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VOJL^UM:E> in. 

October, 1908 July, 1909. 



F. A. SAMPSON. Secretary, 



Notes on the Jones Family in Missouri, iby Prof. G. C. Broadhead . 1 
Bryant's Station and its Founder, William Bryant, by Thomas 
Julian Bryant 34 

A German Communistic Society in Missouri, by Dr. William 
Godfrey Bek 52- 99 

Daniel Boone, b,y William S. Bryan 89, 198-2W 

A Decade of Missouri Politics 1860 to 1870 From a Republican 
Viewpoint, by H. C. McDougal , 12 

Missouri Historical and Philosophical Society 164 

Muster Roll of Company B, First Missouri Cavalry, Trans-Missis- 
sippi Department C. S. A., by John T. Worth I8L 

The Settlement of Columbia, Mo. A Type Study, by James M. 
Wood 169 

Slavery in Missouri Territory, by Harrison A. Trexler 179 

Historic Landmarks of Jefferson County, by John L. Thomas 20C 

Some Historic Lines in Missouri, by Jofin L. Thomas 5, 210-251 

Missouri's Aboriginal Inhabitants, by Joalb Spencer 275 

Historical Sketch of the Presbyterian Church in Columbia, Mis- 
souri, by the late Wm. F. Switzler 300 

A Few of the Colonial and Revolutionary Ancestors of Mrs. Jessie 
Benton Fremont, by Mrs. Emma White 30 

Missouri Folk-Lore Society, H. Belden, Secretary 308 

Department of Teachers of History and Government 85, 240-317 

Notes 75, 163-311 

Book Notices 79,164,233-312 

Necrology ..81,165,235-314 


BEK, DR. WILLIAM GODFREY, of the University of Missouri. 

BROADHEAD, GARLAND C., formerly State Geologist and Professor 
in the University of Missouri. 

BRYAN, WILLIAM S., of the High School in St. Louis. 

McDOUGAL, HENRY C., Kansas City, ex-Judge of Probate and 
Chancery Court. 

SPENCER, REV. JOAB, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
of. Slater, Mo. 

SWITZLER, COL. WM. F., late of Columbia, Mo. 

THOMAS, JOHN L., ex-Judge of the Supreme Court of Missouri, 
Washington, D. C. 

TREXLER, HARRISON A., of the faculty of Hardin College, 
Mexico, Mo. 

WHITE, EMMA S., Mrs. J. B. White, Kansas City. 

WOOD, JAMES M., Superintendent of Public Schools at Frederick- 


VOL 3 OCTOBER, 1908. NO. 1 


The Joneses are chiefly of Welsh descent, and they may 
be found wherever the English language is spoken. We 
have read of John Paul Jones and his exploits as a naval 
officer, fighting for the cause of American freedom, on the 
high seas, during the Revolutionary war. But he really was 
not named Jones, only John Paul. In Missouri the Jones 
family has been distinguished for lawyers, doctors and 
ministers of the gospel and politicians and educators. 

John Rice Jones came from Virginia to Indiana and 
then to Missouri in 1808. He was a member of the Consti- 
tutional convention of 1820, then judge of the Supreme 
Court and died in 1824. He was of Welsh descent. His 
son, George W. Jones, was United States Senator from the 
State of Iowa, and his son was my schoolmate at the Western 
Military Institute at Drennon Springs, Ky, in 1851 and 1852. 

Charles Jones came from Virginia to Franklin county. 
Missouri, and was a leading member of the State Senate, 
and died in St. Louis in 1876. Breckenridge Jones is a promi- 
nent lawyer and banker of St. Louis. The Rev. Isaac Jones, 
a Presbyterian preacher, dwelt in Columbia for a number of 
years, notably between 1840 and 1860. His house was on 


the east side of Eighth street between Broadway and the 
old City Hotel. A. H. Jones, a bachelor, living north of 
Columbia, deserves notice for his generosity in giving $15,000 
to the new Y. M. C. A. building. 

James Jones was an early settler in Montgomery county, 
and for many years before the Wabash Railroad came along, 
his house was the regular stopping place for stages. In 
the month of January, 1848, I staid one night with Mr. 
Jones. The house, a log, was standing right in the center 
of the town of Jonesborough until about 1904, being about 
100 yards east of the Wabash Depot and about 200 feet 
north of the Railroad. 

Dr. John Jones resided near Marthasville in Warren 
county. He took an active part in ferretting out the horse 
thieves who infested the country prior to 1845, and for this, 
he was secretly assassinated in 1842. This caused great 
excitement at the time, and some persons were arrested on 
suspicion, but nothing could DC proven against any one. I 
was then but a boy, yet I remember hearing of it. 

Lewis Jones, was a famous hunter in early times. Once 
he went so far from home as the Platte, was taken prisoner 
by the Indians, stripped of all his clothes, given an olid 
gun and turned loose. He started home, and on the way 
shot a panther, skinned it and put the skin on himself, and 
traveled in this way for several hundred miles to his home 
in Montgomery county. The skin being fresh when put on, 
there was some trouble in cutting it and taking it off. 

John Jones, a native of Wales and a sailor, sailed around 
the world, and between 1890 and 1902 was employed as 
night watchman on the U. S. snagboat Charles R. Suter. 
At his leisure he employed himself in weaving cords around 
chains, canes, bell ropes, &c., and making baskets. His 
work was pretty and showed science and skill. I have a 
cane showing his workmanship that he presented to me. 

Jefferson F. Jones of Welsh origin came with his parents 
from Kentucky to Boone county, Mo., in 1824. A few years 
later he settled in Callaway. He was a successful lawyer 
and was a leader among the people. He used his influence 


in promoting the building of the North Missouri Railroad. 
He was a member of the Legislatures of 1856 and 1875, and 
was energetic and faithful to his ideas of his duty. He was 
a strong sympathizer for the South, and raised a company 
for the purpose of fighting in the southern cause. In this 
he was checked by Gen. John B. Henderson, and had to sign 
articles to relinquish his purpose. 

William Claude Jones was a member of the Constitutional 
convention of 1845, and in 1846 a member of the State 
Senate from Newton county. In 1849 he was a member of 
the Board of Curators of the State University. Soon after, 
he went to California, and died there a few years later. He 
composed the following song to the air of Lucy Neale : 

1. Where the wild Neosho winds and kisses many a flower 
The prairie deck'd in beauty smil'd, around the red 

man's bower; 
Joy's mellow voice was there, there love's sweet voice was 


And the warrior press 'd to his throbbing breast, 
The lovely Prairie bird! 

Chorus : 

Oh the Prairie bird, the lovely Prairie bird 
And the warrior press 'd to his breast 
The lovely Prairie bird! 

2. The flow 'rs of spring had bloomed, and the warrior sought 

the plain 
Where the Buffalo in grandeur roamed, 

In a wild and stately train. 

While the warrior's arm did thin many a lordly herd 
The wild Comanche bore away his lovely prairie bird. 

Chorus : Oh the Prairie bird, &c. 

3. In Neosho 's flow'ry vale, his wigwam wild was lorn 
Where his heart's sweet fiow'r-his gem of hope 

His prairie bird was gone. 


The smile which won his love, each cherished look 

and word 
Rose in the warrior's heart, and he wished to save the 

prairie bird. 

Chorus: Oh the Prairie bird, &c. 

John P. Jones came from Massachusetts to Missouri, 
and was Post Master at Keytesville, Mo., between 1876 and 
1890. While living there he made an extensive archaeological 
collection of flints and stone implements which he disposed 
of to Central Park, New York. He then turned his attention 
to early Missouri history. Interesting articles on these sub- 
jects may be found in Vols. 4, 5, and 6 of the Kansas City 
Review of Science and Industry for 1880 and 1883. Sometime 
about 1890 he went to Southwest Kansas, and then to Cali- 
fornia, and was in San Diego in 1896, engaged in studying 
oat the travels of the early Spanish explorers. In a letter 
to me he says that he crossed the Rocky Mountains on the 
same trail that Lewis and Clark did in 1805 and that it has 
been used ever since, and was in use earlier than the time 
of Lewis and Clark. 

John Carlton Jones was born in Kentucky. In 1882 he 
began to teach Latin in the Missouri University, and has 
now been so employed for twenty-five years. He was assistant 
and then Secretary of the Faculty. In 1891 he became full 
professor in charge of the Latin Department, and now, for 
several years has been Dean of the Academic Faculty. 

Joneses may be found throughout the State of Missouri, 
and many of them have been prominent and influential, and 
we do not recall that any have not performed their part well. 



Missouri is entitled to be regarded as the keystone State 
of the American Union rather than Pennsylvania. Her geo- 
graphical position made her the highway and the principal 
theatre of all the early explorers. A hundred years ago all 
western roads pointed to our state, and for a half century they 
ended at or in her borders. Her eastern shore is laved by the 
mightiest river of the world; the great Missouri bisects her 
territory, and the Ohio with its drain arteries extending into 
New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky. 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, strikes her border sixty miles above 
her southeastern border as the bird flies, and more than twice 
that distance probably by the meanderings of the great river. 
Missouri lies between 36 30' and 40 34' 40" north latitude, 
and between these two lines the fiercest contests, political and 
military, of the country, were fought to a finish and settled. 

The Missouri Compromise Line. 

It turns out that the most important line in our history, 
The Missouri Compromise Line, coincides almost in its whole 
extent with the southern boundary of our state, and before go- 
ing into the history of the former I will briefly state the his- 
tory of the establishment of the latter . 

The first petition for the admission of Missouri into the 
Union was prepared and signed in the fall of 1817, and on 
March 17, 1818, John Scott, our delegate to Congress, pre- 
sented this petition to the House and it was referred to a com- 
mittee. This petition asked that the southern boundary of the 
state be fixed at 30 30' north latitude, stating that that was 
an extension of the line between Virginia and North Carolina 
and Kentucky and Tennessee. November 22, 1818, the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature of Missouri adopted a memorial which was 


presented to Congress, praying that the southern line of the 
new state be fixed as follows : Beginning on the Mississippi 
at the line of 36 north latitude and running thence to the 
junction of Big Black and White Rivers ; thence up the main 
fork of White River to 36 30' and thence west, etc. There 
were two settlements between the lines proposed by the peo- 
ples' petition and the legislative memorial, one along the river 
in what is now Pemiscot county and the other on White and 
Black Rivers and probably a few on the St. Francois. At 
that time there was a county called Lawrence, composed of a 
strip of territory now within the limits of this state, about 
thirty miles wide, extending from the St. Francois River to the 
western border of the state, and running to Little Red 
River on the south, with its county seat at Davidsonville, 
which was near the present site of Pocahontas, New Madrid 
county, with its county seat at the town of New Madrid in- 
cluded the settlements along the river in what is now Pemiscot 
county. As soon as the agitation for the admission of Mis- 
souri began, an effort was made to organize the Arkansas Ter- 
ritory. This brought the question of the boundary line of 
the State of Missouri and the Territory of Arkansas to the 
front, and the line as it stands today was agreed on. That 
line was a compromise. The settlers along the Mississippi 
prayed that their business and political relations with the 
other citizens of New Madrid county be not severed by cutting 
them off from their county seat. Their wishes prevailed and 
what has sometimes been called "Missouri's Toe" (Pemiscot 
and Dunklin counties) was added to Missouri. And for a like 
reason the settlers along White and Black Rivers with their 
county seat, Davidsonville, were included in the bounds of 
Arkansas Territory. The bill to admit Missouri was passed 
by the House on February 17, 1819, and on the day that bill 
passed, a bill to organize the Arkansas Territory was intro- 
duced into the House. The latter bill became a law March 
2nd, 1819, but the Missouri bill was lost March 3rd of the same 
year, and did not become a law until more than a year after- 
wards, so the Act March 2, 1819, organizing Arkansas Terri- 
tory, first fixed the line 36 from the Mississippi to the St. 


Francois, and 36 30' from that river west as the northern line 
of Arkansas, and by the act of March 6, 1820, that line was 
made the southern line of Missouri. The starting point on 
the Mississippi for this line had its inception in an act of the 
Missouri Territorial Legislature of December 31, 1813, defining 
the line between New Madrid and Arkansas counties. That 
line began at the lower end of Island No. 19 (near the line of 
36), and ran thence to the mouth of Little Red River and 
thence up that river to the western line of the "Osage Pur- 
chase. " That was before Lawrence county, which was 
bounded east by the St. Francois, was formed. 

The line between Arkansas and Missouri was for many 
years a source of annoyance to the settlers along the border of 
the two jurisdictions. January 21, 1821, the Missouri Legis- 
lature prayed the Government at Washington to survey this 
line and locate it, which was done in 1823 by Joseph C. Brown, 
under appointment of Wm. C. Rector, Surveyor General of 
Missouri and Illinois. But the friction between the settlers 
along the above line continued for a long time . Finally, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1841, the Missouri Legislature authorized the Gover- 
nor to appoint a commissioner to act with one from Arkansas 
to survey and more exactly fix and mark the line. Under this 
act, Governor Marmaduke appointed Ex-Governor Daniel 
Dunklin to make the survey, and he and the commissioner 
from Arkansas commenced the work, but on July 25, 1844, 
Dunklin died . George Penn, of Saline county, was appointed 
vice Dunklin, and by November, 1844, sixty miles of the line 
had been surveyed. Afterwards the whole survey was finished 
and the line, reported by the joint commissioners, was ratified 
by Arkansas by Act of December 23, 1846, by Missouri by Act 
of February 16, 1847, and by Congress by Act of February 15, 

The Adoption of the Missouri Compromise Line. 

The establishment of the boundary line between Missouri 
and Arkansas had no political significance whatever, but out 
of its establishment grew the first great slavery agitation in 
our country, which resulted in the adoption of what is known 


in history as the Missouri Compromise Line. This was the 
fourth compromise on the slavery question. In the formation 
of the constitution there had been three compromises on this 
subject : 

First. The Fugitive Slave Clause. 

Second. Three fifths of the slaves (called "other per- 
sons" to avoid the use of the word "slave" in the Constitution) 
were to be reckoned as a basis of representation in the lower 
House of Congress and for taxation . 

Third. The Foreign Slave Trade might be abolished 
after the year 1808. 

From the time of the adoption of these three compromises, 
1787-89 to the adoption of the fourth in 1820, was what might 
be termed the tranquil period in our national history in regard 
to slavery agitation. The first suggestion of a line dividing 
slave and free soil came from Mr. Louis McLane, of Delaware, 
during the discussion of the bills to admit Missouri as a State, 
and to organize the Territory of Arkansas in 1819 . February 
15, 1819, Mr. Talmage, of New York, proposed a scheme for the 
gradual emancipation of slaves in Missouri, and on February 
17, 1819, Mr. Taylor, of New York also, proposed the same 
scheme for Arkansas. February 15th Mr. McLane suggested 
a line, without naming any particular line, however, equitably 
dividing the territory west of the Mississippi between the con- 
tending parties, as a compromise. Mr. Taylor's emancipation 
scheme for Arkansas was defeated in the House February 17, 
1819, by a vote of 68 to 80. The same day Mr. Taylor intro- 
duced, for the first time in the history of the country, an 
amendment to the Arkansas bill, fixing the line of 36 30' as a 
dividing line between slavery and freedom. The same day 
Mr. Harrison proposed that this line should run due west from 
the mouth of the Des Moines river. After a heated debate Mr. 
Taylor withdrew his amendment to the Arkansas bill, and that 
Territory was organized by Act March 2, 1819, without restric- 
tions as to slavery. As has been noted, the Missouri bill, on 
account of the slavery question, was lost the next day, March 1 
3, 1819. At the next session the Missouri bill was re-intro- 
duced, and Mr. Talmage renewed his amendment, providing 


for the gradual emancipation of the slaves of Missouri. The 
scheme was to prohibit in the future the importation of any 
more slaves into the state, and to make all children born of 
slave mothers free after the age of twenty-five years. At that 
time there were in the State about eleven thousand slaves. 
Most of the leading statesmen of Missouri, including her rep- 
resentative in Congress, John Scott, and her two future sena- 
tors, Benton and Barton, opposed this emancipation scheme, 
and insisted on the admission of the state without conditions 
as to slavery. It is proper to state, however, that the citizens 
of Missouri were, by no means, unanimous in making the in- 
stitution of slavery permanent in this state. In April, 1820, 
a meeting of about one hundred citizens of St. Louis was held, 
presided over by Joseph Charless, at which it was resolved 
that the further importation of slaves into the state be stopped 
as soon as possible. The debate in Congress became bitter 
and memorable. The agitation growing out of it, which was 
simply a renewal of the agitation at the preceding session, con- 
tinued for weeks, exciting the passions of both sides almost to 
the point of sundering the bonds of our union. A compromise, 
the fourth on the slavery question, was finally reached. This 
compromise, proposed by Senator Jesse B. Thomas, of Illinois, 
provided that slavery should not exist in any of the territory 
acquired by us from France in 1803 north of 36 30' north lati- 
tude, except Missouri, which might be admitted as a 
slave state. Please note this exception as important, as will 
be developed hereafter. This line was adopted by Act of 
Congress March 6, 1820. Note this date also as an epoch 
marker . 

Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Holt, April 13, 1820, re- 
ferring to the measure said: "The coincidence of a marked 
principle, moral and political, with a geographical line, once 
conceived, I feared would never more be obliterated from the 
mind." He added that he feared that the union was doomed, 
and went so far as to suggest a line of cleavage, the Potomac, 
Ohio and Missouri, or probably the Mississippi rivers (mean- 
ing, of course, the Mississippi north of the Ohio) . A week 
later, in a letter to Holmes, he said: "This momentous ques- 


tion. like a fire bell at night, awakened me and filled me Avith 
terror. I considered it at once the knell of the Union." He 
added that his one comfort was that he would not live to see 
the catastrophe. As an index to the feeling of our State at 
the time on this question, and as exemplifying the trend of po- 
litical action of this period, I will state that the grand juries of 
St. Louis, St. Charles and Jefferson counties (and there may 
have been more) made reports to their respective courts, as- 
serting the dogma of states rights and severely criticizing Con- 
gress for its action in connection with the establishment of 
this line. Mr. Jefferson was mistaken when he suggested 
that the establishment of this line introduced a new element in 
American politics. "The coincidence of a marked princi- 
ple, normal and political, with a geographical line," existed at 
the time of the adoption of the Missouri Compromise, and had 
existed for over half a century. Jeremiah Mason and Charles 
Dixon, two celebrated English surveyors, had fixed and mark- 
ed the line between Pennsylvania on one side and Delaware 
and Maryland on the other in 1760-67, and while that line had 
no political significance at the time it was surveyed, it, in 
time came to be universally recognized in this country as the 
line dividing slave from free territory. In 1787 
this line, as a divisional one between slavery 
and freedom, was extended along the Ohio to 
its mouth and from the ocean to the mouth of the 
Ohio it became recognized as Mason and Dixon 's line. On one 
side of it lay the South ; on the other side the North . On this 
side slavery existed, on that freedom prevailed. Here was 
slave soil and slave labor, there was free soil and free labor. 
This line, at first a purely imaginary one, in time became a 
chasm and finally became the battle line of the contending 
forces . This line divided the States, while the Missouri Com- 
promise, when established, divided only the territories 
of the United States, then largely uninhabited. 

If the line between the free and slave States, the Ohio 
river, had been extended westward, it would nearly have 
coinci'led with the southern line of Missouri, as fixed by the 
Act of March 6, 1820. Benton, in his abridgement of Con- 


gressional Debates, Vol. 6, p. 430, says, a proposition was 
made in Congress in 1811 to extend this line westward from 
the mouth of the Ohio. It is probable that both sides agreed 
to the Missouri Compromise under a serious misconception 
of the character of the Louisiana Purchase, outside of 
Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota, as geographers of 
that day marked nearly all of the territory west of the 
Missouri as the "Great American Desert." By this mutual 
mistake both sides did not think that they were surrendering 
very much in fixing the line they did between slave and 
free soil. 

The Missouri Compromise Line, as established by Act 
of March 6, 1820, extended no further west than the 100 
west longitude, which had been fixed as the western line of 
the Louisiana Purchase south of the Arkansas River, by the 
treaty with Spain in 1819, but by the Act of Congress, 1845, 
fixing the boundary of Texas, it was provided that if any 
states should, in the future, be formed out of Texas territory, 
slavery should not exist north of 36 30', which had the 
effect to extend the Missouri Compromise Line to the Rio 
Grande. Afterwards when other territories were organized, 
a narrow strip of land nearly 200 miles long and 35 miles 
wide, lying between 36 30' and 37 North latitude and 100 
and 103 west longitude was not included in any of them, 
and was for a long time known as "No Man's Land" 
but it was finally attached to Oklahoma, and now forms 
Beaver County of that State. 

February 15, 1847, when it had become manifest that 
an extensive territory would be acquired from Mexico, and 
when the agitation growing out of the Wilmot proviso, 
which sought to prohibit slavery in our acquisitions from 
Mexico, was again convulsing the country, the Missouri 
Legislature adopted resolutions instructing the Senators 
and requesting the Representatives from Missouri, to abide 
by the Missouri Compromise Line in the organization of 
future governments for the territories then owned or that 
might, in the future, be owned by us. Thus as late as 1847 


the Missouri Legislature had no thought and probably no 
desire to disturb that line. 

March 10, 1849, the same Legislature adopted what are 
known as the "Jackson Resolutions," which asserted the 
doctrine of State Sovereignty and of States Rights, and 
alligned Missouri with the extremists of the South. These 
resolutions asserted further that Congress had no power to 
prohibit slavery in any of the territories of the United 
States, "but for the sake of harmony and the preservation 
of the Federal Union they will still sanction the application 
of the principles of the Missouri Compromise to the recent 
acquisitions, if by such concessions, future aggressions upon 
the equal rights of the States may be arrested and the 
spirit of anti-slavery fanaticism extinguished." By the 
resolutions the Senators from Missouri were instructed and 
her Representatives requested, to vote in accordance with 
the principles they announced on all questions coming within 
their purview. The great Benton revolted against these 
resolutions, and in 1849-50 made his memorable appeal to 
the people and thereby lost his place in the Senate, to the 
irreparable loss of the State. The defeat of Benton marked 
an important epoch in Missouri history, for by it our State 
passed from the conservative leadership of Bentonism to the 
radical leadership of anti-Bentonism, to continue up to the 
flight of Governor Jackson across her southern line in 1861, 
a period of ten years. It ought never to be forgotten, how- 
ever, that though Benton was defeated, his memorable 
appeal did more than any other one thing to make Missouri 
Union in sentiment. He charged that the "Jackson Resolu- 
tions" spelled secession and disunion, which forced his 
enemies to deny this; and to fortify them in this denial, to 
vociferously assert that they loved the Union and would do 
all they could to maintain it. Hence, on this appeal, all 
were, publicly at least, for the Union, with this distinction; 
Benton and his adherents were for the Union first and 
slavery afterwards, while the anti-Bentonites were for 
slavery first and the Union afterwards. This contest did not 
end with the defeat of Benton. He and his adherents con- 


tinued it until his defeat for Governor in 1856, when he 
retired from public life. He had, however, sown the seeds 
of Unionism, which germinated and brought forth abundant 
fruit. When the crisis came, February 28, 1861, the State 
adhered to the Union by a vote of 80,000 majority. It should 
be noted at this point that the Missouri Legislature, on the 
21st day of February, 1861, just seven days before this 
decisive vote for the Union, by joint resolution declared 
against coercion, and "that in case of invasion of any 
Southern State to carry that doctrine into effect, the people 
of Missouri will instantly rally on the side of their southern 
brethren to resist the invasions at all hazards and to the 
last extremity," which shows that representative bodies do 
not always represent. 

In 1850 other compromise measures were adopted, as 
follows : 

1st. California was admitted as a free State. 

2nd. New Mexico, its north line extending to the 
Arkansas river, and Utah, were organized as territories, and 
authorized to come into the Union free or slave, as they 

3rd. The Fugitive Slave law was strengthened. 

4th. The slave trade in the District of Columbia was 
prohibited. These made eight compromises on the subject 
of slavery, and thus ended the compromising era of our 

The Fugitive Slave Law. 

The Fugitive Slave Law was always intensely unpopular 
in the North, and the one of 1850 was denounced more 
bitterly than the one of 1793, as it required the citizens of 
the North, when called on by the officers of the law, to 
become "slave catchers," as they called it. They claimed 
that it was asking too much to require them, by law, to help 
capture and return to slavery men and women, though black, 
fleeing by their doors to make themselves free, or forbidden 
to feed them or give them shelter. 


Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe published "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin" in 1851-52, as a protest against the Fugitive Slave 
Law of 1850. She makes heroes and heroines of the men 
and women who refused to obey that law by feeding and 
clothing fugitive slaves and aiding them in their flight to 
freedom. She also portrays, in strong dramatic colors, the 
inhumanity of breaking up the family life and sundering 
the ties between parents and children, husbands and wives 
of the slaves of the South by their sale and separation. 
She sarcastically refers to the fact that fugitive slaves had 
to be clandestinely conducted through a free country to a 
province of a monarchy, Canada, before they could be free. 
Mrs. Stowe appealed chiefly to the men and women of the 
North, but she did not ignore the South. Her work struck 
a sympathetic cord in the human heart everywhere, and it 
met with an immense sale. The result was, lines known as 
"underground railroads," were established from Mason 
and Dixon's line to Canada for the escape of fugitive slaves, 
and by means of which many did escape. This angered the 
South, and its statesmen insisted that the North had already 
abrogated the Missouri Compromise, at least in its spirit, 
and they began again to seriously discuss the question 
whether Congress possessed the power to exclude slavery 
from any of the territories of the United States, and by 
1854, they were ready to overthrow the Missouri Compromise 

At that time, (1854), the two Senators of Missouri, 
David R. Atchison, a democrat, and Henry S. Geyer, a whig, 
and all the Representatives in the House, except Benton, 
then a member of that body, were extreme pro-slavery men. 

The Churches Divided. 

In the meantime the line of demarkation between slave 
and free soil had become a disturbing element in the 
churches. The Methodist body had split along that line in 
1844, and the Presbyterians and Baptists soon followed 


This schism distinctly emphasized the moral and religious 
phase of the question involved and aligned religionists, North 
and South of this dividing line, into separate groups. Nearly 
all the members of the religious bodies in the slave States, 
became political adherents of the pro-slave idea, and nearly 
all in the free States became political adherents of the free 
soil cause. This allignment intensified the situation and 
embittered the controversy. 

It is important in this connection to refer to another 
significant episode in the history of Missouri. January 16, 
183'j, the Missouri Legislature formed a new county and 
iiamed it Van Buren, in honor of the Vice-President of the 
United States. February 16, 1841, the same Legislature, by 
joint resolutions, addressed Mr. Van Buren, as President 
of the United States, tendering him its regard, esteem and 
confidence, and complimenting him on his firm stand for the 
rights of slaveholders "against the operations of a party, 
which is led by the world's convention of England and is 
rendered formidable by its association with the capitalists 
of London and many of our deluded citizens," and on his 
opposition to the measure to allow the postoffice to carry 
abolition documents. Van Buren was defeated for the 
nomination for President in the democratic convention of 
1S44, and in 1848 he ran for President on a free soil platform, 
and thus caused the defeat of Lewis Cass, the candidate of 
the democratic party on a state's rights platform, and March 
7, 1849, the same Legislature changed the name of Van Buren 
county to Cass. How fickle is fame ! The Legislature in chang- 
ing the name of Van Buren county discreetly omitted its rea- 
sons for so doing. In this, Missouri showed herself more radical 
than Arkansas, which has allowed the name of Van Buren to 
designate one of her counties even to this day. 

David R. Atchison. 

This gentleman, who succeeded Dr. Linn in the Senate 
in the fall of 1844, was the antipode of Benton, the other 
Senator. Benton, while pro-slavery, was an unconditional 


Union man. Atchison was for the Union but not without 
slavery; the former was consistent, the latter inconsistent, 
as his public career will show. Senator Atchison, March 10, 
1848, after our acquisitions from Mexico, the largest portion 
of which lay south of the line of 36 30' voted to extend 
the Missouri Compromise Line to the Pacific and so did 
Benton on the organization of Oregon Territory, but subse- 
quently, fearing that the bill would be lost with that 
provision in it, Benton and other men were willing to omit 
it but Atchison insisted on retaining it. Again on the 
adoption of the Compromise measures of 1850, Mr. Atchison 
voted to extend the Missouri Compromise line to California, 
but he was again defeated and this time he went so far as 
to join Jeff. Davis, R. M. T. Hunter and some other southern 
men in a protest against its non-extension. This protest 
asserted that the refusal to extend that line to California 

' ' was fatal to the peace and equality of the States and 

leading, if persisted in, to a dissolution of the Confederacy." 
Atchison 's change of base will be noticed under the next 

The Abrogation of the Missouri Compromise Line. 

In the winter of 1853, a bill for the organization of the 
Territory of Nebraska was before the Senate, and Mr. Atchi- 
son stated that, while he did not consider the Missouri 
Compromise Line as just, he had come to the conclusion 
that it could not be repealed, and hence it might be considered 
as permanent, and he was willing to organize the Territory 
on that theory. But by the next session a change had come 
over the spirit of his dream, and he became a persistent 
advocate of the abrogation of that line. In January, 1854, 
Mr. Douglas, chairman of the Committee on Territories, 
made a report on the Nebraska bill, in which it was recom- 
mended that the line 36 30 ! be disturbed; but finally he 
changed his mind and reported a bill to organize the 
Territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and recommended that 
this historic line be abrogated. Mr. Atchison, in a speech 


at Atchison, Kas., September 20, 1854, gave the reason for 
this change of base on the part of Senator Douglas. In 
that speech he told the people that he had forced Douglas 
to take that step by telling him that if he did not report 
on amendment to the bill to abrogate that line, he, (Atchison), 
would resign as Vice-President, be put at the head of the 
Territorial Committee, and report such a measure himself. 
And he went on to say that Douglas yielded, and on May 
30, 1854, Mr. Pierce signed the bill, with that provision in 
it, wiping out the Missouri Compromise Line, and leaving 
the people of the Territories free to adopt or reject slavery 
at their own option. May 30, 1854, thus becomes one of 
the most memorable days in the history of our country, 
and especially in the history of Missouri. That day was the 
beginning of the end of slavery, and of the dogma of 
1'taceable secession. Jefferson was mistaken about the 
establishment of the Missouri Compromise Line being an 
error, sufficient to cause alarm, but his criticism of that 
line and his prophecy in regard to it exactly fit the crisis 
reached May 30, 1854, when that line was abrogated. The 
abrogation of that line came like a clap of thunder out of 
a clear sky and it fell upon the ears of the people like a 
fin- alarm at night, filling them with alarm and indignation. 
The North was ripe for decisive action. This line which 
had been regarded as sacred as the Constitution itself and 
as a measure of peace for over thirty-four years was wiped 
out, and the proposition to carry slavery into all the Terri- 
tories aroused a storm of wrath and indignation throughout 
the North, and the determination was at once formed to 
fight the institution to a finish everywhere. The pulpit, 
platform and press, along the whole line of the free States 
hurled their anathemas against what they termed the op- 
pressions of the slave power, urging that that power 
proposed to nationalize slavery. The anti-slavery people 
asserted it had been the hope of the fathers, Southern as 
'Well as Northern, that slavery would in time be put in the 
[way of final extinction, and that hope had been theirs up to 
May 30, 1854, but by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise 


Line, they were forced to the conclusion that the slaveholders 
intended to extend that institution with the deep-seated 
determination to perpetuate it. This they intended to 
resist to the last extremity. The conflict between freedom 
and slavery in their minds became irrepressible. The South 
insisted that slaves were mere chattels, on a par with horses 
and cattle, and as such, slaveholders had a right to carry 
them into the Territories of the United States where the 
Constitution threw its protecting arm around them, not to 
free them, but to enslave them. And when the slaveholders, 
with the Bible in one hand and the Constitution in the other, 
asserted that by the first they could prove slavery right 
and by the other legal, the anti-slavery people replied that 
if that was true, which they denied, they would demand an 
anti-slavery God, and anti-slavery Bible and an anti-slavery 
Constitution, and that they would appeal to a law higher 
than the Constitution or institutions, the law of eternal 
justice and love of humanity. The assertion of a Divine 
sanction for slavery, and the further assertion that slaves 
were mere chattels, things to be treated like other property 
and that when the masters moved to the Territories with 
their slaves, they carried with them also the law of slavery 
of their own States, shocked the whole North, and the asser- 
tion of the higher law doctrine shocked the whole South. 

In the repeal of the Missouri Compromise Line by the 
slaveholding States chiefly, the South unwittingly threw 
down the gauntlet of war, which the North promptly took 
up and the two antagonistic civilizations buckled on their 
armor for the conflict. In the North this conflict was 
intended to be to a finish from the start. There were to 
be no more palliations or compromises; but the South, having 
avowedly adopted the Kansas-Nebraska bill as a peace 
measure, as it was termed, did not awake to a full realization 
of the nature of the conflict it had precipitated for two or 
three years afterwards. 


Kansas Becomes the Battlefield. 

The effect of the abrogation of the Missouri Compromise 

Line, instead of calming the troubled waters of slavery 
agitation, simply transferred the contest from the halls of 
Congress to the plains of Kansas, which became at once the 
center of the stage, and remained such for three years. 

Emigrant Aid Societies. 

The portents of the coming storm had already, by the 
tin^e the Kansas-Nebraska bill became a law, induced the 
people of Massachusetts to organize Emigrant Aid Societies 
to make Kansas a free State, and in a short time Missourians, 
under the leadership of Atchison, B. F. Stringfellow, Claiborne 
F. Jackson, and others organized secret, oath-bound Blue 
Lodges, Social Bands and Sons of the South, afterwards 
joined by organized bands from South Carolina and Georgia, 
to make Kansas a slave State. These methods, on both sides, 
were new in American politics and tended to intensify and 
embitter the struggle. 

The Republican Party. 

An anti-slavery party, the Republican, sprang up as if 
by magic, the sole inspiration of which was "free speech, 
free soil nnd free men" and around this sentiment the anti- 
slavery forces became coherent, persistent and determined. 
The struggle in Kansas was fierce and bloody. March 30, 

855, large numbers of armed Missourians invaded that 
Territory and elected a pro-slavery Legislature, which 
became "the direful spring of woes unnumbered" to both 
Kansas and Missouri. May 21, 1856, Sheriff Jones and his 
posse, composed of Missourians very largely, sacked Law- 
rence and destroyed two free State newspapers. May 24, 

.856, old John Brown appears upon the scene at Dutch 
Henry's Crossing, Kas., where he and his companions killed 
five pro-slavery men in a most cruel and wanton manner. 
The free State people from March 30, 1855, when the Mis- 


sourians elected a Kansas Legislature, refused to recognize 
that Legislaure as legal or the government it established as 
entitled to their allegiance, and organized a State govern- 
ment of their own, formed a constitution known as the 
"Topeka Constitution," and under it applied for admission 
into the Union as a free State. The anti-slavery members 
of Congress supported this free State government, and voted 
to admit Kansas as a free State under the Topeka Constitu- 
tion, while the pro-slavery members, backed by the adminis- 
tration fought both as illegal and revolutionary. 

The Simmer-Brooks Episode. 

May 21, 1856, Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, made 
his bitter speech in the Senate on what he termed "The 
Crime Against Kansas," and on the next day Preston H. 
Brooks, of South Carolina, struck Sumner over the head 
with his cane, knocking him senseless to the floor. Sumner 's 
condition after this stroke aroused the sympathy and 
indignation of the whole North, and Brooks, after an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to expel him from the House, which was at 
the time anti-slavery, resigned his seat and applied to his 
people for vindication, which they gave him almost unani- 
mously, there being only six votes against him. This episode 
became of national importance as a controling element in 
the politics of the day. In the eyes of the extremists of the 
North, Brooks' assault embodied the ruffian spirit of pro- 
slaveryism and Sumner 's speech, in the eyes of the South, 
embodied the spirit of the abolitionists, who had, it was 
claimed, no regard for the rights of slaveholders. During 
this period a new impetus was given to the sale of "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," hundreds of thousands of copies of which 
were bought and eagerly read. The advance in the spirit 
of the pro-slavery propaganda was shown by resolutions 
passed by a convention of southern men held at Savannah, 
Ga., December 12, 1856, and at another at Vicksburg in 
1859, asking for the repeal of the law interdicting the 
foreign slave trade. During the years 1856-60 many negroes 


from Africa were smuggled into Southern ports and sold 
there into slavery. 

The Dred Scott Case. 

March 6, 1857, is also an epoch marker. On that day 
the Dred Scott Case, the most celebrated in the annals 
of this country, made Dred Scott, a Missouri negro, the 
most notorious, if not the most illustrious, man of his age. 
Since March 6, 1857, his name has been spoken and printed 
millions of times. The Court, through Chief Justice Tawney, 
in that case, held: 1st. The right of property in a slave 
is distinctly and expressly affirmed in the Constitution. 2nd. 
As the Constitution makes no distinction Jbetween slave 
property and other property, "no tribunal acting under the 
authority of the United States, whether it be legislative, 
executive or judicial, has a right to draw such distinctions 
or deny to it" the protection of the Government. 3rd. No 
negro, whether free or slave, could become a citizen of 
the United States without their consent. 4th. For a 
hundred years before the adoption of the Constitution the 
people held that negroes had no rights which they (the 
whites) were bound to respect. 5th. That neither Congress 
nor a Territorial Legislature had the power to exclude 
slavery from the Territories, and consequently the Missouri 
Compromise Line was unconstitutional and void. McLean 
and Curtis, two of the Justices, filed able dissenting opinions, 
taking issue with the Chief Justice on all points. The de- 
cision caused jubilation and delight in the South. Now 
there could be no question but that all the Territories were 
alike open to the slaveholders with the assurance of protection 
for slave property there. The North, on the other hand, 
could see nothing in this decision but added proof of the 
determination of the slaveholders to nationalize slavery, 
reversing, as it did, the policy inaugurated by Jefferson in 
1784, and consummated by the ordinance of 1787, and the 
compromise measures of 1820 and 1850, and the Republican 
party, the anti-slavery party, lately organized, appealed from 
the Supreme Court to the people on the momentous questions 


involved in the Dred Scott case. Here was presented a 
new phase of an old conflict. The South maintained that 
this appeal was simply a new manifestation, in concrete 
form, of the higher law doctrine; it was revolutionary and 
subversive of all government. On this appeal in the Dred 
Scott case, the anti-slavery advocates argued that it was 
only a step from the principles of this decision to the 
nationalization of what they regarded as the "crime of 
crimes" as "the sum of all villainies." It was plain to 
them that if slaves were mere chattels, things, like horses 
or cattle, and the Constitution of the United States threw 
its protecting arm around the institution of slavery in the 
Territories, the same Constitution protected slavery in all 
the States, against State Constitutions or State laws, thus 
nationalizing that institution. This seemed logical. They 
further contended that while the Constitution recognized the 
existence of slavery, it did not establish it .... that slavery 
was against the world spirit and especially against the spirit 
of American institutions, and that Congress had the power 
and ought to exercise the power to prevent the extension 
of such an institution into the Territories under its immediate 
control. Their battle cry became "No more slave States 
anywhere North or South." Thomas H. Benton, in Septem- 
ber, 1857, published, in Washington, "An Examination of 
the Dred Scott Decision" in which he took the ground that 
it was wrong on every point, considered judicially or 

Missouri Takes a Hand Again. 

February 16, 1857, the Missouri Legislature declared by 
a joint resolution by a vote in the House of 107 to 12, 13 
not voting, and in the Senate by a vote of 25 to 4, 4 not 
voting, "that the emancipation of slaves held as property 
in this State would be impracticable, inexpedient, impolitic, 
unwise and unjust and should be discountenanced by the 
people of the State." 


The Battle of the Constitution. 

The Kansas Legislature, elected March 30, 1855, enacted 
an extreme pro-slavery code, even making it a felony to 
deny by word or in print that a man could not hold slaves 
in Kansas, and in 1857 it called a Constitutional Convention 
which adopted a pro-slavery constitution, known as "The 
LeCompton Constitution," which was presented in the winter 
of 1858, and Congress was asked to admit Kansas under it 
as a slave State. Then came the battle of the constitutions, 
LeCompton against Topeka. The LeCompton Constitution 
proved to be the rock on which the Democratic party split. The 
Buchanan administration advocated the admission of Kansas 
under that Constitution, while Douglas and his followers took 
strong grounds against it, arguing that it was very plain 
that that Constitution did not reflect the will of the people 
of that Territory. The contest became one mainly between 
the administration and the Douglasites, as the Democratic 
party, at that time, controlled both Houses of Congress. 
There is very little question that Douglas decided the fate 
of Kansas. If he had joined the administration forces, the 
LeCompton Constitution would probably have been adopted, 
and the whole course of Kansas-Missouri history changed. 
This schism in the Democratic party became permanent, and 
projected itself into the presidential compaign of 1860, and 
really determined its result. The outcome of the whole 
matter was the submission of the LeCompton Constitution 
to a vote of the people of Kansas with the promise of pro- 
tection against outsiders, and the assurance of a fair election. 
August 2, 1858, the people rejected it by a vote of 11,300 
to 1,788. This really ended the contest there. That vote 
made it plain that Kansas was to come in as a free State. 

* ft ' , 3 

Illinois Becomes the Battlefield. 
Lincoln in the Limelight. 

A crisis was plainly in view and events of portentious 
importance, it was seen, would soon transpire, and the man 
to meet that crisis and control those events emerged from 


comparative obscurity. This man was Abraham Lincoln. 
The great debate between him and Douglas in Illinois took 
place in 1858, and the whole country listened. In that 
debate and in the next two years, this man, seeing more 
clearly than any other statesman of that period, the issues 
that ought to be made, brought order out of chaos. The 
course of the free State men of Kansas in refusing to recog- 
nize the Legislature elected March 30, 1855, as they claimed, 
by Missourians, as legal, or to obey the government it set 
up, which course was endorsed by the anti-slavery forces* 
in Congress and in the country, and the proclamation of 
the higher law doctrine by such men as Seward and Sumner, 
and the war made on the Fugitive Slave Law, had made 
the attitude of the Republican party one of disorder and 
disobedience to law, and had made the Democratic the law 
and order party. Mr. Lincoln saw clearly that if this 
attitude of the two parties was maintained, nothing but 
defeat could come to the party advocating disobedience 
to and defiance of the law; and here is where he showed 
wisdom above that of his contemporary statesmen. He saw 
that the fight, the final one, between slavery and freedom, 
was on. The vast step on the slavery question from Thomas 
Jefferson to Jefferson Davis, plainly portended the trend of 
slavery agitation. The aggressions of the slave power, as 
it was called, must cease. All of the territory of the United 
States must be dedicated to freedom. No more slave States 
must be admitted, but all this must be done legally and in 
order. Mr. Lincoln pointed the way. He ignored the higher 
law doctrine entirely, asserted that the slaveholders were 
entitled to a fair fugitive slave law, and that Congress had 
no power to interfere with slavery in the States where it 
existed. This turned all the abolitionists against him, but 
he persisted. He asserted that the fathers deemed slavery 
an evil to be dealt with as such, and that we must come 
back to that thought. The South claimed a divine sanction 
for slavery, making it right, and a constitutional sanction, 
making it legal. He said it was "no just function of the 
Government to prohibit what is not wrong," that if "slavery 


is right, ordained by the Almighty, on one side of a line 

then it is positively wrong to harrass and bedevil the owners 
of it with constitutions and laws and prohibitions of it on 
the other side of the line." "We must have," he says, "a 
national policy as to slavery which deals with it as being 
wrong." If slavery is right it can logically go everywhere; 
if it is wrong it ought finally to disappear everywhere. The 
slaveholders deemed slavery right. The North, if it was to 
remain consistent, must take the ground that slavery is 
wrong. This would make the issue between slavery and 
freedom irrepressible, and that conflict would go on until 
freedom conquered slavery or was conquered by it. This 
country could not remain half slave and half free; that a 
house divided against itself could not stand. He did not 
expect the country to become all slave, but he did hope 
and expect, as our fathers had hoped and expected, that 
slavery would in time be put in such shape that the people 
would rest assured it would finally disappear, and we would 
become a homogeneous people. All of this must be done, 
Mr. Lincoln said, under the forms of law. Even in his 
criticism of the Dred Scott decision, and his appeal to the 
people from that decision, he took no revolutionary stand. 
The Supreme Court, he said, had in the past reversed its 
own decisions and it could do so again. He appealed to 
the people because he claimed the people could unmake and 
remake both the Court and the Constitution. Many of that 
time thought, as many think now, that Mr. Lincoln, at this 
point, got on very thin ice. But he was right, and in this 
his democracy touched elbows with the democracy of 
Jefferson and Jackson, though it stood in deadly conflict 
with that of the extreme Southern Democrats of that day 
The history of the Supreme Court proves that Mr. Lincoln 
had the right to make that appeal. Federalist judges wrote 
Federalist doctrines permanently in our institutions. Demo- 
cratic judges conformed their views to the Democratic pro- 
slavery construction of the Constitution, and Republican 
judges have engrafted Republican principles in the laws of 
the Jand. Besides that, the Democratic party, for thirty 


years prior to 1860, had made a successful appeal to the 
people from the decisions of the Supreme Court on the 
power of Congress to establish a National Bank; and even 
as late as 1896 and 1900, the Democratic party in its platform 
appealed from the Supreme Court on the bank and income 
tax questions. 

The law will grow under our form of government, and 
I maintain that the people have a right, and the power, hoo, 
to make that growth conform to their conceptions of gov- 
ernment. There is no danger in this principle, either. If 
England, without a written constitution, has evolved in the 
ages such splendid government as she has, there can come 
no possible danger to us from a government evolved by 
the people under a written constitution in an orderly and 
regular way. 

Mr. Lincoln's outline of the issues, so plain and explicit, 
struck a responsive cord in the Northern heart. Is slavery 
right? If so, protect it. Is it wrong? If so, treat it as 
all other wrongs are treated, so as to get rid of it peaceably 
as soon as possible. On the other hand, the South denounced 
Mr. Lincoln's position in unmeasured terms, and December 
15, 1859, the Missouri Legislature, by joint resolutions, joined 
the South in such denunciation . 

Events moved rapidly to make the issue between slavery 
as right, having Divine sanction, and slavery as wrong, to 
be dealt with as such, sharper and more distinct. 

Helper's Impending Crisis. 

In 1859, Helper, a North Carolinian, published "The 
Impending Crisis." Mrs. Stowe had appealed to the moral 
and religious forces of the country against slavery, while 
Helper appealed mainjy to the non-slaveholders of the South 
against that institution, presenting the economic side of the 
slave -luestion. The book was full of statistics, showing 
that slavery was a fatal injury to the South and to free 
labor. It was endorsed by John Sherman and other leading 
anti-slavery men, and it was printed and distributed in the 


North as a campaign document in 1860. This book angered 
the South to a greater extent than "Uncle Tom's Cabin," 
because it struck nearer home. It appealed to Uie non- 
slaveholders of the South, and the slaveholders realized that 
if ever the non-slaveholders of their section concluded slavery 
was, in an economic way, an injury to them, slavery Avas 
doomed in the States, for out of a white population in the 
South in 1850 of about 6,000,000, 4,250,000 were non -slave- 
holders, and, of course, if united, could control the remainder, 
less than 2,000,000. Helper and all his endorsers were furi- 
ously denounced everywhere in the South. 

John Brown. 

In the same year, 1859, John Brown made his celebrated 
raid at Harper's Ferry, Va., and he was captured and hung. 
His execution was witnessed by 2,000 people, among them 
being Governor Wise of Virginia, Wilkes Booth and Robert 
E. Lee. The poets of the North apotheocized John Brown 
as the very incarnation of the spirit of freedom and of the 
higher law doctrine, that if it be right to enslave men and 
women by force, it is not only right, but a duty to make 
them free by force, and in less than five years the soldiers 
of the Union army and the people, too, were singing "John 
Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave, but his soul 
goes marching on." 

In the South John Brown was denounced as a murderer 
and traitor, and the people there viewed his act as only 
another proof of the lawlessness of abolition fanaticism. 

The Higher Law. 

As has been stated, Mrs. Stowe in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
made heroes and heroines of the men and women who defied 
the Fugitive Slave Law, and aided slaves to escape from 
bondage by means of the underground railroad to Canada. 
A slave catcher came to be detested in the North, as much 
as a slave-kidnapper was in the South. Many fugitive 
slave cases came before the courts, every one creating 


intense excitement. One, however, as portraying in a 
peculiar way the prevailing feeling in the North, may be 
specially mentioned. 

At Oberlin, Ohio, a fugitive slave was turned over to 
the owner or his agent and Simon Bushnell and about thirty 
others rescued him September 13, 1858. The rescuers were 
indicted, and in April, 1859, Bushnell was tried and con- 
victed in Cleveland, and made to pay a fine of $600.00, and 
was sent to jail for sixty days. The people let the law take 
its course, but when Bushnell had served out his jail 
sentence they made his return to Oberlin, July llth, a tri- 
umphant march, where an immense crowd was gathered to 
welcome him home. He made a speech saying that he had 
done right, had paid the penalty of the law for it, and he 
was ready to do the same thing again when opportunity 
offered, whereat a great shout of approval rent the air. The 
whole affair from its inception to its close had lasted about 
ten months. The whole North was aroused. The press, 
platform and pulpit resounded with sympathy for Bushnell, 
and with a full endorsement of his course and of his deter- 
mination to obey his conscience rather than the law. The 
people became conscious of the deeper conflict underlying 
and causing the throes of the time. Both parties saw the 
issue in its full bearing. The conflict was irrepressible 
indeed and the crisis was seen to be surely approaching. 

Bushnell's case revealed a new phase of the higher law 
doctrine, presenting the difference between submission to 
law and disobedience to law. He had disobeyed the Fugitive 
Slave Law, but he submitted to the penalty it imposed. 
There was no effort on the part of the people to rescue him. 
They also submitted to the law, but when he emerged from 
his prison sentence, they tumultuously put upon his brow the 
martyr's crown. 

The fugitive slave cases, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," Helper's 
"The Impending Crisis" and the general trend of the 
slavery agitation, brought the South to realize that a defense 
of slavery had to be made before the bar of the American 
people. Mr. E. N. Elliott of Mississippi undertook this task, 



and January 1, 1860, published a book called "Cotton is 
King." This work contained many articles by the ablest 
pro-slavery writers of the country. It undertook to show 
that African slavery, as it existed in the United States, was 
economically and morally right, that it had the Divine 
sanction in the Bible., that it was a blessing to the whites 
and slaves alike, and that the effort of the anti-slavery 
people of the North to abolish it was a crime, and it must 
be confessed that it left nothing on that side to be said. 
This book was in line with the thought of all the pro-slavery 
statesmen of the day; and they cannot be regarded as of 
fa low order intellectually, though they lacked the imagination 
to transmit a knowledge of the past into the comprehensions 
of the future. They clearly comprehended the issue Mr. 
Lincoln had made between slavery as right and slavery as 
wrong, and feeling that they must stand by the rightfulness 
of slavery or go down, inspired "Cotton is King," which, 
in a very able way, undertook to show that slavery was 
right. But the appeal was against the moral sense of the 
rorld and of the age, and from the start they fought a 
losing fight. "Cotton is King," however, had the effect to 
lake the issue clearer and sharper, and when the final test 
same in November, 1860, between the united forces opposed 
slavery as wrong, and the warring, discordant factions 
)f the opposing forces, Mr. Lincoln, representing the former, 
was elected President. 

Six years of intense and angry agitation, accompanied 
lawlessness and bloodshed, had heated the iron hot, and 
>uth Carolina, taking Mr. Lincoln at his word that the 
nirpose of his party was to nationalize freedom, struck 
.-hile the iron was hot, and ten of her Southern sisters, some 
fittingly, some reluctantly, followed her lead, and at half 
1st four on the morning of April 12, 1861, the bomb was 
red on Ft. Sumpter and the flag, and called the nation to 
is, and the maintainance of the Union was submitted to 
le arbitrament of the sword. 

The conservative, compromising forces of the border 
States stood aghast at war, but the extremists of both sides 


stood firm, the South because it felt sure of separation and 
independence, the North, because, while it hoped to per- 
petuate the Union, it would, in case of final separation, be 
relieved from responsibility for slavery and as a foreign 
nation it would have a free hand, untrammeled by laws or 
constitutions, in its war on that institution. It was a battle 
of giants, and after four years of the bloodiest war of 
modern times, the dogma of secession expired, and four 
millions of slaves were bidden to go free in the agony of 
the Nation. The slaves are free, but after forty years of 
freedom for them, the race question still abides, and God 
forbid that we, by our other fatal mistakes, should have to 
settle that question too in another agony of the Nation, 
bloodier and fiercer, probably, than the first. 

But the race problem is one phase of the slavery ques- 
tion. Racial prejudice is not local but earthwide and in its 
presence reason is dumb, and the race issue is one that 
probably statesmen cannot settle, but must be ground out 
in Time's mills in the tears and anguish of the people* 
Those, that won't reason, must suffer. 

What a frightful mistake the statesmen of Missouri 
made in 1820 in not adopting the gradual emancipation 
scheme then proposed, and insisting on excepting this State 
from the operation of the Missouri Compromise Line. I am 
not much given to speculation on "what might have been," 
but I hope you will pardon me for saying a word or two 
on what, it is now apparent to all, would have happened 
if Missouri had come into the Union in 1820 as a free State. 
If our State had been made a free State by the terms of 
her admission into the Union she would have escaped the 
woes unnumbered which the curse of slavery in after years 
brought on her; and then what another fatal mistake the 
Missouri statesmen made in 1854, when they voted unani- 
mously, with the exception of Benton in the House, for the 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise Line. If the mistakes 
of 1820 and 1854 had not been made, our beloved State 
would not now have to record in sorrow and in tears the 
scenes enacted at Camp Jackson, or Springfield, or Osceola, 



>r Lone Jack, or Palmyra, or Kirksville, or Centralia, or 
jcount the devastations and loss of life along the trail of 
pice and his army from Pittman's Ferry by way of Pilot 
lob, Union, Boonville, Westport and along the Missouri- 
isas line south, and the invasion by Missourians of Kansas 
Territory to make it a slave State, the tarring and feathering 
)f free State men, the sack of Lawrence, May 21, 1856, the 
)loody raid of old John Brown in the neighborhood of Dutch 
[enry's Crossing, May 24, 1856, the raids of Jennison and 
Lontgomery along the Missouri-Kansas border, and the 
ragedy of the Marais des Cygnes, by all of which the Mis- 
mrians acquired the name of "Border Ruffians," and 
msans that of " Jayhawkers;" the massacre of Lawrence 
1863 under Quantrell and the depopulation of Bates, 
}ass and Jackson counties by "Order No. 11" would not 
ive occurred. In that case Missouri would have been in 
and friendly league with Kanisas, and together they 
have stood shoulder to shoulder in defense of the 
non. But these mistakes were made and our western 
leighbor emerged from a ten years' contest as "Bloody 
insas, " and Missouri's soil was drenched in fraternal 
>lood, and at the end of the conflict she found her beautiful 
lills and plains almost one vast desolation, and the passions 
)f her people wrought up by the bloody strife to white 
leat. The wounds growing out of these mistakes of our 
jaders in 1820 and 1854 have been substantially healed, but 
ley bring up many bitter memories yet. The Missouri Com- 
wromise Line has long since vanished, but no man can un- 
lerstand American history, and especially Missouri history, 
ritliout fully understanding the history of the rise and fall 
)f that line. The conflicts growing out of its establishment 
the first place, and its abolition in the second place, tinge 
)ur whole history. Yes, they have controlled the trend and 
le outcome of our whole history, but the abolition and not 
le establishment of that line marked the most portentious 
>ch in our history. 

It is appropriate that I should state, en passant, that 
injustice was done both Kansas and Missouri in calling 


the citizens of the former indiscriminately "Jayhawkers," 
and the citizens of the latter "Border Ruffians," for but a 
few comparatively of the Kansans were 4 ' Jayhawkers " and 
only a small number of the Missourians were "Border 

Permit me to suggest that the Kansas struggle and our 
attitude in the Civil War affected us in one direction, the 
injurious consequences of which are probably irreparable; 
that is, owing to the conduct of the Missourians in inter- 
fering with the emigration of free State men through our 
border, the emigrants from the North were diverted from 
us through Iowa and Nebraska, and I feel sure that if 
Missouri had been what was termed a true, loyal State during 
the war, the first Pacific railroad would have traversed our 
territory instead of that of Iowa, and St. Louis would at 
once have been the halfway station between the oceans. 
Prior to the Kansas struggle and the Civil War everything 
pointed to this result. The Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and 
the Overland Mail Route to California began in our borders. 
A convention of delegates from fifteen States held at St. 
Louis, October 15-17, 1849, recommended a Central Pacific 
railroad, and this was the dream of Benton when in his 
speech at that convention he uttered those immortal words, 
"There is the east, there is the road to India." But while 
Missourians were engaged in a bloody,internecine strife for 
the mastery, marching and countermarching her hostile 
armies over her hills and across her valleys, desolating the 
homes of the people and bringing pangs of distress to num- 
berless women and children, and death to its best citizens, 
Chicago seized the prize, and she holds it today. But will 
Chicago always hold the prize? St. Louis ought to be the 
commercial metropolis of the great Mississippi basin. Her 
geographical position entitles her to it, and it was only 
wrested from her at a time when Missouri lay bleeding at 
the feet of the War God. Is it too late for St. Louis now to 
regain what she lost by the mistakes of 1820 and 1854? 
I cannot answer but I hope. 


What was the result of the fierce controversy, so far as 
the chief Missouri participants in it, Benton and Atchison, 
were concerned ? Atchison, though the leader of the pro- 
slavery party, failed to succeed himself in the Senate in 
1855-56, and was retired to private life. He died, and the 
public has almost forgotten him. On the other hand, Benton 
died April 10, 1858, a political outcast, but in 1895 the Mis- 
souri Legislature appropriated money to place life size 
marble statues of Benton and his pupil and admirer, Francis 
P. Blair, in Statuary Hall in the Capitol, at Washington, 
under the Act of Congress, authorizing each State to place 
in that Hall marble or bronze statues of two of its deceased 
distinguished citizens, whom it might deem worthy of 
national commemoration on account of civil or military 
services. Their statues were placed in that Hall, and by 
resolution February 4, 1899, they were accepted by Congress, 
and they were formally accepted by the House on the same 
day and by the Senate May 19, 1900, by appropriate reso- 
lutions and addresses. Thus the State, whose politicians had 
infused gall and wormwood in the last eight years of 
Benton 's life, forty years after he had "gone to the bourne, 
whence no traveler returns," rendered him the greatest 
honor in its power. This posthumous homage, vividly re- 
minds us of that strange freak in our nature that impels us, 
often, to ostracize a man while he lives and apotheocize him 
after he is dead. JOHN L. THOMAS. 


The pioneer Kentucky fort, so long and so widely known 
in history, in public records, in Court trials and in Court de- 
cisions as Bryant's Station, was built in the month of April, 
1779. The founder of Bryant's Station and the man from 
whom it derived its name was William Bryant. 

By the evening fireside as a boy, the writer hereof early 
grew familiar with the history of the station and its founder. 
It was perhaps but natural that he should listen with delight 
to the thrilling story regarding the place, because of the fact 
that his great grandfather was the founder of this far famed 
and historic fort. Whatever, therefore, is herein stated, is 
based not alone upon history, but also upon well established 
tradition . 

The Memorial Proceedings. 

Memorial proceedings were held upon the site of this 
vanished fort in 1896, to do honor to the memory of the 
pioneer women who, when the station was besieged by the 
Indians in the month of August, 1782, left the protecting walls 
of the fort, marched down to the spring around which lay four 
hundred and fifty savage foes concealed in the weeds and 
cane, and obtained a sufficient supply of water to enable the 
men within the fort to withstand the siege of the Indian foe. 
Articles were contributed by several writers, all of which were 
prepared for publication by Col. Reuben T. Durrett, of 
Louisville, President of the Filson Club, and the volume con- 
taining these articles is known as Filson Club Publication 
No. 12. 

An account of William Bryant should have occupied a 
place in this publication. The omission was perhaps due to 
a lack of definite information regarding him, upon the part of 


those who participated in the memorial proceedings. And it 
was not until some time afterward that descendants of Wil- 
liam Bryant, residing in other States, learned of the memorial 

Col. Durrett, in the address which he delivered gave to the 
public for the first time, the names of several women and 
girls who went to the spring for water, thus rescueing after 
many years their names from undeserved neglect. And to 
which may now be added the name of Rachel Bryant, wife of 
William Bryant, the founder and chief defender of the station. 

And it is now deemed proper and pertinent that the 
founder of Bryant's Station, should be specifically pointed out 
and identified. For while the historians generally have given 
the name of William Bryant as the founder of the station, 
there have not been wanting statements on the part of some 
writers, which, whether intended to be or not, have neverthe- 
less been very misleading, not only to other writers, but also 
to those interested in collecting and preserving material of an 
historic character concerning Bryant's Station and its founder. 

The time has arrived, however, when before departing 
further from well established historic facts, the name of the 
founder of Bryant's Station should be delivered from error 
and confusion, and placed in its proper light in history free 
of all misleading statements. The record of such a man is 
deemed worthy of preservation. Nor is it altogether unim- 
portant that our histories should be free from error and con- 
fusion, in order that the reader may with confidence rely upon 
it that all statements rest upon the foundation stones of fact. 

While the history of Bryant's Station, its siege by the 
Indians in August, 1782, the heroic act of its women in going 
to the spring for water, and the disastrous battle of the Blue 
Licks which followed hard upon these other events spreading 
death and sorrow in its wake, have been told again and again, 
yet how few there are who know anything of the founder of 
tile station aside from his mere name. 

The founder of Bryant's Station has not been sufficiently 

identified by our historians; or rather, statements have been 

itroduced concerning him, which have been not only inaccu- 


rate, but positively misleading, and having the effect only of 
confusing the reader. No effort has been made so far as I am 
aware to correct these errors, although it has long been known 
that they exist, and so far as I am aware no attempt has been 
made to give to the public a complete and accurate account 
of the founder of Bryant 's Station, by those having knowledge 
of the facts. And it is with the hope that the same will find 
some interested readers, and that the future historian will 
know whereof he speaks when h'i refers to the founder of 
Bryant's Station that his narrative has been written. 

With reference to the speculation in which some parties 
have indulged in recent years, induced by some of the mis- 
leading statements above referred to, regarding the name of 
the station, if the reader desires to investigate for himself upon 
this point, he is respectfully referred to Filson Club Publica- 
tion No. 12, and particularly to the unbiased statement of 
facts as therein set forth by Col. Durrett. If further evidence 
were wanting, however, than that contained in the above 
named publication, it may be found in two decisions of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, involving title to lands 
in the neighborhood of Bryant's Station, one rendered in 
1816, (1) the other in 1834. (2) 

From the first named decision I beg to quote as follows: 

"Bryant's Station is a fixed place of public notoriety 
It is on the great road leading from Lexington to Limestone on 
the Ohio, which road crosses the dividing ridge between the 
waters of Elkhorn and Licking, which is the ridge mentioned 
in Masterson's entry. " 

I quote another sentence peculiarly applicable in this con- 
nection : 

"Perplexity and confusion may be introduced, but an ob- 
ject can not be rendered more certain than by bestowing on it 
its particular and appropriate name, if that name be one of 
general noteriety. " 

1. See Maston v. Herd, U. S. Reports, (Wheaton), Vol. 1 
page 130. 

2. Garnett v. Jenkins, U. S. Rep. (8 Peters), p. 72. 



In the Appendix to Vol. 1, page 491, I find also the fol- 
lowing language: 

"Noteriety is either absolute or relative. Absolute, as 
where the object is known so generally, that according to the 
usual courtesies and intercourse among men, the presumption 
is irresistible that anyone using ordinary inquiry might have 
been conducted to the place, as Lexington, Bryant's Station, 
the Lower Blue Licks, etc. Relative, as where the particular 
object is not actually known but is ascertainable by reasonable 
diligence, as one mile east of the lower Blue Licks, etc. " 

From this decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
ites, it must be apparent to the least discriminating mind 
it Bryant 's Station, was known to be and was recognized as 
sing the particular and appropriate name of the station. How 
mid the place have been rendered more certain, than by be- 
nving on it its particular and appropriate name? And its 
ticular and appropriate name being Bryant's Station, the 
irticular arid appropriate name of its founder could not 
ive been other than Bryant. 

In the trial of the cause decided in 1834, the testimony of 
>ut twenty-five witnesses was introduced in evidence, some 
whom had visited the North fork of the Elkhorn before 
rant's Station was built, and some of whom had resided at 
station or in its vicinity thereafter, and the name of the. 
ition without exception is given as Bryant's. Without going 
ito detail, I quote from the evidence of two of the witnesses, 
itrick Jordon relates that in the year 1780 : 

'Bryant's Station was a place of general noteriety, and 
presumes it is twenty-five or thirty miles above Lecompt's 

John Ficklin states that he has been acquainted with 
rant 's Station and North Elkhorn ever since 1781 : 

'Both Bryant's Station and North Elkhorn were places 
)f great noteriety at that time. " 

From the foregoing it will be seen that Bryant's Station 
a place widely known, and it was everywhere recognized 
it the name of the place was without question Bryant's Sta- 
ion, and in all records of a public or official nature and in all 


historical documents, unaffected by error, it was so called . It 
can easily be understood how, in the miscellaneous correspond- 
ence of the day, or in cases wherein the parties in interest may 
have affected the name, "perplexity and confusion" might be 
introduced, but such errors can not destroy the unimpeachable 
record, which must ever afford the best and most credible evi- 
dence as to the correct name. 

But since it is conceded by all, (3) that the name of the 
place was Bryant's Station, and since it is likewise conceded 
that the name of the parties mentioned in Bradford's Notes, 
and by some other persons, was not Bryant, and the facts con- 
clusively show that they did not use this name, nor were they 
known by the name of Bryant, all else at once becomes simpli- 
fied, and errors of every nature may therefore be justly disre- 
garded. And I shall now state such facts regarding the 
founder of this pioneer fort, whose name was Bryant, as may 
be deemed pertinent, and shall take no liberties either with 
names or facts, a practice which should commend itself to 
every one writing upon historical subjects. 

William Bryant. 

Dr. Percy Bryant, of Buffalo, N. Y., has told us that ''The 
name Bryant can be traced back to Sir Guy De Briant, who 
lived hi the time of Edward III, and whose descendants had 
their seat at the castle of Hereford in the marches of Wales. 
Arms: The field is Or, three piles meeting near in the base 
of the Escutcheon, Azure. No connection has been estab- 
lished between this family and the first of the name who came 
to America with the early settlers of Plymouth Colony, but 
this will probably be accomplished when the effort is 
made." (4) 

According to well established tradition, William Bryant, 
of Bryant's Station, accompanied by a brother named Benja- 
min Bryant, came from Wales to the shores of the New World 

3. Filson Club Pub. No. 12, page 21, note (Durrett) 
Fllson Club Pub. No. 12, page 72, note (Ranck). 

4. New Eng. Hist. & Geneaological Index, Vol. XL VIII page 46 


in 1764, while they were young men. William Bryant settled 
North Carolina in the region of the upper Yadkin river, 
rhile his brother chose Virginia for his adopted state. In 
lis region William Bryant lived for several years, married 
md acquired property, and here he became acquainted with 
the Boones, Bryans, Wileoxes, Callaways and other pioneer 
families in that section of the country. Being near the same 
age as Daniel Boone, the two became warm friends, and the 
friendship thus begun on the frontier of North Carolina, con- 
tinued throughout the remainder of their lives. 

Boone and Bryant Visit Kentucky. 

Some time prior to the year 1775, two men wandering out 
from the settlements on the Yadkin River in North Carolina, 
penetrated the region of Kentucky as far as the North fork 
Elkhorn Creek. Here they made a camp, hunted and ex- 
plored the country for several weeks, then breaking up their 
camp returned to the settlements on the Yadkin. They were 
Daniel Boone and William Bryant. Both were destined to 
become historic characters on account of their connection with 
the early settlements of Kentucky. Boone on account of his 
many daring deeds and thrilling adventures, has been justly 
celebrated by the historians of the border. While it did not 
fall to the lot of William Bryant to particularly engage the pen 
of the historian, and while his life was not so filled with adven- 
ture as was that of Boone, neverthelesss he was a conspicuous 
actor in several important events and had a wide and varied 
experience, and his name is inseparably linked with the early 
settlement of Kentucky and Missouri, and his name is to be 
found upon the pages of history in the States named. 

During the progress of the Revolutionary War, William 
Bryant joined the Continental forces and served for a time in 
the War for Independence. And while serving as such soldier 
he was captured by the British, and was placed on board a 
prison ship in Charleston harbor. One night he dropped si- 
lently into the waters of the harbor, swam ashore and returned 
to the American lines in safety. It is said that his brother 


united his fortunes with the Tories, and I have no further ac- 
count of him or of his descendants, if he had any. 

Early in the year 1779, William Bryant led a party of emi- 
grants into the wilderness of Kentucky for the purpose of se- 
curing land under the law of Virginia which opened Kentucky 
to settlement. Stopping at Boonesborough on the way they 
obtained some needed supplies, and then continued their 
journey, halting at length at a point about five miles northeast 
of Lexington, where they erected and fortified a number of 
cabins, and the place was from that time forth known as 
Bryant's Station, in honor of the leader of the party; it being 
the usual custom in the early days of Kentucky, to name the 
stations after their most conspicuous man. And as Harrods- 
burgh and Boonesborough, had derived their names from their 
respective founders James Harrod and Daniel Boone, so also 
Bryant's Station derived its name from its founder, William 
Bryant . 

Col. Cave Johnson in his Autobiography (5) states that in 
1779, while he and Wm. Tomlinson were on their way from 
Virginia to Kentucky, they met on the Cumberland River this 
party of emigrants. He and Tomlinson joined the .emigrant 
party and for greater safety and convenience journeyed with 
them to the North fork of Elkhorn Creek, and assisted in 
building the first cabins of Bryant's Station. 

I have already stated that William Bryant was a soldier 
of the Revolutionary War. I have been unable to learn from 
the records at Washington, D. C., that he ever applied for or 
was granted a pension for such services. From the records 
of soldiers who served in the war, however, at Raleigh, N. C., 
I have found his record of service. Following is an extract 
from a letter from the Secretary of State of the State of North 
Carolina, addressed to the writer hereof, dated Oct. 9, 1906 : 

"Replying to your letter of recent date, I beg to say that I 
find in the Colonial Records copied from the records (of 
soldiers who served in the Revolutionary War) in Philadelphia, 
the following: Wm. Bryant, Pt. Blounts Company; date of 

5. Autobiography of Cave Johnson MS. in possession of Col. 
R. T. Durrett, Louisville. 


commission or enlistment, 26 Apr. '78; period of service 2 1-4 
years; omtd. in 1779. " 

From the foregoing it will be seen that to April, 1779, Wil- 
liam Bryant had served for practically a year in the Revolu- 
tionary War, his services being omitted in 1779, while he was 
in Kentucky. And as he served all told two and one-fourth 
years, it will be seen that after having been in Kentucky for a 
year, he then returned to North Carolina, where he served an 
additional one and a fourth years in the War. 

At the close of the War he returned to Kentucky with his 
wife to remain permanently. The reason for his return to 
North Carolina is accounted for from the following facts : 

The land commissioners who held their Court at Bryant's 
Station in 1780 to adjust settlers' and improvers' rights to 
lands, found that the title to the land on which the station was 
built belonged to another (Col. Win. Preston), and William 
Bryant, much to his regret no doubt, was compelled to re- 
linquish the land upon which he had settled, and which he had 
previously explored in company with Boone; and on the 20th 
of May, 1780, he entered other land in the usual way. 

Hunting Expedition of May, 1780. 

It was about this time also, that an event occurred which 
perhaps furnishes the real reason why Wm. Bryant returned 
to North Carolina ; for in truth the event referred to well nigh 
caused the abandonment of Bryant 's Station . From the first, 
the Indians had constantly harassed the settlers, committing 
all manner of depredations. No one could go outside the 
wal]f> of the fort without great risk of being fired upon by the 
skulking foe, and the cattle, hogs and other stock of the set- 
tlers were almost daily being butchered or stolen from them 
by the Indians . So troublesome and daring had they become 
that, in order to procure meat for the station, which was ob- 
tained by hunting, for the woods abounded with game, the set- 
tlers were compelled to hunt in parties of sufficient number to 
be able to defend themselves against any assault which might 
be made by the Indians. 


One afternoon during the latter part of May 1780, (6) 
twelve mounted men left the fort on a hunting expedition 
down Elkhorn Creek, led by William Bryant. When they ar- 
rived in the hunting woods near where Georgetown now stands, 
they determined in order to cover as wide a scope of country as 
possible, to divide themselves into three parties. (7) One of 
these parties was under the immediate direction of William 
Bryant ; another of the parties appears to have been acting un- 
der the direction of James Hogan. It does not definitely ap- 
pear who led the third party. Hogan 's party was to cross the 
Elkhorn and range down the North side, while the other two 
parties were to range down the South side, flanking out as 
much as possible, but the three parties were to meet at night 
at the mouth of Cane Run of North Elkhorn, and encamp to- 
gether during the night. William Bryant and his men ar- 
rived safely at the place agreed upon. The other parties how- 
e\cr were less fortunate. Hogan 's party having traveled but 
a short distance after crossing the Elkhorn, heard a loud voice 
in their rear calling upon them to halt. Hastily looking back, 
they found that they were being pursued by a war party of In- 
dians, and not being in condition to give battle, being uncertain 
as to the number of the enemy, they immediately began en- 
deavoring to effect an escape, being closely pursued by the 
Indians. They finally outdistanced the savages, however, 
recrossed the Elkhorn near sundown, and returned to Bryant's 
Station. It appears that the third party of hunters also, soon 
after separating from the other parties were set upon by a 
party of Indians some twelve or fourteen in number, and this 
party also retreated, and succeeded in getting off without be- 
ing fired upon, and they, too, retraced their steps to Bryant's 

On the following morning, Hogan now re-enforced by 
twelve or fifteen men, left the fort before daylight and went 
in search of William Bryant and his men. They traveled 

6. Autobiography of Cave Johnson, MS. 

7. Several writers have made it appear that the hunters were 
divided into but two parties. This and other errors appear to have 
originated in Bradford's Notes. 


down the Elkhorn in the direction of the mouth of Cane Run, 
and when within a mile or so of the place, they heard the re- 
port, of several guns in quick succession. Concluding that 
Bryant and his men were either engaged in a battle with the 
Indians, or had fallen upon a herd of buffaloes, Hogan and his 
men hastened forward to lend their aid in either event. They 
arrived too late, however, to avert disaster. The Indians who 
had on the previous day captured a pack horse which had 
been abandoned by Hogan and his men in their flight, had 
made use of this animal to draw William Bryant into an 

William Bryant and his men who had been hunting on the 
previous day, soon after starting out on the morning following 
to renew the chase, heard the sound of a bell on the pack horse, 
which they immediately recognized. Not knowing what this 
circumstance meant, and not understanding why the other 
parties had not joined him the night before as agreed, Bryant 
now directed his three companions to remain where they were, 
while he should cross an intervening creek to the horse and 
ascertain what this circumstance meant. He had approached 
within a short distance of the animal, when suddenly and 
without warning, he was fired upon by a party of Indians in 
a canebrake near by and was severely wounded. Although 
his wounds were exceedingly painful and severe, he immediate- 
ly set spurs to his horse, succeeded in eluding the Indians and 
returned to Bryant's Station where he arrived early in the 
day. (8) 

Hogan and his men soon arrived upon the scene, encount- 
ered the Indians and a battle ensued, lasting some thirty 
minutes. They at length compelled the Indians to retreat, how- 
ever, with the loss of one Indian killed and scalped, and sev- 
eral others wounded who effected their escape. Hogan and his 
men had fared but little better; for upon returning from the 
pursuit of the Indians, they found one of their own number 
where he had fallen, mortally wounded . He was taken on to 
the station where he expired soon afterward. Four others were 
also wounded, though none mortally. 

8. McClnng, page 169. 


Some writers have made it appear that William Bryant 
was killed in this hunting expedition. One of them, referr- 
ing to the station at the date of its siege by the Indians!, 
says: (9) 

"There were at that time but few families occupying the 
station, William Bryant, its founder, and one in whose judg- 
ment, skill and courage, many confidently reposed for security 
from savage enormity, had been unfortunately discovered by 
some Indians near the mouth of Cane Run, and killed. His 
death caused most of those who Had come to that place from 
North Carolina, to forsake the station, and return to their own 
country. " 

The statement that William Bryant was killed in this 
hunting expedition, is absolutely incorrect and without founda- 
tion in fact. As we have already seen, he was severely 
wounded, but his injuries at the hands of the Indians were not 
fatal. It was doubtless true, however, that his wounds, 
which rendered him unfit for service during the summer of 
1780, together with the loss of the land on which the station 
was built, caused him to return to North Carolina, and it is 
not unreasonable to suppose that many of the more timid set- 
tlers felt justified in abandoning the place when deprived of 
the services of their chief defender. 

The error as to his having been killed, no doubt had its 
origin in a series of articles which appeared in the Kentucky 
Gazette in 1826, (10) and subsequent years, nearly fifty years 
after the event occurred, and several years after William 
Bryant had removed from the State of Kentucky. The articles 
referred to are not more accurate than many other newspaper 
articles, published under similar circumstances. (11) 

It would appear that the object sought by Bradford in his 
account of Bryant's Station and the hunting expedition of 
May, 1780, was not attained. For instead of converting the 
name of the place, which was evidently his purpose, so thor- 

9. Chronicles of Border Warfare, by Withers, (New Edition) 
p. 348. 

10. Bradford's Notes. 

11. In Filson Club Pub. 'No. 12, Mr. G. W. Ranck merely re* 
iterates, with certain material alterations, Bradford's statements. 


oughly was it established in history and in all public records 
that the name of the place was Bryant's Station, and so well 
was it understood that the name of its founder was William 
Bryant, subsequent writers knew as a matter of course that he 
meant Bryant's Station, and they accordingly continued to so 
call it. And they likewise naturally supposed that the name 
of the parties mentioned by him must be, therefore, "Bryant 
also," and they erroneously called them Bryant. And by a 
similar parity of reasoning, they naturally supposed that the 
party particularly referred to by him, who had been killed by 
the Indians, and whose name was similar to that of William 
Bryant, was William Bryant, and being thus unwittingly mis- 
led they gave to the public the error that William Bryant, the 
founder of Bryant's Station had been killed by the Indians 
while on a hunting expedition. (12) 

The man who received his mortal wounds in the battle 
between Hogan 's men and the Indians was probably a brother- 
in-law of Daniel Boone (13) and who had entered land in the 
vicinity of Bryant's Station at an early day. 

If Bradford had not disregarded certain well established 
historic facts; if he had stated all the facts relative to the 
founding of Bryant's Station, or if his account of the hunting 
expedition had contained a correct statement of the facts, 
there would indeed have been small ground upon which any 
errors regarding William Bryant might have been based, and 
confusion would have been avoided. The errors alluded to 
however may now be dispensed with, and without doing 
violence to the facts. 

The well established tradition, with which I have been 
familiar since early youth, that William Bryant while leading 
out a hunting party from Bryant's Station, was drawn into an 
ambuscade by the Indians and was fired upon and wounded, 
but that he escaped and returned to the station, substantially 
corroborated by Col. Cave Johnson in his Autobiography, I do 
not feel disposed to reject as being without foundation in fact, 

12. Sketches of Western Adventure, by McClung, page 166. 

13. Chronicles of Border Warfare, by Withers, page 348. 
William Bryan. 


upon the statement of any one . Nor do I believe that he meant 
any else than William Bryant, in stating that William Bryant 
was so wounded. Col. Johnson himself took part in the 
hunting expedition, and was personally acquainted with the 
parties, and would have been as likely to know the correct 
name of the leader of this hunting expedition, and who he 
states was "the head and principle man of the families and 
station, ' ' quite as well as any one . Nor does he say that Wil- 
liam Bryant was killed, or that he was mortally wounded. If 
there is any ambiguity in his account of the expedition, it is 
regarding the man who was mortally wounded in the fight 
which took place between Hogan's forces and the Indians, and 
at a time subsequent to the wounding of William Bryant and 
his return to Bryant's Station. 

By reason of experience, courage and sagacity, and cir- 
cumstances in life, William Bryant was the natural leader of 
the early inhabitants of Bryant's Station, and he was so re- 
garded. A man of dauntless courage and splendid physique, 
(14) he was the one man above all others to whom the settlers 
most confidently looked for defense against the assaults of the 
Indians. During these early times he took a very active part 
in several engagements with the Indians, holding the rank of 
Captain under command of Cols. Todd and Boone. As al- 
ready stated, he had returned to Kentucky at the close of the 
Revolutionary struggle, and had again taken up his residence 
at the fort. When the station was besieged by the Indian foe 
under command of Cols. Caldwell and McKee, aided and 
abetted by the infamous Simon Girty, he was one of the most 
active and vigilant of the defenders, if not actually in com- 
mand of the fort, and was wounded in the assault upon the 
garrison, which disabled him to such an extent that he was not 
a participant in the battle of the Blue Licks which followed . 

14. Mr. J. M. Bryant, of Cedar City, Mo., who was born in 
Estill county, Ky., March 10, 1825, retains a distinct recollection of his 
grandfather, William Bryant. He states that Wm. Bryant was 
about five feet ten inches in height and was heavily built. He bore 
across his nose and face a heavy scar, the result of a blow inflicted by 
an Indian tomahawk in a battle with the Indians. He also had sev- 
eral scars on his person received in encounters with the Indians. 


William Bryant's wife was a near relative of Daniel 
Boone. I am unable to state the exact relationship, but the 
tradition is well established that she was related to Boone, 
and I have no doubt of its authenticity . Her name was Rachel 
ox, and it is likely she was a daughter of John Wilcox, 
10 married in North Carolina a sister of Boone. It is of 
>urse well known that Boone married Rebecca Bryan. Al- 
lough of similar name, she was not related to William Bryant, 
light children, six sons and two daughters, were born to Wm. 
id Rachel Bryant . 

I have no means of knowing how long William Bryant re- 
lined at Bryant's Station, but no doubt he resided there un- 
Indian hostilities had subsided sufficiently to permit of the 
jttlers moving onto the lands they had located and entered, 
le family removed to what is now known as Estill county. 
Three of the older sons, and probably the eldest daughter, were 
married in this county, and each of these three sons, Jeremiah, 
(15) Hiram and Thomas, (16) owned land in Estill County 

15. Jeremiah Bryant, the eldest son, was born Aug. 20, 1791. 
He married Martha Plummer. Ten children were born to them as 
follows: Rachel, 1814; Christina, 1816; Susan, 1818; Crayton P., 
1821; Cornelia, 1823; Jeremiah M., 1825; Martha, 1826; America, 
1829; Amanda, 1831; Sarah T., 1833. Jeremiah Bryant, with his family 
removed from Kentucky to Missouri in 1832. In 1834 he returned to 
Kentucky on business, and on his return trip to Missouri he con- 
tracted the cholera and died on board a steamer on the Missouri 
River, July 11, and his remains were sunk beneath the waters of the 
Missouri. Some of his descendants yet remain in Callaway County, 
where he settled. 

16. Thomas Bryant, the fourth child, was born January 10th, 
L795. He married Polly Bennett in Estill County, Ky., December 
llth, 1817, the marriage ceremony being performed by Joseph 
Proctor, who was a pioneer Methodist preacher and most courageous 
Indian fighter. Proctor participated in and was one of the sur- 
vivors of Estill's defeat. He shot and killed the Indian who killed 
Captain Estill, and rescued William Irvine who was badly wounded, 
"after the most desperate and gallant exertions," conveying him to 
Bryant's Station where he made known the result of the sanguinary 
and disastrous conflict. Polly Bennett was a daughter of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Proctor) Bennett, her mother being a sister of 
Joseph Proctor. The children of Thomas Bryant and wife were as 
follows: Jeremiah, 1818, died young; William, 1821; Joshua, 1823; 
Rachel, 1825; these were born in Estill County; Benjamin, 1827; 
Andrew Jackson, 1830; Lucretia, 1832; Deborah, 1835; Elvira, 1837; 
the latter were born in Clay County, Ky. In 1837, Thomas Bryant, 


between the years 1825 and 1832. All the children with the 
exception of Hiram and Rachel sooner or later removed to Mis- 
souri, Thomas Bryant, grandfather of the writer hereof being 
the iast to leave Kentucky in 1837. 

"William Bryant was a prosperous planter, owning a large 
amount of property, among which may be mentioned some 
sixty colored persons. 

"First Runaway Slave Advertised North of the Ohio 
River. (17). March 22nd, 1794, Wm. Bryant, of Lincoln Coun- 
ty, Ky., advertised a runaway negro, Sam, and offered $10 re- 
ward for securing him so that his owner should have him 
again." (18) 

Part of the present County of Estill formerly lay withiii 
the original County of Lincoln, and part of it within the 
original County of Fayette. 

Kentucky's strenuous days were drawing to a close. The 
wilderness had been subdued, and for several years William 
Bryant lived quietly upon his farm, devoting his time to the 
cultivation of the soil. But many of his old time friends were 
either dead or had pushed still further westward, where the 

being in poor health, removed with his family to Boone County, Mo., 
where he remained about two years, when he removed to Ripley 
County, where he died Sept. 5th, 1845. In 1846, his family removed 
to Wapello County, Iowa. Of the sons of Thomas Bryant, William 
was a soldier in the Mexican War, serving in a Missouri regiment; 
Benjamin Bryant, was a soldier in the War of the Rebellion, serving 
in Company B, 30th Iowa Vol. Infantry, and was honorably dis- 
charged on account of disability. He died Feb. 15th, 1902. He 
was a man of great moral and physical courage. Being an orator 
of much ability, he was prominent in the anti-slavery agitation, and 
long a leader in politics in his section of the country. Disease of 
eyes, throat and lungs contracted in the Civil War, greatly impaired his 
usefulness and activity, and in a great measure prevented his attaining 
eminence he might easily have done. He married in Shannon 
County, Missouri, Rachel Chilton, daughter of John and Lettice Car- 
ter Chilton, August 3, 1846, and they soon removed to Wapello 
County, Iowa, and later to Davis County. Twelve children were 
born to them, nine of whom attained to manhood and womanhood, 
as follows: Francis Asbury, 1851; Andrew Jackson, 1853; James Chil- 
ton, 1855; Lucy, (Mrs. M. M. Ralston,) 1858; Benjamin Bassett, 1860; 
Theodore Finis, 1862; William Cullen, 1865; John Carter Inman, 1868; 
Thomas Julian, 1873. 

17. History of Kentucky, by R. H. Collins, Vol. 2, page 113. 

18. In his last will he bequeathed certain negroes to some of his 


population was less dense and where land could still be had for 
the asking'. Daniel Boone and his family were among the 
number of those who had thus sought out a new home beyond 
the Mississippi, in the Territory of Louisiana. When Boone 
returned to Kentucky about the year 1810, on a mission which 
was highly creditable to him, what could have been more 
natural than that he should seek out his friend and former 
companion, who though advanced in years like himself, was 
still hale and vigorous, and pour into his willing ear the story 
)f the new country which was not unlike the Kentucky of 
jarly days . 

Missouri was soon to be formed into a Territory, and 
Statehood was enly a matter of time. Wm. Bryant soon re- 
rived that when the time should seem propitious, he too, would 
ce up his residence in this new country. Having disposed 
)f such of his property as he did not wish to carry with him, 
le with his wife and the younger members of the family, took 
ip the line of march and in due time they reached the Terri- 
ry of Missouri, first settling upon the waters of Femme 
)sage, not far from the Boone settlement. (19) And thus 
again Daniel Boone and William Bryant had become pioneers. 
Within a year or so after reaching their new home, Bryant's 
wife who had been a true and faithful companion for many 
years passed away. Most of his children having by this time 
established homes of their own, he was left practically alone in 
the world. About this time he returned to Kentucky, where 
he and his son Hiram Bryant, shortly became involved in liti- 
gation (20) over some land they were occupying, and it appears 
that a judgment in ejectment was rendered against them in 
1818, and soon thereafter he returned to Missouri, which was 
to be his home for the future, and whose soil was finally to re- 
j-ceive his remains. 

Upon the subsequent events of his life, his second mar- 
riage at an advanced age, the loss of a considerable portion of 
his property, and other events, it is not my purpose here to 

19. History of Missouri, by Louis Houck. 

20. Lessees of Samuel Smith vs. Robert Trabue's Heirs, U. S. 
Supreme Court Reports, 9 Peters, page 4. 


dwell. To the end, he was the same independent and 
courageous man that he had been in the earlier days, when with 
such men as Daniel Boone he was helping subdue the wilder- 
ness of Kentucky, not inclined to indulge in the exploitation of 
the stirring scenes through which he had passed, or of the p%rt 
he had taken in them; and with character by no "foul dis- 
honor" sullied, he rounded out the measure of a long and 
active life . 

A few words more, and our narrative is finished. 

About a year after the death of his friend, Col. Boone, Wil- 
liam Bryant (1821) removed to Boone County, Mo., (21) 
where he resided until the date of his death, which occurred 
in 1834, at the advanced age of ninety-five years. 

And today in an old neglected cemetery, on a high hill 
overlooking the Missouri River as it rolls to join the "Father 
of Waters," and near the site of the vanished town of Stones- 
port, (22) in the County bearing the name of his friend of 
many years, rest the remains of William Bryant, (23) soldier 
of the Revolutionary War, founder of the pioneer Kentucky 
fort known in history as Bryant's Station, founder of a family 
in the New World, and compatriot and friend of the celebrated 
Daniel Boone. 

I shall never cease to be mindful of the fact that I trace 
my lineage to Kentucky sires, who have done their full share 
toward spreading civilization in the Western World, but who 
have neither sought to magnify cheir own achievements nor 

21. The early records of Boone County, show conveyances of 
land by certain grantors to William Briant. (See Deed Record F, 
page 4.) On the margin of Deed Record A, page 292, is the follow- 
ing: "Wm. Briant's last will and testament, Aug. 1, 1824." In 
conveying lands, however, his signature appears as William Bryant, 
and his name is so given in the record and on the original will. (See 
Deed Record C, page 266; Deed Record E, page 397.) 

Singularly enough, John Filson, the first historian of Kentucky 
in the so-called Autobiography of Daniel Boone, published in 1784, 
fell into the same error regarding the spelling of the name, and in 
referring to Bryant's Station he called it "Briant's Station." The 
error was corrected, however, by the subsequent historians. 

22. Stonesport was located about a mile up the River from the 
present village of Claysville. 

23. A large cottonwood tree stands at the head of WiUiam 
Bryant's grave. 



underrate the deeds of others ; and shall ever hold in grateful 
remembrance the name of him who with strong hands carved 
a name imperishable in history. I esteem beyond expression, 
all those brave heroic souls, both men and women, who in the 
face of untold hardship and peril wrested the soil of the "Dark 
and Bloody Ground" from the hands of its savage possessors, 
and gave to the sisterhood of States the Commonwealth of 

Red Oak, Iowa. 


The last decades of the eighteenth and the first half of the 
nineteenth centuries were marked by concentrated action on 
the part of various organizations to establish communistic set- 
tlements. A great number of these attempts were made in 
the United States. The Shakers, the Harmonists, the Sepa- 
latists of Zoar, the Perfectionists, the Communities of Robert 
Owen and Brook Farm are but a few of the leading communis- 
tic attempts of this period. In a number of these unique 
religious principles obtained and formed the bond of union 
between its members. Others again were held together by 
constitutional agreement for the sole purpose of economic bet- 
terment. Still others had for their aim the communion of 
liighminded and highly intellectual individuals who sought 
the association of kindred minds, and who under the idyllic 
conditions of communal life hoped for an amelioration of con- 
ditions intellectual and spiritual. 

Among the minor communities is classed the one at Bethel 
in Shelby County, Missouri. In some respects this society is 
unique. It existed from 1844 to 1879, without the semblance 
of a constitutional agreement. It had no peculiar dress, nor 
singular customs. The sole bond of union was the magnetic 
power and iron will of its founder. In a measure it may be 
said that its purpose was to carry out the whim of its founder 
and leader, but many of its members joined because they fore- 
saw an immediate betterment of economic conditions. Its con- 
stituency, with the exception of a very few persons, consisted 
of Germans, who had either come directly from the Fatherland, 
or who had already become naturalized in the various parts 
of the United States. Nordhoff in his work: "Communistic 
Societies in the United States," page 319, says that several 
Protestant sects were represented, that there was even one 



Jew, but no Roman Catholics. (1) The site of the colony 
was on North River in Shelby County, Missouri, forty-eight 
miles from Hannibal. 

Its organization took place in 1844 and the body 
mined intact until 1879 or shortly after the death of its 
ider Doctor William Kei.l. Soon after the settlement 
established in Shelby County, 3536 acres of land were pur- 
sed or entered near the present site of Bethel. This town 
ime the center of activity. Other groups of houses near 
lei received the names of Elim, Hebron and Mamri. In 
lir County, not far from Kirksville, 731 acres of land were 
lired and the town there established received the name of 
leveh. (2) In 1855, for reasons hereafter to be discussed, 
decided to divide the society, a large number of its mem- 
following Dr. Keil to Washington Territory, and later to 
m Territory. Thus an unique condition in communistic 
came about in that two bodies of people, so far separated 
le State of Missouri and the Territory of Oregon, could be 
itrolled by one head, at a time when communication was 
and difficult, and all this too with a body that was not 
together by any written agreement. As stated 
riously, the singularly powerful will of Keil was the force 
it held this society intact. When this force disappeared 
Keil's death, and no successor appeared strong enough to 
the natural result was a dissolution of the organization, 
a division of the acquired property. The dissolution is 
strikingly interesting, in that it was affected in the 
iplest manner possible and with very little friction. 
Since the whole life of the society as was pointed- out 
idy was concentrated in the iron, indomitable will of 
Ham Keil, it will be necessary to preface the more de- 
account of this study by a consideration of his life 

1. This statement of Nordhoff's applies directly to the Aurora, 
:>n, settlement which was the daughter colony of the Bethel, Mis- 

1, colony, as will be discussed In detail later on. But all of the 
ibers at Aurora had been members at Bethel or were their direct 
cendants, hence the statement may be regarded as applicable to 
Missouri community also. 

2. Now it is called Connelsvllle . 


and activity. I base my account of KeiPs life on: 1. A 
mass of letters written by himself to members of the society 
at Bethel; 2. On statements of trustworthy persons at 
Bethel, Missouri, and Aurora, Oregon, not only those who 
praise Keil but also those who defame him, and 3. On 
brief accounts found in the various histories of communistic 
life in this country, but especially on the account of the 
early years of Keil's life, as found in a rare and odd book 
by a clergyman, Carl G. Koch, who at one time was an 
ardent adherent to Keil's views, entitled: "Lebenserfah- 
rungen," printed 1871 in Cleveland, Ohio, in the Verlag- 
shaus der Evangelishen Gemeinschaft. 

Of Keil's early life we have no further record than 
that he was born on the sixth of March 1811 in Bleicherode, 
District of Erfurt, Prussia. His parents were German, and 
seem to have been of the middle class. (3) It goes without 
saying that he must have attended the elementary schools 
of his town. There is no record of his attending a technical 
school or university. It is very doubtful, indeed, whether 
he was legally entitled to the title of Doctor, altho he is 
said to have practiced medicine in this country with ap- 
parent success. In his home country he followed the 
profession of man-milliner. He practiced his trade in 
Koellede, District of Merseburg, Prussia. He is said to have 
been very handsome in his youth and a most excellent 
workman and very industrious. Nordhoff gives us a pic- 
ture of the man as he saw him in this country. (4) Hef 
describes him as a "short, burly man, with blue eyes, 
whitish hair and white beard . ' ' Nordhoff continues : ' ' He 
seemed excitable and somewhat suspicious; gave no token 
whatever of having studied any book but the Bible, and 
that only as it helped him to enforce his own philosophy. 
He was very quick to turn every thought toward the one 
subject of community life ; took his illustrations mostly 

3. The statement of Hinds, in his "American Communities," 
page 287, in which he states that Keil was born in Nordhausen, Ger- 
many, is, according to the best sources, fallacious. 

4. "Communistic Societies in the U. S.," page 318. 



from the New Testament; and evidently laid much stress 
on the parental character of God. As he discussed, his eyes 
ighted up with a somewhat fierce fire; and I thought I 
uld perceive a fanatic, certainly a person of very deter- 
mined, imperious will united to a narrow creed." I have 
been fortunate in securing from Jacob G. Miller of Aurora, 
Oregon, who was one of the leaders at Bethel, a large 
number of letters from Dr. Keil to the remaining members 
at Bethel. Most of these letters were written by his secre- 
tary. Karl Ruge, a college bred man, and are in fairly good 
style. Those written by himself are wretched illustrations 
of letter writing and show a most imperfect knowledge of 
own language. His pictures show him as a man with 
Toad and high forehead, rather thick nose and a square 
chin in other words, the type of a strong animal with 
indomitable will and bull-dog tenacity. 

It seems to be the prerogative of men of Keil's profes- 
sion to be moody. Their work does not absorb their mental 
energy completely, and so they are frequently found to be 
the possessors of the most fanciful notions. Keil's pet 
inclination was first the stage. This did not prevail long, 
however. Soon he became a religious enthusiast and subse- 
quently a devotee of such mystics as Jacob Boehme and his 
followers. He now began an investigation for an "Univer- 
Imedizin," a panacea which should heal all the ails the 
uman flesh is heir to. This whim led him to a superficial 
study of botany, and in his fanciful search he no doubt 
ot some smattering ideas of medicine. He made innumerable 
periments to solve the laws of nature and to probe into 
e mystery of life. His queer experiments he continued 
after he came to this country. Koch asserts that Keil 
.owed him a flask in his (Keil's) drug store hi Pittsburg, 
a., which contained a fluid which Keil purported to repre- 
mt the product of his long investigation. He claimed to 
be in possession of mysterious cures which he avowed to 
,ve received from an old woman. It is said that this 
erson would not have parted with these secrets under any 
consideration, provided he did not leave the country. Thus 


Keil came in possession of these secrets before he came to 
the United States. Most probably these mysterious secrets 
were powwowing formulae, of which so many exist in cer- 
tain parts of Germany, and so many of which are to this 
day found among the inhabitants, particularly the Germans, 
of Pennsylvania. 

The exact date of Keil's coming to America is not posi- 
tively fixed. It is very probable, however, that it was in 
1835 or 36. He lived for a short time in New York City 
and then came to Pittsburg. Soon after his arrival in Pitts- 
burg, he performed some strange cures, as it seems, some- 
what m the manner of our modern magnetic healers, and 
was scon dubbed with the unsavory title of "Der Hexen- 
dokter, ' ' by the common people . 

In 1838 Dr. William Nast, the founder of the German 
Methodist Church, conducted revival meetings in Pittsburg. 
Keil attended these meetings and became converted. Soon 
after his religious awakening, he met the Reverend J. 
Martin Hartmann, whom he claimed as his real spiritual 
father. This Hartmann was deeply interested in the prin- 
ciples of communism, and it is very probable that he 
augmented, if he did not give the initiative to Keil's closer 
consideration of Community life. At a Quarterly Meeting 
held October 12th, 1839, at Stewardstown, Pennsylvania, 
he was licensed as local preacher, having previously showij 
much enthusiasm in religious work as Class leader. It is 
stated, however, that this license was never formally issued. 
The first field of church activity for Keil as local preacher 
was at Deer Creek, near Pittsburg. Dr. Nast, in an inter- 
view with Koch, stated that in his opinion Keil seemed 
perfectly sincere in his conversion, and that at the outset 
of his ministerial career he was deeply concerned and eager 
to do good. For Keil the period of probation which the 
church imposed on him, as it does on all who come under 
its ruling, was extremely irksome, and frequent and urgent 
were his appeals to be given full charge of a congregation. 
Dr. Nast adds a queer story, in which he states that Keil 
was possessor of a mysterious book, written far the most 


part in blood, and which contained all sorts of mystic 
symbols and formulae, unintelligible to any one but Keil. 
These secrets were nothing more, I take it, than the pow- 
wowing formulae which had been communicated to Keil by 
the old woman above mentioned. After his conversion Keil 
invited Nast and several brethren to witness the burning 
of this mysterious book which was regarded as the work 
of the devil. The destruction of the old volume took place 
amid certain ceremonies and prayer. Hartmann is said to 
have humored Keil in his pet notions concerning religions, 
and to have stimulated him in his striving to ascend faster 
than the church usually permits its servants to rise. Thus 
encouraged and humored Keil soon became unruly. He 
rebelled against the church and its tenets. Then came his 
separation from the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
avowed that he could not work in a church where Jmen 
served God for pay. He adhered to the Biblical injunction: 
"Freely ye have received, freely give." He was 
opposed to Hartmann receiving $400 from the 
missionary fund and certain stipulated sums of 
'Classmoney" as salary. When Keil's superiors waived 
these objections, he withdrew from the church, taking the 
entire congregation at Deer Creek with him. Thufc Keil 
early demonstrated that he could not obey, that he had to 
rule. He gave up his medical practice entirely and devoted 
himself to independent preaching. He had no income, save 
what his members saw fit to voluntarily give him. The 
work as independent preacher circumscribed hiff field of 
activity too much, however, so he joined the Protestant 
Methodist Church. The entire congregation at Deer Creek 
again followed him blindly. Now he extended his work 
into the "Point," that is the lower part of Pittsburgh 
where he made many converts among the iron-workers and 
factory employes. Refusing to obey the superiors of the 
Protestant Methodist Church, its head, the Reverend 
Geissinger saw himself compelled to exclude him from this 
body. With Keil the entire congregation again severed 
their connection with the church. Keil continued to de- 


nounce all ministerial service for pay as un-Christian ; all 
sectarianism, all church regulation as the work of human 
hands and unessential to the moral teachings of Christianity. 
He renounced all title save that of Christian; accepted no 
rule save the admonitions given in the Bible. To serve 
Christ, not man, he claimed his sole aim. To act according 
to the Golden Rule; to live a moral pure life was the gist 
of his teaching. His whole congregation accepted these 
views implicitly and devotedly clung to him as their leader. 

All this had transpired in rapid succession before 1840. 
Those who have heard Keil's preaching still assert that he 
was a forceful and fluent speaker. Believing him to be 
sincere they clung to him lovingly and devotedly, and spread 
his fame among those with whom they came in contact. 
Soon his fame extended to regions far removed from Pitts- 
burg. Among his ardent followers were young men of 
talent and the gift of speech. Foremost among these were 
Karl G. Koch, the same who wrote "Lebensurfahrungen," 
and three brothers; Christian, Andrew and Henry Geisy, as 
it is seen from the names, all Germans. The entire body 
of Keil's adherents at this time was composed of Germans. 
The young men whose names were given above, Keil sent 
out to preach his views among the Germans in the various 
parts of this country. They traveled for the most part on 
foot, preaching, in accordance with Keil's teaching, without 
money and without price, in the settlements of Germans, 
wherever they could get a hearing. They preached in 
private houses and in school buildings, and lodged with 
such persons in whom Keil's views seemed to find fruitful 
ground. Disdaining to adhere to any established creed, 
they followed their leader in taking as the cornerstone of 
their spiritual edifice the teachings of the Apostolic Fathers. 
Rapidly the work spread until it extended thru western 
Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, even to Iowa, where in Bloomington, (now Muscatine) 
and Iowa City, and other places small groups of the "faith- 
ful" assembled. In Ohio the influence extended thru the 
counties of Columbiana, Stark, Trumbull, Monroe and Wash- 
ington. Sometimes Keil would follow the course his 


hsciples had taken and strive to bring to a culmination the 
rork they had begun and fostered. More and more Keil was 
jgarded as an extraordinary man, and those outside of his 
ignetic influence assert, even today, that he regarded 
rim self as such. His former love for the mystics asserted 
self in him again. He preached in the manner of Jacob 
Joehm and charged his deputies to do the same. His un- 
)phisticated followers stood aghast before this unheard-of 
'isdom. Moreover Keil knew how to perplex them by 
slling them that he had visions. The book of Daniel and 
the book of Revelations afforded him many a favorite text. 
Sometimes he perverted the text completely if his purpose 
was thereby the better accomplished. One time he is sai3 
to have made the startling assertion that on a certain Jay 
he would be publicly sacrificed. Throngs of people arrived 
to view the spectacle, some curious, some deeply concerned. 
Of course no untoward thing befell him. The explanation 
was simple enough for him the Lord still had a mission 
for him to fulfill. Persons outside the pale of his influence 
believed that his followers worshiped Keil more than Christ. 
In fact it is vouched that women, carried away by his 
preaching and entering into a peculiar hypnotic state, cried 
out: "Thou art Christ." At my last visit to Bethel, I met 
a man who himself had been a member of the community, 
who made the statement that Keil's wife, (whose maiden 
name, by the way, was Ritter), called on the speaker's 
father who had refused to join the society, having known 
Keil in Germany and doubting his supernatural gifts, and 
that Mrs. Keil, in the boat of the argument, made the start- 
ling assertion that her husband was as great as Christ 
himself. To such laudations Keil is said to have remained 
silent. The devotion of Keil's followers was certainly great 
and his influence over them grew from day to day. Keil 
knew well how to make use of all the demonstrations of 
loyalty they might bring him. After some time young 
[och could not share Keil's views any longer and he frankly 
)ld him so. Keil used all the argumentative power at his 
>mmand to hold him under his control, for he feared that 


Koch had a strong influence. The latter withdrew, however, 
and sought in every way to enlighten the people in regard 
to his opinion of Keil. But very few paid any heed to his 
admonitions. The other preachers remained faithful to 
Keil. Keil designated himself as the " Centralsonne, " cen- 
tra] sun, and the leading subordinates received the title of 
"Lichtfuersten" and ' ' Lichtf uerstinnen, " princes and prin- 
cesses of light. 

