Skip to main content

Full text of "Mission to the East Coast of Sumatra: In M.DCCC.XXIII, Under the Direction of the Government of ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 




To Sill JOHN RAE REID, Bart. 

Havino enjoyed the libend patronage of you? 
bte excellent Father, during a period of nearly ten years aer- 
vioe in one of the moat distant possessions of the Honourable 
East India Company, and been occaaionally honoured with a 
oorrespondenoe, in which he erinced the deep interest whidi 
he felt in all that related to the prosperity of that distinguished 
body of which he had long been one of the most indefatigable 
and sealotts representatives ; it was my wish to have dedicate4 
to him this volume. That eminent individual being unfbrtii* 
nately removed by death, I know none to whom I may widi 
80 great propriety offer the result of my labours, as to one 
who, as he piously cherishes the memory, is well qualified to 
emulate the virtues, and to tread in the footsteps, of my mudi 
lamented patron and friend* 

The objects of my mission were manifold, but the principal 
were the extension of commerce, and the introduction of Bri- 
tish manufiictures into regions but little known, thou^ 
abounding with inhabitants, and rich in the most valuable 
productions. I trust that my Ubours will ultimately prove 

beneficial to the commercial interests of this settlement. At 


ail events, it will be a consolation to me to think, that yoa 

CaMooiMi Mncurj Fnm. 




^ f 


.V J 

r\ \ 

v> .' . 





















I U? 11 1909 j 




flvt^-o.xAa Wio^H^'^l^.X 



Dedication to Sir John Rae Reid, Bart 




Afpindix.— >1. InstmcdoDs to Mr Ibbetaon. 

2. Memonjida of Heads of Inqoirj. 

3. Captain Crooke'a Report of Jamfai. 

4. lostmctiona to self. 

5. Pieces of dotha pnrdiaaed cm acoonnt of Oo- 

Ditto. — A. Statement of Fees on Frowt and Tonnage^ 

B. Do. of da on square rigged Vessels 

C. Census of Pcynlation. 

D. Exports and Imports firom 1 816-1 7» to 

£. Account of the Pepper Trade from 1814-lfs 

to 1822-23. 
F. Memorandum of Pepper sent to China. 
O. Quantitj of Pepper imported from East 

Coast of Sumatra. 



Bogi and Ktpah FruiU, 46 

Large Pimwn at Langkaf.— /*teg, . . . . ib. 

Karau KarauBattaafinomTiiiguig,iii]aiidof DeUi, 49 

BatU Cottage up tbe BuUi Chiaa, .... iS 

Remarkable Tree at Malaiiar, in Uie Delli rirer.~^Flsie, ib. 

Detcriftim, 41 

Cannibal BatU from the Interior of BatuBaim, Itl 

Tubba Batta Women at Amaban, . . . . 3w 

AsembW of the Chiefs at Batubaxm, ... 119 

Rajah of Munto PaneU a Cannibal Oiie^ .149 

BatU Warrior from Seantar-«a <VfiniNI F'wfr^ . jbu 

NatiTeofPadang,onUie£artCoMtorSiiB»tnu-i'&*, 149 


BatU from the Borden of the Great Lake, . 14i 

Tubba Slare in the Stod».~/*fale, . . . ftw 

BatU and Maiajan Warlike LutniBenta, . . . 3H 

Charu of part of Sumatra. 
OmU of tbe Jambi Rhrcr- 



Having enjoyed the liberal patronage of you? 
late excellent Father^ during a period of nearly ten years ser- 
vice in o^e of the most distant possessions of the Honourable 
East India Company, and been occasionally honoured with a 
coorrespondexice, in which he evinced the deep interest which 
be felt in al} that related to the prosperity of that distinguished 
body of which he had long been one of the most indefatigable 
and zealous representatives ; it was my wish to have dedicated 
to him this volume. That eminent individual being unfortn- 
nately removed by death, I know none to whom I may with 
80 great propriety offer the result of my labours, as to one 
who, as he piously cherishes the memory, is well qualified to 
emulate the virtues, and to tread in the footsteps, of my much 
lamented patron and friend- 

The objects of my mission were manifold, but the principal 
were the extension of commerce, and the introduction of Bri- 
tish manufactures into regions but little known, though 
abounding with inhabitants, and rich in the most valuable 
productions. | trust that my labours will ultimately prove 
beneficial to the commercial interests of this settlement. At 
all events, it will be a consolation to me to think, that you 



will receive tliis dedication as an humble but sincere tribute 
of the respect and gratitude to you and your family, with 
which I have the honour to subscribe myself, 

Your most obedient and obliged humble Servant, 



It was observed forty years ago by Mr Marsdcn, 
autlior of the History of Sumatra, that this island, 
JiotwithstandiDg its importance and fertility, had 
been unaccountably neglected; and that it was 
less known in its interior parts than the most re- 
mote island of modem discover)'. This remark 
still applies to the eastern coast, of which Mr 
Marsdcn has given a very hasty sketch. In order 
to give at once a correct view of tlie different places 
on this coast, which have been either described or 
mentioned, I shall enumerate such as have been 
noticed by Mr Marsden, and shall then give a 
brief sketch of the several missions sent finm 
I^inang, with their objects and their results. By 
a comparison of these, it will be at onoe seen what 
was left for me to perform, and what I have been 
c nablcd to add to the general stock of geographical 

In the history of Acheen, and of the struggles 
made by the Portuguese at Malacca, mention is 


made of Timiang. — ♦ " The governor (Alba- 
^ querque)," says Marsden, ** on his return from 
** Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast 
** of Sumatra, near the point of Timiang, where 
^ his ship was wrecked.** 

Delli is frequently mentioned in the annals of 
Acheen, and must have been a pUce of some con- 
•equenccf In the year 1618, the king of Acheen, 
Iskander Muda, is styled sovereign of Delli, 
amongst other places. | In IGIQ^ Delli was con* 
quered by Acheen. ** This last place (Delli) had 
f been strongly fortified by the assistance of the 
^ Portuguese, and gave an opportunity of display- 
^ ing^much skill in the attack. Trenches were re- 
^ gularly opened before it, and a si^e carried on 
^ fiir nx weeks ere it fell." I was unable to trace 
any records of Portuguese establishments at Delli ; 
but an ancient and strong fortification in a muti- 
lated state, is still to be seen in the interior, about a 
day's journey. In 1641, Ddli was ravaged by the 
)dng of Acheen, and the inhabitants carried off! 

* Martdeo't Somstny page 409. 
t Ibid, page 439. 
; Ibid, piige 441. 


*^^ Bat this barbatous policy did Hot produce the 
effect he hoped, for the unhappy people bdng 
brought naked to his dominions, and not allowed 
any kind of maintenance on their arrival, died of 
" hunger in the streets." In 1669, t*' ^^ people 
^ of Delli on the north-eastern coast threw off 
'« thehr allegiance, and the power of the kingdom 
^* (Acheen) became gradually more and more cir- 
*• cumscribed." 

Batubara and Assahan are also mentioned ; but 
there is considerable inaccuracy in tl^ names of 
the places and their situations. X^^ "^he little 
** kingdom of Butar lies north-eastward of the pre- 
^ ceding, * and reaches to the eastern coast, where 
^ are the places named Pulo Serong and Batubara, 
^the latter enjoying a considerable trade; also 
^* liongtong and Sirigar,'' (there is a place called 
Serompang about three days journey inland, but I 
could not ascertain that there were ever any such 
as Longtong and Sirigar) ** at the mouth of a great 
** river named Assahan. Butar yields neither 

* Marsden's Sumatra^ page 446. 
t Ibid, page 448. 
t Ibid, page 336. 







camphor, benmin, nor goM, and the hihabitanti 
support themselves by cultivation. The residence 

** of the king is at a town of the same name. 

*^ High np the river Batubara, which empties it- 
self into the Straits of Malacca, is found a laif;e 
brick building, concerning the erection of which 
no tradition is preserved amoi^^ the people. It 

** is described as a square, or several squares, and at 

one comer is an extremely high pillar, supposed 

by them to have been designed for carrying a 
flag. Images or reliefs of human figures are 

** carved in the walls, which tliey conceive to be 

'' Chinese (perhaps Hindu) idols. The bricks, of 

^ which some were brought to Tappanuli, an! 

^ of a smaller size than those used by the English.* 

Scarcely a vestige of this old ruin (which was no 

doubt a Hindu temple, of which there are many 

on the island of Java, and of the existence of whidi 

religion there are numerous traces in diffisrent parts 

of the east coast of Sumatra), now remains. The 

disturbed state of the country at the time of my 

arrival, prevented me from inspecting this curious 


A brief description of Siack, gathered from the 

survey of Captain I^ynch, is given ; and the river 




Rakail, to the northward of Siack, is mentioned as 
the krgest on the island, as it unquestionably i^. 
Mr Marsden remarks, * that '' the survey of Siack' 
''river by Mr Francis Lynch is much wanted, 
^' and the interior of the country is still very itn- 
** perfectly known." 

It is stated by Beaulieu in 1662, that '' the na- 
tives of that part of the island which is opposite 
to Malacca, are called Battas, eat human flesh, 
and are the most savage and warlike of all the 
« land.'* 

- The foregoing are the only places on the east 
coast comprehended between Diamond Point and 
Slack, which are mentioned by Marsden. Beyond 
the latter place, Kampar, Jambi, Indrigiri, Palem- 
batig, &c. ^re slightly noticed. That part of the 
coast between Siack and Indrigiri, is still very im- 
perfectly known. 

The navigation of the Straits of Malacca on the 
western side, has till lately been almost unknown. 
It is remarked by that indefatigable hydrogra- 
pher, who has extended our nautidal knowledge 
so considerably, and is every day adding some^ 

^ Marsden's Sumatra, pages 356 and 357- 


thing new to his valnable Dirtetory, that ^ ^ die 
^ Sumatra ooart, from Diamond Point to thb 
Anoa islands, is all km and woody, firontiflg; ^ 
sea, containing several rivers flnd villages, he^ 
« quented only by coasting prows, or other smaB 
*' vessek ; consequently little known to EuopeaBS.'* 
And again, *' Batoo Bara, opposite to the Brothers, 
^ is situated on the bank of a river, from whence 
** the natives export in their prows to Prince of 
^ Wales Island and Malacca, rattans and other 
^ articles of trade. The river is navigable by small 
^ vessels at high water ; but the natives being per- 
^ fidious, this place is seldom visited by Euio* 
^ peans. From hence to Slack river, nearly oppo* 
** site to Malacca, the coast of Sumatra is fitHe 
** known ; it is all low land, the trees only appear* 
^ ing above water, with several rivers and shoal 
^ banks stretching out a conmderable way fiom the 
^ shore in some places." 

The Misaons of Captain Scott in 1806, and Mr 
Garhng m 1807, to Kack, added but little to thl^ 
information we possessed; and Captain Lyndl% 
Embassy in )808, being principally of a cmnmef- 

• Honburgfa't Dirtctorf, ViO. II. puge 154. 


cial natare» hu not mataially extended our ge^gn^ 
pUcal knowledge. Gdonel Faiquhar, when he 
proceeded fiom Mahcca iu 1818, for the puipose 
of finming a commercial treaty with the king of 
Siadkt stopped at Bukit Batu, at the entrance of 
the Stnuta of Tanjong Jatte^ and had not an op- 
portnni^ of deacrihing the country. 

It ia surpnnng^ although two British settlements 
have heen established in the vicinity of that coasts at 
the distance of only one or two days sail with a 
fiur windt ud a very extensive commerce has been 
canied on with several of the ports during the last 
twenty or thirty yean^ that we should have known 
ao little of the history or even the situation of 
many places of ccmsiderable commercial importance. 
This deficiency in our geographical knowledge ap- 
pears to have been observed a few years ago» 
by the present head of the Finang goveruraent, 
wfaoae attention was more particularly attracted to 
it by the increasing commerce between some of the 
moie northerly ports, where the cultivation of pep- 
per had commenced a few years ago, and by the 
manifestation of a desire on the part of the chiefs 
to cultivate a closer connection and friendly al- 
liance with the British government The prcsi- 



dent 8eeiD8 to hare readily arailed himadf of m> 
&TOi]iable an opportunity toir benefiting the fe- 
renuea of the company, of opening new aouroes of 
commerce to the commercial community cf Pinsng, 
qS extending our knowledge of the aorrounditlg 
sUtteBy and acquiring correct and predse informa- 
tion regarding their condition. 

With the new, therefore, of attaining such im- 
portant oligecfaB, a mission was deputed in the 
month of May 1820, under the charge of Mr 
Ibbetson and Captain Crooke.^ The instructions 
to these gentlemen, and the memoranda of the dif- 
ferent points to which they were to direct their in- 
quiries, sufficiently display the extensive fidd fot 
observation that was before them, and the various 
and extaisive information they were expected to 
obtain. The best planned schemes, however, are 
eSbea defeated by unforeseen accidents ; and the un- 
fortunate indisposition of the commisrioner, Mr 
Ibbetson, who was forced to proceed to Singapore 
for medical asnstance, prevented the foil aceomi^ish- 
ment of the olgects contemphted. The only ports 
visited by the misrion were Jambi, Assahan, and 

* Vid« Appendix I. and II. 


wbae it does not ajqpear that they did more 
than delirer the letters from the honourable the go* 
Temor. The rqwrt of the head eommiwioner is 
aLu^gether of a meet diMX)uragiDg nature^ and re- 
pnioita the state of all the countriesp both those 
which he viated, and those which he did not visit, 
in a very uniaToarable light ; the inhabitants beings 
seeording to thia aceount, universally addicted to 
pnaey» and subsisting wholly upon plunder. At 
Assshan and J>dli,the ambassadors merely visited 
the two first villages near the entrance of the river. 
CeiMsdering the very dear and perspicuous report 
of Jambi by Loeutenant Crooke, (of which a copy 
was given to me by the secretary^) and his well 
kaoiwn ability, activity* and enterprise, the indispo* 
sition q£ Mr Ibbetson, and the immediate return of 
the nuanout is the more to be regretted, as there is 
little doubt, that if he had prosecuted his inquiries, 
there would have been little occasion for the mission 
stt which I was dispatched. 

The government, disappointed in the result of 
this mission, and desirous of asoertaining more ful- 
ly the navigaticm of the east coast, dispatched 

• Vide Appendix lU. 



the Honourable Company's cniiser Nautihis, uiw 
der the directions of Lieutenants Rose and Morse- 
by of the Bombay marine* in the middle of 188S, 
to make a survey, which has added materially to 
our knowledge of the navigation of that coast, 
The principal part ci their sailing directions will 
be found embodied in the History and Description 
The only ports whidi these s u rv e yor s seem to have 
visited were Delli» Batubara, and a place called 
Banca in the Reccan. They made a rapid sketch 
from Diamond Point to the Ejunpar river. 

The perseverance of government in these in* 
quiries into the state and condition of an ex* 
tensive track of country, rich in the choicest pro- 
ductions of nature, and abounding with a nume- 
rous and highly interesting population, whose cha* 
vacter, pursuits, and habits, we had but little ac- 
quaintance with, has had the effect of disclosing a 
variety of interesting settlements, navigable rivers, 
&C. some of which were quite unknown, even by 
name, and may, and no doubt will, lead to new 
sources of wealth and commerce. 

The peculiar direction of my studies and pursuits 
having brought mc into contact witli many of the 
natives from that coast, who were in the habit of re- 


sortiBg to Pmang for commerGial purposesf, and 
from whom I derived a variety of information re^ 
lative to the different states, which induced me to 
engage in fiurther inquiries Joined to my anxiety to 
gain the approbation of government, impelled me to 
volunteer my services on the occasbn, to the ho^ 
nourable the governor, who being pleased to accept 
of them, I submitted to him a plan for the details 
of the mission. How &i I have successfully execut- 
ed the laborious task assigned to me, I leave to an 
indulgent government to determine,disclaiming any 
pretensions to scientifio acquirements, and boasting 
of nothing beyond a moderate share of industry and 
perseverance. I have in my narrative studied sim- 
plicity ; and to describe what I observed, or giv^ 
^uch information as I obtained, as directed by the 
instructions to the forpier agents, ^^ in the most 
^ simple language, so that the supreme authorities 
^^ may have the opportunity, as well as this govern? 
^^ mept, of forming their own conclusions." 

I should be wanting in gratitude, did I omit 
to express my acknowledgments to those who have 
9ided me in the accomplishment of the following 


work. To my respected friend^ the Honounhle 
William Annstrong Qubley, Seooml Member of 
Council, I am under no ordinary degree of obliga- 
tion, lor his cordial support, in the first instance, 
to the proposed Mission ; for his unifiirm attaitkn 
in aiding me with his advice ; and for the many 
suggestions and much valuable information, which 
his long experience of nearly twenty years servico 
(during which time he was principally Secretary to 
Government), enabled him to give me. The lively 
and energetic interest which he has always taken 
IB promoting the welfare of this settlement, has 
fully entitled him to the favourable consideration 
of his superiors, and the distinction to which he 
has lately attained. 

Mr Maingy, a cotemporary of my own, has a 
foil daim to my best thanks, for the readiness 
with which he has always afforded information 
from the custom-house department, of which be 
has been the zealous and active deputy, and fre- 
quently in cliarge, during several years past. 

It would be unbecoming in me to omit offering 
my thanks to the Honourable John Macalister, 
First Memlx^r of Council, who gave his warmest 
8upiK)rt to the projected Mission, but who unfortu- 


natdy was forced to quit the island soon after my 
departure, in consequence of indisposition. 

The Drawings were executed by a Chinese 
draughtsman, under a great variety of impediments 
and disadrantages, sometimes in great haste, in a 
small boat. A few of them have however been im- 
proved by a young man of considerable talent, an 
assistant in one of the public offices of Government. 

The sketch of the Jambi river is a copy of that 
executed by Captain Crooke, and forwarded to 
Government on his return from the Mission in 

The orthography of the Malayan words is gene- 
raDy agreeably to Marsden, from whose Dictionary 
I prindpaDy acquired a knowledge of the lan« 
guage many years ago. Some occasional variations 
in the dialect and orthography will however be 








l%iaf^, aotklketmber ISiSL^Ammim toihe 
ecMtt of Smnstni^ nd soine of the ports on the 
penhitela of Malaccas havhig beepdetcrmipednpoi^ 
end ikB HonoanUe the Gorcmor having bete 
pleiied to appvofe of certsm luggestioiui of mnie 
Iv c myhig it mto cffiiet;, I piirduMed e tnulU me- 
«lt cipride of jieifoiDmg the semoe^ of 75 toil% 
the mnie of wfaicfa wtm chasged firom the Mam to 


7tk Jamfary.— Having obtained ail ampkinp- 
ptj of military stofes from the fort, for the defenoe 
cif the vend, whidi mounted eight guns, via. two 
11 fowidiff hnsi eemioimdcs^ four biass 6 pound- 


crsp and two iron large swivels, as stem chasers, 
I w^ted to-day fajr ap p uintui ePtf on the Honour- 
able the Governor^ on the hill, and recdved my 
instructions* personally fiom him, with the follow- 
ing letters, yis. to the Kejuman Muda, rajah of 
Langkat; SuI^[i3>i%ttm^'of DeUi; Sri Sultan 
Ahmut of Bulu China; Sultan Besar of Sirdang ; 
Nunku Bindahara and Pasgulus of. Batu Bara ; 
Jang de per tuan, or rajah of Assahan ; king of 
Siaek ; ngab (yTSalengore ; also my codnmsnon as 
agent to the governor of Pinang, written in the 
Malayan and English languages. 

Sth January.— -Ibmng completely equipped the 
brig in eight days, with stores and aU necessary 
provisiona for three months, the escort^ consisting 
of a havildar, naick, and fourteen picked men from 
^eUgiii eompany of the seeood battalion SOdi re- 
ffanent Besapl Native Infimtry, embarked thb 
araniilg; and upon mimtermg all hands, I fimnd 
tiMe were dxty*dflree ionli on bond, as fdlow8>-^ 
Ifr P« O. Cun^gy and Mr Brown, who Tolutt* 
toerid to aoeonpany the minon ; Mr listing my 
dodc; Fdix Nareis, steward ; a CSiiiieae dnmgfato^ 
mas, Blalay moondiee or writer, two Pten% and 
one attendant, servant, cook, steward's boy, and 
^gpUbe^ dittos native doctor, a ]^bt, a crew of 

• VUt AnModis, Ns. 4, 


wenn men attached to the fteonmiiodatioii faott» 
dptaiiit two gummn^ three neicnimki, Satmlg, 
Tindalt Canab, Topaz, Bandarry, Ghina caipenter, 
Md teii Laieaia. There were twenty dietiiict 
taeee of peoi^ on bpardt and^ with the exeeption 
dT the ptfty of 8epoy8» flcitedy two wete known tt> 
each other. There were Siamese Buiniahe, Am- 
beynea^ Mahiya^ Biigge8e» Chodiahe, CSiineee 
Chindiewy ditto Canton, Chittagong, Hindoetany, 
Portngwcse, Maailh^ Caffire^ Makhar, Javaneaet 
Fadan^ Batta, West India Creaky Danesi and 

S/A/omiarsf^— I embarked on board the Honour- 
able Company'a brig Jeaay, at 11 a. m^ and stood 
out thronj^ the aonth channel, the HonouraUe 
Ojmpany*a cmiaar Sylph in company* We had light 
aim till we readied Pulo Rimau, when the breeae 
AnahflPiBg about 9 o^dockt set all sail, and steered 
&W.andbyW.fiirDellL The Sylph having ccm- 
dncted na dear out of the channel returned about 
audnigl^; aad the accommodatimi boat whidi I had 
taken with me £» the purpose of ascending rivenH;, 
with the native plot and seven men on board, kqpt 
wmfuy tin 8 o*dodL in the mominf^ vrhen the 
w^^ being dark and stormy, she parted from us. 
I aassdratally came upon deck at tfaia tim% and 
■Asring the boat, I ordered the brig to be hove ta 
We stood on under easy sail during the remainder 
aC Ibe ni^rtt. bmmiiiig lights, and fiilly expecting 


thU the* bott would be in rig^t in the moniiiig. 
At mn-riae we looked fir her in tbui anmnd the 

KMA /(fliiiMfyw— This momiii^ the ishmd wim 
diettiit fifott us eboat 85 miles. Made all sail 
babk, a&d rounded Saddle ishmd with a Ifaie faveeK 
siNmt five o^dock p. m., auchoring on the east side 
of Ftalb Riman about mma. I immediately pio- 
eeeded to town in a small Chooliah boat which 
tam^t off the pilot, and reached the master at- 
tendant's at midnight, after a hard pull against 
wind and tide for five hours. Mr Wright had not 
heard any tidings of our boat, and my anxiety 
was so great, that I could not be prevailed upon to 
go to bed ; and expectmg to see the boat come 
down with the ebb tide during the night, I laid 
mysdf down on the jetty, with a hard phmk for 
my pillow, tin day-break, when I dispat^ed boats 
Id Vrjtf Joorso, and other jdaces on the opposite 
dme, to look tot the acomnmodation boat, while I 
Went to explore the inner diannd between Pulo 
Jengah a»i the idand Here I found the boat, 
and readied tiie hng at nine a. u. 

llH ifaiiiMPry.— Made all sail, and steered as 
beftre 8. W. and by W.» standing across the 
slaiti for DeilL At ten p. ir. the wind Uowii^ 
very fipesh^ the p3ot hailed, and informed me that 
the tow rope of the Siam canoe had parted. The 
idght being dark and tempestuous^ with a heavy 


wmSi on, I idwtantly >h«iidonad the anall hmt, 
odl kept our jeoiinet tl» wind simag; «id lai^^ 
tomnto all night The Ion of tUs faeantiM bo«t^ 
pspoedy eoMtniBfeed fivr aaendu^ dudlow Bfen^' 
flri jftBiBg Mn peddfes^ was a gieat iomvcnicBoe 
to me; and I afterwards experienced die wank of 
it Tciy amdL 

vdk JbMiary.— ^Working across fhestauis;^ Ai 
idm half tiie day. During the night, hard sqnaHir 
with hieessant rahi, and a heayy swdl ; the yemA 
Ubooring flonuh, and my people suffiring greatly 
fimn sra siclmf ss and the crowded and confined 
state of the tesseL Run under the foie-sail the 
gttatet part of the night. 

UUh January^— At day-break the low knd of 
Ae Sumatra shore risible from the deck, and the 
lattf a w un t ain pesks in the rear towering above 
d» cknda. The few landmarks on this low woody 
eoBSty lender it eztreaoely difficult fiur the naTigator 
to ascfirts i n i with oorrectnesst his situation on mak^ 
agthelsAdtefcn with the aid of darts. To sup- 
ply tfaia dcAflieney, it is necessary to keep a good 
aeeomit of the distonee run, and the exart course; 
hot I feud the oqptain had given himself little 
toodble dbouk either. Theprojectingpoint of land 
wfaieh ftftt stmdk our view to tiie westward, wasne* 

he captain to be Diamond Pomt, (all 

mudi alike to him,) but tins I knew 

impesMUe^ from my own observation of the 


tfagstthieiPSDloBertiiigi^tiiigM* Aooonpuiiad b]F 
Mr Bimm jmd fbor aoldiei% I kft the veiKl m die 
•JMMiwinMi Jgflon boat ttt nooiu for the wirDotB of ex* 
ploRBg the coMt» andendeevewifig to diieo?er the 
DdlLnw. I proeteded dixeet linr the iahmd, b«t 
ecpdA* not fl pw roech ne e iCT diaii. 1^ milet oQecoonot 
i(f the^^Mgeeiuig faodJiuks and leefik The hng 
rtoqd'in the wean time donin the coart nnder easy 
aaU»wHhdiiedaonaftomaBetO;l«ngttp^ if wencse 
uhiiiiiHd lb eatcr^ a xiFer. The fai% at thk |daoe 
eottld ilofc j o bn ioach the ahore nearer tiuui six mfles* 
I eoteted i^qiig in the boat in 4 feet wato^ idMsat 
tiDeemikii when ne fiDund a fine r^okr channel 
of 1 ifiK^omt diitant ficom the shore a third of a auk. 
Standing fiom the northward^ distanee olF diira 
half a mile^ 1 fiithom. Polo Berting«tinghi bear* 
ii^ H. and by W. i W. Boln China rxrer point 
bearing & i W. Centre of Delii river S. and by 
& dittant 2| milei. Polo Berting-ting^ now ha?* 
ing the appearance of firar gmall ropka diannited. 
The Aote wrn. covered with numgnnre to the 
wafedfa edge^ and the trees growing in the aea. 
Hnndrada of. white sea-fairda were aeen on the |^ 
Itaiim^ aindi lianlii^ and along the ahore* 

We enteed the Bufai China, or Kwab Bela. 
wnv aboat S p. !€•» baring aonndinga near the 
inondiy gradnaUy incroaaing fiom li to 9} and 4 
fiwthffniffr T nt i d ft diara ia acawriy kn than 4 
^lid 5 frrtV**^! £ir aer eral nilea np* W^e palled 


«p^ «kI iMohed the flnt village, called Kam- 
lUr, a little way up the amall fresh water 

of DeUit abcmt half-part four. The Sul-r 
tfla Paag^nui waa absent, being up the nwet 
aW«t a dafli jooniejr, at Kota Jawa» where he 
had been engaged in hortilitiefl with die Rjgah 
PubBoriean and Rajah Graha, about a months 
I had not wailed many minutes before the sultan's 
eoDsin Tnanko Teongal, his son, and Noqueda 
Usool* ftUowed by 80 or 40 attendants, came down 
to Ae village wbae my boat was lying, and greet* 
ed ae with a very oonlial welcome. They imme- 
dialdy dispatched an expiess to the sukan, and 
sent a pilot vrith me to bring the brig into the 
Boln China river, as«she was lying at a mort in-* 
eosveniflttt distanee outside. After a mutual inters 
change of civilities therefore, I returned down the 
river. The boat grounded on a sand-bank between 
die Ddli and Bnlu China rivers, which, in her 
weak and decayed state, caused the leak to increase 
esmidenbly. At snn-set it commenced to rain in 
Isncnts^ and Ae wind blew a perfect hurricane. 
As it oreasienaHy deared up, we caught a g^pse 
of the limits in die brig, whidi were hoisted for us; 
boft daricnesa again returning, we were forced to 
■nshor repeatedly. We continued in this harass* 
ing and fiitignii^ operation during the nigh^ an^ 
and making sail not less than ten times ; 

eemplstely drenched with rain^ and tho 

10 WAR AT 0£LU. 

people at last so much CThaiisted as to be oaaUe 
to stand; a heavy swdl and breakers all aroimd 
us ; the boat labomiiig ezeessively, and leaking so 
muA, that two men with buckets oouid liardiy 
keep her fiaee. Towards momuig the atmosfdiere 
deared u^ and we took the opportunity of running 

I Snd that the trade of Delli is quite at a standi 
in consequence of the diffiBrences of the ehicfii in 
the interior. It seems to me^ therefine^ an object 
of great importance to adjust the existing di^tes 
as a prdiminary measure. The springs ave now ob^ 
and I most therefore calculate upon fimrtcen days 
at least in the river, l/nder the present eiieum- 
stances of the disturbed state of the country, I do 
not fisel myself justified in quitting it, until I have 
at least endeavoured to effect a reconciliation , which 
would be extremely beneficial to trade. So long as 
this stoppage exists, the injury to the native traders 
and to Finang, will be seriously felt ; and should 
the contending chiefe, Bigah Pulo Barian and 
Giaha gain the superiority, a disastrous revolntkm 
will be the result. As the present sultan has long 
manifosted an anxious desire to im>mote the com- 
meree cf the country, and to maintain a fioendly 
idatioQ with Hnang, it is but justice and policy 
finr me to aid him with my advice in this emergency, 
imd to use my mediatii^ influence. I am ii^mn* 
yd, timt foor of the sultan's party have just been 


kiDed in a pitched battJe. Paiigtima Fcang, one 
cf Ins moti trastjr warrion; was amongst the slain^ 
«kI his head exhibited op a pike as a trophy of 
vielorjr. Their engagements aie not generally Tery 
Usody ; and tids is consideied a mcnno serious end 
aangninary one than usual 

IMA Janmary.—Mi Stewart, the commander of 
a anaU schooner called the Suffidk, belonging to 
Finangp and iridch was waiting at Delli fiar a cargo 
cf peppefft Tolunteered to carry the brig into the 
Kwidah Belawan. The gross ignorance of the 
ooBMBaader of the Jessy, and his perfect inability 
t9 canry the vessel in safety to the different pbces 
1 have to viat to the westward ; the liability to 
touch OB saond-banks, and the want of asostance; 
tiie dowiied state of our vessel, and the probability 
of disease breaking out ; the additional importance^ 
also^ whidi another vessel would give to the mission, 
and the increased security against pirates; the 
anudl draft of water of the schooner, (only feur 
&st when light), and the actirity and knowledge 
af several of the ports possessed by the captain, wevc 
lA ao many inducements to accept Mr Stewart^s 
to ac eo m p a ny me to Langkat river ; and I 
t^ gave directions foir preparing the ves* 
acL The repairing of the accommodation boat 
sriD refuiie some time ; and the Jessy being fitted 
ant in hasten requires to be put to rights, her rig- 
set up, &c All these necessary operations 


occupy all <m board ivfaik I am employed ool* 
lecting information at Ddfi, and vititing the 8al<* 
tan up the country. Havnig detennmed^ ihere^ 
fiire^ to wait here tome time, we weigfied at two 
p. M. and stood into the Bulu China river, Mt 
Stewart acting as pilot, and a fine biee« ikvouriiy 
us. The following are my obsenrations in stand- 
ing into the rivor. Lying at andior oppoate 
Bulu China river, in 4 fitthoms, distance off shore 
about five miles, the westerly pomt or Tanjbi^ 
Passir Putik bearing 8. W. J W. Pulo Bert^ 
ing-tinghi scarcely visible, like three small sped» 
or rocks bearing N.W.iW. Steering W. N. W. 
in a channel S4, S, 2, and 2f fathoms. When op- 
posite the outermost stake or beacon, altered course 
to W. and by N. in S &thoms ; and whep abreast 
of the second stake, in 2 &thoms, steered S. W. 
and by W. Pulo Berting-tinghi more vimble^ bear- 
ing W. N. W. i W. Opposite the second trian- 
gular stake 2i &thoms, and close to a fish- 
ing stake to the ri^t, on going in, $i firthoms. 
Between this and a triangular stake, mid diannd 
ef and S fathoms. Tanjong Passir Putik bearing 
W. S. W., the channel deepening to 4i and 4i fii- 
thorns. There is a small dioal extending off Tan- 
jong Passir Putik, dose to the edge of whidi is 44 
fathoms water. Tins large river is called Kwidah 
Belawan or Lawan, up to where it branches off to 
the right, when the main branch is called the Bnla 


GliiM» and tlie dumnd whidi kads into the Bdli 
tifor !• edled Sungd Kapak Aojing. Here wt 
mUband in 5 fiifthoin^ doee to the mouth of ano» 
tfaor man mo; wbidi tarns off to the right, call* 
ed Sungdi FlinteL Shortly after anchoring, I 
pioeeeded np in the j<^7 hoat ; but the freshes in 
tibe small stream which leads to Delli wore ao 
stm^, that, after making several ineffectoal at* 
tempts to get the boat to Ejonpoi^ Ilir, we woe 
cUiged to retuni. I met the sultan's brother, 
Tnaako Wai^ka, bringing me presents of fruity 
Ae ; and he aeoompanied me on board, to obtain 
ssme medicine lor his son. This poc^ man dis* 
played an intensity of feeling in speaking of his fii- 
ttuly, and particalaily of his favourite wife^ whom 
lie had htdy lost, whieh is not usual amongst the 
JMkhyi^ who generally bear their misfortunes with 
a p p are nt apatiiy and indifference. Pointing to his 
ddest son, an interesting lad about ten years of 
age^ he said, ^ this, and four other helpless chil* 
^ dren, have been left to my care, and I know not 
''iMiwiopraridefcH* them." Here he burst into 
tears. ^ Were it not for these," he said, ^Ishould 
* go OB a pilgrimage to Mecca." 

l&k JiifMaf^.— Having made preparations for 
an cunrmn into the country, I left the hng at 
ci|^ ifdoA tills morning, with a small party, and 
procee ded np to the entnmce of the fresh water 
ilPSi^ wiien we were detained for twelve bom% 


Waiting for the flood tidc^ there bdng a bar at tii« 
mouth quite dry at low water> and n^uirmg an 
hour's flood to get the smallest canoes m« The 
channel here is very intricatef and my fecfp\% 
jumped into the water and dragged the boat aeross 
the bar^ the Sepoys cheerfully taking a share in 
this laborious duty. Oars are of no use in this 
small stream, the natives using Umg pdes called 
gala, in the management of which they are very 
expert in pushing the boats up against the rapid 
ourrent, which runs here with a most alarming ve* 
lodty, particularly after the heavy rains* At the 
entrance oi the river, we met Tuan Haji Kalif and 
Noqueda Usool, the two chief people in absence of 
the sultan, bringing me presenU of fruit, &c I 
learnt from them that the snltan was stiU xsp the 
country, and could not come down, even for a diort 
time, in consequence of the disturbed state of the 
place. Anxious to have an interview with the sol* 
tan, I left Kampong Ilir at noon, and with a Caffiee 
guide, one of the sultan's confidential attendants^ 
and my small party, proceeded across the jun^^ 
along the banks of the river, intending to go as far 
as the Kubu, or encampment of the sultan at Kota 
Jawa; but the road was rendered almost impas- 
sable by the quantities of rain whidi had fidlen; 
and after wading several hours up to my knees in 
mud and water, and night conung on, I determin- 
ed , upon r^tumipg, and .choosing more fiivousaUe 


mesLihex fear my excursion. ; I toavelled about teto 
milesi passing through several villages, called Kaiil«> 
jmig Aled, Kampong Taogah^ and reaehed Kam- 
pong Besar at half-past three o'clock. Here there 
19 a large misgid or church, situated on the point 
where the river separates into two brandbe& I 
purchased here a complete model of a prow, called 
4 penjajap, and the snout or saw of that large spe* 
cies of shark called theJupam/Tig or saw-fish, which 
is a very considerable article of trade fnr the China 
market, being used as medicine ; but the natives 
in this quarter do not seem to have any notion of 
their value. The one I purchased for half a dolhur 
is the largest I have ever seen, being 5 feet 5 inches 
in length, and armed on each side with teeth of aa 
inunense size, some two inches in length, and 56 
in number. The sea and rivers in this quarter are 
fuU of these large sharks, which immediately attack 
any person falling into the water. During our 
journey to-day, we had to oross the river (which vroa 
much swollen, and very rapid), in several places^ 
upon bridges rudely constructed of the betel-nut 
and nebong^tree^ thrown across, and lashed in a 
very careless and insecure manner. The least slip 
wpuld have been fatal, as, had we &llen into the 
water, we must inevitably have been swept away 
by the rapidity of the current 
In all the villages through which we passed^ the 
<tf almost all the males, and the superabmi- 


16 BWKLLnfOS. 

dtiiMefwtaieiitgav^lmttoo plain indfettknii of 
ike war that was mgmg in the tmattj; and wt 
saw a poor tviefeeh who had heen woondedt htooght 
into hiafionilyfroin the field of hattle. Semalof 
theae mifoftoiiaie petaana had leemred diogeroui 
l^oiMliot woondai The balla whidi thejr nae iftfiiet 
a liieat ae^^cre woimdy heiii^ made of tin^ with pieeea 
of faroken ]^te inside^ the ahafp pointa of whidi 
generally prqjeett ao that it ia cMretnely dlflEleolt to 
eatnict theni< Xhe moat eommon woondai howerery 
We r e fr om the raojan, ahaip pointed apBntera of bam* 
booa, whidi were atndc in all the pathwijv around 
tfie enemy'a fertifieationa. The inhaUtanta, wheie^ 
ever I pmed» were hoq[atabl^ and expreaaed their 
Mief that my anriral would tend to reetore peaee 
and tranqnilHty to the eountry. Am I paaaed their 
beuaea, they preaented me with eocoa-nuta, called 
liere kahmber. Eaeh hooae haa ita eocoa-nnt 
pfamtation, whidi ia a prindpal artide of anbdat* 
onee in thia quarter, aa in meat Makyan dountrieaL 
The houaea ate pleaaantly aituated on the baaka of 
the river genemlly ; thanr badiii^^houaaa are built 
wver dbe atream» and tiiey have a piotoreaque and 
pfaaaing elbct The houaea are laige^ commodiDUi^ 
and aabatantiatty built, with large a^mre poali^ 
taiaedfifmn the ground aboirt 6 or 7 feet; theae 
poata aupported upon large afuaie atonea or blooka 
of wood. Tht aidea are generally plank, and the 
faa(b eovfvad with the leaf dT the nipdi ar airiangir 


Thijr hme aU windows in die loo^ whidi render 
thm estnmAy eool and comfinrtable ; and fixmi 
these the women, who aie naturally timid there^ 
kek at the stnuigen paving. Under eadi hoote 
twie hufge loond baskets^ nukle of qplit 
the bark of large trees^ in which the 
paddjr and pqiper are deposited. These villages 
weae wdl provided with poultry, goats, &c. and 
everywhere csdiibited the j^eanng appesranees of 
eomfbrt and abnndanoe. The water is carried 
fioBS the liver by the women in loi^ bamboos^ 
wfcish aie hnge^ and of which there is a great va- 
riety* each house having a dump ca two in the 
KuDponf^ whidi gives them a very picturesque 
and rand aspect All the villages through whidi 
we passed waintainfd nightly patrdes or watches; 
the poor people benig liable to midnight attadcs, 
and to be phmdcred by the enemy. There seemed 
to be an entire stagnation of trade: indeed, I may 
say^ I did nst see a single artide ftr sale. 

We passed tlmmgh several small patches of 
paddy, gioning most luxuriantly. I never saw 
any paddy eq^ to it, the stalks being 6 and 8 
6et in Isngth, and the ears richly stored. Wetra* 
veled thnagh estcnsive groves of fruit trees, via. 
es e a n ^mt, betdkiut, dorisn, champada, mangoea* 
Janrim, lanseh, runp^ madan^ goava, plan*- 
and vnripus other descriptions, intenpetsed in 
plaeei with the jungle. In travelling tliKaigh 



the wood% we czperienood gteat inooDTenienoe from 
the immense number of small Icedies or pachat 
which fiUl from the boughs of trees. They pene* 
trate through the clothes imperoeptihly ; and our 
legs were absolutely covered with gaie» from the 
bites of these little creatures. The woods were 
full also of a shrub called the jeUatang, whidi 
grows abundantly al<mg the pathways, and requires 
the greatest caution to avoid touching it The 
leaf somewhat resembles the tobacco leaf; and if it 
touches the skin, produces a most painful itchy 
sensation, followed by an eruption, which continues 
upwards of a month, causing the greatest uneasi* 
Htm and pain. I saw also great quantities of aiuK 
ther plant, called daun bua bua, with a lai^ soft 
hai, which shoots out from the ground, on which the 
natives sleep when they are attacked with fever» 
and which has a cooling eflRsct There was also an 
almndaaee of the bua palas, the leaves of whidi 
are used for pdfishing ereesesL The fruit is a small 

The natives here appear to be extremely super* 
stitions. Near Kampong Tangah, in pasaing 
tfaroi^ the woodsy my attention was drawn to a 
large piece of plantain leaf laid on a Hat basket 
eoftred widi tiie following curious assortment of 
artidesb vis. a sasall quantity of $trr^ tobacoo^ a 
variety of llowett, principally the bunga malore^ 
aone pieces of doth, the legSi bead, and heart of a 


tmU nccp ginger, betd-nut, oiU and two bamboos, 
vith toddy, &c* These were meant as an ofl^ng 
to the evil s^t, on account of a poor man who 
had leoeiTed a gon-shot wound in the bad^ in the 
kte engagement at Pub Barian. I proceeded to 
his hoose dose at hand; but although he was suf* 
fiering the most eicniciating torture, and anuNiifi* 
cation was evidently commendng, his friends would 
not permit my native doctor, who had accompanied 
me with a case of surgical instruments, to attempt 
ito extnietion« I saw many other miserable objects^ 
to whom I administered medidne. On our return^ 
the women and diildren were less alarmed, and as* 
Sfmhled at the doors in vast numbers, to see Euro* 
pcaou for the first time. The women are of Batta 
extmetion, and disfigure themsdves by making 
laige hoki in their ears, into which the richer 
dasses introdnoe rings of gold, but the poorer onea 
an content to wear a piece of wood, or even plan- 
tain leaf loUed up, and copper rings. The old 
women lay aside these ornaments when thdr ears 
loaa their clastidtys and hang down nearly to their 

Oka aqr way back to Kampong Ilir, I went to 
euaaine tibe tomb of the sultan's favourite wife, wli9 
had died a fim months before (and whom the suk 
tan had been i^eased in his conespondenoe to style 
my sister), in the construction of which monument 
nailiealar natna had been takcuj haviiw sent fiar 


brielu and tiles from Pinang. This was the aoiy 
piece of masonry I saw in the place. Near thia 
monimient is the half of an old 12-pounder iran 
gun, which is held sacred by the natives. I was 
about to put my hand upon it, but ¥ras checked by 
my guides, who proceeded to give me the history 
of this wonderful piece of ordnance. 

On retumingt we fell in with some fiiriiing boatSr 
from one of which I obtained for a dollar an abun* 
dant supply of fish for all on board. The best 
of these were the korau and selangin, the f<Nrmer 
resembling a salmon in shape, and the latter • 
sea-trout in size. My people also procured an 
jabundant supply of vegetables. We returned ta 
the vessel late in the evening; the sides of the 
river towards the sea swarming with monkeys of • 
great variety of species, feeding upon the fruit of 
the niri bunga and niri batu trees, growing 
dose to the river's edge, the planks of which are 
used principally in the construction of prows and 
small boats at DcUL 

l6Ui January. — During the night the musqui* 
toes prevented any attempts at sound repose^ the cur« 
tains affording but little protection against these 
roost tormenting insects, which aie particularly 
large and troublesome ; and from sun-set till smi« 
rise they ceased not to plague us with their hum- 
ming. Long ere die day had dawned, we weie 
aroused from our slumbers by the soft warblings of 


mjfriadiof die faithered tribe, and tbe chattering of 
luidreds of iiKmkejrs, scrambling firam tree to tree cm 
cidier aide of the small river where the Ycssd lay at 
aadiQr. The son rose with andouded splendomr, 
idiile the dear atmosphere and serene bine sky, 
indieated a fiur day. Exhausted as I was by the 
joomey of yesterday, the temptation of sudh &- 
imrable weather was too great an inducement to 
he resisted^ to renew my excursion ; and I accord- 
ingly made prefMurations for a two days journey. 
My party consisted on this occasion of IS soldiers. 
If lasfsrs to carry provisions, Mr Brown, the 
native doctor and draughtsman, and my Malay 
writer. We started at seven o*dock in the large 
boat, but after pulling for half an hour without 
mddng any pr og ress against the tide, we were 
tateed to letum, and embark the people in two 
small joUy-boats and a canoe. We had the same 
dUBcokiea as befiwe in dra^ng the boats over the 
sand-banks at the mouth of tiie fresh water stream. 
Every one^ exeqpt myself jumped into the water, 
and eadi vied with the other in his exertions, 
dMN^ this Vfas attended with aome risk, the ali- 
gaten beii^ numenms and bold in the river. The 
mnber of peo^e, however, and the noise, no doubt 
prevented their approach. After remaining hdf 
■I hour to breakfittt at Kampong Ilir, we set out, 
in eompany with Tuanko Wangka, the king's 
brelher, T^um Haji Kali, and about 90 of their 


who ezpfesnd b dMie to oooompray 
OS to tiie mihaii*! encampment. Our road lay 
along the banks of the river, till we readied Kam<t 
pong Besar, when we croaaed the smaller stream 
inboata^ Heie mnltitodea of women and diildren 
had assembled on the banks of the river, around 
the church, and there appeared to be • large pqiu^ 
lation. At this place a new diannel was cut ftp 
the river about 50 years ago ; and the old bed of 
tibe river is nearly dry, except during the rainy 
aeason. After crossing the fisrry, we came upon a 
fine open dear country, the large trees only left, 
having the qipearance of a park in England, 
We passed through immense trades of paddy, 
growing most luxuriantly. The extraordinary 
height of the paddy rendered it extremdy dia- 
agreeable travelling along the narrow pathways, 
the grain overtopping our heads two and three 
leet Large parties of Malays were clearing away 
the jungle^ aa we passed, for the purpose of 
planting tobacco^ of whidi we obaerved several 
small plantations in a thriving state. After 
travdling about acven milea through the paddy 
fidds, and extensive plantations of sugar-cane, wo 
came to an almost impenetrable thidcet, with a 
amall pathway, which would not admit of two 
walking abreast Here our guides were rather 
alarmed, and begged I would desire the Sepoys to 
load their iniMlrcti, appidicnding an attack fton 


tfae eiiemy« who lie in wait in the thick piirtB of 
the fiv6it% and pick ijff stragglers with their 
matrhloeksb or perch themselves upon hranchei of 
tioesb and shoot poisoned arrows with the smnpitt 
sr long hoQow tube; and which latter the natiyes 
diMd much more than a musket ball The for* 
nidaUe if»pearance of our partyt however, prevent* 
ed an attack, nor did we observe any traces of the 
enemy. We halted several times, to give time to 
the stnggjUrs to come up, and to keep our party 
tsgether. The road was almost impassable in 
some plaees^ particularly in the paddy fields, where 
we walked in mud and water nearly up to our 
nddle. Our legs and bodies were covered with 
Uie small leedies; and on coming within half a 
mile of the saltan's encampment, a messenger was 
dispatched in advance to announce our approach, 
lAile we proeeeded down to the river side to wash 
the Uood off our 1^^ and prepare ourselves &r 
waiting vpon the sultan. I dressed in a patch of 
long lallang grass. On coming within £00 yards 
of the sultan's fort, I halted and saluted him with 
a diaehaige of five rounds of musketry firom the 
whole party of soldiers, which was returned with 
swivds and hhmderbusses, about treble the num<» 
ber. The sultan was ready to receive us, nr« 
Banded by all his chieft and warriors, in a small 
Imt, stodcaded all round with trunks of trees fixed 
the ground, of which there was a treble low. 

34 C01IF£R£NC£. 

His eBcampment oonnsted of e^t kubas or fiarti» 
at the dittenee of 60 and 100 yards all roundt 
doae to the banks of the river on eaeh side. A 
temporary bridge was thrown across the stream 
(whidi is about 50 yards wide, and the banks of 
which are abont 15 fiset in he%ht), esKtreoidy rapid 
and deep in some plaee% and the water as dear as 
crystaL The sultan, a leqpectable looking old 
man, had made all the preparations he coold in 
this wretched place for our reception, and met me 
at the entrance of his fort, conducting me into his 
place of audience, a miserable hovd, when the 
letter was received with due honour. The sultan 
evinced considerable anxiety on opening the letter ; 
but when the contents were explained to him^ a 
ray of joy illumined his countenance, and he eau 
pressed his anxiety to encourage, by every means 
in his power, the resort of traders to his country* 
He proceeded to give me a detail of the causes of 
the present disturbances in the country; and I pro- 
posed communicating witli the enemy, who was 
encamped in five small forts within mudcet diot, on 
the opposite side of the river. After a conforence 
with the sultan, whidi hmted about an hour, I ro> 
tired to a kubu which had been pnpared for my 
aoeommodation, much fotigued aftsr my journey; 
This hut was about SO feet long^ bytOwMk tad 
only 74 in height; and hen my whde party took 
up their quartern for the night I had not been 


Aen Buuqr imimtes before • laige ptrty of the 
fimcip e l ehiefr ctme in, and kept me in con* 
fenatkm tifl kte in the ev^ung. They wete 
at lblIowa>— Toanko Wan Knmhang, the aoltan'a 
jfwniger faiodwr; TnankoButa ofSiadc, aadhia 
tfnee atna, interetting looking young men, named 
I^Mnko Koidt Daud, and Anam ; also their three 
ewiini, Tnanko Mahomet, Jena, and Semaii ; to 
aft of nhom k waa necessary to give small presents. 
From these dueA I reodved a full account of 
tiior kte eng^fements, and of the principal causes 
of the present hoatilitaes. A chief, named Tuanko 
Fdo Baiian, had established himself several years 
ago^ np the Ddli liver, residing at a place called 
Maidan ; but gaimng a little influence, and collect* 
ing • ftw desp erate adventurers, he proceeded to 
SKaet a dutf iqwrn the pepper passing down the 
rivar, to which he had no right, and which was 
fixeiUy opposed by the sultan. The sultan seized 
a boat leaded with pepper, bebnging to the Rajah 
Fkdo Baiian, which was sold to satisfy his nurae- 
•Boa cveditosa, whom he refused to pay till compel- 
led by the sultan. He vowed revenge ; and imme- 
diatdy eoUeeting all his followers, he felled a num. 
ber of laige trees along the banks of the river, whidi 
aewpletfly blocked up the passage, and seiaed and 
ffamdcRd any boata attempting to come down to 
tcade at DellL The sultan was therefore compel- 
led to take the field. Another source of dispute 


(md whidi made the fultan very invetarate) was 
the aeiaure o{ a huflGdoe, whidi the roltan was 
about to make a sacrifice oC after the kte epidemic 
which had committed such layages in the country. 
The buffidoe strayed during the night prior to the 
intended consecniti<Mi9 was seind and lulled by the 
Sigab Pub Barian, in spite of the sultan's remon- 
atranoesp and a fiill knowledge of the hdy purpose 
finr whidi it was designed. In felling <me of the 
large trees into the river, the Rajah Pulo Barian, 
who took an active part himself slipped, and broke 
his thigh, which was considered a just retribution 
fiir his sacrilegious conduct The Kigah Pub Barian 
came originally firom a place called Danai, a littb 
way dovm the coast His proper name is Bjidin 
Inn. He has three brothers, die eldest of whom, 
Mai^a Kaya, is now called Rigah Graba, or the 
head warriin*. Wan Achan, another, was married 
at Queda about a year ago, and is, I believe, a 
piratical adventurer ; and the other brother. Wan 
Bagus, resides at DanaL 

Bqah Graha is the leading man in this business, 
nd has about 100 adherents, principally Battas. 
He gives 16 dollars finr each kubu or fort for eight 
days^ and one pice weight of opium, with a dmpah 
of rice daily, to each fighting man, and a reward finr 
every head of an enemy. There was an incessant 
firing all night, dose to our little hut which was, 
however, impenetraUe fan musket balls; but the 


sultan recommended me to permit some of my at- 
tendants to go outside. My bed was an old mat 
laid upon a hard flooring of split bamboos on the 
ground, which was not particularly well adapted £or 
enjojring sound repose upon^ The musquitoesi 
however, were not quite so troublesome as we had 
found them further down* The cold during the 
night was excessive, and a very heavy dew fell 
Large parties of the sultan's tro<^ patrolled during 
the night ; and here and there we observed groupes 
collected round large fires^ which had a picturesque, 
effect, ynder the lofty trees which had been left 
Mutouched, on which the Uazing fires reflected. 

nth January. — The fog this morning was very 
dense, and the coolness of the air extremely invigo^ 
rating. After refreshing myself with a plunge in 
the clear stream, I sallied forth to inspect the eui^ 
campio&it, and visited all the forts on both sides 
of the river. As the sun iy)se, the fog disappeared ; 
and the rushing of the stream ov^ the rocks and 
large trees which here and there interrupted its 
murse, united to the melodious warblings of the 
birds, contributed to enliven the scene before n:^ 

Each of the sultan's kubus was unde^ a pungulu 
and several panglimas, and contained from 30 to 
40 men. They were well provided with arms^ 
chiefly iron and brass swivels, blunderbuitees, match- 
locks made at Meuangkabau, spears, and a variety 
fif liwords, witrh kris innumerable. The walls weifg 


covered with AieUs, called gantar and priri; and 
eadi 6rt was jfforided with hatge quantities of the 
taqan, w smaU pointed slips of bamhoo, the tops of 
whidi were well hardened in the ftre, placed in long 
cases made of jdnts of bamboos, containing abont 
too OT SOO ranjans eadi. Without them thej 
never go to fight; and they plant them in the path- 
ways as they retrest fiom the enemy* 

At this ^ace are the remains of a large em- 
bankment or fortification, which was oceujned by 
a colony of Javanese many centuries ago; and 
hence it retains the name of Kota Jawm to this 
day. It seemed to have been sorroonded by 
a wide ditdi; and the whole bore the afqpear- 
ance of a regular fortification. Around grew a 
great variety of venerable loddng M trees, par- 
tknlariy of the red wood or rangas. The anau 
tree^ from whidi the Uack rope is obtained, grows 
in abundance in the woods. The Battas extract 
toddy fifom it, of which they seemed to make a li- 
beral use, to strengthen their eoun^. The sultan 
was up at an early hour, and ready to converse with 
me. He seemed exceedingly anxioiis that hostili- 
ties should cease, but said he felt no confidence 
while Ri^ Graha remained in the country, whom 
he represented as a most desperate duuracter ; and 
wlMH'he hid no doubt, would instigate some of his 
people to assasrinate him, if he consented to a re- 
conciliation, and to his again residing at Kanpong 

001lFfiE£KC£ WITH THE SNEHY. 99 

IHf^ where he umiUy staid prior to this rapture* 
He Mithoriied me, however, to tell hinst that he 
diould be dear of all debts due to the sultan, pro« 
vided he would quit the country quietly. Anxious 
to ha?e an interview with the opposite party, I pnK 
eeeded to the fiirt at the extremity of the sultan's 
encampment, which was the strongest q{ the wholes 
and contained about 80 fighting men. This was 
exactly opposite two oi the enemy's kubus on the 
other nde of the river, within a st<me's throw, and 
where several men had been picked off by musketry 
a few days beibre. My entrance into the kubu 
was amiooneed by a loud shout, whidi drew some 
of the enemy to the embrasures of their forts, and 
a parley todk ]^ace. I observedi* however, six or 
seven mnskets and blunderbusses pointed towards 
the place where I was standing ; and the people 
around me cautioned me against putting my head 
ever the palisades. Upon being hailed and inform. 
ed that I was dedrous of meeting the chiefis, they 
pot their arms down, calling out at the same time 
to the sultan's party not to fire. A stout, athleti<^ 
dashing loddng man, dressed in a scarlet doth 
jadLet, whom I afterwards understood to be the 
panglima^ or commander X the prindpal finrt, then 
stqpped forward and told me, that Rajah Ghraha 
was ready to recdve me, but that I must bring 
only half a dooen followers. He promised also that 
Intilities should be suspended on his side while I 


lemttned^ and b^ged me to obtain a similar pledge 
from the sultan, which I did. The crowd of war- 
riors drawn up on the opposite shores of the 
river, foimed an interesting spectacle. I aoocnd-* 
ingly, with my writer, Mr Rrown, and four Sepoys^ 
crossed over die bridge^ and passed throuj^ an in- 
tricate pathway about half a mile^ to the place ap- 
pointed for the interview^ which was a small open 
space oi rising ground* where Riyah Graha was 
seated on mats spread on the ground, surrounded 
by about 50 wretched looking moi, armed with 
spears, muskets, and creeses. His best men were 
dl in the kubus. We were conducted by the 
panglima before mentioned, dressed in scarlet He 
had distinguished himsdf in an engagement a few 
days before, dose to the spot where we sUnnL 
Both parties had shown more than usual courage 
on this occasion, fior they engaged sword in hand. 

Panglima Prang, a fine young man from 8ir«« 
dang, who led on the party of 100 men, rushed 
fiotemost into the battle ; and I was infimned that 
the personal enoounter between him and this dar- 
ing kxdung fellow who escorted me, excited the 
deepest interest He was at last victorious^ and 
with one blow severed tile Panglima Pkang^s head 
from hb body. 

Rajah Giaha is a stout, dark, little man, with 
mastachios, windi added to the natural fierceness 
drUslooL He surveyed me with a jcakms eye ai 


first, but I soon established a good imderstandnig 
with him, and we had an unreserved communica- 
tion. He complained much of the sultan's treat- 
ment, and insisted that he had taken up arms in 
selMefencc j and that though he had a fiunily to 
support, the sultan would not permit him to trade 
in the country. I pointed out to him the neces* 
sity and advantage of concession, impressing upon 
him, that if he returned quietly to his former place 
of abode, Danei, and cultivated pepper and paddy, 
he would find many ready to assist him, and would 
reap more advantage from the quiet pursuits of 
commerce, than from opposition to the sultan of 
Delli, and from disturbing the peace of the coun* 
try. He seemed impressed with the propriety of 
my suggestions, and gave me authority to make 
certain proposals to the sultan of DeUi, of which 
an accommodation has since, I believe^ been the 
result. I made Rajah Graha a small present of 
Europe chintz, which he returned by some fruits ; 
and we parted in the most friendly manner. As 
we passed one of the sultan's largest kubos, on the 
opposite side, close to the enemy's entrenchments^ 
we observed great preparations making for mount* 
ing a 1 8 pounder gun, which had been brought up 
with great labour by the sultan's party. Undav 
standing that this gun belonged to the small 
schooner lying in the river, I pointed out to the 
sultan the extreme impropriety of his using it, and 


exacted a aolemn promise that it thould be return- 
ed forthwith. As I leamt ako that Rajah Gndia 
entertained a notimi that the saltan had reodved 
amstance ftom me in arms and men, I dispatdied 
my writer to assure him that sndi was not tiie 
case, and to communicate the promise which I had 
received fifom the saltan respecting the gnn. 

ISth January.— Oxtt stock of provinons being 
nearly expended, I dispatched a small party eariy 
this momingto the brig,fora fireshsupply. I was 
employed the greater part of the day conversing 
widi the saltan on the objects of the mission, and 
obtaining from him a variety of information rda- 
tive to the commerce and revenues, the history 
and agriculture of the country. He was always 
ready for an interview, and manifested the most 
anxious disposition to conciliate and show me the 
greatest attention. Here I found a rich fidd for 
enquiry, and was reluctant to quite the place, until 
I had satisfied myself fully upon all points. Many 
€i the chiefo of DdH had not ascended so for aa 
where I now was ; and every thing here was as new 
to those who accompanied me, as to myselfl The 
soil here is a rich dark mould, and must be of al« 
luvial formation, as at Ujong GoraK Rot for from 
Kota Jawa, there is a cable in the ground, describ- 
ed to be as large as a lantern which I had with me, 
and confirms the tradition that this part of the 
country has beeu recovered from the sea only a fow 


centuries ago. The rope is of the iju or gonmty, 
and is in a wonderful state of preservation. 

A little way down the river, there is a place call- 
ed Kota Bangun, opposite to which is a fine plani 
tation of cocoa-nut trees ; and in the middle of th^ 
river a small island called Fulo Gk>rab, from the 
drcumstance of a vessel being wrecked there many 
centuries ago. This place, which is not now inha- 
bited, is known by two remarkably lai^e trees of 
the katapang and benuang species* Near it, and 
akmg the banks of the river, are a great many of 
the selas^selas tree^ the &vourite resort of the bees 
which produce the fine wax of the country. These 
trees may be observed at a distance, towering above 
all the others of the forest 

Accompanied by the native doctor, I went out 
in the course of the day to visit the sick in the seve- 
ral forts, and administered medicine to many poor 
wretches who had received severe wounds, and were 
otherwise sick. The doctor probed the wounds of 
several ; but we could not prevail on any of them 
to submit to the necessary operation of extracting 
the ball. I saw many remarkable instances of the 
superstition of the natives* 

Great numbers of die B^ttas who were employ- 
ed by the sultan as soldiers, came to visit me to-day ; 
amongst the rest, one of a particularly ferocious and 
determined appearance, distinguished amongst Us 


companions for his extraordinary oooragef and also 
as an expert marksman with the matdilock. He 
was a natire of Seantar in the interior, and he told 
me he had partaken of human flesh seven times. 
He mentioned this in the course of oonversatioii,aiid 
of his own accord. He even specified the partial- 
lar parts of the body which were esteemed the most 
delicate. With the sword which he held in his hand, 
he said he had dispatched four men, of whom he had 
eaten. He was completdy equipped for battle, hav* 
ing upon his person a priming horn, cartouch bos, 
cartridges, a matchlock of Menangkabau manniacv 
ture, a shield, and a spear, besides a case of raojaaa 
or sharp slips of bamboos slung over his shoulder. 
He was dressed in a bajoo of blue doth, Achenese 
serwal or trowsers, a tangulu kapala, or handker- 
chief for the head, and a small mat-bag slung across 
the other shoulder, containing his flint, steel, series 
betel-nut, and tobacco. 

One or two Battas who came from a place call- 
ed Tongking, also mentioned their having parta- 
ken of human flesh repeatedly, and expressed thenr 
anxiety to enjoy a similar feast upon some of the 
enemy, pointing to the other side of the river. 
This they said was their principal inducement for 
engaging in the service of the sultan. Another 
displayed, with signs of particular pride and satis- 
fiulion, a kris, with which he said he had killed the 
seducer of his wife, and whose head he had severed 


fiotti his bodyf holding it by the hair, and drinking 
the blood as it yet ran warm firom the vmoL He 
pointed to a spot of blood on the kris, whidi he re^ 
qitested me to remark, which he said was the blood 
of his victim^ and which he put to his nos^ smel- 
ling it with a j^est difficult to describe^ and hid 
fisatures assuming at the same time a fsrodty of 
expressioti which would not have been very agree' 
able, had not my safety been guaranteed by my 
Watchful sepoy guard4 

The sultan's force consisted of about 400 ineit^ 
Me-thiid of them at least sudi savages as I have 
been describing. Their food consisted of the &sh 
of tigers, elephants, h(^, snakes, dogs, rats, or 
whatever o£Pal they could lay their hands upon^ 
Having no religion, they ieAt neither God nor man^ 
They believe that when they die, they shall become 
wind« Many of them, however, are converted to 
Islamism ; but the olda: people, who have been ac* 
customed to feast upon human flesh, and other de^ 
licacies of that sort, have an aversion to the Maho^ 
metan faith, as they cannot afterwards enjoy them- 
sdves, which is their principal consideraticm^ 

The pepper plantations a little way above Kota 
Jawa, are kept beautifully cle»n, and ekar £rom 
grass. They plant paddy, onions, sweet potatoes, 
plantains, and cotton, amongst the pepper vines^ 
Dry poles are used as supporters. These poles 
require to be frequently replaced ; aad their removal^ 

%. . 


no dottbt» causes considerable injury to the viaea^ 
Tlie plantations were full of large red fruit called 
the padindang, which is of a very beautiful i^ 
pearance, but is, I believe^ of a poisonous qualify. 
The jahar tree is one of the handsomest of the 
forest The branches are large and spreading 
leaves small, and the wood hard, and of a ooarae 
black grain. The binjai asam is a large and oma^ 
mental tree^ bearing a bitter fruit, pleasant to the 
taste. The mentubong is another fine branchy tree, 
but the wood is soft. 

There is a place near Pulo Barian, called Tan^ 
jong Kallumpang, from a lai^ tree of the name^ of 
which the timber is most commonly used for making 
coflKns. The wood is of a reddish colour and ooarae 
grain. At this place the sultan first encamped on 
his march up the country, and had only moved to 
the place where I found him, about ten days 
before. The finest and most ornamented tree 
which I saw in the woods, was the bunga dedqi, 
a tree producing a very handsome rich crimson 
flower. The bunga sennia bunglei, also was in 
abundance. This tree produces a long bean, two 
feet in length, with small seeds and light partides 
like flowers of thistles. The stem of this tree is 
used for making charcoal for gunpowdar. It growa 
to the height of about 80 feet 

As the evening approached, I went out with my 
fowling-piece, and had good sport. I shot a men* 


key of a particularly lai^ size, called lotong, with 
long black hair and tail. I almost r^etted my 
success, as the sight I witnessed was most distress- 
ing, the animal being only wounded ; and a young 
one, which could not be separated from it, clasped 
it in its arms, uttering the most piercing shrieks. 
I also shot a kubong, or flying squirrel. Of the 
feathered' tribe, there was an infinite variety. The 
tukang is the largest and handsomest bird I 
saw. It makes a loud croaking noise in passing 
from one tree to another. There is a small black 
bird of exceedingly delicate plumage, with two 
long feathers in its tail, called the amba gra, or 
monkey's debtor. The ampork is a bird with red 
]dumage, and has sweet notes. 

The party whom I had sent for provisions yes- 
terday, arrived about noon, much to the satis&ction 
of all ; f(»r we had nothing left, and there was no 
possibility of procuring any thing except a little 
rice at this place. Hearing that the Rajah Sebaya 
linga was at his pepper plantations, about a day's 
journey from Kota Jawa, and being anxious to 
meet him, to endeavour to introduce the currency 
into the country, the sultan dispatched three of 
liis people to invite him to come over and meet me 
•after my return from Bulu China, whither I was 
proceeding. I proposed writing a letter in Malays, 
but the sultan inform^ me that would be of no 
use, as he did not understand letters ; and to oon? 


vinoe the Rajah Sebaya that a Europeaii was ae» 
tually there, and to prevent dehiy» he reoommend* 
ed me to send aome article of my dre«. I aeeordr 
ingly sent him a doth jacket to look at, and the 
impression of one of my seals (a dog, to which the 
Battas are very partial), upon a small piece of white 
wax. Having now arranged every thing with the 
sultan relative to my mission, and promised to re- 
turn again to Delli after visiting Langkat, I pre- 
pared for our departure the following day. The 
sultan was loath to part with us, and b^ged me to 
remain a few days longer. 

19^ January. — ^The sultan having prepared 
two canoes for our conveyance down the river, with 
two expert men in each at the bow and stem, to 
manage the galas, it became necessary not to pro- 
tract our departure, but to set off in time^ in order 
that we might reach Kampong Ilir before dark, the 
river being full of those formidable animals, the 
elephant and rhinoceros, which come down in im» 
mense herds towards evening, to bathe in the 
stream, and frequently attack and destroy boats 
coming suddenly upon them. The sultan and aU 
the cluefii accompanied me to the river's side (idben 
I embarked), which was a particular marii of dia- 
tinction; and we exchanged salutes in stepping into 
the boat We acooidingly embarked the whole 
party, twenty-nine in number, in two canoes^ wfaieli 
were very ridietty and leaky, and in iriuch we 


were in constant apprehension of being upsets the 
stream being extremely rapid, and our frail barks 
gliding along with a most alarming velocity. The 
river too was full of trees, and occasionally rocks, 
against which the least touch would have been 
&tal; but the Malays handled the poles with 
astonishing dexterity; and just as we were in 
momentary expectation of being dashed to pieces, 
they gave the boats a fair direction with the galas. 
The river in some parts was almost impassable, on 
account of the large trees ; and we were obliged to 
land on the bank, while the boat-people cut away 
or lifted the large trunks under which the boat 
passed* The velocity of the stream appeared to be 
nearly six miles an hour. A very considerable de« 
divity was observable. At the place where we 
embarked, the banks were about 15 or 16 feet in 
height, but they gradually declined till we reached 
Kampong Besar, a distance of about S5 miles, 
where the banks are nearly level with the water's 
edge. The country seems to possess immense adf- 
vantages in respect to soil; but the inhabitants 
want activity to make the proper use of nature's 
prodigal gifts. The river was skirted by an incon^ 
ceivably rich v^etation ; and the variety of the 
trees on its lofty banks, and the splendid profiisicm 
of their fdiage, gave to the landscape an aspect at 
once pleadng and luxuriant. The whole scen^ 


called to ny veoollectian Milton'8 saUime detorip- 
tion of the cveatum:— - 

RoMy at in danoe^ tbe stately treat, and tpread 
Their brandiet, hong with oopioot fimit, or gemm'd 
^ Their Moatoint ; with hi^ woodt the hiOt were crowflTd, 
^ ¥nth toftt the Tallejra and eadi loantaia tide, 
^ With borders long the rirert: that eardi now 
" Seem'd like to hearen, a aeat where Godt mi^ dwell^ 
** Or wander with delight, and love to haont 
" Her tacred thadea." 

PABAOiax Lost. 

