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ATLAS OF THE FLORA OF NEW ENGLAND: FABACEAE 



Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138-2020 

^angelofa! oeb.harvard.edu 

2 david_boufford@harvard.edu 

ABSTRACT 

Dot maps are provided to depict the distribution at the county level of the taxa of 
Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae growing outside of cultivation in the six New England states of the 
northeastern United States. The maps treat 172 taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, and hybrids, but 
not forms) based primarily on specimens in the major herbaria of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, with most data derived from the holdings of the New 
England Botanical Club Herbarium (NEBC). Brief synonymy (to account for names used in standard 
manuals and floras for the area and on herbarium specimens), habitat, chromosome information, and 
common names are also provided. 

KEY WORDS: flora, New England, atlas, distribution, Fabaceae 



This article is the eleventh in a series (Angelo & Boufford 1996, 1998, 2000, 2007, 2010, 
2011a, 2011b, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c) that presents the distributions of the vascular flora of New 
England in the form of dot distribution maps at the county- level (Figure 1). Seven more articles are 
planned. The atlas is posted on the internet at http://neatlas.org, where it will be updated as new 
information becomes available. 

This project encompasses all vascular plants (lyeophytes, pteridophytes and spermatophytes) 
at the rank of species, subspecies, and variety growing independent of cultivation in the six New 
England states. Hybrids are also included, but forms and other ranks below the level of variety are not. 
The dots are based on voucher specimens primarily in New England herbaria (of colleges, universities, 
botanical gardens, and public museums) representing reproducing populations outside of cultivated 
habtfats This eleventh rrf-tallroeni mJudes the family Fabaceae (Magnoliophyta). Of the 172 taxa 
treated, 106 are not native to the region. Future accounts will treat the distribution of additional non- 
monocot angiosperms. 

The habitat data are distillations from a variety of sources augmented by our own field 
observations. An attempt was made to indicate habitat information as it applies to a particular taxon in 
New England rather than to the entire range of the taxon. Habitat information is not provided for 
hybrid taxa. 

It is our hope that these articles will stimulate additional field work to supplement the 
distributions portrayed in the maps. The New England Botanical Club herbarium has proven to be the 
most important resource for this project. We are eager to receive information on voucher specimens in 
public herbaria documenting range e?itensions and filling county gaps in distributions. Similarly, 
because the atlas of the New England flora will be continuously updated as new information becomes 
available, we are eager to receive notification of published corrections of cytological information and 
new, documented chromosome counts for taxa in the New England flora. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 2 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Materials and methods are as outlined in Angelo and Boufford (1996) and in a web version 
(Angelo & Boufford 2011c) and are not repeated here. 

TAXONOMY AND FORMAT 

The taxonomy and nomenclature adopted for this work follow^ that of draft tieaiments fos the 
Flora of North America project, except that families, genera, and species are arranged alphabetically. 
The families and their circumscription do not necessarily reflect current views on relationships or 
composition. The Angiospemi Phylogeny Website (Stevens 200 1 onwards) should be consulted for a 
continuously updated treatment of families and their inclusive genera. Named and unnamed hybrid 
taxa are placed alphabetically at the end of the genus in which they occur. Unnamed hybrids combine 
the names of the progenitors alphabetically by epithet, Taxa that are not native to New England are 
indicated by uppercase text. Unpublished names are not used, even if publication is pending. 

Chromosome numbers are taken primarily from draft treatments for the Flora of North 
America project and from Goldblatt and Johnson (1979-). 

Synonymy is provided primarily with respect to names accepted in standard manuals covering 
New England published from 1950 onward, including Fernald (1950), Gleason and Cronquist (1991), 
and Seymour (1982) and on herbarium labels in New England herbaria. Synonyms have not been 
provided where the distribution for the synonymized name does not include New England. 



Cassia (in part) => Chamachrista 

Cassia (in part) => Senna 

Coronitta (in part) => Securigera 

Desmodium (in part) => Hylodesmum 

Lespedeza (in part) => Kummerowia 

Lotus (in part) => Acmispon 

Trigonella (in part) => Medicago 



The following species have been reported from our area but are excluded for the reasons noted: 

CYTISUS x PRAECOX Bean (C. MULTIFLORUS (L'Heritier) Sweet x ?) [no voucher 
found; reported from Plymouth County, Massachusetts] 

LABLAB PURPUREUS (Linnaeus) Sweet (DOLICHOS LABLAB Linnaeus) [no voucher 
found; reported from Worcester County, Massachusetts] 

LATHYRUS APHACA Linnaeus [no voucher found; reported from Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts] 

LATHYRUS PANNOMCUS (Jacquin) Garcke subsp. PANNOMCUS [no voucher found; 
reported from Massachusetts] 

LATHYRUS SATLVUS Linnaeus [no voucher found; rqiorted from Mddlesex County, 
Massachusetts] 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 



LESPEDEZA THUNBERGII (de Candolle) Nakai [no voucher found; reported from Plymouth 
County, Massachusetts] 

LOTUS TENUIS Waldstein & Kitaibel ex Willdenow [no voucher found; reported as collected 
from Newport County, Rhode Island] 

LUPINUS ANGUSTIFLORUS Eastwood [mistakenly listed in Maine checklist for L. 
ANGUSTIFOLIUS Linnaeus] 

LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS Linnaeus [no voucher found; reported from Penobscot County, 

Maine] 

LUPINUS NOOTKATENSIS Donn ex Sims var. NOOTKATENSIS [no voucher found; 
reported from northern New England] 

MEDICAGO DISCIFORMS de Candolle [no voucher found; reported from Worcester 
County. Massachusetts] 

MELILOTUS ALTISSIMUS Thuillier [no voucher found; reported from Maine] 

ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA Scopoli [no voucher found; reported from Massachusetts and 
Vermont] 

SENNA CORYMBOSA (Lamarck) H.S. Irwin & Barneby [no voucher found; reported from 
Massachusetts] 

THERMOPSIS MOLLIS (Michaux) M. A Curtis [New England herbarium specimens with this 
name are misidentified THERMOPSIS V1LLOSA (Walter) Fernald & B.G. Schubert] 

THERMOPSIS MONTANA Nuttall var. MONTANA [Voucher specimen from Maine is 
misidentified THERMOPSIS VILLOSA (Walter) Fernald & B.G. Schubert] 

TRIFOLIUM CAROLINIANUM Michaux [no voucher found; reported from Chitteneden 
County, Vermont] 

TRIFOLIUM FRAGIFERUM Linnaeus [no voucher found; reported from Lamoille County, 



TRIFOLIUM GLOMERATUM 'Linnaeus [no voucher found; reported from Worcester County, 
Massachusetts] 

VICIA SEPIUM Linnaeus var. MONTANA W.D.J. Koch [no voucher found; reported from 
York County, Maine] 



ANGIOSPERMAE (MAGNOLIOPHYTA) - ANGIOSPERMS 

FABACEAE 

ACMISPON AMERICANUS (Nuttall) Rydberg var. AMERICANUS—Viakie Trefoil (Figure 2). 2n = 
14. Railroads, waste places. From farther west [HOSACKIA AMERICANA (Nuttall) Piper; 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 4 



LOTUS AMERICANOS - misapplied; L. PURSHIANUS Clements & E.G. Clements; L. 
UNIFOLIOLATUS (Hooker) Bentham] 

ALBIZIA JULJBRISSINDuiazam—SHk-bee (Figure 2). 2n = 26. Waste places. From Asia. 

AMORPHA FRUTICOSA Linnaeus— False Indigo (Figure 2). 2n = 40. Roadsides, thickets, waste 
places. From farmer south and west. [A. FRUTICOSA var. OBLONGIFOLIA E.J. Palmer] 

Amphicarpaea bracteata (Linnaeus) Fernald var. bracteata — Hog-peanut (Figure 2). 2n = 40. Rich 
woods, thickets. [A. monoica Elliott] 

Amphicarpaea bracteata (Linnaeus) Feraald var. comosa (Linnaeus) Fernald — Pitcher's Hog-peanut 
(Figure 2). 2n = ? Rich woods, thickets. 

ANTHYLLIS VULNERARIA Linnaeus— Kidney-vetch (Figure 2). 2n = 12 (Europe). Roadsides, waste 
places, fields. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 



Apios americana Medikus — Groundnut (Figure 2). 2n = 22, 3/3 = 33. Riverbanks, rich, moist thickets, 
primarily along streams and lakes. 

ARACHIS HYPOGAEA Linnaeus— Common Peanut (Figure 2). 2n = 40. Roadsides, waste places, 
fields. From South America. 

Astragalus alpinus Linnaeus var. brunetianus Fernald — Northern Milk-vetch (Figure 2). 2n = 1 
Calcareous river ledges and gravels. 

Astragalus canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis — (Figure 3). 2n = 16. Shores. 



Astragalus eucosmus B.L. Robinson — (Figure 3). 2b = 32. Calcareous, rocky or gravelly shores of 
streams. 

ASTRAGALUS GLYCYPHYLLOS Linnaeus— Liquorice Milk-vetch (Figure 3). 2n = 16. Roadsides, 
waste places. From Eurasia. 

Astragalus robbinsii (Oakes) A. Gray var. robbinsii — (Figure 3). 2n = ? Dry, calcareous ledges 
above water, [considered to be extinct since 1894] 

Astragalus robbinsii (Oakes) A. Gray var. jesupii Eggleston & E. Sheldon— {Figure 3). 2n = ? Rock}' 
stream banks. [A. jesupii (Eggleston & E. Sheldon) Britton] 

Astragalus robbinsii (Oakes) A. Gray var. minor (Hooker) Barneby — (Figure 3). In = ? Calcareous, 
ledges, cliffs and talus. [A. blakei Eggleston] 

BAPTLSLA AUSTRAUS (Linnaeus) R. Brown var. AUSTRALLS— Blue False Indigo (Figure 3). 2n = ? 
Roadsides, fields, thickets, shores. From farther south and west. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 5 



BAPTISM LEUCOPHAEA Nuttall— (Figure 3). 2n = ? Railroads in dry sand. From farther west. [B. 
LEUCOPHAEA var. GLABRESCENS Larisey; B, BRACTEATA Muhlenberg ex Elliott var. 
GLABRESCENS (Larisey) Isely; B. BRACTEATA var. LEUCOPHAEA. (Nuttall) Kartesz & 
Gandhi] 

Baptisia tinctoria (Linnaeus) R. Brown — Wild Indigo (Figure 4). 2n = 18. Dry fields, dry, open 
woods and clearings, in sterile or sandy soil. [B. tinctoria var. crebra Fernald] 

CARAGANA ARBORESCENS Lamarck— Siberian Peatree (Figure 4). 2n = 16, 20, 24. Rich thickets, 
fields, roadsides, waste places. From central and eastern Asia. 