At Phillipsburg, 28 miles below Pittsburg, on the Ohio 
River, a large body of Keil's followers lived. This town 
will be of interest to us in this study, as here the project 
of Keil's Community took definite form. 

In 1805 George Rapp had established the famous 
Harmony Society one of the largest communistic undertak- 
ings in the United States. (5) This society existed at 
Economy, Pa., only a few miles from Phillipsburg. In 1831 
the visionary Bernhard Mueller, better known in the studies 
of communistic societies by the high-sounding title of Count 
Maximilian de Leon, arrived with a body of followers at 
Economy, and was admitted by Rapp into the Harmony 
Society. (6) Mueller caused trouble by preaching, to the 
younger generation, at Economy especially, the doctrine of 
greater personal liberty, and especially the right to live in 
the married state, a privilege which the Harmony Society, 
according to the celibacy clause of its constitution, forbade 
It soon became necessary for Rapp to take a determined 
stand. A vote was taken, and 176 persons who had been 
members of the society followed Count de Leon. (7) An 
indemnity was paid to the seceding members. After this 
separation Mueller and his followers betook themselves to 
Phillippsburg, where he established a colony on communistic 
principles, barring the celibacy provision and other strict 
rules of the Rapp Colony. After a short time Mueller was 

5. John Bole's "The Harmony Society," International Press, 

6. Nordhoff's "Communistic Societies in the United States," 
pages 79 and 80; also Koch "Lebenserfahrungen," p. 129 ff; Bole's 
"The Harmony Society," p. 124 ff. 

7. Cf. Bole's "The Harmony Society," p. 125. 


entrapped in fraudulenee and was compelled to flee to 
Arkansas, where a few of his adherents followed him. A 
large portion of his old charge remained in Phillippsburg. 
Despite the disastrous experience, which they had had with 
two communistic societies, many of them regarded com- 
munistic life as the only ideal way of living. They main- 
tained that all that was necessary, was a leader of strong 
personality and undoubted integrity. In Keil they saw the 
ideal leader for such an undertaking. No doubt Keil himself 
was not very reluctant either, and so the beginning was 
made for the society which I wish to discuss. Here Keil 
foresaw such a chance to rule as he had never had before. 
The former members of the disbanded Leon Colony, as well as 
those who had been with Rapp gave Keil many hints con- 
jerning communistic undertakings. One of the things which 

ley recommended to Keil as an especially strong factor in 
holding the people under one's control, was the practice 
of requiring confession from the members of the organization. 
Rapp had done this with great success. This confession 
consisted in subjecting the people to a series of questions 
on very delicate topics. It appealed to Keil. As a matter 
of experiment he instituted this confession in his church. 

3 ing subject to none of the older churches, he could do 
so with impunity. He had the young people come to him 
alone; the married people, however, were forced to come 
husband and wife together. Most of the interrogations, to 
which he subjected them, pertained to sex and sexual rela- 
tions. Some of the persons turned from him in disgust, 
but many did confess sincerely. The strife which he thus 
conjured up in some of the families was very bitter^ and 
the happy relations of many homes were unnecessarily 
disturbed. In his sermons he is said to have spoken freely 
of these things, and he made use of the information thus 
attained to intimidate the simple folk and to scourge them 
into line, to more easily compel them to do his bidding. 
Believing that he would be successful in a communistic 
venture, and feeling the great influence he had over the 
people in his charge, he definitely decided on the organization 


of such a society. He counseled carefully with the ex- 
Harmonists and the ex-Leonists. They having had experi- 
ence in such matters and being men of rare ability as 
mechanics and artisans, he solicited their participation most 
earnestly. The number of the ex-communists was, however, 
too small for his undertaking. It was therefore necessary 
that more persons should become interested in the under- 
taking. The capacity of preacher had made him acquainted 
with a great many persons in various regions of this coun- 
try. He knew, too, that he had a certain influence over 
them. Accordingly he sent out his messengers to the various 
communities where his deputies had preached. A general 
invitation was issued for all to join the undertaking. The 
advantages were not too much discussed, in order that 
there might not be too many discontented parties. The 
only offer which Keil is said to have held forth is that the 
participants in the attempt should have plenty of work and 
bread and water. But so certain was he of his power over 
these people, that he doubted not that many of them would 
willingly join him, in order that they might be under the 
immediate supervision of a man whom they regarded as 
more than ordinary. A number of those appealed to did 
accept the call. As fast as they could dispose of their 
property, they joined the society. I do not wish to be 
understood as saying that the majority of those who had 
come under the pale of Keil's preaching and the preaching 
of his deputies joined. Many of them had no wish of 
giving up individualism. Then, too, Karl Koch was very 
active in his attempts to prevent the people from joining. 
The ex-Harmonists and ex-Leonists who expressed a willing- 
ness to participate insisted on having a written constitution. 
Accordingly such a document was drawn up. But as the 
people could not agree as to certain provisions it contained, 
Keil was called in and the matter submitted to him. He 
at once declared most emphatically that under no condition 
would he go bound and fettered by any written agreement. 
If a man's word was not as good as a written law, then he 
could and would have nothing to do with the entire project. 


The Bible should be the foundation of the society which 
he proposed to found; the Golden Rule should be its motto. 
It is most interesting to know that such an old document did 
exist in the Bethel Community. It is usually stated, even 
by ex-members, that there was never any written agree- 
ment. For practical purposes this is true enough, for it 
was never put into effect. But as a matter of historic fact, 
it is interesting to know that an attempt was made to build 
the society on a written agreement. The finder of this old 
document would be lucky indeed. The old gentleman in 
whose possession it was last found believes that it was de- 
stroyed with a mass of other old papers. He recalled, 
however, that some of the provisions set forth therein, 
pertained to the admission and dismissal of members. 
Moreover he states that this writ provided that young men 
who were taken into the society were forbidden to marry 
before the expiration of the third year of their membership. 
Furthermore it must not be overlooked that this was the 
time when the agitation of the Mormon affairs made ex- 
clusive societies of this nature very unpopular, in Missouri 
at any rate. Under the proposed arrangement the society 
had no legal existence. The various members must hold 
the property of the body in trust. The Bethel Society 
remained an unincorporated body of persons until its disso- 
lution. It was only a voluntary gathering of like-minded 
individuals. Nothing could possibly testify more ably to 
the astonishing power of Dr. Keil. For thirty-four years 
he was able to rule this extremely loosely-knit body dog- 
matically and dictated its policies to his own liking. 

It has been made to appear by certain writers on this 
subject that the followers of Keil were an ignorant lot who 
knew nothing but to toil. I am not willing to accept this 
affirmation without qualification. The majority of the 
members consisted of common toilers, to be sure, who 
brought naught but their willing hands. But is not every 
community made up in this manner? I have found among 
the surviving colonists men rather well-read, and extremely 
shrewd in business matters. Moreover I have conclusive 


proof that many of them possessed information that would 
have placed them side by side with the better informed men 
of an average community; men who were far more intel- 
lectual than Dr. Keil, their leader. Notable among these 
was Karl Ruge, a college-bred man, prepared for the legal 
profession, who came to America with the great number 
of intellectual aristocrats in 1848. Here too is to be remem- 
bered Henry /Finck, a master in music, to whom is due, in 
a large measure, the high position which the Colony at 
Bethel took as a center of music lovers in those early days. 
One of his sons has become a noted musical critic in New 
York City, while the other has made his mark as an attorney 
at law in the same metropolis. Nor must I pass by the 
great number of artisans whose handiwork still remains at 
Bethel as the strongest testimonial of their ability. Then 
there were men of the type of C. Wolf, who, conscious of 
their own strength and ability, had the temerity to oppose 
even Dr. Keil in some of his undertakings. After deliber- 
ate, inpartial and unbiased examination I am prepared to 
gainsay the statement that the colony consisted of ignorant 
men only. In trying to solve the problem as to why it was 
possible for Keil to gather so large a body of followers 
around him, it may be that Hinds in his "American Com- 
munities," (8) has found the right solution. He says: "I 
can only account for this by recalling, that when Dr. Keil 
began his independent career the people of the Eastern and 
Middle States had just passed through a series of religious 
and other excitements, that made them eager for new social 
conditions, and so quick to follow those who offered to 
lead them where such new conditions would prevail, and 
by supposing that Dr. Keil, however foolish his fanaticism 
and preposterous his claims, had yet wonderful powers of 
gaining and holding the attention and hearts of men." 
What effect Keil had on the intellectual life of the colony 
after its founding is another question which will be con- 
sidered in due time. 

8. Page 287-8. 


In the spring of 1844 the plans had matured sufficiently 
to make imperative the search for a location for the new 
colony. Of the instructions which the three deputies: Adam 
Schuele, David Wagner and Christian Presser took with 
them, as they wandered west in search of land, we know 
nothing. Most probably the,y were never transmitted to 
writing, as nearly all the orders and transactions were oral, 
and without any tangible form. It seems reasonable to 
assume that Keil gave directions to the effect that they 
should find land in a region virgin in nature, where the 
contaminatiug influences of advanced civilization did not 
obtain to affect the new settlement. They selected a site 
in one of the choicest agricultural regions of Missouri. It 
is located in Shelby County on the North Kiver. The place 
is not particularly romantic but for the purpose of the 
settlement there were many advantages connected with 
this location. According to the "History of Monroe and 
Shelby Counties," (9) Peter Stice lived here at the time of 
the purchase by the colony and operated a saw mill, using 
the water of the North River as motor power. According 
to the same source three other land owners were located 
uu>re Uook wood, Vandiver, and Chinn. Their land was 
acquired by the colony. Other tracts were later entered 
from the government. 

In the autumn of 1844 Keil and his family together 
with George Miller and a few others arrived in this western 
wild. They spent the winter amid considerable hardship, 
dwelling in some of the old log houses on and near the 
purchase. Vandiver possessed a good brick house which 
was built about 1840, and is still inhabited to this day. 
Here, most probably, some of the colonists found shelter, 
for the hospitality of the Missourian of that day has become 
proverbial. In the spring of 1845 many other colonists 
arrived. They did not all come at the same time, but they 
arrived as they were able to dispose of their possessions 
at home. Some of them purchased a boat to come down the 

9. Page 861 f. 


Ohio and up the Mississippi. There joined themselves to 
these men a number of adventurers who did not have the 
cause of the society at heart. The result was that the 
society grew rather rapidly, in fact too rapidly. For the 
adventurers soon became dissatisfied and severed their 
connection, often causing a good deal of unpleasantness and 
defaming the undertaking before the world. They could 
not attack Keil personally, for he had promised them nothing 
but hard work and bread and water. As has already been 
indicated, the members came from every region into which 
Keil had sent his deputies. 

The men of the hour were the former members of the 
Harmony Society. Schooled in the ways of communistic 
life, and complete masters of some trade, they became the 
saviors in time of imminent danger and need. The names 
of these ex-Rappites are, according to the memory of the 
old men at Bethel, the following: Adam Schuele, Matheus 
Schuele, Jacob Veihinger, John C. Bauer, Michael Forstner, 
George Forstner, George Ziegler, David Wagner, Adam 
Keller, Christian Smith, Samuel Schreiver, and George 
Schnaufer. Some of these men who were especially skilled 
in some trade were urged by Keil to join the society. 
Others came of their own free will. Having had experience, 
however, with Rapp and Leon, some of them would not join 
without imposing certain conditions. So they proposed to 
belong to the society for a specified time only. If at the 
expiration of this time the society pleased them, they would 
continue as members. If, on the other hand, the affair was 
not to their liking, they reserved the right to be free to 
withdraw. This was a rather odd condition to enter into 
on the part of Keil, but he needed these men exceedingly 
much in his new enterprise. Some of these men, in fact 
the greater number, it is said, withdrew at the end of the 
time specified in their agreement. It is impossible to find 
a written statement concerning this compact. Most proba- 
bl} r it was only a verbal agreement, as most of the transac- 
tions of the society were of this nature. The word of a 
man was as good as his signed statement. Since these men 



conduced to the stock of the society, they demanded 
return of their investment. As the money had been 
3nt in the acquisition and the improvement of the property 
the colony, they could not be paid in cash. Hence certain 
3es of property were assigned them as a remuneration, 
sir services to the colony having been most valuable, it 
lot hard to understand that they should demand some 
e choice tracts of land. This demand had to be com- 
with, and so these men who had no more connection 
the society became possessors of some of the finest 
Iding-sites in Bethel. One of the most flagrant cases of 
kind was that of John C. Bauer. He decided not to 
3 the town of Bethel although he had volunteered, on 
sngth of the above named compact, to sever his connec- 
with the colony. Many attempts were made to "freeze 
out," as a surviving kinsman of his puts it, but without 
3cess. Bauer was such an excellent mechanic that the 
jiety constantly had to employ him, when they found 
jmselves in a predicament. So he continued to ply his 
le with a good deal of success. Thus a strange condition 
come about. In the midst of communism there was the 
rest individualism. Simple as the whole matter is it 
is quite hazy in the minds of some of the writers of 
subject. Hinds in his work "American Communi- 
" (10) says: "A small store in the heart of the village 
owned and managed by an outsider. The explanation 
this singular state of things is found in the fact that a 
years after the founding of the community, to satisfy 
malcontents, a partition of the property was made 
ag the members, and a few availed themselves of the 
)ortunity to withdraw their share from the common 
Brest, and have since managed it wholly for themselves." 
this statement is misleading. There was no general 
rision of the property at this time, as the above statement 
Id imply. The young men who owned and operated 
store in question were the sons of John C. Bauer. They 

10. Page 293. 


erected their place of business on the site which their 
father had received, as per agreement, which was made 
before they left Pennsylvania. All those who received a 
title to property at Bethel at this time had an agreement 
of the kind stated above. They cannot be called malcon- 
tents in the true sense, since they had a definite understand- 
ing with Keil to stay with him for a certain time only. In 
granting them property, Keil fulfilled only his part of the 
contract, they having already fulfilled their part. These 
sons of John C. Bauer, who, by the way, are now spelling 
their names Bower, operated a very successful general 
merchandise business, selling to outsiders as well as to mem- 
bers of the society for it must be remembered that this 
society which, so to speak, stands on the borderline of com- 
munism, allowed its members to have some private earnings. 
This income they were not compelled to turn over to the 
general coffers, and thus had some money to spend for 
things which the society store did not provide them with. 
From their gardens they also made some private earnings, 
and so the strange mixture of communism and individualism, 
manifested at Bethel, finds an easy, logical and historical 
solution when the above facts and agreements are kept in 

Keil had been, and was still at the founding of the 
colony in Missouri, a religious enthusiast or if you choose 
a fanatic. For most of his action he cited parallel instances 
in the Bible. In accordance with such an inclination he 
called the places he founded on the North River after Bible 
names: Bethel, Elim, Mamri and Hebron while in Adair 
County the place was named Nineveh. His ardor seems to 
have died out, however, for in Oregon he named the only 
place there founded by him after a favorite daughter of his 

Soon after the most necessary needs had been met, the 
colonists proceeded to erect a church building. They 
spared no pains and trouble in making it a magnificent 
place of worship. All the skill of the local artisans and 
artists was represented in this edifice. It was constructed 


of brick and stone and finished in the most beautiful black 
walnut, of which an abundance grew on the banks of the 
North. According 1 to Nordhoff, (11) the floor was made of 
large red tiles, and a narrow pulpit stood at one end. There 
were two doors, one for each of the sexes. The men and 
women sat on separate sides of the room. I am told by 
persons who saw the old church that a spacious gallery ran 
along three sides of this hall, a portion of which was railed 
off for the band which played on festival occasions. This 
gallery was faced with large and neatly carved panels of 
black walnut, 18 by 24 inches in size, and all of one entire 
piece of wood. In the massive tower hung three bells. 
When I remarked to one of the old members that this 
building must have been an enormous expense to the young 
colony, he said with an air of great pride that the whole 
church cost them nothing save what they had to expend 
for window glass, nails and the three bells. All the rest 
of this fine structure was prepared by the colonists them- 
selves. This church was the pride of the community as well 
as the entire County of Shelby. One can scarcely interview 
an old resident of Shelby County who knew the colony in 
its palmy days, who does not make reference to this mag- 
nificent edifice. In this church the colonists assembled every 
two weeks to hear Dr. Keil "preach" as they called it. 
As Keil professed allegiance to none of the established 
churches, he had no particular doctrine to uphold or defend. 
As one of the old men told me, he simply preached the 
doctrine of moral living. One hears so many contradictory 
reports concerning Keil, and is told so often that he indulged 
in excess himself, that it is difficult to see how he could 
have had unalloyed success. However, he had such a firm 
grip on his people, that they feared him and did not raise 
a voice against him. The chief aim of his preaching seems 
to have been to induce his followers to lead a moral life; 
to assert his authority; to compel the members to be indus- 
trious and thus foster the progress of the community. The 

11. Page 325. 


strongest weapons he had were employed to instill fear and 
respect of his authority in his members. To give a concrete 
notion of his preaching, I shall cite a specific incident which 
was communicated to me by a wholly truthful person. 
Whether through the system of confession which he made 
use of, or in some other way Keil had an inkling that some 
of his members were guilty of illicit carnal intercourse. He 
resorted to the following drastic measures to expose the 
malefactors and to check the evil. In open meeting he 
made known his findings, and in conclusion charged those 
concerned to arise there and then before the assembly or 
upon failure to do so he would announce their names. So 
terrified were the guilty ones and under such awe they stood 
before the man, that they arose at once, confessed their 
guilt and penitently bowed before the fearful upbraiding 
which was hurled at them from the pulpit. The most 
natural thing imaginable, namely that they would leave the 
community, the scene of their disgrace, did not happen. 


They remained and bore in contrition the contumely which 
followed such a confession or exposure. 

Since Keil and his followers had no obligations to any 
established church, it was but natural that the usual ob- 
servances of the church should be omitted. Thus they did 
away with baptism; they had no more confirmation, a cus- 
tom which many of the members had been used to in Ger- 
many; they did not celebrate the Lord's Supper in the or- 
thodox manner; if they observed it at all, it took the form 
of a general meal at the home of some member. The con- 
fession which Keil made use of, he employed solely for the 
purpose of instilling fear for his authority. 

The church which is represented at Bethel now for 
the days of the old Keil church has long passed is the 
Methodist Episcopal. The services are all in the English 
language. A few years ago a German Methodist Church 
existed, but it had to be abandoned for want of support. 
In the building which the German Methodists owned, the 
Christian Church has begun to hold its meetings. 


One of Kail's former followers told me that none of 
Keil's old members joined the Methodist Church after the 
dissolution of the society. They had gotten so out of tune 
with the old churches that they could not make themselves 
comply with their teachings, and so remained without the 
pale of all church organization. The membership of the 
existing church at Bethel is made up of the younger genera- 
tion in the town and of the surrounding country. The fol- 
r lowing significant statement of an old Keilite will throw" 
some light on the subject of their attitude towards the 
church: "The churches do no harm as long as the preachers 
behave themselves." 

There were several festivals during the year which were 
always celebrated in grand style. First among these was 
Keil's birthday which was always a colony holiday. Then 
came Easter and Penticost and the Harvestfeast in the au- 
tumn. On these occasions great tables were spread and 
loaded with all the things that the German kitchen and 
cellar could offer. These feasts were held at Elim, the resi- 
dence of Keil. Everybody was welcome and from far and 
wide the people came to share in the feast. A procession 
was formed in Bethel which, led by the band, marched to 
Elim. The band also played during the entire time of the 
feast. No charges were imposed, and all strangers were 
made to feel comfortable. In the evening there was dancing. 
The real purpose of this almost unparalleled generosity is 
not well known. Whether it be that they wished to induce 
outsiders to come into the fold of the society or whether it 
was simply pure altruism on the part of the colonists, I am 
net prepared to say. At Christmas time the church was 
decorated with two huge Christmas trees. The celebration 
which was rather unique took place at the early hour of 
four on Christmas day. To this occasion also hosts of 
strangers arrived. The program consisted of a talk by the 
preacher, congregational singing and music by the band. 
Then huge baskets of cakes and apples and quantities of 
candy were distributed. Colonists and strangers shared 
absolutely equal. The trees were allowed to remain stand- 


ing until New Year's day and then its gifts were distributed 
among the children of the colony. This beautiful celebra- 
tion was in time interrupted by rowdy elements which came 
from the surrounding region, and so, rather than compelling 
them to be orderly and thereby possibly making enemies, 
this unique custom was abandoned. 

The description of the colony church logically suggests 
thfc mention of other structures and the prevailing style of 
architecture. As stated before, the site of the Bethel settle- 
ment is not particularly interesting, in fact it is almost 
wholly devoid of all that might be termed romantic. Most 
of the buildings and their surroundings do not help to alle- 
viate the prosaic effect. The buildings are made to serve 
practical purposes, and are almost totally barren of all 
ornamentation. They are usually made of brick which the 
colonists made themselves, stone which was quarried along 
the North, and timber which was hewn and sawed in the 
surrounding forest. The houses are built close to the street. 
Most of them have no front yard whatever. The architec- 
ture is of that very plain style so common in many old 
German settlements of this state. The eaves drip on the street 
and there often is no porch at the entrance. The structures 
are carefully put up, however, and seem to be capable of 
surviving yet many a decade. In some instances a wooden 
framework was erected and the intervening spaces were 
filled with brick and mortar. These buildings were plas- 
tered both on the inside and outside. The hinges and locks 
are handmade. 

Soon after the colonists came to Bethel they erected a 
steam burr-mill. All the shafts and things of this nature were 
made of hard wood. They also established a distillery, a tan 
nery and a colony laundry. All these institutions needed 
much hot water. For economy a large boiler was purchased 
for the mill and this was made to supply the other three 
industries with hot water. Then the problem of how to 
convey the water to these various buildings had to be met. 
Metal pipes they could not afford nor were they easily 
obtainable. Here the colonists showed their inventiveness. 


Thf-y took long, straight beams, about twenty feet in length 
and a foot or a foot and a half in diameter at the larger* 
end and with a specially constructed bit, they drilled a two- 
inch hole thru the entire beam. By hollowing out the larger 
end and tapering the other they effected a joint which by 
wrapping with flax or hemp dipped in tar they rendered 
tolerably water-tight. From this one illustration it must 
be apparent that these people were very inventive indeed. 
Many of the Germans whom Keil gathered around him and 
especially the former adherents of Rapp and Leon were 
skilled artisans. At every turn one meets evidences of their 
aptitude. Altho the product of their labor is sometimes 
crude, it nevertheless shows what they were able to do. 
Apparently there were master workmen for every kind of 
labor, but especially apt were they in working in iron and 
wood. The old mill and distillery were destroyed by fire 
but a part of the old tannery stands to this day. Here, too, 
one is impressed with the inventiveness of the workmen. 
In those days all the fixtures and all the tools had to be 
made by hand. Altho they pursued this industry only in a 
small way, they nevertheless gained considerable proficiency 
in tanning. Their shoes were carefully made and strong, 
and many outsiders, especially those who owned slaves, 
purchased their workshoes here. In those days the deer 
was found in large numbers in North Missouri. Their hides 
furnished gloves which were made under the supervision 
of the head-glovemaker Adolph Pflugk. These gloves are 
said to have been of excellent make. That they really must 
have been of superior quality and workmanship is attested 
by the fact that in 1858 they took a first premium at an 
exhibition in New York City. (12) 

For the operation of the tannery much oak bark was 
necessary. The colonists did not like to rob their own 
trees of their bark . So they ascertained where an outsider 
contemplated clearing. They went to him made the propo- 
sition to hew down his large oak trees on condition that he 

12 . "History of Monroe and Shelby Counties." P. 863 . 


would allow them to peel off the bark for their own use. 
When such permission was obtained, all men, regardless of 
the trade they plied in the colony, went to the woods, per- 
formed this task in common and conveyed the bark in huge 
loads to Bethel. Thus they accomplished their task quickly, 
and also gave their neighbors a laudible example of forest 
protection, which lesson in this land of plenty, however, 
passed unheeded. 

In the village smithy, which is now owned and operated 
by a direct descendent of the colony blacksmith, I was shown 
all sorts of tools that were made in the colony days. They 
are neat and seem to be better in many respects than the 
factory-made articles of today. 

For the making of linseed oil the colonists resorted to 
the following device. A very large stone was rendered per- 
fectly smooth and laid down horizontally. On this stone 
rested two circular stones, each sixty-four inches in diameter 
and twelve inches in thickness. They were fastened by a 
strong axis to a heavy rod in the middle. To this horses 
and mules were hitched and made to roll the heavy stones 
over the horizontal stone. The horses going around in a 
circle very much as they do in turning a canemill. The 
flaxseed was spread on the flat stone and the circular stones, 
moving over this, crushed the flaxseed into pulp, from which 
the oil was later extracted by intense pressure. One of these 
stones now rests over a public well in Bethel, the other in 
said to be used for a similar purpose in Shelbina. 
(To be concluded.) 

Instructor in Germanic Languages, University of Missouri. 



On Monday evening, December 28th, the American His- 
>rical Association and the American Political Science Asse- 
rtion will meet in joint session in Washington to listen to the 
mgural address of Mr. James Bryce as president of the 
fcer body. Tuesday morning there will be separate ses- 
>ns in Washington ; in the afternoon a special train to Rich- 
Mid; in the evening the presidential address of Professor 
jorge B. Adams on Wednesday there will be papers on the 
lations of Geography to History, and various other subjects. 
Thursday the conference of state and local historical so- 
sties, for which Prof. St. George L. Sioussat will act as sec- 
iry, will be held, and also "round table" conferences on 
lerican colonial and Revolutionary history and in Southern 
story. In the evening General E. P. Alexander, C. S. A., 
id other officers and authorities in Civil War history will 
suss the campaigns in Virginia. On New Years day there 
be an excursion to Charlottesville and the University of 
rginia . During the week there will be opportunity to visit 
battlefields of Petersburg, Seven Pines and Yellow Tavern. 


The legislature of Kentucky arranged for the removal of 
le bones of Daniel Boone from Missouri to that state, and in 
15 a commission came from Kentucky, and took back what 
supposed to be his remains. It is now claimed that a 
take was made and that the wrong body was taken. As 
headstone with inscription was ever placed over his grave 
le mistake, if there was one, was easily made, and it may now 
difficult to satisfactorily decide where the body really is. 



In the exhibit made by the women of Connecticut at the 
World's Fair at Chicago was an exhibit of forty -two transla- 
tions of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." The library of the British 
Museum has translations of the same in twenty languages. 
A similar exhibit of translations of Mark Twain 's work would 
be very appropriate for the State Historical Society of Mis- 
souri, and be of great interest. The Society asks donations 
of all such translations for its Mark Twain collection. 


Dr. Zopher Case, of Warrensburg, a relative of Leonard 
Case, Jr., founder of the "Case School of Applied Science" at 
Cleveland, Ohio, has made a large donation to the Society of 
magazines and medical journals, they being the accumulation 
of many years. The medical journals include the leading 
ones of the country to the present time, 332 of these having 
been published in Missouri. The collection included in all 
3990 numbers. 


The Review for October, 1907, contained a list of Revolu- 
tionary Soldiers buried in Missouri, compiled by the late Mary 
Louise Dalton, which list recorded the locality of thirty-four 
graves. A note in the same number of the Review added one 
name to the list. Late papers have added two names. Wil- 
liam Dilday, who is buried in an old cemetery in Lawrence 
county, and . Ferrell or Ferrill, who is buried in the Ma- 
cedonia cemetery north of Stella, in Newton county . He came 
with his family from Indiana about 1836, and first located on 
Shoal Creek, and later moved to a place about a mile north 
of where Stella now is, where he died in 1841. His grave in 
this cemetery is not now known. 



A letter from Mr. Ezra M. Prince, secretary of the Mc- 
Lean County Historical Society at Bloomington, Illinois, re- 

NOTES. 77 

ferring to the paper in the July Review on Eev. Jesse Walker, 

"He was intimately connected with our local history. He 
formed the first religious organization in our county, the 
Blooming Grove class of the M. E. church. 

The first cabin built in the county was by John Hendrix in 
the spring of 1822. He and his wife were ardent Methodists. 
The visit to them by Rev. Jesse Walker well illustrates the 
hardships of this pioneer missionary. The story of that visit 
is as follows : ' ' One cold night in the fall of 1824 a voice was 
heard from without. Mr. Hendrix went to the door. A 
stranger sat upon a horse, and asked if he could stay over 
night . Mr. Hendrix replied, ' ' Yes, come in . " He said, ' ' I 
can not ; I am stiff with cold . ' ' Mr. Hendrix took him from 
his horse, carried him into his cabin and laid him before the 
big fire in the great fire place. He then went out and put up 
the horse ; returning he helped the stranger to rise to a seat, 
and the visitor recovering said, "My name is Jesse Walker. 
I am a Methodist minister. I live in St. Louis. Having heard 
of a white family living up here among the Indians, I have 
come all the way to bring the gospel." He was gladly re- 
ceived, a short service was held, reading the Scriptures, prayer 
and a sermon. Shortly afterwards a "class" was formed 
with Mr. Hendrix as leader. 

In the economy of the Methodist church, especially in its 
missionary stages, the class played an important part. The 
settlers were scattered, not enough to form churches. The 
visits of the missionary were infrequent, and that the religious 
fires kindled by these devoted men might not go out entirely 
the class was organized. A knot of Methodists would meet 
at some convenient cabin, some one of the members, dis- 
tinguished for his intelligence, character, piety, zeal, and 
especially for his knowledge of the Bible was chosen leader. 
The classes were usually formed as in this case under the di- 
rection of the missionary or other regularly appointed minis- 
ter of the church . ' ' 

The above quotation is given from a paper read by Mr. 
Prince at the June meeting of the Society of which he is Secre- 


tary, and is of interest in connection with the valuable article 
in the July number of the Review by Rev. Joab Spencer, of 
Slater, Missouri, in which number his name was incorrectly 
given as Joel. 


The United States government has lately appointed 
Major Paul F. Straub, of the army medical corps, to represent 
this country in the fourth international Esperanto Congress, 
held at Dresden, Germany, August 16-22, 1908. Other countries 
also appointed representatives to attend this Congress. 

The War Department library at Washington is accumu- 
lating a collection of Esperanto literature, and the librarian 
of the War Department, and the superintendent of the Navai 
war records and library are prominent members of the 
Washington Esperanto Society. 

There are now about 1,000 Esperanto schools and socie- 
ties in the world, and there are fifty-five periodicals 
published in Esperanto. The Japanese Minister of Foreign 
Affairs recommends his countrymen to study the language, 
which he calls the gospel of the world. 


Mr. William S. Bell, librarian, is doing good work for 
the historical interests of the State. Bulletin No. II just 
issued gives a general outline for a reading list on the 
history of the State, followed by lists of books, manuscripts, 
magazine and newspaper articles under the various heads. 
The statement is made that "every newspaper and magazine 
in the State is received at the library." 


The Missouri Society of Teachers of History and 
Government adopted the Review as its official organ, and 
its editor, Prof. N. M. Trenholm, will conduct a department 
for that society. Not having returned from his vacation in 
time to prepare copy, the October Review unfortunately has 
to omit this until the next issue. 


A Study in American Freemasonry. By Arthur Preuss, 
editor of the Catholic Fortnightly Review. St. Louis and 
Freiburg. B. Herder, 1908. 12mo., 433 p. 

The above work by a valued member of this society is 
based upon Pike's "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite," Mackey's works, and publications 
of other Masonic writers. It is written in a calm, argu- 
mentative manner, giving authorities for all the allegations 
that the author makes, so that no offense is felt by a Mason 
while reading it, though he may see the mistake of the 
author in the conclusion given by him. 

The majority of American Masons adopt the York Rite 
of Masonry leading from the Blue Lodge thru the Chapter 
to the Commaridery or Knights Templar. In the Scottish 
Rite leading from the same Lodge to the 33d degree, there 
is more of philosophic teaching, but Masons would reply to 
the assertions of the author, that in neither branch is there 
taught any concealed religion, philosophy or science, but 
that these are all fully set forth in the monitorial or exoteric 
Masonry, the esoteric Masonry being merely the forms of 
initiation, and not a changing or addition to the monitorial 

Those who may be disposed to agree with the author, 
and those who wish to know the arguments urged against 
Masonry, will find the work of interest. It may be obtained 
of the publisher for $1.50. 

Fate's a Fiddler, by Edwin George Pinkham, illustrated 
by Lester Ralph. Boston, Small, Maynard & Company. 
1908. 417 p. 

This is one of the latest publications by a Missouri 
writer, one who is said to be on the Kansas City Star. The 
story is a good one, commencing in Boston, and transferred 


to Missouri, in which State the events at St. Louis and in 
the mining country of the Southwest are dramatically told. 
The style is a strong reminder of Dickens, and a brilliant 
literary future is promised for the writer. 

Stones in a Life. By William M. Goldsmith, student in 
the State Normal School, Springfield, Missouri. Springfield, 
Jewell Publishing Co. n. d. (C. 1908). 154 p. Portrait. 

This is a pleasantly written account of stories, incidents 
and conversations from the real life and experience of the 
author, a young man who was born in Northeast Arkansas, 
but early moved to Campbell, Dunklin County, in this State, 
wliere he still resides. The little book will be a help to any 
young person who reads it. 

Library and Historical Archives in North Carolina, 1900- 
1905. Publications of the Historical Commission, vol. 1. 
Ptaleigh, 1907. 800. 623 p. 

This is a work embracing many points of history rela- 
tive to the State, giving accounts of the State Literary and 
Historical Association, the progress of education in the 
State, Sir Walter Raleigh, and his colonies, reports of battles 
of the Revolutionary War, and those of the Civil War, and 
the various patriotic societies of each, bibliography of 
the State for 1902 to 1905, biographies of prominent men 
of the State, and much other matter of interest to its citi- 
zens. Many of the States are going ahead of ours in the 
matter of historical publications made by them. 


Hon. Thomas P. Bashaw was elected to the 30th General 
Assembly, 1874, and reelected to the 31st and 32d, and was 
Speaker of the House in the 31st, serving at the regular 
session in 1881 and the adjourned session in 1882. 

He was born in Shelby County, Kentucky, October 31, 
1843, studied law at the State University, but quit his 
books to enter the Confederate army. He was admitted to 
the bar in St. Louis in 1867, and afterwards lived at Mexico, 
Missouri, and later at Paris, Monroe County, from which 
county he was elected to the Legislature, previous to which 
he was elected probate judge. In 1884 he was a candidate 
for the nomination for Governor on the Democratic ticket, 
but was defeated by Governor Marmaduke. He was 
appointed United States District Attorney for the Eastern 
District of Missouri by President Cleveland in 1887. He 
died at his home in St. Louis, July 1, 1908. 

Hon. James G. Donnell, an inspector for many years in 
the United States customs office at St. Louis, residing at 

1820 Schild avenue, was taken dangerously ill and died on 
August 22, 1908. He was a member of the Missouri House 
of Representatives from Madison County in the 33d General 

Assembly in 1885. ; 


Judge Pembroke R. Flitcraft, elected Circuit Judge in 

St. Louis in 1894, on the Republican ticket, serving until 

January 1, 1901, was born in Salem County, N. J., in 1849, 

[and came to St. Louis in 1878. He was a graduate of the 

University of Michigan. He died June 17, 1908. 

Dr. Homer Taylor Fuller, president of Drury College, 

Springfield, from 1894 to 1906, died August 15 at Saranac 
[Lake, N. Y. He was born at Lempster, N. H., November 15, 


1838, graduated from Dartmouth College in 1864, and after- 
ward received the degrees of Ph. D. and D. D. He was 
connected with various educational institutions before com- 
ing to Missouri, and was the author of several monographs 
on educational subjects. 

Rev. Dr. Henry Hopkins, from 1880 to 1902 pastor of 
the Second Congregational Church of Kansas City, and later 
president of Williams College, died in Rotterdam, Holland, 
August 18, 1908. He was born November 30, 1837, in 
Williamsburg, Massachusetts, a son. of Dr. Mark Hopkins, 
at that time president of Williams College, and in which 
he graduated at the age of twenty years. He was appointed 
chaplain in the Union army by President Lincoln, and was 
stationed nearly four years in the hospitals at Alexandria. 
He afterwards served in the field, and was at the battles 
of the Wilderness and Appomattox. 

Rev. James E. Hughes was born in Howard County, 
Missouri, March, 1821. In 1837 he moved to Clinton 
County, which he represented in the Legislature in the 27th 
General Assembly in 1873 and the adjourned session of the 
same in the following year. In 1843 he was ordained a 
minister of the Baptist Church. He was a relative of John 
T. Hughes of Doniphan's expedition. He died at Osborn, 
Missouri, August 19, 1908. 

William Morgan was born in Montreal, Canada, Novem- 
ber 18, 1839, moved to Newport, Kentucky, when a boy, and 
to St. Louis in 1857, where he was an auctioneer till after 
the Civil War. In 1873 he was appointed deputy clerk of 
the United States District Court, and in 1887 Judge Thayer 
made him clerk, which position he held till 1903. He died 
in St. Louis, July 7, 1908. 

Gov. Eugene Semple, governor of Washington Territory 
during President Cleveland's first administration, died in 
San Diego, California, August 28, 1908. He was born in 
Bogota, United States of Colombia, South America, in 1840, 


when his father was United States Minister at that place. 
He was educated in the schools of St. Louis, and in the St. 
Louis University, and studied law in the office of Judge 
Chester II. Krum. In 1870 he moved to Portland, Oregon, 
and afterwards resided on the Pacific coast. 

Capt. Eli J. Sherlock, born in Perry County, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 4, 1840; in the Civil War enlisted in the One Hundredth 
Ohio Volunteers, and in 1864 became captain. After the 
war he settled at Pleasant Hill, Missouri, and in 1874 was 
admitted to the bar. In 1878 he moved to Kansas City, 
where he lived till his death, August 15, 1908. During the 
war he kept a diary, which became four volumes, dealing 
with the history of the regiment to which he belonged, and 
which the United States Government reports as the best 
record of regimental histories. Capt. Sherlock wrote two 
'books, "The Marches and Battles of the One Hundredth 
Ohio Infantry," and "Dictionary of American Battles." 

Hon. Isaac H. Sturgeon, called "The Grand Old Man," 

of St. Louis, resident in a historic mansion with furniture 
and furnishings of ante-bellum days, and waited upon by 
servants who were the descendents of others who lived in 
the Sturgeon and Allen families before the Civil "War, at 
a ripe old age died August 22, 1908. His public life dated 
back to 1848 when he was elected an alderman of St. Louis, 
and re-elected two years later. In 1852 he was a member 
of the Senate in the Seventeenth General Assembly, having 
for fellow members James 0. Broadhead, Robert M. Stewart, 
Benjamin W. Grover, "Wyman Crow, Thomas Allen, and 
other prominent men of the day. In March, 1853, he was 
appointed United States subtreasurer by President Pierce; 
reappointed in 1857 by President Buchanan; from 1861 to 
1875 to various special agencies; in 1875 by President Grant, 
United States internal revenue collector for the First Mis- 
)uri district; in 1876 reappointed by President Hayes; in 
'881 reappointed by President Garfield, continued by Presi- 
dent Arthur, and in 1885 continued by President Cleveland; 
1890 appointed assistant postmaster of St. Louis by President 


Harrison; in March, 1893, elected comptroller of the City of 
St. Louis, re-elected and held the office till 1901 . 

Winston Churchill was married at the Sturgeon home 
in 1895, his wife being a niece of Mrs. Sturgeon. The 
Belgrade of the "Crisis" is the old Sturgeon home, some 
of the characters of the novel being suggested by Mr. 
Sturgeon. He was born in Jefferson County, Kentucky, 
December 10, 1821, and studied law in Louisville. In 
January, 1846, he removed to St. Louis, was there admitted 
to the bar, but entered business pursuits. In the early days 
of the North Missouri Railroad, he was for twelve years its 
president. He was also a director in the Ohio and Mississippi 
Railroad, and in more than one bank. The eight presidents 
under whom he served all recognized him as a man of much 
ability, and of the highest integrity. 



E. M. VIOLETTE, Kirksville, 

H. R. TUCKER, St. Louis, 
Vice President. 

EUGENE FAIR, Columbia, N. M. TRENHOLME, Columbia, 

Secretary-Treasurer. Editor. 

Since the last issue of The Review Miss Anna Gilday, of 
the Manual Training School, has resigned as Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the Society and Mr. Eugene Fair has kindly consented 
,to accept the vacant office. All history teachers who wish to 
join the Missouri Society of Teachers of History and Govern- 
ment can send their names to Mr. Fair at Columbia who will 
gladly furnish any one with information in regard to the 
Society . 

The work in History carried on during the summer of 
1908 in the various state institutions was greater than ever 
before. At the State University both the under- 
graduate and the graduate courses were well filled and 
a large history enrollment was reported. The same is true of 
the Kirksville Normal and large and successful classes were 
reported from the other state normals. All this means more 
and better trained Teachers of History in the state and indi- 
cates the growth of the profession in thoroughness and special- 
ization . 

The next meeting of the Missouri Society of Teachers of 
History and Government will be held in connection with the 
annual meeting of the State Teachers Association at Kansas 
City during the coming Christmas vacation. The officers of 
the Society expect to provide a profitable and interesting pro- 
gram of papers and discussion and hope for a large attendance 
of history teachers from all parts of the state. 


We are very glad to publish in this number of The Review 
an interesting discussion of Dunn's work, "The Community 
and the Citizen," by Mr. H. B. Tucker, of the McKinley High 
School . The interest that has been aroused in the teaching of 
Civics and in the relation of history and government has al- 
ready done much to improve the character of the text-books 
and the teaching in both subjects. Mr. Tucker's review is, 
therefore, a timely contribution to a live topic. 


Dunn, Arthur William, "The Community and the Citi- 
aen;" D. C. Heath & Co., Boston; 1907; pp. 266, viii. 

As the author says: "The book is a departure from the 
traditional methods of presenting the subject of civics to 
young people . " It is primarily intended for the upper 
grammar grade and the first year of the high school. Mr. 
Dunn expressly disclaims any intention to propose it as a text 
for the last year of the high school, when "a scientific analysis 
of the machinery and powers of government" is most profit- 
ably undertaken. Here then is a book which will enable any 
teacher to instruct her pupils within their immediate experi- 
ence. The pupil is taught to study his own social world; 
and to do this, Mr. Dunn clearly follows essential pedagogical 
principles ' ' observation, analysis and inference . ' ' He holds 
and no doubt rightly that it is the interest of the young 
pupils which must be maintained. The "point of contact" 
the child's and the adult's relation to his fellows is the cen- 
tral aim thruout the text. The pupil studies his own envir- 
onment and comes to feel he is a vital part of it . 

The author makes frequent use of local history and 
geography, and thus correlates the two subjects history and 
government which, more and more, are coming to be con- 
sidered as different phases of the same subject. For history 
is but the evolving of the social and political life of the people. 
There is much sociological material in the book, and it is pre- 
sented in such simple concept and phraseology that a child 
can understand it. For instance, in evolving the question of 
getting a livelihood, the author describes, simply, the method 


used by primitive man. The book also emphasizes the im- 
portance of the ethical phase of man's life, and the citizen's 
obligation to the community in return for the many privileges 
the community accords to him. It is pleasing to find a school 
text like this one religious (not denominational) in its tone; 
that is it recognizes the religious instinct and activities of 

The style of the book is simple and entertaining, being 
less formal than the ordinary text book. The illustrations 
are very appropriate, being new, varied, numerous, and rele- 
vant to the object matter. There are marginal analyses, a 
helpful addition to a text book. The author generally adopts 
a broad-minded attitude; for instance, in speaking of the 
training for citizenship, he does not ascribe to history and 
civics the only disciplinary power, but also mentions other 
branches of the curriculum as training for citizenship. 

The excellent questions for investigation at the end of 
each chapter are prepared so as (1) to develop the pupil's 
>ower of observation; (2) to apply the principles to one's own 
sality, thus stimulating the interest; and (3) to set the pupils 
thinking, such questions not requiring formal preparation, 
it simply calling for class discussion. 

The references to books and the standard magazines are 
complete, varied and specific. They enable expansion in the 
work where age and time of pupils permit it. There are also 
references for teachers as well as for pupils. 

There is one omission, which even in an elementary text, 
we do not see is justifiable, and that is that there is no men- 
tion at all of the territorial possessions (continental and 
insular) of the United States and their government. We fail to 
see how such a topic would have been not in harmony wtih 
the general scheme of the work, nor any more difficult than 
other topics considered. 

The book is, however, thoroughly commendable as a de- 
parture from the usual elementary text book in civics. Fur- 
themore, it is not the result of theory alone for it has met the 

of a year's experience under the direction of the author 
the school of a large city. It should be in the hands of 


every teacher of history and civics of the grammar grades, 
for use and guidance. To the teacher of the upper high 
school courses in history and in civics it would offer many 
valuable suggestions and prove useful in supplementary work. 
The teaching profession would gladly welcome we feel a 
book for upper high school classes, written along the same 
lines as this text. H. R. Tucker, McKinley High School, St. 

A skillfully abridged and well edited version of Burg's 
well known "History of Greece" has been prepared for the 
use of American schools by Dr. Everett Kimball, of Smith Col- 
lege. It is published by the Macmillan Co. ($1.10.) 

The firm of Scott, Foresman and Co., of Chicago, have 
brought out two useful works in Roman history by Professor 
F. F. Abbott, of the University of Chicago. There are "A 
Short History of Rome," ($1.00) and "A Handbook for the 
Study of Roman History," (25 cents). 

Excellent review outline of Greek and Roman history 
have been prepared by Messrs. C. B. Newton and E. B. 
Treat, of the Lawrenceville School. These are published and 
sold by the American Book Co. at twenty-five cents each. 

A new volume in the story of the Nations series deals 
with "The Roman Empire, B.C. 29 A. D. 476. " It is by 
Mr. H. Stuart-Jones and deals interestingly with the general 
development and final collapse of the greatest of ancient em- 
pires. The publishers are G. P. Putnam Sons. ($1.35.) 


Professor Dow's "Atlas of European History" published 
by Holt and Co. ($1.50) is the best thing of its kind available 
for students in Mediaeval and Modern History. It has some 
fifty excellent maps and a comprehensive finding index. It 
should largely replace the long popular little German atlas 
of Putzger. 


Another "Source Book of Mediaeval History" has ap- 
peared this time from the precincts of Harvard, the editor be- 
ing Mr. F. A. Ogg, one of the instructors hi European His- 
jtory in Harvard University. The extracts are well selected and 
prefaced by clearly written explanatory notes. Altogether, 
this new source book appears very serviceable for school and 
college use and should help in the movement towards the ra- 
tional use of sources. It is published by the American Book 
($1.50). The Scribner's company have completed the 
.blication of Seignobo's History of Civilization with the 
second volume dealing with "Mediaeval and Modern Civiliza- 
tion." ($1.25.) It is a most useful reference work for 
teacher in the field of European History. 

For teachers of Modern European History and for ad- 
,nced students there is much that is valuable and suggestive 
to be found in a new work by Archibald Weir entitled "An 
Introduction to the History of Modern Europe," published 
by Houghton, Mifflin and Co. ($2.00.) It is a book that 
deals with underlying tendencies and forces as well as external 
ents and indicates a thorough understanding of the trend of 
dern historical development. 

Note Notices of new books in English and American His- 
tory have to be omitted from this number of The Review but 
will appear in the January number. The editor will be glad 
to receive any contribution from members of the Society as to 
reply to questions in regard to this department of The Review. 



VOL. 3. JANUARY, 1909. NO. 2 

[Introductory to the more formal accounts of Daniel 
Boone, extracts from two letters from William S. Bryan to 
Prof. G. C. Broadhead are given. The photographs referred 
to have not been engraved and consequently are not shown. 
The article now given will be followed by others relating 
to Boone/ Editor.] 

Daniel Boone married Rebecca Bryan, an aunt of 
Jonathan Bryan, grandfather of the writer, and after coming 
to Missouri the two families lived on adjoining plantations 
in the valley of the Femme Osage, in St. Charles county. 
My brother and I visited both places last summer, and I 
will enclose with this letter copies of photographs we took 
on that occasion, which may be of some interest. The old 
stone house built by Boone and his son, General Nathan 
Boone, still stands, as represented in the photograph; but 
every vestige of his first log cabin has disappeared. Visitors 
are sometimes lured into the belief that a pigsty, in the 
adjoining lot, is the old cabin; but it is cruel to deceive 
confiding humanity in that way. Yet it is quite probable 
that some of the logs in the pig-house may have belonged 
to the old cabin. The latter stood where I have made a 
cross on the photograph; and the spring was about as far 


' ~-fl 

beyond it, and in the same direction, as the site of the cabin 
is from the stone house. I send you also a photograph of 
the spring, which flows out from under a bluff. It was 
this spring which induced Boone to locate there. He found 
it one day while hunting. The little boy looking so intently 
into the water is my little son, a third grand-nephew of 
Rebecca Bryan (Boone) . 

I will send you also a picture of my grandfather's old 
double log cabin, as it appears now. It was a famous house 
at the time it was built, and the largest west of St. Charles, 
until Boone completed his stone mansion. The two houses 
are about a mile apart, and during the last few years of 
his life Boone spent as much time at my grandfather's as 
he did at home. In fact, there was hardly a day that they 
did not visit back and forth, for a period of twenty years, 
from 1800 until 1820, when Boone died. It was during this 
time that my father knew him, as a boy and a growing 
young man knows his elders. In 1815 my grandmother, 
who was then a woman of about fifty, shot and killed an 
Indian in front of the Bryan cabin. The savage was running 
toward her with uplifted tomahawk, and was about where 
the tree now grows when she shot him. This tree is an 
offshoot of an older one that stood on the same spot at the 
time. She and a negro woman had just killed another Indian 
in the hall, he having entered, or attempted to enter, by 
the back door. I enclose a printed slip describing the inci- 
dent. The two Indians were buried where I have drawn 
a cross-mark. 

The Boones and Bryans were pioneers of Pennsylvania, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and being closely 
related by marriage and intermarriage, they held together 
in all their migrations. My greatgrandfather and two of 
his brothers built Bryan's Station, (1) near the present site 
of Lexington, Ky., where they bought, or "entered," fifteen 
thousand acres of land, with the intention of establishing a 
colonial plantation; but their titles were defective, and they 
lost it all, just as Boone did his. After the loss of the 
lands, my grandfather removed to Missouri, in 1800, and 


purchased a large tract adjoining Boone's, in the Femme 
Osage valley ; and there the two families remained until 
they ran their course. My greatgrandfather, James Bryan, 
the old Revolutionary soldier, also came to Missouri, and he 
and my grandfather and grandmother lie buried on the hill 
about one hundred and fifty yards above the old log house. 
In the picture of the old house the little boy is sitting by 
the spring, which in my father's time had a house over it; 
and there they kept their butter and milk and honey. 

This morning I received a batch of manuscript from 
my brother, Dr. J. D. Bryan, of Ottawa, Kansas, and I am 
glad to see that he has found the record of the birth of 
Daniel Boone. I quote a portion of my brother's manuscript, 
as follows : 

"George Boone, Sr., was born in Columpton, Devon- 
shire, England, in 1662; in 1717 he migrated to America 
with his wife, Mary, two daughters, and nine sons. They 
landed at Philadelphia, October 10, 1717, 0. S. The Boones 
were Dissenters, and members of the 'Society of Friends' 
(Quakers) both in England and America. Soon after Boone's 
arrival, he purchased a large tract of land on the east side 
of the Schuylkill river, and had it erected into a township, 
which he called Exeter. This is a short distance southeast 
of the present town of Reading, Pa. The records of the old 
'Gwynedd Monthly Meeting' show as follows: '10-31-1717, 
George Boone, Sr., produced certificate of his good life and 
conversation, from the Meeting at Columpton, in Great 
Britain. Was received an$ read.' Again: 'Squire Boone, 
son of George, of Philadelphia county, yeoman, married to 
Sarah, daughter of Edward Morgan, of the same county, 
at Gwynedd Meeting House, 7-13-1720, witnesses, George, 
Edward and Elizabeth Morgan, George and James Boone, 
William, John and Daniel Morgan, and 31 others.' Children of 
Squire and Sarah Boone, 'Exter Monthly Meeting Records;' 
Sarah, b. 4-7-1724. Israel, b. 3-9-1726. Samuel, b. 3-20-1728. 
Jonathan, b. 10-6-1730. Elizabeth, b. 12-15-1732. Daniel, 
b. 8-22-1734. Mary, b. 9-3-1736. George, b. 11-2-1739. Ed- 
ward, b. 9-9-1740." 


As stated above, the foregoing is a copy from the records 
of the old Gwynedd Meeting House, where the Boones were 
born, lived and died, and I think it settles the fact satis- 
factorily that Daniel Boone was born on the 22d day of 
August, 1734. I am very glad indeed that my brother has 
found this record, for it settles a question which has long 
been in dispute. There were two or three other Boone 
children born after the records ceased. 


The last twenty-five years of the life of Daniel Boone 
were spent in Missouri, and when he died he was buried 
there. Scenes connected with his daily life during this 
period seem to possess an abiding interest for the American 
people. The Boone farm in the upper part of St. Charles 
county, and the old stone mansion that stands upon it, are 
visited every year by numerous pilgrims, who come from 
distant States, and even from across the sea, to worship 
at the shrine of the world's greatest pioneer. Each new 
arrival drinks freely from the spring of sweet water that 
bubbles up from beneath that great ledge of rock, paints 
a mental picture of the adjacent scenery of hill and bluff 
and rolling valley, and carries away with him pleasant 
memories of the place and its surroundings. Others, less 
reverent of sentiment, chip off pieces of the stone house, or 
gather mementoes from the spot where the old cabin stood; 
while some fondly cherish photographs of the modern pigsty, 
which they are made to believe contains some of the logs 
that entered into the first Boone house west of the Mississippi. 
The present owner of the place, a thrifty American of German 
ancestry, is disposed to let all his visitors have their own 
way, and very rarely undeceives any of them regarding the 
pig house. And why should he spoil a harmless sentiment? 
Every vestige of the old cabin has long since disappeared, 
except a few faint traces of the foundation where it stood. 

The spring was the inducement which led Boone to build 
his cabin there. Those old pioneers valued a spring more 


than they did the land surrounding it ; for it not only supplied 
them with water so cold as to require no ice, but it was 
sure to be a general meeting-place for deer and other game. 
Many a buffalo, coming to slake his thirst at this spring, 
yielded up his life a victim to the unerring aim of the old 
pioneer. Boone could sit in the door of his cabin, which 
stood fifty feet or more eastwardly from the spring, and 
lay in a winter's supply of meat for his family without the 
trouble of hunting. He could pick his choice of deer, elk, 
buffalo or bear; for all these animals came there to drink. 
Bear meat was preferred above all other kinds, owing to 
its sweet and nutty flavor; and the bacon of swine went 
begging when bear bacon was convenient. Wild turkeys 
were also abundant and so tame that they roosted in the 
trees and stood about the cabin, and were not regarded with 
special favor; for when one eats turkey every day he soon 
longs for something more substantial. Bees nested in the 
crevices of the rocks and in the hollows of adjacent trees, 
and came also to the spring to fill their little buckets with 
water. Thus Boone and his family had an abundance of 
honey, of the best quality and flavor, without going beyond 
the limits of their own yard or bothering themselves about 
the care of the bees. It was a genuine Arcadia, embracing 
an existence seemingly unreal, but it was very real and 
substantial when Boone built his cabin on the bank above 
the spring and for some years thereafter. 

Back of the -spring a hill slopes gradually up to the 
foot of a bluff, from the top of which may be seen many 
miles of the level stretches of Femme Osage valley, with 
the creek of the same name winding its course through the 
corn and wheat fields and the rich meadow lands that margin 
its banks. There are not many finer views anywhere in the 
world; and for richness of soil the farms that lie spread out 
beneath this bluff can hold their own with the valley of 
the Nile. Before Boone came the French had given a name 
to this creek ("Woman of the Osage") to perpetuate the 
memory of an Osa.tre woman, said to have been beautiful, 
who lost her life while attempting to cross the stream when 


it was swollen by recent rains. Sometimes it becomes a tor- 
rent, sweeping over all obstacles and flooding the lower 
portions of the valley. It was in this condition when the 
Osage woman, driven doubtless by an unsympathetic husband, 
gained immortality by getting herself drowned. 

The story of how Daniel Boone came to the valley of 
the Femme Osage is told in the records of Louisiana Terri- 
tory. About 1790, weary and despondent over his failure 
to secure titles to his lands in Kentucky, and burdened with 
debts which he could not pay, the ruggedly honest old 
pioneer gave up all the acres that he possessed in the now 
famous bluegrass region, and removed with his family to 
the valley of the Kanahwa. He located in what was then 
the northwestern part of the State of Virginia, but now 
within the limits of Mason county, West Virginia, not far 
from the town of Point Pleasant. The Northwest Territory 
was already beginning to be occupied by thrifty pioneers, 
and it was believed that the Kanawha valley was a good 
place to settle and catch the drift of trade as it flowed by 
from the Atlantic States to the new and expanding West. 

Soon after the removal to the Kanawha country, Daniel 
M. Boone, a favorite son, and also a pioneer of distinction, 
ventured into the Louisiana Territory on a hunting and 
trapping expedition. The fame of his father had preceded 
him and he was most kindly treated by the Spanish au- 
thorities at St. Louis. The Lieutenant-Governor, Senor 
Zenon Trudeau, suggested that if his father, the celebrated 
Colonel Boone, would remove to Louisiana, the king would 
appreciate the act and treat him handsomely. The younger 
Boone thereupon sent back such glowing accounts of the 
warmth of his welcome, the richness of the soil, the excel- 
lence of the climate, and the plentifulness of game, that the 
imagination of the old pioneer was inflamed; and disposing 
his family and his lew earthly belongings ori packhorses, he 
led the way on foot across the present States of Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois, to the north bank of the Missouri river, in what 
is now the upper part of St. Charles county. This journey 
was made in 1795, when Boone was in his sixty-first year, 



and a glance at the map will show the magnitude of the 
undertaking. The old man walked every foot of the way, 
with his rifle on his shoulder, through the trackless wilder- 
ness, a large part of which was infested by bands of blood- 
thirsty savages. The fact that he made the journey and 
brought his family through in safety attests the greatness 
of the man. 

On their arrival in St. Louis, Colonel Boone and his 
family were treated by the Spanish officers as distinguished 
guests. The freedom of the city was extended to them. 
The American and Spanish flags were displayed side by 
side, and the garrison was paraded in honor of the distin- 
guished pioneer of Kentucky. No function of courteous 
hospitality was left unperformed; arid before their departure 
the Spanish Lieutenant-Governor presented Colonel Boone 
with a grant for 1,000 arpents of land, to be located where 
he pleased in the "District of the Femme Osage. " The 
district then embraced everything north of the Missouri 
river and indefinitely westward to the "South Sea." It was 
large enough to satisfy a man even of Colonel Boone 's 
expansive ideas ; but he chose to locate the grant in the rich 
bottom lands of the Missouri river, four or five miles below 
the present town of Augusta. There he built his first cabin 
within the limits of Missouri, close by the uncertain banks 
of the shifting stream. The land and the cabin have long 
since been swallowed by the caving-in of the banks, and the 
river now flows where the Boone arpents lay. Here he and 
his son, Daniel M., undertook to build a town, which they 
called Missouriton in honor of the river on whose banks it 
stood. For a while the place flourished, and after the cession 
of Louisiana to the United States it was proposed to locate 
the capital of the Territory there. But the town, like the 
cabin and the land, has long since fallen into the river. 
Nothing remains to mark its site, and no memory of the 
place lingers in the neighborhood except a country postoffice 
called Missouriton, kept by a farmer who lives some distance 
from where the old town stood. 


A year or two after his arrival, the Spanish authorities 
entered into a contract with Colonel Boone to bring one 
hundred American families to Upper Louisiana, for which 
he was to receive a grant for 10,000 arpents of land, to be 
laid, as the others had been, in the Femme Osage district. 
The contract was fully complied with by both parties, but 
Boone lost his land by neglecting to have his grant confirmed 
by the Spanish Governor at New Orleans. There were no 
public mails then in Louisiana Territory, and a trip to the 
southern capital was too great an undertaking merely to 
secure the signature of the Governor. Meanwhile the transfer 
of the Territory was made to the United States, and it was 
then too late for Boone to have his title confirmed. Subse- 
quently, on the 24th of December, 1813, Congress, by special 
act, confirmed his title to the Spanish grant of 1,000 arpents. 
This tract he soon afterward sold and applied the proceeds 
to the payment of his Kentucky debts; so that, in the end, 
he died landless, for the farm and the stone mansion in the 
Femme Osage valley belonged to General Nathan Boone. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century the population 
of Femme Osage district had increased to such proportions 
as to require a local government, and on the llth of June, 
1800, Colonel Boone was appointed commandant of the dis- 
trict. It was about that time, or perhaps a little earlier, 
that he built the cabin near the spring in the Femme Osage 
valley and removed his family there. The duties of his office 
were both civil and military, and his decision in all cases 
was final, except those involving land titles, which were 
referred to the crown or its immediate representative. 
Punishment for crime or misdemeanor was of the most 
summary character. The accused, if proven guilty, was tied 
up and whipped, the number of lashes being proportioned 
to the nature of his offense. A hickory sapling that stood 
in the yard near the spring served as a whipping-post. That 
kind of punishment met the requirement of the age, and 
no thief or breaker of the law was ever known to resent a 
judgment rendered by Daniel Boone. He held his court 
under the spreading branches of a large elm tree, which still 


stands on the bank a few feet above the spring, and is 
known as ''Daniel Boone's Judgment Tree." Here, dressed 
in buckskin hunting-shirt and pantaloons and moccasins of 
the same material, and seated at the roots of the old tree, 
he propounded the law and dispensed justice to his assembled 
neighbors in a manner that never failed to win their approval. 
If a hog-thief, or one who had put his mark on his neighbor's 
shoats, pleaded guilty or was proven so, he was promptly 
"whipped and cleared," as they expressed it. That ended 
the trouble, and the culprit went about his business with no 
further annoyance or loss of caste in the community. For- 
tunately, there were no capital offenses committed in the 
district during Booiie's administration, and he was never 
called upon to condemn a murderer. 

The stone house, or mansion, was completed in 1813. 
It has been represented as the first stone house erected west 
of the Mississippi; but this is a probable error, for houses of 
that material were built in St. Louis, and doubtless also in 
Ste. Genevieve, at an earlier date. But they were not such 
houses as the Boone mansion. That was the product of the 
joint labors of the old Colonel and his son, General Nathan 
Boone, assisted by their slaves, and several years were devoted 
to the work. The walls were composed of blue limestone, 
neatly chiseled, and are about two feet thick. The size of 
the building, measured on the outside of the walls, is twenty- 
eight by forty-six feet, with a height of twenty-two feet. 
A hall nine feet wide runs through the center of the first 
and second stories, with doors opening into the rooms on 
either side. The rooms are large and uncomfortable in 
appearance, and have no closets or other conveniences known 
to modern architecture. Yet a great deal of work was ex- 
pended in some features of their ornamentation. The entire 
structure is divided into seven rooms, three on the first 
floor, and two each on the second floor and in the attic. A 
portico ornaments the north front, and a double veranda 
the south. The marks of the hammers and chisels on the 
stones are as plainly visible now as they were the day the 
house was finished, and the plaster that the stones were laid 


in was mixed in such a manner that it has become almost 
as hard as the stone itself. It is said that the plaster was 
"ripened" by being buried in the ground over winter. 

Daniel Boone occupied a little diagonal room to the 
right of the hall, on the first floor, in the northwest corner 
of the building. It was partitioned off from the kitchen, 
which also served as the dining-room, and it is entered by 
a single door opening into the latter. Two small windows 
give light from the north. In this room the famous pioneer, 
hunter and Indian fighter lived during the last few years 
of his life, and there he died, like an infant falling asleep, 
on the 26th day of September, 1820. A telephone now hanga 
on the wall of this room. What a story the old pioneeu 
might tell could he but connect with the other end of the 




The beautiful and abundant walnut timber of the North 
Valley furnished the cabinet maker and joiner splendid 
material with which to work. For these frugal people not 
only built their own houses but also made their own furniture. 
From their flax fields they obtained linen, and from their 
flocks of sheep they gained wool for their clothes. At first 

L the spinning wheel and hand-loom performed this labor but 
later machinery, run by steam, took their places. The colony 
hatter made felt hats from the fleece of lambs and the fur 
of rabbits. In brief, they made everything they needed, 

[ excepting drugs and medicines, all in a small way, but suf- 
ficient for their own use. At Hebron, which was once a 
cluster of colony houses but which is now represented by 
t;wo lone farm houses, is located the old colony cemetery. 
Here the resting places of the honest toilers are marked by 
humble limestone tombs, made by the colonists themselves. 
It seems to me, that of all the manifestations of skill in the 
colony, these memorials to the departed show least care and 
ability. Perhaps the concern for the living absorbed their 

I time and energy so completely that the dead could not claim 
much attention. 

Sharing things in common, it was but natural that 

1 common places should be provided for the protection of their 
live stock. For their horses a huge barn one hundred and 
twenty by forty-eight feet was constructed at Bethel. In 
style it was what is commonly known as a Pennsylvania 
bank-barn, with a bascmcnl-liko arrangement where the ani- 

[ mals were kept and a tremendous loft for the hay and 
grain. There was also a separate barn for the protection 
of the work-cattle, also a tremendous pigsty, and at Hebron, 


a large barn for the cows and stock-cattle. Thus they took 
the most excellent care of their animals, and in this respect 
they should have been an illustrious example to the early 
Shelby County farmer, who left his stock in the open the 
year around. 

For Dr. Keil, their leader, the colonists erected a large 
dwelling in Elim which is one and a fourth miles from 
Bethel. This house is still standing and seems to be in a 
perfect state of preservation. In the days when this struc- 
ture was erected, it must have been a veritable palace among 
the houses of that region. It is constructed of brick and 
stone, fifty-two by thirty-six feet in size and two and a half 
stories high. Its hardwood finish would be the pride of a 
New York millionaire, but of course in those days it was 
the only timber obtainable. It is said that Keil protested 
against this tremendous expenditure of time and labor. But 
his followers who truly idolized him would not suffer him 
to dwell in a house as humble as their own. It is further 
stated that Keil, whether for effect or some other reason, 
lived in this palatial residence only for a short time. 
Against the protest of his followers, he moved into a simple 
brick house, and at one time even left Bethel to dwell in an 
humble wooden shack in Nineveh. Keil was ever a roving, 
restless man who always liked to play to the galleries. 

Another large building at Bethel which deserves to be 
mentioned here is the one which the colonists called "Das 
grosse Haus" the large house. In one part of it the colony 
store was kept. Another part represented the hotel, famed 
for its excellent meals. The rest of the building was desig- 
nated as a dwelling place for those of the colony who had 
no kin with whom to reside. Most of the inhabitants of this 
house were unmarried men. 

There remains still another form of building to be men- 
tioned here. It is the old German bake-oven which stood 
out in the yard. One of them is still standing. It is a rude 
structure of stone and brick. To bake the bread a huge 
fire was built in this oven. When the brick and stone had 
become thoroly heated, the fire and ashes were withdrawn 


and the fireplace thoroly swept. Then the dough which was 
contained in small baskets about a foot in diameter made 
of hickory shavings, was placed into the space where the 
fire had been, and allowed to bake in the heat which radiated 
from the superheated brick. 

All the manufacturing at Bethel and Nineveh was car- 
ried on in a small way only. The intent was to supply the 
colony with everything it needed. However, of some things 
there was a surplus, and this was sold to outsiders. The 
chief support of the society was agriculture, for which the 
surrounding land afforded ample opportunity. At the time 
of dissolution the society owned 3,536 acres of land in 
Shelby County and 731 acres in Adair County. The land 
in Adair County was not as valuable as that in Shelby. 
Parts of it were subject to inundation. But the chief cause 
why this land was bought in Adair County was the presence 
of coal in this region. Then too it was believed that the 
Chariton river would furnish much needed water power. 

There was apparently but little in the Bethel community 
to break the monotony of everyday life. An occasional 
dance, a picnic, a festival occasion, as described in another 
place, and weekly band concerts seem to have been about 
all the diversions for the weary workers. To be sure in 
their band they had a source of pleasure which their neigh- 
bors had to do without. To judge from reports, the work 
of this band was excellent. Under the able management and 
direction of Henry Finck this organization gained an enviable 
reputation. Their instruments are said to have been very 
fine. Among the curios which are shown to the inquisitive 
visitor is an old bass drum which was made by the colonists 
themselves and which is still in perfect condition. Of course 

xpect more from a settlement of this nature, but when 
it is considered how little diversion other settlements of that 
day had, it will be agreed that Bethel lived in pretty gay 
style . 

In matters educational the colonists did not have very 
great advantages. A common school was of course estab- 
lished, and for years was under the management of Moses 


Miller. In later years Karl Huge a college bred man took 
charge and conducted the work till he moved to Oregon 
with Keil. After this some women taught, much in the 
manner in which the work had been begun, that is, all the 
work was in the English language, altho all the members 
were Germans. Beyond the most elementary training but 
few aspired. Keil himself was opposed to higher education, 
holding that it was non-essential in making good workers 
for the society. His position is made clear in the interview 
which Nordhoff quotes in the work above cited. (13) There 
it appears that a young man would be permitted to go to 
college, at the expense of the colony, provided he acquired 
some knowledge which would bring immediate benefit to the 
colony. If he simply chose to acquire a broader view of 
things by means of a liberal course of training, he was not 
permitted to go. On the whole Keil's attitude toward the 
intellectual life of his charge leaves much to be wished for. 
In fact his severity and his autocratic rule had a stultifying 
and dwarfing effect on the minds of his people. As some 
outsiders have told me, he did not wish his members to 
know too much, nor to mingle with the world too freely, for 
then they would have lost some of their docility. Men with 
considerable learning came into the society, as was shown 
above, but in the colony the young people did not get beyond 
the training in the three Rs. 

The German language was neglected in the school be- 
cause there seemed to be no immediate pecuniary return 
arising from the use of this tongue. The most natural result 
was that the German language lost its hold on the younger 
generation. When I speak of German here, I mean the 
classical High German. The people at Bethel still speak 
German and even delight in doing so when they meet among 
themselves. But in a great many instances it is the rather 
perverted speech of the Pennsylvania German. Some of the 
people at Bethel are descendents of Germans who came to 
Pennsylvania in the 18th century. To this lack of interest 
in German education is to be attributed the abandonment of 
13. P. 317. 


the German Methodist church in Bethel. In an effort to 
become Americanized some of the names were distinctly 
anglicized. Possibly the most flagrant cases of such changing 
are found in the cases of John Knight whose German name 
was Johann Knecht, and the Mileys whose German name 
was Maile. 

Politically most of the Bethel Germans are Republicans. 
Bethel township is the only Republican township in Shelby 
County. During the Civil War these Germans maintained a 
rict neutrality. This was done upon the advice and strict 
order of Dr. Keil who, knowing that the entire adjoining 
country was on the side of the Confederacy, feared a devasta- 
m of their property and an annihilation of his charge. 
An interesting story is told in "History of Monroe and Shelby 
bounties." (14) A body of Confederate sympathizers under 
*orter and Greene came down on Bethel. The colony, being 
ipprised of their coming, hid many of their things. Never- 
theless the troops foraged some, but they did no personal 
injury. When later on a body of Union soldiers came through 
that region, they asked that the colonists should name to 
them their neighbors who were Confederate sympathizers, in 
order that they might forage among them and leave their 
friends unmolested. No, said they, these men are our neigh- 
bors and our friends with whom we live in harmony and 
peace, you shall not molest them. If you need food, we 
have plenty, help yourselves. If you need food for your 
animals, we have enough of that also, take it, but leave our 
friends undisturbed. It is said that neither Union or Con- 
federate soldiers, coming near Bethel after this incident, 
would disturb a people so generous and peaceloving. 

One of the most embarrassing things in the preparation 
of this study is the fact that it is absolutely impossible to 
obtain an accurate account of their business transactions. 
The fact is that only very few accounts were kept, and these 
few have been carelessly dealt with and have apparently 
been lost. Nordhoff seems to have had the same experience. 
He says concerning the Oregon branch of the society the 

14. p. 866. 


following: (15) "I asked the purchasing agent about the 
bookkeeping of the place; he repfled, 'As there is no trading, 
few accounts are needed. Much of what we raise is consumed 
on the place, and of what the people use no account is kept. 
Thus if a family needs flour, it goes to the store and gets 
what is required. If butter, it goes to the store in the same 
way. "We need only to keep account of what we sell of our 
own products, and of what, we buy from abroad, and these 
accounts check each other. When we make money, we invest 
it in land." For the reasons thus given it is impossible to 
arrive even at a comparative estimate of the financial con- 
dition and the extent of the business transactions of the 
society. If the statement is true that they invested their 
savings in land, we shall yet have a chance of seeing some- 
thing of their financial condition, when we discuss the 
settlement of the business affairs at the time of the dissolution 
of the community. 

All the transactions of the society were based on con- 
fidence. The land was deeded to individuals who held it in 
trust for the society; the foremen of the various industries 
made no reports, and even after the removal of Keil to 
Oregon the Trustees at Bethel did not have to render him 
an account of their transactions. The most perfect confidence 
and trust existed among the members of the colony. 

In some accounts of the Bethel society it is stated that 
the members were not allowed to marry outside of the 
colony. Upon an interrogation as to the truth of this state- 
ment it was most emphatically denied by the surviving 
members, and incidents quoted where such marriages had 
been contracted without any interference on the part of the 
superiors whatever. 

At various times I have alluded to the Aurora, Oregon, 
Colony as a branch of the Bethel Society. For the sake of 
understanding the concluding part of the Bethel account it 
will be necessary to speak a word of the Oregon Colony 
also. It was already stated that Keil was a very restless 
man. The region around Bethel soon became too thickly 
15. P. 315. 


settled. He feared that his people would become contami- 
nated by contact with the "World," as he called it. As is 
well known, the California gold fever made known the far 
distant West to all the world. Keil became very much in- 
terested in the West, and resolved to send a delegation of 
his men out there to investigate the Oregon country in par- 
ticular, to see in how far it woutd suit the conditions of his 
colony. He entertained the hope that out there he could take 
his people and that there, uncontaminated by outsiders, he 
could continue to rule them. Accordingly, some time in 
1854 the following men were sent to the Pacific coast to 
Icok up a favorable location for the colony: Christian Giesy 
(who also took his wife with him), Adam Schuele, Joseph 
Knight, John Stauffer, Sr., John Stauffer, Jr., Michael 
Schaefer, and John Genger. A majority of these men reported 
favorably on a region, not in Oregon, but in the Willapa 
Valley, in Washington Territory. 

In the spring of 1855 serious preparations were begun 
for the transcontinental journey. Fortunately I am in pos- 
session of the complete account of the tedious trip across the 
plains. Being dictated by Keil himself, it must be taken 
for its full value. It teems with interesting and thrilling 
incidents. I shall publish it in another study which shall 
deal with both the Bethel and the Aurora communities. 
About the last part of May or the first part of June the 
train of seventy-five wagons left Bethel for the western 
coast. Other trains followed later on. One in 1863 was made 
up of forty wagons. Smaller groups of men went by water, 
crossing the continent at Panama. After five months of 
travel, amid the greatest difficulties, the first train of immi- 
grants reached the region in Washington Territory which 
had been designated by the deputies. It was found that 
the place was wholly unsuited to the purpose for which it 
had been selected. It was mountainous, only small tracts 
of land could be purchased in a body and communication 
with the outside world was almost entirely barred. They 
spent a miserable winter there. The temperature was very 
low and the temporary houses were very bad. The suffering 


was wholly beyond description. Keil who had cursed Mis- 
souri, and who in a letter from Fort Kearney, Neb., had 
congratulated himself that the boundary of the State of 
Missouri was at last passed, now wished that his charge 
had never left the flesh-pots of Bethel. Missouri now seemed 
to all a veritable Eden, and Keil charged the members at 
Bethel not to dispose of a single foot of land they owned 
there. The following spring many of the colonists went to 
Portland, Oregon. The first letter of Keil which bears the 
stamp of Portland is dated March 28th, 1856. Here Keil 
took up his medical practice again, and continued to be thus 
employed until June, 1857. He had purchased a tract of 
land in the Willamette Valley in Marion County, Oregon, 
and had named the site where the new town was to be 
erected Aurora. Thither he recalled all the members whom 
he could summon. The first letter written by him from 
Aurora Mills, as it was then called, was dated June 16th, 
1857. All those who were not bound by agreement with 
some employer, for the able bodied men and women had to 
get out and earn some money, responded to his call. And 
now began once more the awful task of establishing new 
homes, and that in a thickly wooded country. Some of the 
members deserted the cause and began to shift for themselves. 
After establishing the colony in Aurora, Keil wrote the 
most contradictory letters to his old members in Bethel. Now 
he urged them to sell out at once and join him in the west, 
while in the very next letter he pleads with them not to dispose 
of their belongings. In the later years of his life his letters 
had a uniform tone, however, namely an earnest appeal to re- 
join their brethren on the Pacific coast. It seems, however, 
that the Missouri branch had lost confidence in Keil. They 
remained passive to his pleading. Despite the fact that rep- 
resentatives were called from Missouri to Oregon, and com- 
mittees from Oregon were sent to Bethel, the transfer could 
not be made . Whether an attempt was made to sell the land 
at Bethel prior to the general division, I am not able to say. 
In 1877, December 30th, Dr. William Keil died. Soon the 
steps were taken to effect the division of the property. 


Before I discuss the matter of the separation, however, I 
wish to refer to a strange fulfillment of a promise on the part 
of Keil. The latter had promised his favorite son, William, 
that he should go to the region which had been visited by the 
deputies who looked for a location. Before this trip could be 
made the boy took sick and died. The father wished to make 
good his promise. He also wished to show his people how 
sacred a promise should be to every one and how one should 
fulfill a promise even toward the dead. He decided that this 
| boy's body should lead the train of immigrants across the 
plains. He therefore sent to St. Louis and a metal casket 
was procured. Into this the boy's body was placed. Since 
the art of embalming was not practiced in that region at that 
time, the remaining space in the casket was filled with alcohol. 
This casket was placed in a specially prepared wagon which 
was drawn by four mules, and this solemn conveyance headed 
the train and lead the way across the plains. Thus there took 
place a funeral procession the like of which has prehaps never 
been seen a second time in this country. After a five month's 
journey the young body was interred at Willapa in "Washing- 
ton territory. 

After his departure Keil left the affairs of Bethel in the 
hands of deputy presidents, appointed by himself, and who 
scarcely dared to act contrary to his wishes. And here was a 
serious source of discontent. The people wished to have a 
voice in the selection of their superiors . These deputy presi- 
dents were really not responsible to any one, as Keil did not 
trouble himself with regular reports. They performed all 
the functions which Keil had performed. They ruled and they 
preached, but the members could not appeal from their de- 
cision. The first deputy president was Dr. Wolf. This man 
had been prepared as a Lutheran minister in Germany, and 
was indeed in the service of the ministry in Marietta, Ohio, 
when he came under the influence of Keil. Wolf was a well 
educated and very able man. He really looked to the good 
of the people. Under his rule the people were contented, at 
least they were satisfied that he was doing the best that could 
be done for them under the circumstances. Even while Keil 


was yet in Bethel, Wolf counciled for the real interests of the 
people against the opinion of Keil himself f. Some of the old 
men in Bethel told me that Keil did not like Wolf on this ac- 
count and tried to suppress him, but that he could not find a 
man more ably fitted to take charge of things when he left for 
the west. Wolf remained in charge at Bethel until 1863 
when he led a train of forty wagons across the plains. Most 
of the men were young men. Keil did not wish them to take 
part in the war which was then raging. To escape being 
drafted into service they left the country. 

The drawing of such large bodies of men, and especially 
young men, together with large numbers of the best horses, 
mules and cattle, and the complete equipment for the trans-con- 
tinental trip was a serious drain on the Bethel Society. It 
was a handicap which they never entirely overcame, and which 
prevented them from bringing their colony to that state of per- 
fection which they no doubt would have attained, if they had 
remained unhampered. Nor were they called upon only at 
the time of the exodus to assist their brethren, but even after 
they had gotten out to Washington calls came in for shoes 
and clothing. Nor is there any record that the immigrants 
had given anything in return for the contributions thus re- 
ceived . 

But to return to the subject of the deputy presidents. 
After Wolf's departure, Andrew Giesy who will be remem- 
bered as one of the young men whom Keil sent out to preach in 
German settlements, prior to the founding of the Colony. 
After Giesy 's term the reins went into the hands of Jacob G. 
Miller who still is living in Aurora, Oregon, and to whom I am 
indebted for many a kindness in the preparation of this ac- 
count. These deputy presidents not only cared for the tem- 
poral welfare of the colonists but also for the spiritual, in so 
far at least that they preached once every two weeks. Be- 
sides these three persons, a fourth, namely, Jacob Findling, a 
papermaker by occupation, preached occasionally. Keil's 
defamers declare that Keil had Findling preach at times, in 
order to amuse himself at the poor man's ridiculous attempts 
to perform a task for which he was unfitted. 



As there was no constitution the organization was a very 
loose one. There was no contract between the members ex- 
cept an understanding that all should labor for the common 
cause and all should receive their livelihood from the general 
supply. Everything went harmoniously until one Henry L. 
Hoffman sued to recover wages. Hoffman knew very well 

that he society did not pay any wages to its members, but he 
decided to sever his connection with the society, and at this 

juncture resolved to extort some money from the colony. Pay 
being refused him, he brought suit in the courts of Shelby 
county. The society having no legal existence, he brought 
suit against several members of this unincorporated body. In 
all he brought five suits. All of these cases were taken to 
Marion county, and in none of them did he recover damages. 
The history of the connection of the Hoffman family with the 

Bethel Colony is the following: (16). Hoffman's father joined 
the society in 1846. In 1848 he severed his connection with 
the society and went to Hannibal. It was a strict principle of 

"the Bethel Society to reimburse the seceding parties with the 
amount they had conduced to the common stock. Hoffman 
having conduced nothing to the stock was paid $25, the amount 
which was paid to all those retiring who had brought nothing 

to the general funds. In 1857 Hoffman, Sr., died, leaving 
a widow and several dependent children, one of whom was the 
said Henry L. Hoffman, then aged fourteen. After the death 
of her husband, .Mrs. Hoffman returned with her children and 
begged for readmission in the colony. She conduced nothing 
to the stock but was taken in. She and her children worked 
in the society, receiving therefrom the benefits of food, cloth- 

. ing, shelter and schooling. According to the principles of the 
organization no one was entitled to wages, and so Hoffman's 
clanns \\ere unfounded, he himself having once declared him- 
self a member of the colony. However, in order to avoid hard 
feelings and to get rid of Hoffman entirely the following set- 
tlement was effected. Mrs. Maerks who was Hoffman's 

16. The facts in this connection were obtained from the answer 
filed by Andrew Giesy to the petition of Henry L. Hoffman; Andrew 
Giesy being the party sued as deputy president of the society. 


mother-in-law had contributed some money and it was esti- 
mated that her share in the colony was worth about $1200. 
Hoffman had a child who was the lawful heir to this money. 
So this amount was paid Hoffman to be held in trust by him 
for his child. This was precisely the amount which would 
have been paid these parties at the time of the final settlement. 
It was paid, however, previous to the time of the final settle- 
ment, and so far was a concession which the colony made to 
adjust the Hoffman affair. It was done more to deal squarely 
with the little girl than to appease Hoffman . 

During the latter part of the colony's existence, Keil sent 
his son, August, to Bethel as physician and as a sort of over- 
seer. He was in no wise fitted for these tasks. In the first 
place he was not well trained in medicine, in the second place 
he possessed no business ability, and finally he was such an in- 
Teterate drunkard that no one would intrust life or property 
into his hands. At first the colonists rejoiced that a Keil was 
again in their midst. They hoped that some of his father's 
ability might have been transmitted to the son. In disgrace 
and unattended the poor man died in a barn at Bethel. Of 
the large family of Dr. Keil only one son is now living, 
Emanual Keil, who resides at Aurora, Oregon. None of the 
children of Keil seem to have had that ability to deal with 
men in the manner which made him such a distinguished per- 

When in 1877 Dr. William Keil died, the knell of the 
<jolony was sounded. There appeared no one who could rule 
with the iron hand of Keil. Even he had found difficulty in 
doing so toward the last, as is easily seen from his letters. The 
young people began to see that they, individually, did not pos- 
sess as much property as their non-communistic neighbors. 
Here and there arose a longing for individualism. The older 
generation was not so eager for the new order of things. They 
were very conscious, that left alone, they, many of them at any 
rate, would have remained day-laborers all their lives. How- 
ever, since the former conditions no longer obtained, and since 
no leader appeared capable to manage and control affairs, it 
was deemed prudent and necessary by all to effect a speedy di- 


vision of the property first between the two branches in Mis- 
souri and Oregon and finally among the respective members of 
each colony. 

In the Recorder's office in Shelby county, Record Volume 
No. 28, appears the following record under the caption 
"Bethel Colony to J. G. Miller et al request to sell:" "Where- 
as there are now resident in said County of Shelby, State of 
Missouri many persons who are members of a community or 
colony known as 'Bethel Community' and whereas there are 
many persons, citizens and residents of the Counties of Marion 
and Clackamas, State of Oregon, members of and belongng to 
a colony known as the 'Aurora Community' and whereas both 
of said communities own and have an interest in common in 
certain real and personal property, situated in said states of 
Missouri and Oregon and whereas both of said colonies or com- 
munities were during the lifetime of Dr. William Keil under 
his direction, superintendance and control, who during his 
said lifetime held property in trust for both the said communi- 
ties and whereas by reason of the great distance between the 
said states of Missouri and Oregon and the many difficulties 
encountered by both said communities in owning, managing 
and enjoying jointly and in common real and personal estates 
in different states," etc., therefore it was decided to effect a 
division of said estates at an early date. According to this 
same record the following attorneys in fact and agents for the 
Missouri society were appointed: Philip Miller, Philip Stein- 
bach, John Schaef er, John G . Bauer and Henry Will ; while the 
Oregon society sent the following attorneys in fact and agents : 
Samuel Miller, Henry Will, (a cousin to the Henry Will from 
Missouri) and Stephen Smith. 

The Bethel colony issued its instructions under seven 
headings : 

1. That the attorneys from both colonists should meet 
as soon as possible. 

2 . That they should effect peaceful settlement if possible. 

3. That the agents should have absolute power to deter- 
mine manner and mode of division. "We hereby ratify and 
confirm in advance all the acts of our said attorneys in fact, or 


a majority of them touching and concerning the real estate and 
property aforesaid . ' ' 

4. That they should reduce their conclusions to writing. 

5. That they should have full power to incur expense 
legal and othewise in performing this task. 

6. That they should have full power and authority to 
bring to court any members of the Bethel Community, either 
in the Federal or State Courts to assist in effecting the separa- 

7. "After our aforesaid attorneys in fact shall have 
agreed upon and perfected the division between the two com- 
munities of property now in common held, they our said attor- 
neys in fact are authorized and empowered to divide and parti- 
tion between us according to our respective rights and interests 
as the same may be found and ascertained by them or a ma- 
jority of them, all the property real, personal and mixed be- 
longing to the said 'Bethel Community.' " 

In testimony whereof we hereunto subscribe our names and 
affix our seals this the (blank) day of (blank) 1879. 

her Jenny, Annie 

Bachert, X Catherina Jenny, G. 

mark Keller, Christina 

Bauer, Louisa Keller, Daniel 
Bronson, D. her 

Bronson, Susan Keller, X Mary 
Ebner, Elizabeth mark 

Erich, Dianah Keller, Susanah 

her Mangold, Henry 

Erich, X Emma Mangold, Margaret 

mark Mangold, Christine 

Erich, Hermann Moffett, George 

Erich, Peter Moffett, Louisa 

Erich, Wilhelmine Miller, Moses 

Gehrken, Henry Noll, Emily 

<5ehrken, Adelheide Noll, Melchior 

Grossman, Ausgang Pflum, Fredrick 


Grossman, X Elizabeth 



Grossman, X Elizabeth 

Grossman, X Susana 


Helfenbein, Henry 
Schreiver, Henry 
Schreiver, Lena 
Schreiver, Samuel 
Stark, Christina 
Stark, Joshua 
Steinbach, X Elizabeth 


Steinbach, George 
Steinbach, Pauline E. 
Steinbach, Philip 
Steinbach, William 
Will, Catharina 
Will, Catharina 

Pflum, Kose 
Pflum, Sarah 

Roser, X Dorothy 


Roser, Jacob 
Schadle, Matilda 
Schadle, Thomas 
Schreiver, Christiana 
Schreiver, Hanna 
Will, Elizabeth 
Will, Julius E. 
Will, Lorenz 
Will, Nicholas 
Woerther, Jacob 
Ziegler, Clearrelly 
Ziegler, Emma 
Ziegler, George 
Ziegler, Henry 
Ziegler, Julia 
Ziegler, Mary 
Ziegler, Sophia 
Ziegler, W. A. 

Thus there appear in Bethel 65 signatures. The men ap~ 
pointed as attorn eys did not sign this document. 

Then follows the part that pertains to the Aurora Commu- 
nity. From the very outset the Aurora people assumed that 
the Bethel Community should pay them a certain compensation. 
Similar to the Bethel people they gave their representatives or 
in ease of death or disagreement to two of them power to do 
the following: 

1. To ascertain what if anything should be paid the 
Bethel Community in the division. 

2 . To see how the Bethel Community would pay its com- 
pensation, if any. 


3. Whether payment should be made in cash or in prop- 
erty, when and how paid. 

4. To make written, signed report of their agreement. 
They too agreed to confirm and ratify in advance all the 

acts of their agents. "We especially desire the same to be 
conducted and consumated upon the strictest principles of 
equity, good conscience and fair dealing," they continued, 
' ' Now then trusting wholly in our said agents and attorneys to 
settle for us with our former friends and relations upon the 
principles aforesaid, whether the result to us as a community 
be large or small, or such in amount as we now expect and 
look for, we do hereby expressly covenant that in so far as we 
are able, we will and shall accept, agree to and abide by the 
same whatsoever it may be. " 

In witness whereof we have hereunto affixed our names 
and seal this 31 December 1878 and this 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 15 and 
16th days of January 1879. 

Signed and sealed in the presence of : 



her Fry, Henry 

*Bachert, X Maria her 

mark Fry, X Mary 

*Bachert, Michael mark 

Beck, Charles, Jr. *Fry, William 

bis *Fuchs, Catharine 

*Beck, X Henry *Gerken, Deborah 

mark *Gerken, Peter 

Beck, Louisa *Giesy, Anna Barbara 

Beck, Sarah Giesy, A. J. 

*Beeke, Charles Giesy, Andrew 

Beeke, Henry Giesy, August 

*Beeke, Johanna *Giesy, Barbara 

her Giesy, Barbara A. 

Behrens, X Anna Giesy, Catharina 

mark Giesy, Catharina 

Behrens, Dorothy Giesy, Catharina A. 



Bergman, Elizabeth 

Boehringer, Catharina 
*Brady, Adelhelde 
*Brady, Thomas 
Burkholder, Adam 

Burkholder, Catharina 

Burkholder, Catharina 
*Burkholder, Elias 

Burkholder, Elias 

Burkholder, Jacob 

Burkholder, X Nancy 

Burkholder, Samuel 
Ehlen, Catharine 

Ehlen, Clara 
Ehlen, Clans H. 
*Ehlen, Elizabeth 

Ehlen, Henry 


Ehlen, X J. D. 

Ehlen, Lorenz 
*Ehlen, Maria 
Ehlen, Mary 
Ehlen, William 
*Findling, Barbara 
Forstner, Elizabeth 

Fry, Army 

Fry, Caroline 
*Fry, George M. 
Knob el, Gertrude 
Kocher, Catharine 


Kocher, X Catharina 

*Giesy, Elizabeth 

Giesy, Elizabeth 

Giesy, Emily 
*Giesy, Emma M. 
* Giesy, Frederick 
*Giesy, Helena 
*Giesy, Jacob 
*Giesy, John 

Giesy, M. 

Giesy, Martha 

Giesy, Mary 

Giesy, Mathilda 
*Giesy, Michael 
*Giesy, Rudolph 

Giesy, Sarah 
*Giesy, Samuel 

Giesy, William 


*Giesy, X WiUiam 

Gruenbaum, Aaron 
*Jost, Conrad 
*Jost, Johanna 

Keil, Elizabeth 

Keil, Emanuel 
*Keil, Fredrick 
*Keil, Louisa 

*Knight, X Anna 

Scholl, Maria 


Scholl, X Rebecca 



Kocher, Christian 
Kocher, Christina 

*Koeher, George 

*Kocher, Mary 

*Koeher, Sophia 
Kraus, Christina 

*Kraus, Elizabeth 

*Kraus, Elizabeth 
Kraus, George 

^Kraus, Henry 
Kraus, William 

*Kraus, Wilhelmina 
Link, David 

*Link, John 

*Link, Lavina 
Link, Rose 
Link, William 
Maile, Fredrick 

*Meyer, Henry 
Miley, Cathrina 
Miley, Henry 
Miley, Jacob 
Miley, William 
Miller, Amelia 

*Miller, Catharina 

*Miller, Catharina 

*Miller, Catharine 
Miller, Elizabeth 
Miller, Gertrude 
Miller, George 
Miller, Isaac 
Miller, Jerdith 

*Miller, X John 

*Miller, Joseph H. 

*Schreiver, X John 


*Schuele, Christina 
*Schuele, Mary 
Schuette, Mary 
*Schwader, Gottlob 
Schwader, Jacob 
*Schwader, John 
Schwader, Louisa 
*Schwader, William 
Smith, George 

Smith, X Rosina 


*Snyder, Charles 
Snyder, Christian 
*Snyder, Daniel 

*Snyder, X Elizabeth 


* Snyder, Henry 

*Snyder, Henry 

*Snyder, Israel 

Staps, Adam 


*Stauffer, X Benedikt 

*Stauffer, X Caroline 
*Stauffer, X Catherine 


*Stauffer, Elizabeth 
Stauffer, Jacob 



iller, Louisa 
[iller, Lomsa 
ler, Mathilda 
ler, Salamon 
ler, William 
ler, William H. 


>hler, X Elizabeth 
*Mohler, X Mary 

Preutz, Louisa 


*Rapps, X Catharine 
*Rapps, X Maragaret 

*Rapps, Michael 

*Eemport, X Catharine 


*Ruge, Karl 
*Schaefer, Michael 
*Schaefer, Michael, Jr. 
*Scharmann, Sophia 
Schmidt, Martha 
Schneider, Catharine 
Scholl, A . T) . 
Scholl, David 
techoll, G. F. 

Scholl, Fredrick 
Scholl, John 
*Scholl, Louis 

*Stauffer, X Jacob 


*Stauffer, John 
Stauffer, John 
*Stauffer, Maria 
*Stauffer, Mary 
*Stauffer, Rosina 


Stauffer, X Theodore 
*Steinbach, X Catherine 


*Steinbach, Daniel 
*Steinbach, David 

Steinbach, X George 


Steinbach, Hannah 
*Steinbach, Jacob 
*Steinbach, J. Adam 
Steinbach, Margareta 
Ulbrand, Diedrich 
*Voght, Henry 
Voght, Louisa 


Voght, X Mary- 

*Voght, Andy 
*Wagner, Catharina 

Wanner, Fredrick, Sr. 
*Wanner, John 

Wanner, Joseph 



*Webber, Mariana 

*Weyman, X Maria 


Will, Christina 
Will, Christina 

*Will, X Dorothea 


Will, Elizabeth 
Will, Elizabeth P 
Will, Emma 
Will, Fredrick 
Will, George 
Will, Henrietta 
*Will, John 
Will. Louisa 

Will, X Mary 


Will, Matilda 
Will, Sarah 
Will, Susana 

Will, X Susana 


Will, Thriphine 
Will, Urban 
Will, Wolfgang 
Woerner, Fredrick 
Wolf, W. C. 
Wolfer, Adelia 
Wolfer, Benjamin 

Wolfer, X Catharine 


Wolfer, Christian 
Wolfer, Christina 

*Wolfer, X Davis 


*Wolfer, George 
*Wolfer, John 
*Wolfer, Margaret 
*Wolfer, Marie 
*Wolfer, Rudolph 
Wolfer, Sarah 
*Wolfer, Samuel 
Wolfer, William 
Ziegler, George 
Zimmerman, Catharine 
Zimmerman, Christine 

*Zimmerman, X David 

Zimmerman, Elizabeth 


Zimmerman, X Elizabeth 

Zimmerman, X Mary 

Zimmerman, X Mary 

From these official signatures it appears that Aurora had 
236 members at the time of dissolution. As is the case of 
the Bethel Community the agents sent to bring about the set- 
tlement did not sign the paper. According to the statement 


some of the old members at Bethel, the names indicator] 
rith an asterisk were personally known to them as former 
lembers of the Bethel Society. I make no claim as to the 
jcuracy of this marking, having no data by which to check 
payself. Most probably it is nearly correct, and in such 
case we would have at least a partial list of those who once 
red in Missouri. In twenty-four years a great many of the 
Ider generation must have passed away, and a great number 
the younger generation must have come into the society. 
The joint committee, whose powers are officially attested 
the above record, at once proceeded to business. In the 
Recorder's office of Shelby County, Record Vol. 31. at pp. 1 to 19 
is found the extremely lengthy record of the agreement con- 
cerning the division of property between the two communities. 
This agreement is dated June 20th, 1879. The document is 
very detailed in the description of the real estate. It is 
shown that the society owned 3536 acres of land in Shelby 
County, Missouri, valued at $42447.50. Also town property in 
Bethel, Missouri, valued at $10728.00. Smaller tracts of land 
near Bethel, a corn crib, a grist mill with machinery in Bethel, 
valued together at $7475.00. Furthermore 731 acres of land 
in Adair County, Missouri, valued at $2790.00. Also the fol- 
lowing personal property in Adair County, Missouri: Cash 
from the sale of lands $683.85, Promissory notes do.$204.00, 
together $887.85. The estimate of the property in Oregon 
as to its value was $45478.00. (It should be remarked here 
that the Oregonians did make as careful an appraisement of 
their property as the Missourians had made but made a bold 
guess at what their property was worth.) 

To recapitulate then, it is found that the society owned 
the following estates: 

Real estate in Shelby County, Missouri $ 42447.50 

Town lots in Bethel, Missouri 10728.00 

Other lots and improvements in Bethel, Mo 7475 . 00 

Property in Oregon 45478 . 00 

Real estate in Adair County, Missouri 2790 . 00 

Cash and Notes in Adair County, Missouri 887.85 

Total valuation $109806.35 


The writ continues thus: "And we the said attorneys 
and agents acting further in pursuance of the said power and 
authority, find that the total valuation of said property is 
$109806.35, and having fully examined the question as to the 
rights and interests of the two communities therein, find that 
the "Bethel Community" is entitled to $47214.25 part there- 
of and that the "Aurora Community" is entitled to $62592.10 
the residue thereof. And we the said attorneys and agents 
do hereby allot and set apart to the "Bethel Community" the 
following described property, (here follows the description of 
the property), valued as hereinafter set forth, amounting in 
the aggregate to the sum of $47028.00 (?)(Here manifestly 
an error has occurred . The correct sum of $47214 . 25 which 
has been quoted once before, appears on a line that was mani- 
festly erased. The erasure and corresponding correction 
was, by oversight, no doubt, not made in the second instance 
when the sum was recorded.) 

The Bethel Community was allowed the following prop- 

Land valued at $ 36425.00 

Lots valued at 4 10603.00 

Fractions of land near Bethel, Mo., valued at 186.25 

$ 47214.25 

The share which the Aurora Community was allowed was 
made up in the following manner : 
Property in Marion and Clackamas Counties in 

Oregon, valued at $ 45478.00 

Lots in Bethel, Mo., valued at 500.00 

One corn crib, valued at 100.00 

One grist mill and machinery valued at 7000 . 00 

530 acres of land in Adair County, Mo., valued at. . 2790.00 

508 acres of land in Shelby Co., Mo., valued at 5836.25 

Cash and promissory notes 887 . 85 

Total paid to Aurora $ 62592.10 

The agents subjoined the following note: "In making 
the division and partitions the said attorneys and agents of 


lid communities found certain fraction lots, adjoining and 
ir the city of Bethel which for want of proper survey and 
scription they were not able to inventory which said frac- 
)nal parcels of land they have valued together at $186.25 
id alloted the same to the Bethel Community." 

Then follow the signatures of the five agents of Bethel 
id the three from Aurora. Moses Miller as notary public 
id William Haeffner and Julius E. Will, as the two wit- 
jsses, attested the signatures. The document was filed 
rith Recorder John J. Bragg, on June 23rd, 1879. 

According to the foregoing stipulations the Bethel Com- 
munity was obliged to pay to the Aurora Community the sum 
of $17114.10 in cash, endorsement of old notes and real 
estate and personal property. When I asked one of the ex- 
members of the Bethel Society whether they did not regard 
this sum excessive, they said that they did think it exorbitant, 
in view of the fact that they had contributed so largely to the 
equipment of the trains that crossed the plains, and since they 
had to suffer the drain of the best workmen from the society. 
But since the Oregonians came determined to receive certain 
emoluments, and everybody being weary of the affair, they 
acquiesced in what they at that time regarded a rather pre- 
sumptions demand. 

Altho the agents had some very stormy meetings, and 
sometimes had to adjourn for several days to "cool off," all 
ended harmoniously. The entire settlement was made with- 
out a sign of a lawsuit. There being no written compact, no 
provision was made for a possible dissolution. Hence the 
problem before these men was a unique one. The Bethelites 
consulted an attorney at law at Shelbyville, who charged them 
$50 for as one of the old men put it telling them that he 
knew nothing about that sort of thing. Finally they consulted 
the- noted counsellor D. P. Dyer of St. Louis, who evolved the 
scheme by which the division of the property among the 
members was made, for the trifling sum of $170; the Oregon 
Society took their affair to the courts of Equity and spent 
$6000 in effecting their final settlement. 


To show in what a detailed and painstaking manner the 

invoice was taken at the appraisement of Bethel, I subjoin 

one account, it being that of Philip Steinbach, Sr. It appears 
under the heading Phil. Steinbach, Sr. and Company. By 
the term Company is meant those persons who are immediate- 
ly connected with, related to or dependent upon the larger 
stockholder whose name leads the account. 

Steinbach, Phil. Sr. & Co. Dr. 

1. Cultivator $ 6.75 

3. Horses and 1 Mare 320.00 

6. Cows 124.00 

1 . two year old heifer 23 . 00 

1 . Graincradle 2 . 25 

5. Plows 9.75 

1 . Cornplanter 30.00 

1. Wagon and water cart 50.00 

2. Wagon sheets 3.00 

1 . Grindstone 2 . 50 

1 . Crosscut saw 2 . 25 

Blacksmith shop and tools 94 . 90 

Saddler shop and tools 150.00 

1 . Harrow 1 . 50 

l.Sled 4.00 

Shoe tools 6 . 50 

1 . Hand corn planter .45 

1. Trunk 1.00 

1. Cane mill 10.00 

1 . Drawing knife .65 

1 . Wooden vice 1 . 00 

l.Mare 15.00 

5. Mules .' 203.00 

l.Mare , 30.00 

1 . Buck sheep 8 . 00 

24. Wethers @ $2.75 66. Or' 

15. Wethers @ $2.21 ; 33.15 

17. Wethers @ $2.00 34.00 

15. Wethers @ $1.75 26.25 

14. Ewes @ $4.00 56.00 



f. Ewes @ $3.50 45.50 

..Ewes @ $2.50 27.50 

..Ewes@$2.75 30.25 

,Two year old heifer. 17.00 

.Two year old heifer 15.00 

*ost auger 1 . 00 

TO year old heifer 1 5 . 00 


$ 52.16 

jinbach, Phil. Sr. & Co. Or. 

3inbach, Phil. Sr $ 575.03 

teinbach, Phil. Jr 28324 

jinbach, William wife 125.64 

rkin, H 355.08 

3dit on mare . . , 75 . 00 


After the general appraisement had been made and the 
tailed invoice of each man's holdings had been found, the 
>blem was simplified to its lowest terms. When all 
were in the form of cash the solution was simple. The 
st thing that was done was the setting aside of the amount 
ich man or woman had conduced to the general stock. Then 
land was divided. To determine what share each should 
ive of the personal property, the whole number of years that 
had labored for the society, after they had reached ma-. 
irity was divided into the sum representing the total of per- 
lal property. Thus it was found that of this sum each 
was entitled to $7.76 per year for his services and each 
>man was allowed half this sum, $3.88. 

The following is a sample of the simple record that was 
of the account under the caption of "Sum total of Per- 
lal Property. " The account which I chose again pertains 
to Philip Steinbach, Sr. et al. 


