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THJS MISSION FIELD. 

A MONTHLY RECOED 



OF THK PROCEKDIN GP OP THE 



>0rieijj for % )r0ppii0tt af the 



AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



VOLUME XXXII. 



WITH 42 MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 




THK SOCIKTY ,S SK.AI 



1887. 



LONDON: 
G. BELL & SONS, 4 & 5 YOEK STREET, COVENT GARDEN ; 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



MAPS AND ILLUSTEATIONS. 



PAGE 

GATE OF THE EMPEROR S PALACE, DELHI . . . Frontispiece 

THE SOCIETY S SEAL . . Title page, 

UMTATA FALLS, KAFFRARIA . 

MERCHANT STREET, RANGOON . 

GATE OF THE CITY OF MANDALAY 

STREET IN TOKYO ........ 

MAP OF THE MISSIONS OF THE SOCIETY IN THE DlOCESE OF MADRAS . 41 

TEMPLE AT TANJORE . 

MAP OF MADAGASCAR . 

A NATIVE CANOE, MADAGASCAR 

A NATIVE VILLAGE, MADAGASCAR 78 

FOTOBA CHURCH, WEST AFRICA 

A FETISH HOUSE ....... 

MAHAR BOYS AND THEIR TEACHERS, AHMEDNAGAR 

CHANNEL CHURCH, NEWFOUNDLAND 

MAP OF NEWFOUNDLAND . 

KEALAKEKUA BAY, HONOLULU 

CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL, CANTERBURY, NEW ZEALAND 172 

THOMAS REEF, BARBERTON, TRANSVAAL ... 177 

BARBERTON, CAPITAL OF THE DE KAAP GOLD FIELDS . 179 

MAP OF NEW GUINEA .... 

NATIVES OF NEW GUINEA . 

DOREY HARBOUR, NEW GUINEA . 205 

MAP TO SHOW THE POSITION OF KEISKAMA HOEK . . 210 

MAP OF SARAWAK .... 

DYAK HOUSE 

RIVER SCENE, BORNEO . 

DYAKS BUILDING A HOUSE 

MISSION HOUSE, SARAWAK 

LUNDU CHURCH . 

SARAWAK DYAK WAR COSTUME 

SEA DYAKS LONGHOUSE 

MAIN STREET, CALGARY. . . 290 

PASS OF THE Bow RIVER ..... 

FORT EDMONTON, N. SASKATCHEWAN RIVER . ... 292 

MAP OF THE DIOCESES OF THE NORTH-WEST . 

SKETCH MAP OF A JOURNEY IN JAPAN . 296 

MAP OF BURMA ..... 

A NATIVE CART, BURMA 

MAP OF THE LEEWARD ISLANDS . 341 

MAP OF DELHI 

PORTRAIT OF BISHOP LNGLIS / j 





j 

\ 



THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




JANUARY 1, 1887. 



A.D. 1887. 

the threshold of a New Year, which, whatever it 
may have in store, is entered upon with feelings 
of unwonted interest by every one of English race 
and speech, a few words to our own readers and friends may 
not be inopportune. Throughout our vast Empire the sub 
jects of the Queen are preparing, in different ways but with 
uniform enthusiasm, to keep the rare and suggestive event a 
Eoyal Jubilee. There will be no lack of records of the progress 
which has been made in all material things ; of our extended 
possessions, and of the practical nearness of all parts of the 
Empire to each other ; of the peaceful revolution which 
has been wrought in almost every department of our. social 
and political life ; of the changed conditions of our commerce, 
our modes of travel, and the like. The retrospect will pro 
bably tempt some persons to feelings of pride, of national 
conceit and forgetfulness of God, although there are many 
features in our national life which may well lead to self- 
abasement and shame. No retrospect of a past half-century 
can be honestly and thoroughly made, which does not bring 
kito view past errors and past sins, nor suggest the far greater 
NO. CCCLXXIII. B 



2 A Tl 1 ft7 ["Mission Field, 

A..U. lOOf. L Jun. 1, 1887. 

advances that might have been made : the results which we 
can tabulate, and which will be marshalled with only too much 
of satisfaction, are but the net results after all the outcome 
of the long struggle between wisdom and unwisdom, of right 
and wrong. That the outcome might have been nobler, 
grander, more abiding, had all our works been wrought in the 
fear of God, and all movements influenced by His Spirit, is 
the barest confession which we can make. 

But we turn from this side of the subject, and confine our 
remarks to a portion of the spiritual progress which has been 
made in the past 50 years. We have seen the whole life of the 
Church transformed and invigorated in that period ; but with 
the life of the Home Church we have not to deal in these 
pages. Concerned with Missionary work in foreign parts, it is 
of the growth of our Colonial and Missionary Churches that we 
now write. Not unmindful of the fact that people are sometimes 
impatient of statistics, and even of the figures which tell us of 
the number of daughters which have sprung from our own dear 
Mother Church, we yet hope to be forgiven if we state that, 
on Her Majesty s accession to the Throne, there were only 
seven Bishops of our Church in foreign parts, each of whom 
was supported by public moneys, liable and, as events have 
shown, more than liable to reduction and withdrawal, and 
held a position closely allied to that of a Government officer, 
while there are now 75 Bishops, of whom the very large 
majority are maintained exclusively by the Church s 
own funds. Nor does this bare statement of numbers of 
Bishops give in any way an exhaustive description of progress, 
for it is simply a historical fact that the multiplication of 
Bishops is uniformly followed by a multiplication of other 
clergy, by increased Church members, for whom organised 
provision is made, by a spirit of self-government in the 
Church s Synods, and by self-support and extension. For the 
information of those and we believe they are very many who 
desire further information on these matters, the Society has 
prepared two little papers, The Victorian Jubilee and Church 
Expansion, 1837-1887, and The First Century of the Colonial 
Episcopate, which are advertised on the wrapper of this 



Mission Field, 



ld< ] EESOLUTION OF THE CANADIAN SYNOD. 3 

number of the Mission Field. The retrospect of the Church s 
progress may well tinge our thankfulness with much of self- 
abasement. We can now see, for our guidance in the future, 
how many mistakes have been made, how cold has been our 
zeal, how limited our endeavour, how much of party spirit and 
of selfishness has entered into the minds of men whose work 
has been heroic and self-denying. We can only pray that 
these errors may be pardoned, and that the Church may not 
suffer from their consequences. 

Looking to the future, we wish to realise for ourselves, and 
to move our readers and friends to realise, that this coming 
year ought to be a new departure, and to witness the inaugu 
ration of a new spirit in our work and in those who support it. 
We commemorate not only the Eoyal Jubilee, but the Cente 
nary of the Colonial Episcopate. On August 12, 1787, the 
first Colonial Bishop was consecrated. The gift of the Epis 
copate to the Colony of Nova Scotia was the triumphant result 
of a protracted series of struggles and of petitions on the part 
of the Society for more than 60 years. It was a great point 
attained ; it was not the speedy forerunner of many more 
Sees, which the welfare of the Church demanded : for many 
decades of years, each successive See was established only 
after importunate struggles, but it was a precedent to which 
appeal could be made, and it secured for the Church the germ 
of that liberty which she now possesses in nearly all parts of 
her realm. 

We remember the interest which, two years ago, the 
Daughter Church of the United States showed in the Cen 
tenary of the Consecration of her first Bishop, Seabury. 
Bishops, priests, and laymen went to Aberdeen as on a sacred 
pilgrimage to the scene of that august event which gave to 
America the sacred line of Prelacy. The Canadian Church, 
in her Provincial Synod held at Montreal in September last, 
has regarded her own Centenary with not less interest than 
was shown on the other side of the line which divides the 
United States from the Dominion. The following Resolution 
was passed unanimously : 

" That a special Commemorative Service of Thanksgiving 

B2 



A TV 1 QQ<7 r Mission Field. 

4 A.i). 1887. L Jan. 1, 1887. 

be held at Halifax on August 12, 1887, the completion of the 
First Century of the Episcopate commenced by the Consecra 
tion, on August 12, 1787, of the first Bishop of Nova Scotia ; 
and that the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, of Armagh 
and Dublin, the Primus of Scotland, and the Venerable 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, be requested to 
make such arrangements as may be practicable for a simul 
taneous Commemoration in England and throughout the 
British Empire." 

To such an appeal the Society could make but one re 
sponse. The Standing Committee have cordially welcomed 
the proposal, and are addressing themselves to the authorities 
of the Church at home and abroad. It is hoped that there 
will be no faintness of heart because the Anniversary falls on 
a day that, in some parts of the country, is the opening of the 
sportsman s season, and throughout England falls in the mid- 
harvest season. None of these considerations must weigh. 
It is a great and auspicious day which will never return, and 
much is lost if we sacrifice the contagion and enthusiasm 
which an ecumenical observance of one and the same day 
throughout the world is known to generate. With regard 
to the Day of Intercession, it was found impossible to fix 
on any one day equally convenient in every degree of 
latitude, but the day itself is here its own fixture, and 
let us all use it as best we may. At least it is hoped that 
in our Cathedral and Collegiate Churches at home there will 
be high festival kept and genuine thanksgiving offered for a 
century of progress under the ever-widening government of 
the Episcopate. The Society is also about to arrange, by its 
Diocesan ^Representatives and Organising Secretaries, for the 
formation of Local Committees in our large towns, charged 
with the arrangement of Special Services on August 12, with 
such adaptations to local feelings and circumstances as may 
be found necessary, and there is little doubt of the readiness of 
the Colonial Churches to take their part in a movement so full 
of concern to themselves. We are confident that we may rely 
on the enthusiastic co-operation of our friends, both at home 
and in" the Colonies, for making this 12th day of August 



M JanTS d ] A POINT OF DEPASTURE. 5 

memorable in our Communion, not only for the event which 
it marks, but for the spirit with which its Hundredth Anni 
versary is kept. 

But the Society determines to do more : a great era is not 
rightly kept if its observance is limited to the commemoration 
of the past : it must also be made a fresh point of departure. 
From looking back we must turn to widening horizons, to 
more work, more self-denial, more enthusiasm in the future. 
It is determined that such an use shall be made of the ap 
proaching Commemoration, and that the Society s work, its 
needs, its capacities of usefulness, its inadequate means, shall 
be brought prominently before the Church with a view to 
strengthening its position. What though its income in 1787 
was 5,464, and in 1837, 22,325 ; while in 1885 it was, 
from all sources, 117,971 ? Such an increase in no degree 
keeps pace with the increasing wealth or increasing life of the 
Church, and is altogether in sharp and dispiriting contrast 
with the widened fields of the Empire, which is the Society s 
special field of work, and with the opened lands in which 
heathenism and error have to be dethroned, and the Church 
of Christ planted in their stead. 

The present, too, seems to be an opportune time for bring 
ing before the public the Society s great and primary work, 
because it is undoubtedly the case that the Colonies are now 
receiving an attention which they did not enjoy some years ago. 
The recent Exhibition at South Kensington has brought before 
us, as in a panorama, the vastness of our Empire and its 
manifold resources ; it was a triumph of material wealth and 
of worldly success. But there is more than one side to the 
picture that was there presented to us. There is the story of 
the questionable means by which some of our possessions 
were obtained ; there is the painful story of the fate of the 
peoples whom we have found in North America, in New 
Zealand, in Tasmania, and in Australia, with the inquiry : 
Where are they now ? What was to them the result 
of their connection with Great Britain ? There is the 
further question : Why was all this wealth of Empire 
entrusted to our stewardship ? Not merely jthat we might 



i -r\ i QQI-T r Mission Field, 

6 A.-U. ICO/. L Jan. 1, 1887, 

find outlets for our commerce, new lands in which to settle 
our surplus population still less that we might bring together, 
for the satisfaction of our national pride, the products of many 
lands, the timber and the coal, which are the sure sources of 
material wealth, the cunning work of the goldsmith and the 
weaver with which to adorn our homes ; it was, we cannot 
doubt, the intention of Him who allowed us thus to surround 
the earth as it were with a network, that we might lay, deep 
and wide and sure, the foundations of His earthly kingdom. 
And this the nation, divided as it is in religious matters, 
cannot do ; this must be done by voluntary effort, and it is 
the glory of the Society that it has done, in all parts of our 
Colonial Empire, that spiritual work which is the complement 
of the work of the Colonial Office. Surely no duty can be more 
incumbent on the English Church than thus to leaven from 
the first, with the teaching and the graces of our holy religion, 
the new lands which our country colonises. If this ministry 
has not always the romance which attaches to Evangelistic 
work among the heathen, it may truly claim to make such 
work more possible, for there are no such hindrances to the 
conversion of the heathen as the evil lives of nominal 
Christians. The Society can point to twenty-two Colonial 
Dioceses which it has nursed into independence, which now 
receive no help from its treasury, but have in some instances 
become new centres from whence the Gospel is propagated. 

But the Society, alone of all the Missionary organisations 
of the Church, maintains the twofold work the pastoral care 
of the colonists and the conversion of the heathen. This has 
been its rule from the first : the conversion of the Indian 
races in North America, who rendered good service as 
Christian subjects of King George III. in the wars of the last 
century, and the spiritual edification of the Negro slaves in 
the West Indies, engaged its attention immediately after its 
foundation. So long ago as 1752 it sent an itinerant Mis 
sionary to the Negroes on the Guinea, and in 1765 it sent to the 
Gold Coast a Native who had been educated and ordained in 
England. It seems necessary to dwell on these facts because 
many good persons think that no Missionary work among the 



M jani,S dl ] THE FOUNDING OF THE SOCIETY. 7 

heathen was undertaken in the 18th century. With them 
there is a tendency to think that the earliest work of the kind 
was in India ; but the Church of England had not a single 
ordained Missionary in the East Indies until 1814. At the 
present time the Society s income is divided in almost equal 
proportions between the colonists and the heathen. 

With all confidence, then, we urge our readers to push the 
Society, its work and its claims, on the conscience and the 
sympathies of all whom they can influence. We are met 
sometimes by the objection, often made as an excuse for do 
ing nothing, that the work, presumably the work of Missions, 
and not, as is the case, the work of supporting Missions, 
ought to be done, not by Societies, but by the whole Church. 
Let us briefly examine the fallacy of this. For purposes of 
government and legislation the Church is as much an abstrac 
tion as is the nation, but each works and legislates and 
governs by machinery, by bodies more or less representative 
of the whole. If no Missionary work were being done by 
Englishmen, and the Church were roused to doing it, the first 
step would be to create a body which should be the Church s 
instrument for doing this work. The Church of England was 
exactly in this imaginary position nearly 200 years ago ; her 
children were emigrating to the plantations and Colonies, and 
she was doing nothing for them. The Bishop of London sent 
two Commissaries to America to examine and report on the 
spiritual needs of the States, and finally the Lower House of 
the Convocation of Canterbury, assembled in Henry VII. s 
Chapel at Westminster, appointed a committee to consider 
the propagation of the Christian religion in the plantations 
or Colonies. This was in March, 1701. The Archbishop of 
Canterbury took action hereon, and approached the Sovereign, 
and, in three months from the first step taken by Convocation, 
the Society was called into existence by that Royal Charter 
which it still holds. If any object to voluntary Societies, in 
these days when every institution is more and more dependent 
on voluntary support, and our endowments, if not threatened, 
are wholly inadequate, then in one sense the Society is not a 
voluntary body, seeing that none can become members of it of 



_ A T\ 1 QQT rMit-sion Field, 

g A.D. lOO/. L Jan- 1, 1887. 

their own mere will, but must be formally admitted, and, once 
incorporated, are responsible for its doings. But it is not on 
its peculiar constitution that the Society builds its claims, 
although such a consideration may have its weight with those 
who are hypercritical in their ideas of Church order. The 
spirit in which its work is done, and the recognition which 
that work has received of God, are more important matters, 
and on this point we are glad to give the words of the late 
Bishop Wilberforce : " The Society wishes to act, not as a 
Society, but as the handmaid of the One Christian Society, 
gathering together in One the many members that each may 
do his or her part." The following testimony, voluntarily 
borne by the late Bishop Gray, is not to be passed over : 

" I have been enabled to bear testimony in many places to the fact that 
the Society is the mainstay of the whole Colonial Church : that, in pro 
portion as its means are enlarged, so will the Church in each distant 
extremity of the British Empire expand, and enlarge her borders ; while, 
if it be feebly supported, the Daughter Churches in distant lands must pro 
portionally suffer : that the Society has the strongest claims upon the 
hearty sympathy and support of the Church at large, inasmuch as it comes 
recommended by the whole Episcopate, whether of the Mother Country or 
of the Colonies ; and has been,beyond every other merely human institution, 
most abundantly blessed in its labours, so as to have been the honoured 
instrument of planting nourishing Churches in many of the dependencies 
of the British Crown. Were there indeed one thing which, as a Mission 
ary Bishop just about to depart for the field of his labours, I would im 
plore of the Church at home, it would be to place at the disposal of the 
Society a much larger income than it has hitherto done, that it may be 
enabled to meet the ever increasing necessities of the Church in our 
Colonial Empire." 

The advocates of the Society may well ask : "What organi 
sation would be called into being, other than the Society itself, 
with its broad basis, its absolute recognition of the rights of 
the Episcopate, its abstinence from all semblance of spiritual 
jurisdiction, and its full use of the services of the laity, if 
the Church had now to begin her Missionary work ? The 
Society was constituted in 1701 as the Church s instrument 
in Missionary matters. The phrase " Board of Missions " was 
not current 185 years ago, but the Society is in reality all 
that the phrase denotes to-day. 

But, in truth, the present is an age of co-operation, which 



M JlS d j THE PRESIDENT S WORDS. 9 

means the aggregration of workers in Societies. No doubt 
the multiplication of Societies having a common object in view 
is highly to be deprecated, but that is a matter only of inci 
dental detail. Our President has shown the Church that 
Missions have, in the Church s long history, been carried on 
in different ways first by individuals, then by Governments, 
and now by Societies and His Grace has urged the duty of 
supporting such Societies, and our own Society in particular, 
in the eloquent words here subjoined : 

" As for the present moment, in the name of humanity, in the name ot 
crushed, beaten-down, oppressed humanity, in the name of yearning 
humanity, in the name of powerful, able humanity, which is tending back 
towards paradise and far beyond paradise, tending towards heaven itself, 
in the name of all those who have no such yearnings or aspirations, and 
in the sight of all the great peoples and tribes and Churches forming under 
t)ur very eyes Christian crystals forming in some chemical fluid I ask, 
Can there be for the present any duty more incumbent upon Christians 
over the whole world than to support these Societies ? Can there be any 
thing more important than that all the Societies should provoke each 
other to love and good works ? I feel very jealous for this old Society of 
ours, which is so bound up with all the past history of the English 
Church, which has had such noble men to support it, such devoted lovers 
and devoted workers both here and abroad. I am very jealous for this 
Society lest it should seem to be in any way limiting or crippling its 
operations." 

" So long as Societies are imbued with the spirit of the 
great charter with which the Great Head of the Church com 
missioned the Apostle of the Gentiles ; so long as the Society 
is in true harmony with the spirit of the Church, and vitalised 
by her living power," is the answer of the present Bishop of 
Lincoln to the inquiry, "What security have we that these 
Societies will continue ? " 

It is not mere organisation which will promote a great 
work. Organisation is the result, but not the cause, of life : 
it is to the spirit which permeates an organisation that we must 
look with hope. In the Church of the United States there is 
a Board of Missions, which is the Missionary organisation for 
that Church. That Board is nothing less than the whole 
General Convention of the Church ; but as that body meets 
only once in three years, and in the intervals its members are 
scattered far and wide, the executive powers are delegated to 



10 A.D. 1887. 

a small body, whose members live within easy reach of New 
York. 

It seems that the system, to which some persons in Eng 
land have wistfully turned, has not given satisfaction to the 
Church which created it ; its constitution has been materially 
altered at the Convention recently held at Chicago. Bishops 
themselves were among the severest critics, and comparisons 
were made by one Bishop in favour of the more successful 
working of the Missionary Societies in England. 

Once more, then, we say, let us do all in our power to im 
press on the minds of Churchmen of all ranks the duty of 
personal co-operation in Missionary work, and the readiness 
and ability of the Society to be their instrument for carrying 
it out. " Spartam nactus es, hanc exorna" Let no one hold 
his hand from the work until an organisation, which is abso 
lutely unattainable and impossible (and which would probably 
be no improvement if it were possible), has been created. It 
will be treason to the Great Head of the Church if we allow 
His work to linger and be arrested, because of some ideal of 
our own, which is in the regions of cloudland. The Standing 
Committee are arranging for the holding of Conferences of 
members and friends of the Society in various centres through 
out England in the coming year, and are prepared to send 
one of their body to give information, to answer questions, 
and to bring back to London the report of the wishes and 
views of our friends. It needs but hearty co-operation, in a 
prayerful spirit of dependence on God s help, to make this new 
year memorable in the history of the Society and of the 
Colonial Church. Let us, each one in his own sphere, see to 
it that nothing be lacking on our part. 





ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. 

MISSION WORK OF THE DIOCESE : ITS METHODS AND PROSPECTS. 
BY BISHOP KEY. 

JHIKTY years have now passed over our heads since 
the Mission work of the Church first began in 
the territories which now form the Diocese of 
St. John s. For about half that time the British Govern 
ment had not interfered in any way with the autonomy 
of the tribes. The Fingoes, who crossed the Kei in I860, 
were the first exception to the rule ; they came as British 
subjects, and brought with them a magistrate, who was to 
govern them after their own laws and customs, with but few 
exceptions ; and it is only during the last ten years that 
colonial law has gradually come into vogue in the territories 
which are now annexed to the Cape Colony. 

This change in the political state of the country, together 
with the advance of the work, has a good deal modified our 
method of working. The boundaries of our Mission Stations 
have ceased to be the limits of Christianity ; and wherever 
they still exist, their system is becoming changed a good 
deal for the better. 

The Mission Station, as known to all Kaffir Missionaries, 
is probably also well known to most of our readers ; but still 
a few words descriptive of it may not be out of place. 

In the old time, then, it was usual to go to the chief of 
the country in which it was desirous to plant a Mission, and 
ask for a place for a Missionary to build a " school," as it 
was called that word being applied, not, as in English, to the 
place where children are taught, but to the whole location and 
its inhabitants. 

The chief, if willing to accept the Missionary, would point 



12 ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. ["KT, Sf d 

out a piece of land a river basin, probably, if he had plenty 
of spare room, embracing several thousand acres and within 
the boundaries thus given, all the inhabitants were henceforth 
under the jurisdiction and control of the Missionary. If they 
did not like his rule, and preferred to remain still the followers 
of the chief, they had to remove. They had all to come to 
church, and send their children to school; to give up their 
old heathen customs at any rate nominally such as their 
dances, and religious rites of all kinds. They were exempt 
from military service ; and other chiefs, if at war with the 
tribe, respected the property and lives of the school people so 
long as they did not take up arms against them. 

The school ground was a sanctuary for all people lying 
under the suspicion of using witchcraft. A man who was 
smelt out by the witch doctor ran to the school as to a city of 
refuge ; and he and his cattle, if he were so fortunate as to 
get away with them, were safe. 

Again, in treating with an enemy for peace during a war, 
the school people were frequently used as the messengers, and 
often managed to bring about the desired object. Their 
persons were sacred, when other men would have been in 
danger. In former times, women had been used for the 



o 

service. 



Such a state of things sounds very pleasant, and it had its 
manifest advantages. The Missionary and his people were 
exempted from the trouble and danger of war ; his people 
were all around him; he had control of their customs at 
least nominally ; he could require the attendance of their 
children at school, and of the parents at church ; and espe 
cially any members of the tribe who, having Christianity 
presented to them, were desirous of a nearer acquaintance, 
could move on to the Mission land, and were forthwith out of 
the reach of persecution from their heathen neighbours. 

The objections, however, were many and fatal. The very 
fact of the converts being hedged round from persecution and 
trial was weakening to a vigorous spiritual growth. Their 
relation to their pastor, who was landlord, magistrate, and 
priest in one, opened the way to eye-service, and prevented a 



Mission Field,-) 
Jaii. 1, 1887. J 



ST. JOHN S, KAFFKARIA. 



13 




14 ST. JOHN S, KAFFRARIA. [ 



Mission Field, 
Jun. 1, 1887. 



perfectly open confidence in him in his last capacity. The 
sanctuary which the Mission afforded drew in a number of 
refugees, who, whether justly or unjustly accused of witch 
craft, were very often obnoxious characters, and the presence 
of these prevented others from coming in. The exemption 
from military service cut the station off from the tribe more 
than anything ; made the chief jealous of any large numbers 
of his tribe joining ; and from these or some of these causes 
grew up a fixed idea that a Christian could only live on a 
Mission Station. The leaven never went beyond the station 
boundary ; immediately outside, the people were generally as 
heathen as the rest of the tribe who had never heard the 
name of God. And, lastly, Mission Stations have always been 
the favourite resort of Christian Fingoes. These people are 
always on the move, and will go anywhere that they can get a 
place to set their ploughs going. The Missionaries naturally 
receive them, thinking that the examples of fairly consistent 
Christians, as many Fingoes are, will be beneficial to the 
heathen around them. Unfortunately the jealousy shown by 
the Kaffir for the Fingo is so strong that their presence has 
been another element preventing the fusion of the Christian 
and heathen population, so that, what with sorcerers and 
Fingoes, Christianity has fallen into disrepute ; the Mission 
location has come to be regarded as an obiect of suspicion by 
all true members of the national party of Kaifirland. 

With such a long list of charges against what is called 
the Station System, it may be thought that no good work 
could come out of them; but not so many of the best 
converts, and most steady Christians, we owe to this source. 
It is now that these faults have been so clearly developed 
when the system is passing away. 

In Basutoland a different experiment was tried. There 
the early Missionaries the French Protestants could obtain 
no land, and so circumstances forced them to try the healthier 
plan, and to succeed. Among that tribe the Christians, 
though gravitating round the Mission buildings, owe allegiance 
only to the chief. 

The beginning of this new order of things began where the 



! 1 ] METHOD OF WORK. 15 

Fingoes crossed into the Transkei, and then among the people 
of what is called Fingoland, in the congregations of the late 
Archdeacon Waters. We saw Christian natives living side by 
side with the heathen, without compromising their religion or 
exciting the hostility of their neighbours a state of things 
which among the Kaffir proper we are hardly familiar with 
even yet. However, for the future, experience has shown 
that this is the true method of working. The time, indeed, 
for acquiring grants of land from chiefs is now past, as the 
country even in Pondoland, the only part of the diocese 
still independent is fully populated. 

Our work, as it presents itself at the present time in all 
our parochial districts which are very large, being, roughly 
speaking, sixty or eighty miles square is a number of scat 
tered congregations, in number averaging from ten to one 
hundred communicants. In some districts there may be six 
such congregations ; in some, ten ; in one or two, twenty to 
thirty, nearly all of which are Fingoes. The labour of 
visiting these monthly, or even quarterly, will be seen to be 
very great when, besides the ordinary ministrations of the 
Sacraments, we consider the preparation of candidates for 
baptism and confirmation, who present themselves to the 
catechists, and are reported by them to the Missionary. 
These, among the Fingo population, are quite as numerous 
as could be expected, and appears to be merely the natural 
growth of the Church among the heathen Fingo population, 
where there is no positive opposition or adverse feeling 
tending to retard such growth. 

To instruct this large number of converts, and to raise the 
tone of the old members to even a moderate degree of 
Churchmanship, and appreciation of Church doctrine, and to 
maintain a healthy discipline, a well-trained native ministry 
is at present our great want. W^e have already in every little 
congregation, as described above, a catechist, who is doing in 
most cases thoroughly good work as far as his knowledge goes, 
and, as a rule, the work of the European priest consists 
a good deal in organising his band of catechists, guiding 
.them by his advice and actual instruction, especially by their 



/-si -|- -TT {"Mission Field, 

16 ST. JOHN s, KAFFRARIA. L Jan. i, issr. 

presence at his baptism and confirmation classes, where, as 
listeners or interpreters, they may imbibe both his methods 
and the rudimentary doctrines which he tries to instil into 
those babes in Christ, the candidates. 

Our native ministry consists at present of one priest and 
three deacons, one of whom is a candidate for priest s orders ; 
and three catechists are coming forward for deacon s orders 
at Advent. To increase this regular ministry, in order that 
the work now being done by the catechists may be placed in 
their hands, is one great object now in view. "We have a 
college at Umtata for the training of such young men as 
present themselves, which is supplied by two sources : (1) 
from the various Missions throughout the diocese which 
send up such of the catechists and other workers as, by 
their character and efficiency, and by their own choice and 
desire, seem suitable to be brought forward for Holy Orders. 
These are often married men ; they are frequently not very far 
advanced in their studies, and a less general examination is 
required of them ; the Bible and Prayer-book, with the 
Provincial and Diocesan Canons, forming their text-books. 
We try rather to give them practical knowledge of craft 
rather than theological. Besides these are (2) the more 
promising boys, chosen from the boarding-schoolpromising 
not especially in intellectual power, though that, of course, is 
one desideratum, but in moral character, and a general apti 
tude for spiritual work. These are younger men generally, 
and can afford to spend a longer time in college, and so their 
theological training can be made more thorough. The ex- 
.amination of these is much the same as that which the 
European candidates have to pass. 

The training institution is still in its infancy, but its 
importance cannot be over-estimated, as in the future the 
extension of the native Mission work must be by means of 
native clergy, working in subordination to European priests. 
In all the large districts or parishes into which the diocese is 
divided, this is a clearly established position, and from it 
follows the corollary, the necessity of a European clergy of a 
.somewhat high standard, who shall be able to organise and 



M J 8 ft riS d ] METHOD OF WORK. 17 

direct a considerable number of native clergy, consisting of 
catechists, deacons, and, in due time, priests. 

To recapitulate, then, our Mission work presents two 
different phases : first, the scattered congregations as de 
scribed, which require constant itinerating. Amongst these 
the work is more like that in a scattered European popu 
lation, with the addition of a variable number of candidates 
for baptism to be prepared and baptized. Secondly, the more 
direct and aggressive Mission work amongst the heathen 
Kaffir, tribes : this, alas! is almost a thing of the future. 
Nearly all our native Christians are drawn from Fingoes, 
and other kindred people, whose home was originally in 
Natal. The four tribes who have inhabited the territories 
which form the diocese from time immemorial, the Xosa, 
Tembu, Pondo, and Pondomise, are hardly represented. that 
devoted men may be moved to offer themselves for this work ! 
men who would be content to work on in faith, seeing but 
small results ; who would give their life-work to this object ; 
and to this a prayer may be added that funds be forthcoming 
to allow us to ask such to join us. 




NO. CCCLXXIII. 





RANGOON". 

THE BISHOP S ILLNESS. ST. JOHN S COLLEGE : SUCCESS OF THE 

STUDENTS. BURSTING OF THE BUND AT MANDALAY : THE REV. 

j. A. COLBECK S ACCOUNT OF THE WORK AT THE MISSION. 

SEEIOUS illness, attended with much pain, has, 
we regret to hear, completely prostrated the 
Bishop of Rangoon . His lordship was taken 
ill towards the end of September. 

" Possibly his recent visitation in the Ningyan district of Upper Burma 
had something to do with it. Irregular meals, indifferent food, and all 
the privations attendant upon travel in an uncivilised country, must now 
tell upon a constitution which has hitherto stood proof against the vicis 
situdes of a long and laborious missionary life." 

In the Rangoon Church News for October we find a most 
interesting account of St. John s College, Eangoon. There 
are now over 400 pupils in the College, and the result of 
the exertions of Dr. Marks and his staff are very remarkable. 

" As the result of the last inspection, our Upper and Lower Primary 
Departments gained Twenty Scholarships (the largest number ever yet 
gained by any one school in Burma), being about one half of the entire 
number of scholarships for the whole of Rangoon. When we remember 
that these scholarships are awarded competitively by the Education 
Department, and that the school next in success to us gained only seven, 
we feel that we have great cause for assurance that our lower classes are 
well and carefully instructed, and that our young teachers (nearly all 
our own manufacture) have done well. Specially worthy of praise is Mr. 
Stephen McKertich, Master of the 1st class Upper Primary, one of the 
largest and most successful classes in the school. But it is invidious to 
particularise where all have done their best. Of our fifteen masters, 
young and old, all but one are now Christians and resident in the 
College. 

" We sent up four candidates for the Teachers Certificate Examina 
tions of the Educational Syndicate : William Bell, Charles F. Gailah, and 
Charles Po Nyoon, who were successful for the Lower Standard, and 



M Jari,S7 W ] ST. JOHN S COLLEGE. 19 

Stephen McKertich, who was the only candidate in the Province, successful 
for the Higher Standard. 

" In Athletics we have to record the gift and erection of a very fine 
gymnasium, for which we are indebted (as usual) to our good friends 
J. W. Darwood, Esq., and F. C. Kennedy, Esq., C.I.E., of the Irrawaddy 
Flotilla. 

" We have had two matches at Football, our second team with the 
Rangoon Government College. In the first no results worth mentioning 
were gained, but in the second we scored the grand victory of one goal 
and two corner-kicks to nothing. 

" Concerning Old Soys we are glad to be able to report most favour 
ably of our ex-pupils who are employed as Interpreters, &c., in Upper 
Burma. The Rev. James Colbeck was kind enough to make inquiries 
concerning some of them from their commanding officers, and to send us 
highly favourable accounts of their conduct and work. 

" We are glad to record the success of an old boy, Andrew Moung 
Kyoo, who came out first in an open competition for the post of Assistant 
Government Translator, with the rank of Myook, at the Secretariat. He 
was one of our first pupils in Moulmein. He accompanied Dr. Marks to 
Rangoon in 1864 to begin St. John s College, and he went with him to 
Mandalay (as a teacher) in 1869, where he was baptized and married. 
As Deputy Inspector of Schools in Rangoon he has done good work and 
will be much missed* but we congratulate him on his success, and also 
upon the coincidence of his son Kin Moung gaining a Primary Scholarship 
with us this year. 

" Excellent reports have been received of the brilliant success of our 
late pupil Moung Ngway Rhine, son of Ko Oon, C.I.E. He is a Christian, 
baptized by Bishop Titcomb, and is a student in his last year of the Royal 
Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

" Robert Williams, so dear to us all, has safely arrived at St. John s 
College, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, where he has become a pupil in the 
Head Master s house, and whence he sends his love to all his school 
fellows. He was with us eleven years, and we have reason to be thank 
ful and proud that his record in school, choir, cadet corps, and athletics is 
excellent. 

" Our own drill season commenced on the 1st of July. We have 
every reason to believe that we shall put a well-trained army on the battle 
field, and that St. John s College Cadet Corps will sustain this year the 
reputation it has hitherto maintained. 

" Thanks to the kindness of William Sherriff, Esq., our choir boys 
have been remarkably well and carefully trained. He spares no pains 
with the lads, and they heartily reciprocate his attentive kindness. One 
of the happiest sights in the College is that of Mr. Sherriff and his choir 
lads in the chapel or vestry. He intends shortly to submit them to 
public examination for certificates in music. 

" A very promising set of new band boys are making good progress 
under Band-Sergt. Richard St. John. We hope that under his careful 
teaching they will join the old band shortly. 

c 2 



RANGOON. 



TMiss-.on Field, 
L Jan. 1, 1887. 



" We regret to record that, owing to the exigencies of the public service, 
Government has had to discontinue the course of instruction which it 
was providing for our teachers and elder pupils in Telegraphy, and even 
to refuse to allow us the loan of a couple of instruments that the pupils 
might practise by themselves. They had made very fair progress, but by 




this action o Government their time has been wasted, and all that they 
have learned will be useless. Had we known that we should be thus, 
served we would certainly not have commenced the course. 

"The health of the school has been very good, with one or two- 
exceptions. Moung Moung Shin, an elder brother of the Myintsein Prince, 



M J 8 au. S d ] MANDALAY . 2 1 

has been at death s door with pleurisy. The kindness and skill of Dr. 
Hunter, who, in the absence of Dr. Pedley, was so very good as to be our 
medical officer, have brought him out of immediate danger, but he still 
requires unceasing care and attention. We desire to record our gratitude 
to Dr. Hunter for all his kindness and care. Masters and pupils join in 
heartfelt thanks to him. 

" We rejoice to welcome back with accumulated health our old friend 
Dr. Pedley, our Hon. Physician of six years past. May he himself always 
enjoy the health and strength which he is so careful to secure for St. 
John s College." 

On November 3rd there was a large gathering in the 
grounds of the College to witness the presentation of colours 
to the College Corps of Eifle Volunteers by Captain Beckett, 
who tendered them in the following words : 

" Eeverend Principal, Masters, and Pupils of St. John s College, Ran 
goon, My wife and I beg your acceptance of these flags, which we have 
procured for your school from England. The College flag will remind 
you all that your institution has made a name for itself in this country, 
and that it will be the duty of yourselves and successors to preserve the 
good name, and make St. John s College, by God s help, a blessing to this 
land. The Union Jack with S.P.G-. in the centre will remind you that 
you are British subjects, loyal servants of the great and good Queen- 
Empress, upon whose dominions the sun never sets, and we trust never 
will set. It will remind you that the power of this Empire surrounds 
such beneficent agencies as the S.P.G., protects them in their good works, 
and is itself nourished and supported by such efforts in all countries that 
own the British name. These flags will teach you constancy, firmness, 
courage, and progress ; and when by these lessons the} 7 shall have added 
to the prosperity of St. John s College, and the true welfare and happiness 
of all connected with it, they will fulfil the design which Mrs. Beckett and 
I propose to ourselves when we ask your acceptance of these our gifts." 

The Rev. James A. Colbeck writes from Mandalay describ 
ing the bursting of the River Bund there, and many interesting 
details in connection with the progress of the Mission. 

" On Monday, August IGth, we had our highest attendance to date, 
97 in school out of 130 or so on the rolls. The boys were bright 
and happy, and before closing school I said, All of you come to 
morrow and bring the absent ones, then we shall get our second fifty 
holiday. As we were sitting at table after dinner, one of our workmen 
came in saying the Eiver Bund had burst and that people were fleeing for 
their lives towards the city. We listened, heard a noise as of water in 
motion, then went to give the alarm to our neighbours, the 28rd Regiment 
"W.L.I. This was at about 8 P.M. In half an hour the water was 011 us, 



22 



RANGOON. 



Field 
L Jan. 1, 1887. 



and we had a busy time till after midnight securing the safety of the 
people about us, ponies, property, &c. By that time the water covered all 
our roads, and had entered the church. The next day, the 23rd, had to 
leave their barracks, but as we were still high and dry in the clergy house 
and schools, we stuck to the ship, and offered quarters to a number of 
washed-out people. Two fine cobras came aboard of us and met with a 
warm reception, sharing the fate of two huge black scorpions who in 
cautiously made their appearance at the clergy-house steps. 

" We got a stock of rice in, and then prepared to help the distressed 
people about us, going about to find them in all the flooded quarters in 
boats or on rafts. The church benches were beginning to float about, so 
we drew them all into the chancel, and barred the chancel gate to keep 




GATE OF TEK CITY OF MANDALAY. 



them safely there. It was a singular sight to see a boat gliding in among 
the benches, into the vestry and back past the font ; but very little damage 
was done in church, and, so far as I know, nothing lost in the confusion. 

" Many school-boys came to help us, and brought us presents of food 
and fruit very acceptable, as our cook-house was swamped and commis 
sariat generally disarranged. 

" We i.e. a friend, Mr. Bear and I accompanied by teachers and 
boys, went to all parts of the flooded district from the place where the 
Bund burst, right along the Bund to the steamer station (the shore) ; all 
down C, B, and A roads, and as far as the Arakan Pagoda ; and were very 
thankful to find so few dead bodies. Terrible accounts reached us on the 
17th, Tuesday ; but though, from the 18th to the 21st, we visited the scenes 



Mission Field,"! "AHxTT^vT x- OO 

Jan. 1, 1887. J 1VLANDALA1. >2>3 

of reported disasters, and saw the people on the places or close to them, 
we could not gather that there was any real foundation for the reports, 
and do not believe twenty-five people were drowned in the whole district 
under water. 

" This may seem an incredibly small number ; but as we went out for 
the purpose of finding dead and distressed people, and learning the real 
truth, we hold to the substantial accuracy of our account. Our cemetery 
chowkidar was the leader of one of five parties of grave-diggers sent out 
to recover the dead ; they were paid for each body they found --no find no 
pay. All they found were thirteen bodies. The dead bodies could not 
have floated down the river for several days, as there w r as no outlet suffi 
cient to allow them to escape. The bodies recovered by the cemetery 
men were committed to the river, not buried, and this may account for 
the report of numerous corpses being seen at Ava and elsewhere. 

" School was closed for thirteen days, and the boys had a grand water- 
frolic. Nine hundred logs of timber invaded our compound and were 
secured till reclaimed by the owners. We re-opened school on the 80th 
August with twenty boys, and have since got up to ninety-two. None 
of our boys have lost relations or friends, though some of their parents 
have lost heavily in property. 

" During the flood we held our services in the clergy-house chapel, but 
outsiders were very scanty. The church could not be used till Sunday, 
September 5th, when, in spite of the very heavy rain, we had a service 
of thanksgiving and intercession thanksgiving for our and our neigh 
bours safety, intercession for those in suffering and distress. Forty-two 
Burmans were present. The Burmese Tliatlianabaing paid me a visit in 
the afternoon and spoke of the love we should have for our fellows in 
distress, so I told him w T hat we had been doing that morning. He had 
visited places where great loss of life was reported to have taken place, and 
said he believed the deaths from the flood were between ten and twenty. 

" To go a little further back, we baptized two adults, Abban Monng 
Hpay and Anna Ma Zah Yu, on July 28th. Our school-boy catechumens 
are not baptized, as I wish some of their parents to come forward too, 
and then baptize them all together. 

" The Burmese Prayer Books and Hymn Books received from Eangoon 
Church Book Depot have got into use and are appreciated, but it jars 
on one s feelings to think of heathens using the words of prayer 
when they get hold of a Prayer Book, and responding as though they 
\vere devout Christians. To say words they do not really mean must 
have a deadening effect upon their souls, I fear. 

" We have begun to make some use of the influence got in the flood. 
We gave shelter to villagers from In-be village, and now the people have 
returned to their shattered houses just outside our compound to the west ; 
we want them to make things a little, or rather a great deal, more orderly. 
Lines of houses, not a higgledy-piggledy confusion; roads, not mud- 
tracks ; and to give more attention to conservancy and cleanliness. 
There are fifty-six houses and some 250 people. Can we make it a model 
village ? Is it worth trying ? I think it is. 



24 RANGOON. [^r?,S d 

" Our school ought to be useful for good ; we have this month received 
two princelings, sons of the Kin Woon Mingyee, Pin Atwin Woon, Egabat 
Myo Woon and Weh-ma-so Woon-douk : all these old ministers are now 
in British Government service. The Thatlianabaing has sent his three 
nephews, and all seems to go on well with the boys. I have been asked 
about a Girls School, but it cannot come yet. 

" On Thursday, September 23rd, we had 100 boys in attendance. 
We are to have a Shan Saubwa of ten years, as a boarder, sent by 
Government. He is the rightful head of his clan, but there is just now 
a great deal of faction-fighting. 

" Our magic lantern has now arrived, so we are arranging for a series 
of exhibitions. 

" We expected much sickness about us after the water settled down, 
and Dr. Farrell, C.B., the principal Medical Officer, kindly gave me two 
ounces of quinine and one pound of quinetum. We dosed all our house- 
boys and ourselves, and have had only one case of fever yet, in spite of 
the wet, heat, and exposure. It is partly the fear of sickness breaking out 
in In-be village which makes us anxious to have a hand in remodelling 
it. Our good friend Dr. McKee has gone with his regiment, the 23rd 
W.L.I., to Mandalay Hill, and we have no troops near us now, so we 
cannot call in a doctor when we like, as we could before. 

" Next time I hope my Mandalay budget will contain notice of the 
arrival of my brother, George Henry Colbeck, from St. Augustine s 
College, Canterbury, and of his setting to work at Burmese." 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

HOW little Englishmen can realise what a hard life 
must have been that which closed 011 the 7th of 
November, at Prince Albert ! We have from time to time 
been privileged to record some of the Bishop of Saskat 
chewan s journeys ; but his descriptions of them told little of 
their trying character to himself. His widow has written a 
touching letter to the Society, and from it we may venture to 
make some extracts, which describe the Bishop s illness and 
death : 

" He left home on August 16th to visit the S.P.G. Missions at Calgary 
and Edmonton. The day he left Edmonton to return home, via Calgary, 
an accident occurred. The horses^upset the carriage, and he was thrown 
out with much violence. Anxious to reach home, he proceeded on his 
way ; but after a few miles he was obliged by severe pain to return to 
Edmonton. Here he remained very ill for three weeks. The gravity of 
the case was not understood, the surroundings were most miserable, and 
great part of the time he was delirious. At last, feeling he could not 
live much longer, he had a boat built ; and, accompanied by two men and 
our son, aged fifteen, who was with him, he started for home. They were 
twenty-two days in that boat, with very cold weather, and his weakness 
increasing hourly. Our poor boy thought he would never reach home 
alive. But God was very merciful and spared him to us. For eighteen 
days all that love, affection, good medical advice, and nursing could do for 
him was done. For a time he seemed to rally, but a severe fever set in, 
and on Sunday (the day he loved so well), at twelve o clock, he fell asleep 
in Jesus. We laid him to rest last Sunday (Nov. 14) in a quiet spot out 
side the little chancel of St. Mary s, the first Church he had built and 
held service in in his diocese. . . . Our medical man says that it was the 
terrible hardships he underwent at Edmonton, and in the boat, that 
hastened his end ; that, had it not been for that fatal trip, he would have 
lived probably for twenty years. To-morrow (Nov. 17) will be his birth 
day the fifty-eighth. Five of his dear children were privileged to stand 
with me round his death-bed. The other four who had been telegraphed 



26 NOTES OF THE MONTH. , . 

for from college in Winnipeg, and our eldest daughter from Fort McLeod, 
arrived on Friday, and had the sad satisfaction of seeing him, and follow 
ing him to his resting place. ... The October number of the Mission 
Field reached my beloved husband the mail before his death. He was 
much pleased at the publication of his letter, and wished to thank you for 
it. He always wished to die in harness, and not rust out. But we have 
been left very desolate." 

Those two-and-twenty days of the homeward journey, and 
all that the Bishop underwent, were of a piece with his hardy, 
self-denying life. His work has been indeed well done. 

In addition to the great loss to the Church, the Bishop s 
death leaves his family not only bereaved of its honoured head, 
but with such slenderness of temporal provision as calls for 
sympathetic help. The Bishop worked hard to complete the 
endowment of his See, and at last succeeded. During his 
efforts for this purpose, he was of course receiving less than 
even the modest income which he has provided for his suc 
cessors. At first he only received 400 a year, the amount 
guaranteed to him by the Society. He left nine children, one 
of whom was born during his last absence from home. Two 
of the daughters are married, and two of the sons are at college 
in Winnipeg. He insured his life for $10,000, and the 
interest of this sum (about 120 per annum) and a small 
pension from the Eupertsland Widows and Orphans Fund, 
is all that is available for Mrs. McLean and her children. The 
Society it may be as well to note has no responsibility in 
such cases, and has no fund from which it could grant a pen 
sion to the widow of a Colonial Bishop. But the Society and 
all its friends must sympathise strongly with Mrs. McLean ; 
and the Treasurers have, by the direction of the Standing 
Committee, opened a special fund for the purpose of receiving 
gifts to enable the Society to render some assistance to the 
widow and family of the late Bishop. 

In every respect the appeal is a strong one. The grand 
work of the Bishop in his diocese, his pecuniary provision for 
his diocese, and, as far as possible, for his family, and the 
fact of his vigorous life being sacrificed in the performance 
of his severe labours, will no doubt lead to a general recogni 
tion of the claim which this fund has upon Churchmen. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 27 

death of the Yen. Assheton Pownall removes one 
I of the longest and best known friends of the Society in 
the Diocese of Peterborough. In 1862 he was selected by the 
Society to be its Organising Secretary for the Archdeaconry of 
Leicester, an office which he held till increased diocesan 
duties as Proctor in Convocation compelled his resignation in 
1872. In 1884 he was appointed Archdeacon of Leicester, 
where he had already won the confidence of the clergy and 
laity as the Society s Organising Secretary ; and they marked 
the esteem in which he was universally held by electing him 
as a Diocesan Representative on the Standing Committee 
of the Society.! He will long be missed, * both in Delahay 
Street and in Leicestershire, as a steady friend and wise 
administrator. 

LARGE quantities of publications, far in excess of the 
previous years, were ordered for parochial use on the 
Day of Intercession. We trust that we may take this as an 
index of a more widespread and hearty observance of the 
day. The results abroad in answer to the Intercessions we 
may have to wait for ; but if we have at home fervent desire 
for the success of the Missionary cause, we may not only 
rest assured that answers will be given to the prayers, but 
see no small part of what is desired actually granted for a 
great need is that of a stronger Missionary spirit at home. 



IN the September Mission Field there appeared an inte 
resting letter from Bishop Scott, who now writes to ask 
us to make a very important correction of a statement made 
in it. The Bishop had said : " The seventy years of work on 
the part of the Anglican and Protestant Churches have pro 
duced only twenty-five thousand Christians." Our readers will 
be glad to learn that the number is one hundred thousand, 
the Communicants numbering about twenty-five thousand. 

ON reaching England, the Rev. J. Coles, of Tamatave, 
whose health; we regret to say, has suffered greatly 
in Madagascar, brought to the Society s house part of a shell 



Mission Field, 



28 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [n:r, 

which burst into the Society s Mission premises during the 
attack of that port by the French in 1883. It will be pre 
served ; and may serve as a memento of the bombardment, 
which did not stop the daily service offered by the Society s 
Missionary at Tamatave. 



AT Leamington, on Nov. 29, the Speaker of the House 
of Commons presided over a meeting held there in 
favour of the Society. He said that when he was invited to 
do so he felt he might take the chair, and express, so far 
as he could interpret them, the views of laymen respecting 
the work and action of this great Society : 

"The attitude assumed by the laity \vith regard to Missionary 
Societies was one of half-heartedness, not that they underrated their im 
portance, but because they .thought the subject might be left to the clergy. 
Ordinarily they took only a feeble and languid interest in them, and their 
attitude was one of coldness and apathy ; but every now and then they 
were roused to enthusiasm by the narrative of some heroic act performed 
by a Missionary, by the massacre of Bishop Paterson, or by the melan 
choly and tragic death of as great a hero as ever fell on a battle-field, the 
Bishop of East Equatorial Africa, Bishop Hannington. There were two 
objections to foreign Missions which he should summarily dismiss, 
because he did not think they were now seriously entertained. One 
prevalent in the early part of the century was that Missions were useless 
to any nation until it had attained a certain amount of civilisation ; and 
the other was that Missions came under the category of associations, and, 
like all associations, had a political tendency, and therefore were danger 
ous to the State. Some people doubtless held that before going abroad to 
savage people there was work to be done at home. That every one would 
admit, and that there were as great Missionary heroes in the east of 
London, in the slums of great towns, and even in small country villages 
throughout the country, as ever died in Africa or were speared by 
savages. 

" The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel had a double mission : 
it was not only a Missionary Society in the technical ordinary sense, but 
it also sent spiritual consolation wherever Englishmen collected in foreign 
parts. It followed the flag of England wherever it went, and sometimes 
preceded it, and was the first pioneer of civilisation and of humanising 
ideas. It penetrated wherever the English spirit of adventure went, and 
left its permanent mark of good in wild, desolate, and savage regions. 
There were vast countries certainly where little impression had been 
made as yet, of which India was an example. Many would say it 
was right and proper to subscribe for Missions to India, because there 
the people were not savage, but highly educated and cultured, and had 



"jaS. " Tsl? J NOTES OF THE MONTH. 29 

religions as ancient as the Christian faith. Their religions were hemmed 
round by a hedge of exclusiveness ; they had their priesthood and castes, 
and they resented, naturally perhaps, the invasion of what they con 
sidered their exclusive domain. These exclusive religions of the world 
would have to be taken in hand by Missionary Societies before the 
Gospel could be spread over such vast countries as India. What, it 
might be asked, had Missionary Societies done for India ? He took it 
that they had a done a great deal, and that those who in India had 
ruled over thousands of our fellow-subjects there would not adopt a low 
tone in speaking of the religious societies in India. They would speak 
very distinctly of their humanising and evangelising tendency; they 
would say that though the results might not yet be palpable to the 
human eye, yet there was at work among the immense populations of 
that vast Continent a great leaven, which would in time leaven the whole 
lump. Sir Richard Temple said that, excluding the two great religions of 
the East, there remained 27,000,000 people, who were, therefore, directly 
and immediately accessible to the preaching and the teaching of the 
Gospel. He had purposely abstained from enforcing the claims of the 
Society as he might have done, because, as a layman, he assumed its 
enormous importance, and recognised the Divine injunction to spread the 
Gospel. Since this Society was established, what vast portions of the 
globe had England not conquered, or annexed, or penetrated by her 
pioneers of adventure and commerce." 



LAST February there were held in all parts of the 
country except London simultaneous meetings to 
develop the Missionary spirit in the Church. They were 
organised under the auspices of the Church Missionary 
Society. Similar meetings are to be held in the coming 
February in the metropolis ; and in some of the rural 
deaneries notably Paddington and Kensington invitations 
have been given to the S.P.G. that the parishes which support 
it should take similar action at the same time. These invi 
tations, it need not be said, were warmly received. It was 
indeed felt by the S.P.G. , that for it to take advantage of a 
movement, credit for which is due to the C.M.S., and to hold 
meetings in parishes adjoining those where the C.M.S. 
meetings were going on, might at least wear the aspect of 
undesirable rivalry. What are called aggregate meetings 
are, however, to be held in each of these Rural Deaneries, 
and at these meetings some representatives of the S.P.G. 
wiU be associated on the platforms with those of the C.M.S. 



BO NOTES OF THE MONTH. PSftftSS? 

MERELY to glance at a list of the countries which are 
included in the Bishop of Gibraltar s jurisdiction is 
enough to suggest the great extent of the work under his 
Episcopal supervision. 

His lordship s annual Pastoral Letter (Parker & Co., 
Oxford) shows that work to be of the greatest importance. A 
summary is given of the Reports from the Chaplains at 
three-and-twenty ports as to the work among English-speaking 
seamen. How numerous these are may be judged from the 
statement that Gibraltar alone is visited by 100,000 British 
seamen in the year. The Letter and its appendices contain 
many other branches of information which are not only 
interesting, but which, in the interests of religion, should be 
more widely known than they are. Few people are aware of 
the numbers of places in the South of Europe, North Africa, 
and the Levant, where there are English people residing, and 
how these are not limited to the seekers of health, but include 
working men, and members of all classes of society. 

IN the Bahamas the Church is deprived of the pecuniary 
aid formerly derived from the State, and notice was 
given some years ago that payments would cease with the 
tenure of the present holders of State stipends. The See 
of Nassau is now partially endowed by voluntary offerings, 
the Society being a large contributor to this most important 
object. We are glad to find that some of the parishes are 
beginning to provide for their future needs, and the Rev. J. 
Hartman Fisher has already remitted to the Society the first 
instalment of an endowment fund for his parish, the Society 
having consented to receive it and hold it in trust for this 
purpose. 

ON November 7th, Mr. C. H. Linley, B.A., King s College, 
Cambridge, and Mr. C. W. Smith were ordained in 
St. Agnes Church, Nassau, by the Bishop. These gentlemen 
formed, with a Mr. J. R. Vincent and a brother of Mr. 
Linley s, a party of four who sailed for work in the Diocese 
of Nassau in the ss. Eclair last October. They were in some 
danger at the Bermudas. When turning a sharp bend in the 



M ji,87? ] MONTHLY MEETING. 31 

narrows leading from the open sea into St. George s Harbour, 
the ship ran ashore on hidden rocks, but the screw going at 
full speed, in about half an hour she began to move off. Had 
she remained longer she must have become a total wreck, as 
the tide was running out, and she would have been left on the 
hard rocks. 

[REPORTS BEOEIVBD. 

Reports have been received from the Ilev. TaraChand, of the Diocese of Lahore; J. E. Marks 
Martwai, Shway Nyo, Tarrie and Tarynah, of Rangoon ; J. A. Sharrock, of Madras ; J. Diago! 
A. Gadney, C. King, H. Lateward, H. F. Lord, J. D. Lord. J. J. Priestley, and J. Taylor,of 
ftorribay; 11. Balavendrum, of Singapore; F. J. J. Smith, of Xoi-th China} E. C. Hopper and 
A. Lloyd, of Japan; 3. Jackson andC. Johnson, otZtdttland; W. H. R. Bevan andG. Mitchell, of 
/tloemfontein ; E. 0. McMahon, of Madagascar ; A. Alphonse, of Mauritius; A. W. H. Cooper of 
(i t Appelle ; and T. P. Qnintin and W. S. Rafter, of Newfoundland. 



MONTHLY MEETING-. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, December 17th, at 2 P.M , the Rev. Canon Gregory in the Chair. There 
were also present the Bishop of Perth, J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., Vice Presi 
dents; H. W. Prescott, Esq., Canon Bethara, Rev. J. M. Burn-Murdoch, 
C. Churchill, Esq., J. M. Clabon, Esq., Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, General 
Maclagan, General Nicolls, H. C. Saunders, Esq., Q.C., General Tremenheere, 
C.B., and S. Wreford, Esq., Members of the Standing Committee ; and the 
Eev. J. S. Blunt, R. N. Gust, Esq., Rev. J. J. Elkington, Rev. Dr. Finch, Rev. 
T. O. Marshall, Rev. J. H. C. McGill, Rev. C. A. Solbe, and J. F. Ward, Esq. 
Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Receipts and 
Payments from January to November 30th : 

GENERAL Fi/xir SPECIAL FCXDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c 29,830 . 11,248 

Legacies 7,702 

Dividends, &c .*. 3,154 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 

PAYMENTS 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January to November 30th, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1382 
35,017 ; 1883, 32,847 ; 1884, 30,385 ; 1885, 30,885 ; 1886, 29,830. 

3. It was announced that the following members of the Standing Com- 
mittee would retire in February under Bye-Law 7, viz. : By seniority, 
General Maclagan, General Davies, and the Rev. B. Belcher ; and bif 
paucity of attendance, the Hon. and Rev. E. Carr-Glyn, the Hon. and 
Rev. J. W. Leigh, and the Yen. E. H. Gifford. 

4. It was announced that the Standing Committee would propose at 
the meeting in January for re-election in February the Hon. and Rev. E. 
Carr-Glyn, General Maclagan, and General Davies ; and for election, the 
Rev. G. B. Lewis, J. R. Kindersley, Esq., and the Rev. J. St. J. Blunt. 

5. Authority was given to affix the Corporate Seal to a declaration of 
trust relating to St. Agnes, Bahamas. 

6. The Secretary made a statement with regard to the arrangements 



200 
5,501 



32 MONTHLY MEETING. [ISftSgf 

for the observance of the Centenary of the Colonial Episcopate on August 
12th, 1887. 

7. The circumstances of the death of the Bishop of Saskatchewan were 
narrated, and the opening of a special fund for the benefit of his family 
was announced. 

8. The Venerable Archdeacon Gibson, from the Diocese of St. John s, 
Kaffraria, addressed the members. He described in detail the amount of 
self-help developed in the Church, both among the Colonists and the 
natives, in spite of the wide-spread poverty of the country ; there being 
scarcely any people who are well to do. The present is a time of great 
opportunities. Hitherto the Fingoes had shown a willingness to receive 
Christianity, but the Kaffirs had not. Now a change had come over the 
latter. He showed the reality of the Christianity of the converts by con 
trasting the idleness of a heathen Kaffir with the industry and whole 
moral, physical, and intellectual state of the Christians. He said that the 
natives had unexpectedly protested against facilities being afforded for the 
supply of alcoholic liquors to them, and that the Governor had in conse 
quence withdrawn the proclamation that the facilities were to be given. 
He described the rooting of the Church in the land by the training of 
native clergy, of whom there are already five, and by the work of the 
numerous and valuable catechists. He particularly mentioned that the 
ministrations of a native priest the Rev. P. Masiza are valued and 
sought for by the English as well as the natives in the district. The 
Europeans in the Diocese number 3,000, and the Church of England is 
the only religious body that makes provision for their spiritual needs. In 
reply to questions the Archdeacon gave some information on the question 
of polygamy in relation to the Missions. 

9. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in October were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
February : 

The Rev. A. T. Mitton, Stowmarket ; Rev. R. S. Dewing, Onehouse, Stow- 
market; Hon. and Rev. A. De Grey, Copdock, Ipswich; Colonel H. Yule, 
C.B., R.E., 3 Pen-y-wern Road, Earl s Court, S.W. ; Rev. H. E. T. Cruso, Brain- 
ford, Ipswich ; Rev. R. W. Sealy Vidal, Abbotsham, Bideford ; A. Bernard, 
Esq., Copdock, Ipswich ; Rev. C. E. Fisher, Hagworthingham, Spilsby ; Rev. 
Canon Warburton, The Close, Winchester; Rev. VV. Blood Smith, Bal- 
lingarry Rectory, Co. Limerick: Rev. Professor George Stokes, The Priory, 
Blackrock, Dublin : Rev. F. Hurst. St. Margaret s Parsonage, Five Mile Town, 
Co. Tyrone; Rev. W. E. Foley, B.D., Askeaton, Rectory, Co. Limerick; Rev. 
Canon George Tottenham, Berimore, Enniskillen ; Rev. A. O. Hardy, Ansley, 
Atherstone ; Rev. Richard Milner, Stock Gaylard, Sherborne ; Rev. W. 
Leeming, Owston, Oakham ; Rev. M. A. Thomas, Thistleton, Oakham ; Rev. 
H. Somerville Gedge, All Saints, Leicester ; Rev. F. Taverner, Skegby, Mans 
field; Rev. F. C. Cursham, Cropwell Butler, Bingham ; Rev. Orton, Nor- 
manton, Loughborough ; Rev. G. H. Davenport, Stanford-on-Soar, Lough- 
borough ; Rev. G. S. Kershaw, Fledborough, Newark ; Rev. W. H. Kirby, 
Stuff yn wood, Mansfield ; Rev. J. B. Ferris, St. Matthew s, Nottingham ; Rev. 
E. Bennett, Laneham, Lincoln ; Rev. J. Francis, Dunham, Newark ; Rev. E. S. 
Morse, Shelford, Nottingham ; Rev. A. S. Hawthorne, Bestwood Park, Arnold ; 
Rev. S. C. Freer, St. Catherine s, Nottingham ; Rev. A. Barker, East Bridgf ord, 
Nottingham ; J, Neale, Esq., East Bridgford, Nottingham ; Rev. C. R. Gamson, 
R.N., Normanton, Newark ; J. E. Norman, Esq., New Basford, Nottingham ; 
Rev. R. W. Thompson, Burton Joyce, Nottingham; R. W. Wordsworth, Esq., 
Whitemoor, Ollerton ; Rev. T. C. Ewbank, Newark. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




FEBRUARY 1, 1887. 



JAPAN. 

[EVER, surely, had Missionary work such a promis 
ing opening as there is now in Japan. When 
before has a nation presented such ready ears to 
teachers from distant lands on all subjects, intellectual and 
metaphysical, as well as practical ? What nation has ever 
made such rapid changes in thought, habits, and character, as 
Japan is making now ? When did a Christian teacher ever 
before have offered to him pupils of the cream of the nation, 
in practically unlimited numbers, and with no restriction as 
to the use of his influence ? 

It is in itself an extraordinary fact that a Christian 
Missionary is able to send as a report of what he is doing 
such a statement as we have received from the Kev. A. Lloyd. 
Writing on October 16th, he describes his Report as that of 
the Tokyo Teaching Mission. He says : 

" As I cannot tabulate our teaching work on the forms sent by S.P.G., 
1 am sending in a separate paper. 

NO. CCCLXXIV. D 



34 



JAPAN. 



TMission Field, 
L Feb. 1, 1887. 



School 



KEIOGIJIKU... 



Teacher 

Eev. E. C. Hopper ...\ 
Eev. J. Williams 

(C.M.S.) 

J. Chappell, Esq. . 
E. P. Cox, Esq. 
H. Sharp, Esq.* 
Miss Stedman * 
Rev. A. Lloyd 



KYOBASHI .. 



SHIROKANE . . . 
MEGURO 
SHINAGAWA... 
Y AY AM AMUR A 



Amount earned Support given 
monthly monthly 



252 



25 



G. Tanaka, Principal 
M. Inatsu 
J. Chappell ... 
Miss Stedman 

E. Kimura 

N. Saito 

S. Naito 

Y. Imamura 
Religions Teachers who go from School to School. 

A. Shimada 
II. Kinmura 



15 
10 



Total Schools 
6 



Teachers Earnings 

12 285 

* Temporary. 



Disbursements 
30 



" The Schools at Ushiquome and Shiba are not included in this list. 
" In the list given above I do riot include Schools in which Chappell 
and I teach merely to earn our support i.e. the Naval Schools and the 
Tokyo Municipal School. Nor do I add the amoiuit thus earned (about 
$240) to the total earnings of the Tokyo Mission. 

" Suffice it to say that we are earning about $500 per month very 
nearly 1,200 per annum for the work. 

" I have to say a few words about some of the teachers at Keiogijiku. 
Mr. H. Sharp is a traveller visiting in Japan, whose acquaintance I made 
at Nikko during the holidays. He has most kindly given us six weeks of 
most valuable assistance, and having had great experience as the principal 
of a large school in England, has been able to teach us much by his 
friendly criticisms. I feel that I cannot speak too highly of him, or 
thank him sufficiently for his help. The Eev. J. Williams, of the Church 
Missionary Society, has taken up his classes, and I am deeply grateful to 
him. Mr. E. P. Cox is the son of Professor Cox of the Tokyo University. 
I think he will take after his father and become a good teacher. Miss 
Stedman has kindly stopped a gap for a month, but has now gone to 
Yokohama. I have not yet seen my way to supply her place. 

" As I have to supply twenty-one hours English teaching every day, of 
the most varied description, you will understand that I am put to very 
great straits sometimes. I hope some one will come. He need not be 
any burden to the Society a good worker would be able to support him- 



M Fcb iOT i, IS 1 ] REINFORCEMENTS FROM ENGLAND. 35 

self as Chappell does. To do all this keeps me working from 8 A.M. till 
9 P.M., with breathing time for meals. My eyes are giving me a great 
deal of trouble, and I do want some relief. A priest would be very 
acceptable. 

" Mr. Hopper s Mission work the services at Kyobashi and Mita 
entirely takes his time on Sundays. That leaves Mr. Shaw and myself 
responsible for celebrations at Shiba (English and Japanese), Ushigome, 
Yokohama. 

" To these stations we now add two more a kind of school-chapel at 
Keiogijiku, where I am tentatively beginning Saturday celebrations, and 
Meguro, where our new school has been finished, and where I commenced 
celebrations last Sunday. 

" Then, all the Sunday School work at Keiogijiku falls on Chappell 
and myself so does the Sunday School at Kyobashi. 

" So, if there were a new teacher it would be well. If the new teacher 
were in Holy Orders it would be better. 

" One word about our position at Keiogijiku. The school pays me 
about $252 per month for providing teachers. This I disburse to the 
teachers I procure. I am responsible for providing English teachers, 
supervising their work, and arranging the course of English studies. 

" There is a tacit agreement that I may teach Christianity when and 
as I like out of school hours. The authorities are anxious that the school 
should not in any sense appear to be a Mission school. I don t remember 
if I told you that at the end of last term I had the pleasure of baptizing 
seven of the scholars. One of these has since become a master in the 
school. His name is Alexander Masuda. Four of the other masters 
have asked for instruction. 

" I enclose a letter from John Fujita, another of the scholars whom I 
baptized. I hope it will prove interesting. 

" I have nothing more to add, so I will conclude my report with a 
reiterated prayer that some help may be sent us from somewhere, in 
order to enable us to make the utmost of the opportunities which God 
has put into our hands. As I said in my telegram, I am sure I can pro 
vide stipends. In fact, the Keiogijiku money is enough for two." 

It is some satisfaction to be able to add that the great need 
of the Japanese Mission is in some degree met. 

The Rev. C. G. Gardner was ordained in Exeter Cathedral, 
in Advent, by the father of his future Bishop, and sailed in 
January for Yokohama. With him were two laymen, Mr. 
Fenton and Mr. Fardel, who are to engage in important 
educational work, one of them being a teacher in Mr. Lloyd s 
old English parish of Norton, and the other highly com 
mended for this work. A fourth gentleman is going out 
on the invitation of the Bishop, and a fifth, a Cambridge 

D2 



36 JAPAN. PKS 

graduate, has also gone out at his own charges on the invi 
tation of his cousin, the Rev. E. C. Hopper. Mr. Hopper s 
report contains many points of great interest : 

" I spent a Sunday at our country station at Nakatsu. There are 
a few good people there, more only so-so ; but if we condemn, we must 
also remember that really very little can be expected of a remote out-of- 
the-way village church, where the catechist, a nice old fellow of over 70 r 
has never had much theological training, and the visits of Missionaries 
are irregular and problematical. 

" There is, however, I think, evidence of seed springing up where little 
expected, and if we can make arrangements I hope that more frequent 
visits from ourselves may be followed by corresponding results. 

" My own work in Tokyo falls into two divisions Missionary and 
Educational. 

" 1. I have my old church near Koyobashi, where morning service has 
been regularly maintained, but night preaching and Mr. Lloyd s afternoon 
Bible Class have been given up on account of the cholera ; they both begin 
again next month. I baptized three pupils of the Commercial School 
established there by Mr. Lloyd, on Whit Sunday, and four more on July 
25th. Of these, four were confirmed yesterday, and two more were 
unable to come on account of illness. 

" Tida is doing very well there, and proposes to read for ordination. 
I have asked permission for him to attend the lectures of the American 
Episcopal Missionaries, as he lives near, and such an arrangement will 
be very convenient. He is younger brother to Yamagata, but changed 
his name on being adopted out into another family as a boy. This custom 
is very common among the Japanese, but I dislike it, it spoils their family 
life so much. 

" I have also made a fair start with my preaching-house in Tamachi. 
I hire the house for 3 yen a month, and have fitted up part as a church, 
and Kawachi lives in the other part. Here, too, cholera has interfered 
with the night preaching, and of course there is no morning congregation 
in a new place. Kawachi, however, generally reads prayers for himself 
and my servants, one of whom is preparing for baptism. I hope for more 
things soon. This whole work costs the Society nothing. I pay for it 
with my teaching money. 

" I only go occasionally to my old church at Ushigome now, and then 
chiefly for my own benefit ; it is very hard on one s own spiritual life to 
have nothing but incipient congregations to minister to, so I go to Ushi 
gome when I can, where there is always a nice hearty service, and 
Yamagata is doing very well. 

" I may mention here that a few friends in England asked me to take 
something for my own Mission. I generally refused, because I do not 
think that such funds as are supported by incidental subscriptions do 
much good ; but I said that the congregation at Ushigome would be very 
glad of a new harmonium, and I collected about 11 some in America. 
For this I got a $125 instrument at Mason & Hanilin s in New York, at 



Mission Field,! 
Feb. 1, 1887. J 



TOKYO. 



87 







T r Mission" Field, 

JAPAN. L reb. i, iss/. 



trade price, $65, as being a Missionary. Kuine San has been organist 
for some years now, and plays very well. 

Yamagata will probably be ordained priest before long ; he is reading 
with Mr. Shaw for it." 

With regard to educational work, I may as well leave the report to 
Lloyd, as the arrangement is his. My own work, however, is teaching, 
for, at present, 1 hours at Fukuzawa s School, which is now entirely in 
our hands, and Lloyd seems to have been successful in getting enough 
teachers to take the work they ask us to do. Lloyd, Chappell, Miss 
Stedman, and self all take classes, and Rev. J. Williams, of the C.M.S., 
begins soon ; there are some 500 or 600 pupils, and it is certainly one^ of 
the foremost schools in the country. There are three or four others which 
may hold a nearly equally important position, but you will see at once 
that to get the Marlborough College of Japan (I am a Marlborough 
man !) entirely into our hands as regards English teaching, choice of 
books, &c., is a decided point gained. 

" As I say, the educational work will more naturally come in Lloyd s 
report, but I may say myself that the way he is getting hold of schools 
and educational work here is simply wonderful ; if we had the men we 
could doubtless control more." 

" I hear that Yamagata has lately baptized his father. He is about 67 
years old, and was in very good health ; but during some building 
operations a heavy beam fell on him and nearly killed him ; during 
trouble, as is so often the case, his Buddhism did not help him much 
although he was a very devout Buddhist and he was led to receive the 
true consolation of Christianity from his three children." 

Yamagata, it will be remembered, is the native clergyman. 
He lias often been mentioned in the reports. 

There are two other very important matters relating to 
Japan, on which we at present refrain from enlarging. One is 
the remarkably hard -question of the Episcopal jurisdiction, 
where there are two Bishops, one with mission from the United 
States and the other with mission from the Church of 
England, in full communion with each other, but with no 
distinction between their dioceses. Happily, on both sides 
there is nothing to cause friction, and therefore we may look 
to see this question which bristles with difficulties adjusted. 
An able statement has been drawn up and signed by the 
two Bishops, and addressed to the whole Episcopate of the 
Anglican Communion. Until, however, the matter is settled, 
no good purpose will be served by discussing it in these 
pages. 



f ] WOMEN S WORK. 39 

The other important matter to which we referred is 
the great opening for woman s work, and the noble offer 
of herself made by an English lady, who is giving also largely 
of her means, and others. The English newspapers have 
given some account of this. It relates, however, to the work 
of the " Ladies Association " in connection with the Society, 
and therefore falls less directly to the Mission Field to record. 
At the same time, it may not be amiss to quote a passage from 
a letter (dated October 1st) from the Rev. A. C. Shaw on the 
subject : 

" I have been with the President of the Tokyo University this 
morning arranging the details of a scheme for the higher education of 
women, by which a large college or institute for this purpose is to be 
placed entirely in our hands, and that by the leading literati of the 
country, who a very few years since were extremely hostile to Christianity, 
but who now definitely desire that it may be taught. What we want is 
men able and earnest." 

Mr. Shaw goes on : 

" We are preparing for our Conference and first Synod in February. 
It will be a critical event in the history of the Church here, and we need 
the prayers of the home Church that God will guide all things well. 

" Last week the Bishop held a confirmation in my church here, at 
which thirty-three candidates were presented the largest number yet 
confirmed in Japan at one time. 

" Mr. Lloyd is working hard at educational work, and is exercising a 
good influence." 





MADRAS DIOCESE. 

ABSTRACT OF WORK IN THE SOCIETY S MISSIONS DURING 
THE YEAR 1886. 

HE TELUGU MISSIONS. The Society has now three 
Missions in the Telugu country ; the Mutyalapad, 
Kalsapad, and Kurnool-Nandyal Missions. 

Early in the year the Eev. A. Inman and the Rev. A. 
Britten were greatly cheered in their hard work by the return 
of the Rev. R. D. Shepherd from furlough, hut almost imme 
diately on his arrival Mr. Britten himself had to go home for 
a short time. As there is not a single native clergyman 
working in these Missions, the whole burden of the work is 
thrown on the Missionaries, and it is no wonder that their 
strength fails. By the generous liberality of a lady in Eng 
land, four Catechists are employed in looking after Christian 
villages, in which considerable accessions of converts have 
taken place during the past few years ; and the same lady has 
promised further help if it can be suitably used. The only 
/hindrance to the money being claimed has been the want of 
men to employ as teachers, but it is hoped that the Training 
Institution for Lay Teachers at Nandyal will soon supply this 
want. Till more European Missionaries will come from Eng 
land, and till native priests can be found, the work must be 
Blow indeed, and, as has been pointed out over and over again, 
should no response be given by the English Church to the 
desire for Christian instruction on the part of so many souls, 
the offer will undoubtedly be made to other religious bodies. 

HYDERABAD. The Bishop of Madras has again and again 
urged on the Society the needs of the Hyderabad Mission, of 



76 



78 



80 



MISSIONS OF THE SOCIETY 
IN THE D10CESEOF 




42 MADRAS DIOCESE. 



1887. 



which Secunderabad is the head-quarters. At present this 
Mission is superintended by a zealous and able native clergy 
man (the Eev. A. Sebastian), under the direction of a Local 
Committee, but his work is confined to the Tamil and Telugu 
people in the British cantonments, and does not touch the 
Mohammedan population in the independent State of Hyder 
abad, numbering about nine millions. In the opinion of the 
Bishop, two European Missionaries should be stationed at 
Secunderabad. 

The Wesleyans have within the last four years opened and 
worked vigorously a Mission of their own; and unless the 
Society revives its Mission by sending a European Missionary, 
a native Priest, and one or two earnest Catechists, the Mis 
sion will not remain even as at present, but will cease to exist. 

BANGALORE. The Eev. T. Adamson is stationed at Banga 
lore, and, with a Catechist at Oossoor, is working among the 
Tamil people. A Reading Room and a Girls School have 
been started at Oossoor. No effort, however, has yet been 
made by our Church to instruct the many thousands of Can- 
arese in the truths of Christianity. 

CUDDALORE. The Mission at Cuddalore suffered great 
losses at the time of the floods of 1885 ; but the Rev. S. 
Pakkianadhan has proved himself most active and energetic 
in trying to repair what was possible to be repaired. His own 
losses in books and furniture were very great. His reports 
show that both he and his agents are fully occupied in carry 
ing on the pastoral and evangelistic work of the Mission, and 
that more agents are needed if the work is to be effectively 
carried on. Educational work has suffered by the reduction 
of the grants from the Municipality. 

MADRAS. Mission work in a large town always suffers from 
many obstacles from which Missions in out-stations are com 
paratively free. The Rev. S. G. Yesudian, at St. Paul s, 
Vepery, the Rev. Y. David, at St. John s, Egmore, and the 
Rev. S. Theophilus, at St. Thome, are each working hard to 
overcome these obstacles, and their reports show a fair amount 
of success. Dr. Bower s death has been deeply mourned in 
Madras, and it is hoped to perpetuate his memory in some 
substantial way. 



Mission Field,-] 
Feb. 1, 1887. J 



ABSTRACT FOR THE YEAR. 



43 



TANJORE. Since the appointment of the Eev. T. E. Dar- 
vall to the Negapatam Mission, the Rev. W. H. Blake has 
been working without a European Assistant Missionary. 

Mr. G. A. V. Eollin has just been stationed there, to study 
the language, and learn the many sides of the work being 
carried on, which Mr. Blake, by his long experience in India, 




TEMPLE AT TAXJOUK. 



is so well able to teach him. The native clergy are all 
actively employed, and in spite of their being only six in 
number, including one at Negapatam, are meeting with fair 
success. 

TRICHINOPOLY. The Eev. J. W. Papworth took over the 
charge of this vast Mission when Mr. Wyatt went home on 
furlough. A large number of Hindu Girls Schools are at 



44 MADRAS DIOCESE. [ M iS7 ld> 

work in Tanjore and Trichinopoly ; in the latter town many 
Biblewomen are actively engaged. 

The Eev. A. Swamidasen, under the general superinten 
dence of Mr. Papworth, is carrying on the work in the Erunga- 
lore district. 

The Girls Boarding School, founded and directed for so 
many years by Mrs. Kohlhoff, enjoys the benefit of Mrs. Pap- 
worth s superintendence, and serves as a preparatory school 
to the Normal Institution in Trichinopoly. 

In the town of Trichinopoly the Eev. V. Gnanamuttu has 
been doing good work, not only as a pastor, but as an enter 
prising and able evangelist. Special addresses, adapted to 
non- Christian audiences, have been delivered in different parts 
of the town. 

TINNEVELLY. In 1885 and part of 1886, Bishop Caldwell 
made a tour of inspection through all the districts of Tinne- 
velly and Kamnad. His visit did much to encourage the 
workers and strengthen the work wherever he went. For 
three months he has been holding an Ordination Class at 
Idaiyangudy ; the Eev. S. Gnanamuttu, M.A., has been helping 
him by lecturing to the candidates. 

The Eev. A. Margoschis report of the work at Nazareth 
is most interesting and encouraging. He mentions that 
upwards of 500 heathens residing in 4 villages in his district 
have recently placed themselves under Christian instruction. 
As is natural, these people have met with great opposition. 
Mr. Margoschis has also taken over charge of the districts of 
Mudalur and Christianagaram. 

The Eev. J. Gnanaolivoo has been appointed to work at 
Puthiamputhur. He will be greatly missed at Eamnad, which 
could ill afford to lose his valuable help, but he is sure to be 
of great value where he is now. The same appeal is being- 
made by all working in Tinnevelly : viz., that the staff of 
agents is utterly insufficient for the people under instruction, 
and that the reduction of the grant to these Missions has been 
prematurely imposed. The Native Church is not able yet to 
stand alone, though strenuous efforts are being made in the 
direction of self-support. 



^reblT.S 1 ] EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 45 

The Eev. D. Samuel, B.D., besides his ordinary work in 
Tuticorin, has been attending Bishop Caldwell as his chaplain. 

The work at Sawyerpuram and Pudukotai is still super 
intended by the Eev. J. A. Sharrock. A meeting of the 
Tinnevelly Provincial Church Council was held at Sawyer 
puram at the beginning of the year, a report of which appears 
in Bishop Caldwell s Journal for 1885-86. The Bishop of 
Madras visited Tuticorin in February. 

EAMNAD. In the Eamnad Mission there have been many 
difficulties to contend with. By the transfer of Mr. Eelton 
to Madras, the Eev. A. B. Tickers was left with only a few 
native clergy to carry on the work over an area of 1,600 
square miles. The result has been that his health has suffered 
to a considerable extent. Zenana work is now being carried 
on fairly successfully in the town of Eamnad ; the Girls 
School has the great benefit of Mrs. Vickers interest and 
care ; two out of the three permanent churches have been 
finished, and the third would have been finished also, if 
the Eev. Y. Samuel had not had to spend all his spare 
time in superintending his own house being built. The Eev. 
D. S. Bakkianadhan, who was succeeded at Salem by the 
Eev. S. Vadanay again, is working at Keelakarei ; and the 
Eev. P. Gnanayutham has taken up Mr. Gnanaolivoo s work in 
Eamnad. 

The Theological College in Madras, which was deprived of 
its Principal by the death of Dr. Kennet in 1884, and again 
by the death of Mr. Smithwhite, was temporarily under the 
charge of the Eev. S. Gnanamuthu, till the Eev. F. H. 
Eeichardt was appointed Principal. Several students will 
appear in November for the Cambridge Preliminary Theological 
Examination. 

The other great Educational Institutions of the Society in 
this Diocese are Caldwell College, Tuticorin, with Mr. Sharrock 
as Principal and Mr. Malim Vice- Principal and Mathematical 
Lecturer ; St. Peter s College, Tanjore, with Mr. Blake as 
Principal ; the S.P.G. College at Trichinopoly, with the 
Eev. H. A. Williams, Vice-Principal, acting for Mr. Pearce on 
furlough, and assisted by his brother ; the Vepery High School, 



46 MADRAS DIOCESE. 01 



L Feb. I, 



Eamnad High School, Nandyal Training Institution, besides 
a large number of smaller Schools, and Normal Training 
Institutions. 

According to the last returns, there are 11,401 boys 
(Christians 4,547, and non-Christians 6,854) and 4,125 girls 
(Christians 2,811, and non-Christians 1,314) receiving instruc 
tion through the agency of the Society. 

The Society has lent the services of two Deacons for work 
in independent missions the Eev. S. Devasagayam at Madura, 
and the Eev. G. Yesuadian at Vellore. 

November, 1886. 



As is shown to some extent in the above Eeport, more 
European missionaries are urgently needed for the Madras 
Diocese, especially for the Telugu Missions, and for Hyderabad. 
Six or seven are wanted sorely in the Missions. For three of 
them the Society can at once provide adequate salaries and 
allowances and house accommodation. 

The Missionaries receive outfit in addition to their passage. 
Graduates of the Universities, if possible such as are 
already in Holy Orders, are desired for these important 
vacancies. 

It will be deplorable, for other reasons than the needs of 
the Madras Missions, if there are not three of the younger 
clergy of England ready to answer such an appeal. 





EIWABBI. 

CONVEESE WITH INDIVIDUAL HEATHEN AND MOHAMMEDANS FROM 
THE REPORT OF THE REV. T. WILLIAMS. 

JHE mornings and evenings outside preachings have 
gone on pretty much as usual. I myself, owing 
to having to prepare my lectures, have not gone 
out so frequently in the mornings. The work during the 
quarter that I regard with most satisfaction has been conver 
sations with those who have visited me in my bungalow. 
Regularly in my bazaar preaching I invite those who put any 
question evincing thought and requiring a careful answer to 
come for a quiet talk over the matter to my bungalow. This 
indeed has been a test of the sincerity or otherwise of the 
questioner. Where the object is objection for contention sake, 
the questioner will not agree to come. He will, if his object 
be really to learn. It is in this way that youths that were 
wont to put awkward questions have now become wonderfully 
subdued in their eagerness for discussion in the bazaar. 
Sometimes I have a very motley series of visitors. One day 
especially, I was visited almost as if I was holding a levee, and 
I put down afterwards the castes and names of those who came 
to my levee. It is this : 

(1) The Hajee i.e. a Mussulman who has visited Mecca 
and Medina. The Hajees are held in great respect. This one 
is our great Mohammedan opponent, and preaches in our place 
on other days, and primes others to come forward with objec 
tions when we are preaching. He very often visits me, but 
his object is a sinister one, I fear. He has lately admitted to 



Mission Field. 



48 KIWARRI. [ein; 

Mohammedanism, without delay or hesitation, a youth, whom 
for a year I had maintained and taught, but had refused to 
baptize, because of his having not got the better of two very 
bad habits inveterate lying and abusive language. I have 
reason for thinking that both the Hajee and the boy regret 
the steps they took. When a visitor comes and finds the 
Hajee with me, I am now obliged to show him into another 
room until I have got rid of my Mohammedan friend, for the 
latter has so often spoilt the effect of my conversation that 
I determined to keep him to himself and his friend for he 
generally brings one or two others with him for the future. 

However, on this occasion he was for some reason or other 
in a subdued mood, and did no mischief. 

(2) Then came W . He is a Dhusar, a caste of no 
antiquity, claiming to be Brahmans, but repudiated by the 
Brahmans proper, yet perhaps the wealthiest community in 
Eiwarri, which is regarded as their home. Like all claimants 
to a rank to which their claims are but shady, they out-Brah 
man the Brahmans themselves in their strict adherence to 
religious custom, at the same time that in the dress of their 
young girls, and in presenting a sort of jacket worn by Mo 
hammedan women to the bride at their weddings, they per 
petuate the marriage of their ancestor with a Mohammedan 
woman, which constitutes the blot in their escutcheon when 

they claim to be Brahmans. "W is a true Dhusar. He 

was a boy in our High School here, and is now in the St. 
Stephen s College, Delhi. Then, he came for improvement in 
English, and NOW for the same in Sanskrit. His knowledge 
evidently has shaken his belief in Hinduism, and yet he dog 
gedly professes that his belief is as strong as ever. He on 
this occasion astonished me by his outrageous (evidently 
assumed) reverence for Brahmans, to whom, he ignorantly 
maintained, the title Maharaj should be given in addressing 
them. His father, an influential Dhusar, has shaken the faith 
of some Europeans in the good done by educating the natives, 
by his scornful assertion that that education has only served 
to confirm Hindus in their contempt for Christianity. How 
ever, now I have been, I think, able to show the said Euro- 



Mission Field, T T- -~ 

Feb. 1,1887. J VISITORS AT THE BUNGALOW. 



49 



peans that the old man s scorn and assertion were by no 
means ingenuous, but very much the contrary. 

(3) There came Pundit E- - L , head master of 

the Lahore Normal Training School. He is a Biwarri Brah 
man, and one of the ablest scholars the High School here has 
turned out. He is also a member of the Arya Samaj, but 
does not believe in his founder, Dayanand Saraswati s trans 
lation of the Eig Veda. Whatever be his " reformed views," he 
is as much the Brahman as any the most professedly conser 
vative ; I therefore doubt his sincerity as an Arya Samajee. 
He, however, joined very effectively in the conversation going 
on, and decidedly supported what I was saying. He, in 
November, will be transferred to Delhi, so that I shall 
probably know more of him. 

(4) Next a boy, very anxious to learn English, came. He 
is the son of an influential Mohammedan of the neigh 
bourhood who has frequently been to see me, but has wearied 
me by his persistent begging for recommendatory letters to 
influential Government servants. Now, however, I am relieved 
from his visits, and that in a novel but really effectual way. 
On his last visit he coveted a black hen, which my wife did 
not at all care to part with. At last he promised a white one 
and the eggs she had laid in return, to be brought the next 
morning. I have not seen my Mohammedan friend from that 
day to this, nor the white hen. 

The boy was not pleased to see my visitors, and was glad 
at their soon leaving ; but ere long came 

(5) Mr. M- - L , one of the richest men in the place, 

and who has promised Es. 100 towards our church. His 
family is one of those to whose females my wife and Mrs. 
Shantwan go for Zenana work. He was educated in the 
Mission High School, Meerut (of Mutiny celebrity). Having 
not long since come to his ancestral home, in Eiwarri, his coi> 
versation as yet does not allow of much religious matter, and 
it was soon broken in upon by 

(G) Two masters of the High School. One of them, a 
Kayath, stands rather in awe of the Dhusar community to 
which Mr. M L belongs, to whom the former is 

NO. CCCLXXIV. 



50 EIWARRI. [ 



Mission Field, 
Feb. 1, 18S7. 



not a persona grata, owing to a Dhusar head master having 
been superseded by him, so that his arrival made conversation 
rather constrained. 

His colleague tried to relieve it by his account of an 
accident in which both his hands were badly burnt by the 
explosion of a gas on which he was lecturing and experi 
menting. The latter is a Kshattriya or Bajput, and in my 
opinion the ablest and best teacher in the school. 

I was not sorry when these, with the Mussulman boy, 
left. 1 had, however, been only a few moments alone when 
in came 

(7) Five blacksmiths, the friends and relatives of Medha, 
whom I had from time to time employed in blacksmiths work 
about the bungalow. Of course, for them, my Bett s Globe 
was soon produced, and after delighting them with its story 
we turned into the next room, which we use as our chapel, 
and where I have a picture of the Crucifixion and one of the 
Birth in Bethlehem. It was now late, so I dismissed them, 
but had only just gone outside with the object of taking a 
short walk, when I met in my compound 

(8) A Sonar, a carpenter, and tailor. I pleaded weariness, 
so did not return with them, but suggested they should come 
next day. 

The day when I held this levee was Wednesday, the 25th 
of August. I do not give this as a specimen of what is my 
usual experience. It is not so. I do not think I ever had 
such a variety and series of visitors in the same day, i.e. from 
about 3 to 7 P.M. And amongst them all, my talk with the 
five blacksmiths was the most satisfactory, for it was most 
directly religious. 




THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND 
CHRISTIANITY. 

FROM THE "TIMES" OF MONDAY, JANUARY 




the past few months the Chinese authorities in various 
parts of the Empire have issued proclamations to the people 
calling on them to live at peace with Christian Missionaries 
and converts, and explaining that the Christian religion teaches 
men to do right, and should therefore be respected. These documents 
have been published in so many parts of China, that it is probable 
that every Viceroy in the eighteen provinces has received instruc 
tions on the subject, and that there is a concerted movement 
throughout the Empire -to bring all classes of the population to 
a knowledge of the dangers of persecuting Missionaries and native 
Christians, and to remove popular delusions respecting the objects and 
teachings of Christian Missionaries. This latter is really the most 
important part of the proclamations, for the dangers of punishment will 
scarcely affect an infuriated mob, while the information, given on the 
high authority of their own officials in a public document, that Christianity 
does not inculcate anything that is not right, may prevent a mob assembling 
at all. For, as has been insisted more than once in your columns during 
the recent discussions respecting the direct representation of the Vatican 
at the Court of Pekin, the Chinese are not a people who persecute for 
opinion. Persons professing four different forms of faith or sets of doc 
trines have lived side by side, and the teachers of each have worked in 
peace for centuries. No man s promotion in the public service is 
increased or retarded because he is of this or that form of religion. 
Taoists and Buddhists fill high places as well as Confucianists. A few 
years ago the Viceroyalty of Nankin, one of the highest and most 
responsible posts in China, was filled by a Mahomedan ; .and 
although this officer, the Viceroy Ma, was assassinated, this was 
due to private enmity, and had no reference to his religion. The 
late Dr. Wells Williams, himself a veteran missionary and diplo 
matist, wrote many years ago that the Chinese are not cruel, or disposed 
to take life for opinions when these are held by numbers of respectable 
and intelligent people ; and that officials who adopted the Christian faith 
were not likely to suffer for their conversion, because the officers of the 
Government all spring from the people, and are neither influenced nor 

E 2 



52 THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND CHRISTIANITY. PS. " m 

governed by a State hierarchy. Such a dreadful persecution as that 
which ravaged Southern Annam last year is due wholly to political, and 
not at all to religious causes ; outbreaks like that at Chung-King, in Sze- 
chuan, recently have nothing to do with doctrines, but are to be attributed to 
the indiscretion or arrogance of individual Missionaries. If the popula 
tion have grounds for looking on the Missionaries as the precursors 
of war and foreign domination, as in Cochin China, outrage and 
persecution are to be expected ; if the Missionaries insolently insist, 
as in Chung-King, in spite of the warnings of the local authorities, on 
using a colour in the decoration of their buildings which from time 
immemorial has been restricted to the Sovereign alone, they have them 
selves only to blame for the consequences. These painful incidents cannot 
properly be laid at the door of the Imperial Government ; and they can 
only be prevented in future by the exercise of the utmost care and 
caution on the part of the Missionaries themselves. The latter go volun 
tarily to China, their work leads them into the midst of a population 
saturated with superstition, phlegmatic under ordinary circumstances, 
but ready to believe anything, and excitable to frenzy on very many sub 
jects. The messenger of the Gospel walks here in a species of powder 
magazine ready to explode in an instant, and he has need of all the 
wisdom of the serpent as well as the harmlessness of the dove. Much, 
very much, therefore, depends on the character of the Missionaries them 
selves ; indeed, it may be said that very little practically depends on the 
Government. What the latter can do is to warn the people that outrages 

. against inoffensive Missionaries and native converts will meet with con 
dign punishment, and that the new faith does not make men worse 
citizens or neighbours than they have been, but strives to make them 
better. The Imperial Government can employ its authority and name 
to remove misapprehensions from the popular mind, and it can 

: severely punish wrongdoers. But it cannot completely guard against 
sudden outbreaks of mob violence ; even the skilfully organised police of 
Western capitals cannot always do this ; missionaries must trust largely to 
themselves to avoid all manner of offence and to walk warily. 

Now, it is precisely what has been noticed as within the power 
of the Chinese Government that it is doing by the proclamations to 
which we have referred. I shall pass by for the present the reasons which 
have induced the central authorities to make a strong effort just now to 
bring the people to look favourably, or at least without active hostility, on 
the work of Missionaries. I propose here to take two out of a large 
number of proclamations in order to show the methods employed for this 
purpose. The first of these is posted throughout the popular province of 
Chekiang, in which the treaty port of Ningpo is situated. It is signed by 
the Governor of that province, and is not only expressed to be issued by 
order of the Imperial Government, but contains the exact words of the order 
of the latter, as if to make it more impressive. The Governor recites the 
order, which sets out an Imperial decree of 1884, requiring that wherever 
there was a church or chapel proclamations should be issued with a view to 
securing harmony between the people and the converts. He then proceeds 



d ] FROM THE < TIMES. 53 

to say that he instantly obeyed the commands that he received, and sent out 
instructions to all his subordinates, but he fears that there have been 
delays and errors in their execution, and a lack of uniformity in the pro 
mulgation of the proclamation. " In respectful furtherance, therefore, of 
the benevolent intentions of the State, I feel it incumbent on me to put 
the matter plainly. Know, therefore, all men of whatsoever sort or 
condition, that the sole object of establishing chapels is to exhort men to 
do right ; those who embrace Christianity do not cease to be Chinese, 
and both sides should therefore continue to live in peace, and not 
let mutual jealousies be the cause of strife between them." The in 
formation contained here that converts do not cease to be Chinese, 
shows at once one of the principal reasons for their unpopularity. The 
French Missionaries claimed exemption for their flocks from all local 
jurisdiction and taxation. They sought to place them under French pro 
tection, and at one period their efforts were attended with some success, 
owing to the ignorance and fear of the local authorities and the pre 
occupation of the Imperial Government, and its unwillingness to raise; 
awkward questions, or, indeed, any questions whatever, with Western 
Powers. That one phrase is in itself sufficient to explain all the efforts 
of the Chinese to obtain a representative from the Pope, and to justify 
their policy of severing at all costs the bonds which have been industriously 
woven in order to unite the native converts and the French Minister in 
China. The Governor of Chekiang then specifically orders the local 
Courts to investigate impartially cases coming before them, having regard 
only to their merits, and not at all to the religion of the litigants. Deci 
sions also must be given promptly, " thus neither party shall inflict injury 
on the other, each shall pursue in peace and quietude its various callings, 
and the desire of the State to include in its kindly benevolence the men 
from afar equally with its own people shall not, I trust, be frustrated." 
Having thus reasoned gently with his people, and appealed to their own 
sense of what is right, he concludes in the manner usual in Chinese 
proclamations, with threats of the direful consequences to those who 
disregard its injunctions. " From the date of this proclamation any 
lawless vagabonds who make trouble or stir up strife without a cause 
shall be punished with the utmost rigour of the law ; no mercy will be 
shown, so beware ! " The date of this document is October 13, 1886. 