Cercis canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis — Redbud (Figure 4). In = 14. Rocky woods. 

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michaux) Greene var. fasciculata — Partridge-pea (Figure 4). 2n = 16. 
Sandy, open fields and clearings, usually dry, roadsides. [Cassia fasciculata Michaux; C. 
chamaecrista - misapplied] 



Chamaecrista nictitans (Linnaeus) Moench subsp. nictitans — Wild Sensitive Plant (Figure 4). 2n = 
16. Gravelly or sandy, open soil, fields, roadsides. [Cassia nictitans Linnaeus] 

CICER ARIETINUM Linnaeus— Chick-pea (Figure 4). 2n = 16. Waste places. From Turkey (and 
long in cultivation). 

CLADRASTIS KENTUKEA (Dumont de Courset) Rudd— American Yellowwood (Figure 4). 2n = 28. 
Rich woods, near parks or cemeteries. From farmer south and west. [C LUTEA (F. 
Michaux) K. Koch] 

COLUTEA ARBORESCENS Linnaeus— Bladder-senna (Figure 4). 2n = 16 (Europe). Roadsides, 
railroads, waste areas, hillsides. From Europe, northern Africa. 

1 Scorpion Vetch (Figure 4). 2n = 12. 



Crotalaria sagittaiis Linnaeus var. sagittaiis — Common Rattlebox (Figure 5). In = 32. Sandy or 
gravelly, often dry, open soil, shores, waste areas, railroads, roadsides. 

CYTISUS SCOPARIUS (Linnaeus) Link var. SCOPARIUS— Scot's Broom (Figure 5). 2n = 46, 48. 
Sandy fields, openings and roadsides, dunes, beaches. From Europe. 

DALEA CANDIDA Willdenow var. CANDIDA— White Prairie-clover (Figure 5). 2n = 14. Railroads. 
From farther west. 

DALEA LEPORINA (Aiton) Bullock— Foxtail Prairie-clover (Figure 5). 2n = 14. Rich, open soil, 

waste places. From farther west, Mexico, Central and South America. 

DALEA PURPUREA Ventenat var. PURPUREA— Purple Prairie-clover (Figure 5). 2n = 14. Sandy 
waste areas. From farther west. 

Desmodium canadense (Linnaeus) de Candolle — Showy Tick-trefoil (Figure 5). 2n = 22. Thickets, 
fields, open woods, meadows, riverbanks, sandy, open soil, roadsides, railroads, waste places. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 6 



Desmodium canescens (Linnaeus) de Candolle — (Figure 5). 2» = ? Dry, sandy woods, fields, thickets, 
roadsides and waste areas. 

Desmodium ciliare (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) de Candolle var. ciliare — (Figure 5). 2« = ? Dry, 
often sandy, woods and clearings. 

Desmodium cuspidatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) de Candolle ex G. Don var. cuspidatum — (Figure 
5). 2n = ? Rocky, rich, open woods. 

Desmodium glabellum (Mchaux) de Candolle — (Figure 6). 2n = 22. Dry, sandy woods, clearings, 
roadsides, [D. dillenii Darlington - in part, ambiguous name] 



Desmodium obtusum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) de Candolle — (Figure 6). 2« = ? Dry, sandy or 
rocky, open woods. [D. rigidum (Elliott) de Candolle] 

Desmodium paniculatum (Linnaeus) de Candolle var. paniculatum — (Figure 6). 2n = 22. Dry, open, 
often rocky or sandy woods, dry, woodland borders, thickets, clearings, fields, roadsides. 

Desmodium perplexum B.G. Schubert — (Figure 6). 2n = ? Dry, sandy woods, dry. woodland borders, 
roadsides. [D. dillenii Darlington - in part, ambiguous name] 

Desmodium rotundifolium de Candolle — (Figure 6). 2n = 22. Dr, often rocky, woods, clearings, 
fields, woodland margins, fields, roadsides. 

Desmodium sessilifolium Torrey & A. Gray — (Figure 6). In = : ? Dry, sandy soils, roadsides, 
railroads. 

— Desmodium hybrid — 

Desmodium x humifusum (Muhlenberg ex Bigelow) Beck — (Figure 6). [D. paniculatum (Linnaeus) 
de Candolle var. paniculatum * D. rotundifolium de Candolle] 

16. Roadsides, waste areas, 



GENISTA TINCTORIA Linnaeus— Dyer's Greenweed (Figure 7). In = 48. Dry fields, woodland 
margins, roadsides, waste places, usually in dry, sterile, sandy or rock}' soil. From Eurasia. 