The trees akmg the banks of the river were ao« 
tnally covered with mcmkeys, Unck, brown, and 
grey. The birds too swarmed upon the branches, 
some of exceedingly rich and varied plumage and 
melodious notes. We observed numerous tracks 
of the elej^hant and rhinoceros on the sides of the 
river. The natives do not understand the method 
of catching these animals. The sultan begged I 
would endeavour to persuade some of the Queda 
people who had been accustomed to catch do* 
phants» to go over to Dellit where there is no 
doubt that an immense quantity of ivory might be 

The Ddli people are very ddicate in respect to 
their women. Am we approadied the bathings 
houses on the banks of the river, the man at the 
ytem of * the canoe called out with a Stentorian voices 


^ boah," which was a signal for the females, if 
there were any near the river, to move off. The 
sugar-cane was growing luxuriantly in many places 
we passed, particularly at Mabur Bajuntd, Ho^ 
queda Squ's residence, about half-way up. This 
is a well cultivated spot, covered with large plan^ 
tations of plantains. Here there is a very remark* 
able old tree, like an umbrdla, the top being faro- 
ken, and the whole tree decayed except a branch, 
which shoots out near the top, and overspreads the 
trunk. My draughtsman took a sketch of this 
extraordinary old tree. At this place formerly re- 
sided Rajah Mabar, one of the sultan's ancestors, 
of celebrated memory. There is a remarkable plant, 
with a large broad lea^ called sukkat, or salimbar, 
which grows on the stem and branches of large trees, 
iised for packing tobacco in, to keep it soft and 
moist It grows in abundance. Nature indeed 
seems bountifully to have supplied this country 
with every necessary tree and herb, without the 
labour and trouble of cultivation. The bubua, a 
tree somewhat resembling the teak, with large 
leaves, and prickly stem, is found in plenty, and 
used chiefly as posts for the construction of their 
iiouses. Of the daun ibas, a leaf resembling the 
nipah, the natives make baskets, mats, &c. ; while 
several species of rattans are found in plenty, and 
furnish them with ropes, &c. for their boats, mats^ 
baskets, &c. 


Defending the river, we passed numerous small 
kampongs, and two small grqa, or chuiches, where 
there was a large concourse of children reciting the 
konuL Other parties were amusing themselves in 
the other houses, some playing upcm the vidin, 
others beating the gong and drum, raiging, &&; and 
the inhabitants seoned altogether more settled and 
oomfortaUe than when I passed a few days ago, 
in consequence, no doubt, of the suspension of hoa» 
tiltties which took place. In the morning, one of 
the Iqng's men was reciting with a loud voice, in 
a drde of about 200 people, from a book contain* 
ing the history of the exploits of Alexander the 
Great, translated from the AraUc, which was in* 
tended to impress the sultan's warrim with hermc 
notions, and excite their courage and emulation* 

In passing the village, some of my people made 
several small purchases of cocoa-nuts, plantains, and 
sugar-cane ; the prices of which were somewhat less 
than at Pinang. Bice, however, was very scarce 
and dear ; only four gantons for the dollar. The 
imial allowance there is one ganton, or foor dio- 
pas^ for a party of 18 men, for each meal, twioe 

We readied Kampong Ilir about seven in the 
evening ; and being too late to go on board the 
brig, we took up our quarters on board the sAooner 
Snfblk for the night Numbers of Battas vriio 
had taken courage and come down to trade during 


the suspension of hostilities, came on board the 
schootier. My draughtsman took a groupe of 
thtfm^ who were dressed entirely in their own ma* 
mlfiMturts. I did not obsenre an ardde of Euro* 
pMn or odast manu&ctuie upon these men* Many 
otbcm ajLso idiom ^I saw were dressed in native 
manu&ctures. They came fiom Tinging to the 
eastward, a few months before, and had taken up 
fhdr residence for a short time at one of the vil-^ 
lages a little way np the river. They mentioned 
that there are 800 people at Tinging, the place 
' where they reddey five days journey from Delli, 
under the authetity of Fangiilu Bangun. One of 
^hem who spoke Malays tolerably well, said he 
had eaten human flesh three years ago ; that they 
enhf eat their enemies. The other two had never 
eaten human flesh. I was detained till a very 
late hour conversing with these people, and re^ 
tired much fatigued to seek a little repose, which 
{ had not enjoyed for several nights* 

20£4 Jiomtioi^^i— This morning, long ere dawn^ 
% from short (as usual) and distnrb'd i^tpose I woke,** 
^iid roused my slumbering att^dants, whos^ minds 
were less anxious than mme^ and whose skins were 
better qualified to resist the attacks of the torment- 
ing musquitoes, which allowed me but little rest, 
We started early fcnr the brig, and were fortunate in 
getting an abundant supply offish, of which a single 
boat contained no Jess thm 13 diff^^^ent specieSf 


We had been absent firmn the vessel five days, 
and my friends on board had been collecting curi- 
osities during my absence. Mr Camegy shot a 
variety of birds, the handsomest of whidi was a 
bunmg udang or kingsfisher, with a Im^ red bill, 
and Ugfat bine intermixed with scarlet plomage. 
The flying liiards (chicha terbang) were also in 
plenty on the trees, two of which were secured by 
my cleric The bunmg lambu, a large Inrd with 
black plumage, which makes a ncnse like a cow, 
and the dendang ayer, were frequently seen, bat 

We were accompanied on our return by the fismale 
Mata Mata, Che Laut, a most extraordinary and 
eccentric old woman, and more like a man in her hft* 
bits. She is a most intelligent old creator^ and gave 
me a vast deal of interesting infinrmation relative 
to the country, and the different places along the 
coast, most of which she had visited. She applied 
for a Malay Testament (of which I had several for 
distribution), which I gave to her, and she express- 
ed her intention of studying it. She speaks a 
little Chinese, Siamese, Chuliahs, and Bengali^, 
and once took a trip to Adieen, purposdy to leam 
the language. She is fond of travelling, and has a 
great desire to see different countries. She is a 
poet and historian ; and as she sat in the boat, com* 
posed extcmp<Nre verses with astonishing fluency on 
any given subject, as fiMt as I could write tbem 


down. She knows the name of every river, and 
almort every chief, from Palembang on the east 
coast, to Soosoo on the west coast of Sumatra, She 
dyes, weaves, and embroiders. Her memory is 
astonishingly retentive ; and she answeifs questions 
on ahnost any subject with wonderfiil fluency. She 
is in £ict a prodigy of leamii^; but she has nO 
beauty to boast of, being a prototype of the 
hag in Guy Mannering. She is taU and thin, 
with long hanging ears, and holect nearly the dr^ 
cumference of a Spanish dollar. She is usually 
dressed in a long scarlet silk bajoo, with a pair of 
long trowsers, and a tartan sarong or petticoat over 
them reaching to the knee, with a salindang or 
scarf of cotton, dyed by herself, a green body with 
red ends, which she throws gracefiilly over her 
shoulders when Ae goes out She returned home 
in the evening. 

2\st January. — Noqueda Unguk, the miltan's 
prime minister, and the female Mata Mata, who 
were ordered by the sultan to escort me to Bulu 
China, came on board early in the morning ; and I 
again left the brig, with a party of 25 men, in the 
accommodation boat, for a five days trip. We en- 
tered tile Bulu China river about eight A. M. 
Here the river is about 400 yards wide, with a fine 
deep channel of 6 and 7 fathoms. On the right 
is Sungei Terussan Dulmanack. There is another 
channel which communicates with Delli, about 


seven miles up the river, to the left. Here is s 
small island, called Pulo Gorab, from a tradition of 
a grab belong^g to the king of Acheen being 
wrecked there many centuries ago. The sand col- 
lected round the wreck, and a pretty litUe green 
island has sprung up. The sides of the river 
abound with niri bnnga and batu, the bungor and 
other wood fiw building prows. The boga also^ a 
species of palm, like a small cocoa-nut tree, grows 
abundantly on the banks, the top of which makes a 
good vegetable. It produces a large fruit resem- 
bling a pine apple. The nipah or «rtup leaf was 
also abundant, and the txees covered with fruit 

Our guides were rather ignorant of the naviga- 
tion of the river, and the number d channela 
puzzled them. We by mistake sailed up a river 
to the right, about 150 yards wide at the mouth, 
continuing that width for seven or eight miles, 
gradually decreasing to 50 yards, with a deep chan- 
nel of 7 fathoms in some places. This river ia 
called Sungci Belouai. We sailed up its stream 
about 12 miles, when seeing no traces of inhabit- 
ants, we returned. There is a small green island 
iu the centre of the river, called Pulo Barimbang.' 
After leaving this river, we took the straight chan- 
nel, and after two hours hard pull, readied the en- 
trance of the small stream which leads to Bulu 
China. We passed a small river called Sungei 
Aior, and a channel leading to Delli, which waa 


cut by the inhabitants a few years ago— a proof of 
more than common industry. The Pemagang Haji 
met us at the mouth of the small river, having gone 
to the brig to wait upon me, and missed us while 
we were up the Sunjei Belouai. I gave him a pre- 
sent of white European doth, with which he was 
much pleased, having never seen any so fine. He 
told me that European white cloths were very sale- 
able in the country at present. 

We entered the village of Bendar Sampei 
about seven in the evening. My people were 
quite worn out with the fiitigue of pulling firom 
eight o'clock in the morning, without intermission, 
under a hot vertical sun. We passed a most 
beautiful pulei or wax tree of an immense size, two 
reaches below the village. The appearance of this 
village as we entered it in the dusk of the evening, 
was more prepossessing than it proved to be in day 
light. A great number of prows were lying in the 
river ; and their lights, together with the lamps in 
the houses, united to the sound of music in all di- 
rections, rendered the scene extremely lively and 
pleasing as we glided up the river. We moved 
our baggage into the house of a respectable inhabit- 
ant, Che Abang, close to Shabundar Sampei*s 
house. The latter had gone two days before to 
DellL Noqueda Amal was acting during his 
absence, but nothing could be done without the 
shabundar, who is the prindpal man there. I re- 


paid Che Abaiig's hospitality by a present of chinta^ 
And haadkerchiefii to himself and his two sons. 

98d January. — ^Early this morning I went out 
to take a survey of the Kampong Bendar. The 
ground is very swampy and muddy, in consequence 
ef which, walking was not very easy or agreeable. 
Some of the dwellings^ however, have an appear- 
ance of comfort The people were busily engaged 
in various occupations; some were cutting fire- 
wood, others were preparing planks for prows, and 
others were pounding paddy, &a The inhabitants 
sore respectful and obliging, never addressing me 
without the epithet ** Tuan,** or Sir, which is 
by no means common in many Malayan coimtricf. 
I shot a patatow bird, a beautiful species of wood* 
pecker, with dark yellow plumage, and a long bilk 
Of shell-fish which had been brought from the sea 
shore, there appeared to be a great variety ; via. 
cockles of a very lai^ sise, muscles and oysters; 
abo a peculiar sort of wilk caUed kalimboy, with a 
black shell, and the fish protected with a shell co- 
ver, the whok resembling a small Scotch snuff- 

In consequence of the rain, which began to fidl in 
torrents at eight o'clock, I was confined the whok 
day to the house ; but was busUy employed in the 
meantime in collecting information from the na* 
tives who Hocked in vast numbers to visit us, and 
vied with each other in their attention in bringing 


me specimens of warlike instruments, flowers, &e. 
of which my China-man made sketches. The mata 
mata was very active in procuring supplies of fish, 
&c A man just arrived from Soonghal informed 
me that the Orang Kaya was at Selagan-layan, one 
day's journey from Soonghal, where there is a small 
village, and an extensive pepper plantation. Sul- 
tan Ahmet was at Kullumpang. I was very anxi- 
ous to reach Soonghal as soon as possible, both 
that I might examine the state of the coun- 
try, and also persuade the Orang Kaya to intro- 
duce our currency. I was informed, however, that 
the woods were infested with a travelling banditti, 
known by the name of Gumpangan, or Musu 
Bringing, who shoot from behind trees, and plun- 
der passengers. The country around Delli is in- 
fested with the same banditti. I was in conse- 
quence prevented from penetrating fiirther into 
the interior ; and the rajah fearing that I should 
meet with some accident, declined to give me 
guides, as I requested. These people lurking in 
the brushwood, are effectually concealed ; and from 
this covert they fire their small poisoned arrows, 
which gliding through the air without noise, carry 
sure death to their unwary victims. I saw several 
people who had encountered straggling parties of 
these banditti in their journies, and had been 
wounded severely by their attacks. The people 
around me amused themselves with playing at 




chesB (chatiur or main giyah), all day. Thia gme 
is very common in all the countriea which I virit- 
ed ; and some very skilful players are to be met 

2^ January. — ^During the night, three men 
were observed close under my bed plaoe, attempt- 
ing to make a hole in the wall, which was only of 
tihin samiers. As soon as they were obaorvedr 
they made off with all speed. My sentry kept a 
good look out. I was kept awake a great part of 
the night by one of my host's sons, who was reci^ 
ing a poetical tale, to which a large party around 
him were listening with delight. His voice was 
soft and musical, and the recitation pleasing. 

My writer and a messenger who left this place 
two days ago for Soonghal, not having returned, I 
was forced to >vait for the chief from Kullumpang. 
It rained hard during the greatest part of the day. 
During a little interval of fine weather, I went to 
the adjoining village, Pangalan Bulu, to visit the 
Pemagang Haji. The distance is comparatively 
short by land, but the road is a mere compound of 
mud and water, in which I would have sunk to the 
knees. I preferred, therefore, going in a boat, 
though it was extremely difficult to make any way 
against the strong current in the confined channdi 
which was cut a few years ago, and where the wa- 
ter runs as if it were a sluice. Rather than make 
a pathway of 800 yards, the inhabitants prefer 


amimg 900 or 400 yardB in the middie of tlie 
ttiMDi. We iaw fome little hojs mounted oq 
«mO hweett dnhing into the river at fiill gtllop^ 
md fwimming about. The borseo appealed to be 
wM trained to die sport I diot a faeaatifnl blue 
ludt with a ydlow beak, called a purling^ whooe 
aotet are not unlike the blackbird ; abo several of 
the dove qpedea, balum and punei, which are very 
numerous, and very ddieate eating. The barow 
baiDw, a splendid yellow bird, sings also like a 
blaAbird ; and according to the report of the na^ 
tives, can be taught to speak. 

Of domestic animals, the cat seemed the most 
plentifuL They are the genuine Malay eats, with 
m screw in their tails, large and powerful, and ex* 
ceUent ratters. In all the cottages I observed the 
fpomen industriously employed, beating paddy, 
fluddng cases for rokos, spinning, and dyeing. From 
die leaves of the pine-apple, which grows wild in 
the woods, in plenty, they make a fine thread, 
vriudi is sometimes used as a substitute for silk. 
Sieiy article of necessity, and many of luxury, are 
to be finrnd in this country, which possesses many 
advantages and natural resources, capable of being 
improved to a vast degree. The excessive iud<^ 
of the natives, however, is a bar to all im* 
They gain a subsistence with littk 
or exertion, and devote the greater part of 


their time to sleep and idlenew, smokii^ madcUt 
(opimn), &c Opium gmoking, however, is not so 
prevalmt here as at Soong^ial, where almost every 
person I saw uses this pernicious drug. 

Towards evenings three traders (Battas), who 
had just travdled across from the interior of Lang* 
kat, with which phu» and Soonghal there is a con* 
ttant conmiunicatimi, came in. They were of the 
tribe Karau Karau^ and were dressed entirely in 
blue doth of coast manufiusture, called murch and 
didopan, of which such large quantities are annu- 
ally imported by the Chooliahs into Pinang. Al- 
most aU the Battas whom I saw here were dressed 
in these doths ; and some few had bajoos or jackets 
of European chintz or white doth. Nothing but the 
want of means prevents them from all wearing Euro- 
pean doth, to which they have latdy become very 
partial. The pepper plantations are thriving re- 
markably wdl in this quarter, and coming into bear- 
ingrapidly. Their produce will give these people in- 
creased means of purchasing their fiivourite dresses; 
and I have no doubt, from what I saw, and the 
evident partiality and growing taste for European 
chintzes, maddapoUams, muslins, and handker* 
diiefr, that the demand for these articles will soon be 
very great, and the sales extensive. I passed two old 
decayed churches at Pangalan Bulu, near which are 
planted a variety of variegated laurds, called mas 


Dtedin tlirir fhneral oeremoDies, and whidi aie 
VMttlljT planted around the tombs of Hbe dead. 
OiM oiftheie Battas had a hair lip. 

9Sd January.-^MY patience now became quite 
oduuiatedy waiting for the yonng chief; md tl^ 
ijkoaf^ I saw an evident objection on the part of 
Ae Pemagang Haji to my going up the country, 
I determined to set out at all risks, with a party of 
A naick and six sepoys, six lascars, Mr Brown, and 
my dtaugfataman* The Pemagang Haji not having 
come down to meet me this morning, agreeably to 
promise, I went to his house about seven o'dod^ 
We waded up to our knees in mud ; a little boy 
on h^nrseback preceding us, and showing the chan« 
nd of the river, and my people dragging a canoe 
hy main force over the shallows. They were in 
consequence greatly fatigued before commencing 
dieir journey. The Pemagang Haji urged a 
variety of objections against my journey, such 
as the bad roads, and the danger of an attack 
fitm the banditti, and the chance of my people 
bong lamed by the ranjaus or sharp bamboos an 
the pathways. We started, however, from Panga- 
kn Bohi about eight a. m., passed the vilifies of 
KaDambir and Dangla, pleasantly situated on the 
banks of the river, and reached Kullumpang, the 
icndence of Sri Sultan Ahmet, about four o'ckwk, 
tnwdfing up to our middle in mud and water in 
some places, the paddy here and there giowii^ 


anx our heads two or three feet in scmie places, 
loaded with rain ; and as the pathway was narrow, 
we were completely drenched. In other places, we 
passed akmg pathways with thorny bushes on 
either sid^ and had our feces and hands scratdied 
all over. I dressed on the side of the river, after 
washing off the blood with which my legs were oo* 
Tered, from the bites of the small leeches. The 
sun was very oppressive all day ; and I think it is 
probable the quantity of blood extracted by the 
leeches prevented an attack of fever, or more se* 
rious consequences, from the excessive heat and ex- 
posure to the sun. It was too late in the aflemoon 
to proceed frulher, and we accordingly halted for 
the night It being necessary to give the Orang 
Kaya Soonghal notice of our approach, I dispatched 
my writer with a guide on horseback, but they re- 
turned shortly afterwards, having met some of the 
Orang Kaya's people, who informed them he was 
ready to receive mc. 

As we approached the village, the people were 
just reaping the paddy, which is plucked off by the 
ears, and piled up in small stacks or ricks, as we 
pile the sheaves in England, containing about two 
to five ooyans each ; and the tops of these arc neat- 
ly thatched with straw and garlands of flowers, 
having a rural effect. The paddy here^ as at 
Ddli» is very kmg, and a large grain. A great 
faiietj of flowering shrubs surrounded the house. 


There was an abundance of fruit trees also, par- 
ticularly plantains and papaw^ which were the 
largest and finest flavoured I ever saw. The pep- 
per vines around the house were in fine bear- 
ing, and they were just b^inning to pluck the 
fiiiit. Some of the vines were supported by dry 
poles, others by the bangkudu tree. 

The musquitoes were so numerous at noon in 
the woods, as to render the travelling extremely 
disagreeable. We could not halt a moment with- 
out being attacked by thousands of them. We 
saw several herds of buffaloes, of an extraordinary 
large size. They were fatter and in better keeping 
than any bullocks I ever saw in Smithfield market. 
They were very wild, and fled at our approach, ap- 
pearing alarmed at the red . coats of the soldiers. 
The tracks of elephants, tigers, and hogs, were nu- 
merous in all the pathways ; and we saw evident 
signs of a large herd of elephants having crossed 
the pathway on which we were travelling, tlie even- 
ing before. These animals sleep during the day, 
and we were therefore under no apprehensions of 
an attack. In all the marshes snipes were nume- 
rous, and rose in large covies : not being fired at, 
they were quite tame and fearless. As we passed 
the village of Dangla, the people had just caught 
41 large elk by a noose, of which they gave us a very 
amall portion, which was good and tender. The 
natives cut the flesh up into very tlun sUops* and 


dry it in the ran. Some of the Makjft tte good 
marksmen, and shoot deer in plenty. One man 
was pcnnted ont to me at this viUage^ who eonld 
kill a large bird with a nngle ball npon a tiee^ and 
addom missed. We did not see many serpents cm 
oarjoomey. We killed only one beantifiil green 
snake, called nmhaka, 8^ feet long. Of the ant 
species there was a great variety, some 4^ large as 
bees ; and the large red ant, which bites so serere- 
ly, dropping from the leaves of trees upon passen* 
gers. These insects, united to the musquitoes^ 
and the small leeches, contributed to render the tra* 
veiling extremely painful and disagreeable ; while a 
vertical sun over our heads increased the fiitigne of 
our journey. 

I shall now proceed to enumerate the most re* 
markable vegetable productions which I observed in 
the woods, without much regard to their arrai^pe* 
ment The small chillie, called the Inrd's eye, was 
met with in all directions, growing most luxuriant- 
ly. Daun nilum, a leaf used for stuffing beds and 
pillows, and a considerable article of trade amongst 
the natives, was also plentifiiL Of wild peas, there 
was a great variety, the flowers of whidi are ex^* 
tremdy ddicate. A small yellow fruit, called treng 
asam, with a rough coat, fhll of small seeds^ and 
resembling in taste a sour go o s cb c iiy, ladier agie»> 
able to the palate in a hot day, we also foond in 
large quantities, and my pec^ ale plsntifidlj of 


tliem» wHhoiit soffiBring any of the liad effeete 
I wppnheadtA fiom tbeir great addity. The le^ 
flMB waa veiy pfentifiil in the jungles, the treea 
glowing to a krge siie, and the froit Tery fine» 
Giumw were abo growing wild in the woods; oa 
had heen planted there, and the seeds being scat* 
tered ahout and carried by the birds, prodoeed 
Uiat immense quantity of trees which we saw. 
The abang abang tree, which is also seen in great 
abundance, is used for making charcoal as an in- 
gredient of gunpowder ; also the bankiri, of which 
we observed many trees. The kakumbo tree, 
the bark of which is used as a substitute for 
seree, of a strong pungent quality, and the galin- 
gan or puting malela, the leaf of which they use for 
the core of the small-pox, were also met with in 
]denty. We passed many beautiful selaslas trees, 
bnt did not observe any hives upon them. The 
natives had just stripped them of their precious 
load. The bark of these trees is quite smooth, 
and the leaves very diminutive. There is seldom 
a fanmeh under 60 or 70 feet, which renders the 
aseent difficult and dangerous. The benuang treea 
were abo numerous. The daun radudu, a medioi- 
Bal herb, is also common. The anau tree wasvory 
abnndant, and of a particularly large size ; andiat> 
tHtt and canes in plenty. The natives use a large 
rattan, very common here, called diimmo^ finr draw- 
ing np water from the river, and ton crossing the 


•tueamwitlL A Tariety <tf Httle omameDUl thnihi 
and flowers, like bachelw'8 buttoiia» oaxcomlM^ ke. 
fpere abo obeerved at the ndes c£ the pathways 
and many other uefiil or ornamental trees and 
herbi^ which I had not time to examine and which 
I z^g;ret that I do not possess a sufficient acqnain- 
tance with the sdenoe of botany to describe. The 
joomey was upon the whole very interesting, the 
woods being like a garden in some places, where 
the natives had partially cleared away the jungle 
Here is truly a rich field for the naturalist 

On coming near the young chiefs house, the 
sepoy guard saluted with five rounds of musketry, 
which was immediately returned with the same 
number firom swivels laid on the ground. The 
firing attracted a large concourse of the Malay and 
Batta peasants fix)m the adjoining pepper and pad- 
dy plantations, who thought the enemy had come 
upon them, and arrived fully prepared to defend 
their diief, equipped with their martial accoutre- 
ments, and breathless firom the haste with which 
they had hurried to the spot. They were assured- 
ly a motley assemblage, and an extremely wild and 
Mvage looking group. They eyed us with astonish- 
ment. The young sultan came out to meet me; 
bat being little arqnainted with diplomatic oere- 
monies and receiving European visitors (fi)r hehad 
■ever Jbeheld a white fiioe befixe), he was a good 
cloi) cnbariassadt which appeared lA an affeetalioii of 


(B ta ci rift ci?ilitjr and oomplimeDt On my 
off mj hat therefinre in saluting him^ he polled hii 
handkfwthief right off hia head, and made a nmi* 
br pfofimnd salutation, which is qmte contrary to 
aD ndei of Malayan etiquette. They salute by 
bending, and nearly touching each other's heads 
twice, dasping each others hands lengthways, that 
is, the inferior putting hia two clasped hands into 
the superior's, who gives them a gentle pressure. 
In presenting scree, they are very ceremonious. 
Sultan Ahmet is a fine, sensible, good humoured 
bd, however, and became quite fiank and unre- 

Sultan Ahmet was very inquisitive and eager 
fiir information; and with his tutor, a Javanese 
priest, who had been on a pilgrimage to Mecca, 
imd who has been teaching him to read the koran, 
imd instructing him in the mysteries of his reli- 
gion, kept me company till midnight, showing no 
inclination even then to retire, till I reminded him 
nf the fiitiguing journey which I had made, and 
that I required rest. I had not seen much opium 
gmoldng till to-day ; and those whom I had seen 
jddicted to the practice, rather seemed disposed to 
flODoeal their vicious propensity ; for such it is con- 
pidend by all respectable natives ; but the young 
poltan's uncle, Tuanko Marim, unceremoiuonsly 
Inoght his pipe and smoking apparatus, ^nd used 
|t beside me, as an European would do his hookffh 


or choooL He was a poor emaciated rnddy look- 
iii^ nunit aad had all the characteristic marks of 
bn^ indulgence in this videos propensity. He 
continued whiffing till about nine o'dod^ idben he 
retired quite stupified and giddy, and unable to 
reach his own threshdd witiimit support He 
told me that he used a ball* or one catty, of opium 
annually* I presented the young sultan with some 
European doths, rose-water, &c and the ssme to his 
unde. The letter from lise honourable the gover* 
nor was received with due form and ceremony, and 
read aloud in the presence of sll his attendants. 
At this place, correspondence by letter is little 
praetised. Shortly after our arrival, a messenger, 
with SO attendants, arrived from the Orang Kaya 
Soonghal, with a handsome sword or kris panjang, 
wrought with gold filagree; and communicated 
the Orang Kaya*s directions to take possession of 
a prow at Bulu China, the commander of whidi 
had died. In conversing with some of these peqile 
who had just arrived, one ci them informed me 
that he had been trading in the interior a fisw 

months befixe^ and lost one of his companions^ who 
was killed and eaten by the Battas near the great 
lake, because he wore a short sarong whidi is con- 
sidered very inddieate amongst a certain tribe of 
Battas, and a great insult They wear their gar- 
ments down to their fret The Battas at Kiilhnn- 
pang are of the tribe of Karan Karsa. 11i^ 


tmb emy • small bag over their shoulder, con- 
taiDU^ dieir seree and rokos, or small cheroote, 
made of diag tobacco, rolled in a dry leaf, of which 
they make a moet profiue VMe, being seldom a 
niniite without one in their mouths. They leave 
their wives and children on the mountains, and 
come down to cultivate pepper, returning general- 
ly once in the year for a few days, with the fruits 
of their industry. They resemUe the Chinese a 
good deal in their frugal habits, and desire of col- 
lecting money. They keep the pepper gardens 
beautifrdly dean. Sultan Ahmet has about 200 
of these Battas in constant employ at his gardens, 
dose to Kullumpang, which produced last year 50 
coyans or ISOO peculs, and the quantity is increas- 
ing annually, a number of young vines coming 
gradually into bearing. We observed many small 
boats plying up and down the river, and there was 
an appearance of bustle and trade very different 
from what we observed at Delli. The small 
house in which we slept, used as a hall of audience 
generally, was open all round, and we were ex- 
posed all night to a heavy dew, and cold piercing 
wind. It was elevated upon slender posts, about 
eight feet from the ground, very ricketty, and 
being overloaded, we were in momentary expecta- 
tion of its falling down, and burying us in its 

FEiiRV. ei 

many boats passing down the river with pepper 
during the day. 

At all the villages we passed, we sent a person 
in advance to give notice of our coming, to prevent 
the women and children from being alarmed^ We 
saw numbers of girls about seven and eight years o( 
age, in a perfect state of nudity. At the small 
village of Tanjong Mangosta, the chief of which is 
Datu Tubba, brother of the Orang Kaya Soonghal, 
and to whom I made a small present, we had 
to cross the river, which is very deep and rapid, 
60 yards wide. Some of the lascars mounted the 
horses and swam them across ; but the velocity of 
the current swept them away at least 100 yards 
down the river before they could reach the oppo- 
site shore, which was elevated, and had steps or 
stairs, which the little animals clambered up most 
dexterously. I crossed in a canoe made of the 
trunk of a small tree scooped out ; only two pas- 
sengers could cross by this narrow canoe at a time, 
which rendered the passage tedious. Some of my 
attendants being rather impatient, overloaded the 
boat, and were upset several times ; but being expert 
swimmers, they suffered no other injury than the 
wetting of their clothes. We shortly afterwards 
came to a romantic little village, called Tanjong 
Sabdi, so completely obscured by trees, that it was 
Hot observed till we fcame close upon it. The vene* 
fable chief of this village, Datu Tindal, came out to 


meet wl Tfaii old man appeared to be upwaidi 
of 100 yean of age» with a long pure white beaid» 
hanging down to hit middle. Jie had been thua 
long in the world, and never saw a white fiiee 
before. Hia people had just killed a fine stag, 
part of whidi he presented to me^ in return for a 
small present of doth which I gave him. His 
kampong was well stocked with ooooa-nut, betd-nut, 
and jack trees, and every thing around bespoke 
quiet, content, and domestic happiness. His great- 
grand-children were stout bojrs of 10 years of age^ 
quite naked like the girls. Poultry seemed very 
plenty here^ and is protected against the dvet 
cats, which are very numerous and destructive^ 
by strong palisades dosdy lashed together un- 
der their houses. We saw a good deal of Indian 
com growing, called jagong. The katimahar tree, 
which grows on the banks of the river, and the 
leaves of which make a fine vegetable for curry, 
was also abundant. The wood is used for makii^ 
sheaths for swcnds and creeses. From the byan er 
lingaseed, the natives extract oO. This is a great 
article of trade here. 

On approadiing Soongfaal^thin four miles^ there 
is an extensive marsh, the ground all around it 
being condderably devated. We then entered 
upon a beautiful open plain of two or three miles 
extent, which Immght us to the village, where we 
arrived late in the afternoon. We were met at the 


distance of a quarter of a mile, by a party of a 
hundred men, wdl armed. The Orang Kaya's ne- 
phew, Datu Malela, a dissolute, opium*smoking 
young man of twenty, met us, and gave us rather 
an inhospitable reception. He mformed me it was 
necessary I should change my teowsers for a sarong 
or petticoat, and that the sepoys must do the name, 
and take the flints from their muskets, when we 
should be admitted into the village, but on no 
other conditions ; and he added, that he was pre- 
pared to resist any attempt to force our way in^ 
unless we complied with these terms. I found 
that such was certainly the case ; for my Malay 
writer, who had gone in advance, saw a^ number of 
swivels loaded, and a quantity of gunpowder eJt- 
posed to the sun to dry. This youi^ man con- 
ducted himself in a most uncourteous manner ; and 
h was the only instance of a want of hospitality 
which I experienced during the whole of my voy- 
age. He aocompanied his observations with rather 
violent gestures, hokfing a sword in his ha»d; 
Mad, knowing how readily these people week them- 
sdves up to a phreazy, though perhaps diey had 
anginally no hostile designs, I turned round to ray 
amaB. escort, and desired them to be on tho alert. 
The naick, a fine spirited fellow, who* had been; at 
the captinre of Java» was anxious to fire, and asked 
me in hb own language if he should dispatofa* the 
young diief^ who was speaking to me Mtb snksfa 




violence. Being prepared tlien £or the wont, I 
calmly remonstrated with the young man, holding 
my commission in one hand, and a sabre in the 
odier. I told him that the object of my missioii 
was quite pacific ; and that, if there was any objeo* 
tion to my reception, he ought to have sent me pre- 
vious notice, and not to have allowed me to come so 
long a journey. I informed him also, that it was 
quite contrary to all our rules of good breeding to 
wear a petticoat ; and that I should bring dis- 
grace upon myself and my employers, by comply* 
ing with so ridiculous a custom; and I assured 
him, that when he favoured me with a \isit at Pi- 
nang, he should be at liberty to wear any dress he 
pleased. The jocose manner in which I uttered 
this address, seemed to have the desired effect, and 
he b^;an to smile. 1 added, that unless I was 
unconditionally admitted, and received with pro- 
per respect, as an agent of the Pinang govuv- 
ment, and my people with their arms and accoutre- 
ments upon them, I would instantly retrace ay 
steps, and take up my quarters for the night witli 
the elephants and tigers. His features now assum* 
ed a more placid expression ; and seeing my detei^ 
mination, he consented to our entering the village 
unoonditionally. The cause of this extraordinary 
conduct I aft^wards ascertained. He was an ad- 
herent and friend of the R^ah Pulo Barian ; and 
tht sultan of Ddli, the very day I quitted him. 



iMid triacT the eflfeet of the h^e fun bebnging to 
the idiooMr, one of tlie balls fired frfan which wtt 
padnced to me by Tnanko Malela, who inqinied 
jrihadamtedthesnlUmwithanmi. Thbbdng 
lioa etphdnied setisfiietorUy, he was heait% sil^^ 
ed of his conduct ; and I endeavoured furdier t6 
URBgthen thete impressions on his mind by mark- 
ed attention to him. 

I was eondncted to the hoofiie of the panglimai^ 
wimre I had not waited long, when theOrangKaya 
Vfivedt and seated himself upon the pyebald skin 
of a hon^ another being prepared for me. I found 
it radier irksome sitting for two hours with legs 
iaRM Kke a tailor ; but I was obliged to submit ; 
ftr there was nothing in the shape of A chati^. 
The Qraag Kaya is a respectable looking man, 
iboot 45 years of age. His three sons, Sedu! 
Ha s iif d L DaHl, and Mahini, handsome youths, 
widt very fiur complexions, accompanied him. I 
Iset no time in explaining to him the reception I 
hid' met with from his nephew» who had m^ 

to; a dtttant comei^ of the room, in whidi 
wete at least 800 men assemUed. He le^ 

^ Ah ! this young man is quite beyond tti[f 
^iDoirtRNil : if I teH him to go to the right; Hi 
*fsee to the ItkT The Orang Kaya leceiredniK 
fMr attention, and we had a long cOnveisa^rtt 
iqp(Hi #10 trade of the country. He cxprc sieJldtt^ 
Silf mdi pleased at my mterference in the diflbM 


j«MB8t 4i Ddii* and ditapprovts of the foltan^s pro^ 
«c«diBg8 on tfaiB occasum. fie bean the svltan a# 
fpodwillt aa4 was at war with himahmtt a year 
afpp. Althoas^ there is ao apparent reeoDciliatkMi» 
1 think it wntj piofaaUe that thejr wiU ere kng he 
Involved iQ fisih disputes 

Soenghal is a pretty lookii^ ph^e^ situated oi 
h]{^ banks, in some pUuxs 80 fieet hi(^ An ex» 
ehange of salutes took place ; and I gave the Oiang 
jBuiya and his sons swne pieces <tf doth as presents, 
^esmt methe head of a calf which had just been 
killed* and the dried flesh of deer. The principal 
inhabitants of this place are Battas, a rery dark 
iUrkoking race. They wear bracelets of goUL sit 
ver, ai)d copper on their ann% and rings on their 
fingers and toes. There is a ?ery laige populataoB 
of Battas in this quarter* who cultivate peppo; 
They have no religiqn at all. Very few are coiw 
yert^ to the MalMuqetan fiuth. They are esu 
eeedingly ^thy about their houses ; the one whieh 
wn ocfHfied being filled above and bekm with 
bone% skulls of bufiUoes^ and some large monkeyi^ 
baviqg so gr^ a resemblance to human bene^ ae 
to eicite qot the most pleasurable idea% and aaiMk 
pidoQ in the m^nda <^ my people, that we had got 
into the coimtry of the cannibals. Iwasaunoonded 
dvii^ the ewni|ig.with the following panglima^ 
whp ipfo tt»s sopffintfndanto of the pepper phmta* 
t^;--viJL LeHy, Pffdop. Biinda» Pann, Mnaa- 


oocuPAnom dukwo thi night. 

WAr V^poiHI^ «>^ Leba-nubi ; aH tf the lUMt 
trikm, iilnw pmciittl iaquiriei wite «oti<Mnfi]]|f 
fc fiiM of poriL iDrmy eMmtrf . WopaiiedliMi 
ii|^ imoigfl thefBi and a huAwl nwwt w bh ivfld 
aiMigefi aaenoMed in tl»e ktgie nam mhate^ dMT 
Onaiff Ka]F»lid4tb0andieBoe^ They did not M^ 

ll»tomltiatbettorai]%< Tk^ ^tave caBeeladl 
iM»«naIl gnmfieaaf 1^ and Iff, tit fttoiMMltto 
iMn, iDMldAg opiBaov playitf^ at oniaiD)* caYdsy utii 
dn^ iMM ihavjMdng fh^i^ Dt^[lit ^tteiring avoids 
mii tfteaas^ oihefn pottahia^ fia# sheaf ha» &e. It 
MM^ altogadier aa ^vHld a seette as I have ever wit* 
er iriik to aee ag^. My sentry tiad n^ 
amdtfiu time ot it, and none of my party 
^ ^ ^ i ya ll v«ry aannd repose. I own I did not hA 
mfifdf nnldi at ease amongst such a set of wild 
i ila |iita» Wlio^ ttBBted neither God nor man. 

The Kooaes at Soonghal are hnrge and commo- 
dkMtt. Tlie mdes, or pannels, are euriously made 
wMf fteila fbn feet high, lashed togellrer with 
A0 1^ eaid, Beafty worked, projecthlj^ inwards he* 
liWy add otttwards above. There is a Isi^ centM 
the whole length of the honsi ; a veranddtf 
Me side depressed abont a foot ; and on die 
itde^ levd with the laigc room, a* row of smdl 
Afoai fonr feet wide by six feet long. I 
kiVie fWHttked before, that the girls at Bnin CMnil 
kiVis^lAtle or no dothing ; but at SoongM they 

yt STRANGE Ci;8TOif& 

m» «& drased. It it strange^ that in m dwvt % 
dittanoe theie ihcmid be such a mari^ differenea 
in mannaEa, the Malays being aa werj indelicate» 
tad tha Battas so much the reverse. With dl 
their boasted ddicaey, howeFer, at Soonghal, I 
ohaeryed aome men aod women pasting across tho 
n?er without any clothing at aU. They are ob* 
Kged to wade across the river, the stream being 
too wide and rapid to admit of a bridge> whidi 
would be carried away by the heavy floods. . 
'. Mth Jmmary.—^ThjB morning immense crowds 
of Battas from the j^antations had aasembled 
avoimd the house, to look at ns with wonder-gasing 
eyes. The Orang Kaya b^^ged me to allow the 
aqpoys to go through their manceuvres, whidi they 
did to the great delight of hundreds of astonished 
spectators. The exercising ground was on a small 
itUnd in the centre of the river, called Pnlo Pantei^ 
on which also I obterved a number of buUockt, 
buffidoei^ and hortes, all in good condition. From 
this fdaee we saw the hills (Gunong Sebaya)^ 
whefs the Ri^ Sebaya linga resides. This chief 
haa a house at Soonghal, which waa dose to the 
bouse where we stopt His unde^ Datu Tabeo 
Kum Sdiaya Kampong Purbitit waa the occupier 
of the houae^ and I requested him to tend and in* 
vite the Bjyah Sebaya to come down and meet me 
fit the brig. Thit diief it £md of travelling about 
(he country^ and hat about 15 wivet with tqpaii^ 


otsfaluimients in all diflbrcnt parts ; so that he is 
ahwfs at home wherever be goes* 

A young laA who had aoeompanied. us from 
Boltt CUna, and to whom I gave two ddkurs for 
rsadiicting xm, kit 21 dollars the evening we a^^ 
rived, toone of the Battas; and in the morning he 
■jtwrcd with his creditor, a most fenxnona lookinff> 
fdlow, and requested me to pay the debt, allegii^ 
ii vras one of old standing ; that this man was a 
idative of his, and was ashamed to confess that he 
had been i^Uing. Not knowing, however, the 
extent of his propensities in that way, and appro* 
hensive that he might incur similar debts, I per- 
asitted him to be bound, according to the custom 
af the plaoe. If he had refused to submit to this, 
the creditor might have put him to death with im- 
punity. He was removed to the house of the cre- 
ditor, bonnd hand and foot, where he would re- 
main till the debt was liquidated, or, if he chose, he 
mi^t sdl himself in order to pay it. I was inform- 
ed that this lad was an incorrigible gambler ; and 
he had no doubt been encouraged to go to such an 
extent, under an idea that I would relieve him. . 
' I did not observe any manu&ctures at Soonghal, 
the inhabitants being wholly devoted to agricul- 
tme^ and exchanging its products for the manu£M> 
tmm of other countries. Next to pepper, the 
fmidpal produce is gambier, of a vary superior 
^■dity. The Battas here have a curious custom 


of pttdni^ R little iqime pieee of irinte ckllw 
aometiinei in theihqpeof r cmm, on thoir doA 
whidi they wear zomid their dMiaUaflL 

I would lunre penetmted further into the 
phntRtione^ oonld I hare mlrnhted iqpon 
ooDR For my own part, I was satkBed widi 
R little salt fish and riee» a faiseoit, or any thi^g 
fHae; bnt my people hq;an to eomplain, Thqr 
did not feel themselves very eomfortable amongst 
SQch a savage looking set of people. Their legs 
were tired, and sore from the Intes of the leeches; 
and the want of their usual meals was more than 
they could patiently bear. 

Among many suggestions for the improvement 
and increase of trade between this country and 
Finang, the Qrang Kaya» and indeed all the chiefr 
I mety spoke of the advantage that would aocnw 
from a settlement at the island of Pank<^ Num- 
bers of their prows have been compelled to extend 
their voyages down the straits, in consequence of 
the apprehension of pirates there, and the ddmf 
has been very ruinous to them. They assured me^ 
that if a station were formed thcHre, to protect them 
against pirates, they would flock in immense nnm- 
bcrs to I^ang, and even the Battas would venture 
across in small boats to trade. They find a great 
difiiculty in procuring fire-arms for the defimee of 
their prows. They even qpcak of the advantage 
which o( late years they have derived from tltar 


olearing away of Fob Bimaii^ and from the etta* 
Uishment e£ guaids around Finang. Previous to 
the adoption by gOYOmment of diese measuie^ the 
pirates used to lurk in all the creeks and small 
bays around the ishnd ; and when these poor paspla 
thought they had reached the end of theur voyagey 
Aay were exposed to be attacked and plundered 
ofall they possessed, carried away to other coun* 
tlies, and sold as slaves. Such dangors tended 
greatly to discourage the intercourse between these 
states and Finang» which has, however, improved 
greatly during the few last years, in oonsequenee 
of the beneficial measures that have be^i adopted. 
The Qrang Kaya having engaged to come down 
the river in five (Ht six days to visit the vessd, and 
having hired a small canoe for 10 dollars,, whkh 
with difficulty held my party, I left Soongbal at 
eight o'clock in the morning, and sailed down the 
river at the rate of six knots an hour. The sinu-* 
osity of this river is much greater than the Delli ; 
and in turning some of the sharp angles, the dan- 
ger was great, the river being vay shaUow in 
some perts, and full of large trees and rocks. The 
Malays managed the canoes in the most dexterous 
mannitf. The old noqueda to whom it bekmged, 
however, and who had chaige of the helm, was in a 
sad state of alarm, and was constantly crying out 
to balance the boat, or we should be upsets a pro^ 
spect by no means agreeable to me. He was par- 



ticulnr in giving the women due notice of our ap^ 
pcoach, by bawling out, long ere we came ui 
sight of the villages, *' bonh," as he did not at all 
relish the idea of a fine of 16 dollara, the penalty 
enacted by the diief, for approaching any woman 
when she is bathing, without sounding the usual 
alarm. We passed many pretty Uttle villages and 
kampongs, with thriving plantations, on each side 
of the river. The v^tation was truly rich, b«t 
the soil not equal to that up the Delli river. The 
black mould was seldom more than two, threes and 
fimr feet deep. 

We reached KuUumpang at noon, and met 
Sultan Alimct on horseback, going up to Soong- 
hal; but he returned and accompanied me to' 
Kampong Ikndar, where the accommodation boat 
was stationed. On our way down wo paid a visit 
to his sister, Rajah Wan Chindra Dewi, ^ife of 
the Kejuruan Muda of I^angkat* whose sepa- 
ration from him has been one of the principal 
causes of the war between the sultan of Delli sad 
tile rajah of Langkat. The old sultan took the 
part of the young lady, who had been slighted after 
marriage by her husband, and pronounced a fiMrmal 
divorce. She received us in a most unembarraand 
manner, seated upon a handsome rug, and decked 
out with jewels, having in her ears a pair of ria^ 
considerably larger than dollars, of solid gold, a 
quarter of an inch in tliickness, introduced into the 



amity of the ear. She was not remarkably howi^^' 
ev€r, fwthe beanty of her person, her fiuoe being* 
omefa digfigured with the small-pox. I presented 
Imt with a; shawl and ^pieoe' of muslin. She is a* 
gttfttpe^^r^trader^ and lives at a tillage called 
Kullambir, beantifiilly situated on an ele^at^- 
shore of the riv^. The kampong was ftiH'Of 
^ats and poultry, but the inhabitants had an 
aversion to sell any. The house was large aild 
eomfortable, the door- way at one end, and the' 
eooking place close to the entrance, in a low veran- 
da, depressed about two feet below the place of au-' 
dience, or principal apartment. The principal 
articles of furniture I observed was a huge sleeping 
place, ornamented with rugs and curtains hung all 
round, a quantity of brass talams or large plates and 
pigdannies> all bright, and neatly arranged round 
the walls of the house ; mats of very fine and neat 
texture, seree boxes, &c. Our stay was very short, 
and we made all haste to Fangalan Bulu, which 
we reached at sun-set. Here I found the messen- 
ger whom the sultan of Delli had sent to the Ra^ 
jah Sebaya Linga, with my jacket, bearing a gold 
eovered kris. We got our baggage shifted into 
the accommodation boat, and the moon rising, we 
were enabled to leave Kampong Bendar at seven 
cj^dock in the evening, and we did not reach the 
brig till three o'clock in the morning, after a hard 
^nd fatiguing pull at the oars the yvhoh nightf 



We had a dBBculfc paMga ptit tk m 
btati Mtt tht TiUtge; and the hoat teok tte 
groimd eiiee or tvriee^ fljing zooBd like a dM# t^^ 
beiBg a ttfong ebb ^nng fide. ThedMDMlhflv 
ia mry difileBlt» and the ladnagfat ef tks Maft 
bqpa and credu lendaa it cxticnMlj tieldMMne 
ta naaage a boat A aaqneda ef a pwir ikem Fi^ 
nang; aaeiag w in Aflkditf, and naming find ol 
append MaUy pieifa» and our boat pawing dew 
with alamting vdodty vpon a dangeeoaa and* 
baaky jumped into hia imall boat with fimr or ive 
of Mb peo]^ and in an initant» with kng polei;. 
gave the boat a different eowse. My people eoold 
not manage the gakaatall, and oanwere of na 
naa. Just at this critiad time» in CTorting mjaeIC 
I dipped, and £dlii^ upon the dnarp edge of • 
yknk, I by ahnost aensdest lor some minoiMb 
The noqueda was no doubt the means of sating dw 
beat from destniction. It is nurely that the Ma» 
lays display such aetivity. They aie in gsneni 
indifieient to all around diem ; but they 
livdy sense of gntitude; and this man had 
under some trifling obligation to me at Fina^g. 

About ten o^clodc we were suddenly invebed 
ia perfeet obseurity, an eclipse of the meon taking 
ylsee^ whidi lasted for two hours; during whish 
tfasrc was an incessant firing of guns at the ?ilagal^ 
to assist the meon^ as the Mate Mate told us^ in ita 
disliass. The old wemaa all the while 

anrauf TO THS BS1& n 

Imipp rtai makiBg Urn mosk fisigliftM iioiie» 

^ O Sun, let go th€ Kom.'' It 
4» ofaMnre tht siqperftikioas ▼agttioi 
rftint flii wwiii> I had bMB timmt tefen daya 
iMitliaMg, nd liad the aatiafrotiim of findiog 
fft«s haatd ivriL Three ot fimr people vho had 
le wipaM ed aae, fetoraed with howel eomidamta. 
I tee waa attad^ed; and bciag almeat cihaiiated 
with tisf^faEig, aaxietyt want of rest, wet clothe^ 
•id had dki^ I was ebl%;ed to lay myself up the 
frHowii^ day on board. 

i&h J^Mmary. — ^Remained on board the farig 
dl day, lyi^g in Sungei Kapab Aiding. 
* STtt JoMMiry .--^Tbe yard and saU of the aooom^ 
MsJatien boat being too large and unwieldy, I was 
dUlged to reonin on board while the necessary aL- 
ttntiom weips making. I also made a shifting 
ded^ ftr the preservation of the provisions^ and for 
Ihe feeple te sleep upon. Aiq)rdiensive that the 
Mb esSeeted in the vessel might produce diseaas^ 
lesaMd every thing to be brought on deck, the 

waa deaned out below, and all the stoiea va- 
te. Tuan Oah, an acquaintance of ndne 
al Finasf^ eame on board. He had lately arrifid 
tarn Assahan, and had twelve slaves on boar^ 
friaiipdBy fapaales, fertheOrang Kaya SoenghaL 
BaboQi^ than for 40 and 45 doUara each» and 
to get 100 in barter for pepper. £bvi^g 

that the aultan of Delli had not only bMke» 

38 uePABTURIC POK si&dasg. 

Im promise of not firing the gun belonging to tht 
iehooncr, bnt sent for more shot, which mt icfittd 
by the witter, I sent Mr Stmurt awfty imrnediatdy 
to bring down the gun, and took the oppavtonity of 
writing to the sultan, to infiNrm him of my ictam 
finom Soonghal^ and of the intention of the Oraag 
Kaya to oome down in fife days with the Raf ah 
Sebaya Linga, for the purpose of endeawmring to 
put an immediate stq) to hostile prooeedingi: 
Made preparations for going to Siidang in the 

Mtk Jamtary.—Jjdt the brig this morning at 
eight, in the lai^ boat, for Sirdang, t6 people on 
board, and Noqneda Ungoh as my pilot Passed 
down the Kwalah BeUwan. The diamel to Delli 
finr prows is round the point, where a sand4tanlr is 
hid down in the diart There are two ssads^ hi- 
tween whieh there is a sife ehannd, though nanom 
We passed Sungei Dua and Sungei Pkdo Fsngfii* 
ma, and then came to Ujong Purling, a low pM* 
jeeting point, off which is a shallow mud bank 
We sailed along in one fiithom, dxmt li mSaina 
the shore, and afterwards passed Sungo LaDsng 
and Sungei Tuan. We had a fine bvee»all iay^ 
and a most ddightful sail 

We entered the Sirdang rher at fimr is fjtub^ 
te m oop , and met a laige pepper prow at the monflt, 
going to Pinang^ which was the first uppostunity 
I had of writing since my arrival on this fSMk T^ 


tlie ti^rt» IB going into the river, is a small greek 
qpei oC b^ gioand, with a sandy beaeh, which va^ 
iW ^ tieDe a litU^ the whole coast along whidi 
Me had aaikd to-day being very low, and the traei 
growing in the water. We andioied at Kampoi^ 
KaUambir, about six short reaches up, at half-piM 
Ive o'elodc, and were met by the clnef^ Tuank^ 
Senaan, who hurried on board to welcome my arri^ 
vaL I had seen this young man at Pinang a few 
years ago. This is one of the finest places I havb 
yet visited, being situated on tolerably high ground, 
at a short distance from the sea. The houses too 
are larger, and more substantially constructed than 
any we had yet seen ; and there is an appearance 
of perfect tranquillity^ and an air of confidence 
about the inhabitants, extremely pleasing. I dia- 
patched Noqueda Noordin with the letter and some 
presents to the Sultan Besar, who is up the conn:- 
try amongst the pepper plantations. Fell in wiA 
c^ht large prows loaded with pef^r, about to safl 
fer Pinang. The Delli river being dosed, the 
pqpper which would have come down that river 
now finds its way down the Sirdang. This piaCb 
haa never been viatcd by Europeans, nor is .ill 
name to be found in any chart extant. I was ni^ 
fermed by Tuanko Seman, that the: Rajah Pttk 
Barian having heard a ridiculous story of my^ liail- 
iqg brought 40 Siamese and 60 sepoys to assist the 
Mdtanof Delli, he had sent. to engage a partf^ef 


Bittas of the tribe Katann, finr the purpoKof eat» 
log any of my men who might be shun in battle* 

39th JanfMify.*-*Before sun-rise this momiDg; 
and while the trees were yet dripping with dew, I 
went out with Tuanko Scanan, his younger brother, 
and a huge company of men and boy% to look ftr 
game. We walked up a most charming plain 
about a mile, 200 yards wide, quite dear, and a 
good road in the middle. The birds were in great 
variety. The Malays were quite delighted to see 
the Inrds and monkeys fall from the trees, and 
diottted with joy, penetrating into the thickets to 
bring them out, every time that I fired. This b 
by fiur the most pleasant spot I have seen in any 
Malay country, llie natives here are very partial 
to quail fighting. A good fighting quail is worth 
aigfat dolhrs. It is astonishing to see the despcia- 
tMi of these little birds, which pinch each othor^ 
bills with the most savage violence. After break- 
ftat, I went to wait upon the chief, by special invi- 
tatioBy and a small repast was prepared for ne. I 
then went in eoanpany with him to visit Ua fi^ 
ihttf^ tomln a large building of wood neatly earv- 
ad» ind a mtagid or church, which is of great anfi- 
%«ity. The little boys were plunging in theriver 
dl day long; and the women were less timid m 
thair manners, (bathing before us), than at the 
other plaees we visited. Their bathing plaees ut 
sumanded with strong stockades, as a proteetian 


against the alligators, which are v^ Bionerous and 
fierce. The women wear large rings on their arms. 
I never saw such a multitude of children in so 
small a place. They were actually swarming like 
bees. We got some fine fish for dinner, called the 
siakxtp and siakup batu. Fowls were also abun-» 
danti We purchased twelve huge, or twenty 
small ones, for a dollar. In the evening, I again 
went out with Tuanko Seman, to look at his gac-» 
den, which is two miles behind his house, where he 
has a variety of little flowers and shrubs ; and he 
displays considerable taste in the mode of laying it 
out. We passed through some paddy fields : the 
grain had been nearly all destroyed by rats, which 
are very destructive, insomuch that they were 
dbliged almost to abandon the cultivation of paddy 
ia these parts. In the interior it succeeds better. 
The sugar-^cane grows to a large size. Tuanko 
Seman had caught a very large tiger in his garden 
a few days before. The bears are very numerous 
here, and destructive to the cocoa-nut trees, of 
wUch we saw many whidi they had entia?ely de- 
stroyed. The buffaloes were not so large or fat as 
those at Bulu China ; nor do I think the gf ass is 
so mitriticms, being close to the sea. T^ nmsqui- 
toes hei^ wexe nune numerous, large, and tronUe- 
some than I had yet found them. Their attafils 
yfmxe so persevering, that I could not dose my eyes 
aU night. 



30th January. — Just as the sun nwe, we start* 
ed from Kallambir for Kampong Besar, accompft- 
nied by Tuanko Seman. llie sides of the rirer 
became low and muddy, and the river shallow. 
We grounded ?ery often ; but being soft mud, the 
boat sustained no injury. At Kampong Dorian 
the soil improves. As in the other rivers, the cur- 
rent runs very strong, and we were obliged to podi 
the boat on with poles. In some places its rapi- 
dity could not be overcome even by this expedient ; 
and we were obliged to anchor, and fasten a rope 
to a tree on the side of the river, by which we 
contrived slowly to drag ourselves against the 
stream. The approach to the villages may always 
be known by a clump of cocoa-nut and betel-nut 
trees, which wave their heads above the others at 
a distance. Every village has one or more Be»- 
dar Saws, or places of resort for travellers, and 
for worship. The river is very narrow, with short 

We arrived at Kampong Besar late in the even- 
ing, my lascars quite worn out The sides of the 
river were covered with men, women, and childreB, 
who looked at us with surprise. We anchored near 
the sultan*s house. I had very excellent Mpoit 
coming up the river, and shot the following bircb, 
viz. the bangow, white paddy bird, burong dar, 
puchang, grey ditto^ the enow enow, and many 
beautiful king's fishers. The adjutant dob was 


also very plentiful in the paddy fields ; and the 
woods swarmed with the most beautifnl butterflies 
I ever beheld, of various and delicate hues. 

On my arrival at Kampong Besar, the Jang de 
per tuan, and Tuanko Angal, the sultan's brotiiier, 
came on board to meet me : the sultan had not 
yet arrived, but was expected immediately from his 
pepper gardens. Tuanko Angal was easily dis- 
tinguished to be a man of rank, not so much from 
his dress, which was rather shabby, as firom a long 
thumb nail. Some allow the nails of the little 
finger only to bear this distinction, and to grow two 
and three inches.' They consider this a sign that 
they are not obliged to work with their hands, and 
are men of rank. 

There were a great many Battas of the Kataran 
tribe at Kampong Besar. They are a fine, stout, 
well-limbed, good-looking, fair race, with open ex^ 
prcssive countenances, their faces more round, and 
lips not so thick as the Malays. They eat human 
flesh. If one of their companions is wounded, 
they kill and eat him. The place they come from 
is Dolo. They were dressed principally in cloths of 
their own manufacture. There were also many 
Alas people, Malays who come firom the interior of 
Sinkel, on the west coast, and bring gold, benja- 
min, camphor, &c, and carry back cloths in ex- 
diange. They are Mussulmen, dark complexion- 
edy and a civil» well-spoken, inoffensive race, subsist^^ 


iDg principally upon fruit. Their chiefe issue pe- 
remptory injunctions against the use of q^um. 
Although the Battas, and many others, had never 
seen an European before, they approached me with 
an air of confidence and good will, and without 
the least restraint or embarrassment 

The sultan arrived at six o'clodL. His approach 
was announced by the firing of muskets, blunder- 
busses, &C. at a small distance in the woods. I 
met him near his houses and saluted with five 
rounds from eight muskets. He received me with 
great cordiality. Tuan Mahoodin, a relation of 
the sultan, accompanied him to my boat, where 
they remained two hours, conversing and amusing 
themselves with prints and other curiosities, whidi 
I generally carried with me for the amusement 
and instruction of these people. Meanwhile one 
of my boat's crew was amusing a large conooune 
which surrounded us, with some airs upon my 
violin. An immense crowd of Battas, Alas peojde^ 
and Malays, lined the margin of the river. I a£> 
terwards went on shore, and found the f<dkwing 
chiefs assembled with the sultan, to all of whom I 
made small presents, viz. Rajah Dolo, a Batta 
chief, Orang Kaya Lelu, Rajah Tanjong Merawa, 
Tiuin Sehimbian, and the Ulubalangof the Rajah 
Seantar. They all confirmed the existence of 
nibalism. The king observed, ** when they 
^ down amongst us dviliied Malays, they leave off 


** their bad practices, but take to them again on 
^ their return." I observed no one smoking opium 
at Sirdang, and I believe the inhabitants are a quiet, 
abstemious, inoffensive people, entirely engaged in 
agriculture and commerce. Prows in the springs 
come down from Kampong Besar. Some parts of 
the river are extremely shallow ; other parts S and 
3 fathoms. The shallow water is generally off the 
points. There were about 25 prows, some of a 
large size, lying up the river, taking in cargoes of 

Slst January. — ^This morning I went, agree* 
ably to appointment, to the sultan's, to take my leave, 
but his sister had been taken suddenly ill during 
the night, and all was confusion. Her aged mother 
was running about the house in a state of absolute 
distraction, screaming and tearing her hair, and 
evincing an excess of parental affection— 

'' Ties that around the heart are spun^ 
" And will not^ cannot be undone." 

Indeed all the people seemed to express the deepest 
distress at the sickness of the young woman, and her 
expected dissolution ; and I was much impressed 
By this amiable trait in the character of the Sirdang 
people, and by their lively sensibility. 

The alarm, however, appeared to be unnecessaiy, 
as my native doctor visited the invalid, and prescribe 
ed a dose of salts, which her attendant($ wished to 


rub on her fiu;e, and which she could not be prcr 
vailed upon to swallow. A little calomel was then 
administered; and her subsequent recovery, of 
which I afterwards heard, was attributed to this 

The following chiefs came on board this mom- 
ing : Rajah Suibajadi, Sultan Baick, Tuanko Darat 
(rajah of Pulo Nebong), Tuanko Tungal*s son, 
Tuanko Long, and rajah of Pebowangan, who lives 
at Paku» of Menangkabau descent. The sultan 
had sent also for the rajah of Ferchoot to meet 
me, but I could not wait for him. The sultan 
came on board again, and remained about an hour, 
giving me such information as I required relative to 
the commerce of the country, &c. Rajah DolOi 
the Batta chief before-mentioned, a stout, athletic, 
handsome man, with a fair complexion, and a noble 
independent carriage, about 38 years of age, came 
on board with a host of followers. He lives at 
Kota Silotuigian, two days journey from KuDpong 
Besar ; he has 800 ryots under him, who cultivate 
pepper, paddy, tobacco, cotton, and gambier. He 
is of the Kataran tribe, and candidly acknowledg- 
ed being very partial to human flesh, of which he 
had often partaken. He had several Innrses with 
him at Kampong Besar, stout, dean limbed, active 
little animals, in excellent condition. Every thing 
was new to him ; the watch, compass, ftc astonish- 
ed him particularly. J know nothing which it is 


more amusing to contemplate than the first feel* 
ings of surprise which such objects, the products 
of high dvilization and art, impress on the minds 
of savages. 

We departed from Kampong Besar at 11 o'clodc 
A large party of chiefs escorted me to the river 
side. The Sirdang people are extremely unsuspi- 
cious and frank in their manners, and live under a 
mild and benevolent government, so far as I could 
judge. The sultan is quiet and modest, but little 
acquainted with the ways of the world. He ap- 
peared very desirous for instruction ; and begged 
me to translate any thing interesting relating to 
!Europe or Bengal, which, he said, would be most 
acceptable ; for, said he, ** I am but young, and 
•* wish to learn." In passing down the river, the 
naick shot an alligator, at the distance of 100 yards, 
with his musket. He is an excellent marksman, 
and hit the animal twice on the same spot, the most 
vulnerable part of the body, behind the head. We 
found only the bones of a large bird in the stomach. 
It measured 12 feet in length. We reached EjiI- 
lambir about five o'clock ; and after landing Tuanko 
Soman, proceeded to the mouth of the river, where 
^ding the wind setting in strong against us, and 
a heavy swell outside, we anchored for the night 

1*/ February. — At three o'clock left the Sir- 
dang river, and steered for Kwalah Belawan, the 
wind against us, and the boat leaking excessiv^y. 


As Perchoot (an intervening post which it was myin- 
tention to visit) is under the authority (tf Dellit and 
as there was ev^ probability of misung the ngah, 
who had been invited to meet me at Sirdang^ and 
as I was apprehensive I should be too late for the 
chiefe from Soonghal, I passed the Perchoot river. 
We reached the Inrig in the af^moon, having 
been absent five days. Employed the remainder 
of the day in repairing the leaks of the boat» and 
making preparations for the voyage to Lang^uit. 
The schooner Suffolk had dropped down ak>ngaide. 
The Orang Kay a had sent notice of his arrival two 
days ago at Pangalan Bulu ; and I sent Mr Luther 
and Mr Stuart to bring him to the vessel. Dur- 
ing my absence, a party of upwards of SOO men» 
women, and children, had come down from Buln 
China to sec the vessel. The Qrang Kaya's SM 
had also come down, and was received with a salntt 
and every attention, by my friend Mr Camegy. 

id February. — ^Mr Luther and Mr Stuart i6» 
turned from Pangalan Bulu, having seen the Qnuig 
Kaya, who promised to come down at no(Hi with 
the Kajah Sebayu Singa's son. I went up la 
Kampong Alei, and took with me a variety of pra» 
sents for the sultan, his son, (Sultan Muda), hit 
brother Tuanko Wan Kumbang, and to Naooda 
Unguh and the Mata Mata, who had made them* 
selves so usefiiL On going up the liver, 1 saw IS 
large alligators lying dose together, basking ia.the 


san on a sand-bank, none of them under 12 feet in 
length. Tuanko Seman, the sultan's only son, 
qune on board with me, and was saluted with seven 
guns, as his father's representative. 

Sd February. — ^At noon, the following party 
arrived in three prows, viz. the Qrang Kay^ 
Soonghal, Sultan Ahmed, Sebayu Bestiigif a Batta 
ehief of IS kampongs and 2000 ryots under him ; 
Sebayu Singaga, son of Rajah Sebayu Singa, chief 
of 20 sukus and 2000 ryots ; and Wan Aripula^ 
8on of Tuanko Wan Ajat, the late younger faro* 
tlier of the Sultan Panglima. I saluted them with 
Hve guns. They all expressed great admiration of 
the vessel, and begged to remain for the night I 
made presents to all these chiefs, and g&ve them a 
tupply of rice, fish, &c which they oooked in their 
0?m boats. Wangka, the sultan's brother, was 
also on board ; and during the evening, his q^w, 
four Batta slaves, decamped with his boat, arms, 
&c. and were not heard of while I remained at 
Delli. This poor creature was always meeting 
with some misfortune. 

' Our evenings were passed pleasantly enough by 
the people on board. I gave every encouragement 
to mirth, and allowed all on board to make aa 
much noise as they pleased, provided they were 
happy. The sepoys and Malays amused them- 
idves by singing and playing upon their own in- 
rtniments ; and one of the sailon^ played upon the 


violiiit wbile a Caffiree boy danced for their ainitie* 
ment in the Makyan style. The Rigah Sebayu 
Singa*8 Mm informed m^ that his fother intended 
to come down in two days to see me ; hot my stay 
having ahneady been prolonged beyond the time I 
intended, and my Langkat pilot, (Che Pahai^) 
being on board, I resolved upon trying to take the 
brig out, although it was neap tides. The sultan*s 
ministeis have been using the most earnest persua- 
sions against my journey to Lisngkat; but that 
place being almost unknown, and never having 
been seen by Europeans, I determined to risit it 
at all hasards, and to take the schooner with me^ 
both to prevent the sultan from feeling annoyance 
at my interference respecting the gun, and also b^ 
cause the water was too shallow for the brig. It 
would not be safe, in the disturbed state of the 
neighbouring countries, to go in the aooommoda* 
tion boat, which, besides, is very leaky. 

During the seventeen days that the vessd has 
been in the Bulu China river, I have visited all 
the principal places in DcUi, have gone up the 
Bulu China and Sirdang rivers, and have pene- 
trated into the pepper countries in three different 
directions ; have seen and conversed with all the 
principal chiefii in these districts^ both Malays and 
Battas. I have collected all the information I 
possibly could from intelligent natives, comparing 
it as I had an opportunity, recoUeotiiig the nuudm. 


ditt ^ to beUeFe is dangerous, and not to believe 
^ is daagenms ; therefore search diligently for the 
^tnitfa, lest yoa should come to an unsound deci- 
sion r* and I have fully attained all the political 
tad oommeraal objects of my mission at every 
plaee I visited. I could not help reflecting, like 
Yorick, ** what a large volume of adventures may 
^ be grasped witlun this little span of life, by him 
^ who interests his heart in every thing, and who, 
^ having eyes to see what time and chance are 
^ perpetually holding out to him as he journeys 
^ on his way, misses nothing he can fairly lay his 
^ hands on.**! 

Ath February. — We weighed early this morn- 
ing, and pulled the brig down with the sweeps to 
the mouth oi the Kwalah Belawan, where we an- 
diored at noon. The Orang Kaya and the other 
chiefs accompanied us. The Orang Kaya had never 
been so &r before, and the Battas had never seen 
the sea. The old gentleman, while standing dose 
to the vessel's side, dropped a very handsome betel- 
Bnt pounder, called *^ Lipong Pinang,** into the 
water, which made him the more anxious to return, 
as he could not enjoy his seree without it, his teeth 
being much decayed. My draughtsman had jus^ 

• Phcedrus. 

t Sentimental Journey. 


before taken a drawing of it. It was eased with 
silver. Mr Stuart carried the brig dear oat in the 
evening, and we stood on all night for Lai^;kat. 
I gave the Orang Kaya a quantity of garden seeds 
and seed potatoes to pUint ; and I think the soil €i 
Soonghal is suited for the growth of potatoes. 
Yams grow here to an extraordinary siK. 

lUA Fdfmary. — ^The winds during the night 
were light and variable. The morning was hasy ; 
and the stnind old pilot, who had been asleep all 
night, and imagined we had been making good 
progress, desired us to stand dose into the land, as 
the point we saw was Langkat We found our- 
selves, howevtf , only opporite Pulo Bartingdnghi. 
The wind blew strong against us all day, and we 
continued to beat up, but with little saoeess. The 
schooner was a long way astern. Anchored in the 
evening at six* 

6th February.^^At anchor all night; got im- 
der weigh at day-light, the wind still strong 
against us, with a heavy swdl, and the brig li^ 
bouring much. Continued beating all day ; and 
our pilot comforted me by the aasurance thai it 
would blow at least seven days more from Ae same 
quarter. We made no progress to-day. Anehored 
at sun-set Constant rain. 

7th February. — In the early part of this day 
we made no progress at alL At three P. M. made 
all sail, and at sun-set came off to Ujong Dammar, 


distance about six miles, in 4 fathoms, Fulo Tappa 
Kiida, a small island dose in shore, distant 4 miles. 
We suddenly shoaled abreast of this island, from 
14 to 4 fathoms. We had a most deUghtful saU 
this afternoon. 

My Chinese draughtsman sketched the bay from 
Ujong Dammar to the westward, and Ujong Tap- 
pa Kuda to the southward. Neither of these 
points, which are very remarkable and prominent, 
are noticed in the charts of the late survey. The 
Dutch, many years ago, applied for Ujong Dam- 
mar to form a factory upon. 

