre has been called Endunduma, 
from the mountain on one of the slopes of which the Mission 
buildings are being erected. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clarke have now four Stations — Entakamu, 



Mission to Zulu Kafirs. 175 

Rock Fountain, Hope Vale and Endunduma. Rock Fountain 
was the original station, but owing to the sale of Crown Lands, 
and the consequent migrations of the heathen, they have 
had to change their headquarters to Entakamu. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clarke's is entirely pioneer work. They have 
schools at Hope Vale and Entakamu, conducted by native 
teachers, and containing 50 scholars. Mrs. Clarke holds a* 
weekly meeting for women and girls at Entakamu, the native 
converts among them taking part in a simple, earnest manner. 
Mrs. Clarke also teaches them sewing. Religious services 
are held at all the stations. Mr. Clarke visits them by 
turns. He attaches great importance to itinerating amongst 
the natives. He takes his waggon, or where that is not prac- 
ticable, his pack-horse, with all things needful, and travels 
round a considerable district, sending a messenger before him 
to collect the natives, and preaching often to chief and people 
in the neighbourhood of the kraals. A carpenter's and black- 
smith's shop, with forge, etc., complete, has been provided at 
Entakamu, and Mr. Clarke hopes to introduce these industries 
amongst the naturally indolent natives, by educating the older 
boys in the school in the use of tools. 

Mr. Clarke is greatly sought after for medical and surgical 
aid — people often coming great distances for his treatment; 
in one case fifty miles, in another seventy. He is feeling the 
great need of a small hospital at Entakamu, in which to care 
for patients who need prolonged attention. 

The natives are a fine race, but very degraded. They wel- 
come the missionary, and are especially glad to have their 
children educated. 

The Mission, like those in Syria and Constantinople, is in no 
way connected with the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, 
but like them it is largely supported by the subscriptions of 
Friends. It is also in part self-supporting from the produce of 
the farm surrounding the homestead and mission buildings. 
The sum contributed to the Mission is about £,z^o annually. 



( 176 ) 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

REPRESENTATIVE CHURCH COUNCIL FOREIGN MISSION BOARD. 

The Scottish Episcopal Church, as a corporate body, took 
up Foreign Mission Work in 1872. 

In 1873, she consecrated Bishop Kallavvay, the first Bishop 
of St. John's, Kaffraria, and since then, instead of, as before, 
sending all contributions to various English Missionary Societies, 
the Scottish Episcopal Church has devoted herself to assisting 
the Diocese of St. John's, Kaffraria, guaranteeing ;£"5oo per 
annum towards the Bishop's stipend and the mission and school 
at Chanda^ Central Province, India, under the Bishop of 
Calcutta. 

In addition to these main objects, contributions are 
received for all societies belonging to the Church of England, 
and forwarded by the Board as desired by the several donors. 
The sums received for these objects amount to about ;^2 6oo 
per annum. 

In several dioceses there are Diocesan Boards connected 
with the General Board, each under the Bishop of the Diocese 
and a committee. The Edinburgh Diocesan Board has an 
income of between ^^700 and ;£8oo per annum. 

In addition to these agencies there is a very flourishing 
Church Woman's Association, numbering nearly three thousand 
members, with a lady correspondent in each congregation, 
which collects funds in aid of missionary objects, and has a 
work party for foreign missions in the majority of the congre- 
gations. Through this association there is raised in the 
diocese of Edinburgh, in contributions, above ^250, and value 
of work about ^340 per annum. 

Besides these agencies there is the Edinburgh auxiliary of 
the Church Missionary Society, which remits above ;^4oo per 
annum to that society. 

Magazine: — The Mission Chronicle; Quarterly. 



( 177 ) 



THE SALVATION ARMY. 

ORGANIZED UNDER ITS PRESENT NAME, 1 87 8. 

In July 1865 the Rev. William Booth commenced holding 
services in the East of London for the purpose of evangelising 
the masses. Those who became converted were soon organised 
into a Society called ' The Christian Mission,' and when it was 
found in 1878 that this Society had become by its system of 
management and labour an army, it was called ' The Salvation 
Army.' Since that time its progress, which had already been 
rapid, has been far greater, extending to the United States, to 
British North America, and to Australia, New Zealand, and 
Tasmania, as well as to France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, 
Holland, Sweden, and Denmark. 

In 1 88 1, Mr. F. Tucker, one of Her Majesty's Sub-Commis- 
sioners in the north of India, resigned his position to become a 
Salvation Army officer, and after a year spent in England, he 
was sent to commence the work in India. Having first formed 
Corps in the three Presidency towns and in Colombo, Ceylon, 
he established native services in Gujarat, Ceylon, and recently 
in South India. A party of 40 officers were sent to Ceylon in 
1886, 20 more from America following later in the same year. 
Another party of 50 from England were sent in 1887, as well 
as 12 from Australia, and another 12 from Sweden sailed 
early in 1888. The Army has now in India 125 officers sent 
from abroad and 79 raised up from amongst the converts. 
All wear the dress and live in the style of the country, and 
receive their food from the people around them. The languages 
have been learnt with remarkable rapidity by those sent in 1886 
and 1887. 

In December 1887 a party of 20 officers was sent to extend 
the work commenced there by three officers in 1883, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and a corps to commence services 

N 



178 The Salvatio7i Army. 

amongst the Zulus, some of whom, speaking English, as well as 
many Kafirs of other races, had already been converted at the 
Army's meetings. 

The Army has now 3,550 officers working abroad, and so 
nearly is the work self-supporting, that they do not cost the 
International Head-quarters more than ^^5 each per annum 
on the average. 

An officer of the Army, well acquainted with every branch of 
the work, gives the following information : — 

' In India our officers go bare -footed, begging their food from door 
to door, and dress like the natives, thus winning their affection and 
esteem. Our officers go to India on the understanding that they are 
not to have any salary, and they never expect to return again to this 
country. The fact that we are able to send out batches of missionaries 
of fifty or sixty at one time possessed of this self-sacrificing spirit shows the 
soundness and quality of the converts that have been raised up from the 
work at home. In South Africa we are having most wonderful success 
amongst the lower classes, the diamond diggers, and criminals of that 
country. The authorities have thrown open the prisons to us, and it is no 
uncommon thing to see three or four penitents kneeling at the drum head 
in the prison yard. In some prisons we have quite a number of converts 
finishing their sentences, who hope on their release to serve God as soldiers 
of the Salvation Army. We have just entered Zululand, and at the second 
meeting held there in a certain district a chief was saved, and his family 
soon followed his example. Regular meetings are now being held amongst 
them, and the last despatch received reports fifty converts. In all parts of the 
world God is blessing our efforts, and we hope the time is not far distant 
when the Army flag shall be unfurled in all the nations of the world.' 



SUMMARY. 

Afimial Central Ltcome, ^50,000.^ 

India and Ceylon ... 50 Stations 300 Officers 
South Africa and St. Helena 65 „ 185 „ 

* This amount includes sums spent in Great Britain and Ireland, in the 
Colonies, on the Continent of Europe, in the United States, and in French 
Canada ; but is exclusive of funds raised and spent locally. 

Papers -.—The War Cry, The Little Soldier ; Weekly. ' 



( 179 ) 

WOMEN'S SOCIETIES. 

(GREAT BRITAIN.) 



SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING FEMALE EDUCATION 
IN THE EAST. 

ESTABLISHED 1 834. 

This Society was formed for the purpose of giving instruction 
to women in the Zenanas of India, and in their own homes in 
China. Thus it is the oldest Zenana Society in existence. It 
was found impossible then to carry the object of the Society 
into effect, for the doors of those prison-homes were locked 
and double-barred. The Committee, therefore, while biding 
their time, turned to School work, finding it more practicable to 
collect and to teach children, especially of the lower classes, 
than to reach those of mature age and of higher social position. 
Beginning with Schools in India and China, the work of the 
Society was subsequently extended to other countries also, and 
now includes Ceylon (1837); Japan (1878); the Straits 
(1835); Africa (South, 1838; West, 1863); the Levant 
(Egypt, 1836 ; Holy Land, 1841) ; Turkey in Europe (1839), 
and Persia (1882). 

Notwithstanding all the early obstacles in the way, one of the 
Society's missionary ladies did succeed in gaining access into a 
native house in Calcutta in 1835, and became thus the first 
Zenana missionary sent out by any Society. But it was only a 
day of small things then, and so it continued to be for years 
following. Since the Indian Mutiny, however, it may be said 
that 'the little one has become a thousand,' and now, no 
longer the only Zenana society in existence, the Committee 
have seen more than twenty kindred agencies spring up around 
them in Europe and America. 

The object of the Society has been strictly evangelistic — that 
of carrying the Gospel to the homes of the East. To this end, 
education was felt to be of great importance, in order that 
those who should be reached by these missionaries might each 
be carefully instructed in the truths of the Christian religion, 

N 2 



i8o Society for Proniot'mg Female Education hi the East. 

enabled to read the Word of God for herself in her own 
tongue, and qualified to impart her knowledge to others. Thus 
the object of the Committee included evangelization, education, 
and training in teaching. It is true that the single word Edu- 
cation, which alone appears in their title, does not express all 
this ; but it was well known to do so at the time ; and many 
substantial, as well as legal, reasons exist against lengthening a 
title, in these busy days, or altering it, even if it were possible 
to give one that should be concise, as well as sufficiently ex- 
planatory. 

The Committee have been enabled by God's grace to adhere 
firmly to the principles laid down at the establishment of the 
Society : full and free instruction in the Scriptures, which alone 
can make wise unto salvation, for all \ education without the 
Bible, for none. 

As an aid to carrying the plans and principles of the Society 
into effect, the Committee have adopted the comparatively 
recently introduced method of working through Medical Mis- 
sions, in North India and in the Holy Land. 

The work of the Society may be thus briefly summed up : — 
Zenana Missions ; Medical Missions ; Village Missions ; work 
among the crowds assembling at native festivals ; house and 
hut visiting ; boarding, day, infant, and Sunday Schools ; Bible 
and sewing classes ; training native Zenana missionaries, district 
visitors, schoolmistresses and Bible-women ; mothers' meetings ; 
also branches of the Bible and Prayer Union, and of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. 

At the present time the staff of European missionary ladies 
consists of forty ; the number of Zenana ladies under instruction 
is above 2,300, and those in the schools in all the countries 
mentioned conducted by their own missionaries, or by the 
wives of missionaries who receive assistance from the Society in 
grants of money or of boxes of work for sale, amount to 17,604 ; 
while the souls that have been given to their missionaries for 
their hire out of many nations, and kindreds, and people, and 
tongues are not to be counted by human arithmetic. There are 
thousands now gladdening the hearts of those who led them to 
the Saviour, adorning His doctrine and working in His service. 

Magazine : — The Female Missionary Intelligencer ; Monthly. 



( i8i ) 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND LADIES' ASSOCIATION 
FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS, INCLUDING ZENANA 
WORK. 

ESTABLISHED 1837. 

The Female Missions of the Church of Scotland are exactly 
coincident with the period of the Queen's reign. They were 
originated (March 1837) by the formation in Edinburgh of the 
Scottish Ladies' Association for the Advancement of Female 
Education in India. Under this name the work went on till 
1883, when with the widening of its field to Africa, the 
Association's present title was adopted, as indicating its aim to 
establish a female agency at every foreign mission station 
occupied by ordained missionaries of the church. 

As the Society for Projnoting Female Education in the East 
was formed on the appeal of an American Missionary to China 
— David Abeel — the Scottish Ladies' movement was mainly 
due to an officer of the Indian army, Captain St. Clair Jameson. 
Between the English and Scottish Societies, thus formed 
within three years of each other (the pioneers of the now 
numerous Women's Societies of the Protestant world), there 
was, in their early years, a frequent friendly correspondence and 
co-operation, in which the junior Society was often indebted to 
her senior sister, especially in the procuring of agents, then less 
ready in Scotland to offer than happily they are now. 

The Association's earliest undertaking was to aid Female 
Schools in the Western Presidency. The first missionary, 
Miss Reid, was sent to Bombay in 1838, followed in 1841 by 
Mademoiselle Jallot (a French convert from Romanism), and 
both, alas! found early graves. Miss Shaw was the first 
missionary to Poona (1841), and Miss Laing to Calcutta 
(1840), where the chaplain's wife (Mrs. Charles) had already 
made a beginning by gathering little girls in her com- 
pound and rewarding them with a few pice for coming to 
learn. This illustrates plainly enough the general indifference 
which prevailed in regard to Female Education. So many 
obstacles opposed its progress that for years orphanages were the 
most encouraging, indeed, almost the only practicable method 
of work. But girls' schools became gradually popular, the 
number of caste pupils increased, and at last a beginning was 



Ib2 



C}ui7-ch of Scotland Ladies' Association. 



made in Zenana teaching at Calcutta, in connection with the 
Missionary Association of St. Andrew's Kirk and under Miss 
Brittain, in 1863-64. The development of the work in every de- 
partment has since been remarkably rapid, the agencies now 
employed being as follow : — i. Orphanages, Boarding-schools, 
and Training-schools for girls as native teachers. 2. Girls' 
Day Schools. 3. Sabbath-schools. 4. Zenana Teaching. 
5. Village preaching. 6. Medical Mission work. The stations 
are Calcutta, Madras, Poona, Darjeeling, Gujarat, Sealkote, 
and Chamba in India, and Blantyre in East Africa. At these 
stations and through these agencies, educational, evangelistic 
and medical work is carried on by 17 European lady mission- 
aries, assisted by over a hundred Eurasian and native teachers 
and Bible-women, in 35 schools, with 2,460 pupils in over 400 
Zenanas, and by several dispensaries for women and children. 

Though the Association was formed outside of church courts, 
it was early in its history recognised by the Church, and brought 
under the superintendence of the General Assembly's Com- 
mittee on Foreign Missions. This relation has become closer 
year by year, as the work has grown in importance as a branch 
of the Foreign Mission Scheme. 

The Home Organisation is developed by auxiliaries in the 
presbyteries and parishes of Scotland. The Association 
publishes a Quarterly Magazine, The News of Female Missiofis, 
and under its auspices there is also issued an illustrated 
quarterly leaflet. Fellow-workers in the Female Missions of the 
Church of Scotland. 

SUMMARY. 

Income at home and adroad (1888), about ;£'7,66o. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered, 

A.D. 


No. of 
Stations. 


Foreign Workers 

(European 
and Eurasian). 


Native Workers 
(Christian). 


India . . . 
East Africa. 


1838 
1884 


7 

I 


30 
I 


89 


Totals . 




8 


31 


89 







Magazine : — News of Female Missions ; Quarterly. 



Free Church of Scotland Ladies^ Society, 
Summary. — continued. 



183 



Fields of Labour. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Zenanas 

Visited. 


Local Contributions, 

Fees, and Govern* 

ment Grants. 


India 

East Africa. 


34 

I 


2,389 
71 


442 


Rs. 

9,465 


Totals . . 


35 


2,460 


442 


Rs. 9,465 



Medical Mission undertaken 1885. Poona Medical Dispensary opened 
January, 1887. Patients in 1887, 1,660. 



FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND LADIES' SOCIETY 
FOR FEMALE EDUCATION IN INDIA AND 
SOUTH AFRICA. 

The work now carried on by this Society was begun by the 
Church of Scotland in 1837, six years before the disruption 
took place (see p. 116). 

It is recognised by the General Assembly as an important 
branch of the Foreign Missions of the Church, supporting, as 
it does, the women's side thereof; but no funds are derived by 
it from the Foreign Missions Committee. 

The plan of the Zenana Missions was first suggested by 
Professor T. Smith, D.D., and carried out by the Rev. John 
Fordyce of the Free Church in 1854. The system of this 
Society has lately been so reorganized, under Colonel Young, 
the Rev. Wm. Stevenson, and Miss Rainy, who made a tour in 
India, that every congregation is asked to form an association 
of women only, separate from that for Foreign Missions, and 
all represented in presbyterial auxiliaries. 

Zenana Missions form only a part of the agency, which, as 
hitherto, must be largely devoted to Christian schools — de- 
veloping normal schools for the supply of indigenous Zenana 
teachers ; high schools, at which the native Christian com- 
munity, growing in wealth, intelligence, and influence, may 
receive a suitable Biblical education ; and Medical Missions by 
both Scottish and Native practitioners fully qualified. 



184 Free Church of Scotland Ladies' Society, 

The fields occupied by the Society are : India— Bengal, 
Madras, Western India, and Nagpur : and 

Africa : Kaffraria, Transkei, and Natal. 

The following table will show at a glance the nature of the 
work, and, to a certain extent, the measure of its success. 

From nearly all the above stations encouraging reports are 
received, and abundant evidence is forthcoming that in every 
department the work is being greatly blessed. 

In regard to the Calcutta Zenana Mission one of the 
workers writes : — 

• I was particularly struck with the eagerness of the women to listen to 
the Bible story ; they would crowd round, and with rapt attention drink 
in every word that was spoken. They were also greatly delighted with 
the hymns, more especially if sung to Bengali airs. In one house there 
was an audience of fifteen, including children. There is thus never any 
lack of opportunities, rather the regret that, with such an abundant harvest 
there should be, comparatively speaking, so few labourers. 

* One very encouraging branch of the work is tract distribution ; every 
one is eager to receive books, and while going through the lanes boys will 
come running to the ghari doors to receive leaflets ; and who can tell what 
good these scattered portions of God's Word may do for those into whose 
hands they fall ? ' 

In the face of experience like this it is scarcely to be 
wondered at that opposition and temporary discouragements, 
when met with, only serve to stimulate the workers to greater 
zeal in the Master's service. 

In 1887 the Society made a new departure in their work, by 
sending out to Madras a fully qualified lady medical missionary, 
Miss Macphail, who will have the charge of a dispensary as 
soon as her acquaintance with the language, and her experience 
in Eastern forms of disease and treatment, fit her for such a 
position. This is but the beginning of what, it is hoped, will 
become an important branch of the Society's operations. The 
Income for 1887 was ;^7,i85. 

Magazines : — See page 146. 





> 


Calcutta — Boa 
Day Schools 
Zenana Work 
Branch-Station 

Santalia— Boar 
Day Schools 

Madras— Board 
Normal School 
Day Schools 
Zenana Work 

Bombay— Board 
Day Schools 
Zenana Work 

Poona— Boardin 
Day Schools 
Zenana Work 

Nagpur— Board 
Day Schools 
Zenana Work 

Bhandara — Da 

Berar — Amraw; 








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( i86 ) 

INDIAN FEMALE NORMAL SCHOOL AND IN- 
STRUCTION SOCIETY; OR, ZENANA BIBLE 
AND MEDICAL MISSION. 

(In co-operation with the Church Missionary and other 
Protestant Missionary Societies in India.) 

established 1 85 2. 

Object : — To make known the Gospel of Christ to the 
Women of India. 

Originated in Calcutta, where some Christian ladies heard 
of the conversion of a young Hindu lady who had learnt the 
truth through simply reading her Bible. In 185 1 this young 
lady died a believer in Christ at the age of 17. Tlie Christian 
ladies alluded to decided to set on foot a Training School, 
where Eurasian teachers might be trained, in the hope that 
the Zenanas might by degrees be opened to them, and they 
might have an opportunity of teaching their pupils to read the 
Bible. In 185 1 these ladies sent home money to the Hon. 
Mrs. A. Kinnaird, our late President (the late Dowager Lady 
Kinnaird), and asked her to send out a suitable person to 
commence the Calcutta Female Normal School. The Hon. 
Mrs. Kinnaird sent out two ladies — sisters — the Misses 
Suter, who established the Normal School in Calcutta in 
1852. 

The Society gradually extended its operations, and added to 
the training of teachers. Zenana visiting, the establishment of 
female schools, the employment of native Bible-women, and 
the Medical Mission. In the latter branch of work none but 
thoroughly qualified medical ladies are employed^ and the 
Society has establishments in Lucknow and Benares. 

At the present time the Society's work is carried on at 28 
centres, where there are either Schools, Zenana Visitation, Bible- 
women, Village Work or a Medical Mission in active opera- 
tion. At our Native Christian Girls' School at Lahore (opened 
at 1873), which has been lately much enlarged, we have 50 
boarders always under careful Christian influences, besides 
many day scholars. The total number of pupils under the 
instruction of our Missionaries in Schools and Zenanas 



Indian Female Normal School Society. 



187 



throughout India is at present over 3,600 ; and when it is 
remembered that out of a female population of 124,000,000, 
111,000,000 cannot read or write, the need of such an agency 
will be fully realised. The Bible-women are employed to read 
and explain the Scriptures in the homes of the natives, in 
hospitals, jails, etc., under circumstances where their visits are 
most welcome and where the Word of Life meets with a ready 
attention. At our Medical Missions (under the superin- 
tendence of duly qualified Lady Doctors) the bodily sufferings 
of the native women are attended to, while their spiritual needs 
are also duly provided for ; besides the Medical Missionary in 
attendance, there are both native Christian nurses and Bible- 
women in connection with the hospitals. At our Women's 
Hospital at Lucknow during the past seven years there has 
been a total of — New Patients, 12,915 ; Attendances, 32,008. 

The Committee has recently opened a Hospital and Dis- 
pensaries at Benares, and contemplate doing the same at 
Patna, if means are provided. 

The Society has at present upon its staff five missionary 
Lady Doctors, while others will have obtained their diplomas 
by next year. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income^ about ;£ii, 000. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta. 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


India 


1852 












,, Bombay Presidency . 


1862 


13 


21 


60 


II 


929 


„ Madras Presidency . 


1863 




... 


7 






„ N. W. Provinces . . 


1864 


II 


35 


80 


39 


2,403 


„ Orissa 


1882 






7 


I 


16 


„ Punjab 


1863 




9 


8 


12 


289 


Totals. . . . 




28 


65 


162 


63 


3637I 



1 Includes 1,603 pupils in Zenanas. 

Magazine ; — The Indian Female Evangelist; Quarterly. 



( i88 ) 



WESLEYAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, LADIES' 
AUXILIARY. 

ESTABLISHED 1 85 9. 

This Society originated in 1859, when the repugnance to 
female education began to give way in the Eastern mind, and 
the wives of missionaries, instead of as at first finding it difficult 
to obtain girls willing to be taught, had more eager pupils than 
they could possibly instruct, and it became necessary to send 
out ladies from England to take charge of one or more schools, 
and especially to manage schools for training native teachers. 
The Society began with an income of £^1^ a year, which has 
increased to nearly ;^8,ooo. Its objects are to support — 
Training schools for teachers ; Schools for native children ; 
the visiting of Zenanas ; ditto by medical ladies ; Bible- 
women. The Society's spheres of labour among the heathen 
are in Ceylon, where it has twelve stations and twenty 
workers ; and India, especially the Presidency of Madras, 
though some work is also carried on in the Bengal Presidency. 

China was occupied in 1862, but abandoned some years 
ago (1878), from the difficulty of finding homes for the ladies. 
The Society has lately, at the urgent request of our missionaries, 
sent out a lady teacher to Canton, and a teacher and a medical 
lady to Han-kow ; and in South Africa the agency is confined 
to two ladies, working respectively at Empfundiswein and 
Shawbury; and in West Africa a high school is assisted at 
Lagos. 

The accompanying schedule will give the dates when these 
respective spheres were first entered upon. 

The pioneers have not been ladies connected with the 
Wesleyan Missionary Committee, but the wives of missionaries 
sent out by the General Committee, to which the Society is 
auxiliary. It is only when this work of overlooking the schools 
becomes too heavy for the missionary's wife that she appeals 
to us to send her help. 

On the whole the success of the work has been the greatest 
in Ceylon. Our first school there was begun at Jaffna in 
1 86 1, and now there are boarding schools at Colombo, Kal- 



Ceylon: India. 189 

munai, Kandy\ Galle, Jaffna, Point Pedro, Batticaloa, and 
Trincomalee. These schools produce well-trained native 
teachers and Bible-women. These become the centres of 
religious influence in the villages, as well as teachers in town 
schools. More than this, as wives and mothers, they show to 
the surrounding heathen what a Christian home can become, 
and therefore are themselves the best preachers on the impor- 
tance of Christian female education. In India, the awakening 
of the native mind among the men is a powerful agent in 
opening the Zenana, as the husband begins to long for some- 
thing like an education, to fit his wife to become his companion. 
Therefore, instead of, as in the days of yore, vainly knocking 
at the closed doors of the Zenana, the Christian teacher is 
unable to -enter all the doors that are thrown open to her, and 
the visitois are warmly w^elcomed, although it is distinctly 
understood that religious teaching will be given as well as 
secular. But success in this branch of the work cannot be 
tabulated, because the severe persecutions that follow a 
declaration of Christianity deter many believers at heart from 
its open profession. 

The most hopeful feature of the Indian work is the orphanages. 
Several of these were started during the Indian famine, and 
here no home influence comes in to counterbalance the school 
training. Many of the boys and girls have now reached a 
marriageable age, and the boys from Tumkur seek and find 
themselves wives among the girls at Hassan. After a year's 
betrothal, the marriage takes place, and to each young couple is 
given six acres of land, a cart, and a pair of oxen, as a start in 
life. They are located near Tumkur, and a village called 
Bethelluru is rapidly springing up. Each youth builds his own 
hut, and here the young couples settle. A kind friend has 
built for them a neat chapel, with stained-glass windows and a 
sonorous bell, and thus a Christian village has been formed, 
from the moral influence of which much may be expected. 

The native mind is beginning slowly to open to the beauty of 
Christianity in its bearing on life. The natives wonder at the 
purity of the English women, who are allowed so much liberty ; 
and they think that ours must indeed be a ' good caste,' that 

* In addition to the high school at Kandy, Mr. Langdon has opened an 
industrial school, in which the girls are taught some trade in addition to 
the usual book lessons. 



1 90 British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission. 

teaches us to care so for poor widows. On the whole, there 
has never been a period in which we felt more encouraged to 
' go forward.' 



SUMMARY. 

Income for 1888, ^7,484, also Special Fund ;£\^\<^^} 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered No. of 
A.D. \ Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Ceylon .... 
India — 

Madras Presi-' 
dency. 

Mysore Territory 

Hyderabad . 

Bengal Presi-' 
dency . . . / 
China .... 
Africa, S. . 
Africa, W. . . . 


i860 
1859 

1871 

1885 
1861 
1878 


12 

9 

7 

2 

8 
2 

3 

I 


Female. 
10 

3 

2 
4 

4 
2 

I 


Female. 
10 

13 

7 

2 

4 


122 

33 
36 

9 
28 

4 

\ 


3,580 
1,011 

2,943 
505 
917 

102 

238 

19 


Totals . . . 




45 


37 


26 


216 


9,313 



^ For a Women's Hospital at Han-kow. 
Magazine : — Qticirterly Paper. 



BRITISH SYRIAN SCHOOLS AND BIBLE MISSION. 

FOUNDED i860. 

In the year i860 the ancient city of Damascus and the towns 
and villages of the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon became the 
scene of fearful massacres. The Druzes rose against the 
Maronites and Greeks, putting to death about 11,000 of the 
Christian males, and burning some 3,000 houses. Widows 
and their daughters, to the number of 20,000, were turned 
adrift, and fled to the seaport towns. Their tale of woe called 



British Syrian Schools and Bible Mission, 191 

forth sympathy, and many countries contributed for the rehef 
of their temporal necessities. 

One EngHsh heart, however, was stirred with a desire to 
supply a deeper need. Mrs. Bowen Thompson, the widow of 
a physician whose name is associated with the Euphrates 
Valley Railway scheme, had spent most of her married life in 
Syria, and had deplored the absolute ignorance and degrada- 
tion of the female population, even the nominal Christians 
having sunk almost to the level of the Druzes and Moslems. 

In October i860 Mrs. Bowen Thompson landed in Beyrout, 
determined to bring the knowledge of the Gospel to these 
neglected women : and soon she had gathered hundreds around 
her and commenced her work. Several schools were opened 
in Beyrout, one of them being a boarding school^ where girls 
were trained to become teachers. The great blessing and 
advantage of Christian education were quickly appreciated, and 
within a few years the work spread to other stations ; schools 
were opened in Hasbeiya, Ainzahalteh, Deir el Kamar, Mokh- 
tara, Zachleh, and Damascus, which were attended not only 
by children of various Christian denominations, but also by 
Druzes, Moslems, and Jewesses. 

Mrs. Bowen Thompson was soon joined by her sister. Miss 
Lloyd, and not long after by a married sister, Mrs. Mentor 
Mott, and her husband. With their aid, and that of a small 
staff of English and a larger staff of Native workers, which 
included Bible-women and Scripture-readers, the Mission was 
well organized, and after Mrs. Thompson's death, in 1869, 
her sisters carried on the Mission, which they still continue to 
superintend. Schools were opened in Tyre, Baalbec, and 
Beckfaya. From the very first, Bible Mission work among 
the adults was carried on wherever schools were opened for 
children^ and recently this branch of the Mission has extended ; 
30 agents are now employed ; seven are men, of whom five are 
blind ; these latter are devoted workers, and their very blind- 
ness enables them to enter hareems and read to the secluded 
women, who may not be seen by men. 

In the Training Institution about 80 girls are under instruc- 
tion, preparing to act as efficient teachers in the day schools. 
The 28 day schools include 4 for boys, 4 for blind of both 
sexes, 2 specially for Moslem girls, i specially for Jewesses, 
and I night school for young men; the remaining 16 are 



192 



Ladies^ Association of the S. P. d 



attended by girls of various creeds and denominations, who 
mingle without distinction of creed or rank, princesses and 
peasants sitting side by side. Nearly 3,000 pupils attend the 
various schools. Every one receives thorough instruction in 
Holy Scripture, and their love for this leads them to a wonder- 
ful amount of knowledge. Classes are held on Sundays and 
week days for women, who attend in large numbers ; Sunday 
services are attended by both sexes in several of the schools, 
with the most beneficial results, both in social and spiritual life. 
The teacher of the night school has a large work among 
the Lebanon soldiers, and on all sides there is an eager demand 
for extension both of educational and evangelistic work. 



SUMMARY. 

A?imial Inco?ne, ;^5,ooo. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered No. of 
A.D. Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Adherents. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 

Contribu 

tions. 








Lay. 


Fe- 
male. 


Lay. 


Fe- 
male. 


Attending Sunday 

Services and 
Women's Classes. 








Beyrout . . 
Damascus 
Hasbeiya 
Mt. Lebanon 
Coele-Syria . 
Tyre . . . 


i860 
1868 
1863 
1867 
1877 
1869 


I 
I 
I 
7 

I 
I 


3 


7 
3 
2 
2 

2 


II 

3 

I 
6 

3 


50 
15 
6 
19 
4 
5 


'It 

24 
249 

20 
no 


12 

5 
I 
7 
I 
3 


1,293 
471 
211 
421 

?3 


248 


Totals 


• • • 1 " 


3 


17 


"4 


99 


892 


29 


2,861 


243 



LADIES' ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF 
FEMALE EDUCATION IN INDIA AND OTHER 
HEATHEN COUNTRIES, IN CONNECTION WITH 
THE MISSIONS OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE 
PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL. 

In the Missions of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, the want of a much larger number of female teachers 
had been long felt, and many thought that the preparation, 
selection, and general supervision of these teachers, and the 
contribution of funds for their maintenance, was a work 



Ladies' Association of the S. P, G. 193 

properly belonging to members of their own sex, and one 
which would be most suitably undertaken by them. At the 
instance of a large number of the members of the Society and 
others who were of this opinion, a meeting was held, on the i ith 
of May, 1866, by the kind permission of the then Bishop of 
London and Mrs. Tait, at London House. The subject was 
fully discussed, plans were drawn up, and an influential 
committee was formed. The Rev. W. T. Bullock, Secretary of 
the Society, who may justly be regarded as the founder of the 
Ladies' Association, drafted a Constitution which, after due 
deliberation, was adopted, and forms the basis of the laws by 
which the Association is governed. 

The objects of the Association are : (i) To provide female 
teachers for the instruction of native women and children in 
the Missions of the Society. (2) To assist Female Mission 
Schools by providing suitable clothing and a maintenance for 
boarders. To carry out these objects funds are raised in 
England by establishing Branch Associations throughout the 
country for collecting subscriptions, care being taken that no 
Association shall divert or interfere with subscriptions to the 
Society. Funds are also raised by ladies' work, for the sale of 
which abroad arrangements are made by the Association. 

The funds thus raised are administered by a committee of 
ladies, aided in their deliberations by two Members of the 
Standing Committee of the S.P.G., and by the Secretary of the 
Society. 

In 1867 the first teacher was sent out to Madagascar, and in 
the following year two ladies went out to join the Delhi Zenana 
Mission (which had been commenced by Mrs. Winter about 
two years previously), and a schoolmistress was sent to Burma. 
In 1869 the work of the Association was extended to South 
Africa. Zenana Missions were gradually established; at 
Calcutta in 1870, Bombay in 1871, Cawnpur in 1872, Dapoli 
in 1878, Madras in 1879, Ahmadnagar in 1880, Rurki (or 
Roorkee) and Kolhapur in 1881, and at Tanjore and Trichi- 
nopoli in 1882. Schools also were opened or assisted with 
grants in South Africa, Madagascar, and Japan. 

In the eleven Zenanas Missions enumerated above over 3000 
pupils are now under instruction. In addition to the pupils in 
the Zenanas and in the schools connected with the Zenana 
Missions, about 1250 girls are taught in the eighteen schools 

o 



194 Ladies^ Association of the Baptist Missionary Society. 

connected with the Ladies' Association in Burma, Japan, 
Madras, Madagascar, and South Africa, and 150 are maintained 
and educated in S.P.G. schools at the expense of members of 
the Association. 165 English and Foreign Missionaries and 
Teachers are now on the list of the Association. Between 200 
and 300 English Working Parties contribute a large quantity 
of work and native clothing, which enables the Association to 
send out in the course of the year about thirty-five large and 
valuable boxes to various Missions in India and South Africa. 

The subscriptions and donations received up to the close of 
the year 1888 amounted to ;£6,35i, a slight increase upon 
those of the previous year. The expenditure during the same 
time was ;^5,644. 

Magazine : — The Grain of Mustard Seed ; Monthly. 



LADIES' ASSOCIATION FOR THE SUPPORT OF 
BIBLE-WOMEN AND ZENANA WORK IN CON- 
NECTION WITH THE BAPTIST MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1 868. 

This Association was formed to provide suitable agents. Zenana 
visitors, and native Bible-women and teachers, to enable the 
wives of the Baptist missionaries to carry on Mission work 
amongst the women of India. 

The methods adopted are — (i) Zenana visiting; (2) board- 
ing and day schools for girls, 1874; (3) evangelistic work; 
(4) medical and dispensary work, 1879. 

Among the early pioneers were Mrs. Sale and Mrs. C. B. 
Lewis, wives of Baptist missionaries. 

The spheres of labour are, in India, the N. W. Provinces, 
Bengal, Madras, Punjab. 

It is difficult in a Mission so closely connected with the 
homes of the women of India to estimate what are so called the 
results of the work; but some changes and facts may be 
noticed. Twenty years ago, the houses accessible to visitors, 
and especially to religious teachers, could be numbered by 



Ladies^ Association of the Baptist Missionary Society. 195 

units, but now may be numbered by hundreds ; indeed, the 
Christian lady is now welcome everywhere : the difficulty is 
not to obtain access to houses, but to find time and strength to 
visit most of those open to them. Much more might be done 
in this with a larger staff of workers. But the agents have not 
been without signs of blessing and success. Many women have 
died rejoicing in the goodness brought to them, and in the 
hope of eternal life, whilst many others have steadfastly endured 
persecution on account of their faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. 
The boarding school at Delhi has furnished in many instances 
Christian and intelligent helpers to the native preachers and 
schoolmasters trained in the college at Delhi ; others of the 
pupils have become teachers, and several of the present staff of 
Bible-women are the fruits of the labours of some of the mis- 
sionary ladies. In no instance do any of the agents visit 
houses where they are not allowed to give religious teaching 
and carry the Bible with them. Just of late years the more 
strictly evangelistic work, with no secular teaching, has been 
more encouraged amongst the agents. 



SUMMARY. 

Income 1887-8, ;^6,586. 



Fields of 


Entered 


No. of 


Foreign 


Native 


Zenanas 


Schools. 


Scho- 


Labour. 


A.D. 


Sta- 


Workers. 


Workers. 


visited. 


lars. 






tions. 


















Female. 


Female. 








India. . . . 




19 


46 


105 


1,200 


^50 


1,650 


N. W. Province, 






English or 


Bible women 








Punjab, Ben- 






Eurasian. 


and school 


Pupils or 






gal, and Ma- 








teachers. 


hearers. 






dras. 










1,800 

Medical 
Missions 

at 

Delhi and 

Agra. 







Magazine : — Our Indian Sisters ; Quarterly. 

o 2 



( 196 ) 

THE FEMALE ASSOCIATION FOR PROMOTING 
CHRISTIANITY AMONG THE WOMEN OF THE 
EAST.— IRISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

ESTABLISHED 1 873. 

This Association was founded in 1873, after a visit from the 
Rev. Dr. Murray-Mitchell and the Rev. Narayan Sheshadri. 
The effect which their appeal produced was so profound that 
it was resolved to establish a Female Association in connection 
with the Foreign Mission of the Irish Presbyterian Church. 
The first missionary left for India in the autumn of 1874. 
Two others were sent to receive medical training under the 
care of Dr. Burns Thompson, in Edinburgh, and followed her 
shortly afterwards. There are now nine lady missionaries 
in connection with this Society, two of whom are medical 
workers, one of them being a fully qualified medical lady. 
Three stations are at present occupied — Surat, Ahmadabad^ 
and Borsad— all in the district of Gujarat, north of Bombay, 
in which the Irish Presbyterian Church labours. Girls' 
schools are also supported in three other places — Anand, 
Gogo, and Rajkot — the first of the three being in Gujarat, 
and the other two in the neighbouring peninsula of Kathiawar. 
Nineteen girls' schools are maintained by the Mission, with 
about 1098 girls on the roll, and about 30 houses are 
regularly visited, and the women residing in them instructed 
in the Gospel. There are three dispensaries, one in Surat, 
and two in Ahmadabad. In the three dispensaries 23,710 
visits of patients were paid last year. The patients treated at 
these institutions are Hindoos, Mohammedans, and Parsis, 
the Hindoos being the most numerous. At each dispensary 
there is a Christian woman who reads to the patients, and 
explains the Scriptures, while they are waiting to be attended 
to. Some of the missionaries do this work at times them- 
selves. The lady workers find open doors on every hand. 
They are greatly interested and encouraged in their work, 
and they often lament that more workers cannot be sent into 
the field. 

As this book goes to press, the first agent of this Association 
has been appointed for China, and ^yill start for Neu-chw^ng 
immediately. 



Associaiion of the Presbyterian Church of England. 197 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income^ J[^2^Zo^. 



Field of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Adhe- 
rents. 1 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contribu- 
tions. 2 


India 
China . 


1874 
1889 


6 

I 


Female. 

8 

I 


Female. 

about 

12 


... 


19 


1098 
1098 




Totals . 


... 


7 


9 


12 


... 


19 


... 



^ See the Tabulated Return of the Foreign Mission of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church, p. 127. 



- Patients frequently give fees at the Dispensary. 

Magazine : — WomerHs Work, 



WOMEN'S MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION OF THE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 

ESTABLISHED 1 87 8. 

The work done by this Association has been the training 
of native Bible-women, evangelistic visits to the country 
districts, Bible classes, girls' schools, visits to the women in 
the hospitals and in their homes, the preparation and dis- 
tribution of Gospel leaflets in Chinese. 

In China there are five stations : Swatow, Amoy, Formosa, 
Hak-ka country, and Singapore. 

In India the station is Rampur Beauleah. 

The work makes steady progress. In the villages around 
the Amoy, Swatow, Hak-ka, and Formosa centres we can 
report a great advance. Girls' day-schools have been started by 
our agents, and taught by the pupils who were trained in the 
girls' boarding schools. Many are proving by their lives the 
power of the Gospel of Christ. During this year we have sent 



198 Church of England Zejiana Missionary Society. 

out two fresh lady workers, one of these to Formosa, and the 
other to Singapore. The training of Bible-women, Bible classes, 
visiting in the homes of the people and in the hospitals, 
continues to bear much fruit. We have three ladies working 
in Rampur Beauleah in the Zenanas, and teaching both in 
high and low caste schools. 



SUMMARY. 

Income for 1888, ;^2,2 66. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Schools. 


Scholars 


China 

India 


1878 
1878 


5 

I 


Female. 
12 

3 


Female. 

7 

I 


4 

I 


120 
35 


Total . . 


... 


6 


15 


8 


5 


IS5 



Magazine : — Our Sisters in Other Lands ; Quarterly. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND ZENANA MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY. 

ESTABLISHED 1880. 

The Society was formed in 1880 by a separation from the 
Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society. It 
works in close co-operation with the Church Missionary 
Society. On its formation it took over 31 European mis- 
sionaries in 17 stations, and at the close of its eighth year 
had 105 lady missionaries, 51 assistant missionaries, and 483 
Bible-women, and native teachers, in 46 stations. 

In 1883 work was commenced in China, and in 1885 in 
Japan ; in both instances at the earnest appeal of the Church 
Missionary Conferences. 

Its present fields are India, China and Japan, as shown in 
the following summary. 



United Presbyterian Church of Scotland Zenana Mission, i99 

Access to the women in India has been greatly enlarged of 
late years, and a much more general desire for education has 
been evinced. The women are much more ready to hear ; and 
in the medical part of the work there has been great encourage- 
ment. The village missions, which have been largely increased 
since 1881, present a very encouraging field of labour also. In 
China and Japan as yet there has been merely a beginning, but 
the work is very promising. 

SUMMARY. 
Eftglish Ificomefor 1887-8, ;^23,268; in the Field ^ ;^5,ioo. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native and 
Eurasian 
Workers. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Local 

Contribu- 
tions and 
Fees. 


North India . 
Punjab . 
South India . 
China. . . 
Japan. . . 


1880 
1880 
1880 
1883 
1885 


10 

;i 

3 

2 


Female. 

31 
40 

24 

8 
2 


Female. 
172 
109 
253 


61 
49 
69 


2,270 
1,404 
3.242 


^2,250 

2,450 
900 


Totals . 




46 


105 


534 


179 


6,916 


/5,6oo 



3,118 Zenanas were under visitation, and 2,817 pupils regularly taught 
in them. 

Magazine: — Indian Women; Bi-Monthly. 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 
ZENANA MISSION. 

This Mission is conducted by the Foreign Mission Board of 
the United Presbyterian Church, and is not a separate organi- 
zation. 

In a large number of congregations — about 240 — Ladies' 
Committees have been formed, who endeavour to interest the 
members in the work of the Zenana Mission, and obtain 
contributions on its behalf. 

The fields occupied are — 

India — Ajmere, Nusseerabad, and Jaipur; China, Mook- 



200 Zenana Medical College, 

den, Haiching, and Neu-chwang; Africa, Old Calabar and 
Kaffraria. 

The work comprises — 

(i) The education of girls in Day and Sabbath Schools. 

(2) Zenana Visitation. 

(3) Dispensary Work. 

(4) Mothers' Meetings. 

(5) Bible Classes for Women. 

In India there are 10 Zenana Agents at work ; in China, i ; 
Old Calabar, 7 ; in Kaffraria, 3. 

Three Ladies are in training for medical work. 

The income of the Zenana Fund in 1887 was ;£"3,577. 

Magazines : — See page 112. 
ZENANA MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

ESTABLISHED IN LONDON, 1880. 

This Institution is distinctly unsectarian. Its object is to train 
Christian women to be medical missionaries, that they may in 
that capacity lead to Christ, and may supply the medical 
attendance so urgently needed by the many millions of women 
and children of the East, to whom at present there is no 
adequate way of ministering. 

The course of study occupies two years, with only short 
intervals of rest at Christmas, Easter, and Midsummer. It is 
thus practically equal to four winter courses of the ordinary 
medical curriculum. Board, residence, and medical instruction 
are provided at a fixed charge. At the close of the two years 
the students are examined by a Board composed of medical 
men other than the lecturers, and those who pass the examina- 
tion receive the Society's diploma. 

During their course the students have access to several 
hospitals, especially to the Hospital for Sick Women and 
Children, 9 and 32 Lupus St., S.W., where they are also taught 
to be dispensers. Besides attending lectures on midwifery, 
they attend cases in the neighbourhood, under the supervision 
of the physician in charge. 

The lecturers and examiners give their services gratuitously. 

The ladies who have finished their college course have all 



Zenana Medical College. 201 

been sent out to India, China, Ceylon, Syria, Africa, or else- 
where, by the various Missionary Societies. Some missionaries 
at home on furlough have entered as students, devoting as 
much of their leave as possible to acquiring a practical know- 
ledge of medicine. 

The Society is already the parent of medical missionary 
schools abroad, the pupils in their respective stations having 
commenced classes or schools of instruction for the natives, so 
that the taught, like the teachers, may go forth among the 
people as Christian medical missionaries. 

That the Institution supplies a long-felt need is shown by the 
number of applications for admission, which have been far more 
than the Committee have been able to entertain. The income 
for 1887, from donations and subscriptions, was ;£"638, from 
students' payments and a small investment, £,^2']. 



( 202 ) 



AUXILIARY AND MISCELLANEOUS SOCIETIES. 

Only a brief notice can be given here of some among the many 
Societies which have from time to time been formed as aids to 
the work of the larger missionary institutions. In some cases 
these Societies have been formed to supply a special need ; in 
others they are the expression of individual devotedness and 
zeal. Our own times have witnessed many such efforts ; and 
in almost every part of the professed Church of Christ there 
are men and women, detached from the main body of workers, 
and unsupported by ecclesiastical organizations, who are 
labouring after their own methods. 

The Christian Faith Society. 

This organisation stands foremost in point of time ; its full 
title is The Incorporated Society for Advancing the Christia?t 
Faith in the British West Indian Isla?ids and elsewhere, and 
in the Mauritius. The origin and aims of the Society may 
be compared with those of the New England Company, noticed 
at the beginning of this volume. 

The Hon. Robert Boyle, by his will in 1696, directed the 
residue of his personal estate to be laid out by his executors, 
recommending them to lay out the greater part thereof ' for the 
Advancement or Propagation of the Christian Religion amongst 
Infidels.' ^ An estate was accordingly purchased at Brafferton, 
Yorkshire, so that the income might be for ever applied to the 
advancement of the Christian religion. Till the American war 
the rents were remitted to the College of WilHam and Mary, in 
Virginia, for the education of Indian children. 

After the conclusion of the war. Dr. Porteous, Bishop of 

London, obtained a decision from the Court of Chancery to 

employ the fund in some parts of His Majesty's dominions, 

approaching as nearly as possible the original intentions of 

* See p. 19. 



The Coral Missionary Fund, 203 

the testator. '■ The Society for the Conversion and Religious 
Instruction and Education of the Negro Slaves in the British 
West Indian Islands ' was accordingly established by Royal 
Charter. In 1834, on the abolition of slavery, Dr. Blomfield, 
Bishop of London, obtained a new scheme, and a new charter, 
upon a more extended basis, dated January 11, 1836, constitut- 
ing the Society a Corporation under the full title given above, 
to labour ' within the dioceses of Jamaica and Barbadoes, and 
the Leeward Islands (which dioceses had been constituted in 
the year 1824), and in the Mauritius.' 

The Society makes block grants to the several bishops of 
the sees just named, who send annual returns of the sums dis- 
tributed therefrom, and repeatedly acknowledge the very great 
value of the assistance, saying that without it many of their 
undertakings could never have been begun, or must have 
been brought to a close, especially in the branch of schools and 
catechists. The income of the Society in 1886 was ;£2,29o, 
but the amount is diminishing. 



The Coral Missionary Fund. 

Coming down to modern times, we may note that the re- 
vival of missionary zeal which has happily characterised the 
past fifteen or twenty years has given impulse to several new 
efforts. Among them, as specimens, although on a larger 
scale than any others of the kind, may be noticed two associa- 
tions, both connected with the Church of England, that have 
as their object at once the diffusion of missionary information 
and the provision of practical help. The elder of these is the 
Coral Missionary Fund, connected with the Coral Missioftary 
Magazine^ long known as the Childrefi's Missionary Magazine^ 
commenced in 1838. The Fund itself was started in 1848, 
since which time it has brought in over ;^4o,ooo; its chief 
work having been in connection with the Church Missionary 
Society, to which it is an ally and auxiliary. 

Some thousands of children have been entirely supported in 
Church Missionary Schools and Orphanages in East and West 
Africa, North and South India, North- West America, Mauritius, 
China, and Palestine, through its agency. 



204 The Coral Missionary Fu7id. 

Those who contribute to the support of individual children 
receive through the magazine, from time to time, full par- 
ticulars as to their character and progress. Many of these 
children are maintained by the contributions of scholars in 
Sunday Schools and members of Bible classes, or from the 
proceeds of Missionary Baskets, Missionary Sales, or Missionary 
Trees. 

In addition to the maintenance of children in schools, the 
Coral Fund has undertaken and successfully aided other works 
in connection with the Church Missionary Society, such as 
building and restoring churches, supporting native agents, etc. 
When tidings reached England of the dire distress suffered at 
Moose Fort on account of the long delay in the arrival of the 
one annual ship, and the Bishop of Moosonee wrote home to 
say that it was absolutely necessary that he should have a 
store, with a year's provision in advance, to avert a similar 
calamity in the future, the Coral Missionary Fund at once took 
up the work, and in a short time sent the Bishop ;^4oo, thus 
enabling him to carry out his intention, and relieving his mind 
in the midst of his arduous labours from the weight of a very 
pressing anxiety. When intelligence was received of the large 
number of slaves who had been rescued from Arab slave 
vessels, and placed under the care of the Church missionary at 
Frere Town, the Coral Fund raised an additional sum towards 
the extra expenses incurred at that station. During the last 
great Indian Famine a large sum was raised by the same Fund, 
from which special grants were made to the various Church 
Missionary Orphanages which bore the strain of sheltering 
within their walls the numbers of destitute children left orphans 
by that calamity. Years ago, at the time of the great cyclone 
at Masulipatam, relief was in like manner collected and sent 
out ; and, amongst other present works, the Fund has under- 
taken the maintenance of a bed in the Church of England 
Zenana Hospital at Amritsar, and has recently presented 
a large harmonium to Moose Cathedral. Many — Bishop 
Horden, Bishop Moule, Bishop French, and others — whose 
names are well known, and held in honour amongst the roll of 
C. M. S. missionaries, have testified with deep gratitude to the 
help which the Coral Fund has given them in time of need. 

Every year the Fund sends out boxes and bales of clothing 
and gifts to various stations where it supports children, and 



The Missionary Leaves Association, 205 

several working parties are engaged in making wami clothing 
for North- West America and other places. 

The Coral Missionary Magazine (published by Messrs Wells, 
Gardner & Co.) is the organ of this Association, and contains 
full particulars of the sums received and paid, accounts of all 
the work undertaken by the Fund, reports of the children, and 
many interesting narratives of missionary work, from the pens 
of well-known missionary writers, amongst whom may be named 
A. L. O. E. and the Bishop of Moosonee, who is a constant 
contributor. It celebrated its jubilee of existence in March 



The Missionary Leaves Association. 

This Association sprang from a missionary working party 
held at Trinity Church, Reading. This working party con- 
tributed supplies of clothing to Bishop Crowther, the Rev. 
Henry Budd, and other veteran missionaries of the Church 
Missionary Society. 

Letters acknowledging these gifts appeared for some years 
previous to 1868 in the Church Missionary Juvenile histructor^ 
many friends in consequence sending additional contributions, 
which were acknowledged in that magazine. A separate 
periodical was then suggested by the late Rev. Henry Venn, 
and the first number of Missionary Leaves appeared in June, 
1868, edited by the Rev. R. C. Billing, now Bishop of Bedford. 
The publication of an independent organ so greatly extended 
the interest and enlarged the sphere of operations that in 
1870 it became necessary to adopt a more formal organi- 
zation. In this way the Association was formed, taking its 
name from the magazine. At that time the operations of the 
Association were mainly confined to a few stations in Africa 
and North-west America. A system of auxiHary helpers was 
organized, by which a correspondent was appointed, for each 
mission station, who was responsible for diffusing information 
and collecting contributions on its behalf In 1868 these 
were but 7 ; at the present time (1888) there are over 100. 

The objects of the Association are to supply the missionaries 
and stations of the Church Missionary Society with help in 
money and material towards such requisites as it is not in the 



2o6 The Net Collections for S. P. G. 

province of that Society to supply, but which aid, nevertheless, 
is found to be most helpful in the various works undertaken 
by the missionaries. 

The appropriated funds of the Association are expended 
upon the erection of mission churches, schools, etc., the 
purchase of the accessories of public worship, such as church 
furniture, bells, books, harmoniums, etc. ; upon the maintenance 
of children, orphans or otherwise, in the Church Missionary 
Society's mission schools ; and towards Missionary Diocesan 
Funds, and other similar objects. No agents are paid by the 
Association, but contributions are remitted through its medium 
for the salaries of native agents (as catechists, schoolmasters, 
Bible-women, &c.). The committee have the grateful testimony 
of many missionary bishops, missionaries, and native pastors 
to the value of the assistance thus rendered. 

The expenses of the Association are defrayed by a general 
fund raised chiefly in annual subscriptions and donations. 
During the last eighteen years the Association has received and 
forwarded contributions in money to the amount of ^^44,423, 
and in goods to the value of ^2^26,648. 

In 1884 the Church Missionary Society invited the Associa- 
tion to administer the funds provided for special objects hitherto 
paid through the general Society, and to receive, pack, and 
forward all goods intended for particular mission stations. 
The work of the Association has thus been greatly enlarged. 



The Net Collections in Aid of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. 

This Society, working through the medium of a magazine, 
receives funds for Bishop McKenzie, Zululand, to whom it has 
agreed to send ;z{^i,ooo per annum, and it also transmits money 
and parcels of useful clothing to the dioceses of Zululand, 
Maritsburg, Capetown, St. John's, Kaffraria, Nassau and New- 
foundland. 

The Net magazine is especially the medium through which 
the needs of the Zululand diocese are made known, and 
the treasurer for that diocese acknowledges all reCeipts in its 
pages. 



The Lelanon Schools Comfnittee. 207 

The belief of the promoters is that if interest can be aroused, 
people will help according to their means, and need only to be 
shown how they can send even small sums without difficulty. 

The working expenses are very small, nearly all the work 
being undertaken by volunteers. 

The income for all schemes in 1888 was £2,^,62 . 



The Lebanon Schools Committee. 

The Lebanon is inhabited by a variety of sects — Greek 
Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Maronites, Druses, and Moslems. 
Among these direct missionary work is impracticable, but all 
are ready to receive education, even though it comes through 
evangelically conducted schools. 

The Lebanon Schools Committee provide funds for and 
superintend through their agents in Syria, village schools, 
certain Sunday and evangelistic services, and two training schools, 
one for girls and one for boys. 

The central station is El Shweir, near Beyrout. 

The staff consists of one clerical and medical superintendent, 
the Rev. Wm. Carslaw, M.D. (who is maintained at the expense 
of the Free Church Foreign Missions Committee, Scotland), 
and one lady superintendent of the girls' training school. 
Miss Mary Dobbie. Under these two European agents is a 
staff of native preachers and teachers, who are mostly the 
approved fruits of the work of former years. 

The present work consists of : — 

(i) Seven village schools, with an average attendance of 387. 

(2) Three preaching stations. In two of these there is an 
attendance of 80, of whom 1 6 are church members : and in 
Shweir the congregations are so large that a new meeting-place 
is being erected for them. 

(3) Two training schools, accommodating, with board, lodging, 
and teaching, 15 boys and 15 girls respectively. 

The Committee have the most ample proofs of the value 
and success of their labours in the past. They have seen the 
propensity to sanguinary quarrels toned down, a marked 
diminution in the customs of deceit, and a higher style of 
individual life gradually growing. For nearly twenty-two years 



2o8 The Cambridge Mission to Delhi, 

they have had the education of the people of Shweir almost 
entirely in their hands ; and that, together with other work, 
evangelistic and medical, and the reputation of those who have 
become Protestants, have, we believe, been mainly the causes 
of the improvements we have mentioned. 
Annual income, about ^{^750. 



The Cambridge Mission to Delhi. 

This Mission, in connection with the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, was first proposed in papers read 
before the Cambridge University Church Society, and the 
Cambridge Graduates Mission Aid Society, by the Rev. T. V. 
French, now Bishop of Lahore, and the Rev. E. Bickersteth, 
in February 1876. The suggestion was warmly welcomed, and 
the proposal resulted in the formation of a band of fellow- 
workers, whose special object should be, in addition! to 
evangelistic labours, to train native agents, to promote higher 
education, to educate the sons of native Christians, and to 
undertake literary and other work which might reach the more 
educated and thoughtful Hindus and Muhammadans. A 
Cambridge Committee was appointed, who are responsible for 
the choice of men and general administration of the Mission ; 
and a scheme was approved by them for conducting the work 
in close connection with the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel^ which gives cordial and liberal assistance to the 
Mission. Many considerations pointed to Delhi, the ancient 
capital of India, where the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel has been at work since 1852, as the place for such a 
mission ; and a letter of Sir Bartle Frere upon the greatness of 
the opening there, and the urgent need of men to carry on the 
work inaugurated by the Rev. R. R. Winter,^ led finally to the 
choice of that city as the field for their labours. Six mission- 
aries are now established at Delhi, the ancient capital of India, 
assisting in the important work inaugurated there by the 
parent Society. The first head of the Mission, Mr. Bickersteth, 
Fellow of Pembroke College, is now Bishop in Japan. 

The missionaries take part in evangelistic work, and in the 
^ See p. 27. 



The Mission to Lepers in Lidia. ^©9 

oversight of native congregations and mission schools, both in 
Delhi and in the surrounding country ; they also hold classes 
for the instruction of readers and catechists ; and they have 
the management of St. Stephen's High School (with about 600 
boys), and St. Stephen's College (with about 60 students). 
The College is affiliated to the Government University at 
Lahore, of w^iich two of the missionaries are Fellows, and pre- 
pares students for the University degrees. Arrangements are 
made for lodging Christian members of the School and College 
in the Mission Compound. 



The Mission to Lepers in India. 

FOUNDED in 1874. 

It is a fact perhaps little know^n to the Christian public, that 
there are in India 135,000 lepers — men, women, and children — 
victims of the most terrible disease known to humanity. This 
Society seeks to proclaim to them the blessed Gospel of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and, as far as possible, to relieve their 
dreadful sufferings, and provide for their simple wants. 

The Mission was commenced by Mr. W. C. Bailey, a 
missionary of the Church of Scotland, in conjunction with 
several friends in Dublin, in 1874. Its headquarters are in 
Dublin. 

The Society endeavours to utilise as much as possible existing 
agencies, by assisting Leper Asylums already established, and 
providing missionaries with the means for carrying on Christian 
work in connection therewith. It makes grants of money 
towards the building of new Asylums, Prayer-rooms, etc. : and 
in many instances provides for the entire support of lepers. It 
is at present carrying on work at Kashmir, Rawal Pindi, 
Chamba, Tarn Taran, Sabathu, Dehra, Rurki, Almora, Pithoria, 
Allahabad, Lohardaga, Purulia, Calcutta, Madras, Alleppi, 
Neyoor, Ceylon and Burma, in connection with the Church 
Missionary Society, the London Missionary Society, the 
American Presbyterian Mission, Gossner's ^Evangelical Mis- 
sion, the Church of Scotland Foreign Mission Committee, the 
American Episcopal Methodist Mission, the Wesleyan Mission, 

p 



210 Turkish Missions^ Aid Society. 

the Baptist Missionary Society, and American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union. 

This work is entirely supported by voluntary contributions. 
Its needs are laid before Christian people, in reliance upon 
Him who gave it as a special sign of His ministry that the 
lepers were cleansed ; and as He provides the funds the work 
is carried on. The Lord has greatly blessed the efforts of the 
Society in the conversion of souls, and it is contemplated 
largely to extend its operations, should the funds be provided. 
£6 will support a leper for one year, and ;^2o will supply a 
Christian teacher to an asylum for the same period. About 
;^i5o to ^200 will build an asylum in the country districts. 
;2^5o will build a Chapel or Prayer-room ; and a sum of £120 
will provide for one leper in perpetuity. Income for 1888, 
;^2,o33. 



Turkish Missions' Aid Society. 

FOUNDED 1854. 

In 1 85 3-4" the Rev. C. G. Young, a minister in the north of 
England, resigned his charge in order to travel in the East for 
the benefit of his health. While in Constantinople he came 
into contact with some missionaries of the American Board 
engaged in work among the Armenians, and he was greatly 
impressed with their devotedness and zeal. By that time much 
spiritual success had been achieved, and the educational efforts 
of Dr. Hamlin and others filled him with admiration. He 
studied the work in all its branches with the utmost care, and 
returned to this country with a burning desire to do something 
effective towards the support of a mission which was full of 
promise for the evangelization of the Turkish Empire. He took 
every opportunity of telling what he had seen, and of urging 
that an endeavour should be made to associate Christians of all 
the churches in an effort to co-operate with those already in the 
field. Other circumstances contributed to awaken interest in 
the subject. The Eastern Question was assuming an acute 
phase. The Sultan was looking to Britain for support against 
Russia, and public opinion was ripening in favour of interven- 
tion. Sir Stratford de Redcliffe, our astute and able Ambas- 



Turkish Missions^ Aid Society. 211 

sador at the Porte, had shown himself friendly to the educa- 
tional efforts of the missionaries, and sought to influence the 
Sultan in the direction of a policy of toleration in religious 
matters. For several years. Christians in Britain had watched 
with sympathy the converts among the Armenians, who 
had been grievously persecuted, and occasional outbreaks of 
fanaticism among the Moslems had arrested public attention. 
Taken altogether, the moment was favourable for an effort of 
some kind being made. Mr. Young sought to interest Chris- 
tian men of various denominations in the matter which lay so 
near his own heart, and to a large extent he succeeded. Dr. 
Holt Yates, a London physician, who had already established 
a Mission at Suediah, near the mouth of the Orontes, and others 
who had travelled in the East, expressed their warm interest, 
and in response to an invitation by circular, a large and 
influential meeting of friends of Missions in Turkey was 
held on 5th of May, 1854, to consult how best to take 
advantage of openings for ' spreading the Gospel among the 
Armenians and Greeks of the Ottoman Empire.' Other 
private and provisional meetings followed, and at last, on 
3rd of July, 1854, the Turkish Missions' Aid Society was 
fairly launched at a public meeting held in the Lower Room of 
Exeter Hall, and at which the Earl of Shaftesbury, who had 
been elected President, took the chair. One of the resolutions 
adopted at that meeting was as follows : — ' That the facili- 
ties now providentially afforded for circulating the Holy Scrip- 
tures and preaching the Gospel in the Turkish Empire, and 
the cheering tokens of success which continue to attend exist- 
ing Missions there, especially that of the American Board, and 
also the peculiar circumstances of the country at the present 
crisis, call for special efforts by British Christians to furnish 
the pecuniary aid required in order to the wider extension 
of missionary operations.' On that resolution the Society was 
based. 

It will be observed that the object contemplated was the 
furtherance of missionary effort in Turkey and the Bible lands 
generally^ by providing pecuniary aid for those then in the 
field, chiefly American, and by implication, to such evan- 
gelical societies and churches as should at any time thereafter 
undertake Gospel work within that region. The expectation 
that this object would command general support was not dis- 

p 2 



212 Tiu'kish Missions^ Aid Society, 

appointed. Men of all churches, established and noncon- 
formist, rallied to the call and contributed freely. A good deal 
of enthusiasm prevailed, and in those earlier years occasional 
visits of distinguished missionaries, such as Drs. Hamlin, 
Dwight, and Perkins, served to deepen the public interest in the 
cause. Not long after the formation of the Society, the 
Rev. Dr. Blackwood, who had been chaplain to the forces 
in the Crimea, threw himself with characteristic energy into the 
advocacy of Missions in Bible lands. Till the day of his death 
he was a warm friend to the Society. 

The limited space at our disposal renders it necessary to be 
very brief. But let us endeavour to indicate the chief scenes 
of missionary labour on behalf of which this pro-missionary 
society strikes in with help. 

In the south-east of Europe, where the Greek Church is in 
the ascendant, there is a small band of missionaries. In Greece 
Proper the native evangelical Church in Athens, under the 
direction of Dr. Kalopothakes, has stations at Volo and the 
Piraeus. The Church of Scotland occupies Salonica. Dr. 
Thomson, of Constantinople, employs an evangelist and several 
colporteurs among the Albanians. From Monastir, Samokov, 
and Philippopolis, as centres, the Bulgarian Mission of the 
American Board is working outwardly, and making steady 
progress. The Bible House at Constantinople is the literary 
centre for the north, and thence the Bible and other books 
and periodicals are disseminated in five or six languages. 

Passing into Asia, the Armenian Mission of the American 
Board calls for notice first. As the result of half-a-century 
of labour, there are no churches, with a membership of 
11,000; 400 schools, with 16,000 pupils; many high schools; 
several theological institutions ; 4 colleges, one of them (Aintab) 
with a medical department; and a Protestant community of 
50,000. According to the latest accounts, 313 towns and 
villages have been reached with the Gospel. 

Since 187 1 the Presbyterian Board has been in charge of 
the Nestorian Mission, founded by the American Board in 
1836, and of a mission to Mohammedans and others in Tabriz, 
Teheran, and Hamadan — all in the north-west of Persia. The 
Nestorian Mission has been very successful. 



Syria and Palestine : Egypt, 213 

Syria and Palestine are under diligent cultivation. The 
former is chiefly in the hands of the Presbyterian Board, and 
the latter in that of the Church Missionary Society. Beyrout 
is the chief centre of the American Mission, but others are, 
Tripoli, Abeih, Zahleh, and Sidon. In Beyrout is the Bible 
House, which is for the south what the Bible House of Constan- 
tinople is for the north. From Beyrout a mass of Arabic litera- 
ture is sent forth into Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. School 
education saturated with Bible truth is the lever-power employed, 
and at the apex of the structure is the Syrian Protestant College, 
which is doing splendid work among the intelligent youths of 
Syria and adjoining lands. Nor must we omit mention of the 
British Syrian Schools. They reach nearly 4000 children with 
the Gospel, and the Bible Mission has been very successful 
among the women. The Lebanon Schools are doing a 
similar work, and so are many others in the southern part of 
that great mountain range. The Reformed Presbyterian Church 
have taken up the Ansayrieh, a Pagan race, in North Syria. 
The Church Missionary Society and the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Female Education in the East are labouring for 
the welfare of the native races in the Holy Land. 



Egypt. — We cannot speak too highly of Miss Whately's work 
in Cairo. ^ For thirty years she has laboured with marked success. 
Her work is varied, embracing schools, a hospital, a Bible 
Mission, and itineracy among the villages on the banks of the 
Nile. But the American Mission has done most of all, and has 
fairly made its mark on Egypt. Begun in 1854, it has now five 
principal stations, and seventy out-stations. There are twenty 
congregations with native pastors ; 2,000 church members ; over 
5000 scholars, one-fifth of whom are Moslems ; a college at 
Asyout; theological classes at Cairo; and the native church 
contributes ^£"5,000 annually for all purposes. If Egypt is to 
be lifted up, one of the most potent factors in her regenera- 
tion will have been this work of the American Mission. 

Our narrative of Mission work in the Bible lands would be 
incomplete did we not mention that in all quarters are to be 
found orphanages, medical missions, and various other institu- 

1 As we go to press we hear, with much regret, of Miss Whately's death, 



214 Mission to the Chinese Blind, 

tions of a missionary character, most of which are of British 
origin, and maintained from Britain. 

