STUDIES OF NEOTROPICAL COMPOSITAE-VII. SCHISTOCARPHA EUPATORIOIDES (MILLERIEAE) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, A NEW GENERIC RECORD FOR THE WEST INDIES John F. Pruski Missouri Botanical Garden P.O. Box 299 St. Louis, Missouri 63166 ABSTRACT The genus Schistocarpha is reported as a new record for the West Indies based on a single collection of S. eupatorioides from the Dominican Republic. The species occurs natively in Mexico, Central America, and Andean South America. KEY WORDS: Asteraceae, Compositae, Dominican Republic, Galinsoginae, Hispaniola, Millerieae, Schistocarpha, West Indies. Schistocarpha Less. (Compositae: Millerieae) was revised by Robinson (1979). who recognized 16 Neotropical species. The genus has been treated traditionally in tribe Senecioneae (e.g., Bentham &. Hooker 1873: D'Arcy 1975) because of its yellow disk corollas with an elongate tube and capillary pappus bristles. Without comment, Rydberg (1927) removed each Neurolaena and Schistocarpha from Senecioneae, placing them in the newly described tribe Neurolaeneae. By concave anther appendages, paleate clinanthia, and helianthoid corolla trichomes, Robinson and Bretteil (1973) treated Neurolaena and Schistocarpha in Heliantheae, where Robinson (1979) correctly aligned Schistocarpha with subtribe Galinsoginae. More recently, Panero (2007) treated Galinsoginae within tribe Millerieae. The revision of Robinson was used as the basis for further study by Turner (1986). who recognized ten species. More recently, Strother (1999) estimated as four or five the number of species in Schistocarpha, Examples of newel' synonymy in Turner (1986) include his treatment of S. longiligula Rydb. as including four names recognized by Robinson, and Strother (1999) furthered this synonymy by treating S. longiligula Rydb. in synonymy of the generitype S. bicolor Less. In each Turner (1986), Strother (1999)," and Pruski (2010), S. eupatorioides "is circumscribed as the sole species of Schistocarpha with pluriseriate pistillate florets having no or at bait a much reduced corolla limb. The genus Schistocarpha was not reported in the West Indies by Liogier (1962, 1996, 1997), Adams (1972), Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), Howard (1989), or Strother (1999). As treated here, Schistocarpha thus represents a new generic record for the West Indies. The genus ranges from Gulf Coastal northern Mexico through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, south through the Andes into northern Argentina, and now is known from a single locality in Hispaniola. The generic range mirrors that of S. eupatorioides, the most common species in the genus. We collected S. eupatorioides on the north side of the Sierra de Bahoruco in the Dominican Republic, the same locality as Ortiz & Pruski 354 (JBSD, MO) cited by Ortiz (2012) as Disciphania domingensis Urb. (Menispermaceae). The plant from the Dominican Republic keys consistently to S. eupatorioides in each Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), and Strother (1999). The purpose of this note is to document S. eupatorioides as a genus and species new to the West Indies and to provide generic and specific descriptions of it that may be inserted into the Compositae treatment in the Flora of Hispaniola by Liogier (1996). The present treatment is adapted from those of Fenzl (1849), Robinson (1979, 2006), Turner (1986), Strother (1999), and Pruski (2010). : Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the V Figure 1. Voucher of Schistocarpha eupatorioides from the Dominican Republic (Pruski & Ortiz 4060, MO). Pruski: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the West Indies SCHISTOCARPHA Less., Linnaea 6: 409. 1831. TYPE: Schistocarpha bicolor Less. Neilreichia Fenzl, Zycona Kuntze Coarse perennial herbs to shrubs to 5 m tall; stems ascending to scandent, few-branched, subterete, striate, leafy, internodes often elongate; herbage infrequently stipitate-glandular. Leaves opposite or distal ones infrequently alternate, subsessile to long-petiolate; blade lanceolate-deltate to ovate, chartaceous, til inly 3-nerved from near base, surfaces typically without glandular dots, adaxial surface scabrid or sometimes glabrous, abaxial surface glabrous to velutinous or pilosulose, base cuneate to truncate, but usually with acumen decurrent onto petiole, sometimes amplexicaul, margins serrulate to serrate, apex acute to attenuate; petiole typically somewhat winged from decurrent blade. Capitulescence terminal or axillary from the distal nodes, pluricapitulate, corymb iform-panicuiate; peduncles slender, typically pubescent, sometimes stipitate-glandular, Capitula 6-13 mm long, 13- 145-flowered, radiate (usually heterochromous) or indistinctly subradiate, sometimes disciform; involucre cylindrical-campanulate to campanulate; phyllaries 16-40, imbricate, graduated, 3-5- seriate, usually appressed, scarious-chartaceous, usually (3-)7-ll -striate, striations drying dark elinanthium (receptacle or phoranthium) convex to conical, paleate; paleae shorter than disk florets, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, scarious-stramineous, weakly navicular, striate, usually lacerate or trifid. Ray florets (0-)8-25(-60), pistillate, l(-3)-seriate; corolla typically white, tube about as long as pappus, limb ovate to oblong, short- to well-exserted, nerves equally-thin, lacking larger support veins, apex 3-denticulate. Marginal florets (w r hen capitula obscurely subradiate or disciform), 40- 70, 2^1-seriate, pistillate; corolla tubular-filiform and typically obscurely radiate with no or a minute flattened limb. Disk florets 5-75, fewer to more than pistillate florets, bisexual; corolla funnelform, shortly 5-lobed, yellowish, often pubescent, tube slender, generally about as long as limb, lobes triangular, erect, shorter than throat; anthers cream-colored or greenish to brownish, thecae ecaudate, bases short-sagittate, apical appendage ovate-concave, eglandular; style base dilated, partly immersed in nectary, branches short partly exserted, with a 2-handed stigmatic surface, apically short-acute, papillose. Cypselae isomorphic, prismatic-obovoid to terete, black, glabrous, carpopodium asymmetric, stramineous; pappus of 25-35 elongate subequal white somewhat fragile capillary bristles in a single series, x = 8. About 10-12 spp. Mexico to South America, and now a single species in the West Indies. SCHISTOCARPHA EUPATORIOIDES (Fenzl) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PL 3(3): 170. 1898. Neilreichia eupatorioides Fenzl, Nov. Gen. Sp. PL 6, t. 1. 1849. TYPE: PERU. 'Subandina prope Cuchero' [Huanuco. Near Cuchero. ca. 4-8 km SW of the boca del Rio Chinchao at the Rio Huallaga, 9° 30-31' S, 75° 56-59' W, ca. 800-1000 m, 1829-1830], Poeppig Addendis 74 (holotype: W). The Ruiz & Pavon and Poeppig locality of 'Cuchero' was abandoned and Poeppig said some decayed huts are the only remains of it. Ruiz (1940) said Cuchero [in July 1780] is situated "in a small plain on a hill surrounded on all sides by other higher and rough hills" and Stephens and Traylor (1983) gave it as along the Rio Chinchao. Ruiz (1940) gave Cuchero as 26 leagues NE from Huanuco (in the direction of Chinchao, league 18) and from Cuchero only "two short leagues downhill to the Huanuco rives" [i.e., Rio Huallaga] near the mouth of the Rio Chinchao. The distance on modern maps from Huanuco to the mouth of the Rio Chinchao at the Rio Huallaga is about 55 kms, placing Cuchero near modern day San Juan and about 4-8 km SW of the boca del Rio Chinchao at the Rio Huallaga. Figures 1-2. Schistocarpha hoffmannii Kuntze, ^.Schistocarpha margarilensis Cuatrec, Schistocarpha oppositifolia (Kuntze) Rydb., Zycona oppositifolia Kuntze Perennial herbs to subshrub 0.5-3 m tall; stems pubescent to less commonly glabrate. Leaves petiolate; blade 4-20 < (0.5-)2.5-13(-17) cm, ovate or distal ones lanceolate, surfaces rarely finely gland-dotted, adaxial surface strigillose to sometimes glabrous, abaxial surface pilosulose to strigose, much less commonly glabrous, base obtuse to subcordate or truncate, then abruptly attenuate Pruski: Schistocarpha, a n ; record for the West Indie Figure 2. Schistocarpha eupatorioid.es. Close-up of capitula at anthesis showing the 3— 4-seriate tubular- filiform pistillate florets with corolla limbs reduced or absent. The scale bar at top has increments of 1 cm. (Pruski & Ortiz 4060, MO). onto petiole, basal acumen to 3 cm long, apex acuminate to attenuate; petiole 0.8-7 cm long. Capitulescence usually 2-15 x 2-1 5 cm, each branchlet 20-50+-capitulate with 1-3 clusters, clusters usually moderately dense-spherical and cymose, infrequently nearly flat-topped and corymbiform; peduncles 2-10(-30) mm long, pubescent to pilose, occasionally also stipitate-glandular, often 1- hracteolate, bracteole 2-4 mm long, linear-lanceolate, typically basal. Capitula 7-9 mm tall, 35-88- ilowered, indistinctly subradiate to disciform; involucre 4-7 mm diam.; phyllaries 25-30, 1.5-8 mm long, elliptic -lanceolate grading to lanceolate, 3-4-seriate, glabrous or sometimes sparsely ciliate distally, apex commonly obtuse to rounded; paleae 5-6 mm long, linear-lanceolate, usually persistent., stramineous, apically lacerate, central part sometimes long-attenuate. Marginal florets 30-70, indistinctly subradiate or tubular-filiform (often within a single capitulum), 3-4-seriate; corolla white to yellowish, tube 4-5 mm long, laxly pilosulose, limb 0-1 mm long, when present ca. 5x shorter than tube, sometimes faintly 3-nerved; style sometimes much longer than corolla. Disk florets 5-18; corolla 4.5-5.5 mm long, yellowish, tube 2-3 mm long, glabrous (in Hispamola and often in Central American populations) or sparsely setose (often in South American populations), throat ca. 2 mm Pruski: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the