GLYC1NEMAX (Linnaeus) Merrill— Soybean (Figure 7). 2« = 40. Fields, railroads, roadsides. From 
eastern Asia. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 7 



GYMNOCLADUS DIOICUS (Linnaeus) K. Koch— Kentucky Coffeetree (Figure 7). 2n = 28. Waste 
places, woodland margins, dry hillsides. From farther west and south. 

Hedysarum alpinum Linnaeus— (Figure 7). "In = 14. Calcareous river-shores, ledges. [H. alpinum 
var. americanum Michaux] 

Hylodesmum glutinosum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill — (Figure 7). 2n = ? 
Rich, dry or rocky woods. [Desmodium glutinosum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Alph. Wood; 
1 (Mchaux) de Candolle] 



Hylodesmum nudifloium (Linnaeus) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill— (Figure 7). 2« = ? Rich, dry or rocky 



KUMMEROWIA STRIATA (Thunberg) Schindler— Japanese Clover (Figure 7). 2» = 22. Sandy 
roadsides, gravel pits. From eastern Asia. [Lespedeza striata (Thunberg) Hooker & Arnottj 

LABURNUM ANAGYROIDES Medikus— Golden Chain-tree (Figure 8). 2n = 42, 50. Woodland 
margins. From Europe. 



LABURNUM * WATERERI (Wettstein) Dippel— (Figure 8). [L. ALPINUM (Miller) . 
ANAGYROIDES Medikus] 



Lathyrus japonicus Willdenow var. maritimus (Linnaeus) Kartesz & Gandhi — Beach Pea (Figure 8). 
2n = 14. Sea beaches, gravelly sea shores, sandy or gravelly shores of Lake Champlain. [L. 
japonicus var. glaber (Seringe) Fernald; L. maritimus Bigelow var. maritimus; L. maritimus 

• M *... ' iSuillvO I .1111^1 

Lathyrus japonicus Willdenow var. pettitus Fernald — (Figure 8). 2n = 14. Sea beaches, gravelly sea 
shores, sandy or gravelly shores of Lake Champlain. [L. maritimus Bigelow var. pettitus 
(Fernald) Gleason] 

LATHYRUS LATIFOLIUS Linnaeus— Everlasting Pea (Figure 8). 2n = 14. Roadsides, waste places, 
fields, thickets. From Europe, northern Africa. 

Lathyrus ochroleucus Hooker — Pale Vetchling (Figure 8). In :zz: 14. Dry or rocky banks and bluffs. 

LATHYRUS ODORATUS Linnaeus— Sweet Pea (Figure 8). 2n = 14. Waste places. From southern 
Italy. 

Lathyrus palustris Linnaeus — Marsh Vetchling (Figure 8). 2n = 14, 42. Riverbanks, salt marshes, 
shores, meadows, swamps, damp thickets, beach bluffs. [L. palustris var. linearifolius 
Seringe; L. palustris var. macranthus (T.G. White) Fernald; L. palustris var. myrtifolius 
(Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) A. Gray; L. palustris var. pilosus (Chamisso) Ledebour] 

LATHYRUS PRATENSIS Linnaeus— Yellow Vetchling (Figure 8). 2n = 9, 14, 16, 28, 42. Fields, 
roadsides, railroads, waste places, meadows, shores. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 8 



LATHYRUS SYLVESTRIS Linnaeus— Flat Pea (Figure 9). 2n = 14. Field borders, thickets, roadsides, 
waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa, 

LATHYRUS TUBEROSUS Linnaeus— Earthnut Pea (Figure 9). In = 14. Fields, meadows, roadsides, 
railroads. From Eurasia. 

LENS CULINARLS Medikus— Lentil (Figure 9). In = 14, 21, 26. Roadsides, waste places. Origin 
unknown (long in cultivation). 

Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Elliott — (Figure 9). 2n = 20. Dry, open, sandy soil, sandy, pond 
shores. 

LESPEDEZA BICOLOR Turczaninow— Shrubby Bush-clover (Figure 9). In = 18, 22, 42. Waste 
places, disturbed, open, sandy or gravelly soil, roadsides. From eastern Asia. 

Lespedeza capitata Michaux — (Figure 9). 2n = 20, Dry, open, sandy soil, roadsides, railroads, fields, 
dry, rocky or sandy woods, waste places. \L. capitata var. stenophylla Bissell & Fernald; L. 
capitata var. velutina Fernald; L. capitata var. vulgaris Torrey & A Gray] 

LESPEDEZA CUNEATA (Dumont de Courset) G. Don— Chinese Bush-clover (Figure 9). In = 20. 

Dry roadsides, fields, waste places. From eastern Asia, Australia, 

LESPEDEZA CYRTOBOTRYA Miquel— (Figure 9). 2n = 22. Fields. From eastern Asia. 

Lespedeza frutescens (Linnaeus) Hornemann — (Figure 9). 2« = 20. Dry, rocky woods. [L. violacea - 
misapplied] 

Lespedeza hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta — ('Figure 10). 2n = 20. Dry, open woods and 
other dry soils, often sandy or rocky. 

Lespedeza procumbens Michaux — Trailing Bush-clover (Figure 10). In = 20. Dry, sandy or rocky, 
open woods and clearings. 

Lespedeza repens (Linnaeus) W.P.C. Barton — Creeping Bush-clover (Figure 10). In = 20. Sandy or 
rocky, open woods, dry ledges, dry, rocky fields. 