The second proclamation to which I have referred is issued by 
Kung, the Governor of the district in which Shanghai is situated. He 
begins by explaining that under the treaties Missionaries have the right 
to lease ground and houses, and to travel about to preach, " their sole aim 
being the inculcation of the practice of virtue, and having 110 design of 
interfering with the business of the people. Such of the subjects of 
China as wish to become converts may lawfully do so, and as long as they 
abstain from evil-doing there is no law prescribing inquisition into or- 
prohibition of their action." As all Chinese subjects, whether of the 
gentry, merchant, literate, or artisan classes, can carry on their vocations 
in peace, secure under the benevolent care of the Throne, it is their duty, 
Governor Kung urges, not to invent imaginary causes of dislike, or to 



54 THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND CHRISTIANITY, 

spread ill-feeling between converts and people. He refers to some dis 
orders in his own district arising out of trivial jealousies and bickerings, 
the prejudice conceived by the ignorant common folk being fomented by 
two or three rascals who delighted in mischief (I am employing the 
Governor s phraseology), and, the disturbance being increased by local 
vagabonds and bad characters, chapels and houses were destroyed. 
Summary vengeance will be taken on the ringleaders of this particular 
outbreak, " for the consequences of such misdoings are manifold and 
far-reaching." The proclamation then sets out the Imperial decree 
ordering that " Missionary chapels were to be sedulously protected, and 
anything in the shape of disturbances prevented." The remainder of the 
document will be best understood from its precise words ; the language 
bears the stamp of sincerity ; and the earnest warnings given to the 
people cannot fail to exercise a profound effect on their minds : 

" I have accordingly ordered all officials in every jurisdiction to act in 
strict compliance with the Imperial will, and it is now my duty to issue this 
urgent proclamation for the information of all persons in the circuit of which 
I am Intendant. Bear in mind that when Missionaries live in the midst of 
your villages you and they are mutually in the relationship of host and guest. 
Under ordinary circumstances it is your foremost duty to act towards them 
with courtesy and forbearance. Should there arise any misunderstanding 
requiring to be set right, let each submit his side of the question to the local 
authorities for equitable arbitration and decision; your officials have the 
necessary power and influence. You must be careful on no account to give 
rein to ill-considered resentment, and fall, owing to the impulse of a moment, 
into the net of the law. I have over twenty years experience of the coast as 
an official, and am thoroughly conversant with international business, with 
which I have long been specially occupied. I am not one afraid to do my 
duty though it may be troublesome, and what I say to you in this proclama 
tion is uttered in all earnestness. More is involved than the mere protecting 
of Missionary chapels ; the weal and woe of yourselves, your homes, and your 
livelihood are assuredly concerned. Let such of you as are fathers and 
brothers do your utmost to teach the necessity of turning away wrath and 
putting an end to strife. Cast your eyes ever on the warning example which 
has preceded, and avoid a day of repentance in the future. This is my 
earnest wish. Do not disobey this urgent and special proclamation." 

This document is dated October 27, so that it is even at this moment 
posted on the official notice boards of the district. 

It is not difficult to understand why the Chinese Government should 
have selected the present moment to instruct its officials and people in 
their duty to Christian Missionaries and converts. There have been no 
outrages lately, except the disturbance at Chung-King a few months ago ; 
indeed, since the persecution in the Canton province at the outbreak of 
the Franco-Chinese war, Missionaries have enjoyed unusual freedom 
from popular attack. Hence this has nothing to do with the present 
activity of the Government, which is due wholry to its inflexible deter 
mination to get rid of the political connection between the French 
authorities and the Roman Catholic Missionaries and converts. With 
their natural tenacity the Chinese are pursuing this policy steadily and 



Mission Field, 
Feb. I, 1887 



PROCLAMATION OF TOLERATION. 55 



surely. The Peh-tang cathedral question has already been settled as 
they wished. The edifice, as a recent Pekin telegram to the Times 
informs us, is to be handed over to the Chinese Government, which will 
build another cathedral in a less objectionable part of the city. The pro 
position that converts are still Chinese subjects, owing duty to their own 
authorities and to no one else, which was declared and acted upon by the 
Viceroy of Canton early last year in his correspondence with the French 
Consul, is now proclaimed by the Imperial Government itself throughout 
the length and breadth of the Empire. Ignorant or timid local officials 
now learn that they will meet with the support of the Emperor s 
Ministers in repudiating the claims of Koman Catholic Missionaries to 
withdraw converts from the jurisdiction of the native tribunals ; they 
learn that these converts are under their authority as well as their pro 
tection, and they are required by Imperial decree to exercise their 
authority as well as grant their protection. More than this, however, 
the Chinese no doubt feel that mob outrages on the Christians are a 
national disgrace which must be prevented at all costs, and which to a 
certain extent give colour to the argument that some other Power must 
do for the Missionaries what China herself is unable or unwilling to do, 
This argument is not a very strong one, for the protection given by 
France is not that of her own gunboats and forces ; it is to the Chinese 
the task of protection falls in any event, whether France is called the 
protectress or not. But the Chinese appear to have made up their minds 
to prove to the world, which has so great and close an interest in the 
Missions in China for the Missionaries are of all nations that they are 
able to protect them, and to perform their duty as well as other countries 
to the stranger within their gates. If the orders of the central Govern 
ment are carried out, and if the language of the local officials is translated 
into deeds, as there is every reason to believe it will be, Missionaries of 
all creeds and their flocks will have every reason to bless the day that the 
Chinese adopted the policy of severing the Eoman Catholics from their 
political connection and of protecting the Christians themselves. 

The Chinese Government, however, as well as the treaty Powers 
and the large army of private individuals who voluntarily support these 
Missions, have a right to expect that this large and systematic effort to 
protect the latter from the violence of ignorant and superstitious mobs 
shall be met by corresponding endeavours on the part of the Missionaries 
themselves to avoid all cause of offence. It is a pleasure to acknowledge 
that the Protestant Missionaries, as a rule, whether members of the 
various English, Scotch, and American societies, or of the Canadian, 
Rhenish, and Basle Missions, do not arrogate to themselves rights to 
which they are entitled, and that their conduct has, on the whole, been 
characterised by moderation and sound judgment. At the same time, in 
view of these efforts of the Chinese aiithorities, and of the very liberal 
spirit evinced by the proclamations both of the Imperial Government and 
of the local officials, it would be well if the heads of the societies at home 
warned their Missionaries in China that Christian Missions are now 
passing through a critical time, during which they cannot exercise too 



56 THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND CHRISTIANITY. [ M reS." fsSl 1 " 

much care in avoiding a collision either with the officials or the people- 
A Missionary must be expected to protect and defend his rights like other 
men ; but there are times when it is wise for a man to suffer a temporary 
injustice in silence, and to pay this price for a larger benefit in the future- 
This appears to be such a time in the history of Missions in China. The 
Government has put forth its hand for the first time in half a century, 
without external pressure, to protect the Missionaries ; it remains for the; 
latter, by conciliation and moderation, by the avoidance of all subjects 
likely to cause irritation, to give what assistance they can to the Chinese 
in their efforts. Disputes with regard to sites for buildings, compensation, 
and the other numerous questions which arise between Missionaries and 
the officials of the places in which they reside, might well be allowed to 
rest until a more convenient season. Work in violently anti-foreign 
districts might also be restricted in such a way that the Missionaries will 
not be conspicuous. The Missionary Societies at home, which are in 
constant touch with their agents abroad, can readily specify the directions 
in which at this moment active work might be harmful, and the best 
policy to pursue in the different conditions existing in different provinces. 
As for the Roman Catholic Missionaries, it is idle to expect that 
those of the French nationality, at least, will sympathise with the 
Chinese, knowing, as they do, that the ultimate goal of the latter is to 
deprive them of a power and authority which they have long improperly 
arrogated. Sixteen years ago, in a State paper of great importance, the 
Tsimg-li-Yanien made a series of proposals to the Diplomatic Body in 
Pekin with regard to the conduct of Missionaries, among which are the 
following : That Missionaries should confine themselves to their proper 
calling, and that they ought not to be permitted to set up an independent 
style and authority ; that they should not interfere in trials of their 
native converts when brought into criminal Courts ; that bad characters, 
and notoriously evil livers should not be retained in the Church ; and 
that Missionaries should not use official seals, nor write official despatches- 
to the local authorities, nor otherwise act as if they were officials. These 
reasonable propositions were not accepted, and now the Chinese are 
gradually enforcing them for themselves. That it was ever necessary to- 
make them, and that such abuses should have arisen under the cloak of 
preaching the Gospel, go far to explain, if not to justify, the violent 
hostility of officials and people towards the Roman Catholic Missionaries. 
a hostility which, in the minds of ignorant persons, extended to all 
Missionaries. 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

IN several English dioceses the Bishops are making 
arrangements already, by holding conferences and 
otherwise, with a view to the celebration of the Centenary of 
the Colonial Episcopate on August 12. In the Colonies, the 
United States, Ireland, and Scotland the day will also be 
observed. 

/^HICHESTEK Diocese, among others, is taking the 
\^J matter up very keenly. The following resolutions were 
agreed to at a meeting of the Rural Deans of that Diocese at 
the Palace under the Presidency of the Bishop : 

1. That it is the opinion of the Bural Deans that the Centenary of 
the Colonial Episcopate should be solemnly observed in the Diocese. 

2. That the Archdeacons, the Vice-presidents, and the other incor 
porated members of S.P.G. within the Diocese be constituted a Committee 
for the purpose of carrying the foregoing resolution into effect. 

3. That certain places be selected as centres where the Members of the 
Committee in those particular neighbourhoods may most conveniently 
meet with a view to the carrying out of the above object. 

4. The Kural Deans recommend for the above purpose the Cathedral 
City, the county town of Lewes, the Boroughs of Brighton, Hastings, and 
Eastbourne, and the towns of Horsham, Worthing, East Grinstead, and 
Midhurst. 

OF the seventy-five Colonial and Missionary Sees, seven 
only were founded in the first half-century. The sixty- 
eight erected from 1837 to the present day have therefore 
averaged considerably more than one new Bishopric per annum. 
Four years (1842, 1847, 1861, and 1886) are memorable for 
the foundation of four Sees during each of them, while in each 
of six other years three were founded. In only three cases, 
during the half-centuries have two consecutive years passed 
without the creation of a See. One hundred and seventy-five 
Bishops have been appointed to the seventy-five Sees since 
their foundation. 



58 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [^-.n, d 

BY the death of the Earl of Iddesleigh the Society loses 
one of its Diocesan Kepresentatives for the Diocese of 
Exeter. In early life, when private secretary to Mr. Gladstone, 
who has been a Treasurer of the Colonial Bishoprics Council 
since its establishment in 1841, Sir Stafford then Mr. 
Northcote, was frequently brought into official relations with 
the Society through its Secretary, the late Canon Hawkins. 
The interest which he was thus led to take in the Colonial 
Church he never lost ; and on more than one occasion, 
notably in 1881, he pleaded the cause of the Society in 
St. James s Hall, and he was always ready to support it at 
Exeter and elsewhere in Devonshire, by speeches in its behalf. 
He had been recently elected a Diocesan Representative an 
office which he held at the time of his lamented death. 



LODDINGTON is a small Leicestershire parish, which 
always sends to the Society s Treasury a very credit 
able remittance. That for the year 1886 included one item 
which deserves honourable record. It was no less than 
2. Is. 4d., the proceeds of the box of a poor woman, who 
earns her own living by going out as a charwoman in the 
village ! 

ON November 7th, in St. Agnes Church, Nassau, Mr. J. 
E. Vincent and Mr. C. W. Smith were ordained 
deacons. These ordinations were referred to in a note last 
month, but the name of another gentleman was, we regret 
to say, substituted for Mr. Vincent s. 

IT will be remembered that Mr. Geo. H. Colbeck went out 
in October last with Mr. and Mrs. Sutton and Mr. 
Stockings to the Diocese of Eangoon. Mr. Colbeck has gone 
to join his brother at Mandalay, having first visited two of 
his brothers, who are Missionaries at Moulmein, in the same 
diocese. Mr. Colbeck wrote on the llth of December from 
Mandalay : 

" On our arrival at Eangoon we were warmly welcomed by the Bishop 
and Mrs. Strachaii. After a short stay at Bishop s Court, the Bishop 
kindly suggested that I should pay a visit to my Moulmain brothers, so I 
took the next steamer and went across ; it is just a day s journey from 



SJ 1 ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 59 

Kangoon. I found ray brothers Arthur and Fred awaiting me at the 
wharf. This Moulmain Mission is indeed a very hopeful one. The 
buildings are almost completed, and when out of debt the Mission may 
indeed be proud of them. After staying about a week here I left for 
Rangoon again en route for Mandalay ; was able to catch the mail train 
for Prorne, and so join the mail steamer for Mandalay on November 23rd. 
The journey up the river was most interesting ; we had pointed out to us 
the scenes of many a dacoity and many a conflict. At one of the villages, 
where we anchored for the night, a young officer came on board and 
pointed out to us the lights of a party of dacoits encamped in a jungle 
hard by. 

" We arrived safely at Mandalay on Saturday, November 27th. My 
veteran missionary brother met me at the shore. Can you imagine what 
was the character of our meeting ? Brothers who have been separated for 
so many years now united to join in the same work in this part of Our 
Lord s Vineyard. AVe drove up to the Church compound in a bullocli 
gharry, a new experience for me ; I thought several times we were going 
clean over. 

" I am delighted with the prospect of working here. The Mission 
buildings are splendid, or I should say will be, when the damage done by 
recent floods and long neglect has been seen to. The spiritual fabric of 
the Church has not been neglected, though in such an unsettled state. 
Last Sunday, eight adult Burmans made their public profession of the 
Christian Faith in church and renounced Buddhism. My brother hopes 
to baptize them before the Christmas Festival. We have now about 180 
boys on our school roll, though of course not nearly all Christians. 

" I have set to work at Burmese, and must push on as fast as I can, as 
I shall be of very little use till this is acquired. We are looking forward 
to a visit from the Bishop ; this will surely give an impetus to the work 
at Mandalay. There are a number of inquirers, and some of these of 
Royal blood, also Phoongees often come. We trust they may seek 
entrance into the fold." 

CAEN, the ancient capital of Normandy, the earthly rest 
ing-place of William the Conqueror, and a place full 
of English associations, has no place of worship belonging to 
the English Church. The French people, in the midst of their 
magnificent ecclesiastical buildings, cannot conceal their sur 
prise at the conduct of the English, who spend so lavishly 
on other things abroad, and so sparingly, generally, on reli 
gion. A site has been bought, and vested in the Society, upon 
which it is proposed to erect a temporary iron church, and, as 
funds flow in, eventually a sacred edifice more worthy of God, 
and of His Church, and of the English people. 

Caen is a seaport town, and there is no one to minister to 
the spiritual needs of the British sailors frequenting the place 



60 NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

but the Chaplain nominated and partly paid by the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. During the 
past year 560 seamen have availed themselves of the minis 
trations of the Chaplain. And it is needless to say that the 
spiritual interests of this class of visitors could be better 
attended to if we had a Church of our own, accessible to us 
at all times, and where Divine Service could be held at such 
times and hours as would best suit the convenience of the 
worshippers. 

It is intended, when funds will allow, to build a Sailors 
Koom adjoining the Church. 

Contributions are now most earnestly solicited in aid of 
this undertaking, and will be received by the Society, which 
has opened a special fund for this purpose. 

The congregation is a small and poor one, but they are 
pledging themselves to do their utmost, and a large proportion 
of the cost is already given or promised. 



THE Clerical Theological Reading Society has given the 
fines collected from its Members during the year to the 
S.P.G. The fines arise in accordance with the following 
Rules : 

1. That each Member pay an entrance fee of Is., and an annual sub 
scription of the same amount. 

2. That each Member be pledged to study Theology or Divinity for 
at least one continuous half-hour each week-day, subject to No. 6 of the- 
Constitutions. 

3. That for each default the defaulting Member shall pay a fine of 
twopence, depositing the same in a box kept for that purpose. 

The Constitutional Rules are as follows : 

1. That this Association be called " The Clerical Theological Beading; 
Society," and shall consist of no other than Bishops, Priests, and Deacons 
of the Church of England, or of Churches in communion with her. 

2. That the Members shall decide by vote each year what Church,. 
Society, or Charity shall be the recipient of the fines for the year 
ensuing. 

3. That several subjects for reading shall be suggested annually by the- 
Committee, together with standard works on each, liberty being reserved 
to any Member to choose any other than those suggested, provided 
always that the reading in connection with this Society be directed to. 
one definite subject. 



M rebM, S 1 ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 61 

4. That in case of doubt as to any subject or book being suitable 
reading for the purposes of this Society, such doubt shall be referred for 
final decision to the Committee. 

5. That each Member shall report quarterly, viz., on the 1st of 
January, April, July, and October, to the Secretary (1) as to the subject 
studied during the past quarter, and (2) naming that proposed for the 
next. 

G. That Members shall be exempt from Rules 2 and 3 during sickness : 
while in attendance on Convocation or on the Bishop of the Diocese for 
Visitation, Confirmation, or examination of Candidates for Holy Orders : 
while holding or attending Missions, Retreats, or " Quiet days: " during 
the annual holiday (unless preferring to read during the holiday, in which 
case thirty days exemption may be taken at any other period of the 
year) : also on Good Friday, Ascension Day, Christmas Day, and St. 
Peter s Day (the date of the Society s Foundation and Anniversary). 

7. That the Committee shall consist of not less than five Members, 
always including the Hon. Sec., who shall be elected for three years. 

8. That the fines shall be forwarded each year, on St. Peter s Day, to 
the Hon. Sec., who shall remit the sum thus collected to the Society or 
Charity selected. 

The Secretary is the Kev. J. Harry Buchanan, Holy Trinity, 
Ilkeston. 



FEOM Fiji we have heard of the arrival there of the Eev. 
J. Francis Jones, whom the Society sent out last year. 
Mr. Jones is stationed at Suva, the capital, the Eev. W. 
Floyd being at the old capital, Levuka. The Church people 
at Suva had been making strenuous efforts to collect money 
to build a church before Mr. Jones s arrival : 

" They had so far succeeded that the amount promised justified them 
in calling for tenders, and they had accepted the tender of a man who 
offered to build it, without the seats, for 605, and they were on the point 
of commencing operations when I came. In order to get the church 
consecrated when finished, I wrote to the Bishop of Dunedin, N.Z., to 
inquire whether there was a chance of his paying these islands a visit. 
I had a reply from him saying the Bishop of Nelson, N.Z., was on his way 
here, via Tonga and Samoa, and that we might expect him any day. 
They pushed on the work, and had it sufficiently finished by the 18th of 
September to enable the Bishop, who arrived here on the llth of October, 
to consecrate it. He also confirmed 26 young people. 

" The church is not quite finished yet. The seats, which are 
being made, will cost us 104. We still want a reading-desk, lectern 
and pulpit. I shall have a deficiency of close upon 200, but I believe 
that the S.P.C.K. have promised to grant us some money. All local 
resources have been drained, and indeed things are in a dreadful state here 



Mission Field, 



62 NOTES OF THE MONTH. OBIT BE 

at present. All the people are more or less very badly off. To assist me 
in the management of Church matters, I have a committee of seven 
gentlemen, most of whom are heads of departments in the Government 
service. The attendance at our services, which are at 11 A.M. and 7 P.M. 
on Sunday, is very good." 

ST. AUGUSTINE S College, Canterbury, will now reckon 
three Bishops among its past students. To the Bishops 
of Eangoon and of St. John s is to be added the name of the 
Bishop-designate of Saskatchewan, the Venerable William 
Cyprian Pinkham, B.D., Archdeacon of Manitoba. Archdeacon 
Pinkham completed his course at St. Augustine s in 1865, and 
has held various important offices in the diocese of Rupertsland, 
where he became canon of Winnipeg, and Archdeacon in 
1882. He received the degree of B.D. from the Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 1880, and from the State holds the position 
of provincial superintendent of Protestant Schools. He is. 
thoroughly familiar with Church work, under the conditions 
of such a diocese as Saskatchewan, where the foundations 
have been laid by the untiring energy and sound practical 
wisdom of Bishop McLean, but where ever/ department of 
work is still in its earliest stages. 



forthcoming Annual Report (the twenty-first) of the 
I Ladies Association for 1886 will show that the efforts 
which have been made to maintain the Missions of the Asso 
ciation in unimpaired efficiency have not been altogether 
unsuccessful. But the diminution observable in the annual 
receipts, although partly to be accounted for by the generally 
depressed state of the country, cannot fail to give serious 
cause for anxiety and renewed exertion. 

THE subscriptions and donations received up to the 
close of the financial year amounted to 5,429. The 
expenditure during the same time was 5,685. The total 
receipts include a sum of 751, which is a Special Fund 
entrusted to the Association for the support of 190 female 
scholars in various Mission Schools, and is therefore not 
available for the general purposes of the Association, or for 
its chief object, which is the maintenance of female teachers. 



M rS.r, fw. d> ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. G3 

The above total includes also the sum of 89, all that has 
been received this year for the Deficiency Fund of 16. 10s. 
for the Kolapore Building Fund, and of 20. 11s. for the 
newly opened Special Fund for Japan. Special donations 
of 25 and 20 were also received for the salaries of teachers 
in Madagascar and South Africa. 



r 8 THE Zenana Missions at Bombay, Ahmednagar, Dapoli, 
_JL Kolapore, Calcutta, Cawnpore, Roorkee, Delhi, Madras, 
Tanjore, and Trichinopoly, have prospered during the year, 
over 3,000 pupils being under instruction. In addition to the 
pupils in the Zenanas and in the Schools connected with the 
Zenana Missions, about 1,250 girls are taught in the 18 
schools connected with the Ladies Association in Burmah, 
Japan, Madras, Madagascar, and South Africa, and 180 are 
maintained and educated in S.P.G. Schools at the expense of 
members of the Association. Two fresh workers have gone 
out this year, and two have returned home on furlough 145 
teachers are now on the list of the Association. Between 
200 and 300 English working parties contributed a large 
quantity of work and native clothing, which has enabled the 
Association to send out in the course of the year, 35 valuable 
boxes to various Missions in India and South Africa. 

THE first six volumes of Tlie Grain of Mustard Seed may 
now be had, bound in cloth, each for eighteenpence. 
Every member of the Ladies Association is requested to pro 
mote the circulation of this Magazine, which contains full 
information and letters from the Missions and schools abroad, 
lists of subscriptions and parcels, and original articles on 
Mission work and other subjects of interest. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, January 21st, at 2 P.M., the Rev. B. Compton in the Chair. There 
were also present Bishop Bromby and J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., Vice Presi 
dents; B. T. Balfour, Esq., D.L., C. Churchill, Esq., General Davies, General 
Gillilan, "W. L. Lowndes, Esq., General Lowry, C.B., General Maclagan, Rev. 
J. F. Moor, H. C. Saunders, Esq., Q.C., General Sawyer, and S. Wreford, Esq., 
Members of the Standing Committee; and Rev. J. S. Blunt, J. Boodle, Esq., 
Rev. J. A. Boodle, Rev. J. M. Cad man, Rev. W. S. Cadman,and Rev. J.C.Cowd, 



64 MONTHLY MEETING. PS S dl 

E. Gust, Esq., Rev. R. Dell, T. Dunn, Esq., Eev. S. Coode-Hore, Rev. W. W. 
Howard, J. R. Kindersley, Esq., H. Laurence, Esq., W. Lovell, Esq., Rev. J. 
Maconechy, Rev. G. C. Reynell, Admiral Robertson-Macdonald, Rev. G. 
E. Tatham, and the Rev. W. Allen Whitworth, Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. On behalf of the Standing Committee, the Hon. and Rev. E. Carr- 
Glyn, General Maclagan, and General Davies were proposed for re-election, 
and the Rev. G. B. Lewis, J. R. Kindersley, Esq., and the Rev. J. St. J. 
Blunt for election as members of the Standing Committee. 

3. Authority was given to affix the Corporate Seal to deeds required in 
connection with St. Andrew s Church, Pan. 

4. It was announced that a Service would take place at 10.30 A.M. 
on Thursday, January 27th, in connection with the departure of Messrs. 
Gardner, Fardel, and Fenton to Japan. 

5. The appointment of the Board of Examiners by the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York, and the Bishop of London, was announced as 
follows : Canon Cadman, Dr. Robinson Thornton, Canon Curteis, Professor 
Fuller, and Canon Mason. 

6. The Rev. Joseph Campbell, from the Diocese of Grafton, of 
Annidale, addressed the members. He described the work of the Church 
in the Diocese in general, and in his own parish, especially dwelling upon 
the enormous areas committed to each Clergyman s charge. He had to 
ride from forty to forty-five miles each Sunday, and on Easter Day rode 
sixty miles, taking four Services. He showed how the Church in all the 
Dioceses of Australia was in a position which it could not have obtained 
but for the Society s help ; the withdrawal of the grants following rightly 
upon the development and prosperity of the Colonies. He said that many 
more Clergy were wanted in the Diocese, and especially that they should 
be fitted to deal with well-educated people. In connection with the Clergy 
supply he spoke of Moore College, and of the S. Paul s (Church of England) 
College in the new University. 

7. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in November were 
elected into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
March : 

Rev. W. Bramston, Minster Vicarage, Isle of Sheppey ; Rev. T. 0. Hall, 
Stretton, Oakham ; Rev. B. N. Cherry, Clipsham, Oakham ; Rev. Routh 
Tomlinson, Husband s Bosworth, Rugby ; Rev. John Simpson, St. Michael s, 
Cottingley, Bingley ; Rev. C. H. Crooke, Sheepstor, Horrabridge, Devon ; 
Reginald E. Johnston, Esq., 17 Manson Place, Queen s Gate, S.W. ; J. W. 
Leahy, Esq., South Hill, Killarney; Rev. F. P. Napier, Roseleigb, Conyers 
Road, Streatham, S.W. ; Rev. H. J. Wilkinson, Kirkstall, Leeds ; Rev. H. R 
Rolfe, St. Michael s, Derby; Rev. R. D Olier Martin, Killegar, Killeshandra 
Co. Cavan ; Rev. W. P. Swaby, St. Mark s, Millfield, Bishopwearniouth ; Rev. 
H. W. Barber, Ryhope, Sundeiiancl ; Rev. E. C. Biggs, Trindon Grange, Ferry- 
hill ; Rev. R. D. L. Clarke, Desborougli, Market Harborough ; Rev. Astley 
Cooper, Hickey s Parsonage, Richmond, S.W. ; Rev. Wilfrid B. Hornby, St. 
Columba s, Southwick, Sunderland ; Rev. C. G. Davis, St. James , Darlington ; 
Rev. E. Herbert Jones, Rolvenden, Ashford ; Rev. W. H. Earle Wclby, Harston, 
Grantham ; and Rev. W. H. Cooper, 19 Delahay Street, S.W. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




MARCH 1, 1887. 



ORDINATION OF SIXTEEN NATIVE CLERGY 
MEN BY BISHOP CALDWELL. 

such large increase of the native ministry in 
India has ever before been made at one time, as 
was made by Bishop C aid well s ordination on 
December the 19th last. All but one of the candidates were 
ordained deacons, and the number of native Clergymen is 
thus increased by fifteen, one being raised from the diaconate 
to the priesthood. In the Society s Missions in the diocese of 
Madras there were already 40 native Clergymen, and with 
those now ordained there are therefore over 100 native 
Clergymen in the Society s Missions in India and Ceylon, all of 
whom depend in some degree for their support upon native 
contributions, while not a few do so altogether. This is not 
a small thing ; for though we would wish to see the hundred 
many times multiplied, yet we recognise that the Church has 
in many places passed the earlier stages of life, and is taking 
root in the land and in the hearts of the people. There 
are probably over 260 native Clergy of the Anglican Church 
in India and Ceylon altogether. 

NO. CCCLXXV. F 



66 ORDINATIONS IN TINNEVELLY. [S.T S. dl 

Bishop Caldwell has sent us interesting accounts both of 
the ordination and of the preparation for it. The candidates 
had all been engaged in work connected in some way with the 
Missions, whether as catechists, schoolmasters, or otherwise. 
Most of them had been so employed for many years, and had 
" purchased to themselves a good degree." 

As far back as the 1st of June, 1886, the Bishop sent the 
following letter to each of the candidates : 

" I am about to commence a class at Idaiyangndi for persons who desire 
to be practically prepared for ordination. They will be instructed and 
trained especially in preaching, in evangelistic work, in pastoral work, 
and in the defence of Christianity against unbelievers. This course of 
instruction will, I hope, give me an opportunity for selecting those who 
seem to be really qualified, whether for the work of the ministry in 
general or for the perpetual Diaconate. The course will be for three months, 
commencing D.V. on the 1st of July. I have now the pleasure of 
inviting you to attend this class, and I trust that your attendance will be 
blessed to your own good and to the good of many souls. Please request 
those under whom you are labouring to make such arrangements as seem 
to be possible for carrying on your work in your absence. You will 
bring with you the books noted below. 

" I send you also herewith a copy of the subjects appointed by the Lord 
Bishop of Madras this year for examinations for Deacon s orders. After 
the work of the class is over, approved candidates will be examined in 
these subjects. 

" I am 
" Your faithful servant in Christ, 

(Signed) " E. CALDWELL, Bishop." 

This valuable course of preparation began on the 15th of 
July, and the Bishop gives the following account of it : 

" July 15th, Afternoon. Tested candidates in the reading of Tamil. 
All were assembled at first in a separate building and they were sent for, 
one by one, as afterwards for sermonizing. The portion they were to read 
was not known till they were sent for. The reading was on the whole 
satisfactory. Six persons out of twenty-two received full marks. One 
person received several minuses. The portion read was Acts xxii. to xxiv. 

" I came to the conclusion that it was desirable that they should all 
be practised in public reading in church every morning and evening 
This has been done ever since and with the best results. Two persons 
are selected to read the lessons, and two the rest of the service including 
the Psalms, every morning and evening. 

" In reading the lessons I arranged that each person should try to 
keep up the attention of the congregation, including the school children 
present, by asking a series of questions say six on each chapter read. 



MarlT, Tssr . 1 ] PREPARATION OF THE CANDIDATES. 67 

besides prefacing the chapter by a few introductory explanations. This 
was generally quite a failure at first, but a great improvement is now ap 
parent, and the questioning is now carried on on the whole very satisfac 
torily. I take notice afterwards of any error into which the reader 
appears to have fallen, and also where necessary of faults in the pro 
nunciation. 

" The work of every day in the class-room was commenced and con 
cluded by an extemporary prayer offered up by each candidate in 
succession, and in this also I have noticed as time went on a great im 
provement, not only in language and order but in devoutness and fervour. 

" Every Wednesday afternoon was devoted to house to house visiting 
within a distance of a mile or two, and the following morning I asked 
them to give me publicly an account of anything special that may have 
taken place. The chief object I had in view was that they might learn 
to enquire into the welfare of every individual in every family in the places 
to which they might be appointed. 

" On Thursday evening there was a full service with a regular sermon, 
and I selected to preach the sermon some one of those that had acquitted 
themselves best in the weekly sermonizing. 

" The Sundays together with Saturday evenings were devoted to 
evangelistic work in the villages. The candidates went out two by two, 
or in some special cases as many as four went out together. A plan was 
arranged on Saturday afternoon, and special prayer was offered by two 
persons in succession for a blessing on their work to be undertaken. On 
Monday morning they gave in viva voce with more or less fulness an 
account of their evangelistic work and its results. All were present, and 
the presence of all was a check on exaggeration and minimization. 

" The most important work, in which I took part myself, was that of 
teaching the candidates to preach. The plan I adopted was substantially 
the same as that I adopted many years ago when I resided here as 
Missionary, and made it my duty to help forward the catechists and 
schoolmasters of the district in preaching as well as in the acquisition of 
knowledge. My plan was to give out the text on Saturday afternoon and 
the sermons were delivered on Monday. I did not allow any manu 
script to be used, nor was it necessary, for the sermons were very brief, 
ranging from 5 to 8 minutes in length ; and as there were 25 sermons to 
l)e delivered and adjudicated on, a longer time could not be allowed. All 
the candidates were assembled in a bungalow a little way off, and were 
sent for one by one, not in the same order, but according as I thought fit. 
At first Mr. Samuel and I alone formed the congregation, but as each 
person finished his sermon he took his place in the class-room, and thus 
an interesting congregation was soon formed, and one which took a lively, 
intelligent interest in the progress of the sermons. I noted down my 
estimate of the value of each sermon by means of marks. I also, if 
necessary, revised the sermons myself, taking notice of any case in which 
the point had been missed or any erroneous or very defective statement 
made. This, however, though very necessary at first, became very rarely 
necessary as time went on, as the candidates after a time acquired much 

F2 



68 ORDINATIONS IN TINNEYELLY. [ M : U-.T, Fss? 

facility in seizing on the principal points, stating them clearly, keeping to 
them and enforcing them. As no introductions were allowed there was 
generally plenty of time found for the sermon or sermonette itself, but 
the last head would generally run on to an inconvenient length, were not 
each preacher pulled up by the necessity of making way for a successor. 
There was no part of the work of the class in which I noticed such 
marked improvement as in preaching. I attribute the improvement in a 
great degree to the preaching of the sermon in the presence of others. 
Criticism was not allowed, as there would not be time for it, but the fact 
that so many of their compeers capable of criticising were present pro 
duced an evident effect. I did not notice any trace of rivalry, but each 
person could not help being stirred up by the presence of others to do his 
best. A list of the texts will be subjoined. 

" There was a celebration of Holy Communion every Sunday and 
Saint s day in the morning, and once a month, on the first Sunday in the 
month, there was a Communion at 11 o clock for the benefit of people 
belonging to the out villages who could not otherwise attend. Every 
Sunday I preached a sermon myself, and I always endeavoured to make 
the sermon appropriate to the work that was going on, though only a 
portion of the candidates could be present except on the first Sunday in 
the month. 

" I devoted two days to practising the candidates in the examination 
of schools, which is one of the most important works that will devolve 
upon them when they enter on pastoral work in the villages. 

" Mr. Samuel s help in the instruction of this class has literally been 
invaluable. He has gone over with the candidates, in the way of viva 
voce questions and answers, every portion of the Old Testament as well 
as the New, and every portion of the Prayer Book including the Articles. 
Every Saturday forenoon he has set them a series of written questions 
approved by me, and the answers to be read and adjudicated as opportu 
nity offered. Before Mr. Samuel s arrival I took the candidates myself 
with the Kev. S. Gnanamuttu s help, in my lectures on Hinduism and 
Christianity, and devoted a day to setting them written questions thereon. 
Mr. Samuel has devoted to the work of instruction seven and a half hours 
a day besides preparatory work at night, and his strength and capacity for 
endurance have appeared to me simply wonderful. 

" One of the chief advantages I anticipated from the gathering together 
,of so large a number of candidates in one place was that they might be set 
free for a time from the worldly disputes and distractions to which they 
are liable to be exposed in their own villages and districts. But here for 
three months all strifes and disputes have ceased, perfect peace and 
devout thoughtful calm have reigned around. All the surroundings were 
favourable to the growth of Christian graces, and it may be expected 
that the good results arising from this long period of study and re 
tirement will continue to be apparent many years hence. I found 
great advantage from a private conversation I had with each person. 

" The last portion of the work of the class was on the morning of 
Saturday, the 2nd October, when I assembled the candidates for a final 



> 5iS B i,58? ] INTERVIEWS WITH THE BISHOP. 69 

interview. I read with them the appointed service for the Ordination of 
Deacons (or rather, on account of my failing eyesight, got them one by 
one to read it aloud, portion by portion), calling their attention, as we 
went on, to everything which seemed to demand special notice. One 
general remark I made was on the assurance they would be asked to give 
that they believed that they were specially called to the work by the 
inward influences of the Holy Spirit. Another remark I could not but 
make was regarding the importance of the various testimonies of approval 
and of the absence of any serious ground of objection that the congre 
gations in which they were to serve would be asked to give. On going 
over the authoritative description given of the work Deacons would be 
called upon to fulfil, I pointed out to them some special considerations 
which they were always to bear in mind. One was that theirs must be a 
life of earnest work with so many duties prescribed to them. They must 
not think that the time for work was over, and that the time had now 
arrived in which they could get all work done by catechists and school- 
masters, whilst they themselves spent much of their time in dignified 
idleness. Another point was the necessity for humility on their part as 
shown by the subordinate character of the duties in the Church assigned 
to them. A third point, the most important of all, was the necessity of 
keeping up the study of God s word, remembering the questions and 
answers on this point in the Ordination Service, and especially the fact 
that in the very act of their Ordination a New Testament would be placed 
in their hands, and special direct authority given them to read the Gospel 
in the Church of God, and conditional authority to preach the same. 

" I stated that I had been very much gratified by the diligence in 
study and in every kind of work they had all shown. There might be, 
and there were, differences among them as to knowledge and acquire 
ments, but I noticed no difference in point of conduct, conscientiousness* 
and Christian zeal. I trusted, therefore, that wherever they went, God 
would go with them and give them a successful career. The meeting 
was closed by a very appropriate prayer offered up by Mr. Samuel. 

" On the forenoon of the Sunday following, when there was a great 
gathering of people from every part of the district (874 in all), including 
the candidates, I did not feel strong enough myself to preach on that 
occasion, but Mr. Samuel preached a most striking sermon, which, I trust, 
will long be remembered by all, on the words, The zeal of Thine house- 
hath eaten me up. In the evening, at the English service, I preached in 
English from the second Lesson on the call of the Apostles, and the various 
lessons all Christian ministers of whatever order and all Christian workers 
might learn from the account given of that call. 

" After the afternoon service, I administered conditional rebaptism to 
four of the candidates who had found it impossible to obtain certificates 
of their baptism. 

" There are five vernacular men, but all these have received the dis 
tinction of Monckton Catechistships in virtue of examinations, and four 
have received prizes on the Bishop of Madras Bible Prize Scheme. One 
person of this class is from Eamnad. All the men belonging to this class 






70 ORDINATIONS IN TINNEVELLY. , 

of vernacular agents have been employed in the Mission for many years 
first as schoolmasters, then as catechists one of them for the long period 
of 42 years, the youngest for 10 years. For some time past each district 
in the Mission has been divided into circles, and these vernacular men 
have been employed as Inspecting Catechists in these circles equally with 
those who know English, and have been to Sullivan s Gardens and with 
equally good results. It appears to me that it is not in accordance with 
correct Church principles of any kind to continue to employ such men 
virtually as Deacons without giving them the ecclesiastical position and 
authority which their ordination as Deacons would confer upon them. 
Of course we must be satisfied as to their fitness, both as regards know 
ledge and character, and I believe that the plan I have adopted of bringing 
them together and having them instructed and trained under my own 
eye for nearly three months is one which should give satisfaction to all 
friends of the Mission, and dispel any doubts that may have been enter 
tained." 

Speaking of the Ordination itself, the Bishop says : 

" The 19th of December, being the fourth Sunday in Advent, 1886, 
will long be remembered in Tinnevelly for the ordination by Bishop Cald- 
well of 16 persons 15 Deacons and one Priest. One of the Deacons 
belonged to the Kamnad Mission ; another, though employed in Bamnad, 
belonged to Tinnevelly. All the rest were Tinnevelly men, born in Tin 
nevelly, educated partly in Tinnevelly and partly in Madras, and employed 
in Tinnevelly in various departments of Mission work. Two of them 
were educational men, one, Head Assistant in Caldwell College, Tuticorin, 
a B.A. ; the other, Head Master of the Sawyerpuram Institution. The 
person ordained to the priesthood was also originally an educational man, 
an M.A. and Fellow of the Madras University. He had been Assistant 
in the Theological College, Sullivan s Gardens, Madras, but latterly, on 
account of failing health, employed in pastoral work under my care at 
Idaiyangudi, of which place he was a native. 

" Of the 16 men who have now been ordained, 14 had been educated 
at Sullivan s Gardens, Madras, where theology was always a part of the 
course. Three had passed the Cambridge Theological Examination in 
correspondence ; two were graduates of the Madras University ; one an 
F.A., and 10 Matriculates ; so that the average of the attainments stood 
high. The one vernacular man stood above six of the Sullivan s 
Gardens men in his examination. The standard of spiritual fitness also 
appeared to me to stand high. Their sermons, their evangelistic ad 
dresses, their pastoral work, their prayers, all seemed to me to prove 
that they had really been inwardly moved by the Holy Spirit to give 
themselves to God in the work of the ministry, that they were 
.spiritual men in the fullest sense of the term, not merely secular 
agents, and that therefore there was good ground for hope of their not 
merely bringing forward the congregations and schools in the various 
districts in which they would be placed, in knowledge and order, but also 
and especially of their bringing many souls to Christ, and teaching them 



HS1.8K! THE SERVICE AT IDAIYANGUDI. 71 

the love, joy, peace of the spiritual life. I cannot forbear quoting the last 
communication I received from the Bishop of Madras respecting the 
Ordination a few days before it took place : * Only praying for you as 
Ordainer, and for all the candidates who are about to be ordained, that 
the spirit of power, wisdom, and love may be bestowed on all as each 
needs, and that the peace of God may possess your heart and theirs. 
These prayers, I have no doubt, were heard, for I have never been present 
at an ordination in which there were more manifest tokens of the Divine 
presence. The final examination required by the rules of the Diocese 
took place during the week before the Ordination. The candidates had 
all gone to their homes after the first examination was over. On the 
Saturday before the Ordination I gave my final address to those who were 
to be ordained; in the evening a sermon was preached to them by 
the Rev. D. Vedamuttu, a native clergyman in charge of the most 
northern district in Tinnevelly, and on Sunday at the Ordination, the 
special sermon for the occasion was delivered by the Rev. J. A. Sharrock, 
Principal of Caldwell College, Tuticorin. On the evening after! the Ordi 
nation a sermon was preached to them in English by the Rev. A. B. 
Vickers, of Ramnad. The candidates were presented by the Rev. D. 
Samuel, now a Bachelor of Divinity, acting for the Archdeacon of Madras. 
Much interest was taken in the Ordination, not only by the friends of 
those who were to be ordained, but by the native Christians generally, 
as was shown by the numbers who came from all parts of Tinnevelly. 
The number present at Matins w r as 1,176; at the Ordination itself, 1,899 ; 
and 306 persons joined in receiving the Holy Communion with the 
Clergy and those who had been ordained. The noble Church of Holy 
Trinity, Idaiyangudi, looked its best." 

The Rev. D. Samuel, of whom the Bishop speaks thus highly, is him 
self a native clergyman. 





MADAGASCAR 

THE VALUE OF THE COLLEGE. A VISITATION OF OUT-STATIONS. 

TRANSLATION WORK. NATIVE CHURCH BUILDING. INVETERATE 
HEATHEN CUSTOMS. LARGE NUMBERS OF HEATHEN ATTENDING 

DIVINE SERVICE. EVANGELISTIC WORK. CONFERENCES OF 

MISSION AGENTS. SELF-HELP. THE ANDOVORANTO MISSION. 

F the thirteen Missionaries of the Society in Mada 
gascar, three are Native Clergymen and there are 
besides some 90 catechists. The work divides 
into two main sections that in Imerina, the province con 
taining the capital, and the Missions on the East Coast. The 
former includes the great work of the Theological College and 
the High School. The College, over which its founder, the 
Rev. F. A. Gregory, presides, is clearly becoming an immense 
source of strength to the Missions. Reports from the Mission 
aries speak especially of the marked improvement shown in 
their out-stations, after they have been able to place catechists 
from the College in charge of them. Nothing could tend 
more to build up the Native Church in soundness of doctrine 
and holiness of life than this central institution. For a task 
harder than that of inducing the people to accept Christianity 
is that which the Missionaries find among those ready to learn 
from them, and even to some extent among their baptized 
converts, of dissipating their ignorance, eradicating miscon 
ceptions, getting rid of heathen customs, and displacing moral 
corruption. If, however, a goodly body of natives receive 
training in the College of a thorough character, alike in 
theological learning and in personal religion, and if these men 
are then sent out to all parts of the country as catechists and 



74 MADAGASCAR. [^SSfiJIS? 

teachers, while from time to time some of them are added to 
the small nucleus of Native Clergy already formed, we may 
hope that means are taken which, with the blessing of God, 
will bring to converts and inquirers alike powerful influences 
for true religion. 

Some idea of the work in the out-stations in Imerina may 
be gained from the following brief extract from a Report of the 
Rev. A. M. Hewlett. He says that he started from Antana 
narivo towards the West-North-West, and, after less than an 
hour s journey, took boat on the River Ikopa, and floated down 
it for about five hours : 

" Two good-sized canoes are lashed together, and it is a very comfort 
able way of travelling. Then we walked up a hill called Ambohimasina 
(or, the Holy Mountain). It is visible from town, and has one large fine 
tree on the top, which makes it a landmark. We have had a sort of 
Church struggling on there for four or five years, but it is only lately that 
we have placed a College man in charge of it, and if he is diligent it 
ought to do well. Several full-grown men and men of position have 
been baptized and confirmed with us, which is remarkable here in 
Imerina. The people are setting about building a new church near the 
aforesaid tree : they cleared the ground, and I marked out a rough plan 
during my visit. We had Evensong in the dirty little shed called a 
church, and I had a large and decent house allotted to me for my 
quarters. The evening and others during my visit were spent in reading 
some chapters of the New Testament with the catechist, with a view to 
my share in the final revision of the Malagasy Bible. 

" June 23. We had Matins, and I baptized five infants. The people 
repeat Confession, Lord s Prayer, and Creed tolerably well, but the 
Psalms are joined in by the catechist and his wife only, and the attempt 
to sing is excruciating. We had a meeting to decide on the site aforesaid 
for the new church, and at three o clock I left them, crossed the Ikopa 
from south to north, and reached Ampahimanga a little before five. 
Here I was alone in the catechist s house, he having gone to bury his 
mother, and the evening was spent in writing for the mail. 

" June 24. I was carried half an hour s distance to a daughter Church, 
Andrianjoky, where notice had been given of Holy Communion, as it was 
a Festival day. I hardly expected a congregation on a week-day and at 
such an early hour. I was, however, much cheered by finding a good 
number awaiting me, of whom 19 were communicants (13 men, 6 women). 
I gave a short instruction on the Festival." 

Great things have been done in the way of translation 
work. Mr. Gregory has been engaged in some large under- 



ttfl.iSH TKANSLATION WORK. 75 

takings of this kind, which have been mentioned from time to 
time in the Mission Field. The printing press has proved a 
valuable part of the missionary apparatus. Mr. Hewlett, in 
his October Eeport, gives a note of some of the recent products 
in this branch of the work : 

" In the Bible revision I have sent in my suggestions to the end of 
the Acts. The Gospel according to St. John, however, was done by the 
Eev. F. A. Gregory, and not by me. In the printing house we have 
been working on the monthly paper, Horce Paulince, translated by the 
Eev. E. 0. McMahon, of which 48 pages are printed, the beginning of 
an Arithmetic by the Eev. C. P. Cory, and some other smaller educational 
works, and the Translation of Pearson on the Creed by the Eev. F. A. 
Gregory, in which we are now printing the article on the words, sitteth 
at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. " 

From the Eev. E. 0. McMahon s Eeports we must make a 
few quotations. He is stationed at Eamainandro in Imerina. 
He reports the baptism of thirteen adults during the previous 
six months, and speaks of the building of churches during the 
year in his district. This matter has a double importance. 
It points alike to the advantages provided by the buildings 
themselves for the more fitting worship of God and the 
better accommodation of worshippers and hearers, and to 
the spirit of reverence, self-denial, and self-help evinced 
by those who erect them : 

" During the past year we have been repairing and erecting churches 
in most of the stations in. these districts, but especially during the last 
three months, before the rainy season set in. Four very nice buildings 
have been more or less finished, three repaired, and made more church- 
like, and something has been done in three other stations. In each case 
the people have done almost everything. The cost of erecting these 
churches would be from thirty to fifty dollars, and the greatest amount of 
assistance that has been given to any station is less than five dollars, 
and that in kind (viz., heavy wood), not in money. When the buildings 
are finished I shall do what I can towards furnishing them, as that is 
beyond the natives." 

With regard to the difficulty of getting rid of heathen 
customs, of which we spoke above, Mr. McMahon s Eeport 
shows how real the danger is, and that he is making efforts 
to meet it : 

" We have been holding meetings and otherwise doing all that has 
been possible to bring about some social reforms amongst our people, as 

F 4 



76 



MADAGASCAR. 



TMission Field, 
L Mar. 



1, 1887. 



there is a. danger of Christianity and heathen custom being mixed up, so 
that the former will be undermined and exist only in form. 

"This does not relate to those attending church still unbaptized, but to 
those who are baptized and communicants, and it is amongst these that 
we have been trying to alter some of the harmful customs. Christianity 
has not yet penetrated into the home life and ways of the people, and 
here on the borders of Imerina and Sakalava country it is more apparent 
than nearer Antananarivo. We have succeeded in stopping the native 
customs relating to marriage amongst some of the more advanced of our 
people, and, as this is one of the most pregnant 
sources of evil, I trust we may get further." 




A NATIVE CAKOE, MADAGASCAR. 

Mr. McMahon says that there are 58 catechumens and 
109 persons being prepared for Confirmation in his Mission. 
He makes the following statement, which is a remarkable one> 
and may be taken, perhaps, as hopeful : 

" We have numbered the people professing to belong to our Church in 
the twelve stations of this Mission, and find that there are between four 
and five thousand who attend Service. Of these, 575 are baptized, and 119 
confirmed. From this it will be seen that the greater number of those 
attending the churches are still heathen." 

Such a state of things must involve work, however 
interesting, of singular perils to the converts, and difficulties 



vM EFFICIENCY OF NATIVE AGENTS. 77 

for the workers. Passing from this, however, he proceeds 
to speak of new 7 work in wholly heathen places : 

" In accordance with a resolution made in the quarterly meeting 
of the representatives and teachers of both districts at Christmas, we 
have been endeavouring to do something for the districts where nothing 
yet has been done ; and Rafaralehy, one of the College students, and 
Eadaniela, a catechist in this district, have been visiting the district 
between this and Vakinankaratra, and holding meetings, and I trust that 
ere long we shall have three, if not four, stations in that district, which 
will be easily worked, as they will be between this district (Isaha) and 
Vakinankaratra, and will serve to unite the two centres of work. (The 
district is about twenty-five miles broad, and reaches a much greater 
distance north and south.)" 

Such passages as these bring out the enormous import 
ance of having properly trained native agents, and Mr. 
McMahon thus describes his classes for teachers and 
examinations : 

" In accordance with the resolution passed in the Synod last year, that 
no teacher should be appointed who had not passed the fifth standard, I 
held an examination of all the teachers and catechists in both districts 
(except for those who had passed through the College and High School), 
and classified them. Two only passed the required standard. They all 
agreed to meet for instruction one day each month, and a full week each 
half-year, when they work to the standards and prepare sermons, &c. 

" The College and High School students work at English and medi 
cine, so as to be able to apply simple remedies when no better help can 
be had, which is very necessary in this distant district, there being 110 
medical aid nearer than Antananarivo, three days journey from the 
Western stations. 

" I have almost finished a school room, which I intend to open as 
an upper school for the most promising young men ; several have 
requested me to do so. If it succeeds, of which I cannot be sure at 
present, as the scholars must support themselves, the best scholars will 
go on to the High School and College, I trust." 

From this subject he passes to one closely related to it. 
The meetings described in the following passage must be very 
valuable : 

" The quarterly meetings for catechists, teachers, and representatives 
of each station, started about two years ago, are improving in every way. 
At first it was difficult to get the natives, other than teachers, to take any 
interest in the work in their stations, and in the Mission as a whole. At 
the last meeting (held on St. Michael and All Angels ), however, the 
reverse is almost true ; the Church representatives hardly allowed the 
eachers a chance of speaking. 



78 



MADAGASCAR. 



TMission Field, 
L Mar. 1, 1887. 




A NATIVE VILLAGE, MADAGASCAR 



*t.5BM ANDOVORANTO. 79 

" The matters for consideration at the meeting for both districts at 
Ambohidreny (Vakinankaratra) in June were 

" I. The examination of the schools in both districts, and what 
could be done to improve attendance. 

" II. The Vadimpiaiigoiiana (Native Endowment Fund), which was 
raised from ,$48.60 to #79.40 at the meeting, and the efforts 
made in different stations discussed. 

" III. Impurity : and what could be done to improve the morals of 
the people. A paper was read by Eajoely (catechist in charge of 
the Vakinankaratra stations), exposing the native customs and 
ideas, and how far they had been acted upon by Christianity, 
and what remained to be done. ^Resolutions were passed for 
forming a kind of guild in each station to assist the teacher to put 
down unseemly conduct in the markets, &c., and to help him to 
watch over the baptized and communicants. 

" At the September meeting the agenda were the same, except that 
* church building and new stations was substituted for the school 
examinations. 

" The Endowment Fund reached $88.50 at this meeting. 

" There are signs of improvement in morals, which I think these 
meetings have done more to forward than anything else." 

We must conclude with two extracts from a Eeport of 
the Eev. Alfred Smith, who is at present in charge of the 
Andovoranto Mission on the East Coast : 

" My head-quarters have been Andovoranto, but it has been my plan 
to visit all the churches connected with it in turn. Thus the first 
Sunday in the month I am here ; the second Sunday I go to Taminandry ; 
the third to Ivohiboahago ; the fourth to Maromandia, and so back again 
to Andovoranto. Of course, at each place I take Service, visit people in 
their houses, preach, and, if possible, celebrate the Holy Communion, 
Faitromby, which is a long way off, I have only been able to visit once ; 
Ambohimanarivo, which is only half the distance, I have been able to 
visit several times, though not on a Sunday. Beforona is half-way to 
Antananarivo, and Itasina is about the same distance from here as 
Beforona. I have been unable to visit these places, but have seen the 
teachers and catechists regularly every three months. Ivohibagaba is 
still further off than Beforona, but, as in the other cases, I have seen tha 
teacher every three months." 

" As far as the general work of the Mission is concerned, I trust there 
has been a progress made in many ways. Our numbers have increased, 
and our teaching has by one and all been steadier than usual. We have 
been able to get teachers from the Theological College as well as from 
the High School (which was founded by myself before I joined the Coast 
Mission for this purpose), and, in consequence, greater regularity and 
better teaching have prevailed. We have now a College man here, one 
at Taminandry, one at Vohiboahago, and one at Maromandia. Thus 
the College is beginning to tell." 




CHRISTMAS AT MANDALAY. 

REPORT OF THE REV. JAMES A. COLBECK. BAPTISM OF THIRTEEN 

CONVERTS. 

[E are having a very happy Christmas-time this year 
in our own church. Very different indeed from 
last year, when the church, clergy-house, and 
schools were still desolate and gloomy, and when our 
Christmas was spent in the Palace amid tokens of departed 
grandeur. 

The year has gone with wonderful rapidity, and there have 
been exciting times, deliverances from fire and flood, and the 
gradual restoration and re-establishment of Church Services, 
school, and all the usual work of a Mission. 

We are thankful for the success given to us, and work and 
pray on for more, if it please the good God to give it. 

From time to time, attenders at the Services in church 
have shown a desire to be reckoned among us, and have made 
their public profession of faith, renunciation of Buddhism and 
all other false religions, and desire for Christian instruction 
and holy baptism. Some of them have attended church 
every Sunday since the Burmese Services were begun in 
January last. There has been no anxiety to baptize them in 
a hurry, as it was thought better to form a class of catechu 
mens, and give them more regular instruction in a body. 

The Sunday before Christmas began their more immediate 
preparation, and on that day the whole Service to be used was 
carefully read through with them and explained, the hymns 
commented on, and the meaning of all the ceremonies told. 
Each day during the week an hour s instruction was given. 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday were occupied with the 



d ] BAPTISM OF CONVERTS. 81 

teaching of the Apostles Creed Thursday, the Lord s Prayer 
Friday morning, the Ten Commandments and rule of 
Christian life the line of thought being that laid down in 
Dr. Maclear s Catechism of the Church of England, which is 
now 7 being translated as being likely to prove most helpful to 
our young catechist students, more educated Christians, and 
intelligent inquirers. 

All the members of the Mission were exceedingly busy on 
Friday decorating the church, filling the baptistery with 
water, and making everything ready for the happy events to 
follow. 

At four o clock the Service began, during which the bap 
tisms took place. The baptistery or tank is sunk in the floor 
of the church, just inside the west door, and is some four feet 
in depth. It w T as constructed years ago by the Rev. J. E . Marks, 
as baptism by immersion w r as always had in view. 

The candidates, old and young, were then arranged in 
order by Mr. G. H. Colbeck, who has just arrived from St. 
Augustine s College, Canterbury, for Mission work here, and 
the Service proceeded in the usual manner. 

Thirteen in all were baptized ten adults (8 men, 2 women) 
and three boys. As the candidates retired to change their wet 
clothes, the hymn "In token that thou shalt not fear" was 
sung. Four of the newly-baptized were to be at once admitted 
into the church choir, so they had their surplices put on at 
the font, and several of the bystanders remarked the 
significance of the act. A procession was then formed, and 
clergy, choir, and the new Christians went to the chancel, 
where the Priest finished the service and gave the Benediction 
to the kneeling thirteen ; then passed the four surpliced boys 
to their seats in the choir, and dismissed the rest to the body of 
the church, and hymn "All people that on earth do dwell" 
was sung. 

The Rev. F. C. Hill, Military Chaplain, Mandalay, then 
said the General Thanksgiving, and with " The grace of our 
Lord " the Service ended. 

On Christmas Day there was a reading on the Nativity, 
with proper hymns in Burmese, at 7 o clock. Bilingual Cele- 



82 CHRISTMAS AT MANDALAY. PSS? 1 },?^ 

bration and Sermon at 9. Offertory, Es. 41 : 10 : 3, given to 
the Orphanage at St. John s College, Rangoon. Evensong 
again, mixed congregation and language at 3.30 P.M., and a 
gathering in the clergy-house afterwards for a little Christmas 
cheer. 

The next day, Sunday, St. Stephen s Day, the brightest 
Service was a celebration of the blessed Sacrament, entirely 
in Burmese there were only four communicants, as not many 
have been yet admitted to "these holy mysteries" but it 
was bright with promise of love and reverence hereafter. 
At this Service the baptized and unbaptized were separated 
by a white cord across the aisle, and the non-Christians dis 
missed after the Prayer for the Church Militant. 

We are still in Christmas-time, are to have an exhibition 
of our magic lantern before all the school to-night (St. John s 
Day), and are projecting one for the old Queens and Princesses 
and their attendants some other day this week, as they have 
expressed a wish to see it. 

A number of infants were to have been baptized at the 
same time as the adults, but it was as well that they did not 
come, as they might have made the Service confused. They 
will be baptized probably on the Epiphany. 

We have started a Tamil Service, as there are a few 
Madras Christian soldiers and servants about us. 





TRISTAN D ACUNHA. 

N the 5th of August the Rev. E. H. Dodgson 
reached Tristan d Acunha, to begin again his 
work among the people in that most remote of 
islands. He sailed in H.M.S. Thalia, which carried also 
stores sent out by the British Government for the benefit of 
the inhabitants, whose resources, though sufficient in some 
respects, do not afford them all the necessaries of life. Their 
wants were intensified by* a plague of rats, which, having origi 
nally escaped from a wrecked schooner, have multiplied and 
are destroying the potatoes. The Government have sent out 
mongooses to kill the rats. The great cloud, however, hang 
ing over the little community is the loss of a boat last year 
with no less than fifteen of the few men of the island on 
board. 

Mr. Dodgson has written a charming letter to his sisters, 
which those ladies have kindly put into our hands. It is 
dated August 9th, 1886 : 

" It seems both strange and natural to date my letters again from this 
place. I hadn t any time to write before the Thalia left for the Cape, so 
only added a few lines in pencil to the letter I had been writing before we 
got here, to let you know I was stopping ; so now for full particulars. 

" On Tuesday (Aug. 3) it was such rough weather that the captain 
didn t dare make the island, so we lay-to most of the day ; but on Wed 
nesday the weather so moderated that we steamed straight for the island, 
which we sighted early in the afternoon, and at about 4 o clock we were 
within three miles of the shore, and could see the houses, cattle, &c., quite 
plainly. Captain Bozanquet decided to stand off for the night, so at about 
9 o clock on Thursday morning one of the big boats was lowered to go and 
see whether it was possible for the smaller boats to land, for we could see 
a considerable surf on the beach. We saw the cutter anchored apparently 
within 50 yards of the beach, and a lot of people flocking down to the 
shore, so Captain Bozanquet ordered one of the small whale-boats to be 
lowered to go and try to land. He gave me leave to go in her, but when 



84 TRISTAN D ACUNHA. BBS?. SB* 

we were within 100 yards of the beach we were recalled by signal to the 
ship. As we rowed back I saw the islanders launch one of their boats 
and pull off towards the ship. When we got alongside, we found a boat 
being loaded at each gangway, so were ordered to lie off and wait. In the 
meantime the island boat went alongside and Peter Green got on board ; 
and the boat, containing Captain Hagan and four or five of the young men, 
came alongside of us, so that I could shake hands with them all, and enter 
upon a storm of questions and answers. They all seemed intensely 
delighted at seeing me once more and hearing that I was willing to stop 
with them again. I am delighted to find that my elder schoolboys, who 
have now been forced into manhood by the loss of their fathers, have 
turned out far more manly than I ever expected ; they are really now 
such nice young fellows, and quite conversational. 

" When I landed on the beach I had my hands nearly shaken off by 
the women and girls, who all came running down on the first tidings of 
my coming. They said no conventional words of welcome, but the warm 
grasp of their hands and their beaming faces showed their real feelings. 
The only special words of welcome that I remember were spoken by old 
Mrs. Green, when she shook hands with me, and she evidently meant 
them God bless you, sir, for coming to us ! After all the stores were 
landed I bade farewell to the officers and men who brought them, and 
then was conducted up to the houses in a sort of triumphal procession. I 
have got my old quarters again, with the same furniture, &c., and I am 
writing this letter with the ink I left in one of my bottles when I came 
away more than a year and a half ago ! They have never received 
any letter from me, so had made up their minds I must be dead. They 
tell me that they have often said, since the boat was lost, that if only I 
would come back it wouldn t be so lonely. They had boarded an English 
ship about a week before I came, which told them that the boat s crew 
had never been picked up, so I was spared the pain of having to take away 
their last hope. Poor people ! they feel their loss terribly, and it does seem 
so strange to me to miss so many familiar faces. There have been no 
deaths here since I went, except those fifteen men, but five more babies 
have arrived, whom I am going to baptize next Sunday. Piachel Green, 
the young widow to whom you sent the wedding dress, &c., has a little 
girl to be baptized, and I have agreed to be her godfather, as poor Eachel 
evidently wished it very much, and her husband and I were such special 
friends he was such a nice young fellow a regular Communicant, and so 
earnest and simple-minded in religion. 

" Aug. 10. I have had a very busy day to-day ; all the morning, and 
up to about 3.30 this afternoon, I was engaged in serving out the print, 
flannel, &c. ; and then at 4 P.M. we had a meeting of all the heads of the 
different families to settle plans for the future in regard to church, school, 
and my own board, &c. I also took the opportunity of ascertaining the 
amount of stock, &c., every one possessed, and find that altogether there 
are on the island 536 cattle of all sorts, G56 sheep, and 42 donkeys. These 
are all most unequally divided, e.g., one family has 94 cattle and another 
only three ; and again, one family has two sheep and another 101. The 



M S-? n i, r i8 e 87 d ] THE FUTURE OF THE PEOPLE. 85 

people tell me that the rats now eat about half the potato crop altogether, 
and of course are getting more numerous. I have been very busy every 
day since I came in serving out the provisions, &c., but everything is 
finished now, and by degrees I shall get my own things unpacked and 
arranged in my room. To-day the family who live in the Church House, 
as they call it, are turning into a smaller house which has been unoccu 
pied since the boat was lost. I used to have the house for a school when 
I was here before, but now I have got the loan of a large room in another 
house for the day-school, which will be much smaller and made up of 
much smaller children than formerly, as all my old boys have to go to 
work instead of their fathers, and I shall have them four nights a week 
Jiere for night-school. To-morrow the church will be properly arranged 
again, and we shall begin the regular routine of Sunday and week-day 
Services next week. Last Sunday we had Matins and Evensong in the 
large room where Tom Glass used to have the Services before he was lost. 
I thought it better not to have any Celebration. I shall have a special 
Service of preparation on Saturday evening, and the first Celebration at 
8 o clock on Sunday. There are 39 of the old Communicants left, and four 
or five who, I think, are quite fit to be prepared for it. The Services last 
Sunday were very hearty and devout, with the same old chants as before, 
and hymns with more or less reference to the recent accident. I preached 
at Matins on the words out of the Gospel for the week, I have compas 
sion on the multitude. It was very hard to preach on that subject with 
out breaking down, as so many of the people were in tears. I do feel so 
for the people. Of course they go on now much as usual, but some of the 
women look terribly broken down, and from time to time I can see that 
even the children have by no means forgotten their loss. I have lived and 
eaten almost entirely in public since I came, for the people, old and young, 
seem to think they can t look at me too much. I am sure it is their 
natural way of showing real affection for me, so I am quite content to let 
them do as they like. At this moment there are eight or nine children in 
the room. I got a draught-board and men at Madeira, and it has been in 
constant use ever since I unpacked it ; but what all the young people are 
chiefly delighted with at present is that engine that runs of itself if you 
whirl round a heavy little wheel. The small children are delighted with 
the sweets and biscuits. 

" I believe now all the people wish to leave the island if it can only be 
arranged for them to have a fair start somewhere else. I have told them 
that it is my present intention not to leave them again until the looked- 
for opportunity arrives, for I feel that my work lies here to prepare the 
people for life in the world, and to teach the children. I see plainly that 
I shall be able to do much more personal work with the present young 
men than with the former generation of them, for they have all been 
schoolboys under me and so are much more get-at-able, particularly now 
they have been so strangely forced into manhood by the loss of their 
fathers. I feel pretty confident that they will make excellent colonists 
when they get the chance, so I shall spare no pains with them at this 
most important era of their lives. Naturally, just at present, the roughness 



8(5 TRISTAN D ACUNHA. PBSMS? 

of the life here is not very palatable, but I shall soon get used to it 
again. One great help to me against discontent is a real warm affection 
for my people, and sympathy with them in their trouble, and also the 
feeling that my coming to be with them again really does cheer them up 
and please them in a way that no amount of letters could have done. 

" There is no fear of actual starving for some time to come, as 
the people say they have now in the huts enough potatoes to last 
till next January, when the new potatoes will be ready. All the women 
and elder girls have to work in the fields now as well as the boys. The 
two mongooses are being kept in their cages till the potato crop is pretty 
high, when they will be turned loose among them to carry on as much 
rat slaughter as they choose. 

" I find that there is another plague on the island besides the rats, and 
that is some kind of small insect which has destroyed all the tussock 
which is used to thatch the houses with. If the roofs begin to leak or 
are damaged by a gale of wind, there is absolutely nothing to mend them 
with. They tell me that they believe these insects came out of the same 
schooner as the rats did, but they never knew what they were up to 
till last year. Some of the roofs are in a very rotten condition, and the 
people are at their wits end what to do with them. The church roof is 
said to be one of the worst, so I suppose we shall have the rain dropping 
in upon us before long." 





CENTENARY OF THE COLONIAL 
EPISCOPATE. 

[HE Standing Committee on November 4, 1886, 
appointed a Sub-Committee to "consider the 
" desirableness of combining the Celebration of the 
" Centenary of the Colonial Episcopate in August, 1887, with 
" some organised effort at home and in the Colonies on behalf 
" of the Society," and on December 2, 1886, they adopted the 
following Eeport, which had been presented to them by that 
Sub -Committee. 

"I. The Sub-Committee addressed themselves in the 
first instance to the larger question of the Society s financial 
position ; and although they are glad to be able to think that, 
in spite of the general depression, the Society s income has 
been maintained, and even has increased considerably within 
the last five years, they feel that its income is altogether 
inadequate to the legitimate claims made upon it by Colonial 
and Missionary Dioceses, and that its position and history, its 
work past and present, and its desire to be the instrument of 
the whole Church in the two departments of work, among the 
Colonists and among the heathen, which it, alone of the 
agencies of the Church, undertakes, give to it an unique 
position, and constitute a paramount claim on the support of 
Churchmen. 

"They have reason to believe that the Society s income 
has been maintained and increased of late years, not by 
additional donations and subscriptions of large amount, but 
by a greatly increased distribution of Missionary boxes, which 
are generally in the hands of persons of limited means, and 
they think that it would be very desirable to take steps for 



88 CENTENARY OF THE COLONIAL EPISCOPATE. RES? SB?* 

impressing on the wealthier classes, and especially on persons 
holding, or who have held, office under the Crown, the services 
which the Society has rendered to the Empire by securing for 
our various dependencies the elevating and blessed influences 
of the Christian Church. 

" As a preliminary step the Sub-Committee invited a number 
of the Society s clerical friends and supporters in London to 
meet them in conference on Monday, November 22, and about 
eighty persons attended, while many others, who were unable 
to be present, expressed by letter their sympathy with the 
object- of the Conference. 

" On the motion of the Kev. Canon Mason, Vicar of All 
Hallows Barking, the following Eesolution was passed : 

That this Meeting pledges itself to renewed efforts on behalf of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

" It was insisted on by more than one speaker that the 
Resolution was not intended to be less than a solemn pledge, 
on the part of all who voted for it, to increased and continuous 
effort, and it was carried with this understanding. 

" The Sub-Committee recommend 

(A) That the Conference which they ventured to summon should be 
the forerunner of others which should be held as early as possible 
in the ensuing year ; 

(B) That the Organising Secretaries and Diocesan Kepresentatives 
should be requested to arrange for Special Services and Con 
ferences of the Society s friends in their several districts ; 

(C) That ladies should be invited to take part in them, and 

(D) That the presence of some member of the Standing Committee 
should be guaranteed. 

" The suggestion that one or more General Meetings should 
be held in London in connection with the Society s Anniver 
sary at an hour when working men and women could attend 
was cordially adopted by the Conference, and the Sub- 
Committee recommend that effect should be given to a proposal 
which seems to them wise and opportune. 

" II. The question of the observance of the Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Consecration of the first Colonial Bishop 
on August 12, 1787, has been formally brought before the 
Society by the Provincial Synod of Canada, holden at Montreal 



Mission Field,"] fn\J"i7 Tr "RT7 XTr | T< < a QQ 

Alar, l, 1887. J V^ONFERENCLS. 

in September last. The Synod passed the following Eesolu- 
tion : 

That a Special Commemorative Service of Thanksgiving be held in 
Halifax on August 12, 1887, the completion of the First Century 
of the Episcopate commenced by the Consecration on August 
12, 1787, of the first Bishop of Nova Scotia, and that the 
Archbishops of the two Provinces of England, the Archbishops 
of Armagh and Dublin, the Primus of Scotland, and the Vener 
able Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
be requested to make such arrangements as may be practicable 
for a simultaneous Commemoration in England and throughout 
the British Empire. 

" The Sub-Committee hail with deep thankfulness 
this proposal of the Canadian Church, and earnestly re 
commend : 

(a) That the Society should approach the Archbishops and Bishops, 
both at home and abroad, with a humble petition that they will 
personally take part in such Commemoration on August 12 of 
next year ; 

(6) That the Deans and Chapters of the Cathedral and Collegiate 
Churches should be asked to co-operate with the Bishops, and 
hold Services in their respective Churches on that day ; 

(c) That the Organising Secretaries be requested to take steps for 

the formation of Local Committees in the larger towns, with 
the express object of rendering the proposed Commemoration 
on August 12, 1887, as universal as possible, and of adapting its 
observance to the special circumstances of each chief centre of 
population ; and 

(d) That the Society should endeavour to arrange for a like obser 
vance, throughout the Colonies, of a day so full of interest to 
the whole Anglican Communion." 

The Standing Committee further appointed on December 2, 
1886, a Sub-Committee for the purpose of carrying out the 
recommendations of the foregoing Report, that is to say, 
for increasing the resources of the Society generally in the 
modes suggested in paragraphs A, B, C, D, and for promoting 
the adequate observance of Friday, August 12, 1887, as set 
forth in the recommendations a, b, c, d. 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

AS was anticipated from the monthly reports of the 
Treasurers, the receipts under the head of Subscrip 
tions, Donations, and Collections for the Society s General 
Fund during the year 1886 show a diminution as compared 
with the previous year. It amounts to 2,242. 

THAT this should be the result of the appeal of the 
Society, made by a larger body of deputations than 
had been engaged in any previous year, and based on claims 
of ever-increasing urgency, is deplorable. The only thing, 
perhaps, that can be said by way of consolation is that, after 
all that we have heard from all parts of the country, we must be 
thankful that matters are not worse. The chief contributions 
to the Society are the guineas of the clergy and the shillings 
and pence of the poor. There is no need to say how both 
classes of donors have suffered during the year 1886. What 
is needed, however, is a change which is practically a com 
plete change in several parishes, as to the way in which the 
cause is regarded. Collections after Annual Sermons, if not 
the whole, are nearly the whole of the parochial remittance in 
some cases. A handful of subscriptions may be added, and 
perhaps a few children have missionary boxes. But this is 
not the way to lead all Christians to be true members of the 
Church Universal, to keep the last command of their Lord 
before His Ascension, to show their thankfulness for the 
inclusion of their own race in Christendom, and to be zealous 
for that object for which the Eternal Word became incarnate 
and suffered, and which He sent the Comforter to enable His 
Church to carry out. 

The whole body of Church people should be led to see that 
the missionary cause should be subordinated to no other ; but 



Mission Field,"! 
Mar. 1, 1887. J 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



91 



that it, as being the cause of Christ, should supply Christian men 
with work which must stand in the forefront of all endeavour, 
while desire for its success should be strong in their hearts. 
Intercessions for Missions, private and united, should be mul 
tiplied ; missionary boxes should be absent from the houses of 
no Church people ; and subscription lists should not only be 
lengthened, but strengthened by the change of conventional 
guineas into the hearty offerings of those who will miss them, 
and miss them gladly. 

IN the following table will be found the amount by which 
there is an increase or a decrease under the head of 
Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund in each diocese. Until the Diocesan lists are all prepared, 
the return must be regarded as only approximately accurate. 



Province of 


Province of YOUR Increase 


Decrease 


CANTKKBUKY Increase 


Decrease 










England. 





York ... 




34 


Canterbury .. 


129 


Durham 





31 


London 


.. 193 





Carlisle... 


15 




Winchester 


.. 261 





Chester... 




395 


Bath ... 
Chichester 


46 


441 


Liverpool 
Manchester 


13 


202 


Elj- ... 


215 





Newcastle 




85 


Exeter... 
Gloucester 





171 
122 


Ripon ... 
Sodor and Man 


10 


106 


Hereford 





16 








Lichfield 





155 


Scotland ... 


21 


. 


Lincoln 


.. 


110 








Norwich 


54 





Ireland ... 


378 





Oxford... 





147 








Peterboroug 
Kochester 


h 


107 
214 


Foreign Parts 





143 


St. Albans 


.. 


40 


British Army 


59 





Salisbury 


.. 


374 








Southwell 





7 


Office List 





80 


Truro ... 


58 











Worcester 





68 


Trust Gifts 





110 


Wales. 




1 


,323 


3,565 


Bangor 


36 






1,323 


St. Asaph 


90 








St. David s ... 


85 






2,242 


Llandaff ... 


67 






____ 



NOT only have we the very encouraging news of the 
ordinations of men of various ages by Bishop Cald- 
well, which we print this month, but there is the promise of 
exceptionally valuable men for the ministry of the Church in 



92 NOTES OF THE MONTH. . 

the generation which is just reaching the age for ordination. 
At Sullivan s Gardens is the Society s Theological College for 
the Diocese of Madras. The students, who are all natives, 
are examined in the English Universities Preliminary Ex 
amination of Candidates for Holy Orders. The results of 
previous examinations have been highly gratifying, but still 
greater success has been attained in the last. A larger 
number of Candidates were sent in than before. Of these, 
seven obtained first classes, four were placed in the second 
class, while one failed. 

Professor Westcott, as chief examiner, says : 
" It is a great pleasure to me to have to report that the work of the 
Candidates was highly satisfactory. The examiner in History wished 
particularly to mark the excellent results which had been obtained, and 
desired that some expression of his appreciation of the work should be 
conveyed to the Principal of the College. The other examiners spoke 
scarcely less warmly. This thoughtful diligence of the students is a 
happy omen for the future of the Indian Church. Only one Candidate 
failed, and his failure was by no means discreditable." 

Writing a few days later, Canon Westcott adds : 
" The success of the Candidates was beyond that of any corresponding 
body of men, from any institution, as far as my experience reaches." 

ONLY two Anglican Bishops in India have held their 
sees for a quarter of a century Bishop Wilson, of 
Calcutta, and the present Bishop of Madras. 

On the 27th of November Bishop Gell was presented with 
an address from the clergy of the diocese, expressive of 
their affection and reverence for him, the day being the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his enthronement in the Cathedral. 
A passage in the address summarizing the growth of the 
Church during the five-and- twenty years we must quote 
entire : 

"When in 1868 your Lordship delivered your primary charge, there were 
in the diocese thirty-eight native clergymen, 48,252 native Christians ; but 
now we can speak of 109,874 native Christians, with 124 native clergy 
men, and two Bishops specially set apart for Mission work at their 
head. In addition to this large increase in the native work in what is 
now the Madras Diocese, we ought, for the purposes of a fair comparison 
of the present with the past, to add the Bishop of Travancore and Cochin 
with the sixteen native clergy and 18,206 native Christians of that diocese, 
making a total of three Bishops, 140 native clergy and 128,080 native 



M i s ar? n i,T88 e J d ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 93 

Christians in a territory once entirely under your Lordship s spiritual 
care. This large increase is full of promise, and leads us to look forward 
with hope to the time when the Church of India, self-supporting and 
self-governing, shall be a light to the Eastern world. The administration 
of a diocese so extensive as that of Madras, greater in size than the 
whole of the United Kingdom, with a body of clergy now numbering 
222 of different races and languages, is a charge so responsible and so 
solemn, that he into whose hands the Great Head of the Church has 
placed it, needs the gifts of a sympathising spirit, wise judgment, and 
careful discrimination. Your Lordship possesses these great qualities, 
and exercises them in a loving and gentle spirit. It is to this cause that 
the great harmony which exists in this diocese, noticeable even by those 
beyond its borders, is mainly due, and which has won the affections and 
esteem of all your Lordship s clergy." 

In addition to an illuminated address, the presentation 
includes a silver inkstand, and the foundation of a scholarship 
to bear the Bishop s name. 

BISHOP CALL AW AY, as we announced a few months 
ago, has definitely retired from the See of St. John s, 
Kaffraria, and Bishop Bransby Key, who had been his coad 
jutor, becomes his successor. The Standing Committee, in 
view of Bishop Callaway s retirement, have adopted the 
following minute, of which a copy has been sent to his 
lordship : 

" Agreed : That the retirement of Bishop Callaway from the See of 
St. John s, Kaffraria, severs a connection which has existed between him 
and the Society s Missions in South Africa for upwards of thirty years. 
In the Mission of Springvale, as Missionary Priest, and since 1873 as 
Bishop, he has been closely identified with the literature and education 
and the spiritual and temporal charge of the part of South Africa which 
he has made his home, and to which he devoted a considerable portion of 
his private means. 

" After long and laborious years of work as Priest and Bishop, com 
bining also the duties of physician, farmer, schoolmaster, and printer, the 
infirmities of advancing years have now at last compelled him finally to 
retire. The Standing Committee desire to place on record the Society s 
high appreciation of his life long work, and heartily pray that he may 
long enjoy the repose which he has so nobly won." 

ON January 27th there was a celebration of Holy Com 
munion in the chapel in the Society s House in 
connection with the departure of the Rev. C. G. Gardner, 
Mr. G. F. Fenton, and Mr. H. L. Fardel, on the following- 
day, for Japan. A short address was given by the Rev. B. 



94 NOTES OF THE MONTH. RES?, 58? 

Compton, who urged the necessity of carrying to the heathen 
the truth of Christ in its fulness unimpaired, encouraged 
them to regard their failures as preludes to God s successes, 
and bade them feel assured of and rest upon the prayers of 
those at home. 

ANNUAL MEETING-. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, February 18th, at 2 P.M., the Lord Bishop of Kochester in the Chair. 
There were also present the Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Bishop of Colches 
ter, the Bishop of New Westminster, the Dean of Windsor, Canon Cadman, 
Eev. B. Compton, F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., H. W. Prescott, Esq., Vice- 
Presidents; Kev. J. W. Ayre, Kev. J. M. Burn-Murdoch, C. Churchill, Esq., 
J. M. Clabon, Esq., C. M. Clode, Esq., C.B., Canon Elwyn, Kev. J. W. Festing, 
General Lowry, C.B., General Nicholls, Archdeacon Randall, General Sawyer, 
General Tremenheere, C.B., Precentor Venables, and S. Wreford, Esq., Members 
of the Standing Committee ; and Rev. W. Benham, Rev. J. M. Beynon, Rev. 
S. Blackburne, C. J. Bunyon, Esq., Rev. J. M. Cadman, Rev. W. S." Cadman, 
Rev. H. C. Carlyon, Rev. J. C. Cowd, Rev. E. I. Crosse, R. Gust, Esq., Rev. 
T. Darling, Rev. F. B. DeChair, Rev. R. J. Dundas, Rev. J. J. Elkington, Rev. 
J. B. Frith, Rev. T. M. Garrett, Rev. F. C. Green, Rev. T. B. Gribbell, G. P. 
Haydon, Esq., Rev. T. W. Herbert, Rev. T. Hill, Rev. J. Kidd, J. R. Kindersley, 
Esq., H. Laurence, Esq., Rev. C. Levison, Rev. J. H. C. McGill, Rev. T. O. 
Marshall, F. P. Morris, Esq., Joseph Oldfield, Esq., Rev. G. A. Ormsby, Rev. 
J. B. Parker, Rev. W. C. Plenderleath, Rev. C. F. Porter, Rev. G. P. Pownall, 
C. Richardson, Esq., Admiral Robertson-Macdonald, Rev. H. Rowley, Rev. 
T. W. Sale, Rev. C. L. Sanctuary, Rev. W. G. Sawyer, Rev. L. L. Sharpe, G. G. 
Tremlett, Esq., Rev. Canon Trench, Rev. R. R. Watts, Rev. W. H. Williams, Rev. 
A. Wilson, Rev. B. R. Wilson, and Rev. T. H. Wilson, Members of the Society. 

1. Eead Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Auditors Keport for the year 1886 was presented by C. J. 
Bunyon, Esq. 

3. The Treasurers Report for the year 1886 was presented by H. W. 
Prescott, Esq., showing the Society s Eeceipts, as follows : 

I. GENERAL FUND 

A s. d. 
Collections, Subscriptions, and Donations ... 75,764 6 5 



Legacies... 

Rents, Dividends, &c. 



TOTAL RECEIPTS FOR THE GENERAL FUND 



II. SPECIAL FUXDS 



7.652 2 2 
3,552 8 3 



86.968 16 10 
18,742 18 1 



TOTAL INCOME 105,711 14 11 

In addition to the above, the Society s Treasurers had received for Invested Funds, held by 
the Society as a Corporation for Specific Trusts by request, the sum of 1,678. 65. 2d. 

4. The surviving Vice-Presidents were re-elected, and the following 
were elected Vice-Presidents for the year : 

The Archbishop of Armagh, the Bishops of Limerick, of Down and Con 
nor, of Cloghec, of Edinburgh, of St. John s, Kaffraria, of Eastern Equatorial 
Africa, the Bishops designate of Melbourne and Saskatchewan,Bishop Callaway, 
the Duke of Newcastle, the Hon. Mr. Justice Kekewich, the Rev. Prebendary 
Hutchinson, the Rev. B. Belcher. 

5. The Bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States of 
America were elected Honorary Associates of the Society for the year. 



8S7 d ] ANNUAL MEETING. 95 

6. The Eev. Prebendary Kempe, H. Barnett, Esq., A. A. D. L. 
Strickland, Esq., and H. W. Prescott, Esq., were re-elected Treasurers ; 
C. J. Bunyon, Esq., E. M. Harvey, Esq., Egerton Hubbard, Esq., W. 
Wood, Esq., were re-elected Auditors ; the Rev. H. W. Tucker was re- 
elected Secretary ; W. F. Kemp, Esq., and the Eev. E. P. Sketchley were 
re-elected Assistant Secretaries ; and J. W. Ogle, Esq., M.D., w r as re 
quested to continue his valuable services. 

7. The Secretary announced that the following Vice -Presidents were 
nominated by the Standing Committee to preside at the monthly meetings 
in the absence of any Bishop holding an English See : Lord Eobartes, 
the Bishop of Colchester, and the Eev. B. Compton. 

8. The following were declared to be re-elected members of the 
Standing Committee : the Hon. and Eev. E. Carr-Glyii, General Mac- 
lagan, and General Davies ; and the following were declared elected : 
the Eev. G. B. Lewis, J. E. Kindersley, Esq., and the Eev. J. St. J. Blunt. 

9. The elections of Eepresentatives for the following Dioceses were 
reported : Bangor, Eev. P. Constable Ellis and Eev. H. I). Owen ; 
Carlisle, Archdeacon Prescott and Canon Ware ; Exeter, J. Shelly, 
Esq. (vice the Earl of Iddesleigh, deceased) Liverpool, Eev. J. Bridger 
and Fletcher Eogers, Esq. ; Peterborough, Eev. H. Mather (vice 
Archdeacon Pownall, deceased) ; Ripon, Archdeacon Boyd and Eev. 
C. H. Sale ; Salisbury, H. B. Middleton, Esq., and Canon Bennett ; 
St. AsapJi, Eev. Watkin H. Williams (vice Archdeacon Ffoulkes, 
deceased] ; York, the Dean of York and Canon Eandolph. 

10. Eesolved that the cordial thanks of the Society be offered to the 
Treasurers, Auditors, and Honorary Physician for their services during 
the year. 

11. Eesolved that the cordial thanks of the Society be given to the 
following Deputations for the valuable assistance which they have rendered 
to the Society during the past year, by preaching sermons or addressing 
meetings : 

Kev. T.Abraham: Rev. T. M. Ashley; Archdeacon Badnall; Eev. P. T. 
Bainbrigge ; Rev. C. W. K. Baker ; Rev. C. R. Baskett ; Rev. B. Bastpn ; Rev. 
VV. Beck ; Rev. J. Allen Bell ; Rev. W. C. Bell ; Rev. W. Benham ; Rev. Canon 
C. J. Betham ; Rev. E. B. Bhose ; Bishop Bickersteth (Japan) ; Archdeacon 
Biyth ; Rev. F. Boag ; Rev. L. P. Booth ; Rev. W. H. Bray ; Rev. W. Brereton ; 
Rev. H. B. Bromby ; Commander Cameron, R.N. ; Rev. Jos. Campbell ; Rev. 
J. Cave-Browne ; Rev. W. F. Clay ; B.ishop of Colchester ; Rev. Astley Cooper ; 
Rev. W. H. Cooper ; Bishop Cramer-Roberts ; Rev. W. Crompton ; Rev. J, 
Denton ; Bishop of Derry ; Rev. E. H. Dodgson ; Rev. J. Dombrain ; Rev. P. 
H. Douglin ; Rev. J. Downie ; Rev. G. H. Drewe ; Rev. C. E. Drought ; Rev. 
R. H. Duthy ; Rev. A. Edwards ; Rev. J. H. J. Ellison ; Rev. W. W. Elwes ; 
Rev. J. Fairclough ; Rev. F. J. C. Fenton ; Rev. E. J. Fessenden ; Rev. H. J. 
Foss ; Rev. F. Frost ; Rev. J. W. Gedge ; Rev. W. E. Glascott ; Rev. W. Green- 
stock ; Rev. C. Handley ; Rev. F. H. Hastings ; Rev. F. H. A. Hawkins ; Rev. 
W. C. Hawksley; Bishop of Hereford; Rev. T. Holland; Rev. F. Hopkins; 
Rev. T. B. Jenkinson ; Rev. W, E. Jones ; Rev. H. P. Kane ; Bishop Kestell- 
Cornish ; G. A. King, Esq. ; H. Laurence, Esq. ; Rev. G. Ledgard ; Rev. G. E. 
Lee ; Rev. W. Leeming ; Rev. W. C. Leeper ; Gen. Lowry, C.B. ; Lieut. Lowry, 
R.N. ; Rev. Welbore MacCarthy ; Rev. R. Mackrell ; Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D. ; 
Rev. A. C. Maitland ; Rev. R. D O. Martin ; Archdeacon Mason ; Rev. H. S. 
Mather ; Archdeacon Matthew ; Bishop of Mauritius ; Bishop Mitchinson ; 
Bishop of New Westminster; Bishop of Ontario; Rev. J. Padtield ; Rev. W. 



96 ANNUAL MEETING. [ IIS^E 1 

P. Pearce ; Rev. Alfred Penney ; Rev. R. G. Penny ; Rev, J. Penrose ; Bishop 
of Perth ; Rev. W. A. Phillips ; Rev. Dr. G. U. Pope ; Bishop of Pretoria ; Rev. B. 
Reynolds ; Rev. A. W. L. Rivett ; Rev. H. B. Roberts ; Bishop of Rupertsland ; 
Rev J. B. Seaman; Rev. C. B. Seifferth ; Rev. J. E. Sbeppard ; Rev. G. H. 
Smith ; Rev. A. Smyth ; Rev. B. C. Spicer ; Rev. T. L. Stanley ; Rev. J. Ste- 
phenson ; Rev. E. Symonds ; Rev. J. F. Teakle ; Sir Richard Temple, G.C.B. ; 
Rev. E. Templeman ; Rev. G. E. Thomas ; Rev. J. H. Thomas ; Bishop Tit- 
comb ; Rev. Horace F. Tucker ; Sir Charles Turner : Rev. L. Tuttiett ; Rev. H. J. 
Wale ; Rev. H. C. M. Watson ; Rev. A. G. E. Westmacott ; Rev. H. W. White 
Rev. J. C. Whitley ; Rev. T. W. Windley ; Rev. R. R. Winter ; Rev. E. E. Wood ; 
Rev! A. Wright; Rev. J. L. Wyatt; Rev. J. G. Young; Bishop of Zululand. 

12. Power was given to affix the Corporate Seal to certain documents 
relating to investments. 

13. A copy of the Regulations was placed upon the table in accordance 
with Bye-law 32. 

14. The Bishop of New Westminster addressed the members. He 
said that when he went out seven years ago as the first Bishop of the 
See, the Diocesan staff consisted of three priests, one deacon, and one 
native catechist. There are now twenty-five workers, of whom eleven, 
besides the Bishop, are clergymen. The area of the Diocese is as large as 
that of France, and the population is scattered over the whole of it. 
More workers are therefore needed. The Bishop spoke at length of the 
Indian Missions, which had from the first depended upon the Society s 
aid ; the work of the Sisters, which cost the Diocese nothing ; the lack o 
encouragement among the Chinese immigrants ; and the great need for a 
medical Missionary for the Indians, who would take away the temptation 
to resort to superstitious practices in sickness, besides being of the 
greatest benefit to the health of the people. 

15. All the candidates proposed at the meeting in December were 
elected into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election 

in April : 

The Rev H H. Mogg, Chittoe, Chippenham ; Rev. John Jenkyns, Thorn- 
haugh Wansforcl ; Rev. F. R. C. Hutton, Roade, Northampton ; Rev. B. M. 
Lloyd witchford, Ely ; Very Rev. Armitage James, Dean of St. Asaph ; Rev. 
Daniel Edwards, Cefn Rectory, St. Asaph ; Rev. D. W. Evans, St. George s, 
Abergele Rev. John Sturkey, March wiel, Wrexham ; Rev. J. D. Evans, Towyn, 
Abergele Rev. John Davies, Llandulas, Abergele ; Rev. David Jones, Llanr- 
haiadr Oswestry ; Mr. John Bury, Wrexham ; Mr. Evan Morris, Roseneath, 
Wrexham Rev. E. B. Smith, Gresford, Wrexham ; Rev. John Morgan, Den- 
bio-h Rev Thomas Jones, Mold ; Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Wynnstay, Wrexham ; 
Rev G J Bird, Illington, Thetford ; Rev. W. M. Pigot, Eaton, Norwich ; Rev. 
W F Cr eeny St. Michael-at-Thorn, Norwich; Rev. P. P. Gwyn, Brandon 
Parva Wymondham ; Dr. Tumour, Denbigh ; Rev. G. J. Thomas, Hecktield 
Winclifield, Hants ; Rev. F. E. Toyne, St. Michael s, Bournemouth ; Rev D. W. 
Chute, Sherborne St. John, Basingstoke ; Rev. H. Edmund Sharpe, Whit- 
church Hants Rev. C. P. Berryman, Laverstoke, Micheldever, Hants ; Rev. 
S Luffman St Swithun s, Lewisham, S.E. ; Ven. Archdeacon D. R. Thomas, 
Meifod Welshpool; Rev. John Morgan, Llandudno ; Rev. J. Lloyd Jones, 
Criccieth, Carnarvonshire; Rev. J. Wynne Jones Carnarvon ; Rev. W. C. 
Edwards, Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll, Anglesea ; Rev. W. Williams, Dolgelley ; Kev. 
A G Edwards, Carmarthen ; Rev. John Evans, Llandovery, Carmarthenshire ; 
Rev B T G. H. Somerset, Crickhowell ; Rev. H. Williams, Brecon; Rev. 
Godfrey Hughes Woolston, Southampton; Rev. A. Kirke Smith, Somersh am, 
St Ives Hunts ; Rev. Henry Von der Heyde Cowell, St. Paul s, Harrow Road, 
W* Rev. W. S. Mare, Bramham, Tadcaster ; Rev. W. Haworth, St. Sampson s, 
York, and w! Matterson, Esq., M.D., Minster Yard, York. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




APRIL 1, 1887. 

THE WINDWARD ISLANDS. 

REPORT DATED GEORGETOWN, DEMERARA, FEB. 3, 1887, BY 
THE BISHOP OF BARBADOS FOR THE YEAR 1886 FROM 
THE DIOCESE OF THE WINDWARD ISLANDS THE DESTRUC 
TIVE CYCLONE RUIN OF CHURCHES POVERTY OF THE 
ISLANDS A VISIT TO GUIANA. 

I HE report which I make to the Society for the past 
year must be depressing and sad, more so probably 
than any which will be received by them ; for it 
tells of the careful work of years apparently undone, and, 
humanly speaking, there is no promise of light breaking 
through the clouds which have gathered round the Church in 
these Islands. 

Since the great storm of 1831, which destroyed life and 
property to an enormous extent in Barbados, there have been 
no hurricanes in the Windward Islands group, although those 
to leeward have suffered from them. And men said that we 
were " out of the circle," and had nothing more to fear from 
them. The past year has shown how little prophecies of this, 
kind may be trusted. 

At the break of day on August 16, a cyclone, lasting but a 
short time, but of unusual severity, swept over the windward 
coast of St. Vincent, and in, some say, less than half an hour 
the mischief was done. Happily but few lives were lost, but 
1,163 houses of the labouring class were totally or partially 
destroyed, affecting an aggregate of 5,700 persons. In the 



98 THE WINDWARD ISLANDS. [^ft-in.S. 1 

published address of the Governor of the Windward Islands, 
" no account is taken of damage to dwellings or business 
premises of persons above the labouring or wage-earning class ; 
many who are not included in the returns have been reduced 
to great straits, and the estimate of the amount required for 
the relief of both classes cannot be placed at less than 
10,000." The destruction of churches, chapels, and schools 
has been wholesale, the Church of England being the great 
sufferer. In the parish of St. Paul, Calliaqua, one of those 
assisted by the Society s grant, all the churches, four in num 
ber, have been destroyed. And in North Charlotte parish, at 
which the hurricane first struck the Island, one of two 
churches, that at Mount Grennau, has been blown down. To 
these must be added several Mission houses and schools. 
Considerable sums were granted in aid by the Legislatures of 
five of the neighbouring Colonies, and through the kindness 
of the Lord Mayor, a Fund was opened at the Mansion House 
for the sufferers. These contributions were applied entirely to 
the relief at once of the poorest class, and I am given to under 
stand that their homes have been fairly re-built. 