West Indies 5 long, glabrous, lobes ca. 0.5 mm long, commonly setulose; anthers partly exserted; style branches to ca. 0.5 mm long. Cypselae 1-1.5 mm long; pappus bristles ca. 4.5 mm long. In = 16. Distribution and ecology. Schistocarpha eupatorioides is reported here as new for the West Indies from a single locality in the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. It otherwise occurs from Gulf Coastal northern Mexico, throughout much of Central America, into Colombia and Venezuela, and thence south in the Andes through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and ultimately into northern Argentina. Because Turner (1986) gives Schistocarpha margaritensis Cuatrec. as a possible hybrid, it is listed here only as a possible synonym. Schistocarpha eupatorioides flowers throughout most of the year (less so in April and May) and occurs mostly in disturbed, moist, or open areas below 1800 meters elevation. In the Dominican Republic, S. eupatorioides was seen at the single mid-elevational sunny roadside locality cited below. The Hispaniolan material has glabrous disk corolla tubes as do most populations from Mexico and Central America. However, South American plants may exhibit similar morphology, thus the possible source of plants introduced into Hispaniola cannot be identified on the basis of this feature. Voucher. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Barahona. Sierra de Bahoruco (northern side), entrada of Polo along DR Carretera Ramal 533, ca. 20 km S (uphill) of Cabral, 18°06'42"N, 71°16'18"W, 822 m, 27 Jun 2006, Pruski & Ortiz 4060 (JBSD, MO, NY, S, US). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Guy Nesom and Rosa Ortiz for reading the manuscript; Teodoro Clase (JBSD) and Ricardo Garcia (JBSD) for helping with collection permits in the Dominican Republic; and Stephanie Keil for taking the photographs. LITERATURE CITED Adams, CD. 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, Mora, Jamaica. Bentham, G. and J. D. Hooker. 1873. Compositae. Pp. 163-533 in Genera Plantarum, Vol. 2. Reeve and Co., London. D'Arcy, W.G. (coord.). 1975. Flora of Panama, Part IX. Family 184. Compositae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 835-1321. Fenzl, E. 1849. Nova Quaedam Genera et Species Plantarum Vascularium. Vienna, [preprinted from Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 1: 253-264 + pi. 29-30. 1850]. Howard, R.A 1989. Compositae. Pp. 509-620 in Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands, Vol. 6. Arnold Arboretum & Harvard Univ., Jamaica Plain. Liogier, AH. [as Hermano Alain as well as E.E. Liogier]. 1962. Rubiales-Valerianales- Cucurbitales-Campanulales-Asterales in Flora de Cuba, Vol. 5. Univ. Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. Liogier, AH. 1996. La Flora de la Espanola, Vol, VIII. Universidad Central del F^ste, Vol. 72, Ser. Ci. 29: 1-588. San Pedro de Macoris, Republica Dominicana. Liogier, AH. [as H. A Liogier]. 1997. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands, Vol. 5. Univ. Puerto Rico, San Juan. Ortiz, R.D.C. 2012. Seed diversity in Menispermaceae: Developmental anatomy and insights into the origin of the condyle. Int. J. PI. Sci. 173: 344-364. Panero, J.L. 2007. Mllerieae Lindl. (1829). Pp. 477^92 in K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. 8. Springer, Berlin. Pruski, J.F. 2010. Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl (Compositae Giseke, nom. alt. et cons.). Pp. 339- 420 in R Vasquez M. et al. (eds.), Flora del Rio Cenepa, Amazonas, Peru, Vol. 1. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1 14. Robinson, H. 1979. A study of the genus Schistocarpha (Heliantheae: Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 42: 1-20. Pruski: Schistocarpha, a new generic record for the West Indies g Robinson, H. 2006. 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae. Flora of Ecuador 77(1): 1-230 and 77(2): 1- 233. Robinson, H. and R.D. Brettell. 1973. Tribal revisions in the Asteraceae. IV. The relationships of Neurolaena, Schistocarpha and Alepidocline. Phytologia 25: 439—445. Ruiz, H. [as translated by B.E. Dahlgren. text prepared originally in 1793]. 1940. Travels of Ruiz, Pavon, and Dombey in Peru and Chile (1777-1788) with an epilogue and official documents added by Agustin Jesus Barreiro. Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 21: 1-372 + 2 maps. Rydberg, P. A 1927. Carduaceae: Tribe 13. Liabeae, Tribe 14. Neurolaeneae, Tribe 15. Senecioneae [part]. N. Amer. Fl. 34(4): 289-360. Stephens, L. and M.A. Traylor, Jr. 1983. Ornithological gazetteer of Peru. Harvard Univ., Cambridge. Strother, J.L. 1999. Compositae-Heliantheae s.l. Pp. 1-232 in T.F. Daniel (ed), Flora of Chiapas, Part 5. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. Turner, B.L. 1986. An underview of the genus Schistocarpha (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Phytologia 59: 269-286.