Names. Years. Dollars. 

Steinbach, Phil. Sr 34 $263.84 

Steinbach, Phil. Wife 34 131.92 

Steinbach, William 10 77.60 

Steinbach, William, Wife 9 34.92 

Steinbach, George 5 38.80 

Steinbach, Henry 2 15.52 

Credit on land.. 12.43 

Total credit $575.03 

The splendid colony church was sold to Jacob G. Miller 
for the sum of $1500 . Miller was the last leader and preacher 
and being interested in the good of the people and even hop- 
ing to reunite them into a colony, he purchased this building. 
At a subsequent sale he lost a good deal of money on his in- 
vestment. This church had not been considered under the 
general appraisement. But since all the colonists had had a 
share in its erection and perservation all shared in proportion 
to the number of years each person had been an active mem- 
ber in the society. It was determined that each male mem- 
ber was entitled to $1.12 of the church money for each year 
of his membership, while each woman was entitled to 56 cents 
per year of her membership . 

The final account is condensed by the committee in family 

.groups. The following is a sample of the final total account: 

Names of Persons. Years. Sum Total. 

Keller, Daniel 26 $725.92 

Keller, Daniel, Wife 21 293.16 

Keller, Susan 24 335.04 

Keller, Christina 18 251.28 

Bachert, Widon 34 474.64 

Keller, Widow 348.45 

Conduced by A. Keller 804.50 

Conduced by Widow Bachert 15 . 66 

Church 59.92 


A single glance at these figures suffices to convince one 
that the pecuniary gain, accruing from the society was not 


great. It must be remembered, however, that these people 
had all their wants supplied and lived without care. More- 
Jover a great many of them, if left to themselves, would have 
eked out a bare existence as day-laborers. Others, to be 
sure, were seriously handicapped. Being skilled artisans, 
they could have gained vastly more wealth if they had plied 
their trade in individualism. 

Many of the old colonists still recall the community day 
with serene pleasure. 'Das war das Paradies, " that was 
paradise, one of them said to me after he had talked remi- 
niscently. "In der Kolonie war es aber doch so shoen" was 
the concluding remark of an old lady who had spent thirty- 
four years in the society. The association of kindred spirits, 
the freedom, the ease they enjoyed, the absense of care and 
responsibility, the fraternal feeling and the devotion to a 
common cause are topics which all of the old colonists like 
to speak about. One of the men assured me that the old 
bond of fellowship still existed among the former members. 
He said, "When the old people get together there is still 
the honrl of a. great, love and this love we believe is God. " 
Community life seems not to have unfitted the members for 
the struggle in individualism. As far as I could learn, all 
of them are doing well at some trade or prefession. In many 
instances they are pursuing the same trade which was theirs 
during their membership in the colony. 

After the formal dissolution of the society, Jacob G. 
Miller, tried to reorganize the society at Bethel. He had a 
small following. After a very short time, however, this 
scheme was abandoned and the property of these persons 
divided among the members concerned. 

Bethel was incorporated a town in 1883. It is a small 
place of about 300 inhabitants. It is located off the railroad- 
It differs little from the towns of its size in the State except 
that its buildings seem odd and unusually substantially con- 
structed. There is a general air of uniqueness about the place 
which is the heirloom of the old community days. 

Instructor in Germanic Languages, University of Missouri. 


In the consideration of American political questions, it 
is well to bear in mind the cardinal facts that, in its travels 
from the Atlantic coast line westward to the Pacific, by slow 
and easy stages over mountain and plain for nearly three 
hundred years, public thought in America has unconsciously 
been colored and moulded by the three different political 
and religious schools founded by our ancestors who came 
to the new world under the first three Royal English grants 
to our colonists: Jamestown in Virginia in 1607; Plymouth 
in Massachusetts in 1620 and Charleston in South Carolina 
in 1670; 

That whether descended from Cavalier, Puritan or 
Huguenot, the average American has inherited many of the 
thoughts and theories of his ancestors; 

That heredity, education and environment largely deter- 
mine our politics and religion, and that for neither do we 
deserve either praise or blame any more than we do for the 
color of our hair. 

My present purpose is to discuss and make plain to the 
young only those historical and political questions, buried in 
the mists of years, which the old seem to have forgotten and 
which the young never knew. This I do, not to revive 
memories which may possibly be unpleasant to the few, but 
for the sole purpose of vindicating the truths of the history 
of our fair state, for the benefit of the many. 

And you, I feel sure, will consider such facts, as I do, 
"with malice toward none, with charity for all," and will 
agree with me that a free people should never fear to review 
their past, nor fail to look with confidence and hope for the 

*A paper read by Judge H. 0. McDougal, of Kansas City, before 
the society at its third annual meeting March 8, 1904. 


I future ; that the channel of history should never be diverted, - 
nor its clear waters polluted, and that "to search for the 
truth is the noblest occupation of man! its publication a 

Born and reared in that part of Virginia which in June, 
1863, became the State of West Virginia, I am still proud 
of the glory and achievements of the Old Dominion, and 
toroud of the fact that during the Civil War I served in the 
jlJnion Army as one of the 32,000 volunteers furnished by 
West Virginia "the Child of the Storm." 

Then, coming westward at the close of that mighty 
ggle, I became, and have ever since had a commendable 
in being a citizen of Missouri, identified with and a part 
.er growth, development, greatness and glory; working 
rmony with the people in upbuilding the material interest 
is great State, and during all these years I have been 
d of the fact that I have been and today am a Missouri 
Republican, and before I got through, I'll tell you why. 


At the close of a political struggle, which for length, 
: intensity and bitterness, had no parallel in the history of 
our country, up to that date, Missouri finally became a State 
of the American Union on August 10, 1821, and at the next 
session of Congress, in December of that year, our first two 
United States Senators were admitted to their seats, David 
Barton as a Whig and Thomas Hart Benton as a Democrat. 

Up to near the close of his illustrious career as our most 
distinguished U. S. Senator, the great Benton ruled the 
Democratic party of Missouri, not as leader or boss, but as 
absolute master. 

Although a Southern slave holder and loyal to his party 
in all else, yet Benton favored the gradual emancipation of 
the slaves, opposed the extension of slavery in the Territories 
land became what was then called a "Free 3 oiler." Among 
his earnest enthusiastic, active and aggressive followers 
were Francis P. Blair, Jr., Thomas L. Price, B. Gratz Brown, 
James B. Gardenhire, Samuel T. Glover, Robert W. Wells 


(then U. S. District Judge), and many other stalwart Demo- 
crats of that time, most of whom were also Southern slave- 
holders, and the war raged between the Benton and Anti- 
Benton factions from the adoption of the "Jackson Resolu- 
tions" in 1849 up to the commencement of the Civil War. 

With prophetic eye, Benton saw the coming storm, be- 
lieved in the gradual emancipation of the slaves as the surest 
way to avert civil war, instilled these principles into his 
followers, and when he died, on April 10, 1858, his broad 
mantle fell upon the strong shoulders of that prince of 
chivalric, peerless leaders of men Frank P. Blair. 

Among the many important results of this factional fight 
in the Democratic party, was the election, in 1851, of Henry 
S. Geyer, an ardent Henry Clay Whig, as Benton 's successor 
in the United States Senate ; and another, curiously inter- 
esting, was that in 1856 Benton 's Free Soil followers purchased 
a large tract of land at the mouth of Gray's creek, three 
miles above Jefferson City, on the Missouri, platted it, sold 
lots and erected many buildings with a view to there estab- 
lishing the Free Soil city of Upper Jefferson and laid the 
foundation of a large university for the propagation of the 
doctrines of their majestic, imperious leader. His death, 
the changed conditions and the approaching war, caused the 
abandonment of this enterprise. 



In 1860 Claiborne F. Jackson was elected Governor of 
Missouri as a Douglas Democrat, but early became the recog- 
nized leader of the secession wing of his party. The General 
Assembly elected on the ticket with him, also favored 
secession. Soon after the inauguration of Governor Jackson 
and upon his recommendation, George Graham Vest intro- 
duced a bill, which became the law by the Act of January 
21, 1861, providing for the election of delegates to a State 
Convention, which was required to assemble at Jefferson 
City on February 28th, 1861, to ''consider the then existing 
relations between the Government of the United States and 


the people and government of the several States," and "to 
adopt such measures as should appear to be demanded for 
vindicating the sovereignty of the State and preserving its 
institutions," etc., (Laws Mo., 1861, pp. 20-21). 

The open and avowed object of the Governor and the 
Legislature in so calling that Convention was to take Missouri 
out of the Union. 

The result of the election, however, showed beyond ques- 
tion that the Governor and his secession allies had mistaken 
the political sentiment of the people, for the only question 
discussed by people and press in that short, vigorous, earnest 
campaign was: ''Shall Missouri remain in the Union, or 
join the seceded States?" 

The men of Missouri not only loved the Union on prin- 
ciple, because it was right, but there was this additional 
personal and financial consideration which led them to 
oppose secession. They knew that if Missouri joined the 
jj Confederacy, war was not only certain to result, but that, 
! surrounded as she was on three sides by Northern States, 
^Missouri would be what Virginia afterward was the battle 
ground of that war. 

Hence, upon a popular vote, the men of Missouri decided 
by a majority of over 80,000 to stand by the Union, and of 
its ninety-nine members not a single avowed Secessionist was 
elected as a delegate to that Convention; nor, upon the other 
hand, was there a single Republican elected. 

This Convention first assembled at Jefferson City on the 
Iday appointed, and, upon the motion of James O. Broadhead, 
| organized by electing as its president, General Sterling Price, 
[the vote being seventy-five for Price, Democrat, and fifteen 
I for Robert Wilson, Whig. Later, on March 4th, it convened 
at the Mercantile Library Hall in St. Louis, and continued 
its sessions at such times and places as the public good seemed 
(to require, from this time on to July 1, 1863, when it ad- 
journed sine die. 

For brains, learning, wisdom, eloquence, courage and 
^patriotism, this Convention outranks any body of men ever 
^assembled within the borders of Missouri, and the student 


of those troublous times will search its literature and history 
in vain for more earnest, fervid, eloquent and patriotic ap- 
peals for the Union than those then delivered by the Demo- 
cratic members of that Convention. 

"There were giants in the earth in those days;" many 
of them right here in Missouri, and one of my purposes is 
to rescue from the wide waste of oblivion the name, fame, 
and achievements of those great ones who in the war of 
the '60 's were always at the fore front of the fight for the 
right; to rekindle the fires of patriotism; brighten fame 
growing dim in the flight of the years, and now slowly 
drifting out of sight like thistle-down from an old field in 
autumn. If I succeed in this, and at the same time illuminate 
the pages of history of the times, I shall not have thought 
and wrought in vain. 

Among the many distinguished Democrats who were 
elected to and took their seats in that Convention are found 
the names of many who will be remembered and honored 
with pleasure and pride by every loyal Missourian as long 
as Missouri is known in history. Among others may here 
be mentioned Willard P. Hall, of Buchanan County, after- 
wards. Governor of the State; William A. Hall, of Randolph; 
Uriel .Wright, Ex-Governor Robert M. Stewart, James 0. 
Broadhead, later minister to Switzerland; Thomas T. Gantt, 
afterwards judge of the St. Louis Court of Appeals ; Hamilton 
R. Gamble, later Provisional Governor of the State; John 
How, of St. Louis; George W. Dunn, of Ray, for many years 
an honored judge of the Circuit Court in Clay and Ray 
Counties; John F. Philips, of Pettis, now United States 
district judge at Kansas City; Vincent Marmaduke, Joseph 
Bogy, A. Comingo, afterwards member of Congress from 
the Kansas City district; Judge James H. Birch, the elder, 
of Clinton County; General A. W. Doniphan and James H. 
Moss, of Clay; J. Proctor Knott, later Governor of Kentucky; 
A. C. Marvin, of Henry; Sample Orr, of Greene; Robert D. 
'Ray and Elijah H. Norton, afterwards Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Missouri; Samuel L. Sawyer, later circuit 
judge and member of Congress from the Kansas City dis- 



ict; Thomas Shackelford, of Howard; Judge James Mc- 
?rran, of Gallatin, then a circuit judge ; Colonel J. H. Shank- 
of Trenton, member of the constitutional convention of 
T5, nearly all then lifelong Democrats, and all Democrats 
ter that date. While the only two men then in that con- 
ition, who afterwards attained prominence as Republicans 
re John B. Henderson and Joseph W. McClurg, and they 
Democrats when elected. And standing shoulder to 
loulder, heart to heart, with these members of that conven- 
were such Missourians as Frank P. Blair, Samuel T. 
lover, B. Gratz Brown, John S. Phelps, James S. Rollins, 
Woodson, Charles H. Hardin, Ex-Governor Austin A. 
ig, Judge John F. Ryland, Thomas T. Crittenden, John 
Sebree, Robert W. Wells and Thomas L. Price Demo- 
bic lions in the path of disunion. Four of those last named 
re afterwards Democratic Governors of Missouri Wood- 
Hardin, Phelps and Crittenden. All then studiously 
voided any political connection or affiliation with either of 
le two great political parties; would as soon have been 
led "Secessionists" as "Black Republicans," and simply, 
nly and grandly stood for the Union. 

It is a now remarkable fact, here worthy of parenthetical 
)te, that of the men whom I have named, all, excepting 
ir (How, Phelps, Sawyer and Stewart) were of Southern 
>od and breeding born, reared and educated in South- 
id and, while gradual emancipationists, yet nearly, if not 
of them were then the owners of negro slaves. To me 
is not strange, for in my native country, the conditions 
jre then the same as here, and in the company of loyal 
rginians, in which I enlisted in the summer of 1861, there 
3re thirteen slaveholders, not a man in that company had 
quarrel with the institution of slavery, and if there was 
that time either a Republican or Abolitionist in our regi- 
it, I did not know it. But war educates. The superb 
rage, lofty patriotism and sterling devotion to the Union 
many Southern slaveholders, seems beyond the compre- 
ision of, and never has been, and perhaps never will be, 
iderstood or appreciated by the people of the North. But 


their record is a glorious one, and high above all others on 
fame's eternal roll of loyalty the recording historian of the 
future will yet inscribe the names of the loyal heroes of the 
South who loved Union more than slavery, laid their all 
upon their country's altar and fearlessly followed the old flag. 

It is true that no member of that Convention was elected 
as either a Whig, Democrat or Republican, for in the public 
peril of 1861, neither man nor measure was here considered 
upon old party lines; party names were swept away, swal- 
lowed up, lost and forgotten; party organizations dissolved 
and intelligent public thought, wrought to highest intensity, 
was focused upon the one great, grave question: Union or 
Secession, which? Upon the one side stood the Union men 
of Missouri under the splendid leadership of gallant, glorious 
Frank P. Blair; while upon the other side stood the pro- 
nounced Secessionists under the leadership of the no less 
brave, intrepid Claiborne F. Jackson. 

It is also true that in the fierce and bitter storm of Avar, 
some of these great men were swept from their political 
moorings. General Sterling Price, Vincent Marmaduke. Uriel 
Wright, and perhaps other strong Union men when elected, 
as well as during the first session of the Convention, gfing 
into the Confederate Army, whilst John B. Henderson and 
Joseph W. McClurg, became pronounced and distinguished 
Republicans yet the great majority of that convention were 
lifelong Democrats. 

But do not forget that during the four years' war, the 
great majority of the Democratic members of that Convention, 
acting upon and within the powers conferred, adopted and 
enforced such war measures as in their wisdom they deemed 
absolutely necessary for the good government, peace and 
preservation of the integrity of the State; that they then 
stood shoulder to shoulder with the 17,000 Republicans who 
in 1860 had voted for Lincoln; acted in harmony with and 
had the confidence and friendship of the national Republi- 
can administration, and that their hearts beat in patriotic 
sympathy with the great heart of the pivotal figure of the 
war Abraham Lincoln. "Render therefore, unto Caesar the 


.things which are Caesar's," was the perpetual injunction 
issued long ago by the Master. Yielding obedience to that 
injunction, not grudgingly, but with pleasure and pride, I 
say to you that these Democrats and to the small band of 
their Republican allies, the people of this State owe a deep, 
lasting, yc't unappreciated debt of gratitude. But for their 
combined wisdom, loyalty, patriotism and courage, that 
bright star, now of the fifth magnitude, which today glitters 
in our country's flag to the name of Missouri, would have 
been torn from its place and for years wandered in the outer 
darkness of secession. While the handful of Republicans then in 
the State, and especially the German element in and around St. 
Louis, under the leadership of such men as Thomas C. Fletcher, 
did the full measure of their duty in bringing about this 
result, yet the truth of history must and will accord to the 
[then loyal Democrats of this State the high honor of saving 
Missouri to the Union. Of the many patriotic Missourians 
of that clay who are here named, only half a dozen are on 
earth today! the others have slumbered far years and years 
in their graves their great souls out in that veiled hush and 
voiceless desert which we call eternity "and their works 
do follow them." In the years that yet shall be, generations 
of Missourians now unborn will study the character and 
achievements of these men, and then with reverence shall 
say: Honor to the memory, peace to the ashes, rest to the 
souls of those who saved Missouri to the Union. 


When it was apparent to all that actual civil war was on, 
Governor Jackson convened the General Assembly of the 
State in called session on May 2, 1861. The Camp Jackson 
affair at St. Louis occurred on May 10; an exaggerated ac- 
count of the unfortunate result reached the Governor and 
Legislature that evening, and was the pretext for calling an 
"extraordinary session" of the Legislature at midnight on 
that night, The session was secret and only sixty-seven out 
of the one hundred and thirty members were present, yet 


at that midnight session the Act of May 10, 1861, was passed 
and approved. This Act authorized the Governor "to take 
such measures as in his judgment he may deem necessary 
and proper" to repel invasion or put down rebellion. 

The Union troops occupied Jefferson City on June 15, 
1861 ; but before their arrival the Legislature had adjourned 
and the Governor had fled the capital. 

Acting under the authority of this Act of May 10, while 
temporarily at New Madrid on August 5, 1861, Governor 
Jackson issued his famous "Declaration of Independence," 
wherein he solemnly declared that the political connection 
between the United States "and the people and government 
of Missouri is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that 
the State of Missouri, as a sovereign, free and independent 
Republic, has full power to levy war," etc. Later he again 
called the Legislature in session this time at Neosho, on 
October 21, 1861 and there, on October 28th, they made their 
third and last ineffectual attempt to take Missouri out of 
the Union by first passing an Act of Secession, next one of 
union with the Confederacy, and then adjourned to meet at 
New Madrid on the first Monday in March, 1862. As there 
was no quorum of either house present at this session, the 
acts of the "Neosho Legislature" were practically treated 
as null and void by all parties. No attempt was made to 
hold the adjourned session at New Mjadrid in March, for the 
reason that the Union forces were then in possession of that 
part of the State. 

Governor Jackson's long years of relentless, stormy 
struggle for state supremacy ceased only with his frail body, 
his restless, courageous, yet implacable spirit, both worn and 
weary from the conflict, finally found rest near Little Rock, 
Arkansas, on December 2, 1862. 


Meanwhile the long convention was holding its sessions, 
and by the ordinance of July 30, 1861, had declared the 
offices of governor, lieutenant governor and secretary of state 
vacant on account of the disloyalty of these officers; created 


a provisional State government, and had filled the respective 
vacancies by the election of Hamilton R. Gamble as Provis- 
ional Governor, Willard P. Hall as Provisional Lieutenant 
Governor and Mordecai Oliver as Secretary of State, to hold 
their respective offices until the first Monday of the November 
following. This ordinance further provided that a State 
election be held on said first Monday of November, 1861, 
for the election of these three State officers, as well as for 
members of the General Assembly; but by the ordinance of 
October 12, 1861, this election was postponed to the first 
Monday in August, 1862, and later, by the ordinance of June 
11, 1862, the convention continued the three officers named 
in their respective offices "until the first Monday in August, 
1864, and until their successors are duly elected and quali- 
fied." Under this authority Governor Gamble continued in 
office until his death in January, 1864, and from that time 
on Willard P. Hall was the Governor until the inauguration 
of Governor Fletcher on January 2d, 1865. 

Upon the formal expulsion of Waldo P. Johnson and 
Trusten Polk from the U. S. Senate on January 10, 1862, 
upon charges of disloyalty, Provisional Lieutenant Governor 
Willard P. Hall, in the absence of Governor Gamble, appointed 
Robert Wilson, of Andrew County, and John B. Henderson, 
of Pike, as their respective successors. Wilson had been an 
old line Whig and Henderson a Douglas Democrat. 

By resolution of June 6, 1862, "unanimously adopted," 
General Sterling Price and five other members were "expelled 
from their seats in this convention" upon charges of dis- 
loyalty arirl tVipi seats of three other members were "declared 
vacant" for like tendencies. 

Early in its sessions, and on October 16, 1861, by the 
decisive vote of 37 to 15, the convention by ordinance provided 
for the first test oath ever required in Missouri, by saying, 
"That each civil officer in this State * * * take and 
prescribe an oath * * * that he will not take up arms 
against the Government of the United States nor the Pro- 
visional Government of this State, nor give aid or comfort 
to the enemies of either during the present civil war." Fail- 


ure to take this oath forfeited the office, and it was made a 
felony to either falsely take it, or violate it. 

At its next session, and on June 10, 1862, the Convention 
adopted the famous ordinance entitled, "An Ordinance de- 
fining the qualifications of voters and civil officers in this 
State." (Ordinances of the Missouri State Convention, pages 
13-14; Laws of Missouri, 1863, pages 687-689.) The material 
features of this ordinance were as follows: 

Section 1 provided that no person should vote at any 
election in this State, who should not first take an oath to 
"support, protect and defend" the Constitution of the United 
States and of this State "against all enemies and opposers, 
whether domestic or foreign;" that he would "bear true faith, 
loyalty and allegiance to the United States," and would "not 
directly, or indirectly, give aid, comfort or countenance to 
the enemies or opposers thereof, or to the Provisional Gov- 
ernment of the State of Missouri;" and further, that he had 
not "since the 17th day of December, 1861, willfully taken 
up arms or levied war against the United States, or against 
the Provisional Government of the State of Missouri." 

Section 2 provided that before any person should "be 
elected or appointed to any civil office within this State" he 
should take, subscribe and file a somewhat similar oath, the 
precise form of which was given in that section. 

Section 3 provided that any person who should falsely 
take, or, having taken "any oath prescribed by this ordi- 
nance," should violate the same, should be adjudged guilty 
of the crime of perjury and it was made the special duty of 
courts to enforce the provisions of this ordinance. The next 
section is as follows : 

"Section 4. The courts of the State shall require all jurymen 
and attorneys to take and subscribe the following oath:" (which 
is there set out in full) and taen further provides that: "The 
same oath shall also be taken and subscribed by the President, 
Professors and Curators of the University of the State of Missouri, 
by all bank officers, common school teachers who are paid in whole 
or in part out of funds provided by law, and common school trus- 
tees, by all officers of all incorporated companies of this State 
and by all licensed or ordained preachers of the Gospel before 


performing the ceremony of marriage in this State, and filed in 
any county clerk's office in this State ; and every licensed or ordained 
preacher of the Gospel who shall perform the ceremony of marriage 
in this State hefore taking said oath, and every other person afore- 
said assuming to discharge the duties pertaining to his avocation 
under the laws of this State, without complying with the provisions 
of this section, shall be liable to prosecution in any court of com- 
petent jurisdiction in this State, by indictment, and upon conviction 
shall be punished for each offense by a fine not less than ten nor 
more than two hundred dollars." 

Section 5 provided that judges and clerks of election 
"shall, in addition to taking the oath required by existing 
laws, take the further oath that they will not record, nor 
permit to be recorded, the name of any voter who has not 
first taken the oath required to be taken by the first section 
of this ordinance." 

No man in Missouri could therefore either vote, or hold 
office or discharge any of the duties of the several avocations 
named, without first taking the prescribed oath. 

The fact then is that this system of disfranchisement and 
test oaths were established and required in this state long be- 
fore the Republican party as a political organization had more 
than a mere nominal existence in Missouri, and the record of 
that convention shows that this ordinance providing such dis- 
franchisement and oaths of loyalty was introduced, supported 
and voted for by Democrats . By turning to the official print- 
ed proceedings of that convention (pages 27 to 171) it will be 
found that the following well known Democrats, in speeches 
of great power, ability, patriotism and zeal, urged the adoption 
of the ordinance, speaking in favor of both disfranchisement 
and oaths of loyalty. On June 5, 1862, Willard P. Hall, a 
man of lofty character and powerful intellect, spoke. On June 
6, James 0. Broadhead, a conspicuous, able and fearless torch 
bearer of patriotism, made his speech, and on June 9 Judge 
John F. Philips, whose thrilling words of wisdom, wit, pathos 
and eloquence are still heard in the land, made one of his most 
powerful and eloquent appeals for the adoption of the disfran- 
chising ordinance, in which, among other truths, he said: 
"There was not a man who entered the rebel service who did 


not stake all upon the success of that cause, and who did not 
expect to be dealt with as a traitor in the even he failed." 
Other distinguished Democrats of the state were quite as em- 
phatic in their support of this ordinance as were the gentlemen 
just named; while the member perhaps most earnest and 
zealous in his support of the ordinance was Judge James Mc- 
Ferran, of Gallatin, an earnest man of splendid ability and 
high standing. Indeed, Judge McFerran drew the report of 
"the committee on elections and elective franchise," embrac- 
ing the original ordinance and from the fact that this ordi- 
nance, drawn and reported by so distinguished a Democrat, 
was adopted by that convention, it is safe to assume that upon 
the questions raised, Judge McFerran not only uttered his own 
convictions, but voiced those of a majority of that convention 
when he said (page 163) : 

"The question now is, whetiher ministers of the Gospel and 
school teachers shall take this oath. 

"I think if there is any class in the State that ought to be 
put under the solemnity of an oath, it is the ministers of the 
Gospel. Of all the men in the State who have contributed to bring 
about the evils now on us, I think there is no class that is so 
responsible as ministers of the Gospel. The minister always does 
his work effectually; and whenever he gets to be a politician and 
gets among his flock, he instills poison into their minds, and all 
the arguments of politicians and orators can never remove it. If 
there is any class of men in this State who should be put under 
obligations of loyalty, the experiences of the year show it should 
be the ministers of the Gospel. * * * I do not think disloyal 
imen should be permitted to preach in this State. Not that I have 
any disrespect for ministers of the Gospel, but because I have a 
high respect for the public safety and the peace of the State, and 
because I consider them more important than any considerations 
appertaining to individuals." 

The final vote upon this ordinance stood, ayes 42. nays 27 
(Journal 29) . That is how, when and by whom the disloyal 
element was disfranchised and test oaths established by which 
preachers, teachers, lawyers, jurymen, school directors and 
officers, and directors of all sorts of corporations, public and 
private, were deprived of the right to perform the duties of 


their respective avocations without first taking the test oath, 
and oath of loyalty required by this ordinance. 

Even prior to the passage of the ordinance in question 
and on April 24, 1862, Colonel Walter King, a Ray County 
Democrat, who was as distinguished for his services in the 
Union army as after the war he was conspicuous in his oppo- 
sition to the Republican party, suspended the Rev. William 
M. Rush, of Chillicothe, Mo., from his "duties as a minister 
or preacher within this military district," and on the appeal 
of the preacher from this suspension, it was General, after- 
ward Governor, Willard P. Hall, who not only refused to 
interfere, but confirmed the suspension upon the ground that 
"a religious congregation that cannot endure prayers for its 
Government is disloyal; and a minister that encourages such 
a congregation in its course is also disloyal." 

The general elections of 1862 and 1864 were held under 
this ordinance, while those of 1866, 1868 and 1870 were held 
under the Constitution of 1865. The State militia and home 
guards, organized under the authority of the Convention and 
then subject to the orders of the Provisional Governor as their 
commander-in-chief, seem to have been quite active in pre- 
serving order, as well as in doing other things, at the polls 
in the elections of '62 and '64; but this was not so as to the 
elections of '66, '68 and '70 for the reason that before the 
election of '66 the war was over, the militia had been dis- 
banded, and there was not, nor could there have been any- 
where in this State, any military interference at either of 
the elections last named. 

From the official printed proceedings of the last session 
of the Convention from June 15 to July 1, 1863 and es- 
pecially from the memorable speech of Judge Birch (Journal 
of Proceedings pages 374-380) it is quite certain that numerous 
and gross outrages were perpetrated upon the rights of many 
citizens by the militia, as well as by election officers, in the 
election held in the fall of 1862. Like conditions prevailed 
id like things were done at the election of 1864, but not there- 
ter for the reasons given. From the facts disclosed by the 
lebates at that session of the Convention, it is certain that 


one class of our people then complained with as much bitter- 
ness, as well as with far more reason, of the manner of 
executing the ordinance of 1862, as afterward they complained 
of the execution of the Constitution of 1865. 

A fact of special interest to those who either charge or 
credit test oaths and disfranchisement to the account of 
Charles D. Drake, is that Mr. Drake did not become a member 
of the Convention first named until June 15, 1863 more than 
a year after the passage of the ordinance of June 10, 1862. 

Another interesting fact, well nigh forgotten now, is that 
on July 1, 1863, this Convention ordinance provided for the 
emancipation of the slaves of Missouri on July 4, 1870 "and 
all slaves within the State at that day are hereby declared 
to be free." 

In this connection, these facts may be recalled with local 
pride and pleasure: President Lincoln's Emancipation Pro- 
clamation, issued January 1, 1863, declared freedom only to 
" persons held as slaves" in certain "designated States and 
parts of States" then " in rebellion against the United 
States." It did not affect the legal status of any slave in 
either Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware or Tennessee, 
nor of slaves in certain designated parts of Louisiana and 
Virginia, including that part of the latter which is now West 
Virginia, for the reason that they were not then "in rebellion 
against the United States." As to all these the President 
then declared that the institution of slavery was "for the 
present left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued." 

The Convention called to frame the Constitution of 
1865, however, without waiting for the Federal Government 
to act, passed an ordinance on January 11, 1865, abolishing 
slavery in Missouri on that day "and all persons held to 
service or labor, as slaves are hereby declared free." This 
was reiterated in that Constitution, while the thirteenth 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, abolishing 
slavery, did not become effective until December 18, 1865. 
Hence, Missouri, had and has the honor of having abolished 
the curse and crime of human slavery in this State more 
than eleven months before that result was accomplished 



oughout the entire South by the ratification of the thir- 
teenth amendment to the Federal Constitution. 

Let us now take a hasty glance through the history of 


The Republican party was organized and assumed that 
name as the name least offensive to Whigs and Democrats, 
soon after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, 
and first became a national party in 1856, with John C. Fre- 
mont as its first candidate for President. 

The first movement of the few Missouri Republicans wa 
made in the campaign of 1860. Early in that year a con- 
ference of leading Republicans of the State was held at St. 
Louis, at which delegates to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago were named. These delegates at that 
Convention placed Edward Bates, of St. Louis, in nomination 
for the Presidency. Lincoln being nominated and elected, 
he made Bates Attorney General of the United States. Bates 
served with distinction until 1864, and was Missouri's first 
cabinet officer. After that Convention adjourned, the Mis- 
souri delegates named the Lincoln electors for that campaign 
and made the gifted James B. Gardenhire, former Democratic 
Attorney General of the State, the Republican candidate for 
Governor, against his will. At the election of 1860 the 
Lincoln electors received about 17,000 votes and Gardenhire 
about 6,000. 

The next movement tending toward the organization of 
the Republican party in Missouri was the "Emancipation 
Convention," held at Jefferson City on June 19, 1862, of 
which Judge Robert W. Wells was the president and Major 
John L. Bittinger and William Cuddy were secretaries. This 
convention declared for the gradual emancipation of the 
slaves, for the earnest support of the Union cause and of 
"Lincoln's administration ; but spems to Viavft done little else. 
In that year a General Assembly was elected, the majority 

of its momhprs hoing for t.Vip Union and for thp> gradual 

emancipation of the slaves. 

The first distinctively Republican State Convection ever 


held in Missouri met at Jefferson City on May 25, 1364, se- 
lected delegates to the Republican National Convention which 
\vas held in June and renominated Lincoln ; adopted a stalwart 
Republican platform and nominated a full Republican State 
ticket, with Thomas C. Fletcher at its head as the candidate 
for Governor. This ticket was elected, as was also a Republi- 
can majority of both House and Senate ; that General Assem- 
bly convened at Jefferson City on December 26, 1864, and 
Governor Fletcher was inaugurated January 2, 1865. Then, 
and not till then, was the Government of Missouri in the full 
control of the Republican party. 

In 1863 the Legislature elected John B. Henderson and 
B. Gratz Brown as U. S. Senators and they were the first to 
represent Missouri in that body as Republicans. Charles D. 
Drake was elected U. S. Senator as a Republican in 1867, 
and Carl Schurz in 1869. When Senator Drake resigned to 
accept the office of Chief Justice of the United States Court 
of Claims in 1870, Daniel T. Jewett was appointed to succeed 
him until the next session of the Legislature, and since then 
our representatives in the Senate of the United States have 
been Democrats; and for the past third of a century every 
State election has been carried by Democrats, save and ex- 
cept that of 1894, which was an "off year" victory won by 


Missouri has had but two straight Republican Governors 
Thomas C. Fletcher, elected in 1864, served a term of four 
years under our first Constitution, and Joseph W. McClurg, 
elected in 1868, and served a term of two years under the 
Constitution of 1865. In 1870 the Republican State Con- 
vention was divided upon the adoption of the pending con- 
stitutional amendments; the one wing, called "Straight Re- 
publicans," renominated McClurg for Governor, while the 
other, known as "Liberal Republicans," nominated B. Gratz 
Brown for Governor. The Democrats made no nomination 
and by the combined votes of Liberal Republicans and Demo- 
crats Brown was elected by a majority of over 41,000. 



It has often been charged, and many of the present genera- 
tion believe, that disfranchisement and test oaths were products 
of Republican hatred and first became a law in this state in and 
by the Constitution of 1865, and that this Constitution was 
formulated and ratified by the Republican party after the war 
was over. This is not true . 

The Constitution of 1865 was provided for by "An Act to 
provide for a State Convention," approved February 13, 1864, 
by Willard P. Hall, then Democratic Governor of the State, 
which Act called that Constitutional Convention into existence . 
(Laws of Mo., 1864, pages 24-26). The delegates to this con- 
vention were elected in November, 1864, assembled at St. Louis 
m January 6, 1865, and Section 5 of the Act gave to the con- 
rention the express power to consider, among other things, 
'such amendments to the Constitution of the State as may be 
them deemed necessary to preserve in purity the elective 

ichise to loyal citizens." The time, as will be seen by the 
ites given, was a time of war and not of peace, and the war 
)irit found expression in the language quoted from section 5. 

When the candidates for that constitutional convention 
were before the people for election, the Democratic national 
convention of 1864. at, CTiipflgn was rW.laring in its platform 
that the war had been a failure; battles were being fought 
throughout the South; and the historic "Price's raid" into and 
through this state was being made. Sweeping away all oppo- 
sition, on the conquering Confederate veterans came, with the 
avowed purpose of capturing Kansas City, marching on and 
taking the rich spoil of government supplies then at Fort 
Leavenworth and burning the city of Leavenworth. On their 
way at various points they met the Union troops in open field ; 
fought the battles of Pilot Knob, of Lexington, of the Little 
Blue, of Independence and of the Big Blue, in each of which 
the Confederates were victorious. 

Flushed with success, on they came to meet their Waterloo 
at Westport. There, on October 23, 1864, they fought the 
splendid and decisive battle of Westport, which turned the tide 


and sent the Confederates in full retreat to the land of Dixie . 

Among many well known Federal and Confederate 
soldiers, whose services for their respective causes in one or 
more of these battles were both gallant and conspicuous, I now 
recall the names of Colonels R . T . Van Horn, Robert H. Hunt 
and John F. Philips on the Union side, and Colonel John C. 
Moore, Richard Gentry and Captain (now Judge) Turner A. 
Gill on the Confederate side . Young man, go ask any soldier 
of either army, who in these battles heard the rattle of 
musketry, the cannon's roar, the shriek and scream of the 
death-dealing shell, and there looked down into the dying eyes 
of his comrade, and you will be told that that was a time of 
war and that there was not then the faintest glimmer of the 
dawn of peace. 

All these battles were fought while the constitutional con- 
vention of 1865 was being assembled, and marauding bands of 
guerillas were then carrying death and destruction to Union 
men in many parts of the state . 

The members of that convention completed and signed the 
Constitution on April 8, 1865 . 

On April 10, 1865, after the constitution was completed 
and signed and sent out to the people, that convention was still 
in session upon some minor ordinances, when the telegraphic 
wires announced the surrender of Lee at Appomatox. The 
members of that convention went wild with joy and before 
any other business was transacted, a resolution was unani- 
mously adopted in which thanks were returned to Almighty 
God and President Lincoln for their work in breaking the 
power of the rebellion "and especially for the noble and hu- 
mane disposition which has been manifested by our authorities 
to our conquered enemy. " 

In this connection it is well to recall the additional his- 
toric facts : That the President 's peace proclamation was is- 
sued on May 9, 1865 ; that the last reported battle of the war, 
in which about 120 Union soldiers were killed, was fought at 
Palmetto Ranche in Texas on May 13th ; that the last Confed- 
erate force in the field, about 20,000 soldiers under the com- 
mand of General Kirby Smith, surrendered on May 26th ; that 


the election at which the constitution was adopted was held 
on the very day the order was issued by the Government for the 
release of all Confederate prisoners of war June 6th, and 
that the constitution went into effect on July 4, 1865. Under 
these facts it is clear that this constitution was not only au- 
thorized, its i'ramers elected, its provisions formulated and sent 
to the people for adoption or rejection in times of actual war;, 
but that it was ratified at the polls only eleven days after the 
surrender of the last Confederate force . 


The close of the Civil "War marked the parting of the ways 
of the men of Missouri who for four long years had done and 
dared all for the Union. The Union or War Democrats and 
the newly organized Republicans of the State differed as to the 
time when the test oath should be abolished and the dis- 
franchised should be enfranchised. The former insisted that 
the restrictions imposed in 1862 by the convention and con- 
tinued in the Constitution of 1865 were mere war measures and 
ithat peace having been restored such restrictions should be re- 
moved at once ; while the latter insisted that the time for this 
was not yet ripe. The issue was squarely presented, sharply 
drawn, and its discussion provoked almost as much bitterness 
as had the question of secession. The Union Democrats whom 
I have named resumed their old places in the Democratic party 
of the Nation; while the more radical members of the Repub- 
lican party, flushed with success at arms and with the ballot, 
and then under the leadership of Charles D. Drake, were at 
first disposed to hold fast the party advantages given them by 
tli- fortunes of war and politics. 

But the ever softening and mellowing influences of time, 
charity and conservatism were at work; the nightmare of war 
p;<->ed, the sweet dream of peace became a glorious reality and 
partisanship merged into patriotism and fraternity. 


The Constitution of 1865 had been adopted and the gen- 
eral election of 1S(i(5 h;i<l been held under its provisions. The 


Confederate soldiers had returned to their homes ; when before 
the second election had been held in this State under that Con- 
stitution, the Republican National Convention met at Chicago 
in May, 1868. In that Convention, at the unanimous request 
of the Missouri delegation, General Carl Schurz presented a 
resolution to be adopted as a plank in the platform of the na- 
tional Republican party, which, among other things, declared: 
' ' And we favor the removal of the disqualifications and restric- 
tions imposed upon the late rebels in the same measure as the 
spirit of disloyalty will die out and as may be consistent with 
the safety and loyalty of the people." This resolution was 
unanimously adopted at the request of the Missouri delegation 
and became the thirteenth plank in the national platform of 
the Republican party in 1868. 

Later on and in July, 1868, the Missouri Republican State 
Convention, in the very first plank of its platform, reaffirmed 
everything contained in the Chicago platform named, and, 
among other things, declared that "We cherish no revengeful 
feeling toward those who fought in fair and open battle, 
though for an unjust cause, and stand ready to restore every 
political privilege at the earliest moment consistent with state 
and national safety. " 



The Republican party elected a Republican Legislature in 
the fall of 1868, and when that general assembly met, the Re- 
publican State Senate brought forward as Republican measures 
the constitutional amendments which repealed all test oaths, 
restored the franchise to every Confederate soldier and made 
him again eligible to every office in the gift of the people. 

There were three of these amendments, all of which were 
prepared by the Republican judiciary committee of the Repub- 
lican Senate. The first restored to the Confederates the right 
of suffrage; the second restored to them the right to hold of- 
fice, and the third abolished the oath of loyalty. 

On February 23, 1869, the suffrage amendment was adopt- 
ed by a vote of 18 Republicans and 7 Democrats. 


On February 24 the amendment restoring the right to hold 
office was adopted by a vote of 20 Republicans and 4 Demo- 
crats; 3 Democrats and 1 Republican voting in the negative. 

On the same day the amendment repealing the oath of 
Royalty was adopted by a vote of 21 Republicans and 7 Demo- 
crats. Every Republican Senator voting for these constitu- 
tional amendments declared that he was in favor of submitting 
them to the people and that as one of the people he would vote 
for their adoption. My friend, Col. Wells H. Blodgett, of 
St. Louis, a member of that Senate, is authority for this state- 
ment, and the record fully sustains him. 

After these three constitutional amendments had been 
thus submitted to the people, the Republican State Convention 
met at Jefferson City, in August, 1870, and commended the 
course of the Repblican Legislature in submitting them to the 
people, but could not agree as to when all this should be done, 
and the Convention divided. The regular wing, which then 
[nominated (Governor McClurg for re-election, upon this ques- 
tion declared that "We recognize the right of every member 
of the party to vote his honest convictions," while the liberal 
wiim. which then nominated B. Gratz Brown for Governor, 
declared as to these amendments, that "We earnestly recom- 
[mend them to the people for their approval and adoption. " 

Upon these two plaforms, the Republicans of Missouri 
went to the polls in November, 1870, and out of 144,000 votes 
cast, more than 127,000 were in favor of the re-enfranchise- 
ilrient of those whom a Democratic Convention had first dis- 
franchised. Or to be exact, the vote of the State in favor of 
that amendment was 127,643, while there were only 16,288 
votes against it. 


The vote of Missouri on the Presidency in 1860 was as fol- 

flows : 

Douglas (Union Democrat) 58,801 

Bell (Whig) 58,372 

Breckenridge (Disunion Democrat) 81,317 

Lincoln (Republican) , > . . . .17,028 

Total ..165,518 


Although many of them afterwards changed front, yet this 
vote would indicate that in the fall of 1860, only about nine- 
teen per cent of the men of Missouri then countenanced a dis- 
solution of the Union, and that only about twelve per cent, of 
them were then Republicans. 

Another thing: Missouri sent to the Union Army over 
109,000 volunteers and to the Confederate Army more than half 
that number of volunteers, aggregating the total voting popu- 
lation of the State in 1860. While the draft was enforced in 
every Northern State, as well as in all the seceding States, and 
while a draft was at one time ordered and in part enforced in 
this state, yet to the everlasting honor of the people of the 
State it should be remembered that to Missouri belongs the 
unique distinction of having kept its quota full in each of the 
contending armies, without a single Missourian serving as a 
drafted man under either the Stars and Stripes or the Stars and 
Bars. Such is the proud fighting record of Missouri in the 
Civil "War a record without precedent or parallel in the his- 
tory of the world. 

The total votes for Governor of Missouri, in the four presi- 
dential election years which tell the story, were as follows : 

In 1860 156,575 

In 1864 101,977 

In 1868 144,987 

In 1872 i,... 278,986 

The lowest of these was 101,977 in 1864. when the Demo- 
cratic ordinance of 1862 was in full force and before the Re- 
publican pary obtained the control of our State Government. 

This total was increased in 1868, during the nearly four 
years of Republican rule, over 43,000 votes. 

Then came Republican enfranchisement in 1870, and at 
the next election thereafter, held in 1872, this total of 1868 was 
increased by 133,999 votes. 

Years ago, when this was a living issue (it is a dead one 
now, thank heaven,) Democratic speakers and papers often 
charged that this increase in the vote of 1872 over that of 1868 
was made up of disfranchised Missouri Democrats. Personally, 
I never believed that charge, yet if true, then the Republicans 


who in 1870 enfranchised all of these 133,999 Democrats, con- 
ferred a colossal, yet wholly unappreciated favor upon the 
Democratic party! 

The injunction "Cast thy bread upon the waters, for 
thou shalt find it after many days" may have been accepted 
and relied upon as written to stimulate the political hope of 
Missouri Republicans who in casting their ballots for enfran- 
chisement also cast their bread upon the waters political; but, 
if so, the "many days" wherein they were to "find it" have 
been marvelously lengthened! For in the long generation 
which has intervened since 1870, the Republicans of Missouri 
have wandered in the wilderness as did the chosen of the Lord 
in time of old, subsisting on the manna of defeat, crying out 
"Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish, which 
we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers and the melons, 
and the leeks and the onions and the garlic, but now our soul 
is dried away;" yet we, too, have become "as the stars of 
heaven for multitude," and are still looking hopefully for a 
[new Moses to lead us out of the wilderness and into the 
Promised Land of success. 

Nearly four decades have elapsed since the curtain was 
rung down on the wild tragedy of the Civil War, and during 
all these years Democrats and Republicans, as well as veterans 
of the Union and Confederate armies, have dwelt together in 
such peace, unity and good will, that the young man of today 
can not fully appreciate the acts and doings of the two Conven- 
tions in question without a most careful and unprejudiced 
study of the times and conditions. 


Any Doubting Thomas, however, may readily verify the 
controlling facts here stated by an examination of the public 
records of our State and upon such facts, I submit that the fol- 
lowing conclusions, here summed up for convenient reference, 
are irresistible, viz : 

1 . That the Democrats of this State and their 17,000 Re- 
publican allies saved Missouri to the Union in 1861 ; 


2. That the Democrats of the Convention of 1861-1863, 
then being in supreme control of all branches of our State gov- 
ernment and two years before the Republican party had any 
State organization in Missouri, not only disfranchised the dis- 
loyal and barred them from holding office, but adopted and 
enforced test oaths and oaths of loyalty for preachers, teach- 
ers and others by the authority of the Ordinance of June 10, 
1862. ; 

3. That the Constitution of 1865 was authorized, formu- 
lated and sent to the people by the Republican party in times 
of actual war and was adopted only a few days after the sur- 
render of the last armed Confederate force ; 

4. That a Republican Legislature drew, adopted and 
submitted to the people in 1870, the amendments to the Consti- 
tution of 1865, whereby the disloyal were re-enfranchised and 
permitted to hold office, and repealed the Democratic test oaths 
of 1862 ; and, 

5. That it was the Republicans of the State who by a 
vote of 9 to 1 restored all these rights to ex-Confederates. 

Whether the Democrats in first imposing the restrictive 
measures now under consideration in 1862 did that which was 
for the best interests of the people ; whether in continuing such 
restrictions in the Constitution of 1865 the Republicans did 
right; whether these restrictions should at the close of the 
great war have at once been removed, present questions upon 
which the good people of Missouri then honestly differed and 
still differ. 

After a careful study of the official records of the State ; 
of time and environment, my own judgment is and I believe 
the impartial historian of the future will concur in this judg- 
ment that the Democrats who adopted and executed the Or- 
dinance of 1862, did so from a high and patriotic sense of pub- 
lie duty. That the Republicans who three years later en- 
larged and re-enacted such restrictive measures, did so from 
like motives, no .one has the right to deny. 

It is as difficult for those who have grown up since the 
Civil War to understand the motives which then actuated the 
Union men of Missouri, as it is always difficult, often impossi- 


ble, to "put yourself in his place. " Hence the youth of to- 
day can at best only approximately comprehend the situation 
as those men then saw it. 

"While the dawn of peace was in fact near at hand on the 

day the Constitution of 1865 was signed and sent to the people, 

jyet the most prophetic could not then fix the day when the 

hopes of four years should be realized. Railways and telegraph 

were then few and far between in Missouri, news traveled but 

slowly, and it is doubtful if on the day of election half the 

roters of the State knew that peace had been declared. 

In reducing to the last analysis the powers, objects, duties 
and purposes the Conventions of '61- '63, and of '65, it should 
be remembered : That the former was charged with the duty 
of "vindicating the sovereignty of the State and preserving 
its institutions," while the latter was charged with the duty 
to ' " preserve in purity the elective franchise to loyal citizens. ' ' 

Missouri remained in the Union ; the work of each of these 
[Conventions was done in times of actual war; the members of 
peach were in good faith executing their respective trusts; bat- 
; tling to preserve the life of both Nation and State, while Mis- 
souri Confederates were in open rebellion against and striving 
[to destroy the i^overnments of both State and Nation. 

But aside from all this, there is an additional considera- 
tion, which has been recognized and enforced in and by all 
human governments of earth from ''the beginning." In this: 
That the political party in power in any State or Nation not 
only has the right to, and is charged with the duty of, but is 
justified in, adopting and enforcing such measures as in the 
candid judgement of that party are best calculated to protect, 
preserve and perpetuate its principles and policies in govern- 
mental affairs. Such rights inhere in and such duties devolve 
upon the party in power in peace and in war. The manner of 
exercising the right and of performing the duty, may be, and 
often are, criticised by the opposition; but both remain just the 
pame . And in time of w r ar, when the passions and prejudices 
of men are at flood tide, more drastic measures are employed 
than are expected or necessary in times of peace. War legis- 
lates . 


Again, the axiom that "Self preservation is the first law 
of nature" applies with equal practical force to political 
parties and to individuals. Hence, the fact that the Demo- 
crats, being in full power and control in Missouri in 1862, and 
the Republicans, being in power in 1865, alike applied these 
principles to Missouri politics, is not strange; on the contrary, 
it would have been strange had either party failed to do so; 
and in the fading light of these later years who now has the 
right to say that, the times and circumstances considered, 
either of those conventions perpetrated a political wrong upon 
the people? 

But conceding for the argument, if you please, that the 
Democrats in 1862 and that the Republicans in 1865, each in 
their turn, did in fact inflict a political injury upon certain of 
our fellow citizens; yet in the darkness of the decade from 
1860 to 1870 there still stands out like a glorious beacon light 
on the hill top of the history of our State, one act of high 
courage and unselfish patriotism about which there can be no- 
question; and that is that the Republican party of Missouri 
made no mistake when, in 1870, with a patriotic generosity for 
which in all history there was no Democratic precedent, it re- 
stored to ex-Confederate soldiers and their political allies all 
the rights of citizenship. Out of political power in Missouri 
for a third of a century, just as each Republican is casting his 
ballot then knew his party might be, yet the Republicans of 
this State have never regretted their wise, just and fair treat- 
ment of their political foes. 

When to this splendid record of the Republican party in 
Missouri now the fifth State in the Union, filled with a pros- 
perous and happy people ; with the wealth of the Indias in and 
beneath her soil ; with a future that promises glory, peace and 
plenty is added the glorious record of the Republican party in 
national affairs, to me it seems that a Missouri Republican, 
whether he voted for Lincoln and fought with Grant, or wheth- 
er on the eve of casting his first ballot, may well stand up any- 
where on God's green earth and with pride proclaim the fact 
that he is a Missouri Republican. 



When the youth of Missouri shall study, know, understand 
id appreciate the true history of this State and of our corn- 
country leading up to and through the Big War; fully 
>mprehend the then existing conditions and the motives and 
)oses of the men of Missouri in the troublous times from 
to 1870, then the wisdom and the patriotism of the men 
that day will shine as clearly as the sweet sunlight of heaven 
midday; sneers at their acts will give way to cheers, and 
leir memories will be blessed, not cured. 

Remember, young man of Missouri, that when the im- 
>rtal Washington first unfurled the glorious stars and stripes 
lat banner which exquisite taste and loving patriotism 
)mbine to make the most beautiful in all the world he said 
should wave a thousand years ; that that flag has now waved 
>r more than a century and everywhere in beauty, strength 
id triumph ; that if you and those who come after you shall 
as true and do your duty to your State and country as wise- 
and as courageously as did the men of Missouri in that de- 
le, 1860-1870, then Missouri will yet rank as the empire 
ite of our Union; that standing shoulder to shoulder with 
ler young men of the Nation in noble, manly effort to per- 
stuate the liberties which we now enjoy, will ensure to pos- 
rity all the blessings of free, enlightened and stable govern- 
it ; and that this done, the name of Missouri and of the gov- 
lent will endure and the flag of Washington will continue 
wave as long as rivers flow out to the sea and old ocean lifts 
waves to the storm; aye, 

"Till the sun grows cold 
And the stars are old, 
And the leaves of the Judgment Book unfold." 



The State Historical Society of Missouri has in the Samp- 
son Collection a copy of the record of the above society: 

of the 



No. 1. 

Metropolitan Print, Jefferson City. 


This pamphlet of twenty-nine pages is not common, and 
was not succeeded by any later number. The act of incorpo- 
ration was passed by the general assembly and approved by the 
Governor, February 27, 1845. The trustees named in it were 
George "W. Hough, William Claude Jones, William M. Campbell, 
James L. Minor, Hiram P. Goodrich, George W. Waters, John 
I. Campbell, John H. Watson, Adam B. Chambers, John Mc- 
Neil,, Samuel Treat, Robert I. Boas, Erich Plump, John G. 
Walker, George W. Huston, Hiram H. Baber, John C. Edwards, 
Benjamin F. Stringfellow, Bela M. Hughes, Trusten Polk, Rob- 
ert Wilson, John D. Coalter, William Carson, George A. Carrel, 
Thomas G. Allen, William E. Elliott, William G. Minor, R. G. 
Smart, Mann Butler, S. H. Whipple, Robert T. Brown, and 
Harrison Hough. Two years afterwards the legislature as- 
signed a room in the Capitol for the use of the Society, and ap- 
propriated ninety dollars to fit up the room for such use. 

The introduction to the pamphlet rehearses the history of 
the Society. The following quotations are as applicable to 



is Society today as they were to the other more than sixty 
PS ago: "All editors and publishers of weekly newspapers 
periodicals are solicited to present to the Society regular 
thereof;" "the authors of all books, pamphlets and publi- 
tions of every kind, are requested to donate a copy of the 
le for the use of the library ; " "a copy of every book and 
iphlet that was ever published in the State, is desired ; no 
iblication should be considered too unimportant to enter into 
a collection." "The Society also desires that the early 
id local history of the State may be written by persons corn- 
tent to the task, and furnished for its use. The history of 
early French and Spanish settlements at New Madrid, Ste. 
Biievieve, St. Louis, St. Charles, Portage des Sioux, Mine 
ston, Cote sans Dessein, and other places would be interest- 
jf, as would also an account of the emigration that came 
>m New Orleans, Canada and elsewhere ; and of the location 
id condition of the various Indian tribes when the first white 
tlements were made. Accounts of the early voyages, 
ivels, trading expeditions, adventures, exploits and escapes of 
early settlers, would be read with pleasure. Accurate de- 
of the Indian wars, conflicts, alarms, and treaties, would 
interesting chapters in the history of the state. A de- 
ription and history of the various posts and forts that existed 

early times, is desired. The biography of the pioneers 

Id be a valuable addition to our history. The number and 
3nt of the early French and Spanish settlements, and the 
ite of their formation, should be ascertained and perpetuated 
an authentic form. The history of the territory immediate- 
before, at and after the treaty of cession, should be carefully 
ritten. The provincial form of government, the mode of 
iting lands, and laying out villages, and the system of gov- 
lent and police before the cession, are worthy of investiga- 
Dn. The biography of the prominent men who came into 
when this territory was transferred to the Americans, 
raid be preserved. The conduct, character and history of 
)ddard, Clarke, Lucas, Penrose, Bates, McNair, Ashley, 
smpstead, Easton, Gray, Callaway, Cooper, Cole and many 
lers, should be written out. The events of the war of 1812 


and the accompanying Indian troubles, the adventures of the 
ranging service, the border conflicts with the savages, such as 
those that occurred at Loutre, Cote sans Dessein and Chain of 
Bocks, ought to be minutely given as a part of the history of 
the country. The territorial history of the country deserves 
attention the territorial legislation and executive and judicial 
action under all the successive forms and grades of government, 
will be interesting-the gradual progress from the civil to the 
common law should be traced out, and the men and measures 
of the territory properly described. Such men as Cousins, the 
Bartons and Rectors, Strother, Giddings, Emmons, McGirk, 
Tompkins, Pettibone are entitled to a place in our territorial 
history. The task of tracing the progress of settlement and 
improvement in each section of the State will be full of in- 
terest ; and the early efforts at mining, smelting and manufac- 
turing would not be devoid of interest. The history of the 
Regulators may receive a passing notice. The transition from 
the territorial into a State government the formation and 
adoption of the State constitution the conflicts of opinion that 
existed in the Convention' the anecdotes and incidents of its 
session and the circumstances that attended the admission of 
the State into the Union, and the organization of the State gov- 
ernment, constitute an important chapter of our history. The 
early legislation of the State, the choice of officers, the selec- 
tion of U. S. Senators, the constitutional amendments, the stop 
laws, and the loan office, are subjects worthy of notice. 

The history of the early trade and commerce of the terri- 
tory the Indian trade the navigation by perogues and keel 
boats the changes effected by the introduction of steam boats 
the system of barter and exchange the peltry currency the 
Bank of St. Louis, and the old Bank of Missouri, are subjects 
that could be properly woven into the history of the State. The 
origin, growth and progress of the Rocky Mountain and Santa 
Fe trade, are fair subjects for historical research. The founda- 
tion and progress of the various towns and cities of the State, 
are parts oi! our local history. Biographies of all our former 
Governors, Judges and prominent officials, are desired. All 
this mass of general and local history can easily be obtained, if 


the persons who possess the information will take the trouble 
to write it down and furnish it to the Society, so that it may 
be arranged in proper form for publication. A large number 
of books, pamphlets, letters, manuscripts and files of newspa- 
pers are in the possession of individuals and are nearly useless 
to them, but if contributed to the Society they would form a 
valuable addition to its collection." 

Had the Society survived to the present it might have ac- 
complished many of these objects. How many of them are still 
neglected and passing into oblivion!. 


A meeting was held in the Senate chambers, December 18, 
1844, for the purpose of forming the Society. George W. Hough 
being chairman and James L. Minor secretary and the meeting- 
was addressed by the chairman, William M. Campbell, H. P. 
Goodrich, John I. Campbell and others, and at the same meet- 
ing a Constitution was adopted. The objects of the Society 
were declared to be "to collect, embody and preser/e all pa- 
pers, memorials and documents connected with the early his- 
tory of Missouri, and all statistics in any way pertaining to the 
population, mineral, navigable and agricultural resources of the 
state ; and the Society shall, from time to time, make such pub- 
lication thereof as it may deem useful and interesting. " The 
meetings were to be held in Jefferson City on the third Mon- 
day in January in each year. Publishers of books and pam- 
phJ'ts v, tre invited to contribute their publications, and editors 
of newspapers and periodicals were asked to send their papers 
to be preserved by the Society. The annual fee of each mem- 
ber was fixed at one dollar. 

A committee consisting of W. M. Campbell, Dr. H. P. 
Goodrich, George W. Waters, W. C. Jones, and A. B. Cham- 
bers, was appointed to memorialize the legislature for an act 
of incorporation. 

The first annual meeting was held January 20, 1845, with 

George W. Hough, as president. The following officers were 

elected: President, William M. Campbell, of St. Louis; vice 

| presidents, John C. Edwards, William G. Minor, Hiram P. 


Goodrich, and Robert W. Wells, all of Cole County, John I. 
Campbell, of Marion County, Bela M. Hughes, of Platte 
County, Mann Butler, of St. Louis, and Wm. Claude Jones, of 
Newton County; secretary James L. Minor, of Cole County; 
and Treasurer, George W. Hough, of Cole County. 

The following were elected honorary members: Andrew 
Jack son, of Tennessee; George Bancroft, of Massachusetts; 
Albert Gallatin, of New York ; Jared Sparks, of Massachusetts ; 
P. A. Brown, of Philadelphia; Judge Hall, of Cincinnati; W. 
Gilmore Sims, of S. Carolina ; Thos. Gilpin, of Phil., and Lewis 
Cass, of Michigan. 

Resolutions were passed asking the members of the legis- 
lature to collect books, manuscripts, minerals and fossils from 
their counties; and the medical profession to prepare and 
donate skeletons of wild and domestic animals, for a museum 
of anatomy. 

The second annual meeting was held January 10, 1846, 
and January 22 of the same year. The following officers 
were elected: President, William M. Campbell; vice presi- 
dents, John C. Edwards, Robert W. Wells, James L. Minor 
and William Z. Angney, of Cole county; James H. Relfe, of 
Washington county; John I. Campbell, of Marion county; 
Mann Butler, of St. Louis; and James Young, of Lafayette 
county; secretary, Falkland H. Martin; treasurer, George W. 
Hough; executive committee, Wm. G. Minor, John G. Walker 
and Enos B. Cordell The executive committee was directed 
to make an effort with the general assembly to get suitable 
rooms and rrses for the collections, and all editors and pub- 
lishers were again requested to donate books and papers. 
Among the donations reported was one which would no*.v b* 
almost priceless "an unbroken series of the Journals of the 
Senate and House of Representatives of Missouri, from the 
first session of the Legislature to the session of 1838-3^, liouuri, 
presented by W. M. Campbell, of St. Louis." These volumes of 
the first ten regular general assemblies and of the special as- 
semblies are probably in existence somewhere. Who has them? 
A called meeting was held January 11, 1847, at which Mann 
Butler, of St. Louis, was to have delivered an address, but in 


consequence of sickness, and of the difficulty of getting to Jef- 
ferson City it was not given . 

The third, annual meeting was held January 19, 18-17. The 
following officers were elected : President, Wm. M. Campbell, 
of St. Louis; vice presidents, John C. Edwards, B. W. Weils, 
and J. L. Minor, of Cole county; S. D. Caruthers, of Madi- 
son county; J. H. Eelfe, of Washington county; Mann Butler, 
of St. Louis; and James Young, of Lafayette county ; secre- 
tary, Falkland H. Martin; treasurer, George W. Hough; 
executive committee, W. G. Minor, E. B. Cordell and E. L. 
Edwards. The legislature had given a room for the use of 
the Society, and the secretary was directed to move the collec- 
tions of the Society to it. Mann Butler was requested to give 
the Society the manuscript of his intended address before the 
Society on the "Life and times of Gen. George Rogers 

February 15, 1847, a meeting was held at which Dr. Mul- 
lowTiy gave an address on the "Destiny of America." Isaac 
"W, Taylor and Willis L. Williams, of St. Louis, made excel- 
lent speeches in regard to the objects and purposes of the 
Society, and a copy of Dr. Mullowny's address was asked for 

The fourth annual meeting was held January 17, 1848, 
in. David Todd, of Boone county, acting as president. Two 
flags which had been carried in the Mexican war were present- 
ed to the Society. A committee consisting of F. H. Martin, 
oi? Jefferson City, S. T. Glover, of Marion county, Edward 
Bates, of St. Louis; D. C. Ballow, of Benton county; S. D. 
Caruthers, of Madison county; John F. Ryland, of Lafayette 
county; and W. G. Minor, of Jefferson City was appointed to 
present a petition to the next legislature asking for the State 
to provide for a geological survey of the State. The secre- 
tary made a full report of the year and this is given in full. 
The following officers were elected: President, William M. 
Campbell, of St. Louis; vice presidents, John C. Edwards, R. 
W. Wells, J. L. Minor, S. D. Caruthers, Edward Bates, S. 
T. Glover, M. M. Maughas, of Callaway county; and P. H. 
McBride, of Monroe county; secretary, Falkland H. Martin; 


treasurer, George W. Hough; executive committee, W. G. 
Minor, E. B. Cordell, E. L. Edwards, F. A. Kounslar and 
W. B. Starke. 


The following was the list of members: 

George W. Hough, James L. Minor, Hiram P. Goodrich, 
Erich Plump, John G. Walker, Statius Eggers, Enos B. Cor- 
dell, W. G. Minor, "William Z. Angney, Robert Walker. R. W. 
Wells, E. L. Edwards, James Luck, Jason Harrison, D. J. 
Lisle, John C. Burch, F. Hereford, A. Kennedy, James B. Mc- 
Henry, R. Winter, F. A. Kownslar, Jesse B. Baber, W. B. 
Starke, John S. McCracken, Ben F. Hickman and H. L. Boon, 
all of Cole county. 

William Massillon Campbell, John 1 H. Watson, A. B. 
Chambers, Samuel Trent, Willis L. Williams, Edmund Flagg, 
Uriel Wright, A. W. Scharit, Isaac W. Taylor, Samuel Con- 
way, J. B. Colt, G. H. C. Melody, Samuel H. Lowry, Bates 
and Robert Campbell, of the city of St. Louis . 

George E. Pratt, John F. Stone, David M. Hickman, 
David Todd, James S . Rollins, and Wm. F . Switzler, of Boone 

John I. Campbell, William Carson, Samuel T. Glover, and 
Carty Wells, of Marion county. 

George W. Waters, Falkland H. Martin, and James L. 
Dunklin, of Jefferson county. 

William B. Baskett, M. M. Maughas and Wm. H. Dyer, 
of Callaway coutny. 

John Orrick and Andrew King, of St. Charles county. 

Robert I. Boas and Thomas M. Horine, of Ste. Genevieve. 

John A. Powell and Abiel Leonard of Howard county. 

James Young and T. M. Ewing, of Lafayette county. 

A. W. Reid and Priestly H. McBride, of Monroe county. 

Harvey Wellman and William Priest, of Rails county. 

Thomas P. Rubey and Robert Wilson, of Randolph county. 

James H. Relfe, Wm. A. Jones and G. Mullowny, of 
Washington county. 

Dewitt C. Ballou, Benton county. 


T. P. Bell, Cooper county. 

A. W. Daggett, Clark county. 
Kindred G. Pearson, Cedar county. 
Lisbon Applegate, Chariton county. 
Aaron Finch, Dade county. 

R. B. Ellis, Daviess county. 
Gideon P. Wyatt, Gasconade county. 
James Livingston, Grundy county. 
Stephen Cooper, Holt county. 
William Calhoun, Johnson county. 
M. L. Thomas, Lincoln county. 

B. M. C. Morelock, Linn county. 
W. Y. Slack, Livingston county. 
A. 0. Forshey, Montgomery county. 
John H. Bean, Macon county. 

Sol. D. Caruthers, Madison county. 
John C. McCoy, Morgan county. 
Win. Claude Jones, Newton county. 
John H. Walker, New Madrid county. 
James 0. Broadhead, Pike county. 
Thomson Ward, Platte county. 
E. B. Ewing, Ray county. 
Wm. 0. Applebee, Warren county. 

MENT, C. S. A.* 

J. A. Boarman, Captain, wounded 3d Lt. C. J. Lewis, Corder, Mo. 

at Newtonia, Mo., 1862. Dis- Alstadt, Chas., dead. 

charged. Dead. Agnew, A. W., Texas. 

B. M. Neale, Captain, Greenfield, Anderson, J. R., dead, 

M. Allison, Robert, dead. 

1st Lt. J. B. Dysart, discharged; Beck, W. S., Dover, Mo. 

dead. Banks, John, dead. 

lt Lt. J. E. McDougal, dead. Banks, Sam, died in army, 1863. 

2d Lt. Wyatt Webb, Nevada, Mo. Burnfcam, A. C., dead. 

3d Lt. Chas. O'Hara, killed 1863, BeU, Rem., dead. 

Lafayette county, Mo. Betts, unknown. 

3d Lt. C. W. Neale, killed 1864, Belt, John, dead. 

Union county, Arkansas. Belt, Thomas, dead. 

*List furnished by John T. Warth, Nevada, Mo. 



Bickerstaff, Sam, dead. 
Buford, J. A., dead. 
Buford, William, dead. 
Burton, P. G., missing at Helena, 


Bonds, William, killed in 1863. 
Barnett, Robinson, dead. 
Barnett, Boyd, died in army, 


Barnett, John, dead. 
Barnett, James, dead. 
Caldwell, James, Odessa, Mo. 
Carney, William, unknown. 
Cross, William, unknown. 
Crow, James, unknown. 
Chinn, Joe, Lexington, Mo. 
Cochran, Lilburn, dead. 
Carter, Dr. R. C., Higginsville, 

Carter, William, Shelby county, 


Carter, Ed, Independence, Mo. 
Craig, William, unknown. 
Cooper, William, dead. 
Cather, James, dead. 
Duncan, Albert, Nevada, Mo. 
Dolan, Martin, unknown. 
Davis, N. S., dead. 
Darnall, James, killed at Nflfw- 

tonia, Mo. 

Dysart, William, Dover, Mo. 
Elliott, Columbus, killed at Cape 

Girardeau Mo. 

Edwards, Thomas, Oklahoma. 
Fox, Nelson, dead. 
Fox, Elias, dead. 
Fox, C. R., dead. 
Fox, John, Texas. 
Grindstaff, Julius, dead. 
Gaston, Isaac, unknown. 
Grigsby, Richard, dead. 
Grigsby, Wirten, Texas. 
Groves, L. W., dead. 
Groves, Thomas, Waverly, Mo. 
Groves, J. F., Corder, Mo. 
Garr, G. W., Lexington, Mo. 
Greene, George, Mayview, Mo. 
Greene, Russell, Higginsville, 


Gilliam, William, unknown. 
Howard, James, dead. 
Hill, Green, dead. 
Hinsen, Bush, dead. 
Keithley, G. A., unknown. 
Lay, Marion, dead. 
Love, Joe, dead. 

Lewis, B. M., Corder, Mo. 
Lewis, Jonas, Corder, Mo. 
Lewis, W. D., Kansas City, Mo. 
Long, Frank, dead. 
Mitchell, Charles, dead. 
Myers, Elias, dead. 
Meng, John, Lexington, Mo. 
McGentry, Pat, killed at Newto- 

nia, Mo., 1862. 
McCausland, Ed, dead. 
McReynoJds, Joe, Grand Pass, 


Murphy, Tim, dead. 
McFadden, Forch, Lexington, 


McQueen, Pen, Hardin ,Mo. 
McQueen, George, dead. 
McDavitt, James, unknown. 
Ninemire, J. T., dead. 
Neale, Isaac, dead. 
Neale, David, dead. 
Neale, Lewis, dead. 
Neale, Samp, died in army in 


Neale, Joe, Higginsville, Mo. 
New, Lewis, dead. 
Oliver, John, dead. 
Oliver, W. G. 

Oliver, M. V. B., Dover, Mo. 
Persinger, At, Texas. 
Page, H. C., unknown. 
Page, John, dead. 
Page, A. J., Denver, Colo. 
Preston, William, dead. 
Plattenburg, J. Q., Lexington, 


Plattenburg, H. W., Dover, Mo. 
Rutledge, David, dead. 
Shaul, J. V., Bronaugh, Mo. 
Shaul, G. A., Bronaugh, Mo. 
Slusher, D. A., Lexington, Mo. 
Slusher, J. A., dead. 
Stark, Thomas, dead. 
Stark, Ed., Dover, Mo. 
Schooler. Cole, dead. 
Staley, Marion, unknown. 
Stelle, Charles, killed 1864, Union 

county, Arkansas. 
Thompson, John, Boonville, Mo. 
Thompson, Joe, Boonville, Mo. 
Ustick, Thomas, dead. 
Warren, J. B., dead. 
Winn. James, Dover, Mo. 
White, L. E., dead. 
White. Herbert, died in army in 


NOTES. 163 

White, Everett, Kansas. Webb, James G-., died in prison 

Warth, S. V., Nevada, Mo. 1865. 

Webb, T. V., Dover, Mo. Young, Evan, dead. 

Webb, John G., dead. Young, T. C., dead. 

Autograph Letters. 

Prof. G. C. Broadhead has presented to the State Histori- 
cal Society of Missouri a valuable collection of 139 autograph 
letters. It includes many of the prominent State Geologists 
of the different states and of foreign countries, and many well 
known scientists . There is also a large number of officials of 
Missouri and others, among the latter being letters from Presi- 
dents Grant and Eoosevelt. 

Grand Orator. 

J. West Goodwin, the veteran editor, of Sedalia, one of 
the trustees of the State Historical Society of Missouri, was 
appointed Grand Orator of the Masonic Grand Lodge of the 
state of Missouri at the Grand Lodge annual meeting in 
October, 1908. The State Historical Society elected him an 
| honorary member, December 14, 1908. ,-' 

Cedar Rapids Libraries. 

The "Occasional Bulletin" of the Iowa Masonic Library 
for October, 1908, issued by the most complete library of 
Masonic and kindred works, and books relative to secret so- 
cieties has interesting accounts of that library and of other 
libraries of Cedar Rapids. There is perhaps not another 
city of its size that equals it in the number and character of 
the private libraries containing rare and interesting works. 



The Story of a Border City during the Civil War, by*. 
Galusha Anderson, LL. D., (Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1908. 
14 portraits and views, 12 mo. cl. $1 . 50 net . ) 

The author of this work, former President of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, was the pastor of a prominent church in the 
city of Saint Louis from 1858 to 1866, and his personal obser- 
vations made at that time throw a new light on one phase of 
the Civil War. During this period, the State of Missouri was 
disputed ground. Its citizens were divided between secession 
and the Union, between slavery and emancipation, and the 
battles fought within its limits were no less bitter, in that they 
were comparatively bloodless. 

Saint Louis naturally bore the brunt of the struggle, and 
Dr. Anderson's account of the strenuous life there during the 
Rebellion opens up a comparatively unworked field. The 
work is colored by the introduction of many interesting per- 
sonal experiences which befell Dr. Anderson as a staunch sup- 
porter of emancipation and an active worker against secession. 

The Leader, by Mary Dillon, author of "The Rose of Old 
St. Louis" and "In Old Bellaire," Illustrated by Ruth M. 
Hallock. New York, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1907. (c. 
1906.) 8 vo. 362 pp. 

"While the authoress is a native of Pennsylvania, she is a 
resident of St. Louis and is consequently in the list of Missouri 
authors. In an earlier work by her she made a claim for 
historical accuracy, but in this, while some of the story will re- 
mind the reader of actual events, the authoress disclaims any 
intention of recording any historical or biograpical occur- 
rences. She also disclaims having produced a "novel with a 
purpose," but simply tells the story of two lives very pleasant- 
ly, and to the edification of the reader. 


Gen. John Acoming Haldennan died at Atlantic City 

September 21, 1908, seventy-two years of age, and was buried 
at Arlington cemetery, near Washington. He was born in 
Missouri but when young the family moved to Kansas, where 
he embraced the legal profession. He was mayor of Leaven- 
worth, regent of the Kansas State University and served in 
both houses of the legislature. During the Civil War he was 
a member of the First Kansas infantry, holding positions from 
major to major-general. He was minister to Siam in 1880, 
and did effective and valuable service in that country. 

William Maynard was born in London, England, March 
|9, 1830, and came to American when a boy. During the Civil 
War he served in a New York regiment. Afterwards he was 
editor of the Chariton County Union, the Warrenton Banner, 
and for thirty years editor and proprietor of the Moberly daily 
'and weekly Headlight. He died at Moberly November 12, 

Hon. J. 0. Morrison was a member of Thirty-fifth General 
Assembly, 1889, from Pulaski county. During 1890, he moved 
to Vernon county to a farm near Walker, and eight years ago 
[moved to Nevada. At the last election he was elected a 
member of the legislature from Vernon county, but on No- 
vember 16, he died after an illness of eighteen months. He- 
was born at Fountain Run, Kentucky, May 26, 1836, and came 
to Missouri in 1867. 

Judge Jackson L. Smith was born in Callaway county, 
Missouri, January 31, 1837, attended the State University, and 
Was admitted to the bar in 1860. In 1877 he was elected at- 
torney general of the state, and served four years. In 1888 
ho was elected to the Kansas City Court of Appeals, and 
served sixteen years, the later years as presiding judge. He- 
I died at Kansas City November 13, 1908 . 



APRIL, 1909. 

NO. 3 


To ascertain the relative part taken by the North and 
South respectively in the early settlement and develop- 
of Missouri; to determine the center, or centers, from 
3h the immigrants came; to place on record a roster 
lese early settlers while the sources are yet available; 
liscover and indicate the nature of such source material 
the purpose of this investigation. 

Until many, and often the most vital, sources of history 
been lost through the destructive elements of time, the 
irch worker is seriously hampered by its apparent com- 
:ity. Yet these apparently chaotic masses group them- 
;es about certain simple and direct lines of development 
tead of being due to sporadic efforts, the early settlers 
[issouri followed lines clearly and distinctly pointed out 
by the Marquettes and the La Salles, or by the 
>nes and the Clarks, their worthy successors in blazing 
paths of civilization. 

The broad highway of these early pioneers was the Ohio- 
sissi|>pi-Missouri waterway. There were, however, many 
rays. The Cumberland road was early extended to Vin- 
ics, and to the French posts on the Mississippi. By this 


route came many settlers to Central Missouri. St. Genevieve, 
St. Louis, and St. Charles became, as it were, distributing 
points for immigrants. From these towns some took their 
way either up the Missouri River, or by an overland trail 
along its northern border to Old Franklin, Fayette, Roche- 
port, Columbia, or some other settlement in the "Boone's 
Lick District." Others ascended the river to follow the 
course of the Gasconade and of the Osage. Still others, 
from the headwaters of the Meramec, went to the Southwest 
over the old "Kickapoo Indian Trail." Many settlers also 
reached the latter territory via the Ohio-Mississippi-Arkansas 
system, ascending the northern tributaries of the latter 

To determine the native heath of the ''primitive" Mis- 
sourian it is necessary to follow each of these streams of 
immigrants to its source. As a rule the emigrants from a 
given district clustered about certain well-defined points in 
comparatively contiguous territory in Missouri. The settle- 
ment of either Old Franklin, Fayette, Rocheport, Columbia 
or Boonville typifies that of the entire "Boone's Lick Dis- 
trict . ' ' The same is true in other sections . A study of 
any one of the various settlements suffices for the whole. 
It is this reason, furthered by the hope that a friend in 
another section of the state may be induced thereby to work 
along similar lines, that has moved me to devote quite as 
much of this paper to pointing out the sources from which 
information has been drawn as to recording data resulting 

The first, and what proved to be the most valuable single 
source for our purpose, was a file of "The Missouri Intelli- 
gencer," found on the shelves of the State Historical Society 
of Missouri Library. This paper was established at Old 
Franklin in 1819 and covered practically the entire period 
under consideration. In 1826 it was removed to Fayette and 
from there, in 1830, to Columbia, where it has since had a 
continuous publication, being known from 1835 to 1842 as 
"The Patriot" and from that date as "The Statesman." 


(There are only a year and nine months' issues of the former 
olmnbia publication in this file.) Even before its removal 
Columbia the paper contained many interesting items 
bont the town and community. To the student of local 
i-Y its value after 1830 is incalculable. Its pages fur- 
ish not only the names but also, in many instances, the 
nativity of the more prominent early settlers. Later issues 
are rich in the information sought. 

"The Stevens Articles" that appeared during 1869 and 
1 870 deserve special mention. Mr. E. W. Stevens, then on 
il ;} editorial staff of "The Statesman," spent more than a 
year among the sources of Boone County's history, and the 
results that he obtained are worthy of careful consideration. 
il j^ statements are conservative, and accurate to a degree 
seldom met with in county histories. 

Other papers examined were "The Daily Statesman," 
i )m August ttth to December 13, 1879; "The Columbia 
T )aily Tribune," from 1901 to 1906, and "The Columbia 
Herald," from 1878 to 1906. A valuable feature of the latter 
is the "Official Register of Old Settlers," published August 
!! 1897, and each succeeding year at the time of the Old 
Settlors' Reunion. 

' On the Shelves of the Historical Society are to be found 
also a number of books valuable in research work of this 
mture. Amon^ Hiese are "The History of Boone County," 
Compiled largely from the Stephens' articles mentioned 
a hove; ''The Encyclopedic History of Missouri," a work of 
six volumes, containing biographies of a few men identified 
with the early history of Columbia; "The Encyclopedic His- 
tory of St. Louis," in four volumes, and "The Rollins' Me- 
morial Volume." 

While everything found in our society rooms is worth 
; ls \veight in gold to the Missouri antiquarian, its value to 
he student of Boone County's history is but as chaff when 
smpared to the contents of that historic structure the Boone 
Bounty court house, now guarding the north entrance to 
e "Street of Columns." Every stone in its walls is satu- 


rated with information relative to an important event con- 
nected with the development of the Boone's Lick District. 

Space permits no more than a mention, incidentally, of 
the deed, mortgage, marriage and commission records, and 
the circuit, county, and probate files and records to be found 
there all of which date back to 1821, and furnish valuable 
data. The most complete files of the County Clerk's office 
where one finds a number of petitions to the County Court 
asking for the appointment of additional justices of the peace 
in Columbia township. One set of these petitions contains 
the names of more than three hundred persons. A reference 
to the statute laws at that time governing these petitions 
discloses the fact that only adult male residents of the 
township could sign them. The Journal of the House of 
Representatives for the Eleventh General Assembly gives 
the population of Columbia, in 1840, six years after these 
petitions Avere filed, as males 291 ; females 231 ; total 522 ; 
white males over twenty-one, 150. A note book found among 
the effects of J. Kirkbride and bearing the date. 1828, says 
the population of Boone County, at that time, was 4,268 white 
and 888 black. These sources would indicate that a very 
large per cent of the adult male residents of Columbia town- 
ship must have petitioned the County Court in 1834. 

There is also on file in the County Clerk's office (De- 
cember, 1835) the poll-book of a special election for a justice 
of the peace, held in Columbia on December 26th, of that 
year. It contains the names of 147 voters. The petition 
for the incorporation of Columbia, 1826, bears the signatures 
of 46 residents. In various out of the way places in its 
vaults one finds records of proceedings in justice courts, 
including judgment and execution books. 

While hardly so rich as this office, every nook and corner 
of the entire building contains something of interest and 
value to the research worker. Even the attic, from its three 
large chests of miscellaneous papers, and the grand jury 
room from its hundred, or more, odd volumes contribute their 
quota . 



There were three church organizations in Columbia 
to 1836 : Christian, Presbyterian and Baptist. Only 
records of the latter, kept in the vaults of the Boone 
ity Trust Company, could be reached. They date from 
J, and the fact that they were kept by William Jewell 
mrantee of their accuracy. The records of the Christian 
rch have been destroyed. Those of the Presbyterian 
jh are in the vaults of the Exchange Bank, but just 
re could not be determined. 

While the Masonic Lodge was organized about 1830, its 
ter was surrendered and, apparently, all records were 
troyed at the outbreak of the Civil War, the lodge being 
rganized in 1866. The city records date back to 1850. 
inconsiderable amount of information was gleaned from 
tombstones in the cemetery. Other valuable sources 
the late Col. Switzler's "Manuscript History of the 
rersity of Missouri," now in the vaults of the University, 
two large scrap-books, examined through the courtesy 

son, Irvin Switzler. 
Such in Igeneral has been the scope of this research 
such are the sources from which the following conclu- 
have been drawn. In presenting them it would be 
height of folly to relate the story of the founding of 
ibia and the growth and development of the surrounding 
ricts. To attempt it would be only to paraphrase what 
already come from the more fruitful pens of the late 
Switzler and his able co-worker, Mr. Stephens. 
According to the Statesman of September 30, 1870, John 
ipton was the pioneer settler of Columbia township, 
here in 1813. Whether it was he, Moses U. Payne, 
following year, or the Caves and their friends in 1815, 
ters little. Suffice it to say that between the former 
and 1836, it has been possible to identify 660 of the 
residents of Columbia township. An additional 107 were 
lately connected with its history and were probably 
louts, the identification not being positive, they have 
been included in this summary. 


The place from whence 240 of the 660 residents came 
could be definitely located. Of these 237, or 98%% were 
from south of the Mason and Dixon Line, the exceptions 
being Oliver Parker, of New Hampshire, who was here in 
1821 ; J. Kirkbride, of Pennsylvania, 1828 ; and Thomas 
Miller, of Indiana, 1834. The latter was a native of Wash- 
ington County, Pa. 

The quotas from the Southern States were: 

Kentucky 209, or 87 per cent 

Virginia - 18, or 7 l /2 per cent 

Tennessee 6, or 2 1 / per cent 

North Carolina 3, or l 1 /^ per cent 

Maryland 1, or 1 per cent 

The popular notion that a very large majority of the 
early settlers of Missouri were from Kentucky is evidently 
well-founded, so far, at least, as the "Boone's Lick" settle- 
ments are concerned. But the belief that most of these emi- 
grated from Madison County is not so well established, as 
the following table indicates: 

Madison sent 36, or 31 per cent 

Scott 25, or 21 per cent 

Bourbon 14, or 12 per cent 

Fayette 8, or 7 per cent 

Woodford 8, or 7 per cent 

Clark 6, or 5 per cent 

Fleming 4, or 3 per cent 

Lincoln 3, or 2 per cent 

Mason 3, or 2 per cent 

Franklin 3, or 2 per cent 

Owen 2, or 1 per cent 

Montgomery 2, or 1 per cent 

Trimble 2, or 1 per cent 

Bath 1, or 1 per cent 

Christian 1, or 1 per cent 

Warren 3, or 2 per cent 

Casey 1, or 1 per cent 

Henry 1, or 1 per cent 

Harrison 1, or 1 per cent 

Barren 1, or 1 per cent 

With three exceptions, Christian, Warren, and Barren, 
these counties are in the valleys of the Kentucky and Licking 


Rivers, or contiguous thereto. This means that while Madi- 
son County can claim hut :>1 per cent of the emigrants to 
the Boone's Lick country, the district of which she formed 
no inconsiderable part furnished 96 per cent of them. 

Those directly from Madison County were Henry Cave, 
Richard Cave, Reuben Cave, Richard Gentry, David Gordon, 
l.k M. Gordon, John B. Gordon, Boyle Gordon, John Guitar, 

la native of France; Odon Guitar, Overton Harris, John "W. 
Harris. .loci Hume, Thomas C. Maupin, John Maupin, Gar- 
land D. Maupin, Dr. A. W. Rollins, James S. Rollins, James 
Smith, Caleb S. Stone, Robert H. Stone, Madison D. Stone, 
Thomas Turner, A. X. Turner. William Turner, J. H. Woods, 
Anderson Woods, Audley Campbell, Thomas Campbell, Wil- 
liam Grayham, John Grayham, William Read, Joshua Lamp- 

Iton, William Roberts, Elliot Roberts, Hezekiah Speaks. 

Scott County sent Stephen R. Bedford, Reuben D. Black, 
Robert F. Gibbs, Joel H. Haden, Turner R. Haden, William 
Johnston, James Johnston, Thomas Johnston, Samuel John- 
ston, Robert Lemon, Warren Phillips, J. B. Phillips, Levi 
T. Smith, London Snell, John Snell, John Spence, S. B. 
Spence, Samuel L. Henry, John Todd Henry, Matthew O. 
Ifeene, Mason Mars, John Mars, James Mars, Gilpin Tuttle, 
JetlVrson Garth. 

Bourbon County furnished David M. Hickman, W. T. 

Hlickman, David M. Hickman, Jr.; Capt. William Johnston, 

IDavid Robnett, John Robnell, Sr. ; John Robnett, Jr.; Pleasant 
Robnett, Joseph Robnett, Moses Robnett, Wm. C. Robnett, 
Richard H. Robinson, J. Kelley Wright, William Pearson. 
From Fayette County came Rev. T. M. Allen, Dr. Matthew 

[Arnold, Robert Greening, Thomas E. Powers, James Rogers, 

'Kirtley Rogers. David Todd, R. N. Todd. 

Woodford was represented by John Hughes, Willis 
lluirhes, James Hughes, John N. Hughes, Joseph Hughes, 

Dr. William McClure, Moses II. Payne, Adam C. Reyburn. 

Clark by Moses Batterton, William Berry, Lewis G. 
Berry, James Palmer, Sr. ; H. W. Pemberton, Zechariah 

Ridgeway ; 


Fleming by James J. Boyce, Samuel Kennan, John 
Kennan, Thomas Kennan : 

Lincoln by William Cornelius, Milton Cornelius, James 
Riggs ; 

Mason by James W. Moss, John Thornton, James H. 
Thornton ; 

Franklin by Samuel Mars, Eli Mars, Cumberland Snell ; 

Warren by Willis Boyce, William Boyce, Jesse Boyce; 

Owen by Benjamin Stephens, Washington Stephens: 

Montgomery by Major James B. Nichols, Jeremiah 

Trimble by Charles Hardin and Charles IT TT ardin late 
Governor of Missouri; 

Bath by Samuel Wheeler ; 

Christian by Philander Finley; 

Casey by Nathan MeBride; 

Henry by Rev. Allen McGuire; 

Harrison by D. S. Lamme; 

Barren by John Garnett. 

The county from which many of the emigrants from 
Kentucky hailed could not be positively determined. These 
were James Arnold, Samuel L. Ashlock. Samuel Beatie, 
James H. Bennett, James H. Benson, Roily Asbury, Robert 
S. Barr, Samuel Batterton, Capt. Samuel Berry, Christopher 
C. Branham, R. C. Branham, Jacob Bruner, William Callaway, 
William Cave, Thomas Collins, Bartlett Collins,, Benjamin 
Connelly, John J. Cotton, Samuel Crockett, Dr. Wm. H. 
Duncan, James Duncan, Rev. J. Greenalgh, born in Lancashire, 
England; Franklin Hart, John B. Hill, Washington Jenkins, 
George Jewell, William Jewell, Henry Keene, John G. Keene, 
John W. Keiser, James King, William Lamme, John Lampton, 
James Lampton, John H. Lynch, Jacob March, John March, 
Absolom March, Clifton Maupin, William Maupin, P. H. 
MeBride, Levi McGuire, Allen McGuire, Jr. ; Charles McLain, 
Mason Moss, James T. Moss, Robert Nelson, George Northcut, 
William Northcut, Wm. B. Oldham, Martin E. Oldham, Daniel 
O'Rear, John O'Rear, John Parker, William Parks, Willis 


Parks, Price Iv Parks, TTiram Phillips, Louis Pemberton, 
Alex Persinirer, Moss Prewitt William Provines, Frederick 
Rend, Major Henry Ready, John N. Ridgeway, Benjamin F. 
Robinson, Gerard Robinson, William M. Robinson. Richard 
Samuel, David Shock, Robert Snell, Andrew Spence, Wilford 
Stephens, Robert Thomas, Thomas Thompson, John G. Vivien, 
Benjamin F. White, Dr. -I. W. Wilson, N. W. Wilson, Josiah 
Wilson, Warren Woodson, W. E. Wright. 

In such men as these Kentucky did not send us the dregs 

of her population. Rather she shared with us her richest 

[blood. This section of our state, at least, was settled as the 

result of a well-defined movement centering about the famed 

blnegrass regions of Kentucky. ]Uen who were accustomed 

to the best that Kentucky afforded preferred a wilderness of 

equal fertility to the inferior lands nearer home. Sturdy, 

i sober-minded in all their dealings, men whose word was as 

Lgood as their bond, they have left a mark upon their posterity 

[that can be detected in even the cosmopolitan Columbia of 


No less can be said of those coming in smaller numbers 
from other states. Virginia sent Benjamin Anderson, James 
Bowling-, Joseph Burch, Edward Camplin, Thomas W. Con- 
yers, John S. Conyers, William Donaho, Jesse Donaho, R. 
M. Grayham, Ezekiel C. Hickman, John Hickman, Joseph 
Hickman, John M. Kelley, J. L. Matthews, Milton S. Matthews, 
A. G. Xewman, James Gordon Turner, John Vanhorn. 

Those from Tennessee were James Crockett, Austin A. 
King, later Governor of the State; Wm. Shields, Peter 
\Yri.u-ht, Riley Slocumb, Meshach Smith. 

From North Carolina were David Doyle, Walter L. Le- 
r, Jarnes Payne. 

Maryland sent Wm. S. Truitt. 

Barring the names of more than 400 persons, who were 

I residents of Columbia township but whose native heath could 

not be accurately determined, and an additional 100 probable 

residents, the foregoing is a summary of the facts developed 

by this investigation. In its earlier stages the North was 


little concerned in the development of Central Missouri. 
A vast majority of the southern emigrants were from Ken- 
tucky, a plurality of these being from Madison County. 

While it can not be the province of this paper to deter- 
mine why this early emigration took place, nor why these 
particular emigrants should have come to Boone and sur- 
rounding counties, it cannot be amis to say that some ascribe 
it to the similarity of soil formation. One old gentleman 
called my attention to the "fact that the Boone 's Lick 
counties produce more and better bluegrass than do the 
richest soils of Kentucky. ' ' Another in explaining the exodus 
from Kentucky said, "The better lands had all been entered. 
It was therefore impossible for us to secure new tracts for 
our large families of children and we had to look elsewhere. 
At one time this movement became so general that some 
communities in Kentucky were almost deserted." However 
this may have been an overwhelming majority of Kentucky 
emigrants, as we have seen, were from a district of practi- 
cally contiguous counties in the bluegrass region. 



It is my intention in this paper to give a sketch of 

slavery conditions in Missouri in its territorial days, attempt- 
ing to give a background for the Missouri Compromise rather 
than a discussion of the national and constitutional questions 
involved in Missouri's struggle for statehood. 

I. Numbers and Value. 

Most of the data on the population of Louisiana apply 
to the entire province or to the New Orleans country, the 
statistics referring to the district about St. Louis being quite 
limited. We have this indefinite statement of Jefferson, ". ... 
it may be taken for a general rule, that in proportion to the 
distance from the capital (New Orleans) the number of 
blacks diminishes below that of the whites...." (1) Ac- 
cording to (iayarre in 1745 there were 10 slaves in each 
Missouri and Arkansas and GOO in Illinois. (2) The same 
authority claims there were 31,433 slaves in all Louisiana 
in 1785 and 42,346 three years later. (3) It seems somewhat 
doubtful that the Louisiana of that day could increase its 
slave population by eleven thousand in three years, and hence 
we should perhaps be somewhat skeptical as to the veracity 
of the census statistics of the Mississippi valley. Delassus 
in his census of 1799 vouched that there were 883 negro slaves 

1. American State Papers, Miscellaneous, Vol. 1, 346. Jeffer- 
son in his report on Louisiana to Congress at the time of the Cession 
claimed there were in 1785 16,544 slaves and 1,303 "free people of 
color" in Louisiana including Pensaoola and Natchez. He mentioned 
that "the latest documents" gave 12,820 slaves and 1,768 free blacks. 
He also quotes an estimate of slaves on the isle of New Orleans "on 
the west side of the river and some settlements on the east side" to 
be 51,250. Ibid. p. 348. 

2. Gayarre, Chartes, "Lectures on the Hist, of La." (N. Y., 
1852) Vol. II, 28. 

3. Do, Vol. Ill, 215. 


in the twelve districts which now practically comprise eastern 
Missouri. (4) 

In 1712 twenty black slaves were introduced into 
Louisiana. In June 1719 the "Western Company" began to 
make importations. From 300 to 500 are said to have been 
supplied to the settlers annually, the men bringing about 
$150 and the women $120 each, (5) being often paid for 
within three years with colonial produce. (6) 

At the time of the Cession, according to one authority, 
there were 10,340 souls in Missouri, of whom 1,320 were 
blacks. (7) A traveler who visited St. Louis in 1806 states that 
there were then 200 black slaves in the town (8) Breckenridgf 
gives the population of Missouri for about the year 1810 as 21,- 
840, of which 8,011 were blacks, (9) while the United States 
Census for that year was 20,845, the number of these who 
were negroes not being specified. '(10) From that date the 
territory developed rapidly and, with perhaps the exception 
of the years 1811-15, when British and Indian ravages were 
feared, the stream of settlers crossing the Mississippi in- 
creased till about 1818, when the constitutional questions 
which arose over the agitation for statehood caused a veri- 
table tidal wave of slave state settlers to enter the Territory. 

4. Am. State Papers, Misc., Vol. I, 383. Quoted also in Scharf, 
I, 309. 

5. French, B. F., Historical Collections of Louisiana. (N. Y. 
1815) Vol. Ill, 64. 

6. French, Vol. V, 119. In the memoirs of M. Dumont we 
also read, "When a slave vessel arrived it was visited by the surgeons 
who separated the healthy from the sick, and put the latter under 
treatment. The former were divided in this way: such settlers as 
were named to have negroes went to the commissary-ordinator, and 
drew from a bag a ticket whose number denoted the negro or negroes 
that fell to them, each negro having a number around his neck. As 
for the sick, they were sold at auction as there were always settlers 
who could not get healthy ones, the bidding ran so high that the 
sick brought as much as the others." 

7. Rev. T. Hill in "American Presbyterian Rev." X, 94. 

8. As'he Thomas, "Travels in America Performed in 1806." 
(Newberryport, 1808), p. 290. 

9. Brackenridge, H. M., "Views of Louisiana." (Baltimore, 
1817) p. 215. 

10. U. S. Census Reports, 1900, Population I, p. 3. 


The Missouri Gazette of June 9, 1819, states that 107,000 
a civs of public lands were disposed of in March of that 
year at $2.91 per acre. In the same issue a report from St. 
rles declares, "... .never has such an influx of people. . . . 
so considerable, .... flowing through our town with 
maid servants and men servants. . . .the throng of hogs 
cattle, the white-headed children, and curly-headed Afri- 
. ' ' Another item in the same issue states : " . . . . 170 
rants were at the Portage des Sioux at one time last 
The papers for nearly every week from the above 
are filled with similar statements. That the newcomers 
of the kind to make Missouri a slave State we have no 
ible in discovering. The St. Louis Inquirer of November 
1819, informs us that a citizen of St. Charles counted 
nine or ten weeks an average of one hudred and twenty 
Lers' vehicles per week with an average of eighteen per- 
per vehicle. ''They came almost exclusively from the 
tes south of the Potomac and the Ohio bringing slaves 
large herds of cattle...." The Gazette of January 26, 
, states that "Our population is daily more heterogenious 
.... scarcely a Yankee has moved into the country this 
. At the same time Virginians, Carolinians, Tennesseeans, 
JKentuckians are moving in great force...." The St. 
Inquirer of November 10, 1819, informs us that in Oc- 
of that year 271 four-wheeled and 55 two-wheeled 
icles passed "Mrs. Griffith's in the point of the Missouri," 
id for Boone's Lick, and speculates that from ten to 
?en thousand people Avould settle in Missouri during the 
mm. Timothy Flint, a New England clergyman, counted 
idred persons passing through St. Charles in one day. 
have seen.... nine wagons," he said, "harnessed with 
four to six horses. We may allow one hundred cattle 
.and from three or four to twenty slaves" to each 
ion. (11) 

The St. Louis Inquirer of October 20, 1819, actually puts 
population of Boone's Lick at 10,000. The same paper 

11. Goodspeed, W. A., "The Province and the States." (Madi- 
1904) Vol. on Missouri, p. 23. 


on December 25 of that year states that from four to five 
hundred souls were crossing the Mississippi daily. (12) In 
the State election of 1820 Niles claims 9,232 votes were 
cast. (13) The census of 1820 authorized by the Legislature 
was 52,000, (14) while the Federal census of that year fixed 
the total population at 66,586. (15) The population of the 
State in 1824, when the General Assembly authorized a 
census to be taken, was 80,677, of whom 13,725 were slaves 
and 382 free colored. (16) 

There can be no doubt that there was a considerable slave 
population in the Territory in the days when the question 
of Missouri's statehood was before the country. Perhaps 
Taylor of New York was inclined to exaggerate when he 
said: "....a negro man is bought in Africa for a few 
?ew-gaws or a bottle of whisky, and sold in New Orleans- 
for twelve to fifteen hundred dollars, "(17) but nevertheless 
the slaveholders of Missouri who contended for statehood in 
1820 were fighting not for a mere political principle, but 
actually for property and a considerable amount of it. If 
Missouri in 1820 was simply a battle ground for .selfish 
southern purposes, there would be some evidence of loose 
economic conditions or at least stray hints that the system 
i\ was ill-adapted to so northern a country. But business 
'fs^ seems to have been sound and the tone of all papers gives 
N the impression that these were ' ' booming ' ' times for Missouri. 

12. In Niles' Register of Jan. 2, 1819, we read "The emigration 
to Missouri is so great as to furnish a home market at very high 

prices for all provisions raised in the territory " In the issue 

of Sept. 11 we read: "Chariton, a new town somewhere in Missouri, 
contains about eighty houses, and several brick buildings are now 
being erected. A year ago the town only had five or six unchinked 
cabins on the town plot." 

13. Vol. 19, p. 112. The population of St. Louis was reported 
to be 4,598 in that year. Ibid. 312. 

14. Annals of Congress, Sixteenth Congress, First Session, p. 

15. U. S. Census Reports, 1900. Pop. I, 3. 

16. Journal of Senate, Third General Assembly, p. 42. 

17. Annals of Congress, Vol. 33, p. 1175. 




The Slave Codes. 

In this paper I shall refer more or less frequently to the 
slave codes. For sake of clearness a few words should per- 
[haps be said of them. The first was the "Black Code" of 
Bienville issued in 1724. The second of importance was that 
of (.) 'Reilley promulgated in November, 1769, during the 
Spanish occupation. The church had a sort of canon law 
called "The Laws of Las Seite Partidas" which, according 
to the translation, had legal force in Louisiana as late as 
1S20. (18) In 1804 Missouri was placed in that portion of 
Louisiana called the district of Louisiana and was for a 
time subject to the Governor and judges of Indiana. On 
[October 1, 1804, the Indiana judges issued a fairly extensive 
slave code. Other slave regulations of less importance were 
passed by the territorial authorities. 

II. Taxation. 

The only mention of a tax on slaves before 1804 is the 
provision in the Code of 1724, that if the master of a slave 
[convicted of crime gave up his slave to execution he was 
be reimbursed by a tax levied on all slaves in the 

A law of 1804 provided that "All houses in town.... 
lorses. . . .all bond servants and slaves except such as the 
court of <|iiartrr sessions shall exempt for infirmities, be- 
twci'n the ages of sixteen and forty years of age.... are 
hereby declared to be chargable, for defraying the county 
tsxpense. . . . "(20) We do not gain much light from this 
provision, because it was of a local nature, as only a portion 
of the slaves were included in the taxing list, and as the 
Erate of taxation is not given. We find a more definite 
Statement in the Act of July 8, 1806: "....on every bond 

I 18. "The Laws of Las Seite Partidas," Two Vols. Trans, by H. 
Carle ton and H. M. Lislet. (New Orleans, 1820.) 

19. In French, Vol. Ill, p. 89, Section 36. Also in Gayarre, 
Vol. I, appendix. 

20. "Laws of the Territory of Missouri." (Jefferson City, 1842). 
Vol. I, 34. Repealed July 8, 1806. Ibid. 69, Sec. 29. 


servant and slave a sum not exceeding one dollar" shall be 
levied. (21) It is interesting to learn that the same provision 
fixes the rate of tax on a horse or mule at a maximum of 
one-third that amount, and that on cattle at one-tenth. It 
was not likely that the tax ratio was in proportion to the 
valuation, especially in a sparsely settled country where 
ferass was abundant and cattle consequently cheap. This 
doubt is strengthened when we learn that the Act of March 
19, 1814, fixed the slave tax at forty cents. (22) This rate 
was changed by a law of January 21 of the year following 
which provided: "....There shall be levied and collected 
for every slave owned or possessed by any person in this 
Territory, above the age of ten years, except such as the 
county court shall exempt for sickness or disability, a tax 
of sixty-two and a half cents annually ....," and then in 
the next sentence: "And there shall be levied and col- 
lected in like manner, for every carriage kept for pleasure 
the sum of one dollar and fifty cents for every one hundred 
dollars according to its valuation/' and in the following 
section thirty cents was levied on every one hundred dollars 
of town real estate. (23) From these provisions it is not 
difficult to conclude that the slave was taxed arbitrarily 
with no thought of valuation. Why was this slave tax so 
ioAv? Was this a policy to induce the importation of slaves 
or the settlement of the Territory by slavemasters ? And why 
were so many slaves exempt from taxation? Waip it to 
reduce the tax in general and thus make the system more 
profitable? The sequel proves it must have been mere 
carelessness rather than a system. 

When Missouri became a State the slave tax was ad- 
justed to valuation similar to other forms of property. On 
December 12, 1820, the General Assembly enacted that a 
tax be levied : " .... on all lands .... dwelling houses and 

21. Ibid. 69, Sec. 12. Repealed Nov. 11 of the same year. Ibid. 
226, Sec. 11, in which it is provided that horses and mules should be 
assessed at $.37 each and cattle at $.10, slaves still at $1.00. 

22. Ibid. 329, Sec. 4. 

23. Ibid. 384, Sec. 2 and 3. 



jrovements, at the rate of twenty-five cents on every one 
idred dollars of value thereof,, on all slaves above the 
of three years and live stock at the same rate. "(24) 
lis seems to prove that the slave was considered as pro- 
tive as other forms of property. If the over-taxation of 
slave was a ruse to make the slave appear ultra profitable 
Missouri, it seems more probable this deception would have 
resorted to in the days when many claimed the sys- 
would prove unprofitable rather than after the struggle 
is over. 