For the broken-down churches there is no fund available 
beyond that which I have been able to raise. From offertories 
in churches in the Diocese of Barbados, and gifts from kind 
friends who knew me in England, I have collected some 500, 
and with this I must begin the sorrowful work of rebuilding all 
these houses of God. The Governor speaks of the financial 
position and prospects of the Colony as deserving the most 
anxious consideration. The receipts for the past year will not 
meet the expenditure by about 3,500, and the reduction of 
expenditure is inevitable, affecting, no doubt, the small grant 
which the Church still receives in the way of concurrent en 
dowment. Unhappily, the two parishes which have suffered 
are among those from which aid of this kind has already been 
withdrawn. The parish of St. Paul has to provide an assess 
ment of 300 a year for the support of the two clergy ; and the 
incumbent, the Eev. H. Melville, writes me how that he fears 
none of this will be fort hcoming at present, and that it will 
be necessary to withdraw the curate, who, with the aid of the 



Mission Field,"] . T> TTT .. / < T J-T-T>/-ITTTTO no 

April i, 1887. J xiuiNED L HLRCiiEs. 



April i, 

Society s grant, I am able to send him. It may be remem 
bered that a catechist who had just left Codrington College, 
Mr. Hutchinson, was sent there, and I ordained him a deacon 
last year. It is a great calamity, and at present there seems 
to be no chance of rebuilding even one of the churches. This 
only may be said, and the thought is full of hope and comfort, 
if we have faith and grace to keep it in remembrance. We 
have suffered loss, grievous loss and breakage in the machinery 
by means of which the Church has done her work, but it 
would seem to be in the providence of God, and not through 
fault of our own. This being so, we can but leave the future 
with Him in patience, and trust that all will be made to work 
together for good to us. The other portions of the Society s 
first grant to this Island remain distributed as they were at 
first. In Grenada, the Eev. A. B. Williams has left St. 
David s, and has become a recipient of the grant made to 
Canon Branch for Chateau Belair in St. Vincent. His place 
has been filled by the Eev. F. F. C. Mallalieu, who was also 
educated at Codringcon College, and is a B.A. of Durham. I 
ordained him a deacon in the autumn of 1886. 

I cannot sufficiently thank the Society for their timely aid 
of 200 more for three years to meet the sudden withdrawal 
of all State grants in the Island of Tobago, and still further 
for their permission to antedate the first payment six months. 
Unfortunately, this came too late to prevent the absolute 
withdrawal of one of the two clergy there. Canon Smart 
elected to go, and he has now temporary work in Trinidad, but 
I much fear that I shall lose his invaluable services at any rate 
in Tobago. During the nine years or more that he has been 
there he has done excellent work, and I shall sorely miss him. 

I am on my way now to Tobago, and hope to be there next 
week, and from thence I go to St. Vincent. I think it best to 
send this off by the mail, but I hope to forward a supplement 
ary report to the Society with the vouchers, all of which I 
have not yet received, by the mail after this. 

I gather from Canon Turpin s last letter that some pro 
vision in the way of assessment will be forthcoming towards 
the payment of a second priest in Tobago. At present the 



100 THE WINDWARD ISLANDS. E 

^200 which the Society gives me is all that I have, and Canon 
Turpin has the charge of the whole Island, with twelve 
churches under his care. The services in these are supplied 
by the deacon, schoolmaster, and licensed lay readers, whom 
I am able to pay from a grant made to me by the Christian 
Faith Society. It may be of interest to the Society to add 
that I am now staying with the Primate, and I am delighted 
to add that he retains all his vigour and energy, though he 
has reached his 80th year. We have made all arrangements 
for the meeting of the Provincial Synod in the Diocese of 
Barbados during the months of June and July in the present 
year. If it can be arranged with the authorities, the Synod 
will hold its meetings de die in diem at Codrington College, 
which is peculiarly adapted for the purpose. I have been 
unable to visit the Missionary stations here, as they are too 
far up the rivers, and I am pressed for time, but in a sixty 
miles voyage up the Essequibo last week I saw one of the 
nearest in the distance. The accounts of the work among 
the aborigines are most interesting, and it seems to be suc 
cessful in every way. I have had the pleasure of meeting the 
Kev. F. L. Quick, who has the Potaro Mission, by far the 
furthest (seven days from here), and who is paid in part by 
the Society the very man for the work, full of zeal and 
energy, a great favourite among the Indians, and ready to 
endure hardship, privation, and danger, and he has to meet 
them daily. Last night we had an interesting Missionary 
service in the pro-cathedral, with addresses on Mission work 
among the aborigines, the Chinese, and the Creoles. The 
good Bishop may well thank God at the end of his long and 
honoured life that he has lived to see such good fruit resulting 
from Missionary work in British Guiana. TT -r> 

P.S. I should add that I visited a Chinese church here 
and school built by themselves, and so well cared for. A 
number of the communicants were there to meet me, and 
I am able to tell them through their interpreter how pleasant 
it was to hear of their consistent life and generous gifts to 
the glory of God. They said the Apostles Creed in Chinese, 
and so I bade my quiet, gentle friends farewell. 




THE PONGAS MISSION. 

I ECHDEACON HOLME, of st. Kitt s, m the diocese 

of Antigua, has recently visited the interesting 
Mission sent by the West Indian Church to the 
"West Coast of Africa. He has reported to the Committee for 
that Mission on what he saw. The Society, by small grants, 
has for many years helped the West Indian Church in this 
excellent undertaking. Bad times in the West Indies have 
recently weakened the support given there, and it was partly 
in view of straitened resources that the visit of inspection was 
wished for. Another important point is the need of a Bishop less 
distant than Sierra Leone, who will be able to take upon himself 
the actual headship of the Mission, which lies near the tenth 
degree of north latitude, about 150 miles from Freetown. We 
subjoin the greater part of the Archdeacon s report : 

" I have visited all the principal stations of the Pongas Mission, together 
with the important towns of Bramaia and Debreeka. I held meetings of 
the Head men in nearly all these places, with a view to inducing them 
to undertake the care of the Mission buildings, and I inspected all the 
schools. 

" My route was as follows : I landed from the steamer at Bullabina, 
the nearest point of what may be called the mainland to the Isles de Los. 
Here I spent two days visiting the surrounding villages, speaking to the 
Christians and Mahometans, and trying to influence for good the 
European clerks. A young German lay dying of consumption in one of 
the factories, far away from home and friends. This district, which in 
cludes Conakry, a telegraph station, and the office of the French Com 
mandant, besides two large factories, promises to be one of great 
importance. It is a free port under the French protectorate, and the 
factory which used to be on the Isles de Los has been removed here in 
order to escape the obnoxious duties imposed by the English Government, 
by which they have succeeded in extinguishing all trade on their colony. 

" From Bullabina I crossed over to Fotoba (the furthest of the Isles de 
Los) in the St. Christopher Mission boat. Here I stayed five days, 
visiting all the stations and most of the villages on the three islands- 



102 THE PONGAS MISSION. P88u,wU? 

Fotoba, Crawford Island, and Factory Island. I also climbed the heights 
on the two larger islands, and found most desirable sites for a residence 
on both, with good water, and good landing-places on the beach. The 
distance from Bullabina (practically the mainland) to Factory Island is 
only two miles, to Fotoba four miles ; this distance is easy and safe to 
cross except in July and August, and even then at chosen opportunities. 

" On Monday, December 27, I started for Eio Pongo very early, in a 
crazy old boat, in which we were soon out of sight of land upon the open 
sea. By night we were anchored off the bar of the river, and the next 
morning we sailed up the ill-famed and ill-flavoured muddy stream be 
tween thick groves of mangrove bushes to Domingia, which we reached 
at 4 P.M. Exchanging our heavy seaboat for a lighter one, we went 
further up the river to Farringia, the most inland station of the Mission. 
Eeturniiig to Domingia, and finishing my work there, I embarked again 
and sailed down the stream to the entrance to the Fallangia branch, which 
we ascended, and soon reached the scene of the first labours of the noble 
pioneers of the Mission. It was here that Chief Wilkinson greeted Mr. 
Leacock with the " Te Deum;" it was here that he and Mr. Duport 
worked together so faithfully and fought side by side as well against 
Heathenism and Mahometanism as against the fatal fever which so soon 
smote down the brave old missionary. The graves of Neville, Higgs r 
and Deane bear witness to further devoted and perfect self-sacrifice. It 
is to be regretted that none of these graves are distinguished by any 
erection bearing an inscription : they are simply nameless mounds, un- 
honoured except in the memories and hearts of the people.* 

" From Fallangia I walked across the country (21 miles) to Brarnaia, 
where I obtained from the king a grant of land for the Mission, together 
with a promise of hearty co-operation in the Church s work. From 
Bramaia we went down the river to the Debreeka channel, up which we 
passed to the thriving colony of Debreeka. This place has all the trade 
of the country at this time. About ten factories are in full swing. Large 
caravans from the interior were present, composed of Mahometan 
masters and gangs of slaves bearing merchandise. Mr. McEwen has 
collected sufficient money within 10 to build a church here. All the 
factory agents seemed kindly disposed to the Mission. They received me 
with great cordiality, and I was most hospitably entertained by one of 
them. 

" From Debreeka I went down the river to the open sea at Conakry 
and Bullabina, where I found a steamer going to Sierra Leone ; this gave 
me the opportunity I desired, so I took passage in her to Freetown, where 
I spent three days, receiving a kind welcome at Fourah Bay College. I 
visited the C.M.S. Boarding School for Girls, and the Cathedral, where I 
saw the memorial tablet to Mr. Leacock. His grave was unknown to the 
sexton ; like those at Fallangia it has no memorial stone.* 

" No words of mine could convey to your minds what an actual in 
spection of the Mission has brought to mine. 

* The Committee are now sending out Monumental Crosses to mark these graves. 



Mission Field,") 
April 1, 1887. J 



FOTOBA. 



103 




104 THE PONGAS MISSION. 

" Its value and importance exceed all that could have been hoped for. 
I cannot believe that a purer and healthier Mission, one more fitted for 
its work, and more necessary to its surroundings, exists anywhere in the 
world. It is true that converts from Mahometanisiu are rare, but even 
Mahometans (in some instances) allow their children to be taught, and 
I believe that the time is not far distant when Mahometanism will give 
way and expire before the influence of Christian teaching. 

"Polygamy is the backbone of Mahometanism. When the present 
generation of polygamists die out, monogamy will come into fashion, and 
the great obstacle to Christianity be removed. For this we must look 
mainly to our schools, and some special effort should be made to secure the 
girls, 

" In the meantime the Christian Mission is looked upon with respect 
and even favour by those who do not belong to it ; it stands out conspicu 
ously as a model of purity and love. 

" That such a Mission should be impeded, dwarfed, or abolished, would 
be a fearful calamity to the district and to the far-off countries with which 
it is in constant communication. God forbid that this should be ! 

tf At present there are three ordained priests, the Reverends McEwen, 
Morgan, and Hughes. Mr. Cole, at Domingia, is now only a Catechist, but 
it is to be hoped that he will be in holy orders this year. Besides these, 
there are Messrs. Cowen and Miller, the one Catechist at Fotobah, and 
the other at the new station at Bramaia. All these men are, so far as I 
could see and learn, men of the utmost probity, devotion, and work. They 
are such missionaries as we may be well proud of. It would be well in 
deed if every Bishop of our Church could boast of such a staff. I never 
wish to be associated with a finer set of men. On all sides they appear 
to be loved and respected. They are welcomed into the best society. The 
European traders, whom I interviewed as closely as I could, spoke most 
highly of them; most of these contribute largely to the work of the 
Mission. Without intending any invidious distinction, for I verily believe 
that what is said of one may be said of all, I may mention that Mr. 
McEwen, being the most known, was the most brought under my notice. 
Everywhere, amongst Natives and Europeans, he was most highly spoken 
of. Even the captains of the English steamers (rather severe critics of 
parsons as a rule) paid a high tribute to his character. The King of 
Bramaia was demonstrative in his expression of affection. When he had 
shaken hands with all our party, he rose from his chair and seized Mr. 
McE wen s hands, saying very warmly, Mr. McEwen, I am very glad to 
see you ! 

" I need say no more (perhaps I have said more than I ought already), 
only I must add this, that the memory of the Pongas Missionaries, their 
character, and their work, will be a vivid memory with me as long as I 
live." 

With the exception of the schools on the Isles de Los, and 
perhaps of Domingia, the Archdeacon pronounces the schools 



M SELF-HELP. 105 

of the district to be a failure. He proceeds to speak on the 
subject of self-support of the Mission : 

" At all the stations I held meetings of the head-men (with the excep 
tion of Farringia), putting to them the depressed state of the West Indies, 
and urging upon them the necessity (if they wished to retain their missionary) 
of making a reliable promise that they would undertake the care of the 
Mission buildings." 

From Fotoba the answer was sent to him in writing : 

" Honorable Sir, 

" We, the undersigned for ourselves and on behalf of the Christian 
inhabitants of Fotoba, beg to express our warmest thanks to you for the 
visit which you have kindly paid to us, a visit which we were told you have 
undertaken simply from your own good-will and feeling of Christian love 
to us. We assure you that we had noted it and with the deepest gratitude 
too, when at his introduction of you to us our minister, the Rev. J, B. 
McEwen, told us that you were one of the warm supporters of the Eio 
Pongas Mission, and a great helper of the good work which has been so long 
carried on in this place, and in Eio Pongas. The news has made us take 
a more than ordinary interest in you, and as it went round, your visit has 
given evident pleasure to everybody. We thank you heartily for your 
addresses to us from our pulpit, and you are to believe your words and 
addresses to us on Christmas Day and the following Sabbath have gone 
home to the hearts of many of us, chiefly from the fact that they came 
from the lips of one who really loves us and cares for our souls. As re 
gards the subject of state of things in the West Indies and the present 
depression in the sugar trade, it was desired by the committee that 
you should bring it before us with the view of explaining to us that 
the said depression will more or less affect the stability of this Mission, 
and that of the Bio Pongo established among us for so many years ; we 
trust that, having consulted with us, you will kindly communicate to 
the committee the result of your interviews with us on the subject, viz., 
That we, the head men of Fotoba, for ourselves and on behalf of the 
inhabitants, have promised to do all the work of repairs of our church and 
other buildings connected with the Mission established among us, propos 
ing the same readily and freely and in the way our minister, the Eev. 
Mr. McEwen, has suggested and may suggest. Since you left this place 
for the Rio Pongo, in your absence there have been two meetings held by 
the head-men for the purpose of consulting how best to give effect to their 
promise. We trust you will kindly convey our thanks to the committee 
for us." 

At Bramaia his interview with the king was most satis 
factory : 

" In accordance with the advice of Mr. McEwen, I presented him 
with a gold watch the present of Sister Caroline to the prime minister 

G3 



106 THE PONGAS MISSION. [^Jriiljsw?* 

of Teal, who had died before it could be presented. I also gave him a 
Bible, and the compliments and good wishes of the two committees and 
the Bishops. He expressed himself as very pleased to see me, and said 
that he was ready to do anything for the Mission. Me love Mr. McEwen 
well ! He good man ! I then asked him for Modea Hill. He shrugged 
his shoulders and said : Well, it is one of my best farms, but you shall 

have it. . 

" Three deeds of gift were then drawn up and signed by the king and 
several princes. One of these I have brought home, the other two are 
registered in the office of the Fr. Comdt. 

" Mr. Hughes, of Fallangia, has already collected subscriptions of rice, 
&c., from the natives towards the Church Building Fund. He says he 
will undertake to build Church and Mission House, and that he has 
stipulated with the natives that this station is to be self-supporting from 

the first. . 

" I arranged that Mr. Miller, ex-catechist for Farringia, who had jus 
come to Fallangia as schoolmaster, and who was in no way needed there- 
Mrs. Duport being quite able to carry on the school should proceed to 
Bramaia at once as catechist for the present. 

" There is already a mud church at Bramaia, where I held a short 



The king is a fine fellow, and a baptized Christian. He said he 
would be a Christian indeed when the Mission was established in Bramaia. 
He promised to send me his son to live with me when the lad was a little 

older. 

My visit here was most satisfactory, in spite of the want ot every 
possible comfort even of a decent roof to sleep under, to say nothing of 
a bed. We were located in a deserted factory, with broken thatch and 
mud floor I had the wreck of a wooden bedstead, with some sticks and 
a rough mattress on it ; Mr. Hughes lay on a table, and Mr. McEwen in 
a hammock. The next night we preferred to spend in the boat." 

The Archdeacon proceeds to speak of sanitary considera 
tions, and the need of a European head : 

I consider Domingia exceedingly unhealthy. Every house built on 
that bank of the river seems specially adapted for securing the largest 
possible amount of miasma wherewith to poison its inmates. 

As an example, take Buffa, the neighbouring seat of the French 
Comdt. that official, with fever written all over his yellow face, said : 
Ten toujours malade / There are fourteen European soldiers- 
are all ill. The French priest was just convalescent from a bad attack 
of fever ; the two lay brothers were both ill. 

"Farringia stands just above a nasty swamp, exuding vile odours at 
low water. The hills to the landward of it are too rocky and sterile, and 
too far removed from civilisation and help for a European residence. 

"Fallangia is fairly removed (but only half a mile) from a swampy 
river-head, but the whole land lies low, and therefore must be unhealthy, 



Mission Field,*] 
April 1, 1887. J 



THE QUESTION OF HEALTH. 



107 



even if the graves of the martyrs, Neville, Higgs, and Deane, did not 
witness against it. 

" Bramaia, and especially the Modea Hill just given us by the kin- 
I would venture to say, ought to be as healthy a place as there is in the 
Pongas. 

" The King laughed heartily when I asked him if he thought a 
European could live there. He said, I cannot answer for him, but we 
consider it very healthy, and no European has ever died here, except one 
who blew himself up with gunpowder ! All the testimony I could <*et 




FETISH HOUSE. 



was to the same effect. On the river-head here there is no mud, but the 
pure water comes tumbling over the stones clear as crystal, just as it 
does in the hills of Westmoreland. Crossing a stream at the foot of 
Modea Hill, I stooped and drank of the deliciously cool water. 

" If, then, it is essential that either a residence for a European head 
to the Mission, or a Boarding School be built on the mainland, this is 
certainly the place I would recommend for either or both. 

a 4 



108 THE PONGAS MISSION. KSutfSK 

" If, however, the question of the mainland could be given up, I 
would recommend more strongly the Isles de Los as the best site 
for both. 

" At best it is but supposition that a European could keep his health 
at Bramaia ; the African miasma is almost all-pervading. 

" On either of the islands I think it almost a certainty that health 
could be retained by anyone. There is no miasma because there is no 
flat land, and the land and sea-breeze alternate delightfully all through 
the year. 

" Here, too, the Chief Missionary would be within easy reach of the 
steamers, and consequently of assistance, and constant communication 
with home. 

" There is a special reason, too, why the Boarding School should be 
here. The children require perfect isolation ; here alone is this possible. 
At present they are necessarily under detrimental influences both near 
and far. 

" Of the two islands I should have preferred Factory Island as being 
nearer the mainland (two miles), and within sight and easy reach of the 
steamer s anchorage ; but the fact of there being already a church at 
Fotobah might lead to a waiving of this advantage. 

" There is an old factory house on Factory Island, the property of 
Mr. McEwen, which might be available for the immediate temporary 
use of a European. 

" For building, I recommend a native stone basement, with a wooden 
house made entirely in England. 

" The great want of the Mission is a European head. I cannot enter 
into all the reasons for this ; I would simply state emphatically that the 
Mission urgently needs it, and that it would put new life and effectual- 
ness into what is already a great work, but one that lacks energy and a 
.directing arm, as well as a wise and encouraging brain." 





AHMEDNAGAR. 

REPORTS FROM THE REV. J. TAYLOR EVANGELISTIC TOURS 

BRAHMAN OPPOSITION. 

[UEING the quarter ending in June my time was chiefly 
spent in pastoral and Evangelistic work in the districts to 
the north and east of Ahmednagar. In April I visited 
twenty-one villages, where I had services for our con 
verts, and made numerous attempts to appeal to the classes above them. 
The magic-lantern mentioned in my last report proved a valuable 
auxiliary, and, the harvest being over, the people generally were more 
at liberty than they mostly are at other times to attend, and the crowds 
that came about me in several places were large and encouraging. I 
did, too, what I could to reach individuals with varying success. The 
most marked feature to notice was an apparent desire on the part of the 
Mangs to offer themselves for baptism in Shiral, Keshavas, Singve, 
Nevare, and Hingoni-Kangoni, where they are chiefly located. Over 
150 gave me their names for admission to the catechumenate. I 
have appointed a master at Shiral, which has the first claim upon us, 
as we have already a small congregation there ; and I hope we shall be 
able to do the same for the other places ere long, when suitable men and 
women are forthcoming. At present our funds are strained to the 
utmost, and it is difficult to find men who have so far got over caste 
prejudices as to be willing to work heartily among the Mangs. I am 
doing my utmost to combat this, and am thankful for the beginning that 
has been made at Shiral, and what I think has formerly been reported, a 
similar effort at Sonai. 

" At Toke and Nevare I had important meetings with the chief 
people there ; and though at the latter place the subjudge and one or two 
native pleaders did what they could to defend Hinduism, still there was 
110 disturbance, and I was glad of the opportunity of bearing my testimony 
to Christ before so many and such bigoted people as the Brahmans at 
Toke especially are. My visit to Toke was well timed, as there was a 
large pilgrimage going on, and a celebrated gosavi was attracting 
thousands by a lavish expenditure in alms and food to all comers. I 
preached to the pilgrims several times, and ventured to seek an interview 
with the gosavi. Two men carried me across the river Godadin to 
where he was, and I found myself in one of the most trying scenes that 
can be imagined a Christian padre alone in the midst of a heathen 



110 AHMEDNAGAR. Kin, 1 ^ 

mob worked up to fanaticism, and exposed to their contempt. The 
gosavi would not admit me to a quiet interview, where I could speak to 
him of the true way of salvation, but kept me standing outside in the 
crowd. Still, I got him to come out and sit down beside me in a circle 
which the people made round us, and I told him as much as his Brahman 
satellites and others would let me ; but the noise and excitement of the 
people made it impossible to say all I hungered to say, and I had to get 
up, my legs cramped with the position, and try to make my way out of 
the crowd as quietly as possible. But this was not to be done without 
shouts in honour of heathen gods and the gosavi, and jeers at myself, 
which I tried to bear without betraying the hot feeling within ! I was 
thankful when I found myself back on this side of the river, and that I 
had escaped so easily ; nor could I but pray that such poor misguided 
people might soon be brought to a knowledge of the truth. The contrast 
between this scene and our quiet Good Friday and Easter services at 
Sonai was very striking ; but we missed Miss AVickham, who has done 
so much for the women and girls there, and who took her leave of them 
about a fortnight earlier to seek change and rest in England. 

" In May I visited seventeen villages, and was accompanied to some 
of them by Mr. Laughlin, who has lately changed places with Mr. Brown, 
the latter having gone to Kolhapur. The heat was very great, and we 
had frequent thunder-storms, which made travelling over ploughed fields 
very difficult. At Shrogao and Tisgao I had meetings for the better 
classes, and found them on the whole ready to hear me. At the former 
I was astonished to see the devotion still paid to an ugly idol, the monkey - 
god, even by respectable and well-to-do Brahmans. They certainly have 
the courage of their opinions, for, nothing daunted by our preaching in 
front of the idol, they would go forward and do piya to it, and then 
come and listen to what I was saying. I was especially struck by an old 
man, who went round the shrine many times, and every time he arrived 
in front of the idol, clasped his hands and did it reverence. I asked him 
to come and sit beside me when he had done, and questioned him as to 
the intention of his worship. He said all he wanted was food and clothes. 
There was no thought of sin or of the next world, and this gave me a 
ready text to preach from. This has been a great year for marriages 
among the natives, and my meeting at Shrogao was much interrupted 
by no less than four marriage processions, which passed with discordant 
music, not to speak of the hubbub of the weekly market. For a long 
time there has been no school at Shrogao for our Christian children, and 
the condition of the converts generally is unsatisfactory, left so much as 
they have been to themselves. They begged me to try to send them a 
master, and I am in negotiation with the collector for a piece of ground 
to build a school on there, and am glad to say the Bishop has kindly 
promised me the money required for it, and also for another at Paghori 
Pimpalgao, which is in a similar case. At Shirapur and Mandwe I 
found the converts making hopeful progress, and at Ghat Shiras, where 
we have over forty catechumens, I was much cheered by the apparent 
earnestness and sincerity which I could not help observing. 



Mission Field,"] 
87. J 



VISITATION or THE DISTRICT. 



Ill 



" During the months of July, August, and September I was in a great 
measure cut off from district work owing to an unusual heavy rainfall this 
year. By keeping, however, to the made roads which run in various 
directions through our field, and using travellers and other bungalows 
kindly lent me from time to time by the officers of the public works, I 




am glad to say I was able to spend from ten days to a fortnight of each 
of those months in the districts, and when not there, to occupy my time 
very fully with translation work. 

" In July I got as far as Mtike, one of our villages on the Shrogao side ; 
in August to Toke, and in September to Tandulwandi, including the 
intermediate places where we have congregations. I did what I could to 



112 AHMEDNAGAR. 

turn those visits to good account by holding services with the Christians, 
examining our schools, preaching to the heathen, and seeing as much as 
possible of individuals. At Miri I was cheered by large attendances of 
Christians and heathen at prayers. At Toke the small Christian con 
gregation, one of the oldest in the Mission, appeared to be maintaining 
its high character for devotion and earnestness, and two of its members, 
who are farmers, brought a substantial offering of wheat saved up from 
last harvest, in return for spiritual and temporal mercies. While I was 
there, about a dozen Mangs on this side of the Pravara river, offered 
themselves for baptism, and several inquirers came about me a good 
deal from the town. I was sorry to find that the wife of Krishnaji, who 
had so much to do with the founding of the Ahmednagar Mission in its 
early days, had died since my visit to Toke in the hot weather, owing to- 
a hurt she had then received when coming to Holy Communion on a 
country cart, and which I had no idea would prove fatal. She had been 
blind for some years, but was an interesting and superior woman, and a 
link in the past which I shall greatly miss. At Singve, on the west side 
of our district, assisted by one or two of the sub-catechists, I had several 
days of encouraging work among the Christians and villagers generally, 
and at Torndulwadi a hearty service with the good congregation 
there, and visits from several people, among others, a friendly Maratha, 
who some years ago gave a good deal of help when the school was being- 
built, and a Brahman inquirer from Deshnudi, to whom I spoke at 
great length, and who appeared more in earnest than when I last saw 
him. At Wambosi I was glad to observe a great improvement in the 
congregation and school, owing to the efforts made by the sub-catechist 
and master since their appointment there in the early part of this year. 
A lecture which I gave to the townspeople was also better attended than 
one I attempted in the hot weather. 

"In November I began the first of my cold weather tours, going round 
by Singve on the west to Shrogao on the east, and back by Tisgao 
and the Konasigi Ghat to Ahmednagar. The distance travelled was- 
over a hundred miles, the* number of places visited 21, schools 8, con 
gregations 14, services 40, addresses 52, besides frequent conversations 
with people. At six places I was urgently asked to open schools, and 
I wish we could do so, for when we have a school and a resident worker 
the contrast between such a place and other villages that are yet 
without them is very striking, and indicative of what we should aim at. 

" At Sarnangao I found one Christian family only there in great distress 
through persecution on the part of their heathen relations, and at Shirapur 
our master s house burnt down, two stacks of grain belonging to one of 
the native Christians also destroyed in the same way, and the house of 
another attempted. This is supposed to have been the work of the 
villagers, who have long been very hostile to our people in Shirapur, and 
wish to starve them out of the place. The matter is under investigation, 
and I hope something may be done by the authorities to put a stop to such 
a state of things. 

" At Ghodigao I baptized 15 children and admitted 8 catechumens, 



iS! ] REVIEW OF THE YEAR S WORK. 113 

all with one exception women. While there I had a providential escape. 
My tonga upset, and all the weight of it came down on my right leg, which 
marvellously escaped being broken. I was rather badly stunned at the 
time, but managed to get out of the wreck with a few bruises, and help 
to put the thing on its legs again. A few months previously I had the 
misfortune to lose my driver, an old servant, and the man who succeeded 
him has just died too from the effects of the rain we had a fortnight ago. 
At Sonai five children were baptized on Christmas Eve, and we had very 
bright services, beginning with evensong and ending with a procession 
through the main streets of the little town, which attracted much attention, 
and gave us a great opportunity of appealing to the heathen and telling 
them what Christmas is to us and may be to them. 

" Our baptisms during the year have been 54 children and 6 adults for 
the Wambori and Shrogao districts. It would have been much larger had 
we been able to get about and reach the catechumens who have been 
prepared in different places. Seven were confirmed during the Bishop s 
recent visit to Sonai, but I hope to present many more next year, beginning 
classes now where it is possible to get about the districts. In the field 
round Ahmednagar we have three day schools, and in the above-mentioned 
districts 20, with an attendance of 305 children. There are the same 
number of Sunday schools, with an attendance of 170. 

" Looking back over the year, I think we have much reason to be thank 
ful for the signs of steady progress visible among our people, and for the 
friendly hearing that the heathen have given us everywhere. The Mangs 
have been stretching forth their hands to us to take them in, and our 
agents at last have shown a greater disposition to accord them a welcome 
and work among them than before. Up to the close of the year, the 
results of the school examinations in the district have not yet reached 
me, but I am hopeful that they will not be below that of previous years. 
Our native workers have remained stedfastly at their posts, and have, 
amid many difficulties and drawbacks, been trying to do their duty heartily 
and faithfully." 






THE AMERICAN EPISCOPATE. 

FROM THE "GUARDIAN" OF FEBRUARY OTH, 1887. 

;N Friday, February 4th, an interesting anniversary was 
observed at the Chapel of Lambeth Palace. Although the 
American Church received the long-desired boon of a Bishop 
by the consecration of Dr. Seabury for Connecticut at Aber 
deen, on the 14th of November, 1784, it was necessary to provide the 
right rev. prelate with at least two colleagues in order that the canonical 
number of three might be satisfied. Accordingly, on Septuagesirna Sunday 
(February 4), 1787, Dr. William White and Dr. Samuel Provoost were 
consecrated at Lambeth Chapel, for Pennsylvania and New York. The 
Americans do not appear to have been even then quite satisfied, for they 
sent over Dr. James Madison, who, on the 19th of September, 1790, was 
consecrated for Virginia, thus making three Bishops of the English line. 
Dr. Seabury did, however, assist at the consecration of one Bishop, through 
whom the Scottish succession was for ever mingled with the English. 
The Service on Friday was intended as a thankful commemoration of the 
consecration of Bishops White and Provoost, and was arranged at the 
request of the American Churchmen themselves. 

At a quarter before ten the Archbishop entered, accompanied by the 
Bishops of London, New York, Bochester, and North Carolina, the Dean 
of Windsor, and the Kev. Montague Fowler. The Bishops of Durham, St. 
Albans, and Ely were also present amongst the congregation. The 
Service began with Veni Creator ; after which the most rev. prelate pro 
ceeded to celebrate the Holy Communion, assisted by Bishop Lyman as 
epistoler and Bishop Temple as gospeller. In the prayer for the Church 
Militant his Grace introduced the words " And the President of the 
United States " after the mention of the Queen. The Creed having been 
recited, the Bishop of New York (Dr. Henry Potter) stood forward and 
delivered the following address : 

" We are here to-day to commemorate the one-hundredth anniversary 
of the gift of the Episcopate by the Church of England to the United 
States of America. My countrymen who have come here this morning, 
and you, who are his spiritual children, would have been glad if the words 
to be said in connection with this occasion could have been spoken by 
him who is the head of the Anglican Communion, and to whom Church 
men in both hemispheres are wont to look with equal loyalty and venera- 



frO BISHOP POTTER S ADDRESS. 115 

tion. Since this, however, may not be, let me lighten the strain upon 
your patience by saying that it shall be as brief as I can make it. 

" It belongs to me, first of all, to acknowledge, as I do with sincere 
gratitude, the courtesy of his Grace the Archbishop, in arranging for this 
commemorative Service, at a cost how great one can at least partly know" 
who has been pressed upon by similar, though far lesser, burdens, of 
personal sacrifice and inconvenience. The children grow to man s estate, 
and pass out from under the father s roof, but only to turn back again to 
the parental knee, too often bringing with them their own little interests 
and memories as though they were of substantial weight and consequence. 
Happy would be the world if all fathers thus intruded upon were as 
patient as he to whom some of us first came, now nearly ten years ago, 
or he, that successor who to-day sits in the throne of Canterbury, and 
who by his invariable courtesy and kindness to his large family beyond 
the sea has already made his name a perfume in many an American 
home ! 

"It may be urged, however, that such kindness does not excuse a 
fussy and exacting obtrusiveness, but ought the rather to hinder and 
discourage it, and one can imagine the wild surprise with which kinsmen 
who count their ecclesiastical history by nearly a score of centuries 
look on at a new people who make so much of the completion of their 
first hundred years. The wonder is not unnatural, certainly, in this pre 
sence, nor in this ancient city. When one stands in the nobly-restored 
choir of St. Bartholomew s, Smithfield, and is reminded that its beginnings 
go back to the eleventh century, or is told of those Greek coins dug up 
from among its foundations, and then of the tradition of the visit of those 
Byzantine Princes, from whom it has been suggested that its unique and 
strongly-marked Oriental features of architecture might have been derived, 
he is not surprised that a Church or a nation only a hundred years old 
seems to many too new to have a history, or, if they have, to have any 
that is worth remembering. 

" But we who are the children of the Church of England may at least 
plead that for us that hundred years stands for a new creation. At the 
close of our revolutionary war the Church in America was not merely 
enfeebled, it was almost extinct. In a hostile atmosphere of divided 
counsels, its ministers largely withdrawn from it to the mother country, 
there, seemed nothing for it but to die. That it did not die, that it lived 
and throve, and grew, and that it has made a place in the respect and 
affections of multitudes who are not of its fold, is not less true than that 
if any one a hundred years ago had so predicted of it, he would have been 
generally laughed to scorn. And that its growth has been so rapid, and 
its history has been so peaceful, have been largely due under God to one 
of the two men who a hundred years ago were consecrated at yonder altar. 

" On the 20th of November, 1786, there landed in Falmouth two 
clergymen of the Church of England, both natives of her American 
colonies, who had sailed from New York eighteen days before. One of 
these was Dr. William White, Hector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and 
Bishop-elect of Pennsylvania. Dr. White had been educated for the 



116 THE AMEKICAN EPISCOPATE. 

ministry in England and ordained to the diaconate and priesthood respec 
tively, some seventeen years earlier, by the Bishop of Norwich, Dr. Yonge, 
and the Bishop of London, Dr. Terrick. 

" The other clergyman was Dr. Samuel Provoost, Eector of Trinity 
Church, New York, and Bishop-elect of the Diocese of New York. He 
was a native of New York, having been born there in the year 1742, and 
educated in England at St. Peter s College, Cambridge. Having been 
ordained deacon in 1766 by Dr. Terrick, Bishop of London, and priest in 
the same year, at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, by Dr. Edmund Keene, 
Bishop of Chester, he returned to America, and was elected its Bishop by 
the Convention of the Diocese of New York in 1786. Dr. Provoost, during 
the revolutionary war, was a conspicuous patriot, or a conspicuous rebel, 
according as judged from American or English point of view, and 
during the struggle of the colonists had mainly lived in retirement from 
ministerial duty. He was a man of varied learning, and prompt and 
decided action. 

" The urgent importance of the consecration of these two presbyters 
was by this time abundantly evident to the authorities of the Church of 
England. Indeed, the question of an Episcopate for America had 
engaged their attention at different times for the greater part of a century, 
and it contributes still more to endear to American Churchmen many 
eminent names in the Anglican Episcopates, that they are so conspicu 
ously associated with labours and gifts to this end. As early as 1638 
plans had been matured for sending a Bishop to the American planta 
tions, which, however, were frustrated by the outbreak of the troubles in 
Scotland. In 1673 the Rev. Dr. Alexander Murray was nominated for 
that purpose by Lord Chancellor Clarendon and approved by King 
Charles II. ; but again the plan was defeated by circumstances beyond 
control. Yet again, in 1713, Queen Anne responded favourably to the 
request of that venerable Society, to which the American Church owes, 
and gratefully owns, so large a debt for the appointment of Bishops for 
the colonies, and the Society actually purchased a residence for the Bishop 
at Burlington, New Jersey ; but the death of the good Queen put an end 
to the whole matter. Later still Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London, Arch 
bishops Seeker and Tillotson, Bishops Lowth, Butler, Benson, Sherlock, 
and Terrick, all of them at various times, and some of them by personal 
munificence, testified to their sense of the great need to be supplied. 

" The rebellion of the colonies put a stop to these efforts, and, when 
the war had ended, the relations of the American people to the Church of 
England were wholly altered. Many of the loyal clergy returned to their 
mother country, and, on the other hand, those who remained behind 
found themselves in an atmosphere bitterly antagonistic. The Church 
was associated, in the popular mind, with a yoke that had been broken, 
and with traditions which, to the Republican tastes, were most offensive. 

"The proposal to introduce Bishops into America was confused, 
whether purposely or no I will not undertake to say, with a design to 
erect among an independent people a foreign hierarchy. The same spirit, 
which, in the breasts of Englishmen long before, and on English soil, 



^] THE DIFFICULTIES A HUNDRED YEARS AGO. 117 

resented an alien ecclesiastical domination, found a new if mistaken 
expression among their children, and the Puritan dread of prelatical 
invasion took on forms of protest as violent, sometimes, as they were 
grotesque. This had, indeed, been the case with the Puritans of New 
England and elsewhere before the separation, and that event, instead of 
allaying such a spirit, in many instances intensified it. 

" Again, there were those who believed that the issue of the struggle 
in America was not yet finally settled. They believed that the colonies 
might yet be won, or coerced, to return to their allegiance, and they 
pointed out the embarrassments which, out of the creation by the Church 
of England of an independent Episcopate in America, would inevitably 
arise. Finally, there was the still graver problem of the due guardian 
ship of the faith. When the revolutionary war had ended, the Churchmen 
of America, with the exception of some of those in New England, set 
about the formation of an independent organisation. In this, so far as 
its independence of civil control and its admission of the laity to a share 
in its legislative counsels were concerned, they departed widely from the 
traditions of the Church of England. But they did more. They were 
not wholly superior to the spirit of the age, and that tended towards 
relaxation, nay, laxity, in matters of the faith. And so the revision of the 
Prayer-book, which was early undertaken in the American Church, pro 
ceeded so far, at one time, as to threaten not only the excision of certain 
of the Articles, but also of the Athanasian and Nicene Creeds, and even 
of an article in the Apostles Creed. At this point, that gentle but firm 
refusal to proceed in the matter of the gift of the Episcopate, which 
marked the action of the Archbishop of Canterbury and his associates 
upon the bench of Bishops, was of inestimable value. The issue of their 
action is well known. The Church in America yielded, after a brief 
hesitation, and though the Bishops did not secure quite all that they 
desired, Anglican Christendom may well rejoice that they were unwilling 
to be contented with less. Looking back upon their action to-day, it 
deserves to be said, and, though I could wish that it might have been 
said by a voice which would have carried far greater weight than mine, I 
am thankful for the privilege of saying in this place, that what they did, 
and the deliberation with which they did it, were equally worthy of the 
wisdom and the generosity of ecclesiastical rulers of statesmanlike pru 
dence and of unflinching loyalty to the Faith. Their hesitancy, it is true, 
turned the footsteps of the ardent Seabury to the Scottish Church, and in 
1784, three years earlier than the event which we commemorate to-day, 
he had been consecrated by Bishops of that Church in an upper room in 
Aberdeen. But the delay of the Church of England in following that 
precedent gave time for action in America, which, while securing a great 
gift for its people, guarded its exercise from the gravest abuses. It was 
a fitting question for English prelates to ask, and it was no less fitting to 
insist upon its explicit answer Not merely what Church, so far as its 
nominal designation is concerned, do you design to perpetuate in America, 
but in submission to what Catholic symbols of the faith is it to be founded 
and maintained? Never was there a land in which clearness and defi- 



118 THE AMERICAN EPISCOPATE. KM*!*;! 

niteness on this point was more urgently demanded. God be praised for 
the paternal decision and patience that secured it ! 

" A few more words will complete the story of this day. On landing 
in England, Drs. "White and Provoost waited upon the American Minister, 
and were by him presented to the Primate. Their consecration was 
appointed for the 4th of February, and on that day, their testimonials 
having been submitted and approved, they were consecrated in this 
chapel by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. John Moore ; the Archbishop 
of York, Dr. William Markham, acting as presenter ; and the Bishops of 
Bath and Wells and Peterborough, Drs. Moss and Hinchcliffe, uniting in 
the imposition of hands. The chronicler of the time rather pathetically 
records that there was a very small congregation present, composed 
mainly of the Archbishop s household, and adds that the newly-conse 
crated Bishops dined at the conclusion of the service with the Archbishop, 
and left the next day for their distant homes. 

" It may be well to add here, as completing the historical sequence in 
the matter of the American Episcopate, that in September (19), 1790, Dr. 
James Madison was consecrated in this chapel Bishop of Virginia, and 
that in 1792 Bishop Provoost, as consecrator, united with himself Bishops 
White, of Pennsylvania, and Seabury, of Connecticut, in consecrating Dr. 
Thomas John Claggett as the first Bishop of Maryland. Thus and 
thenceforward the English and Scotch lines of succession in America 
were united. It is a grateful recollection to one at least of those who 
have come here from beyond the sea to take part in this Service that the 
scene of this consecration was the City of New York, and that through it 
were united not merely the hitherto disassociated and somewhat antago 
nistic American Episcopates, but through them the somewhat divergent 
lines of Sancroft and Tillotson. * 

" It was a discouraging prospect which awaited them on their return. 
In the Convention that elected White there had sat clergymen and lay 
representatives from parishes. The Convention of the Diocese of New 
York, which chose Provoost for its Bishop, included five clergymen and 
the representatives of seven parishes. In all the thirteen American 
colonies there were only about 200 clergymen, and but few more congre 
gations. To-day the original Diocese of Pennsylvania has become three, 
with five Bishops, with 400 clergy, 300 parishes, 50,000 persons who regu 
larly commune at its altars, and with voluntary offerings for the past year 
of a million and a half of dollars, or 300,000. The Diocese of New York 
has become five Dioceses, with 800 clergy, 700 congregations, over 100,000 
communicants, and with voluntary offerings during the past year, nearly 
$5,000,000 or 1,000,000 sterling. 

" During the same period of time the American daughter, including all 
the Dioceses, has multiplied her 200 clergy until they have become 4,000, 
her parishes until they have become 3,000, her flocks until they include a 
cure of some two millions of souls, and her gifts until they amounted for 
the past year to $10,000,000. She has five colleges and fifteen theological 
seminaries in various parts of the country, and Church schools for both 
* Dr. W. J. Seabur-y s " Moral Discourses." 1885. 



^ApriTi,? 1 ] GROWTH OF THE AMERICAN CHURCH. 119 

sexes, both parochial and diocesan, in large number and in almost every 
Diocese. In the single Diocese of New York she has four Sisterhoods, four 
hospitals, and churches and chapels ministering in six different languages, 
and to as many different nationalities. A single parish in New York 
expends 100,000 upon what is distinctly Mission- work, and in a single 
chapel has some 2,000 children under instruction. The Church sustains 
fifteen Missionary Bishops in as many jurisdictions at home and abroad, 
and is to-day represented by Bishops and Missionaries in Africa, China, 
Japan, and Haiti. Her spirit was never more united or aggressive, and 
the outlook for her future in the judgment of impartial observers not of 
her communion never so full of promise. 

" Is it strange that she should wish, then, to come back to this sacred 
and venerable shrine in which, by the consecrations which we commemo 
rate, the completion of her organic life was effected ? Here she drew her 
first breath as a daughter of the Anglican Communion. From that Com 
munion she has derived her English Bible, her Book of Common Prayer, 
and her most sacred traditions. In the language of the Preface to her 
own Prayer-book, she declared : This Church is far from intending to 
depart from the Church of England in any essential point of doctrine, 
discipline, or worship ; and in the same Preface she records her indebted 
ness under God for her first foundation and for a long continuance of 
nursing care and protection, to her whom John Winthrop, Governor of 
Colonial Massachusetts, was wont to call our dear mother, the Church of 
England. And it was in this spirit that that great prelate, William 
White, first presiding Bishop of the American Church, planned and 
wrought. I would that his venerated successor, my father and brother, 
the Eight Eev. Dr. Stevens, Bishop of Pennsylvania, were here to tell you 
as I may not hope to do, of the influence of that rare man who, a hundred 
years ago to-day, knelt before this altar. 

" In the early history of the Church in America there is another name 
associated later in time with the Diocese of New York I mean that of 
John Henry Hobart, which no annalist of American Church history can 
afford to under-estimate. But great as Hobart was, and powerfully as he 
stamped his impress upon the Diocese of New York, and through it upon 
the whole Church in the United States, I may not forget to render that 
tribute to William White which my brother of Pennsylvania, had the 
infirm condition of his health not prevented his presence here to-day, 
.would have most surely paid to the saint and sage who was his first pre 
decessor. His hand it was w r hich determined most largely the lines on 
which the ship of the Church should be builded and launched, and 
departures, though some of them were from your own national traditions, 
I may, perhaps, venture in this presence to say that time and experience 
have abundantly vindicated them. That feature of our organisation 
which at the first view excited most apprehension in Anglican minds 
I mean the admission of the laity to our synodical bodies has, it would 
seem, come to wear, to many of the best minds in the Church of England, 
a very different aspect. Surely, if the experience of a hundred years 
counts for anything, it may well be so. And if it be so, that may be sung 



120 THE AMERICAN EPISCOPATE. FSSMS? 

of England and of White which Wordsworth sang of White and the 

Western world : 

" To thee, O saintly WHITE, 
Patriarch of a wide-spreading family, 
Kemotest lands and unborn times shall turn, 
Whether they would restore or build : to thee 
As one who rightly taught how zeal should burn, 
As one who drew from out faith s holiest urn 
The purest stream of sacred energy. * 

" And so, as the children come to-day to kneel at their mother s knee, 
they thank her first for that godly and far-seeing man whom she gave 
back to them as their first Primate. But most of all they thank her for 
those spiritual gifts and graces with which she endowed those to whom 
she handed on and down the succession of the Anglican Episcopate. 
Wayward children though many of them may a hundred years ago have 
seemed, they revered her then and the children revere her still. Never 
was her influence and her example more potent in America than now. 
Never was the memory of her saints and martyrs and doctors more 
reverently cherished than at this hour. 

" Across the sea to-day those children send the greeting of their 
homage and their love. And surely they, too, may be permitted to remind 
themselves that this Jubilee year of yours is this morning doubly theirs, 
that half their first century has been covered by the reign of a single 
Sovereign, who, whether as wife, mother, or ruler, has endeared herself to 
the people of two hemispheres, and who, in each of these relations, has pre 
eminently illustrated those distinctive traits of fidelity to duty, of reverence 
for the right, and of exhaustless sympathy with misfortune and sorrow, 
which have been among the chiefest graces of the Church of England. 
And so, as some of them come back to this historic spot to keep this their 
first centennial birthday, this is the prayer they breathe : 

" * Honoured mother, hitherto you have been pre-eminent in Christen 
dom for a Scriptural faith, for sound learning, and for pure manners. 
Already you have borne witness in many lands to the Catholic doctrine 
in all its primitive simplicity and power by lives of unselfish and heroic 
devotion. May it he so more and more in all the centuries to come. And 
when another hundred years are gone and children s children gather here, 
may you still be found in all the plenitude of ever-advancing triumphs, 
rich in the treasures of your Heavenly Lord and Head, " Clear as the sun, 
fair as the moon, terrible as an army with banners ! " 

The Archbishop was assisted by the Bishops of London, New York, 
and North Carolina, in distributing the Holy Sacrament. After the 
Benediction, the hymn Jesu, gentlest Saviour, was sung, and the Arch 
bishop added a collect from the Ordinal. The offertory, at the request of 
the American Bishops, was presented to the Church House Fund. The 
alms-dish, which was presented by the American Bishops who attended 
the first Lambeth Conference, was used. The following telegraphic mes 
sage was received by the Archbishop of Canterbury : 

" The Diocese of Pennsylvania sends cordial thanks for the Canterbury 
Memorial Service at Lambeth." 

* Wordsworth s " Ecclesiastical Sonnets," Pt. in., Sonnet 15. 




HONOLULU. 

S illustrating a scene of the Society s work, Miss 
C. F. Gordon-Gumming has kindly sent us some 
descriptions of the Sandwich Islands from her book 
" Fire Fountains." Her graphic pen will present to our 
readers striking pictures of the Islands forming the diocese of 
Honolulu. 

" I always love getting ashore in the tropics. One always feels cer 
tain of seeing some new, pleasant combination of form and colour, some 
thing delightful in the way of foliage, flowers, fish, birds, or people. 

" If I do not write very enthusiastically from here, it is because I have 
already seen so much tropical life in the South Pacific, and this is a 
somewhat pale edition of it all, lacking the richness of the South Sea 
Isles. 

" It seems to me that all that makes this place delightful is artificial. 
It is purely American, idealized by imported vegetation. Certainly it is 
a most marvellous triumph of man over nature, for the very existence of 
the lovely trees and flowers which now grow so richly in this valley is 
due to incessant irrigation, and to miles of india-rubber tubing which 
are constantly kept playing in every garden. 

" It is hard to believe that only a few years ago this town of Honolulu 
consisted of a few scattered wooden houses, in a bare and hideous wilder 
ness. Now a multitude of pleasant two-storeyed bungalows are embowered 
in gardens brilliant with flowering shrubs, and shaded by the richest trees 
of the tropics. Beautiful passion flowers and starry clematis, orange 
venusta, and bougainvilleas with their rich masses of magenta foliage 
climb in profusion over the verandahs and droop from the roofs, which 
indeed they almost conceal. Heliotropes, roses, and geraniums well 
repay the care bestowed on them. Golden allamandas and rosy oleanders, 
pure white trumpet flowers, scarlet and yellow hibiscus, and fragrant 
gardenia are among the commonest shrubs, while starry white lilies* 
grow in rank profusion, as does also a beautiful and fragrant white cactus, 
the night-blowing cereus, which creeps unheeded over rough stone walls 
and banks. 

" Over head the feathery tamarind trees form a soft veil of the lightest 
lace-like foliage, or large glossy-leaved india-rubber trees throw their 
cool dark shadow on smooth green lawns, and mango and bread-fruit 

* Crinum asiaticum. 



1 99 TTrXTAT TTT TT TMission Field, 

HONOLULU. [ April lf 1887 . 

rank as handsome foliage trees, though their fruit is not to compare with 
that of the Southern Isles. Norfolk Island pines and date palms both 
grow luxuriantly, also the magnolia and eucalyptus. 

" Almost the only indigenous tree of any importance is the large silvery- 
leaved candle nut,* which seems to flourish throughout the Pacific. There 
is also a considerable growth of a native acacia, but the prickly pear (which 
now forms so conspicuous a feature in the landscape, and seems so 
thoroughly in keeping with the weird, barren ugliness of the waste grounds 
where it most abounds) was actually imported from America. The 
aggressive guava scrub is also a foreign settler, and now forms dense im 
penetrable thickets, covering large tracts of country. The Hawaiians 
say that they are also indebted to foreign intercourse for the presence of 
musquitos, a plague with which they would gladly have dispensed. 

" Honolulu has all the appearance of being the work of an enchan 
ter s wand, so lovely is this oasis in the parched and thirsty land which 
stretches to east and west. But, as I have already said, the only wand 
required has been an abundant water supply, and this has been obtained 
by the construction of large reservoirs far in the valley, which are fed by 
every rain shower, and from which pipes are led all over the town. Then 
many artesian wells have been sunk, and every householder invests 
largely in india-rubber tubing, whereby movable fountains are kept 
ceaselessly playing in some corner of lawn or garden, just as in San 
Francisco. 

" Even in the Oasis itself, you can never forget the volcanic origin 
of the place, for just above the town is a steep conical hill, of most fiery 
red, with a large crater known as the Punch-bowl, and a little further 
lies Diamond Head, a promontory of the reddest, most igneous-looking 
rock. This, too, is an ancient volcano ; its sides are seamed by lava streams, 
and within it lies concealed a crater about seven hundred feet in depth. 
The headland is about 760 feet in height, but, like all the other volcanic 
landmarks hereabouts, it is yielding to the disintegrating influences of 
wind and rain, and is literally crumbling away. 

" Between Diamond Head and Honolulu lies the pleasant village of 
Waikiki, which is the sea-bathing quarter, where the citizens drive out 
for the luxury of a surf bath, and where the royal family and other high 
chiefs have cool native houses, hidden in groves of cocoa-palms. 

" This island of Oahu is literally one great cluster of craters, with lava 
streams and volcanic crags ; and though many centuries have probably 
elapsed since any have given token of life, these bare red hills look fiery 
enough to suggest a possible outbreak at any moment. At best they yield 
a dry parched vegetation so uninviting, that only dire need can induce 
the hungry cattle to go in quest of it. Apparently the Euphorbia predo 
minates. It is all grim and forbidding, though of course intensely interest 
ing to the geologist. 

" I am told that about thirty miles to the west of Honolulu lies a 
remarkable group of craters. One of these, which is about a mile in cir- 

* Aleurites triloba. 



A^!n,S7 d ] HONOLULU. 123 

cumference, is the bed of a very salt lake, which forms so thick a deposit 
as sometimes to support the weight of a man. The general basin is very 
shallow, not exceeding two feet in depth, but the central chimney is 
unfathomable, and some suppose that this strange water-crater is con 
nected with the sea, from which it is distant about a mile. Others maintain 
that the salts are of a different composition from those of the ocean, and 
that the lake is simply a quiescent geyser. 

" Certainly this is the most untropical-looking island I have yet visited. 
In looking at its bare barren cliffs and peaks, all of a dull brick red or 
hot yellow, parched and cracked by the burning rays of the sun, which 
beat so fiercely on their utterly undraped nakedness, it is hard to realise 
that these are the tropics of the North Pacific, so wholly unlike the 
misty, verdant paradise of the Southern Isles. From Tahiti, 20 south 
latitude, I have passed to Oahu, 20 north of the Equator, and oh 1 how 
great is the change ! There the whole landscape is a smile a winning, 
attractive smile, but this is repulsive. He would need a stout heart who 
starts to explore these wild rugged hills. 

" Yet on a closer inspection one sees that some are partially wooded, 
chiefly with guava mimosa and other scrub, and the mountain ranges are 
divided by deep narrow ravines and gulches, whose fresh green suggests that 
there, at least, the grasses and ferns have found the moisture they crave, 
and in this volcanic soil water is the only magician needed to convert the 
desert into a paradise. 

" We drove to the wharf, where the two inter-insular steamers were 
lying, just starting on their weekly trip, one to the north the other 
to the south of the group. A great many people seemed to be going 
by one or the other, and a multitude of friends had come to see 
them off. They are a fine stalwart race, both men and women, full of 
mirth and laughter, and seem to be very friendly among themselves. 
But they impress me as a far less graceful race than their southern 
cousins at Tahiti. Even the dress, which is really the same (namely, a 
long calico robe, hanging in folds from a plain yoke on the shoulders), 
is worn fuller and shorter, so that the wearer looks stouter and more 
bunchy. Here it is called the Iwluku. 

" Even the colours worn look dull after the delicate pinks and sea 
greens, so dear to Tahitian girls, and the gorgeous pareos of the men. 
Here all the men wear some sort of foreign dress, and though happily 
some frivolous young people indulge in bright colours, the majority of the 
women seem to affect dark-plum colour, browns, and drabs, only relieved 
by leis, which are necklaces of flowers or feathers so strung as to resemble 
a thick rope. Some are very pretty, being made of small roses, 
stephanotis, marigolds, ginger-flowers, oleanders, gardenias, or jessamine; 
others wore trails of the fragrant maile,* a small-leaved creeping vine, or 
of a lovely climbing fern.f These gracefully twined round the hat and 
shoulders are pretty. Some of the men wear leis of scarlet hibiscus, a 
splendid piece of colour, but many have a more durable string of the conical 

* Alyxia olivasformis. f Microlepia tenuifolia. > 



TTrvKJrkT TTT TT TMission Field, 

XIONOLULU. L April 1, 1887. 

sections of the orange-coloured screw-pine. These are greatly in favour, 
because they do not need renewal so often as the flower leis, which, though 
they retain their fragrance for several days, are of course withered in a 
few hours. 

" Horrible to relate, I saw several advanced girls wearing leis of 
artificial flowers ! Such is progress ! 

" I fear that the picturesque element is fast fading away from Hawaii. 
A few years ago all the girls went galloping joyously about the town, 
wearing over their holukus a gay riding-dress called the kehae or pa-u, 
which was simply a strip of crimson, orange, purple, or yellow calico 
twisted round the body so as to form a kind of very loose trouser, with 
ends flying in the breeze. 

" The ladies who wore these gay dresses rode men s Mexican saddles, 
with a high peak at the back and a horn in front, with bosses of polished 
brass, gay-coloured saddle-cloths, and large wooden stirrups and leather 
flaps to protect the foot when riding through brushwood. We saw a few 
of these saddles on weary-looking, half-starved horses, who were patiently 
waiting for their masters at the dusty wharf. 

" But the ladies of Honolulu apparently no longer think it genteel 
to ride in the old happy harum-scarum style, so they hire buggies, or 
expresses, or some other variety of wheeled vehicle, and take the air 
soberly ! 

" The business part of the town near the wharves is not a pleasant 
spot in which to linger in a grilling sun. It is a dirty, dusty expanse of 
mingled sand and black lava crushed to fine powder, and flying in hateful 
clouds as horses or carriages pass by ; heaps of timber here lie ready for 
house-building, and piles of sugar and coffee-bags for shipment. 

" Besides the two island steamers there were a number of small 
trading ships, and a large one had jiist come in from England. 

" Judging by the number of packet agencies which are here 
established, the shipping list must be a very lengthy one. I see advertise 
ments of Boston Packets, Bremen Packets, Hawaiian Packets, Planter s 
Line, Spreckels Line, Merchant Line, New York Line, Liverpool and 
Glasgow, and last, but greatest, the Pacific Mail S.S. Co. These are repre 
sented by five distinct agencies, and suggest a condition of commerce by 
.no means insignificant. 

" The inter-insular trade is carried on by upwards of sixty vessels, 
ranging from 41 to 219 registered tonnage. These are barques, brigantines, 
schooners, sloops, and steamers. The latter number half a dozen, and 
ply regularly between Honolulu and the other isles. They are commanded 
by white men and manned by Hawaiians. They vary from 190 to 218 
tons, so you can understand that by the time they have shipped an indis 
criminate mass of human beings, white men, Chinamen, and Hawaiians, 
horses, cattle, baggage, timber, sugar, coffee, and sundries, there is not 
much elbow-room to spare, and certainly no possibility of luxury. 

"All these little steamers are said to be alike dirty and dingy, so the 
voyages from isle to isle must be anything but pleasure-trips. I do much 
enjoy the prospect that lies before me ! " 

(To be continued. ) 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

Society s Annual Public Meeting is to be held in 
_1_ St. James s Hall, on Tuesday, April 26, at 2.30. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Society s President, is to take 
the chair. 

AT the Annual Service in St. Paul s Cathedral, which is to 
be a Celebration of the Holy Communion at 11 A.M., on 
Wednesday, June 22, the Bishop of Iowa, the Eight Eev. W. S. 
Perry, D.D., is to preach the sermon. 



ON St. Matthias s Day, February 24, the Bishop of 
Melbourne (Dr. F. F. Goe) was consecrated by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London, 
Eochester, Manchester, and Perth, Bishops Perry, Alford, 
and Marsden ; the sermon was preached by Canon Cadman. 

IN connection with the Centenary of the Colonial Episco 
pate on the 12th of August next, the Bishop of Winchester 
has issued the following important letter to his Diocese : 

" The present is a year of great interest in connection with the Mission 
Work of the Church of England, the Colonial Episcopate, and the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

" The Centenary of the Consecration of the First Colonial Bishop may 
remind Churchmen how much they owe "to that great Society, the first 
and oldest of English Missionary Societies, and that which has almost 
alone kept alive and supported the Church in our vast Colonial Empire. 

"A century ago there wasno Colonial Diocese with a Bishop at its head. 
Fifty years ago, when our Queen came to the throne, there were but 8 
Colonial Dioceses. Now there are 75. It is hardly too much to say that 
all this is, under God, mainly due to the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel a Society, alas ! most inadequately supported by the Church 
at home, and especially by the laity. 

" I earnestly hope that this second Jubilee of the Colonial Episcopate 
will be well commemorated in this Diocese, and that the failing funds of 
the Society will be replenished by the willing hearts and open hands of all 
who desire the extension of the Redeemer s Kingdom. 

" E. H. WINTON. 



126 NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



ATISFACTOEY progress is being made in the arrange- 
ments for the Conferences which are to be held in all 
parts of the country with a view both to the Centenary Com 
memoration, and to making the time of thanksgiving for the 
blessings bestowed on the- Church abroad during the century, 
a point of new departure with regard to the way in which the 
cause is taken up at home, for an endeavour to lift the minds 
of English Churchmen into a truer conception of their 
Missionary obligations, and for making the support given to 
the Society far heartier and more widely extended. 

DUEING the month of March Conferences have been 
held at Worcester, Exeter, Lewes, Hastings, and 
Northampton. 

Arrangements for Conferences during April and May include 
those to be held at Barnstaple, Torquay, Plymouth, Truro, 
Penzance, Lancaster, St. Austell, Gloucester, Dover, Canter 
bury, Faversham, Petersfield, Whitchurch (Hants), Saxmund- 
ham, Ipswich, Beccles, Stowmarket, Wells, Weston-super- 
Mare, Bridgewater, Taunton, Yeovil, Carlisle, Kendal, Barrow- 
iri-Furness, Leicester, Southampton, Portsmouth, Farnham, 
Guildford, Shrewsbury, Lichfield, Birkenhead, Manchester, 
Lynn, Norwich, Great Yarmouth, Birmingham, and Swaff- 
ham. Others are to be held in the following months. 

LAST year we noted that the remittances from Annesley, 
a colliery parish in Nottinghamshire, had increased year 
by year from 25. 5s. 3</. in 1881, to 52. 13s. in 1885. Our 
readers will be glad to hear that the increase is maintained, 
and that J 55. 17s. lOrf. was remitted for the year 1886. 



TUTTGAKT Chaplaincy, which has become vacant by the 
death of the Eev. W. G. Parminter, has been filled by the 
appointment of the Eev. L. E. Tuttiett, of Leipzig. Mr. 
Tuttiett has done excellent work at Leipzig since his appoint 
ment to that chaplaincy in 1883. He has succeeded in 
building the handsome church at Leipzig, the project for which 
had failed of accomplishment for some twenty years, and had 



^prifi,] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 127 

in every way given a new life to the British community. His 
health rendered it imperative that he should leave Leipzig, 
and it is hoped that the climate of Stuttgart will be favourable 
to it. His successor at Leipzig is the Bev. I. B. Hardinge, of 
Karlsruhe. 



AT Freiburg, the Bev. George John Banner, formerly Vicar 
of Boby, is appointed chaplain in succession 10 the Bev. 
N. G. N. Lawrence, who, after seven years good work there, 
has been presented to a benefice in the diocese of Exeter. The 
Bev. Joseph Bernard Smith, late Vicar of Stubbings, has been 
appointed chaplain at Berne. Gotha, a small chaplaincy held 
by the Bev. 0. Flex, formerly the Society s Missionary in Chota 
Nagpore, has been placed on the Society s list, and some 
assistance is given to the little British community in main 
taining their chaplain. 

IT is unnecessary for us to add to the commendations which 
have been given to the Official Year-Book of the Church of 
England for the current year. It may be sufficient to remark 
that over one hundred pages are occupied with matters relating 
to the Colonial Church and Foreign Missions, fifty of them 
being occupied with the Beports of the several Bishops. The 
compilation of the book must have entailed enormous labour, 
which is, no doubt, rewarded by the appreciation by church 
men of the result. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. a. Billing, F. Bohn, and F. Kruger, of the Diocese 
of Calcutta; T. Williams of the Diocese of Lahore; C. David, J. de Silva, F. D. Edresinghe, E. W. 
Matthew, E. F. Miller, G. H. Pinchin and A. Vethacan of Colombo ; J. A. Sharrock and R. D. 
Shepherd of Madras ; J. S. Diago, A. Gadney, A. C. Laughlin, H. Lateward, H. F. Lord, J. D. 
Lord and J. Taylor of Bombay; R. Balavendrum, J. Perham aiid J. L. Zehuder of Singapore ; 
R. M. Clark, A. A. Dorreli, F. B. Moore, R. G. Nichol, C. J. Pattison, W. P. G. Schierhout and 
W. C. Shaw of Capetown; S. W. Cox, J. Gordon and A. J. Newton of Grahamstown ; S. M. 
Samuelson of Zululand ; E. W. Bibby, E. T. Burges, T. Goodwin, B. Markham, E. Shears and 
H. T. A. Thompson of Maritzburg ; W. H. R.Bevan and G. Mitchell of Moemfontein ; H. Adams, 
A. W. Beck, C. Clnlee, F. Dowling, C. Muber, J. P. Richardson and H. Sadler of Pretoria ; F. H. 
Baker and J. C. Hands of St. Helena ; E. O. McMahon of Madagascar ; R. B. Morgan of Sierra 
Leone; S. H. Davis of Honolulu; W. B. Armstrong, S. J. Hanford, H. Holloway and H. M. Spike 
of Fredericton ; M. M. Fothergill, J. Kemp, W. G. Lyster, J. P. Richmond and S. Riopel of Quebec ; 
J. W. Pyke of Montreal; H. Beer, A. W. Osborne and A. J. Young of Algoma ; R. Inkster and 
W. Newton of Saskatchewan ; R. F. Brine, R. C. Jones and J. S. Smith of Nova Scotia; G. H. 
Bishop, E. Colley, J. Godden, J. C. Harvey, W. A. Haynes, H. C. A. Johnson, T. G. Netten, T. P. 
Quintin, R. H. Taylor, R. Temple and C. Wood of Newfoundland; D. H. Horlock of New West 
minster ; F. P. L. Josa, G. W. Matthews and F. W. Ritchie of Guiana ; A. B. Williams of 
the Windward Islands; A. A. Humphreys of Antigua; and C. G. Curtis, Missionary at Con 
stantinople. 



128 MONTHLY MEETING. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street oa 
Friday, March 18th, at 2 P.M., the Rev. B. Compton in the Chair. There 
were also present Lord Robartes, Bishop Perry, and F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., Vice- 
Presidents; the Rev. J. St. John Blunt, Rev. J. M. Burn-Murdoch, Rev. JL 
Bridger, C. Churchill, Esq., Canon Crosse, General Davies, Canon Elwyn, Rev. 
J. W. Festing, General Nicolls, Archdeacon Randall, General Sawyer, W. 
Layton Lowndes, Esq., General Tremenheere, C.B., and S. Wreford, Esq., Mem 
bers of the Standing Committee ; and Rev. S. Arnott, Rev. J. A. Boodle, Rev. 
H. N. Collier, Thomas Cree, Esq., R. N. Cust, Esq., Rev. T. Darling, T. Dunn., 
Esq., Rev. J. J. Elkington, Rev. S. Coode Hore, Rev. Dr. Jones, H. Laurence, 
Esq., Rev. J. H. C. McGill, Rev. E. C. Osborne, Rev. G. P. Pownall, Rev. H. 
Rowley, Rev. J. B. Rust, Rev. E. Sturges, Rev. F. Thome, Rev. J. L. Wyatt, 
and Rev. C. Wyatt-Smith, Members of the Society. 

1. Head Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Eeceipts and 
Payments from January 1st to February 28th : 

GENEHAL FUND SPECIAL FUNDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c 5,603 . 1,322 

Legacies 584 

Dividends, &c 488 770 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 6,675 2,092 

PAYMENTS 9,562 3,419 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January 1st to February 28th, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1883. 
5,480 ; 1884, 5,651 ; 1885, 5,179 ; 1886, 6,150 ; 1887, 5,603 . 

3. The arrangements for the proposed Conferences were announced. 
A statement was also made by the Chairman with regard to the Con 
ferences, and the observance of August 12th, the Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Consecration of the first Colonial Bishop, especially referring to the 
Conference which he had attended at Worcester. 

4. The Rev. Bernard R. Wilson, from the Diocese of Brisbane, ad 
dressed the Members. He described the work in the towns and in the 
Bush, and especially spoke of the need for more clergymen. He thought 
that the Bishop could, at the present moment, find work for eight or nine 
young clergymen. 

5. All the Candidates proposed at the Meeting in January were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in May : 

Rev. H. Parry, Tugley, Leicester ; Rev. C. F. Nolloth, All Saints , Lewes ; 
Rev. F. G. Hume-Smith, St. Bart. s, Arailey, Leeds ; Peter Bent, Esq., 
Headingley, Leeds ; Leonard Cooper, Esq.. The Abbey, Kirkstall, Leeds ; J. C. 
Newstead. Esq., Red Hall, Leeds; C. A. Appleton, Esq., Albion Place, Leeds ; 
Rev. Gilbert Rideout, Rusper, Horsham ; Rev. B. C. Fawcett, Christ Church, 
Kilbrogan, Bandon, Co. Cork ; Rev. W. J. Wilson, Corkbeg, Whitegate, Co. 
Cork; Rev. Henry Alcorn, 6 Clifton Terrace, Cork; Rev. C. J. Boden, St. 
Barnabas, Sutton, Surrey ; Rev. C. D. Ramsay, Chelsham, Surrey ; and Major- 
General Sir F. J. Goldsmid, C.B., K.C.S.I., 3 Observatory Avenue, Campden 
Hill, W. 

It should have been noted in the account of the February meeting (page 
95) that the election of the Yen. W. E. Meade, D.D. (vice Dr. Reeves, now 
Bishop of Down and Connor) as Representative for the Province of Armagh 
was reported. 




THE MISSION FIELD 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 



MAY 2, 1887. 




MAKITZBTJRG. 

LETTER, DATED 1ST FEBRUARY, FROM THE BISHOP NEW WORK 
NEEDS: DEPRESSION THE NATIVE MINISTRY. 

HEREWITH enclose the annual schedule, which I 
have filled to the best of my ability, and beg to 
apply for a renewal of the Society s grant to this 
Diocese. I would fain say an increase of the grant, to the 
need of which those who are at present in England from hence 
would strongly testify ; but the report of the condition of the 
Society s funds forbids my urging that which I know must at 
present be vain. 

I have just read through my last year s report, and in 
many particulars I might almost repeat it, save that the exodus 
from Natal for the Gold Fields has, in most parts of the 
Diocese, increased the difficulties we had a year ago in raising 
the stipends of the clergy. Trade is, however, reviving, and 
prospects are somewhat more hopeful. 

I am thankful to be able to report, with regard to new 
work, that at Stanger, the centre of the parish of Nonoti, 
where Mr. Banks began to work eighteen months ago, I have 
been able to realise the hope expressed last year, and assess 

NO. CCCLXXVII. H 



130 MARITZBURG. 

the parish at 100 towards their clergyman s stipend, and 
that at the same time the erection of a church has been 
pushed forward so successfully that I hope to consecrate it in 
a few weeks. There is also a little church at Mid-Illovo, in 
the parish of Eichmond, which is fast approaching completion. 
We have also enlarged St. Mark s Native Chapel in Maritzburg, 
and are projecting a similar and much needed enlargement of 
St. Faith s, in Durban. 

On the other hand, I regret to say that I have been unable 
to fill the vacancy in the parish of Umhlatuzana, which has 
had to depend upon such services as the Archdeacon of Durban 
could provide with the help of lay readers, and that the falling 
off in the amounts raised by the offertories in several parishes 
are such as, while compelling a reduction of six per cent, in 
the stipends of the clergy, to oblige me to reduce the staff also. 
Mr. FitzPatrick has resigned both the archdeaconry and the 
incumbency of Estcourt, and his curate, Mr. J. M. Strickland, 
has left the Diocese on account of ill-health. I have removed 
Archdeacon Barker from Umzinto, where he had spent twenty- 
six years, and which he leaves with the regret and warm 
affection of the people, to Ladysmith, which, as the terminus 
(at present) of the railway, has sprung into importance, leav 
ing the Eev. E. S. Kendall as curate in charge of the former. 
I fear I may lose Mr. Clark, who has been doing a good work 
at Newcastle and Dundee, on account of the insufficiency of 
stipend. 

I wish I could say that this depressing influence was con 
fined in its effects to the work amongst the colonists. It is 
also felt very severely amongst the natives. At Springvale, 
where the protracted drought has added seriously to the diffi 
culties of living, we are at a loss to know how we shall pay 
our way this year, for the rents of the natives are sadly in 
arrear. Mr. Thompson, who has succeeded Mr. Greenstock, 
is throwing much energy into the work, he and his valued 
native deacon, Daniel Mzamo, having established a more 
extensive system of preaching at the kraals of the heathen 
than has been practised before. I hope that two sons of the 
latter, who have been educated at Zonnebloern, may become 



M S2,S d ] NATIVE AGENTS. 131 

candidates for Holy Orders. The eldest is already a catechist, 
and is reading under Mr. Greene, at St. Alban s ; and the 
second, who is organist at Highflats, is looking forward to 
being schoolmaster at Springvale, where he may read under 
Mr. Thompson. With all this real ground for hopefulness in 
the zeal and efficiency of those who are at work, it is very sad 
that the want of means should cripple us so that there is a 
danger lest some of the buildings at Springvale and Highflats 
should go to ruin for want of necessary repairs, and that the 
workers should be crying out for the arrears of their stipends. 

The Mission of St. Luke s, Umzunkulwana, in the parish 
of Alfred, under Mr. E. H. Booker, affords a good deal of 
encouragement, a large number of half-castes as well as 
natives forming part of his congregation. He has already 
established a workshop, towards which, as well as towards the 
regular school for the children, the Government have given a 
grant. But he is pleading for the means to complete the school- 
chapel, and to make the dormitories and other parts of the 
building fit for habitation, As an illustration of the progress 
that is being made in civilisation as well as the interest taken 
in the church and its services, I may mention that, at my visit 
last October, when, to my surprise, the coloured choir met me 
in decent cassocks and surplices, and I inquired whence these 
becoming vestments had been obtained, to my still greater 
surprise I was informed that they were the work of the half- 
caste girls. The straw hats, too, in which many of the child 
ren appeared, were of local manufacture. In the offertory at 
the Confirmation was a promise of a sheep and a sack of 
mealies, and one of the heads of families sent Mr. Booker the 
present of a turkey to entertain the Bishop. Yet these poor 
people are struggling to pay by instalments for the few acres 
which they have bought from Government. 

Similar instances of encouragement from individuals could 
be quoted, especially the sums of money contributed by the 
native young men, chiefly servants in Maritzburg and Durban, 
towards the enlargement of the churches. 

I ought not to pass from the native work without mention 
ing the death of Paul, who was the catechist of Newcastle, 

H2 



132 MARITZBUHG. PBS ?,!? 

His loss is one which may well be termed, humanly speaking, 
irreparable, for it is indeed rare to find, especially amongst 
those who have come out of heathenism, such a combination 
of zeal and devotion with wise and gentle modes of dealing 
with his ignorant brethren, and a remarkable capacity for 
acquiring and instilling sound Church doctrine. But the 
memory of his life and work both here and in Newcastle, it is 
hoped, may be fruitful. His successor at the latter place is 
reported to be carrying on quietly what Paul so well began. 

Of the Indian work I shall not deem it necessary to say 
more than that during Mr. Booth s absence the teachers and 
catechists are endeavouring to continue the work. In Durban, 
the chief centre of that population, Mr. Whittington is doing 
all that the weak state of his health will permit to give Sunday 
services. While I trust Mr. Booth s presence in England will 
have had the effect of bringing before many Churchmen 
throughout the land the importance of his particular sphere 
of labour in this Diocese, I venture to hope that the Society 
also may be so impressed with the value of his services as to 
continue on an increased scale the special grant for his 
support. 






GRAHAMSTOWN. 

LETTER FROM THE REV. R. J. MULLIN3, DATED 28TH FEBRUARY. 

[AST year I wrote you a very full and detailed 
account of the financial condition of the diocese, 
and the Bishop, who has been laid up for some 
weeks from a severe fall, has requested me again, 
to address you, but I fear it will be in a still more doleful 
strain. 

Before, however, I begin my tale, I must apologise for the 
delay in sending this return. I had quite hoped that the 
Bishop would have been able to have written in full himself, 
as of course no one so well knows the wants of his flock as 
the chief shepherd. 

You will remember that the Society was enabled to con 
tinue the same grant for 1887 that was sent for 1886, with 
the additional grant of 60 to the Eev. C. Taberer, of St. 
Matthew s Mission, Keiskama Hoek. I had hoped to have 
seen the grant to the Colonial clergy restored to the 400 per 
annum that was allowed us for so many years, but I suppose 
it was not to be for 1887. We do trust, however, that some 
slight increase may be afforded by the Society towards ekeing 
out the miserable stipends of the majority of the Colonial 
clergy for the year 1888. 

You will, perhaps, remember that last year I reported upon 
the great depression amongst our agricultural farmers owing 
to the scant population and bountiful crops. The prices I 
then quoted have fallen again since then by one half. Wheat 
was sold last week upon the Grahamstown market that had 
been brought a distance of about sixty miles by ox-waggons 
from the district of Peddie, which is famous for its wheat 



134 GKAHAMSTOWN. 

crops, for Is. Sd. per 100 Ibs., and some brought in by the 
industrious Peddie Fingoes sold even at a lower figure. You 
will readily understand that such prices are simple loss to the 
agriculturist. Farmers are failing day by day, and of course 
the merchants follow one after the other. And what is the 
case in Grahamstown is the same, more or less, all over the 
country. Only last evening a gentleman told me that his 
income from his garden, which is a very valuable one, and 
situated only three miles from Port Elizabeth, one of the 
best markets in the colony, amounted to slightly over 8 ! 
whereas in 1881 he had made over 250. 

During the Christmas holidays I took a fortnight s run 
round some of the most valuable of our coast districts. I, of 
course, visited my brethren of the clergy, and was struck by 
the evidence of poverty, and only too visible signs of the very 
general depression. I am bound to say, however, that I did 
not once hear one single word of murmur or complaint, and it 
was only by industrious pumping that I wormed out of them 
the true state of affairs. It is indeed hard when the clergy, 
in order to clothe and feed the little ones at home, have to 
take their elder children from school, or start them too early 
in life as clerks in stores or helpers on farms. 

You have doubtless read or heard a great deal of the 
wonderful discovery of gold in South Africa, especially in the 
Free State and Transvaal ; and people who casually read these 
wonderful newspaper accounts of gold in South Africa, and 
then turn to the map to see where Barberton, or Pilgrim s 
Kest, or Maintain are situated, imagine that they all lie pretty 
close together, like London, Beading, and Guildford ; whereas, 
the distances are measured by hundreds of miles too f<tr, 
owing 10 the enormous expense of transport, for us to send 
any of our surplus produce to market there. In fact, far 
from being at present a blessing to the country, whatever 
they may prove in the future, I look at them quite in another 
light. A sad spirit of speculation and downright gambling is 
rife, and gold-mining shares are eagerly bought up at a pre 
mium because a piece of quartz the size of one s fist has 
given evidence, upon being tested, that the reef from which 



*MS on JS d ] GOLD FIELDS. 135 

it was broken off may contain 1J oz. gold to the ton. Far- 
seeing men dread a like crash to that which took place some 
few years ago in the diamond mining speculation. Young 
men, tempted by the hope of something turning up, are 
throwing up their situations as clerks, &c., and are off to the 
gold-fields, where, from all accounts, the majority of them 
have nothing to do, and less to eat. This, of course, will 
re-act upon those left at home, I mean the wives and families, 
mothers and sisters, dependent upon them for support. 

Amidst all this depression it is most encouraging to hear 
and see tokens of the growth of Church life in our midst. 
During the year 1886 several new centres of work have been 
opened out, and several new churches built, and these are 
scattered all over the diocese : Cathcart and Peddie in the 
east, Hopetown in the north, Alicedale and Richmond in the 
south and west, as also a new native chapel at Aliwal, north, 
and the home chapel of St. Peter s, Grahamstown. As far as 
I hear, the services of the Church, especially in the country 
districts, are better attended than in former years, and the 
number of communicants are upon the increase. Only 
yesterday morning I started in pouring rain for my little 
Church of St. Peter s, Hilton, and found that, notwith 
standing the weather, twenty-four assembled from the 
surrounding farms. Such punctuality and devotion fully 
repays one for any little discomfort of a wet ride. 

I was at St. Matthew s, Keiskama Hoek, St. Luke s, Nurendo 
and the Igwaba Missions in January. The two former places 
were in full work. Mr. Taberer has a full burden to carry, 
and it is hard to say which of his burdens weighs most 
heavily upon his bodily and mental strength his cure of 
souls, or the large industrial work he has in hand. Mr. 
Stumbles labours under the greatest of all disadvantages in 
Missionary work that of not understanding the native 
language. 

I find my old pupil and friend Mr. Philip hard at work 
amongst his brethren the chapel crowded on week days 
over-crowded upon Sundays, and work opening out around him 
in all directions, 



136 GRAHAMSTOWN. Hg? n 2 ,S ld> 

He had just made arrangements to start work amongst a 
very lawless set of men vagabonds and wanderers, whom the 
magistrate of the district had rescued from starvation after 
the Gaika rebellion, and had settled upon some Government 
land between the Igwaba and Koungha. The magistrate, Mr. 
E. Chalmers, and the Superintendent of Natives, were both 
heartily supporting Mr. Philip in his new work, which will, I 
fear, be no light task. 

The native work in the larger towns grows apace, and we 
are not able to meet the demands for native catechists and 
schoolmasters of age and experience. 

The Kaffir Institution has suffered very severely both in 
funds and members ; few students have been able to pay their 
school fees during 1886, and it is only by the strictest economy 
that we are able to keep the work afloat. 

I must not close without one item of good news. God 
put it into the heart of our late dear friend Mr. J. J. Irvine, 
of King Williamstown, to remember not only this diocese, 
but, I am most thankful to say, that of Capetown also in his 
will. It will of course be probably some months, or may be 
years, before we shall directly benefit thereby, but he has 
bequeathed 

3,000 to our Ministers Endowment Fund. 

3,000 to Diocesan Grammar School, King Williamstown. 

200 to St. Matthew s, Keiskama Hoek. 

2,000 to Ministers Endowment Fund, Capetown. 

100 to St. George s Orphanage, Capetown. 

Thus has God provided for the extension of His kingdom 
by guiding one who has proved a good and faithful steward 
of the wealth with which God blessed him. In January we 
drove through the districts where he was best known, and 
where the lamentation for his death was universal. He was 
one of the greatest and truest friends the natives on the 
frontier had, ne ever helped those who were ready to help 
themselves. 

Trusting that I may have a more hopeful and prosperous 
account to send you next year. 




NEWFOUNDLAND. 

JESCBIPTIONS of long journeys, accounts of the 
struggle of the Church in the face of many diffi 
culties, precarious living on the verge of absolute 
want, have always been frequent in the letters of the New 
foundland clergy, yet perhaps it would be difficult for writers 
in any part of the world to show a heartier spirit. The 
difficulties are much accentuated now by the particularly 
hard times ; but there is plenty of courage to face them. 

Brigus Mission has since 1863 been under the charge of 
the Kev. E. H. Taylor, whom the Bishop has now chosen for 
the important position of Vice-Principal of the Theological 
College in St. John s. Mr. Taylor accordingly, on leaving 
Brigus, where he has been since his ordination, sends a brief 
summary of what he calls his "life-work." It is very good 
reading. 

" Ever since 1863 I have given you an annual letter, in which I have 
humbly tried to give a brief summary of Church work in this Mission. 

" Brigus was made a separate Mission, cut off from the parent stem of 
Porte-de-Grave, A.D. 1842. 

" In A.D. 1879, Brigus Mission was divided, and became two bands, 
Salmon Cove being made the head- quarters of a fresh Mission. It is 
necessary to bear this in mind when looking over the returns. 

" Brigus is thus what may be called a Mission of late formation ; it 
was wholly given up to Dissent and Bomanism for many, many long 
years, and we suffer, and I suppose shall suffer for generations to come, 
from the apathy and indifference of the Church in past years. 

" Your Missionary has never occupied any other parish, district, or 
settlement ; Brigus, I may say, is my life s work ; almost a quarter of a 
century has been spent in it, with two brief holidays of barely four 
months duration. 

" You may understand, therefore, with what varied feelings of emotion 
I contemplate my severance from the place and people. This, in all 
human probability, is the last report I shall write as the Society s 
Missionary at Brigus. 

F 3 



138 NEWFOUNDLAND. [ 



Mission Field. 
May 2, 1887. 



"I have long thought that a change would be beneficial for the 
Church in this Mission ; may it prove an infusion of new life and fresh 
vigour. 

"The Bishop has appointed me to the very important and most 
responsible office of Vice -Principal of the Theological College, St. John s. 
I have accordingly sent in my resignation to his lordship, and here beg 
to repeat it to the Society, with the hope that my name may still be kept 
on your list ; for I have ever esteemed it a distinguished honour to be 
inscribed on the Bede roll of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
for some of the noblest and worthiest of English Churchmen are associated 
with its history. 

" When Bishop Feild sent me to Brigus, he told me he was sending 
me to the most difficult Mission in the Diocese. His words .were truly 
prophetic of the troubles I have had to contend with, but I thank God 
I leave all at peace and unity in the Church s congregation, and in 
spite of the deep and widespread poverty we are paying our way, pro 
viding for all our expenses save the heaviest and most important of all, 
the support of the clergyman ; even that will, I hope, in a year or two 
more, be removed from the Society, and Brigus become a Mission inde 
pendent of aid from England. The only thing which causes me deep 
anxiety is the fact that, owing to the want of clergymen, the Bishop is 
sorely put to it to fill the vacancy, and there may be an interval before 
a successor can be found, and we are beset by foes on every side. The 
Salvation Army, so called, made a raid upon Brigus last April, estab 
lished its barracks within twenty yards of the churchyard gates, and 
has employed all its artifices to draw away disciples after it. I thank 
God that very few of our fold have been drawn away. No doubt the 
fact that the Church was open for frequent services before the Boothites 
<came has had much to do with keeping our people together, but I should 
tremble if the Mission were left for any length of time without a 
clergyman. 

" The Wesleyan congregation has suffered very extensively, and about 
ihree -fourths of its members have seceded and joined the Salvationists. 

" May I be permitted, without any feelings of ostentation, to set out 
a few of the steps of improvement in this Mission since I came here 
in 1863 ? 

" 1864, Nov. 1. All Saints Church, Salmon Cove, consecrated ; teacher s 
dwelling-house built at Burnt Head, and a resident teacher 
and lay reader provided for that settlement. 

" 1868. School and teacher s residence built at Salmon Cove, at a cost 
of 240. 

" 1869. St. Augustine s Church, Burnt Head, built, at a cost of 430 ; 
consecrated 1st June. 

" 1870. School Chapel erected at Clarke s Beach. 

" 1871. Land bought at Brigus as site for new Church. 

" 1872. New School erected at Burnt Head. 

" 1874. St. George s new Church erected at Brigus, at a cost of 
1,600. 



*yit on JS d ] BBIGUS ST. JOHN S. 139 

" 1875. Parsonage built at Salmon Cove. 

" 1876. School Chapel at Juniper Stump commenced. 

" 1877. School Chapel at Galleys commenced. 

" 1878. School Chapel at English Cove commenced. 

" 1879. New School built at Brigus. 

" 1880. Parsonage and glebe purchased at Brigus for 300. 

" 1884. St. Augustine s Church, Burnt Head, enlarged, at a cost of 
180. 

" 1884. Sundry pieces of land purchased near St. George s Church, 
Brigus. 

J " In addition to this, your Missionary has secured thirty acres of 
land for the Church at Juniper Stump. 

" Twelve acres at English Cove. 

" Six acres at Burnt Head. 

" One acre at Salmon Cove. 

" One acre at the Gulleys. 

"If a modest endowment of 1,500 could be secured for Brigus, and 
the same for Salmon Cove and I hope these sums will be forthcoming 
in the near future the Missions would thus become parishes, to all 
intents and purposes, as settled in every particular as those in mother 
land. 

" In my new sphere of duty my old work at Brigus and Salmon Cove 
will ever hold a conspicuous place in my affection, and 1 trust that, ere 
God gives me my Nunc Dimittis> I may be enabled to help on the work 
until it assumes a permanent form, independent of all outside help." 

Working at the outposts round St. John s is the Rev. 
T. G. Netten, who tells of the poverty which has come to the 
fisher people. 

" From a temporal point of view, the past year has been an anxious 
one for my people. Two bad voyages had left them heavily in debt to 
their merchant, and reduced their families to extreme poverty. Both 
merchant and dealers were looking on hopefully to the past year s fishery, 
trusting that there might be a change for the better. But the results 
were even worse than in the two preceding years. As an instance of the 
small take of fish during the recent voyage, I may mention the case of a 
respectable planter at Pouch Cove, who, in settling with his sharernen, 
paid over to each man 3. 10s., the amount of his earnings for the season. 
When we deduct from this the expense of the outfit, and the summer s 
supplies for the family, the prospects for the winter were indeed gloomy. 
It became a serious matter of consideration with the Government what 
was to be done for the people to avert the dreaded consequences of so 
disastrous a voyage. To prevent starvation, either the demoralising 
system of issuing pauper-relief was to be resorted to, or work should be 
found for the distressed fishermen in some form or other. The emer 
gency of the case was met by opening up new lines of road all over the 
country, with the double object of giving temporary employment, and also 

H 4 



140 NEWFOUNDLAND. HBT-SBP 1 

of inducing the people, if possible, to try farming as a substitute for, or an 
auxiliary to, the fishery. Thus, early in the autumn, the fishing skiffs 
were deserted, and thousands laid aside hook and line to take to the pick 
and shovel. Through means of this road work, family men were enabled 
to earn from 6 to 8, according to numbers ; the Government wisely 
providing that half that amount should be paid as soon as the work was 
completed, and the remaining half in January. The bare necessaries of 
life were in this manner obtainable, and it is hoped that if the winter does 
not prove excessively severe, the greater part of our people may be tided 
over the trying time. 

" In consequence of the scarcity of money among our fishermen, 
Church affairs drag on heavily. It is found difficult to raise means to go 
on with uncompleted buildings, or to meet the running expenses of those 
already finished. Offertory collections consist mostly of cents or half 
pence, silver pieces being few and far between. It is frequently distress 
ing for a clergyman to take contributions from some of his poor 
parishioners, knowing that the dollar, although cheerfully given, is taken 
from the scanty little stock of money which is the only stand-by against a 
long winter, and perhaps the last earnings for the season. 

" Very little more has been done to our new Church at Pouch Cove 
since its consecration last year. We managed to give the outside one coat 
of paint to protect the clopboard against the sun, which in summer would 
quickly damage the building. At the same time we re -tarred the roof, 
some twenty men voluntarily doing both the tarring and painting in a 
day. We have also managed to pay the interest upon the loan from the 
Union Bank, Newfoundland, Limited, and a little towards the principal, 
which now stands at about 80. Many a time we look at the rough 
framework of the tower over the west end of the Church, and sigh for the 
good voyages once more. The Church, as it should be, is the largest and 
finest place of worship in the Cove (there being also a Koman Catholic 
Chapel and Methodist Meeting-house), and if the tower were completed, 
would present an imposing appearance. 

i " In no place in the Mission is there a better attendance at Divine 
Service than at Pouch Cove. Even at a week-day evening service, when 
not in the fishing season, a congregation of at least fifty or sixty can be 
got together at the shortest notice. The number of Communicants has 
steadily increased, and has nearly doubled within the last five years." 

Describing the various stations, Mr. Netten says of 
Petty Harbour : 

" It has a very nice church, well kept, with a good bell. The Church 
is now too large for the settlement, as several families, attracted by the 
hope of obtaining more regular work in the bad times, have moved away 
to St. John s. This is purely a fishing village, and, from the rocky nature 
of the country surrounding it, has nothing but the fishery to rely upon. 
The inhabitants, formerly living in independence and comfort, are now 
much reduced in their circumstances. An invasion was attempted upon 



Mission Field,-] 
May 2, 1837. J 



CHANNEL. 



141 



the settlement by the Salvation Army, but our people showed their good 
sense and good churchmanship by having nothing at all to do with them, 
which put an end to the invasion. Petty Harbour has always a large 
number of communicants, who attend regularly the Holy Eucharist." 

Channel is the name of the Rev. T. P. Quintin s Mission. 
He mentions the visit of the Bishop, when large numbers 
were confirmed. Such bands of candidates from the fishing 
villages must be evidences of real life in these scattered out 
posts of the Church. 

" In the early part of July I visited the various settlements in the 
eastern portion of the Mission, having been at some of them twice before 




CIIAXXEL cnuncir. 

the 21st of that month. On that day I started off on a tour through the 
western portion, reaching Codroy on the evening of the 22nd, thereby 
allowing myself ample time for a few last words to the candidates for 
confirmation. His lordship the Bishop arrived there on the 29th, when 
some twenty-nine of these were presented. On the following day we 
started in the Church ship for Channel. Owing to boisterous weather 
and head wind we were unable to carry out our intention of landing at 
Cape Kay, where the people were waiting to receive us. We reached 
Channel in safety about 2 P.M. on Friday, the 30th. There his lordship 
remained till the following Tuesday morning. In addition to the ordinary 
services, a Confirmation service was held on the Sunday afternoon, when 
eighty -four candidates from Channel and the neighbouring settlements 
were presented and confirmed. On the Tuesday morning we started for 



142 NEWFOUNDLAND. PS???, 



Field, 



Seal Cove, at the eastern extremity of the Mission, where nineteen more 
received the laying on of hands. After this a cemetery was consecrated, 
thus finishing his lordship s episcopal duties in my Mission. On the 
same afternoon I returned to Channel, leaving the Bishop to pursue his- 
way through the Rose Blanche Mission." 

Frost is appreciated in Newfoundland for several reasons. 
One of them is given by the Eev. W. A. Haynes in an 
interesting account of the herring industry as it affects his 
flock. 

" Last winter was one of the mildest ever known in Newfoundland 
so mild, indeed, that the people of Fortune Bay hardly had frost enough to 
freeze their herring. For the last twenty years American and Nova Scotian 
vessels come in this bay and buy from our people herring which has 
been frozen hard. They usually take from 600 to 1,000 barrels per vessel, 
or, I might say that each vessel carries away from 360,000 to 600,000 
herring, and there are generally from twenty to thirty vessels. In fact, these 
foreigners leave in the Bay among our poor people from 20,000 to 25,000 
dollars annually, either in money or goods. This will give you some idea 
of the great number of herring carried annually out of Fortune Bay, and 
that within a period of two months. It is a great boon to our poor 
fishermen who catch these fish, as the American and Nova Scotian vessels 
bring goods and provisions, which they sell at a much cheaper rate than 
our traders, and they also bring much better articles. From this you will 
be able to gather what a boon the frost is to the fisherman of Fortune 
Bay. In fact, if he can make a good beginning at this time of the year r 
I may say he is provided for for the rest of the year. Last spring, also r 
was unusually mild and fine. The people last spring did rather better 
than usual, owing to so many French vessels coming in the Bay to buy 
herring for bait. But the failure in the catch of cod-fish, and the very 
low price given, counteracted the good effects of the preceding winter 
and spring s herring fishery, and, consequently, the people are now in very 
indigent circumstances. I have many poor in my Mission, but there is 
not that destitution so prevalent in other parts of Newfoundland. Owing; 
to this state of things the collections have not at all increased." 

The labours of the Kev. E. Temple at Twillingate are now 
shared by a curate, the Kev. A. Pittman, it being found 
impossible for the Mission to be worked by one clergyman. 

At Carbonear the Eev. John Goddard, among other notes 
of his work, mentions that his Christmas Communicants were 
one hundred and three, as against sixty-five in the previous year. 

Another clergyman who has now the benefit of a curate s 
assistance is the Eev Jas. C. Harvey, of Port de Grave, who, 
in his seventy-third year, needed such help in the care of his 



THE LABRADOR. 143 

large flock. Mr. Harvey had an unfortunate accident to his 
left hand, which has been followed by blood-poisoning. He 
has been able to continue to discharge his duties as Rural 
Dean, and there seems ground for hoping that the dangers 
which were feared need be no longer apprehended. 