8ih February. — '' And now again 'tis morn^ the orient sun 

Prepares once more his radiant course to run ; 
On yon tall trees I see his glory rise. 
Tinge their green tops, and gain upon the skies/' 


The illumination of the sun's rays this morn- 
ing rendered visible innumeraUe sand-banks with 
which we were surrounded, some of which we 
had miraculously escaped. At day-light Mr 
Stuart came on board, and proceeded in the large 
boat, with Mr Luther, to explore a safe chaimel 
into the Langkat river for the brig. The boat 
returned at eight, and Mr Stuart had found only 
one fathom water in the channd, which was not 
sufficient for the brig. Embarked sepoys and 
other attendants with provisions for seven days, on 
board the schooner ; and at noon stood into tiie 


river with a fiuc breeze. At half-part four an- 
chored opporite the small village of Bubon. I im- 
mediately landed, and went to visit Rajah Wan 
Mend6, sister of the sultan of Delli, and wife of 
Fuchoot Udin» of Achinese descent, the diief of 
this village. She received me with great courtesy, 
and without that embarrassment which might be 
expected in her first interview with an European. 
Near the landing place is a small monument, 
where the chiefs fiither lies interred. It is sur- 
rounded by a variety of flowering shrubs, varic^t- 
ed laurels, &c. These burial-places are held in 
the highest veneration by the natives; and it 
would be accounted a violation of the respect due 
to them, even to discharge a fowling-piece near 
dicm. A number of venerable old trees hide this 
village, which is situated on the left bank of the 
river. Rajah ^Van Mendd is a comely young 
woman, but her ears are disfigured by rings of a 
mort prodigious size, and her teeth are pure jet, 
which is considered very omamentaL She jne- 
sentcd me with some roasted rice, sugar edces, and 
palm toddy, in exchange for some presents which 
I gave her. Several boats from Timian, loaded 
with Dammar batu, were lying there. The inha- 
bitants appeared to be mostly Achinese. Rajidi 
Wan Meudd informed me it would be necessary 
to send notice to Tuanko Wan Soopan, who Uvea 
at Seabababat, up the Langkat river, but who was 


tim at a little iBrtanoei with eight prowB and 100 
jBtD. He ii a Inxyther of the Kguruan Muda, 
and at war with the Bindahara. Sent my writer 
te give him notice accordingly. Lomgkat, like 
I)elli» is now involved in war, and the passage of 
the river hlodced up m two different places. It is 
the sultan of Delli who is the occasion of this, his 
policy heing to monopolize the trade. He accords 
ingly demands tribute from the rajah of Siack, which 
is the ostensible pretence for war. The tide runs 
with great velocity in this river. 

9M February. — ^The early'^^part of this mcnning 
was employed in sailing along the banks of the 
river near Bubon, and in rambling amongst the 
woods behind the village. 

'' Coasting creek and bay, 
" Okdet we behold, and into thickets peep, 
'* Where cooch the spotted deer ; or raise oar eyes 
** To shaggy steeps, on which the careless goat 
" Browsed by the side of daahing waterfalls." 

Worobwobth's Ezcubbiox. 

The jungle was almost impenetrable ; the only 
aeoess was by a pathway, which leads to ths 
plantations of the arrau tree, so abundant there. 
This tree produces black rope, sugar, toddy, and 
the pens used by the Malays. Round the village 
grow various beautiful flowering trees called as- 
sam kumbang, which were covered with Uossoms, 
and scented the air with their sweet perfumes. 


The munkiuuig, a fdant whidi ahoott kmg prickly 
letvee firom the ground^ and is manufiictuied into 
niatt» on which the natives either sit or sleqp^ 
ftrms a principal article of their export tradep 
Laige quantities of these mats are mannfactnrdl 
at this plaoe. They are Tery fine, with neat btf • 
ders. The kadudu plant, so efficadous in the 
cure of bowel ccmiplaints^ grows wild in the jungle. 
The bunjar, chumpada, mirbow, dumbang^ and 
medong trees, all used for building prows, grow in 
plenty here. About breakfiist time^ my writer w- 
turned with Tuanko Wan Joho, brother of the 
njah of Langkat. This man was formerly married 
to the sultan of Delli's daughter. Wan PeraL 
Shortly afterwards came on board Tuanko Wan 
Sopan, another brother, and Tuanko Pandei, 
Kguruan Tindal, brother of the late r^ah. These 
chiefs had by no means a reqpectable appearance^ 
being dirty in their dress. The Malays indeed 
generally are very filthy. They seMom or never 
waah their bajoos, which, whether originally white 
<v black, they wear till they are thread*bare. 
Tuanko Wan Joho is much addicted to opinaiit 
and had a wild look in consequence, his eyes star- 
ing out of his head, and his frame worn down and 
emaciated by an excessive use of this drug. 

A aarage wiUaflM rtuul Usii ksBfr 
Ai of s dwcUtr out of doon ; 
In hit whok figure and hia nsiB. 
*' A Mirage diaracter waa aeen.** 



All these chie& expressed their joy at my arrival' 
amongst them, and said they hoped I might be 
able to settle the differences between the two con* 
tending chiefs. They informed me that 30 large 
prows loaded with pepper, were lying farther up 
the river, ready to sail for Pinang, but were ob* 
structcd by the Rajah Bindahara's force. They 
said that they considered Langkat and Pinang afi 
one, from the long intercourse which has subsisted 
between them. It certainly is remarkable, that a 
place of such importance in respect to produce, and 
the pepper of which has been so much esteemed 
in Europe and America, has never been visited 
by Europeans. At noon we came up with thd 
wai* prows, nine in number. They had each large 
planks in front, lashed firmly together, as is the 
eustom of the Malays when they go to fights 
These would be quite impenetrable to any thing of 
less momentum than a six-pounder ball. At four 
I left the schooner in the large boat to go up the 
river, Che Pahang showing us the way in a small 
canoe, which I borrowed from Tuanko Wan Sopan. 
loth February. — ^We continued pushing the 
boat up against the stream till ten o'clock, When 
the channel becoming very narrow^ the night dark; 
and the current extremely strong, we anchored, i^h 
eddies causing the boat to sheer about so much; 
that we expected every moment the grapnel to 
part, when we should have been quite l^lpless^ 



The oU nia&t our guide, was in a state of exfiOMve 
alann during the whole nigfatt lest some of the ene- 
mfM prows should come down to dear the riw, 
and lest» mistaking us in the dark» thejr mig^t 
fiirthwith commence an attadc. Bat what he 
dieaded most was their dangerous tactics of firing 
froBd bdiind the trees, mbkik is thdr moat commnn 
mode of waifiure. The thickets on eadi ode woe 
almost impenetraUe, and we must ham been de» 
stroyed by any siich covert attadL The sepoya 
wwe on the alert, however, and we wcve prepared 
to give them a warm reception. 

llM FAruary. — ^We were employed daring 
iheirfide day struggling against the carrent, tyii^ 
e small mf% to the trees and boshei^ and palKng 
op the boat. *Om ascent was very tedious and diC» 
fieult In some places we remained ten minates 
q^te stationary, the people exerting aU tibdr 
atmgth in vain to pull or to push ftcwaid the 
boat against the current, whidi runs with inrramnl 
violence a fifesh water stream, being beyond the 
asadi of the tides. We made good prpgrssi^ howw 
ever, afterwards, by means of the reeds on the sides 
ef the river, which we hud hdd o£ The Makys 
spend ten days and a fortnight sometimeB» in get» 
tingiqp in the cargo boats to Kampong Kapab 
Sungci, where the king resides. The depth of 
water b generally 8, t, and 4 fiithoms^ so that the 
gabs am diilcolt to use. The Mahys, mther than 


di ii the ftoiiUe of dearing the river of tieei^ and' 
vatdog M mall pathway along the edges of the* 
haiaka^ to diag their boats up^ will spend days and 
tifjbtM poshing their prows up, and sometimes get 
into the water to push a tree aside^ but neirer re- 
iMve it enturiy. 1 was obHged to shift fimr dil^ 
ftnnt timei^ first fiofn the brig into the sdiooner#» 
Aen from the sdmmer into the large boat, which 
eould only pfoeeed about twenty miles finther^ and 
tiicn into a small sampan^ widi four lascars^ tww 
aepoys, and my writer, exposed to the soordui^ 
son an day^ and the whole party exhausted with 
the fiolence of their exertions. 

Ai we eame in s^ht of the Tillage of Tertssan^^ 
where the Bi^ Bindahara (who was at war mth 
the chiefr we left yesterday) resides, we hoisted si 
pieee of white doth on a long pole, as an emblem 
ef peaee. A party of 60 or 70 men, armed with 
bfamderimsses, muskets, spears, and swords, eamcf 
soddenly upon us from bdiind the trees, about 800 
yasdi bdow the riUage, taking us frr the enemy^ 
sad rasring a dreadful shout We were now hs 
si|^ of the ftrtifications, eig^t in number^ lAiA 
small square kubus, formed of laige tnmhs of' 
eofcted with men and matches, aH ready ter 
in upsBL us, with the guns mounted upon them^ 
I laae iqp, and taking a larger white straw hat» and 
adarik coloured jacket, whidi I wore frr the pm^ 
pose ef flsaking my white or ptiqfie 


more oonspicuous, made a low bow to the party. 
They immediately, with one accord, h^an caper- 
ing and dancing, threw their arms across their 
shoulders, and exclaimed, ** Tis a white man, welL** 
They then approached the boat with signs of great 
joy i and the Rajah Bindahara's brothers, Badar 
Udin Saw and Deo Sadan, who were the leaders 
of the party, and dressed in scarlet jackets, came 
and conducted me to the village, which appeared 
very populous, but situated on low swampy gnmndt 
the river running under some of the houses. We 
were hospitably received, but the two chie& ob- 
jected to my visit to the rajah, and proposed 
that I should remain three days, until a reference 
could be made to the sultan of Delli, who had 
given strict orders to secure the passage of the 
river, and, as they emphatically expressed it, ^ not 
'* even to allow a leaf to pass without notice.* 
One of the sultan's wives, sister of the Bindahaia, 
resides here with her mother; and I went and 
paid my respects to them. This old lady is quite 
a Spartan ; and upon ui^g pacific measures, and 
expressing my anxiety to see peace restored, ** No^ 
no,** said she, ** we must conquer or die. My 
son must be king of this country. His firther 
was the former chie( and my son must, and 
^ shall contend for his rights." The animation 
and apparent determination of this old lady i 
pressed me forcibly. 




There being but little temptation to prolong my 
stay, and as I could not ascend to see the Kcguruaa 
Muda, we returned down the river to the accom- 
modation boat, which had made considerable pro* 
gress during our absence. The sinuosity of the 
river here was remarkable, the windings being 
very numerous. Some of the necks of land were 
not more than 50 or 60 yards across, while the dis- 
tance by the river was one and two miles. We 
endeavoured to get under weigh, but the grapnel 
was entangled in a large tree three fathoms under 
water. The sepoys and crew dived repeatedly 
during two hours, till darkness put a stop to our 
labours. This was the fourth time during the day 
that the grapnel hooked the trees, and that the 
people were obliged to dive and dear it. 

12th February. — This morning before daylight, 
having got out ropes, and pulled the boat ahead, 
two sepoys, expert divers, succeeded, after many at- 
tempts, in clearing the anchor, and we proceeded 
down the river. The current was dangerously rar 
pid ; and it required the most incessant attention 
and labour to keep the boat from striking the 
trees, which lay across in some places, leaving the 
channel very narrow and intricate* Our frail 
bark, had it been driven against these trees, would 
have been inevitably dashed to pieces. The fog 
was so dense at seven o'clock, that we could scarce- 
ly see 5ft yards before us. I may here mention a 


tmit h^Uy creditable to the iepoy% who made 
iudi exertioiis to mve tbe andior. I bad pnoniia!- 
ed a reward to anyone who shoald aneoeed in 
dearing it ; and the crew and aepoya tied with 
each other in the difficult task of diving finr it in 
dnee fiitboma water, the corrent nmning like a 
waterfidL The aepoys, however, when I offioed 
diem tbe piomiaed reward, taid, ^ No^ ar; we can- 
^ not accept of any remuneration for this aenrice : 
^ it ia our duty to aasiBt in difficulty, and we ttd 
^hqipy in dmng any thing to pleaae you.'* 
They were of the moat resolute duuraeter, and ao 
steady, that I am penuaded they would have M- 
lowed me through flre^ had it been necessary. 
They reflect honour on the distingniAed corps to 
which they belong ; and so bononrafak are they» 
that they value a recommendation to didr atteen 
pbove any other reward. So long as soldien are 
actuated by such findings, any thing may be trust- 
ed to their fidelity or courage. We reached the 
aehooner at eight o'dods. Tuanko Wan Scpan 
came on board, and I mentioned the dgection tliat 
ensted to my going up the river. He cAnd me 
a boat; but being indi^Msed, from cxposoDS to the 
son the whole of the preeeding day, and fifom want 
of rest ton two nights, I sent my writer and Mr 
9tuart by another channd^ frith the letter from 
^le governor* 
WUb remaining here^ our people oa^glil lib 


qpttntitiai of wery large prswns, by stoj^ing 
UpthrrtrtntH dumnels on the side of theriyer, mhm 
it ivat Uf^ vtter, with hamboot. When the tide 
ebbed, thej woe fimnd in ^enty. We aa^^ 
dm m quantity of the duri fiih, die ahaip point- 
ed ins ef which inflict a severe and dan^arans 

184h February.'— I had many visifam dnrii^ 
the day, and was pleased to observe that they c9L- 
fiesBsd their oonfidence by coming on board mi- 
annedt not wearing even their creeses, which the 
inhabitattts of the other places we visited never 
kid aaid^ even for a minute. The chiefe never 
move without numerous attendants, a Malay be- 
ing leqpeeted according to the retinue whidi be 
can afford to maintain. He is accounted rich 
when he has 1000 or 8000 dollars. 

14ik JF^ebruary. — My anxiety respecting Mr 
Stuart, whom I dispatched three days ago to the 
iiyab, was relieved this morning by the arrival of 
mm of the king's messengers, who came during 
tbe ni|^ and brought me intelligenoe that the 
si|ab was preparing to descend the river to-day, 
with some of his prindpal chieft, and 40 or 50 at- 
tsndants, and that he had detained the captam to 
eeesnpany him. I had prepared a boat, wfaisb 
joat etaiting, to look after him. 

lUk Pebmary. — Mr Stuart returned to tbe 
tbia evening, having been ehmil ftvr 


days. Thermjah had made pieparatkmt ftr hia 
journey ; but one of his children bebg taken sud- 
denly ill^ Mr Stuart thought it pnqper not to wait 
longer* The Kejuruan Muda, however, sent down 
two eonfidential pec^le, Syed Akhil and Naeoda 
8ania» with 50 men in three boats. Mr Stuart 
was well reoeived, and the rajah was much gratifi- 
ed with the letter fiom the honooraUe the gorer- 
nor. The houses are large and commodious ; and 
Mr Stuart estimates the number at Kampong 
Kapala Sungei at 400. The banks here are hig^ ; 
and aluve Terussan, where the river brandies off 
to the right and left, it becomes deep and wide. 
The inhabitants appeared to be very numerous^ 
and at least 200 people go down daily from tho 
Tillage to the paddy -fields, principally women. 
They are prudently collecting aH the paddy before 
ifaey commence active hostilities, and are at pre- 
sent entirely on the defensive. They aflfect to 
deqpise the force at Terussan, and say, that iriien 
the paddy is all stored, and their granaries filled, 
they will soon expel the hostile fotee. There 
ja m large quantity of pepper in the town, which 
Mr Stuart, firom personal observatian, estimated at 
S50 coyan% all the receptacles under the houses 
being fulL Many boats were also lying kaded» 
but were prevented by the enemy fimn passing 
•down. From the quantity of pepper exported 
ilwing the hist two yean, andthi 


tilks ktelj planted, I am almost oertain 1 do not 
Ofaiate the produce of Langkat, Delli, Bnlu 
duaa, and Sbrdang, at a hundred thousand peeuls 
HI a few yean, if there is the same encouragement 
la coltivation that there has lately been, and the 
mAAe maintains its price in the markets of £uropa 
aad China. 

The ngah's two agents came on board late at 
Bight, and brooght me a letter from the rajahs weU 
ooming my arrival, and begging me to ascend by 
the way of Batang Sarangan, which is a small and 
difficult ehannd, navigable for canoes only of the 
tnalleit siae. Fearing, however, that I might not 
comply with his invitation, he sent me an engage^ 
ment respecting the duties and trade of the ooun^ 
try, which manifests the anxious desire whidi pre^ 
vails on his part to cultivate a closer connection 
•rith Pinang« and to encourage the resort of traders 
to his dominions, the duties being exceedingly mo- 
dilate, and every facility being allowed for the dis* 
foml of goods and the purchase of pepper. As I 
^ad promised Badar Udin Saw that I would not 
panomdly wait upon the king without his consent^ 
aa I had explained every thing to the rajah's two 
brothers and his agents, and my provisicms weve 
^oqpended, I informed them I should descend the 
nver to-m(»row; and they promised to be with 
me at day-light, to accompany me to the fari^ havr 
3Bf detained me in conversation till midnij^ty 


Mr Stuart was surprised by a pirty of fear 
armed men in the woods, while passing tfaroogii a 
very narrow channeL They levelled their pieces 
at him. He, however, calmly spoke to thm :<-^ 
"^ What," said he, "^ fire at a white man r Od 
which they flung their pieces acnMs their shooldcn^ 
and passed on. Mr Stuart, however, waa well pro- 
vided with arms in the boat, and was prepared to 
give them a warm reception, which proved periiapa 
a more powerful argument for their padfie con- 
duct, than their respect for a white face. 

Had this country not been in a state of internal 
commotion, I should certainly have penetrated into 
the interior, and examined particularly the great 
lake, the extent and boundaries of which remain 
unknown. I have, however, completely satisfied 
myself both of its situation and extent, by the 
concurrent accounts of many natives who had seen 
it, and some of whom had resided on its banks* 
There was a greater concurrence in their descrip- 
tion than I usually met with on some other points 
of inquiry. That the Battas are much moro no> 
merous on this side of the island, and that the 
countries I have visited are much more produeliro 
and populous than was generally supposedt wifl 
fully appear by a reference to the history and d^ 
Bcription I have compiled. 

16th February.— J purchased two small boirts 
at Langkat, to supply the place of the cmm* I 


JUL kfty wUeh I found very useful in aaoendii^ 
titm nwen. One of tfaem was eompletdy equipped 
fm vtTt bsvivg two small brass swivds mounted 
mi the bow, and a strong breast-w<»k. They 
took the swivds out, and the boat cost roe 15 dol* 
Ian. We dr op p ed down eariy this morning to 
Bebon, anchoring in the narrow ehannd outside 
at soeo. Tnaako Wan J<du>, Wan Sopan, and 
the ngah*s agents, with an immense letinuet came 
loff with the intention of going on board the Jessy t 
bat wind and tide being strong against us, they 
letumcd* Sainted them with five guns on thebr 
departme frosn the schooner, and sent a variety of 
presents to the rajah. 

The wind continued strong against us all day; 
and towards e?ening, while I was enjoying a little 
aonnd rest, which I had not been able to do for seve- 
ral nights, the captain, thinking he could carry the 
adiooner out, attempted to make his way through 
the narrow channel I was aroused from my couch 
by the vicdent beating of the vessel on a sand-bank, 
idicte ^e continued striking very hard. It was 
now qnUe dark, the tide ebbing &st, the wind 
iif^ and breakers all around us, and the schooner 
Ht every pitch threatening to go to pieces. The 
■Mnent was critical The vessel was fortunately 
nearly fiill of stone ballast, which being all thrown 
eeerboard, eased her greatly, so that she did net 
Imt With such yiolence; but the sight of the wfaitp 

106 l>X>&TUNAT£ £SCAPC 

fiMunmg breakers around us was truly terrific^ 
threateniug every now and then to overwhelm us; 
while occasional peals of thunder, and yivid flashes 
of lightning, added to the horrors of the night, the 
whde making an impression not easily to be ef- 
tuceA. The gusts of wind became more and more 
violent, and I thought it was time to prepare the 
boati, and to seek safirty in the brig with a party 
of the people, who only added to the confunon on 
board. The sepoys and their accoutrements were 
accordingly moved forthwith into the accommoda- 
tion boat, which was fortunately astern, but was 
rolling so violently, and shipping so much water, 
that this duty was one of great risk. The sdMxm- 
er's boat indeed swamped in returning from the 
boat astern ; but being fiistened with a line to the 
schooner, was not entirely lost The two small 
Malay canoes were half full of water. In these 
two ricketty boats I embarked the aepoys, making 
in all fourteen on board, leaving the large boat to 
save the remainder of the crew of the schooner, and 
the accoutrements of the sepoys, in case the vessel 
dumld bilge. We were only provided with foot 
small oars for the large boat, and were obliged to 
tow the smaller one full of people. I had only 
two sailcnrs with me : with them we poUed through 
the white curling waves, which threatened every 
moment to engulph us in a watery grave. We 
soon, however, got into deep water, aiid readied the 


brig^ wlik^ had h<risted lights upon hearing the 
three guns of distress which we fired, after hard 
extrticms for three hours, during which time I 
pdled one of the oars, only one of the party of se- 
poys being expert in this duty. The schooner 
beii^ mudi lightened, in consequence of every thing 
being thrown overboard, and by the removal also 
of so many people ; and the tide flowing about 
midnight, the vessel was rescued from her perilous 
ntuation, and brought alongside the brig. It has 
been remarked by a traveller, in speaking of a 
storm at sea, ** If we look around the miseraUe 
^ gnmp that surrounds us, no eye beams comfcnrt, 
^ no tongue speaks consolation ; and whai we 
^ throw our imagination beyond, to the death-like 
^ darkness, the howling blast, the raging and mer- 
^ ciless element, soon to be our horrid habitation, 
** surely, surely, it is the most terrible of deaths." 
The misery of the group indeed which surrounded 
me can hardly be imagined, and we had too much 
canse for serious alarm. 

17th February. — ^This was Sunday, and the 
Sim rose with unclouded majesty. The morning 
was calm and serene ; and the surrounding stillness 
emblematical of this day of rest, formed a pleasing 
contrast to the commotions of last night 

" Now oeai'd the thmider's noiae, the stonn was o'er, 
^ And ereiy blasteriog wind forgot to roar, 
" Wlien tlie fair morning from her radiant aeat^ 
" Appeared with rosy front and golden feet.** 



On briogiiig the aoocmuDodBtion bott alongside^ ' 
tue fimnd that a few of the aepoys* aoeoatremcnti 
imre lott, and that the greater part of their am- 
munitioii was damaged by the water. A &w 
dothei^ kc belonging to me had been thioim over- 
boardt and aome other artklet of trilluig valne;. 
The aehoooer did not leak so mnch as waa opeeU 
edi bat as it had no ballast, it eonld not aceom^ 
pan J me to the westward The stem of die ae- 
eommodation boat was nearly separated in two^ 
and A» waa altogether in a most dangevoM state: 
die stem of the piow also was broken. Undier all 
these ciicumstanceSf and erasidering the ignoranee 
of our pilotp who eould not carry na into die Ti* 
mian river, off which there are several dangeront 
sand-banks; the wind blowing also rig^ against ns^ 
and the country being, as I was infonnedt involved 
in war ; and the place not being of mnch import* 
anee in a commercial view, and aa I had gained 
every necessary infiMrmation respecting it from se- 
veral respectable inhaUtanti, whom I met at Bii« 
ben, I thought it advisaUe to retom immediataljr 
to DellL Made all sail according, and a strsog 
breeae carri^ us down opposite iJie Ddli river^ 
where we anchored at four in the aftemoosL Lefk 
the brig at five, and pulling all nighl^ we readmd 
the mouth of the fresh water stream at three 
o'clock. We got amongst the sands about inid« 
ni^t, and were rather in a perilous sitaataon agaia^ 


. ISth Fehruary. — I reached Kampong Ilir at 
seven o'clock, and was happy to find the sultan 
and Rajah Sebaya Singa both there, which saved 
me much trouble in going up to Kota Jawa. It 
was fortunate that I arrived just at that moment, 
as they were setting out on their return. At. 
nine I went to wait on the sultan, and met the 
Rajah Sebaya Singa, Bindahara of Langkat, £c. 
The principal point of discussion related to the 
introduction of the currency : other important ob- 
jects were attained, which the sultan had been con- 
sidering during my absence. The rajah of the 
Battas begged me to accompany him to his resi- 
dence on the hills, and said he was quite ashamed 
he had no buffaloes or horses to present to me* 
He said he was anxious that the sepoys should go 
through their exercise before his vdves, and 
thought it would have been no unreasonable 
stretch of politeness in me to accompany him on a 
four days* journey for that purpose. 

Boats being prepared, the sultan, the Rajah 
Sebaya Singa, Rajah Bindahara of Langkat, 
Rajab Muda, and many of the principal chieft, 
with an immense retinue of Malays and Battas in 
five or six boats, accompanied me down the river, 
with the intention of visiting the brig, which was> 
lying about six miles outside the river ; but the 
wind blowing strong up the river, and the tide 
against us, they bqgged me to excuse them finr 



that cUy, retuniiiig to DeUi, and prcnnimig to 
oome off next morniDg at day-light 

The Rajah Sebaya Singa is a hale, rtoiit» dark 
man, about ffO yean of age, and hat lost all hit 
front teeth. On speaking of this sub|eett I hap- 
pened to mention that our dentists could fix 
others : he almost started from his seat with joy» 
and said he would come to Pinang without dcjay^ 
and get his renewed. Upon explaining that there 
were no professional dentists there, he said, ** If 
^ you will desire one to oome from Bengal, I will 
^ give him a thousand measures of pepper (equal 
*^ to 300 dollars), for his trouble in making me 
^ half a doien teeth.'* He is apparently a quiet 
inoffensive man, and has great influence with the 
Batta cultivators. 

19M February. — Left the Kwabh Bekwan at 
day-light this morning, and remained at anchor 
till noon, in expectation of seeing the chiefii ofl^ 
according to promise yesterday, but it blowing 
fresh, they did not come off. The wind beii^ fi^ 
vourable, I made all sail for Batubara. Mr Stuart 
came off with five casks of water finr the vessd, in 
a very small boat, notwithstanding a heavy sea. 
This was a great assistance, as we were rather short 
of water. I wrote by him to the dnA, iHP^logia» 
ing for my departure^ and sent some presents to the 
Rajah Sebaya Singa. Run along the coast about 
95 miles, and anchored in 9 fiitboms, four miles 


fiioi Aoie^ at seten o'clock. We pMsed over a 
Imk <tf 5 firthomt, hard sand, suddenly shoaling 
tnm 9 to ff fiitboms, which I supposed to be the 
Vaida BmT allnded to by Horsburgh, though not 
ttolioed in Uentenant Rose's chart. Some of the 
principal land-marks are omitted. 

Mth Febniary. — Steering for Batubara, at 
ffe F. M., andiored nearly opposite the river, in 
S| fiithoms, soft mud ; distance off shore S miles^ 
in pieeiiely the same bearings as the Honourable 
Company's cmiser Nautilus anchored. Saw a great 
many prows in the course of the day» coasting alkmg 
the shore. Passed through a very intricate diannd 
between two dangerous sand-banks, in going up 
opposite Tanjong Mati, very correctly laid down 
in the chart of Lieutenant Rose, and described in 
his diieetionsL In the evening two boats fiill of 
people came off, mx or seven of whom were known 
te me at Pinang. They had heard of my intended 
triiit; and the moment they observed the vessel 
esmiag nmnd the point, they came off to welcome 
my amvaL The inhabitants of this place are re- 
psesented by Mr Horsburgh as the most perfidiom 
met in these seas. They may have been so per- 
Inpa in Imner years ; but a more civilised, intelB- 
gnt, and industrious race of Malays I have never 
than the present inhabitants of Batubara. I 
inclined to think that the boats hfi^mpng to 


whidi were cut off in the neighbourhood for- 
merly, were captured by some lurking private 
prows which come from the eastward, and are as 
great a terror to the Batubara people, as they are 
to the inoffensive traders navigating these sea& 
When it became dark, we observed a great light 
far back in the sliore, like a large fire, whidi the 
natives told us appeared aftar dry weather, like an 
ignis fatuus. 

Slit February. — Went ashore early to Kam- 
pong Boga, and w*as received by the sfaahiuidar of 
Delli (Ahmud), whose family principany resideB 
here^ and the turaun^ng, with the greatest atten- 
tion, in a very neat bungalow, built in the Euro- 
pean style. I was saluted with five guns on en- 
tering the court-yard. I also waited upon Sri 
Maharaja I^la, the nephew of the Riyah Binda- 
hara, who received me with the utmost cordi- 
ality. I afterwards went up to a small village 
eaHed Pematang, seven reaches up the river, to 
pay my respects to Datu Samoangsa, one of the 
principal chiefs. The Bindahara, who is the head 
man of the place, was at Assahan. This is the 
largest and most populous place I have yet visited 
The houses are hu^e, and subatantially built In 
the evening we saw swarms of wild pigs on the 
sides of the river ; and the naick shot a guana about 
fimr feet long, with a single balU 9t the distance of 


100 yaidfl. Forgetting, however, his Mussulmaa 
piqadioes f<Nr a moment, I desired him to fire at 
some fine huge plump hogs, which I observed on 
the side of the river. He, with characteristic 8&« 
poy obedience, presented his piece, but purposely 
ddayed pulling the trigger, until the animals re* 
timed into die thicket, ashamed on the one hand 
to fire and miss, and still more to deviate firom. 
bit religious prejudices. I observed an evident 
^taruggle between his sense of duty and his reli* 
gious principles, and was sorry I had put them to 
the test My clerk seized the rifle, but I did not 
see any of the pigs on my table. The pigeons and 
ether Inrds swarmed upon the trees, and fish were 
idiundant and cheap. Poultry also, and goats^ 
were plentiful and reasonable. 

HidFdfruary. — Went to the Bindahara's by 
ajqpointment, in expectation of meeting all the 
diiefii, who had been summoned by Sri Maharaja 
lida to meet me ; but this being Friday, the Mus- 
sulman Sunday, they did not come down. They 
however sent messages to prepare us for their arri- 
val next day. Employed collecting and purchas- 
ing all the difierent sorts of cloths, of wluch there 
is an infinite variety. They mimufiicture silk and 
eoiton doths, the former principally beautiful tar« 
tan patterns, and some splendidly wrought with 
gold thread. These manufactures ocmsume a large 
quantity of raw silk. I purchased one of the 


loomfly with a beautiful tartan moDg balf finiilied 
in it My draughtsman made a ocnrrect drawing 
of all their spinning and weaving apparatoib tt>d 
other objects of interest or novelty. Although 
they manufaeture such a variety of doths, they 
prefer wearing our European chintacs, and the 
ooarse coast and Bengal cloths, prindpany on ae- 
count of their comparative cheapness. 

In the evening, a very lai^ concoune of men, 
women, and children assembled, and were enter* 
tained by my musicians and dancers, while I was em- 
ployed conversing with the assembled diieft. Their 
confidence in me appeared to be unbounded, owing 
principally to a slight previous acquaintance which 
I had with the shabundar, who is active and inteU 
ligent, and is a shrewd clever merdiant. He has 
travelled a good deal, having visited Batavia and 
all the principal settlements to the eastward. He 
has a perfect knowledge of the trade, and is wdl 
acquainted with the manners and customs of Euro* 
peans. His house is well furnished with tables, 
chairs, &c. ; and he gave me an elegant bed, with 
splendid grid-end jnllows, to sleep on ; and here I 
enjoyed a iew nights of the only sound rest during 
my voyage. A profiinon of sweetmeats and other 
dainties weie served up to me constantly ; and hia 
attentions revived in my mind the pleaang lemeai* 
brance of that old Scotch hospitiility to which I 
was accustomed in my boyish days^ tmang my 


tive hills. It more resembled those dreams of my 
youth, than any thing I have sinoe met with in 
the world. 

The Batubara people appear to be a happy» con- 
tented, inoflfensive race, every countenance smiling, 
and every house open to the reception of strangers. 
The women have not that odious custom of mak- 
ing large holes in their ^ars, as at Delli and Lang- 
kat They are a fiur race, and some are really 
handsome. They do not disfigure their mouths 
by chewing betel. Many of the young men ab- 
stain from the use of seree altogether. 

A chief in the interior who had lately put a 
man to death, would not pay the usual fine of 444 
dollars and 44 pice ; and the shabundar and the 
other chie& blocked up the smdl river leading to 
his village, with half a dozen prows. A skirmish 
was expected, as it was understood to be the 
dii^s intention to leave the country. The sha- 
bundar owns a great many prows, and carries on a 
more extensive trade in pepper from Delli, than 
any other person. He is in good credit with the 
Chinese and other merchants of Pinang, who mak^ 
him large advances. 

This was the paddy season. Batubara does no|; 
grow enough, however, for the consumption of the 
country. They used to import largely from Quer 
da, but now derive their suppUes of grain princip 
pally firom the Fedir coast and Assahan. 


iSd February. — ^A great assemblage of the tnr 
habitants from the interior surrounded the sha- 
bundar's house this moniing, and the house and 
court-yard were literally crammed with well dress- 
ed people. Of women there was an immense mul- 
titude, the wives and daughters of the principal 
diieft, most superbly dressed in their gold thread 
sarongs and salindimgs. The four datus also ar- 
rived with a large retinue ; and we all proceeded 
to the Bindahara*s house, where I was again sa- 
luted with seven guns. I took an escort of IS 
soldiers with me, my boat's crew in scariet pre- 
ceding me, and a salute was fired with mus- 
ketry. The letter from the honourable the gover- 
nor was then read aloud in the presence of at least 
ffOO people, seated in a long verandah, and around 
the Bin(lahara*s house. Another salute was then 
fired, in compliment to the letter. They were all 
much pleased with the letter, and said they were 
rejoiced to receive a letter for the first time firnn 
so respected a chief as the governor of I^nang. 
The high estimation indeed in which the head of 
the government of Pinang is held by all the chiefs 
of the countries I visited, is a sure guarantee for the 
hospitable reception of any agent who may be sent 
to these hitherto unfrequented countries ; but my 
own previous acquaintance also with many of the 
prindpal traders from this place and the other 
ports along the coast, obtained me a cordial wel* 



oomc wherever I went, anil was the means also of . 
securing, I trust, roost important advantages lo ; 
the mercantile interests of Pinang. ^ : 

In the afternoon, the sepoys went dirough their* 
exercise for the gratiflcation of an immense mtilti- * 
tttde who had come down the river, first at Kam- * 
pong Boga, and then at Kampong. The sepoys ; 
always showed an alacrity to gratify these people^ i 
and entered into the amusement with spirit. The - 
surprising rapidity with which they primed and 
loaded, and their double quick time motions in; 
going through the evolutions of a running figfat» : 
concealing themselves behind the cocoa-nut treeSp . 
and agiun filing in by the sound of the whist^ 
gave unfeigned astonishment and delight to the - 

84/A Fehniary. — ^I again accompanied the sha- . 
bundar and tumungong to the Biudahara's house, 
where the cliiefs of the four Sulcus had engaged to 
meet me, to conclude our consultation upon the 
objects of the mission. Every thing was settled 
to my satisfaction ; and after partaking of a varie* 
ty of good things which were prepared for me, I . 
took my leave of the four datus. On my return, • 
I found the boat almost sinking with the load of 
cocoa-nuts, poultry, goats, &c. which the datus had 
cidi brought down and put into it. I purchaaed 
a fiew more very elegant silk cloths. Dispatched 
the boat in the afternoon to the mouth of the river^ . 


which being left dry at each ebb of the tide, be^ 
comes a bed of mud, exhaling death and diaeaie. 
It was from this fatal source that my peofde eon- 
tncted the fever with which they were aeiied. 
To the excessive indulgence in fruit, particolaily 
plantains, fever may also he ascribed ; bat probably 
it was chiefly produced by sleepnig in the beat of the 
day, after eating a hearty fareakfitft ; an indulgeoeo 
fimn which it is impossible to debar the natives, 
unless they have some active employment The 
bad quality of the water too^ which is exeeedingiy 
scarce, and quite brackish, may be assigned as 
another cause. In order to procure this necessary 
article, holes arc dug in the sand, and the dirty 
water taken out. I1ie holes are then filled up, 
until a fresh supply is collected, which is again 
drawn off. Several of my people were seised with 
severe bowel complaints. 

In the evening, my musicians again entertained 
a large concourse with a nautch. The Malay laa- 
cars sung songs, and played upon the musical instru- 
ments borrowed for the occasion. The Caffiee boy 
danced fandangoes. Hie Chineae draughtsman 
played Chinese tunes on the violin ; the Siamese 
danced and sung in their own style, and the sepoys 
in theirs. They all performed in turns, and it wis^ 
even to myself, not an unentertaining speetade. 
The ceremonies took place in the court-yard, where 
mats were spread. 


My host, ilie diftlmiidar, was an early riaer^ aiid« 
udike nott of his countrymen, never reclined doiw 
isf the day, but was always usefully employed in le* 
oeifing eommanders of vessels, who were constantly 
aniviog^ and in arranging his papers and aooountat 
He waa very fmid of reading the Bibk^ which was 
given to him by th^ Reverend Mr Hutchings some 
yeaii i^fo^andwl^ 1^ ^ the appearance of having 
hecn wdl used* In compliment to me, he brought 
it oat» and read some passages, which I expUuned to 
tink I administered some medicine to the Am>^ 
bondar^a laother, and she recovered astonishingly 
during the fisw days I remained there. The moat 
common complaints are headaches^ pains in the 
arms and \eg^ and fevers. I found none of the 
nativea here had any prejudices against European 
medicine ; on the contrary, I had more applications 
than it was in my power to comply with. 

I obtained considerable information from the 
shabundar and tumungong, relative to the horrid 
practiee of cannibalism, which exists in the interior 
of Batpbara. The Battas here are a partiailarly 
ferocious race, and cannot be persuaded to give 
their attention to agriculture, or the quiet pursuita 
of commerce^ being constantly engaged in warfine 
with each other. Both the tumungong and die 
Sri liahanya had lived a long time in tlie Batta 
eoontiy^ and were married, one to the daughter of 
the n^ of Seantar» the other to the daughter of 


the Rajah Tanah Jawa, two principal cannibal 
chiefs. A stout ferocious looking fcUow, with 
inusailar Imndy Iq^ came in as I was convening 
on the 8ul)ji*ct of cannibalism, and was pointed out 
to me as a celebrated marksman and man-eater. 
He had a most detennined look, and my draughts- 
man took a remarkably striking likeness of him. 
I made prticular inquiries of him, and be gave 
me the following horrid details of cannibalism. 
He said that young men were soft, and their flesh 
water}', llie most agreeable and ddicate citing 
was that of a man whose hair had bqpm to turn 


23th February. — I slept on boaid the bofet last 
night at the mouth of the river, and when the 
moon rose at three o'cloi*k, we ]ndlcd oH* to the brig. 
Soon after day-li^lit, the tunmngong, shabundar, 
and Maharaja Lela, came on Ixurd to bid us fare- 
well, and see the vessel. The two former were 
saluted witli five guns, the other witli six. I real- 
ly felt rq;rct at (Kirting with these worthy people, 
who hail shown me so much attention. At ten 
A. M. we weighed for Assahan. Cbc Ismad, an in- 
habitaut of I'inang, and owner of three prows 
wUch were lying at Assahan, taking in cargoes, 
aooompanied mc as pilot, the other being sick^ ud 
quite UKoless in every respect. I paid the shahin^ 
dar 'Mo dollars, being the amount which he Imd 
advanced mc on shore for the purcbaic of ckiths^ 


TQl I arrived, no coin but dollars were current 
there, and these only of the large bust ; but I paid 
him now, at his own desire, in small dollars, sicca 
rupees, sukus, and talis, the Pinang currency; 
being a proof of their good intentions. The trad<- 
ing part of the community were much gratified by 
this change in the currency, which will afford them 
wonderful facilities, compared to what they en- 

26th February. — Stood up during the night, 
and found ourselves in the morning opposite Silau 
river, Assahan river also in sight. This part of 
the coast, between Batubara and Assahan, is a 
blank in the chart, but there are five or six con- 
siderable rivers between those two places, on 
the banks of which numbers of inhabitants are 
settled. We coasted along within three miles of 
the shore, in 7 fathoms, gradually decreasing as 
we approached Assahan river, to 6, 5, 4, and 3, 
till within two miles of the mouth of the river. 
We tacked in 3 fathoms, and run out into 3|, 
when we anchored. 

27th February. — Prepared for a three days' 
trip, and entered the Assahan river with the accom- 
modation boat, and a party of 26, at nine o'clock. 
The moving and shifting into the boat is extreme- 
ly irksome, and the waste of provisions very great 
We arrived at Kampong Balei at two p. m. This 
is indeed a miserable collection of huts, situated on 


s point where theie is • biftircation of the xifer. 
mie ground is low and swampy, and always over- 
flowed by the high tides, so that there is no possi- 
bility of walking about The pathways which lead 
from one house to the other, are made of q^ ae* 
bongs hud upon posts, on wliich there is a risk of 
breaking one's legs at every step. The place mm 
abandoned at one time by the inhabitants, who pna* 
fer residing higher up the river, where the gioand 
b elevated, and their plantations are sitnated. 
When the rajah of Siack invaded the ooanliyt 
however, a few years ago, he ordered it to be io» 
occupied, to prevent the pirates fitim remaining in 
the river, and to give protection to tndeia. The 
population consists of Malays, Batta slaves, and a 
few wretched sickly looking Chinese, whose sob 
occupation is the preparing and vending chandoo 
(opium), and gambling. 

The Bindahara of Batubara was lying in a prow 
dose to where we anchored. I went on board, and 
he received me with marked attention. He is an 
old man, with a large diseased nose, and iwailji 
bUnd. Unlike his nephews and the chieft at Ba» 
tubara, who wero splendidly attired in gold doths 
and other neat dresses, he was shablnly habited. 
He told me he had come to Assahan to settle aome 
little differences between the king and the Bigak 
Muda. He assured me of his best endeavours to 
promote a more extensive oommensial intcnoone 


uMb Finaag, and approved entiiely of ^ pm* 
ca e toga of the diieft during his absenoe, in their 
BigotistioM with me. Soon after returning to my 
boat^ the thabondar of Kampong Balei^ and the 
hnidier of the Bindahara, came on board, and in*- 
fa nn e d me that the rajah of Assahan was still np 
tfie coontry, in the Batta kingdom, engaged ia 
hostilities with some chiefs there, and that the Ra- 
jah Mnda and Bindahara were iqp the other river, 
ftnr or ive days* journey. They oflfered me acoom- 
modatimi in a small hovel on Aore, into which I 
moved, being preferable to the confined boat 

The alligators are very numerous here, and par- 
tienlaxly bold. Hundreds of people have lost thdr 
lives by these devouring animals. About an hour 
after we andiored, a man was pulled out of a low 
eaaoe near us^ and devoured in a moment ; and a 
few days befn^, one of the crew belonging to Che 
Ismad, my pilot's boat, a powerful, stout, young 
man, who was sitting at the stem of the boat, 
steering with a paddle, was suatdied off They 
nht their heads a foot or two out of the water» 
and pid the people out of the boats. About • 
Booth ago» a boat with three horses and six goats^ 
wfaioh the Rajah Muda was sending down the ri- 
v«r» to be emlMrked on board a large psow goingto 
Pinangy was attad^ed by a whole swarm of theae 
ferseioas creatures, whidi sunmmded the boat en 
aB adss. Being low and ridcetty, ^ horses took 


fright, and began to kick, on ^hich the boat up- 
set Another small boat in company instantly 
saved the three or four Malays who were in tlie 
boat ; but the horses and goats were devonred in 
an instant. Near the mouth of the river, where 
there is a fishing-house, there is an alligator of m 
most prodigious size, his back, when a little out of 
the water, resembling a lai^e rock. He remains 
constantly there, and is regularly fed upon the 
head and entrails of the large pari, or skate fish, 
which are caught there. I saw him, and the Ma- 
lays called him to his meal. He appeared fuD 
twenty feet long. Being in rather a small boat at 
the time, I wished to make all haste away ; bat 
the Malays assured me he was quite harmlessy so 
much so, that his feeders pat his head with thdr 
hands ; a dangerous amusement certainly, but shoiv- 
ing the wonderful tameness and sagacity of the 
creature, naturally so ferocious. He will not allow 
any other alligator to approach the plaoe ; and on 
that account the Malays almost w<Nrship him. In 
going into the river near the entrance, where the 
water is shallow, we several times touched the al- 
ligators and large saw-fish (wliich are here i 
mcnsely large), and they shook the boat as if 
had nm violently against a rock. I procured the 
snout of a saw-fish of an immense size here. It 
required four canoes and ten or twelve men to se- 
cure hun, when he was hooked ; and he run hif 


teeth an incb into the boat, threatening to dash 
the frail bark in pieces. This fish yielded eight 
gantons of oil, used for caulking prows. 

2StA February. — I was prepared to expect at 
renewal of hostilities from our enemies the mus- 
quitoes, from whose torments we had a respite only 
while at sea, the fresh breezes driving. them away ; 
and they commenced a most furious attack, which 
they kept up, not permitting me to close my eyes 
the whole night. We made a large fire, and en-> 
deavoured to smoke them out of the house ; but 
all in vain. The mud around the house prevented 
my moving out, and I was a close prisoner all day. 
This, however, gave me an opportunity of acquir- 
ing copious information from the shabundar, and 
other respectable people, relative to the country. 
A curious little Batta child was brought in, whose 
back was covered with hair like a buf&loe. She 
came from the interior of Panel. Close to the 
shabundar's house, in an open shed, I observed a 
man chained to a post by his neck, and his feet se- 
cured in stocks. He was a Tubba slave, who had 
been converted to Islamism, and had been many 
years in bondage. He had run away some years, 
and had been brought back only a few days. H^ 
was to be confined tiU he could be sold, his price 
fifteen dollars. A little coarse rice was his only 
food, and an old mat spread upon a floor of hard 
lantysy his miserable bed. Ignatius Saneho's ap^ 

188 PADDY 8EA80N. 

peal to Sterae came to my rccoUectaoii» on aeeii^ 
this poor creature. ** G>ii8ider how great m part 
<< of our species in all ages, down to this, have bestt 
^ trod under the foot of cruel and capridous ty- 
'* rants, who would neither hear their cries, nor 
^^ pity their distresses. Consider shivery, what it is. 
^ How hitter a draught ; and how many millioM 
^ are made to drink of it" 

The small viUage of Kampong Balei was almost 
deserted at the time I arrived, the people being 
engaged in the paddy fields. When the crops are 
gathered, they return to their wretched habitations 
with the produce, and sell it to the prows which 
come fixnn Batubara and other places. The crops 
this season are abundant. Dozens of small boats 
came down every evening, loaded with rioe and 
paddy. Pepper has been lately tried np the eonn* 
try, and about a coyan exported this year, of s vary 
superior quality. Small quantities have also boss 
procured from some of the adyoining rivers^ and tha 
cultivation of this plant is increasing rapidly along 
the coast ; so that in a &w years it will be immnnss, 
The artaps with which the houses are oovaedL 
are made of the nipab, kalubi, and pallas 
all found in abundance. 

lit March. — Still waiting for the arrival of t 
chiefs from the interior. Diqiatched a bMt 
the brig fiur provisions. 1 purchased a variety 
s to*day, far the manufacture of wfaidi ti 


place is famous. Some of them are extremely fine, 
and the open work very neat. They make small 
bags for holding rice and clothes ; and baskets also 
of extremely delicate workmanship. My clerk shot 
a beautiful bird called the angang, buceios, or 
horn-bill, as large as a turkey, with black plumage, 
interspersed with yellow and white, with a largQ 
broad yellow bill. 

Towards noon, the shabundar of Serantau came 
down with an invitation from the Sultan Muda 
to go up to meet him. I accordingly proceeded 
up, and arrived in the evening. I was received 
with a salute of seven guns, and met at the land<i 
ing place by the Sultan Muda, who handed me 
into thejoima bechara, or hall of audience, which 
had just been erected. He opened the letter 
which was addressed to the rajah or Jang de per 
tuan ; and having perused its contents, begged I 
would accompany him to-morrow up the river, to 
see the rajah, to which I consented. Crowds of 
people from the country flocked in to see me. I 
slept all night in the audience hall. The Sultan 
Muda is a good looking, powerfril man. He is 
very abstemious in his habits and mode of living, 
eats little, and is not addicted to opium smoking, 
or any other vice that I heard of He says, people 
who are given to eating are always defective in 
understanding. The sultan was extremely atten- 
tive, and evinced every disposition to meet my 



wishes in regard to all the objects of the mission. 
He informed me that the rajah was at war in the 
interior ; that tranquillity had been restored there 
some months ago ; and that no sooner had the dif« 
ferenoes between the Rajah Muda, and Bindahara, 
and rajah, been settled, than they were engaged in 
fresh hostilities with the Battas. In passing np 
the river, we observed the remains of temporuy 
fortifications and trees, on whicb swivels had been 
fixed, to fire upon the enemy as they passed np 
and down the river. Wherever I went, there was 
or had lately been war. It is to be regretted that 
such a spirit of warfare exists in such fine oonii^ 
tries, which, however, must always be the CMe 
where the states are separated into sueh small 
divisions, and where there are so many prtty 

The Battas who reside in the interior of Anm^ 
han, have a belief in three gods, one above, one in 
the air, and one below ; but they offer no petitions; 
nor do they show any symptoms of adoration to 
any one of the three. Their only mode of worriiip 
is beating the drum. They believe that when they 
die, they shall become ghosts. 

In the evening we were entertained with Batta 
dances. A Pardimbanan boy danced with graA 
spirit, but his gestures were more agile than gmee- 
ful. A little Batta girl, as fair as a Chinese, frotti 
Bulah, also went through a number of evohitmn. 


Here, as at other places, the natives are passion- 
ately fond of music ; and the moment it was whis- 
pered that a violin was in my boat, an immense 
<9!owd assembled, who amused themselves tiU a late 
hour. This is by far the most favourable time for 
conversing with the Malays, when their hearts sace 
open, and, being enlivened with music, they lay 
aside all suspicion and restraint, and enter into 
the most unreserved communications. I attri- 
bute, in a good d^ree, the extraordinary succesli 
of my mission, to this attention to embrace the 
most favourable opportunities, and to my ap- 
peiuing easy and indifferent, as not having any 
weighty affair on hand. The chiefs are fond of 
exhibiting their children in their fine clothes, and 
covered with jewels. Being partial to children, 
they were brought out before me in great num- 
bers, and I gave them small presents. Nothing 
pleases a Malay more than partiality to their chil- 
^n ; and I could observe the fond looks of the 
mothers, who modestly retired behind the canopies 
with which the place was hung round, as their 
little innocents were presented to me, watching 
the reception they experienced, and listening at- 
tentively to my partial remarks upon their ap- 
pearanoe. It may appear perhaps puerile in me to 
notice all these little circumstances ; but an atten- 
ticm to the most minute ceremonies, or an anxiety 
tx^ iSaakftm to the peculiar habits and prgudioes erf* 


the Malays, is necessary to ensure a hotpitaUe le- 
eeption fitnn them, and to secure their coniidtfttc^ 
which, when once estahlished, is unbotmdadt and 
cannot be shaken. There are many ^*"«^M^ traits 
in the character of Makys, which a saper6cial ob- 
server does not discover ; among othci% a warmth 
and attachment to their offspring, which is ex^ 
tremely pleasing. 

3d March. — The sultan presented my ptrty 
with a bullock* which was daughtered prior to 
setting out upon our long and arduous joomey. 
Two small covered boats were prepared, in one of 
which the Sultan Muda, myself, my writer, 
draughtsman, and four Battas embarked ; in the 
other, my clerk, two sepoys, one servant, three 
lascars, and four Batta sUives, with the provisioBS. 
We left Serantau at noon for the residence of the 
rajah at Bcndar Passir Mandogei, up the river. 

Serantau is a large straggling village, oo both 
sides of the river. Opposite each house is a small 
place adapted for bathing and other weAil piu^ 
poses, which disBgures the appearanoe of the eo^ 
tages, otherwise prettily situated amongst dinspi 
of bamboos, plantains, &c. The bathing plaesa mt 
strongly stockaded against attacks by the sl^ga* 
tors. The sides of the river were crowded with llie 
natives as we pushed along. The sultan b^ggsdi 
that I would occasionally show myself to groopei of 
these wondcr-gazing pe<^le. Our motaooa 


very (riflur at fint; the Sultan Muda stopping at 
ana place for aefee, at another for betel-nut, and at 
BMthtir fcr cocoa^nutB, and so on. The sides €i 
tht mer aie eovered with paddy, and plantations 
aCtobaooo^ poke of various sorts, sugar-cane, seree, 
pimtainSi anau, and bread-fruit tree, cocoa-nut 
and fruit trees ci the choicest descriptions. There 
is^ in fiicty a greater appearance of abundance here, 
I have seen at any of the other places. The 
are numerous along the banks of the river, 
and inland about seven or eight miles above Se- 
nurtaOy where the ground again becomes low and 
awampyy and continues so for about eight or ten 
■Ufltp graduaUy rising, with high banks on each 
ode of the river. There are also many inha- 

We halted at sun- set at Kampong Mungkuang, 
lAnae we cooked our dinner, and remained for the 
■ight. We were very much confined in the small 
boat ; the sultan, a corpulent man, my draughts- 
0HBI9 and myself, sleeping in a small cabin about 

fcet by four. At this place were great quanti- 
of the kabu kabu (cotton tree), used for stuf* 
pillows, beds, &c 

9d ManAj-^We again set out before day-light 
dria morning, the current extremely strong, and 
d» nver decreasing to the breadth of five or six 
jmtiB in some places, and resembling rather a ditch 
than a river. The current was in fact running a 



perfect sluicei and the people occasionally held oa 
by the overhanging branches of trees. The aoil b 
a fine rich mould over a bed of day, well suited fiir 
the cultivation of pepper ; and there aie oonodaw 
able spots of dear levd ground. The width of the 
river continued to decrease, till at last there was 
scarcely room for our little skiff to pass, the boak 
actuaUy rubbing against the rccds on each side. 

A small prow which we met with this aftemooii, 
had the day before fSfdlen in with a very huge male 
dephant in this narrow channel, whidi of oooxse 
choaked up the passage. The crew, fimr in nuns* 
her, fled to a tree not far off, where they remained 
for the night, previously fastening the boat to the 
reeds. The single male elephants are very danger* 
ous. When they arc in herds, they generally lly 
on the approach of boats ; but the single mies afe» 
tack, and frequently kill the people in the boita. 
Coming suddenly upon them, they take them vp 
with their trunks, and dash them to the groondt 
or throw them up in the air, and eatdi tham 
upon their trunks as they fidL The Battaa 
times attack them single-handed with huge 
with which they stab them in the belly ; but tfasy 
often suffer for their temerity. The most nsud 
way of killing them is by lying in wait finr tham 
as they pass down in the evening to the rives^ 
side to bathc^ the Battas oonceaUng themsalvea en 
the branches of hirgc trees, and as the di^hMili 


pass under, throwing down a Uurge heavy pointed 
iron pik^ with a rope attached to it, which, if 
properly directed, pierces the elephant through the 
bf^k, and kills him on the spot. I saw two very 
large tusks, which had been procured a few days 
before, by this expedient. When an elephant is 
Jlilled, the rajah gets one tusk, and the person who 
kills the animal the other. This afternoon we saw 
^ large, herd of wild buffaloes of an unoommoii 
size, coming down to the river to bathe ; but on our 
appearance they ran off into the jungles, a large 
bull only halting below a tree, and, as it were^ 
watching our motions. The traces of elephants 
were seen on a small sand-bank, where they ap« 
peared to have recently been. 

Towards evening we passed a small Batta kam« 
pong, called Dorian, from the great number of that 
fruit-tree which grows there. The few houses are 
situated on a little mount. Here the ground 
again becomes elevated, and the river increases to 
the breadth of 100 yards. This large stream 
branches off into three or four small channels, by 
one of which we ascended. We afterwards came 
up to Kampong Kesaran, where the soil is Si feet 
light day, mixed with sand, and under it a stra- 
tum of red earth. Near this village we heard the 
ncnse of a large herd of elephants, in a cluster 
of tcees dose to us. The sultan was alarmed, and 
said we must make haste, as it would be danger- 


out to remain there during the night The peopb 
exerted themselves to get us up to the nUagv, 
though it was now sun-set When the moon loae^ 
we pusbed up as far as Kampong Paasir Piitih> 
where we renuuned for the ni.uht. 

4M March. — The chief of the village was ready 
to reecive me at sun-rise. His name is Rajah Lant^ 
brother-in-htw to the sultan, of a most dissipated 
appearance. Here were some beautiful lifct^ horses^ 
eows, buffidoes» goats, and poultry ; and among sonit 
large trees^dose behind the chiefs house, was a large 
herd of elephants, which he wished us to go out 
and assist him to attack ; but I was not modi skil* 
led in these matters, and not knowing the path* 
ways, I thought it more prudent for myself and 
peofdc to remain where we were. I purrhased 
from a Batta rajah here, a very handsome sword of 
their own workmanship, called a kalapan, the 
handle of which is a large mass of solid ivory. If 
I may judge from the swords and knives whidi have 
ivory handles here, that artide must be in great 

We left Passir Putih early, and readied Kaur 
pong Pematang Layer, a smdl village on the ii|^ 
so called from the Javanese many centuries ago 
making thdr sails there, llie houses are thatdied 
with the leaves of the rotan and sirdang. Here I 
saw great numbers (^children covered with blolohaa 
on their faces. These ulcerations contiiiM^ ilbmf 


«ay, for the first two or three years after their birth» 
jad they afterwards become quite free of them. 

The provision boat not being able to keep up 
with ours, and being very anxibus to push on^ I 
contented myself with the sultan's frugal fare, and 
ate a little rice boiled by the Batta slaves, some 
black salt, and the leg of a fowl burnt over^ 
its throat cut ten minutes before. The sultan 
himself .was the executioner, with a little knife 
which he always carried about with him for the 
purpose. He invariably looked towards the sun on 
grasping the* head of the fowl, and cut the outer 
skin all around, according to the Mussulman cus* 

As we approached Tanjong AUum, the banks 
became very high. The soil is red earth, 8 feet 
deep, and then a stratum of mud and sand. In 
the course of the day we halted at a village called 
Sejorei. About 50 fierce looking men came down 
to meet us, as we ascended from the boat. We 
went to their houses, where they showed abun- 
dance of civility. The women were manufacturing 
^loth. Their habitations were wretched huts, the 
odes made of the bark of trees. This psut of the 
country is very populous ; but their houses being 
^situated in the woods, it has not the appearance of 
being thickly inhabited. The Battas are afiraid of 
the Malays on the sides of the river, who carry off 
thrir children, and sell them as slaves. 


Wc passed Beveral other small villages almoit 
entirely obscured in the woods ; some of their hnta^ 
which were situated on the eminences, only occukm- 
ally peeping out They are romantically plaeed 
on the summits of Uttle mounts, with flights of 
stqis to ascend, and stockaded all around, as a pto- 
teetion against the elephants,rhinoceroses,aiid tigen^ 
with which the woods aro fiUed. We came sod- 
denly upon a party of women at the river side^ 
loaded with potatoes, pine apples, &e. which they 
threw down, and made off with all qpeed. 

We pushed on till eight o'clock, when it getting 
dark, we made fast to a tree on the side of the river^ 
under a steep bauk« Having observed numeroua 
tracks of elephants, and the reed whiph they prin- 
cipally subsist ui)on devoured in large quantities^ 
dose to the place where wc were obliged to stop^ 
the sultan and his i)eoplc were in expectaticm of a 
visit from them, and therefore made a lai^ fire to 
keep them away. When the moon got up^ we 
again pushed up against a current, which I can com. 
pare to nothing I have ever seen, but that which 
runs into a mill sluice. The river was fuU of stompe 
of trees and rocks, the banks steep and boUt and 
altogether presenting a scene more grand and pie* 
turesquc than agreeable to me ; while the conita n t 
cries of the sultan to keep steady in the boat» whick 
was rockiiig about with the violence of the caneat^ 
effectually prevented all attempts at sound repon. 


Tliis k the fourth night I have not had one con- 
tixmsA hour's sleep. My fare has been frugal m* 
deed* I w^ several times disposed to return .; but 
J determined at last, that as I had got over so many 
difficulties, I should proceed at all hazards. 

My boat was not seen all day ; but as there were 
lour of the sultan's slaves on board, I was under no 
apprehensions, and time was precious to me. We 
therefore made all speed. 

6th March. — ^We found ourselves this morning 
under a lofty ridge, and several Batta huts situat- 
ed on the top of it, which had a very pleasing effect 

** No fields of waving com were here, 

^' Nor wicker storehouse for the autumnal grain. 

Vineyard, nor bowing fig, nor fruitful grove ; 

Only the rocky vale, the mountain stream, 
'* Incumbent crags, and hills that over hills 
'' Arose on either hand, here hung with woods." 

South ey's Roderick, 

The soil on the top of this ridge again improves 
tQ a rich mould. On the margin of the river were 
large masses of granite and light free-stone. In 
the cliffs of the free-stone was growing a speciea 
qf palm called bagat, resembling the nebong in ap- 
pearance^ from which toddy and sugar is ^tracted* 
It is indigenous. I was really so exhausted hy 
fatigue, that as we went up the river, I could not 
pay proper attention to many objects of interest ; 
and being now accustomed to sail on so many ri-P 




vers, what was no doubt worthy of notc^ and 
which would have struck mc forcibly at aaodwr 
time, passed unnoticed. I felt my defideacy n 
natural history* and that I had not the poww cf 
describing objects which might be rendered ao nradi 
more interesting by the pen of a naturalist lomi 
I experienced those emotions, howevert wludi an 
80 well described by a celebrated traveller.^ ^ Na 
'' language/' says he, *' can express the cmotieB 
** which a naturalist feels when he touches fior the 
** first time a land that is not European. The at» 
*' tention is fixed upon so great a number ef ok 
jects, that he can scarcely define the impiesnoB 
he receives. At every step he thinks he diaeo* 
vers some new production ; and in this tnmnltii> 
^* ous state of mind, he does not recollect thoae 
*' which are most common in our botanical g a i d ea a 
'* and collections of natural history.** 

^ Ve passed several prows loaded with salt» wUdi 
had been ten and twelve days from Le Bantaa. 
Ten days is the common passage for trading boata. 
The inhabitants take their wives and childiai witli 
them. Wc met the boat which had been aeat 
up to announce my arrival, and were informed tliat 
the rajah could not come down, being still at 
with the Battas. 



I began to get rather tired of the boat ; but the 
prospect of soon reaching the end of my journey, 
kept up our spirits. The Battas in the boat were 
filthy in their habits, occasionally employing the 
little intervals of rest, when we halted, in extract^ 
ing certain noxious Uttle animals from each other's 
heads, which were far too numerous to be agreeable. 
A Fardimbanan boy in the boat was fond (j£ 
singing, with which he occasionally amused us. 

The scenery now assumed a bold and picturesque 
aspect. We passed two remarkable rocks, per<^ 
fectly alike, at least 200 feet high. The hills on 
each side of the river are abrupt and lofty. We 
diortly after passed two other large rocks called 
Batu di Kikir, which appeared at a short distance 
to block up the channel of. the river ; and when we 
made a near approach to them, it appeared like en- 
tering a cavern. These rocks seem to have been 
<Hriginally united, and bore the marks of a chissel, 
as if they had been hewn down by the hand of man, 
which must have been a work of great labour. I 
was informed, indeed, that they were cut by the 
Portuguese many centuries ago, when that nation 
ruled over Malacca, and had some settlements up 
the Assahan river. The sea at that period rose as 
£Eur as Serantau. A large tree lies right across 
from one rock to the other, under which there is a 
confined passage, just sufficient to allow a small boat 
to pass. The river is not above twetity yards wide 


herc» and is confined on cither side by these tre- 
mendous rocks. They rise perpendicularly like a 
wall from the edge of the water, and leave no space 
to stand upon. The scenery here is inoonoeiTaUy 
grand and sublime ; the lofty clifii and dark over* 
hanging woods on either side» threatening, aa it 
were, to fall down on the passenger, and orer- 
whelm him in utter destruction. Beautifiil 
springs of water, clear as crystal, were issuing out 
of the rocks, and trickling down these immense 
heights. The description of the Mctcora rocks in 
Thcssaly, by a celebrated traveller,* is so exactly 
applicable to this part of the scenery in the As* 
sahan river, that I shall make no apokigy for in* 
serting it, as it will convey a much more aocnrate 
idea than my feeble description. " On eadi side 
** of us were lofty pinnacles of rocks^ some entirely 
conical, others very nearly rhomboidal in fixm, 
and actually inclining over their base; othera 
again perfect squares or oblongs, with perpendi* 
cular sides and level summits. Nor by the tenn 
** masses are mere fragments of rock to be undcr- 
*' stood. It is the original mountain which is thus 
^ wonderfully cleft and divided ; by what agency 
** it may be difficult to determine ; but, p e rh a ps , 
by the joint operation of some convnloon, and of 



* HoUand'ii TraveU in Albanit, &c. 


that progressive decay vvbich proceeds so perpe» 

tually and so extensively over tb^ fiftoe of the 

gl«be " 

We reaohed the small village of Bendar Fassir 
Mandogei, ^toated on a small spot of level ground, 
about i 50 feet above the river. It is a collection of 
a few miserable hutSi The rajah of Munto Panei, 
one or the principal cannibal chiefs, was here, and 
received me with ceremony. He is a middle aged 
man, fair cotnplezioned, and a great opium smoker. 
He i^resented me with a tiijing, a silver mounted 
knife, used fin- cutting up human flesh. My 
draughtsman took a correct likeness of him, seated 
with his opium apparatus* *-. 

The rajah had just set out with 500 men, to at« 
tack some Batta ^is, About a day's joohiey ; but 
his mother as4'the olber people thinking I would 
perhaps retuni if thef teld the truth, assured me 
he was only gone out for the purpose of hunting 
deer, an .amusement to which the inhabitants are 
very paitiaL . The Sultan Muda set out imme- 
diately after him. Behind this place, on the sum- 
mit of' a lofty ridge of hiUs, are a great many 
Batta forts, under the authority of the rajah of 
Mulito F&nei. I set out to visit the nearest, and, 
aA;er climbiag up a very steep hill, like a wall, 
Elowly and ca^eftilly ascended, with the assistance 
«f niy hands, « dangerous precipice on one side, 

wh^ the* letet dip would h^ve beiKi fatal. In 

■•^ • .' J." 


this manner wc reached the summitt and a narrow 
pathway conducted us to the first fort, called Paasir 
Mandogei, containing 20 liouses, 10 on each sidcp 
like a regular street, the entrance at one end a 
mound of earth under each house, and the whole 
well stockaded with sharp jwinted bamboos in the 
form of a square, and thorny bushes, forming an im* 
penetrable thicket all round, with a gateway at each 
end. The graves of the dead are between the 
dwellings, and at their doors. There were swarms 
of pigs under the houses ; and to give an idea of 
their abundance, I may mention that 20 small ones 
only cost a dollar, llieir houses are made of the 
banei leaf and the bark uf trees. The women and 
children were swarming like bees, every house being 
filled with them. 

As evening approached, we made all haste back 
to the village below, and our descent was even 
more difficult than the ascent. There is an ad* 
mirable description of this sort of sa^nery in Wa- 
verly, which I cannot deny myself the gratification 
of inserting. ** It was towards evening, as they 
** entered one of the tremendous passes which af- 
** ford communication between the high and low 
** country ; the path, which was extremely steep and 
** rugged, winded up a chasm between two tie- 
** mendous rocks, following the passage which a 
** foaming stream that brawled far below, appeared 
** to have worn for itself in the course of ages. A 


^ ftw felaiitiiig bemi of the sun, whith yf^as now 
^ Mtttogt reiched tiie water in its dtrksome bed^ 
** and showed it partially chafed by an hundred 
** rodLS^ and broken by an hundred fiiUs. The de^ 
** soent from the path to the stream was a mere 
** pffecipioe> with here and there a projecting fhig* 
" ment of granite or a scathed tree, which had 
** warped its twisted roots into the fissures of tlie 
** rock. On the right hand, the mountain, rose 
** abore the path with almost equal inaccesttbility. 
Twenty small jnrows were lying in the river, dis- 
posing of thrir cargoes of salt, cloths, &c. Beyond 
th]% no boat can ascend, owing to the intemiptioil 
from falls and rocks in the river. We heard at fl 
diatanee the rushing of waters, as from a high frlL 
The Battas ascend some of the steep hills and pfo* 
cipiosa in this quarter, by ropes of rattan, whidi are 
ftstencd to trees abovi^ and left for the general use 
of passengers* By this they soramUe up. If the 
tape breaksy they are dashed to pieces, t prooured 
a vatiety of curiosities to-day. Spedmens of theiif 
aia% ▼!& kali^an and teijang, and their cloths. 
In the enming, the rajah of Munto Panel played 
upon the Batta violin with two strings^ ht my 
amusement ; and as he spoke the language et tbo 
Malays fluently, he conversed with me, and exael^ 
ed a piomise from me to go and see Munto FMel 
aa I deactnded the river. He has 80 kampoogt 
undm Us authority, having from 00 to 100 hooiss 


fioe^ some of them resembling Bunnahs. Every 
thing was new to them. Even a small looking- 
glass was a novelty. I distributed two or three, 
and the Battas evinced the greatest delight in look-t 
ii^ at their Ibces. One chief» whom I presented 
with on^ said he was happier than if I had given 
him 50 dollars. The Battas called Europeans 
** Malayu dangan gigi putih/' Malays with white 
teeth. ^ 

We were now in the heart of the cannibal coun* 
tryt and I was determined to investigate the habits 
and manners of the people while I remained. I 
again ascended the hill to the Batta viUage, where 
a large crowd assembled in and round the balei <» 
hall^ sharpening creeses and swords, and making 
ereese handles, fcc I did not observe the heads of 
any victims here ; but upon speaking to the rajah 
of Munto Panei on the subject, he told me of a 
man who had been eaten only six days before, at 
one of the villages dose at hand, and that if I wish- 
ed, he would immediately send and get the head for 
me. He accordingly dispatched some of his people ; 
and shortly afterwards we observed a large party of 
Battas coming down the mountain, with this trophy 
of victory. This unfortunate wretch was devoured^ 
I was infimned, in five minutes, each warrior ob» 
taining only a very small piece. The body was 
shared out as children do cakes at home. 1 shall 
■ever forget the impression up(m my mind at ther 


sight of a bare skull, suspended at one end of a 
stick, a bundi of plantains on the other extremity, 
and slung over a man's shoulder. The chief of the 
village accompanied it, and brought with him to the 
rajah of Munto Panel, six slaves, who had been 
caught two days before, vi2. four women and two 
children. I was offered many slaves, but refused 
the acceptance of thenu I might have seen the 
disgusting ceremony of eating human flesh, had I 
chosen to accompany the rajah to the fort, whidi 
he was about to attack (and which he was prevent- 
ed from doing two days before by my arrival), with 
500 men ; but thinking it not improbable that some 
poor wretch might be sacrificed to show me the 
ceremony, I declined witnessing it They seemed 
quite surprised that I should have entertained a 
doubt of the prevalence of cannibalism. The tijah 
was about to besiege eight forts, under the authori- 
ty of Rajah Tinding, of the tribe Terdolo. 