III. Civil Rights In Court. 

Compared with the negro of the Atlantic coast the 
ive of the Mississippi Valley seems to have been treated 
harshly and to have had more rights before the law. 
code of 1724 gave him the right to prosecute his master 
le was improperly fed and clad, but just how or in whose 
le the suit was to be brought is not stated. (25) Section 
renty-four of the same code debars the slave from witnessing 
or against his master. However, he could witness against 
ler whites than his master, as a trial is recorded at 
lokia in 1782 in which a slave testified against a white 
fendant who had struck him. (26) In all civil and criminal 
3es his master was to act for him. (27) Although the mas- 
was not to be criminally responsible for his slave, we have 
decision noted by Billon in which a master was to be 
jonsible for the appearance of his slave accused of at- 
jking another negro, and if the wound so inflicted caused 
ith or if the victim recovered, the said master was to 
doctor's bills and cost of prosecution. (28) 
We find a very liberal provision in this code which 
ited the slave the privilege of appealing to the Su- 

24. Ibid. 731, Sec. 1. 

25. French III, 89, Sec. 20. 

26. Alvord, C. W., Coll. Ill, State Hist. Soc. (Springfield, 1907.) 
I. II, 143. 

27. French III, 89, Sec. 25. 

28. Annals of St. Louis, (St. Louis, 1886). Vol. I, 158. 


perior Court of the province if a death sentence had been 
passed, or one in which hamstringing was the penalty. Any 
magistrate taking money from a slave who was under a 
charge was to be guilty of extortion. (29) 

The first section of the law of 1804 provided that no 
negro or mulatto was to be a witness except in cases of the 
United States against a negro or a mulatto, or in a civil 
suit where negroes were alone parties. (30) The court records 
of the period after the Cession throw some light on the 
position of the slave before the law. Several cases are on 
record in which "....the court direct that an action of 
assault and battery and false imprisonment be institu- 
ted . . . . " against the master after the negro had been de- 
clared illegally enslaved. (31) The Missouri Gazette and 
Public Advertiser of September 4, 1818, gives accounts of 
two cases then before the courts. One was that of a black 
boy named Elijah charged with conspiracy to poison his 
master's family. He was given a new trial after argument by 
his three counsel. (32) The other is that of a negro girl who 
was defended on a murder charge by two attorneys. 

Thus the slave in Missouri Territory had rights that per- 
haps were not nearly equal to that of his white contemporary, 
but were certainly liberal . The records do not mention who 
paid these counsel or who retained them. 

The slave's life was not absolutely in the hands of his 
master as he had the right of redress before the law. The 
Law of 1724 provided that the slave if mutilated was to be 
confiscated. (33) The laws of O'Reilley forbade a slave re- 
ceiving more than thirty lashes at one time and subjected to 
the law any master wilfully taking the life of his slave without 
just cause, "no one being permitted to dispose of the life of a 
man at his pleasure. " (34) 

29. French III, Sec. 26, 33, 37. 

30. Terr. Laws I, 27. 

31. Matilda V. Van Ribber, Mar. 1817, Records St. Louis Su- 
preme Court of Record, or General Court. Vol. II, 144. Also Lay- 
burn V. Rice, ibid. 164, also Whinney V. Phebe Rewitt, ibid. 172. 

32. Also in ibid. 180, 186. 

33. French III, 89, Sec. 22. 

34. American State Papers. Misc. I, 380. 



Although not stated in the laws, the slave was protected 
his life after the Cession . In the case of the United States 
ist Le Blond (1814) the defendant was fined five hundred 
irs and costs and sentenced to imprisonment in the "com- 
)n Gail" for "two calendar months" for killing his slave, 
the decision does not state what provocation, if any, Le 
md had. (35) In 1820 one William Prinne was tried for 
murder of his slave, Walter, the charge being that Walter 
['been confined "in a Dungeon or cell dangerous to his 
1th. " Prinne was found not guilty. (36) The continual 
of insurrection, in Missouri as elsewhere, caused some- 
it drastic laws to be passed restricting the slaves' right to 
ir arms or to go hunting. The Law of 1724 provided that 
slave should carry a weapon or even a heavy stick unless 
It to hunt game by his master who must supply him with a 
ten permission. (37) The laws of O'Eeilley condemned 
lave to thirty lashes for bearing firearms, and he could be 
when found armed if he could not otherwise be cap- 
id. (38) These provisions were included in the Laws of 
For a slave or a mulatto to carry a "club or other 
ipon whatsoever'* any number of lashes not exceeding 
could be given "on his or her bare back well laid on. " 
as Missouri was in the territorial period a frontier com- 
lity, and as Indian incursions were often feared, a slave in 
outlying districts might bear weapons if so licensed by a 
tice of the peace. (39) 

Right to Leave the Plantation. 

The overshadowing fear of insurrection and of property 

caused the enactment of stringent provisions against the 

7e who was found off his master's plantation. The Code 

1724 forbade slaves assembling in crowds for any purpose; 

first offense being punished by whipping, the second by 

35. Records St. Louis Court n, 86, 96. 

36. Ibid. p. 226, 230, 234, 236. 

37. French III, 89, Sec. 12. 

38. Am. State Papers, Misc. I, 380. 

39. Terr. Laws I, 27, Sec. 4, 5. 


branding, while capital punishment could be exercised under 
"aggravating circumstances." Any master permitting such 
meetings was to be fined thirty livres for the first offense and 
double that amount if repeated. If his neighbors were in- 
jured by such assemblies of slaves he was to pay damages. (40) 
The Laws of 'Reilley condemned a slave to twenty lashes for 
leaving the plantation without permission, but one master 
could not punish the slaves of another. (41) 

According to the Laws of 1804, no slave was to leave his 
master's "tenements" without a pass or other token of author- 
ity. A justice was to punish such slave "with stripes" and 
it was "lawful for the owner or overseer of such plantation 
[on which the slave had trespassed] to give or order such 
slave ten lashes on his or her bare back for every such offense." 
Riots, unlawful assemblies, and seditious speeches by slaves 
were to be punished with stripes at the discretion of a justice 
of the peace." Any slave "conspiring to rebel or murder" 
was to be executed after conviction without benefit of clergy. 
Any master or mistress of slaves knowingly permitting slaves 
or others to remain upon their property for more than four 
hours without consent of the owners was to be fined three 
dollars and costs, and for permitting more than five slaves to 
assemble ' ' at any other time' ' was fined one dollar per slave so 
assembled. Negroes with passes could meet for worship or 
on "any other lawful occasion. " Any white, free negro, or 
mulato meeting with a seditious slave or aiding such was 
fined three dollars if such seditious slave was not exposed, and 
on failure to pay this should "receive on his or her bare back 
twenty lashes well laid on." Any justice failing to act 
within ten days when informed of an unlawful meeting of 
slaves was to be fined eight dollars and costs, and a sheriff 
four dollars and costs for the same offense. (42.) A statute 
of 1817 required slaves without passes to be taken before a 
justice, the sheriff serving notice on the owner who was to pay 
the usual summons fee . (43) 

40. French III, 89, Sec. 13, 14. 

41. Am. State Papers. Misc. I, 380. 

42. Terr. Laws I, 27, Sec. 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14. 

43. Ibid. p. 501, Sec. 1. 


Subsequent to the Cession there seems to have been some 
reason for stringent laws to prevent slave insurrections. The 
Louisiana Gazette of February 29, 1812, states that the militia 
of that territory had been ordered out to "quell a meditated 
rising of the negroes. " 

The Missouri Gazette of March 22, 1817, in a way admits the 
jossibility of slave risings: "The existence of that race 
among us is contemplated by all who have reflected profoundly 
on the subject, with dread; not from any fears of insurrections 
which may perhaps be occasionally expected [but from race 
fusion]." In October, 1819, one Humphrey Smith was ac- 
cused by the Howard County grand jury of exciting the slaves 
to revolt. (44) 

The Law of 1724 condemned a slave to branding and loss 
of ears for the first offense in being away from the plantation 
for more than a month; the second and third offences being 
punished by hamstringing and death respectively. Free 
negroes were reduced to slavery for aiding the escape of a 
si The master could by legal means search in "other 

lands than this colony" for his escaped property. " (45) 

In the section on insurrection the laws relative to the 
penalties against a slave leaving his master's plantation in- 
clude some clauses regarding escape as well as trespass. Two 
justices could give a warrant to the sheriff, and the owners of 
the escaped slaves if same were "killing hogs and committing 
other injuries." (46) A Law of January, 1817, provided 
that any slave found without a pass was to be taken before a 
justice. The sheriff was to serve notice on the owner who 
was to pay the usual summons fee. In case the owner re- 
fused to pay this fee the justice "may issue execution for the 
same as in ordinary cases." Non-resident owners were to 
have names of escaped slaves published for ninety days in a 
Territorial paper. (47) If the owner or overseer appeared 

44. St. Louis Inquirer, Oct. 20, 1819. 

45. French, III, 89, Sec. 32, 34, 35. 

46. Terr. Laws, I, 27, Sec. 13. 

47. Terr. Laws, I, 601, Sec. 1, 2. In the Mo. Gazette of Aug. 8, 
1812, we find twenty-five dollars being offered for the apprehension 


within ten days and claimed such slave was doing his owner's 
business, he was to pay costs before receiving the same. After 
ninety days' notice the slave was to be sold to the highest 
bidder ''for ready money." After deducting the jail fees 
and five dollars for the apprehension of the slave, the re- 
mainder was to be deposited in the treasury to satisfy the fu- 
ture claims of the owner. There appears to have been no 
cruel punishments inflicted publicly upon the captured slave, 
the matter evidently being left to the master. 

Eight to Buy and Sell. 

The Code of 1724 forbade a slave to buy or sell without 
a written permission from his master, and fixed a fine of fifteen 
hundred livres upon any one so dealing with a slave without 
permission. When the master gave his slave such permission 
he was responsible for the commercial acts of such slave. (48) 
The Laws of O'Reilley forbade, under penalty of twenty-five 
lashes, a slave to sell without his master's consent even the 
products of the waste land given him for his own use. (49) 
The Laws of Las Seite Partidas bound the master to all com- 
mercial acts of the slave if he commissioned said slave to 
"exercise any trade or commerce." (50) 

A stringent provision of the Law of 1804 implies that the 
master was at times deeply wronged by persons having com- 
mercial relations with his slaves. The penalty for buying or 
selling to a slave without the master's consent was a fine of 
four times the amount of the consideration involved, and 
costs. The informer of such transaction was given twenty 
dollars . Any free negro who had so bought from or sold to a 
slave, was given thirty stripes ' ' well laid on " in default of the 
payment of this fine. (51) 

of a mulatto boy. The issue of July 31, 1813, offers two hundred 
and fifty dollars reward for two negroes who could read and write. 
Nearly every issue in this and following years contains similar 
notices . 

48. French III, 89, Sec. 15, 23. 

49. Am. State Papers. Misc. I, 380. 

50. Vol. I, 485. 

51. Terr. Laws. I, 27, Sec. 11. Repealed Dec. 9, 1822. Ibid, 
p. 958. 


Criminal Laws. 

According to the Code of 1724 death was to be the penalty 
for "bruising' or shedding the blood" of the master's family 
and violence against any free person was punished by "sever- 
ity, and even death should the case require it." The 

sentence for the stealing of horses, cattle and other large ani- 
mals was to be " corporal ' ' and ' ' even by death . ' ' The penalty 
for pilfering smaller animals and produce was whipping and 
branding. The master was either to indemnify the loser or 
to turn the slave over "to suffer" after he himself had pun- 
ished the thief. The slave was to be branded and his ears 
severed if he escaped and failed to return within a month and 
to be hamstrung and executed for the second and third of- 
fenses respectively. (52) This law really seems severe con- 
sidering the limited number of slaves that could have been in 
the Mississippi Valley in 1724. When we consider that the 
Laws of O'Reilley subjected a white man to death for stealing 
church property, villifying the king, or rape; and to confisca- 
tion of property and loss of tongue for blasphemy, these slave 
laws seem less rigorous. (53) 

At Cahokia in 1779 a negro was sentenced to twenty 
lashes "since he used very bad language and threatened to 
revenge himself on those who should undertake to seize 
him." (54) The same year two negroes were sentenced, one 
to be hanged and the other to be burned alive for sorcery. 
There is said to have been no evidence of the execution of this 
sentence. (55) 

The Law of 1804 provided that any negro, bond or free, 
was to be subjected to a maximum of thirty stripes for lifting 
a hand against whites "Proved by oath of the party unless 
such negro or mulatto was wantonly assaulted and lifted his 
or her hand in his or her defence" Death was the penalty 
only for conspiracy to rebel, for murder, and for the adminis- 

52. French III, 89, Sec. 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32. 

53. Am. State Papers. Misc. I. p. 373, Sec. 1, 2, 5, 15. 

54. Alvord, Coll. Ill, Hist. Soc. Vol. II, 43. 

55. Thwaites, R. G., "The Colonies." (New York, 1906), 192. 


tering of poison. (56) When compared with the general 
criminal law of four years later these punishments do not 
seem at all severe. Rape was punished by castration 
burglary by thirty-nine lashes; perjury by disfranchisement 
and an hour in the pillory, while for the stealing and branding 
of horses and cattle forty-five lashes on the bare back "well 
laid on" were given. Any one stealing slaves, or convicted 
of enslaving a negro whom he knew to be free was to suffer 
death. All death penalties were without benefit of 
clergy. (57) 

From the criminal legislation against the blacks we can 
decide that there was more fear of the slave selling his mas- 
ter's goods or of running away than of his committing private 
crimes . 

IV. Social Customs. 

Old Louisiana being a province in which the church was 
very powerful and the priest influential, we should naturally 
expect religious provisions regarding the slave. The Law of 
1724 required the master to impart religious instruction to 
the slave, this instruction to be Roman Catholic under penalty 
of the slave's confiscation. The same penalty was suffered 
if the slave was forced to work on Sundays and holidays. Ev- 
ery Christian slave was to be buried hi consecrated 
ground. (58) 

The laws subsequent to the Cession make no provisions 
for the religious life of the slave except that no one was to 
prevent slaves meeting for worship. (59) 

In Louisiana as elsewhere the fusion of the races was 
deplored. Section six of the Code of 1724 states that there 
was to be no intermarriage between the races; that no priest 
was to perform such a marriage ; that there was to be no con- 
cubinage with negresses; that the negress' master and the 
one causing issue were each to be fined three hundred livres, 

56. Terr. Laws, I, Sec. 12, 14, 15. 

57. Ibid, 210, Sec. 8 11, 16, 18, 21, 22' 39, 45. 

58. French, Vol. Ill, 89, Sec. 2, 3, 4, 5, 11. 

59. Terr. Laws, I, 27, Sec. 8. 


the master also to be deprived of the negress and the issue 
"never to be free. " 

The slaves appear to have been regularly married. A 
[free black having issue with a slave was to marry same and 
the issue was never to be free. In case of issue of the slaves 
of two masters, the said issue was to belong to the mother's 
master. The master's consent was necessary for a slave to 
marry, but he could not force his slaves to marry. (60) 

After the Cession, legislation on the subject seems to have 
>een dropped . But in the Law of 1804 we find the f ollowing 
>rovision drawing definitely the line between the races: 
"Every person other than a negro whose grandfather or 

randmother any one is, or shall have been a negro and 

every such person who shall have one-fourth part or more 
legro blood, shall in like manner be deemed a mu- 
' (61) As there were strict laws against the slave 
ig the plantation, and as the negro population was rela- 
iy small, and consequently less thickly massed, it is not 
ly that the morals were so low as farther to the east and 

In considering a subject like slavery there are always 
le questions which are uppermost in the mind. How were 
slaves treated? Were they underfed and poorly clad? 
re these domestic matters solely in the hands of the slave 
ters? Despite the fact that the Code of 1724 was very 
jre in some respects it appears to have been very humane in 
jrs. For not properly feeding and clothing his slave the 
ter could be prosecuted; aged and maimed slaves were to 
ipported ; and if the owner refused, he was charged eight 
its per day for each slave, and his property attached if the 
was not paid. (62) The Laws of O'Reilley provided that 

60. French, III, 89, Sec. 6, 7, 8, 9. We find the following pro- 
ions in the Laws of Las Seite Partidas: A slave may marry a 

woman if she knew at the time that he was a slave, and so could 
Bgress marry a free man, but both must be Christians. Such a 

iage was valid despite the wishes of the master. The issue of 
ree man and a slave followed the condition of the motbt-r, etc. 

I, 470. 

61. Terr. Laws, I, 27, Sec. 6. 

62. French III, 89, Sec. 20, 21. 


every slave was to ' ' receive the barrel of corn provided by the 
usage of the colony ; and was also to be given the use of waste 
lands . ' ' The slave who has not a portion of waste land shall 
receive punctually from his master a shirt and trousers of 
linen in the summer, and a great coat and trousers of wool 
for the winter." It was also provided that "Every slave 
shall be allowed one-half hour for breakfast, two hours for 
dinner; their labor shall commence at break of day, and shall 
cease at the approach of night. Sundays shall be the privi- 
lege of the slaves, but their masters may require their labor 

at harvest on paying them four escalins per diem. "(63) 

The records extant largely refer to the New Orleans coun- 
try. The negro seems to have been well treated, as the 
Church took a great interest in him, the soil was abundant and 
rich and the climate not severe. M. Dumont in his memoirs 

states that "sometimes a confidential negro carries a 

whip as a mark of distinction [as overseer] . The negresses go 
to work like the rest; and when nursing children, carry them 
on their backs, and follow the rest. " M. Dumont does not 
imply that these slaves were badly treated although he admits 
that runaways were severely handled. (64) Another picture 
is given by Stoddard who traveled through the country short- 
ly before the Cession : ' ' When we pass into Louisiana [from 
Mississippi Territory] we behold a different and more disgust- 
ing picture. The French and Spanish planters in particular 
treat their slaves with great rigor ; and this has been uniform- 
ily the case from the first of the colony The labor im- 
posed on the slaves is equal to the powers of the most robust 
men, and yet for their subsistence they are tantalized with a 

small pittance of corn and also with the hard choice of 

a little waste land, which they have not time to cultivate, or a 
few rags to hide their nakedness, or to guard them against the 
severities of the weather. " (65) That there was a difference 
of opinion as to the treatment of the Missouri slave is evident 
from the following statements of contemporaries. A corre- 

63. Am. State Papers, Misc. I, 380. 

64. French, Vol. V, 121. 

65. "Sketches of Louisiana." (Phila., 1812) p. 332-6 passim. 



spondent of Niles Register thus pictures the state of the insti- 
[tution in the St. Louis country: "The condition of their 
slaves, when compared with most countries, where slavery is 
tolerated, is not hard or severe. Their labor is not great, or 
painful, they are allowed many privileges, and are well 
clothed and fed." The editor, however, seems suspicious of 
the veracity of this statement and adds in parenthesis: "Bet- 
ter information satisfies me that this encomium is un- 
merited." (66) 

The laws after the Cession make no mention of the domes- 
tic obligations of the master to his slave, and hence it is diffi- 
cult to understand the ideals of the period. 

V. Manumission. 

Most of the slave states and colonies discouraged the 
freeing of the blacks. The Code of 1724 permitted a master 
who had reached the age of twenty-five years to manumit his 
slaves by legal proeedings, but before the Superior court only. 
Such freedmen were to have "all the rights and privileges in- 
icrent in our subjects born in our kingdom. " The freedman 
|was to treat his late master 's family with respect . If a slave 
[was appointed a tutor to his master's children "said slaves 
shall be held and be regarded as being set free to all intents 
and purposes. " (67) 

Billon gives the first negro manumission of St. Louis as 
taking place in 1763. (68) 

The Laws of 1804 provided that a slave might be formally 
freed by writing, but if such slave was not of sound mind, or 
was a male under twenty-one or over forty-five, or was a fe- 
male under eighteen, the master was to support the same, and 
[ his goods could be attached for that purpose. If an executor 
did not obtain freedom papers according to testament he was 
fined thirty dollars. Emancipated slaves were to be hired out 
or have their goods attached for not paying taxes. (69) 

~6<L Vol77, 245. 

67. French III, 89, Sec. 50, 51, 52. Section 54 reads: "We 
grant to manumitted slaves the same rights, privileges, and immuni- 
ties which are enjoyed by free born persons." 

68. Vol. I, 39. 

69. Terr. Laws I, 27, Sec. 23, 24, 25. 


VI. Opinions in 1820. 

Some have expressed the opinion that the people of Mis- 
souri were not much concerned with the question of slavery 
till the constitutional questions involved in the fight for state- 
hood began. We have good proof that the Missourians of 
the Compromise period did not conceive of the institution as 
a "positive good." In July, 1819, John Scott, the Terri- 
torial delegate, thus expressed his views: "I regret as much 
as any person can do the existence of Slavery in the United 
States. I think it wrong in itself, nor on principle would I 
be understood as advocating it; but I trust I shall always be 
the advocate of the people's rights to decide on this question 

for themselves I consider it not only unfriendly to 

the slaves themselves to confine them to the south, but wholly 
incompetent for Congress to interfere. " (70) It is not likely 
that a native of Virginia, a man of growing influence who 
might expect much at the hands of the new state, and one who 
attacked Tallmadge's motion in the House, would thus con- 
demn slavery in the abstract if his constituency was not simi- 
larly minded. Mr. Henry Carroll on presenting an anti- 
Congressional resolution from Howard county said: "..there 
are none within my view, none it might be said in Boon's Lick 

country who would not lend efficient co-operation to 

achieve all the good within their compass, and wipe from the 
white cheek the foul stain which soils it [but] a rejec- 
tion of slavery can not fail to shut out of our country those 
disposed to migrate hither from the southern states, under a 
repugnance to separate from the labor useful to them." (71) 
On September 11, 1819, the Baptist Association in session at 
Mount Pleasant Meeting House in Howard County adopted a 
petition to Congress in which we read: "... .although with 

Washington and Jefferson we regret the existence of 

slavery at all and look forward to a time when a happy 

emancipation can be effected, consistent with the principles of 
Justice the constitution does not admit slaves to 

70. Mo. Gazette and Boon's Ldck Advertiser, July 16, 1819. 

71. Mo. Intelligencer, July 9, 1819. 


be freemen ; it does admit them to be property we have 

all the means necessary for a state government, and believe 
that the question of slavery is one which belongs exclusively to 
the state to decide on. . " (72) 

These expressions are at least evidence that the Mis- 
sourians were opposed to slavery theoretically, or pretended 
to be, in order to mollify Congress and the country, and thus 
make their fight for non-Congressional interference seem un- 
selfish, and themselves conscientiously constitutional. 

Political bodies and religious organizations were even 
joined by the courts in demanding "Squatter Sovereignty" in 
1820. The Grand Jurors of St. Louis in April, 1819, thus 
put themselves on record: "They believe that all the slave- 
holding states are virtually menaced and threatened with 
eventual destruction [if slavery is prohibited] . . . . " (73) The 
Grand Jury of Montgomery County in July, 1819, declared: 
"They view the restriction attempted to be imposed on the 
people of Missouri Territory in the formation of a State Con- 
stitution as unlawful, unconstitutional, and oppressive." (74) 
Besides the opinons quoted there are public letters and editor- 
ials by the score in the Territorial papers of 1819-20. (75) 
Many are anti- but most of them pro-slavery, or in more pre- 
cise terms many of them pro-restriction, but most of them ad- 
vancing anti-Congressional interference. That there was a 
considerable anti-slavery element in the Territory can be in- 
ferred from the various resolutions passed and the number of 
candidates supporting that issue. (76) There is little doubt, 
however, that the state was largely pro-slavery. 

We may conclude that slavery as it existed in Missouri in 
1820 was a fairly well organized system. It is true there 
were but a few thousand negro slaves in the Territory, but 
were chiefly massed along the Mississippi and the Missouri 

72. St. Louis Inquirer, Oct. 20, 1819. 

73. Mo. Gazette, May 12, 1819. 

74. Miles, Vol. 17, 71. 

75. See Mo. Gaz. Mar. 24th, and April 7, 1819, Mo. Intelligencer, 
June 25th and July 9, 1819. Miles, Vol. 16, 288. 

76. St. Louis Inquirer, Apr. 12, 1820, etc. 


rivers, the only portions of the Territory then well settled. 
We have seen that special slave codes were enacted, and 
special slave taxes levied, and as the ratio between the races 
was about five to one, the negro population must have been 
sufficient to influence the society and institution of the terri- 
torial period. 

Hardin College. HARBISON A. TREXLER. 


Second Paper. 
Daniel Boone's Western "Palatinate." 

When Daniel Boone made an agreement with the Spanish 
government to bring one hundred American families to Upper 
Louisiana, or New Spain, as the territory was sometimes 
called, it was in furtherance of a scheme to 
establish beyond the Mississippi a community of manorial 
lords of the soil. He expected to surround himself with a 
hundred families or more of his personal friends and acquaint- 
ances, each of whom should own not less than one thousand 
acres, and be a baron or "patroon" by right of "eminent do- 
main." Like all intelligent North Carolinians, Boone was 
familiar with the early efforts to found a Palatinate in the 
Carolinas, and he dreamed of a similar aristocratic organiza- 
tion in the sylvan shades of the Spanish possessions. Slavery 
was a necessary feature of such a system, and consequently all 
the families that came to Upper Louisiana at Boone's solicita- 
tion were slave holders; but usually in a small way. None of 
the great slave lords of the South ventured west of the Missis- 
sippi at that early date. Boone himself owned a few slaves, 
but he was opposed to the system; and yet, regarding it as a 
permanent evil, to be endured because it could not be put 


away, he sought to ameliorate its harsher conditions. He be- 
lieved that a community of independent landlords, actuated 
by liberal and humane sentiments, would be willing and able, 
in their affluent circumstances, to institute and carry out 
measures of reform better and more thoroughly than such a 
work could be done by the small farmers of the older States. 
It was an impracticable dream, but it demonstarted the 
benevolence of his disposition, as well as the breadth of his 
statesmanship; and if the plan could have succeeded, even 
measurably, it might have made an interesting page in Ameri- 
can history. 

Meanwhile, the settlements on the Femme Osage grew and 
flourished. There came not only the "patroons" and the 
barons, the great landlords and the slave holders, but many 
of the " under-crust " also found their way into the thriving 
community. The idea of an exclusive landed aristocracy had 
to be abandoned, for many rough and tough specimens of so- 
ciety began to make their appearance, who had no drop of 
aristocratic blood in their veins. These people could not be 
transformed into owners of baronies and benevolent instruc- 
tors of slaves, any more than the proverbial silk purse could 
be manufactured out of a sow's ear. They had none of the 
refining elements in them. They were the mudsills of the 
older settlements; and in some instances, desperate criminals 
who had come west for their own and their country's good. 
The sittings of the court under the "judgment tree" became 
more and more frequent; and the whipping-post was found 
to be not always an effectual instrument of reform ; for some of 
the criminals who were "whipped and . cleared" harbored 
vicious resentments and sought opportunities to gratify their 
vengeance . 

The first murder within the limits of Boone 's ' ' Palatinate ' ' 
was committed on the 13th day of December, 1804, and the 
criminal was indicted by the first gran(J jury that assembled 
north of the Missouri river after the cess^*e of the territory to 
the United States. The preliminary hea j *ng was held before 
Commandant Boone, who remanded the accused to the "cala- 


bazo" at St. Charles to await the action of the grand jury. 
When that body assembled it developed that eleven of the 
twelve members could not write their names. Accordingly, 
the one whose scholastic attainments had progressed to that 
point was chosen foreman, and the others signed their conclu- 
sions with a cross mark. In framing their indictment they 
endeavored to make up for their lack of erudition by solemnity 
of sound and particularly of statement, and the instrument 
which they laboriously brought forth is one of the curiosities 
of literature. It likewise possesses a special interest as the 
first indictment drawn in Louisiana Territory under the 
American government. In words and figures it reads as fol- 

''That one James Davis, late of the District of St. 
Charles, in the Territory of Louisiana, Laborer, not having the 
fear of God before his eyes, but being moved and seduced by 
the instigation of the Devil, on the 13th day of December, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and four 
(1804), at a place called Femme Osage, in the said district of 
St. Charles, with force of arms, in and upon William Hays, in 
the peace of God and the United States, there and then Felon- 
iously, willfully and with malice aforethought, did make an 
assault, and that the said James Davis, with a certain rifb 
gun, four feet long, and of the value of five dollars, then and 
there loaded and charged with gun powder and one leaden 
bullet, with said rifle gun the said James Davis, then and there 
in his hands had and held, fired and killed William Hays." 

But notwithstanding the fact that William Hays had been 
"feloniously fired and killed" with a "certain rifle gun" four 
feet in length and worth five dollars, while said gun was "had 
and held" by James Davis, there were apparently extenuating 
circumstances; for when the grand jury found a true bill and 
bound Davis over to appear for trial in the penal sum of 
$3,000, Daniel Boone signed the bond, and at the subsequent 
trial Davis was cledvld. 

As early as ISOHthe settlements in Femme Osage district 
had grown to such proportions as to arouse the apprehensions 


and excite the jealousies of the Indian tribes whose hunting 
grounds had been invaded. The great Tecumseh heard the 
complaints of his western brethren, and that year he and the 
Prophet began their efforts to effect a union of all the north- 
ern and northwestern tribes against the whites. They were 
ably seconded by agents of the British government, who hoped 
with the assistance of the red men to check the spread of the 
settlements and drive the Americans back to the tide-water 
States. In pursuance of their general plan, Tecumseh and 
the Prophet visited the tribes from the lakes to the Gulf, 
haranguing their councils and preparing the way for the open- 
ing of hostilities. "The sun is my father," boastingly ex- 
claimed the Shawnee chieftain, "and the earth is my mother, 
and on her bosom will I repose . ' ' He represented in his own 
person the concentrated hatred of his race for the palefaces, 
and he sacrificed his life in an effort to clear the way for his 
people to occupy the land which he believed had been assigned 
to them by a power higher than human . All the western ter- 
ritory had been fairly purchased from one tribe or another, 
but Tecumseh claimed that the land was owned in common by 
all the Indians, and that no tribe could dispose of any more 
than its individual rights . This was the ground of his con- 
tention against the white settlers. 

But no overt acts were committed until after the declara- 
tion of war by Congress on the 18th of June, 1812. Eight days 
thereafter a grand council of the northwestern tribes con- 
vened at Tecumseh 's home, near the present site of Spring- 
field, Ohio, and it was then decided to unite with the English 
in an effort to drive the American settlers beyond the Ohio 
river. The tribes represented on this occasion were the 
Shawnees, the Miamis, the Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies, 
Kickapoos, Sioux, Otoes, lowas, and the Sacs and Foxes-. The 
two last named were the only ones that gave the Missouri set- 
tlements any trouble. They were kindred nations of the Al- 
gonquin family, and usually acted together; but in this in- 
stance they were divided. The larger part dwelt on the up- 
per waters of the Mississippi and in the vicinity of the present 


site of Rock Island, Illinois. These were the hostiles. Another 
band, living south of the Missouri river, in territory now em- 
braced in Franklin county, remained friendly to the whites. 
During the progress of the war the hostiles sent a number of 
embassies across the country to their southern relatives, hop- 
ing to induce them to take up the hatchet; and it was these 
prowling bands, passing to and fro, that committed the mur- 
ders in Femme Osage district. 

When it became known that war had been declared, the 
settlers west of the Mississippi realized their danger, and 
preparations were made to meet the emergency. A number 
of primitive forts, fourteen in all, were constructed, and com- 
panies of rangers organized. These men wore buckskin 
hunting shirts and trousers, with moccasins of the same ma- 
terial, while their heads were covered with coonskin caps from 
which the ringed tails depended down upon their shoulders. 
It was a picturesque uniform, and well suited to the work they 
had to do. Their arms were the rifle, tomahawk and scalp- 
ing-knife. The rifle was a familiar instrument in their 
hands, and an absolutely deadly weapon anywhere within 
range; while many of them could hurl the tomahawk thirty 
feet or more with an accuracy that was keenly dreaded by the 
savage foe. Some of these rangers were as sanguinary in 
disposition as their Indian antagonists, and the latter knew 
they had no mercy, to expect if they fell into the hands of the 
white men, for the rangers carried into practice the theory 
that there are no good Indians but dead ones. Each family 
in the settlements was supplied with a trumpet, to be blown 
as a signal in case of danger; and a blast from one of these 
instruments never failed to put the savages to flight. 

The council at Tecumseh's home had scarcely closed its 
deliberations when the settlers in Boone's Palatinate began to 
feel its effects. Horses were stolen and driven away, and 
exposed cabins were burned and their occupants murdered. 
During the course of three years, from 1812 to 1815, a hundred 
battles were fought in the region of country now embraced by 
the counties of St. Charles, Lincoln, Warren and Montgomery. 


Only one tragedy, however, was enacted within the immediate 
limits of the Boone settlement. This occurred at the house 
of Jonathan Bryan, a nephew of Daniel Boone, who had come 
with his family to Upper Louisiana at "Uncle Daniel's" solici- 
tation. He arrived in 1800, and the following year he se- 
lected a body of land in Femme Osage valley, adjoining what 
subsequently became the Boone farm. Here he drove his 
stakes and laid the foundations of a future home . The house 
was built in 1801, of hewed walnut logs, in conformity with a 
belief that pestiferous insects would not infest a building com- 
posed of that aromatic timber. It stood, and still stands, on 
the summit of a hill that slopes abruptly down to the valley 
of the Femme Osage, a little more than a mile west of the 
spring where Boone afterward built his cabin and held his 
courts, and where the stone mansion was erected. The roofs 
and outlines of the two houses can be seen, the one from the 
other, through the vistas of intervening trees. The Bryan 
house was a double-log cabin with a hall or passageway be- 
tween the rooms, and was regarded in its day as an imposing 
mansion . 

Here in 1803 Lewis and Clerk and their party of explorers 
stopped for several days, enjoying the hospitality of the fam- 
ily and consulting Daniel Boone about the conditions of the 
western country, for the old pioneer lived as much with the 
family of his favorite nephew as he did at his own home. 

On the morning of May 20, 1815, a band of six Fox In- 
dians attacked the family of Robert Ramsey, whose cabin was 
situated about two miles northwest of the present site of Mar- 
thasville, in Warren county. That was then the extreme 
limit of the Boone settlements, and the place was regarded as 
so dangerous that the rangers had advised Ramsey to move his 
family back to a safer location. He disregarded the injunc- 
tion, and in due time became the victim of his own rashness. 
Ramsey and his wife were both wounded at the first fire, 
but the former, as he fell, grasped the trumpet which hung 
over the cabin door and blew a blast that frightened the sav- 
ages away from their murderous work. They did not de- 


part, however, until they had tomahawked three children who 
crouched affrighted in the yard, and one of them was scalped. 
The scene of this tragedy is still pointed out, the corner of the 
yard remaining the same as it was then, the spot where the 
little one fell being marked by the stump of a locust tree that 
stood there at the time. Mrs. Ramsey died the following day, 
but the husband recovered. 

The sound of the firing and the trumpet blast were heard 
by a young man who was hunting in the vicinity, and the 
rangers were at once notified. So rapidly was the news car- 
ried by scouts and runners, and from house to house, that by 
midday the entire country was warned, and armed men hur- 
ried to the scene of the massacre. Daniel Boone was among 
the number, and as his experience in border warfare had given 
him some knowledge of surgery, he dressed the wounds of 
Ramsey and his wife. 

It was not supposed that the Indians would attempt to 
penetrate any further into the settlements, and accordingly afl 
the boys and men capable of bearing arms repaired to the 
Ramsey place, where parties were organized and sent out in 
every direction to seek the trail of the savages. The women 
and children were thus left unprotected at home . The Indians 
separated into parties of two each, and fled in different direc- 
tions, in order to evade the pursuit of the rangers . 

The next morning at daylight one of these parties at- 
tacked the Bryan home on the Femme Osage, fifteen miles 
from the Ramsey place. Mrs. Bryan and a negro woman 
were in the back yard at the time, attending to some domestic 
duties, when they were startled by the screams of a little negro 
boy. On looking up thy discovered an Indian warrior wh'o 
had crossed the fence into the yard, and was running toward 
them with uplifted tomahawk. He carried his loaded gun in 
the other hand, but was evidently afraid to use it lest its sound 
should alarm the neighborhood. The women fled into the 
hallway, reaching and closing the door just as the Indian can 
upon them. They caught his head and right arm, the hand 
still grasping the tomahawk, between the door and the wooden 


facing, and thus held him fast. As he struggled to free him- 
self, the negro woman, by her companion 's direction, wrenched 
the hatchet from his hand, and slew him at a blow. The sav- 
age sank to the floor and his gun fell into the hall. At that 
instant another scream from the little boy, who had remained 
in the yard, warned them of a new danger, and turning toward 
the south entrance they saw another Indian, armed like the 
first, and of a peculiarly savage and brutal appearance, run- 
ning toward the house and distant but a few feet. Mrs. 
Bryan instantly seized the gun of the fallen Indian and shot 
the new intruder dead. He fell at the foot of a black locust 
tree, long since uprooted, but another of the same species 
stands in the same place, so that a photograph taken of the 
old house, represents the scene as it was at the time of the 
tragedy. The Indians were buried in the horse-lot, back of 
the house, near a great boulder of sandstone, which still marks 
the spot ; and as the family regarded the event with feelings of 
horror, the dead warriors were ever afterward spoken of with 
some degree of gentleness, as "strangers who died while trav- 
eling that way." Visitors have the graves of the Indians 
pointed out to them, and are told this legend by the farmer's 
family who inhabit a new house near-by, and who still drink 
from the spring that flows on forever. 




The first postoffice established in what is now Jefferson 
county was at Herculaneum October 1, 1811, and Charles A. 
Austin was made the first postmaster. He was a son of 
Moses Austin, who obtained a grant of land, a league square, 
covering the site of Potosi, under the Spanish government in 
1783. The site of the first post office, which was in a store 
kept by Austin, has long since been washed away by the Mis- 
sissippi river. There was a shot tower at this place in 1811 
and it was one of the shipping points for the lead from 
Washington county. 

Rush Tower. 

The next postoffice in the county was at Rush Tower, 
which was opened May 23, 1813, by Andrew Fight, as post- 
master. Fight was quite a character in his day. There was 
also a shot tower at this place in 1813 and it was a shipping 
point for lead. Herculaneum and Rush Tower were the only 
postoffices in this county till 1827. The mails reached Her- 
culaneum once in two weeks from St. Louis by the old 
King's Terrace road to the old Joshua Herrington place, 
and thence by what is now Pevely; and this route was 
continued to Potosi. The mails to Rush Tower were carried 
from Potosi via Blackwell's farm on Big River and Tarpley's 
Mill (now Avoca). Fight was postmaster at this place in 


Selma became a postoffice March 13, 1827, and Luther 
M. Kennett was the first postmaster. Kennett and his 

*Report of committee on Landmarks, Old Settlers' Association of 
Jefferson County. 


brother, Ferdinand B., had a shot tower at this place at 
the time and it became quite a shipping point for lead. Mr. 
Kennett was afterward mayor of St. Louis and as mayor 
he delivered the principal address on the occasion of break- 
ing dirt for the first railroad (the Missouri Pacific) in Mis- 
souri, July 4, 1851, near St. Louis. Kennett, as a "Know 
Nothing," defeated Thomas H. Benton for Congress in the 
St. Louis district in 1854. 

Ferdinand B. Kennett, simply to please his wife, erected 
Kennett Castle at Selma, which is an ideal place for a home. 

The mails were carried to Selma and Rush Tower by 
steamboat in 1827 and from Potosi overland. 

Valley Mines. 

This office was established March 13, 1830, and Thomas 
Tarpley was appointed first postmaster. This office was on 
the mail route from Rush Tower to Potosi, which crossed 
Big River at the old Blackwell farm-house and thence ran 
by Belief ontaine and Old Mines. The name of the office 
should have been Valle, but the Government officials spelled 
it as it was pronounced, Valley. Valle 's mines were dis- 
covered by Joseph Schutz in 1824. The name of the post- 
office was subsequently changed to Perry and Tarpley 's 
mine, which was south of Valle 's mine. 

Thomas Tarpley, in time, built a grist mill at what is 
now known as Avoca. The people called it "Tapley's Mill," 
leaving out the "r" in his name. 



This office was established May 23, 1828, and John 
Simpson was postmaster. We do not know where this 
was located, but it may have been at Boli's Mill at the 
mouth of Saline creek on the Meramec River, nor do we 
know anything about Mr. Simpson. If any one knows any- 
thing about this office or Mr. Simpson the committee would 


be pleased to get into correspondence with him. There is 
no such office now nor has there been for over seventy years. 


This office was established April 4, 1838, and John 
Pence, a blacksmith, was made postmaster. The office was 
kept at the old Wideman Mill on U. S. survey No. 872, about 
three-quarters of a mile above Morse Mill. Francis Wideman 
was granted this land by the Spanish Government, and he 
erected a mill there in 1802 about the first in the country. 
Pence had a blacksmith shop at the mill and kept the 
postoffice until September 14, 1840, when Joseph McKee 
succeeded him. McKee kept the office in the store of 
McBurnett, a merchant, till May 16, 1845, when the store 
was closed, the mill abandoned and the postoffice abolished. 
The erection of Gherke's Mill, called by the people "Yerkey" 
and the Maddox Mill (now Cedar Hill) caused the dowm- 
fall of the Wideman mill with all its business interests. 
The site of this office has been in corn and wheat for over 
half a century. Its exact place can not be located, but 
soon the last vestige of the old mill will be gone, and those 
who remember it will be called to their long homes and 
then it will be too late to find the exact place, which was 
the business center for many years of the Wideman 


This office was established May 27, 1837, and was kept 
by Stephen Senter, postmaster, at his residence near what 
is now Frumet bridge on the wayside of Big River on U. 
S. survey No. 3166. It was supplied with mail, what little 
it had, from St. Louis via House Springs, the route leading 
up Big River by way of Sunville. This office was discon- 
tinued October 11, 1838. It did not pay. The old Senter 
residence disappeared over thirty years ago. Its site has 
been in cultivation, in corn, etc. 



This office was established September 6, 1838, and 
Louis Bolduc was made postmaster, and he continued in 
the office until it was moved to Tyro, May 11, 1850. This 
office was kept in the residence of Bolduc, which was near 
the present residence of Mr. Harness on Big River, 
just below Mammoth cave. It was on the old stage route 
from St. Louis via Potosi and Caledonia. Dennis Armstrong, 
a citizen of Hillsboro, drove the coach over this route many 
years. That part of the old stage route lying between Dry 
creek and Vivretts' home on Big River has long been 


This office was moved from Glenfinlas May 10, 1850, 
and David Wilson was made postmaster. The office was 
kept at the residence of Wilson at what is now Big River 
bridge. It was moved March 19, 1867, to Vineland. Walter 
Slawson was made postmaster at the latter point. 

There are other defunct postoffices in this county, but 
we will reserve them for some future report. 

All of which is respectfully sumbitted. 

Chairman of Committee. 


Second Paper. 

The Sac and Fox Indian Line of 1804. 
The Osage Indian Lines of 1808. 
The Fifth Principal Meridian. 
The Missouri-Iowa Line. 

We will study these lines together, because we cannot 
well understand the history of one without knowing the 
history of the others. The history of the Missouri Compro- 
mise Line is a tragedy, while that of the above is a drama 
with comic and tragic sidelights and incidents. 

The Sac and Fox Indian Line. November 3, 1804. 

This day ought to be memorable in the history of our 
State. It marks the commencement of our policy in the 
treatment of the Indians, inhabiting or claiming the country, 
west of the Mississippi. The Sacs and Foxes claimed, as 
hunting grounds, all the territory lying north of the Missouri 
River, extending into what is now Iowa; and the first treaty 
with any tribe of Indians, west of the Mississippi River, was 
made at St. Louis, November 3, 1804, by Gov. Harrison, 
"Superintendent of Indian Affairs and Commissioner and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States for concluding 
any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary 
with any of the Northwestern tribes of Indians, 
of the one part, and the Chiefs and Head men 
of the Sac and Fox tribes, of the other part." This treaty 
provided that these tribes should be under the protection 
of the United States and that "the boundary line between 
the lands of the United States and the said Indian tribes" 
should be as follows: Beginning on the Missouri River, 


opposite the mouth of the Gasconade River, thence in a direct 
course so as to strike the river Jeffreon at the distance of 
thirty miles from its mouth, and down the Jeffreon to the 
Mississippi; thence up the Mississippi to the mouth of the 
Ouisconsin River, and up the same to a point thirty-six miles 
in a direct line from its mouth; thence to the point where 
the Fox River (a branch of the Illinois) leaves the small 
lake called Sokaegon; thence down the Fox and Illinois 
Rivers to the Mississippi. 

By this treaty it was stipulated that the United States 
would never interrupt these tribes in the possession of the 
land they rightfully claimed, but would, on the contrary, 
protect them in the quiet enjoyment of the same against their 
own citizens and against all other white persons, who might 
intrude upon them, and that "if any citizen of the United 
States should form a settlement upon lands which are the 
property of the Sac & Fox tribes," such intruder should 
be forthwith removed. The treaty also stipulated for an 
annuity to these tribes, and that peace should be made be- 
tween them and the Great and Little Osages. This treaty 
was ratified by the Senate, February 25, 1805. The Indian 
chiefs who execcuted this treaty were Layowvois, Pashepaho 
(the Stabber), Quashquame, (the Jumping Fish), Outchequaha 
(the Sun Fish) and Hashegharhiqua (the Bear). Black 
Hawk, a Sac brave, born at Rock Island in 1767, who was 
the head of a faction of the tribe on Rock River, refused 
to recognize this treaty and attributed to it all the troubles 
he and his party had with the whites in after years. Black 
Hawk, whose Indian name was Makatoishekiakiok, claimed 
that the above chiefs were not sent to St. Louis to make a 
treaty of any kind, but were deputed to intercede for the 
release of any Indian who was in prison there then on a 
charge of murder of a white man, and after being gone a 
long time, they returned dressed "in fine coates and had 
medals." They reported that when they made known their 
mission the American father told them they (the whites) 
wanted land and they agreed to give them some on the west 


side of the Mississippi and some on the Illinois side, opposite 
the Jeffreon. Black Hawk added that these chiefs "had 
been drunk the greater part of the time they were in St. 
Louis." The cession of the land west of the Mississippi, 
made by the treaty of 1804, was evidently intended to cover 
substantially all the settlements at that time west of that 
river, and it included the territory now embraced in the 
counties of St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Rails, Warren and 
parts of Montgomery, Callaway, Audrain, Monroe, Madison 
and Marion. 

By the Act of Congress of June 4, 1812, the name of 
our territory was changed from Louisiana to Missouri, and 
for the first time it was given a legislative assembly to be 
chosen by the people. By that act, the Governor was au- 
thorized "to lay off the parts of the said territory to which 
the Indian title has been extinguished, into convenient coun- 
ties," and accordingly, Gov. Benjamin Howard, October 1, 
1812, divided the new territory into five counties, St. Charles, 
St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New Madrid. 
He defined the boundaries of St. Charles county, thus: "All 
that portion of the territory north of the Missouri River 
and usually known by the name of the Forks, lying between 
that river and the Mississippi." This substantially covered 
the Sac and Fox Indian Cession of 1804, west of the Mis- 
sissippi. By the Act of December 31, 1813, of the first 
territorial legislature, the boundaries of St. Charles county 
were made to coincide with the boundaries fixed by the 
treaty of 1804, with this proviso: "that if the Indian title 
shall be extinguished to any land bordering on the north 
and west of the county of St. Charles in the recess of the 
General Assembly, it shall be the duty of the Governor for 
the time being, by proclamation, to annex the same to the 
said county." Prior to this treaty, a few settlers had pene- 
trated the North Missouri region beyond the mouth of the 
Gasconade, and as far up as Old Franklin, but owing to 
the hostilities of the Indians they were unable to remain 
and had to retire. 


About 1806-7, the Boones and some others, made salt 
at Boone's Lick, but they did not go there to make a per- 
manent settlement. Benjamin Cooper, with his family, about 
the year 1808, undertook to make his home there, but symp- 
toms of a hostile and warlike spirit among the Indians became 
manifest, and Governor Meriweather Lewis ordered him to 
return below the mouth of the Gasconade, as he was too 
far advanced into the Indian country for the Government 
to afford him protection, and he accordingly retired to 
L'Oute Island, below the mouth of that riven, where he 
remained two years. But Boone's Lick country was too rich 
not to be coveted by the whites, and in 1810 Benjamin 
Cooper and one hundred and fifty Kentuckians and Tennes- 
seenans, mostly men, settled on both sides of the Missouri, 
and laid the foundations of Booneville and Old Franklin, 
the larger number of the immigrants locating north of the 
river. During the next two years, 1811 and 1812, the families 
of those already there and large numbers of others of wealth, 
culture and refinement, came to this "Land of Promise," 
as those who had seen it, called it. The settlers were without 
the pale of civil government, and knowing the country was 
full of Indians, they erected, along with their cabins, forts 
in every neighborhood, for their protection. About this time 
there were wars and rumors of war with England. Emis- 
saries of England had been sent among the Indians of the 
Northwest, to enlist them against us, in which design they 
too well succeded, and Black Hawk and his faction of the 
Sac and Fox tribes engaged to make war on us. The Indians, 
mostly Sacs and Foxes, began hostilities against the 
Boone's Lick settlement before the Avar between the 
United States and England was declared. June 
18, 1812, Congress passed an act declaring that a state of 
war already existed between the two countries, and from 
that time to May 24, 1815, a predatory Indian war upon the 
settlements north of the Missouri was kept up. Forts were 
erected in every neighborhood, and many whites, men, 
women and children lost their lives. Much property was 


stolen and much destroyed. The settlers west of the mouth 
of the Gasconade being without civil government, organized 
military companies of their own, and at their forts, into 
which they all, with their stock, retired, the sentinels stood 
guard day and night. Thus, for three years, these pioneer 
men and women waited and suffered, either agitated by fear 
and anxiety, or meeting death in its most horrid form. 

Time went on and the war went on. Black Hawk, with 
two hundred braves, joined the British forces near Lake 
Erie and left some of his tribe and other Indians to keep 
the settlers in Missouri in a constant state of dread, fear 
and anxiety, and to make a desultory war on them. During 
this disturbed period but few settlers went to North Missouri, 
and some, already there retired to safer places. The war 
closed by the battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815, though 
a treaty had been executed by the parties at Ghent, December 
24, 1814, but being without cable communication, news of 
it did not reach us until after that bloody battle which made 
a hero of Andrew Jackson and sent him, in after years, to 
the Presidency. 

The Indians did not cease fighting, however, and as late 
as May 24, 1815, quite a battle between the Indians under 
Black Hawk and the whites was fought in Lincoln county, 
Missouri Territory. That fight is known in history as the 
battle of "Sink Hole." The friendly Sacs, in order to avoid 
trouble during the war, moved to the Missouri Eiver, and 
September 13, 1815, at Portage des Sioux, St. Charles county, 
Wm. Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, on be- 
half of the United States, made a treaty with them, re-es- 
tablishing and confirming the treaty of November 3, 1804, 
and on the next day, at the same place the same parties 
made a treaty with the Fox tribe, also confirming the treaty 
of 1804. And on May 16, 1816, at St. Louis, the same parties 
made a treaty with the Sacs of Rock River, "the British 
Band," by which the treaty of 1804 was ratified and con- 
firmed. Black Hawk himself signed this treaty. At Wash- 
ington City, August 4, 1824, Wm. Clark, on behalf of the 


United States, made a treaty with the Sac and Fox tribes 
by which they ceded to the United States all their lands 
North of the Missouri, lying within the lines surveyed by 
Sullivan in 1816. 

I find it stated in a history of Clark and other counties 
in the northeast part of the State, that the Sac and Fox In- 
dian line, of 1804, was surveyed in 1818, and the surveyors 
extended it northwestwardly to the Des Moines, but while 
I have no reason to doubt the truth of this statement, I have 
not been able to verify it by the records at Washington or 
Jefferson City, or otherwise. 

The Osage Treaty of 1808. 

November 10, 1808, Peter (Pierre) Chouteau, acting under 
a special commission of Meriweather Lewis, Governor and 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the District of Louisiana, 
on behalf of the United States, entered into a treaty with 
the Chiefs and Warriors of the Great and Little Osage 
Indians at Fort Clark, afterwards Fort Osage, now Sibley, 
on the Missouri River. By this treaty the line between the 
Great and Little Osage Indians and the United States was 
defined as follows: Beginning at Fort Clark on the South 
bank of the Missouri river and running South to the Arkansas 
river, and down the same to the Mississippi, and the Indians 
ceded to the United States all the lands which lie East of 
this line and North of the Southwardly bank of the river 
Arkansas, and all lands situated Northwardly of the river 
Missouri. The United States granted to the Indians an 
annuity and agreed to erect a fort at Fort Clark to protect 
them from other Indians. 

The boundary lines established by this treaty were to 
be run and marked as the circumstances and convenience of 
the parties would permit, and the Indians offered to depute 
two chiefs from each of their respective nations to accompany 
the commissioner or commissioners who might be appointed 
by the United States to settle and adjust "the said boundary 


For some cause, unknown to the writer, this treaty was 
not ratified by the Senate until April 28, 1810, and the an- 
nuity stipulated for had not been paid, nor had any steps 
been taken to carry out its other provisions. After the 
ratification of the treaty these Indians were informed that 
the first payment under it was ready, and accordingly, thirty 
or forty of the chiefs went to St. Louis to protest against 
the enforcement of the treaty which they said had been 
forgotten by them and they supposed had been forgotten by 
their great father. They informed Gov. Howard that the 
treaty was made without authority that "the Osage Nation 
had no right to all its country," which "belongs to our pos- 
terity as well as ourselves." Le Sonneus was the orator for 
the Indians, and it is said he spoke "with great art and some 
eloquence." The Indians also claimed they had not ceded 
the lands but only given the Whites the right to hunt there. 
Gov. Howard told them the treaty would be enforced and 
the Indians finally took what was coming to them under the 

Wm. Clark informed the President, February 10. 1810, 
that Gov. Lewis had, prior to 1808, given the Shawnees and 
Delawares permission to make war on the Osages, who had 
been stealing horses from the former, and could not be 
restrained. It seems the Osages were kleptomaniacs. Clark 
also wrote, at the same time, that he had selected the site 
for the fort in Missouri, provided for by the Osage Treaty 
of 1808. That fort was built on the site of Fort Clark and 
was called Fort Osage. 

Survey of the Osage Indian Line, South of the Missouri. 

Joseph C. Brown, deputy surveyor, under instructions 
from William C. Rector, Surveyor General of Missouri and 
Illinois, surveyed the Osage Indian line of 1808 from Fort 
Clark to the Arkansas River. He had Archibald Gamble 
assigned him as an assistant surveyor. Brown and Gamble, 
with John A. Taylor, Reuben M. Hatton, Wm. Hatton, Ja- 
hoyda Martin, David Briggs, Andrew Hunter, Solomon Wells, 


Owen Wingfield and Andrew Harrison, as chainmen, markers, 
pack-horsemen and hunters, at one dollar per day each, com- 
menced the survey at Fort Clark, on the 15th day of August, 
and reached the Arkansas River October 16, 1816. While the 
Osage Treaty of 1808 provided that the Indians should fur- 
nish four of their chiefs to aid the surveyors in locating the 
lines of the cession, I have not been able to find that they 
did this, or were even asked to do it. 

The Osage Indian Lines, North of the River. 

As the Osages ceded all their lands North of the Missouri 
River, it would seem that, so far as they were concerned, 
no survey of those lands was necessary, but in the process 
of time, conditions arose which caused the officials and people 
to desire the fixing of lines bounding the Osage cession 
North of the river as will fully appear later on. 

William Clark, who became Governor of Missouri Terri- 
tory in 1813, and remained such until the State Government 
was organized in September, 1820, issued a proclamation 
March 9, 1815, defining the boundary of the Osage cession 
North of the Missouri River as follows: Beginning at the 
mouth of Kansas River ; thence North 140 miles ; thence 
Eastwardly to the river Atcata (which empties into the 
Mississippi) ; thence to a point on the Missouri River oppo- 
site the mouth of the Gasconade; and thence up the Missouri 
River to the beginning. Gov. Clark, in that proclamation, 
made this astounding statement: "The pretensions of other 
nations of Indians to lands lying within these limits (the 
limits he then defined), being of very recent date, are utterly 
unsupported by those usages and that possession and pre- 
scription accustomed to found their territorial claims." 

The Northern line of the Osage Purchase, as fixed by 
Clark in this proclamation, would be about the middle of 
Township 73, and would strike the Des Moines River (if he 
meant by the Attata the Des Moines) about ten miles above 


This proclamation of Governor Clark is the first sug- 
gestion history affords that the Osage cession North of the 
Missouri River had any definite boundaries, whatever. 

The Territorial Legislature, January 23, 1816, about ten 
and one-half months after this proclamation, established 
Howard county, bounded on the South by the Osage River; 
on the West, South of the Missouri, by the Osage Parthore 
line and North of the river, substantially by the lines fixed 
by Clark in his proclamation of March 9, 1815, and a county 
government under the laws of the Territory was at once 
organized, with the county seat at Old Franklin, for the 
people then there who had absolute local self-government, 
with no civil power above them, from 1810 to March 9, 1815, 
when Gov. Clark annexed that territory to St. Charles 
county, the county seat of which was then, as now, at St. 
Charles City. 

This brings us to the consideration of the FIFTH PRIN- 
CIPAL MERIDIAN, the history of which is intimately con- 
nected with the history of the Sac and Fox and Osage Indian 
lines, which will receive further attention later on. 


This line was surveyed in 1815-1816, and as it was the 
initial movement towards the survey and sale of the public 
domain West of the Mississippi, it is appropriate, before 
going into its history, to briefly take a general survey of 
the public land system of the United States. 

Public Lands. 

The question of the distribution of public lands among 
the people is as old as human history. Thirty-four centuries 
ago, Moses, the great Jewish Lawgiver, in the plains of Moab 
by the Jordan, near Jericho, gave this land law from God 
to the people: "Ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the 
land and dwell therein ; for I have given you the land to 
possess it. And ye shall divide the land by lot for an in- 


heritance among your families, and to the more ye shall 
give the more inheritance, and to the fewer the less inheri- 
tance." And thirty-five years afterwards, Joshua, after 
having driven out the inhabitants carried this law of Moses 
into effect. This is the earliest record of free homestcading 
we can find. And so on down through subsequent ages, the 
disposal of the public domain was always a burning question. 

In Rome, agrarianism became a battle cry of parties, 
but Roman Agrarianism meant simply the distribution of 
the public lands as free homesteads to the people and had 
no reference to the division of private estates among the 
people as some have supposed. 

During the first seventeen centuries of the Christian Era, 
colossal wrongs became so ingrained in the land systems of 
England and Continental Europe, that the masses became 
virtually slaves to the land owners; and these wrongs, but- 
tressed, as they were, by law and prescription, for a long 
time, defied the efforts of statesmen and philanthropists, and 
they have not wholly disappeared yet. 

The governments found no way to eradicate these 
wrongs, except to buy the lands from those who had, in one 
way and another, become owners of them, and turn them 
over to the tenants on such terms as they could easily 
comply with. 

Russia, in 1842, freed her crown serfs, numbering 22,- 
851,000, and March 2, 1861, Alexander II, by an Imperial 
Edict,, freed 21,755,000 serfs of the nobles, and the Govern- 
ment paid the nobles $253,150,000 for 65,500,000 acres of land 
held by them, and in 1879 the freed serfs owned 186,340,000 
acres of land, being 65,500,000 acres bought of the nobles, 
114,400,000 acres donated by the Government, and 6,440,000 
acres donated by the nobles, the serfs agreeing to pay six 
per cent per annum on the amount the Government had paid 
the nobles for fifty years, and assuming some other 

In 1848, in Germany, the state took 60,000,000 acres from 
the nobles and transferred them to the peasants for $15 


per annum land tax and four per cent, interest per annum 
on the cost of each allotment for 47 years. The State paid 
the nobles $900 for each serf family. 

In England the burdens of the land system were abol- 
ished in 1666, but in Ireland the old wrongs still inhere to 
a large extent, but lately the English Parliament resorted 
to the Russian and German methods of getting the lands 
into the hands of the tenants by buying them and turning 
them over to them on easy terms, though her legislative 
measures were not as sweeping as they were in those coun- 
tries and at this moment new measures are proposed, which, 
it is hoped, will enable the tenants, in that unhappy Island, 
at no distant day, to own the soil they till without wronging 
the present landlords or violating their vested rights. 

Permit me to ask you to compare the course of despotic 
Russia in devising a plan to put the lands into the hands 
of the people as early as 1861, over twenty years before 
England, free England, took energetic steps to get Irish 
lands into the hands of Irish peasants by Russian methods 
much modified. Alexander II, Autocrat of all the Russias, 
in opposition to the wishes of the nobles, by his own Edict, 
dated March 3, 1861, set the serfs free and then the Govern- 
ment gave the serfs its own serf lands and bought the lands 
from the nobles and sold them to the serfs on easy terms. 

I sometimes fear we, in our wholesale denunciation of 
Russian tyranny, forget her nobler and more disinterested 

In our own country we find that Virginia and other 
colonies, possessing public lands, offered liberal homesteads 
to actual settlers, which induced large numbers of emigrants 
to settle west of the mountains in the latter part of the 
18th century. 

But, when our Government dispossessed the inhabitants 
of the land, though I believe it has never been claimed, at 
least officially, that such dispossession was done by Divine 
Command, those in control of public affairs were imbued 
with the idea that the National Domain would be a source 


of immense revenue to the treasury, and from the start a 
very narrow land policy was pursued. The Government not 
only refused to grant free homesteads to settlers, but at 
first it restricted sales to large tracts only, thus giving 
speculators the power to oppress the people. The Govern- 
ment, however, in the beginning, was liberal with its public 
lands in two respects: One was in bounties to soldiers, and 
the other in granting lands for education. 

Prior to 1784, private land claims had been described by 
natural boundaries, and those claims, in this country and in 
the Old World, had assumed all sorts of fantastic shapes, 
and were hard to describe. Our Government obviated this 
evil by the adoption of the rectangular system of surveys. 
The first instance of rectangular surveying was in Georgia, 
when, after the Revolution, she laid off eleven tracts of 
twenty square miles each and divided these into fifty acre 

In 1784, our Government, finding itself in possession of 
the Great Northwestern Territory, determined to adopt a 
system of surveys which would simplify the description. A 
Committee of Congress, composed of Thomas Jefferson, 
Chairman ; Hugh Williamson of North Carolina, David Howell 
of Rhode Island, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts and Jacob 
Reed of South Carolina, was raised to devise a plan of survey 
of the public domain. This Committee reported, May 7, 
1784, an ordinance for this purpose. By this ordinance the 
lands were to be divided into tracts ten miles square and 
these into lots one mile square, to be numbered from 1 to 100 
beginning in the Northwest corner and running from West 
to East and from East to West consecutively. This ordinance 
was amended and reported to Congress April 26, 1785. As 
amended it required the lands to be surveyed into townships 
of seven miles square, each township to contain forty-nine 
sections and each section to be divided into lots of 320 acres 
each. This is the first mention in our history of "Townships 
and Sections" in our public surveys. The ordinance was 
further amended and as finally passed May 20, 1785, it pro- 


vided that the townships should be six miles square, divided 
into thirty-six sections each, numbered from 1 to 36, begin- 
ning with No. 1 in the Southeast corner of the township, 
running North to No. 6., then back to the South line with 7, 
and so on, ending with 36 in the Northwest corner. By Act 
May 18, 1796, our present system of numbering the sections, 
beginning in the Northeast corner of the township and run- 
ning from East to West and from West to East consecutively, 
ending in the Southeast corner, was adopted. The townships 
were to be made by lines running East and West and North 
and South, six miles apart. Base lines running East and 
West and Principal Meridians running North and South 
were either run or adopted. The Ohio River from the Penn- 
sylvania line down to a point four or five miles from Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana, was adopted as the first base line for the 
public surveys; and a surveyed base line extending to the 
Mississippi, began on the Ohio River, a short distance above 
Jeffersonville and reached the Mississippi River just below 
St. Louis. The first public land surveyed into townships 
and ranges was the Eastern part of the State of Ohio, con- 
stituting what became known as "The Seven Ranges." These 
ranges were East of a guide meridian running from the 
Ohio River north about a half mile East of Canton, Ohio. 
Other guide meridians were surveyed in Ohio but the first 
Principal Meridian, that was numbered, co-incided with the 
West line of the State of Ohio. The surveys continued 
westeward, and the second Principal Meridian starts on the 
Ohio River at the mouth of Little Blue and co-incides with 
the line 86 degrees and 28 minutes West Longitude. The 
third starts at the mouth of the Ohio and the fourth at the 
mouth of the Illinois River, both running North. The Mis- 
sissippi River had thus been reached by successive surveys 
about ten years after the Louisiana Purchase. When we came 
into possession of this territory, March 10, 1804, we extended 
to it the land policy of the Nation, and, of course, the Spanish 
policy prevailing up to that time of granting free home- 
steads to actual settlers was at once stopped. But that was 


not all. It was made a crime to "squat" on the public do- 
main, and the President was authorized to use the military 
force, if necessary, to remove any intruders found thereon. 
And even this was not all. No one could even buy lana for 
a home. This restrictive and illiberal policy continued till 
July 13, 1818, a period of over fourteen years after we ac- 
quired the territory. This delay teaches us how slowly events 
moved a hundred years ago in comparison with the railroad 
and telegraph times of the present. Several reasons, how- 
ever, may be assigned for this tarry action of the Government : 

1. The older States had no surplus population they 
could very well spare, and the foreign immigration at that 
time was very small ; 

2. Vast tracts of valuable land remained unsold East 
of the Mississippi River; 

3. The War of 1812-15 with England. 

4. The process of surveying the public lands was, a 
hundred years ago, very slow. 

5. The majority of the inhabitants of the District of 
Louisiana were interested in French and Spanish land grants, 
and they feared the survey and sale of the public lands 
would interfere with their claims. 

But there was another cause of friction between the 
settlers here and the Government. By the treaty of April 
30, 1803, the United States stipulated to protect "the inhabi- 
tants of the ceded territory * * * in the free enjoy- 
ment of their liberty, property and religion," which was 
construed to mean that the incomplete grants of land made 
by the French and Spanish Governments should be confirmed, 
but in carrying out that stipulation, Congress pursued, in the 
opinion of the inhabitants here, a very narrow and unjust 
policy. A General Assembly, elected by the people in the 
District of Louisiana, was held in St. Louis, September 13th 
to 27th, 1804, which drew up a remonstrance against the form 
of government prescribed by Congress for them, and es- 
pecially against the act providing for the adjustment of the 
Spanish Grants, which was sent to Congress. This was the 


first General Assembly west of the Mississippi, and, though 
voluntary, there is little doubt it was truly representative 
of the people in character. 

The time finally came when the Government felt it to 
be its duty to throw the lands West of the Mississippi River 
upon the market for sale, and as early as February 25, 1811, 
Congress authorized the President to have the lands here, to 
which the Indian title had been extinguished, surveyed and 
put upon the market for sale, and a land office, to be located 
by the President, was established. But the war with Eng- 
land, coming on soon afterwards, nothing was done till after 
Hs close. Indeed, the Indian raids and wars, incited largely, 
no doubt by English emissaries, were mainly on the territory 
which every one conceded would be first surveyed and eold. 

Points had to be selected from which to begin the survey 
of a base line and principal meridian West of the Mississippi, 
and there was quite an extended correspondence in regard to 

Major Amos Stoddard in his sketches of Louisiana, writ- 
ten probably about 1810, suggested that all the land East 
of the following line be surveyed and sold: Beginning at 
the mouth of the St. Francois, up that river to its source; 
thence North to the Meramec, up that river to a point due 
South from the mouth of the Gasconade ; thence to the mouth 
of that river, and from thence Northwardly along the Fox 
and Sac Indian line. 

This is the first suggestion, so far as I know, of the 
mouth of the St. Francois as a starting point for the survey 
of the public lands West of the Mississippi River. 

By Act of Congress of April 29, 1812, 6,000,000 acres of 
the public lands were appropriated for military bounties, 
2,000,000 to be located in Michigan, 2,000,000 in Illinois, and 
2,000,000 to be located between the Arkansas and St. Francois 
Rivers, then included in the territory of Missouri. This 
evidently had a controlling influence in determining upon the 
mouth of the Arkansas River, as a starting point for the 
Fifth Principal Meridian. Another controlling factor in the 


selection of this as the starting point, is the historic interest 
that attached to the mouth of that river. Marquette and 
Joliet had camped there in 1773, where they found Indian 
villages. LaSalle also camped there hi the spring of 1682, 
and erected a cross, the priests singing a hymn, and took 
possession of the country for France. Tonty, in 1786, built 
a fort near the mouth of the Arkansas, and there is no doubt 
the first French settlement, west of the Father of Waters, 
was made in that vicinity. The "bird of prey," the notorious 
John Law, about 1720, selected a large body of land between 
the Arkansas and St. Francois rivers, where he established 
a German settlement, nearly two hundred years ago. Up to 
November 12, 1812, this territory had had no representative 
in Congress, but that day Edward Hempstead was elected 
delegate, and he introduced into Congress a bill containing 
more liberal provisions for the confirmation of the Spanish 
Grants and extending the right of preemption to the settlers, 
who, in large numbers, had, in defiance of the law, gone upon 
the public lands, which, mainly through his efforts, became 
a law April 16, 1814. This act was the first recognition of 
any right of a settler to a home on Uncle Sam's domain. 
West of the River, and this was a mere right to buy land, 
occupied, at the minimum price, $2.00 per acre, on the usual 

William C. Rector had been surveying the public lands 
in the West for several years, and in 1814, it appears he was 
principal surveyor for Missouri and Illinois. At that time 
the public lands were under the jurisdiction of the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

The Act of Congress of April 25, 1812, had established 
a General Land Office as a bureau of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and Josiah Meigs, who had been Surveyor General, 
with headquarters at Cincinnati, was made Commissioner of 
the General Land Office in 1814, and Edward Tiffin was then 
the Surveyor General of the North West Territory, with 
headquarters at Cincinnati, and his jurisdiction extended to 
the territory of Missouri. 


May 28, 1814, Meigs wrote to Surveyor General Edward 
Tiffin at Cincinnati in regard to the survey of the lands in 
Missouri. In this letter he states he had received letters 
from William Russell and Edward Bates as to the best method 
to survey these lands. From this correspondence it appears 
that Wm. C. Rector had outlined to Tiffin, in 1814, a plan 
for the survey of a certain amount of land West of the 
Mississippi, which Meigs approved, but owing to the hostile 
attitude of the most of the Indian tribes, he deemed it hest 
not to undertake the work that year; but as prospects for 
peace were better, estimates of the work might be obtained, 
to be submitted to the next Congress. 

March 24, 1815, Tiffin was directed to survey a standard 
meridian, to be drawn from the confluence of the Arkansas 
and Mississippi rivers, and to locate the 2,000,000 acres of 
military bounty land, to be bounded Eastwardly by the Mis- 
sissippi, and West by the Arkansas River, and if a line be 
drawn West from the mouth of the St. Francois, would not 
give 2,000,000 acres, then the balance of the bounty land 
should be taken North of that base line. 

Tiffin was informed June 1, 1815, by General Meigs, that 
the General Land Office had about completed a system for 
Rector for the survey of the extensive territory of Missouri, 
a work which ought to have been done long before that, 
and that it should be pushed in the future. It seems an order 
suspending the survey of the 2,000,000 acres of bounty land 
at the mouth of the Arkansas, had been revoked, for, July 
6, 1815, Meigs wrote Tiffin that the order suspending this 
survey had been revoked and the latter was directed to 
proceed to have this bounty land surveyed, but said the govern- 
ment would not be responsible for the interference of any In- 
dian tribes, and adds, that "if the contractors were discreet 
men, no danger need be apprehended . ' ' Surveys then were 
made under contract. Again, July 18, 1815, Meigs informed 
Tiffin by letter, that the plan of survey, proposed by Rector, 
had been submitted to the President, and no new instructions 
for the survey of the meridian and base lines would be issued. 


August 2, 1815, Meigs directed Tiffin to report, after consult- 
ing Generel Rector, what lands in Missouri ought to be sur- 
veyed . Prospect R . Robbins, a deputy surveyor, entered into 
a contract October 9, 1815, to survey the Fifth Principal Merid- 
ian, from the mouth of the Arkansas North to the Missouri 
river. Robbins administered the proper oath to Hiram Scott 
and Alex. Baldridge, as chairmen, near the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas, October 27, 1815. John Baldridge was appointed axe- 
man. The work of surveying the Fifth Principal Meridian 
began at the mouth of the Arkansas, October 27, 1815 . They 
reached the base line running West from the mouth of the St. 
Francis, November 10, 1815, 26 miles and 30 chains from the 
Mississippi, and November 6, 1815, they crossed the southern 
line of what is now the State of Missouri, in what was then 
Lawrence County, though at that time, no such boundary line 
existed, nor had the Missouri Compromise Line ever been 
heard of. December 6, 1815, must be noted as an epoch- 
marker. That day marks the setting for the first time, of 
the Jacob Staff to survey the public lands of this state, prepara- 
tory to putting them on the market for sale for home-making. 
It is true, there had been a government surveyor at St. Louis 
ever since 1795, under the Spanish Government and continued 
under ours, but he was not authorized to survey any lands 
except what are known as old ' ' French and Spanish Grants . ' ' 
The people had waited, not patiently, but still waited, from 
March 10, 1804, to December 6, 1815, a period of eleven years 
and over for this first act towards throwing the public domain 
open to settlement. The crossing of the Fifth Principal Me- 
ridian of our southern border was eighty-one miles West of the 
Mississippi, and about twenty-seven and one-half miles West 
of the Iron Mountain Railroad . At that time there were only 
eight counties in the Missouri Territory, which then included 
the Louisiana Purchase, St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Gene- 
vieve, Washington, Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, Lawrence 
and Arkansas. The West line of the Osage Purchase consti- 
stuted the West line of St. Charles, St. Louis, Washington, 
(by law but not in fact) Lawrence and Arkansas counties. The 


Fifth Principal Meridian started at the mouth of the Arkansas 
river in Arkansas County ran North through a portion of that 
county, and then through Lawrence, Cape Girardeau, Wash- 
ington and St. Louis counties to the Missouri river, which 
they reached at what is now South Point, Franklin County, 
December 28, 1815, a distance of three hundred and twelve 
miles. The line did not touch a single settlement from our 
southern border to within three or four miles of the Missouri 
river, and no doubt the surveyors had to rely on wild game, 
chiefly, for food, which pioneer hunters were only too glad to 
furnish them for a consideration. And it is altogether prob- 
able they did some hunting on their own hook . 

Joseph C. Brown, deputy surveyor, had contracted to sur- 
vey the base line, and he, with Nathan Meyers and Richard 
Sessions, chainmen,, and Nathan Gilpin, marker, began the 
survey of this line October 27, 1815, (the same day Robbins 
commenced surveying the Fifth Principal Meridian) and 
reached the Fifth Principal Meridian November 11, 1815, and 
the 29th Township, December 5, 1815. This base line runs a 
short distance South of Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Taylor Berry, deputy surveyor, entered into a contract, 
January 12, 1816, to survey the Fifth Principal Meridian from 
the Missouri North to the North line of Township 50. and he, 
with Philip Perkins, J. Martin, Samuel Gray and George Arey 
as chainmen and markers, began the work on the South side of 
the Missouri, January 18, 1816, and completed his contract 
January 31, 1816. Elias Barcroft contracted January 18, 
1816, to survey this meridian from the North line of Township 
50, now in Lincoln County, to the Mississippi river, and he be- 
gan work May 27, 1816, and reached that river about two 
miles above Clarksville in what is now Pike County, May 29, 

By examining a map it will be seen that the Fifth Principal 
Meridian, as thus surveyed, coinciding with the line of 90 de- 
grees 58 minutes West Longitude, is three hundred and seventy 
miles long and is the chord of an arch formed by the Mississippi 
river. That river swings its farthest eastward sweep near 


Norfolk. Mississippi county is nearly one hundred and five 
miles West of St. Louis. The fifth Principal Meridian has 
been made the basis of the surveys of the public lands in Ar- 
kansas, Missouri, Iowa, all of Minnesota West of the Mississip- 
pi river and all of the two Dakotas East of the Missouri river . 
It, if extended from Pike County, would have crossed the 
Mississippi into Illinois, and would have crossed to the West 
side again about the middle of Iowa, near the North line of 
Township 77. It was surveyed from the point where it 
crossed the Mississippi into Iowa North to the Mississippi, 
where it again crossed over to the East side, a distance of 
seventy-nine miles, and if extended North from this last Mis- 
sissippi crossing, it would strike Lake Superior near Ashland. 

So far as Missouri is concerned, the actual survey of the 
Fifth Principal Meridian terminated in Pike County, as stated 
above, but it was in practice, assumed to be continued North 
through Illinois and Wisconsin, making it the standard line 
for the lands West of the Mississippi as stated above. From 
the base line, running West from the mouth of the St. Francois, 
one hundred and sixty-three townships to our Northern bound- 
ary, a distance, approximately, of 978 miles, have been sur- 
veyed, and from that line, nineteen townships to the South line 
of Arkansas, a distance of 114 miles, making the whole distance 
on a straight line from the Southern boundary of Arkansas 
to the Northern boundary of Minnesota, 1092 miles. The 
ranges were numbered from this meridian, East and West, and 
we find eighteen ranges or portions of ranges to the East, and 
forty-three or portions thereof West of that line inside of the 
boundaries of Missouri. 

Meigs notified Tiffin, January 12, 1816, that the propo- 
sition supposedly made by Rector to survey 200 townships in 
Missouri, had been approved and that 105 townships would be 
offered for sale at St. Louis. And again, March 6, 1816, 
Meigs wrote Tiffin that the president had directed that 100 
townships in the vicinity of St. Louis be surveyed, and, at the 
receiver's suggestion, the land, ceded by the Sac and Fox In- 
dians by the treaty of 1804, be first surveyed and the balance 


of the townships be surveyed in the vicinty of St. Louis, 100 
townships to be surveyed into sections. Of course, this was 
all that was at that time expected to be offered for sale . 

Wm. C. Rector was addressed at Kaskaskia, 111., May 10, 
1816, notifying him that a new land district had been formed, 
composed of Missouri and Illinois territories, and that he had 
been appointed Surveyor General of that district. May 11, 
1816, Rector was directed by the Secretary of the Treasury to 
survey the 500,000 acres of bounty land authorized by Act 29 
April, 1816, in connection with the lands North of the Missouri. 
By this act the bounty land was not to be located on any land 
to which the Indian title was not extinguished, May 11, 1816. 
two days after this order, to-wit : May 13, 1816, the treaty with 
the Black Hawk party of the Sac tribe was entered into, ratify- 
ing the treaty of 1804. Rector at once proceeded to let con- 
tracts for the survey of range and township lines in the vi- 
cinity of St. Louis, and for their subdivision, preparatory to 
offering the lands for sale. It seems that Rector, at first, 
made his headquarters at Kaskaskia, but August 26, 1816, we 
find him at St. Louis, and the office of the Suveyor General for 
Missouri and Illinois was ever after that in that city. 

It took over two years, or to the middle of the year 1818, 
before the lands were surveyed and subdivided so as to be of- 
fered for sale. 

May 1, 1818, Josiah Meigs, Commissioner of the General 
Land Offices, sent Alex. McNair, Register, and Samuel Ham- 
mond, Receiver of the land office at St. Louis, the President's 
proclamation that the sale of public lands would begin at that 
office August 3, 1818, on which day the sales did begin . That 
was a great day for St. Louis and the Missouri territory. From 
March 10, 1804, to that day, no one had been able to obtain, 
by purchase or gift, title to any of the public lands for home 
making, or for speculation. Here was a period of fourteen 
years before the public domain was put upon the market. The 
minimum price for the public lands at that time was $2.00 an 
acre, one-twentieth in cash and the balance in five annual in- 
stallments. The lands were first offered for sale to the highest 


bidder at public auction, and if no one bid $2.00 an acre, they 
were returned unsold for want of bidders, and after that they 
could be entered at the Land Offices for the minimum price of 
$2.00 an acre, on the above terms. The President issued a 
proclamation that the land sales at Old Franklin, Howard 
County, would begin September 7, 1818, but there was quite a 
spirited controversy about the legality of offering the lands 
there for sale, as they were clearly within the Sac and Fox 
boundary lines, and one of the officers there resigned and the 
sales in consequence, were continued to November 2, 1818, on 
which day the land sales began, Gen. Thomas A. Smith being 
Receiver, and Charles Carroll, Register. "The crowd in at- 
tendance upon these sales was said to have numbered thous- 
ands of well-dressed and intelligent men from all parts of the 
East and South." 

At the first public sales, there seems to have been quite a 
good deal of competition among the bidders, but this was evi- 
dently caused by those from a distance, for the settlers had a 
tacit understanding not to bid against each other for the lands 
they respectively wanted, and in after years there seems to 
have been no competition for the lands at public sale, and 
hence, no lands were sold that way, or at least, not much. 

The settlers in the Franklin or Howard Land District had 
given notice to the officers of the Land Office of their pre- 
emption claims. So universal was the pre-emption right 
claimed, that the settlers there were called ' ' pre-emptioners . ' ' 

Wm. H. Crawford, of Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury, 
November 27, 1818, wrote Josiah Meigs, Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, that the right of pre-emption inside of the 
Sac and Fox Indian reservation did not exist, because at the 
time of the passage of the Act of April 12, 1814, granting the 
right of pre-emption in the Missouri Territory, these lands 
were not recognized as under the civil government of the Ter- 
ritory, or as being subject to pre-emption. This letter caused 
great excitement, and the right of pre-emption in Howard 
County became a political one, and its discussion was to !he 
exclusion of every other question, and on March 3, 1819, Con- 


gress passed an act confirming the right of pre-emption to the 
people in this district. It seems Secretary Crawford was in- 
consistent in holding that the right of pre-emption did not 
exist as to lands West of the Sac and Fox line of 1804, for ha 
raised no objection to the survey and sale of those lands, and 
the survey of the 500,000 acres of bounty lands therein. If 
the Government had the right to sell those lands, or grant them 
to soldiers as a bounty, it certainly had the power to grant the 
right of pre-emption. 

Many of the most illustrious men of our state were among 
the pre-' ' emptioners, " and they, in after years, became potent 
factors in the evolution and progress of our great state . 

The credit system, in the sale of the public lands, very 
soon proved disastrous, and in 1820, Congress interposed for 
the relief of those who had gone in debt beyond their means 
to pay, and the price of lands was reduced to $1 . 25 an acre in 

The area of Missouri is over 43,000,000 acres, and the state 
received first and last, through her continued importunity, 
about one-fifth of this area in School, Seminary, Internal Im- 
provement, Railroad and Swamp Lands, besides her share of 
the road and canal fund, and of the surplus revenue arising 
from the sale of the public lands. 

If there was any one thing our state hankered after more 
than another, it was for land for all sorts of purposes, and from 
the earliest period, the legislature, while fervid in its admira- 
tion for and endorsement of President Jackson, who held that 
the National Government had no constitutional power to ap- 
propriate any of the public domain for internal improvement 
in the states, never lost an opportunity from year to year and 
from session to session, to memorialize Congress to grant her 
lands for roads, rivers and railroads, and Congress responded 
so liberally that the state finally got one-fifth of the whole area 
of the state as has been stated. 

The survey and sale of the public lands in the state pro- 
gressed as the settlements extended the frontiers until 1849, 
when it was completed so far as the exterior lines of the town- 


ships were concerned, but the sales have continued to this 
time, there being still between 50,000 and 75,000 acres of the 
public lands in her borders. 

In 1863, free homesteads were offered to actual settlers in 
this section of the country for the first time. Here was a 
kiatus of nearly sixty years between the free homesteading in 
our territory under Spain and under our own government. 

(To be concluded.) 


Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary 
War. Published by the Secretary of the Commonwealth, 
Boston, v. d. 

The seventeenth volume of the above work has been 
received, completing the alphabetical list to the end of the 
alphabet. The work is of great value to those who are de- 
scendants of persons who were in the Revolutionary war from 

History and Government of Missouri. By Jere T. Muir, 
LL. D., formerly Vice President of the State Normal School 
Kirksville, Missouri. Boston ... Ginn & Company (c. 1908). 

The Preface states that this book of 154 pages is intended 
for the seventh and eighth grades in the public schools, or the 
first year in the high school. Such being the object and com- 
pass of the work it is necessarily limited in the points treated, 
and in the detail of those selected. The selection of these 
has been made with judgment, and the language is clear and 
pointed. The book can be well recommended for the pur- 
pose for which it was issued. 

Sardonics. Sixteen Sketches. By Harris Merton Lyon. 
New York (c. 1908) . 


The author in the dedication calls these sketches a "little 
flight of black butterflies," and while they are not called 
"Satanics" they all have a Satanic view running through! 
them, and the principal characters are not of the lovely and 
attractive order. 

The book is well written. The author is a graduate of 
the academic department of the Missouri University of the 
class of 1905, and is now on Hampton's Magazine in New 

Am Sonnigen Hang. Neueste Leider und Gedichte von 
Johannes Rothensteiner. St. Louis, Mo. Verlag von B. Her- 
der. (1909.) 16 mo. 182 p. 

We welcome the latest book by Father Rothensteiner, 
of St. Louis, a member and one of the trustees of this 
Society, and a frequent contributor to our library. The work 
is issued in an attractive binding, and is an excellent com- 
panion volume to the "Hoffnung und Brinnerung, Lieder 
aus Amerika," by the same author. 


Baptist Ministers and Prominent Members. 

The minutes of the Missouri Baptist General Associa- 
tion for 1908, has obituaries of the following ministers and 
prominent members of that organization: 

Rev. James Ebenezer Hughes, born in Howard county, 
March, 1821, and died in Clinton county, Aug. 18, 1908. He 
was a member of the House in the 27th General Assembly, 

Rev. J. H. Cooper, born in Tennessee, died in Bolckow, 
Mo., July 29, 1908. 

Rev. G. P. Beswick, born in Perryville, Ky., June 24, 
1837, came to Missouri in 1866, and died in Liberty, June 
8, 1908. 

Rev. J. T. Weaver, born in Illinois, March 3, 1839, 
moved to Missouri during boyhood, and died at Summerville. 
Mo., June 29, 1908. 

Rev. Julian Avery Herrick, born in La Grange, Mo.. 
March 18, 1871, and died in Maryville, Mo., Jan. 2, 1908. 

Rev. Harrison Love, born in Pike county, Mo., March 
13, 1841. 

Rev. Jonathan M. McGuire, born in Boone county, Mo., 
May 1, 1830, died at Arrow Rock, Jan. 1, 1908. He was a 
graduate of the academic and law departments of the State 


Dr. R. W. McClelland spent his early life in Boone 
county, Mo., and for forty-two years practiced medicine at 
Arrow Bock, where he died Dec. 6, 1907. 

Rev. J. M. McCourtney, born in St. Francois county, 
Mo., died in Clarksburg, Mo., aged nearly eighty-one years. 

Elder James M. Smith, born in Fayette county, Ky., 
Oct. 18, 1819, died in Carthage, Mo., Dec. 19, 1907. 

Rev. J. W. Whitlock, died at Trenton, Mo., Dec. 9, 1907, 
aged about four score years. 

Rev. B. T. Thomas, born in Berkley county, Va., July 
22, 1832, and died at Aullville, Mo., July 23, 1908. 

Deacon Downing Miller, died at Harrisonville, Mo., 
Dec. 9, 1907. 

Rev. James S. Buckner, born in Meigs county, Tenri., 
Aug. 7, 1832, and died near Ash Grove, Nov. 6, 1907. 

Rev. Edward Jennings, born hi Virginia hi 1834. His 
ministry was in Pike and adjoining counties. 

Rev. L. C. Mustek, born in St. Louis county in 1814, and 
died Jan. 14, 1908. 

Rev. Bert L. Phariss, a graduate of William Jewell Col- 
lege, resident at Holla, died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 6, 1908. 

Mrs. Mary Browning, died at Plattsburg, Mo., March 15, 
1908, leaving all her estate to William Jewell College. 

Rev. Manley J. Breaker, born in North Carolina in 1850, 
came to Missouri in 1868, and died Oct. 1, 1908. 

Hon. A. W. Allen was born in Belmont county, Ohio, 
sixty-two years ago, and for the last thirty-nine was a resident 


of Kansas City. He was elected a member of the House of 
the 45th General Assembly, but was not able to go to Jefferson 
City to take his seat, and he died of acute heart disease Feb- 
ruary 16, 1909. 

F. S. Galloway, principal of the High School at Clinton, 
Missouri, and a member of the State Historical Society of Mis- 
souri, died at Clinton, in his native county, March 11, 1909. 
He was a graduate of William Jewell College, and for several 
rears was business manager of the Democrat at Clinton, and 
afterwards became a teacher. For some years he had been 
principal of the High School at Clinton, and at the time of 
his death was County Commissioner of Schools, serving his 
second term. 

Col. John D. Crawford, born in Pettis county, Missouri, 
March 1, 1838, died in Sedalia, December 20, 1908. His 
father, John E. Crawford, settled in Pettis county at an 
early day, and in 1842 was a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the Twelfth General Assembly from Pettis 
county. Later he had a farm of 800 acres south of Sedalia, 
and died at the age of 89 years. 

Col. Crawford enlisted in the Union service in the Civil 
War, August 18, 1862, and was made captain of Company 
C, 40th Regiment of Enrolled Missouri Militia, and was 
commissioned Colonel of that regiment June 23, 1864. In 
1870 and 1874 he was elected Recorder of Pettis county, 
and in 1888 was elected Mayor of Sedalia. For nearly thirty 
years he was vice president of the Citizens National Bank 
of Sedalia, and for many years was one of the best citizens 
of the city. 

Samuel Hobbs Elkins, postmaster at Columbia since Aug. 
3, 1889, except during the Cleveland administration, a 
brother of United States Senator Stephen B. Elkins, died 
March 8, after an illness of a year and a half. He was born 
in Henry county, Missouri, April 13, 1847, and came to Co- 
lumbia in 1874, where for two years he attended the State 
University, of which his brother, the Senator, is an alumnus. 


Mrs. Theresa J. Freeman, a resident of St. Louis for 
sixty-six years, a leader for many years in the Southern 
literary circles of the city, and one of the founders of the 
Writers' Club of St. Louis, died in that city Feb. 28, 1909. 
She was born in Paris, Kentucky, March 24, 1818. She was 
the author of "Silver Lake; or the Belle of Bayou Luie," 
and "Huntington; or Scenes of Real Life." 

Hon. Ebenezer M. Kerr was born August 30, 1841, in 
Marion county, Ohio, and reared in Indiana. For four years 
and eight months he was a member of the 53rd Indiana In- 
fantry regiment in the Civil War. He removed to Hickory 
county, Missouri, in 1870, and was after that date a resident 
of Missouri . He was a member of the House in the 36th, 37th 
and 45th General Assemblies. During the present session he 
was taken sick and died at Jefferson City, February 27, 1909. 

Leonidas M. Lawson a member of this Society died at St. 
Joseph, where he was visiting, March 28, 1909. He was 
born in New Franklin, Missouri, in the neighborhood of 
seventy-five years ago. He received from the University of 
Missouri the degree of A. B. in 1853, A. M. in 1866, and 
LL. D. in 1908, at which latter date lie was elected a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. In 1870 he delivered the 
Alumni address at the University commencement. After 
graduating at the University he taught in William Jewell Col- 
lege, then studied law under Gen. A. W. Doniphan, was 
elected to the State Legislature from Platte county in 1860, 
and during the Civil War was colonel on the staff of General 
James Craig. He became a banker at St. Joseph, and in New 
York City is 1869, but retired from business and resumed the 
practice of law in 1892. Ten years ago he retired from active 
life, and remained a resident in New York City . 

Dr. John S. Logan, of St. Joseph, a member of the State 
Historical Society, on January 18th slipped on the sidewalk 
in front of his business building, and fell striking his head 
on the steps, and in a few minutes was dead. He was born 


in Shelbyville, Kentucky, June 25, 1836. His father was 
from Ireland, and his mother was of the Sublette family of 
Kentucky. In 1857 he with the family came to St. Joseph, 
where he studied medicine, afterwards attending the Ken- 
tucky School of Medicine and the Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia. During the Civil War he was for three 
years a surgeon in the United States army. After the war 
he became engaged in financial affairs, and acquired large 
bodies of land in Southwest Missouri and in Texas, and also 
real estate in St. Joseph, and was at the time of his death 
worth some $300,000. 

Prof. David Russell McAnally, son of Rev. David Rice 
McAnally, for many -years editor of the St. Louis Christian 
Advocate, was born at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1847, and 
came to Missouri four years later. He was educated almost 
wholly under the private instruction of his father. In 1876-77 
he was appointed professor of English in the State Univer- 
sity, and remained such until 1884-85, when he returned to 
special newspaper work, and was connected with the Globe- 
Democrat until his death, which occurred in St. Louis, Feb 
ruary 16, 1909. He was the author of "How Men make 
Love and Get Married," "Irish Wonders; Popular Tales as 
Told By the People," "Philosophy of English Poetry," "The 
Unemployed," and many articles published by the periodical 

Prof. Robert Baylor Semple was born in 1842 near 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, and from 1861 to 1865 was in the 
artillery service in the Confederate army, previously having 
graduated in the University of Virginia. In 1868 he came 
to Missouri to take the place of professor of Latin in William 
Jewell College which place he held for forty years. On account 
of ill health Prof. Semple retired from active work last year, 
and he died in St. Louis, February 8, and was buried at Lib- 
erty, Mo. 


Hon. Henderson L. Ward was born in Harlan county, 
Kentucky, October 20, 1841, and during the Civil War 
served in Company F, 49th Kentucky Infantry. In 1874 he 
settled in Holt county, Missouri, and was latterly engaged 
in farming and stock raising. In 1888 and 1890 he was a 
member of the county court, and was prominent in the Ma- 
sonic and Odd Fellow orders. He was elected to the 45th 
General Assembly, and was assigned to important commit- 
tees in it. He had an attack of la grippe, and resumed his 
work in the Legislature too quickly, resulting in a relapse 
and pneumonia and his death February 25, 1909 . 



B. VIOLETTE, Kirksville, H. IR. TUCKER, St. Louis, 

President. Vice President. 

EUGENE FAIR, Columbia, N. M. TRENHOLME, Columbia, 

Secretary. Editor. 

Minutes of Annual Meeting. 

The Missouri Society of Teachers of History and Gov- 
ernment held two sessions in Kansas City, December 29-30, 

Tuesday Afternoon, Dec. 29, 1908. 

The meeting was called to order at two o'clock p. m. 
of the first day by the president, Mr. Violette. A paper on 
"Some of the Essentials of Effective History Work in the 
Secondary Schools" was then read by Mr. T. H. MacQueary 
of the Yeatman High School, St. Louis. The paper was 
discussed by Miss Nelle Alexander, Paris, Mo., leader; Mr. 
Bass, Warrensburg, Mo.; Miss Porter, St. Joseph, Mo.; Mr. 


Shields, Kansas City, Mo.; Mr. Bristow, Kansas City, Kan.; 
Mr. Anderson, Springfield, Mo.; Mr. Fair, Columbia, Mo.: 
Mr. MacQueary closed the discussion. 

Mr. Violette then made some remarks on the organiza- 
tion of the Society of Teachers of History and Government, 
after which a paper on "The Attitude of the High School 
Teacher Towards the Religious and Political Prejudice of 
the Student" was read by Mr. C. M. Weyand, principal of 
the Moberly High School. 

The paper was discussed by Miss Alberta Ross, Spring- 
field, Mo., leader; Mr. Theilman, Appleton City, Mo.; Mr. 
Shouse, Kansas City, Mo. ; Mr. Lilly, Moberly, Mo., and 
others whose names were not obtained. 

The attendance was large and great interest was mani- 

Wednesday Afternoon, Dec. 30, 1908. 

The meeting was called to order by the president at 
two o'clock p. m. A paper was then read on "The Prepara- 
tion of the Teacher of History" by Miss Winifred Johnson, 
State Normal School, Cape Girardeau. The leader of the 
discussion was absent, but a lively discussion took place just 
the same. The following took part: Mr. Lewis, Maryville, 
Mo. ; Mr. Violette, Kirksville, Mo. ; Mr. Anderson, Springfield, 
Mo.; Mrs. Green, Kansas City, Mo. Many others asked 
questions. Miss Johnson closed the discussion. A paper on 
"History in the Elementary Schools" was then read by 
Mrs. Josephine W. Heermans, Whittier School, Kansas City, 
Mo. This was discussed by Miss Fannie Brennan, Garfield 
School, St. Jcjseph, leader; Mrs. Harvey, Kirksville, Mo.; 
Mr. Underwood, St. Louis, Mo. ; Mr. Lewis, Maryville, Mo. ; 
Miss Porter, St. Joseph, Mo.; Miss Barnes, Kirksville, Mo. 
Mrs. Heermans closed the discussion. 

A motion was carried empowering the president to ap- 
point a committee of three to report on the advisability of 
investigating the condition of history teaching in the ele- 
mentary schools of Missouri. The following were appointed: 


Mr. Lewis, Maryville, chairman; Mrs. Heermans, Kansas 
City; Miss Porter, St. Joseph. 

Mr. Pair was elected permanent secretary. 

Mrs. Heermans was elected member of the Educational 
Council for three years, Miss Gilday's term having expired. 

The attendance at this session was also large. Thirteen 
members were added to the Society during the two sessions. 
There are now about forty members. 


The annual meeting of the American Historical Associa- 
tion was held at Washington, D. C., and Richmond, Virginia, 
December 28-31, 1908. 

To one who has attended regularly for some years past 
the annual meetings of the American Historical Association, 
that of December, 1908, seemed not a whit behind the high 
standard of the recent previous meetings of the Association. 
The first session was held Monday evening, December 28, in 
conjunction with the Political Science Association, the occa- 
sion being the annual address of the President of the latter 
Association, Hon. James Bryce. After the address Ambassa- 
dor and Mrs. Bryce received the members of both Associations 
at the British embassy. 

The session of Tuesday forenoon was devoted to a series 
of five papers dealing with the use of census reports, news- 
papers and press dispatches, as historical material. A vast 
quantity of unpublished data, it was said, more or less valua- 
able for American social and economic history, remains un- 
analyzed and unarranged in the offices of the Census 
Bureau because means for working over this material have 
never been appropriated. In regard to the use of news- 
papers, the great difficulty lies in the practical impossibility of 
indexing the enormous mass of material published daily by 
the press of the country. 

Tuesday afternoon a special train took the visiting mem- 
bers to Richmond, and that evening Professor George B. 


Adams, President of the Historical Association, delivered the 
annual address. 

The sessions Wednesday and Thursday forenoons were 
devoted to conferences on special historical topics and prob- 
lems, one of the most valuable features of recent meetings. 
There were conferences for the teachers of history in second- 
ary schools, and conferences attracting the attention of the 
University professor chiefly interested in directing graduate 
work. Three conferences deserving particular mention were 
those on research in English History, in American Colonial 
and Revolutionary History and in Southern History. 

On Wednesday evening there were four extremely inter- 
esting and scholarly papers on topics in English and European 
History, while at the meeting Thursday evening the general 
topic for consideration was the Wilderness campaign. Grant's 
conduct of that campaign was discussed from the Confederate 
standpoint by General Alexander of the Confederate army: 
Lee's conduct of the campaign, from the Federal standpoint, 
by Colonel Livermore of the Federal army; while the cam- 
paign from our present point of view was most strikingly pre- 
sented by Major Swift of the United States army. 

A chief value in these annual meetings lies in the oppor- 
tunity which members of the Association find to become better 
acquainted with one another. The arrangements for the 1908 
meeting admirably fostered the social spirit. In addition 
to the social features of the program (the reception given at 
the British embassy, a luncheon given by the Washington 
members and receptions by the Woman's Club and by the 
Confederate Memorial Literary Society at Richmond) it was 
arranged that the regular sessions should be held at the hotel 
headquarters of the Association, thus giving more time and 
opportunity for social intercourse between the sessions . In 
this connection also it is a pleasure to mention the cordiality 
and hospitality of the people of Richmond, and the courtesies 
extended to visitors by the Cosmos and University Clubs of 
Washington, and the Westmoreland and Commonwealth 

Clubs of Richmond. 




Brett, A. C. A., Charles II. and His Court. (Memoir 
Series), London, New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908. $2.75. 

An interesting account of the life of Restoration times 
preceded by some account of the life of the prince before 
"he came to his own." Stress is laid on the personal and 
social aspects of Charles' II. 's life rather than on the po- 
litical and no attempt is made to present the history of the 
time chronologically. The life of town, country and court 
is vividly depicted and an excellent impression is obtained 
of English society of the time. The closing chapter of the 
work discusses the character of Charles II. in a somewhat 
favorable way. There are a number of references to the 
literature of the time, but on the whole the work is popular. 

This would make a good library book for schools that 
could afford it and would furnish good illustrative reading 
for English history, especially in courses where emphasis is 
laid on social and cultural aspects. 

Cheyney, Edward Potts. Readings in English history 
drawn from the original sources, intended to illustrate a 
Short History of England. . .Boston, New York, etc. Ginn 
& Company, 1908. Pp. xxxvi, 781. $1.50. 

This is a collection of source readings that will be 
heartily welcomed by teachers of English history. Although 
compiled with reference to the subject matter in Professor 
Cheney's own text thefee extracts can be profitably used 
in connection with other texts of English history and the 
book will therefore meet a general need for a well rounded 
collection of illustrative extracts from the sources. The work 
of selection has been done with care and insight into the 
needs of the teacher and no one can fail to find the material 
desired in connection with political, social and institutional 
development. An excellent table of contents, useful intro- 
ductory notes, and a serviceable index make the use of the 
extracts easier than in other collections less well arranged. 

Every teacher of English history in high schools should 


make acquaintance with this work, and it can be profitably 
used by pupils whether studying Professor Cheyney's text- 
book or some other. 

Lowell, Abbott Lawrence. The Government of England. 
New York, The Macmillan Co. 2 vols. $4.00. 

This work is one of those standard treatises that now 
and again appear and constitute the teacher's most satis- 
factory and reliable sources of information. The author 
gives a thoroughly clear and authoritative account of the 
present system of government in England and, in addition, 
devotes five excellently written chapters, constituting Part 
VI. of the work, to the British Empire. Almost the v 7 hole 
of the first volume is devoted to the central government in 
England and a detailed description is given of the activities 
of the various organs and agencies in the complicated British 
system. Part II on the party system takes up the closing 
portion of Vol. I., and the opening one hundred pages 
of Vol. II. Then follows an interesting account of local 
government in nine chapters, a discussion of English educa- 
tion from the governmental standpoint in four chapters, 
and three chapters on the established church. There is also 
a section on the courts of law, and a few concluding chapters 
of reflections on present characteristics and tendencies in 
English government. 

The reviews of Mr. Lowell's book have been almost uni- 
formly favorable and many of them extremely laudatory, 
though the London Atheneum (June 20, '08) says "Professor 
Lowell is so firm an admirer of Whig principles and the 
British Constitution as created and explained by Whigs that 
he hardly makes sufficient reservation of still-existent and 
important old Tory views," while the New York Nation 
(July 9, '08) makes the criticism "that Professor Lowell 
does not often enough make biography a handmaiden to his 
exposition of constitutional rule and procedure." The com- 
pleteness of the account, the clear style, and admirable ar- 
rangement of topics make this an indispensable reference 
book on all question of English government, while the po- 


sition of the author as President Eliot's successor in the 
headship of Harvard University give the work additional 
interest and importance. For an excellent detailed review 
of these two volumes consult "The American Historical Re- 
view," Vol. XVI, 140-142, (Oct. '08). 

Selincourt, Hugh De. Great Ralegh. New York, G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. $3.50. 

A very interesting and useful account of the life and 
times of the great Elizabethan captain and courtier. The 
education, military and court life, maratime enterprises, 
political activities and misfortunes of Sir Walter Ralegh 
are dramatically portrayed. The last six chapters deal with 
Ralegh's imprisonment under James I and the tragic ending 
of the final expedition to South America. The book is written 
throughout in a readable style and has a number of interest- 
ing illustrations of prominent characters of the age. As a 
reference book for the Elizabethan period of English history 
it has a distinct value and is an historical biography of a 
superior sort. 

Stenton, Frank Merry. William the Conqueror and the 
Rule of the Normans. Heroes of the Nations. New York, 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

This is a well balanced brief account of the reign of 
the great Norman king of England and of his experiences as 
duke of Normandy. A valuable introductory chapter reviews 
in a general manner the background of Norman and English 
history and prepares the reader for the detailed account 
of William's life in Normandy and England. The first nine 
chapters then concern themselves with the career of the 
Conqueror, while the last three are devoted to the Church, 
the royal administration, and Domesday Book. There are 
many interesting historical illustrations throughout the 
volume, also, at the end, some genealogical tables of value, 
and a serviceable index. On the whole Mr. Stenton 's little 
book commends itself strongly as a work of special reference 


for high schools and collegers and should take its place as 
one of the standard smaller reference books for English 

White, Albert Beebe . The Making of the English Con- 
stitution, 499-1485 New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.00. 

This is a general account of English institutional devel- 
opment during the Anglo-Saxon, Norman and Plantagenet 
periods. The subject is treated topically rather than chro- 
nologically and particular attention is given to the central 
courts and judiciary. As Professor White has designed his 
work for a text-book he does not make any positive contri- 
bution to our knowledge of English institutions but seeks 
to give an interpretation of English constitutional and legal 
history based on the best secondary authorities. A select 
and annotated bibliography and lists of topical readings 
are prefaced to the work and will be of use to both teachers 
and students. In general appearence and make-up the book 
is attractive and is provided with a serviceable index. It 
will be difficult to make use of this work, however, in high 
schools save on special questions of development, but it 
should be of value and service in college and university 
teaching and of stimulus to all teachers. 