Outside the island, but within the Diocese of Newfoundland, 
the Eev. W. S. Rafter is working at Battle Harbour, Labrador. 
We must print the greater part of his interesting account of 
his work. 

" One cannot send a report every quarter from this part of the world, 
for all communication by sea is shut off from November until June or 
July. I did not know this when I sent rny last report but have since dis 
covered it, and as that contained something about my journeys during the 
summer and fall, I purpose in this to give an account of my first winter 
and spring on Labrador. 

" Soon after the last schooner left Battle Harbour we experieiiced some 
cold weather, and daily the thermometer showed it was getting colder, 
and one morning it registered one degree below zero. I noticed then that 
the sea had the appearance of boiling water ; it was quite calm, but at the 
same time clouds of what looked like steam rose from its dark blue surface. 
I went a short distance in a boat and found it exceedingly cold ; if any 
water splashed on the boat it was frozen directly, and before long I noticed 
the moisture of our breath was frozen to the side of our fur caps, which we 
had pulled down over our ears. The next day we heard that the slawb 
was making, and soon found that the water in the harbour was getting 
covered with numerous round pieces of ice about the size of dinner plates. 
It was very hard to get a boat through this, but we succeeded in crossing 
the harbour on a visit to a sick man. The next day we could walk over on 
the ice, though it was dangerous ; there were many soft places, and I had 
the misfortune of falling through. My skin boots got full of water, and 
before I could reach my house the water was frozen, and I had some 
difficulty in getting my boots off. 

" At this time of the year the men were busy about their seal nets, 
but it was a poor time for seals, and they caught but few, though the nets 
were often torn by sharks, some of which they captured ; they were very 
large and not of much use. Their liver is melted down into shark s oil ; 
the rest is either thrown into the sea or left for the teams of hungry 
dogs. They take the skin off the seal, an operation they denominate 
sculping ; the carcass is given to the dogs and pigs, though some people 
eat the flippers. The skin is then hung up to dry on a frame, and then is 
made into harness for the dogs and boots for the people. 

" On New Year s Day the ice was firm enough to go anywhere, so I 
started on my first journey, or cruise as they call it here. It was a very 
cold but fine morning ; the sun was not up when I walked over to Trap 
Cove and got a lad there to put his dogs to the cart or comatic, to take me 



SJ 8 ay d ] COMATIC TRAVELLING. 145 

twenty miles to the Lodge. It was daylight by the time he had caught 
the dogs and got them all ready. The comatic was made of wood, with 
iron shoes ; we had fourteen dogs all in good spirits, and we went over the 
snow and ice as fast as the dogs could run. And down hill we went faster, 
and then the dogs had to look out or we would run over them. When 
we had gone four miles we broke the shoes of our comatic against a rock, 
so we had to borrow another ; this had whalebone shoes, which are here 
regarded as better. In a short time we were at our journey s end, and I 
found myself in a thickly- wooded bay. In these woods the log huts 
stand, and here the people live. 

" I was soon in one of these houses. It was very warm, being heated 
by a large square stove. The -good people instantly prepared tea for me, 
and after this meal I went round visiting with the schoolmaster, a Mr. 
Lee Whiting. In my conversation with the men I learnt that they come 
into the bay in the winter because it is warmer, being sheltered from the 
wind by trees, and plenty of wood is at hand. The bay has many other 
advantages, viz., here they obtain wood for building their fish flakes and 
stages, stores, and houses. And here they obtain plenty of fresh, for the 
bays teem with rabbits, spruce partridges, porcupines, beavers, owls, and 
the boys obtain fine trout by making a hole in the ice over the brook. 
Occasionally they shoot a few deer, and then there is great feasting. I 
spent Twelfth night in the Bay the day was kept as they keep 
Christmas Day : the people took a holiday, wore their Sunday clothes, 
and joy-guns were fired. 

" In the evening I held Divine service, and after service the young 
folks sang hymns and played the accordeon, and the old men told yarns. 

" Soon after I returned to Battle Harbour, and then went 011 my cruise 
north. I went beyond my Mission, 134 miles from Battle Harbour, in the 
hopes of meeting the Eev. F. Colley. But I was disappointed he was then 
near Kigolet, so I returned home. It was a long journey and sometimes 
very cold, twenty-eight degrees below zero. Most of the journey was done 
with comatic and dogs. The comatic is often fifteen and twenty feet long. 
Each dog has a harness and a trace ; the trace sometimes is thirty feet 
long. One is greatly exposed to the cold on these comatics, and several 
accidents have occurred. 

" Being a tyro in the art of comatic driving, last winter I had many 
narrow escapes. But I am thankful to say I was able to perform all the 
duties of a deacon, holding services wherever I could obtain a congrega 
tion, even if it was only two men in a little log hut. I baptised many 
infants and had a few marriages. I held classes for the children when 
ever I had time, and gave away the few tracts and books which were sent 
to me the people were so glad to get them." 

Such, in spite of the Missionaries fears that there will be 
a monotony and sameness in their reports, is the variety and 
life of the work of the Newfoundland clergy. We cannot 
quote from all, but we may mention that we have also received 
reports from the Rev. C. Wood, of Fogo, the Rev. G. H. Bishop, 
of Hermitage Bay, and the Rev. E. L. Colley, of Topsail. 





SPEECH BY THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 
AT THE BOURNEMOUTH MEETING OF 
THE SOCIETY ON MARCH 31st. 

I 

[BOUT three hundred and fifty years ago the Church 

of England threw off the power of the Bishop of 
Borne, and established what was thought to be a 
freedom of faith and religion. The reformers of that day 
said they had returned as near as they possibly could to the 
state of religion which prevailed in the earliest ages of the 
Christian Church. In most respects I think they said what 
was true ; but there was one point in which the reformation, or 
at least the restoration to the primitive faith and practices, was 
defective, and that was this : the primitive Church was essen 
tially a missionary Church. Almost all its life and actions 
were missionary in spirit. For the first part of the three 
hundred and fifty years since the Beformation, for nearly the 
first half, there was no missionary life in the Church of Eng 
land. England was active enough in her conquests, in making 
slaves where she conquered, but she made no conquests for 
Christ, and was not found freeing the nations from the slavery 
of error. That was a very heavy indictment to bring against 
the history of our National Church and religion. It was not 
until 1701 that their National Church sent out missionaries 
to the heathen, and then it was that the S. P. G. was estab 
lished. If nothing more could be said for the Society than 
that fact, I think it is sufficient to commend it to the sup 
port of all Christians. The original idea was to send out 
missionaries to those of our countrymen who were emigrating 
to distant colonies, and for some years the income of the 
Society did not exceed 1,500, and it was only in late years 



d ] THE QUEEN S MOHAMMEDAN SUBJECTS. 147 

that it reached anything like a deserving sum. The intention 
of the founders of the Society was that not only should it 
provide for the spiritual wants of our own countrymen abroad, 
but that its operations should be extended to the heathen 
world. It has done a marvellous work on the Continent. The 
great American Church with its large number of bishops and 
dioceses, and the work it is doing in civilisation and Chris 
tianity, owes its very existence to the work of the S. P. G. 
To whatever place our countrymen went this Society ex 
tended its work, built Churches and Schools, and sent mission 
aries so that our brethren should not be without the means of 
grace. And then again as regards the heathen world. It 
is sometimes said in reproach to this Society that . it is not 
so much a missionary society to the heathen as some of the 
other societies. God forbid that I should say anything in 
derogation of any other society ; I am speaking this afternoon 
about the one society, and I maintain that it is a great mis 
sionary society to the heathen. Our own Queen, as Empress of 
India, has the largest Mohammedan empire in the world, and 
can be said to rule over the greatest heathen population on 
the face of the earth. All these facts show the vastness of 
the field which is open to the S. P. G. Some people say 
that the success of missionary effort in the present century 
is small, and that we have made very little progress in the 
Indian empire, for instance. It must be remembered that we 
are dealing with very acute intellects, and with a people wha 
have a very great philosophic knowledge and spirit ; but I 
think that if we consider the amount of means used we must 
admit that the amount of success is very great. Think of the 
handful of men sent out to the vast empire of India, and do- 
not expect a rich harvest before they are enabled to turn 
over the sods of the field, and before they have hardly sown 
the seeds. There is a great deal of ground in preparation, 
and if Christianity has not yet made much progress, heathenism 
is at all events rapidly giving way. The heathenism of the 
Hindoos is giving way : cultivated and intelligent Hindoos- 
are losing their own faith, and are ready for the sowing of 
the faith of Jesus Christ. The question is : shall we at 



148 SPEECH BY THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. [ M May 

home help in this work, or shall we withhold our hands ? 
"When the Society was first formed the income was, as I said, 
about 1,500 per annum; but what was it at the present 
time ? I find that last year the income of the Society was 
75,764, but I regret to say that it has fallen off to the extent 
of 2,300 from the previous year s income. There is one 
point I would like to mention I knew it pretty well as a fact 
before I came to the present meeting, but it has been men 
tioned since I have been in the hall : almost all the funds 
of the Society are derived from the clergy and the poor. Is 
not that a very grave sin ? There is no doubt that the 
clergy give largely, and that the poor give according to their 
means. This nation is the wealthiest in the world. A vast 
amount of that wealth is owned by the gentry and middle 
classes, and yet they leave the poor and the poor clergy to con 
tribute most to the great missionary societies. Is it not a 
scandal ? Might I say Does it not call for a judgment ? I 
said something about the primitive Church being a missionary 
Church. I believe a Church which is not a missionary Church 
can hardly be called a Church at all. We are bound by our 
Saviour s command to become missionaries in our Church, 
quite as much as we were bound to be a praying Church and 
praying individuals. In Bournemouth we have grand Churches. 
There were few towns in England I think with nobler Churches 
than those built in Bournemouth during the last twenty years. 
That shows that we wish to be a praying Church, but do we in 
any adequate degree obey also the Lord s command to preach 
the Gospel ? If not, we are disobeying God s will as much as 
by neglecting prayer. I ask you, therefore, to aid in every 
possible way, by prayers, alms, and influence, the missionary 
work of the Church. The individual soul as much as the 
Church can never be healthy where there is not this missionary 
spirit. Particularly I ask you to support the S. P. G. because 
it was the first society to wipe out the foul stain on England, 
and the English Church and religion, that there was no mis 
sionary spirit in it, and because against all difficulties and 
opposition it has steadily gone on doing a work for good, and 
striving to spread the Gospel of Christ. 




JAPAN. 

REPORT, DATED FEBRUARY 23, FROM THE REV. A. LLOYD THE 
TEACHING MISSION IMPORTANT CONVERSIONS. 

|T is fully three months since I last wrote to the 
Society with reference to my work, and I purpose 
therefore to commence to-day writing a fresh 
report, which may, however, take some time in composing, as 
I can do it only in the intervals between my classes. 

I must begin by thanking the Society for its kindness in 
sending out two more teachers. Messrs. Fenton and Fardel 
have not yet arrived, but we are eagerly expecting their arrival. 

I am glad to be able to say that Fenton is already provided 
for. Chappell has been teaching for some time at the Tokyo 
Municipal School, and, I am glad to say, has given such satis 
faction that not only have they raised his salary, but at his 
recommendation they have already engaged Fenton as an 
additional teacher. Besides (again through Chappell s recom 
mendation) he has the promise of work at an evening School. 
So we can start Fenton on $80 per month 160 per annum. 

For Mr. Fardel I have yet secured nothing definite, But I 
am not troubled about him. My fear just now is that I shall 
not be able to take up all the opportunities I shall have for work. 

In the meantime I have had several applications to find 
teachers for Schools in the country. In one case especially I 
have been asked to find a married missionary to whom the 
local Government would pay about 400 per annum. About 
this place I have written to a friend of mine in England who 
might perhaps come out at his own charges. 

For another School in the country I have telegraphed to 
another friend * who might perhaps come out to take it. 

Both these men are University men, well suited for the 

* He lias telegraphed to say he is coming. His name is Hinton an Oxford 
man. 



1 Kfi TATH-VT pfiss:on Field, 

10U JAPAN. L May 2, 1837. 

work, and though not in Holy Orders would work into our 
system . 

You will, doubtless, have heard from Bishop Bickersteth 
and from Shaw of the wonderful openings for women s work 
and female education which they have had. 

I am morally convinced that at the present moment, if we 
can rise to the occasion, we have the moulding of the nation s 
education in our hands. The demand for English teachers 
is spreading to the provinces, and the next two or three years 
will see teachers appointed to all the principal cities in the 
Empire. 

We are extremely thankful for what we have got by way 
of support, but you will not need to be told that work begets 
w r ork, and you will not be surprised to hear that it is our 
deliberate intention to get overworked again, and then to 
cry for more help ! 

Through the kindness of Mr. Fukuzawa, we are going to 
open, in connection with the Jiji Shimpo newspaper, a 
registry-office for teachers. The editor of the Jiji Shimpo is 
to find the situations, and I am to provide the teachers. 

Now I am going to ask the S.P.G. to keep a list of men and 
women who would be ready to come to Japan at a moment s 
notice to take up the positions as they come in. I think 
that there probably are a great many people who, without 
being actually suited for direct missionary work, and having 
no vocation for the sacred ministry, would still be willing to 
come as Church teachers, and join a " brotherhood of the 
Christian Schools " in Japan. Probably many of these would 
be willing to pay for their own passage. 

Now for the kind of men wanted. For the country, 
married, without encumbrances, is the best condition. 
There are too many temptations for the single man, and 
there is great demand for woman s work. 

A good knowledge of English, and power of imparting 
knowledge, is indispensable. 

Also, we w r ant clear and distinct Churchmen, who can 
direct and advise the Christians around them. 

Since I last wrote, one or two notable things have 



Misaion Field, "I TATHXT 

May 2, 1887. J JAPAN. 

occurred in connection with my work. At the Keiogijiku, five 
masters have been baptized. We have now seven Christians 
in the teaching staff. In the new house which is being built 
for me I shall have a chapel, and, being on the spot, hope to 
be able, by God s help, to consolidate and build up the work. 
Chappell s Sunday School continues ; my Sunday lectures are 
fairly well attended, and I am glad to say that an English 
lady in the Shiba congregation is now going to open a Bible 
class among the students. 

At Meguro I have twelve catechumens (all children) whom 
I hope to baptize soon after Easter. 

One of my old pupils, named Fujizama, whom I baptized 
last July, has become a master in a School at Nirayama, in 
the province of Idzu. Since he has been there, he has been 
the means of bringing two persons, one a scholar, the other 
a colleague, to a knowledge of Christ. I have sent him some 
books, and am going to Nirayama to administer baptism in 
April, if I am spared. This case has very much rejoiced 
my heart. 

At Kyobashi, very little has been done. I am afraid it 
is a little crowded out. However, I am arranging for the 
celebrations during the time that must elapse before another 
priest joins us. Mrs. Gardner, of the American Mission, is 
giving English instruction, and Chappell is organist and 
Sunday school teacher. 

Mr. Hopper has left us, but all his teaching work has been 
provided for by Mr. Holmes, his cousin, who joined us this 
month. I think you saw him when he was in London. 
It is extremely pleasant to be able to talk over old Cambridge 
scenes again. It half makes us forget the land of our exile ! 

You will have heard from other sources of the very successful 
Conference at Osaka. I was not present, being obliged to 
attend my Schools at Tokyo. 

I think I have given you much to rejoice at. Truly, when 
I think of the wonderful opportunities and openings before us 
here, I am afraid lest, like the Franciscans and Jesuits of old, 
we lose our opportunities in this land, and by being over elated 
with our seeming success, have the door shut in our faces, and 
the opportunity taken away. 




HONOLULU. 

BY MISS C. F. GORDON-GUMMING. 
(Continued from page 124.) 

,T the same time is it not wonderful to think of the existence 
of all this commerce and civilisation when you consider 
that Honolulu was not even discovered till the end of 
1794, i.e. fifteen years after the murder of Captain Cook, 
when Captain Brown entered the harbour in the schooner 
Jackal. He was well known in the group, and had always found the 
natives friendly. But V occasion fait le larron * in all lands, and when, 
on New Year s Day, 1795, nearly all the crew, both of the Jackal and her 
companion ship, had gone ashore, the natives flocked off to the vessels, 
crowded on board, murdered both commanders, seized the ships, and took 
them into Waikiki Bay. 

" When the men ashore found out what was going on, they followed in 
their boats, and by a vigorous attack regained possession of both ships and 
straightway sailed for China. 

" Waikiki is to Honolulu as Brighton is to London. Though only 
distant three or four miles, some people, especially Eoyalties, have a 
town and seaside house. 

" This being Saturday and market day, some friends drove rne to the 
market, where the people mustered pretty strong. Of course a weekly 
market is a general rendezvous, and there was a fair sprinkling of all the 
nationalities, and much chaffing and laughing and buying and selling. 
Both men and women were adorned with fresh leis round hat and neck, 
and both wear narrow-brimmed low-crowned hats unbecomingly small, 
I think, for such large people with such masses of black hair. They also 
wear bright-coloured handkerchiefs loosely knotted round the throat, but 
I saw none of the gay riding-dresses which were in favour some years ago, 
and I greatly fear that they must be given up. 

" But they all look good-natured and carelessly happy, as if life s 
troubles were not worth a thought, and the Babel of voices ripples 
musically. Never a touch of Billingsgate though we were in the fish- 
market, the chief feature of which is the large proportion of Devil-fish, 
which seem in great favour here. I got well accustomed to the sight of 
these horrid creatures in Japan, where they are also a favourite article of 
diet. Here they are in all forms, and ages, and varieties. Large 
octopuses, freshly cut up in sections all ready for a dish small ones still 
alive, twining their snake-like arms as if vainly feeling for the free waters 

* Opportunity makes the thief. 



Mission Field,"! TT/-\v/~kT T-T T* 1 KQ 

Mays, 1887. J iO]S OLL LL . 15d 

where they floated so merrily and neat little cuttle-fish by the dozen. 
Some are dried whole for inland carriage, and others are salted and sold 
as squid. 

" Of other fish there was a fair variety, gay as compared with those of 
the Atlantic, but very pale as compared with those of the South Pacific. I 
missed the gorgeous scarlet, and cobalt, and emerald green of the Tahiti 
fishes. But these are beautiful nevertheless silvery, and striped, and 
spotted ; and the Hawaiians enjoy crunching up a raw fish just as 
much as do the Tahitians, and are equally unable to see that it is worse 
than swallowing raw oysters. 

" In the market we saw piles of sea-urchins of various sorts limpets, 
oysters, turtles, crabs, cray fish, and various kinds of sea-weed cooked and 
raw. 

"The fruit market appeared to be fairly supplied chiefly with large 
juicy water-melons, bananas, cocoa-nuts, Abercarder pears, large green 
oranges with very oily skins, which blister the lips of the unwary, figs, and 
very indifferent pine-apples. The most tempting vegetables were those 
brought by the Chinamen. You, as a good housekeeper, always take an 
interest in the market prices, so I may tell you that I find milk is 10 cents, 
per quart (about 5d.), eggs 75 cents, per dozen, butter 60 cents, per lb., 
while fish and meat average 10 cents, per lb. Fish, as a rule, is rather 
dearer than meat. Vegetables and fruit are by no means abundant, and, 
consequently, are rather high-priced 

" This morning the steamer stopped for some time at Eawaihai, a 
dreary-looking settlement on a most barren, desolate coast of harsh, 
uncompromising lava no foliage save a few long-suffering and very 
thirsty-looking cocoa-palms no streams --only a scorching shore, and 
bare, red, volcanic hills, looking like well-baked bricks all the redder 
because of the burning sun which blazed so piteously on land and sea. 

" From this point we obtained what I suppose I must call a fine 
view of the three great volcanoes, so grouped as to form a triplet of 
domes, though, in truth, the use of the word domes will surely mislead 
you, if you allow yourself to think of an architectural dome, or such 
domes as those granite domes in California. These are literally much 
more like the jelly-fish you see lying on the shore. 

"Although their respective heights are: Mauna Kea, 18,950 feet; 
Mauna Loa, 13,760 feet; Mauna Hualalei, 8,500 feet, yet they spring 
from so vast a base, and ascend at slopes so gradual, as effectually to 
deceive the eye. Certainly, Mauna Loa, which appears in the centre of 
the group, is distant forty miles, and Hualalei about thirty miles, but the 
atmosphere is so bright and clear that you cannot believe in their distance 
any more than in their height. I have to school myself to admit that the 
subject is grand, for a more unlovable scene than that presented by these 
three dull curves I never beheld. 

" It has, however, one point of exceeding interest, archeologically 
namely, an ancient Heiau, or old heathen temple, still standing on a little 
hill close to the native village. How it came to escape the destruction which 
befell almost all the temples of Hawaii on the downfall of idolatry does 



154 



HONOLULU. 



TMission Field, 
L Muy 2, 1887. 



not appear, but its survival is fortunate, as it is a visible reminder of a 
very recent past, of which scarcely a trace now remains. 

"Throughout Hawaii Nei there were vast platforms built of very 
large stones, laid in terraces, and combining the purposes of temple and 
of tomb. They exactly answered to the rnaraes* common to those groups 
lying to the southward. The majority of these have disappeared, but 
Ellis and other travellers described many which they saw fifty years 
ago. 

" Mr. Ellis gives a minute description of the heiau at Kawaihai, 
which was built by Kamehameha, the great Conqueror, as a special 
offering to Tairi, his war-god, ere he started to invade and conquer the 
island of Oahu. He gives the measurement of the stone platform as 





KKALAKEKUA BAY, HONOLULU. 

224 feet long and 100 feet wide. It was enclosed by walls 20 feet high 
and 12 feet wide at the base, but gradually narrowing towards the top. 

" In this inner court stood the hideous wooden idols, with their feather 
coverings, and the altars, on which were offered hogs, dogs, and human 
victims. Near them stood a frame of wicker-work, in the form of an 
obelisk, within which the priest stood whenever the king or chiefs came 
to consult the oracle on affairs of importance. Of course he took care to 
return ambiguous answers to all their questions. 

"AVhen war was in prospect, then diviners were called upon to 
sacrifice victims, and to reveal the future from signs in the moment of 
death, and the appearance of the entrails. For ordinary occasions the 
blood of pigs or of fowls sufficed, and sometimes the diviners were content 

* For maraes of the Friendly and Society Isles see " A Lady s Cruise in a Frencli Man of 
War." C. F. Gordon-Gumming. Yol. I., p. 25 ; Yol. II., p. 238. 



^rJS d ] HONOLULU. 155 

to draw their auguries from simple natural phenomena, such as the 
appearance of rainbows, clouds passing over the sun, thunder-storms, 
or the flight of birds. 

" But if danger was imminent, human sacrifices were demanded. 
These were either selected from among prisoners of war, or persons who 
had broken the laws of tabu. A messenger was sent to dispatch them 
with a club or a stone, and their bodies were not injured more than could 
possibly be avoided. They were then carried to the temple, stripped, and 
laid on their faces before the altar in the outer court. 

" As many as twenty victims were occasionally offered at one time, 
the priest presenting them to the war-god in a set form of words. If 
hogs were offered at the same time, they were piled upon the human 
bodies at right angles, and the horrible holocaust was then left to putrefy. 

" Whenever Mr. Ellis travelled through the isles, he was struck by 
the numerous heiaus, many of which were still in perfect preservation, 
only the idols having been removed; while the ground was still strewn 
with bones of the victims which had been offered up to within four years 
of his arrival. 

" He visited one at Ruapua, which measured 150 by 70 feet, and was 
built of immense blocks of lava. Nearer the sea he found smaller temples 
dedicated to Kuura and Hina, the god and goddess specially worshipped 
by the fisherfolk of Hawaii. A little further he came to the heiau of 
Pakiha, measuring 270 feet by 210, which had been built eleven genera-, 
tions previously, in the time of Queen Keakeauni. Others were pointed 
out to him, half hidden by pleasant clumps of trees ; and then he came to 
one, 200 feet square, enclosing a clear pool of brackish water, which was 
the favourite bathing-place of the great king, who reserved it for his 
own use. 

" Here and there he came 011 traces of the poor deposed gods. One 
day, walking on the sea-beach, he passed a large idol lying prostrate on 
the rocks, and washed by the waves. It was a hideous carving, and he 
asked its former votary how he could have worshipped such an object. 
Kamakau replied that it was from dread of the evil that it might do to 
his trees, but that as he found it could do neither good nor harm, he had 
thrown it away. ..... 

" That the doom of extinction does overshadow the Hawaiian race, 
does, alas ! appear only too probable, for, as you pass from isle to isle, you 
everywhere hear the same sad story of a population dwindling away. 
Valleys which, a few years ago, counted 4,000 inhabitants, have now 400 ; 
those which had 2,000, can barely muster 200. 

" Ever since the Isles have been known, this distressing fact has been 
only too apparent, and each census proves that the race is swiftly and 
surely fading from the earth. By Captain Cook s estimate, made just a 
century ago, the population of the Isles was reckoned at 400,000. It was 
long supposed that this was utterly erroneous, being based on the crowds 
assembled to see the strangers. It was also supposed that early travellers, 
who spoke of the traces of old villages and lands once cultivated but then 
abandoned, made no allowances for the nomadic habits of the people. 



156 HONOLULU. PSStS?- 

" But later experience has gone to support the probability that the 
original computation may, after all, not have been greatly in excess. 
Everything goes to show that depopulation was never so rapid as in the 
reign of the great Kamehameha and his successor that is to say, the 
forty years after Captain Cook s visit. 

" The first Missionaries, arriving in 1820, estimated the population of 
the group at 140,000. But even then the Hawaiians themselves assured 
them that the population had diminished three-fourths within the previous 
forty years, owing to their sanguinary inter-insular wars, the increase of 
infanticide, and of numerous diseases. 

" In 1832 it was reckoned at 130,000 ; in 1836 it was 108,000. The 
census taken in 1850 gives 84,000, and in that year the number of deaths 
was proved to be 2,900 in excess of the births. 

" In 1867-68-69 the decrease was regular a thousand per annum. 
In 1872 the total number of natives was 49,044, and of half-castes 2,487. 
In 1878 the general census gave a return of 57,985, of which only 44,088 
are of pure Hawaiian blood. 

" Thus it is evident that unless some almost miraculous change 
occurs speedily, the pure race of Hawaiis must become extinct within 
half a century. Happily the mixed race, included under the general head 
of half-castes, possesses considerable vitality, and is steadily increasing. 
The statistics of the Board of Education show that 13 per cent, of the 
children attending the Government schools are half-caste. Nevertheless, 
this increase is a mere trifle compared with the steady decrease of the 
old stock, and it is clear that if the desolate lands of Hawaii are to be 
reclaimed, and her isles saved from depopulation, it must be by the 
infusion of new life from other lands. 

" One of the chief objects King Kalakana had in view during his 
recent travels was that of encouraging desirable settlers to come to 
Hawaii, and there establish sugar plantations and other industries, 
hoping thus, by the importation of steady and respectable men of diverse 
races, in some measure to counteract the grievous but unmistakable 
fact that the original inhabitants of the soil are fading from the earth, 
like snow in sunshine. It seems the more sad that this fine people 
should die out just when strangers are proving the capability of the soil 
to support so much larger a population than it has heretofore done." 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

f j iHE following account has been received from the Bev. 
I G. A. Lefroy of a Ladies Durbar held in Delhi in 
connection with the Queen s Jubilee in India : 

" We have been full of the Jubilee lately. We had a week of it, and 
being on the Municipal Committee meant for that time having a good 
-deal to do. My great triumph was the Ladies 1 Durbar the first in the 

Punjab. It arose from a remark of Mr. K to me, who said laughingly, 

when the pupils of Delhi were entrusted to me to be feted, Will you 



fw? ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 157 

include the girls ? It seemed to me at "once most appropriate, so I pro 
posed in a Sub-Committee to get them into the Durbar Hall under purdah. 
It was all that I could do to get leave to make my proposal in full Com 
mittee, predicting certain failure. The Committee took much the same 
view, and assured me that no one would come, but said that I might try 
if I liked. 

" Accordingly I got Miss Boyd (S.P.G.) and Miss Thorn (Baptist), with 
a Committee of Station ladies, to work, drawing up a programme, issuing 
invitations, &c. The worst of it was that till the last we could not tell 
whether the native ladies would really come or not. 

" However, I prepared the hall, whitewashed all the lower panes of 
glass, draped the doorways, and then, at the appointed time, turned every 
man out of the whole building, and made it over to the ladies, who 
appointed eight Christian women as doorkeepers. I then closed the 
garden gates, surrounded the building with police, and commenced 
patrolling myself on my pony. It was very amusing to find out after 
wards that from many of the houses servants had been sent to 
ascertain how far we were doing the thing thoroughly and making 
adequate arrangements for purdah, and it was only when reassured oil 
this point that they ventured forth. Anyhow, so it was that they began 
to drop in slowly at first, and then in a fast swelling stream, till 
there were over 600 present, including most of the best families 
in Delhi. 

" For their entertainment we had a varied programme magic lantern, 
musical boxes, singing, &c., but it was rather ludicrous to hear afterwards 
what after all had proved the greatest attraction. 

" We provided also a little silver pendant, with V.I. and the date in 
Urdu, of which we gave away 350 ; and the smaller girls got a little brass 
plate with a suitable inscription. 

" They signed an address to the Queen from The First Ladies Durbar 
in the Punjab, and Lady Dufferin has promised to forward it direct. 

" Altogether it was a great success, and the Mission ladies seem to 
think that it will be a real help to them in their work, and give a stimulus 
to the whole cause of female education." 



DEATH has removed many honoured Churchmen lately, 
and few have passed to their rest with a record of 
better work done than Bishop Titcomb. The Eight Eev. 
Jonathan Holt Titcomb, D.D., of St. Peter s College, Cam 
bridge, was ordained in 1862, and after holding some important 
positions in England was consecrated the first Bishop of 
Eangoon in 1877. His serious accident in February, 1881, 
interrupted the work he had so well begun in Burmah, and 
necessitated his resignation in the following year. He regained 
strength in England, and in 1884 was appointed the first Co- 



158 NOTES OF THE MONTH. HEftS?* 

adjutor Bishop for Northern and Central Europe. Into this 
work he threw himself with vigour, and did things that would 
have taxed the strength of far younger men. The lengthy 
successive journeys to different parts of Europe soon reproduced 
his old illness. His work in Europe was, therefore, not of long- 
duration, for he had to resign it. Its effects, however, were 
very marked in the new life and heart he put into the eighty 
chaplains and their chaplaincies. The Bishop died on April 2. 



ARCHDEACON HARBISON S death removes one of the 
oldest members of the Society. He was incorporated 
in the year 1829. In the year 1837 the Standing Committee 
was enlarged and put on a more permanent footing, and in 
the next year Mr. Harrison was elected a member of it. In 
1846 he became a Vice-President, and (with the exception of 
Mr. Gladstone, who was elected at the same time) he was by 
far the senior Vice-President of the Society. When we reflect 
what the last fifty-eight years have been in the history of the 
Society, it reminds us that it is no small thing to part with 
one who for that length of time has been associated with its 
government, and a friend to its cause. 

BY the death of the Right Rev. Alfred Lee, D.D., the 
Diocese of Delaware loses its first Bishop, and the 
Church of the United States its Presiding Bishop. Bishop 
Lee was consecrated in 1841. 

A NOTHER of the oldest members of the Standing Com- 
r\ mittee has been taken from us. William Trotter, 
Esq., of Epsom, was most regular in attending the meetings- 
of the Committee and of the Board. He was devoted to its 
interests, and desired not to be absent from its councils, though 
increasing years kept him from taking part in many things 
to which he had given time and thought in early life. 



ALL Saints Church, Rome, was opened on Easter Day. 
The Bishop of Gibraltar preached in the morning, and 
the Bishop of Carlisle in the afternoon. There were three 
celebrations, at which about six hundred people communicated. 



SytSf ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 159 

The Church looked well, and its acoustic properties proved 
excellent. To many English Churchmen this event is the 
satisfaction of a strong though long-deferred hope. It only 
remains now to clear off the debt of nearly 3,000, which the 
Chaplain, Canon Wasse, has generously borne, to terminate 
the delay, so that the Church may be solemnly dedicated. 

ST. JOHN S CHUKCH, Mentone, has suffered in the 
recent earthquake. Canon Sidebotham reports as 
follows about it and the parsonage : 

" The Church is, I hope, not seriously injured as regards the main 
fabric, but the tower is split and has to come down ; the porch is broken 
in, tw r o pillars cracked, and a good many minor damages, which will, I 
fear, mount up to a good sum. The parsonage is uninhabitable. We had 
a narrow escape of our lives, as large pieces of cornice and stones from 
the top of the wall fell close to where our heads had been a few minutes 
before we escaped from our bedroom. We had to camp out three nights, 
and then found shelter in the House of Best until we got into this house 
(Pavilion Adeline). Thank God no lives were lost in this place, though it 
is a miracle that all were preserved and as one walks through the place 
and sees the condition of some of the houses, it is marvellous to think that 
the inhabitants escaped. We are having the daily services at the House 
of Rest, as the Church is not safe, and on Sunday we have open-air 
services under some beautiful pine trees in this garden." 



THE Church Emigration Society has established an 
official magazine called The Emigrant, which, judging 
by the first number, those interested in emigration will find 
extremely useful. The Society does good work in advising 
and giving information to intending emigrants, as well as in 
sending them out. 

IN addition to the Conferences announced in our last 
number as to be held in May, there may now be added 
arrangements for similar gatherings during May and June at 
the following centres : Yatton, Mells, Brighton, Eastbourne, 
Aldershot, Winchester, Margate, Bridport, Porchester, Henley- 
on-Thames, Chipping Norton, Wokingham, Wallingford, 
Maidenhead, Stratford-on-Avon, Devizes, Sherborne, Beau- 
minster, Wimborne, Boston, Lincoln, Eochester, Tunbridge 
Wells, Oswestry, Denbigh, and Bangor. 



160 MONTHLY MEETING. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. Bohn, F. H. T. Hoppner, F. Kru<?er, A. Logsdail, 
and Tara Chand, of the Diocese of Calcutta; W. H. Gomes of Singapore; A. Lloyd of Japan; 
J. Widdicombe of Bloemfontrin ; H. H. Brown of Auckland; T. A. Young of Montreal aud 
J. Boydell, A. W. H. Chowne, F. W. Greene, and S. E. Knight of Aljoma. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, April 15th, at 2 P.M., the Bishop of Colchester in the Chair. There 
were also present the Bishop of Antigua, Sir C. Hobhouse, Bart., F. H. 
Dickinson, Esq., Vice- Presidents; the Eev. J. St. J. Blunt, J. M. Clabon, Esq., 
Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, Rev. G. B. Lewis, General Maclagan, General 
Nicolls, Archdeacon Randall, General Sawyer, S. G. Stopford-Sackville, Esq., 
General Tremenheere, C.B., and S. Wreford, Esq., Members of the Standing 
Committee ; J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. A. Cooper, R. N. Gust, Esq., T. Dunn, Esq., 
Rev. G. R. Fisher, Colonel Hardy, H. Laurence, Esq., Rev. T. O. Marshall, Rev. 
J. H. C. McGill, Rev. H. Rowley, and J. Wigan, Esq., Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Receipts and 
Payments from January 1st to March 81st : 

GENERAL FUXD SPECIAL FUNDS 
Subscriptions, Collections, &c. ......... 1,682 

Legacies .................. 754 

Dividends, &c ................ 554 770 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 10,246 2,452 

PAYMENTS ......... 19,732 4,727 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from Jaimary 1st to March 31st, in five consecutive years, compare as follows: 1883, 
7,451 ; 1884, 8,276 ; 1885, 7,478 ; 1886, 8,316 ; 1887, 8,938: 

3. The Corporate Seal was ordered to be affixed to an Address to Her 
Majesty the Queen on the completion of the fiftieth year of her happy 
reign, and it was resolved to request His Grace the President to present 
it to Her Majesty. 

4. The Corporate Seal was ordered to be affixed to Deeds relating to 
trust property in Adelaide. 

5. The Rev. F. W. Pelly, from the Diocese of Qu AppeUe, addressed 
the Members. 

G. All the Candidates proposed at the Meeting in February were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in June : 

Rev. J. Wodhams, Magd. Coll. School, Brackley ; Rev. H. B. Ottley, 
Horsham ; Rev. E. Willis, 9 Sussex Terrace, Horsham ; Rev. E. J. Houghton, 
Blockley, Moreton-in-Marsh ; Rev. W. C. Baker, Batcombe, Somerset. 



THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 



JUXE 1, 1887. 




THE ANNUAL PUBLIC MEETING. 

|T St. James s Hall on Tuesday, April 26, the assembly of the 
friends of the Society heard a succession of addresses from 
speakers, who, one after the other, maintained the high level 

of the interest of the proceedings. 

The brief Keport, the Presidential Address, and the Eev. G. E. 
Mason s Paper we print in full. We wish that we had space for the 
speeches of Sir John Gorst, whose main subject was the work of the 
Society in the Pacific; Sir Eichard Temple, who testified to the reality of 
the work in India; the Bishop of Eupertsland, who told of the vast 
province which has grown to five dioceses under his sway ; Archdeacon 
Matthew, who spoke of Delhi ; and the Bishop of Sydney, who described 
the missionary objects of the Australian Church. The last-named pre 
late s presence was warmly welcomed. It had not been announced before- 
hand; m fact, his lordship had reached England only a few days before 
the meeting. 

It may not be amiss to refer thankfully to the excellent manner in 
which the secular press reported the meeting. It is gratifying, not only 

showing that the editors of newspapers have to some extent felt the 
reality and importance of missionary work, but as indicating that such 
feelings are widespread among their readers, to whom they know such 
full reports would be welcome. These lengthy reports, and in some 
leading articles, show what we may hope we are not too sanguine 
in regarding as a marked increase in the diffusion of interest in the work 
oi the Church abroad. 

The following is the Eeport presented to the meeting : 

The Society s income for the year 1886 amounted to 103 711 14* lid 
under the following heads : 
NO. CCCLXXVIII. 



162 THE ANNUAL PUBLIC MEETING. 

I. GENERAL FUND : 



Mission Field, 







s. d. 


Collections, Subscriptions, 


and Donations 


... 75,704 6 5 


T 




7,052 2 2 
... 3,552 8 3 


Rents, Dividends, &c. 





86,968 16 10 

II. SPECIAL FUNDS, opened with the sanction of the Stand 
ing Committee, and administered at their discretion 
for the benefit, in each case, of the Diocese or Mission 
specified by the Donors : 

Collections, Subscriptions, and Donations 13,408 2 1 

Legacies 20 

Rents, Dividends, &c M34 16 

Gross Income of the Society 105/711 14 1 

The fact that the income in 1885 was largely in excess of those of 
previous years had induced the friends of the Society to hope that "bad 
times," which are a searching test of Christian consistency and self-denial, 
were not likely seriously to injure the Society s treasury; but the long- 
continued depression, affecting as it has the very classes which furnish 
the Society with its warmest friends, has at length told its tale, and the 
General Fund, under the most important item of Collections, Subscrip 
tions, and Donations, falls below the amount received in 1885 by no less 
a sum than 2,242. The item of legacies, always an uncertain and 
capricious source of income, has also fallen far below the^suni received in 
1885, which was above the average and altogether exceptional. 

In the presence of this calamitous diminution of means it is gratifying 
to know that there has been no falling away of the Society s friends nor 
diminution of the respect and enthusiasm which its work elicits from its 
supporters. The actual number of remittances sent to the treasurers 
exceeds by some hundreds the aggregate of those received in the previous 
year but from all quarters there comes the plaintive regret that inability 
and not lack of will restricts the measure of the gifts offered. It must be 
so while the Society s friends are so largely found among the clergy, on 
whom the burden of the times has pressed with exceptional severity, and 
on the poor, ever foremost among the supporters of Missions. There are, 
however, large classes of society whose ear it is difficult to obtain, on 
whom the work of the Society has obvious claims, who at present are very 
sparsely represented in the list of its supporters. 

It is in the Colonies of the Empire that the Society has ever recognised 
the strongest claim on its resources ; but at the same time it is careful so 
to give assistance as to draw out, in annually increasing measure, the 
spirit of independence and self-support, without which the Church must 
ever be an exotic, and as an exotic fail to hold the hearts and sympathies 
of the people. Progress of this kind cannot be chronicled year by year, 
but taking the last fifty years, the duration of Her Majesty s long and 
prosperous reign, the results are such as to call for much thankfulness. 
In 1837 there were only seven Bishops of our Church in foreign parts, 



J ju nc",w 1 . d ] THE BRIEF REPORT. 163 

and these supported by public funds whose continuance has been shown 
to be capricious and uncertain ; there are now 75 Colonial or Missionary 
Dioceses, the large majority having their own endowments. Of the 68 
which have been founded since Her Majesty s accession, the Society 
helped to endow 32, and in 57 has assisted to maintain the clergy ; but 
now of the 12 Australian Dioceses which have been created in the last 
fifty years, 10 are self-supporting ; the six New Zealand Dioceses, of which 
the oldest dates from 1841, are in the same condition ; and the like report 
may be given of five of the Dioceses in North America. 

Next to the Christian Colonists our heathen and Mohammedan fellow- 
subjects have engaged the Society s prayers and labours, especially in our 
great Indian Empire, to which country the Society devotes nearly half of its 
resources. In some parts of India, as in Tinnevelly, where, on the Fourth 
Sunday in last Advent, Bishop Caldwell ordained fifteen Deacons, 
children of the land in which it will be their privilege to work for God, 
and was hindered only by the thought of lack of money from ordaining 
other ten of whose spiritual fitness he was assured, the work is indeed more 
than hopeful ; the high position which the Tamil students of the Society s 
Theological College in Madras have recently won, seven out of the twelve 
who offered themselves having been placed in the first class and four in 
the second of the Oxford and Cambridge Preliminary Theological Ex 
amination, is a testimony to the great intellectual capacity of the Tamil- 
speaking people ; so in Chota Nagpore, where the 13,000 converts, with 
their clergy, of whom fifteen are their brethren according to the flesh, 
have petitioned for a resident Bishop, the growth of the Church is 
paralleled only by the chronicles of the most successful Missions of older 
times; in other places, as in Delhi and at Admednagar, the patient 
workers find ample encouragement, and beg that the work may not suffer 
for lack of workers and means for their support ; in Burmah, where 
every phase of Missionary work is to be seen, the Rev. J. A. Colbeck, who 
has held the position at Mandalay itself since December 1885 has given 
to the British troops the presence of a brave and high-minded Christian 
teacher, and has resumed with much vigour and courage the Missionary 
work which was, by causes over which the Church had no control, 
suspended in 1879. 

Everywhere barriers are being removed from the advancing path of 
the Evangelist. Superstitions are losing their hold, and nations are in 
the attitude of expectancy. In the vast Empire of China, where not long 
ago the adoption of Christianity was a capital offence, recent proclama 
tions have secured liberty as perfect as can be desired by any Missionary 
who confines himself to his proper work, refrains from interference with 
local customs, and aims at no political influence. 

Still brighter are the prospects in Japan, where Missionary work has. 
from the first been of a more hopeful character than in China. 

The Church is well and strongly placed in Tokio, the capital and the 
university city of the Empire. Bishop Bickersteth is struck forcibly by 
the contrast between the long years of waiting in the Mohammedan city 
of Delhi and the forward eagerness of the Japanese to assimilate all that 

i2 



164 THE ANNUAL PUBLIC MEETING. 

Christian teachers can give them. Nor is this desire limited to one sex ; 
the education of the women of Japan is engaging the thoughts of the 
people, and the Bishop says that his " hope, strong as it is, of the future 
of the Society s Missions, would be exchanged for fear if there were not 
reason to think that the work among the educated ladies of the capital 
will be brought up to the level of, and continued pari passu with, the 
work among the men." Happily this fear promises to be removed so far 
as human agency can operate. The Ladies Association, to whose work 
the Society s Missions owe so much, promptly made known the Bishop s 
hopes and fears ; their normal income was fully pledged, but they made a 
special appeal for Japan, and a lady of high culture, possessing also ample 
means, has been moved, not only to offer herself for the work, but also to 
bear the cost of the maintenance of some fellow-workers of great ex 
perience as teachers. A joint appeal for " men and women, fitted alike by 
the spirit of wisdom and the power of love," to share at the crisis of its 
religious history in bringing a great and noble people to the knowledge of 
God, has been put forth by the two Bishops who represent the Missionary 
work of the English and American Churches, and it is hoped that from 
either side of the Atlantic the answer will be given without grudging. 

The work which the Society is privileged to support calls into exercise 
all the varied gifts of a Missionary Church. Here it is the work of the 
Evangelist telling the story of the Church s message in simple phrase to 
the ignorant and degraded ; here the man of erudition disputing with the 
Pundit, learned in all the lore of ancient Heathenism ; here the Medical 
Missionary relieving bodily suffering for the love of Christ and of souls ; 
here the teacher spending long days in the school, imparting to heathen 
lads teaching which would be called secular were it not the fact that 
nothing is secular if taught for the love of God by a man who is himself 
possessed by the Spirit of Christ ; here the Christian Pastor building up 
his colonial parish on the model of those in the country which he still 
speaks of as " home," though he may never see it again ; here the native 
Priest ministering to his own people the Word and Sacraments to which 
he has himself been brought by the labours of strangers ; here the patient 
Christian lady doing her daily work in the zenanas, not stopping to 
consider what will be the result of her labours. There is full scope for 
the exercise of every good gift and endowment which man possesses 
in the wide field of the Church s labours, and would that many were 
moved to offer themselves and all that they have ! The supreme 
promise, " I will give Thee the heathen for Thine inheritance, and 
the uttermost parts of the earth for Thy possession," has been in 
course of slow fulfilment for more than 1,800 years. There is every sign 
that the wheels of God s counsels are moving now more rapidly than in 
any previous age ; the Gospel is being preached to-day in twenty more 
languages than were spoken on the earth on the Day of Pentecost ; and 
The promise will be accomplished by the steady and unobserved toil of 
hundreds of humble and almost unknown men and women, whose patient 
work is insignificant in detail, but magnificence itself in view of the end 
to be accomplished. 




THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDBESS. 

DELIVERED BY THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY AT THE SOCIETY S 
ANNIVERSARY IN ST. JAMES S HALL ON APRIL 26 IH, 1887. 

[HEBE are indeed few documents which hurry our 
minds through such great and majestic subjects 
as a missionary report in the present day. Almost 
all of us can remember the time when about the last thing 
that we thought of in connection with missionary work, how 
ever highly we valued it as a duty, was to see it occupying 
such a place as it has in the world s affairs to-day. The 
more sad that our means should be sinking at the very moment 
when we have the most need of them, and when, by wise 
counsels, we believe that we are beginning to be better able 
than ever to make good use of them ! We cannot enter into 
all the causes of it ; but we can only commend to you, and to 
your friends through you, the immense importance of not 
allowing this sinkage to go on, and of at once filling the great 
gap which is appearing in the revenue of the Society. There 
are two great subjects upon which all people who are inter 
ested in missions must now be fixing their attention. Both 
of them underlie a great deal of what our secretary has read 
to you. He has spoken of the great variety of the form and 
of the matter of instruction which our Missionaries have now 
to give in different parts of the world from the simplest tale 
of the Gospel message down to the deepest and most difficult 
reasoning with people who want to understand not only the 
faith whereby we must be saved, but also the philosophy of 
it, because they believe that, in God s great purposes, the 
Christian faith has a very deep philosophy. We know that it 
is so ; and we know that if we are to win the subtle intellect 
of the Hindoo it will be necessary for our Missionaries to 
receive higher and higher education. It is becoming abso 
lutely necessary that we should have wise and learned 



166 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 



Mission Field, 
June 1, 1887. 



men, versed in evidences, versed in criticism, versed in the 
philosophy itself of our religion, to send out into the mission 
field ; and yet, while we say this, we are, on the other hand, 
confronted with the fact of the strange, simple skill which is 
wanted to communicate Christianity in its simplicity. We 
want men full of love, of faith, of thought, and with a simple 
power of expression. We have been saddened saddened is 
not the word for it by being told by true-hearted and well- 
meaning friends that there are parts of the world where 
Mohammedanism is more civilising than Christianity. It is 
indeed a frightful thing to contemplate that the magnificent 
promise I mean, not merely natural resources but the 
tribes and peoples, some of high courage, others of the greatest 
docility that have been opened to us in the glorious Valley 
of the Congo, are being, immediately upon their discovery, 
maddened and poisoned with the drink which we use its great 
water-ways to convey to them. As fast as our missionaries 
go with the simple Gospel of Christ in their hands to peoples 
who are there waiting to receive it, closely foot by foot they are 
followed by that which, instead of being their eternal salvation, 
is almost immediate destruction to those races. And we are 
told that we teach unthinkable dogmas to these races, while 
the Mohammedan goes there with the simple faith that there is 
One God. We cannot hesitate one moment as to whether we 
ought to teach that which is true as to the nature of God ; but 
there is no reason why we should teach the doctrine of our God 
and of His nature as an unthinkable dogma at all. Let us con 
vey it to them as it was conveyed to the European races on 
their conversion. Let them learn to know that Jesus Christ is 
God, that the Holy Spirit is a Friend who dwelleth in them, and 
with them, and the time will soon come when they will rise 
to that majestic doctrine and truth to which we cling as that 
. whereby we who know it must be saved. But when we and 
they have grasped the truth in reality, the same consequences 
of pure life and new manners will flow from it which reformed 
the Roman empire and its invaders together. When we put 
together and compare any two regions we see, indeed, that we 
are in want of a copious and complete grammar of missionary 



"ftSTiSK 1 ] TH E NATIONAL CHURCHES. 167 

teaching. We see that men want different teaching over 
almost every part of the mission field ; and then we must 
remember this, that the work is not diminishing on our 
hands, but increasing rapidly, even though we are making 
progress every day. It is true that our dioceses and mis 
sionaries are growing in importance day by day ; but side 
by side with that we must put the fact that through the 
mere increase of population the millions of the world s tribes 
multiply before us. The very work increases on our hands 
day after day, and it requires all our efforts to make head 
way against it. The other branch of this great subject to 
which I want to draw your attention, besides that of the im 
mense importance of increasing our knowledge and varying 
the methods by which missionary work is to be carried out, 
lies in two words of the report. The secretary told us that 
it was the object of this Society to enable our Colonial and 
missionary Churches to be, as far as possible, " independent " 
and " self-supporting." "We shall be doing very little for 
them if we do not from the very beginning make them look 
forward to a time when they will be independent of us in 
many ways. We may see that it is so if we think of the 
contact which is forced upon us with Churches far older than 
our own. We are coming to a time when the different nations 
will each have their own Church as we have ours ; and it 
behoves England to insist that in the whole united body of 
the Catholic Church there should be, according to God s Provi 
dence, National Churches, and that each Church should have 
and hold the Gospel with those particular forms, and usages 
and modes of expression which bring it most home to itself 
and to its people. Now we are to-day in contact with the 
Assyrian Church, a Church which itself once laid claim to 
be as great a missionary Church as our own, if not greater. 
Some five centuries ago it had its missionaries, and 
founded its churches in China and India ; and now to-day it 
is a Church shrunk into a few valleys, with great difficulty 
maintaining its secular position, and yet with its orders, 
service-books, and churches still in existence, although the 
political circumstances in which they live have depressed them 



168 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. W&iSS 9 

age after age, until they now make almost their last clutch upon 
their ancient Christianity. We are dealing affectionately with 
this Church, feeling that it is of the utmost importance not to 
let a National Church be blotted out. If that is what we feel 
with regard to an ancient Church, then we also look forward 
to the uprising of the National Churches of the future. There 
are many excellent people who are very anxious that we should 
translate our Prayer Book and send it to the Assyrian Church. 
Now I hold that to be the greatest possible mistake that could be 
committed. That Church has its own ancient liturgies ; they 
may have their defects, though we do not know this at present ; 
but is it not infinitely more important that we should endea 
vour to perfect these liturgies than that we should put into 
their hands from the other side of the world the best possible 
liturgy, but one which had grown out of utterly different cir 
cumstances ? It was only a few weeks ago that I received from 
one of our missionaries to the Assyrian Christians an account 
of a little movement that had taken place in one of their 
schools. He had called a meeting together, and said it was 
reported that the Church of England was going to take their 
Church over and make it a part of itself. Now, he said, you 
distinctly understand this, if your bishops do not want us to 
stay here, we are quite ready to depart ; but under no circum 
stances and at no time will we ever receive you as proselytes 
into our Church. Of course this declaration immediately 
caused one or two worldly ones, who were there in the hopes 
of getting something by the change, to depart ; but it was the 
greatest joy and strength to those Assyrian deacons and priests 
who were in earnest. This very morning I have received a let 
ter from Bishop Bicker steth, our Missionary Bishop in Japan, 
and the message from this youngest of all Churches is identi 
cally the same which we learn from the oldest Church. Some 
time ago I wrote to the Bishop recommending the greatest 
caution and consideration in avoiding over-rapid or prema 
ture organisation for the Japanese. Though that letter had 
been received exactly as one would expect it to be, and acted 
up to, yet caution and carefulness seemed to be almost out 
of place as coming as suggestions from the outside to a race 



? ] CHURCH CANONS IN JAPAN. 169 

like the Japanese. The Japanese had always been an inde 
pendent nation, and thus possessed the gift of self-govern 
ment which independence gives ; and the missionaries found 
that it was impossible to continue the mission further unless 
they allowed the framing of constitutions and canons for 
the native Christians. A synod met, consisting of native 
Christians on the one side, and on the other of the mission 
aries of the S.P.G., the C.M.S., and of the American Church, 
who here all work together with the greatest harmony. 
After two days of separate conference they met together 
and sate continually until they had removed from their plans 
everything that was likely to be a bone of contention 
in the future, and safely provided that they would always be 
in communion with the English and American Churches ; but 
they saw quite clearly that there were things in our formu 
laries which had nothing to do with them, and that 
there were others which would have to be supplied to meet 
their own needs. So now there existed, on the other side of 
the world, what they called, not " The Church of Japan," for 
it was pointed out to them that the title might give offence to 
other Christian Churches working there, and also to the civil 
government ; and so, with their wonted ingenuity, they did 
not call themselves "The Church of Japan" nor "The Japanese 
Church," but, according to the perfectly understood grammar 
of their own tongue, "Japan Church." This youngest of 
Churches was owing to the agency of this Society, just as the 
work in Assyria, touching the very beginnings of Christianity, 
was also originally its work ; so that, at the present moment, 
through its agency, new Churches are being born, and old 
Churches are being prevented from sinking into the grave. 
In conclusion, I must express the great pleasure, and at 
the same time the great pain, which the meeting feels in 
welcoming home the Bishop of Sydney. All indeed deplore 
sympathetically and affectionately the sad trouble which has 
brought the Bishop home, but, for all that, we cannot help 
telling him how thankful all are to see his familiar face in 
the Hall so soon after his arrival in England. 

i3 




THE REV. G-. E. MASON S PAPER. 

the Anniversary of the Society in St. James s 
Hall, the Kev. G. E. Mason wrote the following 

valuable paper. In delivering it he slightly 

shortened it, on account of the limited time. It seems, how 
ever, best to print the paper as it stands. 

It may be a matter of doubt whether, in the Bible, " the angels of the 
Churches " are spirits, or men of flesh and blood. But there is no doubt 
that the Colonial Church has an angel. The Gospel Society as its 
friends love to call it is the good angel of the Colonial Church. 

I regret that my friend and travelling companion Mr. Bodington 
is not here to-day, to tell you, as he could, how this fact was impressed 
upon us in our voyage round the world, and in our New Zealand Mission, 
which, in answer to an invitation from the Colony, was undertaken by us 
at the command of our own Diocesan, and with the encouragement and 
benediction of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

When we landed in New York, and visited Trinity Church, which, 
with its 5,000 communicants, with its six daughter churches, and sup 
porting 20 other churches in the city besides, with its sisterhood, and long 
and even puzzling array of workers, with the countless guilds designed 
for every age from childhood to mature manhood, and its large schools of 
every sort, must be one of the most remarkable parishes in Christen 
dom, we were compelled to remember how much the American Church 
owes to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

When we saw the Sandwich Islands in all the richness and glory of 
a tropical summer, and were met by the Bishop of Honolulu, who showed 
us the rising Cathedral, the Sisterhood, and the industrial schools, and the 
palace of a native royal family, members of his congregation again we 
saw the work of this great Society. 

And when after three weeks more we landed on the evergreen 
shores of Auckland, where every bit of waste ground is hidden beneath 
the broad glossy leaves and spotless flowers of the white arum then, 
whatever we saw, whether it were the spires of the churches, or the 
valuable library at Bishopscourt, or the picturesque buildings of St. John s 
College, Tamaki, or the native school and church of Parnell, crowded 
with Maori boys, or the low line of Mission buildings on the beach at 
Kohimarama, or the white sides of the " Southern Cross " riding at 
anchor on the waters of the Waitemata harbour whatever we saw re 
minded us of two historical names, inseparably connected with this Society 
the names of George Augustus Selwyn and John Coleridge Patteson. 



sf ] THE UNITY OF THE EMPIRE. 171 

And when we crossed the Straits southward to Christ Church, and 
found the well-ordered Cathedral with its Dean and Canons, and the 
venerable Primate at the age of 82 as vigorous and active as a young 
man of 30 the daily choral services, conducted on the model of the best 
English Cathedrals, with a choir of irreproachable reverence, we felt we 
had found perhaps the highest point yet attained in the Colonies of civili 
sation, of refinement, and of religion. 

And when, after our 40 or 50 Missions, we turned home through 
Dunedin, and Tasmania, and Melbourne, and Sydney, and Brisbane, and 
North Queensland, and Ceylon everywhere we saw fresh traces of the 
world-wide and beneficent action of the same Society. 

Other Societies look after the Jews, the Turks, the heathen, and the 
heretics ; but " the care of all the Churches " of the Colonies lies in a special 
manner at the door of the S.P.G. It is an immense charge. It is a 
thought as wide as the world. It is a work which not only appeals to 
what the Times once ventured to call, with supercilious good-humour, 
" the clergy, male and female ;" it is a work of high national importance. It 
appeals to every true Englishman, and never more forcibly than at this hour. 
The same twelve months has given us a Colonial Exhibition, a 
Colonial Institute, and a Colonial Conference. In London probably there 
is more thought about the Colonies than about anything else, except the 
Irish Question ; and, while some Irishmen desire a wider separation from 
England, the Colonies are longing to be more closely united. The loyalty 
and affection of the Colonists for the mother country is quite surprising. 

Boys and girls who live all the width of the world away, and have 
never set eyes upon the white cliffs of Dover, speak always of England 
under the touching name of " home." 

And, if you want thoroughly to realise the importance of the Prince 
of Wales s birthday, there are so far as I know only two places in the 
world where that can really be done ; the one is Sandringham, the other 
is Australasia. And what, more than anything else, has fostered this 
attachment to the old country ? I answer, without hesitation, attachment 
to the old Church. 

The hospitable palace of the Bishop of Sydney stands on a ridge of 
high ground. On the one side it looks upon the blue Pacific, on the other 
upon the spires and white houses of the city of Sydney. Near the palace 
are a few groups of houses and a little church. That little church has a 
history. A Gloucestershire gardener came out to the colony a few years 
ago, and made his fortune as men were able to do at that time in 
Sydney ; and, when he retired from business, the first thing he did was 
to send over to an English architect for plans, and by his assistance to re 
produce there on the other side of the globe an exact facsimile of the 
little village church of Kandwick, where he was used to worship as a boy. 
We all remember well the touching story of the miners in some part 
of Australia, meeting every Sunday to hear a skylark singing in his cage. 
It did them good. It reminded them of home. But the song of the 
lark, who sings " at heaven s gate," cannot lift you higher than the clouds. 
There is a sweeter song than his a song that can carry you within the 
gates of Heaven itself. j 4 



172 THE REV. G. E. MASON S PAPER. [ M j c ?. Sf 




CHIUSTCHUUCH CA-IHEPRAL, CANTERBURY, NEW ZEALAND. 



M June on i,S d ] NEW ZEALAND. 17$ 

And I know a little wooden cottage on the gold-coast of New Zealand, 
surrounded on every side by tree-ferns and kahikatea pines, where, long 
before any clergyman came, the men used to gather every Sunday and 
fill it, and crowd the hillside around the door, to listen to some of the 
sweet old hymns that reminded them of Church and of home. And big 
tears rolled down the weather-beaten faces of the rough diggers, as they 
listened to the wife of an English labourer singing, "As pants the hart 
for cooling streams," or " When I survey the wondrous Cross." 

Federation may not be such a bad dream, or such an idle dream, as 
Mr. Bright would have us believe. 

No doubt many persons in this assembly received a few weeks ago 
from the Society of Friends an invitation to pray for the peace of Europe. 
It was a very natural request ; and from Churchmen there was a very 
natural reply that we do pray for it publicly and continually, when we 
pray in one of the shortest and most significant petitions in the Litany, 
that it would please our good Lord to " give to all nations," not only 
peace, but " unity, peace, and concord." 

And, if it is desirable to pray for unity and concord between nations 
so widely different in many ways, as, for instance, England and Kussia, 
it must be desirable to pray that unity and concord may be maintained 
and consolidated between ourselves and those who are not neighbours, but 
kinsmen of our own flesh and blood, and who have not yet forgotten to 
call our country by the familiar name of "home." 

Australia and New Zealand are countries of great extent, and will 
some day be countries of great importance. 

There are few sights grander or more impressive than the view from 
the Port Hills which divide Lyttelton Harbour from the cathedral city of 
Christchurch. The eye rests upon the prodigious plains of Canterbury, 
bounded on one side by the sea, on the other by a glittering chain of 
Alps that stretch north and south far out of sight for 300 miles. Those 
eternal snows furnish a never-failing supply of water. It is a land of 
streams and rivers. The plains are covered by mobs of sheep and cattle 
that can be counted by tens of thousands. And the fortunate reaper reaps, 
from every acre his 25 or 30 in some favoured spots even his 80 or 
100 bushels of wheat. The slopes of the mountains are clothed with 
timber forests of pine and black beech. The hills are veined with gold. 
Rich coal mines are in active work already. There are good roads and 
good harbours, and trains and steamers ; and there are vast fishing grounds 
almost untouched, except for sport, where you may catch anything from a 
shark to a whitebait. New Zealand is as big as Great Britain ; Australia is 
as big as the Continent of Europe ; the development of their vast resources 
as only just begun ; and when federation comes, whatever form it may 
a ssume, it must eventually be, not a federation of colonies, but a federa 
tion of nations. And what will be the most powerful factor in federation ? 
The late Mr. Carlyle once wrote : " He who would understand England 
must understand her Church; for that is half of the whole matter." 
Certainly history teaches that the best national inspirations come from 
the National Church. The^ Church has always been the vanguard of 



174 THE KEY. G. E. MASON S PAPER. [ 



Mission Field 
June 1,1887. 



civilisation and progress, and the most powerful motive In human life is 
religious faith. 

The walls of old Jerusalem never would have been rebui!O)y Neherniah 
if Zerubbabel had not first " set the altar upon his bases ; " and England 
never would have been England, if it had not been for the faith of Christ 
and the Catholic Church. And if ever the Colonies are brought into- 
closer union with the mother country, it will be largely due to that strong 
religious bond which has knit them together under the continual inspira 
tion of " the spirit of truth, unity, and concord." The future federation of 
the nations will be the result of the present and accomplished fact of 
the federation of the Churches. 

It is natural that it should be so. Material progress alone is not an 
inducement strong enough by itself to tempt us forward. If we lose 
faith we lose heart. If there be no God and no Eesurrection, we must 
relapse into natural history and take our place in the ranks of the classified 
fauna of the various zoological regions ; and then the destiny of man 
becomes only a few shades more interesting than the destiny of parrots, 
and squirrels. But more pressing and more important than federation is- 
the question of colonisation. In spite of the large towns of Sydney, 
Melbourne, Auckland, Christchurch, and Wellington, the population 
of London alone is considerably greater than the whole population of 
Australia and New Zealand put together. As we sailed along the eastern 
coast of Australia in the track of Captain Cook, and saw hundreds and 
hundreds of miles of land, rich in minerals, covered with luxuriant vege 
tation, but without a single vestige of human habitation, we could not 
help wondering and grieving over the thousands at home who never see 
a green field or a running stream, and who, on these lovely shores of 
Queensland, even supposing they could not live, might at least enjoy 
dying. But why should they not live, settled in communities under 
proper supervision ? The ordinary traveller journeying westward through 
America finds no city more cleanly, more prosperous, more healthy, than 
the city founded by Brigham Young. It once was a burning desert, and 
now it is a paradise. On each side of every street is a swift runnel of 
pure water, and an avenue of trees. And what sort of colonists were 
these ? What classes of the community were most likely to be tempted 
by the Mormon programme ? Not, I suppose, the most refined ; not the 
most intelligent. But they were civilised by being removed from civilisation. 

What has been done in America can be done elsewhere, and can be 
done by the Christian faith better than by the Mormon superstition. 

And, if ever there should be in Downing Street or Whitehall an 
Emigration Department, here is the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel ready, as it always has been for the last 200 years, to supply 
the most essential of all civilising forces. 

The poet Milton has said that 

" Great acts require great means of enterprise ;" 

and this Society, which more than any other in the world has laboured 
to maintain the vitality of the Christian faith and the efficiency of the 
Christian Church in the Colonies, deserves to be largely and liberally sup 
ported, not only on religious, but also on patriotic and national grounds. 




EN ROUTE TO THE GOLD FIELDS. 

A DAY AT THE VAAL BY THE BISHOP OF PRETORIA. 

[HE most vexatious mishap of all my journeys 
vexatious because so trifling in its origin while 
important in its results having detained me on 
the banks of this river for twenty-nine hours, I have thought, 
as they passed along, that others would be amused if they 
could have witnessed the various scenes of the delay, and 
maybe to read of them, if my pen could convey to any one not 
versed in South African travel what those scenes have been. 

So I make the attempt, leaving to friends at home the task 
of publishing as they please, or burning, if they please, my 
MS. 

I suppose I must, by way of preface, explain to my readers 
of what river I speak, and where it may be found. The Vaal 
is the river from which the Transvaal (that is, the country the 
other side, or beyond, the Vaal) takes its name. At present 
it runs for many miles within the Transvaal, though in the 
lower portions of its course it is still the boundary of the State, 
separating it, the South African Republic, from the Orange 
Elver Free State, before passing through that and Griqualand 
West, on its way to the Orange River. 

Further, I think I need only state that my duty called me v 
from Wakkerstroom, in the south-east of the Transvaal, to 
Steynsburg and Barberton, in the now famous De Kaap Gold 
Fields, and the road I had to take brought me to the banks 
of the Yaal river on the 9th of March about one o clock. The 
river was full, too full to cross in the absence of a bridge, 
except by a punt, and had overflown its banks for some miles, 
spreading its waters over the low lands on its banks to three 
or four times its usual width, making the country look one 



176 EN EOUTE TO THE GOLD FIELDS. 

vast lake, with the river s bed marked by the swift-flowing 
current in that one channel. 

On reaching the water s edge we found the punt was under 
alteration, which delayed us a good hour. The alterations 
finished, with the assistance of three or four natives, first, my 
waggonette was hauled up a stiff incline to the top of the 
punt, which we reached dry-shod by a plank, and secondly, 
rny horses, with two others, were driven into the water to 
swim the river. These operations extended till about four 
o clock, when horror ! the horses having climbed out of the 
water and up the steep bank, before we could catch them, set 
off on their own account full gallop. Away went my servant 
on foot, and the owner of the other two, to catch them, and I 
awaited the result by the waggonette. At one time, thinking 
I saw them returning, I spread out the harness in each horse s 
place on the grass, so as to facilitate " inspan " and start. 
But it was 

6.15 P.M., 

and darkness coming on, when McD returned to report no 

success. Soon after, his fellow hunter appeared with his own 
horse and one of mine, and some faint idea of the whereabouts 

of the others. Off starts McD on the recovered steed, but 

returns, after some hours search, with no result. 

Meanwhile I had surveyed the whole scene, and I wish I 
could convey it. First the bright sunshine and more lovely 
sun-setting of this glorious clime. Then the wide-spreading 
waters, and the rushing river, with here and there a small 
piece of land raising its head above the surrounding water 
Some half-mile higher up the stream, several waggons waiting 
to cross, and another collection of equal size waiting to cross 
from the opposite side, the cattle of each wandering over the 
veldt on either side, or gradually collecting to be yoked to 
their waggons for the night. 

Two young men from a store on the further side kindly 
came down to the punt with horses, pressing me to go up with 
them for the night for supper and rest, but I preferred to stay 
with my waggonette, in hope of making a start as soon as the 
horses were found. 



Mission FieH,-| 
June 1, 1887. J 



THE VAAL. 



177 



The sunlight passes unperceived into moonlight, though 
the setting and rising orbs have caused much delight in their 
turn. What pen shall describe a Transvaal sunset, or a Trans 
vaal moonlight night ? 

8 P.M. 

McD s return leaving no hope till morning, we make our 




THOMAS REEF, CAUBKRTOX. 



supper from bread, and brawn out of a small tin, and coffee, 

which in McD s absence, a transport rider having kindly 

brought a native to make a fire for me an art in which I am 
still far from proficient I had made ready. 

Supper taken, we made our beds on the sloping bank, too 
sloping to allow of sleeping in the carriage, which was standing 
in an awkward position. I cannot say much of my sleep. In 



178 EN EOUTB TO THE GOLD FIELDS. PSS ATsS? 

its broken intervals I had much time to admire the scene, and 
the moonlight, but not the midges and gnats, which supped 
after, and upon, me ; while sundry anxious thoughts of missing 
horses and their wanderings, and the resulting delay, made 
the dozes far from refreshing. But having always found that 
these delays fall out in some way for the furtherance of my 
work, I bear them with much equanimity. 

1 to 1.30 A.M. 

Various bugle sounds are heard from time to time, and at 
length the sound of wheels, which brings the coach from Bar- 
berton to the river s bank, there to wait for hours. The 
bugler bugles, and one passenger and another tries his lips, but 
all in vain. Charon is fast asleep a mile away, and no bugle 
breaks his slumbers. One grumbles and another growls, not 
much, and not, I think, without some cause. I do my best to 
minister refreshment for the body and patience to the mind, 
till one asks leave to occupy my rugs, where he comfortably 
falls asleep, and, presently waking, he and others betake 
themselves to the coach, or rather heavy, canvas-covered, 
small waggon, where one more wise or sleepy than his fellows 
has been making the best of space and time to have a good 
sound sleep. 

These passengers brought news of three horses seen close 
by, so McD - saddled up and started off again to search, 
but returned in about an hour unsuccessful. 

6 A.M., March 10. 

I am not sure about this hour, but close to it came down 
the superintendents of the punt, with a supply of Kaffirs, 
a post-cart to go in from the other side, and a Scotch cart 
and mules to take the mail bags and passengers through 
the wet ground and water still remaining. These last declined 
assistance, and walked through what appeared much wet 
ground, carrying their baggage, and some declining to go up 
to the store of the offending punt managers for breakfast, 
choosing to wait for two or three good hours before another 
chance of eating could arise, and so rejecting all rny counsels 



Mission Field,"! 
. June 1,1887. J 



BARBERTON. 



179 



not to " fall out with their bread and butter " but to make 
the best of their misfortune. 

Once more I wished I could depict the scene in the bright 
morning sunlight : the river had fallen rapidly, transport- 
waggons were making the best of the fall by crossing as 
soon as they could ; the stream of passengers, the carts, and 




BABBERTOX, THE CAPITAL OF THE DE KAAP GOLD FIELDS, TRAXSVAAL. 

all alive and astir, brightened the banks of the still swollen 
though falling river. 

7 A.M. 

I sat me down to breakfast on what I had, some bread 
and coffee, and, as the heat was great, took my seat on the 
shady side of my carriage. 



180 EN ROUTE TO THE GOLD FIELDS. [ M jS S ld 

8 A.M. 

Arrangements for the return of the post-cart with its 
new load being complete, six horses were driven into the 
river to swim across for its use, and having been secured 
on this side, were brought up to be harnessed, an operation 
to which one of the finest strongly objected, and having 
successfully resisted and broken from the Kaffir holding him, 
galloped off over the veldt, and swam the river some half- 
mile lower down and returned to his stable. This involved 
fresh delay to the post-cart, and I too was delayed for 
another horse, my one being knocked up with hunting for 
his fellows, to renew the search. 

10 A.M. 

Coach starts at last, and two men on foot cross the 
punt walking to Barberton. To them I told my loss, asking 
them to send the horses back by some one should they see 
them on the road. 

11-3.30. 

At last a horse is found : McD - goes off in search of 
my runaways, and I am exercised in his absence by my 
fears for the one recovered, who is out of sight feeding, 
while some doubtful neighbours, black and white, make me 
hesitate to leave my waggon. I read and read, and look 

out for McD , who was to go first to a Dutchman to seek 

his aid and knowledge of the land to find the wanderers. 
No sign of either, but many of a storm : I pack up every 
thing for safety. At last McD returns to say the horses 

were found by a farmer seven miles away, who has sent 
them to the skit, i.e. pound, at Ermelo, fifteen miles upon 
my road. Pleasant ! but no help for it. It were folly to 
bring them back, wisdom to go to them ; so I cross the 
river, swimming the borrowed horse, and go to try and 
borrow some others for the purpose. 

5 P.M. 

Through the kindness of a Mr. King, building an hotel 
near the punt, this is soon accomplished, and his boy is 



Mission Field,"] T?T>^TT^T/- 

June 1, 1887. J XL/RMELO. 

sent to fetch a pair for the purpose. Riding back with the 
good news, I thought I saw four horses approach the carriage. 
Nearing the punt, it is true ; my foot messengers stopped 
the horses on the way to the pound, sent the boy back with 
them, and now there is hope again. 

At once we inspan and away, after a start with difficulty 
on a bank so steep, and away we go, a bright moonlight 
drive to Ermelo, having lost just twenty-seven hours through 
the horses misbehaviour, corrupted by the evil example of 
others : one illustration of an ancient proverb, and an example 
of the accidents of South African travel, the details of which 
I started by supposing some might like to see. Though I 
fear that, written during a storm, in a dark inn room at one 
time, and on a gin case at another, it may prove duller 
reading than I hoped when first I set my pen to write. 





CHOTA NAQPOBE. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MISSION. 

NE of the principal events of the past year is the retirement 
in November last of our aged and revered fellow-workers, 
the Kev. F. and Mrs. Batsch. After well weighing their 
action and many prayers to God for guidance, they decided 
not again to return to Chota Nagpore. Their period of furlough had 
passed away, and though they themselves were ready to return to us, if 
needed, yet they thought that at their advanced age it might even be best 
for the mission if they withdrew from the working staff, and made way 
for younger men. Our Heavenly Father doeth all things well with regard 
to those who love and serve Him, and so we ourselves thankfully accept 
for their sakes the severance thus ordained, and the burden placed upon 
our shoulders by it. Like unto Moses of old, we know that they will 
continually lift up their hands in supplication for the Children of Israel 
in Chota Nagpore. God grant that their intercessions, as well as those 
of many others who so remember us, may be answered, and that our Lord 
by His power will lead us on to possess and beautify the land. 

Forty-two years ago Mr. Batsch came out to India, and together with 
three companions settled in Eanchi. His fellow-labourers, after the lapse 
of some years, all retired or passed away, and he alone has remained, and 
been allowed to witness the result of his own and their travail. Through 
good report and ill, in sickness and in health, from an almost despairing 
commencement to see the wonderful result of more than 40,000 souls 
baptized into Christ s Church, Mr. Batsch has continued on, and connected 
together by his personal presence and influence the work of many labourers 
who came after him and have gone again before him. 

Mrs. Batsch was in ah 1 ways a worthy helpmate to her husband, and 
the care which she bestowed in former years in providing for the domestic 
needs of the whole mission staff, and also for thirty years in the sole 
direction of the girls boarding school, is a record of usefulness which 
can be made of very few European women in India. In recording our 
farewell to Mr. and Mrs. Batsch, as members of our working staff, we 
pray that God may so bless them that they, following their Master to the 
end, may in their measure also see of the travail of their soul, and be 
satisfied therewith. 

To mark this long and faithful service we have resolved to appeal for 
subscriptions towards the erection of a church at Soparom, as a perpetual 



, fwf ] LOSSES OF THE WORKERS. 183 

memorial of Mr. and Mrs. Batsch. The Native congregation will present 
them, after the coming harvest, with some token of their affection and 
esteem, and we trust that all who labour and pray for the extension of 
the Kingdom of God will send us something to help us to raise up a 
worthy witness of such worthy labourers, and of work so blessed as theirs 
has been. We have received, or been promised, nearly Rs. 500 already; 
but we shall need much more than this to build a good church. For the 
benefit of our English readers it may be said that one rupee is equivalent 
to about Is. 5d. in English money at the present time. 

Another of our faithful and zealous workers, the wife of the Rev. J. 
C. Whitley, has been taken away from us. Mrs. Whitley, after twenty- 
two years of missionary labour, often carried on in the face of severe 
suffering, and after repeated warnings that she should return to England 
to recruit her strength, at length, about two years ago, was obliged to do 
so ; but India had done its work, and she entered into rest on June 17, and 
was followed not many days after by her eldest daughter Mary. Mr. 
Whitley, in writing to us about his sorrow, says : " On Tuesday I tele 
graphed for the children to come, and they arrived next day. This was 
all that she desired. We had Holy Communion together, and on Thursday 
night at 11.45 she fell asleep. Upton Helions is her brother s parish, and 
on Sunday evening we laid her body in the little churchyard amidst the 
beautiful scenery which speaks so clearly of God s goodness and love." 

Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord, and therefore blessed indeed 
must that faith be which can produce death scenes like the above, and the 
spirit which can so speak of them. Instead of despairing wails, or a 
quickened forgetfulness, we can really thank God for taking this our sister, 
and her dear child, and believe that where they now are, they can and do 
help us by their intercessions. 

We have been still further weakened by the repeated attacks of ill 
health of our senior member, the Rev. F. Bohn, from his old rheumatic 
and neuralgic complaints. He is just about to take his much-needed 
furlough, and we pray that he may get great benefit from it. 

It will be readily seen that Mr. and Mrs. Batsch s retirement, Mr. 
Whitley s furlough, Mr. Bonn s ill-health, and Mr. Boyd s transfer, have 
together combined to place our European staff at the lowest possible 
strength. Mr. Kriiger, too, in Chaibassa has also suffered much in health 
during the past year. These things make us look eagerly forward to the 
return of Mr. Whitley in the end of November ; for the work is great, and 
the workers few, and many things are already to hand, and more are 
looming ahead of us. 

Short, however, as our European staff has been, yet things have been 
kept going ; and there are some matters to be recorded which show dis 
tinct progress in the development of the work, and about which we must 
;say a few words. 

The most important events of the past year are connected with the 
visit of our Bishop in November last. Though he came principally for 
the purpose of ordaining four out of our eight deacons to the priesthood, 
yet his visit was in other ways very welcome and very fruitful. 



184 CHOTA NAGPORE. BSSiJ 

His Lordship, accompanied by his Chaplain, the Kev. H. 0. Moore, 
arrived at Hazaribagh from Gya on Saturday, November 7, and on Sunday 
celebrated the Holy Communion, preached twice, and confirmed twelve 
Europeans, six of whom were grown-up people. 

On Monday afternoon, he, together with his chaplain, and one of the 
Ranchi Mission staff, left Hazaribagh, and after a palki journey of eighteen 
hours, all arrived at Ranchi at 10 A.M. on Tuesday morning. 

Wednesday was mainly devoted to the candidates for the priesthood. 

The event of Thursday was the confirmation of 350 Kolhs and two 
Europeans. As it was not the Bishop s intention to visit our district 
congregations on this occasion, the Native Pastors had prepared as many 
candidates as they could get during that busy season, and brought in to 
Eanchi as many as could spare a few days from their fields. It is not 
surprising that from our largest and most distant parishes hardly any 
were able to come in, but it is no small thing to be able to say that, from 
an entirely agricultural working class, in the busiest time of the year, 22 
candidates walked in from Soparom,a distance of 7 miles ; 78 from Kachabari, 
and 25 from Itki, each of which places is 15 miles distant from Ranchi ; 8 
from Maranghada, 6 from Murhu, and 44 from Dorma, which are respec 
tively about 24, 28, and 30 miles ; 30 came in 40 miles from Tapkara, 4 
from Jaipur, and 2 from Ramtoliya, which are about 45 miles from 
Eanchi. When to the candidates themselves is added the number of 
those who came as friends or relatives to see after the younger members 
of the family or flock, and bearing in mind the fact that it was the time 
of harvest, it is not too much to say that the mere number of 352 candi 
dates having been confirmed on Thursday, November 13, was but one out 
of many things connected with the laying-on of Apostolic hands, which 
should be accounted blessed and hopeful. 

At the celebration on the following morning, the greater number of 
those who had come in from the district for confirmation partook of the 
Blessed Sacrament, and returned to their harvest fields, not being able to 
wait for the still greater event of the following Sunday. 

On Friday, after the celebration, the event of the day was the Confer 
ence held by the Bishop with the missionaries and pastors. The Rev. G. 
Billing, S.P.G. Representative and Secretary to the Mission Board, having 
arrived the previous day on this his first visit to our mission, was also pre 
sent, and gave us the benefit of his own experiences in Tinnevelly. It was a 
conference we shall all remember with pleasure, for everyone was encour 
aged to speak fully and freely, and there were many important matters 
connected with the work and arrangement of the mission discussed, and 
some workable conclusion come to on almost everything that was mooted. 
The things which have not been carried out, such as the starting of a new 
theological class, &c., have been made impossible by the fact of our 
shortened and disabled staff. 

On Saturday a second Conference was held in the Mission Schoolroom 
with all the readers and teachers, together with the clergy, and here again 
nothing projected ended merely in talk. 

Sunday, November 15, is a day to be remembered by all who were 



W7.2W THE BISHOP S VISIT. 185 

present with us. In the early morning, soon after service, we had our 
Hindi Matins ; about an hour afterwards the Bishop preached both the 
Sermon and celebrated the Holy Communion in English for the European 
residents of the station, and at 10 o clock our Ordination Service com 
menced. The whole of the Native and European staff was present, 
with the exception of the Kev. F. Kriiger, Chaibassa. The candidates 
were presented by the Eev. D. Singh, the Eev. G. Billing preached the 
Sermon, and the Bishop, as celebrant, was assisted for the most part in 
the Hindi prayers, &c., by the Kev. F. Bohn. There were 487 communi 
cants, and although the Bishop and nine priests, European and Native, 
distributed the sacred elements, yet the service lasted four hours. The 
following are the names of those who were ordained : The Eevs. Paulus 
Arton, Khristchitt Boba, Manmasih Dhan, and Abraham Bodra. The 
Bishop recorded of them that " they seemed intelligently earnest, and 
prepared to make themselves a willing sacrifice to the Master s service." 

The English service in the evening, at which almost every European 
resident in the station was present, and at which the Bishop again 
preached, brought his Lordship s visit almost to an end. 

Besides the events thus lightly touched upon, there were daily cele 
brations of the Holy Communion, at two of which the Bishop gave 
addresses, once to the candidates for Ordination, and once more generally 
to the whole congregation. These and the other addresses of the Bishop 
were delivered in English, and translated into Hindi by the Eev. F. Bohn. 

At the daily Hindi Evensong an address was also given by one or 
other of the mission staff. 

On Monday evening his Lordship left us, having recorded that he was 
"thankful to find things in so satisfactory a state," and having during his 
week amongst us bestowed many blessings upon us and our work, we 
trust that he also carried some away with him. 

Another matter which we gladly record, is the departure of our first 
three students to Bishop s College, Calcutta. Timothy, who was a master 
in our Eanchi School, Mongoldas, a son of one of our deacons, the Eev. 
Nathan Tirki, and Paulus Khalkha, son of one of our most respected lay 
brethren of the village of Soparom, have all been granted scholarships by 
the Council of Bishop s College. They have all, moreover, promised that, 
on the completion of their College course, they will go wherever they may 
be sent. We cannot be too thankful for this opportunity which has been 
given to some of our men ; and also for the great care which the Principal 
of Bishop s College has taken in providing accommodation for them 
and their families suitable to their own home surroundings. We look 
forward to their future with some anxiety, as it is our first venture in this 
direction, but with great hope that God will bless it to the good of His 
Church. 

We trust that the sending forth of these five men, two to take up 
Mission work at once among the Gonds, and three to be prepared for any 
work in any part of the Diocese, is but the commencement of a real 
missionary work. There is no reason why it should not be so. 

What, however, we need most in order to educate, extend, and elevate 



186 CHOTA NAGPORE. ["uft^ssr! 

our Mission agencies, is the establishment under the care of a European 
devoted specially to this work, of a Training and Theological Institution 
in Eanchi itself. The Mission not only needs such an Institution, but 
many other places in the Diocese would also be benefited by it. We 
have commenced to supply men to other Missions ; and many who could 
be used in this way are obliged to take other work. We have many more 
youths forced upon us than we can find room for in our Mission, by the 
growing desire of the Kohls to get a good education for their sons. Why 
not, therefore, combine our own and others needs, and utilise our people 
more in other fields of labour, by taking up this work in earnest ? There 
must be thousands of Christians in different parts of Cachar and Assam, 
who are practically uncared for. Besides our own needs and those of 
Cachar, Assam, and Mandla, we haA e had applications during the past 
year from four or five other clergymen for catechists from our Mission. 
One came far away from Eajputana, for the Bheels ; another from the 
Eev. Dr. Bauniann, of Calcutta, who has written to us most highly about 
the work of some of our men, who for years have worked under him as 
catechists ; a third from the Eev. W. M. Bone, of Banda, in the North- 
West Provinces ; a fourth came from the Eev. A. Shields, of Santalia, &c. 

The Kohls are physically strong, teachable, and eager to learn, truth 
ful, modest, of a happy disposition, and not unwilling to emigrate. They 
are just the people to take up both home and Missionary work, and to prove 
themselves worthy of it. There is, moreover, no place in the Diocese 
that can compare with Eanchi for taking up this useful and necessary 
work, both because of the characteristics of the Kohls, and also because of 
the larger number of Christians we have from whom to pick out suitable 
men. 

Surely when a Mission has arrived at the position ours has, and can 
take up such a work as this, we ought to be helped to push on and carry 
it out. The future no one of us can know anything about, unless God 
reveal it ; but if God gave His choicest blessing to us, He would surely 
fulfil our Lord s prayer for unity amongst His followers, and join together 
in one fold all who call upon His name in Chota Nagpore. 

He will do this, doubtless, as soon as one or other of the churches 
now at work may be in a position to accept the privilege and responsi 
bility, and if ours should be that church, as we fondly hope it will be, 
then will come the need of many more properly prepared men. 

The Native States of the Chota Nagpore Division are also untouched. 
Udaipur, Sarguja, Jashpur, Korea, Sanjpur Bonai, and Chang Bhakar, 
are left without either a European or Native Missionary. Here alone is 
a wide field left completely open, and capable of being worked. 

Shall we try and fit ourselves for the above-mentioned and much-to- 
be-desired work by showing forth the fulness of God s love, with ever- 
widening energy for the perishing souls around us or connected with us ; 
or shall we labour only at being content with a name that we live when 
we may be really dying or dead ? 

If one of our many rich and noble English houses would only 
give a sum to the S.P.G. for the purpose of starting and carrying on 



TRAINING OF AGENTS. 187 

a S. Augustine s College in Eanclii, to supply the aboriginal tribes 
of India with pastors and missionaries, it would be the commence 
ment of a new and notable era in the Mission work of India. We say 
merely the aboriginal tribes, because to propose anything like the 
conversion of the Hindus and Mussahnans by means of the Urauns and 
Mundas of Chota Nagpore might be thought visionary. We ourselves are 
not wholly of such an opinion ; still, looking at a certain fitness of things, 
we propose the above field as one quite large enough for us, as well as the 
best suited one for our own people ; and moreover for tho Hindus, 
Mussalmans, &c. Bishop s College, with its large endowments and staff 
of professors, is the natural and proper home. If we look towards God, 
and give the very best spirits from our Kohls for His work, we are sure 
that He will bless their efforts ever more and more. 

The future of our College, however, and its students, will shape them 
selves ; only let us be helped richly to start it under proper conditions. 

READERS AND TEACHERS CLASS. 

We have done what we could to help on our present staff of labourers 
by calling them into Eanchi for instruction. The village readers and 
teachers have received four hours daily instruction during two months of 
the rainy season, when there is little opportunity or need for getting about 
the district. From two or three pastorates we were unable to call in any 
one, because their pastors feared that the Jesuit Padres now spread over 
our district, together with their too zealous readers, would take advantage 
of their absence, and do all they could to corrupt and pervert our flock. 

CLERGY RETREAT. 

At the conference with our Bishop in November, it was decided that 
all the Padres should be allowed to meet together in Eanchi for retreat 
twice in the year. For the first of these two occasions, we of the Eanchi 
district all met together on the Eogation Days, \vith the single exception 
of the Eev. Paulus Arton, who was laid up with bad fever. In addition 
to the daily Celebration, and our usual morning and evening prayer, we 
met together for special prayers, lessons and addresses, at 9 A.M., 3 P.M., 
and after evensong. The three addresses on Monday w r ere given by the 
Eev. A. Logsdail, and bore on the personal life of the priest. Those 011 
Tuesday were taken by the Eev. D. J. Flynn, on the pastoral part of a 
priest s duty, and those on Wednesday by the Eev. Daud Singh on the 
Missionary aspect of the work ; the Eev. F. Bohn gave the concluding 
address, and gathering up the substances of the previous ones, lent the 
weight of his fatherly and reverend character to them. This was on the 
Vigil of the Ascension. We all met the next morning and offered the 
Holy Sacrifice, received the One Bread, and One Cup of blessing, and, re 
freshed by the grace of our Lord, all scon departed to their homes. 

Only a week or two ago the Native clergy of both Eanchi and Chaibassa, 
without any exception, had the privilege of again meeting, and received 
the Holy Communion together, when the Eev. F. Bohn gave some parting 



188 CHOTA NAGPOKB. ["J SlT, Fw d 

words previous to his departure to Europe. By the kindness of one of our 
English residents, "W. H. Cornish, Esq., we were all photographed together. 
The group is a very good one, and contains the whole of our Native and 
European clerical staff, with the exception of the Rev. J. C. "Whitley, then 
in England, and the Rev. F. Krliger, who was at Chaibassa. We shall be 
very glad to send copies to any of our friends who wish to have any. The 
price is Re. 1, or, in English money, Is. Gd. Copies may be had, in India, 
from the Rev. A. Logsdail, Ranchi ; or, in England, from Mr. G. Logsdail, 
The Close, Lincoln. 

MEDICAL WORK. 

This has been carried on much as usual. The smallness of our staff 
with so manifold a work as it has to perform, has hindered it being pursued 
as vigorously as could have been wished, but not a day has passed without 
seeing some sick person relieved. We are thankful to see that an interest 
has been taken in this work by some who read our last year s report, and 
who have shown their interest in the practical way of sending us donations 
towards its extension. Those which we have received will enable us to 
carry out one or two ideas, which have for a long while been floating about, 
and which have only been waiting for the kind interest of such friends for 
their fulfilment. 

THE HINDI NEWSPAPER AND PRINTING PRESS. 

These departments of our work have also been carried on as usual, and 
we have nothing much to say about them which has not been frequently 
said before, so we just mention their existence and pass on. 

HAZARIBAGH AND SITAGARHA. 

Here the work has been visited, as usual, every two months, but there 
sadly needs a resident pastor to look after what seems like a very much 
neglected corner of our work. A chaplain or missionary for the station 
itself would be a great boon, but our Ranchi staff itself needs much 
strengthening before we can hope to spread out ourselves in that 
direction. 

OUR NATIVE FLOCK. 

The number, as given in our statistics at the end of the report, is some 
what less than last year, but there has been a noticeable mistake made in 
the returns sent in to us from Murhu, either this year or last, which may 
account for this result. This congregation had many villages handed over 
to it from the Maranghada one, when a deacon was stationed in Kander 
at the commencement of the year. In all, the number of villages in excess 
of last year is 30, and in this one district 15, and yet the returns of this 
district show a diminution in number from that of last year. Another 
thing which accounts for this in some measure is due to the fact that 
some Padres have not counted in the sum total the number of those who 
are under church censure, and also of some few families, who have been 



*junl5s e 7 d> ] GROWTH OF THE MISSION. 189 

once or twice to the Eoman Church, but who have not as yet really left 
us. There is a proportion of our flock who will go wherever they can get 
most, and from among these some have gone to the Jesuits. The Jesuits, 
in order to entice our people, are now offering free board and education in 
the schools they are beginning to open, whereas we have arrived this year 
at the stage of doubling our fees. Five families have left us from the 
Donna congregation on the promise of receiving work as readers ; two or 
three from the Tapkara one, who are expecting that their adulterous 
connections will be palliated ; and five more are waiting six months to see 
if the Eoman Padre is able to take away all their land taxes which they 
have been led to hope he will do. Of those who have turned to the Jesuits 
in the hope of getting from them what they know they cannot hope for 
from us, one has instigated the villagers to commence dancing and 
drinking upon the open space in front of one of our village chapels, and 
he frightened a rather timid reader of ths Mission out of his village by 
his abusive and threatening language. 

The most important part about our statistics is the number of our 
Catechumens under instruction for baptism. There are in all 703, a larger 
number than there has been for many years. If this is an indication of 
an increased outpouring of God s Spirit, we ought to be in a position to 
meet the call made upon us, or the opportunity may come and go by, 
when to return who can tell ? 

One hundred and thirty-nine converts and 561 children of Christian 
parents have been baptised ; whereas 271 have emigrated. Thus year by 
year a real flock leaves us. 

The foregoing remarks will show that our congregation has its unstable 
side ; and this cannot well be remedied, unless we get a more spiritually- 
minded and zealous staff of workers all through the Mission, to take the 
place of the rapidly-diminished number of Europeans. Our readers, who 
are many of them anything but what we could wish them to be for the 
work they have to do, have too much of the future of the Mission in their 
own hands while they possess the greatest share in the preparation for 
baptism of our converts. Hence the absolute necessity, either for elevating 
the character of these agents, or substituting gradually in their place a 
higher one. This is doubly necessary when it is borne in mind that a 
great proportion of our people have become Christians, from motives 
which, while not in themselves bad, are yet not qualified to make them 
zealous and self-denying, when once the step has been taken, unless they 
are brought under a higher influence than that exerted by our village 
readers and teachers at the present time. 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

NOVA SCOTIA is bereaved of its Bishop in the very year 
when that diocese and the whole Anglican Commu 
nion is preparing to celebrate the centenary of the foundation 
of that see, the first of all in the Colonies. Bishop Binney s 
death is therefore doubly felt as a loss. His lordship, who 
was the fourth Bishop of this now venerable see, had been a 
Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, after taking a dis 
tinguished degree in the year 1842 in that University. He 
was consecrated Bishop of Nova Scotia in 1851, in the Chapel 
of Lambeth Palace, and the diocese has thus had the benefit 
of his vigorous administration for 36 years. In the Eeport of 
the monthly meeting will be found an expression of the Society s 
regret at hearing of his loss. 

BISHOP BICKEBSTETH of Japan wishes it to be stated 
in connection with a remark on page 38 in the Mission 
Field for February, that the statement, signed by himself and 
Bishop Williams, and addressed to the whole Episcopate of 
the Anglican Communion, related to the increase of the 
Church s Mission in Japan, without entering into the question 
of Episcopal jurisdiction in that country. 

IT may be as well to repeat what we announced two months 
ago with regard to the annual service in St. Paul s 
Cathedral. It is to take place on June 22, and will be a 
celebration of the Holy Communion, with a Sermon by the 
Bishop of Iowa, U.S.A. 

QjULLIVAN S GABDENS, Madras, is the important 
^^ Theological College, the native Students of which have 
achieved such remarkable success in the English Universities 
Preliminary Examination of Candidates for Holy Orders. 
The newly appointed Principal for this Institution is the Eev. 



Mission Field, 
June 1, 18S7 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 191 



Arthur Westcott, M.A., Pembroke College, Cambridge, Fellow 
of St. Augustine s College, Canterbury. Mr. Westcott is to 
sail for Madras in the Autumn. 



KAELSEUHE Chaplaincy, which had become vacant by 
the promotion of the Kev. J. B. Hardinge to Leipzig, 
is filled up by the appointment of the Rev. B. Hall, Wortham. 
Weimar being vacant by the resignation of the Eev. J. E. 
Cooper, is filled by the appointment of the Rev. R. Rochfort 
Forlong. 



Summer Chaplaincy arrangements are now made. 
I Among other new stations are some in Norway, where 
the Society will have four open this year, viz. at the Hardanger 
Hotel, Odde, on the Hardanger Fiord, which was opened last 
year ; Tenden s Hotel, Faleide, on the Nord Fiord ; the Hotel 
Bellevue, [Naes, near Romsdal ; and at Lindstrom s Hotel, 
Laerdalsoren, on the Sogne Fiord. 