Lespedeza violacea (Linnaeus) Persoon — (Figure 10). In = 20. Dry, open, often rocky woods, dry, 
open, rocky soil, thickets, roadsides. [L. intermedia - misapplied; see L. fri, 
traditional, misapplied use of name "L. violacea"' (Reveal & Barrie 1991)] 



Lespedeza virginica (Linnaeus) Britton — Slender Bush-clover (Figure 10). 2n = 20. Dry, open, 

usually sandy or rock} 7 soil, dry, open, often rocky woods, fields, roadsides. 

— Lespedeza hybrids — 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 9 



Lespedeza x acuticarpa Mackenzie & Bush (pro species) — (Figure 10). [L. frutescens (Linnaeus) 
Hornemann x L. virginica (Linnaeus) Britton; L. violacea - misapplied x L. virginica 
(Linnaeus) Britton] 

Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Elliott x L. capitatu Pvlichaux — (Figure 10). 

Lespedeza x brittonii E.P. Bicknell (pro species) — (Figure 10). [L. procumbens Michaux x [,. 
virginica (Linnaeus) Britton; L. procumbens var. elliptica S.F, Blake] 

Lespedeza capitata Michaux x L. violacea (Linnaeus) Persoon — (Figure 11). [L. capitata Michaux x 
L. intermedia - misapplied] 



Lespedeza frutescens (Linnaeus) Hornemann x L. procumbens Michaux— (Figure 11). [L. violacea - 
misapplied x L. procumbens Michaux] 

Lespedeza frutescens (Linnaeus) Hornemann x L. violacea (Linnaeus) Persoon — (Figure 11). [L. 
violacea - misapplied x L. intermedia - misapplied] 

Lespedeza hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta x L. procumbens Michaux — (Figure 11). 

Lespedeza hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta x L. stuevei Nuttali- — (Figure 11). 

Lespedeza hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta x L. violacea (Linnaeus) Persoon— (Figure 11). 
[L. hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta x L. intermedia — misapplied] 

Lespedeza hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta x L. virginica (Linnaeus) Britton — (Figure 11). 

Lespedeza x longifolia de Candolle (pro species) — (Figure 11). [L. capitata Michaux x L. hirta 
(Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta; L. hirta var. dissimulans Feinald] 

Lespedeza x neglecta Mackenzie & Bush (pro species) — (Figure 11). [L. stuevei Nuttali x L. 
virginica (Liimaeus) Britton] 

Lespedeza x nuttallii Darlington (pro species) — (Figure 12). [L. frutescens (Linnaeus) Hornemann x 
L. hirta (Linnaeus) Hornemann subsp. hirta; L. violacea - misapplied x L. hirta subsp. hirta] 

Lespedeza procumbens Michaux x L. stuevei Nuttali — (Figure 12). 

Lespedeza x simulata Mackenzie & Bush (pro species) — (Figure 12). [L. capitata Michaux x L. 
i .' *;■:;. .. 1 1 iiiii.kiki I :■ ill<>n| 

Lespedeza stuevei Nuttali x L. violacea (Linnaeus) Persoon— (Figure 12). [L. stuevei Nuttali x L. 
:■:■ . "■:, ... iiii^.ippli^xl| 

LOTUS CORNLCULATUS Linnaeus— Bird' s-foot Trefoil (Figure 12). 2n = 12, 24, 28, 36. 

Roadsides, fields, waste places, meadows. From Eurasia, Africa. 

Lupinus perennis Linnaeus var. perennis — Wild Lupine (Figure 12). 2n = 48, 96. Dry, sandy or 
gravelly soil roadsides, railroads, dry, open woods, clearings, fields. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 1Q 



Lupinus perennis Linnaeus var. occidentalis S. Watson— {Figure 12). "In = ? Dry, sandy or gravelly- 
soil, roadsides, railroads, dry, open woods, clearings, fields. 

LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS Lindley subsp. POLYPHYLL US— Garden Lupine (Figure 12). 2n = 48, 
96. Roadsides, fields. From farther west. 



MEDICAGO LACINIATA Miller— (Figure 13). "In = 16. Wool waste, waste places. From south 
central and southwestern Asia, Africa. [TRIGONELLA LACINIATA - misapplied] 

MEDICAGO LUPULINA Linnaeus— Black Medick (Figure 13). 2n = 16, 32. Roadsides, waste 
places, fields. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [M. LUPULINA var. GLANDULOSA 
Neilreich] 

MEDICAGO MINIMA (Linnaeus) Bartalini— Bur Medick (Figure 13). 2n = 16. Wool waste, waste 
places, fields, dry. open soil. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [M MINIMA var. COMPACTA 
Neyraut; M. MINIMA var. LONGISETA de Candolle] 

MEDICAGO MONANTHA (C.A Meyer) Trautvetter— (Figure 13). 2n = ? Waste places. From south 
central and southwestern Asia. 

MEDICAGO POLYMORPHA Linnaeus— Toothed Medick (Figure 13). 2n = 14, 16. Wool waste, 
waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [M. POLYMORPHA var. VULGARIS 
superfluous name] 

MEDICAGO PRAECOX As Cmdolls— Mediterranean Medick (Figure 13). 2n = 14, 16. Wool waste. 
From northern and eastern Mediterranean. 

