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SS « J';^i:;ri:^!!^r-- ^-^^-"^ -^y «■ Ca.ickshank from J. Batcman, 1U> OrcMace 

ualemaia, 1837-43 


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Encouraged and assisted by his father in his botanical proclivities, 
Bateman sent out to Demerara at the end of 1833 a botanical collector named 
Colley, chiefly to search for orchids. About sixty species reached this 



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luntrr alive, of which a third we 

One of these was given the name 

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Lindley, thus coinmi 


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and collector. Bateman contributed an account of the expedition, based on 
Colley's report, to Loudon's Gardeners' Magazine for I835. In lQj!k he be- 

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im many 

In less than ten years the finest orchids 





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of Guatemala 'fere in cultivation in England, having first floored at 

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His Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala , perhaps the greatest botanical 


book in point of size ever published, was issued in parts from I837 to 181|3. 
It consists of forty elephant folio plates, with descriptions and cultural 


One of these represents the 


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opening of a box supposed to contain orchids, from which issue a pair of 
gigantic cockroaches, grovm fat on the original contents, and iThich are 
chased by the gardener's family and assistants. The edition was limited to 

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125 copies at twenty guineas each. 

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Bateman (J.) The Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemals 


VIII, 11,12, 




I|,0 fine hand-colored plates, large folio 



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A good copy of t he most imposing of Orchid books As usual, 

the text and some of the plates are rather spotted. This occurs 



in all 

and appears to be due to a defect in the 
The work has become extremely scarce, which is hardly surprising 
as only 125 copies were issued* 


From Wheldon & Wesley's Catalogue No. 86 
















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i HE completion of his Work affords the author an opportunity of apologizing for the delays that have 
attended its publication, and which he fears must have taxed the patience of many of his subscribers. 
These delays were not, however, under his own control, but were owing, in part, to the difficulties which 

an author, resident in the country, experiences w^hen publishing a work in town ; and, in part, to the dilatory 

blooming of particular plants, without which the series of illustrations would have been incomplete 

The present is also the most suitable occasion for offering his grateful acknowledgments to the 

botanical friends who have 

kindly assisted him in the prog 

his undertaking 


those distin 


guished foreigners. Professor Von Martins, of Munich ;— Professor Poeppig, of Leipsig;— Dr. Endlicher, 

n r 

of Vienna ;— and Dr. Klotzsch, of Berlin, his thanks are especially due, for the facilities afforded him in the 

examination of the herbaria under their 

His obligations to many of the leading British cultivators 

pressed in the 

press which accompanies the representations of the plants they respec 


To Professor Lindley a separate and more ample acknowledgment must be paid, as nothing could 


exceed the kindness with which he has given his invaluable advice and ready help in the numerous instances 

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in which both were greatly needed. 

Knypersley Hall, August 1, 1843. 









n k 

N,B, — Only 125 Copies of this Work are published. 




His Grace the Duke of Bedford. 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 
His Grace the Duke of Marlborough. 
His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. 
His Grace the Duke of Sutherland. 

Right Hon. the Earl of Derby. 
Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam. 
Right Hon. the Earl Talbot. 
Right Hon. the Earl of Powis. 
Right Hon. the Earl of Burlington. 


The Lady Grey, of Groby. 
The Lady Rolle. 

Right Hon. Viscount Milton. 
Right Hon. Viscount Lowther. 

The Baron von Humboldt, Berlin. 

The Count Torlonia, Rome. 
The Baron Delessert, Paris. 

Sir P. de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P. 
Sir J. R. Reid, Bart., M. P. 

Adderley, Mrs., Barlaston Hall, Staffordshire. 
AUcard, John, Esq., Stratford Green. 

Butt, Rev, Thomas, Trentham, Staffordshire. 
Birley, H. H., Esq., Swinton Park, Manchester. 
Bow, W., Esq., Millbert Villa, Broughton. 
Brocklehurst, T., Esq., The Fence, Macclesfield. 
Baxter, R., Esq., Dee Hill, Chester. 
Barclay, R., Esq., Lombard Street. 
Barker, G., Esq., F. R. S., Springfield Bir- 
Brewen, R., Esq., Leicester. 