CUT flowers from Antibes have been advertised for some 
months on the back of the Mission Field. They have 
been sold for the benefit of the Society, and it will interest 
the purchasers as well as others that the Rev. D. Simpson 
has been able to remit no less than 10 as the result. 



THE Rev. W. H. Cooper, who has been well known as 
the Society s Deputation in all parts of the country, 
has accepted the invitation of the Bishop of New Westminster 
to take charge of the Society s Mission of Kamloops in that 
Diocese. 



MONTHLY MEETING-. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, May 20th, at 2 P.M., Lord Robartes in the Chair. There were also 
present the Earl Powis, F. Calvert, Esq., Q.C., P. H. Dickinson, Esq., Vice- 
Presidents; C. Churchill, Esq., Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, J. K. Kindersley, 
Esq., Kev. G-. B. Lewis, General Lowry, General Nicolls, Archdeacon Randall, 
General Sawyer, J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., General Tremenheere, C.B., and J. 
Walker, Esq., Members of the Standing Committee ; J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. J. A. 
Boodle, Rev. A. Cooper, Rev. T. Darling, T. Dunn, Esq., Rev. J. J. Elkington, 
J. P. France, Esq., Rev. W. F. Eraser, Rev. F. B. Gribbell, Rev. T. Hill, 
Rev. P. P. Izard, H. Laurence, Esq., Rev. J. Maconecby, Alfred North, Esq., 
J. F. Ward, Esq,. Members of the Society. 



192 MONTHLY MEETING. 

1. Bead Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Keceipts and 
Payments from January 1st to April 30th : 

GENERAL FUND SPECIAL FUNDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c. 10,831 3,472 

Legacies 794 

Dividends, &c 1,178 1,082 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 12,803 

PAYMENTS 25,112 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January 1st to April 30th, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1883, 
9,358; 1884, 10,152 ; 1885, 9,159; 1886, 9,798 ; 1887, 10,831. 

3. The Corporate Seal was ordered to be affixed to Powers of Attorney 
relating to Bishop s College, Calcutta, and to Dapoli School, Bombay ; 
and also to a transfer of Stock on account of the Steere Memorial Fund. 

4. The following Minute on the decease of the Bishop of Nova Scotia 
was adopted : 

The Society desires to record its sense of the loss which the Church in the 
Colonies has sustained by the decease of the Right Rev. Hibbert Binney, 
Bishop of Nova Scotia. It is a sorrowful coincidence in this year, when the 
Centenary of the Colonial Episcopate is about to be celebrated throughout 
England and her Colonies, and in the United States, that Nova Scotia, round 
which the interest of that celebration chiefly gathers, should be deprived of 
her Bishop, who had occupied that see since his consecration in 1851. 

During his long Episcopate Bishop Binney had been an active and energetic 
member of the Canadian House of Bishops, and had always asserted the 
claims of his diocese and clergy upon the consideration of England and of the 
Society. He was ever ready, too, to advocate its interests on his periodical 
visits to the mother country, and his high standard of devotion to his work in 
Nova Scotia always commended him to the Society s friends at home. 

5. The Rev. W. Greenstock, Canon of Maritzburg, addressed the 
Members. 

G. All the Candidates proposed at the Meeting in March were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in July. 

Rev. J. R. Keble, Perry Bar, Birmingham; Rev. Canon G. K. Smith, St. 
Michael s, Blackrock, Co. Cork ; Rev. J. W. Lindsay, Beechmount, Carrigrohane, 
Co. Cork ; Rev. Canon F. Connor, Ballyhody, Co. Cork ; Rev. T. R. Matthews, 
Moviddy, Crookstown, Co. Cork ; Rev. G. F. Tamplin, Longton, Stoke-on-Trent ; 
Rev. E. H. Nash, Longton, Sroke-on-Trent; Rev. V. H. Stanton, Trin. Coll., 
Cambridge; Rev. E. G. Wood, St. Clement s, Cambridge; Rev. C. M. S. 
Patterson, Rugeley; Rev. Canon W. W. O Grady, Kilmocomogue, Bantry, 
Co. Cork ; Francis J. Beamish, Esq., J.P., Lettacollum, Timoleague, Co. 
Cork ; Rev. S. G. Ponsonby, Trin. Coll., Cambridge; Rev. P. H. Owen, Owsle- 
bury, Winchester ; Rev. G. M. Clibborn, St. Luke s, Old Street, E.G. ; Rev. 
John Wild, Tetney Vicarage, Great Grimsby ; J. G. C. Parsons, Esq., 
Gortroe, Irlams, Manchester ; Colonel Hugh Mackenzie, Royal Military 
Asylum, Chelsea, S.W. ; Rev. .A Short, Bodicote, Banbury ; Rev. K. A. 
Deakin, Cofton Hackett, Reclditch, and John Eyre Nelson, Esq., Shaw 
Rectory, Newbury. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. T. Williams from the Diocese of Lahore ; A. Lloyd 
anl A. C. Shaw of Japan ; S. M. Samuelson of Zaluland ; J. Widdicomba of Moemfontein ; T. 
A. Young of Montreal; W. H. Lowry of Rupert s Land ; H. Inkster and W. Xewton 
of Saskatchewan ; G. S. Chamberlain and T. P. Quintin of Newfoundland and H. B. Hughes of 
Antigua. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




JULY 1, 1887. 

THE SOCIETY S JUBILEE ADDRESS 

TO THE QUEEN S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 

jHE Incorporated Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts desires humbly to 
approach your Majesty with loyal congratulations 
on the celebration of the fiftieth year of your Majesty s 
prosperous reign. 

The Society records with pride and satisfaction that in 
1838 your Majesty was graciously pleased to become its Patron, 
and that it has from time to time received tokens of sympathy 
from your Majesty and from His Eoyal Highness the lamented 
Prince Consort. On the completion of its third Jubilee in 1851 
the late Prince Consort recognised its claims by being enrolled 
in the list of its Incorporated Members, by presiding over its 
Annual Public Meeting, and by making a donation to its funds. 
Your Majesty and His Eoyal Highness also proved your royal 
sympathy with the Society s designs by contributing towards 
the fund for erecting, on a site given by the Sultan at the 
close of the Crimean War, the Memorial Church at Constan 
tinople, which was built under the Society s auspices, and still 

NO. CCCLXXIX. K 



Ms 



194 THE SOCIETY S JUBILEE ADDRESS. [ u > 

bears witness to the Christian faith in the capital of the 
Turkish Empire. 

In obedience to the obligations laid upon it by the charter 
granted to it by His Majesty King William III. in 1701, the 
Society has continued its endeavours "to provide a sufficient 
maintenance for an Orthodox clergy to live in the Plantations, 
Colonies, and Factories of Great Britain ; to make other pro 
vision for the Propagation of the Gospel in those parts ; and 
to receive, manage, and dispose of the charity of His Majesty s 
subjects for those purposes. 

Up to the year of your Majesty s accession, the Society 
had been in possession of insignificant funds for the discharge 
of these obligations. Its income in that year was 22,325, 
but the growth of the liberality of your Majesty s subjects has 
in the past fifty years enabled it to advance greatly in the 
accomplishment of the purposes entrusted to it by its charter. 
In 1886 its income was 105,712. As a consequence, the 
extent of its operations, and the number of the Missionaries 
whom it supports, have been largely increased. In 1837 the 
ordained Missionaries on its list were 172 ; and so insigni 
ficant had been the development of Missionary work among 
the heathen, that in this number there was not a single 
clergyman who was not of European birth. In 1886, 
the number of ordained Missionaries was 595, of whom 
128 were natives of the country for whose conversion they 
w r ere labouring. The lay agents have grown in fifty years 
from 81 to 1,700, the vast majority being natives. The 
Mission stations, which were 177 in 1837, were 461 in 1886, 
not to mention a large number of out -stations of which no 
account is here taken. Moreover, the seven Colonial Dioceses 
which existed at the date of your Majesty s accession have 
increased to 75, of which 26 have happily attained to a posi 
tion of independence and self-support. 

The Society feels that it is unnecessary to remind your 
Majesty that the two-fold work of securing to your Majesty s 
Christian subjects in the Colonies the ministrations of the 
Church, and of carrying to your Majesty s heathen and 
Mohammedan subjects the message of the Gospel, has not 



1 



1 ] THE SOCIETY S JUBILEE ADDRESS. 195 

been effected without much difficulty and frequent repulses. 
In particular, the Society shared the sufferings of your 
Majesty s loyal subjects during the Indian Mutiny, when its 
Missionaries at Delhi and Cawnpore died martyr deaths 
at their posts of duty during the awful massacres at those 
places. Neither will it be necessary to assure your Majesty 
that the determination of the Society to carry on with faith 
and vigour its high and holy work has been in nowise shaken 
by these and other losses and checks. 

The Society records with grateful acknowledgment the 
continued interest shown by your Majesty in its operations, 
by the gracious grant of a Eoyal Charter in 1882, supple 
mental to that granted by your Majesty s predecessor, King 
William III., on the foundation of the Society in 1701. 
The Society has also not overlooked the recent annexation 
of Upper Burmah to your Majesty s Indian Empire as con 
stituting an urgent claim upon it. It has seized the occasion 
to resume operations at Mandalay, where your Majesty s gift 
of a font to the Church in that city will for all time connect 
your Majesty s name with the Society s Mission. After several 
years of desecration, Divine Service is again celebrated in 
that edifice, and your Majesty s gift is again used for the 
purpose to which it was dedicated. 

The Society humbly begs your Majesty s favourable 
regard and interest for its undertakings, and prays that 
many years may be added to your Majesty s reign for the 
glory of God and for the good of your Majesty s subjects. 

Sealed with the Corporate Seal of the Society this 
fifteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord 1887. 




K 2 




THE SOCIETY S GRANTS FOR 1888. 

| ANY points of interest and importance have to be 
noted in connection with the Society s Grants for 
1888, which, in accordance with annual custom, 
we propose to review briefly. 

The main question of course each year is that of the total 
amount available, whether it will be larger or smaller, whether 
it will allow for expansion or demand redactions. This year 
the answer to the question is somewhat curious. Reductions 
to the extent of 4,026 were necessary, but certain circum 
stances, which we will explain, have enabled the Committee to 
save this sum without severe retrenchment, and in some cases 
with virtual augmentations. 

When there has been occasion in any previous year to 
reduce the Annual Grants the loss has to a large extent fallen 
upon the Colonial work. The equity of this has been obvious. 
For absence of money in a mission to the heathen must mean 
the discharge of agents, and cessation of work. A Colonial 
Mission, however, is hoped and expected to be rapidly acquir 
ing financial stability. In some cases the strain on the local 
resources has been almost beyond what could be borne. This 
painful necessity has, at the same time, been rendered less 
deplorable by the reflection that it has developed the liberality 
of Colonial Churchmen. 

In this connection it may be as well to show how much has 
been done during the last ten years by the Colonial Dioceses. 
Some of course have needed, and have received, considerably 
larger Grants than they did ten years ago, while the older 
Colonies have been left with gradually diminishing assistance 
from the Society. Thus, since 1877, the annual Grants for 
the Diocese of Montreal have been reduced from 1,400 to 



SSftSwf ] COLONIAL GRANTS. 197 

620, for Quebec from 2,450 to 1,500, for Fredericton from 
2,495 to 1,250, for Nova Scotia from 2,650 to 1,215, for 
Newfoundland from 4,310 to 2,900, for Cape Town from 
2,600 to 1,600, for the Australian Dioceses from 2,200 to 
700, for the New Zealand Dioceses from 1,100 to 50. 

These reductions have of course not fallen absolutely on 
individual Clergymen. The redistribution of a diminished 
block-grant has been effected by the several Diocesan Com 
mittees and Synods, and in most cases the liberality of the 
Churchmen of a Diocese has prevented its clergy from 
suffering loss. Even where the Colonial Synods have found 
it necessary to make a reduction of 10 or 15 per cent, from 
the amount which a clergyman had previously received from 
the Society, the loss would be less severe than might be 
thought. For the Colonial Clergy in no case draw the whole 
of their income from the Society s Grants, and the percentage 
would be upon, perhaps, 20, 30, or 50 only, certainly 
never upon more than 100, of any individual Clergyman s, 
income. 

This year it was felt that the Colonial Church should not 
be the bearer of further reductions, if any other way could be 
found. And some very simple ways were found. First of all 
advantage has been taken of the depreciation of the rupee. 
For several recent years, the rupee has been falling in value, 
and the result has been that the Society has practically been 
increasing its Indian Grants. That is to say, the Grants are 
made in pounds sterling, and as the pounds have year by year 
produced more and more rupees, the Missions in India have 
reaped the advantage of increased income and spending power. 
By taking into account the downward tendency of the value 
of the rupee, the Society is able to vote a smaller number 
of pounds to the Indian Dioceses without making their 
spending power less than it is in the current year ; indeed, a 
sufficient margin has been left in the calculations to render 
it extremely probable that the Indian Missions will draw 
even more rupees than hitherto. 

A further saving is made in India by an arrangement 
which had previously been resolved upon. 



198 THE SOCIETY S GRANTS FOR 1888. [ M jfi5Sft;Ti8J 

The Rev. G. Billing, the Society s able Secretary in Calcutta, 
is anxious to return at no little pecuniary sacrifice to his 
old direct Missionary work at Ramnad. This design on Mr. 
Billing s part is interwoven with a plan for the more immediate 
and complete working of the connection between the Calcutta 
Diocesan Council and the Society s Missions. The Society 
will no longer require the services of a salaried Diocesan 
Secretary, and accordingly a considerable sum will be saved 
in Calcutta in salaries and office expenses. 

By these means nearly three quarters of the necessary 
saving has been effected. The remainder has been made up 
without as great hardship as might have been expected. In 
some cases there is even ground for congratulation. For 
instance, the reduction of 160 in the Grant to the Diocese of 
New Westminster simply means that progress had been made 
in the endowment of the See sufficient to release the Society s 
guarantee of the episcopal income to that extent. In St. 
John s, Kaffraria, 50, which had been voted in previous years 
to the Coadjutor-Bishop, is saved by his lordship s now being in 
possession of the See and its revenue. A life payment of 120 
to the late Archdeacon Read of Prince Edward s Island ceases 
at his death. 50 is saved of this sum, but the remainder 
is allowed to survive. From the Grant for Colonial work in 
the diocese of Grahanistown 160 is withdrawn, and 50 from 
North Queensland. The death of a pensioner a Missionary s 
widow saves 40 on the Singapore Grant ; and advantage 
has been taken of the accidental diminution of the number of 
European Missionaries in Madagascar and North China by one 
each for the withdrawal of 300 from the former, and 250 
from the latter diocese. 

Some of these savings have of course not been made 
without great regret. However, it is only right that we should 
see the bright side of the shield, and recognise that some of 
the reductions are virtually increases ; for instance, it is (as 
we have said) expected that the Indian Dioceses will be even 
better off than ever, while Madras will gain Mr. Billing s 
valuable services at Ramnad, and 400 toward his salary and 
the cost of his removal, while out of the sale of the house, 



"SSyMag? ] FIVE YEARS INCREASE. 199 

which the Society owns in Calcutta for its Secretary, and 
which it now no longer needs, a further sum of Rs. 2,000 will 
be reserved for like purposes, including the completion of 
certain Church buildings at Eamnad. From the same source 
1,000 is to be set apart with a view to its expenditure in two 
years in the Mission work proposed to be undertaken by the 
Australian Church in New Guinea. Singapore diocese will 
be enabled to enter upon new and most important work in 
North Borneo, as (without increasing the Grant) 100 of it 
is assigned for the part-maintenance of a Clergyman there, 
many private donations having been promised to meet such 
a Grant. A Grant of 50 is also made for the Mission 
proposed to be undertaken for the benefit of the Chinese in 
the Diocese of Brisbane. 

With these few changes the Annual Grants are renewed for 
the year 1888. Their general distribution is familiar to our 
readers. The}^ amount to 73,762, distributed among nearly 
fifty Dioceses ; and, small as this sum is compared to what it 
ought to be, it may not be amiss to point out that, taking the 
sums declared by the Standing Committee to be available for 
foreign expenditure during the last five years, 1883-7, there 
has been a net increase of 17,483, or an average of nearly 
3,500 increase in each of the five years ; and this, with 
special funds raised by the Society, has enabled it to take care 
of the growing colonies in North-West Canada as well as to 
extend the evangelistic work among the heathen. 

What ought to be done is a far larger question. The 
urgency of the claim upon the offerings of Christians for the 
spread of the Christian Church is not to be measured by the 
demands of the several dioceses abroad. It is rather to be 
seen in the appalling figures that tell of the heathen night in 
which the world still is. It is to be measured in the fact that, 
without reckoning 173 millions of Mohammedans and some 
8 millions of Jews, there are 874 millions of actual heathens, 
or more than double the number of Christians, of every sort, 
kind, character, creed, and description. 

But without this vast prospect before us of work to be 
done, there is a large enough list of unsatisfied demands 



200 



THE SOCIETY S GRANTS FOR 1888. 



[Mission Field, 
July 1, 1887. 



from the fields already occupied in part. From twenty-eight 
dioceses come specific requests for new and increased grants, 
which, if made, would amount to some 7,800 a year, besides 
about 3,550 asked for as single sums. Four of the Western 
Dominion Dioceses ask for help to extend their work among 
the North American Indians. West Indian Dioceses in their 
poverty need more money for their struggling Church. 

Maritzburg, St. John s, and Zululand, in South Africa, all 
plead for increased grants that the great work of the evangel 
isation of South Africa may go forward. It is a work the 
history of which is full of noble examples of faith, patience, 
perseverance, and courage. It is a work wonderfully successful 
in proportion to the means used. It is a work pitiably small 
compared with the field opened. 

Then there are other claims whose strength is in their 
present urgency. Thus the Bishop of Pretoria wants to be able 
to keep pace in some degree with the rush of English-speaking 
people to the Transvaal Goldfields ; while for work among the 
heathen there is again that marvellous call, such as the Church 
has hardly ever heard the cry of Japan for Western thought, 
art, and experience. Now is the time in the new life of that 
Land of the Eising Sun to give it the blessing of a place among 
the nations of Christendom now, or (humanly speaking) 
never ! At any rate, such an opportunity as the present can 
never again be looked for. 

Is it too much to say that the success or failure of such, 
applications, and the power or inability of the Society to make 
increased grants, are fraught with the weightiest consequences 
to the Colonies of England, and the future life of many 
nations ? 

The following table shows in detail the annual Grants for 
1888 : 



Montreal 
Quebec 
Toronto Pension 

Algoma 

Fredericton ... 
Nova Scotia ... 

Ditto, P. Edward s 
Newfoundland 
Kupertsland... 





620 


Qu Appelle ... 




1,500 


Saskatchewan 




32 


Caledonia 




750 


New Westminster . 




1,250 


Nassau 




965 


Antigua 


Islai 


id 200 


Trinidad 




?,900 


Guiana 




1,560 


Jamaica (Panama) . 



1,09.2 

1,300 

200 

640 

500 

850 

50 

770 

200 



Mission Field,-] 
July 1, 1887. J 



THE VOTES IN DETAIL. 



201 



Windward Islands 200 

Sierra Leone 280 

Capetown 1,600 

Grahamstown 2,930 

St. John s 2,480 

Maritzburg 2,125 

Zululand 600 

St. Helena 275 

Bloemfontein 1,048 

Pretoria 900 

Mauritius ... ... ... 590 

Madagascar 3,200 

Calcutta 7,000 

Kangoon 3,780 

Lahore 2,300 

Ditto, Cambridge Mission 680 

Madras, with Pensions, &c. 13,225 

Bombay ... ... ... 4,725 



Colombo 
Singapore, &c. 

North China 

Japan 

Adelaide N. Territory 

North Queensland ... 

Perth 

Brisbane 
Norfolk Island 

Fiji 

Honolulu 
Constantinople 
Continental Chaplaincies 
Education of Students 



1,500 

3,250 

900 

2,460 

300 

50 

300 

50 

50 

200 

700 

300 

200 

185 

73,762 



As in previous years, the Society s Special Funds have 
been administered (without being taken to relieve the General 
Fund) for the benefit of the Dioceses and Missions indicated 
by the donors. 





NEW GUINEA. 

IN the eve of his return to his diocese after his 
hurried visit to England, the Bishop of Sydney 
made a statement to the Standing Committee 
.with regard to the Mission to New Guinea, which the 
Australian Church has determined to undertake, needing, 
however, in this endeavour, help from England in at least the 
earlier stages of the work. The result was that the Standing 
Committee determined to open a special fund for New Guinea, 
and the Bishop issued an appeal for it. The Society, a few 
weeks later, was able to set aside a sum of one thousand 
pounds for expenditure during the first two years in this 
Mission, and it wishes to put forward the claims of New 
Guinea upon the alms of English as well as Australian Church 
men. The Missionary responsibilities of the latter were 
described by Bishop Barry at the Society s Annual Meeting 
in St. James s Hall. His lordship enumerated the colonial 
work which still to a great extent has a Missionary character, 
the Mission to the Aborigines, to the Chinese immigrants, 
and the imported island labourers, as well as the Melanesian 
Mission. 

New Guinea has especial claims upon the Australian 
Church, for it was in deference to Australian wishes that so 
large a section of the island was annexed ; and we might add 
that it was to the chagrin of Australia that the annexed 
territory was not much larger. 

The accompanying map shows its extent and geographical 
position. It is only distant ninety miles from Cape York, the 
most northerly point of Australia, and therefore the interests 
of the people of Queensland in its acquisition can be under 
stood. 



n Field, "J 
7. J 



July 1, 1887 



THE ISLAND AND ITS PEOPLE. 



203 



The total area of New Guinea is reckoned to be 224,347 
square miles, of which the Dutch own 147,550, the Germans 
88,340, and 
the English 
88,457. The 
British pos 
session is, 
therefore, al 
most equal in 
size to the 
whole of Great 
Britain. The 
native popu 
lation of the 
whole island 
is estimated 
at 2,500,000. 
The race is 
considered to 
be a mixture 
of Malay and 
Papuan, but 
in the British 
territory the 
Papuan pre 
dominates. 
The people are 
tattooed, and 
unclothed, 
except with 
profuse bar 
baric orna 



ment. 
tween 
tribes 



Be- 

their 
there 




is constant 

fighting. As to religion, they appear to believe in the existence 
of one Supreme Being, who is, however, known under various 
names. K 4 



204 



NEW GUINEA. 



Field, 

1S87. 



. The climate affects Europeans like that of similar tropical 
countries. The wet summer season is unhealthy for them, 
but the dry season is tolerable. The coast is specially unsani 
tary. It is therefore proposed that the headquarters of the 
Mission should be placed on a healthy and accessible island, 
called Bentley Island, and that the coast stations should be 
reached by the Mission steamer. Port Moresby appears to 
be the only commercial port. 




NATIVES OF NEW GUINEA. 



The Bishop s appeal is a document which it is important 
to record in full, and we accordingly append it : 

t( The assumption by her Majesty s Government of a protectorate 
over the southern coast of New Guinea seems to bring that great island, 
with its dense population, within the range of English influence, and 
therefore of English responsibility. The protectorate was assumed 
largely in deference to the wishes of the Australian colonies, in view not 
only of a probable extension of commerce, but in still greater degree of 
political considerations of security and consolidation of power. It has 
therefore been felt that on Australian Christianity chiefly rests the duty 



Mission Field,-] 
July 1, 1887. J 



THE BISHOP OF SYDNEY S APPEAL. 



205 



ot spreading the light of the Gospel in those dark regions, and so 
Christianising the influence which the English-speaking race must soon 
acquire over this vast territory. It is well known that noble and 
successful work has already been done in New Guinea under the auspices 
of the London Missionary Society, and substantial progress (of which, 
however, we have less knowledge) has also been made by a Eoman 
Catholic Mission. But, without the slightest interference with these 
good works, which touch only a few points en a coast-line of more than 
a thousand miles, there is ample room for a new Mission ; and the 
Church of England is undoubtedly called to take her right place in the 
extension of the kingdom of our Lord to those heathen tribes, whom, 
though they know Him not, He claims as bought by His blood. The 







DOK2Y HARBDUR, XE\V GUIXEA. 

Australian Church has recognised this sacred duty, and has resolved to 
start a Mission, under the general direction of the Bishop of North 
Queensland, but with the support of all the dioceses represented in the 
General Synod. 

" The opportunity is most favourable. The Hon. John Douglas, her 
Majesty s Commissioner, has indicated a suitable locality for the first 
establishment of a Mission, and has promised it all possible sympathy 
and encouragement. But the work must be thoroughly done. It will 
be necessary to create a small missionary community, including work 
men and mechanics, to erect some wooden houses, to provide boats (and 
hereafter a missionary schooner, like the Southern Cross of the Melane- 
sian Mission) ; and it is certain that this cannot be properly done without 



206 NEW GUINEA. ["SSlS?- 

an annual outlay of about 2,500. Of this the Australian Church pro 
poses to provide at least 1,500; but it appeals for assistance to the 
Church at home for a Mission in which England also is interested. Even 
in Australia itself the work of the Church is still largely a missionary 
work, following up (often with inadequate resources) the continual exten 
sion of settlement, and a steady increase of population, due still in a 
considerable degree to immigration from the old country. Other mis 
sionary duties also devolve upon her to the aboriginal inhabitants, to 
the heathen immigrants, and to the great and blessed work of the 
Melanesia!! Mission. While, therefore, she fully recognises the imperative 
call to her to take a chief part in the Mission to New Guinea, she cannot 
do this unaided ; and it is trusted that a moderate claim for help in 
England will be frankly recognised and cordially supported by Church 
men at home. 

" The field is undoubtedly great : the difficulties of climate and of 
the character of the inhabitants are not greater than those which have 
been so splendidly overcome in the Melanesian and Fijian Missions; and 
the success of the Missionaries already at work in New Guinea shows 
how much may be done there under God s blessing by Christian faithful 
ness and earnestness. Great as are the calls on the Church at home, the 
experience of missionary enterprise has always shown the truth of the 
text, There is that scattereth and yet increaseth, by reacting for good 
upon the internal vitality and unity of the Church herself. 

" The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, while unable at the 
present time to contribute from its general funds, has consented to open 
a special fund for this Mission ; and an application for aid has also been 
made to the Church Missionary Society, of which as yet the result is 
unknown. 

" The Bishop of Sydney, therefore, earnestly appeals for contributions, 
either in the form of donations or subscriptions spread over a period of 
years, to the special fund which has been opened by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel (19 Delahay Street, S.W.)." 





KEISKAMA HOEK. 

REPORT FOR THE YEAR OF MISSION AND INDUSTRIAL WORK AT 

ST. MATTHEW S MISSION, KEISKAMA HOEK, IN THE DIOCESE 
OF GRAHAMSTOWN. 

BY THE REV. C. TABERER. 

,UPvING the past year I have been absent for six 
months from St. Matthew s on a visit to England* 
The Eev. A. W. Brereton was left in charge 
during my absence, and I was glad to find on my return 
that the work of the station had been satisfactorily carried 
on by him in all its branches. 

The resident native Christians of my district do not 
increase in numbers, as the gradual opening-up of the 
country beyond the Kei has year by year tempted numbers 
of my people to leave their old homes in the Amatolas for 
these new settlements. 

The steady record of baptisms and confirmations will,, 
however, show that numbers are yearly being converted, and 
gathered into the Church from the surrounding heathen 
population. 

I am always sorry to lose so many from my own roll of 
Church members ; but as they go to swell the ranks of the 
various Missions beyond the Kei, the loss to St. Matthew s is, 
I trust, no loss to the Church at large. 

The spiritual progress of the Mission generally during the 
year, although in many ways satisfactory, has to some extent 
been retarded by the severe financial depression that still 
continues, especially among the natives. 

It has been almost impossible for them either to contribute 
to the Native Ministry Fund, or give anything to the weekly 
offertories. 



208 KEISKAMA HOEK. 

During the years of overwhelming scarcity previous to 
June, 1885, debts had been incurred, and rents left unpaid, 
which (notwithstanding the bounteous harvest of last season) 
they are still unable to clear off owing to the impossibility of 
finding a remunerative market for their produce. Offertories 
and Church funds of all kinds have, in consequence, suffered 
proportionately, and the attendant anxieties have tended to 
cripple the work and severely try the faith of many. 

I could relate, however, many cheering incidents to show 
that, notwithstanding all these drawbacks, I have reason to 
thank God and take courage for the future. 

One incident is, I think, especially worthy of notice, and 
I will briefly give an account of it. 

Very recently I visited a distant out- station, in the Arnatole 
Basin, and I was very pleased to find that although I had not 
been able to go there personally for some time past, owing to 
my absence in England and subsequent ill health, the work 
of preaching and teaching had been faithfully carried on by 
the visiting Catechists. 

On my arrival there were five men, ten women, and fifteen 
children ready to be baptized. The ceremony was most im 
pressive, and before I left again in the afternoon the assembled 
people agreed to build a new church, and to at once reopen 
their school. At the service the chapel hut was crowded, and 
there were eighteen communicants present at the celebration 
of Holy Communion. 

Altogether I have, in addition to the home station, fifteen 
native villages where services are regularly held, namely : 
Amatole, Gxulu, Lower Eabula, Upper Kabula, Cata, Gobo- 
zana, Qayi, Mgukwane, Ndhloveni, Gwiligwili, e Ngolongolo, 
Njxalame, Emtwaku, Kabousi, and Waterford, and the services 
have been very well attended at all these places. 

I find it impossible to visit all these out-stations as often 
as I could wish, as the distances are so great. I have calcu 
lated that to do this work only once every month (and my 
visits ought not to be less frequent than this) I should have 
to ride at least 220 miles. 

The presence of the Eev. M. A. Maggs at St. Matthew s 



WiJw? ] THE MISSION STAFF. 209 

during the past few months, and his hearty co-operation with 
me in all the duties of the Mission, has enabled me latterly to 
get through much of this very necessary work ; and I trust I 
shall be permitted to retain his services as niy Assistant Priest. 
Previous to his coming, and during the year under report, it 
was impossible for me to grasp one-half of the work that 
ought to be done, not only among my native Christians but 
among the thousands of heathen in my Mission district. 
Erom Waterford on the one side to the Amatole on the other 
is a distance of between forty and fifty miles. It will, there 
fore, be readily understood how impossible it must be for one 
Priest to overtake the work there is to be done. 

I ought also to mention here that Mr. C. M. Parnell, since 
his arrival from England, has been most zealous in carrying 
out the duties assigned to him. He has also visited the out- 
stations with me, thus gaining an insight into Mission work 
that will doubtless be of service to him in the future. 

To provide for the ordinary services at the out- stations I 
have mentioned I have a further staff of 13 native Catechists 
and Headers (four paid and nine unpaid) : Josiah Mjodi, John 
William Gawler (who is reading for Deacon s Orders), John 
Dhlengezela, Jonathan Mdhledhle, David Gulishe, Henry 
Tsengune, William Dumdum, John Maueutsa, Daniel Lwart- 
boy, James Ntsika, Judge Nthlungu, David Jinge, and 
Moses Lixesha. On the first Saturday of every month we 
all meet together at St. Matthew s to organise the work for 
the following month, to discuss any points that may be brought 
forward with reference to the Church and School work of the 
Mission, and for mutual counsel. It was also decided at our 
last meeting that a special day in every month should be fixed 
for the Lay Helpers to receive instruction from myself in 
theological knowledge. 

On the first Sunday of every month the out-stations are 
closed for morning service, and there is a general gathering at 
the home station. This arrangement is of long standing and 
appears to work very well. 

As a rule we have on these occasions a most impressive 
service, and a very large attendance at the celebration of Holy 
Communion. 



210 KEISKAMA HOEK. [ M j3jr" m?* 

The members of the Church in my district number about 
1,100 souls, and of these about 320 are communicants. The 
largest number present at any one celebration during the year 
was 142. 

On July 24 the Lord Bishop of the Diocese confirmed 52 
candidates, and I now have about 75 preparing to receive the 
rite. 

The number of baptisms for the year is 75 (25 adults and 
50 children). 

The School work has not been quite so prosperous as in 




the previous year. This is principally owing to the adverse 
circumstances I have referred to. 

The attendance has slightly fallen off, and I have been 
obliged to suspend temporarily the rule about the payment of 
school fees. 

This falling-off in the attendance in some of the old schools 
is, however, counterbalanced by the new schools I have lately 
established, and as they are all in good centres of the popu 
lation, I hope, with better times, they will show fully satisfac 
tory results. 



*juiy" fs87 d ] INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT. 211 

At the present time I have 4 Sunday schools and 10 day 
schools open; S of the latter receive Government aid, the 
other two are at present supported from local funds. There 
are about 400 children on the books of these schools. 

At St. Matthew s itself the average attendance in the 
boys school has been from 55 to 60, and in the girls from 
45 to 50. 

In the boys boarding establishment we have had an 
average of 50 in residence, 35 apprentices to the trades and 
15 scholars. 

Mrs. Taberer has had the supervision of this establish 
ment, as Lady Matron, since 1883. She is also the 
organist and librarian of the Mission. Having, moreover, 
a good practical knowledge of medicine, which has always 
been placed at the disposal of the station, it would be difficult 
to estimate the value of her services generally. 

In the boys Industrial Departments, carpentry, tin- 
smithing, wagon- making, blacksmithing, and gardening have 
been taught as in former years, each workshop having its own 
trade teacher to instruct the apprentices. Head wagon- 
maker (and senior trade teacher), Mr. E. J. Kidson ; black 
smith, Mr. Julius Smith ; carpenter, Mr. Carl Badloff ; 
tinsmith, Mr. George Smith. 

Work to the value of 2,109. 13s. Wd. has been com 
pleted in these departments during the year, and the profits 
on this work, amounting to 103. 13s. 9</., have been devoted 
to the reduction of the debt on the buildings. This is not as 
much as in some former years, but this is accounted for by 
the bad times we are passing through. 

Mr. E. Dollar is now the manager of the Industrial de 
partments, and it is a great relief to me to have secured the 
services of one so competent to take over the duties of the 
Institution office and the management of the works, as it 
enables me to give more time to other branches of my 
Missionary work. 

I have also a small printing press in work, and Mr. Dollar, 
who has charge of this, is teaching one of the boys this useful 
occupation. Half the value of the press was given to St. 



212 KEISKAMA HOEK. KlS^uS? 

Matthew s by the S.P.C.K. when I was in England last year. 
I find it very useful for printing Church circulars, choir music, 
and other documents necessary on the Mission. 

The boarders who are scholars work two hours every day 
in the garden under the supervision of the Eev. Mr. Maggs, 
and, in addition to the usual routine of work, have planted 
out during the past season 500 trees of various kinds. 

In the Girls Department the average number in residence 
during the year has been 22 (18 scholars and 4 apprentices). 

This department has for many years been under the 
efficient superintendence of Miss Lucas, and, as in previous 
years, the usual round of domestic duties has been taught, such 
as washing ironing, sewing, &c., during fixed hours every day. 

Work to the value of 95. 10s. has been completed by 
this department. 

During school hours the boarders, as well as day-scholars, 
are under Miss Banks, assisted by a native monitor, and I 
have every reason to be satisfied with her work. 

At the present moment Miss Lucas is enjoying a well- 
earned holiday in England, and during her absence Miss 
Banks, with occasional help and guidance from Mrs. Taberer, 
has charge of the girls both in school and out. 

The Mission Circulating Library now consists of about 600 
volumes, including many S.P.C.K. books, and the works of 
some of our best English authors. 

The library is open to the whole district, including the 
village of Keiskama Hoek, and is in the charge of Mrs. Taberer. 

We have also an Institution Cricket Club, open to residents 
on the Mission only. About thirty of the native boarders 
are members; Mr. E. Dollar is the captain, and up to date 
five matches have been played since the season began, one 
against Dale College, of King William s Town. A new cricket- 
ground is being rapidly improved, and it is a great pleasure 
to me to encourage the growing interest of the boys in this 
manly English game. 

The boys have also established among themselves a 
Debating Society, for mutual improvement in the knowledge 
of the English language. As this is subject to the super- 



M Juli" SB ] LABOBABE EST OBABE. 213 

vision of their masters, I shall give it every possible encour 
agement. The Society meets every Friday evening. 

The entire staff of the Mission, including the out-stations, 
consists of 2 ordained Missionaries, 15 catechists and readers, 
2 lady matrons, 12 teachers, 1 manager, and 4 trade teachers 
36 in all. The buildings on the Mission are all in good 
order ; 196. 11s. 4d. has been spent in repairs during the 
year. The cost of these buildings to date is 8,036. 8s. lOd. 
The debt on the 30th of June last (1886) was 1,779. 13s. lid. 
Of the 6,256. 14s. lid. paid off, only 1,961 has been 
received in donations and subscriptions from all sources. 
The remainder, 4,295. 14s. lid., has been raised by myself at 
St. Matthew s. 

In June of the previous year (1885) the debt was 
2,170. 5s. ; 390. 11s. Id. has, therefore, been paid off 
during the year. 

The offertories and donations I received during my visit 
to England enabled me to do this. 

I cannot conclude this report without expressing my 
gratitude to the Lord Bishop of the Diocese for his kind 
sympathy with me in the work of the Mission in all its 
branches, and for the help so freely given to enable me to 
make my Mission to England last year a success. 

I have also been encouraged and supported through many 
anxieties by the knowledge that my own view of Mission work 
among the natives of this country has the Bishop s entire 
concurrence; and year by year I am more arid more con 
vinced of the truth of what his Lordship said in his charge 
to the Synod in January last year, that " the truth ex 
pressed by the aphorism, Laborare cst orare, 1 has its message 
very necessary in these days for our native people," and 
that consecrated and dignified labour may do more than 
much preaching to prove that "Godliness is profitable unto 
all things, having the promise of the life that now is, and of 
that which is to come." 




THE CONFERENCES AND THE CENTENARY. 

[SPORTS are coming in from the several Organising 
Secretaries of the Conferences which have been 
held in all parts of the country with the double 
object of preparing for the celebration of the centenary of the 
Colonial Episcopate on the 12th of August next, and of making 
that commemoration a starting-point for a more thorough 
devotion on the part of Churchmen to the interests of the 
Society to which the Colonial Church owes so much. 

For instance, the Rev. Abel Phillips has sent an account 
of the Conferences held in the Archdeaconries of Wells and 
Taunt on : 

" Special Conferences of the Society s supporters and others were held 
in May at Wells, Taunton, Yeovil, and Minehead. At Wells, Bishop 
Abraham presided; at Taunton, Archdeacon Denison ; at Yeovil, the 
Bishop of the Diocese ; and at Minehead, the Rev. W. W. Herringham. 

" The attendances were on the whole good. The Kev. J. W. Festing was 
the representative of the Society at the Conferences. The impression is 
that good will result from the discussions that took place. There was 
much criticism, strongly expressed in some cases." 

After commenting on the discussions, he concludes : 

" I think the upshot of the Conferences will be 

" 1. To call attention to August the 12th, and to promote its 
observance. 

" 2. To lead some to give more thought to Missionary work, and 
to S.P.G. work in particular. 

" 3. To call out the sympathy and aid of some of the Clergy who could 
help us as speakers and preachers. 

" 4. To shake the faith of some in the absolute need of the costly and 
unsatisfactory system of deputations, and to make them depend more 
on local effort." 

The Eev. S. Blackburne gives accounts of the Conferences 
in the Dioceses of Exeter and Truro. At those in Devonshire 
the representative of the Standing Committee was Canon Bailey. 



"SB?! ?] PLYMOUTH AND TRURO. 215 

Torquay seems to have been the scene of much healthy criti 
cism and discussion. This is just what was wanted. The 
claims of this great cause are obscured by misapprehensions 
and misunderstandings in many quarters. One good result 
which is expected from the Conferences is that they may be 
removed, and the facts fully and truly presented. If this be 
done the strength of the Society s unique appeal must be felt 
in all its force. Mr. Blackburne thinks that our friends in 
Torquay have been aroused by the Conference from their 
apathy with regard to Missions, and will be more active and 
systematic in their future efforts, and adds : 

" I think those who were present were ashamed of the little that had 
been done in the town and neighbourhood." 

Archdeacon Earle spoke about the " luxuries of religion " 
indulged in by those who were indifferent to Mission work. 

At Barnstaple Lord Clinton presided. There was not a 
large attendance, but there were twenty clergy. 

At Plymouth a telling speech was made by Mr. Bond, the 
new Incumbent of St. James s, Devonport, who said that : 

" In a town parish it was difficult to get in an offertory for Missions, 
as there were so many other things to be taken in hand ; but the support 
of Missions is a pressing duty, and must be established, and at least 
one tenth of parochial income should be devoted to Missions. If the 
offertories amounted to 300 or 400 a year, 30 or 40 should go to the 
Society. He had worked up an association in his late parish, St. Peter s, 
Plymouth, on that principle. He thought that if funds were lacking, 
they ought to deny themselves the luxuries of religion." 

General Lowry went to Cornwall to represent the Standing 
Committee, but after attending the Launceston Conference he 
was compelled by ill health to return home. At Penzance it 
was brought out how the Society s publications ought to be 
better known than they are. 

At Truro the Bishop presided. There was much discussion 
on the subject of volunteer deputations. The Bishop spoke 
on this point, and then proceeded to urge the value of prayer : 

" The setting apart of a Day of Intercession had brought about great 
results. He advised that special deputations should be sent out by the 
Society immediately after the Day of Intercession, and he recommended 
the Committee to make preparations for such a crusade a long time 



216 THE CONFERENCES AND THE CENTENARY. [ M juiy" S d> 

beforehand. Say, look out in 1887 men of special gifts who would under 
take this work in 1889. 

" There was not enough said about Missions in the pulpit. Com 
plaint, too, had been made that volunteer deputations had not been made 
use of. 

" He suggested that we should go on to examine principles. A burn 
ing love of Jesus was the true moving power. Then, too, there was the 
principle of obedience to the command of our Blessed Lord. Then pity for 
those who are in darkness pity for the oppressed, such as had been 
called forth in the case of child-marriage in India. Federal union 
furnished another principle, and belief in the corporate nature of the 
Church." 

An Officer, who had served in the East and West Indies, 
said he was acquainted with Missions in various parts, and 
that men who engaged in them ought to have a knowledge of 
human nature. But the greatest difficulty in the way of a 
Missionary w 7 as the evil lives of so-called Christians. Too 
many Englishmen left their religion behind when they left 
English shores. He spoke deprecatingly of Hindoo Chris 
tians, and said officers wives would take as servants Moham 
medans and heathens in preference to Christian natives. 

In reply Mr. Blackburne informed the Conference that at 
a meeting at which he had given an account of the Chota 
Nagpore Mission, a gentleman had got up to say that he could 
endorse all he had said. That he was an Assam planter, and 
employed 300 or 400 coolies, many of whom were Chota 
Nagpore Christians, that they were the best servants that he 
had, and the most trustworthy, that they valued their religion 
so much that when an opportunity presented itself for attend 
ing services they would ask leave of absence, and promise to 
make up by extra work, and he always found them faithful to 
their word. 

Conferences have also been attended by General Lowiy 
at Guildford, Southsea, Portsmouth, Dover, and Brighton ; 
by the Eev. Canon Bailey at Lynn, Yarmouth, Hing- 
ham, Swaffham, and Downham ; by Archdeacon Burney 
at Petersfield ; by the Eev. Canon Cadman at Nottingham 
and Newark ; by the Eev. B. Belcher at Whitchurch, Sax- 
nmndham, Beccles, Lincoln, and Boston ; by the Bishop of 
Colchester at Norwich; by General Maclagan at Carlisle, 



"JSJM.Hw! 1 ] CONFERENCES. 217 

Kendal, and Barrow ; by the Rev. B. Compton at Worcester, 
Lewes, Stoke-on-Trent, Yatton and Mells, Lichfield, Eccles- 
hall, and Stratford-on-Avon ; by the Master of the Charter 
house at Chester and Manchester ; by the Rev. J. M. Burn- 
Murdoch at Aldershot and Southampton ; by the Rev. J. W. 
Festing at Wells, Weston-super-Mare, Bridgwater, Taunton, 
and Yeovil ; by the Rev. Prebendary Tucker at Exeter, 
Northampton, Chichester, Berkhampstead, Horsham, Farn- 
ham, Birkenhead, Leicester, Woodstock, Stowmarket, and 
Chislehurst ; by the Hon. and Rev. Canon H. Douglas 
at Chipping Norton, Wrexham, Denbigh, and Bangor ; by 
Archdeacon Randall at Henley-on-Thames ; by the Rev. 
H. Rowley at Guildford, Southport, and Lichfield ; by the 
Rev. E. P. Sketchley at Dorchester (Oxon.), Eastbourne, 
Newport, Usk, Llanelly, and Banbury ; by General Davies at 
Wokingham, Wallingford, Maidenhead, Shrivenham, and 
Wantage; by the Hon. and Rev. E. C. Glyn at Bridport 
and Dorchester. 

Conferences have also been held in the Diocese of London, 
at St. John s Wood, Hackney, Sion College, and Fulham. In 
the Diocese of Rochester, at Clapham and Lee. The Bishop 
of Rochester presided at the Lee Conference, and in his 
address spoke from personal knowledge of the past and present 
work of the Society in the United States and Canada, and 
warmly commended the Society to the support of his Diocese. 

Other Conferences still remain to be held. Reports of 
all are to be sent to the Society s office, where they will be 
considered by the Standing Committee. We hope to be able 
to give further extracts from them in the Mission Field. 





EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY WORK IN 
BORNEO. 

BY THE REV. J. PERHAM. 

I. WITH THE DYAKS. 

1HE Missions of the Church of England in Sarawak 
are mostly concerned with the Dyaks, who, as far 
as we know, are the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
country. They are divided into many tribes and 
clans, having distinctive languages and dialects, of which it is 
said about fifty are spoken in the island of Borneo. The follow 
ing jottings comprise some sketches and reminiscences of life 
and work among the Sea Dyaks of the West Coast, who in 
language and physiognomy resemble the typical Malay of the 
Eastern Archipelago. 

When, in 1867, I was preparing to join the Sarawak 
Missions, a good-natured British matron tried to dissuade 
me from what she considered a perilous enterprise. She 
evidently thought that all natives of distant countries were 
pure savages, and she gave me to understand that I should 
possibly be killed and eaten. The Dyak was a character 
then but little known. What had been told of him to the 
English world was mostly connected with piracy and inter 
tribal warfare. It was not that his better features were 
altogether ignored, but they were hidden by his rougher 
doings in blood and smoke, which kept a stronger hold of the 
imagination than the everyday actions of his home-life. 
Everybody except a few thought he must be a bloodthirsty 
savage. On the other hand, I was told by one man that I 
was going to a race of most simple-minded and docile people, 
who possessed all the virtues of Christianity, and only waited 
the arrival of the Missionary to flock to his instructions. 



R juifuSr ldl ] WORK IN BORNEO. 219 

Both these conceptions are far removed from the truth. The 
Dyak is by no means a wild, shaggy, fierce man of the woods, 
ever thirsting for human blood ; nor is he a pure-minded 
innocent. In the inland parts he is scantily clothed, a 
waist-cloth, with a few bits of finery, being the extent of his 
vesture ; but in the littoral districts, both in clothing and 
feature, he is often hardly distinguishable from the Malay, 
with his coat and trousers. His faults are grave, his short 
comings and inherited superstitions many, and a long period 
of misrule and no rule in the past has given free scope for all 
the worst elements of his nature to assert themselves ; but he 
is quiet, hardworking, honest, and hospitable, full of talk, 
joke, and good-nature, and plods away at his poor system of 
paddy-growing, and is ever ready to earn a cent and save a 
cent where he can. 

The Dyaks live either in the deep and gloomy forests 
inland, or on the cleared spaces on the banks of the rapidly- 
flowing rivers, so numerous as to make Borneo perhaps the 
most plentifully-watered and plentifully-wooded country in 
the whole Eastern world. These rivers are Nature s highways, 
and the Dyaks in their canoes glide over the swift tides, or 
shoot the leaping rapids in pursuit of life s occupations, 
farming, fishing, hunting, or may be attacking their tribal 
enemies, which in these latter days, under a better govern 
ment, takes, when it does happen, the more civilised form of 
inflicting punishment by command of authority upon the 
disturbers of peace. 

And now I must ask the reader to leap in thought over 
some 900 miles of sea and land, and to come with me and 
have a look at our life and work among these children of the 
far East. We go spinning along in our boat up the Lingga 
river of Sarawak, following closely after the tidal bore, which 
in some parts of the river breaks out into a foaming wave from 
bank to bank. As we turn a bend of the stream, after an 
hour s paddling, we get our first peep of Banting Mission, a 
white-fronted house, nestling among the trees about a mile 
off in a straight line, but nearly four miles of winding water 
have to be got over before we reach it. Stepping out of the 



220 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY [^ 

boat at the landing-place, we find ourselves at the foot of a 
sandstone hill about 200 feet high. Climbing up a path in 
places almost perpendicular, we are rewarded with a beautiful 
view of tropical country. A great expanse of lowland primeval 
forest stretches to seaward ; on all other sides are magnificent 
mountains ; some are near at hand, covered with luxuriant 
vegetation even to the summit, like Lingga, which we regard 
as an interesting neighbour, ever developing new combinations 
of mantling cloud and mist, of light and shade ; whilst others 
loom purple in the far distance, like the Kalingkang range, 
which divides Sarawak from the Dutch possessions. Looking 
down, we gaze upon several miles of river " meandering with 
a noisy motion," doubling and redoubling in its sinuosities, 
as though to make us doubt at which point we emerged into 
view. The hill is covered with fruit trees, mostly durian, 
that renowned fruit, to taste which, Miss Wallace says, is 
worth a journey from England to Borneo. Its flavour, to my 
mind, is like that of a mixture of Devonshire cream, custard, 
and sugar, with a strong dash of garlic, altogether inexpres 
sibly delicious to those who eat it amongst whom a Missionary 
is bound to be numbered, at whose door they fall ripe and 
odoriferous from the majestic trees around. Most Europeans, 
however, require a little education of the palate before they 
can appreciate it so highly ; some never do, but think it most 
abominable both in smell and taste. 

The house is a plain building of wood with two storeys ; 
the upper one being the private apartments of the Missionary, 
and the lower a habitation for Dyak school-boys and a general 
assembly room for all comers. 

Along the foot of the hill are the native houses, containing 
a population of about 860 Dyaks, who live by planting rice on 
the swampy lowlands, which are covered with a tall, reedy 
grass. In former times, when intertribal wars ravaged the 
country, the Dyaks lived on the hill, which they fortified and 
held against all foes ; but the reign of peace, brought about 
by the advent of Sir J. Brooke, made it possible for them to 
build below on the banks of the stream, which is their road 
for nearly all purposes of life. 



M JSlS d ] WORK IN BORNEO. 221 

A Dyak dwelling is both a village and a house. It is a 
house inasmuch as all the inmates live under one roof, and 
the private rooms of each family open out on to a common 
verandah ; and it is a street inasmuch as the verandah is a 
public place, open to all comers, and used as a road by 
travellers. Here the men carry on various occupations, make 
nets, baskets, and even boats, and the women pound the 
paddy, and the stranger comes and goes, or squats to eat the 
betel nut and pepper-leaf mixtures. The length of the build 
ing varies according to the number of families who club 
together under the headship of one man, and these range from 
two or three to forty or fifty. The whole structure is raised 
on posts about 12 or 15 feet from the ground. The floor 
is made of laths of split palm trees or bamboo, so that all 
the dirt and rubbish can easily fall through to the ground. 
In this verandah-street live also the dogs and fowls, happy 
enough with their very sociable owners ; and the pigs feed, 
grunt, and sleep below on the ground. Altogether it is a 
malodorous mixture, not agreeable to those unaccustomed to 
such a medley of incongruous surroundings. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

ON Wednesday, June 22nd, the Society s Anniversary 
Service took place in St. Paul s Cathedral. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury celebrated the Holy Communion, 
the Bishop of Tennesse reading the Epistle, and the Bishop 
of London the Gospel. The sermon was preached by the 
Eight Eev. W. S. Perry, D.D., Bishop of Iowa, from 
Psalm ii. 8: "Desire of me, and I shall give thee the 
heathen for thine inheritance," &c. The sermon will be 
printed. There were also present the Bishops of Durham, 
Hereford, Kochester, Antigua, New Westminster, and Mada 
gascar. The service on the same day in Westminster Abbey, 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ 

and the gathering in Hyde Park in connection with the 
Queen s Jubilee, no doubt made the congregation a smaller 
one than usual. 

AT St. Peter s, Eaton Square, on Sunday, June 12th, the 
sermon was preached on behalf of the Society by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 



FKOM reports received from all parts of the country, we 
gather that the solemn observance of the Centenary of 
the Colonial Episcopate, on August 12th, will be very general, 
both in parochial services and in larger gatherings at con 
venient centres. 

In particular, there will be special services at nearly all 
the Cathedrals. 

AT St. Paul s Cathedral the sermon will be preached by 
the Lord Bishop of the Diocese, and there is reason 
to hope that in most of the Cathedrals the Bishops will be 
the preachers on this great occasion. 



ST. Andrew s Church, Pan, has hitherto been an iron 
structure ; a more desirable site than the present one 
has now been acquired, and a stone church is to be built. 
Church-people at Pau especially one generous lady have 
given liberally. Some hundreds of pounds are still needed, 
and subscriptions for the Church Building Fund will be 
received by the Society s Treasurers. 

IN the United States the Queen s Jubilee has not been 
without hearty celebration. The Bishop of Iowa 
issued the following document to his Diocese : 

I hereby license and appoint, on occasion of the Jubilee Observance 
of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, for use at St. George s Church, LeMars, 
and in other congregations and churches of the Diocese of Iowa where it 
may be desired to hold such service, any portion of the Form of Prayer 
with Thanksgiving for the day of the Queen s Accession, appended to 
the English Prayer-Book, or The Form of Thanksgiving and Prayer to 
Almighty God^upon the Completion of Fifty Years of Her Majesty s 



M NOTES OF THE MONTH. 223 

Reign, set forth by the Archbishop of Canterbury ; such verbal changes 
being made by the officiating clergyman, in the Collects and Prayers thus 
licensed, as are necessary to adapt them to the use of those not subjects 
of Her Majesty. 

AFTEE many months of illness the Rev. W. Panckridge 
passed to his rest on Friday, June 10. Among the 
many departments of Church life in which he was prominent 
the cause of the Society had always a place very near his 
heart. He was one of the two representatives of the Diocese 
of London on the Standing Committee. The scene at the 
funeral service in the Church of Saint Bartholomew s, Smith- 
field, which owes its restored beauty to his exertions, was a 
remarkable one. The crowded congregation embraced repre 
sentatives of many interests and many schools of thought as 
well as those whose pastor he had been, all mourning that a 
life so valuable should have been so short. 

IT is announced that the Rev. Charles Edward Camidge, 
M.A., Wadham College, Oxford, Canon and Prebendary 
of York Minster, Proctor in Convocation, Vicar of Thirsk, 
and Rural Dean, has been offered, and has accepted, the 
Bishopric of Bathurst, void by the resignation of the Right 
Rev. S. E. Marsdcn. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, June 17th, at 2 P.M., Lord Robartes in the chair. There were also 
present the Bishop of Antigua and the Rev. B. Compton, Vice- Presidents] 
Canon Betham, Rev. J. M. Burn-Murdoch, C. Churchill, Esq., General Davies, 
Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, General Lowry, C.B., General Nicolls, General 
Sawyer, General Tremenheere, C.B., and S. Wrcford, Esq., Members of the 
Standing Committee ; and Rev. J. Boodle, Rev. T. Darling-, T. Dunn, Esq., 
Rev. Dr. Finch, Rev. F. C. Green, Rev. J. W. Horsley, Rev. G. C. Reynell, Rev. 
C. II. Rice, Rev. G. Salmon, Rev. C. Wyatt-Smith, Rev. C. A. Solbe\ and Rev. 
R. Tayler, Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Receipts and 
Payments from January 1st to May 31st : 



Subscriptions, Collections, &c. 
Legacies 


GENERAL FUND 
12,909 
926 


SPECIAL FUXDS 
4,313 


Dividends, &c 


1 497 


2009 








TOTAL RECEIPTS 
PAYMENTS 


15.332 
34,507 


6,322 
6,451 



The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the Genera! 
Fund from January 1st to May 31st, in five consecutive years, compare as follows: 1383 
13,153 ; 1884, 12,076 ; 1885, 12,297 ; 1886, 11,425 ; 1887, 12,909. 



224 MONTHLY MEETING. lS?, d 

o. The Rev. F. P. L. Josa, from the Diocese of Guiana, South 
America, addressed the members. He described the operations of the 
Church as including, besides large Colonial work, Missions for the 
aboriginal Indians, for East Indian coolies (both Hindi and Urdu), 
Chinese coolies, Portuguese, and some 200,000 West Indians. In his 
own parish there were 7,000 Christian Creoles, whose character he de 
scribed as better than was sometimes thought. He spoke in words of 
warm admiration of the work among the heathen aborigines, of whom 
4,500 have been baptized since Mr. Brett began his work in 1840. Mr. 
Brett started two Missions. There are now three more. The converts 
show their devotion by their offerings of their produce and handiwork. 
They erected satisfactory Mission buildings, having had to be taught the 
use of carpentering tools by the Missionaries. Mr. Josa spoke of the 
highly promising work at the Potaro Mission. He then proceeded to 
speak of the work among the coolies in which he is more particularly 
engaged. He said he has three districts in the parish, each under the 
charge of a native catechist, half of whose salary was raised in the 
parish, and half paid from the Coolie Mission Fund, which the Society 
aids. He spoke of the care required in admitting to Holy Baptism, as 
some coolies would offer themselves with too much readiness. He 
mentioned that 75 per cent, of the Chinese in the parish were Christians, 
who showed their earnestness by their liberal subscriptions. They were 
not rich, but they believed, and therefore they gave. 

He spoke of the wonderful career of the venerable Bishop, who is now 
so full of vigour, though aged 81, that he can tire out young men among 
his clergy in his tours, and described a severe day s work performed by 
his lordship on the occasion of his last visit to the parish. 

Mr. Josa said that 2,250 had been recently raised in his parish for 
the parish church, which he had left out of debt. 

The Kev. George Salmon, also from Guiana, happened to be present 
at the Meeting, and gave much information as to the manner in which 
the Society s grants were administered. He described as " magnificent " 
the work which is being done at the important college for training native 
agents at Bel- Air. He also mentioned that there was provision for one or 
two more missionary clergymen, and hoped that suitable men would offer 
themselves. 

4. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in April were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
October : 

Eev. A. T. Davidson, Scorton, Garstang ; Rev. E. H. Perowne, D.D., 
Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge; Frederick Wood, Esq., P>ostol Hill School, 
Abbey Wood, Kent ; E. Saunders, Esq., 1 Burgo) r ne Villas, Stoke, Devonport ; 
Eev. E. Atkinson, D.D., Master of Clare College, Cambridge ; Eev. J. H. Orpen, 
Newnham, Cambridge ; Professor G. D, Liveing, Newnham, Cambridge ; Sir 
G. E. Paget, St. Peter s Terrace, Cambridge ; Eev. Norman Macleod Ferrers, 
D.D., Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge ; Rev. H. W. Fulford, 
Clare College, Cambridge ; Eev. W. Eaynes, Clare College, Cambridge ; Rev. 
Robert Phelps,D.D., Master of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; Rev. Headley 
Willson, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge ; Rev. A. Delme Eadcliffe, St. Andrew- 
the-Less, Cambridge ; G. M. Edwards, Esq., Sidney Sussex College, Cam 
bridge; Eev. H. L. Paget, St. Ives, Hunts ; and Eev. E. Heriz Smith, Pembroke 
College, Cambridge. 



THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




AUGUST 1, 1887. 

DELHI. 

THE BISHOP OF LAHORE S RECORD OF HIS LORDSHIP S FIFTH VISITA 
TION OF THE DELHI MISSION IN FEBRUARY. 

[S my visitation last year was much broken by the 
camp of exercise, so this year also by the Jubilee 
of the Queen Empress being fixed unexpectedly for 
the 16th of this month, I had to visit Lahore for the Cathedral 
services and other ceremonials connected with the Jubilee ra 
the middle of one of the weeks I had hoped to devote to a closer 
inspection of the schools, and numerous educational and 
medical institutions. These give a practical thoroughness and 
solidarity to the Mission work here, with which even Amritsar 
itself can scarcely vie, though the latter place has a larger 
number of educated converts, the Mission being of older stand 
ing and there being a survival of some of the fittest in a few 
veterans in experience as well as age. 

My work at St. Stephen s was confined to preaching on 
two Sundays, a confirmation and an address to the workers of 
the Mission in Hindustani ; this last was given on Ash Wednes 
day, at 12 o clock, after the Litany had been read. On Sundays, 
13th and 20th, I preached, on the former at the 8 o clock 
service (also being celebrant at the Holy Communion), and on 

NO. CCCLXXX. L 



226 DELHI. 

the second at the evening service at 5 P.M., the sermon answer 
ing the purpose of a confirmation address, on Ephesians iv. 28. 
Eighteen young people were admitted to the Holy ordinance. 

During my visit several interesting gatherings of native 
gentlemen, Christian and non-Christian both, were planned 
and carried into effect through the kind forethought of the 
senior Missionaries, Messrs. Winter, Lefroy, and Allnutt. 
One of these was a gathering of catechists and readers, chiefly 
from the city itself and its suburbs, and a very few from the 
country districts. About 40 of these must have been assembled 
and their opinions consulted on some questions of very vital 
moment affecting the disciplinary action of the Church as 
sketched with much anxious thought by the whole Missionary 
body of clergy at Delhi, and which has received my sanction 
and confirmation as Bishop. 

This visitation, far more than any former one, owing to 
painful circumstances (of which I need scarcely request that 
records should be kept, pretty fairly and cloarly detailing the 
state of things in the archives of the Mission), had to deal with 
questions of Church order and discipline, especially the exercise 
of the power of the keys committed to the Church by Christ 
for opening and closing the door of entrance into the Church 
of Christ, or to its highest and holiest privileges. I hope I shall 
never forget the solemnity attaching to this visit. 

Another gathering to which great interest attached was 
one of the chief native gentry of the city at Mr. Winter s house, 
whom he had invited at my request, to give me the pleasure of 
making their acquaintance and entertaining them with light 
refreshments. Through some mistake about the time,, the 
interview was limited to a shorter space of time than I had 
hoped, but there was a large and distinguished gathering, which 
would scarcely have been possible but for the gracious accept 
ance and measure of success granted of God to Mr. Lefroy s 
loving and patient efforts to bring together at least to outward 
and temporary (I trust and pray it may prove inward and 
abiding) reconciliation the Hindu and Mahommedan gentry, 
and merchants of the city, whom a feud, now of many months 
standing, has terribly estranged and embittered, to the extent 



, THE BISHOP S VISITATION 227 

of the employment of a boycotting system, which has been most 
embarrassing to the Government. I pray that the blessing 
promised by our Lord to the peacemakers may be largely 
reaped by my brother and his comrades. Events of this sort 
need, as they feel deeply, to be most humbly acknowledged, and 
the glory given to Him who is our Peace and the Prince of 
Peacemakers. 

This contributed to the very fair success of another gather 
ing in the upper room of the Public Library, on the evening 
of the 25th, where some 80 or 90 native gentlemen must have 
been assembled, under the presidency of one of the leading 
native magistrates of the city, to hear an address I delivered 
to them on the character, life, and reign of our Queen Empress, 
and to which I did but very scant justice, owing to the brain 
pressure and consequent loss of memory which a series of ex 
hausting engagements had produced. 

A different kind of gathering, but of a less formal and more 
hearty kind, embraced the whole Mission staff, men and 
women, lay and clerical, native and European one of the 
brightest things going in all my Indian experience. This meet 
ing, after the Sunday evening services, is for tea, fruit, and 
sandwiches ; and still more for mutual encouragement and 
friendly inquiries touching the newest and most salient 
features of the work in each case, as well as a short service of 
song to close with. 

I regretted much that the number of holidays in connection 
\vith the Jubilee season prevented my visiting the Mission 
High School, which has so grown in numbers and the standard 
of merit attained by the students, that the energies of almost 
every member of the Mission clerical staff, from the youngest 
to the eldest, are more or less contributed to make it as perfect 
an institution as such a happily-planned educational centre 
demands. Mr. Allnutt is Principal, but it is refreshing to see 
the hearty warmth and devotion with which his brethren rally 
around him, and second his exceptionally wise, methodical, and 
often original methods of study. The unmistakably and avowedly 
Christian character of the school has maintained itself grow- 
ingly instead of losing ground, and in spite of this its hold 

L2 



"H^T TTT [Mission Field, 

JJELHI. L Aug. l, 1887. 

on the community and the high respect and I might say 
pride with which it is regarded are established in the same 
proportion. In this our friends and supporters at home will 
find matter of praise and rejoicing. 

I looked over Miss Engleman s New Women s Hospital 
from base to roof. It is a striking feature of the Mission, and 
worthy of a department of labour which has made conspicuous 
progress in this diocese by God s goodness, and is one of the 
most helpful agencies for turning the hearts of the disobedient 
to the wisdom of the just. I could have wished that on such 
a great occasion as the Jubilee of the Queen Empress a grand 
memorial in some central spot of the diocese, utilising Christian 
ladies gifts in the way of healing and nursing, as well as 
teaching and soothing, could have found favour with the com 
mittees formed in the large stations to fix on the best monu 
ment of so good and noble a reign prolonged through such a 
length of years. 

The Christian Girls Boarding School, under Mrs. Seymour, 
with about 40 pupils, was visited and examined. Mr. Winter 
is much to be congratulated on the good success attending his 
efforts in the way of excellent buildings, perfect arrangements, 
and the devotion of the lady in charge to her great task, so 
that the visit I paid with Mr. Kelley to the school was 
quite enjoyable. 

Still more has he experienced God s marked goodness 
and blessing in providing for the head of his lady workers a 
person so well endowed and fitted for the office as he has, 
found in Mrs. Scott, the offer of whose gratuitous services 
for so laborious a work in such a climate is one of those 
blessed fruits which this century is ever producing afresh of 
the power of the Cross and the Kesurrection, a lasting witness 
to which (we all trust and believe), in the shape of the Cathedral 
Church of the Eesurrection at Lahore, was completed for 
divine worship and consecrated to our risen Lord about a week 
before I set out on this visitation. I had the pleasure of 
holding a kind of dedication service on the evening of the 
llth at St. Stephen s Ladies Home, Messrs. Winter -and 
Maitland kindly accompanying me, and addressing some 



"SSlT.TsSf 1 ] A VILLAGE CONGREGATION. 229 

words of hearty encouragement and fatherly welcome to the 
lady principal and her fellow workers, and the young ladies in 
training for varied Mission services. I have been able entirely 
to approve the system of well-adjusted and edifying rules laid 
down with the consent of the whole Mission staff for the 
direction of the house, subscribed to also and loyally practised 
in the main by the members of the Home. 

I paid a short visit to the Mission Boarding School for 
boys and the readers training school. They appear to be in 
dispensable and steadily-sustained links of the long chain of 
effort which composes the Mission. 

Much of the last two days (24th and 25th February) was 
.spent with Mr. Lefroy in a little expedition to the village of 
Fatehpur, beyond Mahroli (close to the Kootul), where there 
is a small flock of Christian chamars, consisting of about 
fifteen families, baptized into the church at the last Whitsun 
season. Two services were held and addresses given, one by 
Mr. Lefroy and another by myself, on such points as we 
thought likely to build up and establish them. There was a 
heartiness and quiet simplicity about this little flock, and 
a warmth and sturdiness about their singing (which was of a 
purely indigenous stamp) that seemed full of promise and gave 
the impression that the Christian faith was domesticated, had 
found a settled home amongst them, and was no exotic plant, 
as appears in some cases. The reader appears to be a genuine 
character, and his wise counsels and patient endeavours in 
church, school, and choir have doubtless contributed to the 
good results. 

I dare not attempt to express here my deep (perhaps too 
selfish) regrets at the loss to this diocese and the Delhi Mission 
of the first head of the Cambridge band, now transferred to 
the chief pastorate of the Diocese of Japan, and the removal 
by death (after a struggle bravely sustained for two or three 
years at home against the debilitating effects of toil and 
climate) of an energetic and zealous young labourer, Mr. 
Biackett, one of the first six who joined the Cambridge Mission 
at Delhi. 




NORTH CHINA. 

LETTER FROM THE BISHOP. 

Yung-Ching, Peking : 12th February, 1887. 

HAVE been enabled to get away for a time from the 
city, and am paying a rather longer visit than 
usual to this little station. I am glad to be able 
to report well of the work here on the whole. The Subdeacon- 
Chun is at present in Peking assisting in the Eefuge for 
destitute poor, which we have opened again this winter. I 
have therefore brought with me the other Subdeacon-Chang, 
and we live together in the little inn where I have always been 
entertained in this place. 

We arrived on Thursday, 3rd February, in the evening, 
and met some of the Christians on the following morning at 
the Church-room. On the Sunday we had a celebration of 
Holy Communion at 9.30, followed by morning prayer with 
sermon at 11, or as soon after as the want of clocks and the 
cold morning allowed the Christians to assemble. The little 
room was almost full, from 50 to 55 persons being present 
more than I have yet seen here. Of these 43 are on our 
register as baptized or as catechumens. The last time I was 
down here I brought some of the disused furniture from our 
Church in Peking, and the room which we use here looked 
very bright and church-like : the service was most enjoyable, 
though there is much to be desired in the way of singing 
and responses. A considerable number of the people cannot 
read at all, and have had to learn their catechism, or parts 
of it, orally from other Christians. In the afternoon the con 
gregation was somewhat smaller, and it was fortunate that 
it was so, for otherwise we should hardly have had room 
for the decent performance of the functions which were in 
cluded in the service, viz. the baptism of an infant and 
the admission of seven persons as catechumens. This latter 



*AuJ?" fi e 7 ld ] BY THEIR FRUITS YE SHALL KNOW THEM. 231 

feature was very encouraging, though so far as I can judge 
the individuals are some of them not so hopeful as some 
former candidates. I have spent the whole week here, and 
every day after morning prayers have given an address on 
Holy Communion to the Christians, that is, to such of them 
as could manage to come on week-days. Happily this time 
of the year the first moon is devoted chiefly to pleasure, 
and the more earnest Christians were ready to make the 
church their meeting ground, rather than some neighbour s 
house. I was induced to give these addresses by the consi 
deration that there are five or six persons hoping to receive 
the Holy Communion for the first time to-morrow. Most 
of these were able to come, and there were a few others 
(some communicants and some hoping to become so) who 
also attended. One of those intending to receive to-morrow 
is the man of whom I wrote last year, who suffered so 
much persecution from his family for becoming a Christian. 
His quiet Christian behaviour has had its effect on his wife, 
who sometimes sends him off to church now with a grim 
sort of kindness : formerly she would do all she could to 
hinder him. Another occurrence pleasant to relate also had 
a considerable influence upon the woman. She had an illness, 
and her own sons who were living in the house took little 
notice of her, and did not put themselves out at all on her 
account. A somewhat distant relative of her husband, a good 
earnest Christian, went frequently to inquire after her, got 
her some medicine, and generally took care of her, and this 
conduct, contrasted with that of her unfilial sons, both excited 
her surprise and softened her prejudices. 

There is another of the little band whom ft will be a great 
pleasure to admit to Holy Communion, one of the best 
Christians I have met with anywhere. She was baptized and 
confirmed when I was here last spring, in May or June. Her 
husband was one of the earlier Christians connected with the 
Mission ; they live in a village three or four miles from this 
city, and the man had grown careless and neglectful in the 
matter of attendance at Sunday services. It pleased God (I 
do not know what was the human agency) to move the wife s 



232 NORTH CHINA. [ 1 SS?*Sf 

heart, and she stirred up her husband to resume his neglected 
duties, and set to work herself with admirable perseverance to 
learn from him enough characters to enable her to commit to 
memory the Church Catechism, and now she has carefully 
plodded through a little manual on the Holy Communion, 
translated by Mr. Brereton before his visit to England. It 
fills me with fresh faith and hope to see but one instance of 
what our blessed religion can do when it takes root in good 
ground. Again, I am much pleased to see a man who was 
amongst the earliest of the Christians here become a regular 
attendant at worship once more, after an absence of some 
years. Another man who attended the services for some time 
ten years ago has come forward again and been admitted as a 
-catechumen. All this is cheering, and, amidst much that is 
trying and difficult, makes me very thankful. On Friday two 
more were received as catechumens, an old woman of 81 
years of age and her daughter-in-law, the mother and wife of 
a Christian of old standing, and to-morrow I hope to baptize 
one adult and to confirm two. The one who is to be baptized 
interests me much. I hope we shall not be disappointed in 
him ; he was admitted as catechumen by Mr. Sprent more 
tlian a year ago, and has attended service well since then ; he 
is one of those who are apparently "seeking goodly pearls," 
and from the Buddhist sect in which he tried to find them has 
gathered a rather strange abstracted manner. He knows no 
characters and has failed to commit any to memory, but 
he seems a very thoughtful man otherwise. In the after 
noon we have been either visiting the Christians in their 
homes or having a consultation with some of them about 
the affairs of the Church here. I have given you the 
bright side of things so far ; there is always plenty of the 
reverse. The difficulties about procuring the land which we 
require for Church purposes do not diminish ; the Christians 
are nearly all poor people, and the magnates of the place are 
arrayed against us, and are anxious to prevent our obtain, 
ing the property. Perhaps the opposition may lead to our 
having some better place ; for this has the disadvantage of 
being adjacent to the police-court and magistrate s present 



Mission Field,"! 
Aug. i, 1887. J 



dwelling-house, so that we can actually hear the poor delin 
quents being beaten as we worship in our room. 

We hope to return to Peking on Monday, and after a short 
stay to start again to Ho-chien, and possibly go on to Tai-an- 
foo, but this is very uncertain. After my return I have hopes 
of being able to join Bishop Bickersteth, of Japan, in a short 
visit to Corea. 

Mr. Greenwood has been at Chefoo during the winter, 
Mr. Smith having returned to England to seek surgical treat 
ment for an old ailment, which has reappeared. It was with 
much thankfulness that we saw Mr. Brereton and his family 
return, and with them Miss Eyre and Miss Skelton, who 
hope to work amongst the women and girls in Peking. 

Since I wrote in August our Church in Peking has been 
enlarged and much improved by the addition of a baptistry 
and font, organ-chamber, vestry and bell-cot. It is not a 
very sightly building externally, being a plain Chinese room 
adapted to its present purpose, but the interior looks very 
well indeed. There too we have four catechumens under 
instruction for Holy Baptism ; a larger number, small as it is, 
than we have been accustomed to in Peking. 

Mr. Brereton has been largely occupied during the winter 
in superintending the Kefuge, of which I made mention before. 
He has arranged to procure the services of a native doctor, 
who has acquired a knowledge of Western medical science, and 
with the help of Chan, the Sub-deacon, has made the experi 
ment to answer very well. We ought to have an English 
doctor at once, that we may be able to carry on the work all 
the year round in some form or other. This Kefuge has been 
entirely supported, as it was last winter, by the contributions 
of foreign residents in Peking. 

During the last year we have begun to teach some of the 
school boys in Peking manual trades. Now we have a small 
carpenters class of three, and a type-cutting class of four ; 
these latter simply carve characters on wooden blocks in the 
Chinese fashion, but they will soon be useful to us, enabling 
ns to print small books for our own use at a small cost. 




THE CONFERENCES AND THE CENTENARY. 

1VEKAL Conferences have been held in various 
parts of the country since those which we recorded 
last month. General Lowry, C.B., was present 
as the representative of the Standing Committee at one 
held at Devizes on June 24th, when the chair was taken 
by the Lord Bishop of Salisbury. In the course of the dis 
cussion the Archdeacon of Wilts said : 

" He had come to the conclusion that the reason Mission work did not 
prosper as they wished it to in that immediate neighbourhood was be 
cause it was crowded out : because there was such an immense number 
of other associations and organisations for good demanding their efforts, 
and they lost the sense of proportion. This great and grand work, 
this essential part of the Gospel, was crowded out by a variety of other 
most admirable schemes, which demanded, and which took from them, 
whether they would or not, those energies many of which ought to be 
more concentrated than they were on the fundamental." 

In the evening the Bishop presided over a public meeting, 
and said in his opening remarks : 

" The reason why he wished especially to ask their presence and 
attention was because he thought it was a most desirable thing that this 
* venerable society more than 186 years old, having been founded in 
the year 1701 should have an opportunity of laying before them, not 
only its claims as a society, but that aspect of the work of the Church 
which it was best fitted to present to them. It was not, of course, that it 
was a society restricted to one particular field, but its great field, its 
original field, was the colonies and dependencies of the British nation. 
As a matter of fact, it had been instrumental in founding 32 out of 
the 67 bishoprics which had been founded in the last fifty years. 
That was a very great piece of work to have done. It had not only 
done that, but educated the dioceses to help themselves, by giving them 
grants which were expected to be grants only for a limited period ; so 
that gradually diocese after diocese had. shaken off its dependence on the 
mother country and had become independent. Almost all the dioceses 



dl ] THE BISHOP OF SALISBURY. 235 

In North America, Australia, and New Zealand were now independent. 
They had passed out of the stage of pupilage, and become, as they ought 
to become, independent dioceses. Therefore, he thought they had to 
thank the Society for teaching a most valuable lesson to the Church of 
England for teaching the way to plant the Church so that it would be 
self-supporting a lesson which would be quite as valuable to us in this 
country as it had been to our English fellow- Christians in those distant 
lands. They knew that the time was coming when they would have to 
make much greater demands upon the people of England for the support 
of the Church of England. The clergy were growing poorer every year. 
The number of the population was increasing every year, and every year 
they were more and more forced to throw themselves upon the generosity 
of the people. And this Society, in teaching the poor especially to preach 
the Gospel to the poor, had taught the Church of England an "absolutely 
necessary lesson. And so he thought, for the sake of their own English 
Christianity at home, as well as for those many hundreds of cousins and 
brothers and sisters of theirs who had gone abroad to the colonies, they 
ought to support this Society. Every one of them, he was sure, had a 
relative in some of the colonies. Just let them think what they them 
selves would be if they had not got a church near at hand to go to : if 
they lived outside the sound of church bells. What an interest it ought 
to be to them to provide those privileges which God had given them in 
their own land for their own friends and their own flesh and blood out 
side it ! But over and above that work, which was the foundation work 
of the Society, they ought to know that about one-half of the income of 
the Society was spent in one great and remarkable heathen country 
India. He did not suppose that they were aware of that fact. That was 
a feeling which would, of course, stimulate the imagination of the poet, 
and the philosopher, and the theologian, and the historian. If he were 
to tell them the little he knew about India, it would take him much 
longer than he could give to the whole meeting to-night ; but if they 
were to read a few books on India they would at once see that the subject 
was inexhaustive. It was the great jewel of the British Crown, which 
God had given into our hands that country of India. And the more 
they knew about it, the more they felt and must feel that God had put 
it into our hands for the purpose of making it Christian, and making it 
Christian in the best possible way. There were times in the history of 
the world when conquest and conversion went hand in hand ; when the 
conqueror came and imposed his religion upon the people, as the great 
Charlemagne did ; or, to go back to earlier times, when the Empire be 
came Christian under Constantine, when it was a matter of course that 
all courtiers and everybody in the employ of the Government should 
become Christian too, in order to keep the favour of the Govern 
ment. Those days have entirely passed a\yay. Though many, he 
was thankful to say, serving in the army and in the civil service had 
been interested in the conversion of India, yet it was in all essen 
tials a purely voluntary and a very difficult act for the Hindoo or the 
Mussulman to perform, when he throws off his religion to take that 

L 4 



236 THE CONFERENCES AND THE CENTENARY. PSj.5B? i 

which had all the prestige of conquest about it in the person of his 
English Governor. Though India had been ours so long, Indian Missions 
had not really been of any force or power much more than eighty years. 
For a long time Indian Missions were discouraged by the Government. 
Missionaries were driven, almost banished, from the shores ; and even 
now there was a great deal of tacit discouragement on the part of some 
officials in India. And so he said that we had to look to voluntary 
agencies like those of this Society if ever our nation was to do her 
duty towards that great country. She was doing it. He held in 
his hand a report of what had happened lately in Tinnevelly, 
where 16 native clergymen were ordained at one time by Bishop 
Caldwell, after three months probation. Upon reading it, he said to his 
chaplains that this was the kind of thing they ought to do in the Diocese 
of Salisbury. They could not conceive how painful it was to a Bishop to 
have just a few interviews with a young man, just two or three days of 
examination and preparation for orders, to have to depend for all the rest 
upon the testimony of other people, and then to have the responsibility 
,of sending out that man or those men to be the representatives of the 
Church throughout the Diocese. And so he said to his chaplains, Now, 
if God gives us strength, we must do something of this kind. And to 
make a beginning, what I shall try to do this year is to call all the men 
together on the 1st of December and to let them stay with me for those 
three weeks. That will be something for a beginning. This was an 
instance of the sort of work which was being don 3 to stimulate, and set us 
an example by that Diocese of Madras, which a short time ago was so 
dull and dark. He came there that night and asked them to take into 
their heart that great Society ; to give it some of their spare interest. He 
did not in the least degree wish to take away anything that was given to 
the Church Missionary Society. He had a very great respect for that 
Society. He thought that in many respects it set an example which he 
wished the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel would follow; 
there were many other points in which it set a brilliant and most 
fruitful example; and the work which it had done had been blessed 
over and over again. But he did want to have persons who were 
friendly to Missions in this Diocese thinking also of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel. He did want them to enter into those 
two great Mission-fields especially, the work in India and the work in 
our Colonies, both of which ought to be near their hearts." 

On June 15th, at Nottingham, Lord Newark presided over 
a Conference, which was attended by Canon Cadman, a Vice- 
President of the Society, who represented the Standing Com 
mittee. Canon Hole, one of the Diocesan Eepresentatives 
on the Committee, -in the course of an eloquent speech ? 

said : 

" Seventy years ago, I quote from a statement published in India in the 
Indian Watchman, the fires of Suttee were publicly blazing in the Presidency 



^utlS? ] CANON HOLE. 237 

towns of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, and all over India, the fires of 
Suttee, upon which the screaming and struggling widow, in many a case 
herself a mere child, was bound to the dead body of her husband, and 
with him burnt to ashes. Seventy years ago infants were publicly thrown 
into the Ganges, as sacrifices to the goddess of the river. Seventy years 
ago young men and maidens, decked with flowers, were slain in Hindoo 
temples before the hideous idol of the goddess Kali, or hacked to pieces as 
the Meras, that their quivering flesh might be given to propitiate the god 
of the soil. Seventy years ago the cars of Juggernaut were rolling over 
India, crushing hundreds of human victims annually beneath their wheels. 
Seventy years ago lepers were buried alive, devotees publicly starved 
themselves to death, children brought their parents to the banks of the 
Ganges and hastened their deaths by filling their mouths with the sand 
and the water of the so-called sacred river. Seventy years ago the 
swinging festivals attracted thousands to see the poor writhing 
wretches, with iron hooks thrust through the muscles of their backs, 
swing in mid air in honour of their gods. For these scenes, which 
disgraced India seventy years ago, we may now look in vain. 
And need I remind you that every one of these changes for 
the better is due directly or indirectly to the missionary enterprise, 
and the spirit of Christianity. It was Christian missionaries, and 
those who supported them, who proclaimed and denounced these tremend 
ous evils. Branded as fanatics and satirised as fools, they ceased not 
until one by one these hideous hallucinations were suppressed by the 
strong arm of the legislature. So that Lord Lawrence wrote twelve 
years ago to the Times, that it never would have been expected, con 
sidering the inadequate efforts which were made, that such grand results 
could have been obtained so quickly, and such unmistakable indica 
tions that Hinduism was fast losing its hold on the people. It was 
hardly to be hoped, he adds, that the citadel should surrender at its first 
summons, but there is every prospect, by God s blessing, of its being 
stormed at last, and at this crisis of India s history it is most important 
that this people should secure instruction in the saving truths of the 
Gospel. Sir Bartle Frere, whom it was my privilege to know and love, 
says : I believe there is no part of India in which the power of Christian 
preaching to attract the attention of fetish worshippers, to win them from 
the worship of evil and impure deities to the pure religion of Christ, and 
to raise them in the scale of humanity, has not been abundantly mani 
fested. And then he, being dead, yet speaketh these momentous words : 
I speak simply as to matters of experience and observation and not of 
opinion, just as a Koman prefect might have reported to Trajan or the 
Antonines, and I assure you that whatever you may be told to the con 
trary, the teaching of Christianity among one hundred and sixty millions 
of civilised and industrious Hindoos and Mohammedans in India is effect 
ing changes, moral, social, and political, which, for extent and rapidity of 
effect, are far more extraordinary than anything that you or your father 8 
have witnessed in modern Europe." Lord Napier and Ettrick states 
that the progress of Christianity is slow but it is undeniable. Sir Eichard 



238 THE CONFEEENCES AND THE CENTENARY. PA 

Temple asks, and answers, the question What is the result of Missions? 
That there are 390,000 native Christians in India, of whom 100, 000 are 
communicants. In 1850 there were 92,000. Thirty years after 392,000. 
Sir Eichard replies at length and convincingly to all the objections and 
doubts which have been raised concerning missionaries and converts. In 
view of all this, it is as wicked as it is untrue to pronounce the missionary 
work a failure, and we who believe that it is the Lord s doing, are bound 
to prove our gratitude and to fulfil our hopes by new efforts to earn these 
abundant blessings. The promise can never fail, He that now goeth on 
his way there must be energetic progress goeth on his way weep 
ing there must be self-sacrifice, there must be a loss shall doubtless 
come again with joy, and bring his sheaves with him. What then must 
be the consequence of neglecting the Divine Commandments, and of 
ignoring the Divine encouragements ? A great American Bishop, preach 
ing in this country at a time when the Church was exhibiting the 
manifestation of a new spiritual life, spoke these impressive words : It 
is written in the elder record of our faith that when the Ark of God was 
on its progress towards the Hill of Sion it rested once, for three months, 
in the house of Obededom, and it was told King David saying, The Lord 
hath blessed the house of Obededom, and all that pertaineth unto him, 
because of the Ark of God. As I have gone from scene to scene of highest 
interest and rarest beauty in this most favoured land of all the world ; 
contemplated its arts, its industry, its wealth, enjoyed its comforts and 
refinements, and shared with a full heart the peace and happiness of its 
dear Christian homes ; as I have thought of its attainments in science 
and in letters ; as I have recounted its feats of arms and fields of 
victory; as I have followed through every ocean and through every 
sea its cross-emblazoned flag; and seen that on the circuit of its 
empire the sun never sets ; I have asked myself, instinctively, 
whence to so small a speck on the world s map, a sea-beleaguered isle, 
sterile in soil, and stern in climate, Britain, cut off in ancient judgment 
from the world, such wealth, such glory, and such power ? And the in 
stinctive answer has returned, spontaneous to my heart, " The Lord hath 
blessed the house of Obededom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because 
of the Ark of God." Yes, from my heart I say the strength of England is 
the Church of England. The strength of England is in Christian hearts. 
The anchors that have moored your island and preserved it immovable 
are the deep roots of your old cathedrals, and (note this) the armament 
that keeps its virgin shore unsullied is the squadron that conveys to dis 
tant lands your missionary enterprise. Since these words were spoken 
(1842) our inter -communion with the other nations of the earth has been 
immensely extended ; our colonies have received, and are receiving large 
accessions of men and of dominion, our wealth (though just now we are 
in a crisis of great depression), our wealth and our opportunities are vastly 
increased. It has been calculated that in a hundred years from this time 
the English-speaking people in the world will number 100,000,000. The 
cross of St. George still waves over our ships, on all the seas, and in all 
the havens that are known to men, but are we doing all that we can by 



ST,S d ] THE SOCIETY S CLAIM. 239 

our prayers, our energies, and our alms, to set up the Cross of Jesus of 
Nazareth, wherever our soldiers and sailors and emigrants go, so that His 
name may be known upon earth, His saving health among all nations, 
and that we may have the glorious privilege of fulfilling His prophecy, 
jlf I be lifted up I will, draw all men unto Me ? How shall we escape 
if we neglect so great a salvation ? 

Shall we, whose souls are lighted 

With wisdom from on High ; 
Shall we to man benighted, 
The lamp of truth deny ? 

To what source do we owe here in England all our pre-eminence, pros- 
perity, and power. The American bishop tells us truly the Lord hath 
blessed the house of Obededorn, and all that pertaineth unto him, because 
of the Ark of God. Our Christianity, which so far has made us wise in 
council, just in legislation, honest in business, brave in battle, and tem 
perate in peace ; our Christianity, which gave us our literature and our 
arts, our universities and schools, our hospitals and charitable institutions, 
our churches and clergy, it is our God-given faith in the Incarnate Son, 
the precepts of His teaching and examples of His most holy life, the 
indwelling of the Spirit, and the power of the Sacraments, which has 
caused all men to say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understand 
ing people. And whence this Christianity ? By God s mercy from the 
missionary ! 

If blessed Paul had stayed 

In cot or learned shade 

With the priests white attire, 

And the saints tuneful choir, 

Men had not gnashed their teeth nor risen to slay, 

But thou hadst been a heathen in thy day. 

Foreign missions being inseparable from Christian love and duty, being 
waited on by signal benedictions, neglected only by the ungrateful to 
their disastrous peril and loss, we are led by these convictions to inquire 
which of the associations organised for mission work has the prior claim 
upon our support. 1. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was 
the first formed for this holy enterprise. Its Koyal Charter was issued in 
the year 1701, and its first missionaries landed in Boston, North America, 
on St. Barnabas Day (they were indeed Sons of Consolation ), in the 
following year. They have sent missionaries since that time into almost all 
parts of the world. Three years ago it was my privilege to witness a 
most impressive ceremony. Many of the American bishops came over, 
as you know, to Aberdeen to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of 
the Consecration of Samuel Seabury, by Scottish bishops in that city, to 
the see of Connecticut. It was deeply interesting to see the warm 
brotherly affection with which they greeted each other, and the com 
plete concord and unity, as to doctrine and ritual, with which they wor 
shipped together. Samuel Seabury was, one hundred years ago, the 
only Bishop in America, and now that Church in the United States number 



240 THE CONFERENCES AND THE CENTENARY. [ A 

2,000,000 souls under the pastoral care of sixty-five bishops and 3,500 
clergy ! 2. In its organisations, appointments, teaching, and ritual the 
Society follows scrupulously on the lines of the Church of England in 
loyal obedience to her rulers and to her laws. The missioners are sent 
to preach the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, bravely 
as Micaiah to Ahab, the Baptist to Herod, and Paul to Agrippa, yet tenderly 
with St. Stephen, Lord, lay not this unto their charge, gently and 
sweetly as St. John, Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God. 
Its present work and wants, its maintenance, partial or entire, of ten 
bishops and five hundred and forty priests, its grants distributed among 
fifty dioceses for catechists, lay readers, students, and schools ; its circu 
lation of the Holy Scriptures and Prayer-book, and their translation into 
various languages ; its industrial training ; healing and nursing of the 
sick ; all these, not an unlimited prospect and demand for future exten 
sion, make, indeed, an irresistible appeal to our sympathies, and not only 
bid us to pray more oft and heartily to the Lord of the harvest, that He 
will send forth more labourers, but to give generously to Him who giveth 
all for His glory in the salvation of souls. It is mockery to pray Thy 
kingdom come, unless we seek to maintain and enlarge it by subsidies 
and service to the King subsidies which, if given freely, will be repaid 
ten thousand fold before men and angels a service which is the only 
perfect freedom upon earth, and will be our complete and eternal happi 
ness, when we shall see our King in His beauty." 

Lord Newark said : 

" He thought it was a very suitable occasion to meet and discuss the 
work of the Society, as it had already been pointed out, at the time of the 
celebration of the Jubilee of her Most Gracious Majesty. When they 
looked back upon the great works of her reign, they found amongst them 
none which shone out more prominently than the work which had been 
accomplished by the Missionary Societies, and especially by the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. This year they cele 
brated the centenary of the establishment of a colonial episcopate. They 
heard of great and noble examples amongst those who worked at home 
amongst home missions, and all honour to those who were thus engaged. 
At the same time he thought that they never could find greater and more 
noble examples to follow than those missionaries who had gone out at 
different times to help forward the work of extending the Gospel in foreign 
parts." 

" They heard a good deal now about the empire of Queen Victoria, and 
that in that empire the sun never set. That was perfectly true, and they 
also heard a great deal about the drawing closer of the colonies to the 
mother country. It was a great thing to draw those closer, to draw them 
closer for purposes of defence, and for purposes of commerce, but it was a 
still nobler work if possible to draw them closer in the ties of common 
faith and common trust in God, and that was the work which the Society 
had set itself to do." 



THE SPECIAL SEEVICE. 241 

Canon Cadman also attended a conference at Newark, 
which was held on the following day; the Eev. Brymer 
Belcher attended one at Ely ; the Eev. H. W. Tucker has 
attended those at Colchester, Kochester, and Sherborne ; 
and the Eev. E. P. Sketchley that at Wimborne. 

We should notice a mistake in the report last month of the 
Wells Conference. Bishop Hobhouse not Bishop Abraham 
presided. 

On the Centenary day, August the 12th, there will be 
solemn services in nearly all the Cathedrals as well as in 
parish Churches. The following proper Psalms and Lessons 
and Thanksgiving Collect have been sanctioned by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury for use in His Grace s Diocese on 
that day. 

At Morning Prayer Ps. Ixxxix. 

First Lesson Isaiah, c. xli. v. 10-21. 

Second Lesson S. Luke, c. x. v. 17-25. 
At Evening Prayer Pss. xix. and xcvii. 

First Lesson Ezekiel, c. xxxiv. v. 11-end. 

Second Lesson 1 Timothy, c. iii. v. 1-14. 

THANKSGIVING COLLECT. 

God, who art filling the waste places of the world with flocks of men 
over whom Thou hast promised of old to set shepherds to feed them ; we 
thank Thee for Thy threescore and fifteen churches of a hundred years 
accomplished, and for the building up of the whole Body of Christ : And 
we praise Thee for all Rulers of the same, steadfast in work, faithful in 
doctrine, especially for them that have witnessed a good confession and 
sealed it with their blood. 

Pour out, we beseech Thee, of Thy Spirit upon all whom Thou hast 
called, that Thy Name may be no more profaned among the nations by 
our means, nor the children of the Church go astray in the wildernesses, 
but that this Thy people may be chief heralds of Thy truth, and knit the 
bonds of peace among all the churches. 

In all Thy folds let there be one holy flock, and One over them, the 
Prince of Shepherds, Thy only and beloved Son Jesus Christ, our Lord. 
Amen. 





EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY WORK IN 

BORNEO. 

BY THE KEY. J. PEBHAM. 
(Continued from page 221.) 

[N the mental and moral nature of the Dyak there 
has grown up an abundant crop of weeds and rank 
superstitions, which he only by degrees overcomes, 
calls his god or gods Petara, which, as this region was 
once subject to extensive Hindoo influences, may possibly be 
the Petar of Sanskrit, and so the Piter in Jupiter, and the Pater 
of Latin, the Father ; but even if this be so he has quite forgot 
ten his fatherly character. Innumerable, and mostly hostile, 
spirits are much nearer to his imagination, and these have to 
be reckoned with, propitiated, or outwitted. With many reli 
gious ceremonies, Dyaks have but little religious spirit. They 
regard such rites as they practise sacrifices and omens as 
magic charms to procure material benefits ; and find a diffi 
culty in conceiving of a spiritual religion. It is necessary to 
put truth before them in a concrete form, clothed with a 
body, to secure its reception. For them the Christian religion 
is gathered up in the one word " Sembeyang " worship, the 
outward service, rather than the living a new life. The Mis 
sionary would persuade them to be Christians, but, possibly, 
they want to know the worth of Christianity in wages, paddy, 
or other tangible and immediate gain. One family told me 
they wished to be baptized because they were always ill, and 
they thought that by becoming Christians they might have 
better health. Or they may ask whether Semleyang will keep 
off the rats from the growing paddy. They seek a sign from 
heaven in something which they can see with their eyes or 
handle with their hands. Must they give up their customs? 
" Yes," replies the Missionary, " such of them as are founded 
upon falsehood. Bird omens will not help you to build a 



244 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY [ M A 8 ut n i,^ d? 

boat or obtain a good crop of paddy." " But they do," say 
they, " as we have proved by experience." So in their minds 
they condemn Sembeyang and all its accompaniments as mis 
chievous or useless, and charge upon the practice of it all the 
failures of crops, the ravages of rats, the agues and fevers 
which at times afflict them. Does the Missionary speak of 
the future life and its possibilities ? Time enough they think 
to take these into consideration when they get there. More 
over, they send their dead out of the world with all they need, 
clothes and food, plate and pot, spear and spinning-wheel, &c., 
which are deposited in the cemetery with them ; and they 
themselves will be equipped in like manner when the time 
comes. All this shows the kind of soil upon which the good 
Word of Life has to be sown ; and I am not imagining ficti 
tious characters, but speak that which I know. 

