LECTOTYPIFICATION OF CASTILLEJA BREVIFLORA A. GRAY NON BENTH. AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO THE NOMENCLATURE OF CASTILLEJA PUBERULA RYDB. (OROBANCHACEAE) J. Mark Egger Herbarium, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195-5325 email@example.com ABSTRACT Lectotypification of the illegitimate name Castilleja brevifllora A. Gray 1 862 (non Benth. 1846) is proposed in order to maintain Castilleja puberula Rydb. and to resolve the heterotypy of C. breviflora A. Gray. Castilleja breviflora A. Gray is then formally placed in synonymy under Castilleja flava S. Wats. KEY WORDS: Orobanchaceae, Castillejinae, Castilleja, Castilleja brachyantha Rydb., Castilleja breviflora A Gray, Castilleja puberula Rydb., Castilleja flava S. Wats., lectotypification, nomenclature, heterotype When A Gray first published Castilleja breviflora A. Gray (in 1862), he was unaware that G. Bentham (in 1846) applied this name in Castilleja to a species of Andean South America. Rydberg later realized this and in 1900 published the name Castilleja brachyantha Rydb. to replace Gray's name. Still later, in 1905, Rydberg described the morphologically similar Castilleja puberula Rydb., clearly implying that he regarded the two as different species. Eventually, C brachyantha was reduced to synonymy under Castilleja flava S, Wats, by Harrington (1954), while C puberula continues to be recognized as a bona fide species (e.g., Nelson & Harmon 1997; Seagrist & Taylor 1998; Beidleman et al 2000; Hartman & Nelson 2001; Weber & Wittmarm 2012). Castilleja flava is a widespread species of moderately xeric habitats at middle elevations throughout much of the Intermountain West and is often associated with sagebrush communities. Castilleja puberula is an uncommon to rare alpine species endemic to four counties in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado and likely evolved as a high elevation isolate of C. flava. When Gray established his Castilleja breviflora, he cited two elements, PI. Parry, No. 243 (1861, headwaters of Clear Creek and the alpine ridges lying east of Middle Park, Colorado Territory, duplicates at DUKE!, GH!, IA-ISC!, NY!, P!) and an unpublished T. Nuttall name, "Euchroma breviflora, Nun. in herb. Philad." Based on the known range of the plant in question, Nuttall gathered his specimens in Idaho or Wyoming in 1834. Sheets bearing this name in Nuttall's hand (BM!, PH!) are clearly referable to C flava, while sheets of Parry 243 all bear plants identical to what is now r recognized as C puberula. This case of heterotypy complicates the modern usage of the name C. puberula, necessitating the lectotypification proposed below. Based on the fact that only Parry 243 is located at GH and is annotated by Gray as his Castilleja breviflora, it is likely the meager description in the protologue was based primarily on the Parry collection (Fig. 1). While most of the description could apply to either C flava or C puberula, Gray does mention that the plants are "spithamaea" or only one "hand-span" in height, the typical height of most flowering C. puberula plants (Fig. 2) but shorter than most C flava plants of similar development (Fig. 3), However, we know that Gray studied at least the BM specimen of Nuttall s.n, because it bears an annotation in his hand, 'Castilleja. Euchroma breviflora, Nutt, ined." (Fig. 4). That sheet contains one large, typical stem of C. flava but also several, much shorter, poorly Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora 2 developed or trimmed stems that may have influenced Gray's description as well. Also, according to Penneli (1936) it is likely Gray saw the PH specimen of Nuttatt s.n., though it lacks his annotation (Fig. 5). Until now Gray's Castilleja breviflora has not been lectotypified. Apparently, Harrington (1954) was the first to assign C. brachyantha to synonymy under C. flava, even though that species only partially corresponds to Gray's description of C. breviflora. Most authors working with the Rocky Mountain flora later adopted Harrington's synonymy. The isolectotype designated below was also annotated as C. flava by Castilleja authority F.W. Penneli in 1920. It should be noted that Rydberg's application of Castilleja brachyantha is somewhat different from that intended by Gray when he proposed his C. breviflora. Aside from linking his new name C. brachyantha with Gray's illegitimate C. breviflora. Rydberg (1900) cited only a single collection (P. Koch 10, Hoodoo Peak, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). This collection does not appear to be present at RM at this time, and its true identity has yet to be determined. However, I know of no verified specimens of C, puberula