Having thus rapidly traversed the Bible lands, and indicated 
some of the Christian work carried on, we close by remarking 
that the Turkish Missions' Aid Society lays itself out for encou- 
raging and aiding all truly Christian work in that region, and in 
this way is fulfilling its original purpose of sharing in the evan- 
gelization of the Bible lands. For it has not yet outlived its 
usefulness, as some allege. On the contrary, its proper work — 
that of drawing attention to the condition of Moslems and 
nominal Christians as equally needing the Gospel, and of fur- 
nishing help for the multiplication of native agency, is as 
urgent as ever. The best witnesses to its importance and value 
are the missionaries themselves, and their testimony is explicit 
and full. May God open many hearts to help ! 

Income for the year 1887-8, £2,"] (^6, 

Magazine : — The Star in the East ; Quarterly. 



Mission to the Chinese Blind. 

The originator of this mission was the Rev. Mr. Murray, 
who entered into the service of the Bible Society (Scotland) 
as a colporteur in 1864. 

For seven years he laboured as a home colporteur, during 
which time he showed such a remarkable aptitude for languages 
that in 187 1 he obtained his heart's desire and was permitted to 
go to China. In four months he had acquired a sufficient 
knowledge of the intricate language to enable him to commence 
active work. 

One of the first things which impressed him was the great 
number of blind men to be found in every city, and he became 
most anxious to do something to render their lot brighter and 
less helpless. At last he invented a system of training which 
might be brought to bear upon young lads ; individual pupils 
were found, and a school was established at Peking. 

The work has been greatly blessed, and Mr. Murray has had 
the delight of seeing successive sets of students not only 
rejoicing in their attainments, but becoming really valuable 
mission workers, 



The English- Egyptian Mission, 215 

In 1887 a committee was formed in Scotland to administer 
the funds raised, and to take general oversight of the mission, 
which it is hoped will do great things for the poor blind of 
China. 

Mr. Murray is as active as ever in the work, and his useful- 
ness has been increased by his marriage with a devoted lady 
who shares his labours. 

The income for 1887 was ^3,077. 



The English-Egyptian Mission. 

This mission was begun by Miss Mary L. Whately (whose 
object was to Christianize the Mohammedan population) twenty- 
eight years ago, and for three years was carried on by her 
entirely, excepting some aid received from the Female Educa- 
tion Society for a teacher's salary. 

The work was commenced by the establishment of a girls' 
school, six children being paid to attend. 

This school attracted such favourable attention that one for 
boys had soon to be instituted. The average attendance now is 
200 girls and 400 boys. 

A Medical Mission has since been added, and the Dispensary 
in charge of Dr. Azury receives daily visits from the afflicted 
poor, and those who, having fallen from a higher station, are 
glad to avail themselves of it. The number of patients relieved 
every year is upwards of 4,000. 

In the schools the boys learn French and English, besides 
their native language, and all ordinary branches; the girls 
chiefly receive plain teaching in the Arabic only, besides 
needlework, etc., because the early marriages remove them 
generally when twelve years old \ but the branch for girls who 
desire higher education comprises languages and rudimental 
music, and is attended principally by Jewesses and Levantines. 
To all the scholars the fear of God is taught as the founda- 
tion of all knowledge, and they all receive instruction in the 
Scripture, which is the principal reading-book in the schools. 

Annual income about ;£"2,ooo. 

As we go to press we hear, with much regret, of Miss Whately 's death. 



( 2i6 ) 



The North Africa Mission. 

This organisation, formerly called the Kabyle Mission, was 
originated in 1881. Up to that year the Mohammedans of 
North Africa (excluding Egypt) were unreached by the Gospel. 
A thousand years of sanguinary wars had reduced the popula- 
tion, misrule had blighted commerce and agriculture, and 
apostasy had extinguished the Gospel lamp, without even 
leaving'the lampstand. But a brighter era was now to dawn. 

The French had subdued the Algerians, and Algiers, instead 
of being a nest of pirates, had become a winter health resort 
for invalids from all parts of Europe. Through the whole 
country roads and railways had been made, and along the 
coast steamers plied. With the fall of the Empire in France, 
Romanism lost much of its power, and thus in Algeria the 
Moslem and Romish barriers to the Gospel were removed. 
It was, however, still supposed that the Mohammedans were so 
opposed to Christianity that it would be futile and dangerous 
to attempt to evangeHze them. They were therefore neglected 
for another ten years, till in 1881 Mr. George Pearse and his 
wife travelled among the Kabyles, and found that they were 
far less opposed to the Gospel than had been imagined. The 
people were very ignorant of Mohammedanism, and were willing 
to hear the good news, and, when able, to read the Scriptures. 

Mr. Pearse returned to England in the summer, and called 
public attention to the favourable opening for this work, pub- 
lishing a pamphlet, called Missiofi to the Kabyles. A small 
committee was formed, consisting of Mr. Pearse, Mr. Grattan 
Guinness, and Mr. Edward H. Glenny, who had been inde- 
pendently led to consider the needs of the field. A piece of 
land had been secured at Djemaa Sahridj, in Kabylia, and in 
October 1881, Mr. Pearse returned with Mr. Glenny to 
Algeria. They took with them two young men to plant 
among the Kabyles. For a time all went well, but the French 
local administrator, thinking the brethren must be political 
agents, like the French priests in other lands, endeavoured to 
frighten them away. Then followed a period of trial from a 
variety of causes, but the willingness of the people to listen to 
the Gospel was more than ever established. 



The ^orth Africa Mission, 217 

In 1883 the Mission was to some extent remodelled. The 
Council was enlarged^ and the sphere of the Mission's operations 
extended from the Kabyles of Algeria to all the Berber races 
of North Africa. Ultimately it has endeavoured to spread the 
Gospel among the Mohammedans generally in these lands, 
and now it proposes also to evangelise among Europeans and 
Jews as well. The spheres at present in measure occupied 
by this Mission are Algeria, Morocco, and Tunis, and it 
is hoped shortly Tripoli may be entered, and then the Sahara 
which has a considerable, though very scattered, population. 

A Branch Mission has been affiliated with the North 
Africa Mission, with the object 'of taking the Gospel to the 
Bedouins of Northern Africa. One missionary has been 
designated for this field, and is at present studying Arabic in 
Syria. 

The North Africa Mission, in its Quarterly Record^ also 
gives particulars of the Central Soudan Mission, under the 
direction of Mr. Graham Wilmot-Brooke, who last year, in 
company with a converted Soudanese, ascended the Mobanji, 
a northern tributary of the Congo, as far as latitude 2° n., 
hoping by this route to reach the Negro kingdoms of the 
Central Soudan. In consequence, however, of the unsettled 
condition of the country, all efforts to proceed in that 
direction failed, and Mr. Wilmot-Brooke has returned to 
England, hoping early in the present year to commence work 
amongst the Mohammedans on the Upper Niger. 

There are now in Algeria 18 missionaries, including wives, 
as well as several others in friendly relationship, though not on 
the staff. There is perfect liberty to make known the Gospel 
among all classes, though the French officials are inclined to 
be suspicious, and no medical work is permitted without a 
French diploma. Most of the missionaries have only been a 
short time in the field, and have had the Kabyle or Arabic 
languages to learn. Several of them report cases of professed 
conversion, but only two converts have had courage to be 
baptized at present. 

In Morocco there is a wide field for Christian work, and no 
serious obstacles have been found except such as arise from 
the wretched misgovernment of the country. The Mission 
has 15 workers there, and several friends who co-operate. It 
has a Medical Mission, which includes a hospital and dig- 



2i8 East London Institute. 

pensary. A few converts are reported, but only four have been 
baptized. The work was entered upon in 1883. 

The Regency of Tunis was entered in 1885, and there are 
9 missionaries in the city of Tunis. The country is quite open 
for the Gospel. One convert has been baptized. 

Tripoli is without a missionary at present j it is hoped two 
may be sent before long. 

The Sahara is also quite unevangelized. The great need is 
an increased number of qualified brethren and sisters; the 
doors are open, and if the Gospel is preached in the power of 
the Holy Ghost, much blessing may be expected. 



SUMMARY: North Africa Mission. 
Present Annual Income^ about ;^4^ooo. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants, 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Algeria 
Morocco . 
Tunis .... 
Northern Arabia . 


1881 
1883 

1885 
1886 


6 

3 
I 
I 


Lay. 

5 
6 

4 

I 


Female. 
13 

9 

5 


I 

4 
I 


2 


50 


Totals . . 


... 


II 


16 


27 


6 


2 


50 



Magazine : — North Africa ; Quarterly. 



East London Institute for Home and Foreign Missions. 

The East London Institute was founded in 1872 by the 
Rev. H. Grattan Guinness, to be a Training Home and 
College for young men who, being earnestly desirous of 
missionary work, gifted for it, and suited to it, were pre- 
vented from making preparation for it by the duty of 
labouring for their daily bread. The work commenced in 



East Londo7i Institute, 219 

an old-fashioned house on Stepney Green, and 32 students 
were selected and received during the first year. Another and 
yet another house was taken to accommodate the growing 
family — to Harley House a wing was added — and eventually 
the building of the present college as it now stands was com- 
pleted and opened on October 8, 1879, and all the work 
concentrated on the new premises. A branch college in 
Derbyshire was also opened in 1878, the gift of a dear friend, 
and several mission halls were occupied in the East of 
London. 

The Training Homes now receive young men and women 
of any evangelical denomination, who during the period of 
study are actively engaged in various branches of evangelistic 
work. When sufficiently prepared, they are helped to go forth 
as missionaries to any country or sphere to which God may 
providentially open their way. 

At the present time the students are scattered over all the 
world — the greater number in China, India, North, South and 
Central Africa, Canada, United States of America, Australia, and 
the Home fields ; but men are stationed also in France, Finland, 
Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Sicily, 
Spain, Switzerland, Arabia, Armenia, Japan, Syria, Turkey. 
Our first Twelve went out in 1875, and others have been 
following at the average rate of one a week. 

In the year 1878 the Livingstone Inland Mission was 
founded — the first Christian mission on the Congo. In January 
Henry Craven sailed, and in due time 52 other missionaries 
followed, 15 of whom have laid down their lives in Africa, our 
two first pioneers, Henry Craven and James Telford, among 
them. That Mission is now transferred to the American 
Baptist Missionary Union,i but an auxiliary among the ten 
millions of the Bololo people on the Upper Congo is now 
worked by the Institute. 

During the sixteen years which have elapsed from the com- 
•mencement of this Institute, over three thousand young men 
have applied to.be received ; of these about eight hundred have 
been accepted, and of these nearly 500 are at the present time 
labouring in the Gospel, either in the home or the foreign field, 
while between 80 and 90 are still studying in the Institute. 

The expenses of carrying on the work amount to between 
^ See p. 328. 



2 20 East Lofidon Institute^ 

;£2Qo and ;^3oo per week. The income for 1887-8 was 

;^I 1,000. 

Magazine : — T/ie Regions Beyond ; Monthly. 



There are many auxiliary Societies and Funds in Great 
Britain and Ireland, of which no account can here be given. 
All through the field of Missions to the Heathen, schools, 
hospitals, and other evangelizing agencies have been founded, 
and are sustained by individual zeal and liberality ; generally 
with, but sometimes without, the intervention of the Missionary 
Committees at home. 



SECTION IL 



SPECIAL MISSIONS. 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 
PUBLICATION SOCIETIES. 
MISSIONS TO THE JEWS. 



( 223 ) 



MEDICAL MISSIONS.! 

I. — The Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. 

This Society, entirely undenominational in its constitution and 
principles, was commenced in 1841.^ Till 185 1 its limited funds 
were mainly expended in efforts to awaken an interest in the 
cause of Medical Missions. As the demand for medical 
missionaries arose, the various Missionary Societies naturally 
looked to the Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society to supply 
fully qualified agents j and in 1853 this important, and now 

* It is impossible to give an account in detail of the medical work 
carried on by the several Missionary Societies, and especially, by the 
Women's Associations, British and Foreign. This kind of agency is more 
and more recognized as essential to the completeness of a Mission. Several 
Societies now provide medical training for their ow^n missionary candidates 
intended for special spheres of labour, especially for China and Africa. 
Some special associations have been formed for the purpose, of which a 
brief account is here given. 

^ Mr. Lowe, in \ns, Medical Missions (2nd edit., London 1887), gives the 
following interesting account of the origin of this Society : — 

* In 1 84 1, the Rev. Peter Parker, M.D., a medical missionary from 
America, who had laboured for many years and with much success in 
China, passed through Edinburgh on his way to the United States. During 
his short visit to Edinburgh, he was the guest of the late Dr. Abercrombie, 
who was so greatly interested in the intelligence he received from him, 
especially with his experience of the value of the healing art as a pioneer to 
missionary effort, that he invited to his house a few friends to hear Dr. 
Parker's account of his work, and to consider the propriety of forming an 
association in Edinburgh for the purpose of promoting Medical Missions. 

* As the result of the interest thus awakened, a public meeting was held 
on the 30th of November of the same year, when a resolution was adopted, 
and the Society formed under the name of the " Edinburgh Association for 
sending Medical Aid to Foreign Countries.'" 

'It was resolved that **The objects of the Association shall be to 
circulate information on the subject, to endeavour to originate and aid 
such kindred institutions as may be formed to prosecute the same work, 
and to render assistance at missionary stations to as many professional 
agents as the funds placed at its disposal may admit." 

' Dr. Abercrombie was chosen President, and at the inaugural meeting 
the Rev. Dr. Chalmers and Professor Alison were elected Vice-Presidents.' 

On November 28, 1843, at the second annual meeting, it was resolved 
that 'henceforth the Association shall be designated "The Edinburgh 
Medical Missionary Society." ' 



2 24 ^^i^ Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society. 

extensive, department of its work was commenced. The 
following facts show at a glance the progress of the Society 
during the last twenty years. In 1867 the Society's income 
was ^1,562 ; in 1888 itwaSp/^5,202. In 1867 twelve students, 
under its auspices, were preparing for medical missionary work ; 
this year there are twenty-four, besides fifteen native medical 
missionary students in its Training Institution at Agra. In 
1867 the expenditure in support of its own Medical Missions 
abroad was ;£558, last year it amounted to ;^i,228; while 
within the last few years grants to the amount of over ^^3,000 
have been given for the purchase of medicines, instruments, 
etc., to medical missionaries labouring in connection with the 
various societies in all parts of the world. 

The object of the Edinburgh Training Institution is to 
provide for its students a full medical and surgical education, 
at the University or Extra-Mural School of Medicine, along 
with a thorough practical training in the various departments 
of missionary work. The students belong to all the evangelical 
denominations, and are drawn from all parts of the United 
Kingdom, and from other countries. Candidates must satisfy 
the Board that the love of Christ constrains them to engage in 
this service, that they have a gpod general education, and 
possess evangelistic gifts; that they require (financially) the 
Society's help to prepare for the work, and that, when they shall 
have finished their studies, and obtained their legal qualifica- 
tions, they are willing to go wherever their services, as medical 
missionaries, may be required. The Society has supplied 
legally qualified medical missionaries to all the great Missionary 
Societies in this country, to the French Protestant, Swedish, 
Norwegian, and to several American Societies. In 1887 com- 
modious and well-equipped premises, known as The Living- 
stone Memorial Medical Missionary Training Institution, were 
erected by the Society, at a cost of ;£i 0,000. 

The object of the Society's Training Institution at Agra, 
under the charge of its founder, Dr. Valentine, is to educate 
in the Government College there, and train, a Native agency 
in this important department of missionary work. Fifteen 
students, sent from all the various Missions in Northern India, 
are at present in course of training. The Society has besides 
prosperous Medical Missions in Nazareth and Damascus. 
Magazine : — Quarterly Paper, 



( 225 ) 



II. — Delhi Medical Mission to Women and Children. 

This Mission is the Medical Department of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel and the Cambridge Mission 
to Delhi. It was the first Female Medical Mission begun 
in India. 

The Association was formed at Brighton in October, 1866, 
and the first missionary was sent out towards the end of the 
following year. 

The work is carried on as follows : — 

(i) By attendance upon native ladies in their Zenanas. 

(2) In a Dispensary for Women and Children. 

(3) By training native women as nurses. 

The present missionary, Miss Englemann, by her vigorous 
administration has won the confidence of several successive 
civil surgeons of Delhi, who have frequently testified to her 
professional skill and success in the work, and both the 
Government and the Delhi Municipality make grants. 

In 1885 a new Hospital for Women and Children, in memory 
of Mrs. Winter, was opened ; it is centrally situated, and has 
become a prominent institution in Delhi. 

In 188 1 a medical woman, Deaconess Jacobina Zeyen, was 
sent to Karnal, where a small native house is rented in the 
heart of the town as dispensary and hospital, and a similar 
work to that in Delhi is carried on. 



MEDICAL STATISTICS, 1887. 

ATTENDED IN TWELVE MONTHS. 





Delhi. 


Karnal. 


Women and children at the Dispensary 

In-patients 

Women and children in private houses . 


13,620 

238 

1,308 


13,111 

268 

355 


Total of cases attended 


15,166 


13,739 


Aggregate number of attendances . 


52,890 


26,877 



Income from 
£SA9 i6x- 3^- 



subscriptions and donations in 1887, 



( 226 ) 



III. — The Medical Missionary Society, London. 

The London Medical Missionary Association was originated in 
1878 by several medical men and others who desired, through 
it, to forward the cause of Medical Missions. In detail the 
objects of the Association are : — 

1. To promote the spiritual welfare of the students connected 
with the various Medical Schools in England, and to awaken 
and foster among them and the members of the medical profes- 
sion generally, a deeper interest in Medical Missions. 

2. To encourage, and when deemed expedient, to aid suitable 
Christian men who desire to give themselves up to Medical 
Mission work. 

3. To estabUsh Medical Missions, either independently or in 
connection with other Societies. 

4. To diffuse information by Lectures, Meetings, and espe- 
cially by the publication of a Medical Missionary magazine. 

The organ of the Association, Medical Missions at Home 
and Abroad, was established at once, and under the editorship 
of Dr. Fairlie Clarke, and after his death under that of Dr. 
Burns Thomson, continued to be issued quarterly up till October 
1885, when it entered upon a monthly issue under the editorship 
of Dr. James L. Maxwell. Beyond assisting various Medical 
Missions in India, China, Egypt, etc., with donations of money 
or instruments, the Association did not attempt any regular or 
continuous work till October 1885. At that time it definitely 
entered upon the work of bringing forward and educating suit- 
able young men as medical missionaries. The Medical Mission 
House at 104, Petherton Road, London, was opened to receive 
such men during their studies, and the superintendent was 
appointed to watch over and further their interests. Four men 
who have shared in the benefits of the Home for a longer or 
shorter period are now in the mission field, one in Madagascar, 
two on the Congo, and one in China. Five students are now 
under full training, and a sixth will begin his studies in the 
summer. So far as foreign Mission work is concerned, the 
work of the Medical Missionary Association is that of preparing 
men for the field. It occupies no field of its own. 

In the home field it has succeeded, within the last two years. 



Friends' Medical Mission : Jaffa Medical Mission. 227 

in planting four new Medical Missions in as many needy 
districts of London. Its income last year was over ;^i,ooo. 

Affiliated with this Society is the Children's Medical 
Mission, which seeks to extend among children a knowledge 
and love of Medical Mission work. It raises about £,200 
annually. 

Magazine : — Medical Missions at Home and Abroad : Monthly. 



IV. — The Friends' Medical Mission among the 
Armenians. 

The work began in 1881, when Dr. Dobrashan, who had 
passed through the usual medical course in England, started a 
Medical Mission in the Armenian quarter of Constantinople. 
In connection with this meetings for worship have been started, 
and a school for children. 

At Bahjijig, an Armenian village at the head of the Sea of 
Marmora, near Ismid, an industrial school is supported by 
Friends. 

The Mission has also assisted in three or four instances in 
providing outfits for other Armenian medical missionaries. 

The medical Mission work is carried on at premises in 
Stamboul, which afford room for the hospital treatment of 
urgent cases. 

The annual income is ^{^365. Six native workers are 
employed. 



V. — Jaffa Medical Mission and Hospital. 

This Mission was founded by Miss Mangan in 1878, who 
sacrificed her life to the work. It is now carried on by six 
ladies and one native physician, Dr. Kaiser Ghoreyib. The 
work comprises : — 

(i) The Medical Mission; (2) a Sunday School; (3) a 
Mothers' Meeting ; and (4) a Sewing Class. 

The Medical Mission is carried on five days in every week, 
the patients often beginning to gather round the gate as early 

Q 2 



2 28 J({ff<^ Medical Mission and Hospital. 

as 6 a.m., in their eagerness for the 9 o'clock opening. The 
patients are of various nationahties : — Jews, Maronites, Latins, 
Protestants, Greeks, Armenians, Copt, and Moslems. The 
increased accommodation of the new Hospital (opened in 
October 1885) has admitted of a ward being set apart for 
women, already occupied by five patients ; and on this branch 
of the work we hope for much blessing. 

The Word of God is read and explained in the wards in 
Arabic each evening, with prayer, and deep is the interest in 
this little service. 

The Sunday School is carried on with still increasing 
numbers; nearly every week there are above 120 scholars, 
comprising both children and young women, the great majority 
of whom are Moslems. 

The Mothers' Meeting also is still held every Friday, about 
40 women gathering round their dearly loved friend. Miss 
Nicholson, to hear ' the old, old story,' new to them, ' of Jesus 
and His love.' It must be this that attracts them, for no other 
inducement is offered, except, indeed, the singing of the 
simplest Gospel hymns. Miss Nicholson also visits constantly 
in the neighbouring villages, going from hut to hut, or gathering 
an audience of these utterly untaught, uncared-for women, 
under some shady tree ; and these visits are often pressingly 
invited and eagerly welcomed. 

Miss Cohen, too, has a class of about five-and-twenty Spanish- 
speaking Jewesses, who come to her regularly every Wednesday 
afternoon, and are paid half a franc each for two hours' needle- 
work. She reads to them while they sew, and speaks to them 
of the Lord Jesus, some Hstening eagerly, others evidently 
prejudiced and unwilling hearers. Still, the good seed is sown, 
and the lives of many of these poor women are so burdened 
and sorrowful, that we are thankful for this opportunity of 
carrying to them some knowledge of Him who bare their sins 
and carried their sorrows, and who calls the heavy laden to 
His rest and peace. 

Annual income about ;^ 1,2 00. 

*4,e* For a notice of the Zenana Medical College^ Lofidon^ see 
/. 200, 



( 229 ) 



PUBLICATION SOCIETIES. 



BIBLE SOCIETIES. 

I.^ — A PAPER read by the late Rev. C. E. Baines Reed 
before the Missionary Conference in London, 1878, thus 
succinctly presents the work of different Societies in the dis- 
tribution of the Scriptures : — ^' Earliest in the field was the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which 
began its honoured career as far back as 1698. Next to it was 
the Canstein Institution, founded at Halle in 1712, which 
has acted as feeder to the German Bible Societies of more 
recent date. The Naval and Military Bible Society has 
carried on operations in its special sphere since 1780. The 
British and Foreign Bible Society was established, as is 
well known, in the year 1804; and the example thus set was 
followed by the formation of numerous offshoots which have 
since become independent. Of these the chief were the 
Basel Bible Society, founded in the same year, and the 
Prussian a few months later ; the Swedish and Russian So- 
cieties in 1809 and 1812 respectively; and the American 
Bible Society, which combined several smaller institutions, 
in 1817. The parent tree, for all it has lost, can still boast 
upwards of 6,000 branches at home and in the Colonies; the 
American Bible Society comes second, with 2,000 branches; 
the National Bible Society of Scotland third, with 227 
branches. 

To give even the briefest account of these several agencies 
would here be impossible : our chief concern with them at 
present is in their bearing upon the work of Missions to the 
non-Christian population of the globe. In the first instance, 
and chiefly, they are home Societies. The origin of the greatest 
of them is well known, but bears to be retold. ' In the year 



230 British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1800 a Welsh girl, who had travelled many a mile barefoot 
over the hills to get a Bible, applied to the Rev. Thomas 
Charles, of Bala, for one. This incident directed his atten- 
tion to the dearth of Scriptures in the Principality. The 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge had no funds to 
spare for providing further editions of its Welsh Bible. When 
Mr. Charles next visited London, he urged the Committee 
of the Religious Tract Society to consider how the need 
might be met. While he was speaking, the Rev. Joseph 
Hughes said, " Surely a Society might be formed for the pur- 
pose ; and if for Wales, why not also for the Empire, and the 
World?" On March 7, 1804, was founded the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, having as its simple yet comprehen- 
sive object to promote the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, 
without note or comment, at home and abroad.' 

The Rev. Joseph Hughes, with the Rev. John Owen, and 
the Rev. Dr. Steinkopff, were the first Secretaries. The 
co-operation of all who desired the circulation of the Scrip- 
tures was invited, without regard to sectarian distinction ; and 
the experience of more than fourscore years has proved this 
great end to be attainable without any compromise of prin- 
ciples. Besides the home operations of the Society, it is one 
of the chief objects kept in view to aid Missionary Societies 
in their noble work of upholding Christ among heathen 
nations. Grants are made to translators and revisers of the 
Sacred Text ; paper and money are voted when the printing is 
done abroad, or the expense of printing at home is undertaken. 

With regard to this varied missionary work. Professor Westcott, 
in a speech delivered at Cambridge in 1883, has the following 
applicable and weighty paragraphs : — ■ 

' The assistance which the Bible Society renders to Missions is rendered 
silently and as a matter of course ; and it is therefore often unnoticed. But 
the least inquiry will reveal its extent and its importance. The Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, for example, circulates the Scriptures in 
whole or in part in thirty-five languages ; for translations in twenty-five 
languages it depends on the Bible Society alone. The Church Missionary 
Society, again, circulates translations in sixty languages, and it derives all, 
I am told, from the Bible Society. To speak generally, translations of the 
Scriptures in about seventy languages are used in the Foreign Missions 
of the Church of England, and of these about six-sevenths can only be 
obtained from the Bible Society. The Wesleyan and London Society's 
Missions derive, I believe, no less help from its labours. 

' The extent of the work of the Society may be put in another light. No 



British and Foreign Bible Society. 



231 



less than forty languages have been reduced to writing for its service. It 
found the Scriptures in fifty languages. It has now issued parts of them at 
least in 250, and the little pamphlet which I hold in my hand contains 
specimens of 215 versions.^ 

' It is this Book, this divine library, which the Bible Society desires 
to place in the hands of all who wish to be disciples of the Word of God. 
The Society does not aim at interpreting the Word, but at giving it to each 
man in the language in which he was born. The work is thus definitely 
limited, and yet it is immeasurably powerful. It is not all that we require 
for carrying abroad the Gospel, but in carrying abroad the Gospel we do 
require this ; and here, therefore, the principle of the division of labour 
finds a natural application. We combine heartily to do in the most effective 
manner what we all require to have done. We agree in believing that the 
teaching of Holy Scripture will harmonize and quicken every element of 
good scattered throughout the world. We look for our prevailing commen- 
tary in the grace of the Christian life. We accept the old motto as true 
still : A^on magna loqttinmr sed vivimus. It is not speaking great things, 
but living them, which will convince our adversaries.' 

The receipts of the Society for the year 1887-88 were 
;!^25o,382 loi". 5^., of which ^£102,44^ ^s. were from 
the sale of the Scriptures, the foreign sales amounting to 
;^5o,4oo i5i". 4^. The issues for the year were as follows : — 



Bibles. 


Testaments. 1 


Portions. 




186,229 
682,832 


612,427 
1,325,670 


1,912,639 
284,891 


j From Depots 
\ Abroad. 
From London. 


869,061 


1,938,097 


1,398,874 


Total, 4,206,032 



^ Generally with the Psalms. 



With regard to the foreign work the Committee say, in words 
which contain the whole case of the Society in a single 
paragraph : — • 

' Foreign Missionary Societies have received the fullest assistance the 
Committee could give them. In the printing of new or revised translations, 
and in the supply of copies in languages already published, evcrj' practi- 
cable help has been gladly afforded to every Society applying for it. The only 



^ ' John iii. 16 ; in most of the languages and dialects in which the British 
and Foreign Bible Society has printed or circulated the Holy Scriptures.' 
The 1888 edition of this pamphlet contains specimens of 267 versions. 



232 National Bible Society of Scotland. 

pecuniary return expected is, that after selling the Scriptures at such 
prices as the missionaries believe the people can afford to pay, the proceeds 
be remitted to the Bible House, minus the freight and other expenses. It 
is freely acknowledged by all the Foreign Missionaries Societies receiving 
such aid, that without it their work could not be carried on.' — Report 
for 1887. 

Magazines: — Monthly Reporter; Gleani?tgs for the You?ig : 
Monthly. 



II. — Next among British Societies in successful devotion to 
this work is the National Bible Society of Scotland. 

Early in the century various Societies for the dissemination 
of the Scriptures were formed in Scotland,, such as the Edinburgh 
Bible Society in 1809, ^i^d the Glasgow Bible Society in 18 12. 
They continued generally to work in concert with the British 
and Foreign Bible Society till 1826, when, the Apocrypha 
controversy having arisen, they assumed a more independent 
footing, while some connected themselves as direct auxiliaries 
with the Society in London. Much good was done by the 
Scottish Societies in their separate condition, but a conviction 
having sprung up that the time had come for more vigorous 
efforts at home and abroad, through an organization uniting the 
Scottish Societies into one association embracing all Scotland, 
a happy union was formed in 1861. Nearly all the Societies 
entered into the Union, and the basis was laid for more exten- 
sive operations at home and abroad than had hitherto been 
attempted. The beneficial results of the Union may be seen 
in the progress of the National Bible Society of Scotland since 
it was effected — the revenue having increased from ^T,^^"] to 
^34,389, and the circulation from 103,610 to 562,151. The 
total circulation since 1861, exclusive of the Scriptures issued 
by the various Scottish Societies before the Union, amounts to 
10,673,126 copies. 

Besides an important colportage work in Scotland, and a 
provision, especially made for Gaelic-speaking natives of 
Scotland, the field occupied by the Society embraces the five 
continents, with upwards of twenty distinct countries in them. 
All the British Colonies and Dependencies benefit from the 
operations. But, turning to the fields of heathendom, we find 
that several translations of the Scriptures have been published 
by this Society, the Efik Scriptures for the natives of Old 



Foreign Bible Societies. 233 

Calabar, the New Testament in one of the Malay dialects, and 
in the Chinyanja dialect for natives of Central Africa, on the 
shores of Lake Nyassa, the Wen-li version, of which 664,358 
copies or portions issued in 1886-87 from the Society's press 
at Han-kow, and two Gospels in Corean. It is preparing a 
Tannese and a Mandarin colloquial version. It has had its 
share in the printing of the Japanese Scriptures. 

The claim of the Bible Society to rank among the great 
foreign missionary agencies of the world may be thus summarily 
described. It touches ' the Dark Continent ' at more than one 
point — last year in Egypt, Calabar, Kaffraria, and Natal. In 
South America, it aids Protestant aggressive work in Brazil, 
where a congregation in Pernambuco, itself the fruits of col- 
portage, supplies several successful distributors of the Word. In 
Asia, it has begun work among the wandering Bedouins of the 
Syrian Desert; it has distributed the Scriptures in thousands 
among the Tartar tribes of Mongolia ; it is sowing the good seed 
of the Word in several of the provinces of India ; it was among 
the first to establish regular colportage in Corea, into whose 
tongue it was also the first to translate the Gospel story ; in the 
great Chinese Empire, where it has since 1864 circulated 
1,147,225 Scriptures, it employs 4 European agents and 54 
native colporteurs, and has the aid of missionaries belonging to 
1 1 difi"erent Societies ; and in the island-empire of Japan, under 
European agency, 43 colporteurs (each costing only jP^2o a 
year) sold last year 52,219 Scriptures, making a total of 
373,677 since 1875. 



III. — The American Bible Society. {See American 
Societies^ p. 387.) 

IV. — The three above-named are the chief Bible Societies 
of the world. Those of other countries, so far as they touch 
upon heathendom, follow for the most part the same methods, 
according to their resources. Thus, the Hibernian Bible 
Society, established in 1806, the Danish Bible Society 
(1814), the Neiherlands Bible Society (1815), and the Nor- 
wegian Bible Society (1816), exist chiefly for home work, while 
aiding the Missions of their respective countries. There are 
also Bible Societies in Germany, France, and Switzerland. 



234 Trinitarian Bible and Bible Translation Societies, 

V. — Some Societies should now be noticed, formed for the 
circulation of the Scriptures under special coftditions. Thus the 
Trinitarian Bible Society was formed in 183 1 for the circu- 
lation of translations made only from the original Scriptures, to 
the exclusion of all versions from the Latin Vulgate. It is 
chiefly therefore concerned with Continental Bible work, having 
little or nothing to do with the outlying fields of heathendom. 
It publishes, however, the late Mr. Salkinson's Hebrew version 
of the New Testament, which has been acceptable and useful 
to the Jews in many countries. (The version now circulated 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society is by the eminent 
Leipzig Professor, Dr. Delitzsch.) The income of the Society 
for 1877-8, from free contributions, including legacies, was 
;£"i,52i ; from the sale of Scriptures, etc., £^S^. The 
foreign circulation was 576 Bibles, 9,573 New Testaments, 
and 60,942 portions; amounting in all to 71,085. 



VI. — The Bible Translation Society was established in 
1840 to assist brethren connected with the Baptist Missionary 
Society in their translations of the Scriptures into the lan- 
guages of the East. Some of them, e.g. Drs. Carey, Marsh- 
man, and Yates, had been long distinguished for their zeal 
and ability in this department of mission labours, and they 
had received through many years liberal assistance in it from 
the British and Foreign Bible Society. Through the persist- 
ency of those brethren in employing words signifying '■ immer- 
sion ' when translating those of the New Testament referring 
to ' baptism,' that assistance was withheld ; and to supply 
the need thus occasioned, friends sympathizing with the trans- 
lators originated this Society ; and as the resolution of the 
Bible Society is unchanged, they sustain it. Since its formation 
its income has been about ^£2,000 a-year; last year it was 
;^2,8i7. It has pubhshed, or assisted in pubhshing, new ver- 
sions in fourteen distinct languages or dialects of the Mission 
field; and from the Baptist Mission press in Calcutta it has 
issued for the use of Indian missionaries more than 2,000,000 
of portions of the Word of God. The issues of the last ?year 
of which the Report has reached us were 61,000. Two brethren 
are supported as translators in Calcutta and Allahabad, and 



The Religmis Tract Society. 235 

from twelve to fifteen colporteurs are employed in different 
Mission stations under the superintendence of the missionaries. 
Assistance has been given to missionaries in Japan, and the 
New Testament translated by Mr. Saker into the Dualla of 
Western Africa was printed by the Society. The Congo version 
— the first portion of which, in the Gospel of Mark, has just 
been issued — will be assisted by it ; but its funds with difficulty 
meet the requirements of India, where the increasing desire to 
know our Sacred Books is one of the clearest indications of 
missionary progress. 



TRACT SOCIETIES. 



I. — The Religious Tract Society was established in 
London, May 1799, at the instance of the Revs. G. Burder and 
Rowland Hill, with like-minded associates. The Rev. Joseph 
Hughes was the first secretary. From the first the Society has 
been unsectarian in principle, its Committee having been 
always selected in equal number from churchmen and noncon- 
formists. The work of following up the preaching of the Word 
and the circulation of the Bible with Christian tracts and 
books, is one the importance of which the Christian Church 
must recognize, one which it must feel has very large claims on 
its sympathy, its prayers, its hearty efforts. This is the work 
in which the Religious Tract Society has been from its very 
commencement engaged. The Committee state in their 
address that in matters affecting the fundamental doctrines of 
Protestantism that ' without reference to points of a secular or 
merely controversial nature, they consider the Luthers, the 
Melancthons, the Tyndales, the Cranmers, the Latimers, and the 
Bradfords of former days as their patterns in sound doctrine and 
active exertion.' To the Society's home work we can do no more 
than allude. Our present purpose is very briefly to describe its 
work in the great Foreign Mission fields. In India, in China 
and Japan, in Africa, in South America, and Mexico, in Mada- 
gascar and Polynesia, it finds itself in constant and happy com- 
munication with the Missionary Societies, and missionaries of all 
the Protestant Churches. In India and Ceylon it works through 
twelve Tract and Book Societies, to which its grants last year 



236 The Religions Tract Society. 

(1887-8) in paper and money amounted to about ^3,720; in 
China and Japan through nine such Societies receiving ;i^ 1,00 5. 
English and American Mission presses in other parts of the 
world thankfully receive its co-operation. It is the privilege of 
its Committee also to lend a helping hand to those excellent 
Missionary Societies of Basle, Paris, Barmen, Berlin, and Stock- 
holm, which have sent out so many devoted labourers to the 
Mission field. Its Annotated New Testament^ containing com- 
ments allowed to be especially suitable to missionary converts 
— short, simple, unsectarian — has been already translated into 
Syriac, Bengali, Canarese, Urdu, Marathi, Tamil, Cinghalese, 
Karen, Chinese, and Arabic. It is progressing in the 
Nestorian, and it is commenced in South Africa for the natives 
of Basutoland. 

The total missionary income of the Society for the year 
1887-8, from subscriptions, donations, dividends, and balance 
of legacies, amounted to ;£"i9,io3, in addition to which the 
sum of ;^i 2,540 was set apart from the proceeds of the trade 
department for missionary purposes, and ;^i 0,065 were paid 
by the recipients of grants \ so that the whole amount of grants 
at home and abroad amounted to ;£4i,7o8. Of this sum 
;£ 16,532 were devoted to foreign lands, including Europe, North 
and South America, and Australasia, as well as heathen countries. 

No deduction is made from the monies contributed for the 
missionary work of the Society, and all expenses are met by 
profits from the trading operations. 

There were issued during the year 1887-8, 757 new 
publications, of which 214 were Tracts. The Society has 
published in 193 languages, dialects and characters. The 
total circulation from the home depot, including Books, 
Tracts, Periodicals, counted in numbers, Cards, and miscel- 
laneous issues, reached 61,061,050, of which 24,590,600 are 
Tracts. The issues from foreign depots may be safely stated 
at 15,000,000, making a total circulation of 76,061,050, and of 
2,602,390,390 since the formation of the Society. 

Bible and Tract Societies work harmoniously together for 
one common end. As already stated, it was in the Committee 
room of the Religious Tract Society that the British and 
Foreign Bible Society was proposed, the lines of its constitution 
laid down, and preliminary rules drawn up. 

Special attention is now directed by the Committee to India. 



Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 237 

The fact of the establishment by the natives of a Hindu Tract 
Society calls loudly for new efforts to spread the knowledge of 
the Truth. The Secretary of the North India Tract Society 
thus writes : — 

' Turning to the question of results, we may be asked if we have any- 
thing equally cheering to report. The present decade has seen. a great 
revival of interest in missionary operations, and many, both well-wishers 
and those who are not well-wishers, are " seeking a sign," It only needs 
that such friends should attend one of the large annual melas, and see how 
eagerly distinctly evangelical Christian books and tracts are bought ; to 
accompany the missionary to his preaching-stations and schools, and hear 
how many a boy will voluntarily repeat page after 'page of some tract or 
handbill, to prove that he has read it and deserves to receive another ; to 
stand before the stalls of native booksellers and see how those enemies of 
decency, of purity, and of truth, the agents of the Arya Samaj, have paid 
the Tract Societies the homage of that sincerest form of flattery — imitation 
— in the outward and inward shape of their scurrilous and blasphemous 
publications. Open one of these miserable productions and you will find 
the author lamenting that by their tracts " Christians are making hundreds 
of thousands of disciples, and something must be done to put a stop to 
this state of things." ' 



II. — The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
(see page 22) also publishes Bibles, Testaments, Prayer-books 
with tracts and other religious works in many languages, 
and makes liberal grants to missionaries ; working very much 
through foreign vernacular sub-committees, as in Madras 
for the Tamil and Telugu languages; in the Punjab and 
Sindh ; in Bombay ; and Calcutta for the Bengali and 
languages of the North-west Provinces. Grants of publica- 
tions were also made during 1888 in Swahili, Yoruba, 
Malagasy, Arabic, Susu Secoana, Qwagutl, French, Cree, 
Danish, Dutch, German, etc., languages. The entire mission- 
ary income of the Society for home and foreign purposes 
amounted for the year 1887-8 to ^40,289 16^-. 7^/., including 
free contributions of all kinds, dividends, and the available 
profit on book-selling account. The amount devoted to the 
Foreign Translation Fund amounted to ;^i,495, ^^^ grants 
of books and tracts had been made to the value of ;£"i,i45, 
besides the money grants to the different colonial and foreign 
dioceses. 

The following list of books published since March 31, 1887, 



238 Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 

will give some idea of the variety and extent of the Society's 
operations. 

Ainu. — ' The Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments.' 

Arabic. — ' The Balance of Truth ; ' ' Testimony of the Books ; ' ' The 
Scriptures' and 'Koran.' 

Bengali. — 'Lectures on Confirmation' (Vaughan). 

Burmese. — 'An Explanation of the Apostles' Creed;' 'Maclear's 
Catechism.' 

Cree.— ' Syllabarium ; ' ' Prayer Book ; ' ' Hymns.' 

Fan. — ' Vocabulary.' 

Florida. — ' Gospels and Acts.' 

GoNDi. — ' Grammar.' 

Haddendowa.— ' Vocabulary.' 

Hausa. — ' Prayer Book.' 

Hindi. — ' The Book of Common Prayer.* 

Kafir.—' The Seven Last Words.' 

Karen. — * Book of Common Prayer ; ' ' Some Chief Truths of 
Religion.' 

Kashmiri. — * Grammar.' 

Kavirondo. — ' Vocabulary.' 

Ki-Makua. — ' Vocabulary.' 

Luganda. — ' Primer of the Language.' 

Malagasy. — ' Prayer Book.' 

Malayalam. — ' Bridges on the Proverbs.' 

Mandarin. — ' Book of Common Prayer ; ' ' Lessons from the 
Apocrypha.' 

Marathi. — ' Commentary on the Epistles to the Corinthians ; ' 
' Burton's Church History.' 

NiKA. — ' Dictionary.' 

QuAGUTL. — ' The Prayer Book.' 

Secoana. — ' The Prayer Book.' 

Sinhalese.—' Manual of Devotion.' 

Sioux. — ' Prayers.' 

Slavi. — 'Lessons;' 'Hymns.' 

Susu. — ' A Reading Book.' 

SWAHILI. — * Bible Stories ; ' ' Sketch of Mahomet's Life ; ' ' Bible 
Picture Book ; ' ' Peep o' Day ; ' ' The Prayer Book ; ' ' The Child's Acts 
of the Apostles ; ' ' Church History,' pt. ii. ; ' Stories and Translations.' 

Tamil. — 'Lyric Tune-book;' 'Commentary on the Epistles and 
Revelation.' 

Telugu. — ' Commentary on the Epistles and Revelation ; ' ' Maclear's 
New Testament History ; ' ' Introduction to the Prayer Book ; ' ' Whately's 
Evidences.' 

Urdu. — 'The Women of Christendom;' 'Manual of Holy Com- 
munion ; ' * Commentary on St. John's Gospel.' 
Yao. — ' Vocabulary.' 
YoRUBA.— ' Tract on Polygamy.' 



American Tract Society, 239 

Other British, Continental and American Tract Societies 
contemplate the same great end — as the Scottish Tract and 
Book Society, and the Monthly Tract Society; with 
Societies in Toulouse, Paris, Switzerland, Florence, Berlin, 
Bremen, Stockholm, etc. These are mostly home societies, 
although with connexion in heathen lands. 



III. — The American Tract Society was formed in New 
York, 1825, by a union of several previously existing organiza- 
tions — as the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of 
Christian Knowledge (1803), the Connecticut Religious Tract 
Society (1807), the Vermont Religious Tract Society (1808), the 
New York Religious Tract Society (1812), and the New England 
Tract Society, Andover (18 14). * The foreign work of the 
united Society is now mainly carried on by the aid of mission- 
aries at seventy different stations in the nominally Christian, 
Mohammedan, and heathen world. At the principal Mission 
centres committees are formed, each member representing one 
of the several denominations theie labouring; and these 
prepare and recommend the tracts proper for publication by 
this Society ; and to these undenominational and soul-saving 
books the annual grants of the Society are devoted. These 
grants have amounted in fifty-eight years (to 1883) to ;^i 29,200, 
besides many thousands in engravings, books, and other helps. 
Many valuable books have also been printed at the Tract 
House for the sole use of Foreign Missions in Armenia, Ha- 
waiian, Zulu, Grebo, etc. The Society has printed more or 
less, at home and abroad, in 146 languages and dialects, and 
at foreign stations, 4,340 different publications, including 694 
volumes — a work which has borne a very considerable part in 
conquering heathendom for Christ.' ^ 



IV. — The Christian Vernacular Education Society 
FOR India may be classed with publishing Societies, although its 
aims are in some respects even wider. It was established (in 
May 1858) 'as a memorial of the Lord's mercy in preserving 
India during the great Indian Mutiny.' Its object is to promote 

^ The Rev. W. W. Rand, D.D., Publishing Secretary of the American 
Tract Society, in Schaff's Cyclopadia. 



240 Christian Vernacular Education Society, 

Christian education in the principal languages of India. This 
is being done in three ways : — i. By training teachers. 2. By 
Christian instruction and inspection in the indigenous schools 
of Bengal, 3. By publishing Christian literature. 

There are now two Training Institutions. One is at Ahmed- 
nagar, in the centre of the Marathi population, in the West ; 
the other at Dindigal, in the midst of the great Tamil-speaking 
people, in the South. Young men, the far greater number 
being Christians, are being trained in these Institutions for the 
honourable office of teacher, and are exercised in the art of 
teaching in the vernaculars. 

The system for reaching the youthful pupils in the indigenous 
schools of Bengal has proved to be most effective. For a 
small fee several masters in these schools are wilHng to permit 
Christian teaching and inspection. These inspected schools 
are divided into groups or circles, each of which is placed in 
charge of a Christian native inspector, under the superintendence 
of a missionary. Many instances of real good done, not only 
to the peasant boys, but also to their parents and teachers, 
are on record ; and this system, which is usually called the 
Circle System, has been of great service in extending the know- 
ledge of Christianity among the rural population of Bengal. 

The Society also issues school-books and general Christian 
literature. The series of Christian Reading Books, especially 
intended for use in Mission schools, has been pronounced to 
be of the highest excellence by some of the most distinguished 
educational authorities in England. Small tracts and books, 
cheap, portable, and attractive, have been published. Many 
of these are by the well-known writer, A. L. O. E., who went 
to India for the express purpose of devoting her powers for 
the good of the people of India. Her tales have been trans- 
lated into the principal languages of India, and have been 
rendered into them in clear, forcible, and idiomatic style. A 
new series of pure and Christian literature intended for educated 
Hindus is now being prepared by the veteran labourer in India, 
Dn John Murdoch, who has been connected v/ith the Society 
from the very first, and who has several times travelled through 
India with the object of promoting in every way the interests 
of Christian education and pure literature. 

The income of the Society for 1888 is reported at 
;£9,646, of which sum ^3,340 were' contributed in Great 



Book and Trad Societies, 241 

Britain, and ;^6,234 were raised in India (including sales). 
The number of publications printed amounted to 661,967. 
The Society has spent in India, since the commencement, 
;£"2io,45i, enabling about 900 teachers to be trained, many 
thousand children to receive a vernacular education, and 
13,207,937 copies of 1,200 publications to be printed in 

EIGHTEEN LANGUAGES. 

Magazine : — Light for India : Quarterly. 



VARIOUS. 



I. — Association for the Free Distribution of the 
Scriptures (organized 1874.) The whole of the expense of 
printing, postage, etc., is borne by Mrs. Robertson, so that the 
funds of the Association are strictly devoted to the purposes of 
the work, the free distribution of the Bible in foreign lands. 
Income about ;^i,7oo. 



II. — The Religious Tract and Book Society of 
Scotland, founded in 1793, maintains a native colporteur in 
India, and gives grants of literature to missionary societies. 
Annual income about ;£"76o. 



III. — Book and Tract Society of China, estabUshed 
1884, makes grants of money, books, pamphlets, periodicals, 
tracts, and leaflets to societies or individuals engaged in mis- 
sionary and educational work among the Chinese, and assists 
societies and individuals engaged in the preparation, translation, 
printing, and circulation of Christian and educational literature 
among the Chinese, Annual income about ;^4oo. 



( 242 ) 



MISSIONS TO THE JEWS. 
I. — The London Society for Promoting Christianity 

AMONG THE JeWS. 

The Society was founded in the beginning of 1809. It is the 
only Church of England Society having the twofold object of 
the evangelization of the Jews at home and in foreign lands. 

In September 1817, the work of translating the New Testa- 
ment into Hebrew was completed. The version was printed, 
and having undergone several revisions, was issued in a standard 
form in 1838. The Society also took an important share in the 
publication of the Hebrew Old Testament in an accessible 
form. They also published a collection of Haphtorahs^ or 
selections from the Prophets, bearing specially on the character 
and work of the Messiah. The Liturgy of the Church of 
England has also been translated into Hebrew, and is employed 
both in London and in Jerusalem. 

In 1825 an event of signal importance took place, in the 
conversion and baptism of Michael Solomon Alexander. 

' Walking with a friend, his attention was attracted by a large handbill, 
notifying tlio Annual Meeting of the local Association in aid of the Society 
for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews. His curiosity was excited, 
and, in answer to his eager inquiries, he was informed that the Society 
hoped to convert the Jews by means of the New Testament. He had now 
to learn what the New Testament was, and was told that it was an absurd 
book, which he would do well to read, and which indeed every Jew ought 
to read, with a view to the confirmation of his own mind and in his own 
religion, and in opposition to Christianity. 

' He did read the New Testament ; and the very first perusal of its 
sacred pages awakened an inquiry and an interest, which four years of 
severe mental conflict brought to a happy determination. With a mind 
dissatisfied and ill at ease, struggling with conviction on the one hand, and 
the jirospcct of worldly disgrace and ruin on the other, after one or two 
changes he settled at Plymouth as reader in the Jewish synagogue. He 
subse(]ucntly married ; and now, as he thought, sledfastly resolved to 
abandon every thought of Christ and His religion. Through God's 
mercy he was not long able to persevere in this resolution. Yet the struggle 
within was almost heart-rending. He was afraid to come near the church, 
and yet on Sunday evenings would steal silently under its walls, and, 



J.oHiion Society for J^romo/ini^ Chrhtiatiitv Aniofhi [cws. 24;^ 

almost livclctl to llir spot, listen to the pcilinij or|;;»n :is it !Ut'oiu|i;iMi("(l 
the :,()ii)'s ol (!Iiiisli:in j)i!iisc. At 1(mi|MIi, iiltci h;ivin|; lor soiur time com- 
iminicutcd his (liHuullics to a Jewish liicnd, it hcciuno nrc("s'..iiy to inaUo 
a loitual annoiinccmcnl of his views to the conjMej;ation in which he 
niinislereil ; and alter a Very short interval he was enabled to decide fully 
nnd Imally (01 Christ.' 

Two yens allcMwards, Mr. AK>x;nu]c'r rcciMvod oKliii.Uion 
in ihc ('hiinh of l'",nj;lainl, ami \\\\c\ t-ariu'stly laboiirinj; for 
sonic time in l''nf;lantl, ho was, in iSp, ionsocratcd a. Hishoj) 
of Jciiisalom. 

The So(acty now occnpics liclds of lahom in Imikoi'io, Asia, 
and Ai'KiCA. Il sustains missionaries in l^'rance, llaly, (he 
(lennai) I'anpire, llolland, Austria, Russia, I'oiand, Turkey, 
Asia Minor, I'ersia, and liie Dnuijtian l*i incipalilies. It has 
carried on its work in North Ahi( a, im hiding l'',/^ypt, and in 
Abyssinia, in whieh latter cotmtry the labours and suOerings 
of the late Rev. II. A. Stern will be fresh in the recollcM lion of 
many. In fad, wherever the cliildren of Israel aic found, 
thei'C is the sj)here of its operations; and allhouiji nuM with 
strong and constant o|)position, the work ha;i been much 
blessed by (lod.' 

Many Jews are a<lmitlcd into the < htiK h by Holy r.a|)tism 
by the Society's missionaiies in London, i'.erlin, ilambur);, 
Warsaw, Jerusalem, Mo^ador, and elsewhere ; while numerous 
(!hristian Israelites, insinuated by ihe Society's aj;enls, aie 
baptized by ])a!()chial cler/jjymen at honu- and abroad. In the 
Society's (!hapel, Palestine IMace, i-ondon, i,,^^)7 Jew, iiavir 
been l)a|)tise(l, half of whom were adults. 

When the Society was lormcd, there were no! Iilly ('liiislian 
Israelites known in tin- United Kiiif^dom. Now oni mission- 
aries estimate that there are _^, 000, and also inoie than too 
ordained clergymen of tiie seed of Ai)raham. In (iermany, 
it is said there is haidly a town where tiiere are iiol some 
])roselytes Jews who beheve in the 1 -ord |e;ais ("hiist and 
this is the result of om- Mission, directly oi- indireelly. There 
are t\ow |)robably 5,000. 

No estimate can be formed ol tiie mnnber of Jews wli(>, alter 
having; re<eive(l('hristian instruction at the hand:; of the Sociely's 
missionaries, ar(^ bapli/ed by cU^r^ymen of l',n;;lish aiul (Jon- 
tiiuMital C'hur< hes. Su( 1> (!hristian Jews are lost sight of as 
converts and huits of the Mission. In one way or anotlier, 

' See Our Mis.sioiis, l.y tlie Kev. I'll. .iii;is I ). ilalsted, M.A. 

U 2 



244 London Society for Promoting Christianity Among Jews. 

according to a recent writer, as many as 1,500 Jews leave the 
Synagogue for the Church of Christ every year. There are 
also a large number of secret believers in Christianity amongst 
the Jews. 

A striking change has come over the feelings and convictions 
of the Jews subsequent to, and in no small degree consequent 
upon, missionary work amongst them. The widely-circulated 
Hebrew periodical, JIa?nelitz, said, not many months ago, 
' The majority of Jews are more familiar with the doctrines 
and sayings of the New Testament than they are with the 
Talmud and the Pentateuch.' The decay of many ancient 
prejudices and superstitions, the improved character of the 
Synagogue service, the feeling of confidence frequently 
evidenced in the motives of our missionaries, the frequent 
acknowledgment that Jesus was a great reformer, and that His 
religion has its mission to fulfil, the desire to possess the Old 
Testament, the intellectual conviction of many that their system 
is unsatisfactory, and that Christianity has established its claim to 
be heard — these are a few out of many indications of a change, 
the results and importance of which none can fully estimate. 

In Jerusalem, there are many important auxiliaries to the 
Mission. The Institution for Jewesses; the Hospital, where 
the Jew is made practically to understand the power of 
Christian love and benevolence, with more than 500 in-patients 
and 6,000 out-patients yearly; the Enquirers' Home; and 
the House of Industry, where the convert is put in the way of 
gaining his livelihood by the exercise of an honest calling. 

In London, two kindred institutions, though supported 
independently of the Society, are very helpful to its work. The 
Wanderers' Home, supported by voluntary contributions, 
where enquirers have a humble shelter, whilst quietly studying 
the Holy Scriptures ; and the Operative Jewish Converts' 
Institution, governed by an independent Committee, and 
supported by voluntary contributions, its object being, as its 
name implies, identical with that of the House of Industry at 
Jerusalem. Proselytes and enquirers, whilst under Christian 
instruction, are taught the trades of printing and bookbinding. 

The report of the Society for 1887-8 gives the following 
particulars : — 

' The a.qgregate income for the year amounted to £2)Zy9'^S ^S-^* ^^'^ 
while the expenditure at home and abroad was ;^37,344 us. During the 



British Society for Propagatio?i of Gospel Among Jews. 245 

year there had been issued from the Society's depot 5>6oo Bibles, 4,018 
New Testaments, whole or in part, 47,219 missionary books and tracts, 
119,748 periodicals, and 59,301 home tracts and appeals. The Society 
has 132 agents at work, 82 of whom are Christian Israelites. Since 1823, 
164,806 entire copies of the Old Testament, and 405,606 parts of the same, 
had been circulated, and since 181 7, 212,080 copies of the Hebrew New 
Testament, and portions thereof, had been sold or distributed gratis. The 
Society has mission schools in London, Jerusalem, Constantinople, Da- 
mascus, Bucharest, Tunis, etc., v/lier2 several hundred Jewish children 
are educated.' 

Magazines : — The Jeivish Advocate: Quarterly ; The Jewish 
Intelligencer: Monthly. 



II. — The British Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel among the Jews. 

On the formation of the London Society for Fromotiftg Chris- 
tianity amongst the Jews, as described in the preceding section, 
a Committee was appointed by the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland to carry a Mission work among the people. 
The Committee sent a deputation to visit Palestine and the 
East, with the view of ascertaining the actual state of the Jews. 
The Report of this Mission, prepared by Andrew Bonar, one 
of the deputies, and the memoir and writings of R. M. 
McCheyne, another of them, gave a great impetus to Jewish 
Missions. The Church of Scotland sent missionaries to Austria 
and Palestine, and encouraged the formation of an English 
Society, which would take up the work among the Jews in 
England. Such a Society, which could unite the members of 
the Evangelical Churches, had for some time been a want felt 
among Christians in London. When the proposal, accompanied 
with an offer of substantial aid, came from Scotland, a number 
of Christians interested in Israel met on the 7th of November, 
1842, and founded The British Societv for the Propa- 
gation OF the Gospel among the Jews. 

The first Report of the Committee is an interesting record of 
the beginning of the work. To excite the best sympathies of 
God's people on behalf of the Jews, the Society instituted 
prayer-meetings, where earnest supplications were offered for 
the conversion of Israel ; and secured the delivery and subse- 
quent publication of a course of lectures by eminent ministers 
on the history, condition, and prospects of the Jews. The 



246 British Society for Propagatioji of Gospel Among Jews. 

proper work of the Society was vigorously undertaken in dif- 
ferent directions. Lectures directly addressed to the Jew on 
subjects of special interest to him, were delivered in London. 
An edition of the New Testament, and a pamphlet containing 
the principal Messianic prophecies, were issued in Hebrew. 
An acknowledgment was made of the liberality of the Church 
of Scotland by presenting the Jewish Committee of the Free 
Church with 1,000 copies of the latter publication. And 
lastly, the four missionary agents employed by the Society 
reported successes already attained. 

The growing interest among God's people in the seed of 
Abraham, and the consequent ever-enlarging sympathy with 
and help in the work of the Society, have enabled the Com- 
mittee to extend their operations. As a little seed becomes a 
forest, so this Society, small in its beginning, has grown slowly 
but surely in strength and usefulness. Forty-five years ago it 
began with four agents ; and now there are upwards of 100 who 
carry the Gospel to the Jews in England, Germany, Austria, 
Russia, Turkey, and the Holy Land. 

Tracts and copies of the Scriptures are circulated. Many 
Jews have by this Society been led to believe that Jesus is 
the Christ. Much good has been done among the thousands 
of Jews in London by the various agents, and by the Mission 
House, with its important Medical Missions. 

' Our work,' writes the Rev. J. Dunlop, the Secretary, ' has been like 
the building of a lighthouse under the tide. Much labour, time, and 
material are first expended in laying the foundation under the water, out 
of sight. Then the superstructure becomes visible, and rises higher and 
higher, till at last the lamps are lit, the lights revolve, and lives are saved. 
So our devoted missionaries have been labouring for forty-five years, first 
laying a good foundation, and then building upon it a superstructure firm 
and strong, to the glory of God and the good of His ancient people. And 
now all true voices of the past forty-five years ; the voices of the glorified 
founders and supporters ; the voices of the noble workers at home and 
abroad ; the voices of Mr. Rabbinowitz, the pastor, and the members of the 
Hebrew Christian Church in Kischinew, South Russia, which was inaugu- 
rated on the occasion of the visit of the British Society's Treasurer and 
Secretary ; the voices of Rabbi Lichtenstein, of Tapio Zelle, in Hungary, 
and his many sympathizers, all exclaim, " Excelsior ; go on increasing 
your staif ; go on enlarging your operations ; go on building higher and 
higher, till the Jews shall be uplifted like a mighty Pharos in the midst of 
a dark sea, to give to all nations ' the light of the knowledge of the glory 
of God in the face of Jesus Christ.' " ' 

In England there are 6 principal stations, in Germany 5, in 



Free Church of Scotland's Committee. 



247 



Austria 2, in Russia 2, in Turkey 2, and in Palestine i. There 
are upwards of 100 missionaries and helpers engaged in the 
work. The income for 1887-8 amounted to ;£"8,i82. 



Magazine 



■The Jewish Herald: Monthly. 



III. — Free Church of Scotland's Committee on the 
Conversion of the Jews. 

As a result of their Mission to the Jews, sent out by the Church 
of Scotland in 1839, a Mission to the Jews was begun, the 
late Dr. John Duncan resigning his charge in Glasgow to 
undertake the work. He and the other missionaries adhered 
to the Free Church at the Disruption of 1843, and the work 
has been carried on ever since with vigour by that Church. 
The Established Church has also continued its work among 
the Jews of Egypt and Turkey. 

Besides the stations named below, the work has been carried 
on at different times in Leghorn, Ancona, Galatz, Jassy, Strass- 
burg, and other places. 



SUMMARY ; Free Church Mission to the Jews. 
Income for 1887-8, ^8,177. 



1 
Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Out- 
Sta- 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 






tions. 
















Or- 


Lav. 


Fe- 


Licensed 


Lay. 


Fe- 








dained. 




male. 


Missionaries. 




male. 


Principal Sta- 


















tions :— 


















Budapest . 


184I 




2 


... 


... 


I 


7 4 


Constantinople 


1842 


2 


2 






I 


6 5 


Prague 


1862 




I 




... 




2 , ... 


Amsterdam . 


1849 


... 








... 




... 


Breslau 


i8,S3 


3 


I 








2 


... 


Sea of Galileej 
(Tiberias) ./ 


1884 






' 


2 


... 


2 




Totals . . 




5 


6 


I 


2 


2 


19 


9 



248 



Mildmay Mission to the Jews. 



Free Church of Scotland's Mission to the Jews. 
Summary. — continued. 



Fields of Labour. 


Com- 
municants. 


Schools. 


Scholars 
on Roll. 


Native Contribu- 
tions. 


Principal Sta- 
tions :— 
Budapest . 
Constantinople 
•Prague 
Amsterdam . 
Breslau 

Sea of Galilee! 
(Tiberias) ./ 


100 
120 


I 

4 


377 
274 

53 


211 

199 
17 

49 
56 


Totals . . 


256 5 


704 


532 



IV. — The Mildmay Mission to the Jews, commenced 
in 1876 under the direction of the Rev. John Wilkinson, is linked 
to the Conference Hall, Mildmay Park, and makes London its 
centre of work. Besides general mission work carried on by- 
visitation, Gospel addresses, tea-meetings, a sewing class, night 
schools for adults and children, there are a medical mission, 
employing 2 doctors and 2 deaconesses, and a convalescent 
home. There are also a home for inquirers and converts, 
and a home and school for poor children. Hebrew New 
Testaments in the new version of the late Mr. Salkinson 
are distributed in various countries, and grants are made to 
missionaries of other societies all over the world. Several 
mission tours have been made on the Continent, embracing 
Pomerania, Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, Roumania, Galicia, 
and important portions of Russia. An itinerant Mission 
established in Morocco is temporarily suspended by the recent 
death of the missionary. 

A central hall for mission work in East London is con- 
templated. 

There are thirty-five agents in the Mission. The income 
for 1888 was ;£"6,53i. 4^-., ^1,500 of which was towards the 
proposed Hall. 

Magazine : — Service for the King ; Monthly. 



( 249 ) 



V. — Church of Scotland Mission to the Jews. 

The first Report of a Committee on the Conversion of the Jews 
was presented to the General Assembly and approved, in 
1838. The following year a deputation was sent to enquire 
into the condition of the Jews in Turkey, Palestine and the 
continent of Europe. Jassy, Pesth and Constantinople were 
chosen as stations, and in 1842 the General Assembly author- 
ized their committee to establish a Jewish Mission in London 
if they should see cause. As the result of much negotiation 
they recommended the formation of a separate Association for 
the purpose. The British Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel among the Jews was formed accordingly. In 1843 all 
the agents of the committee joined the Free Church and 
remained at their respective stations. Various successive 
attempts were made by the Church of Scotland thereafter to 
establish Missions at Cochin, Tunis, the West End of London, 
Karlsruhe, Darmstadt, Speyer and Wurtzburg. They were not 
very successful. In 1856, after the termination of the Crimean 
War, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions having withdrawn from the Jewish field in Turkey, 
the Church of Scotland took up Jewish work at Salonica and 
Symrna ; in 1858 at Alexandria, in 1859 at Constantinople 
and in 1864 at Beyront. In 1865 they withdrew altogether 
from Germany, thus concentrating their attention on the above 
five stations in the Turkish Empire. The only exception was 
an interesting mission among the Falashas or Jews of 
Abyssinia from 1861 to 1867. Our two agents having been 
imprisoned by King Theodore, were released and brought back 
by the British Army. 

At each of these five stations there is one ordained Mission- 
ary ; at four of them, schools both for boys and girls ; and at one 
(Salonica) a school for girls only. At Smyrna there is also a 
Medical Mission with a Hospital — the Beaconsfield Memorial. 
At three of the stations, converted Jews act as Evangelists. In 
1887 there were 1,792 children on the school rolls, of these 945 
were Jewish children. The Committee have had a fair amount 
of encouragement in the number of baptisms, but they lay most 
stress on the influences of these schools in instructing the young 
in Christian truth and infusing the spirit of life in Christ Jesus 



250 Church of Scotland Ladies^ Association, 

into the Jewish community. A marked change has been 
wrought within recent years in the attitude of the Jews towards 
Christians and towards the question of the Messiahship of Jesus. 



VI. — Church of Scotland Ladies' Association for the 
Christian Education of Jewish Females. 

Before the secession of 1843 there was a small Association in 
existence ; but, most of the members leaving the Church at that 
time, there was for about a year no Association for the education 
of Jewish females in connection with the Church of Scotland. 

In 1844 a large Committee was formed, a staff of Collectors 
organised, and a new Association founded. 

The Association has now schools at all the stations where the 
General Assembly has missionaries to the Jews. 

Smyrna. — Teacher, Miss Menzies and Assistants. There are 
140 names on the roll ; 120 are Jewesses, their ages varying 
from 13 to 17. In connection with the Hospital at Smyrna 
the Association supports a nurse. 

Salonica (the ancient Thessalonica). — Teachers, Miss Walker 
and others. Although the school is avowedly a Christian 
school, it is full to overflowing. All the girls are Jewesses. 

Alexandria. — The school here is admirably equipped and 
thoroughly efficient. War at one time, and then the scourge of 
cholera, have seriously interrupted the work, but it has continued 
to prosper. Miss Kirkpatrick is lady superintendent, and 
associated with her is Miss Calder. They have an excellent 
stafi^ of masters and mistresses under them. On the roll are 
140, of whom 76 are Jewesses. Besides the school for the 
better class of children, a school was opened some years ago 
for the poorer class, mostly German Jewesses. 

Co7ista7itinople. — Teacher : Miss Bennett. Industrial Depart- 
ment : Miss Tucker. The school is largely attended. 

Beyrout. — Station recently re-opened. Mrs. Staiger is teacher 
of Jewish girls ; and there is a well-attended mothers' meeting 
at which Bible instruction is given. 

The funds reported in 1888 showed an income of 
;£"ii84 (including two legacies of £^0"]), an expenditure of 
;^5o3 with a balance of ;£'68i. 



Vai'ious Jewish Societies. 



251 



It must not be supposed that all these schools are e?itirely 
supported by the Ladies' Association. They provide, as far as 
they can, the salaries required ; but unless the Assembly's 
Committee gave them substantial aid some of the schools would 
have to be given up. 