But, unpromising as the soil apparently is, the seed does 
germinate and bring forth fruit ; and the fruit is often the 
best where the growth of ignorant opposition has been the 
strongest. Some of the truest Dyak Christians I know are 
those who at first mocked at Sembeyang, and used all their 
influence against it. I once said to an old man at Banting : 
" There has been a succession of men in this place teaching 
God s truth, and you see many of your friends go to Church, 
and all your children have become Christians. Have you never 
thought that Sembeyang may have some meaning for you ? " 
" Yes," he replied, " I have considered it often, and have come 
to the conclusion that it is a thing to be rejected." But after 
wards the old man came to see there was something in it, and 
followed the example of his children. 

Happily for the lower races of mankind the Gospel mes 
sage is as simple in form as it is profound in truth : and I 
have known a simple narration of the life of Jesus Christ 
produce a deep impression upon Dyaks who would be unmoved 
by preaching upon religious truths in the abstract. 

Another attractive force, when it exists, is the example of 
any man who has bravely emancipated himself from the 
burdensome traditions of his fathers, and witnesses to the 
power of trust in God. That a Dyak can succeed in his 



Mission Field,] 
Aug. 1, 1887. J 



WORK IN BORNEO, 



245 




246 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY M01 



L Aug. 1, 1887. 



labours, or even exist, for any length of time without the 
observance of bird omens, is to them such a striking fact 
that the abandonment of this superstition is a thing which 
rouses their mind more than any other, and either leads 
them on to inquire into the meaning of Sembeyang, or 
drives them at once into opposition. In the former case he 
is well-nigh sure to become a Christian ; in the latter he will 
condemn Christianity as a mischievous innovation infallibly 
tending to poverty. It has been often said to me : "I should 
like to become a Christian, for I hear that Christians can get 
on without birds." To give up directing one s life and actions 
by the notes of birds and other creature omens is but a small 
part of the Christian religion ; but it is a thing which rouses 
the attention, and sets the Dyak thinking. It is freedom 
from the slavery of a tyrannous superstition, and the starting- 
point of subsequent Christian knowledge and life. But 
whether by a direct onslaught on errors, or by setting forth 
the persuasive truths of the faith, or by the exhibition of 
brotherly sympathy, many of those sons of the jungle, in 
veterate materialists notwithstanding their ideas of spirits, 
are being gradually drawn into God s Church for instruction 
and discipline in high and better things. In Banting itself 
over 500 have been baptized, and about double that number 
in the various out- station Missions worked from Banting. 
Other Sea Dyak Missions also have like success. So we thank 
God and take courage. 

II. IN A DYAK CHURCH AND CHURCHYARD. 

On Saturday evenings there is heard the booming sound 
of a big gong from Banting hill, over the village below and 
surrounding lowland, to warn the Dyaks, who are not yet 
possessed of almanacks, that the morrow is the day of rest 
and of worship. Early on that day the bells are rung as 
well. Bells need never have been introduced into Borneo. 
Gongs would have answered their purpose, and are heard at 
a greater distance. 

Whilst we suppose the church- going Dyaks to be slowly 
climbing up the hill, we will have a look at the church and 



Mitsijn Field,-! 
Aug. 1, 1867. J 



WOIK IN BORNEO. 



247 




248 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY PSt^S? 

churchyard. There stands the church on the middle of the 
hill, shut in on all sides by the tall thick durian trees, which 
completely hide it from any outside view, almost answering 
to one s idea of a hermit s chapel in a greensward glade of 
medieval forest, and we look around half-expecting the hermit 
priest himself to appear in some nook or corner. But what 
we do see are a few graves marked by simple crosses ; and 
one conspicuous amongst the rest, by having a roof over it 
supported by four posts. This is the grave of a Dyak chief. 
The unenlightened Dyak thinks he must provide everything 
necessary for his departed friend s life in the other world, and 
so buries with him several articles of domestic use, gives him 
a house to live in and food to eat that is, he puts it on the 
grave. They have to learn that as we brought nothing into 
the world so we can carry nothing out. I was remarking to 
a man one day that I thought the best way to arrange a grave 
was not to lumber it with ugly posts and roof, but simply to 
mark it round with a coping of bilian wood, and fill in the 
surface with shells or gravel, and let the dead rest under the 
light of heaven and the sign of the Cross: but, said he, 
" Would not the spirit, if left houseless, suffer cold from the 
dew and rain ? 

It was a long time before Dyaks would bring their dead to 
the churchyard, on account of its near vicinity to the village. 
They found it difficult to free themselves from the idea that 
the spirits of the dead hover about the cemetery, and in no 
very amiable mood, ever apt to howl and frighten the living 
passer-by and perhaps do worse than frighten. For years 
there were only three graves in Banting Churchyard, and 
those of Dyaks connected with the Mission House, and not 
natives of the village. This dread of the place, and unwilling 
ness to bury there, has now passed away. They have learnt 
to appreciate a cleared and well-kept cemetery, compared with 
which their dismal pendams in the jungle are repulsive and 
weirdly suggestive of ghosts and goblins. The brighter and 
more friendly churchyard is seen to be consistent with Christian 
hope ; and, moreover, the burial of the great man there, with 
the ugly roof over him, has made the place, in their eyes, a 
respectable cemetery. 



M lut n i,!8s1 d ] WORK IN BORNEO. 249 

Burials always take place early in the morning. At the 
first dawn of day the corpse is brought from the house, and 
if the coffin has not been previously made, the body has to 
wait in the churchyard whilst the unskilful carpenters do 
their work. They will not keep a corpse in the house after 
daylight. We always have to be on the look-out to prevent 
the introduction of the sacrificial fowl into the burying-ground, 
and to intercept the burning stick carried in front of the 
funeral procession why, I know not, nor can they tell me ; 
but probably the latent idea is that fire scares away the evil 
spirits which Dyaks think are always busy on these mournful 
occasions. We try to make the funeral service suggestive of 
Christian hope. The surpliced choir is mustered, and the 
service sung as far as can be. There have been occasions 
when something peculiar in the circumstances of the time or 
event has made those glowing words of hope given by S. 
Paul come home to us with an unusual force, and 1 have been 
led to add some words of exhortation, miserably poor indeed 
as compared with them, but spoken with the object of impressing 
upon Dyaks, who regard the future as a mere continuation of 
the maimed life of the present, the high and inspiriting goal 
of Christian faith and hope. In procession from church to 
grave, with the symbol of our redemption going on before, 
we generally sing the hymn, " Wlien our heads are bowed 
with woe," and the listeners have seemed impressed by the 
solemnity of it, being naturally fond of plaintive music. 

But there have been burials where a curious mingling of 
the solemn, the pathetic, and the ludicrous have been shown. 
The following one, which took place, not at Banting, but at an 
out-station Mission, is an instance of it. 

Buda had died, and great lamentation was made for him. 
All day and night a sad piteous cry of wailing rose up from 
relays of women, friends and neighbours who came to show 
their sympathy. As each one went into the presence of the 
dead she veiled her face with a native cloth, she burst out 
into a shrill and doleful voice of passionate grief, feigned 
perhaps in some cases, but generally real, at least for the 
moment. At times it abated somewhat, but in the morning, 



250 



EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY [ASWsw! 




d ] WORK IN BORNEO. 251 

when the corpse was ahout to be removed, it rose to a more 
intense pitch, as if they were grappling with death itself to 
prevent their friend from being carried off and seen no more. 
A crowd had assembled, and the little church was full. When 
S. Paul s grand discourse on the resurrection was being read, 
the wife rushed into the church, and clasped the coffin with 
her arms, and remained kneeling beside it, sobbing and weep 
ing. She followed to the grave, and when the corpse was 
lowered into the earth, she jumped down into the grave, and 
lay at full length upon the coffin, crying out, " I will be 
buried with my husband. I can t live without him." A man 
had to go down and lift her out. And I was just reading, 
"Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord," &c., when the 
man shouted out, "He never would have died if he had not 
eaten salt fish." With a voice of sternness I rebuked him, 
and was then allowed to finish the service without further 
interruption. 

Amongst Balau Dyaks it has been an old custom to put 
young children in jars, and suspend them on trees in the ceme 
tery. It looks like a concession to carelessness and indolence. 

Pass we now from the churchyard into the church. It is 
built entirely of ironwood, and consists of nave, aisles, and 
chancel, and is roomy and airy. The pillars are simply the 
trunks of ironwood trees, planed and polished. On each side 
is an open verandah. The lattice windows are of graceful 
lancet-shape, and a three-light one at the east end has stained 
glass, and above that is a circular one by showing a figure 
of the ascending Saviour. The altar is well raised, and behind 
is a blue hanging against which stands out conspicuously a 
cross of polished brass. 

Daily services are said, and when I am in the place the 
Holy Eucharist is celebrated every Sunday. At 8.15 A.M. on 
Sundays we begin with the Eucharist, and Matins at 9.15 A.M. 
follows. Both are choral, for we have been able to form a 
surpliced and cassocked choir of Dyak boys and a few men^ 
who sing the service in a hearty and cheerful, if not skilful, 
manner. The human material being rough, the performance 
is also simple and somewhat crude ; but luckily among the 



252 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY. 

regular congregation there are none whose critical ears and 
sensitive nerves can be offended with our jungle music, for it 
is seldom that any but Dyaks are present, or any but the 
Dyak language heard. Their own traditional songs contain 
more shouting than melody, yet they love singing, and it is 
quite contrary to their sense of fitness to recite any public or 
religious service in the manner of plain reading or speaking. 
Even in our out-station chapels they expect singing as a 
matter of course, and however much they mutilate and 
murder English tunes, as they often do most wofully, yet 
music of some kind or other they must have, or they are not 
satisfied. Hence choral services come quite natural to them. 
Our daily evensong is often well attended, as many as 
twenty or thirty coming when the day s work has been lighter 
than usual. On Sundays the communicants average about 
twenty. In this pioneering work of the Church among an 
untutored people, odd things occur which are impossible in the 
advanced respectability of civilised countries. Here, for 
instance, at Matins on Sundays, the church may some 
times be said to be a nursery as well as a house of prayer ; 
for the common folk must either bring their babies and 
youngsters with them, or not come. Now, babies will cry 
even in a church ; and those a little older, and just in the 
mischievous stage of youthfulness, will talk, rush and tumble 
about, fall off a seat, and be guilty of a variety of incon 
gruous disturbances. These things can to some extent be 
borne with in singing or chanting, when their infantile 
discords are nearly drowned in the larger volume of sound 
but in reading or preaching they are unbearably annoying. 
Often I have had to stop in lesson or sermon whilst a scream 
ing baby was being carried out of church. At times the little 
boys have been so distracting that the delivery of an address 
has been severely crippled, and the rough methods of the 
elders to produce quiet generally only increased the noise. 
We have no pulpit, nor at the period to which I refer had we 
a lectern ; everything was said at the choir desk ; so with the 
object of securing a more commanding position at preaching- 
time, I began the custom of standing at the top of the middle 
aisle, where I could better keep my eye on everybody, and be 



^SM.Sw? ] WORK IN BORNEO. 253 

nearer my young tormentors, some of whom, with their mothers, 
I made to sit close by me. When any young urchin became 
unruly I would point at him the finger of warning, or drop 
upon him a lowering eye, which often had the desired effect, 
and he would be still ; but sometimes I found it necessary to 
stop speaking, march down the aisle and pounce upon him, 
and then return to my discourse. After a period of these 
disciplinary measures a distinct improvement was visible. 

After a time I asked one of the congregation, a respect 
able Dyak and an old acquaintance, to act as verger on 
Sundays, and keep order in the church. I gave him a 
special chair at the bottom of the church, and to impress 
upon others the idea of his dignity and authority, I vested 
him in a cassock ; but on the second or third Sunday after 
he appeared without his robe of office, and after service 
begged to be excused from wearing it. On the Monday 
morning his wife brought me a present of rice, which I 
suppose was meant as a propitiatory offering. He was not 
made of stuff stern enough to keep order, and proved a 
failure. I mildly remonstrated, and told him exactly what 
to do, but no improvement followed. One day he came to 
me, and said that if I would make him a robe after the 
pattern of the Sarawak flag a bright combination of yellow, 
black, and red as his official vestment, the people would 
stand in great awe of him; but here my courage failed. I 
was not brave enough to carry out such a piece of high 
ritualism ; so I had to be my own verger. Another specially 
disagreeable habit I had to contend with was this. At some 
point of the service after the sermon perhaps, or the creed 
a lot of the girls, volatile and thoughtless, would march out 
of the church, distracting everybody s attention thereby. 
To cure this, I ordered one of the choir-boys to shut the doors 
during the singing of the Te De-urn. We have now arrived at a 
better state of conduct ; but with Dyaks, who, though steeped 
in superstition, are destitute of the spirit of reverence, there 
is always need of definite teaching on the subject of our 
behaviour in the house of God. 

(To be continued.} 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

AT an ordination held by Bishop Scott of North China in 
St. Andrew s (temporary) Church, Chefoo, on the 5th 
Sunday after Easter, the Kev. Francis Henry Sprent, of St. 
Boniface College, Warminster, was admitted to the Order of 
Priests, and Mr. Henry John Brown of St. Paul s Mission 
House, Burgh, to that of Deacons. 

It is expected the two Missionaries will proceed at once to 
take up work at Tai-an, the city at the foot of the celebrated 
sacred mountain Tai-Shan, in the province of Shantung. 



T~~~TNDER the three heads of Colonial Clergymen, European 
V^_J Ordained Missionaries to the Heathen, and Native 
Clergymen, the following table shows the distribution of the 
Society s Missionaries in the main divisions of the world. 
The table is worthy of study, for some persons hardly realise 
the amount of Missionary work in which the Society is engaged, 
while others may have an impression that Colonial work has 
not the prominence which its priority of claim demands. The 
importance and significance of the number of native clergy 
men, especially in Asia, will appear to everyone : 

European Ordained Total Clergy 

Colonial Missionaries to the Native on the 
Clergymen Heathen Clergymen Society s List 

Asia 80 101 181 

Africa, &c 65 50 17 132 

Australasia 13 4 ... 17 

North America 167 9 ... 176 

Guiana and the West Indies ... 24 8 5 37 

Permanent Chaplains in Europe 29 ... ... 29 

Total 298 151 123 572 

In addition to these there are some 2,000 Catechists and Lay 
Teachers, and also the Agents of the " Ladies Association." 



W. NOTES OF THE MONTH. 255 

MANY names had been mentioned in connection with 
the -vacant see of Nova Scotia. The Synod which 
met on July 6th elected the Rev. J. C. Edghill, D.D., the 
Chaplain-General of the British Army. Dr. Edghill s duties 
have, as a Military Chaplain, led to his spending some years of 
his life in Canada, where his work was highly valued. 



"TV /TADAGASCAR and Tinnevelly form the subjects of two of 
iVI the valuable " Historical Sketches," which have just 
been re-written, and corrected to the present time. Each has 
its interesting story illustrated by a map. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street on 
Friday, July 15th, at 2 P.M., J. G. Talbot, Esq., M.P., in the chair. There were 
also present the Kev. J. W. Ayre, Rev. J. St. John Blunt, Eev. J. M. Burn- 
Murdoch, Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, J. R. Kindersley, Esq., Rev. G. B. 
Lewis, General Lowry, C.B., H. B. Middleton, Esq., General Nicolls, General 
Maclagan, H. C. Saunders, Esq., Q.C., General Sawyer, S. G. Stopford Sackville, 
Esq., General Tremenheere, C.B., Rev. Watkin H. Williams, and S. Wreford, 
Esq., Members of the Standing Committee ; and Rev. W. D. Astley, Rev. J. M. 
Beynon, Rev. A. Cooper, Rev. H. von H. Cowell, Rev. T. Darling, T. Dunn, 
Esq., Rev. Dr. Finch, Sir F. Goldsmidt, Rev. S. Coode Hore, H. Laurence, 
Esq., Rev. G. P. Pownall, Rev. G. C. Reynell, Members of the Society. 

1. Head Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Receipts and 
Payments from January 1st to June 30th : 



( 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c. 
Legacies . . . . ... ... ... 


GENERAL FUND 
15,467 
1,834 


SPECIAL FUNDS 
5,032 


Dividends, &c. . . 


1538 


2309 








TOTAL KECEIPTS 
PAYMENTS 


18,839 
43,816 


7,341 
8,177 



The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January 1st to June 30th, in five consecutive years, compare as follows 1883 
15,248 ; 1884, 15,153 ; 1885, 14,897 ; 1886, 14,410 ; 1887, 15,467. 

3. Read letter from the Rev. W. H. Binney, thanking the Society for 
its resolution upon the decease of his father, the late Bishop of Nova 
Scotia. 

4. Power was given to affix the Corporate Seal to certain documents. 



256 MONTHLY MEETING. . [ M l 8 u tiS d> 

5. The Secretary made a statement with regard to the proposed 
restoration of the tomb of Eobert Nelson, towards which contributions 
were invited. 

6. The Eev. J. Fairclough, from the Diocese of Kangoon, addressed 
the members on the Burmah Missions. He said that the first Missionary 
of the Society was sent out in 1859, and that he himself went out in 1865, 
when the Mission stations were at Eangoon and Moulmein only. In 
1867 he was sent to the latter place, where the work was mainly educa 
tional, there being no street or bazaar preaching in Burmah. He said 
that while the day schools did not lead to conversions, the boarding 
schools were fruitful in this respect. He said that the Society was the 
only English Missionary Society represented, whether in connection with 
the Church or not. He described the difficulty of winning converts of 
Burman race; but spoke hopefully of the large Missions among the 
Karens. In 1882 Mr. Fairclough began the work of the Kemmendine 
Institution for training native agents. 

7. The Eev. Watkin H. Williams, who had recently returned from a 
tour in Canada, described the work of the Church in the Dominion. He 
especially urged that the lack of men in Canada should be supplied by 
English clergymen, who might go out for three or four years, and that 
such foreign service should be regarded as most honourable on their 
return to England, and as entitling them to preferment at home. 

8. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in May were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
November : 

Kev. K. J. Bond, St. James , Keyham, Devonport ; Rev. Arthur Cartwright, 
Butcombe, Bristol ; William Hardtsty, Esq., 21 Talbot Terrace, Claughton, 
Birkenhead ; Kev. Wm. Birkbeck Pierson, St. Peter s, Leeds ; Rev. A. W. 
Streane, Dean of Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge; Ven. W. C. Bruce, 
St. Woolos , Newport, Monmouthshire ; Justinian Pelly, Esq., Elmsley, Yox- 
ford ; Rev. J. Fowler, Grimston, Lynn ; Rev. T. G. Davy, Houghton, Norwich ; 
Rev/H. W. Harden, Hemsby, .Great Yarmouth ; Rev. W. F. Thursby, Bergh 
Apton, Norwich; Rev. A. C.W. Upcher, Hingham, Norfolk; Rev. W. B. Draw 
bridge, Lynn, Norfolk; Rev. J. R. Crauford, East Walton, Lynn; Rev. E. 
Heseltine, West Newton, Lynn, and Rev. A. E. Campbell, Castle Rising, 
Norfolk. 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. J. C. Whitley of the Diocese of Calcutta ; James 
A. Colbeck of Rangoon; R. Balavendrum of Singapore; H. T. A. Thompson of Alaritzburg; 
G Mitchell of Bloemfontein ; H. Adams, A. W. Beck, C. Clulee, F. Bowling, C. Maber, J. S. 
Richardson and H. Sadler of Pretoria; E. 0. MacMahon of MadayascarJH Holloway of 
Fredericton; W. H. Lowry and J. J. Morton of Rupert s Land ; R. Hilton and J. P. Pritchard of 
Kaskatchemm ; G. S. Chamberlain and W. How of Newfoundland ; H. F. Crofton of Nassau, and 
C. G. Curtis, Missionary at Constantinople. 



THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




SEPTEMBER 1, 1887. 

MADRAS JUBILEE RETROSPECTS, 

THE S.P.G. IN TINNEVELLY. 

S.P.G. Mission in Tinnevelly may be said to 
date from 1780, when the Mission, already com 
menced by Swartz, the most memorable name in 
the history of the Protestant Missions in Southern India, took 
an organised shape by the formation of a small congregation, 
at Palamcotta, under Swartz s superintendence. He was fol 
lowed by Jaenicke, Eosen, and Irion, German Missionaries, 
then by Cammerer, who had been educated at Bishop s College, 
Calcutta. He was a man of much energy, and has left his 
mark in Tinnevelly. .There is a brief statement on record of 
the strength of the Tinnevelly Mission in 1837 : baptised mem 
bers of congregations 4,352, children in schools 269. The 
number of girls in the schools was only 6. That was a day 
of very small things indeed. There are at present, in connec 
tion with the same Mission, 566 congregations ; members of 
congregations 39,577, of whom 29,656 are baptised, the rest 
being catechumens ; communicants 7,699 ; children in 
school number 8,517, of whom 2,425 are girls. This includes 
Eamnad. In Mission colleges and Anglo-vernacular schools 
there are 1,392 boys ; there are 416 girls in boarding schools. 
NO. CCCLXXXI. M 



258 MADRAS JUBILEE BETROSPECTS. [*BJS"i,Sf i 

Thus everything connected with the Mission has increased 
tenfold during the fifty years of Queen Victoria s reign. In the 
beginning of the year 1841, the Missions inTinnevelly received 
a visit from Bishop Spencer, the first visit they had ever re 
ceived from a Bishop. Towards the close of the same year 
the Eev. E. Caldwell, afterwards Bishop Caldwell, arrived in 
Tinnevelly. He commenced his labours at Idaiyangudi, which 
is still under his special care, but for some years past he 
has made Tuticorin his head-quarters. In 1843 an Insti 
tution was commenced at Sawyerpuram by Dr. G. U. Pope, a 
name which will always be remembered for the training up of 
Mission agents. This supplied a want which had long been 
felt. Most of the pupils, as soon as they left, were employed 
in the Mission as catechists and schoolmasters, whilst stu 
dents of superior attainments were drafted to Madras to Sulli 
van s Gardens, where they enjoyed the advantage of being 
trained by the Eev. A. E. Symonds, one of the best educa 
tionists Southern India has seen. After Dr. Pope left, the 
Institution came under the care of various principals, the 
chief of whom were Mr. Huxtable, afterwards Bishop of 
Mauritius, and Mr. Brotherton, whose attainments and cha 
racter were commemorated at Cambridge by the foundation of 
an Oriental scholarship bearing his name. During the Prin- 
cipalship of Mr. Sharrock, the present head of the College, the 
College Department was transferred to Tuticorin, a much 
more important place than Sawyerpuram, in accordance with a 
recommendation of the present Bishop of Calcutta, who visited 
Tinnevelly as Metropolitan in 1881. It has since been 
raised to the rank of a college of the first grade, teaching up to 
the B. A. standard, and year by year it is growing in efficiency. 
It has now the advantage of having a wrangler as Vice. 
Principal. It was through the efforts of Bishop Caldwell, after 
whom the College is named, that the large and commodious 
College buildings were purchased and presented to the S.P.G. 
A speciality of the College is the prominence given in it to 
Christian teaching. It may fairly be described as the most 
distinctively Christian College in the Presidency, and it will 
be found that almost every college and high school in the 



M !ep\ n iS d ] TlNNEVELLY. 259 

Presidency has received its Christian masters from Sawyer- 
pur am or Tuticorin. 

A Girls Boarding School was commenced at Idaiyangudi by 
Mrs. Caldwell in 1844, followed by similar schools in other 
places ; she then also introduced lace-making amongst the 
women ; a branch of industry which proved a great success, 
and is carried on to the present day. This has provided suit 
able employment for hundreds of native women, especially 
widows. The Metropolitan of India, Bishop Wilson, visited 
Tinnevelly in 1841-42. 

In 1877 Bishop Caldwell, who had been consecrated at 
Calcutta as assistant to the Bishop of Madras, was commis 
sioned to supervise the S.P.G. Missions in Tinnevelly and 
Eamnad. The number of native clergy under him is 41, 
of whom 15 deacons and one priest were ordained by him 
in one day, the 19th December, 1886. The number of Euro 
pean Missionaries is three. The first native ordained was in 
1854. In 1877 Southern India was visited by the most 
terrible famine it has yet known, and in that and the following 
year there were many accessions to the Christian fold, through 
gratitude for the help the starving poor received from bene 
volent Christians. Much of the increase which has taken 
place, as already mentioned, during Queen Victoria s reign 
was from this cause. Many of the more ignorant people of 
course relapsed, but many more remained. Church Councils 
have now been established in every district, and are doing a 
good work in the organisation and consolidation of the Mis 
sion. In 1880 the large and beautiful church at Idaiyangudi 
was opened for Divine service, and in 1885 another similar 
church was opened at Mudalur. Normal schools, both for 
boys and girls, have been established, and the whole Mission 
will soon be well supplied with duly trained teachers. Mission 
Dispensaries have also been established, and every station has 
now its Post-office. 

The S.P.G. Missions in Tinnevelly, including Eamnad, 
are divided into eleven districts, each of which is under the 
superintendence of a European Missionary or native clergy 
man of superior attainments. To begin with the northern 

M 2 



260 MADRAS JUBILEE EETROSPECTS. [*S5tTi, w7. t 

districts in Tinnevelly. There are two of these, Puthiam- 
puttur and Nagalapuram, both under the superintendence of 
Bishop Caldwell. Puthiamputtur comprises five pastorates, 
and Nagalapuram six, each of which is under a native clergy 
man. Tuticorin town is under the Eev. D. Samuel, BJX, 
native Chaplain both to the Bishop of Madras and Bishop 
Caldwell. Pudukottai and Sawyerpuram are under the care 
of the Eev. J. A. Sharrock, with three native clergymen to 
assist him. As Principal of the College, he has spiritual 
charge of the College also, which, with its affiliated schools, 
numbers 651 pupils. Idaiyangudi, with its six pastorates, 
and Eadapuram, with three, are under the care of Bishop 
Caldwell, whose residence is divided between Idaiyangudi and 
Tuticorin. The class of 27 candidates for ordination lately 
held by Bishop Caldwell for three months was held at Idai 
yangudi. Sixteen of those candidates were accepted by the 
Madras Committee and ordained. The ordination of eleven 
was postponed. The district of Nazareth is under the care of 
the Eev. A. Margoschis, with three pastorates attached to 
Nazareth itself, and the districts of Mudalur and Chris- 
tianagram were lately placed under Mr. Margoschis care, 
with four native clergy. There are Orphanages at Nazareth 
both for boys and girls, in connection with which there are 
industrial schools. Eamnad follows Tinnevelly, with its one 
European Missionary in charge, assisted by eight natives. 
It has its orphanages for boys and girls, and its industrial 
schools, and also a printing press. The last event deserving 
mention is the enthusiasm with which the Jubilee of the 
Queen-Empress was observed in every town and village in 
Tinnevelly. The S.P.G. Christians in Tinnevell^ sent a 
telegram of greeting to the Queen. 






MARITZBUBG. 

HISTORY OF A PICTURE I A STRANGE RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE AT 

PINETOWN, IN THE DIOCESE OF MARITZBURG. INTERESTING 

CONVERSIONS AMONG THE INDIANS. 

I 

jjBOM Pinetown, where he is stationed as the Society s 
Missionary, the Yen. Ernest H. Shears, whom 
the Bishop of Maritzburg has recently appointed 
to the Archdeaconry of Durban, sends a wonderfully interesting 
account of some incidents in connection with the Mission to 
the Coolies from India. 

The Archdeacon s Eeport begins by describing the work 
among the Colonists and the natives. Both divisions of work 
have felt commercial depression and other adverse influences. 
He goes on, however, to speak of the new work for the 
Coolies : 

" During this year we have begun quite a new branch of 
work in our efforts foi* the benefit of the Indians. Early in 
the year we started a day school for Indian children. This I 
manage to keep going on a grant of 20 per annum from the 
Colonial Government. I was advised at the beginning that at 
first I must be content to keep out all religious instruction 
whatever. I however hoped that in time we might be able 
to introduce it, and that, in the meanwhile, we might indirectly 
gain influence by means of the school among the Indian 
population. It was very difficult to get children together, and 
it was necessary to send out an Indian catechist Godfrey, 
from Durban on more than one occasion to assist. There 
was an old Indian in the village, named Treemalay, a man of 
great influence among his own people, doing a good trade as 
an Indian storekeeper. On one occasion he was mentioned, 
and my Indian schoolmaster remarked to me that he was a 



262 MABITZBURG. 



TMission Field, 
L Sept. 1. 1887. 



Wesleyan. I told him that he must be mistaken ; that every 
one knew that he was a Mohammedan, and that he had 
erected a small mosque by the side of his store. The school 
master, however, persisted that he was a Wesleyan. Shortly 
after, Godfrey and the Eev. L. P. Booth visited us. I told 
Mr. Booth of this, and he sent Godfrey over to the man. A 
few moments showed that the man was not a Wesleyan, or a 
Christian of any sort. Godfrey began then to tackle him on 
the weak points of what he supposed to be his religion, but 
Treemalay assented to all Godfrey s arguments at once. 
Godfrey changed his ground, and attacked another Indian 
religion. Treemalay quite agreed with him again. Godfrey 
tried a third ; still the same answer : Quite right ; that not 
my God. At last Godfrey was fain to ask : * What is your 
God ? * Come and see, said Treemalay. He took him 
into the supposed mosque, and showed him the central object 
there, a large Ecce Homo picture, to which he salaamed. 
He told Godfrey that his God was the God the picture repre 
sented. Godfrey was unprepared for this, so he went off and 
fetched Mr. Booth. Treemalay s account of himself was a 
strange one. He said that for eight years he had been con 
vinced that Christ was the true God, so he bought a picture of 
Him and put it up in his oratory, and prayed before it, and 
burned incense before it. Mr. Booth questioned him, and 
found that he was not at all making an idol of the picture ; 
it was to him simply a representation of an unseen reality. 
He had, he said, worshipped Christ all these years, knowing 
hardly anything about Him, but supposing that some day He 
would send him more light. Here his Indian fatalism had 
kept him back. He knew me in a friendly way, and is an old 
servant of my neighbour, Canon Crompton, with whom he has 
certain business relations and is on the best of terms ; but 
he never said a word ; he only waited. His account of his 
marriage was a strange one. He and his wife went together 
into the oratory by themselves, and knelt before the picture, 
and called upon the God it represented to take notice that they 
took one another as man and wife. Then they came out and 
made a feast to the people. Of course we took them in hand,. 



f d ] HISTORY OF A PICTURE. 263 

and put them under systematic training, and after some time 
they were baptised by the names of John and Martha. I felt 
that I could not but recognise their marriage, so I pronounced 
a formal blessing upon it. Using John s place as a centre 
from which to work, we started fortnightly Evangelistic 
services to the Indians. Joshua, a licensed reader, comes 
out from Durban for the first and third Sundays in each 
month, and he has already brought me two more adult 
Indians for baptism. I examined them, and found that he 
had given them a very fair idea of Christian truth. I sup 
plemented his instruction a little, and baptised them by the 
names of Isaac and Peter. We have now another family in 
course of preparation. Our Indian school is languishing for 
want of numbers. The Indians here are mostly free Indians 
(not indentured). Since the European population has left, 
they have found so little to do here that many of them have 
also left. It is all my Indian schoolmaster (Joshua s son, and 
a good steady worker) can do to keep up ^anything like a 
decent average." 






A NATIVE CLERGYMAN S REPORT. 

REPORT BY THE REV. PETER MASIZA, A FINGO CLERGYMAN AT ST. MARK S, IN 
THE DIOCESE OF ST. JOHN S, SOUTH AFRICA. 

[ATIVES of Africa do not receive as perfect an 
education in the English language as do many in 
India, who can write it as accurately as any of 
her "Majesty s subjects. Our printing the following report 
without amending its phraseology will not, we hope, be mis 
understood. It is a remarkable document, and is in no small 
degree a testimony in itself to the progress of Mission work 
in Kaffraria. The foundation of the native ministry among 
such races as the tribes of South Africa implies the cultivation 
of faculties which have been dormant for countless genera 
tions, in addition to the growth in spiritual graces. Mr. 
Masiza is a clergyman held in honour by both colonists and 
natives, and his ministry would be creditable to any branch 
of the Church. 

I will endeavour briefly I can, to give my record of daily work. 

January 4. Early on the 4th instant I made my usual start for the 
scattered outlying Missions in Fingoeland and Tembuland. And reach 
St. Paul s, Cofimvaba, at half-past eight o clock A.M. Immediately at my 
arrival Holy Sacrament took place, being over the usual service, after it 
I had meet the candidates for Confirmation, and afterwards I had a 
short meeting with the whole congregation talking about the failure of 
money matters in our Diocese. From thence I rode on to St. Luke s, 
Lower Gutsa, at my arrival at half-past eleven o clock A.M. I had the 
same work mentioned above. Late in the afternoon I proceed in a steady 
rain for St. Ann s Engonyama, and reached there at sunset. 

5. Early I left at daybreak for Tembuland, and reached St. 
Philip s, Elufuta, at ten o clock A.M. In the afternoon I been busy prac 
ticing with the choir, before sundown evening song. 

6. Being the day of Epiphany early Holy Communion, at ten 
o clock A.M. the choral service took place, well attended, in the midst 
of our congregation, I have observe also good many Wesleyan people 
as well heathen people. I am glad to say, the choir did their work 



d ] KAFFRARIA. 265 

well, to surprise to our visitors. I preach from Isaiah GO verse 3, " And 
the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy 
rising." Having endeavour to keep close to the subject of the day, after 
service our visitors were the more surprise, asking why this day is not 
kept by their ministers. In the afternoon service there were more people, 
the chapel were filled from one end to another. I am very glad to say 
the services of the day been heartily throughout, and hope will be 
remembered for a long while. Always when I am here the heathens, and 
Wesleyan people, come to our service in a great numbers. Towards sun 
down I left for Manzimdaka. 

7. The usual service with celebration took place here. I meet 
also the candidates for confirmation, being over I cross the Tsomo for St. 
Cyprian s, Emxe, and been attack here for one day with fever. 

9. Being Sunday I felt a little better, in the morning I ad 
ministered the Holy Sacrament. At ten o clock A.M. I conducted the 
morning service, at four o clock P.M. I left for Enyalase were I con 
duct the evening service. 

10. After Mattins I left for Fingoeland, and reach St. Ann s 
at noon day, on my arrival Holy Communion took place, afterwards 
the service, here also I examined the candidates for Confirmation, 
being over, I had a short meeting with the people consulting over money 
matters, showing them how the Diocese suffer for want of money, who 
reply they are very sorry themselves that they can t do anything towards 
supporting the Mission work, as the traders don t give them money 
for their produce, but urging them to take good for. From thence I rode 
on for Nguhle s location, and had the same work at my arrival as men 
tioned above. From thence I proceed on for Kwebulana s location and 
reached after dusk. 

11. At nine o clock A.M. Holy Sacrament, being over Mattins 
and Baptismal service took place, having complete my duties here, 
I rode on for St. Luke s, and found the chapel hut surrounded by good 
many people waiting for me, together with their heathen head man, and 
his followers. First my arrival Holy Eucharist took place, then the usual 
service were I baptized twelve adults and three infants. From thence I 
proceed on to St. Stephen s, Exolobe, and reached at sundown. 

12. The usual service took place with celebration. Afterwards I 
had a strong meeting about the school, and several other matters 
connected with the well-being of the church. From thence I rode to St. 
Barnabas, Upper Gutsa. Immediately at my arrival service and celebra 
tion took place, being over I rode on to St. Timothy, Enconcolora, and get 
there at sundown. 

13. Here the people were short of Elements. No celebration, only 
morning service at eleven o clock. I had a meeting with the men 
of the location concerning things connected with the Mission. From 
6hence I rode on to St. Titus, Ilanga, and got in time for evening service. 

14. Early Holy Communion, afterwards mattins, being over I rode 
on for St. Michael s, Tsojana. Here I have evening song. 

15. After mattins a meeting took place on Church matters, being over 

MS 



266 A NATIVE CLERGYMAN S KEPORT. PSSftflK 

the rest of the day I been busy practising with the choir things for the 
English service to-morrow. 

, 16. At sunrise Holy Communion in the native language. At nine 
o clock A.M. native service. At eleven o clock I opened here for the 
first time a new work for the English people in the neighbourhood* 
At the latter time mentioned the European service took place, and at both 
services the choir did remarkably well. In the afternoon again native 
service, at sunset evensong. 

17. At daybreak I left for home. On my way to St. Titus my 
horse fall sick, and were oblige to drive it before me, until 1 get to 
St. Titus, where I leave it. It was a horse I lately bought which died the 
next day. From here I was oblige to hired another horse to get home 
with. I am sorry to say, I am very unfortunate with Horses. Last year 
I. lost four horses three stolen by the Kafirs and one died. Now at the 
very beginning of these year I lost one again. Hiring horses is very great 
expense upon me, especially now while our salaries are reduce. From 
St. Titus I reach home in the afternoon. 

20. I started out again for the out stations, and had a good service 

at St. Paul s with Celebration, from thence I rode on to St. Polycarp, 
Etafeni. 

21. Here I administered the Holy Sacrament at the usual time, 

and conducted the service as well. Being over, I rode on to St. Stephen 
to introduce a teacher to the people, from thence I rode on to St. Barnabas. 

22. After Mattins, the whole fornoon I been busy with the choirs 

of the following Missions : St. Michael s, St. Titus, St. Ann s, St. 
Paul s, St. Polycarp, St. Timothy, St. Luke s, and those of St. Barnabas. 
All had come to meet me here, as the central place, whom I teaching 
Anthems and Hymns for Holy week. In the afternoon, all have return 
to their homes, while I rode on to St. James Gala. 

23, At sunrise Holy Sacrament, at nine o clock A.M. the choral 
service, being over I met the candidates for Confirmation. Thence 
I proceed on for St. Margaret s, Bulukweza, two o clock P.M. Here I had 
the afternoon service, from thence I rode on to St. Leonard, Kwamfula. 
24. After sunrise Mattins, before sunset evening song. 
25. At nine o clock A.M. a wedding took place, were I joined 
one of our Catechist, Mr. John Mpumlwana, in holy wedlock to Miss 
Martha Dema. At the ceremony I had especial communion, having 
perform all my duties here. I left in the heat of the day for Tembuland, 
and reached St. Ann s after dusk. 

26. Early I left at day-break, and reached Enyalase after break 
fast, here the mistress gave me a good report of her school, at ten o clock 
I cross the Tsomo for St. Philip s. At my arrival several matters I been 
informed, after a short rest, I proceed for St. Cyprian s in a heat like 
yesterday. 

27. After breakfast I rode on for Ejojweni, here Iliad only a meeting 

about the school, as the Wesleyans in the neighbourhood, who were also 
present at our meeting, requested me to send their children at our 
school, and will do as much they can to support the school, whom I 



ItttSr*] KAFFEAKIA. 267 

allowed with all pleasure to bring their children to our school. I found 
the mistress also doing very well up here. I returned from this to St. 
Cyprian s. 

28. The usual service took place, with celebration, here I met also 
the candidates for Confirmation, afterwards I had a meeting with the 
men, in starting building the chapel, being over I rode over to Manzim- 
daka. 

29. Here I administered the Holy Sacrament and conducted the ser 
vice, being over I had a practice with the choir until noon, and left this 
for Hota, where I opened a new school, from this I rode into St. Philip s. 

30. Here I spend the fourth Sunday after Epiphany. At the 
celebration I had a good number of communicants, at the service time 
our chapel were crowded of people, most of the "Wesleyan people had came 
over to our church. Here I have spend all the services of the day until 
evening. 

31. At daybreak I left for Fingoeland, at St. Ann s I meet the can 
didates for Confirmation and Catechumens for Baptism, and proceed 011 
from this for St. Titus. 

February 1.- After Mattins I left for home very unwell, and was 
glad to get under my roof. 

6. I been able only this morning to administer the Holy Sacrament, 
the rest of the day I been very unwell. 

9. The Bishop arrive at St. Mark s to our great delight. 

10. Early I started for Hohita, at my arrival Mattins took place. No 
celebration. Short of Elements. From thence I rode on to Golobe, 
and found the people already waiting for me. Here service and celebra 
tion took place, being over I rode on for St. Stephen s, and reached it 
before a heavy storm. 

11. The usual service with celebration, being over I rode on for St. 
Polycarp. I am sorry to say I found the people scattered again after been 
waiting for me thinking that I am not coming any more. Immediately 
I rode down for Nconcoloza, having put here things in order I return 
for St. Barnabas. 

12. Morning service with celebration being over the rest of the day 
I been busy with the choir. 

13. English service at the Mbulu, as well native service, were I had 
Baptismal Service and Celebration, having discharge my duties here I 
rode down for St. Leonard. 

14. After sunrise I join a pair in holy wedlock, from thence I proceed 
on for home, and reached after dusk. 

1G. I made a start again mentioning the dates through all 
the Fingoeland Missions, the Bishop^ intention visiting the Missions. 
When I got to St. Paul s I examined the candidates for Confirmation, 
from thence I proceed on for Etafeni, were I joined a couple in holy 
matrimony, from thence I rode on to St. Luke s, here I mention to- 
the Headman of the Bishop visit, and proceed on for St. Titi*s even 
song. 

17. Early I walk over to Kwebulana s location, here I had the 

M4 



268 A NATIVE CLERGYMAN S REPORT. P 

usual service, and examined the candidates for Confirmation, as well 
the Catechumen for baptism, and return from this to St. Titus were 
I held a meeting with the men of the location about building a new 
school hut, having done with men, I meet the candidates for Confirmation, 
from thence I proceed on to Tsojana, having give notice of the Bishop s 
visit, I rode on to St. Ann s, evensong. 

18. Early I left for Tembuland and reach Enyalase after 
breakfast. I cross the Tsomo again for Elufuta and St. Philip s ; 
at both places I give notice of the Bishop s visit. From thence I rode 
on to St. Cyprian s at sunset evensong, and give notice of the Bishop s 
visit. 

19. I meet the candidates for Confirmation. 

20. The Confirmation took place, at the Native Town Hall, at 2 o clock 
P.M. at the new township of Gala, were 37 candidates been confirm. 

21. Raining the whole day. 

22. I visited the Esipafeni and Cala Missions, and had service at 
both places. 

23. Ash Wednesday. The Bishop came over to St. Cyprian s 
were he spend the day, leaving Mr. Coakes in the town to conduct there 
the English service, while the Bishop and myselve had service and cele 
bration on the Mission, being over, the Bishop held a meeting with all 
the men, urging them to finish the work they have undertake, viz., to 
build up their Church. 

24. Early I cross the Tsomo for Manzimdaka to await here for the 
Bishop and Mr. Coakes, who arrive about 10 o clock from the town. 
Soon after their arrival service took place, being over we had a good 
dinner well cook by Mrs. Kasana, from thence we rode down for St. 
Philip s, Elufuta. The men of St. Philip s had meet the Bishop half way, 
all on horseback, while the cart from Manzimdaka is send down with the 
oxen to Enyalase to await us there. Our entering at Elufuta were some 
thing pleasant, the two head men, viz., Mr. Set Makiwane and David 
Mtembu, the former is the head man of St. Philip s, the latter of Enya 
lase, both have turn out well with their men to meet the Bishop. The 
head man Mr. Set Makiwane and myselve rode before the Bishop and Mr. 
David Mtembu with the men follow behind the Bishop in a long 
train, the whole congregation had await us at Mr. Boom place the 
trader were a large store were nicely prepare to hold in the Divine 
service, as our chapel just broken down in repair. Good many 
Wesleyan people had come to see the Bishop. After we had a short 
rest, the service commence, the Bishop gave a warm address 011 
Education, especial he alluded on the parents how to brought up their 
children. As the Bishop speak Kafir as a Kafir himselve, his address 
will be remembered for a long while, the Wesleyan people were quite 
admire at these. After service Mr. Coakes and the head men, myselve and 
the other men, we accompanied the Bishop to the Mission to inspect it, 
from berer he visit the head man s kraal. The head man Mr. Makiwane 
were rather astonish through joy, to see such a great person as the Bishop 
visited his kraal, and go in under the roof of his hut who entertain the 



? ] KAFFRARIA. 269 

Bishop with a cup of milk, from these the Bishop and Mr. Coakes return 
to Mr. Boom s quarter, and I to the School Committee quarters of these 
place. 

25. We cross the Tsomo early for Enyalase and find everything 
prepare hospitality. On our arrival Mattins took place the hut been full 
of people. The Bishop address was on self-supporting. After service we 
had breakfast, well prepare on English style. From these the cart was 
already sent on early in the morning with oxen to Fingoeland. The head 
man David Mtembu show great kindness indeed, and the school in his 
location is very much improve there is daily 48 children in the school. 
After we had done our duties here we left for Fingoeland, half way 
accompanied by the head man Mr. Set Makiwane and several men, while 
two of our Lay readers accompanied us down to Fingoeland, viz., S. 
Madevu and S. Mateza, we reach St. Ann s, Engonyama, in time for even 
song. The Bishop and Mr. Coakes were put up at Mr. Lloyd s place. 

26. After Mattins we rode down for Nguhle s location, and after service 
the head man E. Nguhle accompanied the Bishop to Mr. Philip s place. 
Here I left the Bishop, I myselve rode on to the Mission, at my arrival I 
meet the candidate for Confirmation. 

27. Being Sunday, here the Bishop confirm 25, then the English 
service took place, after dinner the Bishop had a strong meeting with 
the whole congregation, afterwards evensong. 

28. Early I start for St. Timothy, and the Bishop arrive at eleven 
o clock and confirm here 27. From these we left for St. Titus, Ilanga, 
evensong. 

March 1. After the Bishop had inspection the Mission and had a talk 
with the head man, we rode over to Kwebuland s location. Here Mattins 
took place, from thence we rode on to St. Luke s, Lower Gutsa, at 
our arrival service took place, from thence we proceed to St. Paul s, 
Cofimvaba. The Bishop been put up at Mr. Lloyd s place. 

2. Here we had early service with the Bishop address, from thence 
we proceed on for St. Polycarp, Etafeni, were the Bishop confirm 44 
candidates, and rest for the evening at Mr. Taylor s. 

3. Early we had service at St. Barnabas, Upper Gutsa. We left for 
St. Stephen s, Xolobe, at the Bishop arrival service took place. I am 
sorry to say the people here had made no preparation for the Bishop 
coming. Service being over, we left for Qolose. Service being over, we 
left for Kuze and slept here on common mats on the hard floor, and had 
to use our overcoats as blankets, for our supper we had to eat the 
common mealies. I was so glad to see the Bishop made himself 
comfortable. He is quite please even with the Native common food, 
therefore he is the right man in the right place for the Native Diocese. 

4. We had Mattins early with the Bishop address to a very few 
people, being over we start for Gala, St. James. The head man, Mr 
B. Malgas, and his son, who is the teacher J. Malgas, they have turn 
up with some of the men to meet the Bishop. When we got to the meeting 
we find things prepare nicely, after having wash, we had a good 
breakfast, then service took place, here his Lordship gave the con- 



270 A NATIVE CLERGYMAN S KEPOBT. PSt?\S? 

gregation another good address, being over we proceed on for St. Leonard, 
Kwamfula, at our arrival service took place, again his Lordship preach a 
short sermon, from thence we rode on for Mbulukweza. The Bishop went 
down to Mr. Norn s place and I went and slept at the Mission. 

5. Early I had Mattins and Baptismal service. At eleven o clock the 

confirmation service took place, were the Bishop confirm 20 candidates. 
Being over, a meeting took place, were the Bishop spoke to the head 
man to build a church. From this- 1 left for St. Barnabas to prepare my 
choir, and the Bishop rode up to the Mbulu. 

6. The day being very unpleasant, wet weather which had prevent 
many people to come to the Mbulu, natives as well Europeans, however, I 
start with the choir in that wet. At ten o clock A.M. the English service 
took place. I conducted the service, Mr. Coakes took the lessons, the 
Bishop took the communion service and preach and celebrate. Being 
over, the Native Service took place immediately, conducted by Mr. Coakes 
and the Bishop preach again in Kafir. I am sorry to say after the native 
service I parted with the Bishop, after having a very pleasent trip with 
his Lordship, for the evening I went as far as St. Stephen. 

7. Early I left for home. 

# * * * # 

23. I started for St. Leonard at sunseif evensong. 

24. The day being set apart of bringing in the first fruits into the 
house of God, the service commence with celebration, being over I rode 
on to St. Margaret s and had the same service mention above, from 
thence I rode on to St. Barnabas, reached at sundown. 

25. Here also having the same service from thence I rode on to St. 
Michael s. 

2G. As the people here been short of Elements at nine o clock I had 
a large Baptismal service, were I baptized 22 persons of all ages, being 
over at ten o clock, the usual service took place of bringing in the produce. 
The rest of the day I been busy practising with the choir Hymns and 
Anthems for Passion week. 

27. At ten o clock Kafir service took place. Being over at half-past 
eleven o clock English service conducted by me, Mr. Perry read the 
lessons, my native choir sang very well indeed, having done all my 
duties here I rode on home, reached at sunset. 

28. I been busy preparing things for Holy week. 

29. I started for St. Timothy, Nconcolora were I am going to spend 
the Holy week so to prepare things there beforehand as good many Euro 
peans will be with us during the Passion week. 

These is from the pen of 

P. MASIZA, Native Priest, 

Unibo or Fingoe by birth. 





EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY WORK 

BORNEO. 

BY THE KEY. J. PERHAM. 
(Continued from page 253.) 

j THEE incongruous things have happened of a more 
excusable kind. Once an old man, who had never 
been to a service before, stalked in smoking a 
long pipe, and meaning thereby no disrespect ; but the pipe 
soon disappeared under the threatening looks and gestures of 
those who knew better. Another time a scantily-clad youth 
from the interior entered, and sat on the back of the bench 
with his feet on the seat, and so remained conspicuously during 
the service. Sometimes when a statement or an exhortation of 
the preacher strikes them more pointedly than usual, somebody 
will venture a pertinent remark. This, however, helps to keep 
up attention, and gives life to an instruction. I was one 
Sunday exhorting them to follow God s teaching with entire 
single-heartedness, when an old man spoke up : " So we 
do; see how many of us are here; that s a proof of it." 
At other times the interruption is not of so useful a kind ; as 
once, when I was walking up and down the aisle giving a 
catechetical instruction, a woman, who considers herself the 
lady of the place, remarked: "Yes, what you say is quite 
right I am true and faithful ; but those other people are 
very dubious Christians." Speaking on the parable of the 
great supper, I was enumerating the excuses Dyaks com 
monly made for not attending worship, and an old man 
thought to complete the number by adding, in an audible 
voice : " Yes, and pig-hunting." I afterwards found that his 
son-in-law had that morning gone to hunt pigs instead of 



272 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY 

coming to the chapel. On one occasion I remember a com 
pliment was expressed. A colleague of mine, who had just 
attained sufficient knowledge of the language to enable him 
to preach in it, had induced an old Dyak to attend service on 
a Sunday when he gave an address. After listening some 
time, the old man exclaimed : " Yes, the young one speaks 
fairly well." It will be observed that these odd expressions 
of sentiment always come from the old. The younger ones- 
look down upon them as the reprehensible, yet pardonable, 
eccentricities of the ignorant. 

I must conclude these experiences in a Dyak church with 
some account of a wedding. It was well known that this 
marriage was to be celebrated with much grandeur and 
festivity, and nobody went to work that day. At the appointed 
hour a long procession of Dyaks was seen approaching the 
church, through the trees, escorting the bridegroom. Some 
carried flags and banners, some fired off discharges of half- 
rotten muskets, some played in the band, that is to say beat 
gongs and drums big and small ; and a long file of women 
followed bearing with great gravity large brass salvers filled 
up full of Dyak cakes. At the church door the barbaric 
music and uproar ceased, and the cakes were deposited 011 
the floor inside the building. A similar procession came from 
the opposite direction, conducting the bride, decked out in 
bridal finery, Dyak woven cloths, gold-threaded shawl, and 
silver ornaments. In her right hand she held a bunch of small 
silver boxes. The church was packed to overflowing, and 
many had to be content with looking in through the lattice 
windows. The service was choral, and instead of the 
appointed exhortation I gave an address setting forth the 
Christian idea of marriage, and the duties of husbands, 
and wives. After the service the procession re-formed 
with all its splendour, and marched to the Mission House 
where the register had to be signed. The bride had to have 
her hand guided to write her name. I asked several among 
the congregation, who could write, to sign as witnesses, and 
they were pleased with the idea of assisting in such an important 
matter, and with the opportunity of showing the advantage of 



Mission Field,"] 
Sept. 1, 1867- J 



WORE IN BORNEO. 



273 



their education in the new learning, little enough though it 
was. This over, everybody proceeded to the Dyak house for 
the feasting, and a merry day was passed. 

III. MISSIONARY TRAVELLING. 

In the coast districts of Sarawak nearly all travelling is 
done by boating on the magnificent rivers which thickly inter 
sect the country. In many other countries the Missionary 
must keep his horse, and perhaps a gig ; here he must not be 




MISSION HOUSE, SARAWAK. 



without his boat. To go on foot is for the most part impos 
sible in the pathless interminable swamps which lie between 
these waterways of nature. But on the higher altitudes further 
inland foot travelling is common ; and the paths, through 
jungle of hill and dale, are generally easier than the course 
of the streams, with their frequent rapids and occasional 
waterfalls. My district, which is as big as a Diocese in England, 
is mostly on the lowland of the littoral parts ; and my boat, 
which is of native construction, is my carriage, and also my 
house for the time, where living, cooking, eating, and sleeping 
have to be gone through for many days. My crew of Dyaks 



274 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY ["aSfJaSS? 

have also to find accommodation with me in the craft. And 
now I will suppose niy pots and pans and all other baggage 
to be stowed away, and we start for the Saribas river, where 
there are seven Mission stations to be visited. 

The ebb tide, rushing like a mill-stream, takes us quickly 
down the Lingga, and then down the main stream of the 
Batang-Lupar, the mouth of which with good luck we reach 
in one ebb from Banting. Here we meet the incoming flood 
tide, against which it is impossible to pull ; and as the shades 
of night begin to fall we run into the mouth of a small stream 
to cook on shore. After squatting in the boat so many hours 
I would like to get out to stretch my legs ; but this is out of 
the question, for it is a mud bank, and mud is everywhere 
around. Dyaks can cook in the mud, but I prefer not to walk 
about in it ; so I go on reading as long as the light lasts, and 
then I bethink myself of enjoying the calm and the coolness 
of the evening, which is pleasant after the intense heat of the 
day ; but before long I become aware of a disagreeable itching 
about the face and hands, and the plague of mosquitoes is 
revealed. I take a towel and flap about me right and left, but 
with little effect. I take to smoking native cigarettes, tobacco 
rolled in a bit of dry palm leaf, but the smoke is too feeble to 
stupefy these insects, which come pouring in from the nipah 
palms. A lamp is lit, and makes the pests worse, for they are 
attracted by the light. Dinner comes on, but it has to be 
gobbled up, for these stinging tormentors give one no peace. 
After this hasty meal a speedy retreat to the curtains is the 
only refuge, yet not a complete one, for even within these I 
find a few who will gorge themselves with blood before they 
cease biting. I hail the coming of high water, when with a 
gentle breeze we drop down the Batang-Lupar bay, and the 
mosquitoes are left behind, except a few which have secreted 
themselves in the recesses of the boat. 

Most Dyaks can sleep when they like, and can be wakeful 
by night as well as by day ; and with plenty of the betel nut 
mixture to chew they can go a long time on a little food. 
Hence with a crew of them we have no difficulty in following 
a tide at any time of the twenty- four hours. At midnight we 



SH WORK IN BORNEO. 275 

anchored off the point between Batang-Lupar and Saribas 
rivers. At dawn of day we were again on the move, without 
partaking of any regular breakfast. The Dyaks snatched a 
few handfuls of rice, fragments of the last meal, whilst I, 
thanks to modern inventions, can cook for myself, with a 
paraffin stove, an egg and a cup of cocoa. 

Our next stopping place was the Sarnarang river, a small 
stream, at low water little more than a rivulet between two 
mud banks. But a mud bank need not be dull. This one 
was teeming with a population of beautiful blue crabs, and 
alive with jumping Johnnys, which the Dyaks call " lelayar," 
sailing fish, so named from the fin on the back, which, when 
erected as it hops about, reminds them of a sail, " layar." We 
had to wait here for the next tide. The crabs were too small 
for food, but the Dyaks looked at the fat Johnnys with longing 
eyes, and were soon out of the boat plunging over knees in 
mud, now running, now stuck fast, then crawling on all fours, 
and sliding on their backs, and thrusting their arms in the 
holes of the " lelayar " up to the shoulders. What a sight 
they were in a few minutes ! literally coated with mud from 
head to foot ; but some spoil rewarded their exertions, and a 
bath in the sea made them clean again. 

With the flood tide we proceeded up river, and had a most 
monotonous journey, with nothing in sight but muddy water, 
muddy banks covered with the heavy and sombre nipah palm 
and other low forest, all seen many times before. The only 
thing I could do was to follow- the story of the "Vicar of 
Bullhampton," and fancy myself in Wiltshire instead of in 
Borneo. 

At high water we anchored, intending to start again in the 
small hours of the morning. Dyaks sleep heavily, and I, 
who always undertake to watch for the turning tide, did not 
perceive when it made, and lost thereby nearly two hours. 
Some time before dawn I heard one of the crew cry out, 
"Antu, Antu!" "Spirit, Spirit!" The cry woke me up, 
and I quickly rose inwardly congratulating myself on my good 
luck in coming across one of those spirits of which the Dyaks 
talk so much and fear so superstitiously : but by the time I 



276 



EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY 



TMission Field 
L Sept. 1, 1887. 



was outside of my mosquito protection I heard a school-boy, 
who was with me, shout out, " A tailed star." I looked out, 




and there was the comet (1882), which we had not seen before, 
beautifully distinct in its whole outline just above the horizon. 



S d l WORK IN BORNEO. 277 



I, 1887. J 



To the old philosophy of the untaught Dyak it was the 
appearance of a portent, a spirit come to give warning of 
some great catastrophe, or the death of some chief : but to 
the new generation, growing up with a truer knowledge, it was 
only a " tailed star," a natural phenomenon, one of God s 
material creations like other heavenly bodies. 

I may add here that on one occasion, and one only in 
19 years, have I seen or heard of the fall of hailstones in 
Sarawak. A Dyak, who was in the Mission House at the 
time, eagerly caught them in his hand, hoping to preserve 
them as invaluable charms, and was disappointed to find they 
soon melted. In the Dyak house near, the consternation at 
their appearance as they rattled upon the palm-leaf thatch 
was immense. It was thought that the house and every 
thing and everybody would suddenly become petrified, and to 
prevent this dreadful fate they positively collected the stones 
and put them into pots of boiling water over the fire to melt 
them, and they cut off bits of hair from the children s heads 
and burned them. A school-boy from the Mission was in the 
house at the time, and ventured to remark that he had heard 
from the padre that they were only frozen rain, and would 
melt fast enough of themselves ; but he was answered in a 
tone of severe authority by his grandfather : "I am an old 
man, you a child ; how can you know better than I ? " which 
extinguished him. 

But to return to the journey. We approached the more 
shallow and dangerous parts of the river ; but I trusted to my 
knowledge of the course, gained in previous journeys, to 
enable me to steer our course aright. It was dark, but we 
passed the sand-banks without any mishap, and I wa.s con 
gratulating myself on our good progress, when we suddenly 
became aware that a half- fallen tree was stretching straight 
out from the bank over the wa-ter just in front of us. It was 
too late to avoid it, or stop, and the boat was swiftly carried 
under it and caught. The rushing tide made it impossible to 
go astern, and the tree and the rising water clenched us tight 
between them. There was no danger to us, but to the boat 
there was ; and we only got free by breaking down some of 



278 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY Pfijft^Si! 

the supports of the awning. In the scuffle my hat fell into 
the water, and floated away up stream ; but being white, it 
was descried in the darkness and recovered. At midnight we 
arrived at Salulap, where there is a Mission House, a palm- 
leaf shanty, which is only used when I visit the river, and so 
has all the dingy look of an uninhabited place a lodge in 
the jungle. With a lamp we picked our way up to it, and 
then to bed ; but sleep was not easily obtained. The place 
swarmed with mosquitoes, and^my curtains were not properly 
arranged, and soon were filled with the pests. The only 
resource was to wrap myself up in my plaid, and lie still 
like a mummy ; but this made the heat almost unbearable, 
and a restless night followed. 

Next morning the native teacher came, and some of the 
Christians. The house had nothing but the bare walls, and 
we proceeded to furnish it. We made a bed-place, a sideboard, 
a toilet-stand, and a rack, with pieces of split palm-trees, 
which the Dyaks fastened together with rotan ; so, without 
hammer or nail, plane or chisel, the room was furnished with 
what was necessary, except table, which was beyond our skill ; 
but I could not say much for the ornamental character of the 
furniture. For chair I had to use a paraffin box. Towards 
sunset I went to the village of Stambak to talk to the Christians 
there about the building of a new chapel. They had some 
what slackened in their zeal, and, like many other people, 
wished to have everything done for them. Some of the women 
were loud in declaiming against the dilatoriness of their 
husbands. The chapel was afterwards built. 

The following day was Sunday. I administered the Holy 
Eucharist at Serian, where is a small but enlightened and 
sincere Christian community, whose simple unaffected manner 
and warm hospitality make it always a pleasure to visit them. 
When in the evening service on the same day I was giving 
them instruction, a tall Dyak who had learnt some drill in 
Government service appeared at the door, stood erect, and 
with formal gravity gave me a military salute before entering. 
I suppose he thought it was the correct thing to do whenever 
he met a white man, even though it be during sermon at 



Mission Field,-] 
Kept. 1, 1887. J 



WORK IN BORNEO. 



279 



church. A suppressed titter went round the little congregation, 
and I was inwardly amused by the thought of how absurd 
the incident would appear had the place been a church in 
England instead of a Dyak chapel in Borneo. 

Monday was a rainy day. Qne of my crew was ill ; and 
partly for his sake, and partly because there was more to be 
done to the house, I did not move on. In the evening I went 
to a house near, where the Dyaks were a rough set, and at that 




SAKAWAK DYAK WAR COSTUME. 



time not interested in Christian teaching. A long talk "and 
discussion followed. The head man said he should not have 
anything to do with Seinbeyany, but his followers might, if 
they liked. And even now whilst all the rest of his family 
have become Christians the old man holds out against us. 
After returning to my house, an old pupil came and asked me 
for a copy of St. John, St. Matthew, and the General Epistles, 
and when they were given him he requested an explanation 



280 EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY Kt^Tw?* 

of the same, a rather formidable request to make at 10 P.M. 
But we read two chapters of St. James, and had a talk about 
them. 

Next day I went off to a Dyak house on the Paku river, 
which I had not visited before. Here books from the Mission 
Press and reading due to the Mission Agency had preceded 
the padre, and I found more books were required than I 
could supply. Sitting down on the floor with the Dyaks 
around me all the evening, I spoke of God s message to us. 
Some were interested, others were not. Do English people 
know what living in a Dyak house means ? There is little 
or no privacy in Dyak life, none at all for a visitor, until he 
retires into his mosquito curtains to sleep. Bathing and 
dressing, as well as drinking and sleeping, have to be gone 
through under the eyes of all who choose to gaze, and 
they do gaze at a white man s ways and doings. Whilst on 
the ruai, or public verandah of the house, dogs and fowls, as 
well as Dyaks, are one s near companions, and dirty cats come 
sneaking round when one sits down to a meal in the so-called 

room. 

From this place I had to walk across country to Smambu. 
On the way we passed a Dyak house where there was a mad 
man confined in a huge cage made of great logs of wood firmly 
lashed together with rotan. There are no lunatic asylums 
in this country, and I suppose they know of no other way to 
prevent a madman from committing injuries on others or 
himself, except to imprison him in this way. But it is very 
suggestive of taming a wild beast, and somewhat horrible. 
Since then I have met the man working quietly and in his 
right mind at his farm, with a little girl by his side. 

The Smambu Christians had recently removed their village - 
house to a new site, and their chapel was left deserted in the 
jungle : so we had to gather for worship on the verandah of 
the house, which was a severe trial to one s spirit of attention 
and devotion. As we were kneeling in a group, a fowl, find 
ing his way obstructed, would fly right across our centre, and 
nosooner did we begin to recite than the dogs, attracted and 
excited by the assembling together of their masters, would set 



*S$.li8g? ] WORK IN BORNEO. 281 

up a howl or a fight. Every now and then a creaking door 
would be heard opening or shutting, and the pigs would grunt 
and squeak underneath. On a like occasion in another place 
we partitioned off a portion of the verandah with mats, but 
even then the dogs and fowls boldly and successfully asserted 
their right of road, and broke through our slender wall. At 
Smambu I have never had a repetition of this disagreeable ex 
perience. Next morning we made arrangements for a new 
chapel, which was completed on my next visit. 

My work over here, they took me in a tiny boat down a 
tiny stream, which hardly deserves a better name than ditch, 
to the mouth of the Paku, where my own boat was waiting for 
me. But small as the river was, the motion in the open boat 
through the shady jungle of majestic forest trees, with an 
abundance of parasitical plants growing about them, the beau 
tiful ferns and tangling creepers, constantly presenting new 
combinations as we followed the windings of the river, alto 
gether made a pleasant experience. And, occasionally, as on 
this trip, one gets a new flower, which in these generally flow- 
erless forests is a welcome sight as a new revelation of Nature s 
infinite beauty. 

At Paku we had to wait for the flood tide, which at this 
time would develop into a tidal wave or bore. Meanwhile we 
had nothing to do but lunch, and watch such scenes of Malay 
semiaquatic life as came before us ; the most notable of which 
was the coming down of Malay girls with bamboo water vessels 
from 5 ft. to 8 ft. long to fetch water from the river. But 
how could they drink such muddy liquid ? Being low water, it 
was just the colour of the mudbank itself. Probably that 
water was only used for washing purposes, yet it must have 
been dirty washing, as the garments of the Malay women 
bore witness. After some time we heard the bore in the 
distance, and soon after a foaming wave came rushing up 
river. We were at anchor in a deep pool behind a sand-bank, 
and on either side the wave approached within ten yards and 
then sank in the deep water of the pool ; but the water rose 
several feet in less than a minute, and we with it, and the 
whole current, which before was swiftly running down river, 



282 



EXPERIENCES OF MISSIONARY 



TMission Field, 
L Sept. 1,1887. 



suddenly turned with the bore and rushed far more rapidly up 
river. After waiting a little we followed it up, making a zigzag 
course to avoid the shallow sand-banks on which we might 
easily have stranded or upset. 

I had to stay another night at the Salulap house on my 
way up, but I spent most of the evening at the village of a 
Dyak, who bears the title of " Pengarah," an official of the 
Government. I received a hearty welcome. After talking 
some time the Pengarah s wife appeared at the door of the private 




SEA DYAKS LOXG HOUSE. 



room, and called out, " Come and eat," whereupon the 
Pengarah took my two Dyak followers to the room. Then 
Mrs. P. appeared again, and said, " Come along, Tuan, won t 
you eat with us ? " Yes, the Tuan, although he had dined, 
would eat again. So I entered and sat on the floor. In a 
plate there was some boiled rice, and in another an egg boiled, 
shelled and cut into pieces, done to a nicety. This with some 
of the rice I despatched with my fingers, Dyak civilisation 
having not yet attained the dignity of knives and forks and 
spoons. After eating I had a little talk with the ladies in the 



M 5tt. &? ] WORK IN BORNEO. 283 

room, and then a longer discussion with the men on the 
verandah. Apparently but little impression was made at the 
time. A tree is not felled by one stroke of the axe, nor is a 
Dyak won to the Christian faith by one discussion or preach 
ment. In subsequent visits we have made more progress in 
this village. Back to Salulap to sleep. 

Whilst waiting for the up-tide on the following morning, we 
heard sounds of gongs up river, and presently saw a boat 
coming down with the ebb, gaily decked out with flags and 
streamers fluttering in the breeze. As it floated past we made 
it out to be a Malay boat ; and on a temporary deck spread 
with mats was a Malay medicine man dancing, and making 
fantastic movements with a couple of round shields which he 
held. In front of him was placed a rough model of a boat, 
which was evidently the object of the ceremony. The mean 
ing was said to be this. A Malay at the village above had 
been ill and was now convalescent ; and this function was 
performed with the object of completely spiriting away the 
disease once and for ever. The model boat was supposed to 
contain the disease, or rather the evil demon which caused it, 
which they thus carry down river beyond their habitations, 
and set it adrift out to the big sea that it may return no more. 
In many things, the Malays, although Mahometans, are as 
superstitious as the Dyaks ; their belief in Allah does not pre 
vent them from propitiating the spirits of evil, which are the 
cause of all sicknesses according to the native ideas. 

We went up to Gensurei, about as far inland as the tides 
go. At this place I often find a question awaiting me about 
some point of religious doctrine, or passage of Scriptures. I 
have at different times been asked to explain the following : 
" Wisdom is justified of her children. A prophet hath no 
honour in his own country. Wlieresoever the carcass is, there 
will the eagles be gathered together. W T ill the world, after 
the day of judgment, be like the present one ? How many 
days of judgment will there be ? " But on this occasion 
there was nothing of a special character waiting for solution. 
The following morning we had service, and I administered the 
Holy Communion in their little chapel. The offertory is 



284 MISSIONARY WORK IN BORNEO. [TStlaSf 1 

worthy of a remark. At all our churches and stations we 
receive in kind as well as in money. Dyaks have not often 
got ready money, but they have rice, which is the " kind " in 
which the offertory is generally made. At this service about 
twenty saucers were brought in full of rice, which was emptied 
into a basket. One person brought a bunch of plantains. I 
take all the " kind," and give an equivalent in money to the 
man who has charge of the offertory, the churchwarden, at 
each station which has a chapel. 

And what is a Dyak chapel like ? The same in material 
and style as their own houses that is to say, a small oblong 
structure raised above the ground on posts of wood, having 
walls and roof of dried palm leaves, and a floor of split wood, 
which is covered with mats, altogether as primitive a house of 
worship as can possibly be, but enough for necessary purposes. 
It does not last long, but is easily and cheaply rebuilt where 
there is a will to do so. To build permanent churches would 
in most cases be useless waste, for the Dyaks are constantly 
moving their village-houses to new sites, and the church 
would be left sole occupant of the jungle. A rigid religious 
{esthetic might find it hard to worship in these chapels, for out 
side they look like rough sheds without an atom of architec 
tural beauty about them, and inside they are destitute of 
ornament and innocent of furniture, having as a rule nothing 
but the Holy Table. The Dyaks sit on the floor as they do in 
their own houses. 

After hearing a class of Dyaks read a portion of the Gospels, 
I started for my last station on the Padih, the village of the 
Orang Kaya Pemancha, with another native official of the 
Government ; but it was late in the night when I arrived, and I 
remained in my boat till morning. 

Thus ended a pleasant visit, and one more than usually full 
of incident. But travelling among Sea Dyaks is hardly ever 
anything but agreeable as regards intercourse with them, for 
they are civil, natural in manner, hospitable, kindly disposed, 
and generally a cheerful folk. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

HEE Majesty the Queen has directed the Secretary of 
State for the Home Department to inform the Society 
that she has been pleased to accept very graciously the ad 
dresses presented to her in connection with the Jubilee com 
memoration. 

The following is the letter addressed by the Secretary of 

State to the President : 

" Whitehall, 

" Vtih July, 1887. 
" My Lord Archbishop, 

" I have had the honour to lay before The Queen the loyal and 
dutiful Address of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, on the occasion of Her Majesty attaining the Fiftieth 
Year of Her Reign ; and I have to inform Your Grace that Her Majesty 
was pleased to receive the same very graciously. 
" I have the honour to be, 

" My Lord Archbishop, 

" Your Grace s obedient Servant, 

" HENRY MATTHEWS. 
" His Grace 

" The Archbishop of Canterbury, 
" Lambeth Palace, S.E." 



EACH year the Society makes its earnest appeal for 
Harvest Thanksgiving offerings, and with reason. 
What more fitting shape can thanks for earthly things take 
than the spreading the knowledge of the Giver among those 
who have but the witness of natural religion to the Lord of 
the spirits of all flesh ? The earthly harvest is to the spiritually 
minded always a type of that harvest for which it is the 
highest privilege to prepare, and of which angels shall be the 
reapers. 

How great is the urgency of the present need is well 
known to the readers of the Mission Field. Straitened means 
and increasing claims make the cry for help strong and loud. 
What fields can we think of where opportunities and needs are 
not ? Whether South Africa, India, Burmah, Japan, or many 
another part of the field comes before our minds, we recall at 



286 NOTES OF THE MONTH. CSSSi.^jK 1 

once how we are told again and again of openings, of readi 
ness, of ripeness, and of the fears of the workers that to delay 
is to lose and to fail. 

LAST month we recorded the election of the Bev. Dr. 
Edghill to the vacant See of Nova Scotia. It is now 
announced that in view of the claims of his work in England 
he has decided not to accept the bishopric. The Synod have 
subsequently offered it to the Eight Eev. Bishop Perry of 
Iowa, who preached the Society s Anniversary Sermon in St. 
Paul s. 

ALL over the country especially in the Cathedrals and 
chief centres the Centenary of the Colonial Episco 
pate was observed on August the 12th. At St. Pauls, as in 
some other Cathedrals, the sermon was preached by the Lord 
Bishop of the diocese. England s share in the commemora 
tion was but a part. Ireland, Scotland, India, and above 
all the several Colonies, had prepared to mark the day fittingly. 
It was an occasion for high thanksgiving, the utterance of 
which has, we trust, deepened in the minds of Church people 
their sense of the solidarity of their world-wide communion, 
and their sympathy with its efforts still far too feebly sup 
ported at home to extend and strengthen it in foreign lands. 

IN his address to his Synod in July the Bishop of New 
foundland thus referred to the Centenary : 
" The present is a year of great interest in connection with the mis 
sion work of the Church of England, the colonial episcopate, and the S. P. Or. 
The centenary of the first colonial Bishop may remind churchmen how 
much they owe to that great society, the first and oldest of English 
missionary societies, and that which has almost alone kept alive and 
supported the Church in our colonial Empire. It is earnestly to be 
hoped that the funds of the society will be replenished by the willing 
hearts and open hands of all who desire the extension of the Redeemer s 
kingdom." 

NEWS has not yet arrived of the consecration of Arch 
deacon Pinkham at Winnipeg for the Diocese of 
Saskatchewan. It no doubt took place on August the 7th. 
He visited his diocese before his consecration, and records the 
arrival of the first congregation in it at the stage of entire 
self-support. This honourable position is attained by the 
church -people at Calgary. 



1S5.3i8KI NOTES OF THE MONTH, 287 

He speaks of the urgent need of clergymen for Banff 
and the Pincher Creek Settlement, and thus describes the 
former : 

" The distance from Calgary to Laggan, the most westerly point of 
the Diocese, is 117 miles. There are a number of stations between, 
including Banff. Banff is in the Bow Kiver Pass, forty miles from the 
summit of the Rocky Mountains, with its hot springs and its delightful 
scenery. Banff is likely to become one of the chief pleasure and health 
resorts on the continent. The Dominion Government has laid off a 
National Park here, on the improvement of which large sums of money 
are being spent. The Canadian Pacific Eailway Company are erecting 
a very large hotel there, and are making this place the divisional point 
hitherto represented by Canmore and Donald. Three miles from Banff 
two hundred men are employed at the Anthracite Coal Mines." 

He also describes the arrangements made with a view to 
establishing a grammar or high school at Calgary. The late 
Bishop, just before his lamented death, had taken some pre 
liminary steps towards this object. Such an institution was 
needed, and promises to hold an important place in the future. 



ON Trinity Sunday the Bishop of Rangoon ordained 
Mr. F. W. Sutton (the Medical Missionary), Mr. 
Nodder, and Mr. G. H. Colbeck (the brother of two Mission 
aries in this diocese). Mr. and Mrs. Sutton were to leave 
almost immediately for Upper Burma. After the ordination, 
the Bishop was to start for a week s visitation of the Toung- 
hoo Mission, and says that he thinks he may be in England 
for a few weeks in September or October. 

WRITING from Port Arthur on July 12th, the Bishop 
of Qu Appelle thanks the Society in warm terms 
for the renewal of the grant undiminished. He adds : 

" But really unless we can get MORE MEN I do not know whether 
we shall be able to spend it. The lack is terrible. 

" I am now writing in a place of about 7,000 inhabitants, which 
certainly ought to have the exclusive work of one man, and yet he has 
five other places, ranging over more than 200 miles of country. He is 
the only clergyman between Sault St. Maria and Eat Portage, or North 
Bay on the C. P. R., the stations on which, for 250 miles, are given to a 
Student of Wycliffe College, for the four summer months, otherwise 
they have nothing. This place is self-supporting, and two other Clergy 
could be supported in the District if only the men could be found." 

BOTH in gratitude for the grant and with regard to the 
lack of effective men the Bishop of Rupertsland writes 
in a similar strain. The Bishop says that the clergy who go 
out should be neither married nor elderly. 



288 NOTES OF THE MONTH. IjJStJS^ 

/CAPETOWN Diocese is also grateful that it receives an 
undiminished grant. The Bishop writes : - 



" I cannot tell you what a relief it was to me to receive your letter by 
the last mail with the tidings that the grant to the Diocese for 1888 is not 
to be reduced, as I feared would have been the case when I saw how 
much the Society s revenue had diminished last year. It is with the 
utmost difficulty that we can carry on the work of the Diocese even now, 
and I can hardly bear to think of the straits to which we should have 
been reduced if we had been deprived of any of the Society s grant. I 
really cannot write too thankfully." 

What tremendous importance such letters give to the state 
of the Society s income ! 

T. LUKE S Day has been fixed as the date for the 
consecration of the Kev. Canon Camidge as Bishop of 

Bathurst. 



NEAK Berlin there are several places where there are 
English workpeople, and the Society has determined 
to establish a chaplaincy for their benefit, making a 
grant of 50 to meet certain subscriptions which have been 
made for the purpose in Berlin and in the several places. The 
chief places are Eummelsburg, Schonweide, and Hoppegarten. 
At Schonweide there are several English horse-trainers. There 
seems to be abundant evidence that the chaplain s presence 
will be highly valued by those for whose benefit he is to be 
sent ; but from the nature of the case it is clear that the 
work will be of a rather peculiar character, aptitude for 
which in the chaplain will be necessary for success. It is ot 
be hoped that there may soon be found a clergyman to minister 
to these Englishmen who, with their wives and families, are 
settled in a foreign land. 

REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. F. Bohn, Tara Chand, and F. H. T. Hoppner 
of the Diocese of Calcutta ; S. W. Cox, of Grahamstoicn ; S. M. Samuelson, of Zululund ; 
H. T. A. Thompson, of Maritzburg ; J. Widdicombe, of Bloemfontein ; and C. G. Curtis, Missionary 
at Constantinople. 

SOCIETY S INCOME FOR 1887. 

Abstract of KECEIPTS and PAYMENTS from January 1st to July 31st : 

GENERAL FUND SPECIAL FUNDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c 17,823 5,621 

Legacies 5,991 

Dividends, &c 1,778 2,784 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 25,592 8,405 

PAYMENTS 48,844 10,233 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January 1st to July 31st, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1883, 
18,770; 1884, 19,281 ; 1885, 18,203 ; 1886, 17,126 ; 1887, 17,823. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




OCTOBER 1, 1887. 



CONSECRATION OF THE BISHOP OF 
SASKATCHEWAN. 

THE PROVINCIAL SYNOD. THE DIVISION OF THE DIOCESE. A 
BRIEF SKETCH OF THE NEW BISHOP S CAREER. 

JISHOP PINKEAM S consecration took place in Holy 
Trinity Church, Winnipeg, on Sunday, August 7. 
The consecrating prelates were the Most Eev. the 
Bishop of Eupertsland, the Metropolitan, the Bishops of 
Moosonee, Athabasca, and Qu Appelle in the same province, 
the Bishop of Rochester, the Bishops of Minnesota and 
Northern Dakota in the United States, and the Bishop of 
Huron. 

The sermon was preached by the Rev. Canon Matheson, 
of Winnipeg Cathedral. A large number of clergy were pre 
sent, and the service appears to have been peculiarly im 
pressive and hearty. 

On the following Wednesday the Provincial Synod assem 
bled at Winnipeg, and on the second day of their session 
agreed to some important resolutions with a view to dividing 
the enormous episcopal charge of the Bishop of Saskatche 
wan. That diocese hitherto has included the two civil provinces 
of Alberta and Saskatchewan, the former lying to the north of 

NO. CCCLXXXII. N 



290 



CONSECRATION OF THE 



TMission Field, 
L Oct. 1, 1887. 



Assiniboia, which forms the Diocese of Qu Appelle, and the 
latter lying to the west of both Saskatchewan province and 
Assiniboia. 

The Provincial Synod have divided the diocese into two, 
in accordance with the civil arrangements, and decided that 
the civil province of Alberta shall be called the Diocese of 
Calgary. Although it is not yet possible to appoint a bishop 
for each of these two dioceses, the Provincial Synod determined 
that, subject to the consent of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the division should be definitely made. For the present, 
Bishop Pinkham is the Bishop of both parts of the enormous 
diocese in which his honoured predecessor laboured. 




MAIN STREET, CALGARY. 

A Winnipeg paper, The Morning Call, thus summarises 
the career of the new Bishop : 

" The Eight Keverend W. Cyprian Pinkham, Bishop of 
Saskatchewan, who, in accordance with the nomination of 
His Grace of Canterbury, was consecrated on Sunday, 
August 7, to the See of Saskatchewan, was born in St. John, 
Newfoundland, in 1844. He was educated there at the Church 
of England academy, and, after having had charge for a 
time of a public school in one of the suburbs, proceeded 
to St. Augustine s College, Canterbury, in 1865. During 
one vacation he acted as private tutor in the family of 



Mission Field,"] 
Oct. 1, 1887. J 



BISHOP or SASKATCHEWAN. 



291 



Sir Frederick Fowkes, the period of his college life closing 
in 1868. At this critical point in his life, his youthful am 
bition was to serve amongst the brethren in India or Mada 
gascar, but in this his wish was overruled by what would 
seem in the truest sense a call. After his final examina 
tion before the S. P. G. Board of Examiners, the Secretary of 
the Society, Mr. Bullock, offered him the Curacy of St. James , 
in Eupertsland, and, though not at first disposed to accept 
it, after earnest consultation with Canon Bailey, Warden of 
the College, he determined to sacrifice his own wishes, and a 




PASS CF THE EOW 1UVER. 



month later sailed for Canada. On arriving at Montreal, he 
heard from Bishop Fulford that the Bishop of Eupertsland was 
expected shortly in London (Ontario) to preach the ordination 
sermon for the Bishop of Huron. He proceeded to London, 
was allowed to sit for the ordination examination then just 
about to begin, and was finally ordained deacon by the Bishop 
of Kupertsland. From this time end of 1868 till October 
1881, he remained in charge of St. James , first as curate 
in charge under Archdeacon McLean*, afterwards as rector. 

* Afterwards Bishop Pinkham s predecessor in the See of Saskatchewan. 

N2 



292 



CONSECRATION OF THE 



f Mission Field* 
L Cct. 1, L887. 



He was ordained a priest, February 1869. When the firsis 
Education Act was passed, 1871, he was appointed a member 
of the Council of Education. He succeeded the first superin 
tendent of education, whose work he had previously under 
taken in his enforced absence in 1872, and retained that office 
until 1883. In 1881 he was sent to Eastern Canada to study 
the normal and high school system, and to his practical sug 
gestions is largely due the efficiency of the present educational 
machinery in the province ; in particular may be mentioned 
the collegiate department in our public schools, which, not 




FORT EDMOXTOX, X. SASKATCHEWAN RIVER. 



only for economy and efficiency, are superior to the high 
school system, but form, as is practically demonstrated by our 
University examinations, a connecting link between the public 
school and the University. The Bishop is still a member of 
the Board of Education, and represents it on the University 
Council. In 1881 he was elected secretary of the Synod, 
and appointed archdeacon in 1882. He has been a member 
of the Provincial Synod since its formation in 1874. He is a 
member of the Council of St. John s College, and has always 
taken the deepest interest in its welfare. Indeed, while his 
energy and zeal as archdeacon, whether in organising the 



Mission Field,"! 
Cct. 1, 1887. J 



BISHOP OF SASKATCHEWAN. 



298 



diocese or pleading the cause of our Church in Canada or in 
England, will not soon be forgotten, his services in furthering 




the cause of education in this country will have exerted per 
haps a still greater influence. When the degree of Bachelor 
of Divinity was conferred upon him in 1879 by the late 



294 CONSECRATION OF BISHOP OF SASKATCHEWAN. [*o2T,iag. d * 

Archbishop of Canterbury, it was given amongst other personal 
merits on account of his services to the Church and especi 
ally in the cause of education. 

In the accompanying map the new diocese of Calgary is 
marked. From its foundation, in 1869, until 1872, the dio 
cese of Kupertsland included the whole of the province of 
which the seventh diocese is now formed. 

Saskatchewan, founded in 1874, comprehended an enor 
mous area, stretching from Manitoba to the Eocky Mountains. 
It was relieved by the creation of the diocese of Qu Appelle, 
and will now be further reduced when the separation of Calgary 
is actually accomplished. 

The late Bishop s life, and his death, showed what such 
vast distances mean to the Church s chief governor. Dangers, 
exposure, fatigue, loss of time, and difficulty in forecasting 
plans, all such had to be faced by Bishop McLean, and in 
some degree have to be faced still. Though the railway is 
rendering intercourse easier in some parts, and subdivision is 
reducing the distances to be traversed, yet large tracts are 
still remote from the railway, and settlement is adding rapidly 
to the calls on a Bishop s time and energies. 

The illustrations show the town of Calgary in its infancy, 
three years ago, the Bow Eiver, which is the branch of the 
Saskatchewan upon which Calgary is situated, and by the 
side of which the Canadian and Pacific Kailway runs up into 
the Eocky Mountains, and Fort Edmonton, which is also in 
the newly formed diocese. 






JAPAN. 

A HURRIED JOURNEY TO BAPTIZE CONVERTS AT NIR1YAMA. 
BY THE REV. A. LLOYD, OF TOKYO. 

i 

jT a place called Nirayama a Keiogijiku old pupil 
called Fugiyama has been living as a teacher of 
the middle school. He was baptized by me 
last July, and has become a most zealous Christian. Whilst 
staying at his home during the summer vacation, he suc 
ceeded in converting to the Faith his parents. These have not 
yet been baptized, owing to the fact that his home is in a 
very remote province. In September he removed to Idzu, a 
province due south of Mount Fuji, to become a teacher in the 
Nirayama middle school. I heard nothing from him for 
several months. Then I got a letter from him telling me that 
one of his colleagues, Kato, also a Keiogijiku old boy, wished 
for baptism ; and asking me to send him some books, which 
I did. 

A short time after he wrote to say that several pupils 
were also anxious for baptism. In the meantime the Greeks 
had opened a Church in Nirayama, and Fugiyama asked me 
for information about them. I gave him the requisite infor 
mation : at the same time I advised them to work together 
with the Greeks. However, they did not wish to join the 
Greek Church, and begged me to come and baptize them 
myself. 

On the Monday (March 28) the "Glamorganshire" 
arrived bringing Fenton and Fardel, and Mr. Gardner, our 
new missionary for Kobe. The next day I devoted to their 
interests. 

The next morning, at eight o clock, my son Douglas and I 
started from our house in a jinriksha with two runners, and 
commenced our journey. A map will simplify matters. 



296 



JAPAN. 



[Mission Field, 
Oct. 1, 1687. 



The first part of the journey contained nothing of import 
ance. As will be seen, we were in sight of the sea all the 
time nearly. It was very hot and dusty ; Douglas s eyes hurt 




him so that he had to Wear a pair of coloured spectacles 
which at the last moment I had borrowed from Holmes. We 
had a slow, steady trot all day, with nothing to break the 



. d ] A HURRIED JOURNEY. 297 

monotony of the journey except an occasional rest at a tea 
house, when the jinriksha men swallowed bowls of vermicelli, 
and we ate hunks of bread and tore in pieces a fowl we had 
brought with us. Douglas had a new pocket-knife, which he 
used with great glee as a dinner knife. A new railway is 
being built from Yokohama to Odawara ; and everywhere we 
-could see men hard at work. It is hoped that before August 
it will be completed. Everywhere in the country, railways 
are being constructed, though of course not so rapidly as in 
America or the Colonies. 

About five o clock we reached Oiso. Here the jinriksha 
men were very tired, so, as there was a good inn, we rested. 
All along the Tokaido (or great high road running from Tokyo 
to Kyoto) there are good inns. Our inn was called Yamam- 
otoya, and lies at the west end of the town. 

We got in, took our room, changed our clothes, had a hot 
bath (hot baths are our delight you should just see the 
male portion of the establishment every Saturday about nine 
o clock !), finished our cold fowl, called for beds, and went to 
sleep. 

The next morning, at six o clock, we were on our journey. 
From Oiso to Odawara is about ten miles. We reached it 
shortly after eight o clock. 

From Odawara we had a choice of two routes. One was 
to continue in our jinrikis as far as Hakone, then walk 
or ride in kagos (Japanese litters) across the mountains 
to Nishima where we could obtain jinrikis again to go to 
Nirayama. The other route was along the sea to Atami, 
then across a mountain pass to Nirayama. The advantage 
of this route is that jinrikis can go the whole of the way. 
This was our principal reason for choosing it. So at Odawara 
we hired an additional runner, and started at nine o clock for 
Atami. The distance is 8 ri, about nineteen miles, and the 
road is very up and down hill. It is a beautiful road, winding 
along the sides of the steep mountains, with a mean height of 
about eight hundred feet above the sea. Above us towered 
the mountains of Idzu for three thousand feet, with every 
now and then a quarry, from which the stones were brought 

N3 



T*T>*vr [Mission Field, 

JAPAN. L Oct. 1, 1887. 

in funny little trollies with two extremely small wooden wheels, 
which creaked under their weight ; below us a sheer rock 
down to the sea, which rippled and sparkled at our feet. At 
intervals there was a fishing-hamlet, which brought the road 
down to the sea ; then it would go up again by a series of 
sharp zigzags to its ordinary level. 

We reached Atami at three o clock. Atami possesses a 
very famous hot spring, and as it lies embedded amongst the 
mountains, which shelter it from every wind that blows (except 
one), it is very warm in winter and terribly hot in summer. 
Even in March it is hot enough. The hot-water spring is not 
a perpetual stream : six times in every twelve hours it comes 
out boiling hot, during the intervals there is no current. A 
vapour- cloud can, however, always be seen rising from the 
spring. By means of bamboo pipes the water is conveyed 
to all parts of the village ; and every hotel, and I suppose every 
house, has its private hot mineral bath. The water is slightly 
sulphurous to the taste. 

At Atami we found a new hotel in foreign style, where we 
had a capital lunch, and were well treated. As our two 
Tokyo men were very tired, we left them here, engaging one 
small jinriksha for Douglas and the luggage. The Odawara 
man accompanied us also. 

After Atami, for two ri the road is very steep. It has a 
great many zigzags, so that the pedestrian, by means of short 
cuts, can get up much sooner than a carriage can. Near the 
top of the pass (called in Japanese the Hikane Toge) Douglas 
walked, but as soon as we got over the top, we put him into 
the jinriksha and started a sharp run. It was a race down 
hill, and though I had the advantage of short cuts, I was 
rather distressed and blown when I reached Karuizawa, a 
small hamlet about one ri from the top of the pass. 

At Karuizawa I tried to hire a fresh jinriksha for myself 
the local carriage being much smaller than the Tokyo one, 
we could not ride together. Nirayama was still three ri dis 
tant, the sun had set, and darkness had come over the moun 
tain the jinriksha men thought they were masters of the 
situation. Accordingly they asked me one yen to take me to 



fif ] NIRAYAMA. 299 

my destination. I laughed at them contemptuously and sug 
gested twenty cents, an offer which I subsequently raised 
to thirty. Still they refused. At last I said, " Look here ! I 
have a friend at Nirayama, who knows the country : whatever 
he thinks right I will pay." Still they refused. So deter 
mined not to be beaten, I started to run, announcing my 
intention to run the whole way. I had not gone far, however, 
before I heard wheels behind me. They had come to my 
terms at last, and I jumped in, and we hastened on through the 
gloom to our destination, which we reached at 7.30 P.M. 
thirteen hours and a half after starting from Oiso. 

At Nirayama our treatment was superb. A foreign cook 
had been hired from Nishima, bread had been brought from 
Atami, no trouble had been spared by our kind friends in 
welcoming us. 

Poor Douglas was very tired, so we at once made him up 
a bed in an adjoining room and let him rest. As for me, I 
had lots to do. The candidates for baptism had to be ex- 
.amined, and a crowd of people came in, to whom I preached 
till about half-past ten, after which we had prayer. At eleven 
o clock my thoughtful host, seeing how tired I was, sent 
away the people ; the room was cleared, bedding brought in, 
Douglas carried into the room, and we took our well merited rest. 

Next morning at 5.30 we got up, and washed our 
selves (Fugiyama even blacked our boots for us himself) ; at 
six we had breakfast ; at seven I administered Holy Baptism 
to seven candidates, and admitted one who was not yet fully 
prepared as a catechumen. 

Several of the " Greek " Christians attended the service. 
They were very nice and kind, and I hoped that we should be 
able to avoid a schism with them. 

After the service I asked to see the Greek Church. 
Accordingly we adjourned there, attracting a great crowd as 
we went. It was a very simple little house, containing no 
furniture except a very poor little wooden altar, a table of 
prothesis, and a pulpit. Over the altar was a picture of the 
Saviour s face represented as on S. Veronica s handkerchief. 
I knelt down to pray, and when I rose up I found the Church 

N4 



^r\f\ T TMission Field, 

300 JAPAN. L Oct. i, IBS?. 

quite full, and a crowd outside the door wanting to get in. 
The man in charge of the Church asked me to preach, and 
I could not refuse ; so I spoke for about twenty minutes on 
the Ten Virgins and the Prodigal Son. 

It was now ten o clock on Friday morning, and I was 
due for a celebration of the Holy Communion at Kyobashi at 
eight A.M. on Sunday. So I could lose no time, but started 
home at once, much to the regret of my friends. 

Our return journey was in some sense a repetition of the 
first. As far as Karuizawa I had my last night s jinriksha. 
From there to the top of the pass we walked. At the top of 
the pass Douglas got into the jinriki, and we had another race 
down hill. It was much worse than the first race. The 
ground was very rough, the short cuts very steep, the course 
twice as long, the sun at its full strength, and when I reached 
Atami I was a dreadful mixture of dust and perspiration so 
much so that the landlord immediately suggested a bath, a 
hint which required no repetition. 

After lunch we went over the hotel, saw the preparations 
which were being made for the reception of Prince Leopold of 
Germany, who is travelling about the country ; and at four 
o clock we started again. 

The road to Odawara from Atami being dangerous at night, 
we stopped at a hamlet called Yoshihama there being no com 
fortable tea-houses farther along the road at about six o clock. 

Our stay at Yoshihama was uneventful. The hostelry 
was poor so much so that even the jinriksha men were treated 
to a bedroom upstairs ; but, on the other hand, we got very good 
fish, and some nice egg-soup, which made up for much. 
There were four rooms only upstairs. Next to us were two 
women, a widow and her daughter, who amused themselves by 
being shampooed ; the jinriksha men slumbered in a second ; 
we slumbered in a third ; who occupied the fourth I know 
not, but he got very drunk, and sang very lively songs, accom 
panied by much clapping of hands. However, silence came at 
last ; or, rather, not silence but snores. 

Next morning oh horrors ! it was raining ; and what is 
worse, it rained all that day. That day was a perfect blank. 



Mission Field,"! 
Oct. 1, 1887. J 

We sat huddled up in a jinriksha with the hood over us and the 
apron up. I could not hold my head straight nor look out, 
though Douglas, whose head came lower down, managed to do 
so a little. We were cold, damp, miserable, and we never 
got home that day, for we stopped at Fujisawa for the night, 
and could get no farther. I had to give up all hopes of 
Sunday work in Tokyo. 

The next day it was still raining. We started at seven 
o clock, got to Kanagawa in time for the 12.15 train, and got 
home for dinner the worse for wear. 

Everybody was glad to see us back. All sorts of people had 
been inquiring after us ; and a big fire near us, which burnt 
four hundred and ninety-eight houses, had scared everybody. 

We have travelled one hundred and sixty miles in four 
days and a half. 