At several of the adjacent forts were seen doaens 
of skulls hung up in the balei. The heads of the 
people killed in war are reckoned valuable pti»- 
perty, and a chief is considered rich aceotding to 
the number of such trophies which he posscis. 
The friends of the deceased, when peace is restored^ 
purchase the skulls of their relations, sometimca as 
high as SO or 40 dollars. The rajah*s motfaar 
gave the man who brought the skull to m^ 
dollars. Immense crowds of Battas, men and 


men, contiBued to flock in on the side of the mer» 
when I returned to the hoat ; and there were soma 
interesting groupes of women, who were going out 
to commence their lahour of cutting down paddy, 
&C. The dress of these wom^i consisted of a scant 
petticoat, which scarcely reached to the knee, and 
their breasts were quite bare. I nev^ saw such 
savages. They were very dark and ill^featured. 
At the other villages too, the women were in the 
same state of nudity, and girls of 10 and 1 2 years 
of age appeared without any clothing at all. It 
by no means follows that the women who wear few 
clothes are less virtuous than the others. Indeed, 
I believe the contrary to be the case; and both 
Ihey and the men to be more particular than those 
who are more polished in their dress and manners 
I observed, indeed, a natural timidity and bashful^' 
ness about these, which was not so perceptible in 
others who resided in the Malay chief's house. 
The young rajah's house is full of women, some 
of them b^utifully fair. I saw not less than fifty 
good looking girls in his house. If a Batta r^ah 
refuses to give him a daughter, he makes war upon 
him, on some pretence or other, and takes them by 
force. The rajah of Munto Panei assists him with 
men, and shares in the spoil, while his people feast 
upon the slain. Some of these chi^' daugbtem 
of the Pardimbanan tribe (the Tubbas are the dark 
race), are beautifully fair. In their manner there 


was a freedom which I had not observed anywhere 
else. The young men and women were playing 
and pinching each other, and showing other symp* 
toms of the softer passion, like the country lada 
and lasses at a wake at home. I was frequently 
asked how many wives I had ; and upon tdling 
them that our laws admitted of only one, they were 
quite astonished. The king's mother and gruid* 
mother, the only two ladies I conversed with, ex* 
pressed even more surprise than the men on this 

At two o'clock the rajah arrived with a crowd 
of followers, and saluted me on entering the hooae^ 
which I returned in the best way I could, with two 
muskets. The Sultan Muda, my companion in 
the boat, returned quite fatigued, after a most le* 
vere journey. Between two and six o^dodc yertcr* 
day, he passed through nine forts. He dimbed 
up some terrible precipices by ropes, and both hit 
and the rajah's hands and feet were cut and acntrii« 
ed. I remained with the rajah several haan, and 
he pressed me to continue some days with him ; 
but having arranged every thing, and accomplidi- 
ed all the more important objects of the mimm, I 
prepared for descending the river to-morrow. Here 
also I made payments in sicca rupees and aukm^ 
for cloth, &c. The rajah sent me supplies of sweet 
potatoes, onions, fowls, goats, pigs, &c. 

There is no doubt, that by the distribution of ^ 



▼ariety of little artides, I have excited a taste for 
our maau&ctures. The extraordinary circumstance 
of a small looking-glass being an object of wonder, 
shows what remains to be done, and what a fine 
fidd there is yet open for the introduction of our 
manufiictures amongst an immense population, 
whose forests abound with the most valuable pro> 
ducts. This is indeed a rich country, and produc- 
tive of the choicest commodities, to collect which 
little labour is required. I observed the chiefs had 
a partiality for European chintzes, and particularly 
for scarlet broad doth, of which they would have 
made purchases, had there been any for sale. The 
cold in the mornings is excessive, and requires 
warm dothing. 

7th March. — The Tubba traders from the 
mountains on the other side, continued flocking 
in all day in great numbers. A large party from 
a place odled Janji Maria, were loaded wiUi cot- 
ton, doths, &c. This is a very populous and laige 
town, containing four hundred houses, according to 
repcnrt The chiefr of the adjoining villages 
brought me pigs, rice, and pulse, expecting a return 
of some small artides of British manufiicture, in 
which I did not disappoint them. Crowds of 
wild looking savages, dressed prindpally in theb 
own doths and bark of trees, armed with swovds 
and spears, were on the banks of the river, as we 
desecoded to the boats ; and the scene wai iltqjpe* 

1^ DKgOSNQ T0B aiVEE AfiSAUAli. 

thflr aa wil4 as om be pictmred They weie, ho«r« 
6? er, quite peaceable and harmless, and allowed me 
tp examine their dresses and ann% and seemed 
pleased when I notioed or conversed with them* 
We got into our boats at noon, and ptooeeded 
down the river, the current sweeping ns down with 
alarming velocity. This is now the ninth ixf 
ance I left the brig, and I have not been able to 
qhange my dotbes twice. I have not slept two 
hours at a time ; and several of my people being 
attacked with fever and agu^ I was anxious to get 
back as soon as possible. 

The r^iah of M unto Panel accompanied me down 
the river to the village, which is seven miles bdow 
where we were. We then got out of the boaty and 
proceeded to the village, which is two miles inland, 
situated on a hill which has a fine level plain upon 
it; and is surrounded on all sides by an almost im- 
penetrable thicket, with a small rivulet in the 
ravine. On this plain, herds of fiit bollocks and 
buffidoes were grasng. The hill is about four 
miles in cirtumfisrenoe. The village is buried in a 
dump of lofty tre^s, and oontaina about 70 houses^ 
the number of inhabitants about ISOa In the 
Indosure were some of the finest ponies I ever saw* 
aa &t as pomiUe; cows in plenty ; and jigfi, foats^ 
dflijs, and poultry innumerable. Qp the otbsi 
side of the mvine pas a beautiful dear hiUf eofer* 
ed with ■^•**^^*"*^ faiian* nulae. vams. ktladi and 


fmt^tfeeB, I never miw more unequivocal iniurks 
of plenty ; and though the houses were not hand^r 
some, they had an appearance of comfort The 
rqah's house stood in the middle, and is a neat 
building. Strange, that a people having suob 
abundance of cattle and vegetable productions, 
should be tempted to devour each other. It is 
dear, however, that it is not hunger whidi prompts 
this atrocity, but revenge on their enemiest Hero 
the price of a fat bullock is ten dollars ; twenty 
small pigs, and as many fowls, for a dollar. 

In respect to furniture, the demands of the oe* 
eupants of the upper part of the house are but 
little more than those under it, man and beast be* 
ing nearly on a par in this respect, the pig having 
his trough, and some grass or leaves to recline on, 
while tho Batta has his cooking pot and mat 
lliis is of course only applicable to the lower 
class ; for the chiefs have a few other artides, such 
as seree boxes, brass plates, &c. 

Here, I observed, the dress was wholly of oouik* 
try manufacture, with the exception of the ngah, 
and two or three of the chiefs around him, whQ 
were dressed in European chints bajoos, Bugguese 
sarongs, and Acheen or Batubara trowsers, with a 
neat handkerchief on their head, of Java or Brit 
tish manufiicture. 

The rajah of Munto Pand having associated 
nmsb m%h the Malays is quite dviUaed inhiv 


manners, and a pleasant man to converse with. 
He assured me that he did not cat human flesh 
himself; but he could not persuade his subjects to 
refrain from their ancient practices. Previoos to my 
taking leave of him» he begged me to send him 
two dogs to catch deer ; and in order that I might 
not forget his commission, he wrote upon a joint 
of bamboo, a memorandum to that effect in his 
own language, which I brought with me ; also the 
numbers from one to ten. 

8/A March. — Last night, in passing down the 
river, we were thrown into alarm shortly after we 
halted for the night, by hearing voices close to us 
in the wood, in which was no habitation near. 
We challenged the people, hut no satisfiutory 
answer being returned, the sultan felt sure they 
were a banditti, who lurk about the banks of the 
river, and pick off people from the boats as they 
pass and repass. A man was killed near this spot 
about a month before in that wav. We all arm* 
ed ourselves, waded ashore, and were proceeding 
cautiously amongst the trees to take them by sur- 
prise, when we observed a party sitting under a 
large tree ; and a small lire which Ix^n to Uaae, 
displayed the group to our view. Tlie two sepoys^ and 
a fe%v of us who had muskets, had cocked our pieees^ 
and were waiting for my orders to fire amongst 
them, when happily the glimmering light showed 
mc a number of women and children, and we i 


stantly recovered our pieces. We were now with- 
in twenty yards of them ; and their consternation 
was no less than ours, when we first heard their 
voices. They proved to be a party of the subjects 
of the rajah of Munto Panei, who were travel- 
ling up the country through the woods, and had 
halted for the night under a tree. The sultan, 
however, was by no means at ease, and kept 
pacing about the small sand-bank all night, my 
two sepoys, and two or three of his people, keeping 
a strict watch all night. During the night, break- 
&st was cooked, and we again proceeded down the 
river at five o'clock. Here we were again amongst 
the elephants, which must be very numerous, as at 
every place we stopped, we saw the impression of 
their feet. A well equipped boat, with two or 
three swivels, might destroy a great number of 
these animals, and obtain much ivory. We passed 
Passir Putih at ten o'clock. The rajah's brother, 
Hajah Salong, was confined in a large cage in the 
centre of the room. He is mad, and had got loose 
a few days before, and was secured, after wounding 
several people. He had a most wild, ferocious look. 
We arrived at Serantau at five o'clock, and 
having moved every thing into the large boat 
(which Gunner Manuel had repaired and caulked 
during my absence), and being provided with a 
guide, I went down with the tide to Tanjong Bald. 
Jt was eight o'clock at night ; but being anxious to 

loO aiCKMEsa. 

return to the vessel, and numy of my people toffir- 
ing from fever, and ague, and bowel ecMBplauit% I 
immediately waited upon the Bindahara, who had 
arrived from the interior to meet me. He is a hag* 
gard ill looking man, and bears all the mariu of a 
dissolute life. He wished me to go up to meet 
the Rigah Muda, but we were aU so fiitigued with 
our late journey, that we were unable to undertake 

9th JIfaTicA.— Left Tanjong Balei early thii 
morning, and reached the brig at noon. My 
friends on board remarked a great change in the 
appearance of oiur party that had accompanied me 
to the mountains. The Bindahara, Shabondar 
Moobin, and I^jah Laut, cam^ off, and I gave 
them all small presents. The Bindahara waa sa- 
luted with five guns. There were not less thaa 
150 people on board to-day. I fimnd on my ie< 
turn on board, that the native pilot Jaffer had died 
a few days before, and that, by order of Mr Car* 
negy, lus remains were interred at the Sandy 
Point, near the mouth of the river. The fever 
which he caught at Batubara carried him oC >n 
spite of all the remedies that could be devised. 

The two sepoys who accompanied me np the 
river, the lascars, and my servant, were labooring 
under a fever, and my clerk and mjrself fdt fever* 
ish symptoms. We weighed with a fine fareeae at 
sun-set, and were standing to the eastweidt wfaei 


one of those tremendous squalls, so well known by 
the name of '' sumatras^" laid the brig upon her 
beam-ends in a mcmient ; and though preparations 
Were made, and no sails set, she continued to lie 
over under bare poles, and we never expected her 
to right again. The wind continued to blow with 
unabated and tremendous fury for half an hour ', it 
rained in torrents, and the vessel drifted with two 
anchors ahead, upon a dangerous sand-bank astern. 
We were in 2 fathoms water, when providentiaUy 
the wind moderated, and the anchors held. We 
remained in this situation all nights 

While I was at Tanjong Balei, a man came in 
from Bulah, and informed me that the sultan of 
Panel had gone to Slack, and the Rajah Muda of 
Bulah also; so that my going to these places 
would be of no possiUe use. In consequence of 
the dangerous bennoah or bore, which is repre* 
sented to be in the Reccan, of which the Tanah 
Futih and Banca are tributary rivers, and which it 
requires the greatest skill to encounter, I resolved 
not to return into them, more particularly consi* 
dering the deficiency of the brig in r^ard to an- 
chors and cables, and the ignorance of the captain. 
Tlie descripticm given by Lieutenant Rose is well 
calculated to alarm even the most e(xperienced na- 
vigator, and to deter any one from visiting tiiLi 
river, except from urgent necessity. Another <xm* 
sideration was, that I had not supplies to last dtt« 


riog the time that would be necessary to aooom* 
pliih my visit to these places. As they are under 
the immediate authority of Siack, and are not of 
very great importance in a commercial view, I did 
not consider it proper to incur either haaid or de- 
lay by visiting them. 

lOth March. — Standing on for Siadi thb morn- 
ing with a light breeze. The people who were at* 
tacked with fever yesterday, had a return of the fit 
to*day ; and in addition to these, seven more were 
seised in the course of the day. Fifteen invalids 
now lay unfit for duty. The death of the pilot 
has, I observe, created a visible alarm in the minds 
of the patients, as well as of those who are sUU in 
health ; and the native doctor not being ocnnpetent 
to prescribe for them, I determined upon toudiing 
at Malacca for medical assistance* This place was 
not much out of our course, being obliged to go 
within sight of it, before crosnng over to Siack. 
Another principal inducement for toudung at 
Malacca was to procure a pilot to take the vessd 
into the Siack river. 

nth Jl/arcA.— We had but light baffling winds 
aU night, and during the day heavy rain, wlii«ji 
was particularly unfortunate, as the fever patients 
were in consequence obliged to go below, when 
their situation was extremely crowded and unoood* 
fortable. To-day we had a farther addition to the 
sick list, making in all 17 sick with fever. I 


in oonsequenoe exceedingly impatient to readi 
Malacca. Calms all the afternoon. 

I2th March. — ^The high land of Salengore was 
very visible this morning, ana we were in 7 fathoms 
water, the captain, as usual, ignorant where we 
were. At eight o'clock, the Arroa islands visible 
from the mast-head. The number of sick was in- 
crea^ to-day to 21. Made but little progresSr 
with %ht baffling winds. 

1^ March. — Light winds all day. At eight 
in tj^ evening, anchored opposite Parcelar HilL 
The, jiiumber of invalids the same as yesterday. 

14M March. — We fell in with a ship this 
morning, with which I sent letters, thinking she 
might be boimd to Pinang. The vessel proved to 
be the James Drummond, from Banca to MidiiSr 
The patients considerably decreased in number to* 

1 5th March. — Anchored in Malacca roads at 
live P. H. Sent Mr Luther on shore, for a pilot 
and water. Saluted the fort with 1 1 guns, whidi 
was returned. The invalids were all rapidly re- 
covering, the sea-breezes evidenUy having a bene- 
ficial influence. . « 
. 1 6th ilfarcA.— My clerk not having been abfe 
to procure a pilot, I went ashore at sun-rise, mi 
after a Uttlc trouble engaged one. Returned m 
boar4 at noon, with the intention of wei^^ui^f but 
wind and tide being adverse, wc remained at 


dior till iun-aet, and then made all tail for Slack. 
In croning the straits, we had a narrow eMape« 
About midnight, it l^ing very dark, and rather 
squally, we were running before the wind, and sud^ 
denly perceired an immense Chinese junk fimn 
Siam, dom upon u% running at the rate of six 
knots. Destruction seemed inevitable; and our 
captain was seised with such a panic, that hieonU 
not speak, or ^ve any orders for bracing tp the 
yards, and altering our course. The junk waaaow 
within a few yards of the brig, her stem ng^ for 
the Jessy's broadside. Mr Brown, however, fortu- 
nately jumped upon deck, and with great presence 
of mind luffed up to the wind. This person had 
been in two vessels before, at the time they were 
run down by others and sunk, and he had no incli- 
nation for a third triaL By this time, the tbmg 
of eight or ten muskets by the sepoys had roused 
the Chinese^ who were all asleep. They exdaim- 
ed heigh^d^ and altered their course instantly* 
At day«ligfat» we were at anchor off Taigoiig 

17th MarcL-^AndmeA at noon at Bukit Ba- 
tu. Here we were met by Tuanko IjODgpatSh^ a 
man of celebrity in these seas. He had been ez« 
pellcd firom Jambi about eight months bcfofe, and 
had lost three of his sons in one day, who wen 
attacked while bathing in the iiv«r, and 
He sent his writer on board to in%nit« 

t -tj-^i 


if a Titit fvould be 9gnnJtie. When he came mt 
board, his first inquiries were respecting one of his 
wives, who had been carried off by the Siamese 
fimn Qnedab. He had three prows, and was 
about to sail for Singapore, to see Sir Stamfintl 
Raffles, and intends diortly visiting Pinang. In 
the afternoon, we stood fiutber up the straits of 
Tanjong Jattee. We did not greatly like the ap- 
pearance of Tuanko Long^s prows, which were full 
of men and arms, and continued hovering about till 
sun-set I was aware that he was one of the most 
desperate pirates in those seas, and one of the crew 
of the Jessy had been taken by him afewyearsago^ 
in a small brig belonging to Java, in the straits of 
Drion. This man was kept as his slave at Siadc 
about ten months, when he effected his escape to 
Malacca. I received him with apparent cordiality^ 
but was fully prepared for any attack. 

I8//1 March. — Entered the Siack river this 
morning. The water was almost as red as blood; 
and covered with foam, and had a most disagreeable 
appearance. The river is deep, and about three* 
quarters of a mile wide at the entrance. The tide 
bdng favourable, and a fine breeze springing up; 
we sailed up about 25 miles. The sides of tlM 
river were low, and covered with jungle ; but we 00^ 
casionally saw spots which were cleared for paddyj 
and the pilot informed me the inhabitants iHai 
nuihenms ; though the greater part of the houses 

IM DUTCH Mission. 

mn ooDcetlsd innii tbt Tiew bjr tli6 tiws wiiidi 
hftTc grown op dofc to themaigin of the rifier» and 
whidi are left untottdied. We psiscd Pulo^Smw 
tong, an islaad about six miles from the eDtraaoe 
of the rirer, where the Dutch formerly had a settle- 
ment, and whidi they lately qiplied hr again. 
Aboat 80 years ago, the Dutch garrison wane mas- 
sacred by a small party of Malays, who came iqwn 
them at unawares, and attacked them in opea day. 

The Dutch brig of war Syrene, of 18 guns^ and 
MO men, was here about three months agow The 
ngah would not permit them to ascend further than 
Bokit Batu, where he had 40 war boatsrsady, and 
cannon mounted on the shore, to resist their further 
p rogre ss . During the day we met many prowc ; 
but aa the inhabitants of this place had the charae* 
tcr of being addicted to piracy, and I was caution- 
ed at all the places I visited, to be careful in not 
permitting many people to come on board, I did 
not encourage their visits. 

19th March.— Kept a good look ont all nigH 
during which we were disturbed by boata descend- 
ing the rivor, the crews of which made a grsat 
noise. We went forward about SO miles mono 
to-day. About one p. m. the writer of the ngah» 
(Mali) came on board, as he said* by the kb^a 
eiders, to inquire who we were, whether Dntdi or 
En^lidi, having heard that a brig had csiterad the 
river. He was tderaUy well aware^ hamn m^ wIm 


Hie wtM$ ctberwi80 we dbeuld hare been pievented 
from adf aacing so fiur. t had, beetdes^ seat aotieef 
Mme time befoia of our intended visit. Upon in^^ 
tmmmg MaK wha I wai» he said, *' V erj weD, youl 
** oMiy asoend as seon as joa ^ease* We wonid 
^ not allow tile Diitch to do so ; bnt tre have long 
'^ been friends with the English.'' Heaslndlneif 
it was the Dutch or English whe had crossed over 
from the west coast, and were fightfaig at Menangi' 
kabau. He seemed to think tfast the Dutch wevcf 
aiming at the possession of the whole country from 
Padang to Siack. He mentioned that they weref 
making a military road as they adranoed in thekf 

Mth JfarcA.-*— Shedc Mahomed, son of Shock 
AbdoBa, a tiA and respectable merchant here^ 
iffbo had bera in the habit of trsding with Pinang/ 
came en boaxd in the middle of the night, with m 
munber of other respectable young men, most de^ 
gantly dressed with silk dresses, and gold doth 
tmrbttis. Their long bajoos were prineipaUy mader 
of very rich kinoobs or Snrat silk doth, worn hf 
die Ambs« These youths mme of Arab descent^ 
and were all dressed in the style of these peopb^ 
By Shade Mahomed I had sent as. message a hn/ 
asonths ago to the king^ of my intended visi|^ 
wfaieh he said he wasplessed to hear, and fvpeiilidj 
me as soon as poesiUe. We ascended St adlai 
ftsthsr ID the river to^y. 


Sheck Mahomed repKieiented the country m bciiig 
in a disturbed state, and the oommeioe neatly at a 
stand, in consequeuee of the oommofeions in the ia* 
terior, and the rigid injunctions of a rdigions seek 
called Rinchi, consisting of four chiefr, who have 
prohibited the use of opium, under the penalty of 
death, and also the wearing of oolenred ganne&ta. 

2lst March.^^UHA up with the tide and a 
light breese, and anchored at three o'dock in the 
mcMming. We were aUe to continue our piog iess 
the last two nights by moon-li^it. The rirer as* 
without exception, the finest I ever saw, in regard 
to regular soundings. The width at the town of 
Siack may be about 200 yards. 

iad March. — ^As the day dawned, we sainted 
the rajah with nine guns. We fonnd ourselves in 
the heart of a large and populous town, the houses 
extending a considerable way on both aides of the 
river, and many prows lying near the banks. The 
Tuanko Pangiran, who formerly had a contract for 
the sujqply of ship-timber, sent on board a prfwnf 
of poultry, eggs, fruit, &c. and invited me to meek 
him before communicating with the ngah. I kan^ 
however, from a person who came on board, thai 
the rajah and he were not on very good ttan, and 
thetefofe returned him a dvil answer, thak I shonld 
see him by and by. I should have givcsi o i iM i es 
to the ngiJi had I made my first visit to the T» 
anko Pangiran. After bmkfost I wmted en itm 


king, and was received with all poisiUe vespeet. 
A salute was ftred <m my reaching the shore, and 
one of the cfaieft was sent on board to convey the 
letter from the honourable thrgovemor. When 
the letter and the jnesents were laid upon the 
table before the king, another salute of nine guns 
was fired. I landed all the soldiers, and as many 
of my people us could be spared from the vessel, 
being aware how much the Malays are impressed 
with any thing like diiow, whidi both gains their 
respect, and intimidates the evil disposed from any 
designs they might contrive against the safety of 
the vessel. All the chiefs were assembled in the 
verandah, which extended the whole length of the 
house, and was fitted up with elegant oinopies of 
gold and silk cloths bung all round ; and an en- 
tertainment was set before roe, consisting of the 
greatest profusion and variety of sweetmeats, tea, 
cofTce, sherbet, &c. 

The rajah is a corpulent, good humoured look- 
ing man ; but his fiice bears too evident traces of 
his propensity to opium smoking. I explained the 
objects of the mission ; and, amongst other things, 
said, I hoped he bore in recollection the treaty 
made with Colonel Farquhar in 1818. He utf- 
hesitatrogly replied, ^ Mana bulih buang Jaii|i 
M dangan Orang Engris.** ^ How can a treaty 
"^ with the EngHsh be broken.* He said Ae 
Ihitdi bad visited him about three BMMiths ago^ 


/atd wished to toum a setdanent, bnk he lefinedt 
I remained aboat two hoim eonfeisbg with the 
king upon vari<9is subjects, and he promised to in* 
finrm me when he should be leady to eo n ?etse widi 
me more perticnlarly on business, autimatiag thai 
his purpose was first to oonsult with his dnefik 

There was an immense assemUage of the nobles 
of the eountrj, and chiefii fimn many of the ad* 
jdning states tributary to Siadu The Ibllowing 
were the prjncipsl : Tuanko PsBgiran, Psnglinia 
Bessr, Ihitu Pskamaraja, Dstu SaUd^i Wangsst 
Datu M sharajalda Muda, and Tuan Imam* the 
fJiieft neEt in rsnk to the king. There wen also 
the Rajah Muda of Buhdi, chieft from Tanali- 
putih in the Reeean, vis. Rajah Soangsa, Dabi 
SetiapahUwan, Senadinga, and Shabundar; ham 
Kubu, the Imam, and Panguhi Umba Rayah, the 
Qrang Kaya Bili of Banea, and the Shabundar of 
Bukit Batu ; besides Tuanko Sembo^ son of the 
Pangiran, Tuanko Syed, Tuanko Kednl, and Tn- 
anko Sendit, his nephews^ all men of infiuenee and 
importance in the country. 

The country was fimnerly fery popqlooi^ bat 
has been gradually declining during the last tsa 
years : many of the inhabitants hate fled to RtM^ 
Tringanu, Pontiana, and the numerous peeli aleng 
the east coast, as fitf as Timian. I was inftmed 
that the inhabitants up the Mandow mer am 
f|uite barfaaffous, and are dressed sdely fat lbs hulk 


of treei. The Tuanko FBogiiaa gtve me fimr 
Imge webs of the doth, two of which I forwaidedf 
bjr his deare» to CoioDel Farqubar at ffingiq^om. 
They are of different degrees of finenen. 

The Pangiraii did not meet the Dutch hUHj, 
being in the interior of the eoontarjr ; and it waa 
against his wishes that any treaty should have 
been made with them. He says, if the Dutdbi 
oome to Siack, he will instantly quit the country. 
He was careful in qpeaking to me, and looked 
around him suspiciously, to ascertain who was pna* 
sent. He said, in going across the river, ^ Aa» 
** derson, hoist the English colours here at ones^ 
** and remain here. This is the only way of sav* 
^ ing the country from impending ruin." I re» 
plied, that I had no authority to do any thing of 
this kind, and explained that it was not the po* 
licy of the government to extend its possession^ 
but merely to give assistance and protection to the 
merchants of Pinang, and to secure a fair and 
equitable participation in the trade. 

The Pangiran is a sensibly well informed man* 
He is well instructed in the history of the prinei^ 
pal European states, and in the conditioo of the 
British possessions in Imlia, and surprised me hf 
lus remarks upon Bonaparte, whose diaractsr ka 
seemed correctly to appreciate. He showed aM 
with particular delight a ring^ which the late Eari 
of Wnio had taken from his own fingsr, and |Mil 


upon his, and other tokens of friendship from 
I^ord Exmouth, Admind Dnuy, and other distin- 
guished characters who were in this qpiarter some 
years aga 

. At three o'clock the Pangiran came on board, 
by special invitotion, to pay me a visit of ceremony, 
superbly dressed in silk, covered with gold laoe; 
his son, an interesting and handaome youth of six- 
teen, and his two nephews, accompanying himu 
Saluted him with seven guns. He was anxious to 
have had an hour's private conversation, but we 
were interrupted by the arrival of numerous vi» 
sitors, who crowded the decks of our small vessel. 
The Rajah Muda of Beelah had been sent over as 
a spy upon the Pangiran's conversation, when we 
crossed the river, after the amfercnce with the 

. Sheck Abdulla, the rich merchant befine men- 
tioned, his son, and sev^al well-dressed Arabs and 
chiefs, came on board, and detuned me in conversa- 
tion till four o'docL I had been the means, a Sem 
years ago^ of saving a very valuable vessd and 
cargo belonging to this man. The cargo was worth 
80,000 dollars, consisting of coarse Madias hhie 
doths, European chintaeib gold thread, raw silk, 
sticklac^ iron, and salt The vessel grounded on a 
sand-hank at the south end of Pnlo Jengah* and 
being out boat sailings I accidentally Ml in with 
her. I immediately proceeded to town, and bvom^ 


«x laige oftijgo boats, cabletp and an maAor, kindly 
iupplied by Mr Wright, and after two days cxer<* 
tion, got her ofl^ and saved the vessd and eaigo. 
I also lent them 100 dcdlars to pay the boat faiie^ 
&C which was punctually repaid by a remittanee 
in gold-dust. This man mentioned the dreum^ 
stance to the king, and puUidy thanked me to-day 
before all the assemUed chiefii ; so much was this 
little act of common humanity and attention prized 
by these people, who certainly possess the virtue of 
gratitude in an eminent degree. I bdieve I owi^ 
in a good d^ree, the success whidi attended my 
mission, and the hospitable reception I met widi 
at Siack, to this circumstance. 

The greatest surprise was expressed by all the 

efaieft, by the king in particular, on being infbrm^ 

ed that I had penetrated into the Batta country, 

He said, addressing the surrounding multitude^ 

** Ah, this is the way the English manage : the 

** Dutch dared not do this.'' Even many of the 

old chie& who were present, and had been engaged 

in the wars at Assahan, DelU, and other plaeei 

conquered by the rajah of Siads, had nevmr 

ascended so fiur as I did, and made very partJcnlar 

inquiries relative to the population of the BaHa 

sUtes, &C. The ngah asked me if I was not afipi& 

I replied that I was rather a predestmariaa, ttod 

that there was a time appointed fiir all to die; 

that as I went with pacific intentions^ and peniy 

170 FOUCY AT RlUa 

to derisc metns far impnmiig the ooameltt and 
oondition of the countries I TWtedt I ftlt no iqp> 
prdieDsioni, oonidoui that my motives only ro> 
qnired to be known to be appreciated ; and that» 
being fiand of travelling, 1 widied also to satisfy a 
lational cnriosity. 

The king» in the coone of conversation, asked 
my opinion of the seiiure of the legaUa of Rhio 
by the Dutch. I said I know fittle about the 
matter. He then informed me what the general 
opinion amongst the Malays was» via. that it waa 
a robbery, and unbecoming the dignity of any go- 
vernment He said that Mr Tyssen, the late go- 
vernor of Malacca, died shortly after his journey to 
Rhio, which the Malays consider as a just puidsh- 
ment for the sciaure of the regalia from the late 
queen. It was further asserted by the people of 
Siadc, that Mr Tysscn was seiaed with a sort of 
stnpor or delirium« the moment the regalia came into 
his possession. He called the doctor to feel his 
pulse ; the doctor assured him that nothing ailed 
him. The Pangiran informed me^ that he under- 
stood Mrs Tyssen had caused her husband to be 
opened, and seven small stones were found on his left 
side. Such is the history of Mr Tyssen*s death. 
The Makys at Siack, and every place I visited* ap- 
pear to be much incensed at this act ; and if tho 
same feeling prevails in other quarters, the Dutdi 
interests must suffer materially by this outngau 

f AETIAI4TT FOft THl ItfOLUH. 171 

jh jmtim^lmniYetp tothadhgictqrof oMfor wlma 
J entertained the ln|^t wyact^ and wiwe faoipt 
tili^ waa nnbotmdfd, I mnat e xp r ow my diriidief 
that Mr Ty«an eonld in any eaae haro deparlad 
Imn the atriet liM of p a op r i a ty and dnty, or tthat 
he would have taken any ttep to which he wpl 
not postividy directed by Ugher antheiity^ 

Late in-the afieniooiit the torn dataa ant me a 
meaBage» that they wished to tee me aduve. { 
was received by them at the boose of the head 
data, with every possible demonstntion of reqpeet; 
They interrogated me particnlarly as to die ftm 
ciae objects of the mission* We had a long ai)gii^ 
ment upon the treaty whidi was made a few years 
aga The datus mentioned some anecdotes df tiM 
harsh conduct of the Dotdi in fimner times, whaa 
that nation had a settlement at Pnlo Gnnton^ 
from which tbey were expelled. One of them 
showed me a kris, with which his great-grand&thev 
had killed a great number of the Dutch on that oec»» 
sum, being one of the four datus who commenced 
the slaughter with Ri^ah Buang. He pretended 
to show me some of the blood of the unfertunala 
Dutchmen still upon it. They all expressed theii 
anxiety that Malacca should be again under tiM 
English government, and dwelt upon the advaitt 
tages they enjoyed, and facilities of conunerae w»> 
der the mild and benevolent government of Odoiiel 
Fanpihar) who was ao many years rosidot at thit 


itatian, and who it m deservedly estoemad in all 
die smToundiBg Malayan eountries. 

I purdiased a variety of spedmens of the de- 
gant silk and gold doths of the eouitry, wUdi are 
even finer and more qplendid than Aote ef Batth 

881/ if arcA.— Waited by invitation on the IV 
anko Panglima Besar. His house was bang ronnd 
nrith canopies of rich gold doths ; and he and bb 
brother were elegantly attired in gold and rift 
doths from head to foot. A large table wto Ui 
out with sweetmeats of the choicest deseriptiont 
many of them really equal to the finest m BirdiV, 
or in Bond-street. I was here, as at the oUier 
|daoes» recdved with the greatest respect and cae> 
mony. The datus and chie6 were assgmbkd to 
meet me. After remaining some time with the 
Panglima Besar, I proceeded up a small river called 
Mumpoo, to the rendcnce of Sheck AbdnDa, where 
1 was also hospitably entertained, the principal 
people meeting me at the wharf» wbidi leads from 
the river to his house, and conducting me bade to 
the boat This part is very populous; the bouses 
are huge, and substantiaUy constructed of immenoe 
laige trees for posts and cross pieces, and the ddea 
plank, neatly formed into pannels, and carvdL 
Their elegancet however, is not improved by the 
a^P^arance of certain little useful houses in tba 
river, built upon very large logs of wood, and wfakk 


contUiae floatiiig. Oa our return* we went aeron 
through some pkntitions ci fruit-trees* with Bume^^ 
rous bouaes iBtarspeised^ and sent the boat down to 
meet us at the point I bad a very agreeable watt 
of aa hour through the villager Fruit-trees ^rave 
seen of all descriptions* but none in season except 
pmnaloes* rose-applei^ plantains^ and pine-apples. 

At three o'clock, the rajah sent on board to u* 
vite me to a conference. I found all the diiefii itf 
attendance* He Was dressed in a superb suit of 
gold thread doth* different from yesterday ; Itts 
kris^ swords of state, spears, with a shield and seree 
box, all borne by shives behind him, were <^ the 
most elegant wrought gold filagree work— ^I mean 
the sheaths and cases. He wore a most magnift-' 
cent pinding, set with brilliant diamonds of a ]Bi|[e 
siae, which .reminded me of the Brooch of Lorn*. . 

'^ Whence the brooch of hurning gold^ 
*' Thut clasps the chieftain's mantle Md^ 
" Wrought and cfaafiTd with nnre deyictf^ 
'^ Studded fair with gems of priee : 
" On the varied tartans beanung, 
' " As, thro' night's pale rainbow gleaming, 
'' Fainter now, now seen ahr, 
^ Fitful shines the northern star." 

I^ott's Lobd op ths Iblxb. 

On the tabfe were not len than twenty tahk± 
tea-pots, like Hodca Surpoosefl^ the tops atttieM 
by neat chains *r several very large gdbisCs, and 


tnqn of die nme metaL There wm altogMhar m 
dMpby of megnifioence and ifileiidoiir fiur bejond 
what I had been led to expect At the kkg^e re- 
qnesty 1 desired the tepoyB to go through their ex-i 
ctdae^ whidi ga;re him great aatia&etioiu Hsfing 
fully dimmrd all the points of importance relative 
to the missioBt I gave the nyah a sheet of parcb^ 
ment, on which to tianacribe the schedule of du- 
ties^ which he caused to be elegantly stamped with 
jgold spots by his female staves, and his writer en- 
tered the list of import and export duties at length. 

The nyah was marked in his civilities to me ; 
and upon mentioning my intention of sailing next 
day, he said fiaelingly (pdnting to hia heart), ^ No^ 
'^ no^ I am not tired of yon yet; you must stay with 
'^ me a few days more. Why in such haste V 
There was a lode of apparent sincerity, something 
expressive of kindness and attachment, which gra- 
tified me extremely. I shook him eordiaUy by 
the hand, and thanked him tx hie good wishes 
and flattering dispontioo towaida me^ and begged 
he would excuse me from remaining knger than 
to-morrow afternoon. 

I afterwards went to the Fangiran's at seven 
o'clock, when a dinner was prepared for me in the 
English style. He sent for my cook and steward^ 
who went ashore to assist in the ceffirnnies We 
sat down with a large party at seven oTdadk to • 
very excdient dinnerp consisting of bc«C gealy 


dn^ks^tofwhf vegetables^ friiit» &e., served up very 
neftdy ; a long table laid out well, and the whole 
place lighted up with large vase lamps, and several 
three-branch plated candlesticks, with large wax 
candles. Here was an immense display of gold 
and silver also. The old gentleman being a Mm^ 
sulman, I had a delicacy in putting wine upon the 
table. He soon reminded me of the deficiency* 
'* What !" said he, ^ Anderson, have you brought 
*^ no wine with you ?" I dispatched my steward 
for some Sherry, Madeira, and Elexir de Ga^nuu 
The Sherry and Madeira he did not approve ol^ 
and still less a glass of Hodgson's ale ; but he velry 
soon dispatched a pint bottle of Elexir de Ganu^ 
which is rather potent. I made him a present of 
half a dozen of that liquor, and a few bottles of 
brandy, which he b^^ed as medicine ; but fiom 
what I saw, he seemed to relish the dose so w^ 
that I had no doubt it would be frequently repeat* 
ed. This venerable looking old man acquired a 
taste for these luxuries when he visited Malacca, 
at the time of the expedition to Java. 

Music was introduced. A young Malay girl 
sung well. She was the Catalani of the place, and 
had a very powerful and melodious voice. A vio^ 
lin and several drums composed the band. The 
Fongiran is fond of collecting curioaties. He bat 
several small ponds filled with fish of all kinds^ 
which he regularly feeds ; and he can always coon^ 


;► V <fi , I 

maod a supply fin: hit table. He has a 
of handsome and curious creeses, swords, and anna 
of all sorts. He is also particular in keeping a fine 
breed of game cocks. He was partial to the amnae- 
Inent of cock-fighting in his youth, and used 
to stake large sums ; but all these gambling pra^ 
tices he has abandoned. He gave me, in exdiange 
for some presents, a pur of game cocks, a dret cat, 
and a goat, celebrated, as he informed me, for fight- 
ing. He has some fine little dogs, whidi are amaa- 
ingly swift, and catch great numbers of deer. A 
single dog caught one while we were with him, 
which required eight men to carry it They seiae 
the deer by the throat, and soon kill it 

The Pangiran has an extensiye boat-building 
concern, and his timber-yard was well filled with 
large trees of very fine timber. He is very dear- 
ous of renewing the trade in that artide, which 
he has in such abundance, and of so cxeeDent a 

From the tenor of the Pangiran'a convettatioiiy 
I sec that another revolution is in embryo. He 
seems a staunch friend of the English, and saya he 
could easily make himself king in a day. AH he 
wishes, he says, is to sec the English ooloura again 
waving at Siack, before he quits this subhmary 
scene; and he proposed writing a letter to the 
honourable the governor, of which, although I toU 
him I did not exactly approve. I would 


ten, at his request, oonsent to be the better. He 
exdaimed loudly against the rajah and datus fiur 
making a treaty with the Dutch, and shrewdly 
remarked, ** How can a man stand in two boats^ 
** or upon two horses, with one leg on each ?** He 
compared the king to a young horse without a 
bridle, that can neither be driven nor led. I was 
of course exceedingly guarded in my replies and 
frequently endeavoured to change the conversationy 
as I had no authority to interfere in political con- 

A revolution took place in Siack about 20 yean 
ago. Syed Ally, father of the present dneC the 
Tuanko Pangiran, Tuanko Besar, and Tuaako 
Long Putih, dethroned the former king, and Seyd 
Ally became the sovereign. A very desperate 
battle was fought at Kampar with the former kii^ 
who fled, and fortified that place. The Tuanko 
Pangiran commanded a large fleet of prows, and 
lost S80 men killed, besides an immense number 
wounded. They retreated to Siack ; and fearing the 
late rajah would follow up his success, and pnmie 
them, Syed Ally applied to the English at Malae^ 
ca, and was supplied by a Mr Baker (as I under^ 
stood from the Pangiran), with the Englirii flag;^ 
which was used and hoisted r^ularly for two yeaia 
and a hal^ and they fought under it After it 
had been hoisted some time, Mr Baker came from 
Malacca, and resided three or four montha with the 

178 FEUDAL S£KT1C£!I. VI81TS. 

Tmnko Puigixmii, and the flag was hauled op at 
sun-ris^ and down at sun-set, every day. 

The chiefs of Beebh, Panei»Kulm,Tanah Patih, 
and Banca, whom I met at Siack» had cooie t» as- 
sist in erecting a monument over the remania of 
the hte king» the rajah exacting these feudal 
services of them, as being tributaries of Siadc. It 
is customary for all the states actually or nominal* 
ly tributary to Siack, as fiir as Langkatt to send 
once in three years, a certain number of prows and 
men to Siack, to repair the fortifications, and to do 
any public service that may be required. After 
four or five months, if nothing pressing is gmng on, 
they are sufiered to depart They receive no eom- 
pensation whatever, and are oUiged to find them- 
selves in provisions, &c. These chiefo complained 
Utterly to me of having been kept absent many 
months from their families and homes. 

94th March. — Several of the chiefr came on 
board this morning, and brought me presents of 
fiuitt &C llie following composed the first ptrty. 
Rajah Muda Beelah, Imam of KubUtOrang Kayn 
Bili of Banca, shabundar of Tanah Ftatili» datu 
of Rantau, and khali of Siack. The rqah of 
Panei I did not see. He had left the plaee only a 
flow days before, and was farther down the river, ai 
Dumd, repairing his prow, which had been ran a^ 
ground on the sands of Merambong, near the en- 
trance of the straits of TaiijongJattee. Thediicft 



of Tanah Putih in the Rcccan informed me and 
complained of the attack made upon some of the 
people in tlie Rcccan, two men having been severe*, 
ly wounded by the firing of the Honourable Ghh^ 
pany's cruizer Nautilus upon than» when» as they 
said, they were carrying off small presents of fruit 
to them ; but upon reference to Lieutenant Rose's 
report, I find there was but too just cause for pro- 
vocation. ** On the right hand bank of the river/' 
says the report, «< was situated a straggling viUage^ 
** the inhabitants of which came off in the morning of 
our arrival, in great numbers, on friendly pretencei^. 
and earnestly b?gged to be admitted on board, 
which was refused, excepting to a very few. They 
afterwards, without the slightest provocation, en-* 
^ dcavoured to cut off one of our boats that had got 
'^ adrifl by the excessive rapidity of the tide.** 
And, although not mentioned in the report, I have 
since been informed, that one of the sepoys on board 
the Nautilus was killed, and another wounded in 
this affair. It is not probable they would have 
been bold enough to have made any attack upon an 
armed vessel like the Honourable Company's cmiier 
Nautilus. I never, during the voyage, except on 
one occasion, in coming down the Siack river, re* 
fused permission to the natives to come on boards 
and the decks were generally covered. The guards 
however, was ready to resist any improper attetnptt 
but of this there is little danger, if proper pr^^ 


180 PERSJlNTS puom pangikan. 

cautions are adopted. On the other hand, it dis 
courages the better disposed Malays, and excites 
distrust among them, if they are not allowed to 
come on board, or if, when they come on board, 
they are received with suspicion. 

25th March. — ^This morning the tog was so 
dense, that we could not see 20 yards from the 
vessel. Sent the two small boats ashore to be 
caulked and repaired, and the Chinese carpenter 
was employed at the Tuanko Pangiran's, cutting 
and preparing musters of all the different sorts of 

The Panpran, in return for some personal pre- 
sents which I made him to-day, presented me with 
a very beautiful kris of the sort *" Chinta Chermin 
Sarri,* called Bolang Siack, which only the nobility 
are allowed to wear. He showed me a very curi- 
ous spear called junka kusa, much corroded by age 
and use. It is a celebrated spear, and has been 
used in all the battles during the last 850 years. 
Many wonderful and superstitious stories are told 
of it. 

I had visitors all day. Three other chieft from 
Tanah Putih, Buoodin Sukulimapuluh, Mahanya- 
lek Muda's five sons, Che Kulu, Che Iman, Che 
Lanang, Che Hassein, Che Jeman, fine ladi^ 
brought me presents, which were repaid by some 
small trifles. The rajah sent off a buffido^ and 
fruit in abundance. In short, something or other 


was brought on board during the whole day ; all 
classes, from the highest to the lowest, making me 
l^esents according to their means, by which the 
crew and people were amply supplied with fruit, &c» 
In the afternoon, I went ashore to the house of 
the head datu ; and after waiting some time, pro- 
ceeded, in company with the four chiefs, to the ra- 
jah's house, where the Tuanko Panglima Besar, 
and all the principal people, were again assembled. 
The papers drawn out by the directions of the ra- 
jah, were formally presented to me. The letter for 
the honourable the governor, the rajah informed 
me, should be sent off to-morrow, according to cus- 
tom. He expressed his intention of paying me a 
visit on board, before I sailed. After receiving the 
papers, and going through some of the forms, a 
band of music struck up in the court-yard, and 
the rajah invited me to see fencing and dancing. 
Chairs were placed outside, and we witnessed the 
exhibition of fencing with two large bright swoid% 
by a great number of stout athletic Malays, whose 
movements were very rapid, while they made the 
most hideous grimaces imaginable. There were at 
least 1000 men assembled in the court-yard. Mean- 
time my draughtsman, by the rajah's consent, wsp 
taking the portrait of himself, the Panglima Besal^ 
and the datus. After these amusements, we agm 
returned to the house, and sat down to an enter- 
tainment prepared for us, the table loaded with % 


profusion of sweetmeats, puddings, kc. in the na- 
tive style, and other good things. The rajah pro- 
duced some beantifnl game cocks ; but I told him 
I was not partial to the amusement. I accepted, 
however, a pair from him, with two spurs like knife- 
blades, most murderous looking instruments, set 
with silver. He took a great fancy to my violin, 
which I presented to him, with complete sets ot 
spare strings. We were in consequence deprived 
of music during the remainder of the voyage. The 
rajah is about to be married to a daughter of the 
diief of Kampar, Tuanko Kassuma. He has never 
been married, but has many concubines and chil- 
dren. A son of the Pangiran, Tuanko Mony, re- 
sides at Kampar. 

26th March. — I have been detained two days 
longer than I expected, lliis morning was oocq* 
pied in preparing the vessel for our departure, and 
receiving farewell visits of ceremony from all the 
principal chiefs of Siack. The cabin was covered 
with carpets, the seats with scarlet cloth, aU the 
people neatly dressed, and we made as good an ap- 
pearance as possible, considering the confined and 
crowded state of the vessel. At nine o*clodc, the 
four datus came on board, and were received with 
due honours, and a salute of five gtms. Precisely 
at noon, the rajah sent notice of his approach, and 
he shortly aftenvards came on board. A huge le^ 
|inue of well dressed people completely covered thp 

I . 

PIt£S£NT TO TH£ KINCk 183 

decks. His boat was pulled by fourteen oars, with 
a yellow flag (the emblem of royalty), a silk awn- 
ing, and a number of large umbrellas* Four of his 
attendants were dressed in scarlet broad doth; 
four others with rich gold scarfs over their shoul- 
ders, with the swords of state in their hands. An* 
other, richly attired, bore a large gold betel box, 
and another the handsome gold shield set with 

The king was even more splendidly habited than 
I had yet seen him. He was in &ct like one 
beautiful sheet of embossed gold. He was saluted 
with nine guns, and remained a full hour, amusing 
himself with pictures and books. I showed him a 
Malay Bible, for which he expressed a desire, and I 
gave it to him, writing on the title page, agreeably 
to his request, that it was given to him as a token 
of friendship. He particularly desired me to re- 
member that the Dutch had invited him twice on 
board their vessel ; but he refused, and said to me, 
** because I have a great friendship f(nr Mr An- 
** derson, and respect for the English, I have come 
^' to see you on board." 

About half an hour after returning ashore, the 
letter was sent on board, indosed, as usual, in a yel- 
low nlk bag ; a small parcel in yellow doth, and a 
slave boy. The latter I oould not dedine receivi- 
ing ; and I therefore made the little follow as oomt- 
fcatUbh M possible, knowing he .would be cmaott- 

itti l a muwi or bbuvering a i^sttul 

to enstoin, immediately on his ar^ 
at Pinan^ arbere his condition would be much 
than at Siack. The letter was borne on a 
aUrar salver, and a large umbrella over it, with the 
fimr attendants who accompanied the rajah. He 
had previously sent me notice to prepare a salato 
of nine guns and a few rounds of musketry, on its 
reaching the vessel ; and on its leaving the shores a 
salute of nine guns was fired from his guns. Be- 
ing minute in complying with all their particnlir 
oeremanies, I received the letter at the gangway, 
all the escort being drawn up, and the drum beat* 
ing. A salute of nine guns and three rounds of 
musketry were then fired ; and as the people step- 
ped into their boat, the foresail was loosed, the an- 
chor instantly hove up, and a strong tide and 
gentle breeze swept us round the first reach, when 
we were out of sight in a few minutes. 

I had gone ashore at ten o'clock to see my old 
iiiend the Pangiran, who d.livered me two lettei% 
one for the honourable the governor of Pinang, 
and the other for Sir Stamford Rafiies, whidi I 
forwarded from Malacca. The English at Pinang, 
and the English at Singapore, are of course the 
same to him, as their interests are alike. He gave 
me 16 different musters of wood for ship^bniUing; 
and other useful purposes. He sent me off also 
half a bufialo. He had just killed two for a grand 
fioast, on the occasion of his son's undergoing a 

BAD CHiiaAarKIl of XH£ PAJK6LIMA BESAli. 189 

tain Mussulman ceremony, which was to take plaos 
to-day. My friend Sheck AbduUa sent me also 
a bu^o, so that the decks were covered with 
meat. The young buffaloes are very tender. After 
the vessel had got a little way down the river, a 
boat came off, loaded with dried rice, e^s, pine« . 
apples, cocoaruuts, and plantains. The tops, and 
every creek and comer of the vessel, were filled. I 
had given Tuanko Syed a little calomel, which afr 
£>rded him relief, and he thus evinced his gratir 
tude. They pursued us, indeed, with civilities to 
the last. 

The reception I met with at this place has made 
au impression upon my mind which will not eamly be 
effaced. I never met anywhere with a more hearty 
welcome, all the people vying with each other in 
their kindly offices. How different was the treat- 
ment I actually experienced, compared with what I 
anticipated. I expected to meet with a savage 
•race of pirates, who would receive me with jea- 
lousy and distrust. I must describe them, how- 
ever, as I found them, hospitable and generous. 

This general good character is of course liable to 
.some exceptions. The Fanglima Besar bears a 
•most infamous character. He was lately guilty of 
a most atrocious act (only 20 days ago), in waq- 
tonly stabbing the China captain at Bukit Batu, 
where the Chinese residents are numerous. Some 
time ago also, be put tibe Biiidahara to death. Qe 


18 a desperate cunning looking fellow, about 38, 
always elegantly dressed. My Malay pilot, who 
knows him well, and has often been at Siack, saya 
the Panglima Besar has killed so many men, that 
their eyes alone would fill a chupah measure ; thus 
describing, in his fanciful way, the extent of this 
man's murders. He kills a man for the most trif* 
ling provocation, and has acquired so much power 
in the place, that even the king dare not remon- 
strate. A few years ago he was a daring pirate, and 
infested the straits; but on one occarion, some 
gunpowder exploding during the action, he was ae» 
verely hurt. He barely escaped with his lifie^ and 
made an oath that he would not go to sea again. 

Tuanko Long Putih, whom I have before men* 
tioned, is another very bad character. One of the 
crew of the Jessy gave me a great deal of infonna* 
tion, which confirmed me in the belief of his having 
been a noted pirate. Near us lay a laige vesMl 
called a top, belonging to Tuanko Long, which he 
captured a few years ago, from some Chinese b^ 
longing to Java. The vessel was loaded with rice, 
and fell into Tuanko Long's hands in the Straita 
of Drion, after a hard fou^t action ; and soon al^ 
tor he had captured a brig, which happened to 
ground in these straits. One of his Panglimaa 
and two other people were killed in the engagi^ 
ment, and he, in return, coolly butchered the Chi- 
nese noqucdah, writer, and another man, aA« 


their arrival at Siack, at the old fort. The whole 
crew, 22 in number, were kept some time in sla* 
very, but by degrees made their escape in small 
boats to Malacca. 

&7th March. — My Chinese painter was a source 
of great amusement to the chiefs ; and although 
the Malays generally have an aversion to see their 
own portraits, the king and the datus not only 
consented to sit for their pictures, but were pleased 
with them, and even allowed me to make drawings 
of whatever I chose, without the least jealousy or 
interruption. We dropped down about SO miles 
with the first tide, and during the night. We 
were much annoyed with & large fly, about the size 
of a bee, which were numerous in the day time, 
iand inflict a painful bite. 

28th March. — We passed Pulo Sabon, a small 
island in the river, near Pulo Gantong, early this 
morning, the strong tide sweeping us down with 
alarming velocity. We were several times under 
great difficulty, from the indraught of some small 
rivers, and the tide setting us into the bays. We 
left the mouth of the Slack river at midnight with 
a fine breeze, which carried us well down the straits 
of Tanjong Jattee. 

29<A March. — We were opposite Bukit Batu 
at day-light this morning. I sent a boat on shore, 
which brought off a quantity of excellent fish, 
palled tinging, a long blueish fish, like a mackerel. 


and another about 14 inches long, the roes of 
which, called telm trobo, are greatly cddbrated, 
and form one of the principal staple ooramodities 
of Siack. To-day upwards of 300 smsU canoes 
left Bukit Batu for the fishing ground at the 
mouth of the straits. 

SOth March. — ^We made little progress all day. 
During the night, the wind blew almost a hurricane^ 
and we were at anchor opposite the dangerous 
sands of Merambong, with the mnd and tide set- 
ting strong down to it. A very heavy swell at night. 

Slst March. — Still blowing very hard. We 
beat across the straits however, and fetched a little 
to the southward of Cape Rachado. The wretch- 
ed state of health of one of the gunners, and seve- 
ral of the people, rendered it necessary to touda 
again at Malacca for medical assistance. 

1^/ ApriL — Wc anchored last night 15 miles 
to the northward of Malacca. Blowing exoesnve- 
ly hard all night. Landed at Malacca at noon. 
The accommodation boat being quite decayed* her 
beams rotten, and full of white ants, her planks 
started in several places, and her stem split down* 
I transferred her to Mr Harrington, a Britiah 
merchant at that place, and desired him to get her 
sold on account of government. I purchased 
another large and very handsome boat from Mr 
Kraal, for SOO Spanish dollars, which will be 
fill for other public purposes. 


2d Aprd. — At Malacca. 

3(/ April. — Left Malacca this morning. This 
place indeed had a most deserted appearance. 
There was only a small junk in the roads, and not 
another vessel of any description. Anchored in 
the evening close to the Bambeck Shoal. 

Uh April. — Opposite Parcelar hill this morn- 
ing, and proceeded into the straits of Colong, an- 
choring in the evening opposite the entrance of 
Colong river. This is a celebrated place for pi- 
rates. We saw several prows hovering about. 

5th April — ^Weighed at day-break, and at noon 
anchored in Salengore roads, about five miles from 
the shore. Saluted the fort with seven guns. I 
immediately went on shore with the letter and 
some presents, but the rajah was absent, having 
lately proceeded with a large fleet of prows and 
strong force, to attack the Siamese at Perak. Ra- 
jah Usuh, his son, was in charge. With him I 
was well acquainted on my former mission. He 
stated that his father had been completely victo- 
rious ; the Siamese had either fled or been put to 
death, and the king of Perak was restored to his 
former condition. 

As he represented the country, however, to be 
in a state of conunotion, and the trade as com- 
pletely at a stand, I did not think it proper or 
necessary to touch at Perak. Besides, the provi- 
sions were nearly expended, and the period pre^ 


scribed for my return almost expired. Salengorc 
hill has an inviting appearance at a distance. The 
large hill, and the two smaller ones dose to the 
sea, are well fortified with an immense number of 
cannon. I suppose there are not less than 200, 
some with broken carriages, some without any* 
There may be about 50, however, fit for use; 
some ci a prodigious size, brass ordnance, whidi 
belonged to the Dutch, when that nation had a 
factory on Salengore hill. The old fort is in 
ruins. The king resides in it. The Salengore 
people expected an attack from the Siamese, for 
which they were fully prepared, being resdved to 
make a most vigorous resistance. 

Returning to the brig, we had a very severe 
squall, and were driven down the coast a conai* 
derable distance. The brig weighed, and pidced 
us up* just as it was getting dark. Made all sail 
for Pinang, which we reached on the evening of 
the 9th of April, having been absent exactly 
three months. Only one casualty happeaed daring 
the voyage, and not a single accident of any kind ; 
and I had occasion to punish only two meo slightly^ 
for sleeping during their watch. Though we eneoira- 
tered some severe weather, and the navigation in 
some parts vras extremely difficult, the veMcl did 
not toodi the ground, lose a spar, or split a nQ ; 
and in all these points, I may with truth mf 
that no expedition was ever brought to a tenniii»» 
tion under more happy circumstances. 



- -:3 







Situation. — ^That portion of the large and fer- 
tile island of Sumatra, or (as known to the natives), 
Pulo Percha, comprised within the range of my in- 
quiries, and the subject of description in the fol- 
lowing pages, is situated between Diamond Point 
or Jambu Ayer, in 5** 16' 32" north latitude, 97" 
SO' 49'' east longitude, and Siack river, the mouth 
of which is, according to a late observation, in l"" 
SO' north latitude, and 102'' 10' east longitude, 
comprehending an extensive track of coast, ferti- 
lized by innumerable rivers, and possessing a large 
population of various races of people, differing in 
languages and manners ; the whole country abound- 
ing with the most valuable productions of the east. 


and inferior to none in the bountiful indulgences 
and gids of nature. I'here is not a more marked 
variety and dissimilarity in the products of the se- 
veral states in this extensive track, than there is 
in the physical and moral condition, habits, and 
customs of the numerous tribes which inhabit it. 
Many of the states have been settled for centuries, 
and have risen to power and an advanced state of 
civilization : others, which had attained the sum- 
mit of prosperity, and were enjoying the benefits of 
a most extensive commerce, have, in the lapse of 
ages, and under changes of systems and govern- 
ments, been gradually retrograding, and their 
power and authority is much circumscribed* There 
are others again of recent formation, and where 
government and character have not arrived at that 
stability, consistency, and uniformity, which we 
find in the more anciently established kingdoms. 
Some of the states were formed by emigrants from 
the powerful empire of Menangkabau ; others by 
shipwrecked mariners from the coasts of Malabar 
and Coromandel ; by settlers from Achecn, Jari, 
Borneo, Celebes, Tringanu, and other ports on the 
Malayan peninsula, Ilhio, I^ingin, and varioiis 
other places ; many of whom have perhaps been 
associated together as piratical adventurers, and 
have derived irom the produce of their former bar* 
barous avocations, the means of founding a floa« 
rishing kingdom. Great distinctions of manners 


and habits, and great eotruptimis of the primi- 
tive language, roust be the consequence of such 
a motley assemblage of different tribes ; and gene- 
rations must pass away ere this incongruous mix« 
ture of manners and language could be moulded 
into one harmonious system. I); would be in vain, 
therefore, and impossible, for me to convey a oor« 
rect notion of the state of the east coast of Suma*' 
tra by a general description ; and I shall therefcnr^, 
after giving a slight sketch of the aspect of the 
coast, the seasons, tides, inundations, rivers, lakes;) 
mountains, &c. proceed to a survey of all the states 
in regular succession, and endeavour to give as ae^ 
curate and feithftil an account of the history, po« 
pulation, commerce, manufactures, agriculture and 
husbandry, natural history and antiquities, produc* 
tions, and other objects of interest, as either actual 
observation, or information on which I can place 
rdiance, may enable me to supply. A very nice 
or particular arrangement in a desultory descrip- 
tion of this sort, is attended with great difficulty^ 
and I shall not attempt it J am sensible thai 
there are many omissions, and posatUy some errors { 
but it were unreasonable to expect the contrary; 
considering not only the limited period'of iny itt* 
qniries, but also the excessive exertion attendant 
upon the superintendance and management of the 
various and complicated details of the mission. 
ScA Coast. — This coasts xvliieb forms iih^ princi- 


IM nisrouv AND'TiuN ay tiik 

pal part of the western side of the Straits of Ma^ 
lacea* is, with few exceptions, very shallow. The 
numeroiiB large rivers which are continually rolling 
down immense quantities of sand, and the extreme 
velocitv of some of them, cause the formation of 
innnnirrahle sand-luniks and shoals along the whole 
extent of the coast, within several miles of which, 
vessels of a small size only can approach. These 
shoals extend out generally from three to ten 
miles, which renders the* navigation extremely 

Aspect and Fare of the Countrt/. — ^The few 
prominent landmarks, and tlie general level and 
uniform appearance of the shore, when seen at a 
■hort distance, adds materially to the difficulty of 
the navigator in ascertaining his position. The 
whole of the coast, with some inconsiderable excep- 
tions, is low and swampy, the mangrove trees 
growing to the water s edge. In the distance arc 
aeen lofty ridges of mountains, with intervening 
ranges of smaller height, gradually declining to- 
wards the coast, which, from the base of the hillt, 
becomes an inclined plain of gentle declivity towards 
the sea. It may be said of the east coast of Sumatra, 
as of the interior and southern provinces of Java, 
that* ** from the mountainous character of the oowi- 

• lUffln' Huloiy of Jm, Vol. I. pp. 20. mnd 21. 


'^ try, it may be reckoned amongst the modt roinaii<' 
** tic and h%hly diversified in the world ; unitii^. 
'' ^ the rich and magnificent scenery which wav-^ 
'* ing forests, never failing streams, and constant 
** verdure, can present ; heightened by a pure at^. 
^'mosphere, and the glowing tints of a tropical 
'' sun«" To the northward of Batubara, the 
breadth of the level country may be stated at from 
50 to 100 miles, and from thence to Siack, the 
average width may be 140 miles. 

Harbours.^^lihere are no safe or convenient 
harbours on this coast, the usual distance of anchoret 
age being aboat six miles from the shore. There 
are very feit of the rivers which vessels drawing 
more than seven or eight feet can enter, on account 
of the bars and sand-banks at the mouths Vesseb 
lying outside are therefore much exposed to the 
weather,, and the strong north-westers which blow 
with such impetuous fury. 

Seasons and Winds. — ** The seasons in all the 
*' countries situated within about ten degrees o£^ 
'' the equator," (says the same excellent author 
above quoted) *' agree in this, that as one eternal 
** summer prevails, they are not distinguished by 
" hot and cold, but as wet and dry.'** During the 
Houth-west monsoon^ which commences in May, tbef 

• lUffleB' History of Java, VoL I. p. 29. 


ivMther 18 generally dry ; and daring the north-' 
east monsoon, whidi aeto in in October, it is un- 
settled and rainy. The heaviest rains are in the 
months of Oetober, November, December, and part 
of January. The regularity of the monsoons is in- 
teirupted by the lofty chains of mountains, both 
M the island of Sumatra and the Malayan penin- 
aok; and hence the winds on the east coast, and in 
the straits generaUy, are variable and unsteady. 
It not unfirequently blows hard from the south- 
ward, or south-east, for many days at a time, du- 
ring the south-west monsoon. The strong north- 
me&ters are most prevalent shortly after the settii^ 
in of the north-east monsoon. These blow IfHftt 
generally in the month of November. The sama- 
tras or violent squalls, which mariners in these 
straits dread so much, are well known. They pre- 
vail chiefly during the south-west monsoon, llian- 
der, lightning, and torrents of rain, are their usnal 
aoeompaniments. They are more dangerous than 
other squalls, from the rapidity of their approadi. 
The north-westers are known by a dark lowring 
appearance in the horizon. The rice crops aie n- 
g^idated by the monsoons, and will be desonbed 
nnder the head of AgricuUure. 

WMrhcinds. — ^Whirlwinds are not uncommon. 
At Sirdang this year, there was a very violent 
whirlwind at Kallambir, which destroyed many 
houses, carrying the wood and other materiala into 


Jlie air, throwing doim e&cosrnnt and other trees^ 
jtearing them up by the roots, and doing other 
serious damage. 

Waterspouis. — ^Water-spouts are extremdy 
|xrevalent in this quarter. The natives usually fire 
guns or muskets when they seem to approach dose. 

Inundations. — During the ndny season, a great 
part of the low country is frequmtly inundated, 
which adds so materially to the fertility of the soiL 
vAt DeUi, during the past year, there were no less 
than eight inundations. Thrice their duration was 
^ight days each, and the several other times two 
4ind three days. All the villages near the sea were 
almost under water ; and though some of them ate 
jntuated on pretty high groimd, the water rose to 
juch a height, that the alligators carried away the 
poultry, &c from under the houses. In former 
years, the inimdations have seldom been of more 
frequent occurrence than thrice a year. 

New firmed Land. — The sea has evidently re- 
ceded very much during the last few centuries ; and 
there is no doubt, that the greater part of that 
coast is of alluvial fonnation. At Delli, according 
to the tradition of the natives, the sea was once ifa 
high as Pulo Gorab, about 30 miles up 4)hat river, 
and at Serantau, 15 miles up the Assahan river, 
not more than 200 years ago. 

SknL — ^The sml, which, as I have observed before, 
is undoubtedly i£ alluvial fimniitioB, is peouliaiijr 


rich, and every vegetable aubttaiiee thrivei moit 
hDmriantly. At Delli, Langluit, and Bnla China, 
it 18 exceedingly rich, being a black mould, in aome 
places eight and ten feet deep, over a atraton of 
atiff white day, and a substratum of sand and 
gravel. Towards Assahan it is not so good. As 
you advance towards the mountains, it is compos- 
ed of red earth and sand, intermixed with frag- 
ments of granite and freestone. 

Air and CUmate.-^The temperature is by no 
means unpleasant The roomings and evenings 
are generally pleasantly cool, the thermometer 
imnging at sun-rise at from 70 to 75 degrees in the 
low country, and seldom exceeding 87 degrees in 
the middle of the day. The land and sea breens^ 
which here, as in other countries between the tro- 
pics, blow regularly a certain number of hours from 
the land during the night, and sea during the day, 
refresh the air, and render the climate not dia- 
agreeably warm. 

/7€tc#.— Dews are particulariy heavy, as may be 
sxpected in such a SBampy country, abounding with 
rivers. It is very dangerous to sleep exp osed to 
these dews, as they occarion fever and ague. 

Fcgs.'^The fogs are extremely dense a little 
way inland. Some parts of the coast are reckoned 
unhealthy, and fever and agues are prevalent. 
Assahan and Batubara, at both of whidi places 
^ dews and fogs are particulariy heavy, are oooi 


sidered the most unliealthy spots, as well from that 
cause, as from the quantity of marshy ground and 
stagnant water near the sea. 

JEpidemics. — The country has not been afflicted 
with any epidemic diseases during the recollection 
of the inhabitants, till a few years ago, when the 
cholera morbus, which committed such dreadful 
ravages throughout India, visited some of the states 
partially. The mortality was not so great as 
might have been expected in so low and swampy a 

Famine. — Famine, in a country like this, is al- 
most impossible, the woods yielding such an infinite 
.variety of nutritious trees, plants, and esculent ve- 
getables; although occasional failures in the rioe 
crops do sometimes occur, from excessive drought. 

JEarthqimkes. — There have been no severe earth- 
quakes in the recollection of the oldest inhabitants. 
Occasionally slight shocks are felt, but unattended 
with any serious consequences. There is a tradi- 
tion, however, of an engagement many centuries 
ago, between the two mountains Sebaya and Sena- 
bun, at which period some part (^ them fell into 
the valley ; which superstitious tale has probaUy 
arisen from some report of an earthquake, or pos- 
,Hbly volcanic eruption. 

Rivers. — No country on the globe can exceed, 
and few, I believe, equal this in the . number of 
streams which meander through it. The rivers 

MO iiisTUBar AMD Dcacurrioii of tuk 

«e dfanort in uu mer a hlc^ md man j of tfacm loid 
iBto each other by nnmenma channeh in the into 
nor. It is indeed impoesible to cooeeife any conn- 
itf poMewed of gfeater eonvenieneei^ in mpoet to 
filter cmnmnnication between the oevcnd statea* 
The Reocan is nnquestionaUy the flnt in paint of 
aiagnitude; and from it issue many large itnaa^ 
#r rather it is fcrmed of a collection of oimsidemble 
ssTeBB. The Siack, though not so wide as many of 
4he otficrB, ranks first in all other respects, as being 
the deepest, most free firom obstructions, and the 
Aannd of conTeyance for the most valuable and 
«Ltensive commodities and commeice. The Assa- 
•hant Ijangkaty Soln China, Langksap SivchoM^ 
Bstttbara, Kwaloo, Beelah, Fsnei» and Knbn* are 
att considerable rivers; and these are many othew 
nearly as laige, but not so much finsqueated. 

Aw.— The navigation of some of these rivers is 
vendcnd very difficult and unsafe to any vessdsex- 
espt those of the country, peculiariy constructed fer 
the purpose^ by a strong bore, whidi carries eveqr 
tfamg befeee it, and overwhelms small vesseb that 
may jiot be prepared to encounter it Thegrsatset 
knes are in the Banca and Tanah PntSi riaen^ap 
the Keeeaa; also at Kwaloo, Beelah, I^nci» and 
Kubu. All the other rivers are exea^ ftom k, 
with the exception of some of the small sliaains 
acar these. 