MEDICAGO RIGIDULA (Linnaeus) Allioni— Tifton Medick (Figure 13). 2n = 14, 16. Wool waste. 
From Eurasia, northern Africa. \M. AGRESTIS Tenore] 

MEDICAGO SALIVA Linnaeus subsp. SALIVA— Alfalfa (Figure 13). 2n = 16, 32. Roadsides, fields, 
waste places, meadows. From southwestern Asia. 

MEDICAGO SALIVA Linnaeus subsp. FALCALA (Linnaeus) Arcangeli— Yellow Alfalfa (Figure 13). 
2n = 16, 32. Roadsides, waste places, wool waste. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 
[MEDICAGO FALCALA Linnaeus] 

MEDICAGO SALIVA Linnaeus subsp. VARIA (Martyn) Arcangeli— Bastard Medick (Figure 14). 2n = 
? Roadsides, fields, waste places. From Eurasia. \M. SALIVA subsp, SALIVA * M. SALIVA 
subsp. FALCALA (Linnaeus) Arcangeli; M. SYLVESLRLS Tries] 

MEL1LOLUSALBUS Medikus— White Sweet-clover (Figure 14). 2n = 16. Roadsides, waste places, 
fields, rich woods. From farmer Eurasia. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 



MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS (Linnaeus) Lamarck— Yellow Sweet-clover (Figure 14). 2n = 16. 
Roadsides, waste places, fields, railroads. From Eurasia. 

ORNITHOPUS SATIVUS Brotero subsp. SATIVUS—SemdeMa (Figure 14). 2n = 14. Sandy, open, 
disturbed soil. From southwestern Europe, northern Africa. 

Oxytropis campestris (Linnaeus) de Candolle var. johannensis Feraald — (Figure 14). 2n = 32, 48. 
Rocky or gravelly river shores. [O. johannensis (Fernald) Fernald] 

PHASEOLUS COCCINEUS Linnaeus— Scarlet Runner (Figure 14). 2n = 22. Roadsides, waste 
places. From Mexico. Central America. [P. MULTIFLORUS Lamarck] 

Phaseolns polystachios (Linnaeus) Britton, Steins & Poggenburg var, polystachios— Wild Bam 
(Figure 14). In = 22. Rocky woods, dry, wooded ledges, roadsides. [P. polystachios var. 
aquiionius Fernald] 

PHASEOLUS VULGARIS Linnaeus— Common Bean (Figure 14). 2n = 22. Waste places, roadsides. 
From Mexico, Central and South America. [P. VULGARIS var. HUMILIS Alefeld] 



PUERARIA MONTANA (Loureiro) Merrill var. LOBATA (Willdenow) Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex 
Sanjappa & Predeep — Kudzu (Figure 15). In = 22, 24. Roadsides, waste places. From 
eastern Asia, southwestern Pacific. [P. LOBA TA (Willdenow) Ohwi] 

ROBINIA HISPIDA Linnaeus var. HISPIDA— Bristly Locust (Figure 15). 2n = 30. Roadsides, fields, 
sandy hills, rock}' woodland margins, waste places. From farmer south. 

. FERTILIS (Ashe) RT. Clausen— (Figure 15). 2n = 20. Roadsides. 



ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA Linnaeus— Black Locust (Figure 15). 2n = 20. Roadsides, fields, 
thickets, woodland margins, waste places. From farther west and south. 

ROBINIA VISCOSA Ventenat var. V1SCOSA— Clammy Locust (Figure 15). 2n = 20. Roadsides, 
fields, waste piaces, thickets, often in sandy soil. From farmer south. 

ROBINIA VISCOSA Ventenat var. HARTWIGII (Koehne) Ashe— (Figure 15). 2n = ? Roadsides. 
From farther south. [R. HARTWIGII Koehne] 

— Robinia hybrid — 

ROBINIA x MARGARETTA Ashe (pro species)— (Figure 15). [R. HISPIDA Linnaeus var. HISPIDA 
x R. PSEUDOACACIA Linnaeus] 

SCORPIURUS MURICATUS Linnaeus— Caterpillar-plant (Figure 15). 2n = 28. Wool waste. From 
the Mediterranean. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 12 



SECURIGERA VARIA (Linnaeus) Lassen— Crown-vetch (Figure 16). In = 16, 24. Roadsides, fields, 
waste places. From Eurasia. [CORONILLA VARIA Linnaeus] 

Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) H.S. Irwin & Barneby — Wild Senna (Figure 16). 2n = ? Streambanks, 
thickets, roadsides, fields. [C. hebecarpa Fernald] 



SESBANIA HERBACEA (Miller) McVaugh— (Figure 16). In = 12. Waste places. From farther 
south. [S. EXALTATA (Rafinesque) Cory] 

Strophosiyi.es helvola (Linnaeus) Elliott — Trailing Wild Bean (Figure 16). 2n = 22. Sandy or gravelly 
soil, usually near coast, shores, marsh margins, railroads, fields, roadsides. 

STROPHOSTYLES LEIOSPERMA (Torrey & A. Gray) Piper— (Figure 16). 2n = ? Old gravel or sand 
pits. From farther west. 

