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STUDIES OF NEOTROPICAL COMPOSITAE-VII. SCHISTOCARPHA
EUPATORIOIDES (MILLERIEAE) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC,
A NEW GENERIC RECORD FOR THE WEST INDIES
John F. Pruski
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, Missouri 63166
The genus Schistocarpha is reported as a new record for the West Indies based on a single
collection of S. eupatorioides from the Dominican Republic. The species occurs natively in Mexico,
Central America, and Andean South America.
KEY WORDS: Asteraceae, Compositae, Dominican Republic, Galinsoginae, Hispaniola, Millerieae,
Schistocarpha, West Indies.
Schistocarpha Less. (Compositae: Millerieae) was revised by Robinson (1979). who
recognized 16 Neotropical species. The genus has been treated traditionally in tribe Senecioneae
(e.g., Bentham &. Hooker 1873: D'Arcy 1975) because of its yellow disk corollas with an elongate
tube and capillary pappus bristles. Without comment, Rydberg (1927) removed each Neurolaena and
Schistocarpha from Senecioneae, placing them in the newly described tribe Neurolaeneae. By
concave anther appendages, paleate clinanthia, and helianthoid corolla trichomes, Robinson and
Bretteil (1973) treated Neurolaena and Schistocarpha in Heliantheae, where Robinson (1979)
correctly aligned Schistocarpha with subtribe Galinsoginae. More recently, Panero (2007) treated
Galinsoginae within tribe Millerieae.
The revision of Robinson was used as the basis for further study by Turner (1986). who
recognized ten species. More recently, Strother (1999) estimated as four or five the number of
species in Schistocarpha, Examples of newel' synonymy in Turner (1986) include his treatment of S.
longiligula Rydb. as including four names recognized by Robinson, and Strother (1999) furthered this
synonymy by treating S. longiligula Rydb. in synonymy of the generitype S. bicolor Less. In each
Turner (1986), Strother (1999)," and Pruski (2010), S. eupatorioides "is circumscribed as the sole
species of Schistocarpha with pluriseriate pistillate florets having no or at bait a much reduced
corolla limb. The genus Schistocarpha was not reported in the West Indies by Liogier (1962, 1996,
1997), Adams (1972), Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), Howard (1989), or Strother (1999). As
treated here, Schistocarpha thus represents a new generic record for the West Indies. The genus
ranges from Gulf Coastal northern Mexico through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, south through the
Andes into northern Argentina, and now is known from a single locality in Hispaniola. The generic
range mirrors that of S. eupatorioides, the most common species in the genus.
We collected S. eupatorioides on the north side of the Sierra de Bahoruco in the Dominican
Republic, the same locality as Ortiz & Pruski 354 (JBSD, MO) cited by Ortiz (2012) as Disciphania
domingensis Urb. (Menispermaceae). The plant from the Dominican Republic keys consistently to S.
eupatorioides in each Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), and Strother (1999). The purpose of
this note is to document S. eupatorioides as a genus and species new to the West Indies and to
provide generic and specific descriptions of it that may be inserted into the Compositae treatment in
the Flora of Hispaniola by Liogier (1996). The present treatment is adapted from those of Fenzl
(1849), Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), Strother (1999), and Pruski (2010).
: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the V
Figure 1. Voucher of Schistocarpha eupatorioides from the Dominican Republic (Pruski & Ortiz 4060, MO).
Pruski: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the West Indies
SCHISTOCARPHA Less., Linnaea 6: 409. 1831. TYPE: Schistocarpha bicolor Less.
Neilreichia Fenzl, Zycona Kuntze
Coarse perennial herbs to shrubs to 5 m tall; stems ascending to scandent, few-branched,
subterete, striate, leafy, internodes often elongate; herbage infrequently stipitate-glandular. Leaves
opposite or distal ones infrequently alternate, subsessile to long-petiolate; blade lanceolate-deltate to
ovate, chartaceous, til inly 3-nerved from near base, surfaces typically without glandular dots, adaxial
surface scabrid or sometimes glabrous, abaxial surface glabrous to velutinous or pilosulose, base
cuneate to truncate, but usually with acumen decurrent onto petiole, sometimes amplexicaul, margins
serrulate to serrate, apex acute to attenuate; petiole typically somewhat winged from decurrent blade.
