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At a Meeting of the Council of the ROYAL 
SOCIETY, Fek22. i6S\ 

DR. Gretp having read fevcral Lectures of the Ana- 
tomy ^Flants^ feme ■ft'hereof have been already 
primed at divers times^ and feme arc not printed ; with 
fcveral other tenures of their Colours, Odours TajlSy and 
Salts 5 as alfo of the Solution of Salts in Water 3 and 

of Mixture j all of them to the fatisfadtion of the faid 
Society : It is therefore Ordered, That He be dcfircd^ to 
caufe them to printed together in one Volume- 

{br. Wren P.R.S, 


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Sacred Majefty 


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A t;> 

rcac 13ritain,&: c 

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May it pleafe Your Ma;efty, 

H£ Dedication of one Pan of the 
folloipiag Anatomy having heen 
'very gracioujiy received by Tout 
Majefiy : I am now emboldened mofi 
humbly to frefent the Whole into 
Your R oyal Hands. is. \. • - '^ 

By which Tour <^M'ajeHy will find. That there 
are Terr^ Incognita in Fhilofophy, as n^ell as 
Geography., And for fo much^ as Hex here, it 
comes to pfs^ I f^ow not how, even in this Tnqui- 
fitive Jge^ That / am the firft, who have given a 
Maf of the Comtry. 



The Epiftle Dedicatory. 



!l ■ 

Tour Majefijy mil here fee, That there are thofe 
things mthin a Plant, little lefe admirable, than 
within an Animal. That a Plant, as well as an 
Animal, h campfed pffeveral Organical Parts ; 
fome thereof may hi called its Bowels. That eve- 
>j Plant bath Bowels of divers l^nds, conteining 
divers kifn^s of hiquoiZ That even a Plane lives 
partly Hpn Aer j for the reception whereof it hath 
thofe Parts which are arfwer able to Lungs. So that 
a Plant zV, -as it were, an Animal in Quires; as an 
Animal is a Plant, or rather feveral Plants hound «p 
into one Volume. 

— Again, that all the faid Organs, Bowels, or other 
Parts, are as artif daily made j and for their Place 
W Number, as'fun^ually fet together; as all the 
Mathematick Lines of a Flow^er or Face. That 
the Staple ^oT the Stuff is fo exqmfitely fine, that 
no Silktwo/m^^gj; ahkto draw any thing near fofmall 
tf ^i^faxed. So that one who walh^ about with the 
meanefl Stick, holds a Piece of Natures Handicraft, 
which far furpajfes the moH elaborate Woof or 

Needle- Work in the Worll ■ 

'.■ ■ . 

That by allthefe Means, the Alcent of the Sap^ 
the Diftribution of the Aer, the Confeftion of fe- 
veral forts ()/ Liquors, as LyrhphaV, Milks, Oyls, 
Balfames j with other parts of Vegetation, are all 
contrived and brought about in a Mechanical way. 



The Epiftle Dedicatory, 


Infum^ Tour S^ajejly will find, that me are com& 
(ijhoreinto a new World, whereof we fee no end. 

It maybe, thatfi)me will fay, into another Utoph. 
Tet not I, hut Nature JpeaJ^tb thefe things: the only 
true PallaSj wberemth it is treafonable for the moH 
courioJffly handed Arachne to compare. In whofe 
Name, 1, the m^anefl of her Pupils, do in all humi- 
lity craveTour Majesties Gracious Patronage. Where-^ 
of I cannot doubt, fince Tour MajeUy hath been plea- 
Jed to be the Founder, and to Jlyk Tour Self the Pa- 
tron of that Society, of mhich I have the honour to 
be a Member. Tour Majejly deeming it to he a more 
Noble "Defign, To enlarge the Territories of Know- 
ledge^ than thofe of Dominion ; and the Highefl Pitch 
of Human Glory , not to rule, in any fort, over manyi 
but to be a Good Prince over Wife S\den. I am 




Your Majeflies 
mofi: humble 

moft obedient 

















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4 , 

1 ^ .-rt«* 





T is a ToUtick or Civil Virtue in every 
prudent mans Eye, To fet himfelf an 
example, m what he dotli, unto others. 
And m fo doing, he looks upon him- 
fclt as accountable, in fome fort, to all 
Men. To tliofe therefore, who may 
cxprefly, or tacitly, expect the Reafons, .upon 
I firft undertook the Anatomy of Fla?its, and al- 

fo made the after-progrcfs therein 5 I ihali fummc them 

up as follows. 

The firft occaflon of dirctfting my Thoughts this 
way, was in the ^ar 166^, upon reading fomc , of 
the many and curious Inventions of Learned Men, m 
the Boi/ies oi Aiiimah. For confidering, that both 
of tlK-m came at tirft out of tlie fame Ha7iJ ■, and 
were therefore the Coiitrivames of the fame WifJom ■ 
I tlience fully alfured my felf, that it could not be a 
vain Defign; to feekitin both. And being then new- 
ly furnilhcd with a good ftock of Seeds, m order to 
raife a Nurfery of Pla7its ; I refolvcd, befides what I 
firft aimed at, to make the utmoft ufe of chCm for 
that purpofe : that fo I might put fomewhat upon that 
lide the Leaf which the beft Botanich had left bare 
and empty. And in which , not-ivithltanding fome o- 
ther Learned Men had infected fomewhat of this na- 
ture ; as Dr. Higbmore in his Book of Generation, Dr. 
:^harrock of the Profagatio7i of Plants, and Mr. Hooi 
m his Micrography : yet biit colhterally, and whithout 
Ihcwing any purpofe of managing this Pan of Na- 
tnral Hifiory. And although it feemcd at firft an Ob- 

a jcdfion ' 

■ I 



The Preface, 




■ ]c^\ion in my w^y, Tlut the firft pro]e*5tors fddome 

bring" thciu bufincfs to any good end : yet lalfo kmw^ 
That if Men Ihould ftay for an Example in every thing j 
nothing extraordinary would ever be done. 

But notwithftanding the rcafonabkncfs of the De- 
fignj yet I did not forget, rhat> in refpect of the 
Undertaker, there might be bnfar coTign-'jfm. And there- 
fore, before I had ventured very far, in the Year \66^, 
I imparted k to my Brother-in-Law, the Learned Dr, 
Heyiry Sa?f/pfoji, now Fello;p of the ColkJge of Phjffi" 
ciayis in Lonc/oji. Who not only very well liked the 
fame ^ but alfo excited me to a vigorous and accurate 
profecution of it. Which he did, pardv, by mentioning 
a very pertinent paflagc of Dr. Glijfoii^ in the Preface to 
(a) Ch,i. liis Beck <i^ HifJ^ate^ {a) wliich I had not then read 

Pla^itde quoqiic hi hu7ic cejifum (fc. Anatomicum) veiiiimt - 
varik enivi ParthoJi textura^ i^ d/ijferentiis conftant : isf pro- 
adclubiOt€x acurata earu7!clem Jijjell'iojiey utiles vaide obfey- 
Tjationes vgMs extngerent: frd-jiaretque in illis ( i7ife}iom 
licet orJiTik \ rebus exajuinandk opera?ji impejiderej quavi in 
trcTifcribencfk ut f^pe fit^alionim laboribusj inutilitcr tztatem 
iranfigere. Quippe hoc paSio:,ig?iavaru?7i apuui nme-^ alieTia 
Juntaxat alvearia expilamiis^iiihilqne bo7io publico aJjici77/usl 

After I had finllhed the Firfi Book,^ that T might know 
the fenfe alfo of other Learned Men, whether the ftcps 
I had already taken, would warrant me to proceed any 
turther: I put fome pare of it into die (ame Hand^ 
who, in the Year 1670, communicated the fame to 
. Mr. OUenburge , then Secretary to the Royal Society: 
and after he had read it over, it was, upon his motion, de- 
. livcred to that excellent Perfon Dr. job?i Wilki7is then 
Bijhop of Chefter-^ who produced it at a Meeting of the 
Royal Society, and deiired^thcy migijt fee the rcll Which, 
or the grcateft part, being alfo prefented to thcm,thc R iglit 
Honourable the Lord Vicount Bro/mcker, then Pre/icfe7it 
of the Royal Society, was pleafed to pcrufe the fame, 
Prelend)', after whieli, at a Meeting of the Council 












The Preface. 

of the /aid Society, rhe foIloT;^^ing Or<:/er -ft'as made, 
and entred in their Council-Book with this Date, and 
in thefc words : . . , 



Then n>as Licenfed Dr. Nehem;ah GrewV 
'Bool^, Entimledy The Anatomy of Vegeta- 
bles hegun 5* together with an account of Vege-- 
taxion grounded thereupon: Jnd Ordered to he 
Vrimedhy the Printer tp f^e Royal Society. 

A ^ ^m 

Hereupon, I was obliged to fend the Book to tlic 
Prcfs. And upon the ^^^ of November following in 
the fame Year 1^71, when it was near being printed, 
my Lord Brouncher figned the forcmentioncd Order : the 
Printer, whofe Name was to be infcrted therein, not 
having received his Diploma till that time. 

The Book being quickly after printed off ; I or- 
dered it to be Prefented to the Royal Society j vliich 
was accordingly done at one of their Meetings Decem- 
ber 7, 1^71. And alfo to be fent to the EiOiop of 
Cbefter j who was pleafed to fignific his acceptance there- 
of by a Letter dated at Chefter, December 26"-^ iSyu 
now filed amongft others in the Cuftody of the Roya^ 
Society : part whereof, in regard it relates to matter of 
Fad, I ihall lierc recite. 



Ididjeflerday receive your Boo\; and am t;erj 
jenfible of the Honour you have done me in the De- 
dication of it. Ton was very happy in the choice 

- a a of 





The PrefaceJ 

of this Sfih'jeB to write npn; one of the moji No- 
ble and the moji Copionr parts o/Philofophy; and 
fuch an one^ as hath hitherto lain uncultivated. And 
you have been very fuccefsfil in your Jirsi Attempt 
about itj in fo many remarh^ble Objervations and 
U)ifcoverieSj as yon have made already. I could 
heartily mjh;, that ym would. 0ill apply your Jelf 
to. .this kind of T^nquiries^ ^ K^f^^^^^lfindthm Ad- 
diiionals. will come in mQre copioMlh a-nd eajlly,. And 
tt IS not nt^ that am. .one \bouid. by bis ^itper- 
jtrtiUwns^ carry atpay tpe pratje from btm^ who was 
the firSi Inventor^ and who laid the Foundations^ 
wherein the greater difficulty doth confiH^ &c. 

^''Hiving thus fubmicted my fclf co die Judgment of 
many Learned Men 5' I faw that my Journey muft not 
here end. , So that, like one who js goc into a Wood, I 
thought I might as fairly find my way out, by going 
on, as by making a retreat- Whereupon, I began to 
draw up a Scheme of the whole Vefign. 

- ^ + 

While I was doing 'this, I received news from Lo?i- 
don^ that the fame day, Vecember y. \6jiy in which 
my^Book, then printed, was prefented to the Royal So- 
liety : there was alfo prefented a Manufaipt ( with- 
out f/^^^res) from Seignior Malpighi, upon the fimc 
Subjedt; dated at Bonoma, Novemhtr^ i« 1^7:, the 
fame, which Mr. Oldenhurgc^ when Jt came to be prin- 
ted, callctli his Idea. And of this, entry was made in 
their Journal Book- So tliat the Royal Society having now 
a IVofpcdt of the good fervice of an Ancient Mt??iber^ 
and oucwIk) had highly merited by his Works then 
extant 5 from thenceforward, I looked upon my felf to 


... . J ■ H \ 

But fo(jn after, rcci^viiii; anodic^ Letter ■ from the 

^mop ui Chejier, darcd at Lo^iJo?/. Feb>. i8. 1672. I 

^' tbimd 


The Pi^efate- 

found the matter othcrwife ^ and that the Society were 
picafcd to engage me to proceed. Whereof entry "U'as 
inade by the Secretary in their Journal Eook, at onS 
of their Meetings, yl/r//, i8. 1(^72, in thefc words: -;» 





The Society ivas made acquainted mth one 
particular lately faffed in the Council-^ fc. That 
the Bi(l)of of Chefter bad there frofofed Dr. 
Grew to he a Curator to the ^oyA Society 
fir the Anatomy of Plants: and that the 
Council had approved of that Propofal. Vpon 
n>hich^ it was Ordered^ That "we fhanl^s of 
the' Society be returned to the Lord Bijhopof 

Cheller, for this Propofal, and to the Conn.- 
cil for their Approbation of the fame. 

V* ' ' 


f This they might be induced to do 5 upon confiderlfi^, 
that it would be no difadvantage to the credit of thofe 
matters, which were fo hew and ftrangc, to be offered 
to die World from a double Authority. For one, al- 
thougli lie may Iiavc no mind to deceive 3 yet is it more 
likely for one, than fortwo^ to be deceived, Likewife^ 
rliat the (anic Subject, being profecuted by two Hands, 
would be the more illuftrated by the different Examples 
produced by both- And that, as in other matters, fo 
here, the defcfts of both> would mutually be ftip- 
plycd, ' ' ; '::\'^i 




Whether for tlicfc, or other Keafons alfo, they ^^tt 
plcafed to pafs tliq forementioned Order -^ diac being 
tlone, it had been very ill manners in mc, not to have 
anfwcrat their expectation therein. And therefore re- 
afluming the Delign 1 had laid by> and having reduced 
it to fomc intelhgible Idea, it was fubmitted to the Cen-^ 
furc of the Royal Society: and it was thereupon ordered 
it Ihould be printed- - - 







The Preface. 

Not long after, I received a Curious and learned 
Book from Monf VoJart, Archiater to the Prince of 
Co7i(!e, and Fellow of the Royal Academy at Paris ; in per- 
fuance of whofe Order, ic was by htm compofcd and 
pubUlhcd. Which being a Defign of a like Import, 
I was glad to fee it fo far jullify'd by tliat lUuftrious So- 
ciety, as well as by our own, \ ,, V 

h -- 


In this iJea, oiie principal Thing I infift upon, for 
a Pbilofophical Hiftory of Plants, is Anatomy, And, agree- 
ing to tnzMethod therein propofed, all the Obfervations 
conteined in the firji Book , except one or two, were made 
with the Naked Eye. To the end, I might firfl: give a 
proof> How far it was poffible for us to go, without the 
rheip oiGlaffes: wJilch many Ingenious Men want 5 

and morc^ the patience to manage tiicm. For the Truth 
ofthefe Obfervations, Seignior Malpighi, having pro- 
cured my Book to be tranflated into Latin for his 
private ufc, fpeaks his own fenfe, infome of his Letters 
to Mr, OUenburge^ printed at the end of his Anatomy of 
Plants, And fome of them, have fince been confirmed, 
bpdi by our Learned Country-men Dr. Wallis , and 
Mr, Lifters, and by the Ingenious Mr, Lewenhoecl^, a- 


h I 



Having thus begun with the bare Eye 5I next proceeded 

to the ufc of the Microfcope. And the Obfervations 
thereby made, firft on Hoots, and afterwards on Tru?iks 
and Bra?iche5^ together with the Figures^ were all exhi- 
bited to the Royal Socie'ty atfcveral times from ^"^715, 
1672. to April 2.1 6^^^ being the Materials for the Se- 
cond and Third Parts : and hereof Memorials were in- 
ferted in their Journal Books, 

^ After this, the Soyal Society received from Seigniot 
Malpighi his Second Part of the Anatomy oi Plants-, toge- 
ther with the Figures therein dcfcribcdj and his Letters to 
thdii Secretary, i\2X.t<idt.tBononia Aug. 20^^ of the fame year 
1^74. when, and not before, he gave leave that the two 
faid Parts Ihould be printed. 

" : So 


The Preface. 





So Toon as I h:id6n\\hcdt\K SemiJ and Tbircf Parts, I 
proceeded to the Lafty fc. of Lmves^ Flowersy Fruits and 
Seeds: and thofc Things i met with, more rcmarqua- 
blc, 'were prcfcntcd to tlie faid Society in the Years i6j6 
6c i6yy. And rlic pu'alifhing of the former Parts fuc- 
cclTively, as well as of all together, hath been done m 
purfuancc of their fcveral Orders for the fame. 

Having concluded the Biftory of Perfeti flants ; \ in- 
tended CO have fubjoyncd the Dcfaiptiofi of tliofe which 
are Imperfe^. AsaKo oi^ Parafnica/, Marine, iind Sm- 
fitive Plann. And laftly, a view of the chief Particu- 
lars, wJiercin the Mechamfme of a ?lant, is different from 

that of an Animal. But thefc things I leave to fome 
odier Hdiid. 

The Firfl Book, ^ lirtle after it came forth; was 
tranilatcdinto the French To7igue, by MonC Lc Vajft:ur . 
an higenious Gentlcnian in Pam ; degantir, and in the 
Judgment of tiiofe who arc well skilled m that Lan- 
guage, with much cxaftnefs, as to the fcnfe. He ha- 
ving taken fpecial care, to have all the difficulties of 
our own, by Mc, cleared to liim. And in a late Book 

Encitulcd, Philofophia vetus <S' 7wva printed at Noriberg 
1682. the Learned Author fccms to have made ufe ofthis 
Tranflation, for all chat he hath taken notice of in that 
my Firji Book; 

By the Ingenious Collectors of the Germaji Epbeme- 
ryc's, botii my firfi, Seconc/, and TbirJ Booh, arc all 
pubiifhed ni Laiine. But their unskilful Interpreter doch 
often fail of the Gramnmiicd Seitft: Whofe Errors, ma- 
ny of them very grofs, I defirc maybe imputed neither 
to them, nor to my felf. 

Befides thefe, the Second Ldhire of Mixture is alfo 
tranflatcd into French, by Monf. Mejmin a Learned 
Phyficianin fark: wJiofc Ff^y/ow is very well approved 
by thufe who arc competent Judges htreot; 



The Preface. 

This, and the reft which follow, are placed, not in the 
order of Time 5 but more according to their Nature or 
Relation one to another. All of them intended as a 
Commentary upon fomc particulars mentioned, eitlier 
in the thfi LeSiure^ or in the Idea. 

In the Plates^ for the clearer conceprion of'tlie Part 
defcribcd, I have reprcfcntcd it, generally^ as entire, as its 
being magnified to fome good degree, would bear- 
So, for inltancc, not the Barque, WooJ^ or Pith of a Root 
or7iw,byit felf; but at leaft, fome portion of all three 
together : Whereby, both their Texture^ and alfo their 
Relation one to another, and the Fabrick. of the whole^ 
may be obfcrvcd at one Vieip. Yet have I not every 
where magnify 'd the Part to the fame degree ^ but more 
or kfs, aswasnecelfary to rcprefent what is (pokcn of it. 
And very highly, only in fomc few Examples, as in 
Tab. 40. which mxf fuffice to lUuftrate the reft. Some of 
the Plates, cfpecially rhofe whicli I did not draw to the 
E?mavers hand, are a little iiardand ftifF: but they arc all 
well enough done, to reprcfent what they intczid." 






A N 


O F A 

Philofophical Hlftory 

O F 

N T 


Read before the 


Janmry 8. and January 15. 1^72. 

By NEHEMJAH Cl^EW M.D. Fellow of the 

Royal Societyy and of the College of Phyjicians, 

Xfjc ^tconD euitiom 

Printed hy W.KaipUns^ 1682. 

Mo.Bot.Gard h. 






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Mod: Uluftrious 



The following 


Is moft HUMBLY 


' Intheir NAMES alfo 




Of other 

Learned Men. 

By the A U T H O R 





B s 










1 a. 




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M bamBoJ 














UNTO If hat Degree the kiiowledge c/ Plants is ar- 
rivec/^§.j. Wherein defelUve't ^. 2. Why coyicludeJ 
to be foj §. 3, Tet capabk of Improvement ^ §,4, AnJ 
worthy ofi't^ §. 5- 

Vivcrs Ij!/la?2ccs give?i^ wherein^ firft of the Organical 
Parts, asto their external Accidents and OecomvncalVfes^6. 
Then of their Co??tentSy Qualities, and Pcrt^erSy 7, And an 
Improvement ofthk Part^ will further that of divers other 
farts of knovpledge^^ whereof Infiances are give?iy 8, 

In order whereto, Five General Means are propoujided.p. 
TheVitdj a particular a?id comparative Survey of whatever 
isofnme ^yitQn\Aco?ifideration about Vhnxs, lo. Infianced 
as to their Figures^ \i^i2. proportions^ 13, SeafonSy i^^^Fla- 
ceSy 15, Motions, \6. 

The Second, A like Survey of the Organical Parts by 

Anatomy, a^ that which is very iiecejlary^ 17, Inwhat man- 
ner to be frofeaited^both without^ and with //je Micro fcope, 
18. What thereupon to be obfervedy t?. And what, from ob- 
ferva7itionmade^ probably attainable, 20. 

r/je-Third,^ //4f Survey o/z/jf Cements 0/ Plants 3 their 

feveral Ki7ids, 21, Of all which, their R&ceptacles, 22, Mo- 
tions,2^. Qualities, 2^. Co?ififience,2S. Colours, Smells.and 
Tajtes, 26. Where alfo the fame Qualities are to be inquired 
imo^ asgeiieral/y belonging to Plants, 26, As their Colours^ 
27. Odours,2S. Tafles,2^, Alfo their Faculties, ^o. All 
thefe to he further examined, 31. By Ccntufio?z,^2. Agita- 
tion, 33. FnglfaSiion.S^. Infufion.j^, Subfe[fion,-^6. Di- 
geflion,-}j,3^. DecoEiion,^^. Veflillation.^o. Arefaaion.^t, 






The Contents. 

Janov^^2. 7Jftio77^ 43* Calcination^ ^^. By Ccmpofitio7i 
Tvith other Bodies^ 45. And by Comfotmding the Ex^eri^nent 
it felfy^6. What hence attainable^ 47, 

T/je Fourth, A like Survey of the Principles, as mil as 
.of the Contents, of the Organical Parts, 48. The Diffi- 
c?dty hereof in fomerefpeSis cleared, ^^, Further, by two In- 
ftances, 50, 51. Some Remarques here^tpoft, of the Princi- 
ples of Plants, 52. From hence wiU be attainable a further 
knowledge of the Modes of Vegetation, 53, (5/M^ Qualities 
o/Vegetables, 54. And cf their Powers, 55, 56, 

The Fifth, A like Survey of thofe Bodies, either frojtt 
which thefe Principles are derived, or wherewith they have 
any communion, 57, Which ^r^Four in general, fcil Earth, 
and aUfolid Receptacles^ $^. Wsxct, and all liquid Recep- 
tacles, 5^, Aer, 60. Aft d Sun, 61. 

A Sixth Gejieral hiquiry, only hi?itedy 62. 

The Conclufiony 63. 






■m-* V. 


A N 

I D 


O F A 

f r ^ 

Pliilofophical Hiftor 

y ,: 



F W E take an account of the Decrees whereunto 
the Knowledge of Vegetables is Advanced, it ap- 
peaieth, That be(ides the great Varieties, whicli 
the SuccvUf^iArtsofF/orips, or Tranfplantations 
h-om one U/»jale to another, have produced j we 
have very many 5/>««/ brought to light, efpecially 
ih in. ru J^' °r?^' ^'"^'"' "^^'""^ fhe A,>dms, for any 

In which particular CZ/fe C«fe««^ ^.„iy^«,, B,,,,« %nd others, 
have performed much. Withal!, That xhtiv Defiriptio>;s rofall Part 
above ground) thcr Places ^ndse.fins, are with good di igence and 
P ecfenefs ftt before us. Likewife their Order and Kindre3 : for the 
adjulting whereofour Learned Countryman Mr. Raj, and Dr. Morn- 
>", have both taken very laudable pains. As alfo the ordering of 
them w,th refpea to their ^W././ and J!fe6..,4Ufesi for which 
amongCl othcn Mr. Evelj. and Dr. Heal have deferved many thaS 
^ncl great pratfc. We are alfo informed, of the Natures Tnd infSe 

Stbfe^f S>V'^^^""^° '° ™"^ '' '-'' ''''-'' ^ 

: . 3. §. By 


- Y 








(?^n Idea of a 

7. §• By due Refleaion upon what hath been Perfirmed-, 5t alfo 

" ImpcrftB^ and what Vndom, For the Vtrtncs ot 

appear?, whatjakft , , , -^ /- r -r - 

moftP/^^/'j,arc with much «//fcrf-^/?'0^ and too promtjcaoiiji) alcnbed 
to them. So chat if you turnover ^w Hcrhaf, you ^all find almoft 
every H^'-^, to be good for every Difi^fc. And of the Virtttes of 
many, ihey arc ahogethcr liknt. And ahhough, for the finding out, 
and jnft appropriation of them, ihey have left us Tome Bh/w, yet noc 
al!. The Z)fA'rj'>/MJ7jJikewi(cof many, are yet to be perfefled^ ef ^ 
pecially as to their Roots. Thofe who are very curious about the 
other Parts^ being yet here too ccmifs. And as for their FignreT^ it, 
weremuchiobe wilhed^ That they were all drawn by omScak-^ or, 
atmoft, by Two 5 one, forlnrjand Shrtihs-^ and another for Herbs, 
Manylikewife of their Sa>jk^ and Affimtus, are yet undetcrmined- 
And a great number of Numss, both £W?/?/' and Latifte^woi well given- 
So what we call Go^n'i-lW^ is not at all of kin to that Plant, whofe 
Gemrkat NaA^ic it bears. The like may be i^iid of m!d- rajjj)^ Stockr 
^iilj- Flowers, Horfe-RaclJp, and many more. So alfo when we fay 
BcUkAhjor^ S-Minof^ as we commonly dc,^ ihefeA^j/'/f J would inti- 
mate. That the Pkhts to which they arc (^ivcn, dijTer (as the great 
double iVf-^r/^«'/^, doth from rhcle£) onlyiu Bulk; whereas, intruih, 
they are two Species of I'hwts. So we commonly lay, Cevtiiuriu^i M^z- 
jusc^Wtfiif, Chdidofjium M^ijus ^MiatM^ and of others inlike man- 
ner, which yet are d\^m(kS^ecks^iiT\i\ of very different Tribes. But for 
xh^Jteafinoi VegcUiiou^ and the 0(/^y of all thofc infinite V-irktics 
therein obfervable (I mean fo far as M.diei\ an.l the various Affit^i- 
em hereof^ are infnumental thereunto) almoftali Men have leemed to 
be unconcerned. i , 

; 5, ^. Thai Nothing hereof rcmaincth furtherto be known, is a 
Thought not well C.ilculated, For if weconfidcr how long and gra- 
dual a Jonn/ejf the ICfsoivIedgc o^Nuture'is^ and how iliort a Time 
we havt^ to proceed therein; as on the one hand, wc Ihall conclude it 
OureaJeand proffr^ To fie how far Others have gone before us.- ft> 
thallwe beware on the o^ her. That wc conceive net unduly of AV. 
t/ft-e, whiift we have a juft value for Thofe, who were but her Dffii^ 
fks^ and iuftruaeti by Hlt. Their Time and Abilities both, being 
(horttoher^ which, as She was firft Defigned by DivhieWifdo^^ 
fomay Her vatt Dimenlions bcft be adjudged of j in being compared 
Therewith. It will (hcrcforc be our l^ruderce, not to infift upon 
the Invidious Queftton, Which of Her S< hoUrs have t,iken the faireft 
(neafutc of Her; but to be well (iitisfied, that as yet She hath not 

ibeen Circumferibed byAoy i 

i; 4- ^, Nor doib'.t morebehovcns toconfidcr, how much of the 
Mature of Vegetalwn may lie before m yet mik^rown 5 Than, to be- 
lieve, a j^rcat part thereof to be ij/o?r<Ti^. Not concluding from the 
acknowledged, much kfi fuppoi^'d Infitcccf^fulncs, of any Mens Un- 
<}ef t^lcinf^ ,' but fi-om what may be accounted Poffiblc,as to the Nature 
otthings.thtjmfclves^ and from Divim i^omdc?h\\ by Intinite Ways 
conducting to ihe knowledge of ihtm. Neither can we determine 
how great u.part Tliis may be ; Becaufe, It is iwiHfiJ'ihk to Mc^ijinw^ what 
TfC Sec mt. And (ince wc are moft likely to under-meafure, we (hall 
hereby but intrench our Endeavours, which we are not wont to carry 
beyond iheJ^^e-*, which wc have of ourfrf/-^., 

5.§. And 








Thiiofophical Hijiory ofPlantr. 

S._§ AnJhowfar foeverth.s kind of KnowlalKemnv beatMim 
bic, itsb.'Tngro&raJfo worthy OLir attainment v/illbe^itea'p" 
b=h.d,nst^>eMany an.i EI,g,nt Varieties, where JhFidJ^S 
G.r.Ien i. adorned , Who would not fay, That it were e.cecd.nJrkM 
fint to know what we See: and not more ddi-hrfin '■^"'-'^^'""^^rl^''- 

£;.. todifcernthatall isvervfinerthTntoa^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
toundetfVandW Thisf.rdy wcVe for . Man to S' a Trtin' 
yemory of hn Goods, andhisbeft way to puta price m,o.i thVmV 
It fcem., th.i this were not only to be llri^dnf X r ^"^ 

■ That "1 'i; ""^ ''^"'''. ? '' ^■'^-'-'- ^^'^el^^^:v 

That which were very defireable, unlefs wc fliodd thmk i .T ■' 

of;.ll, What may offer itStTlT^n^^r'"''^"''''^''*'^^' ^'^ 
what our j-..^, iJ Th, fodoin. ! *^""'1 °^' °' '" undcrftand, 

making, andil^^g .i^^ ^ ^Mnrjufoh?""" ^'^\'"'^^ '" 
Amoni.(t other Inquiries herefor^f?^^ Obferyatiom thereimro. 
pofcd' Fuft, by wE mJan/ i?i %^ f ^^^^^^^ ^eierv. to be pro- 

to Gro., a Seed lo put forth a R^ot^M Trtt and7hif ^'^^ ^ 
P'irts, tothc^ff^again; and al] thcfe heinr^ ^L ' ^"'^e other 
trition (till to be yi.4^. How ttSimfnM''^^i:r" 

f^d, is duly prepared in^irs fl'S ^,^4 ^h^Vrv "? "^ ""''"" H 
unto them; and in what manner ir ic //■',, T^ " '^ ^ow^eW 
.arc. in .hem ^11 Wh^e i^/ 2^^^!^^ 

made of one, but many differing DegreSunm b.T'"""°"' ^^""^ 
and.^r^W, whether the comnarirAnf' ^""1° ^°^^ '''^^''^^^s of fi>,nll 

thcfcveral /W of one Sw nor n 7 f """'^^ Several /•/ J., or 

5%..arcroexceedin7;arious aso?/^^^'■' f'"' ^"^ ^'f'^* 'h-'-- 
der, Sfiort or Lonj:, E^ic or Parted ^ ' f ''""^ "^'^''^'^ °^ Slen- 
likc: of7>;,H^, feme bein/ n^^,r.1f ^-'""8^1°^ f^'^^'fi^'d, and the 
Sl.rub'd: of W^wS^ar^ron, orR^^'r.'^''"^'^'''^' ■^^'^^'^^ 
callop-d, and many other wa>rdiStve^T' ^y-?"-'^%'d or Ef- 
^h. o:hcr Paru. Vn to inqui What'^n, J^ ^ '''^ ^° ^"^ 

varroiis AUio,:j ; that the Ro^tihnuU^r ,^ ^^ ^^^ rcafonof their 

^fic«di andthatthe afeent thereof .7^^ M X ^^^^ ^he r,-««4dotii 
K .sr^ade, is of different JS ndofH' ^'''^f ^'""^ ''^''''^^ 
they are oWervable in the fiXf / I'^^P °"^" ^"'"''^, as 

Whence a,a,n, thcfe^l^t ^e X^;^^^^^ ^'^^ °''^^-'^- 

th:LtPl,„ij h.n,^. , ■ . '7^ '"^l'^ ^™^en^ and Stated 7>rwj , 

f.!, for their ^ G.'i trf^ief^? ""' ''"' "^"""^ ^ 
■Further, what may be the Caufes asof ,■ 7^'"-"' '"'' 'f^^ »''^- 

other, p,,,„,,,; fome,^ .t«7j £,?h ''"^ t"""'' ''^'^'^^ ^^«'"-'/ 
aadfomeastothdrllX -Thl 'a .'h ^''^'V^-'-'nd r™H. 
veral ^^'^""^oftheir r.-,..? In u ' ''^^''^J' t"*^ throuj-h thefeV 

'H"'li, -^-''4 or pmei^^^^ .'?^""*^^ 'h-^i^ convenient felZll 

find and harass f;;:-her-^^^^^ 

for the prefcrvation of ,he health ^nJ if ^ ^f '^^'""^ ^o ^"Other, 





f I'M 








<^^n Idea of a 




•T.^ ?.= J i« ..n-mrcd formed and ficttd for Prep^S'"'"'* - 
what,er ^^^^^^-^"^ '^ I'^^^?^;^^;;",,,, how fomctinic. the orhcr P.r,. 

S uSg ofLtirni mto fo.f. .hcmfclvts , whereof, -n il^e^- 

n^'f tori;?r£;L'w.., .nd a«... of ^'W/.^ 
lerrvar'ious or a particular Infpc-aion hereimo, of left concernment. 
For finrAn?or Mofl,fem to grow in .he fa^e manner, w,tb one 5«^^ 

one£imli Fer^ncly well upon one So,l, and,tooutwardappe.rance, 

Iftheir Lnuors, or other ConUi.nA ^-*^=, ^[^ «f 'Jlr h S" 
Kmds- one being Watry, another Winy, ^i third O///, atourtniH-i 

£ and thelike. H.z. aifo there is fuch a var.ety '" jh^-",.^"#f 
iS?^r as their Colours, lafie^, and 6V..& S what thofc MaUnah 
^e wWch are necefiary to the B«»^ of thete ^-/^m. ^ and thofe 
S J£S wherein their £/.«« doth confift , as what it ,s that makes 

or S b^ ofany other Colour^sm.U, or T.jie. in hke manner the. r i^^ 
^«to. and P«L-, what that is, 01 thofe th.ngs are, by .hey 
are eonftituted , as whence one becomes Purgativ,, anorher T.^;,/..^, 
Hhird Dialhore,uL&c. Thefe, I fay, with many other parfeula. 
fnquirie. depending hereupon , a. they cannot but much obhge the 
Son of Man to be obfequious to them , fo by ,n,at leaft 
fomV faSfeaion, will no lefs reward it., .f .t be wt.hai 
confidered that befides our fatisfaftion as to the Nmn of Ve^^UtWH^ 
Ce further Light, to divers other parts of Knowledge, may l.kew.fe 

^Tr'^For fmcethe prefent Defignwill 5ngage us, to ar, accurate 
and multifarious Obfervation o^PUnU; we may hereby be enabled 
to r^w.and>nhemwithmorecertainry, according to the Degrees 

of their Affinity. And all Exoiicks. PUnts or ParU o^PU^ts, may 
probably be reduced to fome fuch Domeftkks, unto which they may 
bear the beft Refemblance. Again, it may frequently conduft our 
mindstothecon(iderationoftlie5(.;.of JW^i as whether there 
are not divers material Agreements betw.xt them both ; and what 
they are. Wkrtin alfo theymay confiderably differ, and what thr^fe 
things are which are more elTential .9 their diftinguifljment. And ^.- 
Gd^r, not only to compare what is already known of both = but alfo, 
iy what may be obferved in the one, to fuggeft and facilitate the finding 
out of what may vet be unobferved m the olher. So ^Ijo the confide- 
lation of the cLrs, Sml/s and T^ffs of yegelMes, may co.iduce to 
the Knowledge of the fame ^-i/to/ in General ; orof what it is that 
conftitutes th?m fuch, in any other Body : not as they arc ^3;/-^^^ re- 
ceived by Se>>fii but fofar, asf.ich Materials or external Urcumfiat^- 
«., arercquifitc to their becoming the Ade^mtcph,ea, thereof U 
may lead us alfo to innuirc into further Ways o£CHliw^t,o» with re- 
fpca to the whole Plum, or to the Flo,rer, Fruit, or other Part .- 
Toamend themas totheirS/z*^ Colmrs, r,ijlij,l-ru,ip<!mj>, or other- 
wife: Tothiok of Other Ways of P»-='K^'"w«=, or to ajiply thole al- 
ready known toother Ph»is than hath been uled. Likewi e the Know- 
led(7eoftheirMca'.M/M/Ufesmay hereby be enlarged; bothasioihe 



Thilofifhkal Hifiory of Plants. 


Reafon ofthcir life, iri fuch particular Trades and MamifMitrcs^ al- 
ready known f andihediicovery of other iifcs yet unknown. As'alfo 
xhtw -Ali^cj7tal, withrcfpeft bothto Aff^fjand Drwksi, the prepara- 
tion of fome, and the finding out of others. But efpecially their iWc^ 
didml-:} Come PUnfr which have hitherto been neglefted, may be ap- 
plied to uie, the Perverted life of Tome, and the Cofifufid ules of 
others, may bereaified. What may be(i: correft (heir Mahtynafteits 
or inforcc rheir Virtnes 5 When needful to add the preparations o^ Art 
to That of JV-?0;rf ^ How to Enlarge thole of A;, and Rcftifie thofe 
which arc indeed Inartificial j may hereby be better conjeftured. The 
knowledge of all which, that wc may know hotv faritis acccflible 
and what pj-obable Afipfoachcs may bemade towards it 5 thofc fevc- 

ral Means I have thought of, and fuppole neceflary thercuntOjare next 
to be propoicd. 

9' s<- Rtfleci:ing then upon the prefent Defign, andfeeing this to 
Ijcwide^ we ftal), in the lirll place, ccrdude the Meam attending 
thereon, flioulddo folikewife. Wherefore, although fome may pre- 
fent themfelvcs unto us as more promifmg^ yet let us fuppofe what 
feveral Perfons, were th^y hereunto efig^ged, each according to his 
Senfc and Genius, would poflibly make choice of. Believing, rhat 
altliongliConfidciing Men may vary, in the approval of their own 
Seiile and Notion^ yet not always mcarly, becaufc it is their owrf- 
but becaufe each^ may probably fee fomcwhat more in his own, than 
odiersdo. Wherefore it will be ourfureft Logick to conclude. Not 
becaufe no may be approved by all Men, that all Means fliould 
be rcjcfted ^ but rather, becaufe each may be approved by fome that 
therefore, all be made choice of Andchcfc, Uhink, may be compre- 
hended under Five General Hf..^/ of Ercjuiry. f /^^ Of thofe Thinffs 
whichareof mure HA/f/WConfideration about PLwts, as their pt 
^w dv. Secondly, Of their Compounding Paris, as FeJJeh, ^c 
Uirdly^ Of their Li^mrx, and other CcnteKts. Fomhh Of their 
Pnnapks^ ^^Sdts.&r. Fifihfy.O^ their Alwim, as Wafer, and other 
Means of Growth. 

10, ^, AND FUVST ofall,whateverisofmore£:.fer^<7/Con-Thenrff 
^deration, ^^ the F^g.res^Prop.^^^^^^ Motions, Se.fim, SH..iions ofGcneni 
f'c^euhies, and ofthcir feveral/>.r/., HioulJ be obferved. In doine ^^^^v^- 
which, a particular fnrvey of all their Varieties fliould be taken And 
then a Comparifon made betwixt thefe,and the feveral Planfs.oi Parts 
ot^.f^f/ whereof they are the fr^;.fr//e/. To the end. We mav if 
pollible, be thereby conducted to find our, what other, either fenfi- 
ble, ormorereclufefr^/^fr/;-, f.ny of them may agree together in For 
It IS not more certain, that the three Angles of every Remih^ear Trian- 
gle, becaufeall ways equal to two Right Avghs, are therefore, if put 
together, always the fame ; than that .^. j>r.;^.,^, .greying to divers 
y^$^tabks, ftiould have one Uufc: For although ti^e 5--.;. and £^^ 
may vary^ yetthe Canfi, as it is the Q<c of that Property, muft be 
^^c: andconfcquemly, muftalfo import ibme Identify in the Naftire 
of all thofc Vc^,t,hks wherein it Afl.. Wherefore by thus comparire 

nil '^r -^^'^^ ^"^ ^^'*^ "^^^^ ^^^^^y ^^ ^^^^ ^he Orders and Decrees 
rl?.T ^^''"' I ^f''' ^° tinderftand both the Ca.fis and Ends of 
vSn^r ' "''''" P'^^"^^^ '^ conjefture of their Natures and 







. 1 







^An Idea of a 

ji. 4. Firft then thevarious f /^^v.. of their fevcral ^^'J'^^o^^f 
bcobfcTved; and that wkh refp^a both tothe F..^./, nnd the ^./^ 
L? by whichtheir Kcois, Trunks. Bra>^cks. t..z... FW,J^n../. 
anT'.S/rnay vary, or agree, .nd thofc ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
both the m Varieties are det«mm-d. In which of thcfe Pars^ the 
agreement chiefly bes^ this being both more obfervable and more 
material in fome of them , kfs la the Hoot, more in the Flower, or 
Seed. AndinhowmanyofthereP.r/.together^ whether one, mor.^ 
or all. By both which, the Orders and Dcsrecs o^Affi^rt^'M 
.re many/ may be aeeounted ^ either as to wh.t we ftridly call K^^ 
dM ordfeiw.^^- Fottherearefound not only Hcri. account- 
ed of feveral r./K which are aUyM^ and Tome of the Smnllcft, which 
areofkintothe Greateft : But there are alfo probably iomtHerh, 
which have a particular Relation, to many Kinds of ^/j.;./>/ ^ and fomc 
5^r.Ktomany Kitids of Trca. Thusthefevcral forts of L./...., are 
of Kin, together in the F^rfi Decree; whE>rdwc, in the W^. The 
feveralVw, amoncft ihemfelvcs in the Firfi; with BorehoHT^d, m 
the Seco^id 5 with L,mUm, in the Third, ^\\ strar^hemes agree toge- 
ther in thci^/V^ Degree:, with OnqmfryU in the Secofid ; with lor- 
mmtU in the TUrd-, and with Avem.&c in other Degrees more re- 
mote So Agrmon^, hathahke Analogy ^n\o Strawberry -^ as i^oats- 
Rite hathtoCV.^r: knA Strawberry^ the like unto the fi^> 5 as Gi^w- 
berry to the Vim ^ or B^irm, to the Rofe. Amongft the feveral Sorts 
of Grap there areforaewbichmatchahthofeofCorff^ which is but a 
Greater kind oiGr^. So again all Fidfe, are not only of kin, in their 
ievcral Degrees, to one another ; but like wife, to almoft ail kinds of 
Trefbyls, as Me f Hot, Fa^nugrcek. and the common CUvers themfeJvesj 
asby comp^iring not only their i-edfw, but Flinvers^ Seeds, and Ct>dj 
together, may be evident. For the feveral f //r/^ of the hha>er of a 
Trefiyi, are fo many more Flomrs, containing fo many Cods of fmall 
Seeds, all, in ihape, i^^rt^Mc to ihG Flowers, Cods, ^\}d Seeds of P^dfi. 
The fame Relation, which Trefoyls have to the Feas or other Pjdfe ^ 
C^/fj-ftf^^hathto Biittyr-Bnr^-, Chid^eed to LcHcwihcmum'^ GronT^d- 
fell^lo'jicob£a ^ o\ Scorodonia^lo F oxglovc : Or, to go higher, as the 
Legnmmom Kinds of Hi^ri-j, have to Sena^ or fome other of the Lched. 
Shnths mATrees. And, as among -d«;^/rf/^, there arefome which con- 
nefl feveral Kinds ^ as the hm doth heap and Birds: So, among 
flants, there are fome alfo, whichfeem to ftand between twor^iZ-^j^ 
asLapjia^ between K^apwc^ds and Thiftks^ Lampfma^ between the 
Intybdvcous Kind, and the Monje-ears, 

12. f. From hence hkewife, the AW//w of P/,^j;(j may be conje- 
aured. For in looking upon divers PhwU, though of different 
Names and Kinds'^ yet jf fome aftinity may be found betwixt them, 
then the jSJuture ofany one of them being well known, we h^ve thence 
ground of conjecture, as to the Natimof ail the reft. So that as eve- 
ry, i^ia^* may have fomewhat of Nature individual toitfelf^ ro,asftr 
asit obtainethany VtfthkComimmtics with other P/-/w//, fo far, may 
it partake ofC&mwon Nature with tho(e alfo. Thus the Wild, and 
G*Jr;^t«C^fK»yfr/, have this difference , that the one purgcth Jtrongly, 
ihe other, trot at all: yet in being Diiirefkl{, they both agree.^ The 
Natures oi VmbeUiferoifs Fhwts, we know, arc various , yet 'tis moft 
probable^ that they aU agree in this one, fiil in being Carmitidtive, 





Thilofopbical H'lffory of Plants. 




T.,efevera) forts, bothofCc;-» and Gr:,/, aic all akin; there is no 
doubt therefore, but thatthe Sm/jof Gr./// themlelves ("of Rtcand 
Oats it is trycd; if it wt-re worth the while to order them, as Barky 
would yield an inflammable Spirit. So likewife the Jeveral Kinds of 
mlfi, have fome one community in their Form, as is faid ■ for which 
reafon, I (lucflion iiot,but that in fome Cafes, wherein Cirers are efteem- 
ed a good Mediate ; a DeceSion of the better fort of Feafe efpeci 
ally that we call the Sngar-Pc^fc, may go beyond them. As doth alfo 
the F lower Q}: Meat oi Beam, that of the Seeds oi Fwm^reeh- even 
there where they are accounted excclk-nt. So T^l,fs, LiUhs, \rom- 
/«, pcyvths, and Oawtn ihemfelves, with mtiiy others in their feve 
ral Degrees, are all ^^/e^. Iftherefore Cr^f«/?/, 0//7«//, Liliie, aeree 
in one or more Faculties, then why may not al! the reft ? as in' being 
Anodjine-^ or in fome other Ccvv*/o« Kiinre ? whereby in their Feee 
utiori, their Parts are Governed and Over-ruled, to one Common or 
AmUigous rorm. 

, J^' ^' The Pr^^«rf/Wx likewife, araongft the ll-veral P^j of K^r- 
iahks, for the fame Rcafon., dtfcrve to be obferved ^ the comparifon 
beinK made, both betwixt the Pans of fevetal Plants, and the SZ 
lal Parts of one. And here again, either betwixt any Two of the 
Parts, or any One of them, and .he Wfiole bcfide., or all the reft 
pm together. So fome larger seed>, produce a fmall Roof, as thofe 
oiCuamcr: and others fmaller produce one verv great ; as thofe of 
B^o.j Som^PUu, as the Mck., though thcmllves but very Oen' 
d« yet have a vaft and bulky Fr.H, others again, as ThifilJ, and 
many yet more fubftantial, have no otker Fruit befides th^\r\7ot 
So the 5..;. of all M., and efpceially, the A.rti ThS 
large, yet produce but a fmall iW. but thofe ofF.^^w' Si 
Burdock, Sn„.flo^cr ^c. being themfelves much lefs, do ve produce 
TWekS fon ,f^"' ^■'P^'7">'' ^'-^^■'^■-A which arc inciofeS in tS 
i.t 5^ ^ r ' ,C^"^'°R°"^ 'O 'Ii^t I have elfewhere called 
the W,«0 a= that of ^,..^, whofe W, fo called, is only the An. 

Rnf LT' h- T"^ '",r'" ^^*^- '''^^"'' "<> I'igg^^ f'^''" ^ little ^^ 
Pnshead which IS alfo oL>(i.-rvnl,le of the 5..^. of divers other ""■: 
iTrtl- J m' ""'' ''^:i ''''^''V<"-'W, as they lie betwixt t ?fcvm 
Parts, fhould be ™ted: and to what or iVm efpecialU anv 
ofthem may agree: comparing alfo in whatother kind'^of iS 
an agreement betwixt the faid Part, may be found ■ xClL 3 
may if poliiWe amongft all their /W.^^S.;. t^nftr^^^^^ 
^1%'::;:^^'''"''''''"''''"^ ^^'^-^'^ -n-coneomitant to fi.h A^^^ 

of Uiem chiefly %.„, E^rlyor iI^^'Xt^^:^ ^^ 
»w/e5 whether for fome Space oiilv or alltW-v^. rLm rney u^r- 



f f 








ill I 


t V 

<^n Idea of a 

Tlw Second 

laid together, we tuny probably con f^du re the Caufcs thereof ,-xfc](I 
xli^NatHres ofthc 7^/-/«// in which tht-y are feen : ^a/. as Iiich a Oc- 
ffrce of Hcac may be neceflary for the Fermentation, or the better Di- 
ftribmion of the sap of fuch a PUtii •-, or for the Impregnation of 
the ^cr, to bcmixcd therewith^ ortheduettrpolln^ofthe 5£»?/, to 
render the motV convenient Aliment tlicrcun to. So the Prhjdplcs of 
fuch rUnts^ which tlowcr all the Year, may be more cqiially projior- 
tion'd* Tbofc which flower bcforeihe Lc.jocj put forth, .is theCr^- 
cuf Vertttfs^ and ihofe which flower in Springs m^y be accoumcd R^^ik, 
and full of Volatile Salt. But Auinmii Vhwts tfpecially, to abound wiiJi 
a Fixed: and tht like. 

15. jj. The proper flaces alfo of vUntJ^ or C\\c}i wherein they 
have, from their 5fct/j, or other way of iV-jprf^.j^/^v, a Spontaneous 
growth, (hould be confidcred. And that at; 10 the Climate:, wlKtJicr 
in one Colder, Temperate, 01 more Hoc. The Regiot/ ^ Continent, 
or inand. Thc-S^?^ as Sea, or Land, Watry, Boggy, or Dry ^ Hills, 
VJams, or Vailics^ Open, in Woods, or under Hedgcb^ Agauift Mails, 
rooted in them, or on their Tops : and the like. And perhaps ihi; 
Scab oiCom^tUiiii^ asofAf/^i-S (which, ihrouE^h their imallncfs 
will afend like Moihs inthe SunJ may liy or fwim for Tome time, in 
the Acr, vi7.y \\\\ they begin Ko ihoot, and fo become heavy enoiij^h,- 
10 fall down upon the Ground* From whence, in like manner, as' 
from their 5trj/if^j, their particular Avvtoej may be direfted un^o, 
la that, fofaraswemay conjefturethe naturcof fiichnn .^^r, .SW/, or 
Seat^ we may alfo of fuch a tlint^ towtiich they arc eoi^geijiaL 

16- jT- Solikewifc^ thofc many Varieties obfervable in the iVft^Ji- 
msoivUnts^ and of their Parts, bo;h Kinds and Decrees 5 Afiejtdhfg^^ 
Defoidii^g^ and H/>r^zo^;tj! 'j RccfiliffQur^ and 5f7r<j/Mfl//i7>7j, Ihould bt; 
noted ^ to what P/rf^-'n they agree, and wherein any of thefe Morions- 
may be analogous to ihofc of Afiimah. And in a word, any other 
l^are'jfick Profsrties o^ floret i. And rhen, to Comjnare them all toge- 
iher ;' both being ncccdary. For r/j^w^Z/f cannot work upon no- 
thing, no more tbju Hfjff^/j-. He ihat will build an Houfe, muft pro-- 
vide Materials. And on the contrary, the Materials will never be- 
come an HoufL^imlefs, by certain RulcF, we joyn them all together, 
^p, it is not, fi^^fly, the Knowledge of w./^// things, but a multifari- 
ous Copulation of them in the Mind, that, becomes prolifick of further' 
Knowledge, And thus much for the tirft General Jtfc.m. 

17. p\ THE NEXT which I propofe, andthat a moft ncceP 
fary one, is Ajf&tomy, For when upon the OiilefHon of JegctMcs^w^ 
fee fo great a difference in them, that not only thtir Outward Fi~ 
j^nresy but alfo their Inward Struanre^ is (b Ekgant ^ and in all, ib 
Various^ it muft needs lead ns thus to Think, That thefe Inward 
Varieties^ were either to'no £j;ii ^ or if they wcre^ we muft affign to 
what. To imagine the firft, were exceeding vain ^ as if Nuturc^ the 
Handmaid of Divine Wifdom^ ihould with Her line Nlt^A.' and T/jr^^/^ 
ditch up fo many fevcrai Vieccs^ of ib difficult, and yet io groundkS 
a Work, But if for fome Etid^ then either only to be looked upon, 
or fome other bcfidcs. Iffor this only, then this muli: be fncli aa in 
refix^ft whereof. Her Work \s at no time, nor in any degree fruftratci 
the contrary whereunto, is moll manifttt For althongh Mm do 
every wherc,wiih frccjacnC pleafure,bdiold the Outward LIcgancissof 

VUnts ^ 


^hihfofhical Hifiory of Plants, 

Pknts-^ yec the Inward Ones, wliich, generally^ are as Prccife and 
Various as tlic Outward^ wcfee, ho\^u(uaIii is, fonhc bi;holding of 
Thefc, to be omitted by them. Andbefides, when we have obfirvcd 
NatHfe's Work, as wdl as wu can 5 it may be no impediment to our 
btft Endeavours, to believe. That Ibme Partsof it, will (till remain 
behind, Vftfeen, So that if to be Seer?^ were the only End of it, itmuft 
needs be wholly frufirate, as to the greater number of Men 5 and, in 
fomcpart, as to all. Wherefore, wemuft fuppofe (bme other Efrdt 
ofihefaid Varieties, v;hich fliould have their Efi'eci^ and fo Theft.', 
not be in vain, whether Men beheld them or not ^ which, are, there- 
fore, fiich ashave refpeft to ?^^e/f?;/cff/ That the Corn might grow^ 

fo^j andthe i^/o3rfr,7^, whether or no Men had a niind,leifure, or abi- 
lity, toundcrftanditiJip. 

iS. ^. If then ih^ Anatomy oi VegeUbks he ^Q ufeful a Mf^r^, we 
ought not to ftreighten it ^ but to force this, as well as the reft, to its 
utmoft Extent- And therefore, firflr of all. To go through all the 
Parts^ with equal care; examining the Root^ Trmk-, Branch, Leaf^ 
Flower, Fruit, and Seed. Then to Repeat or Retrograde tliL- Dif- 
feftion, from Part to Pm : in that, although the btft Method of De- 
livery, for clear Dif^onrfc, can he but one, according to that of iVa- 
/are, from the Seed forward, to the Seed : yet can it not but be ule* 
fu!, for That of Dilicftion, to proceed (i? and Jr^^ fomewhat or other 
being more VifiWe in each feveral Part , from whence ftill an Hint 
may be taken, for the ufiierin^ in the obfcrvation of it in the others. 
To examine, again, not only all the Parts.hwt Kinds oiVegclahhs, and 
comparatively, to obferve divers of the fame /^.e, /^^-e, ^^//-^v, agc^ 
fip, qHalHy, power, or any other way the /?w, which may alfo agree 
in lome one or more particulars, as to their hterJottr Strjdhir^ : and to 
make this comparifon, throughout all their Paris and Properties, To 
obferve them likewife, in feveral Senfons of "the Year, and in fcvcral 
Ages o^th^ PiiHts, and of their P<»-f/^ in both which, diversofthem 
may be noted to change, not only their Dimenfwm, but their Natures 
alfo; asf^/c/j, AomtiQ Ligaments-^ and Cartilages, imo Bones, fome- 
umes, m Animals And to do all this by fcvcral Ways of Semon 
Obliciue,Perpendicular, and Tranfverfe; all three beins requifite if 
porto Oblerve, yet the better to Comprehend, fome Things. And 
It will be convenient fometimes to Break, Tear, or otherwife Divide 
withor.t ^Seaion. Together with the Kvife it will be neceffarv to 
joyn the Mitrofiope ^ and to examine all the Parts^ and every Way in 
the iifcof That A. alfo, that both Immediate, and Microfcopical 
inlf^c^ions, be Compared: fince it is certain. That fome things may 







""J «^.uii.„, "irtj iLui ui; iaic*y uepenaca on, 

Krent in the fimc, or divers /V/^W« , their Or^wW, in part or in 
whole: Struciun^ as to the.r Contexture and thdr Cuv^tl, 'jhci" 

r"' -I'^i "'^ H" .'\^"''~^>^^.^ ^--""y-. ^nd .s joyncd together : their 

Umm, as to their six,, Skagc, and N,i„,kr ■ in which 

great va- 



f f 



(^An Idea of a 



'- 1, 

The Third 




ricty will be found- Nextthcir P^////-7wj oneamonp;ft another, which 
are ajfij various 5 ns Anterior, Poftcrior, Collateral, Surrounding, Me- 
diate, Immctiiatc, Nctt, Remote i both as they rcfpe^ the feveral 
Paiis^ andthe fcveral portions of one: Andall there,as feWjOrmore^ 
thefr or others of them, may be diverfly Compounded together. And 
then the J'r^/>(3r//tf/^/ they bear one to another ^ whether ;is to Mino- 
rity, Equality, orExceii^ eaeh P^rt compared with each, and that 
as to the levcral Degrees appearing in the iA\d ProportiDns }, the Va- 
rieties whereof may be exceeding numerous, Forifwe fhould fuppofe 
but Four considerable P.iyls generally confritutivc of a J'fgetahle: 
Thcfe Four^ produce a Variety fotir ways, Firft, when One is Une- 
qual5 and then it produceth only FiJwr Varieties : andthofetwoways, 
/a/, when one is Greater, and the other three, Equ^l and Lefs 5 or 
when one isLefs, and the other three, Equ^l and Greater, Secondly, 
when Two he Unequal^ and tiien they produce 5^j: Varieties, Third- 
ly, when Three be Unequal, which produceth Trcehc Varieties. Or 
JalHy, when all Four be Unequal 5 which produceth Tjra;fj/ four: 

which general Varieties, may be further mukiplicd by their (everal 

20. ji. From all which, we may come ro know, what the Com- 
wHnitks of Veg^tabhj are^ as belonging to all 3 what their D/Uifj&i- 
Gns^ tofuch a Kind^ their Pro^trtks^ tofuch a Species ; and their re- 
culUrnks^ to fuch Particular ones- And as in Met^phypial^ or other 
Contemplative Matters, when we have a difVind knowledge of the 
Commimifies :{nd Differetfces oi '\\x\ug%y we may then be able to give 
their iiw^ DcfivJiions : fo may we poffibly, here attain, to do like- 
wife : not only to know, That every Vkfjt Inwardly differs from a- 
nothcr, but alfo wherein 5 fo as not more furely to Define by the Out- 
ward Figure^ than by the Inward Strri&urc^ What that is, or thofe 
things are, whereby any'P/^w/, or Sort of Plants^ may be diftinguifh- 
ed from ail others. And having obtained a knowledge of the Com- 
muniths and Di^cremes amongfl: the Parts of Vegetables^ it may con- 
duit U5^ through a Serrcs of more flicrlc and probable CviicUtfions^ of the 
ways of xht\T Cajifility^ as to the Commumtks and D/ffbrences oiVe- 
getafion. And thus much for the Second General Meatf. 

11. #. HAVING THUS far examined the Orga?7Jml and Cofx^ 
t.vmng Parts of Vegtiahiesi^ it will be lequifite, more defigncdly, 
to obferve thofe alio which are h'lmd^ or any others Contained in 
them; and that, for our better underftanding both ofthe W^/wre of 
Vegetation^ and ofthefaid fi^^^^-^rW i'^iri/. And to make inquiry, i^/W^ 
of their iCij/:^/^ ^^Spmts-^ both fuch as agree, in general, ^n being 
Vimm-^ and thofe that are Special, to particular Vlints. Aers and 
Vapours^ for the ejiiltence whereof, in all V^getahks^ there are' Ar- 
guments certainly concluding. And for the diiferencc of their AV 
tures^ in being more dry, or moilt, more fimple or compounded, as 
they are exigent in feveraWV/j, there are probable ones, /.;w- 
ph£s or clear and wairy Saps f which moit VUnts, in one rm or orher, 
at fome timeof the Year, do Bleed Mudlugcs -^ as in M^l/oit> and Fro- 
let Leaves ^ in many Seedj, as of ^/fmer, CUrj ^ Frifits^ as in Cunt- 
r^ers^ diftinit from the watry -S.//-, as by permitting it to Hand and 
gelly upon the Feffeh from whence it iihieF, is pl.iiii : And in the 
young Berrjis of White BrjfOffj/^ when about the bignds of a I'cpper- 

Corft 5 



T bilofofhical Hlsioty of Plants, 

Corn-, thejuycc whereof IS foVifcous, that the twentieth part of a 

Gi-aitf, will draw out above a Tanl in length. Ojks ; not only in 

seedi, andfomeFm;^, but other f ^r(/ 5 as in certain little cavities in 

thcLc>ivao£S^vi«e, vifibly colleded while they are erowine. Gkw»,, 

or^ Ref^^cs i ,s in fine. Fir, and Others of this Kind. Milks 5 as 

m a vaft number of f Wj, and amongft them, many not fufpeaed to 

yield any. For, aJHcrh, not only moft of the Vmkmferous Kind. 

are MAkj; but all or mofi of the htybo^ -, Foffys; Trachdin^s; 

Ferm^l^cf^ d>vcrs 77;///« ; and even 0»/^«j, if cut at the bottome; 

with a great many more. Of Trees, not only the Little M.pU. but 

the young shots of i W, efpccially being crunied; as a!fo thofe of 

Elder and fome others. To which may be added, fnch Mi>alages, 

which (hoogh not fo properly contained «-///.> tU Farts, yet are 

found lying o^er tkm ; as over ihe tirft Sprwg-leavcs of aH kinds of 

Dv^ks^ betwi« the Leaves and the Veil wherein they are involved. 

Tliat fine white Flower or Powder, which lies over the L..z^.. of fome 

P/.«(., as of Bears-B^r : And in m^ccs-Feuiber, about certain Aper- 

;«m only on the edges oi ih<i Leaves. 1 ^I'l ^/-.^r 

Tnm'' /;., °^^"- ^^^'^'^ '^""'^ ^^ obferved, firft their Reeept^ks; 
fome of them, being proper to one, other., common to two or more 
ofthem : fi„ce k iscenain thai fome of thee do Tranfmig rate from 

FluidBodic. of a quite different Nature, at the dfent 5c.>. of 
the Tear and Ages of the Vegetable. And it is alfo very probable Tliat 

hat rriS; /'-'"f r^^' ''^'■^-^"^^^ i"^'^'^ D.T/.....J aS 
that, andtheC/ye, ^ntht Saugimieous Vcfh 

As alfo the<r a..^,„,g .■ to what Trees it is proper to bleed- io thoie to 

,^ bthe Ce»- 

;qual to halt the CoKtetu of 


2S- J^. 



■ / 





*- s 



'.■!■ ,( 



(^n Idea of a 


5. 5J. Alfo their Cotiftflcme:, fat: offo many of them as are dif- 

Soft or Hard ; Thi 

Thick ; Mu- 

cnmimmcoy Touch; .^ ^ . , - r 

ciiaffinous,Gum[noii5,Glutinous,rriablc,€^^. And thefe in their Weral 
Degrees^ii which there is a in the Milks of fome Flams.vihxtii 
are more D/A/^c, than that of othen: Mufitages'-, which iu fome, are 
very thick m^VifiotH^ in others, more diluted and coming nearer to 
zrv^try Sap. And by This, to be compared m the fame manoer, as 

by their ^^''w'^iy'. » r,* ^ t 

a6. ^. Likewife their Cohtirs^ Smells, and T^ftcs: The general 
and particular Kinds of all which fhoiiW be noted. And to what Con- 
iaifjed Parls^ and in what Variety, they appertain. So moft Rcfhfoi^ 
G«wwj arc Tinftury^ fome, not^ asthat which drops from the Dj^a^c- 
ftkk ^tne, is as clear as IVock-waten The MHk^ of fome PUuU are 
Fakr, T^sm Burdockh oi Oth^n Whiter , awn Dand&lpn, Scor%offcra:^ 
Citrine,2^mt\\^K.QO-^o?Trachdmm,Afigcfka-^ TcSotv, 3S in Uvagc. In 
fomeP/j«/j, Odoroui^ Ti^m'Omhclliferom-^ in others not, ^imChhra* 
mm. That of Little Mufk, T^p/cfi'--, of Garden Ckrvil, Street -^ of 
FcTTil, Hh-^ ofScor%ofj€ra,Afin^g€TJf-^ o^ Daf^d^lion, Bitter^ and ge- 
nerally, in other Wj?/// ^ but with many Degrees; of Strength, and in 
conjuntiioa with other I^a But moft Mj/ahgcs^ h^ivcWtilG either 
Colour^ TaJh^oTSfucli^ and die like. Here alfo the feme ^W/V/^jare 
to be inquired into, ap, in general fpcaking, they are faid to belong to 
a Fegetabk, Since it is more than probable, that ail Colours ^excepting 
Hi^hHe^ which is fometimcs common both to Cfutaiftifig^nd Contawsa. 
Vijyts') ?\\OdouYf^ and T^f/^r. which are more immediately, and with- 
out a refolui ion of their Ejjetjtia! Frjmifhs^ perceptible in a Plmt 5 are 
not afcribabk either to the 0/^Jff/tM/, m Coj/tam/i^^ P.irtj-^ but only 
to Thofe, Contained \n them j as from divers xcafons hereafter may 


27, #. And firj}^ their CAojirs-^ where, with refpefl: to feveral 
FlaKts and rurts^ they are mori:Chaf/g€dlfe'-^ as R.ed, in Flifwers ^ or' 
Co^ftani^ as Green, in LQazcs. ' Wliich, with refpetl to feveral Ages 
of one P'srt^ are more p^///^, as Grt^eninPrK^fJ^ or dnrahk^ as Yel- 
low in Florcers, In what Paris more Sivgie^ as always in the Seed 5 
or more Contpoanded^ as in the Flower--, and in what P/^?7/jmore efpe- 
cially, as in Farfc}'. Which proper to PLwts ihu have fuch a Tafie 
or Sme//^ as both, in WhUc Flon-ers^ are ufually lefs ftrong. To Flantf 
that flower in fuch a Seaforr^ as a ly/oiv Fhwcr^ I thinks chiefly, to 
Spring pUnts. And to Pknis that are natural to fuch a Soil or seat^ 
as to*r^/^r-jf/dff//, moreufually, a tvhite Flower, What, amongft all 
Cotonrs^movt Common to vlints^ as Green ^ or more Rare, as Blacky And 
what all thefe Varieties of Colours are upon Cnltivatiofj^ but chiefly, 
in their natural soil. To obferve alfo wirh their fupcrficial Colours^ 
thofc within: fo the Roots of DGcks^SirQ Tel/ow-, of Bijtorl, Red^ 
of AvefTs^ Purple 5 butofmoft^ White, Where the Inward, and Su- 
perficial Ci'Wrj agrees asintheile.v^fcj^ orvar;', asin the other Parts 
frequently. And in what manner they are Sitmh-d 5 fijme univerfjlly 
fpreading, others running only along with the /^^/j, asinihcLw^'fJof 
Red Diit^iandthc Fl&u>ers ofWood-SorrcL 

28, jS, Next their Odours-^ what may he their principal 5"^/; 
whether one or divers 5e^;/ in the lame Pltni. What ihc chief Mj/- 
/«■ out ofwhich they are continually bred. What fimilviuJe betwixt 






f . 


Thihfiphical Hi^ory of Plants. 

the Smcl/s of divers VegctMes ■■, nsbecwixt B.wmc, and a /Jwo;/ ^ the 
Green Leaves oi Meudow-fmect, and the pireen Km^s oC Walmiu. Or 
betwixt thoko^ PU?7ts and Animah-., ^%\\\(iSmcll o^ green and well- 
grown Cardum, is hkt.- to that rank fient, al> aliquorum axiUk Ibi- 
rMii. Which have a more fenfible Smell i, aj moft have ^ and which 
have lef:, as Cera. Where the green Leaf is the mofl: Part 
as m Mw/<:C)-Jwjw//; where the /■Van-fr, aa in Rnfai, the flop* as in 
Iweet Calum;f3. Where all the Parts have fome 0^(;//r, where fome or 
one, only; as in y-^wrzy-^w/, only the Flowvrs, unlefs the /.f^s^w are 
bmisd; andin^r««/, thePfp/only; for neitherthe /.e;r nor Vf^ef 
hath any smcH, unlefs cut ; but this is fcong enough, rot much unlike 
to tiitmaiie Excrements. 

a?, i. But efpecially their Taflet, which it much importetb us 
more precift-ly to diftinguiih ; Firfi, by their general Kinds ; forthe 
number,even of ihefe, may be computed greater than ufually it is. I 
remcmbLT not, that H^t and AcritHde, with refpeft to T^ffl are di- 
ftjnguKhed ; yet ^r«r^.ie../ is very P»,gem, without any proper 

r^'wrr^ '/v '"'^^'"' ^'^'^°'^' ^"y proper iW^. So 
the White K..,. of Wn., have a T.ff., hardly any other way per- 
ceptible, than by caufinga gentle ,^/.n-,>^and comimcdVV.rmh upon 
the Tongue AJfotheir fo>W..„.. onetoanother, as that of Ze- 
j;«7,:^, and of the Iciier C.rdumoms.h fomewhat like to Ca,>.phiri 
Likewife their D.^^.; in which there is a great latitude, and may 

fe,^ . ..^T ""^'^ ^'") "^ ^""^ ''^'' mmc^\on^ from O^.S 
fi ; ?"'''%?'';' .^f^^'-'-^'^'s Bitter in the>j?-, ofi5.4, in the 

^ ' Jd/^'^- "^'^■'■'"'^g them, not only as they iary in feveral 
W, DWeV«. And then their Co^pojlt^o.s for r.//.. .S amS 

brs m V h f^'^'' "'''"'^''^D^recs, and in differing Num- 

bLrs, may be vanoufly Compounded together : For the molt mrr 

J^V •"the Ljves of Parp-pon.ted K-k., aS^/- 
n ^<>rra.Koou Alri.<,,„t and Bmer-, and in X., fe« . and ^3 

Sic"5;;".^£l'''^ "''^:} ■" ^^^^^ ^^.-Asupon'nun ;- 
jiKlic.din.,1 maj. be perceived : and yet more evidently in the G^U 

of any LW-^W. Sometimes r/«., as in Agrimo^yJ Stu^^iSfh 
and.S.w.,*; ^"dm4^„.;.^,B^,„,,R^^ A ,^d^^ And fome me. ' 

perhaps more. The Senlible diftinclions of all which mav IvTaS 
;L"ui 'I ^^^^-^^^''^fc'-. WhereforcrSi^ m^be 
gought ralhiefi to take away the diftinftions oi Hot^old ZS 
S?'/ ; r^^' and other ^Wi;;e., in their fcveral bcgre;,wS 
the A»oe,ns have aftixed to particular Plam : yet fince thev h J^^ K, to many of them, witLueh unecrtainty^a dThat iitCl 



^ / 



I ■ 



f^n Idea of a 

Ltiwcs oii:am.trisK\ which b^inj^ iickcd while they grow, or when 
immaVuudy gathered, are plainly Sahip. How they v^uy with the 
Aeofthc Phwt^ or Part--, as xhti Roots o^ Radip^s^ growing up to 
Seed lofe thcftitiigihofthcir T^ifi--, fo moft i^w^^ arc firft iWrf, 
then'Si^ft/. What proper to the fuvtral P-Wj of any one PUjits fo 
theLf-^--'tv of HW/jrotf-^/arc exiraoixlinary B///^^ ^ the Root tcarcely 
foatalU ofiinHofj but quite clilTeTt-nc T^/e. What mote Cornmon,or 
Rare to any-P^'^"' ^ fo no i^r^^?; that I ever rafted, AtSowrc. And how 
iheyAUcrnaie in ftveral rlat^ts^ as the J^f'-^/ o^ St(fckJnly-flor£>er \% 
bituig, not the U./.vi^j ^ on the contrary, the Lcava of rhe ffWe?^ 
Arfmart^ avc Bith;;^^-^ but not the Root:, and the like. To which we 
may add the difference of Time wherein the 7-i/^tr of 7^/./^// arc per- 
ceived j as thofe of Aaw, 3ii\d R^pe-CrcTpfiot^ arc both Ihmg-^ but 
ihat of the firft^ as it is flowly perceived, fb it continues long ^that of 
the other, quickly come?, and quickly goes. 

50, ^. Amongd the other Adjunds of the Csntawcd Farts^ though 
not of ihefeonly, the Faatitks of FcgetMes are to be reputed. For 
fothcfo//« o£ J.4ap^ which is Purgative, is as trulycontained in the 
Organicai P-trti of that Rnot^ as Blood is in l^cit^s : ir,will be rcqiii- 
fitc therefore to make particular obfervation ofthefealfo. And firft, 
what i^.ft'«//;Vj chittly may refide in Plants^ above others: fo there is 
none of known \\{y:\r\Stilh'atiorj^ except by holding in the mouth; 
Although we may ask. Why fome amon^fl them, may not fixing Ta- 
ken inwardly) have a powL-r to evacuate by ThiMs well as oiher Vio- 
lentways? Wherethe Furttliy \^ more univcrfally fpread overall the 
Pari: of a Vegeidhk^ ^^'wkAfarnm. Where belonging chiefly or wholly 
to any particular ^irts or Part 3 as chiefly to the Root of Rbsharhj 
and only to the true and proper Seed of Bdrhado Nuts. Whether fome 
Fackltkf, may be proper to fome Parts efpecially. What conjnnftion 
they may have with any ieniible^'-^toi^A So, mmy Purgers^ arenot 
only ReJiPcm and Gummous ^ But alfo yimiUgimm \ as Bryony^ wild 
Qucfifmr^ Lapaihnm Sativuf^'-^ and therefore probably i^/v/W^, when 
growings M;//oiPJ, Vjokts^^c. Stich as are Purging and Vomitory, 
though fome of them have aftrongT^^e, yet the greater part, and of 
thoie, many of the Wronger fort, have no T^^, or not Great 5 as 
Scmfti^ Jal'fpy ScammoJjy^ Hellebore, Afarum^ and others. Amongst 
which, although Hel/ehore hath a very Dar.ibk Tajie, yet is it not ve- 
ry Hrgh or Great. So alfo, thole that are moft (enfibly tafted, are, I 
think, for the molt part, more or Icfs Bitter j either fimpiy, as Colo- 
cymhk^ or BJtter and AJiriMger^f^ iis Rhitbarb ^ ov Bitter and Sjvcet^ as 
Aloe-^ or Bitter., A^rii7gcJ!t^ and 6Wf f ^ as Agitrick, Few are Hot^ as 
Jrk, Or fa/ply Sweet. And though fome may be Subacid, that are 
Mollifying or Lenitive, yetno proper Purge or Vomit isSon^re. Such 
Plai7ts jsareota fofr and fwcctilh Tajh^ without Vifcofity, may beac- 
counttd good Atitjfcorbuticks^ efpecially againit the Sea^ or other Salt- 
Sairvey-y as are good fwectPeale: And fometimes ih^Water ox Spi- 
rit o{\]\t: shells--^ which may eafily be drawn from them, being ffrit 
duly fermented, and haih a true/'//;^/*^ T-y?*:^ but very mild, and not 
unplcafant, I'holL' W/j/Zj, whofe Parts are not only Hot but /^A'f//e» 
fls Onions^ are generally good tor Btmis, Such as have ^BMfimick^ 
Tafieov Smelly with a little Aftrirtgefjcy^ as H^pcricmt^ Goidert^Rod, 
Lumhtm Litteum^t^c. the beft Womd-Herbs . And fuch asare gtnily ' 


TbilofophJcai Hiisory of Plants. 




Biih'r and TaietraKt upon the Tongue^ or in t\\tThro.if^ ^sDdJj}, A/ra- 
^allfs 200J Clcwfirs. Tlut facli 73^^;^, principally, are A^odj^c, which 
trcrfl/oiv, Uhink^ismorcthanacorccit^ Ydb of Egi^s, Fcenugrctk 
Seedc Lint-feed Oyl, May-Butyr, Marrow, ?i?7gH€cl& Htmuna, Hyof- 
cyam^luteus, Safron, Sulphur, Opium, ^W Ar^odyfie :^nA Tellow, How 
likewif^ their Faculties (ind ^'^hiics may vary their I>:f;rees, tidier 
differently or together : fo Ahe and ColocytJthk^ are both Ritur \n the 
hi-jheft Degree^ yet Abe^ which is alfo smct, Purgcth more mode- 
rately 5 Cclo€y77this^ which 15 B/f/-?r, but not5jt^f/,moltVioleni!y-How 
far the Famines of VegetMcs^ as well as their ^ahiks, may be Com- 
pounded^ where, and which chiefly^ as Aftridtive and Purgative in 
llhabdrh. Where this Qiieftion may be put, Whether divers other, 
and yet more extreme JVwZ/iej, as well asthefe of Aftriftive and Pur- 
jfative, may not fomewhefc or other be alfo found, or made, to meet: 
whereby the fime PA*J?/, or fome Prf/;^r//7t?« of it, may be mod Po- 
tent, and yet moft Innocent , the A1<j/;^«^;;' thereof exerting its Pow- 
er, aiidthef'/r/we its Sovcraignty at the fame time. Andkitly, what 
Affuiity thcremay be betwixt them; as mo^ PhiHs^ that are ftrong 
Purgatives, and elpecially Vomitories, ! think, liXG,' oMo SternnUtoryj 
as white He/khre, JA/p, T&bjca' .- and on the contrary, fuch as are 
Ster}7itidtory^ are fome of the moft proper and moft potent Meduhicj 
for the Head, Brain, and Gcfufs Ncrvojnm^ Taken inwardJy, as Liliur^ 
convaBe^ &c. and the like. 

51. 5- Thus fir a particular obfervation of the ^'./ftf/fiand Fa- 
niHies ofthc Contacts of Vegttubks may proceed, as they are exiftent 
in ihuir N-zturJ BjUte, From which, although fomcprobable Con- 
jcfhires may be made, of their Material and Formal Effeisces.^ and of the 
O^^/rxofiiieir determinate Varictk;!, or the Motles o( VegeUtim nc- 
ct(iary thereunto ; yet will our Conceptions hereotbe more facile,dcar, 
and CO nip re hen five, ifby all other Waysof Oblervation, ihey be hke- 
wiie examined, according as EA^pfr/A^fw* may be applicable to any of 

7;7. ^. h^hy Cof7fuf{onx fo fome P^./wi/ give their 5/W/,not with- 
out IVubbing, or not fo well ^ as the green Leaves of Strumomum^^SiitT' 
'lygrufi and many more : others loic'it by Rubbing, a.sthGpowers of 
VioktSj C.irnatiofis^ Borage^ d^c. others yield it both ways, as Rofi- 
mjYy^^r. So fome w/^p/^x mend their T-v^f, by Scoaping, and Pears 
byKowlhig, efpecially that called the Rowlrrfg Pear, 

55. ^, By Agiution '-f which doth that^fometimes, by Force, which 
D?^f^/i?ff, doth by Heat ; fo any cold Oyl m^^ ^ Syrup being, in a due 
manner, agitated together, of two Fluid bodies will become one Con- 
fident, as is known, 

34. §, By FngifrllhN'j how far the 'payees o? PLwts^ cither with- 
out or within them, m^y be any of them, or fome more than orhers,fub- 
jcft to Cold : and thereby to be deprived of their Motion or natural 
C&JiQ^fcute^Qz may fuffer alteration in their C^f/t^/zr, Tajh^ or Sr^jell. 

35- i' By JrrfiiQoit^ where I mean hfiifioti ox\\y in Common Wa- 
tery Soh<yi\].CajjkL'gnea, and Cirjnumon are a little Mucilaginous 5 
but the former moft. Some o^ ^h^Covtetfts o^ PJunts^ may bewholly 
diilblved in Common Water ^ fome but in patr,others nocatal! ; orve- 
rylittle^ which is proper to fome Milks^ as well as Gums. TheC^ 
lonrs^ 6Wi(f or Tdj?f J they hereupon' yield, are found various^ and in 







^An Idea of a 

^ ■■ 




i^)m^ very unexplained ; So the green Leaves of E.^mw, being duly in- 
fufcd in common Water, wiihouc any other Body added, tincture ic 
with a clear and deep Red, near ihat of CUrcl Wj^c^ as 1 have often 

56, §. By Sjihjidir^g 5 Soihe Juyccof 5t^ri-e/, being ordered as that 
o^Grapcs, will, in time, let fill a kind of T^r/^r or £^w//<?/5^/^ And 
fo perhaps will that of many other P/^/w/J, without any previous D;- 
coUien --J although that be comtnonly thought to be neceflary. 

37- ^, By Digeflion W\i\\ Fcrmcntdiwn'^ either of the entire Ve- 
getables^ ov oi the Jttycesy ox oihuY Contents -^ and thefe by themftlves, 
or with common Water. And hereby to note, what difference may 
be in the Strength, Celerity^or Continuance of the Fcrnientdtion.Vikc- 
wife, how their ^^^///^f-f may thereby be altered ; as the Smell of f^i^ 
ht'jiowers^ from a moft excellent i^^-^^r-vsy, may, by tt^f/^/^w, be re- 
duced to an odious and abominable Siink,-, like that of the black Mud 
of GktUrs, 

38. §, ?iy D'lgejiionWwh. Cnkfa&ion'-, fothe Cohitr of the ^uyce 
o( Lw/ms^ from Tranfparcncy (if that bea Colour^ maybe turned 
to a pcrfttt Red. Whence it is that many arc deceived in the Prepare 
ration called the Tinware o^ Corals ^^ fuppoling the Corals to give the 
MtJ?^r//«ffif its Colour, Whereas the MenUrmirfi WiW obtain it, only 
by Digefiion^ without any Corals^ mined with it. 

39. f. By Deceit ron j either of Vegetables themfelvcs, or of their 
Liqit&rs\ and to obftrvc what aktrations follow. So turpentine box- 
led becomcihfriable^ S;/^-ir, Ji///fr,andofa Brown Red. fnrjiepsXoGi 
their Biting Tiy^e ^ Onions^ their Picquancy^ yet neither of them con- 
vey thole fclffame ^alities to the Water* The fame maybe obfervcd 
in the DecoUioti of Srveet-Fennd-Jeeds^ Anifieds^ and others, loling 
much oftheirTfl/?fj themfelves, and yetconveying very little of them 
to the L?^rti3r J wherein they are boiled 5 the greater portion of their 
Volatile parts, and lb their /^/r/tfc and Tafie therewith, flying away> 
Whereof therefore it is much bettertomake an Enmlfiofi^ than 10 decoil 
thera^ ortomakean Emutfion from them j withtheir o^vn Deco^ion^ 
cijeciaily if tht Medicine be intended to be Carmrtati-ue^ as I have fre- 
quently observed. The Detcaioti fliould alio be carried on through- 
out all degrees to that of an Exiraa -^ by which the ^alities there- 
of, fomi^nrae5,arc much aheredj as the Coknr ofallor moit green Leaves^ 
from a kind of Yellow, deepens at laft into a dark one, as Black as 

40. ^; Ey DipUations ^ both with the cold 5//^', Ahmbick.^ Chap- 
pel- and open Furfjacc : and to note what Vegetables thus give their 
Sf^jcH or Taife^ and in what Degrees of ftrengtb, either under^or over 
their natural ones, ^sM/nt^ Pennyroyals nn^i ihe like, which are Jro- 
matici and Hot^ give their Taftes perfc^: but iVorr^n^ood, which is 
JyomMiciund Bttter ^ gives it but by halfi,pretty fully as Aromatick^Yii^ 
tie as Bitter, And Carduus^ ihoiigh al(b fo exceeding Bitter^ yet not 
htwv^ Aronmt?i\^ yieldeth a much weaker Tap, Alfo what T%;j- 
^w yield O^moft plentifully^ and what difference may be in thofe 
0}ls^ astotheir Cfl/i>;/r, Weighty orothcrwifc^ as that oichves is Ibme- 
nmes Red , oiCifmawon^ limpid j both Ponderous. So to dillil Jukesi 
Oftwj, or other Ci^w/c«;j, with an hor/>c 5 andiofee, what Bodies they 
yields andufwhat ^/rfft/iwj as r;w^f/?/r«£ is known toyieldj befidts 



Thiiofophkal Hiflory ofVlants. 


its oy afubacidl^^'^r^ Fwegar, an Eager 6>/>/^3 as that part may 
be called which Chymlfs are wont to call the Phtcgrn, 
- ±1. #/ By ArtfuQion--^ fo M?//lj which are Liquid, and White in 
their "Natural Eftate, in Standing, grow Giimmous, YelIow,and other- 
wife different, fo doih that i^iSccrzomra-^ and that of -Fcj??/ becomes a 
Ealfamical, but Limpid 0/ The Rcots o^ Angelica, being dry *d,and 
cut by the length, exhibit their fmall Fdfjs fill'd with an Aromatick 
Rofirr, In the whiter parts of Rhtharb^ is gathered a kind of S<ilme 
Concrct 5 by which, this Root^ in chewing, feems as if it were a little 
gritty. Cabbagc-St^lks^ fliced, and laid inihc Shade to dry, gather on 
them a kind'of Mfri?;^ Hoar. R^ifms and tW^j contain, not only 
a fweet Juycc, but alfo a true Sugar^ which lies curdled in the Pulp^ 
asthemorc Sdwe parts Join Green Soap- And the like is gathered 
on the out-lidc ofa Fig ^ faving, that it is more Nurou^^^s lying next 
the Jer. The Roots o( Arnr^r, ypon drying, lofemuch of theftiength 
of ih(^\r T/rJie ^ but thecontrary maybe noted of many other Rects^ 
which, upon drying, incread- it. Some, being cut and laid by, change 
their Natural Colours^ into Red, Pnrple, Yellow, Green, or Whiter 
as LJ^ftiJr/yi!', into Whue, infome places ^ and Peoftj'^ into Red: and 
fometimes into two 5 as Patience^ into Yellow and Red- 

42. (. hy Aff^tjon--^ thus Apple f J by roatVtng, eat more Sowre. The 
Rcof o£ Horfi- Ruci/p, toafted, tafteth like a Tttrmp. Potatoes^ Oni- 
cnsy and many othLT Roois^ and f <jr/j, have their Trf/^-^j, either Alte- 
red or Refra&d; which chiefly, and in what manner, ihould be ob- 
ferved. There is one alteration, as remarkable, as commonly known 5 
and IS that which foUowethuponroaiting or baking in one kind of the 
Waldwfi^n Pears^ which, for a Huldcf^^ we corruptly call a IVir- 

43. (J. ByZJ/?;>wf wherein fo:ne r/-jw/x, or Purls of them, burn 
very quietly^ others, not without violent motions^ fo Feml-Sceds^ 
held in the flame ofa Candle, will fpitand fpurtle, like the Serum of 
Blood. Some Vtg^tdbks lofc their 5 w^//, as Rofis--, others, keep it, 
^•i Rcfimary-^ and oihcrp, mend it, as Ligmtvi Aloes^ To note, not 
only the aherationufthtir ^^i/j/;f,<, but what they ykld, as 7/f ff ew- 
/j>;f, which, in D//?///j/w, yitldethOyand IVaier^ both limpid ^ upon 
Vflioff^ fliowetfi nothing but a black Soot, So Bc?szoJm^ by Di^ilU' 
thn^Oyh-i byV^iw//^ white fWnv, as is known. 

44» tf. By CakhMiiorj ^ and here to obferve, wherein the Caput 
JJtfr////fwofone, may dilR^rfrom^ or agree in Nature with ihat ofano- 
thcr^ andalfo to compare thetl- with thole oi Anhml Bodies. As alio in 
their ^;d«////f/. And tocompare them with what thty yield by D/- 
fiiilation and U^iion as to both. Thus far they have been tryed y/a- 
gl)\ or by thcmftlves. They fiioukl alio be examined, 

45. 51. By Compofiijon-^ notonly WiiX-iWater^ as in finiple Infaftons^ 
C^c. but with any other Bodies , which may have a power of afting 
tipon them, or upon which, thefe may have a power to a&. And fo 
to make iuptfions^ DejiilLitiorjs^ DeioUioits^ Z^/^fJ^/tr;/, in divers kinds 
oi Liqmrs^ as Vwegur., Vrme^ Spirit of B. H, VVive^ Bloody Mdl^^ 
or others. So in hfHJiofis^ fomeRed Colours areheightncd by Acids 'y 
Slews, turned fetid Spirits (asofH_R)mayberendred much 
more grateful, hybting Rfff?^t't/,once ortwice, with {rcih Aromatici^s^ 
To oblerve alfo what follows, upon mixing the Li^nors^ or other Parts 


4 - 

. I 







®>/rt Idea (f a 

■ w\ 


' o^Phnis together 3 ^^Oyl o£ Turpentine^ ^y ^^i^fiion ynt\\ at Lrxivinl 
Salt, extraftcth thence a TiftBitrs. Or with sMls, Earthy Meuls 
or any other Bodies 5 iis the J«)'f(? of the green LfdZ'w oi Rasberrj^^Prirn- 
rojc^ and divers other i^^i^^/ fl think principally fuch as arc Aftrin- 
^cm) exprciled upon Sieely as it diicth^ becometh of a Pirrpk Co- 

^6, ^ Laftly, by ComponndiftgihG Experiment it fclf^ or joynine 
two or more of them, upon the fame matter : as Fermentation and De- 
sliilation^ as is ulcd for fomc Waters, hptjton and Fermentation^ as \i\ 
making of Beer> F ermentaiioft and Co&ion^ or rather Ajjation^ as in 
making of Bread, Arefa&ien and DefliUatioj?, as may be tryed upon 

ComQ Herbs'^ and with what difference from what may be noted, upon 
' their being diftilled,moift. 

47, jS. Having proceeded thus far, by alt the above particular 
Ways ofObfervation ; a Comparativi? Profpeft mufVbetakenofchem; 
by which, at laft, ihcComn/ur^itks and Di^ercnces o£ the Contents of 
Vegetables^ may be difcerned j :he manner of their Caitfit'jon and Qrigi- 
nal^ part]y,bejudgcd of^ and wherein it is, that the /i^v/re of their 
fevcral Natures m^ ^aliiks doth conlift, in fome meafure compre- 
hended. And confcquentiy, both from the knowledge of their par- 
ticular Natsncsy and the Analogy found betwixt them 3 we may be 
able, better to conjei^lure, and try, what anyofthcm are, or may be 
good for. For certainly, we (ball then know, more readily, to apply 
diings unto, and more fitly to prepare them for, their Proper Ufo 
when we firft know, rt^hat theyarc. Notwithflanding, fincethe i^^r^/- 
iiet ofPlants^Q often He more reclufe^ it is be£t, therefore, not wholly 
toacquiefce infuchConjcflures, as their Ttfj?^/, orother i-^^z/zW^ P;-^ 
fertics may fuggeft 5 but to fubjoyn Experiment. In making ofwhich, 
andinpafiinga Judgment thereupon, many Camions, both in refpeil 
of the P^-;^* whereof, and the^'/fye^fif whereupon it is madc^are requi- 
fite to be attended. Which yet, in repaid theyrefuk not lb diredly 
from the Matieratprefentinhand^ ! ihall not, therefore, here infift 
upon them, And thus much for the Third General Mean 
The Fourth 48, ^. THE Contents of the Organical Parts oiVegetabk-s havine 
general been thus duly Examined: it will be reqmfiteto make the like Inquiry 
into their frindples^^ ortheBW;/, immediately concurrent and ellen' 
tial to their Being. And of thefe, we are to obrerve,Firlt,their AW- 
her-^ whetherwejl reducible 10 /w, ftx.feven^ o^ more, 01 fimr: and ' 
the Special Ditferences obfervable under any one General 5 iincc there 
we many Bodies, of very different Natures, confounded under one 
Name, Next their Conjugation-^ which they are, that cither un- 
der or over thofe oblcrvable in animal, or other Bodies^ are here joy-' 
ned together in a Flant ^ How far common to the On^amcal Parts 
pf divers vUnts-^ or to the fcvcral Or ganica! Parti oi one; or 
how far different m them. Sothe predominant Prindpk ofthe ParQt,^ 
chymom Parts of a flant, that it is an Add, feems evident, From the 
general Nature oiFruHs 1, and of Corn ^ and molt Faremhymot^ Ro^>£s 
Vhichareeither Spirituous, or Sower, or by Digeftion, do cafijy be' 
come fuch. Likewife their Proportions ^ which ftand in the greaccft 
Whichmthe leaft,orin thcmeancr jV;v,//;///7ej, and in what Oegreesi 
both in divers P'igetab/es, and in tiie feveral On; Farts c^^one. 
^^mxhmthi^CmmNtm and Z;^^^ of them altogether^ as to the de- 



^hihfo^hkal Hifiory of Plants. 


. ! 

grecsof their Clofenefi or Laxity^ or the mannerof their Implication and 
Coherency^ eras to theirLocation, one being more Central, another 
moreExpofed and Rampant over the reft ^ or otherwife different. To 
examine thcfe /^/-/j/f/f /a, by their C^f/i^^r, Tajie^ SmUfiovfijhnce^Fix- 
idmji^ VoUt'tlity^Vtight^ Figures^ or other Accidents. And to theft 
pnrpoles, to go through the formentioncd Ways of Experi^cfst ^ as 
VjiJon^ Caldi^atiof?^ Dcfiillatmt^ &c. as any -of them may appear ap^ 
plicibk hereunto. So the EpntmlSalt of Wormwood^ which may be 
obtained from the IJ;cJz'7W; is Bitter^ tranfparent, and commonly, of 
a Cylindrkk^ figure r whereas that which is obtained by Co&jov^ov from 
t\iii ExirdS^\^tjjilej^^ greyifti, and almoft Citbick: and that intheEx- 
traftofihe Cxe.mLmves oiVhkti^ appears in fine tranfparenti'AtitJ//, 
likefo many little Needles. And it is probable. That the S^hs of 
moft Kinds ofPUnts^ whether Lixivial or Eflcntial 5 and of thefe,whe- 
iher obtained by Di^ct'cy/W, orothcrwife, have either their i^jr;^;f?-e, or 
Other ^^UHqs^ proper to thcmfclves, whereby they are all diftJnguiV 
ed one from another. And hftly, to make Experiment upon thefe 
Trimifks^ mining them with one another, or with other Bodies, or 

,, 4c^. ^. rknow Jtwill be difficuletomake obfcrvatTomofthis kind 
tipon the Or^,y;/;W /'rfr// of r/^?///, feverally. Yet I have thought of 
forae Ways, whereby true and undeceivable ones may be made. And 
the better to illuftrate what I mean, 1 (hall give one or two Inftances 
of Tryal to this purpofe. For the making of which, and fome others 
of the hkenature, 1 confidercd, THat upon the Anatomical Anahfu of 
a^Ithc Parts of ^rhm, l had certainly found, ("and Ihall hereafter 
^ew) That m all FlanU, there arets^t?, -^do^lj Twa Organical Parts 
hffcnttaUy diHwii.viz;- The Pithy pitrt\ and the Lignons Part 'or fuch 
others as are analogous to either of thefe. So that, -if we can think 
otany PU^ts, which w^ll afford ns cither of thefe two,though notper- 
fe%, yet m fome good mcaforc, Hmplc and unmixed: Wc may thea 
lee, by putting them to a Chymical, Tefi, what Principles and Propsrti- 
^nofPnmtpks,c6t\Qxir to jptiific x)\w Subfianti4 Forms, '^^-'-- 

^ 5c- ^. To the Pitbj Part, Sturch^ or pure Manchet is analogous 
« having very httle ofthe /-Tg^^^^tf/ mixed with iherti/ I therefore or- 
dered ft 1} of 5W td'be pm into a Retort, and witha Rtcdvcr affix^ 
ed, to be fctin a SandF,&mte ; and that all it would yield, ihould 
by degree., be forced over ^ which, befides what was evaporated at 
theNcckoffhe i^f.nW, was about ib j. of an acid and eager Limtor 
of a heavy and blackifti Oyip% and of a light Oyl 5 j. The Gf ;./ Er! 
^////« could not be reduced to Afhcs, by the ftrongeft heat which a 
vaJisdJire m that Furnace would produce. 

5T- To iht: Lignoffs Faft, Hemp Or FUx is analogous, haViti^ 
^ry little ofthe />/% mixed with tlreoi. . I caufcd therefore ft ij oT 
JJi^^ tobeputintoai;e/<.r/, andmanagMas xh^ Starch: whereupon. 
It yielded a Liquor, as I remember, fomcwhar like the former, and 
about me ianie quantity ^ no Oyl which remained liquid, when cold i 

.K^ iV, r .""J'^'' ^^"'^^ ^^"^^ft of *he Confiftence atid Colour of 
^f.% f?^^^'V't^^^^ 3bove5iij, or near fix times the quan- 
fityoftheO; which was yielded by the starcL The Caput Mortmm 
^mg burned to a white Ap, yielded fome portion of a Lixividl 


53. jJ. 


f t 

i I 



f 1. 


■I\ I 




<^n Idea of a 

^1. §, From whence, I (hall, at prefunt, only make thcfe Uvo Re- 
marques^ FJr^,That although the chief portion, as to quantity, in 
both thefc Bodys^ (as in mott Plmts) is an Acid Liquor f yec the lat- 
ter yields alfofome of an Alkaly, which the other doth not. Sothat 
theyarethcL/^wfltfj P^r/j ofa Flant^ generally, whichyield the^M/f^ 
Sdt or at leaft in the greatcft Proportion. Sccundiy, That the W- 
phurhm or Oko^ Frincipk, isalfomuch more predominant in the li^- , 
mus Tart, than in the Pithy, To thefe, the like Tryals upon other 
Pkfjts {houid beadded 5 and other ways, So, in regard the^-^i-J of 
moft Woods, yields a Volatrk Alk^ly^ it were fit to examine. Whe- 
ther the 5i^^^ which is made of the Pithy Farts and that, of the Lig- 
mm^ afford the faid ^/^-i//, in equal qantity 5 or whether, as is molt 
likely, thatoftheLj;gwtfwx doth afford it in a far greater ; and the 


55. jf. The profecution of what 15 here propofed, will be rcqiiifite. 

To a fuller andclearer view, q^ \)\f^ Mucks oiVeg^tation^ of the 6Vff/7- 
bh Natures oi:Fegctahks, and oftheir more Redufe f-itw/z/cj and P^r-- 
ffJ-, Firft, ofthc Mcdcs ofVeget.jtioff. For fuppofe we were fpeak- 
Wgofa Rofft^ from a dueconilderationof the Pr^pcri/ff of any Or- 
gafiical Part or Parts ihtTGofh 'tis true, that the real and genuine C-/«- 
/e/may bercndred, ofdivers other dependent Pr<?/'f*'//fj-, as fpoktn ge- 
nerally of the whole Root^ But it will be asked Jgain, Wfiat may be 
ihGCaufes ofthoCefirJi and Independent ones ? Which, if we wilt 
feek, we muft do it by inquiring alio, Wbatarethe PW^ap/cJof choie 
Organual Farts ^ For it is neccffary, thatihe Prirjtiples whereof a Bo- 
dy doth con lift, Chouldbe, if not all of them the ^j^i^e, yet th^i capa- 
citati^gCmfis^ or fuch asare called C*f;//d? J?Ki?^j«/f/fj »tfff,ofits becom*- 
ing and being, inall refpefts, both as to 5;/i^tf/?^eand A^/^/c/^^j^^what 
it is; otherwise, their Ex iftence, in that Body, were altogether fti- 
perfluous ^ fince it might have been without them: which if lb, it 
might then havebeenmade of any othcrj there being no nccellity of 
putting any difference , if neither thofe, whereof it is made,are thought 
neceffary to its Being. Wherefore ifwc will allow a Body, and fo the Or- 
gamcal Paris 0^3. Vegetable tohave P^iwt/p/cj, we muft allow cheie Fri^^ 
ti/j/ejtheirneceffaryUfej and that the Shapes or other Propertiesof the 
laid Paris^ are as ranch dependant upon the Nature of Thele ^ as is the 
Koundneftofa Drop of Ink, upon the Fluidity of Water, ingtcdient 

V> it. " 

54. i. Again, the Primipks o( the Orgofiical Parts being known, 
wemayfrom thcnccobtain a further knowledge of the Nai/ires^ and 
Caufatien ox Original oiih^u Contents 'j fince theleCi'w/t^fj are not on- 
ly included in the faid Organkal Farts ^ but alfo Created by them :and 
muffc needs befo, whether we will fuppofe the Pr;«£7f/i?/ ofthefeCifw- 
*^w//tobe pne-exiftent to their reception thereinto, or noL For, if 
not prse-exiftent, what can be clearer, than that the (aid Farts give 
them their Exilicnce? And if pnr-exiftenr, yet in regard they are di- 
ftinguillicd, and fuch only of them admitted in fuch fort into an 0;;gJ- 
^icai Partj from amongft others, as arc apt to combine and mix toge- 
ther in fuch a Form^^ndfo to conftitute fuch a I-iquor--, it is as clear,that 
theExiftence, if not ofthofci'rmi/'/aj yet of that Liquor^ indepen- 
dent on the faid F<frt, ,j 


'\ '*-f 

55- f- 



Thilofephkal Hifiory of Plantr, 


55, #, And if by means Qfth^iMOfgamcalParts/itis, thatihcir 
Contents become ///t/j and/v^i peculiar Mixtitra ^ it is hence al(b mani-* 
ftft, That, byrhefame means, ihcy areof /^rA cJiftinft i'-^a////^/ and 
Powers : Bccaufe the Faculty or Porvev of a Body, hcth not in any of 
its Frifjcipks apart 5 but is a Refiiltancc from them all ^ or from their 
^ilg, in fuch peculiar fort and manner, United and Combined toge- 
ther- So the Priiicipks of the Purgative Parts of a Root^ as oiRhu- 
barb^ although we Jhould fuppole them to be exigent in the furround- 
mgEarth^ yet we cannot fay, Th^X. that Earthy or the rr/wf/f/fj there- 
in contained, arc Purgative 5 but only that they arc iuchj as by being 
combined to^c I her, in fuch a peculiarway, may become /*7, Sotheic- 
vera! partsof aC/f?t4,j although they are and muft be all prae-cxifVenE 
to ic, and it is their Form^ by which they are, what they are^ yet is it 
xhi^fetting together oCCuch Part j^ and in fuch away only, that makes 
them a Chc^ And fincc we fee that the Mixture of two Bodies of two 
different ^uhner, as of Two Colours^ will produce a Third Cohirr^ 
differing from them both ^ as Blue and Red, do a Murrey : Whyfhould 
not Two or More Bodies of different Natures^ be fo combined to- 
gether, as to produce a Third Natftre^ Or wherefore may not that be 
allowed to be performed by Nature^ which by Artificial Compounding 
of Medkhjes^ or oihcr Bodies, is defigned, and oftentimes effected > \'\\ 
give bat one Inftiioce ^ Watcr^ Greafi, and an A/cMJzate Salt^ may be 
eafilyfo ordered as to be invefted with new ^aht/es. Nature^ and 
Tomrs j the Salt, to loie its extreme fiery Pungent Tap 5 the TaUow^M^ 
SmcU\ and being before unfociable with the Wmr^ to mingle there- 
with : neither r<i//on^, 5^/^, nor Water alone, will fetch out a fpot of 
Qrc^ife^-, but all united eafily doit: the fame Three Bodys united, are, 
in fome Cafes, as in the Janndks^ no ill Mtdicine 5 any of which, gil 
ven alone, may rather prove prejudicial, than a cure: and all this done, 
©nly by duly boiling tlicm together into one Body, which wc call 

56- §. Whence again, if it be fuch an Utnopi^ and Proportion, of 
fuch a sort of ?rwdpks^ which produccth fuch a Fatitltf ; and that 
we may, by any means, come to know what thefe are ^ we may pofii- 
bly, alfo attain to the knowledge of fuch links, whereby any kind of 
F amity nr^y be made 5 as to Compound foch Bodies, which arc neither 
Purgative nor Vomitory, fo together, as to be Inverted with thofe Fa^ 
ciiUics knd ifio Make them, then confcqucntly, to Mend, Exalt 
t>trengthen, and Enoblc them, with greater eaie and certainty. And thus 
much for the Fourth General Meajj. ' ■ 

57- ^. HITHERTO, Wc haveconfidcred the MaUriaho^^ Ve^ tTi^ Fifrh 
^ctabU only as Ingredient to it : there yet remains a F.fth Story to be GcLVl 
alcended^ which is, to confider thefe Mattrials as they are derived Mean. 
\Tom abroad X or as, after they are received and naturalized, they may 

with others yet abroad, have any kind of correfpondencc. And thefe 
in^Four ,n general,/.;/. EartK iV^ter, Aer, andiW; all which, in 
that they contribute fo univerf.lly to Fegefation, and to whatfoever is 
contained m^Fegctabk^ it is therefore requifite, that ofThefe likewife 
Particular OUervation lliould be made. «^^wiie, 

r/^^' ^»;u^"'^^^'^' of the E.rM, and of all Solid Receptacles of 
PW. Where we are to confider their feveral K^.ds^ J mSLw 
Sandy, CUyK, Chalky, ,nd other.. Their h^red^ertts 5 as Rank aS 

E 3 , Mellow 




' ; 



^^rt Idea of a 



Mellow E.irth, widi Sand, or with Clay ^ or Sand with Clay ■-, or alto- 
gether^ and m what Proportions. The /^r/^d^^/c/ wht-reinco anyone 
oithdc IftgreAienti^ feparatcd from the reft, and put to the Teft of 
DifiiHalrov, Vftion^ Ca'tdMation^ or other, either alone, or by mix- 
ture with other Bodies, may be Rcfolved. And by their ^alities^ as 
Ct>hrtr^ SmsU^ Tafte^ ^c^ bQi\\ hgredknts TiViAPrincifks Kobt^TS^mi- 
ned. To make try a I of the growth o( PlatJtf^ in all kinds of/^wf/e 
Soils--, tkhtr Earthy or Mrner^l^ as Clay, Marl, Oker, Fullers Earth, 
Bole Armeniac, Vitriol, Allum, &€. or Vegetable^ as Rotten Wood, 
Brans, Starch, or Flower, i^^-c. or Amp^ral^ as Dungs, pounded Ftefiij 
dried and powdered Blood, and the hkc -^ that it may appear, how ftr 
any ofthefe may contribute to the growth of a Pkvt 5 or toone,above 


59. §, Next of the W^^^er, and of a!l Liquid Receptacles. Where 

the feveral kinds otrr^/er, from Well s. Springs, R.ain, and Rivers are, 
by their Vitalities and Facrtlties^ to be examined^ as thefe, and by 
(he/e, their Frificiplts^ either in their Natural State, or upon Digeftt- 
on, or other wile, may be oblervable : fince Common ^r^j/fr it lelfj is 
undoubtedly compounded of feveral Pri/jciples^ the fimplicity there- 
of, not being argued, f om itsClearnetsand Tranfparency^ foraSolu- 
tion of j4/«m, though it containeth a confiderable quantity oiEarth^ 
is yet very Clear ; nor from its lecming to have neither Smell nor Tdfte 5 
for Water-drin/kers will tell you of the varieties of both in difierenc 
Waters, Befides, ifthefe ^afitics fliould be accounted rather Phan- 
fie, than Senle 5 the difference of Waters is yet more marfifeO", from 
their different Etfeds, observed by Cooks^ Lmtndrejfes^ Breo'crs^ and 
ocherSj that have occafion to ufe them : for not to mix with Sope^w^hh- 
out curdling 5 not to boil Meat tender, or without colouring it Tcdj 
and the likcj are the vicesof Ibme If-?^erj, not of others, which yet 
would leem, in Colour, Tafte,and Smell, to be the Gme. Tryal (houlJ 
alfobemadcofthegrowthof P/j;?fj in all kinds of Liquid Recepta- 
cles, as Co^mofjWaUry SnoivWater^ SeaWater^ ZJrinc^ Mi!l{, Whcy^ 
Wim^ Oyl^ /w^,^c. Oranyof thefe, witha iblution of<5^j//j M/re, 
Sdpriwcll£, Sopt'^ or otht.Tbody, And hereby to oblerve what fol- 
lows,eitherin the Ij^tf^r, orintheP/^;/f it (elf/ as if any /a-^^/ Body, 
being weighed before its diHolution in Water ^ and iftheP/jj;/,let herein, 

groweth ^ the 'trf/erjbeingthen evaporated ^whether the quantity ofihat 
diifolved body,coniinue the fame,or i£ Icfle ned. So, whether any Vegetalh 
W\\\ become 0/'i.2/£,by growing a conftderable time in a plain Solution or 
Water-tinfture of Opium 5 and the like. Which Experiments^-^hd.t event 
foever they have, yet at Seaft, for our further inftruftioii in the Nature 
of Vegetatio?!^ may be of ufe. -^ 

60^ §. Nextof Ar, whcrcit will berequi[itetoinquire,whatfbrt 
of Bodies may be herein contained : It being probable, from the variety 
of Me/cftrJ formed lierein ^ and oiVapoiirs and Exhalations continually 
advanced hereinto^ that fome or other ofthem, may bear an Analogy, 
to all Volatile Bodys, wheihcr Atiimuiycgetabk^o^ Mificral The Hou- 
rithings alfbof F>-4)E.f« D^ar^ and the Green Colour, which the Ar 
gives the Ground or Water, when, for fome linic expofcu i.' \i j and 
other effeds; JecmtoargLie,thatit is Impregnated v/hhVcgctMe Prijr^ 
dples. To conlideralfoihe peculiar N.-'.tureofthatBody, which is ftria:- 
ly called, Acr^ And of that true Amd 5.///jWhich to me, fecmcih pro- 




^hihfofhicd HiHory of flants. • 


bable, ihatit isdilTolved in the JEther^^^oxh^T ^^//Jarem W^ter^ or in 
the Vaporousparts of rhc Acr. As alfo to try, what difftrcnt EtFcfls, a 
divcriityofArmay havL upon a Vegeuhle -^^^by i\:zim^-d Pknt^OT Seed, 
either exceeding Low, as at the bottom of a deep Wtrll 5 or exceeding 
High, as on the top ofa Steeple. Or tl(e by expofing fome Soil to the 
Jer^ which is alluredly free from any Secd^ and fo, as no Seed can light 
upon it ^ and to obfcrve, whether the Aer hath a power of producing 
a Vegeulk therein, or not : and the like, 

61- V Laftly of the 5k^^ as to which, it may beconfidered. What 
influence it m;iy haveupon the P/tj»^,it fdf 5 upon the 5i^;75 Or upon 
the Acr. Whether that hfnumc is any thing elle bcfides Heat : or may 
differ from that of a Fire^ otherwife, than by being Temperate, and 
more Equal- That it doth, feems evident from an Experimcj2t fometime 
fince given us, in one of the Parifian journals ties Scavans^zvd which I 
therefore think very applicable to our prefent purpofe. If you hold a 
Concdveat a due diftance, againft a Fire, it willcollefl: andcaftthe Heat 
into a burning Focm: but if you put a peice of plain Glafi between 
them, the Gljfs will fcatter the Heat, and deftroy the Focus. Whereas 
the Smi-Bcamj^ being gathered in like manner, will pafs through the in- 
terpoltd Gfa(^, and maintain their Fotus, Asfor That, of the Colledii- 
onof the5if;;-Z'(?jw/,by the help ofGi/^Jc/, in the iovmo^ -a M^tgiiiery^ 
orof FWcrj, andfuchlike^ Idefireto fufpend my thoughts of them, 1 

till I fee them, I will only fay thus much further at prcfcnt, That I do 
not undcrftand why the Stm (hould not have fome Influence upon Bo- 
dies, befidesby Heat,ifit may be granted. That the Al^^i^w hath f for 
which, it ihould (eem, there are fome good Arguments. 

62. ^. WE HAVE thus far examined the /^/-//^ajj/e/ neceffary to A Sixth Ge- 
Vegetatiofj. The ^c/i/e^ may be put once more. In what manner are "^^'^^ ^^^"' 
ihefefr/^^^/^/afo adapted, as to become capable of being aflcrabkd [o-^'^^^"^^^' 
gether, in fuch a JVtfW^er, Cot/jtrgatiotf^ Proportiof/^ andZJvw, as to 

make a Ff^c/.iWc Body ^ Forthe comprehenfion whereof, we muUalfo - 
know,Whatarerhe h'rhicipks ofihefo Principles. VVhich,although they 
lie info great anabyft of oblcurity ^ yet, I think, I have fome rcafon to be* 
lieve, ihat they arc not altogether undifcoverable. How far they may 
befojamfofarfrom Determining, that IftiallnotnowConjeaure. 

63. §- THISistheD^/?gff,andthefethe Afejw^ Ipropofe in order the Con- 
thereunto. To which, f fuppofe, they may all appear to be neccliary. dulion. 
For what we obtain of Njtm-e., we muft not do it by command ing,but 

by courting ofHer. Thofe that woo Her, may poflibly have her for 
their Wife 3 but She is not fo common, as to proftitute her felf to the 
bed behaved ff//, which only pradifcth upon it (elt, and is not appli- 
cdtoher. I mean, that where ever Men will go beyond Phanfie and 
Imagination, depending upon che Conduft o^Dwrfie Wifdom^ih^y mufi: 
L'^bour, Hope and Perfevere. And as the M^^w/ propounded, are all 
neceffary, fo they may, in fome meafure, prove effedual. How far, i 
promifenot^ the Way is long and dark: and as Travellers fometimes 
amongft Mountain?, by gaining the top of one, are fo far from their 
Journeys end 5 that they only come to fee another lies before them : 
fo the Way of Nutnrv., is (o imperviouj^, and, as i may fay, down Hill 
and up Hill, that how fjr foever we go, yet the furmountirg of one 
difficulty, is wont rtiii to give us the prorpea of another. We may 


- I 


H I 


r t 




(tAn Idea of^ &c 

therefore bclievc^our attainments will be imperfeft, after we have done 
all : but becauft: we cannot attain toalljthat therefore we (hould endea- 
vour after nothing ; is an Inference, which looks fo much awry from 
the Praftical Senfe of Men,thac it ought not to be anfwered. Nor with 
better Reafon, may we go about determining, what may be done. The 
greaieft Defigii? that any Men undertake, are of the greatcft uncertain- 
ty, astotheir Succefs: which if they appear to be of good import, 
though we know not how far they are attainable, wc are to proj?ound 
the Mearrs, in the utmoft ufc w hereof only^ we can be able to judge : 
A W^r h not to be quitted, for the hazard,^ which attend it ; nor the 
Coift7ciho£ Princes broken up, becaafe thofc ihat lit at them, have not 
the Spirit of Prophecy, as well as of Wifdom, To conclude. If but 
little (hould be ctfeded, yet to defign more, can do ns no harm .- For 
aUhongh a Man Ihail never be able to hit Stars by ihooting at them^ 
yet he thall come mtich nearer to them, than another that throws at 





F I N I S. 











Lord Vi-Count Brounckcr 





And to the ' 

Council and Fellows 




The following 


Is moft humbly' 


By the AUTHOR 







* ^ "i 


, . .J 

T Ik'^ 


J I 

V - 





I ii 




■X' ^J 


I" I 

1 .: - 



T A T .3 L , 

.y! O O ..'■'. i 

-^ ^"^-^FH-I 



} ■ ■! 


. • ^, "J J JI13 "}o Li.; ,\ 

AV -*•- 

aaroS'?- "■'" 

f - 




O F 

N T 



General Account 

o F 


Grounded thereupon. 


Prefented in Manufcript to the Royal Society 
Sometime before the nth. oi May^ \6ji. 

And afterwards in Print, December 7, of the fame Year 1^71, 

By NE HEM JAB QREW M.D. Fellow of the 

Royal Society, and of ^k College o( Fhyficians. 

Xljt S^tcoDH eDittott* 



Printed by W.^atplins^ 1682. 












^ * 




'■■} (4 T 




k..f ■_>. 

YMO p 


r .. 

r F 

^ "^ 








Ripfht Reverend 


Lord Bifliop of 



Hope your pardon, if wliile yoii are holding 
That left of Booh m one Hand, I here 
prcfcnc fome Pages of that of Nature in- 
to your other : Efpeciallv fince Tour Lord- 
Jhip knowcth very well," how excellent a 

Coinmentary Tliis is on the Former -^ by 

which, in part, GOD reads the World his own Defini- 
tion, and their Duty to him. 

But if this Addrefs, my Lord, may be thought con- 
gruous, 'cis yet more juft; and that I fhould let Tour 
Lordjhip, and others kno\v, ho-\v much, and how defer- 
vedly, Irefcnt Tour extraordinary Favours. Particularly, 
that you were plcafed, fo fjirto animate my Endeavours, 
towaivls the Pubhlhing the following Obfervations. Ma- 
• , f 2 . ny 

. I 

i H 


p 'r 


Efiftk 'Dedicatory. 


ny whereof, and moft belonging to the Fbft Chapter, 
having now lain dormant, near feven years ; and might 
ftill, pei'liaps, have fo continued, had not Tour LorJfhips 
Eye, at length, created Light upon them. In doing 
which, Tou have given one, amongft thofc many Tokens, 
of as well Tour readinefs to promote Learning and Know- 
ledge by the hands of others ; as Tour high Abilities to do 
it by Tour Own '■ Both which, are fo manifeft in Tour 
Lordjhip, that, like the firft Principles of Mathematicd 
Science, they are not fo much to be affcrted, becaufe 
known and granted by all. 

The Conlideration whereof, my Lord, may make mc 
not only JufU in owning of your Favours ^ but aifo moft 
Ambitious of your Patronage : Which yet, to befpcak, I 
muftconfefs, I cannot well. Not that I think, what is 
Good and Valuable, is always its own beft Advocate : for 
Iknow, that the CenfurcsofMen, are humorous, and va- 
riable ; and that one Age, muft have leave to frown on 
thofe Boois, which another, will do notiiuig Icfs than kifs 
and embrace. But, chiefly, for this Reafon, Left I iliould 
fo much as fecm dcfirous, of Tour LorJjhips Solliciting 
my Caufe, as to all I Juvc faid. For as it is your Glory, 
that you like not fo to fhine, as to put out the Icaft Star ; fo 
were it to Tour Diihonour, to borrow Tour Name, to il- 
luftratcthe Spots, though of the moft confpicuous. lam, 





My Lord, 

Tour Lordjhips 
Mofi Obliged, 
. And 

Mofi Humhle Servant 


Coventry 3 
Jnns ID- J ^7 1 





C H A P. I. 

Of the Seed in its State of Fegetatiott. 

THE Method propounded, jS. i. The Garaen-V.ean, dife&ed, -2. 
The two Co3tB Dofirikd, 3, 4. The Foramen /« the omcr 
Coat, 5, 6. What generally obfervMcof the Covers of the SggA 
7. The0rga^halP3.mefthe St^A.d. The Main Body, a, 10. The 
Radide »« tie Bean, I r. In other SctAs, 12. Vie^hms 13 i a The 
SimiUry Parts, 15. The Cuticle, 16, xy. The Pjrenchyma,'i8,' 19 
ao. The Inner Body, 21, to 39. W-^_/S/id AccohtH yet gives of V^ 
getation. 30. The Coats i^R, i^^co^mon fahfervient to the Vegetation ' 
<./(AcSeed,3i. TJc Foramen, <-/ w^^/ «/^ Aer«„ 52. The /ffe of the 
Inner Coat 33. 0/ ,ic Cuticle, 34- 0/ rie Parenchyma, 3;. Or 
^J. Seminal Root, 36. H.ip (/;e Radicle firji kco^es i Root, 37. 
By what n,eam, the Plume allthh while prefirved, 38. /fo»- ^/i.; ,he 
Koot the Plume vegetater, 39. K,a> the Lobes, 40. S«r J i„ .If 
^eeds, 41. rAa( they do in t>ioJi, demonjiraled, 42, 43, 44. What hence 
rejohabk, 45. rk nfe of the DilEmiL Leave.,' tl^tolhe end 


C H A P. IL 

Of the Root. 

TH^alfitoieD,ffcaed,^t. The Skm hereof, it> Original, 2. 
The Cortical Body, its Original, 3. Texture, 4 Pore ? 
ST:'41 /;*^LignousBody, iuO%ginal,y. felr^rs frJ: 

s3TTr ^' '' ''^^'S- The Pitb, ^/. original frai the 
LrL ■^'"^'"''""y^;-'^/- Barque, ,7. /^ Pores, 18, 1/ f, 
KT', ""■ ^'^'^^"/'^^LignousEody/A.rri*, 21. ri/pith "f 
*^"> Fibres, :=, ii.„ the Kuo.grorr., Idthe.fe of the Skin Cor- 





The Contents- 

tical ^wJ Lignoiis Body thereto, 23. Hew H gromth m kfigth^'2^^ 
By rehat means it dejcends, 25. Boveit grow s in breadth, a5- And 
theV'Mh^ fjoir> thuj jiamd, 27. The »fi ^/(kPith,^;, 0/jAfInfert- 
ment, 28, Thejoynt fervice qj all the Farts. 2^^ 30, 3 1. 


_' b 






Of the Tnvnk 

THE Coarfture, jJ, r, TAcSkin, its original, 2, The original of 
i/»e Cortical Body, 5, Of the Lignous, 4. 0//Ae Infertmcnc 
rf^^i Piih, 5. 7/je Latitudind Shooting of the Lignou? Body, wherein 
ohfervabk, ^,7. 77'^ Pores e/^AcLignous Body, where atid how mo(l 
remark^bk^ 8. A lefjcr fortofVo\^%,^. A third fort only vijihle through 
^ Micro fcope. Obfcr-Dcd in Wood or Charcoal^ lo. Objerved in the 
Fibres of their ujjk.s of Herh^^ 1 1. The Tniercions, Wjcr^ were i^z/i^/t 
12,15, Their Weftage with lAeLignous Body, 14, Thefmailer Inferti-* 
ons, only viftble through a Microicope, 15, A^^? Valves /« ^ Plant, i6. 
TheRa^kj ofthe?OT€^oftheln(GTUous, 17. The Poics of the Phh^ r8 
19, 30. How iheTmukafcends.m. Thedij^ofnwnofiis Parts V^^- 
feftent to that Afimt^ 1 2. Confcquent to the different ISature of the Sap 
33. The efe&s of the /aid Differences, 24, to 28. Which waj, and 
how ^ie Sap afcetrds^ 23, to the end. 

n h 

The ^f^endix. 

Of JruJiksRoots and Claffers', 

Trunk-Roots of two k^nds^ ^, j^ 2. 
The Vfes of bothj 4, to the end. 

Clampers of one h^nd^ 3. 


V -. X 




The Conteiits. 



Of the Budj Branchy and Leaf. 

THE Fdrfsoflhe Gcrmcn d«<^ Branch th fif^ie mih ikofi of the 
Trunk, jj. r, a. 7'he manmt of their growth^ 5, Hoivnourifi- 
td^ 4, And the ufi of Kffats^ ;• Hofp ficurd 6. The Parts of a Leaf 
7, The^ofitions of fh Fibres of th Stalks of Leaves^S^ For what 
'Ofes^^^lo.ThevifibkcmifeoftheclJ^irent circumference of Lenves^ii, And 
of their btivgflai^ 13. And pUmeniom^ 13. The Fonlds of Leave s^t heir 
Kinds and ufe^ ^4? '5^ i^. The ProteUions of Leaves^ 17, thenfe 
of the Leaf i8j to the end. 

The Af^endioc. 

r- ^r 

» 'J 

< I 1 

'4- *'^X 

Of Thorns^ Hairs and Globule 1 5-. 

Thorns flf two Kinds 5 M<: LignoiiSj ^. I. Tie Cortical, 7, An ar* 
gument ofi/je Magnetick Dtfccnt of the Cortical Body, 3, Hairs of 
divers Kinds^ 4, 5. Their Vfe^6, Globulets of two Kinds^ 7,8, 


Of the Flower. 

J'Ts three Part s^ ^. \. The Impalement^ of divers klf^ds^ 2. Their 
*A 5^4* TAe Foliation, its^ature^^. Foulds^S. froteUions^j , 
owns, 8, 9. GUulets, lo. Its Vfe, it, 12. The Altire of two 
kinds, rhe Defcription of the firif, 13, 14, 15,16. Of the other, 17, 
18, i^, ao, 21. Their «/r, 22^ to the end. 



,- } 


■ Of the fruit. 

THE Viul Pjrls of all, the fame, )S. I. The Numkr, Defiripih», 
and Origival of the Farts of an Apple, 2. Of a Pear, 3, 4. Of « 

Plum, 5 6,7. 0/^Nut,8. 0/< Berry, 9, TU nfi of ths FrHiiAo, 
to the end. 







The Contents, 





Of the Seed in its State of G€7ieration^ 





Hat htrc fHrtyr ohferved^ tfot in the Firfi Chapter^ §. i, TU 
CaR% its Figures^ 2. The oitter Coat^ its Figures^ 5, ^arioa* 
Surface^^ And Mkcihtges, 5, the nalnrc of the oifterCoat, 6. Iff 
■AperinreSj f. Next to tphkhthe Radicle ufitall} placed^ S. The Origi- 
nal of the Outer Coat, 9, Ihc Original of the Inner^ 10- /// Natvre, 
If, 17. The Effentid Parts p/rf Plant, 1?, 14- '^^'^ Sccondme, 15. 
the Coli ic J u amentum herein^ 16, The Navel Fibres, 17. IntheGene* 
ratiofj of the Sctd^ the Sap frfi prepared in the Secd-Brancb, 18, 19, 
Next in the inner Coat, 20- With the help of the Onier^ 11^22, Theitje 
efthe Secondine, 25, Of the Ra^ikkts of the ^tt6r^r^^Qh^2^. Oftheir 
Inolculationja^- Horv the Colliquamentum hecometh a Parenchyma^ 
a 5, to the end. 

M 'J 


















O F 



W ith a General A ccount of Vegetation^ 

Founded rhcrcLipon. 



Of the Seed in its State of Vegetation^ 

E I N C to fpcak of Fhmts ; and, as fiir as Infpeft'"" 
on, and confequcnt Kealbn, may conduit, to en" 
quire into tht* vifibk Cv^'fiitntions^-^nA TJfis ofthciJ" 
fcveral Pm-ts : I choofe that Method, which,tothe 
bcft advantgc, may fuit with what we have? to iay 
hereon. And that is the Mechod of Nature her felf, 
in her continued Setics of Vegetnfiofjs 5 proceeding 
from the Seed Jiii'f!^ to ihc formation of the R''rt^ TrW<, Br^imh^ 
Leaf^ Flom\\ Fruity and laft of all, ofthe^ec^ 2\{o io\^ fircn agaw ^ 
all which, welhall, in the ftme order, particularly fpeak of 

1. $. The E[lc7itijl Cor/JIiMiofjs oi lYiQ (did Parts ^re in all PJaffts the 
famL': But for Obfcrvation, romeari:more convenient^ in which I fhall 
chiefly inilaiice, And lirU of all, for the Seed^ wc choofe the great Gwr- 

G 3; #. 


.. ■-? 




The Anatomy 

Book I. 


Tahj.f. a, 







I r 

1 ' n, 


^4ij, /ta 

g. ^. If then we takeaBc^w and dilTt^it, we fiiall find it doath" 
Dd with a doubled )^^ or Co.i/. ThcfcCn-^/r, while the B^^^w is ycE 
green, are fepanble, and cafily diftinguifhcd. Or in an old one, after 
ithathby'n two or three days in a mellow Soil^ Or been foakcd as 
long a time in Water: ^sioTaLi^ When Msdry, they cleave fodofdy 
together, thatthe Eye not before inftrufted^ will judge ihem but one^ 
the inner Coat fwhich is of the moft rare contexture)fo far ftrinkin^ up, 
as tofeem only the rogghntfs of the outer, fomewhat rcfembling ff^/cr/ 

under Maquar^ons^ 

4, 5S. The Inner Ctf^f, in its Natural State, is every where twice, 
and in fome places, thrice as thick, as the Outer. Nc3<t to the Ri^di- 
ek^ which 1 (hall prefcntly defcribe, it is £k or fevcn times thicker ^ 
and encorapafles the J?-?^/«/-^ roundabout, as in the fame Fignrt ap- 

5, .tf. At the thicker end of the Bcdt?^ in the outer Ct^^r, a very 
{mzWForar^en prefents it fdf, even to the bnre Eye- In Diffcffion 
'tis found to tetminatc againft the point of chat i^^^'i wlii;:h I call 
the Radicle^ Jt is of that capacity, as to admit a fmatl F/rgi/^^d Wycr -^ 
and h moft of all confpicuous in a ^reen Beafj. Efpccially, if a little 
magnified with a good S/'t^^f^f/c-GZ-Hf/it; TWis For/t^p/cff is rot a holeca- 
fuaily made, orby the breaking otTof the Stalk 5 butdcfigntdly form- 
ed, for the ufes hereafter mentioned, it may be oblcrved not only in 
the great GardetJ-Beati^ but likewife in the other /^trdr •-, in the Fremh- 
Bean very plainly ^ in Pcafe^ Lufmes^ Vetches^ Le?itiUs^ and other 
Fttlfe 'tisalfo founds and in many lSV^j not reckoned of this kind- 
red, zsmt\\^to£ Fa'mtgyeek^-, McdkaTornata^ GiJ-a/j-foff, and others ,- 
Inmany ot which, 'tis lb very fmall, as icarcely, wirhoirfthe help of 
Chjfes tobedifcovered^ and in fome, not without cutting off part 
of the Sffi/, which otherwife would intercept the %ht hereof, 

6, $. That this Pf''"'^'^/^'' is truly permeable, even in old Se/fhg- 
Beat?!, and the other 5W/ above named, appears upon ihcir being 
ibaked for fome time in Water. For then, taking them our, and cruOi- 
ing them a little, many fmall bubles will alternately arife and break up- 
on it. 

7, ff, OisW Seedj which have thick or hard Cn^fr-r, itisalfoob- 
fervabJe, That they have the fame ]\kew\(i: Perforated, as above faid, 
orinfbmeother manner- And accordingly, although [hetW/of fuch 
Seedj as are lodg d in Shel/s or Stc^es^ being thin, arc not vilibly per- 
forated f yet the Stories and shells themfelves always are = as in Chap, ^, 
ihall be leenhow- To which C/j.jf/cr, what is firther obfcrvable, ei- 
ther as to the nature and number of the Covers of the Secd^ I alfo 


8, §• The Coats of the Bean being ftripp'd off, the proper Seed 
flicwsitfelf. The parts whereof it is compoit'd, are three ^ yc-. the 
Mai?iBody^ and two more, appendant to it ^ which we may call, the 
Three Organh'dpurts of the Beau. 

9- ii. The Atj/^JJtfi/j' is not one entire piece, but always divided, 
lengthwifc, into two halves or Lobes ^ which arc both joynVl toj;ctht-r 
attheBtfJ^j ofihe Bean, Theic Lobes in dry Bcam^ are but dilticuhly 

g^ feparated or obfcrv'd ^ but in young ones, elj-^cially boif d, they calily 

' ' (lip afunJer, 

10. ^i 

Book I. 

of Plant f. 


lo. jj. Some very few ^ffi^/ are divided, not into two ilofe/, but 
into more 3 asthatof Cj-ejjf/ into Six. And fome are not at alldivU ^^^- '■ f-^* 
ded, but entire^ as the Grains of Ct^r;;. Excepting which fcWjallocher-'^^" 
Seedf, even the fmalkft, aredivided, like as the B^^^, into jult two 
Lohes. Whereof, though in moft 5m/j, becaufe of their minutencis, 
wc canrot by difleftion be inform'd ^ yet othcrwife, we eafily mav* 
as in this Chapter fhall be ften. ■ ' 

' ir. §- Attheflrt/I"j of the Bsdn^ the two other Orgamcal Paris 
ftand appendent ; by mediation whereof^the two Loks meet and join 
together. The greater of thefe two Parts ftands without the two' 
Lifks, andupon diverting the Bcj;;ofirsC^^/x, is immediately vifible, 
^Tiscfa white colour, and more glofiie than the Main Bodjy efpeci- '^''^' ^-f-^- 
ally when the Bean is young. In the Bean^ and many other Seeds, \\s ^ ^"^ 
fiticnLdrumc-what above ihe thicker end, as you hold the Bf^;y in its 
mo(l|>ropcr p oft Lire for growth. \n Oak Kernels^ which we call A- 
corvs^ A^fk-Ker77ds^ Almonds, and many other 5fc^j-, it (lands proW w f^ -,. 
minent juft from the end ^ the Bai^s and the End being in thefe the ' 

(amt\ but in the Bean divers. 

12 jS. I'his Pan is found not only in the Bean, and the Setds 
abovLmtniioncd^ bui in :j]] others : being that, which upon the Ve- 
getation ofthe^.T^, becomes the i^tf^/ ofthe P/.^/./ ^ which therefore " 
may be called the J?-^^^Jf; by which, I mtan the Maternk nbauna 
the Formality, ofai^.^^ InGr^, it is that ;V/. which AM.r. up- 
on Its fiiOQtjug forth, call the Come, 'Jis not eafic to be obfcrvcd , L 
ving m fome few ;9ee^^, among ft which, that oftheflLV^is the moft 
tair and ample of alH have ften. But that of fomc other 5c.-d/ is in 

proportion, greater^ as of i^^-;;;.^w^, which is fulU. bijr as one ofr.^.f-/7-^-e 
ns Lobes. ^ ' 

13- if. Thelefferofthetwo faid Appcndents lies occult bccween' 
the two Loha of the 75.^;., by feparation whereof only it is to be feen. 
Tisenclosdintwofm.aiati/ic/, form'din the I^ki for its reception. ^*'*'''/3-l' 

, . V '^n ^^^ ■* ""' ™"^''' ^" proce s, becomes the 
B.dy or irunl^oUh. Plant. I. CW., ,t is that i>L, which afterthe 
RM u Iprouted forth, or ,.«.., fhoocs towards the fmaller end of 
the Gr.m, , and by many M^hJcrf, h cMitd the Jrr.fhir^. 

v.d d at m loofe end, ,nto divers pieces, .11 very clofdy couched to- 

Pjtc' ^^f^''^^'^'^^V"1?""'^^ for which rcafon it may be called the 
^ fi^r ^ arefodofe, that only two or three of the outmofi are 

at firftfeeri: but upon amceandcutions reparation ofthefe t^mom 
ntcriour ii.ll may be difcovered. In the Eea., this may be done Z 

Wow .he t" "'t ' p""\°^?u^ ''"'""' ^-"-'■^ of tSe ;W 
foXcfe pieces rr' ' wh.chbccomes the W^ of the />/.«r, 

l^M , "''^,'"^"^"''^' 3 "d already foraed, though not dif- 

£tfTh' '"^^"'^'^' [«"he(:tidr.«„^,\ndfouidedupin"e(Bme 

Sr,reat ii/;„ 1 r^' ^"^^'{'^^'^'•^"'t'e larger white Kind, orin 
iTrhlfJrr F''"'''"''^' ^he two outmoft are very and eleeant; 
a!w n fft n f'""^'"-''-': ^^vo extraordinary fmall pLa often if no ''^^■'■^■^"' 
alwajs, Hand one on a.her fide the great 'one now dcfcrib'cL- tZ 

^ = which- 





f . 







t" w- 

The Anatomy 

Book I. 


which, in that they differ in nothing favc in their fizc, i therefore on- 
ly here juft take notice of them. And thefe three Parts, fi. the ;w«» 
Bed}, the Radicle, and the Plume, are concurrent to the makmg up of 
a Swi^i and no more than thefe ^ , „ , ^, 

le ( Having thus taken a view of the Qrgamcnl Tarti of the 
Bm;;, and other seeds s let us next examine the SimiUry, fc. tho.fe 
whereof the Or^^w^/ arecompos'd: a diftinft obrervatioii of which, 
for a clear underftanding ofthe VcgcUticK of the setd, and ot the whole 
Pla^t arifmg thence is requifite : To obtain which, we mutt proceed 

mom Atiatomy. . r- ^ ■ ■ - r .■ i 

i6. j(. Differing a Bw» then, the firftP<»rt occurring IS, Its t»f7f/e 

The Eve and firft Thoughts, fuggeft it to be only a more denfe and 
glofly Superficies i but better enquiry difcovei^ it a real Cnmk. lis 
fo exquifitely thin, and for the mod part, fo firmly continuous with 
the Body ofthe jlw», that it cannot, except in (ome fraal Ksg, bedi- 
■ mnaiy feen , which, by carrying your Knife allant into the Be.^, and 
then very gently bearing npward what you have cut, will (iparate and 
Ihew it felf tranfparenr. This ^ihle is not only fpread iiponthe U>;~ 
vex of the Lobes, but alfo on their Z-'Wi, where they are contignous. 
extending it felf likewife upon both the Radicle and /'/«wc,and fo over 

■ the whole Bm«. ■ , , f c 

17 § Tb:]s Pirl, though it be fo far common wnh the Cflajj ot 

the Hm», as to be like thofe, an htcgument i yet are we in a quite dif- 
ferent Notion to conceiveofit: For whereas the Coa//, upon fet ting 
the Bcati, do only adminilbr the Sap, and, as being fuperleded from 
their Office, then die ; as (hall be feen : this, on the contrary, with the 
Oygamcd Parts ofthe Be<i», is nourittied, augmented, and by arcal / c^t- 

Ution co-extended. ,1, , . ri<- 

18 6 Nexttothe C«(7f/e, we come to the F.ircHchymd n M{-^ 

the P^r( throughout which tkhmr Ei^c/y, whereof we thai! fpeakanon, 
is diffeminatetf? for which reafon I call it the Parcnchyr^a. Not that 
we are fomeanly to conceiveofit, as if ("according tothefltiacricnfe 
of that word, ) it were a nicer concreted Juyce. For it is a Body 
very curioutly org^ni-^'d, confifting of an infimtc number of extreme 
final! fW^cr^ ; as inT^i'. i. is apparent. The Surface hiiKO? is fome- 
r,j... f..p. what denfe, but inwardly, 'tis of a lax er Contexture If you view it 
m^Microhtc, or with a very good %S^f/c-G/^/, -it halh iomc li- 
niilitude to the Pith, whilc/^ff)' in the Roots and lr,mk\ fj;''^"", 5 
andthat for good reafon, asinC^.a. fhallbefeen. This is belt feen in 

green Benns. , 

19. iS This Pari would feem by its colour to he peculiar to the 

Loheso£ the Bean -^ butas is theC«(;A fois this alfo, common both 10 
the Radkle and Pkme ; that is, the Parenekynia or Pulp of tlie Bea>i, as 
to its effential fubftance,is the fame in all three. The reafon why the 
colour ofthe PJnme, and efpecially of the Radkk, which are white, 
is fo different from thatof the tote/, which aregrcer,maychicHy de- 
pend upon their being more compaft and dcnfc, and thence their dif- 
ferent Tinftures. And therefore the Uks themfelvcs, which are grc;en 
While the Bern is yoimii, ■■, yet when it is old and dry, become whitilll 
too. And in ma»y other Seeds, as Aarns, Almonds, the KerNclsot Ap- 
fUs,Pl»ms, N«ts, &c, the Uks, even >V//j and yoiwg, arc pure white as 

the Radicle it felf, , 

20. V 

Book L 

of Plants, 

20. 5S> But alrhough the Parenchyt^a be common, as is fiid, to 
all the Organkal Parts j yet in very difFering proportions* In the 
Pkme^ where it is proportionably leaft, it maketh about three P//>/pj 
of the whole Plume 5 in the Radkk^ it maketh above five Sevenths of 
t\i€ v^holc Radkle i, ^nd'm each Lobe^ is ib far over-proportionate, as 
to make at leaft nine Tenths of the whole Lobe, 

2 r. §. By what hath been fiiJ, that the Fare?schy^ja or Pulfis not 
the only conftituting ^jjr/, befides the Cuticle^ is imply'd ; there be- 
ing another Cf^i^/, ofaneffentially different fubftancc,enibolbm*d here- 
in - which may be found not only in the Radkk and Plume^ but alio 
inthe LtJieithemfelvesj and lb ia the whole Bc-7». 

32. 4. This Inner Body appears very plain and conlpicuous in 
cutting the Rjdicle athwart, and lb proceeding by degrees towards 1'abA.f. loj 
the Plnme^ through both which it runneth in a large and flrait tritnke '^*^ i^* 
In the Lobes^ being it is there in fb very fraaK proportion, 'tis difficult- 
ly ieen, elpecially towards their Fcrges. Yet if with a (harp Knife 
you finnoihly cut the Lobes of the Beatz athwart, divers fmall Species, - - 

ofa different colour from that of the i^dfeWj;;^^, fending therein all '' ■''/■■3' 
along in a Line, may beobferv'd^ which 5pci^j^j are the Terminations 

oflhc Bra^fches of this /ff^fr Eody^ 

25- §. For this Inner bodj^ as- it is exifcnt in every OrganicA Part 
ofthc 'Bean \ fo is ir, with refpeft to each Pari^ moft regularly di- 
flributed- In a good part of the Radkle 'tis one entire Trunk,'-^ to- 
wards the Bafts thereof, 'tis divided into three main Branches ^ the mid- !fAt. f. 14^ 
d I cmoft runneth djredly into the /^/ff;«i'^ the other two on either lide 
it, after a little fpace, pafs into the Lobes ^^ where the laid Branches 
dividing themfclvcs into other fcnallcr ^ and thofe into more,and fmal- 
kragaiuj are terminated towards the Verges of each L^k, in which 
manner the faid ///wer Bffi/; bcingdillributed it becomes in each L(?ie a 
true and perfeft Root. 

24. §. 0^x\m Sctffinul iJco^ as now we'll call it, from the Defcrip- 
tion here given, it is further obfervaUe; That the two main Branch' 
€s hereof^ in which the fcveral Ramrjuathns in each Lobe are all uni- 
ted, are not committed into the Scn/wal Trmi{_ of the Pknte^ nor yet 
ftand at right angles with T/jj/and the fiW;V/e, and fo with equal re- 
fpeft towards them both : but being produced through part of the Pa- 
renchyma oi x\\t Radklt\ are at laft united therein to the main TVa^j^ 
and make acute Angles therewith; as maybe fcen in the fame. /,i4!r^t.i./; i- 

35, 5S. This seminalRoot being fo tender, cannot be pcrfeaiy ex- 

carnatcd, (as may the VeJJels in the Parts of an Animal) by the moft 

accurate Hand. Yet by dilicdion b^un and continud, as is above 

dcclarcd/its whole frame and diHribution may be eafily obferv d. Again, 

jfyou take the Lobe o^3i Bean, and lengthwise pare off m Farenchy^nl 

w degrees, and in extreme thin Hices, many Branches of the Seminal 

i^m, (which by thcother way of Dillt:aion were only noted by ia 

many sptc^s) both as they are fewer about the Balis of the Bean, and 

more numerous towardsics Verges, in (omc gooddiftinftion and entire- 

nels will ap^jear. Forthis you muft have new Beans : or elfe foaked in 

Water, or burycd for fome time. 

a6. jj, Ab the ///^o-Bt/^^ is branched out mthtLobes, fo is it in 
ihGPhme : For if you cut the Fl^nte athwart, and from the Bafis pro- 
ceed aiopg the Body thereof, you'll therein find, firft, one large WA, 



t I 


The Anatomy 

Book L 





or Br.mch^ and after foiir or five very fmall Specks round about it 
which ;ire the terminations of ib many !effcr fi^ffrj&fj therewith di- 
ftributed toihc fevcraipnrtsofihc P/ffwe, The diftribution of the 
Tjh^ IK j^^^^,j. Qff^y^ as it iscontinuoufi throughout all the Org^nkal Parts of 
- thtBe.m^ isreptefented,T^i.i^i4H 

27. 5^, "[i\\$ Jmrn- Body \% by dilTeflion, bell obfervable in the 
Bcan:indgTQd.tLypifte. In Other larger Ph{/c it fhews Jikcwife fome 
obfcare Marks of it ielf But in no other S€edi^vjh\c\\ [ have obfervcd 
though of the grcateft fize: ^s of Apples^ Pirmr^ N//ts^ 8<.c, is there any 
clear appearance hcreoi^ upon diflcft ion, faving in thG R^clk-lt: and 
Pljtfp^e ; the reafon of which i:^ purtly from its beings in moft Seedr 
ib extraordinary little ^ partly from its Colour, which in moft Seedy^ 
is the fame with that of the P^mt^chym^ it fcll^ and fo not diftinguiiha- 
ble from it, 

7ah,uf.i%-c ^^' ^' Y"et in a Go*ri/-Seei/, the whole 5cOT/WJ?tTtJf, notonfyitg 
Mdjn BraMchef^ but alio the Sub-divifions and hjoffufaiions of the leller 

ones, are without any difleaion, upon the feparation of thc/^/^j^ on 
their contiguous Flats immediately apparent, 

Andas to the exiftence ofthis ^fw;w-?/Rt^t?/, what Diflc6tion can- 
not attain, yet an ocular infpcftion in hundreds of other i^ff^j evcrJ 
the fmalleft, wUl demonftrate^ as inthis CA<//'/cr Ihall be iecn how. 

29. j^. In the mean time, kt us only take notice ^ That when we 
fay, every Flavt hath its Root, we reckon fbort- Forevery Pla>jt hath 
-;t.. really two, though not contemporary, yet fucceffivc iJ^sf j ^ its Ori- 

gjnd ox semUtal-Root \\-\\.\\mxh^ Lobes or Mai^ Body of itsiVf^/- and 
its Plarjf-RoDt, which the i?W/f/t^ becometh in its growth ; the^mj^ 
chyjna of the Seed^ being in fame refcmbhmce, that ro the Semnd 
Jcfitf/atfirlt, which the Mould is to the Phint-Root afterwards- and 
xh^Semmal fifli-f being that to the Tlafif-Root, which the FlwtRoot 
IS to the TrHJ7k. For our better under ftanding whereof, bavins taken 
a view of the feveral P^s of a tc^^ a^ far as DiflcSion condufts ■ 
we will next briefly enquire into the Ufe of the faid Parts^ and in 
what manner they are the Fountain of Vegetation^ and concurrent to the 
beingof the future Vlant, 

^r^/T"' o ^?'K ^^^ GENERAL Cuifeofthegrowthofa Eean.oioih^^ 
f£n of fh" ^''i '' ^^™-'^^;. That is, the Bean lying in the Mould, and a 
i^m moderate accefi of fome mo.fture, partly diffimilar, and partly con^c^ 

: . . nerons, bciui; made, a gentle -Pfr;;rf^/d//t-H thence arifeth. By which 

the Bf./.Mwelhng, andthe^.v/^ftiU encreafing, and the Bf^/; continu- 
ing iiill to Avell, the work thus proceeds r as is the ufnal way of ex- 
phcaung But that there \^fim^]y :y Per ^icnt at ioK, and fo a fufficienc 
Kipply oi ^-/p IS not enough: but that thi:> F*:r;wm^/>^/., and the 5dp 
wheran tis made, Ihonld be under a various Government, by divere 
Parts thereto fubfLTvient, is ahorequifite 5 and as the various prepa-n 
ration of the ^WMn an AmntaK equally necelTary . the particular 
5ecb according whereto, we find none undertaking to 

51, 5- Let us look upon a Sf-f;/ then, as a pieceofWorkfo fram'd 
and fct together, as to declarea Defign for the produftion ofa Fhm-. 
wnicn, upon uslying in fome convenient Soil, is thusefR-^led. Fir(t 
^r fl ^T ^^"^"^ enfoulded round in its Coats^ the Sap wherewith 
HIS ted, muftoineccOitypaQ through ihefc; By which means, it is 




Book I. 

of Plants. 


not only in a proportionate quantity, and by d^ees^ but alfo in a 
purer body 3 and pofiibly not without Come FegetahleTrfj^tire^n^nf-^ 
milted to the Bcarr. Whereas, were the Bean naked, the Sap muft 
needs be J as over-copious, fo but crude and immature, as not bcing;?^ 
ired through (b fine a Cotton as the Coats be. And astheyhave theufe 
of a Fillre to the tranfient Sap ^ lb of a Vejfel to that which is ftiU 
depofited within them J being alike accommodated to theftcurer F^f- 
mmldtion hereof, as Bottles or Barrels are to Beer,or any other Fermen-^ 
Utive Liquor. 