from either Montana or Wyoming, and the region in which Koch 10 was collected is well within the known range of C flava (Holmgren 1984). In Rydberg's works published prior to the description of C. puberula, C. brachyantha was distinguished from C. flava by minor variations in the lower corolla lip. Following the publication of C puberula, Rydberg ( 1906, 1917) distinguished C brachyantha from both C. puberula and C. flava based on stature and differences in the structure of the beak and lower lip of the corolla, but his application of the name C. brachyantha appears to most closely match plants now treated as C flava. Typification of Gray's Castillja breviflora with Nuttall's collection will assure that C. puberula, a name in current use, will remain available for this rare Rocky Mountain plant as C. puberula was described after both Gray's name and Rydberg's replacement name. This is not a concern with C flava, which was described in 1871, well before Rydberg's C brachyantha. CASTILLEJA FLAVA S. Wats, in King, Rep. Geol. Explor. 40th Parallel [Botany] 5: 230. 1871. TYPE: Utah. [Rich Co.:] Upper Bear River Valley, 7000 ft, Jul 1869, S. Watson 813 (holotype: GH!, isotypes: NY!. US!, YU!). Castilleja breviflora A. Gray, Amer. J. Sci. 34: 338. 1862. Castilleja brachyantha Rydb., Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 360. 1900 (replacement name, not Castilleja breviflora Benth. in DC, Prodr. 10:534. 1846). LECTOTYPE (designated here): USA. [Idaho or Wyoming]. Rocky Mts., 1834, T. Nuttalls.n. (BM!, isolectotype: PH!). CASTILLEJA PUBERULA Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 3 1:644. 1905. TYPE: Colorado. "Colorado Territory," 1872, C.C. Parry s.n. (holotype: NY!, isotypes: GH!, P!, PH!), ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank Kanchi Gandhi, John McNeill, James L. Reveal, and John H. Wiersema for consultation and advice concerning the disposition of these nomenclatural matters. I also thank Reveal in particular for assistance in earlier drafts of this paper, for his extensive comments in review of the present paper, and for his always timely and gracious assistance on matters botanical. Guy Nesom also provided very useful comments on the manuscript. I also thank the personnel of the herbaria cited in this paper for assistance with loans and BM, GH, and PH for permission to use images from their type collections. Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora 3 Figure 1. Mixed sheet at GH containing several collection of Castilleja puberula, including both an isotype of C. puberula Rydb. and a syntype of C. breviflora A. Gray. Note that both my annotation from 1996 and some of those by others are not fully accurate and that only the stems in the lower left obtained by Parry in 1861 actually represent Parry 243. : Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora \ Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora 5 r.flava, Angel Lake Road, East Humboldt Range, Elko Co., NV, 27 Jim 1995, M Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja b Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora J Egger: Lectotypification of Castilleja breviflora 8 LITERATURE CITED Beidleman, L.H, R.G. Beidleman, and B.E. Willard. 2000. Plants of Rocky Mountain National Park Falcon Publishing, Helena, Montana. Harrington, H.D. 1954. Manual of the Plants of Colorado. Sage Books, Denver, Colorado. Hartman, R.L. and B.E. Nelson. 2001. A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Herbarium, Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie. Holmgren, N.H. 1984. Scrophulariaceae, Pp. 344-506 in A Cronquist, AH. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, and J.L. Reveal (eds.). Intermountain Flora, Vol. 4. New York Botanical Garden Press, New York. Nelson, J.K. and W.E. Harmon. 1997. The subalpine and vascular flora of the Neota Wilderness Aea in the northern Never Summer Range of north-central Colorado. Phytologia 83: 286- 301. Pennell, F.P. 1936, Travels and scientific collections of Thomas Nuttall. Bartonia 18: 1-51. Rydberg, P. A 1900. Catalogue of the flora of Montana and the Yellowstone National Park. Mem. New YorkBot. Gard. 1: 1^92. Rydberg, P. A 1906. Flora of Colorado. Bull. Colorado State Univ. Exp. Sta. 100: 1-447. Rydberg. P. A 1917. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. Published by the author, New York. Seagrist, R.V. and J.K.Tavlor. 1998, Alpine vascular flora of ITasley Basin, Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA Madrono 45: 310-318. Weber, W.A and R.C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Eastern Slope: A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants (ed. 4), University Press of Colorado. Boulder.