Capitulescence terminal or axillary from the distal nodes, pluricapitulate, corymb iform-panicuiate;
peduncles slender, typically pubescent, sometimes stipitate-glandular, Capitula 6-13 mm long, 13-
145-flowered, radiate (usually heterochromous) or indistinctly subradiate, sometimes disciform;
involucre cylindrical-campanulate to campanulate; phyllaries 16-40, imbricate, graduated, 3-5-
seriate, usually appressed, scarious-chartaceous, usually (3-)7-ll -striate, striations drying dark
elinanthium (receptacle or phoranthium) convex to conical, paleate; paleae shorter than disk florets,
lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, scarious-stramineous, weakly navicular, striate, usually lacerate or
trifid. Ray florets (0-)8-25(-60), pistillate, l(-3)-seriate; corolla typically white, tube about as long
as pappus, limb ovate to oblong, short- to well-exserted, nerves equally-thin, lacking larger support
veins, apex 3-denticulate. Marginal florets (w r hen capitula obscurely subradiate or disciform), 40-
70, 2^1-seriate, pistillate; corolla tubular-filiform and typically obscurely radiate with no or a minute
flattened limb. Disk florets 5-75, fewer to more than pistillate florets, bisexual; corolla funnelform,
shortly 5-lobed, yellowish, often pubescent, tube slender, generally about as long as limb, lobes
triangular, erect, shorter than throat; anthers cream-colored or greenish to brownish, thecae ecaudate,
bases short-sagittate, apical appendage ovate-concave, eglandular; style base dilated, partly immersed
in nectary, branches short partly exserted, with a 2-handed stigmatic surface, apically short-acute,
papillose. Cypselae isomorphic, prismatic-obovoid to terete, black, glabrous, carpopodium
asymmetric, stramineous; pappus of 25-35 elongate subequal white somewhat fragile capillary
bristles in a single series, x = 8. About 10-12 spp. Mexico to South America, and now a single
species in the West Indies.
SCHISTOCARPHA EUPATORIOIDES (Fenzl) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PL 3(3): 170. 1898. Neilreichia
eupatorioides Fenzl, Nov. Gen. Sp. PL 6, t. 1. 1849. TYPE: PERU. 'Subandina prope
Cuchero' [Huanuco. Near Cuchero. ca. 4-8 km SW of the boca del Rio Chinchao at the Rio
Huallaga, 9° 30-31' S, 75° 56-59' W, ca. 800-1000 m, 1829-1830], Poeppig Addendis 74
(holotype: W). The Ruiz & Pavon and Poeppig locality of 'Cuchero' was abandoned and
Poeppig said some decayed huts are the only remains of it. Ruiz (1940) said Cuchero [in July
1780] is situated "in a small plain on a hill surrounded on all sides by other higher and rough
hills" and Stephens and Traylor (1983) gave it as along the Rio Chinchao. Ruiz (1940) gave
Cuchero as 26 leagues NE from Huanuco (in the direction of Chinchao, league 18) and from
Cuchero only "two short leagues downhill to the Huanuco rives" [i.e., Rio Huallaga] near the
mouth of the Rio Chinchao. The distance on modern maps from Huanuco to the mouth of the
Rio Chinchao at the Rio Huallaga is about 55 kms, placing Cuchero near modern day San
Juan and about 4-8 km SW of the boca del Rio Chinchao at the Rio Huallaga. Figures 1-2.
Schistocarpha hoffmannii Kuntze, ^.Schistocarpha margarilensis Cuatrec, Schistocarpha
oppositifolia (Kuntze) Rydb., Zycona oppositifolia Kuntze
Perennial herbs to subshrub 0.5-3 m tall; stems pubescent to less commonly glabrate.