52. if. And as the i-'£rff?fj?*<^f;>ff is promoted by fome Aperfnn in 
the Veflel ; fo have we the Foramen in the upper Coat alfb contrived. 
That if there (hould be need of fome more Akry Particles to excite 
the Fermentation'^ through ihk^ they may obtain their Entry* Or, 
on the contrary, fhould there beapyfuch Pariicks or Steams^ as might 
damp the genuine proceeding thereof, through this again, they may 
have eafie iffue. Or if, by being ovc-r copious, they Ihould become too 
high :i Ferment ^ andfo precipitate thofefoft and flow degrees, asare 
nccciTary to a due Fegetation. The faid Aperture being that, asa com' 
mon Pafport, here to the Sap^ which what we call the Bung-hoU of 
the Barrel, is to the new tunn'd Liquor, 

3^, J?. And (he K-z^//V/c being ddjgned to (lioot forth firft, aspre- 
fently (liallbe (hew^d how, therefore is it diftinft[y furroundcd with 
the Inner and more fucculenc Coat, That being thereby iuppled on 
every fide, its eruption may be the better promoted. 

54. jC, The 5^;? being paffcd through the CWj, it next enters the 
Body of the Bean-^ yet not indifcriminately neither ^ but, being filtred 
through the OnfcrCt^jf, and fermented in the Body of the /w^ff/-, is by 
mediation of the Cft/if/c, again more finely filtr^d, and foentereth the 
J'^rffff/j^w^ it felfundera fourth Government, 

55- §. Through which ParfihiiSap pjffing towardsthe Seminal' 
Root^ as through that which is of a more ipatious content ^ befides the 
benefit it hath of a farther percolatior/^'it will alfo find room enough 
for a more free and aitive fL-rmenting and matnratiofi herein. And be- 
ing moreover, part of the true Body of the Beatj^ and fo with \tSDXQ- 
jjer Semnahtia or Tinlfar-cs copioufly rcpleat^ the % will not only 
find room, hut :x]fo matter enough, by whofe Energy its Fcrmmation 
willftill be more advanced, 

56. ^ And the i> being duly prepared here, it next paflith into 
all the Branches of the ScmwA Koot, and fo under a fifth Government. 
VVhtremhowdehcate ^tis now become, we may conceive by the pro- 
¥On\onhi:t\w\xtlhQ Pare J! fhjfmazr\dth\sSemi?jalRoGti, fo much only 
of the beft digiftcd Sjp being difchargcdfrom the whole Stock in that 
as this will receive. And this, moreover, as the Parenchyma, with its 
proper -fftj-'v^A^^/^z/cj bemg endowed ^ the^j/> for thefupply of the Ra- 
^^c/^, and of the young Rtft^f from thence, is duly prepared thercin,and 
Withushighclt r/ffff«/-cand /ra^^c^^^d/Zi^w at laft enriched. 

37' V The ^./p being thus prepared in the Lobes o£the Bcaf^, >is 
thence difchargd ; and either intothc Phme.ov th^ RaJick^mxxa forth- 
with iflue- And fince the Phmc is a dependent on the Radkk ; the 
_*^p therefore ought firft to bedifpenced to this/ which accordinglv 
IS ever found to llioot forth before the PW.: and fomeiimesan inch 
or two m length. Now becaufe the primitive courfe of the Sap into 





li -id' 



I . l;r 


3^i&e Anatomy 

Book L 

the Radxch, is thus requifite ^ therefore, by the frame of the Parts of 
the Beanhii alfo made necefHiry. The twomain Brarjches ofthe Se- 
mnalRoot^ bemi; produced, as is before ol>itTved, not into the /*/ftwf, 
but the Rddkk^ Now the Saf beii^g brought as fer :is the S^mwd 
Root, in either £tJ^c ^ and according to the conduct thereof continu- 
ing ftill to move: It muft needs immediately illue into the fame i^^r/^ 
Trf^.i, /, 14. whereinto themain Brj;;tAfjchemfelvesdoi that is, into ihoRudkh, 
By which 5-ip, thu^ bringing the feveral TwUtrres o£ ihc Parts a^oi^- 
faid with it, being now fed •-, it \% no longer a meet Radkk^ but is 
\B^Ag A(6 Seminal^ andfo becornes aperfcft J?iT^f- 

58. ^, The Phwtc^ all this while, lyes clotc and ftill. For the fake 
of which, chiefly it is, that the Bean and other Seeds are divided into 
Lobts^ viz. Thatit might be warmly and fafely lodgtd up between 
tbera, and fofecur'd from theTnjniTes ib tender a Part would fijfta in 
from the Mould 5 whereto, had ibeM^/w Bc^^ been entire^ it muft, 
upon the cleaving of the Coats, have iay n contiguous^ 

59. ji. But the Radich being thus impregnated and fhot into a 
Root'^ 'tis nowtimeforthe Phtme torouze out ofiu Cloyfters, and 
germinate too : In order whereto, 'ris now ftd from the Rcot^ M'ith 
laudable and IufficientJ//>(??/i, For as the Supplies and Motion of 
Sap were firft made from the Lobes^ towards the Root : fo the Ro&t 
being well fhot into the Mould, and now receiving a new and more 
copious Sap from thence f the motion hereof muft needs be ftronger, 
and by degrees proceed in acontrary courie, ft: from the Root xo- 
ward the W/^/^f ; and, by thecoutinuation of the 5cj?j?>?^/2?o^/, is di- 
reftly conduced thereinto 3 by which being fed, it gradually enlarges 
anddifplays it felE ' 

40, §- Thccourfe of the 5^/1 thus turned, it ifl^nes, I fay^ in a 
.direft Line from the if^Ji^Mnto xh^ Phmic : but collaterally, into the 
Lobes ^£q '-, fc. by t hole two afotelaid Bra?ickcs wYnch. are obliquely 
tranfmitted from the Radrck into either Lobe. By which Uramhes the 
laid Sap being di 5b urted back into all the Semnal Root^ and from 
thence, likewife into the Parenchyma of the Lobes^ they are both thus 
fed, and for fome time augmenting themfelve^, really grow : as in Isi- 
piftesh evident- 

41; ^, Yet is not this common to all seeds. Some rot under- 
ground^ 2sCor>ij bcingof a laxerandlcfs Oleous Subll.mce, differing 
bercin from mod other ^e^i^J 5 and being not divided imo Lobes^ £uc 
one entire thick Body. And fome, although they continue firm, and 
are divided into Ltfi^fj-, yet rife not 5 as the great Garden Bean. In 
whkhj therefore, it is obtervable. That the two Main Br./;;^/iiiof the 
LGbes, in comparifon with that which runs into the rlmie^ arebut 

Tafr-i. / 34 "^^^" ' ^"^ '^^ infufficient to the feeding and vegetation of the Lobes 5 
' the P/tfMej on the contrary, growing foluEty,a5io mount up without 

43. jf. Excepting a few of thcieTwoKinds, all other S'W/what- 
foe\'cr, ("which I have obferved) btfidts that they continue firm j 
upon the Vegetation o^ xhc Phme^ do mount alfb upwards.and advance 
above the Ground together with it ^ as all Seeds which Ipringup with 
one or more Dijjimiltr Leaves: Thefe DijjimiLtr Lenvcs^ for the moft 
■p^"^ ^'''^^ which iirlt fj^ring up, and are of aditRrent Ih.ipc from thofe 
that follow, beingihevcryLi'/ja ofthe if«/,ciivided,eMpanded3and thus 



Book I. 

of Plants. 


4a. jj, Xhcrmpedimentsof our apprehenfion hereof are the 
ar Sizu iind Shape oi x.\\^ Dijjimitar Lea^jes. Nonvithftandingj 

Tith, 2, f,z^ 

lour Sizu iindhliape or in^ XJij)tmfiur j-t-a-ats. i-Nunvitnuanaingj that 
they are nothing ellc but the Miin Body of the Sccd^ how 1 came 
firft to conceive, iind afterwards to know it, was thus. Firfl:, I ob- 
fervcd in gencr:^!, that the BilfmiLr Leaves^ were never jagg'd, but 
evenedg'd: And feeing the even verges of the Z.f7/^cj of the 5^f^ here- 
to refpondenc, i was apt to think, that thofe which were fo likc^might 
prove the fame. Next dt^fccnding to particular Seeds^ I obferved,firft-j 
oi ih^ Lttfinc -^ that, as to its Colour, advancing above the Ground, 
fas it iifcthtodo) itwasalways changed into a perfect Green. And 
why mightnot the fame by parity of Realbn be inferred ofother se^ds ^ ■ , 

Thar, as to its grew but Httle bigger than when firftfet. Whence, 
as I difcern'd fthe Augmentation being but little) we here had only tab. 2. f. i. 
the two Lok-r : So, (as fome augmentation there was) I inferr'd the 
like might be, and thatj in farther degrecSj in other Seeds. 

44, jj. NcxiofihG Cmiif^fkr-Sccd, That, astoits Colour, often 
appearing above ground-in its primitive white, ftomwhite it turns to 
yellow^andfrom yellow to greeny the proper colour of a Lc^tf That, 
astoitsfize, though at its Hrftarile, the I^/^fj were Httle bigger than 
upon letting^ yet afterwards, as they changd their Colour, fo their di- 
menlions al/bj growing to a thrcc-four-five-fold amplitude above their 
primitive fi/.e. But whereasthe Ltftcsofthtj Sccd^ are in proportion 
narrow, (liort and thick : how then come the DijfimiUr Leaves^ to be 
lb exceeding broad, or long, and thinf The Queftion anfwers itielf; 
For the DijftmUr Leava ., for that very reafon are fo thin, becaufe ib 
very broad or long^ as we lee many things, how much they are ex- 
tended in length or breadth, fo much they lote in depth, or grow 
more thin ^ which is that which here befalls the now eifoliated Lobes, 
For being once dif imprifcned from their C^-z^/Zjand the courJe ofthe.y./p 
into them, now more and more cncrcaled^, tliey muft reeds very confi- 
derably amplifiethemlclves; and from the manner wherein the Semi- 
77alRoot is branched in them, that amplification cannot be in thick- 
neft, " 

the, Thor/7-Appk^ and others, whofc Sccds^ although very fmall, yet 
th^Loks ofthofc Seals growing up imo DijfimiLsr Lcaves^2VG extended 
anhich,andfometimesmore,in length. Though he that fhallattempt to 
geta clear tight of the Lobes oiTkor?7-Ap^k^.\ud fome otherb,by Dig^Ui- 
cw,will find it no eafie Task ^ yet isthat which may be obtained ^and in 
the I aft Book, diall be fhew'd. From all which, and the ob- 
fervaiion ofother Sceds^ I at laft found, that the D/lpmUr Le^tves o£ 
a young Plant, are nothing clfe but the Lobes or M.^j>; Sffdj/ of its 
Seed. So that, as the Loks did at iirft feed and impregnate the R^- 
dh-k into a perfe& Root 5 fo the Roo!^ being perfefted, doth again feed, 
andby degrees amptifie each Lobe into a perH'ft Le.if, 

^5' i- The Original of the Dijmihr Leaves thus known, we un- 
deribnd, why fome /'/.^/^/j have none ^ becaufe the fc^ either rifeth 
not, as G^rdeK-Beaf^s^Corff^^c. Or upon rifing, the Lobes are little 
alcer'd, 3slMpwcs, Peafi.^c. Why, though the proper Leaves 

but in length or breadth* In both which, in fome Dijfimilar -. , 

¥f. Vis very remarkable ^ efpeeially in length, as in ihofe of Let- ^' ^' ^' 










tak 3. 




I ; 

Hill- of the which have [iK, asiherngenlous Mr.sharrock^^^ib obferves- The rcafoti 
Fiv^.of t'f^.', whereof is, bccaud- the A^^/n Body h not divided into Two, but Six,di- 
Qinft Lotej, as I have often counted. Why Ituhfics fcem at fir ft to 
havefour, which yet after appear plainly two: becauJe cheLc^iw ofthe 
SeeH^ have both a little Indenture, and are both plaittd, one over the 
other Towhich, other In ftances might beadded. 

4^. The ufe of the DJjjimiUr leaves is, firft, for the proceftion 
of the Phtf?ie ^ which being but young, and to but loft and tender, is 
provided wiihthefe, as a double Guard, one on either fide of it. for 
thisreaibn it is, that ih^ Pliime^ in Corn^ is truflcd up within a m^m' 
hr^nous Sheath: and that ofa fii?<?^, cooped up betwixt a pair of 5*/fr- 
foyh: But where the Li?^ej rife, there the Whwc hath neither of them, 
being both ncedlefs. 

47- ^, Again, fince the Plimc^ beiTig yet tender, may be in- 
jur'd not only by the Aer^ but alio for want of5-rp, the fupplies from 
the ^ooi being yet but (low and fparing s that the iaid Plume there- 
fore, by the Dijpmlar Leaves^ may have the advantage likewifc of 
ibme refreftimeni from Dew or Rain. For thefe having their Bufij 
a little beneath that of the Plu/^ic^ and expanding themfeives on all 
fides of !tj they often Hand after Rain, like a VelJel of Water, con- 
tinually foaking and fuppling it, left its new acccfi in:o the Ajr^ ftiould 
flirivcl it. 

48. 5- Moreover, that fince the Diffimhr Lcdvcs by their B^fis 
intercept the Root and Plnmc^ the greater and grofler pare of the 
j^p, may be^ bytheway, depofitedintothoie^ and fo the pureft pro- 
ceed into the yet but young and delicate Pliime^ as its fttleft A!i- 

49, ^. Laftly, we have here a demonftration of the being of 
ihfi Semnal Root: which, fince through the colour or fmahieft of 
the Seed^ it could not by Difleftion be obferv'd, except in fornc 
few; Nature hath here provided us a way of viewing it in the now 
cffoliated li'iej, not of oneortwo 5ff^j, but of hundreds^ the i'i?/;//- 
lijl Root vifibly branching it felf towards the Cone or Verges of the 
laid Lohy^ or now DijjimUr Leaves. 




Book I. 




* b 

Of the ROOT. 

A VING Examin'd and purfu'd the Degrees of 
VegeUiioa in the Seed, we find its two Lobes have 
here their utmoft period ; and, that having conveyed 
thc\i Sminalilies into the Radickaui^ Plume -^ thefe 
therefore, as the i^os/ and Trunkoi ^he Plant, ftiil 
furvive. Of thefe, in their order, we next pro- 

_ .. , _- cccd to fpeak; and firfl-, of the Roof; whereof, as 
well as of the Seed, we miift by DilTeftion inform our felves. ' 

3. §. In Diiicction of a Root then, vvc (hall find it with tJie Ra- 
dick, as the Parts of an Old Man with thofe of a Fatm, fubftantially, 
one. The firft Part ocnirring is its Sk't^, the Original whereof is 
from the Seed: For that extreme thin Cutide which is fpread over the 
Lohcr of the Seed, and from thence over the Radide, npou the 
iliooting ofthciJW/i/e mio:i Root, is co-extended, and becomes its 

3. i- The next Part 'is the Cerlkal Bodp VVhich.when it is thin 
IS commonly called the Barq„e. The Original hereof likewife is - 
from the seed ^ or the Parenchyma, which is ther€ common both to 
the Ubes^u.^ Radide, being by Vegetation augmented and proloiised ^ , , . 
into the Root, the fame becomes the P^ff»%/«a of the Bdroac ^''I'.^.f.^ 

4- )S- The Contexture of this Parenchyma may be well ill'uftrated 
by that of a Sfo»gc, being a Body Porous, Dilative and Pliable. Its 
Pores, as they arc innumerable, io, cxtream fmall. Thefe -rare, are 
notonyrufceptiveoffomuchMoiftureas to fill, but alfo to enkrge 
themfclvc-s, and fo to dilate the C../..^/ BW^ wherein they are .- which 
by the nu,vl„,g,n thereof, upon its being expos'd to the Air, isalfo 
feen. In which dilatation, many of its Parts becoming more lax and 

L5't4; '"'"'^^"'^ ^'"'"°'^'* ^ ^"^ ^^i'-piw 

. J't, ^" J y^'A''^^^"'*'" ''^ ^'■"'"'^ ^'"■^' 's much alike by the Icneth 
.nd breadth of the ie.., , which from the Ihrinking up o/thecS 

T ? '' P'^-'^^'of^^ ^^^ ^^"o'^h the fame dimenlion., isargu'd 
•t\.\ - r 1 lY°R'^"'°"^"fthis CorlualEody are various ; If thin 
t.s. as,sfa.d, cailedas^r^.., and thought to ftrve to no other end 

It a Bulky Body, in comp.,rifon with That within it, as in the voun^ 

£ taknfe ^^-'T^'^" /'V'^^^' becaufe theJaireft, IS 
it is;tt Sto ttf"""" ;^ ^^^ ^''""S^' ='^ ^'^ Medicinal uHs 
he^of^ thoihir h P"^-"-; "^'-- °f "^-^ ^^-'^ ""^ fo. The Colon ■ 
thefi;/d:£r.?:7°^'^'"'''>' f '"^^ >^^ *" the continued growth of 
intoVntroduced ^''^'"^^' ^ I''^"'^^^ '" ^-^.^ -^i" a>.;,are the: 





H a 

7. >. 


The Anatomy 

Book I. 

..i ! 

I > 

.11 .: 

■ 1 1 




L h-4 J 


/. ^. Next wkhin this Part ftunds the Ligmut Body: This L/p- 
T^^-j/d-b. ^^^^ ^^^y-' ly^'^^^ with all its parts, fo for as they are vifiblc, in a Cir- 
cle or Ritfg. Yet are chtrc clivers extreme ffnall f/irw thereto pa- 
r.illd, ufiuUy mixed with iheOr^/c^/ Bc^^^ and by thefomewhat dir^ 
fe rent colour of the laid CorUcd Body where ihey ftand, may hn no- 
ted, ThL^^ Fibres the Cortkni Body^ and Sk^n^ altogether, properly 
make the B.i^^y/^e. The Original of this Lignous Body^ as of the two 
former, is from the^fe^ ^ or, the i'tft^yW J^^^^j of both the X^^j, be- 
ing united in the Radick^ and with itb' Paremhyma co-exiended, is here 
in the Root of the PUvi^ the Ugnom Body, 

8. #. The Contexture hereof, in many of its parts, i? much more 
cloft,' than that o? the Conical ':, and their i^t^rej very different. For 
whereas thofe of the Cnr//t J are infinitely numerous, thefeof the Lrg- 
w^ are in comparifon nothing fo. But theic, although fewer, yet 
are they, many of them, more open, fair and viftble : as in a very thtn 
Slice cut athwart the young Jit^t^/ of a Tne^ and held up againft the 
lighfj h apparent, Yec not in all equally ^ in Cfj^^wTree, Gootberry- 

tski.f.'^, T'ree,^f. Icfs, in 0-e^, Plums^ and cfpecially D^majceK!^ more^ in 
Eidcr^ yvfes,<d^c. moft confpicuous. And as they are different in 
number and (ize, foal^ (vvhereon thenumeroufncrs of the Pfrwofthe 
Cortical Body principally depends^ in their Hiape. For whereas thole 
of the Cr?rf/c^/B;jd[y are extended much alike both by the length and 
breadthof the i?i7flf , thcfe of the £/^«^jfer, arc only by ihc length^ 
which efpecially in ?^>?£j-, andfome other Roots is evident, Ofthefc 
Porss^ 'tis alfoobfervable, that although in all places of the Root they 

7di.2/.7a»b, ^^^ ^"fiWe, yet moft fair and open about the fiUmntous B^tnmiiies ot 
'fome Roots^ where about^ ih^ Roots have no i^/z/j ^ ^smFmiL And 
* in many R/iots^ higher, 

9- i. The proportion betwixt this Ligmus Body and the Cortioi! 
- is variou?, aswasfaid^ yecin this, conftant, jl. that in the /Awe/?;oftj 
and ftnaller Parts oflhc Root, the Lignous Body is very much the lefs; 
running like a flender ff>fr or Ncn^f through the other furrounding 
k. Whereas in the upper part, it is often times of fir greater quan- 
tity than the Corticaf, although it be cncompafs'd by it. They ffand 
both together pyramidally, which is moft common ro /fl/^w; Rii^/j, but 
alto to a great many others,. 

, lo. The next Part obfervable in the Root^ is the Ir^fertmcfit, The 

exiftence hereof, To far as we can yet obferve, is fomctimcs in the Radi- 

ck of die^ff^icfdfs I cannot fay aiwaye. As to its fubftamial na^ 

.-inre, weare more certain ^ that it is the fame with that of the Pun'^- 

chynia. of the Rj^it/i?^ being always at leaftaugmcnted, and fo, in part, 

originated from z\\QCorlicd Body, andfo, atfecond hand, from the Ciid 

Parcmhym.i. tor in differing a Root^ I tind, that thz Cortical Body 

doth not only environ the Ugmui, but is alfo wedg'd, and in many 

Pieces infattd into it ^ and thiit the faid inferted Pie-ces make not a 

meer Indenture, but tranfinic and (hoot themfelves quite through as 

farai'the f/^A: which in a thin Shce cut athwart the Root^ as fo many 

lines drawn from the Circumferviice towards the Center, fhew them- 
Hives, ;l 

J I- i. The Pt^rw of the /fr/f'7/^vewMreIbmctimcp, at leaft, exten- 
1f p ^"^'^^"^ more by the bieadth of tlie Rvot. as about tlie top of 
the Root of Bor.ige may be Iccn ^ and are thus diiieiaii fiom tholo o£ 


l^h. 2. /.J, 

Book I. 

of Plantf. 


the Conical Body, which are cxreEidtd by the Icngih anJ breadth much 
a!ikej and from thofc of :he Lignotis^ being only by its length, 

12. ^. The number and fize of cht-fe Iniertioni are various. In 
Hawthorn^ and fome others, and cfpecialiy (■Fi'/^tiji'/j they are nioft tx- 

frnall ^ w^Chcnks ^x^APhms they are Biger^ and in the VimJ^'J'*^'''^' 



and Jbmc other Trea^ very (airly apparent. In the ^qoU of moft 
jy^^-i/ihey arcgcnerally more eafily dilcoverable ^ which may lead to 
the obfervationof them in alL 

1?, jT. ThaCt Ifffertiffffs^ although they are continuous through 
both the length and breadth of the ^tJt^fj yet not fo in all Parts^ but 
by the fevcral ihoorings of the tignous Body they are frequently in- 
tercepted. For of the Ugmm Body it is (^here befU obfcrv^ible 3 
That its /everalSiiftJ/i/;^/^ betwixt which the (^V^;^,?/ isinferted, are 
not, throughout the Root^ wholly diftintt, ftrait and parallel: but 
that all along being enarch'd, the Ligtjous Bodj^ both in length and 
breadth, is thus difpofed into Braces or OjcuUtivns. Betwixt thele 
fcveral Shootings of tite Lignous Body thus olculated, the CoTUcal f^y ^' f^ 
iliooting, and being alfoofculated anfwerably Brau for Br^re, that '■-''* 
which I call the lnjenman is framed thereof 

14- ^. ThelcO/tWj//(7^j are ib made^ that the Pores or Fibres of 
x\\fi Lig?ious Body, \ chink, notwithfVanding, (L-Idom or never run one 
mto another; being, though contiguous, yei ftill diffindt. In 
the fame manner as fome of the Nerves^ though they meet, smd for 
foraefpacearc affociatcd together, yet 'tis mofr probable, that none" 
of their F/iw are truly inofculated, ftving perhaps, iiiihe Phxnra, 
_ 15- §. Ihck Ofcukthf^s oHh^ LigfieHs Body^ and lb the intercep- 
tion of the htfirtiovs of t'h^ corticdl^ are not to be obferv'd by the 
traverfe cut of the Root, but by taking off the Earpe. In the 
Roots onrccs, ihey arc generally obfcure 5 but in Herbs often more 
diltinay apparent; and cfpecially in ^.Turmp: the appearance where- 
of, the tf^jwe being ftripp'd off, is as a piece of clofe-wroueht Net- 
work, filled up with the hfiirtiovs from thence- 

16, §. Thenextand laft diftinftPrfriofthe j;pf?MstheJ^Wj, The 
fubftantul nature thereof, is, as was faid o^ xhQ Infirtn/ent, the famtf 
Iikcwifcwuh thatofthe Puref^chymaoithi^ seed. And accordin^to 
thcbcft obfervation 1 have yet made, 'tis fometimes exigent in its /Jj- 
duk-^ m which, the two main Br^^ches of the Lobes both meeting 
and being olculated together, are thus difpos'd iAco one round and 
tubular Irft;/^, and fo environingpartofthe f^rmi^w^, make there- 

ota P//i5 asm either the R^^/c/e, or the young Rt^^i of the great Bcj.^ 

or Lvpirre, may,! think, be well (een. . , 

17' ^' But many times the Original hereof is immediately from 
the B^rqi^c. For in diQeaion of divers Roots, both of 7 r^^j and Herbs 
^^0( Barberry or Mal/om, it is obfcrvable. That the C^r//^,./ B^^. and 
P"t are both of them participant of the fame Colour ^ in the Barberry, 
both of them tmged yellow, and in M.iWx, green! In cutting the 
ImallLT Parts of the Roots of many RU^ts, as of B^,Mai^o2^s,Par^ 
fiey, LolHn.b^„e,6-c, 'tis alfo evident. That the Ligmns Body is not 
there, in the ieaft Concave, but ftandeth Solid, or without any Puh 
in the Center s and that the Injcrtior^s being gradually muhipiied after- 
ward, the PnK .t length, towards tbe^hicker parts of the Root 
thews and enlarges u k\l Whence i: appears, that in all fuch Roots\ 




■ m^ 

h ■ 

^^ 1-1 

' r 

I r 


The Anatomy 

Book I. 


the Pah is not only of the lame fubftantial nature, and by the /«- 
firiions doth communicate with the Barque --, and chat it is alfo aug- 
mented by it^ which TS true of the P;7/jofalI i?tf^//5 but is morco- 
veFj by mediation of the faid 7>/Je7-rJf^»j, wholly originated from it, 
that is to fay, from the tdy^mhymtmi Part thereof! The various appea- 
rances of the hftrtwfji and Pith from the filamentous Varis to the 
ts\t. ^. f. p, top of the Rooi^ iee in Tah. a. The Pore^ of the Ligr/ous Br iy^ as 
it ftands entire in the faid filamentous F^rU^ are beft feen when ihcy 
have Iain by a night to dry ^aftcr cutting. 

i8. jS. A farther evidence hereof are the Proportions betwixt the 

Cortical Body and P;iA. For as about the infeiiour Parts of the Roet^ 

where the Pith is fmall, theCm«tfi B^^*' ^^ pro port ion ably great ^ fo 

■ about the top, where the Pith is enlarged, the Cortiial Body (now more 

properly becoming a 'Barqjte) groweth proportionably Itfs, 7^. becnufe 

the hJmJot7s do ftill more and more enlarge the Pith. Likewiie the 

peculiar frame of Ibme Roois^ wherein befides the Pith^ the Ligmits 

'Body being divided into two or more i^iw^f, there are alio one or more 

thick Rit^gs^ ofa white and foft fubftance, which ftand betwixt them 5 

and are nothing clfu but the Irrfirtio^s of the Cortical Body co!ltded 

intotbefaidiejw^/; but, towards the top of the Root^ being inferred 

again,chus make a large and ample Fith ^ as in older f ^/'W- Roots, thofc 

of Eee/iTrtr/jc/", and fome other Herbs^ is ixi^n^ 

19, ^, The Pores of the Pith^ as thofe of the Cortical Body, arc 
' extended both by the breadth andlength of the Kooi^ much alike ^ yet 
are they more or Icfs of a greater fizc than thofe of the Cortic.4 

ao* ^. The Proportions of the Pith, arc various 5 in Trees^ but 
linalJ J in Herbs, generally, very fair^ in Ibme making by iar the great- 
eft part of the Root ^ as in a Turmp : By re:ifon of the wide circum- 
ference whereof, and fo the finer Concodion and Aflimilation of its 
Sap ; that Part which in moft old Tnwks is a dry and harfh Fith^ here 
proves a tender, pleafant meat. 

1 1, 5i. Jn the Roots of very many PUjits^ as Tnrmps^ C^rrots^ ^c^ 
the L/^fft^aj Bt?^^, befides its main utmoftii/w^, hath divers of its of- 
cukted F ihres ^^(^^T9l^ throughout the Body of the Vith-^ fomctimes 
all alike, andfometimesmoreefpecially in, or nearjts Center^ which 
i^/ire/, as they run towards the top of the Root^ itil! declining the 
Center, at laft collaterally ttrikc into its Circumference 5 either all of 
them, orfomefew, keeping the Center ftill. Ofthele principally,the 
Succulent part of the Li^novs Body of the 7>«?/^is often originated. 

23. §. Some oftheie Z"*//^-i'Vi>ri?/, although they are fo exceeding 
(iCTider, yet in fome Ki^tf/y, as in that of F/^ir^ri^e/zz, they arc vifibly 
concave, each of them, in their feveral Cavities alio embolbming a ve- 
ry fmall Pith-^ the fight whereof, the i!fj?/ being cut traverfe, and hid 
in a Window for a day or two todry, may without G/<;jfcj be obtained. 
And this is the general account of the Root t, 
tierof its growth, with the nieand ferviceof its ieveraW-^jr/j, welhaJl 
next endeavour. 

23. ^. I SAY THEN, That ihe Rji//f/e being impregnate, and 
fhoc into the Moulds, the conTiguous moifture, by the Cort/a) Body^bx:- 
Gruwrhof i^t^ ^ Body laxe and Sjxjngy, t<; calily admitud : Yet not jU mdifcrimi- 
tUKtffl/, n.ucly, but thai which is more adapted to pali through thefurrounJing 

Ci/tJi ft:. 

All Account 
of che 



Book L 

of Plants. 

Cuticle, Wbkh ir^nfient Sap^ though it thus becomes finp, yet is not 
Gmple^ but a mixture of F4r;/f/^r/, boih iii refpect of thofe originally 
in the i^^^/, andamongftthemftrlves, fomewhat heterogcneom. And 
being Indg'd in the Covtkal Body moderately laxe^ and of a Cir- 
cular form ; the effcfl: will be an ^^^\t: Fermentation. The Sap fermen*^ 
ting, a feparacionofP^r/rwill foHow ^ feme whereof will be impaft- 
ed cothe Circumference of the CortkalBody^ whence the dtikk be- 
comes a Skjn ^ as we Jee in the growing of the Coats of Cheefo of 
the Skin over divers Liquor?, and the iike. Whereupon i\\tSap 
paflinginto i\\q Cortical Body, through this, as through a Mj/?/c^JF//p- 
pocratk, h ftill more finely filtrcd. With which Sap^ the Cortical 
Body being dilated asfaras its Tone, without a folution of Continu- 
ity, will^ and thefupply ofthe^^j> ftill renew'd : the purcftpart, 
as moft apt and ready, recede?, with its due Tin&urGs^ from the ftid 
Cortical Body, toallthe parts of the I/^w//y; both thofe mixed with 
the Bivqife, and thofe lying within it. Which Ligmns Body like- 
wile luper-inducingitsown proper 7w^;/re/ into the laid Sapt, 'tis 
now to its higheftpreparaton wrought up, and becomes fas they fpcak 
of thatof an AnimM) the Vegetative Roj or Cambh,m : the nobkfl: 
part whereof rs at laftcoagubted in, and aifimilatcd to the like fub- 
Itance with the faid Ligvojts Body. The remainder, though not united 
to it, yet tinftur'd therein, thus retreats, that is, by the continual 
appulfcofthe^j/', is in part carried oiF into the Cortical Body back 
again, the S'ip whereof it now tinfturcs into good Aliment, So 
that wliereas before, the Cortical Body was only relaxed in its Parts,and 

fodilattdi 'tisnowincruab'd inreal quantity or number of parts *and 
fo IS truly nouriih'd. And the Cortical Body being faturate with fo 
much of this Vital 5-//- as fervesit fdf; and the fecond Remainders 
d.fchargcd thence to the Skjn '■, this alfo is nourilh'd and augmented 
therewith. So that as in an Ar^imal Body there is no in[buration or 
growth of Parts made by the Blond o\\\y, hwx. the Nervous Spirit \% Al- 
io x\\c^^y\wxo affiftant^ foisit here: the .9^;' prepared in the Corficd 
Body, is as the /^/^-//^^,aiid that part thereof prepared by the Lignous is 
as the Ni-rvoiis Spirit :, which partly becoming Nutriment to it felf 
and partly being difcharged back into rhearl/.WiJW_y, and diffufinff 
Its T\n(\w through the Sap there, that to the faid Cortical Body and 
Sk^fT, btcomcsalfo true Nutriment, and fo they all now grow. 

34. §. En which growth, a proportion in length and breadth is re- 
quifire: which benig rated by the benefit of the Plant, both for firm 
Uanding and fufficient Sap^ muft therefore principally be in leneth 
Andhccaufeitisthusrequifite, therefore by the conftitution of one 
oUl% Parts, fi. ih^ LigfjoHs Body, iti^alfomjde neceflary. For the 
Pmj hereof, in that they are all extended by its length, the 5.^/> alfo 
according CO the frame and fite of the faid Pores will principally move^ 
^d that way as Its 5^f moves, the fame way will the generation of its 
i^rts alto proceed ; fi. by Us length. And the Lignons Body firft fthat 
IS m ^pnorUycaHfal) moving in length it fdf; the Cm/V.ii alfo moves 
therewith For that which is nourillVd, is extended : but whatever 
IS extended, ^, niovd : that therefore which' is nourifti'd, is mov^ ■ 
Ih^ L^g^ous Body then being firlUourilh'd, ^tis Irkewile firft mov'd 
and robecnmcjs- and carries in it the Principle of all Vegetative motion 
m tilt; Lorticai y and lo ihey both move in length, 

25, i. 













,1 4 

b , 

P '1 



The Juatomy 

Book I. 

25- ^- Yet as the L7_^j^o«/Hf'-J;' bthe i^nV/jj/^ of Motion in the 
Cortical'^ {oihiiCortiid \^ \hi^ Mo^icrnUr o^ that in ihG Li^r^oirs ,^ As in 
Animal Motions, f^icrr^fft7j?/eisfromrhc Ni^yves}, yet being once gi- 
ven to the ^tf/^'^ or LjW^, and that moving proportionably toitsftru- 
flnire the Nervei alfo arc carried in the fome motion with it, Wc fup- 
pofe therefore, that as the principal motion of the Lignouj E/xiy is in 
length, fois its proper tcfidcftcy z\Co to Afield. But being much exceed- 
ed both in Compafs and Quantity by the Cortud^ as in the Imaller parts 
of the Root it is t it muft needs therefore be over-born and governed 
by it 5 andfo, though not lofe its motion, yet make it that way where- 
in the CorthdEodym^-^'hi:, more obedient to it ^ which will be by de- 
fcent. Yet both of them being fufficicntly pliable, they arc thus capa- 
ble, where the Soyl may oppofe a direft dcfcent, there to divert any 
way^ where it is more penetrable, and fo to defccnd obliquely. For 
the fame reafon it may alfo be, that though you fet a Emn with the 
Radicle upward ^ yet the Radicle^ as it ihoots, declining alfo gradu- 
ally, is thus arch "d inform of an Hook, and fo atlaft delcends. For 
every declination from a perpendicular Line, is a mixed motion be- 
twixt Afcent andDefcent , as that of the IW/r/calfois, andfbJeem- 
ing to be dependent upon the two Cotttrary 'J'cmler7ms oi tht Lignviss 
and Cortical Bodies. What may bethecau(e ofthofe Tci?demks (ht- 
ing moft probably externals anda kindof iV^j/c/z/^f} Ifiiall not make 
my Ta&khcretoenciuire. 

26, §- Now although the iJgnoiis Bsd)\ l>y the pofition and (hape 
of its Pores^ principally groweth in length; yet will it in fome degree 
likcwife in breadth : For it cannot be fuppofcd that the purcft S^p is 
all received into the faidPorfj; but that part thereof likcwi(e,ftayiiig 
about its Superficial Farts^ is there linQur'd and agglutinated to theni- 
And becaufe thefe Pores ^t^ prolonged by its lengthy therefore it is 
much more laxe and ealily divifible that way; as in Hitting a Slick, or 
cleaving of Timber, and in cutting and hewing them athwart is iilfo 
ieen- Whence it comes to pais, that in thooting from the Center to- 
v/ardstheCircumfcrcncCjand there finding more room, its fiid origi- 
nal Laxity doth cafily in divers places now become greater^ and at 
length in open f-rr/w^wf/ plainly vifible. Betwixt which Purtfjicfjis^ 
the Cortical Bvdy^ being bound inonthcone hand, by the fuiround- 
ingi'^/^and Moulds^ and prcfled upon by the L^^w^wj on the oiber, 
muft needs infert it It'lf, and fo move contrary to it, from the Circum- 
ference toroards the Center. Where the faid eonirary motions continu- 
ed as begun, they at lali meet, unite, and either make or augment the 
Pitk And thus rhc Root is fram'd, and the Skif'^ the Cortical and 
Ligmm Sodia,{6 asisiaid,thereuntoconcurrent.Welhallne>:t llicw iIk: 
ufeofthetwootherPdm,^^, ihc hfirimat andPij/^^ and firft of the 

ij. ^. ONE true ufe of the ?jViis forthe better Advancementof 
the Sap^ whereof I (hall fpeak in the nt xt Chapter. The ufe I here 
oblerve, iyfor the quicker and hij^her FcLmentation of the S-tp.- For 
aUhough the Fermentation made in the Cvrticd Body was well Jiibfer- 
vienttothe firft /'ffje^^f Jiuw/, yet thofc more pej-ftd; oiits in the VW/^ 
which after follow, require a Body more adapted to it, and ihat is the 
Pith ^ which is fo neceilary, as not to be only common to, bat eon- 
fiderablybrge in the /?*!&// of molt PLwts--^ if not in tl^Lir interiour 


Book I. 

of Plants. 


parts, yet at their tops. Where diough tiEbt-r deriv'd or amplify^ 
froai'tlie Cortical Body^ ytt being by its If/feri/Offs only, we may there- 
fore CappoH", as thofe, fo thi^, to be more finely conftiiutcd. And 
being aifo from its coarftation, while iniirred^ now free; M'ns Pores, 
upon thefupply of the 5*^?, will more or Icfs be 'amplified: Upon 
which accounts, the Sap thereinro received, vAM be more pure, and 
lis fermentation therein moreaftive. And as the Pil'j is fupcriour to 
the Cortkal Body by its CortUitntioJj^ (o by its vljce. For as it thus 
flands central, it hath the Lignom Body furroundin^ it. Now as the 
Skifi k thtFtnc^ ofthi: Cortical Body^ and that of the L;^;/^/// i fo is 
theLT^'/fiifl/agamafar more preheminent one unto the P/M j the Sap 
being here a bri^k Liquor, timri'd up as in a wooden Cask.. 

28. ^. And anhe ?/^i fubferves the higher Fermentation of the 

Sap 5 fo do the hfertio?:s its purer Diftribution ^ that fepar^tion which 
the parts of the Sap, by being fermented in the Pith.^ were difpos'd for ; 
being, upon iis entrance into the hjertiojn^ now made: So that as the 
sl^ is a FHtrt to the Cortrcd Body^ fo are the Infirtiojis a more pre- 
heminent one to the Lignoiis. And as they fublerve the purer, to the 
freer and fuflicicnt dii\ributjcin of the Sap : For the Root enlarging^ 
and io the Li^ncits E-)dy growing thicker, although the Cort'jcal and the 
Tith might fupply Sap fufficient to the nutrition of its Purts next adja- 
cent to them, yet tho(e more inward, mufi: needs be (canted of their 
Alimait --^ and To, if not quite Ibrv'd.yet be uncapable of equal growth: 
Whereas the i/^w//x iJf^/)' being through its whole breadth frequent- 
ly difparted^and the Cortical Body inferted through it ^ the s^phy thofe 
Ifjfirtions^ as the BtoudhyxV^ dilleminaiiors of the Arteries^ is freely 
and fufficiently convey d to its miimate Pans, even thofe^which from 
either the Barque or from the Pitf\ are moft remote. LaRly^ as the 
conftquent hereof, they arc thus alTiftjnc to the LatitmUrjul grorcth of 
the Root^,^^ the Lignous Body to its growih in Length ^ fb thefe hjfir- 
J;t?>;jofthe Cortical to its bectcr growth in Bieadih. 

29. ^. Having thus fetn the iblitary uiesof the Several Tarts of 
the Root^ 1 (liaU Liftly propound my Conjeflures of that Dehgn where- 
to they are altogether concurrent, and ihat is ihe Circidatioji oi i\\q 

go, ]S, That the Sap hath a Double, ^t\^ (o 1 CtrcuUr Motion, in 
the Root ; is prob^ble^ from the proper Motion of the Root., and from 
its Office. From its Motion, which is Oelcent : for which, the Sap 
mufthkewile, fome where, have fuch a Motion proper to it- From 
Its Office, which is,To feed theTnw^ ; for which, the Sup muft alfij, 
in ibme Pjr* orothcr, have amorecfpccial Motion ofAfcent. 

51. $, We may therefore fuppofe, That the Sap moving in the- 
B^^we , towards the Pith., through th;,- hffirthus^ thereinto ob- 
tains a pafi. Which paiTage, ihc upper/^ycr^^^wr will not fjvour^ 
bccaufe the P///j {landing in the fame heigth with them, is there large, 
the fermenting and courfe of the Sap quiek, and fo its oppofition 
ftrong. But through the lower it will much more eafily enter 5 be- 
eaufe there, from the (inalntfi ot"theP//i, the oppofitiou is little, and 
from the lliortnefs of the hrjat/oas, the way more open. So that the 
Sap here meeting with the leaftoppofiuon, herein will bcftow it fdf 
ffeeding the Dgftou^ Body in its palbge) into the Fitk Into which, 
frcth Sap (til! entring, thi^ b^ing yet but crude, will fubfide : chat 

I lirft 






I ■ ) 


The Anatomy 

Book L 

fira reccivd, and fo become a Liquor higher wroiighr, will morcea- 

fily mount upw^rds.And moving in the ft/^dpecially in the Sap-hibers 

there di(persd, as in th^Arterys, in cqua! altitude with the. [pper-//./^^. 

ihnsi^ thcmoft volatile parts of all will fri^l continue their tlircft af- 

cent towards the 7rfl^, But tliofe of a middle nature, and, z<^ not 

apt to afcend, li> bein^ ]ij?:htcr than thofe beneath them, not to'defcend 

neither^ they will tend from the P;//j towards i\ithfmwffs in a Mo 

tion betwixt both. Through whieh hjcrthm ^reeding the L Wj 

Bodym itspaffage) it ts, by the next fiibfequent s.^ip, difchai^cd off 

into the Cortk.ll Body, and fo into the ^'^f-f/irfMhcmfelvt^ is into 

the Pd^s, back again. Wherein, being ftill purfu^ by freili Sap 

from the Center, and more occurrmg from the Circumference, towards 

the lower Ifrfertjcfis, it thus defcends- Through which, together 

With part of the Sap afrefli imbib'd fiom the Earth, it re-entm the 

^u^'r> ^^^"^ '^^^^^c^> ^"^^ ^^*=^ CorikdBody^ and from thence into 

the Af/j, the cruder part thereof, is reciprocally diiburj^'d ^ while 

the molt /tf/.^/Z/^, roc needmg the help of a Oraihiio?^^ more di reft- 

ly afcendeth cowards the Trmk. . 


■ t 







I ■ 

t ■ 

t i^J 

^ f 


Book T. 

of Plants. 


C H A P." III. 

Of the T RV N K. 





A V I N G thus declarM the degrees of VegetaiioH 
in the Root ^ the continuance hereof in the Trunk, 
ihall next be fhew'd: in order to which, the 
Parts whereof this likewift is compounded, we _,^,£.^T 
ihall fifftobferve, ^ ,- i 'l'^^ 

1. (i. That which without diffe&ion (hews it 
iejf, is ihe CoarSure : I cannot Jay of the Root^ 
nor of the Tnirjk, ^ but what ! choofe here to mention, as ftanding 
betwixt them, and fo being common to, them both 5 all their P^rh 
being here bound in clofer together, as in the tops of the grown Roots 
of \tzy many Plants^ is apparent. : t\ . : t 

2, ^, Of fheF^m of iheTrff;?^, the firft occurring is its ski/t } 
The Formation whercol^ is not from the Air, but in the Seed^ from 
whence it i^ originated j being the produftion of the Cutjck^ there 
invtfting the two hobcs and Ph^e, 

5- ^. The next Vart is the Corfkal Body-^ which here in the 
Tr»7/;^ is no new fubftantial Formation 5 but, as is that of the Root^ 
originated from the Parenchyma of the Flumz in the 5^^^ 5 and is on?y 
the increafe and augmentation thereof. The skiff^ this Cortical Body '^ak^-f^ i, 
or V^vimhyma, and (for the moft part J fome Fibers of the Ijg^&tts ^ 4^ 
niixcdhcrewith, allto^ether make the Barqite, 

4, §, >Jext3 the Ligmiis Body^ which, whether it be vifibly di- 
vided into many fofter Fibers or fmaJl Threads^ as in the Bean^ Feji- r l ^ f ,. 
Tjcl-, and moflHcrtj^ or that its Parts ftand more compact and clofe, 
fliewing one hard, firm and folid piece, as in ^rtes ^ it is^ in all, one 

and ilic Gme Body-^ and that not formed originally in the trmk.-i 
but in the5e^t^^ being nothing elfe bur the prolongation of the Se- 
mitialRoo! diftributed in the Lobes and Plums thereof 

5, ^^ Lalily, Th^hjknions and Vith are herd originated iikc- 
wiie from the Pkme^ as the (ame in the Raot^ from the Radicle : So 
that astothcir ^vhflavtiai Varts^ the Lobes oi ih.^ Seed^ the Radick 
and rl/ime^ die Root and Trnnk^ are all one, 

6, j;. Yet fome things arc more fairly obfcrvable in the Trunk. 
Firft, the L^trtrtdinjl fliootings of the Lignotts Body^ which in Trunks 
of levcral years growth, are apparent info many R/a'^Jj asiscommon- 

ly known. For fcvtral young Fibers of the LignOHs Body^ as in the Tah-^.fi 5^ 
Rttot^ fo here, fhooiing in theCt-r/zV^/one year, and the fpaces be- <^8. 
twixtiliem being after fill'd up with more (1 think not till) the 
next atkn^th they become altogether a firm compac't Rirfg-^ the 
Ptrjcaio^i of one Rirrg^ and the GroHftd-work^ of another, being thus 
made conconiiiamly. 



•' y. n 

I a 

;■ $. 


> ^ 


V J 


T/fff Anatomy 

Book I. 

From thcfe Annual 


7iik 3./; 2. 

MlcrogH phj, 

■r^. 3./. 7 

■iA - 

^sk 3. /. fi. 


^ 8. 

yoiinger /^/ierj it is, that although the 
C/?rtk<fi Boiijf :iud Vtth are both,of ihe fame fubftantial nature and 
their i^Dre/littleclifR'rcnt ^ yet whereas the F/ifi, which the firft ycac 
isgrecOj and ofali the Varts the fullcft o^ Sap^ becomes afterwards 
white ami dry : The Csrtkal Body^ on the contrary^ lb Iq^g as the 
7>f^ grows, ever keepeth green and moift, ;?, becaufe thefaid 5<j;^-F/, 
bers^ annually grow therein, and fo communicate with it, 

8. i. The ^i^rcj likewife of the Ugnous Body, many of them 
in well-grown Timber, as in Oaken boards^ are very confpicuous' 
in cutting both lengthwiic and traverfe. They very icldom, ifever^ 
run one into another, but keep, like fo many (everal Ve£eb^ all alone 
diftind^ as by cutting, and fo following any one of them as far as 
youpleafe, fora Foot orhalf a Yard, or more together, may beob- 
ferv'd. And ib, the like, in any Carte, 

9- $. Befides thefe, there are a leffer fort^ which, by the help 
only of a good Spe&ade Glafi may be obferv'd. 

iO- s^- And thefe arc all the Pores vifible without a Microfiope. 
The uie of which, excepting in fome ^<i\w particulars, 1 have pur- 
pofely omitted jp this firfl Eo&k, Mr, HfltfA.lhcweth us, befidcs^ thefe 
a third, and yet fmaller Sort^ and ( zs a confirmation of what, ia 
the Second Chapter^ I have faid of the Pcra of the Lignotts Body 
in general) thattheyare all continuous and prolonged by the length 
of the Tr«w^, as are the greater ones: whereof he maketh Ejrperi-- 
mcnr, by filling up, in a piece of Char-coal^ all the &id Peres with 
Mercury : which appears to pafs quite through them, in that by a 
very good Gkfi it is vifible in their Orifices at both ends \ and with- 
out a Ghfs^ by the weight of the Coal alone, is alfo manift:ft, AU 
thefe I have feen, with the help of a good M/rrofiope^ in feveral 
forts of Woods, As they all appeare in a piece of O-a^, cut tranf- 
verfcly, Sec Tak 3, 

^ IT. ^. Upon further Enquiry, ! likewife find. That the Pvrcs 
oi the Ligrtous Bodjf m the Tnwk^ of Herbs, which at firft I only fup- 
poied, by the help of good GUffis, are very furly vifible : each Fi* 
ire bcmgfomuimcs perforated by 30, 50, ico, or hundreds of i^^^rt/. 
Or what I think is the irucft notion of them. That each Fibre thoueh 
itfccnjtothebaree^etobcbut,../^, yet i., indeed, agreat'nunA 
ot fibres together ^ and every J't^re^being not mecrJy a fpace betwixt 
the ftveral parts of the Wood, but the Coficave o{ ^ Fiber. So that 
Jf It be asked, what all that Part of a FUnt, cither Herb or Tree which 
IS property called the mody-Fart 5 what all that is, I fuppofe That 
15 IS iimhing clfc but a Chjier of innumerable and mofi cVtraordinay 
Jma i ycjjds or Comave Fibers : as in a Slice of the Trunk of Bur- 
dock: i^ apparent, 

13 ^ Next the hfirlio^, of the Cortical Bodu which in the 
i»w^ of a rrccl.wd ath;iwrt, arc plainly difccrncd as they run 
from the Circumfcrtnce toward the Center ^ the whole Body of 
rte Trse beim vifibly compounded of two diftina Sublhrc." rhat of 
tbe feveral i^;«^/ and th.H of the hfirtioKs, nimV.y cioisj fliewiiiR 

If.V" «5'""^, '■<^'*^P''?l^"c^ i" => ^'"'X Whicl. the L,„aoi L.liU.U, and 
ottheM.r,^/^^dom a Ghk. The entraiicc of the h,firiio>,, into 
m itef " ^lfo= upon ftriping off the Barque, very ir-irenc ; as 

13. ji. 



. Book L 



f -\ 

%b. 3. f' 7. 

19. ^. Thcle Infirii6>fs are likewife very confpicuoiis in Sawing 
of Treej kngrh-ways into Board?, and thofe phiin'd, and wrought in- 
10 Leaves for TMc^^ ^Vair7fiar^Tr€ntkrs^zndi\\G:\\\it. In all which, 
asincouriL^ Trenchtrs made of Bcech^ and tables ol O^k j thtre are 
many parts which have a greater fmoothncfs than the reft 5 and are fo ^''^' 3- /■ ^• 
many i^firted Pieces of the Corfiad Body ^ which being by thole of *^ ■^''^'^''' 
the LigKOHs, frequenrlj' hKcrcepted, feem to be difcontiniious, al* 
though mthQTriwk. they are really extended^ \u cuncinued Plates 
throughout its Breadch. , 

14. ^. Thcfc hfmJof7Sy although as is faid, of a quite diftirna 

fubflancc from the Ligmus Body^ and fo no where truly incorporated 

with it, yet being they are in all parts, the one as rhe Warp^ the 

other as the \Vvof\ mutually hraccd and mterwoverr together, they ^ 

thus conftitute one ftroiig and firmly coherent Body ^ as the Timber ^^^"♦■/-t-^ 
of any Tree^ ' :. , 

15. §. As the Pores' or Veflels aregrcatetor Icfi, fo are the /»- 
firtioffs alfo : To the bare eye ufually the greater only are ditcma- 

ble : but through an indifferent Microfiope there arc others alfo, much 
more both numerous and fmall, diftinftly apparent, as in a tranfi-erfe 
piece of 0-*4 

16. §. hi none of all the Pores can we obfirre any thing which 
may have the tnie nature and ufc of Valves^ which is, Eafily to admit 
that, to which ihey willbyno meansallowa r^refi- And their non- 
exiftence is enmigh evident, from what in the firft Chapter we have ^- '■ i^- 43- 
faid of the Lohes oi the Seed: in whofe Semhal Rofft^ were there any 
VHlves, it could not be, that by a contrary Ct^flr/^ of the 5^/, they 
fiiould ever growi which yec, where-ever they turn into D}kmiUr 
Leaves, they do. Or if we confider the growth of the Roof which 
oltcntimcs xartpw.ird and dow^n^ard both at once. And being cut 
iranfverfely, will bleed, both the fame ways, with equal freedom 

17- sJ^ The Vmw/jherc inthe Tr;w^ give us likewife a fight 
of the pofition of their Pm^es. For in a plained piece of 0^-^ as 
^z^^awfiot IMes, &c, befide. the larger Pores o? tYi^ Lignvns Body 
which run by ihe kr^gth of the Trunk y the Traci likewife of thofe of '^^l^- ^/- >• 
the hjJ.Ti^o^s may be obferved to be made by the breadth, and fo di- 
i^aiy crofs. Nor ai^ they continuous as thofe of the Dgnons Body 
but very lliorr, as ihofe both of the Cortical Body and PitL with 
which ih^L^firi^o^s, as to their fubftance, are congenerous. Yet thev 
all Itand lo tojrahcr. as to be plainly ranked in even Lines or RoJs 
throughout the breadih of Che Trunk: As the Tr^^ of thofe 
appear, to the naked Eye. fee in Tak 3. F.g. 9, The Fores themfelves 
may be feen m the Root of a V.^^e defcribed and figured in the Second 
^ook, 39 It appears through a good Mnrofiope. T^y ,7 

t8- 5i. The Pon's of the Pith likewife being larger here in the 
T...^, are better obfervable than in the Root: ^the lidth whereof ' 

S^^^^'L'*n''"'*'^■'^''r'" ^'^quititelythin, may by an HonJ- 
U^i^ tegrofly exemphhud^ and isthat alfo which the valtdifpropoS^' 

?nrAri V^'''?S ^^'^ ^y '^' '^"g^^ ^"^ t>readth of the FM 
fome of them through the tranfparency^of the sk^ns by which fhev 

are bounded, or of which they cotifilC would feem to^brconfi^^^^^^^^^ 




r t 



1 i 


I lH 





|ri ql 


The Anatomy 

Book I 


biy extended by ihc length of the Prth-^ but arc really diiconti- 
nuous and (horr, and ,is 'cis faid, fomewhat atifwcrabie to the celh 
of an Hony-Comb. This is the nearcft we can come to them, by ihe 
bare Eye without the affiftance of a good Microfcope, Mr, Hook 
fliewcrh in his ^tjcrography^ That the Fores of the Fith^ particularly of 
Elder-Pith^ fo far as they arcvifible, areall alikedifconunuous ^ and 
that the Vith'n nothing elfc but (as he calls them) an heap of Buh- 
ifles. Although, in regard they are not fluid, but fixed Parts, t Ihall 
choofe rather to call them. Bladders. As tjiey appear through a good 

I'ak^.f.S,' GUfi^ in a piece of Btirdotl^^ Sec in 7db, g. But a more par- 
ticular Delcript ion oftheiVsiw, Figures, ^nd admirable Textures ht^i^- 
of, I have given in feveral places in the following Book_s. 

19* ^' Bcfides what this Observation informs us of here, it 

^,2. js,3^i , fartfi^r confirms what in the Second Chapter wg ha-ve laid of the 

^' Original of the Pith and Cortical Body , and of the famenefs of 

both their natures with the farer/cfy/ffa of the Seed: which is no- 

C.i.sJ.iS; t^^^g elfebuc a Mafs of Bidders ^ as in the Firft C%tohath been 

30. &. in the Fii/jj of many Plarfts, the greater Pores or Bladders 
have fomeof them lelTcr ones within them, and fome of them arc 
divided with crofs Membranes: And betwixt their fevcral fides, have I 
think, other rmallcr Bladders vifibiy interjt^ed. However that 
they are all permeable, is moft certain. They Oand together not contii- 
: , fedly, but in even Ranks or Traim ■-, as thofe of the Infcrtions by the 
breadthj fothcfcbythe length of the TrwA^ Andthus farthereiaa 
general correfponding betwixt the parts of the Root and Trunk. Yet' 
are there fome confiderable Difparities betwixt them ^ wherein, and 
how they come to pafj, and to what efpccial Ule and End, ftiall'nezt 
be (aid. ^ i u 

^1 Account ar. ji, WE SAY then, that the 5^p being in the J?^t^/ by Fihra- 
of the tions, Fermentations (iindinwhat Roots wttAf\i\ perhaps by Circiii'' 

mX ^t^^^^^^t'^J^duly prcpar'd, the prime part thereof p.fTing through 
^ ,he intermediate to^Yanre, m due moderation and purity is entertained 
at laft into the Trunk, And the Sap of the Tnmk being purer and 
more volatile, and fo it felf apt to afcend ^ the motion of the Trut^k 
likewife will be more noble, receiving a difpofition and tendency to' 
afcend therewith. And what by the Sap the Tnwl^ is in part dipos^ 
to, by the refpeftivepofiiion and quantity of irs Parts it is effcftual- 
ly enabled. For whereas in ilie Root the Lignous Body being in pro- 
portion with the Corticd, but little, and all lying clofc within its' 
Center 5 it muft therefore needs be under its controu! : on the con-' 
trary, being here comparatively of greater quantity, and aifo more 
d]!ared,and having divers of its Branches ftanding more abroad towards 
the Urcumterence, as both in the Leases and Body of the youn? Trufth 

and Plu^e IS feenj itwiU in its own ^/j^^./..,./ tendency toVr^;.^. 
reduce the Conicul Body to a compliance with it, / 

22. jj. And the Tr;^;^ thus (tanding from under the rtttrainc of tliff 

ground njlhe open Air,the difpofition of its i'^r//,orieinallydifTerent:' 
trom that of the Parts m the Root, will not only be continued, but 

unproved For by the force and preflure of the Sap in its collateral 
Jvtotion, Che Ugf/ojfs Body will now more freely and farther be di- 


Eook I. 

■ of Tlants, 

laicd. And rJiisbeine; dilated, the Cortical Body a]fo, muft needs be 
jnfirted ; and 15 therefore in proportion always, more or left, finaller 
here in the rrunk. , than in the Root. And as the Ceriical Body hihn^ 
fo the Vith will be enhirged, and by the fame proportion is here 
prcnter. Andthc Pith being enlarged it fd^ its Pores (thcLigmus 
ihdy, upon Its dilatation, as it were temering and ftretching out all 
their fides) muft needs likewife be enlarged with it^ and accotdina- 
IT, arc ever greater in the Pith of the Tr,<^k_. than of the Root. 
A!i(l the dilatation of the Ligmut Bodj, ftill continued it follows 
that whereas the i^^r^ defcendcnt in theiJoe/, is not only in propor- 
tion lefs and left, but alio in the fmaller extremities thereof, and fomc- 
times higher, altogether abfent ; Contrariwife, in the Tnwk it is 
rot only continued to its toj. and Cnalleft Twigs, but a!fo there in 

proportion, equally ample with what it is in any other infcri'our 

25. <. But although the opennefs of the Aer pcrmittinf;, be all- 
ways alike, yet the Energy of .he Sap effeding, being different 5 as 
therefore that doth, the dilatation of the 7>«4 , will alfo vary. If 
that be lefs, fo.! th,s; as in the r™«4x ofmoa Trees: Ifth,t be 

Ellyfo far dilated, that the utmofi Sho^i^gs thereof may eaflly be 
feen 10 j,it out, and adjoyn to the Sl<j». And if the Sap be ftill of 

^lTr7lTf/' 'J "r.^l^^'if^^^ ^h^Lignous Body, as not only to am- 
phfie the i-„Aand all its Pores-, but alfo fo far loftreteh thJm out 
as o make them tear Whereupon either running again into the 
Ccrt,cd Body o, nirinking up towards ir, the T™^. thus fometimes 
becomes an /../'.n>AV,;/4, .heP///. being wholly, or in par voiS 
But generally It keeps entire , and where it doth, the fame propoS 
on andrefped^ ,0 the L,;^..., nnd Cortical Bodies, as is Ctir^The 
Confequences of al! which uill be, the Strength of the, the 5.! 
r.m>andr/..,^ofJei;.;, ks Fcrr.c.t.tJ W.W be <,uicker ts fl- 
firtUm, more effeftual, and its Ad.uncemcm more fuLient. 

24-15. Firft the EcLft Growth and Strength of the Tnmb- thi, 
being, by the pofitio,, of its (L-vera! Parts, effe^ed : for befide'the Oen 
derm8ofthe2.,.4I|ll towards the top, the Circ^rmSl^^ 

flL' V , ^-'S"o'^, Body, inthefmailerparcs, oftheiijf 

ft nding Central, we may thence ci>neeive and fee their pliablenefi to 
2 '^-hque motion; fo here, on the contrary, theL/W Bo2lZ 

which for^l 1 r R \^"-^'"-P>-'^"ti.d pofture. And fo for SuilU 
nre vm W .;,^ companfon vnth the chinnefs of their sJdes, they 

though ' 













■■ ■ I 

- m 




-.. ii 


T/j^ Jiidtomy 

Book I. 

though they are no Ehicker,th3n a fingle one mii^ht be made 5 yet fiand- 
ingatadiftance, have a greater ftroiigth than That couldhave. And 
the fame Architcdorc, will hayc the lame ufe,in the Trtmli^ of Plavtj ^ 
in moft whereof 'lis very apparent ^ as for inftance, in Corj?. For 
Nature dell^ning its s.ip a great Ateent ^ for its higher maturity, hath 
given itataU TmA'A-" Burro prevent its ravenous dcfpoiling either of 
the Ear^ ovSoyh^ although it be tall^ yet are its fide^ but thin : And 
becaufe again, it IhoukI grow not only tall and thriftily, but for avoi- 
ding propping up, ihoiigly too, therefore, the lame proportion as its 
heigth bears, to the thinntfsof its fides, doth the grearncfs of its Cir- 
cumference alio , being lb far dilated cis to parallel a ^H V. f^lf. 

25. §- Bcfides the Volition of the L/^J^^J^^-B-'f/vwkhin the compafi 
of a Ring^ there are fome skoolirgs thereof, often Itamling beyond 
the Circumference of tlie faid Rh;^, making fomctimes a triangular^ 
oftncr a quadrangular Body of the Tra^rk, To the end, that the Rh/g^ 
being bur thin, iind rot lelf fufficicnr, ihefe, like 5f//7;/fr/ to Bojjct^ 

mighc add ftrcngth and Ibbility to ii- 

2(5- §. Neyf, the fecurity and plenty oF the 5,/;f. For Ihould the 
Ligmus Bodp^zs it doth in thelhiallcr Parts of iheifirt?/, ftand Central 
here alfo, and fo the Cf?/-^^i:,;/ wholly furround it: the greater parr of 
the Saf would thus be more immediately cxpch,'d to the ^m and Jcr ^ 
and beinf; lodged in abxeBody, by tbtm continually be prey'dnpon, 
and as taO: as fupplied to the Trunk', be c^hauftcd, Whcrea?, the Pith 
ftanding in the Ctntcr^the ^j;h herein being not only moft remote from 
the Ar and 5h/;, but by the B'^rf^c^ and efpecially the IVood^ bL-ing 
alfo furronnded and doubly imraur'd, will very lecurely and copi- 
oufly be convey 'd to all the Collateral Part?, and fas ihall be faid 

howj theiop of the Trut^k: 

2J, ^. And the^^pby the amplitude, and great porofity of the 

Pith, being herein more copious, its Fcrmtntat ion alfo will be quicker ^ 
which wefee in all Liquors^by Ihnding in a greater quantity toge- 
ther, proceeds more kindly: And beir.g tui^'d nf wnhin the Wood^ 
is at the fame time not only fecur'd from loft, but all extream mutati- 
ons^ the Day being thuSj not too hot 3 nor the Nighty too cold for 


28, ^, And the Fermentation hereof being quicker, its motion 
alio will be ftrongcr, and its Diftribntion more tfitt^tual, not only to 
the dilatation of the T>vr;j/{ , but hkewife the (hooting out of the 
Br4vchts. Whenceitis, that in the Bodies of TrtVJ, the Ear/jf.'c oC \z 
felf, though it be Sappy, and many Fibres of the Ligficifr Body mix- 
ed with it, yet feldoni fendcth forth any ^ and that in Hcrbs^ thcle 
with the le.ift Pith ( other advantages not fupplying this dtft^ ) lave 
thefeweft or fmaileft Branches, or other collateral Growths : and that 
Corn, which hath no /'iz/'j hath neiiher any Branches. 

29, si» Laftly, the Advancement of the Sjp will hence alfo he 
more ready and fufficient. For the undedhnding where, and how, . 
we fuppolc. That in all Trucks wha[foever there are two Parts joyntly 
hereunto fiiblervicnt. In fome, the Li^rjow Body and the Cortical^ as 
in older T?v;?^j^j ^ the Pith being cither excluded, or dried : Burin 
moft, principally, ihc Lignons Body and Pith '-, as inmoQ Annual 
Growths of Ti-cc^ ^ but elpecially Hcrhs^ where the Coyth\d Body is 
ufually much and often wholly Infertcd- 

30. jJ- 

Book I. 

of Plants. 


30, §. Of rht? Ligmns Body ic is lb apparent by its Pores^ or ra- 
ther by its Vejjds^ that we need no fjrthcr Evidence. For td what 
end are /^r^/j, but for the conveyance of Liquoi? And is, that alfo, 
which upon catting the young Branch of a Sappy Tree or Hcrb^ by 
an accurate and fteady view may be obierved. But when 1 fiy 
xheFeffels of the Dgnons Body^ I mean principally them of the 
younger ^wotwgs^ both thofc which make the ^tw Rir/g, and thofe 
which arc mixed with the Cortical Bc^dy in the Barque : tJut which 
afcendeth by the Pores or Vejjeh of the Wood, being probably, be- 
caureinlefiquannty, morein form of a ^p/?ftr, than ^Liquor, Tet 
that which drenching into the fides of mPores^ is with all thereunto 
fuihcient Aliment 5 a? we ftc Orpim^ Omot^s^ i^c. only ftanding in 
^ a moyiter Aerwill often grow. And being likcwifc in part fupplied 

■ by the Injertions from the younger Shoots.: But efpecially bec.iud* as 
it is but Jjttle, fo (confidertd as Aliment) it fcrvcch only for the 
growth of ihe Wood^ and nc more 5 whercap, the more copious AH- 

^^ent afcendent by the younger shoots^ fiibfcrves not only their own 
growth, but the generation of others , and is befides with that in the 
Cortied Body i\\^^oam3i\noi Pcrffir.nmjSf which we know even in 
AmmuU 3^1(1 mucli more abiindrtuc than the NatrHive Parts'^ and 
doubtlefs in a Vegefahk are ililf much more. 

51. §. But theliPiJrc/, although they are a free and open way 
to the afccndin^ Sap-^ yet that mccr Peres or Vcffels fliould be able of 
rhem(e!ves to advance the i^;^ with that fpeed, ftrength and plenty, 
and to that height, as is necellary, cannot probably be fuppofed. It 
follows then, that herein we murt grant the Phh a joynt fervice. And 
why elfe is the 'Fiib m all Primitive Growths the moft S.!ppy part, why 
hath it fo great a Clock of .9^/', if not, after due maturation within it 
felf, ffiH to be di&burfed intn the Fibres of the Li^fiotts Body ^ Why 
are the Annual Gromhs of all hoih Herbs ?,wdTrc£s^\v\i\\ {treat Piths 
the quickeft and the longcft ? But h.ow arc tlie Pores or 
of the P,th permeable > That they are fo, borh from their being ca- 
pable of a repletion with 6^, and of being again wholly emptied of 
■ K, andagam, mfiead thereof hll'd with Ar, i^ as certain as that they 
^TC Pores. That they are permeabks i^y the breadth, appears frorn 
the dilatation of the L/^^tf//^B^4j., and from the produflioii of &^v* 
ihes^ a!i hath been, and (hall hcrtafter be faid- And how elfe is there 
a Communion betwixt Thh and the Conical Body } That they are fo 
' alfo, by the length, h probable, becaufe by the belt MnrofcoPe we 
cannot yet obferve, that they are vifiblymore open by the breadth 
than by the length. And withall arc ranked by the length, as thofe 
o_t ih^ hfertrof;s by the breadth of the Tr.ti;£-, But if you fet a 
piece of dry Elder-rith in fome tinged Liquor, why then doth it 
net penetrate th^ Pores, fo as to afccnd ihront^h the Body of the Vith^ 
} he plain reafon J^becaufe they are all hii'd with ^frAVhereas the Pii^ 
m a Vegetating PLr^t, as its Parts or nLdders are fiill jtcncrated, thev 
are at the ^me time alfo ffllM with Sup ^ which, as 'ti. gradually fpent 
IS MI repaired by more fucceeding, and To the Aer Rill kept out 5 as in 
all Pnmuivc Gyo.ths, nnd the o^ Elder it fdf ; Yet the ^m^Pith 
b r.,ron of .he following Winter, wanting a more copious and quick 

■ ^J^^^^'b^^^^^ Andfinceinthc 
aforefaid Trial the Liquor only afcends by the fides of the A/V that 









■^ 'J 



': f 

1 L 


H _ 

7i6e Juatomy 

Book L 

is of iu broken BUddcr^ wc (hoiiM thence by the fame rcafon con- 
clude that they arc not penetrable by the breadth neithefj and fo no 
way ; and then ii need not be ask'd what would follow. But cer- 
tainly the 5.f;» in the BUdders ^i th^ Pith\s difchargt'd and repaired 
every momenc,as by its ihriv'lin^ iip,upon cutting the P/^«t,is evident. 
32p j(- We fuppofe then, that as the S^p afcendcih into the TrM7!ii_ 
by the Ligmus Body^ fo parUy alfb by the pith. For a piece of Cottoit 
with one end i aimers' d in tome tinged Liquor, and with the other 
cre^ above, though it will not imbibe thi; Lif|uor to far as to over- 
run at the top, yet fo as to advanee towards it, it will. So here, the 
Pith, beins a porous and fpoiigy Body, and in its Vegetating ftatc, m 
Pores or BLddcrs being alfo permeable, as a curious Filtrc of Natures 
own contrivance, it thus advanceth, or as people ute to fay, fucks up 
the Sap, Yet as it is feen of the Liquor in the C&tfoK ^ fo iikewife are 
weto tlippofc it of ihe*Vi7p intheF/i/jf that thongh it rifcth up for 
fbme way, yet is their foroc term, beyond which it rifcdi nor, and 
towards which the motion of the afcending ^.z/fis more ard m< J re bro- 
ken, weakand flow, and fo ihc quantity thereof lefs and hf^. But 
bccaufe the S^p moveth not only by the length, but breadth of 
thcj Pith=, at the time therefore as it partly afcendeth by the 
JWj, it is Iikewife in pare prcfll'd into the Ligtiims EcAy or into its 
Pores. And fincc the motion of the S^p by the breadth of the Pith 
not being farcoiitinued, and but collateral, is more prone and eafie, 
than the perpendicular, or by its length 3 it therefore follows, that 
the collateral motion pf the Sap^ at fuch a height or part of the 
Pi/4 wiji be equally llrotig with the perpendicular at another parr 
though tomewhat beneath it , and that where the perpendicular ib 
more broken and weak, the collateral wiH belcfs^ and confequemly 
where the perpendicular tendency of the % hath its term, the col I a* 
teral tendency thereof, and fo its preffure into the Pvres or I'^jfeh of 
the Ug?totfs Body^ will ftill continue. Through which, in thjt they 
are fmall, and fo their tides almoft contiguous, the sap ^•i faft as pref 
fed into them wiikafily run up ; as in very fmall Glaile Pipes or be- 
twixt the two halves of a Stick hrft Hir, and then tyed fomewhar loofe- 
Jy together, may alfo any Liquor beobterved to do. By which Ad- 
vantage the facility and ftrength of that afcent will be continued 
higher in the iaidlcjfch, than in the Pitk Yet iitjce this alfo as 
well as that in the Puh will have its term ^ the Sap, although Vot 
thus ^r, wouMatlaftbe stagnant, or at lead itsafccnt be very Ipa- 
rmg, flow and feeble, tf not Ibme way or other rc-iuforced Where- 
fore, asthe5.|p moving by the breadth of the r///., preiieth thence 
into the A#/j of the D^^ioifs Bod^-^ fo having well fill'd thefe if 
in part by the fame OiUateral motion dUburfed back, into a yet 
higher f^egion of the Pitk By which partly, and partly, by that por- 
tion ot the Sap, which in its perpendicular afccnt was before lodged 
therein i tisthus here, as in any inferiour phce equ:illy repleniilk.'d. 
Whereupon the force and vigour of the perpendicular motion of the 
^^P herem, will hkewife be rencw'd ; and fo irs Collateral morion alfo, 
zn^{r^ ,ts prclfure into the Vcjjeh of the Ug^jo^u Body.mi conlcquertl* 

f^K^n'"^^^"- ^,"^/^^y^rr'''lJ^ir<^. fromtheic into the Phh, :mJ 
l\^..r ^'^^''F^'^ ^i*^*^' reaprocaliy carried on 5 a molt R-ady andco- 

E/s r ^'^^.'^^^^^ fr^^ the bottom to tbetop, 

tttough of the highell Tree, ^ 




■ th; 




. a 


Book I 

of Plantf, 


<^n Appendix, 

Of Tru7if^RoQts ajid Clafpersi 

TH E cliQinft Parts wliereof thefe are compored, are ihe (ame 
with thofi^ of the Trimk, , and but the conuDuacion of them, 

I- $, ^rnw4^7^'^'',^' are of twokinds: Of the one, are thofc that 
vegetate by a direft dcfcent : The place of their Eruption is fome- 
timcsall along the Trunk '-, as in Mint^ Sic. Sometimes only at its 
utmoft point, as in the Br.-^ihk. 

2, 2. The other fort are fuch as neither afctnd nor dcfcendj but 
Ihoot forth at right Angles with the Tr«f7k_^ which therefore, though 
as to their Office, they are true Boots, yet as to their Nature, ihcy are 
a A^iUdk Thivg betwixt a Rout and a Trii?rkr 

^•J' C7,//perj^ Though they arc but of one kind, yet their Na- 
ture is double' ^ nota mean bctwisit that of the ii^^f and that of the 
Tr//v^, but a compound of both ^ as in their Circumvolutions where* 
in thL-y often mutually afcend and defcend, is feen. 

4' ^. The ufe of thefe Parts may be obferved as the Triwk Mounts, 
or aijt Tiails. In the mounting oftheTra^ji, they arc for Sup^ 
port and Supply. For Support, we fee the CUfpers o? Vines : the' 

^\.-% If^^^"^"^^ ^^^"^S! very long, fragile and fiender^ unlefs by 
ttieir CA^/f^-r/ , they were mutually coiuainy together, they muft 
needshy their own weight, and that of their Fruit, undeccntly ftlJ ■ 
■A- J J '^'^^^"^ ^^ frequent breaking. So that the whole care 
K divided betwixt the Gardener and Nature; the Gardener, with 
fiis Lig,imenrs of Leather, ftcures the main Branches^ and Nature 
with .hcL- ot her own finding, fecures the Lefs. Their Conveniency 
to which end, isfeqnin \.W\r Orcjimvohnhrjs, a motion, not proper 
to any oxXkv V.rt : As alfo in their toughirf, though much more 
ilender than thL- Brjm-hcs ^vhercou they are appendcnt. 

%J\J^'^^^-'ii^'''^*^^^''y<^^y^^^'^^^^^^o-^^^^^^^^ about eve- 
ry I nird tmh\ to the form a Doublet^Clafp; Probably for the more 

certain hold i which, if it mifs one way , it may be fure to take 

^ ^- i5. For Supply, we fee the TninkRoitts of hy. For mount- 
mgvciT high, and being of a cloftr or more compaft Subfiance than 
tnatot a//y.^^ the,9.;;> could not be fufficiently fupplicdro thLMipper 
<{proitt.^^ unlcGihtfe, to the Mother-Root, were pymly aiUftauc, Yet 
icrvjjthev for ILipport hkewife^ whence they Ihoot out, not as in. 
^r^ll':^, Brook:luf,c^ &;c. recipocrallv on each fide, but commonly, ail 
oiionci thatf^ichey may be fitaed at the ncareft hand. 

7- jJ- In the Traihng of the Tr^/;^, they Tltvc for O.ibilimcnr 
propag.Kiou and Oiadc. For fLjbilimenr, the Cbfbers of Cuumkrs 
are of good u[e. For the Trunk and Bruncha being long and frasile 
the nruines ot the Winds wouM injnriouny hoife them to and fro t J 
ihe daaim^^gJ b^th of thcmfelve? and their tender Fruits, were 

K 1 they 







The Anatomy 

Book I 

they not by theft: Ligamcms brought to good Aflbciatioii and Set- 

tlcmcnt, . 

8, §, As for this end, lb for Propagation, the Trrmi{-RooU of 

Chnmat^ik do well fervc. Whcnct wc havt: the reafon of ihe common 
observation, that it throws better by being trod upon: the Mould, 
where too I axe^ bdng thus made to lie more convenitmly about the 
iaid Tmnkz^^^ots newly bedded therein ^ and is that which is fometimt? 
alfo effected in Rowlirg of CWw. 

9. 5?. For both thelc ends, Scrwi: Kh^ Tr iwli;^RiJots o^ Sir an btrries^^ 
ns alfo for fliade ^ for in that all Strawberrks deVtght 5 and by the trai- 
ling of the PLnt is well obtaiii'd. So that as we are wont to tangle 
the Twigs of Trucj together to make an Arbonr Ari7fni.d'f the fame 
is here done to make a NdUtrnl of^c : as likcwiie by the Claj^crs of 
CucumbcTs, For the Bra/ichcs of the one by the Linking of their 
Cliij^ersy and of the other by the Tethering of their Trii}ik:R<iots , be- 
ing couched together 5 their tender Fruits thus lie under the Um- 
brage of a B^wer made of their own Leaves. 




Of theGEllUEN. BRANCH, and LEAR 

■ ^t 

■ "I 

HE Parts of the German and Branchy are the 
fame with thofe of the Trimk^ ^ the lame Sk^rr^ 
Cortical and Ligmns Bodies Jtjfcrtmcrjt and Pith, 
hereinto pro^agatedj and diftindly obfervabL 

2, ^. For upon Enquiry into the Original 
of a Bruftch or Gcrmcf?^ it appear?, That it 
is not from the Superficies of the 7rjmi{ ^ but 
lb deep, as to take, with the Cer/h\il, the 
Ligr^oiis Body inttiitlelf: and that, not only from its Circumference,, 
but from iei Inner or Central Parts ; So as to take the Pith in 
alfo. Divers of which Purfs may coirmonly be letn to fiioot out 
into the /"/JA 5 from which Mff?//, the furrouiiding and more fuperi- 
our Gtrmetrs arc originated 3 in like manner as the Succulent Part of 
the Ligfw/is Bodj of the Trunk, is Ibmetimts principally from thoie Fi- 
brous shoi'is which run along the Pith in the Rcot. 

5. $. Themannerwherciiiufually the Germcnmd. Br^vch acefram'd, 
i;^ brieH'y tluis : The Sap ( asisfaid, Chsjp. ^. J mounting in the Trun^.^ 
Villnot onlybyitslcngth.bnthy its breadth allt>, through the hjjhtions 
partly move, Vet, its Panicles being not :ill alike tpialihedj indiife- 
rent degrees . Some an- more grols and ll^iggiili , of which wehave llie 
formationof a Circle ol Wood only, o\ oii\a Anjiu.-il Ritjg. Others arc 
more bri;^k ; and by thele, we have the C/trwf^; propagated. For by 
the vigour of their own motion from the Center, they imtuxtsantqnal 
tendency (mi ibme of the inner Porthns of ihc Lig?wits hfdy next adja- 

Book I. 

of Plant f. 




cent to the Pitl\ to move with them. And fincc the Ligmiu B^d)< i<t 
notencircj but ircqucntly difparted ^ t\\r O'^i^ ih^d: Drfpartmetifs^ the 
faid interiour PovHotts^ upon their Nutrition, ^k-luallv fhixit f not 
only towards the CircumR-TenceT foas to make part of a Rh'g^ but t-ven 
beyond it, in order to the prodnftioii of a Germc^. And. the Lipions 
Body thus moving, and carrying the Cvrth\ti along with it 5 they both 
make a force upon the Skjn. Yet tlieir motion being moft even and gra- 
dual, that force is fuch iikevvife ■-, not 10 caulc the Icaft breach of its 
parts, but gently to carry it on with themlclves ^ and fb partly, by_ 
the extenfion of its already txiftt-nt parts, as of thole oiGoId in draw- 
ing of Guildcd IT^c^ ^ andpartly, by the accretion of new oneSj a^ in 
the enlarging of a Bitbik above the Surface of the Water f it is ex- 
tended with ihcm to their utmoft growth. In which growth, the 
Germen being prolonged, and lb difplaying its ftveral parts, as when 
a Projpe&ivc or Tckfcopc is drawn out, thus becomes a Brjmh. 

4. ^. The f imt way as the propagation of the JVr/y of a G*.tw^^ is 
contrived, is its due nutrition alio. For biiiig originated from the 
inner part of the Lignoiis Body^ 'tis nourilhed with the btfl: fermented 
^jp in tht; Triwk_^ fi. that next adjacent to it in the Pith. Bciides, 
finceall its 7V//,upon their Hiooiing forih, divaricate from [heir per- 
pendicular, to a crofs Line, 3s thcie and the other grow aaiJ thrive 
together, they bind and throng e;jch other into a Knot : through 
which Knot the Saf being ftrain'd, *tis ihus^ in due moderation and 
purity delivered np into the Br^'JcL 

5, § And for Kmts^ they are fo necefiaryj as to be C'cn not 
only where coUaterl Br^mthcs put forth 3 but in fuch rlat:ts alfo, as 
Ihoot up inonefingic Trti^l{_'^ as in Cifrn. Wherein, as ihey make 
for the ftrengUi of the Trimk^--, fo by fo many ptrcoiatious, as they 
are Knots^ for the trafmiliion of the S.ip more and more refined 
towards ihQ Ear. So that the two general ufts of Knots are^ For 
fffrer fi^mding^ aotl Jitter growth. 

6- f. LaiUy, as the due Formation and Nutrition of the Gtrwcj/ 
are provided for, fo i^ its fecurity alfo ^ which both in its pofiiion upoa 
theTn^fl/^, and that of its Parts imiuug ihemfelves,may be obfervt-d. 
The pofuion of its Parts (hall be confidcrcJ in fpeakimg of the 
tcafi As to its ftanding in the 7>«vj^, tis aUvayes betwixt the 
trnnk^or older Bramh, and the B^/7j of the Stalk of .; £f-j/3 where- 
by it is not only guarded from the Injuries of anv contingent Vio- 
lence^ but alfo from the more piercing allaulcs of thi: Cold 3 fo 
long, till in time ^tis grown larger, and more hardy. The maner 
and ufes of the poficion of every Gcrmcti^ confidered as after it be- 
comes a ^..vWj 3 hath already been, by the Ingenious Mr, sharrock\^^^ of ihc 
very well obfcrved 3 to whom I refer. ^ro^.o{i\ga. 

7- §■ UPON THE prolong.ulonof the Gi'r/;/t« into ixBrajJthw 
Leaves ^VQ thus difphiy'd. The P.iris whereof arc lubftantialiy the 
lame wi;h thofe of a BrancL For the Sk/n of the Leaf, is only the 
amphaiioiiofthatof thcBr.?'/.-^^ being partly bv the accretion of 
new, and partly the L-Mcm ion of its already exiJl.nt parts 'iil^ted 
0^inmakingof/.,.,/.GJ,/) into it. prefent breadth. The Fibres or 
iVt>r7;f.dilperlcd through the Leaf, are onlv the Ramifications of the 






Sratfc/js Woud: or Ljg,sojfs Bodl. 

The P.irfHihyma of the Leaf^ 



' ' 





The Anatomy 

Book I 

which lici lietwixt ihe Nenxs. 




C. 3,j5p 24- 

ml as in Gunfcwomtns Need 
up, !s nothing clfe, but the continuation of the Ctfr/j..,x ^oay 
or Farmchjtmoitr part of the fi-/^^we from the Bratjcb into it fdf, 35 \\\ 
nio(t f /-/^?/f with a thick Leaj\ may callly bt itQu. 

8. j«- The /■^7/'cr/ of the/.(>-?/nciibcraioot omofihcBr^wjf^ or 
the Tritfik., nor (tand in the sUk, in an fa^^ Line ^ but aiwayes in 
either an Af^gaLr or C/n«Z^>< pofturt ^ and ufualjy making cither a 
Ttirngk, 0£ a Semr-Qnle^ or Chord of a Cnch ^ asinCnhrj'^ Endive 

r^h.^.f.2. CMage, Sic. m.\y be ohihrvQcl AucWf th^lafhsvc bntoncmjtn f /' 
to/* II. ^^^ that alfo is poftur'd in a bowed oi7.w//^r Figure ^ as in AJ^wt^ntl 
others. The ufual number of thcfL' VaJMar Thnds or Fibres is 5,5 or 7 

9. 4. The rcafon of the faid Pohuons of the Fihers in the ^\dk of 
the Uaf, is for its more ErcH growth, and jjrcatcr Strc>?^th : which 
were the pohuon of thefaid ///■^^^ in an cj^f^L/^ic, anJ fotheS/^/A 
It fdf, as well as the Leaf, flac^ mnit needs have been defudive ■ as 
from what we h:ive faid of the Circumferenuai pofrurc of tl^e Lmwiis 
Body m the trmil^, we may better conceive. ^ 

10. ^. As likewife for the fecurity of its Sap : For by this menns 
It IS that the reveralFyi.,^, and efpecially the main or middle F/i^r 
of the Leaf; together with a confiderable part of the Parcn^lmja are 
fo difpofed of as to pt out, not from its upper, but its Kick, or 
neither Side. Whence the whole L..;; reclining backward, become. 
"" 1 r t?'^"* ''''^' defending them from thofe Injuries which from 
colder Blafts, or an hotter Sun, they might otherwife fuftain. So 

?/ . r,T^'^ ^'^"^'^^^^ ^s There give /«.^ to all the i../, fo that 
again proie&jon to Thclle. ' ■' 

1 1. fi. Thcic Fibers are likcwifethe immedkte Vifible Caufe of the 
Shape of the L^af, For if the nethermoft Fikr or Fibers in the S,M 
Cwhich thence mm chiefly thtoi.gli the length of the Lc.f 1 be in pro- 
pomon greater, tb. L../i. long , .., in £di.c, Cuhcrj^r^A oriZ: 

Colts foot, &c And although a DockLcaf be very long, whofe 

r-i- 4- fL.T r '" ^q"-^l fi^e; yet herein one or more pe^li.r 

4 ftand ng, ,a ornear .heCc,,/.r, betwixt the reft, and Lnine 

through the length of the U.,f, may be obft-n-cd ^ 

■ l^' /■ ri" '^""^■'{'""^'cnce alfo to the (izeand ihape ofihefc Films 

s the L..f flat In that either they nr^ very fmall/or if krger S 

-i^y- 4 ■ nT^""' *" ' ""'TT ^'^"^'^ °^ ^""S ^ but either halfof^onc,'a 

Fo f either they were fob,j>, as to contain , or fo entire, asperfeaiy 

Se r.S ''^^^he Energy of the Saf in that Fith, wou d caufc 

th, C,id L.s>,o.s R,„gto flioot forth on every fide, a itdoihin e 

lu^g, but [o as to be open ; on that hand therefore where orct> 
hy cannot 1 hoot any thing direftly from rhemfelvc, bcca.ife the^ 
hey have noihmg to flioot ; and the ^.p havint; alVo a Ice vent 
hrough the Cud opening, againfl that paft thcrdnre whic!! the 

fotS oSt l" T "^r"" 'n ' '"' '■' "^■"''- "'i' "' ' ■ -- 
which tLf r ', ""' ***,'"'" ''"■■>■ ^""^^'l"<^ntlv, that w/y only, 

which the force of the ,.f direels, which is only o i the right and 




-■* of 

^ ^ ■ 

»/* arc 
^ or 

b chat 
: of [lie 



- feen. 






Book L 

^ Plants. 





, §, The Icveral i-V/icrj m the J/-//^, arc alf fnofculatt'd in the 
Leaf] with very nLiny Suti-diviliors. /According as thcfc Frliers art: 
Inolcul^tttd rie;ir, or ar, or fhntit direftly to the cd^jt: of the Lcuf^ 
is it Even, or Scjllo^Ai. Where thefc Ifiofmlitiofts are not made, 
there we have no Latvesj but only a company of Filaments ^ as io 

14. §. To the Forrfutioh-s of Lmvcs^ tlie F''onldi?7gt immediately 
follow. And Sometimes they have one Date, or are the contemporary 
works of Hitrrrc^ each Lf^// obtaining its diftinct fhapCj and proper 
pofture together; horh being perfedj not only in the outer, but Cen- 
tral and minureft Lv.jves^ which are five hundred rimes fmaller rhan the 
outer: both which \u the Cautious opt-'ning of a GcrmcK may be feen- 

15. ^. Nor is there greater Art in the Forms^ than in ilie Fonhh 
or Pojhircs o? Lctves '^ both anfwtrably varying, as this or that way 

they may be moft agreeable. Of the ^//^fw^r/<i/poflurc/o amply in- frcat ofthe 
Ihncd in by the Learned Sir thof^as Eioirf/^ I Ihali omit to fj^cak, m,mc!{f!x. 
Others there are, which tlioughnoc all fo univcrfal, yet equally ne- '"^ 
cefliiry where they are, giving two general advantages to the Leaves^ 
Z!cgai7cy ;\nA smirity, fi, in raking up, fo as their -F-^rwj will bcar^ 
the leail room ^ ancf in bting fo conveniently conch 'd, .is to be capable 
of receiving proteftion from other Parts, or of giving itone to ano- 
ther^ as forinftancc, 

16. ^. FirfV, There is the Boiv-Lip^ where the Leaves are all 
laidfomewhat convexly one over another, but not p'aited j beingto 
the length, breadth :;nd number of Lc-twj mofl: agreeable 5 as in the 
Buds of PeaMree, Phtm-lree, &c- But where the Leaves are not ^o 
thick fef, as to ftand in the Bove-Lap, there we have the Plhaiun^ or 
the tiat-Lcip 5 as in n^fi-Tree, Straa^krrj^ Cmftefoyl^ Bnrnct, &c. For 
the Leases being here plaited, and fo lying in half their breadth, and 
divers of them thus alfo collaterally fct togeiher ^ the thickncfs or 
them all, and half their breadth, are much ahke dimcnfionsj by which 
they ftand more fLXure within ihemfi^lvts, and in better confort with 
other Gcr^en-Groipths in the fame T/'///}, If the Le^es be much in- 
dented or Fgg'd, now we have the DrfffkaUtre 5 wherein there 
are divers PUHs in one Lcaj\ or Labels of a Leaf, but in diftinct 
^ets.z leffer under a greater ^ as in Soifchu^^ Tanfcy^ &c. When 
the Uuvcs ilmd not eolfaterally , but fingle ^ and are moreover 

very broad 5 then we have the M^/^j^Ar^f^rir^ zsmGoofeherricsy MaU ] 

h^s %LQ. the Plaits being not only divers in the fame, but of j 

the iame m continuant, and fo each Leaf gathtT d up in five, feven ■ 

or more Foaids^ in the fame manner as our Genilewomcns Fans =- 

Where either the thjcknefs of the LeafWiW not permit a FhuLap or 1 

thefcwnefsof their number, orthe fmalnefs of iheir Fihcrs, will allow ' ' 

the liou^!,thtv^: This may be ob^-erved. Which is fometimes fingle, as in 
mars^t.4rs^ Ar^ni, Flammtila, Jcrufkm O^pp^ &e. Sometimes dou- 
uic the two Ro^h beginnmg at each edge of the Leaf and roeetinff 
in the middle. Which again, is either the Fore^Ko^l, or the Bac^ 
^owL It the Le^/bc defign'd to grow long, now we have the S^f^- 
^ml, as in Docks^ Sorrels^ and the reft of this Kindred : as aifo in 
Frw^rofi, and other like Fla^^ts. For the main Fibers, and there^' 
r / ^^"5^^^^^^^^ P^" <^f ^he Cortical Body ftanding praminent from 
the Backcjtde of the Leaf, ihey thus ftand fecurely couch'd up bc- 

• twixt 







' L 




i > 


y/ie Anatomy 

Book I. 

twixt the twoi?i?Jr//5 on whofc fccuriiy tJie growih of the Leaf 
in length dept-iids. But thoCc of Bcars-Eari, Vwktf^ Doves Foot, 
Wardm^ ,ind many more, upon contrary rcfpe^t^f, are rowled up in- 
wards. Laftly, there is the Tn^-Row!^ ^s \n F cr?t •-, x\\^ Lubcls v/h^io- 
of, though 3\\ rowk'd up to the «a^/// Stc?;/^ yet conid not (bind fo 

firmaiidiccurefromthc Injuries cither of the Gjw/W or ffW^Iitr,unkfi 
to the RevpJs in breadth, that by the lengtii were fiifier-induc'dj 
the stiil!{^ or juaw Stem giving the iame ProteQicn here, which in 
oihQi vUnts by the V^e^t/, or iome particubr AW///k^, 15 contriv'd. 
Thele, and other Fojilds^ Sec in the F/gnrcs belonging to the Fini 

JSart of ih^Femh '^oofe, 

i;, ^, According to the i'^rirw nnd Fmihlif/g of every /r^)^ c^ 
Germet7y ii itsProteftion ortler'd ^ about fix ways whcrcx-jf m^y be 
obferv d 5 fi, by Leaves^ Sm-fjiyh^ I/jtcrfflvh^ Stall^f^ thvds and M;^;f- 
/'«^/. To add to what we have above given, one or two fnltances, 
Every Bnd, bifides its proper Leaves^ h covered with divers Leafy 
Pamiieies or Sttrjbyh --j which, what the Leaves are to one another, 
are that to them all : for not opening e^icept gradually, they admit 
not ihQ Weather, iFtt^ Suji ov Aer, to" approach the Lc.ttc/, except by 
degrees refpondcnt, and a&thLV arc i^raduaily inur'd to bear them^ 
Sometime^', btiides Sitrfajls^ th£:reare alfo many la Urjl^y I s ^^ibiLiWxxt 
the Leaves^ from th': Circumference to the Center of the Btsd ^ as in 
the Hafei For the Fibres of thefe U.i'i^es ftanding out fo far from a 
plain furface 5 they would, if not thus (belter "d, he too much ej;pos'd 
and naked to the Semrities of the Weaiher. Where nojieof a]! the 
Proteftiors above-named, are convenient, there the Mcfftbrah-es of the 
Z-e^&ejby continuation in their fiift forming ("together wirh fomei^j- 
hres of the Ligr^ons Body) are drawn our into f?j many M.miks or 
Feifs^ as in Doikj^ SjuJ^med, &:c. For the Ll^^^cj here being but 
few, yet each led/ and its 5/.v//<^ being both exceeding ^^^%h at the 
bottom whereof the next following "i.c.v/^ fiili fprin^s up^ the form 
and pofture of all is fuch, as fupcrfedcs all the oihcr kinder of Protefti- 
on, and fo each Leaf apart is provided with a Veil to it ielf, Thefe 
and other PrwiaTww/, See in the f /^m'j belongitsg to the Firfi ifinct 
oflheff«r//j "^OOk. 

s8. ^ The UfL-s of the /-e-iw/, I meaniri refped of their fcrvicc 
to the PLwt it felf, are ihefc Firft, for Proa^ion 6 which, be- 
fiJcs what they give one to another, they afford alfo to the Flower 
and Frttit. To the Fhx^^r in their Fotddi ^ that being, for th^ moft 

?art, born and ufiier'd into the open Aer by the Leaves, To the 
•niiiy when afterwards they are difplay'd, ^s \n Sfrnwbcrrks^ Gr-fcs, 
Rafps^ AUlberrks^ &c. On which, and the like, Ihould the Sun^ 
Beams immediately ftr ike , efpccially while they arc young, they 
would tjuitc flirivtl them np ^ but Ixing by thc^ L^.^i'rxYcreencd off, 
they imprefs the circumjacent Aer fo fir only as gently to warm the 
(aid JT^-tiVy, and fo 10 promote ihi:^\Y Ferr^m!Utiv?r:\wi\(3ror\Hh. And 
accardjngiy we fee, that the Leaves above-n^imed are exceeding large 
in propocion to the Fruits: whereas in Pear-trees^ Apple^irec, &c. 
the Fritit being of a folider Parcuchy^a, and io not needing the like 

protection, arc ufuailye*jual with, and often wider in Diamuter thr,n 
the Luues. 

19. ^, 


Book I. 

of "Plants. 

19. i. Another uftr h for AiigmcntatTon 5 or, the capacity for 
tfic due fprcadiiif^aiid ampliation of a Tree or other Fim arc its 
Leaves. For herein the Ligfwiis Body bdng dividtJ mto fmall Fibrit 
and ihcfc nmyiinc; -nil along their lax and fpongie Par€mh)mai, they 
arL' thus a /J^J^ ht fortlie imbibition ofS^/f, and cafie GrorvtL Now 
the -.^J/" having a free reception in*o the Leaves^ it flill gives way to 
the next iiiccecding \u the Brutjckcs and Trunks and the voydins 
of the 5,//^ in theft, for the mounting of that in the i^tj^;/^ and ingrefi 
ot that in the Grimnd. But were there no Leaves to make a free 
reception of s^ip, it mufl: be needj^ be ftagnant in all the Parts to the 
Root, and fo the Root being clogg'd, its fermenting and other Offices 
will be voydcd, and fo the due Growth of the whole. As in the mo-' 
tion of a Watch^ although the original term thereof be the Spr'wg., yet;, 
the opacity for its continuance in a due meafure throughout all' the 
Wheelf^ is the free and cafie motion of the BalUffce, 

ao. ^, Laftly, As the Leaves fubferve the more copious advance- 
ment, fo thehigher purity of the 6^- For this being well fermen- 
ted both in the Koot^ and in its Afcent through tht Trmk,-, and 
fo its Parts prepared to a farther feparation 3 the groifLT ones are 
ftill depofited into the ti^.Zi'Cj ^ the more ehborate and eifeniial only 
thus fupphed to the hlower^ Frmt and Sced^ as their convenient aL 
mmt. Whence it if, that where the Fhwers are many and Jarge in- 
to which the more odorows Particles are copioufly receiv'd the green 
Leaves havejittle or no fmell ^ as thofe o(R<^jMree, Car^atLsFre,,,k- 
Marigold, Wood-bimi, Tidifs, Sec. But on the contrary, where the 
Fhmrs are none, or fm;ill, the green Leaves themfelve are likewife of 
a ftrong favour^ as thofe of RV^^..^, Tunfic, ^annt. Mint, Pne 
^tramum mofchutum^ Angelica^ and others- 

^An Appendix. 

Of Thorns, Hairs and Gkhult-ts, 

THm^s arc of two kinds Ligmus and Cortkal. Of the firli are 
o,.. '^^'^'^™"f''ie//.«/A.r«, and are connimttd of all the 
feme fubftancial Parts whereof th. Gcr^cn or B>,d it fdf and in a 
l.k. propornon: which alto in their Infancy are fet with t'he rcL- 

bJ y'Sn'^ZJ^^'" ^'^^'j ='"'' Tops of diver. Lea.e., i of 
STmSoS •^'' -^/-f^. and oihers; all which I think ^re the 
?hnrincbarT"'" 5"" ^'^"'"" »"''^"^-li^d in the Skj.. But 

LW nit ^ ?'"^,>,''' '" ^"S^*""' f™-" ^he Inner part of the 
tenSrt '' nd n ''*■; ^""i-'^V^'""^' ^^'^"' thc'o.tcr, and 
:rW. o^ a is ' ^'^^'^^"^'^ "° ^"^^^' ^"' '=' ^'^ i^ were, the 









. n (■ 


. 1 


' . I 
V I 



TjE-^ Anatomy 

Book I. 

t:.2- #. 25. 

a, j£, Cifrl/cal Thffrvs arc fiich as ihoieof the J^jf/^crri' Ijijfli, be- 
ing not^ unkly in a moft extraordinary fmall and invifible proporuon 
propagated from the Ligt/OHJ Bvdy^ but as, it feenis, wholly from the 
Conical 3.\-\A Ski fi^ orfrom the cxteriour part of the Barque. 

5, jS. The Grovpth of this Thorn may farther arj^ue what in the 
Secot^d Chapter we fuppoied ^ fc. That as the proper Taidtmy of ihe 
Jjgnous Body^ isto Aficffd'-^ io o{ u\c Cortical to Defcet^d, For as the 
LigJiojis Thorn^ like other Parts of the 71v/w^ ^ in its Gromh afcends^ 
This, being almoft wholly Corticaf^ poinreth downdwatcJ, Tlic ii£ of 

Hift. of i\^Tkorns the Ingenious Mr 5-6-;^^;?^^^ hathobfevcd. 

P^j/',ofP'fgirf. 4, ^, Upon the Lc^fTj of clivers W.;«:/ two ProdnBh^is (hew 
themfclves, _/c. Hairs and Ghnhkts. Of H^/'v, only one kind is 
taken notice of ^ although they arc various. Ordinarily ihey are of 
:iSimpk Figure ; which when fine snd thick fee, as on moit Hairy 
Buds 5 ot fine and long, as on thofe of tlie K'^e, we call tliem Dort^fK 

5, §. But fomctiraesthcy are Br^;»r^cf/;?w/, from the bottom to the 
topj reciprocally on every fide, in fome reftmblance to a Stags Horn^ 
as in Atidlefr. And fometimes they are AJtruI^ as upon Lavetfder^ and 
fbme other XcjT'f/, and cfpecially ihofe of ^I'j/i/ 0/w 5 wherein every 
Hair rifing in one round emire Bafis a little way above the furface of 
the Le^J^ is then difpartcd, Star4ike, into feveral, four, five or fix 
FQJKts^ all ftandinj* atrif^ht Angles with the ftid pcrpendiadar Bafts. 

6. \. The Ur!:s of H.wrjarc for D/j^?«c/7i?H and frotdiion. That 
of DifliJi^ion is but fecondary, the Leazes being grown to a confide- 
rable fize- Thatof P^t?;a7i4?K is the prime, for which they were ori- 
ginally formed together with the Leaves t\-\cmic\ves^ and whofc fer- 
vicethey enjoy in their Infant-cftate: For the Hwj-/ being then in form 
of a Daief^, always very thick fet, thus, give that Protc&ion to the 

'^ Leaves^ which their exceeding tendernefi then requires; To that they 

fecra to be vefted with a Coat of Prize, or to be kept warm, like 
young and dainty Chick^ns^ in WooL 

7. ^. Globuleis' i\iQ leen upon Orach^ both Garden and Wild 5 
and yecnujre plainly on Mircur)' or Bof7its Henrims. In theic, grow- 
ing almoft upon the whole Fhuit^ and being very large, they arc by 
ah taken notice of 

8, if. But ftri^ Obtrvation difcovers , that thcte GlobnLls arc 
the natuni! -.ind conftant df-fpring of very many other PlafUs. Both 
thefc Ghhdets^ and likewife the diverfity of Hairs^ I find that Mr- 

Mkrogriphy, Ht^^ hath alio observed, I take notice, ihat they arc of two kinds ^ 
Tranjparcfit, as upon the Leaves of Hy/op^ Mifjt, BaM/pJc^ and many more 

, ■ Whitc^ as upon thofe oi Germander^ Sage^ and others. All which, 

though the naked l-Iye will difcover, yet by the help of G/aJ/cs we 
may obfervcJhem moEl diftin^ly. The ufe of thefc we fiippoie the 
^me^ in parr, with thofe of the Floo'sr^ whereof we Ihall fpeak. 

;, I 


Book I, 


of Plants. 


Of the FLOWER. 

E next proceed to the Florrcr. The general P^rts 
whereof .ire moft commonly thrc-e^ fc. the Em- 
pakmentj the Foliatiof?^ 2.n6.lhG Attire. 

a. i, Th^ EmpakrHcnt^ whether of one or more 
pieces, I call that which is the utmuft Purt of the 
Flower^ encomp;iffiiig the other two. Tii; com- 
pounded of ihethrLX' general Parts^ ihtS^JKjthG 
Cortical and Lignotts Bodies^ each Evipafcr {where there are divers) 
being as another little £s.^/^ as in thofc of a ^hicc-Flower, as oft 
as they happen to be overgrown, is wej] C'ccn. As likcwife in the 
Pri^rofe, withthe^rcfft Fhtver-j commonly fo call'd, though by a 
miftake; For that which fecms to be the Fhmr^ is only the more 
floiirifliing Empakment, the Fhwerit felf being White, But the con- 
tinuatioa of all the three aforeiaid ra7-ts into each Empulcr^ is dilco- 
verable, l think, no where better than in m Artichoke^ which is a 
trueF/tfjvrr, and whofe £»y?^/fr/ are of that amplitude, as ftirly to 
fliew [hem all : As alfo, that the Original of the skin of each Empakr 
or Lsaf is not diftinft from that of the reft ^ but to be all one piece, 
hid in fo many Phits or Dnplkatuns^ as there are Leaves^ from the 
outermoft to the inner and moft Central ones, 

3. jS. The Defign of the Emp^kment^ is to be SeairUy ^t\A^ Bands 
to the other two Farts of the Flou^er : To he their Seninty before its 
opening, by intercepting all extremities of Weather : Afrerwards to be 
their B:;Wj, and firmly to contain all their Parts ia their due and 
moft decorous poftnre : fo that a Flower without its Empikmcnt 
would hangas uncouth and taudry, as a Lady without her Bodks, ' 

4, ^. Hence we have the reafon why it is various, and Ibmetiines 
wanting. Some Flor^ers have none, as Tulips 3 for having a fat and 
frioi Leaf, and each Leaf Hkewife ftanding on a broad and ftrong Ba- 
fis^ they are thus fufEcient to themfelves. Carfi-iiiom, on the con- 
trary, have not: only an Empalemem, but that f' for more firmitude ) 
of one piece: Foroiherwife, the Foot, of each Lf-// being very long 
and llender, moft of them would be apt to break out of compals : 
yet IS the top of the Empakmc^n indented alfo^ that the hdcntmnts, 
oy being lapp'd over the Leaves before their cxpanfion, may thcQ 
proa-a them; and by being fpread under them afterwards, may bet- 
ter IhjiuMer and prop them up. And if the Feet of the LeJes be 
tJOth long and very tender too, bere the Empakment is numerous 
though confiftmg of feveral pieces ^ yet thofe in divers Rom^ds, and 
an withacoumcrchangeaWc refpeft to each other rwhich alfo the 
Learned Sn-Tham,ts Brown obferves ) as in all Knapweeds^ and other 
Fto^.rs ^ whereby, how commodious they are for both the aforefiid 
ends miye.imyl,:; conceivMi and wellcnough exemplified by the 
Scales of Ff^s, whercauto, a. to their pofition, they have not an 
unapt rcieiiijlancc. '^ 



i-m I 

Trcjt. ofrhc 



; I 






' 'A. 

■ J 


The Anatomy 


5. ^. THE FOLIATION alfo, isof the f^me fubftantial TJj/;^rc 
with the green /.*?.'/ j the Nlcrfibrane^ Fidf^ ^uA Fibres whtrcoF, be- 
ing, as there, ftj here, but the coniiiiuanon of the Sk^t7^ the Cortkd 
ai]d Ligiiotts Bodies. 

6. ^- The Jtfjf/^j of the f/^jr(7r or Ff?/i**i7iv» are various, as thofe 
of the green L^af ^ but fome of them different. The molt general 
are, Firlt, Ih^ ChJc-CoJich, asm Rojes^ iind many other double i^/tirp- 
ers. Then the Cci!cavc-Com\ as in BLitinrfa jiore albo. Ne>;t the 
Fkii^ as in fome of the Lea'vcs of Peafi-Bhoms^ in the Florrers of Gr/- 
ander^^c. which is either fingle, as in thole nam'd ^ or double, as in 
Bkvi'-Botik^ ^Jcea^ and more of that rank. Next, the Couch-, and 
P/i//; together in the fame Fhmr^ as in Marigolds^ D-n(ks^ and aJl 
others of an agreeing form : where the firft apparent Fojtld or Csm- 
foflurt of the Leaves h vd Conchy but the Leaves being ereit, each' 
fikewiiemay be fecn to he in a double Plait within it felK Then 
thei^fir/, as in the Fhwer-s oi Ladks-Boiver, the broad top of each 
Le-^/ being by a double i^i^ar/ foulded up inwardly. Next, thci'/^/re, 
which is ihebtginningof ii Roml^ and may be ften in the Fhrvers 
of jVfj/to/, and others, Laftly, the P/^// and i'p/'e together, where 
the Part analogous to the Foliatioff^ is of one piece, the Fiaits being, 
here laid, and fo carried on by spiral Lines to the top of the Florter^ 
as is in divers, and! thinkj in Convolvulus Doronki fc/io^ more ele-. 
gantly feen. Thefe and other Foulds^ See in the Figures belonging, 
to the Sec9Nd]pdXi of the Fourth ')5\itAK. The reafon of ail which 
varieties , a comparative confideration of the fevera! Parts of the- 
F/t^jper may fuggelt. He only mention. That no J^/mptr, that I find, 
hath a BackcRoivl^ as hath the green Leaf, For two Rcafbns -, bccaule 
its Leaves have not their Fibres ft.inding out much on their bacltilde, 
as the green Leaves have ^ and bccaiifc of its Attire^ which it ever cm- 
boJbmts, and cannot lb well do it by a Bacl^Roivi 

^7. J?. The ufudl Protccfiof^s of Flotvers "l>y the Precedents are ex- 
pTtii,''d^ fi. Green Leaves :^nd EMpdle/f/e/^ts. Some have another more, 
peculiar, that is a double Veil'-^ as xh^ Sprijjg-CrGcf^. For having no 
Rmpalemefjt^'md, itaningup early out of the ^l/Wt/^cvcn before itsG/'tf a 
Leaves^ and that upon the firft opening of the Spring ^ 3efl it Ihould^ 
thus be quite ftatved, 'tis born fwath'd up in a double Blank^t^ or 
with a pair of sheets w^or^ its Bucf^ 

\ _B. ^» The Leaves of divers Fhrvers at their Bjfis have an fjair^ 
Tuft if by which Tufts the Concave of the Rmpulement \^ filled up 5. 
Toat, beinj^ very choice and tender, they may thus be kept in a gen- 
tle and conriant Warmth, as mo[t convenient for them. 

9- $. I'he Leaves of the Fhiver^ though they are not hairy all 
over, yet in fome particular parts they are often fct with a fine 
Downy I'el'oet -^ that, being by their Ihape and pofture in tho(c 
parts contiguous to their delicate and tender Attire, they may thus 
give it a more foft and v;armcr touch. Thus in the floxver of Ladies 
Borccr^ (hofe part^ of its Leaves which rowl inward, and lie contiguous 
to the Attire^ are Downy ^ whereas the other Parts are fmooih or 
bald: So the F hirers oi Peajc, spanijh Broom ^ Toad-Flax, and many 

others,' where contiguous to their ^//>rfj» are decVd with the like 
Hairy Velvet, 


10. ^- 

Book I. 


to. ?. As upon the Green Lcaf.rj , Co upon tlie Fhnvcrs are 
Ghiiiku (omtimes ll'cn ; as upon ihc IxK-klidc of that of E/inh. On 
nonL-mori; plainly thai) that lundof£/.;(f,m<i with the white Flurecr' 
where tlicy are all traiifparent, and growing both on the St.ilk and 
Leavct of the/7o7Pcr, each (hewing likcwife lis Pedi-mk whtrconit 
is e reded. 

1 1. ^. The nfe of t!ie Flower, or the Foliuihn whereof we nhH 
fpeak ("that is, as to its private fervice J is for the proteaiwn of 
the Attire-^ This, as its under, and the Emp.demc^t as iis upper Gar- 
ments. As likewifcofthc Fruit: The ntcdiicy of whicii Service irf 
fome Cafes, by the different fituation of tht: Flower and Frail witti 
refpeft to eaeh other, is evident i Apfks, Pears, and'orjior 
Friats^ landing behind or under the i-Vravr ; hm Cherries Apnrols 
and divers oiiiers, within it. for thcfe. being of a very tender ind' 
puJpous Body, and withal putting forth with the colder part of the 
Spring ^ could not weather it out againft the Variations and Extre- 
mities of the A,r, C as thofe of a more folid Paremhyr^.i can ) except 
lodged up within their Flomrs. ■ -• f 

12. ^. And as the Flower is ferviceable to the f^fctv of the 
^run fo isn to its growth ; /.. in its Infancy, orEwWtftate: 
for which purpofe as there is a Floivtr, Co that Florver is Greater ot 
Icfs, according r.s the nature of the Fr>„i to which it belones and 
the plenty of the Sap by which the Fr>,ii is fe'd, doth reqiir^' 
Thus, where the young F™/MsofafoIider SubftanceancI the afccn^' 
of theA^j> lefs copious, were there here no Ff^wer t6 rromotc the 
faid afcenc thereof into the Fruit ( in the manner as is erfefted by the 
Green Lcazcf ) \: iiiuft needs pine and die, or prove lei's kindly. On' 
the contrary, fhould the Flower be over-la^e, it'^ould nbt only 
promote the afcent of the 5^; up to the Fruit, but being as vet over- 
proportionate to ,t would likewile it felf exhauft the ftmi s.p, as 
M as afcendciit i like a greedy Nurfe, that prepares the Meat for her' 
Chdd, and then eats it up her felf Thus we fee Apples and Pear^ 
with a Fhwer of a moderate Size ; like their Eoclj, of a middle Con- 
taion and thetr Sap, of a middle quantity /But ^„„.„, being 
TrS ' l^^f''" 'hat they have as great a i^/.i..., "STe /^.^./../^f 

?n in Tf" f ° '^"'/° ^'^ /= '° ^''''^' handfom Lea J , con- 
tinuing alfo after the Flower is fallen, firm and verdcnta great while, 

fides that their F^^paler^ are much alike, their Flower is left, and OW 
8.7 '""^/T'"' Which are mil more Pulpy, and the courfe ,? he 
Sup towards them more free, have yet a FlJJer far lefs And c U.^ 

SI? ^^i" i t'^^^^\^^^^-i have fearce an ,W ^^l 
Sefc t} rJr^^^'^'^' '^'''°^' '^^^'"g )^ft -P°n the fetting of 

and no longer: 

and F/.L tI ^TJ'^^' » fi"d to be of two kinds, .Wmftr*;. 
pi/r ^hat which I call 5m^„,/„,^., ismadeupoftwogineri 

?L r^ffo m nW "t? c"^^ '^l ^f^P"""^^' ^'^''^'^'y i" - y 
-«wer^, ot lo many httle Seeds : but arc quite another kind o^Bodl 

For, upon enquiry, we find, that thefe 5^., though they femfo 

. be 





4 I 



1 ,1 1 

' \' 

1 ^ 


■ Ji- 

>fL s 1 

' >^'' 

!■! \ 

it' ^ 

'«■;, 1 

\ ' - 

I ■ 
1 . 


1 1 ' 

i I'- 

i^ ■ 


'■n : 

n , 

. i 


- "■ 


• 1 



The Anatomy 

Book r 

be Iblid, ami for fonn; lime after their (irft formation, are entire^ yet 

are they rtally hollow^ and their fide, or fide Sj which were at firil 

entire, at Icngih crack afunder: And that moreover the O/icave of 

£3chS^f;iict is not a metr vacuity, hut filTd up with anumber of minute 

Particles, in formof a PiiW^. Which, though common to all ^fw^/j^ 

yet in fomc, and pariiculLuly thofe of a Tfl/7>or a ij/Zt, bcinelareer, 
Tab. 4,/,i2. is more diftinftly obfervable. t. a -^ 

14. ^, Thefe Se^eis are fomtimcs fanned fo, as to ftand creft 
above their Ci/^'f, as thofeofL^r4r-/if<^/. Somtimcs, and I think ufu- 
ally, lb as tohang a littlcdownby the midle, in themanncrand figure 
of^Kidncj/^ as \n Mallom. Their C/^y> orCr^^/; is Ibmetimcs fingle, 
but for the moft part double ; At thefe Clefts it is that they disbnrfe 

/. i2.-a, thcXT Poredcrs '^ which as they fert out, and ftand betwixt the two 
Lips of each C//;/i, have fome rcftmblance to i he common Sculpiure 
of a fomcgravaiG with its Seeds looking out at the Cleft of its Kind. 
This mufi be obferv'd when the Ckfts arc recently made, which usu- 
ally is before the expanfion oUht^ Fiercer, 

15. ^. The Particles of thefe Ptmdcrs ^ though like thofc of 
Meal or other Duft, they appear not eafily to have any relugar [liape ^ 
yet upon ftnft obfervation, efpecially with ihe afliRance of an indi- 
fferent G/j/>, it doth appear. That they are a Congeries^ ufualiy, of 
fo manyperfeft Ghks ov Ghhukts -^ Sometimes of other /'/^«rfij, but 
always regular, That which obfcurcs their Figure is their being fo 
fmaH: \n Dogs-Mercitry^ Borage, and very many more PUnts^ they 
areextrcamly fo. In Maliorps, and fome others, more fairly vifible, 

16. si. Some of thefe Pomkrs, are yEfioa>^ as in Dogs-MercnrK 
GoaU'Rtie^ &c» and fome of other Colours: Bnt moft of them I 
think are whiter and thofe of ydhw H^fibane very ek-gant ^ the dis- 
burs'd Forcers whereof, to the naked eye, are white as S?wiv ^ but each 
Giohitkf, through a Glafs, transparent as Cryftal ^ which is not a 
fallacy from the G/afs, but wljat we fee in all tranfparent Bodies what- 
foever, lying in a Porpdcr or fmail Particles together The Parts of 
thi^ Attire, fee in Tak 4. But efpccialJy, in the Fignrcs belonging 

to the5e^^?/^jpnrt ofthe Fomh Teooi{, 

17. i 1h^ Florid Attire, is commonly known by the blind and 
rude Name oiTfmtms-^ as in the Flojvers of Marigold, Tatjfie, &c. 
How in adequate Its impofiiion is, observation will determine. 'For the 
fevcral Thntms or rather ^«///, whereof the ^/^/rt is made up, how- 
ever clfe they may differ m y:inQmFkw€rs, in this agree that they 

rah^ f 1,3 f^ ^^''^ confitlcntof more than one, fometimcs of Two, and for 
i^M^/-i3... jhe moO part of Three rmes<i for which i call them S^iits ) and each 
fme of a difkTenr, but agreeable and comely foim 

18. $. Th^/"''^'" J^'i'-t of every 5;-';/, is its Floret: whofc Body 
otTube IS divided at the top ( like that of the Con-ftip ) into five 

/;i3,b. P^fl^J^/^'^^-^- So that a f /.r./, is the Epitome oiz^Uwer: and 
IS all tl;e f/.«^rMhat niaTy 7-/,,.;., as AU^^ort, Ti^e, and other., 
have. What [he Leanx.l Sir Thomfs Brcjvn obYerveth of the 

Wofthen^'mber/'/^e, as to the If^^fi of the P/.jrfr, is ftill more univerially 

QHfiicrtux. noklmg in thefe of the f-Iorcr. 

19. ^. Uponthe Espanfionof the Floret-^ ihu next P^nt of the 
£i.c ;i'''''^*''^^"^^"^'i^ntsr«£L- brought to fights which we may ( with re- 
^ 3'^' fpcft to that within it } call the sk,th. For thi. alfo, hke the /"W,'' 


H ■ 

Book L 

of PL 




iBciCoffcave B^dy ^ in its fii Ape very well rer;.TTibliiig the Fittulous 
Pouches oi iV.ikc-Rohih\ ox o? Drjij^atr, , ■; 

20. ^- The Sheath^ after fome time, dividuig nt the top, from 
within its Concave the Third and inncrmol* part of ihc- Smt^ Jv. the 

Bluic advanceih and difplayes ir fdf. 'I hi^ Parr is iiot hollow, as ^■^^'4/'3'** 
theother two, butfolid5 yet at itsPointj iscommoiily, divided into 
tvvo halves. 

21. 5^» About the laid Point cfpccially, there appear^', Glol'uhis^ 
which areofthe fame nature with thole ofa^f/w/, though not fo 
copious. So that 3\\ Fbrr^ers have their Puivdcrj or Glokikts, The 
whole ^/;/>c may in Ajler Per^ Bkn>hottU^ &c. where the Snits are 
large, be plainly obferved without a G/-?//, The r^rts of (his Aitire^ 
See in 4, But cfpecially in the Figures belonging to the Second 
Jpiirt of the Fourth 'BOOH- 

2a. §, The nfe of the ^//w-Cj bow contemptibly focver we may 
look upon it, is certainly great. And thouc^h for our own ufe u^ 
value the Leaves of the Floiver^ or the Fohathri^ raoft ^ yet of all 
the three Purts^ this in fome refpe&s is the choyceft, as for whofe 
fike and fervice the other two are made. The ufe hereof, as to 
Ornami:nt and D'ifiinUion^ is untjucftionable \ but is not all. As for 
Diftinftion, though, by the help of GUffis^ wc may make it to ex- 
tend far T yet in a patlant view, which is all we ufually mnke, we 
cannot (o welh As for Ornament, and particularly in reference to the 
Semets^ we may ask. If for that mecrly thefe were meant, then why 
(hould they be lb made as to break open, or to contain any thiog 
\viihin them ? Since their Beauty would be as good if they were not 
hollow 5 and is better before they crack and burft open, than after- 
wards, . ;!) ' 

23. jS, Other ules hereof therefore we muft acknowledge, and' 
may obflrve. One is, for food ^ for Ornament and Diftlnction to* 
us, and for Fmd to other A^/iK/ah, I will not fay, but that it may (erve 
even to thefe for Diftinftion too, that they may be able to know one 
Pliifri from another, and in their flight or progrefs iettle where they 
Jike belt : and that therefore the varieties of thefefmull parts are manyf 
and well obfeived by thenij which we take no notice of Yet the 
finding out of Food is but in order to enjoy it : Which, that it is 
provided for a vafi: number of little Ammah in the Attires of all 
Fkn^crs^ obfcrvation perfwades us to believe. For why clle are they 
evermore here found ? Go from one Floirer to another , great and 
finall, yoLi ihall meet with none untaken up with thefe Guefts. In 
fome, and particularly the 5;//j-f/i^tt7fr, where the parts of the j^///re, 
and the v^k/w/j/j for which they provide, are larger, the matter is more 
vifible. We muft not think, th:it God Almighty hath left any of the 
whole Family of his Creatures unprovided for ^ but as the Great' 
Mafter, fome where or other carvcth out to all 5 and that for a 
great number of thefe littk Folk, He hath ftored up their peculiar 
proviiions \wx\\Q Attires of Flowers --^ t^c\\ Fhrver thus becoming their 
Lodging and their Dining-Hoom, both in one- 
_ 24. ^- Wherein the particular parts of the ^///rctiiay be more di(- 
trnftlyl^Tviceablc, this to one Amm.d, and that to another, I cannot 
■ &y : Or, to the Gmc Ammai^ as a Bc€, whether this for the Homy^ ano-^" 
iher for their Bread^ a third for the Wux: Or whether all only iiick 


I ' 







The Anatomy 

Book I. 

from hence fomc ^uke 5 or fome may not alfo carry fome of the Parity 
as of theG/ui///^//, wholly away- 

25, ^. Or laltly, what may be the Primary and Private Ufe of 
th^ Attire ( for even this abovciaid, though great, yet is but Secon- 
dary ) I now determine noL 



y I ' 



I ; 

OftJ?e FBVir 

HE general compofitlon of all Frttits is one, 
that iSj their B^^nUal and truly fiW P^r/j, 
are in all ihe fame, and but the continuaiioa 
of thole which in the other P-Ji'fJ of a Plant^ 
we have already obferved. Yet becauJe by 
the different Onfliiuthtis and Tir/^fircj of theie 
Paris^ divers confiderably different Frmts re- 
lult^ I ihall therefore take aparticular view 
of the more known and principal of them, fc* 
Apples^ Pears^ Fkms^ N/tts and Bcma. 

2. §. AN APPLE, if cut traverfe, appears conditued of four 
d'liim^ Parts, ih^ PilliiJg^ih^ Parenchyma^ Brancherj^ zuACoare. The 
Priling is only the fprcading and dilatation of the sk^fj-^ or uimoft 
part of the B^r^ae in the Branch. The Faremhyma^ when full ripe^ 
is a tender delicate Meat- Yet as the PHlmg is but the Continuation of 
theutmoft part oftheB-J^fw^S fo is this, but the continuance and am- 
pliation^ or ( as I may call it J the fwelrh and fuperbience ofcheZ/z- 
i^f;- Part thereof j which upon oblcrvation of a young and Infint-^/f/e 
efpecially, is evident. Thus we fee the Pith^ which i; often tough 5 
in many Roots^ as Psrjfjeps^ Trtrfieps^ &c. is lender and edible. So 
here , the Paret^chyma^ though originally no more than the Barque , 
yet the copioufncfs and purity oi'n^Sdp being likewife efFcftiial to 
the iargnefi and tiiiencfs of its growth, it thus becomes a foft and tender 
meat. The Br^ncbery is nothing elfc but the Ramifications ofthc/-?^- 
nous Body throughout all the parts of the Ptiremkyma 5 the greater 
Brandos bting likcwifc by the Imfatlitiom of the lefs ( as in the Leaf) 
united together. The main Branches are ufually Twenty : Ten are 
Ipredand diftributed ihvQ\A^\ i\vi Parenchyma^ moft of them enarch- 
ing themfclves towards the CV/;^or 5^f?f/ of the Flower: The other 
Ten, running from the Stalk^m adiredter Line, at laft meet the for- 
mer at the laid Cork^ and are there olculated with them. Of thde 
liUttT, five ate originated from one ^ which lunnirg along the Center 
oftliesW^, and \^:ixi o\. xXm Parcmljma of the Frmt^ isiherein at 
laft divided. To thefethe Coats of the Km;i'// arc iatincd. Soth;ic 
whereas moft of thefc Brmchcs were originally extended even be- 
yond the Fritit, and inierttd into the Fhwcr for the due growth 


H ' 

Book I. 

of Tlints. 


thereof^ the Fruit afuTuards growing tolbme litai!, hikJ To iiitcr- 
copting ;*iid preying upcni the AlimaH ot tlif hlvvrir^ ft.irvc^- that 
and therefrom fuj^erkdcs ihe iervice of ihc TirI Br^mhs to it Itlj; 
fifteen for its/^^rc/zi/^'Wd, and five for its 5ff J. The Cfl-/r isorigina- 
ted from the Fuh i for the Sap finding room enough in the Wtrcm hjm.i^ 
through which to difpL-nce it felf all abroad, quits the Pitl\ lA'hich 
thereby hardens into n Coat. Thns wc lee the h:Jertiofis^ iiUhough 
originate from the Cortitd Bod/^ yet their Parts being, by the h/of- 
cuktiofjs of the Ligrwns^ jb much comprL-fi'd and ni:tde to co-incide 
together, they become a Bi?t/^ very compatt and denfe. And in the 
Barque t\vt{AmQ thing 15 cffeded by AreftU hfi ow\)\ or a mccr voycUtue 
of the Sap ^ the hjmr Part whereof, chough fofc and ftppv, yet its fupcr- 
ficial R'W isoftenfo hard and Imooih, th-Jt it may be fairly writ up- 
on. The Parts of^nApph^ See in the/' /_gy/firj belonging to the TA/vii 
J3art ofthc Fe^irth ISOOfe* 

3- §. IN A PEAR there are five diftinft Parts, the Pj/Z/Vg, ^^^ j- 1 
Parenchyma^ Bratichcr)^ Caladary^ ?^X\A Acet^ry, The three formerare '* '^'^' 
hercand in an j4fp/fi much :ilike^ favingthat here the /////fr 01 Seed- 
Branches ordinarily ftand double. The CalaiUry ( nioft obfcrvable 
in rough-taftcd, or ChoakrPears ) is a Cofigcrks of little (tony Kmts. 
They arc Qianyofrhcm difpcrfed throughout the whole rarcmhyma: 
But lying more continuous and compaft together towards the Center 
odhtPear^ furround the Af/^^ry there, in afbmewhat Globular Form, 
About the Stalk^thty ftand more diftant^ but towards the Cork, or 
S/ffo/ofthe Fhwcr^ they (till grow cloler, and thereat 1 aft gather 
Calmoft^into the firmitude ofaP/«/-tf-/^vf it firlf Within this lies 
the Acetaryty 'tig all ways four , and by the bounding of the CahuUry 
of a GhbtiUr Figure. 'Tis a fimple Body^ having neither any of the 
Ligmus branched in it, nor atiy Calculous Knots. It \% of the fame fub- 
ftantial nature with the outer Parenchyma ^ but whether it be nbfo- 
lutely one withit, orbederived immediately from the Pith, my En- 
quiries yet made, determine nor. 

4, ^. The Original of the C4/a/^r> Ifeem to have neglefl-ed. Bin 
hereof we may here belt fay, that whereas all the other Parts are Ef- 
femiai 2nA tn\\y Vjtd'^ theC^/fft/^/r^isnot ; but that the leveral K^nots , 
whereof it confiftSj are only fo many mecr Comrttions lyx: Prtcipitations 
out of the Sdp-^ as in 'Urines^ Wines^ and other Liquffrs^ we often 
fee. And that the Precipitation is made by the mixture and re-aftion 
of the Tin^urcs of the Lignous and Cortiial Bodies upon each other: 
Even as all Vegetable Nutrition or Fixation o( Parts is alfo made by the 
joynt efficiency of the two fame Tin^ares^ as hath been (aid. Hence 
We find, that as the Acetary hath no Branches of the Lignous Body^ lb 
neither hath it any Knott. Hence likewife it is, that we have fo dif- 
ferent and contrary a tall in the Parenchyma beyond the Cahulary^ from 
that in the Acetary : For whereas this i^ four, that, wherein the faid 
Frecipitatiorfs are made, is fweet ^ being much alike elfti^ to what we 
find in mixing of Ct^r^/j, &g; wnh Vinegar or other ai id Liquors, The 
Parts of ^ Pear ^ See in T^. 4. But efpecially in the i^/garej belonging 
tothtThird J_3act ofth^F&urth TSflOlt. 







The Anatomy 

Book I. 



■■■ I. I 

I h 

1 I 




'.' 1 

4 , 


, r 


5, ^. IN A PLUM (to which i\k Cherry, Aprkot, Pea^h, IVj[^ 
fjut, &c. ought to be rcfcrr'd) there nrc tour (liftind Parts^ th<.^ Fillwg^ 
lh& Fdre^chymu^ BraNchery and Stfl/Je. The P/Uiffg ^nd Varenchyma ^rt^^ 
as to their Original, with thofc-of an ^/'/►/^ror Pcar^ boih alike. A? 
Hkewifc the BrHtscbery ^ but cliflerently ramified. In Pltaas ( I fcpj 
pofc all } there are five iruihi Oj;f-Br-/W(fcfj which run along the Sur^ 
face of the Stone from the ^-rj7/ to the point thereof, four of them hy 

Jj&, 4- /.1 5. ^^^ ^'^^*^y 3nd one by the other oppolitc to it. In an Apr/cot there is* 

tbcfime number, butthefingle Jir^flc/* runsnorupon the Surfuci\ but* 

through the Body of ihe Sfowe- There are likewile two or three 

fcnaller Brafjifjes, which run in like manner under the o^hcr Kidge for 

fome fpace, and then advancing into the P^r<rW'/ff/./, therein difper(e 

themfdves : Thefe hitter fore in fe-^cAe^ arenumerousthroiighoutp / 

6» s^* But notwithftanding the different difpofition of the Br^wS^i 

' of the Fnrjts aforefaid ; yet is there one Bramh difpos'd in one and 

the fame manner in them all. The em - jnce hereof into the stone is at 

■ its £<^/^ from whence running tS-ough its Body, and ftill inchning 

'Tab 4 fAK. ^^ arching it fdf towards its Co/rc^tve^ is at laft, about its Cone, there-J 
into emergent J where the Ct^<i/Jof the ^c^^tJ areappendent to it. Of 
the Seed-Branch 'tis therefore obfervable that after its entrance in- 
to the Fruity 'tis always prolonged thereinto a confidcrable lcngth5 
as is feennotonlyin-4^/i/ej, Zee, where the Sfe^^ftands agooddiftancc 
from the Stalk^'-y but in Fknts likewife, where it ftands very near it ^ 
in that here the Seed-Branch, as is faid, never ftrikes through the Stond 
into the Codti of the Seed direftly, but runs through a Chami cut in Stone, till it iffues, near the Ci'wi?, into the Cf^fff^^ thereof. 

7. ii. The ^/owe though It feem a iimplc Body, yet it is compoun- 
ded of different ones. The Inner Fart thereof, as it is by far the thin- 
neft, fb is it themoftiifw/^, ix'hite^ fmooth-md, fmple. The Original 
is from the FHh 2, difficult, but curious to obferve : For the Seed- 
Branch, not firiking dircftly and immediately quite through the 
B'lfu of the Stom^ but in the manner as is above defcribed, carries a 
confidcrable P-zr/ of the pr//j, now gathered round about it, as its P^- 
rcnchyn/ii^ along with it felf ^ which upon its entrance into the concave 
of the Stone about its fiirther end, is there in part fpread all over it, as 
the Lining thereof The outer and very much thicker Part, conllf^- 
cth partly of the like PrecipHatiem ox concrete Particles, asinaTejj-^ 
being gathered here much more clolely, not only to a Contignitj, but 
a Coalition mio one entire iV^we 5 as we lee in Pears themfelves, cfpcci- 
ally towards the 0^4 ^ they gather into the like Stonincfs^ or as a 
Sfonc^ Mimralj 01 Animal y is oftentimes the produft of accumulated 
GravcL But as the Paremhyma is mixed with, the Cojureiions in the 
C«hvfary, fo is it alfo, though not vifibly, with thefe in the Stonr^ 
(he ^^round of the stone being indeed a perfeft Paremhyma ^ but by 
the faid Concretions fo far alier'd, as to become dry, hard and un- 
diftinguiihahle from them. All which Particulars, are obfervahle 
only in the feveral decrees of Gron'ih in the young i^n/r/. And are 
reprefented in Tab. 4. But efpccially by the feveral Figures belonging 
to the Third and Fi^nrth }3artS of the Ft}/frlh Teooh- 

a §. 


Book T. 

of Plantf. 


8. ^. IN A NUT fto which an yf'JiJ'// isnnalofiniis) there arc 
three gcnenl P.Wj, thtC-y?, Sh^If^ niid Pitk ThcO/^isconQitutcd 
of a P////'i'^^ and P^jremhyKu^ derived frnm the Bar^irc^ and Ramitkts 
from the Lignom Body of the Bram'h. The 5/jf// likcwifL' h not one 
limple Body, but compounded. Tlie Superiicial /^./^-Mhercof is ori- 
ginated from the FiUtfig or Slqn of the Oip^ from the iniide whereof 
k is,inaDuphcatiire, produc'd and ff-^red over the Shell, Which if 
you look at the Bafs of the ^if/Z^isHirthcr evident: for that being con- 
tinuous with the PuremhyTHaoixhc C-J/^jWithout the interpofiire of the 
Shin^ the faidfuperficiali^<*r( is there wanting. The thieker and inner 
Tart of ttie^Mconfiftethofthe fame Parenchyma as that of the Cap^ 
with a Congeries oi PrecipiUt'wfis Jillcd up, as in a Stone. And a^the 
Ligmus Body is branchetl in a Sfvm^ ib, with Ibme dilfercncc in a 
shell. Ihi^ outer Er-^nc/jej or R^tmnkts arc numerous^ each iiTuiEig out 
of thejPj;"e»fA;w^of the C^p, and cntring the shell zt the Qrctw/fe- 
reftcc of its Bap^ and lb runmng betwixt its fuperficial and inner 
Parts towards the Cone^ round about. The Inner or Seed-Branch is fin- 
gle, entring in, as do the other, at the Bufis of the shelly but at the 
Center thereof: from whence it x\\n% not through tlie Shell as in 
Vfums through the Stons ^ but through the Fith^ as far as the Cone 
where the Coats of the Seed hang appendent to it. The Pith whether 
detived from the fame part both in name and nature in the Branch 
and j/^/^^ or from the Cortkd Body^ I yet determine noL The 
•Parts of a ISnt^ See in the Figures belonging to the Third 13act of the 
Fourth TBfloK, 


9. f. A BERRY, as a Goofeberry fto which Corintht, Grapes 
mps, &c. arc to be referr'd ) confiftcth, bcfides the Seed, of the 
three general Partj, Pilli>!g, Parenchyma and Bramhery. The PHlim 
IS originated as in the foregoing Fruiu. The P.tremhyma is double, 
as hkewife in fome other Berries. The outer is commonly, together 
■With the Pilling, call'd thc^4'«, and is that part we fuit oar being 
of a four taft. Now as the rilling is originated from the omer fo th'^ 
from the inner Part of the Bdrqnei and accordingly the Pores thereof 
may be obfi-Tved plainly of a like Ihape with thofe both of the Cw- 
tud Body and Pith. The Inner or Vnlp is of a fweet tafle and is 
the Part we eat : It is of a Subftanee fo laxe and tender, as it would feem 
to be only a thicker or jdlit^d 'jmce-^ although this likewifebe a true 
^enchyma, fomcthing like that of an Or.mge or Limon , with its 
;P«-f/ all fill'd up with Li<iuor, The Branchery is likewife double - 
The Exterwr runs betwixt the Filling and Outer Parenchyma in arched 
Lines, from the Stalk. 10 the Stool of the Flower. Thefc outer Bran- 
ches tho^^h of various number at the Stall^,, yet at the Cork_ are 
WuaUy ten principal ones 5 five for the five Leaiies of the Flower 
and live for the Attire. The Infier main Branches arc two, diametrical- 
ly oppolite to each other, and at the Cor^with the other inofailated. 
trom thefe two are branched other fmaller, every one having a Seed 
appendent to it, whofe Coats it entreth by a double FiL^ment, one at 
tne hajis the other at the Cone. They arc all very white and tur- 
gent andbyallaunt cut, may be obfcrv'd concave ^ thus reprcl^.m- 

^ ing themiclves analogous to fo nuny true fpermalh\ Vejjels. The 

M 2 Fa,-/f 







. J. 


L # 

I I . 






■ i 

f , 

r - - 

r . 


7"^^ Anatomy 

Book I 

Jflrij of a GoofcUrry^ Sec m ihc Figures belonging to the Tiird 
\^t\lt of the Fvitrfh IJOOft. 

10. jS. The Ufts of Fntits are for M^yr, (fomctimes alfo other 
Animals^ as are Ak^rm antl Hf?n'j ) and for the Sud, For Afd^/ they 
are fo variouQy dcfirablf, that till our Orchards and Slore-Chdmkrs 
Confcmoners-Stoves and Apothecarhs-Shops^ our Ladks Clofits their 
T!j/'/cx or Hdfids ate empty oftliem, I (hall not need to enquire for 
what. Ifitbea^ked, how the Fruit becomes, generally above all 
the other Parts^ fb pleaftiii a Meat > It is partly from the- s.'p, the 
groffer portion thereof being dcpofited in the Leazes^ and lo tlie 
purer hereunto refervcd. Partly from the GhhuLtr Figure o^ the 
Fruit, For the ^^p being thus in a greater quantity hereit?, and iti 
all Parts equally diffused, the CoficoUwn hereof, as in a Vc^el^ is with 
greateft advantage favoured and promoted. Wherefore all Fruits^ 
which wc eat raw, how fmall foever, arc of a Ghhdtr Form, or 
thereunto approaching 5 and the nearer, the deiicaitr^ araongft Jp- 
pks, the Fip^^ ^ amongft Pears^ the Bhrgjmdian ^ and ambngft all 
Fruits^ the Grape 'j and amongft Grapes^ the roundefV, are of a!), the 
mofl dainty. 

11. jS- The vifible caufe of this Ghhthr Figure^ is the Flmcr- 
or thernofculationofall themain Br-iwj&ej at the ^'rWof the Fhwer^' 
and upon the fall of the Fi<m>er, the obtiifenef^, and with /F/W and 
Sm, a9 it were the Jeaif^g of their fcveral ends : For thus the Sap 
entering the Fruit, being not able to tiT^Q, either a Difimiot?, or a 
fi^ooti}7g fortli of the faid Bramhes^ and fo to carry on their Growth 
m lengthy ihcy muft of neceffity be enarch^d, and with the Parcn-^ 
chynia more and more expand themfelvcs^ Whereas ^cix^ thev 
difpofcd and qualified otherwife, than as is faid ^ infVead of forming 
a trm within bounds, they would run out into ali extravagance and 
even into another httle Jreem Ltafy Growth. "' 

■ [^: ^v ^°^'^^^'''^' '^*^ -^'^''^'^^'^™^=^^'^5 f'^fft. inorderto 
nsbemgrupplydwitha due and reoft convenient Sap, the greater 

part thereof, and that which is lefs elaborated, being, in its paflace to- 
wards the W, thereinto received ^ the J'n/yf doing the fame office 
to the Sttd, which the L^avu do to the Fruit ^ the Sap in the Fruit 
being, in a laxe companfon, as the Wi^^c ^ and that for the Seed a 
Imail pare of the higheftSpirit redificd from it, / 

I?. ^. So likewife for its Proteflion, in order 10 the profperous 

r'i'^f ^„?I'- ^"^ P^^f^^'^g^f ^^s generation, and lecurity bcin^ per- 
te^kd. Which protcftion it gives not only to the Semind Sap audS^cd 
K^elf, but ever alfotoits Jce^-flr<.«fA, Thu^ we fee an ^/>p/c be- 
^des that K IS It fclf of ample compnfs, for the fake of its s/ed hath 
hkewife m C^ar; as if it were not ilifficient, that the Walls of their 
Room are fo very thick, unleG' alfo wainfioatcd. Jn a Tear a«ain 
where the Parc^thy^a is of lefs compafs than rhar of an Apple to what 
protcftion this affords, that of the Cahd.ry is fuper-added. ' But in -1 
Jlu^, where the Parent hyma is exceeding tender, and in a Peach wWich 
■hangs bte and till Autumn Froft. approach, we have not onlv the 
tiubbilh of a Calad^ry^ bnt ftout Stone-Walk Within which 'lUb 

uftiv'iW'"'^ r ''^\ ^'''\ ^^-^-^--^ ^^z::::z:^ 

chll: ^ ' '^''''^ '^^^ ^Mbcini^ not furrounded uith a Farc- 
cpyma, tiut ^roteition is warning withonr, 'tis anfwer'd by an ample 




Book L 


nth within it^ and the Sccd-Bramh Jikewifc included, rot mecrly 
in the Body of the Shelly as in a Plum^ but within the P>//jic {^iM 
So ncccaJry is this dtfign , that what the Hen by Incubation or' 
Hovering, is to the Egg or Chick ; that the whole i^Vw//, by coiDrre^ 
■hen^on , is to the Seed, -> 




il i 






Of the SEEV^ In in State of Generation. - 

S the Originn!, fo the Ultimate end and Perf^aion 

i ^iV€g€tation\%thi^ Seed, How it is the former, and 

in its rtaie apt for /^egf/-*f>tfw, hath already been fcen- 

How the Jatter, and in its ftatc of Generation, we 

Ihall now lafdy enquire. In doing which, what in 

the other ftate, was cither nut diiUnflly exiftent.or 

not fo apparent, or not fo intcDigiblej will occur, 

2. §. The two general Parts of the Seed are its 

lovers and BMj. The Covers in this eftace are ufually Fojir, The out- 

moft, wc may call the Cafe. Tis of a very various form 5 iomttimes a 

PoMch, as in Nafiurthm, Cochkaria -^ :iCod^ as id all Ptdfe^ Gdega *-, 

fometimes not entire, bat parted, or otherwife open, as in Sorref^ 

Kmgrdfii, with many other forms: I think alwaies more heteroses 

iieous to that of the seed, by which it differs from the proper Coati. 

To this the Caps of N///J, and the Parenchymas oi oxh^v Fruits are 

3. ^. The two next are properly the Coats. In a Beav crpecialh- 
and the like 5 from whence, to avoyd Confufion, the denomination 
may run common to the refponding Covers of other Seeds. The Co- 
lour of the outer, is of all degrecs,from White to the Bbckiicfi oijctt. 
Its Figure fometimes Kidney^, ^^mAhea, Behen, Poppy ^^ Triangu- 
lar, asm Polygonatum, Sorrel'^ Spherically triangular, mMemha.Me^ 
^B^h Circular, m Leucowm^ Amaranihits 5 Globular, in l^Sa^fs^ Afpe- 
ruU ^ Oval, in Spccuhtm Veneris, Tithyj^mlHs ^ half Globe, in Cor/a?ider 5 
that which we take for 4^«e iingle round Seed^ being a Coniu2ation 
of i-^o :, half Oval, in A^ife^ Fe^?fel ^ Haftal, in La^uca-, Cylindri- 
cal, as, if I mittake not, in Jacoh^a-^ Pyramidal, in Gerajmm Althd'x 
M with many other ditlerences. But thePerfca^ionof oueor two 
ot the Cud Figure? lieth in the Caje. So that, as all U^^es and Pr^porti- 
omartm the Leaf^^j^d Flower j fo aU Regular Solids in the Seid -, or 
rather m its Covers. 