Tida.— The rise and fiiU of the tide is asty dif* 


Seacent at the several places on the ooest At liang^ 
Jut» DdU, Setahara, Assaium, and moat of iim 
•livers in that quarter, the rise and &11 is fiom 
^ght to^ten feet; at Siack it is twelye feety and 
in the Reccan twenty-^six feet 

^Lakes^^Mr Marsden, in his Historjr of Sorair 
tra, mentions a lake whidi has never been visited 
<by Europeans.* ** One of great extent, hnt unaa- 
"^^ certained situation, in the Batta oountiy.'* And 
lie adds, ** It is much to be r^^retted, that the 
** situation of so important a feature in the geo- 
*^ graphy of the island, should be at this day the 
^ subject of uncertain conjecture.** And he after* 
^axds mentions, that f ^ It is said in a Dutch ma» 
^ nuscript, that in three days' navigation, above the 
^ town of Bingkel, you come to a great lake, the 
^ extent of which is unknown." It aflfords me 
gratification to be enabled to give some aocomt of 
this great lake, which is situated betwe^i the 
mountains Sebaya and Sukanalu. It m called 
^ Laut Ay^ Tawar," or the fresh-water aea. Then 
is a communication vHith this lid^e from Aes^haa, 
iiangkat, and Delli; viz. from Bendar Pulo^ n 
^ace four days^ journey by water from the month 
^ the Assahan river ; the distance overland to the 

* History of Sumatra^ page 14. 



lake is three days' joiirncy ; from Kampong Kaps* 
la Sungei» three days by water up the T .mglff ^ 
the distance is six days; and from Meidao, two 
days' sail up the Ddli, it is five days by land. It 
must be of very great extent, as it is a day's nil 
across with a good breeze, the shore not bong vi- 
sible from the opposite side. The bordeit of the 
lake are reported to be in a high state q[ cultivft- 
tion. There is an island in the centre of it, wheie 
the edible birds' nests are procured* There are 
numerous villages, and an immense population of 
Battas, on its banks. Boats of a oonstdenUe aiie 
navigate the lake, some of tliem having at many m 
fifty men in each. They are pirates, and plunder 
each other, carrying off the children, and idling 
them as slaves. It is bounded on the northwavd 
by the Batta state Seantar, to the east by Tubbo^ 
<m the south by Tinging, and to the westward by 
Purbola and Pangaloran. 

Mountains. — The loftiest of that extensive ridge 
which runs nearly parallel with the coast, are 6n* 
nong Sebaya, Senabun, and Sukanaln, six dayiT 
journey from DcUi. These mountains are qaite 
visible in a clear day from the sea, and i^ipear to 
be of an amazing height. The next in importinao 
are Gunong Kuali, Uclerang, Batubarang, Liang 
Malas, Gajah, and Purbesi, to the southward of 
t]ie others ; also Gunong Tubba, and Menow, in 
the interior of Assalian, all of great height Hie 


IBOuntainB of Menangkabau, inland of Siack^ 
may also be mentioned. As none <^ than wei0 
visited by me, or have ever been approached by 
£ur<q)eaBs on the east side, it, would be in vaifi 
^attempting to for^l any correct idea of their> eleva*- 
tion, either from their aspect at a disti^nee, or from 
the report of natives, who are ever prone to exag- 
g^ation, wd whose observation is sejidom (correct 
or precise upon points of this sort. 

Mineral Productions. — There is a great var 
riety of mineral productions in these mountaino, 
well worth the research of the naturalist. Those 
best known, however, are tin, of which the ore i$ 
most abundant. The natives do not smelt it, from 
not' having a knowledge of the process^ In the in^ 
terior of Delli, up Sungei Siput and Sungei Sin- 
kar, large masses are found. In the interior of Sii^ 
dang also, it is abundant; and up the Mandow 
river at Siack, it is equally abundant. The couur 
try has long been celebrated for its valuable and 
productive gold mines. From Siack alone, in focr 
jner years, not less Uian three peculs of gold were 
;annually exported,, the produce of the several mined 
in the Menangkabau kingdom ; and small quantir 
^s are found up most of the smaller rivers. 

Sulphur. — Sulphur is procured from the mouiih 
tarns in the interior of Delli, and at some other 
places, which proves that these mountains are formv 
|d jojf vplc^nic materials, and confirms my (h^rv. 


that there must have been a volcanie et uplkm i 
the Sebaya and Senabnn range. 

QranUe and FreetUme. — ^l%e hillfl aai 
pits €{ the low ocmntrj aboond with^ and aie 
^ked duefly eomposed cf Uaek and while gnaMt, 
mi irfike fre e stone, 

Piincipal Productions . Sca ree l y any part of 
)the haUtaUe globe surpasses the east eoast of B» 
matra in the yariety and ndne rf its natord pm- 
jductions. The foOowing maybe ennmerated as 
•the principal articles of export oomniefeet goUp 
camphor, ivory, wax, pepper, blade and while; 
bei^amin, dnnamon, gambir, rattans^ sniphur^ to- 
Inwco, lignum, aloes, dye-woods, ebony, a ?ast varie- 
ly of ship-timber, the Iju rope for caUes^ fth-nei^ 
ahark's fins, canes, mats, pnlse of Tarions aorts^ 
tiee, dragon's blood, rilk cloths, and hon es. Be> 
rides these, are many artides of minor nine, prfn* 
dpally for the consumption of the inhabitants. 

Articles of Import Commcrccj-^The co Mump > 
tion of European manufactures, and those af 
Western India, China, &c. is limited odIj by tke 
means to purchase ; for the natives of tUs 
-seem to have no prejudices whatever ta 
use. On the contrary, there is a daily ini 
iaste for a variety of goods, which have ftoadtteir 
way into their markets only during the ftw last 
years, mnce the great reduction in Ae prieeadf 
•most British commodities, not so mudi owin^ aa 


tbwrjusU genemlly ropppse^ to tbe •pening of tbe^ 
free trade, as to the general peaee in Europe^ antl 
the reduced price of our mani^tures. The tin* 
p^rts inte the ports on the east coast of Sinnatn^ 
are aknost too numerous to detail,^ and consUt of 
the numufSEictures and produce of Europe the Ma- 
hbar and Coiomandel coasts, Surat, Bengal, Pe«' 
goe, and Siam, Chinap Celebes^ Jaw, Tibganii, 
Arabia, and many other places. The principal of 
these I shall arrange under their different heads, 
which will give a correct view of the trader now' 
n^^dly and daily increasing. 
. From Europe, the chief artides are cbintaes of 
a light pattern, principally white cloths, via. MaiU- 
dapollam imitation, Irish shirting, muslins, and 
cambrics ; scarlet broad-doth, handkerchief, mus- 
kets, sabres, gunpowder, gold and silver thread, 
iron, nails, steel, blunderbusses^ iron or brass 
swivels, looking-glasses, brasa^wire, lead, &c 

From the Malabar and Coromadd coasts, salt^ 
doths, vis^ chelopans, murchs, shecartums, blue 
and white muiehs^ brown doth^ kalamkariesy dia» 
wals, Mudideband^^ Arcot, and other diiatMi, 
Kasumba kling for dydng, &c 

From Surat, the fine silk (^ths called kinoobs, 
^V^f^Vft^ silk and cotton, Surat ditntz. . . 

From Bengal^ the grand staple opkon,. of ^dtfok 
the consumption is very eonsidenible^ adtpebn^ 


baftaes, and a variety of other white elothi» taflm-- 
taei, carpets»er rugs. 

Fiom P^^ue, stick kc 

From Sinm^ ftick la^ qualliea^ sugar, mgar- 

From China, plain and flonrered rilka, raw silka,> 
alum, coarae and fine china-waie, eonsiating of 
cups, plates* and dishes, silk-handkenhiefs, braas- 
pUtes, gold and silver thread, tea, he 

From Celdies, the Buggcse sarongs and sera* 
wids, in such general use amongst the Af alays. 

From Java, salt, brass-stands called talanUt 
brass-plates, scree-boxes, cooking-pots, tobacco, 


From Tringanu, rich gold wrought doths; 

From Achcen, a variety of silk and eotton cloths. 

From Palembang, rich gold wrought doths^ 
saree-stands of wood, fitted up with brass^boxes^- 
for the manufacture of which that place is cele- 

From Salengore and Pcrak, tin fiir sbot^ 

From Arabia, dates, rose-water, &e. 

From Ceylon, precious stones for rings and ar- 

Besides a vast quantity of diflTerent articiea of 
iron-mongery manufactured by the Chinese Uaek^ 
smiths at Pinang, Malacca, and Singapore^ via» 
hoea, long spades, nails, parangs, hatchets, ehaias^ 


common locks, bolts^ binges; dso of tin*war6^ as* 
lamps, dishes, drinking^pots, &c. Most of the 
above articles are purchased by the traders wha- 
bring the p]|:oduce to the three before-mentioned 
ports, and are but seldom sent as adventures by 
die resident merchants of these places. There is 
not a doubt that the demand for European goode 
is daily increasing in this country, as it was du* 
ring the last few years throughout the Indian ar*« 
chipelago; and nothing is wanted but the removal 
of certain obstructions in the mode of collecting?' 
the duties, which have been already taken into due 
consideration at Pinang, to render the sale of £u«* 
ropean manufactures of a large annual amount at Pk 
nang, to the traders from the east coast of Sumatra. 
Papulatiofi. — Mr Malthus asserts, and with 
truth, that* ** the positive checks to population 
** are extremely various, and include every cause,* 
*•* whether arising from vice or misery, which in 
•* any way contribute to shorten the natural dura- 
^ tion of human life. Under this head, therefese,- 
^ may be enumerated aU unwhole^me occupatioB8,r 
** severe labour, and exposure to the season^ esc- 
** treme poverty, bad nursing of children, greatc 
*^ towns, excesses of all kinds, the whole train <^ 
^ common diseases and epidemics, wars, plagues^* 

* Malthtt« on Population, Vol. I. p. 31. 


« and tmmtr In tke countrict I vkiledt t^f i£ 
ajp oi tlwtt checkii and aamiedly none of tboia 
eaoMt whidi ate styled Uie {NreveEtire diadu^ havv 
aaj cnatence* A Malay docs not pcmit hit idaaa 
ta waadmr into fiiturity, or to tho cooaeqiieBeea of 
hatraiig a fiunily bafofe be liaa piondad t«)o measa 
fiar tlwii aufport He it a perfect ehild of natmb 
aad hea n# tlKMi|^ Hk tho emirow. Theaa aio 
liEt ttm ohrtadet in the way of hia lbUo9iB|f the 
hart of hb JneKnationa. He does not addiet hisi- 
aJf to miw hokanm e occupati o na ; their labonr and 
uMnpationi aie by no meant eefcro; epideouae aaa- 
of very nnfiequent ooeurrenoe; frinino ia not 
known ; on the contrary, the meant of tnhtittcnco 
ate abundant* and caty to be procnred; wan^- 

thongh fiDequent» are not tanguinary ; and yet then 
ia not that abundant pqpulatiim which one might 
eipect to find under tudi a favoumbla ttate of dr- 
oomttaneet; fiar it it teldom indeed that a woma» 
be a i a mora than tix childrai* Tho paematnr^ 
union of the aexei. and* the early dacqr of finaal* 
ttaength inr thia diniate» ain no doubt tiw pantipal 
canttt of thetmali populationt comparad with th» 
natural adrantaget of Uie country towaida the pnK 
pagation of the human tpecicai Amonyt tho vioaa 
wUA may be termed poaitivo chedub I ihanid \m 
inclined to reckon the extenti?e ute of that pcni* 
ciout drug opium, at the prindpil $ fiar I remark* 
ed at trroal placet I vitited^ that whtm the 

' tAST tOk^f OP SUMATttA. ^ iMi 

Mmption <^ that in^briatitig and en^Miiig ivH^ 
Btmce was greatest, there were fewer children thatt 
at other places where the inhabitants were mot^ 
sober and abstemious in their habits^ This^obiM^ 
iMitioB first struck me particularly at Sifdang; 
where the inhabitatits are remarkable for th^ iM^ 
biiet^, and do not use opium; The vifiages^WeW 
swarming with children. The population of Hm 
east coast of Sumatra, however, is, from all the tt^ 
counts I' could obtain, at present rery numenmsj 
asaed' certainly upon the increase ; and as the eultiN 
iwtion of dhe soil has been more attenc^ to (^ Iftte 
yMrs than formerly, the increased commenitf wffl 
€h»w numbers of traders and seafanng pMplaifrM$ 
the adjoining countries, many of whom will itoaivyj; 
a»d no doubt takjS up their abode there. MostlMkii- 
kfy« who can afford it, if they take up their resideffioe 
for several ftKmths ^ any of the ports as tradef*; 
marry, and not uinlrequently thereby obtain impMti^ 
ant advantages in the way of trade, and ettmpCion 
finun duties and otbev charges, if tbey beeom^^aHiMi 
totthe families of respectaUe chiefs^ or menr in ^pblrcn 
l!he principal paitof theiiihidiita»tsoiitfae s8a«H0t 
are^descended from emigrants from Menirttgkahwn; 
Imt there are also desoendanta ofr Mahhat^rnpHj 
Javanese, Bi^gese, Aehenese, Chinles^.^i&glmi^ 
people, ftc ; and in the intaior' tlKte ic^a-vastimic 
riety of trU)es of Battas, differing, iftperemilifp^ 
pearancer di«%' aadhaUts^ ^Mi a(few)iaUhf0aider 


ia the Siick country, very little remored, ui pout 
of civiliiation, above their compaoionB the moukejo 
or the orang utan of Borneo. Next to £onumg m 
oonrect estimate of the revenuei q£ the aevenl 
states^ any conjecture relative to the exact ok pn^ 
baUe number of inhabitants in 
luknown a track, must be very Vi 
fiMstory. I have, however, taken some paina to col* 
kct the best informatiMi I could procure on thia 
fubject ; and making ample aUowanoe finr the 
gerated statements of the Malays^ vrho an 
liable to magnify, I am disposed to tUnkt that 
950,000 inhabitants is a moderate estiinate of tha 
popuktMn on the east side of the lofty lUge of 
mountains before described, and between DianuNMl 
Point and Siack, with its tributary and dapendsnt 
states on either side. The stateasenla of WMiy tf 
the Malay chiefs were fiur beyond tUa auBdier, and 
I have therefore taken the mediwn of aevamL 

Eligibk SUuathMjbr Settlements, amd IkOek 
and English Bdicy^^Hhen are 
on tluB ooast well adapted for the 
toricB nr estaUishmenta fiir the pnasotion 
mevee. Siack, in all respects, stands prominssit 
tiionchest and most populous conntryt aa 
centrally- situated, as possessing a sovomgn 
vity over the others, and having a nohk avn 
vigaUe finr vesseh of any sLse. DeDt nnhi 
in imfortance,' at irinch pkee diem 

£AST coast of SUMATEiu 

giUe sitiiati(m8 for faoteies ; the cotmftarjr ia feeu^: 
IvBsly fertils ; the inhahitaiitflt who hiye lodg eai^ 
tied on an extenmre and Ittecative comfliorcey aw^ 
more dvilbed than at most of the other porta ; tiie 
populatioii in the interiiH*, whoee wants muat be 
BopfHed, is nnmerous ; and the river ia navigiddc! 
£x veaseb of consideraUe burden. The chief iar 
ako well disposed towards the Britisb gofrernnmit^ 
Next to DeUii Vjong Damnlar, at the niouth of 
the Langkat river, may be mentioned. Thii^ 
would Qommand the whole trade of that Goua^^ 
and the minor but populous states to the nocthr^ 
ward; Many other advantageous spots might be 
pointed out. I hope I shaU be excused &r &iMe^ 
ing, in this place, into a little detail upon the sub^if 
jBi^M f^MTBtiing new settlements, and the pd&tf 
which it app«rs to me (from a review of the ttoteki 
en the east coast of Sumatra, and the prooeedis|j» 
of tibe Netherlands' gova^nment of M^cca) to iber 
proper lor the British government to pursue. The 
grand objeet in (the finrnifition of the settlement of 
Pioangt and subsequently of Singapore, wa» the 
eoDtendon and asb of the manufaeturea <tf £iire|Hr 
and Westefn India, as weU aa. to psevcnt tfaq 
Ikitadi fimn engrossing end miooopcdisiilg thewhioli 
dsomeree of the eastern aiehipebge^ It eami<tt 
be doohled, «bat iv time enedwagmg tiie.en<# 
suBlption of JBunpeati goods^ wUck hit^Wtiiel' 
nmtamd^^ttshtanoe a»i advantaft to^htiBMiefai 


tiiring interests of the mother country, the Qim- 
paay have made many sacrifiees, and ineurred 
heavy losses* They have opened innumersble nevr 
diaanels of eommerce, and a wide field fiv the in« 
traduction of European commodities. The private 
trader, however, is the principal gainer. During 
the long war, the prices of British manu&ctuiea 
were much higher, the freight and other charges 
extremely extravagant, which rendered it impoa- 
siUe for the G>mpany to make any profits upon a 
great portion of their conrignments to India. Still, 
however, they persevered ; and although their waiw- 
houses were full of unsalcaMe goods^ they were 
anxious to asust the manufacturers, and continued 
to send out quantities of goods. Just as the pro» 
spect opened for redeeming the serious losses whieh 
the Company sustained by carrying oo so impsofit* 
aUe a trsde, the private meichant was allowed to 
enter into competition, and the extremely rednccd 
prices of all British manufiKtuies enahled the fioet 
traders to throw an immense quantity into the 
markets of India. Cheap as they wen^ howuver, 
many were ruined by the speculation ; but the loir 
psiee was a temptation to the natives to use many 
articles which they before had not either the 
of purchasings or a taste for ; and thus has a 
extensive demand fiar our manufactures been 
ted Uuoui^iout India and the aichqMlaga Tha 
same result wouU have followed, had the whale 


randies remained in Ihe hands of the Omxpnji 
who have hmg discontinued their consignnients to 
FSnang. It has heen justly remarked by the fih 
thcr of the direetion»*-- ^ It is hoiirever a tratht 
^ though a truth quite unknown, and peihiqpa un^ 
^ aeoeptaUe to many, that the Company have done 
^ fiur more for the diseorery and opening of new 
** diannels of trade in the eastern countries, thsA 
^ it was in the power of private individuab to doi 
^ Thdr permanence^ their capital, their fiietories 
^ and residents in foteign parta^ the experience and 
** knowledge acquired in the course of time, att 
** contributed to give them this decided superiority 
** in exploring and attempting new sources of tradi^ 
^ and in bearing, in the course of their many effivta 
** to this end, losses of property and men, dinppointv 
^ ments and reverses, which no private nierdumt» 
^ or any number of merchants acting singly, could 
^ meet.*' The grand and paramount object of the 
Company, then, being the promotion of the sale df 
British manu&ctures to the utmost pooriUe extent^ 
we are now to conrider the means best calculated for 
this desirable purpose. Acting upon the instrao- 
tions contained in the Court's letter, dated the 18th 
April 1800, whi^ directs, that ^ you will likewise 

• Mr Gnmt, in his Bxaminatioii befbct the ComAtee of 
hKdM, SMi Febnmrj 18S1, 


^ (Amnwe the mott fticndly Kne of emdiict towardi 
^ all the neighbouring independent n^jahs or atatet^ 
^ and yon will avail younelvea of any opportnni> 
^ tiei that may oifer for nq;ociatuig commeraal 
** treaties with thenit upon gnmnda of r e cl pre e al 
M advantage," miaftions have, at variote tiniei, 
and at connderable expenee, been tent to most of 
the udghbonring eonntriea, which have been aoena. 
toned to earry on an extensive eommeroe with PI- 
nang ; but it ia more particularly within the last 
few years, and during the present adniinistratiott, 
that we have acquired any very eorreet notioQ oC 
or formed any very intimate conneetion with, many 
of the states in onr immediate vicinity. Hie re- 
sult, however, has been gratifying, and sudi aa to 
encourage a perseverance in this system, which Is 
calculated to improve and extend our commerce, 
and increase the revenue. It is but a few years 
since the chieft of Delli, Sivdang, and other ports 
on the east coast of Sumatra, qiened a correspond- 
ence with the present head of the government of 
FInang. Encouragement waa fpven, and mark 
the result The produce from that quarter haa in- 
creased fifteen fold within the last four years; 
while the sale of our manufiictures and other ex- 
ports has increased in the same proportion. The 
best mode, perhaps, of pomoting and encouraging 
the trade is, by occasionally deputing agents^ and 
by keeping up a constant and active eomnuniea- 

. KAsr ixiofr or sumnu^ ' ^ til 

tiofk-hf mnmpmdmm. Thip mocbiMild fflrinit 
be tkm besW asd SMit aceepteUk to Um giwUr 
poiliia tf the itihabitmti of these cMUtam^^mA 
MMUndiy the inook JuLraitagMW to tlie Cm^M^ 
(mflM^io tbin by the eitoaeioii of on fiietorieeiiid 
miMtenMeeof eetaUUtaMnii^ whioh, ittkbrn-tt^ 
bend .iyateai of goviemmeiit, flUMt always bo atp 
tended with Teiry orankraUe ezpencOb) ButtlMM 
ase other oonridefationi which demand our fiitt- 
eokr atteataeo. It cannot be denied, and la^li^ 
dead an inecmtmirertible £tict» that the^ 
▼emmenti have e?ineed a spirit of aggtanrtinemsyft 
and a dcsife to extend their colonial pttnsissjws^ 
which has already had a most iajuriotts tsndoaey 
upon our commerce in the more distant islandsiir 
the archipelago; and they seem now to bo taaliil% 
their attention to this quarter. The rigid Wf^Ukk 
of monopoly which is so generally introdaced^ telb 
their pesaessions, rendefs it the asose impetatifwili 
us to prevent any unreasraaU* oMoaehment. A 
gnntlman of the English ftetory at Caatosr^l^ 
speaking of the Dutch possessions in Java, Bm^ 
neob the Moluccas, Cddbesb and Malacca, and thdir 
moiM^ly, says^ that* ** it naturally ftUows, thtt 
^ so situated, no other direct fiwiHties to thnte 
^pbces will now be permitted, than what it mf 

* Mr BclMrts, Sttmined before the Iiord^ Slsl lisi«h Ull. 

ai0 HisTomy m»d ducbiftioh or thx 

^ nit tiie interest or policy of the Netlwhadi 9»« 
^ Ternment to allow; and however modi neh • 
^ aystem may be unjustifiable in itsd£ and efnaUy 
'^ to be depkored as injurious to the prosperity ef the 
^ places themselves, and moreover, euulinry to that 
f* qpiritoffireedom which had been previowly hi iaeea 
^ when we were sovereigns on these seas, yet it nut 
^ ever operate^ even under the most fitvooiaUe ra» 
^ gulations that the Dutch may make to psofeeet 
** the interests of fiweigners^ as a serioua ilraiihaA 
ff agunst that interested intercourse so mwrii railed 
"^ for." Whether it be the mines of gold, leportad 
^ be so rich and abundant in the kingdom 
nangkabau, or what other motive may be the 
lating cause, I know not; but certain it ii^ that the 
Dutch axe endeavouring, by every means^ to pesaesB 
themselves of Siack, and to form an eatahBahmeat 
there. If gold alone can be their dgee^ they may 
probably experience the same disappointmeBt mhUk 
their countrymen, and other adventumoa 
differed in some parts of the new worid, wUA 
xqiresented to abound with tliat predona 
ty • A tekbrated philosopher wisely remarks^ thal^ 
f < of all those expensive and uncertain 
*f however, which bring bankruptcy upon the 
^ part of the people who engage in them, thcvt i| 

* Ad«m Smith, Wealth of Natkmi, jMige 354, 


^ tetrch sfter new tilver and gold ninet. JM k 
^ferimfM the most dnadvantageous ktterjrriil 
^ the wcrid» or the Ode in which the* gem*«of 
^ uMoe woo iiiiw ue pniety oesit tne feetv ft^ 
^']KMioo tothehmofthobewhodnnrtheUaariur; 
^far thongfa the priies are few, and the Uanhi 
^ many, the coimiioii price of a ticket ii the whale 
^ fortune of a ireiy rich man.** The price Ike 
Dntdi paid eight jr jeara ago, was die Mood of netft- 
I7 900 men: thdbraefere and rigid CTadion%f mA 
thenr ezeesBre avidity, rendering them no hagtBt 
tderahle to the inhabitants of the country, who^cSB* 
peUed them in a meet aummary manner. The 
Dutdi goremment, notwithstandiog its knoiriedgfe 
that the king of Siack entered into a solemn treatjr 
with Colonel Farqnhar in the year 1818^ on dte 
part o{ the British government, has, a few meaAs 
ago, partly by argument, and partly by inUn ri d »> 
tion, penoaded the king of that conntry to make a 
treaty with them, the object of whidi (the eichK 
sion of the ]^tidi) is too manifest, by their anxtelf 
to establish a feitery. The violation of a treaty is 
no less an act of injustice on the part of the power 
which break# it, than on the part of the govern* 
joent which indhices it todo so. An author whsrf^ 
opinions ought to have some weight, says,* ^ aa the 

• Vattd't Lsw of Natkos, Book II. CJ1141. 18. psgs 190^ 


^ tngagemenii of a treitj impoie ob Om ont had 
^ a perfect obligitioD, they produee 'm the dlmr m 
^ perfiaet rigiit The liraiGh of a treety ii thmfim 
•* a noktioD of the perfeet right of the pMtj with 
'^ whom we have contneted, aad thb ie an Mt of 
^ itojuitiee against him.* ItmajheaaidofaaliiM 
ak of indiTidual men, who promote thor own ad^ 
mneement^ without any reg^ to the rights of 
their ncighboiirB,*-- '^ If we see a nan who is uni> 
*f ftrmly eager to porsue his own prifaie ad?sntsge, 
^ widioot regard to the roles of honoor* or the di^ 
^ tiea of friendship, why should wo in any 
^ genqr think of sparing him ?"* Self- 
la the first impulse of natute : in pditteal and 
nereial ooncefns, the same regard fiv our own in^ 
tCRsts ought equally to guide ns. The eonespo^ 
denoe of the king of Siack, and another prinelpal 
diisf in the ooontryt and the general tenor of their 
osnmunieations to the agent of the government^ 
cstahliihcB, I think, thi« point, that they do not 
willingly consent to the Dutch estaMishing tibso^ 
arives at Siack, and that they are in a state of wj^ 
prehension. and ahvm, lest they should hetoowe^ 
to rmst their doing so by force. TheehiefrebiB 
and solicit the protection of the British 
in such an unwished for emergeney. They 

* XenoplioQ. 


dnrtljf gWi^ rad Imw 'gii^6Df % dwldsd pfeAwiMl 

tothiBrit-th gararmMit; mA hoHtg tud*^! 

tiMty ifith that guffiKbt ill iWMd yens ago^ JttI 

ilipidtttioBa of wUiA liim li0m 

M tileir fMrt till latdf# th^ Bot inireaiMglily^qi* 

]pif ftt raecow to tiuA go? eimiMBt with ivimii tl^jr 

h«re been 89 bog ednneeted^ to protoet tfaaia 

a atntt the eoeroachinentB of another powor whkli 

thejr dial&fl^ and in fiict to nd in defimding ifei 

omt interertt» wfaidi would be aActed bjr tfie att» 

whitarifwi of die treaty, the neeesiary. eomaqnearfk 

of Dntoh pfeponderanee in the kingdom. Tlmd^ 

intCTfrrenoe, and an expoaition of our rdatife oob* 

nection to the higher authoritict» might piwiiit 

the further progresa of measorea which are atfoefr 

ly calciilated to kindle fisdinga of jealooay and lipt* 

tility between the two European gove r imi ent^ and 

whidi would be obviated by a fiur teoogniiioil 

of their separate rights. The chief aim of the 

British government at Pinangi haa been, as iurU 

I have had the meana of Judpng, to aacom ft M> 

and equitable participatiaii in the tnde of the anr> 

mnndhigeountriea s while no attempt has ever baeH 

made to prevent the Dntdi enjoying the same pit> 

iFilegea. Sinoe the Dutch received Malaoca ikpfli 

enr hands, we have made no exdnaive oontraela te 

monopolies ; but as they have evinced a very diAr* 

ent disposition, and have (if I may use the term) 

gone to the fountain-head of our moat imfcrtfeiit 


bnuich ef oommerce (for the wholeooatt it indte « 
len under the rathoritf of Slack, and would soon 
fidl an eaiy prey to the Datch), it ii tune to eoD« 
nder how our interettt are likely to be afteted* 
and how we may beat ayert the impending Uow. 
The rapid oonqueata of the Dntdi in the interior 
of Padang (as represented to me by the natives), 
and thdr simultaneous operations at Siack, indi- 
cate but too dearly, a desire to secure the whole 
coast and valuable country comprehended within 
these limits. I have high authority fiv smtiling; 
in support of my argument of protecting our own 
li^ts, and those of our neighbonn who have esta* 
Uidied reasonable claims to our aid, that,* " of all 
^ the duties of a nation towards itself, thediief oIk 
^ ject is its preservation and perfection, together 

* with that of the state ;** and again,^^ Every na- 
** tion ought, on occasion, to labour finr the preser- 
^ vatiou of others, and for securing them from 
^ruin and destruction, as fiur as it can do ao^ 
^ without exposing itself too much. Thns, when 
^ a neighbouring nation is unjustly attacked by 
^ a powerful enemy, who threatens to opprem it, if 

* you can defend it without exposing yornidves to 
^ great danger, unquestionably it isyour duty todo 
^ so;" and againr— It is the interest of ** princes to 

• Vtttd'tLAwor Natiim Book II. Clap. I. poiect 185u ISS. 


stop the progress of an ambitious monarch, who 
aims at aggrandizing himself by subjecting his 
*' neighbourB.** Upon the same principles, plans taf 
monopoly must belopposed by somededsivemeasurea* 
The sum then of all these arguments is, to ishow 
the necesaty of adopting immediate measures for 
putting the trade of the east coast of Sumatra upon 
a sure footing ; and as the Dutch are not content 
with an equal share in the commerce, and the na» 
tives have shown a disposition to make considerable 
concessions to the British government) it may be ft 
wise policy perhaps to negodate for the formation 
of small &ctories, under one or more resident sexw 
vants, for the purpose of securing tiie trade, andfor^ 
ming valuable dep6ts for precious commodities^, 
which would find their way to Finang. Such fiu^ 
tories, under able and experienced men, conversant^ 
with the manners and language of the inhabitanti^ 
would materially tend to advance the interests (^ 
commerce in this quarter. They would stimulate 
tile natives to industry, and excite a taste for a va- 
riety of manufactures ; a better system, of goveni% 
ment would be introduced ; there would be less dia^ 
sension and fewer feuds amongst the numeroda' 
petty states ; stability and order would be introcbK 
ced ; traders from Finang and Singapore would &JL 
more secure in the protection of their property ; and 
there is no doubt there w<mld be a oonsaderabfe: 
tion in our commerce. Arrangement^ 

♦ J » I r ., I : 


might be entered into with the ehie&y to alloir c 
eertain portion of the duties and revenues to be 
i|p|iropriated for the support, and to defray the cs[« 
peneesp of these estaUishments, whieh they fraokL 
find it their interest on many aeoounts to do. 
StOIf however, it wooU, in my view, be hat pvefin^ 
able^ if the Dutch could be persuaded to eoDtent 
themselves with an equitable portion of the trade 
in that quarter, and permit the natives to cany 
their produce to the best market ; and the dieap- 
MSB of our roanufiutures, the liberality, activity, 
and capital of our merchants, and the easy and ac- 
oonmiodating regulations of our ports, would ensure 
to us an extensive and benefidal trade and increas- 
ed revenue. 

General Character oft he .filattoe w— The Kjoan- 
karan and other tribes which are not addicted to 
cannibalism, are extremely avandons; and in pno- 
portion as they have had dealings vrith the Alakjrs^ 
Aey become cunning. They are c&tremely foad 
of amassing money, which makes them iaimtnma, 
notwithstanding they arc addicted to gambKag, 
epinm-smoking, and other vicious 
They are proud and independent, and 
any restraint on their inclinations, bscqmiag in thia 
esse furious and desperate. 

The other tribes who are a dd i c t e d to 
aae <with some few exceptions), more artless^ 

about money, and more kanest in their teU 




ingi. TbarcbiiMtarqideed has been wdldoflop^ 

ed by aa intelligent tmveUer, who viaited tlie fUMt 

coaat many yean ago.* ** The Battas ace m mdl 

^ meaniagt ignenat^ aimple people. The Malaya 

^and A c h eneae have th adcbma jto peraoadf 

^ tiiem that they aetUe at the months of their liYfPI 

^ to defend them from invasion (firom white man 

** eyedslly), wheieas it is to eq}oy the UMNpop^ly 

of die camphor and benjamin, which they gathfr 

near Sinkel river, Barroos, and Tafpanqelf* 

What Mr Marsden says of the Ba^aabe^ 

cannibals^ I have great reason to belief«;e. ; ^^ 

CannSbalunu — ^ Trading, once at SjWbd Ar 

benjamin and camphor, with Rahamalleem^ a> fir 

** spectable Malayan, I purchased firom him a Bfitts 

slav^ who spoke good Malay. I named hpRi 

Cato. In the many oonversations I bfd ifiA 

^ Cato about his countrymen, I beg to r^atd.^Hl 

^ short story he told me, which may be called tlw 

** nroflcress of rannihalisnii Baham Alli>»m had n 

^ fiiVQurite wife or concubine stolen firom hiwt l^/A 

"^ Batta, who sold her. The thief was taksn^^o^ 

^ e^LOCuted, acoordiijy; to $he Batta law finr sn^^*!! 

** aamef that is, he was led to a stake, and eujt Jlff 

^ pieces by numberless swords. They roasted piejHi 

<< of him on the fire ; and .Babamalleem, a dviliJHiJt 

• CapUin Forsii't VojafSi, pifs 88.^ , *' '\ '^[ 



^ Mahometan, put a bit of his roasted flesh into his 
** mouth, Int it with anger, then spit it on the 
•' ground.** 

The existence of this barbarous and savage 
practice, so revolting to the ideas of civiliaad mmn, 
has long been doubted, and is only partially credit- 
ed even to this day, notwithstanding the multi- 
plied and convincing proofs of its prevalence to a 
great extent, as particularly described by Mr Alars- 
den. Being, I own, rather sceptical on this pointy 
I determined I should omit no opportunity of mr- 
riving at the truth. I am fully justified then, not 
only from what I witnessed, and the proo& now in 
my possession, but from the concurring testinrany 
of the most respectable and intelligent natives 
whom I met, in asserting, that cannibalism pre- 
vails even to a greater extent on the east side <if 
Sumatra, than, according to the accounts reerived, 
it does on the west A reference to my joonal 
will show many proofs of its existence. For the 
sake of humanity, however, be it mentioned, tliafc 
it is rapidly decreasing, as civilisation and eom- 
meroe are advancing. It b not for the sake of 
food that the natives devour human flesh, but to 
gratify their malignant and demon-like fiy^W^gs of 
animosity against their enemies. Some few there 
are, however, of such brutal and depraved habits, 
as to be unable, from custom, to rdish any other 
tood. The ngah of Tanah Jawa, one of the 


powerfiil and independeBt Batta dddb, if lie does 
not eat human flesh every day, is afflicted with 
a pain in his stomach, and will eat nothing else. 
He orders one of his slaves (when no enemies can 
be procoredi nor criminals, for execution) to go oiit 
to a distance, and kill a man now and then, which 
serves him for some time, the meat being cut into 
slices, put into joints of bamboo, and deposited in 
the earth for several days, whidi softens it The 
parts usually preferred, however, by epicures, are 
the feet, hands, ears, navel, lips, tongue, and eyes. 
This monster, in the shape of a man, is not con* 
tent with even this fare, but takes other and nloie 
brutal methods for gratifying bis depraved appetite: 
A Batta, when he goes to war, is always provided 
with salt and Kme-juioe, which he carries in a snudl 
nmt bag on his left side. He who is the first to 
lay his hands upon an enemy, at a general assaidt 
of a fort, obtains particular distinction by sdsing a 
certain part of the body with his teeth. The head 
is immediately cut ofi; If the victim iswarm, die 
blood is greedily drank by these savages^ holding 
the head by the hair above their mouths. 

Prindpul Cannibal States. — The principal caiu 
nibal states are Seantar, Silow, Tannah, Jawa, S^ 
pendan, Puite, Semalongann, Sdukong, Leabsi^ 
Krian Usang, Semapang, Pendolok, Ria Malnuii 
Ria, Pagir Tangah, Naga Saribn, Nagore, linga, 


Peidumbanan, Sepukkah, Dorma Rajah, Bundar, 
Mirbow, Dolok* Munto Panri, Sdampinang, all 
independent states under separate rajahs, manj of 
them speaking diflferent dialects, and of varions ha- 
Uts and manners. All these states are inland of 
Delli, Sirdang, Bedagai, Batubara, Assahan, and 
PaneL The country throughout ia r c pr cac nted to 
he Tery populous. 

General Character of the Malay$.-^The Bla- 
kyan inhabitants on this coast, though indolent in 
their habits, are upon the whole as industrious a 
raoe of Malays as any I am acquainted with, ex- 
cept the Bu^ese, who are by far the most enter- 
prinng mariners and active traders in the east. 
The Malays in some of the states are addicted to 
opium, gambling, and other vices ; but at the ports, 
where an extensive trade is carried on, they are 
more temperate in their habits. They are impa- 
tient of an insult, and even a slight or deficiency 
of attention, makes a lasting imprassion. If they 
consider themselves insulted, they never forget the 
injury, and seek means of revenge. If, on the 
other hand, they are treated well, and dieir eonfi- 
dencc is once established, they become sincerely 
attadied, faithful, and trust-worthy. Many there 
are, however, who, having used opium to cxeeas, 
become almost frantic, and commit the most horrid 
crimes. To strangers they are hospitable and gi^ 


ii6r6u8 in small matt^rsf but withal avaridotiSy and 
^g without dimaie every thing they de6^' wMdi they 
think there is a ebanee of procuring^* 
. jPrrac^.— -It has been generally supposed that 
the whole of the inhabitants on that eoast are ad- 
dicted to piracy ; and the character of the Batu- 
bara people has been mentioned as peculiarly 
treacherous and perfidious.* No doubt such was 
fhe case formerly^ when there was little or lio 
trade from Delli, Langkat, and the surrounding 
flourishing ports; but they are now entuifely ad- 
dicted to commercial pursuits, and are th^ princi- 
pal carriers of the valuable produce. Slack and 
Heccan still retain a bad character */ and I have na 
doubt that there issue from these countries some 
desperate pirates ; but as to the others, particidarly 
between Assahan and Timian, I am confident,' 
that, if piracy exist at all, it must be to ar very li- 
mited ext^it.' The chiefs seem all very much dis- 
posed to trade, and too much engaged- in hostilities' 
in the interior with r^ractory chiefs, And oi&rciDg 
the payment of ^eir revenues and duties, to be 
able, to engage in piratical adventures. The stat^ 
df tiieir countries, and a particidar observation of 
their arms and occupations, united to thmr tuppte^ 
hension for die pirates who' come firom the extr«> 

, ■ 

* Horalmrgfa's Dirtotor^. . 



«f the ctndta, tad plunder thcar d cfi ro ecI eaB 
fvows, of wlddi there are nmnberlen infltences, ae 
wdl IS tlie dispoatkm manifested by the Batubam 
]naple (die nost poiferfid and independent of all) 
to thcA Tpiney, oonvinces nie» that the pirates who 
l«rk aboQt that coast and the adjacrat islandi^ eome 
fiwa other quartan ; from Rhio, Lingin» kc the 
principal piratical states. The Malays are gene* 
rally timid in approaching European vessels at sea. 
Caution ought to be used in sending boats along* 
ade their piows. Forest says, ** This ought never 
** to be done by force : Malays have no other idea 
** when compulsion is used, but that it is the prdude 
^ to slavery or death ; and many fatal consequenoea 
^ have followed from attempts of this nature, when 
** nothing hostile was intended on either side. If 
^ a boat sent on such business be ordered to fie to 

* at a small distance, and talk to the Malays to 
** disarm their first apprehensions, fif^ to one but 

* they will Uien go on board voluntarily; espe>» 
^ ciatty if it is an English boat that ealls them."* 

Posseasing, as I do, but a very imperfect know- 
ledge <rf navigation, I shall avail mysdf €i the le- 
marks of Lieutenant Rose, in his sailing diieetioM 
for the east coast, and embody a part of them in iht 
following description, which will prevent repetitioab 
and proaent at one view a clear and concise aoeouut 
of the navigation of the coast, united to a survif 


of the country, and be more generidly tMeftil to re- 
fer to. The following is a list of the rivers, capes 
or headJands, islands, bays, and straits, which will 
be described in regular order. It may be necessary 
to premise, that 

Sungei or Kwdla signifies a river. 

Tar0(mg or Ujong, a point, cape, cm: head-land. 

JPulo^ an island. 

Teluk, a bay. 

SoUaty a strait 

List of Rivers, Capes or Paints, Islands, Says, 
and Straits, between Diamond Point and 
Stack inclusive. 

Tanjong Jambu Ayer. 
Sungei Jambu Ayer. 
Sungei Pari Busa. 
Sungd Ram Kundei. 
Sungd Puniiia Malikan. 
Taojong Jejulo or Jaulat. 
Sungei Jej ulo or Jaulat Ke- 

Sungei Jejulo or Jaulat Be» 

Ujong Prabilab. 
Sungei Prauhilab. 
Sunga Purla. 
Sungei Tumbus, 
Ujong Bian. 
Sungei BiM. 

Sungei Birim. 
€ungei Pasmr Futih. 
Sungei Bowan. 
Sungei Langksa. 
Ujong Ewala Langksa. 
Sungei Rajah Muda. 
Sungei Rajah Tuah. 
Ujong Mukka. 
Sungei Mukka. 
Sungei Ju. 
Sungd Penaga. 
Ujong Thnian. 
Sungei Teluk Udang. 
Sungu Brangow. 
Sungei Kocong Ckxit. 
Ujong Bijtfi OfaOi. 


Simgei Rajdi OUl . 
Sungei TenuBUi Mirboir. 
Sungei Ayer Mmmng. 
Sungei Konnjia. 
Pulo Kjunpei* 
Pub Sampilis. 
Sungei BenUmg. 
Sungei Bubalan. 
Sunga Luppoi, or Kayu 

Sungei Gubbang. 
Sungei Serapa 
Ujong Dammar* 
Ujong Bubon, pr Pan^;alan 

Sungri Langkat. 
Kwala Tappa Kuda. 
Pulo Tappa Kuda. 
Ujong Tappa Kuda. 
Sakt Jaring Nalua. 
Pulo Jaring Nalus. 
Sungei Seiotoog. 
Sungei Serapo. 
Sungei Sepuchong. 
Pulo Ragai. 
Sungei Langkat Tuak 
Ujong Langkat Tuah. 
Pulo BcrringringhL 

1 Langkat Muda* 
N^pab Sarangao* 

TelukPereaei or Pria. 

Sungei Pawr Putih. 

Ujoog passr Putih. 

^wala Belawan. 


Sungei Diia. 

Sungei Piila Pangfima. 

Ujong Purling. 

^wala Lalang or Perdioot. 

Sungei Tgan. 

Kwala Sirdaog. 

Ujong Bergumma. 

Ujong Rumoda. 

Sungei Pantei Labu. 

Sungei Palu Neeboiig» or 

Kwala Ayer Etam, or Lu- 

ria Pagar. 
Ujong Sabunga Bungm. 
Sungei Pebowangan. 
Sungei SgunghL 
Sungei 8e Jawi JawL 
Sungei Mangkudu, or Soiw 

Ujoog Karumbu. 
Sungei Bedi^gaL 
Sungei Bedagaa llatL 
Sungei Selukoiy* 
Kwala Padang. 
Kwala Nagonda. 
Sungei Nagonda. 
oungei jrcguoraMBD. 
Sungei Separi Fmu 



Suiigei Mau. 

Sungei Tanjong. 

Ujong Tanjong. 

Sungei Rumboos. 

Sungei Perapo. 

Teluk Piai. 

Kwala Batubara. 

Sungei Silow. 

Sungei Se Jawi Jawi, No. 9, 

Sungei Bagan. 

Sungei Ular. 

Sungei Baniak. 

Sungei Langkadei Euning. 

Sungei Tamban Tulang. 

Ujong Tamban Tulang. 

Sungei Assahan. 

Tanjong Si Api Api. 

Sungei Leedong. 

Sungpi Swalook* 

Sungei Be^lah. 

Sungei Panei. 

Pulo Rantau. 

Tanjong Bangsi. 

Sungei Setukang. 

Sungei Pejudian. 

Sungei Aye^ Tawar. 

Sungei Ular. 

Sungei Daun. 

Sungei Tangah. 

Sungei Salang. 

Sungei Lelin. 
Sungei Besar. 
Sungei Mirbow. 

Sungei Sampeiniat • 
Sungei Pakietan. 
Tanjong Merantei. 
Sungei Nipah Mandara. 
Sungei Pebantaian. 
Sungei Kamodi. 
Sjungei Kubu, 
Pulo Lalang Besar. 
Pulo Lalang Kechil. 
Sungei Reccan, in which 


Sungei Serassa. 

Sungei Menas^p. 

Sungei Banca. 

Tanjong Merantei. 

Tanjong Segra. 

Sungei Batu Saketoi^. 

Sungei Sarang AUang. 

Sungei Jaring Halus. 

Sungei Tanah Putih. 

Sungei Batu Ampa. 

Sungei Labuan Tangali. 
Ujong Perbabian. 
Sungei Lumut. 
Sungei Tduk FuleL 
Sungei Ayer Tawar. 
Ujong Bacow Tuah. 
Sungei Rajah Begamu. 
Sungei Teluk Dalam. . r 
Pulo Roopat. 
Ujong Saddi. 
Salat Roopat. 
Ujong Banta^. 


Sungei Bukit Bitoo. 
Sungci DumeL Sallat Tanjoog Jattee. 

Ujong SinlMur. Ujong Balai. 

Suogei Bertii^ Mcram- Sungei Siack Kednl. 
bong. Sungci Slack 


Diamond Point, or Tatyong Jambu Ayer^ fimns 
the western pmnt of the north entrance of the straits 
of Malacca, or eastern extremity of the Pedir coast 
It is thus described by Lieutenant Rose :— ** Dia- 
^ mend Point, in latitude S'lG SST north, andlon- 
gitude 9V SG' 49' east» is a low woody point, fre- 
quented during tlie fair season by fishermen from 
'' the coast of Pcdir, having a reef extending about 
** one mile from the point to its outer edge, in a 
^ northerly direction ; has three £ithoms sand on its 
^ edge, and shoals gradually to the point 

Current and Tide. — '* The flood tide runs to 
** the south-cast, and ebb tide to the north-west 
^ The rise and fall on the springs is from nine to 
'' ten feet. The tide runs about two knots per hour. 
Direction of the Coast. — '' From this to Pran- 
^ hilah Point, the coast runs about south-east by 
^ east, carrying regular soundings at a small dia* 
^ tanee from the shore.** 

Sungei Jambu Ayer^ a small river, up whidi 
there is a population of 200 Achcnese, whose prin- 
cipal occupation is fishing and building boats. Hie 
current is extremely strong in this ri?er. 


Sungei ParUmsu is another inccmsidefable riTer, 
having a pqpulaticm of 100 souls, principally fisher- 

Sungei Ram Kundei contains 100 houses, or a 
population of 600 people, who cultivate paddy. 

Sungei Punnia MaMkan has a population of 
about 1 50, and paddy is the chief produce. Dam* 
mar also is found up most of these rivers, 

Tanjong Jejulo or Jaulat, a prominent point, 

Sungei Jejulo Kechil and Sungei J^uio Be$aTi 
two rivers, up which there is a very large popula- 
tion of Achenese. The number has been estimat- 
ed at 5000. The name of the chief is Niakmo- 
hun, Kejuruan Jejulo, and the principal products 
of the country are paddy, wax, and dammar batu* 

U^ng Prauhdah. 

Sungei Prauhilah. ** Prauhilah Point is in lat. 
« 4° 52' 50" north, and longitude 97° 54' 80" east 
^^ Off this point, a reef extends out about three 
" miles to the south-east and north-west, with very 
<< irregular soundings on it. We anchored in 4i 
*^ fathoms sand, about 3^ miles off shore. The en- 
^' trance into the river is almost dry at low. water, 
** but when entered, carries 2 fathoms for some 
*^ miles. A small fishing village is situated a con-* 
*' siderable distance up it. From this to Langsa 
** Bay, the coast runs about south-east by south." 


Sungei Piirla, containing about 100 houses, and 


nearly 1000 people ; the chief Kgnraaa Ptaila ; Hid 
the principal exports paddy, wax, asd dammar. 

Sungei Tumbus. 

tjang Bian. 

Sungei Bian has 80 boosts, and about 1TB in* 
habitants ; and paddy is cultiTated. 

Sungei Bhimj aboat 50 booses, and 400 inlm- 
bitants; tbe cbieTs name Sidris, and bis title 
Gajib Birim. Boat-boilding is carried on to same 
extent, and paddy is cultivated. 

Sungei Passir Putih. 

Sungei Rowan. 

Sungei Langksa. Up this river there are about 
80 houses, and about 600 inhabitants ; tbe cfaiera 
name Gulah, Kejuruan Langsa. In tbe interior 
there is reported to be a very large popuktioB of 
Acbenese, which was estimated by many at 10^000. 

Ujong Kxvala Langksa^ Telok Timgksa, or 
*^ Langksa Bay, is formed by Ujong Bian to tbe 
*' northward, and Ujong Kwala Lanj^ua to the 
^ south-west Its breadth is about 4 miles, and it 

runs inland at 44 miles, with numerous sboaia asid 

narrow channels leading into the different rifcta. 
^* Near Ujong Kwala Langksa there is a smaD 
^ island, about a mile in extent, caUed Puh TfeA 
- ' l^gy Tuju^ the channel about SOO yaida md^ 
*^ and carrying 7 fathoms water throogb it. b 
^ coming in from the northwanl, this island 
f^ not be distinguished from the mainland. 




Entrance into t/ie Langksa. — ^' The entranoe 

into the Langksa river bears from Pulo Tellagy 
>* Tuju about muthy having a safe but narrow chaii!> 
f^ nel on either side of the island. The best channel 
^ into this river is from the north*east» between the 
f* isknd and Ujcmg ^wala Langksa, having 8^^ 
^^ &thom8 least water. In the entrance of tht 
** river there are two small islands. The towa la 
*^ said by the Malays to be about three hom» puU 
^^ up, and contains a number of inhabitants, who 
^' cultivate rice, pepper, and rattans. Anchored in 
^^ S fathoms mud, about 6 miles from the deepest 
'* part of the bay. The reeft extend out Sf miles 
** from the nearest land." 

Lieutenant Ross. 

Sungei Raja Mv4a contains about SO houses^ 
;and 200 inhabitants. Faddy is cultivated, and 
boats built. 

Sungei JRaja Tuah^ about 50 houses, and 80Q 
inhabitants. Boats and paddy. 

L^ong Mukka. A few people, who cultivate 
tobacco, reside here. 

. Stmgei Juj so called from the number of sharks. 
No inhabitants. 

Sungei Penaga or Timian. This is a tion^ider- 
aUe river, and contains about 1000 inhabitants, 
near the river's mo^th, and a large population ill 
the interior. They are principally Achenese. 'A 
jiarge colony of Malays, however, from Lamavy, 


who fled when the Siameie Attacked that jhnocp 
have estaUiflhed themadvet there. Tbeng^ ia 
Fuchat Bagam Ahmet The produce of die coun- 
try 18 dammar, wood oil, paddy, and wn. Bonta 
xe$di the fint viUage in one tide. Thoto am 
two kampongs or viUagea up the 'nmian ; mm 0k 
the right, called Karang : the other to the left, call- 
ed Sekra* The chief of the former ia atyled K^|ii- 
raan Karang, and the latter ia Tnanko Brrhanaj 
Kejuman Sdua. The authority of TImiaB ex- 
tends to Diamond Point All the statea b et w e en 
these places pay tribute to Timian, to die tiiflfaig 
amount of about 800 dollars a year, of which the 
rajah appropriates one-half to hia own nae^ wmd the 
other portion is sent to the king of AdieeDt whcoe 
authority he fully acknowledges, althoogh the nyah 
of Siack a few years ago oonqnend this couiti7» 
and still claims the sovereignty of it 

ITjang TimiatL 

Sungei Teluk Udang, n brandi of the 
or Timian. 

Sungd Bratigow. 

Sungei Korong Chooi. A very few i 
ants, fishermen ; the village half a tide np. 

ISong Bqfoh Olah. 

&ingei Rqjah Olah communicatea with die IV 
mian. Fishermen resort here, but no fixed ial»p 

Sungei Terapan Mirbaw. 


Sungd Ajftr Masing. 

Sungei Korcof^. 

Outdde» a dbort distance fitim 8hare> are tm> a 
islands, called Pub Kampei and Pulo SampUkp. 
net dirtinguishable firom the main, unless appraadiH 
odpietty dose; 

Sungei SesUang is a small river. The chief! 
is Tuanko Leban» Eejuruan Besitang. There ia^ 
4 small village, with about 10 houses, and 100 m-i 
hafaitfUdts. It was formerly a very populous placed 
and is now under the authority of Langkat There^ 
used to be a great quantity of paddy exported ;r 
now very little. The chief produce is dammai^ 
i^tkanf, wa^ and ivory. There are eight prows 
belonging to the place, which trade with Pinang. 

Sungei Bubahn is a onall river, with a smali 
filing viUagCi, containing about 50 inhabitantau 
This forms the boundary between the territory o£ 
Delli and Timian. 

Sungei Jjuppan or Kayu Lapan* 

Sungei Gvbbangj or Tampat Kwala Dammaiy 
so called firmn the quantity of dammars The 
Adienese resort here for dammar. 

Sungei Serapo communicates with Langkati 
There are no fixed inhabitants. Fishennen resartf 
here occasionally. ci. 

l^ong Dammar J a i^sry prominent point near the 
entrance of the Langkat river. This point maif be 
known by a top of high arran trees. The 


ftnned by the Langkat river»' eaBtead out from this 
pcrint about seven or eight miles, and are ferjr dan- 
gefons to ajiproaeh. It appears to Hie, that Lieii- 
tauuit Rose has rather limited their extent and 
number in his diart Ujong Dammar seems to be 
an eligible spot for a small factory, as tlie land is 
high dose to the sea. The Duteh indeed nere 
anrare of its favourable positioo, and ap[died far it 
many years ago. This is an ishmd formed by die 
Langkat river to the southward ; by Snnga Serapo 
to the northwestward, and by a small channd 
whidi takes a semicircular turn, and unites these 
two rivers. 

IQofig JVu&ofi, or Pangalan Beeda^ i> the 
other point to the southward, forming the en* 
teance to Langkat river. The email village of 
Bttbon is situated near this point, and *^«»^f»f 
about ISO inhabitants. Tim chief is Pedwot 
Udin, son of Rajah Tunkop of Adieen, and con- 
nected by marriage with die sultan' of Ddli. 
This villi^ is pleasantly situated on the kft bank 
ef the noble river of Langkat, and is eefebmled for 
its produce of sugar or ja^ri« made from the anan 
tree. This tree grows here luxurtantly» and is ap- 
]^]ed to various uses. Toddy is extracted finni it ; 
and the substance with whidi the stem is smnonnd- 
edt called qu, is well known as makii^ cxodlfent 
cables, while the Malays moke their pens of the 
small twigs. Blachang, which is made of drief 


shrimps, pounded and pr^ared, is . gceat articte of 
trade here, as well as salt fish. The populatioix 
being small, the trade is not of much extent, but a* 
considerable quantity of opium is disposed of to the 
people belonging to prows which occasionally come 
in for refreshment, and the traders passing up and 
down the river to Langkat 

Kwala Buhofif or Sungei Langkat^ *' is in lati- 
'' tude 4° 1' north,^ longitude 98° 29' east. Off 
** iiie mouth of the river, a bank extends outr 
^ about 4 miles to the north-nort^-east,'' (I think 
7 or 8 miles), '* having dry patches on it, on which 
** the surf breaks. From Langsa Bay to Ujong 
Timian, the coast is bold, having from 15 to 20 
&thoms, about 2 miles from the shore, excepting. 
^ a reef oi breakers off Ujong Timian and Fukr 
** Roquit, which extend out about 1 mile. From* 
Timian to Kwala Bubon,' the land forms a deep 
bay, not easily perceived from a distance, in con* 
sequence of two islands that. front it, and which 
^ are not easily distinguished from the mainland,( 
'* unless when close in shore. The names ci the 
islands are Pulo Tampasalee and Pulo Sampa^ 
tuah," (Pulo Tampilis and Pulo Kampei); '' Be* 
tween these islands^ the Malays informed us 
'* there was a safe channel that leads into a river 
<* called Sungy Kayu Lapan. Anchored in 8 
'* fathoms mud, about 4i miles off the entrance of 
^ the river. 




Biie and FaUoftheTUe.^'' It iMhighrndxt 
^offBuboD at three bourit and the rite aad fidl on 
^ the tpringt is about nine fiset" 

LiEUTXNAKT Rose's Sailing Diieetioiia. 

Mmiramee to, and Navigaikm ^tlm Lan^hat 
Bwer.—TluM river is about 800 yaids wide at its 
entrance, and after passing die bv, the depth of 
wator increases to S and 4 fiithoms. The month, 
how e ver, is nearly Aoak e d up by sand-banksp 
wUdi extend ont very far ; and the soundii^ are 
1 and H fiithoms fer many miles outside. After 
asnending two leadies, thoe is a small channd to 
die right, whieh leads off to Sungei Sergio ; and 
one reach further up, it branches off to the right 
and left The one to the right is cslled Batng 
Sarangan, up which, a short distance^ is a smaD 
Tillage oi the same name, where the inhabitants 
have lately commenced the cultivation of pepper. 
Proceeding up the river to the left, Sungei Miagid 
is the nest channd, whidi turns off to the right, 
and with the Batang S a r a ng a n, fitms a sbmD 
isbnd, called Pulo Mi^id. Nearly opposite to tUs^ 
is the Terussan, €fr main channel, whidi coannmi- 
cates with Tappa Kuda and Jaring Hahs, and is 
the channd used by large boats proceeding up to 
Kampong Kapala Sungd, and the other viUages in 
the interior. It is about 180 yards wide. The 
depths of water at the entnnce are S and 4 fath o ms . 
The river continues to branch off into nmnerons 


channels, all leading into eadi other. These it is 
unnecessary, and.would he difficult to descrihe. It 
is navigable for hoats of 30 tons, nearly a hundred 
miles ; but the current being extremely strong, ten 
and twelve days are usually required to ascend that 
distance. The current, in the narrow and con^ 
fined channels particularly, runs with the greatest 
impetuosity, at the rate, I should suppose, of five 
and a half knots an hour. The sides of the river, 
for the first thirty or forty miles, are covered with 
jungle, large trees intermixed with brushwood, and 
the ground is low and swampy ; but as you advance 
into the interior beyond this, the cultivation com- 
mences, and there are extensive tracks of dear land 
appropriated to the cultivation of paddy. 

Villages at Langkat. — The villages up the 
Langkat river are numerous. The first is 

Terussan, containing about seventy houses, the 
residence of the Bindahara, the Badar Udin, and 
the rest of the family of the former rajah. This 
is a miserable village situated on the point, where 
there is a bifurcation of the river. It is genendly 
under water. 

ICapala Sungei, the next town, eontains about 
four hundred houses, and is the reiddenoe of the 
rajah, or Kejuruan Muda. Here the banks are 
high, and the houses are large and well buil& 
They are constructed of much the same materials 
as at most of the other places, being built on post! 



of wood aeven or dght feet from the gioiuid ; tbe 
sides, panDek of wood of the better dam; mod 
those of the poorer class by samiers or artaps, or 
bark of trees. The roofs are thatdied wiUi tbe 
leaves of the nipah, the sirdaiig, and tbe rattan, all 
of which are abundant This is the great dep6t 
for pepper, and the place where the prowi princi- 
pally load. The following are the principal vil- 
lages, with the estimated number of houses in each : 


Tenusan contains 


KapaU Sungei, 


Seftbat Abat, . 


Ba Beinjei, 












Total 1050 

And reckoning on an average seven inhabitants 
in each, which is a very moderate estimate, the 
Malayan population may be stated at 7850. 

JBaUa FUla^Ci. — Dependent upon Laogkat, 
and under tbe immediate audHvity of tbt ngah, 
are a great number of Batta villages^ '"H^^ by 
tbe industrious race of fcppet cultivators. They 
are of the tribe Karau Karau. There are maay 



small streams which fall into the Langkat river in 
the interior, up one of which are the following 
villages : — 

Mamosi, containing 





Dingy Kamawan, 


Begulda, . 




Grat, . . . 


Nama Tonko, 


Nama Rambei, 




Bna Raju, 


Up another branch are — 

Luigapora, . w 


Dorian Sajua, 


Baknomang, . 


Kota Tumburu, 




Assam Kumbang, 






And in another small stream- 




Tanjong Muda, . 


Dorian Serapi, 


Carry forward. 



Brought forward, 10,610 

Sungei Bechara, SOO 

Terianjia, 500 

Tamburan, 500 

UjongGorab, • 1,000 

Manchang» 50 

SolaAtci, ... 600 

Total, 15,560 

of Battas, under the authority of Langkat 

History and Government. — ^The fint duef of 
Langkat was a panglima from Ddli, aboat one 
hundred and fifty years ago. The country was 
conquered about five years ago by Slack ; and the 
rajah of Dclli now cbims tribute from the Keju- 
ruan Muda, who, although he acknowledges the 
sovereignty of Siack, does not admit of any inter* 
ference on the part of the sultan of DellL At the 
time of the subjugation of the country, the sove- 
reign power was vested in Kejuruan Tuah Etam, 
who was displaced, and the Kcrjuruan Muda, Ra- 
jah Ahmet, was placed on the throne. The Ke- 
juruan Tuah, not many months since^ joined the 
Sultan Panglima of Dclli in a conspiracy to regain 
the government, and went to Delli ibr the purpose 
of obtaining assistance in men, arms, and ammuni- 
tion. Having obtained a supply of theses he was 
proceeding down the Dclli river to return to Lang- 
kat, when he, and a friend of his, named H^tMKpg^ 


were amusing themselves shooting alligators, and a 
quantity of gunpowder which had been incautious- 
ly left exposed, exploded and killed them both on 
the spot His eldest son, the Rajah Bindahara, 
an enterprising young man, is endeavouring to 
usurp the government, with the aid of the Sultan 
Panglima of Delli*; and the trade of the country 
has been much interrupted by these divisions, and 
the hostilities in which the chiefs have been en- 
gaged for some time past. 

Chiefs ofLangkatf and their Clmracter. — The 
present principal chie& of the country are Rajah 
Ahmet, Kejuruan Muda, in whose hands the 
whole executive powers of government are vested, 
which is here, as in most of these states, a most 
despotic one. The king has four brothers, one 
older than himself, named Tuanko Wan Joho; 
and the younger ones are named Tuanko Wan 
Sepan, Wan Saw, and Wan Desan. The rajah 
bears a good character : he is mild, and not addict- 
ed to vicious habits. He is a corpulent, £ur, and 
rather good looking man, with a pleasing expres- 
sion of countenance. His two brothers. Wan 
J^ko and Wan Sepan, are extremely dissipated, 
addicted to maddat or opium, in which they in^ 
dulge to excess ; of feeble and emadated frames, 
and altogether worthless. 

King's Bevenues. — There is a difficulty in as- 
certaining the revenues of the rajah, because the 


duties hare been raised or lowered in the hands of 
different persons* His reUtions and intimate 
friends are exempt from duties altogether; and 
from other individuals he frequently receives pre- 
sents, instead of duties. I was infinmed by his 
brothers, however, that they reckoned SOOO dollars 
as the probable amount of his revenues on imports 
and exports ; but I am of opinion they are consi- 
derably more. 

Produce. — Pepper is the grand staple, of which 
the estimated annual quantity at present is about 
S0,000 peculs, exported to Pinang and Malacca; but 
no correct account is kept The cultivation in the 
interior is rapidly increasing ; and I have no doubt* 
that in the course of a year or two the produce 
will be nearly doubled, provided there is a cessa- 
tion of hostilities. The pepper is of a very excel- 
lent quality, and has long been esteemed in the 
markets of Europe and America. The natives do 
not pluck it till it is well ripened on the trees ; 
and a great proportion, therefore, is what is known 
by the name of white pepper. It was first planted 
at Lfangkat, according to the information I obtain- 
ed, about eighteen years ago ; but as the people 
there have little idea of time or space, this may be 
incorrect In matters of this sort, and in inqui- 
ries in which the exercise of memory is required, 
not the smallest dependence is to be pboed on the 
reports of the inliabitants ; nothing but a slight* or 


an insult, makes much impression upon their 
minds, unless indeed they have had some very 
particular cause for charging their recollection with 
any event or circumstance. In asking a Malay 
how long it is since such an event transpired, the 
universal reply is 'Mebih korang," more or less; 
but this may mean ten, or twenty, or a hundred 
years, according as the circumstance may have been 
recent or remote. 

JExporU. — There are many other valuable com- 
modities besides pepper produced in this country, 
of which the following may be enumerated as the 
principal, viz. rattans, a great variety ; wax ; 
pulses, viz, kachang iju, kachang putih, bijan; 
also kachu, or terra japonica, gambir, gold, ivory, 
tobacco, and paddy. 

Imports.^T\ie principal imports consist of salt, 
opium, coast blue cloths, Buggese sarongs and se- 
rawals, European chintzes and white cloths, scarlet 
woollens, Surat and Bengal carpets or rugs ; iron, 
principally hoop or thin square ; steel, ironmongery 
manufactured at Pinang, viz. charcoals or laige 
hoes, suduk or spades, and parangs or bill-hooks 
for the pepper planters ; also bra^iery, consisting of 
tolams or large platters, pigdannies, seree stands 
and lamps, swivels, muskets, apd gunpowder ; silk 
cloths from Batubara ; also a variety of Achenese 
silk and cotton cloths. There are many minor ar- 
ticles too numerous to detailf always saleable here. 


The imports must be very considerable to supply 
the wants of the lai^ population in the intericyr, 
and the traders from the other side of the island. 

Gold. — Gold is procured in very small quanti- 
ties only at Bohoro, in the interior : Mas Mudai, 
or Lima Mutu, an inferior description of a light 
pale colour. The mines, if they may be so caUed, 
belong to Wan Pangci Lakkawa, a Malay chiefl 

^/ocAaftg",— -Blachang, or Balachan, is made of 
shrimps dried, pounded in a mortar, and mixed 
with spices. It is exported in large quantitiea. 
The slirimps (Udang) of which they make it, are 
very plentiful. There arc many varieties of the 
shrimp here. Tiie Udang Gala, Udang Sumut. 
and Udang Pasang. 

Rattans. — Of rattans, the country produces the 
following varieties, \*iz.lletan Sega, Chummoo^Geta, 
Semamboo, Toongkat, Mauow, Udang; Sini^ Cbin- 
ching, Senang, Kra, Batu, Benang, Sallat, Sisir. 
These arc used for various useful purposes, such as 
making baskets, cables, and ropes for prows, spear 
handles, fishing-stakes, mats, fastening the thatch 
of their houses ; and the Kotan Batu, which is par- 
ticularly hard and ditticult to cut, is thrown aoooa 
the river, to impede the progress of an enemy, to 
pass over rivers, &c. Very few rattans are export- 
ed from the country, in consequence of the peppa 
and other more valuable produce occupying all the 
tonnage of their vessels, and being more profitable 


than rattans, which are very bulky, and require 
great trouble in their stowage. 

Samboas.-'^The species of bamboos are not less 
various than the rattans, and used for their houses, 
for the decks of their prows, for carrying water, 
making fishing-stakes, and other purposes. They 
are the bamboo Bettang, large, Aou and Belankei, 
also large, Nipis, Telang, Perapat, Buju China, all 
green ; Gading of a reddish colour, and Duri, yeU 
low. The clumps of these on the sides of the 
river, and round the dwellings of some of the na- 
tives, have an exceedingly pleasing and picturesque 

Timber. — There is no want of timber here; 
the descriptions most used for boat-building, are 
the Mirbow for the bottoms of boats, Medang, 
Champeda, Niri, Pedda Ayer, Tumpang, Bimgor, 
and Sapang for planks, and Tolelang Pakam, and 
Runtongan, for knees and timbers. 

Dye'Woods.-'^The forests abound with valu- 
able dye-woods, of which may be mentioned the 
Kayu Abar and Kayu Lakur, resembling logwood, 
and which has been sent to Sincapore, yielding a 
profit of about 800 per cent, for the China market. 
The roots of the Mangkudu are also used. 

Sugar 7V^^.— -The anau grows throughout the 
country in the greatest abundance, and produces a 
sort of sugar called jaggri, to which the Malays 
are very partial ^ also toddy, rope, and pens, 


Sugar^Cane. — Sugar-cane aeemi to thrive here 
remarkably well, the canes growing; to a very laige 
aiac. The manufEu^ture of sugar, howevert is not 
understood* Were this process knowut there is no 
doubt that laige quantities of very fine sugar 
might be obtained from the country. 

Fe^sels. — ^There are about SOO prows of various 
sixes belonging to Langkat, from two to thirty 
tons, of which last there are eight These vessels 
are employed in carrying the produce of the coun- 
try to Pinang and Malacca, and trading from port 
to port on the coast. 

Ihities. — The duties arc very moderate, and tlie 
nyah seems disposed to promote commerce and agri- 
culture. The following is a schedule of the duties : 

Imports. — Salt, 4 dollars per coyan. 

£!2^por/«.— Rice, 8 dollars per coyan ; pepper, 
8 dollars per 100 gantons; rattans, 4 doUar per 
100 bundles. 

All other articles are free of duty. 

Internal Commerce.— A vtvf extensive trade is 
carried on with the Battas from the interior, who 
bring down the valuable produce^ and barter them 
for opium, cloths, salt, &c The principal tiaders 
come from the borders of the great lake, which is 
five days' journey from Seabut Abat } and the Alas 
people, from the interior of Sinkel, on the west 
coast, also come over the mountains to trader 
bringing camphor (kapur bams), benjamin <kaoii- 


Bian), &c The race of Battas who come from the 
borders of the lake, are Tubba and Pappah. The 
rajah of the Tubbas is Rajah Bindang, and Rajah 
Kotansang, rajah of Pappah. There is another 
tribe of Battas called Kappak, a day's journey from 
the Pappahsy very numerous. The two principal 
Alas chiefs are Kejuruan Bellam and Kejuruan 
Jahar. They are Mussulmen. The Battas who 
live a little way up the river, are, as I have said 
before, of the tribe Karau Karau, a quiet indus- 
trious race, fond of collecting money. They are 
not addicted to cannibalism, but eat elqphants, 
hogs, snakes, monkeys, &c. The principal Ejurau 
Karau chiefs are Naga Saribu and Tuan Sipurba. 
Quitting Langkat, the next river is 
KwcUa Tappa Ktula, so called from the great 
quantity of grass growing there, somewhat resem- 
bling a horse's foot. This river communicates with 
Sungei Langkat. 