The United States as a World Power. By Archibald 
Gary Cooledge. (New York, Macmillan Co., 1908. Pp. vii, 

In this book originally prepared for delivery in the 
form of lectures at the University of Paris during the winter 
of 1906-07, Professor Coolidge has treated in an interesting 
way the chief problems of our internal and foreign policy. 
The nineteen chapters of the book divide naturally into two 
parts. The first nine deal with the development of the United 
States into a World Power and take up such questions as 
immigration, race questions, the Monroe Doctrine, the Spanish 


War and the problems resulting from colonial expansion. 
In the discussion of these the author is somewhat optimistic 
and influenced by his sympathy for the white men of the 
South and of the Pacific Coast, but is clear and interesting. 
The second half of the book gives a brief discussion of the 
history and present status of the relations between the 
United States and France, Germany, Russia, England, Canada. 
Latin America, China and Japan. Particularly interesting 
are the chapters on our relations with Germany and with 
Japan. In all these the author gives a clear narrative of 
past and a suggestive interpretation of present conditions. 
As a whole the book is very readable and at the same time 
scholarly and fair. It should command the attention of a 
wide circle of readers. 



of the 


to be held at the 
University of Missouri, 


SATURDAY, May 1, 1909. 
Morning Session, Nine O'clock. 

President's Address "Setting the Problem." 

"How History can be Taught from a Sociological Point of View." 
C. A. Ellwood, University of Missouri. Columbia. 

"The People and Institutions of the Swedish Settlements on the 
Delaware." H. A Trexler, Hardin College, Mexico. 

Afternoon Session, Two O'clock. 

Reports of Committees. 

(a) Committee on History in the High Schools. 

(b) Committee on History in the Elementary Schools. 

Election of Officers. 
General Business. 

Persons not members of the Society will be cordially welcomed 
> the sessions. 

Papers are to be limited to twenty-five minutes and discussions 
) five minutes for each speaker. All persons interested in the topics 
resented in the program are invited to participate in the discussion. 

All sessions will be held in the lecture room of the Zoological 

Further information regarding the meeting of the Society may be 
ad by addressing the President 


VOL. 3. JULY, 1909. NO. 4. 

(Second Paper Continued.) 

Injustice to the Sacs and Foxes. 

That the policy of our government towards the Sacs and 
Poxes was unjust, there can be no doubt, and that the claim 
of those Indians to the territory North of the Missouri was> 
im 1804, superior to that of the Osages or any other tribes, there 
can also be no doubt. This claim was distinctly recognised 
bj the treaty of November 3, 1804. That treaty designated a 
"line between the lands of the United States and of the said 
tribes," (the Sacs and Foxes) and that line began on the 
Missouri river opposite the mouth of the Gasconade, and ran 
northwestwardly to the Jeffreon, and then down that river 
to the Mississippi, and the Government solemnly agreed to 
protect these tribes against the encroachments of its own 
citizens and others upon their lands, and to remove any 
intruders found thereon upon complaint of the Indians. 

Governor Lewis, in 1808, recognized that the Boone's 
Lick country was far advanced into the Indian country in 
ordering Col. Cooper to retire below the mouth of the Gas- 
conade, and Governor Howard, in defining the boundaries of 


St. Charles, October 1, 1812, also recognized the fact that 
the Indian, title to the lands, west and north of the Sac and 
Fox lines of 1804, had not been extinguished. 

The General Assembly of the Territory, elected Novem- 
ber, 1812, on the 31st day of December, 1813, five years after 
the Osage treaty, also recognized the Indian title to the 
lands west and north of the Sac and Fox lines of 1804, by 
making St. Charles County cover the Sac and Fox cession 
only, and by directing the Governor to annex to that county, 
for governmental purposes, any lands north and west of it, 
whenever the Indian title thereto should be extinguished. I 
wish for you to note the fact here that Governor William 
Clark, who had succeeded Howard as Governor, approved this 
act of the Territorial Legislature. 

After the close of the war of 1812-1815, many immigrants 
found their way to the Boone's Lick country, but the settlers 
there were outside the pale of civil government, and they 
became clamorous for the organization of this part of the 
Territory into a county. Another factor entered into the 
situation. As has been stated, orders were given in 1814 
for plans for the survey of the lands west of the Mississippi, 
and the settlers in the Indian reservations were anxious to 
get titles to the lands on which they had squatted; but lands, 
to which the Indian title had not been extinguished, could 
be neither surveyed, sold, nor organized into a county. What 
was to be done? So far, no one had claimed that the Indian 
title to the lands thus occupied had been extinguished. But 
a large and influential population was seated there perma- 
nently, to all appearances, and a "condition and not a 
theory" confronted the Territorial and National officials, but 
it seems they were equal to the emergency. They bethought 
them of the Osage treaty, which ceded all the lands of the 
Osage tribes north of the Missouri. Why could not that 
treaty be made to extinguish the title of all Indians to the 
lands' north of that river? And within two months after 
he heard of the treaty of peace at Ghent, Governor Clark 
issued the proclamation heretofore referred to, defining the 


Osage Indian lines north of the river, denying the title of 
any other Indian to the lands there, and annexing a vast 
territory, extending from the mouth of the Kansas river, 
140 miles north, and thence to the Des Moines river to St. 
Charles County for government purposes. That was March 
9, 1815. This was the first official step taken to deprive the 
Sac and Fox Indians of their lands. The next step was the 
act of the Territorial Legislature of January 23, 1816, organiz- 
ing the County of Howard. 

So far so good. But the surveys of the public lands were 
then proceeding and it was demanded that the lands, west 
of the Sac and Fox Indian line of 1804. should be surveyed 
and sold. Now it was necessary for the Federal officials to 
take a hand, and they lost no time in doing it. William C. 
Rector ordered the surveys of the Osage Indian line north 
and south of the river. But Sullivan was not as grasping 
as Governor Clark, and he ran only one hundred miles north 
of the Missouri, and then east to the Des Moines, instead of 
one hundred and forty miles, as Clark did. When these 
surveys were made, it seemed the way was cleared to carry 
out all the wishes of the settlers in the Boone's Lick country, 
but the Indians still hovered along their borders, and to 
proceed without consulting them would seem to invite further 
hostilities. At this point the Government adopted a policy 
utterly indefensible in law and hi morals. It had for twelve 
years recognized the title of the Sacs and Foxes to the 
territory west of the line of 1804, and instead of obtaining 
new sessions of all these lands from these Indians, and paying 
them for them, it proceeded to enter into the treaties of 
amity of 1815-1816 with these tribes, by which the treaty 
of November 3, 1804, was, in terms, ratified, and the strangest 
part of this strange tale is, Governor Clark, the author of 
the proclamation of March 9, 1815, was one of the commis- 
sioners of our Government in the making of these ratification 
treaties. So it appears that while the Territorial Legislature 
and the Government, and the Surveyor General of the United 
States, were denying the title of the Sac and Fox tribes to 


the lands west of the line of 1804, the Government at 
Washington City, through Governor Clark, as one of its 
commissioners, was solemnly ratifying the treaty of November 
3, 1804, which obligated it to protect these tribes in the enjoy- 
ment of these same lands. But, notwithstanding the treaties 
of amity and of ratification, the officers went right along in 
the survey of the lands east and west of the line of 1804, 
locating west of the Boone's Lick country, the 500,000 acres 
of Military Bounty Land, and throwing the same open to 
settlement and establishing a land office at Old Franklin for 
the sale of other lands, and where other lands were sold, tha 
sales beginning November 2, 1818. 

It is true, a feeble protest against appropriating these 
lands without consulting the Indians, came, November 29, 
1818, from Hon. Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, who had control of the survey and sale of the public 
lands at that time, but this was soon silenced, for on the 
3d day of March, 1819, a little over four months afterwards, 
Congress declared by statute that the right of preemption 
should exist in Howard County, Territory of Missouri, "any 
construction to the contrary notwithstanding.*' 

The Government proceeded to survey and sell millions 
of acres of land west and north of the Sac and Fox boundary 
of 1804, and then finally obtained another cession from these 
Indians, covering all their lands in Missouri, by treaty made 
at Washington City, August 4, 1824, William Clark again 
acting for the United States. Thus, after ignoring their 
title for eight years, the Government by solemn treaty, 
acknowledged the validity of their title to the lands bounded 
by the Missouri on the south, by buying the title of them. 

Why the Government pursued this devious course, I am 
utterly unable to understand. When we contemplate our 
policy towards these Indians, we are constrained to look with 
less austerity upon the free-and-easy way in which the 
French and Spaniards were accustomed to deal with questions 
of this sort. They claimed the land as belonging to them, 
not to the Indians, but when France ceded the country to 


us, we recognized the possessory right of the savages to the 
land they occupied, or used as hunting grounds, and we 
obtained that right from them by treaties, but on the score 
of justice and morality, it may be questioned whether the 
arbitrary methods of France and Spain were not less ob- 
jectionable than were the inconsistent methods to which our 
Government sometimes resorted. 

Having shown that the United States recognized the 
title of the Sac and Fox Indians to the lands north of the 
Missouri, by no less than five treaties, extending over a 
period of twenty years, let us now inquire into the foundation 
of the claim of Governor Clark, in his proclamation of 
March 9, 1815, that "the pretensions of other nations of 
Indians to lands," lying within the limits of the Osage 
Purchase lines he had fixed, being of very recent date, were 
"utterly unsupported by those usages and that possession 
and prescription upon which the original inhabitants of this, 
country have been accustomed to found their territorial 
claims," and that the Osage Treaty, of 1808, gave us the 
land north of the Missouri river. 

In the first place, it may be remarked that the old maps 
I have seen, show the habitat of the Osage tribes to have 
been south of the Missouri river. Captain Pike, in his ex- 
pedition in 1806, up the Osage river and to the west, 
reported that the Osages had originally dwelt upon the Osage 
river, but about a hundred years prior to the time of his 
visit to them, the Little Osages, by permission of the tribes, 
had settled on the Missouri river near where Malta Bend, 
south of that river, now is; but some years afterwards, 
finding themselves too hard-pressed by their enemies, they 
returned to the Osage river. 

In the report of Lewis and Clark, of their expedition 
across the continent, we find it stated that in the summer 
of 1804, the Old Missouri Village on the north side of the 
Missouri, and the Osage Village on the south side, were 
deserted, and it is added in the report that Lewis and Clark's 
guides told them that the Sacs, about the year 1700, had 


attacked the Missouris in this village (the village on the 
north side of the river), killing two hundred, and that they 
then fled across the river and located a village three miles 
above that of the Little Osages, where they remained till 
about 1774, when they were again attacked by the Sacs 
and other Indians, and reduced to a few families. And it 
is well known that Black Hawk, in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century made several incursions into the Osage 
country and drove the Little Osages and the Missouris from 
the Missouri river, and after the year 1800, an Osage Indian 
crossed the Missouri at the peril of his life. In view of 
these facts, how preposterous is the claim of Clark that the 
Osage title to the lands north of the Missouri was para- 
mount, for that is the meaning of his proclamation and that 
the pretensions of "other Indians" to these lands was recent, 
so recent that they had no valid title to them. 

We cannot escape the conclusion that Governor Clark 
was hard-pressed for a pretext to appropriate the lands of 
the Indians, and this was the most plausible one presenting 
itself to him. And when he signed the three treaties of 
1815-1816 confirming the title of the Sacs and Foxes, and 
signed the treaty of 1824, by the terms of which the United 
States bought from these same Indians the very lands to 
which he had in 1815 proclaimed they had no title, he must 
have realized how flimsy the pretext he adopted was. and 
how inconsistent and indefensible his course had been. His 
conduct illustrates the adage that "where there is a will 
there is a way. " It is thought that no man in our country 
was a better friend of the Indians than Governor Clark, and 
this fact makes his course still stranger. 

This indefensible conduct of our Government also illus- 
trates, in a forcible way, how the inexorable logic of events 
controls human affairs. This was a contest between a 
superior race on one side, and an inferior race on the other, 
and step by step the inferior yielded to the superior. 

I stated in my paper on the Missouri Compromise Line 
that probably the conflict between the whites and negroes 


is our country could not be settled by statesmanship but 
would have to be ground out in the mills of time, in the 
suffering and tears of the people, and so we might here say that 
tke Indian question was not wholly controlled by the states- 
men of our country, who, as a rule, at all times desired to 
deal fairly and honestly with the Aborigines, but history 
teaches us that the people brought about conditions which 
even the statesmen of the country could not ignore. Why 
they did not, however, upon finding a large population seated 
on the Indian lands in violation of treaty stipulations and 
the laws of Congress, buy the lands of the Indians instead 
of re-affirming their right to them no less than four times, 
and preferred to violate their solemn treaties by the adoption 
of a flimsy pretext, is at this time wholly unexplainable. 

What has become of the Sacs and Foxes and the Osages, 
the proud sons of the prairies of one hundred years ago, who 
claimed and had title to the whole of our imperial Missouri? 

The Osages by the treaty of June 2, 1825, ceded the strip 
of land about twenty-three miles wide, between the Old Osage 
line and the west boundary of the State, and by subsequent 
treaties they were given a reservation in the Indian Territory, 
where they now dwell. In 1904, they numbered 1,895 souls, 
and their income at that time, from trust funds and other 
sources, was about fourteen dollars for each man, woman and 
child, per month, and besides, they had a large tract of 
land, the fairest in this Territory; but their tribal relations 
have now been sundered and their lands have been allotted 
to them in severalty, all of which, having lost the trusteeship 
of the Government, they will soon lose in their dealings with 
the whites. 

The Sacs and Foxes. 

The impartial historian of the future will, in strong 
terms, condemn our policy towards these tribes, and especially 
will he condemn our course in the Black Hawk War of 
1831-1832. The history of that Avar, though some of our 
most illustrious men participated in it, will ever remain. 


when calmly viewed, a very dark chapter in our national 
career. It is true Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi into 
Illinois in violation of his treaty stipulations, but having 
plainly violated no less than four treaties itself, the Gov- 
ernment was in no position to charge Black Hawk with a 
violation of other treaties. Black Hawk could have very 
well retorted in the language of the poet: "The villainy 
you teach me I will execute, but I will better the instruction." 
But Black Hawk did not cross the Mississippi to make war, 
for he took his women and children along, which proves his 
statement to be true that he intended to visit a nation 
on the Illinois to raise a crop. 

The blackest and most horrible part, however, of all 
our dealings with these tribes, was in firing twice upon flags 
of truce, during that war, once before the war had actually 
begun, and again, July 30, 1832, at Bad Axe, Wisconsin, 
where and when twenty-three Indians were killed, and only 
one American wounded, shot in the leg. To read the official 
reports of the War of 1832, and of the slaughter of helpless 
men, women and children, is enough' to make the blood run 
cold. The official report of the last slaughter, (it was not a 
battle) stated: "Little discrimination seems to have been 
made between those in arms and the rest of the tribe. After 
they had sought refuge in the waters of the Mississippi, and 
the women, with their children .on their backs were buffeting 
the waves in an attempt to swim to the opposite shore, 
numbers of them were shot by our troops." But we will 
drop the curtain on this bloody and inexcusable tragedy in 
our history. Black Hawk was captured and was put on 
exhibition from Washington City through New England and 
back home, and the people made a hero of him wherever he 
went. In a few years he died. 

Many treaties have been made with the Sacs and Foxes, 
led by Keokuk, the diplomat, and Black Hawk, the warrior, 
and at this writing they have almost disappeared. Only a 
remnant of them is left. A few are in Iowa, a few in 


Nebraska, a few in Kansas, and the balance in the Indian 
Territory; probably 1,200 of these survive. 

The Missouri-Iowa Line. 

The first petition of citizens for a state Government for 
Missouri, prepared in 1817, prayed for a state bounded on 
the east by the Mississippi river ; south by the line of 36 
degrees 30 minutes north latitude; west by the Osage Pur- 
chase lines, north and south of the Missouri river, and north 
by a line running due west from the mouth of the Des Moines. 
The memorial of the Legislature of the Territory adopted 
November 21, 1818, asked for these boundaries for the State : 
Beginning on the Mississippi river at the line of 36 degrees 
north latitude ; thence to the junction of Big Black and White 
rivers; up White river to the line of 36 degrees 30 minutes, 
and thence west to a point due south of the mouth of Wolf 
river; thence north through the mouth of that river to a 
point due west from the mouth of Rock river (in Illinois) ; 
thence east to the Mississippi river and down that river to 
the beginning. Wolf river empties into the Missouri in 
Kansas, opposite Section 1, Township 58, Range 38 west, 
and a north and south line through the mouth of that river 
would leave all of Atchison County, the most of Holt and 
a strip three miles wide off of Nodaway County to the west, 
and would include, south of the Missouri, one tier of Kansas 
Counties, and the north line prayed for by this memorial 
would have included, in Missouri, three tiers of Iowa Coun- 
ties, east of the proposed west line. The northwest corner 
of the State thus proposed, would have been near the north- 
west corner of Cass County, Iowa, about sixty-five miles 
north of the present boundary of our State. The southern 
line, called for by the memorial, would have included eight 
entire and parts of five Counties of Arkansas. Congress 
compromised somewhat, giving Missouri two Counties south 
of 36 degrees 30 minutes, Pemiscot and Dunklin, and running 
far enough west on the latter line to be due south of the 
south end of the Old Osage Indian line, running north from 


the mouth of the Kansas river. The west and north lines of 
the State, as defined by the Act of Congress of March 6, 1820, 
ran north on a meridian, passing through the middle of the 
mouth of the Kansas river "to the intersection of the 
parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the 
river Des Moines, making the said line to correspond with 
the Indian boundary line; thence east from the point of; 
intersection last aforesaid, along the said parallel of latitude 
to the middle of the channel of the main fork of the river Des 
Moines," thence down that river and the Mississippi to the 
place of beginning. 

For a long time after the admission of the State into 
the Union, the largest portion of the territory lying north 
and west of us, remained, in a sense, derelict. In 1834, the 
territory north of our boundary was attached to the Territory 
of Michigan, and on April 20, 1836, (1) to the Territory of 
Wisconsin, the northern boundary of Missouri being made 
the southern boundary of the Wisconsin Territory, west of 
the Mississipppi. By this time, the settlers south and north 
of the Old Indian line had begun to jostle each other, and the 
Missouri officials and people concluded it was about time 
to have the northern line of the State definitely located, 
and on December 21, 1836, the Missouri Legislature passed 
an act authorizing the Governor to appoint three commis- 
sioners to survey that line, in conjunction with commissioners 
to be appointed by the President and by the Governor of 
Wisconsin Territory. The Governor of Missouri (Lilburn 
W. Boggs) appointed as such commissioners, February 4, 
1837, Col. Daniel M. Boone of Jackson County, Capt. Stephen 
Cooper of Howard County, and Elias Bancroft (2), but the 
President and the Governor of Wisconsin Territory failed 

1. By Act Dec. 23, 1834, of the Missouri Legislature the Governor 
by and with the advice of the Senate was authorized to appoint two 
commissioners and one skillful surveyor to ascertain and locate the 
northern and southern lines of the state, but the northern line was 
not surveyed under this act. 

2. It is here stated, Cooper was then of Howard county, but 
Gorernor Boggs stated he was of 'Lewis county, when he sent the 
names oaf the commissioners to the Senate. 


to appoint commissioners. The Missouri commissioners ap- 
pointed Joseph C. Brown of St. Louis to survey the line. 
They proceeded to examine the Des Moines river, to locate, 
if they could, "the rapids of the river Des Moines," called 
for in the act of March 6, 1820, and they determined upon 
a point near the Big Bend, 51 miles up the river by its 
meanders, from its mouth, at 40 degrees, 44 minutes 6 sec- 
onds north latitude, where they claimed they found rapids 
answering the call, and from that point they surveyed and 
marked a line to the Missouri river, the Platte Purchase hav- 
ing at that time been added to Missouri, which extended her 
western boundary to that river. 

December 21, 1836, the date of the act authorizing the 
appointment of three commissioners, may be taken as the 
beginning of the controversy over the northern boundary of 
the state, which did not end till January 3, 1851. 

The above line was surveyed by Brown in July, August 
and September, 1837, and the commissioners made report 
which was approved by act of the Legislature of February 
11, 1839. 

April 12, 1838, the Territory of Iowa was formed, with 
the north line of Missouri as its southern line. June 18, 1838, 
Congress authorized the President to have this line surveyed, 
in conjunction with Commissioners from Missouri and Iowa. 
The President appointed Major Albert Miller Lea of Maryland 
to survey the line, but no commissioners were appointed by 
Missouri. Iowa appointed Dr. James Davis. Lea surveyed 
four lines, any one of which, he reported might be taken as 
that intended by the Act of March 6, 1820 : 

1. The Old Indian boundary line surveyed by Sullivan 
in 1816: 

2. The parallel of latitude running due east and west 
through the northwest corner of the Osag-: cession fixed by 
Sullivan : 

3. The parallel passing through the middle of the rapids 
of the river Des Moines in the Mississippi river, and 

4. The line surveyed by Brown for Missouri in 1837. 



Lea made his report to the Commissioner of the General 
Office, James Whitcomb, grandfather of James Whitcoxnb 
Riley, the poet. 

A map of the lines surveyed by Maj. Lea is here given: 

D. E. Line claimed by Missouri. 

C. P. Old Indian Line. 

C. G. True meridian through northwest corner, fixed by 

B. H. Meridian through the Des Moines rapids in the 
Mississippi river, and the line claimed by Iowa before Supreme 

Dr. James Davis, on behalf of Iowa, reported the Old 
Indian line as the true one. 

The belt of land between the lines surveyed and claimed 
by Missouri and Iowa, respectively, at this time, was eight 
miles, sixty-eight chains and twenty links (nearly nine miles) 
wide at the Des Moines river, and eleven miles at the west end. 

August 23, 1839. Governor Lilburn W. Boggs of Missouri, 
issued a proclamation citing the Act of Februarv 11. 1839, 
fixing the line at 40 degrees, 44 minutes and 6 seconds, and 
forbidding the exercise of jurisdiction south of that line 
by any one not acting by authority of this State, and di- 


rected the militia officers, and their commanders, to hold them- 
selves in readiness to aid the civil officers of the State in 
the discharge of their duties. Robert Lucas, Governor of 
Iowa, about the same time, also issued a proclamation, for- 
bidding the exercise of jurisdiction by Missouri officials north 
of the Old Indian line, and authorizing the arrest and trial 
of all persons attempting to exercise official functions on 
the disputed strip, not sanctioned by the laAvs of Iowa 

In 1839 the only settlement on the disputed strip wa 
near the present town of Farmington, Van Buren County, 
(Iowa). In August 1839, Uriah S. Gregory, commonly called 
"Sandy," sheriff of Clark County, Missouri, went to the 
above settlement on the disputed strip, where a large crowd 
was raising a house, and demanded taxes from the settlers 
there, but they treated the demand with contempt and 
ordered "Sandy" to retire to his own State, which he lost 
no time in doing. He went to Waterloo in his county and 
reported the resistance he had met in the performance of 
his official duties. Governor Boggs at once issued another 
proclamation, urging all officers to stand firm and do their 
duty. November 30, 1839, Gregory made another effort to 
collect taxes from those living on this disputed land, and 
this time the sheriff (Sheffelman) of Van Buren County, 
Iowa, arrested him for usurpation of authority, took him 
first to Farmington, where there was a large and excited 
crowd, and from there to Muscatine, where he was imprisoned 
for a short time, but finally released on his own recognizance. 
This caused great excitement in both jurisdictions. The 
County Court of Clark County met at Waterloo and entered 
an order calling for the militia to aid the Sheriff in enforcing 
the laws. Pursuant to orders of Governor Boca's, Major 
General David Whillock called for 2,200 men of his Division 
(the 14th). December 7, 1839, Col. Chauncey Durkee's regi- 
ment of Lewis County was en route to the seat of war without 
tents, almost destitute of blankets, and only partially armed. 
At La Grange, some of his men broke into the store of 


Charles S. Skinner, and took groceries, blankets and other 
supplies, worth hundreds of dollars. This was approved by 
General 0. H. Allen, and Skinner was afterwards reimbursed 
by the State, at least partially, for his losses. The Lewis 
County regiment and a Clark County battallion went into 
camp on Fox river, near Waterloo, where a force from Knox 
County joined them, raising the total number in camp to 
about 600. The snow was deep and the weather was very 
cold. In the meantime Governor Lucas of Iowa had called 
the militia out, 1,200 strong, and proposed to take command 
in person, but he probably did not do so. Among his captains 
was George W. Grimes, who afterwards became United States 
Senator from Iowa. At a public meeting at Farmington, 
it was resolved to act on the defensive and "not aggress 
or be aggressed on." Mass meetings were also held in Clark, 
Lewis and Marion Counties, Missouri, which passed resolu- 
tions urging the enforcement of the laws in the disputed 
strip. The situation was becoming alarming, and it was not 
long till the councils of cooler heads began to dominate 
public opinion on both sides. General J. B. Brown led the 
Iowa forces. Before proceeding to hostilities, however, he 
appointed A. C. Dodge of Burlington, General Chairman of 
Dubuque, and Dr. Clark of Fort Madison, a committee to 
negotiate for peace. Col. McDaniels and Dr. Wayland were 
appointed for the same purpose on the part of Missouri. 
The Missouri officials determined to send a militia force with 
the Sheriff of Clark County to collect taxes on the disputed 
territory. December 2, 1839, the County Court of that County 
made an order that Col. John Dedham, of the 76th Regiment 
of Missouri Militia, detail so many men as he might deem 
necessary for that purpose, but December 4th, that same 
Court took steps for peace. It appointed a committee to visit 
the Iowa Legislature to see if an amicable solution might not 
be reached. This committee went to Burlington and inter- 
viewed the Governor, and the Legislature then in session, 
and the latter appointed a committee to negotiate peace terms 
if possible. This committee and the Clark County committee 


returned to Waterloo, and the Iowa committee on December 
12, presented to the County Court of Clark County, resolu- 
tions proposing to refer the controversy to Congress. It is 
reported than Thomas L. Anderson, in a speech to the court, 
urging the acceptance of these terms, portrayed the horrors 
of war and the blessings of peace in such stirring and 
eloquent language, that he caused his auditors to weep. The 
court made an order accepting the proposed terms. But, 
after all, it seems no modus vivendi was adopted, for we shall 
see that the friction between the officers and the people along 
the border continued for seven or eight years afterwards. 
It may be added that there is little doubt all the peace com- 
mittees above mentioned participated in the efforts to bring 
about an amicable settlement of tfie controversy. 

After the truce at Waterloo, December 12, the troops 
were ordered home, but General Allen and Col. Durkee wanted 
to fight, and their command held a meeting at the Pemberton 
Hotel at Monticello, and passed resolutions condemning 
everybody who had been instrumental in bringing about 
peace. And the Marion County troops ended the matter by 
some contemptuous resolutions against the two governors, 
who, they claimed, had unnecessarily caused the trouble. A 
ham of venison was cut in two, one labelled "Gov. Lucas of 
Iowa," and the other "Gov. Boggs of Missouri," they hung 
these up, fired into them with rifles, then took them down and 
buried them with funeral solemnity and with the honors of 
war. They then passed these resolutions: 

"Resolved, That as this is the third winter in succession 
the troops have been ordered from Marion County and had 
to furnish their own tents and blankets; Therefore, we, who 
have them now, will keep them for the war next winter, as 
our notice has hitherto been so short. 

"Resolved, That the Governor be requested to furnish 
us with guns by next winter." 

On their way home, they wore their coats wrong side 
out. Another regiment from Marion County burnt fences 
and played cards, and the next Grand Jury indicted one 


hundred of them for gambling. They also marched home 
with coats wrong side out. 

There were probably eight hundred militiamen who re- 
sponded to Governor Boggs' call, and the war cost Missouri 
$20,000.00, $19,000.00 for troops and $1,000.00 for contingent 
expenses, all of which the State had to borrow by issuing 

It seems Franklin Lovering, Sheriff of Clark County, got 
into trouble also in his effort to enforce the law in the dis- 
puted territory, for in 1845, the Legislature of Missouri 
appropriated $351.56 to reimburse him for damages and 
costs he had sustained in suits brought against him by 
lowans, whom he had arrested in December, 1839, at St. 

Governor Reynolds appointed Luke W. Lawless of St. 
Louis, under the act of the Missouri Legislature of February 
16, 1841, to prosecute those who had resisted Gregory in his 
attempt to collect taxes on the disputed strip for the purpose 
of bringing the boundary question before the courts, but 
Lawless held that such a prosecution would not raise that 
question and advised that no suit be brought. His advice 
was taken and there that plan ended. 

For his services the State paid Lawless $200.00, but he 
was not satisfied and demanded a larger sum. but that was 
all he received. 

Congress, March 3, 1839, appropriated $969.05 to pay 
Major Lea for surveying the disputed lines. In 1839-1840. 
the President, on four several occasions, sent documents in 
regard to this dispute to Congress, and from 1840 to 1845. 
the Missouri Legislature passed two statutes to have the 
line surveyed by joint commissioners, representing Missouri, 
Iowa and the General Government, but they were all fruitless 
of results. During the same period, Missouri and Iowa sent 
numerous memorials to Congress, asking for the settlement 
of the controversy. Iowa being a Territory, could do nothing 
without the consent of Congress, and it seems it was conceded 
Congress, even, had no power to impair the vested right of 


Missouri to any territory included in the boundary fixed by 
the act of March 6, 1820. It is true it was agreed to refer 
the question to Congress, but when Congress undertook the 
job, which it delayed five years, its plan of settlement was 
rejected by our State. Congress, by Act June 17, 1844, 
provided for the location and survey of the line by one 
commissioner to be appointed by the President, one by Mis- 
souri and one to be selected by these two, but it provided 
that this Act should not be enforced without the consent of 
Missouri. The Legislature passed a bill accepting this propo- 
sition, but Governor Edwards vetoed it January 3, 1845, on 
the ground that as by the Act of Congress a majority of 
these commissioners might fix the line, Missouri might lose 
the strip of land she claimed north of the Old Indian line 
over the vote and objections of her own commissioner. The 
Governor went on to say that Missouri's claim to the dis- 
puted territory was unquestionably valid and he would never 
consent to surrender it by any sort of compromise. This 
ended the efforts of Congress to settle the contest. 

Preston Mulnix, Sheriff of Adair County. Missouri, was 
indicted in loAva for usurpation of office, and March 28, 
1845, the Legislature appropriated $500.00 to defend him, but 
before the case was tried, the Governor of Iowa pardoned 
him. Governor John C. Edwards in his message to the 
Legislature, November 16, 1846, reported these facts in regard 
to Mulnix and added that great excitement had prevailed 
along the northern border, but amicable relations had been 
restored, between the officials of both sides, Jonathan Riggs, 
Sheriff of Schuyler County, Missouri, had been indicted in 
Davis County, Iowa, and the Sheriff of Davis County, Iowa, 
had been indicted in Schuyler County, Missouri, for usurpa- 
tion of office, and Carty Wells and James S. Green were 
appointed to prosecute the Iowa officer and defend the 
Missouri Sheriff, February, 1846, and January 11, 1847, these 
attorneys reported that the cases had been continued by 
consent. A Senate committee, in 1847, made a report through 
its chairman, Thomas B. English, that Jonathan Riggs had 


been appointed Sheriff of Sehuyler County because he was 
a firm and resolute man, and he had been arrested by the 
Sheriff of Van Buren County, Iowa, and imprisoned twenty- 
one days, and the committee recommended an appropriation 
to indemnify him for this, and added that there was then 
great excitement along the border. 

Missouri, by Act of March 25, 1845, and Iowa by Act 
of January 17, 1846, consented to submit the question of 
boundary to the Supreme Court of the United States, and 
by Act of August 4, 1846, Congress conferred power on 
that court to determine where the northern line of Missouri, 
as fixed by the Act of March 6, 1820, was. 

The suit was delayed on account of Iowa not being ad- 
mitted into the Union. Her admission as a state was authorized 
by the Act of March 3, 1845, but her people refused to come in 
because her western boundary was not extended to the Mis- 
souri, and by Act of December 28, 1846, Congress complied 
with their wishes by so extending the border, and Iowa was 
admitted into the Union. 

The way was now clear to have the Supreme. Court 
settle the question, and accordingly, Missouri, in pursuance 
of the Act of her Legislature of February 13, 1847, filed her 
bill in that court to establish the line surveyed by Brown 
in 1837, which she claimed was the true northern boundary 
of the state. 

Hamilton R. Gamble and James S. Green appeared as 
attorneys for Missouri, and Ewing & Mason for Iowa. 

Missouri insisted that the call for "the rapids of the 
river Des Moines" was a controlling one, and that the words 
"making the said line to correspond with the Indian boundary 
line" did not apply to the north line at all, but applied only 
to the west line, and even to that line only to its northern 
terminus, and that the west line of the State should be con- 
tinued north "to the intersection of the Darallel of latitude 
which passes through the rapids of the river Des Moines,'' 
which, it claimed, were found at the Great Bend where Brown 
commenced his survey. 


Iowa, in the earlier stages of the contest, claimed only 
to the Old Indian Line, but when she came to defend this 
case, she abandoned that line and concurred with Missouri 
that the call for a parallel of latitude passing through "the 
rapids of the river Des Moines" as the northern boundary 
of Missouri, should control, but denied that the ranids selected 
by the commissioner of that State at 40 degrees, 44 minutes, 
6 seconds, were, in any sense, rapids, but were riffles only, 
and hence did not answer the call, and claimed that the 
rapids in the Mississippi river, commencing about three miles 
above the mouth of the Des Moines river and extending up 
the river about fourteen miles, and well known among the 
French as "Les rapides de la riviere des Moines," and 
among the Americans as "The rapids of the river Des 
Moines," were meant and that the north boundary of Mis- 
souri should be fixed on a parallel of latitude running through 
the center of these rapids. 

These contentions of the two States before the Supreme 
Court, put in issue a belt of land about seventeen miles wide, 
the Iowa contention being for a line six miles south of the 
Old Indian line, at the west end, and over eight at the east 
end, and that of Missouri being for a line eleven miles north 
of the Old Indian line, at the west end, and over eight at 
the east end. The map heretofore given shows the lines 
claimed by the two States. 

Depositions were taken by both sides to prove their re- 
spective contentions. The Court decided the case February 
13, 1849. The Court found that in the Des Moines river there 
was a fall at Farmington, thirty-four miles from its mouth, 
of 2.27 feet in ninety rods, while at the Great Bend, fifty-one 
miles from its mouth, where Brown commenced his survey 
of the line for Missouri, the fall was only 1.75 feet in eighty 
rods; at 55 miles a fall of 1.75 feet in 80 rods, and at 93 
miles a fall of 2.10 feet in 80 rods; and held that none of 
these constituted "the rapids of the river Des Moines" 
within the meaning of the call of the Act of March 6, '1820, 
and as there were no rapids in the river Des Moines, answer- 


ing the call, that call would have to be disregarded. The 
Court then held that the contention of Iowa that the rapids 
in the Mississippi were the rapids meant in the call, was 
untenable, and decided that the words "making the said line 
to correspond with the Indian boundary line." renuired the 
west line of the State to coincide with the "Indian boundary 
line," not only in its beginning and course, but also in its 
terminus, and that being the case, the northern line of the 
State should run from the northern terminus of the Indian 
line, and the decree of the court was that the line run by 
Sullivan in 1816, known as "The Old Indian Line," was the 
true boundary line between Missouri and Iowa. 

After a careful study of the case, the following conclu- 
sions, to my mind, seem incontrovertible: 

1. The contentions of both States that the call for "the 
rapids of the river Des Moines" in the location of the line, 
should have been sustained. It seems clear than Congress 
did not intend that the northern line of the State should 
correspond to the Old Indian Line, for if that had been its 
intention it would have so declared in express terms, as it 
actually did in regard to the west line; 

2. The contention of Missouri that the slight fall in 
the river 40 degrees, 44 minutes and 6 seconds north latitude 
caused rapids answering the call, is utterly untenable ; 

3. The contention of Iowa that the rapids in the Missis- 
sippi, known in early times as the rapids of "the river Des 
Moines," ought to have prevailed. These rapids are the only 
ones in that vicinity which can in any sense be said to answer 
the call, and it seems most certain that these were meant. 

The decree has the appearance of a compromise, by which 
the disputed territory was about equally divided between 
the two States. The Court found justification for the adoption 
of "the Old Indian Line" in the fact that Missouri, by its 
legislative acts had recognized that line up to 1836 as the 
true line; that Congress at all times, in the organization of 
Wisconsin and Iowa Territories, and in the surveys of the 
public lands, and the Executive Department, in no less than 


fifteen Indian treaties, made after the admission of Missouri 
into the Union as a State, had recognized that line as the 
northern boundary of Missouri. The Court appointed Joseph 
C. Brown of Missouri, and Henry B. Hendershot of Iowa, 
commissioners to survey and mark the line described in the 
decree. The Court ordered the commissioners to place at 
the northwest corner of the survey made by Sullivan in 1816, 
an iron pillar, four feet six inches high and to square one 
foot at the base and eight inches at the top, with "Missouri" 
cast in the pillar on the south side, the word "Iowa" on 
the north side, and the word "boundary" on the east side, 
and to place similar pillars at the then northwest corner of 
the State on the bank of the Missouri and at the northeast 
corner on the bank of the Des Moines. The Court also 
ordered the commissioners to set other pillars, either iron or 
stone, of such dimensions and kind as they might select, at 
intervals of every ten miles. Brown died, and Chief Justice 
Taney appointed, April 6, 1849, Robert W. Wells in his stead. 
"Wells and Hendershot did some work and then Wells resigned, 
and Wm. G. Minor was by the Court at its December term, 
1849, appointed to fill the vacancy. William Dewey of Iowa 
and Robert Walker of Missouri, were appointed by the com- 
missioners to make the survey. Hendershot and Wells re- 
ported at the December term, 1849, that they had procured 
the three iron pillars above mentioned, and nineteen other 
pillars, all of cast iron. Six of the other nineteen pillars 
were four feet long and squared at the base eight inches and 
at the top five inches, to be set thirty miles apart, and the 
other thirteen were four feet long and squared seven inches 
at the base and four inches at the top. The nineteen pillars 
had "Missouri" on the south side, "Iowa" on the north side, 
and "Boundary" on the other two sides. The inscriptions 
on all the pillars were strongly cast in the metal. The thirteen 
pillars were to be placed ten miles from the other pillars or 
from each other. 

The commissioners, Hendershot and Minor, reported 
December . 1850. that after consulting Major M. L. Clark, 


Surveyor General for Illinois and Missouri, they started, April 
10, 1850, to go to the Old Northwest Corner of Missouri, the 
corner made by Sullivan, to begin work, but when they got 
there, they found the prices of transportation and provisions 
had so advanced on account of the immense emigration to 
California through Southern Iowa and Northern Missouri, 
that they altered their plans and reduced their force. To 
haul the pillars and baggage they had to make roads and 
bridges and grade down banks in places. The three large 
monuments weighed between 1,500 and 1,600 pounds, each, 
and the others between 300 and 400 pounds, each. Dewey 
and "Walker, the surveyors, made report to the commissioners 
from Keokuk, Iowa, September 30, 1850. They say they met 
near the Old Northwest Corner, April 28, 1850, and by May 
24th, they had fixed that corner at 40 degrees 34 minutes 4 
seconds north latitude, and 94 degrees and 30 minutes west 
longitude. They then surveyed the line to the Missouri river, 
setting up the monuments. They returned and commenced 
the survey from the Old Northwest Corner, east, August 
13, 1850, and finished it September 18, 1850. The line east 
from the Old Northwest Corner, they reported, was not on 
the meridian of 40 degrees 34 minutes 4 seconds, nor straight. 
The line surveyed by Sullivan constantly veered to the north, 
but it was not at all points, run on the same variation of the 
needle. At the east end, on the Des Moines, they found the 
Old Indian Line was 2.75 miles north of the starting point 
at the Old Northwest Corner. Because the line was not 
straight, the surveyors set wooden posts at the end of each 
mile, between the iron posts. 

The whole cost of instruments, transportation, freight, 
surveyors and commissioners' charges was $10,880.41. The 
Court, on January 3, 1851, approved the report of the 
commissioners and fixed the line as they reported it and 
ordered each State to pay one-half of the costs, which was 
done, and thus ended this memorable contest, which had 
lasted from December 21, 1836, to January 3, 1851, a period 
of over fourteen years. 


The lesson the history of this line teaches us is, that a 
spark may kindle a great conflagration, and that wars can 
grow out of very trivial matters. It is evident that if Mis- 
souri and Iowa had not had a power higher than either to 
appeal to, a disastrous war would have been the result, which 
emphasizes the importance of our Union of States under one 
general government. 

One word in regard to the comical features of this con- 
troversy: Besides the farcical conduct and proceedings of 
the militia after the war was over, already given, there was 
another episode that was made the basis of ridicule and 
amusement. Early in the contest, a Missourian cut some bee 
trees on the disputed strip, and being sued for this in an 
Iowa court, judgment went against him for one dollar and 
fifty cents for damages and costs, and the "Palmyra" Whig 
of December 26, 1839, published the following poem by John 
I. Campbell, a local satirist: 

Tune: Yankee Doodle. 

Ye freemen of the happy land, 
Which flows with milk and honey, 
Arise! To Arms! Your ponies mount, 
Regard not blood or money. 
Old Governor Lucas, tiger-like, 
Is prowling round our borders, 
But Governor Boggs is wide awake, 
Just listen to his orders : 
Three bee trees stand about the line, 
Between our State and Lucas, 
Be ready, all those trees to fell, 
And bring things to a focus. 
We'll show old Lucas how to brag, 
And seize our precious honey ; 
He also claims, I understand, 
Of us three bits of money. 
Conventions, boys, now let us hold, 
Our honey trade demands it; 
Likewise, the three bits, all in gold, 
We all must understand it. 


Why shed our brothers' blood in haste, 

Because big men require it; 

Be not in haste our blood to waste, 

No prudent men desire it. 

Now if the Governors want to fight, 

Just let them meet in person, 

And when noble Boggs old Lucas flogs, 

'Twill teach the scamp a lesson. 

Then let the victor cut the trees, 

And have three bits in money, 

And wear a crown from town to town, 

Annointed with pure honey. 

And then no widows will be made, 

No orphans unprotected; 

Old Lucas will be nicely flogged, 

And from our line ejected 

Our honey trade will then be laid 

Upon a solid basis; 

And Governor Boggs, 

Where'er he jogs, 

Will meet with smiling faces. 

I have given you the story of five historic lines of Mis- 
souri: The Missouri Compromise Line, the Sac and Fox 
Indian Line of 1804, the Osage Indian Line of 1808, the Fifth 
Principal Meridian, and the Missouri-Iowa Line, only two 
of which survive. The Missouri Compromise Line was wiped 
out in the blood of the nation, the Sac and Fox and the 
Osage Indian Lines have vanished from the maps through the 
operation of the pitiless law of "the survival of the fittest;" 
the Fifth Principal Meridian and the line between Iowa and 
Missouri, remain, and will probably continue forever. And 
the strongest feature, connected with the survival of these 
lines, is, one of them, the Missouri-Iowa line rests on the 
survey of a myth, the Osage Indian possession north 
of the Missouri river, which were as unsubstantial as "the 
baseless fabric of the vision," and yet, there it stands, marked 
by iron pillars for the ages to come, and that, too, by the 
order of the highest court in the land. Of all these lines, 
however, the most important, whether we consider the past 
or the future, is the Fifth Principal Meridian. It has been 
named millions of times in legislative acts and instruments 
affecting land titles recorded in the counties of Arkansas. 
Missouri, Iowa. Minnesota, and the two Dakotas, and will 
be, in the time to come, named and recorded billions of 
times more. JOHN L. THOMAS. 



When the French and English established their first per- 
manent settlements in America, they found the whole country 
in the possession of numerous aboriginal tribes, the members of 
which were unlike any they had ever known. Many have 
been the theories advanced as to who these people were and 
whence they came. Many books have been written in vindi- 
cation of the different theories of the writers, and in some cases 
6y men of learning and ability, but modern investigations by 
eminent ethnologists have shown that the theories held by 
these writers were in the main erroneous. The most recent 
theories advanced, and perhaps the most plausible, is that 
by Ridpath, the historian. In his chart showing the distribu- 
tion of mankind, he gives the North American Indians the 
name of Mongoliads. and makes them a branch of the North 
Asiatic family. 

Not long since I wrote Mr. Holmes, Chief of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington City, giving him Mr. Ridpath 's classification, 
and asked him if it would be safe to accept his theory as the 
correct one. In reply he said: "It is generally conceded 
that the American Indians are of Asiatic origin, but as they 
are so widely differentiated from any known Asiatic people 
it would be perhaps inappropriate to speak of them as Mon- 
golians. They have been separated so long from their Asiatic 
kindred that they are properly classed as a separate race." 

To the first white settlers the variety of languages and 
dialects appeared to be well nigh infinite, but on acquaintance 
it was discovered that these dialects were easily reducible 
to a few primary stocks. (1) Ethnologists have grouped the 

1. The Siouan tribes of the East by James Moony, Washington, 
Government Printing office, 1898, page 5. See also pages 9 and 10. 


numerous tribes into fifty-six linguistic stocks or families, 
and these again into more than two thousand tribes or affilia- 
tions and have also determined the original location of the 
various families in America. 

In the paper which follows we shall speak only of the 
families represented by the tribes found at some time in the 
past to have lived within the territory now included in the 
State of Missouri. 

Miami. Synonyms : Meames, Memis, Mawmee and eighty- 
four others. 

The earliest account we have of this tribe places them 
on Green Bay, Wisconsin. Like other tribes they gradually 
traveled in a southern direction, finally reaching the valley 
of the Wabash in Indiana and the Northwest, where they 
made their final stop. Little Turtle, their famous chief, said : 
"My fathers kindled the first fire at Detroit, thence they 
extended their line to the headwaters of the Scioto, thence 
to its mouth, thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Wabash and thence to Chicago and Lake Michigan. In 1815 
the whites found them in possession of a tract of land on the 
Missouri river in Saline county." After the defeat of the 
Indian Confederation by General Wayne in 1793, it seems 
this band came west and located in Missouri. Their fort and 
village stood near the present town of Miami, which derives 
its name from them. We do not know the number that came, 
but it is said that there were almost three hundred warriors. 
If so, the whole number of souls was not far from fifteen 
hundred. Soon after the settlement of Saline County by the 
whites the Miamis left, but to what place they went we havt: 
no information. They frequently returned to Missouri to 
hunt, but so far as we can learn they were always entirely 
peaceable and committed no depredations of any kind, a 
record very different from that of Sacs and Foxes and lowas. 
(See History of Saline County, St. Louis, 1881, page 158.) 

Kickapoo. Synonyms: Kicapoos, Kicapoux. Kichapacs 
and fifty-six others. 


This tribe first appears in history in 1667-70. They were 
then in Wisconsin. We have no traditions of their former 
home or previous wanderings. The Kickapoo we find had 
a village in Missouri in 1805, just above the junction of the 
Missouri with the Mississippi river. Their stay in Missouri 
at that time was probably of a transcient character and did 
not last long. In 1819 they made a treaty with the United 
States at St. Louis, by the terms of which they were to receive 
a tract of land in Southwest Missouri. The tract as selected 
was about fifty miles wide from east to west and sixty-five 
miles long from north to south. The county seats, Hermitage, 
Bolivar, Stockton, Greenfield and Osceola are within this 
territory. In 1832 the Kickapoos ceded back to the United 
States the above tract of land and in consideration thereof 
received a tract in Kansas of 1,200 square miles not far above 
Fort Leavenworth. 

In claiming as we do that the Indian is the aboriginal 
inhabitant, it is understood that we reject the theory held 
by many of a prehistoric people generally called Mount! 
Builders. There were mound builders, but they were not a 
distinct people, as we think, and were but different tribes of 
American Indians. It has also been established that these 
mound building Indians differed in their work, as they did 
in other regards. In my letter to Mr. Holmes, referred to 
above, I asked him whether the mounds in Missouri belonged 
to the Ohio system or to a separate system. We give his 
reply : 

"The Missouri mounds certainly do not belong to the 
name tribe or group of tribes as those of Ohio. The art re- 
mains found in the two sections differ as decidedly as do 
the art relics of distinct tribes, and it is probable that the 
Missouri mound builders spoke a different language from 
the mound builders of Ohio. It is understood that there were 
a large number of mound building tribes, and that these 
tribes are now represented by the different tribes of the 
Mississippi valley." 


But the scope of this paper will not permit of farther 
discussion of this subject. 

When the Louisiana Territory came into possession of 
the United States in 1803, there were living within the present 
bounds of the State of Missouri the following Indian t ribes : 

Of the Siouan family or stocks, the Osage and Kansa; 
of the Eastern Siouan branch, the Iowa and Missouri; of 
the Northwestern Siouan branch, the Omaha, Ponca and Oto. 
The last three had at one time resided in Missouri, but had 
long ago removed to other localities. Of the Algonquin family 
there were the Delaware, Shawnee, Sauk and Fox and Miami. 
The Kickapoo came in later. It is of the above tribes we 
propose to treat in this paper. 

Siouan Tribes. Historical. (2) 

Osages. (Corruption by French tradorr; for Was-haz-he, 
their own name), with about sixty synonyms. The Osages 
are the most important southern Siouan tribe of the eastern 
division. Dorsey (3) classed them under the name of Dhe- 
giha (4), in one group with the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa and 
Quapaw, with which they are supposed to have originally 
constituted a single body, living along the lower course of 
the Ohio river. Geographically speaking, the tribe consists 
of three bands : The Pahatsi or Great Osage, Utsehta or Little 
Osage, and Santsukhdhi or Arkansas band. (5) 

2. According to the Linguistic map Missouri published by the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, the territory occupied in pre-historic 
times by the Osage and allied tribes and other tribes of the Siouan 
family or stocks lay in Virginia and North Carolina and extended 
from the Atlantic coast west almost or quite to the east line of Ten- 
nessee. From this habitat they were expelled at a very early day 
by the Iroquois and other tribes. Going west, they crossed the 
mountains and followed down the New river and Big Sandy to the 
Ohio River. 

The Siouan tribes by Moony, etc.,page 11 as above. 

3. "Dorsey" Rev. J. O. Dorsey was an Episcopal clergyman and 
was a missionary to the Indians for a number of years. He acquired 
a good knowledge of the Siouan language. 

4. Dhegiha, means literally, a group. This group consisted of 
the tribes here named. 

5. Hand Book of American Indians by F. W. Hodge, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Washington, D. C., 1907. This work is in the 


Many years ago Major Sibley obtained a statement from 
an aged chief of the Osages, who said that the tradition had 
been steadily handed down from their ancestors that the 
Osage had originally emigrated from the east, because the 
population had become too numerous for their hunting 
grounds. He described the forks of the Alleghany and 
Monongahela rivers, and the falls of the Ohio at Louisville, 
where he said they had dwealt some time, and where Iargt3 
bands had separated from them, and distributed themselves 
throughout the surrounding country. Those who did not 
remain in the region of the Ohio followed its waters until 
they reached the mouth, and then ascended to the mouth 
of the Missouri, where other separations took place, some 
going northward up the Mississippi, others advancing up the 
waters of the Missouri. 

According to Dorsey, one tribe, Kwapa, when they 
reached the mouth of the Ohio river, separated from the 
others going down the Mississippi, while the others advanced 
up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Missouri, making a 
protracted stay in the vicinity of St. Louis. From this 
habitat the Omaha and Ponkas proceeded north as far as 
Minnesota, then turned west and halted near the big Sioux 
river. The Osages and Kansa followed up the Missouri river 
to the mouth of the Osage. There the final separation took 
place, the Osages going up the Osage river, and the Kansas 
proceeding up the Missouri to the mouth of the Kansas 
river. (6) The first historical notice of the Osage appears 
to be on Marquette's autograph map of 1673, which locates 
them apparently on Osage river, and there they are placed 
by all subsequent writers until their removal westward in 
the nineteenth century. 

How long they had been on Missouri territory at that 
time (1673) we do not know, but probably for many years. 

form of a dictionary. I have made free use of it in the examination 
of each tribe . It will not be necessary for me to reifer to it again as 
the reader can easily verify any statement here made by reference to 
the Hand Book under the name of the tribe being discussed. 

6. Omaha Sociology by Rev. J. O. Dorsey, Washington, D. C., 
1884. Map opposite page 212. 


What tribes had preceded them we do not know. That other 
tribes had resided on the banks of our great rivers is evident 
from mounds which they erected and are yet to be seen. 
But when or whence they came, how long they remained, and 
whither they went are questions that will probably never 
be properly answered. The Osages laid claim to all the 
territory in Missouri south of the Missouri river and west 
of the Mississippi river; to Northern Arkansas and all of 
Kansas south of the Kansas river, and extending as far west 
as the sources of the streams flowing easterly, and in the 
different treaties made with them the United States Govern- 
ment recognizes the justness of their claim. 

It is said of the Osages that they were a powerful tribe 
and of the few who never gave the whites any trouble. 
Physically the Osage is a powerful man, slightly above 
medium height. Washington Irving in 1832 in his book ''The 
Tour of the Prairies," says: "The Osages are the finest 
looking Indians I have seen in the West." 

Treaties Affecting Missouri. (7) 

As far back as the year 1804, November 3, we find the 
Sac (Sauk) and Fox tribes were in a bloody war with the 
Great and Little Osages in the country along the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers, and a treaty was made with the former 
tribes at St. Louis, binding the tribes to cease their wars 
and come under the protection of the United States, and 
make a firm and lasting treaty between themselves and the 
Osages, under the Indian Commissioner, William Henry 
Harrison, then Governor of the Indian Territory and of the 
Louisiana district, and superintendent of Indian affairs and 
plenipotentiary of the United States to make any treaties 
found to be necessary with the Osages. 

7 . Our information concerning all treaties discussed in this paper 
has been derived from "Land Grant Cessions in the United States," 
compiled by C. O. Royce, being part 2 of the annual report of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, Government Printing 
office, 1899. For verification we refer to this work. It is not, 
necessary to refer in each case to the page. 


The chiefs of the Big and Little Osage tribes met in 
friendly treaty of release made at Fort Clark, (8) Nov. 10, 1808, 
by Peter Choteau, agent of the Osages and the chiefs and 
warriors of the latter, and a large extent of territory was 
ceded to the United States east of a boundary line running 
from Fort Clark directly south to the Arkansas river, said 
line being parallel to and twenty-four or twenty-five miles 
east of the west line of Missouri as afterwards established 
in 1816, and down the said Arkansas river to the Mississippi 
for a consideration of $800 cash, and $1,000 in merchandise 
to the Great Osages, and $400 cash, and $500 in merchandise 
to the Little Osages. 

In the treaty of June 2, 1825, all their right, title and 
claims to all land in Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, and 
westward as far as a line drawn from the head sources of 
the Kansas river southwardly through rock Saline, and all 
south of Kansas river, except a strip of fifty miles beginning 
twenty-five miles west of the Missouri State line, at a point 
called White Hairs Village, and extending to the said west 
line of this treaty concession; the United States reserving 
the right to navigate all navigable streams in that reservation, 
and in consideration of these consessions paid the Osages 
$7,000, yearly for twenty years (from the date of treaty), 
at their village, or at St. Louis, at their option, in money, 
merchandise, provisions or domestic animals, as they might 
elect, at first cost of goods at St. Louis, and free transporta- 
tion, etc., and many provisions for the tribes in the efforts 
to farm; and reservations of one section each to all the half- 
bloods, whose names are mentioned. 

Soon after the conclusion of the above treaty the Osages 
were moved to their diminished reserve in Kansas and all 
connection with Missouri ceased. 

8. Fort Clark Captain William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition, and later territorial governor of Missouri, arrived Sept. 
4, 1808, with a detachment of Missouri militia, and established a fort 
and government trading post on the Missouri river where Sibley is 
now located, and about thirty miles east of Kansas City. The strong- 
hold was first called Fort Clark, in honor of its founder, but about 
1810 the name was changed to Fort Osage. 


Kansa. Synonyms: Kansas, Kanzas, Kaw and sixty-six 

Handbook of American Indians, Part I, page 653. See 
note 5. 

The Kansa, or as now popularly known as Kaw or Kansas 
tribe, is one of the five, according to Dorsey's arrangement 
of the Dhegiha group. Their linguistic relations are closest 
with the Osage and are close with the Quapaw. In the tra- 
ditional migration of the group, after the Quapaw had first 
separated therefrom, the main body divided at the mouth 
of Osage river, the Osage moving up that stream and the 
Omaha and Ponca crossing the Missouri river and proceeding 
northward, while the Kansa ascended the Missouri on the 
south side to the mouth of Kansas river. Here a brief halt 
was made, after which they ascended the Missouri on the 
south side until they reached the present north boundary of 
Kansas, where they were attacked by the Cheyenne, and 
compelled to retrace their steps. They settled again at the 
mouth of the Kansas river, where the big knives, as they 
called the whites, came with gifts and induced them to go 
farther west. 

According to the above there were two periods when 
the Kaws resided at the mouth of the Kansas river. The 
dates of these sojourns can not now be ascertained, but it 
seems quite certain that they must have reached the mouth 
of the Kansas river at first, not later than the middle of 
the sixteenth century and possibly earlier. The first treaty 
of which we have any record was one of peace and friendship 
made October 28, 1815. 

By the treaty of June 2, 1825, they ceded to the United 
States their lands in North Kansas and Southern Nebraska. 
and relinquished all claims they might have to lands in 
Missouri, but reserving for their use a tract on Kansas river. 
They claimed a body of land in the northwest corner of the 
State of Missouri bounded as follows: Beginning at a point 
on the Missouri river opposite the northeast corner of the 
State of Kansas, run northeasterly to northeast corner of 


Nodaway County, thence due west to Missouri 
river, thence down the Missouri river to place 
of beginning including parts of Holt and Nod- 
away Counties, and nearly all of Atchison County; 
but this claim was not recognized so far as we can ascertain . 
Beginning with the year 1833, when the Methodists estab- 
lished a mission among them, efforts were made for many 
years, first by the Methodists and later by the Quakers, to 
christianize and civilize them, but all efforts seem to have 
accomplished little or no good. They still adhere to their 
ancient faith and customs. In 1873 they were removed to 
the Indian Territory and located next to the Osages. The 
population diminished from seventeen hundred in 1850 to 
two hundred and nine in 1905, of whom only ninety were 
full bloods. Only a few more suns and the last full blood 
Kansa will have journeyed to the happy hunting ground. 

Iowa (Sleepy Ones.) Synonyms: loway, lowai, lowas and 
one hundred and eight others. 

One of the tribes included by J. O. Dorsey with the Oto 
and Missouri in his Chiwere group. (9) Traditional linguistic 
evidence proves that the Iowa sprang from the Winnebago 
stem, which appears to have been the mother stock of some 
other of the Southwestern Siouan tribes; but the closest 
affinity of the Iowa is with the Oto and Missouri, the difference 
in language being merely dialect. Iowa chiefs informed 
Dorsey in 1883 that their people and the Oto, Missouri, Omaha 
and Ponca "once formed part of the Winnebago nation." 
According to the traditions of these tribes, at an early period 
they came with the Winnebago from their home north of the 
Great Lakes. In their meanderings the tribes became sepa- 
rated. Finally the Iowa reached the headwaters of Little 
Platte river, Missouri. Thence they journeyed to the 
Mississippi river near the mouth of the Des Moines river, 

9. The Platte Purchase, the title we use for the triangular body 
of land including Platte, Buchanan, Andrew, Nodaway, Holt and Atchi- 
son counties. Until the treaty of 1836 this body of land was not in- 
cluded in the state of Missouri. The original east line of the stat? 
crossed the Missouri river at the mouth of the Kaw river, extending 
due north to the northwest corner of Worth county. 


and after various journeyings they finally reached Missouri 
territory, first stopping on Salt river, thence to the Chariton 
river, next to Grand river, and then to the Missouri river 
opposite Fort Leavenworth. How long they remained there 
we do not know, but as their territory included nearly all 
of that part of Missouri north of the Missouri river, beside 
a large part of what is now the State of Iowa, it is not proba 
ble they remained very long in any one locality. The popula- 
tion was estimated in 1760 at eleven hundred souls, in 1804 
at eight hundred, smallpox having carried off many of them, 
and but eighty-nine in 1905. Thus one of the strongest tribes 
that ever lived in this territory is soon to be numbered witk 

the extinct tribes. 



In the treaty of August 4th, 1823, the lowas ceded and 
quitclaimed all territory situate between the Platte purchase 
and the Mississippi river and north of the Missouri river. 
No compensation is mentioned. The lowas claimed all the 
land lying north of the Missouri river except a tract on the 
west side of the Mississippi river belonging to the Sacs and 
Foxes. See boundary as given under their head. For other 
treaties in which the lowas were a party see under Missouri, 

By treaty of September 27, 1836, the United States ceded 
a small strip of land to the lowas and the Missouri band of 
Sacs and Foxes south of the Missouri river, and located in 
the northeast corner of Doniphan County, Kansas. 

Missouri, (Great Mud, referring to the Missouri river). 
Synonyms : Missoori, Missoury and thirty-eight others. The 
name of the river was bestowed on them by the whites because 
of their location on the Missouri river, and not their name 
bestowed on the river. Their name for themselves is Mintache, 
meaning those who reached the mouth of the river, referring 
probably to their residence at the mouth of Grand rrver. 
According to Gale the early form of the word Missouri is 
Algonquan. The Avord has been spelled many different way. 


The most closely allied tribes are the Iowa and Oto. Accord- 
ing to tradition, after having parted from the Winnebagos at 
Green Bay, the Missouri, Oto and Iowa moved westward to 
Iowa river where the lowas stopped. The rest continued 
westward reaching the Missouri river at the mouth of Grand 
river. Here, after some dispute, the Otos withdrew and 
moved further up the Missouri river. About the beginning 
of the eighteenth century the French found the Missouris 
on the left bank of the Missouri river near the mouth of 
Grand river, and built a fort on an island near them. The 
tribe continued to dwell in this vicinity for about one hundred 
years. The great Grand river valley was doubtless the finest 
hunting ground in the territory, which may account for the 
long residence of the tribe in its vicinity. Other tribes 
doubtless roamed and hunted in the same country as was 
the usual, or, rather, universal custom. As seen above tho 
Missouris called themselves by a name which meant "Those 
who reach the month of the river," a very proper name for 
a tribe which had after long wandering and journeying 
reached the mouth of a river which proved to be eminently 
fitted for a permanent location. 

Du Pratz, the French historian, writing of the unfortunate 
tribe said : ' ' The Missouris were recently engaged in another 
war with the Sac and Fox, more than two hundred of them 
were killed in one engagement." The remainder of the tribe 
fled across the river and sought refuge among their neighbors, 
the Little Osages, on Petitesas plains, now Saline County. 
The remnant of the tribe established a village on Petitesas 
plains. The site of this village is supposed to be about three 
and one-half miles northeast of Malta Bend. 

There was peace on Petitesas plains until 1775, when the 
Missouri and the Little Osages were attacked and defeated 
by their relentless foes the Sacs and Foxes. This was the 1 
final blow to the Missouri tribe. The few families that were 
left fled forever from the valley of the Missouri. A few of 
the Missouris followed the Osages, who retreated to the vil- 
lages of their brethren, the Great Osages, on the Osage river. 


The remainder of the band of Missouris fled to the mouth 
of the Platte river, where they took refuge with the Otoes, 
became merged into that tribe and lost their identity as a 
nation. Lewis and Clark, on their expedition up the Missouri 
river in 1804, noted the sites of the abandoned Indian villages 
on Petitesas plains. This record was made : ' ' In front of our 
camp are the remains of an old village of the Little Osages, 
situated at some distance from the river at the foot of a small 
hill. About three miles below them, in view of our camp, is 
the situation of the old villages of the Missouris, after they 
fled from the Sacs." 

In 1829 the number with the Otoes was eighty. They 
accompanied the Otoes to the Indian Territory in 1882. At 
that time their number had been reduced to forty. A letter 
from the superintendent to the writer, dated Otoe Agency, 
Oklahoma, May 14, 1908, says: "There is not a full blood 
Missouri Indian left on this reservation. The last full blood 
of the tribe died about a year ago." 


In the treaty of July 15th, 1830, the Sac and Fox, 
Medemakanton, Wahpdkuta, Wahpeton and Sisseton bands of 
Sioux, Omaha, Iowa, Oto and Missouri relinquished all claim 
to the Platte purchase. The land thus ceded it was under- 
stood might be assigned or allotted to the tribes then living 
on them, or to such other tribes as the President might locate 
thereon, or permit to hunt therein. 

October, 1836, the Missouris in connection with the Oto, 
Omaha, and Yankton and Sisseton bands of Sioux made a 
treaty fully relinquishing all claim to the territory included 
in the treaty made July 15th, 1830, These are the only 
treaties touching Missouri Indian land matters, and from 
them we learn that the Missouris claimed or occupied no 
territory as a tribe, after their settlement was broken up at 
the mouth of Grand river about 1798. Efforts to civilize and 
christianize them failed to accomplish much if any good. 
They adhered tenaciously to the old customs. Once a power- 


ful nation, now all that is left are a few mixed bloods, scat- 
tered among other tribes. 

Oto. Synonyms: Otoe, Ototetata, Ottoos and seventy- 
eight others. 

One of the three Siouan tribes forming the Chi-wer 
group, the others being the lowas and Missouris. The lan- 
guages differ but slightly. The earliest reference to this tribe 
is found in the tradition which relates to the separation of 
the Chi-were group from the Winnebago, at Green Bay, 
Wisconsin. Another division took place at the mouth of the 
Iowa river, where the lowas concluded to remain, while the 
Missouris and Otos continued their travels till they reached 
the mouth of Grand river. Here they remained for some time 
when a quarrel arose between two chiefs and a separation 
followed. The Otos moved farther up the Missouri river and 
finally settled permanently on the Platte river, Nebraska. 

Other Tribes. 

July 15th, 1830, the United States made a treaty at 
Prairie du Chien, Michigan, with the following tribes: Sac 
and Fox, Medewakanton. Wahpeton and Sisseton bands of 
the Sioux, Omaha, Iowa, Oto and Missouri tribes, by which 
the said tribes ceded to the United States an immense tract 
of land lying in Wisconsin, Iowa, and including the Territory 
in Missouri which we designate as the Platte purchase. The 
understanding was that this territory was to be allotted under 
direction of the President of the United States to the tribes 
then living thereon or to such other tribes as the President 
might locate thereon for hunting or other purposes. How 
many of the above tribes actually lived in the part of territory 
in Missouri we do not know. 

As will be seen under Sac and Fox, the Sacs and Foxes 
on the 27th of September, 1836, ceded their interests in the 
Missouri part of the territory, as noted in the treaty of 1830, 
to the United States. October 15th, 1836, the Oto, Missouri, 
Omaha, and Yankton and Santee bands of Sioux ceded and 
quitclaimed to the United States all right and interest in 


the Platte purchase tract. (9) See land grant cessions as 
in notes under 1. This treaty, so far as the records show, 
terminated all interest of the above named Indian tribes in 
and to lands in Missouri, except homesteads to a few half 
breeds of different tribes. There is no evidence that any of 
the above named tribes ever lived on the above named tract 
of land except the Missouri tribe. The Otos once resided 
with the Missouri at the mouth of Grand River. (See Oto.) 
The Omahas at one time resided with the Osages, Kansa and 
Ponca in the vicinity of St. Louis, but at what date or for 
how long we have no way of ascertaining. (10) ((See our 
notice of the Omahas under Osage.) 

Algonquin Tribes Sauk or Sac. 

The Sauk. came to Wisconsin through the lower Michigan 
peninsula, their traditional home being north of the lakes, 
and they were comparatively new comers in Wisconsin when 
they were first met by the French in 1670. About 1780 the 
Foxes were incorporated with them, and since then the united 
tribes have been known as Sauk and Fox. 


The name Fox, or red fox, the name of only a clan, was 
erroneously applied to the whole tribe by some French 
traders. Their own name for themselves is Mishkwakihng 
red people, because of the kind of earth from Avhich they 
are supposed to have been created. When the Foxes first 
became known to the whites they lived in the vicinity of 
Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, in 1670. The Foxes were a 
savage, warlike people and seem to have been quarrelsome. 
This disposition resulted in almost constant warfare, which 
went on until they were finally overthrown. Their last fatal 
conflict was with the Chippewa, when they were almost 
annihilated. This was in 1780. The remnant incorporated 
with the Sauk, and although long officially regarded as one, 
the two tribes have preserved their identity. 


Sac and Fox. 

When they first made their appearance in Missouri we 
can not tell. The first treaty we find touching their connec- 
tion with Missouri was held in St. Louis, November, 1804. 
This treaty simply fixed the boundary of their territory, but 
how long they had been in possession of the territory they 
were then occupying we have no means of ascertaining. It 
is known that while the Siouan family was recognized as 
the rightful owner of nearly all of Missouri from a very 
remote period, that the Algonquin held a strip of land along 
the west shore of the Mississippi, the ownership dating far 
back in prehistoric times. This treaty did nothing more than 
recognize the justice of the claim of the Sac and Fox, being 
Algonquin tribes, and defining its boundary. The territory 
as described embraces the following counties: St. Charles. 
Warren, Lincoln, Montgomery, Pike and Rails, and parts of 
Callaway, Audrain, Monroe, Shelby and Marion. (From a 
map.) The tract was about eighty miles from north to south 
and about fifty miles from east to west, bounded on the 
east by the Mississippi river and on the south by the Missouri 
river; west by a line beginning at the Missouri river opposite 
the mouth of the Gasconade river,running northerly to Shelby- 
ville, thence southeast to the Mississippi river. 

Other Treaties. 


In 1815 at the treaty held in St. Louis it was that that 
portion of the Sauk nation residing on the Missouri river 
assent to the treaty between the United States and the united 
tribes of Sac and Fox, concluded at St. Louis, 1804, and that 
the Fox nation or tribe assented to and confirmed the treaty 
between the United States and the united tribes of the Sacs 
and Foxes concluded at St. Louis, 1804. 

Treaty of Washington, August 4, 1824. 

The united tribe cede all their right to lands claimed by 
them in Missouri as defined by the treaty of 1804. In 1830 


the Sac and Fox with other tribes ceded their interest to the 
United States, in what we denominate the Platte purchase 
with the understanding that the said lands were to be allotted 
and assigned by the President to the tribes then living 
thereon, and to snch other tribes as the President might 
locate thereon for hunting and other purposes. It is evident 
that this territory became the home of Sac and Fox on the 
relinquishment of their lands on the Mississippi river. In 
September, 1836, the Sac and Fox ceded to the United States 
all their claim and interest in and to the lands in the territory 
described in the treaty of 1830. By the provisions of another 
treaty dated September 17, 1836, the United States assigned 
to the Iowa and Missouri band of Sac and Fox a small 
reservation in Kansas. This reservation is in Doniphan 
County. These are the tribes from the Platte purchase, the 
body of land now composing the Counties of Platte, Buchanan, 
Andrew, Nodoway, Holt and Atchison. 

Delaware. Synonyms: Delawaras, Delaways and fifty- 
five others. 

A confederacy which occupied the entire basin of Dela- 
ware river in East Pennsylvania and Southeast New York, 
together with New Jersey and Delaware. They called them- 
selves Lenape or Leni, a name meaning Real Men. The 
Delawares got their name from their principal river. As 
the whites crowded them out of their homes they removed 
first to the Susquehanna in 1742. They soon abandoned this 
location, and after some time the greater part located in East 
Ohio on the Muskingum river, where they made their perma- 
nent abode. 

In 1793 a part of them removed to Missouri and with 
a band of Shawnees, occupied the tract of land granted them 
by the Spanish Government. (See under Shawnee.) In 1815 
they with a band of Shawnees removed from Missouri to 
Arkansas. By 1820 these two bands found their way to 
Texas where the Delawares numbered at that time probably 
seven hundred. By 1835 most of the tribe had been gathered 


from their different reserves on a reservation in Kansas, a 
few miles west of Kansas City, Kansas. 


October 3rd, 1818, a treaty was made with the Delawares 
by which they ceded to the United States all their claim to 
land in Indiana, and the United States agreed to provide for 
them a country west of the Mississippi and to guarantee them 
peaceable possession of the same. The land selected for 
them was a tract on White river, Missouri. The tract was 
about seventy miles from east to west by forty-four miles 
from north to south. It included the Counties of Barry, 
Stone and parts of Christian, Green and Lawrence. September 
24, 1829, a council was held on Jones park of White river 
where a treaty was made by which the Delawares ceded to 
the United States all their claim to the Cape Girardeau tract, 
and also the tract in Southwest Missouri as above described. 
Thirty-six sections of the Cape Girardeau tract were to be 
sold to provide schools for the Delaware children. In 1828 
Peankeshaw had a village on this reservation. Their stay in 
Missouri seems to have been more for visiting and hunting 
than for residence. 

Shawnee. (Southerners.) Synonyms: Shano, Shawneese, 
Savannah and one hundred sixty-four others. 

The Shawnee was a leading tribe of South Carolina, Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio. In 1793 the Spanish Government gave to 
bands of Shawnee and Delaware a tract of land near Cape 
(Jirardeau, bounded as follows: East by the Mississippi 
river, west by White river, north by St. Come river and 
south by Cape Girardeau, equal to twenty-five miles square. 
This tract was abandoned by the Delawares in 1815, who 
with a small band of Shawneer, settled in Arkansas. After 
Wayne's great victory over the Indian confederacy, 1793, 
followed by the treaty which put an end to the long wars 
in the Ohio valley, the more hostile part of the Shawnee 
joined those living in Missouri. The other part settled on 
the Auglaize river in Ohio. The Shawnee residing in Mis- 


souri in 1812 numbered about eight hundred, being about 
half of the entire tribe. In 1825 they ceded their lands to 
the United States, and removed to Kansas where they had 
been granted a tract of land to be fifty miles square or its 
equivalent in exchange for their Missouri reserve. Here they 
were joined in 1832-3 by the Ohio branch. Prior to the treaty 
of 1825 a large part of them had gone to Texas, and settled 
on the headwaters of the Sabine river where they remained 
till 1839. For a time a band of the Shawnee lived on land 
informallj- assigned them in Southwest Missouri on the head- 
waters of White river, but it seems they acquired no title 
to the tract. Within the boundary of this reservation are 
parts of the Counties of Webster, Wright, Douglas, Ozark 
and Taney. In 1828 there was a Peoria and Piankeshaw 
village on the headwaters of White river, just on the line 
dividing the Shawnee reservation from the Delaware reser- 
vation, which it joined on the west. 

The Shawnee were a restless, fierce and warlike people, 
and one of the most turbulent tribes our Government has 
been called to deal with. We can not follow them in their 
devious meanderings and through their various wars, but 
simply make the following quotation from the hand book: 
"For a period of 40 years from the beginning of the French 
and Indian war to the treaty of Greenville in 1795 they 
were almost constantly at war with the English or the Ameri- 
cans and distinguished themselves as the most hostile tribe 
in that region. Most of the expeditions sent across the Ohio 
during the Revolutionary period, were directed against the 
Shawnee, and most of the destruction on the Kentucky 
frontier was the work of the same tribe." 

Of those in Missouri it is only fair to say that they 
remained quietly on their reserve, refusing to join in any 
war against the whites. They were industrious and peaceable, 
giving our people no trouble. Among them were men of 
prominence and influence in Indian councils and transactions 
with the Government. 


Third Paper. 

The last twenty-five years of the life of Daniel Boone 
was spent in Missouri, and when he died he was buried there. 
Scenes connected with his daily life during this period seem 
to possess an abiding interest for the American people. The 
Boone farm in the upper part of St. Charles County, and 
the old stone mansion that stands upon it, are visited every 
year by numerous pilgrims, who come from distant States, 
and even from across the sea, to worship at the shrine of the 
world's greatest pioneer. Each new arrival drinks freely 
from the spring of sweet water that bubbles up from beneath 
a great ledge of rock, paints a mental picture of the adjacent 
scenery of hill and bluff and rolling valley, and carries away 
with him pleasant memories of the place and its surroundings. 
Others, less reverent of sentiment, chip off pieces of the ston; 
house, or gather mementoes from the spot where the oid 
cabin stood; while some fondly cherish photographs of a 
modern pig-sty, which they are made to believe contains 
some of the logs that entered into the first Boone house west 
of the Mississippi. The present owner of the place, a thrifty 
American of German ancestry, is disposed to let all his visitors 
have their own way, and very rarely undeceives any of them 
regarding the pig house. And why should he spoil a harmless 
gentiment? Every vestige of the old cabin has long since 
disappeared, except a few faint traces of the foundations 
where it stood. 

The spring was the inducement which led Boone to build 
his cabin there. Those old pioneers valued a spring more 
than they did the land surrounding it ; for it not only supplied 
them with water so cold as to require no ice, but it was sure 
to be a general meeting-place for deer and other game. Many 


a buffalo, coming to slake his thirst at this spring, yielded 
up his life a victim to the unerring aim of the old pioneer. 
Boone could sit in the door of his cabin, which stood fiftj 
feet or more eastwardly from the spring, and lay in a winter's 
supply of meat for his family without the trouble of hunting. 
He could pick his choice of deer, elk, buffalo, or bear; for 
all these animals came there to drink. Bear meat was pre- 
ferred above all other kinds, owing to its sweet and nutty 
flavor; and the bacon of swine went begging when bear 
bacon was convenient. "Wild turkeys were so abundant and 
so tame that they roosted in the trees that stood about the 
Hjabin, and were not regarded with special favor; for when 
one eats turkey every day he soon longs for something more 
substantial. Bees nested in the crevices of the rocks and in. 
the hollows of adjacent trees, and came also to the spring 
to fill their little buckets with water. Thus Booone and hk 
family had an abundance of honey, of the best quality and 
flavor, without going beyond the limits of their own yard 
or bothering themselves about the care of the bees. It was 
a genuine Arcadia, embracing an existence seemingly unreal, 
but it was very real and substantial when Boone built his 
cabin on the bank above the spring and for some years 

Back of the spring a hill slopes gradually up to the foot 
of a bluff, from the top of which may be seen many miles 
of the level stretches of Femme Osage valley, with the creek 
of the same name winding its course through the corn and 
wheat fields and the rich meadow lands that margin itw 
banks. There are not many finer views anywhere in the 
world; and for richness of soil the farms that lie spread out 
beneath this bluff can hold their own with the valley of the 
Nile. Before Boone came the French had given a name to 
this creek ("Woman of the Osages") to perpetuate the 
memory of an Osage woman, said to have been beautiful, 
who lost her life while attempting to cross the stream when 
it was swollen by recent rains. Sometimes it becomes a torrent, 
sweeping over all obstacles and flooding the lower portions 


of the valley. It was in this condition when the Osage woman, 
driven doubtless, by an unsympathetic husband, gained im- 
aiortality by getting herself drowned . 

The story of how Daniel Boone came to the valley of 
the Femme Osage is told in the records of Louisiana Territory. 
About 1790, weary and despondent over his failure to secure 
titles to his lands in Kentucky, and burdened with debts 
which he could not pay, the ruggedly honest old pioneer 
gave up all the acres that he possessed m the now famous 
Wuegrass region, and removed with his family to the valley 
of the Kanawha. He located in what was then the north- 
western part of the State of Virginia, but now within the 
limits of Mason County. West Virginia, not far from the 
town of Point Pleasant. The Northwest Territory was already 
beginning to be occupied by thrifty pioneers, and it was be- 
lieved that the Kanawha Valley was a good place to settle and 
eatch the drift of trade as it flowed by from the Atlantic States 
to the new and expanding West. 

Soon after the removal to the Kanawha country, Daniel 
M. Boone, a favorite son. and also a pioneer of distinction, 
ventured into the Louisiana Territory on a hunting and trap- 
ping expedition. The fame of his father had preceded him, 
and he was most kindly treated by the Spanish authorities 
at St. Louis. The Lieutenant Governor, Senor Zenon Trudeau, 
suggested that if his father, the celebrated Colonel Boone, 
would remove to Louisiana, the King would appreciate the 
act and treat him handsomely. The younger Boone thereupon 
sent back such glowing accounts of the warmth of his wel- 
come, the richness of the soil, the excellence of the climate, 
and the plentifulness of game, that the imagination of the 
old pioneer was inflamed; and disposing his family and his 
few earthly belongings on pack-horses, he led the way on 
foot across the present States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
to the north bank of the Missouri river, in what is now the 
upper part of St. Charles County. This journey was made 
in 1795 when Boone was in his sixty-first year,. 
and a glance at the map will show the magnitude of 


the undertaking. The old man walked every 
foot of the way, with his rifle on his shoulder, through a 
trackless wilderness, a large part of which was infested by 
bands of blood-thirsty savages. The fact that he made the 
journey and brought his family through in safety attests the 
greatness of the man. 

On their arrival in St. Louis, Colonel Boone and hi? 
family were treated by the Spanish officials as distinguished 
guests. The freedom of the city was extended to them. The 
American and Spanish flags were displayed side by side, and 
the garrison was paraded in honor of the distinguished pioneer 
of Kentucky. No function of courteous hospitality was left 
unperformed; and before their departure the Spanish Lieu- 
tenant Governor presented Colonel Boone with a grant for 
1,000 arpents of land, to be located where he pleased in the 
"District of the Femme Osage. " The district then embraced 
everything north of the Missouri river and indefinitely west- 
ward to the "South Sea." It was large enough to satisfy 
a man even of Colonel Boone 's expansive ideas; but he chose 
to locate the grant in the rich bottom lands of the Missouri 
Tiver, four or five miles below the present town of Augusta. 
There he built his first cabin within the limits of Missouri, 
close by the uncertain banks of the shifting stream. The 
land and the cabin have long since been swallowed by the 
caving-in of the banks, and the river now flows where the 
Boone arpents lay. Here he and his son, Daniel M., undertook 
to build a town, which they called Missouriton, in honor of 
the river on whose banks it stood. For a while the place 
flourished, and after the cession of Louisiana to the United 
States it was proposed to locate the capital of the Territory 
there. But the town, like the cabin and the land, has long 
since fallen into the river. Nothing remains to mark its 
site, and no memory of the place lingers in the neighborhood 
except a country postoffice called Missouriton, kept by a 
farmer who lives some distance from where the old towu 


A year or two after his arrival, the Spanish authorities 
entered into a contract with Colonel Boone to bring one 
hundred American families to Upper Louisiana, for which 
he was to receive a grant for 10,000 arpents of land, to be 
laid, as others had been, in the Femme Osage district. The 
contract was fully complied with by both parties, but Boone 
lost his land by neglecting to "have his grant confirmed by 
the Spanish Governor at New Orleans. There were no public 
mails then in Louisiana Territory, and a trip to the southern 
capital was too great an undertaking merely to secure the 
signature of the Governor. Meanwhile the transfer of the 
Territory was made to the United States, and it was then 
too late for Boone to have his title confirmed. Subsequently, 
on the 24th of December, 1813, Congress, by special act, 
confirmed his title to the Spanish grant for 1,000 arpents. 
This tract he soon afterward sold and applied the proceeds 
to the payment of his Kentucky debts; so that, in the end, 
he died landless, for the farm and the stone mansion in the 
Femme Osage valley belonged to General Nathan Boone . 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century the population 
of Femme Osage district had increased to such proportions 
as to require a local government, and on the llth of June, 
1800, Colonel Boone was appointed commandant of the 
district. It was about that time, or perhaps a little earlier, 
that} he built the cabin near the spring in the Femme Osage 
valley and removed his family there. The duties of his 
office were both civil and military, and his decision in all 
cases was final, except those involving land titles, which were 
referred to the crown or its immediate representative. Pun- 
ishment for crime or misdemeanor was of the most summary 
character. The accused, if proven guilty, was tied up and 
whipped, the number of lashes being proportioned to the 
nature of his offense. A hickory sapling that stood in the 
yard near the spring served as a whipping-post. That kind 
of punishment met the requirements of the age, and no thief 
or breaker of the law was ever known to resent a judgment 
rendered by Daniel Boone. He held his court under the 


spreading branches of a large elm tree, which still stands 
on the bank a few feet above the spring, and is known as 
"Daniel Boone's Judgment Tree." Here, dressed in buckskin 
hunting-shirt and pantaloons and moccasins of the 
same material and seated at the roots of the 
old tree, he propounded the law and dispensed justice to his 
assembled neighbors in a manner that never failed to win 
their approval. If a hog-thief, or one who had put his mark 
on his neighbor's shoats, pleaded guilty or was proven so. 
he was promptly ''whipped and cleared," as they expressed 
it. That ended the trouble, and the culprit went about his 
business with no further annoyance or loss of caste in the 
community. Fortunately, there were no capital offenses 
committed in the district during Boone's administration, and 
he was never called upon to condemn a murderer. 

The stone house, or mansion, was completed about 1813. 
It has been represented as the first stone house erected west 
of the Mississippi; but this is a probable error, for houses 
of that material were built in St. Louis, and doubtless also 
in Ste. Genevieve, at an earlier date. But they were not such 
houses as the Boone mansion. That was the product of the 
joint labors of the old Colonel and his son. General Nathan 
Boone, assisted by their slaves, and several years were devoted 
to the work. The walls are composed of blue limestone, 
neatly chiseled, and are about two feet thick. The size of 
the building measured on the outside of the walls, is twenty- 
eight by forty-six feet, with a height of twenty-two feet. A 
hall nine feet wide runs through the center of the first and 
second stories, with doors opening into the rooms on either 
side. The rooms are large and uncomfortable in appearance, 
and have no closets or other conveniences known to modern 
architecture. Yet a great deal of work was expended in some 
features of their ornamentation. The entire structure is 
divided into seven rooms, three on the first floor, and two 
each on the second floor and in the attic. A portico ornaments 
the north front, and a double veranda the south. The marks 
of the hammers and chisels on the stones are as plainly 


visible now as they were the day the house was finished, and 
the plaster that the stones were laid in was mixed in such 
a manner that it has become about as hard as the stone itself. 
It is said that the plaster was "ripened" by being buried 
in the ground over winter. 

Daniel Boone occupied a little diagonal room to the right 
of the hall, on the first floor, in the northwest corner of the 
building. It was partitioned off from the kitchen, which 
also served as the dining-room, and it is entered by a single 
door opening into the latter. Two small windows give light 
from the north. In this room the famous pioneer, hunter 
and Indian fighter lived during the last few years of his life, 
and there he died, like an infant falling asleep, on the 26th 
day of September, 1820. A telephone now hangs on the wall 
of this room. What a story the old pioneer might tell could 
he but connect with the other end of the wire ! 



At the request of the pastor of the Presbyterian church at 
Columbia, Missouri, Rev. F. W. Sneed, and of various mem- 
bers, I have consented to write a historical sketch of the church. 
It might be greatly extended, and necessarily would be if it 
embraced a tithe of the many interesting and suggestive events, 
and of the trials and triumphs which properly belong to a 
complete history of the organization. 

On September 14, 1828, the little band of Presbyterians 
then residing in and near Columbia, were organized into a 
church by Rev . W . P . Cochran and Thomas Durf ee, who were 
commissioned by the Home Missionary society of New York 
to visit Missouri, and perhaps other portions of the West. 

The preliminary meeting was held and the church organi- 
zation effected at the residence of the late James Richardson. 
The house in which he then resided is still standing, and many 
citizens of town and country, and visitors as well, frequently 
pass it in going to and from the railroad depot, no one of them 
perhaps remembering, if they ever knew, that more than sixty- 
five years ago, one of the large and influential religious bodies 
of Columbia was there organized. 

The house is a one-story frame, as it now appears, then a 
one-story log dwelling, on the northeast corner of Tenth and 
Walnut streets, and on the corner north of the "Powers 
House . " It was afterwards known as the ' ' Kidd Place, ' ' 
and belonged to Allen H. Kidd, but in 1840 was purchased by 
the late Mrs. Sophia Kirtley, who occupied it as a residence 
and died there July 6, 1871. By her will she devised the prop- 
erty to her grand-daughter, Mrs. Catherine Clapp, who subse- 
quently sold it to her sister, Mrs . Wm. A. Cauthorn, who now 
owns it. Those present at the meeting were Peter Wright, 
Mrs. Caroline Wilson (mother of the late Maj. N. W. Wilson, 


and grand-mother of Mr. Josiah W. Stone, ex-circuit court 
clerk), John and Elizabeth Sutton, William and Harriett T. 
Pierce and Robert A. Huston. In the fall of 1830 Mrs. Pierce 
established the first school for female pupils known to the his- 
tory of Columbia, and taught it in a one-story hewed-log house 
which then stood on the northwest corner of the present 
residence lot of Mr. B . Loeb . 

The church organization occurred on Saturday, September 
14, 1828, and on the next day, Sunday, a sunrise prayer meet- 
ing was held at the Richardson residence ; and at eleven o 'clock 
a. m., the same day at the same place, preaching services were 
held, at which time, two additional persons, George and 
Phillip McAfee, father and brother of the late Rev. Robert 1. 
McAfee, united with the infant organization, and two ruling 
elders, Peter Wright and William Pierce, were chosen . In 1833 
John Vanhorn and Robert Huston were chosen deacons. 

I am indebted to "Reminiscences," by Judge T. B. Gen- 
try for much valuable information concerning this church's 
history. From this, among many other things, I learn that 
the church continued to meet for worchip at the Richardson 
residence for about fifteen months, new members being added 
until the number reached thirty or forty, when they removed 
in January, 1830, to Boone county's first court house, an 
old brick building which stood on the site of the Baptist 
church building that was recently torn down, and west of 
the present court house. 

On Sunday, January 16, 1831, the session met in the 
country at Andrew Hannah's, and received into the church 
the late Dr. William Provines and wife. 

After worshiping in the old court house for some time, 
with the Rev. W. P. Cochran as minister, the church pur- 
chased a lot for $50 of the late Judge John Vanhorn, and 
erected thereon a small, unpretentious but comfortable brick 
building on the north side of Walnut, between Fifth and 
Sixth streets, which cost about $1,000. A part of this build- 
ing yet remains and is occupied by colored people. In the 
early history of Columbia, this building, though plain and 


unadorned, without bell or belfry, was the center of many 
important interests, and is still a green spot in the memory 
of some of the old inhabitants of the town. 

It became the nursery not only of religion and morality, 
but of education as well. It was here that Miss Lucy Wales 
opened the first school in Columbia, exclusively for the edu- 
cation of young ladies, and laid the foundation of the cele- 
brated Columbia Female Academy, the forerunner and inspi- 
ration of the two large female colleges which are now the 
pride and boast of the people. 

It was in this little brick church, in November, 1833, 
that the late Governor Richard Gentry and his wife, Ann 
Gentry (the parents of our fellow-citizen, Judge T. G. Gen- 
try), and four children, Analyza, Harrison, Perry and Jane, 
together with eight other persons, united with the church. 

While worshiping in this building the congregation held 
a campmeeting in August, 1834, at the Presbyterian camp 
ground near Columbia, at which eight persons united with 
the church, among them Judge David Todd, John G. Keene 
and Dorothy Ann Gentry, the latter afterward the wife of 
Henry Crumbaugh. This old camp ground was on Hinkson 
creek, northeast of town, on or near land then owned by 
Andrew Hannah and not for from the farm of N. B. Zaring, 
who is now a member of the church. 

One of the greatest revival meetings in the history of 
the church was held in the little brick on Walnut street. It 
occurred in January and February, 1843, and notwithstanding 
the inclemency of the weather and the almost impassable 
condition of the streets, great crowds attended the services day 
and night. About one hundred persons united with the 
church, among whom may be mentioned, Dr. H. M. Clarkson 
(father of John S. and Arthur P. Clarkson), Roger North Todd 
(father of R. L. Todd), F. A. Hamilton, Sinclair Kirtley, W. 
F. Switzler, Joseph B. Howard, John B. Royall (husband of 
the late Mrs. P. W. Royall, and father of Mrs. Prof. G. C. 
Broadhead and Prof. John P. Royall, of Columbia, and Mrs. 
Judge J. A. Henderson, of Brighton), W. N. Beattie, Jas. H. 


Parker (father of Moss P. Parker), Montgomery P. Lientz, R. 
L. Todd, R. R. Provines, Carolina F. Todd, Susan B. Todd 
afterwards the wife of the late C . C . Branham and the mother 
of J. Scott Branham), Mary Jane Royall, who in August of 
the same year married W. F. Switzler ; Elizabeth Culbert, now 
Mrs. John D. Vanhorn, and Mary Gentry (the late Mrs. Boyle 
Gordon) . 

The meeting was conducted by the Revs. Isaac Jones, 
David Coulter, Robert L. McAfee and W. W. Robertson, the 
latter still living in Fulton, Missouri, at an advanced age . 

After this revival, it became necessary to have a larger 
and better place of worship; and, therefore, with a view of 
securing it, on October 2, 1843, the little brick church and lot 
were sold for $475 and measures adopted to erect a more 
commodious and suitable structure on the southeast corner of 
Tenth and Broadway, the site of the church so recently dis- 
placed to make room for the beautiful building, the corner 
stone of which is to be laid today . 

Previous to the sale of the little brick church, the ladies of 
the church and congregation, under the leadership and inspira- 
tion of Prudence Culbert, Ann Gentry, Matilda Todd, Permelia 
W . Royal, Caroline Wilson, Frances E. Lathrop, Mrs. Provines 
and other sisters of the church of precious memory, raised the 
means by ice cream festivals and from other sources, and pur- 
chased of Maj. John Slack for $50, the lot with the hope that at 
some day a new church would be erected upon it. 

They all lived to see their prayers answered and their 
hopes realized, for on January 14, 1845, a building committee 
of the church, consisting of Henry Crumbaugh, R. H. Gentry, 
Sinclair Kirtley, George Smith and W. F. Switzler, entered 
into a contract with John G. Keene, who covenanted, for the 
sum of $900 "to do all the brick work of said church, " and fur- 
nish the materials therefor, the building to be 45x60 feet, with 
walls 20 feet high and 18 inches thick, and to complete tho 
same by September 1, 1845, and in addition, to collect the $900 
himself from the subscription paper. If, after due diligence, 
a balance remained unpaid, it was to operate as a lien upon the 


building. I have in my possession the original contract, and 
am not mistaken in respect to its terms. Phineas Kenyon, 
who had been a contractor for the stone work on the State 
University, erected the foundation in the fall of 1844, and 
John Vanhorn furnished the materials and constructed the 
wood work, and B . McAlester the pews for the church, the en- 
tire edifice, except the pews, plastering and painting being 
completed on September 12, 1845. 

The auditorium being incomplete, services were held in 
the basement until the summer of 1846; and it is within the 
memory of the writer that the first sermon delivered in the 
auditorium was by Rev. David Coulter during the summer of 
the last year named. 

During the time occupied in the erection of the new 
church, from October, 1843, to the summer of 1846, services 
were regularly held in a hall in the second story of a brick 
store house on Broadway, then belonging to Lewis Peebles, 
which was afterward bought by Dr. S. B. Victor, and used by 
him as a drug and book store for about thirty-five years. A 
new building now occupies the same lot, and is owned and 
used by Charles B . Miller as a boot and shoe store . 

In October, 1860, a large and handsome pipe organ was 
placed in the church at a cost of $700, Mr. James L. Stephens, 
not a member of the Presbyterian church, contributing one 
fourth of the purchase money. 

The following is a roster of the pastors of the church from 
its organization to the present time. 

1828-1833, William P. Cochran; 1833-1834, no pastor; 183-1- 
1835, F. R. Grey; 1835-1836, Luther Van Doren; 1836-183S, 
John L. Yantis (father of Prof. James A. Yantis of the law 
department of the State University); 1838-1840, no pastor; 
1840-1846, Isaac Jones, his pastorate commencing on October 
22, 1840, and closing January 9, 1846; 1846-1848, no pastor; 
1848-1849, Frank Hart; 1849-1851, J. T. Paxton; 1851-1858, 
Nathan H. Hall; 1858-1861, Samuel A. Mutchmore. 1861-1862, 
M. M. Fisher; 1862-1864, no pastor; 1864-1867, David Coulter; 
1867-1870, Benjamin Y. George; 1870-1871, no pastor, 1871- 


1876, Richard S. Campbell; 1876-1878, John S. Grasty; 1878- 
1879, no pastor; 1879-1885, W. B. Y. Wilkie; 1885-1889, A. A. 
Pfanstiehl; 1889-1890, O. S. Thompson; 1890-1892, no pastor; 
1892 to the present time, Frank W. Sneed. Eighteen pastors 
during an existence of 65 years, eleven of whom have died, 
their names being printed above in black . 

During the summer of 1893, after several meetings of the 
church and congregation and reports from several committees, 
it was determined to erect a new church edifice of the most ap- 
proved architectural design and finish, on the site of the old 
church, and the following committee was appointed to super- 
intend the work. Jas. H. Waugh, J. Scott Branham, N. TV 
Gentry, Walter Williams, E. F. Ammerman and Rollins M_ 
Hockaday . 

The contract for the erection of the new church building 
was let to the lowest bidder at $22,000, John W. Wilson & 
Son, of St. Louis, becoming the contractors. Architectural 
plans and specifications were furnished by various architects, 
after which the committee selected and the church approved 
those provided by J. G. Cairns, of Kirkwood, St. Louis county, 
Missouri . 

The present elders of the church are R. L. Todd, William 
L. Parker, E. D. Porter, N. Todd Gentry and J. S. Blackwell. 
Deacons N. B. Zaring, W. W. Garth, Irvin Switzler, E. F.. 
Ammerman and J. Scott Branham. 

October 7, 1894. 


Gladstone once wisely stated that no greater calamity 
could befall a people than to break utterly with the past . With 
that thought in mind I am going to ask you to review with me 
for a few minutes the early history of the family of Mrs. Fre- 
mont, whose death we, as a Society, are mourning today. 

To go back only a little over a hundred years and five gen- 
erations from Elizabeth Benton, the mother of Mrs. Fremont, 
we find Col. Ephraim McDowell, that brave and gallant Path- 
finder of those early days. Henry Howe tells us in ony of his 
histories that this hardy pioneer, who lived to be over a hun- 
dred years old, built the first road across the Blue Ridge, open- 
ing up the Virginia valley to the commerce of the Old World 
through the merchants of the Atlantic coast. This remark- 
able man retained the full possession of his faculties to the 
very last, dying just at the outbreak of the Revolution, but not 
until he had heard the praises bestowed upon his grandchil- 
dren for meritorious conduct at the battle of Point Pleasant. 
His eldest daughter lived to be 104 years old, being an unusual- 
ly talented woman. John, the eldest son, being the one we 
are interested in as the ancestor of Elizabeth Benton, was a 
bold Indian fighter and was chosen as Burden's surveyor when 
what, was then known of Virginia was being opened up for set 
tlement. This was in 1737, and was the earliest survey on 
record made in Virginia. He was appointed as Captain of a 
company formed to protect the lives and property of the set- 
tlers against the invasions of the Indians, and most nobly were 
the duties connected with that trust performed until on Christ- 
mas Day, 1742, he, with eight of his trusty men, while in pur- 
suit of a party of Indians who had attacked a settlement, fell 

*A paper read before the Elizabeth Benton Chapter D. A. R., 
Kansas City. 


into an ambuscade and were killed. All were buried in one 
common grave near Lexington. Thus died a worthy scion of 
3 noble race. His daughter, Sarah, became the wife of Col. 
Moffett, another brave soldier who won renown at Guilford, 
Cowpens and Kings Mt. 

The next in succession, however, was the second son of the 
Tndain fighter, Col. James McDowell, b. in 1739. He was called 
to fill many offices of public trust and was on his way to Rich- 
mond on business of importance as sheriff of the county when 
the final summons came, this being in 1771, when he was onlj 
32 years old . 

The next in succession was Col. James again, youngest 
son of the above, who inherited the magnificent estate left by 
his father. He was a Colonel in the War of 1812 where he 
won honor and fame. He married Sarah, daughter of Col. 
Wm. Preston, a Revolutionary hero and descended from a long 
line of brave ancestors. The only son of James and Sarah 
Preston McDowell was James, the father of Elizabeth Benton, 
and not yet had the race deteriorated, for James McDowell 
was an exceptional character in many ways : a graceful and ac- 
complished gentleman, honest and upright in all his dealings; 
a Congressman and United States Senator; chief executive of 
Virginia, his native state and an able man, most highly and 
honorably distinguished. And no less talented was his noble 
wife, they, by the way, being full cousins. She was Sarah, 
daughter of Gen. Francis Preston, a Congressman from Vir- 
ginia and a brave officer in the War of 1812, his wife being a 
daughter of Col. Wm. Campbell, who was given command at 
the Battle of King's Mt. by Isaac Shelby, who with Sevier, 
Winston and the two Joe McDowells were the real heroes of 
that memorable battle. Col. Campbell's wife was a sister of 
Patrick Henry, the great orator of the Revolutionary period, 
and daughter of Sarah Winston, an unusually bright aud gift- 
ed woman. 

To go back to the mother of Elizabeth Benton, let me men- 
tion just a few of her immediate kindred whose names ars 
household words in Virginia. One of her sist.prs became the 


wife of Eev. Dr. Robert Breckenridge and another sister mar- 
ried John B. Floyd, Secretary of War under President Buch- 
anan. These men were cousins of Mr. and Mrs. McDowell; 
and Wm. C. Preston, the scholarly and gifted South Carolina 
orator and Gen. John S. Preston, a gallant soldier and bril- 
liant orator, were her brothers. And I have mentioned the 
names of only a few of the members of this remarkable family 
who became more or less famous. To go into detail would be 
to give much of the early history of both Virginia and Ken- 
tucky, while a recital of the incidents connected with 'he lives 
of the husband and father of Mrs. Fremont would include 
many of the most interesting events relating to the settlement 
and growth of much of our western territory. But this paper 
is much too long already, and I will only add the wish that we 
may always hold in loving remembrance the names oE Elizabeth 
Benton and her famous daughter, Jessie Benton Fremont. 

Historian Elizabeth Benton Chapter D. A. R. 


Columbia, Mo., March 18, 1909. 

In accordance with the program recently sent to the mem- 
bers the Third Annual Meeting of the Missouri Folk-Lore So- 
ciety was held March 12 and 13, 1909, at the University of 
Missouri, Columbia. 

The Treasurer's report showed a balance of $22.70 on 
hand at the close of last year. 

The following officers were elected : 

President Miss Mary A. Owen, St. Joseph. 

Vice Presidents Dr. W. L. Campbell, Kansas City; Prin- 
cipal J. N. Powell, St. Louis; Miss Mary A. Wadsworth, Co- 

Secretary Professor H. M. Belden, Columbia. 

Treasurer Mrs. L. D. Ames, Columbia. 


Director (succeeding Professor Weeks) Dr. F. A. Golder, 
Columbia . 

At the business meeting it was proposed by Dr. Golder 
that arrangements be made for the regular publication of the 
work of the Society. The Executive Board was asked to 
formulate a plan for the purpose to be submitted to the So- 
ciety at its next annual meeting. 

A list of the active members of the Society is enclosed. If 
the Society is to undertake publication, either the annual dues 
or the membership must be greatly increased . The Secretary 
will be glad to send application blanks for membership to any 
member who can use them. 

H. M.BELDEN, Secretary. 

Membership List, March, 1909. 

Hon. D. C. Allen, Liberty. 
Prof. H. B. Almstedt, Columbia. 
Mrs. L. D. Ames, Columbia. 
Mr. J. N. Baskett, Mexico . 
Miss Elizabeth Bedford, Rome, Ga. 
Dr. William G. Bek, Columbia. . 
Prof. H. M. Belden, Columbia. 
Miss Mary D. Breed, Columbia. 
Prof. W. G. Brown, Columbia. 
Mr. W. V. Byars, St. Louis. 
Dr. W. L. Campbell, Kansas City. 
Miss Jennie F. Chase, St. Louis. 
Hon. C. W. Clarke, Kansas City. 
Miss Charlotte Corder, Morrisville . 
Mr. Harold Crandall, Normandy. 
Principal J. C. Edwards, St. Louis. 
Miss Katherine Edwards, Centralia. 
Prof. C. A. Ellwood, Columbia. 
Miss L. E. Ernst, St. Loi" 
Mrs. Louise Norwood Fitch, Columbia. 
Miss Frances E. Gleason, Ferguson. 
Dr. F. A. Golder, Columbia. 


Miss C . Grace, St . Louis . 

Mr. Brady Harris, Belton . 

Miss Idress Head, St. Louis. 

Miss Lillian H. Heltzell, St. Louis . 

Prof. B. F. Hoffman, Columbia. 

Mr. J. F. Huckel, Kansas City. 

Mrs. A. C. R. Janni, St. Louis. 

Mr. W. S. Johnson, Tuscumbia. 

Miss Clara F. Jones, St. Louis. 

Miss Jennie M. A. Jones, St. Louis. 

Hon. Gardiner Lathrop, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. F. W. Lehmann, St. Louis. 

Mr. B. M. Little, Albay, Albay, P. I. 

Miss Ethel Lowry, Columbus, Kas. 

Prof. A. C. Love joy, Columbia. 

Mrs. G. B. MacFarlane, Columbia. 

Mr. L. A. Martin, Chillicothe. 

Miss Josephine Norville, Chillicothe . 