_ 4- sS- ^K foraetimes gliftering, ns in Spuuhn Verjcris ^ Roudvcaft 
inUtamnce^ Studded, in i?.^^;,, Bulnaria-, Favour, \n F^paver, An^ 
tirrbmum Lepidnm anmtmi, Akea Feficaria, Hwfiy^m^ , and nianv 
morc,befoFe the Seeds have lain long by ^ Pounced, in rha/^^nmofi Crctl 
Lnhoffcrmwi', Ramified, in Pentafyikm frag^firmT EreLm m^jus^ 




I r 





■i ,n 

^^ r 

L- ! 




ir 1 



Tj6e Anatomy 

Book r 

rcftmbling the Fibers of the £c?rj of the Hf-/f/ ^ Ibme juft ^^^^wewerad/, 
ix^\v\ Afiifitf^^ and many more, ih.c Ligntus Body htm^'m five main F;- 
ier/ branched therein. Tii^ Figures^ and ^arptie, ofThcfc, and othec 
Seeds^ See in the Tables belonghig tothcForfr/h'^&Xt of the Fourth 


5, ^, The Covers of not only ^ificc-Secds^ and thoie ofPj}l/ium 

fmore ufually taken notice of ^ but tliofe alio o^Horminum^ NafiHrtiutft^ 
Ernca, Cametina^ Ocymum^ and diver* others, have a MttciUgc. Which, 
though it be not vifiblc when the Scfi/j' are throughly dry^ yet lying 
a while in fome warm Liquor, or only on the Tongue, it fwelh more 
orleJs, and upon them all fairly fliews it felf, On that of 09^^/3 it 
appears grayifh ^ on the other, tranfparent ^ and on xh^i o£ Maftur-- 
Hum Horteafe very large f even emulous of the inner Pulp furround- 
iug i GoofcberrjSeed, The putting of C/<ir/-j^ft/ into the Eye, may 
have been brought into uie from this MnciUge^ by which alone it 
may become Medicinal. And thus far of the Sjfperfidcf^ 

6, §. The ftatiire of the outer Coat is alft) various, Membrivous^ 
CdrtHaghwHs ^nd Stony -^ the like Pruipitatiorts bein^ Sometimes made 
herein, as in a Stone or shell--, as in that of the Seeds of CarthamHm^ 
Lithjpsrmum and others. The Dcfignmenc hereof, being either with 
refpett to the Seed in its ftate of Generation! ^s where the Caje is 
cither wanting, or at leaft infufficienc of ic fclf, there for its due 
protediion and warmth. Or, in its ftate of f^f^e/*7//*r», for the better 
Fermenting o(mV7;^m-es andSap^ the Fermentations of fome lSV-^j^ 
not well proceeding, unlefs they lie in their Stonj Casks in thcGronnd, 
like Bottled Liquors in Sand. 

7, §, All ^cf^j have their outer CflZJ^n open 5 either by a particu- 
lar i^i^r-^wcff, as in Bi'-iw/, and other P;*//^, asisfaid^ or by ihc break- 
ing off of the Seed from its Pedurtcle or Sioft!^ as in chole in Cummkr^ 
Ck-horjf 3 or by the entering and pafTage of a Bravch or Branches, not 
only into the Concave thereof near the Cone, but alfo through the 
Coneitfelf^ as in Shells :xnd Stones. 

3. i. For the fake of this aperture'M x% that Ak§r?js^ Nuts, Btans^ 
Cjtamhers, and moft other Seeds^ are in their formation fo placed, that 
thei^j^/t/^^ftili thndeth nexttoit j Thar So, u^on Vegetatmi^ it may 
have a free and ready paflage into the Mould, 

9. ^. The Original of the outer Coat^ though from Pans of the 
famefubltantial nacare, yet is differently made. Inai^W, t\\Q Secd- 
^ranchvjWK\\ runnj, as is defcribed, through ih^ Stone, is not nnked, 
bur, asisfaid, inverted with a thin Pjrmt;^^;^^-?^ which it carries from 
the Stalk ;»long with it ^ and which, by the Ramification of the faid 
£™«^/j wuhin the Stone, is, in part, dilated into a Ct^^/. Thatofa 
Efjft x% from the Parenchyma of the Cod-^ the fuperficial part of which 
Parej;chy-fffa, upon the large pedtmle of the Bcj^t becoming a ihin C«- 
thk, and upon the Bean it felf a C art ihigj nous Coat. 

10. §. The Original of iheinnerCWoftheBfdwislikewilefrom 
the inner part of the faid Parenchyma ^ which firft is fprcd into a long 
<^Ac, or that which with the Seed-Branch maketh ihe Pendunck of ihe 
Bcafi^ mdiirv/hichCakc, there is ufually a black part or (pot ^ bythe 
icngth of \^.hich, the inner part of ihc Cak^ is ncM iiiluitd into the 
outer Ctf^/, and fprtd all ovtr ilic Ccrcavc ihtrtof, and lb bcccme^ 

the inner. 

II' §> 

^Book L 

of Tlants. 



II i>. Of ilii* liiiKr Cc^l\t k very obfi.TV.Tblc, Th.H allilioiigli 
when the Sci-d \s ^mwn old and dry, 'lis lliruTsk up, and m molt Seeds^ 
fo Kir, ns Scarcely to be difctTn'd 5 yt^t in its firft and juvcnik- Conititu- 
tion, ii is ;i very Spongy and Scsppy body ^ and is tlit-n likewifc( asthi; 
1%Wm[1 ii Pregnant Arsh^Ail)'m proponionj very (hick and bulky. 
In a BeaN^ even aji one of the Lok's ir fulf.- And in a /V;wj or Apricot^ 
I think 1 m:iy i^ifcly fay, half an hundred times thicker afcerw^irds, 
when it is dried ;ind Ihiunk upj and can fcarcely be diftrnguilhed 
from the upper Co.a. Upon vi-hlch Accounts it is, in this cftate a true . 
and f fsr Piirctichps/d. The Delineation hereof, See in xXic Figures be- 
longing to the Fourth J0atc of the Fourth ToOOk- 

12, ^* In this Inner Coat in a Btidffy the Ijgnoin Body or Seed" 
Brj//^:A is diflfibuted .- Sometimes, •a'&\v\ Fratch-Bcans^ throui^hout the 
whole Coat J as ir is in a Leaf. Jn the Great Gdrdat-^c^if^^wyow its iirit 
entrance, it is bipartite, and fo in fmall Brancha runs niong the Circnm- 
pTcttce of the Coat^ all meeting and making a kind of R.€ikiiUtwn againlt 
the Belly of the Bnan. In the {^^^ mLtnner the main Bramhes m the 
outer Cflaf of a /G/'Af/, circling ihemfelves on both hands from the 
place of their firft entrance, atKlaft meet, and mutually inofcuJaCe ^ 

as the /^/>/ in the K/i^/^e/jof a Man oi-AXiy ^adrnfedi:--;,OTi]\^Curolhli_ 
Arter/es'm the Brair/e, . ;-l^\^.- 

15. ^. So that all the Parts ofa Vegetable^ the Root^ Trunks Branchy ' 
Leaf^ Flojver, Fruit and fe*^;, are ftill made upof Tipo Subllantially 
different Bod ics, ' ■'■''■• ^i 

14. §. Andas every P-/r^ hath Trpo^ fo i\\Q\v\\o\tVeg£tdhk taken 
ic^cther, is a compofition of Tipa only, and no more: All properly 
Woody Parts, Stntigs and Fihn^ ar^ Ofje Bodjf : All limple larqttes^ 
Viths^ Paretichyma's and Pnlps^ and as to their fnbftantidl Nature, Pilh 
and 5^7^^' likewife, all bur O//1? Bodyi the fe vera 1 Parts otaFcgetable 
all differing from each other, only by the various Proportions and 
Mixtures^ and variated Pores and strnciur^ of thefe Tivo Badics. What 
ftomthefetwo general Obfcrvations rdight realbnably be inferred, I 
thall not now mention. 

15. ^. The Fourth or Innermoll Cover we may call the Secon^ 
dim. The fight of which,by euiiinj^ otfthe Coats of an If7fdfn-B^an^2.t 
the Cone thereof, in very thin Slices, and with great Caution^ may 
beobtain'd. While unbroken, ^tisCranfparent ^ being torn and taken 
off, itpithersupinto the likenefs of a jelly, or that wi^eidl the Trt^/e 
of an Egg, when rear-boyl'd- This Mimbratjce m l^r^cr or elder 
Bcans^ is not to be found diEtinit. But ( as far as our Entjuiries yet diC 
cover) it may in moil: oi\vtv Seeds, even full grown,be dittinftly feen 5 as 
in thole o^Cucftmher^CoIocyntk'isJittrdoLk^^ CarthamumfiromxPel^P^ndive^ 
Malloj&s^ &c. 'lis ufualiy fo very thin, as in the above-nam'd, asTAff^itf, 
very difficultly to be difcover'd. Ent infome Kermis^ as of Apricots^ 

^tis very thick 5 andmoft remarquably fuch, in fome oihtT Seeds. That 
all the(c have the Analogy of one and thefime Cover^ which I call the 
Secondif7c^ is moft probably argu'd from their alike Natures --, bein^ all 
oflhcm plain ^imyii: Memhranes^ with not the katt fiirt; of the Lig^ 
noHs Body or Seed Era^nh, vifibly diftributed in them ; As alfo from their 
Texture, which isinallotthemmoredofe. Sec thisP-arnH T-/i, 4. As 
alfo amongft the Fig,rr^s belonging to the Fottrih Bart of the Fonrih 

16, ij. 





' ' ri! 




rr i-h' 

,- i 

1'^ 1 ' 

' I 

*1 ■ 


The Anatomy 

Book |_ 

16. ^. ThQ Ccncuve of this Mrw/»-^fff is filled with a moft tnnfi-.i- 
rcnt LiifHor^ out of which the Se€d is formcti ^ as in cutting a p^'tits 
and hfmt-Bcun^ may be fcun^ and yet kticr in a yown^Watnuu In 
i3ej;;j I have obftrrved it toturn, in:on boylingj into a tender white 

17, ^. Through this MemhrA/je^ the Jjgfjcns Body ox SeeJ-^Brj/i' 
chcs diftributcd in the inner tW, at laQ thoot downright iwo Hin- 
der Fibres^ like two Kwel-i'irwgs, one into each ioi^c of the &<!», 

7"jt. 4./;i8. The places where the faid Fibres fhuot into the Loks, aie near the 
Bafts oi t\\^ Radkk '^ and by their .S/d.rj^7/7w^y/ well enough remaiVd: 
but the J^i/ffrjthemfelvcsarc fo very fmaH, as fcarcely to bedifcern'd. 
Yet in a Lfl//«e, of the larger kinclj both the j>/.t£fj where the Navel- 
Fihrcs (hoot into the Lobes ( which here from the p.'ffis of the RaJrck 
is more remote J and the Fibres ihcmfclvepj are fairly vifible, for 
the Seed-Branch, upon iisemrjncc iniothe fp*;i of the Lvpinc, is prc- 
fently divided into two mair? Br^^ches^ and thofe two into other lels, 
whereof fomc underly, others aloft, run alonglheC^^f, and towards 
its other end meet and are inoiciilated : where aboutj two opnofttf, 

T^ 4 f,i7 '^^^'^^^^ round^andmofl minute C-/z;7//ej, anfwcrable to two^/cf^r of 
'^■^' ^' 1 Cartilaginous glofi, one in either Lohe, may be obfcrvcd 5 which 
5per^jarethe endsof the C^'id Navel-Fibres^ Upon theripening of the 
^ee*^ there broken off. Thefe F;irf/ from the A'M^cr/iwof each Lobe 
defcenda little way dircftly down : prefently, each i^ divided into 

Tah 4 f.\S *^*^ Branches^ one difVributed into the Lobes^ the other into the Rj- 

'dich and Fkme^ in the manner as in the Firfi Chapter is defcribed. 

And thus far the Hiitory. 1 (hall now only with a brief account of the 

Ce^erathff of th^ Seed^ as hereupon dependent, conclude this Dif- 


An Account 18. $- LET US fay then,that the 5.7P having in the fl^£j/,r™?^4and 
of the Gv^,- Uaves^ pafled divers ConcoUions and Separaiiom^ in the manner as thev 

ratkn of the are faid to be perform^ therein 5 'tis now at laft, in fomc coed 
^''^- turity, advanced towards the Seed. 


19, i- The more copious and cruder part hereof is agjin fepara- 
ted by a free reception into the Frnit^ or other Part analogous to it ■ 
beingeuherrufficiently ample to contain it, or at leaft laxe enoudi for 
Its tranfpiration, and fo its due difchai^e. The more Eilbntial part is 
mto the Seed-Bramh or Branches cntcrtiand, Which, bccaufc they arc 
evermore of a very confidcrable length, and of aConftiiution very fine 
the faid6./f thus becomes in its Current therein as in the SpKymaticl 
^effels^ [till more mature. 

20. ^ In this mature eftate, ftom tht Seed-Branch into the Coats 
o{i\\z seed, as into the Womb, 'tis next delivered up. The mc^iner 
part hereof agam, to the 0;.ffr, ^sAhment gooA enough, is fupplicd 
Ihchnerpartistranfmitred to the/«;^er5 which Ix-ing, as is laid a 
Farcnechjntoffs and more fpatious Bod^, the Sap therefc^re is not herein 
as in the Oitter, a meer A/rntent ; but in order to it:, bein2 by F.rmcn^- 
tatht?^ farrhcrprepared> 

11. <- Yet ihc Outer ftf^^ being on the coniray hard and denfc ; 
tor thi.t realon, as !t admitteth not the Fermentation of the Sap fo well 
wnhmufdf^ fodothitthe more promote and favour it in the hmer^ 
being Bounds both to it and its Sap 5 :ind alio quickncth the pmcfs of 
the whole Work m ih*^ fnrm.ifinn ^rdi,^ ^...J ^ ^ ^ 

a3 i^ 

Book 1 


^2. if, Nortiorh the Outer ffl^/, for the fime rcafnn, more pro- 
motf, thandcdiire the piirityof ihL'vV.//Miow containetl in thclnncr: 
For being more liard and denle, and fb nar perfpinible, mutt needs 
luppolc the P;^rtsof thc^.i;^ encompaOtd by it, linceihus iincapablcof ■ 
any evacuation, ro be therefore all fo choice, as not to need in 

25, jj. The 5^/) being thusprepnred in the inner O-//, aaaLii^uor 
now apt to be the SiibjirjUtm of the future Se^d-Embrh ^ by frelli fiip- 
plies, is thence difcharg'd. Yet that it may rot be over- copious 5 
whichj beeaufe of the laxity of the luncx Cott^ from whence it iflius, 
itmighteafilybe; therefore, as the fiiid Inner Coat is bounded with- 
out, by the upper Ctf^f ^ lb hy i\ic Secmdme^ is it bounded within. 
Through which ^i^a/W^we the ^^/j being filtr'd, or, as it were, tranfpi- 
nng5 the depofiture hereof, anfwerableto ihi^ CoUiqHamerjtum'm an 
Egg , or to the Scmn MsMre^ into its Concave at lall is made. 

34, j(. The other pare ot thepureit Sap embofom'd in the 7?^*^^- 
kts o£ ih^ Seed-Brum-hj ruDS 3 Circle, or ibme progreia therein ^ and 
ib becomes, as xhf^ Semen Mafcnlimm^ yet more elaborte, 

25, jf. Wherein alfo, left its Current ftionld be too copious or 
precipitant, by their co-arcltire and divarication where they are iiiolcu- 
lated, it is retarded 5 thenobleft portion only obtaining a pa(s. 

n6. ^. With this pureft Sap^ the (aid Ramtdets being fupplied, 
from thence at laft, the Navd- Fibres {hoot ( as the primitive Artery 
into the CoUiqHameJsiiir,! ) through the Seamdiac into the aforetaid Li- 
quor depofited therein. 

37. ^. Into which Liquor^ being now fhot, and its own proper 
sap or Tifi&uref mixed therewith, \tfirik^s it thus into a Coagnlmt ^ 
or of a Uqnor^ it becomes a Bod) csnfifie^t and truly farencbymoHT, 
And the fupply of the faid Liquor ftill continu d, and the (hooting of 
the N^z/e/- J/ir^j, as is abovedefcribcd, ftill carried on, the faid CV.j^h- 
lation or Fixation is therewith iikewift, 

28- ^, And in the Interim of the Coagahfion^ a gentle Fermentation 
being alio made, thefaid /'-irfWj;^;^,^ or C^j^/^W/ becomethfucb, not 
of any Texture indifferently, but is thus raifed (a? wc fee Bread in Bak- 
ing ) into a Copfgeria of Bladder's : For fuch is the Pjtenchjma of the 
whole Seed. 





F I N IS. 








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. TT-^ 







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P ^ 

■ J 

rf j 

w 1 



I J' 

V J 




O F 


Presented to the R o y a l S o c i e t y at (everal timeSj 

in the Years, 1672 & 1^73. 

With an Account of die 



Grounded chiefly hereupon. 


By NEHEMJAH qKEW'M.n Fellow of the 

Eoyal Society, and of the College of Phyfuians. 


%t^e ^ecortD emm. 




Printed by W.l^mlins, 1682, 

Mo.Bot.Garc! n, 

N a 




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J 1 



^ I 

L T 



]< J 

■ 4 

• V 1 





Ri^ht Honourabl 


Lord Vi-Count B3{0VNCKER 




Council and Fellows 




F the Dedication of Boo^i vercnot in ufcj 
jcthcre, I think, I might have been a Pre- 
cedent. Tiie promotion of Phytologkal 
Science is one Part o^Tour Work ; and 'tis 
Ton havecalkd me to the management of 
this Part ; for fomc time, have intruded mc 
herein ^ and by Tour moll favourable and candid accep- 
tance of wh^t I have performed thus far, liave encou- 
raged me hereunto : I therefore prefent but Tour Own^i 
into Tour Hands. 

The great Honour and Advantage of Tour Feliowfliip^ 
I firft obtained, by Mediation of Dr. WUkins, the late moft 
Reverend Bijlop of Cbefter. Whom I cannot name> 
Without dying tlius much of him, That He was a Pct- 








■J .H 

. I 



ill :' 


' ..;i i 1 


I J 

\ - 



J ■ 



y .1 

7'^^ £p/)?/£^ Dedicatory, 

foil of that eminent and happy Woidi, wluch, asitwas 
too ^ fear envy j fo is it too i^rcat, to need an Elogic, 

With Him, it was, 7o/^ were plcafcd to commit to Mc, 
the further profeciuion of tliis IVor^ 5 the Bcginjiings 
whereof^ were by Tom- Order formerly made pnUique. 
Hid I eonfulted my own Abilities altogether, I ihould 
fearcely have ventured upon it; feeing very little, for 
which I could think well of my felf, faving, That I liad 
learned, npon good grounds, to think o^Tou with greatcft 
* Honour. But I alfo eonhdered, That to inlid hereon too 
much,might be a reflection upon Tb^-^r Judgmcnt^who had 
thought fit to malce choice of Me. And, That Tou were 
not more the Patrons of Wit, than of Induftry 5 and of 
AIL who fhall endeavour to find out, or to confirm the 
Truth of Things. Wichah I looked upon Nature^ as a Trea- 
fure fo infinitely full ^ that as all Men togctlicr, cannot ex- 
hauft it 5 fo no Man, but may find out fomcwhat therein, 
if he be refolved to Try, 

In compliance therefore with Tour Commands, I have 
hereunto devoted a very confidcrable part of my Time. 
Thefcadding force to my own Dcfires^of being fomewhat 
inftrumental to the hnprovement of Medicinal, and other 
wholcfom Knowledge : if pcradventure, as wc increafe 
herein, we may become better, and more happy. As to 
which hnprovenient, though I could not Iiopcj yet, I 
would not difpair- I have already prepared theSoihand 
made fome Plantation : what rcm:iincth behind, and the 
Vintage ot the whole, will depend much uj^on the con- 
tinued Influence of Tour Beams : for how unpromifing 
foever the Stock may be 5 yet die Fruit cannot but be 
fomewhat matured, upon wiiich Tou are pleafed to ihine. 
I am alfo confident, that the fame Nobilty and Goodnefs, 
whjch accept the endeavours, will likewife pardon the 
faults, ot, 

My Lord-, 

Tour Lordjlji^s mofi humUy 

and mojl fi nearly 
J673, cli'voud Servant 







the em. 

CH A p. ir. 



" ■ ' CHAP. III. 

OF ,he Earqae. tn Original a^d cxternd Accidents, f. i. Siz.. 
■t-k. R1 '.-/"'"^/""^'.^i' P"'-''^ Whereof the om Farmchymous ^ 
iABIdders./. fee Parenchyma, 4, 5, i H, Diametral Pmio!; 

34, 25. A>id m df^ere^t u^d ekga^t Po[uio>t. 26,t,tkcJ 

C H A P. IV. 

O^^l^'lw^V '^' ^°°' "^^^ ^it^i*' the Bark; in Trees W 
^i« AeVveffcl ■ , ^ ^^«% ^-''-i f -^-^, z*^ Sap- Veflel^ 4. 






■ i 


i». ni^i 

The Contents. 

C H A F. V. 

Q-F ll'C Piih- FoHKdin the wpper part of moft Roots^ §, i, Jtt 
ff^eand ffiafv, 2. Sap-Vcflels, 5. Origwal, 4, 5. BUder^ 
6, Fibres a>id Texivre, j,to IT, that of the hfiriioni a^d Barq^t 
thefofffc, 12, Her;c€y tht Origin 4 of the Aer-Vefjds conjeUnred i^ 
What the whole Bodjf of a Root, concluded, 14, 15, The Cofjfepjti of 
the Pitk 16- - •' 



I h 

I I 



It ' 

I ^il 



THeohgy, the Beginning and End of Philofophy, $,i,fo 6, 
The Divine Wifdom fceninjhe Gromh of plants 7. If x&t 
objerve^ -.'/"- -- .,^ ^,, ■' 

How the Ground h Prepared^ Q^fo 14, 

How the Sap is Imbibed^ and DiJiriLftted to fie fiveral farts of tht 
Root, 15, *^23- 'T 'T h U -^ ^ 

Bo^ the feveral Paris are NokriJIjed and For md^ ^9i'^35 

How the ftvcral Parts receive their -refpcaive Situation 5^5 ,^4^ - 
. How Roots receive their different Size and Shape, 41 to 47 ' 

How Roots receive their different Motions, 48^/053.^ 
How Roots are differently Jged, 54, 55,56, ' - ■ -- 

How the Liquors and.other Gonienis of the f^verd Paris m ntade 
57 to 6^' 

HowtheOdorsofRoots arensade^ 6^, ^ ^^ -..>-,„<(- 
How their Colours, 65, to 6y. '^'^ ' 

. How their Tafis^ 68> to the end. 

A»i ■ 


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^ ^^^\ ^\i li ■.■..\ JlJ'. . > . 

I ^'iifVr,'*^ 

tjfc^^p ^ 






L^ ^ 


^ T 



With the bare E Y E 





I! oh 


:, .^ 

Of the 

and AGES of ROOTS. 

E r N G TO fpeak of Rom ; it is requifite, for 
our better uuderftanding of what follows, that fomc 
things, as to their Original, Figures^ Motions and 
Agis, be premiled. 

I. i. Roots, taken altogether, have a Three- 
fold Original. Either from the Radicle:, as all ' 
- — - - Roots which come of the Seed : or from the Tnini 

or lauhs, above ground ; as in Stravokrry, Chamomile, and many other 
f^rufer! -. or from the Tmnk.. or Caulk, after it is funk tinder ground j 
as in L nmrofi, Bifiort, and many others j and prerently fhall be fliewed 

.v^' tr \ t'^ Growth of a BW, and of a Trimk-Rooi, there \% 
this obfl-rvabk difference; That the former, carries along with it,fome 
portion of uvery Pan in the Trmk or Stdk; whereof it is a clmp.n^ 
dmm. The latter, always (hoots forth, by making a Rupture in the 

S"'' sat " ^'''"''' '"'' ^™'''''' ""'^ ^™'" '^^ '""" i"" 








■ mi 


■ I 

1' I, 

'\ iL. 








J . 




T^^ Anatomy 

Book IL 

5. #, As alfb, That in a Bnd, the iJgmiis Part is fpread abroati 
(basto encompafi a Pilh. Whereas in a Trnt^kcRoot^ it makes a (b- 
lid Thrcd ftandiiig in the Center. Which is the Cauie of m dcfcend- 
ing into the Ground ; as is already, in the Firfi 'BOOfe, and ihall in 
This be further Ihewed. 

4. if. ROOTS are generally diflinguithed, z% to their Figures 
in being more Entric, as is that oiljqniri{h ^ or Parted, as of St. lohrji- 
wert. Partetl or Forked, either at the Bottom, as mofl Roots ; or at 
the Top, as Datidtlyotj^ and fbme others, A thing very odd, and un- 
intelligible, without the knowledge of the Motions oi Roots 3 whereof 
prcfintly- u jj 

5. §, Parted, again, are either Ramified, as that oi Cn^ffy ^ or 
Manifold, as oi Crowfoot : both are Parted 5 but the former, by the 
fubdivifion of greater Bramhes, into lefler 5 theft, when divti^ strings, 
have all their diftinft original from one Read. Some are Straight, as a 
Sadifi ^ others Crooked, as Bijhrt. Smooth, as Baglofs ^ or Stringy 
all round about, as Colurfibine. And to Carnations^ this feems to be 

{>eculiar. That fbmetimes m^iny of the Stritjgs i\m parallell with the 
Ft^Wofche great Jit^fl/, through the /J^r^/wf, or betwixt the ffc^W and 
the B^rtjH^. 

6. jJ. Again, fome arc Thick, as Rhttharh^ Slender, as the Vine. 
Long, asFi^w;/^ Short, as a Tw'»c/> : which arc diftindl from Great and 
Little 5 inthatthefe, are fo called with refpeft to fcvcral^tf^//^ thofe 
with refpeft to the feveral Diracnfions of one. Short, are Stubbed, as 
Iris i;ikrofa ^ or R.ound,as Dracoviitim. Round are Tubcrous,ot Simply 
Knobbed, as Rdpe-Croivfoot ^ Bulbous, that is Scaled, as fomc Lilys ^ or 
Sheird, asanOff/tJw. Where note, That all Bulbous BtJ^;j, are as it 
were. Hermaphrodites, or Root and 7>«w^ both together: for the 
Strings oi\\y^ areabfolute Roots ^ the Bnli, aftually containing thofe 

P^rfs^ which fpringing up, rftake theic^i'wor Bt'c/^^ andis, as it were, 
a Great Bnd under ground, 

7' ^. Roots^ again, are Even Or Uneven 5 Even, are Cylindrical, 
as hryngo ^ or Pyramidal, as Borugc, Growing fmaller Downward^ 
as do moft ^ or Upwards, as Skirrets. Uneven, are Pitted, as Potato's 
where ih^Ejes or ^«<Jj of the future rrw^^rlieinward 5 or Knotted' 
as 'jcntfukm-Artichok^ :, where they ftandout. Thcfe Differences, are 
alfo Compounded ; fo fomc Roots are both Entire and Smooth, as 
Peonyt, others Entire, but Stringy, asC/^r;; that is, neither Ramifi'd 
noryetBiufiiy,ordividtdattheTopintorcveralirmaII5^/r/«^/^ but a 
Single Root furroundcd with many Hairy Threds. Some both Plain in 

fome parts, and Knobbed in others, as FjlifCffditU, Lilittm von hidhofum 
and others* . , "^ ' 


8 ^. Some alfo have two or more: kocU ; and thole of one Kind ■ 
of whici), tome arc dimrftly f.iikiiii tothe bottomc of thcSf^//; asiii 
Dogfioms ; fomc Oand one imder another, fo ns only the uppernoit is 
hiten d to the SlA., as in Dr^/nf, Crocus, and others. And tliL-re are 
lome, which have not only ivioRavts, at the- fame time ; but thofe al- 
io ot two diOiiia Kinds, as \n Rijhrf-^ one of them, a llcnder ftrait 
»^yiindrick and honzomall Root ^ the otiicr latgt; and croolted, and 
credot thcDi-k-endingTV;,^^ as in fi>eaking next of th^- Ahtrofi^of 
-nce^x, will U- iindtiaood, how. Ailwhich, with other Diligences 


Book IL 

of Roots. 


by Thofe rliLit undertake the Z>f/r;/'f/Vwj of PA/^//, nrc accurately to 
bt? Noted, But thu DiiFcrenceSj above mt:nnoned, will Icrve for our 
,prellnt Purpole. 

?. (. THE MOTIONS of Rootf are alfo divers. Sometimes 
Level, as arc thofe of Hops, A>»»>i, Cinijicfyk ^ and all iiich as pro- 
perly Creep. SomecimeE Perpendicular, as that of Parfnep- Which iS 
(iifierent trom Straightnefs ; for fome Straight Jioofy, are Level. Both 
of them are either Shallow or Deep : fomc run Level, and near the 
Inr}, as Woodland, Wild Amnomy ^ others lower, as Dags-Graft. Some 
Itrike dowii, but a little way, as Slramom,m; others grow deep, as 
Horfe-Rad,JI, : Which is different from being Long; fSr many [oni- 
Kaots, are Level, as Hops. J t, 

J u f.V ^°?^ "8'^'" ^^'''^'■'nd, as Tulips, and otlier Bulbous Ro&ls 
whrch differs from growing oniy Downwards; in that here, the 
head of the^^^ns Immoveable; but in Defcending, the whole Root 
obteineth different Places running deeper, lime after time, into the 
tarth. Some alfo Afcend, fometimes, and in fome part, appearing 
above ground, as Twtieps. i' ' 1 r'^'"^''fb 

.1, ' r ^' 1 d'"""'' ^''i"" "^ "^'^ Compbunded ; both in refpea of 
the fevera Parts of the R.ot, and of feverai Times. So the main 
Root ofPrr^rofin Level; the Strings are Perpendicular. The 
Roots of moft W%/ grow Downward and Upward, or (hoot out 
m length at both Ends, at the fame time. Thofe oi B^llm iS 
and fome others, grow, in part, both Downward and Upward It fe- 
verai times : Whence it is, thatB^mis Crooked, with feme refem- 
blance to an S according to its z/.^e ; And that fome Parts of Iris- 
Root appear oftentimes above the ground. ■ 
13 s(. There Is alfo another Motion, in fome Rootf, not heeded - 
and that IS a;.(.r^/.« .. whereby, without bemg moved out of thei^ 
Place they are Writhed orTwifted; asapiece ofCloath is when 

he Water IS wrung out of it; as in CardL, Son.hns, and others" 
Whether always! cannot fay. This AI.<i.« cannot be noted, wth-' 
outftnpp.ngoffthe5.ry«.; whereby the ^#/. may be fecn feme- 

imes, to make two or three Circumvolutions.'' This V//.« J^ems to 
be governed by the windmg of the Su\ks and therefore to bS S 

L Lm^veaSe ™'"'' " '^' ^°^"^ ""' '*^^" ^"'^ °^'^^ ^-'' ^^S. 

.\ '^' t ^"T, ^^"^^^ ^'^ "^^ ^'^""" of ^^oots, not obferved ■ " 
the moft remarkable is that of DESCENT. Which althoueh it hS 

fc-r'- ""I'T ^""'H'' "'^■''"^ Roots S'^tf^X^ 

Toot ill T 1 ^"'f ^^'I'^-i'-"'"'/'"''^ ^-Icrian, Bro„>mort, Bearf 
Zl^iit r ^f '" ''^''^ ^'""'^ '^ •= ^^^y obftrvable, Tha 





'i: ■ 


1^1 . 


J E 


The Anatomy 

Book II. 

t^L 5./; 

^bI. 5. /: 

r^ 5-/. 5' 

JVftJ//^ffof theS/.^/^ , al(b Def-auh :, and lb, according to tlic cKira- 
blencfi of Its SubftancL", becomes a fiiorter or longer i^^^w/ ^ the Elder 
or Lower Portion tlKTCof, Rotting oil, by the fame Degrees with 
ihe Generation of the Upper, out of thei'/J^, So in Brow/^7vi?rtj ih^ 
Bajis of the 5/^/j^ finking down by dcgrets, till it lies under Ground, 
becomes the upper part of the Root^ and continuing ftill to link, 
the next year, bccomts the lower Parr ■■, and the next after that, rots 
away 5 a new Addition being IHll yearly made out of the -SV.//^ ^ as 
(5^ the elder Parts yearly rot away. So in Dr^gfj;^ Croim^ and the like, 
where the Koot is double \ the 'Ba^is of the ^idk,^ this year 5 the next, 
becomes the Uppcr-fioii/ ^ after ihat^ the Lower-7?i?('; ^ and at the 
length dies and is confum'd, 

14, ^. The Demonflration hereof, is taken, more evidently, from 
fome I^tJtf/j, than from others i as from the Level and Knobed Roots 

' oiWood-firrcl^PrirJirofi^ &c, Fortht? Lea^vrjofthofe ?/<?j?;j rotting off 
iLicceilively, and the Bafis of thole Leaves gradually detcending into the 
Ground ^ each Eafs is thus nourillicd with a more copious Sup^ and fb 
fwelled into fo many thick Knots. It m^iy Hkewife he gathered ia 
fbme, from the like Pofitionofthc Ve£dso\- Woody Parrs, in the iJiic'/, 
as in the Trunk^--^ as in Bares-foot^ As alio, from the Root of the Iris 
^' Tnberofa : where, although the Leaves fall off dole to the Surface of 
the Stalk^'y yet after that is funk down, and (welfd into a Roof^ the 
Seats of the perithed Leaves^ and the Ends of the VeJJels belonging to 
themj are not oblcurely vifible^ whereby the Root is wrought^ as it 
were, with feveral Seamcs ^wA Frickt- Lines i, th^ Seams (hewing the 
fettingon of the Lcava ^ and the Pricks^ the Terminations or broken 
Ends of the Vcjfels: which ends, are IVill more apparent, upon the 
Gripping off the B7r-j;/c, rconfidcred likewife. That as among Avi- 
OT<v/j, there are many, which are not Bredof i^^j, immediately^ bur 
arc Transformed, one j4wW into another : So, it is more than pro- 
bable, That among Plants^ there arc not a few Inftances of the like 
Transfor^iiiions -^ whereof, this is one, 

15. ^. TheCjij/eof this Dc/7cw/, fo far as it is dependent on the 
Inward Conformation of the 'Root, \ fhall fhew in the following 
JPnit But the Immediate Vilible one, are i\{Q Strii^g-Rcots^ which 
this kind oVfrmikj frequently put forth; which, deicendiog them- 
Jelvcs dircOly into the Ground, like fb many Ropcs^ lug the Tmnk af- 
ter them. Hence the Tvherons-Roots of Iru upon the rotting or fjding 
away of the iVrJw^-J?t?fl/j hanging at theiD, fometimcs a little Re-afcend", 
Hence ali(> the 5/j-7^tr of fome Ji(7^/j is Inverted; For whereas moft are 
parted downwards, into feverallc^j^ fome arcparted upwards into 
divers A'ff^j, as D.Wf/»5w, andoihers. For thcfei^ffl// tending forth 
at tlie top feveral Tr/rn^- Buds^ the faid Bnds fucceliively put forth v\<:\v^ 
and cail their old Le.ii}esz, and continually alfo making their Oefcenr, 
are at kngih formed into fo many JVirt^y, of three, four, five, or more 
Inches long, under Ground* 

16. §. HRNCE ALfo wc undcrftand, in what particular way, 
fome Roots become PercmiUL Some are wholly lb,, as thole of trees, 
shrubs^ and divers other woody Pf^inis. Others, in part, or by :i 
nt-w Progenies of Roots, from the old j-kad or Bodv,. in the room of 
tho/e th^t die yearly, or after a certain Time ^ ^i oi ubitm ^.-s^i hli^^ 

Book If. 

I ' 

of RootS' 


fifff^ Jem fill- m Art iihi'k^^ Potato^ Dog-jlof^cs^ Mofjl{s-hood^ iTttlcCcUn- 
di/ic^ atiJ oihors. In which PUfits^ ont or more of ihcir Roots are 
iirm, the other J'pofigy .ind lupcrammaccd ^ and paiily, bv the ravine 
oftheTJv/w^ anti other younger iJt'fiJ, reduced to a Confumption and 

1 7. §- With thcfe,r//%,aiid other Bnlbous-Roots confort : For the fc- 
v€ral Rhulcj Sc ^^c///,whereofchie[ly,the B/illf confifb/ucccl lively perith 
and Ihrink up into lb many thin and dry S^tfs: betwixt which,and in 
their Centre, other Leaves i\nd Shellr^ bein^ rucceflively formed, the 
Bulb is thus perpetuated- In the ftnie manner ilie Strin^-Rooti alfo (uc- 
ceed one another annually. So that at the end of divers Years, although 
it be ftil! looked upon as the fame hdivhluA Root, yet it is, in truth. 
Another, as to every particle thereof 

iS. ^. Laftly, many other iJc't^/j are perpetuated by the aforefaid 
Defcenrofthe 7nml{^-^ out of which, it is (till annually Repaired, as 
by the p;radual perifhing of its lower parts, it is Dimirilhed 5 as hath 
been faid. Whercealfo we fee the reafonofthe Rugged and Blunt 7-; „ f . 
extremities of thefe, and fome other Roots, as of that Phvt fuperftiti- ^'^' ^' 
oufly called DcvHs-bit i bccaufe the end of it Icems to be bitten off. 
Yet dorh it not appear fo originally 3 but the Lower part thereof rot- 
ting off, as the Upper defccnds^ 'the living remainder, becometh 
Itumped, or feemeth Bitten. Thus far of the Ongwal^ Shapa, Mnii- 
OJJSy 3.ndAgcs oUioots. 


Of the SKIN. 

NEXT proceed to the feveral Parts whereof a 

Km is Compounded- The outer F^irt of all is the 

i'^f/7 -J which h common to all Rof>ts. Tis diverdy 

Coloured: Whirerin Sl^irrets^ Yellow, in Dt^r^^ 

R.ed, in ffl/^^t) 5 Brown, ml.ov^jgc:^ Black, in S^- 

^ ghfi. Its Surface, fometimcs Smooth, as in Horf 

_ __ ? radifi^ Rough, as in Scor%omra. And the Skiffs 

<^fiheieveral5/n:i7^ of a TriUp-Root, taken up fretli, look as if they 

were perforated with a great many fm^Jl holes, Tis ofvarious Size 5 

very Thin, in Parfmp 3 fomewhat Thick, in Bjiglofs ^ very Thick in Tm, 

SomeumcsitisOpacous, as in TM/c 5 and fometimesTranrparent, as 
in Mudckr. ^ * 

2. §. Every B/)ot hath fucceffively two kinds of Shj^js : the one 
Coctaneous with the other P.irts --. and hath its original from that 
which involvcth the Farts of the Seed it felf The other, Poftnate 
(ucceeding in the room of the former, as the Root agcth ^ and is ori- 
natcd from the Bark, So in Da^dd^o^, the old sl^^, looked upon 
about the beginning of Majf^ feems to have been one of thofe feveral 





t . 

r " 


■ p. 

.<< ; 


7'^(? Anatomy 

Book II. 

I 14,. 

R/w^j, which the precedent year compottd the Coriioil Body of the 
Root : but by the Generation of a new Rwg^ next the Wood^ is now 
thruftotf andlhmiikiip mtoa5i;w. So a\(o\u \\\q Roots oi B^glofi 

Ttfi- i4ii5" and Horfi^ Rad^f/j, as^ f!u- as the BUddcrs'm the former, and xb^FcffiU 
in the latter arc Radiated 5 the Cortical Body fccms either annually ot 
ofccner, to (brink up into another new Skjn^ as, the old ones f:ill offi 

^^^ ^^ And fometimes, perhaps, ^'^xrvAsfparagits^ the wholebody of the Per- 
pendicular Roifts^ except the woody Fibre in the Centre, becomes the 
fecond sk^v. So that the wearing away of the old Skfff^ fucceeds the 
derivation of the new one 5 as in Defcending Roets^ the Confumpti- 
on of the Lower i^^r//, doth the Generation of the Upper, Bccaute 
ihe Barque fwells, and grows fometimes fafter than the Sf^n can fall 
off, or give way to ic : therefore are the RooU of many Hcrbs^ Barque- 
bound, as well as the Tnwi^s of Trees. 

3. ii. This %/? is ufually, if not always, compounded of two 
Kinds of Bodies : which alfb is probable of tlieCoetaneous, The one, 
Faremhyf/wtis^ and frequently conftruSred of exceeding Httle CfZ/j or 
Bladders-^ which in Ibme J^ft?//, as of Afp/r^gns^ cut traverfe and 

tab ID. Viewed through a M/.r^y^'^/^f, are plainly vifible. Thefe Bladders ^le 
7-jt. 14. of different Sizes 5 m Bughs, larger 5 'in Ajparag/fs M$ :, and fomeEJmeB 
they coincide and dsfapp^ar. But m thefe, and all other Roots ^ 
even where thefe BUdders appear nor^ the Pare/ft-fyma of th^ skiT^l 
isoftheiameSubftantial Nahtrc^ with that other more vivid and bulky 
one of the Bark_: As is manifelt, from its being thence Originated 5 
and alike Conformed, a^ (hall be ieen ^ and not on!y adjacent to itj as a 
Glove IS to the Hand 5 but continuous therewiih, as the parts' ofa 
piece of fleflij are one with another. 


4. ^, OF THIS Parouhymoiis Body^ the 5^ confifteth chicfiy, 
but not wholly ^ there being many Ugf^ot/s Veffch which are Tubulary, 
mixed therewith; which, though hardly by the Mk-rrfcope ^ yec 
otherwife, is dcmonffrable. For in tearing the Skin, you fliall do it 
more eafi^y by the length, than bredth 5 becaufe, bythcfirftway the 
continuity only of the Parcmhym-i , is diifolved ^ but by the latter 
00th of this, andoftheryjt/r, thefe being pofited by the length of the 
Root : Sothat, as by the Imalnefs of the Bladders of the Pavcnchytm 
the6'/[/?;isDenfe^ fo by thefe Tr/f/j, is it Tough. 

5- #■ Agoin, jfyou cur a Root traverfe, and let it He by for fome 
tmic, all the parls,where there are no Ff^//,fhrink below the furface of 
the cm-end 5 but whcre-evcr Thtic are policed, there is noflirinking 5 
yhich oftentimes, evidently appears alfo in the Slqn : becaufe the(i*id 
f'i^els, though, as ihtBUddm, they may coincide 5 yet they cannot 
vihbly fhorten or flirink up in length ; no more than a StruxP. whofe 
Ijdes may yet be ealily crulhcd together, 

6. V Further, the i^^^^^ being cut traverle, if, near the cut-cnd 
you very gently prefs the iide of the Root with the edge of your Nail, 
the ^-7/- will thereupon arife fomctimehfrom the Skin ^ in the Gmc man- 
ner, ',\'iizQm any other part of the Root, where the like /V^I/zarerofi- 
f^'dj And although the S.ip may hkcwife be exprefl.d from the Vith, 
ana other i>./^ij where fomeiimes, therearcnone ofthefL' /^fcZ/f yet 
not wiihout a folution of there continuity ; which Ihtl doih not fol- 
sowi as appears, fiomihedifappcaring of the A>,to^alitr with ihe in- 
ter mi lUou 


Book IL 

of Rootf^ 

termiflion of the prclfurc ^ ilic faid IcJ/clr then dilating themfdvcs by 

aMoiion of Rrfiit*if 'Off J and Ibfuckirif^upthe 5-//i again. 


. ^^<^ 
.™ — t^— Hx .w.».« about, as in that 

ofLiqmrifh, Columbmc, Scorzonera^ and others- Which Experi- 
ments^ 1 have here, once for all, more particularly f^rtdowH^ becaufe 
Irtiallhaveoccafion, hereafter, to refer to them. 




Of the B A ROVE. 


EXT W r T H r N the Sijn iieth the Barqr^c, 
Tis fomerimes Ydlow, as in i>f^ 3 Red, in Bi/iorf 5 
but ufually, and in Seed-Roots^ I think, always 
White. It is derived from the Seed it felf^ beint^ 
but the extcnfion or prolongation of the Parcf^chy- 
p^a o{ ihG Raduk y One of the three Org^mcd 
?arh of the 5^^^^ defcribed in the FhB CTfinn. 
tec of the Fhfi T1500&. ^ 

2- jS It is variouily Sized ^ fometimes very Thin, as in 'jerufuhm 
Arikhok^^ G&Ms-beard^ and in mofl Trees ^ where it alfo retains the 
l^^mto^^BarqttcoxRwd. Somt^times *tis more Thick, and maketh up 
the far greatcft jjrotion of the lloot^ as in the ^ztm^^Roofs o^Afparagas^ 
in Dandeliofr^ and others. The thinneft and the thickcQ ar e all ana- 
logous, and obtain the fame general Ufcs. The degrees of its Size 
amongft all Roots^ may be well reckoned about Twenty, and fecn in 

the following examples , fi. Beet , Dropwort , 'jeritjulem Artukoke , t^b- 7, 8, o. 
Urpim, yakrian^ Geats^eard^ Nettk^ BrowKwort, CoUmhim, Cdw- 
dme^Afparjgus^Horfe-RadiJh, Peony^ Bryony^ Ery^go^ Borage^ Lovage 
Dmdelwn, Parfnep^ Carroty &c. [n the Root o^Beet, fcarce exceeding 
a good thick skin: butinaQrm, half theSemidiameter ofthe i^^^f/ 
or above half an Inch over in fome places ; and that ofDjndetion^ fome- 
Umes, in proportion with xh^ woody Part, twice as thick : the reft of 
Several intermediate Degrees: And to mofi Roots, thi^ is common, 

TohavethcirBdr^;/^proportionably thicker, at the bottome than at 
the top, 


ri ■ 

3- .§• IT IS Compounded of two Bodies. The one Parachymons ; 
t-ontmuous ibroughom ; yet fomewhat Pliable without a folution of 
KS Contmmty. Exceediiif; Porous; as appeareth from its fo much 
ihriiiking up, in drying. The Pores hereof are extended much alike 
both by the length and bredth of the Root ; therefore it (liriiiketh uo 
by both thofc Dimenfions, more equally. And they are verv Dilative ■ 
as IS alfo manifeft ftom its reftorablenefe to its former bulk again, upon 






(f Roots. 

Book II 

I r 

.' I, 


. I 







, 4 

I I 

1 ■ 

tak 10, 
& feqteent 

tsh. 14, 

its iiifufioii in Water : that istoil^y. It is a mofi curious and 2xquififch 
fitje vproHght Sponge, Thus much the Eye and Rcafon may discover. 

4. §. TheM/i:rfl/tYi;ji: confirmslhc truthhcreof, and more precifcJy 
fliews. That ihcic Percsiw^ al!, in a manner, Spherical, in moft PLmu ; 
and thisP^r/, anlnlinici? M-.\^^ o^\\u\<i Cells ox BUcUcrs, The fides of 
noneofihem, arc Vifibly pervious from one into another 5 but each is 
bounded within it fclf, So that the tarcmhyma of tiie Biirque^ is much 
the fame thing, as to its Conformation, v/hich the Froth of /ff^r or 
Eggs 1% as a fluid, or a piece of fine Mumhct^ a'j a fixed Body. The 
Sides alfo ofthcie BUdders are as tranfparcnt, as thofcof Water j or 
the Bodies of Ibme/ff/^i'/A 

6. ^, But their Size is nfually ranch finallcr •-, and their PoQuremote 
Regukr than thofe in Bread or WaUr. In all Roots they are fi^ fmall, 
asfc;^rcelyT without the Af/ri-p/tY'pf, to bedifcerned; yet are they of 
different Size, both in the fame^ and in divers Roofs ^ the varieties 
whereof, amongft all Rc*ii(j, may be reduced to about Tenor Twelve 
'Xak 13, 14. according to the Standard, m T^h, \i. Some of thofc in Djndelior/^ 
being of che Smallcft ^ and in Btfglofr^o^^ the Creatett. They are pofi- 
red, for the moQ part, at an Equal Height ^ and piled evenly one over 
another; So that, oftentimes, they vifibly run in Ranks or trains, 
both by the length and breadth of the Rootf^as in the Root of Bitgbfs^oz 
of Durtdelioff, fplit through che middle, may be feen. Although they are 
ufually Spherical, yet fometimes, and in Ibme place?, they are more 
oblonge, as in the outward part ofthei'^n-^weofBr/^^i?//. Th^eBkdders^ 
are fometimes beft feen, after the Rt>ot^ being cut traverie, hath layn 
by awhile, to dry. 

6. §- They are the Receptacles of JJqi/or f which is ever Lucid 3 
and 1 think, always more Thin or Watery. They are, in all Seed- 
Roots^ filled herewith 5 and ufually, in thofe alio which are well 
grown, nsof Borage^ Radijb^ &c. 

7. ^. THIS Parerrchymous Farf^ in many i?f o/j, is of one Unifbrm 
Contexture f as in Afpanigtis, Horf-Radifi, Peony^ Potato^ and others. 
In many othen, it is, as it were, of a Diverfified IVoof-^ the BUdders 
being, though every where Regular, yet either in Shape, SizCj or 
Situation, different in fome Parts hereof^ from what they are, inothcr 
intermediate ones. For thefe Parts, are like (b many White Rj^s^ 
ftreaming, by the Diameter ofthe liff/, from the inward Edge toward 
the Circumference of the Bfjr^wf 5 as iii Lov.igc, Mclilor, Parfnep, &c- 
cut tranfvcrily, is apparent. They arcj though not in dircd Lines, 
continued alfo by the length of the Root 5 fo that they arc, as it werc^ 
fo many Mej?ibr<tth f j,by which the other Parti of the Burque^^xz^ difter- 

8. §, The Continuation of thefe Diametral R-?;j, or Tortiojts ^ is 
divers : fometimes, but half through the B^ir^ftc^ or Ibmevvhat more, 
or left, ^^'inMehht, Audit is probable', that to the ZJt^^/j of allor 
mott Trf/^/r, and alfoofthc /Lr^«w/w(f;;/Kind, this is proper, To have 
their Diametral Ruys come Ihort of the Circumference, Sometimes, 
they run quite through to the very 6'/^/^;, as in Lovagc. And I think ^ 
in the Roots of all Umbel]iferous PLfsts : in which therefore, the Ski^ 
fecm^ to have a clofcr Communion with the Diametral R-ijs^ and to be 
originated dpecially therefrom. They ufually ftand at an Equal Pi- 
ft;ince in the fame Root : But with rcfpcft to divers Roots^ tht-ir Di- 




7uh. 8. 



J i 


Book 11. 

of Roots. 




fiance v.rk. ; Co I.fsin r.<rfi,p, ^rc^:,r m ii.ghj.. Tlicy are commonly r.t. 7, S. 

KtitHini-jr, as in Lgv.>gc ; but iometmics windinff to and fro u in 

a Carrol. ° > ■ m ^ 

9. f They arc not always of one Size: in a Carrol near the '" * 
nncr_EJgc of the W, cxcceJing Slender, and fcarcely difcerna- 
b!e5 .iio.h.i., Thicker, as i.uhe Three greater ones of 4//^( and ^ 
in common Chcrvtl. Both by their Diftance, and Size, they are ilfo ^"^^ ^' ^ 
efs or niore Numerous , fome, only a. they are nearer; fome, as fmaU 
ler , others, as both. And lis proper, I think, to the htybcH, kind 
either to have none, or bat a ftw. Sometimes they are of the fS 

JM^&^ And fometimes are confiderably (prcad or dilated as thev 
aproach the %«, wherewith they arc joyn^ed, and whereinto S 
more vifiby run as >n P.^y/._;, or the fmaller part of the Root of 
L^gc And m fom. Roots, as o? Scorzo.era, at fome times ofthe^.f-?- 
year whenlefs ftcculcnt, almoft the whole P,remhy»^a feems m be 
of the Nature of the Diametral R.,., in other iw' The S.r. 

"■/' ^^^'h^ other p^re«.V^„j /)^,,^ of the Barque are thr 
R«:eptacIesof/.yw, fothefe, (where they are; of A.! Thfisar- 
gued. From their being more White, and not Tranfpar^nt a S 
Roots and Parts ufe to b., which are more copiouOy and a,ual v fii 
kdupwKhi,>.r: as ih^ Pith o^ Elder, which, i/the oSSv 1 I 
White, was once and by being well foaked,'wi]t become £air, 
Tranfparent And from their being more dry and voyd of Iw" 
whereupon their M.., which ca'nnot be Vacuities, muS be Ed 
with more or lefs A,r mi.ed with the Sap or the F.poro.s parts there 
oE This IS more obfervable in thofe Diametral Portions, which ter- 
minate upon, and run into the S^m. ' ^" '^' 


T- °^.}^f^'Vonnd^A Subftance; therebeinga ccrtai/number of ■ 

ScfoTthtrfm?^T'-"'r%^''' ^'^^^'^ '^'™"^'^-- ^^ the 'ex- 
being ptdortriSlff: JL^'^.tr' '~^^^' ""'' '^' '^^^ '' 


Pi I 




14- f 




-1. ■ . 

V I 

\ 1 

Ti?*? Anatomy 

Book II 

14- ^, Tliey fccnij at firft, where thty are Braced, to be Jnof- 
culated 5 fo as to be pcrviodsonc into another. But a more accurate 

vicw,eipcciailyaliiftcdby aM/yrfflj^i'fc.tiiilovers thecon^^^^ Neither 
are they woun'd any way one about another, as Threds are in a Rope r 
nor Implicated, as in ravled Yarn, or the Knots of a Net: but only 
comignousorfimply Tangent, as the fcveral Chords in the Braces of 
a Drum ; being thus joyned together by the Patmchymom Parts^ as in 
Jpeakingof the P//^, will bcundcrfiood how. Yet do not always the 
lame Thredj belong and keep entire to one Eracc ^ but are frecjnenrly 
parted into leiler Threds^ which are tranfpoled from Braie to Eraci;. 
Nor do they always, in whole or in part, prefcnrlyafc^r their comin- 
gencc, mutuaily fall off again, butj oftentimes, run along collaterai- 
ly joyned together for fomcfpacc, 

15- §- Theic Bntces are of variousnumber in divers iiiJ^// 5 more 
fiCcpGnt in Jerjffalcm Art jchokpy ltd in Scor^ofier^r^ more rare in G«i^/, 
The Threds likewile are variouHy Divaricated ; fomctimes morej where 
the Braces are frequent, as in Jcr/ifiUrn Ariichsh '■> and ibmetimcs leiy, 
where the Braces are rare, as in Scorziomr^^ Dar2delie^ i And in all 
Rit&ts, more frequent towards the Inner Verge of the D-irl^, 

t6. §. By what is laid, it is partly implied. That thefeT-Srf^//^ are 
not Single f^f^/j 5 but a C//^cr of chem. Twenty, Thirty, or more or 
fewer of them together. Yet as the Threds arc not Inofculated in the 
Braces 5 lb neither are the Feffih^ in the Threds. Nor yetTwifted 5 
but only ftand coUateral together 5 as the fcveral Single T/jfc;;/ of the 
Silkporm^ do in Sleave-Silk. Neither are theter^^// pyramidal, fo far 
astheG/tf/f wiU difcover^ or, from probable Reafon, may be conjec- 
tured. Nor Ramified, fo as to be fucceflively propagated one from 
another, after the manner of the ^a^j in Anirnahi but Cylindrical » 
and Diftindly continued, thronghout the Icngthof the JJi^^/ 5 as the 
ftvcral F fibres imTeftdon ox Nerve, 

17, ^. THESE VESSELS are either themfclves of divers kinds, or 
ferve, atleaft, to conffcitutc divers Kinds, in dwTs Roots: of the dif- 
ferent Natures whereof, dlthough there may be other ways whrreby to 
judge i yet fo far as by Infpedion, we may do it, chiefly, by the Di- 
verfity of thofe Lj^ftifr/, which they feverally contaia Sometimes they 
yield uLymfha-^ and that Thin, as they do md^PHrfnep-^ efpccially 
thole that make a Rivg^ at the inward extremity of the Sdrk; See the 
Root it felf That this Clear Sap afcendcth only from thefe Veffils^ is 
certain, Bccaufe no Liquor will do the like, from a[iy Varemhymous 
Part^ asC/jrf^, a, hath been faid. And bccaufe it is of a different 
nature from the s^p contained in the Bladders of the Paretichyma 5 al- 
though of the fame Colour^ yet fenfibly more Sroeet. 

r8. § Spmeiimes they yield a Thick and Mucilaginous Lywp/j^, as 
in0/»j/7, asappearcth by its tenacity. From the Mucilaginous CW- 
Jf»iof thefe^^7fitis, I fuppofc, that the ^^p contained in the fi/-?^- 
i^crj is rendredofthc like nature, fo faras it approaches hereto, which 
lomctimes is more, as in Marfj^MalloTv ^ and fomctimes but little as in 
Borage 1 For in prcffing outthe/J^z/ifr ofthis W/w/, and then heating 
It over an indifferent fire ^ thefir greater part hereof rcmai net h thins 
only fome certain firings and little hilsofa gellicd fijbibiuv are mixed 

herewith^ which ui it kcms. Were originally the proper Liquorofihcic 
MHudiuts. , 10, j(, 

Book 11. 


of Roots, 


19. f OfccntimesthcfcSi]Cciferousri;^t^yid(iaAf/%or White 
Sap 5 and fonieiinies Yellow,and of other colours as in Sffiu/mt^^nd moft 
CkhoraceoHi PLmti ■-, in Au^eUca^ and moft Untbelliferous ■■, in Biirdeit 
and divers Thifiks, to which that is 'akin : in Scorzertera , Commoi 
BtUs, and many other Phnts, roc commonly taken notice of to be 
mlky. The Milky Saps of all which, although they differ in Colour 
rtiicknefs, and other Qualities; yet agree, in being more Ojjji than 
any of the Ljimphom Sapi. It being the mixture of the Ojly parts with 
(bme other Limpid Lj^ffsr, but of a different Nature, which caufcth 
them to be of a At/^p, or other Oz-a^nsj Colour, in the fame manner 
as common Of/, and a ftrong Uqmmm of Tartar, (baked in a Bottle 
together, prefently mix into a White Liquor. And although they 
will, for the grcatelt part, feparate again ■■, yet fome of their parts 
without any Boiling, or (b much as the leaft Digeftion with Heat, by 
Agitation only, or ftanding together for fome time, incorporate in'the 
form of a Thin Milky-Sope, which will alfo diflblve in Water. I fup- 
pofe, therefore. That it is the VolaiiU Salt, chieHy, of thefe ?lants 
which being mixed with their 0/, renders this iJjaorof a White or 
other Opacous Colour. 

20. jf. Sometimes the Oy will feparate and difcoverit felf: for if 
you cut a Fenil-Reot traverft, after it hath layn fome days out of the 
Ground ; the fame Vc0s, which, in a frefh Reet^ yields Milk ; will 
now, yield Oyl: the watery parts of the Milk. , which in the dry- 
ing of the Root are more evaporable, being fpent. 

a I. §, All Gums and BalfaMsare likewife to be reputed the proccr 
Cme.ts oith^k V-eJfels: for Thefe and Milks, are very near akin, 
bo the M;/^ off m/, upon Itanding, turns to a Clear ealfam ; of 
:>cffrzo„era, Danddion, and others, to a G««. In the dryed Root 
ot ^mhca^^c. being fplit, the Milk, according to the Continuati- 
on of thefe VeffiU, appeareth, as Blood dodders in the Veins, con- 
denied to an hard and (hining Rofw, And the Root o^HckniHm cut 7ab. 
iranfVerfely, prefently yields a curious Bi^^we of a Citrine Colour 
^d lometimes of the Colour of Bdfame of Snlthur. I call it a BaU 
}4i»e 5 becaufe it will not diflblve in Water. Yet not a Terebinth^ 
becaufe, nothing nearfo vifcid ortenaceousas that is. But the Root 
of Common Wormwood, bleeds, from large Ve£ib, a true TereLi»ti>, or a T.h. 
Balj^e With all the defining properties of a terebimhi although that 
Word he commonly ufed only for the Liquors of fome Yreei. 

\Jfr ^' J^"^ " ^" another kind of Sap-Fejfeh, which may be cal- 
led yaponr-f^effcls ; as m Dock', at leaft fome of them. For by the 
^p-^effiU it is, that the Barques of Rools do Bleed. Of which fome 
Heed quick and plentifolly, as the VntheUiferous and the Cichofaccous ' 

Zl 'f ^°T' ^">' '^"^'y ^"*^ ^'^^^^^ ^'''^'y' ^' ^" or moft Trcfoyh, 
n L -^ ^£'*'»>>"»" Kmd. And fome feera not to Bleed, as the 
Yet that this Root, hath alfo Vejjels diftinft from thofc that 
carry A» -^ doth partly appear, from the different Colour they pro- 
duce where they ftand ^ as will better be underftood anon, in fpeak- 
P °' tne Caufes of the CoIchts of Roots.hs alfo from the Toughnefs 
Ot the Barque m pulling it by the length ; neither the Paruschy,^. 
northeAr.?^/e/r,temgofthemfelvesTo«^A. But becaufe the 5«^,*J 
or Sap they carry, feems to be a kind of Dewy Vapour, thcrtfore they 
may not improperly be called Rorifereiis oiVapotir-Veffeli. ' ■ ^^■• 










The Anatomy 

Book II. 

lah. 9- 

J M 


tab. 7,8,5^, 



L '- 



\ ■ 

L , 


2g. ^» THE Sdp-Vejfeh^ are not only of divers Kinds, in divers 
Roots, but in tiic liimc. Whether in all, I doubt : but in fomc it is 
certain they are; For ifyou cut a i^WZ-Rfiif trnverfc, both AI"//^ and 
Lifftpid Sap^ will prcfently afccnd, and, upon accurate infpeftion, 
appear thereupon dinftlnftly. So ihc Kocts^ both oiTmcheUum and 
EriuU^ Bleed both a Lympha^ and a Citrine Bdfamt : and Worntreood^ 
both a Lyfftpha, and ^.Terchinth^ at the fame time. So alfo the -R(wJ 
of Dandelion being cut in November ^ fcems to bkcd both a Afi/^ 
and a Lympha ^ the latter being drowned by the former at another 
time when it is more copious. Whether all Roots have LymphedH^x, 
is doubtful ^ but 'tismoft probablcj that they hive, more or fewer 5 
ftanding^ for the moft part, in a Ritjg^ at the Inner Verge of the 
Bftrtfue : the Sap whereof, I fuppole^ is fo far of common Nature in 
ail RootSj as to be Clear, and \t& Oily. 

34. ^, THE Quantity ofthefeff^e/j is vety different: In Borage, 
Peony^ Bijlori^ but few ■-, in Afparagm^ fewer : in Farfrep^ Celartdrrfe^ 
many 3 in Fen/l^ Marp^-rttallojv^ many more: and betwixt chefe ex- 
treams, there are many Degrees, as by comparing the iiti(>/j oiHorfe- 
Kadijl)^ Tnrncp^ Briony^ Sk^rrets^ Farflcy^ Goats-Beard^ and as many 
more as you pleafe, may be feen. Amongft the feveral Sorts oiDocku 
they leem in patknce^ to beihefeweft^ in Red-Dock.-, the moft nu- 
merous. There are two ways of judging of their Number ^ Either 
as their Extrenicties are vifible upon the iraverfc cut of the Barque 5 
orastheB<i>-^;^ei3diver(ly BriitleorTough, being fo, from the va- 
rious Number of thefc VeJJels therein, as in the Saond Chapter hath 
been faid, 

25, jS. The Quantity of the ascending 5^/-, is a doubtful argu- 
ment, whether of the Number, or Size of thefe Vtffds. For it b 
common to raoft Mil^y-Roots^ for the Mitl{_ to afcend more copioufly : 
yet in fome of them, th^ VeJ/eis ieem,- in proportion with tht: Paren- 
ihyutoiu Part^ not ro be fo numerous, as in fome other Rools^ where 
the afcendiiig Sap is lefs ^ as by comparing the L.jBca!s of DavdiUofi^ 
znAiht Lymphd^duUs of i^^tjw// together, may appear: fo that it Ihould 
n.'cm, that the bore of the Un^al Veffels^ is greater than that of the 
Lyjjjpk^dn&s. ' 

r ■ 

16, ^. THE Situation of theie Vejfds^ as they appear, even to 
the naked Eye, in the tranfverfe Section, is Various and Elegant, 
Sometimes they arc pofited only at the Inner Edg of the Barque^ where 
-I^Lj-^.?. they make a Ring, ^^\u Afparagns. In which place and pofition, they 
^ ^^' - ftandinmolt, ifnotinall, Roots^ how varioullly foever they are po- 
iited alfooihcrwifc. The Common Crow-Foot with numerous Roots, 
hath a Ri//g t^{^ sapYcffch next die Skin, So the Bar^^e ol Mmks- 
Hood, is cncompjffed with a tranfparcnc Ring of Sap-Vefih. The 
K^/jg IS either more Entire, as in Eryngo, Bromi-Wort, Faler/an, Hop, 
Madder, &c. Or it is a Prick'd Ring , as in BnUyr-Bur, Sometimes 
they are chictly poIturM in a Prick-Rjn^, towards the ouLwaiJ part of 
the Barque, as in Peony, and fomc Roots are pricked all over the 
BurqHe, as of M,Ulot, In others, tliey ihnd not fo much in Priek-s 
as l^ortions or Cohmj^ as in Cumfry- 



a?- §. 


Book IL 

of Kooss, 


tjk S- 


37, ij. In 01 hers, again, they all (bnd ici more continued Lincs» 
either Rays or Di.imi:tral, as in Bcr^igc ^ or Perij^henal, as in Cdan- 
Aim. The J'.if(ultr Rays are not etjually extended in ^WKootsi in 
Parjhep, towards the CircLimforence of tlie B^r^;/^ 3 \i\ Btiglofs^ about ■^*'^" 7 ^^^f' 
halfway. In all Dt^i-^j, and J^rrc/j, the Rj^j arc extended through 
about I of t!ic thickncfi of the B'lrqiic^ towards the CircumferenccH^ 
whereaoout, divers of them are always arched \\\ two nnd two toge- . 
ther In all orniaiiy Tre/^^/f, andof <hc £f^^w;/i;;(];^/ Kind, they are 
extended through no more than \^ of the Barque. In the DmbcUifc' 
roHs^ th*^y are RaUed in betwixt the Diatnetral Porthfrs of the Farsii- 
chyma. In Boragt^ the EUys are more Continuous 5 in a Carroty more 
Pricked. Here alfo the Pricks (land in Even Lines \ in Lov^ge^ they 
are Divaricated. Of which, and thofe of fome other Roots^ it is a!- 
fo Obfervable, That they are not all meer Pricks, but molt of them 
imaU, yet real Circles 5 which, after the Mrlk_ hath been frequently 
licked off, and ccafeih to afcend, arc vifiblc, even without a Glafs. 
And note, that in obfervingaUM^/4-f^^/j, theM/^ is to be taken off,, 
not with the Finger but the Tongue 5 fo often, till it rifeth no more, 
or but little. And fome Roots may alfo be foaked in Water 5 where- 
by the PoGcion of the MiJk-Veffels^ will be vifible by the darker Co- 
lour of the B-^r^tff, where they Hand, 

i8» J?, The Rays fometjmes, run more Parallel, and keep feveral, 
as m Monk^mod '^ and fometimes, towards the Circumference of the ^ 
Barqm^ they are occurrcnt ; as not cmly in Dock^^ but other Plants ; '^^' 7'^'^^ 
In trj/ffgo^ in a termination more Circular 5 and in Brjofty, angular, 
or in the form of a Glory^ as alfo in Borfradijh^ through a Mcrofiope, ^ , ^ 
ThePeripherial Lines are in fome, more entire Circles, as in Dandelion ^ '^ " ' ^' 
in others, made up of (horter Chords, z%m Potato^ Cnmfry, and tht 
fmalfer part of the Root of Mtmi^s-hod. In fome, the Pricks arc fo 
exceeding fmall, and ftand fo clofe, that, to thebare eye, theyfeem 
to be continous Ringt^ which yet, through the Microfcope^ appear 
diftinft, as in Marp'f9talloj3J and Liqitirijh, 

39, §. Sometimes Columns and Chords are compounded, as in 
Burmt'^ Pricks and Chords, in Potato--, Rays and Rings, in Monk- 
fhood^ where the Ring is Single, In Feml^ there is a double or treple 
order both ofRays and Rings, the L^wpA^^tf^j ftanding in Rays and 
the La&eah in Rings. And in M^p-maliow^ the Vcjfils are fo pofited 
as to make both thofe kindsof Lines at Once. 

50, si. In Cclamlifje^ they feem all, to the bare eye, to Qand in 
numerous Rings lying even one within another- As alfo in Dandelion-^ 
in which yet, being viewed through a M/tr^J^^/'f, there is an appear- ^''^■'^ 
ance of very many fraall Rays^ which breaming from the Inner Verge 
^Uht Barque^ ctofi three or four of the fmaller Rings, and are there 
terminated. Whence it (hould feem that Lymphaiick Rays and iVJ^% 
Rings, are in thatK^tf/, fo far mixed together. Only the /-j'/^z/'A^f, be- 
'"gj^^jounded with the iVI//4, cannot be difcerned, Andwhcrc the 
JM/^-Fy/e;/ are evacuated, or at fuch Seafons, wherein they are left 
fuH, divers Milky Roots wil! yield a clear Lifwr at the Inner Verge of 
the Barque, where, at other time?, they feem to yield only Milb. 
And this IS the Defcription of the Barque. 



I ' I 



Tab. 1 2b 





The Anatomy 


Of the WOOD. 

Book U; 



ii I 






'\\ i 




tak 8, p. 

2j^, 17, 

Tii^. 17, 

.5=i:?^^Si^a!i^i5^ HAT Portion of the Kool which ftandcth next 

within the Barqnc^ and in Trew, and Shrtthhy 
Vlatjts^ is the W^W 5 is alfo compounded of 
Two Subftantially different Bodies, Pannchy- 
ntoiis and LigTJoui. The Parenchymons^ is of 
the lame Subftaniial Nature with that of the 
BdfqHc. And is originated from it 5 being not 
only adjacent to it, but all round about conti- 
nuous therewith 5 even as that, is with the 
Skin-j the Parenchyrjia o^ ihz Barque^ being diftributed, from time to 
time, partly outward into the skin^ and partly inward, into the 

a. jf. The Pofition of the fevcral parts hereof, is different. For the 
moft part it hath a Diametral Continuation, in leveral Portions, run- 
ning betwixt as many more of the Lignous^ from the Circumference 
towards the Center of the %pot : all together, conftituting that, which 
in the Second Chapter of the Firfi TSoolt, I call the hferlmenL Jn the 
RoffU of many Herh^ thele Diametral or Inferted Portions are more 
obfervable, as in Cww/r; ; which leadeth to the notice of them in all 
others, both of Herbs and Trees, Sometimes part of this Pare^ 
chymous Body is difpofed into Bjngi^z% in FeniL The Number and Size 
of which Rings differ: in FenjI^ when the Ki^o* is grown large, they 
are in fome places broader, but fewer 5 in Beet they are narrower, but 
more. ^ The Diametral Portions are here, in like manner, much va- 
ried^ mCuf^ifry^ Celaf/difre,higerj in Beet, B^igiofs, meaner ^ in H^'- 
rage^ Parfmp^ more, and fmaller h and in molt V^oody-Rootr^ dream- 
ing betwixt the Pith and the Barque, as fo many fmall Rays. Their 
Continuation is alfo different ^ in fome B-Qois, to the Centre, as in &- 
htmbimi, in others not, as in Parfvep, And fometimcs different in the 
fameJiot^f, as in the/^'jve. 

3. (. The Contexture of thefe Paretjchymom Portions is fometimes 
Uniform, as in Buglojs^ Peony-^ and fometimes alfo, as it is in the 
Barque^ different ?^ in part, more fappy , and tranfparent^ in parr, 
more white, dry, and aery, as \n Carroty Lovage^ Scorzoncrd, and 
others 3 which yet cannot be obftrved without a wary ^Hew. But 
their general Texture is the fame being all made up ofminy fmall Blad- 
den. Which arc here of different Sizes, like thofe of the fl^i-^ftf, but 
for themoft part fmaller Their Shape likewife, is ufually Round 5 

but fometimes Oblong and Ovalj asinB^r^^c^ or Oblong and Square, 
as in the Vme, 

4- i- The LigtJOHs iVf, if not always, yet ufually, is alfo Com- 
pounded of Two Kinds ofBofUes^ fiiL Sucaferous or U^noHi and Aer- 
yeffils. The Lignons as far as difcernabk-, are of iheYamc Confor- 
mation apd Nature with thofc of the BArqnCy and in the tranfvcrfe cut 


Book IL 

of Rootf. 


of the Rooty do ofrcntmies, as rhofe, emit a Lrquofir. They ,irc nlfi) 
Braced ^ and cf ihcm run m diftind Threds or Portions, collate- 
rally together. 

5. ^. ThG Acr Vcjjds I io call, btcaull' ihcy contain no Licjuor^ bnt 
:KZi Aer} P^apoisr- They are, more or left, vifible in all Roots. They may 
bediftinguiHied, toihe bare Eye, homiht P^reufhymom pdris^ by their 
Whiter Surface^ and tlK-ir Ibnding more prominent, wlieras thole 
jhrink bdow the cranlverre level of thu Ro^t^ upon drying. They are 
frequently Conjugated divers ofthem together , fometimes fewer, and Tj^ 10 
for the mofl part finglc, as inAfparagus •-, foraetimes many, as in Horf- & 1$. 
K-iiifjJh And their Conjugations are alfo Braced, as the Threds of the 
SucdfirouF VeJJcls. But they are no where Inolculatcd-- norTwifted 

one about another ^ but only Tangent or ColJateraL Neither are they 
Ramifiedj the greater inro left ^ but are all diftindly continued as 
th^Ncrvam Animals^ from one end of the Kt^j^/ to the other. 

6. jS. Their Braces, as thofe of the 6Vit:j/E^i^^j Vtffds^ are alio of 
various number : in 'jcrufakm Artkhok^^ Cimfrji, Scorzofimj, raore rare 5 
in Borage^ BHrt^ct^ more frequent ^ as by ftripping off the Barque of 
ikc\\R6ots^ where it is e3% fcparable, may be feen. And they often ^^^.^- 
vary in the fame Kt?;^; ^ io mBaragSyScorz.omray &c. they are more 
frequent in the Centre, zud nt:xt th^ Barque^ than in the Intermediate 
Ipace, as by fplitting thofe Roots down the middle doth appear. They ^ 
alfo vary from thofe of the S/udferoas FeJJds 5 thofe being ufually more * 
frequent, as in Jernfife?ji Arthhoke^ than thefe of the AsriaL 

7. $. Betwixt thefe Braced Acr-Veffds^ and the reft, which make 

the true ffW, run i\\t Farenchjmous Parts above defcribed 5 as they r^^ $ 
do betwixt the Smdfimts in the Barque : and fo make up two Pieces 
of Ncf Wcrl^, wherofone is the filling upotthe other, 

8. jf. The Pofition ofboth thcfc Kinds of Pi?^//, is Various. The 
Succiferons or Ligmus ,are fometimcs pofitcd in diametral lines or porti- 
ons ^ as in the/'W, and moft Trees. Sometimes, oppofitely to the^^^'*^' 

AetiaU asingc^M each King, herein being double, and made both of -r 1 o 
^^p-and Aer-Vcffih. ■'^^•^■ 

9- ^. In Nettle the Pofition isvcry peculiar, from what it is in the T^b 8 
Roots oiothGr Herbs :^ being curiously mixed 5 the ^ff^a/em^/ running ' '' 
cro^ the Jen^I, in feveial, 7j;z. Fim, Six, Seve^, or more Ri^f;? 
In Brj'cf^jf the livcral Conjugations ofthe Aeriai, are diftlnflly fur- 
rounded with the Sucdfcrons. In Vatience^ the Sucdfvroiis arc difpoH^d '^^^- 7- 

A? R-ays, into many fma!I Rings, of different Siices, fprinkled up 
and down, and nor, as in other Rooh having one common Centre j 
within divers whereof, the Aer-VeJJcU are included : cfpecially within 
thofe which are drawn, not into Ri^^gs, but, as it were, into little 
Ittagling Hedges. 1 

. JO, _ ^, That alfo of the Aer-V,ffds, is Various and Elegant : efpe- 
ciauy in the upper part of the Root. In Ammi, Lilitim^mn-bnWofom 
they make a King. In thefe, aPrick'd-Ring^ in Peony, a Kins of 
Kays J in yukriu^^ a Ring of Pricks and Rays. In others, they make ^'^^ 7. U 9- 
not Rings, but longer Rays, extended either towards the Centre 
as in i^mmra ^ or meeting in it, as in Cokmhim, (n the Common 
Dock,^ they ftand more in iingle Rays : in the other Species of D.cks 
both m Rays, and collateral Conjugations between. 








'J ■*! ■ 

I, I 

^' « 


T/;^ Anatomy 

Book IL 



Tab, Sj g. 


.-.i^ ' \ 

II* <, Iti Bcct^ they ft.ind in fitvL-rnl Rings 5 and every Rinir 
maJcofRays. In O/w/r;, the K:iys ;mfl Rings are ftparatc ; thofe 
7di*S)p, ftand without, rhtli ncxc the Cctitrc\ lni>^WfAtfv, they ftand alto- 
gether, and make a little Rope, iti the Center it fcIF m Qcranmm 
and others of that Kindred^ they m.ike a little Thred, in the f^itnc 
place. And in Skirret^ they fland in two Threds, near the Centre- 

12. §- In Celandine^ they ftand in almoft parallel Lines. In 
Monk^-hood, of a wedged Figure 5 divided in the fmaller part of the 
Roof^ into Three little Wedgep, with their poynts meeting cxa&fy 
in the Centre, JnCmqitefiyk^ und Siran^herr)/^ they are alfo poltur'd 
in three Conjugations^ triangularly. In the young Roots of 0^/^ 
theyftand neither in Radiated, nor oiherwife (trait, but Winding 
Lines- And in Borage the polition, of many ofihem^ is Spiral. As 
likewile^ fometimes, in Mercury^ or Lapathum nnUnofum. In Uorfc- 
Radiffj, they ftand more confufed neither in Ring* nor in Rays 5 yet 
their fcveral Conjugation?, are radiated : with very many other dif- 

15, ^. The Quantity of thefe Vcffih, as to the fpace they take up 
in the Root, is to be computed Two waySj By their Number, and 
Size. Their Number may, in fomc Roots, and in ibme meafure be 
judged of, by the bare Eye ^ havings frequently, a whiter furface 

7j5. 1 5, 


■ ■ I 


10. to 


der^ Wiil^w^ &c. and lay them by, for fome time, to dry ^ and then^ 
having cut off a very thin Slice of each, tranfvcrftly^ if you hold up 
thofe Slices before your Eye, fo as the Light may be trajefted through 
the fMViJfcls^ they hereby become vifible, as notably different, both 
in Number and Size. 

14, ^. Butundeceitfui and accurate Obfervation of both their 
Number, and Size, muft bemadeby the Afitro/i^p/'e^ and lb they will 
appear to be much more various. In Bijlort, Sl{jrrei^ they are very 
few 5 in Bect^ very many ; betwixt which extreams there are all De- 
grees^ as in Orpifie, VerfHs Lookiffg'GUfi^Sce:'zi}vera, Great Cdandine 
V£ony^ Borage, Fcffil, Sec maybefeen. So their Size, in fomc is cx- 
tream fmall, 2^m Sir^nvl/erry^ Brflort, Vakriari -j in others very great, 
3sin^7^j^-7^ff/, Buglofs, Vine. They are alfo of feveral Sizes in one 
and the fame Numerical J?^^?^^ but in fomc, are leisvariedj as in Li- 
fftm mn hdhofam, Ajparjgtts^ ^"g^fh in ocliers, more, as in Bryony^ 
hovagQ. Amongft all RooXs^ they vary by about Twenty Degrees 3 
as by comparing the Roots of Vim^ Thorn-Ap^k^ Bryony^ Lovage^ 
Fem!^ Wild Qrj-of, Saxifrage^ Parficy^ Pcouy^ Hore-koitftd^ Cinqifcfhyf^ 
Strarvberry^ 6cc. together, may be feen. Some of thofe in the F/«c, 
beingof the grcatellSize^ appearing through a good Glafi, at lea It 
one Third of an Inch in Diametre : thofe in Strarcherry^ and that 
Kind, of the fmalleft^ moil of them appearing, in the fame Ghfi^ 
no bigger, than to admit the poynt ofa fmall Pin, according to 
the Standard, in Tuk 12. See alfo the figures of ib many of them 
^5 are drawn. 


IS- §■ 




Book 11. 

of Roots. 



T lie up 



in foot 

"■!, El 


fi their 
lej will 

in one 

e Vm, 




15. si. In dime Z.vw.f, iheyarc Small, and Few; as in Jm/pZ-w 
ArtnMci itiotliCTS Small, but Many, asm H«rfi-Racli//<.- in ft/ij/oyj, TA .1, i ,, 
theyarc Crcar, but Few ^ inthe/W, Great and Many- Sothatthe '5)'7- 
propurtion, which ihofc ofa l^h;c, their Nunibcr and Sir.c being taken 
together, bear to tho(Lof^m//rfUv.A-//V/;fl/<c, may be, at lea ft, asFifcy 
to One. Of the fmalleft Kinds, as thofe of r/wjaefflj/, "^crnfikm Arti- 
chekf, and the like; It istobe noted. That they are (eaicc ever vifiWc 
iiithc fretli Slices oFlhcfe Kwts ; but afier they have layn by a while ac 

]a[t, by a good GUj^, Clear Light, and Iteddy View, arc difcerna- 

\6. )S. In fome KflD//, the greater of theleF./t// (Vand in orncxt 
the Centre, ns in 7 7j-a«cffw, ox Dandelion -^ in others next the eircum- ■^■'*- '3. 
feroncc, as in Hi'rfi-R^dip. Sometimes each ofthcm is from one end of 
^^^- R/^or to the other, ofa moreccjual Size, or more Cylindrical, as in 
Marjl)-7a.illow ■-, but uliially, they widen, more or kfs, from the Ton 
to the Bottom oftlie H.-^rf, as in Thorn- Af^k: about the Top of which 
they are, fur the racit pari, but of the Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth' 
Magnitude^ fome of thu Fifth, but none of the Third; but about the 
Bottome, they arc moft of the Third, and Fifth : whence it is manifeft 
That fome ofthcm arc, in the manjier of Vtim^ fomewhat Pyramidal' 
retis It obfervablc, Tfiat theirampliation proceedcth not towards, but 
from their Original, as in Nerves. 

17- 5(. Ofthtfe Veffih ScVffCyox Rialpighi hath obferved ; Compo- 
mir C faith he ; cxpoftUfft,,!^ Zona itmn &pilh,nch, vekt argeniei 
colons hmwa, pamm laW^ qȣ, Jprditer heat.,, & extremis Uteribm 
vtiiia, rHbiiM, rntenns & e.tlcrins ^h^uimtiilum afperitm, ejficit. 

18. ^ To whofe Obfervation I further add. That the Spiral 
Z^»e,or Um7>7a,a$ he calls if,is not everone Single Pwe; but confilteth 
of Two or More round and true F^irw, although Itanding coilateraliv 
together, yet perfectly diftinft. Neither are thefe Single Fihret 
thctnkWcs pat, hke a Zvve -^ but of a round forme, like a moft fine 
jhred Accordjngasfewer or more ofthefeFiiru happen tobreakoff 
fromtlieirSpiraUQcatior, together; the Z^m is narrower, or broad- 
er.- iiru:dly. Narrower intheTrW^, and Broader in the fii-jf 

19. Si Otthefcf7WlairoObferve,That they arc not W^W^/^^ 
liJc to iRif, but are Knit together by other fmaller Fihrcs ; thofe be- 
ing,_ as It were, the U'.irp, and thefe the Woofoi the Acr-Vejfels. Yet 
1 think the kveral Fibres are nor interwoven juft as in a Web ; but by 
a kind ot Smell, as the feveral Plates or Brcdihs of a Floor-Mat. A 
clear and elegant fight of thefe Fibres, and pf their Jnierweftape by 
Iplming a F/-»f-fi(.^/, or a piece of 0-(/^, may, witha goodG/^/J in the 
lidesot their Greater ^frr#//, be obtained ; having much of the rc- 
Icmblaiicc oi'Clofi Kcedle-ioork. 

30. ^ The Spiration of the Fihrcs of theft Vejjcis, may more eafily 
be obk^ved m the TtM, than in the Root. And better in younger 
™'' thanotber. Andnotfo wellby Cutiingas by Splitting, or by . 
Tearing offfomc foall Pieee,through which they r«« .■ their Conforma- 
tion being by this means, not fpoiled. Vet this way, the yeffels are 
feen, chuHy, D„r<->/^.E^. ■" -^ "^ 

31. ^. But in the LeaiesmA Tender Sialics ofall fuch Pkntt as 
ftcw, upon breaking, u kind of Do,we or Wool ■-, they may be feen 
Refilved and Drawn out, and that fome timet e\Tn to the naked Eve 

.1 1 

1^ M 



i ■ 

J'* , 


f jj Sec 

T^t? Anatomy 

Book II 

an Incli or two Indies sn length. Tliis T'i'o/ being nothing elR-j but a 
certain number of ft/'n'jRcfolvcd from their Spiral pufutou in thcfe 
Veffels^ and Dnwn out in Length ^ and foclultred togethcr,as fo many 
Thredsox\m\^Ropi-'ii appearing thus more: or Icls, in the- Leaves iyuA 
(omcQ\\\^r Parts oi m^ii Plants --^ but more rcmarquably in fomc, as 
\ni\\cVn7e^ Scahions^ and others. As alfo in the Sc;tlcs of a ■S'jw///. In 
which Kit>3 for example, they arc fo cafily ll'parable, as further to 
Ihew, what bef<5re was obfe-rvcd \ viz<. That the Flate or Zflwe, into 
which the Ar-/'r/f// are ufiially Rtfolved, is not one Sin gk- Piece, or 
mecr Plate '^ but made up of fcveral Round f/hrcs^ all rt:incting and 
running parallel, and fo knit together by other fmaller ones, tranf- 
verdy, in the form of a Zof^e. For if you break or cur a Leaf or sle// 
of a frefti Squr//^ till you come to the Aer-Fcph^ and having fofily 
drawn thumont, for about an Inch ormorcftothe naked Eye) in 
length, you then, fingle out one or two ofihem from the reft, and 
rowl them, as rhey hang at the Shell, eight or nine times round, each 
r^ffcl will appear, through a Glafi^ to confift of 8, 10, or 12 fmali 
Fibres-:, which, in the UnrefoWed Fc/e/, run parallel; but by this 
meanSj arc all fcparaced one from another. Sec the Figures belonging 
to the Third and Fourth T300l\S* 

12* §. The Procels of their Spiration, is not, fo fir as I have ob- 
ferved, accidental, but conftantly the fame^ fdl. In the Raot^ by 
Smtth^ ^omWeft to Eajr : But in the Tr;*^^, contrarily, by Sojith, 

23. ^. ThQ Ontejft o^ ttiG^: I^effels^ is, as hath already been inti- 
mated, more Aety, The Arguments for which, are, That upon a 

tranfverfc Cut of the Root, the Sap afcendeth not there, where? 
Thcfe ftand. Being alfb viewed through a iW;Vr^jttfpf, they are never 
observed to be filled with Liquor. Befidcs a Root cut and immerfed in 
Water, till the Water is in fome part got into thelc Veffch^ and then 
the firo/ taken out and cruftied; the other Parts WxW yield Liquor^ 
but Thefe, only Bubbles i which Bubbles are made, by fome fraall 
quantity of Liquor mixed with the Aer^ before contained in the faid 
rejfels. To which, other Arguments will arife out of thofe Things 
that follow in the ^t'cnw^/ }3tUt. As alio for this Cww/ew/j its not be- 
ing a pure or fimple, but VaforGus Acr. Whether thefe Veffcls may 
not, in fome Vegetables^ and at fome time?, contain Liquor^ is doubt* 
ful. (a) Thus far of the Ligfwjts Part. 


' I 






Book II. 

of Kootf. 



Tab* 6* 

tab. 8. 

. CHAR V. 

Of thi^ PITH. 

I Thin the Vgrnut Part ]ycth the FitL This 
P^rt is not common to all RooU^ for fome have 
noiie^ as iSSmiian^ SrUmomtm^ anJ others. Yet 
, m^ny which have none, or but little, throughout 
all their lower parts, have one fair enough aljout 
their top<, as MJlm^ Bourage^ Dafiddhn^ antt 
theJikc. See the /^fltf/f. And in many others there 
are PdYtrnhpfrnts Parts^ of the fame fubftantial nature with the Pith 
diftributed betwixt the fevcral Rings of Vejjds, and every where vi- 
fible, from the top to the bottom, as in Mtt^ Fenil^ &c, 

2. i^. The Sizu of the P///j is varied by many Degrees, eafily rec- 
koned an Hundreds in Fcni!^ Dundetion, Ajparagus^ but fmall ^ in 
Horfi-Radip>, Vaktiau, Biftort, great. The Shape hereof, in the 
lower parts of moft RooU, is Pyramidal 5 but at the tops, Various ac- 
cording to the differenc Diftribution of the Vcffch, as in Canot Hyper- r h a 

hohc\,in FarJley.Oval':, as appearttL in cutting the K^'^/j Icnaht- ' 

ways, ^- o fa 

3. sf. The Fith, for the tnoft part.efpeciany in Trees;\s a smpk Body • 
butfometimes itis, astheB:?^^^, corapoundc-J; fome certain numbur 

ot Suca^erous Vejfds being raixed herewith 5 as in Jemfikm Artichoke, ^ , ^ ^ . 
Horfe-Eadif), &c. upon a travcrfc cut , by a ftrift view, may be ' ' '*' ^• 
difcerned. Their Pofition is fometimcs Confafed, as in a C^irrot ; and 
lomecimes Regular, ix^m Parfley^ appearing, by the rraverfe cut, \a t,,, . 
Rings, and m cutting by the Sengih, m Arches. And fometimes the 
^,th IS hollow i as in the Level-Roots oi BiJIiooy-Weed.- thtfc RooU 

ed'^hoT''^ ''''^ °^'''^ ^'■''^' "' '" '^^ ^''^ '^^^^''"'^ ^"'' ^^^" ^^^^' ^- *3'"^''S' 

4. f. As all the other Parts of the Root, are originated from the 
Seed; fo, fometimes, is the /^rtA it felf. Butfometimes, it hath its 
more immediate Derivation from the BarqHc. Hence it is:, that many 
Hoots, which have no Pith in their lower parts, have one at their 
top, as CoUimbh/e, Lavage, Uc. For the Varenchymmis Paris of the t 
ii^rquc being, by degrees, diftributcd into Diametral Fortiens run- *' 
ning betwixt thofe of the hg»oiis Body, and at length, meeting and 
uniting in the Centre, they thus conflitiite the Pith. In the fame 
manner, at the top oiCom^Roots, the /'//^ is either made or augmen- 

A ^n*" A-rC^^ Pirenchymoiis Rings above defcribed ; thefe beini; 
gradually diftributcdto,and embodied in the Centrci asini^c«i/, and 
lome other Kms, their lower and upper parts compared to;;ether 
may be feen. Even as i,i A.umJs, one Part, as the D.ra Afuter, i 
the original of divers others. 




5. )f. 


I t 

) \i 




TiE'^ Anatomy 

Book II 

5. ^. Fromhcnct% icjilfJj appears. That iht Pith is of the fame 
Subltamial Nature wiili the P^remhyma of the Burqne^ ;\t\A with ihe 
Diametral Pi'^ii^^'j ^ andrhat thereforcihey are all one bocly, difFcr- 
ing in no Fllcntial Propcrtyj but only in their Shape and Place, The 
lame is alfo evident from the Continuity of the /^///j with the Diame- 
tral Portions^ as of Theje, with the I;iid Paretic hy/fu. And from 
their Contexture^ which, by a MicrofvopG^ appeari-'th to be of one 
and the fame general kind, in all Phnts^ both in xhcParemhymao^ 
the Bdrqite^ in the Infertmetit or Diametral Portions^ and in the Pith^ 
all being mLide upofsW^frJ. 

6. ^- The hUddcri of the Pith^ are of very different Sizes ■-, H- 
'^^ ^^' Aom\^% than in the Barqtti\ as m Afparagits-^ ufually much bigger, 

as in Horfc-Rudi^h They may be well reckoned to about iifteen or 
twenty degrees^ thofe in "JGrufiktn Arthhokc^ of the largtft 5 in r^- 
krJar;, Horfi-iiadijh^ of the meaner^ in Bifiort, Pco7?y^ of the fmal- 
Jeft, Their Poiition is rareJy varied, as it is oftentimes, in the Barque 5 
but more uniform, and in the tranfvetft; Cut, equally refpeSive to all 
parrs of the i^f^i?/.- yet being piled evenly, one over another, in the 
long cut, they feem to run, in Direft Trains, by the length of the 
Root. Their Shape alio is, ulii ally more orbicular 5 but fomctimes, 
Tjfr, II. foraewhat angular, in the larger kindjj as in *jernfaUm Artichoke, 

7. ^. THUS FAR the Contexture of the Fith is well difcoverable 
in the Root. In the Trmk^^ farther, and more eafily. Whereof 
thereforCj in the next Eook,^ I ihal! give a more particular Of/^r/^jj/ffK 
and Draught. Yet iince ! am fpeakingof tt, Hhall iioc wholly omit 
here toobferve, That the Sides^ by which the aforcfaid Bladders of 
the F/Marecircumfcribcdj are not mt^r P^per-sk^fff^ or rude Afcw- 
hrafjes 3 but fo many feveral Ranks or Piles of exceeding fmall Fi- 
hroHs Threds'^ ^ying> for the moft part, evenly one over anoiher, 
from the bottom to the top of every Bidder --, and running crofi^ 
as th^Threds in the Weavers f^jrp, from one Bladder to aix)then 
Which is to lay. That the Vith isnothing elfe but a Rete mrabdc^ or 
an Infinite Number of Ftbres exquifitdy fmall, and admirably Com- 
plicated together : as by cutting the Pith with a Ru-Lor^ and lo vitrw- 
ing it with a good CUfi^ may be fcen- See the Figures belonging to 
the Third %m. 


1 rs 


I' 1 

8. ^. All pLnts exhibit this Speftable, not alike diftinfly ^ thole 
befV, with the large ft i?/jt/^crx. Norihefime Fitl^ in any condition 5 
but beftj wlicn dry ; BecaufL then, the S.ip being voided, the fpaces 
betwi>:t the Fihrojn Threds^ andfo theT/jui/j themttlves, are more di- 
Ifmctly difcernable. Yet isic not to bedryed, after Cutting , Beciufe 
its (evcral parts, will thereupon coincide and become iJcformed. But to 
be chofL-n, while ihc PLwt is yet growing 5 at which time, it niay be 
often found dry, yet uudLformcd 3 as in the Tritrrl^ ofCuM/jton Thijiie^ 
'jurufakfH Artichoke-, &c, 

9^ §. Neither are thelc Thrcds^ fo &r as I can oblcTVCj Single i^/- 
hires ; but ufually, confift of levcral together. Nor are they ftmplf 
Collateral, but by the wefta^e oi other Fd'Tci^ in their natural iLlbtCj 
knit togedicr^ much after the fame manner as the Spiral Fibres of the. 


Book 11. 

of Roots. 



Acr-Veffiils. This Conncsion 1 have no where Jo well (i:en, as iu the 
White Btf Wow/ of the BliddcYs ofa Biilnifli^ bL-ing cut traverle ; whcrc- 
itl they have the appearance, of very Fine and c\o?g Necdk-Teork: 


to. ^. The Fibres by which the (:iiJ Thrcds nrc knit logcther, I 
think are all Single / and are fcldom and faircdy vifibk-, except by 
obliquely Tearing the ftVA^ by which meiUiSj they will ap^K-ar throueh 
the Glais, broken off, fometimeSj a qmrter or half an Inch, or an 
Inch in Length 5 and as fmail as one Single Thred of a Sp/dcrs iVel'h, 
In a Bulrifp^ they are fometimcs dirceniable in curuiig by the Length, 
Thefe -P;tre/, and the T/j/'-?j^j, they knit together, for the moft parr, 
are ib pelhicid, and clofely fituatc, th:it they frequently leem to 
make One entire Body, as a j>icce of Lc or a film of IKtirr ic 
fc]f: or even as Ajiimal sk!?is fometimes fliew, which yet are known 
to be Fibrous, 

ti, ^. The Situation of theie Ihrcds^ is contrary to ihat of the 

Tf^e^j, as thofe by the Length, fothefe, chiefly, by the Bredth of the 

Root^OT horizontally, from one edge of the Pith to the othen They arc 

continued circularly 3 whereby, as oft as they keep within the compaS 

of the leveral Bladders, the faid Bladders are Round : But where tJi^y 

winde out of one Bi^dder^ into another, they mntitalTy Ijiterfea a C/:ord 

of their fcveralC/rf/a i by which mean?, the 5/jc/^n'j become Angu- 

. 12. sJ- The Contexture, likewifc, both of the Paret^chj/'pj&;ts Part 
of the Barque^ and of the Diametral fortioKs jnfertcd betwixt the Lig- 
voHs:^ isthefamewiththisoftheP/f/j, now defcribed ^ thatis, Fibrtms, 
Whence we underftand. How the feveral Er-z£'^/ and Thrcds o?ihcVef- 
fits are made ; For the Ve^ds runnmg by the length of the Root^ as the 
Warp s by the Parmchyntous Fibres tunning crofi or horizontally, as 
the IVoofi they are thus kriit and as it were ftJtchcd up together. 
Yet their recftage feemcth not to be j/wp/e, as in Cloath ^ but that 
manv of the Varemhymom Fibres are wrafed round about each 
VeJJel i and, in the lame manner, are continued from one I'ejjd to 
another 3 rhertby knitting them altogether, more dofely^ into one 
lybtfUry Tlmd-^ audrhofe Threds, again, into one Brace: much af- 
ter the manner of the Needle n-^r^ called Back:Stitch or that uted in 
(filling of Balis- Some obfcure fight hereof, may be taken in a Thred 
oiCamhrick^ through a Microfiepe. But it is molt vifible, in the Leaves 
and Flomrsoi Ibme P!af7ts. The Delineation of rhefe Things I Ihall 
therefore omit, till we come hereafter tofpeakoftheother ?^rts. 

13- S^. From what hath been iliid, it may be conjea-uted 5 That 
the AsrViffels fucceflively appearing in ihc Bar q/re, ;ire formed, not 
out otany F///i^M^mr, asarc the original ones.- Butofthe Parcjichy- 
moHs Vihr^s 3 fi, by chai]ging them from a ^phevicd to a Tuhitlary 
Forme. ^ 

14. ^. From the precedents, it \i alfo manifel>. That all the V^rcn" 
chylous Parrs of^Root^ are Fibrom. 

is- ^' And hftly, That the whole Body ofa Root, confifteth of 
yefels^nd Fibres. And, That thtfe i^Vim therrifclves, arc Tubulous, 




7he AnJtomy 

Book II. 

I L 


or fo many more /'^f^//, is moft probable : Thereonlywantcth a great- 
er perfcftion oi Miirofcopcs to dLtcrminc, 

16, ^. The CW/cfffjofthc P//6 arc, ibmetimes L' j//i"r, and fume- 
times a VaporoHs-Acr. The IJquor "is always Dbphanoiis, as that of the 
Parcnchymcus /^.^r; of the Barqtti^-^ and in nature, not much difR- ring 
from it. The^cr isfometimcs left, and Ibmecimesmore f^uporoiis^ than 
that of the Barqfte. Uy this Acr I mean, that which is contained in the 
Bladders. Within the Concaves of the Fil/res which compote the Bkd- 
ders^ I fuppoft", theie is another different Sort ofA^. So that as in 
the ^/rfi^ifj-j is contained a more A^i/eoKf^ and iniheVcJJds^ a more 
Effcfjtid Liquor : So fometimcs, in :he fame Bladders^ is contained a 
more Vaporous 5 and in the Fibres^ a mote Simple and Ej}cnti<d Aer, 


F ' 




' , I 






An Account of the 



o F 

O O T 

Groiuidcd ciiicfly upon the foregoing 






O Phihfopfjjze^ is. To vGud^r iht Canfis ^nd End^thtalo^ the 
of Things. No man, therefore, that deniethG^^^ Beginning 
can do this, Truly. For the taking away of the ^^^ ^^^ of 
firji Caufe^ maketh all things CotrtingefiL Now^ Phihfiphy. 
of that which is Contmgcfjt^ although there may 
be an Event ^ yet thert can be no Reafon or Etjd : 
fo that Men ibould then ftudy, That, which is 
mt. So the Caitfts of Things, if they are Con- 
tmgem , they cannot be Confiatjt. For that 
which istheC</»/f ofThisj now; ifit be foCWiw^ea//)', it may not be 
the CdHJk hereafter •- and no PhyjUd Proportion, grounded upon the 
Oijflancy and Certainty of Things, could have any foundation. He, 
therefore J that philofophifeih , and dcnitth Qod^ pbycch a childifh 

2. ^. Wherefore Nature, and rhe Cairfes andRc^foKJ of Things, 
duly contemplated, naturally lead us unto God^ and is one way of 
ftcuringourVei^erationofHim: giving us, not only a general Demon- 
ftration of his Bffv^ ■ but a p;ircicularonc, ofmoftoftht^ feveral ^rf- 
//y5t-jfiff«j thtreof ForallG^^r^TJc/J, Right eo/rjnefi, Propmion^ Order^ 
Imh, or whatever elfe is Excellent and hm'uhW \u the Creatures ^^ it is 
the Dcmciiftration of the like in God. For it i^ rnipoffible, that God 


I ! 



I :, 


^ '■ 



(9///)^ Vegetation 

Book II. 

n,m,lJ ever make any thing, not like Himtir, in fomc dc-grceot orh7r 
Thefe Thinp, and the very Notion. «;^ncl, «-c have of thum, are £ 
cepuons ilTuing fiom tiie IFowi ofthe /i/rvj/c Na/wc 

, 5- l^Vu^^'e'^*-' M?'^T''"4;,'^''''^''''-'' '^'■^^f^'^fl™eof the Excel- 
lencvofh.5.WIW That He, whohath O.„,,|iu,ingsforr",r. 
cendent y weli ; muft needs %4 as well, as he hath Dom- Thit He 
whom(oadm,rab!e a manner hath W. Man i ^"^"""t butknowbell' 
What h s true Pn.cpks md F.a,!l>es ate ; and what Jcfia^s are mo 
:.KreeahIe thereunto .■ and that having adorred him with B.aS^ 
c,,s and W_, one. , ,r ts .mpoffihle, Heftould everinuhim upon he 
Exercife of thoie F.clues, ,n a,n- way Dcfor..d andk/.../,.^ That 
Hefhould do all thmg., fo wel /J/^,//; and yet require his fc.J" 
tbdootherwif.', is unconceivable. ^ ' 

4- ft- And as We may come hereby, to redlifie our Apprehenfion of 
H,sL.^.^foalfoofH,sMi/?«v«. For there are many Thing., ofthe 
^«"e. of whofe Exiftence, we have no certain Knoxvledge Yet of 
tbcir Bx,p>,,e, we are as fure, as our ^.^> can make us. But, wemv 
as well deny, what God hath Made. T. he , as, what he hath SpokTn^ 
7i i.;>-«., becaufewe underftand not ha^. And the knowledge of 
Th„g> betnggradually attained, we have occafion to rcfleft, That fome 
Thn^S^ vve can now wel! conceive, which we once thought uninteni 
gible. I know ther^for^, what I ««^./.W not. b.t/r knT no 
wha. IS m,mH>gdk: .vhu I know not nov., I may hereafter or f 
notl, another, or if w M*«, or other Crfv,„W it is S'n, r/ ! 

of Kmrebut they ^re the «-.„/.« ^i.^yj^.^fMens mind., that dTSe 
ihem, either to Forget G.^, or to Think unduly of Him ^ 

5- ^- Nor have we realon to fear going/../.., in theStudy ofAV 

«..j more, than the .«W ,ntoit: Becaufe/the higher we\iffi„ 

the true Knowledg and due Contemplation of rfe>the neare we 
come 10 the Dwine A>:thor hereof. Or to think tL/ ^^ 

Contradtdion, when W,/./.,., ,,;ehe7t£t^t bVdtc^W ^^^^ 
which E./,^,.., andthete^^.w;,„..., teach us to bedone byG ?■ 
no m<Ke, than to fay. That the B.dhnce ofa W.tch is moved bv the 
next Wheel- -to deny that i^W, ,„d the reft, to he n'oved Vy he 
6/m^ ; and that both ih>, spring, «nd all the other P.,>;s, are caufrd "o 
move together by the Maker ofthem. So God may be tr ly theSS 
Ths-Ejfecl, aithoi^h a Thoufand other Q»/. ihould be fuppofed to 
intervene: For all N.<«.„s as one Great i^'',. made by, and he d 
m H,s Hand. And as ,t ,sjhe Watch-maker. Art, Jhat .lie Ld move, 
regularly, fromhour to hour, although he piu n™ his Finger ftdl to 
". SoisittheDemonftration of Dh,., Wifdo,>,c, that the Parts of 
Nature are fo harmoniouny contrived and Il-t together ; as to confpire 
to all kind of Natural Motions and Effcfts, without he E.traS! 
nary and immediate InHuence of the A„tkar of it. "^""aordi 

6. )S Therefore, as the Oz-Zg/W B.«/^ofall Things, is the moft 
Foper Oemonftration of G.rf. i..„,.r : So the>..#V. d„n^^^^^^^^^ 

ForT/"^'^ T^'^^'^'^'^'^ ">o? H'-OP^^ OemonRration of his mfdo>„. 
to If; we (lioiiM fuppore,that G«/did no^v m.,ke,or do any Tbing,by 
•'"> Thing ; then, no kpCt would be produced by a NJm-.l Cuk: 
andeonfequcmly, He would ftill be tipon the Work offnw/.;,: which 
^et ^a,rcd Scr>p,„rc aflnreth us, He rejh-ihfro,>,. And ^vc raiglit cxfped 



Book n. 

of Roots. 


t of the 
let, of 

Tj or if 


n/^ in 
irer we 
i: any 

tvGoJ ; 



^ to 


.f/^ out of a L-SWf, as an Ee^ .- Ami all Sorts of Ammuls^ as well as 
PUnts^ iniglit propagate' their Species^ without Coition: arid the 
like, for h/fimtc Porvcr^ iiecderh not malie any dilFcrcacL' in the 
Thingi it undc-rt<ikes to manage. But in tli;tt, thefe Things are not 
only madi\ but fi made^ that is, itccording to fuch certain Natural 
Laws, a? to produce their Natural £jfe3s ^ here is the Senfible and II- 
kiftrious Evidence of his W7fdom. Wherefore as the Wifdom of Govern- 
ment, is not feeii,by the King his intcrpofingHimfelf in every Calef but 
in the contrivance of the Z.-^n'^j and Conftitution of Af/»/^crj in fuch 
fort, that it (hall be as cfTeanally determined, as if he did fo indeed : 
So the more complicated and vaiily Numerous, we allow the N^urat 
Caufes ofThingstobef the more ducly we conceive of thut Wijcianr, 
which thus difpofcth of them all j to their fi^vcral fc^^*;// : All Things 
being thus, as iVf/H//?^^/ in the Hands ofG^t/, confpiring together a 
Thoufand ff^«;/, towards a Thoufand£^^/ and Ends^ at one time 5 
and that with the fame certainty, as if he did prcpofe to each, the 
fatue Omniporent FUt . which he ufed at the Creation of the 
World- . 

7- $. THIS Vmnerfd Monarchy^ as it is eminently Vifible in all 
other Particular 0<7f^Hi3^ff/f J ; fo is it, no lefs, in that of /^m/^^Wfj, The Divine 

Infinite Occurrences, and fecret Intrigues, 'tis made upof 5 of which J^'^^^.'^'^ 
we cannot skill, but by the help of manifold Mtarn ^^ and thofe in p ' V^'v 
the foregoing 7^^^, have been lately propofed. Wherein, although E if 
tome Experiments \iV^ii been briefly touch'd ; yet that which t have wc obfetve, 
hitherto chiefly profccuted, hath been the Amtomkd^zjx. 5 atadthat 
not throughly neither. Notwirhftanding , fo far as Obfervations 
already made will conduit us, Ifhall endeavour to go. And if, for 
the better clearing of the way, I have intermixed fome Conje^ures 5 I 
think they are not meerly fuch, but for which 1 havelayd down fome 

Grounds, andofwhich, the Smfjalfo of the following D//^t^«rk may 
be (bme further proof. 

8, §. LET USf-iythen, that the fl^^i of a W^«; being lodged in 
fome Soil, for irs more convenient growth , 'tis neceflary the Soil 
ihould be duly prepared for it. The Kam, therefore, falling and foak- 
ing into the Soyl, fomewhat diiuteth the Diffoluble Primipks there- 
in contained ^ and renders them more eafily communicable to the 
^ot : Being as a Menfiruum, which extrafteth thofe Prmcipk^. from 
Ihe other greater and ufelefs part of the Soil. 

9' #. And the warm 5«>^, joyned with the diluting H^r;;, byboth, 
as It were a Digcfiion of the Soil, or a gentile Fermentation amonsft its 
leveral Parts, will follow : whereby the Diflfoluble Parts therein will 
rot and mellow: that is, thofe P^/wr/j;/fJ which as yet remained more 
pxU^ will now be funher refilved and unlocked^ and more copiouliy 
and equally fprcad themfelvcs through the Body of the Soil. 

•^^^^^' t J^'-^^ ^''^^'¥^^-^ being with the growth off /-^w/f continu- 
ally exhault-d, and needing a repair 5 the fucceffions, therefore of 
Wet, Wmd, and dther Weather, beat down and rot the Uava and 
other Farts oi FUnu. Whereby thefe ( as Weeds which are wont to 
be buried underground; bxoin^ a miturM Mtmtre, and Re^imprcg- 

^ natc 

How the 
Ground is 



Vi ■■■'■ 



."i A 

k I 



Of f/jfi Vegetation 

Book 11; 

7?jfj/, How 
I he Sap 
is imbibM^ 
veral Ffn*r/. 

natc the Soil ; Being thus '" part, out of their own Rcfolvetl Pr/>, 
cifks^ annually Compounded again. 

ir. §. Many of theft Prff^aptcs, upon their RcfiUttiGft^ bdnsr by 
the ^tt?/ more attenuated and volatilized ^ continually afcend into 
the Aer^ and are mixed therewith. Where, ahhough they Jofe not 
their Vegatahk Nature^ yet being amongft other pnrer Primipks:, them- 
felves alfo, dcpofiiing their Earthy feculencies, become more fubtile 
fimple and EfTential Bodies. * 

12- §, And the ^fr being of an Ehi^kk or Sprhjgy'H'Aim^^ prcf- 
fing, moreorlefs, uponall Bodies 5 it thereby forceth and infinuateth 
itfelfinto theSoil, through all its permeable Pores. Upon its own 
entrance, it carries alfo many of the faid VegeUbk and Ejjsntial Pri^ci- 
y/ej along with it 5 which, together with the reft, are fpread all over 
the Body of the Soil. By which mcan^ though a lefs Vehement, yet 
more Subtil Fer^ejrlaiw?^, and with the leaft advantage of warmth 
continuablc, will be etFeded. 

rj, ^. The Pritidpks being thus farther refolved and fubtillzed 
«?l''-^1 P/^Jently exhale away, if the K4/«, again, did not prevent! 
Which,thcrtforc, falhng upon and foaking through the Ground,i3 as a 
ivG\X[ McpflrHUm, faturate or impregnate with many of them. And a« 
It ftilllinkcth lower, it carries them along with it iklf^ from the Su- 
perficial, to the Deeper parts of the Ground : thus,not only maturing 
thofe parts alfo, which, othcrwife, would be more lean and eold^ 
but therein likewife, laying up and fccuring a store, more gradually 
and thriftily to be beiVowed upon the Upper parts again, as they need, 

14- jS, hndAufuf^rz having laid up lYvtStore^ WinUr following 
thereupon, doth, as it were, lock the doors upon it. In which time 
fome warmer Intervals,rervc further and gradually to mature the ftored 
Prwdpks, without hazard of their being Exhaled, And the Sprim 
returning, fets the doors open again, with warmer and more con- 
VamtSHff, with gentle and frequent fi-j;>, fully refolves the faid frin- 
aphs:, andfo furniftieth a plentiful Diet, for all kinds of FegetMes : 
being a Cempofnion of Water chiefly, wherein are refolved fome por- 
tions of Earth, Salt, Add, Oyl, Spirit, md Aer ; or other Bodies of 
Affinity herewith. 

15.^. THE ROOT fending in the Ground thus prepared,and be- 
ing always furroundcd with a Bar^rre, which confifteth chic% of a 
Pare^fhymoiis and spofjgy Body 5 (^a) it wili thuf, as Spof7gcs do, natu- 
rally fuck up the watry parts of the Soil impregnate ;with the faid 
Prmdpks. Which Prwdpks notwilhftandirg, being in proportion 
with the watry part?, but few, and alfo more EJfmtid ^ (h) therefore 
in this F^rem-hjmetis Fart^ are they never much difcovcred, either by 
Colottr, Tajie, oxSmeiL As it is probable, that fomediftilled Watery^ 
whichdifcovtrnothing, toSenfe, of the vlafits from which they are 
diftilled, may yet, in part, retain xht\x Faadtks, And it is known, 
that many Bodies f z^ Croaix MetaVoritm, convty many of their parts 
into the Mef?firttnm, without any fenfiblc alteration thereof: So Frofi 
and jft^n- have neither t^ifie nor S^e//^ yet from their Ff^nra, Yk 
evident, that there arc divers kinds of sdhie I'rmdplts incorporated 
with them 5 or at IcafV, fuch Prhidpks as arc common to ihsm and 
divers kinds oi s.dts. 

16. §. 










Book 11. 

of Roots. 


i6~ iS. The entrance of this Impregnate Water or 5j/> is not with- 
out tlificrence, bat by theRejJulationof the intervaiing s^in^ being 
thcvQhy Jirjificd aud rend red more pure : the ^k.^»t according to rhe 
ihickni(s (^i) or cloienefs thereof, becoming Jbmetimes only as a hn^jpa 
Jtjpcr^ fometimes as ^Cotfon^ and fometinies ns a B^g oi Leather to C"'^^'*"'^"^' 
the tranfient Sap^ as the nature of it doth require. By which it is al- '* 
(iy stoderated^ left the Bjrr^;ye, being fpongy, Ihould fuck itup tootaft, ' 
and fo the Hoot ihould be, as irwcre, furcharged by a Pkt/jora^ And 
divers ofthc Sucdfcrotts Vcjjcis being mixed herewith (^h) and lying 
next the Soil, ufually more or h^{^ mortjfied^ and fo their P/mrpksC^)^'^-'^'^* 
fomewhnt refihed'^ the 5 j;? is hereby htttti jpecified^ and funhcr ^" ^" 
tifj3nred-j fuch parts of the 5-//) beft entring, as .ire moft agreeable to 
thofe Frmcfpks 5 which the Sap alfo carries off, in ibrac parr, as it 
paffeth into the ^^^^^f?, .m.^.. 

17. §. The S:fp ibusjlrai/^ed^ though it be /^z/rf, and confifteth of 
£/f«//«/part,s^ yQi btmg cemp^mmkd oi heierogefjeoits ones 5 and re- 
ceived into the Paremhyma of the Barque a laxe and fpongy Body, they 
win now eafily and mildly ftrmtnt. Whereby they will be yet fur- 
ther prepared, and fo more eaiily "infinuate ihemlelves into all the 
Biaadtrs of the fiid F,nenchym.t ^ fwcUing and dilating it as far as the 
Conthruityof its partswill bear. Whereupon, partly from the conti- 
uued entrance of frefti S<ip^ and partly by a Motion or Preifure of R^- 
fiiiution in the fwollen and Tenfcd BUdden of the P^remhyma^ the 
Sap is forced thence int© the other parts of the Kt'o^ j 

. 18, ^, And bccaufe the Pdremhynta^ is in no place openly and 
Vifibly Pervious, but is every where compofcd of an Infinite Number 
offmall FW£/j?rj(cJ j the5*/j, therefore,is not only ^f/>/^«/ei^ therein 
and fitted for Separation^ but, as it pafleth through it, is every part ^'^-^^'^"'^■5^ 
of it, firaimd an Hundred times over, from Bladder to Bladder, ^'^' 

19, 5^, 'X\\(i Sup i\\\[^ ferjffcutcd^ ^nd ftramed, is diftributed to the 
other Orgamcal Parts^ accordinjras the feveral Primipks of This, are 
agreeable to thofc whereof the faid Orgnmcd Paris conJift. As the Sap 
therefore pafleth from Bladder to Bladder^ fuch Principles as are agree- 
able to ihoie of the f/Z-rcj of the laid SWt^erj, will adhere to, and in- 
finuaie themfelves into the Body of the Fibres ; Jc Watry chiefly, 
n^Kt Acid, x\itn fpinutcus. Earthy^ Aery^ 2nd Oleo^s, (d) \d)Ll£ 

ao. ^. And the 5-^_f by its continual appulfe and j;^rct7to"ii^, as it 50, 52. 
Icaveth Ibme parts upon the iaid Fihres 5 lb as it hfqueezed betwixt 
them from Bladder to Bladder^ it licks and carries off^ Ibme others from 
them, in Ibme amon together with it ■-, and io is Impregnate herewith : 
as Water, by pafling through d. MifjsratVeiff^ becomes tifi&ured With 
that Miner ah 

2 r, ^. The Sap thus Impregnate with Ibme tmiied Primiphs of the 
ParenchymoHs Fibres^ paifeih on to the Lignoits Veffeh, whereinro their 
correfpoadcnt PrJnaphs alfo enter 3 fi:, Watry.Saline, Oleousand Earthy 
chiefly. Ce^ And becanfe the Paremhymoks Privcipks mixed with f^^ j^^^ j ; 
them, are in fome degree nmted^ and fo more ready to//^^ fomeof 51^ 52, 
thefe therefore will likewife enter into the faid VeJ^els. Whercupon,the 
alkali olcojhm i^^ \i\ic Q'^i^^:^Y\dt\\Q icidnm f^iritHoJum ^^ 
together 5 Thefe, with the other Principles^ all concentre^ and of ^ 
dwtnfiuids, becomeoneyTre^ Eody,and are graduallv agglutinated to 
ih^Veffils-^ thatis, 1\\^VejJelszitx\ovjf!0HriJhed. 

R 2 «. j( 


(d) U,a, )f ; 









■j ■'■ 

!;■■ ' 
,1 'I 

L ■ 


r ' 

' t 





Of the Vegetation 

Book II. 

p, 12, 

22. j(. Thefupplj- of ihc^-rz-ftill continued,thcP>'/ffd^/ej thereof 
will not only enter into the Bodji of thcfe Parts^but alfo their Corn-aves. 
^T\dthe P^revffyffjcits Fibref being rprapped iiboiit the Ve0^ (^,r) a? 
often as the faid Filrres arc more Hir^rd with their own contained F/'trcf^ 
they will thereby be (bmcwhaty7ji^r/«e^, or contraft in lengthy and fo 
muft needs hmd upon the Veffils, and thereby, as it were^^ J^itceze fomc 
part of the Flttid^ contained both within themfclves and the Vejjeh^ 
back again into the Bladders. 

25. ^, Andthe^./;' herein, being thus f7»^;/rfi^ with Ibme of the 
united Principles oi xht Fejfeli^ divert ot them will now alfo inlinuatc 
ihemfdvesinto the Pare nch^worts Tibres^ and be incorporated with 
them; Whereby, the faid fti^rfj, which before were only rt^rfxf^J and 
dilated., are now alio ^(mri^ed^ and not till now. Some portion of 
the umted Primiphs both of the Panmbymons and Ligmns Farts^ b^ 
ingneceffary to the true nutrition of Each: As the Confufion and 
joyntafiiftanceofboth the Arttrims and Nervous Fluids^ is to the 
nourifhment or coagulation of the p^r// in -^«j;tvd/j» 

34-5^. Some portion of the iS'tfp thus doably tinUurcd^ is at the 
tame time tranfmitted to, and enters the Body of the Acr-Vcjjih 5 con- 
fiding chiefly oiWdter^ Aer.^nA Acid:, and, inhkemanncr, as in the 
other r^r/r is herein aggUtti^mted. And the appulfe and preiiiirc of the 
Sap [lill continued/ome portion hereof is alfo trajeftcd into xhtCojicaves 
of the faid Veffds 5 exifting therein as a molt Compounded Fluid 5 par- 
taking, more or lefs, both of the Principles and Tirj&ures of the other 
Organical Parts ^ and of the^er-re^e// ihemfelves j being as it were, a 
Mixed Rejohtion ixom them all. 

a;- i<. And the Parenchymous Fibres being wrapped about Thefe 
(h) F.i.^5. as about the other Veffils^ Q) and, in like manner, bidding upon them^ 
i^-a^, they thus frequently /^;f^f^e part of the faid contained Fluid om 

again: As neceffary, though not to the immediate Nouriihmcnt of the 
Parts^ yet the due Qualification of the 5^/^^ being a Conftant Aerial 
Fcr^^ent^ fitcceflively ftored up within the Aer-VeJJels, and thence tranf- 
ful^^d to the Sap^ in the other QrganicM Parts. 

'26. ^. And thatthcremaybea better Tranfition of the Sap thus 
tin&ured^ to the feveral Organicd Farts 3 therefore, none of them are 
clofe fit and compaft within thomfelves, feverally : For fo, they 
would bu inncceffible to the 5^^, and their inward Portions, wanting 
aduefupplyof^/;OTC7^/, would be ftarved. But the /'f^f//, both of 
AerawA Sap^ being every where divided into Braced Portions, and 
other Parcjrdymons Portions, filling up the Ipaccs every where bctwixC 
j'0P'''fH3' them (O^ there is therefore a free and copious communication of the 
^i3,&c:.4. Sap, (and fo of all the 7>/^wrej fucceflively transfu fed into it^ from 
y- 4i5'7- Tart tu Fart, and to every Portion of every Part : The Paremhymus 
Portions, running bctwrat the Braces^ as the fmallcrf^^j do through- 
out the Vifcera^ in Animah. Whereby, none of them want that 
Matter, which is neceflary either for their Nutrition, or for the good 
Eftatc of their Contents, or for ihe due period of their Growth. 

27, ^, For the better Tempering of the fevcral parts of the Sap^ 
wrve the Diametral Portions of the Farenchymous Body whichnin fome- 
timcs dircftly through the Barque, as in Lovage^FarJiey £cc is defcribed 

^OP.i.c.3-"'^'^*? ^^"^^'"^ (^) Wn'ch being, all or moft of them, continued be 
^. 7,8, twixt both the Suai/erous and the Aer-Fv^els, from the Circumfc.xnce 




Book IL 

of Kootf. 


lo the Centre 5 they JUTcby carry off a more Copious and Aeridl 
Fcr;?/efit from the One, -Jitd communicate it unto the Ocher, For as 
the Sap enters tht: Burquc^ the more liqji/d parr^ [till palFeth into the 
fuirjthit Portions thereof; the more Aery^ is ieparatcd into thole 
While and DryerDA^wcir-z/ont-s^and in its pafiagc betwixt th^ Porti- 
ons of the Aer-I^effils^xs all along communicated to them. Yet is it not a 
purcor/-^v;j/cArjbut fiich aa carries a Tw^nrewxih it^from th^ S/icc/fc' 
rotts Vcjfels. And therefore it is obfervable^ That when the Diametral 
Portions are more diflant, the Sap-Veffils run not in a Straight Line be- 
twixt them, but are Reciprocally ib inclined, as to touch upon them ^ 
as in Lavage h viable: Tnereby communicating their Tifj&un to the 
Aer^ as it palfeth by them, ihrongh the faid Dfa^efral Portions, 

2S. ^. By the continual appuKe of frefh S^^^, fbmc, both of the 
-^frj'jandof all the other parts thereof are tranfraitted into the Pith ^ 
where, finding more room, it will yetmore kindly be i^j^efftt/. Efpe- 
cially having the advantage herein of ibme degree of Warmth ^ be- 
ing herein remoter from the sor!^ and, as it were^ Tntwd up within 
the Wood^ or the Mafi of furrounding Vcjfels. So that the Pith, is a 
Rcpopory of better Aljr.ient gradually fupplied to thofe S/tcdftro/ss 
Vejfcls^ which are frecjueniiy fcatcered up and down therein, and 
which afccnd into the Tntjjk- (a) But where no fitccifcroits VeJfcU are ^ ) p 
mixed, herewith, it ufually becomes Dryer, and is replenished with a 55^3. ^ 
more Aerial and Warmer Sapi, whereby the growth of the dnlrs is 
promoted,as by an Hot Bed fet juft under^. And in many Plants wnh 
divers knobbed iiij^i/, the younger are more fucculent/erving chiefly 
lo feed the Stalk,: the Elder are fpongy and fiird with Acr, for the fer- 
menting of the Sap^ and more early growth of iht Stal/{^: as in little 
Cdaadine^ I>o$fioms and all of that Kindred, And thus all the Flirts 
have a fit JhmefJt provided for their Nf«j->/7jj»eff/ 


29. §. IN THIS NonriJImcnt^ th^ Prindphs oi x\\g Sap ^vg^ ^^'^^ Hovf nh^Tc 
mdt^caticentrcd^nd locked up one within another: (Ji) Whence it is, vcral Parts' 
Xh^tl)\iiOrgamcal Parts ^ being cleanfed of their Cti^/eMj, have none of arc Neu- 
them any Tajh or Smell, as in the Fiths of Flants, Paper and Limn rilh'd and 
Cloth is evident, (^c) BecauCe till by D/geJiion, violent Dcfliilation, or ^<^i""^'^' 
ibme other way, they are rcfolved, they cannot a£t upon the Organs ^^^ ^' ^'-' 
of thofe Scnfes. For the fame reafon, they are never tinShred^ ex- ^''^ ^^^^ ^* 
cepting by their Ci^c^fff/j; and although, to the bare Eye, they fxe-^^*^*' 
quently ihew White^ yet viewed through a Mkrofiope, they all appear 
ira/^jf-arent. In like manner, as the Serum q£ Bloody Whites oi Eggs^ 
Tendons, Hairs and Horns themfelves are tranf^arent, and without 
much Smell or Tafie^ their Principles being, in all of them, more ©r 
leis concentred: But when ever ihefe Principles, are forcibly refohed, 
they are ever varioufly invefted with all thofe ^alities. 

50, 5£, And as from the Concentration of the Principles^ in every 
Organical Part, the faid Partf do thus fu', all agree : So, from ifie 
Predominion of the Principles of each Part, the reft are controuled, 
not only to a Concentration^ but an AjJtmiUtion alfo^ whereby, the 
specific^ Differences, of the fcveral Or^anical Paris, are pt'eferved. 
Hence the fucciferojts V^ffds are always tough and very Pliable ^ for fo 
are all B-ir^^/t/, wherein thefe K;//^'/j abound^ fo is a Handful of i^/^;^, 
whichisnothingelfebutaheapofihe^td/crt-wjf^^/jip theBjr^weof 







i^ 1,4 

■ :■ ■; 


Of the Vegemion 

Book ji 

that Plaf7t. For bcildcs Water, and E^irfh^ an Alkalim Sail and Oy are 

(aj jS-au asisfaid.the predominant Pr/;/n)j/fj of thtfcK;/yf/y, (a) It isthenthe 

^ Oy, chiefly, by which thtrfi.' %ife/j are Toi^gh : for being of a tenacious 

Nature, by taking hold of other Pr/«r;>/e/, it marries chcm together^ 

and the Alk^lmc Salt and E<trth, cojtioHred with ir, addeth to it 

moxt strength. Hence the Capstt Mortimm of moft Bodies, efpccially 

ihofL- that abound with Oyl and a Sdt AUidli^ is brittle and fi-Uble - 

thofc Priffcjpkf, which were the Lig^r^CTjtj oftherefl, being forced 

away from them. From the dime Caufc, the Parcmh^moiis Furts of a 

Root, even in their Natural State, 3.01 britties^nd fiiabie :, fc. Rccaufe 

ih) f. ip. their i?tfr/A^,and efpeciallyO/fiitfx and ^.i/^wePz-wi/p/Lvarc^asisiaid/^ 

fo very few. Therefore all rithj and moxcfm^k Parefjchj/m-t's, break 

^ port 5 fo Cor^, and tlie Roots of ?otato's^ and divers other Planu^ 

being dryed, will eafily be rub'd to Mt-?/; and many Apples, after 

Frofts, eat wealy ^ the Parenchyntctts Tarts of all which, are nor only 

CO L'h. ^/W(?^, bucinSubftance orEOence, the fulf fame Body, (c) 

c-y- 1^*14' 3'- ^' And3sthcC-?w/^/it'K^p ofthe feveral Org<;«jV^/ Tdi-/y, is de- 

t^ftdent on their Principles ^ fo are thecr Fignre^. And firft, the 

rj) P 2 <i ^'^^^'fi^^^^ Vcffih, from their Alk^lme Salt, (d) grow in Lcngch- For 

5jj/ ' '^^ by that Dimcnlion, chiefly, This Salt ^W^ys JImts : And being alefi 

.r moveable Pr/ffr7/^/c than the reft, and lo apt more fpecdily to /;c or 

: ■ . fi^oot : h thus overrules them to its own figure. And even as the Shape 

of a Button dcpendeth on^he Mouldy the Silk and other Materials 

- wrought upon it, being always conformable thereunto : fo here^ iha 

sdt is, as it were, the Monld-^ about which, the oth(.T more pafiive 

Principles gathering" themfelves, they all ecnfort and fafhion to it. 

Hence alfo the fame SapVeffils ^.z^noi pyramidal, as the Viiins of Ani^ 

mals \ but of an equal bore, from end to end 5 the pmif^gs of thd 

faid Salt, being alfo figured more agreeably to that D/zj/efff^^/^. And 

(c)Ih. ^sby the Saljpte principle^ thefe Vejftls ^vi: Long -^ fo by thei">,W;j, (^e) 

they are every where Round, or properly Cylindrical-^ without fome 

Joynt Efficacy of which Principle^ the faid Veffeh would be Flat, or 

_^ fome way Edged and AnguUr, as all faline fimts^ of themtelves, are 5 

as thofe of Altenr^ Fitriol^ Sal Ammoniac^ ^ea Salt^ Nitre^ Sec. And 

. -^ hecAU^G the SpirittroHs and more lliiid ip2n of the Prifniples^ is leaft 

of all apt to fx j while therefore, the other parrs fix round about. 

This will remain moveable in the Centre 5 from whence every Fe/el is 

forircd, not into a fiHd^ but holloiv Cylinder 5 that is j becomes a 


5a. k- The LaEfiJ^roJis Vejfcls are titlmkrj^ as the Lymph^eduUs^ 
but of a fomewhat wider Coucave or Eore. For being their Princi- 
pks are ^efi Earthy and Oleoiis, and alfo more looteJy Concentred 3 as 
fiom their eaiie corruption or Kefihttion by the Aer, it appears they 
arc: they are therefore more tender, and fo more eafily di!jtive,and 
yielding to the faid Spirituous part in the Centre. And by this means, 
obtaining a wider Bore, they are more adapted to the free motion of 
the Af/% Content : which being nw Oleous and Thicker Liquor, than 

33- ^> 



,(8 i-' 

Book 11. 

of KootT. 




)S. As the SjUnc Prim'ipk\^i\\Q Mould of the Sncafcrouj fo 
is the AWj/ofthei^er-K/c/j. (^J Now the Particles of Ar ftrittly fo ('■'J P-'-t^-ji 
called, at leaft of that part of it concerned in tfie Generation of the ^-^^-S^ f»^. 
Acr-VipJs^ [ fiippofe, are crooked ; and that by conipofition of many ^•^'*' 
of thole crooked ones together, fbme of them become Spiral, or of 
fomc other winding Figure: and that thereupon dependeth the £/tf- 
fiitk^ Property of the Aer^ or its being capable of Rarefa&iofi and -j 

Conde^fdtion by force. Wherefore, the faid crooked Particles of the 
Acr^^i^JljootmgznA fitting together, as the Mouldy the other Pr'm- 
cipk cling and fix conformably round abont them. So that, as by 
force of the Saline Pnrtdples^ the reft of them are made to fioof out 
in Loj7g conimuU Fibres ^ fo by force of the Aerial^ thofe Fibers are 
ftilldifpofcd into Spiral Lines^ thus making up the Aer-Vcfikls, And 
according as there are fewer ofihelev^mW Particles, in proportion to '! 

the S^Unc^ the Ctf/jca-ue of the Aer-Vejfds is varioiifly wider^or the .F^- 
Ires continue their /jtf-?to^ by wider ii/ff^j ^ as thofe that come nearer 
to ^ Tight Line^ and (bare more complient to t\vtz Figure ^nd ftiooting ) 

of the Saline parts- And whereas the Lympbedn^s^ (hooting out oi- 
ly in length, are never fenfibly tf/j/;?///?^; beyond their original fize; 
Theie, on the contrary, always, more or lefs, enlarge their I»^«af/^>' 5 
becaufe their Fibres, being difpofed into Spiral Lines^ muft m^^s 
therefore, as they continue their growth, be ftill dilated into greater 
and greater i?%/. And being at the bottom of the Root more re-* 
mote from the Aer^ and fo having fomewhat fewer Particles purely 
Atria}^ there ingredient to them, thenat thetopj they fall more un- 
der the government of the Saline^ and fo come nearer to a right Lim^ 
that is into greater C/rr/e^^ and fo the Acr-Ve£els^ made up of thofe 
Orcks, are there generally wider, (h^ ^y^ F.i.Zi 

34- jS. Ey mediation of iheir Principles, the Faremhymoits Parts f. 16, " ' 
likcwife of a Root have their proper Cvntexture, For from their A* 
cid Salt they are Fibrous 5 from their 0?/, the Vibres are Round, and 
mail pares even within themfelves ^ and from their ^^ir//, it is moft 
prob.ible, that they are zMo hcllovc. But becaufe the spirit h^ here, 
more copious than the Aer-^ and the Saline Principle an Acid, (c) (cj jS, t^, 
and fo, more under ihe government of the Spirit, than is an Alkali:^ 
therefore are not the faid Fibres continued in Jiraigkt Lines^ as the 
Sap-Fejfcls -^ or by one ;/w/fl>'^ morion, into jjr/r^/ lines, as the //irt j 
in the AeriJ:, hut windings in a circular manner, to and fro a thott- 
find roays, ngreevible to the like motions of the Spirit^ that moft a&ive^ 
and here moft predominant Principle. And the Sfiritnous Parts being, 
as is faid, here more copious and redundant, they will not only iiif- 
fice to fill up the Concaves of the Fibres, but will alfo gather toge- 
ther into innumerable liirle fpaces, without them: whence the ri- 
^rffcannof wind cloft.- together, as Thred, in a B^w-?^ of Yarn 5 but 
are forced to keep at fome diftance, one parcel from another, and 
foaredifpofcd, as Bread is in baking, \mo -Bladders, (d) (d) 

55. ^. And the yvdcr fibres being fit firft, as the Warp, tlie fpi- §, ^ 
f/J^^j^j parts ncxc adjacent, will incline 7i]{o 10 fix^ and fo govern an 
&ver work cf P^brts^ wrapping, as the Woof, m ftiil fmi^ller Circles 
round the ocher : whereby they are all knit together, (s) For the TO J'-'-i^S- 
fame rcaCor., the Lymphcda&s^ being firft formed, the Parenchymons ^'^- . , 
Ftbres fit jud m-ap about Thcfealfo. (f) And the Aer-Veffih being f/J'*''-^'?' 






I I ■ 

'r i 







Of the Vegetation 

Book ir. 

connc to be 
Situate or 

formed in ihc Center^ xh^ fjicdfimfs run nlon^ thofclikewirc (as^^, 
Utile Salts p-ot jilor^g tht: fides of a GJafs, or i'Vtf/i upon a Window) 
and io arCj as it were, Incruftate about thtni in a Rmg. 

How the fe- 5^5- #. SOME OF THE more ^therial and Subtile parts of ihc Acr^ 
tera! ?am as they ftream through the R/>oU n lliould fccm, by a certain hUgm- 
tjfm^ do gradually difpofe the ^j^r-f'f/f/y, where there are any ftore 
of them, into J?jy/, This AttraQion ( as i take leave to enll it) or 
Mag/^etkk Pff^*^^ betwixt the Acr and thefe Fefch^ may be arg;ucd. 
From the nature of the Prindfks common to them both; From the 
Eie&ral nature of divers other Bodies^ the Load-ftffnch^iwg not the 
(a) Lib. s. only one which is atiraftive : And from other EffetVs, both before {.{) 
e.2. ^.2^. Sc and hereafter mentioned. Wherefore in the inferiour pans of the 
c.'^^^P^end. Roof^ they are lefs Regular; (b) bccaufe more remote fromthc Ar- 

5S. io/ '*■ where thofe that arc next the Centre are confufcd, or differently 
Tj^, 7,8,^. °^^P^^^'^5 thofencAt the Barque^ and fo nearer the Ar, arc poftu- 
red more Regularly, and ufuaHy into BAys. For the fjme reafon it 
may be 5 that even the Sap-Vejjsls in the Barque^ as often as the Acr 
Veph are more numerous, are ufually difpofcd into iLiys, as follow- 
ing the dircaion o£ tht Aer-Vejfeh, And that the ?aremhym.iofi\\c 
Barque, i? difpofed into Diametral Portions ; and that where the Agt 
FeJ/cls are fewer or fmaller, thefe Portiotjs are likewife fmalicr or none, 

as in Chervil, Afparagus, D^nddioff, Orpi^^c, Bifiort, Horfi-Radm, 
Tab, 7, S, p, Potato's^ &c, 

37' 5' The (aid yEtherial parts of the Aer, have a Power over 

the A^r-Vejfds not only thus to Difpofe them 5 but alfo to Solhcitc 

and fpre^d them abroad from the Center towards the Circumference 

of the Root. By which means, thofe Roots which have no Pitb in 

(0 P,i, C.5, f^cir lower parts, obtain one in their uppen (c) And the fame Pith^ 

^^ u which in the lower part, is ratably, fmall, in the upper, is more or 

(d)lb.^.^ kfsenlarged. (^1 

38. 5i, Tht Spreaditjg of thefe Vtffds is varied, not only accor- 
^^^%^^}^^ ^^'"^^ ^^^ "^^^ hath upon them, but alfo their own greater 
or k-G Aptitude to yield thereto. As often therefore, as they are Slcn^ 
derer, they will alto be more Phable and receffive from the Centre, 
towards the Circumference. Hence, in fuch Koots where they are 
7ai. 2, & 6.™^^}^ they ftand more diftant; asinTwrwff, '^eruj^km Artichoke^ Po- 
tato's^ and others^ and fo their Braces 2iv^ fewer: and in the fame 
Root^ %vhcre they are fmailer, their diftance is greater. Bcfide^ in 
thefe fmallcr Aer-Vejjds^ the Rif7gs being left, and the spiral Filrcs 
whereof they arc made, continuing tojhoot ^ the faid Ei/igs therefore, 
miift needs be fo many more, iis they are fmaller ^ and fo take up more 
(pace by the length of the Root ^ and fo, rot being cap;ible of bein^ 

crowded m a r7^A//^;,e, every r^/J will be forced to recede to a u'^«-^:3 
or hon>ed one. 

^9. ^, The 54p/'f^LV^,beingby the Puremhymous FiLrcskmK to i/:efi^ 

r ^ V ^^^^ lil^ewife comply with Their motion, and fpread abroad wiih them. 

V O j'-i' ^.3^ Yet being ftiH fmaller (c ) and more pliable than the AcM'cfJe/s, and fo 

more yidding to the intercurrent fibres of the Pmmhjm.i, their 

^^h 6 ^^^<^^^ J f^reds wij], fomctimes, be much more divaricated, than thole 

otihGAer-F^JJ^lj:^ .iHlnJtrufikmAnickQl^. And becaufelheSV/^^z/^T^AT 




* . - 



^ . 

^ , 

Book IL 

of Roots. 



J the Jff 
M of the 
or none i 

:er orer 

Pith ia 

TOrc or 

y KCOT- 

they as 

f //iff' 


r^tfc/jj although they arc joyned to the ^<rr/"-// by tlic Parenchymom 

Fibres^ (^a) yet art.- not continuous with them ^ nekhtr £M under (a) P*i.c.'$. 

the like Attratfive Po-[t>er of the Agv^ as the Acrid do i the Acrid ^' i^- 

therefore, upon their fpreading, do not always carry all ihc Snccife- 

jwfs along with them j but often, if not always, leave many of them 

behind them fpriiikled up and down the Pith -j as in Parjlcjf^ Carroty ^^ , , 

'jcmfukm Artkhokfi^ Thrttep, &c» may be feen. 

40. §. The fprcddiTrg of the Aer-VeffeU ftill continued, feveral 
of ihem, at length, break forth beyond the circunifeicnce of the 
Root'-i and loarediftributed, either in the lower parts, into Branches 
and Sirmgs ^ or at the top, into Leaves. And left they ihould all 
ipread themfclves into Leaves^ and none be left for the Cn/ilis 5 as 
where they are very (mallj or the Sap-Vejfch to bound them, are but 
few, they might ^ therefore divers of them are, oftentimes, more fre- 
quently ir-?fe^iQ the Centre^ for which reafon, they cannot fo eafily ^ 
ieparate and fprcad themfelves from thencCj but run more inwardly up ' " 
into the Canlis^ as in Borage. 

4T< 5. FR.OM THE various 5/^^^/, froportions^ and Difiojltions 
of the Parts, Roots are variouily fi'Led^ f!)aped^ rjioved and aged. Thole 
whichj by their Annual Growth, arelai^e^ have fewer, both AeriJ^ 
and Sap-Vcjfeh^ and a more copious Farembyma, %o that the Att- 
Vejfds^ or rather, the Aery Ferment contained in theiD, volatilising 
only a (mailer portion of the Sap 5 the laid Sap is left capable of ad- 
vancement into the Triff^/^^ and fo rauft needif remain 2nd fix more co- 
pioudy in the Root^ which is thereby more augmented. And where 
the Sap-Vejfeh alone, are but few, the Root is yet, ratably, ibme- 
what large; but where they are numerous, it is never fo, as to its 
Annual Growth, in any proportion to their Number: Becauie their 
Tinffyrej which i$ Alkaline^ will go ferther in fitting the Parenchy- 
fnous Putts: than thGTin&ure ofXAe/e, which is Acidulate^ will go, 
\{\ fitting Them. (/^J 

4^. iJ. When the Aer-Vejfds are more pliable and fequcnt to the 
Attraflionof the Aer^ and Co fpread themfelves, and the Sttcdfirous 
together with them, more abroad ^ in the manner as hath been laid ^ 
ihc Root alfo will grow more in Breadth^ the nutrition ofthe P^r^w- 
chymous Parts ^ to which ihcFeJfils are adjacent, being thus, by the 
fame dimcniion,more augmented •■, as in Turnep^'jtriffiikm Artichoke^ &c. 
But where thefe are not fpread abroad, the Root is but (lender^ as in 
Ajparjgus^ Dundelion, Sec. 

43, y. If the Aer-Vefcls be contrafted into, or near the Centre, 
and are fomewhat Large or Numerous^ :iad th^ SjiuifiroJ/s^ alfo more 
copioufly mixed with, or furrounding them ^ the Root grows very 
Long ^ as do thole ofFcnil, Vine^ LiquiriJI^ &c. For the Aer-VeJJels 
containing a more qoi<\o\x% Ferment^ it will well digeft and mature the 
Sap : Yet tjie Succifiroas being over proportioned to ihem^ the Sap 
will not therefore, be io fir volatilized, as to alcend chiefly into the 

Trmkh hutonly to fubferveafuller Growth of their ^^// .- which 
being more numerous, and fo more fturdy, and left lequent to the 

expanlive motion of the ^er/tf/^ this their own Growth, and confe- 
qucntly, that of all the other -Pjrfj, cannot be fo much in Breadth, 
as Length. 

S 44, f. 

How the 
whole Root 

is differently 
lized and 


(h) F. 2. 
ii, 31. 





n X 


■I r 


Of the Vegtation 

Book \l 

^ 44. ^, Where the fime AGr'tdlVeffds arc Fewer,ormore Concraftcd 
or iheathed in a Thicker and Cloier Rarqjic-^ the K^tJ/isfmooth, and 
lefi Ramified^ as in AfparagJiJ-^ ?tofiy^ DAndtUon. But wlierc more 
Numerous, Aieached in a Thinner Batqm^ Smaller, ormore Dil:itcd^ 
the Root b more Ramified^ or more Sirhfgy^ as in Colnmhwe^ CUt\\ 
Seet^ Nk&tian, For being, as is faid, by ihefo means, more fcquenc 
to the Attradion of the Acr--^ approiichnig [till nearer the circumfe- 
rence of the Barque, they at jaft iirike through it, into the Earth. 
And the Paraichyrfiojis Fibres being wrapped about them, and the 

. Sucdfergjts VcJ/cls kn\^ to them by thofc Fibres ^ (^a) therefore ihey 
never break forth naked, but always inverted with (ome quantity of 
thete Parts as their Barque : where by, whatever C&?iJliUitive Part is 
in the main Body of tlie Root^ the fame is alfb in every Branch or 

^ String. 

45. ^. From the fame Expanfion and Pliability of the Aer-Veffib^ 
the Kivivf oftentimes putteth forth Root-Bstds --, v/hich gradually fhoot 
up and become fo many Trunks. In the Formation of which Buds^ 
they are pliable and recefiive all kinds of ways^ being not only in- 
vited Outward, toward the Circumference of the Rooi^ as in Root- 
firings^ but alfb fpread roore Abroad every way, fo as to make a Rooi- 
Bffd : Where as in the faid Root-firings ; they are always more Con- 
traded. Which, in refpeft of the Difpofition of the Parts, is the 
principal difference betwixt the Root and the Tntni^ , as hath beeo 

■ faid. (i) Hence, thofe Roots^ chiefly, have Root-Buds^ which have 
the fmalleft Aer-Vejjds'^ (0 thefe, as is faid, being the moft pliable 
and Expanfive- .,_!_;. 

46. ^, But becaufe the expanfivcnefs of the Peffels^ dependeth alio, 
in part, upon the Fewnefi of their Z?r<?^f/^ therefore the laid Bads 
fiioot forth differently, in divers Roots. Where the Braces are fewer, 
the Buds fhoot forth beyond the Circumference of the Root^ as in 7e- 

'Xfik 6. riifaknt Artichekfi -^ where more clofe, as in Voiato's^ the Buds lie 
a little abfconded beneath ic^ the Aer-VeJJels being here, by their 

Braces^ fomewhat checked and curbed in, while the Si^r^tteconcinueth 
tofwell into a fuller Growth. 

47. jS, if the Aer-VeJJds are dll along rfioffe equally fized, the 
, " Root is fb alio, or Cylindrical j as are thole of Erjngo, Horfi-Radijf}^ 

M.arJi}f?iaUovi>^ Lignrnp, &c. But if unequal, growing flill ivfder to- 
wards the bottom of the Root -^ then the Root is unequal alfo: But 
groweth, as is obfervable^ quite contrarily to the Atr-VcJJds i, not 
Greater, as They do ^ but ftill fmaller, or pyramidally 3 as in Fenil^ 
Borage^ Nettle^ Patience, Jhorn-Apple, &c. is apparent. For the ^er- 
Feffils peing confiderably wider about the bottoms of thele Rcots ; they 
there contcin a more Copious Ferment: Whereby the Sap is there 
alfo more volatilized, and plentifully advanced to the Upper Parts. 
Withal, thus receiving into therafelves, and fo irafmittire to the up- 
per Parts, a more plentiful Vafvur^ they hereby rob the Parenchymeas 
Parts of their Aliment, and fo flint them in their Growth- 
How Koofj 48, jj, FROM THE different Proportions and Situation of the 
are diffeiuly Parts.^ the Motions of Roots are alfo various. For where the Are-VcffeU 
jITs ^^^ fpread abroad and inverted with a thinner Barftc ^ the Root run^ 

or lies Level^n^ in the kvel-Kvots of Primrofe^ BiJhops-n^cd^Ammfine^^Q. 