Pulo Tappa Kuda, a beautifiil little green 
island, which lies off the mouth of the above river, 
about a mile and half distance^ and on which, as 
weU as on the main opposite, are a few scattered 

L^ong' Tappa Kuda, a cape, or point, which, 
with Ujong Dammar, forms a deep bay. 

Salat Jaring Nalus, a small strait, formed by 
l^e island and the main. 


Puh Jaring Nabu^ a small ishnd near the 


Sungei SdcuUmg^ so named from the great iram* 
ber of Lotong monkeys. 

Pulo SdoUmgf a very small island opposite. 

Sungei Serapo. 

Sungei Sepuchang, from the number of birds of 
the name. 

Puh BagaSf a very small idand near the shore. 

Sungei Langkat Tuah, formerly the seat of 
government, and residence of the rajah of r<angkat. 

lljong Langkat Tuahy a projecting point of 
land, nearly opposite to which is 

Puio BerUng Tinghi^ a small rocky ishndt 
surrounded by reefs to a considerable distance. 
Here there is a great abundance ai shell-fish pro* 
curable. This island forms a good land-mark for 
entering the Delli and Bulu China rivers, and on 
making the coast 

Sungei Gading^ so called from the quantity of 
shdl-fish ai that name found there. 

Sungei Langkat Muda* 

L^ong Nipah Sarangan^ so called from a 
nipidi tree (the leaf of which makes the artap)^ 
vdiidi the Malays have a superstitious notion 
that it is dangerous to touch, or even to qwak 
near it 

ZWiiAr Langkadei Kuningf a small bay, so call* 


ed from the number of yellow trees and leaves, and 
a great place for fish. 

Teluk Peresei or PriH. Here the pirates for- 
merly were very numerous ; and in one desperate 
engagement which they had» their shields fell into 
the water, and hence the place retains the name of 
Frisi, a shield. 
Sufigei Passir PiUih. 

Lljonff PcLgsir Putih, forming the point of the 
Bulu China river, and so called from the extraor- 
dinary whiteness of the sand. 

Kwala BdawaUi so called from its being the 
fiivourite haunt of pirates in former years, and the 
numerous engagements which used to take place 
here. The above two rivers being united, will be 
described together. 

<' Delli river is in latitude 8' 46^ SO'' north, 
<' longitude 98^ 42' SO'' east Off the mouth of 
'^ the river is an extensive mud flat, extending out 
'^ in some places to five miles, and shoaling regu- 
larly. The mouth of the river is about a quarter 
of a mile broad, being very shallow, and having 
^* only four feet in some places at high water, 
but afterwards deepens to two fiithoms when en- 
tered. After having proceeded up about three 
^ miles and a hal^ it makes a sudden turn to the 
<< south-east, and narrows vary much ; when after 
the very short reaches, in some of which these is 
only three and four feet water, you readh Ddli, 




^ where a fresh water stream runs continiiaUy 
down; at which phu» the river is only finty 
yards wide. Between Delli river and Bolo 
China river there is a sand-bank, extending out 
about one mile, which is dry at low water ; dote 
'* to it there is one and a half, two, and three 
** fiithoms. The entrance into the Buln China 
** river is about 300 yards wide, and is much deep- 
^ er than Delli, having one fiithom on the bar at 
*' low water, and when entered, three and a half 
^' and four fathoms. After running up about three 
** miles and a half, the river branches off to the 
^ westward, having a communication with Delli 
** by a channel to the south-cast, in which thoe 
** is one and a half and two fathoms water. It is 
high water at full and change at fimr hours : the 
rise and fall is from eight to nine feet** 


The foregoing description of the entrance into 
the Delli and Bulu China rivers is generally so 
correct, that it may be superfluous for me to CDtcr 
into any further description. I may remark, how- 
ever, that the channel into the Bolu China liver 
is somewhat deeper than laid down in LieateaaDt 
Rose*s chart ; and at the point where a bank only 
is laid down, there is a safe but narrow diaoael, 
leading into the Delli river. To the right of the 
Kwak Belawan, afier the first reach, is a small 
river called Sungei Nouang ; two reaches more yoo 


come to the mouth of the main bFanch, called 
Sungei Pangalan Bulu, which leads to Bulu Chi^ 
na. There is an island of considerable size called 
Palo Belawan, formed by the sea, Kwala Bela*" 
wan, Sungei Delli, and Sungei Kapala Anjing. 
Inside of the Delli river also, are two ranall islands, 
called Pulo Pengatalan and Pulo Penapassan: 
and opposite to them on the left, is a small river 
called Sungei Pengatalan. Two short reaches 
above this, you come to Sungei Kapala Anjing to 
the right, which communicates with Bulu China ; 
and one reach more brings you to the entrance of 
the firesh water stream of Delli. 

Bulu China being the first place in order, will 
demand the first attention. From the entrance, 
where there is a bifurcation of the river, after about 
four hours pull, and various turnings and windings, 
small rivers branching off in all directions, the first 
village you come to is 

Kampong Bendar Sampei^ the residence of the 
shabundar, containing about fifty or sixty houses. 
It is a straggling village along both banks of the 
river. Here all the prows wait for cargoes ; and 
it is the principal trading village ; or, if I may use 
the term, the seaport town of the country. 

Bulu China is the next village, containing about 
eighty houses. It is so called from a species nS 
bamboo of that name, which grows luxuriantly in 


that quarter. From hence only small caiioei» or 
sampans, can ascend the river. The chiefs Snltm 
Ahmet, has a house here, but does not ooDtiniie 
long at a time, preferring his residence up the 
country. The Pemagang Haji, next in rank to 
him, lives here also. The houses are but indifier- 
ently constructed. 

Kallambir, so caDed from the great quaatitiet 
of cocoa-nut trees, is the next vilbge. It is a 
pretty little village, situated on a high bank on 
ihe left side of the river. Rajah Chindra Dewi, 
sister of Sultan Ahmet, and a wife of the Kejn* 
ruan Muda of Langkat, is the chief in authority 
here. There are about 25 houses. 

Dangla, a few miles above the other, contains 
about 15 houses. It is so called from a wood of 
that name which grows here. 

Kallumpang is so named from the number of 
large trees of that sort with which the village b 
surrounded. Here the young chief residea. This 
can scarcely be called a village, as there aie not 
more than three or four houses round the ducTs 
residence ; but a great number, say 10(^ are scat- 
tered amongst the woods and plantations, within 
the circumference of five or six miles. Here are 
extensive and beautiful pepper plantations, paddy 
fields, and fruit-trees of various descriptions. 

Tanjong Mangostan, from the quantity af 


Mangostaii trees. There is a small village on the 
left, of which the Orang Kaya Soonghal's brother 
is chief. 

Tanjong Sabdi, from the name of a man, itho, 
ascending a large wax tree here, to take down wax, 
fell down and broke his neck. This is a very 
small village ; but there are numerous inhabitants 
in the neighbourhood, scattered amongst the woods. 
Soonghal, the residence of the Orang Kaya, a 
large and populous village on both sides of the 
river, situated on fine lofty banks. This is a place 
of great trade ; and beyond this boats cannot ta^ 
cend. The Battas bring down the produce from 
the plantations upon their backs, and deposit it 
here for sale* 

Tanjong Salamat, a small village, near which 
is a most extensive burial-place. 

Mountains. — Between Tanjong Salamat and 
the mountains Sebaya Gajah and Purbesi, are 
many Batta villages, at no great distance fix)m 
Soonghal. These mountains are quite visible from 

Source of the River. — ^The said to rise 
from the foot of the mountain Sebaya. 

Soil, — The soil of the Bulu China river is not 
so ridi as at Delli. I may mention it gencfally, 
between the villages of Kallambir and Soong^^, 
as four feet rich black mould, and three feet c^ stiff 
white clay, and a substratum of sand and gravel, 


with fragments of granite intermixed. Every thing 
seems to grow most luxuriantly ; and the cattle, 
which live entirely upon grass, are in excellent con- 
dition, which shows that the grass is of a nutritious 
quality. I observed a very dense vapour in the 
mornings, arising from the banks of the river, like 
a thick smoke. 

Dexvs.'^The dews are very heavy here, which 
no doubt contributes so materiallv to fertiliie the 

Fioodi. — When it floods, which generally hap- 
pens two or three times a year, the lower part of 
the country is completely overflown : the river riaea 
sometimes ten feet in the confined channels ; and 
boats cannot pass up and down, the current rua« 
ning with the most impetuous velocity. 

Population. — Within two days' journey of 
SoonghaU there are said to be not less than 90,000 
Battas of the tribe Karau Karau, chiefly engaged 
in niltivation. During the pq>per season, the ri- 
ver at the ford is almost impassable for the multi- 
tudes of people who flock there with produce. The 
interior of tbe country, and some tiacka of the 
mountains, are reported to be very thickly inha- 

Languages. — The Malays have a peenliar way 
of speaking here, different in many respects bam 
the other Malayan countries I have visited. Ts 
words ending with the vowel f, tliey invariably add ^ 


71, — as ini and sini^ here and there ^ they prof-' 
nounce inin and sinin ; and hagini^ so^ bagiaiu 
There are ihany other peculiarities in the diidect 

Chiefs and Grovernment-^Bvln China is undei' 
the authority of the Sultan Panglima of Delliy 
who receives half the duty upon the pepper, oi^ one 
dollar on every hundred gantons measu^^« Thef 
chief, Sri Sultan Ahmet, is a minor ; and the Sha-^* 
bundar Sampei receives all the duties for the betie- 
iit of the young sidtan, whose father was Orang 
Kaya Asim of Pangakn Bulu, and his motha'^ 
sister of the present Orang Kaya Soonghd. Sul- 
tan Ahmet exercises all the functions attached tb 
royalty in his own district ; but in matters of im^ 
portance, he usually takes the advice of his unde, 
the Orang Kay^. The Pemagang Haji itod Sha- 
bundar frequently also take a part in the confer- 
ence. Soonghal, and all beyond that, as' far as the 
mountains, is under the authority of the Orang 
Kaya, who is quite independent, and acknowledged 
BO superiors. He waa at war not long since with 
the Sultan Panglima of Deffi ; and from the jta^ 
lous feelings which I observed in both these chief^ 
there is every probability of a renewal of hostSlities. 
The Otang Kaya is a good looking man^ ^liboai 
forty-five, but addicted to opium ; the SiiHaa 
Ahmet, a fair young lad, about sixteen* Thef 


appear both very partial to the Engluh, and very 
Imn traders. 

Revenues. — ^The revenues of the Orang Kaya 
were stated to me at SOOO doUars from the duty 
on pepper only. He trades, however, cxtennvely 
besides. The Orang Kaya receives one dollar cm 
evory hundred gantons of pepper as it passes down 
the riv^ ; and at Fangalan Bulu, two dolhurs more 
are exacted ; of which one-half belongs to Sri Sul- 
tan Ahmet ; the other to the Sultan Fanglima of 
Delli. Sri Sultan Ahmet*s revenues are reported 
to be about 2000 dollars annually. 

Agriculture. — ^Pepper, gambir, pulse, tobaooo^ 
sugar-cane, and paddy, arc the principal articles of 

Pepper.-^The produce of pepper last year was 
ftated to be about 600 eoyans, or 15,800 peculs^ 
^sported to Finang and Malacca ; and the cultiva- 
tion is increasing rapidly. A year or two henee 
the produce will be considerably more. The price 
of pepper at Kallumpang and Soongbal is li dolt 
lars per bahar, <Hr three large peculs ; duty thiw 
dollars; and transport down the river to Kampoaig 
Bendar^ brings the price to 80 dollar^ per 100 
gantons, or bahar. The Orang Kaya is the princi* 
pal planter. He advances to each Batta eoltafs- 
tor, on his arrival from the mountains, 160 gan- 
tons of paddy, and a suflSdency of salt for the yev^ 


and the necessary implements of huiibandry« fit. a 
large boe, a spade, a panmg, and a badcet Tbii 
eontinues to be repeated for tbree years, wben tbe 
Qrang Kaya obtains two-tbirds of tbe pepper, at 
the low price of nine dollars per bahar, and ^ 
otber tbird at tbe selling price of tbe day to tra« 
ders. Tbe pangulos or superintendents get the 
profit of one-tbird, being tbe diflference betmsen 9 
dollars and 15. Tbe vines bear after tbree years t 
tbe average produce of eadi tree is one gantOD# 
After sixteen years tbe vines generally die« Dry 
poles are mostly used for tbeir suppcnrt, contrary to 
tbe custom at Pinang and tbe west coast, where 
tbe mangkudu tree is chiefly planted for their 
support I saw very few of tbese trees in tbe pep* 
per pkntations. Tbe gardens are kept beaotifiillf 
clean. Sometimes they plant paddy, tobacco, pulsc^ 
and maiae, amongst the vines. Tbe cultivation of 
this plant has been so fully described by tbe ele-' 
gant author of tbe History of Sumatra, and is so 
muoh alike in all places^ that it would be qtdte 
superfluous enterii^ into any description of it in 
dbis place. 

Other Articlei of Bwport Cammerte, and 
Price Curreni.^^The principal exports from Bulu 
China consist of gamUr, which is very much e«^ 
teemed by tbe Malays in the adjoining countriCi. 
Tbe fdlowing is a price current of the piiticipal 
articles :— 


Gambir, SO dollars per laxa or 10,000; becf? 
wax, 27 dollars per pecul ; slaves, from SO to 40 
dollars each ; tobacco, 15 dollars per pecal ; salt, 6 
dollars per 100 gantons; qnum, 76 dollars per 
cake ; elephants' teeth, lai^, from 60 to 70 dollars 
per pecul ; ditto small, from 40 to 55 dollars per 
pecul ; rice, 5 gantons per dollar when scarce, and 
10 when plenty; horses, from 15 to SO doUars 
each ; kachang iju, 10 dollars per 100 gantons ; 
and bijan, 5 dollars per hundred. 

Duties. — TIic duties arc as follows : — 

Imports. — Salt, 1 dollar per coyan ; opium. 1 
dollar per ball ; and salt-fish, 2 doUars per 1000. 

Exports. — Pepper, 2 dollars per 100 gantons ; 
gambir, 1 dollar per laxa; wax, 1 dollar perpe* 
cul ; slaves, 1 dollar each ; and tobacco^ 1 dolhr 
per pecul. 

No other articles of export or import oimimctce 
are chargeable with duties. 

There is an endless variety of goods and manu^ 
fiu:tures of different descriptions imported into thia 
oountry ; and the taste for European .cottons pvti- 
cularly, is daily increasing. The under-mentioiied 
are the most commonly imported. 

China-ware, coarse, consisting of plates^ cups^ 
and basons. Tepa Palembang, or scree stands, of 
which large quantities are imported into Finang. 
They are made of Kayu Booca, or bb^k wood. aiM| 
neatly varnished. Kain Antilas, or kincoba, gQ|d: 


thread, opium, white cloths, viz. muslin, cambrics, 
and maddapoUam, Europe ; also coarse country 
cloths, viz. murehs, shccurtams, and chelopans, 
scarlet broad cloth, coarse ; Pedindang china, salt, 
ironmongery, viz. parangs, hoes, and a variety of 
spades, nails, &c. ; iron-hoops, gunpowder, tin, mus- 
kets, and plain sabres or cutlasses, blunderbusses, 
swivels, looking-glasses, and brass-plates of a varie* 
ty of sorts. Besides these, they import quantities 
of Buggese sarongs and serawals, Pulicat cloths, 
with handsome borders; Chawals Madras, fine; 
Pulicat chintzes, chiefly red ground ; Palempores, 
and silk and gold cloths from Tringanu» Palem-^ 
bang, Slack, and Batubara. From Acheen also, 
they import silk and cotton cloths, viz. serawals, 
Puchu arum, Pulang ; Pulang pulangei, Pudi Ma- 
mikan, JLada, Terapo, Bunga Bachang, &c. 

Internal Commerce. — The internal commerce 
of the country is very considerable. Traders from 
Alas, Gaion, and Sinkel, and other places on the 
opposite side of the island, come over with various 
commodities, and carry back a variety of the ma- 
nufactures enumerated above; and traders from 
Soonghal carry up supplies to the numerous Bait^ 
states inland, six or seven days' journey. 

Manufactures. — There does not appear to be 
any manufisictures in the country amongst the Ma* 
lays, who are all principaUy engaged in trade and 
cultivation. The Battas, however, m^ke a vatjet^ 


of doths, of ^vhich the following are tbe namei of 
those inost in use. 

Junjong, a red striped coarse wiry cloth, like a 
shawl, 4i cubits long» by Hi wide. Silk doChs of 
this pattern would sell well, if attention was paid 
to the patterns. 

Ragi padang, a blue striped coarse cotton dotli^ 
44 by 2 cubits. 

Ragi Tubba, Katmanga, and Sun Suri, difibv 
cut sorts of cloth of similar manufacture^ but ▼•- 
nous patterns. 

The Battas also make handles and aheatlis tag 
creeses, swords, &c. 

Boat-BuUding. — Prows are built at Kampoof 
Bendar, not, however, in any considerable number. 
The timber is much the same as at T^ngka^ and 
the other places on tliat part of the eoast The 
natives do not find it necessary to oooiioniiBe the 
wood. A large tree they split in two with wedges^ 
and make only two planks. They do not 
hewing and cutting with a hatchet or parang. 

Prows. — There are not many vcskIs 
to Bulu China, the Batubara people bcieg die 
principal carriers of the produce. 

Personal Appearance of t/te A'ofiwr.-^The 
Malayan inhabitants are of a dark yellowiah 
plexion, stout in general, their limbs well 
their persons upright, and they walk rather 
fully. They arc low in stature. The 


their hair long, and their teeth are filed when 
young, having a jet black glossy appearance. The 
men pluck the hair from their chins, very few 
having the smallest appearance of beards. The 
women are £ur, with dark expressive eyes; but 
their ears are disfigured by large holes, into which 
rings of an immense size are introduced ; the poor- 
er classes contenting themselves with a ring of 
wood, or a piece of plantain leaf rolled upi which 
fills the aperture. The richer classes who can af- 
ford it, wear very handsome rings of gold filagre. 

Dress. — ^The men are usually dressed in short 
bajoos or jackets, of European chintz or white 
doth, with Achenese serawals or trowsers, a Bug- 
gese sarong or tartan petticoat, and on their head 
a batik or European handkerchief. A handker- 
chief which contains their betel and seree, is usu- 
ally hung over their shoulder, and a kris fastened 
on the left side. The women wear long bajoos of 
blue or white cloth or chintz, with a cotton or silk 
sarong. Their hair is neatly fastened by long 
gold, silver, or copper pins, according to their ranL 
The higher order, in addition to the dress I have 
described, wear a belt or zone of silk or other doth, 
fiistened round the waist with a gold pinding, and 
a handkerchief dung over the 1^ shoulder. The 
dresses of all the Malays are so much alike in 
almost all countries, and have been already so fiiUy 


that it is unnccessarv to enter more at 
length into this subject. 

Battas. — ^The Battas in the interior of Bnlu 
China are of the tribe Karau Karau/ a dark ill- 
featured race. They are below the middle stature 
generally, and not so stout as the Malays. They 
are much addicted to opium-smoking» drinking 
toddy extracted from the anau tree and other 
palms, and gambling ; but withal industrious, their 
avaricious habits and fondness for money, indndng 
them to exert themselves. The day is spent prin- 
cipally in labour, and a great part q( the night in 
the indulgence of those vicious propensities I have 
described. They do not enjoy much sleep, and 
are not particularly nice in their food ; snakes, alli- 
gators, rats, monkeys, and elephants, being gene- 
rally eaten, although they have plenty of pigs; poul- 
try, goats, &c They are dressed chiefly in Uuc 
cloths from Madras or Bengal ; and some of them 
wear coarse cloths of their oun manufiusturc, whidi 
they throw over their shoulders like a scarf, very 
few wearing bajoos or jackets. On their head 
they wear a small stripe of finer blue doth. They 
have all bangles on their arms, of gold, silver, or 
copper, according to their means ; and carry eftdi « 
smaU mat bag, with their seree, flint, and dii* 
roots, in the use of which latter they are immode- 
rate. The tobacco is rolled up in a smaU bit of 


leaf^ and it is called a roko. They are generally 
armed with a pedang or cutlass, and a tundbo 
lada, a small knife which they carry on their left 
sid^ as the Malays do their kris. 

Marriage. — The marriage and other ceremo* 
nies here are much the same as in other Malayan 
countries. Any man who can afford to support 
them^ may have four wives. If one is cast off 
from misconduct or barrenness, he may supply hei 
place by another. There is no limitation to the 
number of concubines. The Rajah Sebaya Lin-* 
gah» the Batta chief, has a wife in every direction 
in the country, and concubines innumerable. 

Offences and Punishments. — The crime of 
adultery is punishable by the death of both parties. 
The power of the chief indeed, in almost all cases, 
is quite absolute. The yoiuig sultan, not long 
since, ordered two men to be stabbed, because they 
were tardy in following him upon some excurdcm. 
It is to be lamented that so much power is givm 
to youth. 

Notions ofRicfies. — The Orang Kaya Soong- 
hal some time ago took an account of his money, 
by measuring it in a ganton measure, instead of 
taking the trouble of counting it. A Malay, how- 
ever, is reckcmed rich here when he has amassed 
two thousand dollars ; for their excessive indolence 
prevents them from collecting much money. The 
seafaring people work perhaps a few months in 


the year« making a voyage or two to Pioang, and 
^end the rest of their time in indolence. Thejr lay 
out hurge sums in marriage feasts, jewdlety, md or^ 
naments for their wives and children ; also in gold 
betel-boxesy swords, and creeses mounted with gold. 
Their household furniture does not cost mndL 
The Battas, on the other hand, are extremely pe* 
nurious and saving ; and being indnstiioiis at the 
same time, they accumulate large sums, and make 
no show. The moment a Malay beeomcs posses* 
sedofa little money, he entertains as many at- 
tendants as he can, and he is accounted rich or 
respectaUe according to the number of his fid* 

Dtieosef.-^Swellings of the throat called wens^ 
are very common amongst the inhabitants who life 
high up the river. They are generally s up pos e d 
to be occasioned by the foggy atmoqihere^ the fi^gs 
being very dense. The morning after my arrival 
at Soonghal, I felt myself affected with cold, and 
a difficulty of respiration, which iB a very pievailing 
complaint here. Headaches, fisversi and bowid 
complaints, are the roost common, and a very few 
cases of leprosy. The young diildren an often 
covered with idcerous eruptions, wUeh, howcfw; 
leave them after two or three years. They hnse 
a great variety of medicinal herbs and plants mmm 
of which are described in my diary, as I met with 
tliem in tlic woods. The forest, indeed, ahonads 


with them ; but possessing, as I do» but a very 
imperfect knowledge of botany, I shall not at- 
tempt a particular description of them, but leave 
this for a more scientific traveller. 

Antiquities. — At a place called Kota Bangun, 
three days' journey up the river, there are the re- 
mains of a stone fort, with the figures of men and 
tigers carved upon the waUs. The size of it is 
represented to be about 60 feet square. The na- 
tives have no historical records regarding this an- 
dent fortification. 

CTiurches.-^There are places of worship called 
mi^d, greja, or bendar sa, at all the Malayan 
villages, and a number of priests are entertained. 

Snakes. — This country abounds with a great 
variety of snakes (ular), some of them of an im- 
mense sise, and beautifully marked. These snakes 
are to be met with in most of the other states 
along the coast, and are not peculiar only to Bulu 
China ; but as I met with some, and obtained my 
information at this place, I shaU now describe 
them. The principal are detailed in the following 

Ular tiong, about the thickness of a man's wrist, 
spotted blaek, green, and yellow. Sawa or sao, 
which the natives describe as being marked like tf 
diiudy or Surat waist-band, four £Eithoms long, aad 
as thick as a Nebong tree. This is the boa-eon- 
strictor, which grows to an amazing sise here. 


Sedon angin» from eiglit to ten feet long, anrl sm 
thick as a wrist, with a red mouth and blackuih skin. 
Panti masa» about nine feet long, and of a yellow 
colour. ^lura, a small snake, only a foot long^ 
darkish colour, interspersed with white spots. It 
^its venom. Fucha, a beautifiil snake, aboat 
three feet in length, of a light pea-green colour. 
Bakow, very small, four or five inches long, so call- 
ed from its changing its colour when the leaves of 
the bakow tree change, being green, yellow, or red, 
according to the colour of the leaves. Baka tubu, 
a small snake, black and white spots. Sidi, thick 
as a man's middle finger, three feet long, mixed 
green, white, and yellow. Bidei, a flat snake, 
nine feet long, and as thick as a child's wrist Na- 
gala, with a skin like gold, and of a most prodi- 
gious size, 'flic natives assured me indeed, that 
they have seen them as large as a moderate siaed 
cocoa-nut tree, and they devour bufialoea, tigerir 
and other largo animals ; but they are ever prone 
to exaggeration. 

Fresh Water Fish. — llie rivers and smaD 
lakes in the interior arc well filled with an infinity 
of fiah } but tliey arc not equal to the salt wster 
fish, being fnll of small bones. I shall not at^ 
tempt more than a mere enumeration of their 
names : balat and dondang, eels, sepoui. semndOf 
seridan, paitan, suppat, tcbakong« selouan, mcn- 
mata, all small ; bclidn, nuian, singal, baouiy,r 

ITAST coast of SUMATRA. 27^ 

middling size ; and sebaran, tappa, J^abui, kuppar, 
buju, toman, niri, membang diawan, alliarge. . 

Concluding Remarks on Btdu China.'-^Tbe 
country of Bulu China is rich and fertile beyond, 
description, and contains within itself an endless 
profiision of the most valuable products. It abounds^. 
with all necessary and useful plants, trees, aninuds^ 
fish, &c. requisite for the support or convenieBee of. 
its inhabitants ; and is capable of supplying, a 
population of twenty times the number with the^ 
mcians of subsistence. It is indeed a most pre- 
cious i^t, and might, under proper managementy 
be turned to vast advantage. 

History of DeUi. — Delli must have beeti a 
place of some impoltance in former timeis, as it is# 
mentioned by Marsden as .having thrown off its 
alliance to Acheen,. as far back as in the year. 
1669 ; and in other places as having been invad- 
ed by the king of that country at difierent periods^ 
The early history of this state, however, like, that 
of most of the others on the coast, is involved in 
almost impenetrable obscurity; no correct records 
of past events being kept by any of the people of 
the place ; and where an attempt has been ifiade 
by any of them to trace its rise and progress, there 
Ib so much of fiction and superstitious tradition 
mixed up in the narrative, that it is difficult to 
separate them, or to arrive at any satisfactory oon- 


elusion. The Mahyt are groaily tupentitioQt ; 
and many of them place implidt leliance in tiadth 
tuma 80 absurd and superstitiousy that diejr will 
not bear repetitioa. 

VUlage$.F^The first village in the Delli rivwt 
after paadng Pompong, or the plaoe of andiot a g e 
outside the firesh water stream, is called Tiahuhan ; 
a misoraUe assemblage of small huts» eccupied by 
the people belonj^ng to piowsy and employed in 
building boats. 

KampoDg Aid, or Uir, is the next, m pietfey 
laige stia^^ng Tillage, on both sides of the river. 
Here the Sultan Panglima reddes. 

Kamprag Tangah, the next, is a small village 
on both sides of the river. 

Kampong Besar is a large and popoloos village^ 
and the houses are well built and eonvenicBt Hie 
hoilses are not dtuated dose to each other, bat 
scattered about in the space of one and m half or 
two mOes, amongst dumps of cocoapmit and other 

Kamprag Kota Dalam, Rantan WiKmhing^ Mi* 
bar Bajuntd, Ta^jong Futus, Kota Bangai^ Pkdo 
Barian, and Tandd Kataran, are all veiy inaigni- 
flcant pbees ; some of them having only three er 
four houses together, but scattered ahout aleng 
both banks of the river. 

Lahmg Kota Jawa, the venudna of an old Jik 



r$mm ftrtifioitiMt whae the lukM hid a large 
eMHupiBeni htdft in fitting with the Rigeh 

Polo Beriaiit a tmall village oeeepied by the 
chieC iriio has btely been at war with the eultanof 

Meidan»^ a tillage oontaining SOO inhalntantiy 
thiee hotm^ joainey from Kota Jawa. 

Bubaia oontaim aleo about SOO peofde. At 
this pb^e the river Kesaran fidls into the Ddtt 
etmun on the kit Then ecmie the fidkwing 
small villigeSy via. I fsbwhan Sangk^ Kampong 
Baia» Am Boogko^ Ujong Gorab^ Jabber, Bida 
Aour» and DeUi Tuahp whieh are dose under the 
mountains Sebaya and Sukanalu, The population 
of Battas in this district is about 5000, 

Up the small river to the right, is Kampong 

Sungei Sqnit ia another small river, eontainiuf 
a population of abont 100 Malays. 

Songst Sinkar, anotiber small stream, with a si- 
mibr snmbcr of inhabitants. Up both tihose ri- 
vers tin«oie is Kmnd» 

To the right, diere are two other kaaqpo^gfc 
«dlsd Fennmaran and Pnlo Lada, atthfftetef 
tfaeUUs. The Batta viUi^es are very nunMROM 
bdow and upon the hills. 

Nmm tfCki^,mmi Cftotwcfer^The SMUm 
Pani^hBa Mangidar Alum Shaht as the chief is 


Styled, was finrmerly Tuanko AmaL He is the 
first chief of the ooantry who ha» been so denf^ 
natcd, and obtained this dignity firom the imjah of 
Slack abont ten years ago. The sultan has two 
step-brothers, named Tuanko Wangka and Tu- 
anko Wan Kumbang, and a son, the Sultan Mudhr 
an interesting lad» about fourteen yean of age. 
The sultan is a respectable elderly looking man, 
very much disposed to conciliate the Britiah go- 
▼emmcnt, and to encourage traders reacn'ting to hit 
dominions. He is represented, however, by nuuqr 
of his own subjects, and I believe not without ju^ 
tio^ to be extremely avaricious, and not always 
equitable in his proceedings, when money ia in the 
way. He is not addicted to any vidooa pnqpenaU 
ties, such as opium-smoking and gambling ; and 
he is perhaps, with all his fiulings, as lespectaUe a 
chief as most Malays that are to be met with. 
His mn promises to be a fine yoang man, being of 
a remarkably mild and placid diqioiition, and very 
manly and correct in his conduct and dqnnlinmt 
The sultan*8 elder brother, Wangka, is nthcr&ot- 
ish ; but he trades considerably, and is a bannkai 
creature. Wan Kumbang, the younger hrotlier, 
ia addicted to opium, and does not bear quite m> 
good a character as the others. Thar eaoeasive 
partiality for trade, and desire to monopdiie tibe 
whole, occasions frequent disputes with the nei^ 
bouriug chiefs ; and they arc omtinually engaged 


in war ; but their battles are never very sangoiiiary. 
There is a great deal of bravado^ but not mudi 

JBoundarie9.^^Uei}i is bomided to the north* 
west by Soogei Bnbalan, to the north-east by the 
ssst the south-west by Sungei Tuan^ and the sooth* 
cast by the great Batta state^ Seantar. 

Authority of the SuitatL— The sultan of Delli 
daims the sovereignty over Dellit Bolu China, 
Langkat, Percboot, and other intervening plaees. 
The right of his authority is fully acknowledged 
by all these states, except Langkat^ with whieh 
eountry he is now at war, and is supporting the 
son c£ the former king, who was dethroned by the 
rajah of Stack a few years ago. A spirit of avarioe^ 
and not a mere desire to reduce the n^ah of JLang<L 
kat to feudatory sulmiission, and to pay a small 
tribute to Siack, united to projects of commeicial 
monopoly, are, I suspect, the propelling causes and 
prindpal inducements tot his going to war, and ex- 
pending la^ sums of money in arms and ammu- 

GoDfTfUMfit— The sultan is supreme; but he 
has eight ministers whom ho admits to his coun* 
sels» and who are generally consulted when a ma^ 
IcfiMrtor is to be tried; when war is to be wiq^ad; 
and upon all matters of especial importance jdm* 
nected with the government of the country. Thoy 


«ie ehaiged alio with the duty of aeciiig wnUom 
of execution upon any aiminali, cairied into cfbcL 
These ministers are, Noquedah Unguh, styled Tin* 
dal Timbaloo^ Wauk Wauk, Salin. Tommis^ 
Dauk, Wakil, Datu Daris, and Pugdu Kaa- 
pong. Betides these, are the shabundar ( Ahnod)^ 
or mercantile man, who manages evoy thing niat* 
ing to commerce ; and mth the aid of m ftmale 
Mate Mate (Che Lant), coUecta the dotiea iqpoii 
imports and exports. There are other inferior ofr 
lieers, via. Pangulus, Pang^imas, and Mata Afata» 
who perfbnn any services the sultan may dinet 
them. The pangulus and pangiimas ewnmand 
kubus or forts, and a certain number of men ia 
war. It is then that they are princ^Ndly employed. 
They aet also as messengers^ and eairy letters to 
dtihrent states. If the sultan dies^ aiid the 1s§b1 
■neeessor to the throne is absent, the Toaa H^ 
Chant, or KaU (the chief priest) acta and perfama 
aD the functions of royalty. 

Cffemsei and Punuhments^—ThOt is punisk 
aUe by death ; or if a man is caught in a honsa in 
the act of thienng, he may be put to dsntfi en the 
spot So also a man found under dto sattaBls 
house, is lulled instantly. Murder, using the 
king^s name, or forgery, and taking m mulk wifo^ 
are also capital crimes. Using the king^s namo is 
punishable in the irst instance by cutting off Aa 


tMgM. If a thief fliei to the nfmlit ukna^Adigm 
hk aime^ and tolidts protectkm, be obtnn p«« 
doB» but becomei a sbiTe fiir lifis. 

Tbehr mode of eteeution is truly h ai b awm and 
horrible. Tliey put the crimiiial into a hole^ tie 
both his hands, and make him kneel dovnu Hie 
eseoationer then stabs him with a qiear on the left 
dkmlder, the criminals hands are loosened^ and the 
sKecutiQiier Jumps upon him, presses hfan into the 
hole, and eoren him over with earth inststtta* 

If two pec^le fight, and Idood is drawn on tiie 
head, the partj who has inflicted the wound pays 
eight dollars, a goat, one cabong of white ditht and 
a bundle of seree ; the goat is sacrificed, and the 
priests are assembled to pray. If the body is 
wounded, the fine is fimr dollars, a fi>wl, ycUow 
riee^ and seree. F<Mr smaller offences, flogging widi 
a ratten is the usual punishment 

Behghn. — ^The rdigion of the Mslays is pure 
Isbmism. There sie fire priests at Drifi. The 
KaH is the head of the diurch, then the Imam, 
KaliC Bihd, and Panguhi Misgid. Under theee 
are msny inferior priests, celled Hajis, friio ha?e 
made a pilgrimage to Mecca. The five above- 
mentioned settle every thing connected with r^ 
gion, marry, and perfinrm the fimeral rites. They 
are supported by eontribudons, prindpafly of grfein* 

Ptaca of Worship. — The moeques are nume- 


roiu^ though of rade construction. At each of 
the villages there is a place of worahip, under the 
designation of Mesjid, Gre}a» Ruma Sambsyangv 
or Bandar Sa. The inhabitants wpfpen idigbusly 
disposed ; and, as fiur as I could discovery regular 
and fervent in their devotions. 

Skmrce of the River. — ^The Delli rber takes its 
rise at the foot of Gunong Knali and Sukanalu» 
two lofty mountains which may be seen from the 
sea in a dear day. 

Soil. — Near the sea the land is low and swampyt 
and the soil is nothing but mud. The soO be- 
tween Karopong Alei and Kampong Besar, ia a 
surface of rich black mould upon day. Higher 
up, however, the banks continue to rise, and the 
ground becomes well elevated, when the first stm* 
tum is a fine dark mould, from six to eight het in 
depth ; next, a stratum of day three or fimr fixC, 
and the substratum of sand and gravd. 

Agriculture. — I do not know so productive a 
country as DeUi, considering the number of its 
inhabitants ; nor is there perhaps one on the hat 
of the globe possesnng so many natural advantBgea^ 
The productions are numerous and valuable ; and 
the Imre mention of their names alone^ would oe- 
enpy a large space. I propose, however, entoing 
into some little detail upon this subjeet» whidi may 
prevent the necessity of repetition in tnatbig oif 
other countries. 


Pepper. — The exports of pepper from Delii in 
the year 1822, to Malacca, Pinang, and Singapore, 
ivere about 1000 coyans, or 26,000 peculs, of 
ISS^lbs. avoirdupois. Such at least was the esti* 
mate I received ; but I am disposed to think this 
somewhat exaggerated. There is no doubt, how- 
ever, that if peace is restored, and the produce of 
the interior is not diverted to other channels, the 
exports of the state will soon exceed that quantity* 

Paddy. — This primary article of subsistenee in 
all Malayan countries, is cultivated at Delli to an 
extent barely sufficient for the use and consump- 
tion of its inhabitants, none being exported from 
the country ; and in bad seasons, they import from 
other quarters. In the low or wet ground paddy is 
sown at the setting in of the rains, in the month 
Dul-ha-jah, corresponding with October, after- 
wards transplanted, and is reaped in five and a 
half months. The species called pulut, whidb I 
saw at this place, grows to the height of six and 
eight feet, and yields a most abundant crop. The 
following is a list of the different sorts of rice 
cultivated in the low ground of Delli, and the 
adjoining states, viz. sebisitang, jambei, putih, 
pidut putih, lambut, mera, setukang, pulut etam, 
pulut kuppa, radin, serajah lela» santapan, mor- 
hurm, jarangmas, and changei opey. The paddy 
^hich is planted in the high imd dry ground is 


oiled iikn, and pat into the gnmnd in the iimbUi 
Jemadil-ekhir or ApriL It ripens in fimr menthii 
The natives plant it with a dibUe^ dropping fimr 
or five seeds into each bole, at the disteDee of thiee 
^narten of a eufait Of this paddj^ rery fitde ia 
grown at Delli. 

Totacca— Tobacco ia eulti?ated by both Aa 
Malays and Battas. They sow the seeds in small 
beds, and transplant it in twenty days, in nws 
distant abont two cubits. In fimr mondia it ii» 
pens. After two months the tops are ent» idiieb 
gives strength and increased aae to the leaver 
When the phint has seven leaves, they begin to 
gather them : the sign is the leaf drooping, and 
assuming a brownish hue. The nativea pluck one 
or two leaves at a time, according as they nu^ 
have approached to maturity; eipose them to the 
■uu four days, and then padL them np in small 
baskets, in which packages the tohaoeo is eaported. 
If the seeds are required to be prsservedy of eonm 
the tops of the plants are left nntonched. 

Other Ariidti of CWMuitiofk— The sugar- 
cane, tnbbu, is cultivated to a considcfable SKtsnt, 
the natives consuming large quantities in its nsr 
state. The canes are very large and eiesllcnt. 
Cotton, kapa% and maiie or Indian eon, jagong» 
are also phmted extensively; and the Mlowi^g 
varieties of pulse, kachang, are ahmidant, viBi 


kacbang etatn, putih, and iju, or Uadc, whit^ and 
green peas ; also kunchar, pelissa, sapat, parang, 
tenut, and bijan. 

Samboos.^-^The villages are anrronnded with 
bamboos, bambu or bulu \ and even the wooda ai6 
fill! of them, growing luxuriantly without any ool- 
trvation. Here I found the under-mentioned va- 
rieties : Bambu Telang, Nipis, Armeniah, Bdan* 
key, Orduri, China, Perapat, Buttong, Tubbal, 
Gading, and Selang. 

Fruits. — Almost every species of tropical tsvi\ 
is to be found here in the greatest plenty. The 
plantations of cocoa-nuts and betel-nut are very 
extensive, and others equally abundant Jacks, 
dorians, mangoosteens, guavas red and white, rose 
i^les, lansehs, machang or wild mangoes, man- 
goes a great variety, pomegranates, ramboostan, 
bread-fruit, chempada, bilimbing, cashew applet 
tamarinds, pine-apple, and papaw. Of plantains, 
pisang, there are fourteen species, viz. pisang ra- 
jah, susu, iju, kelat, batu, janki, amas, suasa, buey, 
satawa, abu, cheorian, nasi ayer, and bunga ; ai^ 
the varieties of <nranges, limau, are equally msmb^ 
rous, Limau manis or sweet orange, small thin 
skinned, is the best, and resemUes the Chilli^ 
orange ; mupurat, sundei, krat seritang, nipis, m^ 
jah, and selang; also gaddang, the shaddock or 
pumalo; limau pagar, the lemon; Hmau karbsu, 
the dtron ; an^ kapas, limes. 


Flowers, — The air is scented with the sweetest 
perfumes, from the iDnumerablc flowers planted ia 
the villages, and even growing spontaneously in 
the woods. Those most prized by the Malays 
the bunga malore, tanjong« cliumpaka, sena, 
danga, pakan, china, indralasama, angariC sesun- 
glapa, pedangdan, baru» scrouei, and bakong. A 
volume might be filled in describing these, and the 
endless variety of other useful flowers in this quarter; 
but as some of these have been fully described by 
Marsden and other writers, it would be a needless 
repetition to enlarge further in this place. 

TinAcr and Vegetable Proiluctiofu,-^ No eomi* 
try in the world contains a greater variety of tias- 
ber, and uscfid or ornamental trees ; and I shaD 
attempt only a brief enumeration of the most v^ 
markable. Kayu puuti is a wood of which the 
tree bears a green fruit, which is wholesome to emt, 
and the timber is used for planks for houses. Ran- 
gas is a large tree of a rcildish colour, not unlike 
mahc^ny. It is so plentiful here, ss to be used 
for the planks of prows. At Pinang it is princi- 
pally used for furniture and cabinet-work. Alafaan 
is most commonly used for prow-oars. Bungor, m^ 
dong, dalu dalu, tampang, merbow, changei, and 
merantei, are the best for prow-planks. Rintwi 
gan is crooked timber for knees and timbers of 
prows. .Foliar, a hard wood, black grain, used fiv 
house-posts, prou-.tinibcrs, iVe. Niri batu, for prow* 


jdanks, is a beautifiil grained wood, somewhat re- 
sembHng rose^wood. Niri bunga is of a whitish 
colour, and employed for the same purpose. Dam 
and perapat, for prow-timbers. Bakow, very hard 
and heavy, of which the anchors are chiefly made. 
It is difficult to work, and breaks the edges of 
the best tools. Langkadei for small masts ; tumus 
for oars ; chingam for fences ; nebong, a species of 
palm well known, and used in all Malayan coun- 
tries for house-posts, flooring, &c. grows here in 
the greatest abundance, hard and durable. Nipah, 
the leaf of which makes the artaps and samiers 
ibr the native houses. Sirdang for the same pur- 
pose. Chemalakian, a fruit which, if eaten, occa- 
sions excessive pain in the stomach, and is used to 
produce abortion by the women who are averse to 
rearing a &mily. Jellatang, the leaf of which 
stings, and creates an eruption which continues 
several months, attended with great pain. Batu 
batu, the juice of which, if it touches the eyes, 
causes excessive pain and inflammation, and fre- 
quently total blindness. 

Vegetables. — Of the yam or potatoe species, 
ubi, there are many sorts cultivated here. Ubi 
gadang. the yam, growg to a very large 8be. Ubi 
manis, mera, biru, and pulih, or red, blueish, and 
white sweet potatoes, ubi lilit and kaladi. Pump- 
kins, labu, of four or five different sorts, madeki or 
water melons, trpng besar and kechil, or large 


aad small brinjawlsy tinKm or caemnben, hmmmag 
batta or small onions, are all coltivated by Ae b 
habitants. All these require care, bat the 
abound with a vast variety of herbs, roota^ and 
leaves, which are used by the natives as vcgetaUfli. 
The following may be enumerated, via. dans km* 
tal, paku p^gaga, sedapuhm, titik tunbangaB, 
puchu puchu, byam, kangkong, puchu gadong^baB 
bitik, kumbakong, guli guli, katimahar nasi, 
susun, bidong bidong, kundar, pitula, lio^ dami 
mango, puriali, juraggi, kemangi, tinpfing^ 
tuppoos, kumiah, and karunda. 

AfiimaU. — ^The animals of Sumatra have al- 
ready been fully described ; and I am not awna 
that there are on the east side of the idaad nj 
very remarkable species which is not well 
to the naturalist. The elephants, gi^, are 
numerous and large. Immense quantitiei of hoy 
might be obtained, if the natives were VM 
and skilful in ensnaring and d e s tro y in g 
The rhinoceros, badak ; tigers, riman ; elk» 
gatlang and palandok, small deer; 1m^ bahi} 
civet cat, musang ; wild bufialoes, kurban jakng; 
horses, kuda ; bears, bruang; porcupine^ kadbkt 
guana, biawa ; squirrel, tupei ; diminiitive dear 
called kanchil and kichang; sloth, pnkaag; iyw 
ing squirrel, tupei terbang; goats, kambiiig; asid 
numerous other animals, oecupy the wooda. Of 
the monkey tribe there are many spedea. 

£▲» GCU8T OF aUMATEA. 9tt 

a Urgd blaek mmkey, long anned, long liair» with 
a gr^dih head; kara, a fmall reddish or cdive 
fanwn coloured monkey ; kara laut or aea moakejrt 
hrown, middle sized^ long tail : these are found* 
as their name implies^ near the months of the 
rivers, dose to the sea. Bruk» a Isrge roddidi 
skinned short haired monkey, which the Malays 
say can be instructed to buy fish» fiie guns^ and eat 
coeoa-nuts. Mundi resembles the hruk, but ot a 
amaller siae. Tingiling, reddish colour^ not very 
Isige, long nails, and long taiL These are ?evy 
▼icious, and bite and scratch. 

Birds.'^Few productions in animated Q«tme 
have more forcibly excited the admizationt and at- 
tracted the observation o£ the naturalist, than the 
qplendid variety of the feathered tribe in the troj^ 
eal countries ; and the extreme interest which haa 
been taken in this branch of natural history, pie- 
dudes the possibility d my adding any tiling new 
relating to it I shall content m]rself there&cer 
with a brief enumeration of such as are £aimd ip 
:the east coast of Sumatra. Of the dove species^ 
there are some extremely beautifuli via. puMi 
punei tanah, gading, bakpw, sioodan and dann» 
piindpally greenish plumage ; also balhun^ a little 
glfy dore, and pigeons perapati, whidi are of a 
veiy lai;ge size, and delidoua eating. Those mml^ 
esteemed for their notes, are the nuisei or dial- 
bird, purling, mirbow, and enow enov. There 


are many small birds of the sparrow species ; pipit 
piurang» pipit piit, pipit uban, pipit etam, and 
pipit kambing. The angang, or rhinoceros bird, 
or horn-bill, is a large bird, with Uack pku 
mage, intermixed with white and yellow, and has 
a bill of an immense size. Lang, the kite^ and 
nasuTy the vulture, are £u too numeroiia finr the 
poor inhabitants, and are very destructive to the 
poultry. Burong udang, or king's fisher, a beau- 
tiful bird, with light blue plumage, intermixed 
with scarlet, and has a long yellow UlL The 
dendaug ayer, burong lembu, and burong kam* 
bing, of the stork species, are very numerous. The 
following were also mentioned to me by the Ma- 
lays as being plenty ; but my limited stay in the 
country did not admit of my inspecting them, or 
bringing specimens with me ; and as I have not 
the smallest pretension to a scientific aoquaintaooe 
with this branch of natural history, I shall ^ve 
the names as I received them. Burong fidur, 
peragam, berako, pontialow, icaOt ayam etam^ 
belaian, sisak, tanan, bian, perak, kumanakaiH 
timpcra, pamal, bingkaku, bongow, taigong^ 
bintik bintik, ingal ingal, nm rua, tanow, 
amba graha, chew chew, bukik, chaman, pong- 
hu, jampoo, tionglaut, sepanga, itik ayer, ga» 
gar, libis, merakaki, cbinchula, gelutik» tioagL 
I do not tliink that the plumage of any of tUi 
infinite variety of the feathered tribe is employed 


fi« any useful or oniamental porpofe ; nordolim*- 
gae it could be turned to any account as an ar- 
tide of export commerce. There are some birdi 
resembling the bird of paradise ; but no real ones 
are found upon any part of the island, I bdie? e. 

JFiifh^rhe sea abounds with fi^ of which the 
jiollowing are the most ccHnmonly caught >— The 
alligator, buaya, are dangerously numennis, and 
grow to a very large size. The saw fish, in parang, 
are also very plenty, large and destructive. Of 
the skat^ pari, there are the following species: 
paridaun, bibir, lang, parsa, bating sampat, dedap, 
rimau. lumpei, tanjong, and lulut. Of sharksr 
there are the iu kras, parang, nunei, rumbas, 
and many others. Besides these fish, arc the dufi 
ctam, duri kuuiug, senoho, tai\jar, sehunpei, pa- 
rang parang, genpoo, kintang, belamu, keeha, ta- 
gahcho^ salar, temunong, tcraboo padi, maharowi, 
gahuua, daun baru, and beliamata ; and the under* 
mentioned, which having had an opportunity of 
seeing, I shall give a brief descriptioii ofl Teras^ 
san, a large fisli like a salmon in shape, reddish 
colour, delicious eating ; telingah gsjah or ele- 
pliaut^s ear, a laige round fish, like a pomfret, 1& 
inches in length ; tubbal pipi, somewhat similar 
to the above^ but not so large, of a reddish cohniry 
very fine ; bawal chirmin or white pomfret, well 
known ; kitaug, a spotted fish, like the pomfi:et in 
shape; talang, very hke a mackerel, 16 indbsa 


long ; tingiri, exactly lesembliiig a mackad» but 
laiger ; magODg, a laige wide mouthed fish, with 
many large fins; korau, a fish like a aea-trao^ 
about two feet long, particularly delicate ; piidho 
purio, a short dark coloured fish; duri patih^ a 
small wide mouthed fish, with long filma like 
a beard, and very finny ; pari patukar, a ^eciea 
of skate, eight inches bug ; puput, a white fish 
IS inches long, like a small sea-trout All thcst 
are excellent eating, except the kitang. The air 
bladder or swim of the tcrussan, called by the 
natives lupa lupa, is a great article of trader and 
sells for 80 dollars per pecul at Pinang. It is 
dried in the sun. The Chinese make great use of 
it The best fish for roes are the trobo, tunbirv 
korow, and siakup. 

ShelUFuh. — Great qiumtities of shemsh an 
found near the islands. The turtle, kntong ; toe* 
toise, kura kura; prawns, udang, of many aorta; 
oysters, teram, guding ; crabs, katam ; and many 
other descriptions of shell-fiih, are to be fcund hi 

Modes of Catching Fish. — ^There are mmsf 
ways of catching fish. Jermal ii the fishing stako^ 
which are generally a few miles outdde the rivon 
at sea ; puckat, a drag-net of a hundred 
in length ; bulat, a long hedge of thin uplit 
boos, placed on the shallow mud banks ; Idsn, m 
drag*net thirty fathoms long ; jala, a smaU nek 


which they throw in ' with their hands ; jaring 
and ranjong, other sorts of drag-nets ; rawei, a 
long chain of hooks fastened to two poles at a dis- 
tance ; kail, a fishing line and hook. 

Arts and Industry. — ^A few prows are huilt 
at Delli. This, and clearing the woods for plant- 
ing, and navigating thdr vessels, is the principal 
occupation of the men. The women plant and 
beat paddy, carry water, spin, weave, and dye 
doths, and even manufacture gunpowder. 

Manufactures. — ^The manufactures of DelK 
scarcely deserve to be mentioned. The women 
make a few articles of clothing in silk and cotton. 
Kain kampow, ragi beretam, putih dan merah, s 
sort of tartan sarong or petticoat of cotton ; gnbbar 
ber kampong, like a large petticoat, also of a tar- 
tan pattern, is of silk or cotton, and used for sleqi- 
ing in ; sapit udang, a coarse cotton doth, alter- 
nate white and red square spots, used for children's 
wear. The Batta cloths brought down the coun- 
try, are ragi tiga, ragi suri suri, junjong, and ra^ 
Seantar, striped different patterns. 

Tb give a Polish or Gloss to Cfoth.-^Fot the 
porpose of giving a fine glossy appearance to sa- 
rongi and other cloths, the natives use a Aett 
called knrup, in the aperture of which they iniMt 
one end of a piece of split nebong, which isrery 
pliant and elastic. The other end is inserted nitd 
a cross piece of wood in the ceiling of the house, 



and the nebong being cat like a bow, the prennre 
on the doth is heavy. A peraon continues ntbbing 
the doth for several hours, until it has aeqpiired a 
beautiful polish like glazing. 

JFiasking. — ^The natives rub the doth fPith the 
juice of the akar butik, and then beat the dothct 
oQ a piece of wood» with cold water. They use 
topper irons, which give a fine polish to the doth. 

DUeases and Medickic.-^'Ihe cholera mmboa 
appeared at Ddli a few years ago, and canned off 
a considerable proportion of the inhabitanta. The 
juice of the mangoosteen rind, which is a powers 
fill astringent, was used successfully. The small- 
pox breaks out once in three or lour years. The 
Malays dread this more than any oUier dinrasc- 
lliey cure it by the continual immenion of the 
patient in cold water, mixing the flowers bunga 
puckan, malore, mora, salaguri, pulut pnlutt and 
rumput kampei, to bring the small-pox to a head. 
When broken, they mix pounded rice with the leaf 
of the barimbang, a small tree which grows on the 
margin of the river, in the mud, of a pow e ri ii lly 
astringent quality. They rub the body with Ihe 
mixture, and drink water, in which the bones of 
geese, ikan gajah muna, and the wood cUbj^uum^ 
junghi, and belarangbang, have been infused. Tins 
decoction is drunk to prevent the disease goi^§ 

Literature and Books.^The Malays haw 


many books relating to religion, war, history, and 
the laws, or adat adaC, poetry, &c. Several of the 
inhabitants are well informed on these subjects, and 
devote a considerable portion of their time to study. 
The principal books treating of religion, under the 
general designation of Masalilal Muftadin, are the 
Koran, Minkat, Seratal, Mastakim, Masalilal, Be^ 
daia, Sirat, Oosool, Tipalasaral, Jermi Arab, Ta- 
juit, Surat-ul^'Kiamat. 

Historical, Biographical^ Romances. — Of his- 
torical and biographical works, and tales of xo*' 
mance, called Hakayat and Cheritra, those most 
in repute are Rajah Badar, Mahomet Kanapia^ 
Rajah Eeibar, Sultan Iskander, or History of Alex-' 
ander the Great, translated from the Arabic; 
Nabi Jusu or Isu, or History of the Prophet Jesus ; 
Nabi Salimon, Nabi Ismael, Hnmja^ and Gobur-^ 
ina Ligan. 

PoeticaL — ^The most favourite poetieal work^ 
Pantun and Siar, which the youths arte fond of 
reciting, are Siar Johar Chinta Biahi^ Siar KintiN^ 
buhan, Siar Ibadat, Siar Burong, Siar Turbo, Da- 
gang, Bida Sari, Jisirbu. 

Tunes and Mustc-^The Malays in this quar«t 
ter are passionately fond of music Their most 
admired tunes are Lagudua, %am^ Chanti Manis 
Gunong, Mas Mua, Amboy^ Sayang, Aya Pa»* 
sang, Hati Rajah Gunong, Sumhawa China^ Ti« 
mang teibang, Samsam, Beraoiout^ Kiuda Lang* 


kong. Rajah Bendu^ Anak Semaiig^ Timang Ka- 
lantan, Minto, Palembang^ Malacca^ Jawa, Anak 
Mambangt Dadong, Siack, and Batta. 

Musical Instruments^— The inttnmiaits of mo- 
mc, which are not so numerous or Tarions as ia 
most Makyan countries (and the mwsicians an fiur 
from being proficients), are the violin, vida ; gnu* 
dang, a drum ; rahana, a tambourine ; semnei, a 
pipe; bangsi and suling, flutes; gong, simpang, 
gamhang, gundir, cromong, instruments made of 
brass and tatawa, and kachapi. 

Vessels. — ^llicre arc many different descriptions 
of prahus, or vessels, for transporting the prodnea 
and mcrchandiae of the state to Malacca, Pinaiig» 
and Singapore. The largest siaed vessels are caDed 
top^ some of which are from thirty to fiarty tons 
burden. The next in siae are paiyalang, penja- 
jap, lanchang, julong julong^ WS^ tangahmg, all 
of different dimensions from two to fifteen ooyana, 
or from three to twenty-five tons; alao amaller 
boats called kakap, bedar, and sampan, 

Navigation. — ^All the prahus^ or 
monly called prows, have small China 
padoman, and some few of them have laArior 
TCngliA ones. The Malays sail priacipaDj hf 
the stars ; and some of them are most expert 
vigators. A native jnlot who carried the ] 
nouraUe Company's Inrig Jessy across the s 
to Slack from Malacca, steered entirslj 


Stalls ; and though the ni^t was stormy^ he made 
the exact point we wished, mudi more conectly 
indeed than could possibly have been expected^ if 
we had steered by the compass* For a prow of 
five coyansy a crew of six men is sufficient ; for se« 
ven coyans, eight men ; ten coyans, twelve m^i ; 
and twelve coyans and upwards, fourteen men, be- 
sides the nakhoda or master of the vessd. 

Implements of Husbandry. — ^They have not 
many implements of husbandry, the parang and 
biliong being used principally for cutting down 
trees. Merimbas is similar to a parang ; tajah, 
a long bill for cutting grass ; kri, a small hook 
&r the same purpose ; and tukal, the dibble. Be^ 
sides these, the spade or hoe^ changkul and suduk, 
or long narrow spade for the pepper cultivation. 
The plough, tanggala, clumsily made, and drawn 
by a buffido, is used by Malays and Battas par- 
tially, in some parts of the country, but by no 
means generally. 

^ntiquities.^^At Ddli Tuah, or Old Delli, 
theare are the remains of an old fort, with large 
square stones, the walls thirty feet in height, and 
two hundred fathoms in circumference. Rigah 
putzi Iju, the celebrated princess, is stated to have 
built it. It is now, however, in a very imperfect 
state; and possibly my information as to the size 
may be incorrect. At Kota Jawa there are the 
remaiasof a Jav^iese fertificatioQ, whidi I hadaq 


Opportunity of examining. The in tre nc hm cnt of 
earth is about a mile, or a mile and a quarter io 
circumference. Here tl^re was formerly a colony 
of 5000 Javanese. At Meidan, higher up, there 
is a well attached to a mesjid or mosque^ fimnerly 
built of large square hewn granite stones, two feet in 
length, by one foot wide. At Kota China is a stone 
of a very large siie, with an inscription upon it, in 
characters not understood by any of the natives. 

Btvenues.'^The revenues of the state cannot 
be ascertained with any tolerable degree of certain- 
ty. I was informed, however, that the sultanls 
duties last year amounted, on a rouj^ calculatioOp 
to 4500 dollars. All his near rdations, and many 
of the chiefs, are exempt from duties altogether ; 
and though the following schedule professes to be 
the established rates of chaige, it is continually 
altered and varied by the sultan, who fiequently 
receives presents in lieu of duties and harbonr-fi^ea, 
and reduces the amount of duties to txiden of in- 
fluenoe or rank from other quarters. 

Duties.— The following is a list rf the dniiea 
and port-charges at Delli :— 

Imports.^^AXX sorts of white and blue doth, 
chintxes and carpets, S dollars per coige ; opium, 
1 dollar per ball ; salt, 4 dollars per ooyan. 

The duty heretofore chargeable on doth% haa 
been discontinued for a time. 

JKi^porf^.— Pepper, 8i. per coyan ; wax, la. per 


pecHl ; gambir, 10s. per kxa or 10,000 ; horses/ 
Is. each ; slaves. Is. each ; brimstone, Is. per pe*- 
cul ; tobacco. Is. per pecul ; elephants' teeth, is. 
per pecul. 

Part Charges. — For a ship 12 dollars, a brig 
8 dollars, and a sloop 6 dollars. Half a dollar is 
also charged for the use of the ganton measure, 
upon every coyan of pepper. This is a perqui- 
site of the shabundar, and his assistant noquedah 

Currency. — The currency is Spanish dollars 
and duits, or pice, principally Dutch pice of 174S, 
and subsequent years ; also half pice of the £ng^ 
lish East India Company : 240 make a doUar or 
20 oopongs, each cc^ng (an imaginary coin), 12 

Measures and fFeights.-^The weights and 
measures are nearly the same as in all the Malays 
an countries in these straits. The weights are the 
catty, pecul, and bahar, the large catty or ampat 
likur. The measures are the chupah, ganton, and 
coyan. These are too similar to those of Finang 
to require any description. 

Poptdaiion.* — From the reports I received, I 
should be disposed to estimate the Malayan popu- 
lation at 7000 actuaUy in the state of Delli. The 
Battas are very numerous in the interior, as fiur as 
the mountains, and it is impossible to guess t)ieii: 


number. Tho population of Ddli oonsifte «ff 
AchenesCy Javanese, descendants of McDaoigkaF 
bau people, Buggese, &G. Battas, and a Toy Sam 

C/icracter and Personal Appeanmoe^'^lm 
such a mixed and varied assemblage, then is «ff 
course every distinction of character. The iBf 
habitants scem^ upon the wholes honever, to be s 
quiet, well disposed race of people, and 
not addicted to piracy. They are grossly 
tious. The descendants of Menangkafaan 
are fair complexioncd ; but most of the othcn 
very dark and ill featured. The women are 
dpally a mixture of Battas, and have that 
tcrous and ugly custom, as at Langkat aad 
China, of enlarging their ears. Some of the fial^ 
tas who come down the country, have fiae apea 
countenances, with dark penetrating ^esL The 
Malays have a much heavier and sleepj look. 

Batta States. — There are four principal Batte 
states (the rajahs of which are the most powerfiri^ 
with which there is a communication fiom DbUL 
Scautar, the first, is in the interior of Padaagj 
1 anah Jawa, five days* journey from Ddli ; BSkm 
in the interior of Bcdagai, three days* joumej 
the bordcra of the territory of Delli ; Sd)aya 
ga, six days* journey from Delli. From 
comes wax, ivor>', cotton, pulse, tobacco^ slaves^ 


horses. From Tanah Jawa and Silow, gold, wax» 
ivory, cotton^ tobacco, and slaves. From Sebaya 
Ungs^ pepper, gamlnr, horses, wax, and ivory. 

Writing.'^On the subject of writing, there has 
bsen a difference of opinion betweoi two very emi'> 
nent mem Mr Marsden asterting that the Batta 
character is writt^ from left to right, and Doctor 
Leyden, from the bottom to topi in a manner di» 
rectly (qpporite to the Chines^ I todt the trouble 
of ascertaining this point paiticulatly. A Eanm 
Karau Batta wrote in my presence from left to 
right npon paper with a pen ; and the great can- 
nibal rajah of Munto Panei virrote upon a joint 
cif bamboo vrith a knife from bottom to top; so 
that both authcHTs are correct Specimens are at- 

iS2at;ef.-«-0ne and the chief cause of slaves be> 
ing very numerous a few years ago, was the scar- 
city of rice in the Batt^ country, when the poor 
^people brought down their children for sale. Slaves 
are now scarcely procurable on any terms in the 
interior of Delli, since the cultivation 6f pepper 
commenced to such an extent, the Battas having 
beoome rich and independent, and not requiring to 
s^ll their diildren for subristence, or a more vbo- 
worthy purpose, the gratification of their fevourite 
pirbpensities, gambling and (^ium-smoking. Such 
are the blessed consequences of industry, cultiva- 
tion, and commerce. There is no doubt, that as 


cultivation advances throughout that coast, ao will 
civilization ; and in the course of not many yean 
perhaps, that abominable traffic in the human ape- 
des, which existed to such a dreadful extent in 
fimncr years^ and still does prevail oonnderably at 
some of the less civiliaed states, will oeaae. It 
cannot be denied, however, that the existence of 
shivery in this quarter, in former years, was of im- 
mense advantage in procuring a fismale population 
tar Finang. From Assahan alone, there used to 
be sometimes 800 sUives, prindpally females^ cxp 
ported to Makioca and Finang in a year. The 
women get comfortably settled as the wives of 
opuleut Chinese merchants, an^ live in the great* 
est comfort. Their £unilics attach these men to 
the soil ; and many never think of returning to 
their native country. The female population of 
Finang is still far from being upon a par with the 
male ; and the abolition therefore of slavery, has 
been a vast sacrifice to philanthrophy and humani- 
ty. As the omdition of the slaves who wevs 
tnrought to the British settlements, was materially 
improved, and as they contributed so much to the 
happiness of the male population » and the gencnl 
prosperity of the setUement, I am disposed to 
think (although I detest the principles of slavery 
as much as any man), that the continuance of the 
system here could not, under the benevolent ngn- 
]atious v'liich were in force to prevent abase, have 


heea productive of much evil. The sort of slavery 
odeed which existed in the British settlements in 
this quarter, had nothing but the name against it ; 
Jbr the condition of tSse slaves who were l»:ought 
•Aam the adjoining countriesi was alwaysf amelio- 
xated by the change; they Were well fed and 
dothed ; the women became wives of respectable 
Chinese ; and the men who were in the least in- 
dustrious, easily emancipated themselves, and*many 
became weidthy. Severity by mast^s was punish- 
ed; and, in short, I do not know any race of 
people who were, and had every reason to be, so 
happy and contented as the slaves formerly, and 
..debtors as they are now called, who came fixHn 
the east coast of Sumatra and other places. 

Jt is next to impossible to prevent the introduc- 
tion of slaves into the European settlements by the 
Chinese, who are most ingenious in their contri- 
irances ; and I have the assurance of the natives, 
that the slaves are still exported in considerable 
numbers, notwithstanding slavery has been dis- 
countenanced so decidedly both at Malacca and Pi- 
pang. Their admission into Singapore they do not 
find so difficult. 

l^jong Purling. This point is so called from the 
:? ast numbers of purling birds which resort there. 

Kwcda LcUang or Perchoot^ so called from the 
quantity of Lalang grass. The first village is 
^^rchoot, containing 300 people ; then Kampong 


quarter fiithom. It is not navigaUe for large ves- 
sds, and even lai^e boats get aground. It is about 
150 yards wide. On the northern point there is 
a high green spot of ground, with a fine sandy 
beach ; and on ihe opposite side a projecting point, 
with a tuft of high trees, which serves as a good 
mark for the entrance. Tlie river, with very few 
exceptions, is shallow all the way up to Kampong 
Besar, to which place prows of any consideraUe 
burden can proceed only in high spring tides. 
There is no tradition of this river ever having been 
visited by. Europeans. 

Fifllogre^.-'-KaUambir is the first village situat- 
ed on the left bank, five or six short reaches from 
the sea, and contains from 80 to 100 houses. Here 
Tuanlco Beman, half-brother of the sultan, re- 
sides ; and here the trading prows usually rende- 
vouz several days after their arrival, and prior to 
their departure from the country. 

Kampong Dorian is a pretty little village^ n- 
tnated on the left bank^ containing about 80 
houses. Tuanko Toongal is the chief 

Kampong Tandel, to the left, contains about 80 

Kampong Besar is rather a large village, and 
iheire may be about ISO houses. Here the Sultan 
Besar, and his brother Tuanko Andang, resider 
This is a place of considerable trade, where the 
jMTOws take in their cargoes^ and where the Battas 


come down the country to barter their oammodi* 
ties. This is about SO miles from the sea. A- 
little ivay above this village there is a bifiucatian 
of the river. To the right are the followiog Til- 
lages : — ^Kampong Barut Tanjong Merawa, F 
gitan» Teilo Teraga, Nama Sirit ; on the left 
Kampong Faku» Puku, Lengo Seprang, N 
Kata, Katupang, Kota Achec^ Kambei» and Kota 

Population. — ^Tlie Malayan population of Sow 
clang may be estimated at S000» and the Battaa 
at 8000, of all sizes. 

Boundaries. — The authority of Sirdang extendi 
from Sungei Tuan to Munchaug, along the ooaaL 

History. — Sirdang was originally peopled faf 
emigrants from Menangkabau, who are 
cd to be invulnerable, according to the 
tious ideas of the Malays. Kallambir was aettlad 
at the same time as Pinang ; Dorian and Kai»» 
pong Bcsar, about a hundred years ago^ bjr To* 
anko Puan, a princess who came from Sampilib m 
the interior of Delli. 

Chiefs and Government. — The present dntf it 
styled iSuItan Bcsar, and he has the geneial g»- 
temment of the country ; but Tuanko Senua and 
Tuanko Toongal each possess authority in lUf 
respective villages. The sultan's fatho* wai T» 
anko Icnan. The sultan is a man aboat thirlfk 
two years of age, heavy in appearance, of a 


eomplexion and short stature, rather iadined to 
corpulency, and bears a good character as a mild 
and benevolent rula*. He is a great trader^ add 
owns a number of prows, which convey cargoes to 
Pinang and other places. Siack claims a nominal 
sovereignty over the country. 
. Revenues. — Ho account of Uie revenues is kq>ti 
and it is diffieult to form a correct estimate. The 
duties are Very inconsiderable. I should not: be 
inclined to estimate the king's revenues at XMm 
than 1200 dollars; but he makes large profits by 

Duties. — The export and import duties are re- 
markably moderate, viz. one dollar per 100 gan- 
tmis on pepper, and one dollar for each slave ; buC 
it is in contemplation to charge duties at Kam- 
pong Besar, Dorian, and Kallambir, on pepper^ 
rice^ and salt 

Commerce. — The articles of import and export 
eommarce are very much the same as at DeUi, 
Bulu China, and Langkat, though not to such ari 
extent. The trade, however, is rapidly increasmg j 
and the late obstructions in the DelU idver, have 
caused large quantities of pepper to pass do^ the 
Sirdang. The Battas from a place called Doloki 
eannibals, come down the country in large parties 
to trade ; and the Alas people come over the itioun<« 
tains from the interior of Sinkel, on the west coasts 
with camphor, benjamin, gold, &c. which they ex^ 


change for doths and other nsefiil articles. The 
annual export of pepper is very conriderable, to 
Malacca and Pinang. Last yeaf s ezpoita were 
stated at about 8000 peculs. The taste for Eu- 
ropean cbinties, white doths, and handkerehiefti is 
daily increasing. Very little opium is consumed 
by the Malayan population ; but considerable quan- 
tities are imported for the Battas in the interior. 