In addition to the above, many other Societies (see list) are 
carried on in different parts of the world. The aim of all is the 
same — to make known the true Messiah to the seed of Israel. 
At least one-half of the workers are of Jewish extraction. Dr. C. 
F. Heman ^ calculates that ' the average yearly number of 
baptisms is 626, of which 165 occur in the Protestant Church, 
and 461 in the Greek. A hundred thousand is a fair estimate 
of the number of Jews who have embraced Christianity since 
the beginning of the century.' 

The following list of Societies, in order of their formation, 
will give a good idea of the attention paid by the Christian 
Church to the needs of the Hebrew race. 

North - American Episcopal 

Mission. 
Christian Reform Mission, 

Holland. 
Mildmay Mission. 
Swedish Israel's Union. 
Ziour Union. 
Parochial Mission. 
Barbican Mission. 
Instituta Judaica. 
Petersburg Mission. 
Freshman's Mission. 
Missouri Mission. 
Rabbinowitz Mission. 
United Presbyterian Mission. 
Scottish Home Mission. 
Mecklenberg Mission. 
Danish Israel's Mission. 
Mission in Chicago. 
French Jewish Mission. 
Wesleyan Mission. 
Methodist Mission. 
Swedish Mission Association. 
Evangelical Mission to Israel. 

See Schaff 's Cyclopadia. 



1808. 


London Society. 


1874. 


1822. 


Berlin Society. 




)) 


Saxon Mission Union. 


1875- 


1830. 


Friends of Israel Society at 






Basle. 


1876. 


1835- 


Friends of Israel Society at 


II 




Strasburg. 


1878. 


1836. 


Berhn Proselytes' Union. 


1879. 


I84I. 


Scottish Mission. 


?5 


5> 


Irish Presbyterian Mission. 


1880. 


1842. 


Rhenish WestphaHan Mission. 


i88i. 


jj 


British Society. 


1882. 


1843. 


Free Church of Scotland 


1883. 




Mission. 


5) 


1844. 


Norwegian Jewish Mission. 


1884. 


5> 


Holland Auxiliary. 


1885. 


5> 


Lubeck Friends of Israel. 


J> 


1849. 


Bavarian Union. 


55 


i860. 


Pastor Faltin's Mission. 


55 


I86I. 


Dutch Society for Israel. 


55 


1870. 


Baltic Mission. 


1886. 


I87I. 


Lutheran Central Mission. 


55 


J> 


English Presbyterian Mission. 


J» 


1874. 


Wurtemberg Mission. 


1887. 



252 



Jewish Societies, 



Esdras Edzard laboured as missionary to Jews in Hamburg 
from 1657 to his death in 1708. 

His pupil, Herman Francke, took up the work, and owing 
to his influence the Institutum Judaicum was founded at Halle, 
and the Jewish mission of Count Zinzendorf commenced. 



SUMMARY. 

In England there are 9 societies working amongst the 
Jews, viz. — 



1. London Society. 

2. British Society. 

3. Mildmay Society. 

4. I^ondon City Mission. 

5. Parochial Mission. 

In Holland, 5 societies; 
together employ 312 agents. 



6. English Presbyterian Mission. 

7. Jewish Emigration Mission. 

8. Barbican Mission. 

9. Evangelical Mission to Israel. 

in Ireland, i society; these 



In Germany, 
Switzerland, 
Holland, 
Scandinavia, 
France, 
Russia, 
North America, 



2 s'ocietie=;, employing 13 agents. 



3 
6 

8 
34 



Total: 49 societies; 377 agents; 132 stations. 



SECTION III. 



MISSIONARY SOCIETIES 

ON THE 

CONTINENT OF EUROPE. 



*^* The Societies enumerated in the following pages are the 
principal Protestant organizations on the Continent for the 
evangelization of the heathen. Others are also at work on 
different fields of labour. 



( 255 ) 



THE MISSIONS OF THE CHURCH OF THE UNITAS 
FRATRUM, OR UNITED BRETHREN, COM- 
MONLY CALLED * MORAVIAN MISSIONS.'^ 

This community of Christians may fairiy be regarded as 
pioneers in the work of Missions to the Heathen. Their work 
was commenced 157 years ago, and is still carried on as a joint 
effort of the whole Moravian Church in its three provinces, 
German, British, and American. The superintendence of it is 
committed to the Directing Board at Herrnhut, elected by 
their decennial General Synods. In this country a London 
Association in aid of the work was formed in 181 7 by 
Christians belonging to other Churches. But the little 
colony of the renewed ' Unity of the Brethren ' at Herrnhut, 
mainly consisting of poor exiles for conscience' sake from Bo- 
hemia and Moravia, began their missionary enterprise by sending 
two missionaries to the slaves of St. Thomas, in the Danish West 
Indies. These pioneers started on August 21st, 1732, and in 
the following January, two more went to Greenland, to help Hans 
Egede in his work. Like their predecessors, they travelled on 
foot to Copenhagen, with only a few shillings in their pockets, 
and thence they found a passage for their destination as Pro- 
vidence pointed out. They proved to be the forerunners of a 
goodly number animated with the like spirit of devotion and 
the one aim 'to win souls for Christ.' During the 156 years 

^ The name chosen (1457) by the original Taborite settlers at Kunwald, 
in the Barony of Senftenberg, was Fratres Legis Christi (Brethren of the 
Law of Christ). This was soon shortened to The Brethren. When the 
organisation of the Church was completed, 'Unitas Fratrum'(in Bohemian, 
Jednota Bratrska) became its official title, and to this day in Germany, 
Great Britain and North America, as formerly in Bohemia, Moravia and 
Poland, its members form the Uttity of the Brethren, or the Church of the 
United Brethren. 

The common misnomer Moravians arose out of the fact that the first 
refugees, who founded Herrnhut (1722), came from the * hidden seed,' or 
remnant of the ancient Unity in Moravia, and not from Bohemia itself, 
whence many subsequently augmented the colony. 



256 Moravian Missions. 

which have since elapsed, more than 2,300 missionary workers 
have gone forth from the home churches of the Unity, many 
from Great Britain and America, but the majority from the 
Continent. 

In the first nine years, eig/if missions to heathen tribes were 
commenced, and fifteen years later the mission-fields were 
sixteen in number, bringing the glad tidings of salvation to 
Negroes, Hottentots, Eskimoes, Greenlanders and American 
Indians. In some instances these early efforts proved rather 
transitory Gospel testimony than settled missionary work, but 
the Church is still occupying not a few of the fields of labour 
thus early taken possession of in the name of the Lord, as well 
as others since entered. In countries widely scattered over 
the face of the globe, stations have been founded, souls have 
been won for Christ, churches built up, schools established, and 
native workers educated. In several of these lands the present 
congregations are descendants in the fourth or fifth generation 
from those who first received the Gospel. In more than one 
the enslaved have been prepared to receive and use aright the 
blessings of emancipation. By the blessing of the Lord the 
whole mission has prospered and grown. Seventy years ago 
the total membership of the congregations gathered from among 
the heathen was 30,000 ; now it is 84,000. 

The following missionary efforts either proved ineffectual 
after one or more attempts, or had to be suspended after a 
longer trial : — Lapland (1734-1735) ; among the Samoyedes of 
North-west Siberia (1737-1741); West Africa, on the River 
Volta (1737-1771); Algiers (1740); Ceylon (1740-1766); 
among the Calmucks (1742-1823) ; Persia (i 747-1748); Eg}^pt 
and Abyssinia (1752-1783); and in the East Indies, Tranque- 
bar, Serampore, and the Nicobar Islands (17 5 9-1 7 96). Mis- 
sionaries were sent to China (1742), and to the Caucasus 
(1782), but either failed to reach the country or found no 
possibility of working there. 

Among many pioneer missionaries worthy of special mention 
are the following : — Leonhard Dober and David Nitschmann, 
who in 1722 went to St. Thomas, as the first messengers of 
the Brethren's Church to the heathen ; Matthew and Christian 
Stach and Frederick Boehnisch, the early workers in Greenland ; 
George Schmidt, the first missionary to South Africa, 1736; 
Solomon Schumann, the ' aposde of the Arawack Indians ' in 



1 



Moravian Missions 257 

Guiana; David Zeisberger, for sixty-three eventful years the 
leading spirit of the North American Indian Mission ; Christian 
Erhardt, who laid down his life for Labrador in 1752 ; Jens 
Haven, fired by the tidings of Erhardt's death to begin a 
mission on that coast, which has lasted to this day — and many 
others of later date, including not a few natives of the various 
fields, whose ardent desire for the salvation of their country- 
men made them true missionaries. 

The present fields of the ' Moravian Missions ' are :— 

The West Indies. This field is now divided into two 
provinces : — 

A. The Eastern Province^ consisting of the work on the 
islands of St. Thomas (commenced in 1732), St. Jan (1754), 
St. Croix (1754), Antigua (1756), Barbados (1765), St. Kitts 
(1777), and Tobago (17 90-1 799, and renewed 1827). 

B. The Western Province, consisting of the congregations in 
Jamaica (1754). 

In spite of severe depression of the staple trade of the West 
Indian Islands, these churches are steadily endeavouring to 
attain to complete self-support, as a fourth Province of the 
Unity of the Brethren, independent of its mission administra- 
tion. The last general Synod (Herrnhut, 1879) adopted 
decisive resolutions in this direction. 

The present work in Demerara (1878), where a previous 
attempt lasted from 1835 to 1840, is carried on among emi- 
grants from Barbados to British Guiana. 

Greenland. Since 1733 the Danish and Moravian mis- 
sionaries have worked side by side among the inhabitants of 
the West Coast, which is now Christianized, and both are at 
present specially concerned with measures for evangelizing the 
heathen on the East Coast. 

North American Indian Mission, a small remnant, among 
the Delawares and Cherokees of Canada and the United States, 
of long and arduous labours from 1734, among many tribes, 
some of which have quite died out. 



-i Surinam, or Dutch Guiana. This work (commenced in 
1735) now includes missions to — (i) the negroes (and also 

s 



258 Moravian Missions, 

coolies and Chinese) of the capital and of the plantations; (2) 
the Bush negroes (Maroons) of the forests. A mission carried 
i on from 1738 to 181 6 among the Arawack Indians will also 
bear fruit for eternity. 

South Africa. This extensive field (begun 17 36-1 744 
renewed 1792) has also been divided into a Western and an 
Eastern Province ; the former embracing the older stations 
among the Hottentots of the Cape Colony, the latter, • those 
in Kaflfraria. 

Work among lepers was carried on by Moravian missionaries 
in the Government hospital, first at Hemel en Aarde, and then 
^ on Robben Island, from 1823 to 1867, when a chaplain of the 
English Church was appointed. 

Just at this time the Lord opened another sphere of similar 
usefulness in a Leper Ho7ne at/eriisale?n, founded by a Christian 
Baroness. From its commencement the missionaries for the 
hospital have been supphed by the Moravian Church, and in 
1880 the institution passed into the hands of its Directing Board. 
In the new building, opened April, 1887, five Christian workers 
minister to about twenty-five sufferers from that terrible disease. 

Labrador. A work among Eskimoes very similar to that 
in Greenland. One of the most remarkable features of this 
mission (commenced in 177 1) is the preservation of the ships 
f successively employed in its special service. For 119 years the 
annual voyage, upon which so much depends for the missionaries 
on those dreary Northern shores, has been safely accomplished 
through the goodness of the Lord. 

MosKiTO Coast. A mission has been carried on since 1848 
among Indians and Creoles in the Moskito Indian Territory, 
Central America. The divine blessing has also rested on this 
^ work, and in 1881 a remarkable awakening began among the 
Indians and extended along the coast. The quickening in- 
fluences abide. 

Australia. Fruitless attempts from 1850 to 1856, to 

found a mission among the Aborigines of Victoria, have been 

J- succeeded by more permanent work on two native reserves in 

that colony. Whilst the Moravian Church supplies the men, 

[^Conthmed on p. 260, 



Moravian Missions. 



259 



2,8 S 

5-1 « 




t 


Greenland . . 
Labrador . 
Alaska. _ . . . 
N. American Indian 
Jamaica . . . 
St. Thomas . . 
St. Jan. . . . 
St. Croix . . . 
Antigua 

St. Kitts . . . 
Barbados . 
Tobago . . . 
Demerara . 
Moskito Coast . 
Surinam 

South Africa . . 
Australia . 
Himalayas or Tibet . 




i 




5-5. £L 


J-. 




SnS 








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26o Moravian Missions. 

Christians of other denominations in Australia mainly provide 
for the support of the stations. 

Tibet. The mission (commenced in Central Asia in 1853) 
may be viewed as the outcome of a century's longings and 
endeavours to convey the Gospel to the Mongolian race. If 
the goal could not be reached through Russian territory, might 
not British India afford a way to it ? In this hope two mis- 
sionaries set out in 1853, but after long journeyings found it 
impossible to get a foothold in Mongolia proper, or Chinese 
Tibet. They therefore began Christian work among the 
Tibetan Buddhists of the Himalayan border provinces of India. 
Recent years have witnessed a northward advance to Leh, in 
the territory of the Maharajah of Kashmir. The number of 
converts is still small, but the missionaries have translated the 
Scriptures into Tibetan, and sown good seed of the Word far 
and wide among a reading people. 

Alaska is the scene of the latest missionary enterprise of 
the Unitas Fratrum. It was commenced in 1885, and is 
directed to the Eskimoes of the North-West. The last report 
from this new field says : — 

' We have truly experienced the wonderful power of God over the hearts 
of men, and we ask grace and wisdom that we may not "Quench the Spirit." 
Last Easter week a craving for the Word seemed to have awakened 
in the hearts of the Eskimoes. I was able to hold their attention twice 
and even three times a day, and each service was between one and two 
hours in length. On Good Friday the natives were deeply stirred, when 
we reached the account of the crucifixion, when I explained to them that 
the blood shed on the cross by our Lord Jesus Christ was for the taking 
away of our badness (they have no other word for "sin") the older men 
exclaimed " Kuyana" (Thank jou), and added, " We too desire to have 
our badness taken away by that blood." ' 



( 26i ) 



FRENCH MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

I. — The Paris Society for Evangelical Missions among 
Non-Christian Nations. 

Societe des Missions Evangeliqiies chez les peiiples ?ion C/irefie?is 
etablis a Paris. 

This Society was formed at Paris on November the 4th, 1822. 
It soon established an institution for educating future mission- 
aries. The three first missionaries were sent out in 1829, 
according to the advice of Dr. Phihp, to South Africa; they 
were the Revs. Bisseux, Lemue and Rolland. Pastor 
Grandpierre was there, and remained until 1855, directeur 
(secretary) of the Mission-house. Before him, from 1822 to 
1826, Pastor Galland had filled that post. In 1832, the Revs. 
E. Casalis and T. Arbousset with their lay companion, M. 
Gossellin, left Paris for South Africa. A remarkable providence 
led them to Moshesh, the wise chief of the Ba-Sotho (com- 
monly called Basutos) in the Ma-toti mountains. After seven 
years of apostolic labours, the first Mo-Sotho convert was 
baptised. In the meanwhile, other missionaries had been sent 
to Basutoland, whereto the first missionaries sent out in 
1829 had alsoietired after a temporary settlement in Bechuana- 
land. Through many wars and other perils, the Lord has 
blessed the work of the Paris missionaries among the Ba-Sotho, 
as the summary below will show. A theological school added 
in 1886 to the normal school for educating teachers, and to the 
special school for evangelists (all three at the central station, 
Morija, besides the industrial school at Leloalong or Guthing), 
will soon bring forth the first candidate for the ordained 
ministry. The whole Bible has been translated into Se-sotho, 
a Christian literature created, and a bi-monthly periodical 
edited since 1867 at Morija by the Rev. A. Mabille. 

After the revolution of 1848, the want of financial means 
obliged the Society to close the training institute for a time. 



262 Paris Society for Eva?}geHcal Missio?is. 

In 1857, the Rev. E. Casalis from Basutoland was called to 
take the place of M. Grandpierre. 

In 1859, two missionaries were sent to China, but this field 
had soon again (in 1862) to be abandoned. 

The work begun in the deadly climate of Senegambia, in 
1862, has for a long time been hindered by many deaths, 
illnesses, and other accidents. It is hoped that the present 
staff on the field will reap the fruit sown with so many tears. 

At Tahiti, where the London Missionary Society had 
begun its work! in 1797 (see pp. 64, seq.), the consequences 
of the French occupation (1845) induced the Paris Society to 
send to those isles the Rev. T. Arbousset, late of Basutoland, 
with the Rev. E. Atger, in the year 1863, and to take over the 
charge of ministering the Word of Life to the Society Islands. 

Since 1885, the Paris Society contributes towards the 
missionary enterprise of M. Mayor in Kabylia. 

In 1886, the Rev. Fr. Coillard, after two long but fruitful 
expeditions, the first of which was undertaken in the name of 
the Ba-Sotho churches, settled on the Upper Zambesi. 

Finally, two young missionaries, who have completed their 
course of studies at the Societies' Institution last year, will 
follow to the banks of the Ogowe River, three French teachers 
and one industrial helper, sent out in 1888 to help the work of 
the American Presbyterians in the French Congo at their 
request (see p. 361). 

Already in the year 1882, Pastor A. Boegner had succeeded 
M. Casalis as direcieur. Now, the house, built in 1886-7 
(102, Boulevard Arago, Paris), is occupied by the directeur, 
another theological tutor and 1 1 students. Six professors, four 
of whom without reward co-operate in the teaching of these 
young men, all of whom are supposed to take the degree of 
B.A. before entering the training institution, where they remain 
three or four years. In a preparatory institution, three other 
pupils prepare themselves for entering the mission house. 

The Paris Society pubHshes two monthly illustrated 
periodicals, the Journal des missions evangeliqiies and Petit 
Messager des Missions, 



Missions of Free Churches of French Switzerland, 263 

SUMMARY. 
Annual Income^ ;^i4,5oo. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


Xo. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Fore 
Work 


ers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- ^^'^r 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 








Or- 


Lay., 


Or- 


Lay. 


1 












dained. 




dained. 










Basutoland . 


1833 


17 


20 


32 




176 


3,412 6,029 


4.569 


^676 


Senegal . . 


1862 


2 


3 


2 




I 


28 1 44 


55 




Tahiti. . . 


1863 


3 


4 


3 


22 


("not afl 
I hand ] 


Knd'} -'■ 


250 


fnat at 
I hand 


Kabylia . . 


1885 


I 




I 








12 


... 


Zambezi . 


1886 


2 


4 


4 








45 




French Congo 


1888 


... ' 


2 


4 











... 


Totals. . 




25 


33 


17 


22 


177 


3,440 , 8,254 


4.931 


;^676 



- The workers of the Paris Society co-operate with the American Presbyterian Board 
of Missions. 

2 The Paris Society does not count in its statistics the missionary's wife and daughter, 
who are naturally supposed to and do help in the work. A few single ladies engaged as 
teachers in the schools are counted as lay workers. 



II. — Missions of the Free Churches of French 
Switzerland. 

In the year 1874 the Synod of the Free Church of the Canton 
de Vaud resolved to create a Mission of its own, and accord- 
ingly two missionaries, Ernest Creux and Paul Berthoud, were 
sent to South Africa, where they found a Mission field in the 
Transvaal Repubhc, among the Gwamba negroes. This 
tribe is supposed to number nearly a million souls. Only 
a part of them are settled in the Transvaal (districts of 
Spelonken and Bokaha) ; the greater number are to be found 
further east, in the basin of the Limpopo and near the Portu- 
guese settlement of Lourengo-Marques. This latter region 
has also begun to be evangelized by our native teachers and 
recently by our missionaries, so that we have now two distinct 
fields of labour. 

The Mission (which is not a Society, but church work) is 
managed by a Board composed of seven members elected by 
the Free Church of Vaud, three elected by the Free Church 



264 Missions of Free C/m?'ches of French Switzerland, 

of Neuchatel, and two elected by the Free Church of Geneva. 
The President (Professor Renevier) and Secretary reside at 
Lausanne. The three Churches supporting the Mission have 
together eighty pastoral charges, and about iO;Ooo members, 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income^ ;^2,4oo. 



Field of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native 
Work- 
ers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- , 
muni- Schools.' ™- 
cants.! , ^^''• 


Transvaal (Southl 
Africa) . . .1 

Louren^o-Mar- . ] 

ques (Portuguese! 

settlement, | 

South Africa) . j 


1875 

1887 


3 
2 


Or- 
dained. 

2 


Lay. 

2 


Fe- 
male. 

I 
I 


II 

6 


594 
i8i 


"3 
20 


, 

^ 


290 
40 


Totals . . 




5 7 


2 


17 


775 


133 


5 


330 



( 265 ) 



GERMAN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

I. — The Basel. Evangelical Missionary Society. 

This Missionary Society is an off-shoot of the German Christian 
Society (Deutsche Christentums-Gesellschaft), estabUshed to- 
wards the end of the last century for the promotion of Christian 
union among the children of God belonging to the different 
established churches of Germany and Switzerland. Some 
members of this Society residing at Basel, which from the 
beginning had been the headquarters of the Society, were 
in 1815 led to start the Basel Evangelical Missionary 
Society. Their intention in the beginning was only to educate 
Christian young men for the service of Dutch and English 
Missionary Societies. In the course of time, however, the 
Society was enabled to begin Missions of their own in various 
heathen countries. Christian people belonging to the es- 
tablished churches, reformed as well as Lutheran or 
United, in South Germany and Switzerland, concur in 
supporting the Basel Missionary work. The leading committee 
consists of about 12 members residing at Basel, and they com- 
plete their number by co-optation. The directors of the 
Mission College at Basel, as well as of the Foreign Mission 
work carried on by the Society, were the following : — The 
Revs. Ch. G. Blumhardt, 1816-1838; W. Hoffman, till 
1849; F. J. Josenhans, till 1879; O. Schott, till 1884; Th. 
Ohler, since 1884 ; all of these having previously been clergy- 
men of the established church of the kingdom of Wiirtemberg. 

Hojne Work. — A college for educating young Christian men 
for missionary work was opened at Basel on 26th August, 1816, 
with seven students, under the direction of Rev. Ch. G. Blum- 
hardt (died 1838). This important work has, by the grace of 
God, ever since been carried on with increasing success. The 
average number of students being trained in the college is 



2 66 Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. 

now about 80; and up to the present time more than 1,200 
young men, chiefly from South Germany and Switzerland, have 
been admitted to it. Out of these about 800 have been sent 
out, either as missionaries to heathen countries, or as pastors to 
German congregations in Russia, North America, Brazil and 
Australia. A good number of missionaries trained in this 
college, especially in those earlier times when the Basel 
Missionary Society was not yet in the position of employing 
them in Missions of their own, have entered the service of 
Dutch and English Societies ; out of these the following few 
names may be mentioned : — Haberlin, Leupolt, Gobat, Weit- 
brecht, Schon, Kolle, Krapff, Rebmann, Pfander, &c. 

Foreign Work. — In 182 1, the Society entered on Mission 
work of their own in South Russia ; this promising Mission was, 
however, destroyed in 1835 by an ukase of the Russian Emperor. 
Another Mission undertaken in Liberia (1827) had also to be 
discontinued (183 1). At present there are four fields of 
labour in which Mission work is carried on by the Society. 

(i) India. — This Mission was commenced 1834, Mangalore, 
in South Kanara, on the western coast of India, being the first 
station occupied. At present Mission work is carried on at 23 
stations, spread over the following 6 provinces : — South Kanara, 
North Kanara, South Mahrata, Malabar, Nilgiri and Coorg. 
The languages spoken in these districts are Tulu, Kanarese and 
Malayan! respectively. The total number of baptized 
Christians is 9,237. Among the pioneers of this Mission may 
be mentioned the Rev. S. Hebich (born 1803, died 1868, in 
India from 1834-1859), who was one of the founders of this 
Mission, and whose work among the heathen as well as among 
the English residents in India was remarkably blessed by the 
grace of the Lord; the Revs. Dr. Mogling (in India 1836- 
1860, died 188 1) and G. Weigle (1840-185 6, in India), both of 
whom were excellent Kanarese scholars and active members of 
the committee for translating the Kanarese Bible ; the Rev. 
Dr. H. Gundert (in India from 183 5-1 85 9), the translator of 
the New Testament into Malayalam, and author of a Malayalam 
dictionary; the Rev. J. Ammann (in India from 1 840-1 863), 
the translator of the New Testament into Tulu, &c. 



Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. 267 

(2) China. — This Mission was established in 1846 in the 
province of Canton among the Hak-ka tribe. There are now 1 1 
stations occupied, and the total number of Christians gathered 
in congregations is 3,127. A good deal of literary work also 
has been done, the New Testament and some more tracts and 
school-books having been published in the Hak-ka dialect. In 
the Mission schools Romanised writing in the Hak-ka dialect 
is taught in addition to the Chinese style of writing. One of 
the founders of this Mission, the Rev. R. Lechler, who was 
sent out along with Rev. Hamberg (died 1854) in 1846, having 
come home on furlough (for the third time) in 1886, has lately 
been gratified to return to his old field of labour. 

(3) Gold-Coast in Western Africa. — The history of this 
Mission, which was begun in 1828, is full of trials of the 
severest kind. A great number of the missionaries sent to 
this coast have succumbed to the unhealthy cHmate after a very 
short period of labour. There was once, in the infancy of 
this Mission, a time when of all the European labourers on the 
field only one was spared, the Rev. A. Riis, who was working 
for the Lord on this unhealthy coast from 183 1- 1845. 
The sacrifices required to carry on this Mission efficiently 
were so heavy, that several times the suggestion was made 
to give it up. Yet, as the sufferings of Christ abound 
in this Mission, so also the consolation aboundeth by 
Christ. The seed sown in tears grew up, and is bearing 
precious fruit. There are now 9 chief stations occupied, and 
the number of Christians gathered in congregations is 7,495. 
There are two languages spoken on this coast, viz. : the Akra 
or Ga language, and the Ashantee or Twi language. Both of 
these have been reduced to writing by the missionaries. The 
Bible has been translated into Ga by the Rev. J. Zimmermann 
(in Africa from 185 0-1876, died 1876), and into Twi by the 
Rev. G. Christaller (in Africa from 1852-1868); the latter is 
also the author of a grammar and a dictionary of the Twi 
language. A number of religious tracts and school-books 
have been published in these languages. 

(4) Cameroons and Victoria. — This Mission has lately (ist 
of January, 1887) been taken charge of by the Society, at the 
request of the London Baptist Missionary Society, which had 



2 68 Basel Evangelical Missiofiary Society. 

commenced their Mission work in 1845 ; but, when the colony 
was annexed to the German Empire, desired to hand their 
Mission over to a German Missionary Society. 

Missionary Agencies. — The first work done on all our Mission 
fields is t\iQ p?'eachi?ig of the Gospel Simong the heathen, as well 
as among the Christian congregations gathered fi:om among the 
heathen. As a matter of principle, much attention is by the 
missionaries of the Society given to the spiritual care of the 
Mission churches. They are aided in this work, as in others, 
by native pastors and presbyters, and a beginning has also 
been made in giving the latter a larger share in the administra- 
tion of their churches. A common liturgy and catechism, as 
well as common rules for maintaining church discipline, are 
equally introduced and used in all native churches connected 
with the Basel Missionary Society. 

As regards School Work, much stress is laid upon vernacular 
education. Christian primary schools are opened wherever 
there is a sufficient number of Christian children, even in very 
small congregations, to the intent that each Christian child be 
enabled to read the Word of God. Boarding-schools for boys 
and girls are maintained in every field, for the benefit of 
destitute and poor Christian children. Higher education also 
is imparted to the Christian youth in special secondary and 
middle schools ; and, in addition to these, training schools 
for educating native Christian schoolmasters and theological 
seminaries for educating native pastors and catechists, are con- 
ducted in all our Mission fields (except Cameroons). Besides, 
lower and higher schools for heathen boys and girls have been 
opened, especially in India. 

Medical Missions have only recently been started (1885). 
There are now two ordained medical missionaries stationed on 
the Gold Coast, and one at Calicut (India). 

In the Literary department as much is done as circumstances 
allow. In India a Mission Press is established at Mangalore, 
and a Book and Tract Depository at the same place. 

Lastly, as a special feature of the Basel Mission, we should 
mention the Industrial and Mercantile Establishments. Such 

\Co7iiimied on p. 270, 



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270 Ju'rVin Socii'fy for Carryuii:; on Eva )ii!;clical Missions. 

heave been o})cnc(l in India and on tlic Gold Coast, cliielly for 
the benefit of church mcm])crs and catccliumcns, with a view 
(i) to afford an honest Hving to those converts who on their 
conversion to Christianity arc nearly cut off from their 
former connections; (2) efficiently to check idleness and 
begging, and (3) to foster the virtues of industry and thrifti- 
ness among tlie native Christians, 'i'hc inlluence for good 
these estal)lishments 'have in this respect exercised on the 
native churclies in India and Africa cannot easily be over- 
rated. The industrial and mercantile establislimcnts are 
superintended by lay.^missionaries, and there is no need to say 
that they arc managed in a tlioroughly Christinn spirit, and 
witli due consideration for the s])iritun] interests of the Mission. 
Moreover, they are under tlie direction of a s])ecial committee 
at Uascl, tlie Mercantile vSociety for tlie Basel Mission, whose 
operations, although controlled by the General Mission 
Committee, are conducted with special funds and on their own 
account. 



II. — The Berlin Sociioty for carrying on Evangelical 
Missions among the Heathen. 

This Society was founded in 1824, amalgamating those existing 
in Berlin, I lalle, among the Moravian Brethren, and at Basel. 
Since 1829 it has trained, and since 1834 it lias sent out its own 
missionaries. 'I'heir first mission-fields were Souiii Africa, 
East Indiios, and Maurfiius, of which, however, the two latter 
were soon given uj). Tlie African field of labour was only 
extended the more, and at this time embraces six superin- 
tendents' circuits, witli fifty-two ordained missionaries, and 
forty-seven stations. 

To the South African field since 1883 has been added 
China, where the Society now supports three chief stations, 
besides a fair number of secondary stations. 

The first missionaries were Gebel, Kraut, Langc, Radloff, 
and Wursas, of whom tlie last named still lives as the honoured 
head of the Society, a retired missionary in Orange Eree State. 



Berlin Society for Carrying on Evangelical Missions. 271 



The six Supcrintendencics include- 



1. Cape Colony 

2. ]5ritish Kaffirland 

3. Orange Free State 

4. South Transvaal . . 
q. North Transvaal . . 



6. Natal 



Stations. 


Baptized. 


Communicants 


8 


; 4,289 


1,983 


5 


804 


zz(> 


6 


2,634 


1,427 


12 


7,809 


3,822 


II 


2,056 


995 


6 


1,356 


672 



Each superintendent has a synod to advise and assist in 
the several departments ^of the work. The synods are called 
together once a year. In the intervals the synod is represented 
by one su|)crinten(lent and two educated delegates. 

While the Kafirs show themselves rather hard against the 
evangelists, the Basutos are impressionable and clever, and num- 
ber among their ranks many martyrs and very able native 
assistants, who owe their training in part to our two educational 
institutes in Botshabel and Mphomd 

SUMMARY. — Bkrlin Missionary Societv. 
Afinnal Income ^ about £iS^S^^' 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Stations. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


South Africa . 
China .... 


1834 
1883 


47 Princi-' 

pal Stations 
83 Sub- 
Stations 
142 Preach- 
, ing Places , 

3 


Or- 
dained. 

2 


Lay. 
10 

2 


Fe- 
male. 

3 


Or- 
dained. 

2 

3 


Lay. 
414 

35 


Totals . . 


... 


... 


56 


12 


3 


*5 


449 



Fields of Labour. 


Adherents. 


Commu- 
nicants. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native 
Contributions. 


South Africa . 
China .... 


20,058 
980 


9,772 
446 


about 60 


3,542 


4,^38 


Totals . . 


21,038 


10,218 


60 


3,542 


4,338 



( 272 ) 

III. — The Rhenish Missionary Society. 

The Rhenish Missionary Society at Barmen was founded in 
1828, being a confederation of four small societies, which 
had existed for some time. By-and-by a considerable number 
of auxiliaries joined it, most of them in the north-western part 
of Germany, partly Lutheran, partly Reformed, so that its con- 
fessional character is that of the so-called Confederative Union. 

It has sent out missionaries to South Africa, Dutch India, 
China, and German New Guinea. In South Africa they 
entered the western part of Cape Colony in 1829, Great 
Namaqua and Damaraland in 1842. In Dutch India they 
went to Borneo in 1834, to Sumatra in i860, to Nias in 1866. 
To China (Canton) they went in 1846, to German New 
Guinea in 1887. It is remarkable that of the first pioneers 
sent to the Cape in 1829, two are still living. 

Within the Cape Colony there are now eleven churches, all 
but one of them self-supporting, but under European pastors. 
In Great Namaqua and Damaraland, which lately have become 
German territory, the work has been greatly hindered by the 
scantiness of the nomadic population, and especially by inces- 
sant wars. Amongst the Dyaks of South-east Borneo the 
missionaries have met with unusual difficulties and hardships. 
In 1859 this whole mission was upset by a political insurrection, 
and several of the missionaries were killed ; it has, however, 
since begun again with better results. Amongst the Battas of 
Sumatra the work has been very prosperous, and is still 
advancing satisfactorily. In the small island of Nias a good 
and very promising beginning has been made. The history of 
our little Chinese mission has been full of failures and dis- 
couragements, but gives signs of a better future. To China, 
as well as to Sumatra, a Medical Missionary was sent out 
during the year. In New Guinea the Society has commenced 
operations by founding two stations in the Astrolabe Bay. 



IV. — Gossner's Missionary Society, Berlin. 

Gossner's Mission Society was founded in 1836 by the late 
venerable Gossner himself, formerly priest of the Roman 
Catholic Church, then Evangelical Lutheran pastor at the 
Bethlehem Church in Berlin. 

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274 Gossjier^s Missionary Society, Berli?t. 

It was in 1838 that Gossner's first missionaries arrived at 
Calcutta. A rich and self-supporting missionary in India, the 
Rev. Mr. Start, took them with him to Patna, where they 
formed a sort of colony, trying to maintain themselves by 
manual labour ; but, finding out gradually the impracticability 
of this arrangement, they separated and went to different 
places. 

In 1845 Gossner sent missionaries to the aboriginal tribes 
of the Kols, in the district of Chutia Nagpur proper, Bengal 
Presidency. The first baptisms amongst these hill tribes took 
place in 1850, and large numbers have followed since. The 
dissensions which occurred amongst the missionaries brought 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel into the field ; ^ 
somewhat later followed Jesuits of the Romish Church. The 
founder of the Mission, Father Gossner, sent also a large 
number of missionaries to Australia and other parts of the 
world, all of whom had to provide for themselves. 

Gossner's Mission occupies two fields of labour. One of 
them is situated in the Ganges Valley, amongst Hindoos and 
Musalmans, and has a station at each of the following towns : — 
(i) Ghazipur (with Buxar) in the N.-W. Province; (2) Chu- 
pra; (3) Muzufifarpur (with Moriaro and Sooratpore) in the 
Bengal Presidency ; (4) Durbhanga. The other field is in the 
Chutia Nagpur Division, especially amongst the Kolarian 
tribes of the Mundaris, Uraons, Santals, Bhumijas, Larkas, 
and Kharryas. 

The first-named field was entered upon in 1840 by the 
missionaries as follows : Messrs. Stolzenburg, Baumann, Rebsch, 
Sternberg, Prochnon, Ziemann, Dr. Ribbentrop. The second 
field was entered upon by Messrs. Schatz, Brandt, Janke, and 
Batsch, in 1845. The work amongst the Kols is nowadays 
undergoing great trials and troubles of a twofold kind. For 
one thing, the other Missions that have made their headquarters 
at the same principal places, or have placed agents where the 
labourers of Gossner's Mission are stationed, or where large 
numbers of the new converts live, are too frequently antagonis- 
tic or unfriendly. The other trouble is caused by an agitation 
of Christian and heathen Kols in Chutia Nagpur proper, which 

> See p. 28. 



Gossner's Missionary Society, Berlin. 



275 



resembles in some instances that in Ireland. It is their well- 
known land agitation. The Kols are in general farmers, and 
as such first colonists of the district. Believing themselves to 
be the sole legitimate owners of the soil, and holding all Hindoo 
and Musalman landlords to be intruders, they try to dispossess 
them and get them away from their villages. Its leaders, 
being Christians, issued an order to all Christians of the 
district some months ago not to attend Divine worship, either 
in churches or in chapels. A great many for a time obeyed 
this order, for fear of the leaders ; but most of them are now 
returning. 

Ranchee, being the centre of Gossner's K61 Mission, has 
large educational institutions. There is a boarding-school for 
Christian boys ; a normal school for training schoolmasters 
and catechists ; and two theological classes for preparing young 
Christians for the ministry. Besides these institutions a girls' 
boarding-school also is maintained there ; and each of the other 
principal Mission stations in the Chutia Nagpur Division is 
provided with boys' and girls' boarding-schools. 

The Ghazipur station has an English high-school prepar- 
ing young Christians, Hindoos, and Mussalmans for the 
University. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income, about ;^8,ooo. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Chutia Nagpur (Ben- 
gal Presidency), 
amongst the Kols . ) 

Ganges Valley, amongst) 
Hindoos and Musal-> 
mans 


1S45 
1840 


9 

4 


Or- Lay. 
dained. 

10 3 

3 I 


Or- 
dained. 

17 


Lay. 

235 

I?. 


Fe- 
males 

22 

3 


Totals in 1886 . . 


... .3 : '3 4 


17 


247 


25 



T 2 



276 



The North German Missionary Society, 



Gossner's Missionary Society. 
Summary — continued. 



Fields of Labour. 


Adherents. 


Communi- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native Con- 
tributions. 


Chutia Nagpur (Ben- 
gal Presidency), > 
amongst the Kols 

Ganges Valley, amongst) 
Hindoos and Musal-> 
mans ) 


34,000 
500 


12,000 
200 


80 

5 


1,800 
300 


400 
40 


Totals in 1886 . . 


34,500 


12,200 


85 


2, 100 


440 



V. — The North German Missionary Society. 

Founded at Hamburg ; now at Bremen. 

In 1836 some members of the Lutheran and the Reformed 
Church in North-West Germany united and formed this Society. 
Local associations in Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, 
Hamburg, and Bremen elected a central committee, meeting at 
Hamburg. Strict Lutheran and Reformed pastors united in 
this work. Afterwards many of the Lutherans separated and 
joined the Evangelical Society at Leipzig. Only the smaller 
number of them remained faithful to the North German 
Missionary Society, whose committee was moved from Hamburg 
to Bremen in 185 1. 

In the first fifteen years, when the Society was in its infancy, 
it began to work in three different places. In 1843 Valett was 
sent out to India, and was joined in 1846 by Groning and 
Heise. They had their station at Radschamundri (Godavari), 
among the Telugus. In 1848 this Mission was given over to a 
Lutheran Missionary Society in the United States of America. 
In 1844 Wohlers, Riemenschneider, Heine and Trost were sent 
to New Zeai and. Later on they were followed by Volkner 



The North German Missionary Society. 277 

and Honore and some lay helpers. Some of these returned. 
Volkner jomed the Church Missionary Society, and was 
murdered by the Maoris. Wohlers and Riemenschneider worked 
among the Maoris during their whole lives, Riemenschneider at 
Taranaki, on the North Island, and, when he was obliged to 
leave on account of the Maori war, at Otago ; Wohlers at 
Ruapuki. Honore was during the first years with Wohlers at 
Ruapuki ; later on he found his work on the South Island. 
After the Maori war he was invited to come to the North Island, 
where he still does the work of an Evangelist. 

In 1847 the Society entered on a third field. Wolf, Bult- 
mann, Flato and Graff left Hamburg in March 1847, for West 
Africa. They wished to begin at Corrisco mainland, but the 
French Government did not allow them. They returned to 
Akra, on the Gold Coast, and were advised and invited to begin 
among the Ewe people at Peki. When Wolf, in November 
1847, settled at Peki, he was left alone. His three companions 
had died. Six years later the missionaries were obliged to 
leave Peki and to begin at Keta (Quita). Since then they 
have worked their way into the interior, step by step. From 
1847 till December 1887, there have been sent out 114 men 
and women, of whom 57 died. For ten years, 1864-1874, war 
and war-cries disturbed the work. In 1869-1874, in the 
Ashante war, the largest station, Ho, was entirely destroyed, 
and could not be restored till six years after. Another station, 
Anyako, was sadly devastated, and a third, Way a, the mission- 
aries were obliged to leave for a year. All this time only small 
results were to be seen. But since the war the state of things 
is changed. In 1875, for the first time, a large number of 
adults could be baptized. In December 1879, after thirty- three 
years' work, the Christian Church among the Ewe negroes 
numbered only 202. In December 1876 there were 556 
Christians. In the year 1886 alone 105 were baptized, and 
94 catechumens were preparing for baptism at the end of the 
year. And those Christians live in thirty-three different places. 
In the valley of Peki, where in 1853 all that was left was the 
grave of a missionary and the grave of a missionary's child, 
there are now 167 Christians, in two different places, under the 
care of a native pastor and native teachers. After long waiting 
the Society begins to see some tokens of a harvest. 

It needs not to be said that a good work has been done in 



278 Leipzig Evangelical Lufhera?i Missionary Society. 

translating the Bible in Ewe (the whole New Testament and a 
number of the books of the Old Testament), and in writing 
Ewe-books for the schools. 



SUMMARY. 
Annual Income^ about ;^4,5oo. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


En- 
tered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Baptized 

Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Native 
Contri- 
butions. 


New Zealand . 

Slave Coast\ 
(Gold Coast)./ 


1842 
1847 


I 
2 


Or- 
dained. 

I 

7 


Lay. 

I 


Or- 
dained. 

I 


Lay. 

22 


664 


409 


16 


321 


^55 


Totals . . 


3 


8 


I 


I 


22 


664 


409 


16 


321 


£ss 



VI. — The Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Missionary 
Society. 

Established at Dresden, 1836; transferred to Leipzig, 1849. 

The Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society was 
established at Dresden in 1836 ; its headquarters were trans- 
ferred to Leipzig in 1849. It is supported by the Lutheran 
Churches in Germany, France, Sweden, Russia, and Austria. 
The first missionaries were sent to Australia in 1838, and after- 
wards some missionaries were sent to the Red Indians of 
North America ; but both spheres of labour were soon given 
up, and South India was chosen as the only Mission field of the 
Society, because the founders of it believed they had received 
a special call to re-enter into the field of blessed remembrance 
in the Tamil country, formerly occupied by the old Danish-Halle 
missionaries, all of whom had been Lutherans, sent out, 
mostly from Halle, under the authority of the Missionary Col- 
legium at Copenhagen. 

The first missionary sent out to India by this Society 
was the Rev. H. Cordes (1841), who laboured at Tranquebar, 
in the Madras Presidency, 1 841-1870, at first as assistant to 



Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Society, 279 

the Danish chaplain, Rev. Mr. Knudsen, in the pastoral care 
of the small native congregation, which was the only survival 
of the once flourishing Danish-Halle Mission established at 
Tranquebar by Ziegenbalg and Plutschau in 1706. In 1847 
the whole property of this Mission was formally made over 
to the Leipzig Society, whose operations were gradually ex- 
tended to most of the important places of the Tamil country. 
After Cordes 57 more missionaries were successively sent to 
this Mission field until 1887 ; these have occupied twenty-three 
stations, including Rangoon in Burma. As the recent Tamil 
version of the Bible proved very deficient in faithfulness, the 
Leipzig Society has begun to reprint the older, but very 
excellent version of Fabricius (17 91), and hopes to complete 
the new edition of it within a short time. 

The first Tamil Synod held at Tanjore, June 1887, with 
the delegates of thirteen congregations, laid the foundation of 
an independent Tamil Lutheran Church. 

SUMMARY : Leipzig Society. 
Annual Lncome, ^15,100. 



Field of 
Labour. 


En- 
tered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Chris- 
tians.2 


Schools. 


^^'^^- butions. 


South India' 


1841 


23 


Or- 
dained. 

22 


Lay. 

2 


Or- 

dained. 

12 


Lay. 

188 


Fe- 
male. 

23 


14,014 


149 


3.653 


Rupees. 
4.527 



1 Chiefly in the Tamil country ; but including one station in Mysore and one station 
in Rangoon. 

_ 2 The number of regular Communicants is not known, as only those who from time to 
time actually partake of the Communion are counted. 



VII. — The Hermannsburg Evangelical Lutheran 
Mission (Hanover). 

The Hermannsburg Evangelical Lutheran Mission was founded 
in 1849 by Pastor Ludwig Harms, at Hermannsburg in Hanover. 
In 1854 the first 12 missionaries and 8 colonists were sent out 
in their own Mission ship, Candace, to the Gallas. Repulsed 



28o HcrmdJDisbiirg Evangelical Lutheran Mission, 

there, they went to Natal and commenced Mission work among 
the Zulus. From there the work was extended to Zululand 
and Basutoland. In the Zulu war, 1879, the Mission lost 13 
stations, of which a few only have been regained. 

In 1865 the founder of the Mission died, and his brother, 
the Pastor Theodor Harms, became Director of it. In the 
same year Mission work was commenced in the Telugu 
country in India. In 1866 Mission work was also begun in 
South Australia among the Papuas, but after some time had 
to be given up, and not until 1875 was the work resumed at a 
new station in Central Australia, on the bank of the river 
Finke. In New Zealand Mission work was begun in the 
year 1876. 

The Director, Theodor Harms, died in the year 1885, and 
his son, Egmont Harms, became Director of the Missions, 
and in 1887 a co-Director was appointed in the person of 
Pastor G. Oepke. 



SUMMARY : Hermannsburg Mission. 
Income y 1S87, ^^14,456. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Work- 
ers. 


Christians 
(Natives). 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Zululand .... 
Basutoland .... 
India 

Australia .... 
New Zealand . 


1854 
1858 
1865 
1866 

1876 


26 
26 
II 

I 
2 


Or- 
dained. 

25 
29 
II 

3 

2 


1,527 
11,085 

738 
17 
12 


23 
22 
10 

I 


373 
70 


Totals .... 




66 


70 


13,424 


56 


443 



2«I 



DUTCH MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

The Dutch were among the first to attempt the evangelization 
of the subject races in their Colonies. As early as 1630 they 
had a congregation of native Christians at Pulicat, 25 miles 
north of Madras. In 1642, the Dutch, having expelled the 
Portuguese from the maritime districts of Ceylon, established 
the Reformed religion in that island, and required the confor- 
mity of the natives, as a qualification for civil employment. 
They also established schools, and published parts of Scripture 
in the Tamil and Singhalese languages. The result, however 
of all this effort was the prevalence of a merely nominal Chris- 
tianity; and when in 1795 the British became masters of the 
island, the great majority of the natives relapsed into idolatry or 
Buddhism. 

In 1797 the Netherlands Missionary Society was 
founded, chiefly through the efforts of Dr. Van der Kemp, who 
derived the impulse to the work from the recently-formed 
Societies of Great Britain, going himself to Africa under the 
auspices of the London Missionary Society. The Netherlands 
Society has carried on its work in Java, Amboyna, and 
Celebes, in which islands it reports 18 missionaries, 184 native 
workers, 136 schools, with more than 10,000 scholars, 90,000 
adherents, and 20,000 communicants. Its income is about 
^7000. 

The rationalistic character of the Society in recent years, 
however, has led to the origination of other Missions by the 
Evangelical Churches of Holland. 



I. — The Dutch Missionary Society. 

Founded at Rotterdam^ 1858. 

The Society consists of members who confess that the Lord 
Jesus Christ is their Saviour, who prove their profession by 
their life, and who refuse to co-operate with those who do not 
believe that Jesus is the Son of God. 



2«2 



The Dutch Missionary Society. 



^ The Dutch Missionary Society began its work on an unoccu- 
pied field among the Sundanese^ a population of four milHons 
in Western Java. 

The Society sent out its first three missionaries in 1863, 
who were soon followed by others. In November 1886 its 
fifteenth missionary left Holland to bring the Gospel to the 
Mohammedans. In the whole island of Java, and also in the 
Sunda districts, the prevailing religion is Mohammedanism, 
and the missionaries, like all others who labour among 
Mohammedans, meet with much opposition. At first it 
seemed to be a fruitless labour, but He who is the Mighty God 
has already opened the hearts of the Sundanese, so that the 
Sun of Righteousness has already shone into many of them. 

At present 7 missionaries are working in 8 chief stations and 
10 sub-stations, assisted by 24 Indian helpers. The number 
of members in all the congregations is 737. At some stations 
there are schools, the average attendance being 102. After 
labouring 29 years to make converts we cannot boast of great 
success or much fruit ; however, we must not be disappointed 
by our small progress, but ought rather to rejoice at the 
blessings already received, and we go on believing in the great 
and rapid progress of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ throughout 
the whole island of Java. 

After the foundation of the Society, it was a matter of prime 
importance that the Gospel should be translated into the 
vernacular. Mr. S. Coolsma, one of our missionaries, had 
already translated into that language the Gospels of St. Luke 
and St. John, and after some time he was appointed to the 
work of translating the entire New Testament. 

The version was pubhshed in 1877, and soon a large impres- 
sion was fully ready for sending abroad; and in 1886 the 
translation of the Old Testament was completed, also by 
Mr. Coolsma; but as some revision is necessary, it cannot 
be published until the present year. 

At present there are in the Sundanese language : a grammar 
and dictionary ; stories from the New Testament, with 
engravings; a Confession (creed), and reading and ciphering 
books, and some volumes of a lighter kind. 

The annual income of the Society is now between ^3,000 and 

The experience of our Society in its general outlines is that 



The Dictch Reformed Missionary Society. 283 

of all our Societies ; it is no easy matter to continue our labour 
in God's vineyard always with high hope, for it seems at times 
as if all our work were in vain; but we fear not, and are not 
dismayed, for the Lord will not fail nor forsake those who 
trust in Him. 



II. — The Dutch Reformed Missionary Society. 

Founded at Amsterdam, 1859. 

This Missionary Society was founded by the Rev. Dr. C. 
Schwartz, missionary of the Free Church of Scotland to the 
Jews in Amsterdam, and by other friends. Originally it was 
intended to form a Society for the propagation of the Gospel 
among the Jews living among the heathen and Mohammedans 
in the Dutch (Indian) colonies, and thus, through the mission to 
Israel, to reach the heathen and Mohammedans. The Govern- 
ment, however, out of deference to the Jews in Holland, refusing 
to recognize the proposed Society (as required by law, in order 
to give the Society legal standing), it was resolved to commence 
Mission work among the heathen and Mohammedans in the 
island of Java. 

Immediate cause for this resolve was also the fact that the 
old Netherlands Missionary Society had become rationahstic^in 
spirit and action, sending out decided rationalists as missionaries 
to the heathen and Mohammedans, and allowing rationalistic 
and so-called advanced ' modern ' teaching in their Mission 
schools and churches. A number of supporters of that Society 
separated from it, now nearly thirty years ago, and founded 
two other Societies, the Utrecht Mission Society and the 
Netherlands Mission Society. But as neither of these new 
Societies, though founded on orthodox principles, had accepted 
for their basis of teaching and operations the Confession of the 
Dutch Reformed Churches, the Dutch Reformed Mission 
Society was founded in 1859, to bring the Gospel to the 
heathen and Mohammedans in the Dutch East Indies, in con- 
formity with the recognized standards of the Dutch Reformed 
Churches. The required legal recognition was procured in i860. 

This Society proceeds upon the principle that the Churches^ 



284 The Dutch Reformed Missionary Society, 

not Societies, have to propagate the Gospel in heathen and 
Mohammedan lands, and to preach the Gospel to Israel ; and 
that only where the Church neglects this duty and privilege, 
private members of the Church are called to engage in Mission 
work, but always striving to stir the Church up to her duty, and 
only until the Church takes up the work. 

It is a hopeful fact that the Dutch Churches which return to 
the old Church standards engage also earnestly in the work of 
Missions ; vide the Mission of the Christian Reformed Church, 
and the action taken in the matter by the Churches which, 
in the present movement of Reformation in the Church 
of Holland, have separated themselves from the Synodical 
Organization of 1816. There is a prospect that the spiritual 
part of the Mission work now carried on by the Dutch 
Reformed Mission Society will ere long be taken over by 
the Dutch Reformed Churches doleerende (ecctesice doleiites)^ 
which broke with the State Synodical Organization of 181 6, 
and returned to the standards and Church order of Dordrecht, 
1 618-19, ^iid that the Society will chiefly busy itself with the 
material part of the Mission. 

The Society labours in Central Java, in the Residencies, 
Bagelen, Banjoemas, Tegal, Pekalongan, and in Djocjakarta, 
lying between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. 

The chief station is Poerworedjo, where there is a flourishing 
Church, and connected with it a training school or institute for 
native Evangelists, preachers and teachers, under superinten- 
dents.^ Two missionaries labour here, of whom the senior, 
Rev. Wilhelm, has in some measure the spiritual oversight of 
all the congregations and stations connected with the Society, 
and the junior missionary. Rev. Zuidema, has the superinten- 
dence of the training institute and of the schools generally. 
A third European missionary. Rev. A. Vermeer, is stationed 
at Banjoemas, where there is a church and school in fair 
condition. Tegal, till lately occupied by a European mis- 

^ * Buildings are now in course of erection to provide accommodation 
for about sixty pupils besides dwellings for European and Javan 
teachers. The Institute will bear the name of Keuchenius School, after 
the present Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. L. C. W. Keuchenius, 
and his brother, at Batavia, who both have for many years furthered to 
their utmost the cause of Christ's kingdom among the Javans and Malays 
in Dutch India.' 



The Dutch Reformed Mis siona7'y Society. 285 

sionary, is at present vacant. A most remarkable movement 
has taken place during the last eighteen months in Djocjakarta, 
one of the two so-called Vorsteulanden which are still under the 
rule of a Sultan or Susuhunan, who is, however, a vassal of the 
Dutch Government. No missionary is allowed to preach the 
Gospel to the natives, or be in any way engaged in Mission 
work, without a special Government License, which is only 
granted for a particular Residency, 'opened' for the Mission 
work by resolution of the Governor-General in council. 
Djocjakarta is as yet not so 'opened,' and no missionary is 
allowed to preach the Gospel there. Notwithstanding this, 
the Gospel has found its way in ; a Javan official of high 
standing has been converted to Christianity and has been 
baptized (in Poerworedjo). Since then the truth has been 
spreading from desa to desa, so that there are now 8 native 
churches, together with over a thousand souls. The new 
Christians had to suffer some persecution from the Mohammedan 
rulers and population, till the Dutch Government interfered, 
and as no missionary is as yet permitted to minister to these 
churches in Djocjakarta, the people have to go to Poerworedjo 
for the ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. There 
is every prospect, however, that under the present Minister for 
the Colonies, Mr. Keuchenius (himself a member of the Board 
of Directors of the Society), and of the truly liberal Governor 
General, Pynacker Hordyk, Djocjakarta will be officially 
opened for the Gospel, as it is already through God's blessing 
practically ; the prospects there are very cheering, 

A great help to the Mission is a native Evangelist, Sadrach 
Sorapranata^ a man of much influence among the Javans in 
the Bagelen. It is intended to found also a medical mission 
in connection with the Society, and the first labourer to enter 
upon the work is now receiving the needful training in con- 
nection with the Medical Mission Institute in London under 
Dr. Maxwell. 

During the years 1878-84 the Society passed through a great 
struggle in financial and other matters. But since 1884 new 
strength has been gained ; contributions come in freely ; a 
heavy debt has been discharged, and altogether a blessed 
revival in the state of the Society has taken place. The 
Mission work itself in Java is flourishing. 



286 



The Dutch Reformed Missiofiary Society. 



The yearly income of the Society is about ;^i,4oo — in 
Holland not the small sum it seems in English money. Prayer- 
meetings are held in many congregations, at which collections 
are made on behalf of the Mission. 



SUMMARY. 

A?i/!unl Income, about ^1,400. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Churches. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Elders. 1 


Ad- 
herents. 2 


Schools.3 


Native 
Contribu- 
tions.'' 


Bagelen . 
Banjoemas . 
Tegal. . . 
Pekalongan . 


1869 
1865 
1S60 


21 

4 
6 


Ordained. 

I 

Vacant. 
rWorked] 


Lay. 
93 
41 
15 
24 


2,411 

732 
341 
551 




... 


Djocjokarta . 


1886 


9 


1 from 1 
Poor- ( 


35 


1. 013 












(woredjo^ 










Totals . . 


... 


53 


3 


208 


5,04s 







^ The native elders do in part the work of local evangelists. Besides 
these there arc a few evangelists proper. 

^ These figures are approximate. 

^ There are in many places Government schools, but it is intended to 
provide at every Residency Christian tuition under the care of the 
Mission. 

■* Native contributions cannot be stated with any claim to accuracy. 



III. — The Utrecht INIissionary Society. 

Founded 1859. 

This Society, like the foregohig, was founded for the purpose 
of preaching the Gospel in the East Indian Colonies of the 
Dutch. After much deliberation the first Committee concluded 
to send their missionaries to the Dutch parts of New Guinea; 
where the first missionaries, Brothers Van Hasselt and Otter- 
spoor, arrived in 1863. ^ 



The Utrecht Missionary Society. 



287 



Christian workers, connected with Gossner's Mission at Ber- 
lin/ had already been pioneers of Christian enterprise in that 
island. Our present stations in New Guinea are Mansinam, 
Doreh, Andai, and Rhoon. 

Our Mission at Almahera was founded in 1865. There 
we have two stations, Duma and Soakonora. At Duma is a 
Christian village. This station gives us satisfaction and joy. 
Recently our Society proposed to begin a Mission in Boeroe, 
and sent out in 1884 Brother Hendriks to the station of Kawiri, 
where he is beginning his work with four native assistants. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income, about £t^, 000. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Work- 
ers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars.2 


1 


Or- .Female. 


Lay. 














dained. 1 












New Guinea : 
















Mansinam . 


1863 


2 I 


I 


lOO 


40 


I 


40 


Doneh . 


1863 


' ' 


... 


(') 


(^) 


I 


20 


Andai . 


1865 


I ! I 


I 


30 


12 


I 


15 


Rhoon . 


1885 


I 








I 




Almahera : 


















Duma . 


I86S 


I 


I 




100 


40 


I 


40 


Soakonora . 


>> 


I 


I 




10 




I 


10 


Boeroe : 
















Kawiri . 


1884 


I I 


4 


250 


(0 


I 




Totals— 8 stations . 


8 7 


6 


490 


93 


7 


9 



^ See p. 272. 2 These numbers vary from time to time. 

^ Numbers unknown. 



IV. — The Mennonite Society for the Propagation 
OF the Gospel in the Dutch Colonies. 

Founded at Amsterdam, 1849. 

This Society commenced its work in the island of Java, its 
first missionary being P. Jansz, now in the service of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. His son and a colleague, 
Joh. Fast, are now labouring at Mergaredja, an agricultural 
colony. A second station is in Sumatra, at Pakanten. H. 
Dirks was the first missionary, who was succeeded by T. E. 
Irle. The latter left the Mission of this Society last year, 
and G. Nikkei was sent in his place. 



SUMMARY. 



Fields of Labour. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Adherents. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Java 

Sumatra .... 


Ordained. 
2 

I 


Ordained. 
4 

3 


133 
80 


^ 


65 

60 


Totals .... 


3 


7 


213 1 2 


125 



( 289 ) 



DANISH MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

I. — The Danish Government Mission to Greenland. 

Established 172 1. 

The Dano-Norwegian Government opened in 1721 a Mission 
to Greenland, a land which had been unknown for some cen- 
turies, after the extermination of the Scandinavian settlers. 
The pioneer was a Norwegian clergyman, Hans Egede. The 
first station was Godthaab (17 21), the others were Nepisene 
(1727-35), Christianshaab (1737, transferred to Claushavn 
1752), Frederikshaab (1772), Jakobshavn (1779, for some years 
given up, but re-opened), Sydbay (1751, transferred to Amert- 
lok, now called Holstensborg, 1759), Rittenbenk (1759-60), 
Sukkertoppen (1767), Omenak (1765, for a time given up, since 
1818 again a station), Egedesminde (1769), Julianehaab (1779), 
Upernivik (i 779-1 789, 1825). It was with great hesitation 
that the Government decided to support Hans Egede in 
his noble undertaking to bring the Gospel to the descendants 
of his countrymen in Greenland — for he believed that they 
were still to be found there, but they were all killed by the 
Eskimos about 1700 — and in 173 1 it was decided that the enter- 
prise should be given up, but on the instigation of Count Zin- 
zendorf it was decided that it should be continued. During 
the eighteenth century new stations were estabUshed, but near 
its close (1792) five of the ten stations were discontinued. 
When the missionary spirit again began to be revived in the 
first quarter of this century, two of the old stations were re- 
opened. Of late years it has been difficult to find Danish 
clergymen willing to go to Greenland, and only three of the 
stations have Danish ministers. Three have native ministers, 
the first being ordained 1874. All Greenlanders in the Danish 
colonies are baptized either by the Danish missionaries or by 
the United Brethren. The Greenlanders on the eastern coast 
are heathen, but the Danish Government intends to begin a 
Mission amongst them. 

u 



290 



Danish Government Mission to Greenland, 



In 1844 two seminaries for native teachers were founded at 
Godthaab and Jakobshavn. In 1875 the last-named was united 
with the first. The teachers or catechists teach the children, 
hold short daily services, and sundry services at the many 
outposts, where only very few families live ; a Scripture-reader, 
male or female, does the work. 

The present stations are Julianehaab, Godthaab, Holstens- 
borg, Jakobshavn, Omanak, and Upernivik. As to spiritual 
condition the Greenland congregations can bear comparison 
with the congregations in Denmark ; there is great desire for 
the Word of God, and the moral life of the Greenlanders is on 
the whole better than that of the Christians in Europe. Now 
when native Greenlanders have been ordained, it is to be hoped 
that the native element will be developed to more self-reliance 
and firmness, and that no more Danish ministers, or perhaps 
only a Danish superintendent, will be needed. 

SUMMARY. 

Annual cost ^ jQZi'^oo. 



Field of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Work- 
ers. 


Native Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Greenland 


1721 


6 


Or- 
dained. 

3 


Or- 
dained. 

3 


Lay. Female. 
(readers. l'"<l«3.l 


3.874 


127^ 


1,982 



1 In 127 places schools are held ; in 38 of these^ school buildings have been erected. 



11. — The Danish Missionary Society (Lutheran). 

The Society's Mission began m 1863, when the German mis- 
sionary. Rev. C. Ochs, formerly of the Leipzig Mission, entered 
the Society's service and transferred to it his station at Pat- 
tambaukam, in South Arcot. The first Danish missionary came 
out to him in 1865, and founded a station at Trikalore, South 
Arcot, in 1869. Our sphere of labour continues to be Eastern 



Danish Missionary Society, Luthcraji. 



291 



India : on the plains (two stations. Bethania and Siloam), 
in Madras, and among the Maleyah, on the Shevaroy Hills. 

At Siloam the work was nearly fruitless until a revival began 
at one of the neighbouring villages in 1880. Since that time the 
work has proceeded slowly. In 1885 and 1886 sixty converts 
were baptized at Bethania. All the converts are Pariahs, with 
the exception of a few families in one of the villages near 
Siloam. In Madras some twenty have been baptized, all 
belonging to various castes (only one Pariah boy from a ragged 
school). The missionaries have especially worked among edu- 
cated Hindus and their families, visiting them in their homes. 
In 1886 open-air preaching was commenced, and has been 
carried on since that time. The most notable fruit of this 
preaching has been an active organized opposition from the 
Hindus. On the Shevaroy Hills only a few Maleyals have been 
baptized. The people have sunk too deeply to be speedily 
raised. Of the coolies from the plains more have been won ; 
but they are like rolling stones, they come and go. 

SUMMARY. 

Annual Ijtcome, about £2,600. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Ad- 
herents.! 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


South Arcot . 

Madras . . 

Shevaroy 7 

Hills . j 


1863 
1878 

1883 


2 

1 

I 


Or- I Fe- 
dained. i male. 

\ 1 .■ 

! 

1 


Or- 
dained. 
2 

I 


Lay. 

10 

1 

4 


Fe- 
male, 

I 


431 
25 
67 


73 
15 
26 


7 
3 


56 
36 


Totals . . ... 


' 


4 i I 


3 


15 


I 


523 


114 


10 


92 



1 All of these are baptized. 



III. — Other Danish Missions. 



Besides the above-mentioned Danish Societies, there are 
individual efforts in different parts of the Mission field, supported 
by independent committees. One of these is at Vellore in the 

U 2 



292 Missions to Karens and Santals. 

province of Madras, where Mr. Loventhal has laboured since 
187 1. The Mission is Lutheran, and the reported income for 
the past year was ;£"233. 

A Lutheran Mission to the Karens of Burma was 
commenced in 1884 by two friends, Hans Poulsen and H. J. 
Jensen, who opened a station at Yaddu, near Taung-ngu ; but 
w^ishing to go to a people not yet evangelised, they sought 
access to the Red Karens or Gaja, and began their work at 
Pobja, the residence of the chief. Here Mr. Poulsen died in 
1886 ; the sister of Mr. Jensen, who had gone out in that year to 
carry on work among the women, died in 1887 ; Mr. Jensen 
himself in 1888. Mr. Knudsen, who had joined the Mission in 
1886, has been compelled by ill-health to return to Taung-ngu, 
where Miss A. Gehlert, who went out in 1887, is labouring 
among the women and children. It is hoped that the work 
among the Gaja tribe will s})ccdily be resumed. 

A Mission to the Santals of Bengal was begun in 1866 by 
PL P. Brerresen, a Dane, and L. P. Skrefsrud, a Norwegian, 
who had been formerly connected with the Gossner Missionary 
Society. At first these brethren and their station, Ebcnezer, 
were connected with the English Baptist Mission, but in 1877 
this connection ceased. The work is now conducted on 
Lutheran lines, but is sustained by a committee whose members 
reside in England, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. 
The endeavour in this Mission is to build up the church on 
native foundations rather than to rely upon foreign aid, to 
avoid any attempt to Europeanize the natives, and to retain 
among them as far as possible the native customs. Two 
Norwegian missionaries have since joined the staff. At 
Ebenezer there are large schools for boys and girls, super- 
intended by European teachers. An itinerant native agency is 
actively sustained. 67 native elders and 17 deaconesses travel 
through the surrounding country and bring monthly rei)orts to 
the central station at Ebenezer. Li Assam a Christian Santal 
colony was formed in 1880, superintended by a native pastor. 
The Christians there live on amicable terms with their heathen 
neighbours (the Mech, Rajbansi and Gdro tribes). To the 
Mechs, two of the Santals have gone as missionaries ; several 
converts have been baptized, and have formed themselves into 
a missionary society, to evangelize their heathen neighbours. 



( 293 ) 

SCANDINAVIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

The Norwegian Missionary Society. 

As far back as from the beginning of the i8th century, some 
missionary work has been done in, or from, Norway. In 172 1 
Hans Egede, a Norwegian pastor, went to Greenland and 
preached the gospel to the Eskimoes ; and from 17 16 Thomas 
von Westcn did missionary work amongst the ' Laps ' (Lap- 
landers) and ' Fins ' in the northern parts of Norway, a work 
that was continued in more recent times by men like Kildal, 
Stockfleth, and others, until it now has become superfluous, as 
these tribes have become Christians, and are properly cared 
for in the ordinary manner by the Church of Norway. 

But this was not the work of a Missionary Society, but of 
the Established Church, or rather of the State, by virtue of its 
connection with the Church. 

At the end of the last and the beginning of the present 
century, rationalism prevailed to a great extent in Norway, 
and nobody thought of the duty of Christians to the heathen 
world. But after a spiritual revival had taken place — chiefly 
through the instrumentality of the famous lay preacher, Hans 
Nilsen Hauge, who died 1824 — a true missionary spirit began 
gradually to animate the Christians of Norway. In 1826 the 
first missionary association was formed at Stavanger; and 
in the course of a few years this example was followed in a 
good many other places. This association, however, did not 
yet form a Society, and had no mission of their own, but sent 
their contributions to Lutheran Societies in Germany. In 
August 1842, a meeting was held at Stavanger, where 82 
delegates from 65 such local associations joined and founded 
the Norwegian Missionary Society. ^ About the same time 
God had called their first missionary. A young man, who had 
just finished his studies at the University of Christiania, had 

^ The man who, al)ove all others, was the guiiling spirit in this move- 
ment, was another famous lay-preaeher, John llaugvaklstad, a disciple 
and friend of Hans Nilsen llauge. 