Strophostyles umbellata (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Britton — Perennial Wild Bean (Figure 16). 2n = 



Tephrosia virginiana (Linnaeus) Persoon — Goafs-rue (Figure 16). 2n = 22. Dry, sandy, clearings 
and open woods, Sedges, fields, roadsides, railroads. 

THERMOPSIS VILLOSA (Walter) Fernald & B.G. Schubert— (Figure 16). 2n = ? Roadsides, fields. 
From farther south. 

TRIFOLIUM ARVENSE Linnaeus— Rabbit's-foot Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 14. Dry roadsides, fields, 
waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 

TRIFOLIUM AUREUM Pollich— Yellow Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 14, 16. Roadsides, dry fields, 
waste places. From Eurasia. [T. AGRARIUM Linnaeus] 

TRIFOLIUM CAMPESTRE Schreber— Low Hop Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 14, 16. Roadsides, dry 
fields, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [T. PROCUMBENS Linnaeus] 

TRIFOLIUM DALMATICUM Vis iani— (Figure 17). 2n = 10. Waste places. From southeastern 
Europe. 

TRIFOLIUM DICHOTOMUM Hooker & Arnott— (Figure 17). 2n = ? Wool waste. From farther 
west. 

TRIFOLIUM DUBIUM Sibthorp— Small Hop Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 16, 28, 32. Dry roadsides and 
fields, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 

TRIFOLIUM ECHINATUM M. Bieberstein— Hedgehog Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 16. Wool waste. 
From Eurasia, northern Africa. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 13 



TRIFOLIUM HYBRIDUM Linnaeus— Alsike Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 16, 32. Roadsides, fields, 
meadows, clearings. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [T. HYBRIDUM var. ELEGANS (Savi) 

1 U'KMU I 

TRIFOLIUM INCARNATUM Linnaeus— Crimson Clover (Figure 17). 2n = 14. Fields, waste places, 
roadsides. From Eurasia. [T. INCARNATUM var. ELATIUS Gibelli & Belli] 

Linnaeus — Zigzag Clover (Figure 18). 2n = 48. 80. Oak woods, fields, 



TRIFOLIUM OLIVACEUM Greene— (Figure 18). 2n = ? Wool waste. From farther west. 

TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE Linnaeus— Red Clover (Figure 18). 2n = 14. Fields, meadows, waste 
places, roadsides, clearings. From Eurasia, northern Mica. [T. PRATENSE var, SATIVUM 
Crepin] 



TRIFOLIUM. STRIATUM Linnaeus— Knotted Clover (Figure 18). 2n = 14, 16. Sandy fields. From 
Eurasia, northern Africa. 



ULEX EUROPAEUS Linnaeus— Common Gorse (Figure 19). 2n = 32, 64, 96. Rocky headland turf, 
dry slopes, pine woods, usually in sandy soil. From Europe. 

ULEX MINOR Roth— Dwarf Gorse (Figure 19). 2n = 32. Sand plains. From Europe. [U NANUS 
T.F. Forster ex Symons] 



VICIA ERVILIA (Linnaeus) Willdenow— Bitter Vetch (Figure 19). In = 14. Ballast waste. From 
Eurasia, northern Africa. 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 14 



V1CIA GRANDIFLORA Scopoli— (Figure 19). In = 14. Fields. From Eurasia. 

12, 14. Waste pla. 



V1C1A LATHYROIDES Linnaeus— Spring Vetch (Figure 19). 2n = 10, 12. Roadsides, fields, usually 
sandy. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 

V1CIA PANNONICA Crantz— Hungarian Vetch (Figure 20). 2n = 12, 14. Roadsides. From Eurasia. 

VICIA SATIVA Linnaeus var. SATIVA— Common Vetch (Figure 20). 2n = 10, 12. Fields, roadsides, 
waste places. Origin unknown. 

VICIA SATIVA Linnaeus subsp. NIGRA (Linnaeus) Ehrhart— Smaller Common Vetch (Figure 20). 2n 
= 12, 14. Waste places, railroads, roadsides, fields, meadows, sea beaches, shores. From 
Europe, Asia, Africa. [V. ANGUSTIFOUA Linnaeus var. ANGUSTIFOLIA; V. 
ANGUSTIFOLIA var. SEGETAUS (Thuillier) W.D.J. Koch; V. ANGUSTIFOUA var. 
UNCINATA (Desvaux) Rouy] 

VICIA SEPIUM Linnaeus var, SEPIUM— Bush Vetch (Figure 20). In = 12, 14. Roadsides, railroads, 
fields. From Europe, Asia. 

VICIA TETRASPERMA (Linnaeus) Schreber— Sparrow Vetch (Figure 20). 2n = 14. Fields, railroads, 
roadsides, waste places. From Europe, Asia, northern Africa. [V. TETRASPERMA var. 
TENU1SS1MA (Druce) Drace] 

VICIA VILLOSA Roth var. VILLOSA— Winter Vetch (Figure 20). 2n = 14, 28. Fields, roadsides, 

waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. 

VICIA VILLOSARofhvM. GLABRESCENS W.D.J. Koch— (Figure 20). 2n= 14,28. Fields, 

roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa, [V. VILLOSA subsp. VAR1A (Host) 
Corbier; V. DASCYCARPA Tenore] 

WISTERIA FLORIBUNDA (Willdenow) de Candolle— Japanese Wisteria (Figure 20). 2n = 16. 
Woodland margins, fields, thickets. From Japan, Korea. 