Baker, T. J., Lloyd, Esq., Hardwick Court, 

Botfield, Beriah, Esq., Norton Hall, Daventry. 

Crossley, L. T,, Esq., Olive Mount, Liverpool. 
Clowes, Rev. J. Broughton, Manchester. 
Cheetham's Library, Manchester. 
Copeland, Alderman, M. P., Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
Compton, G., Esq,, Milan. 

Cox, Frederick G., Esq., Bennett's Hill, Doctors' 


Davenport, Charles, Esq., Tunstall, Staffordshire 
Daubeny, Professor, Oxford. 
Digby, E,, Esq. 

Edwards, Rev. E. J., Trentham, Staffordshire. 
Egerton, W., Esq., Tatton Park, Cheshire. 

Fielding, W. B., Esq., Stodday Lodge, Lancaster. 

Glegg, Mrs., Rostherne Hall, Cheshire. 
Grundy, Miss, Seedfield, Bury. 
Gould, R., Esq., Manchester. 

Grant, D., Esq., Manchester. 

Grant, W., Esq., Springside, Bury. 

Glegg, J. B., Esq., Withington Hall, Cheshire. 


Holt, Miss, Redivals, Bury. ^ 
Harter, J. C, Esq., Broughton Hall. 
Horticultural Society, The, 21, Regent Street. 


Harrison, R., Esq., Aigburgh, Liverpool. 

Horsfall, C, Esq., Everton, Liverpool. 

Holford, R, S., Esq., "Weston Birt, Gloucester- 

Hodges, Twisden, Esq. 

Kinnersley, Mrs., Clough Hall, Staffordshire. 
Kean, Mrs., Rowley Hall, Staffordshire. 

Lloyd, Edward, Esq., Cheetham Hill, Man- 

Leaf, W., Esq., Old Change. 

Lawrence, Mrs., Whitehall Place. 

Llewellyn, J. D., Esq., F. R. S,, Penllargare, 

Loddiges, Messrs., Hackney. 

Legh, G. C, Esq., M. P., High Legh, Cheshire. 

Moss, John, Esq., Otterspool, Liverpool, 
Minton, Herbert, Esq., Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Morris, Valentine, Esq., St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Portico Library, The, Manchester. 
Perkins, F., Esq., Southwark. 

Reddall, Mrs. A. B., Congleton. 


Rawson, Christopher, Esq., Hope House, Halifax 
Russell, J. Watts, Esq., Ham Hall, Staffordshire. 
Rucker, S., Esq., Wandsworth. 

Solly, R. H., Esq., F. R. S., Great Ormond Street. 


Eatington Park, 


Sparrow, Miss, Bishton Hall, Staffordshire. 
Splitgerber, D., Esq. 

Tomlinson, J., Esq., Cliff Ville, Newcastle-under- 


Van Marum, Dr. M., Taylerian Library. 
Van der Hoop, M. Amsterdam. 

Williamson, H. H., Esq., Greenway Bank, Staf- 
Wilbraham, Mrs., Rode Hall, Cheshire. 

Walker, J. H., Esq. 

Warner, T. Esq, 

Walker, G. Esq. 

Wailes, G., Esq., Newcastle. 

Wilson, Christopher, Esq., Rigmaden Park, 

Wood, W. E. Collins, Esq., Keithwick, Perth 
Wilmore, J., Esq., Oldford, Manchester. 
Walker, J. G., Esq. 



Black and Armstrong, Messrs., 1 copy. 
Simpkin and Marshall, Messrs., 2 copies. 
Longman and Co., Messrs., 2 copies. 
Bohn, Henry, G., 10 copies. 
Godwin, Mr. (Bath), 1 copy. 