2 94 Norwegian Missionary Society. 

felt it his duty to go to tlie heatlien with the Gospel, and had 
early in 1842, in a little pamphlet {A Few Words to the Church 
of Norivay), made an urgent appeal to the Christians of 
Norway, with regard to their missionary duties, and declared 
himself ready to go. Upon this a committee had been formed 
at Christiania to support him. After some deliberation this 
committee was amalgamated with the Society just founded ; and 
this young man (Rev. Schreuder) entered their service as their 
first missionary. In 1843 he left for South Africa, and tried to 
enter Zululand; but as King Umpande would not permit 
him to do so, he was obliged to settle in Natal at first. There 
he acquired the language, and began missionary work. Having 
by his medical skill cured Umpande from a serious illness, he 
was now also allowed to commence working in Zululand (1850) ; 
but it was not before 1858 that he could baptize the first Zulu. 
Since then the work has been steadily carried on there, and the 
number of workers increased from time to time. But Zululand 
has been a very hard field to w^ork. The great indolence and 
gross superstition of the people, and the frequent wars and 
disturbances, have proved very great hindrances, and the 
progress has been very slow, as the accompanying statistics 
show. During the war of 1879 nearly all our stations were 
ruined, and the missionary work had to begin almost as in a 
new ground after the war. 

To the island of Madagascar, the Norwegian Missionary 
Society sent their two first missionaries in 1866. The more 
quiet state of the country, as compared with Zululand, the 
far greater docility of the people, the good influence of the 
government on education, and the great extent to which we 
have been able to procure native assistants in the work, have, 
under the blessing of God, made this a very prosperous and 
encouraging field. 

To the southern part of the west coast of Madagascar were 
sent 4 missionaries in 1874, and since then there have been 
from 2 to 4 constantly at work there ; but the progress has 
been very small, for chiefly the same reasons as in Zululand. 

This year (1888) we commenced a mission on the south-east 
coast of Madagascar. Judging from the manner in which we 
have been received by the natives there, and other circum- 
stances, we have a rather bright and hopeful prospect of 
doing good work in this district, occupying the coast line 



Norwegia?! Missionary Society. 295 

from Fort Dauphin in the south to Vangaindrano in the 
north. 

At the same time (i.e. 1888) we have placed a missionary 
amongst the Baras, a nomadic, unsettled and quite heathen 
tribe in the southern part of the island — a mission through 
which we may be able to form a connecting link between our 
work in the inland and that on the west coast. 

The interest in mission-work is certainly, we hope, still in a 
progressive state in Norway. The income has increased to 
the double within a few years ; and in our last General Assembly 
(this year) it seemed to be a set purpose with the delegates 
present to have the income doubled again before the next 
assembly, at the jubilee of the Society (1892). 

As to denomination, the Norwegian Missionary Society is 
Lutheran, and strictly evangelical. 

As to administration, the Society is quite independent of the 
authorities of the Established Church of Norway, being governed 
by a body of Directors chosen by the 8 sub-committees, repre- 
senting the 8 districts into which the country has been divided 
for missionary purposes, and each of which includes numerous 
local associations. Each of these districts has its annual 
meeting, to which these respective associations can send 
delegates to discuss missionary questions. And every three 
years delegates from all the associations in the whole country 
join into a ' General Assembly,' which is, in fact, the ' parlia- 
ment' of the Society — settling all the most important questions, 
{e.g.^ the taking up of a new field of labour), controlling the 
directors, and giving general regulations for their work. So 
far the Norwegian Missionary Society is entirely democratic in 
principle. But, as a matter of fact, these assemblies have 
proved to be of less importance to the administration than to 
the spreading of interest in the work all over the country, in 
which respect their influence can scarcely be overrated. 

But although the Society is unconnected with the authorities 
of the Estabhshed Church of Norway, these authorities have 
always stood in the most friendly relation to the Society — • 
ordained its missionaries, allowed them to preach in the 
churches, and then collect money for the mission, etc. ; and 
there are certainly extremely few, if any, of the ministers at 
home who do not take a more or less active part in the 
missionary work in some way (by missionary lectures, collection 



296 



Norwegian Missionary Society. 



of money for the mission, etc.). And their wives are generally 
the leaders of the local female missionary associations, of which 
we have more than a thousand in Norway, 



SUMMARY (APPROXIMATE). 

Annual Income^ about ^20,000. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Woi 


kers. 


Native Worker . 








Or- 


Lay. 


Fe- 


Or- 


Lay. 


Female 








dained. 




male. 


dained. 






Natal .... 


1843 


3 


4 


I 


2 




8 




Zululand . 


1850 


8 


10 


2 


I 


... 


10 




Inland of ]\Iada-| 
gascar . . .j 


1866 


16 


18 


2 


6 


16 


872 




West Coast oH 
Madagascar . j 


1874 


3 


4 








12 


... 


South-east Coastl 
of Madagascar ,/ 


i888 


3 


4 






... 




... 


Totals .... 


33 


40 


5 


9 


16 


902 




Fields of I-abour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


Adhe 


rents. 


Co 
munic 


ant^. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Natal .... 


1 1843 




170 




10 




200 


Zululand . 


1850 




360 , 




22 




300 


Inland of MadaO 
gascar . . . j 


1866 


20, 


000 


.. 




300 




30,000 


\Yest Coast oH 
Madagascar . j 


1874 




130 ! 




• 


4 




120 


South-east Coast | 
of Madagascar . j 


1888 




1 


• 








Totals . . 


• • 


20, 


660 j 




336 


30,620 



Swedish Missions, 297 

A Mission at Entumeni, in South Africa, has been carried 
on since 1873, when Bishop Schreuder left tlie Norwegian 
Missionary Society, pending the time when the Norwegian 
Church as a whole would take up the work of Missions to the 
heathen. In 1875 a new station was opened at Untumjombeli. 
Bishop Schreuder died in 1882, and in the foUowing year 
brethren N. and H. Astrup were sent ont. The widow of the 
bishop acts at Entumeni as a lady missionary, and the work is 
still known as the Schreuder Mission. It is superintended by 
a committee at Christiania, and the annual income is returned 
as £z^2. 



SWEDISH MISSIONS. 



Mission-work was carried on by the Church of Sweden in the 
medieval times, when King Erik the Holy, and the regents, 
Birger Yarl and Torgils Knutsson, attempted to evangelize 
Finland with military force. After the Reformation, Sweden 
was the first Protestant country to commence Mission-work 
among the heathen; for the effort of King Gustaf Vasa to 
extend Christianity to the Laplanders was the only missionary 
enterprise that proceeded from the Protestant Church in the 
sixteenth century. Charles IX., Gustavus Adolphus and 
Christina continued the work thus commenced. Churches were 
built, school established, and good Christian literature translated 
into the Laplanders' own language ; and so a foundation was 
laid for the blessed work carried on by P. Fjellstrom and 
P. Hogstrom in the eighteenth century. The former translated 
the New Testament, the latter wrote a catechism and several 
hymns in the Laplanders' language. 

In 1837 a new Mission field was opened for the Church of 
Sweden, by the estabUshment of a Swedish colony called New 
Sweden on the Delaware river in North America. The 
Swedisli clergymen who went over to America in order to 
administer to the spiritual needs of the Swedish colonists, in 
addition to their pastoral work carried on successful missionary 
efforts among the Indians. Three years before the beginning 



298 Siuedish Missionary Society, 

of the Indian Mission of John ElHot the Swedish clergyman 
J. Campanius commenced a blessed work among the Mohawk 
and Delaware tribes. He preached to them in their own 
language, and translated Luther's catechism with simple 
expositions. When the colony passed from the Swedish crown 
(1655) into other hands, tlie Mission-work of the Swedish 
Church soon ended. 

• In the eighteenth and also in the nineteenth century several 
Swedes entered into foreign Missionary Societies (especially 
the missions of the Moravian Church) and were sent out to 
Greenland, Labrador, Jamaica, St. Thomas and Antigua, the 
Mosquito coast, Surinam and South Africa. The celebrated 
Swedish missionary, J. L. Kiernander, was sent out to India by 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and worked 
from 1739 in Cuddalore, and later on with great success in 
Calcutta. Here he built at his own expense the first 
Protestant church, which is still in existence. 

At the end of the last and the beginning of this century a 
new missionary spirit was aw^akened in Sweden in connection 
with a general revival of spiritual life, and in 181 8 the first 
missionary paper (a weekly record) was published. Soon small 
Missionary Societies were founded in different parts of the 
country, and considerable sums of money were collected and 
sent to the support of English and German Societies and their 
work in heathen lands. 



I. — The Swedish Missionary Society. 

This Society was founded 1835, and was afterwards for many 
years the centre _^^of missionary work in Sweden, uniting with 
one another the many collecting societies in different parts of 
the country. This Society, which stands in close connection 
to the Church of Sweden, has ever since its foundation been 
the principal agency for the Mission-work among the 
Laplanders. Its first missionary, K. L. Tellstrom, worked 
from 1836 to 1862 among this people with great earnest- 
ness and success. The Swedish Missionary Society also 
took part in the evangelization of foreign heathen lands, 
assisting in the support of several foreign missionary 
societies, especially the societies of Basel and Leipzig. The 
able and zealous missionary, T. Homberg, was sent out (1845) 



Missionary Comniiffee of the Swedish Church. 299 

from Sweden through the mediation of the Basel Society to 
China, and for two years superintended the Evangelical 
Society for China while Dr. Giatzlaff was away. At the same 
time two other Swedish missionaries, Fast (murdered 1850) and 
Elggvist, worked in China, sent out by the Missionary Society 
OF Lund (founded 1845, and united with the Swedish Society in 
1855). These two devoted men organised an institution for the 
training of missionaries. This institution was placed under the 
superintendence of Rev. Dr. P. Fjellstedt, who had before 
worked as a missionary in India (Tinnevelli) and Asia Minor 
(Smyrna). 

Tire Society of Lund had united with the Leipzig Society in 
the Tamil Mission in India, and had sent out to India several 
missionaries. Amongst these are Rev. C. A. Ouchterlony, who 
entered on the work 1853, and is still in the field, and Rev. Dr. 
Blomstrand (died 1887), who during the course of 27 years of 
of literary work was of great benefit to the Mission. 

The union of the two Societies did not disturb the existing 
relations with the Leipzig Society, and the work was carried on 
by the Swedish Missionary Society. In 1874 the Church of 
Sweden, as such, decided to take up missionary work in heathen 
lands, and two years later the Swedish Missionary Society was 
united to it in such a way that it paid its income to the 
Mission of the Church, and only retained superintendence of 
the work in Lapland, where it now has 3 male and 5 female 
missionaries at work, besides some Swedish children, with 8 
schools and about 130 scholars. 

The Penny Union, formed in 1884, supports the schools of 
the Swedish Missionary Society in Lapland. The amount 
raised in 1887 was ^^208. 



11. — The Missionary Committee of the Swedish Church. 

When the General Synod of the Swedish Church assembled for 
the first time 1868, a motion was made that the church, as such, 
should take up Missions to the heathen as her work, and a 
committee was elected to make propositions in that respect. 
This was done in 1874, and the propositions were sanctioned 
by the government. The standing committee was to have six 



300 



Missionary Committee of the Swedish Church, 



members, elected by the General Synod for five years, under the 
presidency of the Archbishop of Upsala. 

It had been the intention that this new organization should 
unite in itself all the different organizations for foreign missions 
in the Church, but only the Swedish Missionaries Society joined, 
the others refusing. The Mission of the Church took the 
Swedish Society's missionaries in India in its pay and sent out 
Revs. Horberg and Bexell ; but it was not found possible to have 
a Mission there besides that of the Leipzig Society, so it was 
decided to begin a new Mission at Zululand in friendly though 
not official connection with that of the Norwegian Bishop 
Schreuder. Missionaries were accordingly sent out, and four 
stations were established, 1878, 1881, 1886 and 1887. 

The following brief summary will give a fair idea of the 
extent and success of the work. 



SUMMARY. 

Income (1887), ;£2,6o3. 



Fields of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native Workers. 


Natal . . . 


1876 


4 


Or- 
dained. 

3 


Lay. 

I 


Female. 
2 


Or- 
dained. 


Lay. 

2 


Female. 

I 


Fields of Labour. 


Bap- 
tized. 


Com- 
municants. 


Schools. 


Scholars. 


Native 
Contributions. 


Natal . . . 


58 


12 


3 


68 


.. 



(India is not mentioned here, as the Missionary work is under the Leipzig Mistiorary 

Society.) 



( 30I ) 



III. — The Swedish Missionary Union. 

In 1877 a dissension arose in the Church of Sweden about 
the doctrines of Mr. Waldenstrom, and his adherents asked that 
the constitution of the Evangelisla Fosterlands Strftelsa should 
be altered in order that persons could be sent out who did 
not belong to the Lutheran Church. This proposal was 
rejected, and the Swedish Missionary Union was established 
(1878) by the dissentients. It is a union of many small 
missionary committees, who hold a yearly meeting, in which the 
questions are discussed, and a committee elected, who shall 
execute what is decided in the meeting. It is quite a democratic 
constitution. The union has for its aim both home and 
foreign work amongst Christian and heathen. 

The only place where the union has a word for heathen 
is on the Congo. It works jointly with the Livingstone 
Inland Mission and the American Baptist Missionary Union. 
It has stations at Mukimbunga (1882) and Kibunsi (1887). 
It has sent out to this held eleven missionaries and three lady 
missionaries. 

In Russia a good work is carried on among the American 
population, in addition to work among nominal Christians. 

The Union also sends out missionaries to Lapland^ Alaska, 
and Algiers. 

SUMMARY. 

Annual Income^ £,2^()^o} 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Schools. 


Scho- 
lars. 


Kingo . 
Alaska. 
Algiers 
Russia . 
Lapland 


1882 
1886 
1887 
1882 
1880 


2 
2 

3 
3 


10 

2 

I 

3 
3 


Female. 

3 

2 


I 
2 


50 


3 




Totals. 




II 


19 


5 


3 


50 


3 





1 This amount does not include the sums devoted to the Home work. 



( 302 ) 

IV. — The Swedish Evangelical National Society. 

Extended to the Heathen 1862. 

The Evangelical National Society, established in 1856 for 
home mission work in Sweden, undertook foreign missionary 
labour six years later. 

The mission work in East Africa was begun (1866) in 
Kunama, from which country the missionaries were driven 
away in 1869. Then stations in Mensa, Eilet, and Massawa 
were taken up instead, all of which have been given up. For 
the present the Society is in possession of four stations : 
M'Kullo (entered 1879), and Arkiko (1886), in the neighbour- 
hood of Massawa, Djimma, in the Galla country (1883). 

In 1877 the mission work in the Central Provinces of India 
was begun, where in 1878 two stations were founded: Nar- 
singhpur and Saugor. Betul (1880), with out-stations, Sittal- 
jeri (1885), and Nimpani (1886). The station in Chindvara 
was passed over to this Society by the Free Church of Scot- 
land 1886, with out-station Amarwara 1887. The work in 
Africa is carried on by preaching of the Gospel and circulation 
of tracts, teaching in schools, medical mission, and teaching 
of trades. In India, by preaching, teaching in schools, dis- 
tribution of tracts, and Zenana Mission work. 



SUMMARY. 

Annual Income, ;^8,8oo. 



Fields of 
Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 1 L u 
muni- Schools. ^^}T 
cants. ^^^^' 


East Africa . 

India, Central) 
Provinces .| 


1866 
1877 


3 
7 


Or- 
dained. 

7 


5 
3 


Fe- 
male. 
3 

8 


Lay. 
16 

10 


Fe- 
male. 
7 

8 


106 

about 
62 


79 

about 

30 


2 90 
7 . 408 


Totals . . 1 ... 10 j 10 


8 


11 


26 


15 


168 j 109 9 498 



Swedish Societies. 303 

JoNKOPiNG Missionary Union for Home and Foreign 
Missions. — This missionary union began about i860 to collect 
contributions for foreign missionary societies. Since 1863 it has 
supported one of the schools of the Free Church of Scotland in 
Syria. In 1887 it sent out Mr. F. E. Lund to China, where he 
works in the service of the China Inland Mission, but his 
salary is paid by the Jonkoping Missionary Society. 

The Friends of the Mission to the Laplanders. — This 
Society was established in 1880. Its aim is to spiritually 
benefit the Laplanders by travelling preachers, by schools and 
by the distribution of tracts and the Scriptures. It has a school 
at Lannavara (1882), and has two workers, Mr. Lundberg (1.884) 
and Miss Hellberg (1888), besides two in more subordinate 
places. Income ^528. 

The Ladies' CoMxMittee at Stockholm for the further- 
ance OF THE Gospel among the WoxMen of China.— This 
committee was established 1850. It has never undertaken 
direct missionary work, but has supported principally the 
Mission of Rev. Lechler of the Basle Missionary Society at 
Hong-kong. It supported, 1887, 41 children in China. Its 
income, 1887, was ;^i88. 



( 304 ) 



THE FINLAND MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The Finland Missionary Society was formed on the 19th 
of January, 1859. In the month of September 1862, a semi- 
nary for training missionaries was opened. About six years 
later, in 1868, the first (seven ordained and two lay) mission- 
aries were sent out. Since that time until now the Society 
has sent out seven more ordained missionaries and nine 
missionaries' wives; there are no other European female 
labourers. 

Having stayed a year in the Herero country for the sake 
of learning African languages, the missionaries sent out in 
1868 did not reach their destination in Ondonga before the 
9th of July, 1870, when missionary labour in that country 
was at once commenced. 

In the year 1857 the tribe Ondonga in the Ovambo 
country was visited by the Rev. C. H. Hahn and the Rev. 
F. Rath, missionaries in the service of the Rhenish Missionary 
Society; nine years later, 1866, the Rev. Mr. Hahn made 
his second visit to the same country ; at that time he was 
asked by the chiefs to send them missionaries. Having 
returned to his station he entered into negotiations with the 
Society as to sending missionaries to that country. These 
negotiations were regarded as an answer to prayer that the 
Lord might point out a country fitting for a Mission field. 

Concerning the converts in Ondonga we have to report 
that the first one, a native girl, who had attended an invalided 
missionary on his return to Finland, was baptized in the year 
1876, and returned to her native country in 1879; at present 
she belongs to native labourers there. 

In Ondonga a certain number of young men applied for 
baptism in the year 1880, but finding out the chiefs' dislike 
to their intention, they went to a missionary station in the 
Herero country, and there four of them were baptized at the 
end of the year 1881. At the same time the chief of On- 
donga became less suspicious of missionary labour, and others 



Pintand Missionary Society^ 



305 



of" the young men were baptized in January 18B3. Since 
that time the work has continued without interruption, and 
the number of native Christians at Ondonga has risen to 
between 150 and 160, nearly half this number having been 
baptized during the year 1887. 

The climate of Ondonga is unhealthy, and the missionaries 
have suffered much from sickness, but still the Society can 
thankfully report that only one missionary and two mission- 
aries' wives have died there during seventeen years. Four mis- 
sionaries have returned home partially invalided, but they 
remain in the service of the Society. Two ordained and one 
lay missionary have left the Society owing to illness. 



SUMMARY. 

A HJiual Income, ;£'2,35o.^ 



Field of Labour. 


Entered j^°jf 
'^•°* tions. 


Foreign 

Work. 

ers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. 


1 
Scho- 
lars. 


The Ondonga 
Tribe in the 
Ovambo coun- 
try, S.W. Africa) 


July j 
1870 / 


3 


Or- 
dained. 

6 


Lay. 
3 


Fe- 
male. 

I 


( 150 
{ to 
( 160 


75 
to 
80 


J fordif- 1 
j ferent 1 
[ classes J 


about 
300 

1 



1 Through the sale of missionary papers, periodicals, and pamphlets, the gross income is 
about ;^ 600 more. 



SECTION IV. 



AMERICAN SOCIETIES. 

BY THE 

REV. J. T. GRACEY, D. D., 

OF 

BUFFALO, NEW YORK. 



X 2 



( 309 ) 



MISSIONS TO PAGANS IN NORTH AMERICx\. 

Missions to pagan peoples in North and South America date 
from the earHest connection of Europeans with the country. 
The date of the founding of the Roman Catholic Church is 
1494, and 'Isabella the Catholic' directed that 'great care 
should be taken of the religious instruction of the Indians.' 
Some of the most thrilling annals of Roman Catholic 
missionaries relate to the ' heroic adventures, sublime en- 
durance, and lofty devotion' of the early Jesuit missionaries in 
North America. 

The Protestants were equal to the Romanists in zeal and 
self-sacrifice for these children of the wilderness. The royal 
charter of the Plymouth colony provided for the ' conversion 
of such savages as yet remain wandering in desolation and 
distress, to civil society and the Christian religion.' The 
charter of the Massachusetts Bay colony made it obligatory 
to bring these native races ' to the knowledge and obedience 
of the only true God and Saviour of mankind,' while the zeal 
of the colony prescribed the figure of an Indian with a label at 
his mouth, on which was written the Macedonian cry, 
' Come over and help us.' And in 1636 the laws of the 
Plymouth colony provided for preaching among the Indians. 
An eminent author in a new work just issued from the press 
says : — 

* These Pilgrims and Puritans were the pioneers of the Protestant world 
in attempts to convert the heathen to Christ. They were missionary 
colleges — self-supporting missions— composed of men who went on their 
own responsibility, and at their own expense, to establish their posterity 
among the heathen whose salvation they sought.' 

Among the noble names of those who have devoted them- 
selves to the salvation of heathen tribes, perhaps none rank 
higher than those of John Eliot, David Brainerd, and the 
Mayhews. 

The publication of narratives of the work of some of these 
earher missionaries ' begat a debate ' in the House of 



310 Missions to Pagans in North America. 

Commons ' how the ParHament of England might be service- 
able to the Lord Jesus to help forward such a work begun.' 
In 1 649 an Act was passed entitled ' A Corporation for the 
Promoting and Propagating the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New 
England.' In 1799 the Massachusetts Missionary Society 
was formed. Missionary periodicals were estabHshed. In 
1800 appeared the Connecticut Evangelical Magazifte ; in 1803 
the Massachusetts Missionary Magazine and the Massachusetts 
Baptist Missionary Magazine appeared, and in 1805 the 
General Asse7?ihlys Missionary Magazine. 

The number of Indians now in the United States and 
Territories, including Alaska, is 248,000. In the five tribes 
recognised as civilised are 65,000. This leaves 183,000 un- 
civilised. Of this number 28,600 are already church members. 
In its possibly well-intentioned zeal for the introduction of the 
English language, the American Government, in 1887, required 
that the vernaculars should not be taught, nor even spoken, in any 
Indian schools on the Reservations, including Mission stations, 
which were wholly sustained by benevolent funds. Under this 
ruling many stations were closed from September to January. 
But the remonstrances coming from almost every denomination 
of Christians in the land induced the Government to modify 
its orders, and the schools have all been re-opened. There are 
143 missionaries of different denominations now labouring among 
them. According to the last Government report, the total 
enrolment of Indian youths in schools is 15,212, out of a total 
of 40,000 of teachable age. During the last year the average 
attendance increased 900 over that of the year before. 

Among the Chinese and Japanese in the United States, 
several churches have regularly organised missions, fragmentary 
reference to which will be found in the statements of the work 
of the several Societies in the following pages. In two 
instances the outcome of these has been the beginning of 
Missions among their own people in other parts by the 
converts of these Missions. 



( 311 ) 



MISSIONARY SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

I. — The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. (Organised 1810.) 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
was the first Society in America to send missionaries to 
any foreign land. It was organised at Bradford, Mass., June 
29, 1 8 10. Prior to this, a few local societies had been formed 
in New England with special reference to evangelising the 
American Indians. For several years God had been moving 
the hearts of many individuals, widely separated, in reference 
to the needs of the distant regions of the earth. Samuel J. 
Mills entered Williams College in 1807, and sought to 
awaken an interest in Missions. During that first year a 
memorable missionary prayer-meeting was held by the students 
under the shelter of a hay-stack, to which they were driven by 
rain, and the impressions of that hour were so deep, and led to 
such results, that the spot where that meeting was held has 
been called the ' Birthplace of American Missions.' Two 
years later (1808), a Society was formed in the college 'to 
effect, in the person of its members, a mission to the heathen ; ' 
but this organisation was kept secret, ' lest,' as they said, ' we 
should be thought rashly imprudent, and should so injure the 
cause we wish to promote.' Mills, Gordon Hall, and James 
Richards went to Andover Seminary, and there met Samuel 
Newell, Adoniram Judson, and Samuel Nott, Jr., who were all 
of the same mind as to Missions. On June 28, 1810, Messrs. 
Newell, Nott, Hall, and Judson presented a paper to the 
General Association of Massachusetts, in which they stated 
that ' their minds had been long impressed with the duty and 
importance of personally attempting a mission to the heathen.' 
This resulted in the adoption, next day, of the resolution ' that 
there be instituted by this association a Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, for the purpose of devising 
ways and means, and adopting and prosecuting measures for 
promoting the spread of the Gospel in heathen lands.' 



312 American Bodrdfor Foreign Missions. 

These four young men, joined by Luther Rice, and the 
wives of tliree of them, sailed for India in 1812. While on 
their way to India, Mr. and Mrs. Judson and Mr. and Mrs. 
Rice changed their views on the subject of baptism, which 
event led to the formation of the . American Baptist 
Missionary Union in 18 14. On arriving at Calcutta, 
numerous difficulties obstructed their design. The country 
was involved in war, and no missionary operations were 
allowed by the Government. Mr. Rice sailed for the 
Mauritius. Mr. Judson departed for Burma, and Messrs. 
Hall and Nott went to Bombay, and in 181 3 commenced 
among the Mahrattas the first Mission of the American Board 
in foreign lands. For about fifty years from the beginning, the 
Presbyterian and the Reformed (Dutch) churches co-operated 
with the Board in the conduct of Missions ; but the Board is 
now supported chiefly by Congregationalists, the Reformed 
(Dutch) churches having withdrawn in 1857, and the Pres- 
byterian churches in 187 1, from the beUef that these churches 
respectively could prosecute missionary work more vigorously 
under Boards of their own. The purpose and hope expressed 
at the time of their withdrawal have been realised, and they 
have laboured with more vigour and success for the evangelisa- 
tion of the world, while the present work of the American 
Board is far in advance of what it was when the withdrawal 
took place. 

In the early history of the Board much missionary work was 
done among the North American Indians, and several tribes 
were reached and christianised by its missionaries. All work 
within the United States has been turned over to other 
societies. In 187 1, the Board transferred to the Presbyterian 
Board, then newly organised as a separate Board, its Syrian 
Mission, an offshoot of the Mission to Palestine ; also its 
Missions in Persia, Siam, and at Cape Palmas, Liberia, the last 
three having been continued under the supervision of the 
American Board since their beginning in 1833. The Amoy 
Mission in China and the Arcot Mission in India were 
transferred to the Reformed (Dutch) Board in 1857. 

The Board is now in its seventy-ninth year, and we gather 
from its publications that the nine corporate members at the 
beginning were all from Massachusetts and Connecticut. Its 
present corporate membership numbers 227, from 25 States 



Amerka7i Board for Foreign Missions. 313 

and Territories. During the 78 years of its existence, 
the aggregate receipts of the Board have been J23, 118,785 = 
;£"4,623,ooo. It has sent out 1,974 missionaries and assistant 
missionaries, 817 of the number being men, of whom 623 
were ordained. Of the 194 not ordained, 45 were physicians, 
and 149 teachers, printers, and business agents. Of the 
ordained men 32 were also physicians. Of the 1,974 persons 
sent out, 1,157 were women, of whom 357 were unmarried. 
To the 422 churches organised under its supervision, 167,000 
persons have been admitted on confession of faith. During 
the year 1887-8, the Board sent out as new missionaries 8 
men and 21 women. Eleven new churches were formed. In 
the 336 churches on mission ground, to which 4,388 persons 
were received on confession of faith, there are now 30,546 
members. The receipts of the Board for the past year 
from all sources, including Women's Boards, amounted to 
$667,289. 

The Board conducts successful Missions in Papal lands. It 
has two Missions in Mexico, one in Spain, and one in Austria, 
all of which were commenced in 1872. The work in these 
Papal lands is reported as encouraging, though in Western 
Mexico persecution of the most malignant character awaits 
those known to have sympathy with the Gospel. In Northern 
Mexico no such alliance between Church and State is 
recognised, and churches are being organised, and large 
congregations greet the missionary from the first. In Spain 
their high school for girls is a recognised success. In Austria 
the churches gain in numbers at every communion, and 
trained workers are being furnished to labour amongst 
Bohemians and others in the United States. 

This Society has conducted extensive educational work, 
always having in view the preparation of an evangelistic 
agency. In its several missions, it has 17 theological schools, 
with 251 scholars; 59 colleges and high schools, with 3,947 
scholars; 59 girls' boarding schools, with 3,068 scholars. It 
conducts 892 common schools, with 34,855 pupils, having, 
including some not reported in any of these, a total of pupils 
under instruction of 42,733 persons. Among those higher 
institutions may be mentioned — Central Turkey College, 
Aintab, established in 1875 ; Euphrates College, Harpoot, 
established in 1878; Anatolia College, Marsovan, established 



314 American Board for Foreign Missions. 

in 1885; Jaffna College, Ceylon, established in 1877; Kyoto 
Training School, Japan, established in 1875; North Pacific 
Institute, Sandwich Island, established in 1877 ; Constantinople 
Home, organised in 1870. Robert College at Constantinople 
is also an outgrowth of the missionary work of the Board. 

India (18 13). — The Mission in Bombay was, as we have 
seen, the first foreign Mission founded by any American 
Society. When the missionaries sent by their Board were 
refused permission to remain at Calcutta, two of them, Rev. 
Gordon Hall and Rev. Samuel Nott, escaped to Bombay, 
where they were also, at first, forbidden to engage in 
missionary w^ork; but after suffering much annoyance, and 
once having their passage engaged to England by order of the 
Bombay Government, they at last received permission to 
remain. The letter granting the permission was dated 
December 21, 18 13. This work is now divided into two 
Missions, the Marathi and the Madura. The Marathi 
Mission embraces Bombay, Ahmednagar, Wadale, and other 
principal points. It has seven stations, with 102 out-stations, 12 
missionaries (one of them a physician), 15 native pastors, 32 
preachers, two medical catechists, with Bible-readers and 
teachers, making a total of 255 native helpers. In the 27 
churches are 1823 members, 157 of whom were received on 
confession of faith last year. The native contributions 
amounted to $4,779 = £^^^- ^ Society of Christian 
Endeavour has done good work. Voluntary labour has been 
performed by 27 persons connected with this Mission, 10 of 
whom have preached nearly 500 times in 30 places near the 
city. The Theological Seminary, suspended since 1866, was 
re-opened with a class of nine. The Mission high-school and 
college has grown from 14 pupils in 1882 to 311 in 1887, 
the pupils being mainly high-caste Brahmans. There is a 
theological school and college conducted by the Mission at 
Ahmednagar. 

The Madura Mission (1834) embraces besides Madura, 
wdth its 70,000 population, Dindigal, Mandapasalai, Battala- 
gundu, and other places, in all 12 stations, with 234 out- 
stations, 36 churches, 3,233 church members, 11,881 adherents, 
10 missionaries, 20 native pastors, 299 native workers of all 
classes, 138 common schools, with 3,215 pupils, a collegiate 



A 7fienca7i Board for Foreign Missions. 315 

theological institute with 334 pupils — in all the Mission 5,680 
pupils; and the native contributions amount to $6,545 = 
;;£"i,363. Anew feature is the employment of native evangelists 
by the native churches themselves for the outlying districts. 

The Ceylon Missio7i was organised in 18 16, and embraces 
Batticotta, Oodooville, and other stations, in all 7, with 25 out- 
stations. It has 14 churches, 389 members, 8,455 under in- 
struction ; native contributions, $5,752 =;^i,i98. This Mission 
has had an exceptional educational work. The report says that 
one in thirteen of the population is in school, and nearly all 
schools are under the management of the missionaries. 329 
students have been educated in the Jaffna College. 

The Island World. — The American Board attempted a 
work in Sumatra; but the missionaries were killed and the 
work given up. Again they attempted work in Borneo in 
1839, but this too was abandoned. Interest in these 
islands was awakened by two youths coming in 1809 from the 
Sandwich Islands. In 18 19 the American Board sent 17 
persons to engage in Mission work there. On arriving at the 
islands, they found the people had abolished idolatry, and 
were ready to receive Christian teachers. In 1828 a work of 
grace begun, and 2,500 inquirers' names were entered by one 
missionary and his wife. From 1838 to 1843, six years, 
27,000 persons were admitted to the churches. And in 
1863, when this Board handed over the whole to the Hawaiian 
Evangelical Association, and the Mission was merged in the 
community, the missionary churches of the Board had enrolled 
50,000 members. 

The Board still co-operates with the Hawaiian Evangelical 
Association in work among the Sandwich Islanders, and the 
immigrants who are flocking to Hawaii especially from Japan 
and China. The North Pacific Missionary Institute at 
Honolulu has had 14 students during the past year, six of 
whom graduated to the ministry. A special blessing is attending 
the efforts made by this Board and the Methodist Episcopal 
Board to reach the Japanese in the island. 

Microfiesia Mission was begun in 1852, and has now 21 
missionaries, 68 native helpers, and 4,644 church members. 
It embraces the Gilbert, Caroline, and Ladrone Islands of the 
Pacific, and is the foreisrn Mission of the Hawaiian churches. 



3i6 American Board for Foreign Missions. 

On the Caroline Islands work was begun by Messrs. Snow, 
Gulick^ and Sturges, and their wives. Last year the work in 
Micronesia seemed to be doomed to serious check, if not to 
overthrow, by reason of the Spanish occupation. And, 
indeed, it was a fearful blow which fell on Ponape, from which 
it will require long time fully to recover. But, happily, 
through the favouring hand of Providence, and in consequence 
of the prompt and efficient action of the United States 
Government and its representatives in Manila and Yokohama, 
Mr. Doane was restored to his home and work, the revolt was 
terminated without bloodshed, a wise and pacific governor was 
sent to Ponape, and protection was guaranteed to every form 
of missionary work. Under these conditions, and inspired by 
the good counsels and examples of the missionaries, the 
natives threw down their arms, gave back their booty, and 
resumed their wonted life ; and churches and schools again are 
opened and thronged, and the spiritual wastes are being 
repaired. The work begun on the Gilbert and Marshall 
Islands in 1857 has not been interrupted. In thirty years, five 
languages of the Pacific group have been reduced to writing, 
and the whole of the New Testament has been put into two of 
them. A necessary feature of this island work is the use of 
missionary ships. This Mission has now its fourth vessel, 
each one bearing in succession the name The Morning Star. 

Turkey. — In 1823 two missionaries of this Board — Goodell 
and Bird — arrived at Beirut, and commenced the Syria 
Mission. This has expanded into four large Missions of the 
Board in European and Asiatic Turkey. The labours of the 
missionaries have been confined to the Christian sects. The 
old Armenian churches and communities seem to be receiving 
more and more of the teachings of the Gospel. The famine 
relief afforded by Christendom, and largely administered by 
the missionaries, has resulted in some places in important 
accessions to the churches. 

The European Turkey Alission (1858) has four stations — 
Constantinople, Philippolis, and Samakov, and 29 out-stations, 
650 members, 6;^^, pupils, and a native income of $3,508 = 
^^731. Never before have so many additions been made to 
the church as last year. 

The Western Turkey Mission (1819) embraces Constant!- 



Aincriam Board for Foreign Missions. %i) 

nople, Cesarea, Marsovan, Smyrna, and other points; in all 
8 stations, io6 out-stations, 29 churches, 2,648 members, 
5,138 pupils. The Turkish Government's repressive measures 
toward these schools during the past year have been happily 
checked. 

The Eastern Turkey Mission (1836) takes in Erzroom, 
Harpoot, and three other principal places, making five stations, 
with 115 out-stations, 41 churches, 2,542 members, 6,392 
under instruction. 

The Central Turkey Mission (1847) includes Aintab and 
Marash, two stations, with 51 out-stations, 160 native workers, 
33 churches, and 4,050 members. 

Africa (1835}. — This Board conducted a Mission at the 
Gaboon, West Africa, which was organised in 1835, and 
continued under the most adverse influences during thirty-five 
years. When the Presbyterians organised a separate Missionary 
Society this Mission was transferred to them. It then (1870) 
had five missionaries, one native teacher, one church, and two 
boarding schools. 

The Ztdu Mission in Natal, South Africa, was begun in 
1835, marking thus the first effort of any organised society to 
carry the Gospel to the Zulus. Six missionaries, with their 
wives, embarked from Boston, but they parted at Cape Town. 
Messrs. Grout, Champion, and Dr. Adams went directly to 
Natal. Rev. Aldin Grout and his wife went to South Africa 
in 1834, and, with the exception of two years, continued in 
it until 1870. Messrs. Lindsley, Venable, and D. Wilson, with 
their wives, travelled 1,000 miles in ox- wagons over roadless 
regions to Umzilikazi's country to organise a Mission there. 
They located at Mosika, about 100 miles from Kuruman, 
the station so long occupied by Dr. Moffat. But within a 
year war and sickness compelled them to retire to their brethren 
at Natal. Although in 1842 the Mission had two congre- 
gations, one of 250, and the other of 500, with two schools, 
yet the Board saw so little that was hopeful in this field that they 
determined to withdraw. But Dr. Adams declined to leave, 
and proposed to support himself by teaching Dutch Boers. 
As a result, the Board did not withdraw. It has now three 
Missions in Africa, to wit — 

T\it Zulu Mission (1835). — The eight stations of this Mission 



3i8 American Board for Foreign Missions. 

are near the coast in Natal. Natal became a British colony in 
1856. Its port is Durban, a city of 17,000 inhabitants. The 
Mission, begun in 1835, has now 16 churches, with 979 
members, of whom 108 were added the past year. There is a 
theological school at Amanzimtote, also an industrial school ; 
and there are two girls' boarding schools within the Mission. 
Some of the converts are already engaged in Christian work in 
regions towards the interior. 

The West Central African Mission (1880). — This Mission, 
estabHshed in 1880, was driven from Bailundu in 1884, but is 
now thoroughly re-established, with three stations : Benguella, 
on the coast; Bailundu, 200 miles from Benguella, on the 
mountains inland ; and Bihe, 50 miles still further inland. 
The Umbundu language, which our missionaries have reduced 
to writing, the first books in which were printed the last year, 
is spoken far into the interior of Africa, and it is believed that 
it will prove an exceptionally favourable channel for the 
propagation of the Gospel throughout the central portions of 
Equatorial Africa. 

The East Central African Mission (1883). — The two 
stations of this Mission are near the port of Inhambane, which 
is 550 miles north of Durban. The natives prove docile, and 
the two missionaries find ample scope for their labour. Mr. 
Bates, of this Mission, and Mr. Wilder, of the Zulu Mission, 
have undertaken a tour of exploration into the Gaza country 
at the north, where Umganu, the son of Umzila, is the 
sovereign. It is expected that a station will soon be opened at 
his capital, Umoyamuhle. 

China (1847). — When the ' Five Ports ' were first opened to 
foreigners, Amoy was occupied by the American Board, under 
the appeal of David Abeel, D.D. This was afterwards made 
over to the Reformed (Dutch) Church ; but the work of this 
Society has expanded into four Missions, in which there are 
engaged 80 American missionaries, 45 of whom are women, 
with 94 native helpers. The 22 churches have a total 
membership of 1,383, of whom 183 were added last year. The 
Missions are the following : — 

The Foochow Mission (1847). — The city of Foochow, 
having a population of 630,000, is the centre of this Mission 
work, which is carried on both in the suburbs of this city and 



American Board for Foreign Missions, 319 

also at the station of Shao-\vu, 150 miles in the interior, upon 
the river Min. The 15 churches have ^^Z members, of whom 
34 were received the past year. Not less than 30,000 patients 
were treated by medical missionaries. 

The North China Mission (1854). — This has its centre in 
the province of Chihli, extending also into Shantung. Its 
principal stations are the capital, Peking; Kalgan, on the 
northern border ; Tientsin, the port ; Tung-cho, and Pao- 
ting-fu. The four churches have 976 members. 

The Shansi Mission (1882). — This Mission is in the 
province of the same name, west of Chihli, and was begun in 
1882. It has two stations, Tai-ku and Fen-chow-fu. The 
missionaries are just beginning to reap some fruits from their 
labours. The province is still cursed by the cultivation and 
use of opium. 

The Hong Kong Mission (1883). — A single missionary has 
held this post at Hong Kong for five years, meeting large 
numbers of Chinamen going to and returning from the United 
States. 

Japan (1869). — The first missionary of this Board to Japan 
sailed in 1867. It now consists of two Missions, one known 
as \h& Japan Mission (1869), and the Northern Japa7i Missiofi 
(1883). The principal stations are Kyoto, Kobe, Osaka, 
Tokyo ; and for the north, Niagata and Sendai. The two 
Missions count 23 missionaries, 3 of whom are physicians. 
The churches organized number 43, with 6,340 members, 
besides 753 baptized but not organized into churches. During 
the 15 months ending March 31, 1888, there were 2801 additions 
on profession of faith. The Evangelist school for women has 
27 pupils; that for training nurses, 27. The contributions 
from natives amount to $41,022. The report says: — 'The 
churches have gained in number and influence. The advance 
in church membership is nearly fifty per cent, over the previous 
year.' While over 7,000 professed Christians are organized 
into churches, other Christians rema.in unorganized ' for want 
of pastors and time to do it' Considerable discussion has 
been had for some months past (December, 1888) about the 
propriety of the Missions of this Board in Japan joining in the 
Union Church movement, known as the ' United Church of 
Christ ; ' but unanimity of view has not been reached as to the 



3 2d American Board for Foreign Missions. 

wisdom of such proceeding, though, apparently, the best 
spirit pervades all parties in the discussion. It is possible 
that conclusions may have been reached before this volume 
is given to the public. 

The foreign secretaries unite in asking for a reinforcement 
of 40 ordained missionaries, 9 physicians, and 30 single women 
to sustain and enlarge the work in hand. The secretary 
says : — 

' No figures can do justice to the wide work of this Board — to the moral 
and social changes wrought in the life and character of hundreds of 
thousands, yea, of millions of our fellow men. Yet figures may help to 
direct attention to some of the agencies employed, and help us to reaUze 
in some feeble manner our obligations to our great Leader for His blessing 
the past year. It is our privilege to report 1050 centres of evangelical 
effort — seventy more than ever before ; a net gain of one ordained mis- 
sionary and of twenty young women connected with the Women's Board ; 
a gain of nine pastors and fifty-five preachers ; a gain of eleven churches 
and of 4388 in these many lands and languages who have made con- 
fessions of their faith in Christ— a larger number than in any previous 
year since the great in-gathering at the Sandwich Islands ; a gain of 1000 
young men and young women in our high schools and colleges, till the 
number approaches 7000, who are brought under the direct personal 
influence of thoroughly cultured Christian teachers. Add to these over 
34,000 children and youths in common schools in which the Scriptures are 
daily read and prayer offered, and some conception may be had of the vast 
work of Christian education in our hands, and of its prospective influence 
on the future of the missionary enterprise. Hardly less significant in its 
bearings on the question of independence and self-support were the con- 
tributions from native sources for various Christian objects, amounting in 
all to $124,274.' 

Three Women's Boards co-operate with this Board. The 
organ of the Society is The Missionary Herald^ now in its 
85th volume. The following is a summary of all the work of 
this Board, in papal as well as pagan lands : — 



Missions .... 




, 


22 


Stations .... 






90 


Out-stations . 






960 


Churches 






336 


Church members 






• 30,546 


Added during the year 






. 4,388 


Colleges, high schools, and seminaries 




59 


Pupils in the above . 


. . 




3,947 


Boarding schools for girls . 


. 




50 


Pupils in boarding schools for 


girls 




. 3,068 


Common schools 


' 




892 



American Baptist Missionary Union. 321 

Pupils in common schools. .... 34,855 

Whole number under instruction . . . 42,733 

Ordained missionaries (11 physicians) . . . 167 

Physicians not ordained, 8 men and 4 women . 12 

Other male assistants ..... 11 

Women (wives, 160; unmarried, besides 4 phy-l ^ 

sicians, 122) / ^^^ 

Whole number of labourers from America . . 472 

Native pastors ....... 166 

Native preachers and catechists .... 448 

Native school-teachers ..... 1,253 

Other native helpers ...... 268 

Total native assistants ..... 2,135 

Whole number of labourers .... 2,607 

Native contributions, so far as reported . . $124,274 

See Summary, p. 322. 

The American Missionary Association represents the 
Congregational churches in the conduct of Missions among 
pagan peoples in the United States. It sustains 18 schools, 
and 11,091 are under instruction. There are 5 churches, and 
13 missionaries. In its California Chinese Mission, it records 
211 who 'profess to have ceased from idol worship,' of whom 
150 are said to 'give evidence of Christian character.' These 
converted Chinese have themselves inaugurated a Mission to 
the province whence they came, in Southern China. 



11. — The American Baptist Missionary Union. 

(Organized 18 14.) 

When the Baptists of England commenced a Mission in 
Bengal, the influence of their action extended to the Baptists 
in America, and prompted them to inquire what they might do 
to conduct evangehstic enterprise on a more extensive scale. 
No sooner was it known in America that Thomas and Carey 
had gone to India, than missionary societies began to be 
formed in New England and the Middle States to help them in 
their work. The immediate occasion of the organization of 
their foreign missionary efforts was the change of views of 
Messrs. Judson and Rice on the question of baptism, as stated 
in the previous section. Mr. Judson immediately notified 
some leading ministers of the American Baptist Church of this 
modification of his views. Compelled by an intolerant 

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Americafi Baptist Missionary Union. 323 

Government to leave Bengal, Mr. and Mrs. Judson proceeded 
in 1813 to Rangoon, in Burma, and at once entered upon 
preparations for missionary work ; and Mr. Rice the same 
year returned to America to lay before the Baptist churches 
the wants of the heathen world. This resulted, in May 1814, 
in an assembly of delegates from various parts of the country, 
held in Philadelphia, which organized ' The General Missionary 
Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States 
of America for Foreign Missions.' This Convention was to 
meet every three years, hence it became known as ' The 
Triennial Convention.' The Constitution provided for a 
Board of twenty-one commissioners, to be known as ' The 
Baptist Board of Foreign Missions of the United States.' On 
the withdrawal of the co-operation of the Baptists of the 
Southern States, the Society received the title it still bears — 
* The American Baptist Missionary Union.' 

Burma (18 13). — It is almost a matter of course that 
Burma has been the special charge of the Baptist missionary 
force, and hence we are prepared for the statement that of 
the 259 missionaries, including single ladies and wives of 
missionaries, in connection with the Asiatic Missions of the 
Board, in, or nearly one-half, are connected with the Mission 
in Burma, where, however, in point of fact, there are six 
distinct Missions to as many different races, and conducted in 
as many distinct languages; viz., Burmese, Sgau Karen, and 
Pwo Karen, Shan, Kachin, and Chin, which were organized in 
succession in the order of this statement. The Society points 
out that while at least 80 per cent, of the population of 
Burma are Burmans, only 40 per cent, of their missionary 
force is devoted to that people, and only 25 per cent, of the 
whole missionary force in Burma are men. Hence they 
regret that during the past two years they have been able only 
to establish four new stations in Upper Burma, at Mandalay, 
Myingyan, Sagaing, and Pyinmana. The Karen and other 
native races brought to Christ through this Mission have 
proved excellent propagandists. The Mission to the Chins, 
so bright with promise, owes its beginning over 70 years ago 
and its recent resurrection to Karen evangelists. 

The Baptist Missionary Union entered upon the 75th 
year of its history, having in this, its first mission, 20 stations, 

Y 2 



324 American Baptist Missionary U7iion. 

with 538 out-stations, 730 missionary labourers, 528 churches, 
and 28,009 members, giving $41,045.20 (over ;£8,ooo) 
towards their own work, while they have in training over 4,000 
Sunday-school scholars, and over 11,000 day-school pupils, 
distributed as follows : — 

The Bur man Missio?i. — 51 missionaries, 16 men and 35 
women (including wives of missionaries) ; 13 ordained and 39 
unordained native preachers; 21 churches, 1,686 members, 
150 baptized in 1887. 

The Karen Missioju — 47 missionaries, 15 men and 32 
women; no ordained and 351 unordained native preachers; 
494 churches, 26,008 members, 1,877 baptized in 1887. 

The Shan Mission. — 6 missionaries, 2 men and 4 women ; 
7 unordained native preachers ; 2 churches, 42 members, i 
baptized in 1887. 

The Kachin Mission. — 2 missionaries, i man and i woman ; 
2 ordained and i unordained native preachers ; 3 churches, 39 
members, 3 baptized in 1887. 

The Chin Missiofi. — 5 missionaries, 2 men and 3 women; 
15 ordained and 16 unordained native preachers; 7 churches, 
174 members, 52 baptized in 1887. 

Assam (1836). — The hope of reaching Upper Burma through 
Upper Assam led to the attempt to estabhsh a Mission in that 
district in 1836 ; but the obstacles proved to be too great, and 
the missionary force retired to the Assam Valley, and established 
a Mission among the Assamese, which has extended among the 
Hill tribes, till it is now organized into three Missions, to wit : the 
Assamese, the Garo, and the Naga Missions. Notwithstanding 
the serious discouragement of obliquity of conduct resulting 
in the necessary expulsion of many church members during 
the year, the 28 churches number 1,842 believers, with 298 
Sunday-school scholars, and 1,481 day pupils. These are 
distributed as follows : — 

The Assamese Mission. — 9 missionaries, 3 men and 6 
women ; 2 ordained and 9 unordained native preachers ; 1 5 
churches, 786 members, 37 baptized in 1887. 

The Garo Mission. — 4 missionaries, 2 men and 2 women; 
5 ordained and 6 unordained native preachers; 10 churches, 
986 members, 165 baptized in 1887. 

The Naga Mission. — 8 missionaries, 4 men and 4 women ; 



American Baptist Missionary Union. 325 

5 iinordained native preachers; 3 churches, 70 members, 6 
baptized in 1887. 

India, Telugu (1840). — The work of this Society in India 
has been among the Telugus. This Mission was begun in 
1840, and is a very important one. It is now distributed over 
13 districts, and has 150 out-stations. It has 52 organized 
church societies, of which 19 are entirely self-supporting. Its 
church and chapel edifices number 69. Its total native force 
of ministers, Bible women, and other helpers, number 383. 
The native churches contributed last year about $2,000 = ;£"4i6 
for the work in various forms. 

The Ongole Mission has had a remarkable history. Ongole 
lies 170 miles north of Madras. Work was commenced 
there in 1853, when the missionary was reviled and stoned. 
For 25 years success among the Telugus seemed almost 
hopeless. But suddenly, like 'a mighty rushing wind,' the 
blessing of God came upon it, making this mission ' one of the 
brightest jewels God ever gave to any missionary enterprise.' 
January ist, 1867, the Ongole Church had 8 members; in 
1877 it reported 3,269 members. 

It will be remembered that in December 1870, in the 
midst of harvest, men and women turned out by hundreds to 
hear about Jesus. On June 16, 1878, the missionaries 
commenced baptizing, the people clamouring for it, after 
careful examination, and one day baptized 2,222. Between 
July 6th and i6th they baptized 8,691 persons. 

We can, therefore, understand this year's report when it 
says : — 

•If in any other field we should hear of the baptism of 1,243 persons 
by one missionary and his helpers on one preaching tour of less than two 
months, our hearts would kindle with a flame of ardent enthusiasm and 
gratitude. But we are so accustomed to marvels from the Telugu mission 
that we read with comparative indifference the glorious record of 1,443 in 
one station and 565 in another in a single year.' 

In the 13 Stations and 150 out-stations, this Mission enrolls 
28,629 members, and 1,923 Sunday-school pupils. 

SiAM (1833). — A Mission was commenced in Siam in 1833 
by the now venerable Rev. William Dean, D.D. ; but it was 
simply among the Chinese portion of the population. Rev. 



326 American Baptist Missionary Union. 

Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Smith have rendered gratuitous services 
among the Siamese. They have now at Bangkok 4 mission- 
aries, 4 out-stations, a total of 10 missionary labourers, 73 
members, 6 churches, and Mission property worth J 10, 909 = 
^22,712. 

China (1843). — China was entered in 1843. The American 
Baptist Missions are located at Swatow, Ningpo, Kinwha, and 
4 other principal stations and 50 out-stations, with 19 churches 
and 1,566 members. Hu Chow was opened this last year. 

Of the 30 missionaries, about one-fifth are at home for 
rest. Rev. William Dean, D.D., was the first missionary of 
the Society in China. Since 1842, when work was begun at 
Hong-kong, 1,425 persons (900 men and 525 women) have 
been baptised and received into church fellowship, 217 have 
died, 138 have been excluded, leaving at present 1,070 in 
church membership. Rev. Dr. Ashmore has returned to 
China during the year from a visit to America. The report for 
Swatow says : — 

' Towards the end of each quarter our native helpers have, as hereto- 
fore, assembled here in the compound for study and consultation-; the 
meetings continuing for one week in the second and third quarters, and 
for two weeks in the first and fourth. 

*The studies included exegesis of parts of the New Testament, the 
doctrine of the angels, Scripture teaching on the subject of giving, and 
church polity as taught in the Book of the Acts. There were also exer- 
cises in reading the colloquial Scriptures, and repeating from memory the 
portions that were studied exegetically. During the last quarterly meet- 
ings, more time than usual was given to prayer, with good spiritual 
results. In addition to the work of preaching at out-station chapels, the 
evangelists have visited several hundred towns and villages, exhorting and 
encouraging church-members, and talking about the Gospel on passage 
boats or in market places, as there was opportunity. As the out-stations 
are double in number to the preachers employed, two or three have been 
placed in charge of one man. At nearly all of these stations there are 
now deacons or other members who can conduct the Sunday services 
when there is no paid preacher present. We continue to urge upon the 
church-members the importance and the necessity of finding among them- 
selves those who can act as their spiritual guides, who, without pay, will 
exercise watchful care over the flock. 

* There has been no violent opposition to the work of evangelization ; 
but the church-members have been subject to petty persecution, threats of 
violence, and unjust taxation. The refugees who were driven from their 
villages more than three years ago have received no compensation for 
their losses, and are not yet able to return to their homes. 

.' There is a growing willingness on the part of the Christians to give to 



American Baptist Missionary Union. 327 

the support of the work among themselves, but a special effort has been 
made this year to develop the ability of the church in this direction. 

' Two of the evangelists, by appointment, gave seven months to the 
work of collecting money for the support of the native preachers. They 
visited all of the out-stations, and preached on the subject of the scriptural 
teaching in regard to giving. They went also to the homes of the 
Christians, and talked with them on the subject, visiting more than 
igo towns and villages. As a result, they received subscriptions amount- 
ing to more than $400, which it is expected will be paid in before the 
Chinese New Year (Feb. 12). This special effort enables us to see what 
the Christians can do if they will, and we are encouraged to believe that, 
by systematic weekly giving, during the year to come, a larger sum than 
this can be raised,' 

Of Miss Fielde's remarkable work among or through Bible 
women, the report says : — 

'The class for female evangelists has continued through nine months of 
the year, with an average of eight women in training for future usefulness 
in the church. The average number of Bible-women employed throughout 
the year has been fourteen ; the average number of villages visited by each 
woman during each quarter, thirteen; the average number of women 
taught in the Sunday Bible-class under each Bible-woman, eight.' 

Japan (1872), — In Japan a Mission was begun in 1872. 
This Society occupies as principal stations, Yokohama, Tokyo, 
Kobe, Sendai, Shimonoseki, and Marioka. They have 23 
out-stations. The total American force numbers 26. They 
declare that they cannot get the men to reinforce the Mission. 
They have 565 pupils in Sunday-schools, and 10 churches and 
chapels. They call for at least five more missionaries this 
year. 

The report says : — 

• The work in Yokohama has been peculiarly encouraging. Our new 
chapel was dedicated on the eleventh day of last February (1887), It is an 
attractive house, and can accommodate about 250 persons. Our audiences 
are sufficiently large to make the house often seem comfortably full ; but 
the house is seldom, as yet, filled to its utmost. The brethren are very 
happy in the possession of this building, paid for in part by money of 
their own raising, and in part — less than half— by money loaned them by 
the Missionary Union, The church has elected one of its number, Brother 
Ichikawa, formerly a deacon, to act as lay pastor, they paying his entire 
support. He proves to have been well chosen.' 

The theological school has had students from their farthest 
station north. The church of Tokyo has increased from 65 to 
95, after having dismissed 12 to begin a church at Mito. The 



328 A /ncr lean Baptist Missionary Union, 

spiritual condition of the work at Kobe is reported as specially 
satisfactory. 

Africa. — The Baptists have the honour of sending the first 
white missionary to Liberia, where formerly this Society 
sustained missionaries. The churches are largely independent 
of this Society, which is now only directly represented through 
the Women's Missionary Society, who support two schools in 
Grand Bassa County. 

The Cofigo. — The Livingstone Inland Mission was the first 
to enter the Congo Valley. By an arrangement effected with 
the American Baptist Missionary Union, this Mission was 
transferred to the latter. The pioneer work of selection and 
establishment of stations was already done when this work was 
handed over to the American Society. The Free State 
authorities have adopted the route to Stanley Pool selected for 
these missionary stations. The stations are Mukimvika, 
Palabala, Banza Manteke, Lukunga, Leopoldville, and Equator 
station. This Mission has 28 foreign missionaries, with 246 
members. In August 1886, there was a remarkable movement 
among the people on the Congo, who threw away their idols 
and professed Christ. Great numbers received the Gospel at 
Banza Manteke, and though only 200 have been baptised, 
1,000 professed to beUeve in Christ. The report says : — 

' The readiness of the people at that place and at Lukunga to hear the 
Gospel, indicates what we may expect in time to come, judging from their 
religious condition and the nature of their beliefs. The probability is that 
they will yield as readily to the pure faith in God and Christ as did the 
islanders of the sea and the Karens in Burma.' 

' The great awakening at Banza Manteke in 1886 has been 
followed by a steady harvest, and a sure increase of the 
Christians in the grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; ' and the report says that ' as the new converts were, 
of course, almost entirely ignorant of the principles of the 
Christian religion, and the requirements of a Christian life,' 
the missionaries were cautious not to receive large numbers 
to baptism at once, but to place them under a course of 
instruction. These converts are very aggressive Christians, 
and persons have been surprised to come upon people that 
had heard the Gospel where no missionary had gone — to learn 



Foreign Mission Board of Southern Baptists. 329 

that they had been visited by these Banza Manteke Christians. 
The Upper Congo offers a promising field in the Bololo tribes, 
speaking the common language of the tribes south of the great 
bend of the river. The Heiii'y Reed steam yacht affords means 
of communication among the stations. 

This Society conducts important and very successful Missions 
in Western Europe, in Sweden, Germany, Russia, Denmark, 
France, and Spain, where it has 161 ordained ministers; in all 
972 preachers, with 654 churches, and 66,146 members, 5,532 
of whom w^ere baptised in 1887. The ably-conducted 
periodical of this Society is the Baptist Missionary Magazine^ 
published at Boston, Mass. Three Women's Missionary 
Societies co-operate with the Board, and their income is 
included in the general receipts of the Society. 

See Sut7imayy^ p. 330. 



III. — Foreign Mission Board of the Southern 
Baptist Convention. 

(Organised 1845.) 

In the heart of the agitation on the subject of slavery in the 
United States, the Baptists of the Southern States withdrew 
from the Baptist Missionary Union, and organised a Missionary 
Society of their own, which, since February 23, 1888, has 
borne the corporate title of ' The Foreign Missionary Board 
of the Southern Baptist Convention.' Their latest report says 
they conduct work in ' every continent of the globe,' and employ 
' hundreds of labourers disciplining and gathering into churches 
thousands of hopeful converts, and eliciting and combining at 
home benevolent energies represented by a million and a half 
of dollars.' 

China. — From the time of their separation from the 
Baptist Union in 1845, they have maintained Missions in 
China, which are now organised into three Missions. In 
Northern China they have stations at Tung Chow and 
Hwanghien. In Central China they occupy Shanghai, Kwin 
San, Soo Chow, and Chinkiang. In Southern China they are 
located at Canton and vicinity. This is their oldest Mission, 
and it records for the past year 32 baptisms and $446.58 



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Foreign Mission Board of Southern Baptists. 331 

native contributions. In this part of China they distributed 
last year ' about 5,000,000 pages,' tracts and Scriptures. Dr. 
Graves has published, in four volumes, The Life and Teaching 
of Christ ; Miss Young has translated Bunyan's Holy IVar, 
and a native brother, Fung Chak, has added 37 hymns to his 
translation of Gospel hymns. The following statistics are 
given for 1887 : — 

JVorth China Mission. — Churches, 2 ; members, 143. 

Central China Mission — Chinkiang. — Baptised, 2 ; present 
membership, 9 natives. 

Kwin San. — Died, i ; present membership, 16 natives. 

Soochow. — Present membership, 9 natives. 

Shanghai. — Baptised, 6 ; present membership, 73-107. 

Southern China Missio?i. — Organised churches, 4 ; ordained 
preachers, 4 ; unordained preachers, 7, and 3 not employed by 
mission funds ; Bible-women, 6. 

There are two chapels in Canton besides our church, two 
country stations, and one school at Ho Tsun, all not supported 
by Mission funds. One Bible-woman also is supported by- 
private funds. Baptised, 32 ; church membership, 477 ; contri- 
butions, $446.58; II schools, with average attendance of 213. 

The totals are 13 churches, 727 members, and $446 
contributions. 

Africa. — In Africa this Society's work began in 1846. 
They conducted work formerly in Liberia, and at one time 
supported as their missionary Rev. Dr. E. W. Blyden. Their 
Missions in this country are now located at Lagos, Abbeokuta, 
and three other places. These enroll 264 pupils. They 
report a number of heathen in attendance at their regular 
church services. 

This Society conducts work also in Papal lands : in Italy, 
where they occupy 12 stations, and enroll 550 church 
members; in Brazil, with 5 stations, and 210 members; in 
Mexico, with 27 churches and stations, 531 members, 133 
pupils, and contributions amounting to $850. A Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society has been organised within ^ the 
year. They also conduct work among the North American 
Indians, of whom 5,630 are enrolled as members, who 
contributed last year nearly $6,000. They pubUsh the 
Foreign Missionary Journal. 



( zz^ ) 



IV. — The Free Will Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society. 

This Society originated with an English Baptist, Rev. Amos 
Sutton, who addressed a letter from India to the Free Baptists 
of America, in 1832, which led to the organisation of this 
Society in 1833. In 1835, Rev. Eli Noyes and Jeremiah 
Phillips, with their wives, left for missionary work in Orissa. 
The Society has occupied only this foreign field, and has 
stations at Balasore (1836), Jedlasore (1840), Midnapore 
(1863), Bhimpore (1873), and seven other principal places. 
The work among the Santals has been successful. 17 
American missionaries, male and female, are employed, and a 
total force of 40 natives and foreign workers. The Mission 
numbers 654 communicants, and a Christian community of 
1,266, and 2,701 Sunday scholars. 

It has an Industrial School at Balasore, and also an 
orphanage. At Bhimpore the Training School shows 72 boys 
and 33 girls enrolled. This too has an industrial department. 
In the Santal Jungle Schools are 1,428 pupils, as follows: — 
Hindus, 116; Santal boys, 247; Christians, 52. At Mid- 
napore is a Bible School, having 16 male students, and 25 
females, wives of the students, and young women employed in 
Zenana and day schools. There is also here a Ragged School, 
with 400 pupils on the rolls. English work is conducted at 
Chandbali, Balasore, and Midnapore. It has a Mission Press, 
which was last year 'able to vote nearly 600 rupees to 
other Mission objects.' At Midnapore there is a Medical 
Dispensary. 

The statistical tables show in the Educational Department 
340 Christian pupils, 1,322 Hindus, 102 Muhammadans, 1,298 
Santals; total, 3,058. The church statistics show 62 added 
by baptism; members, 654; Sabbath scholars, 2,701; native 
contributions, 2,701 rupees; and a Native Christian com- 
munity of 1,266. 

The Free Baptist Woman's Missionary Society co-operates 
with this Beno^al Mission. 



( 333 ) 



V. — Other Baptist Bodies. 

The Baptist General Association (coloured) co-operates 
with the American Baptist Missionary, and supports two men 
on the Congo. Its income is about $5,000. The Baptist 
Foreign Mission Convention (also coloured) supports three 
missionaries among the native tribes of Liberia. 

The Consolidated American Baptists (coloured) conduct 
work in Hayti, and among the Veys near Lake Bendu, Africa. 
The African force consists of four men and one woman. This 
work was begun in 1884, and, at the end of two years, 
enrolled 50 communicants. 

The Seventh Day Baptist Missionary Society, organised 
in 1842, has conducted work in Africa, but now its only foreign 
Mission is in Shanghai, China, where it began work in 1847, 
and has now two American missionaries, with 23 members. 
The lady medical missionary has treated during the year 4,200 
patients. 

This Society also conducts work in Holland, and among the 
Jews in America and Austria. Its income for 1888 was 
$12,680 = £2,S36. 

The German Baptist Brethren (Tunkers). — This Society 
is reported as having a foreign force, and 150 communicants ; 
but no information is procurable except of a Mission in 
Denmark, to which, probably, these statistics refer. 



VI. — The Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

(Organised 181 9.) 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in America was itself the 
offspring of the missionary zeal of English Methodism, the first 
Wesleyan missionaries ever sent abroad having been appointed 
to New York and Philadelphia in 1769. Within half a century 
from this period the work had spread over the whole continent, 
reaching even to California and Oregon. As early as 181 6, 
what seemed to be a special providence opened the way for 
the Methodist Episcopal Church to carry the Gospel to the 
Wyandotte Indians. The success of the work among these 



334 Methodist Episcopal Missio7iary Society. 

led to the organisation of a missionary society. For thirteen 
years its work was exclusively within the United States and 
Territories. It has never relinquished its labours among the 
Indians. It had remarkable success among some of them in 
the Southern States, who reached quite an advanced stage of 
civilisation, and were subsequently transferred to the India 
Territory, where they have been recognised as civilised tribes. 
This church now enrolls over 2,000 Indians as church members. 
All the work done by this church for these tribes is not, however, 
done through this missionary society. This Board also 
conducts work among Chinese and Japanese in the United 
States. As many as 400 Chinese have been gathered in a 
single audience to listen to gospel preaching on the streets of 
San Francisco. The average attendance on the Sunday morn- 
ing service has been 93. The work among the Japanese has 
been developed into a foreign mission of their own, to their 
fellow countrymen who have immigrated to the Sandwich 
Islands, where a church has already been organised. 

This society conducts efficient missions in Papal countries, 
such as Mexico, Argentine Republic, Paraguay, and Italy, where 
it has 32 missionaries from the United States, and last year ap- 
propriated to this part of its work $165,959 = ;^34,574. It has 
one foreign mission among the members of the Greek Church, 
in Bulgaria, with 8 missionaries. In the following countries 
where the majority of the people are Protestants, it also conducts 
work, viz. : Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany and 
Switzerland, where the missions are conducted by natives of 
these countries respectively. This work originated through 
the reflex influence of the immigrants from those countries to 
the United States, who were roused to increased spirituality in 
the country of their adoption. Some 30,000 members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church are now enrolled in these countries, 
and the society made appropriations to them, chiefly as grants- 
in-aid, last year over $109,000 = ^22,708. 