Miss Mary A. Owen, St. Joseph. 

Miss Eva L . Packard, Excelsior Springs. 

Prof. H. C. Penn, St. Louis. 

Principal J. R. Powell, St. Louis. 

Miss Harriet Rees, St. Louis. 

Mr. G. W. Ridgeway, Kirksville. 

Mr. F. A. Sampson, Columbia. 

Miss Emma G. Simmons, Madison, Wis. 

Miss Mary C. Smith, St. Louis. 

Mr. Douglas Stewart, Chillicothe. 

Mr. D. W. Swiggett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Miss Antoinette Taylor, St. Louis County. 

Judge John L. Thomas, Washington, D. C. 

Miss Calla Varner, Maryville. 

Professor Jonas Viles, Columbia . 

Prof. E.M. Violette, Kirksville. 

Miss Mary A. Wadsworth, Columbia. 

Miss Lois Welty, Oregon. 

Mrs. C. E. Whitney, Kansas City. 

NOTES. 311 

Mrs. M. S. Wildman, Columbia. 
Mr. C. H. Williams, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Miss Maude Williams, Warrensburg. 
Mrs. A. C. Woods, Chicago, 111. 

Please notify the Secretary of any errors or omissions. 


A History of Masonic College was prepared by Mr. E. N. 
Hopkins, of Lexington, and published in Petals, the year book 
of Central College, Lexington, for 1908 . 

Mr. Wood's paper on the Settlement of Columbia, in the 
April number of the Review states that it was not known 
from what county Daniel Orear came. Mrs. Alice O. Mac- 
farlane supplies this information. Daniel Orear was her 
grandfather, who came from Montgomery county, Kentucky, 
in 1838 with his sons Robert, John, Allen, William, Tandy and 
Samuel, and also three daughters. 

The Mississippi Valley Historical Society held its second 
annual summer meeting in St. Louis, June 17, 18 and 19. The 
society was organized in Lincoln, Nebraska, November, 1907, 
when Francis A. Sampson, Secretary of the State Historical 
Society of Missouri, was elected president, and C. S. Paine, 
of the Nebraska Society, was elected Secretary, which positioa 
he still holds. The membership has reached 300, the mem- 
bers living in thirty-five states and Canada. 

The second meeting was held at Lake Minnetonka during 
the summer of 1908, and during the same year the winter 
meeting was held in connection with the American Historical 
Association at Richmond, Virginia. The next meeting with 
that Association will be at New York during the holidays and 
the third summer meeting will probably be at Iowa City, Iowa. 

The program at St. Louis was an interesting one, including 


papers from three members of the Bureau of Ethnology at 
Washington, Hon. E. M. Pollard, formerly member of Con- 
gress from Nebraska, Prof. C . F . Marbut, of the University of 
Missouri, Prof. E. A. Ross, of the University of Wisconsin, 
Prof. Benj. F. Shambaugh, of the Historical Society of Iowa, 
John H. Reynolds, of the Arkansas Historical Commission, 
Wm. A. Meese, of Moline, Illinois, F. A. Sampson, of the 
State Historical Society of Missouri and others. 

In connection with the meetings there was a banquet at 
the Planters, an automobile ride to University City, Washing- 
ton University and St. Louis University, and a trip to the 
Kahokia or Monk's Mound in Illinois. 


The Repeal of the Missouri Compromise Its Origin and 
Authorship. By P. Orman Ray, Ph. D. Pennsylvania State 
College. Cleveland, 1909. 

In the Review for October, 1907, a paper by the above 
author was printed on "The retirement of Thomas H. Benton 
from the Senate and its Significance . ' ' This was a conden- 
sation of two chapters in the above work, since published . 

In the Bibliography seven newspapers of 1849 to 1854 are 
given, and the statement is made that newspapers have been 
an invaluable source in the preparation of this book. The 
Missouri newspapers and the Washington correspondence of 
the great eastern papers have been of most value. 

Phi Beta Kappa Catalogue of the Alpha of Missouri 1901- 
1909... Columbia, 1909. 

This contains a sketch of the history of this honor society, 
constitution and by-laws of the United Chapters, and of the 
Missouri Alpha, and a list of the members of the latter, each 
with a short biographical sketch. While the chapter is only 
eight years old it has been so liberal with its election to honor- 


ary membership that it has made more than a half dozen other 
chapters have made in fifty years. 

The publication is a creditable one of 111 pages, and is 
bound in art vellum . 

The origin of the Werewolf Superstition, by Caroline Tay- 
lor Stewart, A. M., Ph. D. Assistant Professor of Germanic 
Languages, University of Missouri, 1909. 

This interesting paper by Dr. Stewart, which was read at 
the annual meeting of the Missouri Folk Lore Society, is now 
issued as one of the University studies. 

Story of the Grand River Country, 1821-1905, Memoirs of 
Maj. Joseph H. McGee. (By Rollin J. Britton, pseud Guy 
Blue.) Gallatin, Mo., n. d. 

This is a valuable contribution to the local history of Gal- 
latin and Daviess county to the Mormon war in Missouri, in 
the civil war in the above county, and to the biography of the 
old citizens of Missouri. It is by an attorney living at Gal- 
latin, who under the pseudonym of Guy Blue, has published 
several other works that are in the Society library. If some 
one in each county in the state would preserve local historical 
and biographical facts in a similar way it would make a great 
addition to the history of the state . 

Short Stories and Poems by American authors. New 
York, Cochrane Pub. Co., 1909 . 

A pleasing sketch or story, and five poems are by a Mis- 
souri authoress, Grace Hewitt Sharp. 

Vaccine and Serum Therapy including also a study of in- 
fections, theories of immunity, opsonins and the opsonic index. 
By Edwin Henry Schrorer, M. D. St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Co., 

The author is Assistant Professor of Parasitology and 
Hygiene in the University of Missouri, and was formerly in the 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. The book is a 
well printed one of 131 pages. 


Hon. Hugh Robb Brasfield, a member of the House from 
Putnam county in the last session of the Missouri General 
Assembly died in a hospital in Kansas City, June 6, 1909 . For 
years he had suffered from stomach troubles, and these with 
overwork in the session of the Legislature caused his death. 
He was born in Putnam county, Missouri, September 17, 1855, 
and had lived in that county all his life. In the 44th Gen- 
eral Assembly he was in the minority party in the House, but 
in the 45th General Assembly he was of the majority, and held 
positions in the committees on railroads and on appropriations, 
and was an active, efficient worker on both committees. 

Ex-Governor Thomas T. Crittenden, a member of this So- 
ciety, died at Kansas City May 29, 1909, following a stroke of 
apoplexy two days before . He was born January 22, 1832, in 
Shelby county, Kentucky, nephew of John J. Crittenden, gov- 
ernor of and Senator from Kentucky. He graduated from 
Center College, Danville, Kentucky, in 1855, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1856. In 1857 he came to Missouri, and settled 
at Lexington. When the civil war came on he actively espoused 
the Union side and was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 7th 
Cavalry, Missouri State Militia, with John F. Philips, now 
judge of the United States Court at Kansas City, as colonel. 
He was mustered out of service April 7, 1865, and resumed the 
practice of law at Warransburg, with Gen. F. M. Cockrell, since 
United States Senator, as partner. In 1864 he was appointed 
Attorney General to fill the unexpired term of Aikman Welch . 
In 1872 and 1876 he was elected to the forty-third and forty- 
fifth congresses, and in 1880 was elected on the Democratic 
ticket as Governor of the State for a four years term. While 
Governor he succeeded in breaking up the James gang, by of- 
fering a reward for them dead or alive, following which Jesse 


James was killed by Bob Ford. During the second adminis- 
tration of President Cleveland, he was Consul General to 
Mexico, and after his return made his home in Kansas City. 

Robert P. Curran, the last survivor of Captain Edward 
Florey's Company, that went from Chariton county, Missouri, 
under command of Col. Richard Gentry to the Seminole war 
in 1837, died April 6, 1909, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
J. T. Coleman, near Keytesville, Missouri, in the 90th year of 
his age. 

Hon. James G. Donnell, who was a member of the thirty- 
third and thirty-sixth General Assemblies from Madison coun- 
ty, died in St. Louis, May 19, 1909, at the age of 70 years. For 
the last seventeen years he was an inspector in the office of the 
Surveyor of Customs in St. Louis. During the civil war he 
was a drillmaster in the Confederate army. He was a mem- 
ber of the Masonic lodge at Fredericktown and was buried at 
that place under Masonic auspices. 

Henry Lick, founder of the Purcell Press, died at his home 
near Neosho, Missouri, April 23, 1909, aged 72 years. He 
was a printer and publisher in Missouri before the Civil War. 
During the war he established a paper at Kansas City, and in 
1870 started the "Southwest" at North Springfield, and some 
years afterward published a paper at Peirce City. In 1889 he 
went to California but after his plant there was destroyed by 
the earthquake he returned to Missouri and three years ago 
established the Purcell Press, which he sold about six months 

Will Ward Mitchell, author, poet and editor, is believed 
to have committed suicide, his decomposed body having been 
found in the Blue river at Blue Mills the first part of April, 
having been there probably three months. Some years ago he 
was editor of the Jeffersonian, at Higginsville, but suffered a 
nervous break down from overwork . Mr. Mitchell published 
seven books and booklets of poetry, of which the Historical So- 
ciety has five. He was 38 years old. 


Judge Henry M. Ramsey for twelve years on the circuit 
court bench at St. Joseph, and at one time candidate for Su- 
preme Court judge, died at the age of 60 years. 

Hon. James Roach, representative from the Western Dis- 
trict of Jasper county in the 45th General Assembly of Mis- 
souri, died at Jefferson City, of typhoid fever, May 16, 1909. 
He was born near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, November 14, 1857, 
and spent some years of his early life in Neosho county, Kas., 
but about all of his manhood life was spent in Jasper county. 
He was elected to the legislature as a Republican in 1904, and 
re-elected in 1906 and 1908. 

Hon. James Josiah Shaw was born in Christian county, 
Kentucky, November 18, 1879, and when an infant his parents 
moved to Dade county, Missouri. He enlisted in the Union 
army August 16, 1861, and served during the entire period of 
the Civil War in the 6th and 15th Missouri cavalry. In 1904 
he was elected a member of the House of the 43rd General As- 
sembly. He died at his home in Dade county, and was buried 
:at Greenfield, May 2, 1909. 

Hon. Eugene W. Stark was born in Pike county, Missouri, 
August 8, 1865, where he grew up on his father's farm. He 
received his education in the public schools of Louisiana and 
the college at Le Grange. At an early age he acquired an 
interest in the Stark Nursery and Orchard Company of Louis- 
iana, a $1,000,000 corporation, one of the largest of its kind. 

He was elected judge of the county court of Pike county, 
and in 1908 was elected Senator to the 45th General Assembly 
from Pike, Lincoln and Audrain counties. Although suffer- 
ing from gall stones and Bright 's disease he was a hard work- 
er in the Legislature and served on several committees. He 
was operated upon at a hospital in St. Louis, and died June 15, 



D. VIOLETTE, Kirksville, H. R. TUCKER, St. Louis, 

President. Vice President. 

EUGENE FAIR, Columbia, N. M. TRENHOUME, Columbia, 
Secretary. Editor. 


The regular spring meeting of the Society was held at Co- 
lumbia on Saturday, May 1st. There were two sessions of 
which the most interesting was that held in the morning from 
ten to twelve. A good attendance of members and visitors 
listened to two excellent papers on the teaching of history. 
The first paper was that of Professor E. M. Violette of the 
Kirksville Normal on "Setting the Problem," an interesting 
and forceful discussion of teaching methods which we hope to 
publish in the next number of the Review ; the other paper by 
Professor Charles A. Ellwood, of the Department of Sociology 
in the University of Missouri, on the question of "How History 
Can Be Taught from a Sociological Point of View," is pub- 
lished in this number of the Review. These papers were dis- 
cussed at brief length by various members of the Society and 
a profitable morning was spent. At the afternoon session an 
interesting research paper on "The Swedish Settlement in Del- 
aware" was read by Mr. H. A. Trexler of Hardin College, 
Mexico, Mo., and reports were made from the Committees on 
History in Secondary Schools, represented by Professor Vio- 
lette, and on History in Elementary Schools, represented by 
Professor Lewis of the Maryville Normal. The annual election 
of officers resulted as is indicated at the head of this section of 
the Review and the Society adjourned to meet again at St. 


Louis, along with the State Teachers Association, during the 
next Christmas vacation. 

The attendance at the above meeting while not as large as 
might be desired was fairly representative of the state, and 
brought forth an interesting amount of information and dis- 
cussion in regard to the teaching of history in high schools, 
normals and colleges of the state. The papers presented were 
of a helpful and stimulating character and their publication in 
this section of the Review will, it is hoped, bring them to the 
notice of many teachers who were unable to be present at the 

How History Can Be Taught From a Sociological Point of View 

The title of this paper is "How History Can be Taught 
from a Sociological point of View," not how history should 
be taught. I wish to disclaim at the outset, in other words, 
the view that any science or subject should be taught chiefly 
as an aid to, or as illustrative of, some other science. Each 
science, in a sense, exists for itself, that is, represents some rela- 
tively independent human interest, and has a right to claim 
that it shall be studied for its own sake. But if anyone de- 
sires to teach history so as to illustrate the principles of social 
and institutional development, then the question how history 
can be so taught legitimately arises, and it is this question that 
I wish to discuss. 

In my opinion, I may add, it is desirable that history 
should in some cases be taught from the sociological point of 
view. This is particularly true of the history taught in the 
High School. The object of teaching history in the High School 
is usually recognized to be not the satisfaction of some abstract 
intellectual interest, but to train for citizenship . And an es- 
sential thing in training for citizenship is to get the social point 
of view. Now the social point of view is un- 
doubtedly gotten best from studying saciety as a 
unity, the laws of its interdependence, functioning and devel- 
opment. But abstract sociology can not be introduced into 
high schools for many reasons. It can not, for one reason, 


because psychology, the science upon which sociology im- 
mediately depends is as yet either not represented in the 
high school curriculum or is very inadequately taught. Again^ 
the high school curriculum is already too overcrowded to per- 
mit the putting in of another science. Finally, it is pedagogi- 
cally unsound to attempt to teach directly an abstract science 
of laws and principles, such as sociology is, to pupils of no 
greater intellectual maturity and preparation than high school 
pupils. Accordingly, if the laws and principles which lie at 
the foundation of our social life are to be studied in the high 
school (and it seems to me that there can be no question about 
the desirability of so doing) , then such study must be through 
one of the concrete descriptive social sciences such as history. 
Sociological principles could be taught, it is true, through the 
descriptive study of present social conditions, but this has the 
disadvantages that it would add another subject to the curri- 
culum, that there are no satisfactory texts on contemporary so- 
cial conditions, and that there are few teachers who could pre- 
sent profitably such material to High School students. His- 
tory, on the other hand, has certain advantages as a vehicle 
of sociological truths. It shows the movements of society, it 
exhibits institutions as in a process of growth, it gives a 
dymanic rather than a static view of the social life ; it is al- 
ready in the High School curriculum, and finally there are 
many teachers amply prepared on the historical side who might 
with a little effort get a fair preparation on the sociological 
side. My conclusion is, therefore, that for the present at 
least sociological principles can best be taught in the High 
School through history ; and I will add that it is my conviction 
that courses in history generally, whether in High School or in 
college, would often gain in cultural value if taught from the 
sociological point of view. 

For the sake of clearness a word must be said about the re- 
lations of history and sociology. Sciences are distinguished 
from each other by their problems. The problem of history, 
I take it to be, is "What was the social reality in the past?" 
that is, past events and their connections. History is a con- 


erete, descriptive science of the past of human society. The 
problem of sociology on the other hand is the laws or princi- 
ples of the organization and evolution of society . It is an ab- 
stract, theoretical science of the social life . From this it might 
appear that sociology is a sort of abstract essence of history. 
And such it is in part, but it must be remembered that sociology 
also finds its material in contemporary social life, and in the 
customs and institutions of primitive and barbarous peoples. 
"What is meant by "the sociological point of view" is, I trust, 
now clear. To teach history from the sociological point of 
view is to teach it so as to exhibit the laws or principles of 
social growth and development of social organization and func- 
tioning ; in other words, so as to exhibit the factors that create 
human history in the objective sense. 

A word must also be said about the equipment of the 
teacher who is to teach history from a sociological point o 
riew. A thorough training in modern scientific history may 
be taken for granted, but I wish to emphasize the necessity of 
more than superficial training in sociology. At least two 
years should be spent in the study of the elements of sociology 
and of present sociological theory. It would be well also if 
to this were added some knowledge of the history of social 
theory, for an extensive knowledge of sociological literature 
can alone give a proper perspective and the balance which 
comes therefrom, and would often prevent the putting forward 
of theories which have been tried and found wanting . It is 
not impossible, however, for a teacher of history who has al- 
ready left college or university to gain by well directed private 
reading a substantial equivalent of such two years' study of 
sociology in a university. 

The first requisite for teaching history from the sociologi- 
cal point of view is that the history be not one-sided that is, 
the history must be a broad history of all phases of a people's 
life, not of one phase, such as internal government and inter- 
national relations. While political history is extremely im- 
portant for teaching concretely the elements of political 
science, it is extremely deficient for illustrating those deeper 


psychological and biological factors with which the sociologist 
is concerned. The student must be shown the domestic, the 
religious, the industrial, and the cultural phases of a people '& 
social life, as well as the political ; and all these must be shown 
to constitute a complex unity, which can not be understood ex- 
cept as a unity. In other words the social life of a people 
must be presented as a unity with all of its phases interdepend- 
ent, none to be understood apart from the other. Texts that 
presented this view of history used to be rare, but fortunately 
they are becoming more common every day so that there is no 
longer any excuse for teaching special social history (say po- 
litical history) when general social history is wanted. 

Again, the view of history should be extended in time as 
well as "all-sided" if it is to illustrate best sociological princi- 
ples. It is true that the intensive study of any epoch, no mat- 
ter how brief, may be made to illustrate such principles abund- 
antly. But in general it is true that the longer the period 
which it is studied the more social factors and principles are 
brought to light. For this reason, it is probable that the 
course in history best adapted to illustrate sociological princi- 
ples is a course in general European History, including ancient, 
medieval and modern. Such a course, if dealing with the 
social life of European peoples upon all sides, would become 
practically a history of the development of western civilization, 
and could be made an invaluable aid to the comprehension of 
the factors in social evolution . A partial exception to the high 
valuation which the sociologist would place on such a course 
in general history must be made in favor of nineteenth century 
history. The nineteenth century was a tremendously 
dynamic epoch, and in some respects greater progress was 
made during it than during all preceding recorded history. 
The history of the nineteenth century, therefore, is well suited 
to illustrate the factors of social change, to exhibit the forces 
which made and remake human societies. Hence, also, Ameri- 
can history from the earliest settlements down to the present, 
but particularly again in the nineteenth century, can be made 


to serve splendidly to illustrate the factors in social develop- 

But the most momentous question in teaching history from 
a sociological point of view is. What theory of the social life 
shall be taught? The reply is that much can and should be 
done to prevent one-sided views of the social life. While the 
theory of society is not yet in a settled condition, both history 
and sociology teach that one-sided views of the social life are 
not justified. Yet these one-sided views prevail, both to the 
bane of social theory and social practice, and it must be the 
task of the general social sciences, history and sociology, to cor- 
rect these. The most prevalent of these one-sided views of 
the social life today is the economic conception of social evolu- 
tion, the so-called "materialistic conception of history," or, as 
I would prefer to call it, ' ' economic determinism . ' ' This is 
the view, advocated by Karl Marx and his followers, that "the 
method of production of the material life determines the so- 
social, political and spiritual life-process in general." With 
this formula, his followers declare, Marx did for social evohi- 
tion what Darwin did for organic evolution reveal its essen- 
tial law . Here, then, is a spurious sociology which is shouted 
from the housetops by the Marxian socialists of today, and 
even accepted by many who have no sympathy with the social- 
istic movement . I can not stop to criticise this economic view 
of social evolution except to say that scientific sociology finds 
no warrant for regarding economic factors as detriminative of 
all the rest of the social life, but finds rather that biological 
and psychological, not economic, elements are fundamental in 
the social life. And I imagine that practically all historians 
would say that history would have to be very much distorted 
in order to give such all-importance to economic factors as the 
Marxians claim. This is not saying, of course, that economic 
factors are not important in social evolution, but it is saying 
that history taught with a proper sociological perspective will 
assign to economic factors in the historical process their proper 
place alongside of many other factors that equally determine 
the social life of man. 


It is the same with all the other one-sided theories of social 
evolution. Men like Buckle have claimed that geographical 
factors are determinative of all else in the social life. But 
geographical factors can be shown to play only a small part in 
determining social forms and social changes; and history 
taught from the sociological point of view will give them their 
due place without attempting to reduce the historical process 
to geographical terms . It is the same with the racial theories 
which Buckle denounced. No doubt "blood tells" in history, 
and racial heredity is a factor which must be taken into ac- 
count in studying social occurrences. But to explain the so- 
cial life of a people wholly in terms of their racial blood is a 
procedure without warrant in history or sociology. Ideologi- 
cal conceptions of history are no better than the other one- 
sided theories of social evolution. Hegel and some other phil- 
osophers of history have attempted to show that the historical 
movement has been determined by the evolution of certain 
leading ideas. But while ideas and beliefs have been true 
forces in history of which the historian and sociologist must 
take account, to conceive of social evolution as wholly or even 
dominantly an evolution of ideas is utterly to misconceive its 
nature. The same thing would have to be said, of course, 
of any attempt to interpret history dominantly in terms of re- 
ligious beliefs and practices, or in terms of political forms and 
ideals. Finally, a word must be said about the great man 
theory of history, or, as I should prefer to call it, the individ- 
ualistic conception of social evolution. According to this 
theory the social life is shaped chiefly, if not exclusively, by 
the achievements of a few great personalities. Perhaps on 
account of its detailed study of events ,and also on account of 
the science being burdened in the past by literary men more 
interested in the dramatic than in exact scientific truth, history 
has at times come more perilously near endorsing their view 
of social evolution than any other. The trouble with this 
view of history is that it leaves out of account the strong and 
deep undercurrents in a people's life which shape, not only 
social institutions, but even the great men themselves to whom 


such great social potency is attributed. There is, no doubt, a 
place for the influence of individuality, personality, in social 
evolution, and history taught from the sociological point of 
view will give it its due place without disregarding the deeper 
forces which shape the social life of peoples. In short, history 
taught from the sociological point of view will give due weight 
to all of the factors evident in the historical process, such as 
geographical, racial, economic, intellectual, political, religious 
and personal; and thus will give a sane and balanced view of 
the social life as the outcome of many forces working together 
in a camplex process of evolution. If this can be done the 
one-sided views of the social life which now afflict, and often 
menace, society would soon disappear ; and this I take to be a 
practical aim of both the historian and the sociologist . 

In conclusion, I hope that I have showed you that so- 
ciology and history are so intimately related that the one can 
be taught through the other ; that for the purposes of training 
for citizenship it is possible to teach through the medium of 
history sane and well-balanced views of the social life. Of 
course, how well this will be done in any particular instance 
will depend largely upon the training which the teacher has 
had in both history and sociology . That it is desirable that it 
should be done both from the point of view of culture and of 
citizenship seems to me beyond question . 

University of Missouri. 

Note In connection with the above paper the following 
books in sociology may be suggested to teachers of history for 
a short (say a year's) course of reading: Ross, Foundations of 
Sociology (Macmillan $1.25); Ross, Social Psychology (Mac- 
millan $1 . 50) ; McDougall, Introduction to Social Psychology 
(London: Methuen & Co. $1.25); Giddings, Descriptive and 
Historical Sociology (Macmillan $1.75). For a two years' 
course of reading the following works should be added : Flint, 
History of the Philosophy of History (Scribner's $3.50) ; For- 
rest, The Development of Western Civilization (Univ. of Chi- 
cago Press $2.00); Sumner, Folkways (Ginn & Co., $2.00); 
Barth, Die Philosophic der Geschichte als Sociologie (Leipzig : 
Reisland, through Stehert of New York, $1.75.) 


October, 1909-July, 1910. 



F. A. SAMPSON, Secretary, 



Becknell, Capt. Win. Journals from Boone's Lick to Santa Fe, 
and from 'Santa Cruz to Green River 63 

Boggs, W. M . Sketch of Gov. Lilburn W. Boggs 106 

Book Notices 47, 137, 206, 330 

Broadhead, G. C. Sketch of Albert G. Blakey . 36 

. The Pinnacles 202 

. The Santa Fe Trail 309 

. Missouri Weather in Early Days 320 

Bryan, Will S.. Daniel Boone in Missouri 29 

. Peculiarities of Life in Daniel Boone's Missouri Settle- 
ment 85 

Bryant, Thos. Julian. Bryant's Station and its Founder, William 

Bryant 219 

Curious Advertisement 204 

Destruction of Missouri Books 328 

Ferril, W. C. Missouri Military in the War of 1812 38 

Greenwood, J. M. Col. Robert T. Van Horn 92, 167 

Lefler, Grace. Missouri Documents for the Small Library 321 

McDougal, H. C. Historical Sketch of Kansas City 1 

Necrology 49, 141, 215, 330 

Notes 44, 134, 204, 329 

Organ, Minnie. History of the Newspaper Press of Mis- 
souri Ill, 149, 252 

sampson, F. A. Sessions of the Missouri Legislature 42 

. Bibliography of Missouri Official Publication for 1908-1009. .182 

Smith, Herman C. Mormon Troubles in Missouri 238 

Spencer, Rev. Joab. Missouri's Aboriginal Inhabitants 18 

Teachers Association, .State Department of History 51, 147 


BECKNELL, CAPT. WM. (Paper copied from Missouri Intelligencer 
of 1823.) 

BOGG-S, W. M., Napa, Calif., son of ex-Gov. LUburn W. Boggs. 

BROADHEAD, GARLAND C., Columbia, Mo., formerly State Geologist, 
and Professor in University of Missouri . 

BRYAN, WILL S., St. Louis, Mo. 

FERRIL, W. C., Denver, Col., State Historical and Natural History 
Society . 

GREENWOOD, J. M., Superintendent of Schools of Kansas City, Mo. 

LEFLER, MISS GRACE, of the Library of the University of Missouri, 
Columbia, Mo. 

McEOUGAL, JUDGE H. C., Kansas City. 

ORGAN, MISS MINNIE, Assistant to Secretary of State Historical 
Society of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

SAMPSON, FRANCIS A., Secretary of State Historical Society of 

SMITH, HERMAN C., Historian of the Mormon Church, Lamoni, Iowa. 
SPENCER, REV. JOAB, Slater, Mo. 


VOL. 4. OCTOBER, 1909. NO. 1, 


Beginning. "In the beginning God created the heaven 
and the earth." Science often attempts to fix this at some 
particular period, but as no one knows certainly, this im- 
perfect sketch of the history of Kansas City, Missouri, com- 
mences just where the Book does "in the beginning." 

Indians. From the Creator of the universe, this part of 
the western hemisphere must have passed to the original 
proprietor of our soil the Indian. For when the white man 
here first set his foot, at the dawn of our known history, the 
copper-colored Indian was here with his squaw, his pappoose 
and his pony and in the actual, open and undisputed posses- 
sion and control of all that country which is now known as 
North America. 

1492. The earliest successful European discoverer, ex- 
plorer and adventurer of this continent, was Christopher Co- 
lumbus, of Spain, in 1492. After his party, there came hither 
first his many Spanish successors, then the subjects of sunny 
France and still later the English. 

1540. It is more than probable, however, that the fol- 
lowers of the great Coronado were the first white visitors to 
this part of the country and the time about 1541. 

The historical facts relating to this ill-fated expedition 


in brief are: That following earlier reports which had al- 
ready come to him, Charles V of Spain, and his Viceroy in 
Mexico (New Spain), directed Coronado to explore and sub- 
due for the Spanish crown the City of Quivira and 
the seven cities of Cibola (buffalo) without knowledge as to 
the precise location of either; that Castenada, who accom- 
panied the expedition as its historian, 20 years later wrote 
out his story thereof for the King, and from his writings, as 
well as from many subsequent publications the world today 
has all its information as to the success and failure of that 
undertaking; that Coronado first organized his forces at Com- 
postella, Guadalajara, in Old Mexico, in February, 1540, but 
made his actual start from Culiacan, on the Pacific ocean, in 
April of that year, with 350 Spanish cavaliers and 800 Indian 
guides; that during his two years' quest, either the entire or 
detachments of this expedition wandered onward east and 
north through (now) Old Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, Colo- 
rado and into the northeastern portion of Kansas, encoun- 
tering en route and with strong arm subduing many recalci- 
trant Indian towns and villages, and treating with others 
who were more friendly; but that finally, disappointed and 
humiliated at his failure to find the gold, silver, treasure and 
cities for which he sought, Coronado and his surviving fol- 
lowers returned to the City of Mexico and thence on to Old 
Spain about 1542. 

It is also historically certain that about fifty miles north- 
west from White Oaks, in New Mexico, may be seen today, 
still mutely bearing the ancient name of "Le Grande Quivira," 
the ruins of a once great city, which Coronada sought and 
found not, but which present-day archaeologists say must 
have contained a population of from 150,000 to 300,000. The 
dwelling houses, as now shown by these ruins, were con- 
structed with mathematical accuracy of blue trachite and 
limestone, while the two ruined temples stand far above all 
others, with nothing to mark their uses other than that whicJQ 
now appears as the form of a Portugese cross in their front 
doors. Still traceable in this desert waste, irrigating ditches 


indicate that this people once obtained their water supply 
from the adjoining mountains, but for more than one hundred 
years past, no water of consequence has been found within 
many miles of the ruins. Skeletons of the human, as well 
a8 of the lower animals, are there found; old mining shafts, 
and crude smelters of ages ago, are also found in that vicinity 
but no mines of either gold or silver. While the prehistoric 
ruins of other once populous cities, in widely differing points 
in New Mexico and Arizona, furnish persuasive proof that 
these were once among the famed "seven cities of Cibola." 

Among the many traditions and legends respecting the 
causes which led up to the wanderings of this expedition, and 
today believed by many Spaniards, Mexicans and archaeolo- 
gists of the Southwest, are at least two that are worth preser- 
vation: The one is that on their eastward journey, Coronado 
and his party, almost famished for water, finally reached the 
big spring near the Indian pueblo in Tagenx which is now 
Socorro, on the Rio Grands in New Mexico; that these Indian 
guides then knew that the City of Le Grande Quivira, the 
main object of Coronado 's conquest and expedition, was only 
about 90 miles northeast of this point, but instead of guiding 
him there, they then purposely misled him and carried the 
expedition northward and up on the west bank of the Bio 
Grande del Dorte and on into Kansas. 

The other is that, concealing their abiding place, for 
many long years, from some remote country in the far North, 
mysterious sun worshipers voyaged in their own ships to and 
quietly purchased rich and abundant supplies of merchandise 
from the traffickers of the City of Mexico and of Old Madrid, 
in Spain, and that they were ever laden with gold and silver 
and precious stones, and the merchants assumed that they 
must represent a powerful and wealthy people who were 
skilled in the arts and sciences and lived in many storied 
stone houses, with temples of wonderful magnificence, all 
enclosed within the walled city of Le Grande Quivira. How- 
ever this may be, it is quite certain that the second Spanish 
expedition to that country, about 1549, did capture and sub- 


due this ancient pre-historic city and people and then com- 
pelled all the residents of that vicinity to change their re- 
ligion from worshipers of the sun to Catholicism. When the 
Toltecs, Aztecs, and Spaniards first came to the great South- 
west, they found there, as elsewhere, the Indian. Through 
their priests and monks the Spaniards controlled all these 
natives, in that country, from about 1549 to 1680, at which 
later date the natives arose in their might and majesty, drovo 
the foreign oppressors from their soil and, curiously enough, 
after this lapse of about 130 years, at once resumed the dress, 
habits, customs and religion of their fathers, and for many 
years thereafter held the undisputed possession of their native 
land. When the Spaniards returned to that country about 
1740, they found this once happy, flowery and fertile valley 
a howling wilderness or barren waste ; the once populous city 
of Le Grande Quivira deserted and with no trace of its former 
greatness beyond human skeletons and the ruins, while the 
shifting sands of the desert had covered the habitations of 
the people. 

Between 1680 and 1740, it is probable that every form of 
man and beast capable of doing so, escaped that country 
before some impending calamity and were gradually swal- 
lowed up and lost in the adjacent country; but that all, unable 
through age or disease to so escape, perished through the 
sulphurous fumes of the then recent volcano at the Mai Pais 
(bad country), then and now just south of these ruins on the 
desert plain. An extinct crater, visited by the writer in 
1892, is still seen; while the lava beds extend thence over 50 
miles down that valley. Just who these people were, whence 
they came, whither and when they went, how they perished, 
are all questions which can not be accurately answered this 
side of the river called death ; but the lover of the mysterious 
and unknown, the student, archaeologist and thinker of the 
future, will stand amid these ruins, and will lament the fact 
with uncovered head, that so little of it all is known to man. 

But the precise point now of especial interest to the 
people of Kansas City, arises upon an analysis of the circum- 


stantial evidence which points to the historical fact that at 
the eastern terminus of their long wanderings in search of 
the Quivira country, Coronado and his followers were the 
first white men to visit the very spot whereon now stands 
Kansas City. 

There is a half legendary story to the effect that from 
the historic spot upon which he once stood in northeastern 
Kansas, Coronado and the forces under his command, passed 
on to where Atchison, Kansas, is now located, thence down 
the Missouri to the mouth of the Kansas and thence 16 miles 
up the latter to Coronado Springs, later called Bonner 
Springs, in Wyandotte county, Kansas, where they spent the 
winter of 1541-42. It is known that Coronado 's Spanish cava- 
liers, among other weapons, then carried and used an imple- 
ment of war halbreds similar to the metallic Roman halbred, 
and in excavations in our Missouri river bottom lands, within 
the past few years there have been discovered and un- 
earthed, in splendid state of preservation, beneath many feet 
of alluvial soil, the metallic heads of two such halbreds in 
this vicinity. The first is now in the possession of Professor 
John Wilson, a distinguished archaeologist at Lexington, Mis- 
souri, and was found just northeast of Kansas City in this 
(Jackson) county; while the other is in the hands of a Catho- 
lic priest at Leavenworth, Kansas, and was discovered just 
across the Missouri river from that city, in Platte county. 
Missouri. These late discoveries point to the conclusion that 
Coronado and his men once wandered over these hills and 
prairies and that at least two of his cavaliers lost their lives 
in this immediate neighborhood through either savage In- 
dians or wild beasts, in both of which this country then 

1584. Many scholars claim and few dispute the historic 
proposition that from the voyage and discovery of Columbus 
in 1492, the Crown, as well as the statesmen of Great Britain, 
longed to explore and own all the territory which later be- 
came America; and that Queen Elizabeth, "in the sixe and 
twentieth yeere" of her reign, and on March 25, 1584, at- 


tempted to grant all this vast domain to her then trusted 
follower, Sir Walter Raleigh. To those of the present day 
it is a trifle curious to note the fact that in this patent the 
Virgin Queen described the grantee thereof as "our trustie 
and welbeloued seruant Walter Ralegh, Esquire, and to his 
heires and assigns forever;" and also designated this country 
as "remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries and terri- 
tories." This was the first step in the work of the English 
colonization of America, and while under the grant of this 
authority five different voyages were here made; yet that 
country did not then succeed in making a permanent settle- 
ment upon American soil. 

1607. In establishing a starting point, known to all, it 
is well to here pause, look backward and reflect: That 
whether descended from Cavalier, Puritan, or Huguenot, the 
average American citizen has inherited and today holds, 
either consciously or unconsciously, many of the thoughts 
and theories of his remote ancestors, and that heredity, en- 
vironment and education largely determine and fix our po- 
litical and religious faith. And it should be remembered that 
the United States was originally founded and the first perma- 
nent settlements were here first made by peoples of widely 
divergent views on both politics and religion under the au- 
thority conferred by three Royal English grants to American 
colonists, as follows : Jamestown, in Virginia, in 1607 ; 
Plymouth, in Massachusetts, in 1620; and Charlestown, in 
South Carolina, in 1660. 

1609. In the seventh year of his reign, James I, then 
King of England, by his royal patent dated May 23, 1609, 
granted to "The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers of 
the City of London, for the first colony of Virginia" (the 
same sovereign made the first cession to that colony in 1606) 
"all those lands, countries and territories situate, lying, and 
being in that part of America called Virginia," from Cape 
or Point Comfort, a strip of land 400 miles in width and 
therein designated as being "up into the land throughout 
from sea to sea." This cession from the Atlantic to the Pa- 


cific Oceans sought to make this part of the territory not 
only English, but within and part of the Colony of Virginia, 
for Kansas City is located on this 400-mile wide tract of land 
running from "sea to sea." 

The subsequent European claimants were as follows: 

1682. Ceremonious possession was taken of all that coun- 
try which afterward became the Louisiana Purchase, by, for 
and in the name of Louis XIV then King of France, at the 
mouth of the Mississippi river, on April 9, 1682, and this 
portion of the the country was then given the name of that 
sovereign. While that claim was made and thereafter main- 
tained, yet the undisputed possession thereof did not actually 
begin, nor was there here made any permanent settlement, 
until the year 1699. New Orleans was founded in 1718 and 
permanent seat of the French Government was there estab- 
lished in 1722. In the meanwhile Louis XIV first granted 
this entire province to one Anthony Crozat in 1712 and his 
occupancy being a failure, later and in 1717 granted a similar 
charter to John Law. This, too, proved a failure, and in 
1732 both charters were cancelled and all this country re- 
verted to the Crown of France. But in history, song and 
story may yet be read and studied with profit the final failure 
of the John Law scheme under the name of the "Mississippi 

1763. Then in that stormy struggle between England 
and France to settle and adjust their conflicting claims to 
this territory and their international disputes growing out 
of the French and Indian wars, by the treaty of Fontaineblean, 
duly ratified by the crowned heads of France, England and 
Spain by the treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763, all the 
claims and possessions of France in all this country lying 
to the eastward of the Mississippi were ceded and granted to 
England, while all other portions of this country were then 
and thereby ceded to Spain. 

This treaty fully made the ground upon which Kansas 
City stands again Spanish. Without apparent knowledge of 
this treaty of Paris, the City of St. Louis, in Missouri, was 


laid out, founded and named in honor of Louis XV of France, 
in 1764 ; but in the following year Louis St. Ange de Belleriva 
there assumed the reins of government. Then came Count 
Don Alexandro O'Reilly, under the authority of the King of 
Spain, with an armed force, and formally took possession for 
the Spanish King on August 18, 1769. From this date on 
and in fact up to 1804 this territory was subject to and under 
the command of the Spanish Lieutenant Governor of Upper 
Louisiana, whose seat of government was the City of St. 

1800. But Europe was in turmoil, the great Napoleon 
was in the saddle and disarranging the map of all that coun- 
try. No one seems to have known just what was coming 
next. So after many conferences and negotiations, the two 
countries of France and Spain at last got together and the 
result was the terms and conditions of the definitive treaty 
of St. Ildefonso entered into on October 1, 1800, by Napoleon, 
who was then the First Consul of the French Republic, on 
the one side, and the King of Spain on the other, by which 
all this country was retroceded to and again became a part 
of France. 

1803. Immeasurably greater in all ways than any other 
land transaction of earth, either before or since, and of vaster 
direct personal concern to the people of America than all 
other treaties combined, in this year came the purchase and 
cession of Louisiana. The war of the Revolution had been 
fought and won, by our treaty of peace and cession, con- 
cluded with England in 1783, the United States had been 
granted all public lands, east of the Mississippi river (except 
in Florida), not owned by the original thirteen Colonies, the 
Federal Constitution had been proclaimed adopted in 1789, 
George Washington and John Adams had been and Thomas 
Jefferson then was the President of the United States of 
America. Then it was that almost unaided and practically 
alone, Robert R. Livingston, as our principal representative 
at the French Court, concluded with Napoleon Bonaparte, still 
First Consul of France, on April 30, 1803, the treaty of ces- 


sion under and by the terms of which the French ceded and 
granted to the United States all that vast empire since known 
in history as the Louisiana Purchase. For a period of more 
than 100 years one of the illusions of our history has been 
that as our President, Thomas Jefferson, then was and today 
is entitled to all the credit, honor and glory of this great 
transaction. But a free people may always consider the truth 
of history. Jefferson was a cautious and conservative states- 
man. The historical facts, then well known, in brief are : 
That under the uncertain and somewhat contradictory in- 
structions from our Government at Washington, our diplo- 
matic representative who mainly negotiated this great treaty, 
was authorized and directed, not to acquire this empire, but 
"only to treat for lands on the east side of the Mississippi.'* 
In other words to acquire (among other rights) that part or 
the Purchase then known as the City and Island of New 

The Government at Washington did not, at first, dream 
of acquiring one foot of the unknown land west of the Missis- 
sippi river. The scheme to sell and cede to the United States 
all French possessions on this side of the waters, originated 
in the fertile brain of that marvelous man, Napoleon Bona- 
parte, who proposed to dispose of it all, because, as he then 
said, France "had to sell." Livingston had no authority to 
negotiate for the purchase of anything save the City and 
Island mentioned ; indeed to do so was beyond and in practical 
violation of the instructions of our Government. Yet with 
far sighted statesmanship, rare courage and sagacity, he saw 
the tremendous advantage of the Purchase to our country, 
wisely and bravely assumed the responsibility, closed the 
negotiations and concluded this treaty. Hence to Napoleon's 
offer to sell and Livingston's wisdom and courage in buying, 
we are today indebted for the Louisiana Purchase. Living- 
ston then said: "This is the noblest work of our lives." 

When the treaty reached Washington in that summer, 
the administration was astounded at he audacity of Living- 
ston as well as with the immensity of the transaction. Presi- 


dent Jefferson at that period inclined to the opinion that our 
Government had no lawful right to buy or hold the purchased 
territory; talked and wrote about making "waste paper of 
the Constitution," and even went so far as to formulate, 
with his own hand, an amendment to the Federal Constitution 
providing for the government of the Purchase in the event 
that the Senate ratified the treaty. Great Livingston again 
went to the front and so strongly urged its ratification that 
the President finally yielded, and duly submitted the treaty 
for ratification, but suggested that but little be said about 
the constitutional question involved, but little debate be had, 
and that the Congress should act in silence. 

Notwithstanding the doubts and fears of the executive 
and the fierce opposition, the Senate wisely took the broad 
national view that the right to acquire territory by conquest 
or purchase and govern it, was inherent in every sovereign 
Nation, that ours was a sovereign Nation, and accordingly 
the Senate, by an overwhelming majority, ratified the treaty 
and the Congress soon passed laws for the government of the 
Purchase, thus vindicating the sagacity, wisdom and states- 
manship of Livingston as well as sovereignty of the United 

Thus it came about that for the consideration named and 
about $15,000,000 of money, the United States purchased and 
France ceded to this Government, all the land that had beei? 
theretofore retroceded by Spain to France. Of this cession 
Napoleon then said: "This accession of territory strensrthens 
forever the power of the United States ; and I have just given 
to England a maritime rival that will sooner or later humble 
her pride." And in his message transmitting this treaty to 
Congress, which caused it proclaimed on October 21, 1803, in 
noting the possibilities of this purchase, President Jefferson 
then said: "The fertility of the country, its climate and 
extent, promise in due season important aids to our treasury, 
and ample provision for our prosperity and a wide spread 
for the blessings of freedom and equal laws." All this oc- 
curred before the days when steam and electricity were har- 


nessed and working for the use of man, and is therefore not 
so strange. Then the average American had no adequate 
conception of the West ; the bulk of our population lived east 
of the Alleghanies; and the people of the Atlantic seaboard 
knew even less then than they now know of our country 
lying west of the Father of Waters. This cession included 
almost all of the now States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon, Oklahoma, Kansas, the 
two Dakotas, Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Wyoming. 
Of late maps have been published and books written to prove 
that this purchase did not extend beyond the crest of the 
Rocky Mountains; but a study of congressional debates, upon 
this question, will convince the scholar and thinker that all 
the States named, and parts of others, were intended to be 
included. On October 31, 1803, the Congress duly authorized 
the President to take possession of and occupy this territory 
and on December 20, 1803, formal possession thereof was 
duly delivered by the Republic of France, through Lauissat, 
its Colonial Prefect, to the United States through W. C. C. 
Claiborne and James Wilkinson, as Commissioners of the 

1804. For a few months after this purchase, all this 
country was known and designated as the Territory of Loui- 
siana, but this was changed, by our Congress, on March 26, 
1804, the now State of Louisiana and a part of that which is 
now Mississippi was designated the "Territory of Orleans" 
and all the remainder of the purchase was then called the 
"District of Louisiana;" and that Congress then further pro- 
vided that the executive and judicial power of the Territory 
of Indiana should be extended to and over this District and 
"the Governor and Judges" of that Territory were therein 
given the authority to enact laws for and hold their courts 
therein. So in May, 1804, Governor William Henry Harrison, 
from the seat of justice of Indiana Territory at Saint Vin- 
cennes on the Wabash river, rode over on horseback to the 
City of St. Louis to ascertain the wants of our people in 
the way of laws and courts. Having satisfied himself on these 


scores, this Territorial Governor returned to his home and 
during that and the following year "the Governor and 
Judges" of that Territory enacted and here enforced such 
laws as they deemen were needed by this "District." 

In the spring of this year, too, the great Lewis and Clark 
expedition started from the City of St. Louis and came up 
the Missouri river and passed the site of Kansas City, on its 
way to the Pacific Ocean. The wondrously strange history 
and vaster possibilities of this expedition of 1804 and 1806, 
under the title of "The Conquest," has recently been well 
written and printed by Eva Emery Dye, of Oregon. 

1805. On March 3, 1805, the Congress of the United 
States enacted a law which not only changed our official name 
from the "District of Louisiana" to the "Territory of Loui- 
siana," but provided for our first local Territorial self govern- 
ment. That Congressional Act conferred upon the Governor 
of this Territory full executive authority, while the legislative 
power and powers to enact and enforce all laws was therein 
granted to that "Governor and the Judges or a majority of 

1808. The most important and for reaching Indian treaty 
that was ever made anywhere, effecting early Missouri, was 
that treaty which upon its face recites the fact that it was 
"made and concluded at Fort Clark, on the right bank of 
the Missouri about five miles above Fire Prairie," on Novem- 
ber 10, 1808, and that this fort was then located "on the 
south side of the Missouri, about 300 miles up that river" 
from the City of St. Louis. 

This treaty was between the Big and the Little tribes of 
Osage Indians and our Government, and by its terms those 
tribes then being in actual possession, ceded and granted to 
the United States all lands lying eastward of a line drawn 
due south from Fort Clark, and running from the Missouri 
river to the Arkansas river. This then left as Indian lands 
and country all westward of the line so drawn. 

Upon their slow voyage up the Missouri river on their 
way to the Pacific Ocean, in 1804, Lewis and Clark had first 


established this fort, and then named it in honor of the junioi 
member of their exploring party. After the ratification of 
the great Indian treaty of 1808, and as a tribute to the 
memory of the Osage tribes of Indians, the name of the place 
was changed from Fort Clark to Fort Osage, and still later 
was again changed to Sibley, to perpetuate the name and 
fame of George C. Sibley, who was at one time the U. S. 
Government agent at that point. 

If any archaeologist is now curious to know just where 
to locate the site of ancient Fort Clark, the tast'is easy: Set 
up a compass anywhere on the Missouri-Kansas line, run due 
east twenty-four miles and thence due north to the Missouri 
river, and there may be found today the City of Sibley, in 
Jackson county, Missouri, once Fort Osage and still earlier 
Fort Clark. 

1812. By an Act of Congress, which commenced "to have 
full force" on the first Monday in December, 1812, the name 
of this portion of the country was again changed from the 
Territory of Louisiana to the "Territory of Missouri;" and 
executive, legislative and judicial powers were then for the 
first time vested in and conferred upon our own peoples. 
Although the fathers then knew all about the Missouri river 
from near its source to its mouth, yet this was the first 
Federal recognition of the name now so well and highly 
honored Missouri. This Act did not change our boundary 
lines and the Territory of Missouri then embraced and had 
jurisdiction over all the Louisiana Purchase, excepting only 
the extreme southern portion thereof, as stated. All general 
laws governing this Territory from 1803 to 1821, both Con- 
gresisonal and Territorial, may be found in print in Vol. 1 of 
the Territorial Laws of Missouri. 

1820. The enabling Act of the Congress of March 6, 
1820, was passed to authorize the 'people of this Territory to 
form a State and adopt a Constitution for their own gov- 
ernment. The boundaries of the future State were then first 
fixed as they today remain, the "Platte Purchase" of 1837 
excepted. Our delegates thereupon duly formed, adopted and 


on July 20, 1820, sent to that Congress a State Constitution, 
which was not satisfactory to our National lawmakers. 

Upon the questions raised in the discussion of the En- 
abling Act was fought the most terrific political battle that 
had ever been waged in this country up to that time. It ifl 
known in history as the "Missouri Compromise of 1820," and 
for length, intensity and bitterness this struggle then had no 
parallel in American history. 

1821. The final result was that on March 2, 1821, the 
Congress by resolution provided for the admission of this 
State into the Union, with slavery, but "upon the fundimental 
conditions" named in the Act. On June 26 following, our 
Legislature entered its protest against that condition, but 
gave its reluctant assent to its terms, and lastly, on August 
10, 1821, James Monroe, as President of the United States, 
proclaimed the historic fact that on that day Missouri became, 
and it has ever since been, a State of the American Union. 

The organization, Constitution and admission into the 
Union of the State of Missouri, then left all the remainder 
of the Louisiana Purchase, lying westward and northward 
of this State, as unorganized territories, possessions of this 
Government, then subject to Congressional legislation, but 
having no laws of its own, excepting those heretofore passed 
by the several sovereigns named. 

1825. The original proprietors, known as the Big and 
Little Tribes of Osage Indians, having relinquished their 
titles to all lands lying east of a due south and north line 
drawn from old Fort Clark to the Arkansas, in 1808, as stated 
heretofore, this left a strip of land 24 miles in width, lying 
due eastward of the west line of this State, and running from 
the Missouri river to the Arkansas river. The Indian title 
to this strip of land was relinquished by them and ceded to 
the Government of the United States by the terms of the 
treaty of Nampawarrah, or White Plume, of date June 3, 
1825. From these Indian tribes the Government then derived 
its title to them, and not until then did the United States, 
as a part of the public domain, come into full and complete 


possession, ownership and control of the lands upon which 
Kansas City now stands. This strip of land was soon opened 
up for entry, purchase and settlement. Hundreds of hardy 
pioneers with their wives and children were waiting on the 
border line, and when the day came that they could lawfully 
do so, these men here made the first great "rush" on record 
for Indian lands. 

1826. Jackson county was organized under the General 
Assembly Act of date December 21, 1826, and the first session 
of its county court was held at Independence on July 2, 1827. 
But prior to this time the lands now embraced within the 
limits of this county had by law been theretofore included 
within the borders of the counties, successively, of St. Louis, 
Howard, Cooper, Lillard (name later abolished), Lafayette 
and finally Jackson. 

1828. When the title to this strip of land was fully vested 
in the United States by the extinguishment of the Indian title 
in 1825, the eastern portion of Jackson county had been set- 
tled for some years; as early as 1821 a number of French- 
Canadian trappers, traders and huntsmen had squatted upon 
and occupied lands along the Missouri river front; but the 
first white American to make a permanent entry of and set- 
Itement upon lands now included within the boundaries of 
Kansas City, was James H. McGee, whose patent for his 320 
acres of this land bears dates November 14, 3828. 

1833. Under a grant of legislative authority, the town 
of Westport, now within and a part of Kansas City, was estab- 
lished in 1833, and for many a long year thereafter the few 
people who lived in the straggling hamlet along the Missouri 
river front and at the steamboat landing here, were known 
only as citizens of Westport Landing. 

1839. In the report of his explorations of 1673, Mar- 
quette first mentions the Kansas City tribe of Indians as 
being "on the Missouri, beyond the Missouris and Osages, " 
and from that tribe the Kansas river derived its name. The 
name of tribe and river were both spelled and pronounced in 
very different ways by the explorers, but Kansas City was 


originally so named to perpetuate both, and was first platted 
as the ''Town of Kansas" in 1839. 

1850. On February 4, 1850, the Jackson county court, 
by its order of record entered at Independence, first formally 
and duly incorporated "The Town of Kansas," and then 
gave to the people, near the mouth of the Kansas river, their 
first local self government. 

1853. By a special Act of the Missouri Legislature, duly 
adopted on February 22, 1853, the name of the "Town of 
Kansas" was changed to the "City of Kansas," and on that 
day we first became an incorporation under the laws of this 
State. Various amendments were later made to that charter, 
and by the first freeholders' charter, adopted by our people 
under grant of constitutional authority in 1889, the name 
was again changed from the "City of Kansas" to "Kansas 
City." But for many long years now this city has properly 
and proudly borne its present name of Kansas City, Missouri. 

1854. It may again be here noted in passing that all that 
country from the westward line of Missouri to the crest of 
the Rocky mountains was and officially remained unorganized 
"Indian country" up to 1854. Repeated efforts had been 
theretofore made by the Congress of the United States to 
segregate it from the State of Missouri, and bills had been 
introduced at Washington to make it all into one Territory 
under the name of Platte and Nebraska; but finally on May 
30, 1854, the Congress adopted an Act, known throughout the 
English speaking world as "The Kansas-Nebraska Act," un- 
der which these two were created and erected into Territories 
on the same day. Kansas became a State of the American 
Union on January 29, 1861, and Nebraska on March 1, 1867. 

In the "Historical Sketch" of Kansas City, printed as a 
preface to our annotated charter and revised ordinances in 
1898, appear in full the facts relating to two amusing incidents 
of that which might have been: The one is that at the first 
platting and naming of this city, in 1839, one of our early 
and wealthy settlers, who always signed his name as "Abra- 
ham Fonda, Gentleman," because he was not a working man, 


earnestly desired that the future city be named in his honor 
as "Port Fonda." He was about to succeed in this when, 
unfortunately for his fame, he became involved in a fierce 
quarrel with another part owner named Henry Jobe. The 
combined efforts of the old "Town of Kansas" company and 
Jobe's threats of fist and shotgun finally prevailed and are 
responsible for our present name. The other is that in 1855, 
a concerted effort was ineffectually made to cede and grant 
all lands lying west and north of the Big Blue river, from 
the point at which that historic stream crosses the Missouri- 
Kansas line near the ancient town called "Santa Fe," down 
to its mouth on the Missouri, to the then Territory of Kansas. 
Had the former scheme won out, Kansas City would now be 
"Port Fonda," and had the second won, we would now be in 
and a part of Kansas. 

1909. Through all the seething and roar, the bustle and 
the hurry, the buying and building, the enlarging and pro- 
gress of the years intervening between 1839 and 1909, Kansas 
City has ever pursued the even tenor of its way, the Kansas 
City spirit pervading city and country alike; nothing save 
an invisible line divides the two great municipalities near the 
mouth of the Kansas, and the stranger within our gates 
would not dream of its existence ; while between the two 
combined cities and their suburbs, we now have a population 
of half a million of happy and prosperous people, all hopefully 
confident that the future of Kansas City will be even more 
glorious than its past. 


Part II. 

Manners, Customs and Habits. 

It is not our purpose to enter at length into the habits 
and vocations of the Indians who once inhabited our State, 
but only to give such a characterization of their customs and 
manner of life as will give the reader a fair understanding 
of their primitive life, the life they were living when our 
ancestors first met them. 

The Family. 

We first notice the family, the most important feature 
of the Indian nation, as it is of all nations. We find the 
family life of the Indians to be very much like that of other 

As a rule each family lived in its own separate lodge. 
Their families, like ours, might consist of a newly married 
couple, or it might include dependent parents, grandparents 
and children. The lodge consisted in the winter usually of 
a bark covered wigwam or hut, and in the summer of a porta- 
ble teepee constructed of poles covered with skins. Of this 
home the husband was supposed to be the head, but in some 
eases, as among us, the wife did much of the ruling. 

In an Indian family the woman did most of the work, 
such as gathering the wood, bringing water, preparing the 
meals, dressing hides and skins and making them into mocca- 
sins and other articles of clothing, and building and setting 
up the lodge. Then in the spring she prepared the ground 
by digging, for a crop of corn, beans and tobacco. In fact, 
all of the drudgery fell to her lot ; yet all this she did without 
protest and seemingly willingly. The man made his bows, 
spears and other weapons of war and the chase, and supplied 
his wigwam with meat, often not a very easy thing to do. On 


his success as a hunter depended the welfare of his family. 
He was the food winner. To do ordinary manual labor one 
hundred years ago was a disgrace for men; it was woman's 
work, and among the wild tribes it is still so considered. 

We look upon such customs as imposing great hardship 
on the women, but, in truth, the labor of our Missouri farm- 
ers' wives and in fact of a majority of married women is 
much more exacting and strenuous than that of their dusky 
sisters. With all of the Indian woman's tasks she was idle 
a great portion of her time and indulged in various recreations 
and amusements. We never heard of an Indian woman 
suffering from nervous prostration or from other diseases of 
a kindred nature. As a rule, husband and wife lived in peace 
together and seemed to be strongly attached to each other. 
The writer, who lived several years among Indians, knew of 
but one case of abuse of a woman by her husband, and in 
that case the man was drunk; and the only divorce of which 
he had any knowledge, was that of a polygamous wife because 
she and the real wife did not get along peaceably with each 

Mrs. Hamilton, who lived five years among the Osages, 
says she never heard of an Osage man abusing his wife or 
children. In fact, as a rule, he was devoted to his family. 
Polygamy was practiced to a limited extent by most all tribes 

The mother had control of the children. As soon as the 
girl was large enough to assist her mother in her work she 
was set to such tasks as she was capable of, but the boys 
were allowed more liberty. The old women did such work 
as they were able and willing to perform; they were never 
compelled to work, but willingly performed such service as 
they could. As with white people, the grandmother was often 
the most favored and best loved member of the family and 
was allowed to sit in the cozy corner. 

Parents were careful in the training of their children. 
They were taught by the mother never to pass in front of 
people if they could avoid it. Young girls couldn 't speak to any 


man except he be a brother, father, mother's brother, or her 
grandfather, otherwise they would give rise to scandal. The 
virtues of their women were jealously guarded and their repu- 
tation defended. Virtue among the women was all but 
universal. (1) 

Liberality is a marked feature of Indian character. The 
worst thing that could be said about one was that he was stingy. 
If one has meat, all have. And such a thing as one wigwam 
being out of food, and its inmates going hungry, while in 
another there was a surplus did not exist in an Indian village. 
The fortunate hunter divides today with his less sussessful 
brother. Tomorrow the conditions may be reversed. 

A Debutante. 

When a girl arrived at a marriageable age which was very 
young, twelve to fourteen years, the mother or guardian 
dressed the debutante in a bright blanket and skirt, with 
calico waist trimmed with bright ribbons, beads and other 
ornaments. She then paraded her through the village, the 
girl walking behind her mother or guardian. This meant that 
she was ready for matrimony. 

The Marriage Costume. 

There was no courtship between the young folks. The 
parents and kinsfolks arranged the marriage by consent or gift. 
The boy and girl perhaps never saw each other till their 
wedding hour. 

To induce the parents of the girl to give her in marriage, 
gifts of ponies, blankets and other articles were made by the 
parents or other relatives of the boy. If the first lot of pres- 
ents was not sufficient to induce the girl 's friends to consent to 
her marriage others were added. It was necessary that thesj? 
presents be sufficient in number and amount to be divided 
among the girl's near friends so that all might receive a 

When the gifts were first brought to the bride to be, time 
was given for the relatives to be consulted, or called together. 

1. Omaha Sociology by Rev. J. O. Dorsey in third annual re- 
port of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881-81, pp 266 . 


The gifts were generally accepted on the second day. Then 
two days were given for the preparation for the wedding. 
Some food was sent by the groom each day to his expected 
bride, to let her know what kind of fare she might expect after 

On the fourth day a flag was raised by all the families 
interested. After this the bride was prepared by putting on all 
of her best clothes^ and taking all her other personal effects 
with her, often consisting of several fine robes, dresses or blan- 
kets. Then she was taken to the groom's lodge on the best 
pony, while another was led near her side. Then the race 
by the squaws from the groom's tent began. The one reach- 
ing her first got the pony that was led, while those second 
in the race divided the bride's robes among them, leaving 
her only one scant poorest robe, taking her ribbons, jewelry, 
etc. When she reached the groom's home the other women 
lifted her off her pony, put her on a blanket and took her in, 
not letting her touch the ground, and she was lifted 
from the blanket to a white spread or tablecloth where 
the wedding supper was spread. Then the groom was called 
from his hiding place, for he never appeared till called, being 
much more bashful than the white grooms. He seated himself 
beside her and if both were happy in their parental choice 
they ate and drank together. (2) During the wedding feast 
the women relatives of the bride were outside the lodge 
engaged in a kind of religious service, invoking the Great 
Spirit's blessing to rest on the newly married couple and 
exhorting the bride to live virtuous and maintain the honor 
of her family, rehearsing the noble traits of her ancestors for 
generations past and urging her to live a life that would 
perpetuate that honor, that her friends may never have cause 
for shame on her account. 

The husband's parents provide for the young couple for 
the first year of their married life after which time the newly 
married cared for themselves. The groom's father 

2. History of the Osage Nation, by Philip Dickerson. n. p., n. 
d. pp. 21, 23. 


always sets his son up for housekeeping as well as he was 

Burial Ceremony. 

When a prominent man died he was immediately dressed 
in his best robe or other garment preparatory to burial. The 
dead man's personal effects, including his saddle, bridle and 
blankets were placed in the grave with him and his best 
horse led to the grave and strangled and placed on the grave. 
These things were in some way to accompany the departed to 
the happy hunting ground. 

Mourning for the Dead. 

After the burial, a professional mourner would be secured 
who would visit the grave every day for a moon, going early 
in the morning and wailing for about an hour. In this wail- 
ing they were simply praising the dead, referring to their 
good deeds in life, etc., as we who are enlightened speak in 
praise of loved ones when they have left us. This hired 
mourner leaves his home and lives in the woods alone, eating 
one meal a day during the period of mourning. He would 
not communicate with any one during the time. The relatives 
of those who do not employ a mourner visit the grave for the 
same period and go through the same ceremony. 

Eelatives mourned sometimes for a year. 

An Osage funeral dirge was like this: 

"My dear father exists no longer; have pity on me, O 
Great Spirit! you see I cry forever; dry my tears and give 
me comfort." The warrior's songs are thus: "Our enemies 
have slain my father (or mother) ; he is lost to me and his 
family; I pray to you, O Master of Life! to preserve me until 
I avenge his death and then do with me as thou pleasest." (3) 

During this period the females of the family and relatives 
of the deceased wore cakos of wet ashes on their heads, and 
the men blackened their faces with mud. These tokens of 
grief were worn constantly, except when partaking of food. 
If one offered them food they would, remove the black mud 

3. The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Coues' edition, 
N. Y., 1895, Vol. II, p. 368. 


or ashes before they would touch their food. If a man lost, 
his wife he would give away or destroy all of her cooking 
utensils and other household goods as a mark of respect. 
Feasting of Guests. 

One of the ancient customs of the Shawnees, as well as 
of other Indian tribes, was to always place food before a 
visitor on his arrival. At any hour, day or night, as soon 
as a friend entered the wigwam the women would immediately 
set about the preparation of a meal for the guest. This same 
guest may have just feasted with another friend, but this 
would form no excuse for refusing to eat again. Among some 
of the tribes this custom worked both embarrassment and 
hardship on the early missionary, who was expected to eat 
with every family he visited in the rounds of his pastoral 
calls, and the more he ate the better was his standing with 
his host. Even after the people became well civilized they 
seemed to cling to this old custom. 

The Peace Pipe. 

The pipe of peace, so called, was not of any particular 
form or kind, as some have supposed, but was so called from 
its use on certain occasions. When there was to be a con- 
ference or council of importance, especially if a reconciliation 
was to be brought about with a party where disagreement 
or a quarrel had existed, the pipe of peace was brought into 
use. All parties to the conference would be seated in a circle, 
the head man of the group, before beginning the talk, would 
give his pipe to some one of the party, who would fill it and 
light it. It was then handed back to the chief or principal 
man, who would give a few whiffs and pass it to the next, 
and he to the next one, until it had passed entirely around 
the circle. If any one refused to smoke it was evidence that 
he was not in accord with some of the party, and, as we re- 
member, he was then excluded from the council. 


Probably the best known and most generally observed 
was the green corn dance or festival, for it really was a fes- 


tival, the dance being only an incident. No one was allowed 
to eat green corn even from his own little field until this 
feast was celebrated. We give two other feasts very similar 
to the green corn feast. 

The Bread Dance. (4) "In the fall of each year a certain 
number of men five, I believe are sent out on a hunt. They 
stay three days. On the third day, when they are returning, 
and are near enough to be heard, they fire their guns, and the 
men and women in camp go out to meet them. The hunters 
are taken off their horses and sent to their wigwams to rest. 
The game is cooked and put in a pile on the ground, leaves i 
having been spread on the ground first. They also have a 
pile of bread, which has been made of white corn pounded 
in a mortar for the occasion. The Indians then dance around 
the prepared provisions and sing, and then sit down. The 
meat and bread are then passed around. This ends the re- 
ligious part of the feast. All is very, very solemn during this 
part of the ceremony. After this they can frolic all they 
please. The women have their petticoats decorated with 
silver brooches and all the handkerchiefs they can. (Mrs. 0. 
refers doubtless to highly colored handkerchiefs that in an 
early period were very highly prized by all Indians.) The 
men were dressed in buckskin leggins and moccasins. They 
also wore a loin-cloth and blanket. 

The Stomp Dajice. This dance was similar to the other, 
only instead of the meat and the bread they had piles of 
roasting ears (green corn) . In the spring of the year all 
the Indians got together and planted corn. Some would drop 
the grains, others would cover them. When this was done 
they had their game of ball. It was played like our football, 
rather a combination of football and basketball; the men on 

4. The quotation is from a communication made to the author 
by Mrs. Nancy Chouteau. She was born in Wa-pa-ko-ne-ta, Ohio, in 
1831. Her father, John Francis, was a hereditary chief. Her moth- 
er died when she was a young girl. She was educated at the Quaker 
Mission school. Since her husband's death she has lived with her 
children, her present home being with* her daughter in Kansas City. 
She is a devout member of the Catholic church. She was still in 
excellent health at the date of the communication in 1907. 


one side and the women on the other. The women were al- 
lowed to run with the ball and throw it, but the men had to 
kick it. Before the game began each player had to put some- 
thing at a designated place (as a wager) a ring, string of 
beads, handkerchief, etc. When the game was all over these 
things were given to the winning side, and each player got 
back his or her own article and the other man's trophy. 
They always stopped playing before sundown. They were 
superstitious. They thought that if they played until after 
sundown someone would be crippled." 

The first two lines of the Stomp dance evidently belong 
to the green corn festival, the remainder to the planting or 
spring festival. There was a festival in the spring at corn 
planting time, then the green corn festival in the summer; 
the third, here called the bread dance. It was held just before 
going on the fall hunt. 

Among the dances common to many tribes were the war 
dance held before a war expedition, and was intended to 
secure success of the undertaking; and the game dance just 
before the hunters started in search of game for food. Some- 
times the women in the absence of the men held dances for 
the success of both warriors and hunters. Another dance was 
conducted during the progress of a battle. Only a few en- 
gaged in these dances. I once witnessed such a dance, during 
an engagement between the Cheyennes and Kansans in Kan- 
sas in 1868. The dance, which was purely a religious one, 
was led by an old woman and a few other women uniting 
with her. I never witnessed a more solemn and serious 

An Honor Dance. 

In the spring of 1868 a treaty council was held by the 
Osage, Drum Creek, Kansas. The Government was repre- 
sented by Mr. Taylor, Commissioner of Indian Affairs. One 
evening the Commissioner was notified that a dance had been 
arranged in his honor for that night. Probably one hundred 
men formed in line at the appointed time and the dance began. 
It was accompanied by a rude drum, the musician chanting 


some kind of words in response to his own drum beats. The 
cnant doubtless consisted of encomiums on the Government, 
the great virtues of the guest of honor, to which was probably 
added a list of their own numerous virtues and their loyalty 
to their great father, the President. The v/ierd chantir g and 
,the thud, thud, thud of the dancers continued far into the 
night, if they did not continue the whole night. As I write 
from memory I cannot be sure on this point. 

There are many other dances, some general and others 
of a tribal or local character, but these we think, will give 
a pretty clear conception of the phase of Indian customs. 

The Calling of an Assembly of Confederate Tribes. 

Often, if not generally or universally, two or more tribes 
of Indians were united in a confederacy for mutual protec- 
tion, as for war or other purposes. Meetings of these con- 
federate tribes when exigencies arose were necessary for the 
gathering of war parties or the consideration of subjects of 
general welfare. Any tribe could call a meeting when it 
appeared necessary. The following method of notification 
was explained to the writer by Bluejacket: (5) "Sufficient 
messengers were selected, and a string given to each one con- 
taining a knot for each day intervening between the time of 
calling and the time of meeting. The first day the messenger 
passed through the tribe, to whom he bore the message, show- 
ing the string with the knots and giving the place of meeting. 
The next morning, before starting on his way, he would cut 
off a knot, and so on each day until his work of notification 
had been completed. 

Ancient Religion. 

"Father of all; in ev'ry age, 

In ev'ry clime ador'd 
By saint, by savage and by sage, 
Jehovah, Jove or Lord." 

To describe an all but extinct religion that has left us 
no altars, churches or history is no easy task, and at best 

5. Charles Bluejacket was my interpreter while I was a mis- 
sionary to the Shawnees, 1858-60. 


must be very incomplete. We can only hope to give some 
features of the once universal faith of the red man that has 
come down to us largely through tradition. 

The Indian religion was very simple and their creed a 
short one. They believed in a great first cause as the giver 
of life and the creator of all things, the Great Spirit, and 
that worship and adoration was to be paid to him . 

They believed in the immortality of the soul; of a future 
existence in what is generally spoken of as the "happy hunt- 
ing ground." Their idea of the future abode of all Indians 
was that it possessed all that was desirable in this life with 
none of this world's evils; a land where there was to be no 
sickness, death or enemies, and where game was inexhaustible. 

Their religious worship consisted mainly of feasts and 
dances. We refer the reader to the feast and dances given 
in another part of this paper. 

In addition to these fixed feasts and dances, there was 
the dance preceding an attack on an enemy, and a similar 
one preceding a hunt. In these the aid of the Great Spirit 
was invoked and an omen of good anxiously looked for. If, 
instead of an omen for good, there was an omen for evil, the 
contemplated enterprise would be abandoned. 

There were times in which a prayer was made to the 
Great Spirit, just as the devout Christian prays to his Father 
in heaven. Theirs was a somber and joyless religion. A 
religion without love, and one in which there was found no 
place for repentance. It had to do with this life only, and 
had nothing to do in determining the state of joy and misery. 
in the world to come. It taught that all, regardless of 
character, would be received and made welcome in the next 

The spring feast was a thanksgiving service as well as 
to secure a good harvest. The summer, or green corn, feast 
was strictly a thanksgiving occasion, and so was the fall 
dance or feast of in-gathering or harvest. The feast and 
dance on the eve of war was to placate the Great Spirit and 
through his favor to obtain success in battle. If victorious,. 


the scalp dances which followed were really praise services; 
and if defeated, the dances were the occasion of humiliation 
and of bemoaning their sins which had angered the Great 
Spirit. There were other dances and ceremonies, but all 
were of a similar spirit or character. 

The Shawnee Prophet claimed that he often had direct 
communication with the Great Spirit and that through divine 
influence he could foretell events and perform miracles. The 
last three days of his conscious life his mind was absorbed 
in religious contemplation. 

"Lo the poor Indian whose untutored mind, 

Sees God in clouds or hears him in the wind, 

# * * # 

"Yet simple nature to his hope has given 
Behind the cloud top't hill a humble heaven." 


Fourth Paper. 

According to orthodox standards Daniel Boone was not 
a religious man. At no time during his life did he ever unite 
with a church, and he died as he had lived, without a profes- 
sion of religion. Yet there was no sect, Catholic or Protestant, 
within the limits of his influence that did not claim him as 
a friend. A short time before his death one of his sisters, a 
zealous church worker, wrote him a letter urging him to make 
a profession of religion and join some one of the orthodox 
denominations. He replied with the directness and considera- 
tion of manner which characterized all his acts. He said he 
had no desire to make a profession of religion, since he had 
nothing to profess ; that he had endeavored all his life to live 
as an honest and conscientious man should, and he was willing 
to leave the future to the just decision of the beneficent Power 
which had brought him into this world and protected him 
through the many dangers to which he had been exposed. 
He was a philosopher rather than a Christian. 

During the eight years that he lived under Spanish and 
French Government, from 1795 to 1803, inclusive, the Catholic 
faith was the State religion. As a rule the requirements of 
the Church were strictly enforced throughout the territory; 
but although Boone was a prominent officer of the Govern- 
ment, and treated Protestants with the same deference as 
Catholics, no complaint of any character was ever lodged 
against him. The higher authorities regarded him as good 
enough a Catholic to be entrusted with the important duties 
of his official station, while the Protestants, on the other hand, 
felt perfectly sure that his sympathies were with them. The 
conditions were peculiar, and are to be attributed to the ex- 


traordinary character of the man. His mind, though unculti- 
vated, seemed to embrace all that was good, either in philoso- 
ph7 or religion. He sat upon the high mountains of human 
thought, and looked serenely down upon the perturbed actions 
of men, a friend to all. 

During the Spanish era, which lasted until 1801, no public 
worship except the Catholic was tolerated within the limits 
of the Territory; and each immigrant coming into the Boone 
settlement was required to be a "good Catholic." Yet it is 
a fact that not a single member of that Church came there 
under the Boone concession. The requirement was evaded 
by a legal fiction. Boone would have encouraged Catholics 
to come as readily as he did Protestants, but he had no friends 
or acquaintances who adhered to that faith, and consequently 
none came. Protestant families of all denominations settled 
in the district, obtained land grants and remained 
undisturbed in the profession of their faith. Prot- 
estant clergymen and missionaries found their way 
into the settlement and preached to the people, 
undisturbed by the Spanish authorities; although, for the 
sake of keeping up a show of authority, one might occasionally 
be threatened with imprisonment in the "calabazo" at St. 
Louis. It was the custom to wait until the ministers had 
about completed their tour, and then notify them that if they 
did not leave the Territory within three days they would be 
arrested. They always departed on time, and consequently 
escaped the penalty for the infraction of the law. 

Abraham Musick, a Baptist minister, was one of those 
early-day missionaries, and very persistent in the propagation 
of his faith. Knowing the Spanish Lieutenant Governor per-, 
sonally, he applied to him for a license to preach in his own 
house, and to extend the same privilege to other Protestant 
clergymen. The Governor was horrified at the suggestion. 
"Impossible!" he exclaimed. "It would be a violation of the 
laws of the country." Then lowering his voice and assuming 
a milder tone, he continued: "I mean you must not put a 
bell on your house and call it a church, nor suffer any person 


to ehristeii your children but the parish priest. But if any 
of your friends choose to meet at your house to sing, pray 
and talk about religion, they will not be disturbed; provided 
you continue, as I suppose you are, a good Catholic. ' ' Musick 
desired no broader license, and he accordingly availed himself 
of its privilege. His sect could readily dispense with the rite 
of * ' infant baptism, ' ' and he knew the people would find their 
way to his house without the aid of the "church-going bell." 

Boone was greatly afflicted by the death of his wife, 
wmch occurred on the 18th of March, 1813. They had been 
companions from their childhood, and she had shared all his 
dangers and sorrows. The event cast a shadow over the re- 
maining years of his life ; he became more reserved and silent 
than ever, and aged rapidly. 

At that time there was but one Protestant cemetery north 
of the Missouri river. It was located on the summit of a knoll 
overlooking the valley of the Missouri, about a mile and a 
half southeast of the present site of the town of Marthasville, 
in Warren county. This knoll is the termination of a ridge, 
and it has so much the appearance of an Indian mound that 
it is generally believed to be such. It was, therefore, an ap- 
propriate as well as a very beautiful place for a cemetery; 
and one was established there as early as 1803, by David 
Bryan, a nephew of Rebecca Boone. A small stream, called 
Teuque creek, washes the foot of the hill, and then pursues 
its tortuous way through the valley until it empties into the 
river several miles to the southeast. In the valley immediately 
under the hill lay the plantation of Flanders Callaway, who 
had married Jemima Boone one of the three girls who were 
captured by the Indians at Boonesborough in Kentucky and 
Grandfather and Grandmother Boone, as they were affec- 
tionately called, were visiting there at the time of the latter 's 
death. The old pioneer laid his loved one to rest in the ceme- 
tery on the hill, and by the side of her grave he marked a 
place for his own. 

He seemed now to regard the final winding up of his 
earthly affairs with the satisfaction of a philosopher. Soon 


after the death of his wife he had a coffin made for himself, 
of black walnut boards, which he kept under his bed in his 
room at the stone house on the Femme Osage. It was his 
custom, every little while, to draw this coffin out and lie 
down in it, "just to see how it would fit." After several 
years, however, a stranger sickened and died in the neighbor- 
hood, and Boone, with his accustomed generosity, loaned his 
coffin to the dead stranger. Then he had another made of 
cherry-wood, which he also kept under his bed, and in which 
he was finally buried. 

The closing years of his life were spent in pleasant asso- 
ciation with his neighbors and his children and grandchildren, 
and in the doing of good deeds. His experience as a hunter 
and a soldier had made him a fairly good surgeon, and he 
was also familiar with some of the simpler remedies for pre- 
vailing diseases. There was no regular physician or surgeon 
in the Boone settlement until afte? his death, and during all 
this time he healed the sick and bound up the wounds of those 
who were hurt, without money and without price. He made 
no pretensions to scientific attainments, but nevertheless he 
did a considerable practice, both in surgery and medicine, 
wholly as a matter of charity and good-will to his fellow men. 
His time was always employed at some occupation that would 
benefit or give pleasure to others. He made powder-horns 
for his grandchildren and his neighbors, carving and orni- 
menting them with much taste. He also repaired rifles, and 
performed various kinds of handicraft with neatness and 

Although a "silent man," in a general way, he was a 
very genial one. He was a good listener, and when he said 
anything it was always so much to the point that those who 
heard him were impressed with a feeling that he had said a 
good deal. He wasted no words, and used no idle terms. He 
never told stories, even to the children, and would not listen 
to a vulgar joke. He was as gentle and refined in disposition 
xs a woman; and although drinking was a universal custom 
among the men of his age, he was a total abstainer. No drop 


of liquor ever passed his lips during his entire life. He 
seemed to take considerable pride in declaring that he did 
not know the taste of alcoholic spirits. In form and features 
he was athletic and impressive. Strangers knew instinctively 
that they were in the presence of a man born to rule. He 
was about five feet ten inches in height, and toward the latter 
part of his life inclined to corpulency. His life-long custom 
of wearing moccasins made him walk like an Indian, with his 
toes straight in front, which gave him the appearance of 
being slightly bow-legged. Even up to the time of his death 
he carried himself erect, and walked with a quick, springing 
motion that made him appear much younger than he was. 

In December of 1818, Boone was visited by the distin- 
guished historian and missionary, Rev. John M. Peck, who 
had written his biography, and desired to obtain some per- 
sonal reminiscences for the work. But he was so overcome 
by the dignity and venerable appearance of the old pioneer 
that he did not even broach the subject of his visit to him. 
The work subsequently appeared with many inacuraeies, 
which might have been corrected had the author carried out 
his original purpose. Some years previous to this incident 
Boone himself had reduced the principal events in his life 
to writing, but the manuscripts were lost by the overturning 
of a canoe during the excitement that followed the massacre 
of the Ramsey family in 1815 ; and penmanship was so labo- 
rious to him that he never had the courage to renew the work. 

During the summer of 1820 Boone suffered from a severe 
attack of fever, while visiting his daughter, Mrs. Flanders 
Callaway ; but having measurably recovered, he returned to 
his home in the Femme Osage valley, where he had a relapse, 
and after a short illness of three days died on the 26th of 
September, in the eighty-sixth year of his age. He 
belonged to a long lived race of people. His brother 
George lived to be eighty-three ; Samuel, another brother, died 
at the age of eighty-eight; Jonothan at eighty-six; Mrs. Wil- 
eox, a sister, at ninety-one; Mrs. Smith, another sister, at 
eighty-four, and Mrs. Grant, a third sister, at the same age. 


The body of the venerable pioneer was dressed in his 
hunting suit and placed in the cherry-wood coffin, and the 
following day it was conveyed to the Flanders Callaway place 
near the old cemetery on the hill. News of his death had 
spread over the whole country, and nearly all the inhabitant^ 
of the Boone settlement came to pa}' their respects. So vast 
a concourse gathered at the place that the house would not 
hold a hundredth part of them, and tne coffin was therefore 
carried to a large barn near-by, where the body lay in state 
while the people filed through the doors and looked for the 
last time on the beloved features. At the end of the ceremony 
all that was mortal of Daniel Boone was lowered into th.3 
grave by the side of his wife. 

Twenty-five years afterward their remains were exhumed 
and taken to Kentucky, and buried in the v cemetery at Frank- 
fort. Both the cherry-wood coffin and the body of Boone 
had entirely decayed, so that the mortal part of the pioneer 
still sleeps in Missouri soil. Only a few partly decayed bone-* 
were taken to Kentucky. Mrs. Boone 's coffin, on the other 
hand, was still sound and whole, although she had preceded 
her husband into the shadow-land by seven years. 

The graves were not refilled, but still remain as they were 
left by the workmen in 1845, except that the rains of fifty-six 
years have washed the dirt into the excavations and partly 
filled them, and the place is rank with grass and briars. The 
old headstones that loving hands placed at the graves have 
disappeared, and nothing remains to show where Daniel Boone 
slept and still sleeps but a pile of loose stones. The old 
cemetery embraces a half-acre of ground, and it is a Golgotha 
of unknown and forgotten graves. Most of them were origi- 
nally marked by rough sandstones, but these have been mis- 
placed until no one can tell which of the graves they belong 
to. Many of Missouri's old pioneers sleep there. One of the 
stones bears the date of 1804. Some of the graves are marked 
by marble head and foot-stones, but most of these are either 
broken or removed from their original positions. Several of 


the latter bear curious mottoes or verses, of which the follow- 
ing is an example : 

"Remember me as you pass by, 
As you are now so once was I, 
As I am now so you must be 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

The sentiment, as well as the poetry, befits the place. 
The cemetery itself is a beautiful spot, sodded with bluegrass 
and shaded by a grove of persimmon and walnut trees. From 
the top of the mound a fine view of surrounding scenery is 
obtained, including ten miles or more of the rich Missouri 
valley or "bottoms," with the river itself and its restraining 
bluffs on the other side. One can readily understand how a 
lover of nature, like Boone, would select such a place for his 
final sleep. 

On a neighboring hill stands an ancient school-house, now 
more than seventy years old, and doubtless the last relic of 
its class in the north half of the State. Within this house, 
for a period of more than sixty years, the pioneer youth of 
that locality were taught the principles of knowledge; and 
several prominent citizens of Missouri look back to it as their 
alma mater. When the old house was new it stood in the 
midst of a wilderness of sugar maples and pawpaws, and on 
one occasion the boys caught a deer in the ravine at the foot 
of the hill. Another time the teacher, who had come early 
in the morning to prepare for the day 's duties, had a desperate 
fight with a wildcat which had been enticed into the house 
by the smell of the remnants of the children's luncheons j 
The steep hill on which the house stands was a famous place 
for coasting in the winter-time, and all kinds of home-made^ 
sleds and other contrivances were brought into requisition. 
One of the boys, now a leading citizen of Franklin county, 
brought a couple of coon-skins to school one day, intending 
to sell them to the neighboring store-keeper when school was, 
out in the evening; but when "play-time" came he and his 
seat-mate used the skins as coasters, and wore all the fur off, 
in which condition they were unmarketable. For some years 
past the old school house has been used as a place to store 
farm machinery, but the classic air of its original purpose 
still lingers about it. 



Albert Gallatin Blakey was born in Warren county, Ken- 
tucky, near Bowling Green, in 1825. He came to Benton 
county, Missouri, with his father, James M. Blakey, in 1839. 

In 1846 he enlisted as a volunteer in the Mexican war,, 
and served under Gen. Sterling Price, and re-enlisted in 1847. 
He returned to Missouri in 1849, but soon after crossed the 
plains to California. He remained in California about four 
years, and then returned to Cole Camp, Benton county, Mo. 
In 1854 at the earnest solicitation of warm personal friends, 
he became a candidate for the Legislature. He was elected 
over two older prominent citizens, and was re-elected in 1856, 
Between 1855 and 1858 there was some trouble along the 
border counties of Missouri and Kansas, and the State au- 
thorities deemed it necessary to be prepared. To this end 
Col. Blakey, as Division Inspector of the Fifth Military Dis- 
trict of Missouri, organized a militia company at Austin, 
and another at Pleasant Hill in Cass county. (1) 

In 1858 Col. Blakey was nominated by President Bu- 
chanan and confirmed as U. S. consul to Talcahuano, Chili. 
For this he received the unanimous endorsement of the Mis- 
souri Legislature and the State officers. He resigned the post 
in 1861, and then, for several years, traveled in the East, 
visiting many places of historic note, including Rome, Athens, 
Cyprus, Ephesus, Baalbac, Damascus, Palestine and Egypt. 
Returning to the United States in 1864, he lived two years 
at Boonville, and in 1867 went to Pleasant Hill, which he 
made his home until his death there on July 28, 1877, of con- 
gestion of the brain, after several weeks of intense suffering. 
In 1866 Col. Blakey bought out the Pleasant Hill Union, 
and about 1870 changed its name to the Review, and con- 

1. See Missouri Historical (Review, April, 1907, p. 208. 


ducted it for several years, having Mr. Bennett as his partner 
for awhile, after which he sold it to J. F. Bennett. 

While a citizen of Pleasant Hill he was always interested 
in matters of importance to the community, and took an active 
part in its best interests. He was one of the founders of 
the Missouri Press Association, and was twice elected itr 
vJce president. Col. Blakey was mayor of Pleasant, Hill in 
1870, 1871 and 1872. As such he served well and was popular. 

When the county judges and other county officers stole 
the railroad bonds in 1872, W. C. Briant, the sheriff, by his 
shrewd judgment, followed them to St. Louis, telegraphed 
to Col. Blakey, then at Jefferson City, who at once induced 
the Attorney General of the State to go to St. Louis and take 
steps to secure the stolen bonds. While there Coi. Blakey 
saw the Governor (Brown) and urged the immediate appoint- 
ment of a county attorney to take the place of the fugitive 

In December, 1868, Col. Blakey was married to Miss Sue 
Tompkins, a daughter of H. A. Tompkins, of Boonville. She 
die*' two years after her husband's death. Thay left one son, 
Albert G. Blakey, Jr., now residing in Boonville, Mo. I knew 
Blakey well while he resided in Pleasant Hill. He was friendly 

to all, and all were his friends. 



The Territory of Missouri was organized in 1812, and 
there were then so few persons in the Territory, and they 
so far, by the then methods of travel, from the capital of the 
country, that we usually do not think that any of its citizens 
took part in the War of 1812. An interesting question is 
started in the following communication from the Curator of 
the State Historical and Natural History Society of Denver, 
Colorado, to the Adjutant General of Missouri, which at his 
suggestion has been referred to this Society. The matter is 
one that will be further considered by it in due time. Rev. 
Thomas Johnson Ferril, the father of Will C. Ferril, was a 
chaplain during the Civil War, and at the time of his death 
in Kansas City, was the chaplain of the G. A. R. for the 
Department of Missouri : 

His grandfather, William Ferril, was appointed chaplain 
of the Thirty-third Regiment of Missouri Militia by Governor 
Miller, July 18, 1827, at which time Mr. Ferril was a Metho- 
dist preacher at Independence, Missouri. 

Denver, Colo., May 6, 1909. 
Adjutant General, 

State of Missouri, 

Jefferson City, Missouri. 
Dear Sir: 

I was informed several years ago, that those who built 
and defended Fort Cooper, Fort Hempstead and Fort Kincaid 
in the Boone's Lick country of the Missouri river region, 
during the War of 1812, had never been officially recognized 
by your State as a part of the volunteer or military force of 
Missouri during that war. 

In the history of Howard and Cooper counties, Missouri, 
published by the "St. Louis National Historical Company, 
1883," a list of the men and their elder sons in these forts, 
may be found on pages 95, 96, 97 and 98. 

They resided in these forts, not only to protect themselves 


and families, but also to resist the Indians, who, during that 
war, the same as in the War of the American Revolution, made 
attacks on the settlers on the frontier. A military force was 
organized in these forts, with full set of officers, Sarshall 
Cooper, who was killed, being captain. This history says that 
the "Company consisted of 112 men, who were able to bear 
arms. The following list comprises all the men and boys, who 
were in the different forts." 

Then follows the lists in Forts Cooper, Hempstead, and 
Kincaid, to which I have referred in the pages as noted, in 
that volume. 

I have counted in this list 214 names, all of whom, it 
would seem, should be enrolled as a part of the military of 
Missouri during that war. 

In the list at Fort Cooper, I find the names of "John 
Ferrill," and "Henry Ferrill." This John Ferril was my 
greatgrandfather, and Henry Ferril, who later founded what 
is now the town of Miami, Saline county, Mo., was his eldest 
son. Four younger sons of John Ferril, namely, William 
Ferril, Jonathan Ferril, Jacob Ferril, and Jesse Ferril, are 
not in the published list of old Fort Cooper. This William 
Ferril, my grandfather, was then about 15 years of age, and 
was later, in the year 1827, appointed by Governor John 
Miller, as chaplain, at Independence, of the 33rd Reg't., 3rd 
Brigade, Missouri Militia. Jonathan Ferril was among the 
early ones on the Santa Fe trail. Jacob Ferril in the early 
days, ran the ferry at "Airry Rock" (Arrow Rock), and 
Jesse Ferril, who later served in the Confederacy, resided 
many years in Nevada, Missouri. Elizabeth Ferril (Mrs. 
Samuel Perry), and Margaret Ferril (Mrs. James Millsaps), 
daughters of my Greatgrandfather John Ferril, are not men- 
tioned in the lists as published in that volume. 

Now, I have simply checked the Ferril family in Fort 
Cooper for historical purposes, to assist in interpreting the 
meaning of the published list of those in these old forts, during 
the War of 1812. It will be observed that four of the younger 
sons of John Ferril and his two daughters, are not given, in 


that list, but only the eldest son, Henry Ferril, is mentioned. 
Even my grandfather, the Rev. William Ferril, although 
about fifteen years old, when in Fort Cooper, is omitted in 
the names given. 

All of this would indicate, that none of the women or 
children or small boys are included in this list, and only the 
men and elder sons, any of whom could have performed 
military duty, in an emergency, for, according to our tra- 
ditions, my grandfather, the Rev. William Ferril, then a mere 
lad, sometimes assisted in guard duty, for even boys of fifteen, 
in those days, were handy with the rifle. 

Should it be necessary to check the list for others, as I 
have for the Ferril family, I predict, you would come to the 
same conclusion that all the names published in this history 
as inmates of these forts, were of an age which would permit 
military service, and that they should be enrolled as a part 
,of the Missouri force of the War of 1812. 

Those who erected and defended these forts were too far 
away in the American wilderness for either national or terri- 
torial aid to come to their assistance, for even at that time 
St. Louis was a village town. Alone and unaided they guarded 
and protected the frontier of the Missouri river region, except 
some minor forts that may be added to this list. 

If enrolled as a part of the military force of Missouri, 
and thus given recognition as they should, it may be that 
their descendants would be eligible to membership in some of 
the patriotic societies founded on services in that war, such 
as the Society of the War of 1812, the United States Daughters 
of 1812, etc. In the older States of the East and South, many 
companies and organizations which performed at least not 
more service in the War of the American Revolution than 
these in Missouri during the War of 1812, have been given 
official recognition by their respective States, and properly 
enrolled as a part of the military force of the Revolution, as 
minutemen, militia, volunteers, etc. 

I have recently read with interest that the Missouri State 
Senate has passed a bill making an appropriation to mark 


the Santa Fe Trail in that State. It is to be hoped that if 
not already, it will soon meet with favorable consideration in 
the House. Through legislative appropriations in Kansas, my 
native State, and Colorado, the Daughters of the American 
Revolution have marked the Santa Fe Trail in these two 
States. Give the D. A. R.'s of Missouri a helping hand in 
putting through a liberal appropriation to continue the mark- 
ing of this trail into Howard county, where it had its origin 
at Franklin, near these old forts to which I have made 

How appropriate it would be at this time for Missouri to 
enroll these, as I have suggested, as a part of the Missouri 
military of the War of 1812, for it was where they fought and 
defended the wilderness in that war that the historic Santa 
Fe Trail, a little later, had its origin. 

Why not place markers at Fort Cooper, Fort Kincaid, 
Fort Hempstead, and it may be also at Fort Cole, Fort Head, 
and other such points. 

How interesting also it would be if this enrollment could 
be made and the Santa Fe Trail marked to its origin in Mis- 
souri, to have a reunion of the descendants of those who built 
and defended these old forts, when the final markers are 
placed, for it will soon be the centennial of the War of 1812. 

If as Adjutant General, you have not the authority to 
make this enrollment, the Missouri Legislature, now in session, 
could, by resolution or some other enactment, authorize you 
to perform such an act, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) WILL C. FERRIL, 

Curator State Historical and Natural History Society, Denver, 


Compiled by F. A. Sampson. 

1st Gen. Assy., regular Sess., 1820, Sept. 18-Dec. 12, 1820. 

Called Sess., 1821, June 4-June 26, 1821. 

2d called Sess., 1821, Nov. 5-Jan. . 1822. 
2d G. A., regular Sess., 1822, Nov. 4-Dec. 17, 1822. 
3d G. A., regular Sess., 1824, Nov. 15-Feb. 21, 1825. 

Called Sess., 1826, Jan. 19-Jan. 21, 1826. 
4th G. A., regular Sess., 1826, Nov. 20- Jan. 3, 1827. 
5th G. A., regular Sess., 1828, Nov. 17-Jan. 23, 1829. 
6th G. A., regular Sess., 1830, Nov. 15-Jan. 19, 1831. 
7th G. A., regular Sess., 1832, Nov. 19-Feb. 14, 1833. 
8th G. A., regular Sess., 1834, Nov. 17-Mch. 21, 1835. 
9th G. A., regular Sess., 1836, Nov. 21-Feb. 6, 1837. 
10th G. A., regular Sess., 1838, Nov. 19-Feb. 13, 1839. 
llth G. A., regular Sess., 1840, Nov. 16-Feb. 16, 1841. 
12th G. A., regular Sess., 1842, Nov. 21-Feb. 28, 1843. 
13th G. A., regular Sess., 1844, Nov. 18-Mch. 28, 1845. 
14th G. A., regular Sess., 1846, Nov. 16-Feb. 16, 1847. 
15th G. A., regular Sess., 1848, Dec. 25-Mch. 12, 1849. 
16th G. A., regular Sess., 1850, Dec. 30-Mch. 3, 1851. 
17th G. A., called Sess., 1852, Aug. 30-Dec. 20, 1852. 

Regular Sess., 1852, Dec. 27-Feb. 24, 1853. 
18th G. A., regular Sess., 1854, Dec. 25-Mch. 5, 1855. 

Adjourned Sess., 1855, Nov. 5-Dec. 13, 1855. 
19th G. A., regular Sess., 1856, Dec. 29-Mch. 4, 1857. 

Adjourned Sess., 1857, Oct. 19-Nov. 23, 1857. 
20th G. A., regular Sess., 1858, Dec. 27-Mch. 14, 1859. 

Adjourned Sess., 1859, Nov. 28-Jan. 16, 1860. 

Called Sess., 1860, Feb. 27-Mch. 30, 1860. 
21st G. A., regular Sess., 1860, Dec. 31-Mch. 28, 1861. 

Called Sess., 1861, May 2-May 15, 1861. 
22d G. A., regular Sess., 1862, Dec. 29-Mch. 23, 1863. 

Adjourned Sess., 1863, Nov. 10-Feb. 16, 1864. 


23d G. A., regular Sess., 1864, Dec. 26-Feb. 20, 3865. 

Adjourned Sess., 1865, Nov. 1-Mch. 17, 1866. 
24th G. A., regular Sess., 1867, Jan. 2-Mch. 13, 1867. 

Adjourned Sess., 1868, Jan. 7-Mch. 26, 1868. 
25th G. A., regular Sess., 1869, Jan. 6-Mch. 4, 1869. 

Adjourned Sess., 1870, Jan. 5-Mch. 25, 1870. 
26th G. A., regular Sess., 1871, Jan. 4-Mch. 18, 1871. 

Adjourned Sess., 1871, Dee. 6-Apr. 1, 1872. 

Called Sess., 1872, June 19-June 24, 1872. 

Called Sess., 1872, June 24-June 27, 1872. 
27th G. A., regular Sess., 1873, Jan. 1-Mch. 24, 1873. 

Adjourned Sess., 1874, Jan. 7-Mch. 30, 1874. 
28th G. A., regular Sess., 1875, Jan. 6-Mch. 29, 1875, 

Called Sess., 1875, Mch. 29-Apr. 1, 1875. 
29th G. A., regular Sess., 1877, Jan. 3-Apr. 30, 1877. 
30th G. A., regular Sess., 1879, Jan. 8-May 20, 1879. 
31st G. A., regular Sess., 1881, Jan. 5-Mch. 28, 1881. 

Called Sess., 1882, Apr. 19-May 5, 1882. 
32d G. A., regular Sess., 1883, Jan. 3-Apr. 2, 1883. 
33d G. A., regular Sess., 1885, Jan. 7-Mch. 25, 1885. 
34th G. A., regular Sess., 1887, Jan. 5-Mch. 21, 1887. 

Called Sess., 1887, May 11-July 2, 1887. 
35th G. A., regular Sess., 1889, Jan. 2-May 24, 1889. 
36th G. A., regular Sess., 1891, Jan. 7-Mch. 24, 1891. 

Called Sess., 1892, Feb. 17-Mch. 24, 1892. 
37th G. A., regular Sess., 1893, Jan. 4-Mch. 23, 1893. 
38th G. A., regular Sess., 1895, Jan. 2-Mch. 23, 1895. 

Called Sess., 1895, Apr. 23-May 25, 1895. 
39th G. A., regular Sess., 1897, Jan. 6-Mch. 22, 1897. 
40th G. A., regular Sess., 1899, Jan. 4-May 22, 1899. 
41st G. A., regular Sess., 1901, Jan. 2-Mch. 18, 1901. 
42d G. A., regular Sess., 1903, Jan. 7-Mch. 23, 1903. 
43d G. A., regular Sess., 1905, Jan. 4-Mch. 18, 1905. 
44th G. A., regular Sess., 1907, Jan. 2-Mch. 16, 1907. 

Called Sess., 1907, Apr. 9-May 13, 1907. 
45th G. A., regular Sess., 1909, Jan. 6-May 17, 1909. 


The State Historical Society has more than ten thousand 
five hundred publications of the bills introduced into the 
General Assembly of Missouri in the last twenty-two years. 
During the last General Assembly more than one member 
applied to it for copies of bills acted upon by the General 
Assembly years ago. 

In a letter to the editor, Mr. H. Calkins, of the Pacific 
Transcript, following some very complimentary words, says: 
"I have always admired Daniel Boone. If I ever saw any 
explanation or reason for his burial place, it was previous to 
my taking the interest in him that I have in my mature years. 
His remains were taken to Kentucky probably because those 
of his wife were before, but why were hers? Old Dr. Gris- 
wold, who died at New Haven, in this county, related to me 
all the incidents of the committee from Kentucky coming to 
exhume the remains of both Boone and his wife, and to take 
them back to the State he had reclaimed from the wilderness 
and savagery, and then dispossessed him of every inch of its 
surface. The doctor said they came quietly and went to 
digging. His father then owned the farm containing the 
cemetery, and he stopped their work until all of the Boone 
relatives that could be gotten together had congregated there 
and heard the story of the Kentuckyans and agreed to the 
proposition of removal. Uow strange it seems that a man 
who reclaimed so much of our territory for civilization should 
die possessed not of an acre of land and with very few 
dollars for his life 's work. ' ' 

In the same letter, Mr. Calkins, referring to a paper by 
Col. Montgomery Lewis, heretofore published in the Review, 
tells of the family of that name now living in St. Louis 
county, at Crescent, "where their ancestor settled vary soon 
after that renowned exploration to the Pacific was made. One 
of the older generation of brothers was a member of the Legis- 
lature, and was on the train which went through the Gascon- 
ade bridge. A younger brother, who was with him, and went 

NOTES. 45 

through the bridge with the train, is still living, the Hon. 
M. D. Lewis, of Crescent. He has had a law office in St. Louis 
upwards of sixty years. I have more than once seen the death 
notice of 'the last survivor of the Gasconade Bridge disaster. ' 
I have no doubt Mr. Lewis is now the sole person able to relate 
personal recollections of that affair." 

[The Gasconade bridge disaster above referred to oc- 
curred November 1, 1855, at the time of the celebration of the 
opening of the Missouri Pacific Railroad to Jefferson City. 
An excursion train of fourteen cars was run from St. Louis, 
containing the railway officials, the mayor and city council 
of St. Louis, two military companies and many prominent 
people of the city. The bridge gave way and the engine 
with all but one of the cars fell to the water, thirty feet below. 
Among the killed were Thomas 'Sullivan, chief engineer of 
the Pacific Railroad; Rev. Dr. Bullard, pastor of the Second 
Presbyterian Church; Mann Butler, tha Kentucky historian; 
Henry Chouteau, and others, in all twenty-eight persons, and 
more than thirty were seriously injured. Editor.] 

Martin J. Hubble, a member of this society, an old resi- 
dent of Springfield, Missouri, and much interested in early 
Missouri history, in a late letter says: "At that time (1840) 
my father, Dr. John Hubble, lived in Van Buren county, near 
where Sugar creek empties into Grand river. He had settled 
in Boone county in 1832, moved to Saline county in 1836, and 
to Van Buren county in 1837. On the south side of Grand 
river, in Avhat is now Bates county, then called the "Red Dirt 
Country," because of the color of the soil, there stood three 
mounds rising up in the prairie, the north and south ones 
round, and the middle one elongated. On the summit of the 
north one was a pile of limestone rocks, circular in form and 
higher than my father's head while on his horse, and he was 
over six feet high and rode a large horse. The apex of the 
stonework was a large triangular shaped stone about a foot 
at the base and two or three inches at the apex. My father 
took me to see it, and told me he expected I would live to 
know of revelations about these mounds, which would be 


investigated some day by men whose education and training 
would fit them for unraveling the secrets hid in them. I 
have not been there since 1847, but the mounds, although in 
cultivated fields, must yet be prominent, though the stones 
have probably all been used in foundations of buildings. I 
have seen many of the famous mounds of Missouri and Illi- 
nois, but none that I thought more interesting than these. 
Has any one ever investigated and described these mounds?" 
Near this place Mr. Hubble saw in 1844 a drove of elk feeding 
upon the prairie grass, a sight probably not visible there at 
a much later time. 

Mormons in Missouri. The July number of the "Journal 
of History," published by the Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints at Lamoni, Iowa, has a paper on 
"Causes of Trouble in Jackson County, Missouri, in 1833," 
by H. C. S., these being the initials of Heman C. Smith, one 
of the editors of the Journal. He shows tlias the question of 
polygamy did not have anything to do in causing the troubles, 
but that the reasons given at the time were that the Mormons 
were believed to be religiously fanatical, and that their in- 
fluence upon the slaves was feared. In showing the latter 
point many quotations are made from a paper by George W. 
Martin, secretary of the State Historical Society of Kansas, 
published in the tenth volume of the Kansas Historical Collec- 
tions. His paper is therefore one dealing largely with the 
troubles between Missouri and Kansas, as well as between 
citizens of Missouri and the Mormons. 

The Missouri Intelligencer of January 25, 1826, had notice 
of the assembling of the General Assembly of Missouri on 
the 19th of the month. The next number of the paper con- 
tained the full text of a law which had been approved by 
the Governor two days later and on the third day the Legisla- 
ture adjourned. That was working more rapidly than the 
modern legislator does. 


Laws of Missouri passed by the 45th General Assembly, 
1909. Jefferson City, n. d. 923, lix. p. 

Heretofore the general laws passed at a revising session 
have not been published as the laws of such session, but have 
been incorporated in the revised statutes. The copies above 
named are bound in art canvass with a plain, distinct binder's 
title, while those heretofore sent out by the State, like the 
Journals and appendixes of the General Assembly have never 
been to the credit of the State . 

Second annual report of the Missouri State Board of Horti- 
culture, proceedings of June, 1908, and Jamiary, 1909, W. L. 
Howard, secretary. Jefferson City n. d. 324, vii p., 46 pis., 
vi port. 

If any horticulturist is not able to attend the institute 
meetings of the Board, he can in this report have the papers 
presented at such meetings, and it is a wonder how any one 
can pretend to be a fruit grower without being anxious to 
get such reports as the above. 