Price Current — ^The prices of the prindpal 
stiqples are as follows, vix. pepper, 80 dollars per 
bahar, or 100 gantons; bijan, 10 dollars per 100; 
tobacco^ 10 doUars per pecnl ; and kachang pntih, 
8 dollan per 100. 

Manufaclurei. — Sirdang, like Delli, cannd 
boast of many manufactures. A coarse tartad 
doth for sarongs, called berkampong, like the Bug* 
gese sarong, and made of cotton obtained from the 
Battas, is manufactured here. Also coarse sera- 
wals, like the Achcnese trowsers. 

Boai4mUding. — Several prows are annually 
built here : the planks are mirbow, alban, niri, and 

SoiiL— The land from the sea continues to rise 
gendy, and the soil is a rich blade mouU^ widi s 
substratum similar to the other states described. 

Tin. — At Femngitan, a considerable distance 19 
the river, tin-ore is found in large masses ; but the 
natives have no knowledge of the process of woik- 


lAnmab'-^The animals are the same as at 
Delli, Some beautiful small horses are occasional- 
ly brought down the country. They are stouts 
dean limbedf hardy little animals, and endure a 
great deal of &tigue» 

; Afnusements. — Qnail fighting ia a &yourite 
amusement here; a good fighting quailf puyo 
payo, is worth eight dollars. 
^ Beligiaui Ceremonies. — ^There are two mosques 
at Kallambir ; and at most of the other villages a 
befidar-saw or place of worship, and general resort 
lor travellers.. Circumcision is practised at Six- 
dang much later than at most of the other places. 
Xnanko Soman's brother, a lad of 19 years, was 
about to undergo this ceremony, whidi is called 
•< buang malu," shortly after my departure firom 

Malay TVi^^;^.— ^Several of the numerous Ma- 
layan chie& between Bulu China and Sirdang are, 
according to tradition, descended from natives of 
Cruaerat, who were wrecked on the coast many cen- 
turies ago^ and consist of the following tribes. 

Tribe Kejuruan Metta, of whidbi itfe the Indra 
Muda of Ferchoot, Tuanko Maho of Soon^^ial, 
Sultan Muda of Batubara and ACeidan. 

Tribe Kquruan Santun, of which are S^jah 
Gnha, B^ah Pulo Barian, Rigah Darat rf Dbb^V 
Rajah Surbajadi, Rajah Idin at Sungei Nebongl 


:mns histuky and utst-uiPTiox of TH£ 

Tribe Kejuruan Ujong, of which are the Sultan 
Bosar of Sirdang, Tuanko Wan Seman of Kallam- 
bir, Tuanko Toongal of Dorian, Tuanko Moda <rf 
Kampoug Paku, Tuanko Andang of Kampong 
Besar. Besides these, are five other Malaym 
tribes, riz. Surbaniamun, of whom the diief ia 
Orang Kaya Soonghal ; Santun, Orang Kaym Kaa- 
sawan; Sukupiring, Orang Kaya Meidan; 8e- 
mimba, Orang Kaya Kejuruan; and Ujcn^ 
Orang Kaya Etam ; his kampong I^ngo Seprang. 

Batla TVibes. — The Batta tribes are as fiol^ 
lows: — Tribe Mandiling or Kataran. of whidh 
are Rajah Seantar, Rajuh Silow, Rajah MnMa 
Panei, and Rajah Tanah Jawa, all rannihali ; tiiba 
Pappak, cannibals ; tribe Tubbak, not ^'^•Mi'Mt ; 
tribe Karau Karau, not cannibals ; tribe Kappik* 
cannibals. The Alas people are Mussulmen. 

Ujong Rugummoo and lljong Rumuda^ two 
prominent capes or points, a little to the aondiwiid 
of Sirdang. 

Sungei Pantei Lahu^ so called from the 
bcr of pumpkins, particularly good. There 
<ibout 50 inhabitants, who cultivate paddy. 

Sungei Palu Nebong or Hanti'.— Then k a 
village with about 150 inhabitants up thia ri^ 
The chief is Rajah Darat. The produce is 
cipally paddy. The village is one tide up Ar 


Kwala Ayer JBtam, or JLimbu Pagar, former- 
ly a populous place. There are now no inhabit- 
ants. This is the boundary of the state 6f DttneL 

Simgei Pdxmangan has a population of 800 
souls. Tuanko Ain Ain is the chief The vil- 
lage is one tide up. Wax, puke, tobacco, ivory, 
and benjamin, are the principal products. 

Sungei S^nghi. — ^Hene there is a small id)- 
lage, with about seventy people, who cultivate 

Sungei Se Jawi Jawi, so called from the' wood 
of file nama 

Sungei Mangkudu, so called from the mmtber 
of trees of that name. Serbajadi is^the iiame of 
the small village, containing about 100 inhabitants ; 
and the chief is Sultan Baik. 

Ujong Karuimhfi, a very prominent point/ 

Sungei Bedagai.-^'ThQ chieTs name is Tuan 
€tfoah, under virhom are two pangulus, named Iie- 
la Wangsa and To Gadang. The Malayan po- 
pulation is about 200. There are also about flOOa 
Battas in the inierior, of the tribe Katann ; and 
l^e principal ]fdaoes Nagore and Ria. They are 
cannibals; and the rajah's name is Tuan San^ 
hian. The principsd produce is ratti^ paddy*- 
and pulse. 

Sungei Bedagai Maih under Baitubaia* : Thev^ 
are about 50 inhabitants, who plant paddy,, and 
jnrocure wax. The vUlage is one tide up the rivei^ 


Sungei Sdutong has a popuhtioii of about 40 
people, who cultiyate paddy. 

Ktoala Padang^ a conaidenble wmA rivw. 
This 18 an independent state. Rajah Bidir Ahaii» 
the present chieft has reigned nineteen jmn. Hia 
son is Rajah Muda Etam. The two prineqial 
viUages are Bundar Kalissa, oontainii^ fiOO iBh»* 
hitants ; and Bundar Dahini, 600 Mahya. Ikte 
are about 8000 Battas of the tribe Katam in the 
country. The first vilbge is half a tide np. Here 
very beaudftd horses are procured, and many 
and the produce consists of rattans, paddy, 
a little pepper, ivory, and benjamin. Then are 
six hige prows belonging to the plaee (poQid^P^ 
which trade regularly widi Pinang. 

Kwaia Nagonda^ a branch of the Flidaag rmr. 

Stmgei Plegourawan, under Fangnhi Ponsan« 
dra of Batnbara. A population of 100 inhabit- 
ants, who cultivate paddy, rende a litde wny up 
the river. 

Sungei Separi Faf% from the nrnnber of skate 
fish in this river. The chief is Chang Kaya Mm- 
nali ; and the village, containing 100 peopli^ is asie 
tide up. 

Smf^ 7\i9yofig.—C\Me to the aea, at the wnih 
of this river, is a village containing 400 infaakitaBti^ 
under the authority of Panguln Ahmut of Batn- 
bara. Pepper has lately been cultivated hen with 
great iticcess ; and the produce is nttana and 


Ujong Taf^ong^ a projectdng pmnt, off which 
there is a very extensive and dangerous saikUbank, 
9nth breakers. Between this and another hank, 
about five miles from the shore, is a safia hut nar- 
row channel, which leads to Batubaia. 

Sufigei Buwboos has a peculation of 100 souls^ 
and the produce is paddy.a 

Srnigei Perapo, a few stragglmg houses, and 
dbout 80 people. 

Teluk Piaif a bay between Ujong Tanjong and 
Batubara, where there is a small village, containing 
100 inhabitants. 

Kmda Batubara '' is in kt 3' 18' 16' north, 
"< bug. 99' 86' 45' east From Delli to Tai^OBg 
** Mati, the coast runs S. E. by £. and is safe to 
^ approach, with r^ular soundings to 4ii fiithoms^ 
^ within 1^ mile of a low sandy beach that fronts 
^ this part of the coast. Off Tanjong Mati th« 
^ depth increases to 12 and 14 £Eilhoms, uid shoals 
^ suddraly to 5, 3, and 2 fathoms, on a sandy spit 
<< projecting out about one mile from this poiafc 
^ In steering out from this point to the oartward, 
** you come upon aa extenave and dangecons sandf 
^ bade, having only I and H fathoms on it. Itia 
^* about five miles from the point, and the same 
<< distance from Batubara. Thore is a safe ehan«> 
^ nel between it and the mainland. Fsqm Tan^ 
<< jong Mati to Batubara, the land forms a smaU 
*' bay. Off the mouth of Batubara river ig:a mry 


^ estenare mud flat, having xcgnlar Mondingt on 
** it, and extending oat to within three miles of 
f* the South Brother. On entering the river, 
^ which is ahont 800 yards uride, the swmdmgs 
^ are very rcgnhur to the dry hanks, off Ae moiitih 
^ of it Having entered, it brandiea off to the 
^ eastward and westward. Ahont one mile npihe 
^ eastern braneh, the head rajah readcs at a laige 
** town, having apparently a great .nnmher of inbaf 
^ bitants.*'*— (LiEUTEKAKT Rose.) Batubaimmay 
be known by an immense number of fishing-etriESS 
at the river's mouth, and the large phmtatioas of 
eocoa-nut trees dose to the sea shore, visiUe at a 
eons^derable distance. The ground is high, but 
sandy ; and there is a fine beach along the esast, 
extending many miles. 

Name. — Batubara is so called from a huge stone 
in the interior, which at night has the appearance 
of being red hot, and throws a light ronnd iL Ba- 
tn signifies stone, and Bara live cosls, or glowing 

GcBoemment and Chief. — ^This country is under 
the immediate authority of Slack; and die eUefii 
are appcnnted and receive their chops and digni- 
ties from that state. The principal is Nomlm 
Bindahara, who succeeded to the govemnsnfe 19 
years ago. He is a pangulu of Siack. Under 
him are five other cfaieft, called datns, via. Wan 
AJbmet, Sri Maharaja Lek; Kota, Sebfaii|i R^ ; 


Che Wang, Samoangsa ; Wan Noodin, Paduka 
Sri Usmana ; and Solyman, Seagar Rajabu 

Under these again arc twenty inferior officers, 
called pangulu, who each possess different oom- 
mands in the several districts and villages. Be- 
sides these, is the tumungong (Abdullassip)^ who 
has the chief authority at Kampong Baga. 

Villages. — The villages up the Batubara river 
are very numerous. The first is 

Bagan» on the left point in entering the river, 
containing about 75 houses. The inhabitants are 
principally fishermen, who catch prodigious quanti- 
ties of fish, which they cure for exportation, and 
which are much esteemed at all the ports on the 

Boga is the next village on the right side, and 
•contains about 100 houses. 

Kampong is a large village, containing about 200 
houses, the residence of the chief. At these three 
villages, the noquedahs or masters, and crews of 
prows, principally reside. The women here are ce- 
lebrated for their industry, and the manufacture of 
beautiM silk cloths. There are always great 
numbers of prows lying at these villages. A 
short distance above Bagan, there are two streams 
which &31 into the main river ; the first called Ta- 
nah Datar ; the next Lima Laras. Up the Ta- 
nah Datar branch, are the folkwing villages^ viz. 
,Fematang, Labuhan, Uku, TerussaQ, JPahang, 


Ptflankei, Fbdaog Guntiag, Kampoog Pm||MI|^ 
Sejamyut, Elabow, Kalnbit Sintangt Lana PtaliL 

Up the IAbul Lanu rirer are KmipQiig IMoBg 
Angur, Lalangy SanUog, Pinang; ITafch, 
Bacbang, Ftangalri, Rajah, and TaigaBg 

Co mmer c ed T he ptodnetioiii of BaliAna 
vorytrifliog. Battnw, lalt-Aih, hona^aad 
dothiy are the principal exports of the state. 0)ps» 
imi»ahout TOdbests of nwtilks^ a laiga quantity sf 
sshy and doths of various deseriptiona and 
fiietnres» similar to those previously detailed aa i 
ported into Bnlu China, finm the importsi Th 
Batabara people, however, are the principal omisBB 
of the prows which bring the valuable pred oea of 
the other states to Pinang and Malaeea, and bm^ 
be termed the carrien of the trade. Many of the 
inhabitants are wealthy, and asm aevcral Inge 
vessels. Slaves and horses are faroo|^ down Aom 
the interior in consideraUe numbsra. 

l^twif — *The shabnndar informed are that tfaens 
are not less than 600 trading prowa IwiliwigiBfl to 
Batnbara, eonstsntly engaged in aoauneree. 

Jianufaeturee,^— In almost every boose at B». 
tubam is one or more looms ; and the slam gisls 
spin, dye^ and weave. Great quantities af 
cotton and rich silk and gold doths are 
tured here for die use of the inhabitant^ and ftr 
exportation to other Malayan conntries in finaM 
tn and the Mahyan peninsuh. These fintli 


however^ are very expensive^ whidi h dAiiBy umbag 
to their imperfect machiiiery, and the h^ prieea 
of the rough materials whidi are imported firam 
Pmang or Malacca* The aalindang or acar& am 
partieolarly d^ant; and the foUowing varietiea 
w^e pardbased by me on aoooimt of govcmmei^ 
I diall not enter into any partieolar deatriptien of 
them here, as they will be laid befinre the govam- 
ment, tix. the kain panjang, takp berantd* aalin* 
dang imguh bunga mas, champnl bediool iju fai» 
|Nila mas, dundiazi chdari. Of sarongs^ the aa» 
rong kechil, gubbar, bertaboog benang mas, un» 
gnh, senarin intan, diampur benang dangan sitra» 
kambuja ; most of these of beautiful tartan pat* 
terns, and fimdAdly wrought with gold thread. 
The salimut benang mas is a la^ tartan pattern 
silk doth, with gold thread border, used for deq^ 
ing in. The handkerchiefs are mostly of silk, in 
imitation of the Fulicat, via. saputangan seree, a 
small handkerchief for containing seree aud betd- 
nnt; saputangan kapala baku and benang mm^ 
or gold thread handkeidiie&. Of trowaars or ae» 
rawal, there are the serawal benang mas, bttAiv 
panjang^ bechooal, all of silk, and semwal benang, 
eottosi; also mixed, called chumpur benang dangaa 
sitra. Of bajoos or jackets, I hare oaiy two aorta, 
viz. bajoo halya and tolap berantd, both of silk^ 
handsomdy worked with gold thread Betidea 
these, a variety of <miamental borders finr matiessea 


and pillows of couches or mats, and degfo^j 
wrought covers for scree-boxes, are made ; and tb 
following were bought by me as specimen^ vim, 
tcpitikar puncha seroe, sampal tepi, and pidiipnm 

It will be observed, on reference to the prieea cf 
these articles transmitted to govemmenti Hmt 
many of them might be manufactured in Enopt 
at oue-third the price ; though it is true the prieei* 
charged to me were higher than the natives wnU 
have paid for them, who were better *^»^*Hitdl 
with their value, knew the places where they were 
to be obtained cheapest, and had leisure and p^ 
tienoe enough to bargain for each a long tiae. 
Neither my time nor inclination would admit of 
tliis ; and I may therefore fairly conclude^ thai I 
have paid fully 25 per cent more than the ml 
average and (xjna fide price of the artides. A 
few of them indeed, are second-hand; but the 
shortness of ifty stay rendered it impoasible to 
make so large a collection, ot obtain such a variety 
of the manufactures of the country in any ether 
shape ; the best cloths being wove aevenl days* 
jonmey in the interior. 

Population. — ^The fixed Malayan populatiHi b 
reckoned to be about 10,000, of whom these aie 
4000 fighting men. 

* Vide Appendix ii. 


/ Jtatfoj.~*Tfab Battw in tbe inl^rioF of BaMw^ 
n are of the tribe Kat8raii,4iiid the princi^ state 
is Semilongan. They are caniiibals» and x>f* a^^ 
jBoliarly fevociotts and untraetaide disposition- ; nor 
can tbey he -prevailed upon to .dsvgte thtmsekres 
/either to agxaculture er comiberce, exfept-auflMeM 
jDnly to keep them ftom absolute want ^md alar*^ 
vation. • / >- •*- * 

. CannibeMsm.'^li I bad had any very asvious 
•doubts of the existence of this. practice, .they iVMld 
liaye been remo3^ here ; for the fact of cannibalisafk 
|)re?ailing to a great extent, was weU substantiate 
ed. The tumungong was married to one of 'the 
iqah of Seantafs. daughters, and he repraKUts 
4bat barbarous custom as b^ngi quite. common in 
ithat; country. 

Marriage between the Malays and Battas.^^ 
'The Batta rajahs in this quarter give a daughter 
(to any Malay chief who can afford to lay out 800 
lOr 400 dollars updn the marriage .ceremonies. 
They. usually present 10 or 12 slaves, a &w horses, 
or scHue buffaloes, as a marriage pcnrtion ; and « the 
Malay, when he returns down the river, iimdiacis 
ithe amount of hia outlay by the .sale of a certain 
number of slaves, and keeps the surphis ; .besides 
perhaps liaving gained some privilege&in bek^^al- 
jiowed to trade. in certain parts of the interior, and 
jsecuring the safety of his person. No wonder^then 
ihsA t^e daughters do not Jiang loi^mpaa tihei?^ 


Jam Batu of AsBtthin. The popidstiMi k abimt 

40<H and the exports paddy, fijdi, and wax; and 

last season, a small quantity of pepper of superior 

equality was exported. The eidtiyation of that ar- 

stiole is increasing rapidly here. 

Swngd Se Jam Jam* There are a few &rt;taB 
up this river, who grow paddy. 

Sungei Bagan^ a small Batta village^ eontain* 
ing 50 people, up this rivet. 

Sungei Uhr^ oi Snake River, similar to the 

Sungei BuayOf or Alligator River. Fidietmen 
resort here. 

Sungei Tamban Talan, afisw straggling honsei 
vap this river, and about fiO inhabitants. 

Sungei Aseakan ^ is in latitnde W tiff north, 
"^ and longitude 99^ sr east. Off die mouth of 
^ this river a mud flat extends about seven miles 
^ to the north-east, with regular soundings on it 
^ Fimn this to the entranoe of Reooan^ care must 
'* be taken not to approach too dose to the skor^ 
^* as several mud flats extend out to a eonsid^iUe 
^ distance^ off some (ji which the SoundiBge de- 
^ crease very ra{ndly^'' 


Entrance.''^^ ThB entrance of the Assahan 
"* liver," (says Captain Crooke), '« is about IMO 
^yards wide; but it is shallow and difficult ef M- 
** trance, fiom an extensive saiid4MHik #hick lines 



** tbe co^t. In ascending it, the firat reseh iv m 
** length about S iniles» and in direction S. 99 
** W. ; the second is about 2i miles N- 80 W. ; 
^ and the third winds round to sontb, naaHj 9 
** miles, to the Sungei Silau. Its mean hradth 
in this distance is about 500 yards, and the 
depth of the channel about 2 fathoms at loir 
water spring tides. On the point formed bjr the 
Silau, immediately above its junction, stand 60 
or 70 huts. It is a poor village, called Kampoi^ 
Balei, and contains about 500 people, about 9| 
miles up the Silau, which falls into the Aasahan 
from the westward. It receives from its right a stOI 
^ smaller stream, the Sungei Kota Bayoo ; and on 
*^ the point formed between them stands tlie ▼&- 
•* lagc of Si Kantau, the residence of the pettjr 
** sultan. The houses are better ; bnt the popohif- 
** tion is about equal to that of Kampoi^ Balei, 
** and is composed of Malays, Battas, data, and 
** from 50 to 100 Chinese. The tide riaei aboot 9 
^ feet, and it is high water at the riverli aoadi rt 
** about four o'clock at fuU and change.* 

iVamr.— Assahan derives its name from m paca^ 
liar sort of long grass whicli grows there. 

History and Gcvernment. — It would be hat 
an uninteresting and unprofitable task to tnee the 
early history of this state (which is involved m 
fable and mystery), or to enumerate the aeveni 
kings and successive dynasties, llie father of the 

£A&T C^AST or SUATATKA. 3)ff 

{Hreseut chief, who i» a youth of 17»> was Jatrg de 
per tiian Ali He died about 9 years ago. His 
sou beii^ theu a minor, the Sultan Muda Mafao^ 
met, .farother of the present Sultan Muda^ assumed 
the government of the country. He died five aad 
a half years ago, . since which period, . the- affiuxS'of 
thekingdom have been managed by the Jang de 
per tuan and Sultan Muda conjointly. There is^ 
however^ a rival and separate power in the king^ 
dom, which has attained ecHisiderable ascendancrir^ 
viz. the Raja Muda, a cousin of the young king; 
and the bindahara, who is of Menangkabiau de- 
scent ; and these two have for some years past suc^ 
cessfully opposed the authority of the Intimate 
heir to the throne, and have in fact possessed them- 
selves of the* most valuable portion of the country.^ 
They have been engaged in constant ; hostilitieB; 
even since the death of the late king. The present 
is the seventh king of Assaban^ The . founder of 
the kingdom came from Menangkabau, at that 
time a very powerful empire ; and . its sway alid 
authority extended in . a greater or ^ less degtoo 
throughout the : island. There was a colony '^of 
Portuguese, as well as Javanese, formerly, up the' 
Assahan river ; but there are no correct records re- 
lating to them now in existence. The remains^irf 
an old Javanese fortification ^about 70 miles up- tW 
river, are stiU to be seen. ^ . f 


Ckarader qf the King.—Ti» young fi^ah u 
addicted to that moA pernicioiiB habit of — »^^ 
ofnum ; and hit oonatitution aeems to hava dready 
iufiered mooh firom this Ticums indnlgBBacfe to 
trhidi he has been addicted fiom hia eaiBast yaawi 
I haTeobasrred gBneraUy* that thoae who aae gifi^ 
to thia practice to excess^ ha?e a gfaaatly and fim* 
CHNis look , aio alinm thin^* their habitatioiia atnd 
dress miserable and dirty» and every thing abonk 
them bespfabing wretcliednesB» the coneomitank of 
fice and debauchery. 

StaU rf the Coumbry ^^Th^ intoenal divisiBH 
have materially injured the trade of the countiy. 
It was fimnerly a place of ezkensiTe nmmmssos 
Vessels of all aorts from Java, Celebes^ and ArfisWi 
used to frequent this place ; and the ausoal impes^ 
tation of aalt» I am assured, never fiD short of fiOO 

Commerce and Price OyrrmL—ThM oommeroe 
has very much decreased ; but then are atill about 
80 prows of various siass belonging to the eountryt 
engaged in canying the valuable produce to K* 
nai^ Malacca, and Singapore; and nunypeowa 
frsBs Batubara take in cargoes here. 

/o^xirff •— The principal importo osorist of aalt^ 
opium, and coarse Uue and white doths^ ton tibm 
consumption of the Battas in the interior; bnt 
many other articles^ such as have been facftre do* 


scribed ais imported into Delli and other places, 
are also carried to Assahan. Arms and gunpowder 
are always in great demand. 

Exports. — The exports are a(s follows : — ^Kayu 
kkar or dye-wood, average prices lid. per pecul i 
rMtans; lOd. per laxa or 10,000 ; kaching (peas)> 
lOd. per ganton ; paddy, Is. per 25 and SO gan- 
tons ; rice. Is. per 12 and 15 gantons ; wax, 92s; 
per pecul; mats (Mdei) large, 12s. per dorge; 
horses, from lOs. to 20s. each; slaves (women), 
40s. each ; ditto (children), 20s. each ; ditto (old 
men), from 12s. to 15s. each. 

Slaves. -^^inct the abolition of slavery at I^ 
nang and Malacca, the trade in the human species 
has been very much circumscribed at Assahan. In 
fiirmer years, the average number of slaves export^ 
ed was about 300, of which the greatest proportion 
consisted of females. The slaves here are usually 
procured in war ; and the Malays do not find it 
difficult to make a pretence for engaging in hosti^ 
lities when they require a few slaves^ Tht Bat^ 
tas are averse to residing near the river's side, tin:, 
less in large parties, as they are liable to be attack- 
ed suddenly, and carried off by the Malays. They 
never go to bathe even, withofut being armed. The 
Malays, however, frequently seize theb children 
straying near the banks of the river. 

Tin-Ore. — There is abundance of tin-ore in 'the 
mountains^ a little way beyond Bendar Ptesir 



jVIcndogei. The king is anxious to induce 
Chinese to work it, and urged mc to use my in- 
fluence for that purpose. 

Cultivation. — Pepper has been cultivated onlj 
the few last years, and to a very limited CKlent ; 
but the soil is well adapted for it, and the inhabit- 
ants are likely to extend its cultivation. Tobaeeo^ 
and pulses, and paddy, are grown in conridenhfe 
quantities. Of the latter, there is much more 
than equal to the consumption of the country ; and 
Assahan supplies several of the neighbouring states 
with grain. Fruits of all kinds are in the greatest 
Duties. — ^The duties arc as follows, via. >— 
Imports. — Salt, Ss. per coyan ; opium, tin, and 
gunpowder — ^no duty chargeable on these artidok 
but tlie purchase monopolized by the njab. AH 
other articles free. 

Mxporis. — Paddy, 2s. per coyan ; riee, I6i. per 
coyan ; slaves, 2s. each ; wax, 4s. per pecnl ; 
tans, lOd. per 1000 bundles; mats, Id. per 
white peas, 8d. per coyan ; onions, 4d. per pecri ; 
Semambur rattans, 10s. per 100 bundles; mnvir 
rattans lOd. per 1000 bundles ; whip rattans^ lOd. 
per 1000 bundles ; fishing lines, id. on 100 niDi; 
lakar wood, id. per pecul ; dragon's blood, id. per 
pecul ; horses, 2s. each ; trowsers, 9i per cent wi 
xmlorem ; Batta tobacco, 8d. per pecul. 

Superstition. — The Malays have a superatilMNM 


venerati6n for their oreeses of kris^ and they have 
great faith also in the efi^cacy of stones and fossUs, 
which they pretend are extracted from reptiles, 
hirds, animals, &e. in preventing them from being 
wounded, and wear round their waist a belt of 
them when they go to war. The rajah of Assahan 
has a beautiful collection of them inclosed in his 
girdle. Many of them bear the appeanmee of be- 
ing cut and moulded to their present shaqpe, and 
are sold by the crafty traders, who impose upon the 
credulity of these people, and sell these stones at a 
very high price. 

Villages up the left Branch.-^The whole of 
the villages situated up the left branch of the As- 
sahan river, are under the authority of the Rajah 
Muda and Bindahara. There are sevetal small 
streams which fail into this river^ having a large 
population of Battas and Malays on their banks. 
Tanjong Balei is the first; then come Sungei 
LeUia, Sungei Kapiring (the best place for rat- 
tans), Sungei Seratus, Sungei Lindir, and Sung^ 
Kesa, principally occupied by Malays^ and Sungei 
Mesihi, Sungei Saha, Eampong Pesaguan, Oper-^ 
musingal, S^apong, Singkum, and Se 6alang-ga- 
lang, chiefly occupied by Battas ; and Bundar Pnio,* 
a large town, where the Rajah Muda and ffinda- 
hara reside, and the inhabitants of which are part-- 
ly Malays and partly Battas. This place is three* 
days' saU for fiist pulling canoes, and five days^ for 


laige siied boats, from Tanjong Baldt the first vil- 
lage in the river. At Bendar Pulo there is m 
very considerable trade ; and the Battas from the 
mountains come down in great numbers. All the 
above villages are under the Rigah Muda aad 

FiUages up the right Branch^— Tht Umm 
and villages up the right branch are Kampom 
Serantan, where the Sultan Muda, and irr^rmsl^ 
ly the king, resides. Then Raotaa Paqjaog^ 
Sungei Menkuang, Kampong Kesaran, Baarir 
Putih, Semata Layer, Terata, having a mixed pe> 
pulation of Malays and Battas ; Sejorei, ^"***^fti, 
and Munto Panei» Batta villages ; Bendar Passir 
Mendogei, where the king usually residea. ThsA 
come Hopas, Kampong Ujong Seping-g^mg, alaq^ 
and very populous town, Tanjong Batii^ Dola Mi^ 
hanga, Ujong Panei, Silan Maharaja, Bale Tse- 
ding, and Pomarimbun, all very populous viUiKa* 

To the leftt up the Munto Panei, are Ifsmpian 
Kota Born, Sebuaden, Pulo Dari, Binto ^"tii^ 
Binto Sidari, Pub Puli, Seiyup, and many olfasr 
Batta villages. 

Population.— The Battas of the Bodar Fda 
branch of the Assahan are Tubbas^ who aay he 
known by the holes in their ears. They ere ret 
cannibals. Those of the Munto Panei are of Ae 
tribe Perdimbanan, and eat human flesh, are n 
lent, addicted to opium, and always 


war. The Batt8s who live ne^ the gfest lake, 
are Tubba Nasei, Tubba Salindit, and Tubba 
Uluan. There are also the tribes Fappak and 
Kappak. These two races are eannibals, and go 
about plundering on the borders of the lake. Tlie 
Tubbas are very warlike, and pretend to foretell 
who will be wounded in a battle^ and they select 
such as may be considered invulnerable. They 
also pretend to direct a knife to a cocoa-nut ; and 
many other wonderful feats of their dexterity and 
magic are related, and superstitiously credited by 
the Malays. The statements I received from the 
shabundar of Kampong Bald, of the population of 
the country, in which he specified the number of 
inhabitants in each village, is in my opinion too 
much exa^erated to insert in this place; but 
from the most particular inquiries I was enabled to 
make, I am sure I do not over-rate the populati(m 
between Tanjong Balei and the borders on this 
side the great lake, and in the whole of the Assa- 
han state, at 70,000 souk 

Batta Languages. — ^There is ' a great varietv 
of dialects spoken here } and I shall bc^ to insert 
in this plac^ a specimen of the language spokcb 
by the Karau Karau Battas in the interior of 
Delli and Langkat, and of the Perdimbanan, 
which is the dialect spoken at Assahan. Thi* hat 
differs but little from the Tubba and several other 
dialects spoken in that quarter. 


Specimen of the Karau Karau and iVn/tM^a- 

na9^ Dialects. 















White Cloth, 


















Benang Bentar, 
















Dua pufai 








Parte of the Human Body. 







Fore finger. 

Middle ditto. 







Idong Idoag, 

















Third ditto. 


Little ditto. 

Kildi del. 










Orang orang. 










Kidik Kidik. 


Tappa tappa. 


Leg (calf), 

























Lubang Aygong, 

Orang Orang Igong. 





Seko seko. 

Soui soui. 





Selo selo. 




Matanari pat. 


Bulo Bulo, 

Ara AmteloraiL 

Back of the neck^ 



Manufadures. — The Battas are principally 

dressed in coarse cotton cloths of their own manu- 

facture» 4^ cnbits long, by 2 cubits wide. They 

are cliiefly of a 

dark blue colour, with red or white 

lines int^^rmixed. The texture 

is extremely coarse 

and the doth harsh and wiry 1 

to the touch. Th? 


ootton is grown in the country, and the Uue djm 
is obtained from a species of indigo (tanim), whkh 
is abundant throughout the island. The lakar omI 
other woods furnish other colours* 

Batta Cloths.— The following is a list of all the 
diflPerent sorts of Batta cloths which were 
able in the Assahan country, and purchased on 
count of government : via. meigum sisi, gura 
dang, sum sum, rinjap, ragi bedouan, safatla gaian^ 
sebottar, ragi sehorpa, ragi sehoram, tonompiac^ 
ragi atuanga, iabbit, and ragi perbouiac 

Mats. — A great variety <^ mats are 
turcd by the Battas, some of an exceedingly 
texture, and neat open pattern. Their karangs ef 
bags for containing their clothes, seree, &c am 
neatly and fancifully wrought The mats (parti- 
cularly the coarse sort, called bidei, made of 
tans, and slips of the inner bark of trees) ban 
of the principal exports of the country. The Bat- 
tas make swords called pedaug and ValiMn ; the 
handles of tlie former are of iron, and of the latte 
usually ivory. They besides manufacture 
knives of a vast variety of shapes and siies^ mad 
nous other instraments of iron and steeL 

Tatyong Si Api ^pi^ a projecting poiiit» 
which there are extensive and dangerous 

Sungci Ijsedcmg. — This is rather a Luge 
and belongs to the Assahan state, of which 
mcut Pungulu Paduka Sinda is the 


tive. There is a Batta population of 700, of which 
the chief is R^ah PuDJurama. The distance up 
the river to the first viUage, is one tide. Rattans, 
mats, shives, wax, and ivory, form the exports of 
the country. 

Sungei Kwaloah. — ^AU the states between thii 
phce and Siaok pay tribute to the latter, and are 
entirely under its dominion and controul. The 
population, which consists of Battas diiefly, is about 
1200, under Rajah Muda Ulabalaqg. The town 
is two days' sail for boats up the river ; and the na* 
vigatioo is rendered dangerous by a bunno^ or bore 
in the riv^, not so severe however as in some of 
the other rivers to the eastwa^ of it. Here the 
3lligators are very numerous and fieree. The ex- 
ports consist of rattans, wax, mats^ slaves, &e. ; 
and the imports blue and white cloths, opium, and 
various other articles. 

Sungei Beelah. — ^Under Sultan Bedir Alum. 
The villages are Ayer Tanang, Negri Padang, 
Ayer Beelah, Selangtagi ; the first of which is one 
tide up»^ The population was estimated at 1800, 
principally Battas ; and the exports consist of rat- 
tans, wax, slaves, gold, mats, and brajamin. In 
this river there is ako a bore. 

Sungei PaneL^^lt is one tide up to Kampong 
Panel, ike first village in lliis lai^ river ; and 
there are several other villages. There is a small 
island at the conflux of the Beehh and this river^ 


called Pulo Kantau, which has been pointed out at 
an eligible spot for a factory. The populatioB eott* 
sista of about 1000 Malaya, betides a gnat inaay 
Battat. The chief is Sultan Mangidir Alnou 
The bore here is dangerous, and the alligafetn taka 
people out of boats, and are very large and fe- 
lodout. The Battat come from two placea» called 
Tmnbeti and Padang Balla. The oountry it ie< 
pretented to be very fertile ; and the diief expoilt 
axe matt, paddy, rattans, shiver wax, kayu Inkka 
or dye*wood, and some other minor artidet. 

Taf\fQmg J7aitgf^i.-^Between thia point and 
Kubu aie the following rivers, which hare oeftt 
been noticed : — Sungei Setukang (fitfaennen)^ Sob- 
gei Pqudian, Sungei Ayer Tawar, Sungei Ular, 
and Sungei Daun. 

Sungei Tangali. — Up thit rivor it a tmall vil- 
lage, with SOO inhabitants. 

Sungei Salang has a population of about 100. 

Sungei Ltfiit.— There are about SOO inhabit- 
ants up thit river. 

Sungei Bemr. — ^There are teveral tmtH rill^rt 
up thit river ; and the inhabitantt ate conpniad 
at 400. 

Sungei Mirbou\ said to have about 100 people. 

Sungei SampeL — ^Here there it an launu and 
Higit, and some small villages, with flOO inhi^ 

Sungei Kubu is a large river ; and then are 


several populous villages on its banks. The chief 
is Todewa Fahlawan. Here is also a bore in this 
liver. The produce is rattans, wax, and rice. 

Sungei Beccan. — f^ At the entrance of this ri« 
** ver are two islands ; one called Pulo Lalang 
'' Besar, And lies in lat. at 1(X, and long. 100^^6^ 
*' 50'' ; and the other, Pulo Lalang Kechil, and 
f* bears from the former S. 16 £. The distance 
** between them is nbout two and three quarters of 
f' a mile, having a safe but very shoal channel be- 
** tween them into the river. They are low and 
*' woody, and cannot be distinguished above ten 
** miles off. Having passed through these islands, 
** the entrance into the river bears S. 86 £., and 
." rmis up in that direction about thirty miles, 
** when it branches off to the westward^ forming a 
'* small and shallow river called Bangka, which 
** runs a few miles up the country. The main 
*' branch runs to the south-east, forming a river 
f* called Tanah Putih, which takes its name from 
** a town situated at the mouth of it. The nioatJi 
** of the Tanah Putih is about one and a half mile 
^ broad, and is said to take its rise in the rnoun- 
f* tains. It is very shallow and dangerous, owing 
** to the excessive rapidity of its tides. Several 
f* large and populous villages are said to be situr 
** ated on its banks, which are under the authcMty 
f^ of the rajah of Siack. The mouth of the Ree- 


^ cm, in the broadest part, is aboat fifteen niks 
^ broad. After proceeding up eight or nine nilei^ 
'' it narrows to four, and afterwards to two mileib 
*' and continues that breadth, till it jmnt the two 
** rivers above-mentioned. It is almost dry it low 
^ water spring tides, and extremely ixogamm^ 
<< owing to the excessive rapidity of the tidei^ 
^ which run at the springs at the rale of 
** miles per hour, and the rise and fidl of the 
'* which is about SO feet It is also suljeet to a 
'< bore, which adds considerably te ita dangeni 
<* We anchored in the vessel about 17 ndfei vf 
^ the river, in 6i fathoms, at 4 p. m., the eUi lift 
** still running at the rate of two knots per hov ; 
^ perceived the bore coming in, forming by time 
^* very laige swells. The instant it touched the 
** vessel (then l}ing aground in 4 feet watery the 
*' water rose to 2i fathoms, and was past in lea 
** than a minute. On the right*hand baolk of tiie 
** river was situated a straggling vill^^ the inhe- 
*' bitants of which came off on the momhig of 
** arrival, in great numbers, on friendly 
** and earnestly begged to be admitted oat bond^ 
** which was refused, excepting to a very few. They 
^ afiier^ards, without the slightest pr o vocatien» CB* 
** deavoured to cut off one of our boats^ that had 
^ got adrift by the excessive rapidity of the tfde^ 
'^ It is high water at the mouth of the ReeeaB, at 


<f aix hoars fioU and dw^^ : the lise and &11 is 
*^ about S6 feet, aud the tideruns about 5i knots, 
<< but increases Yery much when a few miles up." 

Ll£UT£NAKT R08£. 

The fidlowing rivers and places in the Reccan 
were mentioned by some of the chiefs whom I met 
at Siack : — 

Sungei Menamp, ISO inhabitants. 

StMgci BmncOj 600 inhabitants. 

Taiyong Meraniif 150 inhabitants, under a 

Sungei Tanah Putth.-r-Tlm is a fine river, 
were it not for the very dangerous bore, which is 
very great here ; and none but vessels adapted for, 
and pec^le long accustomed to, the navigation, dare 
venture into the river. The chief of the place is 
Bendar Tudin, and the population about 1000. 
The exports consist of slaves, wax, camphor, ben- 
jamin, rattans, ivory, cinnamon, agal agal wood, 
and many other articles. The Rinchis, a religious 
sect in the interior of Menangkabau, have injured 
the country very much. 

Sungei Batu Ampa comes next. Fangulu 
Mancha is the chief of a village containing 120 

IJ^ong Perbabian. — ** From Reccan river, the 
^ land extends out to the N. W., forming a point 
*' called Uione Per Babian. Off this point, a 



» mud-flat extends to the N. N. W. about 11 milei^ 
** with r^uhir soundings on it. Having paned 
" this bank, with the point bearing S. W., and 
" Paroelar Hill N. 4S E., you enter up the moat 
'' dangerous part of the coast, having sandJiaBka 
** extending out from the Sumatra shore to die 
" south sands, with mud soundings between them. 
*' The soundings are no guide in approaching thew 
" banks, as you shoal very suddenly. It is ne- 
cessary, in running through these sand-bnnks» ta 
have a boat sounding aliead, and a good look-ont 
" from the fore- yard, as the bank shows very plain- 
" ly in a clear day. From Ujong Per Babinn, the 
" coast runs to the S. E. till you approeeh Ftab 
'' Koopat. When you approach the north part af 
*' Pulo Roopat, which lies in ht. 2' € N. 
" long. 101' *s: £., the channel beoaoMe 
** and the land bold to approach, havii^ JO fittbone 
'* within li mile of the shore, whidi tffniilingp 
<< you carry till you approach the cntmnee ef 
^ Brewer's straits, when a mnd-bank ezfeenda 
'^ from the island about five miles.** 


Pri/b Roopat. — An island of conaidenble 
on which arc several small rivers, and a number ef 

IJimg Saddij and Ujong Banian^ 
points on the island to seaward. 


Sungei Misgid is a small stream on the island, 
fidling into the straits ; and there n a small village 
with 70 people. 

Sallat Boopatf or the straits formed hy the 
island and the main, after which, considerably to 
the southward, is 

Sungei Dumei, on the island, a small river 
containing a few inhabitants, who collect rattans 
under Pungulu Dola ; after which comes 

Stingei Birting Merambong, a small rivef, 
off which there is an extensive and dangerous sand- 
bank, on which many prows and vessels have been 

Sungei Bukit Batu^ a very small stream, 
dose to the mouth of which stands the town of 
Bukit Batu, which is a place of considerable trade, 
the grand staple being roes of the trobo fish, or 
tdur trobo, as they are called. Here there is a 
very extensive fishery ; and three or four hundred 
boats, with two and three men in each, go out to- 
gether firequently to the fishery, which is a Kttld 
outside of the straits Tanjong Jattee. 

Brewer^ s Straits. — " The northern entrance to 
** these straits is formed by Pulo Bacalisse (the 
** north end of which lies in kt. l"* 36' N., and 
** long. 102'' E.), and the mainland of Sumatra, 
^ and is about five miles in breadth,- with mud« 
^ soundings on it. About eight miles from the en- 
^^ trance is situated the town of Bookit Batoo« on 



** the banks of a very narrow river of that naAie. 
^ The houses are so scattered among the ttees^ that 
** they were not perceived by us, although within a 
"* mile of them. It is to be known by a tree 
** shaped like an umbrella^ which is near the en- 
trance of the river. When oflP Ujong Ballai, die 
** strait narrows to three miles, opposite to whieh is 
an entrance to the seaward, caUed Sallat Padan^ 
having a safe channel for boats. From Ujong 
** Ballai, the strait turns to the southward, till 
'' it reaches Siack river.** 

Lieutenant Rose. 

Siingei Siack. — ** The mouth of this river is iff 

<" kt VSff N., and long. 108* l(f E. The en- 

trance to it is about three quarters of a miU 

broad, having a sandy spit, which is almost dry 

** at low water, extending almost across the mout^ 

^ leaving a safe but very narrow cfaannd into the 

^ river dose to the eastern shore. It is high vra- 

** tcr at full and change at nine boon ; the rise 

«< and fidl is about ISfeet; and the tide runs at the 

'^ rate of H knots per hour.** 

Lieutenant Robb. 
Siack River. — On passing the bar at the cn^ 
trance, the depths continue six, five, and tarn fi^ 
thoms, about fifteen miles, when they increase to 
seven, eight, and nine, and in many plaees dose t6 
the banks, are twelve, and even fifteen frthomsL 
There is not a single shallow or sand-bank as frf 


£A8T coast of SUMATRA. 987 

as the town of Slack, which is dghty miles from 
the entrance ; and the river is navigable for brigs 
seventy or eighty miles farther^ Polo Guntong is 
an island of a considerable size, about six miles 
from the mouth of the river, to the right, on which 
the Dutch formerly had a factory. Tanjong Fe- 
dada is a point to the left, about forty miles higher 
up, which is fSunons for being the resort of al%a- 
tors of an immense size. At this plac^ abottt 
twelve years ago, the commander of a timber ship 
from Pinang (Captain Peake), lost his life by these 
voracious animals. He was descending the river 
to meet Captain Lynch, ^ho had just arrived fi>r a 
cargo of timber for building his Majesty's ship Ma-^ 
lacca, and the Honourable Company's slnp Inglis ; 
and he was in a small boat pulled by ten men^ 
Two alligators of an immense size came ijff from 
the shore, where they had been lying in the mud^ 
and with open mouth made for the canoe^ which 
so alarmed the boat's crew, that they all rushed to 
the opposite side, and upset Ae boat. The cap« 
tain and a few of the people were instantly devour^ 
ed, and the others escaped on shore, and conveyed 
the melancholy tidings to the native aoquedah of 
the vessel, who proceeded with a party to the spo^ 
and spent three days in endeavouring to destriy 
these alligators. This man, who has been a writer 
in the custom-house department at Finaog many 
years, assured me, that the alligator wa9 repeated^ 



ly seen lying on the side of the river, with the 1^ 
of the unfortunate captain projecting from its 
niouth, during the three days that he was in pur- 
suit of liim. About twenty miles beyond Tan* 
jong Pedada, on a high bank on the right side, 
are the rcniains of a large fortification, well stodL* 
aded with large trees ; and five miles above this 
place, which is called the kubu, or fort, is Biuntan, 
the former seat of government ; but there are now 
only a few miserable huts here. Beyond tlns» 
about ten miles, is the city of Siack, Sri Indnpui^ 
situated on the sides of the river ; a large and pi^ 
pulous town, where the king resides. 

History. — Siack must have been a powerfd 
kingdom about a century ago, if we credit the ac- 
counts of the laj^ expeditions which are reported 
to have ssuled from hence, and the conqiieBts Ofcr 
the surrounding states. I shall not attempt, heir- 
ever, to trace the liistory of this empire heyond the 
period when the Dutch influence oommeaeed 
90 years ago. The following sketch was 
scribed from the personal communication of the 
four chiefs or datus who were assembled on 
the Honourable Company's brig Jessy, and the 
reetncss of the translation may be relied upon :•— At 
the time of the seat of the Siack government be- 
ing at Buantan, in the reign of Sultan Abdol 
Jalil Mahomed Shaw, the king's two sona wmt 
named Rajah Buang and Rajah Alum. The fbt^ 


met was raised to the dignity of Jang de per tuan 
besar, and the other created Rajah Muda. These 
youths were of a quarrelsome disposition, and a 
mutual jealousy and dislike was the consequence. 
After a very serious dispute with his yoimger bro- 
ther (whose part the king was disposed to espouse), 
Rajah Buang, . to escape the effects of his Other's 
resentment; fled from the country, and became a 
daring pirate. After cruizing for some time with 
considerable success, and having collected many 
prows and adherents, he proceeded to Malacca, 
then in the hands of the Dutch, and, in concert 
with that government, projected a scheme for pos- 
sessing himself of the country. With the aid of 
the Dutch, Siack was conquered, and his brother. 
Rajah Alum, fled. The king, his father, was now 
an old infirm man, and quite mcapable of nu^naging 
the government of the kingdom ^ and Rajah Bu- 
ang accordingly took the reins into his own 
hands, and resided at Buantan; In consideration 
of the assistance rendered to him by the Dutch, he 
allowed them to establi^ a &ctory at Fulo Gun^ 
tong, a small island a few miles up the river. Ra^ 
jah Buai^ was of a restless disposition, and much 
addicted to piracy ; and about eight years after-* 
the occupation of the island by the Dutch, he went 
on a piratical excursion. A few months afterwards 
he returned, and anchored his fleet, comsisting of 
a large vessds^ close to the Dutch factory at Fulo^ 


Guntong. The unsnspicious Dutch paid him cvcij 
respect on his return ; and the resident or oooi* 
mandant of the garrison received him and tarn 
chiefs who landed. from the vessels, with great at- 
tention. While sitting beside the Dutch readent. 
Rajah Buang drew his kris, and stabbed him to 
the heart ; and the chief officers who were in the 
room, but few in number, were murdered with eqpal 
dispatch by the foiur datus who accompanied the 
king. This was the work of a moment ; and the 
crews of the vessels, who were ready to eome on 
shore upon a given signal, rushed swoid in hand 
amongst the Dutch garrison, and commeoeed a g^ 
neral massacre : 180 Dutchmen are said to liave 
perished on this occasion. This event took plaet 
in the year of the Hejera 1 1 50, which makes it iq^ 
wards of 80 years since the Dutch ocnfried tbt 
settlement There is no doubt that the Dateh^ 
by the severity of their measures and •»«^'*mm% 
created a decree of disgust amongst all the people 
of Siack, and stimulated them to expel them in 
this summary way, by harsh and unjoat 
ings. When Rajah Buang had thus 
completely extirpating the Dutch in hia eonntiy» 
he began to be apprehensive of an attack fiw 
Malacca, and in consequence, removed the aeal ef 
his government from Buautan to the dty of Siad^ 
Sri Indrapura, further up the river, wliere he 
strongly fortified himself, and made 


for a vigorous and determined resistance. Rajah 
Alum, who had fled when Siack was conquered hy 
his brother and the Dutch, established himself at 
Batubara ; and the Dutch government, wishing to 
retaUate the injuries they had sustained, and to 
dethrone Rajah Buang, sent a mission to Rajah 
Alum at Batubara, for the purpose of instigating 
him to attack his brother with their aid, and pro- 
posed to transfer the government to him. Rajah 
Alum, apprehending treachery, gave the ambassa^* 
dor a most inhospitable reception, and barbarously 
murdered him and several of his followers. The 
ship returned to Malacca, and Rajah Alum after- 
wards made some overtures to the Dutch, which 
ended in his visiting Malacca, and in a perfect recon- 
ciliation. All necessary arrangements had been 
made for his attacking Siack with the aid of the 
Dutch, when news reached Malacca that Rajah 
Buang had died. On his death-bed he had en- 
joined his chiefs to transfer the government of the 
country to Rajah Alum ; but when he died, the 
datus destroyed the papers, and would not con- 
sent to Rajah Alum's becoming their sovereign* 
Rajah Ismael, son of Rajah Buang, was now rais- 
ed to the throne. Rajah Alum's son, who had ler 
maincd in the country although his &ther fled* 
and was now become an enterprising youth, was 
elected panglima besar. The Dutch and Rajah 
Alum now attacked the country with oqa ship, 


two brigs, three julong julong, and twenty penjar 
japs ; and after a blockade of three months, and a 
severe struggle, took possession of the kingdom. 
Rajah Alum was now raised to the throne, and 
Rajah Ismael fled to Palembang. After govern* 
iug about two years, Rajah Alum became tired of 
conducting the details of state, and raised his son, 
the panglima besar, whose name was Mahomet 
Ally, to the throne, under the title of Sultan Ab- 
dul Jalil Maalum Shaw. Rajah Ismael became a 
desperate pirate, and was the terror of all the trad« 
ing vessels in the straits of Malacca for many 
years : his chief residence was Palembang ; and 
after 22 years of successful piratical pursuits, be 
collected a large force, with 1 00 sail of vessels of 
various sizes, conquered Siack in three days, and 
again resumed the sovereignty. After a short 
reign of three years he died, and his son. Rajah 
Jya Hiya, succeeded to the government, with the 
title of Sultan Ahmud Shaw. He reigned about 15 
years, when the government was usurped by Syed 
Ally his prime minister, Tuanko Long Pntib, and 
the Tuanko Pangeran ; and Syed Ally took the tide 
of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shefudin. This chief aha 
became tired of taking an active part in the govern- 
ment; and his son Ibrahim, the present ehieC 
took the principal management about 12 years 
ago. The present king is styled Sultan Abdnl 
Jalil Khalil-udin. Syed Akhil, who has been le^ 


skiing some time at Palembang, and whose pre- 
tensions to the throne of Siack, it is said, the Ne- 
therlands government has some intentions of sup- 
porting, is the son of Rajah Musa, a descendant 
of Sultan Ahmud Shaw ; but he has no just claim 
whatever. Siack is no longer the powerful and 
independent state it was only ] 5 or 20 years ago, 
when it was a plaee of great trade. Vessels from 
Java, Borneo, Celebes, and other ports, used to re- 
sort to it in great numbers, and carry on a most ex- 
tensive commerce. The population of the kingdom, 
though still very large, has gradually declined and 
decreased by numerous emigrations ; and the com- 
merce has been almost, comparatively speaking, 
annihilated by a religious sect in the interior, call- 
ed the Rinchis, of whom I shall propecd to give ^ 
brief account, 

Rinchis, — The Rinchis are the chiefs of a reli- 
gious sect in the kingdom of Menangkabau, in 
the interior of Siack, who have been gradually ex- 
tending their power and influence during the last 
12 or 15 years. There are four chiefs, named Tu- 
anko Passman, Tuanko Malim Futih, Tuanko 
Petilassan, and Tuanko Leban, besides another, 
who possesses a separate district, named Tuanko 
Allang Panjangf They are most rigorous in pre- 
venting the consumption of opium; and punish 
with death all who are detected in this indul- 
gence. They prohibit coloured cloths of any de^ 


scription from being worn, and allow oalj 
white. Seree, tobacco, and betel, artidei in 
general use in all Malayan countriesp and 
ed 80 essential to their comfort, are not pennitp 
ted. Every man is obliged to shave bia hsdl, 
and wear a little topey or skull-cap. No man k 
permitted to converse with another^s wife ; and dii 
women are obliged to cover their fiwea with • 
white doth, leaving only two small holes fiv tkaiv 

Menangkabau Empire. — ^This oelebrated aid 
once powerful empire, whose sovereign was held ia 
veneration by all the states in Sumatim,* is^ fiha 

* The fint king of Menangkabau, according to tbe Mm 
lous Malayan annalsi was Sang Saporba, a detoeadsat of tks 
Macedonian hero Alexander the Great, or R^pnk 
ion of Rajah Darub of Rum. Sang Sapurba csai 
lembang, and going in search of a countrj, he asnadsA At 
Slack river. The relation is as follows :—" ^ 
'' left Bentan ; and having saUed for a day and nifjbt, 
** at Ruko, whence he proceeded to the point of 
*' ascended the river Buantan, '' (Bnantan wia tht 
'' of government, a large and populous city)/' nkta^ il «■ 
*' reported, the country was extremely populoot. WkM hs 
" had ascended far up the river, he arrived at 
All the Menangkabaus were surprised at his 
and the splendour of his diadem ; and they all 
quire whence he came. As soon as they heard of Us adiv^ 
turcs, and that he was a descendant of Sultan 


'* all the chief men of Menangkabau fiM'wltBd 




many other kingdoms which have risen to power 
and splendour, now disunited and partitioned into 
innumerable petty states, sometimes at war, and 
sometimes in friendly alliance with each other. 
The province in which the Rinchis reside is called 
Agum. The distance by water to their place of re- 
sidence firom Slack, is seven days, and across the 
country three days' journey. Tanah Datar is 
another province, of which Tuanko Seman is the 
chief. The capital town is Lintow, where the 
chief resides. Lebban is a large province, divided 
into innumerable petty commands. Tuanko LcIk 
ban is the chief. AUang Panjang is another lai^ge 
province, the chief of which bears the same name. 

pointing him rajak^ since they had none ; and aftet he had, 
as a eondition^ sacoeeded in destroying an immense snake 

** which harrassed the country, he was unanimously elected 
rajah by the people of Buantan ; and of him are descend- 
ed all the generations of the rajahs of Pagaruyoog. 

Sangfaiia Utama afterwards quitted Bentan> and founds 
ed the dty of Singapura, situated on the southern mctre- 
mity of the Malayan peninsula. This event is supposed 
to have taken place a. d. 1160. 

The successors of Sang Nila Utamu were Paduku Sri 

'' Wikrama, Sri Rama Wikrama^ and Sekandu Shah, who 
being driven out of Singapnra (the present Sincapoo), by the 
Majapahit forces, afterwards established the dty of Ma- 

" lacca. His successor, Mahomed Shah, first embrace4 Ma^ 

'' hdoetamsm in the year 1276." — Malayan Annals, 

Raffled Java, page 110, voL Sd. 






Fda Kumboo is said to l)c the largest and 
populous province of the whole. 

The following were mentioned as some of the 
principal places and chiefs about half a months 
journey inland of Siack, viz. Kapunahan, Ramln^ 
Tumosei Kanto, Ujong Batu, the chiefs of whkh 
are styled Jang de per tuan or his Majesty ; and 
they are represented to be populous districts. Be- 
sides these, may be mentioned Batu gajah Dedsf^ 
Karikan, Kuban, Leantan, and Tandong, all nn> 
der different rajahs. 

The above are tlie principal provinces and dis- 
tricts forming the great kingdom of Menangkahaa. 
The chief town or capital of the Menangkaban em- 
pire, is, or was, Pagar Uyong, where the king used 
to reside. His Majesty was put to death nuuy 
years ago by the Rinchis, and there is no king at 
present ; the power of these chiefs being predomi- 
nant. There is a communication with the Me- 
nangkabau states from Kampar, Reocan, Sin^ 
and Indrigiri. 

Hostilities with the Dutch. — ^Tbere is a repsrt 
that the Dutch from Padang, who have been figkt- 
ing for some time past with the Rinchis^ have 
tablishcd themselves at Semaboo, two days* 
ney inland of Padang, and are making rapid 
gross in conquering the country. 

Former Qmmerce. — The Tuanko Pangican 
says, that in former years, when thirty or ftity 


large Buggese prows, richly laden, used to come to 
Slack in a year, and many ships and brigs from 
Java, Coromandel, &c., the commerce was immense. 


He estimated the imports of salt at 1000 coyans 
a-year," or 2500 tons, 600 or 700 chests of raw 
silk, and 100 chests of opium. The export of gold 
was never less than three peculs weight in a year. 
The country still possesses the same resources as 
formerly ; but the internal disturbances have caused 
ft temporary suspension of trade, which might, with 
some management and political interference, soon 
he i^stored again to its wonted activity and pro- 
sperity ; and thousands of people, who are now 
groaning under the yoke of the most bitter tyranny, 
be restored to happiness and comfort. I only sug- 
gest this for consideration. There is no doubt 
that the trade of the interior might be drawn down 
to Siack again, which coidd not fail to be of im- 
mense advantage to Pinang. No doubt the Dutch 
have some deep scheme in attacking the Rinchis 
from Padang, and applying for a settlement at 
Siack. If they eflFect this, the whole country will 
be under their controul. I hope, however, the Bri- 
tish government will not be inattentive to its own 
interests, and support its just pretensions, founded 
upon the treaty of Cdonel Farquhar, of 1818| 
which entirely precludes the Dutch from forming 
any settlefnent, or interfering in the internal ad- 
pin istration of the country. 


Source of the River.— \t luu been a gnenllj 
received apinion, that the three great riven Siadc^ 
Indri^^ and Jamfai, are united at thar mantSL 
Tuanko Long, who has long been in the coantry, 
assured me that such is the case ; but the Tuanko 
Fangiran, whose information I should be dispo^ 
ed to prefer, and several other people mentioiied 
that the river takes its rise a considersble ^^■^^"ff 
fixim the foot of the mountains, and is formed of 
a collection of small streams and rivulets ; and 
whidi uniting, and being joined by other larger 
rivers in their progress towards the sea, fiinni 
one of the noblest rivers on the island for depth 
and safety. 

Soil and jigriculture.—Tbe banks of the Siadc 
river, afler passing Pulo Guntong, gradually ris^ 
and the smi is a very rich black mould upon elay» 
the upper stratum of various degrees of depth, from 
one and a half to eight feet There is an immense 
extent of excellent land, well adapted for the cnl- 
tivatiou of paddy, pepper, sugar-eane, && At pre- 
sent, the cultivation of the two latter is limited to 
the consumption of the inhabitants of the country. 
The ladangs, or paddy plantations, are numenua 
all along the banks of the river. Gambir used to 
be cultivated to some extent ; and ships might be 
loaded with it, if the natives had enconngement 
to give their attention to its culture the aoil beifl|g 
particularly favourable. 


3lMi6fr.— Few countries can bosst of sach an 
exteadye Tariety of excellent timber finr ship-bmld- 
ing, and other usefiil purposes, as Siadc* The fol- 
lowing is a list of sixteen of the prindpal sorts, of 
which supplies to any extent might be procured upon 
very reasonable terms. Musters of all these were 
presented to me by the Tuanko Pangiran, and are 
now in my possession : — Komodan, for ships' knees ; 
Dam Daru, masts and chests ; Koras, ships' tim- 
bers ; Giam, ships* planks as good as teak ; M^ 
dang putih, ships' and house planks ; Kulim, jdanks 
as timbers; Russa, ships' planks; Perapo, house 
planks; Medang kiming, ship or house jdanks; 
Mirbow, ditto and furniture ; Serapat, ships' 
masts; Medang brawas, house planks; Koras 
Kes^ ships* timbers; Medang Kalaboo, diips^ 
planks ; Medang Pergura, ditto ; Arang, or ebony, 
for furniture, handles of swinrds, kris, ftc 

Towns aftd VUlages. — Up the Mandow riTcr, 
which is one day's sail from the town of Siack, 
there is a great number of people quite wild, who 
wear only the bark of trees, some of the webs of 
which are in my possession. In appearance diese 
people resemble the Malays. 

Beyond this is Snngei Kassip, also baring 
many inhabitants ; and Sungei Perawang, with so- 
Teral viUages. The viUages are on the Sia^ ri- 
ver. Beyond this are Kampong Tibbing l^igi, 
Melubbang, Penkambang, Siar, and Kampong Fla- 


kaiikani ; to which places vessels of conriderable 
burden ascend, lliis is the principal mart in the 
country. Sungei Tappang Kanan, and numenrnfe 
small villages; after which comes Petupahan, a 
large and populous town, and a place of great trade 
with the natives of the interior. 

Distances. — From Siack to Pakanharu is twe 
days' sail ; thence to Petupahan one day ; to Kantar 
by land, two days ; to Padar Nonang, two days 
farther; and from thence to Pagar Uyong, the 
former residence of the king of Menangkabaoi 
three days. The country is studded with villages 
all the way. 

Boundary and Dominion. — The dominion of 
Siack nominally extends from Tlmian to Katu- 
mahan ; but the authority is only partially acknow- 
ledged at certain places, although all the principal 
states between these two ports have been at vi^ 
nous times reduced to submisdon. 

Government — ^The government of Siadi la lit 
present in the hands of Sultan Abdul Jalil Kha- 
lil-ttdin, whose ministers are the Tuanko Panglima 
besar, and four datus, named Sri Pakama fiqali^ 
Sri Bijiwangsa, Maharajalela Muda, and Tuan 
Imam. These chiefs, in conjunction with the kingp 
decide all matters of importance relating to the go- 
vernment of the country. In most Malayan, as in 
European states, we find a certain number of com^ 
tiers round the cliief, whose principal oocnpatioB i| 


to foment disturbances, and endeavour to prejudice^ 
by every species of caliunny and insinuation, others 
who attend quietly to the performance of their du- 
ties, and know nothing of the ooiurt tricks. These 
sycophants ingratiate themselves into the £ivouv 
and confidence of their chief, by the basest servility 
and duplicity. Their whole profession is intrigue,^ 
and a principal part of their duty is laying j^ota 
for the destruction of their rivals, who may be dis^ 
tinguished for their talents and unostentatious vi^• 
tues ; and by representing them perhaps as disat 
feqted to the government. No service is too de- 
grading to these wretches ^ no ends deemed ill^al 
ar improper for the attainment of their vile ptir-* 
poses. After having won the favour of their chief,* 
and entwined themselves into his a£Pairs, so that he 
cannot shake them off, however much he may.havi^ 
cause to alter his sentiments, by having casudly 
detected their dufdicity, they are the foremost to 
plot his destruction, to screen themselves from ex- 
posure, and the consequences of detected villainy^ 
Syed Ally, the former king of Siack, was a man 
of this sort : he gained the favour and confidence 
of the former king, whose prime minister he was ; 
and was all the while plotting, and ultimately com-' 
pleted, his destruction. 

Beventies and Duties. — I really cannot pretend 
to give any satisfactory estimate of the revenues. 
They must, however, be considerable; but as na 


aoorants are kept, and certain persons are ezemptf 
as in other Malayan states, it is impossible to judge 
of the amount of duties, even if the quantity of 
goods imported and exported could be aaoertainedp 
which is imposmble. 

The duties are as follows :— 

Imports. — On opium, SO dollars per chest ; salt. 
8 dollars per coyan ; ditto, Java, 10 dollars per 
^tto; raw silk, 5 per cent ; European and coast 
doths, 5 per cent. ; and merchandize, imported in 
junks of all sorts, 5 per cent. 

fd^iorto.— Gahru, 25 dollars per pecnl; wax^ 
S dollars per ditto; gambir, i dollar per ^tto; 
fish-roes, 2i dollars per 1000 ; salt-fish, 2 doUan 
per 1000 ; and sago, 8 dollars per coyan. 

All other articles arc free of export or import 

Vessels. — ^There are said to be about 400 prowa 
of various descriptions employed in trader belonging 
to SiacL The king has built, and is buildings * 
great many new ones. The Arabs own many large 
tops ; and there is a small brig or two owned bjr 
some of them. 

Commerce. — Although the trade of Siaek hai 
been so materially circumscribed within the last 
fifteen years, there is still a very oonriderable comn 
merce ; their vessels proceeding with the prodnoe 
of the country in great numb(»^ to Malacca and 
Singapore, and some few extending their voyage to 

'- £p 


Pfalaiig. The prlndpal exports of the stMe are 
rattans, Tis. jemang, batu and semamboo, dammar, 
kayu lakar or dye-wood, ebony, agila wood, wax, 
ivory, silk cloths, camphor, tdur trobo or fish-roes^ 
and gold. 

The imports of Siack may be enumerated as 
follows :— Coast doths, consisting of chdopans, 
murehs, shecurtams, and other Uue and white 
cloths ; kain gajah, or coarse brown doth ; kalamka- 
lies, chawals. Sunt and Mnchili Bundar chintaei ; 
European chintses, and white doths ; chindies, dik 
and cotton, taffaties, gold thread, raw silk, kasdm- 
ba, ambalu, siam or gumlac, coarse plates and 
dishes, salt, quallies, coflSse, iroti, sted in ban and 
tubs, hoop iron, tobacco Java, Madianfc pddi or 
ptedous stones from Ceylon and other places^ for 
rings and ornaments; gunpowder, tin, muskets^ 
swivels, and opium. 

75n. — ^Tin-ore is found up the Mandow river ; 
but so Uttlc do the natives understand the process 
of smelting it, that they are obliged to import what 
they require for thdr own use from other countries. 

I#^ar.— The Icbba, or bees-trees, are very abun- 
dant in the interior of Siack; and the Tuanko 
Pan^ran assured me, that SOOO pcculs of beef> 
wax might be obtained in a year, under a good 
system of management* 

Arms. — ^The king of Siack has a great number 
of large iron and brass ordnance, and swivda imiu* 



tA sOk sear^ five cubits long by one «nd a half 
wide, richly wrought with gold thread, worn some- 
times as a girdle by the king and chiefi^ and as a 
scarf thrown over the head or across the shoulder 
of the finnaks of the richer class. 

Kain lepas or safindang, an elegant scarf of pur- 
ple silk, with a deep crimson border, vandyked 
with gold thread, the body of alternate square and 
&rBl spots of goli thread. The length is five cu- 
bits, and breadth two. This is worn like the chi- 
lari. Salindang ayer mas, a splendid scarf of party 
cokmred silk, with crimson border of the same. 
Salindang etam, a dark blue cotton doth, of Euro- 
pean or Madras manufacture, richly stamped with 
gold flowers, and vandyke border. This is worn 
as the others ; four cubits long, by two wide. Sa- 
lindang, a purple scarf like the above. Salindang 
polangei,' a cotton scarf, frequently worn as a tur- 
ban, and much prized in idl Malayan countries. 
It if of a purple colour, and the ends of crimson, 
stamped with green, yellow, and other colours.' 
Salindang onguh, a purple cotton scarC dyed in 
the country, worn by the poorer classes. Besides' 
these may be mentioned the sarong or tartan silk 
petticoat, of which there is a vast variety of beau- 
tiful patterns. 

Serawal panjang* or long pantaloons of purple 
silk, richly wrought under the knee as far as the 
ande, with gold thread. Serawal sitra, or beautiful^ 


purple coloured silk breeches, reaching to the knae^ 
and elegantly wrought with gold thmd. 

Saputangan pulangei, or a handkerchief fixr the 
head, of a purple colour, with a fimdfiil botdo^ 
curiously stamped. These are the &Toiirite weir 
for the head, but expensive. 

Saputangan etam or dark blue handketdiMC 
stamped like the salindang, with gold flowen. 

The women are the manufiicturera 
doths. There is no doubt that manj 
might be successfully imitated in England, 
the cotton doths particularly, manufactured at 
reduced prices. These are articles in constant de- 
mand in most of the Malayan states ; and ex{ 
sive sales might be made, provided due attentai 
were given to the patterns and dimennoos. Maaf 
imitations, however, in England, of Indian 
tures, have failed lately, from a want d dm 
these respects; the Malays being 
having the cloths of an exact length and brenddL 

The authority of Siack extends to Taii|o^g 
Katumahan near Rhio, between which are the 
following places : — 

llantow, under a datu, a great place for aaga 

Scrapong, containing SOO inluibitants, under a 
pungulu. The produce sago. 

Kampar, Jang de per tuan, a place of very eoB- 
uderablc trade at present, many vessels fimn Sn- 
gaiK>re proceeding there for rattans, &c 


Mirba, under a pungulu, having 100 inhabit- 
ants. Produce sago. 

Katumahan, also under a pungulu^ and SOO 
people reside there. 

Then comes Indragiri, under the sultan of Lm- 
gin. Little comparatively is known of this river, 
except that it is reported to be navigable for ves- 
sels of considerable burden ; and the country is 
stated to be populous. The before-mentioned 
places, however, being beyond the limits of my 
inquiries, I shall not attempt to describe them 
more particularly at present, although I procured 
all the information at Siack r^arding them that 
was attainable. 

The government may be assured, that nothing 
in the forcing report has been stated without 
due inquiry and sufficient authority ; and I lost no 
opportunity of ascertaining any points on which I 
felt a doubt to exist, before 1 ventured to include 
them in this history ; or where any doubts still re- 
main, I have noticed them. I rely, therefore, on 
the candour of govemment» to excuse any involun*^ 
tary errors. 





No. I. 