5S- 2. 3- 
Tab. II. 







I f 

Book IL 

of Roots. 


oilj in. 

f: Con- 



)y ibdr 

is there 

3^- 3*- 

T'A 7, Z. 

Cd) F.2.^; 

ta^. 7. 

may be fcen. So that thufe Roo/s^ as by ih^ Pcrpefidrcular Siritjgs 
which ftioot from them into the Earthy and wherein the Aer-Fcffeh 
are conrrafted into their Center, they are Plucked down (a)i So by 
the Acr-Fcffcls^ which ftand nearer the Ar, and more under its At- 
iraftivc Power (h) they are invited npa^ards -^ whereby they have 
neither aficvt nor defce/rt^ but keep levcl^ betwivt both* 

49- jJ- But ifthele Vefclj are Conrrafted, Oanding either in, or 
near the Centre, and are invcfted with a Barque proportionably 
Thick 5 the Root (triketh down pcrpe^dhularfy^ as doth that of D.-?*- 
deho^y Brfgiofs, Parfmp^ &c And therefore the faid V€jjeh, although 
ihey are fpread abroad in the level Roots, yet in the pcrpcndknUr ones 
of the fame P/j«;, they are always cociraflcd ^ as by comparing the 
Level md Down-right Roots ol Ammi^ Primrofi^ Jcrufalera Arthhoks, 
Cau>Jlip^ and others J ismanifetl, 

^o. $. \i ihiA^rVeffeh are Contrafted, and Environed with a 
greater number of SucciftroHs, the -^oot grows deep ^ that is, perpcn- 
dtmUr and %. (f) PerpendicHlir, from the Contradiion of the Aer- 
t^effels^^ (d)mdlong, from thePredominion'ofthe^wcri/^r^*^, which 
in their growth, are extended only by that Dimenfion, as in U^^finjh 

iltyvgo. Sec- 

5 1, i. Ifthe S/fcciferous 3re over proportioned to the P^ref?chyjsious^ 
Fmsy but under to the Aer-Veffets j the Root is perpeTidicukr ftJU^ but 
groweth ^^i'r^n^ : The Succjfirous being fturdy enough to keep it t^-r- 
fcndicuUr 3 But the Aer-Veffils having a predominion to keep it from 
growing ^^f;? 5 as m Stramovmm, JSlkotia^, Beet, &c. 

52. ^. If, ontheconrrary, the Paref^cfymo^j Parts are predomi- 
nant to the Aer Veffeh 5 and that^both in the Root and Truf^k h then the 
Whole Kff-^fchangech place, or defiendu (e) For the faid Aer^VeJIels 
havmg neither in the Tmnck , nor in the Root, a fufficient Power to 
Uv:iv^ nupiv^rds :, it therefore gradually yidds to the Motion of its 
^in^g-Rootst, which, as they ftrike into the Soil, Pluck it down after 
them And becaufe the old Stri^gf annually rot off, and new ones 
lucceiiively (hoot down into the Gr^wW, it therefore annually ftill de- 
Icendeth lower ^ asinT«%I.?7>.,8cc. may beobferved 

53- 5i- Where the ^fr-f^/Ji are much >^W abroad, and alfo »«- 
^rofts, xhG Root ofz^ntm^s, as to its feveraJ parts, defce^ds and afiends 
both at once So Radijl^es and Tf^rt^eps^ at the fame time,in which their 
uether part.^ ^.J^.W ^ their upper, fwhere the faid Feph are more 
loolely braced, and Jpread more abroad than in the lower parts ) do 
'!/^e«^, or raaketheir Growth vpo'ard. Hence alfo, the upper part 
otmoft young Roots from Seed, afcends: Becaufe the firft Ltr^j be- 
ing proportionably large, and (tanding in a free Aer, the Aer-Veffeis 
therein^ have a dominion over the young Root^ and fo themfelves 
yieidmgtothefoticitationof the^^r, upwards -^ thev draw the fii^f^r 
^n part, after them. 

r^c^u D ^^ "^^^ Sitmtion and Proporthni of the Parts, the A^e 11^^ 7?^,. 

l-roportion thei?,,,, i, eeri„„Ul, and that to the t:trtheft extent, as ly Aged. 

oj /f TiA:t'- r ^''^"''^ '"^'^^ ^'^''' ^°""ining . more copJous 

.d ^'i r r, ^"" '^'''"' ^ri^cipk, bdng more clofely C.«wW ,^ , „ 

' ' ^ ^ 55- ^■ 





4, ApjJifid. 
^. 10. P. a. 

r^, 2; 

■'' i'i'k' 



i. '■ 



Of the Vegetation 

Book II 

55. <- If the Paremhywons Farts have much the greateft, the 
RGotiiAdomYwcxh beyond Two Years 5 but afterwards petifhech ei- 
ther in whole, or in part 5 as do divers bnlbgus^ tuberous^ and other 
Roots ^ \vhcther they are more Porous and Succulent, or more Clofc 
and Dry. If Porous, ail rhe Liquid priridpUs landing herein more 
abundant, cither by a ftrongcr Fermentation, or otherwife, Refolve 
tYi^ fixed vms of the Organic^ Farts ^ whence the wholGRoot^ rois 5 
as in Ffitato's, So alfo Farfaeps^ and feme oiher Roats^ which, in a 
hard and barren 5i3?/, will Live (everal years, in another more rank, 
will cjuickly rot. If the Parenchyma be Clofe, then the Aer^ chiefly, 
entring in and fillingit up,thus mortifies the jRtfi^;^ not byRottingthe 
FaHi^ butover Drying them; ^'m Satyriofiy Rape-Crojvfoot, Mofj^s- 
'l- hood-, 6cc. (a) 

$6.^. But ifthei^trr-f^f^/j hzvttht greateft Proportion^ and efpe- 
cially if they are more krge^ and withall, are fpread more abroad ; 
the Root is Annual^ as in Thorn-Apfk^ Nicotisn^ Cardmis Beti. &c. 
And of the fame Kindred, if any, thofe are Amual^ which have the 
moft Aer-Fefelx, So Endive and Soncbus , which have ftore of 
Aer-l/cffets^ are both Annual: whereas Ochory^ in which they arc few- 
er, is a Ferennial Root. For hereby a more copious Aer being Tranf 
jj/uled into all the other P^m ^ (i) they are thus, by d^rees, hard- 
ned, and become fticky ^ and fo impervious to the Sap^ which ought 
to have a free and univerfal Tranfiiion from Part to Part. As Bones^ 
by Precipitations from the Bhod, at length, ceafe to grow. Or the 
fame more abundant ^e/-, fo hr iro(atifizeth the Liqnorr in the Root, 
that they are wholly advanced into the Trunks , and fo the Root is 
ftarved. Whence alfo the Acr-Fcfelsof the Trani^^ where they ate 
numerous, and over proportioned to the flW4 o( the Root, as in Com -^ 
they ib fer promote the advance of the s^p, as to CKhanft the Root^ 
fucking it into a Confumption and Death. 

How tilt 
Commis of 
(he fcveral 
Farts arc 

f Uta, ji 


(d) F. 2. 

57- 1^' FROM THE Principles o£ the Farts, thc'iv Contents and 

thefeveral ^aUties hereof are alfo various 5 (c) the Fh/id of each 

Organical F^rt, being made, chiefly, by Filtration through the fides 

thereof 5 fuch of the Pri^/^^p/^j in the Sap^ being admitted into, and 

tranfniitted through them, as are apteff thereunto. In the like manner, 

' as when Oyl and Water, being poured upon a Paper, the Water pafleth 

through, theOy (licks; or astheayeisftrained through the Coats 

of ihe Guts, into the Laical Veffils : or as" Water in Purgations^ is 

Jtrained through the Glaprds of the fime Gms^ from the Mcfentc- 
ricaK , ' 

58. ^. The Principles therefore of the /^rfrfff^^/^tf^j FibresheiUG; 
fpiritiioys, acid, and aerial, they will alfo admit the like into them ; 
cxcludir^ thofe chiefly which are Alkaline mdOkous. (d) And as by 
the Conjugation of fuch Principles in the Fibres, the like arc capable of 
admttunce iuloihcir Body : io thit Froportion andVnion of the fame 
Principles^ regulates the trmfmijjion hercofinto their Concave. Where- 
fore, the predominant Principles of the Fibres being chiefly acid, next 
fpn-Jtuffus, and aery ^ the more aery oni^ will be tranfmitted. For if 
more of y/jcwfliould/x they mnftdofo byfimilitude and .uihefion:, 
But where there are fewer Hmibry partsto adhere to, fewer mult :ul- 
liere. The t'ibra therefore contain fo many parts of ^f;', as to admit 




■I r 

Book If. 

~ ms 

«. &c 
»ve the 

:oTC of 

', TmC- 

, h[d- 

Or the 

!(j and 
of eatH 

be fide 



im-, is 

; being 


of Kootf. 



miny more iiico their Body ^ but not to fx them 5 which therefore 
niutlnccds, upon admiflion, pals through into their CWwi^e 5 where, 
together vvirh Tome other n\ori: j^ir/tnoifs parts, they make an JKthcrial 
Fhiid. And bcc:iurc fome nqitcous 01 -vaporous parts will alfo ftrain 
through with them i hence it is, that as more and more of thefi." enter, 
they by degrees ftill thruft out the aery ones ^ which quitting the more 
JitcatktU Fibres of the Parenchyma^ arc forced to bijtake themfelves 
to the i/rfj?r ones, fcih all thole, whereof the i)ii//^jf;r-?/i^i)r//£'A/ do 
confith For the fame reafbn the Arj' parts being gradually exdnded 
thejitccjtkfit Fibres o( tht Barque ^ they are forced to recede and tranf 
migrate into thofeofthe Pith. Andthe f/trrjof thei^///j themfelves 
being filled, aud the Ar^ parts {till forced into them 5 they at length - ■ 
alfo tlrain through the Fibres into the Blidders : when:>c it comes to 
pals, that while the B^rq/te i^faccHknt^ the Pith is often times filled 
with Aer, 

59. jj, ThGLymphiBdu^shtm^moi^ earthy^ ^alimns ^ okous^ ^ndfjjp, 2, 
aqueous^ wil) both admit 2X\A copioufly fix the like Principles^ as their #■ ai- 
proper Aliment. Th^Water t^ingmore perffnent than the reft, will 
therefore (train, with a lighter TinUnrt of them, into their Cof^eave. 
Eipecially the O/e^^j parts of jhefe being rj;^^.^;/^, and lets apt to/^li: and 
fiii^e th^ aquems^ upon their entrance, th'M^ the fih'ne, 
^ 60. jS. The Laciiferot/s, appearing to be made, chicfiy, by the 
Gonftipation of the Parenchymotts Paris all roundabout their Sides 5 
the X/^-viirconteined in thofe Parts^ although it may eafily enough 
be transfuied into the Hollow of thcfc f^^/j^ yet leems it not, with 
equal facility, to be refunded thence ; So that the thinner and more 
aqueous Portion only, paiGngofF3 the remainder, is, as it were, an 
bkous Blixyr^ or extract, in the form of a jWi/j^. 

61. §. The i^///iiV Ferff;ew( contained in the Aer-Fcjfels^ isalfo in 
part, dependent on the Pf/m/^fcj of thole Feffits^ being in their per- 
colation tinciured therewith- But becaule the percolation is not made 
ihreughih^ Body o^t'hG Fibres whereof the f^^/j are compoled, but 
only hetveixt them ^ therefore the tranfient Principles more promilcuoP 
!y, yet with an over porportion of dryer Particles, pafs into the Con- 
caves of thefe V^els^ and fo are herein all immerfed in a Body of 

Aer. (b) The Fibres themfclves, in the mean time, as thoib of the n) p, 2 
Parenchyma, admitting and containing a more Aery and JEtherial ^. 2^/ 

62. §. ThQCofiten'ts are varied, not only by the Nature, but alfo 
the "Proportion and Situation of the Parts^ whereby the faid Conients 
are with different Facility and Quantity, communicated one toanother. 
Hence it is, partly, that a Vine^ or that Com^ hath fo little Oyli fi. 
Becaufe their Aer-FcJ/ds^ in proportion with the other Farts^ are fo 
Great ;indNjtnj£rous.-inCorn^ the Stall^ being alfo very hollow, and fo 
becoming ai, it were, one Great Aer-Feffd. For the Oily parts of the Sap^ 

are fo exceedingly attenuated (c) by the Aery Fermnt contained in r^) ^ 2 €- 
thefe yifeh-^ that they are, for the mofl: part, fo far immerfed'm the 25, 6c 55, 
Sfirjt^ or mixed therewith, asnot, by being colleftcd in any confide- 
rable Body, to be diffinguiftiablc from it. And the affinity that is be- 
twixt A^^mj andO//y, efpecially £/^j^//^/, is manifeft : Both are very 
inflammable 3 Both will burn all away^ The Odors, which we call 
i\\tSp?riisoiPUnts^ arc lodged in their cjjmtial Oyl^ Both, bcmg 




■1« n, 



*, ■) 

I .;■■ 

■ -I r 



Of the Vegetation 

Book II. 




duly KtliifuK will mix as eaiily together , as Water and (■F^ve So 
that, fllthniigh 0;;, by the ftparation of its wthy and i'^Z/^jt- \^x\^ 
which g^ve it its fcnRbly <)/fi-«j Body, may not be fo far attc»7Matcd^.i^ to 
fr^^^/ffj.Sf/ri/^ yetthatit may fofarbe attenuated, and fo be mixed 
therewith, as ttct to be difccrned from it^ as in the foremen t ion ed FlatJtr 
will be granted. ' 

tf 3- (T. Hence it is, that the La&rferous landing more remote from ' 

W J''*. 9^ t\i^ Aer-Veffds, andthe ^tfrn/er^-^ intcrpofing 5 (^Jrhe Liquor, therc- 

« "p- fore, contained in them, is not fo much under the government of the 

Aerial Fer/^e>n, and is thence, partly, more Oiij. For the fame rea- 

' fon, all Rom which are Mtlkj, Co far as I have obfcrved, have an un- 

der-proportion of Acr-Vejfeh y thefe being cither Fewer or Smdler. 

How the 0' ^4- §' FROM what hath been faid , we may receive fome 
^owf of information, likewlfe, of the O^^wrj , Colotirs ^ and Taps of 
Plants, And for Odours^ \ fuppofc, That the chief Matter of them, 
is the Aerial Ferment contained in the Aer-Vejfets, Not but that 
the Gther Parts do alfo yield their fmeil ^ but that thefe yieid the 
firotrgefl and the bcfi^ and immediately perceptible in frejb^ urtdrjcd and 
ttnbrmfed Plavts, For the Acr entring imo, and paffing through the 
Root^ and carrying a Ttn^itrc, from the fcvcral Orgar^ical and Confai- 
ved Parts, along with it, and at laft entring alfo the Cr^/^r^^j of the 
Aer-VeJJels ^ it there cxifts the moft Compounded and VbUtiU Fluid 
of all others in the riant, and fo the fitted matter of Odo^r : and 
fuch an Odour, as anfwers to that of aU the Odorom parts of the 
Thnt. (b) Wherefore the Of^^w-r^/P^r//, being well clenfed of their 
Contents, fmell not at all 5 Becaufe the -Pr/w/f/ej hereof are, as hath 
been faid,fo far fixed and concentred together. Hence alfo the Contained 
Parts themfelves, or any other Bodies, as their Principles are any v/^y 
more fixed, they are lefs Odorous: So is Rr>f?/, lefs than Turpentine^ 
and Fitch, thanT^r; and many thefelf fame Bodies, when they are 
coagulated, lefs than when they are melted. So alfo Mus^^ which is 
not fo liquid as Cm/, is not lb ftrong; nor Amhergreece^ as Mjtsl^ : 
For although it hath a more excellent fmcil, than Musk^ hath, yet 
. yieldcth it not fo cafily 5 fince it is a more fixed Body, and rcquireth 
fome A/ to be opened. Hence alfo the Leaves of many Plants lofe 
their Odourn^ou ntbhing: Eecaufe the ^tr-Ff^// being thereby bro- 
ken, all their contained odorous Fluid vaniihcth at once : which be- 
fore, was only (trained gradually through the Skin. Yet the fi\ed 
Parts themrdvcs, upon drying, are fo far altered by the 5w;!i and ^^r^ 
as to become refoluble^ and volatile, and thence odorous. 

How their ^5' ^- SO ALSO of their C^/pwrj. As whence the Cn/;?;/rj of the 

Cohuvs. Skins are varied. For divers of the Saf-Vefiels, together with the 

Tarenchymom Farts fucceffivcfy falling olF from the Barque into the 

4 2 l!" ''■^" ^^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ proximity to the Earth and Aer, their Sulphureous or 
^' '1* Oleous Frinciple is more or lefs refilvcd, and fo produceih divers Co- 
lours. So ihoie Roots which turn purple any where within, have 
nfually a bladder sl^n ■-, the oneof thofc two C&/f^arj bein?, br a rcfo- 
lution and corruption of parts^cafiiy convertible into ihe other, as 
in Cv'^fy, Thiflk, &c, So the Milk, of Scorzonera, contained in 
the ycfjcls of the Barfie, upon drying, turneth into a broim Ca* 

lour .' 


Book IL 

of RootS' 



lour: Whtrefbre the 5^/^, in whidi there are divers of thofe Fef- 
Jeis^ is of the//A'^f. So both the Miili and S^rrr of Lova^^e is of a 
brownilli }-e!!f}w. But Parfiiep haih a clearer Sap in all its Fe^^, and 
a whiter S^/ff, So Fetatos^ being cut traverfe, after feme lioie out of 
ground, have divers red fpecks up and down where the Veff^ls (land, 
and their s^fi is accordingly red. 

€6. ^. The reafon, I fty of thefe Colours^ is the rtfihstion or /"^^ 
firation of the F^r/p/fjof the /*^m, chietly, by the -4^/- and 
^ Irgktcr mixture oi thi^m confequent thereupon; whereby the*iW- 
fhurcom or 0;/? F<2r/yj which were before coftcenfred, are now more 
or Idsr-mpani, diicoverin^ thcmfelves in divers Colours.^ according as 
they are diverlly mixed with the other Frindples. Hence thcfe Co* 
lours are obfcrvable, according to the nature of the Parts wherein 
they ar€^ or whercunto they are adjacent : So where the Lytuphedu&s 
doe run, there is a Red^ or Ibmc other Sulphureous Colour 5 the Ole- 
ous Prrnapks be'iDg, as is Tiid, (a) more copious in thefe Fefels^ as W P^ a. 
in the Euri^ o( Peofj}\ the inward parts o( Potato's^ &c may bc^'^'' 
feen. But the Farenchymous Parts, where more remote from the faid 
yefels, they are ufu ally White, or but TelloTc i the Sulphureous Pyj^- 
ffple of thcCc Parts, being, as hath been faid, but fpa ring, (h) Therti 7> 
fame is feen inthofe Roots wluch Ihcw both if^-i and ra/t'n^/ thofc ri 20 
Parts, prmcipally, v^heiG th^ S^cdferous Fe/els run, being fie^^ but ' ' 
thofe Farts, where only the Aer-Vefels qre mixed with the Paremhy^ 
mous, being TeUovP 5 as in Patieme. So likewife the pHhy part of a 
Carrot, whtre the Aer-nffds have very few Succiferous mixed with 
th^m^itXdtows butthc&r^^f, whtvQ ^h^ Snccrferous are very nu- 
merous, is Hed, For the fame reafon, many Roofs , which are 
Whiter m their upper pans, are Purple or Reddijfy in their Jnfe- 
riour, as Avern, Strawberry, &c. Becaufe thofe lower parts, having 
hin longer (c) under ground (chefe being defieftding Roots ^ their r.) J* i-' 
Prwaples are, thereby, fomewhat more refolded, and fo the Oleous, rar^p Vn. ' 
and fprcad all over the reft in that Colour, 

67. jS. And that the Refilution of the Sulphureous and other Pri;^- 
r;;./cT IS partly effected by tlie Aer, appears, !n that, where the Aer 
hath a free accefs to the Succiferous Fejfds, the Colours ztc there- 
chieKy protiuced, or are more confpicuous. So in Potato's where 
the succifirous VcjfeU are either next to the cxteiual Aer, as in the 
i^hn--, orconnguous with the Aer-V,ffd,^ ^^ ;„ the RJng within the 
^arqii^ 5 there, they produce a Red : but where more remote from 
both, asm the middle of the Barque, and Centre of the Root 
there they produce none. Hence alfo it is, that the Uaves and 
t lowers of fomc i>/^ff(/, as Bloodwort, Wood-Sorrcl , Radrf/y Jacea 
ecc although Green or irhite in the greateft portion of their Pa- 
remhymoHs Part 5 yet where the Succiferous and Aer-Fejfels run to- 
gether, they arc of Re^, Blue, and other Colours^ the Okons parts 
ot the oric, being unlocked ;iud opened, by the ^e^* of the .^/^cr. 

6B. ^. AND LASTLY , of their Tafts, Moft K..^^ which are How tbeii 
^frw or bjttwg, have a very copious Parcmhyma in proportion with ^^^/^^r; 
ih^SHcctfirousVeffels, as of A;.^, /J.,^,^, and others : Becaufethe 
^•^h^emA oihj Principles are not fo much hot, by any fufficient 
quantity of Sulphureous, from thofe Vejfeh, m which the 5«fo/.;,r 
as IS faid, is more abuudants C-^) but rcndred rather pument from ^''^ *"■ ^- 





,1 f 

.^ll if 


I ^ I 

I ■ 

F i 

'■i r 


£7^ /i&e Pegetntion 

Book II 

E * 

nh. I J, 

Ibmc^pjV/f and Ar, l^ui d'wcrs ZJ/jjlfdhfcrtnes Roots^ cfpcdally which 
abound with Lai'i/firons FeJ/eis^ arc ht 5 as Fcml^ Lovirge, A^gclk^ 
&c. Yet is it not iheir Oyl alone that makes them hot^ hue the com- 
bination thereof with the Salint Parts : as is manifeO, from the na- 
lure of the Stzd of thefe J^ia/?// ^ wherein, as the Oyl is moft copi- 
So being held to a Candle till (hey burn , conftantly fpt 5 


which Cometh to pafs, by the eruption of the sdim Parts : and 
is the very fame effeft, with that which foUoweth upon burning of 
Stmm or Blood. And therefore, as ihefe s^eds are more hot^ they 
A^ofpil the more 5 So thofe diCunnm^ which, though fuUomj yet 
are not fo hvi^ fpit lefs 5 Fe/iil and Dil/^ which are Ijottcr.^ more ■•, 
there being a greater quantity of voUtik Salt contained herein. 
Hence all EjfaiiUl Oyls are hoi, the Sf jr/i and mlatik salt^ being in- 
corporated herewith. And fome of them will Jl^oot^ and cryftalHze as 
Salts doj as that of Anife -^ which argues a minureof a confiderablc 
quantity of volatile S4tl, As alfo doth the Nature of thefe Ojls, in 
hc'ing s^micahlc to ihG Stosiachj Carmtfatize^ and fometimcs ^^;tfi/j/^(?3 
fiiL as they kill fome fetid^ or corrofive Acid : for W^///e 5^/f j them- 
feivcs will have the like operation in' fome cafes as thefe OyU, 

^ 69. §. Many La&ifirons Roots^ as Taraxacn^t and others of that 
kind, are not fo much het^ as /fitter. For although by the La&ifi- 
roHs Fcffils they are very Oyly 3 yet thofe VeJ^els being pofited in Ri^gs, 
and notini?-y/, ^nd haVjna^no Dia/^ictral Portioj^i running through 
their Barque to the Aer-Veffeh 5 the Addo-Aeyid Parts do hereby^ al- 
though not mor/ife^ yet fo far refrain thejalifie^ lightly bifidifjg itp 
the Okoifs therewith, as to produce a hitter Tafie. So, many jjvect 
Bodies, uponbuming, become to/fr^ the A^f/Parts, now becoming 
rampant^ and more copioufly mi>:ed with the Okoas. 

70. Tht Roots^ or other Parts, of many Ujwie^/j^^/P/d;^^/, have 
a fivcelij!) Taflcy as both the Sn>m^ and Common Chervils both the 
Garden^ and -^ild Carrot ^ Parfmp^ Feml^ &c, the Saline Principles 
being concentred in the Oyly^ and both of a moderate quantity with 
refped to the reft. For by the Oyly^ the Saline is rendred mov^ fmooth 
and amicable^ and both being moderate, they are not therefore /)(j;, 
^^'mCQ^^oiYitxVmhdhfcrous Roots s but by the predominion of the 
other Principles^ made mild. HeEice it is, that Sugar it felf is^^i-cf, 
/'//. becaufe it is an Oleous sdt-^ as is maniftft, from its being highly 
injiammahle s itseafie dijfohtionhy a moderate. Fire, without the ad- 
dition o( Water -y and in that, being melted with Turpentine, and 
other Oily Bodies, it will nfix together with them. So alfo the Acrd 
Parts of Vinegar^ being concentred in the Salino-fnlphitreoHs of Lead^, 
produce a Su^ar. Hence Barley, which upon Diflillation or Deco^iof^ 
yeiUIcihonlyani?^^^ being tnrnedinto Miult^ becomes /n^ct^ Be- 
Ciiuk^hcmg Jieepedycowched, ^nd [ofernh-nted^tht cleous parts are thereby 
milock^d^ and becoming rnawp^ffl, over the other PW^fi/j/t^y^ altogether 
produce that Tafte. And the Bik it fc]f, which, next to Water and Pjirth^ 
contifteth moft ofoily parts, and of many both falinc and acid is a bit- 
ter- jmtt. Wherein, as fome of the saline and Acid parts, fmootlied by 
the OkoHs^ produce a Sweet : So, fome of the Okous^ impregnated wittt 
the5ia//j?f,and the A/J, doe hereby produce a Bitter. 







C 1 

t H E 



O F 

N K S, 

With an Account of their 


Groundec! thereupon. 

The Figures hereunto belonging, Prefented to the R o y 


Society in the Years, 1675 &: i^7j. 



By NEHEMJAH gKEW M,D. Fellow of the 

Royal Society, and of the College of Pbyficians. 

Xf)e ^econD eOiHon. 



Printed by W.l^lm, 16S2. 

Mo.Eot. Qardrn, 





j I m 


! : 







■ hi 


I r. 


I r^ 

'' \: 



J A ■ 

1. \ 






I r 




Right Honourabl 



Lord Vi-Count B^^OV NCK £ ii.:.iA 

> '"^ 

i H E -^ 

": r r ^ -- -. T 




Council and Fellows 





H E Commands I received from Tow Lord^ 
P^ip, and the Royal Society, To profecutd 
the ^«^>a treated of in the Two former Boo{s; 
hive produced This which follows. And I 
humbly fubmit the fame to Tour Lordfiip Judg- 

■1. ^ men*:; 




', :'V 

|J_ L 

1 i 

The Epiile Dedicatory. 

ment; which mufl: needs be Candid and Benign^ 
becaufe it is Great- I have only this to fiiy. 

'Kg Tgofotv i^^^iwfoi %v^of 'A^iot - 

Tour Lorclfiip will not diiapprove the Enterprlie^ 

although it falls Jhort of perfetSion. It being the 


re(ult of Tour Lord[ln^s manifold Virtues and Ahi- 
litks. That Tou know how far to Encourage the 
meaneft Attempts ; as well as rightly to Value 

and Afiift the greateft Performances, 


Aagtift 20- 

? Sr 



I anit 


My Lore/, 

Tour Lorc^flnps 
mofl hzanhle 

mofi objequious 







\ ■■■ 

i - 




hi iE ^ 

J ' 

■"r f 





c o 







CHAP. r. 

A Defcription ef feveral Slalkt er Trunks, "^ '^9 rf?/>«^ to the Naked 


F the stalk, of Maze, ^. i, a. Of Dandelion, 5, td 
6. Of Borage, j, to 10. Of Colemort, 11, to 16. Of 
B^0a\, 17, to 20. Of Wild Cucumer, 21,(033. Of Scorz,0nera^ 
24,(026. OfBurdvck., 27,(0 39. Of Eiidim, 30,31. OfVine, 
S2,to 35. OfSnmach, 56, (D 38. Cautions to be had in ohfervmgthe 
Parts, 39. Some Particulars better obferved in cutting hy the lengthy 
40, 41- 


' C H A P. II. 

Of the Earffe^ as it appears through a good Microfcopc, 

PIrft, a General Befcription of the fiveral Parts of the Barqjte^ 2,t» 
<^.Next^4 PartuuUrDefiriptionoftheBdrqHesof^feveralTrHTjk^'j 
icOfHoUy, Ha^ct, Barbery, Afple^ Peav^ Plum, Elm^ Afi -^ ThcFef- 
fels of all whofa Barques are Lymph^duai : andthofe of t^o kinds^.io^ 
to 15, 0/5 more, fe Wailmt^ Fig, and Pitjei the Veffeh of the 
Barqms of the Two fir fi, being Lymph£difUs and LaUiferoits^ Of the next, 
Lymph^dnasdfjd Refmferous^ 14, to 20. Of 3 more, fc. Oak , Common 
Sumach^ and Common Wornmood 5 the Feffels of vt?kofc Barques arc of 

5 JC?W/, ii^to 2^. Some fifrthcrOhfervationsafidConJedf tires of the 
i^ap-Feffeh, 30, to 37, 

r-i ^ 

- CHAP. lU. 

Of the Wood. 

WHat in all Trmiks, j?, 1. A Defiription of its Parts, in the 
fiv^ral rruffks aforefiU. Of the Parenchymoiis Part, or Infer- 
tzons^2,tog. Of ihetr^e Wood, \ 15. OfiheAer-Veffeli, \6, 
to '26. Some pMhur Obfervatiovj a/J Corjjcaures of ihcir Form^ 27. 
Uxiitre, 38, to 52, Nature, 33, 34. And Original, 33, 



■ J 


f V 






The Contents. 

■ \ 


*. ,* 







, J 


Of the PHh, 

ADefcripthn of the Pith, in Gcrjeral, ^. i. J« the fii^crd Trnnh 
or Braf^its aforcfaid. Af of ihc Size, 2, ^, Feffeir, 4, 
Parwchynja ami Hiadders , 5, U 9, Afmures or Riipinrss 10 
Some further Ohfirvatjot^j of the Pith. A>^d of aU ike VHhy and 

Parmchymeus P^irts. Afid thefjoe of the TnteTexiUYG of a Plant if 
to J$, J s 1 


"'' C H AP. L 

Of the Motion and Coiirfe of the Sap, 

=n.H*.' , CHAP, a 

Of the Motion andCourfc of the Acr. 

CHAP. la 


Of the Strn&Hre 'of the Parts. 


Of the Generation of Limiorr, 

1 > 



Of the Figuratten of Trunk^, 

. C H A p. VI. 

Of the Motions of Trunks. 

CHAP. vir. 

Of the NatHrc ofTrmks, "^ varieufy fitted fir Mccf^nical Vfi 







If F 






O F 




With the bare EYE, 

And with the 



T - 




The Dejcriptiom of feveral Trunks, as they appear to the 

bare Eye. 

the end \yc may clearly iinderftand, what the 
InmkyStall^^ or Br am h o? ^ rla77t, is ^ r Oiall 
by thtfe Figures here before us, Dcfcribe the 
levera! Parts^ whereof it is compounded. 

T- ^. And for examples fake, I ftiallin tJie 
fireplace, Dcfcribe the Trmks of fome PLtnU^ 
as being cut tranverfly, and accurately obferv'd' 
they appear to the naked Eye. And fome 
|n 11 , ^^^^^y as by the length. Which havine done, 

iinaiincxtprocecdtoamore particular Defcrlpt ion of divers other 
i'''TL - ^''^'^^^^^ ^^ they appear through a good Microfcope. In 
both fhcwing, not only what their feveral P^tJx arc, as generallv be- 
longing toa'^rW.^ butalfo, by a Comparative Profpeft, in what 
rcfpefts they are >.yr.^//^ diftinguifhcd oiie from another, in thefe^ 




5^ ^i 



't .1 

*j- 'I 




■I i*fit 

I I 


I ■■ 




TA 18- 


Tak 18. 

T/j^ Anatomy 

Book IIL 

3- #. I SHALL begin where the Work o£ T^Jtitrc .npp(_';irs Icls 
Divorfify'd/ iisint\n:Sfal{io(Maze orhd/ajt Wheat. In which, al- 
though there are the (;ime Parai^hymo^s and Ligiwus P^rts^ as in all 
other fZ-^wfj^ yet is there neither B-ir^wc, nor p///j ^ xhtVcffets being 
difpcrfed and mixed with the P^j-effti^w^, from the Circumference to 
the Centre of the St4ki Saving, that in and next the S^/w, there 
ieems to h^no Acr-Veffcls. Every where eife, they runup, like fine 
Thredr, through the length of the Sulk: E^chtlied bein^alfo fur- 
rounded with SapVeJJeh^ which in a Slice cut iranfvcrfly, appear in 
very fmall and dark colour'd Rifrgj, The like ftrtiflure may alfo be 
feen in the Sigar-C^tfte^ and fome other Pknts, 

5. ^, LET thenext Traw^be thatof Ta^rfj:-?ftfw,or D^wc/e//jw, In 
a ftke whereof, being cut tranfverily , is leen next the 5^^^, firft, a 
fimple, white, and cloJe Fannchyma or harquc ^ made up of Vtfichs ^ 
but fuch as are exceeding fmail ^ and hardly vifible without a Glafi, 

4. §. Within This, fiand MH^-Veffets in feven or eight diftind Ctj- 
Utnts^ of different iiz;e : each Colitm being aifo made up of feven or 
eight Arched hiftes. Betwixt thefc CoUtms^ ru^ as many Diaf^etrat 
Portions^ derived from the Barque^ into or towards the Fiih. 

5, ^, Next within Thele, Itand the Aer-Veffels. Which are 3ike- 
wtfc divided, by the fajd Diametral Portiotjs^ into divers Arched 
Lif?es^ The fee of thcfe Vvffcls^ as well as their tjufuher^ is fmall. 

6. ^. WuhinTheie, ftandithe A/^, condftingof very fmnll Ve- 
fickj or Bladders^ as the Barque. 'Tis very fin:)!), the Diar^eUr here- 
of, being fcarce one fifths of that of the Pith oi Borage, But the 
Barque o^ Borage is not half fo thick as iYi^^o^ D>indelioi7, 

7, jS, FOR- a Third Stalk^^ we may take that of Borage ■-, where- 
in there is (bme furiher Variety, For in a fike hereof^ cut tranfverlly, 
there appears, fir ff a Tough, yet Thin and Tranfparent Sk^n. With- 
in this o^/'',and Ccntimtous therewith^ there is alfb a Thin Pirjg of Sap- 
Feffeh : which, without being crufticd in the leall,do yeiid a Lyr^fha^ 

%. ^. Next ftandeth the Parcvchytna of the Barme. Which is 
made up of a great number of very fmall Veftcks 01 Bladders. Upon. 
theinner f^^-^eof this rarevchyma^{!i^nAeihzr\.oi\\QiRingoiSiif-Ve^thi 
which alfo yield a Lypjpha 5 and that different, as is probabJe, from 
the Lympha in the utmoft Riffg. Hitherto goes the Barque, 

9, ^, Adjacent to the Rif^g of Sap-Vejjels^ on the inner Verge of 

Barque , ftand the Aer-Vejfels on the outer Verge of the Fith. Not in a 
Ring 5 but in feveral Varcels 5 fome Parcels or Conjugatiofts^xu the figute 
of little ^r^Jj others, in little Arched Unes^ almoft likean VCt^w- 
jofiajit. And being viewed in a good Glafi^ there appears to be within 
thecompufi of every larger Speck, ^r Parcel^ about 30 or 50 Aer- 
VeJJels and within the fmalleR, about 8 or io< 

10, ^, The r//A, in a well gro^vn 5f^/^ of this PUnt-^ is always 
hoUow, But originally, it i^is entire. It is likewifc wholly made up 
of a great number of Fcjtdes ; of which, thiough a G/j/>, fome appear 
Tentitrjgnlar^ oihvrs Sexangrfhr^ and Septanguhr, Moftofthem are 
larger than thofe of the Barque 5 To as to be plainly vifible to a naked 

n. ^, A FOUR.TH Tnwk^ fliall be that ofC^towf, which 
feems iikewite, to have at leaft, two Sorts oiLyf^iphitduSs^ For be- 
ing cut crantverlly, as the former, wc may obllive, next the St^tf^ a 




7*11] It 



iff /iif . 
■t Mhid 
toil /•(■ 

But ibe 

: wkre- 
r. H'iih- 
■5 of Slf- 

rtliKh IS 

the iiS'J'' 









Book III. 

of Trmi!^. 



very clofc Parcrtchym^, of a darkifh Grtrri. Wherewith are mixed 
fomc iijw Sap l^'iffch^ winch give it ih;\t Ci?Ionr. 

13. ji. Within Thij;^ Ibnds ixfadhped P^trcnchy^wus Sh^g, or a 

J?;ff^ of many ftiort and llendcr white Arthes. Which all round about Tab, I&. 
the Barque^ mctlinj; together, run in fo many white Diametral Porti- 
cos, or extream fniall Rap^ into the PiiL -- 
i;, §. Betwixt theie white Rays^ and next of all to the f3id white 
Anha/i\:\uA asmanyfmall Parcels o( Sap-Feffels^ hkc lb many little 
Half-Ovals. Within each of which, isincUideda white Pare>jctj/ma, 

14. ^, On the inner f^r^e of the Barqite, ftands another Sort of 
Sap'FeJfeUy in one [lender and entire Ring. And & far goes tht 

15. §. Next within this i??ff^ftand the Ar-^f/^/r, in feveral Pf?r- 
cels, diametricaliy oppofite to the laid white Parevchymous Parcels next 
without the Sj/'-Z^/w^, ■ . . 

16. ^. Laft of all, and more within the Tith^ ftand the fame kind 
of Sap-Veffds^ as thofc of the Half-Otuls, Both chc(c, by finall lines, 
run one into another ; thuSj on both (ides, hemming in the Ai^J^/j, 
and fo making altogether, lo many little Pyramids, 

ly. (^ LET a Fifthbcih^t o£Holyoak^. Inwhich^ the Curio- 
fity of Nature, is flill more copious ; preJenting us^ as it h feems, with 
Three lurts of Lymph/sdnfff j Of which, two yield a Thjv 3 the Thirdj 
a Tkk/i Lymfha. For being cut^ as before, next to the 5^w7, fbnds the 
'Barque^ iomewhat cloie, and, in proportion, Thick. 

18, ^. Towards the inner Ver^e hereof, (land one fort of Sap-Viffih^ 
poftur'd in (hort Rays. Thefe Veffds yield a MMcHage. And on the 
inner Verge of the Barque, ftands a Thin Rwg of other Sap-Ve£els, 
which yield a thiitmr LiqHor. Tab. 18, 

19, sJ. Next within the S<?r^flfrftand the ^fr-f^^/j, poftur'd like- 
wife in (hort Rays^ diametrically oppofite to thofe \n the Sarqtte, la 
every Ray^ there are about twelve orlixteen Veffels. 

ao, ^. Laftly, and more within thci^///j, there ftand other S^jf- 
Veffds^ all in very Thin or Slender ^rffoi/-L/«e/i thus hemming in the 
rai Panels of Aer-Vejjels, 

2r, i(. FOR. a Sixth, Twill take that of Wild C«c«;[tfer," Where- 
in isalfo found a Mudlagimus Lympka. For firft of all, next to the 
skin, there is a Rwg of Sap-Vefjels. Which Rijrg is alfo radiated, ihe 
Rays, allpoynting towards, and mod of them terminating on, the 

22. §, Nextofallj there is a thick, z^Ai\m:^\(t?arefichymoHs Ri^g. 
On the inner Vt:rgc whereof, there are other Sap-VeJ^s Itanding in 
Parcels^ alfo in a R/f^g, So far gof?s the Barque, 

23. ^. Next within, (land the Ar-F^^^^^ in as many P-?ra//j con- 
tiguous to thoie of the Sap-vejfels aforefaid. To which likcwiie are 
adjoyned as many more Parcels oi Sap-Veffels within the Pith^ oppofite 
to ihefaid Sdp-Vejfds within the Barque. 

24. ^. FOR. a Seventh^ wc may, choofe that o£ Scorzonera. In 
which, the Pe;/c// are both Lymph£dtt^s^ and La^ifiroits. All of them, 
with the Acr-Vejjels^ in a radiated pofture. For titft next the outer 

Edg of the Barque^ ftand the La&ifiroas, in little Specks. Next to Xak id. 
thefc, on the inner E'-ig of the Barque, ftand the Lymph^MSs^ in the 
fame form* 

U 35, sf. 

I- 1 









■:.' i- 

,. :, ; 





Book III 

Tak la 

25. ^. Hereunto adjacent, on theouter Edg of the F/fi, fiandthc 
Aer-Vejjvii^ fomein^f^/, and fome in extream (hoit L/«ej. hardlv 
diltirguimcd, without a vtry nice InQjeftion. 

a6. (f. Within Thc-fc, are placed other £>w;/W,/^r, oppofite 10 

thofe in the E^r^«f. Afjd within thcfc Z^^,;,/,^^^, ft^Tlin the fame 
radiated Line, mn more of the MiikVfjjeh. 

27. J?, AN ETGHTH, may be diat of lurdotkr:^ Wherein firit 
thereareaSortofLf^/'^-^^«£^j, which {land in ^r^i^f^i^^r^./r round 
Tab, 18. the Trn^ik.^ adjacent to the Sk^n. ' 

28- i- Within thefc, about the middle of the Barque run th«^ 
M/7^r#//, in the form of fmall round %c^j. ^ ' 

29. ^. Next to thcfe on the inner Edg of the Barque arc placed 
other LymfhsdnUs, Which, together with more of the fame in the 
P//A, and the ^er-f^^^ betwixt them, ftard all in Radiated Lines of 
feveral Lengths, and all iharpning towards the Centre. ' 

30. ^, LET the t^Mh^ be that of Effdi-jjc : \n which there is al- 
io much curious Work. Next to the Si^i^, there ij, firft, a thick' and 
fimple Varefichjwa. Then there is a kind ofV/^duUted Rim of Milk- 
reffch. Within which ftand a Sort K^Lymph^dnas^ in feveral P^ra/j- 
fome, in Arched Half Ovah :, others, inihort flender R^ys. Betwkt 
thefe Parcels, many of the MilkcVeffeh likewife ftand. 

^U §, Next there is an «W«/d/fi/fii*^ of other ijFftlpA^^^j- p^^, 
ting as in mo^Trunk^^ betwixt the Barque 2ind the Pith. Within which 
are the Aer-Veffi/s. And within Thefe, more Sap-VeJJeh. Both of them' 
in fmall Sptck^s^ anfwerable, or oppofite to the Rays in the Barque, ' 
Tab, iS, 32- ^- I SHALL give alfo one or two Examples o^Trees, or Ar- 

horefcejit Pl^ts ^ the Vim and Comm&n Sumach. In a Slice of the for- 
mer cut tranfverfly, next the 5A.W, thereisaThin B^r^^e, In the in- 
ner part whereof, adjacent to the Wood, i\mA\\\^Lymphd:dtiUs'm^^~ 
yeral Half Oval Parcels, oppofite to fo many Radiated Pieces of the 

95- ^, The tftfi?<7 is divided into the faid Pieces, by as many Pd^ 
renchymous JLy'j,infertt:d from the Barque, and fo continuous there- 

54. $. Within thcfe Radiated Pieces o£iVood, ftand ih^ Aer-ref- 
fels 5 the largeft of which, efpccially it held up againft the li^ht arc 
plainly vifibic to the bare Eye- 

55< $' Within the hollow of the Wood, ftands the Pith 5 in the 
young Growths always large. In the utmoft Verge whereof, adjacent 
to the Wood, {land a few more Sa^-Fejfeh of the fame Sort with thole 

in the Barque. 

35. jS» \^ hX\k^ SVict ai Common Sumach^ contiguous to the haity 
S^'w, there is a Rir^g of Lymph^dnUs. Next to this a Simple faren^ 
chyma. T\iK:Xi^t\txi\ArchtdTarcels o? Lymph£du& r. Within thefe a 

Kivgo? MHi^Vejfds, And thena Rwgoioih^r Lymph^diiBj, Thus 
fir the Dii^-qHe, 

57. jr. Within the Barque^ ftands the Wood^ divided into feveral 
Portwm^ by the Diametral InfeYtims divided from the Barque. In 
the Body of the Wood^ (land the Acr-Vcffits, verj' rnncb fmaller than in 
the Vim, 

Tak 1 8. 





r I 

33. ^ 


J 1' 1^ 



tiiA and 

^j, pat- 

f the for- 
n the it 
t^/ in li- 
es of [he 



;c f JTf tf - - 

, Thuf 

Book m. 

o/" T/nnf^' 



58. *)» Tlic hollow of the IVood is filled up with the ft/i. In 
the Circumfereno: of which, ftands a Ri??^ oi Lpiifbd^dUuf of the 
fame fore with thofc next to the Wood without, 

99, ^. All the Parts of thcfe Tnwkfy may, as I have now dc- 
icribed thcm,be obfcrved Withowt^ Microfcopc : excepting thi:: Bladders 
and number of Aer-Fc0s. Yet Three things are hereunto ncccffary 5 
z'js, a good Eye^ a clear Lighl^ and a R.tjor^ or very keen Knife 
wherewith to cur them with a fmooth furfacc, and fo, as nor to Diflo- 
care the Parts, 

40. ^. UPON ///^(^j^/iJM nlfo by the length, there are (bme parti- 
culars, common, tnorc or lefi, to moft PLnjts^ yet better obftrvable in 
fbme, than in orhers. As firft, the KHknlation of the /''^£/j,(formerly 
defcribed ) not only in the IVood^ but in the Barqus _■ which is evident ^ r 

in a young Branch ofCerin^ upon the very Surface thereof, when ibme '^ '^"^ 
of the /-^^/^ begin to be caft off into the S/^v. And fo, by ftripping 
off the iS'^iw, upon the Surface of the Wood. 

41, §. In cutting by the length, as well astranfverfly, the young 
Fibres^ which grow within the Wood in the Edg of the Pith^ are alfo 
feen. As likewife the manner of the Derivation of the Parts of the Bsd 
from the Branch ov Stalk, ^ as in Siffjchus, There are alfo many Va- 
rieties in the Pith^ fuch as thofc hereafter mentioned 1 ^^ which fall un- C") C%.4^ 
dcr obfervation only in cutting by the length. 



CHAP. 11. 

Of the Barque, as it appears thmigh a good Microfcope. 

NOW proceei3 to a more particular Defiription of 
feveral Trutiks and Branchet, as they appear throuph 
good Glaffey. " ^ 

I. §. Now the Tr«nj^ , oxBranchoicveiyTree, 
hath Three General Prtrtx to be defcribed 5 fi, the 
Barque, the Wood^ and the Pith. That likewife of 
every Htrl/aceons Plant, hath either the fame Three 
Parts:, or dfe Three /"am Analogous 5 fc. the Certkal, the Lienoxs 
and the Fithy Parts. ' 

a. ^. The Barque confifteth of two Farts, fi. the outmoft or 5-^w, 
and th&MainEody. The .S^i" is generally compofed, in part, of very 
imi&Vefulcs or Bladders, clulter'd together. That is, originally it is 
lo; but as the f/a»/ grows, the Skjn dries, and the faid Bladders, do 
very much (brink up and difappear. 

3. s(. Amongft thefe dUdders of the Ski», there are ufually inter- 
mixed a fort of LignoHs Fibres, or I'ejfels, which run through the length Tab 20 
ot the skin ; as in m^I/otp, Netik,, rhftk^ind moft Herbs. Which 
IS argued not only from the Toughtiefs of the skin by means of the faid 
feffels ; but in fome Plms^may be plainly feen, as in Tea/le. la which, 

U 2 the ' 



Jl^ r 


. i, 

'J/ . 

•i - 


1 08 

The Anatomy 

Book III 

Tab, 22. 

Tak 7,3, ?. 

the feveral F^hres^ which run bv the kn^^th of the 5;^/^ , aie alfo con- 
joyntrd by orher fmaller ones, which (land tranfverHy. 

4. ^' Whetherthcyare^^r-Fe^.V/, or%-K/t>//, is dubious. For 
on the one hand, bLcaufc they emit no 6-^p, or /-/^^J not.and alfo ftjnd 
adjacent tothe Ar^ 'iis probiible that ihey are Ar-ff^*'//. On the 
other band, they may be Sap^VeJJcIs -^ noiwiihftandingdiac they bk^d 
not: Bccaufctbenon-emiiTionot'^.^/'isnotan infalliblL-andcoudndine 
argument <jf an Asr-Vejjd. For there arc lome PUrtis whicli blt^d not. 
Which yet are farniOicd with Sup-Vcffcls, as certainly as any others 

(■O b. 2, which t/ff^. (.0 

P. 1,^,3. ■ 5^ jf, The5^/ff ofcbeTrtf^^, is fometimcs vifibly porous. But no 

^. 22. where more, than in the better fort of walking Cams s where the 

i'tJrfjarefobig, astobe vilibiceven tothenaked Eye : like to thole, 

Tak 20. ^I^it^li ^re obfcrvable in feveriil parts of the Ball of the HjW, and up- 
00 the ends of the Fivgcrs and Tons. 

6. (. THE Main Body of tht Bar^Jte conlilleth Hkcwire of two 
Parts, fc, F^fremhyma^mAVeJleh. I^g Fmcnthyma is made up of an 
innumerable company of fmall Eladdi^rs Q\\:i{\cid together. Differing 

^^ in nothing from ihofe aforcfaid in the Slqn •-, faving, tW they are much 
larger i and generally rounder, 

7, ^. This Parmchymn of the Barque fs the f^ime, as to its Snh' 
fiavce^ both in the Root and Trnnk- Yet as to the Tcxiitrc of its Farts^ 

intheo/jf, and in thc^ ^^Afr, there is This obftrvable difference, viZ 
Thatin the Bd^^^eofthe Root^ cut tranfvcrlly, the fjid Partfichyma 
(as hath been fliew^d ) is ufually, more or le% difpoled into Diametral 
Rays 5 running through the Barqut, after the fame manner, as do the 
the Hour-Lims through the Margin of the Diul-plate of a Clocl^or 
Watch: as in Marf^-MalUn; lovagc, Mdiht, and others. Whereas 
here in the Barqite of the Trw^4, the faid Parcmhjfma \% rarely thus 
difpofed into Dimtral Kays : Nor when it is, are thofe i?<i// continued 
to the Circumference of the Barque 5 as in the Barque of the Root they 

Tah-^x '2A fi'^'q^^^^'y =^re. So in Rhus ov Sumach, although part of the Paren- 
o -^i^-'fhyr^iabciiWf^Q^'AmtoDianietrulRays: yet are tliofe R^_;^/ extended 

^ ' not half way through the Barque. So alfo in Fig-tree^ Worm-weod^ 

'Thiftk, and others. What is further obfervable in the Texture of the 
Farmchyma^ I fhall Qiew in the defcription of the Pith, 

a §. THE Feffels of thi^ Barque, are, as I ihall alfo fiicw, diver- 
Iityed many ways. But there are ferae Things, wherein, in all Sorts 
oiFUnts, they agree. Firji, jn ftanding, moftnumerouily,in or near, 
the inner Margin of the Cjr^wf. Secondly^ in being always, and only 
Sap Faucis. ! have viewed lo many, that at leaft, 1 can iecurely affirm 
thus much, That ifthere be any Heterociital Plmts^ wherein they are 
found otherwife, there is not 0/;e, m Five Hnndred. Thirdly, mh^- 
ing always CW/>^^/i?^ or Br<?rft^ together in the form of Mz-G^t^r^. Al- 

Chtp 2 ^^^^^^ ^^^^ Number :ind Diftances of the Braces^ are very different: as 

t b 6 ^ ^^^^ already ihewed in the A^iato^uy of Roots. 
^ ■ ■ 9' ^' 'THF, Properties, whereby the faid Veffihol the B.trqm are 

fpecificated and difiinguillKd one from another, both in the fame 
Plint^ and in the (evcral Species of W?/j/Jj are very many. Which 
Properties, are not AccidemaJ, but fuch as fhew the Conltant and 
Univerial Defign of Nature, All which fliall bedemonftratcd by the 
Dtfiripthn of ievcral garters of the Slices^ of fo nnny Kinds of 


Tak 22. 
^ Seq. 




I' i. 

:' 1 i 

4 ' 



13ook III. 



^t^ of sa 

no, tii 

i do tbc 



-, di«t- 

or near, 
od only 

^ TrunJ^ 


2 3. 

Brambcsy cut Tratifvcrlly : and by the fcveral figures which reprefcnt 

10. ^. FIRST then, for the Ekvcn firft ^.'jrlcrs^ the Fc^Vj of 7- / ^ 

the B.ty^Jie arc only of Ttro Kinds. And thcfe, in the iirft f/^/^^ Ic-cm ^^^'^ ^' ^ 
to bi? Rorifi-roHs (ddcribed alfo in the Amtomy of Roots^ (a^ and /^^{ n 
thofe which arc common to moft, ifnottoall flints^ fc the Lymph^-^^-^ / 
ditifs. Yet in all the Eighty they arc, in refpc^ both of their Fi-tfor- ^' ^* ^' 
/;fl;?j and Fofitioji^ very different. So in H^jzd and 4/^j they are but 
few. h\H^/fy:ind B.frkrry more. In Appk\ Pcar^ l'ltif?i^ Elm^ f^iU 
more numerous. And of chofe three Fruits^ in an Apple^ or Pbm^ 
more than in a Fear, 

I i. i. Again, as their Proporlhi^^ fo likewlfe their Fi'f^Vff is cli- 
vers. For in HoSy^ the Lymph^dnSs or inner /■^/f/j next to tjic Waod^ 
(land in J?.;;j, Yet fo numerous and dofe together^ as to make one T^//;, 23 
Entire Ri^g. \u I-h2.c!^ they ftand more in Oblong Parcels, Jn Bur- 23, 34 ' 
/^e^r/, rhey ftand likcwife in Parcels, but they are fo many HalfOvals 
The mmoii Feffih oz Rerifrroifs of all Three,makeai£i77^, 

1:2. iS. Again, m Appk^ Peav^ and f &;w, the Lyfpfph^d/tifs 3tg Ra- 
dieted. The Rorifcroks jire neither Radiated^ nor make an f fff;rc Ji/>p : 7-./ ^ _, . • 
but ftnnd m Peripheral Parcels. Much after the l^ame manner, they ^S 
alfo ftaud ni Elm. In 4/5, the f^_;?^/^ m^ke Two Rf?^^s ^ but neither Tal 
of them Radiated: the inmoft J?/^^ or i^;K^/'/W;/ty/, confiftingof^r- ^" 
<^/jed i^<;r^e//, and the utmoft or Rorifcrons FeffHs^ of Roimd one^. 
And whereas in all the foregoing, the Lymphadnas arc ftill conu^uous 
to the Wood-^ and the Ronfi'rons more or ]eG, diftant from the '^SI^hz 
here, on the contrary, the former arc diftant ^lomth^ Wood ^ and the 
litter contiguous toihe5j^"«, 

15. ^. And that theie^f^/r in each Brfr^tfc of the faid Eight Br-aw- 
f/jfj^are of Two diftina Kind^,feems evidenr,as from fome other reafons, 
fo from hence ^ In that their PoftUoffs are altogether Heterogeneous: 
Yet in both Conftant, Regular and Uniform. I fay, there fecms to be 
noReafon, why the felf^we JCm^or Species of n/e/j, fhould have 
adiffercnt, yea acontrary r^/^^/t^?? inoneand the fame F/-i»/j and that 
Contrariety, not Accidentals but Reg^flar and Co^JianL 

14. ^, FOR the 2~hn^ next garters fc. the Ni^tb, Tenth and ^ , 
tievenih.the J^#^ of the E^rg'/^c are alfo different in AWi^r, P^/f/w/ -'''^•" 3^; 
iS/se and Kind. In T/w, which is the Eleventh, they are fewer. In 3"j 3^- 
If':?/^//* the M^f^^ more. In Fig, the 7"^/?/^^, mofl numerous. 

15' ^. So for their Pofit ion. In Pj>;e, the inmoft makea i£-?^/-jffd ^ 

Kiff^. The utmoft ftand Siragling up and down, without any certain 

order. In IVaHnjii the inmoft make alfo a Radiated Ring 5 The ut- 

moft make a Double Rtf^g^ not Radiated, but of J^t^;^;^^ Parcels, 

inF?;g,theinmoft makealfo aJJ-i^/^i^^Ji/^^^, But theutmoft make 

^A i!"^^ ^^^ fometimes Trebh Ring, not of Radiated, nor Round, but 
Arched Parcels, 

i^. §. Thirdly, thL7 are alfo different In Kif^d, Thofe, 1 ihink, 
oUhe two former, SVailn^^t ^ind fig, are thus different: thofe ccrtain- 

T'? T ''^'^^''^^*^^ ^"^^^^-^Lynrph^dtfas^ndLiBeals, The Lyfnph^- . 
duds makethe iumoft Radiated R^n^. The oucmoft which make ih<- 
oilier^i/^^^yTn Archsd Parcels^ lire ih^ Laaifers. 

17- ^. Thattheyare diftinft K^Wy oiVeJfeh, is evident for tw<> " 

Realons, F/^;^, fromihcir P^JiV;^^/ m x\iz Barque -. which is altoge- 




'■■ >T . ' 


1 H 

V h 



' r 

i , : 

f ■ . 


The Am 


Book III. 

I'ab. 34: 

ther different, as h;nh been laid. SecotjHJj, from the moft apparent 
DiverfiTy of the Li^itors or 5^f^, which rhcy contain, and which,upon 
cutting the -Branch cranrvtrily, do diftinOly B/fft/from them. Which 
is one way, whereby we do diitingaifh the rcffih ofAmmah thcmrdve?. 
As ill the JjTfer^ it were hard to fey, which is a Blood-yeffel^ and which 
is ^. Biie-Peffe!^ where they are very ImnJIj ifitwereiioi fortheOff- 
tents of them both- 

18. ^. Thofe mth^ Barque oi Phic^ are llkewife ofTvvo Kwds, 
The inm oft are l.ymph^cdnUs^ as in the two fonher. The utmolt are 
not MiikzVeffiU^ but Gum-Veffch^ or Reftmferons ^ which Hand ftrag- 
ling, and fingly, about the midleof the ^-^r^//f. Out ofthefc T^^/r 
all the clear Tfl^/jcw/^fff, that drops from the Tz-^e, doth iHiie, 

19. iS- Few, butvery great. So that bcftdesthe differenccof their 
Number and Pofition^ and of the LiqnGrs which they contain,and Bkcd ^ 
thereisyeta Fourth, and that is, i)\t\v Size, Moi^ o? ihc(c Turpcn- 
iirre Vejfels^ beingof ib wide a/?trf,as to be apparent to the naked Eye: 
and J through a good G/d/? , above ^^ of an Inch in Dianietre- 
Whereas thutofthG Lyt^/ph^dieBs, can hardly bcdifcovercdby the bcft 

20. jS. ThtfamcTurpcNtirfe-VeJfels of Phfe^ are likewiic remarka- 
bly bis?;^er, not only than t)\t Lymph^da&s^ but many time^, thanthe 
JW//^-/'t^/?b/j thcmfelvcs: as thofe of the F/^, which, in compatifon, are 
exceeding fm all 5 every ^rr^, i\o\.ht\w^fwghVeJfH^ hwt^ Parcel 01 
Clufier oi VeJJels :, Whereas one fmglc Gmj-Feffc I luPme^ is fometimes 
as big as two whole ^rf Af^ C/^j?(^^j, that is, as fome Scoresofthe-Mi/j^ 
Ve^ds in a Fig-tree. And the f^iid GufH-PefJels of Pi/ic, being compared 
with the Lyt^ph^duBs of the fame Tree^ one Gum-nfft!^ by a modet- 
rate eftimate, may be reckoned three or four hundred times mder than 
a Lymph^dud, The Uke prodigious difference may be oblerved in the 
Si%e of the levetal JC/Wf otVeffeis of many other ylantj. 

• 21. ^. THE Three next ^artcn of Branches^ are of Oak , Cofft- 
mon Sumach, and Commote WormTvood. In the Barque-FefjeU whercofj 
there is obfcrvable fome farther Variety, For in all or in moit of the 
above named, there are only Two iC/Wj of nffels m the B.jrque. But 
inEachof thefe, there are, at Icaft, Three Kii^dj. 

22. ST, And firft, in that of O^k. there are LymphaduHf^ Rorifi- 
roits^ and a Sort of Refwiferous. The inmoft or LymphsduSis, make a 
Radiated Riffg^ contiguous to the Wood. Theutmolt or the Rorifi- 
mz/makealfoa R^j^^, but not Radiated. Thofe which are a fort of 
Rofm-Ve^eJs^ ftand in Round Parcds ^ the greater Parcels betwixt the 
Two Rings of Rorifirouj and Lyn/ph^du&s 5 and the Iclferj betwixt 
the Reriferous and the Sl^n, 

25, j5, Thatthefe laft are different Vejfils from both the other/eems 
evident, from the difference of their Pofttio??, as aforcfaid. And that 
they are a fort of RejtMifirms^ is argued from hence 5 In that, rot 
only Galls are very full ofRofi?7^ but that the Barque ofOal^ it felf is 
alio fbmewhat Rejimur. For the conveyance of wbofe Refimus parfs, it 
is moft unlikely chat any other r^Jfeh (liould fubferve, b'ut a peculiar 
Kind ^ which may tliereforc be properly called Refimfcrms. 

24. §, The next is a Br^>A"^ of Common Sumach. lu (he Barque 
whereof, there are likewife Three Kinds of i^cffeh, Firit of all, there 
is a thick Radiated Ring of Lymph<edu3s ^ ftauding on the inner Mar- 




Book III. 

of Tmnf^. 


cm pared 
iff rhan 

ft of the 
Tfi. But 

^ Sffrrfi- 

3 fort of 
tf^ixt tbc 


5/// of the B^rque^ contiguous with the Wood. Thcle rejjels exhibit 
their Lymfha very apparently. A fccond kind O^Veffeb^ fc. Rorifilou^^ 
are firuate towards the outer Margw of the Banjue^ and are compofed 
into diftipi^ Art Led Parcels^ all landing in a i?/;^^. 

2;. ^. Berwixtthde TwoiC/Wj ftand the Mili^Veffels. Every 
fingleM/Z^-rr//^/ being cOT^^/e.;/ or hemmed in with an AcA o^Rorife* 
r&fis. Th& ^iiilk-VcJJtis are extraordinary large, almoft as the Gum- 
Vejfds oirhrc ; fo as diftinftly to be obferved without a Microfiope^ 
after thev are evacuared of their iWlk, 5 nnd without difficulty will 
admit ar;>^rWjr>cr 5 beinff two or three hundred times a« biqasa 
LymphsduU. Bcfides thefe Three forts of Veffds, there is alfo ^Rifig^ 
adjacent to i\\cSi\in--^ whichieemscobc another ibrt of Rorrfirofff , 
. 26, ^. The Laft, is a Brat7ch of Common Worm-ifood, In the ^'^^ 35' 
Barque whereof, there arc Jikewife Three kWj of VeJJeh. Firft of 
all, there is a thin Radiated Rin^ QfLymph^duUs^ contiguous with the 
Wood or on the inner M.irgift of the Barque. Yet the King is not en- 
tire, but madeupof feverali*-^r^f/jf which are intercepted by as m^ 
ny Paremh)viom inferred into the Pith. 

27- §. ASecondSott ofrf//e/r, which feem to be R/triferot/s, are 
fituate about the middle of the Barque: and arc compofed into Arched 
Parcels^ which likewife ftand all even in a Ring. 

28, 5S. Beyond thefe Af/jfj, and towards the outer M.i/-<i;w of the 
Barque, ftand a Third Sort of VeJJeh. Different from the ^MilkrVef 
fels in Sumach^ both as to their Sitnatiojf^ Size and Co>ittnt. For in 
Sifffi^chyihG MiIk:Veffels ftand within the ^n^^f J Lymph^edy^s : whereas 
ih^ic \n Wor}^n>ood^ ftand without them. Likewife, being the re/cls 
ofanflff-i, theyarefarlefi5 _/^, about the compafs or width ofa fmall 
Wheat'gtraa>. Their Ct^/7/ewf, is not a ^j/A., bnzz liquid, moHOIeous 
vndvifddGum. Or which, for its pleafant F/dzwwr may be called an 
Aromdtick^ Balfim. For it perfeftly giveth whatever is in the Smell 
^r\dTafie of Wormwood : being the Effence of the whole /'/^a/, which 
oature treafurcth up in thefe Vejfeh. So that they are, in all refpefts, 
analogous to the Jurpet^tine Veffels in Pine. There are divers other 
Herbs and Trees^ which in the like Vejfets^ contain a Turpentine^ or ra- 
ther Aromaiical Balfim-^ as Angelica, Hekniunt stud oihets ':, ttiG Veffils 
being fo very ?arge, that they may be eafily traced with a knife, in cut- 
ting by the length of a Branch or Salt^ 

39- §, Whether in fomG Plants, there are not more ^^r/y of Pe/^ 
fels, in the EM-q^c, than have been now mentioned, I cannot fay; 
Though we h,ive not much reafon to doubt of it, Becaufe wc fee^ 
there is fo great variety in the Vifiera of Ammals, For what the 
Vifcera are in ^^77^^^/^ :; Kh^ Veffels themfelves are mPhnts. 

go. iJ. CONCERNING x\i^FormmATextnreoUh^Lymph^dH&s^ 
there are fome things, which though they are beft obferved in the 
(W yet in regard I am now defcribingthe faid Veffels^ ! Ihall here" 
x^^^ if ^^^* ^ ^^^^ already faid, and lliexved, in the former Books^ 
That the Ligmtis and Towy Parts of all Plants^ are Tubnlary. And 
that the Lyrnpha is Conveyed, by the length of a PUnt^ through an in- 
numerable company of fmall r^bes or Vipes, 

31- jj. The ^eftion may be yet further put : If the Towy Parts of 
the Barque are made of Tnbes, What are thefe T^tbes themfelves made 
up of? I anfipcr. That thefe T^^e/ or Lympb^dnas^ are not only 


■ I 


)'•*! ■, 


The Anatomy 

Book III 

tah. 40. 

m ' 





k \ 


L -A 



ihtmfdves Or^amcal 5 but their very Sides alio, iectn to be compofcd 
of other Varts^ which arc Orgamct)^ fc, of Ligmits or TtJ/ry Fibres, 
Which Fibres , fVanding ciofc or coatigjous in a round Figure^ they 
make one Tuhul^ry Body, which I call the Lymph^duB of a Pkvt. And 
it is probable, That thefe f i/^rf/ themlelvts, ^rt z\^o TnhUr^, That 
15, that a Lymphddu^^ is? a fmall T;/if, made up or compofcd of 
other, yet much fmaller Tuhes^ fct round together in ^Cylif!dric!{ Fi- 
gure, As if we (houid imagine a company oiStrarvs, which arc fa 
many final 1 P/JJ^ J, to bejoyntd and fet round together, lb as 10 make 
another greater Pipe^ ^nC'^crabic to ^ hoI/otpC a ^e. The C-?vc, \Qy\ 
is as the L^mph^dHB ^ and the Strarvs arc as the Fibres whereof it n 
compofed. By which alio appears, the admirable frnjllnef^ of thcic 
Fibres. For there are Ibme Ly?fTph£dsiUs, which may be reckoned fifty 
times fmalierihana Horfe-Hair, Allowing therefore but Twenty of 
theaforefjid Fihresxo make a TXr^iJfo big as one Lyt^phtednS •-, then 
one of the faid Fibres, muft be a Thoufand times fmaller than a Horje" 
Bair. That thcfc Fibres^ whereof the Lymphfedu&s are made, are 
themftlvcsmade up of other F//'rcj, is not altogether improbable, 

5 3. §, Thcie Fibres^ although parallel ^ yet are ihcy not coatefcent^ 
but only contiguous; being contained tt^eiher in a Titbnlary Fiptre^ 
by the Weftage of the Cortical Fibres^ as in Chapter tiie Fourth will 
better be underllood. 

33- §. The firft notice I took of the Ccrnpofitio?i and Texture of 
thcle Vejfels^ fb far as the beft GUffis yet known, will admit 5 was in 
a very ivhite and clear piece of Ap-t^ood torn, with fome care, by the 
length of the Tree, and objeded to a proper Light, They fee m alfo 
fometimesdilcernablein fome othei clear Woods^ as in very zfUte Fir^ 
^c. And having formerly demonft rated, that the Ligr7ms Pan of a 
Piant^ is annually made or augmented out of the inner part of the 
Barque^ wherein the Lyniph^dti^s always ftand: we may realbnably 
fuppole the fame Lymph^ditBs to have the like Conformation in tiie 
Bar^ite^ as in ih^Wood. 

34' ^. And I am the rather induced (o believe, that 1 am not mif- 
taken in this Delcripcion, upon thefe two Con fide rat ions. ^'J"j?> that 
herein the Analogy betwixt the VcJlels of an Animal and a Platit^ is the 
more clear and proper. For as the Sangimieons Vejjels in an Animal 
are compofed of a number of Fibres^ fee round, in a TubjtUry Figure^ 
together : fo are thele Lyfj/fh^dHtls of a Plant. Secondly^ in char here- 
in, there is a more genuine refpondence betwixt thefe, and the other 
VeJJels of a Plant it felf j fi\ the Aer-Vejfels ^ which are made up of a 
certain number of Round Fibres^ Handing collarerallyj or fide to fide 
as I have already oblcrvcd in the Anatomy of Roots. So that it is the 
kfs Grange, that the Lysiph^duCls fliould be made up of Fikes^ fince 
the Aer-Fe/els are eviden tly fo made. Only wirh thib" difference, that 
whereas in ihe Acr-Vejfels^ the Fibres are polturcd or continued Spi- 
rally : here, \x\K\\i^ l.ymphd^dttils^ they [land and arc continued only 
in ftraight Una. 

5 5.§. THE STPaiCTURE of the Laaifircus and G^^^-lf^//, which 

have a very ample Bore^ is more apparent. And, by the btfi GLffcs 

I have yetuled, theyfeem to be made, chiefly, by the Conllipation 

of the Bladders of the Barque. Thatii to fay, Thai they arc lb m^my 








'■^ ' Harft. 
CQiJf, arc 


Tixtvi of 

% by (be 
fttm alio 
I Ui Fir, 
n oftk 
a in the 


itur here- 
ibe other 

Book III 

of TninJ(s. 



of a 

it 10 ly^ 

lir is t^ 



Ch.meh, not made or bounded by any walls or fides proper to them- 
felves as a^«//thruft into a Ci?r4i and as the ^cr-f^J/ are in the 
Wood: but only by the Bidders of ih^ Pdrcnchymd -^ which are fo 
pofturcd and crouded up together, as to leave certain 6?/^«f:/r/t^ spa- 
ces which arc continued by the lergih of the Barqm. 

5fi> i. One difference betwixt the Vcffds or Cmnels now defcrib'd, 
and the Tubulary HoUoves and other Apertures in the Pith^ is this 5 
That thefc reverexift originally with thcPith-^ but are fo mmy Rj/p' 
turts (iipervening to it in its Growth. CauJcd, partly, by the Stretch or 
Tenter it fuifers from the Dilatation of the Wood: (a) and partly, the ^^ ) 5^ ^ ^^ 
drying, andfo the Shrinking u^> of its Bladders^ and of the Fibres ^_ ^^ ^^ ^ 
whereof they are compofed. Whereas the faid Veffeh in the Barque, ^^^ 
are many of them originally formed therewith. And thofe which are 
pofi'tiate^ not made by any B^fture^ but only fuch a Difpoiition of 
the Farenchymota Fibres^ and Conftipation of the Bladders^ as is there- 
unto convenient. 

37. ^. \t\ ^mi\^t\\^ Barque oi^ Br atJchofPim^Sitmai'h^^c. they 
appear, neither parallel, nor any where ImfcHlated : but run, with 
fome little obliquities, diftinft one from another, through the length 
of the Branch', and ib, we may believe, through the length of the 



Of the. WOOD. 

H E neift general Part of a Bra/rch, is the Wi/i>d > 
which lyeth betwixt the Barque and the Pith, ^ 

And this likcwife evermore confifteth of Two 
General Parts, fi. of a ParEnchymom Pari, and 
that more properly called Lig^ous. The Pa- 
reftchymouf Part of the Wood^ though much di- 
vcrfifyed, yet in the trnfiks of all Trees what- 
focver,hath this property, To be difpofed into 
many i^*y/, or Diametral Infertions^ running be- 
twixt fo many Lignous Portions, from the Barque to the Bith: as in 
any of the garters here before us may appear, 

3- ^. But thefe JnfertioKs are much diverfifyed, according to the 
feveral Sorts o£ PUfJts. So in Barberry^ AJh, Pme, Worm-wood, ^hey j'^j^ ^5 
are lefs numerous. In Efo/, WaUmt, Fig, Suj^ach, they are more-^Q^-_ ^ 
And in HoUy, Pear, Plum^ ^Pf^^^ Oak , Hazel, are moft numerous. 

5- §■ The fame If^fertions, in Barberry, Wormwood, and fome in 
Oa\^ are Very Thick. In Pine, Fig^ Ap, of a middle Si'Le. In Pear, 
HoUy, audmoftof them inO^^i are exceeding Small, Again, in B-ar- /^^-^^ 
lerry, Elut, AJIj, Sumach, Fig, they are of an Equal Siz.e. In Holiy, 
Hazel, Tear, Fluf^, Oak , they are very Unequal : fome of thofe in 
Hol/y<y being f (^ar or i-^r^^ times thicker than the reft^ in Plf/m^ Six 
ox Seven iim^S':j aadiuO^t^^ T^n times at leaft. 






The Anatomy 

Book HI 


34. 35- 


3'fli- 35, 



'J ' I 

Trf£, 40- 




4. ii. In iomc Plafjtf^ ihey arc Equidiftanc , in others, not: in 
fome, theCreatonesareEquidiftjnt, in others, the Ldler ; in others, 
both 5 infomc, neither. Which K/r/f/Zfrf are not accidental 5 butcon- 
ftant to the Spems in which they are feverally found- 

5. ^. They are nor always vifibly continued from the Circumfe* 
rence to the Centre of the Wood: but in fomc Bra/fches^as Q^Summ-h-^ 
and inmoftTr«w^/ofrnany years growth, declining, in fomc places^ 
under or over, from a Level, arc thereby, Upona TranfverfeSeaion 
in part cut away- . * 

6. §- They have yet one more Divcrlity, which i;;. That in di- 
vers of the aforefaid Branckts^tXi^yiMwrvoz only through the Wood ^ 
but alfo {hoot out btyond it, into fomc Part of the Barqne^ as in 
El/H^ Sumach^ Wormwood^ 8cc, Whereas in P/we^ and fome of the 
reft Ihey cither keep not diftinft from the other parts of the Pare^dv- 
nta oi tht Barque -^ or are fo finall, as not to be diftinguiflied there 

7. iS. ThereA:iftre likcwifeofihere7///^;'//iT»jisfoniewhat various. 
For in Wor^mod^ and lUQft Herbs, they are manifeftly compofed of 
fmalJ Bladders .- differing in nothing from ihofe of the Earmtc or Pith 
faving, in their being much \t:Q. Yet in Hcrh, they itre much latter 
than they ate in Trees. And in many Trees, as Jpp/e^ Fear, phw, pine 
&c they are either quite loft, or fo fqueezcd and prelTed together 
by the hard Wood ftanding on both fides, as to be almott nndifcernable. 

8. §. So that ahhough the P^re«J^^,, of the S^r-^we or Tith and 
the Itffertions in the f^t'(9<^,areof the Cime Specific^ Nature or Subftance ° 
yet there is this ditfercnce betwixt them ^ That the Fibres of the for- 
mer, arc fo Netted together, as to leave fcveral round Vacuities 5 or 
to make a great many htxXt Bkddtri^ whereas, in the latter, they are 
ufually fo far crowded up, as to run ("as when a Net is ftretchcd out 1 
like a Sk^ein of Paralkl Ti>reds, ^ 

9. ^. Oft\\i:(tl^fertronsinxhei^ood^ it is fvuher obf^rvable That 
they do not only run betwixt ihQ Lii^j^ou^ portiof7s -^ but that many of 
their Fibres are likewifc all along diftributed to the feveral Fibres, of 
wluch the Ligmns Porliorss cop{ii\,^nd are interwoven with them^ both 
togetherthusm^kingapicccofl,;;;_/^-W-'^./^rF^^i, or likemanyother 
Matmfaaurcs m which the Warp and the fl''^^/ are of different Sorts 
of Suif: as in the end of the Fourth Chapter is further explained. 

10. §. THE WOOD is likewifc cotnpounded of Two Sorts of 
Bodies i That which is finely Woody ; and the Aer-Vcffils mixed here- 
with. The true Wood is nothing elfe but a mafs of antiquated Lym- 
ph^du&s^ viz. thofe which were originally placed on the inner Mar- 
gin of the Bjr^;/c. For in that place, thcregrows, every ycar,anew 
Riftgoi Ly^iphd:dnas. Which loftng its original fofmefi by degrees 

^^ ^]^^'^"^r^endofche year, is turned into a dry and hard Ring of 
perfetlt Wood. ^ 

11. J. So that every year, the n^rq,te of a Tree is divided into 
Two Parts, and diftnbuttjd tw^o ^omrary ways. The outer Part fallcih 
off towards the Skir: ; and at length becomes the Skf^: it fclf. In like 
manner, as hath been obfervcd of the S^i^i of the Root. Or as the Cu- 
t'r^U in J^,7^ah, IS but the ciflorcfcence of the Ottis, I fjy, that the 
elder skj^o( a Tree, is not originally made a Sfypi ^ but was once, 
lome ot the ;«jd^ part of the B-;r5«Ht fclf, which is annually caft off; 





*' ,. 



Book III. 

^^ Various. 

' lopher 

'f the for-' 
aiiits i or 
r, ihey are 
ihfd om } 


f jiTfj, of 



wd V 
(OCT Ma'- 

^ Trun^. 



and dryed intoa »yi</'': even as the very skj" of an Addcr^ upon the 
t;rnd ual gevieration of a new one underneath, in time,becomes a Slough. 
The inmoft portion of the Barque^ is annually diftributcd and added to 
the Wood : the Parenchymoas Part thereof making a new addition to 
the Irjfn-tioirs within the I'Ftft^ii 3 and the L>Mr/>6<c3«^ja new addition 
to the Ligfjons pieces betwixt which the Ififirtions ftand. So that a 
ilwg of Ly^fiphteducfs in the Barque this year, will be a Rhjg of IVv&d 

the next 3 and ib another -Ri«'^ofE-_^^f^^^;'^j,and of tf^j^^^, lucceffive- 
1)', from year to year- So the Tabk^ for an Appk-Braftch^ flieweth a y^^^ ^c 
quarter of a Slice oio. Branch cut tranrverfly, of Three years growth : ^a ^jl'i^ 
That of H-jri^j-^, of Two; That o£ Sumach, of One only. That of ' ^ " 
E/w, of Five. 

12, ^, Hereby two things maybe the better noted. Firftj thedif- 
ference betwixt the degrees of the it^/^W growths of feveralTVew; three ,^ 
years growih in an 0<i^, being as thick as five in an £/i^. Secondly, ■'™ 33? 
the difference betwixt the j^^h^/ growths of the fime I'ree 5 being 

not of a conftant proportion,but varying in thickneft, as it fhould fcem, 
according to the J^^J^jj^ of the year: whereby it may appear, what 
fi^fin^ or kind of year^ doth moft of all favour, the latitudinal growth^ 
or the thickerrir^g o{ any Tree, 

13. )J. The /^-ta/'^^i/«^y thus antiquated or turned into f'FW, do 
rarely,i fever, Bked: butonly tranfmit a kind o^ Dcipy or i^aporoua Sjp, 

Andfome ofthem, as in the Hf^j-f of fome 7>cf/, it is probable. That 
they tranfmit not any Sap^ either in the form of a Liquor^ or a Vapour ; 
and ib being gradually deprived of their Watery F^rZ/jbecome the Heart, 

14- ^, There is this further variety in the Wood'^ repreftnted in 
Walnut^ Fi^ and Oak. That fome certain parcels hereof^ make either 
levera! fmall and white Rings^ as in 0^4? ox clfe divers white and crook- 
ed Parcels^ tranfverfe to the hijertions^ as in VVallmit and Fig. For it 7- / ^ \ 
feemeth, that^at leaft.Trfraany Tree/.fome portion of all theKWj ofVef- ^ ' ^^' 
yr/jin the ^^rjtfe,are not only annually diftributcd to the ^W, but ' 
dolikewife therein retain the fame, or ibmewhat like PoftHo^^ which 

they originally had in the Barque. So that as all thofe bigger and dark- 
er Portions of the Wood^ were originally, the Radiated Lympbsth£is of 
t\\zBarqiiei fo the little white C/rc/cj, or /*^^ce/jof C/rr/«, in the lame 
Weod^ were originally another fort of Sap-re£ilr in ihz Barque^ fc. 
thole which have a circular Pofition therein- - - 

15- ^. Inthe £r^^-:/?w of Frr,/^/;/e, and others ofthefamciC/Wrf^ 

there are Ibme few Turpctttim-Veffeh Icattered up and down the Woodtj Tak gi; 
and rcprefentcd by the larger Black Spots, Which Feffels arc eadew nu- 
mero^ the felfJame, which did once appertain to the B^r^^e 5 and do 
even here alfo in the Wood^ contain and yield a liquid Turpentine, 
Only, being pinched up by the Wood^ they are become much finaller 

16. §. THE Aer-VcjfeU^ with the Ji^r/Zi^ffj, and triie li'iitj^j alto- 

getber make up That, which is commonly called, The iVoodofaTrec, 

The Aer-VeJJfls 1 fo call, not in that they never contain any Lfqitot 5 

but, becaufc all the principal time of the growth of a pLvt, when the 

?^/Jjof the B^r^He are filled with L/^ffi^r, thcfe are filled only with 3 
Vegetable Aer. 

17. i. In aim oft all Plants^ not one in fome hundreds excepted, 
this is proper to the Acr-Vejfcis :,To have a much more ample Sin-ear Ca-^ 







"h I 




77?^ Anatomy 

Book III; 

3 a. 


33, 2<^. 

7j^ 22, 
23, 25. 


T^/^ 25, 
30, 31. 

23, 32. 

7ak 24, 



25, 27. 
Tiii. 24, 

^^^-^ than any other in the Wood. In the iVood, I fiy ^ for in tlic Bt^r^i^c 

there are many Snpvcjfch bigger th^n the biggeft Aer-Vcffih thac be ' 

i3. ij, TheV.'tritkshercofarevcryin,iny5 i[i refpett both of cheir 

Number, Size, zx\<\ Pofition ^^ being,' as to thefe, the fame, in no two 

Sorts oi Piams w\i2ii:otytT. Firft in refpeft of their Nnfnber. So in 

Pla%el, Apple, Pcar^ they are very mimerousi but in different dcgrees: 

and are reprefentcd in the Figures already referred to, by ail the black 

^ fpots in the Weod. In HoU^^ Plum, Barberry fomewhat numerous In 

' 0^^, Ap, Walmtt fewer. In Pine, and others of chat KhtdredJ very 

few^ fc. fewer than in any other kind o^ PlanL 

19. jf. Secondly, in rcfpeftof their SVse^ which from the firft or 
greatcft, to the leaft, may be computed cafily to aboutTvventy Degrees. 
Thus,nianyofthofein£/w, ApJVtjl/mtt, l7g,0ak^^ arevery large. In 
Barberry^ PUm^ not fo large. In Ba%d^ Sumach^ fmaller, \n BoSy, 
Pear, of aftillfmaller5r2^c. So that many of thofe in £fo;, or Oai^^ 
are Twenty times bigger, than thofc in H^'j^j^or Pear. 

20. jS. In an ordinary joynted C^»f, they are fo wide, that if you 
take one a yard, or a yard and ^ long,and putting one end into a Ba- 
fm of Water, you blow ftrongly at the otherj your Breath will im- 
mediately ^pats, through thGAer-Veffels, the length of the C-^;;t', foasto 
raifc up the Water into a great many Bubbles. 

ar. j5. And as they have a different Size in divers Kinds of P/^^;// 5 
fo hkcwife, according to the place where they ftand, in the felf fjme. 
So in Holly, Rizd, Apple, their Size is more equal throughout the 
brcdch oftherrce. ^Mtm Barberry, Ef^, Oak.^ ^ft, very different: 
Not fortuitouOy, but always tnuch after the fame manner. For in all 
the laft named iir^fltAe/, ih^ Aer-FeJJels that iizxiA in the \x\mi ntargm 
of each annual Ri^g, are all vaftly bigger,ihan any of thofe that Hand 
in the outer part of the Rwg, 

22. <. Thirdljv thefe Aer-Vegcls are alfo different in their Situa- 
uon. So in Apple, n^allmt. Fig, they are fpread all abroad in every 
annual Ri?7g:^ not being pofited in any one certain Line. In others, 
they keep more within the compafs of fome Line or Lines 5 either Di- 
a^elra!, or PeripkcriaL So in HGlly they are Radiated, or run in even 
Dtametral Lines betwixt the Pith and the Burque. So alfo are fome of 
of them in Ha'z.el:, and fome few in Wallnut. 

2;. ^. Whether they ^md. L-regnlarly, ot ^le Radiated, it is to be 
nored. That Nature, for the moft part, fo difpofeth of them, that 
many of them may ftill ftand very near the hfcrtions. So in Apph^ 
(he will rather decline making an even tine 5 or in H&Hy, will rather 
break diat Line into Panels, than that the Acr-VeJfcJs fliall ftand re- 
mote from the hfcrtions. To what end this is done, iliall be faid 
hcTcaften - 

34. jj. Again, mAp, the Acr-rejfds are none of them Radiated^ 
but moft of them ftand in Circk^s on the inner Mirgin of every annu- 
al Ring. Which Orde is fnmctimcs very thick, as in AJl) and Barberry. 
In others but thin, the VcJJels Handing, for the moft parr, finglc- 
throughout the Cinh-s ^ as in Efm. Sometimes again, they both make 
^ Circle^ and are al^> fpread abroad^ asin Pf,^^ and i^//y/;;. 

25. SS- Thofe likewife which are fpread abroad, arc fomctimcsfif-^ 
g^darly pofitcd. So in Barberry, bL-fidcs thofe larger, iliat make fhe 
Cmie^ there are other fmaikT oncs^ that ft^nJ, in oblique Lines, 








- Ml 




)^ la 

jllat If TOP 

■ felt fimt 

tor in a 


1 ID tvery 
b othersj 
chki Di- 


i[ ii lobe 
ian, thai 

nil rather 




Book Hi. 

of Trmil^. 




atJnvitrt one anoilitr i almoft like a Ee^jcl^ or fometiimc?, an entire 
or broken SaUyr'm-jwEfitnchco^, In 0.^4, they mnke rather certain T^/, 22. 
Column^ in the pofture of the P-^Jf, And in £/w, they make, as it ^p'' 
were, many rr^_/^ F.ircels^ inihc polhire of the i'V/i, ^ ' 

26. ^. This great difference in the 5/^c and Fofrtion of the ^e^- 
VcJJds^ in the fame individual p/d;j/, i* one ground, 'for which J think 
it probable, That there 3^xt divers Kinds of Jcr-Pcffih^ as we!l as of 
Sdp-Veffds, Even as in Avimah^ there are divers Kinds of Organs for 
Spmioif^ and thcfeparation of Aj-: Fz/j^j- having their Branchi^^^ 
Lund- Animals xV^M Ltfngs'^ and ihofeiii i^/'t'^j^ ^c. being of a fome- 
whac peculiar Kind. 

27, jr. THE Form and Tcj^/z/r^ of thtfi: Fefds, and the various 
ways whereby they may be beft obferved, I have already dcfcribed 

and iliewcd \n my Af:^ionfj> o£ RoQts, As to their Fvr^, one thing i^- i.f.4. 

remarqued was this; That they are rever Ramified^ but diflinaiy 

continued from one end of a PUnt^ fmall or great, to the other- 

as the l^crvis are in Am^nals. A further and eafie proof whereof 

may be made, only by holding up a piece of an ordinary Cane 

about \ a foot long, cut very fmooth at both ends, againft a full 

hght / whereupon, if yo\i keep it in a ftraight J^ine betwixt the 

Light, and the caft of your %, and then look fteadily, you may 

fee quite through it, that is, through the Aer^Veffih, which run ftraight 

alongthe Cane from end to end. 

28- f. As to tht\r Texture '-, whereas, oftentimes, the Aer-Veffds 
appear to be unroavcd in the form of a very fmall Plate, it is to be 
noted, That it is not only of different bredth, in divers P/^;;fj, and 
ufually much broader in the Ro&t^ than in theTr^^T^^: but alfo that 
in the Trunii, many times, the faid Ve(f:Is are unroaved or refJlved 
not in the form ^f a Plate, but of a lionvd-Thred. The Caufcs of 
which Diverfity, are principally Three ; v^z. The Weftage of the 
L^^hres of which the Aer^Feffils confift^ The deference betwixt the 
faid FibTes, or betwixt the ^arp and tht Woof ^ And the different 
Kinds of Woof. 

2^, §, By the Weftage of the -F^e/, iris,''^^t the mis of- 
tentimes, unraave m the form of a Plate, As if we ffiould imadne a 
piece of fine rnvTOw RMand, to be woun'd fpi rally, and Edg to Edg 
round about a Suck 3 and fo, the Stick being drawn out, the Rit 
band to be left in the Figure of a Tube, anfwerablc to an Aer^Veffil - 
For that which, upon the mroaving of the Veffd, Jl^ems to be a Plate tab 20- 
or one finglc Fme, is, as it were, a Nat ^r.-jl R/hbancl, conmino, of 
leveral Pieces, that is, a certain number of Threds or Rmnid'Fibres 
Itanding parallel, as the Threds do in an Arlifidal Ribband. And as 
in a Ribband^ fo here, the Fibres which make the Warp^ and which are 
Spirally cominu'd ; although they run parallel, yet are notcoalkfcentr 

but conteined together, by other Tranfverfe Fibres in the place of 
a tVoof. '^ 

50. jf. And as the faid Fibres are trarfverfiy continued, thereby 
making a Warp and Woof: So are thev fas in divers woven Mam- 
faaurts^ of very different Bidk^, thof^ of the Former, being much 
bigi^CT, and therefore much ftrongcr, than ihofe of the Latter. By 
which means, as Cloth or fii^^wiU often Tear one way, and not ano- 
ther ^ lo here, white the Warp or thofe Fibres which are Spirally con- 




^1 II 



^'■11.1 ■■ 




I ■■'■ 

I ' 


The Anatomy 

Book III- 



B. I. c. J. 

*• i3i M 

'Si :■■' 




tlnued, are ufually unroaved without breaking j thofc fmaller ones'^ 
by which they ixit fiitchd or jrtJ&rw together, cafily tear ia funder 
all the way. 

^ 31- And becaufe the Vibres of the II'c;^/, arc themlclvcs alfo of 
diferent Bulkh therefore it 15, That where they are more fturdy, 
as ufually in the Rcot , they require a greater quantity of Warp^ 
that is, a broader Vlaie^ to overmatch them. Whereas, where they 
are more extreara fmallj as in th^Tntnl^ and Leaves^ one T<6rf^ of the 
Warp^ that is, one Spiral Fibre, will be ftrong enough of it fclf, and 
lb, ibmetimes, be fingly vnronvd- 

53. jf. From the extream Tenuity of thele Fibres, it \% That 
they are very rarely difcern'd, and not without the greateft difficuhy. 
As alfo, from their great Tenderncis 3 whereby not enduring to be 
drawn otit,they all break off clofe to the Sides of the Sfiml cues. In the 
nth, the like TranfVerfe Fibres ^rc a little more vifible; which firfi 
conduced Me to the notice of them here alJb. 

55, §. All the Fibres of the Aer-VeJ[ds, both the Warp and the 
Woof, are of the fame Subftantial Nature with the P///j aud the other 
FarenchymoHs Parts of z Pla^t. From whence it is. That whereas the 
7'on>jt Parts of a Plant, whereof a\l Limn MafiufaUnres are made, 
are very Strong and Tough -^ thefe, asisabovclaid, are extream Tender 
and 3rittk^ like thofc of the ///^ and all the Fith^ Parts, To which 
therefore, the Aer-Veffds are tobe rcferr'd* And the Content of both, 
is oftentimes the fame. 

34. f. From whence, we have a further proof of what I have 
formerly afferted , which is, That in all Plants, there arc Tp^o Sub- 
(lantially different P^r/j, and no more than TzPi?, vjz>n the Pithjf^ and 
the Torpjf or Lignojts Parts,' 

55. §< From henccalfo we have fome ground to conjedare. That 
fo many of the Aer-Veffels, at leaft, which are not tbrmed with the 
feed, but pojl-nate^ are originated from the Par^mhymom Parts ^ which 
feem by Ibme alteration in the ^ality^ Pojition and Texture of the 
Fibres, to be Transformed into Aer-Veffels^zs Caterpillars are into Flks, 
And as the Pith it fclf^ by the Rupture and Shrinking up of (everal 
Kon>s of Bladders, doth oftentimes become Tubulary; So is it alfo 
probable, that in the other Varenchymotts Farts, one fingle Row or Fik 
of Bladders evenly and perpendicularly piled ; may fomecimes, fay the 
flirinking up of their Horizontal Fibres^ all regularly breakone into 
another and fo make one continnedCavity 5 or a Tft/ie, whole Diametre is 
the lame with that of the Bladders, whcrof it is compofed. All which, 
will appear more probable, and what hath been laid, be yet better 
underftood, when we comc^ in the next Chapter, 10 the Defcription 
of the Pitk 




-^ ■ I 

C H A V. 

'■■ ^U 

^^ md tli: 

ram Jma's 
t. TowW 

c Tin Sub 

d iriiitb 

iiiTt of clu 
re m f 'f ' 
.p of fera^ 
So B it ali 

ma, b) !^ 
akoDE intc 

■. ■; whict 



Book III. 

of Trunfif. 


c H A r. IV. 


Of the 

^<6 I' 



^H E Tliird General Part of a Br</;;t/p is the i>»/i. 
Which though it have a different name from the Pa- 
remhyma in. the Biirqne^ and the hifcrtimx in the 
Wood ^ yet; as tti.iis SuhjUme^ it is the very (ante 
with them both- Whereof there is a double evi- 
dence, jc. their Confwuity^ and the famenef^ of their 
texiuvQ. Their Texture ihall be (hewed prelencly. 
As to their continuity^ it is to be noted. That as the sh^in is continu- 
ous with the P^rmchyma of the Bdrqut j and this Parcftchyf^a likewise, 
with the Infiriioffs in the Wood^ fo theie iKfirtions again, running 
through the W^iiofij arc alfo continuous with the P/*A, So that ih^ Ski^, 
Parenchyma^ Infcrtions, and Pith^ are all Owe entire piece of Work^:^ 
- being only filled up, in divers manners, with the VeJfeU, 

X (f- The5/icofthc Pithh various, being not the ftme in any 
two Brj^WiT^trJ here reprefented, ' la fVormwoodj Sumac^j F/g, Barbery^Tdh. 24, 
'tis very larger fc. betwixt 5, and 7 Inches Diamelre^ as it appears 5l>34i»3S 
through the Microfiope, In Pine^ Ap, HoSy^ Walfft/t^ not fo larger ^^j 29, 
from 3 Inches Didnmer to 4, In Oai{^ Apple, Pear^ KiSie/, Ieffer,(carce 30, 32, 
from a, to 3- In Damcifane, not above an /«ffi and halfi Andiii£/w, 2 3i 25, 
fcatce an /wJj D/'^^f/er, Note alfo, that of all Plants^ both Herhs^ 26, 33, 
and shrubs^ have generally the largeft Pj/Aj, in proportion with the 27- 
other Farts oi l\i^ Giiui: ^ Branch, as il) Sumach^ Fig^ Barbery^ is ma- 33, 
nifeft. ^ 

5. sJ, It 15 alfo worth the noting, That wheras, in moft Plants^ 
the Barque and I'Fijjii do both grow thicker every year : the Pith^ on 
the contrary, groweth moreflender 5 Sothat ina £r-?«fi>ofoneyears 
growth, it is apparently more ample, than in one of two 5 and in a 
Sranch of two, than in one ot three ^ and fo on, 

4, jS. The f ///", for the moft part, if not always, in t\\c Branchy 
as well as the Roct^ is fiirni(hed with acertain number oi Sap-Veffilr, 
They are here ufually fo poftur'd, as to make a Ring on the Margin 
of the Pith. Where they are more numerous, or large, they are more 
evident 5 as in Walnut^ Fig, Pine, and others. They arc alfo of di- 
vers X/Wj, anfwerable tothofeinthe Barque^-, as in Wallnut, Lym- 
ph^du&s^ in Fig^ La&eals^ in rine^ Refimferms. 

5- §. The Parenchyma of the ?ith is competed of Bladders. Which 
are the very fame wirh thofe in the Barque, and oftentimes in the In- 
fertions within the Wood^ Only thefe in the PHh., are of the largeft 
Siz^e 5 thofe in the Bar/jue, of a lefler ^ and thofe of the Injertions ^ 
leaft of all : for which reatbn they are lefs obvious than in the Pith* 

6, jS. The Bladders of the Pith, though always comparatively 
Greats yet ar^^ of very different Sizes. Being eafily diftinguilhed, even Yab ai 
as to their Horizontal Arca^ co 'Twenty Degrees. Thofe oiFig, Bar- * '" 
berry^ and fomc others, arc fomewhat lai^e. And of many Herbs, as 


Tab, 30, 

31, 33. 








' 1 -I' ■ 


I' fl 

'B^ II 

H ' 

•. ;! 



'. i" 15 


Tie Anatomy 

Book III. 







» ;■. 

ofTMfc, itor^^c, and others, ihrec times as bie again ; appearinE b 
tlic Microfiepe, like to the iargcft Oils of an Honycowb. Thofe of 
P/nw, Worm-wood, Sumach, Icfs. Of Efe, Apple, Pear, leffer Of 
-K'^^ and Oak , fliU !efi. So that the BUdeUrs of the P,th in Borage 
or Goiiimon Thifik, are of that 5;5Sf, as to contain, within the com 
pafs only of their HorizonUl Area, about twenty DUMers oi\hc Pith 
of 04 Wherefore one whole BUJcr in rA,y?/,, is, at leaft an hun- 
dred times bigger, than another in 0^4 

7. ^. Ofthei/teof thefeB/:i£^£ie^jofthe Pith, 'tis alfo to be no- 
ted. That it doth not at allfoilowthe Size oithe Pnhizfch-^ but is 
ftill varied, according as Nature defigneth the Pith for various ufc 
Thus, whereas the Pith o( Sumach, is Larger than that of Barberry'- 
It might be thought, that tht Bl>,cldcrs, whereof it is compof^' 
Ihould be likewife Larger : Yet are they Three times as Small again in 
Samach, as they are in Barberry. So the Pith of Plum, is far Lcfs than 
that of Pear j yet the Bladders of the former are Four or Five times 
as big, as thofe of the latter. So the Pith of BazH is almoft Three 
times as Little again, as that of HolJy ; yet the Bladders in Haz.e! are 
Ten times bigger, than in Hol/j/. ' 

8. ^. The Shape of the Btadderr hath alfo fomc Variety For al 
though, for the moft part, they dre more round ; yet oftentimes they 
are angular : as in Reed-grajs, a Water-plant 5 where they are Cubical • 
zad m Borage Thime, and many others, where they ^xt temawnlar 
Jexangttlar and feptangular. ■■ ' i. > 

9. j(. 0£thcTexinreoCihe Bladders, 'tis alfo to be noted that 
many times, the Sides of the greater Bladders are compofed of leffer - 
as is often fecn in thofe of Borate, Bulr^p, and fome other rlam In 
the fame manner, as the Sap-mis, are but greater Fibres made up of 
leffen '1 - ■ ^ 

tdi j: Theft(A, though always originally compoftd of BW^tr/ 
and fo 0«. Entire Piece ; yet in procefs, as the Plant grows up, it hath 
divers openings ot Ruptures made in it :<oftentimes very regularly and 
always for good ufe,and with conftancy obferved in the fame specks of 
PlanlsAaSharp-pej/vted Dock, many of the />tfr«are confiderabW pro- 
longed by the length, like final! Pipes. In Walnut it Ihrinketh up into 
tranfverfe Fdmes or Membranes ; as likewfe fometimes in spanifi-Lom. 
Sometmies the P,fi is hollow or Tubulary :-either thioughot the Trunk 
»smThJik, B«dwe, Scorv^onera, Marfi- Mallow .■ orfo, as to remain 
entire at every Joynt , as in Sonchus, Nettle, Teajle ; in which it is di- 
vided as It were into feveral Stories : and divers other ways. 

11.^. I SHALL conclude this difcoiirfe with a further illuftrati- 
on of the Texture of the Pith, and of the whole Ptavt, as confequent 
thereupon. 1 fay therefore, f and have given fome account hereof in 
the Anatop of Roots) That as the Vejjils of a Flant, fi. the Aer-Feffels 
and tXieLymphMs ate made up of Fibres; according to what I 
have in this Difcourfe above faid 5 fo the Pith of a Plant, or the Blad- 
ders Whereof the Pith confifts are likewife made up of Fibres Which 
IS true alfo of the PW^*/^ of the Barque. And alfo of the /«- 
Jerttons m the Wood.Jf^a, and of the Fruit, and all other Paren- 
chymous Parts of a Plant. I fay, that the very Pulp of an Apple, 
J'^^'-, cucumber, Pk^, or any other Fruit, isnothjng elfe but a Lll 
ofmojl e^trcam fi,,!l traujy^rent Thrcds or Fibres, all mapped and 







1 L 


t ' ; 




p, it hath 



Book III 

of Trunf^. 






I ^ 

ftiiilsdiip f though in divers mannerO together. And even all ttolc 
Pirttofi P/jnt, which are neither formed into viiible Tubes nor in- 
to B/:/d^m, areyet made upof i^/icr^. Which, though it bcditBeuI 
to obfcrve, m any of tliofe Parts which are dofer wrought and prin- 
cipally in the Infirtions of fome Trees-.yGi in the f;(A,crpecially oflbme 
Plants^ which confifteili of more open work , they are more vifible 
Which introduceth theobfervationofthera va a\l oiher Parenchymou's 
Parts. So in the Pith of a Bulriip of the Common ThhJle, and fome t / o 
other Plants--, mt on]Y the Threds o( which the Bladders ^ butalfothe ^ 

fingle F;irw, of which the TAre^j are compofed ; may fometimes with 
the hdp of a good Glafs, be diftinftly feen. Yet oneofthefe i^/fo-w, 

mayreaforably be computed to be a Thoufand times Jmaller than an 

1 2. j(. The Fihrofity of the Parenchym.t h alfo vifibie in fome Woods, 
in whTch, it is apparently mixed with the Lignoiis Parts, not only By 
inferlions, but permjummas Partes orga>iicas. That is to fay, The PareL 
ch)mms Fibres like fmallcr threds, are f^nhet vpraped rovnd about both 
th-A Ugnous and the Aer-Vcffils, or at leaft interwown with them and ■ 
w.;th every Fiber of evety feffcL- as in very white Jip or Fir-Wood, Tab 30 
W],th an advantflgious pofture and light, may be obferved ^'^' 

.13. (. WHENCE it follows, that the whole 5BM:«we, or all 
the Parts of a Pb^nt, Co far as 0/g«,;7c^/, they alfo conRft of Fibres, 
Of all which Fibres thofc of the Ly>»ph^di,&s , run only by the 
Length of the Pk^t : thofe of the P,ih, In/miom, and f ^.f»'^™^ 
Cf the Barque, run by the breadth or horizontally : thofe of the Aer- 
f'effils fetch their Circuit by the Ercudll), and continue it bv the 
Length. ' 

_ 14. %. By which means, the faid Parenchymous Fibres in fetch- 
mg their W.«/-; C»r/«, do t'm^ weave, and make muxSx^ Bladders 
of the Pnk, mOpen-lVork, And the fame Fibres being i hence conti- 
nued ^ thcyalfoi^.^^eandmakcupthe/»/?rt/(,«j, but in clofe-WarL 
Betwixt which Y^rtw^,, the Veffel, being likewife tranfverfly inter- 
jetted, lomc of the fame Fibres wrap themfelves alfo about thefe ■ thus 
tpng many of them together, and fo making thofe fevera] Coniugati- 
^«. and B.^.w of the veffih, which I have formerly defcribed. And 
asfomeofthefe Horizontal Fibres are T^raped ^bout the Fe/fels ■, fo alfo 
about the Fd>res whereof the Vejf^ls are compofed."^ B^ wh'ch ■ 

means it ks, that a I the Fi^.. of the VeJ[els are Tacked or Stitded Tat ^8- 
up clofetog^hcr into One Coherent Piece. Much after the fanS ^°' 
manner as the rerpcndicubn- Sphnters ot Twigs of a Basiet, are by 
hofe that run ,n and out Horizontally. And the fame HoriMl Fi- 
bres being ftill further produced icto the Barque ; they there com- 
pofe the amework "v« again (only not fo open J as in the Pith, 
/y IS' ^ 3U I HA r themoft unfeigned and proper refemblance 
// we can at prefenr, make ot the whole B.^^ of a i^^. Toapicc' 

t or tiie PUb]nfert,ms, and Parenchyma of the Barque, are all extreani 

Zl]l .:f\^^7-^^''''''-- '^' -^'^-^ °f'=^- fa running Sw- 
V rife // '*? f''^''^*" ' ^'"'^ «t^ ^"^ 5 ^nd bounding Che fe- 
vcral 5/.^rf.j-x of the Pith and B..^„., as the Threds do the fcve al 

S < 7' '"^ '"^'''"g^p '^^ ^-c/^--/^.^. without £/ J™; 

with very (mall one., as the fame Thrds likewife do the clofe Pam of 

y " the 


E. I 


, h 





The Anatomy 

Book m 


the Lace^ which they call the Chth-Work: And laftly, both the /.i?g- 
Tjofis zx\A Aer-Veffds^ ftandall Fcrpcfidkukr^ and To crols co the hW 
%ontd Fibres of all the faid PanmBymom Parts 5 even as in a Piece of 
Li^ce upon the Ch/j/^w, the Pijis do to the Thrcds^ The i^iw/beiae 
alfo conceived to be J//bylar, and prolonged to anylergth-, and the 
f2me- Lace-Worl^xohe wrought many Thoufands of times over and 
over again, to any thicknefs or highr^ according to ihc hi^ht of any 
Plant. And thi? isthe true Tfx^^rt' of a PImt: and the ^ewr^/ ^(7^. 
pofure^ not only of a Bramh^ but of all other Parts fioin the Seed 
to the Seed, 


K- ^J { 

'll'l ■ 



I ■ ) 






.1 k 

\ .1 . 


:i I 



I . I 

■1 ' 

^L ■ I 




^ U 

1, : 



An Account of the 


O F 


Grounded upon rhc foregoing 



#■ * 

A V I N G before given the ^/?(?/t3^^ of Trwfl^f 5 
I Ihall next proceed to {ee, what TJfe may be made 

thereof^ and principallyj to explicate the manner 
of th?ir yegetation. In doing which, that former 
Method^ which 1 uftd in (hewing the manner of the 
Growth of Roots^ 1 ftiall not exai^Hy follow. For 
fo, in regard the Orgunkal parts of the Root and 
Trufjk are the fame, and confequently their Nntritien and Conforms- 
Hon are effefted in the fame .way ^ 1 (hould hereby be obliged to a nau- 
feous and unprofitable repetition of many things already faid. The 
Explication therefore of all thofe Particulars, which more efpccially 
belong to the Trttvk ■, or are more Apparent therein, and not fpoken o^ 
or not fo fully, intheformerB^oj^/, will be my prelent Task. The 

chief Hf^j whereof, (hall be thefe Seven following, vi%. , , 

FIRST, i\iQ Motion z-ixd Courfi of the 5^;^- 

SECONDLY, TV^ Motion andCt^«r/c of the Aer. 

THIRDLY, The Stnf&ure of the Parts. 

FOURTHLY, The Generation of Liquors, 

FIFTHLY, The Figuration of Trunki, 

SIXTHLY, Ths^ Motion oiTrunks. 

SEVENTHLY, And laftly theAf<irf;rfre of rrtfw-^jasvariouay fitted 
for Mechamcai Ufi, 








T 2 





The Vegetation 

Book III. 

^ k 

■ti . 


^ h 





I V 

I k| 

i ■ 

^ 1^ 


^/ the Motion <i«i/Courfc cfthe Sap. 

I R S T , as to the -Coiirfe of the sup^ there are 
Three ?ar(/ in which it ^eveth 5 fi. the P/(A, the 
Weo4 and the Bar^xe Firit the F?th; in which 
the % movLth the Firji ytar, and «»/}- ihe Firji 
year. Or, it is Prefrium qiearlo modo, to the Pifh 
oiovQiy AnnualGrewth^ and to the Pith of fuch a 

„ . Gromhoa]y, To be fi,ccnk,n. That is, whecherofa 

bprout iiom^ seed, or of a Snckgr ffom a i^^rf, or of a C>'^» from a 
^ranch i The /'//A is always found the F/r// year full of 5wi.. But the 
!,sc(,nd y<:ar, the fame individual Filb, always becomes dry, and fo it 
continues ever after. "^ 

u ■'■ ''l P;!"^ ''^"'"^ whereof is, that the Lymph^duas in the BarMe 
being the firtt year adjacent to the i-ilAj they do all that time, trlnf- 
tule part o| their Sap into it, and fo keep it always Succulefit. But the 
(me Lymph^duaj, the year following, are turned into irW^ and 
the r^/f// which are then generated, and carry the %, ftand beyond 
them, in the B^rq^e. So that the 5^;. being now more remote from 
■\ u ' ^°i'?itercepted by the new Wcod, it cannot be transfufed, 
with that fufficient force and plenty as before, into the Filh j which 
therefore, from the firft year, always continues dry. 
- ^. i. THE SECOND P..( in which the i.s moves, fuh for- 
m'.hquor^, n the IVood. Which yet, it doth not in all PlaL, tut 
only ,n feme ; and vifibl,-, in very few 5 as in the ri>ie : In a Fhe, I 
fay fheS^;, doth vijihly afic^dbjihe mod. And this it doth, not 
only the firft year, but every year, fo long as the Vi^e continues to 
grow, but although this afient, in or through the Wood, be every 
yearj yet it is only in the Spri,,g, for about the fpace of a Month ; l 
in Mai-ch and April. ■' , 

^ 4- ^. There are many oflier rre«,befides the ri„e, wherein, abont 
trie lame time of the year, theS^; ^cemklh, though not focopiouay, 
yet chieiiv, in the Wood. For if we take a Branch of two or three 
years growih, ("uppofe of SaUow, and having firft cut the fame tranf- 
ver ely ; if the Barqm be then alfo tranfverftly, and with feme force, 
pre fed with the back of the knife, near the newly cut end ; the Sal 
willveryplainly rid-upoutof iheutmoft Rm,, oitfocd. And if it 
be prelied m the famt' manner, or a little more Itronglj', about an Inch 
lower, tht Sap will afccnd out of every Rwg of Wood to the Center. 

let at the fame time, which is to be noted, there ^n>(A no % at all 
out of the Bdr^Ke. ■^ '^ 

ru' ^; y'^'^"'^" ^Prc^s '^^ Error of that fo Common Opinion, 
1 n-it t/jc h.ip „!n-ays rifiih beiwixl the Wood and the Barque. The con- 
trary whereunto is moft true. That it never doth. For the greater 

.*'/":- J''-""' '^ "'""'^ '" '"^^ ^'"'f'^> fi- in the inner Margin jdja- 

~ ' cent 



'* j:; 



ne, tranr 
r. Butdk 

lote from 
r^^ wbidi 

[flfif but 

a IWf, I 


, bccrflj 

i3. about 

or ibrrt 



Book HI. 

of Trun^f, 



cent totheirW, and in J;iW»», in or through the irW it felf and 
thtre only, ' 

6. si- THE THIRD Part in which the Sap afcends, is the 
Barque, as was above hinted, and may be observ'd in almoft any 
Brawh, if cut crois, in the late Spring and in Summer ; either as the 
Sap iffueth fpontaneoudy, or upon prcfTing, as aforefaid. So that 
when the Sap ceafeth to afcend, fob forma liquork, by the Wood then 
it begins to alcend by the B^que. ' 

7. 5(. Befides the difference of Time, the Or^amcal Parts likewife 
in which ihefe two Saps afcend, are divers. For in the Barque, it 
afccndeth vifblj; only in the Succifcroiis, whereas in the Wood, it 
afcendeth only by the Aer-fefjdt. 

8. f. FROM wh3t hath been faid, we may underftand, what ii 
meant by the Bleeding of Plants. If we cake it generally, it properly 
enough expreflw, Tie eruption of the S.ip out of any Vejfels. And fo, 
almolt all i^/j«;/, mSummrume, ioIiUecl,x.\\a.t is, from Sap- feffelt' 
etcher in the Barque, or in the Margin of the Pitk: the 5^cxthey 
Bleed having either a sower. Sweet, Hot, Bitter, or other TaSJ. At 
Which time, the rejfeh alfo, in the Barque of a Vi^e-BraticL do Bleed 
a Aoxfier Sap. 

9- i. But that which is vulgarly called Bleeding, as in a Vine is 
•quite another thing ; both as to the Liquor which illueth, and the fka 
Where It iffues.- that is to fay, it n neither a Sn-ec/, nor Sower but 
i-mkfs sap 5 iffuing, not from any VifeU in the Harmie, but from 
the Aer-Veffeb in the Wood. So that there is as much difference be- 
twiKC BkeAit,g m a Vine, or the K/>^? of the Sap in any other Tree 
in ^^r^A,and m >/^ ; as there is betwixt Salivation and an Haniorrha^e * 
or betwiitt the C<>«r/e of the CA^fc in the Laffiferous ngeU, and the 
Urmlation of the E/ooc/ in the Arteries and re/Bj. 

10. 5. NOW the Caufe from whence it comes to pafs, that the 
torlySpring-Sap o£ 3 Fine, and Other Tree/, afcendeth by the iFW is. 
In that the Ge«c/'w/M« of the voung S^p-FeJ/els in the Barqw by 
Which the Sap afcendeth all the Su,;,>»er ; is, in the beginning of spring 
but newly attempted. So that the Sap having not yet theft Kfels to' 
receive it it therefore (pro hac wee ) runs up the Aer-Veffils in 
the Wood. But fo foon as the faid Feffels in the Barque begin to be con- 
(iderably encreafed, the sap, declining the Aer.Ve£els, betakes it fclf to 
JAe/c, as its moft proper /;e«^/We/. 

11. iS. THE CAUSE alfo, why the r#// of almoft all 
nants upon cutting, do yield Sap, or Bleed s is the />/■#,« which the 
Tarinchyma makes upon them. For the Hth and other tarenchymous 

J, ^''''"*' "PO" the reception of Liquor, have always a Conatus 
tod/fo(etlicmrc!ves. As is inanifeft from sponges, which arc a Sub- 
itance ot the fame Nature, and have a fomewhat like ftruaure. As 
ailotromUr^, which is but the Parf«e/j^w4orS-(rfl«eof a IV«. I fay 
therefore, that the i'.,«,v./y«,. being fill'd and fwd I'd with sap, hath 
tnereby a continual Conatus to dilate it fclf ; and in the fame degree 

!? ^'^j J"^^?"" ""^ '^""'"^ the r#A which it furroundcth. And 
he (aid r#/. being cut, their ^(i^xz\Contramon and the Eruption of 
the !iap, do both immediately follow. 

12. ^. IT may bealfo notcd,That the rr;,»4or Branch of any Flant 
bang cut, It always Ueed. at boch ends, or upwards and downwards, 





I ■ 




|r I 


^i ■■ i ■■ 

k 1 


i 1 



I i n 

Ti6e Vegetation 

Book III. 

alike freely* Which, as well as divers other £;t;pmj5;eff/j ^ plainly 
fliews, That in the Sap-Vejfch of a P/-/«/, there are no Vakts, 

13. jS< FROM what we have now above,and clfewhere formetiy 
iaid, we may alio underftand the mmmr of the Afccni of the Sap. 
As to which, I lay, Tirji^ That confidering to what heigth and plen- 
ty, tYizSap fometimes alcends^ it is not intelligible, how it fiiould 
thus afcend, by virtue of any one Vart of a Pkrjt^ alone 5 that is 
neither by virtue of the Faremhyma^ nor by virtue of the y^ds^ 
alone. Not by the Parenchyma alone. For this, as it hath the N2i~ 
lure of SL Spcrjge or Fiitrey to fuck up the Sap^ fo likewise, to fuck 
it up but to a certain heigthj as perhaps, about an Inch^ or two, and 
no more, 

14. ^, Nor by the J^e/f/j alone, for the fime reafbn- For al!- 
though we ftc^ that fmall Glaft-Pipes immerfed in Water^ will give 
it an afcent for fome Inches^ yet there isacertain^^mt^i^, according 
to the bore of the Pips^ beyond which it will not rile. We muS 
therefore joyn the Veffels and the Parenchyma both together in this 
Service 5 which we may conceive performed by them in the manner 

15. ^. Let A B be the Vt0l of a Plant- Let C E D F be the 

Bladders of the Paremhyma^ wherewith, as with lb many little Cifiertis, 
TaL 39. it isturroundcd. 1 fay then, that the^^p, in the A/eB A, woulJ,of 
it felf, rife but a few inches 5 as fuppofe, from D to L, But the Blad* 
^erJ DP, whichfurroundit, being fwelled up and turgid with Sap^ 
do hereby prefi upon it 5 and fo not only a little contra^ iis bore, 
but alio transfule or ftrain Ibme Portion of their. Sap thereinto; by 
both which means, the Sap will be forced to rile higher therein. And 
thefaid Pipe O'c .Veffd being all along lurrounded by the Uke Blad- 
ders-^ the 5*Tp therein, is ftil) forced higher and higher: the Bladders 
of the Varemhyma being, as is laid, fo many Cifiems of Liquor^ which 
transfule their repeated Supplies throughout the length of the Tipe, 
So that by the fupply and prellure of th\^ Cifitrm or Bladders F D, the 
the Sap rifcth to L^ by the Bladders CL *-i it "^s to M 3 by the 
Bladders N M, it rifes to I s ^y the Bidders O T, it rifes to K 3 by the 
Bladders ^K^ it rifes to E 3 and fo to the top of the tree. And thus 
far of the Motion of the Saf, 

<•'. . .. 

■, r 

..V. n.h 


t -^i I 

. I 

h - 

' []MO 

■ ■ \ 

■■ ■' 1 

I .' 








t ^ 


J: if 

Book III. 

of Trunf^. 




ioco: by 
io. And 

ike M- 

!T. which 

ibc PtfC' 


CHAR ir. 

(?/ //?^ Motion £?;/t^ CoLirfe o///;^ Aer. 

HE NEXT enquiry to be made, is, into the 
Mot70fi and Cf7ftr/ of the Aer, Where this 
queOionwill firftofall beasked ^fi. Which way 
ihG Aer UtA euHrs the PlafJt-^ whether at the 
Trnffk 1 Leaves^ and other P-^j^/j above ground 5 
or at the Root ? /anfwer, That it tnters in part^ 
at tkcm all. For the Reception^ as well as Extrd- 
/I'^jJfioK whereof^ iheF^fejarefo very lai^e, in ■ 
the Trii/fi(s o£ Com^ PlaKts^ as in the better fort 
of thick walking Canes, that they are vifible^ to a good Eye, with- 
outaG/^/j^ but with a G/j//, the Cane feems, as if it were ftuck top r^t, 
full of holes with great Pit^s : being fo large, as very well to refem- 
ble the Forej of the 5j^/a in the entj of the Fingers and Eall of the 

2. f. Tnthc/-e^?/^jof Aff^, they are'lifcewifethroyghaG/^yi, a 
very Elegant Show f ftanding all luoft cxadly, in ran/{ and //e, 
throughout the length of the Leaves, . The Figm-e whereof (hall be 
given licreafter, when we come to the Anatomy of the Ltaf, x 

3. ^. But although the Aer enters, in part, at the Tr^w^and other 
Parts^ efpccially in fome Plants ^ yet its chief entrance, is at the 
Root. Even as fome Parts of Acr.^ may continually pafi into the Body 
and Bhod, byth^HabJt^ 01 Pores oC th^ S^j?! ^ but the chief entrance 
hereof, is at the Moutk And what the Afonth is, to an Anin/al 5 that 
ihe Root is to a Plant. , 

4' ^- Again,! f the chief entrance of the Aer^^crc at the Tntf^^^ then, 

before it could be mixed with the Sap in the Root^ it muft defcend 5 

and ib move not only contrary to its own Nature, but Iikewife in a 

contrary Courfc to the.^-^/7, throughout the Plant, Whereas, by its 

Receptf Of/ 3t ihc Rffot, ^nd foils Tranjition from thence 5 it hath a more 

natural and enlJe motion of Afcent. For whi!e the S^p aicends, that 

the Acr^ in the fime Phnt^ (hould continually defcend, cannot rcafo- 
nably be fuppofed. 

5. $. The t^ime is further argued, Frotn the fewnefi and fmall- 
neJs of the Diametral Portions in the Tritnfi_ in comparifon with thofc 
in the Root. In which Nature hath plainly defigned the lame, for the 
Separation of the Aer from the ^H^p,after they are both together received 
thereinto. So that the Reoeptio?} and Coiirfi of the Aer^ is made on this 
manner following, 

6. s(. THE Acr being 3 ^pm;^;' Body, it infinuates into all the 
^oles and Lra^^hs of the Eayih:^ and To is plentifully mi::ed therewith. 
Whereupon, as the Sap enters the Root, more or lefs Aer fttll intrudes 
it ftlf together with it. The L^qj'id Portion ot the Sap, fwells and 
fills up the Sacctiie^t P,ms o( the B.irqire, The Aery Part, is, as was 
faid, iirparated from the Liquid, imo the Dkm^trui I'ortions. Which 










»ii: , 




I U I 

I I 

. ' . 

■ il. J, 


'.' .' 

^ ■ 



J 28 

The V. 


Book III. 

running from x\i^ Barque towards the Centre of ihc Roet^ and fo pa(:. 
fing along betwixt the Asr-Veffds 5 do hereby convey the Aery p^it 
of the Saf from the Biiyque^ into the fame, 

7, jT, Being thus received into the Aer-Fejfelx, and the Reception 
thereof, by the fame means continued^ it is by them advanced into 
the trunk, In which advance, it is again, more or lefs, disburfed in- 
to all the P^/jof theTrw^^ , as it goes. Partly^ inwards to the Pitk 
From whence, the Pith is always, at length, filled with Aer. Partly 
into the Inftrihns ^ by which it i^ conveyed outward into the ^rmtt. 
Wherein, it is in fbmc part, traosfufcd through the Saf : and fo the 
reft, with part of the Sapy remitted, in perfphatio^s^ back again in- 
to the Aer. , ^, 

8. 5. So that, whereas the 't)i^/^elral Portions in the liooJ^ do 
ferve to convey the Aer from the Sap in the Barque^ into the Aer- 
VeffeU^ in the Wood: on the contrary, the Infirtiom here in the 
Trunf^^ ferve to convey the ^cr from the Aer-VeJe/sm the Wocd^ into 
thcSapt \nxht Barque. Wherefore, ^s the Aey-Feffe/s adva/fte iht Aer 
or the Aery Part ofthe 6*^/, and lb convey it by the Ic?!gth of the T/j^k^^ 
lb the InfirtJOfis filter it, and convey it by the hreadtk 

9. J?. AND that the L;firrio??s have this Office or Sttlfervrerrce 
umo both K J ftds o£FeJ[els -J doth yet further appear, if we confidcr 
That the Ar-Ke^/j are always fo poftu red, as to touch upon the faid 
Iftfertiom^ or at lead toftand very near iheiu. For either they arc 
large, and fodo frequently touch upon them on both fides 3 as in 
E/w, Ap^ Wallnut^ fee. Or if they are fmall 5 then they either run 
along in even lines collateral and oftentimes contiguous with the laid 
Itifertwns^ asinHo^: oratlcaft, are reciprocally, Ibnie on one fide 
and fome on another, inclined to them, as in Apple. By all which 
CTcans, the Aer is more readily conveyed from the Veffds into the In- 

firtiorjs. .■ 

10. $. A fiirther evidence hereof is this. That generally, thebig- 
ger and the more numerous the^er-K^^fZ/be^ the bigger, oratleaft 
the more numerous ahb arc the Infertio/js : Efpecially, if the compa- 
rifon be made (as in all other cafes it ought to be, as well as here ) 
betwixt the feveral specks ofthe fime K.ind. So Cor'itf^ which hath 

Tah,iy. £m2\\ Aer-VeJJ'els^ hathalfo very fmall /^/er;ii7»A But the Vine^ hath 
both very large: and Jo for others. 

TJ, Wherefore, xh^hfcrtiom miniftcr betwixt the Aer-Vefeh^ and 
xh^ Sncciferms t^ in the fame manner, as the Veficuh oi ihi^ Lungs^ do 
betwixt the BronchU and the Arteries. That is to iay, as in an Avi^al 
iheBrtiwrA/^dcpofite the Ar into the Ve^cithc of the /.Jw/g/ 5 which 
adminifter it to the Arteries : lb in a Pkfit^ the Acr-Vejfeh depofic the 
Aer into the Infertions^ that is into the VeficnU of the hjertiotjs \ by 
which it is gradually filtrcd off into the Barque and the Sap-VcJJch 

2 3. 





4 ' 

I -1 




* I' 




r wif f /I 
7(h the lii 
mooe fid 
5 ill ithL- 


, ontleaf 

■\k conip 


Book III. 

of Trml\f. 



Of the Structure of the Parts, 

Third enquiry, is into the Gemrathn and 
Stru&Hre o( Parts. The manner whereof i have 
aheady endeavoured to explicate (a^ from the A- (^) ^^k 2, 
naiomy of the RooX^ throughout all particulars- ■^- 2- 
Some whereof I (hall yet further clean 

I, i. As f/r/J, the \)mon of the S^^-j/^e tothe 
J^iJi/; of the trte^ Contrary to the common Opi- 
nion, That thty art not coniimio^s \, but that the H^^r^wf only furrounds 
the BoAy^ as a Scahhani docs a Svpord, or 3.Glove the Hand. As alio 
Jecmcth to be proved, by the eafy slipping of the Barque of Wrl/ojVj 
and moft other 7>fc/, when fall ofSap^ from the W'iTt^d, 

a, ^» But, notwithftanding this, they are as truly continuousj as 
the ^^« of the Bddyh with the FleJIy: fi. by means of the Paremhy 
ma ^ which is one entire Qody^ running from the Barque into the Wood^ 
and (6 uniting both together ^ as in a Branch of Vine or Corin-Trce^ ^^^' ^9' 
when the Barqne is ftripped off, is apparent 5 the Spaces between the 
feveral f^rfjofthe H'oiJrf, being filled up with the r-^rtwrij'w^wj, infcr- 
ted from the Barque, 

5, jj. Now the reafbn why the Barque ncverthelefi (lips fb eafily 
from the ^f'W, is fJaiii, v/%, Becaufe moft of the young Te/^/^ and P^- 
reffi^^_;jw£'«Jp'W//, are there every year fucceffivdy formed 5 that is, be- 
twixt the Wood and Barque : where the faid Farts newly formed, are 
as lender, as the tendereft ^^/j m Animals, And wc may imagine, 
how eafic it were at once to tear or break a thouland Vcjfds or Fibres 
o£z!CiEmbrio^ oi n Womh ox Egg. -''• 

4. #- The iame ye/fifso£ the Barque being always braced^ and 
cradually falling off, together with the PiireffrA;iW</, into the utmoft 

jR?W ■ Henceit is, that the B-rr^weJ of many Tr^ej, are as it were, Jat- ^■'^^ I9. 
ticed with leveral Cracl{s of divers Srz^es^auA fometimes in the Figure of 
Romhs: the faid Fiffures reprefenting the Pojition and TraH of the 
Vcffehmthw Braces, Hence alfo it % that theF-^r^weof fome Tfff/, 
as of Corin^ Cherry^ &c- faileth off^in Ri*^gs^ fi, becaulc the Sap-Feffels 
arc pofited in the fame manner in the Burque, 

5, iS. The Sap-Vcjfcls^ as they are generated at the inner Verge of 
the Barqm : fo likewije, in a finall quantity, at the qtmoft Verge of the 
Pith. Thefe being not only fed with a more vigorous Sap^ but with 
great caution, fecured within i\i^ Wsod^ for the propagation of the 

luccecding Buds* 

6. §. Hence alfo it is, that is, by the annual accretion of thefe 
r^e//e?j,that theP/fiisfometiraesleftin theT^-ff^^^ thanin the Branches ^Tah, 18, 
andlefi 'T^the elder Brrt'/r/jey,than in theyouuger^ and Ibmctimes 'tis 
allmott wholly filled up. By which means, as the Br^^wtie/ carry every 

year a greater burthen ^ fo they become ftill more fturdy the btrtter to 
fupport it. 

7, ^, SOMETIMES alfo the f/ri breaks and thrinks up, thus 
making the Tr««^ [I P/;jf. The caufe whereof, is either the Largenefs 
of its Por^s^ or the thimafs of the Sides of the faid Fores 3 upon both 

Z which 



4\\ ^ 










r \a V 

1 '■■ 

^.K, J; 

■ t ■ 


■h I 

i > 


T"/)? Vegetation 

Book 111 

which^ ,heA/i doth more «fi!ytear, .nd «po. tearing 
ninnk up, and fo become hollou' : .ns in G, /..,:>. u,„,,jL, Sa.^^uf 
leajd, liromiTvort, and others; wherein the Porct of the Pnh are 
A^rgc, andthe 5i^« ofthe F^r«j, rhh. Whereas, UDon contrary ac- 
counts, the y^///j/ of mod Trew, remain perpetually entire. 
:. ^- f ■ ^^ " E ^'^'''o" why W^«/^ are made thus 10 become hollow 
^nfrlly for the ripcmng of the Fw^f or Seed ; which ii the better ef' 
tetied by a more plentiful fupply of J.r continually received into their 
hollow Jrmks. For by means of that Acr, part of the S-ip, isdryed up 
and the remainmg pan of ic made warmer, and fo fooner manired. 

9. §. Partly, for the better determining the due A« of the FUkI 
Henceitis, that the greater part of ^..^//^/Tr./..^,, are hollow: the 
Aer contamed m that hollow, drying up the Sap, and (hrinting up the 
^ap-yeJJeh.Co far, as to hinder the free motion of lhc5-rE therein ; from 
whence the i^Wmaft needs perith. So .hat as the Co>,ta,t of the 
A^r-Vcjfds IS a kmd ofFegmble Aer, whofe Office is to Amm,ale, and 
i-erme«i the^ym o? Plants : fy the Coplmt of ihefe Cuviths, cometh 
nearer to a more common Aer, dcfigned chiefly, fo foon as it is conve- 
nient, to dry thcra up. 1 . 

1 ' j' ^ A ^ ° ^ ^ N, as to the Acr-Vcffds, divers qucflions may be 
^ked. As how It comes to paG-, that they are generally lefs in the 
Trmh^ of the fame Fiant than in the Root g The Caufe whereof i., 
that here in the Tn^they are more under the power of the Acr\ 
both that which entrethmattherr««^, and that which of its own 
Nature afcendcth up into it from the Root. For the Aer, as we have 
elfewhere (aid,is the MoM of the Aer.VeJfch ; to whofe crooked or at 
\sM,_AadParts,ihQ :;«//«c,and other Principles concurring to their se" 
ncration, do conform. Tq which they do beft, the fraaller they are .■ 
the F,hres of the larger Aer-Vcffcls making greater Circles, and fo coming 

nearer to a r.^i/ f T'' ='"^^^^^'^1^ '^ t^e Figure of the Particles, not of 
the Aerial, but of the Salir^e PriKciple. 

1''/^" i*- ^^f'^fo'-e ^5 ihe ^er-;^/.;. may be obfetved flill tobe dila- 
ted or widened towards the lower partsofthefi«.(; the Aerial Frwci- 
p/^bL'ingthcrecH predominant, .and the i^Wmore: So towards the 
upper pact of the Trn^i , ,0 be contrafted or grow fmaller; the Aerial 
Prtnapk being here more predominant, and th^^line Lfi. 

■' c\l' t' j'^^"''!^'"'^'^^'^f<="^aybeobferved,That.heJ«-;^/./j 
o the Second years Growth, and the feveral years fucceeding, are ufu- 
aily nearer of one Size, than thofe of the 5e..W and f/W? rail being 
under a lefs power of the Aer, than the Firji. For the firft year the 
if. ^""/ ^^^^f^'l-'or, the Aer-VeJJels themfelves, are the only Repa- 
pcy,a ofthe^cr. Whercas^fterlthe firft year, the -PiM becoming drr 
or .-mother grcat^.f ./,,._^ for the Aer ; the Acr-Vejfeles are henceforth 

grow wider' """ """'^ ^'''^'"''"' ^"'' ^"'''" '*"'' ^"^ '° "''''" '° 

.1,/ \ ^\. ^r'"' ,*'',^ ''">■ ^'^' '^^^'^^ ''''/^. ''^''' "■^'^h '"/"^"^ upon 
"Lin'K ' ""™" of Mi,-//w, and the G....4i«„ ofi/- 

mLl' \ c'^^JJT '^'"'°'^ P"*' '■■= ^fr-?^#// are fomewhat, 

S« nf^T-'l u'"°r'^'^ >'' ''"^'"'^" '" '^'■- ^'''^'^ ^'■""■"^"^ the Spiral 
^'^^", of which the Vejfels confift, are more bulky; and fo make a 

. ..-. ye£d 





:■ "I 


'Si Dp, 

f-v. ,■ 

'« 01" tit 

Book m. 

^ Trm^ 


Ff^/of a wider, as a more agreeable bore. Nature obtaining here- 
by, that the Quamiiy of Aer, Ihall always be anfvverable to the 
Growthof the pU/it^ or at lealt, be fufficierit to maintain iis Feeetaik 
Life 2nd Vigour. 

15. ^, And therefore, as !s above hinted, it ftems likely, Thatafier 
a certain number of years, the Aer-Fcffels arc no longer amplified^bu^ 
ftand ar a ftay, and perhaps may growimaller, according as the Tree is 

lefsormore Lojrgeue^^ and that after this period, it is fomc way or other 
in its Declining State, 

^^' §■ LASTLY, frcsmthe Cofiient znd GoiJemmg Primitk oi 
the Aer-rejfeis, the Time, when chey begin every year to be formed or 
to appear, is always Utcr ^ at Icaft with refped to the fiajim of the 
Tree So that whertas the Sap^FefcU begin to be formed in Sprifrg .- 
tbefe, not till the latter end of Suvtmer^ or there about ^ at leaft not 
till about that time to appear. That n, when the S^ begins to de- 
creafe, and to grow more Aerj, 5 and fo more fit matter for theG^^/e- 
ration of the Caid Aer-Feffeh, 





id or a: 
ibcv arc; 

I;*, DOC of 

ok dik- 
rd trim- 


i T«r tbc 

^/ //je Generation of Liquors. 

P ON the StruUurc and Formation of the Farts^ dc^ 
pendeth the Qtntraiion oiLiqnors^ as was lately in- 
timated. The matfver whereof I have formerly 
ftewed, indifcourfingoftheRi'^r Yet fotne things 
I (hall here further explicate. And Firfi^ what we 
have formerly ailcrted, fc. That the concurrence of 
■ . two fpedfiailjf diftinft Flttids^ is as neceffary to 

NuiriUon m Plants^ as in Animdls. Which appears, as from divers 
other confidcrations, fo from the very strjt&ure of a vUnti iffhere ia 
all t\\Q Orgavical Paris, or the Parenchyma wd the Ve0{s^ are every 
where mixed together p^r mimma^ that is, ftr mimmas partet orgam* 
«J, or F}hr with Fii>er of feveral Kinds. Every fmall part of a 
rref^ or of the harciue of a Tree, being as I may fay, a fort of Unfy- 
molfiy. So that there is not the leaft part of the Sap^ which is not 
impregnate with divers £/i^wf;W TinUurts^ as it is continual I y/7fre J 
from the Fibres of ^;;e Kmd^ to thofc of another^ ftanding every 
where wunA and ^itch'd up together for the fame purpofc, 

2. S^. FR.OM the ^^^6^ Nature md ^truUnrtoixh!^ Paris the 
Uqucrs of flanis are likewife fpeeified. The VeSeU being the chief 
rifceruoi a P/<y;;, For all Liquors in a P/^ff/j are certainly made by 
that rh^;t. And (incc the W^^f hath no Vrficra ( fo called) I would 
then know, what its feveral Lzquors are made by? If in the Parent 
chy^a iLirely by that Pare^i-hjma, [f in the Veffeh, by the Fefels.. 
And if of divers Ki^ds by divers Kmdt oiFeJ/els. So that what the 
t'tjcera aremA^^r^als, the Ve^ls ihemfelves are in Pla^jts. That is 

Iv ^';"/''' ^i''' n?'"'-* "'^^'^ ^''''^■''' ^^^ b^^ ^-"^^^ conglomerated: fo 
the f'^jr^/, of a PJaut, are ^/"^fr.i ^r^jp;/ p/.i at knglk 

2 2 3. §. 


The Vegetation 

Book III. I 




I I ^ 



I ■ 



5-5?, AGAIN, asthe jpea^>w^ of the 5^p dependcih chidivoii 
thefpecial N^lm-e o£ the P^m; fo partly, upon the StritUurt of ihe 
lf.6i?/c. Whereby every P^rr is ftill better accomodated with its owii 
'jayce. Thus the Aer-Vt-J/eL are ncceffary, not only and barely for a 
Jitpplyoi Aer}, but alfo by their Ntif^ikr^ Size^ and VojitioTiio adjitji 
thcquantity ofthat^er, to the government of AW;//^?/^ andthe&- 
mration of the Speafic^ Liquors of every P/d;?^ VVhich is evideac 
from hence, in that they do not follow the size of the .Tlant^ but are 
great and many, in fome fmall Pl^U\ and finall and few, in fome 
others that are large, SoVi?jes^ and Com^ as we have formerly ob- 
lerved, have proportionably a great number of Aer-Fejfels^ and thofe 
very large. By which means the Sap h nUemaUd and Itfs Oyif^ and 
more copioufly impregnated with a Sato, VoUtikimd^ Winy Spirit. 

4- j(. For the lame rcafon, ih^Stalk^oi Ma%e ovo? Indian Wheat ^ 
which when it is Grceu yieldeth a very fweet Jfyce-j and the Cancs^ 
whereof Sirgar ( which aboundeth with a volatile and injla^mMe spi- 
yit ) is made ^ thefe, I fay, obtain the like over proportion of Ar- 
Ve£cls^ to what wc fee in moft other Flams. Hence alfo it is, that 
none of the faid Wf^^/jhave any confiderable Bjr^//e^ that fo the at- 
tenuating and fubtilizing Aer^ may have a more eafie and plentiful ad- 
mifiionat theTr/zw^ alio. For which reafon likewife ihe Pores of 
the 5^woff6me Catjes3.tGy as hath been faid^ remarkably wide. 

5- ^. Hence alfo it is obfervable, that of the fame Species oi Kin- 
dred^ thofe rlants which have themoft, and efpecially thelargeft Jcr- 
Vcjfels 5 have alfo the grcateft abundance cither of a faeet^ or of a jpi- 
pjy Liquor. So in Applv^ they are larger than in Crab ^ [n W^rden^ 
larger than in $ninct \ and in Feat-Tree^ larger than in Warden. So 
alfo xnCorin^ larger than in GopfeLcrny \ and in Vine^ larger than, ia 
Corin: and ib in others, " ) 

6, #. AND ^^ t\iQ Aer-Vefils^ by their Mw/i;/;/^/^ and Liirgenefil 
are accommodated to the better making of a Winy sap : fo by their few- 
mfs and fmallnefs^ of an Oylie. As is remarkably feen in Fir^ and 
other ReftniferGits Trees : thefe having, if not the jmalleji^ yet the 
fcmfi Aer-Veffejs of all other Trees, , 

7* jT. I F it be askedj how a Plant comes to have any Oyl at all in 
any rart} Since wefee, thatthe5j;-by whichthe Root is fed^ fecm- 
eth tobe nothing elfe but Pfdrcr; and that many P/^h^/ which yield a 
great deal of fidLitiiions Oyl^ as Mint^ Rne^ and other?, will yet grow 
mWater: I &y^ if it be enquired how this miter^ia rnddc WineoiOylt 
I anfwer, that there is no Rich matter. But that the Oyl^ and all other 
Vegetable Principles are aftually exiftent in, and mixed per minima^ 
though in an extraordinary fmall proportion, with the Water. Even 
as wc fee the diftilled Waters o( Anife Seeds, Penyroyal^ and the like 
to be impregnated with their own Oyls^ which give the Tafie and Smell 

to fuch Waters. 

8. ^, Whereforc^as a certain quantity of any Salt may be dillolveJ 
mWater:, beyond w hie h^ it will not mix therewith, but remains un- 
der its own i'orm: So is there a certain proportion of 0^, though far 
lets, which may alfo be perfedly mixed with Watery and is certainly 
fo, moreorlcfi, with all the fP'-j/er in the world. But if that propor- 
tion, or degree of impregnation be once exceeded 5 the particles of 
Oy do ihen^ and not till then, gather into a body, and appear under 
their own i^i^ra, 9, f. 

:*> ■ 

y' fc^ 




Jir 01 Kin- 
or of 2 JFJ- 
ria. So 

T ihan 13 
I, yfl ibc 

1 the Ilk' 

i3ook III 

of Trmih^. 


9- §- I lay iherefore, ih:tt all kinds of Vegeiabh Prmciplej^ are 
cither in or together wirh the Watcr^ with left difference firft received 
into ij Plants _ But when they are once therein 5 they are then fipara- 
ttd^ that is to fay, ///rL'J, lonie from others, in very different Proper- 
iio?/s and Conjjw&iofis by i he Icveral Parts ^ the Watery by one P^rf, the* 
^L-r; by another, the 0>'/>' by anocher, and fb the refl: and fo every ^ 
Part is the Rcccptack of a Ciqacr^ become peculiar, not by any Travs^ 
formation^ but only the P^rcoUthn of Parts out of the common Mafi 
or Stock_ of 5'.;p. And lb all thoJe parts of the Sap^ which are fitper- 
fliius to any kind oil Plant ^ are at the fame time, discharged back by 
Ferffir.itiOns^ into the ^cr . ,, 

10. J?. AND, ihixt Nature^ \Ti\.)\GVznom PercoUtiofis ^iXxA. Sepa- 
tiom of the Saf^ may lUll the belter anfwer her end 5 hence, it is,that 
fhe carefully feeth, not only to the fpecial Nature and Proportion of 
Uit Organs^ by which fliedoih her work ^ but Jikewifc to their very 
fofition. Thus it is obfLrvable, That whereas the Lymph^du^s^ which 
carry a more Watary Uqnor^ are ftill placed on the inner Verge of the 
B^me^ next 10 the A^r-Veffels : the La&jferons and RcftniferoHs Veffeh 
of FhfJts^ to whofc Oylk Liquor a mixture of much Aer is incongru- 
ous ^ do ufually fiand, neither on the inner, nor the outer verge of the 
Barqus-j but in ihcnridk. By which meaus, they are at the grcateft 
diftance, and fo moft ftcare, from the Aer-^ cither that which enters 
the Barque at the Circumference, or from the Wood and ?itk 

ir, §, AND bccauie the Eefinous Liquors oi Pla?3fs are more 
Oity, than their Milky --^ their fecurity therefore, from the approach 
ofthe^fr, is yet further contrived. In that in Pi«e, and other ife- 
fnOHS Trces^ the Diametral Infertions are never found 5 or at leaft, not 
i)ifibk% which yet in other Tree/, sltg cofifpiawus --, being thofG Partr, 
whoreofficeit i?, to introduce the ^er from the ^er-^/e/x into the 

1 3. j^. A G A J Nj the Milky Uqmrs o? Plants being thinner than 
the Rejinojis^ and having a confiderable quantity of Water mixed with 
their Oy^ hence it is, that in Milky Plants^ as in Rhu^, there are a 
greater number of ly^^pUd/r&s^ and thofe ftanding nearer to the 
Milky Vcffils^ than they do in Pine and the like, to the Keffnous. By 
which means they are better fitted to afFufe their Aqueous Parts more 
plentifully to thefnid Mill^y Liquor, 

13, ^. FROM xhii Mixture o£ Watery Paris with the O/zV, ic 
comes to pafs, tlijt whereas all Lympha\ Mucihges^ and RoSns are 
tranfparent; the Aqu^-oleoHs Liquors of Plants ^k Milky or white- 
or otherwife OpacoMs. For the fame thing is the caufe of the white- 
Ti^k of Vegetable^ ^s of Aniffjal^Mill^ : that is to lay, a more copious 
mixture of Watery and Oily Parts per minima^ or into one Body, For\f: yttK\\t:^Tt\^^VnQ\vwfox\.of White Anife^SeedlVater^ asitis 
commonly called : that it is to fiy, wherein the Oyl, in diftiilation, 
arifeth and is miscd more plentifully with the IVater. And the Wa- 
ter, wherein the ftiUatitious Oyi of any Vegetable is djffolved, becomes ^ V c il 
a perfeft white Mtlk ; as in this Honourubk and Learfied Prefence I W-r r 
have formerly lud occifion to thcw the Experiment, (n^ ' Dijcourje 

^ ^ "^ , , of Mixture 

14- ^' 




■ I , 


Jifli ■ 

I ■^ 

' hi fi: 


■- S 


> I 

.. ■ .'^ 


The Vegetation 

Book HI. 

14. If. AND thattheM^% fJ^Jw/ofall ^^<^/tfi^/w whatfoever, 
are more Oyfteihan their Lj'fflrpA^V, is molt certain. Forallthote G^m^ 
which diflblve either in Oyl or in (f'-r/er, as Gdhanum, and the iike^ 
Alt originally the Milky Joyces of Pla^^tf. And if you take the M^l{ 
of any F/-/yjf, as for inftance, the M^/^ of common Sumach, or of 
any r-fl/5, -6i»f^, Aph^ge^t, Hot, CM, or any other whatfoever^ 

and having well dryed it, and then fired it at a candle ^ it will there- 
upon burn with a very bright and durable fiame, even like that of 
Tar ot Tarptntine it fel£ 

15. %. FROM what hath been faid, wc may likewife gather 
themoft genuine importof the word G;rf/«, and the diftinction there- 
of both from a ^o/w and a Mucilage, Firft, a Rofw, is originally a 
Hurpentim, or Acidokous Liquor^ having an exceeding fmall quantity 
oi Watery Parts rm:f^A therewith 5 an J which, for that reafon, will 
not be diflblved in WaUr^ but only in Oyl Of this kind are Majiick^ , 
Benzci/ife, Taccafwahaeca, and divers others, commonly, in ou r Bih to ^' 
pathecaricj^ called G«w/- Yet in [trift fpeaking they are al! fo many 

16. jf. Secondly, a G«w, and every OjUe Gum^ is originally a 
Milky Liquor, having a greater quantity of Water mixed with its 
Ojily Parts '^ and which for that reafon, will be made to diflblve ei- 
ther in Water or OyL Of thhkind sii€Sagapeff,^Opoj'af;ax, Affrmffffiac, 
and others. 