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FEW general remarks on the extensive family of Orchidacese, will, perhaps, best introduce what we 
are about to say respecting that section of the tribe, to which this Work is more immediately devoted ; 
and, in the hasty observations which follow, we shall abstain, as much as possible, from all details of a 
purely scientific nature, as an opportunity of treating more fully on that branch of our subject will occur 
towards the close of our Work. Although the great extent of the species of this order was not even suspected 
till within the last few years, and though the rage for their introduction is of still more recent date, yet there were some among 
the earlier botanists, on whom their charms would not appear to have been lost ; especially, the great Rumphius in the Old 
World, and Hernandez in the New. In the Herbarium Amboinense of the former, his chapter on the " Angr^cums" 
so he designates the whole tribe) opens with the following passage, which we quote for the edification of our readers : 
" Now," he exclaims, " now come we to describe a noble family of plants, which is remarkable for having always its 
dwelling aloft upon the branches of other trees, and which scorns the lowly ground ;— like the seats and castles of the 
great, which are usually built in elevated situations And, as nobility is distinguished by its appropriate and 

dignified attire, so this tribe of plants has a towering mode 

of growth, quite peculiar to itself. 


This eloquent 

eulogium will sufiice to prove, that the eastern Orchidacese were not without admirers, even in those barbarous times . 
and their brethren of the West seem to have been equally fortunate, as one of their tribe received attentions of the 
most marked description from the " Pliny of New Spain," (as Hernandez has been styled), who, not content with 
using it to decorate almost every page of his work, ventured to dedicate it, as the loveHest plant of the Mexican 
Flora, to the Lyncean Academicians of Rome, by whom it was immediately adopted, as the peculiar emblem of 
their learned body.t 


Plumier was another botanist, who paid his court to this tribe in an especial manner ; and his figures of some of 
the West Indian species are models of accuracy and beauty, even at the present day. With these and other examples 
before us, it will appear surprising that Linn^us should only have been acquainted with one hundred species, of which 
all those which grew upon trees (making, perhaps, a fourth of the whole) he thrust into his genus Epidendrum. What 
would be the astonishment of that " father of Botany," could he now but behold his lonely " Epidendrum" multiplied 
into two hundred genera ! and his one hundred Orchidacese increased to two thousand ! ! J Nay, what if he were 
assured, that our knowledge of the tribe was only in its infancy, and that, in all probability, not one half of the 


had been hitherto discovered ! ! ! 


* " Nu7iG noUlem describemus herhamm silvestriumfamiliamy qum eo sese distinguit, quod semper in alto habitat, in aliis nempe arboribus, ac spernit hiimile solum 
uti etplerumque nobiles arcm et castella in altis extructa sunt locis, ita ut alium ac sublimem crescendi habeant modum acformam, uti et nobilitas modernis sese distin- 
guit, etsuperbis vestimentisy — Rumphius Herb, Am, xi. 1. 

The Latin of our Amboyna " Savant," it will be seen by this quotation, is by no means Ciceronian^ nor is it easy to translate literally : indeed it 
is almost as bad as our own. 


r- 9f r t J 

to be the emblem of the Z?/?icm?i Academy. Hernandez would seem to have been a wit: he flourished in 1650. His favourite plant, was, probably, an Ang-uloa 
and it has, we believe, been recently imported. A greatly reduced representation of it will be observed in our Frontispiece. 

X This is no exagg-eration. 


of five hundred mig-ht now be added ; and, besides these, there are the Ophrydea, &c. which will comprehend at least five hundred more. 


Asia. Africa * and America 


found to divide the species of the order amongst them, into three 
nearly equal proportions (for the few which Europe produces need scarcely be taken into the account) ; and the closer 
we approach the Tropics, the more numerous and beautiful they become. Arrived, at length, within the precincts of 
the Torrid Zone, we find them no longer " prone on the ground," as heretofore, but conspicuous on the branches of 

of the naturalist, from afar, by the 


the most rugged trees of the dampest and wildest forests ; attracting the eye of the naturalist, 
dazzling brilliancy of their colours, or arresting his attention by their delicious fragrance. And 
occasion to observe, that although plants of this description are not unfrequently termed " parasitic," the epithet is 
altogether misapplied ; for, while the " Parasites" prey upon the vital juices of their victims, and perish with them, the 
" Epiphytes" derive nothing but their stay, or local habitation, from the plants on which they have established 
themselves, and continue to flourish and flower, indifferent as to whether their supporters live or die. The great 
majority of the Orchidacese of the Tropics belong to the latter or epiphytic class; there are however a few that do 
not, as was long ago observed by the same ingenious Rumphius, to whom we have already had occasion to advert ; 
after noticing, in terms of due commendation, the dignified habits of most of the tribe, he proceeds with a sigh, to 
remark :—^Hhat among these vegetable nobles, just as among the nobles of mankind, some degenerate individuals are 



who are on the 

seem to constitute a class of their own."t But, it is not m 

in their ^' habits'' that the terrestrial species are placed below the Epiphyt 
singularity and beauty. 