In a letter, dated June 20, Mr. Lloyd gives some account 
of recent arrivals in Japan and other interesting notes : 

" Mr. Hinton, a gentleman who has joined us from England, at his 
own charges, is at present teaching the Middle School at Wakayama. 
Mr. Page, of the American Church, has a mission at Wakayama, and 
Mr. Hinton s lay teaching will supplement that work. Mr. Hinton is, 
however, going to be appointed head-master of the Victoria Jubilee 
School at Yokohama. 

" Mr. and Mrs. Tarbet, who are also coming out from England at their 
own charges, are now en route. They are going to take the English 
teaching at the Nagoya Normal School. 

" Both Mr. Hinton and Mr. Tarbet are M.A. s of Oxford. 

" Since my last letter, we have all moved into a new house. Mr. 
Fukuzawa has built us a comfortable house 011 the top of the hill on 
which the school is situated. Holmes, Chappell, and Fenton have rented 
a small house almost next door, coming over to us for their meals only ; 
and Mrs. V. Fallot (the English widow of a German officer) is also within 
the school compound. 

" Our house is sufficiently large to allow of our having a chapel in it. 
So that at last it seems as though we were in a position to bring a more 
solid Christian influence to bear on the school. 

" Our first service was a confirmation, at which Bishop Bickersteth, 
confirmed eight men. 

" At Meguro I have baptized seven, and five more aw r ait baptism. The 
arrangement which we had made with the villagers about the school was 
found to be illegal. The headman has, however, given a house and some 
land for the service of the Church." 




THE DEAN OF YORK ON HOME ORGANI 
SATION. 

TAKEN FROM THE PAPER READ BY THE VERY REV. A. P. PUREY-CUST, D.D., 
AT THE DURHAM CONFERENCE, ON JULY 12. 

|E are met together to-day for a practical purpose, and, there 
fore, I had better speak from the experience of the past 
than theorise for the future. Indeed (at the threshold of 
threescore years), one feels more and more that one has 
little to do with the future, and had better leave that to my younger 
brethren, who can look forward to opportunities which I can no longer 
anticipate. I have had mine, and whether I have used them or abused 
them I am least qualified to judge. I simply record what I did, and 
leave others to decide whether it should be regarded as a warning or 
encouragement ; whether such methods have ever had the elements of 
vitality ; whether they deserve to be acted upon ; or whether they are not 
altogether effete and out of date. In so doing, I must, of course, speak of 
myself ; and my desire to comply with the wishes of the Bishop of this 
diocese will, I am sure, absolve me from the condemnation due to 
egotism, at least at the hands of this present assembly. My experience 
as an active labourer in this good cause has been threefold: first, as 
a country rector ; second, a town vicar ; third, as an archdeacon. Let 
me (as briefly as possible) describe what I did under each. 

On the duties of my country rectory I embarked with all the zeal of a 
young man entering upon his first sphere of independence. It was a 
country parish of some six hundred souls, and I determined that, as far 
as mission work was concerned, I would establish and carry on quarterly 
meetings. My worthy predecessor had established an annual meeting 
for C.M.S., which I retained, but supplemented it with three other 
meetings, at regular intervals during the year, for S.P.Gr. I soon found 
out that meetings during the week-days were practically a failure, and 
that if I wanted really to interest the people at large, I must have them 
on Sundays. So, with the exception of the C.M.S. meeting, for which 
my neighbour the Organising Secretary could not give up a Sunday 
evening, they all took place on the Lord s day. One of them was con 
sidered the Annual Meeting, which was always attended by the Rev. 
Canon Lloyd, the Organising Secretary of the S.P.Gr. for Bucks, the most 
genial and cheery of men, the best whip, and the most popular preacher 
and speaker for missions (excepting, of course, the incomparable Samuel 
Wilberforce) in the diocese. It was a pleasant sight to see the Canon 



M cST. S. dl ] DEAN OF YORK ON HOME ORGANISATION. 303 

descend from his high dog-cart, from which he had driven (tandem) two 
horses generally given him because others had found them unmanageable, 
though, under his skilful and tender manipulation, they were like lambs. 
He would have completed two full duties at his own parish, some fourteen 
miles distant, besides Sunday schools, and mounted his dog-cart at the 
churchyard gate immediately after his afternoon service, the congrega 
tion watching his start, proud of their rector, whose name was a house 
hold word for everything that was generous, and kind, and Christian, not 
only throughout the parish but throughout the diocese. Worthy lieu 
tenant of a worthy chief 1 God be thanked who cast my lot, in early 
life, under such genuine, practical servants of God as yourselves. Aye, 
here at the very beginning is a great cause of success in developing and 
maintaining missionary interest an acceptable deputation. Charles 
.Lloyd found the contributions to S.P.G. from Bucks 400, he raised them 
to 1,200. 

But besides an acceptable deputation, even if he can be obtained, there 
is much to be done by the resident incumbent, and though I had two 
meetings provided for, I had still two on my hands. I cannot say 
how much I was indebted to them for keeping me up in missionary work, 
both past and present. I don t think that I should ever have read the 
books, or taken the trouble to make myself practically acquainted with 
the history and customs of foreign lands, but for this. Sometimes it was 
a little difficult to find a fresh subject, but really there was such a plethora 
of books that the difficulty was not insuperable. A country audience 
is indulgent. They knew that I was doing my best, and were content. 
I could generally provide some sort of illustration in the shape of diagrams, 
or idols, or curiosities. A few hymns were always acceptable. I certainly 
never had reason to complain of a beggarly array of empty benches. The 
dissenting chapel opposite always concluded its services about the time I 
began, and preacher and people came over, en masse, to hear what I had 
to say. And if we did not raise very much money, at any rate we had 
nothing to deduct for deputation expenses at the end of the year. Some 
times my stories were received with a little incredulity, as when I quoted 
Livingstone s account of the motion of the ostrich s legs being so rapid 
that, like the spokes of a wheel, they become invisible at full speed, and 
the bird seemed to fly ; and the ganger of the railway labourers gave vent 
to a loud whistle, slapped his thigh, and declared that nothing should 
persuade him to believe it. 

It had this advantage also, that one was semper paratus, and I remem 
ber once, when I was suddenly called upon at a meeting and gave an 
.account of the Parsees, which I had lately got up for my own people, 
our excellent Archdeacon (now Dean of Lichfield) inquired of me, with 
some astonishment, how I came to know so much about them. But 
so we went on for some seven years, and then a change to Beading 
brought me face to face with Mission work in a large town parish. Here 
J was determined that the quarterly meetings should continue, though 
I soon found that different arrangements must be made. The Annual 
Meeting, the overwhelming success of which was due to Bishop Wilberforce, 



304 THE DEAN OF YOEK P8ST8F 

supported, as he generally was, by some of the most substantial of the- 
neighbouring laity and by some one or more members of the Colonial 
Episcopate and ministry ; the Town Hall was invariably crowded, and 
such an impetus given to Mission work and interest by his glowing 
words, and the touching appeals of those around him, that we should 
have been worse than culpable if we had not taken advantage thereof. But 
mine was simply a ministerial part in those meetings, I was simply 
servus servorum Domini, and I rejoiced to be so. But the other three 
meetings were dependent on me, and, with rare exceptions, I could 
always secure some assistance to do that which I had no longer time to- 
do, viz., provide an address for the evening. At such a centre as Reading, so* 
easily accessible, and with the guarantee of a good audience, there were 
always men at home with a story to tell, who were glad to find such 
bodies of hearers to which to tell it. 

Evening services on Sundays prevented my having the meetings, as 
heretofore, on the Lord s day, but this is of less consequence in a town 
where people are, or were, more accustomed to turning out, or devoting 
their evenings to meetings than, at any rate, they used to be in the 
country ; and so my custom was to invite the Missionary collectors to- 
attend at my house during the afternoon, each bringing their collecting 
cards and the money which they had raised during the past quarter, the 
names and amounts being duly entered, in their presence, in one of those 
convenient books supplied by the Society, and the total sum paid over T 
the same day, to our parochial treasurer, the local banker. The whole 
parish had been carefully mapped out amongst these collectors, and these 
quarterly meetings were capital opportunities for mutually communica 
ting fresh names, and receiving such supplies of boxes and Missionary 
publications as they might need. I looked to them also to make the 
quarterly meeting known in their own district, and do their best to secure 
a good attendance. 

A very efficient auxiliary to" this was the establishment of 
working parties in different centres of the parish in aid of the 
Ladies Association of the S.P.G. Many who could not afford money 
could give time and work, and besides the substantial help thus directly 
rendered, they contributed in no small degree to swell the interest in 
Mission work. 

And then, in due time, there came a change to Aylesbury, and the- 
necessity, from failing health, to abandon parochial work there, and 
devote myself entirely to the duties of Archdeacon of Buckingham. 
This change of position brought me once again, for too short a time, into> 
co-operation with my clear and valued friend Charles Lloyd. I don t 
know that I can claim to have initiated anything in what I did as, in suc 
ceeding Dean Bickersteth, I followed a warm friend to all Church work, 
both home and foreign. But our plan was simply this, a certain Sunday 
was fixed for our Annual Sermons in Aylesbury Church, which were 
generally preached by some Colonial Bishop or other distinguished 
labourer in the Mission field. The next day, Monday, the Organising 
Secretary for the Archdeaconry, Canon Charles Lloyd, and the Secretaries 



few* ] ON HOME ORGANISATION. 305 

for each Rural Deanery, assembled on my invitation. We had a celebration 
of the Holy Communion in the Parish Church at eleven o clock, at which 
a devotional and encouraging address would be given by the preacher of 
the day before. Then we adjourned to the Ladye Chapel, on the south 
side of the chancel, used as a choir vestry on Sundays, and our proceed 
ings commenced by the Organising Secretary mentioning what deputa 
tions he hadfsucceeded in securing for the coming year, and inviting 
clergy present to say which they would like, and at what times, for their 
rural deaneries. Of course some little time would be consumed before- 
this was finally adjusted, but when all the arrangements were completed, 
I then invited the Bishop or Missionary to address the brethren present. 
This he would do in such a way as to impart a great amount and a great 
variety of information concerning the character of the places and people 
amongst whom he laboured, and a full history of his past work. He 
would, of course, dwell on his plans for the future and his needs with 
respect to men and money, and relate many incidents of travel or traits 
of character which might be interesting and illustrative. All this time 
my reverend brethren would be busy with their note books, and, perhaps, 
at the end ready to ask many questions which elicited further information. 
But, eventually we adjourned to luncheon at my house, and a saunter in 
the garden until evensong, at 5 P.M., closed our proceedings for the day, 
and each man returned home not only specially interested in some 
particular Mission, but, with a very little additional trouble, quite compe 
tent to deliver a very useful and telling lecture in any parish in his own 
rural deanery to which he might be invited. I know that this system 
materialty^lessened the calls for deputations from the Parent Society, and, 
in due proportion, the expenses ; and it certainly lightened the work of 
my dear, good friend, who was not longer able to make the same long 
journeys which he had undertaken years before, and who now rests in 
peace in the sure and certain hope of that recognition of his work for the 
Great Master which I am persuaded he will receive. 

But I am aware that I have told you only very commonplace 
details/^little beyond what everybody, or almost everybody, here knew 
already, and that I have suggested nothing novel or startling. The sub 
ject of my paper is, " How to promote parochial support for missions, * 
and my answer is, by kindling and maintaining an active interest in. 
Mission work. It is little use making "earnest appeals " for men and 
money ; both will flow in proportion as people are interested therein, and 
young men will be moved to devote themselves to the work not so much by 
direct personal invitations to do so as by their interest being aroused and 
their minds being enabled to realize that there is indeed a field open for 
them of the highest philanthropy, in which they can labour for the 
Master s sake. I dare say that words spoken by those who have 
themselves laboured in the Mission work may come home with greater 
power than words on such subjects from those who labour at home. But, 
in the first place, it is simply impossible to find foreign deputations for 
every parish throughout England, and even if you could do so, the most 
earnest labourers are not always the most efficient on the platform, or as. 



306 DEAN OF YORK ON HOME ORGANISATION. [ M <5S!T, Sl df 

ready as I am afraid I have been to-day to speak about themselves. Since 
I have been at York, I have had two striking instances of this in men 
whose names I will not mention, but who are amongst the most remark 
able of the labourers in the Mission field. One made a very dull speech 
indeed, but afterwards, when, sitting by our fireside, he had become 
thoroughly thawed both physically and socially, in a quiet and dim- 
dent manner he told, or rather he admitted, suchfglittering facts and 
incidents which we drew out of him, that I felt I had indeed entertained 
an angel unawares. The other, the substantial value of whose work 
during some twenty years cannot be overestimated, almost exasperated 
his hearers with his inefficiency in the pulpit, and some of them were 
both amazed and vexed when they learned afterwards the real character 
and power of the man of whom they had formed so unfavourable an 
opinion. On the other hand, I could quote instances where, by very 
simple, commonplace meetings, interest has been kindled in Mission work 
which has resulted in the offering of pecuniary contributions and per 
sonal service ; and perhaps we are none of us aware how much the great 
work has been helped by the prayers which has been drawn forth from 
many a heart which has been touched. 

I confess I do not think that there is any other legitimate method 
for increasing these results than by creating interest, or, if you please, 
kindling enthusiasm not an easy thing to do upon a subject so (I 
use the epithet with thankfulness) threadbare as that of Missions. Ot 
course it will not do to lapse into dulness, and perhaps there has been a 
little tendency to this from a legitimate desire to conduct our proceed 
ings with solemnity and propriety, and to avoid fictitious stimulants. By 
all means let us continue this. Nothing is more deplorable than 
making Mission work an occasion for the delivery of polemical utter 
ances, the fomenting of party spirit, and the posing as people of greater 
spirituality than those around us. I should not care to see our income in 
creased or our numbers augmented by such means ; but I think it is 
possible to be a little too straight-laced, and if the rank and file of the 
Church are really to do their best to kindle and maintain an interest in 
Missions throughout their parishes at the least possible cost to head 
quarters, it is only reasonable that the Society should exert itself to 
provide literature ready to hand, either for reading or distribution, both in 
material and in style suited to the wants and tastes of the present day. 
Illustration has become almost as essential to bookmaking as printing, 
and short stirring appeals in prose or verse, and incidents and stories of 
Mission life, even if homely, will always be thus rendered acceptable. 





REWABI. 

BEPOBT OF THE BEV. T. WILLIAMS, OF EEWABI, IN THE DIOCESE 
OF LAHOBE. BAZAAB PBEACHING. BEASONINGS WITH MO 
HAMMEDANS. CONTBOVEBSIAL VALUE OF THE STUDY OF THE 

KOBAN. ABGUMENT WITH A BBAHMAN. STUDY OF THE 

VEDAS. HINDOO FESTIVAL AT DHABUHEDA I CHBISTIAN 

PICTUBES ON THE STAGE : THE OPPOBTUNITY USED. THE 

POWEB OF THE CBOSS. CHABACTEB OF A HINDOO DEITY. 

I. EEWABI BAZAAB PBEACHING. 

[HIS has had some new features during this quarter. 
Our opponent used to be a Haji (i.e. a man who 
has performed the Mecca pilgrimage) , but this one 
Left, and in his place a Moulvi (i.e. a doctor of Mohammedan 
law one therefore who should have the Koran and the Tra 
ditions at his fingers ends) came. His native place is Nair- 
noul, about twenty-five miles from here, in territory belonging 
to the Eajah of Pattiala. The old man created quite a 
sensation here by taking up a line directly contrary in some 
respects from that of our old friend the Haji. He taught 
that the Koran had not annulled the Law of Moses and the 
Gospel, but rather required that they should be known and 
reverenced, and he denounced as accursed of God the man 
who should say otherwise. The old man is right. No one 
who knows the Koran and believes it can say other than he. 
Notwithstanding, up to this time it had been the usual thing 
to say that the Law and the Gospel had been annulled 
" mansutah," as they say. So decided a concession to us was 
as may be imagined, not at all liked by the Mohammedan 
body, and at first the old man s contention was with his own 
religionists rather than with us. I found, indeed, that he 
helped me for a time, and I used to get him to stand up 
with me, and to take his turn with us in addressing the 



308 EEWABI. 



lission Field, 



people. He always brought a Bible given him by a Presby 
terian Missionary of Loodhiana, and seemed well familiar 
with it. It was his custom to give a short sketch of the his 
tory of our Lord, and he did it well. The points I objected 
to were certainly important, but few. One was, that in giving 
the account of our Lord s baptism, he made it appear that 
whatever supernatural power He had, it was then conferred 
upon Him. The position is a natural one for a Mohammedan, 
and reminded me of the early Christian heresies on the sub 
ject of our Lord s Divinity. Another point, less important, 
and afterwards abandoned, was that the fact of the disciples 
forsaking our Lord at His death was a proof that the death 
in their eyes militated against His claims to Divinity. Upon 
my showing that the fact of their, after His resurrection, 
returning to Him, and becoming ready to give up their own 
lives for His sake, and actually doing so, was, on the contrary,, 
a proof of the defect being their want of apprehension and 
not His want of Divinity, the old man did not again in my 
hearing dwell upon this. Gradually my satisfaction with him 
began to lessen, because I found that after my leaving the old 
man treacherously twisted what I had said, and to which he 
had seemed to assent, so as to give it a different meaning. 
It seems to me that the position taken up by my Moulvi 
friend is just that that the educated Mohammedans will univer 
sally revert to, i.e. a recognition of the Gospel, but also an 
endeavour to whittle away its statements, the latter being also 
a process to which the statements of the Koran will be sub 
jected. And in this connection I would urge strongly that 
students coming out to India should at home study the Koran 
in Arabic. It should be known thoroughly, and in order 
to do this the labour will not be very excessive. If a thorough 
knowledge of Arabic can be acquired, so much the better, but 
this is not necessary in order to know the Koran and to make 
the desired use of it. If the Arabic of the Koran, and that 
only, be all of Arabic that he may ever gain, that will be 
enough for his purpose as a Missionary, but that much is 
absolutely necessary. A preacher thus familiar with their 
sacred book in the original need never shrink in his bazaar 



M oc 8 t! ?, S ldl ] EEASONING WITH MOHAMMEDANS. 309 

preaching when contending with Mohammedans. But more 
than this ; the contents of the book are such that a crushing 
use of them might be made. For instance, the ever-recurring 
objection to our Lord, that He was not the Son of God, can 
be directly met by reference to the account given in the Koran 
of His birth. That account, as there given, shows that birth 
to be just as miraculous as the Gospel account does. So far, 
then, as His Divinity depends upon the Gospel narrative of 
His Nativity, it has the very same testimony to depend upon 
in the Koran. The eternal Sonship of our Lord, neither 
Mohammed himself nor any of his followers seemed to have 
the least conception of. He and his followers held only His 
Incarnation as the evidence of His Sonship, and what I say 
is, that in whatever degree that Incarnation be miraculous as 
narrated in the Gospel, it is equally as miraculous as told 
in the Koran. Mohammed s dicta, as given elsewhere in the 
Koran, as to the non-Divinity of our Lord, are flatly contra 
dicted by his own narrative of the Incarnation. But of such 
inconsistencies the Koran is full. Think, then, what an 
enormous gain it would be to a man to come out with the 
Koran in Arabic at his fingers ends, instead of having to 
acquire that knowledge after coming out, when his time is so 
distractingly broken in upon ! Who ever then does acquire 
it ? Does one in a thousand ? I think not. There is a con 
sideration, too, that will considerably lighten the apparently 
formidable task, and that is that the Koran is not a large 
book, and that it abounds in repetitions, while he need know 
no other. To know anything of any other work in the Mo 
hammedan theology is only to weaken his position. Later 
Mohammedans felt that the Koran had need of very careful 
and subtle explanation, otherwise it could not hold its own. 
To follow them in these disquisitions would simply result in 
the same way as when you allow your enemy to lead you 
into an ambush. Keep yourself and them to the Koran, and 
that alone, and you win. 

I practise what I preach, for I have procured for my four 
Catechists a Koran in Arabic each, and intend, as soon as I 
have gone through it myself again, to take them through 



Q1 C\ "RT?-WMT>T fMission Field, 

OlU XlEWARI. L Oct. l, 1887. 

it. As it is, they have already made some use of it enough 
to make them eager to begin a thorough study of it. 

Another feature in our bazaar work that is worthy of re 
mark is the Hindoo effort at vindicating its claims to truth. 
To my great satisfaction I found one day a young Brahman 
standing in my preaching place. He had a goodly number 
listening to him, and amongst them a good sprinkling of 
Mohammedans, who seemed by their applause to be encourag 
ing him heartily. In fact, to a Mohammedan any combination 
seems justifiable that opposes itself to Christianity, which is 
regarded as the common enemy of all other religions, and so 
it is. I stood and listened until he had finished, and then 
took up what had been the burden of his speech, which was 
that all castes should know their Shastra and strictly live 
according to it. I simply asked what that Shastra was that 
all castes were to observe. He replied, " The Dharma- Shastra." 
I asked " Which ? " He replied, " Manu Smeti," I at once 
produced the very Shastra, and then asked whether all 
Hindoos were to read and study that ? He said "Yes." I 
then said that in that very Shastra it was said that the $udra 
was not to study it, nor have it taught him ; that on the con 
trary anyone who should teach a Sudra Dharma should be 
cursed ; that hence the Sudra had no Dharma. I thereupon 
turned to the bystanders, who by this time had thronged round 
us, and said that in Hinduism we had a religion that deliber 
ately excluded five-sixths of the population from a knowledge 
of Dharma, which means exclusion from heaven, for it is 
expressly stated in some of the Hindoo Bustra that a Sudra, 
as such, cannot attain to heaven. I showed that all the cul 
tivators Gujars, Aturs, and Jats came under the category 
of Sudras. We have a Gazetteer of the district to which 
Eewari belongs, and in that, while those castes who, according 
to their Dharma- Shastra should learn that lustra, and are 
eligible for heaven, number 115,926, the remaining people, 
numbering 550,594, would, according to the same lustra, have 
no Dharma which could secure to them heaven ! I had had 
occasion before, some time, for dwelling on this, and so had 
my statistics ready. My statements showed that Hinduism, 



M KORAN AND EIGVEDA. 311 

as taught by its authoritative Sustra, is simply monstrous. 
Most all, indeed, with a few exceptions who were listening 
to us were $udras, and the Brahman in this dilemma chal 
lenged my statements as to what the Sustra says. I then 
turned to the passage, and reading it asked him to trans 
late it to the people. This he confessed himself not able to 
do through not knowing Sanskrit, and his confusion had now 
become so great that he left, and has never again occupied my 
ground in my presence, though he has done so at other times, 
I hear. I am heartily sorry for this, because the public 
advocacy of Hinduism affords such an excellent target. 

MY STUDIES. 

I have two tasks in hand of prime importance. The one 
is mastering the Koran in Arabic, and the other the transla 
tion of the Second Mandala of the Eigveda into English. As 
I have already stated, I am going through the Koran a second 
time in Arabic, and trust soon to finish it. Of course that 
does not mean that a second reading would be enough, so that 
then I may rest on my oars. I hope to go through it many 
times. That I should find my second reading so much easier 
than my first, as indeed I do, only shows that that first read 
ing was a very real one. I am desirous of forming a Koran 
class, and in two months time hope to begin with my four 
Catechists. In the interval, if my health keeps up, the second 
reading will be finished. 

Every alternate day, that is when possible, I take the 
Eigveda. It is an intense satisfaction that I can now make a 
direct investigation of both Mohammedanism and Hinduism 
at their very roots. As helps for getting at the sense, I have 
first and foremost Sayanacharyu s Commentary on the 
Eigveda, in Sanskrit. It is Max Miiller s. No one can appre 
ciate that man s tremendous labours until he gets his edition 
of the Eigveda, with Sayana s Commentary, and begins to 
work with it. It cost him the best years of his life, and no 
wonder ! My next help is Monier Williams s Dictionary, and 
there is no better proof of that book being indeed a multum in 
parvo than this, that it is seldom indeed that a Eigveda word 



"PT-.-nrtT>T f Mission Field, 

XIEWABI. Oct. 1, 1887. 



is not found in it, and oftentimes with some remark, showing 
his (Williams s) intimate acquaintance with Sayana s Eigveda. 
And lastly, I find up and down in Muir s Sanskrit Texts a verse 
or part of a verse occasionally translated. They are only few, but 
so far very helpful. Sayana s Commentary is not to be depended 
upon. His renderings are often vitiated by endeavouring to 
fix a sacrificial sense upon the verses, as if the hymns had been 
made expressly for a sacrificial purpose. The allusions to 
sacrifice are very numerous indeed, but that every hymn had 
a sacrificial object cannot be held. I would never trust a 
Brahman s interpretation of a text where there is any evidence 
to show that he was interested in giving a false one. He would 
not hesitate to do so, and would put himself to infinite pains 
in doing so. Still, let the final result be in agreement with 
him or no, it is always useful to see what he writes. This 
Second Mandala is the shortest of the ten, and I have only 
done twelve out of the forty-three hymns, but already the 
gain has many times outbalanced the labour, and I am 
more and more eager to proceed. One of the ultimate gains 
of this study will be, I trust, the being able to show that 
the members of the Arya Samaj are building their house 
upon a foundation of sand. This Samaj represents the out 
come of the education now being given in India. The educated 
native sees he must abandon Hinduism with all its gross- 
ness, but he believes that all he has to do is to abandon 
later developments, and betake himself to earlier forms 
those especially authorised by Vedic literature. Of this the 
Eigveda represents the earliest production, while the Manu 
Smeti mentioned above represents the latest, i.e. in his esti 
mation. The extravagant things said about the extent, 
authority, and all-sufficiency of the Yedas are amusing. To 
pass over other instances, the fact of his asserting that every 
discovery of whatever sort railways, telegraphs, telephones, 
&c., &c. that has marked modern times is to be found in 
its germs in the Vedas, is sufficient to mark the character 
of the movement. 

It is purely a case of omne ignotum pro magnifico, for I have 
found that those who talk most glibly in this way are just 



M cicfr,S. d ] A HINDOO FESTIVAL. 313 

those who know least of what the Yedas really are. So long as 
I do not myself know of the Vedas not second-hand, but first 
so long, however extravagant I may believe their preten 
sions to be, still I should not be able decisively to show they 
are really so. Now, I am in a position to do so. It is for 
this reason that I urge that every student should at home 
master the Koran in Arabic on one hand, and know Sanskrit, 
not only the Classical, but also the Vedic. 

MY VISIT TO DHARUHEDA. 

This is a village under the Adavala range of hills that 
starts in Gujerat and passes through Bajputana, terminating 
on the bank of the river Jumna at Delhi. The district 
around not many generations back was a wilderness in 
habited by a tribe of aborigines called Meos, forced by the 
Mussulman raj to become Mohammedan, but retaining, as 
may be well imagined, almost all their Hindoo observances. 
This village was settled about 150 years ago by the Ahios, who 
wrested the site from the Meos. It rapidly rose to some im 
portance, for it has now almost the appearance of a town. 
A week was passed here, the villages around being visited 
morning by morning, and the town as I may venture to call 
it in the evening. I will now tell of what proved interest 
ing to me at the surrounding villages, confining myself to 
just two incidents in my evening visits to Dharuheda itself. 
It was the holy time when the Hindoos keep high carnival 
"high carnival," say I : decency is outraged grossly in word and 
act ; at any rate it was so here. In passing through the main 
street I saw before me the street taken up with a stage, and on 
the front four pictures, all European, one of a French lady, 
another of an English river scene (it may have been French or 
other Continental, for the matter of that) ; the third, our 
Lord on the Cross ; the fourth, our Lord s Baptism. I knew 
what the stage was for, and the sight of those two last pictures 
on it so surprised and shocked me that I stood for some time 
quite still. It was evening and the sun would soon set, so I 
determined to put off the doing anything till the morning. I 
came to the conclusion that these two pictures were hung there 



Q1 A "RTTITTA-OT r Mission Field 

Ol4 XtiEWARI. [ Oct. 1, 1887. 

in sheer ignorance as to what they represented. So next 
morning we, the Catechist and myself, went there, and step 
ping on the stage, I went up to these pictures, and asked the 
bystanders if they knew what they were. They replied they 
did not, and would be very glad if I would explain them. 
After just remarking on the first two, I cut the strings of 
the other two, and sitting on one of the chairs spent 
a couple of hours in a way most unexpectedly satisfactory. 
They were greatly surprised and interested to hear that 
those pictures represented the Baptism and Death of " Isa 
Musih," which is a name of our Lord all were perfectly 
familiar with. Shortly after I had sat down, by way of 
emphasising the extraordinary character of the occasion, two 
young men came curvetting up to the stage, and immediately 
space was made for them, and the people looked up to me 
with an expression which seemed to expect that I should be 
pleasingly gratified by their antics. It was positively sicken 
ing. The profound disgust I felt was plainly seen on my face, 
and the shocked tone in which I begged of the respectable 
people present to order them away was immediately responded 
to, and the Holi actors were instantly sent away. The inci 
dent, however, was not without its effect on my audience, and 
gave more significance to what I afterwards told them. My 
tale, illustrated by those two pictures, was apprehended in a 
way that without them would be impossible ; I always appeal 
to the eye when I can. Sometimes in Eewari I take the 
picture of our Lord on the Cross, and have told the story of 
the Cross. Not seldom have I seen a quarrelsome Moham 
medan with tears in his eyes at the account of His suffering. 
Particularly was this the case once when the old Moulvi, 
whom I mentioned in the beginning of this report, told the 
story. 

After I finished, I put it to my audience as to whether 
they thought it was right two such pictures should be hung 
up there. They answered right heartily, " Certainly not." 
But to prevent any possible desecration, I begged of them to 
sell them me. This they would not do. 

The other incident arose out of my teaching, as I do every- 



M ST, S? ] A LOW-CASTE GOD. 315 

where, that the Hindoo god Mahadeva is not a high- caste god, 
but that he is a low-caste one, i.e. that he was one of the gods 
of the aborigines of the country, not worshipped by the high- 
caste until after the overthrow of Buddhism. Mahadeva is the 
god more widely worshipped here now than any other, yet his 
name even does not occur in the Kigveda, nor yet in the Manu 
Smeti. I challenged any one to show and I had a volume of 
Eigveda and the Manu Smeti with me whether I had stated 
this wrongly. Seated on the verandah of the best house in 
the street I took the Bhayavat Purana and showed what a 
loathsome being Mahadeva was as described by Daksha, and 
also that Bhrgu, one of the greatest Kstris, actually roundly 
curses all who should worship Mahadeva. This caused no 
little consternation, and at my proposal they called their best 
pundit to say whether I had translated rightly or not. On his 
arrival we they and I put it clearly to him that all we 
wanted was simply and solely that he should say whether, 
taking the Purana in his hand and listening to my translation, 
whether that was true or otherwise. Nothing would induce 
him to do so. All he would say was to ask why I brought 
those things forward. He did know the Purana well, for I 
got him to translate other passages which he did and did 
well. He was not so ignorant as most of them are. I saw 
the poor man s dilemma. He must either translate wrongly 
or not translate at all, for to translate rightly would be to 
condemn unmistakably the prevalent worship. To translate 
wrongly, though he might wish to do so, would have been 
too perilous. In various ways we tried to get him to give his 
translation, but he persistently refused, and made many at 
tempts to start discussion on some other point, which I would 
not allow. He got very angry, and seeing that to urge him 
further would be simply badgering him, I left. Of course, 
Brahmans are instinctively our most determined opponents. 
The result ought to have been good as regards my work, 
but I fear me that after I left, in some way or other, the man 
would recover his ascendency over his people. 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

LAST month we mentioned that the sermon on the 12th 
of August in St. Paul s Cathedral was preached by 
the Bishop of London. It has now been printed, and copies 
may be purchased at the Society s Office. Its title is " The 
Stone cut without Hands," and it exhibits the inscrutable 
character of the Divine government of the Church. 

" Its primary impulse, its organisation, its mode of action, its suc 
cesses, its apparent failures, the secret of its vitality all these it is im 
possible to reduce to any law, to account for by any acknowledged princi 
ple. We can sometimes for short periods give an apparently reasonable 
explanation of the sequence of the events which have marked its course. 
But the explanation never goes far. The history, as a whole, remains 
inexplicable." 

This is illustrated by a survey of Church History down 
to the century closed by that day s commemoration during 
which men have slowly realised what was and is to be done 
abroad. 

" The activity of work in every diocese seems to increase with the 
number of dioceses, and the Church recognises the importance of the 
work to be done as the magnitude of what is done already expands before 
our eyes. The call to preach the Gospel to all nations, to every creature, 
has become more imperative because it has become more clearly understood 
and more completely within our reach. We know now, for the first time 
in the history of the human race, what is meant by all nations. We 
can count the nations ; we can sum up all their languages ; we can pre 
cisely define their limits. The habitable world has become, not a vast, 
vague, unlimited expanse, but a definite area, with bounds that can be 
traced upon a map. And so, too, for the first time in the history of the 
human race, all the nations have become accessible : we not only know 
them, but we know how to reach them. 

" We know not, and we cannot know, the path on which this great work 
shall move." 



M oc B t.i, m ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 317 

WIDE-SPBEAD regret will greet the announcement that 
the Bishop of Lahore has resigned his see. It was 
not, however, altogether unexpected by his friends. 

He has indeed left his mark on the diocese, of which he 
has been the Bishop since its foundation in 1877. His visita 
tions of Delhi, and we particularise them as being those which 
concerned the Society s work, have been marked by an eleva 
tion of missionary spirit, by love and sympathy for the workers, 
and spiritual vigour. 

It is stated that Archdeacon Matthew is to be his successor. 



ON August 29 the daily newspapers contained a wonder 
ful telegram from Borne, to the effect that the New 
South Wales Government had offered 300,000 acres to any 
missionaries who would undertake the care of the Aborig 
ines, and that the Boman Catholics were contemplating the 
acceptance of the offer. Those who know anything of New 
South Wales would find many points in this statement to 
prevent their assuming it to be accurate. 

Our reason for referring to the matter is, that several 
people naturally have thought that the Anglican Church 
should be the religious body to seize this opportunity. One 
newspaper, indeed, warmly reproached the Australian Church 
for allowing it to slip. It may therefore be as well, in addi 
tion to questioning the truth of the report, to state that the 
Aborigines in New South Wales are not numerous. No estimate 
would be much above three thousand, and some consider them 
to be less than one thousand in number. With regard to the 
reproach of callousness and inactivity brought against the 
Australian Church, we do not constitute ourselves its cham 
pions. We may, however, remind our readers of the account 
given by Bishop Barry of the missionary work undertaken by 
the Church there. It includes the following departments : 
1. Extension of the Colonial Church; 2. The Melanesian 
Mission ; 3. Missions to Malay and Chinese Coolies ; 4. Missions 
to the "Island labourers" brought to Australia; 5. The 
Mission to New Guinea recently undertaken with the Society s 



318 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M oS 

help; and 6. Missions to the Aborigines in Western Australia, 
at Poonindie in Southern Australia, and at Warangesda in New 
South Wales. 



IN Murray s Magazine for August, the first article was one 
by the Bishop of Carlisle entitled " The Church of the 
British Empire." It is a striking summary of the work of 
the Church abroad, and especially of the century during 
which the Colonial Episcopate has existed. We must quote 
the following weighty and eloquent passage on the founding 
of the Society : 

" In 1701 the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts was incorporated by Royal Charter : an event this much 
to be rioted in the history of the English Church. In later days we have 
seen the foundation of many missionary societies, notably the Church 
Missionary Society, besides a crowd of smaller missions. The establish 
ment of a new mission of some kind or another strikes us in these days 
with not much more astonishment than the establishment of a new 
parish ; not to mention that there are many missionary societies outside 
the Church, which are doing good work in the common cause. But the 
establishment of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was such 
a phenomenon as England had never witnessed before ; it was a public 
recognition, on the part both of Church and Crown, of the responsibility 
laid upon England by her foreign possessions and by her position in the 
world ; it might even be regarded as an answer to prayer. In the last 
edition of the Prayer-book, dating only from 1662, there had been 
introduced the Prayer for All Sorts and Conditions of Men ; in that 
prayer Englishmen had been taught from one end of the kingdom to the 
other to pray continually that God would be pleased to make his ways 
known unto mankind ; his saving health unto all nations. How could 
such a prayer be used honestly without some practical result ? The 
result may fairly be said to have been the establishment of the first 
Society in England for the propagation of the Gospel of Christ." 



NOYA SCOTIA has, of course, kept the Centenary of the 
Colonial Episcopate with especial emphasis. At the 
morning service, in St. Luke s pro-Cathedral, the preacher 
was the Metropolitan, and in the evening the Bishop of 
Springfield. In the afternoon the corner-stone of the new 
Cathedral was laid by the Metropolitan in the presence of five 
other Bishops and over seventy Clergy. 



M o 8 c f?JS d ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 319 



EVEEAL of the workers abroad left England to return 
to their work last month. The Bishop of Madagascar 
sailed on September 14, and the Bishop of New Westminster 
on the 15th. The Eev. H. J. Foss is to return to Japan on 
October 6. The new Principal of the Theological College, 
Madras, the Eev. A. Westcott, is sailing for Madras, and 
Mr. H. C. Henham for Bombay. The Eev. W. J. Williams 
sailed for North China early in September. 



IN the Archdeaconry of Winchester it is hoped that there 
will be sales of work at various centres during next 
summer for the Society. 



AT a recent garden meeting for the Society in the cloister 
ruins attached to Beaulieu Abbey, the Eev. F. C. 
Green, the Organising Secretary, made an earnest appeal to 
the ladies to contribute their help. 



ON August 21, the little Chapel or Church at Bel-Alp, 
Switzerland, which is vested in the Society, was con 
secrated by the Bishop of Gloucester * and Bristol. It bears 
the name of the Church of the Good Shepherd. 



ATOBWICH CATHEDBAL Pulpit was occupied on the 
JLN Centenary day by the Eev. F. W. Pelly, late Principal 
of St. John s College, Qu Appelle. The sermon has been 
printed, and contains many useful and eloquent passages. 
After a description of the Church s work in the Diocese of 
Qu Appelle, he adds : 

^ We may not have been, as St. Peter was, eye-witnesses of the 
majesty of Christ. We may not have witnessed the majesty of Divine 
suffering on the Cross, nor the majesty of His miracles, nor the majesty 
of His Kesurrection ; we may not, in a literal sense, have companied with 
the Lord Jesus, but we have been eye-witnesses in another sense : we 
have witnessed the majesty of Divine Grace, and we have seen how it 
can melt the souls of men, how it can soften rugged and stony hearts, and 



320 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ oct!T, isw. 

how it can touch men whom it seemed impossible to touch, and over 
whom we may have lamented with an exceeding bitter cry. And we r 
especially, who have laboured in other vineyards of the Lord, have indeed 
known how the majesty of the Cross, the old, old story of the love of 
Christ, can win even utterly abandoned men, and can convert a dreary 
wilderness into a garden of the soul." 

He thus appeals for the Society : 

" The venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (whose ser 
vant I once was, and whose servant I still would be, but for the failure of 
my health) has especial claims upon your bounty. It appeals to you as 
the oldest of Missionary Societies in England. It appeals to you ^on the 
strong ground that it is the only Missionary Society whose work lies, not 
amongst natives alone, but also amongst settlers of European origin. It 
appeals to you on the ground that it works on thoroughly Churchly prin 
ciples, never interfering between Bishop and Clergy, or planting an 
irresponsible committee to usurp his place. 

" And, lastly, it appeals to you with untold force by the grandeur of its 
past and present work, which I have endeavoured, however slightly, to 
indicate to-night." 

Replying to fault-finders, he adds : 

" I can only say that I and countless others who have worked under 
the auspices of the Society are deeply grateful for many kindnesses 
received, and for the fatherly solicitude, combined with the wise and ad 
mirable freedom, which is allowed to her servants abroad." 



REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Eev. T. Williams of the Diocese of I ioftor* ; N. Gi) ana- 



ing, G . Maber, and j! P! Richardson of Pretoria ; H. H. Brown of Auckland ; and H. Sheldon of 
Caledonia. 

- 3&eH , 



SOCIETY S INCOME FOR 1887. 

Abstract of RECEIPTS and PAYMENTS from January 1st to August 31st : 

GENERAL FUND SPECIAL FUNDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c 6,207 

Legacies 

Dividends, &c 

TOTAL RECEIPTS 

PAYMENTS 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
dfrom jinuarv 1st to Aueiist 31st, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1883, 
2C Ij?6?188^2lfo53 ; 1885;19,7OT ; 18f 6, 18,435 ; 1887, 20,008. 








THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




NOVEMBER 1, 1887. 



BISHOP S COLLEGE, CALCUTTA. 

ISHOP S College, Calcutta, is now in the second 
half century of its existence. The idea of a 
magnificent college for the whole of India was 
conceived by Bishop Middleton in 1818, and in 1820 the first 
stone was laid on a site given by the Government on the 
banks of the Hooghley. Its early principals immediately won 
for it the reputation of a home of learning and religion, a 
reputation which has been maintained throughout; but as a 
place of education it failed, solely because the supply of 
students was insufficient. The division of the Diocese of 
Calcutta led to the establishment of local colleges which have 
been very successful, and Bishop s College seemed to be limited 
in its scope to the Diocese of Calcutta. The field was probably 
the least productive of any in India ; specially the Missions in 
Bengal have made but very small progress, and the College 
presented a painful example of an institution in advance of 
the conditions requisite to its success. In 1880 the Society 
sold the buildings to the Government of India, and moved 
the teaching staff, with the library, printing-press, and other 
possessions of the College, to a commodious site in the City of 
Calcutta. In 1883 the Rev. II. Whitehead, Fellow of Trinity 

NO. CCCLXXXIII. O 



322 BISHOP S COLLEGE, CALCUTTA. [ov" d 

College, Oxford, was elected Principal. Many experiments have 
been patiently tried for the development of the institution, 
and from the following report of Mr. Whitehead s past three 
and a half years of work it will be seen that the number of 
students has been greatly increased, and that, contrary alike 
to experience and expectation, the College is attracting students 
from all parts of Hindostan. Mr. AVhitehead writes : 

" I have great pleasure in forwarding a report of the work 
of Bishop s College during the past three and a half years, 
with some remarks on its future prospects and financial 
condition. In January 1884, when I joined the College, there 
were eight students holding theological scholarships, of whom 
two were going through a course of theology, and the rest 
were reading for the F.A. examination in the University of 
Calcutta. Since then the number of students has been 
steadily increasing, and there are at present thirty students. 
During this period three students have been ordained 
deacons from the College by the Bishop of Calcutta, viz. the 
Revs. R. K. Gupta, A. N. Banerji, and S. J. Cornelius. Mr. 
Gupta is at present working at Allahabad under the Chap 
lain, Mr. Banerji holds the Natt Fellowship at the College, 
and Mr. Cornelius has recently gone to work in the diocese of 
Madras. 

" One student, Mr. P. N. Pal, who completed the College 
theological course one and a half year ago, is now working 
as a teacher in the Bishop s College school. Nine students 
have also gone up from the College for the F.A. examina 
tion in the Calcutta University, of whom five have passed in 
the second division, and one in the third, and three have 
failed. One of the students, resident in the College, has 
passed the B.A. examination in the second division ; but as 
we have no B.A. class, he did not receive tuition in the College 
itself. Of those at present on the foundation, four are work 
ing as schoolmasters in Calcutta and Howrah, and still 
continuing their studies under my direction. The three 
Armenian students are destined for ordination in the Armenian 
Church ; the Hindustani student came originally from Delhi, 
and will, I hope, return to work under the Cambridge Mission ; 



*!\ov.i,S d ] SECULAR AND THEOLOGICAL LEARNING. 323 

the Karen returns to work in the Toungoo Mission at the end 
of this year. The Tamils will go back to the Madras diocese. 
One of them has taken up the work of the Kev. S. J. Cornelius 
among the Tamils in Calcutta. Of the Bengali students, three 
are already working as schoolmasters, and two are ultimately 
intended for work in the Missions, either as catechists or 
teachers. I am thankful to say that the moral conduct of my 
present students has been very satisfactory. During this 
three and a half years we have had, of course, unsatisfactory 
characters in the College, but they have been got rid of as 
soon as it was plain that their influence was injurious to the 
others ; and for a year I have had no serious cases of miscon 
duct to deal with. 

" As regards the general system of College work, no radical 
change has been made since I came. I have only developed 
and carried on the system which I inherited from my prede 
cessor, of combining secular and theological training in 
accordance with the provisions of the statutes. I adopted the 
system at first with some hesitation, as my first wish was to 
make the College purely a theological College. But I am now 
decidedly of opinion that the College cannot do its work 
properly as a place for training the higher class of Mission 
agents unless it comprises teaching for the university examina 
tions with a theological course. The following reasons have 
chiefly weighed with me : 

" 1. The Church of England has no secular college in 
Bengal. So that, if Bishop s College does not provide an 
university education, our higher class of Mission agents will 
go through their university course either without any religious 
teaching at all, or with such teaching as is given at the Mis 
sionary Colleges of other denominations, which is generally 
scanty and often directly antagonistic to the Church of England. 
In any case, when they come to Bishop s College they have little 
foundation of religious knowledge, and none of Church princi 
ples to build upon. Whereas if they read for the university 
course at Bishop s College they will receive definite and syste 
matic teaching, and by the time they come to study theology 
a foundation at any rate will have already been laid. I may 

o2 



324 BISHOP S COLLEGE, CALCUTTA. [ M iS, d 

add that now that the students are being sent in for the 
Cambridge theological examination, it is very important thai 
they should take up Greek for their university course. The 
smattering of Greek which they would pick up when working 
for the Cambridge examination would be almost useless; 
whereas if they study Greek during their university course as 
well, they will acquire a knowledge of the language that will 
be really valuable. And as no other college teaches Greek, 
we can only secure this advantage by teaching the students 
ourselves. We have already introduced Greek into the College 
school. 

" 2. A yet more important consideration is, that by train 
ing the students for the University examination the college 
authorities are enabled to get a knowledge of their characters 
and abilities, which it would be very difficult otherwise to 
obtain. It is a matter of considerable importance that we 
should, if possible, thoroughly know the men who are admitted 
to the theological class. In this country men so often offer 
themselves for Mission work from unworthy motives, and are 
so skilful in concealing their real characters that it is emi 
nently desirable to take those whom we intend to train for 
Mission work when young, and watch the development of 
their characters for a long period. In our Bengal Missions, 
the number of educated clergy and catechists required is 
comparatively small, and this fact renders it all the more 
important that those who are sent out should be thoroughly 
tested and trained; and, so far as my present experience 
goes, I do not think that we should be likely to get many 
students from other dioceses unless we were able to give 
them secular as well as theological education. 

" 3. Another consideration, which, I think, ought not to 
be neglected, is the benefit which will accrue to the Church 
from having a body of educated laymen brought up under 
religious influences. At present there is no institution in 
Bengal where native Christian students can enjoy the ad 
vantages of thorough religious teaching and a real collegiate 
life. I believe that such an institution is one of the real 
needs of the native church, and would exercise a great 



?. SB? ] THE UNIVERSITY COURSE. 325 

influence on the whole body. One of the chief defects in the 
present system of University education in India is the almost 
total lack of moral training, and if Bishop s College could 
remedy this defect in the case of native Christians, I have 
no doubt that it would have a future of great usefulness 
before it, and exercise a very powerful influence on the whole 
native Christian community. 

" I have thought it necessary to justify to the Society the 
general system on which the college is at present being 
carried on, because I am well aware that it is undoubtedly 
an expensive one. Altogether the students of the college 
are going through five different courses of study. Of these, 
the entrance course is taken in the school, and the B.A. 
students attend lectures in neighbouring institutions. But as 
the F.A. students are divided into two distinct classes, which 
have to be taken separately, there are still four courses taught 
in the college itself. It is evident that this involves a large 
expenditure of time, and it was this fact which led me to 
ask the Society for a stronger staff. I sincerely hope that in 
time the Society will feel able to give some help to enable me 
to develope the college work further on its present lines. The 
past growth of the college gives, I think, good reason for 
hoping that the work which the college is now carrying on is 
supplying a real need, which will be still more urgently felt 
as the na.tive Christian community grows in number and 
wealth. I look forward in time to being able to add a B.A. 
class to our present work. It is a serious loss to have to send 
our students out to other colleges just when their minds 
begin to expand, and they take up subjects which demand 
serious thought. We lose touch with them at a very critical 
period of their study. The want of a B.A. class, too, entirely 
prevents us from obtaining day scholars, as students naturally 
will not come to a college which can only take them through 
half their course. 

" It is with great regret that I report Mr. Cooper s depar 
ture for England at the end of June. After his return from 
Darjeeling at the end of May he was prostrated with 
dysentery, which had become almost chronic, and the doctor 



326 BISHOP S COLLEGE, CALCUTTA. l^mSfimf 1 

advised his immediate return. He has given most valuable 
help during the time he has been with us, and deserves tl& 
warmest thanks of all connected with the college. 

"I will take this opportunity of expressing my sincere 
thanks to the Society for the support they have hitherto 
accorded me, and the readiness with which they have sanc 
tioned the plans submitted by the Council for the development 
of the college work. I trust that by God s blessing our work 
may be prospered in the future, and made an instrument 
for promoting the welfare of Christ s Church and the spread 
of His truth in India." 



Mr. Arthur Holmes Blakesley, B.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 
is going to Calcutta to take the position vacated by Mr. 
Cooper. Mr. Cooper took honours in Moderations and the 
school of litterce humaniores, and was placed in the First Class 
in the Theological School. 





UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. 

| HE Society s friends can never fail to be interested 
in Burma. It is in an especial sense its own 
field. More than twenty years ago the foresight 
of Bishop Cotton assigned Burma to the Society as its peculiar 
charge, and all the Missions of the English Church in that 
country have been maintained by the Society. The energy of 
the Missionaries long ago attracted attention far beyond the 
limits of British rule. In 1863 the son of the then King of 
Independent Burma came under the influence of the Eev. J. 
E. Marks, then, as now, the well-known Principal of St. John s 
College, Rangoon. Some Christian books which were given 
to the Prince on that occasion led to a Mission being com 
menced at Mandalay in 1868. The story of the Mission, 
checkered as all such tales are wont to be, was told in the 
Society s Annual Eeport for 1885. Mr. Marks was, after a 
time, the victim of an Eastern despot s caprice, and had to 
leave Mandalay. The Rev. James A. Colbeck filled his place for 
a year, 1874-5, and again in 1878 he was placed in charge of 
the Mission. In 1879, after the death of Theebaw, the British 
residency was withdrawn and the Mission was peremptorily 
closed. The English were in great peril, and even in Rangoon 
itself alarms were felt. Bishop Titcomb praised the admirable 
behaviour of Mr. Colbeck in the centre of the excitement, and 
wrote, " To his heroic conduct may be traced the saving of 
several valuable lives, and he was not only a preserver of 
human lives but a diligent overseer of souls." In December 
1885 Upper Burma was conquered, and on January 1, 1886, was 
proclaimed as part of Her Majesty s dominions. Three days 
before Christmas 1885 Mr. Colbeck was again at Mandalay by 
order of his Bishop, and has laboured there to the present 
time. His paper, therefore, is of no ordinary value. It is 



328 UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. [ M i 8 t n ,,^ 

the work of an eye-witness, and of an experienced man. It 
contains statistics hard to obtain, which in a few years it 
would be impossible to get with accuracy. Mr. Colbeck s 
heart is in his work, and it is a fact probably without parallel 
in any other part of the world, that he is the eldest of four 
brothers who are now engaged in the Church s work in Burma. 
The mail which brought the following paper brought also 
from his youngest brother, who was ordained deacon on last 
Trinity Sunday, an account of the baptism on September 4 
of five men and seven women in Christ Church, Mandalay. 
Less than has been written would have been less than is due 
either to the writer of the following paper and to the paper 
itself :- 

Though Upper Burma affairs are no longer matters of first-rate 
public interest to the English nation, we who live in Burma hope that 
statesmen and merchants will give us due attention in the grand future 
that lies before us ; and that the mother Church of England will continue 
to extend loving help and sympathy, till we are able not only to care for, 
and minister to, the souls within our own borders, but to advance 
northwards and eastwards, bringing the heathen in, and extending the 
borders of the kingdom of God and of His Christ. 

Upper Burma Extent, Boundaries, dec. Upper Burma has no sea 
coast, but is an entirely inland country, wedged in between India on the 
west, and China on the east ; the old British Burma Provinces constitute 
its southern boundary, but in the north it extends indefinitely into a 
region yet unknown, where geographical and ethnological problems of 
great interest and value are still to be solved. 

The extent is, roughly speaking, 200,000 square miles, of which 
100,000 belong to the Shan States, which lie chiefly to the east of Burma 
proper, and impinge upon the Chinese frontier. These states have never 
been more than nominally subject to the rulers of Burma, and it is at all 
events the present policy of our Government to make them " friendly 
allies " rather than " dependent tributaries." 

The Character of the Country. There is one splendid wide and 
fertile valley, running north and south, about 800 miles long, through 
which flows the majestic Irrawaddy, the river of the country. A similar 
valley, but shorter, lies parallel on the west, watered by the Chindwin, 
which rises in the south-eastern spurs of the Himalayas. On the other 
side, to the south-east of Mandalay, are a number of smaller and more 
irregular valleys, where are the upper courses of the Pounloung or 
Sittang, the Me Pon, and the Salween. Bhamo, the most northerly town 
of importance, is on the Irrawaddy, three days journey from the 
Western Chinese frontier (Yunan Province), 210 miles north of Man 
dalay, and 680 miles by river from Rangoon. 



Mission Field,! 
Nov. 1, 1867. J 



WEALTH OF THE COUNTRY. 



329 



In the fertile valley of the Irrawaddy the Burmese race has from time 
immemorial had its seat ; but trustworthy historical memorials are 
scanty till we come upon Aloungpaya, the hunter -king, and founder of 
the dynasty of which ex-King Theebaw is the last monarch. Aloungpaya 
was a patriot usurper who, in 1751, drove out the Talenis or Peguans 
who had subjugated the kingdom of Ava, and taken its king away to 
Pegu, where he was shortly afterwards put to death. Moshobo or 
Shwebo, under the classical name of Kutina-thenga, was made the 
capital city, and so remained until the death of Aloungpaya, in 1760. 



YUNNAN 

CHINA 




100 



The wealth of the country may be imagined when it is known that 
since 1751 it has not merely had to bear wars, bad government, loss of 
province after province, and the building of 100,000 unproductive pagodas, 
but also the change of capital from Shwebo to Sagaing, Sagaing to Ava, 
to and fro between Ava and Amerapoora, and last of all to Mandalay, in 
1857. Each change meant, not merely the transfer of the court and 
palace, but the compulsory removal of the whole population, the old city 
being razed to the ground. Mandalay, a city of thirty years, has a 
population of 175,000. 

o3 



330 UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. 

Population. The whole country is very thinly peopled. The 
Burmese race clings to the valleys of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin, 
leaving the rugged mountain country in the north for the Chins, Kachyens, 
and kindred tribes, and the hills and valleys of the east as the undis 
puted home of the Shan and Shan- Chinese family. 

No estimate has been officially made since the annexation, and no 
census was taken under the Burmese Government, but the following is 
believed to be a fair approximation : 

Burmans . . . 2,500,000] 

Shans .... 800,000 I Total, 3,500,000 for the whole kingdom.* 

Chins, Kachyens, &c. . 200,000 j 

The Kings of Burma reckoned their military and police force at 
40,000 men, and obtained this number by levying ten men from every 
hundred houses. This, at the rate of five persons to a house, would 
represent a Burmese population of 2,000,000. Levies were not made in 
Shanland, and were impossible among the wild hill tribes. There would 
be large exempt classes to bring up the numbers to the total given above. 
If this should appear a small number for such a vast extent of country, it 
must be remembered that the number of large cities and towns is very 
small. After Mandalay, the following are the chief centres of population : 

(1) Myingyan, 20,000, with a large rural population within easy 
distance ; on the Irrawaddy, ninety miles south of Mandalay. 

(2) Sagaing, 7,000, in a corn (wheat) producing district; on the 
Irrawaddy, sixteen miles south of Mandalay. 

(3) Kyoukse, 6,000, but with contiguous villages 15,000 ; thirty miles 
south of Mandalay, on the new railway. 

(4) Shwebo, 5,000, with 10,000 more in a five miles radius ; seventy 
miles north of Mandalay. 

(5) Bhamo, 3,000 fixed population, but the centre of trade and ex 
change for many tribes round about. 

Language and Religion. The prevailing language is, of course, 
Burmese, a monosyllabic agglutinative language akin to Chinese, and 
utterly unlike Indo-European languages, and chiefly requiring accuracy 
of ear and strength of memory for its acquisition. As being the court 
language, Burmese is widely known even among the Shans. The litera 
ture of the country is very extensive, but chiefly confined to translations 
of Pali works, Boodhistic, philosophical, and historical. Very few original 
works have been brought out of late, and that few of a very inferior order. 
The Burman is essentially imitative, not creative. Education, such as it 
is, is widely diffused through the length and breadth of the land, and 
dialectic differences are few and unimportant. 

The Shans have their own language, which is still more akin to the 
Chinese ; but, as they are Buddhists, they have doubtless received what 
ever they have of culture, as well as religion, from the Burmans. The 
better class of Shans all know Burmese, and monastic education in 

* The population of Upper Burma is given \vith all reserve, especially that of the Shan 
States, but best efforts have been made to get correct information. 



BUDDHISM. 331 

Shanland is chiefly in Burmese ; nevertheless, for the thousands of Shans 
who do not speak or read Burmese, the " Tripitaka," " Bi-ta-gat-thon- 
bon," or Buddhist Scriptures, have been translated into Shan. Other 
than this sacred and historical translated literature there is a curious and 
motley collection of fables, songs, and folk-lore in the vernacular, written 
and unwritten, to repay the efforts of the scholar s patient research. 

The Chins and Kachyen?, and a whole host of barbarous tribes in the 
north and north-west, are untouched by Burmese influence, and have 
never been brought under restraint. They have no written language, 
and retain their own aboriginal demon-worship and propitiatory animal 
sacrifices. 

It will be seen, therefore, that it is the Burmese race which must be 
the objective of our attack, and if the vitality of Buddhism in Upper 
Burma were equal to its universality and completeness of organisation, 
we might well despair of success. 

Religion.* The following figures were supplied to the present writer 
by the " Tha-tha-na-baing " = Euler of Beligion --= the head of the Buddhist 
faith in Burma., 

In a report of 45. pages of foolscap, bearing both title and seal of the 
Tha-tha-na-baing, as guarantees of its official accuracy, the ecclesiastical 
divisions of the country are shown, and the mandates for appointing to 
various offices are given. 

There are in the city and suburbs of Mandalay [August 1887] : 

(1) The Tha-tha-na-baing, or Buddhist Pope 1 

(2) The "Sadaws," i.e. Royal preceptors or chaplains, ap 
pointed by Royal mandate, and generally at the head of 
monastic communities ... ... ... ... ... 76 

(3) The " Rahans,* or Pon-gyis i.e. monks of over ten years 

standing ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3,447 

(4) The " Tha-ma-nes," or U-pa-zins and Ko-yins i.e. monks 

under ten years ... .... ... ... ... ... 2,444 

Total ecclesiastics for Mandalay 5,968 

These are divided into 121 " taiks," i.e. communities or congre 
gations, living in one precinct, and occupy no less than 985 monastic 
houses. [N.B. The original intention of Gau-da-ma was that the " Kahan " 
should live alone. Mandalay numbers give an average of six to a house ; 
country monasteries average only two or three.] 

As we have estimated the population of Mandalay at 175,000, there is 
one monk to thirty people. King Min-dohn, Theebaw s father, a most 
zealous Buddhist, used to boast that in his capital he had 120,000 people 
and 20,000 monks. If so, there has been a great decrease since his days 
the golden age of modern Buddhism. This is, however, likely enough, 
for the old king s practice was to choose a " Sadaw," or chaplain, for each of 

* The Burmans arc Buddhists, but this religion is evidently only a second, which has come 
as a varnish over their aboriginal demonolatry. Propitiatory offerings are made daily to avert 
the anger of Sprites, who o\vri every tree, hill, and dale, and inhabit every cave, well, and 
river. It is rare, however, for these to be " bloody " offerings. 

o4 



332 UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. P5B?l?S8? 

his queens and daughters, and these royal ladies were held responsible that 
the wants of their " Sadaw s" monastery or community were well pro 
vided for. In Theebaw s days the lady-patrons lost their property and 
position, and were no longer able to continue their pious duties. Many of 
the monastic buildings were used as barracks for our troops during 1885 
and 1886 ; and now, not only are many of the smaller buildings deserted 
and in ruin, but the larger societies, which once numbered 400 to 800 
brethren, can count only 50 to 250. 

The capital naturally feels more acutely than the provinces the change 
of regime, and the evil days of Theebaw s reign gave no time to prepare 
for the heavier blow of disestablishment. 
Turn now to the country. 

Apart from the capital, which was not only the royal city, but also 
the ecclesiastical centre and the seat of learning, and leaving out the 
Shan States, which are at present too disturbed to furnish returns, the 
Tha-tha-na-baing s report gives the following numbers of " dignified " 
clergy : 

Tha-tha-na-baing or Pope [as before] *~ 1 

Gaing-chokes or Archbishops ... ... 

Gaing-okes or Bishops ... ... ... 133 

Gaing-douks or Archdeacons 383 

Kyoung-a-chokes or Abbots, rulers over single monasteries 16,825 

17,355 

Add the rulers of the Mandalay monasteries 1)85 

Total 18,340 

This huge number represents what may be called the "beneficed" 
clergy, i.e. such as are in actual possession of a house, with religious sup 
porters. There is hardly a village or even a hamlet throughout Burma 
which has not its pretty, well-built monastery in some retired nook, where 
the " Pon-gyi " passes his days in meditation and the study of the law ; 
where the placid-faced images of Gau-da-ma stand, before which the pious 
Buddhist breathes forth his aspirations for " Neibban " [Nirvana] ; and 
where the youngsters, in the course of two or three " Lents," get through 
their spelling-book and first catechism.* 

In Lower Burma, a population of 3,736,771 is dispersed in 16,583 
towns and villages ; so that for its Burmese population of two-and-a-half 
millions, Upper Burma may well give a beneficed monk to each village, 
and yet have to spare for great ecclesiastical centres. 

But besides the "beneficed" there are the "unbeneficed," i.e. the 
Ko-yins, U-pa-zins, or Tha-ma-nes the junior members of the order of 
the yellow robe, who daily go forth with the mendicant s bowl, and help 
in the routine of the monastery under their house superior. They have 
no right of residence, and can be told to leave at any time. The average 

* Education in Upper Burma means only reading and writing. Arithmetic is practically a 
forbidden science in the monastery ; hence the wild impossible numbers end chronology of 
Burmese records. Outside towns, education is at a very low ebb indeed, and nowhere has the 
writer sccu a well-conducted and well-attended monastic school. 



M Nov.?,S dl ] THE MISSIONARY PEOSPECT. 333 

of inmates of city monasteries was six ; that for the country is about 
three ; so that 18,340 x 3, or, say, in round numbers 55,000, will represent 
the Buddhist " religious " in Upper Burma proper. Popular reports used to 
put the whole body at 100,000, but this was probably only a guess, and 
included the Shan country as well. 

There are a few " Me-thi-la-yins " or nuns here and there ; but they 
are not held in high repute, nor have they any practical influence in 
religion or education. 

In the face of this host, Burma Missionaries have indeed need of faith. 
Humanly speaking, it would be impossible to dislodge the national religion ; 
but we know we are in the army of the living God, fighting under the 
victorious banner of His Son, strengthened and guided by the Divine 
Spirit, so that our love and labour will not be in vain. 

What are the strong points in the walls and ramparts of Buddhism ? 

1. It is the ancestral religion, and has all but universal sway. No 

Dissenters. 

2. All the boys and young men at some time wear the robe, and live in 

the monastery. 

3. The women are more devout Buddhists than the men. 

4. It is the one bond of national life. 

5. Science, art, knowledge, are all saturated with Buddhism. 

6. The coercive power given to the religion by its union with court and 

crown. 

[N.B. This last is no longer a fact, but is put in to show the normal 
condition till now.] 

The writer has had friendly and familiar relations with prince and 
peasant Tha-tha-na-baing, Sadaw, andPon-gyi during the last fourteen 
years, and feels confident he is not merely giving reins to his imagination 
when he predicts a dissolution of these walls and ramparts in something 
like the following order : 

6. The crown and coercive power has gone, and the monks will now form 

independent corpo rations.* 

5. Western art, science, knowledge, and trades will undermine and sup 
plant the old system. 

4. The national life must separate from decaying religion, and find newer 
and more vigorous life, with civil and religious freedom under the 
fostering care of England. 
3. Women will find brighter, nobler hopes and work under the Gospel ; 

and their devotion become fixed on Christ, not Gau-da-ma. 
2. More active, intellectual life will burst monastic bonds; and the 
youth of the country become no longer willing to submit to its irk 
some restraints. 

* " The monks will form independent corporations." After tbis sentence had been written 
the Tha-tha-na-baing, at the request of our Government, called together the Sadaws and chief 
abbots of the Mandalay monasteries to warn them against giving aid, shelter, or concealment 
to rebels or insurrectionists. The Sadaws were unwilling to give more than a guarantee of 
personal loyalty, as they could not be answerable for their subordinates. The Tha-tha-na-baing 
has, however, made a stroke for primacy. He has cited an incriminated Sadaw to appear before 
him within twenty days, and clear himself of suspicion ; otherwise he will be declared excom 
municate and degraded, and will be arrested by the civil Government on an ordinary warrant 
as a rebel. [Sept. 9, 1887.] 



334 UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. [S?,S dl 

1. The magnitude and extent of the old religion will hurry it on to 
destruction when once decay has set in. 

Where does modern Buddhism show recuperative power or evidence 
of Divine life ? 

By " canon " law, as contained in the " Parazi-kaii," Buddhist monks 
are only liable to degradation and expulsion from the order for the crimes 
of murder, theft, and incontinence ; and discipline over them was main 
tained through the Tha-tha-na-baing. He held his court of inquiry, and 
signified to the king the result. Even for the crime of abetting rebellion 
the incriminated monk was merely ordered to join a monastery at 
Mogoung, Theinnee, Mone, or some other penal settlement ; and for slighter 
offences he was ordered for a long or short term to become still wearing 
his robe a hewer of wood, a drawer of water, or sweeper either of hi,s 
own or some neighbouring monastery. 

But now the " Royal proctors " 110 longer exist ; abbots do what they 
please in their own houses, and the Tha-tha-na-baing complains that the 
" Sadaws " settle their own affairs without reference to him. He says, 
" British officers treat us kindly enough, and as a rule respect our pro 
perty, but they look upon us as an idle, unpractical set of narrow-minded 
drones, and their Burmese subordinates follow en suite. 1 " 

In the recent campaigns our officers expected much help from the 
Pon-gyis ; and Sir Frederick Roberts showed particular respect to the 
Tha-tha-na-baing, hoping thereby to conciliate the whole order, and enlist 
their active co-operation in quieting the country, and spreading far and 
wide the pacific and benevolent intentions of the British Government. 
It cannot be said that the " order " rose to the opportunity; and it is an 
undeniable fact that in several of the recent attempts at rebellion the 
monks have had a prominent part.* 

The chief title to respect on the part of the whole ecclesiastical body 
is certainly not learning or intellectual activity, but rather simplicity, 
gentleness, and quiet observance of their rule. " Incuriosity " or " indif 
ference " is reckoned a great virtue, and as an instance of it the writer 
remembers a case in which, after a copy of the Burmese translation of 
our Bible had been presented to a distinguished monastery in Mandalay, 
and put in a good place in the well-arranged library, it remained for years 
unopened ; and the abbot gravely asserted that the book was printed in 
English, giving that as the reason why he had not opened it. Here was 
an intelligent, well-read monk brought into contact to some extent with 
Englishmen, and yet without the slightest curiosity as to their religion, 
although a copy of their sacred Scriptures had been put into his hands. 

In 1878, speaking about the state of religion in the country, Prince 
Nyouiigyaii a favourite son of the late King Miii-dohn said, " No man 
and no king ever did more for the [Buddhist] religion than my father did, 
and now he has gone to the country of the Nats [Anglice is dead ] the 

* The Commander-in-Chief of India, Sir Frederick Roberts, encouraged the hope that the 
Tha-tha-na baing and Pon-gyis would prevail upon the notorious Hla-u and other dacoit leaders 
to give themselves up, first to the clergy, aud then on good terms to the civil powers. But the 
dacoit leaders, Mith very insignificant exceptions, fought shy of the scheme. 



BM GROUNDS FOB HOPE. 335 

religion will lose ground, and by-and-bye we shall all come over to your 
[Christian] side." His opinion was that Theebaw would do nothing for 
religion, and in this he was not mistaken. 

The Pon-gyis will probably care little what disintegration takes place 
in Buddhism, or what progress is made by Christianity so long as it does 
not affect their own circle of supporters ; and if it does come near and 
touch them they will probably only throw off the gown and return to the 
world again. To fight for their religion, or actively propagate it, is not in 
them. 

The people are happy, friendly, careless, indolent, and pleasure loving ; 
but have a very high regard for religion of every kind, especially if its 
teachers show an ascetic life. It was this feeling that led King Min-dohn 
not only to build a church for the English, but to give liberally to the 
Romanists and to the Armenians, besides providing for Braham Gurus, 
and helping Mussalmans. A celibate Christian Priest is to the Burman 
a " Pon-gyi " ; and there seems no reason why, if Christian Missions are 
strongly manned with regular and stately daily worship, rules of life and 
teaching power, they should not easily supplant the Buddhist monasteries 
in their immediate neighbourhood. 

There is no " caste." The women are free from the absurd restraints 
of the Zenana and Purdah. Englishmen and manners are in high favour, 
and recognised as superior. Even as to music and religion, in which the 
people used to feel conscious superiority, they have now their doubts. 

A Burman is very angry if a son or friend becomes a Christian, and 
under native rule active preventive measures would have been taken had 
any appreciable number been converted. But the anger is only transient. 
The renegade is cut off from society, and denied "fire, food, and water," 
i.e. all friendly intercourse ceases ; but he soon finds his way again 
among friends. Fatalism and the belief in metempsychosis step in, and say 
" The present is but the result of the past, and in the myriad of exist 
ences to be lived this is but one ; so what does it matter, it cannot be 
helped ; let him please himself, and take the consecniences." 

Burmans are a reading nation ; and there is no doubt a " levelling 
up " process is going on. The belief in the existence and operation of a 
supreme living God, good and holy, far above Nats and Demons, has 
already gained firm ground, and will never be displaced. The Shway 
Pyee Wungyi Ko Po Hline, the chief instructor of the members of the 
Embassies to Europe from the Court of Ava, studied the religion of those 
countries, and wrote a book to prove that after all these religions and the 
Buddhist were but one. Burmans, who have read his book, say the logical 
outcome should have been his conversion to Christianity, but "Court" 
influence was too much for him, and fear overcame conviction.* 

When the nation has parted from the spirit of Buddhism, though 
clinging to its external form, mass conversions may be expected if the 
Christian Church will do her duty and put forth her strength ; for there 
is a remarkable anticipation of the coming of Arima-da-ya, the fifth great 
incarnation of the Buddh. 

* Ko Fo Hline died in 1885 ; his book is called " Wi-mo-ti-ya-tba-chan/ 



336 UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. [^oTlS 1 

[1st, Kau-ka-than ; 2nd, Ga\v-na-gohn ; 3rd, Ka-tha-pa ; 4th, Gau-da-ma ; 
5th, Arima-da-ya.] 

Among the wise and ancients his advent is expected within the next 
seventy years. Before he comes every vestige of Buddhism, whether 
monk, monastery, or writing, will have disappeared, and Arima-da-ya will 
come as the restorer of all things to more than former glory. What a 
text for the Missioner ! 

Buddhism is doomed. It remains for us Christians, particularly of the 
Church of England, to rescue all that is good, noble, and pure in the 
country s system, and to give it what it lacks, till it becomes one with 
the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. Otherwise the last state of this 
nation will be seven times worse than the first. 

Christian Missions in Upper Burma. Let us see what forces the 
Christian Church sends against this stronghold of Buddhism, and its 
55,000 official defenders. 

1, The Roman Catholics were first. For over two hundred years 
there have been Roman Christians here, and priests ministering to them. 
From A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1618 Portuguese Pegu, round its capital Syriam 
nourished at the mouth of the Irrawaddy, and on its downfall many 
Christian captives were carried to Upper Burma. It is the progeny of 
this stock which composes the mass of the Romanist community of the 
present day. The Priests have not been so much Missionaries to the 
Pagans as pastors of Christians, and their unaggressive attitude gained 
for them toleration under the Aloungpaya dynasty. 

In 1873 Monsigneur Bourdon was consecrated in Rangoon, and Upper 
Burma was made a Missionary jurisdiction. 

There are now at work eleven European (French) and two native Priests, 
one native Deacon, and two or three Sub-Deacons. In Mandalay there is 
a convent of eight sisters, and the Burmese-speaking community in city 
and country numbers about 2,000 souls. Bishop Bourdon has just retired 
to France broken down in mind and body. 

2. The English Church. The Rev. J. E. Marks, the pioneer of our 
Church in Upper Burma, came here on the invitation of King Min-dohn 
in 1868. The king built a handsome church, clergy house, and schools, 
and sent some of his own sons, and a number of young nobles for educa 
tion. But the time for aggressive Mission work was not yet come. Even 
as late as 1878 Burmans were warned against foreign politics and foreign 
religion. From October, 1879, to December, 1885, the Mission was closed, 
but was re-opened again after the taking of Mandalay, and before the 
annexation. 

The church was found comparatively uninjured, and was re-opened for 
Divine service English and Burmese in January 1886. The school 
was re-opened in April, and under the altered circumstances the Mission 
showed more life than ever. 30 adult Burmans have been baptized since 
July 1886, and the school numbers 150 boys, including 30 boarders, 
among whom are 1 son and 2 nephews of the old King Min-dohn, 2 sons 
of the " Sawbwa," or Prince of Theebaw now reigning, 4 sons of less 
important Shan princes, and 12 sons of Shan notables. All these receive 



ff 1 ] VARIOUS MISSIONS. 337 

regular Christian instruction, and there are abundant proofs that it is 
having and has had effect. 

An outstation has been established at Madaya,* 18 miles north of 
Mandalay ; others are proposed at Anierapoora (7 miles), and Sagaing (10 
miles) south of Mandalay. 

The writer had the pleasure of going with the Rev. F. W. Sutton, 
M.R.C.S. Lond., in July last, to help him in establishing a Medical 
Mission in the old capital, Shwebo,t some 60 miles due north of Manda 
lay, which station will in due course throw out offshoots into the sur 
rounding country. 

These two Missions, with one Priest and two Deacons, represent the 
attacking forces of the English Church ; for though there are three other 
Priests in Upper Burma they are attached to British troops, and find full 
work in ministering to them. Should the troops be withdrawn one or 
more of these chaplains will follow. 

The number of Burmese members of our Church in Upper Burma is 
about 75. 

3. Other Bodies. The China Inland Mission has held a post at 
Bhamo for some years, but its efforts are directed for the benefit of 
Chinese rather than Burmans. There is one Missionary only. 

The Wesleyan Society has a young chaplain attached to the troops 
here, and has sent up an experienced Missionary from Ceylon, who is 
now learning the language, and has bought a large plot of land in Man 
dalay for the site of his Mission. 

The American Baptist Society has made many attempts to settle a 
Mission in Upper Burma, but, except at Bhamo, has not succeeded till 
now. Their Bhamo Mission has worked with some success among the 
Kachyens, and is to be further strengthened. The Society has one 
Missionary and three Missionary ladies in Mandalay, and their work 
seems now to be growing, and likely to be permanent and successful. 

Total Missionary clergy or ministers Roman, 14 ; Anglican, 3 ; 
others, 4 = 21. 

The Future. The Bishop of Rangoon has already made two visita 
tions of the upper country as far as Bhamo, and would gladly place two 
clergy there to work among the rude Chins and Kachyens, and east 
wards to the Chinese frontier. He will probably be able to extend the 
Karen Missions in Tounghoo, so as to bring Pyimmana (Ningyan), an 
important centre just over the old frontier, under Missionary influence, 
but he wants both means and men. 

The country lies before us. We members of the Church of England 
have a duty and responsibility which we cannot depute to other churches 
or communities. Is it too much to hope, to beg, to pray for the estab 
lishment of at least three additional Missions, with two clergy for each 
post, viz. : 

i. Myingyan, on the Irrawaddy, ninety miles south of Mandaday, a 
growing town of 20,000 people, with a fertile district about it. 

* According to the Tha-tha-na-baing s report Madaya has 1 Buddhist Bishop, 3 Archdeacons, 
97 Abbots and Monasteries. 

t According to the Tha-tha-na-baing s report Shwebo has 1 Buddhist Bishop, 11 Archdeacons, 
4G2 Abbots and Monasteries. 



338 



UPPER BURMA AS A MISSION FIELD. 



TMission Field, 
L .Nov. 1, 1887. 



ii. Pyimmana (Ningyan), which lies north of the old frontier, on the 
* Tounghoo side, and which will be on the railway equi-distant 
from Mandalay and Eangoon. 

iii. Theebaw, an important centre in the Shan States, ninety miles 
east of Mandalay. 

There are sixteen pupils from Theebaw State now pupils in the S.P.G. 
Royal School, Mandalay, and the writer has had a pressing invitation 
from the ruling prince to visit his capital next cold weather. The Bishop 
of Eangoon has given his consent, and, all being well, the Shan pupilg 
will accompany, and make the visit happier and more useful. 

Even after these three Missions are well established there will be the 
whole of the extensive Chindwin Valley untouched, and the Church 
cannot rest long without an effort for the northern tribes. 

May our good God put it into the hearts of the faithful to offer of 
their substance, willingly and liberally, for this great work ; and may He 
move earnest and devoted souls, both men and women, to give them 
selves self-sacrificingly for the task of subduing Upper Burma, and 
making it a fruitful, fertile province of the Holy and Apostolic Church. 




A NATIVE CART, BU11MAH. 




ANTIGUA. 

REPORT OF THE REV. HENRY B. HUGHES, OF ST. KITTS. 
F 

EAE the centre of the Diocese of the Leeward 
Islands, Antigua, lies the Island of St. Christo 
pher, or St. Kitts. It is of oblong shape, 
containing about sixty-eight square miles, and 41,000 
people : Mr. Hughes parishes having some seven square 
miles, and a population of 4,426. Of this number not more 
than seventy are whites. The following report, therefore, will 
give a good idea o-f a West Indian parish, with its black and 
coloured population. In the Diocese of Antigua there are 
thirty-six clergymen, of whom fourteen are Missionaries of the 
Society, which contributes to their support by its grant of 
850. The withdrawal of State aid to which Mr. Hughes 
refers has necessarily rendered the diocese poor, and that at 
a time when straitened means have limited the power of its 
laity to supply the want. In actual welfare and growth the 
Church has not exhibited any ill effects from the blow; 
rather her developments of late years have been peculiarly 
marked : 

" I have much pleasure in submitting for your information the fol 
lowing detailed account of the working of the Church in the parishes of 
St. Mary and Christ Church, to which parishes I have just succeeded as 
rector by the resignation of the Eev. C. C. Culpeper. As my report 
might, from the circumstance of its being a first one, have a tendency to 
become rambling and disconnected, I have, for your better information, 
decided to draw it up under heads likely to be useful and suggestive. 

" DlSENDOWMENT. 

"And first of all to deal with the disendowment question. Your 
Society is probably well aware of the fact that by the resignation of my 
predecessor, St. Mary s and Christ Church pass for the first time into 
the disendowed stage, and are, by the withdrawal of all Imperial support, 
placed wholly and entirely upon the voluntary footing. It would be 
perfectly needless for me to remind you that such a stage in the history 
of any Church is an anxious and a critical one, but doubly must this be so 



340 ANTIGUA. [^oH.S 

in a colony whose prosperity has of late been sorely impaired by the de 
pression in trade and the almost ruinous prices of its staple product, 
sugar. If your Society s bounty was needed before, it is infinitely more 
needed now, and, on the behalf of my parishioners and myself, I thank 
fully record my gratitude for the generous aid that comes at a time when 
it could ill be dispensed with. Quite a number of the proprietors of sugar 
plantations in these parishes are resident in England, and apart from the 
fact that their connection with the Church here and their interest in its 
work has been always of a very vague and shadowy description, they are 
many of them so honestly embarrassed themselves, that they could ill- 
afford to be generous ; and it is hardly to be wondered at if they are 
averse to burden their already crippled properties, the majority of which 
sink money every year, with any further incumbrance in the shape of 
church allowance. Not inaptly, I think, did one estate attorney in this 
parish make answer to me when I applied to him for a yearly donation to 
the church : My dear parson, don t you know that we in the planting 
line, in spite of the fair outside show of the thing, are in reality only typical 
Micawbers, waiting for something to turn up. And this I believe to be 
true. It is hard to conceive how sugar can pay, when, at a rough 
estimate, it costs more than ,8 per hogshead to make it, and when the 
gross receipts often do not come up to 10. Perhaps all this may sound 
hardly to the point in a report about Missionary work, but if it gives your 
Society some idea of the condition of trade here, and the resources of the 
Church as likely to be derived from the planting interest, I shall not have 
written this portion of my report in vain. 

" There cannot be the smallest doubt about it, too, that among the 
labouring class of people the pinch of these hard times is being felt most 
painfully. The earnings of the majority of them are pitifully small ; and 
it is by no means an uncommon thing to come across a field labourer, a 
man with a wife and many children, whose total receipts for a week has 
not been more than three shillings. Task work, too, has been greatly 
increased ; so that 500 cane -holes nowadays are dug for the same 
amount of money that was formally given for 400. 

" These are points that will, I trust, help to prove to your Society 
that both planters and labourers represent just at present a very doubtful 
and unsatisfactory source of income for the Church. I have, however, 
to record my thankfulness to several proprietors for their liberality to the 
Church. In spite of the hard times, there have not been lacking, here 
and there, good Churchmen, who, feeling that the necessity was specially 
laid upon them to make an effort in the behalf of Christ s Church and 
His cause, have done their best to help it through its present difficulty. 
Should this report, or any portion of it, ever go into print, I trust that 
this expression of my gratitude may catch their eye. I am not without 
hope that better times may soon come for one and all of us on this side of 
the Atlantic, and if the patient and hopeful attitude of my facetious 
friend the attorney is ever rewarded, and * something does turn up, we 
may hope to see our (dis) establishment out of the worst of it, but it can 
scarcely be until then. In the meanwhile, and surrounded as we are by 



Mission Field,! 
Nov. 1, 1887. .1 



ST. KITT S. 



341 



the grave difficulties I have already alluded to, it is a source of no little 
comfort to feel that we are being so readily and generously helped by 
your Society. f 

" So much, then, for the question of the disendowment of these 
parishes, and the position in which they have been placed by the loss of 





65 60 




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65 60 



their former State-paid rector. And now a word about the parishes 
themselves, and from an altogether different point of view. Naturally I 
have been struck, as a new comer, by many interesting features in the 
country and the people. The freshness and novelty of the thing will 
probably wear away only too soon. Let me, as nearly as I can, and 
while impressions are still warm, try to give you some idea of the place 



o^r> Ax-rmT/iTT t FMtssion Field 

342 ANTIGUA. L NOV. i, m7. 

and the people and, first of all, to say something about St. Kitts from a 
general point of view. 

" ST. KITTS. 

" Some of our West Indian islands are very beautiful how beautiful, 
they, perhaps, are least aware who have lived in them for a great while, 
and for whom, through long familiarity, the charm and loveliness have 
in the main passed away of many a dainty piece of God s handiwork 
that would be like a poem to a stranger. Scarcely anywhere else does 
one see such glorious sunsets, such exquisite and half fairy-like effects of 
colouring, such marvels of cloud, sky, and such an indescribable sea, 
melting away to the horizon in purples and greys and golds of infinite 
beauty and variety. I am a born and bred West Indian, and although I 
have lived and travelled somewhat both in England and on the Con 
tinent, I still cling by preference (not prejudice) to the charm of these 
little green spots that, away from Florida to the mouth of the Orinoco, 
lie like carvings in exquisite relief upon the pleasant blue of the Carribean 
Sea. And of all these Leeward Islands (Dominica, perhaps, excepted), 
St. Kitts for beauty of configuration and boldness and grandeur of 
outline is undoubtedly the queen. 

" Basseterre, the chief town of St. Kitts, is distant from Charlestown, the 
port of Nevis, by only 11 miles, and there is constant communication kept 
up between the two islands by a service of sailing boats, large, finely 
modelled and well-built craft, worked by a race of men who are sailors to 
the core, and who thoroughly understand and love their business. 

" GENERAL EEMARKS ABOUT THE PARISHES. 

" Let me now write a line or two more particularly about my two 
parishes. They are both of them sea washed, and they ought, after my own 
judgment, to represent the healthiest part of St. Kitts by far, as they are 
perpetually fanned in all their length and breadth by breezes fresh and 
untainted from the Atlantic. Exposed situations of any sort are, however, 
for the most part diligently eschewed by the native labourer, who loves 
to plant his little hut beneath the shade of a breadfruit or banana tree, 
deep down among the ravines that every mile or so run in broad rifts 
from the mountain to the sea. This I am tempted to think can scarcely 
be a healthy arrangement, as the dense overgrowth, the continual dripping 
from the trees, and the unpleasant exhalations in wet weather, resulting 
from decayed vegetable matter, must greatly tend to induce malarial 
fevers, and yet, so far as I can learn, the negroes in these two parishes 
enjoy fairly good health, and are singularly free from epidemics of the 
serious sort. I would give much to be able to send you a sketch or a 
photo, if it were only possible, of one of our gorge villages. No picture, 
however, could ever be taken of them, except in disconnected bits, which 
would utterly fail to convey any true idea of what they are really like. 
Passing along the single highway that takes one right round the island, 
no one would guess at the numbers of people that live in our two parishes. 
As far as the eye can take in the view, there are hardly half-a-dozen 
houses to be seen. Nothing save a broad undulating expanse of cane in 
every stage of cultivation, here and there a sugar factory with its 



1 S.i.5 d ] THE Two PARISHES. 343 

manager s and overseer s house, and perhaps in their immediate vicinity 
a range or two of small shingled or trash-thatched tenements for the 
estate labourers. As, however, the majority of our black folk live away 
under the cover of their much prized and dearly loved breadfruit trees, 
the astonishment of an Englishman was not to be wondered at who once 
marvelled at the uninhabited appearance of these windward parishes of 
ours, and who marvelled still more on being told that they possessed a 
population of something like 5,000 souls. 

" TRACES OF THE EARLY FRENCH SETTLEMENT OF THESE PARISHES. 

" This portion of the island still retains, in the names of some of its 
black and coloured people and in the names of some of the plantations, 
traces of its former occupation by the French. The St. Mary s district, 
for instance, but principally the little hamlet lying around our church, is 
known as Cayon. Then, too, there are the estates called Bonnyeau s and 
Molyneux, and since I came into residence here I have remarked upon 
my congregation list such distinctly French names as Perdrieau, Guichard, 
Faihe, Canonier, Boytelle ; Marote, too, is frequently to be met with as a 
Christian name for women. 

"DESCRIPTION OF THE CHURCHES, ST. MARY S PARISH. 

" There is a good church in f this parish, and although little can be said 
on the score of its architecture, which is highly unecclesiastieal, still it is 
in good condition, and as to its internal fittings and arrangements is 
probably unsurpassed by any other place of worship in the island. The 
late Kector, the Rev. C. C. Culpeper, evidently bestowed more than ordi 
nary pains upon it, and it certainly is due to his unremitting zeal and care 
that the building has been rendered more like a House of God than it used 
to be when he took charge of it over fourteen years ago. It is now nearlv 
two years ago since he completed the cherished scheme of his rectorate 
an addition to the church, in the shape of a very elegant little chancel. 
It is much to be regretted that in the matter of the enlargement he was 
compelled to work upon the barbarous lines of the architect of the main 
building, still, in spite of this, he has managed to produce something very 
effective in its way, and it stands as the fittest memorial he could ever 
have left behind him of a most painstaking and zealous pastorate. 
" CHRIST CHURCH. 

" There was something infinitely dreary and sorrowful in the appearance 
of this place and its surroundings on the first Sunday that I took duty 
there. It is quite close by the sea-side. One can almost hear the roar 
of the surf and the pounding of the waves upon the beach, and from my 
place in the reading-desk I can watch the rollers as they come tumbling 
in and frothing shorewards, and see far away, faint and misty on the 
horizon, the purple outline of the hills of St. Martin s and St. Barts. 
This is absolutely the only bit of poetry about the place ; the rest is 
prose painful prose. The church itself is in shocking repair, and is 
unprotected by a single tree. The churchyard has a bare, hungry look, as 
though it had almost given up the hope of having something done to it ; 
and when a strong blast from the Atlantic rattles the shaky windows of 
the old building and whistles among the shingles, I always feel grieved 



AVT-T^TTA TMission Field, 

A.NTIGUA. |_ N OV- lt 1887 . 

for it, and compare it in my mind with some tattered waif upon the streets 
of London that would give worlds for a sound garment, and something 
to shelter it from the bitter wind. I shall make an experiment before 
long at the planting of some trees, although I have been assured that 
little in the shape of green leaf can ever long survive the scorch of the 
sea blast. 

" DAY-SCHOOLS (CHRIST CHURCH). 

" We have no day-school here at Christ Church, and consequently we 
are driven to the sad (the only) alternative 6f teaching our black children 
in the church itself. This is in the last degree unfortunate, as there is no 
means of preserving due reverence among the children, and they naturally 
grow up to respect less than they ought this sacred place where the 
Master s honour dwelleth. The building of a school will be a very serious 
business here, as the raising of my own stipend and the salaries of 
church officers will, I fear, strain to its uttermost the liberality and 
churchmanship of our congregations ; still, somehow or other and 
God grant it may be soon this work of absolute necessity must be 
accomplished. It will cost me (as I reckon) about .150, and of this 
amount I can, up to the present moment, only reckon upon 50, or at the 
outside say 60. 

" DAY-SCHOOLS (ST. MARY S). 

" There is a fine day-school in this parish, the work of the former 
rector, who raised it at a cost, as I am told, of 500. It is built through 
out of stone, and is cased with pitch pine, and is all round, I should say, 
one of the finest and most substantial school buildings in the island. 
" GOVERNMENT AID TO SCHOOLS. 

" Both our day-schools are partially aided by the Government. The 
Imperial grant, however, by no means represents the total of our expen 
diture for education, as we have at Christ Church to supplement the 
teachers salary from our church funds, and at both schools the salaries 
of the sewing mistresses and requirements in the shape of school appa 
ratus and books have to be met by drafts upon the same funds. 
" SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 

" On my arrival here I found that the Sunday-schools in both 
parishes, from lack of the immediate supervision of the rector, had 
dwindled down to a very unsatisfactory number. This misfortune, how 
ever, could hardly be avoided, as Mr. Culpeper during the last year or 
more of his residence here was almost a confirmed invalid, and depended 
entirely for assistance upon the service of his curate. I am happy to be 
able to state that up to date my Sunday-school attendance has been 
most encouraging. At St. Mary s I have had since I came here an 
average of over 100, and at Christ Church of not less than 70 or 80. 
" CHURCH ORGANISATIONS. 

There is in the parish of St. Mary a fine Friendly Society, with 
about 100 members on its roll, and having to its credit in the Colonial 
Bank of our island a matter of over $1,700. Christ Church has also a 
Friendly Society of its own distinct from this one, and there is to its 
credit, as I find, about $250. There is also in both parishes a Mission 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 845 

Guild, which is in a fairly flourishing condition ; and, over and above 
these two church organisations, we have in St. Mary s parish a C.E. 
Working Men s Society and a purity guild, called the Guild of St. Mary 
the Virgin. These two last, however, can scarcely be said to be anything 
like active agencies, as they are only in their initial stage, and reckon not 
more than eight or nine members each. 

"LAY HELP. 

" My right hand in the work of these two parishes is Mr. J. W. 
Cope-Gordon, a gentleman whose loyal churchmanship, and whose zeal 
and self-denying work for God, are worthy of the highest recognition. He 
served my predecessor most unwearyingly through the better part of his 
rectorate, and has upon more than one occasion helped to keep the 
Church alive here, and to promote the work and the cause of the great 
Master. Of all lay-readers throughout this diocese, he is probably one of 
those who has served longest and most faithfully, and were it only 
possible to secure in every parish men of his stamp for the immediate 
work and service of the Church, the value of a layman s energy and of a 
layman s aid would come to be felt and appreciated better than it is." 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

r I l-HE death of Mr. Beresford-Hope removes from the 
_L_ ranks of the Society s Yice-Presidents one who, in a 
life devoted to many good works in the best interests of the 
Church at home, was likewise identified with the Society in 
more than one Missionary design. The early taste which he 
developed, while yet an undergraduate at Cambridge, for all 
that appertained to Ecclesiastical Archaeology, led in 1844 to 
his rescuing from the hand of the spoiler the venerable ruins 
of St. Augustine s Abbey at Canterbury. At an opportune 
moment he became by purchase the owner of the site, which 
he generously dedicated at once to the erection, in concert 
with his friend, the late Kev. E. Coleridge, of the well-known 
College, which carries down to our own era the traditions of 
Canterbury from before the Conquest. It stands a living 
witness of what Christian munificence can effect when hal 
lowed by the spirit of sacrifice and devotion and rarely in our 
age of the Church has so rich and early a harvest been reaped 
from seed thus sown in simple faith not half a century ago. 

At a later period, Mr. Beresford-Hope showed especial 
interest in the erection of the Memorial Church at Constanti 
nople, in which the Society took the leading part, at the close 



346 NOTES or THE MONTH. rer n i,S dl 

of the Crimean War. He caused all the designs to be sent 
down into Kent, and, hanging them in the corridors of 
Bedgebury, he hospitably entertained the judges and members 
of the Standing Committee, who had been requested to decide 
upon the one to be selected. It was there that the first prize 
was awarded to the late Mr. W. Burges. It is well known that 
the funds were not sufficient for the execution of a design so 
costly and gorgeous ; but it was only with reluctance that 
Mr. Beresford-Hope subsequently admitted that the Society 
could only fall back upon that which had gained the second 
prize in the competition. 

Mr. Beresford-Hope was elected a Vice-President of the 
Society in 1862, and though his multifarious public duties did 
not admit of his being a regular attendant at the meetings of 
the Standing Committee, yet his voice and influence were 
always at its disposal. It is, however, his connection with St. 
Augustine s which will ever entitle him to grateful remem 
brance in the Missionary annals of the nineteenth century ; 
and there is scarcely a colonial diocese in which the news of 
his departure hence will not be received with peculiar regret 
by many who have owed their early training at Canterbury 
for the work of the Church abroad to his fostering care and 
munificence. 

FABEWELL was taken of several Missionaries about to 
sail from England at the Society s house on Wednes 
day, September 28, when there was a celebration of the 
Holy Communion in the Chapel. The sermon or address was 
delivered by Professor W T estcott, the father of one of those 
about to set forth. It was a beautiful devotional meditation 
on the threefold subject of " the grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ," the strength of all work for God ; " the love of God," 
the motive ; and "the communion of the Holy Ghost," the 
end. Forty persons communicated. 



ALL the Missionaries were going to Asia. The Kev. 
H. J. Foss returned after furlough to his work in 
Japan. Miss Thornton and Miss Hicks went to the same 



ld ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 347 

country, having offered their services to Bishop Bickersteth 
for work in the associated Mission. The Eev. W. J. Williams 
has gone with Mrs. Williams to join the small Mission staff in 
North China. 

SULLIVAN S Gardens, Madras, is the destination of the 
Eev. Arthur Westcott. Mr. Westcott graduated at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, being placed in the second class 
in the Classical, and the first class in the Theological tripos. 
He has since been a tutor of St. Augustine s College, Canter 
bury, now leaving it for the important position of Principal of 
the Theological College for the Native Ministry in Madras. 
Our readers will remember that this Institution has reached an 
eminently high level of efficiency, as has been conspicuously 
shown by the success of the students in the Universities 
Preliminary Examination of Candidates for Holy Orders. 

Mr. H. C. Henham, of St. Augustine s College, Canter 
bury, was also present, he being destined for the Diocese of 
Bombay. 

AMONG the congregation there were the Eev. G. Mitchell 
from Bloemfontein, the Eev. G. Ledgard from Bombay, 
the Eev. J. L. W T yatt from Madras, and the late Principal of 
Sullivan s Gardens, the Eev. F. H. Eeichardt. 



WITH the new year a new series of the Mission Field 
will be begun. It will be increased both in the size 
and number of its pages, and will contain a greater variety of 
maps and illustrations. The pages will be the size of the 
larger magazines, such as the Nineteenth Century, and each 
number will contain 40 instead of 32 pages as at present. 
Accounts of the work in the Missions, as hitherto, will form 
the bulk of the magazine ; but room will be found for letters 
of correspondents, for reports of the home work of the Society, 
as well as a page or two for the special benefit of young people. 