1 7. ^- The third fort of G//w, is that which is Vmytie, and ^-.'hich 
therefore diflblveth only in Water , as GHm-arabick , the Gum of 
Cherry-Tree, and others fuch like. This Gum, though commonly fo 
called, yet is properly but a dryed Mucilage : being originally nothing 
elfebut the MHcilagitJour Lympha ilTaing from the VeJJsls of the Tree. 
In like manner, as it doth from Cnmfry, Mallow, and divers other 
TUnts\ and even from xV^Cucnmen The V^ffth whereof, upon cut- 
tingcro(5j yield a L^-w^^Af^, which is ^\i\v\^ Mucilaginous^ and which 
being well dryed, at length btcomes a kind oi Gum, or rather a 
hardened Mitcilagt. In like manner, the Gums ot fhtpi-UeQ, Cherry- 
tree and the like, are nothing elfe but dryed MncHages. Or, if we will 
take the word inirs wideft fenfe, then all Gw;// arc originally, either 
a Terebinth, or a Mili{ , or a Mucilage. 

18. §, I have likewife made divers Obfervations of the Tafts^ 
Smelh, znA Colours oi PUmi, and of their Ct^^/to^/, fincethofel Lift 
publifhed: and that both forthefindingoutthe true Caufis of their 
Generation, and alfo the applying of them unco Mcdkal and other 
ZJjes, Of which hereafter- 



■. ■■ 




. ) .' 





; 3nJ R-t id 

'^ :^otW 

'jrrrs orlKi 

upon m- 

am which 

or lakii 



Book III. 

of Trnn^r. 




Of the rigLincion of Trunks, '' 

HE F^fih Head, (ball be, o£ th^ Figuration of* 
Irtink^, Which alio, as wdl :i'ii\iG~mai{wg of 
LiijHQrs^ dependeth upon the Stru&itre of the 
Purts. As f/r/?, almofl aSl A'Araij(>^/^;;jp^, 
rji;/! J have a greater number o^Aer-Veffih 3 and 
thole of a fmallcr Size 5 and confeqiiently much 
fyic^d abroad, as moft eafily yielding to the 
7}Mgvetuk. Power of the ^er, according as we 
hove more fiilly demonftrarcd, in (peaking of 
the Vegetation oiRoets : as in EUer^ Hazd^ Fig^Sumach^ and the like- 
By which fprcadingj the fa id Aer-Vtffeh do fooner, and more eafily 
ftrikehto theS-j/^^tf-?, and fo producecollateral p«^/ and B;-^cii?j and 
that upon the firft riling of the Bod^ from the Root : that is, the Flaut 
becomes a SkruL , . . ■ ■ ■ i 'TF 

' 2 ^. BUT if the faid ^.r-F#/y are very falg^^/'they will W 
yield fo eafily to fhoot ont collaterally 5 and fo the rr//^ grows up 
taller and moreentire:as m O^k. W.jl/md, Elm^^c. wherein they arc 
exceeding largc,is feen.HL-nce alfo the Fwe^if fupported,wiIlgrow to a 
prodigious length. And Hops and Br^ony^snG fome of the tallelt^amonga 
all Annual Growths: the Acr-Veffds of a]l which, are very large. Whereas 
JJ^r;/^?, and many other h^e?/<?7^//, although the Pores of their Pdren-' 
chyma^ are vaftly wideband filled with Sap s yet becaufe their Aer-Fefkls 
arefmall, they are therefore but Dvt^arfPUfits. Wherefore the ^11- 
neft or advancement of a PLp^toi Tree, dcpendeth not upon the Plenty 
of %, how great foevcr, but on the Largcnefs of the Aer-Veffih. 

3- tf. AGAIN, as ^ PUtit ov Tree grows either Shrnhby, oiTatl 
and E?itirc^ according to the Si%e of the faid Vejjih : Co from their 
Tofnion, doth ir grow Skfider QiTkkk, So, wher& they keep more 
within the compafs of a Rmg^ as in E/w, and Afi, the rree^ in pro- 
portion, ufually grows taller, and kfs thick. But where the faid 
yepts are fpread more abroad, and efpecially are poftured in Rays as 
they are m 04, the Tw grows very thick. Becaufe the faid %r^/^ thus 
Itandmg all along nearer to the /n/^W/i^ffx^ there is a more ready and 

copious paflageofthe^^ out ofthe one imo the oihers and fo the 
Diametral growth of the Wood is mofe promoted. 

4- iS- LASTLY, from the ftme general caufe it is,That the rr«»4i of 
^gctabks arc cither Routed or Angular, Thofe of all Tre^s are 
Stf;/W. Becaufe the B^^fff, being here thicker, and the Ar-r^^/f 
bound up with a greater quantity oCiVood'^ the Aer hath not fuffici- 
ent power to move them, and the B^r^/^c with them, into thofe various 
PojUioNsov FigHvatiom, as the !>;//; A/ o? Herbs do yield to. 

5- ^- Yet the caiifc of the various /j-^/Tj?y of the 7n/^4, is riot the 
^.r alone 5 hut partly, the Prif7cipks of the Plants thcmfelves, in con- 
juMionthcrewuh^ according to the prcdominion whereof and chiefly 

of fome certam kind of Salt or Salts, as \ (hall hereafter (a) more . ^ n^ ■ ;i 
particularly explicate) the Tn^ is Square, Triangular, Pcntansular CO 54^?; 
of TrunZ ^^"'^'^' ^"^ ^^^^ °^^^'^ '" g^"^^^^ ^^ '^^ Figtfratio^ ^' ^^' ^° 

G H A P, 


i'l ■ 


i ' 



The Vegetation 

Book III. ^ 



:. A 


■- \ 


r ■ 

L I 



C H A R VI. , 

£?/ //je Motions of Trunb. 

H E Motions alio of Trnnks are various- Princi- 
paHy Four 5 fi, Afcendifjg^ DefiendijTg^ Horiz^ontdl, 
3.r)d SpiraL The CAUte oi tht Afient of a PLwi^ is a 

certain Afd'^w*:/;cA.C'?''''^^t^»^«f^ betwixt the ^fr and 
the Aer-Vefftls of a Pian/ ^ the Motion and Tendency 

whereof, the whole Plant follows. This I have afc 
ftrted, and T think, clearly demonftratcd in my 
Firfi ^nd Second %tSt^^^oiths Anatomy oi Plants. I will here add 
this plain Experimefrt* 

1, §. Take a Box of Moulds, with a hole bored In the bottom, 
wide enough to admic the st^Ii^ of a Plant, and fee it upon ftUts half 
a yard or more above ground. Then lodg in the Mould fome Plaft, 
for Example a Bfirfff, infuchfbrt, that the Si^ij^ of the Bean {[amdiug 
in the Moulds may poynt upwards, the Stal^ towards the ground. 
As the plant growsj it will follow, that at length the Stalli^ will rife 
upward, and the Roof, on the contrary, arch it ftlf downward- Which 
evidently fliewsj That it is not fufficicnt, that the Root hath Earth to 
fhoot into, or that its Motim is only an Appetite of being therein 
lodged, which way foever that be: but that its nature is, though 
within the Earth already, yet to change its Portion, and to nreve Dot^n- 
wards. And fo likewife of the Tr/ink^^ that it rifes,when a Seed fprouts, 
out of the Ground, not meerly becaufe it hath an Appetite of being 
in the open Acr 5 For in this Experiment it is (b already ^ yet now makes 
a new Motion upwards. 

3, §• BUT although the Natural Mfj/jtJ^ of the Trunk be to 
AJcend ^ yet is it forced oftentimes to Defend. For the TrunkzRoots 
growing out of fomc Plants near the ground, and (hrinking thereinto, 
likefo many Ropes, do pluck the Trtfw-^ annually lower and lower 
into the ground together with them ; as may be Icen in Scrophnhria^ 
Jacoh<ea^ and m.iny other Plants, 

41. §, IF thefeTrK«4-^^'J^t>reakout only about the ^£if/ti«f^ of the 
triinli^^ as in the aforeiaid P/^j^fy, then the Tthw;^ gradually D^y^'eW/ 
irito die Earth, and is turned into a Ri>ot. But if itbe very {lender^ and 
the Trrin^-Roots break forth all along it, then it Creeps horizontally 5 

ihe {21^ Roots tethering ir, as it trails along, to the ground 5 as iu5/rjir- 
berrj^ Gnqttefiyl^ Mint, Scordiitni^ &c. 

5. j^. A S to tbijir Spiral Motion, it is to be noted ^ That the Wood 

of all Co/rvotif^fh'f or Winders, ftands more clofe and round together in 

CH:ne«r the Center, thereby making a round, and (lender Tjvw^ To 

the end, it may be more traiftable, to the power of the external J^Lftor^ 

what ever that be : and alfo more lecure from breaking by its winding 


6. jS, 


^^ iieie ad 

"M Willi 

h brth t 
ing thera 

i^, thoflj 

■u of bd 


Book III. 

o/* Trunl^. 


6. ii. Wherefore, Cmvolvsdds do not wind by any peculiar Na- 
ture or Gc/jjus, which other Trtifji^ have not 5 but becaufe their P<jrrj 
arc dtfpofed fb, as to render them more fcquaceous to tlie external 
Motor. Even as the Clijpcrs of a Vine^ having the iike struUnrc, have 
alfo a Motioj! oiConvolutivn : whercasthe Branclns ihtu&\vt% upon a 
contrary account, moVQ in 2 Jir^jjgf^t Line. 

7. ^, The Coji'Dohttion of P/^^ff/j^hath been obferved only in thofe that 
Climb. But it iecms probable, that many others do alio w'md--^ m 

which, the main *?f-j/^, is as the j^j:// to the Briift-rii'j round about. Of n . p 
which number, \ conceive, are all thofe whofe Roots arc twifted h ^ c'l ' ^ 
Motion we obferved in fpeaking of the Root, Whether it be fo, or '" 
not the Experiment may eafily be made by tying a Thred upon ^ny of 
the Branches ^ fetting down the rcfpefi it then hath to any Quarter in 
the Heaveffj : for, if it (hall appear in two or three Months, to have 
changed its Situation towards fome other Quarter ^ it is a certain proof 
hereof And that hereby the Jfptfjj of many PUtrts become twitted 5 
the Mf>ifott beginning in the Stal/{ , and ending at the bottom of the 
Root^ which (tands always fixed in the fame place. 

8. §. The Convolitiun of Trtttrks^ is made not one^ but divers ways 5 
fome moving by Sotfth from Euji to Weft , and others from Weft to Eajl, ■ 
Wherefore it fcemeth, that a^ the Efficie^it Unfe of Co^-uoktior?^ is not 
within the W-^ffl, but external: foalfo^that it is not 0/^f,but that there 
are Two Great Efficients of this Motion^ fi, the Sufi and the Moon, 
Some winding together with the Sun^ in its Biurml Motion^ ( or, if the 
the Earth moves, then, Inclining to the Sun) by South from Eaft to 
We^. And others winding with the Moon^ in its Monthly Motion^ from 
Weft to E^ft. 

9. ji. Thispoffibly, mayalfo beone je»//ife way of diftinguiOiing 
betwixt SoUr^ and Lntntr Plants. Thus far, in general, of the Motions 
of Trunks, 





^/ //j^ Nature of Timber or Trunks, as they 
. ferve for Mechanit;k Ufc. 

H E laft thing I purpofcd to fpeak of, is, Thofe 
feveral ^alitns of Timber or of Tru^i^s^ by which 
they are fitted fot Mechanical Vfe, As Hardnefs^ 
Saftnefs^ Faftnefs^ Clevefomenefi^ Toitghneft^ Brittle^ 
nefs, Ditrableriefs^ or any of the fame ^alitres 
compounded. The ri^i/e Caufes whereof are ob- 
fervable, Partly^ in the StraClure of the fcveral 
Parts -^ ft. x\\^ Infcrtions^ Sap-Fepls md Aer-Vejels ^ as 10 the Ni/j^~ 
her^ SiiLC^ ox Poftiion of^ny of them. And par*//, in the Nature of 
Ihe Paris ^ 1 mean fuch as is mamftfi to ftnft. According to our clear 
and diftinft obfcrving of all which Caufes, we may underftand, 
Wherefore any Wood \% made ufe of for any certain purpofe. And 
alfo, wherein fitly to apply it to further Vfe. In order to which, si 

A a corapleat 






Ti6^ Vegetation 

Book III, 

compleat Hiftory of the Mechanhal Vfcs of Vc^ctMa \\'oii!id very 
niuch conduce, l lh:i]l for the preftnt give ibttiL' Inftnnc^s, 

a.§. AS Firlf, iomG Woods ;irc fift, ^sDeal, ^nd S^i/ow, Yet front 
different Caufes, Dt^/, from ihe great Foropy of the fT^^^jd it fdf, 
or the large Peres amongft ihe ^ap-J^ffch. But 5j//tfir, from the great 
number of Ar-FyJ'f/jrprcatl all over ir. And therefore, though they 
are both /o//, yet will not fervc for the fame purpofcs^ Salhiv being 
well wrought upon, which way foeveryou cut it: but De^f^ efpeci- 
aUy the white Ded/, if it becutcrofs, ittears^ and will never politli 
or work fmooth. 

3- ^. Again, msnllovc^ by the equal fprcading of the Acr-VeJJds^ 
the 5<>//wfy;isequaloraHkeinall Parts. For which caufe it makcth 
an excelleEit Csdl for Painters Scrihets. Bccaufe ic doth not only make 
a Ifght Stroak-, but every where certain j and fb doth not difturb the 
even Motion of the Hand. For the fame caufc, shoomak^rs aifo make 
ufe of it for their Carvings Uards. Eecaufe being every where equally 
foft, it turns not the edge of their Knives^ Which D^^/ would pre- 
ienily do ^becaufe though very ibft in fome places, yet in others "its 
hard ^ chat is to fay, on the inner Verge of every annual Ring of Wood 
where the old i'-^f-^^^ grow much more compadfc andclofe together! 

4- T'* A G A I N^ fome Woods i^vefoft, but not /i/"/ ^ others are 
£fl/4 ssLrnn.- \xs Softncfs, depending on the numeroufnefs and equal 
fprcading of the ^^r-Fe^^/r . its Faftne/s, on the clofenefsof the true 
W^ffod, and the fhortnefs^ and fmallnefs of the Infer tro>;s. For which 
caufe, it is of excellent ufc for many purpofcs 5 and particularly, for 
ffjta^ Sculpttsre: fuch as may fometimcs be feen for the Frames of 
Looking'Gkffes^ or of fmaller Fi&ures in Water-Colours, 

5* SJ, SOME Woods^ again, are /^j?, and hard ^ as Elns. Its 
hardncfi depending upon the clofciiefs of the Wood, fts Ufinefi^ 
Partfy, upon the fame caufe; and partly, on the fmalncfs of the hfir- 
iions i as alfo on the fewnefs of the Aer-re([els in proportion with the 
Wifod^ and on th^ thivart 3ind crofs Polition of mzr\y of iheni. Hence it 
js, that FM^ of all others, is the moft Crofs-graind limber:^ that is, 
cleaveth fo unevenly, to and fro, according to the crofs PoStion of the 
fa id Fejfels. 

6. ji. Hence alfo it cleaveth the mojl Difficultly, Evtn then, 
when it Ts without any Knots. For which rcafonit is always ufed, 
as bti> for the Huh of a great WheeL As alfo for Water-Pipes^ and for 
pHmps. Not becaufe it is the moil: dnrahk Wood ^ but becaiifc it 
win not fpirt or craci^^^ cither in the Tt>or^ingy or afiern^ards. Fof 

.the very fame reafon, it is u fed for Coffins 1, that is, becaufe, it will 
not>/;/ tn working: not becaufe it will endure longeft under ground 5 
for Pc//ej are always made oiOait, So alfo the Ladles and Soles ofa 
M^n-rvhce! 2TG always made of Ete 5 ag alfo the Kcei of^ sm, fi. left 
theyftould Jplit: but theocher Parts are made of 0^^. 

7, ^. It may here alfo be noted. That the rW/^iCommonly called 
Grcaning-Boards^ lately cxpofed, as a kind of Prodigy, to the view 
and hearing of many People, were of Elm.- The Aer-Veffefs of this 
Wood^ hef\Vj^^ thotighnot more numerous, yet more ample, than in 
any other Timber. So that upon the application of the Red-hot-Iron, 
as was ufual, and thereby the RanfaHion of the Aer and Watery Farts 
m the Ti^ikr ^ every Fejfd became, as it were a little Wind-Pipe for 


■• }^ 

Ab I 

■ i,1 

Book III. 




i oAcnafe 

/lie rni: 

for whicL 
ularly, for 

- Hcncek 

fc it rf 

J ere jnd ■ 


of Trunh^. 


ihtiiT P-\-firaijorj. And asu gre;it many Drops blllng together in a fliowr 
uf ilain^ fo a ^reac many of thcie f?/ic/ F^'ing i^ogt^tlier, might make 
a kind of big or groaning noyle, 

8. jf. AS £i^, of ail Woods^ is one of the f^tficfi ; So, on the 
contrary, of all hard iVoods^ 0^4 is the moft Chavefome^ or jpliueth 
the molt cjfilj. The caule whereof is, ihirtl)\ the Largcnefs of the 
h/ferticf.'s 5 iind ?.2r*/)', tlic Diaf^etrd or Radiated Pofition of moft of 
ihc Jfr-feffils: upon Ijoth which accounts, wherever a cn^c-(^ is once 
begun, *tis eatily continued throughout the Diameter of the Trnnk^, 

9. iS. AGAIN, fome Woods Qlvg hurd^ f aft ^ and j£>j/^j&. So is 
4/?', andefpeciaily ^ffr^. Hard und frft, from fome of the fame Cau- 
fes, as Eht. Toi/gh no^.fia.Ti Jic 5/m^«rf, but from the Natnre of the 
Parts ^ whofe Prwcipks arc united in a more exad proportion. Where- 
fore Lo?jdofj-Cars have the Rhgs of thLir Whsls of Beech 3 becaufe it 
tears more difficuliy than tvt-n J//; it i^t:l(. Whence alfo for large Screws^ 
there is no fFtf^^ like;.. B it forAW/iVreir/, ofabout an/«^i6 D/^Atfe- 
Ur, BirfiisthebeftT as being, though not fo iar^^ y^t mor^ tough. 

10. jj. T HE more J)nV/fe a Wood is, 'tis Jikewife ufuaily the more 
ditrMe, So Oak^ , which, with refpeft to its hardfrefs, is not a tottgh^ but 
very ir/H/e iVo^d^ isalmofl as -^;^r^i'/eas any. Whereas Becch^BirSi 
and the like, although very /t-if^i; yet for Z);^r4//>ff,areof no fervice^ 
for there are no iVoods will rot fooner : and therefore^ though ftrong 
enough, yet unfit to make any standing Parts q£ BHildif?g^ or oi Fnr- 
nitHre^, efpecially in wet and moift places. Etcaufc, thcfe Woods^ 
having a Jcfs proponion of oy, than there is in O^i they are apter 
to imbibe the moifture even ofa*J<^ffA.^^r 3 by which moifture- they 
either lut^ or breed Worms^ which dcftroy them. 

II- 5^. HENCE k is, that what we call the He^rt of Tim- 
ter^ as it is more hritile^ fo alfo more dnrahk ^ fc. Becaufe more 
O^lic. So that which is called the Sap ofOal^ is much more mgh than 
the Heart, although the Heart be more durable. That is to fay, the 
older the iVood is, the iVatery Parts are the more evapouratcd, whilft 
the Ojfhe ftill remaine, as a kind of Ti^&Hre or Mxtrael in the Wood. 
Even as we fee, that the older Seeds of any one iC;W, are more Oy- 
lie than ihofc that are green and young. So that the O^fie or Roft^ous 
Farts of the %, are a kmd of E??jhalmwg to the Hearty or older Pari 
of a Trce^ fccuting it from the deftruffive irapreffions of the Aer_ For 
which Caufc It IS, that Oak, Tew. Cocas, Guajacam, &a which are 
ihUe Woods, have always much Heart, whereas Birch, Alder, Beech 
Mapk, which are very Vnoylie^ have never any Heart, 

12. jj. FROM hence likcwife we may underftand the Caufe of 
l\\fL Tougbmfs of Flax : what we call Flax, being only the Sap-Feffils, 
or Ugmm fibres of the Bartjue. And generally, the Barque of any 
Iree, as of Willow C whereof are ufuaily made a fort of Ropes') is 
y^^V'i^' The VegeJs being here younger, and Icfs OyUe than in the 
wood. Solikewife Hemp, is nothing elfe but the Sap-Veffds of t^he 
Burqne of the Plant fo called. And Scotch^Chath, is only the Houft^ 
wjfery of the fame Parts of the Barqne of ]>lettle, 

13.^. WHENCE it is very probable, that there arc many 
oxhttPknts, as well as the above named, whereof might be made 
good W And of fome, efpciMly in fome rtfpeds, better than of 
i^lax It fclf. Becaufe that even Hemp, although it will not make fd 

Aa a fine 


111' I 





The Vegetation 

Book III 

Pi '. 






-i , 



fine a Staple^ ns fUx ( for nU our f\ne Hollands arc made of Flax ) vec 
F/jj:, which is bac of the fame fineaefs as H?mp^ will never, by all the 
Arc yet known, be made fo whire as H>^mp n made. The ^atitkt 
therefore of the bed Ti^TT, that can be in Nature, arc that \h^ Staple 
be lo^g, Jffiail^ tojig/j, and i^hite. So that if in the Barque of any 
P/rtw/, wecanfindchcfe^j////c/, or any of them, to cscclU wemav 
befurc, it will beof bccterufe, in fome tefpcfts, for the making of 
cloathj or other purpole, than Fhx it felf 

14. §• I W IL L conclude wirh one hUance more, and that is 
as to Graftrjfg. The good and happy fucccta whereof, doih certainly 
depend upon the fintablenefi or refpondcnce betwixt the feveral Farts 
of the A'/i-f^ and CjfOKz, as the B-jr^ff*-^ Woo^^ mdPith^ and that both 
as to the Unmher^ SJ^e, and Pofitiorj of the faid Parts^-^x\d of iheir feve- 
ia[ Pores ov Vejfeis : according'to the degrees whereof, the CmjunUi- 
on (cateris ptZfflfNs) will be more or lefs profperous- So that of all 
fuch Ciiff/;;w6fVflwj a&are foundtobc apt and taking, and which fome 
have learned not without long Practice and Experience^ another on- 
ly by comparing the Brawriej of Tree/ together, may with little trou- 
ble, and in much lets time, inform himfe If By the iame means fome 
CofffUJiBions which feem to be ftrange, as ^ince and Pear White Thorn 
and Medlar^ &c, do yet, by the refpondence of their Faris^ as well as 
hy E:ip€rkMce^ appear to be good. And there is no doubt, butthat 
many CotipnBiom not yet tryed, or not known to have been fo, may 
upon the fame ground, be tryed with good fucceft, 

15. ^. The chief Ufe of Graftiftg and IncmUtion^ is, That they 
AcctUraU the growth QiGood Frnit. The Canfi whereof, is the Knot 
which is always made in the ConjuTiUwn. By means of which all the 
Sap is ftrainedj and fo afcendeth up into the Graff or Bud^ bolh Purer 
and in lefs ^^rttity^^ and is therefore better and fooner concoiScd- 
Htnce^ the fmaller the Fruit of any Trce^ though it be not the beft, yet 
the -S^;? being there, in kfs ^mity^ b tht foo/jer rrpe. On the con- 
trary, where the 5-/;>alcenderh too freely, it doth not ois\y retard the 
growth oftheFrw/^j butproduceth Barrejfnefs :, as is fecn in thofe 
tHxitr'Mi7t Branches^ whcreit runs all up to Le^jz/ej. Hence -a^^oVims 
hyBk€dJi7g^ btcomG more Frmifid : that is, by the Effufion of i^^rJ 
of the SJp^ there is a more eafier f^jelioratht^ of that which remains. 
Even as ihkbotomy doth oftentimes produce a more healthful and bet- 
ter Bdhit oi OMT own Bodies. To conclude, the kfemng-th^ ^an^ 
tiiy^ and thereby the ^/c/;m^//t?;/ of theafccnding Sap^ by Knots ^ is 
Natures own contrivance 5 as is feen in Sugar-Cane^ Corn, and other 









" ■"- Trcuj- 
:i a;\ ibe 


t thccon- 

:a m 
a jjxJ bet- 






In Four Parts 


b 1 

of the ROrAL SOCIEIT, and of the 



I 7 




^ t 


Printed by W.'^a^^lini^ 168I 

McBot.Gar:' n, 


!'■ I 

1 1 , 




■ I 




O N T 




Firft Part. 





.- J 

-1 1,1 i\ 


1 n 1' 

' J 

> 1 


J ■■' 

1 i; 


Of the ProteOions anc/ Folds of Leaves, 


Of thofe Things which appear upon the Surface of the 

Leaf. ' 



Of the Figures of Leaves j an^/ the Apparem Pofition o/ 

the Fibres. 


(?/ the Parts aWTexturc o/M<r Leaf. 



Of the Duration o/ Leaves, and the Time o/ their 



Of tl^ Manner of the Generation of the Leaf Where 
^Ifo, that of the Two General Parts of a Plant, /.. the 
i-ignous rf;;^ Parenehymous, is further explain d. 





•k ', 








To the Honourable 

Robert Boyle Efq; 


F T E R 1 had finij))eJ the foregoing 
Books , In which, 1 coficehe, as far as 
Gkflcs mil yet lead ws^ I have dearly De- 
fcrib'd and X)eli?teated the StrutSture of a 
Plants and have eyideavourd, in foms 

part, to Vnfold the Reafon and Scope of Nature there. 

in : I vrm willing to fit down, and leave what rctnaiiied^ 

to the Improvements of the Prefent and Succeeding 


But in Difcoitrfe up07i this SuhjeEi, You have been pleafed 
frequently to infijl. That I Jimildhy no means omit, to give 
Uiewife, [ome Examples of the Mechanifme of Nature in 
all the other Parts. The Performance whereof therefore, 
next to the Obedience / owe to the Royal Society, is to 
he looked upon, as a Due to the Authority which Tour Judg- 
ment hath over me. 

This I havefaid, that, if what is herein done, Jhall prove ' 
acceptable unto Learned Men ; they may kriow. To whom they 
are oncemore to give their Thanks : After they have fo often ' 
done it,upon (a better fcore) the Publijhing of Tour own Ex- 
cellent Works. In which,, there feems to be a Queftion, Whe. 
'her Tour Continual Endeavours, to enlarge the Bounds of 
Natural Knowledge, or Tour Succejfts therein, have'been 
the Greater; So that, whereas Nobility in fome, doth 











' ■ 



The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

only ferve to lift them , lil^ Jupiter s Satcllits , out of 
fight: You, by giving a greater Light, have dramt all 
Mens Eyes wpm You. And wbileft there are inavy , in 
ail Ages, fond of frehemiiiency in the ConduSl of Popular 
Affairs 5 -^ho yet rarely bit the Mark they aim at 5 or 
aim at That they pretend: You have thought fit, rathe^ 
to feparate Your Self, to that more Innocent, a^id more 
Noble Sort of Wifdom, xphich lieth, not in the Arts of 
Conceiling, but in Difcovcringj the Truth of Things. 

That rve may have many to imitate You hereiuy can- 
not but he heartily ipifjjd by all, who regard the -Honour 
of their own Country 3 as it isy with much Zeal, by 

.,. i.\ 

< I'.i \ 



\\ . 



Your moft obedient 

Servant ' 












O F 



With the bare EYE, 

And vith the 


Read before the Kojial Society, OM. 26. i6j6. 






C H A p. L 
Of the Proteaions anj Folds of Leaves. 


N T H E General Anatomy of Plants , I have aP- 
figned one whole Chafhr (a) to the Germm and f^) tii. i^ 

/.f^/. Since then, I have occalionally made divers CA, 4, 

Rcmarqaes of rhefame^ both with the Naked 

Eye, as chere» and alfd with the Mkrofcope. The 

Principal whereof, I Ihall here fet down ^ without 

repeating any from thence; or obheine my fdf 

ftriaiy to the Order there ufed. 

2, ^, That which in a Germen^ flrft occurs to the Ey^^ is the Pro- 
ieBion of the Leaves^ or the various Me/j&ody which Nature takes to 
preferve them from the I^jnrks both of the Ground, and of the Wea^ 
then To the Inftanccs formerly given, I (hall add thefe that follow. 




B b 




iiti. ■ 

- t. ' ■ 

^r ' . 

I i f 

* ■': 

) ...1 , 

The Anatomy 

Tab. 41, 

Tab^ 41. 

Talf. 42. 

Tab. 41, 


Nurfe. And -Ms . gen.altui:t/Nlrc"'w£tr;..t "'^f 
the l..'^.x are fo long, th:,t they c.nnot lap one over .Lh '^ °f 
where no other fpecial Prote^Jn vrovide^ fJJu\ ^"' ^"'^ 
5,<^to be prod:;c.d into bra.d ^wS^t '.s fiSTr';''^ 


hath K. Or,;g/«./ £.ii?,„£? {J^ i,. And whernt in th5 V^ -^^ ^''^ 
B«^h.thonlyonetoit fdf: in thefe /w "ve J L^^^^^^^^^ 
ther with Its own proper Veil is always inclofed Jrh Ih ^' *°^''' 
Leaf, in another r.;/comnion to tS both 1;,d bLt^ rhT"' ^Tl' 
next, in another; and fo on ro theTeat^ft The^Vv^'^ ^""^ ^f"- 
thin, and have very few V,Ms hril r '"•'■^areextrcam 

S^ins. For which Lfon, Xt'i.Sfj.l^^a EZTotr 
Od^y, between every L..^ and its f-^v/and between S.^^fe 
The one, thus prefer ving the other ^as Hn fh^ W and (-«/. 

Sheaih^ or ^/.«^,^ over all. The Ends of fome hS r a/or W ? ^ 
for the prefervation of its Stmg) ^ ^ ""ween Leaf and Lm/, 

Th'cfeV- evty";hL?rt;re"VvL''r '\ '^^ ^"'''''-■ 
g-rally formed^ fbrtheifluing ohvefySer ?k o 'r °"' 





; I 

■ \ 


jc or dear 

ode they 
rid*, the 

Book ly. 

of Leaves. 


vcryBi?*^; of ibeS^/-//^; ascniirdy, .is a Kerwe/ifi whliiti an Appk^ or 
a -Fe^/wj in the Womb. From whence it comes to pnfi the B^tds of 
every ^////A, is cxirtJmly fivclltc!, .ns J^oin^ Great w iih a Bii^i 

9. ^. U P O N T H E removal of thole Paris., whicli are con- 
trived for the rrot€&ion ^ the Foiilds and Compoftare of the it'-Ji.Tj do 
next appear ' all which arc nioft aptly fuited borh to the Number and 
Shape of the Leaves^ and alfo their Tofitiorj upon the Branch, In the 

Firji 'Book 00 I have given Examples of thcfe Eight Sorts^ it, the (a) Ch, 4. 
Plain Lap^ the Flicaturc^ the DiipUcature^ iUq Multiplii-aturc.^ the Sipr- 
gie Rolf, the Dw/i/e BackcRoU^ the Dc^We Fore-Role^ and the Trei'/e'- TiZ',43, 
iif^Z^. To which I Ihall add f tf«r or Five more. 

10. #. And Firjl^ in (omQ Plants, -^^ Grsurid-Jvy, Su Johns Wert;, 
and divers others, where the Le^w are fmall, pretty numerous, and 
grow by pairs, they have no Fojtld^ but ftand Flat and Tangent, Jikc 
a pair of Battledores clapt together, 

11. ji. They have the like Pofiurc in Battm:, faving, that here 

the Edges oftheLejfa are a little arrkd backward. Not Rol/ed, a "' ^ 
Cfirl being but the beginning of a RoH. So the feveral Labels of a 
Grojfftfel-Leaf are all laid in a Sack-CurL 

12. §. TheLffliJ^jof fome /^/d/j//, ^% Horchound^ Whits Lami urn ^ 
Ncttk, and others, are likewife only Tangent, but are fet with a F^re- 
Otrk. And the feveral Labels or Scallops of the ie^/ of Common 
Crowfoot, are all GrW Inward, But tholeofi/rpj/zc^d^rerf, arecom- 
pofedinto Double Fore-Rolls. 

1^. )J. THE Leaves of Sage^ Scabhits^ Red Lamiim, Lychink 
SylveJirfSj and others, are neither couched one over another, as in the 
Bow-Lap 5 nor plated, at in the flat Lap ^ but being loofely fouldcd, of 
every pair of Leaves, the half of one is reciprocally received between 7^ , 
^the two halfi of another, and may therefore be called the Cleep. '^^'^ 
A Pofnioft very well fuited to the Smalnefs of their Number, and the 
Equality of their Size, notfowell agreeing with the Bon'-Lap ^ and 
the fomewhac inward Pollute of the Fibres, not allowing the Flat 
Lap. Sometitiles, as in Syringa^ where the Leaves are broader, the 
Cleep is joyned with a Fore-Cnrk, 

14. ^. THE laftl Hiall mention, is the Plaiic-Roll, as in the I^- 
pathtifM Alpinim^ which fome call ETjgUjh Rhnbark The Leaves where- - 
of are fo very large, and the Fibres ib prominent 5 that befides and 
under the two BackzRolls, they are alfo laid in feveral Plaits, and un- 
der thofe PUits, again with leffer ones, all moft csquilitely Tucked up 
between the faid Fibres : So, as neither to bruife the fame, nor yet to 
leave any Vacuity: whereby every Le^/, and the whole Bnd^ lieclofe 
and round within their Veils, 




B 2 

C H A P^ 

I' I 

The Anatomy 

Book IV- 

CHAP. JI. , 

Of thofe things which ajypea) upon the Surface 

of the Leaf. 






If I 

^I^^d2i^;^^'<^^ H E S E ^vcGhhkUrExcrefcences^ Spols^ Hairs 

Thorns ^wA Prickles : ofall which, except Spots^ 
I have fpokcn in the Appendix to tht: Ck/ptcr of 
Lea'ves'm the F^r/? OSOOh. 

2* ^. Of the GWw/t.'(/, itmay here be fui- 

'i^^ ther noted. That thofe which are white, aad lie 

'''±-^ti ^"**^f^^t-s like a fine Powder upon the Lenf^ 

-^>^^ were once iranfparcnt, as in Be^rrj-Een^r ; their 

"^ cleer Liquor bccingnow evaporated to ^uExtm^ 

Tab 4-1 ^^ iVhiie Flojvcrs^ This, if licked off, will give you the Tafi of the 

more EffemUl Content of the PUnt ^ different from that perceived in 

chewing theLeu/^ 

3- ^. For the obferving of them^ it may alio be noted. That al- 
though they often grow on both fides the Lerf/ alike ; yet fomctimeSj 
as in Grouvd-Ivj^ only or chiefly on the Back-Side- And that in many 
p/^ij,where the elder Ltams have none ; on the young Buds they are 
very numerous ^ asTnCm?i7>«, Sorrel^ and others. 

4- 1^- AS for spots^ the fmallet ones are obftrvable not only in 
St, Joh?is-}vorts^ (in which Plant only ihcy arc commonly taken no- 

T-th, 43, *^^ ^^ ) ^^^ ^''*^ '" ^"'^i Groiind'Iv)^ P)mpcrnel or AnagaUis^ and 
divers other Plants^ when held up againft the L^^i/. ThL- original 
whereof fecms to be, at leaftinfbmc, from tht Ghhieis above men- 
tioned^ that isj when they break and dry away. Sothe^^u^JofKwe- 
icd^fjjWhich in the Refie&ion of Light look hLck.Jbut upon the Trajs&i' 
en ihcTco( arc trafffparet^t ^ are fo many JitltcHt'/fj, pounced half way 
through the thick nefs of the leaf, and leemasmadej by the breaking 
and drying away of as many Glohnkts. Whence alio, as the Ghktkts 
arc btft leen in the younger Leaves^ fo thefe Spots in the elder. 

;. ST. BESIDES ihcfe, and fome odiers Q as thofe in Ladies- 
ihiJiU^ which are Natural to the Leaf--^ there are alfo fome Spcts^ or 

tab 4'* rather 5;retf^j, which arc Advent itions ^ asthofe in the Lf^^e/ of S^w 
^" cbffs. The Caufe whereoj^ is a fmall flat hfi^^ of a grey Cohur, and 
about i'li of an Inch long. Which neiEhcr ranging in bredch, nor 
ftriking deep into the Leaf^ eats lb much only as lies juft before it, 
and fb runs icuddingalong betwiKt the sk^n and thi: Pitlp ohhc Leaf ^ 
leaving a whitifli Streak, behind it, where the ^^jw is now loofe^ as the 
meafure of its Voyage. 

6p-jf. THE Original and feveral kinds of T/jorw/, T have delcrib'ti 
in the above laid Appendix: I only add, that the very Leaves of Ibme 
Plants^ if they ftandtill the fccoad year, are changed into ib many 
Thorns^ as in the Fnn». 

Z d 





■ I , 







,1 afore 1^ 


Book IV. 

of Leaves. 



7, ^, They arc of lifi', luit only for the Proic&wfi of the 5tf-rf^ but 
]tkcwif>, furchc fuppoit of the PlA^rt \ as is obftrvabic inthofcCV/wicr/ 
which arc neither ftrong emv-igh to fhiui of themfL'Ives ^ nor yet, from 
their fragilicy, urc cnpable of windinj; about another, without being 
torn all to pieces. For which end alio, thefc thorns grow not like 
Buds^ ere^ecl ^ but poynt all downwards, like lb many Tenters 01 ^ 
Hanpng-hQoks : as in the Brnmbic^ chiclly on the St-dk^ j and in Clivers 42- 

alfo on the Lcava themfelvcs ; whereby ihcy catch at ^ny Thing thac 
ftands next thcm^ and fo, although fuch llim and feeble Plants^ jet 
cafily climb to a very great higlK. 

8- §. OFTHE fevcral /'Vgnrf J oiH.^irs^ and their Ufc, Ihave 6. i,Ci,4. 
ahb fpokcn. As to one Ufe, fi. the rroteUion they j^ive to the Leaf^ Tab. 43. 
I uiall here further note, That the defign uf Nature^ is the more evi- 
dent if we conlider, That all Leaves ^it not alike Hajry^ nor at all 
times, nor in every part : but differently, according to theiryf^fj S«i- 
ft^ncc^ Texture, and fotilding up. Theii' Age ; for there are many 
young Ends covered with a thick warm Huir^ which afterwards dries 
up and difappears, as ufelels^ as thofe of the f/wc, Golden Livcrt^ort^ 
&c. Their StrhfloTJce^ fo thofc Ends which are tendercft, and would 
(ooncr feel the cold, if naked, have the fuUeft B;;r; as of Tlzjik^ 
Mtdkri^ BurcUfcI^^ and Others. Their SirH&kre ^ therefore thofe Leases, 
whole Fibres ftand more prominent or above their Surface^ left the 
cold (hould nip them, are covered with greater Store of Huir^ as in 
Moth-MuUen^ Garden-claiy^ and the like- And their Fautdi, it being 
obfervahle, That thole Leaves which arc folded up inward, have littJe 
or no Hair on their inner, bur only on ihcir Back-Sides, which are 
open to the j^vr, as is yilible in Cori^y Wardett^ Golden Liverwort^ 
and others. \ 

9, i. Add hereto. That where there is Store of Hd;>, Nature is 
the Icls follicitous for other Covers 5 and where there is not^ (he is more, 
Sothe Lr?^mvof £e.w?j and Peajen^ of Nettle, F/-^»/^i?/, &C. not being 
Hairjf^ have each a ^urfoyl^ or elie certain Hairy Thrnms^ to prote^ 
them. And thofc vUttts which have neither, are fuch as have a Hotter 
Jyjifc., and folcfifubieft toihe impreflions ofCt>W, asSpeerrvort^Scur' 
vjfgy^fi^ Watercrefs, Fenil^ and molt of the Vmhelliferoits Kind. 

10. $. H,iir\$ of ufe to preftrve young Bf/t/j, not only, from the 
coldAr, but ahb from too much Wet^ which, if it were contiguous, 
efpecially in Winter^ would often rot and deflroy them. But being 
maderoftand off in drops at the ends of the Hn'tr^ doth not hurtj 
but refrefh them- Thus doth Ndiure make the meaneft Things Ibme- 
timcs fubfirve to the heft Ends, 




" III 




.J \ 





■I '■ 1 


The Anatomy 

Book VL 


Of the Figure of the Leaf; and the Ai^parem Tofition 0/ 

the Fibres. 


Jllli ■ 



1- '■! 


I ' . 




1; 1 

H If 

» ■■■' I 

HAT which in the i-ca/ offers it fclf next to 
be obfcrved, is UiFignre. This is infinitely va- 
ried with thefeveral Kinds oi: Plants: and there 
are Ibme, which have Leaves ( belidcs the two 
firft DijJimiUr ones J of Two Kinds or Two di- 
(Hnil: figttres ■■, as the Bitter-Sreeel, the com- 
mon Link Bell , Valerian , Lady-Smacks , and 
_ others. For the Vnder Leaves of Bilter-Smet, 

V^ , r."!ifV, fP^*"' ^''^^ '""^ ^''^"- tlic Under Lmj/w of the 
LmkBdl, ]iltethofe of /^^«r^5 the Upper, like thofe o? Car»atio», 

- or oi Sweet-Wslbam. And in fome P/^,;(/, Nature affefteth a Kind 
of IrregHlarity ; the Le^es whereof are of no one certain Fizw. as 
in Dragon, Peenj/, Bipops-Weed, &c. 

a. ^. BUT the Letf»w of moft Plants, have a Regular i="/p««: 
and this Regularity, both in Length and Circuit, always defineable 
In Length ^ by the Proportion between the feveral Leaves upon one 

Td.46. ^'^^^ or between the feveral Leks upon one Leaf. So the Leaves 
o\Uemat,sSytv. >najor, which ftand by Ternaries, (borten by equal 
Troportions, that is to fay, i^ thechief f/^rr ofeach, be divided ?nto 
equal Farls-^ their feveral Lengths are not as Ten,Eight,and Four; but 
as Ten, Eight, and Six. So the Lobes and Fibers of Clematis Fsreim- 
ana Heder£ folio of Artennifi, &c. ihorten in like manner by equal 
^ Proportions. Thefameisobfervableinmeafuring,upon a G^We^/r^ 

Tal-. 46. ^'-f^ *^*"" '""^ Poynt of the firft Lobe, to the firft A>7gte 5 from thence 
to thefecond Poynt; from thence, to the fecond Angle; and from 
thence to the third Poynt. 

^3- ^- But in many, the Proportion is different. So in the Leaver 
oUhQ Leffer Maple :, the ftiottningof the>M//crtoi«, withrefpedto 
tbemiddelmoft? is not Equal, but Double to that of the middlemoO 
with refpea to the Greater. Forif theirohief i^/irHbedividcd into 
Equal Parts, they arc as Eleven, Nine, and Five. On the contrarr 
in the Leaves of Mhj^a frstticofi Pe>2tapi>j,l!o,dea, the middiemoft Lofc 
ihorten by a greater Proportion than the Lcaft; all three being as Ten 
Fourteen, and Twenty. ' 

4- 1*- W ITH refpea to the Qrcmifereme, the Figure of mod 
i.Mie/is very Complex. Yec Two things are evident. Firft that all 
Regular Le.nvvredefinedorraeafured out byCirr/w; that !< bythe 
Arches Ci Segments oiikvcviXCinUs, having either the fame' or di- 
vers Centers and Dtameters. Secondly, Tliat the Length of the Leaf 
orofthe c\nd Fiber thereof, is (he standard Meafirefor the Dmwj- 
(^" of thefe Cm/« -■ thefe being cither its full Length, or certain 
equal parts fubitraftcd, 01 multiplied . as half its Length, or its Leneth 
and halt, &c. 5 6 

5. )i. 


' ^-i^* 



■ fjr- a 

by equal 



Book 3lV, 

^ Leaves. 





5- s(. TO m.ikcthisappear,I (hall give fcvcrailiiftances: of feme 
where both the Ed^cs are of one Meafure ^ and of other?, where they' 
are different. And of both kinds, where they arc mcafured by fewer' 
and where by more Circles. 

6. f. The Lc-if of Lagopus rudjor frl. petmat. is mcafured by One 
Circle, the fjme on both Edges, whofe Diamcirc is Thrice the Leni-th 
ofthe Lc:if. ° 

7- §. That of sj'^krilfs Sahi<e f4. by Two Cin-Ls : the D}^mer 
of the Lower being Twice the Length ofthe Kaf; of the upper -r , 
the Length and half. In both ihefe the Circles are drawn Outward ■ ' 
that 1?, with their Centers fome where lipon the middlemoft or chief 
F/wf ofthe Leaf. 

8. f. That o£ Orange-Tree, is alfo meafured by Two Circles ■ but 
°"'^ of ^hem repeated with Oppofite Centers. That next the Co»e of 
the Leaf, is drawn Inward j that is, with theCe»(cr no where upon the 
Le^f but without it. The iJwwdc^ hereof is juft the Length of the T^i. 
Le4. The midle part ofthe Edgu ij. meafured by the fame Circle 
only drawn Outward. The iowcr Circle next the stalk, is drawn In-' 
waKl, as the upper; and its D/^e/fr Three times the Length of the 

9- ^. The Leaf of the p-encti.<t7 Fetch, is meafured by Three 0>- 
clet. That next the Co»c, drawn Inward; the Di^B^c/e/' whereof h-r , 
Twice the Length ofthe Ls„/5 the next is drawn Outward; where- "''■ 
ofthe D,afmer, is juft the Length. The third or lowermofV, is drawn 
alio Outward ; and its Diameter, half the Length. So that thev all ■ 
leffen by an Equal Proportion. ^ 

10. jj. The Lm/ of Gm( Ldferwort , is alfo meafured by 
1 hree Circles ; all drawn Outward, and one of them Repeated The 
D/.*v.ferofthat next the C.W, is Half the Length of the W; of the K. 
next. Thrice the Length; ofthe Third, juftthc Length; the lower- 
moH, IS the fame with the Firft. 

11. ji. That ofZJro^f^i^ejz/'i/Li/ern'tfrtjis alfo meafured with Three 
ttrcks ; and one of them repeated with Oppofitc Cemcrs. The Diame- 
ter ofthe Firft, is Half the Length of the Leaf-., ofthe Second, Twice v.l. 
the Length; of the Third, juft the Length: all of them dra™ S- ' 

Inward "^"^ ' " ^^^ "^"""^ ^'"'^ '*"■' ^''"' ""'^ '^"*" 

12. § The Figure ofthe Leaf of (he Ci.rae/M« a^m, is exaftly that 

ot the foregoing. Inverted : the fame raeafure there beginning at the t ^ ^ 
u ^"''/n'l'ng ^"'le Cwe ; which here begins at the (.W, andends ^^■4'^- 
^^XheBafe: as by comparing their Draughts together may be ob- ' 

13- f- IN ALL, the foregoing Examples, both the Edges of the 
l^tves have the &me Mcfnre. But they have oftentimes, different 
ones ; OS in thcfethat follow. 

\Jt \^' '^}^^l4°^-^itl"<"ifr'"icefa;is meafured by ThKeCmles. The 
lelt Edge Cas the /.e./ lies with the backfide upward ) by One C/rc/. 
but Twice repeated. For the 7>/^«/ct.. of the Firft, is the Length ofr^ a^ 
t 4^^? J.'^ Second is the fame, but drawn upon another Center *^' 

the Third alfo the, but drawn Inward. The right Edg, ismea' 
furdbyTwoDrJ«: the ft.»./,r of the Firft, being the Lengthof 
the Leaf-., of the Second, Half the Length, ■ ^ 

* 9. Jf- 







The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

Tfik 45. 


;:i|f ' ■ 

' i 



. I 


L- h.J 


15. jS. Thnt of /;/.7r^ Pt';^/^r, by Threes and each Edge by Three 
repeated. Onthclcft, ibe D^wf/cfof the Firtl, is the Length of the 
Lcifi, ofthe Second, Half thekngth; of the Third, the Length and 
Half The Mcn^/ft'f'c of tbc right Edge^ is that of the left Inverted: 
the fame Mcafjfre there beginning at the Bafi, and ending at the Co^e ] 
which here begins at ihe Cori€^ and ends at the Bafe, 

16- §» T\i^t ot Dorcmcafftj is raeafured by Thttc Circles^ whereof 
one is repeated Once 5 and nnotber Thrice. The right Edge by Two^ 
and One repeated. For the Diatijcter of the Firft or that next the Cone^ 
is the Length of the J.c<?/^ the next is the fame, butdrawn Outward; 
the Diameter oi x\\Q Third, is Half the Length, The left Edge, by 
Three Orcks^ whereof One is repeated on the fame EdgCj and Two, 
thefame, as on the other. For the-Dz-rj^^r/er ofthefirft, istheLength 
oftheLc-?/^ of the Second, Four times the Length , the Third, the 
fame as the Firft^ and of the Fourth, Half the Length. 

17, §, Laftly, that of Mohtitain Cakmint is meafured by Four 
CircUs, The left Edge, by Three C/rr/ej, of which, the lowermolt is 
once repeated : the right Edge alfo by Two 5 whereof the nether is 
like wife once repeated. 

x8» ^. It may fcem, even from thcfc Inftances, no very unobvious 
Conclufion ; That all Crooked Lims^ Spiral, HeUcI^ , Blliptkli^ Hypcrh- 
hc!^^ Regular^ OT IrrcgffUr ^ are made up of the Arches oiOrcki^ having 
either the lame, or divers Ccnten and DiameUrs. And, as otherwife 
fb from the CotjUm^laiion of Pkijii^ men might firft be invited to Ma- 
themdtical Enquirys. 

19, jj, TOGETHER with the f /^wr^ of the Z.m/, tht PopioK 
of the fibers^ as it is apparent before Diflcftion, is oblervable 5 efpeci- 
ally on the back of the Leaf. Whereof I (hall add, to what 1 have 
faid in the Firji TSPOk, the following Remarqjies. 

ao. §. Firft, that there arefome Ledms, in which the fir ft Colla- 
teral Fibres make Right Angles with the Great one in the midJe : as 
the Great-Maple^ the Great CelaKdiaeXhovdrilla, and the reft, or many, 
of the IvtyhoHs Kind ^ with fomc few others- But that generally all the 
chief J^'//;crj of a Le^yi make Af«/e j^w^^/(:j together: both where they 
ftand collateral with the midle Filer^as in Strawberry ^ and where they 
all part at the Stall^^ as in Malloro, 

2 1- jS, Again, that of thefc, there are fome few, any two of whofe 

Tab ±6 & '^^^^""^"g ^^^^^' making two K^ys of equal Length, take in One Eighth 
'^ ' Partofa OVc/^, a? in M^Uoxx?-^ and in Ibme one Tenth : but in mofl 

^'' they take in cither one Twelfth part, as in Bciy-Oaks or one Sixth, as 

in Siryvga. So that where the fibres ftand Collateral with one in the 
the midle, if you fuppofe them to be drawn ont at Oppcjite Angles \ 
or where the c\\\^^ Fibers part at the 5/-^/^, you only take in the^/d/i^^ 
you will thereby divide a tirck into Eight.Twelve, or Six equal Partsj 
namSirynga, the r/we and others. And fo likewise, where there are 

7^^46,47, feveral Sprigs upon one stem, as in Fenil^ Hemlocks and the like : 
as will bed be underftood by the FigJtres. 

■L ' I 










Book ly. 

of Leaves, 





k^ cfpd- 

hit I hff 

vdlc: a^ 
ft. o: Toarir, 
oily all [in 



f?/ /fe Farts ^W Texture of the Leaf. 

COME next to oblerve the fevcral Parts ^ where- 
of the if-// is compofed ; and 5 r ft the M'''- This 
being ftnpt off the Lcaf^ although to the biire Eye 
it looks no otherwife than a Skj^ of IJif.-glafi .- yet 
being viewed through a good Gkfr, with a clear 
and true Light^ and in an ndvantagious Pofition j it 
appears to confifl: not only of Organical Partly as 
do the sli^fis of Animals ^ but thefe alJb Regularly mixed together , that 
is, q{ Farenchytnous and Ligmus Fibres^ all very auionfiy interwoven 
as ic were, into a piece of admirably fine white 6Wi:e/je(.' as in i^/t?g, 7-" j ^o 
Ttf/fyr, and the like. N, 

2. ^. From hence, it is ealy to conceive how the Sl\it7s of all 
Plants^ as well asihofe of^«7-w*i/.'j are perfpirable; )?, between the 
fevcral fibers of which they confilt. But as the Skjns of Animals^ 
elpecially in fome Pt/r/j*, are made with certain open Tores ot Orifices^ 
either for the Reception, or the Elimination of fbmething for the be- . 
nefit of the Body : fo likewife the Skirjs^ of at leaft many Pla^ts^ are 
formed with feveral Orijtces or Pdfs-ports^ either for the better AvoU- 
tion oiSufcrfiuous Sap^ or the Adm^on of Aer, -g^ 

5, §. THESE Orifices are not in all Leaves alike 5 but varied in 
Bigvefs^ Number^ Skape^ aiid Polition ; Serving to the different Nature 
of the Pknt^oi Le^f^ and givine the Leafi as it were,a different Gr^m, 
Ptifjces Feather^ i, e. a Sort ofSamde^ they (tand only on the Edges 
of the Leaf ^ but are very ample. In the ivfjite Lily^ they are OW, 
very white, and each furrounded with a flender white Border. They 

ftand about a 6^"^ or 8'^ part of an Inch diftant,as they appear through tab. ±B. 
a goodG/j/}, all over the Lfdf, but not in any regular Order. . Thefe 
Or^cej are the caule ot theGreyilh G/iy^'on the upper fide the Le<Y/f 
for the Back-fide, in which there are none of ihcm, is of a dark 

4. §, In the Le-j/ of P/w^, they are alfoOW, arid aboutiheftme 
Bignefs and Nitmber^ as in that of a Lily ^ yet without a Border. Bat ^ 
their Vofition isvcry Elegant, ftanding all, mod cxaftly, in Rank^ and "^^'^ 

Fih from one end of the Leaf 10 the other. 

S.jS.NEXT TO the i^^/ff,lies the /'ff/f^ part of the ie^f^ which 
by the fame latitude, as Vfc hath taught us in many other Words, t 
C3\\th.^ Pare Nchjrka. This Parefichyma or P /tip of the Leaf, like the 
Pith^ and al\ other Pare^chyrjiojis Farts o? a Plant \s made up of in- 
comparably fmall Cy/«£^ri^ Fibres: and thefe fji^rei, m mod Leave s^ 
woven and woun'd up into little Bladders, 

6. ji. The BUddcrs arc here of feveral Sizes, as in the Pith / but 
generally more vifible in the stalk.^ than in the Body of the Leaf Va- Xak ^q- 
ried, as in the P///\ fohere, not according to the 5/s^e, but the JVd/«re 
Qith^Leaf. So in Common Dotk,^ and Moth Mulkin^ both Great 

C c Leaver^ 


I ir 






The Anatomy 

Tab, 50. 



Tab. 49. 

1 E. 

\ I 

H^ . 


■ 1 

Jf . ■,■.' 


. ■ 1 



J ■■; 

■h ■ I 

B ook IV. 

p.^.., they arc Sm.lU in m/^ C/..^, a Lcflcr Le./; they are very 
Largc^ In theB../;«f .he L..;; fcmetime. the sidi of the greaS 
BUddeys, are made up of lefier ones ; as in Borage. 

7. ^. lu fome Leaves, thefe P..r.»c^_;;„.w i^^^^^ ^.^ ^j, j , 

uptc^ether. IntheFormer, they are as ihtThredsmihi- O., I l 
o?Bane-La.o , in Thdc, as the faLr/...^., i. rhe a^W ^ "''''^ 

u u^'rz-, ■^'''^^'"■'''"'^^^''■'^' ^ndalmoRuptothe Too of 
the chief F.i.,-, m many Le^»w, is Tiibuiar 5 even whilft thev are ver 
Young and Sappy : ^,\y, Sr^ect Chervil, Hmkci , E«dJ Gchlry 

fomet.mes the faid -Fuhj Part is opened into feveral little Pipes like fo 
many Aer4^eJJeh, above ^ a Foot long , a. in the Cc^.an Z^.^'and the 
Little Spurge, by fome called W^rt-Worl. 

1,1 ^' ^\ \^ ^^'^'"'S^ of the Leaf, or thofe Fibres which are viR- 
ble to Che bare Eye are compofed of Feffcls of the Two General 

outtheAf^.- Yetnot fo, as to run mccrly parallel ; as in ^»Wr 

every_^.r.r^ hath ,tsr.^« : but the ^..-rtfl ^re every whelelnclS^ 
or as It were flieathed in the Sap-Fejfds. ' Jnclolcd, 

^ 1°' f\ T "5 ^ ^ ^f"'°" '" ^^"Ou? and regular, not only in the 

^"^^u^r^^'"^' '■'" ^bovefhewed; but likewife in the 5^/^- of 

which alfo I havegiven feveral Inftances in the Firfi ^ooli J Oii! 

here cote, andmore particularly defcribe,One or f woznoj'. I, "S 

St.Ii oi ^MaUar^^Leaf, rhey ftand in Si. Oblong Parcels of cqua Size 

and ma Rs.g near the Circuit Whereby the%W^ is ftroSg^, S 

Growth hereof, before and behind, more equal, and fo the pofture 

ot the lea/ more ereii-. * - tuiLmc 

11. iJ. In Danddyon, they ftand in i^/w r-,r«/^: of which the 

' T ,^»t',l""'' *'^''"' ^'''^ '^^'^^^'^ o^ ^he Stalk; %uted into a 

very fmall thlf-Moon or Sem-Tube, whofe D«.../r., throS a SL 
IS not ahove J- ofan Inch. The other Four, are extr^am^LaU ^ 
Tub. 49. "^f^-^. Altogether make an A^gh,twK^ as big as that of a V Confonant 
Whereby, although'the 5W4 be ftrong enough to fupport the y™"; 
i.^.«5 yet thofe which are grown longer, and fo not only by th! r 
Bulk, but their farther Ext^fion from the Center of G.L'J are 
become more weighty ; commonly lie flat on the Ground 

12. (,. InWild Clary, they Rand alfo in Five Farcels',th^ Greater 
fends not i.W, bntkfirerh. Center, making an A.^,'whofe CW 
maG/.A IS above l an Inch long; and belongeth to a <:;r./., whofe 

Td. 43. D>a^etcr ,s an Inch and bM. The other Four, are fmalJ Cylinders, alfo 
ditn-rentfrom thofe m i).«^./y.„5 the two bigger, there ftandine 
huidmofl; but here, the two Lefs, and the two Bigger, withia hi 
two round Ridges of the Stalk 

n-i. from hence it is that the« of this P/.«; have not on- 

y zPror,e or Hon,^mal PoftHTe,hm alfo make that Forceahle Prcflm-e on 

he Ground, can by no means be imputed to their Weigli For 

the Gm,/ Arched-F.bre before the Cemre of the Sulk, and 

tr^ctwo Longer Round ones being uppcrmoft, in tlie R,d,es of the 

w2r ^P"'"!!?' "P!^'- P^rts thereof to a more full and for- 
ward Growth and fo to bow the le./back-w.rd. And the Fibroas 

■ ^yyiSt^;; th'rtSr'' ^" ^'"'^'^ «^^' ^^'" ^-^> -^^ — -. 

J4- f- 

, T 


TK. lack 
monger, tbt 

uroJ im i 

tbf Greater 
: f W 



Book IV. 

o/* Leaves. 


14. S. InStfrf^?, am] Molh- Mullen, they rtjiid alfo i<i Five Par- 
ceh. In the former, thciargeftni.iketh ftill a more bulky Anh than ^''^"^^^■ 
that of a^r, ; beina; chicktr, as broad , and of a lelTcr Circle or' more 
bowed. But in M«lldi7, it maketh almofl an entire Oval. 

15. (!. By means ofthis lignraiion, a fufficiL'nt number O^Felfeh 
for fuch larj^e Leaves, are not only more conveniently Diftribiited into 
ihem^ but alfo ftand more fafely in the 5(.i/4 Forwere thtMrc/jcon- 
mfted into a fiUd Cylinder, it could not fo prefertly be rcfolml into 
Imall Fibers. And were it laid into a Hat ptate, or (h-aiy-hc out -ither - 
thef/^mofihe5(rf/4, androofche/.M/;muft be altered^ orelfe the 
two end!) of the Pii/e, would come too near the Circumference of the 
Stalk, and fobc more liable to the /«(pff//7o«j of the (Ff«/6er: asmay 
be obferved in cutting the Ssallj tranfvcrOy, and by the Figures 

16. §. I N the Body of the Leaf,bcMt^,\.hf:Pofitio„s of the fibro«s 
Slrwgsirfhredsi above expeffed, there is one n^-e^, bigger or le^ 
which in all Plants runs round the Edge of the Le.f,aud hem in all the 
relt; but can hardly be well obferved in any, without ftripping offthe 

Sn %f :f w ^'" "?' f 'r, °f 'f"^/^"-/; ^^^ l>igger,or lelftender, ™- 5°. 
as in Hol/y, the s^'h and the P„!f are fome times found either rotted 

off, or eaten away with^effx^ whereby, both the faid furtounding 
rtkr, and the reft, are all very fairly vifible. ^ 

17. §. THE f^effils feem to be continu'J, in the Leaf, by beiri? 
Ramified out of Greater into Lef., as rei„s or Arteries are in Lms. 
Butifthe5^,«andP«;/.oftheLf«^ asfuppofe a B*r.7re-Ic^f be taken 
off, and the f #/, laid bare , by the help of a good G/aJ. (t will a.- ' ' 
pear .That they are all ofthe fame Size, , ever^ where^i^i the £ J, Tal>. 50. 
and alfo continued throughout the fime, all feveral and diftinit Pipes one 

fiom another, as theTi..^. in a Skei« of Sil/^ And that therefore the 
D,p,b,.^on ofthe TJr.^. the Vefels compofe, is not the Ramify- 
mg of Greater i>7;>w imo Lefs , but the dividing a greater Cluftcr of ■ 
Pms, into feveral lefler Chfters.till at laft they come to be fingle • as 
m the Difiributim of the Nerves. ^ ' ^^ 

r,Al\ ^' , The %y/ feem alfo to be Inofcniatcd, not only fide to ■ 
fide, but Che ends of fome into the Sides of othen. But neither ° 
th^ ever really done : the Icffer Thnds, being only fo far didufted, i^.i. 50- 
fometimcs to ftand at Rrghi-AngUs with the greater. So that they are 

nofculated only End to End or Mouth to Mouth, after they are cUe 
ac lalt to their final diftnbution. 

19. i The Aer-Veffels, are not only, as is faid, Exiftent in the 

en'/f ^" ^^""'^ '■> '"'' ^'■'^ '>^''^'" ^""" difcoverable without the helo 
hLnr V ^°'""P°" f^f^hi^g^he 5(^/A. or chief fifcr.ofal,^; the ' 
niavbeVf \ "k'^'"^'^?"^^'::'',! ''f "'^" ^'^ ^""'^^ fmalldw., 
Sv in fZ f ^'^? '' ^'°"! '''.^ H''*'''" '^"*- "r'^'^ '^ "t^^" "«'i^^ of 

™Un?. I *5^" "'°^'= "■■ l^i^' '" tnoft other PUls, \Hh^Leavcs be ve- ™- 51, & 

fin IF 7"'=^''[,'* '*i™ ^ Sort of r#/ common tl Plants. Now this 
^^iS ■' '^'"^ ^^^^'^ ''f '^^'-''#^^' °^ "'her of the F^im ofthe 

mTi; ^^^^^y=>prj"'^'"'"°^''^'^^"'''ir''^"«^^ =•' Length boS 

o the bare Eye, and through a good Microfiop., I have reprefcmcd iri 
two Exempl.., the one a Scabio,.. leaf, the other that of TS 


W I 



!M! . 


The Anatomy 

Book IV. 


'- N 




L . ^ I- 


■I I 


' ,1 

1 ■ ' 

I " 

ao. §, THE Wcftagc oi i\ie Strif/gs Aud Pat-erji humous Filters lo- 
geiher, is here made in the fame manner, as hath been dclcribed in the 
Avatomy of ihe Root^ and Triwh^: the former being in ibme Sort as the 
Wrtr/f, rhe latter ay the TKift^J^of the Li^-j/i 

a I. §. And one . Example we have ( it may be more than one ) 
wherein Nature ibews, though not a greater, ytt a different Art ^ and 
that is the Palm-Net. For whereas in other Plants^ the Webb is made 
betwixt the iJgfious-Strivgs and the Fibers of the Paretfchyma^ only vi- 
fible through a Mkrofiopc : here the faid Sfrivgs themfeivcs are In- 
terwoven, and the Weftage apparent to the bare Eye. Of thefe Fal/x- 
Nets or Sac^f, there are feveral Sorts. One of them is compoftd in this 
manner. It hath a Fivefold Scrks ofLigir&vs Stringi or Fibers, The 
greateft whereof (well out above thereft^ and like lb many jR/6/, are 
obliquely produced on both hands, foas to encompals the Sack^- Along 
each of thefe Kibs^ on the inlidc the Sack. , runs a fmal! Whitip Lim ^ 
htm^ iiThread oi Aer-Vejfds growing thereto. Betwixt thefe Kii J or 
larger Strings^ there are others much left. Two or Three betwixt R/^ 
And Rib^Paralldly\x]Xti)tiktd, On the infide, there is aThird 5er/f/, 
which is alio obliquely produced 5 but tranfverlly to the former. The 
Fourth and Fifth, confift of the fmalleft Strings 3 not only Tranfverfly 
produced, but alfo Alternately, from the outfideto the iniide of the 
5*^^:^, & vice verfa. By thefe two laft, all the reft arc moft elabo- 
tately woven into one entire and ftrong piece of Work, 


Of the Duration of Leaves, atic/ the Time of their 



N Evergreen^ is one degree above a plant which 13 
Hm^ly Pcrennidl : oflhis.only the^VflH^and Buds 
live ail the Winters ofThat, alfo the Expanded 
Leaves. And an Evergrorc^ is a dt^ree above an 
Evergreen: herCj the £W/ and young Spr/^gj, do 
only live ^ there, they grorp and are put forth, 
2- §, An Evergreen^ is made fuch, either by 
t)\ii longhnefs of the 5^"? ^nd Clofenejs ox DeTjfity oi th^ Parenchym^^ 
whereby the Leaf is better able to endure Cold \ as in Holly : or by the 
t^iic^mSmahefsOTFewmfsoixhcAer-Veffils^ whereby i)it Sap'i^ lefs 
dryedup, and lb fulEcient, even in Winter^ for the Nouriftiment of 
the Leaf -J a? in B&x^ and !r*?^j as alfo Fjr^ and all Re^nifero^is fhnis, 

3. ^. The perpetual Growth of a Plants feemeth to depend chiefly 
on the Nature of the ^d;j. ForallJfl/i:ej will not ferment alike, nor 
with the lame degree of Hf^/, So that whereas many P/-j«/j require a 
greater Heat^ as that o^Sifmrner^ for the fermenting and diftribution of 
their jf//jrfj,andfo their growth^ the Wurr/ith of i'/'r/^^isfufficient for 
many others 5 and for fome few, that of Winter it felt 

4. jS, AS TO the Tiwe wherein the Leaves are formed 5 rirft, 
it is very probable, That in thoie PlatJts which have Leaves (beiides 
tht Dijjmilar^ of Two diftinft Figures, as hath the Little Common 






' ■ 1 

' L 

r t:to, lie 



Book IV. 

of' heaves. 


JJf//, andfomeothLTEi ilic '^JWcr-Iftm/, which differ in Shape from 
thi; reft, arc all ;it fiift formed in the tUwn, before it becins to /pw,/- 
and the reft afterwards 5 Thar ii cofay, that the former te^^ex are ali 
formed C oiu of 5^f from the Tmnk,) with theAWitfelf aiidfo 
corapo^- one Principal eurt ihereof^ fc. the Phm^ : the latter not till 
after the 6f«/ is fow'n, and fo the />/»«« ftpply'd with ^-./p imme- 
diately from the i^..*. Which 5.p, it feems, is 16 ftr different from 
tlie tormer, as fomeiiracs to produce a different Sort o^ Leaves 

5 !S.. SEC O N D L y. of the Unds of all rr..., and oiPtrcnni- 
6ta!ks,n ^ppean, 1 hat they confift of a great number o{ Leaves all 
perfeaiy formed to the Centre ; where,rotwith(tandin2,theyarefome- 
times, not half fo big as a Chcefi-Mit.. So that all the LeLs which 
Itand upon a Bra^^d or Oen of one whole Years Growth were aau 
ally ex.liencm the ft/^. It isalfo very obfervable, That although 
thefe B.ds begin to be expanded not till %«?, yet are they entirely 
Formed, astoall their W.^/p^,„, ;„ ,he A„„^„ foregoing. So 
that thevvhole Stock of Ie«t,« which grow upon a Tree, or any Per. 
i,>mal t>talk., this year; were made, or aftaatly in being, the laft 
year. A greater ^.^( more fubtilized ^«- , and better concoSed 
W being rcquifite for their Generaii.n, than for their bare E^pan- 
jton and Growth. '^ 

\ t \^ ^J. ^ ^' °^^" ^""""^ ^'""^'^ '» wli't^li there are fe- 
veral Succefiive Gemr^tion, of B„d.^ one under another in one year -. 

although 1 have not made the Remarque, yet amapt to believe That 

as the W.x,n every £»^areal! formed together, as in other /W.- 

fo like«'ife,that the Succeifive Gemralio,7S of the V»der-B;,cls begin at 

eertam fhted TW-»/j .- as in fome plants, ar every Mip moo^ -, in othere. 

at the i-«// Mao^i and in fome perhaps; with both, or every 



Of the Manner of the Generation of the Leaf. Wl^ere 
aljo, lUt of the Two General Pares of a Plant, fc. the 
Lignous and Parenchymous, k further explai?i'd. 

^^4S^^ H E mie Caufes of the Figures of Leaves, have Bi Chi 
'SfjS ^'" formerly mentioned, h may here be '* ^^'^ 
^.^vi4«. further noted. That the greater fikrs of the '' 
Leaf, being never Braced in the Stali; it is a 

f^r^ ^ preparative for their better fpreading in 

[M^ the Le^/ As alfo, that the fame is much favour'd, 

-m ^^W ^^ ^^^ "^"tteara imalnefs of the Aer-Vejfeh here- 

jS^3^^^ '" = whereby they are more eafily divaricated,in 

, ^ DTiT . '"'^5c'l"f'*i^'-J,andfotheIw/dilated. 

A>.^'J'r r $'f\^'"^ ''"' ''''" "^ '° ''^ reckoned a fccondary O';. 
^r of Q<« ; which ferve rather to carry on and improve,that which - 
W.,«.. hath once begun. And therefore, wc muft not only confider /J-. ^ ii 
he vifible Mcchan^pn of the Parts , but alfo the Pri.citks of which ' ^'^^' 
they are compofcd , wherewith , Nature fe.m. to draw her S 

3. ^. 

# P 

! J'l 

■Mi ■ 


The Anatomy 

Book VL 


i# ^. 


^. ' 

■ s 

5. §, Now of thele, Ih.ivcforrnerly.andasJ conceive upon good 

Lik 2^ F.2. g^^^^^s fuppofed, the chief Governing Principle, 10 be the s^lint^ 

tf. a I &c. ^^^'^*^^ Alk^linc^ Acid^ or of any other Kind : being in feme fort as 

' * iht Mold oid^ Button, Co which the other /^r/m^ifj, as \^^ Attire^ do 

. . all conform- Or the 5^//^ nre, as it were, the Boties ^ ihe other Prin- 

ciples^ as the Flep which covers them. 

4, jj. A fiirthcr Argument hereof may be deduced from the Cutr- 
arlar and other Concretions^ commonly called Mothers^ m Diftill'd Wa- 
ters^ frncgfir, and other Liquors, For in thcic Concretions^ there is all- 
ways a zmdcncQ to Vegetation \ and many of them are true Vegetables 
in their Kind ^ as fhall hereafter be leen. Now the L/^^nrj, in which 
thele are generated, do always, wholly or in part, lofe their Tafi and 
Smelly and fo become Vapid. The more ienfible Principles therein 
ha'/ing made their Tr^nfit from the Fhidy into the Concrete Parts. So, 
1 have known, ibmctimcs. Vinegar it ielf, to become by thefi: Concre- 
tions^ almoft as Tajlkfi as Common IVater. Whereby it feems evident. 
That of VegetaLie Principles^ there are fome, more Mifterly than others;- 
and that oflhele, the 5^/;^^ is the chief The fame is likewifc arguedj- 
from the frequent Experiment of many good Husband-men 5 ihat moft 
Bodies which abound with J^^/^^ are the greatcft NtJ/jri/t^rj^ of W-i«f/, 

5. ^» This Suline Principle^ as is above hinted, is to be undcr- 
ftood, a Gf?;;;??-/*^ Name, under which divers Species are comprehen- 
ded ^ and of ibme whereof^ it is always compounded, as in other ^W/cj, 
ib in plants. As Ihall be made to appear, by divers Ejcpenmcncs,when 
we come, hereafter, to fpeak of Vegetable Salts. Whereby we are con- 

dufted, yet further to enquire. What arc the Pri ndnples o^ihk Prin- 
ciple ^ ■ .. : . 

6> §• NO W chefe feem to be Four ^ a Nitroi^s^ an Acid^ an All^a- 
linc\ and a Marine. The Adntixtm-e of the Firft^ is argu'd from the 
Place, which Nature hath affigncd for the Gf^errt/zo^ and Grifw^/j of 
moft Plants^ fc. neither in Caverns under Ground, as for Minerals 5 nor 
above it, as for Animals-^ but the Surfice of theEarth, where this 
Son of Salt is copioudy bred. And doth therefore prove, not only a 
Mixture^ buta good Proportion hereof with the other Frincipks of a 
Tiant. Hence it is, that Dcat or Water on Windows or Plain and Smooth 
tables^ by virtue of a Nitro-Aerial Salt, is often frozen into ihc refem- 
blance of little Shrubs. And the like Sigrtre I have often fccn in a well 
Hhr^d S&I/ttion oflhc Salt of ^ny of our Pr/rging Waters, as of Epfins, 
. .V &c, being fettoJ^Jdfl*. Produced, as I conceive, by the Niirc^ which 

with the K<^/H or other Waters, is wathr^d down from the Surface ofthe 
Earthy and fo miffed with th^ Mineral Salts. 

7. §. The other Three S^lts arc exhibited, by the fcvera] ways of 
Reiblvingthc P>vpf^f/fJofaP/^fl^ Mmy Plant s^icvcn in their Natural 
£/^.Jc, do yield ^uAcidJuyce. And the jF^^rfJof many more, by Fer- 
mentation^ will become Aiid. And mo!t, by DJjiil/ation in a Sand- 

FjtrnacCy yield an ylcdd Liqmr. . 

8, if, ^y Calcination^ ^\\ Sorts of r/z'^?/, yield more or k-fi, both of 
a i'fxed and a Volatile Alb^dy : the former, in the Ajlyes-^ the latrcr, in the 
Soot. And, at leaft the generality, by Fcrmantution d\(o^ yiiAdix Volatile 
one i or fuch a kind of Sult^ which, whether we call an ZJrinous, or 
othcrwife, hath the like Oi/tj/yr and Jafi with that of Vrinu Harts- 
Horn^ Soot, and tlie like. 

9- ^ 









Hits, when 

>fMt of 
rr, vrbkJi 

Book IV. 

of Leaver. 


fr/ \ ?^^.^^''":"''^''^°}>'^^'^<^'inooih,rv,,y,ih^t t know of but 
from a Soku,o„ of t ic Aial.., «f.on i« being cxpoRd to ■£ i" 
Thcprocefiwherof Ifhall particularly (l-t clow^ in a followil Sr 
fia;rrfe. Of thefc 5./,. ni.xerf in . certain proportion, to^eS and 

.Ifo Impregnated with fomeoftheother ^h^m PrJ^.cpsJTaPlTJ 
and no without an ^J-«y:.,«« of toitie Part, from the i" r If 
that which I call the Efmi.l, is produced: of which liiall \f^i ' 

■ an account in the fame Difiourfe. ' ''"'* g'^« . 

10. ^. ALL THE Four j^//jaI,ove mentioned, C-cm in theirOr-' 

td firft'o? ?"h "'^^^^'f^--'-of ^ ^-^or other ^^ of " W 
And firft of all, the M,n>.c. For all G,»erMio>,. are made in fom; 
Fl.,d.- But in every //;,;,/ there is a perpetual W/SmL f 
ParU. So that the firft Intentioii of nJh^I Thfr J 1 °^ be difpofed to Refl. NoJ'V alUhTJ L>£ oH^W J et 
are none hereunto more difpofed, than their sl,. u r ' . 
being figu'rd with plain Side', as oft "Ah J toth'side to sS'^'^^^ 
two MerW.. exquifitely poliihed, they will adhere tn. J . '. ' u = 

5...,of greater Bulk, thin thoVof any OtSt'^r^t;: '^^^^^^^^^ ^'- 
moft and firft of all difpofed to Tii and fo I^rn2 ''^^' ''^ 

Foundation of the following 4^X^'-" '"'"'; '*^" ' 

» I- THE Second Intention of Nature is Th^ii- tl,« d .• / . 
brought to fi.y?, in a certain i..>.„, agrSable to the P ^ ^'^'Z J' 
Pms which are to be formed. And therSl in t ^ \ °^ '^^ 
thofe P.r*. of a PU.t which are trulv l7™ h u ,?' P'^""' ^" 
with th. affifcnce of ^^^lllXZt?^^^^ '< 

rnad. to Jioor out in Length, or into an innTmSbSo^p^'^^^^^^^^^^ 

rhokl^pulfis which might mcline them t''o conformtoany other f^l 

■ ^ I"- 1' ."^ ^ ^ "^"^ Intention is, That thefe Fibres at the An,. .■ 

.n which they are formed, may Hkewife receive ffch a Kra^ll 
beft anfwcr the indented shape of the Leaf Whi^h P„fl "^ . u "^'" 

in the G...A of the L.f it i .ochSrnrX'^f:^^^^^^^^^ 
in the G(mraUo,z hereof, feems to be firft determined hv ,Cf ' ^ 
t,ooed 5./.. according to their feveral "4™ ht b^ vTdTf ' 
terently applicable one to another, ^"^y arc dif: 


EW.ofthe M/..^., properly fo called, ftand It S t .^ . ^^ 





F ' 



I ll l^lfV:'! 




Tab. 53- 

7A 53' 

Tab, 53, 

r^^ Anatomy 

Book IV' 

15* iii If the iiime Sdft be predominant, and fome of its Fjr/ir/cj 
placed, with the Pointed End of one, to the Side of another, or the 
Square End of one^ to the Poynted End of another ■-, there the iaid Fi^ 
hres begin to Iboot at Affgks lefs AcuH. 

16. j^. But if either the Mtffj^^e or Ni/z-^wj^fl/i is predominant 5 or 
fo-ax^ Particles oithfi Alk^Hm, are placed with the Square End of one, 
totheSidcof another^ there the Fi^rfj begin ro make, not Aw(c,but 
Right Anghs --, as do the greater Fibres^ in forne Leaves 5 and the fmaU 
Icr, in all. 

\y* $' IN the fame manner, the Fibre m the Circumference of 
the Letf/is alio governed 5 the P-rr/ic/eJ of the faid W/, being reducea- 
blc, not only to any ^w^/f, but alfo to any Circle^ or orhcr Cr&oi^d 
him^ as they arevarioufly applyed For if the w^yVr p^^i be applied - 
End to End, and only every Third or Fourth applied End to Side, they 
produce a great Circle, But if the Poynted End of each, be iet to the 
Side of another, they .make a left. And if the Application be the fame, 
but to the contrary Side, they thence begin a new Circle wirh the 
fame DiameUr^ but with another CefJtcr^ anfwerable to the intended 
Skafe of the Leaf, 

18. i, AFTER, the fame manner, the Ar-f^// may be formed by 
the Particles of the Acid Salt. Which, without being fuppofed to be 
crooked ( as thofe of the Aer^ at Icaft the compounded ones, probably 
be J only by applying the Icffer Side of one, to the greater Side of 
another, will alio be reduced to any cither Circular or Spiral Line, 
And fo, likewile, for the produftion of the winding f7£re/,which cora- 
pofc the B/*ji/t^frj of the f;7A and other Farcnchymous pi^r/j of a ^lant. 

19. jS. Thus doih N-«iare every where 7^'^M^T?^'^- For what Sheap- 
pcars in Her Works ^ She muft needs be alfo in their Cmfcs. 




■I. . 

L , 
\ . 










^ t 



» Side (J 

SfrJ Im 








With the bare EYE, 


And with the 


Read before the Ro^al Society^ Novemh. p. 1^7^^' 



of the ROTAL SOCJeTT, and of the 


, Printed by W.'i^arplins, 1^82. 

M-.Eot.Gard -. ^d 













-i - 

4 -* b 


Second Part. 




I \ 






I I 

I .. 


^ Y 


^ I f 





Of theFOllATVRE. 




I, -. ...Of the VS E of the ATTIRE. 
eH^ , , CH AP. VL 

Of the TIME of the Generation of the Flower. 


"*~ The A^endix, 

Beinga MET HO D prof ofed^ for thready fincling.hythe 

Leaf a«i/ Flower, to ivbatSon any plant hdmgttk 




■^ ^. 

■ ^ ^ 

I h 



Book IV, 






O F 









NEXT proceed to the ^hwnr. Where J intend 
not to repeat thofe ihingi^, which have been by Me 
already nored in the FirU OSooit. And the forego- ^ 
hig Dircourfc of hcams^ will txcufe me from di- ^^'* 5' 
vers particulan, common fo Thtft and the Fhmr. 
1 Ihall here therefore remarque fome things not be- 
fore mcntionedj or but ifj trafsfttn , and fuch as 
are moreparticular to the Fiorver, 

a. ^. And Firft, it may be noted 3 That where the Udves of the 
Florvcr arc fiwy thoCe o£ tht Ef}/pa!emjTt or Qreen Border^ are cither 
ofthc fame Number, or juft halt as many, whether even, or odd. So 
m Leucanthemm and Chkkpeed^ there arc Five Leaves 5 in the former 
Five Empakrsi in thelatter, Tcn^ In Great CeU^dhte^ there are 
Four Leaves^ and but Two Empakn-^ and fo in Foppy. The Arith-- 
mticl{_ ofNutttre being every where fuitable to Her Geometry. 
. _3' J^, Of thisPrfrf of the fhmrxih likewife obfervable, That 
It is rarely, if ever, entire or one piece, but parted into divers lirtlr^ 
fP n''"' <^fpedally in all Flowers with the florid Attin, a^oi Mari- 
gola, -0^0 and the like 3 being fo numerous, as to make a -0^;/^/f, and 
? *Tr ^^^^^' ^^druple or ^ini^tupk Border. Whereby they are apt- 
ly dehgned, not only 10 pr^/t'^ the Lf-7^i'/ of the F/^^j^^r in the Bhd-^ 
and after their Expanfion, to keep them titer but alfo, by receding, 
Bredihx^ays, one from another, and £0 making a greater Circle gra- 
dually to ^tve way for the full Growth and fafc fpreadingof ihcV 
tire. Which, in regard it cunfifts of P-^ri/foe^qnititely tender were 

j:)d 2 it 


■^d , 




I i ^ 


J. * I 



The Anatomy 

Book IV, 

it pinched up too dofc, would be killed or fpoykd before it came \o 
ihG Birlh. Pis Teeming Womcft^ gradually llaken their L^tes-^ or ns 
Taylors ufe to fplic their Stomachers into levcral Ld^pcts^ to fpread, as 

their Belly riies. 

4. j^. Nor is the Pojlure of the Paris in the Ef/ipakixent leG fuita- 
ble; noc being filed one juft over another, but alternatdy. Whertby 
the Pales or Fdfincjicf ofGVGry UtMcr-Ordery (ervetoftop upthe gaps 
made by the Recefs of theUp/er. And fo, notwithftanding they all 
make more roome, yet all confpire to keep ihe Ar out. 

5, ^. It is alfo worth the notice, Thar, for the fame purpofe, the 
Edges at Icaft, of ihefeveral Pj/fj, are neither F/^rfl//j,nor /*«//?;' ^ but 
fo many extream fine tranfparent sl\ins^ as in Ck/^stemik. Whereby 
they clofe fo exaftly one over another, that it is impoffible for any Acr 
to creep in, or any steams ufeful to the Attire or Seed^ over hLiftily to 
perfpirc. As wc ule, when we have put a CV^ into nButtk^ to tie a 
Bladder over it. 


r ru 

' ::ii1 



I , 

i ; 

I'" ' 

h I 




■ I 


Tab. 54, 

Ti^t. 54. 
X^i. 54. 

tdk 54, 



H E Leaves of the Flower are folded up in fuch 
Sort, as is moft agreeable to their own shape^ and 
thar of their inclofed j4///re; whereof T have 
given Inftaiices in the Fiji 1300&t I ftiaU here 
add fomc farther Semarques. 

2, jS. The Leaves of the Flower of Blalt^ 

^^^^?^^-^S^ '''''' although of different Size and shapes are 
^if^^C-^^Xj"^^^^^ fQ iappt,.d one over another; as to make an 

E^ur lateral PcJitargh. 

5. ^, The 5/"/^^/ i^f/i^, which is proper to the Floxfer^ and never 
leenin the Green Leaves --^ as ic is it fe!f immediately vifibleon theiSsr- 
fice^ fo by cutting off the top of the Flower before it is expanded, 
(ecms alfb to make a HcOx ^ as in Perwinck^ the larger Con^olvidns^ Sec, 

4. ^. Infome /"/fiperf, where the j^«/>e is lofty orfpreading, as in 
Holioak,^ together with the 5p;W Fold^ xhc Leaves arc all at the top 
tacked downa little^ thereby making a blunter Cif;/^, and fo a more 
ample Pyramid for the inelofcd Attire. 

5. ^. Th Poppy^ although i\\q Leaves are txtraodinary broad, yet 
beinj^ but few, and Inclofing a fmall Attire --, they could not be well re- 
duced to any regular fold^ without leaving fuch a Vacuity^ as by being 
filled with ^fr, might be prejudicial to the ^Cir^V* For which rcafon, 
they are cramb'd up within the Empakmci7t by hundreds of little 
Wrinch^les or Packers^ as if Three or Four fine Cj////jnrj^ Hutrdihrchifs 
were thruft into ones i^i'i^^/, 

6. §. 


rtot I tzu 

I (tall fere 

rr of S^^'- 


Book IV. 

^ f hirers. 


6. ^- In Lj<r//ff-^t'ii^fr, the Lc./sJi7j are neuher Japcti one over ano- 
ther, as is mtJlt ufual, nur fet Edge to Edge, as fometimes, but Side t^a - . 
to Side, anfwerable to ihcir 5/j^pi?, and ihii Difirikttiorj o( iht\v Fi- '^ 
/rd/. TiKir brojd Tops being alfo rowltd up (a as to malie a Com. 
In LarJjf-Uff/^hg-GLjs^ they liand alfo Sidt^ to Side, butin a differtnt 
manner: in the Former with the Sides ftanding inward, but here 
bearing outward, ' 

7< i^ }n xhi: Marvel o[ Pcr//^ the Fohl is likcwifc very peculiar. 
For,befidesthe feveral rii/fj, about Six, whereby the Fhmr h ga- ^^^' 54' 
thered in the Midle i theTtipofic i!> aKo gaihci-cd npby as many di- 
&\n&PUtes, underneath the former 5 ^l^d ih^Cc rowk^ or ii?rcathul up 
together focxaajy, that the hke could hardly be imitated by a very 
dextrous Hand, 

8. iS. OF the HaJrs upon Flomrs and their Vfi to the Jttire^ 1 Ch, 5, 
have alfo Tpoken in the Firji OSOOft. I fhali here add, That they are 
Jikcw^fe of V/e to the Lcuvts tbemfelves, that is, for their dofcr and 
farter Conjnn&wv. For of fome Flowers it is cbfervable. That they 
are all over >/iPfl;/j, faving on their Edges which are bor<ier'd with 
Fringes oi Bah '^ as o^ Span jfi Broome, Diikamjra, and others" Inr f 
which, the Hairs on the Edg-^ of one Leaf, are fo con]plic:ited, or at "^ 

leaihndented, wjth thofe of another, that all the LcavcsCtemto b^ 
but one piece. AW///'e feeing it fit, by this mcanss to tie them toge- 
ther, left they Ihonld be expanded before it be due time. 

■ 9- jf- Many //^n'winfteadofH./jrj, are bc-fet round about, with -» 

a great Number of fmall Paris^ not ending in a Foynt, but having a 
Head. Sometimes oval, as in Sn^p-Dr.^u7i^ like the Horm of a BnUer- 
fy, or a Plummers Sodcrwg-Iron, But ufually GMyUr, as in Deadly 

Nighiffjade, like fo many little Mnfbroomi fprouting out of the 

10- ^. Out otthefei:?eWj, doth fometimesiflue a G^/e/*yp or Bal- 
Jaf^ul^ Juyce. From whence proceeds that C7^w;»r/7fy} offomefWtrj^ 
whereby, being handled they ftick to our Fmgers, as do thofe of BU- 
tar^a zj\A ol Marigold -^ and thofe of 6Wa^ 3o^^iJ,whe^e the faid HW/ 
aru fo fift and ficcnUnt, that they refemble fo many little Drops of 
Baljame. The dammnefs which is felt upon fre(h Cardnus, may per- 
haps proceed from the like C/y^^^, ^ 

''■ ^; 'T'HE Nitmheroilh^Leavesoixhc Flower hath been no- 
ted by the Le:3rned Sir Thontas Erotv^, to be ufually Fii^e. And this Treat of 
^iJ^ru^e fo far affefteth, that many times where the Leaves of the fame the &\^^nc 
Flmer are of a different Si^e, yet they keep to this Nnmber, as in Tab^A ' 
Ulattaria, ' ^^' 

12. Si. lalfoadd. That even thofeF/^ii-w, which are not proper- 
ly parted into Leaves, have yet their Tops ufaally divided into Five 
Gi-e.t Sca/Ups^ as thofe o^ Toad- Flax, Snap-Dragon, Coded^ArfmnL 
^i^ry, Uroo^^ and others. And when the Fkieer hath more than Five 
even many times five Leaves ; yet the Top of each Leafk indented into 

FfveParts^^ ^^in Scorzomra,Ciihory, ^nd nVi tlic htjbous Kind, with Lj^ .^ 
manyothers. t^v.^n^ 

i^ ^. From whence and other like /^/?-i7;ff/, it may feem. That 
there is fome certain Species of Salt in A^^/^r^, and that in molt Plants 

Fl^ -^ ^^^^^ ^'^ ^^'^ ^"^"""^ /-^^^z/^y/ or other in the 

'4^ Jf. 









The Anatomy 

Book IV. 


u l\i 





H;! IJM 

i i 


*' 'iiii 


14. ^. The I\'/imkr of the Leaves^ as hath been fiiid, iscommonlv 
i^/ife. Vctfome Flowers have fewer, anJ fbmc more, and that with 
Conftancy, in divers Nttmlfers^ fromO>7t to Ohc andTiPfu/; ^ pcrh:ii's 
in all, fo &r. The Florver o^ Aatnthus Syrhcm^ is in a manner ori; 

, (ingle Lsaf ^ that of MoKki-Rttlr^irb^ Three-Lsav'd^ of ^oppy^ CroG* 
Wort^ Radifl\ and many others, J^onr-Leav'd ^ iho greater Nnmhcroi 
^hrpcrs, Fjvc-Leav'd :^ of fTO//f Hellchre^ Ttdip^ Ouiot?^ and moft 
Plants with Brdbous Roots^ Six-Leavd^ of WM-Cmn^foot, Seven- 
Leav'd^ o( Frcf^ch Mfirigohl^ commonXy Right' Leai/d'-y ot Fhn>er-de^ 
\ UtcCy Nim-Lcavd%, of Chrckp^eed^ LadicsNUntk^ Tcn-Le^v'd^ of Sc, 
Jaraa^f Wort^ Thirtecn-Leavd'-^ and I think of Ft^*'///(g,/, CotuU, Age- 
rafitm^ Com- Marigold^ with others^ and of Chamemih^ Euphthal- 
mum^ and fome few more, the Leaves are commonly Ovg and Tmsttty, 
In that of St, Jamas Wort , ihe Number is fo conftant that there is 
Tab, 55, fcarce OjieFIowi-r in Forty^ wherein the Leaves are more or fewer thati 
Thirteen, Divers of which Nurtthers, ftem ailb to have fome relation to 
th^ Number 5. For 9, is Twice 5 13^ Thrice 5 and 25, Five times 5 run- 
ning into it Jel£ 

15, ^, THE Ct'ft/^/iftcwi P-ir^j of the jFW^r arethe fameasthofe 
of the Leaf^^ Parenchyma or P«/p,and the Vejjels. But in the g^/> 

or bottom of the Florver^ the Paremhyma is commonly much more/f^M- 
^^jfandci^, thaniniheif-Euej , conteining, after ihe P/t^jr^r is opcn'd, 
little or no Sap^ but only a dry and warm^^r. Which landing con- 
tinually under the Seed^h^{ the Maturation or due Exiccatiaa there- 
of: as wcufe to dry Maidted Barly over i\ warm Kdlfi. 

16^ 5, The f^e^e/s of the Flovcer^ are both for 5-?/i and for ^^r, as 

weJl as in other P^r/j, And both of them fomecimes, even in the ^^^« 

of the f /tfjvf?'^ as may be argued from its being ftained with divers 

B.2,P,2, Colours '-, produced as hath formerly been (hewed, by rhe mixed 

j(-65, 66, 'i'in&Hrcs of the ftid ^^^//- Thefe Colours^ in many Flowers^ 2sTh- 

^y^ lips^ as they are in the S^in it felf, fo therein only 5 the Pulp of the 

Leaf being white. 

17. jS. The L/^/^fl«/or 5<JjJ-Fy^/j are fewer,and the^^r-F^/jfrnaN 
ler in the Fiower^ than in the Leafi. And therefore it is very difficult 

toobferve the]attcr by Glajfes'-^ especially the Proportion which they 

hoM to the other i^tfrw. But if yon break the Leaves oi fome Flowery^ 

with very great gentleneis; they may hereby be Vnroaved or draim 

cut^ as in the Green Leaves^ to fome viGble length j and their different 

Nun/ber in divers Flowers may be difcerned. 

18. )S. THE 'Ofe ofthe Flower or of the FoU^ture whereof we 
B. I. Ck<, ^^^ fpeaking, is various^ as hath formerly been ihewed. I now only 

add, That one Ufi hereof feemcth to be, for the Separation of the 
more VolutHe and ftronger Sufphrtr of the TliU!t. That fo the Seed, 
which lycch within or nest it^raay be fo much the milder, and the Frin- 
a^/sj thereof more fixed and concentred. And this, both for its bet- 
ter Duration till the time of iW/^y^^ and alfo, that its lermentatm?^ 
when it is fow*n, may not be too hot and precipitate^ but fuitable [o 
fo flow and ccjual a motion, as is the Fegetatiof^ of a Sitd, 

19. jS. And that this 5;///'/b/' is feparattd and difchargcd by the 
Flower^ Teems evident, not only from the strength of its Udonr^ above 
that of the other Paris'^ butlikewifc, in that many times where there 
is no flowerpot that very fmall, the Se^d^ thpt is iti, CV^O'.as in the Zjnr- 


- I 

■r ;( 





' . n 

H J- 



for .V. 31 

lie misci 
wjj jj TV- 
Pi^ of the 

i DOW on!? 

Book IV. 

of Flankers. 


i'cll'ifcrofts Kfi?ct^ is tlic more odorous. Antl thcivfore alio, the Vine 

hath no Fhwa\ |\irlly, that t^mmoiWolitik Spirit ^uA SitlphurmAl 
all run into ihc fy/v//, 

20. ^' THV. Figm'CQ^th^ Fkvpcr^ although k is ofun nmdi more 
comj^lcx, than that of the Lc-/// yet there is no doubts but th;tt the 
Mciifire hereof m;iy be defined in fomc way, anfwerable to that extm- 
plifcd in the foregoing ^Sact- The difference is only thii; That 
whemis the Green Leaves^ and the Pbin Leaves alfb of the hluwcr^ are 
all me-ifLired by ihc parts of fovcral Cirdes : thofe t Ion-en which 
are BeU)cd^ and thole Leaves of the Fhivcr which arc not PlaifT;^ 
hMtCofivtx^ areall meafured by the f^r/j offeveral Spheres. And as 
xhGDiumetres oithoik Circles^ bearacertain proportion to the tnidle 
Sicmn of the Leaf-^ fo the Axes of thefe spheres^ to an imaginary 
one in the Centre of the Fkwtr. 

21. jf, NOW the reaJbn why the -F/^^z/^'c of the F/f mi?r is more 
multiplex^ thau that of the Xe^/j may be, partly^ bccaufc it is under 
the Command and Government of thofe Sahs^ which arc here more 
refined and depiirate^i\m\ in the Leaf-^ and 16 mote free to by the Foun- 
dation of any kind ofi-j^Hre^ for which, of their own Nature^ xhcy arc 
adapted. T^rtly^ for that as the Nitrous and Alialwe Salts are chitfly 
regnant in the Leaf:^ fo in the Floroer^ m which the Faremhyr^om Part ^ ^ . ^ 
hatha greater W proportion than in the Leaf--, it is moft reafonabk-, >y< 7!'^' 
toaffien the Frcdomimon to the A/^f/0/the /'tfrZ/ffc whereof hnrh nc ^ -^ ^^''' 



they are ]ers,andalfopoynted at both ends, (O^t^ni to be more cafily^'?^p 

applicable one to another for the making of any Sort of Lw orF/g;/^ r? ^' '' 

t^^- 6'ji, ij- 


0/ //je Attire, and firft of that fort which ?nay he called 



r ^ 

I T H I N the FoUainrc flanclii the Attire ^ which is 
of Two general Kinds^ every where Various and 
Elegant 5 according to the i)ff/ff^pr/oM \ have given 
of them in the Firji O600tl, I IhaJl here add fomeC/j, 5, 
further Remarq^es. 

2. §. And firft, of that Sort of Attire^ which 
may be called Setmfiiform •-, being ufually, as it 
were, a little She^tf of Seed-lif{e Furticks-^ ftandjng on fo many Pc- 
diciiis^ as the £.ar doth upon the £wti of the ^/r^itt'. 

5. i. Of their Colour it is obfervable, That for the molt pattj they 
^TtWhite OTTdlcw '-, fometimes B/en^5 but never i!cd, Ice the floreer 
or Foliature bi.- of what Colour it will. Neither doth their Colour all- 
ways follow that of the Foiiature^ although that be not Red. Where- 
by it appear^', how very Curious and Critical NaUtre is, in the Separa- 
tion of the Jnjfexin Plants: that fuch fmall Parts ^s the Ic of the Attire^ 
and fo near the Leaves of the Fhmr^ Ihould yet receive a different 

4- 5* 

" I 





The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

Tak 55. 


, ■ n 


^*L ' 

I I 


K. :!, 

' I 


:' I' 




4i [i. Thefe P^r/j differ alfo in their Prt///Jifff ^ landing fomctirat? 
double upon each PediciJ^ ^^inToad-Jtax^ Snapdragon ^ and fome others- 
but uluaily iirgk^ as in Blattaria^ Clenratri Anjiriaca^ &c. Somecimts 
-1 faftned to their Pfi/za/j at their middle, (looping down after the man- 

ner of P^pp;' and other hanging Flowers-^ as iw Spanip^-Broom^ ^J'fip:, 
Scabcons^ Behen^ Sec- Sometimes they (land ere^ed, as in Ckmatk 
AuUriam^ Ladj/es-Looking-Gtafi, Rape-Crcwjcot^ &c. Thofe of Coded 
Arfmart have no Pedidls^ but ftand upon a large Bafe, 

5. SS' Of the Pedicils themfelves, it is to & noted, Thai they are 
rarely faftned to the Top of the Rcpojitory or Cafe of the Sttd^ but 
round about the BoUotn. ?artiy. That hereby they may the better in- 
tercept and Separate the Incongruous Parts of the Sap from the S(^ed, 
Yet in the Coded Arfmart they ftand at the Top. Which is not the only 
thing peculiar in that vlant 5 it being the property thereof, to ejacu- 
late its Secd^ upon the Icaft touch. Which property feemeth to de- 
pend, partly^ upon the Pofttion of the faid Bedicih, as fliall be ftiewed 
in ipcaking of the Seed. 

6, ^. Thefe seed-lik^ Paris are alfo of different Ntimher. In Great 
■ Cela^dine^ Refe^ Rape-Cro-a^foot ^ numerous 5 in Great PUnUine^ and 

fome other ftrijj much more confpicous than the Foliaturen fcK. In 

Gernfandcr-Chhkpecd^ they are always 7w^, and co more. Sometimes 

they foHow the number of the Leaves^ efpecially in the number 5 5 as 

in Blattaria^ Black. Henhean, &c. In Stkhwort and Lychnis Sjhejirrs, 

they are 10, juft double to the number of the Leaves^ 

y. jf. They differ alfo in their Blgmfs^ being Jn Ibme fmaller Flow 

£>■/, larger ^\viBorage^Ladys-Loohing-Glafs^:&xAQ\!^^x%i andinibme 
larger Flowers^ lels ^ as in the Rofe. 

8, §. But efpecially in their iV"'j:pe, which is always very Elegant, 
and with much Variety. In Borage^ like the point o¥^ Spear. In Blat- 
taria., like a Horfi-fioffv. In Ckntatis Auflriaca., like the Spatula^ where- 
with Apothecaries make their Mixinres. In Mallow^ like a Head-Roll. 
In Hyfip^ they have one C/ejft before , mBUtfaria^ one round about ^ 
in IVater Bettony^ one at the Top 3 in Scabious^ they have a double Clefts 
Tab. %6. one on each lide 5 and fo in St. Johns Wort^ Hyofyamits^ i^nd others 5 
before they open, in the Shape of a double Furfe. 
, . ■ 9' ^* Thcihrarts^ arc all hollow^ each being the Theca or Cafe 

ofagreatmany extreamfmallP^j'/K'/e/, either GW«/jr, or otherwile 
Convex^ but always regularly /^ttrV. They are all crowded together, 
and faftned in clofe Iij??^y, without any Pc^/a^, to the InQdes of the 
Theca^ like other leffer 5W/ within a greater 5 or after the ftme man- 
ner as in Hj'd/rj'-^waf and fome other i^Z-i^^j, the true "Sff^ them felves 

Tab.^%$6i^^'^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ "^'o^ ^<^ the Bed o£ th^ Cafe :, as inClary^ and 
the Figures now referred to,may be feen. And when they arc ripe^the 
Cafe alio opens and admits them to the Acr^ as the Seed-Cafe doth the 
Seed. The whole Attire^ together with the Foliatnre and Seed-Cafe^ 
See in one Example, amongft the Figures. 

10. §. The Colour of thele fmall Particles conteined in the Tkca, 
is alfo different. But as That is ufually White o\: Tellow^ foare Thefe: 
fometimes Bkwip^ but ncvtr Red. Andfometimes nor of the fame 
Cohw with that of the Theca. Which further (hews how fcrupulous 
Nalyre is, in differencing the T/«ff;/raof thefeveral iV//. 

Tak 57. 






II- ^. 


■.' /!!&(/■ 

. lime ma'' 

Book IV. 

<j/^ Ffmvers. 


II, j?. They are alfo ofdiiTercnt %^fy/ and f/^j/r^, Thofc in 
Snjp-dragoff, are of the finalleft ^7S^ i have fcren ^ being no bieeer r / Q 
through a tijood Mkrofiops^ than the leaft Chccfe-Mifc ko the naked 5^' 

Eye In J'/-''//-//^, alio through a G/.i/>, like a Scurvy-grafs-fied. la 
Bears-foot^ hk^ a Mnjhrd'fied. \n Carfjathn^ \\\'.t^ ^Turmp-Sced, In 
Bhdweed, like a Pcper-Corn. In all thcfe of a GiolmLr Figwe. 

12, \nDcvih-bit^ they are alfo H^^^W, but deprciltdjike thi^Seed 
c£ G^of-grafs^ or ^ Ho//af7d Chcefc. In thi^ Bca^ mu] all forts of F//// 
and Trefoyh^ as alfoin Ekve-boUte^^^c. fhey are CylindrkL In Or,/^ J T^^. 58, 
ii% Oz-^/, one 51'! of an Inchlong^likcan ^///j-K«^^, XwDcddlj-Night- 
fiade, alfo Ow-r/, but fmaller at both Ends, And'thofe of P^wcj, Cu- 
bick. In all tlieJe and the former, rhey arc Smooth. 

15- jJ- But in Mallow^ Holysak^^ and all of that kind, they are be- 
fet round about with little Therms 5 whereby each looks like the Ss^d- 
Ball Qi Roman Nettle^ or like the frmtoi Tbom-Appk^ or the ft/ftcal- 7./, -3 
led F//r«'iJr^//*^»flr, or the ^tfr/ce/,ufcdantienily in ^P^^r/. They are '^ ' 
?lf? ^^""^ ^^^^^' ftiewing, through a Glafs, of the bignefi of a large ' 
WhuPeifes being a 00 or 500 times biger than thofe in i^//tf;i^rtf^i>w^ 
of which there are about a Thoufind in each Thcca^ that is, in the Tpace 
of about 1000^^ Cubical Part oi ^n Inch. 

1 5. jJ- In fome PlatJts^ as in Deadly Night-pude^ where thefe Parti~ 
alcs^ie W'^/^f, they feem, by a verygoodG/<?_/? and advantagious Pok- 
tidn^ to be compoled of Parcnchyntous and Lignous Fibres^ ftitched up 
together, as in the other Parts. 

15, 5- In Colocyntbk^ ( and with fome Analogy in WM Cmumer 
and I fuppofe all of that khid ) the Attirt is very peculiar, not confift- 
ing of feveral little Thu£^ upon fo many Pedicih^ as is delcribed; but 
is all one entire Part, like a thick Colnmna in the midft of the Flon>er 5 
having feveral little Ridges, and Fnrrotv's winding from the Top to the 
lottofji round about. In the midle of each Ridge runs a Um, where 

the^^/ff, after fonietime,openeth into two L/;?/, prelenting the Ghbti' 
Ur Particles conteined in the hollow of every Kidgc, 

16, §, Where the Ji/Jre confifts of feveral 5fe^fi% Vartj^ as is 
defcribed ^ there, another Pm diftinft, li!;e a little Cohwn^ or Pi^Ja- 
£le, ftands on the Top of the Uterus or truG Seed-Cafe, Which is 
^o regularly and varioufly Figured. In Bindweed, it hath a round 

Bead^ like chat of a great Pin. In the Common Beli, St,Jof)NS wort, it is Tab -J^ 57 
divided into T/jrrc Parts. In Gcrarinm, intoF/i/e^ In ^/^r;//^^, into "^ '^^' 
otK. Sometimts, xh^ Head is Smooth^ and fome times beftt with lit- 
tle Thorns^ as in H^ofiyar^tit, Of the Vfe of thefe Parts^ anon. 

■ ^ 

J' I 



E e 




The Anatomy 

Book IV. ^, 


it . 


■Si ■■■:!' 

Oil ,, 




Tah, 60, 

Tak 60j 
6I5 6a. 

B,i. a.5 

-T hv 

Ttf^, 60, 
61, 62. 

Tak 58, 



N THIS Attire there is alfomuch Elegant Vari- 
ety, according to the Defiripiiori we have given 
of it in the Firji TSofllt, It always confifts of 
fevcral Suits ^ Ten, Twenty^ Fourty, a Hun- 
dred, or more, according to the Bigrrefs of the 
tlovper. And every 6W/ moft commonly, of three 
diftina: Parts^ all of a Regular, but Different Fi- 
gure. The utmoft Part , is always like a little 
Timer with Five Leases and a TubuUr Eafe, like that oiCowflip. So 
that every Ftorvcr with the florid Attire^ Embofomes, or is, a ?oJ} of 
per fed Fhrvers, 

2. ^. In fome Flowers^ every one of thefe Florets^ is encompaffed 
with an Hedg of Hairs ^^ and every Hair branched on both fides 
almoft like a sprig of Fir-^ as in ASier Atticus ^ Goldm-Rod ^ and 

3, §. TheE^Jeofthe Fhreth ufually C>&WrM, but fometimcs 
Square, as in Fre/ifh Marigold. And the Leaves hereof which, for 
the mofl; part, are Smooth on the Infide, in the fame Fkwer are all 
over Hairy. And the Edges of thefe little Flowers^ arc frequently 
Ridged^ or as it were. He m'd^ like the Edge of a Bmd. 

_ 4. §• The midlf moft of the Three Parts, which I call the Sheath^ 
jsufually faftencd towards the Tij;', orelfeatthefit'//fi>wof the ¥hreu 
This is rather indented, than parted into tf-n^/. T\i^ surface iAAom 
Plain or Even, but wrought with Five Ridges, and as many Gutters 
running almoft Parallel from the Tt'ptothc ZSWi^w, « 

5. §» The Iti?}wji Part^ which i call the 5/^f, runs through the 
hoHow of the Two Former, and fo is faftned, with the Fhret, to the 
convex of the Seed-Cafe. The Head and Sides of this Part, is always 
befec round about wirh Gkbukts^ commorJy throuj^h a G/^/i, as big 
as a Tttrnef-feed^ or a great Pi^s-Head. In ibme Piatits growing cloic 
to the Bladc^ as in the common Marigold 5 in the French, and others, 
upon Pedicih or little (lender Sialics. Thefe, as the Blade fpringcth up 
from within the Sheath, are ftill rubed off, and fo ftand like a Powder 
on them both. And (bmetimes, as in Ciihory, they feem to grow on 
thclnfide the 5/jf.^//^, if it be fplit with afmaIlP;v.- as alfo in Ktup- 
nreed, in which tliey are numerous. Yet in the Seed-lik^ Attire, alwjys 
more numerous , than in the Fhrid^ 

6- ^. The Wc^iiof the^/j^/eisahTaysdividedimoTjTij, andfome- 
timc^ into Three Farts^ asin cichory^.^ which^ by dLgrees, curl outward, 
after the manner oi Scorpion-Grafs. 

7' #■ The D^rif^/t'?/ now given, agrees principally to the Ci^r//-''- 

biftrous Kii/d^ ^^Tanfy^Chamcmile^ and the like. But in Siorzo/seraj 3.s 

alfo Cichory^ HatvIi^Weed, M&iif'.r and all the b:ijb<ms Kind, willi many 

,*f f more 





F ^ 





T, Ilk 

^ If that 


»fr ircif- 


Book IV. 

^ FlomerT, 


more, the w4//j>*; is not fcparnte from the Foliatun^ ib as to ftand with- 
in that in one enrirc P&j} ^ but every Z,c-;/of the Flcivcr hath its owa 
^aire apart. For the fake of which, the Bap of every Lea/is formd 
into a little T;/k or ^//'i?, whereby it embofomes ttsown Attire withia r**^'^^- 
itfelf Confining commonly of TiTflPdm, ^ Sheath znd a Blade : the 
Le^ifh felf anfwering to the Floret in other FUwers. 

8, §. In fome pLtfrts, befides the Jttire or P<?J} in the miJIe of 
ib^ Fhwer^ the L^^zj^/alfo have each their own to themielves^ as in — , 
Mtri^old : yet this, as I take it,confifting only of one fingle Partlwhich ^^^ 
anfwers to the BUde ^ the Leaf it felf being as the sheath. 

9, §. In many P/-?;?fj, this P/m;/^«/fe is very larger foihat not 

only the Sttits^ bnt alio the Jcveral Parts whereof every Suit confifts, t^l ^. 
being throughly ripe and well blown open, are all vifible to the bare ' * 
Eye, IAS in Krtapmed, and iaW the Thifile Kind. This Jttrre is ali the 
FUwcr, that this fort ofPlams have ^ being, though Empd'd^ yet with- 
out any Fsliatnre. 

10, §. And fometimes, there is little or no FWez-befides this At- 
//>e, although cxtream *i:^^\^\n.Gold€nR.od^WQrmwQod and others. 
Wliere it may be noted, That the Medicine called Worn^feed or Semen 

5^/;/t^wif/, isnoSortof 5fe*J, butthe Budsoi fmall Fkmrs^ or of the 
Florid Attire of that Fldftt, 


Of the Ufe of the Attire. 

gF ihcSecundary ^/S hereof; I have fpoken m the 
FirU 'BoaM,--, and particularly, of the GUiikti or Ch A 
HaaW FarlicUs within theThecao£lbeSecH-liiie At- ' 

tire, and upon the BUdei of the Fkrid, I have con- 
jeaur'J, That they are that Bod^ which Bees gather 
and carry upon rheir Tijghf, and u commonly cal- 
V> -L -■- r-TT-T '^*^ '"=•'■ ^'^'"^- foi^ tfie iVax they carry in little 

V ^" I '^" '"'^' ■■ ^'^^ '*^^ ^"'*^ ^^ =" f^'nd of P^w^er ; yet fome- 
What moilt, as are the faid little Particles of the Attire. 

a. ^. But the Primary and chieftJyS of the Attm is fuch, as hath 
relpett to the Fl^^t it felf j and fo appears to be very great and necef- 
lary. Becaufe, even thofe PUnts which have no Flomer or Feliature 
areyctfOmewayorother^«;r'<fi either with the Semmfor»t, or the 
Flmd Attire. So that it fecms to perform its fervice to the Seed, as 
the tobatHre, to the FriH. 

Ti^' ^- J" ^'''''^our'e hereof with ciur Learned 5^w/m« Profeffor Sir 

^ ^u^^'f' ^^ '"!'' '°'^' he conceived, That the ^H/i-e doth 

ferve, as the itf.fc, for the Gemr^tian of the S«k 

,nl" ^' J ™'^<'"l';'y "-eply'd, That I was of the fame Opinion 5 
and gave h.m fom. ceafons for it, atid anfwered fome Oi/VS/o;//, which 
iDight oppofe them Eat wichall, in regard every Puit is «p .viS.Aw 
or ^«^. and Femak, that I was alfo of Opinion/xhat it ferveth for 

^^ ^ the 


I f' 








The Anatomy 






r- h 

Book IV: 

the separation offomc Parts^ as well irs the Apfion of others. The fura 
ffiercfore of my Thoughts conctrning this Matter, is iis follows. 

5- ^. And FirO, ic lccm!>, Thnt the Attire fervcs to difchargc fome 

redundant Part of ihc 5^p, as a ^F^^-^ preparatory to the Generation df 

^ the Seed. In particular^ that as the Foli^tnre ferveth to carry off the Vc- 

' latik Saline Svlphur: Sothe ^//;rf,to minoraceandadjufc the A>-r^/- fo 

the end, the Seed may bfcoine the more Oyiy^ and ils Prifsdpies^ diu 

better fixed. And therefore the FoUdftire generally hath a timch 

ftronger 0-^i^wr, than the Attire : becaute the SaJwe Snlfhir \^ ftronccr 

than an A™/, whichis too fiibtile to affcdt the Scnfe. Hence alfo it is' 

that the Colcnr of the Partr of the ^l^/rf, is ufually (■Fi^7^f,or Tf//^n.,nc- 

vcr Red : the former, depending upon a greater participation of Aer ^ 

the latter, o^SuIflmr, laddfunher, That the moft ruAj/Z/c and An- 

d Sulphur I being by means of thefe Parts mxich. difcharged 3 it may 

hereby corne to pafi, not only that the Seed is more Oy^r.and its Primr- 

pics more fixed ^ but alfo, that the Body or Parenchyma thereof, is fo 

compaft andclofe: For although it confifts o^ Bladders^ yet fuch, as 

are Twenty times fmaller than in any other Part o\^ z Plafit of the like 

bigncfs- Whereas, were the Acr copiouOy mixed with the Sap here, 

as in the /^jM, Fruity mA oihf^x Parenchymous Parts -^ it would give fo 

quick a Fern/ent to the Sap, as to dilate and amplify the Bladders of 

the ^fe^,beyond its prefent compad: and dtirable Texture ^ and fo cxpofe 

if, either to a precipitant Grvteih^ or fudden Rot. WhercforCj as 

the SeedXafck the Womb ^ Co the Attire (which always ftands upon 

or round about it ) and thofe Parts of the Sap hcrinto difcharged - 

are, asit were, th^ Menfesot Fhrvers, by which ih^ Sap m the mmh^ 

is duly quahfied, for the approaching Getjeration oC the Seed, 

6, §. And as the young and earlv ^// /re before it opens, anfwers 
to the Menfis in the Fcmal : fo is it probiible, that afterward when ir 
opens or cracks, it performs the Office of the Male. This is hinted from 
the SLapc of the Parts. For in the Fhrid Attire^ the Blade doth not 
unapiJy refemble a fmall Fetsis^ with the Sheath upon it, as its Pr^puti- 
tim. And m th<: Seed-tik^ Anire J the feveral Thcf£^ are like fo many 
]irtic TejlicUs. And the Glolidets and other fmall Particles upon the 
Blade ox Penrs^ and inthe T-fiff^, are as the/^^^ir^-iWe Sfermc. Which, 
fofoon as the Perris is^ exerted, or the Tefticks come to break, Mh 
down upon the Sccd-Caje or Womh^ and fo Touches it with a ProH- 

7, j^. Confentavcons\\GVGto\tn^\io ob(ervabIe, That thofe Herht 
generally h;\\^ the Seed-lil^ Aitirc^which cither produce a greater Quan- 
lity of ^tW, or a Peref^nial Root : and that there is no Tree, with the 
'Florid Attire, As if theothcr, becaufe it contains a far greater Pro- 
portion of the abovefaid P^rt/i/c/, thiit IS, ol Sperm ^ 'tis able to beget 
a more Nttmerojfs^ Vivaceojts, or Giganthi{ Birth, 

8- ^. That thefiime W-?^ns both ^/^ and Female, may the ra- 
ther be believed^ in that Snails^ and fome other Animals, are fuch. 
And the Farts which imitatethe Menfes^ and the Sperm, are not prc- 
cifely the Jamc : the former, being the External Parts of the Attire, and 
the Sap, which feeds them ^ the latter, the fmall Particles or moyft 
PorvUer which the External inclofe. 




9' ^* 

Q^ idwai 


Ic 1^^. 




Book I V. 

oy" Flowers. 





9- <*■ And lh,u ihcfc P,^rU€ks, only l.y falimj, on the Vkrus 
ihould communicace to it or to the% therein, a ProlifuL r„.(,„ -, 
may Item the more credible, from the manner vvhcrein Coition k ' X 
byforae^.;.«.i^ a. by matiy Bn<h where there i, no haro^m,„ 
but only ail AdoJcnUtion of i>wrt^ .- And fo in many FMa Ncitl. 
in others doth the Pc^is ever enter any further than the of Ihl 
Womb. Nor docn perhaps the ji*.«Hicfe!f: or [fit doth it cnn 1 
means be thought, bodily o? .s to its groli 6'«i//..,.. ,o enter the M.^ 
in,.,f /, ,n which every Comcptm^, or the Uqnor intended f„r itfr 
fore any Couic^, is involved; but only Ibme fubtlc and vimficb Fffil' 
^a, tow!i,chthevilibleS.4vofthe5.«.^, ist)uc ar.toc/ And th" 
like Effi^:, may be very eallly transfufed from the .-.bove faid Ziiks 
into the Sved-Cafe or (f ,?«/> of a PLat. ^"rircicj 

10. j( If any one fliall require the Similitude to hold in everv 
TdU7g 3 he would not have a PL»t to referable, but to be, an aJZl 

CH A P. VI. 

Of the Time of tiie Geficratbn of the Flower. 

HE Ti/ac in which the -F/o^ej-isGeneratedor For 
med IS a Providence in Nature, whereol^ I do a lit" 
tie wonder, that no one, among(t fo many obfer" 
vers of P/^«//, hath ever yet taken any noti^ It is 
therefore to be remarket!, That all Fhivm are for 
^ med or perfeftly finifljed, in all their Part, Ion? 

K. u ^r" ™f '^"^y 'rP^'""'"'^g''^3 ufuallyThreeorFonr 

Months, and fometimcs half a year, or more. And that in all Pcren 

Kid PUnH, thofe Flowers which appear and are called the Flowert of 
any one year; are not formed in that year; but were aftually in 
B«*^, and entirely formed in all Faris, the year before ; as in many 
tierbs, and in all Shrahs and Trees. ^"> 

, 2 - f,. This will beft be fccn by forae Inftances. So the Flower of 
Mcza-co« _ which opens m Janmry, is entirely formed about the midle ' 
Of Mg«fim the year foregomg. At which time, the Green Leaves of 
the BhU bemg cautioufly removed the Leaves of the Flower, and the Tah. U 
ihee£ Semimformes or Seed-likg Attire, encorapafTin^ the Seed O/? 
through an indifferent G/^j5,areaIl diftinftiy vifihler ' 

3. )S. The like may befeenm Siry,iga, and other Shnhs, and in 
i-rees. In as many of which, as are Frugiferom, the Fntit alfo which 

fy forSeS! ■'■^' '" °'^" ''^'^'"'' '^ ^''^"^ ^'"^ ^^"^^ "^^ -^Ji-^?^ 

■n J.^y Andfoinar/-J5astiieFtof;-of.^>a;«, which appeareth 

year. For there are here, as well as in trees. Two Sorts of B;,^. 5 fome Jab U 
which are compofcd only of Greer, Leaves 5 and Tome which alfo cZ ^ 
tein a Flomr and the Seed-Cafe. So i,i Bears-fiot, by fome ca! edThe 
J^>>'yRofe Th,Fhrver.B.ds, which qpen \:Ja>,Jy ate all Smed 
in or before the Moiith of ^.g«/J in the year preceding, 

3- #. 




'i . 








The Anatomy 

Book IV' 

^ 5- ^- The fame may alfo be feen about the end oFAttgiffi or the b&- 

Tal^ 6Z §'""^"S *>f Septtmbrr in a Tulip^RoBt. In which, the Two Jnmofl ShUs 

^' dryer than the reft, (land hollow, with the little young Flower fwhich 

appears mM^rf^ or ^fr;/following)inclorcd now in thcirCeff/>-f Eein<; 
thus kept r^arm and dry, left it (hould cither periOi, or be precipitated 
upon the Winter^ by fprouting too foon. 

6. s(- From hence Jt is plain. That ahhough the FloTvcr appears be- 
fore the Seedx, yet if the comparifon be made betwixt the Flower and 
ScGd of the fame year 5 the Sctd is firft formed, and afterward the 
Flomr. That \% the Seed^ for which Nature choofes the Firft- 
bom-^rfp, is formed in the forepart of the year: which work beina; 
fimthed, out ofthe!cfi/^f««^;,^rf of the ^^^7, the Fkwns intended 
for the Sire and Mdtrix of the next years Seed 3 is afterwards prodiiced. 

7- j5. TH E true tim of the Gencratim of the Flower being 
know'n, it may alfo be an Inducement to make Tryal, for the bringing 
of many Flowers to grow fairly in JTw/er, which are ufed to grow, that 
IS, to appear, only in the sprjfjg and Summer : fi, by keeping the Plants 
warm, and thereby enticing the younglurking Flomrx to come abroad. 

^ .:> 


7be Appendix. 

Being a Method propfecf, for the ready finding, by tht 
Leaf and Flower, to what Sort any Plant belongeth. 

L T H O U G H many have beftowed extraordina- 
ry Care and Induftry upon the learching out, and 
Defcription o£ Flapts:, and for the reducing of 
them to their feveral Trrhej : yet I will take leave, 
here to propole a (hort Method whereby Learn- 
ers, feeing a pUnt they know not, may be infor- 
med to what Sort it belongs, and lb be direded 
where to find it defcribed and dilconrled of For, except they have 
a Mafter to conduft thera,which few have^ rhey muft needs,by feeking 
at randomjlofe a great deal of time, which by a r^ular Enquiry might 
be favcd. Befides, that what is learned by their own (Aifervation, 
will abide much longer on their mind, than what they are only Poyn- 
ted to, by another. 

■2^ ^. Now the nioit Philo/ophic^ way of diftinguifliing or forting 
of Piafits^ were by the CharaUeriflkk. Troperties in all Parts^ both Com* 
pounded^ ConfiiUtents^ and Cofitettts, But of the Compomded^ the Seeds^ 
and fome other Parts^ arc oftentimes very mimie: and xhe^ots always 
lie hid. As alfo the Confiitucfit Parts, every where, without cuting and 
the ufe ofGlitffes. Nor can the Cmneftts be accurately obfcrved other- 
wife. So thar for the Vfe here intended, thoic Properties are the fireft 
to be infixed upon, which are the moft CoMfpicuoiss^ and in thole Partly 
where the Learner may the moft readily and without any difficulty 
take notice of them 5 as in the Floroer :mA Leaf. The fWer hath 
Varieties enough of it felfl But in regard it is often wanting, when the 
Grsen Leaf is not ^ it is therefore convenient, thar he'be aflifted 


I b 


h J . 


be infof 


or ^ 
[be 5^^ 

Book IV. 

of Fiomers: 

by both, and tlut ilie V-iricticsof bofh be tli^tinfily reduced unto Ta^ 
bhs. Which may be done, after the following, or fomc other like 

5, §. And Fir)} for the Leaves. The moft obvious Varkfies of 
which, ai^: \\\ xh'Six Pofition^ Si-^e ox Shape. 

4» $, Leaves arc faftned with, or without a Stalk- Without, 
only doferoihe Branchy as in SonikijIU^ or turrounding it, as in 

5. sS. Both thefe ways, they ftand either fingly, that is, but one at 
the fame height 5 or more together. 

6. §. More together, in Even or Odd Numbers. In Even Numbers, 
commonly Two and Two, as in Sage^ Polhtm--, Sometimes Four, as 

7. jS- The Sis^cs Q? Leaves are innumerable. It is therefore necefl 
fary to reduce them to a Standard, And fo, they may be reckoned. 
Three > Small, Mean and Grcdt\ with refpetl to the Lt/igth of the 
Leaf^ the Breadth^ or both. From one Inch and under^ all Leases may 
be accounted .y^jdi' 3 from one Inch and over, to five inches, Mean':^ 
from five and over, Grfi^A 

_ 8, 5S- The shapes of Leaves arc alfo numbcrlcfi. But the mod ob- 
vious diftindions which they admit of, are fiich as theic 5 

9. jf. Leaves ^Te Me/f^hrafre fill/ ^ 3s the greaicr part 5 Sqitaf^consy as 
Abies ^ or FiUme^tous. Which are filid^ as in Femi, Meum^ Bufhthal- 
mum^ Chamcmile^ Groufidpim 5 or hoHorv^ as in Omotu 

10. ^. ^Memhraneous^ have all their main Fibres produced either from 
the Stalky , as in Holyoa\:^ or from the middle stem of the Leaf^ as in 
moft. From the midlc Stem^ reciprocally, as in Scabiotts, or oppofitely, 
that is, one over againCt another-, as in liefe 7 and both ways, at Jaile 
Angles^ as in moft 5 or lisght^ as in Dandeliov, 

1 1 » ^- Again, they arc different with refpeft to the Top, the Bot- 
tom^ and the Sides. The Top is Thorf?y^ as in Furz 5 or 'Dttarmed, Un- 
dfmeA^iL\t\\fii?Y9dHced^\\vx\.\%^Poynted^ or at lealt, Roiindijb^ as In L^- 
ptium^ Ironworti, or dfc Reditced, ^^'mWoodforrd. And lb thQ Bot- 
tffm^ is either Redtfced towards the Top^ as in Gromtd-Ivy -^ or Prodn- 
ced M^owzh^ Stalk., a^ in F^plar, Bay^ &c» 

12. ^. Th<^ Sides or Edges o^ tht Leafi, are either of one and the 
fame Meafure^ as commonly 5 or of divers, as in Doronhum. Both 
ways they are Even, as in Syrirgd^ Mous-ear'^ or Uneven. The Un- 
even, are Prickly-, ^^ BoUy^ Eryngii/m, Thipe ^ or Unarmed, Unar- 
med, are Infeded, or Rcfeftcd. Infedcd deeply, that is, Lobed, as 
Golden Liverwort^ Clematis Peregrina-^ or with fhallow Infei^ions^ as 
in moft. And fo, Indented, or Scallopped : the former, when the j^at- 
^/eUmadc withStraight X/wej,as in D//tf^e/?£^j;5 the latter,with Crooked, 
asinrW/^?r;^w, Rclefted, that is, both Lobed, and Infcded, or when 
upon the Greater Infiaions^ there are other Iciler ones, as in Wild-Clarj^ 
Lovage^ Majhnvort. 

13. ^, THE moft Confpicuous Varieties of rWi^rj, are in their 
Fopion^ Size, Shape^nnAColoHK 

14. ^. Moftarcfaftnedwith^^v//:/; but manj' without. Some- 
times, they are placed round about the Branchy that is, Coronated, as 




r ■ 



The Anmmy 

Book IV. 

^i . 

1h ^ 

■■ -\i\ 



in pukgh/ffi ^ and fomerimcs, all on one fide , either in Ranis only -^^ 
in B-JitiM 5 or in i^^w^^ and FJle, as in foxglove. In Saxifruga AurZ 
they grow on ihe /.e^/I ' 

15, iS, Again, they either ftand Singly, as mCortj Marigold-^ or 
Ckftur*d- And fo, either all upon one Bravch^ or on Icveral httic Ra- 
m'tficaUd Sprigs. On one A, prolonged like a Tail, as in Biatt^ 
ria^ or Contraaed, And fb, either without Suli^s^ that is, C^pf/^- 
/f^, as in ScubiQvs ^ or with Sulk^s^ that is, 'OfttbcUatcd^ as -FVw/ 6cc. 
On Jeveral Sprigs^ us mTufraiCttiMj Tarroxo. 

i5, ^. The ^?KCJ of /'/tJTperj, asofthe Ic-z^'cj, maybe reduced to 
Three. From \ an Inch and under, in Diameter or Lcjigth may be 
accounted smalL From i an Inch and over to an Inch and ■' may go 
for Mea^. And from an Inch and ^ and over. Great. 

ij. In refpeft oixh^Shafe^ J^hrpersare ope/J or Be/I/d. Op ca have 
both Le^^z^w and Attir€^ asmofis or clfe arc all ^///rf , a^ of Burdock,^ 
Beta Cretka. 

18. f^. The Opc^, conlift of a Certain Number of Lf-w/^ Owe, 
Two^ Three, Foirr^ Five^ Srx, severr^ ^Jgf^t, Nifie, Ter?, Thirteen, or 
One and Ttcaity. Uncertain, commonly calkd Douhk, Thofc of a 
Certain Nur^iher^ either Vfiiforfti^ that isj all of a certain Sme and 
S%e, asufuallys or Biform, or Triform^ as in Irk^ BUttaria. And 

' thefe again. Even Edged or Nefcked^ with Three Toynts^ as in Mari- 
gold 5 or Fivc^ in Ochory, 

19. jS, The Beliy^l, are either fn in whole ; or in Parr, that is, 
with the 7'tfp divided into /.e-^zr/, and the s^^/z^jw, Hol/ow: The for- 
mer, arc alfo Even Edged, as in Com-ohnlas 3 or Notched, as in Tra- 
theUvnt. The latter have their Leaves diftinguiihed as before. Their 
Bottom ox Bafe^ either faCtncd to the Seed-Cafe, asm Snap- dragon t, or 
ftanding below it. And fo, either Straight, as I think in Toad-pax -^^ 
or Crooked, ViS\n Violet, Lark^heeL 

20. jS. fn all thefe, t\i^ Attire\s^\l\\cv Semwiform^oi Florid. And 
both, Cltifi/ird^ or Divided , as in Malkrp^ St, Johns wort ^ Starwort 

a I. j4. T\\cColoHYs Qit\vt Fhrcer, ax^White^a^inWater-Croycfoot'^ 
iff J, as Lychnis-^ Blcr^^as Borage j Pt/rpk ^ us Stock: J f dy f tower ^ BUcf^ 
as in fomc ^weKJcwa ^ Tc/^jp, in rfW/-f /tin^f^ 5 TW;^^, m Colys Jovis -^ 
Grcejj, 'm LtJjircola, Which are cither Single, or Mixed: T^o toge- 
ther, as in Bjftyr-Ei^r, White and Ked^, in f^/j/Ze Heilihore^ White and 
Grfcw ^ 'in A/flvV KwWi, fiei/andG>'fCj;^ Sic. Or T/jree together, as 
lU^Pancy^Tcllow, B lew ^ and BUi k^ , i, e. atro-purpurctts. 

'^2.'fi. Howfhrthefe, and fbme other like Z)//?;«^j(7;fj, boing re- 
duced to Tf/Zi/rj, would fervefor the Jindingout ofanySort of Plants 
may be conceived, if we confider, how great a Variery, a few £v//j, in 
the ringing of Changes, %uill produce. And the fearch will be eafy,and 
fuccefbiulj, if in tvery foregoing T*;i/f, reference be made to thole that 
follow i, and in the Tahles conteining the U(k ^Djvijions^ the Names of 
xh^Plants therein pojntcd out, beexpreiied. 





4 1 





Arr, fixi 
'.- tee (oi 
. as in Tr. 
i)K. Tic 

Mi Abc 





^ J 


F R U W 


With the bare EYE; 


And with tlic 


•VI .*F A H :^ 
Read before the Royal Society^ in the Tear 1677, 

^ ' 


^ ^ 

.M V 


, of the n or AL S C I E7 T, and of the 

■' A i-i . . 

J I J. 

- V T 

W O J^^\ 



a : 

Printed by ^. 254?r/i»/, 1682; 


McEof . Gar. 







4 f 




Third Part. 






^. ' 



■ : - i 

Of the APPLE; and of the LIMON, anJ CVCV^ 

MER, the Fruits o/riants vulgarly called POMI- 




r "1^ 


Li \ i 

. ri r 

■b "f 



^iT ^^Ofthe PEAR and QJJINC E. 

1 ^ 

^/ //je 

C H A P. III. 

'6 P LVM, and fome other Fruits o/r/je fame Kindred 


Of the CRAPE, and HAZEL-NVT; iviih fome 
—- ' — , other Vmizs ar/alogous to each of them. -- ■ 




^/ the VSE of the Parts ?o the Fruit. ' 

■i ■- ^ r- 

CHAP. Yi\. . 
Of the VS Ecf the Parrs to the Seed. And the T 1 M E, 

1-1* ' r ■" ' 

intpbicby r&e Uterus ormiitrfnrt'Sced-Cafctfjf/o'v/W. 

^ 1 



r I 


Book IV. 

79 . 

r r 




O F 






■ L 



r ■ 


Of the APPLE; and of the 1 1 MO N, and CVCV- 
MF.R, the Fruits of Tlants vukarh called P M I- 

ah jm 



H E Defcripiifff, and Vfe of l^ves and Flmers 
together with the f/^/zrw thereto beloiwinf were 
prefunted to this Homi.r.ihk Society, the U\ year 
1 ihall condude this Subjta with Fruits and 
^«c// i beginning WithFruiti, which will take 
up the jtrefcnt Difcourle. 

=. $. And Firft, I fliall defcribe the Com- 

M/i,- 1 t. ■ T P°'^"'l'"g^'"''-^offorae, more generally known. 

Which having done, I iliall next obferve the Vfes of the fame; either 

forthe^™;Mrfdf; or for the Seed. Some of the Defi^non'X 
r^eader muy be plcafed to compare with thofe in the F,rft -Boofe. Ch 6 

cumer, commonly reduced to the Pome Kind. 

I^Jfd'. and Conr^. The P..remhyma or Pxlp, is the ftme with that of the 
&.5«. of the 7>... As is apparent, not only from the viftble comU 
nuanon thereof ftom the one. through the 5^, into the other but 
alfo from the Struftare common to them both , bdng both compofS ■ 
Oi Bladders., notwithftanding, the., i! (his difflTence 

F f 2 That 

I 'I 





The Anatomy 

Book IV- 

Td. 65. 


Tak 6$. 

Tab, 65, 

• \i 


Tab, 65, 

Titi- 66. 


tab. 66, 

TaL 66. 

>. I ( 

' :;; 


That whereas in the Bar/jjtc^ they ?iTt fpUrkal^ and very fmall, moft of 
tlicnij through n j^ood G/.v/j, not exceeding ^^^^ of an Inch inDiaf^re- 
trc^ and fome ofthcm, Icfi: here,they are oblong and very large, molt 
of them about \^ of an fnch in Length, or more^according to the large- 
neis and tenderneft of the Fruit --^ being all uniformly tenter*d or 
ftretched out, by ihc^i-f/i/w^ of the K^fZ/j from the Cp*??' towards the 
Circumference of clit Apple. 

4. ^. The K;/7f //, as in the other P-?rfiofa P/^^r, are Sttcnfcrmu^ 
and for Ar, Both the Br./r?i7jfj of che former, and the Gnglc rf//tVy 
of the l.itterj are extrcam rmall. They run every where together, not 
collateral, as ferns and Arteries do in Ammuh j but the latter, fheathcd 
in the former. 

5- jS. They are diftributed intoTwenty principiil Bra^ihes. The Ten 
ourmolt, a little within the ^/j/j/^, are diverted from a ftraight/Jy/r^into 
ibmany great A(Afj5 from which a few fmalt /"//'re/ are w-rthour any 
order difpearfcd through the -^/"p/c. The Five midditmoll:, and ihe 
Fiveinmoll, run in a firaight L/wir as far as the C^-^r, and are there di- 
verted into as many leJler Arrheti, the former, at the outer, and the 
latter at the iner Angles of the Coar, Upon ihefi: Five inmoft hang all 
the Seeds, 

6. ^, Theie Ten, and the other Ten aboVLfiiid, do all meet toge- 
ther at the top of the Apple^ where originally, they all ran into the 
Flower. But betwixt them, there are fcarce any intercurrent Fibres 5 
fb that they appear every where diijund: fromthcbottom to the top 
of the Appk, 

7. )J, A LIMON hath a Threefold Panmhyma'-j which fccm 
to be derived one from another ; the Tfj^/ttrf, upon every derivation 
being fome what altered, and fo made moreclofe and elaborate. The 
utroofi, called thei?W, haih the motl open, an J the courfeft Ttj/ftre; 
being com pofed of the largeft Threds^ and thofeTirf^j woven up into 
lai^er Bludders. Thofe little CV/^, which contein the Fjfc?^tial Oyl of 
ih.G Fruity and flandnear theSurhce ofthe jR/wf/j are fome of the faid 
Blfddtrs much more dilated. 

8. ^. From this uimofi VarenchyMa, Nine or Ten J??fertiofis or £j- 
»;<?Z'j are produced, betwixt as many Por/zt'wj of the Ptdpy Part^ to- 
wards the Centre, where they all unite into one Body^ anlwerab!e fo 
the Pith in the Trifnk, or Root of a Tret 3 and is a confpicuous dcmon- 
ftration, of thecommunion betwixt the E^r^Jte and the Pith--^ which 
there, is much mote obfcure and difficult to obfervc. At the bottom, 
but efpecially the top of the Fruit, the Pith is lb far expanded, as with- 
out the mcdi:itionof any Lamels^ tobe joynedto the Hind. 

9. §p Throughout thi^ /^jrf;?f/^w-i, thePf^c/j are difpearfed. But 
thcchiefBi'.vvi/jfj liand on the incr Edge of the Rind^ and the outer 
Edge of the- i^>^/', juft at the two extremities of every Lamcl From 
thofc Era?iches on the Edge of the Pith^ other little and very (^lort 
onesdioot into the Pidp of the Fruity upon which the Seeds are ap- 
pendant. In the Centre of the P?//', are Eight or Nine^ in a Ki"g^ 
which run through the I'ritit up to the Fhn^er. 

10. J?, Between the i^/;/^/ and the P///) and thole /.rfw/r/j-, 
which joyn them together, Oandsihe Itcond Sort of /^-/rfwt/^/^/^^, dif- 
ferent from the former, in being fomewhat clofer, and finer wrought 
Divided^ bythc- I.^^?c/j, into fevtral diltinft Bodies ^ every one of them 
a great and entire ^-/^» ii- $' 






Book IV. 

of Fruits. 





•0 lie 10 

we Hi 

t Tcytm' 


^a tea* 
'. ffiua 

.A (^ 

1!, ^. Within every j*reat B-rf^, is cntKeincd a Thirt! Pj^r^r/^/w^a, 
which is alTo a Cliilkr of other httle Ihgs^ about the bigneis of ati 
0^/f, all disjoynedone from another, and having their diltinft Stalks, Tah. 66- 
of ftveral Lengths^ by whieh they nrc all fiilhicd to the utmolt Side of 
the threat EJg, wherein they are couteined. Within each of thcle leflcc 
B^gs are conteined many hundreds of Bladders^ conillting of moft ex- 
tream fine Thrcds v/ovtx\ up together into that Figure. Within thefe 
BUddcrs lies the Arid J^f^ce of the Limon, 

12. i. A CLICLIMER, hath alio a Threefold Parcfichyma. The 
Utmoft, is derived, from the B./r^/f*:. In this, being expofcd for fomc 
time to dry, and then cut tranfverny with a Rdfor 5 not only the Blad- 
ders^ but alfo the T/jz-ff/jwhereottheBW^/frJConflftT through a good 
Microfiope^ are apparent. 

15. j5- 'Y[\ro\[^om t\\\s Parefjchym A ih^ S. If -Vejfcls are difperlcd ^ 
near the Circumferenee, in Tenor Twelve very large Pr^^Wj^j, Each Tab. 66* 
of thefe larger gr<jWjej,cmbofoms another of ArKej/e// in its Centre, 
Adjacent 10 the Midie Parenchyma., they iUnd in Cfjtjlres of much 
Imaller Branches, but more numerous* 

14. ^. Out of all thele 3ap-Veffels^ iffue!; a tranfparejit and vilcous 
Mucilage 5 which being dryed, become-i as hard and lough as Gnn/ tra- 
gacanfk Analogous to which, I fuppofe^ is the truly purgative part of 
Eiafermm* . 

15, ^. The MyAle Farefjchy?fta is derived from the P///j^ and divi- 
ded into Three Colmfs^ ftanding triangularly, and having each of them t h ££ 
a Triangular Figure. Within lht(e CuUtms ftand a diftinft Sort of SaP- 
Veffds: from whence, fcveral fmall and ftiort Fibres {[\oot. into the Jn- 

moft FarenchynM., whereupon the Seeds do hang. So that thelc Columns 
are as it were the Biids on which the Seeds grow. With each of the 
Seed-Branchs ox Vibres,s^O<:^^om^ part ofthefaid Vartmhym^ox Cokm^ 
out of which, the Ct)^^erJ of the 5^e^ are formed. 

16. §. The Inmoft Varmchyma. wherein the S^eds lie, and which 
anfwers to the Bulf of a Limon^ feems Hkewife to be derived from the T.i ££ 
Celums^ that \% lo be originally thence produced upon the Seed-Fibres, / ' 
and afterwards fprcad and augmented into a Pttlp. By Three Ittfcrti- 
onsfxom ihcCohtnrs^ and as many from the Uirnoft Pctrenchyf>i:i, and 

thefe re-inferied^ it is divided into Six Tr/^w^/z/^^r iJW/c/ 5 and every 
Triangle^ into T\\tqqOvjIs. 

17, §. A near refemblance betwixt the Garden and WddCncuj^ier, 

with refpeft to the biward StvH&hre^ as well as the Outward Figiire^ T I AA 
may be obferved : Both of them having a Threefold Parenchyma. Yet "^ ' 
with this difference. That the Three IFhite Tnungidar Bodies or Cc- 
hms in the one, ii anfwcred by a White Ring or Tube in the other. 




1 1 




I I 





h I- 





■1 "1 


The Anatomy 

Book IV. 


Of the F E A R and QJJ I N C E. 

i'EAR, befidcs the %/:, confifteth of ^ Twofold 

Varefiik^mayOiVtJJcls^ T'trtareoits Knots or Orams^ 

dind^Codv, 'VU^Skin IS lined wsth a great nwm- 

hc:[o£ th^(:i\ATartarcons Grains^ through a GUfs^ 

about the bignefi of fmall Shot: whereby tt looks 

wichinfidejike the S^ifJ of the Scats and fome other 

Tab, 61^ '^^^^^^■^. ^^^ :Fifi}Qs. Befides thole which grow to (he s\in^ there 

are alfo many more ftarding near adjacent to it all round about the 

FthH : altogether about \^ of an Inch in thickneis , through a Mi- 

erofiope:^ as ia a Slice of a ?ear cut tranfverfly is apparent- Somewhat 

moreorleJ?, as I rake it, according to the Delicacy or H;u(linefs of the 
J^ritit ■■, as more in a ft;r^-3^_?jOr other foft and fwett Pear, than in ihoJc 
which are called Strar7gnIatoriit, As all Vitfons Liquors^ and thole efpe- 
' ciaMy which are the moftTi^r/iirftJfljj become more foft and fweet, ac- 
cording as they caft off their Trfr/-/r, in agrcater quantityj upon the 
Sides of the Vejfti 

2, )J. TheOutCr/^^rc^^f/i;'^^/, is of the ftme Original, and gene- 
ral Siruflure, as in an Affk, But the BUddcrs^ anfwcrable to the Shape 
of this -f ra;f, not altogether fo long, with refpeft to their Bredth, 
Tak6y. Throughout this Taremhymj, are alio difpcrttd many fmail Ttirtarcous 
Grains'^ moft ot them fomewhat round, as t hole next the sl^n^ and 
of a like Si%e ^ but nothing near fo numerous, 

9. ^, The Bladders here, have alfb a different Pojitisrr from that 
they have in ^n Apple: there, they are aU foftretched out, asrohave 
^ refpcft 10 onecommon Centre, which is that of the y?p;?/t' it fel£ But 
herc,thcy every where bear a refpe^to the i)i]dTartareos/j Grj;/;/,every 
Gm/vbeing the Centre of a certain Number of SjW^^rj ^ Jike a st.3r, 
in thcmidleof its/^r/^A:. .Whereby, fo many of the tartdreous parts 
of the S.-//', as cannot well be thrown off upon the skp'^ are more 
commodioufly difcharged, upon every Jiiile KmH qt Graifj, nearer 

4. 4- Throughout this i^jrfW£/j>w<;, the Ff/i;/^ Hkewiic aredifpcr- 
fed* Ofthe Two general Kinds, iox Sap^ and for Ar. Th^ Aer-Vef 
Jcls, arc hereextream fmall, as well as in an Appk--^ yet one degree, 
Jarger. They are both together diftributed into b'iftten principal 
Tab, Sj. Brafuhes. The Five Utmoft make as many Anhs^ but common!y not 
near fo deep as in an Apple, From thefe, fome Imall Fibres^ yet a lit- 
tle more numeroufly than in an Apple^ are difperfed throughout the 
Parenchyma. The Ten Iiimoft nin along to the Scul^ and from thence, 
with the other Five, to the Flower. 