The Machinations of the American Medical Association. 
An exposure and a warning by Henry R. Strong. St. Louis. 
The National Druggist, 1909. 131 p., 25 cents. 

This is a very vigorous showing on behalf of the drug 
trade of the efforts of the A. M. A. to control everything 
relating to medicine, through the control of the State exam- 
ining boards, and State boards of health. 

The Transitional Period, 1788-1789, in the Government of 
the United States, by Frank Fletcher Stephens, Ph. M., Ph. D. 

The above historical paper of 126 pages, by an instructor 
in American history in the University of Missouri, is pub- 
lished as No. 4, of Vol. II, of the Social Science Series of tho 
University of Missouri Studies. 

Thirty-third annual report of the Railroad and Warehouse 
Commissioners of the State of Missouri year ending, June 30, 
1908. Jno. A. Knott, Chairman, Frank A. Wightman, H. R. 
Oglesby, Commissioners. T. M. Brodbury, Secretary. Jeffer- 
son City, Mo. 1909. 


This is a work of nearly eight hundred pages with almost 
everything of the year about railroads that any person would 
want to know, and including an hundred and fifty pages of 
Missouri railroad law . There are twenty-four maps of differ- 
ent railroad companies, showing the stations of such roads in 
Missouri, and other data about them. 

A Thrilling Record: Founded on facts and observations, 
obtained during ten days experience with Colonel William T. 
Anderson (the notorious guerrilla chieftain), by Sergeant 
Thos. M. Goodman, the only survivor of the inhuman massa- 
cre at Centralia, Mo., September 27, 1864; and an eye-witness 
of the brutal and barbarous treatment by the guerrillas of 
the dead, wounded, and captured of Major Johnson's com- 
mand. Edited and prepared for the press by Capt. Harry 
A. Houston. Des Moines, Iowa, 1868. 

This rare Missouri Civil War item was presented to the 
society by Mrs. L. B. Goodman, of Hawleyville, Iowa, a sister- 
in-law of the author, who has been dead for several years. 

History of the United States Cavalry, from the formation 
of the Federal Government to the 1st of June, 1863. By 
Albert G. Brackett, late chief of cavalry of the Department 
of Missouri. New York, Harper & Bros., 1865. 

This work, lately obtained by the society, has an account 
of the organization of the 1st Regiment Dragoons at Jefferson 
Barracks in 1832, and of Doniphan's March. It also has ac- 
counts of the Cavalry at Wilson's Creek and various other 
Missouri engagements of the Civil War. 

Kinderhook Faunal Studies V, the fauna of the Fern 
Glen formation, by Prof Stuart Weller. Bulletin of the Geo- 
graphical Society of America, Vol. 20, pp. 265-332, pis. 10-15. 

Prof. Weller of Chicago University has heretofore pub- 
lished papers on four localities of the Kinderhook, two of 
which were in Missouri. Fern Glen of this paper is on the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad twenty miles west of St. Louis. Con- 
siderable collections of fossils have been made at that place, 
and this paper figures and describes sixty-two species that 
have been collected there, thirty-two of which are new. 
Nineteen specimens from the collection of F. A. Sampson are 
figured on the plates, and three species were named in his 


Eev. James McDonald Chaney, for more than a half 
century a member of Lafayette Presbytery of the Presbyterian 
Church, died at his home in Independence, September 18, 
1909. He was born near Salem, Ohio, March 18, 1831, and 
after graduating at Princeton Theological Seminary he came 
to Lexington, Missouri, as president of the Elizabeth Aull 
Seminary, and afterwards was president of the Kansas City 
Ladies' College at Independence. He has preached regularly 
at Lamonte, Hughes ville, Pleasant Hill, Corder and Alma. 
Rev. Chaney was the author of two books, "William, the 
Baptist," which was first published in 1877, and of which 
the society has a copy of the twelfth edition; and "Agnes, 
Daughter of William the Baptist, or the Young Theologian," 
which the society has also. 

Rev. Father James J. Conway, dean of philosophy, sci- 
ence and ethics in St. Louis University, died July 11, 1909, at 
St. John's Hospital in St. Louis at the age of 55 years. He 
was prominent as a preacher, teacher and author, two of his 
works being in the Historical Society's library, "The Begin- 
nings of Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the Archdiocese of St. 
Louis," and "Historical Sketch of the Church and Parish of 
St. Charles Borromeo." 

Dr. Willis Percival King was born in Macon county. 
Missouri, December 21, 1839, commenced the study of medi- 
cine in Pettis county, Missouri, in 1862, and graduated from 
the St. Louis Medical College in 1866. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed assistant chief surgeon of the Missouri Pacific Hos- 
pital at Sedalia, and afterwards was moved with the hospital 
to Kansas City. From 1894 to 1898 he was secretary of the 
State Board of Health. His "Stories of a Country Doctor" 
went through four editions; "Perjury for Pay" was pub- 
lished in 1906, and medical papers by him were published in 
the medical journals, and in the Transactions of the Missouri 
Medical Association. He died at Kansas City, July 12, 1909, 
and was buried at Sedalia. 

Hon. Thomas Essex was a member of the Senate in the 


25th, 26th, and 27th General Assemblies, 1869-1875, and was 
president pro tern of the latter. Later he was for twenty 
years General Land Commissioner of the Iron Mountain Rail- 
road, with his headquarters in Little Rock. For the last ten 
years he has resided in St. Louis with a brother-in-law, where 
on July 19, 1909, he fell, probably from an attack of vertigo, 
striking his head upon stone steps, which caused his death 
a half hour later. He was 72 years old. 

James Calvin Evans, the father of Paul Evans director 
of the Fruit Experiment Station at Mountain Grove, and for 
thirty-five years president of the State Horticultural Society 
of Missouri, died July 10, 1909, in a hospital in Kansas City 
close to the spot where he was born, April 25, 1833. Mr. 
Evans moved to Clay county, Missouri, in 1861, and acquired 
a farm of 250 acres two miles north of Harlem, now known 
as North Summit Farm, situated on the bluffs commanding a 
fine view of the Missouri bottom and surrounding country. Mr. 
Evans was one of the founders of the Olden Fruit Farm in 
Howell county. He was prominent in farming and in horti- 
cultural matters, and a frequent contributor to publications 
on those subjects. 

Maj. Sam Keller was one of the best known newspaper 
men in the State. He ran newspapers at Leavenworth, Kansas, 
Lebanon and Richland, and since 1901 has been the Globe 
Democrat correspondent at Jefferson City. He was a candi- 
date for presidential elector for the Eighth Congressional 
district last year. He died at Jefferson City, August 23, 1909. 

Alexander Hale Smith, the fourth son of Joseph Smith, 
the martyred prophet of the Mormon Church, was born at 
the town of Far West, Missouri, June 2, 1838. He was a 
brother of Joseph Smith of Independence, Missouri, the head 
of the Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints, and he held 
the position of Presiding Patriarch. He had traveled exten- 
sively in this and foreign countries, doing missionary work. 
In 1891 he moved from Independence to Lamoni, Iowa, where; 
he has since resided. He died suddenly August 12, 1909, at 
Nauvoo. Illinois, in the house which was once the home of his 


H. R. Tucker, St. Louis, President. 

J. L. Shouse, Kansas City, Eugene Fair, Kirksville, 

Vice President. Secretary-Treasurer. 

N. M. Trenholme, Columbia, Editor. 

We are glad to present in this issue a paper by Professor 
E. M. Violette of the Kirksville Normal School dealing with 
important questions of methods and presentation in history 
teaching. A paper of this character cannot but be of great 
interest and value to teachers who are beginning their year's 
work in history courses, and it is hoped that all members of 
the society will read and profit by his discussion of "Setting 
the Problem." 

Setting the Problem. 

(President's address before the Missouri Society of 
Teachers of History and Government at the May, 1909, 

The reasons for my appearance on this program arc 
threefold. In the first place, I have met with an unusual 
number of disappointments in making up the program. Not- 
withstanding the fact that I began early to arrange for it. 
I was unfortunate in soliciting the help of those who for 
various reasons could not respond. Much time was thus con- 
sumed, and when at last I felt that it was too late to continue 
the search for others to go on the program, I got the consent 
of myself to do duty by way of filling in . In the second place, 
I feel that the office of president of this society ought to entail 
the duty of preparing an address of some sort for the annual 
meeting, and I am willing to make an attempt at establishing 
a precedent. Perhaps if the idea suggests itself as a good 
one, the constitution may be amended so as to impose this 
duty upon the president and thus relieve him of any embar- 


rassment he may have in putting himself upon the program. 
In the third place, I feel that I have a subject which is of 
some importance in the teaching of history. Whether I have 
anything of real value to say, I shall leave you to judge. 

This closes the first year of our society's work. As yet 
very little has been accomplished outside of holding a very 
successful mid-year meeting at Kansas City during the Christ- 
inas holidays in connection with the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion. But there is much more for us to do as an organization 
than to arrange for two programs a year and meet and discuss 
the papers read, greet old acquaintances and make new ones. 
A year ago a committee was appointed to report on the ad- 
visability of making some investigation concerning the teach- 
ing of history in our high schools, and at the Christmas meet- 
ing another committee was appointed to make some report on 
the teaching of history in elementary schools. Both committees 
are ready to report at this meeting, and I am sure there will be 
suggested in these reports some things that may be very 
profitably undertaken by this society. While the holding of 
one or two meetings a year would justify the maintenance 
of our society, yet I feel that we shall neglect a great oppor- 
tunity if we do not inaugurate some specific work which shall 
be carried on consecutively aside from our meetings. 

The main work of this society must be, for a long timo 
at least, pedagogical in character. Its programs must deal 
largely with questions pertaining to the teaching of history 
and kindred subjects. One or two papers which embody the 
results of some special research in historical subjects, should 
be presented at the annual meeting, and perhaps the mid-year 
program should include occasionally one or two such papers. 
But the stress should always be put upon the pedagogy of 

That we shall be justified in doing this can be very easily 
established. Of all subjects in our school curricula today, 
history is the least developed, excepting possibly literature. 
The educational doctrine of mathematics, the sciences, and 
the languages has been well worked out, or, to say the least. 


has been worked out in better shape than the pedagogy of 
history and literature. Mathematicians, scientists, and lin- 
guists are fairly well agreed as to how their subjects should 
be taught and their agreement has met with the approval of 
the teachers of theoretical pedagogy. But the teachers of 
history and literature are yet unagreed among themselves as 
to what are the best methods of teaching their subjects. They 
are trying various methods and are still reaching different 
conclusions, though it appears to me that some approach 
towards an agreement is being made on some points. It is 
therefore the unfinished condition of this phase of our field 
of labor that in my opinion justifies, if it does not demand, 
that for some time to come the special object in our meetings 
and in our other endeavors will be to work upon questions 
which are largely pedagogical in character. From the dis- 
cussions and investigations that we carry on there should 
come a body of doctrine which should wield a marked influ- 
ence upon our profession in this State. Is it too much to 
hope that in the near future this organization shall undertake 
to set forth in some formal manner the ideas it has worked 
out, and offer them as its contribution to the profession? For 
one I shall be very glad to support such an effort, and I shall 
not feel that we are doing what we ought to be doing unless 
we undertake something like this. 

In view of this idea I wish to direct your attention to 
one phase of the pedagogy of history and ask for your sever- 
est criticisms. I have called it "Setting the Problem." By 
that I mean the setting forth by the teacher the task or the 
tasks which the student under his direction is to undertake. 

Two remarks served to call my attention in a special 
manner to this subject. The first was made in the course of 
a discussion in a meeting of the faculty to which I belong, 
to the effect that the failure of the teacher to set the problem 
before his students, it mattered not what the subject may be, 
was to entail a great waste of energy on the part of the stu- 
dents. Failing to set the problem properly, the teacher leaves 
the students to struggle aimlessly; the latter do not know 


what is expected of them and usually spend much of their 
energy without results, and hence become discouraged. The 
second remark was made by a high school student to his 
history teacher in answer to the inquiry why he did not work 
at his history lesson with the same enthusiasm and spirit that 
he did at his mathematics lesson. The student replied that 
the mathematics lesson was something definite so that he 
knew when he had finished it, while the history lesson was 
indefinite in content if not in form, so that he never kne\r 
when it was finished. If the assigned work were so many 
pages in a given book, the pages might be read and yet he 
would not be sure that he had gotten out of them what he 
was expected to get ; if the assigned work were not so specific 
as to the number of pages in the book to be consulted, then 
the indefiniteness was many times multiplied. 

At first glance it would appear as though the young man 's 
contention that a task in mathematics is more definite than in 
history, has some foundation of truth. But doubtless the 
difficulty lay not so much in the actual difference between the 
fundamental principles underlying the tasks in mathematics 
and history as in the manner in which those tasks were pre- 
aented to him. Experience proves that it is easier to present 
the tasks in mathematics than in history, in fact the teacher 
in mathematics may go so far as to assign a given number 
of problems without a word of explanation or direction and 
come nearer being assured that the student will know what 
to do, than will the history teacher who in a similar manner 
assigns the next chapter or so many pages. The more com- 
prehensive character of the problems in history over those in 
mathematics makes the setting of the former more difficult 
than the latter, but I am convinced that the tasks in both 
may be presented with at least approximately the same 
definiteness, and it is in support of this idea that I present 
the following remarks. 

I would divide the problems in history which the student 
is asked to solve into two large groups: First, those which 
are to be solved in regular class work; second, those which 


are to be solved outside of class work. The first group is 
made up of all those questions and topics to which the entire 
class is directed and upon which teacher and pupils put a 
common effort ; the second group is made up of those questions 
and topics which are assigned to the stndents for special in- 
vestigation, the results of which may or may not be brought 
before the class. The first group pertains to regular class 
work from day to day; the second largely to theme or thesis 
writing. In discussing these two groups I shall spend more 
of my time upon the first, and in presenting what I have to 
say I wish to draw upon my experience in teaching to illustrate 
the points I shall try to make. 

In the first group of problems in the study of history, as 
just outlined, that is in those presented to the whole class 
to undertake to solve, I distinguish three different kinds. 

The first are those which are to be solved at the next 
meeting of the class. It is this kind of problems that make 
up the bulk of our history study in our school work. The 
question at once arises how may these problems which come 
up for daily consideration be best put before the students. 
I do not wish to commit myself as favoring only one method, 
but I do wish to express my emphatic disapproval of thai 
way of assigning the work for the next day in a hurried, 
haphazard fashion as the class is passing out, yelling to them, 
as one teacher has put it, to take the next twenty pages or 
make a study of the Imperial Government of Charles the 
Great, and then expect them to come back the next day and bo 
prepared to discuss things they had never dreamed about. 
Students are not expected to be mind readers, though they 
are sometimes treated in the assignment of lessons as though 
they were endowed with the faculty of knowing what is in 
the mind of the teacher ; they are entitled to know in advance 
something as to what they are expected to do when they come 
to do a certain piece of work. 

On the other hand the students are entitled to do their 
own thinking. It is just as bad for the teacher to go to the 
other extreme, and, instead of leaving the students unin- 


formed as to what they shall do, present so complete a synop- 
sis of the new work that all they will need to do is to appear 
and ring the changes on that synopsis and give a little ad- 
ditional information which they had gathered from the as- 
signed reading. 

. The question is how much the teacher should do in the 
assigning of work. It is evident that when he does too much 
he deadens the work just as much as when he does too little. 
In fact I am inclined to think that he deadens it more by doing 
too much than by doing too little. The element of uncertainty 
as to outcome of the investigation will likely lend an interest 
a litttle more readily than that of dead sure certainty as to 
what it will be. To say the least, the teacher should , suggest 
by way of an outline of some sort the topics or subjects that 
will come up in the next day's work. Occasionally a word of 
explanation should be given here and there so that the stu- 
dents may know in advance how to proceed, but the explana- 
tions should never be more than hints or suggestions unless 
there is no available material which the students may use 
themselves. The aim should be to have them get at the thought 
of the authors they follow, and they should be given an oppor- 
tunity of getting that largely for themselves. 

Not only are the students entitled in advance to some idea 
as to what they are expected to do, but they are also entitled 
under ordinary circumstances to specific references to those 
books which will give them the information they are expected 
to get. Some one may immediately arise and say this is the 
"spoon and dish" method. In reply I would say that I would 
prefer it many times for all occasions to that method by which 
a student is regularly referred on a given subject to a long 
list of works with no direction as to what portions to use or 
how to use them. There are times when the student may be 
wisely thrown on his own resources and given a chance to 
work out his subject for himself without direction as to what 
he should look for and where he should get it; but this can 
not be made a regular rule if there is to be any class progress. 
If left at every assignment of work to hunt up his own ma- 


terial and arrange it for use, the student may lose much 
valuable time which may rightly belong to other subjects. 
It is all very easy to say to him that two or three days will 
be spent on the Athenian Constitution and the material will 
be found in Grote's Greece or some other voluminous work, 
but it is not likely good results will follow, especially if the 
student is a beginner. It would doubtless be better to follow 
some good manual and then develop some phase or phases 
of the subject by way of specific references to those works 
that may be really helpful. In this connection it might be 
said that the successful teacher will be careful to select only 
those references that the student can readily use. The teacher 
should keep in mind the body of knowledge which the student 
has already acquired upon a given subject, and be sure to 
suit his assignment of reading according to the student's 
state of advancement. To assign Stubbs, for example, to a 
high school student is to commit, ordinarily, great folly it 
is frequently as great a mistake to assign it to freshmen and 
sophomores in college. 

But enough of this. The point I am trying to make clear 
is that the teacher should be sure to make definite announce- 
ments as to what he expects his students to do from day to 
day, and under ordinary circumstances give them specific di- 
rections as to just where they will be able to find what is 
expected of them. 

The second kind of problem which is to be attacked by 
the whole class is one which cannot be fully solved until after 
some days of study have been given to the subject out of 
which the problems arise. This sort of problem arises in con- 
nection with the study of institutional development and of 
great movements in history. As the study of these matters 
progresses, certain questions come up to which attention should 
be called and out of which certain problems should be formed ; 
and by the time the study has been closed the student should 
be prepared to discuss the questions that have been raised, in 
other words solve the problems that have been formulated. 

For example, I have found that the study of the Thirty 


Years' War has been best undertaken by the class, even in 
courses of college rank, by having the students read and 
discuss at the first meeting of the class after the subject has 
been taken up, some short account of the whole war. In this 
survey of the whole matter the attempt has been made to 
call attention to those facts or phases which are to receive 
further development, and to set forth the various problems 
that are to be solved. In the general survey it is learned that 
the dissatisfaction of the Treaty of Augsburg was one of the 
chief causes of the war. This is then taken as one of tha 
problems, and the students are asked to find out why dissatis- 
faction had arisen. Other matters connected with the Avar are 

treated in the same manner. 


The Reformation presents many different problems, among 
which is the part taken by the rulers of the different countries 
in this movement. If the students are asked at the time they 
study of the Reformation is taken up, to keep this question in 
mind and prepare themselves to compare the attitude of the 
different rulers towards the movement when the proper time 
comes they will have had time to gather up the material as 
they go along and construct a body of knowledge somewhat 
their own. 

In this way the teacher may frequently set various prob- 
lems to which no direct solution may be found in the books 
of reference, but which may be answered by the students in 
their own way after they have had some time in which to 
think them over. The exhilaration which comes from this 
kind of work is similar to that which comes to students in 
chemistry or physics who have been working for some time 
upon an experiment, uncertain as to how it will turn out, 
and yet interested to the very last in what the end may be. 

In dealing with this sort of a problem which requires 
several sessions of the class and several assignments before 
it can be solved, there are many ways in which it can be pre- 
sented. When it has to do with the evolution of an institution 
or the development of a movement the method will ordinarily 
be to trace the evolution or development from the beginning. 


But in some of my work I have found it interesting and 
profitable to reverse the order. For example, I have found 
*ome measure of success and satisfaction in working back to 
the origins of feudalism from the fully developed feudal insti- 
tutions. I hold that no one can well understand the feudal 
system without knowing something of its origins. I have 
found that the easiest method has been to have the students 
study the institutions of feudalism in their fully developed 
form and then gradually trace them back to their origins. 

Other illustrations might be offered on the point I am 
trying to make, but these are perhaps sufficient. 

The third kind of problem which the entire class is to 
be equally interested in solving, is one which requires several 
months' work, during which time many other subjects having 
no direct bearing upon it may perhaps be introduced, and yet 
from time to time steps will be taken towards its solution. 
I can best illustrate this kind of problem by the way the de- 
velopment of the Papacy may be traced. I have found a 
lamentable amount of ignorance concerning the Pope and the 
Catholic Church at the present time on the part of the stu- 
dents who come to study of Medieval and Modern History. 
This is frequently true even of those who take up the college 
course on this subject. It is generally known that there is 
a Pope, that he lives in Rome, and that he is elected by a 
College of Cardinals. But as to the duties of the Pope, the 
relations of Pope and Cardinals, the functions of Archbishops 
and Bishops, and matters of that sort, there is generally noth- 
ing known. Inasmuch as the study of Medieval and Modern 
History involves much consideration of the Church, I take it 
that the course will ultimately bring the student to know 
something definite about the condition of the Church and the 
Papacy at the present time. Here is therefore a most excel- 
lent opportunity for placing before the class early in the 
course a problem which can not be fully solved until the 
course is about closed. In my own work I have found that 
it is advantageous to assign for special study the organization 
of the Roman Catholic Church as it is today just before taking 


the study of the beginnings of the Church. This study of the 
present organization of the Church sets the problem in the 
history of the Church which the student is to keep before 
him all during the co?se "How did the Church become what 
it is now?" Knowing in advance of any study of Church 
history the Pope is at present the acknowledged infallible 
head of the Catholic Church, that he is elected by a body of 
men called the College of Cardinals, that he has absolute 
control in ecclesiastical and doctrinal matters, and that he has 
a great array of officials under his control, the student is 
therefore able to begin the task of tracing the steps by which 
he ascends to this exalted position. While tracing these steps 
the student's attention is often directed to many other things; 
but from time to time the development of the Papacy 
will come up for consideration and every effort should 
be made to have it understood that each step 
in that development is bringing the student 
just that much nearer to the present condition of the Papacy. 
Such a problem as this serves to keep the final end in view 
for a long time, and at the same time offers an opportunity 
to go back and review the stages in the development that have 
already been traced. This can be kept up until the end has 
been reached. 

Other subjects may be dealt with in the same manner as 
the Papacy, and out of them many interesting and helpful 
problems may be formulated. 

This brings me to the end of what I have to say on the 
first group of problems in history work those presented to 
the whole class. Just a word or two on the second group 
those which are assigned to students for special investigation, 
the results of which may or may not be brought before the 
whole class. 

I have stressed the advisability of specific references in 
dealing with the problems of the first group. But I do not 
wish to leave the impression that I would never leave the 
student to his own devices. I have already said there are 
times in regular class work when the student should be given 


an opportunity to hunt up his own material, but I would not 
confine this method of procedure to occasional opportunities 
in ordinary class work. Aside from the problems which come 
before the entire class there are those which can be assigned 
to individual members and upon which special reports are to 
be made. These reports may be written or oral. Oral re- 
ports will ordinarily be before the class, but written reports 
which may be short papers or more formidable theses, may or 
may not be submitted to the class. In these exercises the 
student should be left very largely to himself after he has had 
the character of the work already explained to him . He should 
be required to find his own material, though doubtless it would 
be fair to him if the teacher would designate one or two books 
that would give him a start in his task ; and perhaps it would 
be well for the teacher to cite him to those books he has over- 
looked or failed to find after he has made some considerable 
search of his own . In this sort of work I have found that the 
student usually derives a certain amount of pleasure in setting 
his own problem. His general study may lead him to de- 
sire to undertake some special investigation. If not he should 
be given a rather general topic and required to work it over 
so that he can select for himself some special phase. 

Not all students are ready to undertake the more difficult 
thesis work, but all in the more elementary courses are ready 
to do a little study beyond what the class is doing in the or- 
dinary every day recitation. To such there should be assigned 
topics for special investigation of a more direct and element 
ary character, the result of which should be given in brief re- 
ports to the class. 

The true test of methods in pedagogy is whether they eon - 
tribute to the realization of those ends which are sought for in 
the pursuit of a given subject. The object of history study ig 
at least four fold: First, to give the student information 
concerning the past ; second, to train him in the handling of 
books; third, to develop his reasoning powers; and fourth, to 
give him a larger view of life. Will the method of settling 
the problem, as I have tried to present it stand the test? As- 


for myself I have found that it is fairly satisfactory . Doubt- 
less there are some here who have had similar experiences. 
The subject is now open for discussion, and it is to be hoped 
that something has been said that will challenge thought so 
that we may have the benefit of a free and open discussion of 
the merits or demerits of what has been said. 

Kirksville, Missouri. 


At the University of Missouri the summer session courses 
in history were especially well attended. Out of a total of 
over six hundred students over two hundred devoted them- 
selves largely to History. The courses in Ancient History 
and in English History were most largely elected, but there 
were also large classes in American History and Modern His- 
tory. A very large number elected Professor Loeb's work 
in Civil Government. Ten graduate students were enrolled in an 
advanced course, giving credit towards the A.M. degree, of- 
fered by Professor Trenholme, "Studies in Mediaeval Eu- 
ropean Culture . ' ' The teaching force for the summer work 
n History consisted of Professor Trenholme, Dr. Stephens 
?nd Dr. Perkins. Professor Loeb handled the work in Po- 
litical Science. 

The University regrets the loss of Dr. Clarence Perkins, 
Instructor in European History, who has accepted an assistant 
professorship at the Ohio State University, of Mr. Eugene Fair, 
who has returned to his duties at Kirksville, and of Drs. 
Wright and Golder who filled the places of Professor Viles and 
Dr. Eckhardt during the last session. In place of the men 
who have gone the following new appointments have beeu 
made Dr. A. T. Olmstead (Cornell University) as Instructor 
in Ancient and Mediaeval History, Mr. Clarence Stone (Kirks- 
ville Normal and University of Missouri), as Assistant in His- 
tory, and Mr. Frank Barton (Warrensburg Normal and Uni- 


versity of Missouri), as Assistant in History. Mr. George 
Kirk (University of Missouri), has been appointed Graduate 
Scholar in History and will assist in the written work of the 
department, and Mr. Floyd Shoemaker (Kirksville Normal 
and University of Missouri), has been appointed as teaching 
assistant in Political Science. The prospects are bright for 
a large enrollment in History and Political Science courses this 

The Summer School work in history in the Kirksville 
Normal School was very satisfactory. Courses were given in 
Greek History, Roman History, Mediaeval History, English 
History, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century History, and 
American History, in addition to the courses of high school 
rank in Ancient History, American History and Civil Govern- 
ment . Many of the graduates of the school returned for the 
.summer to take some of the more advanced courses . Professor 
Pair resumed his work after nine months leave of absence at 
the State University, during which time he was studying and 
teaching there. The Historical Society, one of the Depart- 
mental Societies of the school, held some very interesting meet- 
ings during the summer. This society was organized three 
years or more ago and has a limited membership of about 
twenty students who are particularly interested in history, 
many of whom are preparing to teach history in the schools of 
the state. Special problems relating to the teaching of his- 
tory in the grades and high schools were discussed at several 
of the meetings, and the discussions attracted a great deal of 
attention among the students of the school . The history classes 
have opened up well for the fall quarter. A student as- 
sistant has been added to the teaching force in history. He 
will devote his time to American History and Civil Govern- 

Professor B. M. Anderson, of the Springfield Normal 
faculty, has secured a year's leave of absence which he will 
spend in graduate study at the University of Illinois where 
he has been appointed as a graduate fellow in economics. 

We regret to announce the resignation of Professor Jesse 


Lewis as head of the Department of History at the Maryville 
Normal. Professor Lewis was an enthusiastic member of this 
society and will be much missed at our meetings. 


The History Teachers Magazine. Vol. 1, No. 1. September, 
1909. McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. $1.00 a 
year, 10 cents a number. 

This is the first number of a journal devoted exclusively 
to history teachers and their needs. It is designed to meet 
the practical problems of the teacher of history and govern- 
ment and the first number is a creditable one . The publishers 
announce their willingness to send sample copies to any ad- 
dress . 


VOL. 4. JANUARY, 1910. NO. 2. 




The expeditions of Capt. Becknell from the old town of 
Franklin to Santa Fe were important because they directed 
the attention of the people to the possibilities of the new and 
unexplored source of trade to be opened up to Missourians, 
and extended the lines of trade and adventure centering 
largely in St. Louis, which city had a greater scope of country 
tributary to it than any other point in the United States ever 
had as a trade center . 

By the first expedition made by Becknell he became the 
founder of the Santa Fe trade, and the father of the Santa 
Fe trail ;(1) he led the first successful trading expedition to 
that place, taking with him the first wagon that ever passed 
over the route. The records of his expeditions and of other 
parties soon after, are found in the Missouri Intelligencer, 
the first newspaper published in Missouri outside of St. Louis ; 
and because of the rarity of this paper, the State Historical 
Society of Missouri, having probably the only file of it in 
existence, the various notices found in it are given fully. 

(1) The American Fur Trade of the Far West by W. M. Chit- 
tenden. Vol. II, p. 501. 


The outfitting of these expeditions remained at Franklin, 
where the Missouri Intelligencer was published, until 1830, 
when the headquarters for this were transferred to Independ- 
ence, and the history of the early expeditions from that place 
is not as well preserved as those that went from Franklin. 

Capt. Becknell seems to have had financial troubles, as 
various publications of a suit for debt by attachment are 
found in the Intelligencer between January 15, 1822, and 
May 7, of the same year, in a suit by Henry V. Bingham, 
administrator brought in the Howard Circuit Court at the 
November term, 1821, and renewed at the January term, 1822, 
for the sum of $495.75. As his second expedition was at 
a later date the matter was no doubt satisfactorily arranged. 

Shortly after the starting of the second expedition the 
following appeared in the Intelligencer: 

"About three months since a number of persons, princi- 
pally of this county, forming two parties, one under the di- 
rection of Col. Cooper, and the other of Capt. Becknell, left 
here for Santa Fe, upon a trading expedition. The former 
party preceded that of the latter several days, and we regret 
to learn, by the following extract of a letter from a gentleman 
of respectability, at Fort Osage, to his friend in this place, 
that it has met with a serious disaster. 

"Fort Osage, Aug. 20. 

"It is reported that Col. Cooper's party were robbed by 
the Indians, and left in a starving condition. The news came 
here by Gen. Atkinson from the Council Bluffs. Mr. Immell, 
of the Missouri Fur Company, who had been out with the 
party, brought the information to the Bluffs. The party of 
Col. Cooper had sent to Mr. Immell for relief, who was not 
in a situation to afford them any and they must either have 
arrived at Santa Fe before this or perished. The presumption 
is, that if they were not deprived of their guns and ammuni- 
tion they could be able to live; consequently their being left, 


as the report says, in a starving condition, implies that they 
were robbed of the means of procuring the necessary food. 

"I am inclined (exclusive of the reports coming from so 
correct a source) to believe that it is true, as Mr. Glenn, who 
came in from Santa Fe some weeks ago, stated that he met 
Col. Cooper's party at the Big Bend of the Arkansas, and he 
had no doubt but they would fall in with several war parties 
of Indians in a few days, who would rob and probably 
kill them, as he had been stopped by the same Indians, and 
with difficulty got clear of them, and had he not have had 
an interpreter, would doubtless have shared a similar fate 
Cooper being without an interpreter, will render his traveling 
through the country extremely dangerous. 

"I mention this in order that you may let their friends 
know the source from which the news came, and will vouch 
that what I have stated is correct (as it was told me by Gen. 
Atkinson) in every essential particular." (2) 

"A company of about fifty persons, principally from St. 
Louis and its vicinity are now in town, on their way to Santa 
Fe. Their purpose is to hunt and obtain furs. We wish them 
greater success than has befallen to the lot of those mentioned 
above." (2) 

"Santa Fe of New Mexico. 

"It is becoming a familiar operation for our citizens to 
visit this capital. Mr. Glenn, of Cincinnati, who had a trading 
house on the Arkansas, has just returned ; also Mr. Jas. 
M 'Night, who had been a prisoner for a good part of ten years, 
and his brother, Mr. John M 'Night, who went in search of 
him upwards of a year ago. Col. Cooper, the courageous 
settler of the Boone 's Lick country, has also gone out with a 
numerous company, and others in this town contemplate an 
early departure. From all that we can learn from these trav- 
elers, the people of Santa Fe and of the internal provinces, 

(2) Missouri Intelligencer, Sept. 3, 1822. 


are exceedingly ignorant, destitute of commerce, and of all 
spirit of enterprise. We have heard much of the aridity of 
these countries, and learn additional facts upon that head 
as curious as astonishing. Mr. Glenn says there had been no 
rain at Santa Fe for about three years, and no complaint 
about it, the people irrigating their fields by ditches and 
canals, from the river del Norte and from the streams which 
issue from the highlands and neighboring mountains." (3) 

The party under Col. Cooper was the first to return, as 
stated in the following notice : 

"The arrival of the greater part of the company under 
the superintendence of Col. Cooper from Santa Fe, happily 
contradicts the report afloat a few weeks since, of their having 
been 'robbed and left in a starving condition.' The company 
met with some trifling losses on their return, but we under- 
stand, from a respectable gentleman of the company, with 
whom we have conversed, that nothing serious occurred to 
interrupt their progress during their absence. 

"Many have also returned who composed the party under 
the direction of Capt. Becknell. Those of both these parties 
who remained at Santa Fe (among whom is Capt. Becknell), 
may be expected in a few weeks." (4) 

In a speech by Mr. Floyd in the U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives on the Bill for the occupation of the Columbia river 
he referred to the Becknell expedition, and the same paper 
has this editorial : 

"We are well pleased with the remarks made by this 
gentleman, and confidently hope that the subject of them will 
be considered in the important light to which it is so justly 
entitled. There is, however, a trifling inaccuracy in that part 
of the speech in which it is stated that a waggon returned 
from Santa Fe last summer, "bringing with it $10,000," etc. 

(3) Missouri Intelligencer, Sept. 17, 1822, quoted from St. Louis 

(4) Missouri Intelligencer, Oct. 8, 1822. 


Although we do not doubt that $10,000, or even a much 
larger sum, was brought into this State during last summer, 
from Santa Fe, yet the amount was conveyed upon pack- 
horses, etc., and not in a waggon. But one waggon has ever 
gone from this State to Santa Fe, and that was taken by Capt. 
Wm. Becknell (from the vicinity of this place, and not from 
St. Louis, as stated by Mr. Floyd), in the early part of last 
spring, and sold there for seven hundred dollars, which 
cost here $150. This information we obtained from Capt. B. 
personally, who at the same time mentioned his intention of 
starting again for Santa Fe next fall, with three waggons for 
the same purpose. 

"We are promised by Capt. B. that in a few weeks he 
will furnish us with such information relative to Santa Fe 
as will be useful and entertaining to our readers. " (6) 

"A paragraph is going the rounds of the public prints, 
stating that a son of Col. Cooper, who lately returned from 
Santa Fe, was killed by the Bhamanche Indians. This is not 
correct. A nephew of Col. Cooper joined the Spaniards in 
an expedition against these Indians, and was killed in an en- 
gagement which terminated in favor of the Spaniards." (6) 

During the summer of 1823 another expedition left Frank- 
lin for Santa Fe, as narrated in the following : 

"A company, consisting of about thirty individuals, left 
this county during the last week, on a commercial adventure 
to Santa Fe. They will proceed to Fort Osage, from whence 
they will take a direct course to the place of their destination. 
Each of them is provided with one or two pack-horses, and 
takes, on an average, about two hundred dollars worth of 
goods. We are gratified to learn that they have selected CoL 
Cooper, one of our most respectable citizens (who visited that 
place last summer), to command them. His knowledge of the 
route, and his experience in Indian warfare, admirably qualify 

(6) Missouri Intelligencer, Feb. 13, 1823. 


him for the task, and render him a very valuable acquisition 
to the company. The whole party is well armed, and will no 
doubt be able to resist successfully an attack from any of the 
wandering tribes of savages which it may encounter on the 
way. We wish the greatest success to so worthy a spirit of 
liberal enterprise." (7) 

The misfortunes of the party are stated: 

"We regret to have to state, that the company, 
whose departure for Santa Fe we mentioned about 
four weeks since, have sustained the loss of nearly 
all their horses. Some Osage Indians conjectured 
to be about twenty, followed them eighty miles 
undiscovered, with a view, as appears in the sequel, of com- 
mitting outrage. On the morning of the first instant, at about 
dawn, while all the company were asleep except two, who, 
not apprehending danger, had retired from an advanced 
position to the campfires, they were alarmed by the discharge 
of guns, and the yells of the savages. Although the guns 
were discharged towards the encampment, it is not the belief 
of those from whom we had our information that they de- 
signed personal injury. Their object was to frighten away 
the horses, in which they completely succeeded. Being on 
horseback they took advantage of the alarm and momentary 
confusion occasioned by such an unexpected attack, and evi- 
dent appearance of assault, to drive off the horses unmolested, 
whose speed was increased by shouting and other exertions. 
Four men pursued them about ten miles, when their horses 
failing they were obliged to desist. 

"The Indians killed several horses during the chase be- 
cause they would not keep up. This misfortune, by which 
they lost forty-five horses, being all but eight, took place over 
three hundred miles from this place, on the waters of the 
Arkansas. Various circumstances combine to fix this outrage 
on the Osages, who receive regular annuities from Govern- 

(7) Missouri Intelligencer, May 13, 1823. 


ment, and have a school among them through its beneficence 
and the charity of individuals. They have before been guilty 
of similar offences, and have long been distinguished for their 
predatory habits, and are daily becoming bolder; and unless 
checked by prompt measures we fear they will cause a great 
interruption to western intercourse. Six men who returned 
for a new supply of horses are already on their way back, 
so the enterprise, although subject to vexatious delay and dis- 
appointment, will not be defeated by it." (8) 


"Our company crossed the Missouri near the Arrow Rock 
terry on the first day of September, 1821, and encamped six 
miles from the ferry. The next morning being warm and 
cloudless, we proceeded on our journey over a beautiful rolling 
prairie country, and traveled 35 miles, crossing the Petit 
Osage Plain, (9) which is justly accounted one of the most 
romantic and beautiful places in the State. The traveler 
approaches the plain over a very high point of adjoining prai- 
rie; suddenly the eye catches a distant view of the Missouri 
on the right, and a growth of lofty timber adjoining it about 
two miles wide. In front is a perfectly level, rich 
and beautiful plain of great, extent, and diversified 
by small groves of distant timber, over which is a 
picturesque view of nearly twenty miles. On the left it 
is bounded by a branch of the La Mine river, (10) which is 
handsomely skirted with timber; while still further in this 

(8) Missouri Intelligencer, June 17, 1823. 

(9) The "Petit Osage" also called "Petit O'Sage" plains are in 
Saline Ccounty, on the north side of Salt Fork, now covered with culti- 
vated farms, and held at about $150 per acre. 

(10) This branch was Salt Fork, which does not empty directly 
into the La Mine, but into Blackwater river, a branch of the La Mine. 
It flows almost due east from its source in Lafayette County. The 
Santa Fe trail here was what had been the "Osage trace," being 
north of Salt Fork. Marshall, the County seat of Saline County, is 
south of Salt Fork. 


direction the view is bounded by the fanciful undulations 
of high prairie. Description cannot do justice to such a va- 
ried prospect, or the feelings which are excited in beholding 
it. This being about the time of equinoctial storms, we suf- 
ered some inconvenience for two or three days on account of 
rains and a cool and humid atmosphere. Arrived at Fort 
Osage,(ll) we wrote letters, purchased some medicines, and 
arranged such affairs as we thought necessary previous to 
leaving the confines of civilization. The country, for several 
days' travel from Fort Osage, is very handsomely situated, 
being high prairie, of exceeding fertility; but timber, unfortu- 
nately, is scarce. On the fourth day after leaving the Fort, 
I was taken sick in consequence of heat and fatigue induced 
by chasing two elks which we had wounded the day before, 
but which had strength sufficient to elude our pursuit. Some 
other of the company complained of illness about this time; 
but determining not to surrender to trifles, or indulge in 
delay, until it became absolutely necessary, we continued to 
travel slowly. 

"On the 20th we crossed the main Osage, (12) being 
nearly all sick and much discouraged. It rained severely, 
and we were under the necessity of stopping to dry our bag- 
gage. On the second day after crossing the Osage, we saw 
many buff aloe, one of which we killed; we also saw several 
goats (13), but they were so sharp sighted and wild we 
could not shoot them. This day we encamped on the waters 
of the Arkansas, after travelling over much uneven prairie, 

(11) Fort Osage was the first fort west of Belief on taine. It was 
located and built by Gen. Clark and George Sibley, and the town of 
Sibley in Lafayette County, is on the site of it. 

(12) The Santa Fe trail crosses the headwaters of the Osage 
at what is now Burlingame in Osage County, Kansas. The head- 
waters of the Neosho, which flows to the Arkansas, and those flowing 
to the Osage are not far apart, and are separated by a ridge, and on 
the second day from the present town of Burlingame he was on the 
Arkansas watershed. 

(13) These were evidently antelope. Judge W. B. Napton of 
Marshall tells me that when he passed over the trail in 1857 he first 
saw buffalo on Turkey creek in what is now Marion County, Kansas, 
not far from the locality given by Capt. Becknell. 


almost entirely covered with flint rock. About this time we 
encountered two days of incessant rain. We halted in a small 
grove to refresh ourselves, rest our horses and wash our 
clothes. We sent out two hunters who killed a deer, and saw 
some goats and a large herd of buffaloe. Late in the evening 
of Monday the 24th, we reached the Arkansas, having traveled 
during the day in sight of buffaloe, which are here innumera- 
ble. The Arkansas at this place is about three hundred yards 
wide, very shallow, interrupted by bars, and confined by 
banks of white sand the water has every appearance of 
being as muddy as that of the Missouri ; we, however, crossed 
one of its branches whose waters were limpid and beautiful, 
and which was one hundred yards wide a mile from its mouth. 
We gave this the name of Hope Creek. These streams afford 
no timber except a few scattered cottonwoods. It is a circum- 
stance of surprise to us that we have seen no Indians, or 
fresh signs of them, although we have traversed their most 
frequented hunting grounds; but considering their furtive 
habits, and predatory disposition, the absence of their com- 
pany during our journey, will not be a matter of regret. The 
next day we crossed the Arkansas at a place where it is not 
more than eighteen inches deep, and encamped on the south 
bank. We left our encampment early the next morning, and 
about noon came to a large settlement or town of prairie 
dogs, which appeared to cover a surface of ten acres. They 
burrow in the earth, are of a dark brown color, about the size 
of a pup five or six weeks old, which they nearly resemble in 
every respect except the ears, which are more like those of 
the possum. Having a desire to taste its flesh, I killed one, 
a small part of which I roasted, but found it strong and un- 
palatable. Their sense of hearing is acute, and their appre- 
hension of danger so great that the least noise of approach 
frightens them to their holes, from which they make con- 
tinual and vehement barking until a person approaches 
within fifty or sixty yards of them; they then take to their 
holes with their heads elevated above the ground and 


continue barking until the approach is very near, when 
they disappear instantaneously. They often sit erect, 
with their fore legs hanging down like a bear. We found 
here a ludicrous looking animal, perfectly unknown to any 
one of our company; it was about the size of a racoon, of a 
light grey color, had uncommonly fine fur, small eyes, and 
was almost covered with long shaggy hair; its toe nails were 
from one and a half to two inches in length; its meat was 
tender and delicious. We also killed one of the rabbit species 
as large as a common fox; it was of a grey color, but its 
ears and tail were black. It exhibited an agility in running 
a short distance after it was shot which exceeded anything 
of the kind we had ever witnessed. . We regret the deficiency 
of our zoological information, which prevents our giving a 
more scientific and satisfactory account of these animals. 

"The evening of the 28th brought us to some very high 
hills for this country, composed entirely of sand, which had 
been in sight all day, exhibiting at a distance a luminous or 
whitish appearance; they are very extensive, and entirely 
destitute of vegetation. We encamped here, substituting 
buffaloe manure for fuel. Our lodging was very uncom- 
fortable, in consequence of being exposed to torrents of rain, 
which poured upon us incessantly till day. The next morning 
we started early, and killing a buffaloe for breakfast, pro- 
ceeded again on our journey. At about one o'clock found 
ourselves on the celebrated salt plain of the Arkansas. It 
was about one mile wide ; its length we did not ascertain. Its 
appearance was very different from the idea I had formed 
from the several descriptions I had seen. This, however, 
might have been owing to the late heavy rains, that had 
covered the earth three inches deep with water, which we 
found to be a strong brine. Under the water was an apparent 
mixture of salt and sand ; and in dry weather I have no doubt 
the appearance of salt would be much greater. So far as 
the eye can reach, on every side, the country here appears 
alive with buffaloe and other animals. 


About this time we saw five wild horses, being the first 
we had seen. They had the appearance, at a distance, of 
being fine large animals. Some difficulties now presented 
themselves, especially the scarcity of food for our horses, 
and timber for fire. \ 

"A continual and almost uninterrupted scene of prairie 
meets the view as we advance, bringing to mind the lines of 

"Or onward where Campania's plain, forsaken, lies 

A weary waste extending to the skies . ' ' 

The immense number of animals, however, which roam un- 
disturbed, and feed bountifully upon its fertility, gives some 
interest and variety to the scenery. The wolves sometimes 
attack the buffaloe ; and whenever an attack is contemplated, 
a company of from ten to twenty divide into two parties, one 
of which separates a buffaloe from his herd, and pursues him, 
while the others head him. I counted twenty-one wolves one 
morning in a chase of this kind. 

"We still continue meandering the Arkansas, but travel 
very slowly in consequence of the still continued ill health 
of some of the party. Our horses here for the first time at- 
tempted to leave the encampment; and one strayed off which 
we never saw afterwards. 

"The water of the river is here clear, although the cur- 
rent is much more rapid than where we first struck it. Its 
bed has gradually become narrower, and its channel conse- 
quently deeper. The grass in the low lands is still verdant, 
but in the high prairie it is so short that a rattlesnake, of 
which there are vast numbers here, may be seen at the distance 
of fifty yards; they inhabit holes in the ground. 

"On the 15th, we discovered a lake, which had every 
appearance of being strongly impregnated with saltpetre. 
Our horses having become very weak from fatigue and the 
unfitness of their food, we encamped three days to recruit 
them and dress some skins for moccasins; during which time 
we killed three goats and some other game. 


"On the 21st we arrived at the forks of the river, and 
took the course of the left hand one. The cliffs became im- 
mensely high, and the aspect of the country is rugged, wild 
and dreary. On the evening of the 23d, we heard the report 
of a gun, which is the first indication of our being in the 
neighborhood of Indians. 

"As yet we have encountered no difficulty for water, but 
have been destitute of bread or even salt for several weeks. 

"On the 26th we saw large flocks of mountain sheep, 
one of which I killed. It had long thick hair, its color was 
of a dirty blue, with a very fine fur next the skin; a black 
streak extended from its head to its tail, which is short, and 
of a lighter color than its body; its rump and hams were 
very similar to those of our domestic sheep. 

"We had now some cliffs to ascend, which presented 
difficulties almost unsurmountable, and we were laboriously 
engaged nearly two days in rolling away large rocks, before 
we attempted to get our horses up, and even then one fell 
and was bruised to death. At length we had the gratification 
of finding ourselves on the open plain; and two days' travel 
brought us to the Canadian fork, whose rugged cliffs again 
threatened to interrupt our passage, which we finally effected 
with considerable difficulty. 

"Nov. 1st, we experienced a keen northwest wind, ac- 
companied with some snow. Having been now traveling 
about fifty days, our diet being altogether different from what 
we had been accustomed to; and unexpected hardships and 
obstacles occurring almost daily, our company is much dis- 
couraged; but the prospect of a near termination of our jour- 
ney excites hope and redoubled exertion, although our horses 
are so reduced that we only travel from eight to fifteen miles 
per day. We found game scarce near the mountains, and 
one night encamped without wood or water. On the 4th, 
and several subsequent days, found the country more level 
and pleasant discovered abundance of iron ore, and saw 
many wild horses. After several days' descent towards Rock 


river, on Monday the 12th we struck a trail, and found several 
other indications which induced us to believe that the in- 
habitants had here herded their cattle and sheep. Timber, 
consisting of pine and cottonwood, is more plentiful than we 
have found it for some time. 

"On Tuesday morning the 13th, we had the satisfaction 
of meeting with a party of Spanish troops. Although the 
difference of our language would not admit of conversation, 
yet the circumstances attending their reception of us, fully 
convinced us of their hospitable disposition and friendly 
feelings. Being likewise in a strange country, and subject 
to their disposition, our wishes lent their aid to in- 
crease our confidence in their manifestations of kindness. The 
discipline of the officers was strict, and the subjection of the 
men appeared almost servile. We encamped with them that 
night, and the next day about 1 o'clock, arrived at the village 
of St. Michael, the conduct of whose inhabitants gave us 
grateful evidence of civility and welcome. Fortunately I here 
met with a Frenchman, whose language I imperfectly under- 
stood, and hired him to proceed with us to Santa Fe, in the 
capacity of an interpreter. We left here early in the morning. 
During the day passed another village named St. Baw, and 
the remains of an ancient fortification, supposed to have been 
constructed by the aboriginal Mexican Indians. The next day, 
after crossing a mountain country, we arrived at SANTA FE 
and were received with apparent pleasure and joy. It is 
situated in a valley of the mountains, on a branch of the Rio 
del Norte or North river, and some twenty miles from it. It 
is the seat of government of the province; is about two miles 
long and one mile wide, and compactly settled. The day after 
my arrival I accepted an invitation to visit the Governor, 
whom I found to be well informed and gentlemanly in man- 
ners; his demeanor was courteous and friendly. He asked 
many questions concerning my country, its people, their man- 
ner of living, etc.; expressed a desire that the Americans 
would keep up an intercourse with that country, and said 


that if any of them wished to emigrate, it would give him 
pleasure to afford them every facility. The people are gen- 
erally swarthy, and live in a state of extreme indolence and 
ignorance. Their mechanical improvements are very limited, 
and they appear to know little of the benefit of industry, or 
the advantage of the arts. Corn, rice and wheat are their 
principal productions; they have very few garden vegetables, 
except the onion, which grows large and abundantly; the 
seeds are planted nearly a foot apart, and produce onions 
from four to six inches in diameter. Their atmosphere is 
remarkably dry, and rain is uncommon, except in the months 
of July and August. To remedy this inconvenience, they 
substitute, with tolerable advantage, the numerous streams 
which descend from the mountains, by darning them up, and 
conveying the water over their farms in ditches. Their do- 
mestic animals consist chiefly of sheep, goats, mules and asses. 
None but the wealthy have horses and hogs. Like the French, 
they live in villages; the rich keeping the poor in dependence 
and subjection. Laborers are hired for about three dollars 
per month ; their general employment is that of herdsmen, and 
to guard their flocks from a nation of Indians called Navohoes, 
who sometimes murder the guards and drive away their 
mules and sheep. The circumstance of their farms being 
wholly unfenced, obliges them to keep their stock some dis- 
tance from home. The walls of their houses are 
two or three feet thick, built of sun-dried brick, and 
are uniformly one story high, having a flat roof made of clay^ 
and the floors are made of the same material. They do not 
know the use of plank and have neither chairs nor tables 
although the rich have rough imitation of our settee, which 
answers the treble purpose of chair, table and bedstead. 

"My company concluded to remain at St. Michael, ex- 
cept Mr. M'Laughlin, and we left that village December 13, 
on our return home, in company with two other men who had 
arrived there a few days before, by a different route. At 
the time we started the snow was eighteen inches deep, but 


the quantity diminished as we reached the high lands, which 
we thought an extraordinary circumstance. On the 17th day 
of our journey we arrived at the Arkansas, and thence shaped 
our course over the high land which separates the waters of 
that and the Caw rivers. Among the Caw Indians we were 
treated hospitably, purchased corn from them, and in forty- 
eight days from the time of our departure reached home, 
much to our satisfaction. We did not experience half the 
hardships anticipated, on our return. We had provisions in 
plenty, but Boreas was sometimes rude, whose unwelcome 
visits we could not avoid, and whose disagreeable effects our 
situation often precluded us from guarding against. We had, 
however, but one storm of snow or rain on our return, but 
were sometimes three or four days without a stick of timber. 
In such exigencies we again had recourse to buffaloe manure, 
which is a good substitute for fuel, and emits great heat. 

"Having made arrangements to return, on the 22nd. of 
May, 1822, I crossed the Arrow Rock ferry, and on the third 
day our company, consisting of 21 men, with three wagons, 
concentrated. No obstacle obstructed our progress until we, 
arrived at the Arkansas, which river we crossed with some 
difficulty, and encamped on the south side. About midnight 
our horses were frightened by buffaloe, and all strayed 20 
were missing. Eight of us, after appointing a place of ren- 
dezvous, went in pursuit of them in different directions, and 
found eighteen. Two of the company discovered some In- 
dians, and being suspicious of their intentions, thought to 
avoid them by returning to camp; but they were overtaken, 
stripped, barbarously whipped, and robbed of their horses, 
guns and clothes. They came in about midnight, and the 
circumstance occasioned considerable alarm. We had a 
strong desire to punish the rascally Osages, who commit out- 
rages on those very citizens from whom they receive regular 
annuities. One other man was taken by the same party to 
their camp, and probably would have shared like treatment, 
had not the presence of Mr. Choteau restrained their savage 


dispositions. He sent word to me that he had recovered the 
horses and guns which had been taken from our men, and 
requested me to come on the next morning and receive them. 
On our arrival at his camp we found it evacuated, but a short 
note written on bark instructed me to follow him up the 
Autawge river. This we declined, thinking that his precipi- 
tate retreat indicated some stratagem or treachery. These 
Indians should be more cautiously avoided and strictly 
guarded against than any others on the route. 

"Mr. Heath's company on the some route joined us here. 
The hilarity and sociability of this gentleman often con- 
tributed to disperse the gloomy images which very naturally 
presented themselves on a journey of such adventure and un- 
certainty. After six days of incessant fatigue in endeavoring 
to recover all our horses, we once more left our camp, and 
after traveling eight days up the Arkansas, struck a south- 
west course for the Spanish country. Our greatest difficulty 
was in the vicinity of Rock river, where we were under the 
necessity of taking our waggons up some high and rocky cliffs 
by hand. 

'We arrived again at St. Michael in 22 days from the 
Arkansas. We saluted the inhabitants with 3 rounds from 
our rifles, with which they appeared much pleased. With 
pleasure I here state, that the utmost harmony existed among 
our company on the whole route, and acknowledge the cheer- 
fulness with which assistance was always rendered to each 
other. We separated at St. Michael for the purpose of trading 
more advantageously. Some of the company, among whom 
was Mr. Heath, remained there, and others I did not see again 
until my return. On our return we took a different course 
from that pursued on our way out, which considerably short- 
ened the route, and arrived at Fort Osage in 48 days. 

"Those who visit the country for the purpose of vending 
merchandise will do well to take goods of excellent quality 
and unfad^d colors. An idea prevails among the people there, 
which is certainly a very just one, that the goods hitherto 


imported into their country, were the remains of old stock, 
and sometimes damaged. A very great advance is obtained 
on goods, and the trade is very profitable; money and mules 
are plentiful, and they do not hesitate to pay the price de- 
manded for an article if it suits their purpose, or their fancy. 
The administration of their government, although its form is 
changed, is still very arbitrary, and the influence which mon- 
archy had on the minds and manners of the peole still remains, 
which is displayed by the servility of the lower orders to the 

"An excellent road may be made from Fort Osage to 
Santa Fe. Few places would require much labor to make 
them passable; and a road might be laid out as not to run 
more than thirty miles over the mountains." (14) 



On the 5th of November last, I left Santa Cruz, with a 
party of nine men , employed in my service, with a view of 
trapping on the Green river, several hundred miles from 
Santa Fe. 

In the course of my route towards the point of destination. 
I passed through the gap in a mountain, which was so narrow 
as to greatly resemble a gate-way. This mountain, which had 
the appearance of an artificial mound, was about three or 
four hundred feet high, and not more than ten feet in breadth 
at the base. The country here is poor, and only timbered with 
pine and cedar. I met, in this vicinity, several parties of 
Indians, who were poor and inoffensive. It was, however, 
reported that some of the Indians who spent some time with 
us afterwards committed murders upon the persons 
of some of the engages of Mr. Provost of St. Louis, and robbed 
the remainder. We suffered every misery incident to such 
an enterprise in the winter season, such as hunger and cold 

(14) Missouri Intelligencer, April 22, 1823. 


but were exempted from robbery. The flesh of a very lean 
horse, which we were constrained to break our fast with, was, 
at this time, pronounced excellent. But when his bones were 
afterwards served up, as a matter of necessity, they were 
not as well relished, but had nearly proved fatal to the whole 
party. We found to our cost, that our stomachs, although 
tolerably commodiously disposed, were not equal to the task 
of digesting bones. You can readily imagine, that we were 
in that deplorable condition where it would be justifiable to 
adopt the philosophy of the ancient Romans, and give odds 
to die. But such is not the practice of Missourians. Although 
we were forty days from settlements, the snow three or four 
feet deep, and our small stock of horses, our principal reliance 
for effecting a retreat, considered sacred, so that to have 
eaten them would have been like dining upon our own feet, 
we still contrived to supply our tables, if not with the dain- 
ties of life, with food of the most substantial kind. For in- 
stance, we subsisted two days on soup made of a raw hide 
reserved for scaling our moccasins; on the following morning 
the remains were dished up into a hash. The young men em- 
ployed by me had seen better days, and had never before 
been supperless to bed, nor missed a wholesome and substantial 
meal at the regular family hour, except one, who was with 
me when I opened the road to Santa Fe. When afterwards 
we were enabled to procure indifferent bear meat, we de- 
voured it in that style of eagerness, which, on a review of our 
operations at this time, very forcibly reminds us of the table 
urbanity of a prairie wolf . 

While at our winter camp we hunted when we could, 
and the remainder of the time attempted to sleep, so as to 
dream of the abundance of our own tables at home, and the 
dark rich tenants of our smoke-houses. 

In the vicinity of our encampment, I discovered old dig- 
gings, and the remains of furnaces. There are also in the 
neighborhood the remains of many small stone houses, some 
of which have one story beneath the surface of the earth. 


There is likewise an abundance of broken pottery here, well 
baked and neatly painted. This was probably the site of a 
town where the ancient Mexican Indians resided, as the Span- 
iards, who seldom visit this part of the country, can give no 
account of it. 

On our way back to the settlement, we halted at the en- 
campment of a band of Indians, who shocked our feelings not 
a little by the disposition they were about to make of an 
infirm (and no longer useful) squaw. "When the principal 
part of the band had left their camp, two of the remaining 
proceeded to lay the sick woman upon her face, by the side 
of some of her effects. They then covered her with a funeral 
pile of pine wood, to which they set fire, and thus made a 
Hindoo sacrifice of the patient old matron. 

As the depth of the snow, and the intense cold of the 
season rendered trapping almost impracticable, we succeeded, 
on a third attempt, in making good our retreat from this in- 
hospitable wilderness, and reached a Spanish village on the 
fifth of April, after an absence of five months. 

It was reported in the Spanish settlements, by a man 
who had been employed by George Armstrong, of Franklin, 
who accompanied me to Santa Fe, that he had been murdered 
by the Indians; but I have good reason to believe, and I most 
sincerely hope, this may be only an idle fabrication. 

The trade to this province has been greatly injured by 
the reduction of prices white domestics are only fifty cents 
per yard. An export duty of three per cent, is collected on 
all specie brought out of the province ia this direction. Al- 
though my essays have been unfortunate speculations, I am 
disposed to make another experiment. 

I traveled from the Spanish village of Taos, to Fort 
Osage, on the Missouri, in thirty-four days. I had supplied 
myself with provisions for the journey, consisting of meaty 
beans and peas. By the route which I traveled on my return, 1 
avoided the so much dreaded sand hills, where adventurers have 
frequently been forced to drink the blood of their mules to 


allay their thirst. Mr. Bailey Hardeman, of this county, was 
to have set out on his return, accompanied by a large party, 
on the first of the present month. 

I cannot better conclude than by annexing this remark, 
that the toils endured, and the privations suffered in these 
enterprises, very naturally give a tone and relish to the re- 
pose and plenty found at the civilized fire side. (15) 


(15) Missouri Intelligencer, June 25, 1825. 


(Fifth Paper.) 

By Will S. Bryan. 

One of the picturesque characters whose eccentricities 
gave color to the Boone settlement was James Davis, the man 
who was indicted by the first grand jury that assembled in 
Louisiana Territory under American auspices for the killing of 
William Hayes. This killing was the result of one of those 
unfortunate "shooting scrapes" common to all our frontier 
communities, and as it possessed none of the elements of mur- 
der, Davis was acquitted by the jury that tried him. 

This unique individual was a relative and companion of 
Daniel Boone, and a hunter and trapper by profession. He 
was as rough and courageous as any of his class, but owed his 
principal distinction to an adventure which he had with the 
Otoe Indians, in the western part of Missouri, during the win- 
ter of 1813 . The Otoes were the most civilized as well as the 
most sanguinary and cruel of all the tribes west of the Missis- 
sippi river. They lived in substantial log houses, with roofs 
of dirt and sod, and were so fierce and warlike that no satis- 
factory treaty was ever made with them until the latter part of 
1825. Davis had been a frequent companion of Boone hi their 
long tramps to the west and southwest, where they went in 
quest of game or to procure salt; for the settlement had to be 
supplied with that essential condiment from the "licks" in 
what is now Howard County. Such a journey was full of dan- 
ger, and was rarely undertaken alone except by the boldest 
spirits . 

As the seasons rolled by Boone began to grow feeble and 
became less inclined to incur the fatigues of the winter hunts. 
Moreover, his official duties occupied much of his time, while 


'-V.'- ; 

the domestic enjoyments which he found in the association of 
his children and grandchildren made him all the more disposed 
to give up wandering and remain at home. Accordingly, 
Davis went alone on the customary hunts, and spent long 
months of each winter in the western forests. 

On one of these occasions he was captured by a party of 
Otoes, who stripped him of everything he possessed, taking 
away not only his gun and ammunition, but his clothing as 
well . They expected him to perish in the cold, and took this 
method of applying the torture . But as if in mockery of his 
helplessness, and to make him feel the horrors of his situation 
all the more keenly, they gave him an old British musket con- 
taining a single charge, and bade him depart. The musket, 
more humane than its savage owners, saved his life. He 
traveled through the snow barefooted and naked most of the 
first day, but toward evening ,while looking for a shelving 
place in a ledge of rocks where he might pass the night, he 
came upon a hibernating bear. This was his opportunity ; but 
it required a steady nerve and a sure aim, both of which the 
old hunter possessed in a famous degree . A flash in the pan, 
or a missent bullet, might cost him his life ; but it is not prob- 
able that either of these sentimental possibilities entered into 
the calculations of the unimaginative mind of old Jim Davis. 
Crawling up until the muzzle of the gun almost touched the 
head of the torpid bear, he fired a bullet into its brain, an(J 
with a tremor the animal lay dead at his feet. He then con- 
trived by means of his gun flint to remove the hide, which he 
drew on over his own body, inserting his legs and arms where 
the legs of the bear had been, and drawing the head well up 
over his own head and face. The skin made a complete and 
delightfully comfortable suit of clothing, and Davis felt that he 
was himself again. He slept that night by the side of the 
beast, whose skin he had appropriated, and set out at daylight 
on his long journey to the settlement, taking with him enough 
of the meat to last him through . He had more than a hundred 
miles of wilderness and snow to traverse, and no implements 


with which he could make a fire, but his fur suit kept him 
warm, and raw bear meat was better than none . He made the 
journey in three days, arriving at the house of Jonathan 
Bryan, in the Boone settlement, late in the .evening of the 
third day. The latch-string, as usual, hung on the outside, 
and as Davis grasped it and pushed the door open he was ob- 
served by an old Scotch schoolmaster, who was sitting alone 
by the fire in one of the rooms . It was a moonlight night, and 
he could plainly see the rough outlines of a figure, which his 
excited imagination transformed into an evil shape for the 
people of that day were more superstitious than they are now. 
The schoolmaster yelled and fled into the hall, shouting that the 
devil had come. Here he encountered Jonathan Bryan, who, 
recognizing Davis in his strange garb, soon quieted the ap- 
prehensions of the Scotchman. The bear skin had become so 
dr y and hard that it required considerable effort to restore the 
old hunter to human shape; and his remarkable adventure 
made him ever afterward famous in that locality. 

There were no regular schools in the Boone settlement un- 
til after the close of the Indian war, which lasted until 1816; 
but the planters made laudable efforts to educate their chil- 
dren, by employing, for a brief season each winter, some travel- 
ing schoolmaster, who usually applied to himsplf +1^ disting- 
uishing title of ' ' professor. ' ' It was one of this class who was 
so grievously frightened by the old hunter on his first appear- 
ance in his bear-skin suit. The school house was a log cabin, 
centrally located, and furnished with split log seats and 
puncheon writing desks. To this "academy" the youth of 
the community came, to study a little and play a great deal 
more, while the "professor" amused himself by reading some 
ancient book, or slept off the effects of a too intimate associa- 
tion with the fiery product of a neighboring still-house. The 
celerity with which these mountebanks claimed to be able to 
impart a classical education was remarkable. A few months 
were sufficient to master all the intricacies of the English 
language, while Latin, Greek and Hebrew were a mere holiday 


diversion. Some of them added the profession of the clergy 
to that of pedagogy, and piously asked a blessing over their 
whiskey punches, while they quoted Hebrew in the most aston- 
ishing manner in support of their peculiar dogmas and to the 
profound admiration of the wondering pioneers. 

A traveler of some distinction, who sojourned in the Boone 
settlement for several years at the beginning of the past cen- 
tury, left some interesting descriptions of the people and their 
customs. Referring to the male pioneer and head of the 
house, he said : 

"You find that he has vices and barbarisms peculiar to his 
situation. His manners are rough. He wears, it may be, a 
long beard. He has great quantities of bear or deer skins 
wrought into his household establishment, his furniture and his 
dress. He carries a knife, or a dirk, in his bosom, and when 
in the woods has a rifle on his back and a pack of dogs at his 
heels; but remember that his rifle and his dogs are among his 
chief means of support and profit. Remember that all his 
first days here were spent in dread of savages. Remember 
that he still encounters them, still meets bears and panthers. 
Enter his door and tell him you are benighted, and wish the 
shelter of his cabin for the night. The welcome is, indeed, 
seemingly ungracious; 'I reckon you can stay,' or, 'I suppose 
we must let you stay . ' But this apparent ungraciousness is 
the harbinger of every kindness that he can bestow, and every 
comfort that his cabin affords. Good coffee, corn bread and 
butter, venison, pork, wild and tame fowls, are set before you. 
His wife timid, silent reserved but constantly attentive to 
your comfort does not sit at the table with you, but like the 
wives of the patriarchs, stands and attends on you. You 
are shown the best bed that the house can afford . When this 
kind of hospitality has been extended to you as long as you 
choose to stay, and when you depart and speak about your bill, 
you are most commonly told, with some slight mark of resent- 
ment, that they do not keep tavern. Even the flaxen-haired 
urchins will run away from your money. " 


Of hard cash, or cash of any kind, for that matter, there 
was but little ; and indeed it was not needed, except in making 
payments to the government for public lands. Stores and 
shops were to be found no nearer than St . Louis, and there was 
nothing to buy or sell. Commerce had not yet made its busy 
\vay into this western Arcadia. Furs and peltries constituted 
the principal output of the settlement, and these were ex- 
changed in St. Louis or New Orleans for the silver that was 
essential to the securing of land titles. Spanish silver dollars 
constituted the only currency that found its way into the set- 
tlement, and for convenience in making change these were cut 
into pieces of four and eight to the dollar and passed for quar- 
ters and "bits," the latter representating 12 1-2 cents. "Two 
bits, " " four bits, ' ' and ' ' six bits ' ' are still common expressions 
in the older settled regions of Missouri, where their meaning 
is well understood; but they would scarcely be intelligible in 
other parts of the country. 

There was no lack of children in the Boone settlement. The 
usual average was ten or twelve to each family, but occasional- 
ly the number was expanded to eighteen or twenty, all healthy, 
hearty, active little fellows. Ten children were reared in the 
Bryan house, of whom four lived to be upwards of ninety years 
of age, and one, my father, reached the extraordinary age of 
ninety-seven. The latter, having been born in 1791) and living 
until 1896 enjoyed a span of life that covered nearly the whole 
century. From this ancient patriarch most of these recollec- 
tions were obtained. The air, the country, and the mode of 
living seemed conducive to long life . Most of these large fami- 
lies were reared in single log cabins. Where they slept, or 
how they lived, were questions which they answered to their 
own satisfaction. They spent much of the time out of doors, 
the cabin being used only as a place of shelter in bad weather. 
It was "camp life" reduced to daily experience. 

Domestic furniture was necessarily of the roughest de- 
scription, and always of home manufacture. A four-posted 
sassafras bedstead was regarded with admiration. Earthen- 


ware cups, saucers and plates were unknown, and knives and 
forks did not exist until after the first quarter of the century 
had passed. Plates were made of pewter and kept bright by 
daily scourings. A housekeeper's neatness was estimated by 
the shining qualities of her pewter plates, which were generally 
displayed, in a spirit of ostentation, in prominent places about 
the cabin. Hunting knives and fingers supplied the lack of 
knives and forks. Dignified officials, who often visited Boone, 
descended to first principles, and ate with their fingers like the 
rest. A brass kettle was an evidence of wealth, as well as a 
source of envy. The people ate very little boiled food, pre- 
ferring it to be roasted or baked. Women walked thirty 
miles, and carried their babies, to see and hear the first piano 
that came into the Boone settlement ; and one of them declared 
that "The Campbells are Coming" was the "divinest music 
the Lord ever heard . ' ' 

Boone 's discovery of the salt springs in Howard county, 
early in the century, supplied a prime necessity; for salt was 
about the only article of food that the settlers did not possess 
in abundance . The discovery was made during one of his an- 
nual hunts, and in 1807 his sons, in conjunction with several 
other parties, began/ the manufacture of salt there. For a 
number of years the Boone 's Lick salt works supplied all the 
settlements north of the Missouri river. They also led to the 
opening of the Boone 's Lick Road, which for more than half a 
century remained the great thoroughfare to the West. Over 
this road traveled all the pioneers of Kansas and Nebraska, as 
well as those who located in the less distant regions of west- 
ern Missouri. The Boone 's Lick road achieved a national 
reputation, and was well known even to the first German im- 
migrants who came from across the sea. 

Long after Boone had discontinued hunting and trapping 
as a regular occupation, the old habit lingered with him. He 
could not entirely put away his love for the gun and the forest. 
Twice a year, therefore, he made an excursion to some remote 
hunting ground, accompanied by a negro man, who attended to 


the camp, skinned the game and looked after the wants of his 
aged master. On such an occasion, while camping in the 
Osage river country, he was taken seriously ill, and lay for 
several weeks in a dangerous condition. The weather was 
stormy and disagreeable, which had a depressing effect both on 
Boone and his servant. At length, the weather having mod- 
erated, and the old pionee? feeling somewhat better, he made 
his way, with the assistance of his companion, to the top of a 
near-by eminence, where he marked out the dimensions of a 
grave . Here he directed that in case of his death his body 
should be buried . The most minute instructions for the prepa- 
ration and interment of the body were given, just as he would 
have arranged for the funeral of a friend. Posts were to be 
placed at the head and foot of the grave, and the surface of 
the ground covered with poles to prevent the depredations of 
wild beasts. Trees surrounding the spot were to be marked 
as a guide to his friends or relatives; who might desire to find 
his last resting place, and there he was to be permitted to sleep 
in peace, in the midst of the forest that he loved. It was a 
highly poetic idea of sepulture, whose consummation was pre- 
vented by the trend of future events. 



An address, delivered before the Greenwood Club of Kan- 
sas City, Mo., on the Life and Public Service of Colonel Rob- 
ert Thompson Van Horn, March 10, 1905, by J. M. Greenwood. 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

My apology for presenting a sketch of the life, the public 
service and the private virtues of Colonel Robert Thompson 
Van Horn, while he is still living among us, enjoying excellent 
health, and contemplating the weightiest problems that ever 
occupied the thoughts of man, is that we may the more fully 
appreciate a type of manhood that made it possible for the 
people of this country to enjoy in the fullest measure the 
richness of this life which is their inheritance. In the writer's 
opinion, it is poor consolation to bestow all the praise on a 
benefactor of his race, after he has passed to that realm where 
praise and blame fall alike unheeded. It is, therefore, my 
pleasant duty this evening to sketch a picture of a life not 
yet ended, and to give tone and color to it, of one who, for 
more than forty years, stood as the embodiment of that kind 
of energy which has made the name of Kansas City a syno- 
nym for enterprise intelligently and honestly directed, in all 
sections of the United States. 

Already you ask, what of the man? How was he trained? 
What subtle influence of home life wrought a character that 
grew from childhood to manhood, from manhood to honored 
age, and now is revered by all who ever knew him in public 
or private life. In what school did he study and equip him- 
self for the manifold duties that devolved upon him, and 
marked him as the moving spirit among a coterie of men of 
remarkable practical sagacity, in knowing how to seize upon 
opportunities that would command and hold the avenues of 
commerce from the Lakes to Galveston, and to determine in 
advance what should be the gateway between the Mississippi 
Valley and the Pacific? In brief, the idea of "about facing" 


the American people from the rising to the setting sun. Here 
again, did the circumstances make the man, or did he mould 
and control the forces that lay dormant when he came upon 
the scene of action? To all of these inquiries, the sequel will 
show that one living here saw far in advance, how manifest 
destiny would move resistlessly westward. 

Ancestry and Early Life. 

Robert Thompson Van Horn was born in East Mahoning, 
Indiana County, Pennsylvania, May 19, 1824. His ancestors 
were from Holland and came to this country more than two 
hundred and sixty years ago, and settled at New Amsterdam, 
in 1645. One of the descendants settled at Communipaw in 
New Jersey, in 1711, and from this branch of the family, the 
subject of this sketch is descended. His greatgrandfather, 
Henry Van Horn, was a captain of a company of Pennsylvania 
troops in the Revolutionary Army, and died in the service, 
while his son, Isaiah, served in the same company to the end 
of the war. Isaiah had a son, Henry Van Horn, who was a 
soldier in the War of 1812, and his wife was Elizabeth Thomp- 
son, who, when a child, came with her parents from Ireland 
to America. 

Their son, Robert Thompson Van Horn, was reared on 
the paternal farm. His first work on the farm as a small boy, 
consisted in picking up stones in the meadow and putting 
them into piles, or heaping them in fence corners, cutting and 
piling brush, pulling weeds in the garden, raking hay, feeding 
chickens, churning, turning a grindstone, and going to mill 
on horseback. In the winter time, he went to the subscription 
school, studying spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic, but 
not grammar, because it was not then taught in the schools 
of that section of Pennsylvania. 

At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to learn the print- 
ing business in the office of the Indiana, Pennsylvania, Reg- 
ister, where he worked for four years. From 1843 to 1855, he 
worked as a journeyman printer in Pennsylvania, New York, 
Ohio and Indiana much of the time varying liis occupation 


by boating for a time on the Erie Canal, teaching school occa- 
sionally during the winter months, sometimes publishing and 
editing a newspaper, and two seasons he was engaged in 
steamboating on the Ohio, Wabash and Mississippi, as he 
found employment. For a time he also acted as clerk on a 
river steamer, and when he came to Kansas City, he was 
called "Captain," which title he bore till the Civil War. 
During this storm and stress period of his life, he studied 
law in the office of Hon. T. A. Plants, Meigs County, Ohio, 
with whom he was engaged in the practice of law for a short 
time. Twenty years later, they were both members of Con- 
gress together. 

During his residence in Meigs County, he married Miss 
Adela H. Cooley, fifty-seven years ago, at Pomeroy, Ohio. At 
the time of their marriage, he was the editor and proprietor 
of a newspaper published there. 

To give a proper setting to all these varied experiences 
through which he passed, it is necessary to pause a moment, 
and to glance at the preparation he had received educationally 
to play the part in life in which he was destined to become 
a most conspicuous actor. A sentence or two will suffice. A 
friend visiting the Colonel and Mrs. Van Horn at their pleas- 
ant country home only a few years ago, complimented the 
Colonel on his wide and scholarly reading and the firm grasp he 
had on scientific and philosophic subjects, and his comprehen- 
sive knowledge of public men and national affairs. Without 
replying, he went to a library shelf and brought back three 
small books, a United States Spelling Book, Introduction to 
the English Reader, and an Old Arithmetic, "The Western 
Calculator," published in 1819, written by J. Stockton: 
"These," said the Colonel, "were the sources of my informa- 
tion. I studied them in the winter when the weather was 
too bad to work out doors." His ethical training consisted 
chiefly in the Shorter Catechism of the Presbyterian Church, 
of which his grandfather, father, and a brother were eldersj 
A mother's influence had no little to do in shaping the active 
virtues of his life as one reads between the lines. 


Looking at Kansas City and a Surprise. 
How well his contact with different types of men with 
whom he had mingled, had prepared him as a torch-bearer for 
the forefront of this western procession, is not now a question 
of speculation, but one of deeds accomplished. By accident, 
in the summer of 1855, being temporarily in St. Louis, he met 
a gentleman from Kansas City who was on the lookout for 
a printer to take charge of a small weekly paper, "The En- 
terprise," that had been launched in Kansas City a few months 
before and was then on the point of suspension. "The Enter- 
prise" was owned by an association of citizens who hired an 
editor and printers to publish it. So, taking a river steamer, 
he arrived in Kansas City July 31, 1855. The town was then 
a mere straggling village. He came to look over the situation. 
Being cordially greeted by the citizens, he was delighted with 
their hospitality. After talking the matter over, and listening 
to the glowing reports the citizens gave of the country and 
its possibilities, he caught somewhat of their spirit and agreed 
to purchase "The Enterprise" for $500, by paying $250 cash 
on the first of October, and giving them a note for $250, due 
twelve months later. He returned immediately to Ohio to get- 
ready to move to Kansas City. Sure enough, on the first day 
of October, he was here with Mrs. Van Horn and their three 
little children. He came in compliance with the conditions 
of the verbal contract made in the summer. He called at 
once at the business place of Jesse Riddlebarger, one of the 
gentlemen who had been authorized to sell the paper, and be 
inl'ormed Mr. Riddlebarger that he was ready to take posses- 
sion of the office. I quote Mr. Van Horn's own words coil 
ccrning this meeting and the transfer of the paper: "He 
seemed surprised and frankly told me that he was very glad 
to see me, as he had not expected to do so, and was waiting 
till that day simply to keep his own word. To my inquiry 
why he was so surprised, he said that everybody had said 
that he was a fool for taking the word of an utter stranger 
and keeping others from buying. But as he had never said 
anything about it before, he was mighty glad I had come to 


take it. He gave me a receipt for the first payment, took my 
note for the other, and walking back with me a block from 
Delaware to Main street on the Levee, put me in possession 
cf the office and paper. But at the end of the year came my 
surprise. On my calling to pay the note when due, it was* 
handed to me receipted 'by valueable service' and so it 
was that the actual price paid was $250. ' ' 

Beginning in Kansas City. 

Kansas City was then a village of 457 persons, and the 
next summer, according to an item in the Journal, the total 
population was 478. At this date there was very little of the 
town above the Levee. The business part was along the Levee, 
and the stores were brick and frame, none over two stories 
high. There was no formal society. Everybody kept open 
house and all were neighborly. There was not a carriage in 
town, and only one hack. No cards of invitation were issued 
then, but "we want you and your family to come over this 
evening, ' ' was the usual form. There was not a graded street 
south of the river bluff just a country road from the steam- 
boat landing to Westport. 

"The Enterprise," on its first anniversary, was changed 
to "The Kansas City Journal." It was a four-page, six- 
column weekly, and developed into a daily paper in June, 
1858. The office was in the second floor of a building at the 
corner of Main street and the Levee. Within the four walls 
of this one room, the editor and proprietor wrote the edito- 
rials, setting up the type, secured and made contracts for ad- 
vertising, and worked the hand press in doing the job work 
and running off the paper. Thus his experience of four years 
in a Pennsylvania printing office, was the best school possible 
for the work he was now engaged in. 

In 1855-56, Colonel and Mrs. Van Horn lived in the second 
story of a brick building at the corner of Walnut street and 
the Levee, over John Bauerlein's store. After this they 
moved into a log house on the hill at the corner of Third and 
Delaware. This new home had one room and a "lean to" 


for a kitchen. In 1857, a new addition to the town was laid 
out between Main street and Grand avenue, bounded on the 
north by Eleventh street and on the south by Twelfth street. 
On the east side of Walnut street, between Eleventh and 
Twelfth, a lot fifty feet wide was bought, and a small brick 
nouse erected on it, and this remained their home for thirty 
years. In 1856, the year after Colonel Van Horn came to 
Kansas City, an association was organized under the name 
and title of the Kansas City Association for Public Improve- 
ment, and of which he was an original member, and this or- 
ganization later became the Chamber of Commerce. 

The Kansas City Journal as a Mine of Information. 

The writer spent three days in the library room of the 
Kansas City Journal, in looking carefully through the old 
files of the early editions, in order to form an opinion of thg 
editor's range of vision and his grasp on local and national 
issues prior to 1861. The early history of Kansas City and 
this western country is there, and from this mine of historical 
information, the full history of Kansas City will yet be 
written. An extract or two in this connection will give a 
better picture of the condition of affairs and the thoughts of 
the editor than any words of mine can express. 

Editorial Announcement on Tuesday^ June 15, 1858, Vol. 1, 

No. 1. 

"Kansas City Western Journal of Commerce is before 
the public this morning, and we ask a comparison between it 
and any other daily journal in the West. Look at its clean, 
neat face, its ample columns filled with 'live business' adver- 
tisements sparkling with news, local intelligence and general 
reading. We say it is the largest, neatest, best got up, and 
most readable daily journal that has seen the light in the 
valley of the Missouri. Look at its plan, the original matter, 
markets, port lists, etc., and then imagine how long it would 
take you to get up such a paper and see how you would like 
to do it for fifteen cents a week. It is said that printers live 


on air, and we think these figures come pretty nearly to that 
description of rations." 

"When solicited to start a daily, we told our citizens that 
it would require a heavy outlay, constant labor and toil, to pub- 
list a good one, and we had no idea of hazarding our reputa- 
tion as newspaper men by running out any other. We have 
redeemed our promise, now we call upon the solid men, the 
bone and the sinew of this young metropolis, to redeem theirs. 
Every morning .we will send you the news embracing 'The 
very age and body of the times/ that you may sip your Java 
over the night toil of the poor typo, while you are in the arms 
of Morpheus or of your wives, is straining his eyes and 
keeping midnight vigils for your amusement and edification. 
Printers, like the dews of Heaven, are casting over the earth 
their beneficent influences when the world is asleep and a 
cheerful morning salutation from every one is all they ask 
in between, and we know the generosity of Kansas City will 
not deny it to them in this instance." 

Two days later a short editorial entitled, "How Is This?" 
speaks for itself: 

"Since we commenced publishing a daily newspaper, and 
began to look around us with more circumspection for locals, 
city news, etc., we find that a great reformation has taken 
place ; nobody fighting, no runaway horses, no circus, no 
theater no dance on the boats, Officer Barnes arrests no one, 
no accidents, or fighting of any description. 

"We say, again, how is this? Must we let our own 
horses run away, or get into a row ourselves, in order to make 
a spicy local for those who find nothing interesting in the 

Through the columns of the Journal, the mind of the 
editor is everywhere manifest in the editorials written and 
they are almost as applicable today to the needs of Kansas 
City as they were then. Not only was the "Overland Trade" 
with the Southwest and westward to the Pacific to be ex- 
tended with the ultimate object of reaching China, Japan and 


India, but the trade of the western coast of South America 
and Mexico must be secured to make a great city. Editorial 
after editorial urged the establishment of manufactories for 
making furniture, argicultural implements, wagons and car- 
riages, and a paper mill, too, was greatly needed. The hills 
must be cut down the streets graded; committees should be 
organized to devise ways and means for establishing good 
roads throughout the country leading out from Kansas City, 
so that the farmers could bring their products to market or 
for shipment; churches and school houses must be built, fire 
engines secured and hook and ladder companies formed. A Ger- 
man newspaper should be established, and a "thnn sand other 
things," so the editorials ran, and the citizens as one man, 
were entreated to "put their shoulders to the wheel to help 
to build up the commercial center of mountain and prairie 
commerce." Every editorial was optimistic, encouraging and 
stimulating, and entirely free from sarcasm and bitterness. 

Gathering News. 

On August 17, 1858, the following message was flashed 
through the ocean from Valencia, Ireland, to Trinity Bay, 
New Foundland: "Europe and America are united by tele- 
graph. Glory be to God in the highest; on earth peace and 
good will toward men." It took three days for this message 
to reach Kansas City and be published. In commemoration 
of this great event through the untiring energy of Mr. Cyrus 
W. Field, the Journal of August 19, has the following in very 
large headlines: 

Magnetic Telegraph to Boonville and by Express to 
Kansas City. 

What is before us ? We must meet it. News from London 
in three days. The Great Event Completed. 

One week later, the Journal announced the arrival of 
nine men, all miners, from the New Eldorado, with gold dust 
from Kansas Territory, found in the Pike's Peak mines. For 
deluding the people through the columns of the Journal in 
regard to the gold news, at Leavenworth and St. Joseph, 


there was strong talk of coming to Kansas City to lynch the 
editor on account of his brazen audacity. 

Kansas City now had 375 real estate owners within her 
corporate limits, and one of the local needs was a bank and 
a new charter for the rapidly increasing expansion of the 
town. A bank was soon organized, and on December 30, 1858, 
the New Charter, which had been framed, was adopted by 
a vote of 85 for and 58 against. 

Railroad Agitation. 

To understand and to interpret public sentiment correctly 
in the United States since the close of the Revolution, one 
must bear in mind that two different sets of ideas, facing in 
opposite directions, have been and still are in active operation, 
on account chiefly of inherited tendencies and geographical 
influences. One class of citizens inhabiting the Atlantic sea- 
board, have kept their eyes steadfastly fixed across the At- 
lantic as the real objective point and in connection therewith, 
they believe that this country would achieve its highest order 
of development commercially, politically, and socially by the 
closest possible relations with the leading nations of western 
Europe. On the outer rim of this civilization, another set 
of ideas have colored the thoughts and feelings of a much 
larger class whose faces have been turned westward, and who 
depended almost wholly on their own individuality to achieve 
renown by developing of their country through to the 
Pacific, and then by cultivating commercial relations with 
the nations bordering on both sides of the Pacific. When the 
migration from the eastern portion of our country reached 
Missouri, it paused for a series of years, except as the more 
adventurous hunters, trappers and explorers pushed far be- 
yond the most distant outskirts of civilization. But at this 
period the man of all others who did more from 1833 to 1843 
to bring prominently before the American people, the possi- 
bilities of the Great West, was Senator Lewis F. Linn of 
Missouri. In reply to Senator Duffle of South Carolina on the 
Oregon Bill, he used the following language : ' ' Sir, I confess 


that this wealth of the surface, and the still vaster treasures that 
lie beneath, umnined, but not unknown, have awakened in 
men,^and to me seem to justify, the expectations of which the 
Senator considers so visionary. Over such a region, the pass- 
age from the richest valley in the world that of the Missis- 
sippi to a new and wide commercial empire, that must pres- 
ently start up on the Pacific, I can not think that railroads 
and canals are mere day dreams." 

What was anticipated by Senator Linn just before his 
death was more than six years later taken up and advocated 
by Senator Benton. In the Senate of the United States, Feb- 
ruary 7, 1849, he spoke as follows : 

"Mr. President, the bill which I propose to introduce 
provides for the location and construction of a national central 
highway from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean. The 
idea of a communication across our part of North America 
is no new idea. It has belonged to every power that has ever 
been dominant over this part of the continent. In the year 
1680, La Salle took leave of his friends at Montreal to go 
upon his discoveries west, the last word he uttered in parting 
from them was China La Chine and the spot has retained 
the name ever since. 

"When the Spaniards were afterwards masters of Loui- 
siana, the Baron de Carondelet, Governor General of that 
province, with the approbation and sanction of Charles IV., 
undertook this great project the discovery of a practical 
route across the country by way of the Missouri river. He 
employed an enterprising man (Don Jacques Glamorgan), to 
undertake the discovery a great reward in land being of- 
fered to Glamorgan, and a gratuity of three thousand dollars 
was promised to the first man who should see the Pacific 
ocean. It miscarried, although a hundred men set out upon 
the expedition. 

"The British, owning large possessions in North America, 
having in vain endeavored to find a northwest passage to 
Asia, turned their eyes inland in the hope of finding some 


route across the continent, and Mr. Alexander McKenzie, who 
was afterwards knighted for the energy and faithfulness with 
which he conducted an enterprise for that purpose, was the 
successful undertaker. He traversed the continent over that 
portion of it belonging to Great Britain lying in high latitudes, 
reached the sea, but pointed to the Columbia river as the 
only desirable route on the other side of the mountains; and 
that was the cause of all the long efforts made by the British 
Government, first to make the Columbia a boundary between 
as open to the navigation of each, and afterwards to obtain 
its free navigation. An inland commercial route across the 
ccntinent was what she wanted. 

"When we acquired Louisiana, Mr. Jefferson revived this 
idea of establishing an inland communication between the 
two sides of the continent, and for that purpose the well- 
known expedition of Lewis and Clark was sent out by him. 
Practical utility in the business of life, as well as a science, 
was his object. To find a route to answer the purposes of a 
commercial communication, as well as enlarging the bounda- 
ries of geographical science, was the object; and so the in- 
structions declared. That expedition was successful in finding 
a communication; Mr. Jefferson did not remain in power to 
carry out the practical design ; and no President since his day 
has taken it up. 

"About thirty years ago, I turned my attention to this 
subject, and conceived a plan for the establishment of a route 
extending up the Missouri river, and down the Columbia. 
I followed the idea of Mr. Jefferson, La Salle, and others, 
and I have endeavored to revive the attention to their plans. 
The steam car was unknown, and California was not ours; 
but I believe that Asiatic commerce might be brought into 
the valley of the Mississippi on that line, and wrote essays 
to support that idea. The scope of these essays was to show 
that Asiatic commerce had been the pursuit of all western 
nations, from the time of the Phoenicians down to the present 
day a space of three thousand years; that during all this 


time this commerce had been shifting its channel and that 
wealth and power had followed it, and disappeared upon 
its loss; that one more channel was to be found a last one, 
and our America has its seat; and I then expressed the con- 
fident belief that this route would certainly be established 
immediately, with the aid of the American Government, and 
eventually, even without that aid, by the progress of events 
and the force of circumstances. Occupied with that idea, I 
sought to impress it upon others, looking to a practical issue I 
sought information of the country and the mountains, from 
all that could give it from the adventurous hunters and 
traders of the Great West. Knowledge was the first object. 
The nature of the country whether inhabitable or not -be- 
tween the Mississippi and the Pacific the passes in the moun- 
tains were the great points of inquiry, and the results were 
most satisfactory. Inhabitable country and practical passes 
werp vouched for; but it was not until the vear Ib42 that the 
information took the definite form which would become the 
basis of legislation. In the year 1842 Mr. Fremont solicited 
and obtained leave to extend his explorations to the South 
Pass of the Rocky mountains, not for the purpose of discov- 
ering that pass, for it was done almost precisely forty years 
ago by the hunters, but for the purpose of fixing its locality 
and character. At that time it was not known whether that 
pass was within our territory or in Mexican territory. Mr. 
Fremont, therefore, wished to extend his explorations to that 
pass for the purpose of ascertaining its locality and character 
with a view to a road to Oregon, and the increase of geo- 
graphical knowledge. He was then employed on topographi- 
cal duty, having just returned from two years of great labor 
on the upper Mississippi, assistant to the distinguished as- 
tronomer, Mr. Nicollet, who, by his great exertions during the 
five years that he was engaged there, brought on a prostration 
which ended in his death. Mr. Fremont solicited and obtained 
from Colonel Abert the privilege of going to the South Pass, 
and he made his examinations there in a wav to satisfy every 


inquiry. His description of it was satisfactory to all minds; 
and the reading of that description now will show the ease 
with which the mountain can be passed at that place. 

"August 7, 1842, we left our encampment with the rising 
sun. As we rose from the bed of the creek, the snow line of 
the mountain stretched grandly before us, the white peaks 
glittering in the sun. They had been hidden in the dark 
weather of the last few days, and it had been snowing on 
them while it had been raining on us. We crossed a ridge, 
and again struck the Sweet Water here a beautiful swift 
stream, with a more open valley, timbered with beech and 
cottonwood. It now began to lose itself in the many small 
forks which makes its head; and we continued up the main 
stream until near noon, when we left it a few miles, to make 
our noon halt on a small creek among the hills, from which 
the stream issues by a small opening. Within it was a beau- 
tiful grassy spot, covered with an open grove of large beech 
trees, among which I found several plants that I had not 
previously seen. The afternoon was cloudy, with squalls of 
rain; but the weather became fine at sunset, when we again 
camped on the Sweet Water, within a few miles of the South 
Pass. The country over which we have passed today con- 
sists principally of the compact mica slate, which crops out 
on all the ridges, making the uplands very rocky and slaty. 
In the escarpments which border the creeks, it is seen alter- 
nating with a light colored granite, at an inclination of 45 
degrees. About six miles from the encampment brought us 
to the summit. The ascent had been so gradual, that with 
the intimate knowledge possessed by Carson, who had made 
this country his home for seventeen years, we were obilged 
to watch very closely to find the place at which we had 
reached the culminating point. From the impressions on my 
mind at the time (and subsequently on our return), I should 
compare the elevation which we surmounted at the Pass to 
the ascent from the avenue to the capitol hill at Washington. 
The width of the pass, or rather the width of the depression 


in the mountain which makes this gap in its chain, is about 
twenty miles, and in that width are many crossing places. 
Latitude (where crossed), 42 degrees, 24 minutes, 32 seconds; 
longitude, 109 degrees, 26 minutes. Elevation above the sea, 
7,490 feet. Distance from the mouth of the Kansas, by the 
common traveling route, 962 miles; distance from the mouth 
of the Great Platte, 882 miles." 

(To be concluded.) 


Lilburn W. Boggs, -Ex-Governor of the State of Missouri, 
was born in Lexington, Kentucky, the 14th day of December, 
1792, and died March 4, I860, at his farm in Napa Valley, 

At the age of eighteen years he went to St. Louis and 
was cashier of one of the first banks of that city. He married 
a daughter of Judge Silas Bent, one of the oldest families 
of St. Louis, by whom he had issue two sons, Angus and 
Henry. His wife, Julia Ann Bent, died at an early age. His 
second wife, Panthea Grant Boone, was a daughter of Jesse 
Boone, a son of old Daniel Boone, of Kentucky fame, by 
whom he had issue ten children. She was born in Greenup 
County, Kentucky, where the city or town of Maysville is 
that was once the land or home of her father, and was the 
mother of the writer of this sketch. Ex-Governor Boggs was 
a brother-in-law to Judge Carr of St. Louis, whose wife was 
also a daughter of Judge Silas Dent. The Carr place in St. 
Louis is called after Judge Carr. Lilburn W. Boggs, the 
subject of this sketch, was acquainted with nearly all the 
early settlers of St. Louis, the Chouteaus, the Robidoux, the 
Sublettes, and Campbells, of early days. Old Bill Sublette 
was a famous mountaineer and had three brothers, Andrew, 
Perry and Solomon. Old Antoine Rubidoux was the founder 
of St. Joseph, Missouri. L. W. Boggs was engaged in mer- 
chandising in different towns along the Missouri river, such 
as old St. Charles, old Franklin, opposite to the City of 
Boonville in Cooper County, Missouri, Fort Osage (near where 
the writer of these lines was born in 1826, October 21st), from 
which point L. W. Boggs hauled his goods out to his trading 
posts among the Osage and Kaw Indians. He finally settled 
down in the old frontier town, Independence, Missouri, in 


Jackson County, and at one time was engaged in the Santa 
Fe trade about the year 1832 or 1833. He was well acquainted 
with all the leading business men of the City of St. Louis, 
such as Hon. Edward Bates, Judge Dent, Grant's father-in- 
law, who lived in the country on his farm. He was Lieut. 
Governor of the State of Missouri and later was elected Gov- 
ernor, holding the latter office from 1836 to 1840. He of- 
ficiated at laying the corner stone of the present State capitol 
of Missouri. His name and that of other State officers are 
engraved on a large stone over the front entrance to the 
capitol where six large granite columns encircle the rotunda 
in front. L. W. Boggs was Governor of Missouri at the time 
of the trouble with the Mormons by the citizens of Jackson 
County, Missouri, his old home, but did not take part in the 
first riots and troubles with the Mormons and citizens of 
Jackson County. But after he was elected Governor he was 
induced to call out the State Militia and had the Mormons 
removed from the State, for which act the Mormons sent an 
emissary to Independence to assassinate him for revenge for 
having them removed from the State. They settled in Illinois 
and founded the town of Nauvoo at which place their prophet 
and leader, Joe Smith, prophesied from their temple, that 
the Ex-Governor of Missouri would die by violence inside 
of twelve months. In order to fulfill his prophecy, he hired 
an assassin to go to Missouri, and waylay the Ex-Governor 
and kill him. The assassin came to Independence in 
disguise as a common laborer and hired to a man to take care 
of a stallion, and after familiarizing himself with the Ex- 
Governor's habits and his family residence, slipped up one 
dark rainy evening and discharged a load of bullets from a 
large German holster pistol at the back of the Governor's 
head as he sat in his private family room reading his news- 
paper close to the front window, only a few feet distant, not 
over four feet, firing through the window while the other 
members of the family were with their mother yet in the 
dining room finishing their evening meal. Four balls took 


effect in his neck and head, two of which penetrated his skull 
and lodged in the left lobe of his brain, and one went through 
the hollow of his neck and passed through the roof of his 
mouth which he swallowed with blood as his head hung over 
the back of his chair, while stunned from the shock. One 
ball lodged in the neck, among the muscles of the neck. 
There were seventeen balls altogether in the charge, those 
which did not strike the Governor passing over and around 
the head of his little daughter, six years old, who stood di- 
rectly in line with her father and the window, rocking a 
crib cradle with an infant sister in it, striking the plastered 
wall of the opposite side of the room. The pistol had kicked 
out of the assasin's hand, which he did not take time to pick 
up again in the dark, and it was picked up by the assembled 
crowd, some one having tramped upon it. The pistol was 
recognized by its owner who said it had been stolen out of 
his store. He always thought that negroes had stolen it, but 
he remembered that a man by the name of Orin P. Rockwell, 
who kept the stable for Mr. Ward, the owner of the stallion, 
tried to buy it. Eockwell waited until he had been discharged 
and broke into this store and stole the pistol, a large German 
holster pistol, that chambered four balls or large buck shot. 
That clue was followed up and the Mormon's plan to revenge 
themselves on the people of Missouri was exposed and led 
to the arrest of this Orin P. Rockwell at the City of St. Louis, 
while trying to make his escape from Nauvoo at the time 
the authorities and citizens had offered a reward of $3,000 
for his arrest. The officer who arrested him at the steamer 
landing while he was trying to get away, disguised, was named 
Fox, a detective. The writer does not remember Mr. Fox' 
first name, but heard him relate the circumstance and of 
bringing him to Independence from St. Louis by stage all 
alone, handcuffed. The sheriff placed a guard of fifty men 
around the jail to protect the prisoner. After a long time 
the criminal got a change of venue t another county across 
the river, where, by the aid of counsel and money furnished 


by the Mormon leaders, he made his escape in the night, but 
he lived to die a drunken sot and confessed murderer after 
many years at Salt Lake, where he had been accused of mur- 
ders on the plains near Salt Lake City. The attempt on the 
life of Ex-Governor Boggs was made in 1842, after which he 
lived nineteen years. In 1846 he emigrated to California with 
his family where he lived the remaining fourteen years of 
his life. Having held various public offices for about 30 years, 
it was his intention after settling in California to retire from 
public life, but at the urgent call of the U. S. Military Gov- 
ernor, General Bennett W. Riley, during the establishing 
of law and order at the close of the war with Mexico, he was 
induced to accept the office of alcalde of the Northern Dis- 
trict of California, an important position, having jurisdiction 
over all the territory of Northern California extending to the 
Oregon line, including Sutters Fort and the Sacramento Valley 
and around to the coast, including all the territory north of 
the bay. All his official acts and his private business were 
conducted at Sonoma, the only town then north of the bay, 
being the home and headquarters of General Marino Guada- 
lupe Vallejo, Commandant General of upper California, whose 
authority ceased at the close of the war with Mexico. Gov- 
ernor Boggs kept a large amount of his official documents, 
and his official acts are matters of record in the county rec- 
ords of Sonoma County at Santa Rosa, the county seat. All 
transactions in sales of lands, contracts, and criminal pro- 
ceedings, by trials with juries, and even the performing of the 
marriage ceremony were performed by him as alcalde. His 
official and private papers after his death and long before 
had been kept in an iron safe, and were overhauled by va- 
rious members of the family, and in search of many notes 
and accounts remaining unpaid by his customers during his 
mercantile pursuits at Sonoma, California, there was found 
a large amount of his public correspondence and other data 
during his term of office as alcalde of the Northern District of 
California, but these were consumed by being carelessly 


burned by some of the junior members of the family at his 
farm in Napa Valley. I have written several short biographi- 
cal sketches of his public and private career from memory, 
commencing from the time of his birth until his death, that 
are published in several historical works, and have supplied 
the State Librarian of California with a photograph of him 
and a short history of his life, which are kept on file in the 
Historical Department of the State Library in the capitol at 

I have written this sketch from my own personal knowl- 
edge and dates taken from his family record of the births 
and deaths of the various members of the family, as recorded 
on pages in the old family record in my possession. His life 
was an eventful one and he had much to do with framing the 
laws of the State of Missouri. A full and complete biography 
of his life would fill many pages of history, and as I am in 
my eighty-third year I do not believe I could do the subject 
of so great a task justice on account of failing memory. 

Napa, California, April 3, 1909. 


It is among the chief glories of Missouri that the first 
newspaper west of the Mississippi river was established within 
her borders. 

In 1808 Joseph Charless, an ambitious young Irishman, 
came to St. Louis with a primitive printing outfit and on 
July 12th of that year took! from the forms of his little Ram- 
age press the first issue of The Missouri Gazette. It was an 
interesting little sheet measuring only 12x14^ inches, and 
contained not so much matter all told as would equal the 
special dispatches printed in its successor (1) of today. It 
was a county newspaper in those days and remained so until 
its first daily issue, September 20, 1833, (2) and therefore 
should have a place in this sketch. 

St. Louis, in 1808, was a village of about one thousand 
inhabitants. It possessed a postoffice, with a mail only once 
a week. Its trade consisted only of "lead, furs and 
peltries," (3) 

One hundred and seventy of the one thousand inhabitants 
of St. Louis subscribed for the Missouri Gazette, subscriptions 
being "payable in flour, corn, beef, or pork." (4) Under 
such circumstances Charless founded this first Missouri news- 
paper. No wonder he left his wife behind him in Kentucky. 
But he had the optimism of the true pioneer and it was the 
fate of this, our trans-Mississippi Franklin, to build far better 
than he knew. 

Eleven years after the Missouri Gazette was founded, 
Nathaniel Patten, with a more modern Ramage press, passed 
through St. Louis from Virginia and moved on westward into 

1. The St. Louis Republic. 

2. Scttarf, History of St. Louis City and County, vol. i, p. 909. 

3. Ibid, p. 903. 

4. Ibid, p. 904. 


the "Boon's Lick Country." (5) He set up his printing outfit 
at Franklin in what is now Howard County, and April 23, 
1819, began the publication of the Missouri Intelligencer and 
Boon's Lick Advertiser. We know little of Patten except 
that he was a Virginian, a "very reputable citizen, small in 
stature and exceedingly deaf." (6) He took as his partner 
in this enterprise Benjamin Holliday, also a Virginian, who 
had recently located in Franklin. (7) 

Surely none but the most optimistic of printers could 
have seen in the "Boon's Lick Country" a hopeful field for 
the establishment of a newspaper. The problems that con- 
fronted these pioneer printers were serious ones. The villages 
were small and widely scattered. The settlers were of the 
farming class, their farms so far apart that a visit to one's 
neighbor meant a day's journey. There were no roads. The 
first stage line from St. Charles to Franklin was not estab- 
lished until 1820. It was two years later before the stage 
run oftener than once every two weeks. Steamboats began 
to go up the Missouri river as early as May, 1819, but it took 
from two to three weeks to make the trip. (8) 

It was a serious question how to get printing supplies 
from the East and to deliver the papers to subscribers outside 
of Franklin. But our Boon's Lick editors were not discour- 
aged by these obstacles nor by the fact that most of theiu 
subscriptions had to be paid in produce. They had a large 
faith in the future of Missouri, and saw our State not as it 
was then but as they knew it must become. 

The Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser 
prospered from the first. Its establishment in the extreme 

5. The Boon's Lick Country was the name given to that portion 
of Missouri now included in the counties of Boone, Howard, Cooper, 
Clay, Ray, Chariton, Cole, Saline and Lillard (changed to Lafayette in 
1834). Missouri Intelligencer, Nov. 26, 1822. 