WISTERIA FRUTESCENS (Linnaeus) Poiret— American Wisteria (Figure 20). 2n = 16. Woodland 
margins, roadsides. From farther south. [W. MACROSTACHYA (Torrey & A. Gray) Nuttall 
ex B.L. Robinson & Fernald] 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank the curators and directors of the herbaria of the New England Botanical Club, the 
Harvard University Herbaria, the University of Massachusetts, and the University of Vermont for 



i Boufford: Atlas of New England flora 15 



allowing access to their collections. For the University of Maine and University of Connecticut 
herbaria we used their exceptional online databases of specimens. We are grateful also to Karen 
Searcy for facilitating access to the herbarium and to the notebooks of Harry E. Ahles at the University 
of Massachusetts (Amherst) and for kindly answering a request for information after our visit. James 
Hinds generously checked information on voucher specimens at the University of Maine (Orono). The 
following persons also checked certain records for us at their respective institutions: Janet Sullivan, 
Robert Capers, Patrick Sweeney, and Craig D. Layne. John T. Kartesz and Msako Nishino 
generously provided the latest draft version of the Floristic Synthesis of North America, which was 
consulted for reports of occurrence and the sources of such reports. Erika Sender kindly assisted with 
reviewing specimens at the Harvard University Herbaria and the University of Vermont. We thank: 
Kanchi Gandhi for nomenclature! advice. 



LITERATURE CITED & CONSULTED 

(general references listed in our previous articles are not repeated here) 

Angelo, R. 1994. A computer method for producing dot distribution maps. Rhodora 96: 190-194. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 1996. Atlas of the flora of New England: Pteridophytes and 

gymnosperms. Rhodora 98: 1-79. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 1998. Atlas of the flora of New England: Poaceae. Rhodora 100: 

101-233. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2000. Atlas of the flora of New England: Monocots except Poaceae 

and Cyperaceae. Rhodora 102: 1-119. 
Angelo, R and D.E. Boufford. 2007. Atlas of the flora of New England: Cyperaceae. Rhodora 109: 

237-360. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2010. Atlas of the flora of New England: Magnoliidae & 

Hamamelidae. Rhodora 112: 244-326. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2011a. Atlas of the flora of New England: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. 

Phytoneuron 20 1 1-12: 1-12 + figs. 1-53 (maps). 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2011b. Atlas of the flora of New England: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. 

Phytoneuron 2011-53: 1-13 + figs. 1-18 (maps). 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2011c. Atlas of the flora of New England: Pteridophytes and 

Gymnosperms: Introduction. <http://neatlas.org/Intro-Pterid&Gym.html>. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2012a. Atlas of the flora of New England: Caryophyllidae. Rhodora 

113:419-513. 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2012b. Atlas of the flora of New England: Asteraceae. Phytoneuron 

2012-34: 1-39 + figs. 1-56 (maps). 
Angelo, R. and D.E. Boufford. 2012c. Atlas of the flora of New England: Rosaceae. Phytoneuron 

2012-81: 1-25 + figs. 1-31 (maps). 
Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany (ed. 8). American Book Company, New York. 
Gleason, H.A and A Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and 

Adjacent Canada 2nd ed. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 
Goldblatt, P. and D.E. Johnson (eds.). 1979-. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN). 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis. <http://www.tropicos.org/Project/IPCN>. 
Reveal, J.L. and F.R. Barrie. 1991. On the identity of Hedysamm violaceum Linnaeus (Fabaceae). 

Phytologia 71: 456-461. 
Seymour, F.C. 1982. The Flora of New England, 2nd ed. Phytologia Mem. V. Plainfield, New 

Jersey. 
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phytogeny Website, version 9, June 2008 [and more or less 

continuously updated since]. <http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/> 



NEW 
HAMPSHIRE 




CONNECTICUT 




BAPTISM LEUCOPHAEA 




CLIDRASTIS KENTUKEA COUJTEA ARBORMSCENS CORONILLA SCORPIOIDES 







GALEGA OFFICINALIS 




F3JMMEROWIA STRIATA 




LATHYRUS ODORATUS 



IATHYR US PRATENSIS 




LESPEDEZA CUNEATA LESPEDEZA CYRTOBOTR YA 




MEDIC A GO ARABIC A 




MEDICAGO RIGIDULA 




PHASSOLUS COCCINEUS 



PHASEOIUS VULGARIS 




ROBINIA X MARGARETTA 



SCORPIURUS MURICATUS 




THERMOPSIS VILLOSA 




TRIFOHUM ECHINATUM TR1FOLIUM HYBRIDUM 



TR1FOLIUMINCAXNATUM 




TRIFOlIUMSTRIATb 



TRIFOHUMSUBTERRAMUM TRIFOLIUMTOMENTOSUM 




VICIA GRANDIFLORA 



VICIA HIRSUTA 



VICIA IATHYROIDES 




WISTERIA FIORIBUNDA 



WISTERIA FR UTESCENS 




WISTERIA SINENSIS 



Figure 2 1 . Distribution map.