5p ^. Next theCi?jr, (lands the inner Pareinhyma^ in divers rcfpefls 

diftercnt from the Outer The BAW^/trj of the latter, as hath hctn 

iTiid, large and long ^ ofthe former, fmall and round, anfwerable to 

"- thoit^of theP///'jOf wdiich it feeniito be derived. Tiiroughout that, 


Tab. 67. 









- ErJ:: 

ttftlt Eo 



Book IV. 

of Fruits. 


tlie i.'Pls am! 7:/;/,/w«/ &rj;//j .ire (lirpcrfed ; iij this, there are nci-T 
ther. The EffiH whereof is, that is fwcet, this fower; for which ^^" 
realoo, I have taken leave to name it, the Atctiry. 

6. 6. Betwixt this and tbt outer JP^rm/ywj, the fiid T.,rt.trco^ 
Gr./w/ begin, (lift to Hand neater together, to grow higcr and of ^ 
more unc-qujl Surface ^ and by decrees, to unite into a BeA m fonic -7- , ^ 
J-cars, and efpecnlly towards the Cork. , almoft as hard as :i Flj„»-Slo»e - * ^?- 
which I have thereupon, named the CakoUry. So that a Pear is N i- n r/ ^ 
turcsPrf/jccor Introdiiaion xoAPIum. ' . ■ «. r. t./j.6, 

7- ^- This Taytureous Body, and thofe fmatl Gr^/iw iibove faid J r, ri £ 
have foj-mcrlyfuppofed, to be precipitated out of the %, l>y virtue of"" '* ''*■ °* 
the A f^//. Which IS not only argued from their growing, where 
the Vejfeh, only in the outer Vannchjma : but in that the vt^ry Bounds 
*',' ':'S'":eo^t^eCaI,«lary, is determined by the Sztmio» of the chief of r,/, ^, 
thole /^#/r 3 .IS m cuting a Pear (inoothly through the Centre and bv ■^' 

the Length, is apparent, ■' 

T,-,?" *\ T^ep.raswellasthe^a/^,;;, feems to be derived from the 
Pr(A, Andis therefore leffet here, than in an ^ppk, where the whole 
^Jlfoottbcstali;, goes to the making of the Co^r only ■" ^ 

. 9- ^- '"iPf f^ Pc„ry,at the bottom of the Coar, and a little beiow 
th^e Centre oft he Fri,fl, there is a kind offmall VmMical Krot -^ from ^iti. 67. 
whence IS extended a ftraight Chund or i^^ffs:., which opens at the'' 
midle of the Cork, or Stod of the Fl.-wer, Caret wide enough to admit '■" 

the fmallett F.n. Mjde for the Vfi hereafter mentioned ' « ■ 

10. 5(. ACLUINCE, is nearly allyed to a A^n The diffe:' 
renccs betwixt tiiem are thefe ■ In the ^.nnc, the outer Parenchyma 
IS more clofc, that is the Bladders are fmaller. The rejfds more nu- t , . 
merous, and more deeply en. rched , the C./m/.rj greater, and more ^"^•^'^^ ; according to the AA.;.. of the Fr.H : but The Aetary, lefs • 
The f,«.r Ibnds higher or nearer to the Cor/^ ■ divided, not into Five 
but Four OI,s. And the D>,ch, from the bottom of the Car to the 
top of the Friitt, mucli more open and obfervablc. 



Of the P L V U, and fome other Fruits of the fame Kindr^l \^ 

PLUM confifieth of a Parenchyfua, the Two'' 
general Kinds of Ve^cb, and a sto^c. All which 
I have already deferibed in the Firjl Tgoofc. i Ch. 6. 
fiiall here add, and further dear fome things. 
And Firff, it is to be noted. That, in Pro- 
portion to the /i«/4of thtFruil, there are more 
Vejjels in a PUifH, than in an Apple, Fear or 
, ""■" , , . ^'"ce. As alio, That in Plums, all the VefTeh ire 

braced together into one Uniform Piece oi Net-WorkX^S^^;^^ 
emma ,„g at an equa diftance from the Circ«..fere.ce fi. 3, of an T.i f.^ 
Inch or thereabout. And atfor the Bore of x.J Aer-VcL -.Irh ' u ^^ ^^■ 
theGi,/. I ^M, whea I examined this fr„., wouWwfSht* S 

"' ' - ; — ; .... . -.i. ^j . . ?. J , J 

., ' SI 






I , 


f3 h 

r L 




The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

B.I. Ch. 




' ; . ^1 

.1 . 

V I ' 

I , 

f ■' 

IS It to be prefamed, thn tbey bear a juft Proportion lo thofe in the 
rwj^of the ratne7>i:f ^ and that therefore they are htre larger than 
m an %/.- or Pc^r. The %^ iikewile of a P//^^, is more hrons 
thjck., ^ndloftgh, than in thofe frw/j. The Endsof ihcfeDiveriitk/ 
we (hall prcfentJy fpcak of. ' 

2- ^. Of the stof^e^ amongfi other particulars wherein the con^ 
&,6. tnvance of Nature is very admirable, 1 have formerly ftiewed. That 

itiscompofedofTwo or rather Three diftinft 5*?^/f/, One of them, 
the LiffijTg ^ which anfwers to the Coar in a Pear. And is originated 
from the Parenchyma^ which the Seed- Branch brings along with it 
through the Chaf;cl in the Side, and at laft into the HoUoiv^ of the 
^ Sto^e-j and is there fpread all over it; as when a fmall Glafs-Pipe, is 
blown and expanded into a Bubbk. Or at if a Bladder, being ftretcl^ 
Tah 6B *^^' ^/^^P^^'hroughthe Mc^of aBm/f; were then blown up, fo 
as to be every where contiguous to the Sides^ and become, as it were 
the Lining of the Bottle. ' 

3- if, Tht Foiwdatiofi or Grmnd of the Outer and more Bulky 
Part of the Stone, is the Iner Pan of the P^rirw%-t«d 5 and anfwers 

Ttfi. ^3, ^^J^^ Acetarjf in a Pf^r, As the Frmt grows, the Tartaredns Parts 
K>\t\itSap^ being continually precipitated upon this P^rf^f^twtf it is 
hereby petrify 'd. As will beft be feen, by comparing the feveral A^ 
^fj of the fame Pr;/i/ together. And in fome Stones-:, on the Surfice 

Tab^ 68. whereof, lomeofthe faid Tartarems Parts appear in diftinft Grains. 
So that whereas in a Pear, the Cakulary and the Acetary are diftinft' 
^r '" ^-^^'^''"' ^^'^y are thrown one into the other. Or, as fome 
Mineral tValers only make a Cruft about a Stick or other Bodies im- 
, merfed in thtm^ but others, by (inking into thcfe Bodies, do here- 
by petrify them / SoinsPear^ iUq Tartareous Farts of the Sap^ only 
make a Cm/2 about the Acetarj-^ but in a Pl/w/^ they fink into the 
Body thereof, or that Part of the Farenchynfa, which ftands in the 
place of It, whereby it is converted into a Stone. The Figyres ofst&ttes 
ftiall hereafter be fpoken of, when 1 come in the next part, to the Ce- 
^rs of th^ Seed. 

4- Sf- AN APRECOCK isofthe P/;.;..-K:W. But fome 
thingsare herein better obferved- As fir ft, th^ Fvfnion of the BUd- 

. ders of the Farenchyma. For the Tartareons Farts of the Sdp not beine 
here difpcrfed, in little Grains, throughout the Fruit, as in a Pear% 
but all thrown offinto the Stem: the Bladders therefore are fo difpo- 
Tah 68 ' as not to have refpeft to feveral Cf;^/w, as in a Pf^r^ but only the 

Stone,tow^h\zh they all do moll cxaftly radiate^ thereto conveying 
the feaiknt Sap, in fo many little Streams. This is belt feen, when the 
yfruttis fall ripe, 

' 5' Jf' In thisFr////, while it is young, the gradu;al tranfmutation of 
the Inner Vnrt qf (he Paremhyma into a Stone, is alfo more apparent. 
And fo are the 1 hree Cc^^/j, which fcrve for the Gtneration of ih?' 
W5 being now all very diltinft^ and remarkable, not only for" 
their Bulkh but alfo, tlie Analogy which they bear to the Three Mem- 
hrams in many Vivipirom Animals. Whereof I fliall give a more par-- 
'^^^ ^^^, Pf^f'^''^^ ^^^^""^^ ^.t^ome, in the following pact, to the f^' 

'^" \ ^ fEACHhathamuch bigger 5tone, than eiiheraP/;^*;' 
f>l ^n Mprecoch,: and hath therefore, when full ripe, and efpedally in 




: -I 





~ ■- ¥'' 
-" - - *--t 

i ttt ?inv 
>, as fa 

Gf dohr 
f Jf , CO 
k imo ti 
leJ? in tb 

. Bat(» 

JDK to 





Book IV. 

of Fruit f. 


hot Countries, a more defecated or better fined Juyce. For the rea 
Ion why the Sla»e is fo great, is becaufe the Fe^cls run Co very nu 

meroufly through the Body of it 5 andfocaufea more copious preci- 
pitation of the Lees of the Sap thereinto. ^ 

7. if. A C HE E R Y is Jikewife near related to a Plim But 

tlie 5««™.;;( or RcliMo^i of the J^#//, is here carried out further ^ , . 
(o as 10 be all round about contiguous to the sk'i- And as the Aer ^' 

Veff,h III the BW of a cA^r,-_,.r«.. are Jargtr than thofe of an Ap- 
^fe-SW butlefsthanthofeofa Phm-BrAnch-^ fo may they be pre- 
fumed, to bear the fame Proportion here in the Fruit 

8. k- A W A L N U T, is a Nucipmne 5 or betwi'xt a Plum and a 
A//( as a Bat IS betwixt a B^^/and a Bird. For the RiW, anlWers to 
the Pnlf ; and the ShcB, as the J/tf»^, is alfo lined. But the seed-VeC- 
Jcls, which m a P//«^/ run through a C^^we/ made on purpofe in the 
6tom i do here enter, as in a Nut, at the Cealre of the 5Ae//. By which 
means, they are inverted with a more fair Pdrefff£;«f« 5 which Nature 


CHAP. IV. . 


^///.. G^Y^' ^^^ HAZEL-NV7, ^ith fornt 
other Fruits, analogous to each of them. 



. T 

G R A P E, IS a Phim with two j/««e, , fo^ their 
thicknefi, as hard I. any other. The i),y?„wJ « 
of the^'^/.is alfo fomewhat different. For the ™-^9' 
S^l«^'^ ^^1^ T™;,''^ "P <l'^caiy betwiH the 

whereh,,, becomes very thick and>o«gh. A„d astS^Si „ 
the r™„t of a c,,,, are greater .ha„ in that of an A„U, P„ „pL 

2. §. The Parei;chjr»,a or P«/;. of a Gw/e, feems to be derivM 
Z,^'''Z'\'''rV'"'''''^P''''' "'^^ Panly from the £^,^^^^^^ 

UtmoftisirS^? "^Pc^^' hath a Threefold P.««rW. The 
SaZ rt -i ^'°V^' ^''1'" ' "'^ ^ G^^^«^'' C«/^«r, and very 
ay, as tne _J.^,.,et,^; /„^,^,,^^^ j^ J- jj In both of them tZ 

SetihinlTr"'"''""""'' -bove what they are in any ;.S* '^' 
prercnt think of 5 fo as to be vifiHe to a_ good Eye without ISL. 


I' ■ 



I at 


Tdi, 63* 




, J 

b ' "1 

Tdk 6$. 




Tak 6g, 


. 4. ^. Betwixt thefe Two ^tfr^wf^/wdj, do run moft: of the princi^ 
pal Fihres^OT VafcuUrThreds. From which feveral fmallcr ones are 
branched into the Inmoft Fanvchyma 5 upon which^ the Seeds do hane, 

5. ^, Each oftheie (m^Wi^v Brancha is invefed with fomc part of 
the midle or white Parcftchjinta. Serving partly to make the CWr/ of 
the Seed ^ and partly, the /'«/;>, that is, the Inmotfc andfineft Parenchyma 
of the ft rr/, in which the ^ee^ilieS; 

- k White COR. IN, v/itbout taking off the ^j^w^ fheweth not 
unpleafantly how the 5eec^J arefaftned. Foras the 7>//w^of theTV^e 
continues not to any coniiderable Lengthy entire^ as in a Plum but 
is prefcntly divided into feveral Bp»^Aj 5 nor are the Edgesof the Lir^f 
entire, as alfo in a Pkm^ but Hit into (evcral Lobts ^ and the Fruit into 
agreatmany Cmtfj in 2. Bunch: So again, iht seeds do hang upon 
th^ Fibres^ like Two other Bumhs^ mtv^ry Corin. k^hy Refra&i- 
ofj, Objefts of all Sizes are rcprefented on the Wails of the Eye^ The 
Oierations oi NatnrehtWL^^ every where Uniform; and Ibmetimes the 
feme in finall, transcribed from a greater Copy, 

7, iJ. A NUT, is a Plum inverted, or turned infide outward 
For th^SkeU^ landing naked, icdudes the Paremhyftta : ihe bearded 
C^^ not preciftly anfwering to ikaty but to the Emfakment of the 
Flomr^ which likewife in many other PW/f, out-lives t\it FoUatnre 
and Embofomes the Uter/^ of the Seed. And whereasthe Sto^^eo^ a 
Plur^ is not Faced, but Lined with a Varemhyma derived at fccond hand 
from the P//A-' The shell of a. N^th not Lined, but Faced with the 
iner S'j^/ff ofthe Cap. 

-'8,^, AN AKERN, is the JV/^* of an 0<?j^ Yet with this dif: 
ference 5 That befidcs the Cup, it ftands in, it hath only a Leather?! or 
Parchment Cover inftead of a Shell. From whence it come to pafs thnc 
whereastheKcwc/ofaN«/is {weet J that of an ^^m/, is of a very 
rough Tafi : the Anjlere Parts of the Sap^ which in a Nnt arc drained 
ofFinto theSif//, being here imbibed by the Kernel it ieJC 

CH A pT X-iT 

^■i OJ, 




I ^ I 



I 1 


h 'I 

( '^ 


i r 

O the forcmentiotied Fruits^ I ihall fubjoyne,Tn feme 
Examples, the Defcriptht of the Seed-Cafe^ which 
is analogous to the Fruit. For the fruity Oriftly ib 
called, n^ A FhJJsy'Otcrus^whuh grows more m&ift and 
Fulpy, as the Seed ripens. But the Seed-Cafe^ whe- 
ther it be called a Cod, Pod^ or by any other namc^ 
iSj A Membraneous Vterus^ which as the Seed ripetrs, 
prlf groitfs the f^forc dry and hard: as inmoft ftants. 

2. ^. THE SEED-CASE, is either originally open; Or on- 
ly when the Seed is ripe 5 Or never opens at all, till the Seed be fowjj: 
Of the firft Sort, is that of Iwto/tf 5 ^^sACoofCtary, S.i^e, /^>/^, and 












j «bicli 

Book IV. 

of FrNftr. 



.Ik- like : whurcin one .m! the Tame P.-,.-,, ,s both the E>.,pa!e^e,i of tlie 
/■-^a-^/-, am) when is gone, frirvivcsas the C,./. ofthe.Vc^^ 

.11 c(ie5/.... of ^n./., d.vers others. And fonK* C#./55 

are foft, ns, I .hmj, that of G.r^c;, ;f„^,//,. Th. former, by cle^vS 

in fomefjrt or other ^ thcfe only by roting under Ground '"^ 

4- §■ .THAT oiG^nlciRadiJh^ isa Light andSponsv or Pithv 

_J?.^^ 5 or.g.nal V every where entire. But, as it rij-cn., breaks wth- 

the Length and about j^h of an Inch difbnt from the Sides of the'W ' 
do run a of little Vafa,Lr Ropes. Some fmaller FM-s are from 
ihefetra,ifm,ttediothe..,^..of,he6Y.; by vvl>ich they .re kep 

ueaudfteady Upor, diversothers produced toward^theCW, I aig 
the Seeds, hkc Two Ropes of 0»io>it. \[>' 

5. §. Of thoie which open fo foon as the Seed is ripe; fomc ate 
made to op™ at the Top, as Pcpy Heads , Some on the Side, Sl^o^ 
Cods 5 and fome at the Eottom, as that of Coded Ariimrt 

n. T ^P T-" ^ ^_on-^^< is a little D.^. Cou , divided by Eipht 
or Ten P.rW««., ,uto fo many Stal/s. On both ^^^,. the plrS' ' 
hangs a moft numerous S.oad of Seeds. The Partitions and i.^.. oF"*" 7'^- 
the He^d are made of the Ear^^e, and Lined with the P.M VVhii; 
young they are veryj«^.^,and>.^^ ; and together with the Se.ds, do 
then hll all up.The Head is then alfo every where entire^ but as it dries 
It gradually opens at the Top, into feveral ff^/;../«^y,one for every siai 
whicharealleovercd with a very fair C.«.f^. A^.i.^^defignedfbr 
feveral purpofes, as Ihall hearafrer be faid. ^"fe"earor 

7. §■. Of thofe which open on the side ; fome are made to onen 
only on One S.,/. ; fome, on both Sides^ fome, with Three ^X 
fome, with more, and fome bori^^ontally or rou,;^ about. ^ , "; 
■ \- I^ ^^ ofG^r^e«Be^« C^ndfo thereftofthe 7.™. 

™. kind J opens on one 5;^.. It hath a Twofold /VmV«. The 
Utmoft derived from the B..^.. : in which fraud all the f#/. in fe!rr 
vera! ^-''^J ^ one whereof, at the B.^ of the C.^ is much hrllJ'^' ^°' 
han the reft, Ihaped hke a ufed in ..W. ; f^om whenceSo 
ihole IcOer Fibres upon which the Bea»s do grow ' 

9. §. The Inner Parenchyma is derived from the /'//i. Upon it. 
Nativity, and for fome ttme afierwards.entire and wholly compS of 
Bladders^ as the Outer. From the B^^ of the 6W the/are gradnairy 
enlarged, fo as to compofe this Farenchym. into a very foft and deS t^ 

eafily to be drawn out ( as in the uroavirg of K^il-mrk) to a conS 
det.ible Length, fo.rlyvifible through an ordinary G/^// ° ^ ™""' 

10. f This may fiirther confirm all that I have formerly faid of thpR ' 
Fj^W Te.,... of the P,,, and of all the other P.^^S-llo}?,.^,! i" 

Siii 3"/f ^-''-'^^^ of iW.^^.., i,a C.^ wound op: in the ^■''•'•^^■'^■ 
fher h V f ■^'u'"';^,"^"''^^'''' byanif./.>. Not finilhed all toge- " 


1^ ^ 



Ja. -S. 

i ill 


The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

Tjfh. 7 Op 

tak 70. 

Tak 7 r< 



, 1: * 

, I 


T^k 71, 

ii ., 

, I 

. t 

- . 1-1 

'. I 

I ■! 

12. §, THE Seed-Cdfe o( Telloiv He^b^an opens on both Sides, 
OtitheTfTp, iseredicda Coliim^ about i an Inch long^ which, as the 
C-aye fwdlj;, gwroskls, and at bft fails off. On thc^/iJe/oftheZJfcr;^ 
ox Cafe i T^oVufcuUr Fibres run oppofitely from the bottom to the 
top, and fo into the Ctf/w;^ Along tht:7?-^5 of thefeF/irc/, the C^^f, 
as it ages, graJuaily cleaves on both Sides afunder, 
- 15. i^- The Crf/e is lined with a dry and thin Parchment ^ as 
finooth as G/-7/J, In the Ce^ire of the Ctf/t-, ftands a great Farenchjmous 
Bofs^ which is, asit were, the Bed or PUccfititla ofthGSeeds-j which 
lie aH over it, as in a Striivlerry. And fo in many other Plants. 
Throughout this Bcd^ the Vcffeh for the Gemmtion and NoHri^)ment of 
the^eft^j, are diftri bated i one very fmall F;irf, (hooting, from the 
direct ones, obliquely into each ^fCfl. 

14, 5. THE Sced'Cdfe oi Tulips opens with Three Sides t^ bc- 
ingj when young, a Prifm or long Triangle. From the mid!e of each 
5/3^5 a PartitJGn or Bo^rd is produced 3 all three meetiJig in the Ccn- 
*r€ of the Cafe^ and fo parting it into Six 5fd//j for the 5ef^. The in- 
fides hereof, are, lined with a thin fmooth and glofly Tarchmmt^ like 
that in Hefi-he-^n:, derived from the Pith^ as the outGde, from the 
Barque: and lb in many other %eed'Cafis, 

I J. ji. ThzVtJJels^ after they rife above the Stalk. ^^ are drfpoled 
with great artifice. For firft, they are divided into Three principal 
Branches^ which run a long the Three ^;i^/ej of the Cafi--, where the 
Three 5 /if e/, as it ages, gradually cleave afunden From thefe chief 
Bra/jchesy at the Three J'^^/e/, divers ktfer ones run horizontally, and 
meet at the midle of each Side, From whence again, many yet fmaljer 
ones arc produced through the bredthof each Partition to their Edges 
intheCcfl/reoftheC^yp. Where^ oncemorc, they are diftributed into 
very fine and (hort Threds^ whereupon hang the Seeds, 

16. §. THE Seed-Cafe oi Stramofjium 01 Thorn AfpJe^ is divided 
into Four Chfits : Not open one into another^ as in Foppjf^ Tulips &c- 
but fo many diftind Indofitres, In the midft of each Chfet ftands a 
Cobim, joyned rothe5/Jeofthe C/a/^* h^ 2,WaU 01 Lamim, Through 
the Length of the Cf^/ffff" run leveral greater and leffer Branches oi 
Veffeh, from whence others are obliquely produced, upon which the 

Seeds grow, 

17. (f, TRESeed'Cafiof Anagal/isOTPifnpernel^ isa liltleG/^ie^ 

which opens not by its Mer/c//j» or rer/zr^T^, as do the former 5 but 
by nsHorizon, Fordiversvery finall fj^re/^being produced from the 
St'ilii to the midle of the Cafe ^ do there fetch a Cirde^ and fo divide it 
exactly into Two Hm//fiem; the Uppermolt of which, when the 
Seeds are ripe, falleth off ; and fo the wind fowes them, 

18. ^. THE Seed'Cafi of Coded Arfmart, neither opens at the 
Top^ nor on the Sidcs^ as do all the former ^ but at the Bottom. It is 
compofedof Four5/-^w.- the Outer Part of which, is fofterand more 
feiccuknt 5 the Inner a tite and ftrong Mmbrane. In the Cmtre of the 
Cafe^ is ereftcd a Pole or Colum upon which the Seeds do all hang very 

loofely. • 

19. ^. From this Alefi^v////, the manner of that violent and lar- 

prifing Ejaculatioti of the Seeds, is inteUigible, Which is not a motion 
originally in (he ^e^^/ ihemfelvcs^ but contrived hy rht StrnQ are oi 
the Cafi. For the seeds hanging very loofe, and not on the Sida of 





■i m 



ij Jividft 



j3ook ly. 

0/ Fruits. 

iheCj/f, as (ometimcs, but on the Pole, in the CsH/re, with their 
thicker L'nddowiiward,ihey Hand ready for a dilcharge: 3.adthcSidei 
of the Cafe being lined with a (trong and Tenfed Memhram, they here- 
byperform theoi^ce of fo many little Eows: which, remaining taft 
atthcTo/f, and fcontrary to what we lee in other P/dw(j-) opening or 
being ktt off At the BoHom^ .fotccabjy curie upward, and fo drive all 
the i'«(/j- before them. ■ -'■ '''■■■ '■ 

■ i. Tllii lO 



L 1. J ^ 


^/ the VS E of the Parts to the Fruit. 

N the forgoing Defiripiiom, I have already mentioned 
the Ufz of the F^r/j in ibme particularsp ] (hall now 
a httle further explain the manner of their fervicCj 
both to ih^Frnit^ and to the Seed, 

3, f. And firft, the^_^/yfervefortheF/^«r-^ 
lio/j of ihG Fr/iJL So in an j^ff/e, the Ten great and 
utmofi: Bramhes ferve not only to nourifli and feed 
it ; but alfb, hy the Arched Unes they draw, to direft and govern the 
Growth thereof into an orbicular Figure. The DiUtation of theft 
Veffeh^ not being hindred by any Brava orCt^K/««^/o« withthe In- 
terror ones. By the Skndernefi of the Aer-yeJJds, as in the iJt't^/, fo 
here in the Frmf^ much promoted. And by their Saline Fritjcifh^ 
firft b*^an- 

5- jf. The Five midlemoft and the Five Tnmoftferve tc^ether, to 
figure theC<j^i the former bounding the Oater, the Latter, thelncr 
Anghs. For were they only Five, or were all Ten in the fame Gr^ 
ck^ they would only make a roundC^//;hke that of a hollow Pi/A, 
Hence it is that %^j, in which fome fmall Threds of the VegeU ftrike 
out into the Circumference^ are very Uneven with divers Kmhs and 
Ridges, But Pkms^ Cherries, &c, where the Veffds all terminate at^ 
an Equal diftance from the 5^'«, are Even all round about, 

4- ^. Tlie Bulk, of the Fruit dependeih alfo on the Sraces of the 
yefftls. FoT in PUtms md Cherries, they are more numerous , but in 
Appks and Pears they arc very looie one from another, and fo have li- 
berty left them tofprcad abroad. 

5; ^* As alfo on their 5/ze 5 that is, on the 5j£e of the Ar-f^//. 
Which, the \tis they are themfdves, they ferve to make a bi^c Frttit. 
As the left thgy are in any R^ot, they ferve to make it the more ample. 

i- J^'^^'^^^^ are, the more pliable to the -^/ir^^w« of the A'rr 
^"/!"J^*"=^rGrfln^firauft make fo many more fpiral Ri^gs: by both 
which means, they mala^ the greater Arches, And therefore a Pear is 
commonly a fmaller f mnhan an ^;^;^/f 5 a P/«jw than a Fcar^ and a 
^rapc, than a Fhm-^ in all which the Aer^^efRh are ftill greater and 
greater- ^ 

6. jf- 





h ^ 

4 . 






The Anatomy 

Book IV. 



. t 


1 , 

-I \ 



\ ! 

I I 

6. §. From tlic fame C:iuri^, k is alfomoft agreeable, Th^c the 
J''n/?*fhoQld not come before iht;/-cdf^f/ or J^/cJiPfr^ but laflofaJ) For 
x\\G Acr-VejJ^ls, as hath been ofccn noted, arenotcxaaiy Cylindrkk 
but tapered i that i^^, not only the f'iw confifting of divers of thcfe 
nffeh hut the rebels themfelvcs, as thty afccrcl into the Tntnck^ 
Brnmhei, Leaves, Flomr, and Imit, grow ftill more and more ilender 
So that the fmalleft coming Ia(V, and being the nioft pliable 3 they are 

alfobeft ^ccomi£ioi:itiiiiQTthQExpanfiofioiiht Parenchyma iniothat 
we call the Frttit. 

7. i^. Itislikewifea propcrQL'tdion tobeaskcd. How itcomcs 
to pals, That fbme rhtnts bear a Fntit^ and rot all ? I anfwer That 
asthc5';j:(roftheA/'-^#/jconduceth ^o the &/ii oftheJ^n/)/, and 
the Order of its Gro^vih; So the /S?//^^^^fr of them, to their being, ot 
not being, ^ny FruH at all. For the Frnit^ as we havealrcady'de- 
fined it, is an Vterus, which grows raoyfter and fofter, as the Sted 
ripens- The reafon therefore, v/hy xhtVierns in QjmG flat^ts, conti- 
nues moift and foft after the ^^^e^ is ripe ^ and in lome, dries up s is, 
Bccaufem the former, there is a fmaller, in the latter, a greater Qi^ian^ 
ty of the AtT-VeJfcb in proporuon to the other Pms of the Vtertts 
and foa greater quantity oiAcr. Which as in the Pith of moft PLnts] 
fohere, by degrees excludes the -^tf/', or rendring it more evaporable 
comes in the room of it; and fo'theU/er^/is dryedup: that is, there 
i&T\QFrHH produced^ but only zSeed-Cafi. 

8. ^. From the Size^ Ntmhcr, and P^/th?r of M the Fe/eh in Fi-4tifs 
a reafon alfo may be given, for the diveriity of their T.ip, Some lo- 
ftanceshave before been given ^ to which I (hail add one or two more- 
So the Ri^d of an Orange^ is bitter 5 the Pw^, fower. Eccaufe the 
former is furniihed with many L/^j/i7/;j^^f//, xYx^Snlphnreoifs or Oyty 
Tm^urc whereof, being copioufly mixed with the Acid of the Paren- 
chyma^ produce that T^. Whereas the Vul^, which is very fower, is 
^voidofall manner oWeffeU. ^y\x\{x\\tsap-Vcffeh are either I efs nume- 
rous or lefs SHlphunoms they give fo mild a Tin&ure to the Panmhym^, 
as not to produce a bitter, but a fvveet or foft Tafi ; as in Afpks^Grapes^ 
Goosherries^ &c. And of a Gfl^jkr/^, it is particularly to be noted, 
that whereas, in a Limf^, the Fidp only is fower, as being void of 
Vcf^b: here, on the contrary, the Ptf//^ only is fwect, whereinto all 
the Veffcls ftrike, and the Rind fowen 

?. ^. Thedtverfitiesofthe547;^itfe!f,havethdrZJ/S. Andthcre- 
fore, the tnore tender and delicate the i->;«V is f thc-y^;j;, onthecon- 
trary, is thicker and more tough- So Apples have a thicker %/;, than 
Pears 5 Pkms^ than AppUj'-, and Grapes than Plums ^ thofe having as 
it were, only a Coat of Kid^ but this of good thick Bnf And there- 
fore fome Fritiis, although tender, yet either not having fo rich a 
^«^rf, or coming early, and fo not being expofed to cxceflive heats, 
have a very thin 5^/^, as Mulhcrries, Stnmkrrm^ &c. 



i> ' 

' I 

'! ! ■ f 





'I ■ T 

Sonx t 
[WO mof 


Book IV. 

of Fruit. 




r g 

Of the USE of the Parts /o the Seed. ^»<///je TIME, ifi 
ivbicb the Uterus o/- Fruit and Sczd-Cnk are formed. 


ND firfl', for cTfampIe, in an Appk^ the Five In- 
mo^Brtimhes^ do beftftrve for the Gemration oi 
the Seediy theft running into the Aifire of the 
Flower^ and fo carrying off the mtrft ^fr/^/ Spirit 
from the^eec/5 by which means, it b-jcones 3 more 
compadt and denfer Body^ than the Fruity and Jo 
more accommodate to the procefs of ?^f^rfrf^/ff« 5 zs P. 2Xh':' 

hath formerly been (hewed. 


3. ^, The£/<7wg<7if(7ff likewireofthe5<?ed-Ff^i>, in the J"rff?f and 
C^/f, fometimfsdireftly, as in P/»wj and N«/j-j and fomctiraes by ie-p 
vcral Ambages before they (hoot into the Seeds., as in T«/?^ 5 (hewes a 
defign for the higheft refining and maturation of the Remind Sap. 

3. jf- Chiefly by means of thelnmofl Veffds^ h made that CyS^^e^ 
infome Fears^ and efpecially in Quinctu For thefe perifhing with 
theF/^jrer, the circumjacent p^reWjjwa (brinks up, leaving the faid 
CArf«*:/in thcmidft, DeGgnedfor an inlet tothe ^rr, for the better 
drying of the Seeds \ which here ftand the more in need of it, becaufe 
encompaflcd with a MMciUg^. . .^ 

4''§' For the better drying of the Setd^ and the disburfing or 
fowingofitinduetime, the opening of rheC-^y^is, in the lame man- 
ner^alfo contrived: either at the T^p, as in Poyy 5 or on the Sides^ as 
inTnhp,Pi^per?7el:^ or attheBe^/r^/^, :x^ in Ccdded ArfmarL All which 
openings are effefted by the running of the Aer-Vejfels z\oug thofe pla^ 
ces : for by drying the Parenchyma next adjacent,they caufc it to chop 
and cleave afunden 

5' ^- Of the Seed-Cafe o£ Poppy^ it h particularly to be noted. 
That as the feveral W^W^b'/, ferve to let in ^er, for the drying of the 
Seeds, after (heir full Growth: So the Catfopy over them, ferves to 
keep out iJj;>. For here, the C^/i not cleaving down the Side, as it 
mually doth ; (hould the Raw get in, it would ftand in it, as in a Pot^ 
and To rot the Seeds. And as the Ca^ropy ferves to prefcrve the Seeds ; 
fo the feveral p^j';//;^>^j or fT^^i'/, forihcir bcUGT S/ovpage. For by an 
cafie furvey of this Itttle piece of Ground, it is plain, that as they 
itand on bath Sides every Wa//, there is as much more Ground for thern 
to Uand upon, as if there were no parting mils, but the Seeds ftuck 
all round about upon the Ai^bjt or Sjdes of the Cafe ^ or upon a grea: 

i^f^orp/^ce«/^wnhinit,asinH?^/0'^;^«A AnagaUis^^c. where there 
IS a Jcfs numerous Bmd, 

6. ;. 

*, :. 

I ' 






The Anatomy 

Book IV' 



6, i. The Ccj^rlikewife, by Ilanding betwixt the moyft i>^/-e«££^^^ 
and the Seed^ and being hollow and io filled wirh Aer 3 doch much 
conduce to the ripening and drying of the Seed^ and its greater ficnels 
both for keeping, and fowing. So the Parchr^ent Limng of iht: Seed* 
Cafiy as in Hpfcja^ntSy Sec, is anlwerable to a Cvur. 

7- f- The Parenchyma ferveth, amongft other purpoles, for the 
Genhatwn of the C^er/ofthe Seed-^ as in fome inftances hath been 
Ihewed. For which intent, fometimes the BA:/fir/£ir Pdre/^fj&jw^j as in 
a Limon ^ fometimes the midlemoft, as in a Gcosberry or Cummer^ is 
fubiervient 5 both of them, intbofcFmij, being more white and dry^ 
than the reft, and lb fiter to make the Covers of the Seed, 

8, §, The PrfftffftAi'jw.^isalfoof ulefor the warmth of the Seed^ 
as in the Seed-Cafe of Garden Radijh. Wherein, as it ripens the Z'.*- 

J" e^i-^^w^ gradually dry s, breaks, and (brinks up into ieverai fofc AffPf- 
ifrarres^ in which the 5cf£^jj inthe Centreof theC^yej Ucfwadled, as in 
fo many fine Calico Clonts, 

9- I SHALL conclude with oblecving the T/*tff of the Gffffrtf/itftf 
of the Fruit and Seed-Cafi, This hath hitherto been thought to be in- 
itiated upon the opening, I fay noCjthe forming^but the opening of the 
Flower^ or not long before, Notwithftanding which, what I have 
formerly faidof the Flowery T now do the like, of the tJtents it &lf^ 
fc. That in very many Flants^ 'tis formed, with the FUtfcr^ the year 
before it appears and comes to its full Growth As for inftance^ in A- 
marunfy not only all the P^r/j of the J^Wer, buttheZJ/e^wj it felf, and 
there in alfo the outer Cover of the Seed of any one year, are pcrfe^ly 
formed in Augnjlot September of the year foregoing- The like may 
be feen in T^^/i/'j Mezereon^ Corin^ and many other jf^rc^^^/ij/P/^ctj. 

- \ 1 V-- r 

10 ?vt J 





^- ^ 








ir, thfyt 






fr^ e-'> 

O F 




With the bare EYE, 


And -with the 


* ■ - 

The Figures prcfcnted to the Rojyal Society^ in 

the Tear iSyj^ 



1 I L 


of the RO T AL S C I ET T, and' of the 











i, ON DON, 
Printed by W.^wlms, i68;., 

McEot-Garc r_. H h 











Fourth Part. 




; C H A P. I. 

Of the FIGV RES of Seeds. 

OftheNVMBER and MOTIONS of Seeds. 


Of the feveral COVERS of Seeds, and of the K7- 


C H A P, IV. 

OftheFOETVScrtrueSEET): and fir (I of the 
RADICLE ctnd LOBES.y ^ . 

C H A P. V. 


Of the BVpS of Seeds. And of the P ARTS of which 
theje, the Radicle and Lobes are compomded. 

C H A P. VI. 
Of the GENERATION of the Seed. 






^ ^. 


■I ■ I 












v; P^ 



Book IV. 





O F 





Of the FIG V RES of Szcds. 

HE Figures o£ Seeds ^ or rather of their out-" 
w^rd C&vers^ are made fuitable, Partly to their 
Collocation in the Uterus^ as the End, So thofe 
of MailoTP^ ftandmg like a Coronet round the 
Stdi\^ are of a wedged Fi^«rc 5 whereby iheir 
fharp Edges do all msec together in one Centre, . 
Partly, to the various diftributionof tbeFf^// 
or Fibers^ as one Canfe : by which the Meajrtres 
and Snrface of Seeds, as well as of the Leaves 
ofPlatsts^ are dlverniied. And partly, to the Nature of the Saline 
and other Principles regent in a Ptant^ as another principal Cati/^, 
And therefore the more fton^^briitle, or full of Salt the Covers of any 
Seeds ZTG^ they are generally movG angnUr^ and their i^j^w^F, whether 
tfw^«/dr ornot, moreconftantly oblcrved* So the Tartare&jts Stone o£ 
a Plum, is not only more angular^ but alfo more regular than the Husk 
of the Kernel of a Pear or Apfle^ 

2- §> For all Stones are meafured by feveral Cireks^ whoJe DU- 
ntetres hold a certain proportion to the Length of the Stene ^ in the 
fame manner as hath been fliewed in the defcription of the Lt:af. So P,i, CL'^, 
the Sione of the Pcafe-Cod-Phim, is meafured by two Circles, That of 
the Turi^ey-Pltem w'nh Fom. Thcit oi the Aprecol^Plun/, with Two Trft- p, 
repeated oppofitely^ being perfedly libomboid. To which, thofc > 

alfo of the Wheat- Plunr^ Damafieen^ and fomeotherSj allude. And fomc 
arc meafured be four Circks^ and one repeated. 

H h 2 i- 3. ' 

F- I 


■ ^ y 










( I 

I ■ ■ i 

I'l si 

. t 

! f 


Ti&^ Anatomy 

Book IV- 

g. §, Thef/^*rf/, not only of the larger fort of 5^^^//, but even 
of the tmiHelt, have much and elcj^an: variety. We will take the 
pleafure of comparing thefc which follow. 

4, §» And firfl: ofall,fome areperfttSly Sphrjck^^ and with an even 
Tak 7 3, Surfice ^ as that of little Century. That of SpcrguU is alft> Spherkk h 

bat hath a krobed Slurpee , and is erconi[\itred with ^ Mcr^brancsus 
Rimffr, llkcihe fimzdff ofaGlobc, That of !ittkCV/jWm is Circu- 
hi", but comprciTed like a Cheefi. 

5, ^, Others arc Nefhrordt^o^f^or as it were Hemfphsr/c\ Of which 
Frgure^ and hereunto approaching, there arc a greater number than' 
of any other 5 as that which agrees with the more frequent shape and 

. , Fold of ihc Lffbes ^nd Raduk of thQ Seed^ as fiiallbe ften. Yet with 
fome ditference, as to their Shape and Srtrface. So, that ofLychms Syl- 
Taky^, ^^^"-r IS figured juftlike the kidney ofaCa; 5 and hath a knobed J«r- 
ficff. That of ftfffej' conies near it inShape^ but hatha Surface ex- 
actly like that part of the Pamch of a shecp^ called the Hofry-Coome, 
That of great Celafidwe^ is a liuk more oblongs and fo, like the 
Kidney^ not of a Cat^ but of a Sheep : chequered with parallel Rirjgx 
and other ihorc L7f?es placed alternately betwixt them. 

6, ^. Where, by the way, we may fee, as wcllby theScet/, as by 
the other Parts, of how different kinds, the Great and Little CgUjj- 
ditje^ notwithftandig their Namesj, are robe efleemed- 

J'db 73 ^" ^' '^^^^'^^^^''^ of i?fff or ^^///^/^ J^tf/F^f^js fomewhat like a 

■ ^'^' Kidmy -■ but hath its Circumference railed up into a double Ridg : to 
which itvcral fmall Ridges do in fome ibrt alfo radiate frome one Centre 
fc, the Bafi ofih^Seed. 

Tak 75. ^' ^- "^^^ ^^^^^ "^f Chrcfyx'eed, is partly like a Kidney^ and partly 

like a little Retm. As alfo that ofPentaphiL fr^giferum. Bur the for- 
mer is rough caft with fmall pieces having as it were feet on each fide, 
like little iw/d^A With which, the Seed q? LcHchanthcmum f which 
may be called, ihcGiant-Chickpeed^ doth much agree. The latter, 
hath feveral Fibrous Ridges^ retembling ih^ Fibres in the Auricks of 
the Heart 5 or runing from the nofe to the Circumference, fomewhat 
like the A^ymmh Lims on a ^adrant. ■ ,' ,. 

Tak72. .^' ^' ^^^^ tiTtOval^ as tint of the fTttJe 5f//, and rough caft 
with Fibres almoft parallel and produced by the Length of the Seed. 
In which latterrcfpeft, the ^tf^^j alfo ofTr-zf^c/w/Ay and fome other like 
PUr.u^ are agreeable. That of Sr^^-y/wf,isallb Of^/, butcncompafled 
with a thick Rif^r^^ narrowing all the way to the Bdfe of the Seed. 

10. ^. The Seed of Dove sfooth:vih:\T\ oval Cone^ and a flat Bdfi, 
IxsSiirfice fwous, like that of Poppy ^Toad- flux, and fome other nycak 
Th^lofSednm mimts ^^ivum hiU^m^ is in a manner the Figure of 
the former inverted, being flat, not at the ^afi^ but on the Top. And 
whereas chat rifes with a blunt A^igk^ this h:iih only a Viidg^ ralfed 
above the Surpct of the Seed. 

11. i* The 5aWf of divers Ibrts of Gj-//}, arcmorc Ccw/fj^, asp:ir- 
"- ' ticularly of that, which for the likencfs its 5eft/ hath to a F-^''^ Cortj^ 

may be called iW/fT^-Gr-^y}, And I little doubr, but that among the 

Trfi 73 fcveral forts of G^^/r, diere atc fome which anlwcr to all ihc kinds of 

Ejhdmx Qr<um, ^^ Ojt-Gr.ifs, Rice-Grafi, IV hat-Grafs^ Ryc-Gvjfi. 

And accordingly,ihat they may be more profitably Ibwn in oneCround, 

than in another 3 and ulcd with diftinftion, for the higher, or more 

^ ' ' wholtbnic 






*^ if ci, 

■fat All 

Book IV. 

of Seedf. 


wlioirome feeding of Cattle, A Hj'P, though it (et:ms an imperfcit 
J'UtJt^ yet belides its F/^mcr, hath alio a picnrifu! brood of ^SWj of a 
Cottic!{_ Figure. 

13. tf. Some ^t'irJf are Cylhdrkk-, as that of St. ^'ohr^f-wcrtj as • 

a](bofTff//}v, and fome other likci'/irw//, with fome Httle diversity in 7-^ 
the i'/f^^c or Surface of the 5ctf^- That of Vkrunw^ is in a manner, ' 
half 3 C^Jivdcri the trne 5(7f£/ lying in the C^iTr/, like a Child, ui a 
Cradle without an head, 

15. ^. Others are rather Ctfffirf7''Cj//Wr/i^i^ J as that o(jacol>isa^ 
having a Coronet on the top, and feveral furrows by the Length round ■^''^' 73* 
about, Anfwerable to which, h that of Er)gcritm ; in Sl^pe not 
unlike to a Rowlmg-pin. 

14- J^' Som^ a.x^Plam-Conick J as that of J^df/*', which is fliaped 
ibmewhat like the end of a Spcer. That o( Bj/c-hrighl is more EHptkk,^ 
with feveral Ridges running by the Length 5 and joyned together with 
fliort pieces trat.fvcrfly, as in the looping oi Lace. That of Worm- Tak?^ 
TiKoduot very unlike a litde flat Effetjce-Glap : in which, the Fibres 
are produced by the Length, as the Ridges are in Eye-bright. And fo ia 
Tarrotp^ wliich is alfoenconipaflcd with a iWe^ir^ffCiJ^j Rimm. That 
oi Ddfidclyot?^ \s PUiU'Conidj toyinv^sihiiBdJc. And fo thofeof L^;- 
lice^SoKchfs^^jiXid Ibme otheri- To which, ihole alfo of H/er^cf^OTj 7>^- 

gofogon^ Scorzoffera y See- with refpcft to their iV^rc, do all al- 
lude. ^ 

15. 5- And fom^ :iYC Cfifjico-Trfit>}gttUr, Of wliiA, that of iJtfrr^/ 
is Conicb^ at both ends ^ the fides e<)ual ^ and upon every Af^gle^ 
hath a narrow and Hiarp J?/OTW, As alio that oC A^agdUis -^ but the 
Sides are Spheri-comck,.., and lb the ends are blunr. They are alio ^*^^* ^^ 
pounced with many little round Cavities^ But have no ftim/ff upoa 
the Angles. 

\6. ^. Th.^ Sc^do^Nigelld h Triangular^ 2.ViA. CiT-'/jVjt;^ only at the 
Top. On every ^ff^^/c, hath a narrow }Uf?r7^^ the three ^/^iff/ equal, 
and spheri-cenick,^ fur rounded with fevenorcight R/f^^^jby thegirthj 
joyned tc^ether in fome places with others tranfverQy- That of Ar- ^^' 74^ 
fatart^ is alfo Triavgidar and Conici^^ at the Top. Bur one of the sides 
is almoft equal to the oiher two 5 which ftand low. That of Kj9&t- 
Grafs hath three Sides^ one lefs than another 3 being as 5, ^jand a, 
or thereabout, 

1 7. §. The next ( which I take to be the Seed of a fort of Bh- 
^/(i/} ) is very oddly fgifred. The Bafe^ ovalj ihcTop, cof!icf{_--, the 
JBic^j fwelling and round as an E^g^ the Btil/y alio fwelling.but tifingj-^ 
up into an obtuie Af^t^k higheft in the midle, fomewhat like a Breaji- ' ' ^ 
picceoi Armour: and is encompaffL'd with a R^ff^/a floaped upward- 

1 3, ^. T\\nt of Moldnviafi Eatpjffj IS TriangitUr^ and Conii\Qri[y 
at the nafe. The place where it is faftned, (haped like the Beard of 
a Dart- Twoof the Sides are Fkm-cmjick.^ the Third Sphericemck^ Tak 74, 
and near as big as both the other two. The Head fiat, with s.Ri>^m 
crefted upon each Sidi\ ib as to make a Spherical Triangle. Approah- 
ingtothis, arcthofe of y-^^^t, Horehound, CUry^ Sec 

19. ^. '^\y^X. A^oijf BellisTanaceti f&lio^ hath two J/r/c/ vkmco- 
mck^, and a third Sphericomik, The two firft have feveral Ridges run- Tak 74. 
ningrothe Bii/?, Which is not pcrfeftly ccmcl^^ but a little dilated 
into two obtufe A?jg(es^ The HeadTriangtrUr^ with one 5/t/e convex^ 






The Anatomy 

Book IV- 


T4L 74. 

Tak 74. 



,, ■ I I , 


n < 

Trfi. 74. 

the other Two ftraight, a little hollowd, 'and having a fmall pmacle 
in the CenUr. 

20- ^. That of St^chas Arabtca^ a& the former, faving, that the 
Hcsdh cvdi^ and the iJ^Je (looped into a little Triangk. Thar of 
Wartjvort or SJtv-Spurge^ hath a very complex Figure. The Ffi^ con- 
fifteth of two f/^ff/^tfOTc^ Sides, as ibe former 5 the Back, SphcricomcL 
The whole Secd^ in a manner, Cotikk:Oval. Yet the b^Q and f/f*?^^ 
both fiat. In the midle of the former, a Peg by which ihe stt^d ig 
faftned ^ and of the latter, a poyntcd Kmk The midle of the Bdly- 
Sides, hollowed, fo as to make a flat i^ jtf;^^ of etjual Bredth^ and the 
hollows filled up with Bladders like thole in all the Parcuchymus Parts 
of a PLtfrt. 

21. §» Laftly, there are Tome 5??;// which are (quare. Whereof 
fomeare ftraight, as that of P^x-^We^ which hath alio an even Sur- 
pjce: And that of BlafiavMy in which there are feveral little hollows 
in even Rows. And fo in Sroumvort. 

. 22. §. And fomc CiTffi^f^, iis thut o^ Chrjff:i?ithefjrHf^t Amr re, Tis 
^adrati-conick^^ or fcjuate and Oiarp at the B*rft, and big at the 
T-a^H 74. tiead. The 5/^fj all plain ^ anda thin J?iw«jercfted upon every v^>/- 
gk. Asalfo on the four^/^cjofthe H^tf(/, which is flar, with a lit- 
tle Vinacle in the midle. 

35. ^, Th^ Se€dz\(oo£Tanfey^ is a C^'ff/^^ and bended Iqnarenot 
with the Aftgle forward, as the formefj but ih.G Side. And in the 
place of every K/^-w^hatha loui^d Ridge. Somewhat Jike to this, are 
thofe of Febrifitga^ Majcee^d^ and fodc others. Thus far of the Fi- 
gures ot Stcds. 

CHAP. 11. 


I k [ 

L- I f 


Of the NV MBER and MOTIONS of Seeds. 

A T U K E hath lecnred the Profagaihn of Plamx 
fcveral ways,but chiefly by the Seed : for the Pro- 
•duciiofj of which, the Root, Lea^jcs^ Fkiver^ and 
Fruity do all officiate, as hath been lliewed. And 
according as the PU^t^ or the Seed it bears, is 
more liable to be destroyed, Provilion is made for 
Propogatioff^ either by a greater number of Si^eds^ 
or other ways. $0 ihc Seeds oi Straxi'krry^ being gathered, or eaten 
by Ferwin^ with the Fruit ^ the PUnt is therefore ealily propagated by 
Trnrtk^Rocts. So Voppy^ being an annual ?Ufit^ is highly prolifick ; 
for infiance, the White Vofpy ^ which commonly bears about four ma- 
ture Beads, in each of which, there are at leaft ten Partitions, on both 
fides whereof, the -Sfa/jgrow^ and upon v'^ part of one fide, about 
lodSaeds^ that is, 800 on one Partition: which being multiplied 
by 10 (the number of Pdrtitiorss ) makes 8ocOj and 8coo again 
by 4 (the number of /Ji-^/^^'J makes 52000 5ecJ/, thcyeatly produt^ 
of that FLm, 

2. ^. 







Book IV. 

of Seech, 




2, jj. So ill 7};?/'-! w///dr, the Hce^if being Mown ofT.ind lown 
.0^ the Eggs of many Fipcj fpawn'd ) with great hazard, rhcy are 
ftrangdy iiumcrom- For as they (tanJ altogeihtr iiponthu ^^'M^5 i^hcy 
nrakc a ty/W^r at kaft lix Indies long, :*nd near J^'^^ of an Inch in O:- 
ametrc, or an Indi and \ about. Now 9 of thtfc Sce^is^ fee (idc to 
fide, as they Oand on the Sprfy^ make but ^'h of an Inch ^ Jo that 72 
make a line of an Inch in Length, But bccaufe upon the spi/^c^ ijic 
//-J//-/ belonging to the ^eft/j come between them 5 we will abate 10, 
and count but62. Towhich i^^^ of 62, that isCwithout the Fraai- 
on J 46. being added, makes 108 for the Circuit of rhe Cjlwder, 

And the C;/jWi?r being fix Inches long, there arc IJt: times 62, that is, 
573, for a Line the (cngth of the Cylifidcr^ Which number beinj; 
multiplied by 108, produceth 40176 the number ofiVf^/ vhichftand 
Upon one i?/d/^^ andfo, upon three ^/^^/^i-, which one r/^j;^ common- 
ly bears, there arc in one year, above a hundred and twenty Thou- 
land Seeds. 

3. §» SO SOON asthe^fft^isripe. Nature taketh fcveral jtfe- 
/Atfi/j for its being duly fow' 11: not only in the opening of the Vterus, 

as in fome Inftances (<?) hath already been feen ^ but a!fb in the make GO ^' ?- 
of the Seed it Hlf, For Firjl^ the Seeds of many PUf?ts^ which affeft <-'^' 5. Tuif^ 
a peculiar SotI or Seat^ as of ArNff/^ i^oppy^ &c, are heavy and fmall 70, & 7 r< 
enough, without further care, to fall directly down into the Ground ; 
and fo to grow in the fame place where themlelvcs had their BirtL 

4. 5- But if they are fo large and light, as to be expofcd to the 
wind, they are often furnifhed with one or more Hool^s 5 To flay them 
from ftraying over far from their properplace, till by the fall of Lc^j 
or otherwife, they are fately lodged. So the ^eeds oiAvzns have one 

lingle fJtit^/!_5 \.\\o^GO?Agrfmo?iy^i\AGo0fe-grafs^ many 5 both the for- 7^ ^ j^. 
mer, loving a Bank^ for warmth, the latcer, a Hedge for its fupport. ' ' 

5. jj. On the contrary, many iV-^j are furnithed with Wwgs or 
Feathers, Partly, with the help of the Wind to carry them, when 
they are ripe, from offthe P/aw/, as thofc of .^p, Maple^ Orach^ &c. 
leaft ftaying thereon too long, they fliould cither be corrupted, or 
mils their feafon. And partly, to enable them lo m^^ke their Hight, 
more or k-fs, abroad: that lb they may not, by falling together, come 
up too thick I and that if one ftiould mifs a good Soyl or Bed, another 
may hit. So the Kernclsoirme have wings not unlike to ihofe of 

Ibme hfe^s 5 yet very fhort, in refped of the weight of the Seed-^ Xah. 72, 
whereby they tiye not in the Aer^ but like domettick F^^tt/j', only 
flutter upon the Ground. But thofe oiTypha^ Datidelion and moft 
of the ?afp0tis kind, with many more, have very long and numerous 
Tenthers^ by which they are wafted every way, and to any diftance 
ncccflary for the aforefaid purpofes, 

6^ ^. Again, there are Ibme Seedr^ which are Icattered not by 
flying abroad^ but by being either Spurted^ or Shif7g away. The firft 
are thofe of Woodffrreh^ which having a running ii('f'/,N:Llure fcs it fit 
to low the S^eds at fome diftance. The doing of which is effected by 
a white thick and (fcurdy Coveroi^a TefidiHota or Springy Nat are^ in jj^r 
which the Seed lies within the Cafe. This O-ijer^ fo foon as it begins 
to d rye, burfts opcnon one fidc^ in an inftant, and is violently turned 
infide outward, as you would turn t\\i^Gizard of a /'Vir/5 and fo 
Ijiiartly throws off the Seed, 





ir . 

1 1 



The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

7. ^. The Seeds o^ Hart S'tongire^^Di\o(3\\th2.tTr?he^ are5Wfloi; 
Shot^vJVf. Thedoint^ of which is performed by thr curious contrt- * 
vancc otthc Sccd-Ciik-ij as in Codded Arjman^ and foms otlicr like 
riwts. Only there, the .s/^m^j moves and cvirlts; up inward ^ but h:re 
it niovcsoutward. I Qiail dcfcribc it, as wlII ^^lYnzWeuther ( wiiich 
when! obfcrvcd it wasdoady ) would pcrmir. Every Seed-d/fi, as 

Tl^i. 72, it appean through a good Glafx^ ftands upon a Fedifle from \ an Inch 
to an Inch or more in Length s at the bottom about as thiek ag.iin as a. 
Horfe-hiir^ arid ^ Vittle thicker at x\\cTop^ on which Rands the Cz/t, of 
n Silver Colcitr:, aboutthe b\^nc('s ofz Chenyjlof/e^ of 3 Sphcrkl^ Fi- 
gure^ and girded about with a fturdy Tendon or Spying^ of the 
Cclohv of Gold -■ the whole MacUtJc looking not much unlike a little 
Tddlock, The Surface of ih*^ Sprifjg refemblesa linc^^rc:^^ orfomeof 
the Acr-Viffdf in the IVood of a FLmt. So foon as by the Iffnate Aer of 
ihe phut^ or othcrwilc, this Sprijjg is become ft.irk enough, it fudden- 
ly breaks the Cife into two lialfs, like two little CnpSj and ib flings 
thG Seed. 

8. §. Thc(c Cafes grow in oblique Fkrrovffs or Tn-jfchejou the buck 

Tab, 72, ilde the laf^ from ^ of im Inch to an Inch in Length, and abom ^tli 
of an Inch broad. In one of thefe IrenLhcs an hich long are more than 
500 of theCrfy^J above defcribed ■ and allowing but 10 Seeds to every 
Cdfi, above 9OCO Seeds, Which b^ing mulriplied by the number of 
pHrrows in one Le.jf^ with allowance for the lelfer Turrows ; and that 
fumm by the number ofLmves commonly growing upon one Raot^ 
comes to above Ten Hundred Thoafand A'fCi//, the annual produi^ of 
this FUnU The Seed is of a lax^tiy Cd^^r^th rough a good GUfi about 
v.^i' of an Inch long, flat, and fomewhat oval. Of thefe, ten Thoii- 
findarenotfo big as a white Fepper Corn^ 

■1 r' 
I ■ 

' ' I .r 


Of the fever d COVERS 0/ Seeds, avd of the VP 


\ - I 

II I ' 

.J - 

I " 

-\ ■ 

» ■ 1 

H E next Hc^ofNaiiiyes Manager^^ rehCcs chiefly 
totheGrowth of the 5^^^ whcnit jsfown. For 
which purport', the outer ftff'crr are fomevvhcre 
furnilhed with Apertures (uificient for the recep- 
tion ofAlmcutA MoyjiiT from the Grcuvd f zwA 
Di'vjftoiis^ for ihc poothjg forth of the young 
Root into it. As in the Seed of a Gourde at the 
Eottof// -y inaiJcvff, on thc5/-^/i? ^ and in a Chef- 
nut^ at the Top: in which pliccs :he Rudtde or young iJef/ ahvays 
li^jsand puts forth, intliefiid itveral 6\t^/, A\\^ \.h£ Seed of P'ilf^ 
Chrifii-j \vhich ^ills 10 ihe Ground not only in the ufual Comrs^ but 
alfointhc Seed'dji\ for the more plentiful ndmiffion of. "J^/wf^^f, hath 

a double //'fr/f/rf. Not much unlike toihi?, is thi^t found Ibmcnmcs 






■ »J 


k Bill if 



Book IV. 

of Seeds. 


ill larger parcels of Eitphorbium --, for which C^f/Je, I fufiK-ft it to be the 
G//f//m ofn Plif/t of the 'Dthymat kind, 

3, 5i. Jf the tWtr of thc«SWbc ftony an J very hard, it is aKo 
cliftinguidied into ft-vcnl Pkccs^ whereby they cafily cleave afundcr 
withoLit much refinance to the eruption of the Root. So the She// ofa 
Haze/fittt tafily cleavs on the edg ^ and the cleft btj^ins bc£t at the 
poynr, where the Root ftaiids and ihoots forth. The S/^l/ of iomc . , 
tV^auis dc^vs into three Parts ^ and tht: Stofic of th^ Bel/crh/i Myro- -*^^. 73. 
bithn into five : that fo, being very thick and hard^ if one piece Hiould 
not yields another may not fail to do it. And the Covers or Hi/s/^s of 
fome forts QiGrain^ as of Mi//ct^ are only folded or lapcd one over 
another^ the better to give way to their tender Spruuts, 

3. >. Eefides the Kernels of P/n/^is and Ibme other Frnits^ there 
are very many Secds^ even of the (mailer forr^ which have alfo (lony 
Covers:^ as o^ Carihamum^ Myijgrmn moijo^trinofi ^ Beet ^ Borage ^ 
Litliofpermc^ Amnr^nthus^ Violet^ &c- Sometime*, for tlie reception of 
the harfher and lefs matured Princifks from the Secd^m its Gcj/erathrr^ 
as in Borage, Commonly, to keep it warmer before and aitcr its fow'n. 
For which purpofe, the outer Covers of fome Seeds^ are as it were 
Lined with Fjjr; in chat of Grf^/ iVX/p/c, Shorty oi Gojjipium^ Long. 
And if the Seed requires a longer ftay under ground, ihc hardnefs of 
the Ct^Z'er ietves toitint thcAlimetjt^^ left too much, ihould either roc 
it, or caufe it to germinate, before its propcrfeafbn, or full time for a 
more Mafcfflwe Growth, 

4. §» On the contrary, many Setds^ as thofe of Cbry^ Garden- 
Crefs, and others of that Tribe^ have their vipper Co'vers faced with a 
Ishici/age: which being eafily receptive of any Moyflitrc in the Ground, 
gradually fwells, til! it lies like a Ge/ly round about the Seed. Ei- 
ther for a more plentiful fupply of Aliment 5 or at kaft, to foften the 
Covers^ the better to accelerate the Growth of the Seed. 

5, jj. The procefs of Nature in the fcvcral fteps of the Vegetation 
of theSect^, hath formerly been explained, (a') 

6, i. THE COVERS ofall, or at lealt the fir greater num- 
ber of 5fe^/, are Three ; feme way ot other derived fr<^m the Pit/i : 
as fiiall hereafter be feen. And fometimes. Four : even ^hofe of fton'd 
Traits, have Three, befides the 5;i?we. Inthat of G^j/^/'/tfw/. there are 
Two Coats under that linud with the Cotton, The Seeds of Cncfimsr^ 
Gonts-I^eardi Brcom^ Scabious^ Letiice^ 8cc ahhough fb fmallj have ;^^^^ -,- 
plainly Three Ct^^^j. Butinfome ofthele, and many more, there are 

only Two diftinfllyvifiblc, except in the State of Generation, 

7. §- In the Upper CW, the Secd'VejJils are difleminated. The 
Second, is firft a meer Ptt/p-^ but afterwards Ihrinksup and fticks dole 
lothe upper. The Third or Inmoft ismore denfc^ and if it be thin, 
for the moftpart, tranfparent^ whereby the Seed leems fometimes to 

be naked while it lies therein^ as in Almonds^ Cucnmers^ and the like, '^^^' 7^- 
For this ft icks not to the midlc Coat, as that doth to the outer 5 but 
commonly^ remains entire^ after thofe are ftripp'd off, being as ic wcrCj 
xYi^Smoc/i oftheSeet^. 

8. ^. l^MeUJfii and fome other fmall 5£eJj, it comes finely off up- 
on foaking in warm Water or on the Tongue. In Fenirgree/{ , 'ris fotr, 
^nd oi an Afjsber-Cohjtr :, :md being moyftencd, looks almoft like fine 
Glevp. But commonly, tisa prety tough Mt^;?*/^^^;^, and often with 

I i Come 






00 B. I, 
Ck I. 






I'l i 


'liif ■■:''! 






The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

Tai. 7 ;. 

r^i. 75, 

, I 

fome thicknefi, .ns in Ftumi^ Borage, Saih'imts, Yet always extream 
thin at the Tip of the Radkk ^ the more eafily to break and yield to 
itjas the5^^HW>wtf TO the ffffff/, when it firft (hoots into the Ground. 
' jAnd rometimts, asinthenSeciJ/of an Oraf7ge, it hath at cne end the 
refcmblance of a Placet7ta. But of this, and the two upper CWj f 
fliiill give a further Defcripiioii m xht laft Chapter. * 

9. 5- AS ALL Secdt^xc cxOvo^ fo there are many with thin 
Covers^ as^ of Orack^ Spjujge^ Beet^ and the reft of that Tr/it, &c- 
which bclides the ^/iaw^w or clear Liquor owi of which they are bred- 
hdVQ alio, a VitcUum, or a Body thereunto Attahgus: being neither part 
of the Seedy nor part of the Covert^ but diftinft from them both. With 
refpea to the Bfd^ of the Seed, very large, as white as 5;^rf4 and pret- 
ty friable, like good Rice or Barley : of a roundiih Figure, and grooved 
on the Girth, fo as to have a double Edge 5 Whereby t he 5te^, « hich 
is long and flendcr, lies round it, as a Sac^^ of Orw upon a Fack-Saddk 
o^^Ropeu'^owz PitUjf-tt>h€d, Upon my firft notice hereof, it feemed 
toanfwertoaf/.;^^«*^ But upon fiirtht.r confidcraiion, the ArraUvy 
doth not hold betwixt them. For the Placenta litrs without the Aiei^^ 
brunes in which the Fwttis is contcined: whereas this body lies within 
the Covers contiguous to the Seed, and fo becomes its firft and ^nt^ A- 
liment, as the Telk, doth to the Chick, For which purpofe, as in the Gtv 
mrati0n of the Seed, it is a pure Milky Chyle 5 So m its Vegctntjon. it is 
converted into the like agnin, 

ID. jj. The fame Body for Suftance, is oblervable in the Seeds of 
Taky^, Rl^^fOfitick^ Dock, Sorrel, and ihereft of that kindred, withthisdit 
fercocej That whereas in 0^^^, Scc» the 5ffd only lies upon it ^ here 
the main Body or Lobes of the Seed are immeded therein, the RMkU 
iianding naked or above it. So that the {^\A Lobes^ and therein the 
Seminal-Root are beded herein, as in a Tub of AW or a little poc of pure 
reiir.'d Mouldy neceflary forthefirft /^c^efrf/i^Kof the^^^^jc/^, 

ir, §, BY THESE midle Ste^s, Natnrc proceeds from the 
Thrrrer Covers of Seeds :, or tho[e, which after the Generation of the 
5ee^/isfim(hed, (brink up^ Co the Bulky Ki?7d^ or thofe which keep 
their fitf//: after they are dry. Wherein, not only the Lobes^ as ia 
Dock., bm the whole Seed is immediately lodged. Different in Sab- 
fiance. Shape ^vA Bulk^ but always many times biger than rhetrue^eeti 
withinit: for which it is commonly miftaken 5 but i&nomoretbei'ftfi/, 
than isthcifflwfofa Phwi, the Kernel 

12. $, In the Barhado Nut, 'tis White, Soft, Conick:OVdl, and ta- 
king all its Z»^/f;j/;>ff/, 8 or 10 times bigger than the 5^^:^ within it. 
\i\ AJhcn Keys, 'tis of a ^^cXColoMr, hard, yet fomewhat 0;/^^ Ovalzf\A 
fiat^ and of the fdme Bignefs iis'mthc Barbado Nut, with refpeft tothe 
Seed. In the Fruit commonly called N/tx Vontka Officinarum, \h of 
the Colour :iUi\ Bar dnefsQi 3, Corn-Home iy and makes almoft the whole 
Body odh^FruIt, being about i4or 15 times the Bulk of the Seed^ 
In Goofgrafs or Cliver 'tis of the like Horfiy Subfiance, but ftiaped fomc- 
whatlike 2iBomt with chei?;/ww tuckfrin.And foin 3. Coffic-Eerry •Jh^^t 
rowled or fouldtd up into a kind of OW Figure, with a Notch or Ri- 
W4 through the Length, where the two £«^j meet. With other diver- 
fities which will beft be underftood, when 1 come prefemly to the De- 
fcriptwn of the Seed herein contained. 


Tab. yj. 

J 4 

'■'{ :ii!i; 

' El 

13. §. 



1th this di 


I bto^ 

Ml of lit 

5 to* 


Book IV. 

^ Stf ^^f. 


15. j(. With rcfpcato the ufc of this Cover ^ it isobfervable, that 
where there is a Stor?s or shell over it, as in the Barbado Nitty it is 
fifi:, hue where there is none , as in Nttx Vomica^ Ap, &a ^tis hard 5 
andfoit felf inftead of a Stone. As alfo, That it becomes hard^ only 
by the proper Nature of its Parertchyf^a, and the exquisite fijtallfjefi of 
the Bladders of which it confifts. Whereas a Stone, is alfo hardened by 
tlic Leej or Tarlur of the Sap which finks into it,and thereby petrifies it 
(4) as hath been faid- So that whereas a St&ffe, as it lies in the Groftfjd^ (^^ p_^^ 
onlyclcavs in certain Places, but contTnueshard: ThisCt^^r, likefomeClg, 
Horm, upon the due acceflion o£ Moiflnre, doth gradually become 
Jofi. Whereby, as while it is hard^ it performs the Ofticeof a^^flwc, 
in guarding the Seed til the proper Seafi^ for its Gromh : So after- , 

wards when it is »1, it anfwers, as m Orach or Dock, CO to a. Fi-(o}Ch. g. 
/i^i'ff^w, from whence the Seed receiveth itsfirft and pureft Ahmfiti jS- 8,9. 


F ■ 





Of the FOE TVS or true SEE D : and firft of the 


lA V INGdifcourfedof the Covtrs^ I come next to 
tht Seed 01 F (stus it felf Of the Shape and Po- 
fiure whereof, I ftiall give fbme Examples^ firft, a- 
raong thofe with the thinner fort of Covers ^ and 
then, of thole with the Bnlky one: where I (hall 
fpeak only of the Lobes, or Main Body, and the 
Radicle. Next, \ fhall defcribe the feveral forts of 
Nodes or Buds of Seeds, And laflly, the feveral Parts, of which the . . 

Lobes, Radicle^ and Btids are compounded. 

' 2, j^. Among 5^f^J with thcThrrrrjer Covers, are thofe of all forts of 
Ctfr« and Grd//, Of a different make, from that of moft other ^fe^^j.' 
The Mam Body hGiu^ not divided into Lobes, but one entire Piece ^ 
doubled in the form of a Pair of Lipps. And whereas commonly, 
the whole Seed is very Soft and O^y ^ here, only thofe two minute 
Parts, which become the Root and Stalki, are fo .' The Mam Body 
being of a different Subftance^ when the C^^rw is ripe, hard md friable ^ 
but whenit isfown, eafily colliquabU \mo3.k\ndo( MilkotChyle^ fo 
that, in fome refpefts, it hath a near Analogy to a VitEllum. For as that 
isgradually melted into a fort of Cfi^f, and by the Bramhes oi iht Du- 
^«v7»*fJ?^n4/;jcarryedinto the Btfwe/jof the Chick.'- So is this, intoa 
like Subilance, and by the Br-i«fAej of the Semiml Root (formerly 
dcfcrib'd ) conveyed to thofe Parts, which become the future Plant. 6- 1. Ck U 

5. §. Of Relation to this Kind, the Seeds of Data, and of fome 
other like Flarrts^ may be e(tecm*d- For that which is commonly cal- 
led the Sfone^ feems indeed to be the Afarr^ Body of the Seed, doubled 
or folded up in the fame manner as in Com. To which that Part which 
becomes the Pla^t^ is annexed. But whereas in Ct^rff, 'tis placed at ^''^" 75- 

I i 2 the 









|J V 

■ fi. :l 


Tj&^ Anatomy 

Book IV 


Tii. 75. 


r*ij. 75. 

T(<i, 75, 

■p . 

T^, 75- 


theEottomofthe Afij/wBii^^^ here it lies ina fmall round Cavity ,,^ 
the middle of the S-?f^, The 5/f?;^^, 01 Main Body^ where this Part 
grows to it, \$ not fo hard, as more remote from it : and is theicfore 
probably in fome part dtifolved , by Jying in the Ground, as in 

4. ^. But for the moft part, the Main Body is divided, as hath been 
faid, into two Ltft^j 5 andthofe in Subftance Homogemotu 10 the o- 

..tbet Pdrt or Parts^ plainly diftiiiguiflied in moO Kerveh and other 
large Seeds 5 and not difficultly in many lelTer ones, as in that oiVioU 

■Lmarh, Scabious^ Doves- Fooi^^Q, if Qipped out of their Covers be- 

.fore they are full ripe< "- ■ - 

5.3J. rnH(?ifv*:/j'-To«^«e, ihey are of a circular figure, and ver^ lar^e in 
Proportion to the RAdick. In CucHffter^ oblong, with fome vifible 
Braftches of the SemnM Root ^ and the Kadide ibmcwhat bigger. But 
m ScoTTi^omra^ very long, like the Leggs of a Pair of Cof^pitffes: and 
the two firft, or dijjimidar Leavs of the Plant into which they are 
converted, are of the i:ime Shape. Of thefe and many more, the 
Radicle is Short and pointed j and lies in one ftraight Line with the 
Lobes, f , 

6. fj. In Fiola Luftayja^ they are very large 5 and the Bramhes of 
ih^ S€min4 Root^ fairly apparent, fo as to resemble a Pair oi Leavs. 
The fi<ii//r/e prctiy long, cq\ially thick from end to end, andcouched 
down upon the two Lobes^ each of thefll having a little Shoulder for it 
tolieupon. IniVoad, where it hath the like P(7/?ft« and ^j&^/^c, asalfo 
in C/j^w^/;j^j, Ert/ca^ and many others, it is v^xy Brtlky^ being bigger 
than both theLflifl/ put together. > . 

7.<S. OfrhisPart, I thinkitmaybeoblerved, Thatcormnonlythofe 

&eeds^ wherein it is very (mall with rcfpeft to the Lohts^ produce a 

Perennial Vhnt I And lb, vice verfa^ wJicre it is very large, an -^ff^jw/ 

one- In the latter, the iSfjwwrf/ f Vr/^e being more vigorous, and ib 

tending more haftily to the BuGnefi oi Generation^ followed with the 
UajjA of chePlant^^iuo. - ' , 

8.§, IN THE former 5£t^j, the LoifJ lie flat one againfl: another. 
Rutin Gardetf-Radip^ they arc folded up, fo as to receive th^Radf' 
f/cintotheir Bojhme: as when a CA/r^^w tucks his Head under his 
Wing* .. L .^*i,i( ...,,, J- . . , j'-Hi J 

9,§. In Holyoak, the liZ-w are plated upwards, and re-plated 
down again. Being rnofl agreeably compofed to the Shape of the 
Covers^ asthofeare to their P^/ijre on the Plant. In Maple^ theyarc 
plated one over another, and fo roulcd up. 

ro» ^. Inthc Ci?/*j^-5eft^',whichconIiftethalmofl wholly of two very 
broadand thin ifj^wor Leaves^ the i^;j/t/j arc yetmorc numerous ^ all 
curioufly reduced toan exaft andfolid OW. 

' ti. i^ It happens now and then, that inftead of two, there are 
three Ltfiw, x^iniht Kerneb oi PUms^ Apples, and other Pwfj, and 
the fmaller forts of Seeds^ will fpring up ibmctimes with mote thaa 
ivjo dijjimikr Leaves^ originally ihf: Lobes of the Seed. Thefe are ob- 
ferved by fome, more fre^^uemly to produce a double Fhmr, which 

maybe, bccaufe the fe/nwal Virt»c m {{[ch Seeds^ isincreafedby athird 


i I 

13.$. IN 






Book IV. 

, Of Seeds. •■ 



13. §, IN mnny ^ect^/, the Radicle is of one and tlie fitmc C-?/tJ«r 
fronKmd CO cmf. But in others, as in the Lnphie^ it is ohd-rvable, 
Thot the upper and greater halfj is W7j7*t'j chcLowur tothc /^J"//,h3th 
a kind of HorKy Glofi^ and (eems to be of a fomL^what different make* ^"^^ 73' 
Whereby it comes to paft, that after the Kadkk is flioc forth a Irtil^ 
Way, only this lov. rhalf defccnds and becomes the ii^Ji^^/ The upper 
haJf is produced or raifed above ground, ^ a Pillar ujion which the 
Ij>bes^ or djjjtf'uUr L^jt^^tj areerefted. 

13, #• This Secd^ on the out fide of each Lohe^ and near the 'Ra- 
dicle^ hath a very fira!! and round AWf, Hke a N^ve!^ whcrtofj in the 
firftBook: the whole 5efi/ looking not much unlike a Vidg^oJis Hcad'^Ch. 7. 
l\icR^dick rcRmbling the 5?//, and xh^N^vdihQF.^a. 

14, ji. IN the Seed of Gardcn-Or/ich^ both the Raduk and /.oiej 7"^^ y- 
are very Ions and llcnder, and Healmoft iu a compleat Circle round 
about the VitcUitm before defcrib'd. The Lobes of Rhapofitki^ are 
Ihaped likethe ^/a of a5fjt/e3 s^wdtht Radicle ftands erefted above ^^' ?• 
them like the Handle. 

15.^. OF SEEDS alfo with the Btf/j^GtJcrj there are many nor ' 
divided into jLckj^ being in a manner, all one Piece ; as all of the 
Biilbcu4'Ki?jd, In fome of which, though the inmoftO^f^r be thin^ 
yetcomparedeither with the Other CtieJi-rj, or with ihtSc£d\tit\?^ it 
may very well be accounted of the Bniky- Kind. ' 

16. s(- In Flag^ it is above twenty times brggcr thnn the 6*^^^/ with- 
init, Conflfringof B/f?i^(^er/aIl Radiated towards ih^Seat ofxh^Seed, 

The Seed it lelf is (Iiapcd fomewhat like a Penknife. The louver Part' ^^^' 7*" 
which becoms the Buib^ as the Haft^ is thick, and comcih neaf tOa 
Cylir7drick. Figure, and the end,round. The upper Part which becomes 
cheHrftyeatslf?^^ astheiJWe, is rather fiat, double edged, andpoin- 
ted, and the Point a little bent. The Fibers and U/^^t/tr/ of which 
it confitVs, are all difpofed into Parallel Lines running by the length. 
\x\Lily^ where this Ci^uer is thinner and more 7r-i»/^f^rcwfj withouc be- 
ing cut, bur only held lip againfttheLighr, the5cfiJmaybefecn with- 
in it- 

17, jj. BUT THE greater number of Seeds alfo with the Bkikj 
Over, are divided intotwoL^fe/; which, forthcmolt p.irt, refcmble 
a pair of little Lf^i'/» In theP»r^;>^ A^^* of Angola^ the 5Ae// being 

taken off, the upper Cf^r^rj (dry'dand ihrunkup J feem to bebut one, Tak 76. 
In thefe, xh^SpErfff^iicliFcfS'els arc Branched. Under thele, lies the 
Thick and lnmoltCfl^i?r; which being cut down rhe middle, exhibits 
the true 5ffiJ : Confiftingof a couple of fair Leavs, Veined, and as 
white as Afi/j^, joyned together with the K^^Z/c/c at thm Bafe^ and 
kt into a Hollow^ made in the Cover^ of an anfwerable ftiape. The 
like is obfervable in the Barbado-Nut^ Ricitms Antericav^^ and fome 
other l77<iian Ftnits 5 wirh fome little difference in the Shape of the 
Root and Leavs, \ i - 

18- ^- IN the foregoing Frtfits^ the Bnlky Cover \^^ very Ibfc^ 
But intbeNw^ Vbmca O^cwaruw, \k near as hard as a Datc-Jiom,Takj6i 
In thi% befides the hollow made for the reception of the Seed^ or the 
two Lc-aef/ and Roof^ the s/^^^^jarc feparaied or diftind almoft to the 
Edge of the Cover round abour, efpecialiy towards the Root : So chat 

itmaynot unaptly be compared to a little Po;/fy6wUh the &*/w clapt 
together, - n-i t 

IS. 4- In 

I I 

1^ \ 






The Anatomy 

• Book IV. J^ 

Tak 77, 


Tak 77. 


Tak 77- 

r 9. jS. IN thi&and the 7*Jfffj above mentioncd,the Seeds are allvery 
large. Bur in fume other PUnts^ ihey are extream fmall, fo as to te 
liardly vifible without a Gi«// 5 as in Sl^phifigria, P.ony, &c. In St^ 
phfdgrm, x.\iiThu\oTlnmofiCovsr^ '^^ ^omraonly ii Spkerkal Ttia^ek 
conick lowards the B^>, At the poynt of which, there is a little Cm- 
ty, m which the 6V£^ about as big as afmall pim headjs lodged. The 
Root whereof IS a little ppynied, and the two Loks rounded at the 

20, §. In Peony^ tlic fatiie Cover is Soft^ White, and of an Oval Fi- 
gHre ^ the part ufed in Medicim. Ufually thought to be the SeU it 
fdf- But is near two hundred times biger than the Uu^Seed, which is 
almoft invifible. It lies in a little Cavityrxtsu the bottom of the Cffver-^ 
with a thick and blunt Root^ and two poynted Lobes or Lenvs. 

23- ^. IN xh^ Coffee- Berry ^ t\\^ Seed W^s'mih^ Inner or CartiUgi- 
mui Cover ( formerly defcribed ) where one would not exped: to find 
It, fi, near the Top or S/trface of the Bac^. The Loks of the Seed are 
veined like two very minute Led^e/, andjoyned to a long K^^t^H ike a 
Stalk, The end of which comes juft to the bottom of the Oi^er ready 
for its exit into the Grotwd^ ' ' 

22. ^, In Goo/grjfs, v/hcvG ihc hfjer Cover [^ a\[o CmiLgi^oftJ or 
Hor^ey^ theJee^ is poftured in much a like manner, and looks juft like 
a couple of poynted Leavs with a very long Stalks , 

23- tf. THE Seed oi Stramoninm^ is alfo inclofcd in a Bulimy Co- 
ver. Which being foakcd in warm water, and very warily cut about 
the edges, witha ftj>r,che ^^e^maybetakenout of it entire. Shaped 
like that of Orach , but mnoh longer. For the Reception whereof the 
Cover \s formed with a hollow, which runs round about it neat' the 
£^^^5 where inthe^f^dlieslikea little winding S/7d^f. 





Of the nVDS of Seeds. A?, J of the PARTS, of 
vhkh thefe, the Radicle, ^h^ Lobes are comfoundeJ. 


!!, .,1 


ROM between the two ti^k/, rifes up the^/J^of 
the Plant. The original whereof, either to the 
naked B^f, or by a good G/^/r, is always vifible in 
the Seed. 

2- it. In many Plmis^ Nature fees fit only to lay 
the foundation hereof in a ffnall round Node 5 where 

„ upon xhi^Leavs^ in the Vegetation of the Seed, arc 

iupcrftrufted : as in VioU Lvnariuy and others. t 

3^ ^. Bu: in the greater number of Seeds, is formed a true Bttd, 
confilting ofperfeftle^j^ different from thofc, which grow upon 
the stali, only in Bigtjcfi 5 and fo far in shape^ as the fame Paru of an 
Animal f c^/«j, jn its fcveral ages in the Woff/k In many Seed/, as well 







Book IV. 

(7^ Seeds: 


fmall asgreafjandas well of Hijr/'/ ;is Trffj, it is very apparent. But 
oFientimcs lyLthfo dcepbt^tweeniheLfite/as to bealmolt undifccrna- 
ble, as in /i/.rph\ 

4. ^, The Le^ives oi the B/fcl^ in iiffi^Ycm Pliffjis^ arcofa diftl'rcnt 
Number y in fomCj Two^ in others, Four, Six, and fbmctimcs more, 
In the SdyBcrry^ they are only two ?, very final), but thick or far, 

and fintly veined. In the Seed of C^rditrts Hemdili m^ they arc -Mo Tak yS. 
Twoi aimoft invilible^ broad at the Bottow^ poynted at the Top, 
thick or fat, yet plated inward, and poftured a little diftnnt one from 
the other 5 for the two next to rifc up betWv.n them. The like may 
be ftxn in Carthurrium 5 and lb, I fuppofe, in all the C.frdutts Kind, 

5, ^, In fomc Hcrbs^ although, the Bud conliftcth but of two per- 
k&I^aves^ yet they are very confpicuous. Not only in larger ^fc^/j, 7-^ ^g 
as in the Phafiolus or French Bean ^ but in thofe which arc fmall, as 

in the Seed of Her^p. In this, the two Leaves are both plated, and 
Co Jl-c Bdge to Edge^ with mutual 'Uf/dntaiwns. Of that Length, as 
to be extended beyond a third part of the Lohes. 

6- jf. Inthe 5fec^of Sfw^, the £j/c/ confifteih of Four Lf^^^; ^^^TakyS 
which, the greater pair is the outer, and guards the Jefi, Shaped not 
much unlike thofe in the Seed oiCarduus ^ but are a lirtle more vi- 

7. §• InihzBudoi^nAlnfondy we may cafily count fix, or eight 
Leaijes^a^nd fometitiics morci the Incrmoft being laid bare by a dej[terous ^^^' 78. 
Separation of the Outer. Thefe are by much the greaccftj doubkd In- 

ward, andfolapedone over another^ whereby they embofbme all 

the reft^ as a Btn Spreads her Wi^gs over her Churns. The like is ob- 

(ervable in many other large iCer«e/j, as alfoin the G-^r^^w B^^ji^^ and 

fome other Plants, With refpeft to which, I have taken leave (.^J to (a) B, u 

call this Part the Plume. Ch i 

8. ^, THE LOBES oiih^Sced, and fo likewife the^Radkle 
and Bwd confift of a^j^^^r. Parenchyma^ and Branched FeJJils : all whtch 
1 have formerly defcribed, (h') I ihall now add the following Re- 
marqties. (i) B, i, 

9. 5S. And firft of the Sl^n^ which in fome Seeds, as the French- ^^' ^' 
Bean may eafily be (eparated from the Parenchyma: efpecially if the 
Bean be foaked in water for fome days 5 for the:n it will Hip off, like 

the S/iin in any part of ones Body where it is bliflercd. 'Tis woven 
into Bladders^ Cts th<; Parench^ma-^ but into fmalkrones, and upon the 7^ r 
Lches of a Garden Bean^ all radiated towards the Center. With 
theft 5/d^i/er/, there are alfo mixed a ioit oC Lignoits Fibres^ incom- 
parably fmall, which give a Tonghnefs to the Si^n^ and by which the 
Bladders are direfted tnio Rays. 

10. ij. The Bladders odht Farenehyma^ asisftid, are much larger 
than ihoft; of the Si^n^ efpecially in the Lobes. In thofe of a Garden 

Be-Ttf, fomewhat oval, about i of an Inch Diametre by their Bredth^ Tub. 79. 

and direftcdtowards theBrz/KcAffJOfthe L?eOTwj/Ktf(?/. In the Radi- 
cle, ihey are twenty tiniE^ Cnaller, than in the Lobes : and fo in the 

11.^. Throughout the Parenchyma run the Branched Vejfcls^ which Tak 73, 
in the Lobes make the Seniiftai Root ^ in the Radicle and Phtnie,ih(^ Wood 
of the Root and Stalk. In all of them, diftributed as hath been ( t ) TO ^- '. 
formerly Ihevt'td. Ck i. 

lI ■ 

, ■ 

\- :: 

n } 


2 08 

The Anatomy 

Book IV. 

Tab- 79. 

12. )S. liliallhcre farther note, That the utmoft divifions are no 

Tub. 70. where extcncktl 10 tlicCJrcumfcrence of the A^^^w, but are all inof- 

cuiated together at a confiderable diftance from it, as in the Ua^^i of 

1 3- ^. In the Loks they all meet in one fohd Nerve. Btit in the 

Radich^ are dilated into a hollow Irunl^ , filled up with a Fitb 5 com- 

pofcd of Bladders Somewhat bigger than thole which make, as it were 

the Barque oi ihQ Radhk, Inihc Radicle oi z French Beatr^ ihcPjtb 
is very con fpicuous- 

- 14. ji. The Vejfcis are of two kindEf, as in the other P^r/jof a 
PJ^fit-j for S.ip, and for ^^r. Not running collateral, a^Arterhs and 
Vdtfs 5 but the latter every where [heathed in the former. From the 
Mr-Vej}cls it is, that if a Bemi be fteeped in water, and then the K4- 
dick cut tranfverfly and prefled, it will yield Enbla as well as Liquor. 

Tab fQ '^^'^*^ ^^^' ^^^ admirably fmall, yet through a very good Glajs bc- 
■'"■ come vifible. 

- 1 5' i^- The Liquor contcined in the Seed^ when fall ripe is chiefly 

O^j generally, found in a greater proportion here^ than in sny other 
part of a Plant. Being as the Pickle, in which the Seminal rirtftes,^ TDQiG TJoUtik 2nd a&ive Prmcifks oiih^ Seed, are immerfed 
for ibt'iT Prefermirofj : and to curb them from loo gr^^t a Lnxmance 
in the VegcUtionoi the Seed. 





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Book IV. 

^ Seeds, 



Of the GENERATION of the SEED. 

S I n\:M]e choice of ^GardcK-Eea//^ to ^GWihc mun- 
n^rofthcVegetatJmofihGSeed; fo I fliall lake 
an Aprecock^^ as very apt and convenicnr, to ob- 
ierve and reprcfent the Method which Nature ta- 
kt:th in its Gemraiiofr, 

2» jS. ftiordcr to ihis, the firft thing that is to 
be done, is to make a lit Dterus. Both to keep 
xh^ Membranes ofthc Fc'/Aa" warm, and fuccultnt, 

till It be formed : and to prcftrve and fecure the Ffrius it Mf afcer- 

wardsj till it comes to be born into the Grojifid, 

5- §. For this purpofe^ the Ptdp and Stotrc of the Fruit are both 
neceffary ^ but primarily the Stone : the Meat or P/dp being no other- 
wile rcccfTary, but becaule the i?/uj?e cannot be aade without it 3 the 
petrifying of that Parenchyma which is the Ground of the Stom^ being 
effeftedj by the linking of the Taftar from the Palp thereinto, 

4, i. And thatj at the firft, the Ground of the Swie^ is a diftinft, 
b^T: fof[ Paremhyma\ is evident in the cutiijg of a young Aprecoch,, 
Of which, alfo aflicecut off^ with a P^n^or^ and viewed through a 
good Glafi^ Ihewi th \\ ro be compofed of Bhdders^ as the Pulp it 7- / 
felf. 0;ily, wheTeasmJiiy ofthofi: of the F;/^/" are large, now about 
as big as a white Pepper-Corn -^ thele are no bigger than a Mitjiard- 
Seed, fiut as the Parenchyma hardens into a Stonc^ thefe Bladders 
are all gudually filled up, and di^appcar- 
5. ij. This Parenchjmj is derived immediately from the Pith^ as the 
Pulp IS from the Barque ^ and makes the far greater part of the Stofie, 
Tis coven d all over within,with a very thin Lining ^ derived, not from 
the Pith but ^\\^Parenchyma^^\\\Q\\Qo\'Qx%x\\<:Seed-Brat!cl.\\\^on its firft 
entrance within the hollow of the Stone. This Lining is ofa clofe 
fubftance^ yet compofed ofBWt/Lr/jCKquifitelyfmall and hardly vilible. 
By which means, it Toon becomes a very hard and dry Body 5 and is Yah 8f7 
hereby fit ttd, both to promote the induration of the reft of the A^i//^ 3 
and the fcafonable drying, and fo, the (hrinking up, oii^iQCovers of 
the Seedy 10 make room for its Growth, 

6, $. The Stone being made hard and dry \ it could never be lb 
fufficicntly foftned by lying under ground, but that, it would keep the 
Seed a perpetual prifoner, unlcf^ it were aJfu made pretty eafily to cleave 
in two. For which pur pofe, the 6V of^he Fruit tloth obfervably y^^^ g^^ 
conduce. Forina ^//^eofa young -^/rfft^f^ cut tranfverfly with a 
very Iharp knife, it may be fccn, efpeci.-flly wiih the help ofa Glafs, to 
be doubled inward from the two lips of the Entity and fo to he covi- 

^ k tinued. 


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The Anatomy 

Book IV- 

Tab. 80. 

iy S^C 

Tab. 80. 

Tab. 80. 


tmued, not only through ihe7^«/;, but alfo through the 5/,>^o it fdf 
into the hollow of she llime, whert: k meets, and is united with the 
Lwtf^g rhtreof. Whereby, ns it further helps to the drying and hatd- 
ning of the Stogie ^ fo alfo renders it deavable in that part, where it runs 
through It, And thertforc, whereas towards the 5/^/^, it goes no far- 
ther Chan ioihc Sced^Brmch^ and fo but half way through the Stor?€ - 
towards the Top of ihfi Frnif, where the li^dick ftand^ and where 
the Stom begins tocleavej it run? quite through it. 

y. <S. A^iiv^^c having thus provided a convenient y^era^. She next'' 
taketh care about the Membranes of the FtrUu. Thefc are Ihrte appa- 
rently diftinit, and in ruany re fp efts different one fromanother- 

8. i3. The outer ^e^jir^j^-^ Is derived from the PjreWjfvp/^ which 
fiirrounds the Seed-Branch ^ which, upon its entry into the hollow of 
xhtSfOTje^ is expanded, as it were, into two BW^^rj, one within an- 
other^ whereof, one btcomcs the Limng of the Stone :^ the other, 
this outer Mcmhra?te : as is btft feen by cuting a young AprccGck^^ wheii 
it is about half an Inch long, down through the midle.orfrom the Seat 
of the fiWfrtothe Stiil/^j between thetwoL/j?A 

9. §, This outer Membrafte, at this age, hath a good full and frim 
Bodf^ about W^ of an Inch thick, or through an ordinary Gtafs, half an 
Inch, where it is thickeft, as at the Sides and the greater end ; the 
Poytn being thinner, for the more eafy eruption of the Radick into the 
Emk Compofedpf iJW^m, through an ordinary Clajs^ about as 
bjgj as a Cokwort-Secd- 


ID. ^. Throughout this Memhratfe^ the Veffels conteined in the 
Seed-Branch are diftributcd. Beginning a little below the fmaller end of 
the Cout or Memha^e^ they thence fetch their circuit both ways round 
about, juft beneath the Surface of the Membrane^ and at laft, meet in 
the luidLofthe greater end, where they are all inofculated, fo as to 
make a kind o^imbilicalNode. From whence they ftrike deeper into 
it, and at la[l,into the midle Membrane^ in which they preftntly become 
invifible. By thcn^ Vepis, the Sap is brought and fpewed intothe midfe 
Metfihravc. So that the outer JWfwi^i^e fcemeth, in fbme reipefts, to 
be anfwcrabic to the Placenta in Anmuis, 





T^b. 80. 

II I ^ 

i ■■ 

II- ^- The midle Afewir^we, is derived from the hot tome of the 
Outer- From whence efpecially, but alio round about, the Bladders 
hereof (all angular) are more and more amplified towards the Centre^ 
molt of them being at lcafi:two hundred times big^r, thanthofeofthe 
Outer Me/xbram: whereby it looks, through a G/^/}, not unlike a 
Coome iuW oi Hoijy --^ or in regard of their great traniparency, like a 
company of litilc i'rjfial Fa/is tull of a pure Ljimphu 



ir * 



Book IV. 

of Seeds', 

^1 1 

tlierc appears ill it a fmnll DttS its o^ Chaml '-^ which runs fiom thcbot- 
toiiito the top, like an Axh^ through the midlc ot it. At firft, 7^/i. St* 
no witicr than to receive the Hfir of a Muns Hvad 5 not vifiblc, ex- 
cept in a (lice hereof cut tranfverliy, and viewed in a Ghfs. Being 
j»rowna little wider, it may be fcen, if the Aff^^/irj^e be dextcroiiGy 
cut by ihelcrgth- At which time, it is a! fo dilated into two Oval 
Cavities^ one at each end : which arca^^two httle C/i7erw/, whcrcinto 
a moftpiire Lympha continually owzeth, and is therein rtferved for 
the nourillimtnt oi the SeU ^ and through the Chand which runs be- 
tween the Cz/^fr/^j is^ emptied out ofone Cz/^m; intoanother, according 
as the Seed or the [nmoft Memhram hath need of it ^ i. c. as the Wca- 
thcY and other Circumftances do more or left accelerate their Growth^ 
and fo render the Lympha uilfui to them, 

13. if, A few days after this, the Inncrmoft MembrajK begins to 
appear 5 growing, like a ihii Node ov Bud ^ out of the upper t?/7^r?/5 

to the lower end of which it is joynedby a fliorc and tender 5/^//^, from 7^^* 8I0 
whence it is produced into a Conkl^^ovul Figure^ anfwerable 10 that of 

14. §. This Memhr^ne^ though foft and full of Sap^ yet being 
compared with the midlcmofl", isacbfe and compafl: J?W^, compofed 
of Bliddcrj above 500 times fmallcr than they are in that. Whereby, 
as the Seed is fb well guiudcd, as not to bo fupplyed with any part of 
the Ljfmpha^ butthe purcft : fo neither with any more of thip, than 
willfuffice, without the danger ot making an /ff;j«t^^;//i7^j out ot To great 
a Lal^. 

i^. 4. This Memhrafie^ ifit be pulled with a moft ftcady hand^and 
very gently, upwards, it will tkaw a fmall tranfparcnt Str'n?g after it 
to the bottom of the Midle M^wirrfwe ." The faid Jnvw^ though for 
the greater part, 'Parc^thymous^ yet being Arengihened with the ad- 
tinxiurc of lome VgfWiis Fibres ^ no otherwifc viliblc in either of thefe 
iwo Me/^l>raNes, So that they fcem, to be a fmall portion of thofe 
which are inofculatcd at the bottome of the Outer Membrufic^ aiid 
thence produced through the midlemoft, underneath the Chanel^ till at 
laft they break forth into the upper C^y^er^, where they form this In- 
ner Memvram : a piece of clofe-wrought iVork, , fuhable to the in- 
comparable fincnefa of all the Stuff' out of which it is made. 

16. i^ The fame A/t'^^ir^wi^ is originally entire, as the Midlemod: 
but being grown to about the bigucls of a Carvi-Sced^ becomes a little ^ 
hollow near theCt^^c. And the Lignous fiitfrjabovefiid, fetching their ^ ' 
compafs from the B^fi^ fhoot forth into the Com , and ib make a very 
fmall Node thereinj for the firtt F^y towards the GetieratioJi of the 
Seed. The faid FiUrs being thus fpuii out^to the utmort degree of finc- 
ne£ for this purpole, 

17, ^, ThisJVWe, being grown about -J'^" part as big as zCkcefe- 

AUte ^ it begins next to be divided by a little indenture at the T(fp. fab, Qu 
Which growing by degrees ftill deeper, the Node i^ hereby at length 
diltinguilhtd into two Lii/ffj or thick ir^iw. 

18. fi. 


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r j/'. 8 1 

rJ ■ 

':r ^: 

II ■ ■ , ■ ' 


The Anatomy 

Book IV' 

1 8. #. So foon as theft are finiftied, their Bafa begins afterwards 
tobecomraacc) and fo to he formed into a nJicle or thatZ J 
.he5..d becomes the j;../. As the Stalk, of Fruiu do^row 
lefk-r wh le the Fr,nU thcmfelves are expanded. Sothat in this eftare 
tht: Radick i^, as It were, i.\ic StalkoirhtSeed, "i^ciiace, 

19. ?■ At this time, ih<,seed being extream fmall, the Lol>es are 
not lo manageable as to be feparatcd one from the other Butit is 
raoftreafonabletofupporethat fo foon astti^Radick is finifhed the 
nextftep isthepulhing forth of^another Ai.^.,beiween thei^Lin 
ordLTtothemaltingofaiJK^, and fo the perfi:aion ofthefe^.' 

■ 30. jt. This being done or in doing, the Radide or Stalk of the 
5ee^,contraaing ftil] more and more at the bottome,han2S at the Inner 

Mmbram,Qi\\y by an fiXlT^imiiaiW and {\^ottLigame>rtOTNamt-StrmP 
Which at laft, alfo breaks ; and fo the Se,d, as Frnits when they are 
ripe, falls oft and lies loofe in the Iner mmbrane ; this gradually ftirink- 

ing up and fo becoming more hollow, to make room for the further 
Grovcih of the Seed. 






'i . 


V ■ 



; f 











Read before the 




^ ^ 

I ■ 


By NE HE MfAH ^ K£frM.D. Fellow 

of the fi £? r ^ i S t? C / £ r r, and of the 

. ...Ir, ■• 


Printed by If. 3(rfW/w, 1682. 

McEot. ix I -, 






r '' 

I If. 



I M 

I ' 








III Ell 

L J 

^ I- L 

-TC I 

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r ■ f ■ 

Of the following 

tyji tne roiiowmrr y- f 



^C^ ^f'' ^f ^'r' ^''''f''^^''^ Porter of MIXTVRE The 
^^ fecond Edition. -^ s . ^- me 

II. J/A. LVCTAriONari/r^gupon the Mixture of feverai 

_ Mcnftruum^VA .///,,,, ofBoJie.. The fccond £dr- 

vi V/i J * 

\rfiAA. :>AL1S are found inV\^nis.\ *" 

IV. ^///.^ ESSENTIAL and MARINE SALTS o/ Plants, 
v. iJ///jf. COLOVRS of Plants. 

_JiantsJf'//^««Appendu, Of the OWVRS of VhH 

"^^-Jf^nts in Confort, upon the SOLVTlON of 

oALis in Water. ■' 

,V^ CI Vl A 

\t:%^\ r '^^^ 




I. I 











Rip:ht Honour abl 




Lord Vi-Count BROV^CKER^ 


O F T H E 

Royal Society. 



NE Reafon why 1 Dedicate the folhwhig 
Difcourfcs to Tour Lordlhip, is^ For that by 
Tour great una liJidefervGd Refpe^s, Ton haw 
obliged vie to do no lefs. 

Another^ my Lord, is, Becaufe I could 
not but Publickjy return Tour LordjT^ip 
Thanks-^ for mindingthe Royal Society of fo good a Way^ 
they are lately refolved upon , for the Management of a 
great fart of their Bufi?/efs. Wbertiji, my Lord, / do more 
than prefume, that I alfo fpeai^ the Senfe of the whole So- 
ciety 3 / think^t 7!0t a?iy one excepted. 

I may with the fame Confidence httimate , vty Lofd, 
how happy they account ih^jnfelves^ iti havirig a Vcxfon 
fo Jit 10 preftde their Affairs, as Tour LovdHiip^ The 
Largeiiefs of your Knowledge , the 'Exa^7iefs of Tcur Judg^ 
ment , the Evemief oj Tour Comport 5 being fome of thofe 
mceffary QuaUficatio7i%^ which His Majcliy had in His 
Eye ( as right well imdcrflanding what He did ) when 
He fixed His Choice upon Tour Lordfhip, 

/ kiiow, 7ny Lord> that there arc fome ?uc?h s^ho have 

, LU jujl 




f I I 





I! J I 

> '. 





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juft fo vmch Viiderjtandhg, as only to teach them how to 
be Ambitions: The Flattering of whom, is jomervbat Uk§ 
the Tickliirg of Children, till they fall a Dancing, But 1 
alfo know^ that Tour Lordllijp linconcenmh Tour fdf as i 
miuk in what I even now fpa^e^ as Cxfar did himfelf^ 
ir/jraAnSouldicrs began to Jlyle him King. Forashefaid^ 
Non Rex , fed C^far ; So let Tour Lordfhip be hut once " 
nanid^ and all that follows-, is but ^ Tautology ;tj what Ton 
are already hiown to he. Tour being Prcfidenc of the Royal 
Society , Tour being the Fird that was Chofen, and Chofcn 
byfo Knowing a Prince ^ becomes fo real a Pancgyrick to Tour 
i-ordlliip, asleaveth Verbal oiies without any foutid. 

Whence, 7ny Lord, / have a third Reafon mofi naturally 
emergent, which is.That I dare tofuhnit niyfelf, ds to what [ 
have hereafter faid^ to Tour Lordihips Cenfure. Ton being 
fo able andjiift an Arbiter hetwixt the fame and all thofe Per- 
fons therein concern d-^ that Ton can neither be deceived, nor 

'corrupted^ to maks ajudg77ient in any Pointy to the Injury of 
either. ^ ■' 

And truly, my Lord, were it only from a Principle offelf. 

Interefi^yet I could not defire itjho?ddbeotherwife. For the 

World, // // lives, will certainly grow as much more knowing 

than it is 5 as it is now more , than it was heretofore. So 

that we have as little Reafon to defpife Antiquity ^ as we can 

have willingnefs^ that we our f elves fhoidd be defpife d by Po- 

Tet fome difference there is to be made 1^ yiz. betwixt thofe 
of all Ages, who have been modefily ignorant 3 and thofe who 
have thought, or pretended, that they were Omnif dent. Or 
if knowing and act^iowledging that they were Ignorant 3 haz e 
yet not been contented to be fo 3 itn/efs, with as good mannerSy 
as fe?ije,f hey did conjure all Maidifnd not to offer atthe kj^ow- 
ing any more than themfelves. 

Vpon the whole, my Lord, I defire not Tou JJjould be aVl- 
rroii, any further than Tou are a Judge, For if this fmall 

IcS[^y hath dejerved the leaji acceptance^ I atii fure, that in 
being o?je, Tou will be both. I am^ 

My Lorti, 
Your LordJfMfs niofc Faitliful 
and Obedient Ser van r, ;^, 










;f ifeis f'' 



Read before the 


Concerning the 


AVING the honour to perform the Task of 
this day ^ I (hall endeavour to conform to the 
Phyhfophy^ which this Sockty doth profefi 5 
which is, Reafinivg groHvded tiporr Exferwient^ 
andths Common Notions of Sen fh. The former 
j being, without the latter, toofubcleand int:in- 
I gible^ the latter without the former^ too grois 
h and unmaragcnble: but both together^bearing 
a true anaiogy to our lelves 5 who are neither 
Angels, nor meer Animals, but Men- 

TheSubjcft i havcchofen to fpeakof, is Mixture. Whereof^ that 
our 'Difcourft may be the more confijhnt^ and the better inielligibk 3 
all I have to fay, ihail be ranged into this Method ^ vi%, 

T. Firftj 1 (hall give a brief accouut of the received DoSrine of 

1. Next, lay down fome Pro^ofitionj of the Principks whereof ail 

Mixed Eodii^s confitt, 

5, Then, open the true A^rf;«re oiMixinrei^ or lay, Whut it is. 

4- And then enumerate the CtfffyS J of iVf/x;wre ^ or (ay, B<m it k 

5- Laftlyj I fiiall thew t\izPomr of Mixture 5 or, What it c^xich. 





The received T>o&rme 

Book IV' 

< I 


I pm<. 

Cap. uk. 

!li. ■ 


■ F 




■ i 

C H A P. I. 

Of the recc-ivi'ci VoHme of Mixture. 

I R ST, As to iIiL- received Doarwe of Mixture ■ nnf rn 

le.,„, Scali^ Se..ems, Ri^,ri.s, and other 
Learned men fay hereof; we n,ay ftppof. the whole fumrned 
upinthar Dcfi,nihn which ^ri/jJ/, himfrrf T ,1, ■ .- 

n and which the greater J.berof his Vot^Z^'^^^l^iZt 

lAb.i. de MipMn/malter^terumuvio. Which Off«j/;«„ -icihi. >• n l?* 

G.«.../. catcd, i, both V.i.,eB^.ik, and 'bJfiff ' '' " '' "'^''"j' '^"P'"" 

2. $ Two things are «»w/f%i/s; what they mean hv Alter ^li 
on, acd what by iJ„^.,, [n this ^W/.„, the^^y Th.t thelcrv 

£W..rcbutinp«.;, then the AV.;«e«/. the^felves Tre bur t 
pj^tenlut: for we all f,y, For/,v^ ^^, ^ffi And if hJ r ^- 

£W., are only .-^A,., ,,e„ t&4 'X L>"St^ 
be only r. po,e„U. . yet ro f.y it is no ™, is mofi abf fi '^ ''" 

3. §. As for the U«;.„ of E/a^,cn,s in a m>.^ Body , thev make 

every particle of the «,^.e^ W^, containe^hSSaZ etr £/" 

i/«is at leaft, one particle; if therefore every parlide of S 

Toni ^fyr%T'^, f^"^ ^^^-^"'^ ' then four parXare ba one 
IconcludeJen,That the received /).ff.«. of .M^i;«r.isij//./^^^^^^^^ 

4. f- Whence u follows, That it isalfo E.r««and V>,,, fefi/FoT 
who can make any nfe of that which he undcrfta.delh nor> And S 

SeTof ^L" ""^^' r "' "^^"■" " '■^"'' been ieSied Ey e 
dilputesof men, proveth as much: Scarce any of them cxcej the 

wotTon X?7-''''''^'^'^''^' '"^ ' ^"-1 ^^'-^^ bJ never th 

be never thXta rfT'^ "''^' ^""^ ^"^^ ' ^"^^ ^ I'-^d K;.'. 
oe nevtr tne better. The queftion is rot, what have men done > bu: 

what have they done npon this foundation, ^nod MUJthl^ iS' 
h!n,n. alurator,.. nnio. Had this ever tat-ghr-^hem^o do an Z7 
tS AVr; ^\ '"'ff'^'t''' ^'''' ^^''"^'^^"'^ *hey have ?cc all 
It. But the truth .s, their mt,om of M,^U,r, luve been fo fir from 


^ I 





aire teen 

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Led. I. ' Of Mixture. The Trinciples^ Sec. 


Sf. 6. I (ha li therefore endeavour to open xhe true Nature oiMixlare. 
And I fliali build my De&rine upon the Common Notions of Senfi : 
which none can deny ; and every one may conceive of. In order to 
which, I (hall take leaveto lay down fomePrtf/ifl/<i(;o«/, of the f »■/»«- 
pies of all mixed Bodiei. 


Ofihe PrincifksofBoMes. 

ND firft, by Prindpks., Ime^wAtomes^ or certaitt 
Sorts o( Aiomes^ or of the fif^pk/i of Bodies. For 
otherwife they would not be Primiptes-^ for a 
compounded Pti?idpk^ in ftrifl: fpcaking, is a C&n- 
traciiUion, Even as Fwesy threes^ otTwo^s are 
not the primjpks o( Number^ but Vmtcs. 
^ . ^ -^ . — ^ 2, jf. Whence, ftcondly, it follows, that they 

are alfo hidivijibic. Not Mathematically ^ for the Atomes ofcvery Prin- 
ciple have ihcn Dime^jiofis. But Phjpally ^ and fo, what is but tf;f/^ 
cannot be made /w. Ifitbeaskcd, Whether a Stick cut with a Knife' 
be not of one, made two? i fay, that a Slick, is not em Body, but 
ffiafiy mdbms of %oAm -^ that is, of Atomes-^ not any one whereof is 
^m^f^J within it lelf, but only they ar^fepar^ted one from another 
where the Knife forceth its way. As in the drawing of a mans Finee^ 
through a Heap of Corn ^ there is no Divifiofz m^d^ in any one 
ijrajn^ but only a/e/^^r^/z^M of them one from another, all remaining 
ftill in ihemfelves entire, I fay, therefore, that what is Phyfically 
one IS alfo moft firm, and Indivifihk^ that is^Imperretrahk : for Pemtration 
IS but the Separation., not the Divijlon of Atomes. 

9. jS, Hence, thirdly, they are alfo Immutahk. For that which 
cannot bG divided, cannot be chaffgd. So that of the whole World 
of Atomes, not any one hath ever fuffer'd, or can fuffer the leaft^A,. 
Ution, Herenpon is grounded the Confiancy of Uufis and BfieUi, So 
that^ in all Generations, it is not lefs certain , that the felf fame Prin^ 
ciple IS Oill propagated from the fame 5 than, that Mun is from Man; 
Whtreforej compounded Bodies axQ generated s but Primiples are not 
buz only propjgated :^ that is, in tvcry Generation, they paf?, in them* 
tl-lvcs unaltered, from one Body, into another, 

4' ^- if Trincipks, or Atones are all Immutable ^ it again follows » 
That they are of Divers Kinds. For one and the fame Principle, or Kind 
™^'^-^^%^*ll^tillmake the 54-w^ Thing, and have thtfameEpa: fd 
that all ijenerations would I hen be the Same, Wherefore fince they 
^VQlmmitUhh, they muft bcD/^er/. 

5» ^' This Diverfity, for the fame reafon, isnotfmall, but very 
JSHmerous. For as the World, laken together, is Natures Shop--, fo the 
Prw'y^/eiofThingsareherr^^/j, and her Materials. Wherefore as 
It (peaks the goodnejs ot a Shop ^ fo the Perfeaicnofthe: Vniverfe That it 
IS furniftied with many Jools where with, and many Materials whLTeiipori 
to R...^ And confequently, that Phjhfiphy beareth beft its own name ^ 
whichdothnot ftram aSl lotwoor three/^rw^/^/^;, Hketwoor three 



1 1 





•'.\ ll.j 


i' 1 1-. 


I I 


T^^ Principles of Bodies. 

Book IV. 

hindpks W2 vory mumrom 5 yeC the Principks called Galenical^ Cky- 
fTi^!^ or any others , which do niiy way fall under the notice of 
-^MC notwicliftanding rcditceahk to ^ fmdlo' number i wrz.. according 
R' ?7//A^io',at ircdomiiM^ii Priircrpks in N-/J«>-i?; or, rather in this part 

fieUs .10 a Steeple, ro^iking a pitiful C/j7-we: but tryeth to rife up to 

. linUrcs own Nsf^/hcr^ and fu to rit/g all the Chaf^ges in the World. 

f-,j -^. ^, Ycz doth not this vaft Diverftty i^kn away the K^^^j-j/eA/^ and 

_Sttbordif7ittioft o^ Prjndpks, There being a certain leHtr «//»/ifr of 

them , which cither by their greater qmititity^ oroiher ways, have 

Rule and Di^mif/iorj^ in their ieveral Orders^ over aSl the reft. For 

wherc-tvcr ihc Suhje& is MitltitHde^ Order is part of its Pcrfe&ion. For 

Order i? Proportion. And how can Nature be imagin'd to hold Propor- 

*/tfH inall thinfrstlle, and not here ? Wherefore, as certiiinly, aaOr- 

dcr 3T]d Govcrf/fijent are in all the Parts of the J?-^//t^wj/ ^ fo certainly, 

of the Matmtjt World. Whence it is. That although the species of 


oi Xhi: ZJni-Derfe w\\\c\i\% nearand rousjd abottt us. To the Pewcr^uA 
Empire yihs^TtiQ?^ all uxh^j Principks Ao fubmit. V^hich S/ibfffrJpfin^ js 
not tlie (jtiittifr^ ot thL-irown A/^i«re ^ but only their appearanceundcr 
the external F^ce or Habit of the faid Predominant Principles. 

7. #. As there can be no Order q{ Pri/jcipks^ without Divcrjityy 
fo 130 Diverftty^ but what is originally made by thefe two ways 5 jc. by 
i"/2e and F/^«rf, By fhi'Je they may be exceeding differ«it : and all 
other /^r^/JtWj^j befides, whereby they differ, muft be ^fj>^We»/ upon 
itcfe Twcf. 

8. jJ. Nor therefore, can they be of any other -F/^ftr^j, than what 
a^e ^egnhr. For KeguUrity^ is a SimilitHde csntimtd. Since there- 
fore all kinds q£ Atomes are divers only by their Size and Figttre ^ if 
the i^elfe l^^mc Si%e and Figure were not common to a certain nuraber of 
Axoma^ ihcy could not beiaid 10 be of any one k^nd : and conic quent- 
ly, if there were no 5/w;ft?tf^e o^ Atomes^ there could be wo Dijiin- 
Ifivn oi Primipks. 

9. ^. Hence alfo, theft two Mc-^/i'j of Ac^/eJ, ^'/s* their i'i?!:^^ and 
Figure^ arethetruej and only original ^J^lics oi Atomes, Thatis, 
an Atvme \%jnchoTjiuh^ hecaufe hisofliicha certain Sia^s and Fi- 

*o. (. Laftly, As thefe tyxoModes^ taken feve rally, are the ^7- 
titiss o\ an Atitme: foconfider'd togethcFj they are its Form. A Ji/b' 
jUntial Form o£ iA Body^ being an unintelligible thinfj- I fiiy of a 
Eody^ for although the Rational Soid be afttb^^ntial Form , yet is 
it the i'tfr;»jj of a AJ^j;, and not of a Bi^f/?. For the Ft^r^ of aSi^^^^ 
we can conceive of no otherwifc, thanasof the Aft^t^/^^'"'/*?'? of aBody^ 
or a Contpkxion of all the Modes of a Hfl^^^'- Which alfo agrees with 

xhat Definition of a FWot, whichamongftihe J^mf^i/e/if^P^'^'ty^/'^^J 
is well enough accepted,^/^. ^jr;^ /?/, Ratio ejus EJJenti^^qme cniqtie Rci 
cofnpetjt, \V\-\\ch Ratio ^ if ii be rtfLTrcd to a bW/, whatisit,but the 
Modififatiim of that Body ^ Having thus propofed a Summary of my 

Thoughts about Prij/cipks j I fliall next proceed to fticw what their 
Mixture is- 






■ J- 


Left. 1. 


t«rt: ni' 





7 5*'' ■ i 



y/;c Nature of Mixtme, 


CHAR lit 

Of the N A TV RE of Mixture. 

^^^, N D firfiof^Il, fi-om the Frcfftl/fcs^ wcanivc at thig 
Coinlttfwn --y /i',Th:it the Forf/hitiojTwnATr.njs formati- 
on of all Bodies, cai^ be noihinj^cllc^bift tliL' Mixture. 
of Bodies. Far nil Prwr/pks ^vtimmntable'-j as wc Ch. 
have nbove proved ; and therefore not gct^erabk^ 
formMe^ or tmmfor?):Mc. And ihc For7}ps oiFvin- 
cipks, being bur ilicir Modvsy are :i]ib im f^ju fable S^-* 
So that the whole Bft/i^A'c// of iheAWfjWrfV/t^, is nothing elle, but 

2. (5. Again, as N-zf/^i-c worketh every where only by Mixtttre^ 
fo is this Mixture every where but one ihifip^^ and C2.u be bur r^wc. For 
whether it be the Mixinrc ofgrcat Bodies, or ofjn/afl^ o{ Cop^/poi/nds^ 
or of Aton/cs^ it is every where jlf/x/^jv, ami ihc Alixttt re of Bodies. Ql 
Wherefore, Mixture h tithcr an JfrtcI/iglMe Jljfcc/ion of ir// Bodies or 
of r^o?7e ^ which Liter, no man will fiy. A^ many ways therefore, as 
VTGcan Jcc^ or cff^rceivc the Mixtt&c of any gi'i'fs Bodies, which we 
hold in our hand ^ fo many ways, we mty, of x\\QfttbtJk{i Mixfttres 
which Nature makcch,or of Atomes theoilelves j and no other wavs, 

9. ^, Now all the ways we candiftingfc.iiih ^fo/wre by, are, in ge- 
neral, ihtftiTivo '-, eithcrin refpcct of the St)^;fj j^toW, orLKcofthe 
Modes of the Mixture it fclf. 

4. ?p In refpc£t of the Bodies Mixed^ Mixtnre is diftinguifhcd al- 
fo t'cco ways ^ -vi-L. by Conjugation^ and by Proporthn, 

5. ^, By Cotjjitgatiou^ \ mean, a iVf/:c/ure of fame ccrtahr Vrhici- 
ples^ and not of others. Which \^ threefold, firs/^ As 10 Number: 
as when one Body may be conjpoiinded of /j^i? Prhnipks^ another of 
ibree^ a third of four^ a fourth of five ^ and Jo on. Secondly^ As to 
K2!7d: where, though there be a conjunction of the Qme Number, 
yet nor of the fame Kind, Thirdly^ When they diiicr from one ano- 
ther both in Number and Kind. So many wajs ih^ Vrinnpks of 
Bo.lUs may be conceived to be Conjugated --^ and therefore are: 
for here, that which m.ty be, is. The Conftfjnence is clear- For 
jf^-jl^ Nature liMh various Materials wherewich 10 make thefi.- A/^',v- rt 
tures--, as we have lllewed. Secondly^ By thefe Mixtures f[\ii may^ and 
without the concurrence ofany imaginary h'orms^ mjtjl produce all th« 
varicnesm the ntaterial World ^ as lil^ewlfe hath been faid. Wliere- ^^■ 
fore, Rnce all \^A^\\i^h\i: Mixtures may bi^ ?n•!dc^2^[^A thva: to Jome par- 
pofes iWis^y (liould not W fo^ feature would h^ hnperfeci : bixaufe 
u'c our ft;lvei^ can think, how ihe might put her Materials to farther 
uO, then 7^ ilv^wtmlddo- Tothink therefore, that ailKi?/^/ of ftv.v- 
fiples^ or all Eieme/its ii;o to makeup every CW/j^fW^r^^ Bady^ ashv ih^' 
Peripatctjck, Philojophy we are taught ; is a concc-jr, no more to b^ 
credited, than one that ibojld tell us, all Kirdof Wkceh and oibir 



1. ^Ai 

' J 

2, 5. g. 

g.§. i.-. 







The Nature of SM^ixturc, Left. 1. 

V.\ "\ 



■ I 

f.irts of n Watch^ were put into a cM^^ or th^it thi^re were no other 
M'itcriuls wherewith to build an Honfi^ then for a Tiwf or a ship For 
why llioukl Nv/vy>-t', the great i^rf//?.cr by which ^WpcrfeB Work^ arc 
made; -be feigned to cram and ram all things mu om^ which we our 
ftlves look upon as abfiird ? 

6. j: Secondly^ The M/_T/j/re of P^^ri/^/f/ is diverfifi^d, asbyO^- 
Pigation^ ^o :i\[b hy ProportioiJ. That i?, by the divers ^/^^jjV^fj of 
the feveral Pnmipks or Paris f>nxed together. As if the ^^f^tit} of 
one, vitTt ^^ fi-vt io ten 2, of a fecond, as/t-c io fiftcai-^ o[\i third, as 
jive 10 Uventy^ &C- Or if that of one, be as fiveio jix-^. of a fcconJ 
as /;c xojcven-^ of a third, :y^fivcn to c>^i/. By which, and by other 
PropvrtiuNs^ Mixture may be varied innumerable ways. 

7» ^. ^^^w, As M/^/«^c is varied with refpeft to the BW/cjMz:^- 
ed-^ (olikewtfein refpeftof ihe Af/:t/flrnt felf; which I call the /.t^f-^- 
imi oiPrimipks^ or the Modes of their CimJH72akn. Which may be 
various, as well as their C^^;^";^,!^ :;/;>« and Froportiov, Yet are they all 
reduceable unto /ii^^ general AW^j : all fe^Z/ex, and therefore all f r/;/- 
U). 2, ^.1. apks^ h^'m^ mixed cM^cv hy Mediittio?^^ or by C^h/^c?. 

8, ^. Now all Cor.iacf^ whether of Cc;*;^^^?^^^^/, oxo^ Ator.m^cm 
be no other waj', than fuch as is anfwenible to ihtir t'ignres. Where- 
ofj therefore, we can conceive but ?Aree general ways, viz. 

Firji, ByCWr.7t7ina Pohit, or {bmn Jhmlkr pm : as when ^;r^ A- 
iomu meet, which are gkktUr or otherwife gibhojh, Secondly^ By 
ComaUm^ Plain: ss in rheconjurflion of the V-^j o^Triangnllr or 
^iadrangiiJar Atomes^ or otherwife /j/. Thirdly^ By ff^w/.^S^ in a 
. Conca-ut : as when one /f/<?we is admitted into the Comavt or /jt-/i^ of 
another 5 ns a Spigot is into a Foflct. The prfi may be called, Appo'}- 
thftt, the ficond^ Application -^ the tf-.ird. Reception OTlntrulion. ^ 

9. ^. To the Uvo laji ways, ^^i^wrj may be joj'ned by 'MediMi^jt ^ 
but betl: of all the laJL As when the two extrcams of one Atome are re- 
ceived into t\\Q Concaves or the Wcj of two others. 

IP, i- And thele areallthe^c/^erd/ ways,whcrebywecan conceive 
Bodies to be Mixed together ; fi. by their variovis Ccjijtrgatiofi^ Proper- 
iii>?i and Location. So that the Compofjion of Atomes^ in Bodia f is 
like ih^t oi Letter j^ in fTt-r.'/j, What a Thunderclap would fuch a 
Word be, wherein all the four and twenty Letters were pack'd v.d ? 
One therefore is compounded of more, another of fewer : this of feme, 
and ihnt of others: :ind both the C(???/;(^^/;y», Proportion, and /.<'^fd//- 
^v of Lf/Arj is; varied in every fJVi^: whereby, wehavem.iny ihou- 
fands of d/JJlring IVords^ without any alteration at allj in the Letters 
' thtmjUves ^ and might have ten times as many more. In Hke manner, 

therefore, or hi the (clfHime analogous way, as the Lctttrf of the Al- 
phulet, arK^ihc rrJnapks of IVords-^ fo Principles, arc the Alphukt of 

I r. ^. Wh.u we have faid of Principles 5 and o^ Mixture as conft- " 
quent rhereujion ^ may be a fomd-Hion for an intelligible account, of 
. the Nutitre \\n<\ Caufi of mofi: of the Intrinfick Properties ^^i\A Qjulitics 
of Bodies: Cisof Gravity, Levity^ Fixity^ Fluidity^ Angtdurity, Rctmd* 
7/efs^^ Cold, BUckncfs^ Whitumfs^ St/ivcrnefs^ Siveetr;^Js^ Fragran- 
€jf, Feiidifcfs, and very many more. I Uy an inteUigihk account ^ fi. 
ftieh a:^ is grounded upon the Notions of Senje, and mcule out Ne- 
ihunitaUy. But the cxemphiicaiion hcreofj being too large a £eld 






I _ 

w. tb 

Kor Ml 


Lea L 

7^^ Natmc of Mixture, 


if. 3, 

for thif, or iiny one Lc&itre^ \ (hail, before I come to the Caufis of 
Mixture^ only dt-ducc from the Pn/mfis , iliefc following Corollaries. 

12. ^. ^'*y^i That there is no alUraihn of Prirtciphs or of £/c- 
OTf»//,in the moi^ferfiU Mixtttre of Bodies^ It cannot be j for Princ/pkr ^ 
are hmutahlc^ as we have faid» And if it coultl be, yet it necdcih not ch, 2, 
to be; for they are alfowfl//^, and comp&nndablc infimte ways ^ as 
haih been (hewed. So that we have no need to perplex our fclves ^"' ^ 
with any ofihofc diflicnltiesj that arife from the Do&rJne of the ^*'3' 
Alteration of Elements. The ground of which conceit, is that, of 
three being but four Ele/nentx^ and all in every particle of the 
mxed B^4p And fo men being pvizeled, how from thence to make 
out ihe infinite varktj/ oi Bodies, rhey teigned them to be alterable, 
and altered^ upon tvery perfe& MJxtnrc. Not confidcring, that if 
their four Ekr^icnis be alterable j as few as they are^ no fewer then 
lArKofihem may be /pared : £or ondk/;/crri ^if alterable , may bejmade 

13. ^, Hence, SecoJidl^^ may be foWed that great Difpufc^ Whe- 
ther fuch as vvccallLix/zii-?/5^//j, aie made by ih^ fire ^ ¥ot firfi^ 
No Frhiiifle is made by the fre ; all Principles being utalterable 5 ,, 
and therefore nnmak^bk. Seto^dly^ We mufl: therefore diftin^ifli 
betwixt the friffd^/^, and its various Jv//x/Hr*? with other Principles j^ 
from whence it may receive different Shapes \\r\Al^3^cs. Wherefore, 
'^ Uxivi/tl Salt^ qua Lixivia!^ is certainly f^ade hy l\it fire, h^itqua" 
tenm Salt., it is not; that Prindph being extntSahle out oimofi Bo- 
dies ^ and by d'wtrs other -ways^ then by ^^ fire. For whether you 
Caleine a body, or elfe Ferment it, ( after the manner (hewed by the '' '^ ■ 
cnrious improver o{ Chimical Knowl^dg, Dr. Daniel <^ox ) or pntrifie 
it undet ground, or drown it in the Sea ^ it ftill yicldeth fime k^nd 
oiSalt. AH which 5d//jare made^ not^by f^^h^t^g the Salifjo Princi- 
ple ; but oniy by its being differently Mixcd^ by thole fcveral ways 

of the Solution of Bodies) mih oihtr Principles : from which its dif- 
ferent At:*: fj*rf. It XQCtivQ^ \h^ -uarioHs Denotnindtions^ oi Marine., Ni- 
irOHs^ Volatile^ 01 LixivUL ^^^ ,^^^ u> <:.,.. ' ' . . ^ ■ 

14. §. Hence, Thirdly^ tte iriofl perp^ Mixture of Bod If s, can 

go no higher than ContaB, . For all Principles are unalterable ; and all Ch,l. $. 5. 
Matter is impenetrable ^ as hath been faid. . In the moft viable and laxe Ch. 3, §, i. 
Mixture^ there is ContaH ^ and in ihe raoft fithtile and perfeU, as in Ge- 
werar/^ff itfelf, xhtic \% nothing more, :;ji . . . . jj 

15. ^4 Hence, Fourthly^ we eafily uhderftand^ hoW divers of the ■-■ 
(ame Principles^ belonging both to Vegetables and niany other Bodies, 

are ^ICoa^nally exiftent in the Body of Man. Eecaufe even in Gene- 
ration oiTranfmutaiion^ \.\\t Pr/waf/^j which are translated from one 
Body to another, as from a Vegetable to an Animal.^ are not in the lead 
alter d in themfelves 5 but only their Mixture^ that is, their Conjugation^ 
Proportion and Loc at ion ^\s varied. 

16. §, Hence alfo the difference of Jtf7:c(ffrf, arifing from the dif- 
ference of CoTjtaU^ is intelligible S fi\ as to thofe three degrees^ Congre- 
gation, IJnion^ and Concentration, . . 

Congregation^ ixud Inconjifient Mixture^ is when the feveral Atomes .. 
touch but \\\d.Point^ or yaallerpart. In xehich manner, I have divers Chl'2^* i. 8. 
arguments, inducing me to believe the j4/i?jwfj of all f/wc^ SW/f/, s^ui 
Flmd^ do touch 5 and in fw other. 

Mm i Vnm 




I I. 



3 Hi 






The Nature of <^Adixture. 

Lea. t 

Ch. 3. |(, 


w '■ 

8. Vt^ion, IS when they touch in a Flam. As \n the CnP's and Sh^iU 
t»gs of all Salti, and eyfor like Bodifs. For if we purCut thf-ir di- 
vided and fubdivided parts, with our eye, as far as we can ; they fiiH 
terminate, on every fide, in Plaint. Wherefore , 'tis intelligible That 
their very Alomes do alfu terminate, and therefore tokc/j in pliiv 
•iv. . Co^ceniratien h when two, or more Atoms touch 'by Rccepti^ 

0.3. (. S. and t'itri,Jto>i of one into another: which is the Mfl and &«c/? 
Mixture ot al\ i as in any /lire,/ nnodorable, or B;;(^/^ifc Body- the 
j^iwwcj of fuch Bodies, being not able to make any Smell or Tafie 
. unkfs they were firft diffohed; that is to fay, y^pin'd one from 

17. §. Hence, .?ij:/% we underftand, hoWIn fome cafes, there 
ftemeth to be a Penetration of Bodies i and in what fen/e it may be 
admitted: viz. if we will mean no more by Penetration,' but Intra^- 
en. For the htrufion of one ^/ewe into the Concave or At>/<; of ano- 
ther, IS a kind of Penetration i whereby they take up lel5 room in 
the m,xed Body, then they would do by any other way of Contaa 
■As a naked knife and its flieath, take upalmoll: double room to what 
they do, when the knife is (heathed. Whence we may affign the 
yeafin. Why msny Liquors being ntixed; take up lefs room or fpace 
then they did apart; as the Ingenious Mr. Heoi hath made it to appear 
by Experiment, that they do. I fay the pJain re^on hereof or at leaft 
one reafon, is the Intrn^m of many of their Aiomet into one ano- 
ther. Which yet is not a Penetration of Bodies ftriflly fo called 

a5.)J.r. Ji- )<■ .^^^"'^ If ^11 'Hat M,/«r. .,^^;A, be but ^i^(„r; ; and 

Ch.L.l±. ^J '5' ^^f'' ^ ^"^ i""f "' ^^^^ ^^'d<^"^ That Natural and 
i ? "* Arhfoal Mixture , are the fame. And ail thofe feen,i^g fabtilties 

whereby Phtlofophcrs have gone about to dijii„gn,Jh them ; have 

been but fo many Scarcr>ms to affright Men from the Imitation 

or Nature. 

19. (. Eighthly, Hence it follows. That ^,7 it felfmayao far in 
doing what Af^farc doth. And who can fay, how6r? For we have 
nothing to Makg ■-, but only to mix thofe Materials, which are al- 
ready ««(/« to our hands. Even Nat«re her felf, as hath been faid 

Ch. 3. i. I. -W-^^f'/J nothing new^ but only mixeth all things. So 6r, therefore. 
as we can govern Mixture, we may do what Nature dotb. 

30. j(. Which that we may (till the better underihnd ; let ut be- 
fore, and in the next place, fee the Caitfes of Mixture. For fince 

Ch.^. f.l^. Natural ai\d Artificial Mixture are the>»ei thcimmediate Canfes of 
both, ate and muft be the fame. 

, I 

1 ■ 


■ ^1, 

i^ room in 


c&u: br 


ad; !*»» 


Lea I 

The Chafes of Mixture. 



Of the C AVSES of Mixture. 

O W all che Canfesoi Mixture we Can conceive of^ 
muft, I think, be reduced to thefej?;c in general-^ 
1)1%. Congruity^ Weighty Comprejfiorj^ Sclntion^ Di- 
gcjiion^ ^udAgitati<m. 

t. iS, Congrmty^ or aptitude and re/^ifVifewce be- 
twixt the Sjzcs and Fignrcs of Parts to be mxed : 
whereby Bodies may be truly called the Ifrjirnxten- 
UlCaufes of their own MixtHrc, As when a FUifi anfwers to a Pkin^ 
a Square to a Square^ a Convex to a Concave^ or a Lc/} to a Greater or 
an fi^tfi^/, Sec. according to which Refpotfdemies in the ^J-^f-Zy of Bodies, 
they are more or Icfs ealily minghabk. 

2. it. Weighty by means whereof all f/w;/ Bodies^ upon fuppofi- 
tionof thtCongmity of their parts, muft nnavoidably mmgh. 

3. #, Cofffprejfii^n ^ which either bythe^ir, or any othet Body^ 
added to Weighty muft, in fome degree, further Mixture^ Bccaufc^thac 
Weight it fejf, is but Preffion. For further Proof of all the faid Can- 

fety \ m^dcK.\\\^ Experiment '^ Lgz O^le of Aififeedf^ and Oyl of Frtrrol 
be put apart into the Receiver of an Air-Pump. And, having exhaiified 
itofthe^/r, let the *2Ptf laid 0/j be then affijfifd one upon the other. 
Whereupon, Firji^ It is vifible, that they here mrxAuA coagulate to- 
gether 5 that is, their pans are wedged and ivtrnded one into another , 
without xh^ ufnal comprcjfion of the Airi for that is exhaufled^ aad 
therefore only by the Cofigruity of their receiving and imrudrng parts ; 
and by their Weight ; by which alone they are fo comprcjfed^ as 10 make 
that 7ff/r/;/i't^«- Sec<mdly^ It isalfoevident. That although they do CV- 
aguiate-^ yet not altogether fo much, as whea poured together in the 
iamcmanner* and quantity, in the open Air. "^h^j^doTt^Comprsjfiorr^ 
whether made by the Air ^ or any thing elfe, as it doth further the 
DiJfolHtion offbme Bodies, lb the Afc'jtfwre of others, and the greater 
the Contprejjiofr^ the raore. 

4. ^. Solution-^ For all Bodies mix bei>, in Forma flmda. And 
that for two reafbns, Pirji^ Becaufe ihi^ parts of a Body are not thea 
'm ^Jiate ofUvion^ but of Separation --^ and therefore, in a more capa- 
h\Gfiate^ fortheir Mixture and Union with (he parts of another Body. 
iSefowtJ/jfj becaulc then they arealfoinajj^/^ of Motion^ more or lels^ 
and therefore, in a continual tendency towards M/j^fwr^ 5 ^W Mixture 
being made by Motion. Wherefore all Generations^ and raoft perfe£^ 
Mi xtures'in Nature^ are made by Fluids i, whether Animal^ Vegetable^ 
ot Mineral Which is alfo agreeable to the Dofirine of i\\g Honourable 
Mr. Bojfk^ in his Excellent Treatifiof the 'Ndture and Vertues of Gems, 
And it is well known, That Bodies are ordinarily petrified, or Stones 
^ade, out of HW^-That i£,out of;'e/r>/>wep^r/jdiJIblved/er minima 
in IVater^as both their Menftrunm and their Vehicle. Wherefore, if we 

will talk of 'MJ^'''^ Goldi, icmuftno[ beby the Philorophers6Vtj;?c, but 
by the Philofophcrs Liquor, 




, I'/lth 



■Tbe Canfes of Mixture. 



ii ^1 

5- ^- Djgcfifon, For which there inhe fame rcafon, asforM^^Hrf. 

by 5^/////o^/, For, f;rj1, Ml heat doth tf//r»^jjf, that is, ftjil further 

/t;,/r^/-^ the pans of a Body 5 and fo render them more r^i^gkabU with 

thp^^rts of methcr. And therefore. Secondly, Doth alfo add more 

Moiwn to them, in order co their Mjxtstre. 

6, if. Agitation. Which I am induced robelieve a great and effe^ual 
means of Mi:v//;rf, upon divers Confiderations, As, Birfiy That the 
m^i^ifjg of B/;?tf^ i[i the Bodies of Amrfiah^ and the /*;^:«'w^ of the CAv/e 
therewith, is very much promoted by the fame nieaos f /^. by the ^i- 
idtiPn ofthe parts of the Blood and Chyle, in their continual CiratUtion, 
Again, from the ^^^^w^ of Butter out of M?/A , by the fame means : 
whereby alone \^ made ^feparMion of the olcous pans from the Whey , 
and Conjunftionof xhcOkous together. Moreover, From the great 
BgcasGiDjgefljof?-^ well known to all that are converfant \nChymkd 
Preparations. Which Z>/:^f/?7^« it felf; isbuta-^wd of injenfthle agita- 
tion o( the parts o(d7gefied Bodies. Tis alfi a known Expcrinrent , 
That the- leaditft way to diflolve Stigar in fr^'wc or other Liqvor 5 is to 
give the FeJJcl a />-///'> turn^ together with z fmart kpock, againft any 
kard and /^^.rj^ Body : whereby all the parts of the Sugar and Liquor^ 
are put into avehement Agitathn^md fo the .Sff^^r immediately diifol- 
vcd, and /;/w^ with the Liijmr.\ And I remember, that having (with 
intent, to make Mr, Matthews's Pill ) put fome Oyt of Turpentine and 
iS^/f of Td^^fj- together in a Bottle, and fent it up hither out of the 
Country^ I found, that the continual ^^;/-^^i»«upon the i^*ftfi^, forthrce 
or four days, had done more towards xhtw Mixture \ than a far grea- 
ter time of Digeftion alone had done before. And it is certain, That 
a vehement ^^jW/^^, efpecially, ifcontinu'd, or joy ned with Dige- 
fiion^^ willacceleratcthe ADjT/wreof fomeBodifs, tentimesmorc, than 
any bare Digejhen alone , as may be proved by rnany Experimems. I 
will inftanccin this one. LetfomeO// oiTurpentinc and good ^f/rrt 
of Nitre be ftop d up together in a Bottle, and the Botdc held 10 the 
Fire, till the iJjHorj be a little beared, and begin to bubble. Then 
having removed it, and rhe Bubbles by degrees increafing more and 
more^ the two I/^;/f7rj will of themfelves, at laft fall into fo impe- 
tuous an Ebullrlioff,3s to m^ke a kind oiExplofton-^ fending forth afmak^ 
forthefpaceofalmoftjwtj^tfr^/high. Whereupon, th^parts of both 
xht Liquors^ being violently dg/W^^, they are, m z great portion, incor- 
poratvd into 3 tfjicJ{_Balfini in a nromnt: and that without any /»fe»/e 
heat, as may be felt by the Bottle. And thus much for theCj^/Jjof 



;l _ 


tT ):" 


* W *^ : ^ N 

' .ii|l;! 

k\ Lea. I. 

■''.■;■, a 




■ ■ Jl I " t ■ 

Z/?^ ^oiver of Mixture. 



Of the T WE R a;icfV S E of Mixture. 

AVING Qmmtx^XtA the general Catifis^ wc fliall, 
laftly, enquire into the Fower and Vfi oiMLxture^^ 
nr inio whjt itcaiiDi)an(irf<?fA. And ! GulUn* 
ftance mfix particubrB. firU^ to Renderall Bodies 
Sociahk, whatfocvcr they be. 6'effl«^/>', To Mal^ 
Artificial^oSiiis in ImiiatioD of thofe oiNamc50\yn 
proclvidion. Tkirdl)\ to mak^ or 7^;/i'd(*? the /'«/i^/e 
^alities of Bodies ^ as Smells^ and T-^j. Fourihly^ 
To ^;;^^., or //;/;*^fc their F^r^/^/c^. -F///A/^, It J? a JCe; , to difcover 
iht> Nature oiBvdks. 5;;./A//,Todifcovcr their 6)^, and the AT^^/^er 
of their Medicinal Operath^. 

I N S T A N C E I- 

FIRST To render all Bodies Soiialh oi Mwglcabk : ZsJVatcf 
with ok SMtmth Spirit, and ihe lii^e. For Nat i^ral-^ud Jirli- ^^^ g 
fu-ial ML-iti^rc, are the fame ^ as we have before proved. If ihcjcfoie ■^'^- ' 
N^tnrc can do u, as we feein(heGcj/cr^f/^«of Bodies fhe doih, tis 

likewife in the Power of Af to do it. ' „ \ ^ , ^ , ' 

a 6 And for the doing of it, two gc^m-^l Rnfes reinit horn the 
Trc^iffa, fi. The Application of Caitfcs, and the Choice oi Materials. 
As for the ^jz/cj, they are (nch as I have now mflancd in. Andtor C/.^, 4. 
the ^pt'/jtv^fit'wofihem, iJliaU ftivc thefe^Tro Kw/ej- 

^, /, Fir/, That we tread in Nj^^zmfteps as near as we can 5 not 

only" in the AfpUcatiofi of fuch a O'ifc^ as may be nioft proper for fuch a 

^lixture 5 but alfo m allowing nfuffcHnt timi: for its cffcU, For fo we fee 

Nature her fclf, for her more perfc^ Mixtures , ufually dcih. She 

makcth not a Floivcr. or an Apfk, a Hcrfi, or a AJ-^«, in a ^^^^^^/ 5 

butalUhines byckgrccs^^ and for her more perf.if ami ehiboruteMtx- 

tnrcs for ihcmott p^trt, Oie reqnircth more iimt. Bt'cnufe all luch 

^r;;.J..rej are made and carri'don ^^f^- ^^;/^/7^J.n and therefore require a 

srcaitr lime for the compleiitingof them. , , , , ^ 

4 jS, A/trc^Yi Riik is, Not only to m.ike a due Apphcatmj of 

the C^m/^j ^ but fometimes to AccmmtUtc them. By which means, we 

may not only, wiitatc Natnre, but in fome cafes go beyond hen For 

abbyadding^Gr^/rorWtothe<?toA, we may produce i^^y^^^^r, 

and {om^u:xi':^ hcttcr, i\vm Nature by the 6W^ alone would do: bo 

htre, by accmmlalwgihiiCai^fis oi Mi.xturc, that is, by joymng two^ 

three, or «weto^cther^ ov by applyi^tg ^Jore in fome Cafes, where A j- 

inre applyi-th femr-^ we may be abjt: to make, if rot a more ferfeS^ 

yet afar more jpecdy Mixture, than N^J'/*"^ doih. As by joyru-i^ CW- 

prellki? B^d, andviokuc^i^//^^;^^, and fo continuing them all to- 

trcihcr' by fome means contrived for the iMjrpofe, for the ff nc^ of a 

^^ . ]\cei{^ 

I h 



i ; 

J I 



= 3 

The Ponder of Mixture. 

Lea L 


-r ^1 

■ I ] 

i I 

I ■ 

r t 

- 4 

Jl'fc/^, ovMotnl\ ov lof/gcr^ wiilujut ccfibiion, Wliicli mny prohibly 
produce, not ovAy fir ^f7gc, but iijefrtlEjJei^s^ in the W/fJ/ii« of fome 
and the Mixture of other Bodies, And may ftrve to mix fuch Bodies* 
SIS through the final! numh^r of thtir congruous parts, nrc hardly mwsh- 
abk any other w.iy. Agitation bcinj;, ns carrymjjr the JCr^ to and 
fro, tiilit liicthe L^r^^ or w'wh'm \hG Lcck^ tili k hit the /IV^//, 

5. ^. SecGtidly, For ihc Ckoirc of tftattriah^ if thty are rot 7^;/- 
mcdiatelj\ that is, of themfclvfs, ?j/i^^kalilc -^ we are then to uirn one 

CL ^. ^.^,^P^"^-^^( Mi:Ktnre into a link •-, which i^ To w//:f them by tiivclittjitn 
of fome //i/rc^, whether more ^w^/c or comfoumkdY>ody^ which may 
becoi^gruous/'/f^r/ to ihemi't^ii : as Sulpbtrous s4ts arc to ffiv/frand 
Oy^ and arefor that reafon Affz/^^^/f.^i/e with cji/.'o^ of them. Or, By 
any trvo congruous Bodic^j which arcalfo, in fart^ conf;mous to in^o 
others: and other hkc way?. Whereby ilie parts of Bodies, chough 
ViiiYtiiohctcrogcficott^^ may yet be all Ictiml and loclid up together. 
Even as ix^enty Keys may be jwitcd^ only by ti/nting the tivv Rings 
whereon they hang. 

6. i- The Confideraiion of ih^lt^ thing^j have put me upon ma- 
\(\i\^Q.vGX2\Experimc77ts^ for the mnghr'g oi' kelcrogenects ^o6ks, I 
ihall give two Exampltsof Tryal 3 the one upon f/w^/, cheothcrnp- 
on conSjicfJt Bodies, 

7. \^ For the /»^, ltoo\;.0)loi Amfiedf^ and pouring it upon a- 
nothcrBody ^ I fo ordered it, that it wa^ thereby turned into a pcr- 

. feft wilk^rvhrtc Balfain^ or Biityr, By which means the fiaiii Ojl he- 
came ww^W'/f? with any ifVw^, or Watery Li fior-^ cafi/jf^ and i^Jiatfta- 
vcoiifiy dijfolving therein , in the form of a y.ilf^ ' And note^ That 
this is done, without the /^'(/r -///frd//;?j/ of the Smdl^ T>^, Natnre^or 
Operation of the fiiiJ Oj7- By fomcwhat the like m^^ans, not only 
Oyl oi Afiifccds^ but ^wy oihi:v jiillatiti oh s Oyl^ may be transformed 
into a f?ii!l{'ivhite Butjr ^ and in like m.mner be mingled with 
Water or any other Liquor. Which is oi various ufe in Medicine ^ and 
what 1 find oftentimes very convenient and advantageous to be 

8. ^, Again, not only jZ/z/^i but ^tJw/f/?cj;/ Bodies, which of thera- 
fdves wili mix only withD//; by due mixture with other Bodies, may 
be YiiV[AQiAeafdy diflbluble in IVatcr '-, as may Hodn ^ and all rcfirmus 
an6 friable Gu/pfs^ As alfo fF^,v : and this without changing much 
of their C(3/i?r, Tafi^ ot Sj?jtll. Wlicrcof likewifL', whalfocver others 
may dOj the Pkyjidan may make a manifold Dji: 


BY Mixture ?A^o^ we may be taught Xo hfiitate the Prodit&ioas of 
Nature. As to which, from what we have before liiid of hlix- 
ture^ we may conclude 5 That tlicre 1^ no Gencraiion of Bodies unor- 
ganical^ but whatisinihc FovFer o^ Mixture io imitate. As of Animals^ 
to Imitate B/i'crV, fat^ Chytc^ Spittle, Fleg'n, hJh\ 5cc, Of Fegtt.-i'^s, 
to Imitate mMtlk^ MuciLtge^ R^Jif\ Giim^ qy Salt. Of Mineral;, to 
lmicatcr/(n/i/, Al/ofjfy and other i'-////; as alfo Mt7j//, and the hke. 
2. ^. I do not fiy, I c;mdo all this ; yet it^ w^-^on p^ood Prn'fifes, 
we cancni^ludc this polfibleto be don*j 3 it is one Itcp to the doing of 
it. But 1 will aUogivean/v/iAMrL' of fomcwhar that m.ty be donc\f\ 
every l^fnd. An-.l, 3- ?* 






^kd ml 



Led. I. 