Orchidacese of each of the three great divisions of the globe have features of their own, so marked and 

peculiar, that in most cases, a practised eye would 


proper habitation. Thus, for example, the pendent stems and graceful flowers of many of the Dendrobiums, jSlrid 

their allies. 

character of beauty and lightness to the Orchidaceous Flora of tropical India, which con 
clumsy pseudo-bulbs of the Bulbophyllums, or the long tails of the Angrsecums of Africa 


■ I 

America, the characteristic features are the upright vegetation (as distinguished from pendent) of the Epidendrums, 
the long straggling flower-spikes of many of the Oncidiums, and a much greater variety of grotesque and marvellous 
forms, than is to be met with in anv T3art of the Old World. 

The uses to which the plants of this family are applied, are few, but, in several instances, highly romantic. In 
Demerara, that most deadly of all poisons, the " Wourali,'' is thickened by the juiqe of the Catasetums; and in 
Amboyna, the irwe *' Elixir of Love'' is prepared from the minute farina- like seeds of Grammatophyllum speciosum.;]: 

In Mexico, where the '' language of flowers" is understood by all, the Orchidaceae seem to compose nearly the entire 



alphabet. Not an infant is baptized, not a marriage is celebrated, not a funeral obsequy performed, at which the 
aid of these flowers is not called in by the sentimental natives, to assist the expression of their feelings ; — 'they are 

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offered by the devotee at the shrine of his favourite saint, by the lover at the feet of his mistress, and by the sorrow- 
ing survivor at the grave of his friend : whether, in short, on fast days or feast days, on occasions of rejoicing or 
in moments of distress, these flowers are sought for with an avidity, which would seem to say that there was " no 
sympathy like theirs ;' —\hm%, " Flor de los Santos," " Flor de Corpus," " Flor de los Muertos," " Flor de Maio," " No 

me olvides," (or " Forget me not,") are but a few names, out of the many, that might be cited, to prove the high 

consideration in which our favourites are held in the New World. Nor are these the only honours that are paid to 
them ; for Hernandez assures us, that in Mexico the Indian chiefs set the very highest value on their blossoms, for the 
sake of their great beauty, strange figure, and delightful perfume ; while, in the East Indies, if Rumphius is to be 
credited, the flowers themselves positively refuse to be worn, except by princesses or ladies of high degree. 1| In 
Honduras, again, the large hollow cylindrical stalks of a fine species of JEpidendrum^ are made into trumpets, by the 

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little boys and girls of the country ; and the pseudo-bulbs of several of the more succulent species, are used instead 
of resin for the strings of their guitars. The following are, however, almost the only known instances in which the 
tribe do any direct service to mankind. The bulbs of Maxillaria hicolor contain a large quantity of an insipid watery 
fluid, which is greedily sucked by the poor natives of Peru in the dry season ; a fluid of a similar nature is obtained 

r ' . 

from what is, probably, a Lcelia^ in Mexico, and is administered as a cooling draught in fevers j from the roots of 
some of the Orchises, the nutritive substance called " Salep" is obtained ; in New Zealand, certain species are of 
considerable importance as esculents ; and in Guiana, the soles of the shoemaker are as much indebted to the viscid 
matter obtained from the Catasetums and Cyrtopodiums^ as are the poisoned arrows of the Indians. 



* It has been ascertained^ by recent travellersj that the interior of Africa (especially the banks of the Nig-er^) teems with Orchidaceous Epiphytes. 

f In Tide avMm nohilitate^ ceque ac inter homi?ieSp etiam tales reperiuntur^ qum in rusticos degenerant^ et in terra crescunt^ qumque peculiare videntur constituere 
genus, — RumphiuS; xi.^ 1. 