The mission fields among the heathen are in Africa, India, 
Malaysia, China, Japan, and Korea, and in these countries the 
society counts 225 missionaries and assistant missionaries. On 
this part of its work it expended last year $327,850 = ;2f 68,302. 

Africa. — The first foreign mission of this society was begun 
in 1833 in Liberia, Africa, by the sending out of Rev. Melville 



Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society. 335 

B. Cox whose memorable utterance : ' Let a thousand fall, but 
let not Africa be given up/ has become historic. From 
numerous causes this mission has had varying fortune. A full 
view of its history would include much of the history of American 
slavery and the slave-trade on the west coast of Africa. The 
colony itself was founded partly under the missionary impulse 
of the period. Several attempts have been made to leave the 
field entirely to the coloured brethren. Two missionary bishops, 
Burns and Roberts, were chosen by them, under authorisation 
of the General Conference, from their own number, and duly 
ordained ; but it has always proved that for educational and 
other supervision it has been best to send some white person 
to aid the work. The mission was organised as an Annual 
Conference in 1836, under the name of the 'Liberia Conference ;' 
but in 1888 it was changed to the 'Africa Conference,' with a 
view to including the work which had been organised between 
1884 and 1888 by Bishop William Taylor on the Congo; and 
now the Africa Conference includes all work done by this 
church on the continent of Africa. The appropriations by the 
missionary society for several years have been only to supple- 
ment the salaries of the native preachers. This church occupies 
a prominent position in the Republic, and the Conference now 
enrolls 2,641 members, 60 preachers, and 40 Sunday-schools, with 
2,342 scholars. It has 38 churches, valued at $3 1,044 = ;^6, 467. 
The churches contributed last year $1,184 foi' ministerial 
support. They have good school-buildings at Monrovia and 
Cape Palmas. The native tribes, such as the Grebos, Vais, and 
Kroos, have been the subjects of the labours of this mission, and 
men of these tribes are among the most efficient members of 
the Liberia Conference. In 1877 Messrs. Pitman and Blyden 
made a tour of observation in the region of Boporo, and Rev. 
Joel Osgood conducted for a time ' Interior Mission ' work in 
that country. In 1884, WilHam Taylor, the world-renowned 
missionary and evangelist, was ordained ' Missionary Bishop of 
Africa,' and since that time this Liberia work has been under 
his supervision. Bishop Taylor also commenced a Mission in 
the Congo Valley in 1884. This, in its ecclesiastical relations, 
was attached to the Liberia Conference. This work on the 
Congo is now designated, ' The South Central Africa District ' 
of the Africa Conference. It was originated and has been 
conducted as a ' self-supporting mission.' 



336 Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society. 

The money for transit of missionaries, school buildings, 
mission houses, etc., has come through ' The Transit and 
Building Fund Society,' organised by Bishop Taylor and his 
friends, originally in aid of self-supporting missions under his 
direction in India and South America. In Africa the 
immediate aim is to found Industrial Missions ; and this phase 
of the work has been also projected in Southern Liberia, on the 
Cavalla River, and in that portion of the field there are now 
8 self-supporting stations and 8 white missionaries from the 
United States. On the Kroo District are 8 stations, on the 
Grand Bassa District 3 stations, and on the last two are 4 
white missionaries. Before leaving America in 1884 Bishop 
Taylor engaged forty missionaries to join him in Africa, and 
commencing at St. Paul de Loanda, the capital of Angola, he 
penetrated into the interior 300 miles. The stations now 
occupied are Loanda, Dondo, Melange, Nhanguepepo, and 
Pungo Andongo, all in a direct line towards the Kasai river. 
On the Atlantic coast, Mamba, in the French possession north 
of the mouth of the Congo, is also occupied as a station. The 
next move was to reach the Upper Kasai by way of the Congo, 
as perhaps the shortest route to the further prosecution of the 
principal aim of establishing a ' chain of mission stations ' on 
the self-supporting plan, along what is known as Colonel 
Pogge's route from Nyangwe to Loanda. Incidental to this 
general purpose several stations have been established along 
the Congo ; these are Kimpoko, Isangila, Vivi, Chavunga 
(near Banana), and Kabenda. On the Loanda track are 15 
missionaries, including the wives of some of them. On the 
Congo are 17, and at Mamaba 2. Bishop Taylor has provided 
for a reinforcement of 20 more missionaries from America. 
He has established altogether 32 new stations in the last four 
years. The ' Bishop Wm. Taylor Transit and Building Fund 
Society 'has spent since the beginning $183,000 = ^38,125, 
for the purposes indicated by its title. This is no part of the 
reported income of the Methodist Episcopal Board, as given 
in the report, as it does not pass through their Treasury. The 
Bishop himself receives his salary from the regular ' Episcopal 
Fund ' of the Church. 

China (1847). — The attention of this society was urgently 
called to China as early as 1835. This Mission was begun in 



MetJiodist Episcopal Missionary Society. 337 

response to the urgent appeal of Rev. Judson D. Collins, who 
learning that the Board had no money to send him to China, 
wrote, ' Engage me a passage before the mast in the first vessel 
going to China. My own strong arm can pull me to China, 
and can support after I arrive there.' Moved by the heroism 
of Collins, this society commenced work at Foo Chow, China, 
in 1847, since which time it has been extended into North and 
West China, and is now organised into one Annual Conference 
and three Missions. 

The Foo Chow Conference \\2i?, organised in 1877. For the 
first ten years this society laboured in China without receiving 
one native convert. Now this Foo Chow Conference alone 
reports 4,446 communicants, who contributed towards their 
own work last year about ;£'773. This conference is divided 
into six districts, with organised societies in sixty stations. Its 
press at Foo Chow last year issued over 14,000 pages of 
Scriptures and tracts. The districts have been for some years 
under the supervision of native presiding elders. The Anglo- 
Chinese College is a fine building, made accessible to the 
Mission by the gift of Mr. Ahok, a native Chinese gentleman. 
At the recent annual session, 19 deacons and 21 elders were 
ordained. 

The General China Mission (1868) spreads along the banks 
of the Yang-tze-Kiang 300 miles, with stations at Nanking, Kiu- 
Kiang, Chinkiang and Wuhu. It enrolls 469 communicants, 
and estimates besides over 1,000 adherents. =■ 

The North China Mission (1869) is located at Peking, 
Tientsin, and Tsunhua, and enrolls over 80 communicants, an 
increase of nearly 40 per cent., and contributed for ministerial 
support last year £2(^6. It is thoroughly equipped with 
hospitals, dispensaries, schools, and chapels. 

The West Chi?ta Mission (1881) has its headquarters at 
Chung-King, 1,400 miles from the sea on the Yang-tze-Kiang 
river. The Mission was driven out, owing to moo violence 
two years ago, but the work has been peacefully and joyfully 
resumed within the past year. It enrolls 21 communicants. 
There are seven American missionaries in this Mission. The 
Chinese Government paid indemnity for the property destroyed, 
and further interruption is not anticipated. The report says : — 

' The inaccessibility of the province has been a serious obstacle in 
carrying on the work. Steam navigation of the Upper Yang-tse will 

z 



338 Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society. 

shorten the time from Shanghai to Chung-king three weeks, and there is 
good hope of its soon being an accompHshed fact. 

' Shanghai papers of October i state that Sir John Walsham, British 
Minister to Peking, has obtained the consent of the Chinese Government 
for the tirst steamer of the Pioneer Steamer Company to proceed to 
Chung-king. The steamer, a stern-wheeler with quadruple engines, built 
in Scotland, was expected to start on her first trip up the river by the 
beginning of December. 

'The Chefoo Convention contains the following agreement: "British 
merchants will not be allowed to reside at Chung-king, or to open 
estabhshments or warehouses there, so long as no steamers have access to 
the port. When steamers have succeeded in ascending the river so far, 
further arrangements can be taken into consideration." 

' This is generally interpreted as meaning that when steamers; shall reach 
Chung-king it will be declared a treaty port.' 

India (1856). — The original field of this Mission in India was 
selected by the founder of the Mission Rev. William Butler, 
D.D., under the advice of the late Dr. Duff. It was located in 
the northern portion of the Ganges Valley. The first stations 
occupied were Lucknow and Bareilly. This work was 
commenced in 1856, but was seriously interrupted by the Sepoy 
Rebellion. It has expanded until it is now organised into 
three Annual Conferences, extending over India, Burma, and 
Malaysia. 

The North Lidia Co?iference reports its primary, high, and 
theological schools as fruitful, and is proud of its results. 
Among the principal stations are Lucknow, Bareilly, Nynee 
Tal, and Moradabad. It is under the guidance of 25 foreign 
male missionaries and 46 foreign female missionaries, and 
numbers over 6,000 communicants, and as many ' adherents ' 
b asides. It printed over 6,500,000 pages last year on its own 
presses. 

The South India Conference was commenced in 1872 by 
Wm. Taylor on the self-supporting plan. It includes Bombay, 
Nagpur, Madras, Bangalore, and Hyderabad. It conducts 
Missions in Mahratti, Tamil, and other tongues. It has 
received but small financial help from America, except for the 
sending out of men and for buildings. It has been generously 
supported by Christian residents in India. It has a foreign 
force of fifty, and enrolls about 700 communicants. Last year 
$6240 (;^i,248) was contributed for 'pastoral support' and 
over $16,000 (^3,200) for other purposes. 

The Bengal Co?iference^ commenced in 1872, includes the 



Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society, 339 

Calcutta, Allahabad, Ajmere and Burma Districts ; and the 
Burma District till now included an important Mission to 
Malaysia, with headquarters at Singapore. 

Malaysia, commenced 1885, has, however, been established 
as a separate Mission, and Rev. James M. Thoburn, D.D., was 
in May, 1888, appointed 'Missionary Bishop for India and 
Malaysia.' 

The Bengal Conference counts over 1,300 communicants, of 
whom about fifty are at Singapore. The Chinese at Singapore 
have proved liberal patrons of the educational work of this 
Mission. 

Bulgaria (1857). — The Bulgaria Mission was commenced 
in 1857. It occupies the valley of the Danube in Bulgaria, and 
lies wholly north of the Balkans. It has seriously suffered 
from the political disturbances of the country, and the whole 
Bulgarian Methodist Church was wiped out by massacre 
during the Russo-Turkish war. It is now, however, hopefully 
energetic, and is operated as Lower and Upper Daunbe, Black 
Sea, and Balkan Districts. It enrolls over 100 communicants. 
It has seven Sunday schools, with 179 scholars, one theological 
school, with 16 students, and two high schools, with 45 pupils. 
It occupies all the principal cities of the Province, Rustchuk, 
Loftcha, Sistof and Varna. The last report says : — 

'The Annual Meeting, held in July, was the most enthusiastic and 
thoroughly self-respecting body of the kind we ever convened. Upward 
of thirty workers "of all arms" were assigned to fields of labour. Six 
young preachers educated in Bulgaria are now in our ranks. A girls' 
high school and a boys' literary and theological institute are in successful 
operation, with all the patronage they can take care of. Four primary 
schools are established, and petitions were presented asking for two more, 
with the promise of liberal contributions toward self-support. Congrega- 
tions have doubled, and in many villages our young itinerants are wel- 
comed by the people. 

' We own real estate in four principal cities, and our work is regarded 
by the community as permanently established. Those reached by the 
Gospel number vastly more than our members or our regular congrega- 
tions. The Scriptures are now in almost every reading family in the 
land. Our hymns are frequently heard in the public schools, and our 
members are regarded the most trustworthy employes. The increased 
patronage of our schools among the better citizens, most of whom place 
no restrictions upon the religious instruction of the pupils confided to us, 
the conversions constantly taking place in the schools — all these are signs 
encouraging us to expect a more rapid growth of actual membership in the 
near future,' 

Z 2 



340 Methodist Episcopal Missiondry Socieiy, 

Japan (1872). — The Japan Revolution of 1868 threw the 
doors of that country so wide open to evangehstic labours that 
this branch of the church could not resist the irresistible appeal 
to labour in that land. This Society commenced its Mission in 
Japan in 1872, when Rev. R. S. Maclay, D.D., who had been 
superintendent of their Missions in Foo Chow, was asked to 
inaugurate this new movement, which he did, and continued 
therein till this present year (1888), when he retired to his 
native land. The first Methodist converts in Japan were 
baptised in October, 1874, only sixteen months after entering 
the field. The work grew so rapidly that in 1884 the number 
of churches and ministers was so great that the Mission was 
organised as an Annual Conference. The surprising demand 
of the nation for Western culture has made a great pressure for 
educational work. But this has proved to be most successful 
evangelistic work also. One-half of the numerous converts of 
this Mission have come through the schools. The Mission 
reports that 75 per cent, of the students in the boarding 
schools become converted within their first year at school. The 
native churches contributed last year $1 0,000 {jP^2^oo6) towards 
their own support. The Mission shares with others the large 
opportunity for preaching to large multitudes of persons, and 
has been favoured with gracious revivals. Large numbers have 
been converted, and 2,394 are enrolled as communicants. The 
young men of the ' Gospel Society/ inaugurated last year 
street-preaching in Tokyo, where twenty years ago no man 
dared openly profess faith in Christ. 

The work is organized into four Districts, to wit : Tokyo, 
Yokohama, Nagasaki and Hakodati. Including the ladies, the 
foreign force numbers 53, with 75 native preachers and 
teachers. It reported 162 conversions last year. It has 3,000 
pupils in Sabbath Schools. 

Korea (1885). — In 1885 this Society commenced a Mission 
in Seoul, the capital of Korea. They entered upon educational, 
medical and evangelistic work. Christian liberty is not 
accorded in Korea, however, and for some few months of the 
past year the work was suspended, imder Government pressure, 
though it is understood that the king and his party favour the 
opening of the land to Western influences. The work is now 
all resumed. 



Methodist Protestant Church Missions Board. 341 

The receipts of this Society for the past ten years have been 
as follows, exclusive of Woman's Foreign Missionary Society : — • 
1879, $551,859; 1880, $557,371; 1881, $625,663; 1882, 
$691,666; 1883, $751,469; 1884, $731,125; 1885, 
$826,828; 1886, $985,303; 1887, $1,039,370; 1888, 
$1,000,584. The aggregate of receipts from the beginning 
have been $t 1,392,038 = ;^2, 280,000. Add the receipts of the 
Woman's Foreign Society since their beginning in 1870, 
$i,886,3i5,andtheaggregate will be$i3, 278,353 = ^2, 656,000! 

The Gospel in all Lands is the monthly periodical published 
by this Society, together with two smaller periodicals for youth 
and children. All are illustrated, 

{See Siwimary^ p. 342 



VIII. — Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Methodist Protestant Church. 

(Organized 1870.) 

This Society was organized in Baltimore in 1870 by Miss 
Harriet G. Britain, who had been for several years in India, in 
the service of the Woman's Union Missionary Society. It was 
originated as a joint Home and Foreign Board, and so continued 
until 1888, when a diversion was had by the separate organiza- 
tion of the Home work. The Foreign Society's income last 
year was $20,000. It conducts work only in Japan, where it 
has three ordained male missionaries, six female missionaries 
and four native workers. 

Their Missions are in Yokohama, where they have an Anglo- 
Japanese school of 190 pupils ; a girls' school with 95 pupils ; 
a Sabbath school with 230 scholars ; a chapel worth $3,000 
and 160 members; a school building worth $12,000. At 
Furgisavva they have a mixed school, with 70 pupils and ten 
church members. At Nagoya they have a boys' school of 60 
pupils ; a girls' school of 26 pupils ; a church of 62 members. 



IX. — Mission Board of the Evangelical Church. 
This is a joint Home and Foreign Society, with an income of 
$30,397 = ^6,080 for 1888. Its only Foreign Mission is in Japan. 
The Annual Report says : ' In comparing the statistics we find 

[Continued 01 p. 343. 






s? 



CO 

m 
o 



l3^ 


Mt-^OOOioOrovr)-*M t^ 
fOMM OOOVO C?\'c^ 




111 






Other 
Day 
Scho- 
lars. 


: -^ m M : t^ ^o 00 \o : : 


1 


Ill 


;n«« ioioh'tj-ovo : 

M H : m M o NO : 


cT 


Theo- 
dents. 


:hmo :t>: r^ocn: : 

. N M M . fO . . H m . 


^ 


Average 
Attend- 
ance, 
Sabbath 
Worship. 


OiON r<100\O0i-i 




< ^ 







Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


»ovo 0\0 HO MOO n ■<J--<t->o 
g^^vCOOagN^rjM^ ^ 

cT n \0 M cT N 


00 

3; 


Other 

Native 

Workers. 

Male and 

Female. 


S^S>^8 :§;^^^^^ : 


1 






0^ 
CI 


•a 


CO 


Women 
of Wo- 
men's 
Board. 


t'i-'l-TtNlomONrON : 


»o 




: : :i^:\o tooroHro; 




Foreign 
Mission- 
aries 
and As- 
sistants. 


:^S8'^^?5%~^^'S 


^1 


rot-^co o^M^o o CI t^N •in C\ 
w i->Ovooo .or>t^>ot^co M 
cocococooocooooooocooooo 


, 




"73 


• 1 J s 


s 

^ 



•s II ^ 



.S'S-2 
H CO 



Missioji Board of the Evangelical Church. 



343 



the following net increase over last year : Conversions 7 ; 
accessions 45 ; members 74 ; adults baptised 19 \ children 
i; Sunday schools 2; officers and teachers 8; scholars 153; 
catechetical classes 3 ; catechumens 40. 

'■ Then there is also a small increase to report financially. 
Another very significant fact is this, that, notwithstanding 
the severe trials of the past year, only 16 withdrew from the 
church, 2 less than during the previous year ; which certainly 
speaks well for the loyalty of our Japanese members, and 
also for the management of our Mission in Japan.' 

The following are the latest statistics of the Mission in 
Japan : 



Died . . 


6 


Expelled 


2 


Withdrawn ...... 


. 18 


Moved away ...... 


17 


Newly converted ..... 


82 


Newly received ..... 


79 


Received with certificate .... 


10 


Whole number of members 


150 


Adults baptized ..... 


65 


Children baptized ..... 


18 


Itinerant preachers (including four foreigners) 


8 


Local preachers ..... 


2 


Churches ...... 


4 


Probable value .... Yen |2 


796.00 


Parsonages ...... 


2 


Probable value. .... Yen %. 


225.00 


General contributions . . . ,, 


117.92 


Benevolent contributions . . . ,, 


56.22 


Contributions for churches . . ,, 


51.00 


Sunday-schools ..... 


7 


Teachers and officers .... 


33 


Scholars (average attendants) . 


280 


Volumes in library ..... 


80 


Catechetical classes 


I 


Catechumens 


10 


Candidates for baptism .... 


69 


Mission houses ..... 


6 


Probable value . . . . . -^lo, ^ 


790.00 



( 344 ) 



X. — The Wesleyan Methodist Connection. 

The Secretary of this organization, Rev. D. S. Kinney, of 
Syracuse, N.Y., says : — 

* I am sorry that we have no complete statistics of our mission work in 
collected form. We are a young and small people, still not losing sight 
of the fact that the spirit of the Gospel is the spirit of missions. We have 
fifty home missionaries paid in part from this society ; we have two foreign 
missionaries at Freetown, West Africa, with a membership of 300. We 
expect to send from six to ten more missionaries to Africa within a few 
months.' 



XI. — The Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church sends the follow- 
ing summary of its labours last year, and we have been unable 
to get any later statistics or statements : — 

Annual Income^ about $130,000 = ^2,600. 



Fiflris of Labour. 


Entered 

A.D. 


No. of 
Sta- 
tions. 


Foreign 
Workers. 


Native 
Workers. 


Ad- 
herents. 


Com- 
muni- 
cants. 


Schools. f*»- 


Africa . . • 
Hayti . . . 
St. Domingo . 
Indian Territory- 


1886 
1877 
1885 
1876 


3 
4 
3 

22 


Or- 
dained. 
2 

I 

2 
16 


Fe- 
male. 


Or- 
dained. 

I 
2 


Lay. 

3 

2 


420 

300 

250 

r,2oo 


215 

82 

47 

700 


I 
I 
I 

6 


i65 
60 
40 

400 


Totals . ... 


32 


21 




3 


5 


2,170 


1,044 


9 666 



Most of these Missions in Bermuda, British Guiana, etc., 
came with the British Methodist Episcopal Church when it 
recently united with the African M.E. Church of the United 
States. 



XII. — The Board of Missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. 

(Organized 1845.) 

The history of this Society is involved in that of the Methodist 
Episcopal Society just given, from its earliest inception down 



Methodist Episcopal Church South Missions Board. 345 

to 1844, when owing to differences of view on the subject of 
slavery a ' Plan of Separation ' was drawn up. 

China (1848). — In April 1846, at the first meeting of this 
Southern department of the church, they determined to enter 
upon work at Shanghai, China. It was not, however, until 
August 1848 that their first missionaries landed at that place. 
They now occupy three principal and eight out-stations, and 
have enrolled 209 communicants. The total of their foreign 
workers is 18 with 198 native workers, making a grand total of 
225. They have established an Anglo-Chinese College at a 
cost of over $56,000 = ;^!, 120. Of this the report says : — 

' In consequence of this favourable estimation, the demands made on 
the college during the present year by the Government, which is in urgent 
need of young men possessing the qualitications the college was designed 
to supply, many of our pupils have been drafted out into the respective 
Government establishments requiring such service as they are able to 
render. It is also gratifying to be able to say that while we thus lose 
many pupils, often before they have fully received the benefits of the full 
curriculum, the number of applications for admission more than fill up the 
vacancies thus caused, and have during the present year been considerably 
in excess of our capacity to accommodate them. Our embarrassments 
have thus been twofold— (i) want of teachers to meet the demands on us 
for tuition, and (2) the premature withdrawal of pupils to fill places, as 
above noted. These facts, however, indicate a healthy prospect for the 
institution, and as plainly point out our duty in the premises.' 

The Suchow Hospital reports 11 medical and 30 surgical 
in-patients, and 23 surgical operations. There has been a 
great falling off in the number of patients for the opium habit ; 
but those who come now are much more satisfactory than this 
class of patients formerly were. When the hospital was first 
opened these patients flocked to it, thinking that as foreigners 
were in charge they would be cured without any effort or 
suffering on their part, as it were by magic. Now it is well 
known that they must suffer for three or four days, and we 
admit no one unless he declares that he himself wishes to break 
the habit, and is not over-persuaded by relatives or friends. 
Consequently, our opium patients are much more easily 
managed now, and I believe a larger proportion of them stand 
firm. 

The Dispefisary has been kept open as usual. Number of 
visits paid by patients, 11,262 ; number of visits paid to private 
families, 30; number of cases treated for opium poisoning, 26. 



34^ Methodist Episcopal Church South Missions Board. 

Grand total for the year, ii;377. Dispensary surgery: total 
operations performed, 266. 

The Shanghai District reports 5 churches and i school, which 
with the residences of the missionaries are valued at $85,603 = 
;£"! 7,832. The Suchow District has 2 churches, 7 missionary 
residences and i school, valued at $40,750 = ;^8,489. The other 
statistics are for China : missionaries 7, missionaries of Woman's 
Board 9, native preachers 9, members 225, Sunday schools 10, 
scholars 653, rented chapels 9, boys' schools 17, pupils 459, 
girls' schools 13, pupils 266; books and periodicals distributed 
6,290 ; collections $940. 

Japan (1886). — Work in Japan was commenced by this 
Board in 1886. They anticipate greater and more immediate 
results here than in any other Mission they have hitherto 
established. The stations now occupied are Osaka, Kobe, and 
Heroshima. They propose to confine their operations to 
Central Japan. The missionaries have itinerated during the 
year for evangelistic work over 20,000 miles, and held over 
1,100 Bible classes. They number only 137 members, but 
let it be remembered that this is the return made in the first 
annual report of the Mission. Of the 45 students in their 
theological classes fifteen, or one-fifth of the entire membership, 
exclusive of what are known as ' Probationers,' have offered for 
the ministry, and in every case spontaneously. 

Statistics of Japan Mission. — Ordained missionaries, 4; 
missionaries' wives, 3 ; single lady missionary, i ; stations 
where missionaries reside, 3 ; out-stations, 9 ; adults baptised, 
64 ; received by certificate, 1 1 ; removed, 4 ; total number of 
communicants, 71; children baptised, 10; probationers, 66; 
Sunday-schools, 3; teachers, 7; scholars, 114; Bible classes, 
6; students, 120; day-schools (girls), 2; pupils, 47; members 
of the missionary society, 59; organised churches, 3; ex- 
horters, 2 ; theological students, 4 ; contributions for the poor, 
$2.58 ; for Missions, $19.04 ; for the support of the Gospel, 
$65.03; total, $86.65; school fund accumulated, $200; 
itineration during the year over twenty-fotir thousand unites ; 
Bible classes held, over elcveji hundred. 

The Missions of this Society to North American Indians have 
formed a very important part of its work. The work which 
they had conducted jointly with the Methodist Episcopal 



Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 347 

Church North among the Creeks in Georgia and Carolina; 
Cerokees in Tennessee ; Choctaws in Mississippi, and others, 
since 1844 has fallen to their charge; and amongst these they 
have 70 pastoral charges, with 70 pastors, 129 local preachers 
and 8,750 members, one district lying wholly among full blood 
Indians. These tribes, together with the Semenoles and 
Chickasaws, are established in the Indian Territory, and are 
known as the civilized tribes. 

This Board has quite extensive work in the Papal countries, 
Mexico and Brazil, both among the European and Indian 
populations. 

The Society, notwithstanding the disabilities of the Civil War, 
which left the South almost prostrated financially, has developed 
with vigour, and its income last year, including that of the 
Woman's Society, amounted to nearly $275,000 (;£'55,ooo). 
The amount expended on China was $29,790, and on Japan 
$11,847, exclusive of the amount sent by the Woman's Board 
to these fields. The sum of expenditure on North American 
Indians in United States and Territories was $12,196. The 
Board publishes the Missionary Advocate. 



XIII. — The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of 
THE Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States of America. 

(Organized 182 1.) 

This Society was organized at a meeting of the General Con- 
vention held in Philadelphia, in October 1821; and on the 
23rd of May, 1822, Mr. Ephraim Bacon and his wife were 
appointed as catechists and teachers to work in the newly 
formed colony of Liberia, on the western coast of Africa, that 
being the first foreign mission designated by the Society. 

Africa. — In February 1828, the Rev. Jacob Oson (coloured), 
of Connecticut, was appointed a missionary to Liberia ; but 
before the sailing day arrived he was removed by death, and 
the work was suspended. In 1830 three members of the 
African Mission School at Hartford, Connecticut, made applica- 
tion to be sent as missionaries to Africa. Two were ordained 
by Bishop Brownell, Christ Church, Hartford ; one was 



348 Missiojiary Society of the Pi'oiestcmt Episcopal Church. 

appointed as catechist ; but for some unexplained reason they 
did not proceed to their contemplated field of labour. 

The record of the next four years presents only a succession 
of futile appeals for labourers in the African field. In 1835 Mr. 
James M. Thompson and wife (coloured), then resident in 
Liberia, were appointed to the charge of a Mission school 
which was estabUshed at Mount Vaughan, near Cape Palmas, 
on a tract of ten acres of land granted by the Colonization 
Society. In March 1836 Mr. Thompson commenced the work 
of instruction with five boys and two girls. In the same month, 
the first contribution, two hundred dollars, was received from 
the New York Female Society for the Promotion of Schools in 
Africa, and applied towards the support of Mrs. Thompson, 
who remained as teacher in the Mission after her husband's 
death in 1838. In the following month the Young Men's 
Auxiliary Education and Missionary Society of New York 
contributed two hundred dollars towards the support of a 
missionary in Africa, and pledged the annual sum of five 
hundred dollars for that object. In August the Rev. John 
Payne, of the diocese of Virginia, and the Rev. Thomas S. 
Savage, M.D., of the diocese of Connecticut, were appointed 
as missionaries to Cape Palmas. The Rev. J. Payne continued 
his devoted labours for fourteen years, amid much trouble arising 
from the attack of hostile neighbouring tribes, as well as from 
the illness and death of faithful labourers. At the end of 1847 
Mr. Payne was left the only ordained labourer in the field. 
Four years later he was consecrated Missionary Bishop to Cape 
Palmas and parts adjacent. In his address on the occasion, he 
thus summed up the work of the previous years :— 

* Four distinct stations in sufficient proximity for mutual sympathy and 
relief have, it is hoped, been firmly established, three of them being 
amongst natives, and one of them in the Maryland Colony at Cape 
Palmas. At these several stations the usual moral machinery of Chris- 
tianity is, and has been for some years, in continuous and efficient opera- 
tion. One permanent stone church building is nearly completed ; another 
has been commenced ; regular congregations, varying from 50 to 300, have 
been gathered ; pastoral and missionary efforts have brought the Gospel in 
contact with the minds of 30,000 heathen ; boarding and day schools have 
been maintained, in which about 1,000 native and colonist scholars have 
received, to a greater or less extent, a Christian education. A native 
language has been reduced to writing ; services are held in it. Spelling 
books, portions of the liturgy and the Scriptures have been transl^vted, and 
many children and youths taught to read them. 



Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 349 

' The direct spiritual effects of missionary labour upon the heathen are 
manifest. The popular faith in idolatry is widely shaken. I have myself 
burned up a wheelbarrow-load of idols, or gree-grees, at one time. Many 
use gree-grees only from custom and a fear of exciting observation or 
remark, not from faith in their efficacy. Besides some who have died in 
the faith, and others who have apostatized, we have now in regular 
standing above 100 communicants, more than half of whom are natives. 

' Fifteen Christian families, the members of which are nearly all edu- 
cated in the schools, are living together in a Christian village on our 
mission premises. Nine young men and women, educated in the mission 
schools, are employed as catechists, teachers and assistants. Two youths 
are in this country pursuing their studies preparatory to the ministry. 
One colonist is a candidate for holy orders. 

' A wide and effectual door for the spread of the Gospel in the colonies, 
amongst neighbouring and distant tribes, has been opened around the 
mission stations which have been established.' 

In the year 187 1 Bishop Payne resigned, in the thirty-fourth 
year of his labour in the African field, and the twentieth of his 
bishopric. During his connection with the Mission he had 
baptised at his own station, Cavalla, 352 persons, of whom 187 
were adults ; had confirmed dT^-Ty persons in the Mission, and 
ordained 14 deacons and 11 presbyters, of whom 5 were foreign, 
the others Liberian or native. 

Bishop Acuer, his successor, was soon removed by death ; 
Bishop Payne himself died in 1874. Dr. C. C. Perrick was 
consecrated a bishop in 1877, and resigned in 1883. The 
present bishop, the Rev. Dr. S. D. Ferguson (1884) is of 
African descent, and is the second coloured clergyman con- 
secrated to the episcopate of the American Church ; Dr. J. T. 
Holly, bishop of the Haytian Church (1874), having been the 
first. 

The Liberian Mission is divided into three districts. The 
Cape Palmas district goes on steadily. Bishop Ferguson has 
purchased one hundred acres for a model farm near Tubman- 
town, about four miles from Cape Palmas. An English farmer 
of large experience has been appointed in charge of it ; new 
buildings are being erected for the Hoffman Institute and High 
School. At Harper there are out-stations in two heathen 
villages, also the Cape Palmas Orphan Asylum and Girls' 
School. At Hoffman station 32 baptisms are reported of 
persons 'directly from heathenism.' Here are 114 native 
communicants, in a district containing a population of 3,000, 
among whom there are four stations. A boarding school is 
contemplated. The Sinoe and Bassa District and the 



35° Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Montserada District report good progress. There are lo 
presbyters (white, Liberian, and native), ii lay readers, and 
17 catechists and teachers. This African Mission reports: — ■ 
Church buildings, 9 ; mission houses, American built, 8 ; 
mission houses, native built, 6 ; school houses, American 
built, 9; school house, native built, i ; hospital building, i. 

China. — At the annual meeting of the Board of Directors 
in Philadelphia, May 1834, it was resolved that the Board 
should establish a Mission in China. In the July following 
the Rev. Henry Lockwood was appointed a missionary to that 
empire. At the request of the committee, Mr. Lockwood 
immediately entered upon a course of medical studies, pre- 
paratory to his departure. 

The efforts of the committee to obtain another missionary 
were ineffectual until February 1835, when the Rev. Francis 
R. Hanson offered his services, which were accepted. On the 
2nd of June Messrs. Lockwood and Hanson sailed from New 
York on the ship Morrison, bound to Canton. At this period 
the amount of the China Mission Fund was a little over $1,000 
(^200), but a few liberal individuals in New York had contri- 
buted sufficient to meet all the expenses of the Mission for at 
least one year. The missionaries remained for a while at 
Singapore, also visiting Batavia. They endeavoured to obtain 
some mastery of the Chinese language before attempting to 
make their way into the country, at that time almost barred 
against Europeans. 

In 1837 the committee made an additional appointment to 
China, which proved to be of the highest importance. The 
Rev. W. J. Boone, M.D., being designated for the work in that 
empire, commenced his labours in Batavia, removing afterwards 
to Amoy, where he continued until 1843. Meantime the 
important treaty of 1842 had thrown open for intercourse with 
foreigners the ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-chow-foo and 
Shanghai. The committee of the Mission saw the advantage 
of this concession, and determined to place Dr. Boone at 
Shanghai, as missionary bishop of China. This henceforth 
became the centre of the Society's operations. Boarding and 
day schools were established, and new stations were opened. 
The translation of the Scriptures was revised, and the Rev. S. 
I. J. Schereschewsky, who entered the Mission in 1859, and 



Missionary Society of the Protestajit Episcopal CJmrch, 351 

who had developed remarkable linguistic talents, proceeded to 
Peking to perfect himself in the language. Of the version 
of the Old Testament completed by him 1875, it has been 
said : — 

'The Old Testament has been translated by him out of the onginal 
Hebrew into a lanj^uage understood by a population four times as large as 
in all the United States. The work of itself is one of the grandest 
monuments which the human mind has ever created, and is one of the 
noblest trophies of missionary zeal and learning. When in the old times 
of Greece and Rome the military hero returned from the conquest of a 
province, an ovation was tendered him by the public magistrates, and as 
he passed along in his triumphal chariot there preceded and followed him 
the captives taken in war, the spoils of conquered cities, the treasures of 
royal coffers ; and so the grand procession moved on in honour of him who 
had added a province to an empire. But the grandest conquests of the 
world's mightiest heroes sinks into littleness beside the work which our 
faithful missionary has done when he made the Bible speak in the 
Mandarin tongue and herald out its salvation over nearly half a hemi- 
sphere. Dr. Schereschewsky, as he comes back to us from his hard-fought 
field, brings his Chinese Bible as the spolia oJ>ima o^his victorious faith and 
work — presents to the Church a subhmer spectacle than any that ever 
moved over the Via Sacra at Rome, or up the steep of the Acropolis at 
Athens.' 

The China Mission occupies Shanghai, Wuhu, Ku Kiang, 
Wuchang, Hankow, Chefoo and Peking. The venerable 
Bishop Boone is still on the field. The St. John's Medical 
School for the education of native physicians and surgeons and 
the training of native nurses, and the St. John's College proper, 
are at Shanghai. At the St. Luke's Hospital, also at Shanghai, 
6,000 people have received treatment, and at the out-stations 
4,384. Wuhu, about half-way between Shanghai and Wuchang, 
is a newly-occupied station. The work at Hankow is carried 
on at seven places in the province of Hupeh. Four hundred 
miles farther up the river is Sha-sz. There are in all ' up-river' 
4 foreign and 8 native clergymen, 219 communicants, 2 board- 
ing schools, with 161 pupils. Of the out-stations, Hangkow 
and Shanghai city work is carried on at 14 places ; the 
communicants number 125, and the day-school pupils 367. 
Kong Wan has 7 places, with 90 communicants and 165 
day-school pupils. Kia Ding has 4 places for work, with 1 4 
communicants and 80 pupils. St. John's has 28 places of work, 
served by 15 clergymen, no boarding pupils, 642 pupils in day 
schools and 279 communicants. 



352 Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal. Church. 

Japan. — In 1859 the Rev. John Liggins, who had been one 
of the Society's missionaries in China, visited Japan for the 
benefit of his health, and met with an unexpectedly cordial 
reception from the Japanese officials. A few days after his 
arrival at Nagasaki he received information that the foreign 
committee had appointed the Rev. Channing Moore Williams 
and himself as missionaries to Japan. Being already in the 
field, Mr. Liggins at once entered upon his duties, and thus 
was established the first Protestant Mission in the empire of 
Japan. In September of the same year Dr. H. Ernst Schmid 
was appointed missionary physician, but in the year following 
was compelled by ill-health to resign. Great interest was 
manifested in the church regarding the new mission, intensified 
by the visit of Bishop Boone, of China, to the United States, 
and his spirited appeals for help to the new enterprise. 

Meantime Mr. Liggins found that but little could be done at 
first beyond learning the Japanese language (a sufficiently 
formidable task), teaching English to native officials, and 
furnishing the Holy Scriptures and scientific works to those 
who would accept or purchase them. The Rev. C. M. Williams 
was consecrated in 1866 as Mission Bishop to China and Japan, 
and after a while took up his residence in Osaka. Here a 
church was erected and schools established. Bishop Williams 
afterwards removed to Tokio, where boys' and girls' schools 
and a divinity school were opened. He himself reports upon 
work at ten points. Associated with him are three paid 
catechists and 132 native communicants. The bishop is at 
the head of the Trinity Divinity and Catechetical School. The 
Osaka stations are in two groups. The first has 15 places of 
labour. The missionary is aided by 5 catechists, 3 Bible women 
and students, and nearly 1,000 services were held last year. 
The communicants number 112, of whom 65 were baptised last 
year. The other group of stations has a missionary and 9 
catechists, with other helpers, who have held 2,426 services ; 
273 have been baptised; the communicants number 332. The 
Japan Mission as a whole has held 4,450 public services, with 
an average attendance of 406. There have been 242 confirma- 
tions during the year. 



The Mission in Hayti is presided over by Bishop James 



Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal C/mrch. 353 

Theodore Holly, who is of African descent. The centre of the 
mission is at Port-au-Prince, where services are held in English 
and French, and day schools are taught in both languages. A 
Medical Mission is also about to be established. The clergy 
in Hayti are all natives of the island. 

Besides these Foreign Missions the Protestant Episcopal 
Church conducts a large missionary work at home. There is 
also a work carried on at Athens, Greece, where there is a 
mission school containing 607 children. They publish The 
Spirit of Missions. 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 

Licome^ $189,932 = ^^38,000. 



Field. 


En- 
tered. 


Places 
of Wor- 
ship. 


Communi- 
cants. 


sch°>-- 1 IchSis. 


Contribu- 
tions. 


Africa (West). . 
China .... 
Japan .... 
Hayti .... 


1836 

1835 
1859 
1861 


69 576 

43 496 

50 673 
23 370 


837 1,019 
260 768 
479 1 695 
555 221 


1,831 

201 

1,907 

647 


Total . . 


• • 


185 


2,115 


2,231 2,703 


$4,586 



XIV. — The Reformed Episcopal Church. 

The following from the Rt. Rev. Bishop William R. Nicholson 
explains itself. He writes from 2106 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, under date of November 5th, 1888, saying: — 

' Our church is of so recent organization, we have not had either time or 
means to do much in the foreign missionary work. Of course we are 
looking forward to the time when, with the blessing of God, we shall be 
able to do greater things. We have sent forth one lady missionary to 
Cawnpore, India ; but she is under the cUrection of the Women's Union 
Missionary Society for America, as we have no foreign missionary work of 
our own. Our congregations contribute to the work, and the contributions 
are given to missionary societies.' 

2 A 



( 354 ) 



XV. — Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

(Organised 1837.) 

The Presbyterians, early in the history of America, became 
interested in work for pagan peoples. The Society for 
Propagating Christian Knowledge in Scotland, which was 
formed in 1709, established a board of correspondents in New 
York in 17 14, who appointed Rev. Azariah Horton as 
missionary to the Indians on Long Island. The second 
foreign missionary of this Society was the justly-celebrated 
David Brainerd, who was licensed to preach by a body of 
Congregational ministers in Connecticut in 1742, and sent as 
missionary among the Indians about Albany. In 1744 he was 
ordained by the Presbytery of New York, and commenced his 
labours on the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. He died in 
1747, and was succeeded by his brother. Rev. John Brainerd. 
These first three missionaries kept in correspondence with the 
Scotch Society, and received a portion of their support from 
them. This work was continued for forty years, when it was 
abandoned. In 1796 it was resumed, and the New York 
Mission was begun, and in 1797 The Northern Missionary 
Society was organised. Both of these were independent of 
Presbyterian control, but were supported almost wholly by 
Presbyterians. In 1800 the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church took up missionary work in a systematic way. 
In 18 18 the Presbyterian, Reformed Dutch, and Associate 
Reformed Churches united in forming The United Foreign 
Missipnary Society, with the purpose 'to spread the Gospel 
among the Indians of North America, the inhabitants of 
Mexico and South America, and other portions of the heathen 
and anti-Christian world.' In 1826 this Society was merged in 
the American Board. In 1831 the Synod of Pittsburgh 
organised the Western Foreign Missionary Society, for the 
purpose of ' conveying the Gospel to whatever parts of the 
heathen and anti-Christian world the Providence of God 
might enable the Society to extend its evangelical exertions.' 
This Society was intended to include any others besides that 
Synod who might choose to join them. It continued in 
operation till 1837, when it was absorbed in the Board of 



Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 355 

Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America. To this it subsequently transferred its 
funds and missions. This date (1837) marks, therefore, the 
origin of the present Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church, and which, consequently, has just closed 
its Jubilee year. A large portion of the Presbyterians, however, 
combined to co-operate with the American Board until 1870, 
when they withdrew their support, with the view to develop the 
denominational work under their own Board. 

Then it had six American ministers on the field, now it 
has 177 ; then its missions counted 10 communicants, now 
23,740; then it numbered 50 scholars under instruction, now 
23,770; then the Society had four missions with six stations, 
now it has 23 missions with 112 stations; then it had six 
American ministers in the field, now it has 177 ; then it had 
one single woman on the field, now it has 135 ; then it 
counted 10 communicants in these stations, now 23,740 ; 
then it had 50 pupils under instruction, now it has 23,770; 
then it had no native workers, ordained or licentiates, now it 
has 320, besides 804 native women employed in the work ; 
then its income was $34,595, last year it was $901,180, of 
which aggregate their Women's Board contributed the splendid 
proportion of $295,501. These interesting evidences of 
growth are, however, to be studied in view of two prominent 
events affecting the history of the Society, viz., the withdrawal 
of the Southern Presbyterian Churches during the Civil War 
in 1861, and their combined independent action; and, on the 
other hand, the transfer to this Society, by the American Board 
in 187 1, of the Seneca, Lake Superior, Chippewa, and Dakota 
Indian Missions, and their Syria and Persia Missions. A 
number of missionaries were also transferred. 

This Society has conducted extensive operations among the 
Senecas, Chippewas, Omahas, Dakotas, Choctaws, Winne- 
bagoes, and other tribes of North American Indians. The 
earliest of these was begun in 181 1, and the latest in 1883. 
Besides the American missionary force, they number 17 
native ministers, and 11 native females employed; churches, 
18; communicants, 1,6^0. 

This Board has an extensive work among papal and pagan 
peoples on the American continent, as in Mexico (90 churches 
and 4,976 communicants), Guatemala, Brazil (32 churches, 

2 A 2 



356 Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 

2,098 members), and in Chili (churches, 4 ; native communi- 
cants, 265). This Society also aids, by direct appropriation to 
their treasury, Evangehcal churches in France, Switzerland, 
and Italy. In 185 1 a mission was commenced among the 
Japanese and Chinese in the United States, which now 
enumerates 13 American missionaries, lay and clerical, with 
seven native workers, four churches and 335 communicants, 
and 985 scholars. 

Three Women's Societies co-operate with this Board. Its 
leading missionary periodical at present is The Church at 
Home arid Abroad. 

The receipts of the Society from the beginning amount to 
$14,716,973 = ^2,943,400. 

The secretaries say : — 

' It is to be regretted that the issues of the various mission presses 
connected with the Presbyterian Church are not to be found in tabulated 
form, or indeed in any available shape, so as to make an accurate and 
exhaustive hst possible. Hundreds of volumes, including such works as 
Dr. John Newton's Gurmukhi Dictionary, Dr. James C. Hepburn's 
Japanese and English Dictionary, Systematic Theology in Arabic, by 
Dr. James S. Dennis, translations of the Bible in whole or in part, educa- 
tional and scientific books, besides milhons of pages of books and tracts for 
general distribution, by sale or gift, and a large number of weekly and 
monthly sheets, something after the style of our rehgious newspapers, have 
been issued from the presses connected with our missions ; to say nothing 
of the volumes and fugitive newspaper and magazine articles which have 
been wiitten by the missionaries and published in this country and elsewhere.' 

Syria (18 18). — The history of the American Missions 
begins in 18 18, when Pliny Fisk and Levi Parsons were 
appointed missionaries to Palestine. Mr. Parsons was the 
first Protestant missionary that ever resided in Jerusalem. Later, 
Beirut was chosen as the headquarters of the Mission. This 
Mission embraces work among Moslems, Druses, Nusairiyeh, 
Greeks, Jacobites, Maronites, (Sec. It has made large use of 
the press, publishing Alexafider's Evide?ices, and some other 
well-known works. In all, between 1856 and 1870, some 
sixty titles are enumerated. Many valuable contributions to 
American religious literature have come from these missionaries, 
such as Dr. Robinson's Researches i?i Palestine^ and Dr. 
Thomson's The Land and the Book. This Syrian Mission 
was transferred in 1870 to this Board from the American 
Board. It now numbers 322 native ministers, and 804 lay 



Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 357 

missionaries, with 19 churches, and 1,493 communicants, and 
91 students for ministry. 

During the past year the Government made the un- 
precedented demand that all publications of the mission press 
must be submitted for approval, and the presses have been 
idle because of the embarrassment. Yet of 324 separate 
issues laid before the council at Damascus, all but eleven were 
returned as approved. Other presses have not received a 
licence for their work. The schools, too, have suffered from 
Government repression. All text-books, certificates, and pro- 
grammes were ordered to be submitted for Government approval. 
Pending their efforts to comply with this law, several of the 
schools were closed by Government. Other annoyances fol- 
lowed. The pressure of considerable influence was, however, 
brought to bear upon the Government, and in February 
word was received that the schools might be re-opened on 
March ist. 

This Mission reports 50 churches and church buildings, five 
stations, 91 out-stations. Native Syrian labourers, 171; 1,493 
members, 85 regular preaching-places, 4,289 in average 
congregations ; 3,732 Sabbath scholars, and a Syrian Protestant 
community of 4,245. It has a Syrian Protestant College, a 
medical school, theological seminary, three female seminaries, 
high schools and common schools, with a total of 5,391 pupils. 
It has a Bible house and press establishment, which has 
issued 284,450 publications during the year, and from the 
beginning 365,112,219 pages. The St. John's Hospital treated 
8,068 patients. 

Persia. — Following Henry Martyn, who entered Persia in 
181 1, and witnessed a good confession, came Dr. Pfander, the 
celebrated German missionary, in 1829, and simultaneously 
with him two missionaries of the American Board to explore 
the regions of North-west Persia. 

These were drawn to the oppressed Nestorians about Lake 
Oroomiah, and established what was known, not as the Persian, 
but as the Nestorian Mission. 

In 187 1 the Presbyterians accepted the transfer of this 
Mission from the American Board, with whom they had till 
then co-operated, in this field as in others. At that time it 
numbered nineteen missionaries, three physicians, one printer, 



358 Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 

and seven unmarried ladies. Names eminent in the missionary 
world belong to this period. Perkins, Grant, Rhea, Miss 
Fiske and others are of the group. 

The work is now divided into two Missions. The Western 
Mission embraces Oroomiah, Tabriz, and Salamas, and is 
systematically divided into parishes or circuits, and placed 
under the best supervision possible. This Mission reports 
serious embarrassment within the year from the presence of the 
AngUcan Mission. This report speaks cheeringly of the work 
among Mohammedans. The Western Missiofi counts 27 
churches, and 38 congregations not yet organised. It numbers 
2,078 communicants, 5,413 adherents. The Eastern Mission, 
which embraces Teheran and Hamadan, reports three churches, 
121 communicants, 338 pupils, and 5,000 patients treated in 
its hospitals. 

India (1833). — Before the present Board was organised, the 
Western Foreign Missionary Society sent Rev. C. Lowrie 
and Rev. William Reed to India. They arrived October 
1833, with authority to locate a Mission in such part of India 
as they judged best. They established the Lodiana Mission. 
Lodiana was then a frontier town of the North-west Province 
bordering on the Punjab, which was at that time under the 
control of the Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh. Work was begun at 
Sabathu and Saharanpur in 1836, Jalandar in 1846, Umballa 
in 1848, Lahore in 1849, and at other points since. It reports 
550 church members, and 515 pupils in boarding schools. 

The Furrukhabad Missiofi was begun at Allahabad in 1836, 
extended to Futtehgurh in 1838, and to Mainpuri in 1843. It 
reports 395 church members. 

The Kolapore Mission, lying south-west of Bombay, and 
covering part of the Deccan, was opened in 1853 by Rev. 
R. G. Wilder. This work was supported for years by the 
American Board ; but Mr. Wilder severed his connection with 
that Society, and for many years this work remained in- 
dependent of any Society. In 1870 it was transferred to the 
Presbyterian Board. The principal stations occupied are 
Kolapur, Panhala, and Sangli. It reports six churches, with 
90 communicants. The Presbyterian press at Allahabad has 
been active and efficient, as usual. The Lodiana Mission 
received on confession last year 69. It has 315 pupils in 



Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 359 

boarding school, 6,47 1 pupils in day schools. The Furrukhabad 
Mission has 1,990 pupils in day schools. The Kolapore 
Mission has 90 communicants, four added during the year, 13 
schools, 362 pupils, 451 Sabbath pupils, and three students for 
the ministry. 

China (1844). — The work of this Society among Chinese 
was begun at Singapore in 1838. Dr. Hepburn and Mr. 
Lowrie in 1843 transferred the Mission from Singapore to 
China and Macao. Amoy and Ningpo were occupied as 
stations. The missions now are four, viz. : Canton, Peking, 
Shantung, and Central. 

(i) The Ca7ito?i Mission was begun in 1845. ^^t till 1861, 
or sixteen years after the beginning of the Mission, did they 
baptise the first Chinese convert. They now enrol 419 
members and 1,025 pupils in school. This Mission embraces 
Macao and Hainan. A prominent feature of the work at 
Canton is that of the hospital. Dr. Peter Parker, the founder 
of Medical Missions in China, opened a hospital here in 1835. 
In 1854 this was transferred to the care of Dr. Kerr, supported 
by this Board. 

(2) The Cefitral Mission includes Ningpo, Shanghai, Hang- 
chow, Suchow, and Nanking. Ningpo has ten churches, 
numbering 599 members. 

At Shanghai is the important press establishment of this 
Mission, which includes a foundry, where seven casting 
machines are constantly at work, which cast seven sizes of 
Chinese type, besides English, Korean, Manchu, Japanese, 
Hebrew, &c. It has also machinery for electrotyping and 
engraving. The earnings of this press last year amounted to 
$12,629, of which $5,000 were paid to the Mission treasury 
for current work. 

(3) The Shantung Mission embraces Tungchow, Chefoo, 
Chinanfoo, and other points. It was begun in 1861. Nearly 
3,000 communicants are reported. This Mission, of course, 
was affected by the devastation caused by the Yellow River 
breaking its dykes. 

(4) The Peking Missioft was begun in 1863. It is an 
off-shoot of the Shantung Mission, and numbers 107 com- 
municants. 

During the year, Dr. Happer, the venerable missionary, who 



360 Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church. 

went to China first in 1844, and has continued in the service 
since, returned from a visit to the United States, having while 
there secured by donation an endowment and other requisites 
for the estabUshment of a Chinese College at Canton. Already 
50 pupils have applied for admission, although the accommo- 
dation which can be secured will only meet the wants of half 
of them. New buildings have been erected at Tientsin for 
an Anglo-Chinese College, where 300 students can be 
accommodated while pursuing the study of modern science. 
At the hospital in Peking over 16,000 patients were treated 
during the year. At Chefoo Dr. Nevius has continued his 
distant country tours to the stations established immediately 
after the great famine in Shantung. 

SiAM AND Laos (1840). — The first visits made by mission- 
aries of this Board was made in 1838, with a view to find 
some door of access to the Chinese ; but this resulted in 
opening a Mission for the Siamese themselves, which was 
begun at Bangkok in 1840 by Rev. Drs. Mattoon and House, 
both still living, the first yet on the field, and the latter in 
honoured retirement in America. Medical work has been a 
most important adjunct of this work. The Laos Mission was 
commenced in 1876. The principal station is at Chieng-Mai, 
500 miles north of Bangkok, on the river QuU Ping. It 
numbers 432 communicants. 

The stated work at Bangkok during the year has been the 
maintenance of preaching at two churches and the Bazaar 
Chapel, the care of five schools and one dispensary, and the 
issue of nearly a million pages, chiefly of Holy Scriptures, 
from the press. At Petchaburi are five churches, and 274 
members, ten schools, and a hospital, where 952 surgical cases 
were treated, and 2,838 new patients received. In the Laos 
Mission baptism has been administered to no adults on 
profession of faith. The Gospel of Matthew in Laos has been 
revised, and about half the Book of Acts carried through its 
first translation into that tongue. 

Africa (1842).— This Society has conducted two Missions 
in Africa. 

The Liberia Mission began in 1842, has seven churches in 
the country, with 284 communicants, and 272 scholars, with 
984 in Sundav-schools. 



Missions Board of the Pixshyterian Church. 361 

The Mission at Cape Palmas was transferred to the 
Gaboon in 1842. The island of Corisco was occupied in 
1850, but the work was transferred to the mainland in 1865. 
These three have six stations, with ten out-stations, and 747 
communicants. 

Unfortunately, the French Government has ordered that the 
only language that will be allowed to be taught in the possession 
is French. This practically closed the vernacular schools, and 
all training in the native vernaculars. Tlie Presbyterians, 
therefore, proposed to the French Evangelical Foreign 
Missionary Society to transfer this work to their care ; but 
they decided not to accept the offer. Since then French 
teachers have been employed, under the advice of the deputa- 
tion from the French Society, and it is possible they may yet 
accept the trust of this Mission. 

Japan (1859). — Dr. James C. Hepburn and his wife, 
formerly missionaries to China, and Rev. J. L. Nevius and 
wife, of Ningpo, were deputed in 1859 to open a Mission of 
this Board in Japan. It now has two Missions. 

(i) The Tokyo Mission includes Yokohama. 

(2) The Osaka Mission includes part of the island of 
Niphon and Kanazawa on the Japan Sea, 180 miles north-west 
of Vedo. 

The statistics of these cannot now be given, for in 1876 a 
movement was started looking to closer union in work among 
churches of kindred doctrinal and ecclesiastical order. This 
resulted in the organisation of an independent, self-governing 
Japanese Church, and now this Board carries on all its work in 
this country through the United Church of Christ. The 
Congregational Mission has been contemplating joining this 
Union Church ; but, after long deliberation and much debate, 
the matter is still pending at the time of this writing. 

The United Church of Christ in Japan numbers 34 
Japanese ministers, and 48 licentiates; 58 churches, 22 of 
which are wholly self-supporting; members, 6,859; native 
contributions for the year, ^14,504 =;2^3 ^021. 

Korea (1844;. — This Board began work at Seoul, Korea, in 
1844. The Mission numbers 25 communicants, has six 
native helpers, and 25 pupils in school. The medical work 
has been an efficient part of the service. Government 



362 Missions Board of the Presbyterian Churchy South, 

restrictions suspended the operations of this Mission for five or 
six months of the year (1888), but these restrictions have been 
withdrawn, though the Native Government has not withdrawn 
its official ban against the introduction of Christianity into the 
country. There appears to be in Japan, as well as in China, a 
progressive party and a conservative one. Meanwhile the 
outlook is bright, because the number of earnest seekers after 
the knowledge of Christ increases steadily. 

The Board of Hofne Missions of this Church has the care of 
its work among North American Indians. It sustains 29 
Indian schools, with 115 teachers, with 462 pupils. It also 
conducts work among Mexicans in New Mexico. 



XVI. — Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States (Southern States). 

(Organised 1861.) 

Immediately upon the withdrawal of the Presbyterians of 
the South, in 1861, from their church relation with those of the 
North, in consequence of the fierceness of the slavery agitation, 
the Southern brethren organised their own missionary labour 
and estabhshed their own work among the Indians in the Indian 
Territory. The character of that population is rapidly 
changing, because of the influx of white people, who have 
no right of citizenship, but settle under specified regulations, 
and open farms, which are becoming more and more a source 
of revenue to the Indians. The total of communicants 
connected with this Society's Indian churches is 618, and they 
contributed last year $1,767. 

China (1867). — The next work among pagans attempted by 
this Society was in China in 1867, where they occupy Hang-chow, 
Soo Chow, Chinkiang, and Tsing-kiang-pu. Evangelistic work 
among the towns and cities of Hang-chow is diligently carried 
on. Five thousand Gospels and tracts were sold or given away 
last year. From Soo Chow, Mr. Du Bose, in a forty-five days' 
itineration for col})ortage, distributed 7,000 Gospels and tracts. 
Mrs. Du Bois received at her home visits from 1,500 Chinese 
women during the year, all of whom heard the Gospel from her. 

\Cdntimied on p. 364. 





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364 Missions Board of the Presbyterian Churchy South. 

Miss Stafford made 300 visits to Chinese families, durmg which 
she addressed 3,000 women and distributed 30,000 pages of 
Gospels and tracts. From Chinkiang the missionaries have 
also visited several cities at considerable distance, on their 
evangelistic tours. 

The Secretary says : ' Since the last annual report of this 
Mission four missionaries have been added to the force in the 
field. The Rev. R. V. Lancaster, of the Presbytery of West 
Hanover, and Miss Lily Tidball, of North Carolina, have 
begun work at Hang-chow ; the Rev. J. E. Bear, of Lexington 
Presbytery, at Chinkiang,- and Edward Woods, Jr., M.D., at 
Tsing-kiang-pu. The committee of the Mission, which visited 
Tsing-kiang-pu the year before, having recommended the 
occupation of this station, the Rev. Messrs. Sydenstricker and 
Woods moved here in the fall. The city lies on the Grand 
Canal, at the point of its intersection with the old bed of the 
Yellow River. It is the gate to several provinces, and lies in a 
region hitherto unoccupied by missionaries. By its occupation 
this Mission now has a chain of four stations, beginning with 
Hang-chow, the southern terminus of the Grand Canal, and 
extending along the line of the canal, at intervals of about 120 
miles, to Tsing-kiang-pu.' 

Japan (1865). — The Mission in Japan was begun in 1885. 
The stations are Kochi and Nagoya. During the last three 
months of 1886 there were 52 additions to the church of 
Kochi, and during last year (1887) 169 communicants were 
received. Within the Kochi Presbytery there are seven 
churches. The total of that Presbytery is now 850. The 
Kochi church itself enrolls 300 communicants and a great 
number of inquirers. Nagoya, on Owari Bay, the fourth city 
of Japan, in a plain 100 miles long by 40 broad, having villages 
and towns with a population of two and a half millions, was 
occupied as a new station in 1887. The missionary sent has 
co-operated with the Union Presbyterian Missionaries. 

Besides these Missions the Board carries on very consider- 
able Missions in Brazil, which field they entered in 1869. They 
have, as stations, Campinas and Jundiahy, and work also in the 
interior from San Polo ; also in Northern Brazil at Pernambuco, 
Ceara and Maranhao. They also conduct work in Greece, at 
Salonica. In June 1887 a church was organised at this place 
with ten members, of whom five were communicants of five 



Reformed Presbyterian CJmrch. 



365 



years' standing. Two elders and two deacons were elected. 
The Turkish Government obliges the few Protestants who are 
there to be organised into a Protestant Community. In the 
Protestant Community at Macedonia and Epirus there are now 
enrolled forty-five persons. Every considerable town in 
Macedonia has been visited. 

In Mexico this Board carries on a good work at Matamoras, 
Mantemorelos, Jimenez, Victoria and Brownsville. Of the 
six central stations only two are occupied by foreigners ; the 
best stations are occupied by Mexican native preachers only. 



SUMMARY.— THE SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN 
MISSIONS. 

Income: $81,040 = ;^i 6,208. 



Field. 


China. 


Greece. 


India. 


Japan. 


Year of beginning .... 


1867. 


1874. 


1861. 


1885. 


Missionaries, Male .... 

Missionaries, Female 

Stations 

Out-stations 

Communicants added during^ 

the year / 

Total No. of Communicants . 
Ministers Ordained or Licensed 
Other Native Helpers . 
Pupils in Sunday Schools . 
Pupils in Day Schools . 
Contributed by Native Churches 


II 

10 

4 

12 

82 

10 
260 
240 

$70 


I 

I 

2 
2 

I 
18 

$60 


3 

3 

12 

24 

34 

618 

5 

322 
46 

$1,767 


4 

5 

2 

6 
169 

30s 

I 
150 
200 

$1,200 



XVI r. — Reformed Presbyterian Church in North 
America. 

The Foreign Mission work of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church in the United States was begun in 1856. A movement 
to establish a Mission had been made about ten years before, 
and in 1847 a minister was appointed to Hayti, in the West 
Indies, but he returned home in two years. No further attempt 
was made to enter upon foreign work till the above date. In 



^66 Reformed Preshyferlafi Chu7'ch. 

October of 1856 two married missionaries, Rev. R. J. Dodds 
and Joseph Beattie, were sent out to work among the 
Nusairiyeh tribes in Northern Syria. A year was devoted to 
the study of the Arabic language, when Zahleh was selected as 
a suitable field ; but there was so much hostility to their work 
that in the spring of 1858 they were forced to abandon it, and 
decided after careful examination to occupy Latakia, which in 
1859 became the centre of operations. For eight years these 
brethren preached in that city, and laboured together with united 
energy for the uplifting of its degraded inhabitants. A re- 
inforcement, consisting of David Metheny, M.D., and wife, went 
out in 1864; and two years later, Miss Cra.wford, now the 
wife of Rev. James Martin, M.D., of Antioch, was appointed to 
take charge of a girls' school. 

The Mission in Aleppo under the care of the United 
Presbyterian Church in Scotland having been transferred to 
the American Mission in Latakia, Mr. Dodds removed in 1867 
to that place, where he laboured for over three years, and 
where he closed his earthly ministry. The year following the 
death of this pioneer missionary, the Rev. S. R. Galbraith 
oined the Mission, but he died within six months of his 
arrival. His vacancy was filled by the appointment the next 
year of Rev. Henry Easson, who is at • present at the head of 
the Syrian Mission. 

Latakia is the centre of operations. The Gospel has been 
preached here and at the outlying stations with regularity and 
success. Thirty-one, including two girls and ten boys from 
the boarding-schools, were received into the fellowship of the 
church during the last year, increasing the native membership 
from 145 to 171. There are four schools in efficient operation ; 
a day-school for girls, with no names on the roll, and a 
boarding-school with 53 pupils under religious instruction. 
Five girls this year finished the course of study, and are 
engaged in teaching. A day-school for boys has 100 pupils, 
and the boarding-school 39. In the outlying districts there are 
242 children under the instruction of 14 teachers. 

At Gunaimia, about twenty-seven miles from Latakia, a 
theological student has been teaching and conducting evan- 
gelical services for some months, and there has been a religious 
revival of considerable extent and power. In other parts of 
the district there is considerable religious interest. 



Reformed Preshyteria7t Church. 367 

The Medical department of this Mission is in successful 
operation. Dr. Balph reached Latakia in October 1887, and 
up to the ist of March he had held 32 chnics, filled 590 
prescriptions^ treated 275 different cases, and made 100 
professional visits. 

At Suadea, on the River Orontes, there is a station with a 
large and valuable property presented to the Mission by the 
late Dr. Wm. Holt Yates, of London. The funds needed for 
carr)'ing forward the work are to a large extent supplied by 
Mrs. Yates, which work is very promising. In the boarding- 
school there are 26 pupils, and on the roll of the day-school 50 
names. 

Larnaca, on the island of Cyprus, is also a Mission-field of 
this church. This island contains over 190,000 inhabitants, 
consisting of Greeks, Turks, Maronites, Armenians and Roman 
Catholics. A successful school has been established at this 
point, and it is the purpose of the Synod to send a missionary 
into this interesting field. 

In 1887 a delegation, consisting of Dr. McAllister and Mr. 
Henry O'Neil, visited the Missions to inquire into their 
condition. 

Near the close of 1882 Rev. Metheny, M.D., removed to 
Tarsus, where he is labouring. A large building with private 
departments, offices, class-rooms, a large dormitory and chapel 
have been erected, mainly, if not entirely, at his own expense, 
at Mersine. There is a successful board-school for girls in 
Tarsus. 

At the close of the last year the total receipts were 
$16,691=^3,477. The statistics of the Mission show a total 
of 659 pupils, 153 more than were enrolled the previous year, 
and 266 in advance of 1886. 



XVIII. — Reformed Presbyterian (General Svnod) in 
North America. 

The General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church 
commenced missionary operations at Saharanpur, Northern 
India, in 1836. In this year Rev. James R. Campbell was sent 
out by the Synod. In the following year Rev. Joseph Caldwell 
and family and Mr. James Craig were sent out. In 1839 



368 Reformed Presbytery^ General Synod. 

these brethren formed a Presbytery, which was known as the 
Reformed Presbytery of Saharanapur. In the same year a 
seminary was organized at Saharanapur for the education of 
Hindoos of both sexes, and the three brethren named became 
teachers in the school. In 1845 Rev. John Woodside and 
Rev. R. Hill were sent out by the Synod as missionaries to 
India; the former opened a school at Dehra Doon. In 1856 
a Mission station was opened at Roorkee. During these 
years missionaries received a part of their support from the 
Presbyterian Board and a part from the Reformed Presby- 
terian Board. In 1869 these Mission stations passed under 
the control of the Presbyterian Board. By mutual arrange- 
ment the Mission at Roorkee reverted to the control of the 
General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 1883. 
In the same year Rev. Geo. Scott was sent out to India by the 
General Synod. He is now, with a number of native assistants, 
labouring at Roorkee, with Rajpur, Hardwar, Kankhal, and 
Bealara, as outlying stations. A congregation has been 
organized at Roorkee^ and two schools are in operation at two 
of the above stations. 

Roorkee is a small civil and military station twenty-two miles 
east of and in the district of Saharanapur. The Rev. Mr. Scott 
in his report of the work at this station says : ' Services have 
been held regularly, also a Sabbath school, and prayer- 
meetings.' Preaching has been done in the adjacent villages, 
where the people sometimes treat the missionaries kindly, while 
at other times very rudely. Zenana work is reported in all 
the villages. Many of the respectable houses are open to the 
Bible-reader. Three women during the past year have been 
baptized. Books and tracts have been generally distributed. 
The following statistics are for March 1888 : — Census : number 
of families, 14 ; adherents, 50. Communicants : received on 
examination, 7 ; dismissed, 4 ; suspended, 2. Total number of 
communicants, 17. Baptisms : adults, 18 ; children, 4. Sabbath- 
school scholars : adults, 24 ; children, 4. Remarks : weekly 
contribution, rs. 70; thanksgiving, rs. 30; total, rs. 10 1. 



( 309 ) 

XIX. — United Presbyterian Church of North America. 

(Organised 1858.) 

Thirty years ago — or on the 26th of May, 1858 — the Associate 
and Associate Reformed Churches joined each other, and 
formed the United Presbyterian Church of North America. At 
that time the Missions of the former Church were in Trinidad 
and India, and the latter in Syria and Egypt. Altogether, 
there were nine foreign missionaries, Revs. Joseph Banks, 
Andrew Gordon, E. H. Stevenson and R. A. Hill, of the 
Associate Church, and Revs. Jas. Barnet, G. Lansing, Jas. A. 
Frazier, Thos. McCague and John Crawford, of the Associate 
Reformed. There were no native churches or missionaries, 
and only a few native scholars and teachers, and the 
whole amount of contributions then for the year was less 
than j8,ooo. It was a time of sowing — a day of small things — ■ 
a beginning of this Foreign Missionary work. 