The Pojper of Mixture, 


5. §. i^Jr/?, VoTt\\^hntai}onoi^n Animal Body^ I wiilinftance in 
FaU Which may be w.7i^(: chus^ Take Oy OZ/T'f, and pour it upon 
high Spirit of Nitre, Then digeft them for Ibrae days. By degrees, 
the Ojl iK'Comes of the colour o^Mdrroiv 5 and at !aft, is cofigealed^ or 
hardned into a rt^kite Fat or B/;//fr, which diffolvcth only by ihe_^re, as 
that of ANJwalf, In converting 0// thus into Fat^ it is to be rrctted^ 
That it hardens moft upon the exhdlation of fome of the more i?«/- 
pfji^reouf pms of iht Spirit of Njtre. Which I efFeftcd, well enough 
for my purpoie, byunflopping the g1afs after fome time of digejti- 
on ^ and fo fuffcring the Oyl to djffolve and thicken divers times bymc- 
QQ^yt hat ^T\A cold Hence, T^itlXM^ Congealing Principle^ is a 5^;- 
ritefNitrcfeparatedfromitiSjdphnr. Forthe better doing whereof, 
the Aer is a mod commodious Men^ruum to the faid Spirit of Wtrc, 
Whence alfo, if wccould procurefncli a5f/Wrof N/irf, we mightffw- 
geal Water in themidftof Summer, We might alfo refrigerate Rooms 
herewith Artifidaily, hnAm^t Imitate :i\[ frofiy Meteors. For the 
makjng of Fat, is but the Durable Congelation of Ojfl : which may be 
done without froYi^ as 1 have (liewed how. 

Hence alfo it appears. That Animal Fat it felf^ is but the Curdling o£ 
the O/Zf parts of the Blood 3 either by fome of its own Saline parts 5 
or by the Nitrous parrs of the Aer mingled therewith. 

Hence hkc wife it is, That fome j^w/w/d//, n$Con/es^ and Fieldfiref^ 
grow fatter \n frofy wG3iher : the oilj/ parts of the hlood, being then 
more than ordinarily coagulated with a greater abundance ofnitrojts 
parts received from the ^er into their bodies. 

For the fame reafon it is, That the Fat of Land-Ammals is hard 5 
whereas that of Fipes is very foft^ and runs all to Oy/, Jc. Becaufe 
iht l^ater^ wherein they live, and which they have infteadof breathy 
hath but very few »//ri?H/ parts in it^ in comparifon of what the A*- 


4, ^, Secondly, For the Imitation of a Fegetahle Bodjr, I will give 
three Infiances -J In Rof/n, Gam^ and z Lixivial Salt. The firfi may 
be made thus 3 Take good Oyl of Vitriol^ and dropit upon Ojil of ylnije- 
feeds ^ and they will forthwith incorporate together ^ and by degrees, 
will harden into a perfeB Rojin 5 with the general and defining Properties 
of ^ truly Natural Repnojts Gam. Eeingnot at all i^///p/»We in WatetjOt 
at leaft, not anymore, then any naturalK^fforGw^/.- yetverye^/f 
hy fire: ^^ ^\fo \i\^y infiafnabk z and exceeding ^?^^/e. Although ihts 
Artificial Koftn^ be the refulc of iveo Liquors, both which very ftrongly 
affeft the Senfe : yet being well tvafljed from the unincorporated parts, 
(which is to be done with fome care ) it hath fcarce any Taji or Smelh 

The Concentration of ihcCet]x>o Lifuors J islikcwife fo jfffmer/i/5 that 

-the Rofin is not made by Precipitation^ but almoft a total Combination 

of the faid Liquors 5 and that with fcarce fo much^ as any vifibk fumes* 

5, ^. Again^ Having taken a certain Povpder zx\A a Saline Liquor, 
and mixed them together in a bottlf, and fo digefied them for fome 
time 5 the Powder was at U(\ tranfmuted to a perfeft Oily Gum ; which 
will alfo diJJolvei^nhcYinOyloTinWaferi, inthe felf fame manner, as 
Galhanum^ Ammoniac, and the like will do, 

6, f. And Lajily, A Lixivial Salt may be imitated thus^ Take 
Nitre, 0^1 of Vitriol, axMWiigh Spirit of Wine, of each a like quantity. 
Ofthcie three Bodies, not any *irc bein^ f Ji* together^ that is to fay 

N n neither. 




r 1 

1 ' 





i '"■ ; . ■ 


■ i 

344-: TAtlAWf <i.J^ixtHre. Left. E 

^Hcrthc AW with the Oy!, uor th^~0^th the 6>m, nor tha 

(<.^./Ser, make a very co.jfkuo.s one. The %>>/ of m„e beini; as the 
- i///; ;«r ; .nd To that, and ih.- ^rc rogethcr,(tanding,as it were in he 
^ad of an ^/V-../. that is, a 5«/^W. .SAa.ainft S i"/ of 
^/r«/. Divusmheri-^fm>f«,. may be Ihew'n ofthelikeNature 
'I' ^ . '" '"V ,.P'^'^*^' ^°'" the /(;«/at/s« of a M,«er,,.' Body I will 
nift^ncc in Nitre and M«-... 5^//^ if imay iiave leavc'to recEn 
them 3monR(t Mineral Bodns. . As for N,,n, i,y «i.inJ«f / ^ ^ 
^'/^r. together and thc-nfetting them to A., i I have obVain/d ctry. 
jJ.Jofir,,. and p.,/.i? 5.// i which have had much ofa .„ro«, taL 
and would be «,J/.^ with a ^c»(/. H../, as Nitre i.5 and even as eaily 
as B„ljr It felf: I mean not, by the addition of any fort of li.J 
oranyothtrBody, 10 d^jjol^cn; but only by the >/ ^^ ' 

S.J AMov^Sca-sdt, that I might 7«.r^/. JV./«,, for t„. ^ 
J?«^ thereof I confider'd, That the faid Sah is nothins dfe 
but that of A.,m..h and F,-^.,..y.,, freed from its true sp.m and tl 
fhur .nd fome S.h.e parUcks ^.cificaily A.,,nal or VegLbk, together 
wuhthem. For boih AnimaU^AVeguMe Bodi.s bun. condmulfv 
carried by all B^z-.r. into the Sea; and many iikewife f y ^S J 
_ and dive. ./^.rvvay.y..^e.><i therein: they areat l.ft i.„pL S 
is, their Conmn«d,^g parts are opmU and refohcd. Yet ihe JlV«^, 
/«« being in the Water, is not made /..cdpi/././, , as it isi„ the £- 
but by degrees, and very gently 5 whence the Sulphureous ai 3 ofS 
F././,/. part^ in X^^x, Ai^oUtion, make not fo much hafie as toSr 
■ V- '■Y:'^Tt'^ 5./;«. parts along with them , but leate h them^e- 
hind m the ^utcr, ^\^^c\^,,nh,kih them as their proper McMrm^ 

And the /»,,.,..« of W;«.r. herein, may be performed thuf. Put 
as much of ^L,xivuiSah as yoi, pUafc, into a widc-mou.h'd Botile 
.nd w,th i^x. Water makea SoU,on of it , fo as lome na,-. therS 
of may remain »y>W at the bottom of the Bottle. Let the Bof 

tic ftand thus for the fpace of about half orthreequarters ofa veir Til 
^etimeunftopped Inwhichtime, manyof the iW^m.,. and^/" 
r.W. parts gradually flymg away 5 the top of the unrcZ^d 
5.// Will be .^rnr/?./,, or as it were^yi.i over, with many fmi 3 
hard CoMons, which in tlieir nature, ar^ become a true SellX 
Whereof there IS a double Proof; Firfi, In that moft of the faid ci 
r« ;.«r are of Mu^k or very like Fignre. Eft>ecially on their upper 
^ tms- becanfe having zfi:cad Body for their b4s. their »W..pam 
therefore, contiguous there to, are lefs .r^«/... Whereas the parts of 
tlie ^^/nn the Sea, being environed on all fides wiihaF/W; their F/- 
^«« IS on all fides r.£«i,r. Secondly, \x^ that altrongA/J spirit or 
Oy being poured upon a yi,// bodjd Solm,o>, hereof? yet it makeS 
herewith no M;//.« which is alfo ,h. property of L-Salnnd 
thusmuchtor ^hzmotcGener^lmit^ioHO? Bodies. 




\ ' 



?^** ■ 


^' ^x?\^ 


. - i| 

4 , 

f ■ 

Led. I. The Power andVfe of Mixture. 





K O M the aforcfaid Premijfes^ antl by the afoiefatd MeaiJS^ thereis 
no doubt to be made, but that dlfo the other firifibte ^atities of * 

Bodies may be Imitaicd^ as their Odor/, and Tafis. And that nor only 
{)\t general om^^:h^Fragr<:nt^ or AftrifJgcnt: but alfothofc which are 
ffecifidl 3<wd proper xo fudi ^ /pedes of Bodies. 

■ 2. ^. Thub for Exdfitpk^ by wi^tj^;^ 5p;V;> of A'iVre or Vitriol with 
rc^^yJc^ Ofi of Turpef:tJtiey and fome other VegetMe Oyh^ feverally, 
and in a due Proportion and Time^ 1 have Imitated the 5^^/// of divers 
Vegetables:, n^oiTanf), o^JgnHm Rhodium, mi others. And I con-^ 
elude it feafable, To Imitate the Ttfi or Smell of M«j^ , or Amber- 
gnece^ or ^ii^i tf//j*^>"body in the world. ' 

5. §. Hence alfo we may be Taught^ How to Imitate tlie hacnlties^ 
as welUs other ^tf/i/'F/ of Bodies. The reafon is, becaufc even /Ae/J 
have no dependance upon any J/jR/d^jii*^ -fprw: but arc the meer re- 
fultof MJ^Kiure^ cffe^ed by the ft me Qa/ex, whether iti Nature or 
A/^ aslthinki have made to appear in the forej^oing Idea. And Id. ^. 55, 

^"" ^' ''" ' " ' " Ci.2. 5^,10* 


as in the Premises of this Difcmrfe hath been fliew'd. 



EV O M whence , agaitj^ it is likewife a Key to Dijhover the N^t/tre 
of Bodies. For how far foever we can attain to Mingle , or to 
lah^ them, we may al£b know n^hfzt they are. 
2. St, For Bodies are w/»^/e<jt/e, cxthtr of themfekes^ or by fome 
Third. As to thole which mugk ofthemfelves^ we may certainly con- 
clude, Thatthere is a rf'A'^w/^ betwixt them, in fome relpeft or other. 
So upon various Tryals I find, That EjftniialOyls do more eafily im- 
hibc^nAcidy then an ^lk.dly. Whence it is evident. That there is 
(bme Co}7grnity and Similitude beiwixt EffitJtian Oyh, and an Acidj which 
there isnot betwixt the faidO^/ and an Alk^ly, 

g, ^. Asto thofe that mingle only by fome Mir^^ we m.iy alfo cer- 
tainly conclude, That though the iiva extreaf/ir arc imlike'', yet that 
they have both of them fome corjgrmy vs\i\^ ih^t thirds by which they 

are jtniHd. 

4, i. Moreover^ We may make a 'judgment from the ma^mr or 
Degree of Mixture. Thusihc AiidSpint of Nitre., as is faid, \v\\\ coa- 
gulate Oyl-Olive., and Ttndcxiicon(ifie?!t. Whence it might be thought. 
That any other fttong^^/i^ will do the like^ and that thtrcfore, there 
i* no great difference \n the Nature of the faid Acid Liqmrs. But the 
contrary hereunto, is proved by E.^fc^/we''//, For having ^^^e/?rtJ the 
Jame Oyl in the Gmc maimer^ and for a much longer time, with fi:rong 
Oyl of Sulphur'^ alihough it thence acquired fome change of CJi';//', yet 
not any CoKJljlence. 

5. j(, Agajtt^ Bccaufe the faid 5/j;Wi ofl^itre coagnUles OyWlive ^ 
itraight be exptftcd, it (hould have the fame effeiS: upon Oyi of Ar?i- 

Jeeds'-, or, acleaft^ that if other A/^/ will Coagulate Oyl oi Amficds^ 
that this fhould do it btfi. But Expcrimct^t proveth the contrary. For 
of alllhave [ryed,0>/ of Vitriolh the only A/t^ chat doth it /»J?^j;- 
taneottjiy, 0)1 of Stdphur^ if very ftrong, will do it; but not ib jijw, 

N a 2 nor 







"^ ^ 

The ''Fonder and Vfe of Mixture. Left. I. 






io not at 

uovio michAq^mfortis, mdSpmtoi sMt, for the preftnt, ^0 77^1 at 
nil iouth It. And 5;7r/X of Nitre k fdf will not coaeaku it, under f^^A* 
or/*?// hours at k'alt 


L^ 5 TL 7; and co>rftqnent!y, [c is a Key To Difcover the Medidnal 
Ufi nxiA Operation oiZod'xe^, Thus, for Example, by the 7^/^*- 
Z;^'? of iJe/?/?/ and J^ff^f?;;/ GffWJ, wc certainly know what all of them 
are^ andiv^e^, :md -ivhere fore lobt ufed. For what are Af^^>^^, Prj«- 
hift€tiijt:fllibamrjr^ Benzoin^ and other HI^eRaft/ij, or lleftJious Gums^ for 
their prindfk and pndommafjt ^?iXi% thatls, ^h^ Rofir?s 1, but Bodies 
rtfuhingfromN^j/^r-^/, in like manner, as! have Ihewcd, they may be 
made to refult, from Arirfidal A^ixture} Thatis to fay, the 0/ftf*^, and 
^ri^ parts of Vegetables^ being both ^/;y?^and tni^fgkd together, per 
9ifimmj^ infome onefort ofFf/^/jin ai'/^w^ they thus ;>i:iTrf(Trj/i: in- 
10 one confijkftt :AVi6 friable Body, which wc call R&fin, 
■2. ^. Now from hence it is, That the faid jRi-/^../, ^nd RefinoHs 
Gttm-^ asa]fo.^w^^Tand5/y/;^«rforiherameReafons5 aieoffogteat 
andeffeftual Vfi againft moft /^/^ mdfatt Rheums-^ fc. as ihey are 
Aadokou^^odwiu For by their A/^i parts, which in all thefe Bodies 
areexccedingt^;^7Vfff, they w/mz/i- and refraH thofe Salt ones, which 
feed the Rhenm, And by their olcous parts, the fame Salt oiics are al^ 
fo Imbibed. Whence, they are all, in fome degree, iticorperated together 5 
that is. The Rhe»m is thumped: which is the dcfired efftH, 

^.'^. Whereas, on the contrary, if the C^;/^* proceed not ftom a 
•thifr, and fpcdally a5^/f J^At^^w, but from a Kz/^t;/// f/^^w^ the ufe of 
.niat7y other Bodies which are alfo more ohous^ and abound not fo much 
with an Add as ihefe do, efpefcially fime of them, is more proper; 
fuchas//je/^, inEhisCafe, proving fomettmes not only //jc/^£?W, but 
fnjfididal Since the very Canfe of the ftid Vijcoufncfs of Phlegm, is 
chitily fome great Acidity in the Bloody or in fomc other pari^ as may 
be proved by divers Arguments. 

4. ^. Manymore/r;i?^^Kfc/ might be hereunto fubjoyncd; and may 
hereafter be offered to the acceptance of fuch, who are inquifiiive into 
-flatters of this Nature. If I fhall not herein anticipate, or reiterate the 
Thoughts and Ohfervjtions, of thofe two Accurate and LearmdPerJom 
Dr, Willis^ and Dr, ]f alter Ncedham, as to what the one hath already 
fMiJImd^ and boili have put us in Expeaation of But the Ifjfiances al- 
ready given, arc fiifficicnt to evidence what I have faid And, I hope, 
thisprelent Dijlovrfi to prove, in fome meafure, thus much 3 Thatfijc- 
fcnwew/ and the Common Notions of Senfi are protipck-, and that no* 
thmg I'iBarreft, but ^h^nfi^^Tidlm^jgimtiofi, 











td Dot fin 

Lc*3:- 1. The Tower and Vfe of Mixture. 


An Appendix to the precedent difcourfe of 


A V I N G, in the fitft Eciifion of the foregoing Dif- Ck ;, hfi. 
courfe, mademeiuion of the preparition of Ejferf- i, jS, 8. 
thU 0)ts^ fo as to become ealily mingkable wirh ' 
any unoyly Liquor^ ! IKiU here acquaint tht Rea- 
der, That this may be done, by digefting any of 
the faid Oyh with about an equal quantity of the 
Tclk^ of an Egg^ with a very foft heat, like that of 
the Heridian Sh?j in Summer^ conrinued for the 
fpace of three'Weeks or a Month 3 and in the mean time, to be now 
and then ftirred a little together. The Te/^will by degrees^ imbibe the 
Oy, and at length be incorporated with it, and become a Baifum^ aS - 
white as Mj^K 1 eafily diflblubie in any -waUry or winy Liqitor. 

2, §, r confcfi, that it will be very difficult to prepare any good 
quantity for ufr, this way. But this being a fufficicnt proof of the 
poflibirKy of (ucha JW^Af//re^ I confidcred, whether the application of 
ibme other foretrcntioned Canfe of Mtxtiire^ might not fupply the de- 
feftofthis: and hereupon, have made ieveral fuccelsful tryals ^ not 
only for the mixing of the faid Oyls^ but Hkewifeo^all forts oiRofiJis 
ZT\A Gifms \N\t\\ ?,x\y wiJiy ot eatery Liquor^ in great' quantities, in a 
ihorcnme, and without much trouble. But for the mixing of Ibme of 
thero, theTe/^of an Egg alone will not ftrve, without the interve- 
ning of fomc other fociable Body, according to one of the Ruks given Cb. k hid 
in the foregoing Difionrfe. , ' i, 6,6, 

' 9, ji. In the fame D/fio/rrfe^ upon certain premifeF, I have laid 
down this following condufion. ff, g tc s> 

. By accumulating the Caafif of MixturCy that is, by joyning * 5- P' ?- 

" two or three or more together ^ or by applying more in Ibme cafes- 
'^ where Nrf/»reapplyeth fewer 5 we may be able tomake^ifnot a more 
perfefl", yet a far more fpcedy MixUtre^Kh^u Nature doth. As by joyn-^ 
ing CO MPB.ESSION, Heat, and viokm Agitation^mA fo con- 
'* tiuuing them aItogether,by ibroe means contrived for the purpofe, for 
"the fpace of a Week or Month^or longer without Ccjjatiotr. Which 
"* may probably produce, not only (trange, but ufeful effects, in the 
^SOLUTION of fome, and the Mixtttre of other Bodies, 

4. S, For the proof whereof, and that I had throughly weighed 
what I have laid, Mr- Pappin hath fince given us an ingenious Inftance, 
in his new Digefier, Which is, a Bdlmam Mm£ cUujam ; all Irtfitjions 
and Digefiions made with Double Vejjels^ having hitherto been made 
with the outer KyJE/, open. So that whereas by the old way of Dt- 
gefiion, their is no other Ptftrer made ufe of but that of H^W: in thiff 
way, that alio of Compre^otj is joyned therewith. 



IJ ' 



^11 * 










Led. II. 



IN [ ^ 


/h ■ 

:ro -^ 





Arifing from the Affufion of feveral 


Upon !ill forts of 

^^H| ^ ^ 


Exhibited to the Rojal Society^ April 1 

fwie 1. 1676. 



.^'. j:?' ■ J 


H t' w/w;/ of the folhrcwg Experiments is mo- 
fold. Jheom^ to he as a Demon ft nt ion of the 
Truth of OTte^ amoM^fl other Propofitions, kid 
don^fr intheprecedetitDifioHrJs of Mixture, fc. 
That it would be- a Key to let us eaiily into the 
knowledge of the Nature of Bofiics, 

The other^ atrd that confiqttently^ To be as a 
Specimen of a Natural Hiitory of the Materia 
Mcdica ; that is fo fay^ a j^mltifarious Scrutiny 
mio the hitrif?fick Propcriicj of all thofi M.aeriah, rvhith have hecff^ or 
may he itfcd /V Medicine ; for the ferfbrmaNce whereof the folhrvijjg 
M<z\hod is ex ihiicd tjs om^ a mongfi others^ mcefjary to he infijhd upon. 
¥ortohat Di'miuivi! d Pnnct hut h over the Mora], that aPhyikhn hath^ 
a^ojfc of God Almighty s Vice-Roys, over theCoi^ort3[WorUL Wlo^ 
therefore nothftfg cafi more import^ than a paniadat k^wrvkdgc of the Ge- 
nius of all his Subjcft!^, thoje fver-d Tjlbes of Matter, jupp.fed ti? he 

ifuder his ComtumnL 

















: There are fome k.^!orr/! Ob(kt\Al\ons of t hit ?f Mitre : Imt there is no. Au- 
thor^ I thirj\i ivho hath givet/ us a Syftcme of Experiments upon the 
Svibje^ : The ^erformavce whereof k here wterrded. 

The Experiments ffiay Jee^i! too mitnerons to hv c/ (j;;c make. But no 
kj^a fiamher Tvonld have anfwcrcd the design of an Univcrfal Survey y 
jfh'nh^ thoygh hfi pUiifiJ7g^ frgjjesthepiorefnjintclive inthccftd: not bs* 
ing lik^ ^gi^^g Toith a fifigk Hooks hut Irke taflhfg a Net agaitifi n Jbole i 
mth ajfartttjce of drawing Jtj' fonnthing. Bcfides the advantage of com- 
parin^ many together j rohich being thffs joyncd^ do oftentimes^ hl^ 
FigureSj HgJrifi'e ten times tfrorey then fiat/ding alonCy they would have 

^ Horo far the Corollaries all ahng fithjoyned have made th^ good, kp 
left to the Reader to Judge, And alfi^ to add to ihem, fo many more^ as 
he pkafcf / fir I mai\e my own Thoughts no mans Mearurc. 






L ■' I ' 


15. and 


■C H A p. I. 

■ P , 

... . ^ . 

What is generally to he ohferveJ upo7i the Affufion of the 
Mcnftruum 5 and what^ particularly of Vegetable Bo- 
dies. ■'"''■■:^ 


1 I 

HE Bodies whereupon I made tryiil^ were of all 
^^ kind?. Animal, Vegetable, and Amongft 
Ffgetablcs, iuch'^^ihcCc^fdL Dale^Jl^nes^Grngery 
Colocynthis^ Pyrcthrttm, Harelhorn-jioncs^ Siaphif 
agria, Euphorhium^ ihc Arenu!^ \\\ Pears, Smtsn 
MiJii Sohs^ Tartar^ Spirit of Scurvygrafs^ Spirit 
of if Vise, &c, 

2. ^. Amongft Minerals^ feveral forts' of 
Earths^ Stones^ Ores^ Metals^ Stdphurs^ and Salts, 

9. §, kmOKXg^ Animals -^ fiich as thcfi-, y^i/. Bairs, Hoofs^ Horns, 
shells^ and f>e/ly Infers, Bones, Flejh, and the ievcral Ftjcera^ ^^'A-i 
Bloody tvhites and Tell{s of Eggs^ Sperma Ceti, Civet^ Musk , Cajior^ 
Gaily Urine^ Dungs^ animal Salts and Stones* 

4, ^. The /_?^;/^rj which I poured hereupon (everally, were thcie, 
fc. Spirit of Salt ArmoniaCy Spirit o{ Harts- Horny Spirit of Nitre, A- 
^Ua forfis^ OyfoS Salty Oy I Q^ Sulphur^ ^xndOyl oiyitriolj commonly 
fo called. t 

5- i- In theM/x/;/reofthe(e Bodieii, two thingSj in general, are 
all along to be obferved, iti-^. Firji, whicli tliey are, thai make any, 
Oino Ln&atiov, For, as fomc which fcen] lo promife ic, make none; 
So, many^ contrary to cxpeftation, make a conliderable one. 

6. ^. Nexty iht manner whevt'in the Lii£lation]sm:^dG^ being with 
much variety in thefe fwi: fcnfible Ejects, j, BaUiiion--, wh(_n the 
Bodies mixed produce only a certain quantity of froth or bubbles* 
2, Elevation^ when^ like Pafte in baking, or Barm in the working of 
BccFj they fwdl and huff up. 3. Crepitation^ when, they make a 


1^ ■ i^ 


i II 





Parts of Vlanu mixed 







■ J 

i i 


kind ofhiffing and fometimes a crackling noiJe. 4, 'Effen^efccme -^ ihcn 
only and properly fo called, when they produce fome degree of heat, 
5, ExhaUtwfi--, when not only fumes, buc vifible fleams are produced^ 

7, jS. Of all thcfc, fometime one only happens, fbmetimes two or 
more are concomitant. Sometimes the Luxation begins prefently upon 
mi>:ture, and fometimes not till after ibmc intermiffion. In fome bo- 
dies, it continues a great whiles in others, is almoft inftantaneous: 
Examples of all which I ftiail cow produce 3 beginning wiih ^c^g^id^fe/, 
as affording the Icaft variety. 

8. ^, A'jdfirji, if we take Spirit or O/l of Salt, Oyl of Vitriol^ Spirit 
of Nit re ^ or A^Ud fortify and fottr them fever ally npon the feveral parts of 
VegctabkTy as Roots, Woods^ Stones^ f^c. Ti>e fyall fitjd, that they are^ 
generally far Ufi apt to mal^ a LuUdtion^ than either Animal^ or fubterra- 
mal Bodies. Whence^ as from one ai^ument, it ftemerh evident, That 
in mo^ Vegetables^ and tn moft of their parts, the predominant Salt is 
an Acid. But that, on the contrary, the predominant Salt in moft 
Mifierahy and parts o^ Animats, is an Alk^ly : in the former, ulually 
^ fixed '-^ in the latter, a volatile Alk^ly. 

<). ^, Agaitjy although the LuSation which moflVegetableSy and mcfi 
of their parts r^al^e with Acids, be hnt fmall, yet jome they mak^e -^ ejpeci- 
aUya>ithfor^e Acids, as mth Spirit of Nitre and Aqua fortk. Whence 
it ftemeth plain. That there is an Alk.aU?!e Salt exiftcnt in many Vegeta- 
bles, even in their /rat/tral ejiate ^ and that it is not made Alk^lttte, but 
only Lixivial, by the fire. Or, there is fome quantity of a Salt^ call 
it what we will, in the faid Bodies, which is fo far different from an A- 
cid, as to make a jL«i?<i/wtf therewith. But to give particular inftan- 
ces of the feveral proportions, or manner of Mixture ^ whereia it ap- 
pears to be in ftvcral Plants. 

10, §. And fir fl, of all vegetable Bodies, Date-fi&nes are amongfi the 
leaji apt to make a Lrrifation with Acids,if they may be faid to make any at 

aU, Hence they are not fo potent JSlephriticks^ as many other Stones, 
which make a more fenfible Luxation. 

11. jf. Ginger mak^s a fmali Bnliition WxtYi Jqua fortk, onlyohferva- 
hle by a Qlafs, Hence the pungency of Ginger lyeth in a fulphureous and 
volatile Salt^ which yet is very little Alk^li%ate. 

\2. f, Scurvygrafs'fieds mak^ 4 very fmall BuSition rpith Aqua fortk^ 
lik^ that of Ginger. So doth alfo the Seed of Purflane. Hence, although 
there is much more of a certain kind of volatile Salt in Ginger or 
Scurvygrafi, than in Pjtrftane^-, yet there is little more of an Alkaly in 
any one, than in an other, 

19- 5?. The Piflp of Cohcynthif, Fruit-Stones, the fiony Covers of 

the Seeds of Elder, of white Bryony, of Violets, and others, with Aqu^ 
fortjs make a BuHition ptfi perceivable without a Glafs. Hence it ap- 
pear?, That the great Cathartick. power of Colorynthk lieth not fo much 
in an Alkdy^i as an Acid-^ as making a much ie(s Bul/ition, than fome 
oxhiiT vegetable Bodies, which are leJs Cathartitk: For which rcafon 
likewifc it is. That the belt Correlators, or Refraftors of the force of 
Colotyvihif, are fome kinds of ^/^^-f/'f J, as particularly that of L'rm', 
as Riverijis hath fomewherc obferved. 

14. jf. The Root of Pynthrum, with Aqua fori is, makes a ^tiUition 
and hujf^, in afimt time. Hence, the Caufe of a durable Heat, upon the 
Tongue, is an Al/^dizate Sulphur, For the Heat of Ginger, though 

greater 'y 





-. "- 

ira. VtB 

■- Aii^i 






Led. 11. 

mth fever al Men^ruums. 


greater ^ yet abidech mihingncar jo /i'/^^^auhat o? Pyrcthru?;i-^ which, 
as is fjkl, niakcth alio a more lenfiblc BtfUition with .^i:;^^/- 

15» ^. Kcrmes-herrks^ comm$nlj\ but jgnorantfy^ fo called^ mth the 
faid Liq^tor^ htffnp to an equal height^ but in a fomcwhat longer tims^ 
Hence they are gently aftringent '-^ fiH as their Alk^lj binds in with 
Jbme preternatural Acid in the ftomach, 

l6~ i. Hiijpthorn-jlones^ tpith Aqita. fortk^ huff vp equally with the 
prmer Ihdy 5 hut the Eullition k tiot fi viftble. The !i/{e n itljo ohfirva* 
hk of Medlar-flona, Hence, as they contain a middle quantity of an 
Ail^aly^ they are not infigniticantly ufcd againft ih^Stone, 

I J* ^. Seeds fif Staphifigria^ rrith Aqua fortify make a BuBitwnJiilt 
more vifthk. But it quici^ly ends. This confirms what was faid before, 
fi. That the caufe of a durable Heat is an Alk^lir^e Sulphur t, rhefe 
Seeds producing a durable Heat, as doth the Root o^Pyrethrum. 

18- §. The Seeds aljh ofrcdRoJcs^ Borage^ andComfrey do aB with 
Aqua fortk make a confdefablc Bullition and huff--, and that very quickjy- 
So that amongft all Shells and Stones, thofe generally make the greateft 
Bitlliti&n^ which arethehardeft and the brittleflj and fo thefulleflof 

19- jj, Euphorbium ntakes a BuUition yet more con^derahh^ with much 
frothy and vcrj quickly. From which Experiment,compared with two 
ofthe . former, it appears, 'Xhzt EuphorbiHmhnoX2.V[ Acid^ but an ^Z- 
kaline Gum. As alibj tliat the caufc of its Co very dnrahle Heat^ is an 
alkaline S/rlphur^ as of Pyrcthrum and Staphifagrra hath been faid. It 
icems alto hence evident, that the power of all great Stcrnntatorics 
lyeth not in their Add^ but their Alkalies. 

20. jj. The Arenulie or little Jiones in Pears, clujierd round about the 
Caar, mth Aquafortis^ prefintly huffnp^ and make a great Butliiion and 
Effervefience^much greater than doany of the Bodies above-named. Whence, 
although, fo far as [ know, they have never yet been ufed in Medicine 5 
yet it is probable, that they are a more porent and effeflual Nephrituh, 
than any of the Bodies aforfaid, fome of which are ufually prefcribed. 
It is hencealfomanifcft, That, according to whati haveelfewerc faid, 

for the fweetning of the Fruit and Seed, the Ti^r/^^rct);// and Alkaline Anat, of 
parrs of the S^p^ are predpiiated into their Stones, ftony parts, and PLnts^ B, 
Shells. I, CL 6. 

21, ^. The laji Infiance Pall be in the Jljclls of the Seeds cf Milium 

Solfs^ which not only with Aqua fortis^ but jome other Acids^ make a 

greater and quicker Bullition and Effervejcence, than any other vegetable 

Body^ upon which I have yet made tryul, in its natural eflate. Hence, as 

well as from divers of the laft fore-going Inftances, we have a clear 

confirmation of what I have, towards the beginning of this Dilcourfe^ 

affcrted , J^-, Thar there is fome kind oi AUi^hne Salt in Plants^ even in 

their natural ejiate. Asalfo, that they areasfignificantly ufcd againfl 

the Stone, qjratenus alkali^Late^ as Millipedes^ Egg-fl^lts^ or any other ^ 

tcfiaceous Bpi/zejofThcfamc ftrcngih, Tothefel (hail fubjoyn one or 

two Examples of Vegetable Bodius which are more or lefs altered from 
their natural ejiate. 

•22. ^. Neither Cryfials offartar, nor Tartar it fetf( although they have 

fimejiorc of alkaline mixed mth their acid farts') make any Eflirvefcence 

TPithAndSf but only ivith Al/^alircs^. as Spirit of Harts- Horn^ ^c. Hence 

the calculous (ulimeni or Ari:mU in ZJr;^^ may not fo properly be callt^d 

O o the 


ri I 

|L ■ 

1 . 


J £\dineraU mixed, ^ Led. II 

of with the aforefaid 5^//., being quite contrary ; as will be feen in £ 
i_-yr Lhapter* 

23. iS. 5f;rii ./ 5f«-*>-^rVi r«akth no Ug^tjon wtf, a^y Add 
Hence fas from a former Experiment was above-noted ) it feems Thir 
there may bea kind o^volatiU Salt, which is neither^ri^ nor alU. 
bw; fuehasthisofScwn/,^^™;} and other like i^W. feems to be ■ vet 
SS7 *° ^" ""'' ' ^' ^^P"'*^«'^e fiiews in their efficacy againft the 

f,''^X.,^ff^^fr*%^r\ I'f^^i'h Spirit of mtr,, and with 
Vd vf Vttnol, JeverMllj, v^akelh a little hili^tio^. Which argues that 

there K contained, evenin this Spirit, fome portion ofa aijijiife i/w» 

25. f. Spirit ofWtne, and doHbkJqHafortit, at the firof^ieii it called 
make an effervejcence fi vehement, as plainly to boil. * 

36. jS. Bejides the vthememy hereof, there is another furpri^ins cir- 
tHmaa«ce. tor whereas all other Liquors which make an Efervcfcele to- 
gether, w,ll do ,t m any proportion aligned, although hut om drop to <t 
ihoufard .- Ihefe fmo, Cc. reQified Spirit of Wine and Aqua fortis re- 
quire a certain proportion the one to the other. For if fippod j„iortx 
drops of Spirit of Wine yon put hut two or three of Aq„a hrti ' they (iir 
«o more than if yon put in fo much Water : hut drop in about feven or 
tight drops of A(iH*fvrtis, and they pre fently boil "p tvilh ler, great iiehe- 
»«*c^ Hence we may conceive the reafon of the fudden accefs of an 

"T'f- r^'' ^^^ *^^ !'' ^"J''- ^^^^^ "°^ heginning gradi,ally with 
thelauff^ but then, when the Gj«> is arrived unto fuch an a'^itri or 
fucha certain Proportion, as is ccceflkry to bring Nature to the con- 
tetV. And ihefc may fervc for Examples upon Vegetables. 




; n \ 




iVhat may be obferved of MINERALS. 

. \ 

' : i' 

. ? 

A V I N C given feveral Inftances of trya! upon 
Vegetables ; I next proceed to Minerals, which 
for fome orders ftlte, I lliail diftribute into five 
or fix forts, fi. Earths, Stones Ores and Metals. 
Sulphurs, and Salts. 

a. )f. Firji for Earths. Oyl of Vitriol upon 
Fillers Earth, doth notj/ir it, or caufe the leak 
mkl,o». Nor upon yellow Oker. Nor upon the 

mr^-.-r , ^ . :^%^ ^'^'''^ f^l!' f'-o'^ gr^^n Vitriol. Th. fivie 
Oyl ofy,tr,oU»d Spin of Harts-Horn poured federally t.pon Bolus Ar- 
'Henaoftwekjnds'ir,dHfmo„e k'ld of Terra Qgitkt.,, fiir ,wne of 
them HenceBJ^ysarethea,^., or as it were, the Materia trimi, 
both ofonacousi/.;;^/, and JUetah; into which the faid Wxs are 
tranlnmted, by being ..«.«;(«d with divers kinds oi Sails ani Sulphurs, 
wnich IiicalUvcly flow in upon them. 


3. (j. 



PC 1310 W 


,.. ibt H 

Leifi. II. J^^'V/j fev^rdl Menjlrmms. 


5, ^, Aqii'i fortjs^ and 0)1 of Vitriol heifrg poured fivcrally itpon dm- 
ihcrfiakd £itrtl.\ which rvas verjclcd by the ttumc oflcrru Lemaiii -^ ihc) 
Lolh made a very cojiflderahk Ejfsrvcfccncc herewith. Whence it iippears^ 
That there \% no fmall difference in the nature, and therefore the operas 
tion of Bolu^ ArrfKffn and Term LtmJiU, As alfo, betwixt the fealed 
Earths themfclves, one making ii great Epri>cjfeme^ anorher none at 
all. Whereto thofe that ufc^hem, arc to have regard. 

4, ^. Next for StOKCS. And fir fi^ Irijb sht^ ml h Spirit of Harts- 
horT!^ mtkcih ajmall, yet vifd'Ie Btdiitm:: ami it prefif2t!y ceafctL So 
that it feems to be nothing cife but a Fitriolhk. Bole. As is aifo argued 
from its taftc, which is plainly acid," and foniewhat rough- Whence 
alfo it iswith good rcafon given upon any inward Bruifes. Becauie 
by coagulating the Blood, it prohibits its too copious afflux into the 
affcftedpart. Yet beirgbut gently aftringent, andfo the Coagulati- 
ons it makes, not great --, \hcy are likewise well enough carried olf from 
the famu part in the Circulation^ by both which means an inliamcnatioti 

may be either preventedj or the better ovcr-ruled- 

■ 5. §, Lapis Hsmutites mid^eth no Effervtficnce at uU either with AU 

ladies or Adds, 

6. jj. Porodcr of the green part of a J^agtjet with Oyl f>f Vitriol mn- 
l^th fome few hubbies^ yet not vifible without a Glafs. But the powder of 
the Idack p'lrt of a Magnet, which is the fiidjiofi€ fnlly fcrfc&^ ftirrcth 
not with any atid. Neither doth the cdcintd Magnet. Hence there is 
ibme confiderable difference betwiiKt Jron and the Magnet. 

7, jf, Lapk Lamii^ mth Oil of Vitriol^ and efpecially with Spirit Gf 
Nitre^ ?nakcth aconfpicuous BulkUon, Hence itsO^Ajr^/c^vittuclyeth 
in an Alk^tly. For which reafon it is alfo appropriate, in like manner 
as Steel., to fhe cure of Hypochondriacal A^e&ions 5 originated fiorn 
fome kind of fermenting Acid, '. - , 

8. OjicovolU^ with Spirit of Nitre ntaktth yet a greater Efervefcence. 
Hew it comes to be lb great a knitter of broken Bones, as it is repu- 
ted, is obfcure. It feemeth, that upon iis'folucion by a 'Nitrous Acid 
in the body ^ it is precipitated upon the broken part, and lb becomes a 
kind of Ce^f^ J thereto. 

9, ^, Lapis Tuthi^, with Spirit of Nifre^ mak^ih an Effervefcence 
much alik?- And with Oyl of Vitriol very ton^dcrabfy. But Lapis Cala- 
minarkwithOylof Vitriol grows fiarkj^ as the powder of AUbajier doth 
with water. With Spirit of Nitre it nmketh a little Brdlilion, and quickly. 
But with Aqitafortis^ agreat one ^ beyondany of the Stones above named. 
Hence both Tutty and Cala^^y are Ophthah/icks from their Alli_aly. 
Which ii'alfo confirmed, from the efficacy of fomc Alkalies of the like- 
ufc. Hence alfo Calamy (eemeth to partake fomcwhat of the nature of 
Silver: as by tryal made upon that alfo, will hcreafcer blotter ap- 

. 10. §. Chalk and Oil of Sulphur or Vitriol make as flrojjg aJi Efer- 
7}efiNJce as any of the rcji. Whence it is fomcUmes well ufed againft a 

1 r. S. Whiting makes as great an Efervefcence as Chalk So that it 
flcms the (jline parts arc not w^xflK-d away wiih the water, wherein 
the Clialk, for the making of Whiting, ii<Jiffolvcd, 

O o 2 

li. §. 


■ I' 

'■'- i' ' 1 

I ■ 



k ' 


Minerah mixed 

Led. II. 



' :i 

I 1 

12, ^. 7alli_wHl mt flir m the ka^ either nith Spirit of Nitre or 
Oyl of Viiriol. Bsn the Lead-Sf^ m^kcth a cof^flderahk Efervefccj^cQ \i>Hh 
hih of them fiver aUy. Htnce, however thi.s b^^ allb called EmUh Talk 
yet there is no fmall difTLTcnce betwixt this, and true Talk. 

1 ?. jj. To thefc Stofter may he added peirifivA hadks- As petrified wood '-, 
vhuh Qhat npon which I made tryal) no aadprreth in the IcajL Petripcd 
fielis ^ ^tpof, four or fivcfivcral forts rvhercof, 0; / of Vjtriol ki^i^ panred 
prodncctb agreat Effer'i^efieme. The Root orrovgheypm of the Stone called 
Gloflopctril, with Spirit of Nitre, ?nal^s a co^^fpicnorf^ Bnlliiioit, Attc- 
ria, the Stone fo called, ^f^dformd infome places m England, with Ovl of 
Vitriol^ mafyth an Egerveficnct at the fame degree, so doth the BdeJ^ 
mtes^ or Thunder-Stone^ both the larger and the kjfer lq;:ds. So that 
noneofthcfcare-?(,v^/, oi vitriolick,^ bm alkali-Late Sxoncs. 

14- j5. Coralinc, with Oyl of Vitriol, makes a confpicuafss Bidlithn^ 

yet ni7ld and gentk :, that is^ w^th very little, if any heat, and without 

any vifihlc Fumes. A^^d red and white Coral do the Hl^e. Hence they 

are all of a very gentle operation, and fit for Childrtn, as the cafe re- 

15. ^. Magifhry of Coral {prepared the ordinary way \ fiirreih not 
rntheleafi, either mlh Alkalies cr Acids. Whuvccilhcvidtm, Thatits 
aflive Principles are in its prcp.irationdeftroved and waOicd away • 
that IS to fay, It is an elaborate Medicine good for nothine- And thus 
far of Stones. 

1^, ^, I next come iff Metah and Ores. Andfirjlfor Leadt, Jtponwhich 
Spirit of Salt Spirit of^Hre,; or 'A^aa forth being dropped, it fiirreth not 
tn the leafi with any of them : but with Oyl of Snlphnr, and efpecially with 
Oylof Vitriol it mah^th a flow Bitllhion and froth. Hence it fecmeth to be 
the mofi alk^lizatc Metal Which is alfo confirmed by a foregoing Ex- 
periment upon the Lead-Sp^r, which iraketh a confiderable Effer- 
vefccncewitharyfortoftff;^. And which likewife, being calcined 
yieldeth a good quantity of Uxwial Salt. ' 

17, §. Lead^Ore fiirreth not at al/ with A^Jta forth or Oil of Pltri' 
' t>L But Spirit of Salt makes it bjihble.and Spirit of Nitre makes it boiL 

Hence there n a confiderable difference betwixt the perfea Metal and 
the Ore. .y -\ • . 

13. ^. Burnt Lead and red Lead^ mah^ avery fmall Bullition with 
Oyl of Vitriol, with Spirit of Nitre a far greater, 

19. ^. Mercury, rrithOyl of Viiriol, wi// not pr, nor rPithOyl of Sul- 
phur, But with Spirit of Nitre prefently boyls np. Hence Mercury is a 
fubacid Metal:, Spirit qC Nitre hernia fitbalkaline Acid. 

30. jS, The filings of Iron or Steel, 'with Oyl ofVitriol, mak§ a fair 
B'lUition, like that of Minium, But Spirit of Nitre makes them boil mth 
much celenty. Hiriice froii is likewife zfubacid MtaL 

21, ^. Steel prepared with Snlphtr maketh a far lefs E^ervefctnce 
n-iththe fame Spirit of Nitre, than do the filings. Hence there is a great 
difference in their ftrengih.So that ten grains of thefilings unprepared, 
will go as far as fifteen grains or moreof thofe which are prepared, 
as above-faid. Yet in fomc cjfcs the weaker and milder may be the 

32. ^^ There is o?ie Circvmjlance in the mixture of Steel and A^ud 
firtis, whith is fiirprizjng 1^ and that is thif. That (Irong Aqu.£ firtk, 
dropped up^n Steel, will not, of H filf md^- the kuH BuUiiivn : hnt if 







Lea II. 



jpith fevera/ Menfinmmr, 



hereto you only add a drop or in>o of Watcr^ they prefimfy boil up mtb -^jcry 
^rcat vehcmevry. The Ciufc is obfcurc ^ yet ic is well known x\\i\i 
iPriffj-it fdf will dillolvc /riJ//: fo th:it it apneas/ as well by this, as 
by fome other Experiments, that even in common Water, as mild as ic 
is, there is fomc kind of corrofivc Principle, 

25, jS. Antimony with Spirit of Nitre, and Aqux fortis fivsrally^ 
maketh an Effer^efience 5 fimeivhat lower than Iron. With Oil of ri- 
triol the BHtiiiion is fo fjmll^ as difficulty to he ferctived with a GUfj, 
Hence it feemcth to be of a very compounded nature ^ if I may Co call 
itj a iubacid-alkalinc MetaL 

24. §, Amimoninm Ditiphoreticum^ with Spirit of Nitre and Oil 
of Vitriol ftverally^ m^kes avonfiderublc Effkrvefcence. Wherefore it is 
notanufelefs Preparation--^ as from thet^/t^fla/iu// and Ablution ufed 
therein, fome have rhoughr- 

25. ^. Bez^oardiijim Minerak^ (that upon which I Tnade tryal") 
Jiirreth not at all either with Alkalies or Acids. To which, let choie 

who make ufe of itj have regard, 

26. ^. Ttn^ with spirit of Nitre^ n^hs fo hot and vehement an Ef- 
fervefience^ that it turns prefeMtfy^ as it were, into a Coal. It wakes 
alfi a fair Bnllition with Oyl of VttrioL And a gentle one with Spirit 
efSalt, Wherefoic, it hath fomcthing of the nature both of Iron, 
Lead^ and Copper. 

27. if. The like remarkahls cirCumftance is feen in the wixtnre of 
Aijrfafortif withTirjy as with Iron, For Tin and Sir on ^ Aquafortis 
of thimfelves will not Uir ^ but add a few drops of water to them 3 and 
ihejf boyl up with the greateji vihtmency. 

28. iS. Coppr., with Spirit of Salt ^ andOyUfl^itriolfivera'lj^ftirs 
notatalL Spirit of Nitre^ and Aquafortis, both boil it uV lehemently. 
Neither Spirit of Harts-horn^nor Spirit of Salt Armoniac mal^th any Bd- 
lition therewith. But both of the m^ by a gentle folution^ that is, gently 
feparating itsSulphur from its Salts, turn it hltse. Hence Copper h^ilx 
a greater proportion of add than any of the forementioiied Me- 

29. jj. Siher^ mither with Spirit of Salt, nor Oyl of Vitriol makes any 
MUition. With Spirit of Nitre it makes onc^ hut tis foon over .^ a?sd the^ 
continues to dijfolve Jlowlj into white Coagulations, It alfo maketh with 
Spirit of Harts-korn^ or of Salt Ar maniac^ a full and deep blue. Hence 
there is a greater proportion of mJ in Silver^ than in Lud, Mercury^ 
Iron^ Antimony^ Tin, or Copper, 

30. §.. Litharge of Silver makcth the great c^ Effervefccnce with Oyl 
of Vitriol. Tetfome with Spirit of Nitrej And with Spirit of Salt Ar- 
monrac maketh jomc liltlc huff or elcvatJofi. And being mixed with Spi- 
rit ofKtfrcand Spirit of Salt Armoniac hoihtogeth^r, prodnceth a faint 
blue. Hence, although the far greater p;:irt of this Litharge be but 
I.ead^ yet, it fccms, it h:uh fbme finall mixture of ^J^/i^^rr. But that 
of Gold iceniLthj for contnuy reafons, not to have any Gold. 

51. iS. GoU makethno Efervefcence with any jin^k Salt I knuw of 
But it is commnly diffolved with Aqua Rcgis^ which is kl^own io be an 
alkaline Liqitor. Whtnce it fecmeth, That' as Lead is the m^Ji alk^a- 
lizate^ (iiGold the moji acid q[ Mctah. ^ 

^2. #. 





' ■ ■■ 

' i 

mw-i - 



Minerals mixed 


H i 


J . 





53. ^, Thefc things confidercd, and othcrobfcrvaiions added hcrL- 
imto, maypolTibly givefomedircffions not only for the ordtnns and 
iiHiig but even for die making, imitating and iranfmutint^ of AW/ 
rhmr;ir o\ McUU. ° 

^?' ^' ^ "'''^ ^'cxf^fve ont or %m Infianccs of tryal upon Sulphurs 
And fir jt sulphur vive, mth Aqu^ fortis, ma^th an appare^^f Bnlhthn 
hut n ?s Joffic tlm^, hforc it hcgws. But the f^mtmis jr common? Erim- 
Ji m, mak^ih fear u any ^ if anj at all. So that there is no rmall dif- 
ference beivvixc them. 

^4. §. White 4nd yeSffw Arfemck. mak^ m Bhllifhff cither with Ah 
^aliej or Adds. Wherefore the Orcni^th of its operation on the Body 
lies more in a Sulphur than a Salt-^ or in a Salt drowned in its Snlphurl 

35< iS' The aPcj cjther of Pit-Coal, or Sea-Coal, make m Efjcr- 
veficnce with Alkalies or Adds. Whence the fahnc Principle js alto- 
gether volatile, and fublimed away by ihe fire. 

. ^6. LaWj for Salts. And firH of aH^ Borax maketh no Efcr- 
vefcence nor any Fumts with Oyi of Vitriol or Spirit of Nitre. 

Jj. 5S- Oyl of Vitriol and Nitre mak.^ fumes or fiums, thot^gh no 

58. jf, Grun VitrioK rv^th Spirit of Harts-Horn, is fiarcdj movtd. 
White Vitriol, with the fif^e Spirit, Ka^eth a cojifpicuoks huff. And Ro- 
man Vitriol a vehement Bfervefcence. Whence the /t^rw^r is the /f dy? 
add^ and the Utter the moft of aU% Which alfo confirms what ! faid 
before of the like natures of thefeveral Metals to which they belong, 

gp, ^» Salt of Vitriol, though a fixed Salt, and wade by Calcination^ 
yet rnaleth no Effervefieme with the Jircngejt acid ; but only with Alka- 
lies ^ as may ie fetn upon their n/ixtsre^ hut much better heard by hoid- 
irjg the mixture to ones ear. Hence, there arc fixed Acids. Which 
further confirms what I have above afierted concerning the nature of 
Gold, fc. That the predominant Salt thereof is a fixed Acid. 

40, ^. Sal Mortis, withSpirit of Harts-horn^ maketha confidera- 
hk huff. Hence it is much more acid than green Vitriol , and is there- 
fore a cooler body, 

41, jT, Alum and spirit of Harts-horn make a plain Effervefienct, 

42, $. Saccharum Saturni^ with Ojl of Vitriol^ Hirs not at aJh 
WithSpirit of Salt, huffs a little. With Spirit of lustre much more. 
Hence the dfid of Ihe Vinegar^ mi not tht Mk^dj of ihnLead, is the 
predominant Principle, 

4^- jS, Common Salt fiirs neither mth Spirit of Salt, nor with Spi^ 
rit of Nitre 3 nor with Aqua forlis. But mth Oyl of Vitriol it maieth- 
a^reat Effervefcence with noife and Jleams. Hence*, even common Salt, 
though it be not reckoned amongit-v/^^/>we salts, yet is far nearer in 
nature to thaty than to an acid. Hence alfo the spirit of Salt is afih- 
alk^lineAid^ andof avery different nature from 0^/ of Sulpl.ur or 

44., ^. Salt Armoniac, with Spirit of Nitre, flirreth not. Sf/t 
Tvith Oyl of / itriol it maketh a great Effervefiente. Hence Spirit of 
Nitre is ^ijuhalkalizate Spirit. 

45' ^- Oyl ofVilrioUnd Spirit ofNitrcJhough both adds, yet rtule 
^/rftfl fmoai^ greater than that which the Spirit mal^th of it filfi 
Whiclj conhriis the laft prccc lent Corollary. 

a6. i. 



' * E>. 

J i /lata 



Led. 11. 

with fever al Menjirnumf. 


46. jf. Of/ cf Fttriol and Spirit of Salt , though both acids^ jtt 
ftjuk^ a Jirot^g Ej/erzefiKce, with noJfi and f/tfr^es. Which further con- 
firniSj what was noted before, fi. that Spirit of Salt is ;l jul>alk^liftc 

47. 5. Spirit of Salt Armofiiac^wifhOyl of Vitriofy makes an tiff er- 
'vefiescefi extraordinary qmck^^ and at it tvere injiantantous^that nothing 

fameth quicl^er. Whence it is probable. That if Gun-powder were 

made of Salt Armoniac^ inftead of Nitre^ or with hotb mixed together 5 

it would be /rfrj?roff^er, than any kind now in ufe. Andthusfar for 

43- i^- Ihavc onlyoned^f-tfj^f^ry toadd, from the wholes which 
is. That whoever doth undertake the Natural Hifiory of a Country.^ 
(fuch as that the Learned Dr. Pht hath exceedingly well done of Ox" 
fordpij-e ) the foregoing Method^ feeraech ^Q eatie, cheap, and inde- 
ceitfiil, for the finding out and well diftinguifhing the natures of all 
kinds of AfefdZ/j, Orts^ Salts, Earths^ Stones, or oihGT fnbterraneal Bo- 
dies '-f as cannot, \ think, be fupply'd, but by others of greater difficul- 
ty and expencc. 

C H A R 1 1 L 

What ijiay he ohferveJ of the P ARTS of Animals. 

NOW proceed to the (cveral Pa>-ts of Animals ^ as 
Hairs^ HoofSj Horfis^ Shells ^T)<i pell f InfiUs^Bones^ 
Fief) and thejeveral Vifier^^ Silt^^ Elood^Eggs^Mttsl^^^ 
Cajior^ Gallf Urine^ Dttngs^ Salts affd Stones. 

2. ^. Andfrji of all., the Hair of a mans head., 
with Oyl of Vitrioly makstb no Bidlition at alL Nor 
yet with Spirit of Nitre. So that although it con- 
tains a good deal of volatile Salt ; yet it feemeth cither not to be alka.- 
line^ or clle is centred in lb great a quantity of Oyl^ that the acid mm- 
^rffffOT cannot reach it, 

3» iJ, Hares Far ^ mthjpirit of Nitre^ ma^eth, although a port, yet 
very plain Bullitioj! and huff'. Hence the Hair^ and therefore the Bloody 
of fome Animals^ is fuller of Salt^ at leaft of an Alkaline Salt^ cha;i 
that of fome others- And perhaps the Hair of fome men, as of slacl(s, 
may be fo full of Salt^ as to make a Bullitinn like Hares Fur, 

4. jSi Thefiavings of Nails Jiir not at all, either with Oyl of Vitriol^ 

or Spirit of Nitre : only with the latter they turn yellow. But Eil^ Cl^ws^ 
with Spirit of Nitre, mik^ a f mall and flow Bullition, 

5. §• Horfis Hoof ^ roith Oyl of Vitriol^ flirs not of many hours. But 

with Spirit of Nitrc^ allowing it fonte time, makes a very plain Bulliticn^ 
and huffs lip very high, 

6. ^- Cowf Horn, Jtcif her with Oyl of Vitriol, nor with Spirit of Ni- 
tre, ffjaketh any Bidhtiony o/dy tur?ieth to a yellow colour. 

7. §. Rams Horn jlirs not with Oyl of Vitriol ■-;, but with Spirit of 
Nitre, mah^s a /wall and flow Bullition. 

8, /. 


I .T, 

I ' 



I '^ 


ii.k ■ 

Y I 











1 1 


i:fl ■ 





• ; I 


Parts ofAuimaU mixed 

Lea. II. 

8, jS, HdrtS'Hornmak^s aconfidcrabk Eutlitwfiand hiiff, evst2 mth 
OylofVitriof^ rphich ihe rsh of the Bodies ahovefiid, wilt vot do. Mm 
vpith Spirit of Ntire, it f^ak^s yet a greater. From the foregoing Ex- 
periments, and almoft all that follow^ what n before ailcrted of 
ihe Salts of Vegetables and Mimrals^ is hert .ilfo evident cOQCcrnmg that 
of AfjimaU^ flit. That it is not f^ade^ but only fipar^ted by the fire, 
.It likewtfe hence appears, That the proportion of Salt in the forememi- 
OT\^A parts is very different, and that therefore fome of thtm are never 
and none ofthembut with good dilcretion, to be fubftituted one for 
another in Medicine. As alfo, that there is a different proportion of 
Salt in the ftveral Ani/^/Js themfelves, to which the faid Parts belong, 

9. f. Next for fije lis t, as t hofe of Lobfters^ Eggs ^ Steads and Oifiers: 
^U tt>hich mah^ an EfjtYvefancc^ both with Oyt of Fitriol^ and Spirit of 
Ire. But mih Spirit of Nitre the greatest Lolifier-^JcHs mak^ a conjidcrabk 
BiiUiiion and hnjf^biit no noife norfieams. E^g-flitils ntah^ a Bidlition and 
huff^ with fimeno7f\ but no fi earns. Snail-fiydL makg an Effervefcence 
7;cith mi fi and fleams. Oyfier-fielh make one with the grutcji noife and 
thickeji fleams. Hence we may jud^e, in what c.ilt to adminifter tf^e 
morcappofiteiy than a?wther. As alfo iti rohat proportion ^ accordingto 
their different fVrength. Some may be bcnci iov Children^ 35 being 
milder. OrforaBody whofe very (harp B/Wor other Himors^ are 
more eafily kindled into Ferments, Or elfe may be fafeft, toavoid 2 
iwAAtn precipitation of the Httntcrs--, or for fbme other caufc. 

10. ^. Oyflcr-pcUs^ and the reji ahve-fiid, mal^e a quicker Ejfer- 

vefcence^ not only with Spirit of Nitre^ bat eijen with Spirit of Salt ^ than 

they doroith Oyl of Sidphnr^ or Oyl of Vitriol. So that M^e bodies as 

well as Metals^ have their propter Mevflrmims whereby they are be 


11. iJ- . Egg-JI:elis calcined^ nial^e with Oyl cf Sulphur^ cr Oyl of Vi* 
triol, or Spirit of Nitre^ a greater Effervefance^ than when uncalcined. 
As alfo with fleams-, n^hich uncahined^ they predhcc not. The li^ is 

feet! in caliined Oyjlcr-Jl^ells^ And the longer the Calcination is continued^ 
the qitif^^er and flronger will be the Effirvejcence, This I trjed at Jeveral 
ierms^ from a quarter of an hour., to five hours. So that after fb long a 
Cdkination^ they mak^ an Ejfervcfcence alnio^ inflantaneovs. The rca/bn 
hereof is,BccauIe the feveral Principles whereof the 5/ie//jconli{t, being 
relaxed, and the Sulphur for the greaieft part, driven away by the fire 5 
the remaining 5-^// lies now more open andnaktd to the attaqucof the 
Menflrtiunj^ fo foon as ever ihey are mixed together. From hence it is 
plain. That Egg-Jhells^ and the others abovc-lJid, bangbamt, are far 
flronger Medicines, than when unbttrnf. Itishcrtby likevvife evident. 
That a great portion of their 5-?/^, \^ ViOl ^ volatile^ bnx :i fixed Ali\aly, 
Tothcle may be fubjoyncd all kinds oE ihclly Infers. I will inftance 
in three or four. 

12. §. And firft Btes^ with Oyl of Vitriol^ flir not inthckafl. With 
Spirit of Nitre they mak^ an exieeditigfmall Bidlition^ without any ekva^ 

15. j5, Covhinek (the A\^ of an If^feS ) mah^s fome Bullition irith 
O^tofyitriol^ bitt very fn/Ml : for the bubbles iirc rwt to he jcen witho^ft a 
Qlajs. But ivfth Sprrjt of Nitre tic Hfiliition is more rifibky atjd Joyttcd 
uv//j fame ekv.ttion, 













Lea. 11. 

with fever at Menflrimnu. 


14.. jS. CaJiib'irhks w^itc no vijibk Bulhtioji n'itk Ojl of Vitriol. 
But rrith Spirii of Nitre they do , 'ind huff irp rather wore th.m Co- 
chifjefc. Yft /i thif dove very jhrifly^ md comp^irdtivsly with many other* 
bodies^ k not mrn-k Hence it is rot the /jnctnirty, but the ijjLdity 
of their voliiile Salt ^ which m:ikes tlicm fo Hron^ an Ef/fpafi/c^ 
For moft of iho(e Bodies above, and heicafrer nnmcd, make a 
greater H/dlition, and yet are neither Caitflicl{ noi Ep7fpaftk\ in the 
leaft, Ic is hence alfo evident , as hath been before fuggeftcd^ That 
there are divers kinds o£ J^ol.nile Salts^ eminently ditferent ^ fome 
being highly alkdine^ others very ///^/c, and Ibme fcarce any thing 
fo: fuch as ihofe of Siitrvy-grafs^ Antmem^ Croivfootj and many the 
like Pfat7ts '^ to vvhofe Saltfy this o( Ca?2th.iruks feemeth to be very 
near of kin. 

15, jj. Millepedes n^ake a BHllition and huff, much greater and qnicker^ 
than any of the InfcQs ahove-mtmed : und that hcfhvcith Spirit of Nitre, 
and Oyl of Vitriol it fit f Tet is thh [nfiH of a 'very fen/per ate nat/tre- 
Whereby is further demonftrated, That the being fmply nlkaline^ is not 
enough to make a body to be Canfiick, 

16, ^. AgaJn^ although MiUcpeder ma^c a Bidlithn^ greater tkvi any 
of the Infe&s abo'-oc named : yet is it much kfi^ thaji that of Oyfier^Smil, 
cr even Egg-fi>dh ij and of divers other bodies above ^ and hereafter men- 
tioned. Hence, beinggivcn to the fame intent, as any of thole bodies 5 
it is the mildelt and gcinleft in its operation of them all. 

ij. (4 Millepedes iii^jvifi calcined^ makes a fironger Efferveficj/ce^ 
than when uncakimd^ as do the Oyjlcr-fiells^ ^c. So that it appears. 
That all Tejiaceous Salts^ ate at leaft in part, fixed Salts. 

18- %. 1 next proceed to Bones. And fi'rfi Whale-hone mah^eth no 
Bnlliiion at all with any acid, A Cartilage^ with Spirit of Nitre^ niak^s 
fomt very fmall bubbles, not to be feen without a GUfs. 

If, ^, Ihe Bone in the Throat of a Carp^ makes a liitlp. and flow Bul- 
htion with Spirit of Nitre. The Spina of a Fijh ( that Tchich 1 vfid was of 
aCod'fijJj) nraketh a Bullition one degree higher. 

20. ^. All forts of Teethe as Dogs, Boars^ the Sea-ht^rfi^ Elephant^ 
make the like. As alfo the Bone of an Oxcs heart. So that all thefe are 
very gentle in *heir operation, and fit for Children, 

21. jS, Sheeps andCalves Bones both of them jnak^ a Bidlition yet /i 
little higher^ cfpecially with Spirit of Nitre. Cock/ Bones fo/nswhat higher 
than the former. Cranium hamantim a little higher than all the reji. 

22. jS. Bones likpvifi, being calcined, maks ^ Bklliiionwiih Acids. 
And Jo doth alfo calcined Harti-Horn. But in neither oftUn/, is the Bid- 
lition advanced by Calcination^ any thing comparable to what it is in f:tlls. 
Whence it appears^ That the Salt of Horns and BoneSy is much more 
volatile, than tKat of ^/jc^j- 

25, #. Next for Fief} and the fevernl Vifera. And fir fl, clryed 
and pr.jpdercd Mutton, with Oil ofV/lriol, ftirs not at all. But with 
Spirit of Nitre makes a fmall Buliitjon and huff] Sheeps Heart doth the 
like Jomcwhat more apparently* Vipers fief} p-oduceth a f-oth^ but huffs 
not^ Poivdered Earlhsworms make a great frothy and huff a little. Pow- 
dered Tripe makes only a liltk Bullition. Lamb-fiones do the like. Kid- 
ney, Spleen^ and Liver^ with fime elevation^ J^ungs, with bnbbtes very 
large 3 bectufe extraordinary fiowly. Dryed Brain makes alfo a little 

P p and 





'J) ' 

I ,1 


Parts of Animals mixed Led. IT 

1 1 1 ► 


W Am i?.//./...^ Hence there ts . grcm-r proportion of Sulphur 
m- ry, and efs of .;. ^%/^ .« .// d-cjcp.rts, ih.n there is in bLTs 
bhi-Us^ md divers o\\x^^ parts hereafter mentioned And in fomc of 
them as in the iirw;«, that Mkalim Salt which there is, may rather be 

lodged in rome>A.^«imK/partsmixeci with them, than in ihtir own 
proper fu bit a nee, ■ 

34. ^- I proceed to infiance in all forts of Animal Co«tc^ts. Jnd 
Mt rawbi/ii, rPith Spirit cj Nnre, maks avery fm^UBnUition but 
the elevation is cof/pderahk, ' 

25. iT. Ths grumous part of the Blood drjed, mth Oy! of Vitriol 
P^rs but little. Bttt jvith Spirit of Nitre it hup up confiderabli 

16. i?. Strum of Blood dryed, with the fams Spirit m^^kes a pUin 
elevation, with a littU BuUition. Herewith njay be reckoned theWhitQ 
4^^' ^ig.tphieh is mthing tut a purcCryjidtine Serum fepnrated fro^i the 
common fiock, This king drycJ, mth Spirit of Nitre, hnffs ifp rather 
more than emn iht gmmQUs part of the Blood, the Bubbles arc much larger, 
breal^oftncr, and the ekvalion foomr made. Whence it fcemeth t^^at 
there IS a greater quantity of a -^cUtHe Aikalv in proportion to "the 
s^dphtr, rcqmfite to the G.ntratio^ ^ than to the Nutrition of an 

27, iS. TheTelkof an Egg is fcarce moved mth Spirit of mtre^ pro- 
ducing only a very few Babbles. The Salt being cither little alk^li^att. 
or clfe if^merfed in fo great a quantity of 0;/, that the Menfirmm can- 
not reach it, Vqt the fam rtafon Syerma Ceti ^irs not with any Acid 
Neither doth Civet, ^ 

38, §. Rtijfian Crflor, with Oyl of Vitriol, Uirs not. But rvith 
Spirit of Nitre /naies aconfiderable hu^ and f roil). Tet it requires time. 
Wherefore it feemcth. That Caljor by virtue of its -?%te^ S/dphur 
becomes fo good a Ci-rrc^Fi^r ohhe acid^all^aiinc Sulphur of Opium.- fo 
I take leave to call it, having fome reafons to believe it fnch. 

29, §, iVI«4, rt>ithOyl of Vitriol, pirsnot. But with Spirit of 
Nitre it mah^es a confiderable and quitl^ Buliitior?^ with large bubbles, 
rchich often break and rife again. Whence there is a very eminent dif^ 
fcrcncc betwixt MujI} ^x\ACivet. Hence alfo, M//j^ is Cordial, not 
only from its Sulphur, but its All^aly 5 by both direftly oppoUte to pre- 
ternatural Acidities. 

3a j^. DryedGall with Spirit of Nitre Jor fome time, is fiiU - hut 
at length it makes a cofffiderable Bullition and frotk The reafon why 
it is fo long before it begins, is bccaufe the Salt, (as was obferved of 
ibme otherP^rfjJ is locked up in fo great a quantity of Oyl. The 
abundance whereof is manifeft, not only from Deftrllation, but alia 
fjom hLnce, In that the drycd J^cWer, in lying bv, incorporateth all 
together into oiil body, us ^Mj>r/j, and fomc other fofier and oily Gums 
are ufed to do. 

31. f. Extra^ flfVrine, with Spirit of Nitre, makes a Bullithn 
with fiime Efjtrveficr;ce, which continues for a conjlderablc tims z, and at 
I.1JI /tlufs up 71 ith great bubbles. - 'J he Bullition begins prefiatlj : the 
Salt bein^ copious, and fie Oyl but little. 

52, p. Ihe fame Ex tra& of ZJrinc maizes a conji durable Bullition and 
froth, not tJni^ with Spirit of Nitre, tut even with Ojl of J'itriol. Hence 
the Zah oCUrinc is more ail^aUnc than \\\^t in molt of the afore-CiJd 








If. £yi 

rsbSfiril ^ 

Cotitcnts, From this and fome of the following Experi/^mls^ it al/b ap- 
pi?3rs, Thattlic^^/i which concurs lo the generation of G^dud or of 
a Storre ifi the Kidtrep or Bladder^ is of a very different nature from the 

55. ^. Next for Di/fTgs, Atjd firji^ dryud Gcdfs-dmg nm^es -^ith 
SphJt ofNitrv^ Mftnall Btilliticn^ hit m clevaiion. That of Mice ihe 
//lie. AfjdthatffCsxt^s, So that 9f all I hmc tr^ed^ thcfi three Jiir the 

34. ^, Goofe'diivg^ mth Spirit of Nitre, psak^s a very fmall Bitlii- 
i'ton ujjd fomc dcvdtiort. But it requires time, Oyl of Vitriol Jiirs it 


35- #. Alhtmt Qr^cnnt^ with Spirit of Nitre^ hejides invjimerabk 
fi/i.dl I'iihhlesj rijks up n>ith fome great enes^ exaUtyrcfemblifigihe huffing 
!fp ofTefi or Uftrm. Alfo withOylof Vitriol it maketh fime bttle frothy 
h\it flo-wly. So thacit filouJd feeni, that the Fo^^-f area \\Vi\^ openedhy 
fome acid Mettilrtmrnin the Dogs ftomach Casthe body of Steel h \u its 
preparation wiih 5«/p^mr) whereby it becomes a good mild Topick^'m 

36. ^. Hem ditng^ with Spirit of Nitre., mah^s ^ -Dcry great biiSitiott 
and kitfj : greater and quick^r^ than any of the rcSl above-named, 

57. ^. Bnt of all I have tryed^ Pigeons dung, roiih the fame Spirit^ 
makcth the grcatefi aitd the qtiick^ji Bffirvefcence and huff iy and that not 
withojtt (Icitms. Tet neither the fume Dnng^ nor that of Hens ^ is moved 
in the leaU roifh Oyl of VitrioL The Caufe of fo great an F,firvefcence 
in thcfc, more than in the reft, is that rcfhite part which is here mixed 
in a great quantity with the Dnng. Which rvhite part, deftrendcth 
not from the Stomach, but is an Excrement feparated fiom the Blood 
( as tljc Urine in other Animals J by a peculiar Organ^ which evacuates 
it into the Inleiiinum re&itm ^ whence, together with the Sterius it is 
excluded. Hence it is evident, That in the f;i\d Jt>hile part o£ HenSj 
and efpccially Pigeons dttng, is contained a great quantity of a voU' 
tileAlkaly. ■ 

38. ^. 1 proceed to Salts, And fir fl Salt of Blood and Uri^jc both 
mal^ a more dnrabk Effervefcence with Acids, than doth Salt of Worm* 
7&oad, or Salt of Fern, Hence the former are more alkalim, than 
the latter. * 

59. jJ> Again, though divers other Animal Salts will not Jiir rrith 
Spirit of Salt, or with Oyl of Sulphur or Vitriols, yet the Salt of Blood 
will make an Effervefcence with allk^nds of Acids, Whence it is farther, 
argued to be highly ail^aline, and very proper for the torrtUion, of 
all forts of preternatural Acids in the body. There is little doubt, but 
that Spirit of Harts-horn v/WX do tfielike. 

40, §. The Gravel which is precipitated ovt of 'Urine 5 with Oyl of 

Vitriol makes no hnUition inthe leafl. Nor with jirong Spirit of Salt. Bnt 

with Spirit of Nnrc, it makes a very great one, with Effervefience and 

fleams. From hence it appears. That there is much difference to be 

madeintheufeof<i.^^^D/tfrf*i^j^/, Nephriticks^ &c. 

41* $. And that i may not altogether omit to mention, what may 

be fi> much for the good of mankind, I do here declare. That for pre- 
venting fl % not, the breaking, but preventing J the generation of 
the Stone^ eiLhcr in the Kidneys, or in the Bladder^ there are not bet- 

P p 2 ter 








Parts of Animals tnixed 

Lea. IL 

. '^ - 


1 I jm 



< ■ 

' 1 I 

\ ■■ 

Hi t 

ter Mcdkints in the world, ihan fome certain Preparathfjs of N//re 
duly adminiftred. Whoever fhal I think that any kind oxacid asOJ 
ofSulphir, OylojVitriol, Spirit of Sah^ onheUke, will have the fame 
effefli, will find ihcmfclves much deceived in their praftice, 

42. $. Icotjckdewith Stona. And firft^ Spirit of Nitre droped up- 
cji a Stom of the Kidneys or Bladder, prodnceth the very fame effe0 as 
npontheGravelinVrim. That xf to fay^ it mak^tit hoii a^d huff up 
njjtil at kngth it is perfe&ly diffohed into a foft Pulp:, which Tteither Oyl 
ofSklphar^ mrOyl of Vitriol^ nor Spirit of Salt will dc -^ nor gitte the ka(i 
touch toreardsits diffolution. This confirms what 1 faid before of the 
}xk oi Nitre znA Nitrons S^irits^ if duly prepared and adminiftredj a- 
bove any other ^^/^, againft the breeding of the Stone. 

45. ^- Petrls^ with any Acid^ mah§ the like Effervefience^ ax do Oy- 
fier-JIiells. But Magi f^ery of Pear h, as nfually prepared^ Jlirs not at all 
mth any Al^aly or Acid. So that as to the effeit frequenriy intended by 
it, it is very infigmftcant 5 as of that of C^ri/j hath been faid. 

44. ^, Crabs Byes, with any Acid^ make an Eprvefcence, almojl as 
quick^as thitt of Oyfler'Jf^elh . 

45. Crabs Eyes likewife calcined, make a Jironger Ejervefience^ than 
when uncakined. So that thefe, as well as Shells^ contam a fixed 

46. ij. Tie Stones in Whitings heads fnake a (Iron? EfFervefcence 
lil^thatofOyJier-JMh. J ^ m J 

47. §- Stone of humane Gall, ^irs not with Oy I of Vitriol But with 
Spirit of Nitre mak^th a little bullition jufi upon wiixing^ a?id after a con- 
ffderahk time^ a link frotk Mnch lefs than n>hat was ohfirvcd before of 
the Gall it felf. So that it (eemeih to be generated of the Gall coagu- 
lated hyfomGAcrdy which hath already «y>ji^etJ the ^/^j/^ wherewith 
the Gall abounds. This confirnis the ufe of thofe Medicines in the Jai/n- 
dicsj or any other bordering Difeafe^ which deftroys thofe Acidities 
by which the Gall is curdled or coagulated, and fo rendred more 
difficulty feparable into the Guts, 

48. ^. Since the firft publifhing ofthefe Obfervations^Mr. William 
Matthews ^li Apothecary in Ledbury^ fent me part, as I take it^ of a 
Stomach-Jlone, as big as a Wallnut of the largeft Size, voided by a wo- 
man about 82 years of age, fometime after an Autumn Fever. It con- 
fifteih of the fame Stria^^ as the Bezoar Stone ^ and maketh Ibme Bulli- 
tion with Spirit oi" Nitre. 

49. jJ, Bezoar, neither the Weiiern nor the Eaflern^ doth fiir at all 
with Oylof Vitriol. 

50. §. Wefiern Sezoar, with Spirit of Nitre^ makes a very little thin 
frothy and that's aSj and that it doth very flowly. But Oriental Bezoar^ ' 
with Spirit of Nitre^ after fume time^ mai^th a very great Effervefience^ 
froth, ekvation, mife^ andfieams (^as i f you poured Oylof Vitriol upon SJt 
of tartar^ till it be wholly di/fahed by the a ffufed Spirit, and turned ijjtir 
almofk a hhod-red. Hence it may leem to be no mean Remedy agaliift 
fuch fretting and fenenate acids^ as oftentimes in Fevers^ and other Di- 
jiempers^ lye about th^ Stomachy and are thence frequently trantlated 
to tht Hearty Brain, Nerves, and otbcr parts. The difference likcwtfc 
betwixt the Wefiem and the Eafiern Bezoar^ is fo great, th;u in ;my 
caCg of danger, and where the Bezoar h telycd upon, it \s an unpardon- 

\ ' 

I . 

* \ 



Lc.^. II. 

ipith fever al MenHruum^. 



able fmlr, forthc y^fi^'/j'^fj^, or any Pcr/fl^, to>^>/''*e the otie for 
the othc r : unlets he will take ten times as much, or tm timet as little 
of thcone^ as he would havedone of the other; ii that will ferveturn- 

51, jj. The Sloms already mentioned^ (^except the gresLtStdmarb" 
fioftc ).ire ordinarily generated in the bodies of Mimdh. I have one 
liiftiiiice more of fome other Sioms which are extraordinary. In the 
City Q^Hcn-fird livfs a Maid, who often voids thefc Stomi^ and in 
the fpBce of fome years kft paft, hath voided feveral pounds, of le- 
vera! Colours and Si%cs^ not only per vias urindrias^ but alfo by vo- 
mit, and by ftooL The firft mention made to me of them, was by 
Mr. Diggs^^ worthy Gentleman of that City, as a thing that ■was there 
much wondred at. And fome of them, upon my defire , were fent 

me by Mr. W^ilingiOff^ an Apothecary in the fame place. / have 
iryedreh^t feveral acid Mi^KJhmims mllwork^npon them^ and fnd^ That 
with Ojlof Vitriol^ atsd ejpdallj/ with Spirit of Nitre the great cncsmak^ 
a very quick, "^d confpmwus EjfkrDcfceffcc. But the fmall oties^ neither 
theji'fjile^ norike grej\ wake anyBullitionintheUafi : forintruthj they 
are no other but little PfM/cj and Grit-fiona. 

52, §. "this being confidcrd, and the various cp^£?»rj and mixture 
of any one of the great Stones^ being well obferved ^ it feemeth plain^ 
Thatalrhdughftiebe fome what old (above thirty years ) yet may (he 
have a kind of ^u^;v:atti^, or difcafed Appetite to St&ms^ Bones^ Wood- 
dfbes^ Tobacco-Pipes^ Chdk^^ and fuch like things^ which ibmctimes 
fwallowing in Utile lumps^ fometimes groily, or finely ground betwixt 
her teeth ^ they are in her Stomach and BoweU^ mote or fewer of them^ 
feMf»;ei^ together, either with a f//«i/Offj, hilions^ or fome other more 
or lefs glHtimm fuhftance. And that by virtue alfo of the faid Cement, 
or anyof the faid, or other like d/^^/^s-rfe BWiw, the greater Steves^ 
which confift of thofe partly, do make mBpr-uefieme with acid Li- 
quors. Thus far of Infiances upon the farts of Animals. I fhaU clofc 
with fome Corollaries deduced from the whole, 

53, 5. And firft, fincewefind, that amongftall the Mi^/z/^/^^wj we 

have made ufe of^ Spirit of Nitre, or any very Nitrous Spirit, is the 
moi\ ufiiverfal diffolver o£ 3\\ k\nAs of Ani^nal Bodies -^ the befi diffH- 

^fr of many others both f^tr^e/ift/e and Mineral^ and the oTily dijjvher 

of fome: Hence it is probable^ That the great /tfOT*:^/^^ ^(^^//ri^/^w, 

which cither diffolves^ or opens almoft all Bodies which come into the 

Stomach, is a kind of Nitrous Spirit, 

54- §. Again, Spirit oi Nitre htiT\g d,fuha!k<dine Acid^ and work- 
iog more evidently upOQ Anintal bodies, than oihGr Jiwpkr Acids do, 
which yet areas J?rtf»g 5 It hence follows, That moft of the5-i//j of 
Animals i^it fubacid Alkalies. How far \}m conchfton may further in- 
ftru^ us, I ihallhavcoccafion to Ihew in another' i^'y^'pH'^^- 

55. %, Laftly, there being fo many, fay twenty or thirty degrees^ 
fiQTni\it fiowefi to t\i^moSi vehement^ miixtBuUitionoi mixed Bodies^ 
it fecmcth, That Fsrmevtation it Telf, as to the formal notion of it^ is 




M ' I 




xFarts of Animals mixed 

Lea. IL 

nothing cir.: or ihat from the common L«i?^,i.« o^ mxcd nodm 

|vlK-r.of wo have now b^n fpeaking, it differs not ^« J^uk, bu on- 

^..1 the manner of ,t,r.«/^i,«, and in</.^rf..- the Ar/or tome ecr- 

t.,n.Uv./.™^ lodged therein, being of no greater >.;,./A, tha^to 

J6. ^ I have tiius endeavoured to prove, by various M«w„ 
how mftr^ftive th« moft eafie, plain and fimplc Mekd in the i&-^,«i 
ct ii.^,«, may become to us : and that meerly by obfetvin^ the Uda- 
*;<^^.. whieh thence arife betwixt them. How mvich more then if a 
dhigent rcmarque be made ofallthofc various Colours, SmeUs Tafiey 
loHjijtevaa, andothcr M«/rf/iow thereupon emergent > ' 



13 ■■}■ ■ .. 







\ ' ' - 




Lea. III. 


A N 



O F T H E 

Various Proportions 


Wherein the 


Is found in 


Read before the Royal Society^ March^ i6y6. 




I'. '.I 









[ OftheQVANTITIES afforded by feveralVhnXs 

calcined hi grofs. 

T is the part of a Pfyjtcja^^ knowingly and arti- 
ficially to life and govern Nature. And therefore 
by every likely JVIt-'r/iW, to infpeft the Siat2?,iid 
Properties of all forts o£ Bodies, One Meihod^ h 
that 1 havt taken in the foregoing ExferjmenU 5 
jc. by mixing them with fcveral Meftrmfus or Li- 
quors : whereby we may be affifted to judge, 
both of the Kijids and the Proportions ofPrmii- 
pks \n 3uy Btfdjt :, and of the manner of their JW^xJsre in the fame. 

Another is hytahiniug them ^ or^ as it wcre^ by niixiiig them wilh 
thei'irc, a potent and almolt univcrfuIAA-wim^/^jy/. I fiiall here only 
fet down ibnie Tryds for an Bjjdy^ vipon PUnts j chiefly noting. The 
different Proportions of their LixivUl Salts. Of ihcfe Tryats^ fbmc 




^rti ' 



• '£ 




Liixvial Salss. 

Led. III. 




were made upon the whole PUnt^or Ibmc Porijou of it wherein feveral 
p^m are mixed together; And others. Upon fomc one /*dr/ of a FUf/t 
difthift from the rcft» All of themanfwcring to fuch ^erksy as mw 
fccm proper to be propofed, 

Query i- As iirlV, Whether Trcas cr Bcrhi ami Bnfics^ qtianiify for 
qnajitity & ceteris ^i{nbw%ydld the ^oft Ljxivul Sait^ 

For this I took Aft-Bari^jie and Kofimary of e.ich ft). The l.ittef 
yielded 5 Scruples ^ the former but 53 (Jrait/j ^ which n three times lets. 
I took alfo the fdme quantity of the Darqire of BhickThortt^ and of ^. 
gntnony. The latter yielded 5 Scruples and 6 Grahis ^ the former, not 
above I Scrupk and 5 Grains 5 which is foar rimes Icf^. 

Ahhough the Barqm of a Trte be compounded of Pithy and Ugmm 
Parts 5 yet to Einfwcr the ^cry exa&ly, the Wood of thefL- Trees ftiould 
be taken with the Barque^ that there may be fomc portion of every 
rurt of the Tj-ee, as well iis of the H^ri- 

Eut thus far the Experwzent is conchtfve^ That the fime quantity of 
LixividSaU, doth not always follow the fame GenericalTnfi. For the 
Barque o^ Ap and Rofemary^ arc both equally ^///er 5 and the E^r^we 
of BUck:Thorn and Agrimony are both Ajlring^nt and £/;jtr. 

Qiier- 3» Whether any P{a77t groTf^mg in a Garden t^r the Fields doth 
9iot yield a leffer qmntiiy ofLjxivial Salt, thai? another of the fame iqtidred 
groining on the Sea-Coaji 5 and vcith what diffcreme 1* 

For this, I look Garden :\r\A Sea-Scnrvygrafs, of each ftj. The for- 
mer yields 2 Drachws and i Scruple-^ the latter, being well wafhed, 
9 Drachms^ which is more than 4 limes as much. The like may be 
tryed upon others. 

Quer, 5. Whether the fame Spccifick, flint affords more Lfxivial 
Sah^ being only dryed^ and then cakind j or after it hath fir U been difiil- 
hd^ His then dryed and cdkifi'd^ 

For this, wastaken ftj of Af;/^;onIy dryedand then calcin'd5 and 
another firft dilHUed. The former yielded \ an Ounce audi a 
Drachm ofi9-7/i 5 thelatter^ 5 Drachms and a Scruple 5 which is almoft 
. if'i more. Thi^i alfb ihould be tryed on other Plants. 

Qyen 4. How fir the proportion follon>s the different Tafis of Plants} 
Thefirft Experiment, relates to the lame Tij7 in Icveran^/j;;;j 3 this, 
to Jeveral Tafts, And fo, 

Of Majorane^ which is Aromatic^ , Jt j affords but one Scruple oiLixi- 
vhtSalt'-y which is but the 584^^ p^pt of the whole pound. 

Of Oalj'Barcfjte which is Aflringent, Ifcj yields ^ ^ Drachm of Salt ^ 
or the 256^^' part of the whole. 

Of Liqiiirrjf}, which is fweet, tfcj yields about the fimc quantity. 
But Anifi Seeds tbj yields 2 Scruples or a i ^)2^ part. 

Of iVrrt/, which is fower, Ifej yields one Drachm, or the 128=^^ part. 
Of Garden Scuriyiirafs^ which is Hot^ ffcj yields 2 Drachms and i J 
Scruple :; or the 55^^' part- 

Of Mini, which is Hot and Bitter^ Jtj yields 5 Drachms :u]d a Scv\i- 
pl^, or the 24^'' part, 

_Of SiaSiurvip'aJs^ which is J-rZ/j ibj yields 9 Drachms and a Sem- 
itic or^S Scruples > which is near r/'' part of i he whole- A greaicr 
proportinu of Sdi^ th.m in any other Plant upon which i havehi:her:o 
madeTiyLil: Or even in Ti^r^^r it fclf Yet is if noc a iMmr;e^ hut 

tniQ Lixjvral Salt : asi^evidcnt, both fiom its T:{//f3 and in ibat it 








Lea III. 

of V I ants. 


maketh an Efflrvefictjce wiih Spirit of S^h --, which Sea-Salt will 
not dob 

For the Experiment to be fully adequate to the j^^er/^ the Trvats 
fhoiilcibe macic,eiiher all on Trces^or M on Herbs iy all on Roots^oi d\\ 
on Stalks^ 6cc Yet thus much is evident. That Sorrd yields Thrice as 
much as Majoravc^ Sea-Scurvygrdfs^ Eight and Twenty times as much: 

Mint., Five limes as much as iVrr^/ 5 and Sixtecntimcs as much MaJG- 
rane^ &c. 

Quen ;. How far the Pfoporfion fiHom tke Faculties of Plants ^ 
And fo, it appears, that ^ ]\ 

MajorafjQ^^ Cephalicli , hath a greater Froporthti ofFoIalik Parts than 
any of the Plants ^bove mentioned, and Co fofj is more agreeable lo the 
Animal Sppits^ and Gcf^us Nermfu^t, 

Agrimony^ (a) m Aperient, yields above Five times^is much Lixivid (a)^/fer 1 
Salt, as M^Jorane, Yet much Icis than many other opQUlug Plants ' ' 

which are Itronger- 

Mugwort ("Itj) yklds two Drachms and two Scruples ^ or above half 
as much more as Agrimorjy. So that this Flant, though it hath no con- 
fid era ble T^e, and i[i that refped promiieih but little 5 yet yielding a 
good quantity ofLixi^iJSJt, fecms no contemptible idedicine to fub- 
due thofe Acidities which either by caufing Obftru&ions^ or immoderate 
fermentations., frequently difbrder the J^e/w^/f Sex* 

Mint^ yieldcihftill a greater quantity j and is therefore, partly for 
the fame caulc fo excellent a Siomachicks- And -Ri^_/cw<?rv,(i) which is ap- /;^ © 
propriated both to ihe HeW and Stomachy yieldeih a midle quantity ^^^'''^\ 
ofsait 5 more tiian the chief Ct/^^^^Z/cV, and lefs than the chief stoma' 


Co/»fnon MaHom (^\) yields '^ Draclims and 2 Scruples. i,e,ihG'2^^ 
part of the whole. So that this i^/j'//, though of a very mild Tajie 
yet yields more Salt than Mint it fclf a Bitter Plant. Whereby it no 
longer feems ftrangc, that a Plant of fo foft a Tajie^ fhould be very 
Dinreticl{ , and fo evidently atfed the Reins. 

Khitbarb{2 Ounces) yieldcth fcarcc any fixed 5'^//, foferascanbe 
judj^edbytheT^/cofthej^Pi^j, not more than a Grain or two. So 
thanu5dAis, in a manner, wholly volatile 5 and thereby apter to 

operate u;^on ihc iJ///e«/ parts of the 73/i?ot^; which contcin a far greater 
proportion otVoLaikSalt^ thaiidothe5(?rtj;//, 

0£ the Caput Mortmm or mecr Earthy it is obfervable, that ie 
Was near \ an Ounce or i^h part of the whole ^ Which is almoft S\^ 
times afi mMch ^^ih^Capnt Mar ttwm oi Contmon Docl{_: and much more 
thanthatofanv o'heri^i't'/ 1 have yet calcin'd. Whereby it feemecb 
probable that Khk^arb loofcth much ot its Volatile Part^ and therefore 
ot i[s Virtue^ befijre it comes to our Shops. 
, iSewd(tbi) yields 4 Scupks and \ ofSalt^ or the Sjfi^part. 

0^alap ( ttj ) yields but one Drachm and 1 5 Grains, or 102"* part. 

CoUjnihk (it.) ufihci^/j/p) viekisan Ounce and h:i\fof CapnP 
Mortuiwi, which is iilmoft all Salt. Yet allow half an Otincc of the Salt^ 
and Earth to be wafted jn tikrin^ &c. ther^maining Ounce is no left 
than {/ti part of the whole. Which is more than in any of the , 

above named Plants^ except the Sea-Siurvygrafs, 

I I 


C Fl A p. 


Lixivial Sah 





i;[ i 



'-. ' 







CHAP, 11. 

Ofth^ ^ANTITIES ajfordeJ bytheV^xts cffe^ 

veral Plants diftinEily calcincf. 

SHALL nest ftt down fome Tryals^ upon one P^r* 

of^PUnt^ as well Orgamck., as ContCfit^ feparated 

from the reft; in anfwerro thefe fuppofed ^tcries. 

Quer. r. ir-6-!/ Vroportion doth the Lixivial Salt 

of the Pith or Vith^ Part of a Plant^ l>ear to that of 

the Fibrous^ t>r of the Woody Part? Or whether is 

there a I'ixed Salt al-ways found in either of the^^ ^ A 

fufficienc Jfffmr to which, muft be built upon many Tryah. At pre- 

ftnt I Qiall mcmioii only Two; one upon Starch, anfwcr.ible to the 

Pithy Parts--, the other upon FUx^ confifting almoft wholly of the 

Nerzvus or Torvy Fibres : of the Fotatiie parts whereof, chiefly, I have 

L 50, 51, given fome account in the foregoing /^e^, 

|3, O^ Starch, Vb\ yieldeth about tbj not of JJ/jes, but of Black^ CoaK 

For though it be expofed in a Cakinit^g Fnrmcs to a vchement/re, for 
5 or 6 hours, which h longer then will ferve to calcine moft Bod'ies ; 
yet would it not in the leart part, be reduced to ^_^jej 5 buttothelaft 
continued (^though the fiercenefi of the Firt confumed part ofit ) as 
hlach^^ as when it was firft burnt. So ftrangely was the remaining part 
of the Sidphur fixed to the harth \, that iu flying away, it did volati* 
lize and carry that away with it. In this Coal or Cinder, there is not 
the kaft of a Lixii'ialoi other Tajle, And althoughj upon Try^l I find. 
That the Pi/^ of many /^/-?«/j, asofaC^i%e Sta!^, will yield fome 

qiuntny of Lixhial Salt ':, yet it is probably j that generally^ it yidds 
Itfs than the '^tftf^. 

Of Piax^ tbj yields not above 50 Grains ofC^/^j; Mortum^ or t^hite 
Afl}es, which are Salt. According to vulgar conceit, it would feem 
to be a very dry Body : yet of 1 5 5 part?, 1 5 :2 are -uolatih^ and being 
diftillcd would have been cotlefted into Li f tor. Hence alfo appears 
the great and unexpefted Variety m the Proportion of the Earthy Parts^ 
^'&'>JV^\\z^t\\colh^T Principks of Bodies. Or elfe, that there are di- 
vers kinds of £^r/ij, even in P/-/w/y, of which, aswelLisof 5j&/ &:c. 
fome arc volatile. For of ^ of this Flam^ there remaincch fixed but 
50 Grains: whcrens of ftj oiRhubarb^ there will remain neat 1920 
Gr-iins, /. c. 88 times as niuch as the former, 

Quer< a, i^tphat proportion is the Lixivial Salt found in theGnrnfjis 
cfPldnts^ and whether is it )ickU'dy mort or kfs^hy all ^ For anfwcr to 
whicli, I caufed ihe Eleven following, of each two Ounces, to be 
calcin'd, and ib oblervcd, 

Thill Common Rop/^ yields but one Grain and ^ of Capitt Nortumt: 
Soihat Ihj will yield but i; Grains. In this Caput j^/fr/.ihcrcis not 
the ieaft j>artide of Salt^ it being altogether infipid. 

Majiii\ yiddfi gr, 12 of Cap.Mort, But not the lead: part of S.ilt, 
Of this Rofin^ it is obJtrvable^ That btingfa, in a Crudhk; within 








Lea. iiij 

of Plantf, 


the fire, before it comus to have iliick fumes, it boylsup with n Very 
great foamc or fiuath --, and is the only G////J or Rofa (of rhc ElcverJ) 
that hath this property. So that i Mped:, there is a great ^^uantiiy of 
fomekind ^^voUtHc Spirit^ which then flies away 3 and fo, in break- 
ing through the 0;/)7^rfj^ hu/Bthem up to fo great afroath, 

OliLimwi y\^\6%\\-s\i A X}i2.chmoi Caput Mvrtmm, But ic is to be 
roted, That the weight is cncreafed by certain little 6yjr'5'/^«t/,which 
Jn the burning of feveral parcds, l always found mixed with this Gur.m, 
Thefe being picked clean outj the Cap. MorL wcighef h not much more 
than that of Mafticl^ And is in like manner inlipid, whea the faid 
Stofies are picked out. 

From hence it appears, how proper theie Gtwts arc for the Con- 
,co8i&7t of Salt Rkawjs'j according to what I have formerly lijggefted Difcourfi 
from another Experiment- o^MUfur^ 

It may alio be noted^ that Roftn and Majikk-, Teem to be more Cap, Ult* 
purely Acidokojis Gums ; not only .from their confiftence which is uni- 
form^ and their 5wd/, which is lefs Itrong and more plealant : but 
alfb from the Acid Liqmr they yield by DifiilUtion 5 and in that the 
young Le^z^j of P/r, and efpecially ofi^/?/e, are fower^ and tia pro- 
bable that thofe of M^fikk_ are fo likewife. Whereby thefe, and 
other like Gums are more efpecially fitted for the aboveiaid purpofe- 
But Olibanum leems, befides its Acidity^ to contein iomcVolaUk All^ly^ 
and fo to be an Acid-Alk^iinQGttm. For as it hath a ftronger ^mdl 
rhan the former, foa hotter Tafle-^ both the ordinary eilcds of an 
Alk^alim Sulphur. And being infufed in feveral Met^firmms^ appears 
to conftift of two Bodies, one of them more Refimmxh^n the other. 
Of which, it is probable, that the one is made by the Acid parts as the 
other by th;; Alk^aUm, Whereby it is very weU adapted in fome Cafis^ 
as in a Phtrejk^ for removing the Coagnlaiims of the Blocd^ or its 
difpofition thereunto, 

Afa fwtida yileds no lefi than half its weight or an Ounce of C<;f;rf 
Idort. that is S times as much as that of the other Gumms^ and 48 times 
as much a^ that of fome of them- Yet doth it not contein one grain of 
S4t^ fo fiir as can be judged by its Tj/?, Yet the Strmgth and Lt^^/i- 
T^^w^/iof the i^W/andT-y'/oftheG/z/ffw do argue it to be highly im- 
pregnated with fome kind of Voiatik Alk_dy proper to arrelt thofo 
oftcnfive Vapours (toufe the vulgar word) which flying, either by 
tht Blood or Nerves^ from part to part, do often prove fo trouble" 
fome, • 

Gum Arahic\ yields one Scruple of Cap, Mort. whereof by the . 
Tafte^ about -^ part is Salt. 

Eitphorhinm yields one Dr.ukm of Caput Mort. of which, by the 
flrengdi o{ ihc Taj2e^ two Scruples fcem to be 5.//^ Which confirna 
a former conjt^ure f^) of its being an Alk^lifre Gumm^ (a) Of the 

Myrrh alfo yieUs a Drachm of Cap. Mort, and at leaft two Scruples Ltt&aihn 
of 6'^//. Of the Eleven, thefe two Gums have the erci^reft quantity of Bodhs^ 
ofa fixed Aiktly. «. I. 

Opinm yidds half a Drachm of C*tp. Mort. whereof the one half 
is 5.;/^ ^ 

AloG yields a Drachm of Cap, ^ort conteining about one Scruple of 







If : 

r J i| 




aq 2 




!■ ^ .h 


L^' I 


Lixivid Salts of Plants. 

Lea, III 

Sia^^^^ofryyidd^ Two ScT\i^h^ oi Cap, Mort. of whkh about half a 
Scruple is 5 ^^/f- 

Gutta Gamba yidds but half a Scruple of Cap. Mort. of which four 
or five Grains are Salt, 

Sothatconfidenngthei)fl/e of any CathartkkGnmm, the cuanti^ 
ty of the Fixed Alkjly, js extream fmal! with refpeft to the Voktik 

p^rts; In which, ilierefbrc,itsCr/W//f4/'tfirer doth chiefly refide. 

Yet none of the Cathrnkk, Gimms are without fome portion more 
orleft, of a Fixed ^/V;', though fomc of the reft are. Which fccm- 
eth to prove, That the Fixed it i^\^^ .hath fouie Intcreft In the bufinefs 
oiFurgatwni as by being aC% to the F^^/^f/^^, and fo preventing its 
beingdeltterious^ or fome other way. But the manner of their O&j- 
raijoii will better be underftood, when the VohUk Parts have like- 
wile been examined. 

' Ic may alfo be of good import, lo know, what different quanti- 
ties of S^/^ are afforded by the Tartars of all Torts of Wims Where- 
by, partly, as well as by the quanmy of the T-ffJ^r, we may be ena- 
bled the better to judge of tlie Natun^ of Wims, 



1. ■- 




\ ' 



.■' I 

r I 

X^h *- 



L 4 







Concerning the 



Salts of Plants. 



Read before the R(^al Society^ December 21 



J?i xphich is Jhewed the way cfmakj?2g both an ESSEN- 
TIAL and a MARINE Salt, out of the LIXI- 

O ME TIME fince, I took the boldnefs to pre- 
fect my thoughts to this Honourable and Learned 
Body in a D//^tT«j'/e concerning Mixture, Wherein 
I have cndeavonrtd to lay fuch a FouncUthn^ as 
might hereafter reduce the Do^irim hereof to Ex- 
peykffceaud Pratiife:, and lo dcmonftrate^thc Power 
and Vfi of Ari^fidal MixtHre, And in further proof 
of whnt is therein gflcrted, I have fince made a continuation of Expe- 
rimtnts upon the fame Siibjeft, in Two Methods. One in the Mix- 
tttre of fcveral MeKftrmnns^ both Acid and Ali^^iih/e^ with all Sons of 
Bodies, The Ocherj by calcining them, or, a<i ic wcte, fsiixifrg chem 
wirhthe Fire. 

2. ^, I (hall now proceed to a Third, which is, the fftixitjg them 
with the i4cr orcxpoiing them to ic^ anotherof Natures grand Al'j/- 
fimums 5 which goes fumctimes further than the Fin it k\\\ in the dif" 


■f ]^' 

I I 



i ■^-^- 



;■*[■' :i 



Tub. 83. 

> ■ 



i, :. 

\ -► 

262 Efential and Marine Left. IV. 

n-. r ^'f,^'"" "^.^"^'"f This I have formerly munioned for th. Imitauon 

o ^/.Y-^5.W/ofaPW E.t lome Learned Pcrfonstliea prefent, ^c^ZZ 

Ch. 5.MI. doubt of the Expcrimcm, I thought k requifite to profecute th. fatie 

S. a hu e further; that fo, if poffible, it might become clear and miqucT 

onable. And becsufc that Method wasimperfeft, and required half a 

year, or a longer timer I bethought my fdf of an other way ^ which 

proved far better, and more expedite. And which, withall, afforded 

me, not only a true Marine Salt, out of the Lmvial Salt of a Plant ; 

but alfo another kmd of s.,ft, different from them both : which may 

rot be improperly called, an Effmtial Salt or Kitre of Plants. The 

, Hiftory or manner of the produdion of them both, is as follows 

f- . ^- P'"^''e>- 1 5- i'575, i took about half a pound of a ftronff 
SoluttoHoHhtUxivtal Salt oi Firm: and pouring it into unEarthm 
Pa», well glazed, broad and (hallow, expofed it therein to the open 
Acr^ ina Chamber Window, to evaporate of it fclf 

4. #. -ThK Solution o^Ue although it was very dear before, and 
having ftood corked up in a bottle many days, had no fcdement ■ yet 
(tandingoow in the open A»-,wichin the fpace of4 or 5 days, it beean 
to let fall a very white Sede^e^i, like fine Chali; which enereafed daily 
for 8 or rodays ; amounting at laft to about half a Drachm of white 
Irght and meer E^rth, altogether infipid, and wiien it was well waihcd' 

, ftirnng not upon the Affujiov o? Acids. .i : , .' 

5. jf. Withinthefpaceofa day or two after this white Sed<.-mnt 
began to f.U to the bottom 5 there was alfo gatherd on the top, a 

kind of fofc ii«w or Crcntor, wherewith the Solution was covered al! 

6. (, Within 8 or 9 days after the firftexpofing of the Liquor or 
2 or 3 days after the gathering of the Cn;«(,r; that Salt, which I take 
leave to call an F#»ri^/ S^fe oi Fla»ts, began to appear? (liooting 
into feveral ittic Lrypals. Thefe Cryfids, as they grew biffier, began 
to fink, and at lafi: fell down to the bottom of the Pan. 

7- ^. Upon their firft generation or ftooting, the faid Crewuj- pre- 
lent y breaks, leaving a bare fpace round about each Cryfial ; and upon 
the bounds of every fpace is indented ; the fpace growing bieSer and 
bigger together with the C._y/^ in theCentre. And fo, by that time 
the Cr»y/«;/ are grown to a confiderable number and bignefj, the Cre- 
wt^'vaniilicsaway, the feveral Cirdes or bare places breaking at laft 
one into another all over the Surface of the Lee. After which, it ne- 
ver comes again, 

8. i From whence it fccmeth. That the feveral Cinks or bare 
6/'fl«/ about iheCr>y?a//, are made for the more free adroifiion of the 
A<:r,_ requilite to their Gefxralion. For as there is no Crjfial begins to 
be formed before there is a breach made in the Crer^r .- fo that breach 
IS enlarged together with the Cryfial. So that as the falling of the 
6edem!!tmd the gathering of the Crmoj,fheweth that the Aer asa A/c«- 
Jlrmtff, feparates fbme part from the Lee : Co the breaking of the Crewor 
afterwards, that as a Vehicle, it brings fomething to it : both in order 
to the Generation of the Crjftals. Nature taking a Method for the Gene- 
ratron of ftmpler Bodies, as well as of thofc which are Compourd^d and 

Tab. 83. 


9. jt. 


Lea. IV. 


Salts of Plants,^ 



9. jj. ThG F/gjtrc of ihtS^ CrjftMh k ^iu^uhr and oblong, moft of 
them iibouE the fifth, fixth or levejitli of an Jnch^ but none of them 
very regular- Yet we are not hence to conclude, but that wuh the 
help of fome Circumftances which miglst be wanting in the fliooting of 
thefe 3 fome portion of regular ones may be obtcincc! from this, as wd! 
as other Li xivial Salts hereafter mentioned. 

la ^. They are (omewhat tranfparent, and of a dark Ambar Co- 
lor^ or like that of brown Sngar-Caifdy. Of a quite difftrent T^Re 
from that of the SokUosi or Lee out of which they are bretl ; being rot 
at all L?V/W-f4 but very weak and mild; not SMt, but £//to in a 
good degree. 

n. ^, It isalfoobfervablq that ^/4.?ft^/e and A/i^^,//// being both 
poured icverally upon thefe Cryfiah^ they Air not, nor are any way 
affe^cd with either of them. So that iheft Ctyflah are no fort oiTar- 
tar^otTariareousSaif. Asisphin, from the mannerof their Gewrm- 
tion 5 TurUr being ftill bred in dole Fcffcls ^ thefe never, but by expo- 
fingthe Liquor to xh.^ Aer. As aUb from their T-^ffej beingnor (bwcr 
in the leaftj but bitter- Aud in that T.iriitr will make a Bitllitim with 
Alkatiijc Sahs^ which theie will not do. Upon which accounts it ap- 
pears, that they are a 5^// different in Nature from all other Salts 
hitherto known, or a new Specks added to the Inventory of Nature. - 

12, (f. Theie CryUals within the fpace of abouta fortnight after 
their fitfl: Generation^ did alfo coafc to fhoot any more, but only in- 
crcafcd a little in their Bulk, After whidi lime, T dayly expe^ed to 
fee the production alfo of a true 31-?r//jc i"j/^ And about two months 
afrerthefaid F^wr/^i^Cr^f/d/j had done (hooting, and not before this 
alfo began to Ihoot, in many fmall Cryjials^ and at the top of xhiSck- 
tioH^ as the other did, ftill falling to the bottom as they grew 

13, i. The 5/'£eof moftof them was near that of the Fhk^a or 
Grains oi Bay-Salt, The Ctj/i7;;r of fome of themn'Ai/c, of others trun- 
jparerrt:, and of others rvhiteinthcCa/tre, with tranlparent £^^fj^ as 
is alfo ufual in the Cryjials of Common Salt, ; 

14, §. The Figure of moft is a perfed: Square, arid of very many 
comingnear toaCffif^ which is alfo the f/^«j-e of Common Salt, and 
leldome anexaftCftk, An cxaft Cwie, being the conftaut property of 

no Marine Salt^ that I know of, esctpt that of the Dead Sea. Divers Tak 8^, 
of them were alfb raifed as it were by ieveral ftcps from a deep Centre 
to the Top : as is often leen in the common (hooting of Common Salt 5 
and not in any other. Their Tafie is neither Lixivia!^ as that of the 
Solution out of which they (hoot 5 nor bitterifh, as that of the Effen- 
tial Cryjials^ nor foweiifh, as that o£ Tartar ^j butiheperfe^ TaJIc 
of Common Salt. 

15- ^- It is alfo to be noted, ThatifO;r/off^'ir/t^/,and fome other 
RroTig Acids, he poured upon this artificial ^c<i-5^//, they make an £/ 
/fr^£/ce»^e together : but if 5>in7 of 5d/i or Spirit of Nitrs either be 
poured on it, though it be never fo ftrongit ftirrcthit cot. In both 
which^ and all the formentioncd refpefts, it aufwers to the Properties of 
a Marine or Common Salt, which no Other Sa!i doth. I condude it there- 
fore to be a true Marine Salt produced by Art in ihc imitation of Nji^ 

h .1 




■ n .r-**,. ' 

EJJential and Marine 

CHAP. Tf ■ .. 

Lea. VI. 

u Ih. 

Wherein is Jhewed, That the faici ^^E S S R NTIAL 
and MARINE Salts of Plants are both of dijj'erevt 



.'■-' >■• 


* ri 





#•.)'' ' 




■ . 1^ 


\ ■ 

AVING made the Experiment, tLit both an 
Effcfrtial and Marine Sah may be produced out 
of the Ijxwal Salt of a PUr/t I thought it 
probable, that neither the one nor the other 
was always the f^me, but that as they had their 
general properties which made them to be of 
two general [kinds ^ fo they might have fome 
fpecial property, for the diftinguifhingof each 
kind into fevenil Sorts. And withal), ihac 
in a warmer ftafon, than befoje taken, the Trjial hereof might be 
finiflied inafliorter time, 

2. §, For the making'bf which, Tconceivedir rcquifite to remove 
an Opinion which fecmed to lye in my way ^ fi. That there is little 
or no difference between the feveral Lixivial Salts of Plants^ as Jbme 
Learned men have thought. But cither there is a difference, or not: if. 
not.icftiould be proved: and if there bcjit Ihould thenbe juftly ftated, 
what that differencfMs. For the doing of which, I chofe this M^/At^^, I 
look ai^ tqual cjuaniity of the whittlt and ^yxxtdSalfs of divers PUntf^ 
all made by an equal degree oiCalcinathn^^ and diflblved them all fe- 
verally in an equal quantity of waten And pouring likewife an equal 
quantify, as about 10 or \i drops of each into a ipoon, I tafted them 
fevern^iy. Whereby it was very ev[dcnt,thatthey were not all of one 
Ta^^ but of very different one?, both as to ftrength and kind : and 
thcicfbre diflercut in Nature aifo. The 5^^// I made tryal of were 
thofc of Sorrel, Amfi^ Wormwood, Mallow^ Ap^ lartjr and others : 
and upon halfa Drachm of each 1 poured ^ijl^ of water. The Sottt- 
iiofis are here prefent to be tatAC-d» By which the differences will ea- 
lily be obfcrved, aind particularly that the Salt of Wcrma^ood or Scttr- 
"^fjgrafs^ isrilmoft asftrongagaiu asthe W* of j^^///^, or^i^rrf/: and that 
the ^ah of Jp is abovi^ twice as fVrong, and that o(Tartar above 
thrice as (trong, asrhacof Sorrel, andalmoft thrice as ftrongasl^hat of 
Wurmn^oodovSciirvjfgrap^ So that he wno fball give half a Scruple, 
fuppofe Qf Salt oil art ar-^ inftead of half a Scruple of Salt oiV/or^- 
Tvood, or other like Suit ^ he mav as well give a Scruple of Rolifr of 
Jjildp^ for a Scrupleof the powder, or almoitthrccl Drachms of' i^Aw- 
barb. Or Other like Purge, inftead of one- And the like is lo be laid 
of other Lixmat Salit in their degrees, 

t 3. i. Having obferved thus much, I proceeded to repeat the for- 
mer Eiiperimcut, wirhlbmeofthe aforefaid, and fome other Vegetable 
Sallf^ the bt-ft calcin'd, and the purefV, that could be made for this 
purpoii, being chefc Six Salts, fi\ of Kofefjwj, Garden Safrv)'grafs, 

t ,'^ 




Led, IV. 

Salts of Flants, 

1 ^5 

Blick_ Thorn^ CoramQu \Vorjm'cood^ Ap-, and T.rrtiK All which <.\\iToU 
vaHuvenilly in ftir water, I cK^iofcd in :i Chamber wimiow, and 
notinWinrcr, as before, but in the beat of Summer, yt. on the 19 of 
^riljf^ to evaporate of thcmfdves, 

4, jS, The Effeft was. That the third cUy after their being cx- 
pofcJ, the EptJiJiil Crjjhts bc^nn'to llioot in three of the Soluthfn^ 
Jl\ in that ot Kofirmr}., of Givdcv Sutrvygrafi^ nnd of Blul^ Thorn^ 
On thefouthday, \n\\\^x.oilVormr\'God. On thchfLh day, in that of 
Afl}. InKh^to^ Tartar^ notatalh 

5, §. ThereF//f?;;>-//Cr>y?^// began, in all, toflioot at the top^ and 
then to fill to the botiomc ^ as in thL- ExpLrimcnc before. But as there 
was very little of the rvhitc Scdcmcuth^ioxi: mentioned, that preceded 5 
So ro Smm or Cremor at all. Which although a more perfeft C^hwn' 
ihn^ it feems, did here almoft prevent 3 yet did not in the leaft deltroy 
the aforcCiid Pffenti.dS^dt^ but rather make way for its more fpcedy ancl 
copious Prodiiiiioni e^ihibiting likewifc adifciaft S^ccks'iVi feveral of 
the Soliiihfts. 

6. ^i For fuft, the Cryfiuls of Rofimfrj (the Wgeft of ihem ) 
were about the bignefs ofa Rhe-Corn, fn figure almoit Hkea Tip-Cn^ 
which Boys play with, fplit down the midle. Each Tip being cut into y a g^ 
5 (ides all ending in a poynt : the midlc part divided into 7, all drawn 

by parallel L/ww 5 the topmoft with the lowermoft but one, on each 
fide, beeinc; three exact ^S'^/A^ri^/. 

7. if, ThtCryfiJsotBhtcl^Tboyn^TQ mod of them poyntcd with 
juft i\% fides of Equal Meafire: very like to the fliooting of true 
tVj^^/it ielf From the topmoft of which Hk Sides, a Lh^s being drawn ^-'i* 83, 
out, rum parallel to a broad Bafe^ whereon each Crjjial ibudy. So 

that they arc in fome fort ofa Rhfmboid Figure. 

8. ^, The CryftaU of Scitrvygrafs have alfo a very elegant and regu- 
lar Figure^ which is in a manner compounded of the two former now 
defcribcd. But they are nothing near fo bigg^ the largcft of them, 
being no biger than a Grain of that which we call Pearl Barky, 

9, si, 'thGCryftds QtWarrmcood h^vn alfo very many of them a 
regular Figure --^ but quite different from that of the CryfhU before 
mentioned 3 caeh Cryy/ri/beinjr a little CyWirr, i;iving that it is con- 
ftanily fomcwhat fmaller at one end, than the other: as it were one half t / o 
of a Rf>ivlif!g-pif/, And not evenly CVrcw/jr, bui: cut out by S\x S/des ' ^' 
of equal Mcajiire : almofl: as in the Cryfi.d of Nitre. So that contrary to 

what is feen in the forenienrioned Cryjials^ the ends of thtfe of 
Wormwood are not poynted, but fiut-^ and cat at Right Affgles with 
the Sides. 

To. §, The Cryflals of J//j, though by their properties they appear 
likewifc to be K^e^;//W 5 yet are nothing near fo regularly figur'dj as 
all the foremen tioned, 

n. ^. The Co/^;/r alfo ofthe (aid Cr;^<J^ is fomewhat different; 
Tho(e of yJ/Zf being ofa iro»';^tran(pareney,almo(t like thofe of Firue. 
Thofe of Wormivood being alfo irt^rc/;//^;, bui paler, Thofe of Rofc- 
ff/-ij^ and LSV/zr^zfj^rj/j having fome little T/Wii^tfrc, yet very char. But ' 

thofe of B/'f^'^/j^'r^ without the leaftT/w^Hrc, and as cU<tr z% CryUat 
it felt; 


1 . 



I : 


. Rr 

§. 13, 

■11 ^ 




EJfential and Marine 

Lea. IV. 

^ . 

^i ■■'■' 



'V :■ 






I. ■ 

Tab. 83, 

Tab. 83, 

T-i. S3. 

Tfli. 83. 

12. §. Noncofthcfo F/f«(/-)/C>^p/x have any hot fiery r^ffc hm 
Ijrcvcry wyW, and fcnfibly Bi/Zer ; efpecially, about the Rovt of .he 
T^//£«c.- as IS alio obfbvable of fome P/«„/^ hereafter men lion ed in 
fpeaking of thcdifferent T^fies d Plants. ' '" 

r?.^. Oy of^/im/ droped upon ihefe Cryflah doth not afFeft 
tKm m the Icafl : ytt droped into the fcveral Sohiio^s out of which 
ihe L r)ji,ih are produced, immediately caufcth a great Eprvejccnce 

14- ^- Oft he iy«(ww above named, iliar,of iW/ of 2>/.7^ i,,, 
the 6'"- Whereof it is remarquablc. That having waited ftveral 
Months toptiher, I could not obfcrvc the Icaft F^»,i!,dS4i lo be 
therem produced in all that time. Whether there be any other Vm^ 
table SJis, befidesthi3 o( Tartar, which will not yield the Effmhl 
above defcnbtd, I have not yet experimented. 

15. §. In the mean time, from the Premifes it is very probable 
that moft of them afford more or fewer of the faid Crjfi^/s. Jn regard 
thevarei^/rf,,/jofa very different kind, which I made tryalupon- 

as (warden Scarv)grap, very Hot ; Ro/c^ary, very Aromatul^. Worm- 
wood very BitUr ; Black, Thome, Aftringon and Somr. And it is alfo 
p ain. That the Tiid Ejjmial Salts contained in the LUivial are not 
altogether one and the Ijme, but of divers Sorts. 

16.^. ABOUT 7 or 8days after the £#«/7^;Cr,-{y^/. were produ- 
ced ^ the Manm Salt did alfo begin to Oioocj firft in Rofcmarj; quickly 
attci-, m ."xHrvygrafi z, Next, in Black^Thorn and WormmooJ d after 
the fpace of a week or 10 days more. And in all of them with Tome 
difference of Size and Figm-e. ' 

17. ^. Thcpliineft of all, wasthat produced out of the Salt of 
BLici rhorn, confifting for the moft part of very fmall Crj(lals not 
above the 1 5'i'of an Inch fquare, as alfo thi^, ih.iped like a Wa Tile 
uted for Chimims. Many others were very ihirk , and near to a 
tube. Moft of which were a little hollowed in the mJdle, like a grind- 
ing Marble 01 Sdt-Celler ; and the hollow bounded by 4 plain and 
equal Sides, all defending a little towards the Centre ; and meafured 
bytwocrofsZ.ww, which ftaid upon the four A/^/wofthe Square 
and fo cut one the other at Right Angles. Both which Propertied 
are likewite ufually feeu in the Cryjhls of CommnSalt. 

18. )!. In Wormwood, many of thefe Cryftah, bcfides the plain 

ones, were figm-d crofsways like a Dagger-Hilt, Which was fome- 

times naked, and fomenmes inclofed in a fquare andalmoft Cubical Box. 

Many others were flgut'd into Sfrigi made np of four chief Branches 

Itandingcrofswife, and thofe [Mramhed^, and all the Bra,iches m^ds 

up of little fquare CryilaU, cluftered together in that Figure. The 

Sprigy Figure of thefe Cryfiats is not accidental, but hath conftantly 

come after they hadbcen three times difiblvcd, and the Sohilion expo- 
fed to evaporate. 

19. )5. The M,;m-e54(// of fit.;^;;/.,^,, hath alfo fome variety. For 
befides the plain ones above dcfcribed, there are fome thick Sqii^res 
which have alfo a (quare hollow defcending by five, fix, or feven nar- 
row fteps, towards the Cmre:, being in Figure, faving t\\ii(e Steps, 
lomewhat likethe/Jii/xrin aAt//. 

20. i,. Upon a ffccond Soktiun of the fame Salt, there ftloots an- 
other fort of iqiiarci which is not plain on the edges, as the above- 

"c? ' n,'^ '""oped or Horid all round about, not unlike the Lcves 
oi lome Plants. 3 I i 






Lea IV. 

Salts of Plants. 

21. jS, The Crj/flah o( Marim Sah Q^ Scriwjgriifi are (bmewhat 
like to thofe of R^^w^rp now deicribed 

22. #. As for the LixivJd Salts oi Ajjj and Tartar^ though in a 
Month or Five Weeks Space, they yield Ibme Cryftah of very dtar 
Salt: yet ofMi/W«c Sj/; neither of them yitJdeth the leaft particle, 
So that of thcicSix I/^/'^z-r/^J^f, Jj. oi RoJemar)\ Scur^fygrajs^ BUch 
Than/, Wormwood^ jfid.uA Tartar^ all, but that of r.jri^r, yielded an 
Effhtid Salt. And all, but thofe of Afi and T-^r/^r, yielded a Ma^ 
rim^ fuch as is above dereribed. AH which Salts hoih B.£mial and 
Marifie^ together with their Modds^ made of white AlaLijire^ I have 
here ready to be fccn- 

ii- 5- Of thofe that yield thele Sahs^ or either of them, it is 
furthcrto be noted. That there is a confiderable difference in the 
Proportwfi oT^a?ftjlief which they yield. The Kofimary yields (tore 
borh o?Ej]€mial and Marine^ but more EfefttiaL Wormwood and Scur-^ 
7'ygrafs more Maiif^e. Black, Thorn lefs of Either, The Afi no 
Marhe , and the Tartar neither the F.JJe7itid nor Marine^ as hath 
been faid. 


24. §. From what hath been faici, I deduce only at prcfent thefe 
Three Coraiiaie. Firfi^Th^t ^LixivJal Salt^ is not only a componn- 
ded Body fc. ofSalt^ Sulphur^ Aer and Earth 5 but even a Compounded 
Sa/tj containing both a Vegetable Niirc^ and a true Sea Salt. 

25- ^- Secondlyy That the Expofmg of Bodia^ in the manner 
above Ihewed, miy juftly beaccounted one Part o^ ChyTftifirji hitherto 
Difiaent^ and much farther to be improved for the Difco-uerj of rhe AV 
trt of Bodies. For as Nature chiefly compoundeth Bodies by Dige/iJKg 
th^ro, and fo either fhntting out or keeping in the ^fr: So (he Z)i/- 
/'^' ^/i them by Expofttig^ and fo neither (hutting in the Acr^ nor keep- 
ing it out, but leaving it free to come and go j and thereby to bring 
and carry off whatfoevcr is neceffary for the Separation or Solution of 
Bodies. For the Sea it felf (to confine the fimilimde to our prefent cafe ) 
is but as a Great Pan, wherein all kinds of bodies being long expofed, ' 
are throughly refoived, ultimately yielding from the re(t of their vi- 
fibk Prindpks^ that which we call Sea Salt, 

26. 5^, Lapy, if by Expofing and T^iffAvrng we can make onGSatl^ 
then by Compoifndifig and Digejiing we may make another, yea :^ny 
other Salt 3 either a Fixed of a Volatile^ov a Volatile of a Fixed, That 
is to fay,a Volatile Salt may be fo feparated from other Bodies^ as to be- 
come Ffjre^^ ot 2 Fixed Salt m^y befo w/:rft^ with other i^i'^/ej as to 
become VoiatHe. For that any 5^// Qiould of it felf become Fixed or 
Volalilcy is a Fixion not grounded upon Experimetit. 

ij. $. Asforthe/^/r/ji^ofthe Effe^ial Salts zhoxQ defcribed, I 
behcve they will be found upon tryal, not contemptible in fome 
Cafes, For which among(t other reafons, 1 have been the more piinftual 

R-r 2 . in 







P^ I 


r jr 

^ \. 



Ejjentid and Marine^ &c. 


in rdatirg the manner of chcir Gvmratwn'^ that others alfo may have 
the opportunity of making proof hereof. 

28. §, When I made the Uxfrnmcnts for this and the foregoins 
Difionrfe, not having (b good conveiiitncy at home for making die 
Sultslui'Gdi Iprocurcd ihem all (except that of F;r;/e, which I made 
my fclf _) to be purpofdy prepared by Mr, 'j^hn BUkitofic a London 
Apoihecary, who ailurcd me of his great care herein 5 and particularly, 
that he added Jio Njtre to whiten any of the Salts with, as is common- 
ly done for th:itofrjr/-';r. 


I do dccluv, That all the Lixivial Salts 
mentioned in chis and the foregoing D/fcourfe 
except that of Finiey were faithfully prepa- 
red by me . 

. -" Joh?i Biac/<£tone. 

I i 











Left. V. 




O F T H E 


'I. ' 



O F 


Read before the Roj^I Society, SKday 3. 1(^77, 

' J 

1 ■jfVL^ilJ J'.i J7- -■,;■- 


^/r/j? COLOVRS 0/ Plants z« their Natural 


A V I N C formerly made fome Ohfirvafioiis of 
the CoJours oi PLinU ^ I (ball now crave leave to 
add ibmc more to them of the like ^Mnre. None 
of which, nor any of the Conclujiotis thence dedu- 
ced, will, if duly considered, nppeaccontrary to 
the Hypotheds and Rxperimcnts of Mr, Boyle^ Mr. 
Dcs Carter^ Mr, Hooli^ , Mr. NeirUrr^ or any other, 
concerning Colmtrs. As not having rcfpcd to 
the CohuYf of all Bodk! in j:;ciieral. Nor to the Body of Cubur^ 
which is L'^i^ ; Nor to the formal notion of Colours (ad extra ) as the 
Rays of L^^/i' are moved or miyed : But totTiolI' A/.*/fW.//y, which are 
principally neceffary to tlu'ir rrodH<fhn in PU>its, Concerning whlch^ 

th^' pr^-fcnt i)//?*"'*^? (hall be reduced to thtfe Three general Hcjch^ 

and Anat, 
SS. 65,&:c. 




.. III! 

II ^ 



I ' 


The Qolours 


!i ' . :, 


: f 


'.- ^1 

■^ I 

L . 

Lea V. 

4- §. Tk''-dl^ As upon th^ Mixture o(ihc,kL,f„po»s, or of anv 
one ot them with fonie other %.w, or other Bod/. ' "^ *" ^"y 

5. )S. Asihcy appear in the P/anf/themfdve'; ir miu K« ^k/ j 
in the firft place. That ther. .s a far lefs varTe y Z\L clt] ^^Tf 
than of the other P.rts: the P.n-«.i_;«. beinJ XhinlZVJ T' 
fy m,., taimes Tello., rarely'Ke<;."¥h:£yh^'rS bet' 
for that thc.y are kept by the Earfh, from a free and openT wfi 
con™rrethwKhthc>^.„ofthe feveral i>..,., to the P™d«ff7.rof 
he,rfeveralC.W And therefore the upper parts of Roots, whca 
they happen to ftandn.iked.bovc the Ground, are often deyed with 
ftvernl Colours .■ fo the tops of Sorrel Roots will turn Ec^,thofe of mH 
l^ T>,r„eps ^nd Radijks, will turn ^«.p/., and many others <,ree„ 
Whereas thofe parts^f the fime Ram which lie more under Grfund' 
ar? commonly White. "luuiia, 

6. ;i A. RooU arc tnoft commonly mUe ; fo the If^x,^, Qree^ 
Wh,ch aw tsfo proper to them, that many Ic.^e., as thofeof J... 
the young sprms of St. ?«£„.-«,.,.,, and others, which are K Jfl 

- vvhcn,ntheB«^; upon their full Gr..,A,acquire. perfeft 0> ™ 
7-^. Th.,C^«/.ofth.sC./«,r, isthe<.S«« ofthe^^.r, both from 
jvnhin and from without the Pl.«t, upon the J-y.a the eof wS^ 
by It (tnkes them into that Cgloiir. "' ' ^ 

n J ^f 1 ^^d!"^ ^'' ^';°"1 y'''io"f. I "-ean that which furrounds the 
Body of the P/.;./ .- which ,s the Caufe of its Grec^efi, not meerJy as 
K IS contiguous to It, but as_ it penetrates through the P..« of the 
54,^ thereinto 5 and fo mixing with the >^«. thereof, plainly deys 
or ftrikes them into a Green. ' ^ ■* ^ 

.u ^' ^-' u ^J ^*i^ ^"^ ^'°™ ^"'''"' ' "'^^"' that which entrine toee- 
thcr with the ^/;«wf, at the Root, thence afcends by the ^er-Feil 
nito the 7V««/^ and Leaves, and is there transfufed into all the feveral 
>/«j,therebylikewife concurring to their re»-<;«m Whence it is that 
thyarts ofP/..„ which lie under W.t.r, are G.e.«,as well as tWe 
wh.chftatid above it ^ becaufe, though the ambient^.., conteincd in 

whic'^SnS ^S.Tr]S ''' ^'"' '' '' ' -"^^'^''^^'' 'y '^^^ 

to. j(. And therefore it is obfervable, that the stalls of M.rff,- 
Malkn, and fome other P^«,., being cut tranfverdy, thougn the 
Pare.^.j^u m the B^r^uebc wh.te, yet the S.p-Veffils which he within 
th^tParcmhyma, are as Green as the Shi>i it fcif ; fiil. becaufe thev 
ftand clofe to th. Aer-VeffeU. The Parenchyma^ iVay, which is inter- 
cepted from the Ar, without, by th^ski^^ and from the ^.r within 
by he Sap VeJJcb, ,s v^Uu .- but liie skin, which is cxpofed to the Atr 
without, and ihss^p-re/els which are next reighhours to that with- 
. in arc both equally Gr««. So likewife ifa C^.^./ beplucked up and 
fufered toliefomaimein the opener; that part which ftandeth in 
and near the Centre, amongft the Aer-Kffih, will become Green as well 

Tu /^'u' f t''^,'>'';'^':^-"-'^<^o"tinuingofaii.^;>r.//™ asbefore. 
rheArthcrcfore, both from without, and from within the Plant to- 

jfS" ^"•^'" ° ' ^'"'"' ^^'^ ^" ^''^ '^°"^'J"ent a«/a of its 


I " 






Left. V. 

of Plantf. 


I!. iT. BUT howdorh the Aer concur to the Grcc^eft of Hivfs '^ 
lanfwcr^ Not jk it i^meerly cither ^r^/^ or ^7, ar/zw^?, noryer^;/^- 
/fffw^^j'^ butasirisamiml, nnci pnnkijTjrly, s. Saiim Body i ihac 
IS, as there is a con fid er.ible quantity of S-dhie Parts mixed with thofe 
whtch arc properly ^wW. It bdng plain from manifold ExpeHirrcc i 
Th^tr the fcvcral kinds of ^.y/^^,nre the grand Age^^ts in tht Kivtution of 
^^W Sothar, to rpe;dt ftnLT:ly, although 5«/^/.;/r be indted ihe 
^fjw^/^ orM;/fr/j>/=//^rf/^, ofallCWtf^rj^ yet 5j// is the Male or 
i^r/^;^ AgcfTt, by which the A#/;j^;/r is determined to the Prodnmon of 
oneCo/fJffrj and not of another, 

12. jT, If then it be the ^i;r miKcd with thej//;'^^^ of a Wj^;/, and 
the ^''/'ofthe ^^r, that m;tkes it Q^ctn s It may further be asked, what 
Kind of 6,;// ? But this is more hard to judge of Yet it feemcth^that 
It IS not an And^ but a Snbdkdme Salt 5 or at leaft fome 5^// which 
IS djffLitnt from a fimple And, snd hatli an A£imly with Alkalies, ■ 
15. j5, Oncnafonwhylfojudgc, is, Becaufc that although all 
PUmsyiMznAlkdy, or other 5^/; different from an Acid, anJfome 
in good quantity ^ ytt in moft Plants, the Pmdommant Primipk is 
an A 7^ So that rhe Supply of an Add Prinnpk from the ^^r, for 
tht Producfjon of :, Green Colour, as it would be fuperi^uous ^ So alfo 
Jnelf^aual : a different Prh:npk being rcquifite to the Itrikiiic of thi- 
together wit!i the-ft/Zf/v/r, mto d. Green Colour. 

14- ^- I fuppofe therefore, That not only Greef?, but all theCo- 
lonr, oiPl^wts arc a kind of Pn-dpil^Je, refulting from the concur- 
a-nceo* the ^w P.^rts of the Ar, with lhe5^////e and sMmrious 
^artsoithQPknt-^ and that the 5//WV/>7f, or other like 5-?/i^c Part 
of the A-r, 15 cuncurrent with the Acid and SnlphtirioHs Pms of P/^/./i' 
for X-hcProduaw?: oi th^u Verdure ; that is, as they ftrike altogether 
into ^Gree^Precipitaic, Which dfo feemcth to be confirmed by di- 
vers Expcrime^jts hereafter mennoned. 

1 5. (^ THE CoIoHrs of Flomrs are various ^ differing therein not 
only from the Leaf, but one from another. Yet all feem to depend 

upon the general a^z/waforefaid. And therefore rhe Cfi/tf«r/ off /*^fi-eri 
as well as of Leaves, to refuk not foldy from the Contents of the PU^^t 
but from the concurrence iikcwife of the ambiejjt Aen Hence it i/ 
that as they gradually open, and are cxpofed to the ^fr,lhey Mi either 
acquire, or change their Ct^^/;r: no i^/^iv^r having its proper C^/i^/^r in 
the Bud, Ctl'ough it be then perfeftly formed) but only when it is 
expanded. So rhe Purple r lower of Stockc'jjdy Flomrs^ while ihey 
arc in the Bud, are white, or pale. So BmMors Buttons, Bkt^ Bot- 
tle Poppy^ Red Ddiftes, and many others, though of divers Colours ' 
when blown, ytt are all ivbUe in the Bud, And many Flowers do 
thus change their Co/ours ihrice fucceffively^ as the youngei^ Btids of 
Lad;/s-LookingUfs^ /^^/^/^^ and the like, are all white, the larger /?^^j 
are purple or wwe/, and the open Flor^ers, blew : according as they 
com." Itill necrcr, and arc longer expofed, to the Aer. 

16, ^. Bat if die ddour of the flower depcndeth on the aj^hient 
Mrz, It m-H' be asked: How it comes to paf. then, that this Colour n 
various, and nor one, and that one, a Gr^cw.^ that is to fty that all 
Ftoivers are not Grvc^, as wtll as the Leaver ? In anfwer to this Tiiree 
things are to be premifed. 

i7. f^ 

\ it ■ 





'"^ 1 

1^ ^'kf: 



T/^e (Colours 

Led. V. 


17, jS. f/r/^j WhatW3sfaidbeforc,is tobc rcmcmbred, tiut here 
the Aer is not a folitary, but conciuTent G;«yc. So that bcfidcs the 
BjJscatjfoi'M^.wc are to conlidcr ihatoftlie ftveral parts ot the p/^»/ 
by which thcCe/itcnts both Aereal and L?^w;^ arc fupplicd to the 

18. §- Sccomllj^ Th^l'iwKht t)^7ph£diia J of a P/-/?;/, .S^/A^/wr is 
i\\t: frcdofJiiTj^iJit Pnmp!c,T\ud much more abouDding ihiin in any oihcc 
pJ7-/ofa /'/rfj;^, as alfo hath bten formerly fliewed, 

19. ^. 7i;W/>',That it appenr5,accordingto what wc have obferved 
in the Jlr^^Utf/j of the Flower^^ That the quantity oi' Ijf^^phsdiui^ with 
rtfpectto tiie ^fr-P^^/jTs greater in the J^/->3V(?r than in the Ze^/: 

20. ^. It fetneih therefore, that the Ar-rf/t-//, and therefore the 
Atr^ btmg; prfdomf?af!t in the Leaf \ Grcen^ is therein alfo the ;>rf£/o- 
chf>/inat:t Colour. I (:.\y frcdomhiajit^ becaiale there are other Cohtirs 
lye vailed uncJer the Grcc^/j even hi the Lvjfc, as will hereafter appear 
more m^inifeft. 

On thecontrary, the Lyf^pk^daSs^ and therefore the Ski- 



f/wr, being tnofe, and the At-^^.^c/j and therefore the ^cr^ jcf^, in 
the flower ihan in the Leaf-, the anthmii ^e*-alone is not able to con- 
trjle the 5'j^;^W fo far, but chat it generally carrys the greatcft port 
in the FrodiiUiotr of the Cohiir. Yet in different degrees 5 For if 
the proportion betwixt the /^w/j^^e^z/i^/j and the Acr-y^fthht more 
equal, the FWfris either White or clfe Tt^'i^w', which latter Colour is 
the next of kin to a Qrec??. If the Sitlphar be fbmewhat predomifjanl 
the f/yfl'n'will ihew it felt if f^/ at firft^ hwKihfiambhjit Atr haih (o 
much power upon jr, as gradually to turn the iJed into a B/em, But 
if th(^Sfilph/trhc much prcdomi/iant^ then the Add of the /^mbknt Acr 
will heighten it to a fixed Kf^, 

22. ^. Hence it if, that TeSows and Gmwj are IcI^- alterable, upon 
the drying oiPlat^ts than other Cotor/rs 5 /;'', Becaufe the Acr being ;jre- 
don/jnam in their Prodi'Sioyr^ they are the left lyable to luiTer from it 
afterwards. Whereas i?i'<J/ and Pnrp/cs^ in the ProditUion whereof 
Sulphur is prcdoffihdijt^ are very changeable. So the R^d Flowers of 
I.y(i^aihid^ upon drying, turn Pi/rpky and ihc young pttrpk Flowers of 
^hjs turn ^/e^r. Solikewife the P/trpk of Bilherrks^ and the Crimfon 
of baked Damnfanj^ both turn B/i:^, For being gathered, and ib wan- 
ting a continued fupply of fre(h Sidphnry to bear up the CWtfwr againit 
the foice of the Ar^ it ftrikes it down at Jaft from fiff/ to Parplc or 
Blew^ I conclude therefore, that one TrhidpalCaHfcQ^ih^ Farkty of 
Colours m the Flowvr^ is the over proportion of the /.^'w/'if^^/^^/j to 
\\\t Aer-VeJJ^ls^ and therefore the dominion of the Sidphur over the 

29. jj, Ifit beobjc^cd, that the Ar doth not deepen, but highten 
theCfi/i'wrof the B/flf^/; J anfwcr, fjrfl^ That T am not now fpeaking 
oiAmmul^ but oiVcgetMc Bodies •-, the l^tmc ^fr whichhightens the Co- 
lour of Blood one way, may deepen thiU of a //t^irfr, another: nay and 
luAy highten that of f<jme Floivcrs too, fomc other way, 

24. ^. And therefore, Setof^dly^ it is to be eonfidered^ That as 
there is not one only, but divers Salhjc Principles in the Aer-'j ib are 
there ahb in the feveralP^r// ofone Plant ; as in the i?^^/,of one fort ^ 
in the /.f//^j, of another ; in the i^'/flrrcr, of another j and fo in the 
oihcr Pints. For fince the Figuration of the Partf of a Plant dcpendeih 




^ 1 

k 10 cor. 

j fii \l' 


'TT, Bui 







Lea V. 

of Plants. 



chk-fly upon the Sdlhie Principles : and that the Fkrvcr harh a <!ifre- 
rent Fig/^rc from that ofthe L-?.//: h fellows, that there is fomc S^/i^ic 

,ali in (iich 

Gtf/pli cation 
ifiy ft],ipcd, yet agrctire 
fofiirinonecommoni^j^^jm', asurnaly tobe/j/^ it therefore fcemcth 
plain, that there is a SaUt/e Primiplc m them all, fo far o^e, as to be the 
chiefCifl/c of that common f7;^//rc: and in concurrence with the dwi/- 
efit Acr, tobelikewife the chief G«/"e of one common Colour, fe.^Grce/i. 
25. )S. Whereas the Figitre of the Flomrs^ and therefore their 
Saline Principle, being more various^ and commonly diftinft from that 


of the Leaf'-, it will eafily concur with as a great Faricty oiS.ilts 
the Aer, whether Add, AIk<dim, Nitrmis^ Vrimus^ Armoniacal, 
any other therein exiftcnt, to i\\g Precipitation o^ ih^ Sulphur into 
x\ii:\\kQyari£ty oiColonrs. Thus hi o? ih^ Colours oi PkhU as they 
appear in their Natural EJiate, 


^ I 

Of the COLOVRS (>/' Tlants /y- Infufon. 

- + 

|HE nextgencral hiqitiry^ propofedtobe made,was 
this, hk^T^hdX mmntrihtColoHrs o^ Plants fhew 
themfclves, upon their infnfion into Liquors. The Li- 
^fftJnlmadeufeofforthis'purpofe, were three, fc. 
Oylo^Oli-ues, Water,2inA spirit of VVi?i€. The mter I 
uftd was from the Thames, btcaafc I could not 
procure any clear Rain Wafer, and had not Icafure 
at prefent to dxMl any. But nes:t to this, that yields as little Salt,:is any- 
2. jf. AsforOy, It IS known, that moft rUmt either by CoaioH 
or long Infufion, will give it their Green Colour. I have likewife trycd 
fome Tclh^s, and find they will do indifferently well^ as Saffron^ ' 
which, by InfufionmOyl, gives it alight (golden T/^c/i^r^, 

3- jj. Divers Aromatic k^ plants , as Mint, Majorane^ &c. bein? 
dryetl and inRifed in Oyt jvive it a double TiniUrc, both green and j>rj_ 
/i^m 5 one drop of the Oyi ^\^W\wg: green -^ but a good quantity of it 
held up againft a candle looktth rcd^Jk or of a Acm^ yellow. 

4' ^- But there is no Vegetable yet known which gives a true Red to 
Oyl^^^c^^iAlka^etRoot: with which, fome colouring either common 
or other Oyl, vend it under the name of the Red Oyl of Scorpions. ■ 

r ^Vl"i ^^^^*^^^i"g^<^c.niirm what we have faidconcerninc the C^;;- m/- /■ 
^.0fC^.;...inthL'L.^^, andf^/.^.r. of Plants, upon this twofold %'''-^' 
Confideration Firs^, (hat Oyl h the moft proper Mensirmin^ of Sul- 'i\^'\^'''' 
flmr Secondly, that O^^havea greater congruity with Acids than ^^'^^^''f 
With Alkalies 3 as V have formerly Ihcwed, ::^. §. 5. & 

F' ih 



. >-if 

'- I 


The Colours 

Lea. V. 





\\ Pi 


\ I 

6. §. I f.y ihcrefore, that in B/.»., P«.p/,, and efpecblly Reds 

ftrafe the 5«/i.W of .cfdf, or at i..(t, unlocks it from the Av^P.rt,. 
whereby both of .hem are be [lowed feperacely to their like p.rts in 
the Oy; t,pon which thcr difunion the Colonr vatiiflies : that de" 

/o»r/e//, but upon both united together. 

7- $. On the conrrary, aGm« OUnr rot depending on a pr,- 
^~"' ^''f but an^/V;, or fome 5./,«. Pr;„«;LifFerent from^7n 
Arrd, th,. w>ll not foe.luly be imblb.d (iparately/nto the P.res^zZ 
0^1 but only by tued,at,on of their S«lpk,r. So that being both imbi- 

S bSe'inX Ptr ^"^^^ "'^' ^^^^'" ^"^ ■'^-^ ^-« ^-'^^ ^h^y 

.me in oy of ^.;> ^..^,, a more potent m^finL than Co„,^,„ qT- 
hey who !y lo(. the,rownCW.«., and turn «-^7.; theOv/remain- 
T ,'T4 'V'' '''^ ""^- "That «s the S«/fZ.«. or that pa« ofTon 

Alt ^: p'^,^^'^5?^'^.^^">""«I™«denfeof,wa9jr.(en And F^rff 
Alk^m Root, which icntncdiately tinftures Ojl with a deeper S 
will not colour «>-a/cr in the leaft ^ / »" " a aeeper Kea, 

of ^wtin^Tl'''"^'"''''''!^' That W-./.. will take all the Colours 
of Fla^t^ m /«/«&« except a Gre.«. So that as no PUl will by /«- 
M- give a perfea B .n, toO;/; fo their is none, that I know of 
Which, by L,f.,p« will give a perfeft Gr«« to mter * 

1 1. §. But although the Grf.« L.^w will not give their ^ifflfe 
CcUur, hyM.,^j4^^ieri yet ihey will givemoff other C./. J 7= 
w.Jl a. the /■ W themfelves. So the Grer. Leavs olctZfoJ 
g^ve a Tn,3nn no higher refembic Rke„ijh mnc , ZH 
Mj C™; of 5/r.n.W_,, Malaga, of M»,(, iW«/;.^;„,, of 

and a dalh ofC/.r.( 3 and thofe of 5.^« make a Tma„r, neir as r.d 
as ordinary CUret alone. All ^..^./^.^ hot PW., givearfX 3 
r.«J?«r. or .. W e^ ;>,,,, ,„i,;,^. ^il W.«/. wi h a yJon> FloJr 
give either a pMer,(r/«.or^.&,.,/,r^,5'«r., and the ifke YetTll 
fortnirh;''^''!;^"''''" \ "-/--'F- of time, ib.c re^uir ■ g a 

but one or half ,1 day. From hence it appears, that the C.Wx of 
niolj i^/««....are begun in the Leav,; only Gree» being therein the 

n P ^,nH ^ T into the F/.n..r, where the J.r-^^V., as is aforcfaid. 
d'flinaj ''°"""'«"<'f ^1'^ L^^pUd^Sss they Ihew themfelve; 

of IF J' An7f "^^ -'"^ J*"' ^'" ^^«/?m,/^ I made ufe of, was Spirit 
It: K T " '' !° ""^ remarqued^ That as 0^1 r.rely takes a 

So ncher Sf.rU oj W,„, a Bin.. I have trycd with fev.rai hk^ 
i-lor^crs ■i.oiUrk-hed, Vhkt, MulUws, .&„rragr andoiher where- 
of ic will not take the lead Tw(5«m -'- ■■^' »'iotntn,(vnere 

ii;™V-/'/7 '^fi^*"''i<"^8'},"^,<^^^^'^F/'"^^'-/, that I know of, will give a 
Bkv. Tj«a„r, to Sf .r.i of Wim : yet having been for lome days iufLifcd 









of it on 




7 ft* 
>/of . 



Led. V. 