6. History of Boone County, p. 138. 

7. Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, April 23, 

8. Files of the Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Adver- 
tiser, 1819-22. 


outposts of civilization created quite a sensation. The Albany, 
New York Ploughboy said: "One of the last mails brought 
us the first number of the Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's 
Lick Advertiser. What think you, Reader, of a newspaper 
at Boon's Lick, in the wilds of Missouri in 1819, where in 
1809 there was not we believe a civilized being excepting the 
eccentric character who gave his name to the spot." (9) 

This pioneer county paper was deservedly popular from 
the start, its popularity undoubtedly arising from its devotion 
to the interests of the West and its untiring zeal in adver- 
tising the resources and advantages of Missouri and especially 
of that part of Missouri. 

Holliday retired from the paper July 23, 1821, and John 
Payne, a young lawyer, was associated with Patten as editor. 
From August 5, 1822, until April 17, 1824, J. T. Cleveland 
a relative of the late Ex-President Cleveland, was joint editor 
and publisher with Patten. In June, 1826, the paper was moved 
from Franklin to Fayette on account of the continued illness 
of Mr. Patten. He hoped for better health away from the 
Missouri river. 

Fayette was at that time a town of about thirty-five fami- 
lies, three hundred inhabitants all told. (10) John Wilson, a 
young lawyer of Fayette, found time in connection with his 
law cases to assume the duty of editor of the paper. He con- 
tinued as editor until July, 1828. 

It was about 1828 that political parties first began to as- 
sume definite shape. When Missouri was admitted to state- 
hood in 1821 the slavery interests drew it towards Democracy. 
Other interests, mineral production, internal improvements, 
manufacturers, which caused a demand for tariffs for protec- 
tion, drew it towards the National Republican and later the 
Whig party. In the campaign of 1824, no recognized political 
parties existed, but during the presidential election of 1828 

9 . Quoted in the Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Adver- 
tiser of Aug. 5, 1819. 

10. Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, June 29, 


national issues and national leaders occupied much of the 
public attention and the people very naturally united with 
Democrat or National Republican according as they favored 
Andrew Jackson or John Quincy Adams and the principles 
these men advocated. It is interesting to note that the news- 
papers of this period that favored Democracy were invariably 
spoken of as Jackson papers instead of Democratic. 

The Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser 
was a strong advocate of the Whig doctrines and in 1828 
adopted as its motto : ' ' The American system and its friends, 
throughout the Union." 

Nathaniel Patten moved his paper to Columbia in April, 
1830. It was published there until 1835 when it was offered 
for sale. Both political parties wanted it as the presidential 
and state elections were approaching. Austin A. King, af- 
terwards Governor of Missouri, but at that time a practicing 
lawyer in Columbia, entered into negotiations for its purchase 
for the Democratic party, but it was bought by Major James 
S. Rollins, Dr. William Jewell, Warren Woodson, Moses W. 
Payne, R. N. Todd, Thomas Miller and other Whigs. The 
name was changed to Columbia Patriot and the first number 
issued Dec. 12, 1835. Major James S. Rollins and Thomas 
Miller were the editors. They edited in until after the presi- 
dential election of 1840 when Major Rollins sold his interesc 
to W. T. B. Sanford. 

Col. William F. Switzler, the Nestor of the Missouri 
Press, and Missouri historian, became the editor in July, 1841. 
Thomas Miller died in 1842 and his interest in the paper was 
sold to J. B. and W. J. Williams. J. B. Williams is known 
to many Missouri editors through his long connection with 
the Fulton Telegraph as its editor and publisher. Dr. A. J. 
McKelway, a native of Howard County, bought W. T. B. 
Sanford 's interest in August, 1842, and became its editor. He 
sold out to Colonel Switzler in December of the same year. 
At the same time J. B. Williams sold his interest in the paper 
to Y. J. Williams. The name was now changed to The Missouri 


Statesman with Colonel Switzler as editor, a position he filled 
for forty-two years. In January, 1845, Colonel Switzler be- 
came sole proprietor of The Statesman and remained so for 
thirty-six years. Under Colonel Switzler 's editorship, The 
Statesman was a powerful advocate of the Whig and later of 
the Democratic party. 

Irvin Switzler bought The Statesman August 1, 1881. 
He sold it in February, 1888, to W. G. Barrett, editor and pub- 
lisher of The Columbian, who consolidated the two papers 
retaining the name Missouri Statesman. H. T. Burckhartt 
and L. H. Rice took charge of The Statesman June 1, 1896. It 
is at present edited and published by William Hirth. (11) 

The second newspaper in Missouri outside of St. Louis 
was the Missouri Herald established at Jackson, Cape Girar- 
deau County, in 1819, by T. E. Strange. The date of the first 
issue is not known. It was a little five column folio paper. 
Strange published it but a short time. James Russell, after- 
wards Representative and State Senator from Cape Girardeau 
County, was its next publisher. He sold it in 1825 to William 
Johnson who changed the name to The Independent Patriot 
and later to The Mercury. It was inclined to be neutral in 
politics but opposed Andrew Jackson. R. W. Renfroe and 
Greer W. Davis, later one of the most prominent lawyers of 
Southeast Missouri, became the publishers in March, 1831 and 
changed the name to The Jackson Eagle. In the fall of 1835 
Dr. Patrick Henry Davis bought it and moved the press and 
materials to Cape Girardeau. He gave it the high sounding 
name of Southern Advocate and State Journal. In political 
matters the editor does not commit himself except to say that 
"he cordially approves of the present administration." (12) 
Robert Brown was the next publisher. Unlike his predecessors 
he did not change the name but published it as the Southern 
Advocate and State Journal until 1845 when he sold it to 

11. Files of the Columbia Patriot and Missouri Statesman, 1841- 

12. Missouri Intelligencer, Oct. 17, 1835. 


Niedner and McFerron. They moved the press and materials 
back to Jackson and commenced the publication of the Jack- 
son Review. H. S. McFarland became the editor and pro- 
prietor in December, 1849. He changed its name back to 
Southern Advocate and gave it the motto : ' ' The Constitution 
in its purity the bulwark of American liberty." It became 
the Southern Democrat in 1850. J. W. Limbaugh, first mayor 
of Jackson, was its editor and publisher. Under Mr. Lim- 
baugh 's editorship it was a strong anti-Benton paper. (13) 
Upon the death of Mr. Limbaugh in 1852, Robert Brown again 
became the editor and renamed it The Jeffersonian. He pub 
lished it until November, 1853, when it became The Jackson 
Courier, Joel Wilkerson, editor and publisher. It suspended 
with the opening of the Civil War, and was the last paper in 
Jackson until after the war. (14) 

As early as December 3, 1819, there appeared in the Mis- 
souri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser proposals to 
publish a newspaper, The Missourian, at St. Charles by Brigga 
and McCloud. Briggs, whose first name even is not known, 
withdrew before the paper was printed. Robert McCloud was 
a practical printer and stepson of Joseph Charless, founder of 
the Missouri Gazette. (15) The proposals for publishing The 
Missourian were printed last in the Missouri Intelligencer 
and Boon's Lick Advertiser of March 5, 1820. It must have 
been founded about that time as the following editorial ap- 
peared in that paper August 5th: "We have received several 
numbers of a new paper published at St. Charles, in this State, 
by Mr. Robert McCloud, entitled The Missourian. It is 
printed on a sheet of respectable size, and executed in a neat 
and elegant manner. It is but a short period since one print- 
ing establishment sufficed for this immense region, including 
the Arkansas. Now there are five and we believe all likely 

13. Jefferson City Metropolitan, Jan. 15, 1850. 

14. History of Southeast Missouri, p. 429. Flies of Columbia 
Patriot and Jefferson City Metropolitan. 

16. History of St. Charles, Montgomery and Warren counties, 
p. 216. 


to prosper." The papers referred to beside the Missouri In- 
telligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, were the Missouri 
Gazette and the Western Journal at St. Louis, the Missouri 
Herald at Jackson, and The Missourian at St. Charles. 

An act of the Legislature approved November 18, 
1820, fixed the temporary seat of government of Missouri at 
St. Charles until October 1, 1826, at which time it was to be 
moved to Jefferson City. (16) 

The Missourian was the organ of the State Government 
and prospered greatly during the early years of its exist- 
ence. (17) It is not known how long it was published, but 
it certainly continued as long as St. Charles was the capital 
of Missouri. 

The first settlement in Missouri was Ste. Genevieve, but 
it was the fifth town in the State to have a newspaper of its 
own, although there is a tradition among its inhabitants that 
a French newspaper was published there some time after 1780. 
The earliest English newspaper was begun there in the spring 
of 1821. It was ambitiously styled The Correspondent and 
Ste. Genevieve Record. The Missouri Intelligencer of April 
30, 1821, acknowledges the receipt of the first number. It 
was published through 1823. (18) 

By this time St. Charles had become large enough to sap- 
port more than one newspaper. The Missouri Gazette was 
established there in November, 1823, by Stephen W. Fore- 
man. (19) In its first issue it came out strongly for Henry 
Clay for President. A year later Foreman sold out to Kobert 
McCloud, who was still publishing The Missourian, and with 
Charles Keemle founded the Missouri Advocate. (20) The 
first number was issued Dec. 24, 1824. Its motto was : ' ' Mis- 


Laws of Missouri, First G. A. sess. 1, p. 37. 
History of St. Charles, Montgomery and Warren Counties, 

p. 217. 


Rozier, 150th Celebration of the Founding of Ste. Genevieve, 

p. 17. 


Missouri Intelligencer, Dec. 23, 1823. 


Files of The Missouri Advocate in the Mercantile Library, 

St. Louis. 


souri and Missouri's friends." In their first issue the pub- 
lishers announce that they are "not in any manner connected 
with the Missouri Gazette. All debts contracted by or due 
that office will be settled with Mr. McCloud." 

The Missouri Advocate was moved to St. Louis in Feb- 
ruary, 1825, the publishers believing that a larger field was 
offered for their activities there than in St. Charles. The 
first issue in St. Louis was on February 28th under the name 
Missouri Advocate and St. Louis Advertiser. It was sold in 
1827 to the St. Louis Inquirer. Keemle entered the office of 
the St. Louis Herald and later that of the People 's Organ and 
Reveille, one of the most noted papers of its time. He was 
a kindly, gracious man, quite a beau Brummel, and for years 
a well known figure on the streets of St. Louis. (21) Foreman 
staid on the staff of the Inquirer and was an ardent sup- 
porter of Andrew Jackson but later joined a band of coun- 
terfeiters and had a disastrous ending, being hanged in 
Tennessee. (22) 

The Missouri Advocate of February 12, 1825, contains a 
prospectus issued by Calvin Gunn to publish The Jefferson 
Patriot at Jefferson City. The prospectus says the paper will 
be conducted on "purely republican principles, the great in- 
terests of Missouri shall be supported, truth shall be its polar 
star, and public opinion and private justice its guide." Its 
motto was to be: "Vitam impendere vero." It is presumed 
he did not receive encouragement enough to publish a paper 
at Jefferson City for we find him setting up his printing press 
at St. Charles and commencing the publication of The Jeffer- 
sonian in October, 1825. In the first issue he takes time by 
the forelock and announces his intention of removing his of- 
fice at "some future period to the City of Jefferson, the 
future capital of our State." (23) The "future period" was 
the summer of 1826, some two months before the time of- 

21 . iScharf , History of St. Louis City and County, p . 920 . 

22. Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, June 21, 

23. Ibid, Oct. 28, 1823. 


ficially fixed for Jefferson City to become the capital. When 
the Legislature convened there in November, 1826, Gunn was 
ready to print the proceedings of that august body. His re- 
ward came quickly as he was immediately appointed State 
printer, (24) a position he held for eighteen years. 

The Jeffersonian became The Jeffersonian Republican in 
1827. Its motto was "E Pluribus Unum." (25) William 
Franklin Dunnica, one of the founders of Glasgow, Missouri, 
was associated with Calvin Gunn in its publication until 
1831. (26) Gunn was an ardent champion of Andrew Jackson 
and a bitter opponent of Whig principles. He died in 1844 
and with him the paper he founded. (27) 

It is worth noting here, as indicative of the rapid move- 
ment westward of emigrants and the growth of Mis- 
souri that in 1827 both the Jeffersonian Republican and the 
Missouri Intelligencer mention the prospectus of a paper to 
be published at Liberty, Clay County, under the name Mis- 
souri Liberator by a Mr. Hardin, a deaf and dumb man. As 
no further mention is made of this paper it is presumed the 
time had not come for setting up a press in what was then the 
extreme outposts of western civilization. 

Meanwhile politics and political leaders began to absorb 
the attention of the public. The presidential campaign of 
18:^7 excited more than the ordinary amount of attention in 
Missouri. Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams were 
the presidential candidates. The friends of Jackson in the 
West felt that the interests of their candidate called for the 
establishment of more printing presses for the purpose of 
"rendering through their instrumentality the people's can- 
didate acceptable to the people." (28) With this end in view, 
early in 1827, the Rev. William Kinney, Lieutenant Governor 

24. Laws of Missouri, Fourth G. A. sess. 1, p. 80. 

25. Files of Jeffersonian Republican. 

26. .History of Howard and Cooper Counties, p. 438. 

27. History of Cole, Moniteau, Morgan, Benton, Miller, Maries 
and Osage Counties, p. 270. 

28. Missouri Republican, May, 1827. 


of Illinois, with other citizens of that State, purchased two 
presses. One was for Fayette, Missouri, and the other for 
Vandalia, Illinois. The paper at Fayette was to be published 
by James H. Birch of the St. Louis Inquirer. The Inquirer 
says that in establishing a paper at Fayette, Mr. Birch "will 
be in the midst of the Hero's friends." (29) Had a volcano 
burst forth in the midst of the Boon's Lick country it could 
not have caused much greater excitement. The Missouri In- 
telligencer of May 17, 1827, came out with a scathing edi- 
torial against the St. Louis Inquirer, Mr. Birch, "the reverend 
gentleman from Illinois," and Democracy in general. "We 
can inform Mr. Birch and the St. Louis Inquirer that they are 
totally mistaken as regards the politics of this region for we 
know of no place in the Union where the citizens are more 
unanimously opposed to General Jackson's pretentious to the 
next presidency. ' ' It goes on to say : ' ' We believe the citi- 
zens of the Boon's Lick Country, whatever their predelictions 
may be, either for Jackson or Adams, have too much 
pendence, intelligence and virtue to be dictated to by a rev- 
erend gentleman of anti-slave holding memory." 

With this welcome from a brother editor, the Western 
Monitor was established at Fayette in August, 1827, by James 
H. Birch, lawyer and later State Senator, member of the 
State Convention of 1861 and Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Missouri. (30) Judge Birch, through the columns of his 
paper, supported the Democratic policy with a vigor not rel- 
ished by the Whigs of that day. He changed the name of his 
paper to The Missourian in 1837. In 1840 he sold it to Cyril 
C. Cady who renamed it the Boon's Lick Times. Cady sold 
it in a few months to James R. Benson and Colonel Clark H. 
Green. They made it Whig in politics and gave it the motto : 
"Error ceases to be dangerous, when reason is left free to 

29. Andrew Jackson was popularly called "The Hero of Two 
Wars," the War of 1812 and the Seminole War in Florida. His ad- 
mirers were sometimes called "Heroites." 

30. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri. Vol. 1, p. 275. 


combat it." (31) It was moved to Glasgow in October, 1843, 
and published there until 1861 when it was suppressed by the 
Confederates on account of its Union sentiments. Colonel 
Green went into the Union army and remained during the 
war. (32) 

It was not until four years after the Western Monitor 
was started at Fayette, that the next newspaper was estab- 
lished in Missouri. William Baker, in 1831, commenced the 
publication of the State Gazette at Ste. Genevieve. It became 
the Southern Gazette in 1833. A few months later it was 
The Missouri Democrat edited by Philip G. Ferguson. 
Charles C. Rozier bought it in 1850 and changed the name to 
The Creole. He published The Creole for one year and then 
moved his press and materials to St. Louis. He published 
there a French paper, the Revue de Lanst. He returned to 
Ste. Genevieve in 1852 and started The Independent which he 
published until 1854 when he sold it to his brother, Amable. 
The Independent was published until the beginning of the 
Civil War when the office was closed. (33) 

The first newspaper published in Cape Girardeau was 
the Cape Girardeau Farmer. William Johnson was the editor 
and proprietor. Its first issue dates back to 1831, but prac- 
tically nothing is known of it save a single reference to its 
publication. (34) 

The Missouri Intelligencer for February, 1831, contains 
the prospectus of a new paper, The Missouri Whig, to be pub- 
lished at Fayette by Robert N. Kelley. The editor promises 
to support the protective tariff or American system, and 
Henry Clay for President because Clay "is an honest man 
and one calculated to save our country from ruin and degra- 
dation." The paper was to be published as soon as enough 

31. Boon's Lick Times, Aug.-OctT, 1840. 

32. History of Howard and Cooper Counties, p. 262. Files of Mis- 
souri Intelligencer and Columbia Statesman. 

33. iRozier, 150th Celebration of the founding of Ste. Genevieve, 
p. 17. 

34. Missouri Intelligencer, -Sept. 10, 1831. 


subscribers were obtained. But Mr. Birch's paper, The West- 
ern Monitor, evidently satisfied the needs of the inhabitants 
of Fayette for the Missouri Whig was not published. 

About the same time a prospectus was issued to publish 
the Missouri Gazette at Boonville by Joshua Young. (35) 
Boonville had no paper and it seemed a promising field for 
the establishment of one. Mr. Young's prospectus is a model 
of political diplomacy: "However friendly either to the 
Champion of the American system, or to the Hero of Two 
Wars, the editor feels that the Man who shall be called forth 
by the voice of a Free and Powerful People will receive his 
cordial support." The prospectus apparently did not appeal 
to the people of Boonville as not enough subscribed for the 
paper to justify Mr. Young in purchasing a printing outfit. 

We come now to a newspaper that during its short ex- 
istence of a few months stirred up a strife that was far reach- 
ing in its consequence and of enough importance to be digni- 
fied by the name of a war. This paper was The Morning and 
Evening Star published by the Mormons at Independence, 

As early as 1831 Joseph Smith visited western Missouri 
on a tour of inspection. Evidently the country pleased him 
for soon afterwards bands of Mormons began to arrive and 
settle in and around Independence. Their number was largely 
increased in 1832 by new arrivals who brought with them a 
complete printing outfit. This was set up and The Morning 
and the Evening Star appeared in May, 1832. (36) W. W. 
Phelps was the editor. It was devoted exclusively to "pub- 
lishing the revelations of God to the Church" and denouncing 
the "ungodly Gentiles." (37) The result was that the Gen- 
tiles threw the press and type into the Missouri river. (37) 
The Mormon War in Missouri had begun. The Mormons were 
also publishing on this press The Upper Missouri Advertiser. 

35. Ibid, Apr. 30, 1831. 

36. Ibid, June 2, 1832. 

37. Ibid, Aug. 10, 1833. 


This paper was used to advertise that section of Missouri as 
"the place revealed for the center stake of Zion." Its pub- 
lication stopped also when the Missouri river received the 
press and type. 

Later some enterprising driftwood harvesters raised the 
press and sold it to William Ridenbaugh, who used it to es- 
tablish the St. Joseph Gazette in 1845. He sold the press to 
Captain John L. Merrick in 1859. Captain Merrick took it 
to Denver and started the first paper published in 
Colorado. (38) 

The next paper established in Missouri was the ancestor 
of the Hannibal Courier-Post, The Missouri Courier. It was 
commenced at Palmyra in 1832 by Jonathan Angevine and 
Robert W. Stewart. Stewart was the editor. During 1837-38, 
James L. Minor, Secretary of State from 1839 to 1845, was 
the editor. The Missouri Courier was a strong Jackson paper 
and the organ of the Democratic party in Northeast Missouri. 
The Missouri Intelligencer of May 26, 1832, regrets that the 
inhabitants of the "Salt River Country are likely to be so 
little benefited by the press located amongst them." The 
Missouri Intelligencer differed from the Missouri Courier in 

Joseph B. Ament became the editor and proprietor of the 
Missouri Courier in 1841. He gave the paper two mottoes: 
On the first page, "Principiis obsta;" on the seqond page, 
"Truth the object of our search, 

Usefulness the end we desire to attain." (40) 
Mr. Ament moved his paper to Hannibal in 1848 where it was 
consolidated with the Hannibal Gazette, retaining the name 
Missouri Courier. It was taken back to Palmyra in 1855. In 
1863 it was moved again to Hannibal and consolidated this 
time with the Hannibal Messenger. The consolidated papers 

38. Maryville Republican, June 12, 1902. 

39. The Salt River Country was the name given to that section 
of Missouri included now in the counties of Pike, Marion, Rails, Mon- 
roe, Macon, Shelby, Adair and Audrain. 

40. Missouri Courier, Feb. 5, 1846. 


were given the name North Missouri Courier. The publishers 
were Winchell, Ebert and Marsh. It became The Hannibal 
Courier in 1865. Its publishers, on April 24, 1881, bought 
out The Hannibal Post and consolidated the two papers under 
the name Hannibal Courier-Post. (41) W. J. Hill is its pres- 
ent publisher. 

The first newspaper at Boonville was established in July, 
1833, by James H. Middleton and John Wilson. It was The 
Herald. In the first issue the editors state that it will be 
"emphatically a free and independent press." But, "are 
proud to acknowledge the principles of Thomas Jefferson as 
the text of their political faith." Its motto was: "Virtue 
and intelligence are freedom's fortress." Middleton became 
the sole proprietor in September, 1834, and sold one-half in- 
terest to Robert Brent in April, 1838. They changed the name 
to The Western Emigrant. Later C. W. Todd bought it and 
named it the Boonville Observer. It had various owners up 
until 1861 when it suspended. (42) 

The first newspaper in the Salt River Country proper, 
was the Salt River Journal. It was established at Bowling 
Green in October, 1833 by Adam Black Chambers and Oliver 
Harris. Chambers came to Bowling Green in 1829 with 
seventy-five cents in his pocket. He studied law, but before 
he could practice in Missouri, he must take out a license. To 
do this he had to attend court which sat at Fayette. One 
friend loaned him a horse and another enough money to pay 
his expenses at Fayette. (43) He was admitted to the bar 
and returned to Bowling Green to practice his profession. 
He was sent to the Legislature from Pike County in 1832. 
As editor of the Salt River Journal he became a leader among 
Missouri journalists. He and his partner sold the Salt River 
Journal in 1837 and went to St. Louis where with George 

41. History of Marion County, p. 190 ff. Files of Missouri In- 
telligencer and Columbia Statesman. 

42. History of Howard and Cooper counties, p. 730. Files of 
Columbia Patriot and Boonville Observer. 

43. Centennial edition of the St. Louis Republic. 


Knapp they took charge of the Missouri Republican. Subse- 
quently Harris became interested in various newspaper enter- 
prises in St . Louis and later moved to Ste . Genevieve where he 
edited the Plaindealer and served as postmaster. Col. Cham- 
bers remained on the staff of the Missouri Republican until his 
death in 1854. (44) 

The Salt River Journal in 1840 became the property of 
Aylett H. Buckner, later Judge of the Third Congressional Cir- 
cuit, and Congressman for six successive terms from the 
Thirteenth, now the Ninth Congressional District. (45) 
Judge Buckner made the paper independent in politics and 
tried to keep it above mere party interests. But in November, 
1841 he changed the name to The Radical and came out 
strongly for a strict construction of the Constitution and 
against a National Bank and the protective tariff. 

Judge Buckner sold The Radical on March 7, 1842, to 
James H. D. Henderson. Mr. Henderson made some important 
changes in the plan of the paper. Party politics were to bo 
dispensed with, and all party strife and political contentions 
were to end in the Salt River Country. He took as the motto 
for his paper : ' ' Peace on earth and good will towards all men. ' ' 
Isaac Adams became, on April 23, 1842, associated with Mr. 
Henderson in the publication of the Radical. They decided 
to keep the paper neutral and reconcile Whig and Democrat. 
This course as might have been expected did not escape criti- 
cism. The scholar, the critic, the wise man, and the fool, as 
the editors put it, each had something to say and were ready 
with their advice. Many wanted a political paper. Some 
withdrew their support. The editors' reply: "We thankfully 
receive the patronage of all those disposed to encourage us; 
and to those disposed to censure and find fault we say : with- 
draw your patronage we don't care a fig, we intend to do 
the thing we believe to be right regardless of consequences." 
Such was the dream of these journalists in a country intensely 

44. Scharf, History of St. Louis City and County, p. 910. 

45. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, vol. 1, p. 416. 


alive with political passion. It did not materialize. The 
Radical in September, 1844, openly became a Democratic pa- 
per and supported James K. Polk for President. It was sold 
on January 29, 1845, to S. E. Murray and A. J. Pickens. They 
changed the name to Democratic Banner. N. P. Minor was 
the editor. In April, 1846, it was moved to Louisiana. 

In the election of 1846 Pike County went Whig and the 
Democratic Banner lost the county printing. The publishers 
struggled on for a couple of years when Murray sold his in- 
terest to S. P. Robinson. The paper suspended in 1852. (46) 

A second newspaper was started at Fayette in December, 
1834, the Boon's Lick Democrat. The founder of this paper 
was Judge W. B. Napton, an able lawyer and jurist, at one 
time Attorney General, and for twenty-four years a Supreme 
Judge of Missouri. (47) Judge Napton gave the Boon's Lick 
Democrat the motto: "Veritas cum Libertate." Its next 
editor was Judge William A. Hall who stands preeminently 
as one of the best Circuit Judges in the history of Central 
Missouri. (48) He changed the name of the paper to Missouri 
Democrat. Under Judge Hall, The Missouri Democrat was the 
organ of the Democratic party in interior Missouri. It finally 
suspended in August, 1850. (49) 

During the year 1834, The Red Rover was published in 
Columbia. Nothing is known of it except a few quotations 
from it in the Missouri Intelligencer of 1834. 

In this year The Upper Missouri Enquirer was established 
at Liberty. The first issue was on January llth. It was Whig 
in politics and eagerly welcomed by the people in that section 
of the State. Robert N. Kelly and William H. Davis were 
the publishers. In 1835 Kelly became the sole proprietor. 
The paper suspended about 1840. (50) 

46. History of Pike County, pp. 482-86. Files of the Columbia 
Patriot and Statesman. 

47 . History of the Bench and Bar of Missouri, p. 123 . 

48. Ibid, p. 404. 

49. Files of Missouri Intelligencer, Columbia Patriot and States- 

50. Ibid. 


The Palmyra Post was established June 1, 1834. In the 
prospectus published in the Missouri Intelligencer, May 3, 
1834, the editor, who does not give his name, says he cannot 
support the acts of the present administration (Andrew Jack- 
son's) in regard to internal improvements, the currency and 
the veto power, but is heartily in favor of a State bank. The 
Post was published for only a few months. (51) 

Sometime between 1834 and 1841 a paper,called The Far 
West, was published at Liberty by Peter H. Burnett. Burnett 
emigrated to Oregon in 1843 and became U. S. District Judge. 
He moved to California in 1849 and was elected Provisional 
Governor and later to the Supreme Bench. No copy of his 
paper, The Far West, is extant. (52) 

The St. Charles Cosmos-Monitor was founded in 1835 by 
Nathaniel Patten. It was known then as The Clarion. Patten, 
it will be remembered, established the Missouri Intelligencer 
and Boon's Lick Advertiser at Franklin in 1819. He published 
The Clarion until his death in 1837. His widow continued the 
paper with W. M. Campbell as editor. It was sold in 1839 
to Julian and Carr. Berlin and Knapp became the publishers 
in 1840 and changed the name to the Free Press. Julian and 
Knapp took charge of it again with W. B. Overall as the 
editor. It now became The Advertiser. In 1846 Dr. E. D. 
Bevitt bought it and changed the name to the Missouri 
Patriot. It had been Whig in politics up to this time, but as 
the Missouri Patriot it was Democratic. It became The West- 
ern Star in 1847 with Douglas and Millington as proprietors. 
Jacob Kibler, Sr., became the publisher and N. C. O'Rear the 
editor in 1849. Mr. Kibler changed the name to The Chrono- 
type, made it neutral in politics and filled its columns with 
articles on agriculture, literary subjects and general informa- 
tion. In 1854 this much named paper became The Reveille. 
Benjamin Emmons and Andrew King were the publishers. 

51. Files of Missouri Intelligencer, 1834-3'5. 

52 . (Sketch of the Literary Development of Liberty, Mo., by Hon . 
D. C. Allen, in Liberty Tribune, Jan. 22, 1909. 


It was consolidated in 1867 with the St. Charles Sentinel, 
which had recently been established. It was now called The 
Cosmos-Sentinel and Emmons and Orrick were the publishers. 
W. W. Davenport bought it in 1868 and shortened the name 
to The Cosmos. It has had many owners since 1868 and one fur- 
ther change in name. In 1903 it was consolidated with the 
St. Charles Monitor and given the name Cosmos-Monitor un- 
der which it is still published. (53) 

Early in 1836 The Patriot was established at Cape Girar- 
deau by Edwin White. It was a Whig paper. Robert Stur- 
divant, who had been in the mercantile business in Cape Gir- 
ardeau, bought it in 1837, and was guilty, as he expressed it, 
of undertaking to edit and publish a political newspaper. At 
the end of two years he went back to his mercantile business 
and The Patriot was published successively by Robert Renfroe 
and Charles D. Cook. The latter sold it in 1842 to John W. 
Morris who changed the name to South Missourian. It sus- 
pended publication in 1846. (54) 

The Marion Journal, a Democratic paper, was published 
at Palmyra during 1836-37 by Frederick Wise of St. iLouis. 
The editor was General Lucian J. Eastin of Palmyra, who, 
during his career as a newspaper man, covering a period of 
nearly fifty years, was connected with more newspapers than 
any other editor in Missouri. 

General Eastin 's second newspaper was The Missouri Sen- 
tinel, which he established at Paris in 1837. He continued 
its publication until 1843 when it was purchased by Major 
James M. Bean .and John Adams, who changed the name to 
Paris Mercury, the name it bears today. Major Bean pub- 
lished The Mercury until his death on January 26, 1874. Dur- 
ing .this time he served two terms in the Lower House of the 
Missouri Legislature and at the time of his death was State 
Senator from the Seventh Senatorial District. Abraham G. 

53. History of St. Charles, Montgomery and Warren Counties, 
pp. 218-220. Files of Columbia Patriot and Columbia Statesman. 

54. History of Southeast Missouri, p. 417. Files of Statesman. 


Mason, who entered the Mercury office in 1845 as an appren- 
tice, became assistant publisher in 1851. He remained with 
the paper until 1886 and associated with himself at different 
times, William L. Smiley, Thomas P. Bashaw and Joseph Bur- 
nett. Alexander and Staveley are the present publishers. 

The Mercury was Whig in politics until the dissolution 
of that party in 1856 when it joined the ranks of the Demo- 
crats. It suspended once during its existence. When Colonel 
Joseph Porter raided North Missouri in 1861 and while the 
Federals occupied Paris, some of the soldiers who were print- 
ers, suppressed the regular edition and issued one to suit them- 
selves. The Mercury has always been published at Paris and 
during the last sixty-six years under its present name. (55) 

The Commercial Advertiser was started at Hannibal in 
November, 1837, by Jonathan Angevine, who founded the 
Missouri Courier at Palmyra in 1832, and J. S. Buchanan. 
They sold it in 1838 to Rev. ,S. D. Rice, a Methodist minister. 
The Commercial Advertiser not turning out happily on the 
financial side, Rev. Rice stopped its publication in J839. It 
was established solely to advertise the new town of Hannibal 
and is said to have fulfilled its mission. (56) 

The Political Examiner, a Whig paper, was commenced 
at Palmyra in 1837. Samuel Haydon was the publisher and 
William Cason, the editor. It suspended in 1839. (57) 

In the same year that these two Marion County papers 
were started, the Mormons commenced the publication of The 
Elder's Journal at the town , of Far West in Caldwell County. 
Far West had been founded in 1836 by some of the Mormons 
who had settled in Caldwell County after being driven out 
of Jackson County in 1832. The Journal was suppressed in 
1838. The trouble this time resulted largely from the election 
riots of August, 1838, when an attempt was made to keep the 
Mormons from voting. 

55. History of Monroe and Shelby Counties, p. 199 ff. Files of 
Columbia Statesman. 

56. History of Marion County, p. 898. 

57. Ibid, p. 833. 


The first newspaper in the Ozark region was the Ozark 
Standard. It was established at Springfield in 1838 by Cyrus 
W. Stark. He sold it in a short time to Mitchell and McKin- 
ney, who changed the name to The Ozark Eagle. It belonged 
to the radical wing of the Democratic party. A Whig 
contemporary says of it: "The noisy and crimsoned beaked 
Eagle of the Ozark Mountains is outrageously pugnacious 
and rabid as a mad cat." (58) Warren H. Graves, one of the 
first newspaper men of Southwest Missouri, became the publish- 
er in 1842 and changed the name to the Sprin^'fiel 1 Advertiser. 
As the Advertiser it numbered among its publishers, John S. 
Phelps, afterwards Governor of Missouri. After 1850 it be- 
came a strong anti-Benton paper. Its last issue was an extra 
published on April 12, 1861, to announce that Fort Sumpter 
had been fired upon. (59) 

It was not until 1838 that the capital of Missouri had 
grown important enough to support two newspapers. On 
March 31st of that year the Inquirer was started by General 
E. L. Edwards and John McCulloch. It was Whig in politics 
and adopted the following quotation from Martin Van Buren 
as its political guide : ' ' Coming into office the declared enemy 
of both a National Debt and a National Bank, I have ear- 
nestly endeavored to prevent a resort to either." 

McCulloch died within a year, and in 1840 General Ed- 
wards sold the paper to William Lusk who made it a power 
for Democracy in that section of the State. Lusk died in 
1844 and his son, James Lusk, published it until his death in 
1858. William H. Lusk then took charge of it and through 
its columns fearlessly advocated loyalty to the Union. The 
paper suspended in March, 1861, when Mr. Lusk entered the 
Union army where he attained the rank of major. (60) 

The Western Star was founded at Liberty in May, 1838, 

58. The Columbia Patriot, June 18, 1842. 

59. History of Springfield, Mo., by M. J. Hubble In Springfield 
Republican, July 4, 1909. Files of Columbia Patriot and Columbia 
Statesman . 

60. Files of the Inquirer. 


by John Rennie. In the fall of 1841 George Leader landed 
at Liberty and bought the Star, changing its name to Western 
Journal. Leader was from Pennsylvania and had worked in 
printing offices in Ohio and Kentucky while on his way to 
Missouri. William Eidenbaugh became his partner in 1842, 
coming from Bedford, Pennsylvania, for that purpose. They 
sold the Western Journal in the fall of 1844. It soon after- 
wards suspended publication. Leader went to Platte City 
and helped start the Argus while Ridenbaugh went to St. 
Joseph and founded the Gazette. (61) 

The second newspaper in Boonville was The Missouri 
Register, founded by W. T. Yeoman in July, 1839. It was es- 
tablished for the purpose of aiding the Democrats carry that 
section of Missouri in the campaign of 1840. It April, 1841, 
E. A. Robinson bought a half interest in it and in August, 
1843, Captain Ira Van Nortwick became the editor and pub- 
lisher. Captain Van Nortwick used its columns to vigorously 
oppose the policy of Senator Thomas H. Benton. It was af- 
terwards owned successively by Quisenberry, Price, Ward 
and Chilton. The last named published it until 1853. This 
was the year of the great temperance excitement in Missouri. 
B. T. Buie, in that year, became publisher of the Register and 
filled its columns exclusively with temperance discussions. It 
began to be unsuccessful financially and Buie sold the paper 
to Allen Hammond, but it soon suspended on account of a 
lack of patronage. (62) 

The pioneer paper of Callaway County is the Missouri 
Telegraph. It was founded at Fulton in 1839 by Warren 
Woodson, Jr., and was known then as The Banner of Liberty. 
Curd and Hammond bought it in January, 1842, and changed 
the name to Callaway Watchman. William A. Stewart be- 
came the editor in 1844 and gave it the name of Western Star. 
The Star continued to shine until the spring of 1845 and was 
decidedly Whig in politics. In that year it became the prop- 

61. Maryville Republican, Dec. 19, 1904. 

62. History of Howard and "Cooper Counties, p. 730. 


erty of J. B. Duncan and James M. Goggin, who changed the 
name to Pulton Telegraph. They sold it in 1850 to John B. 
Williams and he gave it the name it is published under today, 
The Missouri Telegraph. J. B. Williams entered the office of 
the Columbia Patriot as an apprentice in 1835, became jour- 
neyman printer on its successor the Columbia Statesman in 
1842, and in 1843 bought a half interest in it. Seven years 
later he was editing and publishing the paper with which he 
was so long identified, The Missouri Telegraph. He went to 
Mexico in 1857 and established the Mexico Ledger. Return- 
ing to Fulton in 1859 he again became identified with the 
Telegraph, and continued to edit and publish it until his death 
on April 6, 1882. He was succeeded by his son, Wallace Wil- 
liams, who published it until January 1, 1909, when it was 
bought by the Sun Printing Co., of Fulton, a r i 1 the two papers 
consolidated under the name Missouri Telegraph an-1 Weekly 
Sun. The Missouri Telegraph has never been publisher! out- 
side of Fulton, and for fifty-seven years it \vis under the con- 
trol of the Williams, father and son. (63) 

This record is surpassed by one other county newspaper, 
The Palmyra Spectator. The Spectator has been owned and 
controlled during the entire seventy years of its existence 
by members of the Sosey family. It was founded at Palmyra 
on August 3, 1839, by Jacob Sosey and was known then as 
The Missouri Whig and General Advertiser. A few years 
later the name was shortened to Missouri Whig. Mr. Sosey 
turned the management over to his son, Harper B. Sosey, in 
1859. For a period of four years, up to April 10, 1863, the 
founder of the paper was not known as its owner or editor, 
but he still controlled it. On that date he resumed manage- 
ment and changed the name to the Palmyra Spectator. Frank 
H. Sosty became a member of the firm in January, 1884. At 
the death of Jacob Sosey, Sept. 8, 1888, the firm became Sosey 

63. History of Callaway County, pp. 100-101. Missouri Tele- 
graph, Apr. 14, 1882. 


Brothers, the members being the present publishers, Frank H. 
and John M. Sosey. (64) 

One other current county newspaper dates back to 1839, 
The Howard County Advertiser. It was .started at Glasgow 
by W. B. Foster under the name Glasgow News. It was neu- 
tral in politics and had rather an obscure existence for several 
years. The editor changed the name to Howard County Ban- 
ner in September, 1848, and made it a Democratic paper. He 
sold it to W. B. Tombley who moved it to Fayette in 1853. 
The Columbia Statesman of May 13, 1853, says of it: "The 
Banner hitherto published at Glasgow by Mr. Tombly has 
been moved to Fayette. It continues a Democratic paper of 
the anti-Benton pro-Claib Jackson stripe, and is now edited 
by one of the cleverest and most ultra Democrats this side 
of sun down, Leland Wright, Esq." Mr. Tombly sold it in 
1858 to Randall and Jackson, who continued its publication 
until the breaking out of the Civil War when they entered the 
Confederate Army. The office was sold to Isaac Newton 
Houck who published the paper until 1864 under its present 
name, Howard County Advertiser. In the summer of that 
year the Federals destroyed the office. Mr. Houck went to 
Illinois and remained there until 1865 when he returned to 
Fayette and resumed the publication of the Advertiser. 
General John B. Clark became associated with him in its 
publication in 1868 and for ten months the paper was pub- 
lished under the firm name of Houck and Clark, when Houck 
sold his interest to General Clark. In 1871 Houck again pur- 
chased the Advertiser and published it until 1872 when it 
became the property of Charles J. Walden (65) present owner 
and publisher of the Boonville Advertiser. Mr. Walden suc- 
cessfully conducted the paper for a number of years. Subse- 
quent owners and editors were W. S. Gallemore. S. M. Yeo- 
man, M. B. Yeoman and L. B. White. Mr. White sold it to 
the present editor and proprietor, Henry T. Burckhartt, who 
took possession September 1, 1905. (66) 

(To be continued.) 

64~ The information in regard to the Spectator was furnished by- 
Mr. John Sosey. 

65 . History of Howard and Cooper Counties, p . 262-63 . Files or 
the Columbia Statesman. .. 

66. Howard County Advertiser, Jan. 4, 1906. 


The fact that a part of the Bicknell Journals had been re- 
published by the historical society in St. Louis was overlooked 
in selecting them for this number. 

The German-American Annals for September-October, 
1909, has the first part of a paper by Dr. Win. G. Bek, of the 
University of Missouri, on the Community at Bethel, Missouri, 
and its offspring at Aurora, Oregon, the same subject as the 
paper by him in the last volume of the Review. 

A rare Eugene Field item has been presented to the So- 
ciety by B. T. Galloway of the Department of Agriculture, 
through his sister, Mrs. Ida Cunningham of the University of 
Missouri. The title page is "College Songs. Missouri State 
University Columbia, 1873. Columbia, Mo. ; Missouri states- 
man book and job office print, 1874." It consists of 48 pages 
of selected and original college songs. "Amo. key of A," 
is by Eugene Field, and six are by his brother, Roswell M. 

As an indication of how important the Library of Con- 
gress considers the preservation of periodicals, it may be 
stated that it has lately issued a "Want List of Periodicals," 
not including newspapers, which makes a book of 241 pages. 
Eighty-one of the periodicals wanted were published in 

There is no dispute as to the benefits that an interna- 
tional language that was generally understood in all parts 
of the world would be. To supply this want various langua- 
ges have been formed, that of Esperanto being the best known, 
and most widely studied, there being twenty national socie- 
ties, thirty to forty journals printed in it, and nearly a thous- 
and organized societies studying it. It has its adherents in 
all countries in the world, and four international congresses 
have been held where all the addresses and the transaction 
of business has been in that language. The fifth congress 
will be held at Chautauqua in this country. While movements 

NOTES. 135 

have been directed for a universal language a more restricted 
effort has been that for a reformation in the spelling of the 
English, and ( a board has made various suggestions in this 
direction, which had the approval of President Roosevelt. 
Some of the suggestions have been generally adopted, and 
others will be. A more extensive change in the spelling is 
being advocated by Nikolas Aleshi of Kansas City, which 
he calls the "Virtuana System" or the "niu speling ex- 
periment." He has issued various circulars, and a map re- 
lating to it. The latter explains " "the eksperiment of the 
Virtuana lengueje;" it has a table with a center of "Fontalina 
Missouri and her didaktikal, " surrounded by the names of 
various cities of different States spelled according to his 
"system," Fontolina being his name for Kansas City; and 
a map of the "United States" shows the spelling of each ac- 
cording to the "niu speling. " 

The Missouri Folk-Lore Society held its fourth annual 
meeting December 18, 1909, at St. Louis, and the following 
officers were elected for 1910: 

President Miss Mary A. Owen, St. Joseph. 

Vice Presidents Dr. W. L. Campbell, Kansas City; Miss 
Mary A. Wadsworth, Columbia; Prof. J. L. Lowes, St. Louis. 

Secretary Prof. H. M. Belden, Columbia. 

Treasurer Miss Idress Head, St. Louis. 

Directors Miss Jennie M. A. Jones, St. Louis; Miss Vir- 
ginia E. Stevenson, St. Louis (to fill out unexpired term of 
Dr. F. A. Golder, resigned). 

The American Historical Association and a half dozen 
other associations held their annual meetings during holiday 
week in New York, with a larger attendance than usual, and 
with interesting programs. In listening to some of the papers 
one cannot avoid thinking that if a person is honored by 
being thought competent to write a paper for such an asso- 
ciation, and he does not have the voice or manner to properly 
delivery it he should get some other person to read it for 



The Society has lately obtained an interesting addition 
to its collection of manuscript material the proclamation is- 
sued by Gov. Fletcher following the adoption of the ordinance 
of Emancipation by the Missouri Convention of 1865. It is as 
follows, the signatures being by the Governor and Secretary of 
State : 

Executive Department. 

City of Jefferson, Jany llth 1865. 

"It having pleased Divine Providence to inspire to 
righteous action the sovereign people of Missouri, who, 
through their delegates in convention assembled, with proper 
legal authority and solemnity, have this day 

Ordained, "That hereafter, in this State, there shall be 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except in punish- 
ment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed; and all persons held to service or labor as slaves are 
hereby declared free." 

Now, therefore, by authority of the supreme power vested 
in me by the Constitution of Missouri, I, Thomas C. Fletcher, 
Governor of the State of Missouri, do proclaim, that hence- 
forth and forever no person within the jurisdiction of this 
State shall be subject to any abridgement of liberty, except 
such as the law may prescribe for the common good, or know 
any master but God. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name 
and caused the Great Seal of the State to be affixed, at the 
City of Jefferson, this llth day of January, A. D., 1865. 

By the Governor: (Signed) 


Secretary of State." 


For love of You, by Clyde Edwin Tuck. Indianapolis, 
B. F. Bowen & Co., 1909, (c. 1908). Port. 87 p. 

The author was born and reared near Snrin Afield, Mis- 
souri, but is now temporarily in Indiana. His book of poetry 
is issued in a very neat and attractive style. The work will 
soon be followed by a novel on "The Bald Knobbers." 

The following will remind the readers of other such nights 
in their own experience : 


On such a night 

The stars shown bright 
O'er fields and hills of sparkling snow; 

The saffron moon 

Arose, and soon 
The fitful winds all ceased to blow; 

'Twas by the sea 

You stood with me 
When first we loved, that crystal night 

Just you and I 

Beneath the sky 
The happy world ne'er seemed so bright! 

On such a night, 

How sweet the light 
Streamed o'er the sea, one year ago! 

Now hand in hand 

Again we stand; 
About us lies the sparkling snow; 

It seemed to me 

No night could be 
So fair here by the sleeping sea; 

Thy heart is mine, 

My heart is thine, 
My love, and shall forever foe! 

On such a night 

My heart beat light; 
Although the world was hushed in snow, 

'Twas sweeter far 

Than nights that are 
Born when mild summer breezes blow; 

Like burning brands 

Our clasp of hands 
Love's flame then kindled in my breast, 

And since that night 

When stars shown bright 
The happy world is full of rest! 


The Gentry family in America, 1676 to 1909, including 

notes on the following families By Richard Gentry, 

Ph. B. M. S., Kansas City, Mo. New York, The Grafton Press, 
1909 . 406 p. 44 pits. Price $5 . 25 . 

The Gentry family is one of the largest in the United 
States, and its beginning in this country dates back to 1684, 
when Nicholas and Samuel Gentry settled in Virginia. It 
has become numerous in that State and also in Missouri, the 
Carolinas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, and other 
States. The Gentry pioneers marched across the country, 
established homes as farmers, planters, stock raisers, soldiers 
and professional men, and have impressed themselves indelli- 
bly on the history of the country. 

The author of the above book is descended from Nicholas 
Gentry, and from him to his grandson there are nine genera- 
tions as follows: 

I. Nicholas, immigrant. 

II. Nicholas, of Albemarle Co. Va. 

III. David, of Albemarle Co., Va. 

IV. Eichard, Rev. soldier, of Madison Co., Va. 

V. Gen. Richard, Columbia. MO 

VI. Richard Harrison, Columbia, Mo. 

VII. Richard, Kansas City, Mo. 

VIII. Richard Hardin, Mobile, Ala. 

IX. Richard Blythe, Mobile, Ala. 

Six Richard Gentry s in succession. Richard Gentry, 
the Revolutionary soldier and Kentucky pioneer, settled 
in Madison Co., Ky., in 1786. Married Jane Harris 
in Virginia and reared twelve children. She died 
and he married Nancy Guthrie and reared seven more, 
altogether nineteen children, sixteen sons and three daugh- 
ters; eight of these sons settled in Missouri. Reu- 
ben E., born in Virginia in 1785 settled in Missouri in 1809, 
and is the ancestor of most of the Pettis County Gentrys; 
David Gentry settled in Boone County and later in Monroe 
County, Mo.; Rev. Christy Gentry in Rails Co., Mo.; General 


Richard Gentry in Old Franklin in 1816, and in 1820 was one 
of the organizers and owners of the town of Columbia, where 
he lived until 1837, when he was killed in the Florida war, 
commanding a Missouri regiment; Joshua Gentry settled in 
Marion Co., Mo., was president and General Manager of the 
Hannibal and St. Joe R. R., which he built; James Gentry 
settled in Boone, but later moved to Galena, 111., where he 
died; Rodes Gentry settled in Rails Co., and William James 
Gentry in Ray Co., Mo. The balance of the family remained 
in Kentucky. Nicholas Gentry of the llth generation has 
seven sons, and their descendants are distributed all over 
the United States. The book is well and beautifully made, 
and can be obtained from the author at 2600 Troost Avenue, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

A History of Gmndy County [Missouri!. By James 
Everett Ford. Trenton, Missouri. 1908. 

This is one of the best of the County Histories. The his- 
torical part consisting of 233 pages is a well selected and well 
written record of the history of the county from its earliest 
days to the present. The balance of the book of 875 pages 
is taken up with the biographical sketches, and these, while 
not of the general interest of the other parts of the work, are 
of value, and will preserve much geneological data. 

Exercises at the inauguration of Albert Ross Hill, LL. D., 
as President of the University, December 10 and 11, 1908. 
Columbia, 1909. 

This preserves in fitting form the addresses of Gov. Folk; 
Ex-Gov. Francis; President Schurman, of Cornell University; 
Chancellor Kirkland of Vanderbilt University; President 
Maclean of the State University of Iowa ; State Superintendent 
of Schools of Missouri, Gass; President Thompson of Tarkio 
College ; Wm. Walton Wright, representative of the students ; 
Prof. John C. Jones, representing the faculty; the addresses 
of President Schurman, on The ideal of a University in its 
historical development and modern significance; and the in- 
augural address of President Hill. 


Recollections of a Fire Insurance Man, including his ex- 
perience in U. S. Navy (Mississippi squadron) during the 
Civil war. By Robert S. Critchell of Chicago. Chicago, A. 
C. McClurg & Co., 1909. 164 p. 5 pits, of portraits, &c. 
Price $1.25. 

The gift of this book was especially acceptable because it 
was by a former resident of St. Louis, and so is a part of the 
bibliography of Missouri biography, and also that it is in- 
cluded in the bibliography of the Civil war, the author having 
been a spectator of the fighting in St. Louis at the time of the 
capture of Camp Jackson, and a witness of other war scenes. 

The Story of a Century. A brief historical sketch and 
exposition of the religious movement inaugurated by Thomas 
and Alexander Campbell, 1809-1909. By J. H. Garrison. St. 
Louis, Christian Publishing Company, 1909. 278 p. 8 pits. 
Price $1.00 net. 

The above is a new book by the editor of "The Christian 
Evangelist," a Missouri author whose publications number 
more than a score. This one was of special interest in con- 
nection with the Centennial celebrated at Pittsburg during 
the fall of 1909. It furnishes a brief statement and exposition 
of the movement started by Alexander Campbell and of the 
progress that this movement has made during the century. 
The style is clear and simple, and the work is a valuable one 
to the religious history of the country. 

Register of the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of 
Missouri, 1907-09, compiled by Henry Cadle, Registrar. St. 
Louis, [1909.] 

Very appropriately the Society of Colonial "Wars issues 
a finely printed and bound register of 148 pages, and 87 
plates, with photographs of more than that number of mem- 
bers of the Society in Missouri. The work is of historical 
value for more than to simply give a list of the members of 
the Society. 


Radioactivity of the thermal waters of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, by Herman Schlundt and Richard B. Moore, 
Washington, D. C., 1909. Bull. No. 395 U. 3. OPO! Surv. 

Dialectic constans of the halogen hydrids, by Oscar C. 
Schaffer and Herman Schlundt. Reprint from Journal of 
Physical Chemistry, December, 1909. 

The above are two of the late publications of Dr. Schlundt 
of the University of Missouri. He has bep.omo Q nrominent 
authority on the subject of radium and radioactivity. 


DR. JOHN H. BRITTS was born November 1, 1836, at 
Ladoga, Indiana. His grandfather came from ftprmany in 
1754, and the family lived in Pennsylvania and Virginia until 
1832, then coming to Indiana, and in 1857 to Henry County, 
Missouri. He studied medicine before the Civil war, and at 
the outbreak of the war he became Captain of Company B, 
Third Missouri State Guards. Afterwards he raised a regi- 
ment in Cass County and became its surgeon, serving in Mis- 
sissippi and Tennessee. At Vicksburg, June 9, 1863, while 
on duty at the City hospital, he was wounded by a 15-inch 
shell, thrown by the Porter fleet, which exploded hi his room. 
This carried away his right leg. 

In 1865 he returned to Clinton and practiced medicine 
there until his death. In 1882 he was elected State Senator 
to the 32d General Assembly, and two years after to the 33d 
General Assembly. He succeeded in passing a bill for the 
creation of a geological survey, and was appointed one of 
the managers of the Bureau of Geology and Mines by Gov. 
Francis, and four years later for another four years' term 
by Gov. Stone. He was much interested in geological matters, 
and made several collections in paleontology, the "Fossil 
Flora of the Lower Coal Measures of Missouri," published 
by the Government, being written largely from collections 
made by him in Henry County, the fern and other vegetable 


fossils from some of its coal banks not being surpassed by 
those from any other part of the world. 

Dr. Britts was married November 1, 1865, to Miss Anne 
E. Lewis, whose grandparents on both sides came to Upper 
Louisiana when it was under Spanish domination. During 
the Civil war her father was living in Cass County, and being 
on the southern side was evicted under the "Order No. 11." 

For some months Dr. Britts was in failing health, and 
November 14, 1909, he passed away, universally mourned in 
the community that had known him so long, and his body 
was laid away under Masonic auspices. 

Mills, Lincoln County, Missouri, January 13, 1830, and died 
at Potosi, Missouri, November 14, 1909. He was a grandson 
of Ambrose Dudley, who was a captain in the Revolutionary 
war, and removed from Virginia to Kentucky, May 17, 1786, 
and upon his arrival at Bryan Station, five miles Aat of Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, he built an "Old School Baptist Meeting 
House, ' ' and was its first pastor. He was succeeded as pastor 
by his son, Thomas Parker Dudley, the father and son being 
pastor of that church continuously for one hundred years and 
one month. The Castleman family came to Missouri in Octo- 
ber, 1828, from Woodford County, Kentucky, and located in 
Lincoln County. Lewis, the father of the subject of this 
sketch moved to Washington County in 1842, and from 1848 
till his death the latter resided in Potosi. In 1861 during the 
Civil war he organized a cavalry company of Home Guards, 
and was its captain. In 1862 he was elected sheriff of the 
county, and later was the collector. He married Miss Sallie 
Boyce Mcllvaine November 28, 1865, and of seven children 
born to them only one is now living Mrs. Anna M. Smith 
of Oakland, California. Captain Castleman was probably 
more conversant with the history of Washington County than 
any other person, and it is said that at one time he knew 
every man and woman in the county. He was an uncle of 
Henry C. Bell of Potosi, one of the trustees of this Society. 


HON. DAVID A. DE ARMOND, Representative in Con- 
gress from the Sixth Missouri District, was burned to death at 
his home in Butler, Missouri, and with him his grandson, 
David A. DeArmond, Jr., son of James A. DeArmond, editor 
of the Bates County Democrat and Adjutant General of the 
State under the administration of Governor Folk. He was a 
member of the State Senate in the 30th General Assembly, 
1879, and reelected to the 31st General Assembly. He also 
held the offices of Circuit Judge and Supreme Court Commis- 
sioner. Judge DeArmond was born in Blair County, Pennsyl- 
vania March 18, 1844, and brought up on a farm; 
educated in the common schools and at Dickinson 
Seminary at Williamsport ; was Presidential Elector 
in 1884; was elected to the Fifty-second Congress 
as a Democrat, and has been reelected to each Con- 
gress to the present time. He was one of the most prominent 
leaders of his party, and loved by members of all parties. 

CHARLES GILDEHAUS was born and lived all his life 
in St. Louis, and for twenty-seven years was the senior mem- 
ber of a wholesale grocery house. He was a graduate of 
Washington University, and was well known in literary as 
well as in business circles. His library was said to be one of 
the most complete of the private libraries of the city. He 
published several works: "Hester of the Fields," a story 
with its plot laid in the Ozarks; "In Rhyme and Time:" "In 
the Ozarks;" "Die Rebellin;" "Aeneas," a drama; and "Die 
Musen am Mississippi," plays. He was 53 years old at the 
time of his death, November 26, 1909. 

WILLIAM GODFREY, born in Ireland, the son of a ma- 
jor in the English army, came to St. Louis in 1859. During 
the Civil war he served in the 47th Illinois Regiment. For 
years he was Superintendent of the Sunday School of Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and had been a member of the 
city Board of Education. He was a member of the Forty- 
third General Assembly of Missouri, 1905, and was the author 


of the breeders' racing bill passed at that session. He died 
in St. Louis, October 29th, at the age of 74 years. 

WM. TORREY HARRIS, author of a number of books 
while living in St. Louis, and afterwards, died in Providence, 
R. I., November 5, 1909. He was born in Killingly, Conn., in 
1835, and from 1867 to 1880 was Superintendent of the public 
schools of St. Louis. From 1889 to 1906 he was United States 
Commissioner of Education and received from the Carnegie 
Foundation its highest rate of pension, $3,000 per year. While 
in St. Louis he started the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 
which became a very prominent publication in its field. 

MRS. MARY MOODY celebrated the one hundredth anni- 
versary of her birth September 10, died November 15, 1909, 
at Monett, Missouri. 

HON. WESLEY A. JACOBS, who was a Senator from 
the Fifth District in the 31st General Assembly, 1881, and re- 
elected to the 32d, 33d and 34th General Assemblies, died 
suddenly at Norfolk, Virginia, November 20, 1909. 

GEORGE E. BOHLEY, a member of the House in the 
43d General Assembly of Missouri, 1905-06, died in St. Louis 
November 13, 1909. He was born in St. Lnm'o ^ uca ted In 
the public schools, for eleven years a deputy circuit clerk in 
St. Louis, and politically a Republican, died of pulmonary 
disease at the age of thirty-five years. 

REV. DR. ROBERT AFTON HOLLAND, rector emeritus 
of St. George's chapel of Christ Church Cathedral, noted 
churchman, philanthropist, preacher and author, died in St. 
Louis, December 30, 1909. In 1874-79, Dr. Holland, with Wil- 
liam T. Harris, Lieut. Gov. Brokmeyer and others, was a mem- 
ber of the German Philosophy Club and published the Journal 
of Speculative Philosophy, later issued by the Concord 
School of Philosophy, which became world-wide famous. At 
a later period he organized the Social Science Club of which 
such men as R. Graham Frost, Conde Pallen and Isaac H. 


Lionberger were members and active participants. His lec- 
tures before the University of Michigan were published in a 
book called "The Commonwealth of Man." He was born in 
Nashville, Tenn., June 1, 1844, and in his teens became a 
Methodist minister, and at the breaking out of the Civil War 
was a Confederate chaplain. Later he was pastor of the larg- 
est Methodist Church in Baltimore, and editor of the Balti- 
more Christian Advacate. In 1872 he became a minister of 
the Episcopal Church, and rector of St. George's Church in 
St. Louis. In 1879 he was rector of Trinity Church in Chicago, 
and in 1886 moved to New Orleans, soon after returning to 
St. Louis. During the last two years he did much literary 
work, completing a volume which is not yet published. 

HON. DE WITT CLINTON LEACH, one of the founders 
of the Republican party, and a member of Congress from 
Michigan for three terms, the editor of the Springfield Patriot- 
Advertiser, died December 21, 1909. 

GEN. DANIEL H. McINTYRE was born in Callaway 
County, Missouri, May 5, 1833. At the beginning of the Civil 
War he was a student in Westminster College at Fulton, but 
left it to organize a company for the Confederate army, and 
of which he was elected captain. The college, however, gradu- 
ated him after he left for service in the war. At the Wilson 
Creek battle he lost one-half of his men, was himself wounded, 
made prisoner and kept such for nine months. In 1871 he 
settled at Mexico, Missouri, admitted to the bar and elected 
prosecuting attorney in 1872, and in 1874 was elected Senator 
from Audrain, Boone and Callaway Counties, known as the 
ABC district. In 1876 and 1878 he was a member of the 
House and in 1880 he was elected Attorney General of the 
State. During his term of office he recovered for the State 
more than three million dollars from the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railroad Company. Remaining in Jefferson City after 
his term of office he was again a member of the House from 
1887 to 1891. At one time he was chairman of the State 
Democratic Committee, but on the adoption of the free coin- 


age platform in 1896 he became a Republican. For the past 
ten years he was almost blind, and for some years had been 
an invalid, and on January 1, 1910 he died. 

PROF. JOHN T. VAUGHN, of Kirksville Normal School, 
a member of this Society, suddenly died at his home in Kirks- 
ville October 14, 1909, and since the burial many of his friends 
think that he was poisoned. The body will probably be ex- 
hmed yet for a chemical analysis. 


Semi-Annual Meeting, St. Louis, Dec. 28-29, 1909. 

H. R. Tucker, St. Louis, President. 

J. L. Shouse, Kansas City, Eugene Fair, Kirksville, 

Vice President. Secretary-Treasurer. 

N. M. Trenholme, Columbia, Editor. 

The first session was called to order by the President, Mr. 
Tucker. The opening address was given by Wm. Schuyler, St. 
Louis. His subject was "The Eternity of Rome." 

Mr. Schuyler 's paper was followed by one by Miss Ellen 
B. Atwater, St. Louis, on "What Topics in Ancient and 
Medieval History Need Special Emphasis to Prepare the Pupil 
for the Modern Period. " Following this was to be a review 
of recent books by Professor N. M. Trenholme, Columbia. Dr. 
Trenholme was unable to be present and so that part of the 
program had to be omitted. The two papers just mentioned 
were thrown open for discussion. The discussion was spirited. 
Among those taking part were Dr. Usher, St. Louis; Mr. Vio- 
lette, Kirksville; Mr. Schuyler St. Louis and Mr. Little, Lex- 

The attendance at this session was fairly good. After a 
motion, which was carried, that one member of the society be 
appointed to consult with other societies with regards to the 
time and place of meeting in the spring the society adjourned 
until Wednesday afternoon. 

Wednesday Afternoon. 

Mr. Tucker in the chair. The program was carried out as 
advertised. Miss Grace Graves, Hannibal, read a paper on 
' ' Geographic Influences in American History . ' ' 

This was followed by a lively discussion participated in 
by Mr. Tucker, St. Louis; Mr. Baker, Joplin; Dr. Loeb, Co- 
lumbia; Mr. Johnson, Richmond; Mr. Duncan, Warrenton; 
Miss Hodge, Kirkwood ; Mr. Little, Lexington ; Miss Newman, 
St. Louis. 


Following this was a paper by Miss Fannie Bennett, St. 
Louis, on "Victories of War vs. Victories of Peace." 

In order that a definite communication might be made 
with other societies with regard to the time and place of meet- 
ing of the third annual meeting, a motion was carried that 
the society meet at Kirksville the second Saturday in May 

Mr. S. A. Baker, Joplin, then read a paper on ' ' The Future 
Citizen and Civics Instruction in the High Schools." Interest- 
ing discussions followed in which Miss Atwater, Dr. Loeb and 
Mr. Baker took leading parts. 

A business meeting followed. The minutes of the last 
meeting were read and accepted. The financial report of the 
secretary was also accepted. The vice president of the society 
having left the State, Mr. J. M. Wood, Fredericktown, was 
chosen in his place. Mr. J. L. Shouse of Westport was chosen 
a member of Educational Council for a term of three years. 
A motion was carried that in case of any doubt about the 
time and place of the next meeting the matter should be set- 
tled by the Executive Council. 

Mr. Violette, the chairman of the Committee on High 
Schools, then made a preliminary report. This chairman 
also made some remarks about the committee on teaching in 
the Elementary Schools. The chairman of the Elementary 
School Committee having left the State, it was agreed that 
the president should appoint another chairman. 

A motion was then carried that the society leave the time 
of the meeting of the next State Teachers' Association to the 
Executive Committee of the association. The meeting then 
ajourned. The consensus of opinion seemed to be that the 
society is just beginning its day of usefulness. It is much 
to be deplored that persons who are often very enthusiastic 
when on the program are conspicuous by their absence when 
left off. The society needs a larger membership. It has now 
a paid membership of about forty. Its funds are meager. 
During the last year it has been permitted to do some very 
useful work through the kindness of State Superintendent 
Gass. EUGENE FAIR, Secretary. 


VOL. 4. APRIL, 1910. NO. 3. 


The political campaign of 1840 excited more than the usual 
amount of interest in Missouri. The Whig candidate for 
president was General William Henry Harrison, "the hero of 
Tippecanoe . ' ' The Democratic candidate was Martin Van 
Buren. The campaign was known as the "log cabin, coon and 
hard cider campaign. " At political meetings the Whigs dis- 
played minature log cabins, real coons and hard cider. The 
Democrats, followers of Andrew Jackson, "Old Hickory," had 
hickory boughs and game cocks for political emblems. 

The press of the state voiced the excitement of the people 
and was, with few exceptions, intensely partisan. Our Mis- 
souri editors in their political discussions, have never been 
characterized by any great deference to an opponent's opinions 
or by a charitable view of his personal shortcomings. In 
this campaign their editorials were of an exceedingly stren- 
uous and personal nature and the columns of their papers were 
ornamented with coons and cocks fighting, the fur or feathers 
flying according to their sympathies. 

A number of new papers were established to assist in the 
contest. The Argus was published at Boonville during the 
heat of the campaign by Ward and Chilton . It advocated the 
claims of Martin Van Buren for president. As soon as the 


campaign was over and Van Buren defeated, the Argus sus- 
pended. (1) 

The most noted paper established in 1840 was The Ex- 
press, published at Lexington. It was the pioneer paper of 
Lafayette county. The money necessary to publish it was 
furnished by John and Robert Aull, Eldridge Burden, Samuel 
Stramke and James Graham. Charles Patterson was the 
editor. He soon became the proprietor and took as his part- 
ner in the enterprise William Musgrove, Sr. They sold the 
paper in the fall of 1852 to J. M. Julian and John R. Gaunt. 
William Musgrove continued as editor and in 1854 again 
bought a part interest in it. Walter M. Smallwood bought 
the interest of Musgrove and Guant in 1856. General Richard 
C. Vaughan bought Smallwood 's interest in 1859 but sold out 
in 1860 and entered the Union army. The Express suspended 
in 1861 on account of hard times. This left Lexington with- 
out a newspaper and in 1862 in order to supply the demand 
for a paper, S. S. Earl took the press and materials of the 
Express and commenced the publication of the Central Union. 
Henry K. Davis was the editor. The old name, Express, was 
resumed in 1866. Henry Davis and George Vaughan were the 
proprietors. The editor was John Laughborough, well known 
as editor of the St. Louis Times and afterwards as surveyor- 
general of Missouri. Henry Davis became the sole proprietor 
in the fall of 1866 and changed the name to The Caucasian. 
He sold it in 1867 to Jacob M. Julian, Ethan Allen and William 
Musgrove, Jr., practical newspaper men. Ethan 
Allen was a descendant of the Ethan Allen of Ticonderoga 
fame. The Caucasian was published until 1875 when it was 
consolidated with the Intelligencer, a paper which had been 
recently started at Lexington. 

Among the noted editors of the Express and Caucasian 
were Colonel Jacob T. Child, legislator, diplomat and author, 
whose editorials were of the scholarly, dignified type, and Col. 
Peter or "Pat" Donan. During Col. Donan's editorship the 

1. History of Howard and Cooper counties, p. 730. 


paper belonged to that branch of the Democratic faith styled 
in his own phraseology "red hot." The Caucasian claimed 
the honor of nominating Horace Greeley for president. It is 
said Donau made a special trip East in order to induce Greeley 
to accept the nomination. Returning to Lexington he issued 
a special edition of The Caucasian with glaring headlines: 
"Horace Greeley, the devil or anybody to beat Grant." 

Col. Donan was a fearless, versatile writer. 
His articles in defense of the Confederacy were 
of such force that the St. Louis Globe-Democrat called 
him "the sounding brass on the tinkling cymbal of the rebel 
Democracy of Missouri." He was never "reconstructed" 
and for some years after the war was a contributor to St. 
Louis and New York papers, using the pen name "Col. R. E. 
Bel." (2) 

The year 1840 marks the establishment of the first news- 
paper at Independence, The Chronicle. Joseph Lancaster was 
publisher. He sold a part interest to R. Vinton Kennedy in 
June, 1841. They changed the name to Western Missourian. 
J. S. Webb and A. French bought it in July, 1843, and named 
it The Western Expositor. It became The Missouri Common- 
wealth in 1850 and The Occidental Messenger in 1851. J. W. 
H. Patton was the editor and proprietor. He sold it to Wil- 
liam Peacock, who made it a strong Whig paper. He stopped 
its publication during the war but revived it in June, 1865, 
under its old name, Occidental Messenger and published it a 
number of years. (3. ) 

The first Whig paper of Southwest Missouri was The 
Osage Banner. It was established at Warsaw in 1840 by 
Ewen Cameron, of the Scotch clan of Camerons. It met with 
indifferent success as the country was strongly Democratic. 
He took a Mr. Bevin as his partner in 1842 and changed the 
politics of the paper to Democratic. It was still unsuccessful 

2. History of Lafayette county by William H. Childs. Personal 
recollections of Prof. G. C. Broadhead. 

3. Files of the Columbia Patriot and Statesman, 1841-1865. 


and Mr. Bevin decided to drown himself. It is said he actually 
walked into the Osage river up to his neck, but changing his 
mind walked out and left the country. The paper ceased 
publication. (4) 

The Pacific Monitor was started at Hannibal on March 9, 
1840. J. S. Buchanan was the publisher and C. D. Mere- 
dith, the editor. They changed the name to Journal and Price 
Current in January, 1841, and in January, 1842, to Hannibal 
Journal and Native American. The secondary title was soon 
dropped and the paper was known as the Hannibal Journal. 
Orion Clemens, a brother of Mark Twain, became the editor 
and publisher in 1850 . He changed the name to The Western 
Union and published it until the fall of 1853 when it was 
merged into the Hannibal Messenger. (5) 

An interesting paper was commenced at Hermann in 1840 
by Muhl and Strehle . It was Die Licht-Freund, a philosophi- 
cal journal, as its name indicates. In connection with its ar- 
ticles on philosophy, it advocated the abolition of slavery. 
Muhl furnished the brains and Strehle the money necessary to 
run the paper. But the people were not interested at that 
time either in philosophical questions or the abolition of 
slavery and the paper ceased publication in 1842. (6) 

The Olive Branch was started at Bowling Green in 1841. 
It was appropriately named, judging by the prospectus pub- 
lished in the Salt Eiver Journal, July 10, 1841. The publisher, 
George Price, says:, "The subscriber feeling a distaste for the 
stormy and disagreeable life of a political editor has concluded 
to attempt the establishment of a periodical devoted to agricul- 
ture, and religious and moral essays." Agriculture was made 
the chief interest of the paper because the editor recognized it 
as the "hand-maid to religion and morality. " 

The Olive Branch flourished and by November had grown 

4. History of Benton county by James M. Lay, p. 70. 

5. History of Marion county, p. 899. 

6. Bek, W. G., the German Settlement Society of Philadelphia 
and its Colony, Hermann, Missouri, p. 163. 


to twice its original size. It was published until the begin- 
ning of the Civil War. (7) 

The Herald was published at Liberty during 1841-42 by 
James H. Darlington, still remembered by some of the older 
editors through his long connection with the Grand River 
Chronicle. (8) 

The Missourian was started at Warsaw in 1841 by Samuel 
H. Whippie, firsc member of the legislature from Benton coun- 
ty. He served in the Eleventh and Twelfth General Assem- 
blies and was noted for his ability and sound judgment. He 
died in 1845 and his paper ceased publication. (9) 

At the same time another paper was published at Warsaw, 
The Signal, by a Mr. Sharp. It was the first distinctly anti- 
Mormon paper published in the state. It was discontinued 
in the summer of 1846 for want of support. (10) 

The first paper published in the famous Platte Purchase, 
which Bayard Taylor named "the Eden of the American con- 
tinent," was the Platte Eagle, established early in 1842 by E. 
Sangston Wilkinson at Platte City. Allen McLean, one of the 
leading men of Western Missouri, was the editor. He soon 
gave the paper more than a local reputation by his able and 
vigorous editorials. Wilkerson moved The Eagle to Weston 
in December, 1842. His paper was now ambitiously styled 
The Platte Eagle and Weston Commercial Gazette. 

Steamboat traffic on the Missouri river stopped before he 
got his winter's supply of paper. He went on horseback to 
Boonville, a distance of nearly 125 miles, to see if he could 
get some paper there . He got only a small amount and issued 
the Eagle as a handbill until the river opened up in the spring. 
His supply of paper arrived by steamer April 13, 1843, and The 
Eagle was issued regularly. Allen McLean bought it on 
March 1, 1844, and changing the name to Platte Argus moved 
it back to Platte City. Martin L. Hardin was associated with 

7. History of Pike county, p. 487. 

8. Annals of Platte county, p. 44. 

9. Jefferson City Inquirer, 1841-45. 
10. Columbia Statesman, 1841-46. 


him in its publication. It was edited in 1849 by General 
James W. Denver, afterwards Territorial Governor of Colo- 
rado and for whom Denver was named. E. Sangston Wilkin- 
son, its first publisher, bought it again. William H. Adams 
was his partner. Adams sold his interest to Wilkinson in 1854 
and went to Kansas to publish The Kansas Herald. William 
F. Wiseley bought The Argus in 1856 and through its columns 
strongly advocated making Kansas a slave state. His 
brother, L. A. Wisely, was associated with him in its publica- 
tion in 1857. They sold it to Clark and Bourne on June 21, 
1862, and entered the Confederate army. The new proprietors 
changed its name to Platte County Conservator. It was still 
a pro-slavery paper and was suppressed by the Federal au- 
thorities. The proprietors were banished to Iowa but were 
permitted to return under a heavy bond and republished the 
Conservator. They continued its publication through 
1864. (11) 

The Grand River Country composed of that section of 
Missouri now included in the counties of Putnam, Sullivan, 
Linn, Mercer, Grundy, Livingston, Harrison, Daviess, Worth, 
Gentry and Chariton, was without a newspaper until 1843. In 
that year James H. Darlington established the Grand River 
Chronicle. Darlington, noted for his keen sense of humor 
and ready wit, made his paper one of the best known and 
most influential in North Missouri. He died in the St. Joseph 
Insane Asylum in 1896. (12) His son, E. S. Darlington, took 
charge of the Cnronicle in 1855 and published it until 1860 
when it was suppressed by the Federal authorities because it 
advocated secession. 

Darlington sold the press and material to Gen. L. J. 
Eastin who had been at Leavenworth, Kansas, publishing the 
Kansas Herald under a cottonwood tree. Gen. Eastin pub- 
lished the paper under its old name but made it conservative 
in political matters. He sold it in 1866 to Col. J. T. Asper. 

11. Annals of Platte county, p. 45 ft'. 

12. Annals of Platte county, p 44. 


of Ohio, who had extreme abolition views. Col. Asper changed 
the name to Chillicothe Spectator. It became the Chillicothe 
Tribune in 1869 and is still published under that name. Since 
1869 it has numbered among its editors and proprietors E. J. 
Marsh, D. L. Ambrose, F. E. Riley, B. F. Beazell and its 
present editor and proprietor, G. T. Sailor. (13) 

The Pilot was started at Glasgow in 1843 by J. T. Ques- 
enberry. It was a Democratic paper and was published a 
few years with indifferent success. Its last publisher was 
James A. DeCourcy. (14) 

The fourth newspaper venture at Warsaw was the Osage 
Yeoman, a Democratic paper, established by W. T. Yeoman 
in 1843. He sold it in 1845 to Ewen W. Cameron. 
This was Cameron's second newspaper. L. J. Ritchie 
was associated with him in its publication. A few months 
later they changed the name to Saturday Morning Visitor and 
made it neutral in politics. It experienced another change in 
name and politics in 1848 and became the Warsaw Weekly 
Whig. Cameron sold his interest to Ritchie in 1850. He pub- 
lished it as The Democratic Review until July, 1853, when 
Murray and Leach became the proprietors. They named it 
The Southwest Democrat, the publication of which was con- 
tinued until the beginning of the Civil War when the pro- 
prietors abandoned the office and entered the Confederate 
army. Mr. Leach was killed at the battle of Cole Camp, Mo. 

This paper had reached an extended circulation and had 
great influence in that section of Missouri. Its editor for a 
number of years was Mack L. Means, a writer of more than 
ordinary ability. It is said he did as much as any other man 
in the state to mold public sentiment for the South. Under 
the proprietorship of Murray and Leach the columns of the 
Democrat were filled with measures for the improvement of 
the Osage river, especially to navigate it and use its water 

13. History of Caldwell and Livingston counties, p. 1050. Files 
of Columbia Statesman. 

14. Boonville Register, 1844-45. 


power for manufactures. "In the course of time we see no 
reason why manufactures should not spring up at the different 
locks of the Osage, as noted as those of Lowell, or Fall River." 
The power of the Osage has not yet been utilized but the "new 
Missouri" may see the dream of these journalists realized. (15) 

The Herman Volkablatt was founded in October, 1843, by 
Edward Meuhl and C. P. Strehle. It was known then as Die 
Wochenblatt. Mr. Meuhl died in 1854 and the paper came 
into the possession of Jacob Graf. Mr. Graf changed the 
name to Hermanner Volksblatt and edited and published it 
until his death in 1870. Mrs. Graf took up the work of her 
husband and published the paper until 1873 when she sold 
it to Charles Eberhardt, but bought it back in less than a 
year. At the same time she became the owner of the Gas- 
conade County Advertiser which had just been started by 
Eberhardt. These two papers were published by Mrs. Graf, 
assisted by Joseph Leising, until 1880 when her two sons, 
under the firm name of Graf Brothers, succeeded to the own- 
ership of both papers. They also bought The Courier and 
consolidated it with the Advertiser. They still publish both 
papers, The Advertiser-Courier in English and the Volksblatt 
in German. (16) 

An insignificant paper was published at Boonville during 
1843-44. It was the Weekly Saturday Museum, edited by 
J. M. Crone. The editor made a specialty of attacking what 
he called the fashionable follies of the day. (17) 

In the meantime two factions had sprung up in the Demo- 
cratic party. One favored "hard" money, gold and silver, 
and wished the re-election of Benton to the U. S. Senate. 
These Democrats were called "hards." The "softs" were 
Democrats who favored a large issue of paper money and 
opposed Benton 's re-election. 

15. History of Benton county, p. 70. Files of Columbia States- 

16. History of Franklin, Jefferson, Washington, Crawford and 
Gasconade counties, p. 675. 

17. Columbia Statesman, 1843-44. 


The Whigs, encouraged by this division in the Demo- 
cratic ranks, put forth every effort to carry the is t ate in the 
campaign of 1844. 

Recognizing the power of the press, they started a num- 
ber of new papers ; and for the first time in the history of the 
press and Missouri politics, distinctly campaign sheets were 
issued by the Whig editors in different parts of the State. 
These campaign papers were issued from May until the elec- 
tion in November. They were given such significant names 
as "Harry of the West," "The Mill Boy," both favorite 
designations of Henry Clay, "The Coon Hunter," etc. 
Probably the best known of these papers, published outside of 
St. Louis, was Harry of the West. (18) It was issued weekly 
from May 3d until October 18, 1844, from the press of the 
Lexington Express. Its motto was "Let the light shine let 
the principles of the Whig party be known." Single copies 
sold for 50 cents. Its articles defending Whig principles were 
ably written and widely copied. 

The Jefferson City Inquirer issued The Spy (19) from 
June until November. It was a little three-column paper, but 
decidedly Whig in sympathy. 

That Same Old Coon was published at Columbia from the 
press of the Statesman. It had the heroic motto : ' ' Keep the 
flag flying, die, but never surrender." 

From Boonville came The Coon Hunter, the only 
campaign paper issued from a Democratic press. Its motto: 
"Head the coons," indicated its object. It was published by 
the editors of The Democratic Union. (20) This was an "ultra 
Benton-Van Buren-hard party" paper which had been started 
in March, 1844, by James W. Blair and Charles Chilton. It 
was the organ of Cooper County Democracy and gave valu- 
able aid to the party. It ceased publication in 1849. (21) 

The Bowling Green Journal was established in May, 

18. From files in the Mercantile Library, St. Louis. 

19. Ibid. 

20. Ibid. 

21. History of Howard and Cooper counties, p. 730. 


1844, by Jackson and Webb. The Radical, edited at that time 
by James H. D. Henderson, said of it: "We now have the 
spectacle of a Whig newspaper in the town of Bowling Green, 
appealing to the spirit of whiggery for approval and sup- 
port." The Journal was sold in 1848 to W. F. Watson and 
B. B. Bonham, ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. They gave it the name "The Seventy-Six." The 
new proprietors announced their intention of publishing at 
the same time a religious paper, devoted to the interests of 
their church. There is no record of the church paper, but 
The Seventy-Six was published through 1849. It numbered 
among its editors Levi Pettibone, for years circuit clerk and 
county treasurer of Pike County, and the brilliant lawyer, 
congressman and diplomat, James 0. Broadhead. (22) 

Two papers were started in Jefferson City in 1844, The 
State Sentinel and The Missouri Capital. The former was 
published by Isaac Watson and G. A. Hammond, and the 
latter by James Lindsey. Both were short-lived. 

The Independence Journal, a Whig paper, was published 
at Independence during 1844-45 by George R. Gibson. 

The Missouri Herald was established at Jefferson City 
in the spring of 1845. W. R. Vanover was the editor and pub- 
lisher. It was a Democratic paper and hoped to be the organ 
of the State Government. Rev. Hampton L. Boon and B. F. 
Hickman bought it in 1846 and changed the name to Metro- 
politan. As the Metropolitan it attained its ambition and 
became Governor Edwards' official mouthpiece. It ceased 
publication on September 14, 1852. (23) 

The Telegraph, a Democratic paper, was established at 
Lexington in 1845. In the first issue the editor says he "aims 
at the political redemption of the country." A Whig con- 
temporary (24) encouraged him with the statement that he 
"might as well aim at the moon with a pop-gun." The ed- 

22. History of Pike county, p. 486. 

23. History of Cole, Moniteau, etc., counties, p. 271. 

24. Columbia Statesman. 


itor evidently received very little encouragement from the 
people of Lexington in his "redemption" project for he sold 
the paper in six months to William T. Yeomans and James 
E. Pile. They sold it in September, 1846, to S. B. Garrett, 
who changed the name to Lexington Appeal. He stopped its 
publication in 1850. (25) 

The first paper in Andrew County was The Western 
Empire. It was started early in the fall of 1845 by Lorenzo 
Dow Nash, whose parents must have been admirers of the 
eccentric Methodist preacher, Lorenzo Dow. Nash sold The 
Western Empire in the summer of 1846 to Charles F. Holly, 
who kept the enterprise afloat for a few months and then 
abandoned the entire establishment. The type and office fur- 
niture were stored in an unoccupied room and the press left 
out in the yard. A year later George Leader, who seems to 
have had a well developed mania for starting newspapers, 
went to Savannah, dug up the press, sorted out the type and 
with the help of a boy, named Lewis Stiles, revived The 
Western Empire. But it seems the people of Savannah did 
not feel the need of a local newspaper and Leader stopped its 
publication in less than a year. He then went to St. Joseph 
and helped a Mr. Livermore start The Adventurer. (26) 

The Western Empire was started for the third time in 
1849. Calvin Wilkerson was the publisher. Charles F. Holly 
and Lorenzo Dow Nash bought it again in 1851. They 
changed the name to Savannah Sentinel. George Leader 
came from St. Joseph and helped them get it started. It was 
sold in 1854 to Jesse Johns. He sold it in 1856 to Baldwin 
and Ewing, who named it The Family Intelligencer and made 
it a neutral paper. They got out thirteen issues. Charles F. 
Holly and Lorenzo Dow Nash tried it again. They named it 
this time The Northwest Democrat. In their prospectus, 
published in the Jefferson City Inquirer of July 25, 1856, they 
say: "We have dropped the name and character of a neutral 

25. Files of Columbia Statesman. 

26. Maryville Republican, Dec. 29, 1904, sketch by D. P. Dobyns. 


paper because neutrality is not suited to the times or the 
genius of our institutions." They promise to advocate in- 
ternal improvements in the West "where the Star of Em- 
pire is fast settling," and assure their subscribers that they 
will recognize no political party "which does not follow 
the flag and keep step to the music of the Union." T\vo 
years later they sold it to Welch and Hail. They made it a 
decidedly Democratic paper and published it until 1861, when 
a band of Kansans on a pillaging expedition carried off the 
press and type into Kansas. This ended the rather checkered 
career of Andrew County's first newspaper (27) 

The Frontier Journal, a Whig paper, was established 
at Weston in 1845 by George R. Gibson. George Leader was on 
hand to help start it, coming from Platte City where he hacl 
been working on The Argus. Benjamin Eaton became the 
editor and publisher in September, 1848. He made it a Demo- 
cratic paper and was an ardent supporter of Thomas H. Ben- 
ton. William A. Witcher and Samuel Finch bought it in No- 
vember, 1849, changed the name to Reporter and its politics, 
to Whig. Finch and Smith were the publishers in 1852. A. 
W. King, a son of Governor King, became the proprietor in 
1857. He changed the name to Key City Commercial, but 
stopped its publication in less than a year. (28) 

The Free Press appeared at Bowling Green in 1845, The 
Advertiser at Lexington, and The Democrat at Weston. 
These were insignificant and ephemeral papers and exerted 
but litttle influence in the newspaper world. 

The first permanently successful paper founded at Liberty 
was The Tribune. The first issue appeared April 4, 1846. 
The Whigs of that region had no official paper of their own 
and were anxious for one. The men to meet this demand were 
John B. Williams, later editor of the Fulton Telegraph and Col. 
Robert H. Miller. Col. Miller had been working on The 
Statesman at Columbia, and early in the spring of 1846 went 

27. History of Andrew and DeKalb counties. 

28. Ibid. Files of Columbia Statesman. 


up to Liberty on the steamboat Tobacco Plant to establish the 
paper which he edited and published for nearly forty years. 
He became the sole editor and proprietor in March, 1847, and 
continued as such until 1885. In that year The Tribune was 
bought by John Daugherty, who published it until May, 1888, 
when Judge James E. Lincoln became the proprietor. He sold 
it in 1890 to the present editor and publisher, Irving 
Gilmer. (29) 

The Tribune has always been noted for its valuable arti- 
cles on historical subjects. Col. John T. Hughes was army 
correspondent of The Tribune during the war with Mexico. 
His book, "Doniphan's Expedition to Mexico," was written 
from the letters he contributed to the Tribune. 

The New Madrid Gazette was started in 1846. A con- 
temporary (30) greets it as a "new paper that hails from the 
land of earthquakes." It was edited by John T. Scott, a 
lawyer from Tennessee. It became The Times in 1854 under 
the control of John C. Underwood. He published it until tho 
beginning of the Civil War when it ceased publication. 

The Free Press was established at La Grange in 1846 
by Booth and Doyle. George W. Gilbert bought it in 1851 
and named it The Missourian. It was edited by James R. 
Abernathy, a pioneer lawyer of Northeast Missouri, familiarly 
known as "Old Abby." Samuel R. Raymond became the 
owner in 1853 and published it under the name of La Grange 
Bulletin. He sold it to N. N. Withington and Co. With the 
dissolution of the Whig party it became Democratic. It 
stopped publication in May, 1858. (31) 

The first Democratic paper established at Hannibal was 
The Gazette. H. D. La Cossett was the proprietor. It was 
published from November 12, 1846, until May 3, 1848, when 
it was merged into the Missouri Courier, which had been 
moved from Palmyra to Hannibal. (32) 

29. Liberty Tribune, May 1, 1896. 

30. Jefferson City Inquirer. 

31. Histories of Lewis, Clarke, Knoi and Scott counties, p. 230. 
Columbia Statesman, 1846-58. 

32. History of Marion couunty, p. 988. 


The Texas Democrat was started at Springfield in 1846. 
The name given to the paper, it was hoped, would add to its 
popularity. The annexation of Texas to the United States 
by an act of Congress in 1846 was of special interest to Mis- 
souri. Texas had been largely settled by Missourians. Mis- 
sourians without authority from State or Nation had aided 
in establishing the Republic of Texas and winning freedom 
from Mexico. 

The Texas Democrat was established by John P. Campbell 
to advocate his claims to election to Congress. Congressmen 
were elected by districts for the first time in Missouri in 1846. 
Campbell's opponent was John S. Phelps. E. D. McKinney, 
Campbell's son-in-law, was editor of the paper. Campbell 
was defeated and, having no further use for a paper, sold 
The Texas Democrat to Charles E. Fisher and J. D. Schwartz. 
They changed its name and its politics to Whig. Littleberry 
Hendricks, who had been defeated in the election of 1848, for 
Lieutenant Governor, became the editor. The Whigs were 
proud of their paper and gave it very fair support for a time, 
but subscribers began to stop taking it and the editors stopped 
its publication on September 15, 1849. The press and material 
were moved to Osceola and used to start a paper there. (33) 

The Commercial Bulletin, a Democratic paper, was started 
at Boonville in the spring of 1846 by J. T. Quesenberry. It 
became the Democrat in May, 1848. Col. John H. Price was 
the editor. It suspended publication about 1854. 

The first paper published at Potosi was The Miner's 
Prospect. It was established in September, 1846, by F. A. 
Dallas and Philip G. Ferguson. Philip Ferguson, familiarly 
known as "Jinks," commenced his journalistic career as a 
printer on the Missouri Argus in St. Louis. He relieved the 
monotony of work at the cases by writing poetry. The poems 
pleased the editor of the Argus and he paid Ferguson, al- 
though an apprentice, wages the first week. Soon after he 

33. History of Green county, p. 200-5. Files of Jefferson City 


established The Miner's Prospect, he left his interest in charge 
of his partner to serve as a volunteer in the Mexican War. 
Returning to Missouri at the close of the war he again took 
control of the Potosi paper. It had been conducted with in- 
different success by Mr. Dallas, and in 1849 Lewis V. Bogy, 
later United States Senator from Missouri, urged Ferguson to 
go to Ste. Genevieve and publish his paper there. He moved 
to Ste. Genevieve, bought out the State Gazette, published 
there, consolidated it with his paper and published it under 
the name Missouri Democrat until 1850. In that year he 
moved his press to St. Louis and commenced the publication 
of a paper there. During the last eighteen years of his life, 
he was on the staff of the Globe-Democrat. (34) 

The Brunswicker at Brunswick dates back to 1847. It 
was known then as The Reporter. J. T. Quesenberry, who 
belongs in the class with George Leader as a starter of news- 
papers, was the publisher. He sold it on October 14, 1847, to 
Dr. John H. Blue who gave it the name it bears today. Dr. 
Blue was an untiring and resourceful editor, whose foresight, 
tact and energy contributed much to the rapil progress and 
development of the Grand River country. 

Col. Casper W. Bell became the editor and proprietor in 
1854. Col. BelJ located in Brunswick in 1843 and soon attained 
a commanding position at the bar of that section. At the 
meeting of the State Legislature in Neosho in October, 1861, 
he was the first man nominated and was unanimously elected 
to represent Missouri in the Confederate Congress, a position 
he held during the existence of that Government. While in 
Richmond he edited a column in the Examiner called the 
Missouri column, in which he advocated the appointment of 
General Sterling Price to the position of major general in the 
Confederate army, and wrote so effectively as to secure his 
purpose. (35) Col. Bell returned to Brunswick at the close 
of the war and resumed the practice of his profession. 

34. G. C. Broadhead personal recollections. History of Franklin 
county, p. 520. 

35. U. S. Biographical Dictionary Missouri volume, p. 576. 


The Brunswicker became the property of 0. D. Hawkins 
in 1856. It now became a strong advocate of the doctrines 
of the "Know Nothing party." Col. R. H. Musser became 
the publisher in 1857, but sold it in a few months to Dr. W. 
H. Cross, spoken of by his associates as an elegant writer and 
a pleasant gentleman. Robert C. Hancock bought it in 1858. 
He published it as a conservative Democratic paper and was 
permitted to continue it during the war. J. B. Naylor and 
W. H. Balthis took charge of it in 1867, continuing as pub- 
lishers until 1875, when Mr. Naylor assumed entire control of 
the paper. He sold it in 1880 to Kinley and Wallace. Sub- 
sequent editors and publishers were Perry S. Rader, Supreme 
Court reporter and historian, C. J. Walden, present editor of 
the Boonville Advertiser and J. B. Robertson, its present editor 
and publisher. (36) 

The Western Eagle was started at Cape Girardeau in 1847 
by W. R. Dawson. It was the most important paper in that 
county before the war. It was later published by Moore and 
Herr, and afterwards by Benjamin F. Herr, until 1861. In the 
Campaign of 1860 it supported the Bell and Everett ticket, but 
after the election advocated secession. The press and type 
were destroyed by the Federal soldiers and the editor entered 
the Confederate army. (37) 

The Espial was established at Fredericktown in 1847 by 
James Lindsey. It was a Free Soil paper and said to be the 
first of its kind published in Missouri. It became the Madison 
County Record in 1849. In October of that year Lindsey 
moved it to Ste. Genevieve and changed the name to The 
Pioneer. He sold it in 1850 to James H. Dixon, who stopped 
its publication in a few months. (38) 

The Globe, a Democratic paper, was started at Columbia 
by William A. Verbryke. The first number was issued April 
22, 1847. Thomas Peyton Giles was the editor. It was sold 

36. Historical, pictorial and biographical record of Chariton 
county, p. 239. 

37. History of Southeast Missouri, p. 417. 

38. Jefferson City Inquirer, 1849. 


in November to James W. Robinson, Alfred A . Gunn and 
James P. Fleming. The first two were practical printers, and 
the third, a lawyer, was the editor. It was a failure finan- 
cially and suspended publication in 1848. (39) 

The Herald was started at Weston in July, 1847 by E. 
Hathaway. It was independent in politics and was published 
but a short time, being merged into the Frontier Journal in 
September, 1848. (40) 

The Whig was established at Osceola in 1848 by Edward 
C. Davis, an able but erratic genius. He was State superin- 
tendent of schools from 1855 to 1857 and died a drunkard 
and a forger, but was one of the ablest writers among Missouri 
editors. His report to the General Assembly, as State super- 
intendent of schools, is a model of scholarly learning and 
is thoroughly accurate. 

Charles E. Fisher bought a part interest in The Whig in 
1849 and changed the name to Independent. Col. William H. 
Mayo, soldier and state senator, became the publisher in 
1853. E. C. Davis was still the editor. Col. Mayo sold a part 
interest in the paper in 1854 to Lewis Lamkin, who from that 
time to his death on May 24, 1907, was connected with the 
press of Missouri. Frederick Kapp and Richard Divens were 
the next publishers. They changed the name to Osceola 
Democrat. James 0. Cook and E. D. Murphy bought it June 
2, 1860, and published it until Lane and his band of Kansans 
destroyed Osceola in 1861. (41) 

The first paper in Franklin County was The Flag, estab- 
lished at Union, August 7, 1848, by N. Giddings and W. R. 
Vanover. Vanover became the proprietor in 1850 and changed 
the name to The Independent. Lack of support caused him 
to stop its publication in 1852. (42) 

The Missouri Plebean was the rather original name of a 
paper established at Canton in June, 1848. It was published 

39. Columbia Statesman, 1848-49. 

40. Ibid. 

41. History of Benton county, p. 17. 

42. History of Franklin, Jefferson, etc., counties, p. 360. 


by Stephen P. Vannoy. He changed the name to Northeast 
Reporter in 1850. In that year he was elected a member of 
the State Board of Public Works and sold the Reporter to A. 
Dangerfield Rector. It ceased publication in 1861. (43) 

The Democratic Journal was started at Lexington in 
1848. Harrison B. Branch was the publisher. He was a 
great admirer of Thomas H. Benton and made the Journal 
one of the strongest Benton papers in the State. In the fall 
of 1850 George C. Bronaugh came to Lexington from Hop- 
kinsville, Kentucky, where he had been editing The People's 
Press, and bought the Journal, changing the name to Western 
Chronicle. Dr. Montgomery Bryant, later State Marshal of 
Missouri, became the editor and proprietor in 1852. Under 
his control it was an anti-Benton paper. It suspended publi- 
cation in 1855. (44) 

The Commercial Herald was published at New Madrid 
from 1848 to 1851 by G. M. Barbour. It professed neutrality 
and made but little impression in the newspaper world. (45) 


43. History of Lewis, Clark, Knox and Scott counties, p. 216. 

44. Atlas History of Lafayette county, p. 64. 

45. Jefferson City Inquirer, 1848-51. 

(To be continued.) 


An Active Factor in Railroad Legislation. 

When Colonel Van Horn came to Kansas City he was not 
unfamiliar with the ideas and aspirations that dominated the 
thoughts and feelings of the people of the West. A close student 
from the habitual bent of his mind and a critical and just ob- 
server of men and their motives, he adjusted himself to the 
!new conditions as readily and easily as if he had been born 
and reared in this atmosphere. Besides as a newspaper man and 
a law student, he had not been unconscious of what the people 
in all parts of the United States had done and were doing, so 
that when he came to Western Missouri, he did not have to 
'begin at the beginning to understand and to interpret the situ- 
ation . 

In the fall of 1858 a great railroad meeting had been called 
at Kansas City for November 22. Invitations had been sent into 
Kansas Territory and into many of the counties of Western 
'Missouri. The convention was held at the old Court House, 
and on the following day Mr. William Gilpin addressed this 
convention on the importance of building railroads and in help- 
ing to develop the resources of the mighty region lying be- 
tween the British possessions on the North and the Gulf of 
Mexico on the South, and from the Mississippi to the Pacific 
on the West. No doubt Mr. Gilpin at this time was the best 
informed man on the topography of this entire region with the 
exception of Colonel Fremont of the regular army and of Kit 
Carson and Jim Bridger, the two great scouts. 

Colonel Van Horn was a member of the committee on reso- 
lutions, and he drew the resolutions which were unanimously 
adopted by the convention. These resolutions urged the Con- 
gress of the United States to construct a Great Continental 
Railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The commit- 


tee on resolutions based its action on topographical, geographi- 
'cal, commercial and military reasons for the undertaking of 
such a gigantic enterprise. They held that the Kansas River 
is situated on the geographical central line of the United 
|States to the Pacific Ocean, that along its valley the grade is 
Smaller than elsewhere across the country, that it is the most 
natural route along which commerce and the movement of 
soldiers and military supplies could be transported, and that a 
'great continental railroad was a necessity to bind the people 
'on the Pacific Coast to the Union, and to defend them in case 
of war with a foreign nation. For like reasons the doctrine 
was set forth that a great railroad line should be constructed 
'from the region of the Lake of the Woods to Galveston, thus 
giving direct connection through Kansas City with the north 
and the south, and the members of this convention believed, 
and their speakers and resolutions indicate, that great trans- 
continental lines of travel and traffic would bind all sections 
of the American Union more firmly together. Of the ten resolu- 
tions embodied in the Committee's report one was that work 
should be immediately undertaken to connect Kansas City with 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad at Cameron. This was 
regarded as especially desirable by the members of the conven- 
tion. As this time the railroads in Missouri were the Hanni- 
bal and St. Joseph, and St. Joseph was the "big town" on the 
Missouri river; the Wabash from St. Louis to Macon City, 
called then the North Missouri Railroad; the Missouri Pacific, 
the first road in the state, was being pushed westward to Seda- 
lia, which it reached a short time before the Civil War, and the 
Iron Mountain that ran out from St. Louis to Iron Mountain. 
The people along the lines of these roads and their projections 
were divided into two classes, those who wanted railroads and 
those who opposed railroads, chiefly on account of their de- 
stroying teaming. In those days merchandise of all kinds 
was hauled in farm wagons from the river towns or railroad 
'stations back into the interior, and farm products, unless con- 
sumed by the local needs of the community, were hauled to the 


towns or stations for sale or shipment. These early makers 
of Kansas City were, no doubt, the most far-seeing body of 
men in the Mississippi Valley. They were looking far, high 
and wide. Meetings had been held petitioning those in au- 
thority to hurry the Missouri Pacific into Kansas City. A rail- 
road line had been surveyed from Independence to Kansas 
City, and the City Council had granted the right of way. 

While in the field with his regiment in 1862, Colonel Van 
Horn was elected to the Missouri Senate, and during the ses- 
sion of the Legislature in the winter of 1864-5, he had charge 
of the bill for completing the Missouri Pacific Railway from 
Sedalia to Kansas City. He carried the measure through 
the Senate and with the aid of M . J . Payne and E. M. McGee, 
it passed the House. This was a very critical period in the 
history of Kansas City, and considering the circumstances un- 
der which the people of this state were then living, this was 
one of the most important achhievements commercially and 
financially connected with our state history. Business was 
paralyzed! The people were divided bitter, distrustful, and 
more than half the state had been devastated by hostile armies. 

While a member of Congress, he secured the Charter for 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad bridge, across the Mis- 
souri river at this point, the first constructed across the Mis- 
souri river. Kansas had already become a state, and in the 
estimation of a majority of Senators and Congressmen, its in- 
terests would be very much more regarded than would those 
of Missouri; but Colonel Van Horn had always been even in 
territorial troubles, just in his views of the dissensions between 
Kansas and Missouri, yet he felt that at this juncture, the real 
contest for supremacy lay between Kansas City and Leaven- 
worth. Up to this time Leavenworth was always spoken of 
as the coming Western Metropolis. Congressional Legislation 
was decisive, and it assured the supremacy of Kansas City just 
at this critical moment when the issue was hanging in the 
balance. He aided also very materially in securing legisla- 
tion that provided for the building of the Kansas City, Fort 


Scott and Gulf Railroad, and especially in enabling the com- 
pany to secure the neutral lands, now composing the counties 
'of Crawford and Cherokee in Kansas, to aid in the construction 
of the road. In 1869, he introduced into Congress a bill provid- 
ing for the consolidation of the Indian tribes, and the organiza- 
tion of a government in that portion of the Indian Territory 
which formed Oklahoma. Prior to this date four years, he 
was a member of a delegation from Kansas City to an Indian 
Council at Fort Smith, Arkansas, when by treaty the right of 
way to build a railroad through their lands was secured . He 
was instrumental in carrying the measure through Congress to 
build the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railway bridge 
across the Missouri river at this point. By public addresses, 
attending conventions and legislative bodies, and especially in 
the columns of the Journal, most intelligently and earnestly 
he furthered every material, commercial, intellectual and moral 
interest in which the people of Kansas City the entire western 
country would be benefited. 

In Public Office. 

By nature, Colonel Van Horn preferred private life to offi- 
cial position. In no sense was he ever an office-seeker ; yet, ow- 
ing to his deep and intelligent interest in all public questions 
and original and practical ideas as to the means of furthering 
and forwarding needed legislation in order to secure definite 
and desirable results, he yielded to the wishes of his neighbors 
and friends, and was honored by them divers times. In less 
than two years after his removal to Kansas City, he was 
.elected Alderman, and in 1861, he was elected Mayor, and re- 
elected in 1864. He served as Postmaster from 1857 to 1861, 
and resigned when he became Mayor. At the Presidential 
election in 1864, he was first elected to Congress, and was re- 
elected in 1866, 1868, 1880, and in 1892. In Congress he was 
known as one of the best working members of that body where 
the real work is done in committees . General Grant appointed 
him in 1875, Collector of Internal Revenue of the Sixth Dis- 
trict of Missouri, and he held that position till June, 1881. He 


was a delegate to every National Republican Convention from 
1864 to 1884, and was twice a member of the National Republi- 
can Committee, and chairman of the Republican State Commit- 

His War Record. 

Running through the files of the Journal till the explosion 
came in 1861, Colonel Van Horn's editorials reflect the senti- 
ments of at least four-fifths of the people living in Missouri, 
namely, that after the election of Mr. Lincoln as President, 
some plan would be devised by which the Union would be pre- 
served without resorting to the arbitrament of the sword. He 
had been a Democrat and the Journal, during the political cam- 
paign of 1860 and prior thereto, had been a conservative Dem- 
ocratic paper, opposed to the extreme sectional views of both 
the North and the South. In the memorable campaign of 1860, 
as did most of the Democratic papers of this state, the Journal 
supported Mr. Douglas for President. As Mayor of Kansas 
City in 1861, he issued a proclamation advising the citizens to 
go about their business and to refrain from discussing political 
issues which tended to stir up strife . As a Douglas Democrat, 
when Fort Sumpter was fired upon, he enthusiastically espoused 
the cause of the Union. Naturally he was looked to as the 
leader and consolidator of the Union Sentiment of this part of 
the state . One of the curious features of the development of 
public sentiment and the arraigning of men into two hostile 
parties was, that in the cities and towns, the Southern senti- 
ment was very much more pronounced, while in the country, 
the Union sentiment in most counties, was overwhelming. The 
strong Union party in Missouri was composed almost solidly of 
the 17,000 men who had voted for Mr. Lincoln, of a very large 
per cent, of the Democrats who had voted for Mr. Douglas, 
and almost of an equal number that had voted for Bell and