The Foreign Work of this Church has been concentrated 
upon Egypt and India. 

Egypt. — In Egypt^ where the population is made up mainly 
of Copts and Mohammedans, the Copts have always been 
largely the people among whom the missionaries could work ; 
but under the tendencies of the great events of these later 
years in that land the Mohammedans are becoming more 
and more open to the Gospel and Christian influences, and 
thus the necessity for the thorough occupancy of the whole 
country by the missionaries of the Cross, with means of grace, 
becomes more and more pressing and urgent every year. 

New stations have been opened during the year at Surahana, 
Nezlet el Musk, Sufanuya, Dakoof, and Mit Ghamr ; and in 
addition to these many others are open. Rev. J. Griffen 
says : — 

' A spirit of inquiry seems to have spread over the whole country ; at 
almost every point I hear of new places where persons meet together to 
study the Bible.' 

The number of persons admitted on profession of faith, 384, 
was greater than during any year in the history of the Mission. 
In addition to $5,845 contributed for church purposes, the 
contributions from the Sabbath schools was $239, and the 

2 B 



370 United Presbyterian Church. 

receipts of the day schools supported by the natives were 
$6,265. When we compare these visible fruits with those of 
1877, when the membership was 784 and the contributions 
$1,853, we see substantial proof of progress. The public pro- 
fession of an Egyptian in the despised and maligned Evan- 
gelical Church is a proof of his sincerity ; but his voluntary 
contributions for the work of the Lord is confirmation of that 
proof. 

The Mission boat Ibis^ built for the Nile, was thoroughly 
repaired by means of the contributions of the Sabbath schools of 
our church at home. For about twenty-seven years it has carried 
the missionaries up and down the river as they distributed the 
Scriptures and preached the Gospel. It forms at once the 
means of transportation, a dwelling for the missionary and his 
family, and a place of worship in which meetings were held. 
Rev. John Griffen by its means scattered the seed in April and 
May between Asyoot and Assouan, a distance of 324 miles, 
and from September to December between El Feshn and 
Keneh, a distance of 164 miles. On these two journeys he 
visited 64 towns and villages, in 60 of which he held from one to 
five meetings, in 14 of them dispensed the Lord's Supper, 
and received 52 persons into the church on profession of their 
faith. He also baptized 36 infants of members of the church. 

This district embraces the adjacent provinces on the north, 
and the Fayoom and Beni Swaif, with parts of Minieh, to the 
south. It has 21 stations now open, with 564 communicants 
and 13 out-station schools. 

(i) Alexandria, at the west angle of the Delta, was opened 
in 1857. This station is the entrepot for all supplies, and the 
missionary has charge of the General Book Distribution. The 
district embraces the western part of the Delta. It has two 
stations, with 75 communicants. 

(2) Mansoora, opened 1869, is the centre of a large 
and wealthy district. Three stations, with 30 communicants, 
are reported, but work is being done in a number of other 
towns not on the Presbytery's list. 

The other two central stations are in Upper Egypt, each 
occupying a district having a radius of over one hundred miles 
up and down the Nile. 



United PresbyteiHaft Church. 371 

(3) AsYOOT, opened in 1865, is the seat of the Training 
College and Pressly Memorial Institute. E. E. Lansing, M.D., 
is attached to this station as physician. The district contains 
49 stations, having 1,402 communicants, with 55 congrega- 
tional schools. 

(4) Luxor, on the site of ancient Thebes, was occupied in 
1884. Until that date, since the death of the lamented Rev. 
Mr. Currie, this district had only received occasional visits from 
the missionaries at the other stations. It has 10 stations, with 
236 communicants. 

Out-Stations. — Eighty out-stations were reported last year. 
Work is actually begun in a number of other towns, but not 
in a regular way, while interest is being awakened all over the 
field. The harvest is ripe and only awaiting the harvesters. 
Most of these 80 stations contain communicants, and have 
regular meetings for public worship and study of the Word. 
At 45 places the congregations have some sort of meeting- 
place, but only a few are adequately provided for in this respect. 

The native workers in the evangelistic department are 10 
pastors, 7 licentiates, 18 Bible-readers, 5 theological students, 
20 Zenana workers, and altogether 240 Sabbath-school teachers. 
During the past year, 25,944 religious meetings were held, 384 
persons professed faith, and the net number of communicants, 
December 31, 181 7, was 2,307, an increase during the year of 
nearly 13 per cent. The average Sabbath morning attendance 
was 4,747, and at Sabbath-schools 4,338. The people con- 
tributed for preaching $5,845, for Sabbath-school expenses 
$240, for Zenana work $190. Eight book-shops have been 
opened, as supply depots and places of rendezvous, to which 
inquirers might safely come for light. Fifteen colporteurs have 
gone back and forth, from town to town, offering the Word of 
God, with the follo\\ing results : — Of Scripture, religious and 
educational books, the number of volumes sold was 33,609 ; 
the receipts from sales were $7,815. 

The educational department is three-fold. First : Evan- 
gelizing. The 5,600 boys and girls now in schools all get one 
or more, many of them three or four. Scripture lessons every 
day. Second : Training pastors and teachers. As early as 
1863 the missionaries initiated this work by organizing a class 

2 B 2 



372 United Presbyterian Church, 

of theological students. The effort has already given the work 
nine out of our ten pastors, all the seven licentiates, and ten more 
are under actual tuition, and ten others will (D. V.) in December 
1889 finish their studies in the training college, who have 
avowed their intention to give themselves to the work of pro- 
claiming the Gospel. Sixty-eight young men trained at the 
college are now teaching schools. The training schools for 
girls have also begun to send out teachers and Zenana workers. 
Third : Education. The Mission common schools are the 
only schools in Egypt for the peasant class. The theological 
seminary has 5 pupils, the training college has 311, three 
boys' schools count 695, six girls' schools 1,120, and 71 
congregational schools have 3,470 ; making a total under in- 
struction of 5,601. 

The ordained missionaries were 8 in 1865, and in 1887 
were 11. The native pastors and licentiates increased 
from none to 7. The organized congregations in 1865 
numbered only i, and now are 24. Then they occupied 5 
stations, now 85 ; then they enrolled 79 communicants, now 
2,307 ; then the average attendance on worship was 125, now 
it is 4,747 ; then there were no pupils in Sabbath-school, now 
there are 4,338; then they had 315 pupils in their schools, 
now they number 5,601. 

It will be noticed that iji the most important items results 
have nearly doubled — in some cases trebled — themselves each 
in five years. Among the outstanding results that cannot be 
tabulated is the awakening of the whole Coptic Church to a sense 
of the need of a radical reformation, and a desire to effect it by 
means or at least with the help of men who have been 
educated in the Mission schools. Add to this, that a purer 
Christianity has been placed before the Mohammedans of 
Egypt than they ever saw before. Seven hundred of their 
children hear it taught in school. This has opened the eyes 
of more than it would be prudent or safe to mention at the 
present time. Nearly 60 young men and women have been 
baptized during the past 20 years. 

India. — During the year this Society has lost by death the 
Rev. A. Gordon, D.D., the tounder of the India Mission. He 
commenced his work in 1855, He wrote a work entitled 
Our India Mission^ covering the Society's history in India, 



United Presbyterian Church. 373 

The work in India is in eight districts, Sialkot, Pasrur, East 
Giyranwala, West Giyranwala, Gurdaspur, Pathankat, Jhelum, 
and Zafarwal, containing a vast number of towns and villages, 
and a population of at least 5,000,000. Something of the year's 
work is shown by the following : — Four more Mission centres 
have been established ; two ministers have been ordained ; and 
one young man has been under the care of the Presbytery as 
a student of theology. The number of baptisms has been 
1,094, of which 817 were adult. The adult church member- 
ship last year was 4,019; it is now 4,571. Last year there 
were 129 schools, with 3,956 pupils; this year there are 135 
schools, with 4,085 pupils. The Sabbath attendance upon 
religious services reported has increased from 3,301 to 3,840 ; 
but this is a very imperfect report. The number of villages in 
which there are Christians is 425, last year it was 308. The 
whole Christian population has increased from 6,023 to 6,975. 

At Sialkot every department of Christian work has been 
carried on. The Theological Seminary and Christian Train- 
ing Institute have been very successful. The medical work in 
charge of Miss White, M.D., has closed the first year. In a 
little more than two months she dispensed medicine 737 times 
to 208 different patients, and made 128 visits to Zenanas. A 
temporary hospital has been provided until more permanent 
buildings can be put up. Zenana work is carried on among 
Hindus, Sikhs and Mohammedans, and about 340 houses are 
visited. Considerable work has been done among the lower 
classes, and from a carefully prepared table running over six 
years it was shown that the Mohammedans, Hindus, Sikhs 
and Megs have exceeded the average ; while the home 
Christians and Churas have fallen below it. 

During the past year the Board has cancelled $14,000 of 
the $22,000 debt resting upon it. The receipts from May 
1887 to May 1888 were 1100,323 = ^20,900. 

The receipts of this Society have gradually advanced from 
$8,574 in 1859 to $100,323 = ;^2o, 900 in 1888. 

The whole number of missionaries, male and female, sent 
out from the organization is 114; 6 of these were medical. 
The whole number now in the field is 18, with 16 married 
ladies and 21 unmarried, making a total of 54, 



374 Cumberland Presbyterian Board of Missions. 



SUMMARY.— UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

(Commenced 1854-5.) 



Centres or districts 

Stations 

Foreign missionaries .... 
Unmarried women missionaries . 

Physicians 

Native pastors 

Native licentiates 

Organized congregations 

Communicants 

Schools 

Pupils in schools 

Pupils in Sabbath schools . 

Contributions 

Tuition fees 

Books distributed (vols.) . 
Proceeds of sales of books . 
Total paid by natives for preaching, j 

schools, books / 

Value of missionary property . 



Egypt. 



7 

85 

10 

I 
10 

7 
24 

2,307 

82 

5,601 

4,338 

$5,902 

$10,449 

33 > 609 

$7,815 

$27,173 
$207,810 



India. 



8 
69 



4,571 
134 

4,341 
1,325 

I435.40 



$29,922 



Totals 



15 

154 

19 

21 

2 

22 

7 

32 

6,878 

216 

9,942 

5,663 

$6,337 

$10,449 

33,609 

$7,815 

$27,173 
$237,732 



XX. — Board of Missions of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. (Founded 18 18.) 

Early in the history of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
in the year 18 18, the presbytery of Elk, in the State of 
Tennessee, United States of America, sent out evangelists 
among the American Indians. The effort resulted in the 
opening, in the year 1820, of a Mission among the Chickasaw 
Indians, with the Rev. Robert Bell and wife as the missionaries, 
this being the first foreign Mission of the Church to pagans. 
The work has ever continued with marked success. The first 
General Board of the Church was chartered by the General 
Assembly in 1845. The present Board is the (not immediate) 
successor of this first organisation, and has charge of both the 
foreign and home work of the Church. The first distinctively 
foreign work of the Church was the sending of the Rev. 



Cumherlatid Presbyterian Board of Missions. 37'5 

Edmund Weir, a coloured man, to Liberia in 1857. He 
served in this field about ten years. In i860 a work was 
undertaken in Turkey, the Rev. J. C. Armstrong being sent to 
that field. The Civil War in the United States, coming on 
before this Mission was fairly started, so interrupted the work of 
the Church at home that it was found necessary to recall the 
missionary. In 1873 ^^ ^^v. S. T. Anderson was com- 
missioned a missionary to South America. He laboured for 
several years chiefly on the island of Trinidad. 

Japan. — In Japan the Rev. J. B. Hail and wife, the first 
missionaries, arrived in January 1877, and have been followed 
by others, including female missionaries sent out by the 
Women's Board. One ordained minister with his wife and 
three unmarried women have since been sent to this 
field. Osaka and Wakayma with four out-stations are occupied 
with ten missionaries. During the year the Wilmina school 
building for girls at Osaka was destroyed by fire ; but the 
Governor of Osaka tendered the school temporary use of a 
commodious house, so that they were interrupted but a short 
time. 

Mrs. A. M. Drennan and Miss Rena Rezner are connected 
with the school at present. The former has superintended the 
school and done a part of the English teaching, besides teaching 
English and the Bible to classes composed of men. Miss 
Rezner has done most of the English teaching in the school, 
and has also studied the Japanese language out of school 
hours. The following statistics have been furnished ; 

Average monthly attendance of pupils : day, 84 ; boarding, 
38. Baptized during the year, 14. Number of scholars wholly 
or partly supported by funds from United States of America, 
12. Number of native teachers, male, 4; female, 3. Average 
monthly salary of male teachers, 8 yen (about $6). 

The Churches of Yakayama and Shingu each support two 
schools, reporting a total attendance of 121 pupils and 40 
pupils respectively. One school in Wakayama is a free night- 
school for the poor. The other has existed for two years, and 
it has been re-organised, having about 75 scholars, and now 
offers instruction similar to that given in the first and second 
year classes in American Board College at Kyoto. The report 
says : — • 



376 Reforjned Butch Church Board of Missions. 

'A joint committee, appointed to prepare a statement of doctrine and 
form of government, which, if adopted by the churches, will unite the 
Congregational and Presbyterian churches (except Cumberland Presby- 
terians) of Japan, have prepared such a statement, and it is now being 
considered by the various societies and Presbyteries. Should this union 
be consummated, as now seems probable, the union of our own Church 
with the new Church will likely be discussed. Though this second union 
should be agreed upon, the standing of the ordained preachers in our 
Mission will remain unchanged. They retain membership in their re- 
spective Presbyteries in the United States of America.' 

The Society has work at AguascaHentes in Mexico. 
Property has been secured which will serve for a chapel, and a 
school has been purchased, and the Mission promises a 
permanent and successful work. Three missionaries are on the 
field. The money raised for the foreign work for the year 
amounted to $15,265 =;^3, 225, of which amount the Church 
contributed $7,885 . 24, and the Woman's Board $6,558 . 44, with 
some special contributions for the Mexico building fund and 
the Japan educational work. 



XXI. — Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed 
Church in America (Dutch). (Organised 1857.) 

As early as 1836 this Board co-operated with the American 
Board in beginning a Mission at Batavia in the island of Java. 
The missionaries were commissioned by the American Board, 
at the nomination of the Reformed Board. After seven years of 
this Mission in the Netherlands India, there were 5 labourers 
at various points of the dominion. The record of their 
endeavours, of the Government threatenings or evasions, of 
journeyings, of hoping against hope, are very copious. The 
work was among the Chinese and the Dyaks. In 1843 the cry 
came that China was 'open,' and a part of the force was 
transferred to that country. Others returned to the United 
States in ill-health; the last of these left in 1849, and the 
Mission was abandoned. 

China, 1842. — Burning with missionary zeal, David Abeel 
went to China in 1829, intending to labour as a chaplain 
among seamen. Soon after his arrival he became connected 
with the American Board. After a tour of the fields, he 
returned to the United States. Again he returned to Asia, and 
was labouring in Borneo when the British Treaty opened 



Reformed Dutch Church Board of Missions, 377 

China. He sailed for Amoy in 1841 with Bishop Boone, of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, and zealously urged upon the 
Reformed Church to send others to that field, which they did 
in 1844. In 1850 Dr. James Young, a physician under the 
direction of the Presbyterian Church of England, went to Amoy, 
and became associated with this w^ork. The devoted Wm. C. 
Burns, from Scotland, joined Dr. Young in 185 1. The 
Missions worked in harmony, and now there is a Chinese 
Classis or Presbytery managed by representatives of the native 
churches. 

The Amoy Mission was organised in 1844, and transferred to 
this Board in 1854. The missionaries of the church at Amoy 
are associated with those of the English Presbyterian Church, 
and these, together with the native pastors and elders, form the 
Tai-hoey or Classes of Amoy, embracing 15 churches, with a 
membership of 170 1. 

The Mission has long desired to establish a new station in 
the interior. This hope is about to be realized. The territory 
occupied by the Mission of the Reformed Church is about 60 
miles square, and contains 3,000,000 souls, and one station is 
not sufficient. The new station at Sio-khe will have a hospital 
and dispensary under the care of Dr. Otte. 

Educational Institutions. — The theological and middle 
schools are under the care of both Missions. The girls' 
school at Kolongsu is in charge of Misses C. M. and M. E. 
Talmage, of the Reformed Church Mission, and has 50 pupils. 
The Charlotte W. Duryee Home affords training to Chinese 
women who can be employed as Bible-readers. Forty women 
attended during the year. 

Of the 8 churches of the Mission 5 are now self-supporting. 
They received 56 souls to membership on confession. Fifty- 
four adults and 47 infants were baptized. The Mission also 
report the ordination of one new pastor, making 5 in all. 
The contributions of the churches average $3 . 44 per member. 
In the line of education good work has been done, but the 
Mission earnestly desire enlargement in this direction. Especi- 
ally do they desire to press the work of theological instruction, 
as a means to more rapid and healthy development. In this 
they have the full sympathy of their English brethren, who also 
set them the example of providing funds in aid of this 
department of labour. 



378 Reformed Dutch Church Board of Missions. 

The attendance in the girls' school has been larger than ever 
before, reaching the number of 50 scholars. It is a fact of 
interest that the way is now open for employing those who 
have received the benefits of this school as teachers. 

The entire number of ordained missionaries at the close of 
the year was 25; unordained, 3; of married ladies, 21; 
unmarried, 9 (one physician). The whole number is 58, the 
largest ever in the service of the Church in foreign lands. 

India, 1854. — The Arcot Mission was begun in 1854, and 
transferred as set forth already in 1857. It is divided into the 
North and South Arcot Missions. The stations of this Mission 
besides Arcot are Chittoor, Coonor, Madanapalle and Vellore. 
Besides the boarding-schools for girls at Vellore and Madana- 
palle, with 98 pupils, there are 8 caste girls' schools, with 586 
scholars. The school formerly known as the Arcot Seminary 
will hereafter be called the Arcot Academy. It had 71 
scholars in 1887. The Theological Seminary in the Arcot 
Mission, for which an endowment of $65,000 was last year 
procured by Dr. Chamberlain, was opened in March, 1888, 
with 13 students. It has 7 scholarships provided by churches, 
and 9 provided for by individuals. 

In the hospital and dispensary at Arcot 5,883 out-patients and 
475 in-patients were treated by Dr. Hekhuis. 

In addition to regular services at stations and out-stations, 
the Gospel has been preached during the year 18,006 times, in 
8,978 places, to heathen audiences numbering 395,979. More 
than 14,000 tracts, books, etc., were distributed. 

Japan (1859). — The Japan Mission was begun in 1859. 
Missionaries and Churches in Japan are associated with those 
of the Presbyterian Churches (North and South), the German 
Reformed Church of the United States, and the United 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in the Council of United 
Missions and the Union Church of Christ in Japan. 

The Dai Kwai, or Synod of the Union Church, includes 5 
Chiu Kwai (classes or presbyteries), 58 churches, and a total 
membership of 6,589, of whom 5,966 are adult communicants 
and 893 children. The number of baptisms was : adults, 
1,688 ; children, 199 ; total 1,887, or average of 5 for each day 
in the year. 



Reformed Dutch Church Board of Missions. 



79 



The Ferris Seminary, for girls, at Yokohama, had 135 scholars. 
It stands among the very first in Japan. The Jonathan 
Sturges Seminary, for girls, at Nagaski, had 17 scholars. The 
Wm. H. Steele, Jr., Memorial School, for boys and young men, 
at Nagaski, had 70 scholars. The Meijii Gakku-in of the 
United Church at Tokyo had 32 students in the Theological 
and 169 in the Academical Department. The receipts of this 
Society since 1857, in periods of 5 years, are as follows : from 
1858 to 1863, $134,055 ; from 1863 to 1867, $278,501, in 
addition to which $56,500 was given to remove the debt then 
resting on the Board, in a single donation; from 1868 to 
1872, $328,523; from 1873 to 1877, $316,046; from 1883 to 
1887, $403,544; for 1888, $109,946, with an addition of 
$45,335 raised through the efforts of Rev. Jacob Chamberlain, 
D.D., of Arcot, during a visit to America, for the endowment 
of the Theological Seminary.in the Arcot Mission ; an amount 
which has, how^ever, since been increased to $65,000. The 
total income since 1857 is $2,o53,836.54=:;£"4i2,767. 

GENERAL SUMMARY, 1887-8. 



China. 



India. 


Japan. 


8 


2 


86 


19 


8 


9 




2 


6 


10 


2 


4 


3 


l82 


138 


16 


47 




23 


16 


1.755 


1,969 


4 


2 1 


164 


126 


2 


2 


98 


152 


I 


2 


81 


17 


97 




2.503 


... 


$756.50 


64.702.50 



Stations ' i 

Out-stations and preaching places ... i8 

Missionaries, ordained 6 

,, unordained i 

Assistant missionaries, married .... 6 

,, „ single 2 

Native ordained ministers ; 5 

Other Native helpers, male 19 

,, ,, ,, female .... 

Churches ' 8 

Communicants 835 

Seminaries, male i .1 

,, male pupils | 18 

,, female i 

„ „ pupils. . , . . . 50 

Theological schools or classes . . . . ' i 

„ „ — students .... 7 

Day schools 9 

,, „ — scholars j 109 

Contributions of Native churches . . . $2,866.70 



II 

123 

25 

3 

21 

9 

26 

173 

47 

47 

4.559 

7 

308 

S 

300 

4 

106 
2,612 

§8,324.70 



1 The whole number of helpers in India are under theological instruction. The new- 
theological seminary opened in 1888 with thirteen students. 

2 The number of ordained ministers and other helpers in Japan, of churches and 
communicants, and their contributions, cannot be reported separately, as they are in- 
cluded in the statistics and work of the Union Church and the Council of United 
Missions. As an approximate estimate only, the figures above are given in each of 
these particulars, being generally ^3 per cent, of the United Church. 



( 38o ) 



XXII. — Board of Foreign Missions of the General 
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the 
United States. (Organised 1837.) 

One of the first efforts of this Society was to support the 
Rev. Mr. Rhenius Dinnevelly, India. Upon his death the 
Society resolved to estabhsh a Mission of its own, and in May 
1840 appointed the Rev. C. F. Heyer to carry out the object. 
Mr. Heyer was joined in 1844 by Rev. W. Gunn, and in 1849 a 
Mission was commenced in the Pahnud District. In 1858 three 
additional missionaries arrived, and in 1859 a new station was 
formed at Samulcotta. In 1874 the Rev. A. D. Rowe, the 
children's missionary to India, arrived, supported by the Sunday- 
schools of the Lutheran Church. In 1877 two native pastors 
were ordained. A Zenana Mission was estabHshed in 1881, 
and Miss Boggs was sent out as their first Zenana missionary. 
The evangelistical department is superintended by Rev. E. 
Unangst, D.D., assisted by 3 native pastors and 126 evangelists, 
catechists, and village preachers. Work was done in 322 towns 
and villages, in 98 of which prayer-houses have been built. The 
number ofbaptised members is 10,256, of whom 5.316 are adult 
communicants; 1,145 persons were added during the year, of 
whom 530 are adults. Number of Sunday-schools 5, pupils 
615. The benevolent contributions of the native church for 
the year amount to $2,050.03. In the educational department 
the college and its branches has an enrolment of 380 students 
and II teachers. Fees collected, $1,763.02. Through the 
efforts of Rev. L. L. Uhl, $15,600 has been secured for a 
college building, about $4,000 of which was given during 1887 
The Mission boarding-school has 132 pupils, of whom 27 
are under the care of the Zenana department. The ele- 
mentary schools have 2,177 --pupils and 145 teachers. The 
Zenana department, under the management of Miss Anna S. 
Kugler, M.D., and Miss Fannie M. Dryden, B.A., employed 
during the year 3 Eurasian assistants and 5 Bible-women, and 
supported 13 schools, with 28 teachers and 647 pupils. Fees 
and Government grants amounted to Rs. 1,796. Sunday- 
schools 3, and pupils 275. Seven homes were under instruction, 
and 140 homes visited. The medical department, in charge of 
Miss Dr. Kugler, has 4 dispensaries, at which 1,319 patients 



Mission Board of the Evajigelical Lutheran Church. 381 

were treated, while 188 received treatment at their homes, and 
4,911 medical prescriptions were compounded. 

SUMMARY FOR INDIA. 



Missionaries : 2 men and their wives, 2 single ladies ; 


total 


6 


Whole number of native Gospel workers 


137 


Baptized members, including children . 
Net gain during the year 
Communicants ..... 


. 10,256 

726 

. 5,816 


Sunday schools (regularly organized) 
Sunday-school scholars 
Congregations organized in 1887 . 
Prayer houses built in 1887 . 
Whole number of schools 


8 

: %° 

14 
158 


Teachers ...... 


184 


Pupils in all the schools 


• 3,336 


Candidates for the ministry . 


128 



Africa (i860). — The Mission of this Board in Liberia, 
Africa, is situate on a high bluff of the St. Paul's river, about 
thirty miles from the sea at Monrovia. The congregation 
here is entirely self-sustaining, and illustrates the success which 
may attend industrial Missions in Africa. In addition to the 
congregation at Muhlenberg, there is one five miles east, and 
another ten miles north of Muhlenberg. The total member- 
ship is 151, of whom 120 are adults; 33 communicants were 
added during the year. Schools are kept up at each of the 
three points, the pupils numbering 222. 

The Mission Farm of 130 acres has now some 13,000 coffee 
trees in bearing, which yielded during the year J3, 112.35 
worth of coffee, which was shipped to this country, and sold 
for the benefit of the Mission; 8,000 young trees were 
set out in 1886, and in 1887 27,000, making in all 48,000 trees 
on about 95 of the 100 acres that compose the original Mission 
Farm. A blacksmith and machine-shop, under the manage- 
ment of a skilled mechanic, has been added to the industrial 
department Tools and machinery to the amount of between 
$1,500 and $2,000 were donated by Mr. Irons and Mr. H. 
M. Schieffelin, a benevolent gentleman of New York City, who 
is interested in Mr. Day's work. Ten native helpers, of 
whom two are ordained ministers, are assisting our missionaries 
n various departments of the work. 



( 382 ) 



XXIII. — General Council Evangelical Lutheran 

Church. 

A Mission was established at Rajahmundry in 1845, by the 
North German Missionary Society of the Lutheran Church, 
who had missionaries in Guntur, India. As this Society was 
unable to support all the stations in India, in 1869 Rajahmun- 
dry and Samulcotta were transferred to the General Synod to 
the General Council at Rajahmundry all the boarding and 
training-schools. There are 5 ordained foreign workers and 
69 lay workers. Some 55 schools are reported, with nearly 
700 scholars. The annual income of the Society amounts 
to about $10,000. 



XXIV. — Board of;Missions of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church (South). 

The Rev. W. P. Swartz was the foreign missionary of this 
Board at Guntur, India, appointed in 1885. The United 
Synod arranged for his support, but he remained only a short 
time, and the Board then resolved to establish a Mission work 
at its own cost, as it was thought that the Southern churches 
required a Mission of their own in order to develop liberality. 
Japan has been selected as the field. 



XXV. — Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church 
(German) in the United States. (Organised 1838.) 

This Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions of the 
Reformed Church was organised on the 29th day of September, 
1838, at Lancaster, Penn. It is an interesting fact that the 
suggestion to organise a Foreign Missionary Board came from 
the Home Missionary Society, while holding its annual meeting. 
Immediately upon the formation of the Foreign Board, 5 
ministers arose and signified their willingness to sustain a 
missionary in heathen lands. 

The Rev. Benjamin Schneider, of Hanover, Montgomery 
Co., Penn., pursued a course of study at Amherst, and also at 
Andover Theological Seminary, and became a Presbyterian. 



Missio7is of the Reformed German Church, 383 

He was married in 1838, and on December 12th of that same 
year he and his wife sailed from Boston for Turkey, under the 
auspices of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign 
Missions. His first field of labour was Broosa, in Asia Minor, 
where he spent fifteen years. In 1849 he was sent to Aintab, 
where he was successful in founding congregations, in training 
a large number of young men for the Christian ministry, and in 
preaching the Gospel to the multitudes. This man of God 
was born in the bosom of the Reformed Church, but had been 
separated from it (ecclesiastically) for a season. 

After the organisation of the Board of Foreign Missions, 
efforts were made to procure missionaries for the foreign field, 
but without success. The question then arose, ' What particular 
Mission shall receive the aid of the church ? ' There was but 
one answer to the inquiry : ' If Brother Schneider, who is 
" flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone," will transfer his 
membership from the Presbyterian to our church, the funds 
shall go to the support of the Mission at Broosa.' 

In 1840, a proposition was made to the Newcastle Presbytery, 
but the brethren were loth to part with their faithful 
missionary, as was also the missionary to part from the 
Presbytery. ' But,' said the Presbytery, after due and prayer- 
ful consideration of the whole subject, 'if it will be for the 
interest of Christ's kingdom, and advance the Foreign Mission 
cause in the German Reformed Church, we are willing that it 
shall be made.' The transfer was made in the year 1845, "^"^^ 
until the year 1864 our church was a regular contributor to 
the American Board for the Central Turkey Mission. From 
that time the subject of Foreign Missions took a deeper 
hold on the hearts of the people, and became an inestimable 
joy and blessing to many who have since fallen asleep. 
Though this Church did not have control of the Broosa and 
Aintab Church, they contributed to their support for 25 years 
through the American Board ^28,000. But in i860, the Synod 
becoming dissatisfied with this way of helping to evangelise the 
heathen, an effort was made to have the Mission at Aintab 
transferred to this Board ; but this was thought inexpedient. 

In 1865 the Synod decided to establish a Mission of its 
own, and to cease contributing to the American Board. The 
last money was paid on October 9th, 1865. The American 
Board decHned to surrender missionary Schneider, but he 

{Conthtued on p. 385. 



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TOKIO DiSTRK 

Nihon Bashi 
Oji . . 
Iwatsuki . 
Matsubayash 

Noda . 
Bancho . 

Sendai Distri 
Sendai . 
Fukushima 
Nakamura 
Hobara . 
Iwanuma. 
Ishinomaki 
Tome . 
Furukawa 
Hakodate 
Mombetsu 
Iburi . . 
Mororan . 
Yamagata 



Missions of the Reformed German Church. 385 

continued a member of the Maryland Classes until his death 
in 1877. For some years following, nothing of any interest 
was done in Foreign Mission work, until 1872, when the 
General Synod directed the treasurer of the Board to pay the 
interest of money in its hands, as also the contribution on 
hand, to the German Evangelical Foreign Missionary Society, 
This was done until 1875, when the Synod resolved to com- 
mence a Mission of its own. Some work was done in India, 
and among the Indians of the North-West. In 1873, the Board 
of Missions was re-organised, and arrangements made for 
opening work in Japan, and this re-organisation occurred in 
in the same church in Lancaster where the Board first had its 
birth. The Rev. Ambrose D. Gring was chosen as the first 
missionary to Japan, and as soon as this was done money 
began to flow into the treasury. During the last 10 years, 
the Board has had the great pleasure of sending forth four 
male and three female missionaries. The contributions of the 
Board to Foreign Missions for 1888 amounted to $20,000. 
There are at present four married missionaries and two single 
ladies in Japan. Tokio, Sendai and Yamagata are the points 
occupied. There are two congregations at Tokio, a congrega- 
tion, a girls' school and a theological training school in Sendai, 
and a congregation in Yamagata, where there is an English 
Japanese boys' school. Besides this, there are 15 other 
preaching places, and about 1,200 church members. These 
natives contributed $2,000 last year for missionary work. 



XXVL— Friends. 



There are 11 yearly meetings of the Society of Friends in 
America, and nearly all of them are engaged in Foreign Mission 
work. They co-operate with other societies in foreign work, 
but have taken great interest in American Indians. No report 
is at hand, but Anna B. Thomas, the secretary of the Baltimore 
Yearly Meeting, writes of their work : — 

' Baltimore Yearly Meeting of Friends (Orthodox) comprises Maryland, 
Virginia, and Western Pennsylvania. Its membership is not much over 
900, and none of its own members are working in the foreign field. It 
contributed about $900 to the foreign missions last year, $400 of which 
was used for the rent of schoolrooms and salary of the native teacher for a 
boys' day school at Victoria, Mexico. This gentleman is an accredited 

2 C 



386 Foreign Christian Missionary Society, 

minister in the Friends' meeting in Mexico, and spends his Sabbaths in 
evangelistic labours. Three hundred dollars were sent to Japan to pay 
the salary and traveUing expenses of a Japanese Christian, who is employed 
as travelling secretary of the Japanese Scripture Union. This is an un- 
denominational association for the promotion of Bible study among the 
Japanese. It now numbers 7,000 members, residing in over two hundred 
different towns and villages in Japan. One hundred and fifty dollars were 
sent to Syria for the support of a day school in one of the Lebanon 
villages connected with the mission station belonging to Enghsh Friends 
at Beumana, Mt. Lebanon. Smaller sums were sent to support an orphan 
in India, to the McAll, Mission in Paris, and to a missionary in the Indian 
Territory. The interest in Foreign Missions is on the increase amongst 
the members of Baltimore Yearly Meeting.' 

The women of this branch of the church have a very active 
and energetic Women's Society, and its organ, the Friends^ 
Missionary Advocate^ is a very vigorous paper. 



XXVII. — The Foreign Christian Missionary Society 
(Christians or Disciples of Christ). (Organised 1875.) 

The Foreign Christian Missionary Society was organised at 
Louisville, Kentucky, in 1875, and was intended exclusively for 
the conduct of foreign work ; but, by what seemed to them 
Providential demand, they have been led to commence work in 
Denmark and other parts of Europe. The work in Scandinavia 
was begun by a converted Dane. After his conversion he 
wanted to go to his native land to tell his kindred and country- 
men what great things the Lord had done for him, and how 
He had had mercy on him. The work in Turkey began the 
same way. A young Armenian found his way to Dallas, 
Texas ; while there, he was won to Christ. Then an un- 
quenchable desire sprang up in his heart to return to Turkey, 
that he might preach the unsearchable riches of Christ among 
those who were perishing in ignorance and wickedness. The 
work in India was begun by a man who had been there some 
years before he was employed by the Society. Thus, step by 
step, the managers have been led by what they believe to be 
the finger of God indicating the way they should take. 

As its missionary statistics include its churches in England 
and Scandinavia, it is not possible to give the aggregates 
correctly in non-Christian countries. The receipts for last year 
amount to $40,559; from the beginning the total receipts are 



Foreign Christian Missionary Society. 387 

$259,201. Turkey has 10 stations, 3 missionaries and 9 
native helpers, and 373 members; India has 2 stations, 7 
missionaries and 4 native helpers, and 2 1 members ; Japan has 
I station, 5 missionaries, and 63 members ; China has i station 
and 7 missionaries. There are no converts in China yet. 

XXVIII. — The American Christian Convention has 
until recently confined its labours to the home field, but at the 
close of 1886 $1,281 was contributed to start a Foreign Mission ; 
and on January 8th, 1887, Rev. and Mrs. D. T. Jones sailed for 
Japan to begin a Mission there. The work is progressing 
finely, under their vigilant care and that of the native helpers. 
Into the Ishinomaki Church 34 persons in all had been 
received, the most of whom had been baptised by Mr. Jones. 
He has also organised a second church, 50 miles from Ishino- 
maki, of 1 1 members with 6 baptisms, and fine prospects. 

An organisation at Tokyo is also decided on. The church 
building in Ishinomaki is occupied and paid for, and no debt 
has thus far been incurred. The secretary says : — ' We have 
never in any work been more signally blessed than in this work.' 

The number of converts cannot be closely stated. The work 
is only in its second year. 

XXIX. — The United Brethren in Christ conduct some 
foreign work, but the only part of it among heathen is in Africa, 
and no particulars are at hand. The work in West Africa was 
begun in 1856 at Sherbro, but for many years Shengay station 
has been the head of the Mission. 

XXX. — The Mennonites conduct work among the 
Arapahoe and Cheyenne tribes of Indians, but publish no 
report except what is contained in a small quarterly leaflet of 
16 pages — ' Yierteljahres-Bericht.' 



THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

(Organised 1816.) 

No review of the operations of the missionary organisations of 
the United States in heathen and papal lands would be com- 
plete without including a reference to the work of the American 

2 c 2 



388 Anicrican Bible Sociciy. 

Bible Society. The issues of the Society during 72 years 
amount to 49,829,563 copies. The Asiatic issues have in- 
cluded ancient and modern Syriac, Armenian, Arabic, Chinese 
and Japanese languages. Those of Africa have been in Zulu, 
Grebo, Benga, Mpongwe, Dikele. In the islands of the sea. 
Scriptures and portions have been issued in Hawaiian, 
Micronesian, Kusien, Ponape, Ebon, Mortlock, and the Gilbert 
Island tongues. In the languages of the American Indians, 
Scriptures have been printed in Cherokee, Choctaw, Mohawk, 
Dakota, Arrawack, Ojibwa, INIuskokee and Seneca. 

Large editions of the Scriptures have been printed in other 
lands at the expense of the Society, among which the following 
are worthy of special mention : 

At Constantinople, 5,000 Bibles in Armeno-Turkish; 2,500 
Bibles and 2,500 Testaments in Osmanli-Turkish ; 1,000 Old 
Testaments and 6,000 Portions in Hebrew; and at Beirut, 
5,000 Bibles and 29,000 Portions in Arabic. 

At Shanghai, 1,025 Testaments in Wenli : 2,000 Gospels in 
Wenli and English ; 3,000 Portions in Canton Colloquial ; 
3,000 -Testaments and 205,030 Portions in Mandarin; at 
Foochow, 3,000 Testaments and 4,000 Portions in Colloquial ; 
and at Pekin, 1,000 Portions in Easy Wenli : making in all 
222,055 volumes, or more than 19,000,000 pages. 

At Bangkok, 2,500 copies each of Mark, Luke, and John. 

At Yokohama, 18,867 Testaments and 58,350 Portions in 
Japanese. 

At Bremen, 10,700 Bibles and 7,740 Testaments in German. 

At Paris, 10,000 Testaments in French. 

The following list gives the names of the Agents and Assis- 
tant Agents now serving the Society in foreign lands by 
appointment of the Board, whose whole time is devoted to its 
interests, with the dates of their appointment : 

Levant . Rev. Isaac G. Bliss, D.D., Constantinople 1857 

,, . Rev. Edwin M. Bliss 1877 

La Plata . Rev. Andrew M. Milne, Buenos Ayres 1864 

China . Rev. Luther H. Gulick, M.D., Shanghai 1875 

Mexico . Rev. H. P. Hamilton, Mexico 1879 

Persia. . Rev. Wm. M. Whipple, Tabreez 1880 

Japan. . Rev. Henry Looniis, Yokohama . ...... i88r 

Cuba . . Rev. Andrew J. McKim 1884 

Brazil. . Rev. H. C. Tucker, Rio de Janeiro 1887 

Peru . . Rev. F. Penzotti, Lima 1887 

Venezuela Rev. William M. Patterson, D.D., Caracas .... i8i:8 

But what it does directly through its own agents is but a 



A 1)1 eric a ti Bible Society, 389 

portion of its work. It supports an extensive colportage 
system, auxiliary to almost all foreign missions from America, 
and bears the expense of translating and printing the Scriptures 
in many countries. Within the year Mr. Labaree has been 
engaged upon a revision of the modern Syriac version of the 
Old Testament, and the printing of it has been commenced. 
The Book of Genesis in Canton colloquial has been put to 
press. Committees have in hand versions in Easy Wenli, 
and the Foochow and Amoy colloquial New Testament ; 
also the Telugu Old Testament revision has been resumed, 
and the Japanese Bible was completed. A large share of the 
expense of translating the Japanese New Testament was paid 
by the American Bible Society, which has had a smaller share 
also in the production of the Old Testament. An edition of 
the Bible in Ancient Armenian is contemplated. Other work 
in various parts of the earth of a similar character is being 
completed, or is under consideration. 

In Beirut, 30,000 copies were printed during the year. 
Editions of the Gospel are being issued in Siam as fast as the 
Presbyterian press at Bangkok can print them, and similar 
statements would be true of other countries, and in co-operation 
with other missions. The colportage reports are too extensive 
to admit of more than a reference. In Ceylon, for instance, 
the year's work shows the circulation of 1,181 Scriptures and 
1,090 portions; that of Madura, India, 350 Tamil Bibles, 750 
Testaments and 5,600 portions. The circulation for 1887 was 
17,981 more than in 1886, which was the best year the 
Society till then had, and 29,173 more than in 1884, the next 
best of their years. In Japan the number of volumes circulated 
in 1887 was 72,926, being 31,581 more than in 1886. The 
total of volumes issued from the Bible house last year for 
foreign lands was 63,832 volumes. The expenditures of this 
Society for foreign work for the year 1887-88 were $143,570, 
and in the last ten years it has been $1,343,294, besides what 
has been expended in the Bible house in printing the Scriptures 
in foreign languages for circulation abroad. The receipts of 
he Society last year were $557,340 = ^^116,112. 

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( 393 ) 



WOMEN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED 
STATES AND CANADA. 

In 1834 Dr. David Abee], one of the earliest missionaries to 
China, being in England for rest, told of the degradation of 
the women of the East, and drew up an appeal to the Christian 
women of Great Britain, which resulted in the organisation of 
The Society for Promoting Female Education in the East. 

When Dr. Abeel reached the United States, he met a 
company of women in the parlours of Mrs. T. C. Doremus, in 
New York City, and made an appeal to the women of America, 
as he had done to those of Great Britain. It was not till after 
25 years that this 'seed long buried' gave the impulse for the 
organisation of the Women's Union Missionary Society of 
America, the mother Society of all the American Women's 
Societies. 

There was little thought a few years ago, when American 
women were engaged in the great activities of the Sanitary 
Commission, that God had women in training then^for much 
greater work elsewhere. They there became experts in 
organisation and administration on a large scale. Vast and 
independent responsibilities were upon them. They grew under 
them and up to them, and at the close of the war were as a 
giant waked out of a dream. The Providence which had been 
enlarging their capacities and developing their resources had 
during those same years been preparing a new field for their 
exercise, by a most marvellous change in political, social, and 
religious affairs in Asia, through which were afforded hitherto 
unknown opportunities for reaching the women of the East by 
the women of Christendom. None but a very dull student 
could fail to discern the relation between this agency, flushed 
with its triumphs in camp and hospital, and the Providence 
which set before them this new ' open door.' Nor were they 
slow to enter it. 

Within less than a decade occurred one of the most extensive 
and rapid organisations of the religious activities of Christian 



JVomen's Missionary Societies. 393 

women that ecclesiastical history records, and their achieve- 
ments have become the characteristic feature of the missionary 
work of the last quarter of a century. Following the admirable 
Woman's Union Missionary Society, large denominational 
organisations of women for this foreign work sprung into 
existence in the following chronological order : The Congre- 
gationalist Woman's Board (1868), The Methodist Epis- 
copal (1869), The Presbyterians (1870), The Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union (187 1), The Protestant Episcopal (1872), The 
Reformed (Dutch) Church (1875), and The Lutheran (1879). 

I. — Woman's Union Missionary Society (organised 
1 861). — This Society is supported by 27 Auxiliary Societies. 
The reported income for 1887 was $37,346. It conducts work 
in Calcutta, Allahabad and Cawnpore, India; in Shanghai, 
China ; and in Yokohama, Japan. The sums contributed for 
the support of their work at Mission stations amounts to a 
considerable total — nearly J 10,000. 

Miss Hook, of Calcutta, says : ' During the past year there 
has been a revival of Christian literature. New books, papers 
and tracts have been written, and an immensely large number 
of the old ones have been sold and distributed.' Dr. Reiff- 
snyder, of Shanghai, conducts a very prosperous medical work. 

II. — Woman's Board of Missions (Congregational) 
(organised 1868.) — Three Woman's Boards of the Congrega- 
tional Church co-operate with the American Board, namely : the 
Woman's Board of Missions, with headquarters at Boston, the 
Woman's Board of Missiofis of the Interior, with headquarters 
at Chicago, and the Womatis Board of Missions of the Pacific, 
centring at San Francisco. The last has just organised an 
Oregon and Washington Territory Branch. This Pacific Board 
was not organised until 1872. The three Boards had con- 
tributed to the general work of the Prudential Committee, at 
the time of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the American Board, 
$1,270,000. 

On January 11-12 of this year, the Woman's Board celebra- 
ted its twentieth anniversary in Boston. Mrs. S. Brainard Pratt, 
in her ' Twenty Years' Review,' says : ' In 1868 we began with 
7 missionaries, 4 of whom have continued through all these years 
at their labours, In 1888, we can number 171 missionaries 



394 JVomeu^s Missionary Societies. 

who have been under our care, 12 of whom have died, others 
withdrawn ; and now we have in active service 102 missionaries 
and 132 Bible-women. Twenty years ago the Board had no 
school-buildings of its own to which to send its seven teachers. 

' The Board's first fields of labour were China, Ceylon, 
Turkey, and Zululand. They have added to these India, Persia, 
Japan, Spain, Mexico, Austria, Micronesia, West Central and 
East Central Africa. 

'In 1870 the Woman's Board welcomed its first daughter, 
the Philadephia Branch; now it has twenty-three branches, 
comprising 1,700 auxiliaries and circles. Last year the receipts 
amounted to $123,240; and for the twenty years, in money 
paid into the treasury, $179,457. 

' The Woman's Branch at Boston supports no missionaries, 
and 121 Bible-women in its various missions. The receipts 
for the year ending December 31, 1887, were $123,229. 

'The Woman's Board of the Interior has 1,500 auxiliaries, 
and supports 62 missionaries. Their income last year amounted 
to $51,171. The Woman's Board of the Pacific has 75 
auxiliaries, and supports three missionaries. Its income last 
year was $4,045.' 

III. — Woman's Boards, Presbyterian Church. — The 
Missions of the several Presbyterian Woman's Boards are in 
Syria, Persia, India, Siam, Japan, Korea, Papal Europe, South- 
west Africa, Mexico, and among Indians and Chinese in this 
country. 

( I . ) JVoma/i's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian 
CJnirch (organised 1870). — This Society has 2,725 auxiliary 
societies and bands, and supports 133 missionaries, 3 of whom 
are physicians, 27 zenana visitors, 84 native helpers, and 165 
day and boarding-schools. Its income last year was $150,000, 
making a total of $1,647,618 since its organisation. 

(2.) The Wo?nan's Board of Missio?is of the North-West 
(organised 1870). — It has 1,522 auxiliary societies and bands, 
supports 71 missionaries, 4 of whom are physicians, 57 native 
teachers and Bible teachers, and 102 day and boarding-schools. 
Its receipts last year were $102,499, and its total contributions 
$726,277. 

(3.) Woniaji's Board of Foreign Missions^ New York 
(organised 1870), has 900 auxiliary societies and bands, supports 



Women^s Missionary Societi 



tes. 



395 



41 missionaries, 32 native helpers, 22 schools, and its income last 
year was §65,544, a total, since its organisation for foreign 
work, of §430,346. 

(4.) PVomau's Preshyteriaii Society^ Northern New York 
(organised 187 1). — This Society has 220 subordinate organi- 
sations, and supports 5 missionaries, 13 native pastors, 49 
schools and scholarships, and its income last year was 10,413, 
a total during its existence of §120,812. 

(5.) WojnaiUs Fresbyferia?i Boaj'd of Missions of the South- 
West (organised 1877), headquarters at St. Louis. It has 376 
societies and bands. Its income last year was §7,193, making 
a total, since its organisation, of §28,968. It has several 
missionaries under its care, and scholarships in many countries. 

(6.) Woman's North Pacific Presbyteriaii Board of Missions^ 
(organised 1887), and has for its home-field the Synod of 
Columbia. There was some regret at the separation of this 
territory from the main society, and at the multiplication of the 
number of societies ; but as the step was taken with the 
approval of the Presbytery and Synod, all concur, and wish an 
increased efficiency for these workers. The Society is not yet 
in condition to report auxiliaries. 

The following is a summary of the woman's work of all these 
Societies : — 

REPORT OF THE FIVE WOMEN'S FOREIGN MIS- 
SIONARY ORGANISATIONS OF THE PRESBY- 
TERIAN CHURCH, FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

MAY I, 1888. 



Society. 



Woman's Foreign Miss. Soc 
of the Presbyterian Church, 
Philadelphia 

Woman's Presb. Board of) 
Missions of the North- West] 

Woman's Board of Foreign! 
Missions of the Presb. Ch.,> 
New York ) 

Woman's Presb. For. Miss.l 
Soc. of Northern New York] 

Woman's Presb. Board ofl 
Missions of the South- West] 

Totals .... 



Gain 

Receipts. : ^"J;^"g ^^^f 
^ the ancs. 

Year. I 



149,640 19,821 2,38s 

82,472 15,412 1,522 

62,544 1^.407 I 900 

10,413 I ... 118 

I 

7'2i7 I 503 47 



Gain I Native 

during Mission- Teachers 
the aries. and Bible 
Year. Women. 



$312,286 :S48,i43 3.859 

I 



319 



39^ Women's Missionary Societies. 

In addition to these larger items, they have aided in the 
building, furnishing and support of schools, hospitals, orphan- 
ages, training-schools for nurses, asylums, and dispensaries : 
have translated books into foreign languages and printed them : 
have built a boat for African waters : have supported a Mexican 
newspaper : have met all expenses connected with work at 
home, and have paid unappropriated into the treasury of the 
Assembly Board five per cent, of their receipts for contingent 
expenses connected with special work. 

The whole amount raised for these purposes by the women 
of the Church, since the organisation of the first Society in 
1870, is $2,934,021. Adding to this the many thousand 
dollars given to specific objects outside of the regular estimates, 
and the legacies paid into the Board direct from the estates 
of Presbyterian women (one of which is the largest legacy they 
have ever received), amounting in all to about $500,000 — we 
have raised during these nearly eighteen years over $3,500,000. 

(7.) There is also a IVonmn's Board of the Pacific Isla?ids^ 
which was organised in 187 1. 

IV. — Woman's Work in the Presbyterian Church 
IN THE United States (Southern). — There is no separate 
organisation of the ladies of this Church for the conduct of 
foreign work. In the Southern Presbyterian Church there was 
contributed last year by Ladies' Foreign Missionary Societies, 
$20,732. The number of these Societies contributing was 457. 
In 1874 the contributions of these Societies amounted to 
$2,111; in 1878, $10,107. Since 1874, when the contributions 
of the Societies began to be reported separately from the other 
receipts, the total amount contributed by them has been 
$135,682. The Societies have in general had no association 
with one another. Within the last year Presbyterian Associa- 
tions have in some cases been formed. 

V. — Reformed Presbyterians. — They have no Woman's 
Missionary Societies, except in connection with individual 
congregations, and there are no published reports of their 
work. 

VI. — Woman's Board of Missions of the United 
Presbyterian Church (organised 1879). — This is a joint 



IVojnen's Missioiidry Societies^ 397 

home and foreign Missionary Society. They gave to foreign 
missions in 1888 $15,619. 

A deep and prayerful interest has pervaded the whole Church 
in regard to the debt resting on the Board of Foreign Missions 
and retrenchment of work in Egypt, where schools which have 
been in existence for many years have actually been closed for 
want of funds. 

VII. — Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church (organised 1879). — 
This Board supports work in Japan, Mexico, and among North- 
American Indians. Its income last year was $1,920. During 
the past year 120 new societies and bands have been organised, 
and the total now enrolled is 822. 

VIII. — Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Reformed (Dutch) Church in America (organised 1875). — 
This Society now has 200 auxiliary societies and bands. The 
total receipts amount to $126,874. For 1887 they raised 
$17,544. Their report states that — 

* The Woman's Board has assumed the support of the girls' schools 
estabhshed by the Synod's Board, and it is not probable that the women of 
our Church will ever enter upon work disconnected, or upon the forming 
of schools other than those estabhshed by the Board of the Church.' 

The sum of $5,500 has been annually pledged for the 
support of three seminaries, one at Amoy, China, one at Yoko- 
hama, Japan, and one at Chittoore, India, together with two 
caste schools at Vellore. 

During the year the Society has sent as its first medical 
missionary, a young Chinese lady graduated in New York, who 
offered herself to the Woman's Board, and was accepted, and 
is now in Amoy, China. 

Miss Y. May King, M.D., is a native of China, but brought 
up from the age of two years in the family of Dr. McCartee, 
for many years a medical missionary in China. She is the first 
woman of her nation, as far as known, to obtain a medical 
education in this country, and attained the first honours of the 
institution at which she pursued her studies. Her prospects 
for usefulness are great ; and she already asks for funds to 
start a dispensary and hospital. In India the Society has work 



398 Women's Missionary Societies, 

at Vellore, Tindivanum, Arnee, Chittoore, Wallajah, and Mada- 
napalle. In Japan, at Yokohama and Nagasaki ; while from 
Tokyo, as a centre, Japanese women are sent forth to read the 
Bible and gather women into the churches. The Jonathan 
Sturges Seminary, at Nagasaki, is fairly started, with fourteen 
boarders. 

In China, the Charlotte Duryea School, at Amoy, has had 
forty women in attendance. The girls' school at Kolong-See 
has had about fifty pupils. The Children's Home is a new 
branch of work organised during the year, because of many 
cases of cruelty towards girl children having come to the 
knowledge of these ladies. 

IX. — Reformed (German) Church in the United States. 
— They co-operate with the General Society ; but in what form 
we cannot say. 

X.— Woman's Foreign Missionary iSociety of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of the United States 
OF America (organised 1879). — This Society has a Board of 
Home and Foreign Missions. The corresponding secretary's 
report for the year gives the following statistics : Number of 
woman's societies, 379; young people's bands, 57 ;' total, 
436. Number of members, 10,613 ; honorary members, 
1,105; life members, 156; total members, 11,874. The 
total amount of money raised for the year is $14,197. Of this 
amount $5,425 was for Foreign Missions. 

The Society has work in Gunthoor, India, consisting of 10 
day-schools, with 19 native teachers and 518 pupils. These 
schools are under the care of Miss Dryden, who received from 
the English Government the position of Superintendent of 
Girls' Schools in Gunthoor. 

In 1885 Miss Kugler, M.D.,was appointed their first medical 
missionary to Gunthoor, where a dispensary was opened in 
1886, and an effort to raise $15,000 for a hospital. Part of 
this money has been secured. Zenana work is carried on with 
the assistance of 8 native helpers. 

XII. — Baptist Woman's Boards — Northern Con- 
vention. 

(i.) Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society (organised 



PFo men's Missionary Societies. 399 

1876). — Last year the rallying-cry was ' $70,000, or more,' and 
their receipts were $75,369, being an advance of $13,000 over 
the previous year, $10,000 of which was an advance from 
donations. 2,633 churches contribute to this fund, with 1,243 
circles, 32,973 contributors, 616 bands, with 14,120 members. 
They support work in Burmah, among Karens, Shans, Eurasians, 
Chins, Kachins ; in India, among the Tekigus, and in Assam ; 
in Africa, on the Congo ; in China, at Swatow, Ningho ; Japan, 
at Tokyo, Yokohama ; France and Sweden. 

(2.) Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of the 
West (organised 1871). — The total receipts of this Society last 
year were $44,846. It has also an invested Medical Fund 
of $3,335, through which 4 medical women are preparing for 
foreign work. It conducts a ' course in Christian doctrine,' 
a ' preparatory course for candidates,' in which 4 ladies 
graduated during the year, and 8 others are enrolled. Be- 
sides the countries in which the Boston Baptist Society labours, 
this Society supports work in Liberia, Africa. It has sent 45 
women to the foreign field. 

Bible-women have 109 schools, with 3,850 scholars, ot which 
1,133 ^^^ f^*^"^"^ heathen homes ; 246 baptisms are reported by 
them. They conduct a Home for Children of Missionaries 
in this country at a cost of $1,259. 

XIII. — Executive Committee Woman's Mission Society. 
Auxiliary TO Southern Baptist Convention. — This Society 
has been formally organised within the year. The Ladies' 
Auxiliaries, however, during the year ending May i, 1888, 
contributed $15,554 to regular Southern BapUst Convention 
Missionary Society. 

XIV. — Free Baptist Woman's Missionary Society 
(organised 1873). — The Society supports Miss Combs, Miss 
Butts, Miss Hattie Phillips, Mrs. Smith, Miss Ida Phillips, and 
Miss Bacheler. The work of this Society is located at Bengal, 
India. 

XV. — Woman's Auxiliary to the Board of Missions 
OF THE Protestant Episcopal Church (organised 187 1). — 
A summary of the year's work, 1887-8, shows that the work was 
carried on in 48 dioceses and 12 missionary jurisdictions, by 48 



400 Women^s Missionary Societies, 

diocesan and many parish branches and individual members of 
the Woman's AuxiHary. They conduct home and foreign 
work. They raised last year over J 2 5,000 for foreign missions. 

XVI. — Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church (organised 1869). — The work 
of this Society is conducted by 10 co-ordinate branches. This 
is purely a foreign mission in papal and pagan lands. 

The administration of the Society is in an Executive Board, 
composed of three delegates from each branch, that meets 
annually. This Society is independent, in that it selects its 
own missionaries and disburses its own funds, subject to ratifi- 
cation by Missionary Board. 

The home statistics are as follows : Auxiliary societies, 
4,264, with 109,271 members; young ladies' societies 408, 
with 6,689 members; children's bands 777, with 11,208 
members — making total organisations 5,449, and total member- 
ship 127,178; life members 9,451; honorary managers 452; 
life patrons 71; conference secretaries 76; and district 
secretaries 279. Over 13,000 mite-barrels have been distri- 
buted, to gather up the fragments. The treasury, that great 
barometer of Christian life and sympathy, has risen to a mark 
never before reached in the Society's history. The whole 
amount contributed was $206,308. 

One hundred and sixty-two missionaries have been sent out 
to foreign fields, of whom 26 were medical missionaries and 
graduates of medical colleges. The Society has work in Japan, 
Korea, China, India, Malaysia, Bulgaria, Italy, South America, 
and Mexico. There are now 92 American missionaries in the 
field, 10 of whom are medical graduates, with 100 Zenana 
teachers and assistant missionaries, 308 Bible-women, over 200 
city and village schools, with orphanages, ten boarding-schools, 
hospitals and dispensaries. The Society has raised $1,886,624 
= ;^'339,325. In Germany there are ^2> auxiliaries, with 487 
members ; and Switzerland 14, with 497 members. The amount 
contributed by both American and European Germans in the 
year 1887 was $3,005. 

The Heathe7i Woman's Friend \\^.s a circulation of 20,293, 
and has not only been self-supporting from the beginning, but 
from its income many millions of pages of miscellaneous litera- 
ture for gratuitous circulation have been printed. The Society, 



Wo men's Missionary Societies. 401 

in addition to its annual contributions, has raised an endow- 
ment fund of $20,000 for the estabHshment of a Zenana Illus- 
trated Christian paper in India. The first copy appeared in 
1884. It is now published in four of the languages of India, 
and about 5,000 copies are issued every month. A German 
paper has also been established, and has about 1,700 subscribers. 
A large number of leaflets, both in English and German, are 
issued annually. Medical work is carried on in Korea, China, 
and India, where there are hospitals and dispensaries. There' 
are three homes for the homeless women, and three orphanages. 
The Society has homes for its missionaries in all these fields. 

XVII. — Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church (South) (organised 1878). — 
This vigorous Society was organised in 1878 at Atlanta, Ga., 
and has just celebrated its first decade. The movement was 
new among Southern women, who, by education and associa- 
tion, are eminently conservative, and at first many stood aloof, 
but signal success marked their efforts, and at the close of the 
first year a good strong organisation was reported. Each 
succeeding year has marked an advance, until now their home 
work is represented by 2,399 auxiliary societies and 56,783 
active members. Some 338 new organisations have been added 
during the year, with 553 members. They report 750 children's 
bands, with 23,907 members; but these are included in the 
aggregate; life-members, 1,250. The secretary says : — "The 
growth of the work is of secondary importance compared with 
the spirit of Missions that has been kindled in the hearts of not 
a few." 

The foreign work is represented by 22 missionaries (i medical 
and I trained assistant), 43 teachers and assistants, 7 boarding- 
schools, 19 day-schools and 862 pupils; hospital, i; Bible- 
woman, I. Their work is in Mexico, Brazil and in China, 
also among Indians. 

Receipts since organisation. — Their receipts since organisation 
amount to $355^345- 

XVIII. — Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Protestant Church (organised 1879). — Its 
auxiliaries now number 300, with 40 mission bands, and a 
membership of 3,000. The first work adopted by the Society 

2 D 



40 2 Wo/nen's Missionary Societies. 

exclusively its own was a girls' school in Yokohama, Japan. 
This school now numbers 60. Four of the girls taught here 
have been assisting the missionaries this past year. 

This Society employs three missionaries. Work had been 
commenced in Nagoya, Japan. In four years it has raised 
$15,222. 

XIX. — Friends' Missionary Society. — The work of this 
Society began in 188 1. Since that time other societies have 
been formed, with a membership of 3,892, and in these years 
the amount of $27,840 had been raised. They have done 
much valuable service in stimulating the raising of money. 
These societies were entirely separate, and have had no bond 
of union, except that they were of the same denomination ; but 
the need of a general organisation was felt, and so representa- 
tives of these societies were appointed to meet for this purpose, 
and in March last (1888) 70 delegates met in Indianapolis and 
organised The First National Missionary Conference of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Societies of Friends. The aim 
of this Conference was to adopt some basis of co-operation 
among the ten independent missionary organisations of Quaker 
women. 

The figures are as follows : Number of separate Missions, 4 — 
Tokyo, Japan, Indian Mission, Mexico City, and Matamoras ; 
Mexico co-operating with Friends' Missionary Committee in 
four Missions, viz. : Ramallah, Palestine, Monsourich, Syria, 
Mexico and Alaska. Number of missionaries, 8 ; number of 
schools, 4; number of churches, i. Congregation at Tokyo, 
attendance from 35 to 50, not yet united in membership with 
Friends. Pupils in schools, 241 ; receipts for 1887, $11,288. 

One of these eight missionaries. Miss Butler, is associated 
with the Methodist missionaries in Nanking, China, until the 
church founds a Chinese Mission of its own. The Mission in 
Tokyo has been especially prosperous, and accounts of conver- 
sions have been received in the India Mission. 

XX. — Woman's Missionary Association of the United 
Brethren. — This association has been in existence 13 years. 
They have branch societies in every self-supporting conference 
and in many of the Mission conferences, and report 41 branch 
societies and 315 local, with an aggregate membership of 7,555, 



Wo/nen^s Missionary Societies. 403 

life members 336, and 77 children's bands and 22 young 
ladies' bands. The summary given is as follows ; 7 mission- 
aries, 7 native missionaries, 5 day-schools, with an attendance 
of 192, church membership of 706, value of property $26,000. 
Five years ago they sent a missionary to work among the 
Chinese in Portland, Oregon. Up to this time over five 
hundred different Chinese have been in the school, and all have 
been taught more or less of the English language. Fifty-nine 
have professed faith in Christ and have joined the church. 
They have paid, as tuition and in subscription to the property 
and in collections for Missions, $2,545. They have paid 
$770.5 more than the native helper has cost. The Board has 
recommended opening a Mission in China. 

The work in Africa has met with some obstacles by war, 
which scattered the people. At Rotufunk, a girls' home has 
been built, and is now occupied. 

XXI. — Christian Woman's Board ofMissions (Disciples) 
(organised 1875). — This Board is represented by 697 auxiliaries, 
an increase over last year of 168 j a membership of 12,849, an 
increase of 1,840 j mission bands 272, an increase of 117. The 
income amounts to $26,226, an increase of $1,500. The 
auxiliaries are distributed through 27 states and territories, 
District of Columbia, and Jamaica. 

It should be remembered that this Society is both home and 
foreign. It has work in Jamaica and in India. The women 
of this Society have organised children's bands to the number 
of 272, a gain of 177. 

XXIL— Woman's Missionary Society of the Evangelical 
Association. — This Society conducts work both at home and 
abroad ; at home in Oregon and elsewhere, abroad in Germany 
and Japan. 

The following are the footings of their statistical report : 
Auxiliaries, 78 ; members, 2,048; income, $1,854. Eighteen 
children's bands raised $120. 



2 D 2 



( 404 ) 



SUMMARY OF FOREIGN MISSIONARY WORK OF 
WOMEN OF UNITED STATES. 

Note. — In the American Board's Almanac^ for 1889, is found the 
following table, prepared by Miss Ellen C. Parsons, showing the mission- 
ary work conducted by the Women's Foreign Missionary Societies of the 
United States. The same explanations may be necessary as are found in 
the other table extracted from this valuable source. 



Churches and Societies 





Amount Contributed 


Mission- 






aries Sup- 






ported. 


For 1887-8. 


From their 
Organisation. 




$ 


$ , 


53 


43,024 


i,ooo,ooot 


289 


315,600 


2,954,021 


35 


20,732 


172,906 


14 


15,619 


66,273 


7 




42,771 


108 


97,620 


1,651,329 


61 


5M.; 


481,175 


5 


4,537 


45,151 


67 


191,158 


1,680,315 


25 


69,729 


355,345 


3 


7,217 


25,000 


38 


75,369 


760,606 


30 


36,328 


313,626 


* 


15,554 


80,000 


* 


7,200 


60,000 


* 


17,535 


144,206 


3 




65,472 


* 


26,226 


144,516 


3 


7,488 


38,000 




24,425 


214,412 


10 


11,287 


40,000 


* 


488 


* 



Woman's Union INIission. Soc, N. Y 
Presbyterian (North) Five Boards , 
Southern Presbyterian . . . , 
United Presbyterian . . . . . 
Cumberland Presbyterian 
Woman's Board, Boston (Congr.) , 
Woman's Board of the Interior (Con 

gregational) 

Woman's Board of the Pacific (Con 

gregational) 

Methodist Episcopal, North . 
Methodist Episcopal, South . 

Methodist Protestant 

Baptist, Woman's Board . . . . 

Baptist, Western 

Baptist, Southern 

Baptist, Free 

Keformed (Dutch) 

United Brethren 

Disciples (Home and Foreign) . 

Lutheran 

Protestant Episcopal 

I'liends 

Evangelical Association . . . , 

Totals . . . . 



75' 



$1,038,253 $10,335,124 



* Incomplete. 



t About. 



{ 405 ) 



FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES OF THE 
DOMINION OF CANADA. 

I. — The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of 
THE Church of England in Canada. 

This Society co-operates with the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, and its work is consequently included in the 
report of that Society. They have, however, been contemplating 
independent work, and over a year ago took action looking to 
this result, which having been sent to the S. P. G. Society, 
that Society's Standing Committee adopted the following 
resolutions : 

' I. That tlie Standing Committee could not advise the Canadian Board 
to enter directly upon the foreign field until they are morally certain of a 
revenue for the purpose of at least fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) or 
three thousand pounds (;^3,ooo) sterling per annum. 

' 2. That in the opinion of the Standing Committee it would, as a 
temporary arrangement, most effectively conduce to the attainment of the 
objects desired in common by the Church in Canada and by the S. P. G., 
that meanwhile the S. P. G. should receive any moneys entrusted to it by 
the Church in Canada for Missionary work among the heathen, on the 
understanding that the Society will be prepared to receive and place upon 
its list and pay out of the funds so contributed from Canada any well- 
qualified candidates who may be presented to it by the Canadian Church 
for work in India, Japan, and other heathen countries. 

' 3. That while the JS. P. G. is unable to guarantee any grants in 
perpetuity, yet the Canadian Dioceses may rest assured that the Society 
will not allow them to suffer, so far as aid from England is concerned, in 
the event of the Board of Domestic and Foreign Missions entering directly 
upon the foreign field instead of sending their contributions through the 
Society for that purpose.' 

' Henry W. Tucker, Secretary, 

'July 14, 1888.' 