^ Fhints. 


in the faid ^^z-jr/;, ^n6ihfi Sfirit (till remnining in a m:ir\nQY Limpid^ 
ond void ofihcluaft i^./^of B/nv^ if you drop into it ,t liitle -S/'/r/V 
o(Siilphm\ \z is fomtwhat rnrprizing to ftc, that it immcdi.ittly ftrikes 
it intoa fufi irj7//, as if ic had been ^/<!n' beftfre: and fo, if you diop 
iSp;?;; of .?hJ ^rw^j-z/^c ororhcr ^/4'(v upon it, it prcfrntly ftrikcs it 
Gw/A Which further confirms what have been before laid of the Cun-^ 
fes oiFcgetiihh Colonrs. f 

14. ^. It is alfoobfervablc, Thnt iht Gncfj Leaifes of B^ivw^ which 
pive a Mtifi\!dme Red^wkh fomt- R^iys o^Clint^ tu^r,^vj<:s\ pure 
and pcrfeft Green to 5;m( of^T/w^.- and is x\\q oiAyPhnt of dl 
that I have yet trycd, which doth the like. 

_ I5» i- luslikcwiie tohenotcd, Th.ft bothT>//^!vand iJ^'i^f/p^YJ-j 
give a ftrongtr and fulkr Th/Uiin toWdtcr^ than 10 spirit of IVh^e -^ 
as in the Tin&urcs oiCoirflip^ Pi'pf}^, Chvc-Jtdy-Fhmrs and ii^/^j, 
made both in JVa!er and ^;j//-;/ of IVhie^ nnd compared togtfthcr, is 
eafily iccn. So th.u for TwUnrcs made with f/fTPirjj whether for Me- 
dkit7€s,or other purpofc?, w^!lcr^\w'n\\ retpe^ to the C^/^^r, is the better 
Mef'firnstm, 1 Gy for TitfCiures made with Fhr^^crs-^ for there arc 
fomc other K/r^/, efpcci^lly Q\tmms^ as G^mboja^ Myrrh and Jii>f/ 
which jrive their TinBurts tuH and clear, only to ^/^/r/f of fF/we, Some 
of which are iifcd by Leather-QddcTs^ and others for the wafhin'^ over 
o^Silutr^ foas toj^iveit thcC^/fwrof OW^. Thnsfarofthe tolours 
oi^PUf/tj as they appear \i^on Itifafiim. 

CHAR iir 

Of the COIOVRS of Plants poducedhy their Mixture 

with other Bodies. . 

^^^^■^^^^ H E laft general Enquiry propofed to be made^ 
^^ ' ' ^ was this. After what manner they would exhi- 

Inte chemfelves upon the Mixture of tbofe /«///- 
(ioiis^ or of any one of them with fome other 

2. ^. A Uwx)^ Infrjiojf, or the Jft;'fCofthe 
Lc^vf of Roje-Tree^ R.iJ^k^ Strawkrry^ Cytjam- 
joyk^ Gooskrry^ Prwiroje^ 'jeriifahm Coxpjiip^ 
Bearfeare^ Bearsfoot^ I^ony ^ Biiiori^ L^ivrel, 
G^dtshturdy dropedupon5/t(^/, vdikc^ Purple 7 inci are. But that of 
Vif>t Leaves Jcarcc mjkcth any Tinfdnre at all. So that thc-re is fome- 
thingcifc btfides Sorfcrncfs concuxriTX^ to x\\^ Purple upon StceL 

5. ^. ^liccharum Sdf arm Ajo^iL^ on ^TijiUnre oi Red Rirfejj turn* 
cth ir to a f^hn p.di: Green. 

4- ^, SJt ofT^rt^r droped upon the fame TinUnre^ turneth it to 
a deeper GreetJ, 

Sf 3 


r I 


J] ^ 





the (jahurs 

ISTv:' '^. 

t ' 

5 i SpintoEB^ts Har,>dTopcd upon a Tma,<re of the p/.J. 
vf Lari-i<eeUnd Barege turn them to a ■verdcgrecfi GrcsK 

7- /. ThefcEjt-fcr^wfft/j Teem to confirm. That ir U rnm/» -4//.,/' 

from the deftd of T.«./«,.. : bm that there may be (j4;/., as weU a 

EverlaU,.^ P,.fi, and Holy Oak, turns them all r.//.«,. ' 

10. §. Sp.rit of 5//V;«. on a K^fiT,,,, of 5.,>„ changeth it not. 
ir. ^. 5^.m of 5«/;,^«. on the Y.llo^ vdcr of Cw... alter. 

them nor. Nuthcr are they changed by the ^#>. of ^/4>.. 

,nH ://■/■ 7. " ,?"''' '^'' '" ^" ^^''^''"'^ ^hc SulphHrccHs Acid 
and ^%toe Prfi/j- are all more equal. ' 

13. ^. Spirit o{ sulphur on ^Ti«aurc o^ Fickts tnrns it from Bkm 
to a true I^^^e, or midle C»-/wy^(,. ^'^'^^ 

a^bnght blood ie..'. Into the like aw, it Lightens i &roS 

^//i'nP So that as ^/V_^^, or other ^;,^/.^^;„ salts, z^r^ prcdsmi- 
^.«;mG«.*.,fo^«^, mfo^., etpeciallyin the brighter L^. j„ 
the U..s^^AFhmrs o^ Pla.ts. Hence it h, that 5^^.^, of fc 
droH upon the Bk^ Flower o£ Ladies Looki>,g.GUfi, Larksplr e7 
rage turns them a 1 Red, fi. into the Red of LJ^' L.ct£' Bu 
(whtchisramcularlytobenoted) being droped on the faid rZ 
FWofi^TW, alters them httle or nothing: becaufe, that ve v 
Ulu,r luhcrcm produced by a copious admixture of the like Pril 

16. *■ The Surtirrithereforeorwhathath now been faid, of the of rcgctabk Uhurs, ,s this : That while their S.lph.r Ai Saline 
P»^r,^/.. only fwim together, and are not as yet nnit/d into one P«! 
apitafe no Colour refults from them, but the Com>Hs are rather 
l^mpf ■■' ="' "ftally in the Root , and many other Paremhymou, 

17- ii- When they are united, and the All^di^e :^.tc predomimnf 
they produce a Qrccn. ' 

18. i. When ihnS^lphur and the ^/^iw are moretqual, thev 
produce a Td«w^. , i ' / 

19. §. When the i«/;-^;,^, ^,;^ ^nd Alkaline, there a r^Z/.n- 

20. ^. When ih^ Sulphm- prcdomim»t, and the A/,^ and JW^/rV; 
equal, there a Bkw. ^ 

31. (i. Whenthe^«/^WancI^«iiate/rf<^i-wiw7;;tothe.^//W/w 
then a Tnrple. ^ ' 

22. f Whenihe5/4ki'^rf</i'*««d»(tothe^/Wy«2and [he A^W 
to them both, aScarlet. 

23- ^- 

■ \b^. 


■0.. - 










hh. in 
kt Pri* 


U± V. 

of Plants. 

cS^wZ/'/f/^r to them both, :i Blood-Red : which is ihe hightft arid jiioft 
Sidphimoiis Colom- in Nature, 

24- i^- From'thc Prc^tifis^ divers Rules do alfo rcfult for the ma- 
king of r/?/£/«rw, cither for McdhJ!:es, or forany o^hcr purj^ofcF. 

2$. ^. I (hall only add one or two Notes, As fit ft, that of all 
Co!of,rs, TitUows are the moft fixed and unfading. As for inftance if 
you drop either a Solniw>7 <^{T.trUY, ^v Qi SprH o^ Snlphir upon a 
FmUuri^ of the Tdloxo Flotvers of Cron>foot, o£ Adoim, or of S..ffro,, 
ncichef of them will alter their Coh:^r, Which flicwes the ftruip:[h 
of moft Tel/f^m, to rcfift all manner of imprcfiions from the Jer, 

^6. ^. Again^ that the ufe ofSaltf^ is not only to higlncn or 
deepen Colom, bui iilfo :o fix and make ihcm permanent. As for -In- 
ftance. The Tw&ttre of Chvc-JidyF lexers ^ made eirher with WaUr 
OT ySpiritofWive being cxpofcd to the Ar, will often turn into a 
BUckiJh Furpk. But the addition of a few drops of Spirit of s^hittr 
doth not only hightcn the Colour^ bnt renders it ftable and permanent' 

27, ^, Likewife, of S-^/fj^ themfdvts there is choice to be made! 
For there are Tome, which although they fix the CQlour^ yet will a 
\\n\<^givc as we fay, and not hold throughly dry 5 ae moft \7xivial 
^M/s, and 6td!atJOHs Acids. But there are fome Salts, which will 
not^rep inthcleaft, ^%Akm^ that in UmQ-Wat^r ^^A fome others 5 
whtch latter, is fo far from being moyftened, that it u rather petrified 
by the Jm For which reafon I take it to be one of the beft Liquors 
for a ftabic and permanent Qrecr?^ and fomc other Colours, 

28. -J. Amongft all WaUr-Cohurs^ the rareft, and moft difficult 
to make clear bright and permanent, is a Blew. There are many P/^^-- 
crs of an excellent Bkw, as ihofe of Bug!oj% Lari-hcchDd others ^ biit 
they cafily fade. And there are very fnw Flomrs that will ftrike in- 
to a Blew by any Liquor--, being almoft all changeable into Greer7 
FurpleotRcd. Yetfomefcw there are, in which this C-^/^j/^r maybe' 
produced. As for inftance, the Flower of Lnhrus or PurfiverMh/^ ■ 
^vhich upon the affufion of Spirit of H^rts^Horn is changed from a 
Peachy to as pur;: a Blci&, as thi^ bc(i Vltr.if^urif^e : that which hitherto 
IS, 1 think, wanting in ^atcr Colours. Spirit of Harts Horn was the 
Liquor lufcd^ butlqueftionnot, but that other ^%//^j, and par- 
ticularly Lim-W-atr, will have the like Efft^, and fo render it the 
more ftable, 

^ 29. ^. From what hath been fdd,' we may likewife be confirmed 
mthe ufe of the already known J^/^/tj, and dircfted unto others yet 
unknown, in order to the variation of the Colours of Flomrs in their 
Growth. Thceffeaingot this, by putting the Colour defired in the 
Fhmr, into the Bodjf or Root of the Pkm, is vainly talked of by 
fome; being fuch a piece of cunning, as for the obtdning a painted 
face, to cat good (tore of -a^hitc and Red Lead. 

3O' Sf- The bt(t known Rales are thcfe Two 5 Firft, that the 
C>ccd bL' ufed above any other part, if the variation of the Colour be in- 
tended. One reafon whereof is, becaufe that part being but very fmal), 
the hfii^ures ot the iS'^/ will liave the greater over proportion to thofe 
ofthe^^fc^. Befidcs, the tender and ^^r^jw^i^e^/, being committed to 
theSoyl, will more cafily take any peculiar T;^/f/flrf from it, then an 





The Colours of Plants: 

Lea. V. 


other P-ift, which is rot fa fufcptive, and hath been linftury .-fhcadv 
AH the fl:range variL-ncs in Ciirtmlhns^ Tidifs^ and other Fhjpcrs are 
made: this wjy. 

31. J?. The other R^tk 1?, To change the %/, or frequently to 
tranrplaiit from one Bed to another. By which nicanSj the /^/^w/ ^ 35 
ity^GXi:,f7ipcr7njpreg?74lcdWnhk\tTi\\Tw^Uins , which are prolifick 
of feveral Culoitrs 5 which way is taken for Roots and Sirps, 

32. §. The confideration whereof, and of the forcgoin*^ E^p^ri- 
nnnts, may direfr us not only in changing the Eed^ but alio in com- 
pounding the Soyl^ as by mixing fuch and fuch Hdts^ or Bodhs imprct;' 
Dated with liich Sdts^ \ iay by mixing thefe Bodies in fach a propor- 
tion, with the 5^;/, asakhoDghchcy havenoCo^ffHr inthemfclves, yet 
may be effectual to produce a great variety oid^hnrs in the rWr thev 
noufiQi ^ fupplying the Fknts with iuch TinUnros ^ as fliall concur 
with the Atr^ to ftrike or precipitate their Stdphitr into fo many feve- 
ral C^/tf^r/, after the manner above explicated: and Co to bring even 
Natures Art of Paiming^ in a great part^ into our own power. 








Lea. VI. 



b ■ 

O F T H E 


O F 

T A S T S 




Read before the Ro)ial Society^ March 25. 1675. 




F I 






f/ ihe feveral Sorts of SIMPLE and C OMPO V ^"- 
})ED Tafts3 and the DEGREES of both. 

HAVE formerly publiQicd Tome Notes, concern- tj 
ing T^s. Since then, I have mnde other Ohfirva- ^j'^' 
ri 0^ J upon the kmt Subjeft: and thefe have pjo- rp 'p' 
duccd fiirlhcv Tloaghls, I will fummupall in give- ^ ^^ J.^' 
ing an account, FirO, of the D7^)cr/;/ie/3 and then, cf ^ occ. 

of iheCfl^^e/ of Td/? J, chiefly in Pfanis, 

5, ^. TheDJucr/i'/rfJof Tfj/^/are fo many, and 
fo confidLvjble 5 that it fecmeth ftran^e, to fee the matter treated of 
both by Phdojbphers ar>d fhydckfjs^ with fo much fcantnefs and defca", 
For the Suljcii is not barren,' but yiejdeth rauch and plcafant Varkty, ^ 
And doth alfb appear to be of great import unto Medicme. Bcfides, 
it is prepoflcrons todifcourfe of the Crf^d^j ofT-^-T, before we have 
taken an account oi x\\f^-\v Diver fnies -^ Whereof therefore Ifiiall in the 
fitft place, exhibit the iollowing Schme, 

3- i^- 






II Ki. 


I 'i 



The T>iverfities 

ua. vj. 

i -r 


5. i?. TASTS maybcdiainguUhcdbytheruTlirce^cneralwavs 
Fira, withrcfpeft 10 the Sepfilh^ it {i\{: Secondly, with rcfptft 10 
lis Duration and Terms. Thirdly, with rcfpcft to its ^j/i/c^^, 

4- jS. The Scnfation it fdf is differenced two ways, by nsSpuie^ 
^nAhy MS Degrees With refpea to the 5;..d.., tajls 3rc Sf^pi ol 
CompouM By Simple Tafis^ I mean not fuch, as arc never found in 
conjunaion with other 7d/jfj; \^ut iht SJfj^pk or SifjgU Mo^es o( TaU 
although they arc mixed with divers othersin the fime JWv As for 
example, iheT^ryle of ^ Pepph,, hAddiikk'^ o£ Rhubarb, A^^t^rafiriv^ 
gcffs 5 and therefore Compvn>?dvd in both. Yet in the Peppirr^ the A-^ 
£td is one Simpk Tafte, and the Sweet another 5 and fo in Rhuhrb the 
Bitter is one Simple Tafle^ and the Ajlrmgeni is another, ' 

5. 5^. Two faults have here been committed ^ the defcftive £w;f- 
jtH^m/tf« of Sample Tajl, 5 and reckoning them indifiinftly amon^ fomc 
others which are Cvmpotttjdtd. /.^ 

6. j5, SIMPLE Tajis, ( of which, properly fo called, there 
arc commonly reckoned but Six or Seven Sorts, ) arc, at Icaft Sixteen 
Fifi^Bitier, as in Wormwood -■ to whioh,the contrary is StPeet,i\s m Svgar 
Thirdly^ Scwer^^iSmVimgar: to which, the contraryis Salt. Fifthiy 
Hoi^ as in Chzes; whereto, the contrary is Cold. For we may as 
properly fay, a Cold Tafie, a^^HotTaJie, there being fome Bodies 
which do mamfcftly imprefs the Se/rfi ot'Cohl upon the Toffgrte, though 
not by Toifch, So doth 5^/ PrnvdU^ although the Liqiwr wherein it 
is diflolved, be firft warmed. 

7. $. Seitvihly, AroPMtick; For it doth not more properly agree 
to an Odohv^ than a Ta^e^ to be Aromatkk, And that an Aromatkk 
T^fie, isdinlUndfroman/i/r?;, is clear ^ In that, there are many Bo-^ 
dies of a Hot T-v/ie,fome meanly and others vehemently Hoi 5 which yec 
are not in the Icaft Aromaiick,: as amonp;ft othcrs,is apparent in Euphor- 
bivm. So that although an Aromaticl^ TaJIe be often conjoyned with 
Heat 5 yet it is not that Heat ic felf, but another dinftinft Setffi, 

8. §, Eighthly, Nanfeous or Maligfiant., contrary to the former. 
Snch as is perceived, together with the Afiri^getif and Bitter^ m Rhu- 
barb ^ or with the Bitter^ and Srveet^ in Aloes. It may be called Malig- 
m^t^ becaufe dift.iftful although mixed in a low degree with other 
Tafis : whereas other T^jh wilt render one another gratefuh 

9. j^. Again, T^^fis may properly be fald, to be Soft or Bird. A 
Soft T^Jie^ is either Fapid, as in Watery Bodies, Whites ofEggs^ Starchy 
i^ifse Botes, Sec. Or t)r.Umm, as in Oyls^ Fat, dec. 

10. ^. A Hard Tajie is Fourfold, Jc. Pcfictr.wt , Stupiftciem, 
Aflringe?jt, Ptmgefit. Contrar}^ to a V^ipid^ are Petietrant and SU'pi- 

11. § Penctrafit, isa kind of T^/e, which worketh it felf into the 
Tcvgue (as fome 7>//fi?j into the^^/;/) without any Pmgemy-^ as in 
t\\^Root and LeavsofWild Crratmer. 

12. §. Siupifidcnt^ ^^ \uiht Root of Black ^^^^^bore, Whichbc- 
ing chcw'd, and for fometimc rctcined upon the Tongue ; after a few 
niinuccs, it Jeemethtobe benum'd and atfefted with a^ kind of Wiraly- 
ikk Stupor 5 or as when it hath been a little burnt with eating or (lip- 
ping of any thing too hor. 

13. ^. Contrary to an VnUiiotisTajle, are Aftringent^ and Pn'r!- 
£f?// j as in Galh^ and Spirit of S4 Aromamck- -... ..-:, 

' f 









oiled V<^ 



Led VI. 

of Tap. 



14. f, Ag.tin- r-rf?/ :ire cither Comimal, ss ntoft commonly : or 
hiii-rf?/iU€J!t 5 as ihat of Drato/niutff^ cfpccially in rhe Root. For after 
it(cemnobciolUnclcxtin[!;ui1hed ^ ir will then again ( chietiy upon 
ihe CoUffiomy^ l\l'^^ev£^le£^J\AGo€mcs) be plainly heighrcnc^E andre- 

15, $. L^JJly, J!;)?/ are cither .9J///, ^^ufually^ or may be called 
Trewiilouf^ as the Hc^t produced by Pjrethntm. Difiw& froni th;ic 
ofdotcs, Gh/gc>; s.nd m:iny oihtT [hi Bodies., inthat there the /iW 
hftrll:, but berc in Pyreihrum^ 'tis joyncd with a kind of Vilr.jiioT? : 
as when a FUnie is brandifhcd with a La^ip-Funiacc, Thm far of the 
Sorts of 6V^/p/^ T-z/^j. 

16.^. COMPOUNDED 7i/?/are very numerous 5 being 
made by the y^now^ Coi;jim&iof7 q{ sh^ifk Tufts ^ as ^^r/Y^ are ofLc/- 
/i-/-/. Sometimes of two, as m Sactlwiw^ SiUimi^ of AfiriMge^t and 
Swsct. Sometimes three, as iti ^/fi-/, Maligmnt^ liltevi^uA Srpcct^^ in 
Rhttbarbj Nluliguant^ Afiris?ga2i an(J Bitter. Sometimes four, as in 
Agarkk, Mdignant, AJirh;gc?.t, B/ffcr and Swecu And in feme /i^- 
^;ej, five or lix Specks may be joyncd together, 

17, 1?, For themotc accurate 0/y^n^,^j7i7v whereof, there are thcfe 
cisVicRjrks. Th^it not too many be Caftcd .ntone lime: kaft thcTcffgi/e 
being (iircharged, become kfi critical. That the Jtf^??//^ be waihed 
with warm watei- betwixt every lafting. And that thofc things be 
firft rafted which produce a Icfs durable TdySf^ that fo one may be 
throughly exfinguiiliedj before another be try'd, 

iS. §, Ofrhe numerous Ci)^{7ft;;if//fl;7j of T^j-, which may thus be 
obferved^ there are only Six to which the penury of Lsf^guage hath al- 
lowed (if I m:iyc.ill them) i^/^fc^ AW-'f/, Cc. At-crhis^ Aiifierits^ ^cris 
Muriatkn^^ Lrxivus ^ Nitrofof, Moll of which are commonly taken 
in to make up the number ot Simpk Tufts, But very improperly^ b^- 
'mg^Woi t\Km Compomtdcd and DucmpoitfidcdT^fts : to whichC/<?/j 
ihcy ought therefore to be rcfcrVL For 

19, jt, Aiftcre^ is Aftnf^g£7:t ixnd Bitter^ as in the green and ibfc 
Siofjcs o£ Grapes. 

ao. ^. Acerh^ properly fo called, h AHrhige^t and Acid--, as in 
the J'i)cc of unripe Grapes. 

11. ^. Atrk^ xs^MoCompcunded. For llrfl'.fimply Hi?f, itisnot; 
bcc.uife there are many H^/JW/cj, which arcnotAr/.i^ astheJi^j?/j 
G^Zedo^rjfy TarroTi^ Contrayerva. Nor Secondly, is it (imply JVifj^eff/, 
becaufc? there arc alfo K^jt/zcj, which arc Ni}ri-acria puf^gentiu ^ of which 
kind V6 the Root of Ani/:i. Wherefore Atr7ii!dt\ is Pmgetjcy joyned 
wiih Heat. 

^2. §. ^^itridUil^^ uSahmfs joyncd with fome P/^^^e^rf , as in 
common 5^//. 

23. ^. Lixivia!^ hSidimfs)o^-x\tA\\-\vhPit?7gef?cyiynAHcaU 
7^. V Nitrous^ VAS^huefs]oy\\Q^d.\v\x\\ ?;i^7gL-mj and Old. 
25. §, ELfiJcs i1k(l' Six, or perhaps one or two moi-c, liicrc arCj 
as is ^[id, a great number of Coijjn&ions^ for which we have no Pro- 
per Njmcs. For admit that ihere were but Tt7/^p/^c7f J of 5/ot;^/c '^^^ft^, 
ft. chcleTt"3 Amnrus^ Didds^ Audits^ SaliKs^ C^I/dus, Fr'igUas^ Aro- 
fjiuUcuSy MaUgtius, Ajhhgef/j^ Pitj/gas. And of chcfc Tt?^, but 7 w^, 
oratmoftj but Tdrce to be compounded toi^cthcr in any one Bcdy. 
If only 7"iv^j they produce 45 Co';/po/imlcd Tifts^ For the Firft^ may 

Tt be 










The Diverfnies 

Lea, VI- t 

becompouiHled with all ihc 9 following f xh^Scco^jd^ with all the 8 

following 5 and lb, the reft; which togeihtr make 45. But if the 

ilime Ten be compoundtd by Threes together ^ they produce no Jefs 

than 120 Variations: as by the T-^i'/e made of them all doth plainly 
appear. . " , - 

16, §. Some few of the Cotjjnr7^iom therein fet down, may not 
be found aSually exiftent in Nature, The abatement of which, will 
be much more than compenfated two ways. Fjrji^hy the other ^/jc 
spedt:j of Si/^/ph "iajis^ which are alfo fometimcs compounded. And by 
o[:her more complex Co^jiw&wns^ as of many ^adraplcs^ and per- 
liaps fome ^miypk or Sextuple ones. Thus far of the Sj^iph Specks 
and CojijunUions of Tafts, * 

27. ^. THE DEGR.EES ofT^// arc alfo numerous; and 
each Species^ in every CoJ'jmcirof/^ capable of Vmation herein. For 
the more accurate obferving whereof, it will be beft, To take thofc 
Bodies^ whofe Tajli are, as near as may be, the fame in Specie : and 
that rhoft' be firft tatted, which are Icfs ftrong 5 whereby the true De~ 
gree will be more prccifcly taken, 

23. §, TlieTd/fx oi Bodies will thus appear to be varied, in mod: 
Specier unto Five Degrees:, and in fume of them, unto Tefj, So the 
Root of: Turmricii, is bitter in the Firji Degree'-, ofGejstian^ in the 
Tejilh. The Root o^Cardujts Beaedi&us^ is Hot in the Firfi Degree - 
the Grca; Pods cr Seed-Cafes of Ckf^atk percgrina^ in the Te^ji/j. So 
that, allowing fome to vary under i^/z^f^ yetbya moderate efti mate 
wc may reckon every iS/^edtj, one with another, to be varied by at 
icaft Five Degrees, Which being added to the fevcral Species ofTafls 
in all the Treble Cot^jimHions of the aforefaid T^W^j, come to iSoo ien- 
fiblcand deiineable Vuriatio/jj ofTjtJie, And thefe arethe Divetfitks 
of Tajie^ with refptft to the Scnfitrnj it lclf< 

CHAP. 11. 

, ^ 

Of the DV RATION and [everal T E RUES 

of Tafts. 

,; HE next general way of dinguiihingT^^/^ h hj 

ihQW: Duration^ and their Tt'rwj, or their /ii)/;tjj^ 

of InleMJion and Remjjjoff frotn one Degree to 

another. For there arc many T.isis^ which have 

then Aiotiof:s analogous to thole of Difcafes f and 

by thofe may be diftinguilhcd in ihc Lime manner. 

For as of D:Je.r/cf, Co of Tafis^ there are Four 

Times^ as Phjficidns q^W them, Oi Terms o£ Mo- 

fe, PrtNapuim^ AugmenUwi^ Stittifs^ ^ Declifh^tio. 

-- ji. For the dirtin^ obferving of which, thofe /W/tJ which arc 

hard, and fo their laftahle parts Icfs caiily CKtraftable by the Tongue^ 

lliould be reduc<,d to a fine PoTcder : othcrwifc, the true mcafiire of the 


tion ; 


ri , 





Led. VL 

of Tap. 



Prhiapiam will he lofT:, And tor ihc precife mcafuring of alj the Four 
Ta-mcs, k fiiould be done by a Mimtie-WaUh or a Mimstc-Ghfi. for 

To it will appear, that the Vari^tm^s of each , arc divers and re- 

3. ^. To infiance fii-ft in thofe of the Prmcifium. Which I c.ill 
That fpace of lime, bciwixt thefirfl Cfl»/-7^ of thc&tiy to be taftai^ 
and ihe firft manifeft Fercepticfr of the Zy^f, For Example thofe 
SW;V/ \^'hich are Add, or B///er, as Vimgar or W'tfr»;n^r?W, arc pre- 
fc-ntly pcrceiv'd, ^;^^fm/^f A/J or BhtQr^ upon the hrft Conua^ ot 
have Prwriphm hnvijfmHr^. Thofe B-7^;cj which are J^r/j, have 
ihcir Vrimipimt fomewhat Jongen So the SecdCtfis of chmati^ 
peregrij?^^ ahhoiigh they have a vehement AcriUide, even in the Tenth 
Degree-^ yet is not that Acritnde fo fooii tatted, z^ ih^ Bittermfi 
of /^7c/ , which is but in the fccond. But the Prmcipim^ of Hot 
Xijb, is generally longer than that of any other- So iht Bitt erf lefs 
of the Root of BUckcHehborc^ which exceedeih not the fecond De- 
gree, is yetprelently tafted: but the f^e^f proceeding from thciTime 
Root^ and which afcendeth to the third Degree^ is not perceived at all 
till after two full ^/7W/ej, And fo the B///LT/^y7 of EWj, which ex- 
ceedeth not the 4'"' Degree, yrjt is fooner tatted than its Heat which 
afcendeth to the S^''^ 

4- 5^. Next, inthofeofthe^ff^wfwf. Which I call. That fpace 
hGm\-xitht:^T{^ Perception oii\\Q Taftc, till it be come to the herghth! 
Sorhe Hc^d ofGjU;7g^k, is not only prefcntly perceived, but arifeth to 
the heighlh within half a A/;j/«/f. But the Heat of the Root o^HmL 
comes not to the heighlh till after a whole Mimte. And the Heat of 
Black: Hcllcbere^ not till after fonr full Minutes from the firft ContuU. 

5, §. The^t;//^;f,orfpacewhereinther-?J?^coniinucsinitshei2hth 
isalfodivfri. *^QX\v^Hm^{\\\^Seed-CaJti^iHelkhorafitr^ comes to 
its hei^hth, and begins to decline within half aM^wtt^ej that of the 
Ro9t of Garden-Satrvygntfs^ not till after a M'mme 5 and that of the 
Root of Afaram, not till jfrcr two full Mimttes, 

6 ^, And /-"^/y, the Declination^ or the fpace betwixt the firfl 
Renrijjion of the Tafie^ and its total Extinaon. For inftance, The Leavs 
of MilicMiHm^ Art: Bitter in the 4^"' Degree, and i?;^^ only in the i^*- 
yet the f^f/?/ continues for fome time, and ihe iJiiif^r prefcntly vanishes, 
Calajnits Aromaiicm^ is Bitter in the 4»"' Dt-^rte, Hot in the i^* and A- 
romatkk in the 9^: yet the Bitter quickly vanifhc^, the Heat conii- 
nu.:sTwoM7«K/f/, and the Aromathk, fcvcn or eight The Heat of 
the i?o^f of Cft'^j/rT/crr,;, is extended, almoft to two Minutes-^ the 
Pungency ofjahp^ iilmoft to fix 5 the H^^f of Garden Scurvygrafs^ to 
fevtn or eight. And even the Bitierefs of tfj/d Cucmner, to near a 
C]U:\rtet of an hour. But the Heat oi Enphorhium dnreih much longer 
at, aifu that of Blacl^ Hellebore. Jk above half an hour, ' 

7. ^. So that the Aug?jK7itnm^ is fcldom extended beyond Four or 
^niMimdcs, fromthefitftC^wfijc/; but the Dcdination^ fometimesto 
Thirty,Fourry,ormote. Thus far oftheler^v;. ofT-;//, ortheman- 
ner of their Intenfton and Reniijjion. 

llHlflM I 




C H A R- 




The lyiverfities 

Left. VI. 




i. . 

J', ' ' ■■ 


Ofthe SVBJECTor S E AT of Tads. 

^^C^J-"^ H E Third and L-r;2 way of dimiij^juiniing Tafts^ is 
^^^^-^ by thtir Sftbje^, or the P.^r/ or A:rjj vvhtrL they 

nrT^A ^^<^ ^^^^^^^I'^^'-^^ly ^^ chiefly perctivcd. And (<>, 
1 ^/fey 7^;J?J are either Fixcd^ or Mo'uabk, 

a> §. A Fixed T^U^ is that which kcepeth 

within the compafs offome one P-;?f, all the lime 

^* of its Dur^lro/j^ as upon the T;'/', or th^ Rcot of 




the Tatfgitc^ or other Prfr;, 

3. jS, A 2-iovahle Tjfie^ is either D/ffitji'L-c or Tranjiiive. 

4- i(, A Diffitfive Tafie^ I call (har, which by degrees fpreads 
abroad into divers P-/^/j, and ytt in the mean time, adheres to that 
P'irt in which it is firfi: perceived. So the Biticrncfs in ihe dryed iii'o/j 
ofsiacliHcl/cl'Ore^ is firft felton the Tv'p of the To/^gtic ^, from whence 
itfprcads irfelf tothe midtcof rhe fame. And the BnfctJ^cfr of the 
Lea'Vf o^lVrld Otcumer^ fpreads from the T>^, to tlie Root of the 

5. §. ATr-ivfnivc Tdfle^ is th;it, which after ibmetimc, wholly 
quitrin^ the P-^r/ wherein it isfiift perceived, is thence transfered into 
fjme other Part ; as xhcBiiterncfs o^ Ge/itifttr^ imcdi.itely from theT/P, 
to the midle of the Tor-gm. And moft of the Di^ajive^ are alfo Trari' , 

64 ^. The fcvcral P^rts which thefe ways become, and with fome 
latitude may be called, ihe Seats oCTafls^ are, the Lips, Tojigtu^ iV 
/d<?, Tlroat and Gnkt, 

7. jS. Upon the L^pj, the K^ci of white Hellebore^ as alfo of P^- 
retlrum, being chewed, make a fenfible Impreljion :^ which continues 
CLkethe flame of a Ct^d/ betwixt in and out) for 9 or \o Mmuics. 
Eur the H(?.;/ in other Varts much longer, 

8. jS- Upon the Tc;?^^wf, T</^j are perceived in Three places, as 
hath been intimated. On the Tip or Cofjeofthi^Tof/gi^e^ as molt com- 
monly. On or rear the Bujis of the Tongn€\ where the Tijlc of the 
Le^ivs of IJV/^C«c/'*'/er chiefly fixeth it filh Or on the Ttr/j'-r or midlq 
ol ^\\zTof^gm if in which place it is ohfcrvable, that theT///r of G^^- 
r/-?w, Colotjiithk^ and divers other B^i^/e J, is then conflderably ftrong, 
when not at all perceived at theT/f of theTirj/^wc or in any other P^/r/. 

9. ^. Upon the Palate ox Roofc of l\\^ Mouthy the fii^^;^ as I take 
ir, oi Deadly Nighif)ade maketh its c\\\Qi h^JprcJpot}--, and there coa- 
tinuts about four Mimites in f^me degree, 

10. §• Thi^Throat^ or the L*-?^;^/'^, L<iw?-Y and other adjacent P/r// 

are oftentimes the Seat of Tafte. For there arc many Bodies^ which 
although they have Icarce any TaSfe upon the Tc^jgiie^ or any other of 
the aforcfaid Farts^ yet make a ftrorg/wfrf^^^/ on the T/jw^/ as the 
Lt\ivs of little Ddijy^ little Celandhic^ and o? Pimp7f!el -^ as alio the 
Roots o^Jaltj}^ Mercury^ 4/^^r^^tfj and Others- Which King chewed 
raakeiittk or no tr^prejjmt on the Tovgm^ but their 'j'tycc being fvval- 





' \ 


Led. VI. 




of Taiff. 


lowed, caufah a kind of pricking in the Tlro^i ^ as when cue b rro- 
vokcdbya fharp Rhetiuf. * 

n s^, AiiddiattKis7://7f or5.';7/f, is truly diftinft from eiihcr 
the Hvat, Pjif7gf:77€y^ or Acrititde upon the rt^/.'^/^f, it is hence fiuthiT 
manifcft ^ In thnt Pjr^/irftw, which is very //t^/^ and Ccrtex Wif?trnf>rf^ 
which is very P/.;7^f;;f upon the r^j/5«=T^ yet their ?;/>y. hcins fwal- 
Jowed, caufeth noHc^t, Pmgcmj or Ex^iJj?err,tiOfi in the T/r^.^'J 

12 ^ Ufrly, if wc- will take ihe word (J.^ft-) in a larger Vcnfe 
the Oefep/M^iis k Hf may be ilM to be fomairats the s^il^jeff thereof I 
as ofthe H^-// produced by the i?t^t/ of G/;^^^^^ Wormn>md. For of 
this -Hf-/r it is rcmarqunbks that being firft perceived on the 7>p uf ihe 
Ttfw^/^^, It thence maketh its //-,/;;/;; to the Root of the r^J?«:;/f, and fo 
into the ThroH, nnd by degrees clcfccnds into the very Guht \ whtrc 
itfeemeihto warm the 6^/^w^r^; and fo continms, in {ome dcjzrec 
almoft ; of an hoiin And the Tr^?7pjio?^ nnd D^Jcrf?t of this ufut is 
made, aUhoj2i,'h none of thc^ J.^ycc te rvvallowed. And in this mancr 
l^sh are diltmguiihed with refpeft to their Suhjea, 

13. ^. So tlut thee;cneral DJvapks of '^Jh arc thcfc With 
refpea: w their 5;>cdi:/, they are Smplkcs vd Co^pofttj 5 Jo their De- 
gree, Rcmilji vd hii^>ifi -^ To their Dm%iUo» ^ Bicves zH DhtUnm ■ 
TotheTr.^..ofthe.r.W.j^^^^^ Cckres vdT.rdi ; ami hilly, To their 

14. ^. J'^^^E't^'isendeavWd todrawiipa.?f^j:weor/^^^e/;/trt 
of thefevcralforrsofr^y?/. in whteh, fomemay think, that I ha^^ 
overdone: am! xh^K ?s Gafo^ ^^'th bfen cenfurcd for bcW too cum^ 
ons ui the Drf^i^chvtn of l^s^ffe^ :, fo have I been, in thcle of E.^/ 
Nor to enquire now, ho\v fjr the Diffmmcs of the Ptilfe may be ex- 
cend.d^orb;. fit tobet^ken notice of^ [ fhall only fay, Thatweh.we 
not lo much reafon to cenfure him, if he hath given us fomc few which 
are coincident^ as we have to thank him, for obfervingfo many which 
are really diftinil, 

15. jS. By the 5rfe>;e of r-;i?^ here reprefented, wc tnay be able 
fo to cnnmcr-ae the Modes of any T^ft, as to make a Sdmifich DefiU ' 
iw^ of ic. VVIiich IS pleafant Insimaion to any inquifuive mind - chefe 
things being all matter of fcnfe nnd demonftration ^ wherein lyeth 
though not always the moft phurib!c, yet the moft fatisfyinr/ PhiloCo- 

fhy, and where men, ^(ter they are grown weary with turnine round 
are oftentimes contented to reft. * 

16. k- But the ufefulncrsofthisAy^f,^ will further appear, in two 
refpecls;>an condufting us to a clecrer and more particular £A///f-7/;>« 
oU\k Cmji's of T^fis '. and the hvcfiigath^ of thG r.m/fx of thofe 
bodjcs m which they reiide. Whereof in the following Chapters 

C H A R 





The 'Diverfities 

Lea. VI. ^ 


[ ' 

\ . 

Of Mm?. 
Ch. 5. 


^/ the CAVSES of Tafts. 

O fpeakofiheG/^/^jofrtf/j, before w have 
well enumerated and diftinguifhed tlicm ^ is^ to 
provide FHrmtursioi: a Hsff^be fore the 2f^^/«pj 
hive been counted and meafured out. But the 
i'arkths of T4s havinji been ftrft hid down = 
' itwilhnduceus tobcheve, and inveftigatc as 
great a variety in ihefr Cayfes. 

2. ^. ^owthcCuifjhofTa/ij^ particular- 

, , , ^/ S^ '^^^ '^''P <*f P^""'''^^ whereof we chieflv 

lpeak, g.^neraVhefc Four or Fivt- , ^. The Bed out of which thev 

grow^ The ^^^m which they ftand^ The P<../j of which they confift- 
The feveral }' er/?ier:tathf2j under which their Jitytes pafs ; And the Or 
^iffs by which their T<'PI>le Paris arc perceiv'd: as will appear uron 

3. jS, But the immediate C^;//e/, befidcs the Or^^^;j ofr^& are 
ih^Pri^cipksoi Plants. As many ot which, as come under the notice 
oi b€^je, wehavedrcadyfuppoftdtobethefe Seven, Alkalim Acid 
Aer, Waiter, Ojfl, Sfint md EmL Th^ Fartkks both of A!ial;ne md 
Acid SJts, 2re a]] ^wguUr 2n6 po^f7ted. Thofe of Ar, properly and 
ftriQIy fo called,are Ehftick or Spri>sgy 5 and therefore alfo Crooked - as 
I have likewile formerly conjeftured. And I find theLearned BoreSi 
in a Book of his fince then puWiQied^to be of the fame Opinion, Thofe 
of all Fluid Bodies, cjiik Fluid, and therefore ofWater, Oyl and Spirit 
I conceive to be Globular, but hollow, and with holes in iheir Sides* 
Thole of fF-vrcr, to be brger G/^i^ej, with more /Wcj 5 thofeofOW to 
belcflcr, with fewer /K3/a 5 and thofe of %ry; the leaft. Laftly that 
the particles of Earth are alfo Round-^ yet angular ; and nearer to a 

4< jJ. Thefe Prifjcifks affcft the Orgam ofSenfe, according to the 
variety of their f/;^«m, and of their Mixture. So chofe which are 
fharpor poymcd^ and thofe which are f^ringy ^^ are fitted to pro- 
duce any ftronger T^^ : and thofe which are round, are apt, of their 
Q\wn Natitre, to produce a weaker oifofler one. And fo by the diver- 
fities of their Mi;ctirre^ not only with rcfpcdt to their Proportion 
but aKo tbQ vcty Mode of thc\r C&njiitjaion. Hence it is, that many 
B^^/f J which abound with ^4//, as ^wW with an AH andthe&«« 
of Land'Ammals with an Aiknline, have notwithfi.inding bnt a weak 
Tafit, the Salim F.:rts being in the former drowned in the Ojl^ and in 
the latter alfo buried in the Earih. 

5. ^. The fime is further confirmed by an ExpcrirAcnt mentioned 
in 3 former Dffimrj'e 3 fc. the Tranjhmtation of Oyl of Anife-Scedr^ 
with the help of Oy of Vitriol^ into a R^Jh/. For both thofe Liijiiors, 
though foftrongly rafted, apart^ yet the B-^f/; made of them, being 
weUwallK-d, hatha very mild T;/^:! and without any fmatch of that 





f\ ■ 



r lie IMC 


-::. %\it 

[[ill ^^' 


Lea VI. 

fl/ r^/r. 


in ekbcr of the Lrqitors. Whence it follows, tfiat the very Mode of 
Mi^iHvc is fiifficiciit, not only tor ihc vatiaiiun of the Degress in niiy 
one Specks oiT^'fi 5 but alfo for the dcftroying of one Spec7£5^ and the 
introducini; of mother. 

6, ^. THESEthini:;sbeing prcmifedJconceive^That asan y^/i^ftjiA^ 
T^ dependeth upon 0>'/ ^ fo a ^//f/V/ cither on 'f'<7/f^, or Earth: or 
Uport fuch an intimate Mixture of other Prhfnpks^ as renders them in- 
dilloluble by ihc Salwa^ and fo, in a manner, untaftabJe. 

7, §, That a Piwgent^ is made cither by an _4/^-v/}' or an Acid 
fharpned or whetted 5 that is, cleared from the foyl of other Prmci- 
fks •-, as in the Sfhit of 5^/ Arontomac or V}^ Sulphur. And lb in thole 
PUnis which have a Puf^gmt T^Ji'-, wliofe Jnyccs or Tinliurcs^ although 
theyconfift of d\vcrs Prif/c/pks^ yet all fo loofely mixcd^ that being 
djflblved by the 5-^//^^^, the ^^W are hereupon left naked. WherCp 
fore bithg PUatSj qua bUifig^ are Nitrous PLfHs. So that the J^tyce 
of fnch PLiiJts^ \s a kind of Spirit ofNiirc^ made by the Itveral P.4rt^ 
of the PUvt, Hence ArufPi ^rows bdt under an Hedg 5 where the 
Ground, not being expofed to the 5j/;/, but the Aer only, like thole 
Roosts in Ho^tfes^^\\\Q\i are covered, i^ impregnated with a gre*?ter quan- 
tity of Nhroys Salt. And thole RGots which are Bitiffg^ have but few 
or but fmall j^er-Ff/^f/j^ whereby fewer parts of the T/^/rt'jfriW j^^are 
carrycd off into the Tnwky For the iame Caufe^ it is no wonder* 
that many j4-;;////7f^/ are I?//?^^ j Water htm^^ though it felf cold, yet 
the Met/firmim by which all sdts are imbibed moft cafilyj and in laser 
(late oiCommJxtnn with other frit/cipks. 

8, jj, Pcmiram ("fomething llower ThanP/w;^f»;J ismadebyany 
Salt that is alfo foiled or guarded with EartL Svreer^ by an Acid only 
ibyled with Earth. Sait^ by an Add guarded by an Alk^aly^ and (byled 
with Earth, Cold^ by an Acid drowned in JVafer^ and foyled with 

9, ^. In all thefe, the Salts are predomiifdfH 5 Tn Heat the Oyl ot 
SiilpbiK The particles whereof being iV;j/jcm'^ and Wf^^ with ^^A'j^ 
thofe of 5^// f\ick in them, as the Spokes do in the Hub of a Wheels or 
as the ^ills in thei'^/w of a Ponupine. Whereby, as in Comnmj Fire 
the Sparks of Sulph/tr being agitattd and whirled about by the Aer^ 
with the help of the Salts^ which ftick in them, tear in pieces all kinds 
of Bodies: fo here, being agitated by the 6Vrr///-;^/fl^^ of the s/otJj^,they 
make a kind of hurry or combuftion 5 and fo, according to the degree 
and ftrength of their iVft?/^tf>/, tear in pieces fewer ormorcof t)ie f/- 
hers of ihs Tongfse ^ and in a greater quantity, would raife a Bfijivr 

upon it; the common ^^i'^otf/r^, or any f^voug Epi/pastick- So that 
a Ha Taft^ is produced by Sulphur toothed or aimed with Salts. 
Wherefore all StiSatitious Qyls are Elof-^ being ffrongly impregnated 
or armed with the Eff^niial Salts of the Vks.ts from whence they are 
diflilled. And as thole Pimts which are very Parcnchymom^ from the 
predominancy oftl^ir Volatile Ai id, .ire /■7/?j?^: So thofe which are 
Li^aoifs^ tlut is, have a good quantity of Lyr^iphedaSs^ from the do- 
miou of their Sulphur arc commonly Hot. For ihcfame reafon 
it is, that many both Biting and Hot PLmts^ as the Roots of Drago/;^ 
Garden- Ridiffj^ Onjotr^ Irk^ Rfipe-CrowfvGt, ^q. b^ing corked up in a 
bottle with mder^ and fet in a ClILu or other cool pljce ^ they do all 
of them turn^^ip^r in a few days; The fame Fermmt^tioii^ at once 











I I 



I ■ ' .' 


The IMverfnies 

Led. Vi. 

fuilying the Salts of the one, and difiirmmg the Snlpbitn of the other. 
But fome, wherein the .W/^/iwrr^wf pjrts are more copioiu^, will hardjv 
ever become ^tfiper. Hence alio, fome P/.^/^/x, whofeii^iffj are neither 
Hoi, nor of any (Irong Tijlc^ its thofe of irHd An^vjonc 5 yet ihcir 
Icjt'ej and fW*?rj are plainly C//^f^v4: So that it fl-cms, that a^ their 
Jnyces rife up into the Tru^k or^A are therein further fermented, 
tiie Siilpkartf/s Purtj thereof^ are at the fame time relaxed from the 
other PrmdfU^^ and aciiated with an Aerial sdt. 

\o. §, A StHp'ipch?!t Taji (as the Imprcjjjon which Tome Hot Plants 
make upon the Tofjgtie m^y be called ) isinfome fort, anitlogous to ihe 
monifyirigof any partof theBodyby the application of ^Cujtfikk, 
tor as there the monification fucceeds the burning pain^ lo here, the 
StitpifdSion^ neithercomes before, nor with the Heat^ but follows it. 

II, §. Smetjsefs is produced; fometimcs by an Alk^lj> 5 fmoothed 
either by ^SaJphitr^ as in Lime-Water-^ or by boih a Spirit and a Sul- 
fhur^ ^^mxh^StilUiiti'^m Oyls o^ Animals, But moft commonly, by 
a fmoothed Acid^^ asin Mult^ Sugar, Hoi/y. Hence a SweH Tafie^ is 
generally founded in a Sower \ So Sower Appks^ by mellowing, and 
hardi Pe^rs^ by baking become fweet ^ the spirit and Sulphur being 
hereby at once feparaicd from the other Prhidpks and brought to a 
nearer union with the Acid. So the Sower Le.i'Du of Wood-Sorrt-l, be- 
ing dry'd, become fwcet; and thofe of a fower CW/y>/, while they 
hang on the7>fe, and evcnof a Cm/--7>ce, are neither ^/M/^^f;;/, nor 
fowLT, but fenlibly fweet. And fo commonly, wherever the laid Prin- 
dpks arc a lirtlc exalted by a Ibfc Ycrf^ejfUiion ^ as in the "jfiyce of the 
StJI^^of At.iz-c or hidian Wheat^ which is a Iwcet as Sugar •-, and in the 
green Stidks of M Ibrts of Corw and Gr.{//, in Several degrees. So like- 
wife T;//;)'j and fbme other Koots^ being taken up, in open weather, 
fometinne before they y/ri^;//^ iftaftcd, are as fwect as L/^ft;>/j7j or Sw 
gart, and at no othertime : not only TrtiHs^ but many Koots^ Secds^ 
and other P^rts^ upon their firft or early GermifiaUov^ ccquiring a cyx- 
t\ous Me//otr;iefs^ wherein, all their Pr/«t7f/j^j arc refolved, and their 
moft SpiriUioffJ Parts exalted and fprcad over the Aud. Wherefore 
alio mott Poots^ which are not nitcrly long, but grow deep in the 
ground, have at leaft fome of their Jz/^rej of afweet T^fih as Liftirip^ 
Er^Ngo^ Hoimds-Tof7gite^ Garden^Parfaep, Blacky Hetibc-we^ Deadly ISJight- 
fiadc^ &e. Even the Jjtj/ce oiHorfe Pad/jh, which bleeds at ihe Lym- 
fh^du&j^ is of a fwcet Tafie. And of the flime kindred thoie which 
grow the deepeft, are the fweeteft ^ as a Parfnup is fwce^er ilian a Car- 
rooiy tfpecially if you taft the bleeding Sap ^ and the lioet of Comm07t 
!/d/'7>f/&j/tan:cihfomewhat likeL/^w/rr//', but is not near fo r\veet. 
Forail deep ivV^rj, sreR-d wKh a kis AWrii^j ^/;M/:ff'-" and being re- 
moter from the Aa\ their J/'/^tj paft under much more foft and inode- 
late hcrmcut.itwus. 

12, ^. B/z/i^we/j is produced by a Sulphur weli imprcgnatedjeithcr 
\/K\\:\n Alk^dwe^ox:\r\Ac7dSah^ but al/b lliacklcd with lltrth. And 
therefore ihe E/tkreJl pLwts^ commonly yield the greaieft quantity of 
Lixivial S.dL So alfo many St'iU^ititioa^ Oyls digt'Itcd with any [trong 
Add, will acquire a Bitter Tnjie. Wherefore this 7 ^y?.' is often founded 
cithtr in a iVtJ/ T-^ffe, ora5nY<-/, Hejice it is^ that uie ie-/^^/ of all 
fwcet Roots ^rcHtiter. And that the h'ig-Trcs^ which hears a frt'ect 
P'riiH^ blctdsa BilHr Mdk^ So likewife thofe PUfits, wiiich bear a 










noniy, bj 

'M Ik- 

;i-f of the 


g vntk. 
1, d \^ 

Lea. VI. 

-f r^///. 



BjUct Stalk,^ havener ^^ito, but /f^f fo^/j^ as in r-^rr^a-, PrJmrofc^ 
Wormwood^ Rtic^ Cdrduns bemdi&us ^c. is manifeft. So the Ct^^/j of 
the ^Wjoff/j/./ /-j/'^-fri^are ofa /'t'^ .ind /v/Z/^g T^^ but the .?W/ 
themfelves, in which the 6^^/;^, though copious^, yet arc alfo immerfed 
in a greater cjiicintity of Oy, are Brttcr. And that the Eurthy P^irtsAo 
airo contribute Ibmething more to this,thaii to mod of the foremcntion- 
edrrf/?j,isarguedfrom its bcinp more F/.-vt^^ that is,the B^j^;' in which 
it refidcE, is cither more Fixed, or ejfe flyeth not nway in chat fame 
ftflteof coiijunftion, by which it maketh a B/ter Tafie. For whereas 
HoU Bithig, iind divers other Plmts lofe the ftrcngth of ihtir T^ftc^ 
bydryingi moft of thofe which are ^Wf^, do hereby increafe it. And 
although the £x/r<J^ of Dai^delion and fome other Roots^ which aie 
v^ry Bitter, hathfcarceany ■/;y?5 yet generally, xh^y ZTt Bitter Plants^ 
which are bt-tt for the making of £:«/r-7^j. And the diftilled waters 
ofPlantj which are Hot and BJtter, noiwithftanding that they always 
tali high of the, yet rarely and very faintly of the fitter, 

13. js. Afirmgtvcy, is made, partly, by the further increafe and 
more intimate ^nion of the Eartk And therefore this is feared ftill ia 
a more Fixed Compofniott^ than a Bitter. And partly, by the diminu- 
tion ofthe Sulphur, And therefore the Acid Parts ifigredient to it, 
either by Fermemation or othcrwife, are cafily cxpofed. Afiri^gcmy 
being the Womh or Bud of a Son^er, For all or molt Afiring^nt Roots 
bearafowericd/^ orafowerfrwJ^ auhofc of all D^^r^j and 5iirrf/j, 
EUck-Thor/f, Di^-R^fi^ and others. Wherefore alfo, ^firingcficji i^ 
often toun-J in conjuftion with EUttr^ Sreut^ or Sotfcr -^ bu: fcarce 
ever with PangCiit^ or Hot. 

14. i. An AroP2.iticl^ Taft^ fcems to be produced, chiefly, by a 
JPiritHoHSf acid^ and volatile s if Ipbur j as in Ambar-gricfi^ Cardamon- 
Seedsj many StilUtitiaus Oyls ficc. A Naiifious^ by a Sjilplnr lefi Spiri- 
iuos and FoUik, and more Alk^hm 5 as in the Root o^ Dog-fioms^Sheep- 
fiabiou^^ the young and green Le-^z;cj of Ci^j'/i/Wfr, ov ihn Seeds oiCu- 
viinu The Spmt^ as it enters the iVcrtff,carrying the Alkdir.e Sulphur 
along with it j as when a City is betrayed by one of its Inhabitants to 
an Enemy. 

25, §. hx\Iniermitiemiajic, ^^\nJrnp}!, fecms tohnve its dcpen- 
dancenponafimpleand very pureW//rf, which by its fubiilty enters 
into the very Comaves of the riewous Fibers of the Tongm : and Co 
being lodged there, isHttlc afTefted or ttirred, by the Mstior^ of the 
Blood 5 but only when the Totjgae i: felf is moved, at which time ic 
caufeth a kind of pricking Tafle, 

16- jJ. A Tremnhm Taile, ?.$in Pyrethrum^ depcndeth probably, 
upon an Aercal Sulphur 5 which being ngitattd by the Blood in its Cir- 
atluUor?^ X\\e fprirrgy MotJu?! or Vihratiott o[ the Aereal Parts produce 
that Taflc. ^ 

17- f kTafi \^ lJ»gua!^ Gutturalize, according to the grofnefs 
or finenefs or other difference of the M^mbrdms into which the hifiMt 
parts are admitted. For TrfJ?/are made not meerly by tht: outwiird 
ConU^y but \htiIt?grejof i]n:taflabl£parts. Now tht' outer 5^'j^ of 
theTtTw^fff, wh'C^iscommonlvobferved to pill ofTin hoyling, like the 
CnticuU in other Purts^ hjth eichtr no £^ nrc,or much Icfs rhan that which 
lies under it 5 and is therefore, but a Seive or Strai/;er to the taffable 
farts. So that being of dtffLTcnt fiiienefs in the feveral rart? of tnc 




I , 

• * 

i ■ 


The ^iverjtties 

Lea. VI. 

Tof^gTTf^ 4 ]t hereby comts to paft, rhat according .is the Ufiahk parts of 
any P/-^^;t arc more or lefs penetrant, fubile, ordifloluble, they are 
admitted into one part of the Toftpte^ and not another. And in the 
Throaty the outer ^A"' it fclf, il^ems 10 be Uit immediate Wt-r?^ and 
fo, to be evidently affeftcd with the jHytcsoHomt: PUnts^ fram whicffc 
the Tongue rcceiveth httle or no fenfible Im}>rejji07i. 

18, ^. Whcnthe r-^/ isT^cra^j/^f^f and^Vj^-fi/in fomcone Pm ^ 
it isaJi^n, either that the G;y/?di/e P^m are kfs difiblubic ^ or more 
fiibtlc, fo asto enter the Ct'j/^-^^t^Jof the F/im^ and that tliereisan 
admiKiure ofan Arc-//6V;, orn like Siffphar-^ fomc of thtj parts where- 
of, beingcrooked, hang like Hooks ox\ the Bilnrso^xh^ Tongue, For 
the reception of fuch a T^i?, ib not to be looked upon as a wound 
made withaid/;^, and fo the L-?»ar taken away ; bat vriduhe L^>;- 
fe/ (ticking in the wound^ until in time, 'tis carrycd off by the Cir- 
atlaiimoi the Blood -J which like the Stream of a River in a Fhod 
canies al! before it, but thofe thing* lall:, which (lick in the M^/J, \ 

19. j(. Butwhea theTj/?, though ^^crtmm^i^ yet is T)ifftifive or 
-Tranfitive:, it Teems probable, that as there is a Ie(s admixture of^^r; 
fo a greater fubtlcty oUh^Tafiabk Parts, whereby they are conveyed 
through the Nervous Fibers^ from one Tart to another- ^ * 



■ 1 









f?/ the JiK^gme'm which may le made of the VIRTV ES 

of Plants, from their Tafts. 


;S by duly obtcrvinji; the Tnjis of PUnis, wc may be 
dirffted tounderttand their Canfis. So alfo the 
Vje and f^r/He/ of ihofe Plants or P^r// of Plants 
in which they refide. For the proof whereof; an 
Ifijiarjce might be fetched from every particular 
diffi.rencc oiTaU before fet down. But itmay be 
enough, to give thefe which follow. 

2. §- And firft, wcmay make no iilguefiex 
Am(opa^ or where we find the fame TaU^ that there the (ame VhtJiC 
inf^imc kind, and in fome degree, may re(ide. So Jrf/jf, Mercury^ 
and T)a^y^ have all of them that exafperating T-^y? in the r/^r*? j/ be- 
fore defer ibed 5 and they are all three more or lef^ Cath<irtul\. Where- 
fore, we may believe, that other Plants which make the like Jm- 
prcjjion on the Throut , and there are maay others which do, that 
(hey are in fome degree alike Cath-trtick Thole Plants which 
are reckoned amongft the chiefcft cqhalkl^s, cau(e rather a du- 
rable, ilian a vehement Hiat upon the Totigm^ as PyvLtbnmi^ Eu- 
fhorhtif?!^ Bliifk:HeUtbore^ Scc. It feenieth therefore rcafoitablc to 
rank with thefe, any other Pkni^ though not ufed. which produeech 
;lje like durable Beat. The young Rocts of Turrow^ or uiUefdhtm^ 


\ - 





Led. VL 

of Taj 


h:iVG xhn {jmcTallc^ as t)\^ Root o^^ Cmfrjycrv^t : and may therefore be 
uledfortheramcpiirpolc-, with a probability of the like fuccofa ^ if 
not a better, bccaufe they may be gotten freftier. But by drying the 
Root^ the T"///^ and Virtue^ which lie in its cxhalible parts, are much 
loft. The Seeds of the lellcr Oirdwiom^ and o{2,iido.iry Roof^ if fouj^ 
haveboch afmntch of the T!//?of C?wj'i/re. They may therefore a 
ibfar, reach the fame Cafe, 

3. ^. Againj as we may make no ill conjcctnre from the famencls of 
tdfic in PUnts of ftveral tribes'-, fb from the diverlky of T^ijh^m thofc 
of the fame> So the Florcers of all the Docks are evidently AJiniigetH^ 
^v\d x\oi Sower ■-, except thofe of the Rhj-poniidij which arecxtream 
foiver, even in the 5th degree. Which is no mean SigtmtHre of fome 
more than ordinary yhtue in it, bclides what it hath in common with 
the reft of the tribe. The Flon^crj of Paf;fji have a kind of fuKijme 
ttifi^ plainly different from that of ^Vij/tr/J.- and in fome Hy^ochoiidri- 
acal Cafes may be more nfcful. 

4. ^. It likewile impotteih much, to obfervc the difference o^Tafle 
in thefeveralP^r/jofthefameP/rf///. So the Barqiteoi Sapp-as is three 
times as ftrong, a& the Wood: and the like may be ob&rved in anv 
other commonly known T'rcj?. If therefore wc could obttin she /?./r^Wj 
o^Santahitft^ Ligm/m Rhodium, Lignum Ahes^^z. they would doubt- 
lefi, moftotihem, be of much greater ufi.-. And as the r<jy?e is (^ime- 
times ftronger 3 fo, much more grateful, in one Part than in another .- 
as in the Florvers or TeiIoT£> Attire in the Heads of Carditifs Bef7ed/^/fs ^ 
which being infuled in Spirit oi Wjue^ or other convenient Liquor^ 
make a plealant CiJrt/r<?/, Nature having laped up xh(^ Virtue m the 
Leavs, as in a brown Paper ^ but in the Flowers^ as in LcafGold. 

5. ^, Asalfo, howfar the 7^/eof any P/^j/i may alter, ciiher in 
preferving, or preparing it- So the iJ^ii/ of ^n/^^, when taken frefh' 
out of the ground, is notably Pungent : but being throughly dryed, 
and efpeeially kept for fome time, hath no more Tafle^ and therefore 
in all likelyhood, nomore i'^/rn/(?, than a Lnnjp o( Starch, The like 
xveare to judgeof all other Plants^ whole VirtuG lieth in their exhali- 
ble Parts. The stillititiotts Oyis of many Pl.wts^ are ftronger than the 
Lenhs or other Parts from whence they are drawn ; but (bme there 
are, which are weaker 5 ns \s that oi Enphoriiirfm^ in which the i7c:?r is 
reiiherpcriinaceous, as in the Gj/w ic fclf^ nor fo great- 

6- ^- We may make, moreover, a jugdment from the NatJtrc of 
ihcT-ifh So thofe i?tf(J'j which are ^7//fr, and not /J^f, as of Cii horj„ 
and the rcftof the /j/J)'/'fA^ kind, may he accountt:d Nitro-SJilphjreoffs ^ 
and To, to he Abjier^ve without any Heating ^.ilit): The Marm}i 
Aitjiriacum^ which is cxtream Puvgent, as well as Aromatick,^ maybe 
looked upon as the beft Ccphalick, of that Tr/be. Becaule we find, 
that Jalap hath a fpecinl property of imitating the Glanduktis Farts 
of the Mouthy and Throat •-, we may garhtr. That it is a bctteu 
Purge to all the other G/andnhus Paris, i\un moft other CMhnrtUks. 
Which is alfo one rcalbnofits operation, for the mofr part, xvith at 
Icait a tendency to vomit s the Stomach it felf being Glwdidotis as well 
as the Throat, and thtrL-by anfwerably affd^f-d with it, A ftrcng lifh- 
(ion ofTvhitcSarzapjrj//j in iViiii:r^ boiled up , and kept in a Ce/iar for 
the fpace of two months, bicomes cKtream fower^ far beyond any 
thing obferved in the Tafis of the Jnyces and Iffujlont of divers other 

U u 2 " P!.u,'tj 


; 'ii 

I , 


U I 


The 'jyiverfuies 

Lea. VI. 


■i;"( '■■■ 

IhwU Kept as long and in the fame manner. Which fliewshow well 
Nature haih adapted a PU>,t of fo mild a Tafe, either by fimilitudc of 
parts tor the cnrryinj. off of any /.re(cr»^(«^^//,v,/5 or by conrrarietv 
lor the ccrbiiij; of an exorbitant Salt. The [hrm,e of the ^fiw( of 
common iVor>»woocl,v,'h^ch imprcfreih a peninaceous and diffufive Tafle 
which ddjendethfrom[he3-^«?«Hniothe&Wcf, as is before defcri! 
bed i may be jultly r.inlfcd with the moft excellent Stomachich : and 
upontryal, I iiiid it oneof ihe belt: bcfides, that it is neiiher m'nJca 
ftnr, nor aff.dcth the, as the Lr.w. Yet the G.r^«;er and 
every body throws it away, as good for nothing, ' 

7. ^. 1 Iliall conclude with one note, which is this ■■, That the Sie- 
cifickyirmo^Medicma, which fome Phyjidam ^oWuw\y denv and 

moltdifpute? from fomeofthc forcmemioned Z)/Jf«wfwof 7;;/?o as 
well as for otljcr reafons, may fcem, at leart, 10 be probable. For 
whydiould not a Mcdid>!e make an /«^re/W upon one Part, and not 
upon another, within the BW;, as well as we find it doth within the 
MoHth.'^ cfpccially, finec the P^rfi of the M-z/f/j, are of a leS different 
JMatiirc, than lome ofthef^/'fcj-a. 

^n Jppendix, 

Of the ODOVRS of Plants. 

H E ^ Sevfi^ of Tufting and Smellmg being fo nearly 
ally'd j many things already explained concernine 
the Diverftiei and Caufet of Tafls in Pirns, rn.iy 
eafily be transferr'd to thofe of their Odaart. I 
fhall now therefore only remarque fome panicnlarF, 
not commonly taken notice of hitherto, and leave 
thctn as a Specimen to be Improved by other Hands. 
jS. 2. The Root of Rapc-Crervfool he'in^ cut, and held to the Nole 

o L^/ "^^^y f^''<^n o»it of tbeGm/W, fmelleih almoft like 

i>pmt oiSalArmomac, or frc(h Scnrvygrafs Juyce. And hathihepro- 
pcrty of making the Eyes to water, as Omom do. Horfe-Radijh Roof 
IE not fu f;w^Mi to the No/e,but gets pretty much imo the Fyet. But 

' that ofDy^igof/, doth neither affect the Eyes, nor the A'»/. 

3. ^. The Siwcuknt Root! of Dogflosei, and moft of that Tribe 
have a ranck i'wfZ'. And that of Crown Impt-ria/, being riib'd ;t little' 
Iraells MhkeaFox, as one Pff;c fraellcth like another. 

4- )<■ Thei^.'oj: off,(//eff«di(;e[led with Jr'd(«r,in a warm Rao;?/ 
for the fp:ice of three weeks, fmds like Spirit of Harts Horn, or other 
OriKfif^ Spmt. Of Red Dock , almort !il;c Aqua forth or Spirit of Ni- 
tre. That ot Dragon bottled up with ffVe?-, and ftt in a Cellar,ahour a 
Month, [links like thez-a/ of thcraofti^i-z/i; ZJ/«r. At the end of five 
Months, more abominably, than either to be endured or txprtlied. 
T-5v^- The Lmw of M«;»(,H« Cj/aw/ff/, fmell like Pen R.nJ, 
Thofe oiVlmaria, like Wuhmt PiUs. Of Tellow Lamium, like a A//- 

y^we. Of Sc/«, a good qiiantiiy being held to the hivfi, of a rank 





ire, tl 




'«. ja 


Lea. VI. 

-'- h 
. ■■in the 

to Dtaily 

)im. i 


^ But 

of taUs. 

Smll betwixt tlKit m<\ Vrhie. OrC'immdcr when green and 
young, ftink fo baftly, that they canliaidly be cndur'd. Sometimes 
th^Leavs have a flronger Smell, than the fW^r, as in Boro.e nnd 
lomeumestbe^A;//;, a Wronger than the Z^t./, asinlJ/mri,, 

6. § A//^ Lc.,vs corked up in a bottle and fct in a Cellar for about 
ten weeks, (mi:\]hktSpiritoiH,ms Hm-^, or of Ur.W The green 
Le^'ci of Ktf/w infiifL-d m water,hnvc a mild, but pleafant SmU Nti 
ther IS that of S.J'^/bc utiplcaliinr, upon the hkc hifiifon. 

7. ^. ^""■»^;?'-^/i>7re kept about I ofa year in bottles, with the 
Srccu ^cdemem, m a warm if si.«,ftinks like Humane Excremcvts And 
^nirvygrafiWine made only of the >^a-, fmells like fome IjJnes. 

a. %. lhc-/-foiw/of2:;;-wn', fmcll not much unlike to thofe of 
^oiilhertmoocl. And the Fhr^ers of Crowfoot almolt like thofe of Scir- 
mrnfi. Some Flowers are of a weaker Smell in the 5/.^, as thofe of 
M^lh„v. But many have a ftron^er, than when they arc blown open ; 
as tho/e of Lavender, Rofc,j,a,y, &c. . 

9. §. The B;,^/j of Fervai»c Mallow, while they are youre and 
ihci^Wunfcen have a very pleafant 5;«//, like that olGeram.m 
MofilMtvm .-but when afterwards they are opened they have an unplea- 
lant 6mcll. Common Mallow Flower, dryed and bottled up for fomc 
time, acquire, though not a ftrong, yet very noyfom Smell. 

10. sS. The Purple Po«ch of Dragon which covers the Seed, being 
broken, fmdls jult like a Lobfler. But permitted ro lie in a wari^ K^^l 
tor lome days fmells exaffly like Carrion-^ and fcents the Room with 
the Jame o-iac//. 

11. k. Some 5«</^ as thofe ofC«We, D.«,^^, being powdered 
and laped up only in Papers, do notwithftanding retein their Smell. 
But many others, as of Swm Venil, in a (hort time, lofe it. Some 
i>eeds when they firtt begin to fprout, h^comOdorons, which were 
not fo before ; as the Garden Bean. 








31 ivk 







1 I 



Lea. Vf. 

n ■ 

Tahulay qua. perfpku^ uidere e/?j qtiot Triflicati Safores^ 
ex folu7mnQdo decern Simplkibus mwierantur. 








am-ac-ar- am.faiar. am,ca,3r. am,, anipfa.nia.' am.fMna, am.arma* 
am.acpu. am.fa.^u. am.canpu., am^ma.pu. 


du.fa,fr,, du,fr,ar.,,ma-,,^, af daaraf 

du.fa.pLu du.ira.pu* du<fr.pu, du-ar.pu. du.marpu.dLr^af.pu. 




aci.fal.aro.]. an, 

aci/aLmal, acLcal-tna. ac1.fri.mal.acLar.n12I, 

aci.falaft. aci.calaCl. 

ac.fal.pu, pun. aci.frpun. ac,ma.pu. ac.aft.pu. 



falcal.aro- fal. frl arc 

falcal.niah fal.fri.maK 

faLcaLaft, (al.fri.aft- 

fahcal.pun. faLfri.pun. 

fal.aro.pun. faljna-pu. 

ft la ft. pun: 







FRIGIDUS frig.aro-aft. fn.mal. aft. 

fri.aro.pun. fri.mal.pun. fri.aft pun, 

Aor^^^A Tir-jiQ Aro.mal.aft. 
AROMATICUS ,,^,^,i,p^,,, ,,0. aft. pun. 








I .■ 



Led. VI. 


Tahla, qua Generkai omnes Saprnm differentiai 




v/ Amarus?" J 
DLilds f; 
Acid 11$ ? 
Salfu5 f 

'Simplicc?, Calidus ? 

qui flint ^j frigidus J 



iplius, dilUn- 
gnuntur per 

OBLAromad^;us? ■ 



ration e 

cmmfunc -! vd 

Unfcnii J 

Durationis 5 ^Breves 

funt S 


jEqudis J 
Ticmulu? J" 

r Pence "MS 
Onrush ^upihcitfos 


Compofiti, ^Nomina- jAtfis 

f 1 1 ::i /Lixivus iy i 
V Nitrofus 

ff ad V 

vCradus. Iia fRcttiiiTij 




Principio p Q 

I BbaTius. 
I Trinaritis 
"Piincipio J Mmurarius 

i Miiiuto-qiiartariuSj 5cu 
I ET-mi nut arms 

Bino-quarCariu?, flee. 

io < Sfani \^ Augmen- C Quarfarius, &(;, 

/Dcdinali- -/c I to ? Ri-mimif«iiic 







qui ad r Apkem 
. LingLiEe^Vcrticcm [ I>dina- 
cnadicem ^'tione 
Pal J tales, pcrdpiuntur 

Statu. 5Quartanus,5:e, 

V Mobiles 



r ' 

Qt^iartarius, &c. 


QninariLis ■- 

Senarms, 6;c. 
^ Vicaiarius. 






1 ■'Tl 

I ' r 








■ V 

■'.' ^ :i 



Lea. VII- 





U P O N T H E 

Solution of Salts 





Read before the Ro^al Society^ January^ 18. 1^75. 


In which is jheweJ, the Conqleat or Vt?mft Impregnation 
cf W A TER vcith feveral kinds o/Salt, both together^ 
and apart 

fN dilcouift upon a LeS/ft-e formerly read, concerning 
the Lrxivral Sahj o? J'idffts ^ It wasnienncned, as a 
thing alTertcd by fome Phyhfopkrs^ That Water 
havinf; been fully impregnated with one kind of 
Sult^ lb as to bear no more of that kind ^ it would 
yet bear, ordiliolve Ibme portion of another^ and 
io ofa third. And it referred to Mc by this 
Honourable Chairjto examine and produce the Experiment. The doing 
^vhereof brought into my mind divers other Exftriments hereunto re- 

2. if. As next, With what difference of quantity this siipcrim-' 

frtcgjf-iiion would be made, upon i\\G Solution of different 5.//// > 

3, ^, Thirdly^ Whether ihCiSi'/wfrpff of a fmaller cjuartity of ftvc- 
ral S^dts^ doth confiit with the n07i'increafe oi the bi^lk of the Water ? 
Bccaufeihisalfo iiaifirmLd bylome, 

4< #■ 


■30 of 












Led. VI. 'tu 


Salts in Water. 


4- ji. Fourthly^ What (]uainity of the fcveral kinds of Salt^ mny 
be difiblvcd fcvcrally, in the (■imc quantity ot ^r-j/i-j- > 
.,5- ji, Fifthly^ Whetherby diiJolving a5<//f in ^Wtr, thcrebcany 
5'^^fegaintd, or not > Tlint is, whether the 5'//* of the Water be 
greater, htfore the 5rf/M}ing in it be fully diiTolved, than ir is after- 
wards^ Or if aC/fi/c^ ^^^^ oiSalt be diflolvtd in nine Culkk Imhes 
oflP'atery Whether the If-r/fr will ihcnfilhi f^/c/ often Cuirc^hJ-ei 

€0T7t€nt / 

6- ^- Sixthly^ Whether the 5^*;^e be equally gnined, by an equal 
:realcofthc hmtSdlt^ 


7> §, Seventhly, Whether upon the Solution of (even 1 kinds of 
SjUs^ be gained fo many feveral quantifies of Sp'ure } That is, if the 
Solution otcorumou ^j// gains, fuppofe, an /Wj, whether the ,V^//fj;ij?/ of 
Suit Armoniaik. gains as much, or more, or lels ? and fo for other Suits. 

8. ^. Eighthly^ What that juft fpace may be, which any s4t gaineth 
with rofpcft to its own Bull^^ or that of the Water § 

9^ $. Andfirft, for the Saperii^pregnation of Water --^ \ put into 
a bottle 5'i oFftir JFd/er^ adding thereto, tirft halfan Ounce of AV- 
tre-y and afcerwarda more, asthc Jf-//fr woild dislblve it ^ and (thac 
I raighr be fure the Ir^pregmtion was full ) fome portion above what 
the Water would bear. Then having feparated this remaining portion ^ 
I put to this Solution of Nitre^ two Drachms of Sd Armoniac ^ which 
wholly and eaiily didblved in the faid Sohthti ^ though it would noc 
bjar a grain more of Nitre. I then added a third Drachm of Sal Ar- 
mifjiiac^ afrer thata fourth, andafifch; all which, wiihin the fpace 
of half an hour, were perfectly dillblved in the fiid SoltttioT?^ without 
any prccipi-^ation of the ISIitre. 

10. jS. In ihe making of this Experiment, two thinpjs, torcndtrit 
inbllaciouF, are to be noted, Thac the faid Suits were not diilblved 
by the help oi Fjre^ but only by a ftrong and continued 4(7^r.;//^fr. 
And that this was done upon a warm day : which I mention, bccaufe 
thut even the changes of the weather will foraewhat alter the Sohhi- 
liiy ofihe SuUs, 

11. jS. H.ivingmade the Experiment upon iwo^^/f/J proceeded to 
repeat it upon three. And iirft i diiiblved as much common S^ilt in 
%\] ofWutcr^ as that quantity would bean Then having ftparated 
the fitbfiding portion ^ 1 put to the Sohitiotj^ no IlS than five Drachms 
of Kjtre^ which bv 3 continued AgitdH'm^ was wholly diflolved ihert^- 
in, neither rhe AWc nor the common .?.^// being in the L.ift precipitated. 
Then :^.ddir.g a Scruple more, it would nor diltoive, but fubiided- This 
fccond liiilding portion, I again ieparated ^ and then put to this Sttper- 
impregnation^ ne^r 3) o{Sd Armomae^ which was alfodjii'olvtd as rhe 
former. And if as many mere 5-j/;j had been added^ tis probable that 
the flimc WuUy would have born fome quantity ofthcm all. 

12. i. From this Experiment, it is a Conclufion demonft:rated. 
That not only thevitib]eCr]/J?-i//, but the very Atomes of every Sait^ 
at lead thofc Partiiles ^\\\c\\ arc ultimately diffoIvLd in Wutcr^ have a 
different Fj^^j-e one from another. Bccaufe that ifihcy were all of 
one Figure s there would be :!o Superiufprrgf/ation^ but tlie Pures of 
XhinCimxi Water, would imbibi- as much cf one Salt, as anfwers to the 
to:al of two mon: Suits imbibed: that is to fay, it would as well 
imbibe t^vo Ounces of common 5j//, as out Ounce of common SJi aiuj 

5^ X another 

I _ 






Experiment in dijfohing Left. V i [. 



\i ' ^ 





another of Nitre : which yec is contrary to the Experiment. And it 
is the fame thing, whether we fuppofc rhe Pores o^ Water to be alio 
tHfFerenr, or not. Eccaufe, that if the Figure Qi2\\ the faid^/tr^tj be 
tlie famc^ then their refpea to the Tores of the Water muft be the 
Cime, how different fo ever thofe Pores be : which is alfo contrary to 
the Experiment, Befidcs it is a S!:re3t prefumption, to fay, that the 

Pores^ and therefore the -^;t?^^w of IF^fer have different f /We/' and 
yet tiot ihofc of iV/j, ' 

r^. §, From the fame Experiment we may go upon good ground in 
C(»!f pounded hipt^hns :y whether o^ Purgative^ or other Materials. As 
not doubting, but th:it the fime Mc^Jfriom may be highly impregnated 
with fevcral hgredients at once, whofe operative parts may be therein 
copiouflydifiblved, without hindring either an fijr/r-^^/t??/^ or caufing 
a PretifHatiofi one of an other- 

14. ^. The Second Zr\c\i\\Ty is, With what diffcrcnec ttus Superhti- 
fregf?ritwfiQ^if^.iter\sm^dG} which I find confiderable. For a SoU-^ 
tion of above five Drachms of N//r^ mny be fu^ttimpregnattd with no 
ItG quantity i^^ Sal Armomac. And aSohitioff of five Drachms of com- 
mon 5 j/^ m:ty be firperhf/pregfratcd mxh as much Niire. Yec neither 
a(trong6V/;//ifl//(nsof five Drachms) of common ^j/i,will bear above 
two Scruples oi Sal Armom.jc : norwill a Ib-ong Solniioftf^ms of five 
Drachms) of 5.// Arfmmm., bear above a Drachm of common Salt : for 
ifabove the faid quantities ofeiihcr of them be mixed together: they 
arc botii copioufly and forthwith precipitated to the bottome of the 

15 ^. Whence, notwithftanding the former Experiment, yet are 
wcadmonifhed, nottoinEufe all manner of /ffg*"<?*J/i:«;/ in any propor- 
tion. Becaule though fomedonor, yet others vvlH precipitate one 

16, ^. ThcThird Enquiry was this, Whether the Solittion of a 
fmaller quantity of (cveraliWijj doth confitt with the fJon-Ujcrcafe of 
the Bulk oUhx^ Water ^ For this I took a iJcMc-tt/ with a (lender Nccl^, 
conreinin^ about a pint and a quarter of Water--, and difiolved thertiti 
about 5)1^ of NJire. And marking the place to which the Water 
afcended in the iW^of the Eolihead: \ then diiTolved in the fame Wa- 
ter abouta Drachmof5,?/Gf^;wrf?,- which little quantity, rai(ed the 
Water above halfan Inch higher then it was before. The like I ob- 
served in the addition oilSiire to a Soluijorj of Sal Armonmc. So that 
to fnppofethc variation of the 5<i// doth prevent the increafe of the i?;;/^ 
^i^^Wuttr^ is a manifeft Error. 

17. ji, FromthelameExperiment it alfo appears. That the afcent 
ofthc W^/'tr upon a Supcrimpregmithn^ isthefamCj by whatlbever J^^f 
the fiift lf?/pregnaiion be made. For infVance, Let a Solution of l^Siirc 
flfeendin the A'a^ofrhe £e/Mfrti^, fuppofe, to 10 Inches ^ then add 
l^an Ouncemoreof7V//7'f, ib as to raife the PK?/er, fnppofe, iq Inches 
<jr more, or left, according to the Etrrij of the Nci\. In like manner, 
let a Solution tii'Sal Ammoniac reach to ten Inches : then add again half 
an Ounceof W//rf 5 andit will reach juft 12 inches, or more or lels, 
as before. 

iS. §. Tht Faurfh Enquiry if. What quantity of the ftvera! kinds 

of .v.///, m.iy be diOolved leverally in the li^me quantity ot IV-iler / 
that is tofty^ by agitation alonC; without the helj> of fire? as I nuted 

be lore. 


Ei^^f or 


f i^ o( ^ 

Led. VII. 

6';;// J- m Water. 







C H A P. 

before. And upon tryal ir nppean, Firfl:, that two Ounces of Water 
will tliilblvc three Ounces ot Loaf-Sif^ar and no iiiorCj except the 

It?. ^. Thefiimequaniiiy of If^/fcr chat is, two Ounccswill diP 
folve above two Ounces of Suit ofT^irtar. I Qy above, for how much 
niore^ wnnt of a greater quantity of Salt which I could confide in 
made me I could roc tlnilh the Experiment. 

20, tf. Thcfimequnnncy,/^'. two Ounces of ^.v/ffj diffclvcih an 
Ounce and a Dritchm of Gj'^c;^ f^iinoL 

1 1. ^. The like <]uatitity difiblveih fix Drachms and a Scruple or 
above | of an Ounce of common Salt, 

23. (f. O? Njtrc^ Five Drachms two Scruples and an half, 
§. Of Sal Armoniac^ 'five Drachms and two Scruples, 
p. Of Alufjr, not above two Drachms and a Scruple. 
^. hudof Boraxy not above a Drachm and half a Scruple. 
§. Ofthefenorc, That although Common Salt be very diffo- 
luble, and will prefemly catch themovfture of the y?f/-/ yet a much 
greater riuaniiiy not only of Salt of ^Tartar, but even of Loafsii^ar^ 

andofGm«F//TO/Kfclf, may be dilToIvedin flVcr than of Common 

27. ^. Again, as thegreat.S'fpW^%of fome, fo the lefs Sahbility 
ofothcr ^rf//jisal£boblcrvabIejas o{ Ahtm^ ^ud Borax. For the fjmti 
quantity of Water will diffolve near four times as much K>fGrcefi Vitriof, 
a? ic will of Ahm. And of ^w^^r more than ten times as much. Of 
Grem Vitriol near eight times as much as of Borax ^ and of 5;^^.7r, twen- 
ty limes as much. 

28. §. Fromthis Experiment we arc likcwifc cautioned, not only 
in the hfttfion of feveral hgrsdiajts together, but of any one fingly 5 
that fuch ^ proportion thereof to i\\z^ Mcvfirmnt^j^ be not exceeded 
Forall that is over and above wliat the Mcvjimum will bcar^is either not 
extrafted, or will be precipitated. An:, evident not only iiuhe D/j^- 
littiiifi of the SaltT above named, bur in the hipidoft of Phwts themfelves:- 
as, for inltance^ of Seiim-^ two Drachms whereof will impregnate 
four Ounces of H<i/fr as ftrongly,as if twice the quantity were infufed^ 
becaufethe Water will bear no more of the l^argativc Parts of that 

29. ^. There is only one Salt more remaineth to be fpoken of un- 
der this Experiment ^ and that is, ihQ Cryji ah of Tartar, Whereof 
it is lomewhatftrangecooblcrve, that it will fcarce at al! diffolve in 
Water: not more, than even ^wcn Kefmous Gttmt^ as MufiicI^^ Tobi, 
Tacchamahacc^^ and fome others will do. For if two Drachms, fup-' 
pofe ofrhcfe Cryfiah, of'Tartar (commonly foM fox CremcrTartari) 
be put to one Ounce of IVuier^ fcarce five Grains thereof will, b}*4, ■■ 
tatiorj^ be therein dilfolved. 



I' f 

L b i 



,xperiments in dijfolving 


Led. VIL 



\ . 


Tn which is fl)ewed^ that hy the Solution 0/ Saks /> Wa- 
ter, [ome certain [pace, more or /efsy is gained. That 
the fpace is differe?n accordivg to the Nature o/r/jeSalt. 
. And iphat the ju/i fpace is^ which is gained. 

H E Fifth Enquiry is. Whether by diflblving of 
a Salt in Water, there be any fpace gaint'd, or 
not. That is,whethcrtheB«/4 of the Water ha 
greater before the SJt lying in it be fully diflb!- 
vcd, than afterwards. For tryal whereof, I 
took ix Bolt ' head \v\t\idi flcndcr Nect^^^ holding 
fumcwhat more than a pint 5 and filling it up to 
a certain place in the Neck ^ I then put in an 
Ounce or twoof 5J/- And obfcrving the hight 
ofthcWater, both before it was diffolved, and afterwards ; It plainly 
appeared, that there was fome^ and that a confiderable fpace, gained 
by the Difolsition 5 the Water thereby finking feveral Inches below 
the place, where it ftood after the Salt was firft pm into it, 

2, 5, From this Experiment it is plain, that there are Vacuities la. 
Water. That is to fay, that all the parts of Wuler are not contiguous, 
but that either betwixt, or in the Atoms of the Water t hem felves^ there 
are certain Pijrf/, either abfolutely void, or at leaft filled up with ano- 
ther more fubtilc body which is eafily excluded by the particles of 
Salt : by poiTefliEg the room of which the above faid fpace is gained- 

5. (, The 5/x/i Enquiry is, Whether the Ipace be equally gained, 
by an equal encreafe of the fame 5^//. 

4. iJ, For this I made two tryals ^ the firft was this. Two half 
Ouncis of Salt Armoniac^htim^ fuccefiively di/lolved in the fame Water 5 
both ofthem raifcd up the Water in the Necko^^^^ Bolt- head ^ equally^ 
the firft g Inches ^, and fo the ftcond, 

5. §. J The other was this. Four half Ounces of iV//rr,being fuc- 
ceffively difl'olved in the fame Water^ they all of them raifcd up the 
Water in the AW4of the Bfl/^im4 equally 5 the firft a little above 
two Indies, and the 1^ , 3^^ and 4'*^, juftasmuch- 

6. §. The Sevet7th Enquiry is. Whether upon the Diffohitiim of 
fcvq^al kinds of 5d//j, be gained fo many ieveral quannties of fpace, 
For this I made irya! upon Eleven fcvcral Saiti., ic. Salt oiTurtar^ 
Cmmofi Sallys J Gcff/ffteu^^ Roman Vitriol^ Nitri:^White Vitriol^ Grccu 
I'rtrio!^ Aln?fr^ Borax^ LoafSiigar^ and Sal Armo^iac ; of all which, I 
ihiiblvcd an Lqiial quantity fc. two Ounces, in an equal quantity of 
Wat£t\ fcvtrally ^ that is, taking frefli Water for every SohiiioN. The 
fucccla was. That the Sal Armomac raifed the /K^/cr 13 Inches. The 
Lojf-Sitg^r^ 15 Incliej>and .;>l"^- The Eorax^ a Foot. The Almpi 11 
Inches, :ind J''^^- Qreeti l^itriol, 9 Inches and i^'''^- White Vitriol, 9 

Ir.chcs and i^"*- 

Nitre^ 8 Inches, and J'^J>- liomaJi l^ttrhl^ 7 Inches 







■ \ 

r ^ 


Led. VII. 

Salts in IVate 



and ;=^s- 

Sal Gc^/f»f^^ 6 Inches and J^^*- Cot^jmt^ Salt^ 5 Inches and 
P*- SaH of Tartar, not above 4 Inches and ^t»^- All which difK-rcn- 
cesnre plain, ^nd moft of them very remaTquable; TwoOuncoi ofsai 
Armof7ific raifing the Water nciir four times as high, as the fame quan- 
tity of 5^// of Tartar, 

7- S^- From this and the fourth Experiment, compared, italfoap- 
pears, That the fevcral fpaces gained by the kveral ^^/i/, though fome- 
rimes they do, yet do not always aufwer to the SohihUny of tht ^lid 
Salts, As to give lomc Jnftaoccs ; Lorf-Sifgar is the moft difloliible of 
any other Salt ^ yet it gaincth lefs Tpace than all the reft, five only 
Sal Armofiiac, So Grtfw r/jr^V/ is more diflbluble then either Niin; 
or CommonSalt'-, yet gaineth lefs fpace than either, efpecially than the 
latter. And sd Armoniac^ which is more diilblubJe than Ahim or Bo~ 
rax^ yet gained! Jefa fpacc than either of them. The Canfc whereof 
is not eafily affigned. 

8. %. Note a!fo, that by the fame Experiment, as well as by the 
Ttf/e and other Circumftances, it is plain, That .W Gf^/^<^ is nothing 
^\k\>^xt Common Salt ^ coagulated or CryjUlli^Jd \xi\A^tGrouiid, 

9- i. Again, as the Fihh Experiment Iheweth, That there are 
Vacmtus in IVater : fo doth this Laft, that thofe Vaantks, are of difFer- 
tng kinds. Becaufe, othcrwife, it fhould feem. That the iJ/^/^ of the 
Watery;oM\d increaie,moreor lels^accordingto ih^SeMUHk of every 
Salt^ and not be alternately differenced as it is 5 Some S.dfj^ more 
diflblublc, increafing thefe/^oftheffd/erlels, and others left diflb- 
luble, incrcafingit more. I fay, that this difference dependcth not 
only upon the different Figures of the Atomes of Salt f bccaufe then 
every -S-r/; which is more diflbluble, would (quantity for quantity! 
take up leG room in the IVater : which is contrary to the Experiment- 

10. s(i From the fame Experiment, howfoever paradoxical it may 
feem, yet is itallb manifeftj That although TK^rr be a -F/?;;"^, yet the 
Particks thereof are hard and conftftent^ and unalterable in their Figure. 
Otherwife it is plain. That all manner of SaUs would be diflblved ia 
the fame manner, and take up the fame room in t\\t Water, For let 
the Figures of the Salts be never fo variouSj yet if the Particks of 
Water were themfclves Fluid or If^coitjtflent and Alterable, they would 
always fo conforme to thofe i'V^//>-<Tj,as to fill up M Vacuities-^ and fo 
upon the Sobitio*? offtveral Satts^ if of equal quantity, the Ifater 
would Hill retctn an equal BuU^. As fuppofean Ounce of Irm were 
drawn into ^fr, another beaten into P/^/w, a third made into Ht'tf^j 

a fourth into Needles, a fifth into Nails j every one of thsfc five Oun- 
ces, being put feverally into IVater will encreafe its A//^ equally. I 

conclude therefore, That the Atomes of Watur are hard and unaker- 

11. si. The Eighth Enquiry was this. What that juft fpace 
might bc:, which any ^-^/r gaineth upon D/jJi?M;y«, with relpt«5t toita 
ownBft/4, orihe/W^ ofzhQ IValer^ For thL- m'tking of this Experi- 
ment, ffWr will not fcrve, nor y^i Spirit of lVi?7e t, becaufe thi^y both 
of rhemdiliolve more or Icfs of Lhofi: iW'/ which are put into them ^ 
whereby the obfi^rvation of the true Bidi, of the Salt, and confequmtiy 
of the juft fpace it gaincth by D/J]oliitw^ is lolf. 1 took therefore Oyl 
of Trtrpefjtif/e^ and pouring it iiKo a Boh^hsad^ marked the place of 
its afcenc in the Nccf{. Tkn pouring likewile into it two Ounces of 

^ Common 

O I 







' f 


302 , 



Experiments in dijjohing Led. VII. 

Common Sulf^ 1 marked ihc (ccond alcent of the Oj/li, and found it to 
be lo Inches and 6 eighths. Kt-pfating the Experiment hi like manner 
wjth two Ounces of iVi/>r, I found the afccnt oftheOy tobc il Inches 
and ^'''- aepL-atinjt it again with two Ounces of Afim, the afcent of 
ihc 0;/was i^ Inches and i'l^^- And making it once more with Sal 
Jr-momac, the O/alcendcd ro I 5 Inches : vhe faid fevtral afccnis of the 
Oy being the true fpaccs which ihe Four abovL-Cud Sahs t^kc. From 
which, the fpacc which the f^me SJir take up upon D/ffohrhrr^ be- 
ing deducted i the remainder is the fpace gained by that Di(j.>iHt7on, 
And loit^tppejrs, firft, that .S-//A^/tJwwgameth nothings being the 
only 5W; of all Ihave tryed/vvhich caufeth the equal afcent both of the 
W^tUr and the 0)1 fi\ juft 1 5 Inches in borh. Ahim caufLth ihc afcent 
of the Oylto I5i^1'^> of the Wahr^ to ir Inches and ^f^^ So that it 
piins abuut 1 Inch and \ out of 1^- Nitre caufeth the afcent of the 
Of/, to 1 1 Inches and S^'J ^ of the WaUr^ to 8 Inches and J^iis- So that 
Nitre hy Dijfditiwn gtts almoft the fc^aceof 5 Inches in it. Com^tou 
5.;//cui(ahtheaiccntofibe0>i, toiojnchcs and :;^hi . of the WaUr 
6 Inches and i^''-' Sothat Commo}:Sdtgd^\ns by D'fjjointhn 4 Inches in 
10, which is very confiderablc, 

i^.^ jS. By this way the Specific^ Gravity o£s\\ kinds ofS-;//j may 
be cafily niken, and the difference betwixt them is fomewhat furpri- 
zing. For ii appears by the Afcent of the 0//, that N/tn, quantity 
for quantity, is about a 22^'^ part lighter than Common SnU. AUim 
about a 6^^ part lighten And Salt Armotriac^ aimofta4^^^ part lighter 
than Common? Salt. The ]ikc tftimate may be made of the Gravity of 
all other Salts. - 

13. kf. By the Gme Experiment it alfoappears, Tharaccording to 
the Spccijiik. Gravity of Sahs they are many times at leaft more or 
k-fi VoLitJk J as in the four laft 5^/// is plain, ^ For Common Salt which 
of nil the four is the nioft fixed, is alfo the htavyeft. Nitre which is 
fomewhat left fixed is Ibmewhat lightLr, But J/;f^i which is ftill left 
fixed is nmchlighter. hrnXSal Armomac which is wholly Vohitik^ is 
the lightclt of all the salts above mentioned. 


,1 I 






"^h' Led. yil 

Saks in Water. 



T " fell V 

I , 







Wherein^ from the Experime?2ts hi the foregohig Chapter* 
isJheweJ^ the Caufc of the Motion of the Mercury in 

^S^SS^ ^R- ^^^ doing of this, it will firft be acknowledge, 
^ - \^_,'l^ That not only fevcral forts o£ Sitfpfj/ir^ but alfo of 

Volatile S^hs^ are continually fublinii^d from moft 
Bodies into the Jler. So Lightnings from the celeri- 
ty of the accenfion, appears to be made ofa Meti-or^ 
which is Nttro-Sfilphitrcons. iWm dependcth upon 
a Mixture of A^^/ifffj, and other Sdffs ^ as is evi- 
dent, from the regularly and ditferently Fignrd Parls^ which compofc 
the whole ^oiiy o{ ii Snmiy}' Cloudy before it clufters into Fi^a^, And 
one reafon, why R.irn is the beft W^ter for any Soyl^ is bccaule it is irn- 
pregnattd with divers Volatile and Frmtfid Suits, And fo from ochcf 

a, tf. And next, that thefe Salts^^xQ not always in the fame ^au* 
titjfy Proporthff^ i\nd State ^ in the Ar / but that fometimcs they are 
morecopious , at others, Icfi ; Ibmccimes, one morccopious, than aa 
other: fometimes, more plentifully diliulved ^ at others, more fparc- 
ingly : and that, either as they are more or iels pure and diffoluble 5 or 
accordirf* to the quantity of the /^/ft^riT/// Parts in thej^irr^ ia which 
they arc incorporated or dillolvcd. 

15. fj. Thus much being granted, from the ^;tj3er/CTfv// in the fore- 
going Chapter compared together, we may refolvc our Qvcs about 
fome Phteffo/pref^a m the B.tror/ictre. Which fcems to vary, not fo iniich 
with the meer Weight of the Aer^ which hitherto hatlj been fuppo- 
fed: as by the different prtHare it makes, in being rrtiWc-'/ more at 
onetime, than at another. That is, according as certain Nitroirs^ or 
other Sdljne Bodies^ ta!ie up kfs Splice in the Aer^ when diflblved in the 
Watery Parts therein, than while they are undillblved. 

4 $. And therefore it is efpccially to be obJl-rved, Tliai as the 
Mcnury commonly rifeth in the Cylinder for fbme da^*;, but always 
for (bmt time, before (he change of the Weather^ whether for Smw or 
Rain : So, that then it prcfently fallcth again, even before the Sj^oip 
or J?'"« fills- Whereas, i( th^ IVeight o£ the Aer^ were the only, or 
the chief Catije of the afcent of the Alercury -^ than as it rifeth all die 
while the iVc^ihcr is gathering, ib it would keep its Handing or heighth^ 
until ibe IVeathcr breaks and Jalleth down ; which yet ic never doth, 
but always falls before it ^ fometimcs no lels than a whole day. The 
Canfc whereof is, in that all the while the Mercury rifeth in the Cyli/i- 
dtr^ the Ar is rriiWciJ with more and more SaUm Parts, which by 






■ !l 



f I 


Experiments in diffohing Left-Vlf. 

J : 


thetrW/, or oclierwife, are carryed into it 5 and To caufah it to 
preft upon ihe Merairj in the Box .■ but after that in fome time the 
^aiu are diHolved or incorporated in the Aqmous Paris of the Acr as 
m fi^,« or Snor^^Jo foon as that is is fome svace gaind ; and 
fo, before any H-V^/W ftlleth, the Ar is lefs crowded, and preilbth 
Ids upon ihe Mcnm-y in the Bo^, which gives way to its defcent in 
the Cylinder. 

r h J/ ,'^'"T ''^""'^ ''"" '' '*' *^^' '''^ iWcmirjr rifeth higher with 
Uid n mdu than it doth with thofe which are Warmc. Bothbccaufe 
that ^^coU Winds there is the greatefV quantity of A',(«.- and that ihe 
Mi Wmds^ are ufually the dryeft. So that the Mfre warning 
MoyjU-rt fully to dillolve it ^ it takes up (o much the greater fpace, and 
io caulah a greater preflure in the Ar, as hath been laid. 

^'Jk I'^^h'' P'ot tlie fame reafon it comes to pafs, that the Mer- 
cury hrit rifah higher, and then falkth lower before Sr,o-^, than it doih 
before Raw Becaufc that for the produftion of 5-.^n., the Aer\^ 
crowded with a greater quantity of A'/(«, or fome other like Saltf'^ 
which betore they are diHoived, take up fo much ihc more fpace 
and afterwards fo much the lels, even before the Sr.o^ {AW. as hath 
Uecn proved. 

i ' 


^■»-l r . X ; 

F 1 N I S. 

L ; . j 



^ mn. 


4 ' 

' '«>it c 

. ¥ym 




■1 lit .llri 



N D 


Chief Matters, 

hi which. Id. fignifies Idea. An. Anotmy. TAe f/^wer? 
before ^. the Page. The Figiires folhwhig ^. the Semoti 
in that Page. 



ACid, commonly the predo- 
minant Principle in 
Flmts, 240-^h8. That 
is of the Fdre/jchyma. 

Acr» hovi> to he examined^ as rth- 

ti?fg to Vegetation^ ld.^.60. 
Aer» in PUnts^How made^, 

Whereitmert the Plants 127, 

Its Motion afjd CourU in Plants, 

Acreal5^//^ ld.^.6o. 
Aer-Vcffcls^ their StruUnre^ 115, 


Affinities of Plants^ U.S.^.ii. 
Age of Koots^ See Roots. 
Agitation , ^ Q«/3 *?/ Mixture, 

Akern, 186. 
Albumen, JccSeed, 

Alkaline Salt, in mauy PUnts In 
thm fiatural cfiatQ. 240.^.^, 
This the predominant Fritjaple of 
the true Wood of a Plant Id 

Anagallis, of ^hat TaSfe, 284, ^, 

AngtWica Roots, whe^dry, fnll of 
Rofm, ld.^.41, ^'■' ■' 

kmtomy of PUfits^ why fit to be 
made, Td.^.ij, 
Jmvhat manner, ^.jB. 
What to he ohfirved therchy^ f 

Oj ivhat afi, f 10. 

Aoimah, thgir Purti mixed with 
fi-ueral MenUrnums^ i\j, r^ a 5 3, 
Cantharides^ of ivhat nature, 249- 

Antimony, of what nafnrcy 245^ 

Apeiiurts of Seedsy An-2. ^, 5. & 

Apple defcrihed, hn. 40. §, 2, & 

/^pr.cock, Z48, 

Arfnarf, ^t^rfc;/, kowiisSesdejacH-^ 

^ y htcd. 


I r 


■f t 






The Index. 



hied, i^S.f 18, 
Arenulie itt Pcars^ An. 41-^.4. & 


Ike Fe/iilrfivhatSce^n, Id.^,28. 
At^ua-foxjis cltfMe^ ?mxed with 
Sjirit of {Vh.c, ivhat nmarqid- 
liethereupoTt^ '2^2.^.26. 
If ith Steel, :244 §.22- 
WithTin. 245. ^. 27, 

ATa fcmda, tr/ nij/ ^atitrty 25S. 
Qljery, 2. ■ 

Afccnt tf/' th TrHft^^ hew fff^de^ 
An. 32,^. 21, 

A M-fgf7eti{i{^ Motion^ 1^6] 
Akeot ^y t/:e ^d/-, A^ip mj^e, ' Ad. 

34. ^. 39, & 136.4' 15. 
Afparagus, .?/ what I'^jle^ 384* (j. 

Attire ofPU^-tsfie Flowcn 


BArbadoA^tf/, Id f 50. 
Barque <>/ /^e ^^^*, fee Root. 
, <J/ /Ae 7"rffw^, yee Trur?k, 
Bawmt, j7j Tin^itrc in iVater^ 274. 

Jn Spirit of Wwe^ 2y^.^, 14, 

Bei*ms 17/ the Sufi^ different from 

._ the Heat of ComrfJOfi Fire^ Id. 

T&vand'p^ cl, Aa J, r, 

Becch-W'ood, Aii,2o. 

Berry, T^e Fruiis. 

Btzoar, /// n.itstre^ '^5^-? 49' 

Etzoardicumnjineralc, 245.^,25. 

Bleeding of plants. Id. 4- 23, An. 

Bolus^ what, 242. 4. 2. 

Bonus Henricus, of what Tajle. 

284. ^.rc- 
Bones-, their different nature^ 249. 

^, i8- 

Branch, how mdiii\ An. 28,^.3. 

Its CUfpers^ An. Qjn^e Trunks. 
Bud fl/rf Branch^ how origifratedj 

mur/flKd, a>;d kept. An. '28. 

^. I. Wflip ^f/^f, 145. 4, 2» 

Bud fl/>/^,- iVJ, /t^ Setd, 
Butyric/ i'/d;!!:^ Id. J 51. 


CAInmus Aroniaticu?, of ivhut 

CaiHharidcs, their nature^ 249 

j^. 14.. 
Cafe ^//i^ seed.of feterjl manmrs. 

An. 45, 4, 2. Si 186. 

Carduus green Lcavj^ their fcent ' 
Id. 4, 28. -^ ' 

Caftor, ^150. ^»'s3. 

Celandine, little , «-^ere fjffef/, 
284^.10. , . ^ ' 

Cherry, 185, 

Circulation ^//i^^jp^An. 17,^-30, 
Ciafper.^, An, 27. 

Clematis peregrine, the Seed-Cafe 
ofwhatTafiy 28^. §, 3. 

Coats of the Seed, fie Seed 

Colocynthis. its nature, 240,^. 
15.&257. Qrjery 5. _ 
Where tufted, 284.^8, 

Colours ('f Plants, To what Parts 
of Plants they belong. Id. 26. 
Hqvo to he fibfirved, Id.4,27. 
Colours of Roots, An. 94. 6. 65. 
& 270.4, 5. 
Of hears, 271-1, ff^. 
Of Flowers^ ij\.^. i;, 
hj In! ufienjn 0)1,21-^. InWa- 
tir^2y^. In Spirit oj ]Vine,\\i\6, 
By their Mixttire with other bo- 
dies, 575. 

Bjf Cultivaticn, 277, 

Their Caufesfammed up, iy6. 

Comprttfion a Cuitfe of JL'ixture 5 

an:^ of Di/'ol/tt/o^, 7 2^.^.^.2 ^2. 
^.4,&237.4. 5,4. 

Contents of Plants, in what Me- 
thod to be cxanme^. Id. 4-21 
to 25. & 51 to 47^ .ofiphat 
^nd, 4. 21. 

Their Recept arks, §. 22. ^Soti' 
ons^ 4' ^5' ^antiticsj §. 24- 
Conji/kme, 4i2 5' 
i/^jn' wjf/e in Parts of 

a Plant, An.92.4- 57- 
What in the Seed, 208,4.15- 

Conirayervaj ^/ jt/m/ Tijh^ 283- 
4- 6. 

Convolution ^/fi*j Trur^d Mag- 








The liidcx. 





■J. i 

i.a [ 

, W. iS. 



■ ^ ' ' 

f -■- 


Copper, itsffJturc. 245.^.28. 

Copperas, 24^.^, 58. 

Coral, the M^igjjiery^ 344. ^,15. 

Corm Wji/f, 285, 

Cor^c.^[ Body^Jee Barque, 

Covers o//^e ^te^, /cc Seed. 

Cucumer, An. 181. 

Leavs of the wild, of irhat Td!h, 
28a fii. Sc 285. ^.(5, JfWe 
tailed^ 284.^.4^8. 



DAify Le^vcs^ where UjIcU^ 
284. j5. 10. 
Defceat /^/;fifi Root.hoxpm^dc, An. 

Dbtnc-tral K,;^/, y^£ Roors, 
Digester, /Ae nature of that inzen- 

ted hjf MonC PappiDj 257, 
DiffoJution of Bodies promoted by 

Cotfjprejpon. 237. 
DiifimiJar Leavs^ fie Leavs, 
Dragon Root^ 59,^. 15. 

Dung of Pigeons^ 2^\.^.'^y. 


EMrch, hoTP h he ex.-:^^;„'d, as ^ 
J rddt!fjg To regetution. Id ^ 

gromh of PU?7ts^ ir.f 8. 

Empak^nLnt, _/?e Floater. 

Erauirions?,>//;f/y//,cj ^r G/i/?cr/ 
Id. 39, 

EnuJa, i>/ W'-^f r^^', 285. ri, 

Effeniial i^^/f/ ofvlants, fie Salt-. 
Evergreen, 156.^.3, 
Euphorbium,, 2co. 

^' '-^4'-^. I9'&:358. Qiicry 

FAt^ 6i7jT7 f;,ade by Art or N.i* 

b'ermcntatian, 255,^ 55 

Ftbers ^//*c 1.^/, y^/Leav=^ / 
Of the S,cd, fee $g^± 

Figures, nfPU^fs^ld,^. II, 
Of Roots, An. 58. ^4, 
OfTrtmks, i^^^Of Leavs, 1^0, 

V- I- 

Of Steds, xg^, 
Ffg.s ;/Wr Su^ar. R§4t. 
Flax, Ttffuntre^ ^S^-Qiiery f. 
blower, its nmpakm^t. An. ::;? 

FolTatnre,//^ i7,«/^^, An. 56.^. 
5--'^i64.^. r. Prote&icns^A,^. 
f^ 5. 7- H^/r/, An- ^6. f. 8, 
^^1^8.^.8. GVW./^, An. 37 
Mo. 6cr^5, $,^, N^mkrof 
^eavs,i6^.^.li, P.;rlsrfthe 
J^e^^-s, 16(5.^.15. i(r^. An. 57, 

J^^g*(re, 167.^ 20. 

Atiire, Sejjiifjiform, Ao. ^7, ^, 

1 7- Sc i 70. UUh;tkti or Spcrmc 
of both, An.^S.f 15. 3^,^. 31, 

yfiofthe At^re, An. 59.^.22. 

Flower, whai firmed, 179, 
Colours of the Ihrviir, 2ji. 
^cxp by the Flomr tofiftd okt U 
^MfortaTlunthk^geth, 175, 

Fceru!*, /c SceJ, 

^^^'^<^-^ of ^-^J-^s, fte Ui^j?. 
Formation of i be Aoot, fie Root. 

Itfron^ J 8c. C^i:umer^ 18 1. 
i'^^'^, Ai7. 41, 1S.5, & 132, 
^«''?^e, 183. PUim^ An, 43, 
^.5. Sc 185. Aprecoih^^ 184, 
rf.^r/j, 184, cherry, 1S5. IT^/, 
i^«^ibid- Gr^f^, ibid. Gooje- 
b^rry, An.45,§,^,&c 185. /ftoe 
C.r.„ ,85, ;^>//,r/,, 
^-Sci8^. y?^vm, ,e^_ 
rhc Vfi of the fruit, An, 44. 

^* 10, 



' t 



b 1; I 


The Index. 



5^,10, Of its Parts to its felf, 
i8p- Totke Seed, 191, Sc 209, 
H'^etf the Fruitformed^ 192,^,9. 
Furr ^^ ^-are, 247.^.3. 


C^ All-Sconef, 252,^.47, 
JJ GentT^nonoftheSeed^and 
ether Payls, ft^theScGdj ando- 
ther Parts, 
Gentian Rotf^ ^here Ujied^ 284- 

Gcrmeu^fee Bud. 

Glyfters, fomttimcs beflmade of E^ 

mttlftorjs^ Id. ^, 59. 
Globulets, Jee Leavs-iff-^ Flowers, 
Gold, i*j fliT/ftre, 245.5^.5 1.' 
Goofcberryj 185, 
Grape, 185. 

Cizv^X^ Us nature^ 25i.§.40. 
Gums, of thrte kjnds^ 134.^.15. 


HAirs, fie Lcavs and Flowers. 
Hares Furr^ 247,^,3. 
Harts-HorDj 248.^.8. 
Hazel Nut^ fee Fruits, 
Hellebore Uack^, of what Tafie^ 
280.^.12. & 283,1^-3- Sec. where 
tafied-^ 284.^.4. 
HogUce, 249.§.ijs. 
Horfes Hotf/e, 247.JJ.5. 

JAIapj of what Taflc^ 283, ^. 6. 
284. ^. 10. 
laftrtions, rf7 the Root^ and other 
Parts, fee Root and other Parts, 
Iiii Root defiribed^ 60. §.14. 
It\\)\ slate, its rjatnre^ 243, j<. 4. 
Iron, fie Steel. 

LApis Calaminari?, its nature^ 
L,ii>is Lazuli, 243.5(.7, 

Lapis Tmhiie, 243,54,9, 

Lead, itsnatHrtyj2^i^.^.T6, 

Lead Spar^ 244.)^. 12, 

Leavs, /te (»o firfi jvkich com of 
every Seed^ -what^ An, 8. 3^,42^ 
Sec. Their Ufi^ h.n,io.f.^6, 
Leavs ^ *ie/r Prote&ions^ An: 
32.§.i7-Si I45-JS.2, FoHids,hu. 
3r.ji.r4.Sc I47.§.9_ Shapesm^d 
MeafuTf^s, An.30.^, 17, & 150, 
jS.T- Ciobhkti^ An, 34, §,7, £c 
148. ji,i, H^rj, An. 34. ^,4, 

Thorns^ l^Q.f. 6. 
Their Compounding Parts^ An. 
29.^.7. Skiff, 153. ^a. i*^ 
renchynsa or Fjtlp, 153, ^,5^ 
F^^er/ or VeJfelsXhcir Position In 
the Body of the Leaf^ 152. ^, 19, 
IntheStalk^^ 154-^1.9. r/jc i^- 
nous Veffels. 155, §, i5. The 
Aer-Veffels^ i55-J^-r9. Tfx^Kre 
^/^ Palm Leaf or Bag, r56.1S.20. 
Dnrati$nofthe Leaf 156-JS.2, 
Tmt^ flWiJ manner of its Centra^ 
tiony 156.^,4, & 174, 

Colour of the Leaf, 270. 
>/i7m i)' this to find out to what 
fort a Plant belofTgeth^ 174.5,1; 
Lignous Body, fie TiMnkand other 

Liliutn convaile, its nature^ Id, ^, 

Limor, defiribed^ 180, 

Lithofperm the Secd^ its nature^ 

Lixivial SaUs^ fie Salts. 

Lobes of the Seed^ fee Seed, 

Lytnpha out of which the Seed is 

fr^ nourjfljed^ fee Seed, 

Ly mphedufts their StrnSure^ in. 



OfPear/s, 252.^.4^, 
Mallow, its nature^ 257, Query 5, 
Marine Salt of Plants, fie Salt:s, 
M^A'idi^its nature^ 258, Q^iery. 2- 

Mcafurcst?//-f4^'j', 150. §.i. 
^^Qhs^mcWiifa ofl^initcr, i?/. 



j.^ 'I! J 




• ^ J 






^ { 

The Index. 




Membranes of the Seed, /ee Seed. 
Mcnftnium !■;/' the Stomachy 253, 

O'l ^44' ^ 16. 5/ef/, 244. ^ 3o. 
Afjtjworjyy 245.^25, 77^,245. 
^ 26. Co/'/fr. 245, ^ 28. Sdvcr^ 
245,^ 29. c^/^, 345- Hi- 
U\\kst>fi'Unts, U.^2ifiL26. 

^, 60. Sc ig^.^ 12. 
Milk^VefTels, ihctrStrnlfurc, ri2. 

Millipedes, 249. ji 15. 
Minerals -i/j/ZJ^r//, hon^ e.ifily tiy- 
ed, 247. § 48. 

Mixture ^ /^e receiijed Do3rh/e 
hereof^ 222. 

Its n^inre exfJained^ 225. CV/h- 
fes^ 229, Poivcrafjd Ufe,2:ii, 

Mixture ,?/ the Parts of FLints 

roilh fiver al J^efjfiriiHms^ 239, 

&c. 0/' .M^fffr-i/y, 247, &c. 

Of Amrnali^ 247, Sec. 
Motions, Oy ?/,*«//, Id. ^ i5. 

of Hffots^ and other PartSj fee 

Rooc.^, and other Parts. 

of iheSap^ fee Sjp. 

Of the Aer^fce Acr. 
Muciduits, An. 66. jj 18, 
MacilageSj Id. ^ 21. & An. 21c- 

§ 4' 

Musk, its nature^ 250.^.29. 



Aiurc of Bodfss^ hoiv difcove- 

Navel-i^i/er/, yei? Seed, 

Nighiaiade deadly^ of tphat Tafl^ 
284, ^ 9, 

Nitre, ^f ivhat Tal, 280. ji 6. 
Isjoli mecanj^ere, ^tjn»;/ie Seed eja- 
cukted^ 188. ^ 18, 

Number ofLeavs in Florvers. j6%, 

if 11. 

Number ofSeeds^ 198. 
Nut Edrbado^ Id. ^ 30, 8c 205. § 

17. i/./5tW//f, 45.^8. & 186. 


OAK-WooJ, defcribed, Ao, 
20, &2t. 
Odors ofVlanif, hort> to be ohfcrved 
Id, iS 28, ^ 

Some iffjlances hoto made^ An.44 * 
^46, lm':t.ited^ 235. 

Olibanum, its nature^ 258.. Qiie- 
ry, 2. 

Oyls fiillatitious^ here mirtghd with 

W^ter &c. 2:^2. § 7, ^237. 
Oy\y Sj£^ borPMade^ 132. ^6. 

JjArenchyma orCorticJ^Tithy, 
and Ptdpy parts of a Piant, 
thtir predot7^ina>it Principle^ Id, 
§ 48. Vefiribcd in the Root and i- 
tber (hirts^ fee Root, Sv'c. 
tioti^ formed , fie Roots ^wJ 
Lea vs. 

Peach, /■(; Fruits, 
Pear J y^i? Fruits 

Pearls, thar magihn, 252.5 43, 
Phiiofophy, icptrs and ends mth 

Theology. 79. ^ r. 
Pimpintj, Tvhere taffed, 284.^.10. 
Pith, its Jir^^^/tre, 7^, «.7-&i2o 

Plants, *A^/r N^titral Hijiory horn 
far cultivated, Id.^. ^. wherein 
defe&ive^ J 2, Fittobefnrtkr 
ipsl^roved^ ^3. Si 5! 63. fJAj^ 
to /-c cn^ifired of ^ 6. The ufi- 
fulnefs hereof ^, 8» 
Plants, ihcir liature afidl'irtns 
how judged of^ fee Virtues, 
Plants, their places of Gromh, 
Id. 15. 

Propotions^ ^ 13. 
Plants, their Parts only Txvo Ef- 
fentially dtjlinH^ 47. ^ 14. 
Plants 5 the general firu&ure of 
iheirFarts, 120. 5ll,6cc. 
Plants, ihcrr Pimipkt hifiv to le 
obfervcdj Id. ^,48. 
For rekit piirjofe^ $ 5^. What 

Z z preda' 


1- ' I 


I' 'r^ 









The Index. 

fudomifiatjt therein^ 240. ^ 8. R.ofin, hoiv rjiadeh) Art^'i^^^ ^ A^^ 

Plant?, how to find cut to what Rofin in dryed Roots of Afjgdica^ 
iifnd arrj one lefotjg'^ 17*4. Id, $41, 

Plum, /^c Fruits. Common Rofin, Hs ttatun^ 258^ 

Principles of Bodys^ 225. ^hich 
frcdorr^inant in the true wood of 
a PJant. Id. ^ 53, 

Principles of Prtndpks. Id, jS 6^l 

Protection!, of the Leaf and ¥ tow- 
er. Sec Leaf and Flower. 

Pyrethrum ifc Rpf>/, ofjphatTaJl^ 
281, ^"-c^ 284, $7, 

Query 2, 


RAdicle, /c Seed, 
Railins, theirSugar^ Id. ^ 41, 
Rings annual in the Trunf^^ An. 19, 

IS 6. 
Roots, their Original^ 57. ^ T. 
shapes or figures, ^Sizes 58. § 

4, O'- 85. J 41, ATrt/flff/, An-15. 
JS24. &c. 34>§3- 59. ^c?,Scc. 
90. ^48&c. ^^c/j 60, ^j6. & 

Part?, the Barque, its sl{in^ An. 

II, § 2. &; Aa 61. 
Parenchyma defirihed^ An. 11,^ 

5. & 63, fj 2. Howformd^By. jj 
34, Its T>iametral rays^ 64, ^ 
7, i^^//, 65, 6(5, 67. 

The Wood, Herein the Jnfertions, 
An* 12*^ 10 S; 17, ^ 28, & 70, 
p2, l-jgnom Fibers or* 
j^45 3, 9* Acr t'ejjds^ An* 1 2, 
i, 7. & 71. ^ 5, 6, 10, &c, 

r/jePith,An. n, ^r/5. & An. 16. 
«i7; '^An, 75, 76, ?7. 

Koox^ how it grous^ An,a4,§23* 

'IhL'Sap, hove imbibed and dijiri- 
butedto its fever at Part s^ 82, jS 
15&C, How circiilatedyAti^ij, 

How all the parts are firm' d^ 8 <^, 

^ a5, e^f, And differently dif- 

pofed^%%^ ^ -6,&c. JheCo- 

loursofRoott, 170* Jf 5, How 
?i!tde, 94. ^ ^5, 


SAU flcred/. Id* § 6o* 
Salt Alkaline,jff many Plants 
in their natural eflate, 240* ^ 9* 
Salt ammoniac^ 346, § 44, 
Ssilt^eJ/ential of Plants^ How tnade^ 
262,^ 3, d-r* & 265, (i 3. Sec, 
0/_/c^er^/Jorrj,Id,^ ^%Jn':an- 
ced alfo in thoje of Kofcmary , 
Blacky Thorn , Scurvey-Grafs , 
WVOTtt^fltft/, ^/j, 865, ^ 6 dv, 
TaJiaUe in good Rhftbarby Id* 

S^h fixed^ ofwhattiJeinPugittio!!^ 

Sah Lixivhlfl/PIants, how imita* 
1^(^,235,^6, of different nn- 
ture^ 264* ^ 2, 

Salt of Afi, of what nature^ 167, j^ 
22. O/r^rfrfr. lb. Tkldcdin 
differint quant jtys by the Barque 
of Afi\ liofimary^ BlackcThorn^ 
Agrimony-, 256, Query i. Gar- 
den and Sea Scurvy-gyafs^ 256. 
Query 2, Mint dUtiWdy and 
7Jot^ 256, Query 5, Majorane, 
Oal^Bar/jtte, Liquorip^ Anificds^ 
Sorril , CArden Scuritcygraft , 
Alintj Sea Scurveygrafs^ 156. 
Query 4* Majorave^ Agrintotry^ 
^iu^wort^ Mint, ^Jallow, Rbu' 
bart-j Sena^ Jal-ip^ Colocynthis^ 
257jQyery 5, flax^ 258, Qu, 
'I. Gum Arabicli^^ Enphorbiuf/iy 
MyrrbjOpiunf^ Aloe^ Scamnmty^ 
Giittagamba^ 258. Qiiery 2. 
Salt MarinCj its nature^ 24^, § 4?, 
Salt Marine tf/p/d«?/, how made by 
Nature or Art, 254. ^ 8» 265 5 
13, Sec, 266. ^ 16. 
Jorts^ inflanced in thofe of litfe- 

Root of Wormwood^ where tajicd^ ' \Vorm}voody266.^iy ^c 

285/^ 12. 

SoXiofthi: ^ead Scj, 26^, ^ 14. 



. *■ 


til. +5, 

.«. i 

•c, '■, ■ 






h I 

The Index 


i- 1 ?. i<c, 

■ ¥«;, 
M, Id, 

Sapsfl/PlaniF, /jiJrt' to be obfcru^d^ 
Id. ^7\.to26. and 31 fo 47. 
Thciffiverd! k^nds^ ^. 2 1 » J^c- 
cppijc/ct, ^ 22, Miitiofis, ^ 2^^ 


S^p, Aflw imbibed^ and dijiributed 
i/t the fevtral farts vf the Root. 
An, 82, ^15 &c. its CircjtU- 
iian therein. An, 17, § 29, where^ 
and how it afceitds m the Ivnnk^^ 
An. 24, ^ 29, £i An, 124. 

Sap und other cofttetrts (jf t/:e federal 
Parts hoTi> rp/nde^ An. 92, ^ 57 

An,67.5 i9,5^95.^6o*&i55, 

$ 12 &C* HorPtiHirry^t^^ ^62. 
&c 153* ji 56;c, Hen' Qne%xry 
Oyly^ 135,^ 6 &C. 
ScuTvtygrafs G^rdtu^ofn'hdt T^ajl^ 

283, § 6. 
ScurvL'y-grafiiSca,;;^ N^htrcy 256, 

Query 4, 

Seafonso/Piants, Id, ^ 14, 

Secundine fee Seed, 

Seeds i rSejr Cafe or Uter/^y An, 
45" ^ '^* offcveralf^avtter/^ 186, 
F^^^m, An, 45, ^ 3, &c, 195, 
litimbr, \cj%^Moi7ot7s^ 188. ji 
18 Sc 199 ji 3j ^c,^(pw<^/, 201. 
§2,6^ 209- MuciUges^ aoij 
J, 4, Coats or Me^brarjes, An, 2. 

H- 45* § 5.^<^-4^ ^ io. 47. 
ii 15 & 20 1 » ^ '5. 2 [ o &c ^;>cr- 

^w^eJ5 An 2, 4 5, 6c 2co ji I, 
Viii^ilum, 20. 2.^ 9. T^e J'a-f ft-^, t^r 
tritcSEsd^ its Kadi cle and Lobes, 
An, 2 & 9. § 9 ''^ 1 2, Sc 203. 
Phw.e orBnd^tXn. 5,^ 13 & 20f5. 
5^f«, An. 4.* 16, &C207, ^ 9, 
j-^rcwcA^wd, An^4. ^ 18, & 207. 
li 10. Scmind Root sr Feffels, 
An 5. jS2i,&c. & 207. J ri, 
Sec Nji^/o FJ^er, An, 48. ^ 17, 
£i2T2. CofJteftt.2o3.^ 15. T/j^ 
marrmr efils Vegetation^ At}.6, ^ 
:-Q^^c.Ofits Ceneratiofiy An48. 
^iS &c. 8; 209 Sec, 
Sluipefl/ Roots, a?!d other ?2ns. 
fee KooiS and other parts, 

Shf^Ws, their l^atHre, 248. § 9, 10, 

Skin. fie Seed ^W oj/jff P^r*/, 
Silver, its Httttrc, 245 J 29, 
Smell ofgrem Cardura^ Id, ^ ^iSh^jT 

i/t'Pi?^7/^/.^r;/JK, lb, 
SoyL ^e EartJk " 

Spcrmt of Vhtits, fee Flower. 

SpTrit of Salt^ 247.^46, 

Spirit of Salt Armomac^ 247*^ 


S[<mi of PeaS'Cods^\6^§ go* 

Spirits urinous, hosv made iefi off- 
enffve^ Id, ^45. 

Spirrt of ivifjc mixed ivHh Af^ttii 
fortify what thermpofi rcmark^t- 
hle^ 24^.^2(5, 

Stalks, fee Trunks and Branch- 

Steel, itsn.^tiirc^ 244. sS2o, JV//XcJ 
rvith donble Aqna fortis^ what 
thereupon rtmark^ble, 244, ^. 

Stillatiiions Oyls, horp nnxedmih 
tvater'^ 252, ^ 7. & 237. 

Siomadiickmcnftruura,2 53. ^53. 

Stones 3 arrange one Ired in the 
Uomach^ 252. ^ 48, Otherspro- 
bably bred there^ 253.^51. of 
the Kidneys or Bladder, of what 
nature^ 251*^32, How pt- even- 
ted, 2<^l. ^ ^l. t> 252. 542. 
G;ill Stone,?rj nature^ ^ 5 3 -5 47. 
Bezoar, its nature, 2 '^7. ^ ^^, 
Lead-Spar, 244- ^ 12, 
Lapia Calaminaris, 243. j5 9, 
Tutliiar, ibid. 
Lazuli, 244 *S 13, 

Snu.'-rnrc oj a Phnt. 120. ^ IX^ 

Sugjr^/ Raiftns and Figi^ Id. $ 

Sulphur pre/^ofninant in the true 

tPoodof'a Plant, id. ^ 52- 
3nn, its influence on Plants hew to 

be examined, \d.^6i. 






t. "a 

The Index, 


ri ' 

€ ' 1 






TARs ofPlants; howtobecb- 
firied^ Id, ^ Q9, Simfh^ 
280, 4 6. Cof^poundcd^ q8i. 
7/jf;r Df^w , 28:. Motions or 
ferff^Sy 285. Seat^ 284. C^a- 
>, An. 95, ^ 68 &^. 6^ 286 

Tafl of Antm Rof)f^ a8r, jj 

ntfs Hefirkus^i%^,§ lo. C^/^- 
ifius AromaXum^ 283, ^ 6, Ce- 
ia^dine little, 284.^ in. c/e- 
w<j/ftf peregri/ra the Seed-Cafe^ 
283. ^ g. Cohcynthii^ 284, * 8 
Conirajferva, 285. ^ 6. C»ttf- 
^CT- ir/Wj /^^ Ic^w, 384.^ 4j8, 
Da/J}Le4vi^ 284. ^ 10, £fffl/d, 
285.^ 3,4, EHyhormikm,'l%^, 
§6. CerttJan RiJot^tSi^. ^ 5^ 8, 
Hellebore bUcl^^ the Hoot, 280. 
^ 12, 28^. ^ 5- 284. ^ 4. 
5j/<^/j, 285- ^ 6. 284. ^ iOp 
Nigljtfiude deddl)^^^^, ^ ^.Nilre 
280, J 6* I'impiml , 284, ^, 
lOt Pirethrnffi the Root, 281, 
#i Sc 284, ^ 7, Tamarisk: 
Leavsy Id, ^ 29, fTt^rwiri^iJii' 
Jitfii*, 285. if. 12, Tarrow. 
283, ^ ^. 
Texture ^/^ P/j^;/, 120.^ 11 

Thorns, their I^ij^ds, Ad, 33, ^ 1, 
Timber^ ^^e Trunk* 
Tin, its n^itttre^ ^45*^ ^6* 

T in mixed n>ithjirong Aqrta for- 
tisy thereupon obfirvdhle, 
245. * 27. 

Tindurc^/B^n'^tf^ 7ff rfdfer, 274, 
^11. In spirit of i^ine^ 275, 

^* 14* 

Tiniture of Corals, a cheats Id, 

Trunks, and Branches Jevsral de- 
/' rr bed as thcj appear t > the uul^d 
£>T, fc, tf/ ;/^^;-Vff IVhcat, Dan- 
delyotj^ liorage, Colewort^ Holy- 
oak^, nddCnatmer^ Siorzoncra^ 

Bfiydocky Endive, Vine, Sumach 

Trunk, sk'n. An. i^. h 2. & 
107, t 2 to 5. 
the Barque, An. 19,^3, 
Us Furenchyma, 108.^,7. 
^#//, ro8, ^8, top, 113. 
The Lyn^phsdtias their Strn&ure 

MilkcVeffeli^their Struaurc, 112, 

5 3 5. ^c. 

Different Surface of the Barque 

horv made^ 129. ^ 4^ 

HoTP united to the Wood, 129, 

9- ^1 3» ^"'n' fi/j- always k^tps 

nro^rf^ not the Vith, An, 20. J 

ThslYood, An, i^, ^-^0 11.& 
I An. 20 & 2 1. 

/// -^^w«^/ if/tfgx, Aa 19. i)6. 
Infertjovs^ An, 19.$, 5. 12. to 
15- 17- & 128,$ 8.&C. 

How dilated, hn. 22, 1*22,23- 
Andwhy, ^ 24, &c. 
Aer-Ve£eb^ Ad, 2a*8, 9,& 
115.^ 16, &c, 

//ow /f/j /// li^ TrflH^ , than m 
the Root., and Tfhino formed Ute 
in the year Sec, 130, ^ 10. & 
131.4 16, 

The Pithy An, 19. f 5, 18, 19, 
20. & 119. 10 122 & 129.5(5. 

Trunk/, their different StruSure 
rehence^ 129. 

Shapes, Tphence, 135, 

Motions, whence. An. 22. ^ 21, 

Trunks, hotv fitted for Micha* 
friciiufe, 137- 

Trunks, ^/ /Adr Bleedings Id. 
4 23. & 124, ^ 3,&c, 
Trunk-Roots, An, 27,28. 
Turnep, defcribed^ An. 13. 





rii ri 










'^ k ID, 

^- P C' 

The Index, 


VAlvcs, «^ iP^^^f j„ PUnii, 
An, p, 2l.j(,i^, 
Vegetables,_/L<f Plants. 
VcgeiaEion fl/ /^^ Seed, fie Seed, 
//ja- ff/^f^flcr of Vegctatiofi^ how 
j^^geciof. Id ^.53, 

fie Root and other Parts. 
Vmues of Plants^ how to h ohfir- 

47- f^p- 23(5. 2CJ0. 

'/^^ rf^y2?/; ofthem^ bm l^o^a- 
bk. Id, 4. 55. 

Vitriols, f^eirfftf/wrt-^ 246. ji.^g, 
hramom^ l86. 

WAlInut, 185. 
Watcr/ji^R; f (? he examined 
a' reUtingtop-egeiatiort. 
Water, hoit> r^/irfghd with flilU' 
tnioHs or other OjU, 257, 
Wood of the Root and other Parts^ 
fie the Parts, 

Wood fifBeeeh, An, 2o,& 21. 
OfOai, Ibid. 

J*; predominant Pr/napk, Id. 

5^- 5 5' 


Arrow Leavs^ their Tafi, 283 
^. 6. 

- I 

I I 


I' jf I 

r ■ 

31. 1 11: 







a a 







O F T H E 


Rcdnccd to a narrow compafs^as fcrving to clear thcle 
Pai'ticiilats, chieHv, "which the Dejcriftions before gi- 
ven, have not reached. 

The TABLES to the Firft 
BOOK, are Four. 

TAB. L PjTgi^rei, a. The Fo- 

F. 2, 3, i/jL' R/tiiick lodged in the 
Body of the Incr Coat, 

F. 5, :i, ihs Rddi€k,\\thc Phmc 
Of Bud. 

F. 4, the Se-d tovercdi, c, th 
Seed open ^ Ci the fume magnij.'cd. 
F- 5. 3j thcComtoiered j c^na- 
hed and a little magnified. 

F, 6. a, bj the two Lotes 5 r, ihe 

}ijdrclei, c, ihe Radicls and Bud ^^ 

d^theHoIhrv irr which the End lies. 

F- 7* 2^the Seed cozered'-^ c, Hd- 

F, 8- a, om Lal-e 3 -b, //;c End ; 
bj mdgnified. 

V. 9, i/ie S/^Ve -? /;i//c ntagnifisd. 

F- ic. T/ic Rddidc d, n/f ^/'."{/^ 

V. I E. 77f(? P/w/;;c or Bud Oj n/l 
tr.jnjhcrjly c. 

F. 12, Cfliij' Me Length, 
F, i:^, A Lobe iNt tranfierfy, 
F, i^, Beth the Lobeyf fired hy ihe 
Lengthy tojljcm the Seminal Root. 

V. 15* 3, the convex fide of one 
Lobc^jeveing the Seminal Root v^ith- 
ont citing , c^ the fat fide. 

TAB. IL F.1,2, Sc5. j7^m fie 
{gradual converfton of the Lob^s of 
the Seedj into Leavs. 

F. 4, 3, the Radicle cut h) the 
length ; b, tranfvirfly. 

F. 5- Thewhite Wtd^es^ are the 
Jnfirtions ^ the black , -'''^ the Wood 3 
f/je pr/f^v are the Aer't'effels\ and 
the biackhalf ovals ^the Lymphedn&s 
in the Barque. 

F. 6, Ihe three black Rings^ are 
the terms of three years groTvth. 

F. 7, .1, the upper part'j b, the 
longer ^ 

V, 8. A Tiirnep cut tr-mfvcrfly^ 

iindp-irt of th Rindcutoff^ 

F. 9, peweth the (gradual grottth 

of the Pith. 

TAB. ir/. R I, TieBitdciit 
tranfverjlj^ and part of the Radick 


i-fftr a 









lir^ hi! 


The Explication of the Tables. 

I'y the Lmgth^ in a Bean newly 
fpriing up, 

F, 2. fjerpcth the Wood us it ap- 
pears to the n<t!{cd Eye. 

F, 5, ihc Cane fplrt da^n. 

F. 4. the Corn newly fprouled. 

F.'^» A Branch of five years growth 
Trom the Circumference^ to thent-Un^Trunl^. atrthlelioot 
^ojt black^ Rirjg.goes the Barque, of three years defccnt 5' the lorvtv 

F, 6. a, a pme of the Stallj 5 b, mofl^ half-roted off. 

The TABLES to thc^e- 
coT^JB K arc Thirteen. 

TAB. ^.JhewEththcgenerAthit 
ofRootsout ofthe Defiind- 


F, 7- 3, apiece ofOaJ^-tvood eat 

ir.wfi>crfy ^ b, the fame magnified, face of the Barque. 

TAB. VL F. i.fijcweth theSitr' 

The white fines are the lefier and 
greater Infertions. The Prickj, are 
the Wood, The little and great 
Holes ttvo fort! of Aer-Vefiels. 

F. 8. Part of a Branch ten years 

old^ with the Barque prip fed offhand 

cut both tranfverfly and dovpn the 

lengthy to pew how the Barque is in- 

ferted into the Wood. 

F. 2. the mid le part. 

F. 5. the Barque firiped. 

F, 4. the Root cut down the length, 

Y.'^.fhe Barque fir iped off. 

F, 6* the NetiPorIi_ loth of the 
LyniphednBs^ and vf the Aev-Veffds, 

F- 7. the Generation of a B^id. 

F. 3, 9, TO, 1 1. The Root fplis 
down^ to JJmv the Pofition of the 
Vefiels^ and the Figure of the P/th at 
the top flj the Root, 

TAB. IV. F. T. fi^^rping how 
the Infertions appear^ in a piece of 
Beech-Tree flit down^to he hraced or \ TAB. VTI. The Roots all aa 

rpj'^tn in ttgethcr with the n ood, 

F. 2. t!f 11, fjctv the different po- 
fition and Figure of the LignoHS Fi- 

F. 12. ^^oneof th^ Thecs Semi- 

n'lforrnes in a Lily^ with the fper- 
m^Uck_ I'omler therein^ as apparent 
to the nal^d Eye, 

F. 13. ^yone of the fuits in the 
Florid Attire, as it appe^irs to the 
xaked Uye:^ b, the Floret^ c, the 
Sheathe 6^ th^ Blade. 

F. 44. ivhereinthe white Tentan- 
g'-Ur Acetary is bottnded r-y the Cal- 


V. 15, The Branches which run 

through the Stone to the I lower and 


F. 16. The Innermol Cover oj the 
Seed^as f^aped when itis ripe. 

V. ij.l he Coats cut open. 

F. 18. The Seminal Root. 

tranfverfiy^ and their Varieties de- 
fribed, intheficondBool{^ ai they 
appear to the nak^d Eye^ 

TAB. VIIl. Oth.r Roots cut 
tranfverfiy^ and the vtrictici of their 
Parts alfo m'efrikd in the fee on d 

TAB. TX. More Root sc:ittTanf 

TAB. X. F. I. A Slice of the 
Root cut tranfverfty f hut a little too 
big for the life. 

F. 2. AA, Onehalfofa liJiC sihel 

h b. The sl^in. 

A A D l>. The Barqtie or all that 
part of the Root analogous to it. 

G D, The Lymphedu^s on the 
inner ed^e of the B,irque. 

GG, The Wood. 

GT, The Aer-Veffels th rein. 

TT, TheFith. 

TAB. XL F. I. 

rht Ncck4 

t I 

f ' M 

^ ■ i 

h I 

' I 

'h . 





\ 1 


The ExplicAtion of the Tables. 

the P^oot ntt trdfjfverjlp 

F. a. Or^c half of the fa/jre fpUt 

F. 5- MagfrifeJ, 
AB, -iheSkin^ 
A Ej The fiarqte. 
E E, lie f.yrjtphduEis. 
'JIjc bUcIi CoUmnt under thm^ 
drethz Wood, 

The Hifks in ihe Columns are the 

The a^hte Columns E L,^re Infir- 
thm b:tmxt the Barque and the 


L e. The PifL 

c c, The a>7gHUt ^Lidders of the 


TAK XII- A.onehalfofV.X. 

Ab, TheSl^n, 

A G, The Barque^ or all that part 
of the Root which unfn^crs toit^ 

In which the round bUc^fpofs^ 

are the Mtnidni^i. 

D G^.The €o.n7non l.ympyJuBs. 

DT, rhcPithy Part of the Root. 

T T, /Hore LymphGduUs^ 

In both ^bich.the MaciHolei are 
the Aer-VeJJds. 

. TAB. XIII. A,Otft?/jj//^/F.i. 


A C, The Siin, 

AG^ TheBarqae, or that p. trt of 
the Root which anfwers to it. 

\:>\:i^ The MtlkVejfeis placed in 


E E, Thel^are'.chymotts Ringi he- 

iivixt them. 

GT, The bladders (Ireamir.gin 
Rajs^ty the n/jxtttrf of the Ljmphc' 

GuQs i^Jth the LdBGals. 
CG, TothsCeffSre, the l^^ood. 

In which the Holes arc the Aer- 


TAB. XIUL A b., Tie kkif^, 
ivhich poM hi7)C been thicker. 

AF, The Barque^ 

G b, T/j« Bladders in the outer 
fart of the Barque, oblong and 

pcfJirireJ circaUrly. 

SS Ths Bladders in the inner 
part, fkundirg in Arches* 

Ft, ARingofSap'Fefeh. 

d d, ParcnchymoHS Infertions^ 

dLd, 'iheWood. 

In which, the Holes edged rrith 

n'hite Rings arc the Atr-VeJJels, 

TAB. XV. A A, The Skin. 

AB, The Barque. 

B L, The Sap-Veffcls in the form 
vj a Glory* 

BE, The Wood, 

In jrhi.h^ the Holes are the Aer- 

GE, ARifjgofmoreSdp-Veffels. 

E E, The Pith. 

TAB. XVL Ab, The Skin. 

A C, ihe Barque. 

In n-hich the romid Holes B, are 

B. C. Parcels ffl-ymlhedfi^s. 

In which there aremorc Balfame- 

C Dj Paremhyntous hjfertions* 

DE, Parcels of Wood, 

In which the Holes are the Aer^ 


T AB.XVIL AjheSkin, 

A B, The Barque. 

LS, A parcelofSap-Veffels. 

L\^A Parcel of Wood. 

In which the Holes great andfmaH 

are Aer-Vejfels. 

EB, Parcnhcyvmslnfirtions be- 
twixt ihe parcels of Wood. 

D D, Others within them. 

The TABLES to the 
77W BOOK are 23. 

TAB. XVllL Hereof fie the 
Defcription in the Third 

Book-, Ghap. I. ,jyrp 

TAB. XIX. r. I. A Branch of 

Corjn Tree. 

A, ihemih the fttrface of '/^ 



■ ^ St f 




[in Si 


ir,4r IT 

'^\ n 




'it lb 

^'k i 


















f tt 



The Explication of tlie Tables, 

B, OfthcTvood, 

F, 5, Brjf;ch fffViNCjpIitdowfz. 
In hoth^ thefivETdlSterys vr Cham- 
bers of the Pith. 

F. 4. fird;/Jj of Walfiut. A. a7! 

ohier, B, a-jonngi^r : in hoih^ tk 

rith farted ifito traffjvers Mem- 

TAB, XX, F. T, Shtwcth the 
Surface of a ^4ki7;gCa?!e. 

And the ClnUers of AcT'VcJfch, 
fHYroundtd with Rings of Smcife- 

F. 2. ThcfnTfaceafthe skin of 
Bcrage Stall{. 

F, 5. ThetJirpentijteVeJfch rt/n- 
fiing tkrotigh the length of the 
Barque:;, one of them cut daivn the 
middle^ the other entire. 

¥. 4. The ^.ilk-ye^eUf!)ejx^td in 
the fume manner. 

TAB. XXL Shemth the Wondy 
and Aer-VeJJchhy tkt length of the 
Branch^partofthe Barqi/e^and ivood^ 
being taf\en ati'ay. ' ' 

^ TAB. y.V.\L h\TheSkin. 
- A C, the Barque, 

Q^^the Pure -chymous part. 
H l^ Panels of Aindduch in a 

D C, Common LymphediiHs, 
C D E F, the Wood of 5 years 


K L M N, Tie fecond years 

O ^, the ^reat Insertions, 
V ^^ihejmdUr, 

X X, 1-ignoff^ parcel !. 
Wjihin rohiih the Holes are the 

E F G, the Piik 
TAB. XXIU. A B, th^Shjn. 
AC, theBarcjiie. "* <- "- ., , 
Q^ ^^^fimplc Parefichyma. 
HI, aRingofjpecialFeffels. 
P, common 6' ap-Fejjels. 

C D E F, the Wood of 5 years 

KLMN, one years grorvth. 
X, great Infinionr, 
PO, lejir ktmmtbem. 



Tie tiac^ parcels are the wosd. 

In which the Holes are thcAer-Vef 

E VO.'thentk 

TAB. XXIV. AB, the Skin. 

A B C D, the Bark, 

N N^ the Parenchyma. 

Wh a Ring of Jpccial S^p-lcf- 
fcis, , 

D M C, Parcels ofLymphcducfs. 
C D E Fa the Wood, 
EFLK, one years gromh. 
^'^Q^'-s *l^^ larger Acr-ve^els 
in the feiier at parcels of Wood. 
fi //je Ic^ler Aer-'^jejjcls. 
T, the inftrtions. 
E F G, the Pitk 
TAB. XXV. AB, the skjn. 
A B C D, r^f Bdrque, 
H I, special Sap y^flHs in arch- 

O O, the comhson ^ap-xeffeU 
which begin to turn into Wood, 

C-DEF, the Wood. 

KLMN, one years gromh. 

IheUolesare the Aer-ieffels in 
the rv'&od. 

^^, the true wood, 

Ot;, Oy, the Inferlions. 

E F, other Sap-vejjeis, 

E F G, rhe VitL 

TAB. XXVI. A B, the skin. 

A BCD, the Barqfie, 

QSL, the Parenchyma. 

HI, Spuial Sa-^'veffels in arch- ' 
ed parcels. 

O C, ^ Ring of common lym- 

DCFE, theWood. 

K L M Nj cm years growth. 

The Holes are the Aer-Vefels* 

00, the greater Infcrtions. 

PO, thefmaller. 

EF, other Sap-zcffels, 

)IVG, the Pith. 

TAB, XXVIL AB, the S\in. 

A B C D, the Barque. 

W V, the Parenchyma. 

H I, round parcels of Sap" ye/f^lf^ 

\J C, the cof7>mon Sap'Veffels. 
D C E F, the Wood of 5 ye^rs 

Bbb aHFE, 


I J. 


^f ^- 


^ ?m ' 


The Explication of the Tables, 

Q_^RFE, one years gromk 
XXj ihe true wood. 

The Botes both ^reat fmall 
ttrethe j^cr-Veffeh. 

SS, The great Infirttons^ 

TS, the [mailer, 

E F G, the Ntk 

TAB. XXVUI. A B, the Skiri. 

A B C D, the Bdrqm, 

H T r, fpecid Sa^-Veffdt in 
round Parcels. 

DSC, common Saf-Vejfelt. 

D C E F, /ie Wood of five pm 

^ ^, tht true Tosod, 

K L %ic.thegreat Aer-Vetjels. 

D C, thefmaUer, 

S S, the Jnfertions, 

E F S, the Pith, 

TAB. XXIX. A BCD, the 

A B, d Rwg of Sap'VeJfels m 
round parcels next the Skjn. 

H I, the fartnchyma. 

Another King of round parcels. 

DOC, Common LympheduUs, 

lyC'EY^ the wood, 

MN EF, one years gr&mk 

SS, the true ^ood, 

K L, the great Jer Fejfeli^ 

P Q_^, the lefer, 

O O, the Infertions, 

E F G, The vnh. 

e, the Bladders of the Pifk 
TAB. XXX. Ah,theS^in. 
A B C D, the Bar^ne. 
R K^the Parenchyma, 
H R I, two Kings of fpcctal Sap' 

DC, CoTftmon LymphedftUs, 

DCEF, thcwoad of four years 

d rf, the trttetpood, 

CJ^d, part of it whiter, hy the 
mixture of fpccial Sap-Vejfels repre- 
finted by the tranfvers Lines, 

MN, the great Aer-Vegels. 

ce, parcels of IcJ/er ones. 

EF, a King of other Sap-Veffels, 

E F G, the Pith, 

TAB, XXXI. A B CD, the 

B. if que. 

m m, the Parent hynra. 

Hml, 2^nk.ycjfelsin arched par- 

D K C, Lyf^pheduefj. 

DCEF, the wood of one years 

S T, probably milk Veffds hereto-