SUCH changes as the enlargement of the Mission Field 
involves are necessarily costly, but they seem to be 



348 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [^f?,S d 

imperatively called for. At the Conferences held throughout 
the country in the early part of the year the desire for some 
thing of this kind was almost uniformly expressed. The 
increased expense, however, need not fall upon the Society ; 
and will not do so, if the enlargement produces the result in 
hope of which it is made. If the circulation of the Mission 
Field is increased, the increased cost of printing will be met. 



PEEHAPS no kind of circulation is more worthy of 
being fostered than the parochial or local. With the 
view of developing it, the Society will continue the liberal 
scale of reduced charges which was begun a year ago with 
fair success. Where not less than twenty copies are taken, 
they will be supplied at half price and post free, the year 
being paid for in advance. Thus for 1, twenty copies of the 
Mission Field will be sent each month for a year. Any 
number above twenty may be ordered. 

We would ask the Clergy and Local Secretaries to con 
sider whether they cannot take advantage of this liberal 
arrangement for enabling the Mission Field to be bought for 
a penny. 

ST. THOMAS S College, Colombo, held its annual prize 
day on August 8, when the Bishop presided, and the 
Lieutenant-Governor distributed the prizes in the presence of 
the Attorney-General, the Director of Public Instruction, and 
many other official personages and friends of the College. 
The Warden, the Kev. E. F. Miller, reported on the work of 
the past year, and said that the numbers continued to increase, 
there being now 310 on the register, of whom 51 were admitted 
during the last term. He mentioned numerous university 
and other distinctions gained by former pupils. Cordial 
speeches on the efficiency and usefulness of the College were 
delivered by the Bishop, Sir Cecil dementi Smith, and others. 



POET AETHUE, about which we gave an extract from 
the Bishop of Qu Appelle s letter in the September 
number, is not in his Diocese, but in the Diocese of Algoma. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 349 

He wishes us to say that in mentioning the facts in a letter, 
he had no idea that it would be printed. The Bishop adds : 
" The need for clergy in my Diocese is no less great, though I have not 
so large a town as Port Arthur, and the local means forthcoming for the 
maintenance of clergy are not so easily found. There are at least three 
wide districts in this Diocese most urgently needing men. Two of the 
largest and most important places have been nearly six months without 
clergy, and people are lapsing from the Church for want of pastors to 
look after them." 



OHOTA NAGPOKE was visited last March by the Bishop 
of Calcutta, when his Lordship confirmed 881 persons. 
In his entry in the Record Book of the Mission the Bishop 
wrote : 

" Everything is now so well established, and proceeds with such order 
and regularity, that nothing of special note has arisen anywhere. This 
indicates a most satisfactory state of things ; the services are everywhere 
orderly and reverent, the churches in good repair and decently furnished, 
the cemeteries carefully kept, and the relations between the pastors and 
their people most satisfactory." 

x- * * * * 

" This is the fifth visit that I have been permitted to pay to this dis 
trict, and I look back with much thankfulness to the steady progress that 
has been made, and I ought specially to mention the extremely good 
character and tone which pervades the native ministry as a body. I know 
no native community in which the native pastors seem to command more 
respect from their people or exercise a better influence. That God is with 
them of a truth we have every reason to hope, and may His presence be 
more and more deeply felt by all." 

Referring to the lamented death of the wife of the head 
of the Mission his Lordship said : 

" I have been made at every turn deeply sensible of our great loss in 
the departure of our dear sister, Mrs. Whitley, to whom, in concert with 
her husband, these people owe so much. Her name will long be re 
membered amongst these people, and her influence must affect generations 
even after her name has been forgotten. I am glad to hear that there is 
an intention of placing some memorial to her in the Church ; but the 
women of the district who have grown up under her care are her truest 
and grandest memorial." 

BISHOP CAMIDGE was consecrated for the See of 
Bathurst on St. Luke s Day, October 18, in West 
minster Abbey. The consecrating prelates were the Archbishop 



350 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ V No 8 v?1, 



Field. 



of Canterbury, the Bishops of Kochester and Sodor and Man, 
Bishops Perry and Marsden. 

IN his address to his Diocesan Synod on July 12, the Bishop 
of Brisbane spoke at considerable length on the need of 
a coadjutor Bishop in the Diocese. 

IN the Capetown Diocesan Synod, which opened on Sept. 
17, the Bishop read a letter from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury on the union of the Church of South Africa with 
the Church of England. His Grace wrote : 

" Your union is close and formal spiritual and internal ; the legal 
separation, which has been such a stumbling-block, really determines 
nothing but the present ownership of property. To my mind it is im 
possible to conceive that any Church is united in communion with the 
Church of England if you are not." 

A CHAPLAIN is wanted for Eummelsberg, near Berlin. 
f\ The duties include the care of the British artisans, 
horse-trainers, and others, with their families, at Kummels- 
berg, Schonweide, and Hoppegarten. The Society has voted 
50 towards the Chaplain s stipend, which, with subscriptions 
from H.I.H. the Crown Princess, the British Ambassador, 
and others, make 100 already promised. The position has 
scarcely the ordinary attractions of a Continental Chaplaincy, 
but offers a sphere for much-needed work. Applications 
should be addressed to the Secretary of the Society. 



~"Y~T"EWS has arrived of the destruction by fire of the little 
.1.N church of SS. Michael and All Angels at Engelberg, 
Switzerland. A very beautiful and costly gift, a memorial of 
the great American divine, Dr. de Koven, perished with all 
the contents of the church. 

ME. COLBECK S remarkable paper on Upper Burma as 
a Mission Field, in our present number, will be re 
printed separately as a pamphlet. 

"E have received from a zealous friend, who has worked 
hard and with success in the Society s cause, a sug- 



w 



ovlTS d< ] MONTHLY MEETING. 351 

gestion for holders of Missionary boxes. The plan has been 
introduced in some parishes, and taken up with good will. 

" On every birthday in the family, a penny or halfpenny is put into the 
box by (or for) each year of age which the giver has attained. At the 
breakfast table, when congratulations are offered and presents given, this 
simple act of thanksgiving comes in both suitably and pleasantly, and 
our dear old Society reaps the benefit. 

" In the homes of cottagers and artisans the penny might be too much, 
but a halfpenny for each year could surely be spared, while in the houses 
of the well-to-do the penny might become a sixpence or a shilling. 

" Take two examples, to bring the plan home to everybody. 

" 1. The Cottage Home. The father (40), his wife (34), and five children 
(18, 11, 7, 4, and 1), as the j^ear goes by have put in, at the rate of one 
halfpenny for each year attained by each, four and sevenpence, and twenty 
cottages in a parish doing this have given 4. lls. Id. 

"2. In the home of the prosperous man of business, or professional man, 
where the sum settled on is sixpence for each year, the Birthday thank- 
offering will, for a family of the same ages and number, have amounted 
to 2. 15s." 

Certainly such offerings should be highly valued as the 
expressions of thankfulness to God, and we heartily commend 
this plan to the consideration of the Society s friends. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street, 
October 21st, at 2 P.M., the Rev. Berdmore Compton in the chair. There were 
also present the Bishop of Antigua and the Bishop of Rangoon, Canon Bet ham, 
J. M. Clabon, Esq., General Davies, Canon Elwyn, Sir W. R. Farquhar, Bart., 
General Gillilan, General Lowry, C.B., J. R. Kindersley, Esq., W. L. Lowndes* 
Esq., General Maclagan, Rev. J. F. Moor, General Sawyer, General Tremen- 
heere, C.B., S. Wreford, Esq., and Rev. W. H. Williams, Members of tlie Standing 
Committee ; and J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. Canon W. Cooke, Rev. R. J. Dundas 
J. F. France, Esq., Rev. W. C. Hayward, H. E. Heaton, Esq., Rev. W. W. Howard , 
Rev. E. W. Kempe, Rev. J. T. D. Kidd, H. Laurence, Esq., Rev. J. H. C 
McGill, Rev. G. P. Pownall, Rev. G. C. Reynell, Rev. C. H. Rice, Rev. C*. 
Wyatt- Smith, Rev. G. Thompson, Rev. W. T. Webb, Members of the Society. 

1. Read Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statenlent of Receipts and 
Payments from January 1st to September 30th : 



Subscriptions, Collections, &c.... 
Legacies 
Dividends, &c. 


GENERAL FUND 
21,904 
6,461 
2,201 


SPECIAL Ffjyos 
6,920 
25 
3.232 








TOTAL BECEIPTS 
PAYMENTS 


30.566 
69,344 


10,177 
13,052 



The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 

Fund from January 1st to September 30th, in five consecutive years, compare as follows 1883 

22,117 ; 1884, 22,630 ; 1885. 21,998 ; 1886, 19,931 ; 1887, 21,904. 



352 MONTHLY MEETING. 

3. Bead letter, dated July 12, 1887, from the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department intimating Her Majesty s very gracious reception 
of the Society s Jubilee Address. 

4. The following resolution upon the decease of the Eight Hon. A. J. B. 
Beresford-Hope, M.P., was unanimously adopted : 

The Society records its deep regret for the decease of the Eight Hon. 
A. J. B. Beresford-Hope, M.P., a Vice-President of twenty-live years standing. 

Great as his services have been to the Church at large, the Society can 
specially claim him as its loyal and devoted friend. 

As the chief founder of the College of St. Augustine, at Canterbury, his 
memory will be gratefully treasured among the honoured names of the 
benefactors of the Society and the foremost promoters of the Missionary 
cause. 

5. Power was given to affix the Corporate Seal to a power of attorney. 
G. The Lord Bishop of Kangoon addressed the Members. 

His lordship began by warmly acknowledging the kindness he had received 
from the Society in every way during the last twenty-seven years. He 
described the various departments of the Missions in his diocese, and said 
that those among the Burmans (who number six and a half millions) were the 
least successful. Buddhism, which he described as being less a religion than 
a philosophical system, owning no God, no soul, no futurity, paralysed rather 
than energised the Burmans, and gave them a theoretical purity, but no 
religious " sanction " to morals, encouraged bodily pleasures, and left the 
people satisfied with their present state:, and unreceptive of spiritual 
exhortation from the missionaries. The most hopeful feature of this branch 
of the work was the girls boarding school in Rangoon, with its fifty 
pupils. He spoke in the highest terms of the work among the Karens, 
described the claims of the Andamanese and Nicobarese on our pity, and pro 
ceeded to describe the Missions in the newly-acquired country, Upper Burma. 
The work and character of the Ptev. James A. Colbeck he warmly eulogised, 
and said that the Society s Mandalay Mission was certainly the most hopeful 
of all Burman Missions, whether connected with the Church or not. He 
described the establishment of the Medical Mission under Dr. Sutton, and the 
hospital and dispensary established at Rangoon by himself. He mentioned 
that there were 14 clergy in the diocese when he went out in 1882, and that 
there are 31 now, and in answer to a question as to the future, he said that 
the advance was limited only by the limits of the resources, and that he had 
no doubt that six additional missionaries would soon add from ten to twenty 
thousand to the Church. 

7. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in June were elected 
into the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in 
December next : 

H. De Tatham, Esq., M.D., Junior United Service Club, S.W. ; Rev. W. J. 
Wood, St. Andrew s, Ilketshall, Suffolk; Rev. J. B. Nodder, Ashover, Chester 
field; Rev. C.W. Falkner, Barkisland, Halifax; Rev. James Davenport^ St. 
Barnabas, Worcester ; Rev. James Dombrain, Sotby, Wragby ; Joseph Derrick, 
Esq., 4 East Down Park, Lewisham, S.E. ; the Dean of Armagh, Deanery, 
Armagh, Ireland; Rev. Danby Jeffares, Lusk, co. Dublin, Ireland; H. R. 
Clifton, Esq., Clifton Hall, Nottingham ; Rev. W. P. Magee, Beragh, Ireland ; 
Rev. Coleman Ivens, Boynton, Bridlington, Yorkshire ; Rev. W. F. Eustace, 
Bishop s Lydeard, Taunton ; Rev. A. S. Altham, Holy Trinity, Taunton, and 
Eustace B. Ford, Esq., 4 South Square, Gray s Inn, W.C. 

REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. J. A. Colbeck, of the diocese of Rangoon ; T. J. 
Cooper, of Grahamstown ; E. O. MacMahon, of Madagascar ; T. A. Young, of Montreal ; and 
A. W. F. Cooper, of Qn Apj>ell<>. 




THE MISSION FIELD. 



THE FIELD IS THE WORLD. THE SEED IS THE WORD OF GOD. 




DECEMBER 1, 1887. 



MADRAS. 

have lately received some interesting Reports 
from Madras. Among them the first in import 
ance is one relating to the Nandyal Training 
Institution, with which the hopes of the Telugu Missions 
are so closely bound. The foundation of this Institution was 
largely due to the munificence of J. Andrews, Esq., of the 
Madras Civil Service. Ifc will be remembered that these 
Missions in the northern part of the diocese of Madras 
have during the last few years shown a remarkable readiness 
to grow, or rather the people of the district have shown a 
greater readiness to receive Christian doctrine than the 
Mission staff has been able to meet. It was a case pre 
eminently for native workers, and too few have been found 
fit for such w r ork. 

Under these circumstances, the Training Institution is 
watched with great interest, not unmixed with anxiety, for 
its safe career. That fears cannot be absent are illustrated 
by the fact that during the absence of the Eev. A. Britten for 
six months last year, in consequence of the failure of his 
health, no little trouble arose from a bad spirit of mutual 
accusation springing up between the elder pupils and some of 
the masters. On his return, Mr. Britten found himself com- 

NO. CCCLXXXIV. p 



354 MADRAS. TOi ?,? 

pelled to part with two fairly good teachers. He writes fully 
on this matter, and says : 

"I have dwelt on this matter at some length because it has had 
results from which we are not yet free, and which may yet have a bad 
influence on the interests and progress of the Institution. I am sorry 
to say that charges were brought forward in March by some of the senior 
students against some of their own number charges which as usual 
were denied and answered by counter charges which were due to a 
certain extent to the bad feeling of w r hich I have spoken, but which 
without doubt showed a state of affairs among them with regard to 
their topics of conversation which was far from edifying. Discipline 
had to, be exercised, as nearly all the boys in the recently formed fifth 
class were concerned in the affair. I feared at one time that our progress 
would be checked, and that we must relinquish the class for this year. 
This necessity has been avoided for the time, but I may be forced at any 
moment to give up our progress for this year, and wait for the com 
mencement of the new year, when I hope we shall be able to form a 
class of boys of better character and more amenable to discipline than 
those who at present constitute our fifth class." 

The following account of the buildings has at least the 
happy element of balancing the description of their defects 
by showing that the number of students is growing. It 
appears to be about sixty : 

" The temporary church which, it may be remembered, was swept 
away by a flood last year was restored in April, and I had the pleasure 
of using it for the Easter festival just before leaving for England. The 
houses for the masters, school servants, &c., are in a very bad state, and 
will, I fear, require some expenditure of money upon them very soon. 
I have had to divert the house I built for a hospital for the boys from its 
original use, and it is now the boys refectory and dormitory. This 
change was rendered necessary by the large addition to our numbers 
last January. I can only hope that we shall not be troubled by any 
serious sickness among the boys which will cause us to regret the alteration. 
I have had to give up another room in the bungalow in consequence of 
the formation of the fifth class. The school now uses two rooms in the 
bungalow, affording accommodation to the theological class students, the 
fifth and upper fourth classes. The masters complain of insufficient 
accommodation of the school building in spite of the relief so afforded, 
but I can see no way of satisfying their complaint, which is certainly a 
reasonable one." 

Mr. Britten appends the following Keports of the School 
Department, the Junior Vernacular Department, and the 
Senior Vernacular Department : 

" I. SCHOOL DEPARTMENT. 

" The work in this department has gone on steadily, and a distinct 
step forward was taken in March by the establishment of a fifth class. 



TELUGU SCHOOLS. 855 

" In December we sent boys up for the Middle School examination 
the first time, the class having been established at the beginning of the 
year. The whole class seven in number was presented for examina 
tion, and five boys passed : one in the first class, three in the second, 
and one in the third class. This result was very gratifying, and credit is 
due to Mr. Ramanadhan for the extreme care and attention he bestowed 
upon the class. 

" The Deputy-Inspector of Schools examined the lower fourth and 
third classes for result grant in December. In the former four boys 
were presented and passed out of a class of nine, and in the latter, out of 
a class numbering twelve, six were presented and five passed. The 
grant earned by the school was slightty in excess of that of the previous 
year. With regard to these results, it must be said that they are not 
wholly satisfactory, but we cannot hope for better results until a great 
improvement takes place in the education obtained by the boys at the 
boarding schools at Mutyalapad and Kalsapad. Boys are sent to us here, 
especially from Mutyalapad, who are not capable of benefiting by the 
teaching given in the third class, and they almost invariably require to be 
retained in that class for two or more years. The possession or non- 
possession of ail Upper Primary certificate is no criterion of a boy s 
power at all, as the standard of excellence required by different deputy 
inspectors varies immensely. I am in a fair position to state this after 
examining the boys who join us from Mutyalapad and Kalsapad at the 
beginning of each year. It is my intention to draw the attention of the 
Missionaries in charge of Mutyalapad and Kalsapad to this before the 
commencement of the new year, and to ask them to exercise their own 
discretion as to the fitness of their boys coming on here with regard both 
to their age and capabilities. In many cases it appears certain that 
another year spent in the Primary school would be of immense ad 
vantage to the boys fortunate possessors though they may be of an 
Upper Primary certificate. 

" I cannot yet chronicle the going out to work of students from this 
department. The five who passed the Middle School examination have 
been formed into a fifth class, and are taught by Mr. H. Eamachendra 
Sastri, F.A. The class was sanctioned by the M.D.C. in February, and 
I was fortunate in obtaining Mr. Ramachendra s services without delay. 
He joined us from the head mastership of a local fund school in the 
Nizam s dominion, and began work on March 21. I had the advantage 
of knowing something of him before, as he was for a time head master 
of the Local Fund Normal School in Nandyal. I trust that we shall 
work satisfactorily together. Of the two boys who failed to pass, one 
will appear again this year, and the other, I am sorry to say, had to be 
sent to the General Hospital in Madras, and died there from consumption 
at the end of April. 

" Mr. B. Ramanadhan has charge again of the upper fourth class. 
We have only five boys in it this year. In consequence of Mr. B. Luke s 
removal.the lower, fourth class has been placed in charge of Mr. David 
Gnanapr^igasam Mr. Ramanadhan assisting him in one or two subjects. 

P 2 



356 MADRAS. ttStftfr 

I am glad to say that Mr. David succeeded in passing the matriculation 
examination by private reading last December. The third class is 
taught by Mr. David Gnanamuttu, who appeared for the matriculation 
examination for the second time at Vepery last December, but failed to 
pass. He is reading privately, and will, I trust, pass the examination in 
the coming December. 

" At the beginning of the year six boys from Mutyalapad, five from 
Kalsapad, and three from Kurnool Nandyal boarding schools joined the 
school department, and were placed in the third class. This is the first 
year in which the Kurnool Nandyal Mission Boarding School has sent 
boys in any number. Their coming was hardly contemplated at the 
time Mr. Billing drew up his minute concerning the Institution, and 
their reception, together with other causes, must shortly cause an 
increase in the number of scholarships afforded by the M.D.C. 

" On the whole the school department shows a fair amount of work. 
We cannot chronicle any triumphs save, perhaps, in the result of the 
Middle School examination but the signs of a slow and steady growth 
are not wanting. 

"II. JUNIOR VERNACULAR DEPARTMENT. 

" 1. The four youths who were reading in the theological class last 
year went out to work in their Mission districts in December. They 
were practically the first to go out from the Institution, as they were 
the first who had gone through the course of training we proposed for 
them. But I was by no means satisfied with them. Their examination 
showed one of two things, either they had been grossly careless and 
inattentive to their work, or the teaching was beyond their capabilities. 
Only one of the four passed in their examination, and he took a very 
bad place. Last year, as I have said, was the first in which our scheme 
was completed, and I have therefore decided to make no alteration this 
year, but to wait and see the result at the end of the year. But from 
examinations of the new class held already I am forced to the conclu 
sion that a complete change in this department will be necessary. I 
propose to consult Messrs. Inman and Shepherd on the subject if occasion 
should arise. Of the four who left us, two returned to Mutyalapad, and 
.two to Kalsapad, and are working in their respective districts. 

" 2. The six boys in the first year of their course were duly pre 
sented for examination in Telugu only, in December, and five of them 
passed the third class examination. They were drafted into my theo 
logical class at the beginning of the year. The boy who failed in the 
examination subsequently left, as he was not amenable to discipline. 
Six new scholars three from Mutyalapad and three from Kalsapad 
joined us in January, and are now reading Telugu together with the 
boys of the third class. 

" The whole strength of this department is as follows : 

" 1st year. Boys reading to pass the third class examination in 
December . . . . 6 boys 
" 2nd year. Boys reading in the theological class . 5 



1 SS.i.5r 1 . d ] NEGAPATAM. 357 

"III. SENIOR VERNACULAR DEPARTMENT. 

" 1. The three teachers from Kalsapad who were attending the 
Local Fund Normal School last year appeared for the special Upper 
Primary examination in December, and two passed in the first class. 
They returned to Mr. Inman, and are now working in his district. 

"2. The results of the examination one held by me in April, and 
one by Mr. Scott in November of the students in the theological class 
were very disappointing. One of the three teachers sent from Mutyalapad, 
after being with us from January to April, was dismissed from the 
Mission service by Mr. Shepherd on some old charge brought against him 
when he was acting as a village schoolmaster. He consequently left the 
Institution , and his place was not filled up by Mr. Shepherd. As a result 
we have only two teachers now reading for their training certificate in 
the Local Fund Normal School. Three young men, who have been in 
Mission service as teachers for some three or four years, joined my 
theological class in January. They came from the Kalsapad district. 

" I must conclude my report as usual with the old statement a 
statement I am getting tired of making. It is quite impossible for me to 
do justice to the various branches of the work of the Institution while it 
is my duty to go out into the district visiting the congregations for eight 
to ten days every month. Both the Mission work and the educational 
work are suffering greatly from this cause, and the M.D.C. must not look 
for satisfactory results in either branch of the work until assistance is 
afforded me." 

Negapatam is a Mission in the second or central group in 
this diocese, on the coast of the Tanjore Collectorate. The 
Missionary, the Kev. T. E. Darvall, has been recently trans 
ferred to this place from Tanjore. He writes : 

"Negapatam I found to be a port of some importance, having a 
population of some 5,300 souls. It is considerably more busy than 
Tanjore, though possessing a somewhat smaller number of inhabitants. 
The port owes its importance greatly to the coolie traffic between 
Negapatam and Penang and Rangoon. Week by week the steamers 
bring some hundreds to their native shores, and return with double the 
number to Penang or Rangoon. There is also a considerable rice and 
coasting trade done. But a factor which has done more than any other 
to bring prosperity to the place is the railway. This facilitates the outflow 
and inflow of traffic, carrying passengers and goods to and from the 
steamers. The workshops of the railway also play an important part in 
providing labour for many hundreds. And until lately the audit offices 
of the company gave employments to numerous clerks and writers. 
Besides the native, there is a fairly large East Indian population drawn 
hither by the workshops. 

" The district may be said to consist of the three Taluqs of Nega 
patam, Munilam, and Titrapundy, and extends about twenty miles to the 
north, twenty to the west, and thirty- six to the south. Here at present 



358 . HABEAS. [^g.T, ld 

there are but two congregations of native Christians, one in Negapatam 
itself, and the other in Poyur, a village five miles to the south. Formerly 
it was usual to divide two congregations into some six or more, i.e., the 
people living in the suburbs or adjacent villages were called a congre 
gation. But this I discontinued, because, as the people all come to the 
same church to worship, it seemed better to classify them as but one 
congregation. In addition to the two congregations above named, each 
having a church, there are a few families living in the larger villages. 
Thus at Titrapundy there are three native Christian families and two 
families and one single gentleman belonging to the English congrega 
tion. At Trivalure there is another small church of ten souls. And, 
lastly, at Yedamani there is yet another belonging to both English and 
native congregations. My work is divided between the English and 
native congregations, and each has to be ministered to severally." 

Mr. Darvall has to. minister to an English congregation 
here, and describes his work among them. Passing to the 
Mission work, he speaks of difficulties arising from the 
inveterate prejudices of caste, even among regular com 
municants : 

" When I took up my residence here I brought a young matri 
culate from Tanjore to be master of the A. V. School, and he was 
without the quality which makes a caste man. On the first Sunday, 
by chance or otherwise, I cannot say, he was said to communicate and 
sit wrongly. Caste is a matter I have taken no cognizance of, nor 
can I, and I noticed no irregularity. But not so the people ; they took 
it as a great offence, and withdrew themselves from the weekly Eu 
charist, and have since continued to do so, and a few faithful ones 
continue to attend. They also petitioned me on the matter. I was 
under the belief that the question would affect the people much less here 
than in Tanjore, for being a seaport town there is a much greater 
intercourse with the outside world ; but, on the contrary, caste holds a 
greater sway over the people here than in Tanjore. The marriage 
question is doubtless the cause of it, as I found it generally to be in 
Tanjore. But whatever the cause, it seems so powerfully to bind some, 
that were a choice to be made between their religion and caste, I verily 
believe that caste would find favour. "Without doubt caste has been a 
restraining influence among the Hindus. But where the law of Christ 
has come in, there caste is a great hindrance, if not positively mischievous, 
to the growth of the Christian life. It would seem in some cases that 
little progress has been made since the visitation of Bishop Wilson in 
1834-5, when he wrote so strongly against the whole system. I trust 
that with gentleness and persuasion we may lessen, if not entirely 
extinguish, the evil. I began to hope that we were improving in the 
matter, but the following disturbed me greatly. During my absence on 
leave last year, Mr. Blake kindly allowed Mr. Abraham to come from 
Tanjore to celebrate the Holy Communion. On the first Sunday, seeing 



"fiftlS? 1 ] A CATECHIST S BEPORT. 359 

the people were slow in coming to the altar rails, lie motioned to those 
opposite him to approach. They were non-caste people. Thereupon not 
a single caste person would draw near. This should not be, and little 
real growth can be expected while the evil lasts. Socially it is nothing 
to us, but in religion it must be rooted out. I pray God that He will 
make them see clearly how evil is this distinction of the children of the 
one Father. " 

Such things remind us how hard a task is the conversion 
of India. What a mass of hereditary conceptions incom 
patible with Christian teaching have to be met, not only to 
hinder the reception of the truth, but to mar its life and 
sully its purity in the believers. 

At Gengaikondan, in the Kamnad district, there is an 
itinerating catechist, named Paul Anthony, who sends some 
interesting notes of his work. Gengaikondan is a village 
thirteen miles north-west of Bamnad, and has about fifty 
villages within six miles of it : 

" On the 23rd August, 1886, I visited a village called Karuthanenthal 
where there are a few who willingly listen to what is preached to them. 
I spoke to them of the necessity of a mediator, and showed that Jesus 
Christ is the mediator who for us all gave up His life. The chief man 
among them said that some of them had gone to Eangooii, and were 
expected to be back here soon ; and as soon as they come, they could 
make arrangements to put themselves under instruction. 

" September 9th, 1880. The Mahomedans at Gengaikondan would 
not care to listen to the Gospel preaching very easily ; they acknow 
ledge the one true God, and accept many portions of Scripture history ; 
yet they could give only a pre-eminence to our Lord Christ among their 
acknowledged nabis or prophets, denying at the same time His Divinity 
and His only mediatorship for all mankind. 

" October 1st, 1886. The Hindus of Kamancotah have a curious ear 
to the Gospel. One among ten of them only would raise vain objections : 
such as, Has it not been in God s power to retain the whole mankind in 
their original purity? Why should He necessitate the Divine Incar 
nation, suffering, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ ? Such questions I 
answered in the following manner : The first man Adam had a free 
will, as we have, to be guided \>y himself, and was not a mere puppet to 
be easily energised by any, either by his friends or enemies ; he dis 
obeyed the Lord s command by giving heed to Satan s prying, vile 
advices, and thus brought upon himself the Divine wrath ; consequently, 
the wisdom, mercy, and justice of God contracted the salvation through 
the mediator Jesus, as it was pre-arranged by the Holy will of God, for 
the propitiation of the fallen man. To this reply of mine the Hindus 
again argued that, as God has revealed four Vedas in the world, and just 
as He permitted the Christians to behave themselves according to the 



360 MADBAS. R5.T3g? 

morals of the Bible, so He has allowed them (Hindus) to hold fast to their 
own creed, which is only a variation of the display of His Divine pleasure, 
and that each religionist has salvation through His creed. If Christianity 
be accompanied visibly with special prospects, it may be held in pre 
eminence ; but as it is obvious that it is not so, and as its members do not 
strictly keep the rules of Christianity, it can only be ranked among other 
religions in the world, which have equal defects on the part of their 
followers. To put an end to such discussions, I dwelt upon the magnifi 
cence of Christianity, explaining the theocratic rule and the Divine 
nature, justice, mercy, and wisdom ; then contrasting them with Hindu 
gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Sivan, and to their vedas, which contain 
inexplicable and irrational facts about those gods, citing at the same time, 
as far as I could remember, the Hindu authorities for my arguments from 
their books of Agastiar, Sivavakkiar, Sankarachariar, and Ovvai, that 
are made use of in the Christian publications, viz. : Test of Religion, 
Test of Hinduism, Principles of Morals, and the Bazaar Book ; and thus 
determined the exclusiveness of Christianity, and proved that there has 
been no other name than that of Jesus ordained by God as worthy of 
worship. 

" There are some among these Hindus \vho know how to read ; to 
them I distributed handbills and tracts. My frequent visits to such, 
though, for the present, they have not convinced them of the necessity 
of a Saviour, yet work in them to desist from employing any evil means 
for the frustration of Christian Evangelisation." 





DELHI. 

REPORT OF THE DELHI MISSION BY THE REV. R. R. WINTER, 

DATED MAY 6, 1887. THE CIIAMARS. THE CONVERTS* 

DANGERS. 

NOW propose writing to you on the state of the 
Church in the Delhi and South Punjab Mission, 
especially with reference to the poorer part of it, 
consisting mainly of people of Chamar origin, who form 
nearly the only portion of our people on any thing approach 
ing to an independent footing, distinct from the very large 
number of Christian mission agents and their families, and 
taking in this respect relatively to the rest of our work, some 
what the position of the Shanars and other low-caste 
Christians in the Madras diocese. I am led to write fully on 
this subject now because we are approaching a crisis which, 
while probably separating many from even a nominal connec 
tion with Christianity, will, I believe, leave the Church purer 
within, stronger to carry on her battle with the heathen 
forces around her, and a more attractive harbour of refuge to 
those who are wearied with the storms of selfish worldliness 
in which they live. These people are scattered over the eight 
Delhi city parishes and several villages in the districts of 
Delhi and Gurgaon ; some reaching 30 miles down the road 
to Agra, others chiefly gathered round the little town of 
Mahraoli, of which the neighbouring Kutab Minar is a greater 
source of interest to the very numerous visitors from England 
than the neighbouring inhabitants. 

The desire of some of these people, whether from bad or 
moderately good motives no one can tell, to attach themselves 
to Christianity dates back to the year following the mutiny. 
Some in the city itself had been taught even before the 



TWr TTT fMission Field, 

JJELHI. DPO. I. 18S7. 



L Dec. 1. 1887. 



outbreak, both by our catechists and the teachers of the 
Baptist Mission, and on Mr. Skelton s appointment to the 
Delhi Mission early in 1859, several were brought to him for 
instruction, and from him received baptism. To judge, 
however, by his own report for that year, he was not suffi 
ciently at home in the language to deal with them to his own 
satisfaction, and an enormously larger number from Delhi 
and the neighbouring little town of Shahdera, or " The 
King s Encampment," joined the Baptist Mission, which then 
had three active and experienced Missionaries on the spot. 
The movement went on with increasing force during the 
winter of 1860-61, owing, I think I may fairly say, on the 
analogy of similar movements in the south, to a very 
severe famine which was then raging, and the great amount 
of help organized for the starving poor by English liberality. 
So far as the baptismal register of those years bears witness, 
hardly any of these were admitted to our Church. There 
was then almost a complete lull in the movement, so far 
as large accessions to Christianity are an evidence, for 
several years, though our Missionary, the Eev. Lala Tarachand, 
at his own request was moved to a quarter of the city largely 
inhabited by these people, where a commodious house called 
the " Bangish-ka-kamra," once the habitation of an adven 
turous Frenchman, who had come here for, I believe, pur 
poses of trade, was rented for him ; there a room was fitted 
up as a chapel, in which services were held on week-days and 
Sunday evenings, and there seemed a fair prospect that quiet 
and steady work would be carried on among them, and also 
that Lala Tarachand s well known ability would attract the 
Musalmans and upper-caste Hindus of the neighbourhood to 
Christianity. During that period, from 1866 to 1874 inclu 
sive, some twenty-six of these heathen workers and day- 
labourers were baptized. Looking back on those times, the 
same source of weakness presents itself as that with which we 
tire now battling ; that is to say, the men joined us and the 
Baptists, but in hardly any cases were they followed by their 
wives and children. It is surprising that all should have 
been blind to the ill effects of this ; but speaking for myself, 



M De 9 c.?, S?. dl ] YOXED WITH UNBELIEVERS. 363 

both then and in subsequent } T ears, I do not think wo suffi 
ciently grasped the enormous difference of life and social 
customs between these people and high-caste converts : in the 
latter case, the history of all Indian Missions told us two 
things, either that the wife, after a few years of opposition, 
joined her husband and was baptized, or that if she did not 
become a Christian she had no influence in entrammelling 
him again in heathen customs. This led us to suppose that 
eventually the heathen Chamar wife and children would 
accept her husband s faith ; but what do we see ? Hundreds 
of men baptized, but their wives continue heathen and do not, 
as the wives of high-caste converts, go to their own relatives, 
but continue to live with the Christian husband, dragging 
him back, keeping back her children, betrothing and marrying 
them to heathen boys and girls, thus the baptized husband is 
left a solitary Christian unit in the midst of a heathen family, 
and while he needs all possible internal and external help 
for his own still only embryo faith, he is hindered in his 
religious life by his own most intimate surroundings. The 
men themselves helped to maintain this supposed analogy to 
high-caste converts ; for when, in the subsequent movements 
of these people to Christianity, I asked them " Where the 
women were and why they did not come forward?" the 
invariable reply was and would be now if we chose to accept 
it " Oh, they will follow us ; where we are, there they are; 
they are more ignorant than we ; have patience, and they 
will come too." I believe that this was a piece of self- 
delusion, and that the men never made any effort, except in 
very feAv cases, to influence the women at all. They were 
quite glad for themselves to receive some of the benefits of 
Christianity ; to get help from the generosity of the Mis 
sionaries or by their influence, and to get a little "kudos" 
by belonging to the religion of the Government, and at the 
same time to keep up their connection with the old caste or 
brotherhood by means of their wives, and thus to walk, as is 
said of other men 

One foot on sea and one on shore, 
To one thin consent never. 



M SlS d ] CHRISTIANITY AS A " PANTH." 365 

There is another point which led to the possibility of their 
doing this with less conscious insincerity than appears on the 
surface, and that is, they looked on Christianity merely as 
what they call a " panth," a path of religion, and not as a 
brotherhood : they have many of these non-Christian " panths " 
or sects, followers of Kabir, of Earn Das, of Nanak the 
founder of the Sikhs, and others; these they can follow 
without bringing their women and children, they can believe 
in them without being outcastes, and their faith in no way 
interferes with domestic and social customs connected with 
idolatry. If such were some of the hindrances to a clear 
understanding of the matter on our part, their weakness also 
arose from being exclusively taught the truths of the Gospel 
which concern their personal salvation, to the omission of 
the Gospel truth of the Catholic Church which concerns daily 
feeding, growth in life and in union with the members of the 
body of Christ. 

I will now return to the historical account of the growth 
of this part of our congregation. Several catechists had been 
working steadily among them, and notably one whose name 
must not be omitted by the few who remember the working of 
our Mission in those past years Babu Hira Lai. Gradually 
more of them, from the year 1873 and onwards, began to be 
drawn again towards, if not the Church, at any rate to some 
parts of the Christian faith ; a few were baptized and left, as 
had always been the custom in the Delhi Mission, mainly in 
their own old quarters, This, with the growth of branch 
schools for Hindu and Musalman boys, and petty schools for 
Chamars, led to that formation of the parish system, if so it 
may be called, which forms a distinctive feature of the Delhi 
Mission, by means of which a catechist and subordinate agents 
are made responsible for certain parts of the work among 
both Christians and non- Christians in each city district a 
system which might be worked more among the upper classes 
than is at present the case. The Chamars were very effec 
tually brought under instruction at that time, by not only 
the regular and zealous teaching of the catechists, but by the 
day-schools for boys and evening classes for young men, in 



366 DELHI. [^lS d 

all of which these fickle people then showed a much greater 
interest than they do now ; a change brought about I think 
partly by their changeable disposition and partly from an 
idea that their boys would all grow into Munshis and teachers 
on substantial monthly salaries ; one of those lofty hopes 
which are so often doomed to disappointment by the fact 
that many would-be teachers turn out stupid, and most of 
their hoped-for pupils unwilling to submit to the drudgery of 
learning. 

All this, however, served to prepare the way for the 
tendency towards Christianity, which again came over them 
in 1877-78 and the beginning of 1879, again in conjunction 
with the distress of severe scarcity, though this time only little 
was done in the way of help to the people. In these years, 
considerable numbers were baptized from nearly all the city 
districts and several neighbouring villages, the people again 
promising that their wives and children should follow, and 
again failing to fulfil their promises. These were by far the 
largest accessions to the Church of England we have had, and 
the result has been by far the most unsatisfactory, many of 
them keeping up or forming heathen betrothals and marriages, 
and many utterly failing to perform even the minimum of 
Christian duties, and in spite of warnings and their own 
professions at the time, neglecting to have their children 
baptized or their wives taught. The clergy and more thought 
ful members of the Church have now come to the conclusion 
that something must be done of a deeper and more general 
character than bringing Church discipline to bear on a few 
overt offenders here and there, and that the Church, if she is 
to be a living body at all, must either make her nominal 
members conform to her rules, or she must put them out of 
her communion till they repent and come back. At the last 
meeting of the Church Council the subject was brought under 
discussion ; this is a body consisting of the leading Christians 
in each of the city or country districts, and the mission clergy ; 
the senior of these is cx-officio President, unless the Bishop is. 
present. The Secretary for some years past has been Pandit 
Janki Nath, head master of St. Stephen s High School. We 



M j?ec i0 ?, fS 3 ] SACRIFICE TO DEVILS AND NOT TO GOD. 367 

then determined to bring the people together in their various 
centres, and get them to form a decision for themselves as to 
what things were utterly inadmissible in Christians, such as, 
notably, any ceremonies bordering on idolatry and the forma 
tion of heathen betrothals and marriages. When these have 
all been held, we propose to hold a panchayat of the whole 
body of Christians in both the city and country districts, and 
this assembly will be called upon to decide what is to be 
absolutely forbidden. Those who then elect to be firm in 
their faith will be recognised as Christians, and kept on the 
roll of the members of the Church ; those who do not, will 
be given a limit of time within which to form a decision. If 
at the end of that they continue in their present state of 
indifference, their names will be removed from the roll, and 
they will only be re-admitted to the Church on our own 
terms and after a public confession before the congregation. 
This of course does not apply to all, as there are many who 
are already steadfast ; and if our proceedings are conducted in 
the spirit of Christian wisdom and equity, I believe that a few 
of the present careless ones will be drawn into closer Christian 
fellowship, and that the Church will be immensely lightened 
by the removal of the rest. 

We had a full Church on Easter Day, preceded by the 
baptism of seven children and one adult on the Eve. The 
first celebration was at 6.30 A.M., followed by the general 
service, and second celebration at 7.30; there were in all 
117 communicants, and the offertories, amounting to Es. 155, 
were for the site for the Church which the congregation at 
Ajmere desire to build : we felt it was a specially fitting 
time to show this mark of sympathy to our old colleague, 
Lala Tarachand, whose transfer to Ajmere,* after considerable 
controversy and discussion, was effected last November, with 
the full and hearty concurrence of the Metropolitan, the 
Bishop of Lahore, the congregation of Ajmere, and our own 
Mission Council. 

The total amount of the offertories in St. Stephen s during 
1886 was Ks. 1,186, but it must be remembered that this 

* Diocese of Calcutta. 



QAQ TlTT T TTT [Mission Field 

ODD JJELHI. L Dec. i. 1887. 

includes the offerings of the clergy and Zanana Missionaries. 
It is a fair mark of life that 31 adults were baptized last 
year in spite of so much that is otherwise depressing and 
retrograde. Another encouraging fact also has taken place 
during the present year. Two years ago a young Christian 
w r as excommunicated on account of persistence in a heathen 
marriage, after earnest warnings from the Missionary of 
his district. Now he has, through God s grace, consented 
to live apart from his so-called wife. She was put under 
instruction and was baptized in Church, and we are now 
only waiting for the Bishop s formal consent to the 
removal of the sentence, that the young man may be re 
admitted to Christ s Church, and married. We most earnestly 
pray that this may be the beginning of the return of other 
backsliders. 





THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE COLONIAL 
EPISCOPATE. 

AN ADDRESS DELIVERED IN THE CHAPEL OF S. ANDREW S COLLEGE, 
GRAHAMSTOWN, BY THE YEN. H. MASTER WHITE, ARCHDEACON OF 
GRAHAMSTOWN, ON SUNDAY, AUGUST 14, 1887. 

BEQUEST was made by the Provincial Synod of Canada 
last year to the Archbishops of England and Ireland, to the 
Primus of Scotland, and to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to join them in making 
arrangements for holding throughout the British Empire a commemora 
tion of the completion of the first century of the Colonial Episcopate 
the first Colonial Bishop, Bishop Inglis of Nova Scotia, having been 
consecrated on the 12th of August, 1787. The Society heartily welcomed 
the proposal, and asked the Bishops both in England and the Colonial 
Dependencies of the Empire to take part in this commemoration, at the 
same time representing to them " that if the offertory collections made 
on the occasion were given to the Society s Treasury, they would be a 
welcome and appropriate recognition of the feelings known to be 
entertained towards the Society by members of the Colonial Churches." 
Your offerings are accordingly asked to-day for that venerable Society, 
to which the Church in this land is so deeply indebted for liberal aid as 
regards the support both of those Clergy who minister to the Colonists, 
and of those who have gone forth to carry to the heathen around us the 
Word of Life. And I wish to point out that it is to the zeal and faithful 
ness of this Society in past years, that the event which we now desire to 
hold in thankful remembrance, the consecration of the first Colonial 
Bishop, was mainly due. 

If you ask, How does the consecration of a Bishop 100 years ago to 
preside over the Church in a distant corner of the earth affect us ? What 
have we to be thankful for in that event ? we may say that it is one of 
the important links in the chain by which the spiritual blessings we now 
enjoy have come down to us ; or, to put it in another way, that it was 
the breaking of a chain of evil custom by which the growth of the English 
Church was cramped and confined. 

At the time of the Keformation, Calais was the only foreign possession 
of the English Crown, and there was no need to consider the work of the 
Church beyond the British Isles. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
English ships visited all parts of the ocean, and a few unsuccessful 
attempts at colonisation were made. After the year 1GOO settlements 



370 THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE ["iS f.SK 4 

were made in different parts of America, and the question, What was to 
be done for the religious instruction of those who had left their native 
country ? began to attract attention. The first settlers were not careless 
about religion, but they could offer few inducements to Clergy to come 
out and labour among them, and few went out. Among them were some 
noble and devoted men, such as John Elliot, the Apostle of the Indians 
as he was called ; others brought no credit to their profession, and did 
little or nothing to advance the cause of Christ. But, good or bad, they 
all had to come out from England by a voyage which was then long and 
dangerous ; and this in itself was a great obstacle to the increase of their 
number. The Church of England, in agreement with the Universal 
Church of old, knows no other way of calling and sending Ministers into 
the Lord s vineyard except by the hands of a Bishop ; the Ordination 
services require the presence of a Bishop as the chief agent in the service ; 
without a Bishop there is no ordination. But in the colonies or planta 
tions there was no Bishop to superintend and direct the work of the 
Church, to ordain Priests and Deacons, to administer the rite of confirma 
tion, to maintain order and discipline throughout the body. As time 
went on, Churchmen felt the need of the Bishop s presence among them, 
and asked to have the want supplied. It was quite natural at first that 
Clergy should come from England, but in the course of years the difficulty 
was felt, that however well qualified a Colonist might be for the spiritual 
work of the Ministry, by learning, by disposition, by piety and zeal, it 
was impossible for him to be admitted to holy orders unless he would 
incur the dangers and the expense of the voyage to England, and sue for 
ordination at the hands of an English Bishop. It is obvious that this 
was a great discouragement to those who were desirous of giving them 
selves to the work of the Ministry ; few of them had the means or the 
courage to encounter a long separation from their friends and home, with 
an uncertainty whether, after all the sacrifice, they would be able to attain 
the object of their desire. Churchmen in America entreated the autho 
rities at home that a Bishop might be sent out to them. They pointed 
out how much the Church was suffering from the want of a Bishop. 
" The Church is daily languishing for want of Bishops." " Some that 
were born of the English have never heard the name of Christ, and many 
others who were baptized into His name have fallen away to heathenism, 
quakerism, and atheism for want of confirmation." "Last year (1705) 
there went out bachelors of arts near twenty young men from the 
College, all or most of whom would gladly have accepted episcopal ordi 
nation if we had been so happy as to have had a Bishop in America from 
whom they might have received it, but being discouraged at the trouble 
and charge of corning to England, they accepted of authorities from the 
Dissenting ministers and were all dispersed in that way." * It does seem 
strange that such petitions were made in vain for so long a period. The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel supported the petitions. 
Archbishops and Bishops pressed them upon the attention of Govern 
ment. Sometimes the point seemed gained. Lord Clarendon prevailed 

* S.P.G.MSS., quoted in Bishop Wilberforce s "Historj r of the American Church," pp. 14C, 147. 



Mission Field,"! 
Dec. l, 16S7. J 



COLONIAL EPISCOPATE. 



371 



upon Charles II. to appoint a Bishop of Virginia. Letters Patent were 
made out appointing Dr. Murray; a change of ministry put an end 
to the scheme. In the time of William III. Dissenters in America 
strongly objected to the sending out Bishops, and the Court listened to 
them. In Queen Anne s time the Society again pressed the question, 




BISHOP IXGLIS. 



and raised subscriptions for the endowment of the Sees. It was arranged 
that four Bishoprics should be founded at once, when the death of 
the Queen and the accession of George I. disappointed their hopes. 
Still, in spite of hopes deferred making the heart sick, the struggle was 
carried on by men who had a real care for religion. The Church 
of England was supported by State authority, Dissenters from the 



372 THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE 

Established Church were kept under heavy disabilities in civil matters, 
and yet the Government thwarted continually the efforts of Churchmen to 
impart to their brethren abroad that perfect form of Church Govern 
ment which was deemed essential at home. As long as the States of 
America remained subject to the British Crown the English Govern- 
rnent and Parliament refused to permit the English Bishops to conse 
crate Bishops for America. It was only after a long war had ter 
minated in the independence of the United States, and the American 
Church had obtained the gift of the Episcopate from the persecuted 
Church of Scotland, that the English Parliament consented to allow 
Bishops for the United States to be consecrated in England. Yet even 
then Parliament laid down the condition that neither the Bishops so 
consecrated, nor the Ministers hereafter ordained by them, should 
officiate in England.* Even within my own memory the only way by 
which an American Clergyman could legally take service or prefer 
ment in England was by obtaining a private Act of Parliament to enable 
him to do so. 

In February 1787, two American Bishops were consecrated at 
Lambeth; on August 12th in the same year Dr. Inglis was conse 
crated Bishop of Nova Scotia the first Colonial Bishop of the English 
Church. That day marks an epoch in the life of the English Church ; 
it marks a victory of religious principle over worldly prejudice and 
lukewarmness. It is easy to understand why those who disliked the 
English Church, and wished for her destruction, who said, " Down with 
it, down with it, even to the ground !" opposed by all the means in 
their power the formation of Colonial Bishoprics ; it is not so easy to 
discover the reasons which induced the great body of professing 
Churchmen to join in such opposition, or to be indifferent to such a 
proposal. One was probably a suspicion and dislike of change. Men 
would say, " Colonies have done well enough without Bishops ever since 
they were founded, why should they want them now ? " and the longer 
this benefit was denied them, the stronger this argument became. 
They did not care to look into the question whether the Colonial 
Churches were really doing well without Bishops ; they were deaf to the 
complaints made by the few Churchmen abroad as to their want of 
spiritual instruction. People are very patient of evils w r hich do not touch 
themselves. Others, again, thought much of the dignity and political 
position attached to the office of a Bishop in England, and feared that 
the office itself would be degraded if Bishops were made in places where 
it was impossible to surround them with the same external marks of 
honour; as if the value of Bishops depended, like that of jewels, upon 
their rarity and splendour rather than upon the work that they should 
perform in the service of Christ. Men can always find reasons against 

* Act 26, George III., c. 84, s. iii. : Provided also, and be it hereby declared, That no person 
or persons consecrated to the office of a Bishop in the manner aforesaid, ncr any person or 
persons deriving their consecration from and under any Bishop so consecrated, nor any person 
or persons admitted to the order of Deacon or Priest by any Bishop or Bishops so consecrated, 
or by the succesors or successors of any Bishop or Bishops so consecrated, shall be thei eby enabled 
to exercise his or their respective office or offices within His Majesty s dominions. 



M Dec io ",S d ] COLONIAL EPISCOPATE. 373 

doing what they do not wish to do. " The slothful man saith, There is 
a lion in the way, I shall be slain in the streets." Earnest Churchmen 
both in England and in the Colonies were striving against hope through 
many disappointments to gain for the Colonial Churches what they well 
knew to be essential for their welfare, a form of Church government 
practically, and not merely in name, episcopal ; for they were well-assured 
that such a form was Primitive, Apostolical, Scriptural. But earnest 
Churchmen were a minority, and it was very long before they could 
prevail against custom, against prejudice, against worldly feeling. But 
the consecration of the first Colonial Bishop marked their hard-won 
victory. Not that the victory was complete. The Church was slow in 
trusting her own principles in this question, and the State was slower 
still in allowing her to move, though it professed to cherish and protect 
the Establishment, as it was generally called. In fifty years, up to the 
time of the accession of Queen Victoria, only eight Colonial Bishoprics 
were founded ; then the mind of the Church was stirred again, and a 
fresh start was made. In the last fifty years the number of Colonial and 
Missionary Bishoprics has increased from 8 to 75 ; the number of 
Clergy working under them from a few hundred to nearly 4,000 ; and 
the practical effect of the principle has convinced Churchmen generally 
of its importance. * There is very much yet to be done the claims of 
our countrymen, of our colonists, of the heathen, upon the ministrations 
and guidance of the Church are felt to be greater now than at any past 
time of our history. We might be tempted to despair when we consider 
the greatness of the work that lies before us, and the strength of the 
forces that oppose that work heathenism, infidelity, worldliness, selfish 
ness, and immorality. But " this is the victory which overcometh the 
world even our faith." Victory is promised, but not an easy victory, to 
the faithful. " Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown 
of life." When we look back upon the advance made in the last 100 
years, we may indeed " thank God and take courage." 

* The American Church, which was persecuted, crushed, and nearly destroyed in the War of 
Independence, now numbers 71 Bishops and 3,689 other Clergy. 





SASKATCHEWAN. 

|N October the Mission Field contained a map of the 
Dioceses of the North-West, and showed the 
division of the Diocese of Saskatchewan into two 
parts, which must for the present be under the jurisdiction of 
the same Bishop. Bishop Pinkham has fixed his residence at 
Calgary, the chief town of the western of the two Dioceses. 
He writes from that place, on October 3, a letter, in which 
he speaks of the beginnings of absolute financial self- 
support at Calgary, about which he had written before, and 
many other matters of great interest : 

" I am quite sure the Society will be glad to know that our congre 
gation in this important town has at length entered upon a career of 
self-dependence. I had the privilege and pleasure yesterday of inducting 
the Rev. A. W. F. Cooper, M.A., formerly Rector of Glenealy, in the 
Diocese of Dublin, and more recently S.P.G-. Missionary in the Diocese of 
Qu Appelle, Rector of the Church of the Redeemer here. Rev. E. Paske 
Smith, S.P.G. Missionary here for the past few years, who formed the 
congregation, and to whose untiring exertions the building of the beautiful 
church here, which you will be glad to know is entirely free of debt, are 
due, will now minister to the settlers in the vicinity of Calgary, among 
whom he has hitherto spent as much time as possible. His knowledge of 
the country and of the people will greatly enhance the value of his minis 
trations. Calgary itself has a population of about 2,500, and is growing 
rapidly. Our people constitute the largest and most influential religious 
body. We have crowded congregations and a very hearty service. No 
doubt the enlargement of the church and the formation of another con 
gregation will soon be pressing duties. 

" As you are already aware, I have decided to reside here. I expect 
to bring my family from Winnipeg sometime next summer. 

" On Sunday, September 25, I held my first ordination here, when 
Mr. H. W. Gibbon-Stochen, of the Blackfoot Reserve, Gleichen, was 
admitted to the diaconate, and Rev. R. Hilton, your Missionary at 
Macleod, was ordained priest. The event was for me, and I believe for 
all taking part in it, a most solemn and impressive one. The candidates 
were presented by my examining chaplain, Rev. E. P. Smith, M.A. The 
preacher was Rev. J. W. Tims, C.M.S. Missionary to the Blackfoot Indians. 



M iS,S^] THE SURCEES. 375 

" Sunday, September 18, was spent at Banff and Anthracite, places I 
gave you a full account of last June. On the preceding evening I pre 
sided over a meeting of Church people at Banff, when churchwardens 
and vestrymen were appointed. Archdeacon George McKay, who was 
with me, and who is to accompany me to Edmonton, Fort Pitt, and other 
places down to Prince Albert, has spent the last two Sundays there. 
Undoubtedly a resident clergyman for Banff, who would extend his 
ministrations to Anthracite, is a pressing necessity. I hope the Society s 
funds will soon admit of a special grant being made for the support of a 
clergyman at Banff, and that I may soon get a thoroughly good and 
suitable man for it. 

" My visit to Battleford during the latter end of August was a most 
encouraging one. I confirmed eighteen persons and consecrated the 
Church there. Your Missionary, Rev. J. F. Pritchard, is a most faithful 
and earnest man, and he is being ably and heartily supported by the 
members of his congregation. Excellent congregations and hearty services 
characterised the two delightful Sundays spent at Battleford, and with 
the kindness of the people and the opportunities of visiting the Indian 
Reserves and the one white settlement that I enjoyed on week-days, 
amply compensated for the weariness of the 400 miles of prairie travel 
that constitutes the journey from Swift Current, the nearest railway 
station to Battleford, and return. 

" Last Wednesday I visited the Surcee Reserve, about nine miles from 
here ; Archdeacon George McKay and Rev. Messrs. Smith and Tims 
accompanied me. Your Missionary among the Surcees is Rev. R. Inkster ; 
he is a native of the North-West; he does not know the Surcee language, 
and does not think he can learn it. He speaks Cree very well indeed, 
and, as most of the Surcees know the Cree language, they understand him 
pretty well. They appear to respect and like him, but he seems to wish 
to be among his own people. We had a most interesting interview with 
the chief and some of his tribe. My address to them was interpreted by 
Archdeacon McKay, who afterwards addressed them in Cree, and was 
followed by Rev. J. W. Tims, who spake in Blackfoot. 

" Great as the work among our own people is, I long to do all I can 
for the Indians. I wish S.P.G. to continue to support a Missionary to the 
Surcees, and what I would like would be to find a European Missionary, 
full of fire and enthusiasm, who, having himself tasted that the Lord is 
gracious, will count it an honour and a privilege to try to lift up these 
poor people, and to devote himself to the study of their language, as 
Mr. Tims, of the C.M.S., has studied and mastered the Blackfoot language 
so that he might tell them in their own tongue the blessings God has for 
them. I hope next winter to give you a full acount of the Surcees. 

" I leave for Edmonton to-morrow, and go thence to Fort Pitt, 
Asisippi, and Prince Albert, reaching my home in Winnipeg, if it pleases 
God, before Christmas. Thus I have before me a journey of about eleven 
hundred miles over the prairie ! We shall camp out every night we are 
travelling, and perform such services and administrations as our oppor 
tunities afford and as may be required." 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

IN July last, the attention of the Society was called to the 
ruinous condition of the tomb of ROBERT NELSON in the 
disused burying-ground of S. George the Martyr, Bloomsbury. 
The burial ground is now in a very neglected state, but is 
about to be turned into a recreation ground by the good offices 
of the Kyrle Society, who have kindly promised to guarantee 
its preservation, if the tomb is restored and repaired. Mr. 
Butterfield has been so good as to examine the monument, 
and reports that 60 will put it into a thoroughly good con 
dition, and about 10 more will be required to surround it 
with a suitable railing. The Society has allowed its office to 
be used for the receipt of donations towards the restoration 
of this famous layman s monument, and the Society for Pro 
moting Christian Knowledge has granted a similar permission. 
Of the latter Society Robert Nelson was one of the founders, 
and he was elected an incorporated member of the S.P.G, at 
one of the earliest meetings held after its Incorporation in 
1701. The donations at present received do not exceed 14, 
but it is felt that the restoration of the tomb of the author of 
the " Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Church of 
England," of " The Practice of True Devotion," and of " The 
great Duty of frequenting the Christian Sacrifice," is an 
undertaking which the members of the Church of England 
and especially the laity will not permit to languish for the 
lack of 70. 

NORTH Queensland is a diocese where opportunities are 
seized promptly. Its Bishop, writing in a hurry on 
September 7, says : 

" I have just returned, after a journey in the saddle over six hundred 
miles to the the new gold rush at Croydon, in the Gulf country. Now I 
am starting for the Hughenclen and Flinders country. That gold rush at 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 377 

Croydon would amaze and amuse 3^011. Last year there was only a quiet 
cattle station, where to-day some 7,000 people are gathered. The scene 
resembles a big country fair. The erections are canvas tents, or rude 
iron huts. It is a reefing and not alluvial field ; so dynamite explosions 
are perpetual, as sinking is going on at about 1,500 claims. People of all 
classes are there, come from all parts of Australia. I have secured land 
for a church ; have collected a stipend (850) and started a building fund ; 
and sent the Eev. "W. A. Turner there. So I have rushed the place for 
the church without loss of time. Here all depends upon being first in 
the field." 



TT 



NDEK the title of "The Island Missionary of the 
V_J Bahamas " the Bishop of Nassau has published a 
small volume of admirable pastoral addresses, intended chiefly 
for ordinands. The courage and charity of his statements will 
be acknowledged by all readers of this book. On some sub 
jects he takes a very decided line, but it will not be those 
only who agree with him who will appreciate what he says. 

He refers here and there to local peculiarities in the work 
of the clergy : 

" In the Bahamas, as in every mission field in the wide world, we 
have got the old curse of Babel against us to some extent. English is the 
language universally spoken. Yes ; but broken and fragmentary English 
for the most part ; and besides, the Bab el -confusion was not merely 
linguistic, it made men think differently, as well as speak. That was 
why S. Paul wrote, I would that ye all spake with tongues, but rather 
that ye prophesied : for he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edi 
fication, and exhortation, and comfort. " 

Again, speaking of the difficulties of the work of the 
clergy, he says : 

" Our clergy are Rectors perhaps of six or more churches, and may 
have a dozen settlements to shepherd, and may be divided from some of 
these by thirty miles or more of ocean. Small sailing boats, with or with 
out protection from sun and rain, are their best and only conveyance 
from place to place ; their visits may thus be shortened or lengthened in 
definitely by the freaks of winds constantly shifting ; and their condition 
after a tedious voyage may be such as to demand rest rather than strenuous 
exertion." 



BOUND copies of the Mission Field for the year 1887 can 
be obtained for three shillings apiece, or cases for 
binding the twelve numbers for eightpence. 



378 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M D?Ti,S d 

THE volume of the Gospel Missionary for 1887 is now 
ready. It may be bought in a stiff illustrated cover 
for ninepence, and separate covers for binding may be had 
for twopence. It contains ninety-six pages, with numerous 
illustrations, and forms an attractive Sunday School Prize or 
Christmas Gift. 

IT may be as well to repeat briefly our statement as to the 
changes to be made in the Mission Field next month. 
It will be increased both in the size and number of its pages, 
and will contain a greater variety of maps and illustrations. 
The pages will be the size of the larger magazines, such as 
the Nineteenth Century, and each number will contain 40 
instead of 32 pages as at present. With a view to encouraging 
parochial or local circulation, the Society will continue the 
liberal scale of reduced charges which was begun a year ago 
with fair success. Where not fewer than twenty copies are 
taken, they will be supplied at half-price and post free, the year 
being paid for in advance. Thus for 1, twenty copies of the 
Mission Field will be sent each month for the year. Any 
number above twenty may be ordered. We have been cheered 
by numerous letters on this subject, and by the number of 
monthly parcels already ordered for the year. 



GOOD work, we are glad to learn from the Bishop of 
Jamaica, is still being done on the Isthmus of Panama, 
although it is surrounded by peculiar difficulties. His lord 
ship forwards reports from the Eev. E. B. Key, who states 
that the church for Bas-0-Bispo has so far progressed that a 
meeting has been held in it, and it is hoped to be ready very 
soon for consecration. The cost has been locally met, leaving 
only a deficit of 21. Mr. Key adds that there are numerous 
places in Central America where the ministrations of the 
Church are needed. 



A 



T the meeting of the Mauritius Diocesan Committee 
held on August 22, reference was made to the death 



BStUSH NOTES OF THE MONTH. 379 

of the Rev. A. Alphonse. The following is entered on the 

Minutes : 

" The Secretary wished to record the loss that had fallen on the S.P.G. 
Mission work here generally, and in the Telugoo branch of it in particular, 
by the death of his fellow- worker, the Eev. A. Alphonse, who died on 
May 27. He was ordained in June 1879, after having approved himself 
as a successful catechist for many years. It was hoped that a long 
career of usefulness was before him, but he has passed to his rest at the 
early age of forty-four ; not, however, without leaving behind him the 
fruit of his work as an evangelist to his countrymen. 

" The Committee beg the Secretary to express to his widow their 
appreciation of his services, and their sympathy with his family in their 
bereavement." 

ON the 28th of October the Bishop of Manchester presided 
at the Annual Meeting of the Society s friends in that 
city. His lordship in his address referred to his own colonial 
experience of the value of the Society s work abroad, and 
pleaded strongly for the Society. He said he could give good 
reasons for the support of the Society from its Colonial work, 
apart from its successful Missions to the heathen : 

" To the colonists, who had for the most part to contend anxiously for 
a bare material existence, the grants of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel were a veritable gift from heaven, for they helped to sustain 
the failing spirit of devotion, and they helped to raise the ethical standard 
and the social tone of whole communities, and prepared the way for that 
organisation of churches, which was the colonist s best and brightest hope." 

The Bishop went on to speak of the alleged failure of 
Christian Missions : 

" It had been said by a certain Canon that our Missions had made 
but little or no impression on the higher races of Hindus and Mahome 
tans. He would admit that some of their best Missionaries seemed to 
be discouraged by the results of work in the North of India. With 
regard to the South of India, everyone admitted the great success that 
had been obtained. And with respect to the North, if they looked 
closely at the facts, they would see reason to suspend their judgment. 
Christian Missions exercised a vast amount of indirect influence for 
good. For instance, there were the Mission schools, superintended by 
Christians, but employing also Hindu and Mahometan teachers. 
These were leavening the whole country. Mahometans often expressed 
their wonder at the higher moral tone of those children who were 
educated in the Mission schools. Again, there were the hospitals 
founded and managed by Christian people. Very often the ex -patients 
were becoming ministers of the Gospel of Love, and they had even carried 



Field, 

1887. 



380 NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

the news of Salvation into the heart of Afghanistan. The results of these 
indirect agencies could not be tabulated, and he ventured to say that, if 
they had patient perseverance, and continued to employ these means year 
by year, the time would come when the result would be of a perfectly 
miraculous character. There was far less heart and power in Hinduism 
now than formerly. It must also be remembered that the conversion of 
an Indian to Mahometanism was a widely different thing from his con 
version to Christianity. A Christian Missionary did not baptize a man 
until he had been proved and exhibited signs of faith, but a man had only 
to say, There is but one Allah, and Mahomet is his prophet, in order to 
pass and to be claimed as a Mahometan." 



AFTEE referring in high terms to the new Dean of 
Grahamstown s work in the diocese of Bloemfontein, 
which he has just left, Bishop Knight-Bruce thus speaks of 
his successor in the Archdeaconry of Bloemfontein, Canon 
Crisp : 

" It would be hard to find one more fitted to be Archdeacon of such a 
diocese. While at Thaba Nchu, the friend of the Chief and the Shepherd 
of his people, he made the Mission into what it became. Recognised as 
the Sechuana scholar beyond the limits of this country or the readers of 
this paper, his knowledge of the customs of the people and the affairs of 
the diocese, combined with a peculiar power of travelling, seems to supply 
all that can be needed ; while to his own two congregations as Vicar of 
Bloemfontein, the culture of the English gentleman will be as commend 
able to the European as his power of dealing with a native town will be to 
the Sechuana element." 

THE Bishop of Bloemfontein, presiding at a meeting held 
for the purpose of setting on foot Missionary work 
among the natives employed in various ways in connection 
with the Kimberley mines, enlarged on the obligation there 
was on the Church to exert herself for these people : 

" As Kimberley is unique in energy and enterprise in South Africa, so 
It is unique in its possibilities for doing harm. A meeting was held at 
Shoshong lately, it is said of all the Christians, to consider whether they 
should forbid any Christian going to the Diamond Fields. The Kimberley 
Hospital is an instance of the effect which can be produced for good, far 
away to the North even, it is said, to the Zambesi. It is to me no 
argument to say that, as the natives are paid for their work they must 
risk the evil. If we do not leave them in their native simplicity, and if 
we bring new elements into the life of South Africa, at least we are bound 
to see that, at any rate, no more harm than good is done to those with 
whom we come into contact. Mission work must necessarily be impeded 



^Ct-&8M NOTES OF THE MONTH. 381 

if the great Christian town, to which so many come, teaches little but 
evil to those who come to it. One much interested in. South Africa has 
asked : What is the use of sending Missionaries to other countries while 
the large number of natives now at Kimberley are all ready to our hand 
to be taught ? and though it may be undoubtedly right to press Mission 
work further on, yet there is much truth in what has been said. Every 
soul who goes from the Diamond Fields back to his native land goes 
back as a Missionary for good or for evil." 



WITH the sermon preached by the Bishop of Oxford in 
his Cathedral is now completed a trilogy of printed 
Centenary Sermons, published by the Society. The others 
the eloquent Anniversary Sermon of the Bishop of Iowa, and 
the grand suggestive one by the Bishop of London we have 
already noticed. 

The Bishop of Oxford dwells upon the necessity for the 
Episcopate, the loss suffered by the Colonies, as long as it 
was withheld, and the value of the Society s endeavours to 
build up the Colonial Church. 



EACH year the Bishop of Gibraltar issues a valuable 
Pastoral letter, describing the work carried on in the 
important Chaplaincies under his jurisdiction. His Lordship 
mentions in the Pastoral letter just published three things as 
especially marking the year 1886-1887 the consecration of 
St. George s Church, Cannes, built as a memorial of the late 
Duke of Albany ; the opening of All Saints Church in Borne, 
and the earthquakes in the Biviera. The two latter concern 
the Society, as the Chaplaincies at Borne and Mentone are on 
its list. 

" The opening of the new English Church of All Saints in Home, 
designed by the late Edmund Street, E.A., is the third event which will 
make this year memorable in the history of our Communion on the 
Continent. Though in saying farewell to the old building outside Porta 
del Popolo, which is connected in our minds with many sacred associa 
tions as having been the place in which the services of our worship have 
been held for more than sixty years, we naturally feel some regret, this 
sentiment must give way to the satisfaction and pride of possessing within 
the walls of Rome an edifice accordant with the dignity of our people and 
our Church. Owing to numerous and great difficulties which have ob 
structed the work, the church has been five years in building. On Easter 



382 NOTES OF THE MONTH. [ M icii,S d 

Day, 1882, the foundation-stone was laid. On Easter Day this year the 
church was opened for public worship. The work, however, is not yet 
fully completed. Two-thirds of the tower remain unfinished, the wooden 
pulpit, the wooden floor and fittings of the chancel, are temporary. 
Ornament of various kinds is still required. Several handsome stained 
windows have been given, and others are promised. The marbles are a 
beautiful feature of the church. They are rich in colour, and come from 
Greece, Calabria, Genoa, and Carrara. The total cost of the church has 
been 28,000. The foundations, which go to the depth of thirty feet, and 
were very difficult to construct owing to debris of previous buildings and 
the great flow of water, cost 6,000 ; the walls 10,000 ; the pillars of the 
nave, which are of solid marble, the roof and the fittings, 6,000. Of 
this sum, 25,000 have been obtained by subscriptions, chiefly from 
visitors. There is a debt of 2,500 due to the Chaplain, who very liberally 
advanced the money. The chancel is erected as a memorial to the Hon. 
Henry Walpole, by whose exertions more than 7,000 was collected. 
His widow, who gave the stained windows of the chancel, two in memory 
of her husband, and one in memory of Francis Woodward, for fifteen 
years Chaplain in Rome, and contributed munificently besides to the 
work, was present to see the church in which she had taken deepest 
interest opened for worship. A few weeks afterwards, to the great sorrow 
of her relations and friends, she closed her earthly life at Florence, on 
her way from Rome to England. At the beginning of the mid-day 
service I said a Prayer of Dedication, but as the church is not yet free 
from debt, it has not been consecrated. There were two early celebra 
tions of the Holy Communion, and a third at the mid-day service after 
the opening sermon. One of the early celebrations was taken by the 
Bishop of Carlisle, who preached in the afternoon and on the morning of 
the following Sunday. Nearly twenty English clergy, besides the Bishop 
of Carlisle and myself, took part in the services of the day. The acoustic 
properties of the building are excellent. In recognition of the zeal and 
liberality shown by the Rev. H. W. Wasse, I offered him the position of 
Canon of Gibraltar, which he has accepted." 

In a description of the panic caused by the earthquakes in 
several other places, and the liberality of English residents 
and visitors in relieving the consequent distress, the Bishop 

says : 

" The church of St. John at Mentone is the only English church 
which has been much damaged. Though the main fabric escaped injury, 
the tower and two of the pillars were slightly cracked, and every entrance 
rendered unsafe. On a survey of the church being made at the instance 
of the Chaplain and Churchwardens, it was agreed to close the building 
while under repair. Till the end of the season ah 1 the services on week 
days and Sundays were continued as usual, the week-day services and 
the early celebrations being held at St. John s House of Rest, and the 
Sunday morning services in the open air, under the large pines in the 



M S.TS d ] NOTES OF THE MONTH. 383 

garden of Villa Madonna. The Holy Communion was being celebrated 
in the Church of St. John when the second shock of earthquake occurred ; 
the service was interrupted, and the congregation quitted the building, 
but after a few minutes most of those who had left returned, and the 
service was completed. A similar occurrence took place at Bordighera y 
where the service at the English church was interrupted while the first 
lesson was being read ; though some left the church, the service was 
continued to the end. The appeal for funds to repair St. John s Church 
and Parsonage at Mentone met with a prompt and liberal response, more 
than 000, the sum named by the architect as required, having been 
contributed within a few months after the appeal was issued." 



nMEUSTFUL piety, large-minded charity, and wise energy 
I characterised the late Bishop Titcomb. A memoir, 
under the title of A Consecrated Life (Eobert Banks & Son), 
by the Eev. A. T. Hall, is an affectionate description of the 
Bishop s work, and brings before us his inner mind. The 
Bishop was born on July 29, 1819, at Kensington. He was 
ordained in 1842, and did wonderful work as Vicar of St. 
Andrew s, Cambridge ; St. Stephen s, Clapham, and (for nine 
teen months) Woking. He was consecrated the first Bishop 
of Eangoon on December 21, 1877, and threw himself with 
single-minded energy into his Episcopal work. The accident 
of February 17, 1881, when he fell over a precipice, led 
eventually to his resigning his See in March, 1882, to his 
great sorrow. With partially restored health, he in January r 
1884, accepted the important Episcopal charge of the Chaplain 
cies in Northern and Central Europe. His wonderful journeys 
from one side of Europe to the other told upon his health, 
and eventually he had to resign this work also, but the help 
and encouragement given by him to the previously isolated 
Chaplains are immeasurable. On reflecting, not without 
pain, on his enforced separation from this work which had 
so strongly attracted him, he wrote : 

" It is not given to many men to found a new Bishopric like this,, 
as well as to have opened and organised another new Bishopric like that 
of Eangoon. To God be all the glory." 

* 

On April 2, 1887, he passed to his rest. 



384 MONTHLY MEETING. [*Def?,S d> 

REPORTS RECEIVED. 

Reports have been received from the Rev. A. Logsdail, of the diocese of Calcutta; T. 
Williams, of Lahore ; A. Lloyd, of Japan ; S. M. Samuelson, of Zululand ; W. H. 11. Bevan and 
.T. Widdicombe, of Bloemfontcin ; H. Adams, A. W. Beck, C. Clulee, J. J. Darragh, F. Bowling, 
J. P. Richardson, and H. Sadler, of Pretoria ; R. J. French, of Mauritius ; H. H. Bro\vn, of 
Auckland, and S. H. Davis, of Honolulu. 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Society was held at 19 Delahay Street, 
on Friday, November 18, at 2 P.M., the Eev. Berdmore Compton in the chair. 
There were also present the Rev. B. Belcher, Vice- President ; Kev. J. W. Ayre, 
Canon Betham, J. M. Clabon, Esq., C. M. Clode, Esq., C.B., General Davies, 
Canon Elwyn, General Gillilan, General Maclagan, General Nicolls, H. C. 
Saunders, Esq., Q.C., General Sawyer, General Tremenheere, C.B., S. Wreford, 
Esq., Members of the Standing Committee; J. Boodle, Esq., Rev. C. Furneaux, 
Rev. F. B. Gribbell, Rev. R S. Hassard, Rev. T. Hill, Rev. J. H. C. McGill, 
Rev. L. L. Sharpe, Rev. W. B. Tremenheere, Members of the Society. 

1. Bead Minutes of the last Meeting. 

2. The Treasurers presented the following Statement of Receipts and 
Payments from January 1st to October 31st : 

GENERAL FUND SPECIAL FUNDS 

Subscriptions, Collections, &c.... 25,576 7,668 

Legacies . 9,223 25 

Dividends, &c. ... 2,784 3,853 



TOTAL RECEIPTS 37,583 11,546 

PAYMENTS 74,930 13,991 

The Receipts under the head of Subscriptions, Donations, and Collections for the General 
Fund from January 1st to October 31st, in five consecutive years, compare as follows : 1883, 
26,414 ; 1884, 25,582 ; 1885, 25,361 ; 1886, 23,210 ; 1887, 25,576. 

3. Power was given to affix the Corporate Seal to a Transfer of Stock. 

4. The Rev. S. Endle, who has laboured for twenty-four years in Assam, 
addressed the members. He described Assam as the province forming 
the north-east frontier of India, as large in area as France, with a popu 
lation of from four to five millions. He said that the Hindoo religion in 
Assam was of a degraded type, rendering the people indolent, indifferent to 
religious life, and sensual. Education is backward in the province, not 
10 per cent, being able to read their own language, which is of the Sanskrit 
family. The cultured Hindoos are under the sway of pantheism and 
fatalism, the latter doing away with moral responsibility, consequently 
with a sense of sin, and therefore rendering them insensible to the need 
of a Saviour. The widespread belief is that at the birth of each child 
there is written on its forehead, by an unseen being, its fate and its 
character, and that these can be changed neither by the child, its parents, 
nor any other agency. This idea is being weakened by education, by mis 
sionary teaching, and by the strict administration of justice, the last 



M Dec or },^ ] MONTHLY MEETING. 385 

enforcing some sense of moral responsibility. Another obstacle, which is 
being removed by the Government policy, is the consumption of opium. 

Mr Endle referred to the various hill tribes surrounding Assam in all 
directions, and proceeded to speak of the tea plantations, in which and in 
the factories many hundreds of English people are employed. He spoke 
of the importance of this branch of the work, the difficulty of which is much 
increased by the isolation of the planters. He mentioned two cases in illus 
tration of this : one a family of English people, where he found six children 
unbaptized, for whom the parents desired baptism ; and the other a man 
who had not been in the neighbourhood of any service of the Church for 
seventeen years. He said that there were but few Mohammedans in the 
province. The schools were a prominent department of the Mission, the 
central school being at Tezpur, where there were about twenty being 
trained to be schoolmasters. From such agents Mr. Endle hopes a supply 
of natives fit for ordination may be found. The catechists are engaged in 
direct evangelisation all through the year ; Mr. Endle himself makes a 
practice of starting on a tour in November for four or five months. He 
finds illustrative methods very valuable, e.g. anecdotes, pictures. The 
Mission needs strengthening, especially is a native Hindoo -speaking priest 
required for the Chota Nagpore Christians, who come to the province in 
large numbers to work in the tea gardens. 

Mr. Endle regards the indirect influence of the Mission to be far larger 
than can be measured by the numerical account of conversions. He 
believes that a time will come when, not one by one, but in a mass move 
ment, whole villages and towns will seek admission to the Church. 

5. All the candidates proposed at the Meeting in July were elected into 
the Corporation. The following were proposed for election in January 
1888 : 

The Rev. J. N. F. Ewen, Frostenden, Wangford ; Kev. J. Pulling, Pinhoe, 
Exeter ; Rev. M. J. Burrows, Precincts, Rochester ; Rev. Thomas Crump, Corfe, 
Taunton, F.W.Newton, Esq., Barton Grange, Taunton; Rev. A. D. Reece, 
West Hatch, Taunton ; Rev. G. H. Purdue, Shottermill, Haslemere ; Rev. R. F. 
Powles, Beaulieu, Southampton; Rev. C. H. Conybeare, Itchen Stoke, Here 
ford ; Rev. C. F. Seymour, Winchfield, Hants ; Rev. J. H. Southam, Trull, 
Taunton ; Rev. Arthur Lethbridge, Shepton Beauchamp, llminster; Rev. J. R. 
Dolling, Hinton St. George, Crewkerne ; Rev. F. H. Mules, Dowlish Wake, 
llminster; James Lean, Esq., South Petherton, llminster; H. R. Poole, Esq., 
The Old House, South Petherton, llminster ; J. C. Eckersley, Esq., Standish 
Hall, Wigan; Rev. T. G. Hill, Davington, Faversham; Rev. W. M. Wood, 
Faversham ; The Rt. Hon. Admiral Sir A. Cooper Key, G.C.B., Laggan House, 
Maidenhead: Rev. J. M. Freeman, Playford, Ipswich ; Rev. H. E. Clayton, St. 
Mary Magdalene, Oxford ; Rev. J. Barton, 3 Chatham Villas, Teddington ; and 
Rev. A. J. P. Shepherd, Sulhampstead, Reading. 




NO. CCCLXXXIV. 



INDEX. 



LONGER ARTICLES. 



A. D. 1887, 1. 

Ahmednagar, 1 09. 

American Episcopate, The, 114. 

Annual Public Meeting, The, 161, 165, 170. 

Antigua, 339. 

Bishop s College, Calcutta, 322. 
Bombay, 109. 
Borneo, 218, 242, 270. 

Calcutta, 182, 322. 

Centenary of the Colonial Episcopate, 87. 
Chinese Government and Christianity, The, 51. 
Chota Nagpore, 182. 
Christmas at Mandalay, 80. 
Conferences and the Centenary, 214, 234. 
Consecration of the Bishop of Saskatchewan, 
290. 

Delhi, 225, 361. 

En route to the Gold Fields, 175. 
Experiences of Missionary Work in Borneo, 
218, 242, 270. 

First Century of the Colonial Episcopate, 369. 

Grahamstown, 133, 207. 

Grants for 1888, The Society s, 196. 

Home Organisation, 303. 
Honolulu, 121, 152. 

Japan, 33, 149, 295. 

Jubilee Address, The Society s, 193. 

Keiskamma Hoek, 207. 



Lahore, 47, 225, 303, 361. 

Madagascar, 72. 

Madras, 40, 65, 257, 363. 

Madras Jubilee Retrospects, 257. 

Mandalay, 21, 80, 327. 

Maritzburg, 129, 261. 

Mason, Paper by the Rev. G. E., 170. 

Native Clergyman s Report, A, 264. 
Newfoundland, 137. 
New Guinea, 202. 
North China, 230. 

Ordination of Sixteen Clergymen by Bishop 
Caldwell, 65. 

Pongas Mission, The, 101. 
Presidential Address, The, 165. 
Pretoria, 175. 
Rangoon, 18, 80, 327. 
Rewarri, 47, 303. 

Saskatchewan, 290, 374. 
Singapore Diocese, 218, 242, 270. 
St. John s, Kaffraria, 11, 264. 

Tristan d Acunha, 83. 

Upper Burma as a Mission Field, 327. 

Winchester, Speech by the Bishop of, 146. 
Windward Islands, The, 97. 

York, Paper by the Dean of, 303. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A.D. 1887, 1. 

Adamson, Rev. T., 42. 

Adelaide, 160. 

Algoma Diocese, 287, 348. 

Alphonse, Rev. A., 378. 

American Episcopate, The, 115. 

American Indians, 96. 

Annesley Remittances, 126. 

Anniversary, The Society s, 125, 161, 165, 170, 

190, 221. 

Antigua Diocese, 339. 
Assyrian Church, The, 167. 
Australian Missions, 317. 

Bahamas, Re-endowment of the Church in, 30, 
31. 



Barbados, 97. 

Bathurst. The Bishop of, 223, 349. 

Bel-Alp Church, 319. 

Beresford-Hope, The late Mr., 345. 

Berne Chaplaincy, 127. 

Binney, The late Bishop, 190, 192, 255. 

Bishop s College, Calcutta, 322. 

Blake, Rev. W. H., 43. 

Blakesley, Mr. A. H., 326. 

Bloemfontein Diocese, 380. 

Bombay, 109, 192, 319, 346. 

Booth, Rev. L. P., 132, 262. 

Borneo (see Singapore and Sarawak). 

Bower, the late Dr., 42. 

Brief Report, 161. 



INDEX. 



387 



Board, Addresses at the Monthly Meetings of 
the December 1886, Archdeacon Gibson of 
Kaffraria, 32 ; January 1887, Rev. J. Camp 
bell of Grafton and Armidale, 64 ; February, 
The Bishop of New Westminster, 96 ; March, 
Rev B. R. Wilson from Brisbane, 128 ; 
April, Rev. F. W. Pelly from Qu Appelle, 
160 ; May, Rev. W. Greenstock from Maritz 
burg, 192 ; uune, Rev. F. P. L. Josa from 
Guiana 224 ; July, Rev. J. Fairclough from 
Rangoon, and the Rev. W. H. Williams on 
Canada, 224 ; October, The Bishop of Ran 
goon, 352; November, Rev. S. Enole from 
Assam, 384. 

Brisbane, 128, 199, 350. 

Britten, Rev. A., 40, 353. 



e, 127, 163, 182, 192, 198, 201, 
199, 216, 322, 349, 367, 384. 
Caldwell, Bishop, 44, 65, 91, 257. 
Calgary, 286, 290. 

Callaway, Retirement of Bishop, 93. 
Camidge, Bishop, 223, 288, 349. 
Campbell, Address by the Rev. Joseph, 64. 
Canterbury, St. Augustine s College (see St. 

Augustine s). 
Canterbury, The Archbishop of , 9, 114,165,221, 

222, 241, 349. 

Capetown Diocese, 288, 350. 
Carlisle, Article by the Bishop of, 319. 
Centenary of the Colonial Episcopate, 2, 31, 57, 

87, 125, 128, 190, 222, 286, 316, 318, 319, 369. 
Chichester, Meeting of Rural Deans at, 57. 
China, 27, 51, 163, 230, 254, 319, 347. 
Chinese : in New Westminster, 96 ; in the 

Windward Islands, 100. 
Chinese Government and Christianity, 51. 
Chota Nagpore, 127, 163, 182, 216, 349. 
Clerical Theological Reading Society, The, 60. 
Colbe-*, Mr. G. H., 58, 80, 287. 
Colbeck, Rev. James A., 21, 80, 327. 
Coles, Rev. J., 27. 
Colombo Diocese, 348. 
Compton, Rev. B., 93. 
Conferences and the Centenary, 57, 83, 126, 

128, 159, 214, 234. 

Consecrations of Bishops : Melbourne, 125 ; 
Bathurst, 223, 349; Saskatchewan, 62, 286,289. 
Constantinople Church, 194, 345, 
Cooper, Mr. T., 325. 
Cooper, Rev. W. H., 191. 
Cory, Rev. C. P., 75. 
Crisp, Archdeacon. 381. 
Cut flowers from Antibes, 191. 

Darvall, Rev. T. E., 43, 357. 

Deaths : The Bishop of Saskatchewan, 25, 32 ; 
Archdeacon Assheton Pownall, 27 ; Rev. Dr. 
Bower, 42 ; Earl of Iddesleigh, 58 ; Paul, the 
Maritzburg Catechist, 131 ; Bishop Tit- 
comb. 157, 383 ; Archdeacon Harrison, 158; 
Bishop Lee of Delaware, 158 ; W. Trotter, 
Esq., 158 ; Bishop Binney of Nova Scotia, 
190, 192, 255 ; Rev. W. Panckridge, 223 ; Mr. 
Beresford-Hope, 345 ; Rev. A. Alphonse,378. 

Delhi (see Lahore). 

Dodgson, Rev. E. H., 82. 

Ecce Homo (A Picture), 262. 
Emigration Society, The Church, 159. 
Enole, Rev. S., 384. 

Europe, 30, 58, 64, 126, 127, 157, 158, 159, 191, 
*22, 288, 319, 350, 381, 383. 

Fairclouerh, Rev. J., 256. 
Fardel, Mr. H. L., 35, 64, 93, 149. 
Farewell Services, 64, 93, 319, 346. 
February Simultaneous Meetings, 29. 
Fenton, Mr. G. F., 35, 64, 93, 149. 
Fiji, 61. 



Floyd, Rev. W., 61. 

Foss, Rev. H. J., 

Freiburg Chaplaincy, 127. 

French, Resignation of Bishop, 317. 

Gardner, Rev. C. G., 35, 64, 93. 

Gell, Congratulatory address to Bishop, 92. 

Gibraltar, Pastoral letter by the Bishop of, 30, 

381. 

Gibson, Address by Archdeacon, 32. 
Goddard, Rev. J., 142. 
Goldfields in South Africa, 134, 175. 
Gospel Missionary, The, 377 
Gctha Chaplaincy, 127. 
Grafton and Armidale Diocese, 64. 
Grahamstown Diocese, 133, 198, 207, 369, 380. 
Grants, The Society s for 1888, 196. 
Greenstock, Address by the Rev. W., 192. 
Gregory, Rev. F. A., 72. 
Growth : The Colonial Church, 2, 57, 162, 194, 

196 ; Kaffraria, 15, 32 ; China, 27 ; Madagas- . 

car, 75 ; Madras, 65, 92, 259 ; New West 

minster, 96 ; Bombay, 109 ; Maritzburg, 131 ; 

Grahamstown, 135, 207 ; Delhi, 365 ; Chota 

Nagpore, 188. 
Guiana Diocese, 100, 224. 

Harrison , The late Archdeacon, 158. 

Harvest Offerings, 285. 

Harvey, Rev. J. C., 142. 

Haynes, Rev. W. A., 142. 

Henham, Mr. H. C., 347. 

Hewlett, Rev. A. M., 74. 

Hole, Speech by Canon, 236. 

Holme, Report on the Pongas Mission by 

Archdeacon, 101. 
Home Organisation, 302. 
Honolulu, 121, 152,170. 
Hopper, Rev. E. C., 36, 151. 
Hughes, Rev. H. B., 339. 

Idaiyangudi, Ordination at, 70. 

Iddesleigh. Deatli of the Earl of, 58. 

Inman, Rev. A., 40. 

Intercession, The Day of, 4, 27, 215. 

losa, Rev. F. P. L., 224. 

Iowa, The Bishop of, 125, 190, 221, 286, 381. 

Jamaica Diocese, 378 

Japan, 33, 64, 149, 163, 168, 190,200, 295, 319. 

Jones, Hev. J. F., 61. 

Josa, Rev. F. P. L., 224. 

Jubilee, The Queen s, 1, 156, 162, 228, 160, 193, 

285. 

Kaffraria, Diocese of St. John s (nee St. John s). 
Karlsruhe Chaplaincy, 127, 191. 
Keiskamma Hoek, 135, 207. 
Ladies Association, The, 62, 164. 
Lahore Diocese, 47, 156, 195, 225, 307, 317, 361. 
Leamington, Meeting at, 28. 
Lee, The late Bishop, 158. 
Leiroy, Rev. G. A., 156. 
Leipzig Chaplaincy, 126. 
Lloyd, Rev. A., 33, 149, 295. 
Loddington Remittance, 58. 
Logsdail, Rev A., 
London, Sermon by the Bishop of, 31C, 381. 



,65, 91, 92, 163, 236, 256, 
319, 346, 353. 
Maggs, Rev. M. A., 208. 
Manchester, Speech of tl e Bishop of, 379. 
Mandalay, 21, 58, 80, 163, 327. 
Margbschis, Rev. A., 44. 
Maritzburg Diocese, 129, 192 ; 200, 261. 
Marks, Rev. Dr., 18, 327. 
Masiza, Rev. P., 32, 264. 
Mason, Paper by the Rev. G. E., 170. 
Mauritius, 378. 



388 



INDEX. 



McLean, Leath of Bishop, 25, 32, 294. 
McMahrn, Rev. E. 0., 75. 
Medical Work : New Westminster, 96 ; Ran 
goon, 287. 

Meeting, The Annual, 94. 
Meeting, The Annual Public, 161, 165, 170. 
Meeting, The Monthly (see Board). 
Mentone, Earthquake at, 159, 382. 
Miller, Rev. E. P., 348. 
Mission Field, The, 347, 377. 
Missionaries, Classification of the Society s, 254. 
Monthly Meeting, The (see Board). 
Mullins, Rev. R. J., 133. 

Nassau Diocese, 30, 31, 58, 377. 

Native Agents : Kaffraria, 15, 264 ; Japan, 36 ; 
Madras, 40, 353, 359 ; Madagascar, 72, 75 ; 
Maritzburg, 130. 

Native Ministry: Kaffraria, 16; Japan, 36; 
Madras, 42, 65, 92, 163, 260, 346 ; Pongas 
Mission, 104; Chota Nagpore, 183; Cal 
cutta, 322. 

Nelson, The Tomb of Robert, 256, 376. 

Netten, Rev. T. G., 139. 

Newark, Speech by Lord, 240. 

Newfoundland, 137, 286. 

New Guinea, 199, 202. 

New Westminster Diocese, 96, 191, 198. 

New York, Address by Bishop Potter of, 114. 

New Zealand, 171. 

Nodder, Rev. J. M., 287. 

North China (nee China). 

North Queensland Diocese, 198, 376. 

Norwich, The Centenary at, 31.9. 

Nova Scotia, 190, 192, 255, 286, 318, 371. 

Opportunities : Japan, 133, 151, 200 ; Madras, 
42 ; China, 55 ; Bombay, 108 ; Chota Nag- 
pore, 186 ; New Guinea, 202 ; South Africa, 
130, 200 ; Upper Burma, 333. 

Oxford, Sermon by the Bishop of, 381. 

Panama, 378. 

Pauckridge, The late Rev. W., 223. 

1 apworth, Rev. J. W., 43. 

Pau Church, 64, 222. 

Felly, The Kev. F. W., 160, 319. 

Perham, Rev. J., 218, 242, 271. 

Pinkham, Bishop, 62, 286, 374. 

Pittman, Rev. A., 142. 

Pongas Mission, The, 101. 

Port Arthur. 287, 348. 

Pownall, Death of Archdeacon Assheton, 27. 

Presidential Address, The, 165. 

Pretoria Diocese, 175, 200. 

Qu Appelle Diocese, 160, 287, 319, 348. 
Queen, Society s Jubilee Address to Her 

Majesty, The, 160, 193, 285. 
Quintin, Rev. T. P., 141. 

Rafter, Rev. W. S., 143. 

Rangoon Diocese, 18, 58, 80, 157, 256, 287, 327, 
383. 

Reichardt, Rev. F. H., 45. 

Reports received, 31, 127, 192, 256, 288, 320, 
352, 384. 

Reviews and Notices : The Victorian Jubilee 
and Church Expansion, 2 ; The First Century 
of the Colonial Episcopate, 2 ; The Bishop of 
Gibraltar s Pastoral Letter, 80, 381 ; The 
Emigrant, 159; Madagascar, an historical 
Sketch. 255; Tinnevelly, an historical Sketch, 
255 ; The Stone cat without hands, 316 ; 
The Church of the British Empire, 318; 
The Rev. F. W. Felly s Centenary Sermon, 
319 ; The Bishop of Oxford s Centenary 
Sermon, 381 ; The Island Missionary of 
the Bahamas, 377 ; The Bishop of Iowa s 
Sermon, 221 ; A Consecrated Life, 383. 



Rewarri, 47, 307. 

Rollin, Mr. G. A. V., 43. 

Rome, Consecration of All Saints Church, 158, 

381. 

Rummelsberg, 288, 350. 
Rupertsland Diocese, 287. 

Saint Augustine s College, Canterbury, 62, 345, 

346. 

Salisbury, Speech by the Bishop of, 234. 
Salmon, Rev. G., 224. 

Saskatchewan Diocese, 25, 32, 62, 286, 289, 374. 
Sebastian, Rev. A., 4 2. 
Self-help : in Madagascar, 75 ; Pongas Mission, 

105; Maritzburg, 129, 131; Saskatchewan, 

286. 

Sharrock, Rev. J. A., 45. 
Shaw, Rev. A. C., 39. 
Shears, Archdeacon, 261. 
Shepherd, Rev. R. D , 40. 
Sierra Leone, 101. 
Singapore and Sarawak Diocese, 199, 218, 242, 

271. 

Smith, Rev. A., 79. 
Smith, Rev. C. W., 58. 
Society s Income, Notes on, 5, 90. 
Speaker of the House of Commons, Speech by,28. 
St. Helena Diocese, 83. 
St. John s Diocese, Kaffraria, 11, 32, 93, 198, 

200, 264. 

St. Thomas College, Colombo, 348. 
Stuttgart Chaplaincy, 126. 
Sullivan s Gardens, Madras, 92, 319, 346. 
Superstition: Kaffraria, 12 ; Madagascar, 75; 

New Westminster, 96 ; India, 237, 315, 366 ; 

Borneo, 242, 283; Maritzburg, 262; Upper 

Burma, 331. 

Sutton, Rev. F. W., 58, 287. 
Sydney, The Bishop of, 169, 171, 202. 

Taberer, Rev. C., 135, 207. 

Taylor, Rev. J., 109. 

Taylor, Rev. R. H., 137. 

Temple, Rev. R., 142. 

Tennessee, The late Bishop of, 201. 

Tinnevelly, 44, 65, 163, 236, 256. 

Titcomb, The late Bishop, 157, 327, 383. 

Trichinopoly, 43. 

Tristan d Acunha, 83. 

Trotter, The late Mr. W., 158. 

United States, The, 115, 147, 158, 170, 190, 221. 

222, 289, 373, 381. 
Upper Burma as a Mission Field, 327. 

Vickers, Rev. A. B., 45. 
Vincent, Rev. J. R., 58, 

Weimar Chaplaincy, 191. 

Westcott, Rev. A., 319, 346. 

White, Veu. H. M., 369. 

Whitehead, Rev. H., 322. 

Whitley, Rev. J. C., 

Williams, Rev. H. A., 45. 

Williams, Rev. T., 47, 307. 

Williams, Rev. W. H., 256. 

Williams, Rev. W. J., 347. 

Wilson, Address by the Rev. B. R., 128. 

Winchester, Letter by the Bishop of, 125. 

Winchester Sales of Work, 319. 

Winchester, Speech by the Bishop of, 146. 

Windward Islands, The, 97. 

Winter, Rev. R. R., 226, 361. 

Yamagata, Rev. Y., 37. 

York, Paper by the Dean of, 302. 

Zenana Work, &c., 39,45, 49, 63, 150, 228, 233. 
Zululand Diocese, 200. 



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