Leaves petiolate; blade 4-20 < (0.5-)2.5-13(-17) cm, ovate or distal ones lanceolate, surfaces rarely
finely gland-dotted, adaxial surface strigillose to sometimes glabrous, abaxial surface pilosulose to
strigose, much less commonly glabrous, base obtuse to subcordate or truncate, then abruptly attenuate
Pruski: Schistocarpha, a n
; record for the West Indie
Figure 2. Schistocarpha eupatorioid.es. Close-up of capitula at anthesis showing the 3— 4-seriate tubular-
filiform pistillate florets with corolla limbs reduced or absent. The scale bar at top has increments of 1 cm.
(Pruski & Ortiz 4060, MO).
onto petiole, basal acumen to 3 cm long, apex acuminate to attenuate; petiole 0.8-7 cm long.
Capitulescence usually 2-15 x 2-1 5 cm, each branchlet 20-50+-capitulate with 1-3 clusters, clusters
usually moderately dense-spherical and cymose, infrequently nearly flat-topped and corymbiform;
peduncles 2-10(-30) mm long, pubescent to pilose, occasionally also stipitate-glandular, often 1-
hracteolate, bracteole 2-4 mm long, linear-lanceolate, typically basal. Capitula 7-9 mm tall, 35-88-
ilowered, indistinctly subradiate to disciform; involucre 4-7 mm diam.; phyllaries 25-30, 1.5-8 mm
long, elliptic -lanceolate grading to lanceolate, 3-4-seriate, glabrous or sometimes sparsely ciliate
distally, apex commonly obtuse to rounded; paleae 5-6 mm long, linear-lanceolate, usually persistent.,
stramineous, apically lacerate, central part sometimes long-attenuate. Marginal florets 30-70,
indistinctly subradiate or tubular-filiform (often within a single capitulum), 3-4-seriate; corolla white
to yellowish, tube 4-5 mm long, laxly pilosulose, limb 0-1 mm long, when present ca. 5x shorter
than tube, sometimes faintly 3-nerved; style sometimes much longer than corolla. Disk florets 5-18;
corolla 4.5-5.5 mm long, yellowish, tube 2-3 mm long, glabrous (in Hispamola and often in Central
American populations) or sparsely setose (often in South American populations), throat ca. 2 mm
Pruski: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the West Indies 5
long, glabrous, lobes ca. 0.5 mm long, commonly setulose; anthers partly exserted; style branches to
ca. 0.5 mm long. Cypselae 1-1.5 mm long; pappus bristles ca. 4.5 mm long. In = 16.
Distribution and ecology. Schistocarpha eupatorioides is reported here as new for the West
Indies from a single locality in the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. It otherwise
occurs from Gulf Coastal northern Mexico, throughout much of Central America, into Colombia and
Venezuela, and thence south in the Andes through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and ultimately into
northern Argentina. Because Turner (1986) gives Schistocarpha margaritensis Cuatrec. as a possible
hybrid, it is listed here only as a possible synonym. Schistocarpha eupatorioides flowers throughout
most of the year (less so in April and May) and occurs mostly in disturbed, moist, or open areas
below 1800 meters elevation. In the Dominican Republic, S. eupatorioides was seen at the single
mid-elevational sunny roadside locality cited below. The Hispaniolan material has glabrous disk
corolla tubes as do most populations from Mexico and Central America. However, South American
plants may exhibit similar morphology, thus the possible source of plants introduced into Hispaniola
cannot be identified on the basis of this feature.
Voucher. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Barahona. Sierra de Bahoruco (northern side),
entrada of Polo along DR Carretera Ramal 533, ca. 20 km S (uphill) of Cabral, 18°06'42"N,
71°16'18"W, 822 m, 27 Jun 2006, Pruski & Ortiz 4060 (JBSD, MO, NY, S, US).
I would like to thank Guy Nesom and Rosa Ortiz for reading the manuscript; Teodoro Clase
(JBSD) and Ricardo Garcia (JBSD) for helping with collection permits in the Dominican Republic;
and Stephanie Keil for taking the photographs.
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