Tbx hoDOundile the governor in council having 
resolved to employ yonr services on a missioD of a highly 
oonfidoitial and impcvtant nature, I am directed to ad* 
yise you thereof without delay, and to communicate the 
nature of the aervice on which you are about to proceed, 
9s well as the detailed instructions which must guide 
your conduct ao^ proceedings throughoiit the progress 

% It has for some time past been an object c^ anxious 
consideration with government to adopt some moderate 
and consistent plan for improving our relations with the 
eastern coast o( Sumatra, and for extending by that 
means, if possible, our intercourse with the countries in 
the interior, which are reported to be highly flourish- 
ing. The views of this government have been often di* 
rected to this important object Mr Jdm Scott was de. 
puted to Siack so early as June 1806 ; Mr F. Garling in 
April 1807; and again Mr F. Lynch in Jply 1806 ; b|it 


although the report of the lust individual much cxtcmki 
our geographical infonnation respecting tliat coa&t (a& nmj 
be seen bv the valuable additions to tlic last cditioo nf 
INIarsdcn^s Sumatra), and detennincd particularlj ike 
Siack river to be navigable to a great extent for wcmA if 
considerable burden ; yet the moral condition of ifce 
chiefs and people has been represented to be so hosdk t» 
friendly relations, from their universal attachment to pincj, 
and the mischievous eifects of anarchy and miu-ule, 
no reasonable ground has existed for establishing 
and more secure commercial intercourse between llii 
island and the numerous ports which line the 

3. Of late, however, many circumstances have 
to render the attempt to accomplish such on object 
inviting, as well as its policy more important 
able. We have concluded a commercial treafj witk the 
most powerful chief on that coast, the rajah of Siack, 
received our negociator in 1818, with every 
lion of respect, and of a desire to improve Ms 
with the British government. We have recnml the 
thority of the supreme government, even to form a 
tish establishment at Siock, should it appear to this 
vemment to be expedient ; and three chiefs on that 
tho rajahs of ])elli, Sherdang, and Assahan, hare 
o|X!ned a correspondence with the governor, that ii 
some desire of improving their relations with this 
mcnt ; and lastly, the Netherlands government haie 
cupied Uhio, Malacca, and Padang; and their eAuta la 
divert to those ))oris the greatest portion of the trade of 
Sumatra, cati nnlv l)e frustrated bv our reminding the 
native rhi'»is «»f tlw mnrc lihrral nnd nfipT'icallv hmej" 


cial course of measures pursued by the British govern- 

4. Without the danger, therefore, of embarrassing 
ourselves with the disputes of any of the native chiefs, 
the honourable th^e governor in council considers that 
the time has arrived when we may endeavour to procure 
a more extensive and intimate knowledge of the ports and 
people in this neighbourhood, and even to derive, by a 
judicious course of measures^ some permanent commercial 
advantages fiir this establishment. It is f<^ this purpose 
you have been selected ; and the governor in council 
confides fi>r a fiivourable and gratifying result^ in his 
knowledge of your qualifications of integrity, temper, ex- 
perience, and knowledge of the Malay language. As the 
agent of this government on the present occasion, your 
attention will be devoted to a visit o£ the whole of the 
eastern coast of Sumatra, firom Jambi to Tamiang, in or. 
der to execute the following objects :— - 

1. To coast the shores, and ascertain as far as possible 
tbeir character and navigation, commencing at the river 
Jambi, the southernmost place and port 

51. To visit each port or place of any consequence oq 
the coast; collect the best infinmation on the spot concern* 
ing its natural, commercial, and political advantages; the 
extent and nature of its resources, productions, imports, 
and exports ; the precnse nature of the revenue, and au- 
thority of its government ; the number, character, and 
principal occupations of its inhaUtants ; the principal ar- 
ticles forming its staples, as well as those of foreign com- 
merce in demand there ; the nature and extent of its in- 
tercourse with the countries in the interior (especiidly 


McnangkalMui) ; and every nlfinahln infomunion 

ing the character, purMiitf, and wants cf the inhabkaHli 

of the interior countries. 

S. To wait on erery respectable chief on that ooastt cad 
ascertain as fiur as possible his character and hahilBi wmi 
the nature and extent of his jurisdiction ; apptba Uas cf 
the sincere desire of this goremment to establish a fiisnd^ 
If and mutually beneficial conuneraalinteraoane behnsan 
this island and his state, and of the anxious irish and d^ 
sire of this government to suppress and diicouragB tkt 
scandalous system of piracy ; and further, invite Ua^ hj 
every conastent inducement, to join this gDvennnsnl in 
accomplishing these denrable objects. 

4. To endeavour to persuade each diicf on thni caasi^ 
of the advantage and policy cf fixing a rqgubr and ■». 
derate rate cf duties to be levied on the oonnnsrae cf Ma 
port, instead cf the existing mischievous system of 
trary duties and presents in kind, exaded fima 
and cfNnmanders of vessels; with this view to cfateiub ' 
posnble, a document under the hand and seal of cnah 
chief, and those of his principal nobles^ ■•■f Vi*«*g tbai 
the subjects of the British government who nsort to 
port, shall in future pay customs, duties^ and aH 
charges, according to a fixed and stated rate^ in the 
manner as his own subjects and all other 
ing this port are required to pay ; and thai they 
permitted to go to whatever part of his ^'^^■ntfftt 
think proper, either to buy or sell, in person or hj Ihrir 
agents, at any time ; and that they are on no 
be stopped, molested, or oppressed, while so 
4Ik1 demeaning tbcnuwlvcs peaceably. The 


be apprited, that similar immuiMties have alwa3r8 been af- 
fijcded at this island to the merchants and mariners be- 
longing to their respecdve dominions. 

6. To visit every river on that coast; asoend, and as- 
certahiy as far as possible, its comrse and navigation ; the 
extent and natmre of the trade it conveys from and to the 
artttior ; and the situatioa and character of the places to 
iriiich such is carried. 

6. The honourable the governor deems it advisable 
to cautiott you particularly not to involve yourself in any 
disputes which may subost between the different native 
dudk, nor to pursue any measures of a poUtical tendency, 
or calculated to interfere with the Netherlandish authori- 
ties» particularly as far as concerns the subjects and do- 
minions of the sultan of Palembang. The principal ob- 
jects of your mission, in £M;t, are as follows, vix. :— ^ 

First and chiefyf To obtain, by means of a respon* 
«Ue and accredited agent, an authentic, exact, and un- 
biassed account of the resources and condition of the dif- 
Cerent states on the eastern coast of Sumatra. 

SecondjUfy To prevent Malacca and Rhio from engross- 
ing the trade hitherto flowing from Siack and the eastern 
coast to this port 

. Thirdhfy To ascertain if it be practicable, as supposed 
by many, to bring down again to the eastern side of Su* 
matra, the trade from Menangkabau, and the reputed 
flourishing countries in the interior; it bong certain tbat 
the course of that trade flowed through the lai^ riven 
of Siack^ Indragiri, &c., before it was diverted to the 
Dutch settlement of Padang and the west coast And, 

LatO^ To collect every information reelecting tlie 
productions of the interior countries, said to s^und irith 


whom it will be expedient for you to communicifte. The 
country between Rantau and Jambi b said to be suljgect 
to the rajah of Lingin; and the governor in council 
should certainly be reluctant to depute an agent from 
this government, to any part of the dominions of that 
chief, did he not feel assured, that the objects of such a 
miflsion being purely commercial, its friendly visit cannot 
by any means clash against the political powers of any 
neighbouring British government. You will therefore' 
not fail to keep this feeling in your mind, in executing, 
such objects as your mission may call for in that quarter. 

10. The allowances that will be granted to you during 
jfour employment in the present service, as well as the 
arrangements that will be made for the conduct of your 
loeal duties while absent, will be communicated to you in 
another letter. 

11. The honourable the govenunr in council has deter^ 
nuned to avail himself of the scientific knowledge and pe- 
culiar talents of Lieutenant Crooke, of the 20th regimentyi 
by providing you with their application ; and he has been 
accordingly appointed assistant and surveyor to the mis^ 
non, on a personal salary of 200 dollars per monthr 
Lieutenant Crooke has been advised of this appcnntment, 
and desired to refer to you for idl further instructions^ 
connected with the objects of your mission. 

IS. In addition to the objects before enumerated, your; 
attention must also be directed to collect every possible 
information with respect to the natural history and anti* 
quitiesof the countries you may visit; the state of their 
soil, and the nature and extent of its cultivation ; the eus^ 
toms or taxes levied ; and the principal arts practised by 


the inhflbitoitt ; and yew will make it a point to pracoK^ 
by purchase or otherwise, and bring back irith joa tknm 
each place you visit, specimens of every manft&etuK or 
work of art which may be worthy of remark on a oeot m t 
of the skill of the natives, and rareness or eserileneirof 
the materials. A variety of drugs and medicinal hevba 
are imported from these countries; and a k n oiHed| g a 
of their qualities, as well as a collection of any prntioi- 
lariy useful or rare, may be an olgect worthy c^ jour at* 

IS^ Yon are particidarly instructed to keep the gn> 
v e rament regularly informed of the p ro g r es s of the bh- 
aon, by taking every opportunity of forwarding reports 
by vessels and small craft bound U> this port With this 
view you should keep a regular and a cc u r a te diaiy of 
your proceedings, and forward a transcript of the wame 
to the latest period, by each opportuni^. These repofts 
will be delivered back on your return, to cndble yon la 
prepare a correct and complete account of the pwiceeJ 
ings of the mission. 

* 14. You shouM desire Lieutenant Craoke to fwiuli 
himsrif with such mathematical instruments (thermoBSC^ 
ter, chronometer, sextant, and theodolite), as nmy be pn^ 
curable here ; and while your attention is devoled to tkr 
government, population, manners, produetionB, and 
merce of the countries you visit, that of your 
and surveyor should be directed te keep a 
and topographical diary, and collect information on thof 
cKmatc, geography, topography, and mi 
ments, if any, as well as to ascertain the military 
tages in point of situatkm and defence, of the 


MFnvDtx. 969 

harbours and mariume ports, and tbe best ineluis of 
curing the navigation of the larger rivers. The governor 
in council cannot expect that Lieutenant Crooke can have 
time or opportunity to make an actual survey of the 
countries visited ; but he has no doubt that his talents 
will qualify him to farm a map of the country, and chart 
of the coast, sufficient to promote the intet^sts of geogra- 
phy, although not perhaps exactly calculated for the pur- 
pose of the navigator, by defining the latitude and lon- 
gitude of the different places at which the misuon touches^ 
with their relative portion and distance. . 

15. Yon. will be aUowed to draw for the sum of 1000 
doUars, to provide for such contingencies as may arise in 
the course of the mission ; and are desired to transmit a 
a list of such arudes of European manufacture as you 
may conceive to be requisite, as presents to the different 
native chiefs you may visit ; and among the presents, you 
should prefer chiefly English broad*ck>th^ chintzes^ cot- 
tons, and musUns, in order to give the chiefs and pecqde 
a taste for our manufactures. Scientific and mathemati- 
cal instruments should also be.chosen ; books with plates, 
particularly Horsburgh^s and Dalrymple^s charts of the 
straits of Malacca, together with Testaments atid reli- 
gious tracts in the Malayan language, and any other 
books or works calculated to promote useful knowledge^; 
and diffuse geographical information amoi^ the natives^; 
You will keep a r^ular and separate account of. tbe. ap-^ 
propriation of the cash, and the distribution of the pro*: 
sents, as well as of any returns that, agreeably to Maliiy, 
custom, may be made. Your own personal expences on 

2 a 

^ AmNDIZ. 

jocouDt of the mianon will be defrayed od yoor retmi^ 
at the public expeoce. 

16. The hooounbie the governor in ooundl ift pkaad 
to desire that jou will obtain the services of a natm 
pilot, acquainted with the navigation of the eastern cosil 
of Sumatra, a copying clerk, two Peons and a liali^ 
Moonsbce; and you will also be furnished with a s u if ahi r 
tent and two lascars from the magazine. 

17. The necessary instructions have also been given 
for preparing a military escort from the 90th regimcaly 
consisting of one havildar, two mucks, and 16 sepojs, aD 
Mussulmen, and a pcnrtion selected from such as woe 
formerly trained to the exercise of great guns. The i^ 
quisite supplies of ammunition and provinoos calcnbiad 
for a consumption of three months, for the whole of the 
natives attached to the mission, will also be embarked. 

18. The governor in council desires me particularly Is 
caution you and Lieutenant Crooke not to aUow a as^ 
guine seal and ardour to mislead you into an 
has been very prevalent, and productive of great n 
nience, via. the formation of voluminous reports, and 
magnified tables of calculations, founded on 
tion and insufficient data. You will best exhibit 
intelligence, seal, and diligence, in collecting 
a list of facts as possible, and in recording those 
your diaries in the most simple language ; so thai iha 
supreme authorities may have the opportunity, as wril as 
this government, of forming their own condnsii 
them. As a guide particularly to yourself and 
nant Crooke, the governor in council has 

APPBN]»Z. 371 

Mooompanjing list of queries and memoraoda, which I 
am desired to inclose, with a request that the same may 
form a portion of your respective inquiries and obser^ 

lamj SiBf 

Your most obedient Servant, 

(Signed) W. A. Clublbt, 

Secielaiy to Governments 
Fori CormnBUy \M Jf<y 1820* 

(Tru€ Copy.) 

(Signed) W. S. Cbacboft, 

Acting Secretarj to GovemmenU- 



No. II. 

Memoranda relating io the Principal Heads of Inquiry and 
Observation required of Mr Ibbetson. 


Present government and religion of each state, and 
under what description of principal officers, foreign and 
native ? 

Character, personal appearance, habits, history of the 
chief and his principal officers, whether addicted to piracy 
and war, or to commerce, and the quiet pursuits of Ufe ? 

The pomputed amount and nature of the revenues of 
each chief? 

Influence of Europeans on the chief and his officers, 83 
to their buildings, style of living, dress or habits, &c. 

Disposition towards the English ? 

General opinions and prejudices ? 

Manners of the people, quiet and temperate, or disso- 
lute, in the state generally ; what degree of intercourse 
with people of other countries, and its results and efiects? 

Are intoxicating liquors much drank, or opium or 
other inebriating substances much used ? 

Comparative comforts and condition generally of chiefs 
and people ; how is wealth spent, used, or amassed, by 
each ? 

Names of the principal chiefs of each state ; where rer 
sident, and in what circumstances generally ? 


Nature of the buildbgs of each dam tespee^velj^ aa ta 
materials, durability, ntuatioD, and coinfort, fcc ? 

Number and account of places of worship^ if any ? 

Form, quantity* and auUerials, cf the flothii^ of iht 
natives ; and bow does diffierence of rank show itadf ? 

Nature of the equipages or conveniencea of canwga 
among each class in the imerior, and what fiwilitj of pi^ 
curing horses, bearers, &c ? 

Disposition of the natives to labour ; what diare, giaau 
er or less, do the women take in it ; and bj what ^e an 
either sex incapacitated for their employment? 

Emigration or settling of strangeiv ; to what iiUi^ 
and where or whence ? 

What factories, public or private ; where situated ; and 
for what manufacture or commodities ? 

Ascertain the nature and extent of the juriadictiaB of 
each chief; whether his authority is well estabGahcd, and 
exercised with wisdom and mildness; and whedwr iks 
appearance of his country in general is flourishii^ mad 
the habits of his people contented and indostriouL 

Do any means suggest themselves for the iinp of ci ent 
of tlie comforts or condition of any claaS| wUdi would 
prove rcceptable ? 

Present state of useful knowledge in each aCale^ and iha 
disposition of the natives to receive instrucUon ? 

What general fadliUes afforded to procure audi ? 

Estimated number of Chinese, Chuliahs, and 
where chiefly found in each state ; tb«r 
the arts and manufactures? 

Islomism how far supposed on the 
and from what apparent caus(!s ? 


Are natives proTeflBiDg Cbristiaiiity in any niudber in 
the district ; in what circumstances, and how employed ? 

Frevalency of diseases generally ; by what, directly or 
indirectly, brought on, and in what degree fatal ? 

Frevalency of the small-pox, and practice of vaccination 
nther received or known ? 

D^ree of mortality in each state; where least and 
greatest, and from what apparent causes? 

Slaves^ thmr kind and condition, and selling or buying 
of children; under what circumstances practised ; to what 
extent ; and whence procured. 

The practice of cannibalism, if prevalent in any dis- 
trict ; to what extent, and where ? 

Names of chiefs of each town, known for their talents, 
wealth, or respectalnlity ? 


What are the staple manufactures of the state, and 
where principally established, under any of the following 

1. Articles of clothing, &c. ; as silks, muslins, gauzes, 

cloths, &c. 
S. Household goods; as earthen-ware, metals, hard* 

ware, mats, rope, &c. 
S. Articles of food, &c. as sugar, salt, saltpetre, salt- 
fish, and roes, &c. 
4. Of dyes, as indigo, &c. 
Nature and progress of each respectively ? 
What other articles of any kind, and particularly such 
as may employ the commerce of this port, are manu- 
factured ? 

376 ArPBNiiix. 

What arc the principal objects of the internal trade of 
the district? 

What are the exports of the state, raw and mannfaO" 
tured; the ports whither principally exportn), and to 
what extent ? 

What articles, raw or manufactured, are ua ported; 
whence, aiid to what number ; and are they Sag the ea^ 
sumption of the distrirf, or for re«xportat]oa ? 

What fisheries, &c. are there, which affixd cmplojaeat 
to any consideiable number of natives. 

Description of vessels and boats employed in intcnsl 
navigation. Sec. ; their load, for what commodities employ- 
ed, and to and from what places conveyed ? 

What is the proportional value of the csqiarts and im- 
ports ; and is the trade of the state increising or Mil 
and how far capable of extension ? 

What are the prindpal sources of subsistence of tlie 
state ; and arc the bulk of the people usually supported 
from its own produce ? 

What articles of commerce have cnuidenhly risen or 
fallen in price within the hist 10 or SO yean, and from 
what causes ? 

A price current of the usual value of the necessaries of 
life, and of the principal articles of forrign and domcslie 

Account, local names, and variations of the scales of 
diflcrcnt measures and weights, compared with the sodn 
in use at Pinang ; and what local rules obtmn ■ ■ywjM^ 
their application ? 

What is the number of prows and other vessek cm- 
]»loycd in the foreign trade ? 

\V!in< is ilic oMiniatrd ([iMntifv o\ produce brought to 


Pinang ; and every information respecting the nature and 
extent of the commerce carried on between each port and 
thb island ? 

What are the principal articles of European and In<p 
dian manufactures in demand at each port f 

What are the specific duties or customs levied at each 
port ; whether presents are made to the chief, or a rate 
fixed ? If the latter, an authentic list of the duties should 
be procured. 

What are the internal taxes or imports, md particu- 
larly what are charged at the Quallas, or mouths of rivers ; 
and what embarrassments are thrown against the naviga- 
tion of the rivers ? 

What languages and dialects are spoken and under- 
stood, and where and among whom severally prevailing 
in each state ? 

State of literature, and what its signs, a^ so considered 
by the natives ? 

What knowledge of astronomy, physics, law, medicine, 
kc, and where obtained ? 

Astrology, magic, witchcraft, &c. to what extent prac- 
tised, and how far yielding to enlightening knowledge ? 


In what records are the earliest accounts of each state, 
and how far deserving of credit ? 

Ancient extent of the state, and ancient divisions ; and 
how far still preserved locally. 

Who are the supposed abori^nes of the country, and 
what traditions are known of them ? 


By whal chiefs originally poueatcd, and what k v^ 
eordal of them ? 

When did the government assume a regvlar 
and through whom ? 

What accounts exist of the diiefs and of their 
ttve dynasties, and of the state of the country under 

At what period ^ras the country invaded or 
by foreigners ; and when, and under what 
did they come ? 

What emigrations of the people are on veoord ? 

What were the former rehuions with the kingdom sf 
Meoangkabau ; and what records or tradiliona cskt sf 
the ancient power and authority of that state ? 

At what periods, whence, and under what di 
have Europeans visited the country ? 


Nature and name of the prevailing soils (surfaoe 
subsoil) of each state, and their general 
and quality ? 

In what degree severally productive or 
arc they usually occupied, and for what 

Quantity of water or waste ? 

Effect d[ inundaticm or run ? 

How wooded ; and size, quality, and name of 
other useful and rare trees ? 

Grcneral system of husbandry, in preparing land 
culture ? 

What arc the different agricultural impkmeBta in 
how far fitted for the purpose, and what is their ooat? 


What are their principAl crops and their seasons of 

What cfopB of small and inferior gmias, and of roots, 
pulse, &c. are raised ? 

What vc^tables and other esculent, not indigenous, 
are cultivated, and what is the produce ? 

Is land anywhere appropriated for grazing? 

Wh^t inferior live stock att reared, as poultry, geese, 
&C. ; with what success, and for what market, if any ? 

The following queries may be applicable, in a more or 
less degree, to the different articles of Malay l^^ 
culture and produce, viz. paddy, pqpper, tobaooo, 
hemp, cotton, spices, teak, rattans, betel-nut, &c. 

Where cultivated, to what extent, and of what impor* 
tance to the state, its varieties, and their local names ? 

In what soil, or under what circumstances, does it thrive 

Doth it require land exclusively for its cultivation, or 
soon exhausts it by successive crops, and what kind of 
manure and tilth is given ? 

How is the seed prepared for prcqpagating, when sown, 
and how ? 

Much or little after culture required or given ? 

Are the crops much liable to injury of any kind, or to 
disease fifom mildew, &c. ? 

When does the seed vegetate and ripen for the sickle 
or fanner ; is the product usually abundant or scanty, fine 
or coarse ; and what is the iisqal produce per acre or 

How many crops are produced annually of the article ; 
at what seasons reaped or gathered ; and which keeps best^ 
or is most profitable f 


Mode of gathering, cleaning, and prescnring peppv, 
bctcl-nut, cotton, tobacco, &c and spices, if a 
what arc the average prices per pecul of such 

Extent and nature of lands bearing rattans ; mode €f 
collecting them ; quantity, quality, and average priee ef 
the same ? 

Extent and nature of teak and other forests ; quaBliC|r 
and quality of that and other valuable timbers^ and atv^ 
rage prices of the same ? 

Is the produce of the grain for the oonsinnpcion of the 
Btate, and suflSdent for it, or for exportation, and wimt 

Does the husbandry of the state appear to be h a 
course of progressive iroprovemenL Estimated prapoftioa 
of land in the state under tillage and waste P 


Names, local as well as European, of the dillmnt kinda 
cif animals which are uncommon or (leculiar to the comi* 
try ; their characteristic marks, and peculiarities as to age, 
bi/e, habits, qualities, or uses, &c. 

What animals particularly abound or infest the coun* 
try or towns, hurt the crops, are ferocious, or othcnrHe 
injurious ? 

What arc the birds common to the state, or rate or 
remarkable for their song, plumage, habits, use Ifar 
luod, &c. ? 

S|M}cies of fish usually found on the coast, or in parti* 
cular rivers, tanks, &c. 

Is tlic >upp)y vurioiiri; abundant, and good for food; of 


what kind and size, and their season of perfection ; how 
caught and presarved, and to what market sent ? 

Names of plants spontaneously produced, whose fruit, 
juice, flower, stems, or roots, are articles of diet, or of the 
materia mtdicoj or applied to domestic uses and the arts 
of dyeing, &c. ? 

What are the chief mineral productions or fossils, and 
especially what gold, alver, tin, or other mines exist, to 
whom belonging, how far productive, and how and to 
what extent worked ? 

Are there in the district any figured stones, buildings, 
ruins, be having any impressions, or otherwise objects of 
curiosity or veneration ? 

Mr Ibbetson will of course see the neoesdty of apply- 
ing the above queries and observations by slow degrees, 
and with extreme caution and discrimination ; so that on 
the one hand he may not be deceived by putting leading 
questions to the natives, or on the other, lead them to 
distrust the objects of the mission and views of the British 

(Signed) W. E. Phillips. 

383 Apmmiz. 

naranda relating to the Principal Heads if tnqAif 
and Observation required o/Licuienani Crooke. 

H£T£OaOLOOY, &c 

1. Duration of the seaaons respectively, and hcnr cfii*' 
tinguished by natives ? 

2. Estimated quantity of nin at particular aeaaona f 
S. What winds are prevalent at cadi seaaoo reapeo- 

tively ; tiieir nature and influence on the country and Oft- 
vigation of the coast ; and are they very variable ? 

4. Runa at what period, their force, effect^ and do- 

5. Dews, when and in what quantity, and their eflfafll* 
when very great ? 

6. Prevalency of fogs, aists or of min^, or deoc^ 
tious qipearance of water. 

7. What earthquakes or natural phenoiiMna are «■ re- 
cord, and of what frequency ? 

& What record of other extraordinary plMMmena, of 
any particular famine, hurricane, pestilence^ draiiglit, liot 
wind, &c. and csccess or deficiency of rain, windsi aoi^ 
turc, heat, &c. P 

9. Duly temperature and appearance of the atoi^ 
sphere to be observed and noted. 


1. General form of each country, and how iar 
and advantageous, or ntlierwisc '" 


S. Boundaries, how far clearly defined, and whether 
natural or artificial ? 
8. Estimated length and width in extremes ? 

4. Face of each country generally, whether plain, 
hilly, jungle, cultivated, waste, or diversified by river^ 
marshes, &c. ? 

5. Name and situation of each town, port, and village^ 
as far as can be attidnable ; thor relative position and 
distance ? 

6. Estimated number of houses in each town or port of 
any note ? 

?• Estimated number of reddents in each town or 
port of any consequence, and the proportion between fo- 
reigners and natives ? 

8. Account of bridges, &c if any, where, and of what 
constructed, and present condition ? 

9. Account of roads and passes to the interior, thdr 
situation, state, and estimated extent ? 

10. Census of houses and people, when and to what 
extent ever efiected through the chief or otherwise, and 
with what results ? 

11. General height, complexion, and form c^ the na- 
tives of each state, dieir habits and strength of body, and 
characteristic features of the principal classes ? 

12. What is the healthiest part of each state, or what 
spot is absolutely unhealthy ; and kind of scmI, or local 
causes of such drcumstances ? 

19. What are generally the natural vegetable produce 
tions of the waste lands, sand, hills, &c. 

14. What forests or woods exist in each state, and 
their ntuation, extent, and state ? 

15. Situation and account of any mineral and other 


springs and fdr what remarkable or useful, mcdkinaUj 
or otherwise ? 

IG. At what depth may water be found in diflcrent 
parts of each state, and of what quality ? 

17. What mountains exist in each state, their com* 
puted height, utuation, and state ? 

18. General course of mountains in height and di« 
rcGtiun ? 


1. The nature and extent of the milhaiy and natal 
establishments, if any, of each state, and thdr numerical 

S. What is the military turn or reputation of the 
natives ? 

S. The military advantages, in point of ntuation and 
defence, of the difTcrent harbours and maritime ports ? 

4. Situation, state, and history, of any oM or modem 
forufications ? 

5. The customs prevailing respecting the mode of 

6. Nature of the arms, or oiFensive and defauivc won* 
pons in use ; and influence of Europeans on the natiTes^ 
as to their military buildings, arms, &c. and practice of 

7. Eligible sites for the formation of British ports or 
factories for securing the navigation of the large riveiB, 
for cfTcvting the suppression of piracy on any particular 
coast, or for iixiiig ii secure commercial residence at any 
port or town of noli* > 



I. Extent aiid nature of the sea coast; its bays, 
creeks, &c.? 

% Account of its tides^ souiidings, &c. ? 
9. Of its rocks, shoals, lands, shallows, &c. ? 

4. Of its headplands, points, harbours, and distance 
and bearing of one part from another, as far as can be 
ascertained ? 

5. The magnetic variation and astronomical observa- 
tions, fixing the latitude and longitude of each place 
visited by the mission ? 

6. Description of each river according to its relative 
^ze and importance ? 

7. Which have thdbr origin in the district, and whence ? 

8. General course in length and direction ? 

9. Extreme breadths and depths in the dry and rainy 
seasons, and how far fordable at each period, and for 
what vessels or boats navigable ? 

10. How far liable to alter in its course at different 
seasons^ and what changes has it undergone in former 
periods, and from what supposed causes ? 

II. Encroachments of the river, regular and gradual, 
or sudden and uncertidn as to place ? 

1^ Where do any streams not perennial appear, what 
is their size, and for what period do they flow ? 

18. Islands, rocks, and sand-banks, in what part of the 
river ? 

14. Rivers, by what description or local denomination 
known among the natives, and in what respect not corre- 
sponding with its delineation and name in English maps ? 

2 B 


lo. Length and period of their inundations ? 

16. What dry beds of rivers are disooverable, 
what is known of them ? 

17. Names of the several streams in every part of tlieir 
course ; in what instances does the loeal nomcncbtture of 
rivers differ, and to what extent ? 

18. State of inland navigation gcncrallj, and haw tkr 
advantageous to the country, or further required. 

19. Extent, situation, and nature of any lakes, viA 
what rivers connected r 

20. Extent of any marshes; with what productiBm 
covered ; and how occupied, or of wliat use ? 

Lieutenant Crooke will of course see the ncoeMity of 
applying the above queries and observations by ilov di^ 
grees, and with extreme caution and diacriminationy ■> 
that on one hand he may not be deceived by putting 
leading questions to the natives ; or on the other, land 
them to distrust the object of the mission, and virva of 
the British government. 

(Signed) W. E. Phillifs. 

(True Cap;/,) 
(Signed) W. S. CaAcaorr, 

Acdng Secretary to 

i^o. in. 

To W. A. CLUBLEY, Esq. 

Secretary to Government, 

I DO myself th'i6 honour to send you a sketch 
6f the river Jambi, together with the subjoined topognr- 
{>hical account of that state, and of Assahan and Delli ; 
and I beg you mtl do me the favour, in laying tihem bc^ 
fore the honourable the governor in council, to tender my 
assurance that I have exerted myself to render them as 
Complete and perfect as my ability, and the means and 
Opportunities available by me, would allow. 

The mission having entered the Ewalla Nior, the west- 
em branch of the Jambi, on the ^th June, arrived in 
the neighbourhood of the town of Jambi on the Sd July ;• 
and beginning to descend the river on the 13th, it finally 
quitted it on the I8th July. During its stay it did not 
reade at the town, the low state of the river preventing 
the vessel from ascending much beyond three small 
islands, distant about two miles below it. This circum- 
stance tending to restrict a free intercourse with the chiefs 
and people, was in some degree a bar to observation and 
inqu'ury, and, added to the general ignorance of all classes/ 
rendered the acquisition of information a tedious and 
ficult matter. 


From Jambi (Mr Ibbctsoirs ill heallh requiring medi- 
cal aid, and incapacitating it for pursuing its olijects), tbe 
mission proceeded to Singapore, where it arrived on the 
Sl2i\ July. Sailing thence on the 10th August, it shaped 
its course towards the river of Siack ; but was prevented 
from visiting that state, by a return of Mr IbbeUon^s id* 
dis|x>Mtion. The places afterwards visited were the 
of Assahan and Delli. It ascended the formeron the 
August, and (|uitted it on the S3d ; and after wa 
at Pulo Verallah, it arrived at the latter on the S9di, sod 
leaving it on the 31st August, returned to this prcsidcacj 
on the 4th September. The time employed on these 
latter visits, did not admit of taking drafts of the riv4 

I am sorry to add that the chronometer^ though 
rently an excellent one (by Ilatton, the maker to the 
nourablc Company), and though attended to with 
anxiety and care, was found to change its daily rata 
8 to S3 seconds ( a difference amounting to a 
error of G^ miles), and was consequently not to be d^ 
pended upon. 

I have, &c. &c. &c. 

(Signed) S. C. Crooxi, Li£mL 

Anistaiit k. Surrrjor to a 

rRiNCi: or Wait* Imisii. |i 
IO//1 S,'pt,»Hhr IJr*Ji». I 



A^cffidbrt^.*— The kingdom of Jambi is bounded on 
the north-east by the straits lying to the westward of the 
Lingin archipelago, on the north-west by thick forests 
which separate it from Indragiri, to the westward by the 
celebrated kingdom of Menangkabau, and by the Ke- 
rinchi country, over which it claims sovereignty, and to 
the south-eastward by a wild and wooded track, partially 
inhabited by the Eubus, an idolatrous tribe, subject to 
the sultan of Palembang. 

Face.-^The country is flat and even, being nowhere 
diverrified by mountains or hills. Towards the sea coast 
it is low, swampy, and subject to inundation ; but as it 
recedes from the shore, it becomes proportionably elevated 
and dry, and is in the interior intersected by numerous 
small streams, and by several rivers navigable for small 
prows, which all flow into the Jambi. Along the banks, 
and in the neighbourhood of these streams and rivers 
only, is there any open ground or cultivation, a thick fo- 
rest extending in every other quarter. 

i$oi/.— -The land rising in an inclined plane from the 
sea towards the great central chain of mountains which 
divide the island lengthways, is probably of alluvial forma- 
tion. At Jambi, its siuface is about SO feet above the 
level of the river in the dry season. It is composed of a 
rich vegetable mould, covering a bed of clay, mixed with 
fine sand, under which, at the depth of 11 or 12 feet, 
there is a stratum of peat, four feet in thickness, contain- 
ing trunks of trees of various dimensions, the bark unde- 
cayed, and the fibres of the wood retaining much of their 
natural colour, strength, and elasticity. 

390 APPBNmx. 

Ttie substratum is a fine light coloured clay, ilightlf 
mixed with decayed vegetable matter in specks, where tbt 
stratum of peat disappears. The bank presents r 
of successive layers of sand and clay. Neither 
gravel were found in the soil, though pebbles of quaits 
and fragments of iron-stone are washed down by the ri 
from the interiori and deposited on the sand-banks. 
Ipw Jambi, the banks continue to exhibit the 
till their height is considerably reduced, when the 
turn of peat entirely disappears. 

Rivers.-^Thc river Jambi is said to have its 
the mountiuns of Menangkabau ; but no ioformatioa was 
obt^nable at Jambi with respect to its magnitude^ or tht 
length and direction of its course, before it 
Tanjong, a frontier town of Jambi. It is 
being there fordable in the dry season, though 
to a considerable distance higher up within the tcrritiaj 
of Menangkabau. The vague and indefinite w«f^ in 
which the nutives estimate distances by time, and ihe jt^ 
ruder method employed by them of indicatii^ die Mat^ 
tions of places by a simple reference to the noenl or d^ 
scent of the river, render it impossible to fix the 
position and distance of Tanjong, with respect to 
The journey is, however, stated to require from 15 to 9t 
days (according to the nature of the boat) lo asocnd the 
stream, or 10 days to descend. It is further stated Id fat 
15 days travelling by land from a place called A§■^ 
which latter is within a few miles of a volcano, and S dsfi 
distant from Padang. Acconling to the lowest but 
probable account, it contains 30 houses. Fran X 
jong, the river in its course downwards rei 
sively the waters of the Sumei from its left, and the 


gei Tubob, Tubir, and Tumbesi) from its right. Oi' 
these, the Tmnbcsi is first in size, and the Tuboh the 
next, the former having three considerable tributary 
streams, namely, the Batang Assei from its right, and 
Bear its head, and successively, the Merangin and Ayer 
etam from its left. These rivers are all said to be navi- 
gable for boats, and the country through which they flow 
is asserted to be populous and well cultivated. On the 
Tubir there is a mart and town called Pakalan Jambu ; 
and 10 or 15 days up the Tumbeid stands Leinun, a town 
famous for its gold trade. The conflux of the Tumbesi 
is 10 days distant for trading prows against the stream, 
from Jambi ; but an express boat performed the journey 
in four days, and returned in two. 

At the town of Jambi, the river is in its low state three 
fathoms in depth, and about 450 yards in breadth ; but 
when swelled by the rains, it rises about 15 feet, and 
spreading over a sandy flat below its right bank, increases 
its breadth to about 900 yards. Immediately below the 
town it becomes broader, and decreases in depth to ^ht 
feet ; but the channel is afterwards in its whole extent 
from 2 to 15 fathoms deep in the dry season, and is per- 
fectly safe and free from dangers till its conflux with the 
sea. The only sand-banks that es^st are, excepting at 
the periodical rise of the river, above water, and are in« 
yariably found adjoining tp the bank, on the contrary side 
tp that against which the current strikes. They are con- 
fined to the upper part of the river, and are evidently 
formed by deposition in the rains, from such parts of the 
Strieam as are cliecked by and stagnated immediately be- 
low the points. In the lower part of the river, the run of 
the tidjB counteracts this disposition, and prevents theiirre^ 

382 ArpBNDiz. 

gular formatioiu Two miles below Jombi are ntualad 
the onljr islands between it and the sea ; thcj are three in 
number, the largest being about BOO yanls ai IcogChy 
and are oonaected with each other, and with the soathcni 
bank, by a sand-bank, peiiodically dry. Their he^^ ia 
not equal with that of the banks, from which thej an 
distant SOO and 400 yards. The river, after flowing 
past them, throws off on an arm about 50 yards im 
breadth, which having taken a drcuiUMis track to the 
southward, in the course of whidi it is navigable for rmj 
small boats, again unites, under the name of the Moam 
Kompace, with its parent source, after the latter haa warn 
about 42 miles. Nine miles bekw this jandkim waA 
about 61 from Jambi, the Kwalla Saddoo and Kwaila 
Nior diverge from each other. The general coarse of the 
river so fiur is N. £. and by £• ; its banks gradually dft* 
minish in height from tO to 5 feet ; its depth varies ham 
8 to 15 fathoms (excepting at the shalbw part already 
noticed) ; and its breadth from S50 (o 700 yards ; 
it passes by twelve villages or kampongs. 

Kwalla Saddoo.— The Kwalla Saddoo, or eastt 
branch, is three times the breadth of the Nior at their 
paration, and apparently continues its course ia the 
ral line of direction of the main river. It enters the saa 
in lat V m' south, 5 or 6 miles to the westward ef Tai^ 
jong Bon (correctly Jibon), having thrown «iff a kige 
branch called the Kwalla Murba, which empties il 
or six miles further to the westward. They are both 
to l)e deeper than the Nior, and are no doubt 
tlivir ciMiRic ; but their entrances, on a hasty 
appeorixi exceedingly shalbw. 

Kicnlln JNTtor.— The ;*cneral direction of the 


Nior, the weBtern branch, is at first from W. N. W. to W., 
its breadth from ISO to 450 yards, and its depth from S 
to 7 fathoms. After a very winding course of about 1!0 
miles, it receiyes from the northward the Dinding, a river 
about 80 yards wide, and 5 or 6 fathoms deep, at a dis- 
tance of a quarter of a mile above its confluence. The 
united streams alter their direction to N. N. W. with few* 
er windings ; increase in breadth ; and maintaining a depth 
of from Sti to 6 fathoms, flow into the sea at a distance of 
IS miles from their junction. The banks of the Kwalla 
Nior throughout, are uninhabitable from their knmess, 
and present one unifcnm character of wooded and impe* 
netrable loneliness. 

Its course in disemboguing itself is nprth, and its en- 
trance points are nearly a mile from each other. The 
diaanel is, however, interrupted and divided by a tongue 
of sand which stretches out from the middle, and is dry 
at low water immediately outside the points. The east- 
ern branch, after leading close along the bank, passes 
between this middle sand and a broad bank, which lines 
the coast, with the eastern river point bearing S. S. W. ; 
it shoals at the same time to 10 feet at low water spring 
tides, and then sweeping round to north-west, deepens 
gradnally, and unites with the western branch, after whidi 
the channel has progres^veiy ftom S^ to 5 fathoms, is 
about three quarters of a mile broad, and clears die sands 
which confine it on each side, with the eastern entrance 
point bearing south. The sands are very extensive, the 
outer end of the western one bdng dry at low water 
spring tides, at a distance of 5 miles from the river^s 
month, bearing south. The shore afibrds noland^niarks, 
being low, and evenly covered with trees. 


The land head in in 0" 55\ and the river's mouth ui 
l"* 0" south latitude. The chronometer, not to be lefiad 
on, made them in 109* 4^ cast, or 34 miles wett fkam 
Tanjoiig Bon ; but they are probably more to the 

CfirrenU and Tides. — The velocity of the 
the dry state of the river, is at Jambi from 1^ to 8 
per hour. At full and change it is high water at tho 
river^s mouth at 6 o'clock, and the tide rises 10 feet It 
does not flow higher up the river than the TJIiiy af 
Ookam ; but has the effect of retarding the straaa gl 
Jambi, and of occasioning it to swell from two (o thnn 

The periodical swelling of the river in the runs^ b or* 
dinarily from IS to 15 feet ; and as far up as Muan Ja^ 
bi, where the bank is 15 feet in height, it is described aa. 
inundating the country, occasionally for a fixtnight al a 

Taicns and Villages. — The town of Jambi is about 
three quarters of a mile in extent on both banks cl* tho 
river, to which it is nearly oonlincd, the natites ooeupj* 
ing the whole of the right bank ; nnd the few Arabs and 
other strangers wlio arc settled there, a part of the left; 
Many of the houses, especially those of the Arab 
pong, are sided and partitioned in a neat 
planksy and roofed with tiles (shaped with a 
crossways), of excellent manufacture. A few 
with a thatch of goniutce, which forms a durable roof; 
some have their sides constructed of large thick pieces of 
bark ; but the greater part are huts of mat aod 
built u|x>n posts in the usual Makyan style, 
thciic descriptions of buildings, there is also a ni 

q[ houses upon rafts of huge trunks of trees, dumsily 
put tc^ther, which, during the periodical swelling of the 
river, are afloat and moveable ; but in the dry seasoB ate 
geoe^rally, especially the larger ones, lodged on a sandy 
flat, which becomes dry, and confines the stream on the 
right There is also a number of little rafts supporting 
a small hut, attached to the better class of houses, and 
ysed for the convenience of bathing, of which the women 
in particular seem to be very fond. In fact, there is an 
appearance of cleanliness in the persons and houses of th« 
inhabitants, rather unusual in Malayan towns. Th^ 
have a mosque, but it is in a neglected and ruinous con- 
dition. A burying ground about three quarters of a mile 
below the town, appears to claim more attention ; many 
of the tombs are carved and gilded, and inclosed by a 
.tiled building. 

At the entrance of the mosque was deposited a defaced 
Hindoo image, which led to inquiries that terminated in 
the discovery of several others. The figure carved in re» 
liff, on a stone about five feet in length, was that of a 
human being in a sitting posture, with a high ornamented 
head-dress, and a circular hood-like tablet behind the 
head. The arm was broken ofi*, and the whole figure 
;wom intp a confused and indistinct mass; but a well 
executed border of foilage round the edge of the stone^ 
being less in relief, remiuned more perfect and well defin- 
led. The other images were,^r«^, the statue of a man, the 
ieyrms broken off, about five feet high, in an erect posture. 
The head was rather large, and the hips being iiill, sweir 
)ing, and smoothly rounded, had a somewhat feminine ap- 
pearance, but in other respects the proportions were re* 
f^ajr^L^bly good. About the waist and ancles there v^^s ax^ 


uneveoncss, the nnnains probably of* a ginile and buiglci. 
The features were defaced, but appeared to liaTe been 
brood and flat, and tlie hair was curly, in little round 
knobs^ and formed into a top knot. SJ, Four figum 
representing an elephant^s head with tusks, the trunk 
curled upwards and backwards, and adorned longitudi* 
nally with a string of flowen, and the jaws widely distend- 
ed, and inclosing a curly-headed male figure, having 
bangles on his legs, in an erect atutude within them. 
These seemed to occupy their orip^nal situation in the 
skirts of the town ; but no ruins were seen near them. 
The otliers were found in different phwes, whither thcj 
hod been carried. 8e/, A bull about half the natural sias^ 
kneeling, tlie body and neck adorned with wreaths of 
bcll-sha|Xid flowers, with a bell suspended at the cbeiL 
The head and the greater part of the neck of this figure 
were broken off; but the remaining part was remarkably 
well proportioned and executed. The natives have no 
idea of tlie origin of those images, but call them chesa> 
men (buoli chatuor), of the giants or genii ; nor could they 
point out the ruins of the temple to which they must have 
bekmged, though the former existence of one ofcoiMder* 
able diuieusioiis is indicated by a number of stone slabs 
and carved ornaments, converted to various purposes in 
diHerent parts of tlie town. The material, a dark eoknir- 
ed fine grained granite, is not found within a considcffohle 
distance oi* Jambi, probably not nearer than the oratml 
cliain of mountains. The population of Jambi b at the 
utmost 4000, of whidi a very great proportion are 
women and children. It is almoM^entirely Malayan; bal 
there arc a few Javans and persons of Arab 
There were formerly Kmie Thinese settlers, but 

present The situation of th^ tawn id qpreeabk, diy, 
and healthy. By a mean of double altitndeK, it 10 in k- 
^tude V 33^' south, and its longitude^ not noourately as- 
certained, is 15 miles west from tb^ rivf^rls mouth, finons 
which (with reference always to the K'WAlla Nior), it is 
distant by the line of the river 8S mil^., 

ViUages below Jambi.'^The villages, 00 the river be- 
low Jambi are enumerated in the following list :"--r 

1. Koonangan, contmning 10 ov IS bouset, qk &e 
right bank of the river, distance of 6 miles* 

% Talandooka, distant 8^ miles, a straggling village 
of 18 or SO houses, situated on a steep bank on the right, 
in the midst of pretty but inognificant plantaticms of 
sugar-cane, maize, &c. 

3. Muara Jambi, distant about 13 miles, oontainiqg 
S5 houses, and having a population of about SOO. It is 
on the left bank, and is said to have been anciently a 
capital town, and to have in its vicinity ruins of brick or 
stone buildings, containing images and other sculpture ; 
but time was wanting to search fat and examine these 
remains of antiquity ; and nothing waA discovered but a 
mutilated diminutive figure of an elephant, and a full 
sized head in stone, having curly biur, in the style of a 
judge^s wig, and a perfectly CafiVe c$qI of features^ This 
latter is sent ixdth this report 

4. Eampong Mooda, on the right bank, cpntiuniiig 8 
houses, and distant IBi miles. 

5. Sungei Bulu, 5 houses, on the right bank, distant 
I64 miles. 

6. Kampong Biombang, on the left bank> is at the 
tance of 17 miles, and contains 6 or 7 bouses. 


7. Kampong Tambang contains 8 houses on the kft 
bank, distant 18 miles. 

8. Ookam, distant S3| miles, 1 or 2 houses on mA 
ude. The tide runs up to it. 

9. Bali Mata, 7 houses, on the left, distant 98 mikt. 

10. Lindrong, 7 houses, on the left, distant M^ nnleiL 

11. Muara Kampau, IS houses, on the right, at the 
junction of the arm of the river from which it takes Ae 
name. It is 42 miles below Jambi. The bank on which 
it stands is about 10 feet above the surface of the rivtr ife 
its lowest state, but is inundated in the rains. 

IS. Kampong Simpang, 7 houses, on the right, 
diatcly above the separation of Kwalla Saddoo and 
la Nior, and 51 miles frf)m Jambi. The Dutch had fii^ 
merly on this spot a factory, defended by a field work, 
the traces of which are still visible near the village. Tk 
situation commands the navigation of the whole river; 
but the ground is scarcely G feet above the greatest fidi 
of tlic river, and is at its swelling subject to inundatiaB. 

The site of an English factory is unknown. 

Besides the villages above-mentioned, there are a few 
inhabited spots and occasional plantations betw e en JaBfti 
and Kampong Simpang, but none below iL 

Of the towns and villages above Jambi, iMerted to bt 
numerous, no particular description or eaiuncfatioo Mi 

ifcMu/j.— The mode of communication between viU^pi, 
as well as distant parts of the country, is almost 
sively by water, there being few habitations that 
situated on the rivers or near them ; and such routcaa 
do exist, are mere footpaths through the wooda. Thij, 


kow^ver, extend to Padang, Benooolen, and other plaees 
on the western coast of the island, with which ihey are 
the means of commercial intercourse. 

The route from Bencoolen was thus detailed by a personi 
who had tntvelled it :-^ 

To Eorinchi, * * i day& 

To Pakalan Jambu, - 6 days. 

To Sungd Batang Assei, - 7 days. 

To Village Nibong, - 10 days. 

To Village Tiga dusun, -^ 18 days. 

ToVilh^, - - 18day& . 

To City Jambi, - <«- S4 day& 

In this statement, however, are included at least fou# 

halting days at unknown points ; and a number of vil-^ 

lages not remembered by the traveller, are omitted. Tb^ 

relative proportion of distance to time in this journey is 

at a low rate, on account of the indolent mode of travd« 

ling of the natives, as well as the nature of the oountxy^ 

and does not probably exceed 6 or 7 miles per day in tho 

mountunous region of the interior, and 10 or 11 in the 

low country. 

Of the routes to Fadang and other parts of the western 
coast, and .to Menangkabau, no details were procurable. 

With.Palembang there are several routes of communis 
cation from the upper country (utu Jambi); and it isre^ 
ported to be but one day's journey by land from a pml 
on the Tunbesi, distant 10 days up k, to another on the 
Palembang river, whence the city is distant two days^ 
descending the stream. 

From the town of Jambi, the nearest route, as detailed 
by an itinerant trader, is as follows :— 
To Sungei Tijuan, ascending the river, - 1^ day^ 


To Tompenoo, a Kubu village, hj land, - 2 da^ 

To PuDcrokau, a Kubu village, by land, • 4 davft. 

To Sungci Lolang, and dcficending it by boat, 5 dajK 
To die Bunuoann, descending the Lalan, 6 dbjiw 

To Benteng (the Batteries) by boat up the Bu<- 
nuonin (or western branch of the Palem- 
bang river), - - - 7 daji. 

Benteng is at a sliort distance, agreeably to this ac- 
count, below Palembang, and at the point of lepsniiioa of 
Kwalla Soonsang (the soutli-castem and principal a^ 
trance), and Kwalla Bonuossin, which form between them 
the island Gk)mbaro. The Kubu villages are goy c mcJ 
by dupattis, subject to the sultan of Paiemfamg. Ii is 
poutively and generally asserted by the natiTea, that tfacH 
land routes arc their only means of inteioourse vith F^ 
lembang, and there exists no water oommunicmtion bc^ 
tween the Jambi and the Palembang or Indngiri n\ 
the latter is said to rise from a large lake in Mi 

Sea Coof^—- The sea coast of Jambi ia bv, 
and covered evenly with moderately high trees ; and it 
lined to the distance of from S| to 5 miles by a land flat 
rather dangerous of aj^raach, on account of the wmj 
sudden gradation of depth at its outer edge. The oidv 
island within a distance of SO miles is Pulo Vandla (pM- 
perly Bcrala), which from Tanjong Bon (properly Jibon)^ 
bears N. 20" £., and is distant about 11 1 mileSb 
that distance, however, there are other islanda 
the direction of Lingcn, the |)eak of which bore by 
pass from Tanjon*; Bon N. 16*> E. 

From Tanjoiic; Boii (in laL V ff 15" south, nd hy 
chronometer I8j niiks east from tlie weateramoat of the 


Catantiga islands), the general line of direction of the 
coast is west as far as the Ewalla Nior ; but from thence, 
for about 15 miles, it runs W. by N. f N. It is, as well 
as the islands towards Lingen, inaccurately laid down in 
many charts. 

The tides set along the coast, the flood tide running 
from the westward. 

iSl^iwontf.— -The monsoons blow from the south-east and 
north-west ; the dry season continues during the preva- 
lence of the former, which sets in in May ; and the rmny 
season commences with the latter in December. The 
rains, however, set in gradually, and are not considered 
to fall heavily for more than three months* The crops 
being regulated by them, rice, which is cultivated by 
irrigation in the upper country, is there sown in October, 
transplanted at their commencement, and reaped at their 
termination. In the lower part of the country, near the 
town of Jambi, this mode of cultivation does not prevail ; 
and rice is sown on dry grounds (ladangs) in July, and 
reaped in December. These plantations are not perma- 
nently cultivated, but are abandoned after a few crops, 
when the soil is impoverished, and others constructed by 
rudely and imperfectly clearing the land, by felling and 
burning the trees with which it is generally covered. In 
these plantations they also cultivate, in small quantities, 
barely sufficient for their own consumption, tobacco^ 
sugar-cane, maize, and cofiee. Their fruit-trees are du- 
nans and jacks in great abundance, biit few of any other 

C/imo^.— The climate at the town of Jambi is con- 
sidered healthy and agreeable by the inhabitants. During 
the residence of the minion in July, the mean of the 

2 C 


themioiiieter, hung in a dose and hot cabin, was at Mm- 
rifle from 76^ to TTf at the hottest time of the day, ge- 
nerally from two to three o^cIock, 86^, and at eight p. m. 
79^ of Fahrenheit At sea, previously and subsequently^ 
the temperature was generally several degrees higher in 
the mornings and evenings ; (see register annexed). The 
weather during the period alluded to was generally doudy» 
particularly at night. 

Towards the mouth of the river, where the country b 
low and swampy, the atmosphere is by no means heahhy, 
and agues are prevalent. 

Epidemics. — It does not appear that the cholera has 
extended to Jamtn, although an eiMdeadc (called sijuk, 
a cold), resembling it in respect to the symptom of wga^ 
modic cramp of the limbs, but unattended with Tonucii^ 
was prevalent last year. Few, however, died* 

Earthquakes. — The violent earthquakes wUch alarm 
the inhabitants of the western coast are slightly felt, but 
arc unattended with any baneful effects. A violent one 
is, however, said to have been experienced aboat SO yean 
ago or more, and to have been preceded by a period of 
great heat and drought, which ruined the cnpii and 
casioned a distressing scarcity of food. 

The great crupUon of Sumbawa is ssid to havt 
heard, and the ashes which it threw forth an 
(by persons who have never quitted the country, and 
therefore must have witnessed the phenomenon to be able 
to describe it), to have fallen at Jambi in such quanlitiaB 
as weighed down the leaves of the plantun trees. 

Government and Character j-^They have no ngular 
forms of law, police, or government, in any of its 
cations ; but the sultan is nominally supreme 



trarj. Igikmuit and weak* however, in reality, his autho* 
ri^ ia iligfated or usurped by erery ambitious chieftaaa; 
and the kingdom is throughout in a state of oonfusioo and 

The Korinchi country is sud to have been tributary 
mider a viceroy, but it is doubtful whether it isat present 
at all dependent The upper part of the kingdom is 
governed by the king^s eldest son, whose title b Pangeran 
Batoo. The Tumbesi river b held by hb majesty him« 
self, and Jambi and the fewer part of the river are in the 
hands of the second aon Pangeran Suryo^ who has ooU 
leagued with him hb brother-in-Uw, Pangeran Petra, 
and a foreign adventurer, well known at Prince of Wales 
Island by the name of Toonkoo Long. Pangeran Suryo 
has neither intelligence nor activity, and b entirely under 
the oontroul of Pangeran Petra, who appears to have ooBk 
siderable influence over the popubtioo, and to be a de- 
dded character. Toonkoo Long, the rival and enemy 
of Pangeran Petra, has neither property nor dependents 
beyond the war-boats and adventurers from various coun- 
tiias that accompanied him to Jambi, but has neverthe- 
less contrived to get himself adopted by the sultan. 

The lower orders are generally bdow the middle siic 
in stature ; but in fhape they are muscular and well pro- 
portioned, and thor complexions are ov£narily fidrer 
than those of the Malays commonly seen at Prince of 
Wales Isknd. They are ignorant, poor, and indolent, 
but they have neither incitement nor means (o be other* 
wise. They have a high idea of the wealth and libenK* 
ty of Europeans, which leads them to beg with great as- 
surance for every thing that hiu their tmcj. They do 
not appear to possess that charadsr of vindictive trMch- 

404 ArPKNDix. 

ery so commonly ascribed to the Malays. Although tk 
country has for two or three years been in a sCMte of cifil 
war, yet few lives arc said to have fallen a Bacri6oe totUi 
calamity, though the population has been reduced by the 
numbers who have fled to other countries. The 
ters of the contending parties are represented as indi 
and unfrequent skirmishes, terminating in the Icmb of 
or two men only on each side ; and in this whole period 
of intestine commotion, there arc but two oocaaions m^ 
tioned on which the hostile parties met to decide their ps^ 
tensions by arms. On the first, the sultan in person, at db 
head of SOU or 400 men, was opposed by his nephev, |y 
name Pangeran Natoo, instigated by Syed Abdallah, as 
Arab still residing in Jambi, who rebelled, and was able Is 
out^number and defeat the royal party, of which 4 or Soai^ 
were slain. The king in this defeat was wounded, and 
to the Tumbesi, where he has since continued to 
On the second occasion on which Pangeran Ratoo attacked 
Pangeran Natoo, the loss on both sides was aaarly cqual^ 
amounting altogether to 6 or 7 men killed, aoM 
was the fourth son of the king, Pangeran Tabs. The 
phew was shortly afterwards shot. On both 
each party was posted behind a parapet, whence thej End 
at each other. 

Jrms. — Their arms are the kris, spear, and i 
fire-arms of a heavy and clumsy nuke, resembling a 
derbuss of extraordinary length. These are sidd Is be 
manufactured in Sumatra; but the best arc 
from the island of Balli. Swords are not 
and their shape being wide and thick in the 
and also aukwardly constructed in the handle, 
render them little better adapted for combat than Ibr 


common parang or cleaver. Their shields are small, 
round, and light, and covered with tough buffalo hide. 
Their only ordnance (and they have very few) are the 
rantaka of iron, and its counterpart the lelah of brass, 
the only difference being in the metal. The latter are 
principally manufactured at Lingen, and probably from 
some fault in the composition of the metals, or imperfec- 
tions in the bore, are liable, it is said, to burst when 
heated by frequent discharges. They seldom exceed an 
inch or an inch and a half in calibre, while their length 
and weight are both in the extreme ; and being charged 
with loose powder, and fired by means of a squib of moist- 
ened powder, their loading, by reversing and dismounting 
them, cannot fail to prove very dilatory ; and the direc- 
tion of the shot must necessarily, when thrown from a 
vessel in motion, be very uncertain. They are, however, 
preferred by the Malays, to every other description of 

Forts, — The town of Jambi is undefended by any in- 
closure ; and there is no fortified place near it. 

Orang Laut, — Besides the population of Jambi, and 
the village below it, which may be reckoned altogether at 
6000, there is also in the lower part of the river, a dis- 
tinct class, who call themselves, and are known by the 
term, Orang Laut Their boats, however small, being 
their only habitations, they live entirely upon the water, 
feeding principally on fish. Their complexions are dark, 
and they are a squalid, half-naked, miserable looking 
race, generally afflicted with some cutaneous eruption. 

(Signed) S. C. Groove, Lieui, 

Assbtant & Surveyor to the Mission. 
















^ .s 

"^ JO 


I § 

i > 

" 1 

c Z 




a d 
"3 H 










2 o 






J* * -nil 

•^ •a-S 


ei m M 

x*^* ■ a « « «> &^9 





fc e - 

91 M 








1 .^ 

i -= g Wfcj pun 'AABaq , > , J > ► 

! 1 III ^ t 11 iliiilll 
j » «i. - . II |.|||||| 


till M 

1 1 1 1 lllli 



—=—=-==—= - -"'- 


s ° 


- 5 

s s s ,€ a 


s 2 

e: = a 

s s s s s 



= £ K R a 

=o S 


s 2 

" : 

2 - 

1 t 


? 1 • 

■s : " "a 


^ ! ii It y 




e ^ 

ii \i*i^h' \^^ m^4^i^ii 

" =: 

i Z 3 


is B 

" .J 

s s i 

= i 

S3ss:ss:ss:£ iissiasisatsi 

t = = 

eszseeesse: essesiiziii 

" « 

£ iS!£:ssessss:°Eescsee>c*il 



i! i 

No. IV, 

Memorandum for the Guidance of Mr Anderson, 

Thx eastern coast of Sinnatn^ from Diamond Point tat 
Slack river, was, until lately, veiy little known. The 
country is divided into the several petty states c£ Lang? 
kat, Bulu China, Delly, Sherdang, Battoo Barra, Assa^ 
han, and some others, all of which are more or less unde^r 
the controul of the greater kingdoms of Siack and Me? 
nangk^bau ; but the coast, as described by navigatcurSy 
being low and woody, the trees only appearing above war 
tcr, with rivers and shoal banks stretching out a consider- 
able way from the shore in some places, and the native^ 
having the character of being most perfidious, and of liv- 
ing solely on plunder, the country had been frequented 
only by coasting prows or other small vessels, and very 
seldom by Europeans, some of whose boats had been ao» 
tually cut oiF in that direction. 

There had existed, however, always some commerda) 
intercourse betweep that country and this island; and 
ii^ the year 18S0, this government conceiving that such 
interopurse required only encouragement to be impiv>ve4 
and extended, deputed an agent (Mr Ibbetson) to viat all 
the ports on that coast, and endeavour to open and estiK 
blish a more fiiendly and beneficial communicntion ^tl| 
tjieir chiefs. 


Notwithstanding that agenda ilbieaa prerented hat 
from proceeding to any other ports on that coast than 
Assahan and Delly, and the principal objects of his mis* 
sion remained unfulfiUed, still e^en his short and partial 
Tudts, joined to tlie sur>'ey of the whole coast which the 
Honourable Company^s cruizcr Nautilus effected earij 
last year, under the orders of this government, certualj 
tended to promote a more regular and intimate corr^ 
spondence between some of the chiefs of that oountiy, 
and the governor of this island ; and these 
insensibly leading to more frequent intcroourae bet^ 
the natives of their states and Pinang, have brought 
most important increase of trade, as is evidenced hj oar 
custom-house returns. It b a well known fact, that 
whilst their imports of pepper alone, which is of the 
description brought to this market, have more than 
rupled during the last two years, they have during the 
same period evinced an increasing predilection for, and 
exported unusually large quantities of, our wooUen^ 
other manufactures. 

The governor has for some weeks past bad it in 
to adopt some measures for improving and ooosolidaliaig 
these advantageous and notorious results; but 
just heard from unquestionable authority, that they 
actually excited the jealousy and activity of the 
bouring Dutch government, which is about, it is stated, 
to depute agents to the diflerent states on the coast of 
Sumatra, in view to offer allurements to the traden of 
that country, to divert their valuable and daily ii 
commerce from this island to the settlement of 
he has now resolved at once on deputing, without hMS of 
time, but without any public demonstratioDi and at as 


litde expence as possible, an agent on die part of this go- 
vernment, to visit all the country between Diamond Pcnnt 
and Siack inclusive, for the purpose of antidpating the 
Netherlands, and keeping the chie6 of that coast faith- 
ful to their relrtions with this island ; and adverting to 
Mr Anderaon^s commercial and general information, as 
well as other attainments, the governor is not aware of 
any gentleman whom he can select better qualified to ac- 
complish this important service. 

Mr Anderson is then requested to submit a bill im- 
mediately for an advance of 4000 dollars, which he will 
account for upon honour on his return ; and he is au- 
thorised to purchase for this service the brig Jessy, for 
SlOO dollars, whilst the proper departments will be di- 
rected to embark on board of jier, as soon as she is pre- 
pared for sea, a military guard of 1 havildar, 1 naick, 
and 14 sepoys (all Mussulmans), with a suitable propor- 
tion of camp-equipage, ammunition, and other necessa- 
ries, as well as provisions calculated for the consumption 
of the whole party for a period of three months. Besides 
purchasing suitable presents to the amount of 400 dol- 
lars (principally such articles as may serve to excite a 
taste for our manufactures), in order to give to the difier- 
ent chiefs he may visit, Mr Anderson is requested to re- 
gulate the whole expences of the present mission, accordr 
ing to the following scale. 

In regard to instructions, much must be left to Mr 
Anderson^s own discretion $ but the governor desires that 
he will keep in view and consider the following, as the 
principal objects of his mission, which, it may be observed, 
is purely of a commercial nature. 

To assure the chiefs of all the states between Diamond 


PoiDt and Slack indunTe^ of the anxknit and 
position of this government, to cultivate the moet 
relations mth them. To point out to them fairl j tbe dU^ 
ferent course of acdon which has always been pumaed S» 
wards them by tbe British and Netherhmds aiillioriciaiL 
To promise them and their commerce on all ooeaHon^ 
every consistent protection, encouragement, and fmaSfj^ 
at this port. To instruct them as to the pr 
and demands of the markets here. To hokl out to 
every inducement to increase their industry and 
their agriculture, as well as their exports, to thia i 
To obtain, if possible, the same privil^es and eaaj 
in their states to our manufactures and olgecta of 
as we have always given to them ; and with this 
would be highly beneficial if they could be piwvukd aa 
to forego their strong prejudices in favour of tbe 
doUar, and receive our sicca rupees and smaller 
Lastly, to employ every argument and persuawm to 
vent them from entering into any monopoliea or 
sive contracts, or into any political engagements with ife 

Whilst executing the above-mentioned olgccts, Mr A» 
derson will of course endeavour to collect, for the i 
roation of this government, in return, an authentic but 
voluminous account of the state of each country which he 
may viut, of its agriculture, manufactures and oommcras^ 
and particularly a description of the habits and tancs of 
its inhabitants, in furtherance of which objects the secro* 
tary to government will furnish him with a copy of dM 
instructions pvcn to Mr Ibbetson, and of the chaita of 
the cast coast of Sumatra, executed by the oflioen of dM 


Mr Anderaon, oa his return fhxn the coast of Sumatra,, 
may visit the ports of Salangore, Bumam, and Ferah 
also ; but he is positively enjoined not to interfere in any 
political discussions existing between the native chiefs, or 
undertake any measures calculated to produce ooULnon 
between this government and the Netherlands. 

Mr Anderson may depart as soon as his arrangements 
can be completed ; and during his absence, Mr Gaunter 
will officiate as commissioner of the Court of Requests, and 
draw the salary of that appointment, as regulated by the 
honourable the Court of Directors. 

The officiating superintending surgeon will be directed 
to attach to the mission an intelligent native doctor, or 
other medical attendant, with a proper supply of medi- 
cines and surgical instruments. 

(Signed) W. £• Phillips. 

1st Janmiry 1823ii 



No. V, 

Names and Prices of Cloths purchased an the East Cmisi qf 
Sumatra, the Manufactures of the Countty. 



Serawal, coarse 



. 18 


Serawal benang mus • 


Ditto betabo 


SaputaDgan seree 



Sarong kecbil^ kapalu benang mus 


Gubbar . • • . 


Sarong betabong benang mus 


Sarong, light colour • 





Serawal panjang 


Saputangan kapalu benang mus • 

. 11 

Ditto ki^u 


Kain sebidang 



Puncha seree 


Saputangan huguh kapala 



Puncha sabidang 





Serawal, coarse 



J>. Dr. 


flulindimg or tolop buantd 


Kain batu jabbit 


Salirout benang mus 


Saputangan kapalu buku 


Salindaog buguh benang mus 


Sarong huguh 


Saputangan seree ft 


Saputangan kapala 


Sarong senarin tritan 


Bajoo tok>p berantei 


Serawal bechooal 


Champul bechooal 


Serawal benang 



Ditto champur benang dangan ntru 


Sarong ditto 


Sarong ntru mua 




Kain kambuja 



Kain kechil champur benang 


Serawal benang 


Chinchari chilari 


Sampal tepi 











Kain lipas 


Ditto .... 




Ditto piilaiigei 






Batta Cloths. 

Mergum Sisi 

Guru Gundong 

Suree Suree 


Ragi bedouan 

Sabila garam 


Ragi Sehorpa 

Ragi Sehoram 


Ragi Atuanga 


Ragi Perbouiac 





























2 D 




* s 



^ 1 






fss i i 



1 - — — , 




i!i''"= fill :\ 
il, Ji Jill lii 









a. * 






|aSf 1 


a i = 







t '.'.'.'.' .' 











"11 . 




g^ = 


































-|§!I«"SE3 - 


;s§^- i= 



P^sS- -s " - 







U^uss <5ft - 


iSl-^H -t" 



Js -i^ls 4 1 


Ammmt ^ E*porU amd Import! 4*nng Ike bul «cMi* jMtfv, «»• 
etum ^ Trttumn, amd compriiimg Mek Goods mkm m* hme 
pmd dmtia at tke Cmilom-koKW oi Primeo ^ WmUa I Amd. 

int-Slk— InpMtit 

l, AHI.r;B .-. .Ml __ aa J«a M 
"isTaiifl-wtt IN' — lii Mi «} 

Vtlut tf Artlrkt upau w^^ek DnOn k«r 
J«ra nmMtt AmrtAtbO, Jalg ISSOi 
Kwn Articlci, 



Fim Goodly 

•n,'in W — SMMM 

IJB4.M7 API — 41^ IH 

T!^7.H-;. J.:._ jlJM ill 


7«MB1 li 

'7SMM 17 -o- HIM «7 
U I7JI7 *■ — «•.*•« W 

*X.<;i to — >Mw <i 

7B.1U M — 1^^ 

(SigMd} A. IX UAINOY, 

Acii^ CcUkIw if CmImm h4 iHi 

Tied into and exported from Prince of Walea Isludl, during iImjh 
1820^1, 1821-23, and 1822-23. 

IMNilltEli BV PU6WA 

Btnuo, and PonHotKe Sail- 
wtrd, CJcdiuiM tflAt Bail 

Adurm amd WtU Cft ef 


PkmU. Can. 

I'ttuU, Volt. 

AMb. O* 



WM « 

4,938 U7 

i,4M m 





1,7» 46 

67» 27 

1,619 00 

MU « 

S,9UJ ■■ 

MM m 


1MI7 M 

io.a«7 89 

«.IM • 

1386 70 

3,3(U SS 

aM77 « 


n COUBT.lf .u.n. 

»v ra.Ti.'«v»> uin. 

































et*, uid hence the difference apparent in thit ttatemcat ia tli* flHiA 
ezportB, in order to discorer the actual amount of the prvdaea <rdHU 
cannot be ascertained so •atitbcttmlj aa in the caae of impoctatiM^ fi 
peculif the average annual produce of the iaUnd would ffttt 4i^V 
or four thousand peculi. 

?ATEMENT exhibiung tbe Qiiantitj and Value of Pepper i 




ward^ exekmhn ^ilk Emtt 

A^tm mmi Weti Cotui 

Coast ^ Stmmtrm, 

*r «>v 

Peemti. Cti»* 




9100 19 




4M4 10 
















90 19 












1096 19 
















•fu Dr». 

•p. Dr«. 


•p. on. 

















































■■ ■ 













exports of pepper fluctuate of o 
demand for tiie article. The 
i dntjj aad not weiffbed bj 
stween exporta and importi d 
lect, I ilKmld conceive the t 

CMMUfMMC, 99^ Jmig h 








Ah Ahitract Statement of Pepper imported in Promt imio Primee 
of f Vales I stand, from the Ports on the East Coasi of SunuUrm, 
from Isi January 1819, to 3lst December 1822. 










Bulu China, 
























Alaiter»Atifnimnft OJScr^ "I 
Primer of Waiti t glands J- 
6/fc Janmarp 18:23. } 


c:. W. H. WRIGHT, 

THF. KXn. 

Printed at the 
('alcdonuui Morrurv Prew». 





SEP 1O20Q0