On October loth, 1888, the Board of Management of the 
Canadian Society in session in St. John, New Brunswick, 
adopted the following : — 

* Resolved, That the resolutions of the Standing Committee of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, dated July 14, 1888, having 
been read, the Board begs to acknowledge the said resolutions with the 
most cordial thanks ; that besides having the resolutions entered on the 



4o6 



Ca?iadian Methodist Missionary Society, 



minutes and published in the Canadian Church Magazine and Missioi Neios, 
the Board will earnestly appeal to the Church in Canada to make up as 
quickly as possible the amount specified of $15,000 per annum, so that 
Canada may have her own missionaries in the Foreign Missionary Field, 
and meanwhile the Board earnestly hopes the Church will not only 
strengthen the S. P. G. by contributions for their great objects, but will 
send out young men of missionary zeal to represent the Church of Canada 
in the glorious work of labouring for the salvation of souls in heathen 
lands.' 



II.— Missionary Society of the Methodist Church 
(Canada). (Organised 1873.) 

This Society conducts considerable work amongst the 
Indians. In the British Cokimbia Conference it reports 1,413 
church members, under some 12 Canadian and native workers. 
The Manitoba Conference has 13 missionaries, with 1,149 
members. The Toronto Conference has work among the 
Indians on Georgina and other islands, with 4 missionaries, and 
432 members. The London Conference, the Niagara and the 
Guelph, Bay of Quinte and Montreal Conferences support 
Indian work in their respective localities, having together 10 
missionaries and 1442 members. In Victoria, work is carried 
on among the Chinese. 

Japan (1873). — The only foreign work of this church, strictly 
speaking, is in Japan, with Missions at Tokyo, Shidzuoka, &c., 
with the folio win Of result : — 



Missions. 



Mlssionar'es. 

D. McDonald, M.D. (in Canada). .1 

C. S. Eby, D.D J 

Yamanaka Emu 

lidzuka 

Toyama Kohei 

Hiraiwa Yoshiyasu (in Canada) . 

Geo. Cockran, D.D 1 

R. Whittington, M.A 

T. A. Large, B. A | 

Kobayashi ISIitsuyasu 

F. A. Cassidy, M.A. (tj teach in 
Government College) ..... 

C. T. Cocking , 

Evangelist 

Hashimoto Bokushi 

Evangelist 

Tsuchiya Hikoroku, and Evangelists. 

Totals 



Members. Increase 



Tokyo. 



(Ushigomc) , 
(Tsuk-ji) 
(Shitaya) , 
(Azabu) . 

(Anglo- Japanese 
College) 



Shidzuoka 



Fujieda .... 
Numadzu. . . . 
Hamamatsu . . . 
Kofu and Inadzumi 



175 

265 



68 
los 
156 
144 



23 
13 

82 

145 



57 
33 
105 



,283 



( 407 ) 

III. — The Foreign Mission Committee of the 
Presbyterian Church in Canada. 

This Society conducts work among the North American 
Indians, at a dozen principal agencies and reserves. It also 
has a Mission to Chinese in British Columbia, now numbering 
about 8,000. It contributes through Scotch Societies to 
support of work among the Jews. It also sustains Missions at 

5 principal places in Trinidad and Demerara. It has a very in- 
teresting work in China, India, and the New Hebrides Islands. 
The New Hebrides work was begun in 1872, and is well 
established on Effate and Erromanga, of the New Hebrides 
group. But the event of the year is the occupation of 
a new field on the Island of Tongoa, a small isle on the 
south side of Santo, about one mile long, about an eighth of a 
mile distant from Santo. From this point about a dozen islands 
can readily be reached. This new Mission has been opened 
by Rev. Mr. Annand and wife. This work is not supported 
by this Canada Society alone. The Free Church of Scotland, 
the Presbyterian Churches in Victoria, Tasmania, New 
Zealand, South Australia and New South Wales aid in meeting 
the expense. The work in China is established in Formosa, 
at Chefoo, North China, and is just begun in the province of 
Honan. The Formosa Mission has not a vacancy in all the 
field, in its stations hitherto adopted. All its preachers are 
students, all preaching for a time, and returning for periods of 
study, whether literary, medical or theological. The Chefoo 
Mission reports 2,650 baptised members. Honan has been 
selected as a Mission field, to be occupied by missionaries sent 
under the student voluntary movement, as developed among the 
graduates of Knox College and Queen's University, who pro- 
posed each to sustain a missionary in some foreign field. The 
Mission to Central India is well-sustained. It has a 
Canadian staff of 9, and at Indore a native staff of i 
catechist, i theological student, i colporteur and 4 Bible- 
women. The college and high school staff numbers i 
principal, 2 professors, i head-master and 1 1 teachers. That at 
Mhow has a staff of 14, that at Ratlam 6, of Neemuch 7, and 

6 teachers in the Anglo-vernacular School. The staff at Ujjian 
consists of 4 teachers. The Canadian Mission College was 
opened July 1887. A Hospital for Women was opened also in 



40 8 Canadian Bapist Missionary Societies. 

that year, and during the year 6,092 patients were treated at 
the Society's Dispensary, and 411 professional medical visits 
were made in the homes of the people. 



IV. — Canadian Baptist Foreign Missionary Society. 

The Baptists of the Dominion of Canada conduct their foreign 
missionary work through two societies, with which Ladies' 
societies co-operate. We first mention the Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society of Ontario and Quebec, organised 1866. 
The twenty-first annual report of the Society gives its income 
as $15,219. Its work lies in India, and the principal stations 
are Coconada, North Coconada, Tuni, and Akidu. There 
are 9 foreign missionaries in all at Coconada, wiih i native 
ordained minister, 12 other preachers, i colporteur and 9 
teachers, with 4 churches and 418 members. Tuni has 57 
members. The aggregate of church members is 1330, 
65 of whom were baptised during the year. There is a 
boarding-school for Eurasians at Timpany, and a Seminary at 
Samulcotta. 



V. — Foreign Mission Board, Baptist Convention of the 
Maritime Provinces. 

This is the agency of the Baptist Churches of Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island. Its receipts last 
year were $8,825, and its expenditure ,$10,269. It conducts 
work in India, its missionaries working in harmony with those 
of the Ontario and Quebec societies. It occupies three 
principal stations, to wit, Bimlipatam, Chicacole, Bobbih. At 
Bimlipatam are 4 missionaries, 3 unordained preachers, i 
colporteur, i teacher, 3 Bible-women, and 2 churches. The 
Gospel has been preached in 5T villages. Chicacole has i 
missionary and his wife, with 5 native preachers, i colporteur, 
2 Bible-women, 2 teachers, and 2 churches. Membership 
59. It has a boarding-school and day-school. At Bobbili 
are 3 native preachers, 2 Bible-women and 2 colporteurs, 
with 16 church members. The colporteurs have been busy, 
one visited 69 villages, another 136. In the girls' school 60 
have been enrolled. 







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( 410 ) 



WOMEN'S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETIES OF 
CANADA. 

' (i) Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Presbyterian Church in Canada. — Western Division 
(organised 1876). — They sustain work in India, Formosa, New 
Hebrides, Trinidad, and Honaii, China, and amongst the 
Indians of Manitoba and the North-West. 

SUMMARY. 

home work. 

Number of Mission Bands . . . . . 1 24 

Number of members in Mission Bands . . . 3,829 

Number of Auxiliary Societies . . . . 351 

Total membership ...... 12,854 

finances. 

Contributed by Mission Bands . . . $5,273.25 

Contributed by Auxiliaries .... 19,856.19 
Contributed from other sources . . . 528.00 



Total amount contributed 1 . . . $25,657.54 

(2) Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada. — Eastern Division 
(organised 1877). — The grand total of the receipts of the 
Society for the year ending October 17th, 1887, which is the 
latest report available, amounts to $5,091. 

(3) The Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Societies 
of Ontario and Quebec, Canada. — The work of this Society- 
is represented by two sections, Eastern Ontario and Quebec and 
the Society of Ontario. It has been in operation over 1 1 years. 

The section of Eastern Ontario and Quebec is represented 
by 47 mission circles, and raised during the past year the amount 



Canadian Womeih Missionary Societies. 411 

of $1,555.80, while the Society of Ontario is represented by 
150 circles, and money raised $4,626.74, or the two sections, 
exclusive of balance of previous years, $6,182.54. 

Work is carried on in India at Akidu, Coconada, Samulcotta, 
and Tuni, all in the Telugu country. 

Three Eurasian women are employed, and report more work 
than they can do. A successful girls' school is reported at 
Coconada. Miss Alexander, of Toronto, sailed during the year 
to recruit the Mission. A Zenana house has been built at 
Coconada. 

(4) Woman's Baptist Missionary Union of the 
Maritime Provinces (organised 1870). — Its home territory 
includes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward's 
Island. 

The Society supports its own missionaries in India, and con- 
tributes to the support four of the men employed by the 
parent Board. With much misgiving they appropriated at the 
beginning of the year $3,500, but rejoice at its close over an 
income of $1,735 i^ excess of that, and $258.30 given to the 
Home Mission Board. Total income $4,493.30. 

(5) Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Church, Canada. — The work of this Society in Canada is 
divided into branches, as follows : Western Branch, Central, 
Eastern, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward's 
Island. To these branches there are certain districts auxiliar)- 
as follows : St. John's East, St. John's West, Winnipeg and 
Qu'Appelle. 

The tabulated statistics are as follows : auxiliary societies, 
138 ; members, 4,086 ; Hfe members, 237 ; mission bands, 49 ; 
with 1,711 members. For the year 1887 the amount of money 
raised was $14,197.51. The amount since organisation in 
1 88 1 is $46,909.46. Twelve missionaries have been sent to 
the various fields. 

This Society has no missionary periodical of its own, but edits 
a department in the Outlook^ a periodical of the Board. The 
foreign work of the Society is in Japan, the home work through- 
out the provinces. The Crosby Home at Port Simpson, 
B.C., is in a flourishing condition. There are now 20 girls in 
attendance. The McDougall Orphanage and Training In- 



412 Canadian Women^s Missionary Societies. 

stitution among North American Indians has lo boys and 8 
girls. A mission-school for girls (French) has been established 
at Actonvale, with 25 pupils, 14 of whom have been converted 
during the year. 

The girls' school in Tokyo, Japan, has been crowded to its 
utmost capacity, having 127 boarders and 100 day pupils. 
Fifty of these have been converted and baptised. There 
are now 65 native Christians in school. Much attention has 
been given to evangelistic work and the training of native 
Christian women for work among their own people. A special 
donation of $1,000 was given the past year to open work in 
another station in Japan; Shidzuoka was selected, and a building 
free of rent secured for two years, and Miss Cunningham has 
recently reached Japan, to take charge of this work. Arrange- 
ments were also made for aiding the Chinese girls in Victoria, 
B.C. 



( 413 ) 



INDEX. 



Abbeokuta, 72, 331 
Abdul Masih, 80 
Abdur Rahman, 125 
Abeel, David, D.D., 181, 318, 

376, 392 
Aberdeen, Countess, gift of, 

Abyssinia, 78, 79 
Abyssinians, The, 134 
Acuer, Bishop, 349 
Adam, Rev. M. T., 53 
Adams, Dr., 317 
Addis, Rev. W. B., 53 
Addyman, Rev. John, 114 
Aden, 79, 133 
Adiabo, 109 
Africa : — 

Abbeokuta, 72, 331 

Adiabo, log 

Akra, 277 

Albany, gg 

Alexandria, 370 

Algeria, 216 

Algiers, ;oi 

Alice, 130 

Aliwal North, 145 

Amanzimtote, 318 

Amboises Bay, 45 

Angoniland, 131 

Anyako, 277 

Arkiko, 302 

Asyoot, ^71 

Badagry, 72 

Bailundu, 318 

Band awe, 131 

Banza Manteke, 32S 

Bassa District, 349 

Basutoland, 261, 280 

Bathurst, 99 

Bechuanaland, 59, 99, 103, 
261 

Bendu Lake, 333 

Benguella, 318 

Beni Swaif, 370 

Bethelsdorp, 58 

Bihe, 318 

Binue River, 75 

Blantyre, 120, 182 

Bonny, 73 

Boporo, 335 

Bothas Farm, 58 

Botshabel, 271 

Brass, 73 

Buganda, 77 

Bullom Country, 72 



Africa : — 
Buntingville, 99 
Calabar, 233 
Cameroons, 45, 267 
Cape Colony, 145, 258, 271, 

272 
Cape Maclear, 131 
Cape of Good Hope, 177 
Cape Palmas, 335, 348, 361 
Cape Town, 32, 99 
Cavalla River, 336 
Chagga Country, 75 
Chavunga, 336 
Chikuse, 131 
Chinga, 131 
Chirazulo, 120 
Chirenji, 131 
Chitangali, 160 
Clarkebury, 99 
Colesberg, 59 

Congo, The, 45, 219, 301, 
^ 328, 333, 335 
Corrisco, 277, 361 
Creek Town, 109 
Damaraland, 272 
Djimma, 302 
Domasij 120 
Dondo, 336 
Duke Town, 109 
Durban, 318 
Duruma, 123 
Ebute Meta, 73 
Egypt, 78, 179, 213, 2T5, 

233, 369 
Eilet, 302 

Emooramoora, 109 
Empfundiswein, 188 
Endunduma, 174 
Entakamu, 174 
Entumeni, 297 
Equator Station, 328 
Fernando Po, 44, 144 
Fourah Bay, 72 
Frere Town, 75, 204 
Gaboon, 317, 361 
Galla Country, 302 
Gambia, 104 
Giriama Country, 75 
Golbanti, 123 
Gold Coast, 34, 100, 104, 

267, 277 
Graff Reinet, 58 
Graham's Town, 33, 99 
Grand Bassa County, 328, 

336 



Africa : — 

Great Namaqualand, eg, 272 

Griqua Town, 59 

Guinea, 34 

Harper, 349 

Hemel en Aarde, 258 

Herero Country, 304 

Ho, 277 

Hoffman, 349 

Hope Fountain, 59 

Hope Vale, 175 

Ibadan, 72 

Ihorofiong, 109 

Ikotana, 109 

Ikunetu, 109 

Impolweni, 131 

Inhambane, 318 

Inyati Valley, 59 

Isangila, 336 

Jamestown, 146 

Jomvu, 123 

Kabenda, 336 

Kabylia, 216, 262 

Kafifirland, 58, 99, 271 

Kaffraria, 109, 130, 176, 184, 

20o,'2i6, 233, 258, 262 
Kanye, 59 
Kasai River, 336 
Kat River, 58 
Kei River, 130 
Kenia Mountain, 76 
Khamiesberg, 99 
Kilima Njaro Mountain, 75, 

76 
Kimpoko, 336 
King William's Town, 58 
Kirasa, 60 
Kisulutini, 75 
Kooboo, 58 
Kroo District, 336 
Kunama, 302 
Kuruman, 59 

Lagos, 72, 73, 104, 188, 331 
Lattakoo, 59 
Leke, 73 
Leloalong, 2^1 
Leopoldville, 328 
Liberia, 266, 328, 331, 333, 

334, 347. 360, 375, 381 
Little JNamaqualand, 97, 99 
Lokoja, 73 

Lourenco-Marqucs, 263 
Lukoma Island, 158 
Lukunga, 328 
Luxor, 371 



414 



Index, 



Africa: — 
M'Kullo, 302 
Macarthy's Island, 100 
Magila, 158, 160 
Magomero, 157 
Mamba, 336 
Mamboia, 78 
Mansoora, 370 
Masasi, 158, 160 
Massawa, 302 
Matebeleland, 59 
Melange, 336 
Mensa, 302 
Minieh, 370 
Misozwe, 160 
Mkuzi, 160 
Molepolole, 59 
Molopo River, 99 
Mombasa, 75, 76 
Monrovia, 335 
Montserada, 359 
Morija, 261 
Morocco, 217 

Morumbala Mountain, 157 
Moselekatse's Town, .159 
Mosika, 317 
Mount Vaughan, 348 
Mphonie, 271 
Mpwapwa, 78 
Muhlenberg, 381 
Mukimvika, 328 
Namaqualand, 59, 97, 99, 

272 
Natal, 33, 131, 184, 233, 

271, 280, 296, 300, 317 
Newala, 160 
Nhanguepepo, 336 
Niger, 73 

Nyassa Lake, 131, 158, 159 
Nyassa Land, 120 
Ode Ondo, 73 
Ogowe River, 262 
Old Calabar, 109, 200 
Ondonga, 304 
Onitsha, 73 

Orange Free State, 271 
Orange River, 59 
Ovambo Country, 304 
Palabala, 328 
Pangani, 162 
Peki, 277 
Pella, 59 

Pietermaritzberg, 131 
Plaatberg, 99 
Port Elizabeth, 145 
Port Lokkoh, 72 
Port Natal, 99 
Pungo-Andongo, 336 
Quiah Country, 72 
Quita, 277 
Quorra River, 75 
Rio Pongas, 71 
Robben Island, 258 
Rock Fountain, 174 
Rovuma District, 158? 160 
Sahara, The, 217 



Africa: — 

St. John's, 33, 176 

St. Mary's-on-the-Gambia, 

ICO 

St. Paul de Loanda, 336 

San Salvador, 46 

Senegambia, 262 

Shawbury, 188 

Shengay, 387 

Sherbro Country, 72, 387 

Shonga, 73 

Shoshong, 59 

Sierra Leone, 71, 100, 104, 
121 

Sinoe District, 349 

Somerville, 130 

Soudan, The, 217 

South Africa, 25, 193 

Stanley Pool, 46 

Stellaland, 103 

Surahana, 369 

Swaziland, 103 

Taita Country, 75 

Tanganyika Lake, 58, 60, 131 

Taung, 59 

Thaba 'Nchu, 99 

Transkei, no, 184 

Transvaal, 25, 33, 103, 265, 
,271 . 

Tripoli, 217 

Tsolp, 130 

Tunis, 217 

Uganda, 75 

Ujiji, 60 

Ukerewe Island, 76 

Umba, 160 

Umpiikane, 99 

Untumjombeli, 297 

Unwana, 109 

Unyamwezi, 78 

Upper Niger, 217 

Upper Zambesi, 146, 202 

Urambo, 60 

Usagara Hills, 78 

Usambara District, 158, 160 

Usambiro, 77 

Uyui, 78 

Vaal River, 99, 103 

Victoria, 45, 267 

Victoria Nyanza, 76 

Vivi, 336 

Way a, 277 

West Coast, 25 

Wesleyville, 99 

Yoruba Countrj% 72 

Zak River, 59 

Zanzibar, 65, 75, 157, 161 

Zululand, 33, 103, 20% 280, 
294, 300, 317 
Africaner, Chief, 59 
Agarpara, 82 
Agra, 39, 80, 81, 82, 224 
Aguascalientes, 376 
Ahmadabad, 125, 196 
Ahmadnagar, 31, 193, 240, 314 
Ahok, Mr., gift of, 337 ] 



Aino aborigines. The, go 

Aintab, 313, 317 

Ainzahalteh, 191 

Aitutaki, 64 

Ajmere, no, 198, 338 

Akidu, 408, 411 

Akra, 277 

Alaska, 260, 301 

Albany, 99 

Aleppo, 366 

Alexandria, 370 

Alford, Bishop, 88 

Algeria, 216 

Algiers, 301 

Algoma, 20 

Aligarh, 81 

Alice, 130 

Alington, Rev. C. H., 158 

Aliwal North, 145 

Allahabad, 39, 81, 82, 209, 

338, 358, 393 
Allen, Dr., 172 
Allen Gardiner, Missionr.ry 

Ship, 148 
Alleppi, 209 

Allison, Rev. James, 131 
Almahera, 287 
Almora, 53, 54, 209 
Alwar, no 
Amanzimtote, 318 
Amawara, 302 
Amboises Bay, 45 
Amboyna, 281 

America, North, 116, 257, 
309:— 

Alaska, 260, 301 

Algoma, 20 

Assiniboia, 93 

Athabasca, 93 

Boston, 19, 25 

British Columbia, :o, 25, 94 

Calgary, 93 

California, 333 

Canada, 25, 96, 113, 144 

Chemong, 20 

Connecticut, 20 

Delaware River, 297 

Devon, 92 

Fort Rupert, 94 

Garden River, 20 

Grand River, 20 

Hudson's Bay Territorj', 92 

Kincolith, 94 

Kuper Island, 20 

Mackenzie River, 93 

[Manitoba, 92 

Massachusetts Bay, 19 

Metlakahtla, 94 

Mexico, 313, 331/334, 347> 
355. 362, 365, 376, 388 

Moose Fort, 204 

Moosonee, 93 

Moskito Coast, 258 

Mud Lake, 20 
Naas River, 94 
New Brunswick, 20, 96 



A.MERICA, North : — 

Newfoundland, 25, 96 

Nova Scotia, 96 

Oregon, 333 

Prince Edward Island, 113 

Qu'Appelle, 93 

Queen Charlotte's Island, 94 

Red River, 92 

Rhode Island, 19 

Rupert's Land, 93 

Saskatchewan, 93 

Youcon River, 93 
America, Central: — 

Aguascalienles, 376 

British Guiana, 344 

British Honduras, 25 

Dutch Guiana, 257 

San Pedro, 104 

Spanish Honduras, 104 
America, South : — 

Argentine Republic, 152, 334 

Brazil, 153, 331, 347, 355, 
364, 388 

Chih, 153, 356 

Falkland Islands, 148 

Guatemala, 355 

Lota, 151 

Paraguay, 334 

Paraguayan Chaco,The,i5o 

Pernambuco, 233, 364 

Santiago, 151 

Tierra del Fuego, 147 

Uruguay, 153 
Amoy, 51, 154, 197, 266, 318, 

35p. 359. 377 
Amritsar, 82, 204 
Amyaks, 277 
Anand, 126, 196 
Ananderayer, Brahmin con- 
vert, 53 
Anderson, Bishop, 93 

Rev. J., 129 

Rev. S. T., 375 

Rev. W., 109 

Angoniland, 131 
Annand, Rev. M., 407 
Anson, Bishop, 93 
Antananarivo, 55, 58 
Antigua, 257 
Anyako, 277 
Arabia, 79, 133 
Arapahoe tribe. The, 387 
Aravvack Indians, The, 258 
Arbousset, Rev. T., 261 
Arcadia, 61 
Archangel, 25 
Arcot, 378 
Arcot, South, 290 
Argentine RepubHc, 152, 334 
Arkiko, 302 
Arkonam, iiS 
Armenia, 227 
Armenians, The, 212 
Armstrong, Rev. J. C, 375 
Arthington, Robert, 46 
Arulappen, evangelist, 167 



Index, 

Asbury, Bishop, 96 
Ashmore Rev. Dr., 326 
Asia Minor, 78 
Assam, 31, 138, 292, 324 
Assiniboia, 93 
Astrolabe Bay, 272 
Asyoot, 371 
Athabasca, 93 
Atger, Rev. K., 262 
Auckland, 34, 92 
Aurangabad, 84 
Australia, 25, 34, 62, 97, 102. 
113, 115, 121, 144, 258, 280 
Austria, 313, 333 ' 
Azimgarh, 81 
Azury, Dr., 215 



Baalbec, 191 
Bacheler, Miss, 399 
Backhouse, James, 168 
Bacon, Mr. £., 347 
Badagry, 72 
Baddegama, 87 
Bagelen, 284 - - 

Baghdad, 79 
Bahamas, the, 44, 104 
Bahjijig, 227 
Bailey, Mr. W. C, 209 

Rev. B., 86 

Bailundu, 318 
Baker, Rev. H., 86 

Moses, 42 

Samuel, 170 

Balasore, 332 

Balph, Dr., 367 

Bampton, Rev. W., io5 

Bandawe, 131 

Bangalore, 53, 54, 55, 97, 338 

Bangkok, 360 

Banjoemas, 284 

Banks, Rev. J., 369 

Banni, 145 

Bantu race, The, 134 

Banza Manteke, 328 

Baptist Union of Jamaica, 44 

Baralongs, The, 99 

Baras, The, 295 

Barbados, 203, 257 

Bardwan, 81 

Bareilly, 338 

Barff, Rev. C, 63, 66 

Barleycorn, Mr. W. N., 145 

Barnet, Rev. J., 369 

Basel Bible Society, 229 

Bassa District, 349 

Basutoland, 261, 280 

Batavia, 50, 350, 376 

Bateman, Rev. R., 83 

Bates, Mr., 318 

Bathurst, 99 

Battalagundu, 314 

Batticaloa, 100, 189 

Batticoota, 315 

Baxter, Rev. J., 123 

Bealara, 368 



1 Bear, Rev. J, E., 364 

I Beard, Elkanahand Irene, 169 

j Beattie, Rev. J., 366 

, Beawar, no 

Bechuanaland, 59, 99, 103,251 
{ Bechuanas, The, 59 
: Beckfaya, 191 
j Bedouins, The, 217, 233 

Beirut, see Beyrout 

Belgaum, 53, 55 

Bell, Rev. R., 374 

Bellary, 5.^, 55 

Benares, 39, 53, 54, 80, 8r, 
loi, 169, 186 

Bendu Lake, 333 

Bengal, 40, 80, 81, 82, 138, 
155, 184, 188, 194, 240, 292 

Benguella, 318 

Beni Swaif, 370 

Bennie, Rev. Mr., 130 

Bentley, Rev. H., 46 

Berar, 185 

Berbera, 79 

Berbice, 60, 61 

Berhampur, 54, 106 

Bermuda, 344 

Berthoud, Paul, 263 

Bethania, 291 

Bethelluru, 189 

Bethelsdorp, 58 

Betsileo Province, 57 

Bevan, Rev. Thos. and Mrs., 

^55 

Beyrout, 191, 213, 316, 356 

Bhagalpur, 81, 82 

Bhamo, 165 

Bhandara, 130, 185 

Bhawani, 28 

Bhawanipur Institution, 54 

Bhil tribe. The, 81 

Bhimpore, 332 

Bickersteth, Bishop E., 91, 208 

Bicknell, Mr., 61 

Bihe'. 318 

Bimlipatam, 408 

Binue River, 75 

Birbhum, 39 

Bishop, Emma M., 173 

Bisseux, Rev. Mr., 2di 

Blackfeet, The, 93 

Blackwood, Rev. Dr., 212 

Blantyre, 120, 182 

Bliss, Rev. Dr. T. G., 3S8 

Blomstrand, Rev. Dr., 299 

Blumhardt, Rev. C. G., 205 

Blyden, Mr., 335 

Rev. Dr. E. W., 331 

Blyth, Bishop, 78 

Rev. G., 108 

Blythman, Rev. J., 121 
Boardman, Rev. R., 96 
Bobbin, 408 
Boeroe, 287 
Boggs, Miss, 380 
Bogue, Rev. Dr., 49 
Bololo tribes, The, 329 



4i6 



Index. 



Bombay, 31, 40, 84, qj, 118, 
129, 177, 181, 18s, 187, 193, 
237, 312, 314, 338 

Bompas, Bishop, 93 

Bonny, 73 

Boone, Bishop, 350 

Booth, Rev. Wm., 177 

Boporo, 335 

Borneo, 25, 26, 31, 272, 376 

Borsad, 126, 196 

Bosjesmans, The, 58 

Boston, 19, 25 

Botha's Farm, 58 

Botshabel, 271 

Bourne, Rev. R., ( i,, 65 

Bove, Capt., 150 

Bowen, Bishop, 71 

Boyce, Rev. Air., 99 

Boyle, Hon. R., 19, 202 

Braidwood, Rev. J., 129 

Brainerd, Rev. David, 116, 354 

- — John, 354 

Brass, 73 

Bray, Dr. Thos., 24 

Brazil, 153, 331, 347, 355, 364, 
388 

Brerresen, H. P., 292 

Bridges, Kev. T., 149 

British Columbia, 20, 25, 94 

Guiana, 60, 257, 344 

Honduras, 25 

Brittain, Miss H. G., 181, 341 

Brittany, 142 

Broadbent, Rev. S., 99 

Broosa, 383 

Brown, Rev. Mr., 80 

Brownlee, Rev. Mr., 

Brownsville, 365 

Bruce, Rev. Dr., 79 

Brumana, 173 

Bryce, Rev. Dr., 116 

Bryson, Rev. T., tj 

Buchanan, Rev. C, 80 

Buckenham, Rev. H., 145 

Budd, Rev. Henry, 92 

Budden, Rev. J. H., 53 

Buenos Ayres, 388 

Buganda, 77 

Bulgaria, 334, 339 

Bulbar, 79 

Bullock, Rev. W. T., 1-3 

Bullom Countrj', 72 

Bultmann, Rev. Mr., 277 

Buntingville, 99 

Burchell, Thos., 43 

Burder, Rev. G., 234 

Burdon, Bishop, 88 

Burma, 25, 31, loi, 193, 20;, 
279. 292, 312, 323, 339 

U pper, 165 

Eurman Mission, 324 

Burnett, Rev. R. W., 144 

Burns, Bishop, 335 

Rev. W. C, 154, 377 

Butler, Rev. Dr. Wm., 338 

Butt, Rev. G. E., 146 



Butts, Miss, 395 
Buxar, 274 
Buzacott, Mr., 64, ()(i 

Caifo, 78, 213 
Calabar, 233 

College, Kingston, 44 

Calcutta, 26, 27, 28, 38, 52, 

54, 80, 81, 82, 97, loi, 117, 

128, 177, 179, 181, 184, 18s, 

186, 209, 237, 274, 298, 312, 

314. 3^8, 39^! 

Press, The, 40 

Caldwell, Bishop, 85 

Rev. J., 367 

Calgary, 93 
Calicut, 268 
California, 333 

Chinese Mission, 321 

Calvert, Rev. J., 103 
Cameroons, 45, 267 
Cambridge Delhi Mission, 28 
Campanius, 298 
Campbell, Rev. John, 59 

Rev. J. R., 3',7 

Campinas, 364 
Canada, 25, 96, 113, 144 
Candace, Mi ssion ship, 279 
Canstein Institution, 229 
( Canton, 50, 88, 102, 154, 188, 
\ 267, 272, 329, 359, 360 
j Cape Colony, 145, 258, 271, 
I 272 

Maclear, 131 

I of Good Hope, 177 

' Pal.mas, 335, 348, 361 

Town, 99 

York, 68 

Cara, 364 
Caracas, 388 
I Carey, Rev. W., 36, 80, 234 
Caroline Islands, 315 
Carslaw, Rev. Dr. W., 132, 207 
Casalis, Rev. E., 261 
Cassidy, Mr. H. P., i63 

, Rev. F. A., 406 

Cavalla River, 336 
Cawnpur, 27, 193, 393 
Cayugas, The, 20 
Celebes, 281 
Cesarea, 317 

Cevlon, 31, 97, 179, 209, 281, 
314:— 

Baddegama, 87 

Batticaloa, 100, 189 

Batticoota, 315 

Colombo, 31, 40, 87, 100, 
167, 177, 180 

Cotta, 87 

Galle, ICO, 189 

Jaffna, 87, 100, 167, 188 315 

Kalmunai, 188 

Kandy, 40, 87, 100 

Oodooville, 315 

Point Pedro, 189 

Ratnapura, 40 



Ceylon :— 

Slave Island, 167 

Trincomalee, 189 

Uva, 100 
Chagga Country, 75 
Chalmers, Dr., 128 

Rev. J., 6s, 68 

Rev. William, no 

Chamba, 118, 182, 205 

Chamberlain, Dr., 378 

Chanda, 176 

Chandbali, 332 

Chan-fung-foo, 113 

Chao-yang, 52 

CJuirles Janson, Missionary 

ship, 158, 159 
Charles, Mrs., 181 

, Rev. Thomas, 230 

Charteris, Dr., quoted, 116 
Chater, Mr., 40 
Chavunga, 336 
Cheetham, C, Esq., 122 
Chefoo, no, 351, 359, 407 
Cheh-kiang, 89, 163, 165 
Chemong, 20 
Chengalpat, 159 
j Cherokee Indians, 116, 257, 347 
i Cherra, 140 

I Punji, 138 

I Cheyennes, The, 387 
I Chiang- chiu, 51 
Chicacole, 408 
Chickasaws, The, 347, 374 
Chieng-Mai, 360 
i Chikuse, 131 
i ChiH, 153, 356 
j China, 25, 26, 32, 198: — 
I Amoy, 51, 154, 197, 266, 318, 
350, 359. 377 

Canton, 50, 88, 102, 154, 
I 188, 267, 272, 329, 359, 360 

Chan-fung-foo, 113 

Chefoo, no, 351, 359, 407 

Che-kiang, 89, 163, 165 

Chiang-chiu, 51 

Chili, see Pe-chi-l'. 

Chinanfoo, 359 

Chin-kiang, 329, 3C2 

Choo-ki, 89 

Choo-kia, 115 

Chun-king, 337 

Fen-chow-fu, 319 

Fo-kien Province, 88 

Foo-chow, 88, 89, 318, 337 

Formosa, 155, 197, 407 

Hai-ching, 112, 200 

Hainon, 359 

Hak-ka Country, 197, 267, 

Han-chung, 172 

Hang-chow, 88, 89, 90, 362 

Han-kow, 51, 163, 188, 233, 
351 

Ho-nan, 165, 407 

Hong Kong, 32, 50, £8, 154, 
303, 319- 326 

Hoo-nan, 165 



Index. 



417 



CriN'A :— 
Hoo-pe, 164, 165 
Ho Tsun, 331 
Hu Chow, 326 
Hupeh, 351 
Hwang-hien, 329 
Ichang, 120 
Kai-ping, 114 
Kalgan, 319 
Kan-suh, 165 
Kia Ding, 351 
Kiang-si, 165 
Kiang-su, 165 
King Chow, 329 
Kinwha, 326 
Kiu-kiang, 337 
Kong Wan, 351: 
Ku-cheng, 89 
Ku Kiang, 351 
Kwin San, 3291 
Liao-yong, 112 
Lo-nguong, 89 
Macao, 359 
Manchuria, no, 127 
Mookden, 112, 199 
Nanking, 88. 337, 359 
Neu-chwang, 112, 127, 

200 
Ngan-whi, 163 
Ningpo, 88, 89, no, 
^ 326, 359 
Ning-taik, 89 
Niphon, 361 
Numadzu, 406 
Pakhoi, 88 
Pao-ting-fu, 319 
Pe-chi-li, 114, 165, 319 
Peking, 52, 88, 214, 

337, 351, 359, 360 
Quang-tung province, 8 
Quei-chow, 165 
St. John's, 351 
Shanghai, 50, 51, 89, 

333. 345. 350. 351, 388, 
Shan-si, 41, 165, 319 
Shan-tung, 41, 114, 165, 

359 
Shaouhing, 88 
Shao-wu, 319 
Sha-sz, 351 
Shen-si, 165, 172 
Singapore, 32, 54, 156, 

359. 377 
Soochow, 329, 345, 359, 
Swatow, 197, 326 
Sze Chuan, 51, 165, 172 
Tai-ku, 319 
Tang collieries, 114 
Te-ngan, 102 
Tiding, 112 
Tien-tsin, 51, 52, 114, 
^337, 360 

Tsing-kiang-pu, 362 
Tsunhua, 337 
Tung-chwan-fu, 172 
Tung-chow, 319, 359 



197. 



329, 
393 



319. 



China:— 

Wan-chow, 124 

Woo-chang, 51, 102, 351 

Wuku, 337, 351 

Yun-nan, 113, 165 
Chinanfoo, 359 
Chindvara, 302 
Chinese Bible, 39 

Native Church, 41 

Ching-king, 51 
Chin-kiang, 329, 362 
Chinqa, 131 
Chin Alission, 324 
Chinsurah, 52, 12 ^ 
Chipewyan tribe, The, 93 
Chippewas, The, 355 
Chirazulo, 120 
Chirenji, 131 
Chitangali, 160 
Chittoor, 378 
Choctaws, The, 317, 355 
Choo-ki, 89 
Choo-kia, 115 
Christaller, Rev. G., 267 
Christchurch, N.Z., 34 
Chun-king, 337 
Chupra, 274 

Chutia Nagpur, 28, 25, 31, 274 
Clark, Dr. H. M., 83 

Rev. R., 83 

Clarke, Elbert S. and E., 174 

Rev. John, 44 

Clarkebiiry, 99 

Clay, Miss, 83 

Clayton, Ellen, 173 

Cobban, Rev. Mr., 102 

Cochin, 85 

Cocking, Rev. C. T , 406 

Cockran, Dr. G., 406 

Coconada, 408 

Cohen, Miss, 228 

Coimbatore, 53, 55 

Coke, Dr., 96, 97 

Colesberg, 59 

CoUard, Rav. F., 262 

Collins, Kev. J. D., 337 

Colombo. 31, 40, 87, lOD, 167, 

177, 188 
Colonial Dioceses pronioted,25 
Comber, Rev. J. T., 46 
Combs, Miss, 399 
Congo, The, 45, 21c, 301, 328, 
333. 3.35 

Mission, The, 45 

Conjevaram, 130 
Connecticut. 20 
Constantinople, 314, 316, 38S 
Coolsma, Mr. S., 282 
Coonor, 378 
Cooper, Rev. E. V., 63 
Coorg, 266 

Copleston, Bishop, 87 
Corannas, The, 59 
Cordes, Rev. H., 27S 
Corea, 32, 112, 233, 340, 361 
Corrie, Bishop, 30 



j Corrie, Rev. Mr , So 
I Corrisco, 277, 361 
j Cotta, 87 

Cotton, Bishop, 31 

Coultart, Rev. Jas., 43 

Cover, Rev. J., 61 

Cowan, Rev. John, io3 

Cowen, Dr. B. Stewart, 133 

Cox, Rev. M. B., 335 

Craig, Mr. J., 367 

Cran, Mr., 53 

Craven, Rev. Henry, 219 

Crawford, Miss, 366 

-— , Rev. J., 369 

Creagh, Rev. S. M., 66, 67 

Creeks, The, 347 

Creek Town, 109 

Creoles, The, 33 

Creux, Ernest, 263 

Crofts, Rev. H. (J., D.D., 114 

Cromwell, Oliver, 18 

Cross, Mrs., 132 

Crowther, Archdeacon, 74 

, Bishop, 72, 73 

Crisp, Rev. Henrv, 53 

Cryer, Rev. Mr., 98 

Cuba, 388 

Cuddalore, 30, 298 

Cuddapah, 53, 55 

Currie, Rev. Mr,, 37: 

Cuttack, 106 

Cyprus, 367 

Dacca, 39 

Dahomey, King of, 72 

Dakoof, 369 

Dakotas, The, 355 

Dalzell, Rev. J., M.B., 131 

Damaraland, 272 

Damascus, 190, 224 

Dapoli, 193 

Darjeeling, 117, 182 

Darnley L, 63 

Darwin, Cnarles, quoted, 149 

Dauan, I., 68 

Davidson, Robert J. and INIrs., 

172 
Dawson, Mr.. 53 
Day, Mr., 381 
Dealtry, Bishop, 30 
Dean, Rev. Dr. WilFan, 325 
Deccan, 84, 358 
Dehra, 209 

Dun, or Doon, 82, 368 

Deir-el-Kamar, 191 
Delaware River, 297 
Delawares, The, 257, 298 
Delhi, 27, 28, 39, 193, 195, 

208, 225 
Demerara, 60, 61, 100, 257 
Denmark, 329, 333, 334, 386 
Deoli, no 

Dera Ghazi Khan, 83 
Des Granges, Mr., 53 
Despard, Rev. G. P., 140 
DevQn, 92 

2 E 



4i8 



Index. 



Dhers, The, 126 

Diboll, Mr., 45 

Dinajpur, 39 

Dindigal, 240, 314 

Dinnevelly, Rev. R., 380 

Disciples, The, missions of, 386 

Djimma, 302 

Djocjokarta, 284 

Doane, Mr., 316 

Dobbie, Miss Marj', 207 

Dodds, Rev. R. J., 366 

Dog-rib tribe. The, 93 

Doll, Mr. and Mrs., H. F., 

166, 167 
Domasi, 120 
Donation, the first missionary, 

Dondo, 336 

Dorenus, Mrs. T. C, 392 

Douglas, Rev. Carstairs, 154 

Drennan, Mrs. A. M., 375 

Druzes, The, 134, 190, 356 

Dryden, Miss F. M., 380 

Du Bose, Mr., 362 

Duff Mission College, The, 129 

Duff, The, Missionary Ship, 

61, 62 
Duff, Rev. Dr., 116, 128, 132 
Duke Town, 109 
Dunedin, 34 
Dunwell, Rev. J., 100 
Durban, [318 
Durbhanga, 274 
During, Rev. W. H., 123 
Duruma, 123 
Dutch Guiana, 257 
Dyaks, The, 376 
Dymond, Rev. F. J., 113 

East Indies: — 

Almahera, 287 

Amboyna, 281 

Bagelen, 284 

Banjoemas, 284 

Boeroe, 287 

Borneo, 25, 26, 31, 272. 376 

Celebes, 281 

Djocjokarta, 284 

Java, 281, 282, 283, 288, 375 

Nias. 272 

Pekalongan, 284 

Poerworedjo, 284 

Sumatra, 272, 288, 315 

Tegal, 284 
Easson, Rev. H., 366 
East, D. J., 44 
Eaves, Rev. G., 42 
Ebenezer, 292 
Ebner, Rev. John, 59 
Ebute Meta, 73 
Eby, Dr. C. S., 406 
Edinburgh Bibh Society, 232 
Edkins, Rev. Jos., 51,52 
Edmonds, Mr., 58 
Fducation in Nablous, 48 
in West Indies, 44 



Education of Indians, 20 
Edwardes, Sir H., 83 
Edwards, Mr., 58, 59 
Effate, 407 

Egede, Hans, 289, 293 
Egypt, 78, 179, 213, 215, 23: 
^.369 
Eilet, 302 
Eimeo, 62 

Elavarasananthal, 167 
Eliot, John, 17 
El Karey, Mr., 48 
Ella, Rev. S., 67 
Elliaripunni, 167 
Ellice group, 66 
Elliott, Rev. Mr., 59 
Ellis, Rev. \Vm., 56, 63, 168 
Elmslie, Dr., 83 
El Shweir, 207 _ ' 
Emmett, J. D., 96 
Emooramoora, 109 
Empfundiswein, 188 
Endunduma, 174 
Englemann, Miss, 225 
Entakamu, 174 
Entumeni, 297 
Epirus, 365 
Equator Station, 328 
Erhardt, Christian, 257 
Erik, King, 297 
Erromanga, 407 
Erzoom, 317 
Eskimos, The, 94, 289, 
Evans, Rev. J. C, 140 

Rev. R., 141 

Evens, Anna L., 170 
Ewart, Dr. David, 128 
Ewe tribe, The, 277 
Exley, Rev. R. I. 123 



Faizabad, 81 

Falkland Islands, 148 

Fareedy, M., 173 

Farler, Archdeacon, 158, 160 

Fayoom, 370 

Fen-chow-fu, 319 

Fenn, Rev. D., 85 

Rev. J., 86 

Fenwick, Rev. Mr., 166 

Ferguson, Bishop, 349 

Fernando Po, 44, 144 

Fianarantsoa, 58 

Fielde, Miss, 327 

Fiji, 25, 34, 98, 103 

Finland, 297, 334 

Fire at Serampur, 40 

Stanley Pool, 46 

Fisk, Pliny, 356 

Fiske, Miss, 358 
i Fjellstedt, Rev. Dr. P., 299 
j F^jcUstrom, P., 297 

Flato, Mr., 277 

Fo-kien Province, So 
1 Foo-chow, 88, 89, 318, 337 
. Forbes, Mr , 53 



Fordyce, Rev. John, 183 

Foreign Missionary Journal, 

^331 

Foreman, Rev. J., 61 

Formosa, 155, 197, 407 

Forsyth, Rev. N., 52 

Fort Rupert, 94 

Foulahs, the, 97 

Fourah Bay, 72 

Fox, Dr. J. T., 171 

Rev. H. W., 86 

France, 329, 356, 
Frazier, Rev. J. A., 369 
French, Bishop, 79, 81, 82 
Frere, Sir Bartle, 74 

Town, 75, 204 

Friendly Islands, 61, gS 
Fry, Dr., 55 
Fuegians, The, 149 
Fujieda, 406 
Fuller, Pastors, 45 

Rev. W. R., 123 

Fung Chak, 331 
Furgisavva, 341 
Futtehgurh, 35S 

Gaboon, 317, 361 

Galbraith, Rev. S. R., 366 

Galla country, 302 

Galland, Pastor, 261 

Gallas, The, 123 

Galle, 100, 189 

Galpin, Rev. F. W., 123 

Galvon, 361 

Gambia, 104 

Garden River, 20 

Gardiner, Capt. Allen, R.N., 

Gardner, Rev. W. R. W., 

M.A., 133 
Garos, The, 138 
Garrettson, Freeborn, 96 
Gayford, Charles, 169 
Gaza, 78 

Gehlert, Miss H., 292 
Gell, Bishop, 30 
George I., his letter to Ziegen- 

balg, 26 
George Town, 61 
George's Bay, 145 
Germany, 329, 334 
Ghat Mountains, 85 
Ghazipur, 274 
Ghoreyib, Dr. Kaiser, 227 
Gilbert group, 66, 315 
Gill, Rev. George, 65 

Rev. \V. W., B.A., d-, 

Gillison, Dr., 51 

Gilmour, Rev. J., 52 

Gilpin, Helen, 171 

Giriama country, 75 

Giyranwala, 373 

Glasgow Bible Society, 232 

Missionary Society, 108, 

130 
Glasgow, Rev. J,. 125 



Index, 



419 



Glenny, Mr. E. H., 216 
Gobat, Bishop, 78 
Godavari, 276 

River, 86 

Godthaab, 290 

Gogo, 125, 196 

Golbanti, 123 

Gold Coast, 34, 100, 104, 267, 

277 
Goldie, Rev. H., 109 
Gomes, Rev. W. H., 32 
Gonds, The, 81, 102 
Gooty, 55 
Gorakpur, 81, 82 
Gordon, General, 76 

Hon. J. H.,131 

Memorial, the, 131 

Mr., 53 

Patrick, 25 

• Rev. A., 369 

Rev. Dr. A., 372 

Rev. E. C., 77 

Rev. J. D., martyrdom 

of, 132 

Rev. G. M., 83 

Gospel in all Lands, The, 341 
Gossellin, M., 261 
Gossner, Pastor, 28, 274 
Govan. Rev. W., 130 
Graff, Mr., 277 

Reinet, 58 

Graham, Rev. J. H., M.A.,ii8 
Graham's Town, 33, 99 
Grand Bassa Country, 328, 
336 

Grandpierre, Pastor, 261 

Grand River, 20 

Grant, Mr., 358 

Graves, Dr., 331 

Gray, Bishop, 32, 157 

Great Namaqualand, 99, 272 

Grebos, The, 335 

Greece, 78, 212, 353, 364 

Green, Rev. J. L., 63 

Greenland. 257, 289, 293 

Grey, Sir G., 91 

Griffen, Rev. J., 369 

Griffiths, Rev. David, 56 

Rev. G., M.B., 141 

Gring, Rev. A. D.. 385 

Griquas, The, 59 

Griqua Town, 59 

Grout, Rev. Aldin & Mrs., 
317 

Grundler, 26 

Gundert, Rev. Dr. H., 266 

Guatemala, 355 

Guinea, 34 

Guinness, Rev. H. G., 218 

Gujarat. 118. 125, 177, 182, 196 

Gulick, Rev. Dr> L. H... 388 

Gunaimia, 366 

Gunga Dhor^ Brahman Con- 
vert, ICO 

Gunn, Rev. W., 380 

Guntuj-. 383 



Gurdaspur, 373 
Gyanoba Powar, 166 



Hadfield, Rev. J., 67 
Hahn, Rev. C. H., 304 
Hai-ching, 112, 200 
Haig, General, 79, 86 
Hail, Rev. J. B. 375 
Hainon, 359 
Hak-ka Country, 197 
Hak-ka tribe, 1 he, 267 
Hakodate, 90, 340 
Hall, Rev. Gordon, 311, 314 

Rev. W. N., 114 

Hamadan, 358 
Hamamatsu, 406 
Hamilton, Rev. H. P., 388 

Rev. R., 59 

Hamlin, Dr., 210 
Han-chung, 172 
Hands, Rev. J., 53 

Mr., 144 

Hang-chow, 88, 89, 90, 362 
Hankey, W. A. Esq., 61 
Han-kow, 51, 163, 188, 233, 

351 

Hannington, Rev. J., 75 

Hanson, Rev. F. R., 350 

Happer, Dr., 359 

Hard war, 368 

Harms, Pastor Egmont, 280 

Pastor Ludwig, 279 

Pastor Theodor, 280 

Harper, 349 

Rev. John, 58 

Harpoot, 313, 317 

Harris, Rev. G. A., 65 

Hasbeiya, 191 

Hassan, 189 

Hauge, Hans Milsen, 293 

Haugvaldstad, John, 293 

Hau-haus, The, 92 

Haven, Jens, 257 

Hawaii, 315 

Hayti, 333, 352 

Hayward, Mr., 63 

Heber, Bishop, 80 

Hebich, Rev. S., 266 

Hekhuis, Dr., 378 

Hemel-en-Aarde, 258 

Henry, Mr., 61 

Henry Reed, The, 329 

Henry Venn, Missionary 
Steamer, 74 

Henry Wright, Missionary 
Steamer, 75 

Hepburn, Dr., 359, 361 
! Herero country, 304 

Heroshim.i, 346 
I Hervey Islands, 64 

Hessenauer, Dr. G., 174 
I Heyer, Rev, C. F., 380 
' Hill, Rev. R. A., 368, 369 

Himalayas, 83 
' Hinderer, Rev. IMr-, 73 



Hislop Missionary College, 
The, 130 

Rev. Stephen, 130 

Ho, 277 

Hobart Town, 98 

Hobson, Dr., 50 

Hodeidah, 79 

Hodson, Rev. Thomas, 98 

Hoffinann, 349 

Institute, 349 

Hogstrom, P., 297 
Holland, 333 
Holly, Bishop, 349, 353 
Holy Land, 179: — 
Ainzahalteh, 191 
Baalbec, 191 
Beckfaya, 191 
Beyrout, 191, 213, 316, 356 
Damascus, 190, 224 
Deir el Kamar, 191 
EI Shweir, 207 
Gaza, 78 
Hasbeiya, 191 
Holy Land, 179 
Jaffa, 78, 227 
Jerusalem, 72, 258, 356 
Lebanon, Mount, 173 

the, 132, 190, 207 

Meten, 132 
Mokhtara, 191 
Nablous, 48, 78 
Nazareth, 78, 224 
Ramallah, 173 
Salt, 78 
Shweir, 133 

Syria, 132, 173, 356, 366 
Tyre, 191 
Zachleh, 191, 366 
Homberg, T., 298 
Ho-nan, 165, 407 
Honduras, Spanish, 104 

British, 25 

Hong Kong, 32, 50, 88, 154, 

303. 319, 326 
Honolulu, 26, 315 
Honore, Mr., 277 
Hook, Miss, 393 
Hoo-nan, 165 
Hoo-pe, 164, 165 
Hope Fountain, 59 

Vale. 175 

Horden, Rev. J.. 93 
Horner, Rev. John. 97 
Horton, Rev. A., 354 

Rev. W., 98 

Hoshangabad, 169 
Ho Tsun, 331 
1 Hough, Rev. J.. 84 
Houghton, Rev. J. and Nirs 

123 
House, Rev. Dr.. 360 
, Howell, Rev. W., 53 

Howrah, 39 
I Huahine, 63 
I Hubbard, Rev. A. R. , 37 
1 Hu Chow, 320 

2 E 2 



420 



Index. 



Hudson's Bay Territory, 92 
Hughes, Dr. A. D., 141 

Rev. G., 139 

Rev. J., 230 

Hunt, Rev. J., 103 
Hupeh, 351 

Hutchinson, Rev. J., 98 
Hwang-hien, 329 
Hydahs, The, g\ 
Hyderabad, 30, 83, ici. 190, 
338 

Iaone, native teacher, 67 
Ibadan, 72 
Ibis, The, 370 
Ichang, 120 
Ihorohong, 109 
Ikotana, log 
Ikunetu, 109 

Imad-ud-din, Rev. Dr., 83 
Imerina Province, 57 
Impolweni, 131 
India: — 

Agarpara, 82 

Agra, 39, 80, 81, 82, 224 

Ahmadabad, 125, 196 

Ahmadnagar, 31, 193, 240, 
.314 

Ajmere, no, 198, 338 

Akidu, 408, 411 

Aligarh, 81 

Allahabad, 3 82 209, 

338,358,393 
Alleppi, 209 
Almora, 53, 54, 209 
Alwar, no 
Amarwara, 302 
Amritsar, 82, 204 
Anand, 126, 196 
Arcot, 290, 378 
-Arkonam, 118 
Assam, 31, 138, 292, 324 
Aurangabad, 84 
Azimgarh, 81 
Balasore, 332 

Bangalore, 53, 54, 55, 97, 
^338 

Bardwan, 81 
Bareilly, 338 
Battalagundu, 314 
Bealara, 368 
Beawar, no 
Belgaum, 53, 55 
Bellary, 53, 55 
Benares, 39, 53, 54, 80, 81, 

101, 169, 186 
Bengal, 40, 80, 81, 82, 138, 

15s, 184, 188, 194, 240, 

292 
Berar, 185 
Berhampur, 54, 106 
Bethania, 291 
Bethelluru, 189 
Bhagalpur, Si, S2 
Bhandara, 130, 105 
Bhawnni, 28 



India:— 




India :— 




Bhimpore, 332 




Gorakpur. Si, 82 




Bimlipatam, 40S 




Gujarat, 118, 125, 177, 


182, 


Birbhum, 39 




196 




Bobbili, 408 




Guntur, 382 




Bombay, 31,40, 84, 97» 


n8. 


Gurdaspur, 373 




129, 177, 181, 185, 


187, 


Hardwar, 368 




193. 237, 312, 314. 33 


3 


Hassan, 189 




Borsad, 126, 196 




Himalayas, 83 




Burma, 25, 31, 101, 193 


209, 


Hoshangabad, i?9 




279, 292, 312, 323, 


339 


Howrah, 39 








Hyderabad, 30, 83, loi. 


190. 


Buxar, 274 




338 




Calcutta, 26, 27, 28, 38 


, 5', 


Indore, 407 




54, 80. 81, 82, 97, lOI, 


"7. 


Jabalpur, 81, 82, 169 




128, 177, 179, 181, 184, 


18s, 


Jaintia Hills i39 




186, 209, 237, 274, 


=98, 


Jaipur, no, 198 




312, 314, 338, 393 




Jalandar, 358 




Calicut, 268 




Jaunpur, 81 




Cawnpur, 27, 193, 393 




Jedlasore, 332 




Chamba, 118, 182, 209 




Jessor, 39 




Chanda, 176 




Jhelum, 373 
Jodhpur, no 




Chandbali, 332 






Chenga'pat, 129 




Jowai, 141 




Cherra, 140 




Juni, 408 




Cherra Punji, 138 




Kalimpong, 118 




Chicacole, 408 




Kamthi, 130 




Chi nd vara. 302 




Kanara, 266 




Chinsurah, 52, 129 




Kangra. 83 




Chittoor, 378 




Kankhal, 3^8 




Chupra, 274 




Karnal. 28, 225 




Chutia Nagpur, 28, 29 


31, 


Kashmir, 83, 209 




274 




Kathiawar, 125, 196 




Cochin, 85 




Katwa, 39 




Coconada, 408 




Khadsawphra, 141 




Coimbatore, 53, 55 




Khasia Hills. 138 




Conjevaram, 130 




Kistna River, 86 




Coonor, 378 




Kolapur, 193- 358 




Coorg, 266 




Ko'ayam, 86 




Cuddalore, 30, 298 




Kotgur, 83 




Cuddapah, 53, 55 




Krishnagar district, 80, 


81, 


Cuttack, 106 




82 




Dacca, 39 




Kumaun province, 53 




Dapoli, 193 




Kurrachee, 83 




Darjeeling, 117. 182 




Lahore, 82, 186, 358 




Deccan, 84, 358 




Lodiana, 358 




Dehra, 209 




Lohardaga, 209 




— — Doon, 82, 368 




Lucknow, 81, 8?, 101, 


186, 


Delhi,- 27, 28, 39, 193, 


195. 


338 




208, 225 




Madanapalle. 378 




Deoli, no 




Madra';, 23, 29, 30, 53 


55, 


Dera Ghazi Khan. 83 




84, 97, loi, 118, 128, 


130, 


Dinajpur, 39 




166, 177, 182, 184, 


185, 


Dindigal, 240, 314 




187, 188, 193, 194, 


209, 


Durbhanga, 274 




237, 278, 291, 292, 338 




Elavarasananthal. 167 




Madura, 314 




Elliaripunni, 167 




Mainpuri, 358 




Faizabad, 81 




Mairang, 141 




Futtehgurh, 358* 
Ghat Mountains, 85 




Malabar, 266 






Malegaon. 84 




Ghazipur, 274 




Manargudi. 98 




Giyranwala, 373 




Mandalay, 102, 323 




Godavari, 276 




Mandapasalai, 314 




River, 86 




?*Ia&ulipatam. 201. 




Gogo. 125, 196 




Mattiabrooz. 117 




Gooty. 5.5 




Mawphlang. 14.-:! 





Index. 



4^1 



[ndia:— I 

Meerut, 80. Si 
Melnattam, 98 
Mhow, 407 
Midnapore, 332 
Mirat. see Meerut. 
Mirzapur, 53, 54 
Monghyr, 39 
MoradabaJ, 338 
Mudnabatty, 38 
Multan, 83 
Muttra, 81 
Muzuffapur, 274 
Mysore, loi, 190, 279 
Nagas, the, 102, 138, 324 
Nagarkoil, 53, 54, 55 
Nagpur, 130, 184, 185, 33S 
Narsinghpur, 302 
Nasik, 75, 84 
Neemuch, 407 
Negapatam, 98, 101 
Nellore, 129 

Nerbudda Valley, 169 

Neyoor, 55, 209 

Nilgiri, 266 

Nimpani, 300 

Nongsawlia, 139 

N. W. Provinces, 40, 187, 
194. 237 

Nusseerabai, no, ijS 

Nynee Tal, 33S 

Ongole, 325 

Oodeypore, no 

Orissa, 106, 187, 332 

Palamlcotta. 53 

Palmud District. 380 

Panhala, 358 

Panipat, 28 

Fareychaley, 55 

Pasrur, 373 

Pathankat, 373 

Patna, 39, 187, 274 

Perambur, i56 

Peshawar, 83 

Pind Dadan Khan. S3 

Pippli, 106 

Pithoria, 209 

Poona, 40, 84, 129, iSi, 185 

Poonamallee, 166 

Porbander, 125 

Punjab, 27, 81, 82, ii3, 18;. 
191,198,237 

Puri, io5 

Purulia, 209 

Quilon, 55 

Rajahmandiy, 3S2 

Rajkot, 125, 196 

Raj pur, 368 

Rajputana, 81, no 

Ramnad, 30 

Rampur Beauleah, 155, 197 

Ranchi, 28, 29 
Rangoon, 31, 279 

Ranikhet, 54 

Ratlam, 407 

Rawal Pind I, 209 



India: — 

Riwari, 28 

Rurki, 193, 209, 368 

Sabathu, 209, 358 

Saharanpur, 358, 367 

St. Thonaas's Mount, 165 

Salem, 53, 55 

Sambaipur, 106 

Samnagar, 117 

Samulcotta, 380, 382 

Sangli, 358 

Santalia, 185, 332 

Saugor, 302 

Sealkote, 182 

Secundra, 82 

Serampur, 38, 39 

Shangpoong. 141 

Sharanpur, 84 

Sheila, 140 

Shervaroy Hills, 291 

Shillong, 140 

Sialkot, 118, 373 

Sikhim, Independent, iiS 

Siloam, 291 

Sindh, 82, 237 

Singrouli, 54 

Sitabaldi, 130 

Sittaljeri, 302 

Sohagpur, 170 

South Arco-, 290 

Mahrata, 266 

Surat, 125, 196 

Sylhet, 139, 142 

Tanjore, 23, 30, 85, 193, 279 

Tarn Taran, 209 

Taung-ngu, 292 

Telugu Country, 30, 8 ', 325 

Tinnevelli, 30. 31, 84, 167 

Tirupatur, 55 

'i odgarh, no 

Travancore, 53, 55, 85 

Tranquebar, 23, 278 

Trichinopoli, 23, 30, loi, 193 

Tnkalore, 290 

Trivandrum, 55 

Tulleygaum, ii6 

Tumkur, 189 

Ujjian, 407 
Umballa, 358 

Vellore, n8, 291, 378 
Vizagapatam, 53, 55 

Vizianagrain, 55 
Wadale, 314 
Wazirabad, 118 
Zafarwal, 373 
Indian Ocean Islands, 33 
Indians, the, 17, 23 
, number of, 310 



Indians, see als 

tribes. 
Indore, 407 
Jnhambane, 318 
Innocent, Rev. J., 
Inyati Valley, 59 
Irons, Mr., 381 
Isangila, 336 



different 



Ishinomaki, 387 
Ispahan, 79, 
Italy, 331, 334, 356 

Jabalpur, 81, 82, 169 
I Jackson, Rev. J. Stuart, 27 

Jacobites, The, 356 
; Jaffa, 78, 227 

' Jaffna, 87, 100, 167, 188, 315 
Jagannath Worship, 106 
Jaintia Hills, 139 
Jaintias, The, 138 
Jaipur, no, 198 
Jakobshavn, 290 
Jalandar, 358 
Jallot, Mademoiselle, 181 
Jamaica, 42, 43, 60, 61, 108, 
121, 203, 257 

Baptist Union, 44 

Jameson, Captain St. Clair, 
181 

, Rev. Wi Ham, 109 

Jamestown, 146 
Japan, 25, 26, 32, 112, 179. 
193, 198, 233, 314 
Fugieda, 406 
Fugisavva, 341 
Hakodate, 90, 340 
Hamamatsu, 406 
Heroshima, 346 
Ishinomaki, 387 
Kanazawa, 361 
Kobe, 519, 327, 346 
Kochi, 364 
Kofu, 406 
Kyoto, 319, 375 
Madzumi, 406 
Mario ka, 327 
Nagasaki, 90, 340, 379 
Nagoya, 341, 364 
Niagata, 319 
Niphon, 361 
Numadzu, 406 
Osaka, 90, 319, 346,352,361, 
^375 . 

Sendai, 319, 327, 385 
Shidziioica, 406 
Shimonoseki, 327 
Shingu, 375. 
j Tamagata, 385 
1 Tokio, 42, 90, 319. 327, 340, 
352, 361, 379. 385, 406 
Wakayma, 375 
Yakayama, 375 
Yedo, 90 
Yezo, go 

Yokohama, 327, 340, 341, 
^ 379, 388, 393 
Jaunpur, 81 
Java, 281, 282, 2S3, 2SS, 375 
Jeddah, 79 
Jedlasore, 332 
Jefferson, Rev. J., 61 
Jennings, Rev. M. J., 27 
Jensen, H. J., 292 
Jerusalem, 72, 258. 355 



422 



Index. 



Jessor, 39 

Jeypore, see Jaipur, 

Jhelum, 373 

Jodhpur, no 

John, Rev. Griffith, 51 

Jacob, 166 

Miss, 142 

Johns, David, 56 
Johnson, Archdeacon, 74 

Rev. W. A. B.. 71 

Rev. J., M. A. 73 

Johnston, Rev. Jas., 154 

Rev. R., 129 

Jomvu, 123 

Jones, Mrs. David, 55 

Rev. A. G.,41 

Rev. Daniel, 139 

Rev. David, 55 

Rev. D. T., 387 

Rev. J. Pengwern. 142 

Rev. Thos., 138 

Rev. T. Jerman, 140 

Jowai, 141 

Jowett, Rev. Mr., 78 

Judson, Rev. Adoniram, 311 

Jundiahy, 364 

Juni, 408 

Jurong, 32 

Kabenda, 336 
Kabyles, The, 216 
Kabylia, 216, 262 
Kachin Mission, 324 
Kaffirland, 58, 99, 271 
Kaffirs, the, 33, 134, 178 
KafFraria, 105, 130, 176, 184, 

20D, 216, 233, 258, 262 
Kai-ping. 114 
Kalgan, 319 

Kali Masjid School, The, 28 
Kalimpong, 118 
Kallaway, Bishop, 176 
Kalmunai, 188 
Kamthi, 130 
Kanara, 266 
Kanazawa, 361 
Kandy, 40, 87, 100 
Kangra, 83 
Kankhal, 368 
Kan-suh, 165 
Kanye, 59 
Karen Mission, 324 
Karens, The, 31, 292 
Karnal, 28, 225 
Kasai River, 336 
Kashmir, 83, 209 
Kathiawai, 125, 196 
Kat River, 58 
Katwa, 39 
Kei River, 130 
Keith-Falconer, Hon. I. and 

Mrs., 133 
Keith, George, 25 
Kenia Mountain, 76 
Kennedy, Rev. A., 109 
Keppel, 148 



Kerr, Dr., 359 

Rev. Alexander, 123 

Keuchenius, Mr., 284 

Khadsawphra, 141 

Khamiesberg, 99 

Khasia Hills, 138 

Khasis, The, 141 

Kia Ding, 351 

Kiang-si, 165 

Kiang-su, 165 

Kibunsi, 301 

Kicherer, Mr., 58, 59 

Kiernander, J. L., 26, 298 

Kilima Njaro Mountain, 75, 76 

Kimpoko, 336 

Kincolith, 94 

King, Miss Y. M., 397 

King of Italy, letter from the, 

150 
Kingdon, Abraham, 171 
Kingston, 61, 108 
King William's Town, 58 
Kin-kiang, 337 

Kinnaird, Dowager Lady, 1S6 
Kinney, Rev. D. S., 344 
Kintore, Countess o', gift o'", 

133 
Kinwha, 326 
Kirasa, 60 
Kistna River, 86 
Kisulutini, 75 
Kitching, Chr., 43 
Kitiksheans, The, 94 
Kiungani house, 159 
Klein, Rev. F. A., 78 
Knibb, Rev. Wm., 43 
Knox, John, quoted, 128 
Knudsen, Rev. Mr., 279, 292 
Kobe, 319, 327, 346 
Kooboo, 58 
Kochi, 364 
Koelle, Dr., 72, 78 
Kofu, 406 
Kolapur, 193, 358 
Kols, The, 28, 29, 86, 274 
Kong Wan, 351 
Korea, see Corea 
Koshi Koshi, Archdeacon, 86 
Kotayam, 86 
Kotgur, 83 

Kramer, Rev. C. A., 59 
Krapf, Dr., 74, 75, 78, 122 
Krishnaga District, 80, 81, 82 
Kroo District, 336 
Kroos, The, 335 
Ku-cheng, 89 
Kugler, Miss A.'S., 380 
Ku-Kiang, 351 
Kumaun province, 53 
Kunama, 302 
Kuper Island, 20 
Kurrachee, 83 
Kuruman, 59 
Kwa-gutI Indians, 94 
K win-San, 329 
Kyoto, 319, 375 



Labrador, 258 
Lacey, Rev. Charles, 106 
Ladrone Islands, 315 
Lagos, 72, 73, 104, 188, 331 
Lahore, 82, 186, 358 
Laidler, Mr., 53 
Laing, Miss, 181 
Lake Bendu, 333 

Nyassa, 131, 158, 159 

Tanganyika, 58, 60, 131 

Victoria Nyanza, 76 

Lancaster, Rev. R. V., 364 
Lansing, Dr. E. E., 371 

Rev. G., 369 

Laos, 360 

Lapland, 299, 301, 303 
Laplanders, The, 298 
La Plata, 388 
Large, Rev. T. A., 406 
Larnaca, 367 
Latakia, 366 
Lattakoo, 59 
Launceston, 98 
Lawes, Rev. F. E.. 66 

Rev. W. G., 65, 66, 68 

Lawrence, Rev. W. N., 64 
Lawry, Rev. W., 98 
Laws, Rev. Dr., 131 
Lebanon, The, 132, 190, 207 

Mount, 173 

Le Brun, Rev. J. J., 56 
Lechler, Rev. R., 267, 303 
Lee, Mr., 53 
Lees, Rev. Jonathan, 51 
Legge, Rev. Dr., 50 
Leh, 260 

Leigh, Rev. Samuel, 97. 98 
Leitch, Rev. C. C, 55 
Leke, 73 
Leloalong, 261 
Lemue, Rev. Mr., 261 
Leopoldville, 328 
Leper Asylums, 209 
Le Resouvenir, 60 
Leupolt, Rev. C. B., 80 
Levant, The, 179 
Lewis, Mrs. C. B., 194 

Rev. T., 61 

Rev. W. and Mrs., 139 

Liao-yong, 112 

Liberia, 266, 328, 331, 333. 334, 

.347, 360, 375, 381 
Liele, George, 42 
Lifu, 66, 67 
Liggins, Rev. J., 352 
Li Hung Chang, 51 
Lima, 388 

Lish, Rev. Mr., 138 
Little Namaqualand, 97, 99 

Thomas, 173 

Livingstone, Dr., 74, 76, 157 

Inland Mission, 218 

Livingstonia Mission, The, 

131, 328 
Lloyd, Miss, 191 
Lochhead, Mr. M., 134 



Index, 



423 



Lockhart, Dr., 50, 52 
Lockwood, Rev. H., 350 
Lodiana, 358 
Loftcha, 339 
Lohardaga, 209 
Lokoja, 73 
Lo-nguong, 89 
Loomis, Rev. H., 388 
Losses at Serampur, and 

compensation, 40 

in Jamaica, 43 

at Stanley Pool and 

compensation for, 46 
Lota, 151 

Lourenco-Marques, 263 
Loveless, Rev. W. C, 53 
Loventhal, Mr. 292 
Lowe, Dr., 55 
Lowrie, Rev. C, 358 
Loyalty Islands, 66 
Lucas, Sergt.-Major, 99 
Lucknow, 81, 82, loi, i85, 338 
Lukoma Island, 158 
Lukunga, 328 
Lully, Raymund, 133 
Liimsden, Principal, 132 
Lund Missionary Society, 299 

Mr. F. E., 303 

Luxor, 371 

Mabili-k, Rev. A., 2'i 
IMacao, 359 
McAllister, Dr., 367 
Macarthy's Island, loo 
McCague, Rev. T., 3^9 
McDonald, Dr. D., 406 
Macdonald, Rev. John, 128 

Rev. Mr., 102 

Macedonia, 365 
Macfarlane, Rev. S., 67, 68 
Machray, Bishop, 93 
Macintyre, Rev. J., 112 
Mackay, Rev. Mr., 77 

Dr. W. S.. 128 

McKee, Rev. James, 125 
McKenny, Rev. John, 97 
Mackenzie, Archdeacon, 157 

Dr., 51 

Rev. John, 59 

River, 93 

McKim, Rev. A., 388 
M'Kullo, 302 

M'Laren, Rev. J., M.A., 130 
Maclay, Rev. Dr. R. S., 

340 
McLean, Bishop, 93 
Macphail, Miss, 184 
McMuUen, Rev. J., 96 
Madagascar, 25, 26, 33, 55, 

57. 58, 170, 193, 294 
Madanapalle, 378 
Madras, 23, 29, 30, 53, 55, 84, 
97, loi, 118, 128, 130, 166, 
177, 182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 
193, 194, 209, 237, 278, 291, 
292, 338 



Madura, 314 
Madzumi, 406 
Magila, 158, i6o 
Magomero, 157 
Magwangwara tribe. The, 158 
Mahrattas, The, 312 
Mainpuri, 358 
Mairang, 141 
Malabar, 266 

Syrian Church, The, 86 

Malacca, 32, 50 
Malas, The, 86 
Malayan Archipelago, 50 
Malaysia, 339 
Malegaon, 84 
Malua, 66 
Mamba, 336 
Mamboia, 78 
Manargudi, 98 
Manasseh, Dr. B. J. 173 
Manchuria, no, 127 
Mandalay, 102, 323 
Mandapasalai, 314 
Mangaia, 64, 65 
Mangan, Miss, 227 
Mangs, The, 84 
Manitoba, 92 
Mansoora, 370 
Maoris, The, gi, 277 
Mara, Rev. J., 123 
Maranhao, 364 
Marash, 317 
Mare, 66, 67 
Marioka, 327 
Maronites, The, 356 
Maroons, The, 258 
Marquesas, The, 61 
Marsden, Rev. S., 91 
Marshall Islands, 316 
Marshman, Mr., 38, 234 
Marsovan, 313, 317 
Martin, Rev. Dr. J. 366 

Rev. J., 116 

William and Gavin, no 

Martyn, Rev. Henry, 79, 80, 
,357 . 

Masasi, 158, 160 
Massachusetts Bay, 19 
Mission Society, 1 The, 

310 
Massawa, 302 
Massowah, 79 
Masulipatam, 204 
Matebeleland, 59 
Mather, Rev. Dr., 53 
Mattiabrooz, 117 
Mattoon, Rev. Dr., 360 
Maundrell, Archdeacon, 91 
Mauritius, 33, 55, 88, 100, 

312 
Mawphlang, 140 
Maxwell, Dr. James L., 226 
Maylott, Rev. D. T., 145 
Mayor, M., 262 
Meadows, Rev. Mr., 85 
Mechs, The, 292 



Medhurst, Rev. W. H., 50 

Mediterranean Mission, 78 
Meerut, 80, 81 

Melanesian Mission, The, 34 
Melange, 336 
Melnattam, 98 
Mennonites, The, 387 
Mensa, 302 

Merrick, Rev. Joseph, 45 
Mersine, 367 

Messenger of Peace, Mis- 
sionary Ship, 64 
Metcalfe, Rachel, 168 
Meten, 132 
Metheny, Dr. D. 366 
Metlakahtla, 94 
Mexico, 313, 331,334,347, 355, 

362, 365, 376, 388 
Mhow, 407 
Michael, Able, 166 
Middleton, Bishop, 27, 80 
Midnapore, 332 
Miller, Rev. W., LL.D., 130 
Mills, Rev. Samuel J., 311' 
Milman, Bishop, 29 
Milne, Rev. A. M., 388 
— ;-Rev. W.,50 
Minieh, 370 
Mirat, see Meerut 
Mirzapur, 53, 54 
Misozwe, 160 
Mission Collection ordered by 

Cromwell, 18 
— J— donation, the first, 17 
Mississaguas, The, 20 
Mitchell, Mr. J., 129 

Rev. Dr. J. M., 123 

Mit Ghamr, 369 

Mkuzi, 160 

Moffat, Rev. Robert, 59 

Mogling, Rev. Dr., 266 

Mohawk Institution, The, 20 

Mission Church. 20 

Mohawks, The, 20, 29S 
Mohican Hterature, 17 
Mokhtara, 191 
Molepolole, 59 
Molopo River, 99 
Mombasa, 75, 76 
Monghyr, 39 
Mongolia, 52, 233 
Monrovia, 335 
Montgomery. Rev. R., 125 
Montserada District, 350 
Mookden, 112, 199 
Moorea, 62 
Moose Fort, 204 
Moosonee, 93 
Moradabad, 33? 
Morija, 261 
Morning Star, Missionary 

Ship, 316 
Morocco, 217 
Morrison, Rev. Dr., 50 
Morumbala Mountain, 157 
Moscow, 25 



424 



Index. 



IMoselekatse's Town, 59 


Newfoundland, 25, 96 


Moshesh, Chief, 261 


New Guinea. 34, 66, 68, 272, 286 


Mosika, 317 


New Hebrides. 132, 407 


Moskito Coast, 258 


New South Wales, 62, 97. 98 


Mothibi, Chief, 59 


New Sweden, 297 


Wott, Mrs. Mentor, 191 


New Zealand, 25, 34, 91, 98, 


]\IouIe, Archdeacon, 89 


103, 121, 113, 132, 144, 275, ' 




280 


Mount Vaughan, 348 


Newala, 160 


ISIphome, 271 


Newell, Rev. Samuel. 311 


]\Ipwapwa, 78 


Neyoor, 55, 209 


Mtesa, King, 76 


Nezlet el Musk, 369 


Mud Lake, 20 


Ngan-whi, 165 


Mudnabatty, 38 


Nhanguepepo, 336 


Muhlenberg, 381 


Niagata, 319 


Muirhead, Rev. W., 51 


Nias, 272 


ISIukimbunga, 301 


Nicholson, Bishop, 353 


Mukimvika, 328 


, Miss, 228 


Mullens, Dr., 57 


Niensa, 302 


Multan, 83 


Niger, 73 


Munro, Col.. 85 


Nilgiri 266 


Murdoch, Dr. J.. 240 


Nimpani, 302 


Murray Island, 68 


Ningpo, 88, 89, no, 12^, 3 6, 


Mrs., 68 ■ 


359 ■ ^ 


Rev. A. W., 66. f S 


Ning-taik. 89 


Rev. Mr., 214 


Niphon, 361 


Muttra, 81 


Nine', 65, 68 


Muzufiapur. 274 


Niven, Rev. W., ro8 


Mwanga, King, 76 


Noble. Mr. Henry, i66, 167 


Myingyan. 323 


Rev. R., 86 


Mysore, loi, 190, 279 


Nongsawlia. 139 




Norfolk Island. 34 


Naas River, 94 


North American Indians, 331 


Nablous, 48, 78 


(see Indians) 


Nagarkoil, 53, 54, 55 


North West Provinces, India, 


Nagas, The, 102, 138, 324 


40, 187, 194, 237 


Nagasaki, 90, 340, 379 


Norway, 334 


Nagoya, 341, 364 


Nott. Mr., 61, 63 


Nagpur, 130, 184, 185, 338 


Rev. Sam- el, 311, 314 


Namaqualand, 59, 97, 99, 272 


Nova Scotia, 96 


Namaquas, The, 59 


Nowroji, Rev. Ruttonji, 84 


Nanking. 88, 337, 359 
Naoroji, Rev. Dhanjibhai, 129 


Noyes, Rev. Eli, 332 


Nubia. 79 


Narsingpur. 302 


Numadzu. 406 


Nasik, 84 


Nusairiyeh, The, 356, 366 


Asylum, 75 


Nusseerabad, no. 198 


Natal, 33, 131, 184, 233, 271, 


Nyassa Lake, 131, 158, 159 


280, 296, 300, 317 


Nyassaland, 120 


Naval and Military Eible 


Nynee Tal, 338 


Society, 229 




Navigator's Islands, C6 


OCE.\NI.A, : — 


Nazareth, 78, 224 


Aitutaki, 64 


Neemuch, 407 


Astrolabe Bay, 272 


Negapatam, 98, loi 


Australia. 25, 34, 62, 97. 102, 


Nellore, 129 


113, 115,121, 144, 258, 280 


Nelson, 34 


Cape York, 68 


Nerbudda Valley, 169 


Caroline Islands, 315 


Nesbit, Mr., 1.19 


Darnley, 68 


Nestorians, The, 79, 212, 357 


Dauan, 68 


Neu-chwang, 112, 127, 197. 


Efifate, 407 


200 


Eimeo. 62 


Nevius, Dr,. 360, 361 


Ellice group, 66 


New, Rev. Joseph, 121 


Erromanga, 407 


New Amsterdam, 61 


Fiji, 25, 34, 98, 103 


New Brunswick, 20, 96 


Fiiendly Islands, 61. 98 


New Caledonia, 132 


Gilbert group, 66 



Gilbert Islands, 315 
Hawaii, 315 
Hervey Islands, 64 
Honolulu, 26, 315 
Huahine, 63 
Ladrone Islands, 315 
Lifu, 66, 67 
Loyalty Islands, 66 
Malua, 66 
Mangaia, 64, 65 
Mare, 66, 67 
Marquesas, the, 61 
Marshall Islands, 316 
Moorea, 62 
Murray Island, 68 
Navigators Islands, 66 
New Caledonia, 132 
New Guinea, 34, 66, 68, 

272, 286 
New Hebrides, 132, 407 
New Zealand, 25, 34,91, 98, 

103, 113, 121, 132, 144, 

276, 280 
Niue. 65, 68 
No, folk Island, 34 
Otaheite, 61, 62, 63 
Ponape, 316 
Porapora, 63, 64 
Port Moresby, 68 
Raiatea, 63 
Rarotonga, 64, 65, 66 
Saibai, 68 
Samoa, 66 
Samoan Islands, ii 
Sandwich, Islands, 34, 63, 

Savage Island, 65, 63 

Savaii, 66 

Society L-lands, 63. 262 

Tahaa, 63, 65 

Tahiti, 61, 62, 63, c8 2^:2 

Tasmania, 98, 103, 144 

Tokelau group, 66 

Tonga, 98 

Tongoa, 407 

Torres Straits, £8 

Tutuila, 66 

Upolu, 66 

Uvea, 67 

Vavau, 98 
Ochs, Rev. C. 290 
Ode Ondo, 73 
Ogowe River, 262 
Old Calabar, 109, 200 
f)mahas. The, 355 
Ondonga, 304 
( ineidas. The, 20 
O'Neil, Mr. H., 367 
O'Neill, Mr. T., 70 
Ongole, 325 
Onitsha, 73 
Onondagas, The, 20 
Oodeypore, no 
Oodooville, 315 
Ooshooia, 148 
Orange Free State. 271 



Index, 



425 



Orange River. 59 
Oregon, 333 
Orissa, 106, 187, 332 

Press, The, 107 

Oroomiah, Lake, 357 
Orsmond, Rev. J. Al., 63, 64 
Osaka, 90, 319, 346, 352, 361, 

375 
Osgood, Rev. Joel, 335 
Oson, Rev. J., 347 
Otaheite, 61, 62, 63 
Otte, Dr., 377 
Ovambo Co -.n try, 304 
Owen, Rev. J., 230 



Padfield, Rev. J. E., 87 

Pai Marire superstition, 92 

Paio, native teacher, 67 

Pakhoi, 88 

Palabala, 328 

Palamkotta, 53 

Palestine. 48, 173 

Palmer, Professor E. H., 79 

Palmud District, 380 

Pangani, 162 

Panhala, 358 

Panipat, 28 

Pao-ting-fu, 319 

Paraguay, 334 

Paraguayan Chaco, The, 150 

Pareychaley, 55 

Parker, Dr. H.'P., 75, 359 

Parkin, Rev. J., 121 

Parry, Rev. R., 139 

Parson, Levi, 356 

, Rev. Mr., 102 

Pasrur, 373 

Patna, 39, 187, 274 

Paterson, Dr., 133 

, Rev. James, 108 

Pathankat, 373 

Patna, 187, 274 

Patterson, Rev. Dr. \V., 388 

Patteson, Bishop, 34 

Payne, Bishop, 348 

Pence, The, Missionary ship, 
46 • 

Pearse, Mr. George, 216 

Rev. A., 68 

Pe-chi-li, 114, 165, 319 

Peggs, Rev. James, 106 

Pekalongan, 284 

]^eki, 277 

Peking, 52, 88, 214, 319, 337, 
351. 359. 360 

Pella, 59 

Penang, 32 

Pennock, Rev. Thos., 121 

Penny Union, The, 239 

Penzotti, Rev. P., 38S 

Perambur, 166 

Perkins, Mr., 358 

Pernambuco, 233, 364 

Pcrrick, Bishop, 349 

Persia, 79, 179, 357, 388 



Peru, 79, 179, 357, 388 

Peshawar, 83 

Petchaburi, 360 

Petition of Kol convert;, 29 

Pfander, Dr., 78. 135 

Philippe, James I\L, 43 

Philippopolis, 316 

Phillips, Misses H. and L. 399 

Rev. Jeremiah, 332 

Pietermaritzburg, 131 

Pigott, Rev. H. R., letter from 
Ceylon, 41 

Pike, Rev. J. G., 106 

Pillans, Rev. John, 57 

Pilmoor, Rev. Joseph, 96 

Find Dadan Khan, 83 

Pinkham, Bishop, 93 

Pinnock, Pastor, 45 

Pippli, ic6 

Pithoria, 209 

Pitman, Mrs., 335 

Rev. C., 64 

Plaatberg, 99 

Plain Crees, The, 93 

Piatt, Rev. G., 64 

Poerworedjo, 284 

Point Pedro, 189 

Pollard, Rev. S., 113 

Polyglotta Africina, a, 72 

Pomare, Chief, 62 

Ponape, 316 

Pondos, The, 99 

Pongas, The, 34 

Poole, Bishop, 91 

Poona, 40, 84, 129, 181, 185 

Poonamallee, 166 

Porapora, 63, 64 

Porbander, 125 

Port Arthur, 98 
I Port-au-Prince, 353 
j Port Elizabeth, 145 
! Port Lokkoh, 72 

Port Moresby, 68 

Port Natal, 99 

Port, Mr., 60 
j Poulsen, Hans, 292 
I Pratt, Mrs. S. B., 393 
1 Prevost, Captain, 94 
I Price, Rev. W. S., 75 

Prince, Dr. G. K., 44 

Prince Edward Island, 113 

Pritchett, Mr., 53 
Pryse, Rev. W., 139 
Pungo Andongo, 336 
Punjab, 27, 81, 82, 118, 187, 

194, 198, 237 
Puri, 106 
Purulia, 209 
Pyinmana, 323 

QuANG-TUNG province, 88 

Qu'Appelle, 93 

Queen Charlotte's Is'and, 94 

Quei-chow, 165 

Quiah country, 72 

Quilon, 55 



Quintin, Mr., 45 
Quita, 277 
Quorra River, 75 

Radama, King, 56 

IL, 56 

Rae, Rev. John. M,A.. 132 
Ragland, Rev. Mr., 85 
Raiatea, 63 
Rainy, Miss, 183 
Rajah Brooke, 31 
Rajahgopaul, Rev. P., 129 
Rajahmandrj', 382 
Rajkot, 125, 196 
Rajpur, 368 
Rajputana, 86, 110 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 17 
Ramallah, 173 
Ram Chunder, 27 
Ramnad, 30 

Rampur Beauleah. 155. 197 
! Ranavalona, Queens, 56, 57 
1 Ranchi, 28, 29 
Rangoon, 31, 279 
Ranikhet, 54 
Rarotonga, 64, 65, 65 
Rasalama, 5 > 
Rath, Rev. F., 304 

Ratlam, 407 

Ratnapura, 40 
j Rawal Pindi. 209 

Read, Rev. James. 58 

Rebmann, Rev. John, 74, 75 

Redcliffe, Sir Stratford de, 210 

Red River, 92 

Reed, Rev. C. E. Baine^ 
quoted, 229 

, Rev. Wm., 35S 

Rees, Rev. Mr., 59 

Reid, Miss, 181 

Revolt in Jamaica, 43 

Rezner, Miss R., 375 

Rhea, Mrs., 358 

Rhode Island, 19 

Rice, Mr., 321 

, Rev. Luther, 312 

Richard, Rev. Timothj', 41 

Richards, Rev. Owcn, 139 

Rev. W. E.,64 

Richardson, George, 168 

Ridgemount, 61 

Ridley, Bishop, 94 

Riemenschneider, Missionary, 
276 

Ringeltaube, Rev. W. T., 53 

Rio Janeiro, 388 

Rio Pongas, 71 

Riskallah, L., 173 

Riwari, 28 

Robb, Rev. Alexander, D.D. 
108 

Robben Island. 258 

Robert Money School, The, 84 

Roberts, Bishop, 335 

Rev. H., 139 

Rev. John, 140 



426 



Index, 



Robertson, Mrs., 240 
Rock Fountain, 174 
Rodrigues Island, 33 
Roe, Rev. H., 144 
Rolland, Rev. Mr., 261 
Roorkee, see Rurki. 
Ross, Rev. Bryce, 130 

Rev. John, 112, 130 

Rev. Richard, 130 

Rouse, Rev. G. H., M.A., 40 
Rovuma district, 158, 160 
Rovve, Rev. A. D., 380 

Rev. James, 113 

Rev. John, 43 

Royle, Rev. Henry, 64 
Rupert's Land, 93 
Rurki, 193, 209, 368 
Riis, Rev. A., 267 
Russell, Bishop, 89 
Russia, 266, 301, 329 
Russian Bible Society, 229 
Rustchuk, 339 
Ryland, Rev. John, 36 



Sabathu, 209, 358 

Sagaing, 323 

Sahara, The, 217 

Saharanpur, 358, 367 

Saibai I., 68 

St. Croix, 257 

St. Helena, 34 

St. Jan, 257 

St. John's (China), 351 

(Kaffraria), 33, 176 

St. Kitts, 257 

St. Mary's-on-the-Gambia, 100 
St. Paul de Loanda, 336 
St. Thomas, 257 
St. Thomas's College, Cej Ion, 
31 

Mount, 166 

Sakayedwa, Chief, 174 
Saker, Rev. Alfred, 45 
Salamas, 358 
Sale, Mrs., 194 
Salem, 53, 55 
Salonica, 364 
Salt, 78 
Samakov, 316 
Sambalpur, 106 
Samnagar, 117 
Samoa, 66 
Samoan Islands, 66 
Samulcotta, 380, 382 
San Domingo, 44 

Pedro, 104 

■ Folo, 364 

Salvador, 46 

Sandwich Islands, 34, . 63, 

Sandys, Mr., 27 
Sangli, 358 
Santa Isabel, 144 
Santalia, 185, 332 
Santal Mission, a, 129 



Santals, The, 81, 102, 292 
Santiago, 151 

Sarah Tucker Female Institu- 
tion, 85 
\ Sargent, Bishop, 85 
' Saribas, The, 31 
! Saskatchewan, 93 

Satthianadan, Rev. W. T., 84 

Saugor, 302 

Savage Island, 65, 68 

Rev. Dr. T. S., 3)8 

Savaii, 66 

Saville, Rev. A., 63 

Schereschewsky, Rev. S. I. J., 
350 

Schieffelin, Mr. H. M , 381 

Schmid, Dr. H. E., 352 

Schneider, Rev. B., 382 

Schon, Rev. J. F., 73 

S.hreuder, Bishop, 293, 294, 
300 

Schwartz, 23, 26, 80 

Rev. Dr. C, 283 

Scott, Rev. Geo , 368 

Scottish Missionary Societj^, 
108 

Sealkote, 182 

Secundra, 82 

Selwj^n, Bishop, 34, 91 

Semenoles, The, 347 

Sendai, 319, 327, 385 

Senecas, The, 20, 355 

Senegambia, 262 

Seoul, 361 

Serampur, 38, 39 

Serampur Mission, 40 

Sewell, Jos. S., 169, seq. 

Seychelles Archiptlago, 33, 88 

Shaikh Othman, 133 

Shanghai, 50, 51, 89, 325, 333, 

^ 345, 350, 35i» 388, 393 

Shangpoong, 141 

Shan Mission, 324 

Shan-si, 41, 165, 319 

Shan-tung, 41, 114, 165, 319, 

r, 359 

Shaouhing, 88 
Shao-wu, 319 
Sharanpuv, 84 
Sha-sz, 351 
Shaw, Miss, 181 

Rev. Barnabas, 97 

Rev. William, 99 

Shawbury, 188 
Shechem, 48 
Sheldon, Rev. J , 83 
Sheila, 140 
Shengay, 3S7 
Shen-si, 165, 172 
Sherbro Country, 72, 387 
Sheshadri, Rev. Narayan, 

D.D., 129 
Shevaroy Hills, 291 
Shidzuoka, 406 
Shillong, 140 
Shimonoseki, 327 



Shingu, 375 

Shirt, Rev. G., 83 

Shonga, 73 

Shoolbred, Rev. Dr. W., no 

Shoshong, 59 

Shweir, 133 

Sialkot, 118, 373 

Siam, 325, 360 

Sierra Leone, 71, 100, 104, 121 

Siim, U Borsing, 142 

U Kinesing, 141 

Sikhim, Independent, 118 

Siloam, 291 

Simpson, Rev. John, ic8 

Sindh, 82, 237 

Singapore, 32, 51, 156, 197, 359, 
377 

Singhalese, The, 87 

Singrouli, 54 

Sinoe district, 349 

Sio-khe, 377 

Sioux, The, 93 

Sistof, 339 

Sitabaldi, 130 

Sittaljeri, 302 

Six Nations, The, 20 

Skelton, Rev. T., 27 

Skrefsrud, L. P., 292 
Slave Island, 167 

Slave tribe, The, 93 
Slavery,fagitation against, 43 
Slaves, rescue of 134 
Smith, Bishop, 88 

Dr. Thomas, 128 

Lieut. G. Shergold, 76 

Mr. G. P., 52 

Mr. S. J., 325 

Mrs., 399 

Prof T., D.D., 183 

Rev, J , 61 

Rev. John, 146 

Rev.W., 80 

Rev, W., M.A,, 117 

Smyrna, 317 
Smythies, Bishop, 158 
Snow, Capt, Parker, and Mrs., 

148 
Society Islands, 63, 262 
Soga, Rev, Dr, W, A , no 

, Tiyo, no 

Sohagpur, 170 
Somali coast, The, 79 
Somalis, The, 133 
Somerville, 130 
Soothill, Rev. W. S , 124 
Soo Chow, 329, 345, 359, 362 
Sorapranata, Sadrach, 285 
Soudan, The, 217 
South Mahrata, 266 
South Sea Islands, see 

Oceania. 
Southern Cross ship, the, 34 
Spain, 313, 329 
Speechly, Bishop, 86 
Spencer, Bishop, 33 
Stafford, Miss, 364 



Index, 



427 



St llybrass, Rev. E. , 52 
Stanley, 76 

Pool, 46 

Start, Rev. Mr., 274 
Steere, Bishop, 75, 157, 158 
Steinkopff, Rev. Dr., 230 
Stellaland, 103 
Stephens, Rev. C. L., 14J 
Stevenson, Rev. E. D., 369 

Rev. Wm., 183 

Stewart, Colonel, 79 

James, C.E., 131 

Rev. Dr., 130, 131 

Stirling, Rev. W. H., 148 

Straits, The, 179 

Street, Louis and Sarah, 169, 

seq. 
Stronach, Rev. J., 51 
Stuart, Bishop, 81 
Sturgeon, Rev. T., 45 
Suadea, 367 
Suakin, 79 
Suediah, 211 
Sufanuya, 369 
Sumatra, 272, 288, 315 
Sundanese, The, 2S2 
Surahana, 369 
Surat, 125, 196 
Surinam, 257 
Susu tribes, 71 
Suter, The Misses, i85 
Sutton, Rev. Amos, 106, 332 
Swallow, Rev. Robert, 123 
Swan, Rev. VV., 52 
Swartz, Rev. W. B., 382 
Swatow, 197, 326 
Swaziland, 103 
Sweden, 329, 334 
Swedish Bible bocietj', 229 
Switzerland, 334, 355 
Sycar, 48 

Sydenstricker, Mr., 364 
Sykes, Rev. Mr., 59 
Sylhet, 139, 142 
Symington, Prof. W., 132 
Syria, 132, 173, 356, 366 
Sze-Chuan, 51, 165, 172 

Tabreez, or Tabriz, 35', 388 

Tahaa, 63, 65 

Tahiti, 61, 62, 63, 98, 262 

Tai-ku, 319 

Taita Country, 75 

Talle, 100 

Tamagata, 385 

Talmage, Misses C. M. and 

M. E., 377 
Tamatoa, chief, 63 
Tamils, The, 87 
Tamil Synod, a, 279 
Tang collieries. The, 114 
Tanganyika, Lake, 58, 60, 131 
Tanjore, 23, 30, 85, 193, 279 
Tarn Taran, 209 
Tarsus, 367 
Tasmania, 98, 103, 144 



Taung, 59 
Taung-ngu, 292 
Tawhiao, King, 92 
Taylor, Bishop William, 335, 
338 ^ , 

Rev. Joseph, 53 

Rev. J. Hudson, 163 

Tegal, 284 

Teheran, 358 

Telford, Rev. James, 219 

Tellstrom, K. L., 298 

Telugu Country, 30, 86, 325 

Tembu tribe, The, 99 

Te-ngan, 102 

Tenison, Archbishop, 24 

Thaba 'Nchu, 99 

Theological Colleges, N.Z., 34 

Thomas, Anna B., 385 

Mr. Henry, 166 

Mr. John, 37 

Rev. John, 98 

Rev. J. W., 40 

Rev. Mr., 59 

Thomason, Rev. Mr., 80 
Thoburn, Rev. Dr. J. M., 339 
Thompson, Mrs. Bowen, 191 

Rev. J. M., 348 

Thomson, Rev. J. B., 59 

Dr. T. S., 55 

Mr., 45 

Rev. Mr., 130 

Thome, Rev. S. T. and Mrs., 

Threlfall, Rev. William, 99 

Threlkeld, Rev. L. H'., 63 

Tibet, 260 

Tidball, Miss L., 364 

Tieling, 112 

Tien-tsin, 51, 52, 114, 319, 
337. 360 

Tierra del Fuego, 147 

Tinnevelli, 30, 31, 84, 167 

Tinson, Joshua, 43 
j Tirupatur, 55 
i Tiyo Soga, 110 
j Tobago, 60, 257 
I Todgarh, no 
i Tokelau group, 66 

Tokio, 42, 90, 319, 327, 340, 
352, 361, 379. 385. 40S 

Tomlin, Rev. J., 138 

Tonga, (^8 

Tongoa, 407 

Torres Straits, 68 

Townend, Rev. J., 121 

Townsend, Rev. Mr., 72 

Tozer, Bishop, 157 

Tranquebar, 23, 278 

Transkei, The, no, 184 

Transvaal, 25, 33, 103, 263, 271 

Travancore, 53, 55, 85 

Trichinopoli, 23, 30, loi, 193 

Triennial Convention, 323 

Trikalore, 290 

Trincomalee, 189 

Trinidad, 44, 60, 108, 109, 375 



Tripoli, 217 

Tristan d'Acunha, 34 

Tritton, Joseph, on the Congo 

Mission, 45 
Trivandrum, 55 
Troubles at Serampur, 40 

in Jamaica, 43 

Tsangila, 336 
Tsimshean Indians, 94 
Tsing-kiang-pu, 362 
Tsolo, 130 
Tsunhua, 337 
Tucker, Mr. F., 177 

Rev. H. C, 388 

Tukudh tribe, The, 93 

Tulleygaum, 166 

Tumkur, 189 

Tung-chow, 329, 359 

Tung-chwanfu, 172 

Tunis, 217 

Turkey, 78, 179, 211, 316, 375, 

386 
Turks Island, 44 
Turnbull, Rev. A., E.D., 117 
Tuscaroras, The, 20 
Tutulia, 66 ; 
Tyerman, Rev. J., 121 
Tyre, 191 

Uganda, 7^ 

Uhl, Rev. L. L., 380 

Ujiji, 60 

Ujjian, 407 

Ukerewe Island, 76 

Ulwar, no 

Umba, 160 

Umtalla, 358 

Umpande, King, 294 

Umpukane, 99 

Unangst, Rev. Dr. E., 3S0 

Unwana, 109 

Union Church of Japan, 112 

Untumjombeli, 297 

Unyamwezi, 78 

Upolu, 66 

Upper Niger, 217 

Zambesi, 146, 262 

Urambo, 60 
Uruguay, 153 
Usagara Hills, 78 
Usambara district, 158, 160 
Usambiro, 77 
Uva, 100 
Uvea, 67 
Uyui, 78 

Vaal River, 99, 103 

Vais, The, 335 

Valentine, Dr., 224 

Van der Kemp, Dr., 58, 281 

Vanstone, Rev. T. G. and 

Mrs., 113 
Varna, 339 

Vasa, King Gubtaf, 297 
Vavau, 98 
Vellore, 118, 291, 378 



428 



Index. 



Venezuela, 388 
Venkataramiah, Rev. A., 125 
Vermeer, Rev. H., 2S4 
Veys, The, 333 
Victoria, (W. Africa] 45, 267 

Nyanza, 76 

Vidal, Bishop, 71 

Vivi, 336 

Vizagapatam, 53, 55 

Vizianagram, 55 

Volkner, Mibsionary, 92, 2:6 

Wadale, 314 

Waddell, Rev. Hope M. 108 

Waiapu, 34, 92 

Wakayma, 375 

Wakefield, Rev. Thomas, 122 

Waldmeier, Susannc, 173 

Theophilus, 173 

Waldock, Rev. F. D . 40 
Walker, Geo. W., 16 J 

Rev. R. H., 77 

Wan-chow, 124 
Waneanui, 98 
Wanika tribes, 75, 95 
Ward, Mr., 38 
Warren, Rev. George, 97 
Warrener, Will am, 96 
Watson, Dr. J. R., 41 

Rev. Jame-:, 108 

Rev. John, 146 

Watkin, Rev. James, 99 
Way, Rev. James, 113 
Way a, 277 
Wazirabad, 118 
Weeks, Bishop, 71 
Weigle, Rev. G., 266 
Weir, Rev. E., 375 
Wellington, 34, 92 
Wenger, Dr., 40 
Wesley, Abraham, 97 
Wesleyville, 99 
West, Rev. John. 92 
West Indies, 25, 104 :— 

Antigua, 257 

Bahamas, the, 44, 104 

Barbados, 203, 257 

Berbice, 60, 61 

Bermuda, 344 

Cuba, 388 

Demerara, do, 61, 1:0, 257 



West Indies : — 

Hayii, 333, 352 

Jamaica, 42, 43, 60, loS, 
121, 203, 257 

Le Resouvenir, 60 

Port au Prince, 353 

St. Croix, 257 

St. Jan, 257 

St. Kitts, 257 

St. Thomas, 257 

San Domingo, 44 

Tobago, 60, 25" 

Trinidad, 44, 60, 108, 10;, 
375 

Turks' Island, 44 
Westcott, Prof., quoted, 230 
Westen, Thomas von, 293 
Whately, Miss, 78, 213, 215 
Wheeler, Daniel, 168 
Whipple, Rev. W. M., 388 
White, Miss M. D., 373 

Rev. W. J., 42 

Whitewright, Rev. J. S., 41 
Whitley, Rev. J. C, 29 
Whittington, Rev. R., 406 
Wilberforce, \Vm., speech of, 

38 
Wilder, Mr., 318 

Rev. G., 358 

Wilhelm, Rev. Mr., 284 
Williams, John, Missionary 

Ship, 66 
Williams, Bishop, 352 

John H., 170 

Rev. J., 63, 64, 65 

Rev. James and Mrs., 139 

Rev. Joseph, 5 < 

Rev. William, 140 

Williamson, Rev. Dr. A., 112 
Wilmot-Brooke, Mr. Graham, 

217 
Wilson, Bishop Daniel, 80 

Missionary College, The, 

129 

Rev. Dr., 125 

Rev. John, D.D., 129 

Rev. J. W., 51 

— Rev. R., 51 
Winnebagos, The, 355 
Winter, Mrs., 193 

Rev. R. R., 27, 2-8 



Wohlers, Missionarj^ 276 
Wolf, Missionary, 277 
Wolfe, Rev. J. R., 89 
Woo-chang, 51, 102, 351 
Woods, Dr. E., jun., 364 
Woodiide, Rev. J., 3 8 
Woollya, 148 
Woqlner, Rev. J., 122 
Worboys, Rev. C, 121 
Wright, Rev. H., 75 
Wukii, 337, 351 
Wyandotte Indians, The, 333 

Yakavama, 375 
Yamagata, 385 
Yambo, 79 
Yates, 234 

Dr. Holt, 211 

Dr. Wm., 39 

Dr. W. H., 367 

Yedo, 90 

Yemen, 79 

Yezo, 90 

Yokohama, 327, 340, 341, 379, 

388,393 
V oruba Countrj', 72 
Youcon River, 93 
Young, Bishop, 93 

Col., 183 

Dr. J., 377 

Miss, 331 

Mr., 51 

Rev. C. G., 210 

Yunnan, 113, 165 

Zachleh, 191, 366 
Zafarwal, 373 
Zak River, 59 
Zanzibar, 60, 75, 157, 161 
Zeila, 79 

Zeisberger, David, 257 
Zeller, Missionary, 78 
Zeyen, Deaconess Jacobina, 

225 
Ziegenbalg, 23, 26 
Zimmerman, Rev. J., 267 
Zuidema, Rev., 284 
Zulu Kafirs, The, 131 
Zululand, 33, 103, 206, 23o, 

294, 300, 317 
Zulus, The, 99, 134, 17S 



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. i 

HOME AND FOREIGN MISSIONS, 

4:43, OI^ONSOI* It©AI>, SHEn IEI.I>. 

Income, £21,028 Os. 8d. 

Missions in East and West Africa, China, Jamaica, Australia 
and New Zealand. 

7;r« J// w— ROBERT BIRD, Esq., J. P., Ellerslie, Cardiff. 
Secretary— V^Y.v. JOHN ADCOCK. 

l^nim Scrmture %%i^ixi anb %^Mni ifritiiiJ 

'^ ^ ^SOCIETY. 

4, TRAFALGAR SQUARE, CHARINa CROSS. 

patrons: His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Rev. Dr. Edghill, 

Chaplain-General. 

llrtSilJcitt: General Sir A. J. Lawrence, K.C.B. 

STrrasurer: V. G. M. Holt, Esq., 17, Whitehall Place. 

Extract of Rule I. — The sole object of this Society is to spread the saving knowledge 

of Christ among our Soldiers. 

It has now 90 Scripture Readers on the li^t of the Society, of whom 74 are abroad and 
66 at home. 

Contributions towards the work in which the Society is engaged will be thankfully 
received by the Treasurer, V. G. M. Holt, Esq., 17, Whitehall Place ; at the National 
Provincial Bank of England, Piccadilly ; by the Secretary, Mr. William A. Blake, 
at the Offices, 4, Trafalgar Square, W.C. ; or by the Hon. Sec, Col. J. W. F. Sandwith. 

MISSION TO LEPERS IN INDIA. 



THERE are said to be about Half a Million of 
Lepers in India. The above Mission (founded in 1874) seeks to 
give tliem the Gospel, and to alleviate their sufferings by Medical aid. 
It is at present carrying on work at Eighteen different ctntres, and in 
connection with Ten different Missionary Societies. The Annual Report 
and Pamphlets regarding the work may be obtained from the Secretary, 

WELLESLEY C. BAILEY, Esq., 17 Glengyle Terrace, Edinburgh, 

who will gladly supply further information and receive Contributions. 

£6 will support a Leper for one year. £20 will supply a Christian 
Teacher to an Asylum for the same period. About £150 to £200 
will build an Asylum to hold Fifty Inmates in the country districts. 

Ilbistrated, Cloth, price 2s. 6(1. 

A GLIMPSE AT THE INDIAN MISSION FIELD 
l\ AND LEPER ASYLUMS IN 1886-7. By Wellesley C. 
Bailey, Secretary to the Mission to Lepers in India. 



J. F. SHAW & Co., 48, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
Or from the Author^ 17, Gkngy/e Terrace, Edinburgh. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 



IKTOX^TI^XZ ./k.Z-X^ 



The Quarterly Illustrated Record of the 

NORTH AFRICA MISSION 

Contains Accounts of Missionary Work in Morocco, 
Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, etc. 



Messrs. PARTRIDGE & Co., 9, Paternoster Row, London-, 

Or, the Office of the NORTH AFRICA MISSION, 19 & 21, Linton Road, Barking, London. 
Pi'ice Id. Post Fi'ee, «d. a Year. 

SOUTH AMERICAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

(Instituted as the Patagonian Mission, 1844). 

OBJECTS : i. Missionary. 2. Ministerial. 3. Evangelistic 
Work, and Bible and Tract Distribution. 

I Clerical— K-EN. R. J. SIMPSON, M.A. 
Secretaries: \ 

\ Lay— Captain E. POULDEN, R.N. 



Office-i, CLIFFORD'S INN, FLEET ST., LONDON, E.C. 

OUR + INDIAN + SISTERS, 

THE QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF 

THE LADIES' ASSOCIATION FOR THE SUPPORT OF ZEHAHA 
WORK AND BIBLE WOMEN IN INDIA, 

In connection with the BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



fHIS Magazine gives information each quarter both of Home opera- 
tions and of Missionary Work in India, and contains accounts of 
Missionary Meetings held in different parts of this country, and letters 
from the Lady Agents in ths Mission Field, 



PRICE 2d., or by Post 2id. 

London : ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row, E.C. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 3 

UNITED PR ESBYTERIA N CHURCH. 

SYNODICAL PUBLICATIONS. 
Missionary Record. Monthly, \d. Missionary Intelligence. Life and Work of 

the Church. 
Children's Magazine. Monthly, \d. Missionary and other Subjects. 

Also issued from the Pjiblicaiions Office. 
United Presbyterian Mag-azine. Monthly, ^d. Church Work in all parts of 

the World. 
Zenana Quarterly, id. Church's Work amongst Women in Africa, India, and 
China. 

Edinburgh: JOHN COCHRANE, 
United Presbyterian College Buildings, Castle Terrace. 

LONDON SOCIETY FOR 

PROMOTING CHRISTIANITY AMONGST THE JEWS. 

Established 1809. 



Offices : 1 6, LINCOLN'S INiV FIELDS, LONDON ^ IF.C. 

Patron.— The ARCHBISHOP of CANTERBURY. 

Vioe.Patrons,— The ARCHBISHOPS of YORK and DUBLIN; AND THE BISHOPS OF 

LONDON, DURHAM, WINCHESTER, &c., &c. 

President.— SIR JOHN H. KENNAAVAY, Bart. M.P. 

Treasurer.-JOHN DEACON, Esq. | Secretary.— Rev. AV. FLEMING, LL.B 

Assistant-Secretary.- Rev. W. T. GIDNEY, M.A. 

Tliis is distinctively a Church of England Society, which for 79 years has promoted Christianity amongst 

the Jews, who were God's agents in first making known the Gospel to the Gentiles. (Rom. xi. 30-31 ) 

Contributions will be thankfully received by the Secretary, at the Society's House, 16, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, London, W.C, who will be glad to transmit its Publications to any who may be willing to 
promote its object. Cheques and Money Orders on the General Post Office should be crossed 
"WiLLiA.MS, Deacon & Co." 

BRITISH SOCIETY FOR THE 

Propagation tfe Gospel Among the Jews. 

ESTABL1sHeFj842. 

President— W. G. HABERSHON, Esq. 

This Society undertakes a work beyond the aim and capabihty of 
ordinary Missionary Societies. It is founded on an unsectarian basis, and 
receives its support from Christians of all denominations. Its Committee 
and Agents belong to several Christian bodies, and its Honorary 
Secretaries are A. Saphir, D.D., and J. H. Rigg, D.D. 

It has upwards of loo who carry the Gospel to the Jews in England, 
Germany, Austria, Russia, Turkey, and the Holy Land. Tracts and 
Copies of the Scriptures are circulated. Many Jews have by this Society 
been led to believe that "Jesus is the Christ." Much good has been done 
among the thousands of Jews in London by the Missionaries, by the House 
of Call, and by the new Mission House, with its important Medical 
Missions. 

INCREASED FUNDS ARE URGENTLY NEEDED, and will be 
thankfully received by the Secretary, Rev, J. DUNLOP, at the Office, 
96, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London, 



4 MISSION'ARy YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 

THE BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

(FOUNDED 1792) 

Y::XAS MISSION STATIONS in India (Bengal and the 
XX North-West Provinces), Ceylon, China (the Provinces of 
Shansi and Shantung), Japan, Palestine, Africa (the Lower 
and Upper Congo River), the West Indies (Jamaica, the 
Bahamas, Caicos, Turks Islands, San Domingo, and Trinidad), 
and Europe (Brittany, Italy, and Norway). 

Information respecting the progress of the work, and the labours oi 
the Missionaries is given regularly in the Society's Annual Report, and the 
monthly periodicals, " The Missionary Heraldy'^ and " 7 he Juvenile 
Missionary Herald.''^ 

S^rcasurer : 
W. R. RICKETT, Esq. 

Enteral Secret arg : 
ALFRED HENRY BAYNES, F.S.S. 

Rev. L B. MYERS. 

19, FURNIVAL STREET, HOLBORN, LONDON. 

jankers : 

Messrs. BARCLAY, BEVAN, TRITTON, TWELLS & CO., 

54, Lombard Street, E.C. 

All Remittances to be made to the General Secretary; Cheques 
and Post Office Orders being made payable to ALFRED HENRY BAYNES, 
and crossed "BARCLAY & CO." 

The Annual Accounts of the Society are made up on the 31st of 
March in each year, previous to which date all contributions should be 
forwarded. 

FORM OF BEQUEST. 

/ give to the Treasurer or Treasurers, for the time beings of the Baptist 
Missionary Society, the sum of £ sterling, duty free, to be paid 

exclusively out of such parts of my personal estate, not specifically bequeathed, 
as may lawfully be given by will to charity, and not to abate unless there 
should be no other fund for the payment in full of my other legacies, and in 
such case only rateably ivith my other pecuniary or general legacies. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 



Thames Church Mission. 

-^:i: INSTITUTED A.D. 1844.$^ 

J^N International Work. 

Bible Tratli Preached to Representatives of all Nations. 

Shall this work be carried on ? 
Shall it be Enlarged and Developed? 

Shall not these hard-working and noble Seamen be cared for with 
more loving concern, more generous sympathy, more practical help ? 
Shall not Christian England, and especially wealthy London, be aroused 
to a liberal support of this endeavour to extend the light and life and 
power of salvation among these witnesses of God's works and wonders in 
the deep ? Patriotism, humanity, and Christian love will unite in the only 
possible answer. 

Information will be gladly supplied by the Secretary (the Rev. H. 
BLOOMER). 

CONTRIBUTIONS EARNESTLY ASKED, 

And may be paid to the Society's Bankers, Messrs. LLOYD, 
BARNETTS, BOSAXQUETS, & CO. (Limited), Lombard Street, 
E.C. ; or to the Secretary, at the Society's Offices, 31, New Bridge Street, 
Ludgate Circus, London. 



6 MISSIO.VAKV YEAR-BOOR' ADVERTISER. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE ¥ 

i GHURCHJF SCOTLAND. 

Life and Work. 

A PARISH MAGAZINE. BEAUTIFULLY ILLUSTRATED. 

Published Monthly. Price id.; Monthly Circulation, 100,000 Copies. 
" It is a serial too well known to need commendation here." — Scotsman. 

The Home and Foreign Mission 
Record, 

Uniform in size with " Life and Work," 24 pages and cover. 

Full of interesting intelligence about the work of the Church at home and abroad. 
Price id. per month ; i/- per annum, by Post 1/6 per anmim. 

Morning Rays, 

SABBATH SCHOLARS TREASURY AND JUVENILE 

MISSION RECORD. 

ATTRACTIVE MATTER AND BEAUTIFUL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Monthly Circulation 45,000 Copies. 
Price ^d. Single Altniber ; dd. per annum , by Post i/-. 

News of Female Missions. 

Published Quarterly. Price 2d. 
Subscription Zd. per annum ; by Post l/- per annum. 

196 Pages, Crown 2>vo., Stiff Cover, Price 6d. 

Now Ready. Second Edition. 

THE FOURTH YEAR'S ISSUE. 

The Book of the Church of 
Scotland for 1889« 

"An admirable handbook giving verj- full information regarding the Church of 
Scoi[3iX\d.''— Dundee A dvertiser. 

ALL THE ABOVE MAY BE HAD FROM THE 

Chnrcli Poblication Offices, 42, panover gtreet, Edinbnrgli. 

R. & R. CLARK, ^GlNTs> 

TO WHOM ADVERTISEMENTS AND ORDERS SHOULD BE SENT. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 



REFUGES ^g g DESERVING HOMELE SS POOR. 
FIELD LANE REFUGES 
RAGGED "schools, 

Vine Street, Clerkenwell Road, E.G. 

^rrsitifnt— 
THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 

Srvrasiirrr— 

WILFRID A. BEVAN, ESQ.. 

54, Lom'bard Street, E.G. 

i3anl;rrs— 

1V1ESSRS. BARCLAY, BEVAN, RANSOM & CO., 

54, Lom'bard Street, E.G., and 

1, Pall Mall East, S.W. 

The Benefits of this 
Charity dispensed 
among the Poor 
exceed 3,500 
weekly. 

FUNDS p/ 

URGENTLY 
NEEDED. 

The Inatitution being 
dependent upon Volun- \^ 

tary Contributions, the 

Committee plead for^ 
continued support. 

SuhscriptioKS and Donations will he thankfully received by the Treasurer, Bankers 
.or by the Secretary, at the Institzition, l'i?ie Street, Clerkenwell Road, E.C. Bequests 
Mre also earnestly solicited. 

PEREGRINE PLATT, Secretary, 




8 MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 

The Hospital for Women, 

SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W. 

FOUNDED, 1842. INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 1887. 

Patron: H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, K.G. 
President: The DuKE of Westminster, K.G. 



The Hospital for Women was the first established in this or any other country 
exclusively for the treatment of Diseases peculiar to Women. 

This National Institution is entirely deprndetit upon Volimtary Co)itributio?is^ 
which are most urgently needed. 

In addition to the Free Wards, the New Wing, opened in 1869, is available for those 
able to contribute a weekly sum towards their maintenance. 



„ , C Messrs. Barclay, Bevan, Tritton, Ransom, Bouverie & Co. 

Bafikers— | ^^ Lombard Street, E.G., and i Pall Mall East, S.W. 

DAVID CANNON, Secretary. 



LONDON FEVER HOSPITAL, 

For the Treatment of Infections Fevers in Non-Patiper Paiiejtts. 
Founded in 1802. 

Nearly 1,000 Cases annually, on an average, are removed from their homes and 
isolated in this Hospital. 

The expenses of a Fever Hospital ere very heav}', and additional aid is earnestly asked 
by the Committee. 

Patients pay a fee amounting to about a fourth of their cost ; the Hospital pays the 
other three-fourths. 

Domestic Servants of Governors are treated free of charge. 

Subscriptions and Donations can be sent to the Secretary, at the Hospital, Major 
Christie. Bankers— ^Iessrs. DIMSDALE & CO., 50, Cornhill. 

"SUFFERING CHILDREN." 



Several hundred little crippled children, mostly under six years of age, 
are seeking admission to the Wards of the CITY ORTHOPAEDIC 
HOSPITAL Hatton Garden, London, E.C. Many of these poor children 
have frightful deformities, principally spine and hip disease ; the sufferings 
peculiar to these diseases are the most severe known in all Hospital practice. 
Funds are urgently needed in aid of supplying 100 additional Cots, and 
towards the building of the new Hospital. Donations thankfully acknow- 
ledged by the Secretary, Mr. ERNEST DEREUTH. 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. 9 

^Qtictn for lUIicf i^f ^Icrsccutci) |cl\3S 

{^SYRIAN COLONIZATION FUND). 
President— THE^EARL"6f~MEATH. 

Funds needed for aidinc; Jews driven l)y I'l'^RSFCUTTON, STILI^ 
A(!'riVl% from Russia, &c,, to the Holy Land. 

'I'here is not room in iMigland or other countries for these poor people. 
The (Ireat Earl of Shaftesbury sanctioned the forming of a Fund as 
Siiaftcsbury Memorial Fund for helping those who reach the Holy Land 
to get work there. This Society has already Jews at work near Jerusalem. 

i>ANKERS — Messrs. DrUxMMOND & Co., 49, Charing Cross ; Bakci.av, 
r.KYAN & Co., 54, Lombard Street; Bank of England; Royal Bank of 
.Scotland ; Provincial Bank of Ireland. 

SECRETARY— E. A. Finn, 41, Parliament Street, London. 

FOR SCHOOL m MISSION ROOM WALLS. 

COLOURED 

SCRIPTURE 
CAR TOONS. 

A New Series of r.ihlc ricturcs, drawn in a very bold and vigorous style by 

W. J. MORGAN & W. S. STAGEY. 

Well printed by Chro>iio-lii/u>^r(7/>hy, and on stout fa/>er. Size 45 inches by 35 inches. 

Is. 4d. each on thick paper; 2s. pasted on linen; 23. 6(1. on linen, eyeletted and 
varnislicd ; 4s. un linen, varnislicd, and on roller (Map style). 



1. The Good Shepherd. 

2. The Sower. 

3. The Call of Andrew & Peter. 

4. Jesus Blessing Children. 

5. Jesus in the Storm. 

6. Jesus amongst the Doctors. 

7. Raising the Widow's Son. 

8. The Return of the Prodigal. 
(). Blind Bartimaeus. 



11. Daniel in the Lions' Den. 

1 2. The Pharisee and Publican. 

13. The Woman of Samaria. 

14. The Brazen Serpent. 

15. The Pearl of Great Price. 

16. The Lost Sheep. 

17. Conversion of Saul. 

18. Pool of Bethesda. 

19. The Ten Virgins. 



10. The Good Samaritan. ] 20. The Philippian Jailer. 

"The Scril>t7ire Cartoons issued by the Religious Tract Society arc fine, vigorous 
drawings. They will form \ery handsome decorations for th« schoolroom." — School 
Board Chronicle. 

London: THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, 56, I'aternobter-row. 



JIISSIONA R Y YEAR-BOOK ADVER TISER. 




THE PRINCESS LOUISE HOME 

AND NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE 

PROTECTION OF YOUNG GIRLS, 

WOODHOUSE, WANSTEAD, ESSEX. 

INSTITUTED 1835. 
O F F I C E— 327 SAC K V I LL E~ STR E ET, P I CC A D I LLY, W. 

patron. 
HER ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCESS LOUISE, 

Marchioness of Lorne, 



^Treasurer.— Edward Thornton, Esq. | irCCrctarp.— Alfred INI. Gillham, Esq. 
15anfeErs. — The Consolidated Ban:-:, Charing Cross, London. 

The Object of this Society is to save Girls between the ages of 
eleven and fifteen, who are, from any circumstance, in danger of becoming 
abandoned ; to educate, train, and prepare them for future usefulness as 
domestic servants ; to procure situations for them, provide them with out- 
fits, and to counsel and watch over them on going to service. 

Since the establishment of the Society 1509 Young Girls have been 
admitted, of these iio5 have been placed in situations, 298 have been 
restored to their friends, and 52 were in the Home at the close of last 
year (1888). 

*^* Laundry Work. — The provision of funds for the maintenance and 
braining of the inmates has hitherto been the occasion of unceasing effort 
and anxiety on the part of the Committee ; this anxiety may be materially 
relieved if those whose sympathies the Committee appeal to will, as oppor- 
tunities occur, confide to the laundresses trained in this Institution such 
work as they may re([uire. Hampers are collected and delivered free 
throughout the Metropolitan area, and price lists will be gladly furnished 
on application. The whole work is accomplished by hand, and 117,133 
articles have been satisfactorily dealt with during the past two years. 
THE SOCIETY IS UNENDOWED, 

AND IS IN URGENT NEED OF GENEROUS AID. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS and DONATIONS will be thankfully received by the 
Consolidated Bank, Charing Cross Branch ; Messrs. Herries, Farquhar & Co., St. 
James's Street ; Messrs. Dru.mmonds, Charing Cross ; Messrs. Coutts & Co., Strand ; 
and by the Secretary, at the Office of the Society, 32, Sackville Street, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

Post-Office Orders to be made payable at Vigo Street, W. Cheques and Post-Office 
Orders should be crossed, and Cheques made payable to order. 

FORM OF BEQUEST TO THE SOCIETY. 

" I give and bequeath to the Treasurer, for the time being, of The Princess Louise 
Home and National Society for the Protection of Young Girls (formerly the 
London Society for the Protection of Young Females), the sum of to 

be paid, free of Legacy Duty, out of such part of my Personal JEstate as I may by law 
bequeath to charitable purposes, and to be applied towards the purposes of the Institution." 



MISSIONARY YEAR-BOOK ADVERTISER. ii 

FOUNDED 1799. 

THE RE LIGIOUS TRACT S OCIETY. 

THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY tells of the Gospel of the 
Grace of God in 193 languages and dialects. It was founded in 
1799 for the object of spreading the news of God's love at Home and 
in Foreign lands. 

It is supported by, and aids Christians of all Evangelical Denomina- 
tions. Help is given to the Church Missionary Society ; London Mis- 
sionary Society ; Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts ; Baptist Missionary Society ; Wesleyan Missionary Society ; China 
Inland Mission ; the Presbyterian Missionary Societies ; Paris Evangelical 
Missions ; Gossner Missionary Society ; Basle Missionary Society ; 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; Rhenish Mis- 
sionary Society ; and numerous others. Circulates between 80 and 90 
millions of publications each year. 

Does not expend one shilling of its subscriptions or donations on management 
or other expenses. 

Uses all its Missionary Funds for the object for which they are sub- 
scribed, but pays all its expenses oat of Trade Funds. 

The ''Pilgrim's Progress" has been issued in 82 languages, in many 
of which the Society has assisted or borne the cost of the publication. 

Has published its New Testament Commentary in ten languages 

Chinese, Arabic, Syriac, Mahrati, Bengali, Tamil, Canarese, Urdu, 
Singhalese, and Karen. 

Distributes packets of healthy interesting literature to almost all the 
Emigrant families leaving the ports of the United Kingdom. 

Provides for a very large distribution of Books and Tracts for sailors 
of all nationalities. 

Has issued more than 42,000 libraries, varying from 25 to 500 volumes, 
since 1 832, either at very reduced rates, or in the case of very poor 
districts free. 

Grants Tracts for distribution at greatly reduced prices, and in many 
cases, free. 

Helps all the great Missionary Societies in their work of providing 
Gospel literature in their fields of work, but is able to do only a tithe 
of what is needed through want of Funds. 

Maintains in all its publications a testimony to Evangelical Truth. 

So far from the Committee being able to meet the grooving needs of the 
lijork, they are constantly compelled to refuse grants in aid of much 
needed extension. 

A subscription of los. 6d. or upwards constitutes membership in the 
Society ; a sum of ;^io ioj-. constitutes life-membership. All subscribers 
receive copies of the new tracts, the Tract Magazine and other small 
publications ; in this way alone 11,000 Tract Distributors are helped. 

Subscriptions, Donations, and other Contributions may be sent to the 
Secretaries 5^^^' LEWIS BORRETT WHITE, D.D. 
Rev. SAMUEL G. GREEN, D.D. 



1 2 MISSIONAR V i ^EA R-B OOK AD VER TISER. 

Among" th.e Mong-ols. By the Rev. Ja.mes Gilmour, M.A., of Pekin. With 

Engravings. New Edition. Crown 8vo. is. 6d. cloth, gilt edges. 
Non-Ciiristian Keligions. Special Volume of Present Day Tracts. Containing 

the Six Tracts, Nos. 14. 18, 25, 33, 46, 51. By SirW. MuiR, Drs. Legge, Murray 

Mitchell, and H. B. Reynolds. 2s. 6d. cloth boards. 
Jottingrs from the Pacific. By W. Wyatt Gill, b.a., author of "Life in the 

Southern Isles," etc. Iliui.trated. 55-. cloth gilt. 
Glimpses of Maori Land. By A. R. Butler. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

cloth. 
Madagascar and France. With some account of the Island, its People, its 

Resources and Development. By George A. Shaw, f.z.s., London Mission, 

Tamatave. With Illustrations and Map. 6^'. cloth. 
Old Hig-hways in China. By Isabella Williamson, of Cheefoo. Illustra- 
tions and Map. Crown Svo. 5^. cloth. 
The Gospel in South India : or, Illustratio^is of the Religious Life, 

Experience, and Character of Hindu Christians. By the Rev. Samuel Mateer, 

F.L s. With Illustrations. Crown Svo. 3J. 6d. cloth boards. 
Benjamin Rice: or. Fifty Years in the Master's Service. By his Son, Edward 

P. Rice, b.a., London Mission, Bangalore. With a Portrait and Illustrations. 

Crown Svo. 2s. 6d. cloth boards. 
Thomas Smith Thomson, l.r.c.p., l.r.c.s.. Medical Missionary at Neyoor, 

Travancore, South India. By J. H. Hacker. Illustrated. Crown Svo. 2S.6d.c\oth. 
Gospel Ethnolog-y. By S. R. Pattison, f.g.s., author of "The Religious Topo- 
graphy of England," etc. With Illustrations. 5^. cloth. 
Iiife on the Cong-O. By W. Holman Bentley, of the Baptist Missionary Society. 

With an Introduction by Rev. George Grenfell, Explorer of the Upper Congo. 

With Illustrations. Crown Svo. is. 6d. cloth. 
Pioneering- in New Guinea. By James Chalmers, of New Guinea. With a 

Map, two Portraits, and Illustrations, by permission, from Photographs by Lindt, 

of Melbourne, engraved by E. Whymper. Svo. i6j. cloth. 
In Southern India. By Mrs. Murray Mitchell, author of "In India, a 

Missionary's Wife among the Wild Tribes of South Bengal," etc. Map and Illus- 
trations. Crown Svo. 6s. cloth boards. 
Every-day Life in China : or. Scenes along River and Road in the Celestial 

Empire. By Edwin Joshua Dukes. With Illustrations. 5^. cloth. 
Life in the Southern Isles : or. Scenes and Incidents in the South Pacific and 

New Guinea. By the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, b.a. With Maps and Illustrations. 

Imperial i6mo. 5^. cloth boards, gilt edges. 
New Guinea, Work and Adventure in, 1877 to 1885. By Jajies 

Chalmers and W. Wyatt Gill, b.a., author of " Life in the Southern Isles," etc. 

With a Map and many Illustrations. Crown Svo. 6s. cloth boards. 
Protestant Missions in India from their Commencement in 1706 

to 1882. By the Rev. M. A. Cheering, m.a., ll.b. Newly Revised and brought 

down to date. By the Rev. E. Storrow, formerly of Benares. With four Maps. 

Crown Svo. 6^. cloth boards. 
Peril and Adventure in Central Africa : being Illustrated Letters to the 

Youngsters at Home. By the late Bishop Hannington. Illustrated from Sketches 

by the Bishop. Crown Svo. xs. cloth. 
Every-day Life in South India: or, The Story of Coopooswamey. An 

Autobiography. With Engravings. 3^-. 6d. cloth. 
Tulsipur Fair. Glimpses of Missionary Life and Work in North India. A Book 

for the Children. By the Rev. B. H. Badley, m.a., for Ten Years a Missionary in 

North India. Illustrated, ^s. cloth, gilt. 
The Children of Madag-ascar. By H. F. Standing, of Antananarivo. With 

many Illustrations. Small 410. 2>^. 6d. cloth gilt. 
Child Life in Chinese Homes. By Mrs. Bryson, of Wuchang, China. Wiih 

many Illustrations. Small 410. 5J. cloth boards. 
The Children of India. Written for the Children of England by one of their 

Friends. With Illustrations and Map. 4s. cloth, gilt edges. 



THE RELIGIOUS TR.\CT SOCIETY, 56 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. 



MISSION TO DEEP-SEA FISHERMEN. 

Patron: HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

, Founder and Director— Y.. J. Mather, Esq. 

Treasurer and Chairman of General Council— TaoMXS B. Miller, Esq. 

Chairman of Hospital Committee— Y^^AiVi. Treves, Esq., M.A., F.R.C.S. 

Chairman of Finajice Cojnmittee—Tuo^iAS Gray, Esq., C.B. 

Bankers — Messrs. Lloyd?, Barnett, & Bosaxquets (Limited), 

Lombard Street, E.G. 

Secretary — Alexander Gordon, Esq. 

(9#r^x-BRIDGE HOUSE, BLAGKFRIAR8 BRIDGE, LONDON, E.G. 

THOUSANDS OF FLSHERMEN are engaged all the year round in 
providing our tables with fish. These men, who for us hazard their 
lives and toil through furious blasts and sleety storm, may rightly claim 
some small share in the privileges we so richly enjoy. This they can only 
have through the presence of the Mission Vessels, carrying to the Fisher- 
men the message of Divine mercy and love, affording relief in sickness, 
and cheering dull lives by their presence. 

Nine ^Mission Vessels cruise with the Trawling fleets, each being at 
once a Church, Dispensary, Library, and Club. 

The Pioneer Hospital Ship, Queen Victoria (specially furnished with 

ten cots and quarters for a resident 

_. Y __ Y — ^ surgeon), is now dispatched on her 

W n I r errand of mercy; and the Albert 

AXJJjijX (generously given, at a cost of 

;^3,5oo, by an anonymous friend), 

is in the stocks. One-fourth of 

the cost of the third Hospital 

Ship, to be called the Alice Fisher, 

^Y^f\"T\ /^TTT^ ^^^ ^^^° been kindly contributed 

nCfil flllri ^y another anonymous donor. 

But the general receipts are so 
<f-. Y ^<s X X X^ T^ Tl n ^T^ Tk.T low ^^'^^ ^^^^ ^^ Pioneer Hospital 
H I ^ H \<\\ IVI h IM Ship cannot be maintained unless 
A A kJ AX JU X 1 A! A AJ Al o additional funds be speedily forth- 
coming, while, for the same 
reason, it may prove needful to delay the completion of the Albert. 

Meanwhile, illness and accident abound, as proved by the fact that 
nearly 7000 smacksmen, about 100 of whom were In- Patients, have 
received treatment during the past year in the Dispensary on board the 
Mission Smacks, while three surgeons have been almost constantly afloat 
since the spring, and by their valuable efforts, even with the crude 
resources at their command, have demonstrated at once the great need and 
the practicability of a more elaborate Hospital scheme. 



WANTED 



HOMES OF HOPE, 

4,5,& 6, REGENT SQUARE, GRAY'S INN ROAD, W.C. 

ESTABLISHED 1860. 

»• 

SPECIAL EFFORTS are made on behalf of mothers with their first infants, who 
are rea'ly the most hopeful class of the fallen, and are greatly to be pitied. 

A Home has been opened for the reception of such young women, before they become 
mothers, as are unfitted, from their previous good character and position, to mix with 
others. 

The Committee are obliged to make an URGENT APPEAL FOR CON- 
TRIBUTIONS :— 

1. For the Greneral Fund, the expenses of which amount to about ;^5 a day. 

2. For the Child's Fund. A guinea or two to pay the nurses would in 

many cases rescue a mother and child. Five Shillings would pay for a 
child for a week. 

3 For La"W Expenses. In every case, if it be possible, the men are com- 
pelled to pay the sum allowed by law for the child's support. 

The applications are so distressing and urgent, that every shiLing'has been spent. 

The Committee are in very urgent need of ^250. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS and DONATIONS will be thankfully received by the 
Bankers— The London and Westminster Bank (Bloomsbury Branch), 218, High 
Holborn ; by the Treasurer — Henry Thompson, Esq., 38, Mincing Lane, E.G. ; 
and by the Secretary— Wm. Hornibrook, 17, Bloomsbury Street, Oxford Street.W.C. 

LOPON LOCK HOSPITAL* ASYLUM, 

HARROW ROAD, W. 

Patients received from all parts of the Country. 

No Investments.— No Endowment.— No Government Support. 

Heavy and long-standing Deht to be Removed. 



Fresli Annual Subscriptions and Donations are earnestly solicited. 

During the past five years over 3,000 Patients have been treated 
in this Hospital, of whom more than 800 have been permanently rescued 
from their former sad Hves. 

ALGERNON C. P. COOTE, M.A., Secretary. 



Treasurers— Thk Lord KINNAIRD and ROLAND Y. BEVAN, Esq. 

Bankers— M.KSSRS. BARCLAY, RANSOM & Co., i, Pall Mall East, 
S.W., and 54, Lombard Street, E.G. 



Date Due 



I fi^ mm^ 



M v'F'<*%R*»'SB 



CHI 
SCF 




jently 
"intain 
)uring 



_ection 
1 the 



jf theii 



r very 

„ jss and 

necessit}', and needs only to be fully 
realised to be adequately supported. Exist- 
ing grants are with difficulty maintained, 
and speedy and liberal help in Annual 
Subscriptions, Donations, and Offertories 
will be most thankfully received. 

T. MARTIN TILBY, 

Lay Secretary. 

Office: 56, Havmarket, S.W. 



Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 



1 1012 01100 6550 







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