I We think it our duty to state, that this plant has just been received in England, in a living state, from Mr. Gumming ; we tremble for the consequences, if what 
Rumphius says of its properties be true, asserting, as he does, " mulierem prosequi amore talem, a quo hunc farinam cum cibo, vel potu accepit," (!!!) Rumphius^ xi. 1. 


II We could name, if we durst, certain fair English ladies of " high degree," in whose head-dresses these pretty vegetable exclusives have already condescended to 

§ Epidendrum tiMcinis, (Nob.) 





In this list the Vanilla is not included, as that plant has recently been separated (no doubt, most judiciously) 
by Dr. Lindley, from the natural order " Orchidaceee," and constituted the type of a new order of its own. 

If then, this brief catalogue comprehend all the instances in which this vast order either relieve the wants, or aid 
the pursuits of mankind, its very scantiness would seem to argue that it was neither to provide us with food or 
ramient, nor to protect us from disease or cold, that tropical forests were made to teem with an almost endless 
variety of the tribe ; either, therefore, in the cheerless spirit of atheism, we must suppose them to have been created 
in vain, or we must conclude that their office was something other and higher than to minister to the mere animal 
necessities of our nature. No ; it was to yield us a pleasure of an intellectual kind, and so to win our affections from 
more hurtful things, that these most worthless of plants were clothed in unrivalled charms ;— it was to provide a 
rich banquet in the temple of Flora, which, while it yielded the utmost enjoyment to her more constant votaries, 
might, at the same time, draw round her innocent table those who were more rarely numbered among her guests ; 
an entertainment, in short, which might attract the man of pleasure by its splendour, the virtuoso by its rarity, and 
the man of science by its novelty and extraordinary character. It is, we are convinced, on this principle alone that 

we can attempt to understand the OrcJiido- Mania 

especially the upper) classes, to such 

a marvellous extent. Not contented with the exertions of our foreign connexions, we send men expressly to all the 
points of the compass, to swell the number of the species in cultivation; and in this zeal for their introduction, the 
amateur, the nurseryman, and the public establishment, all vie with each other. The nobility, the clergy, those 
engaged in the learned professions or in the pursuits of commerce, seem alike unable to resist the influence of the 
prevaihng passion ; nay, if we may trust a paragraph in a morning paper, it has even extended to Windsor Castle itself.* 
Works solely devoted to the " Orchidacese" have made, or are about to make, their appearance ;t houses for their 
accommodation are rearing in every direction, and, as a matter of course, included in all designs for a complete 
residence 4 pots for their exclusive use are already sold in the shops of London ;|| their blossoms are even now 
imitated in the establishments of some of the most fashionable manufacturers of artificial flowers ;§ and prizes, the most 
munificent, are offered by all Horticultural Societies, for the finest specimens of their popular family. 

On the Continent, as in England, collectors are every day entering the field. Russia, Austria, and even Tuscany, 
are infected ; and in Holland and Belgium, Bulbs and Camellias seem likely to be neglected in the growing rage for the 
new favourites. In its extent and intensity this Orchido-mania bids fair to rival the Haarlem mania for TuHps (so 
memorable in the annals of horticultural enthusiasm) ; it is based, however, on a much better foundation than that 
most strange infatuation ; for while mere abstract beauty is all that could be alleged in favour of the one, full fifty good 
reasons may be brought forward to excuse and even justify the other. Some of these we shall presently enumerate; 
but we must first briefly notice the cause which has delayed the developement of the present "furor," until 
nearly the middle of the nineteenth century, and which, we are satisfied, will be found to have been no other than the 
supposed impracticability of cultivating them with any success. In addition to its obvious tendency to prevent the 
formation of collections, this cause had the effect of retarding the acquaintance of Botanists with this tribe in a far 
greater degree than could have occurred in the case of any other vegetable family whatsoever ; for not merely does the 
succulent and fragile nature of the subjects make it, in some cases, impossible to dry them at all, but it always renders 
imperfect and difficult of determination such specimens as, by dint of skill and care, have at last been placed in our 

Again : as it is usual for these plants to flower, for the most part, in the rainy season, in the dampest woods and in 
the most noxious atmosphere, they were, in a measure, secured from the depredations of the botanical collector, who 
would not merely have had to risk his life to possess himself of their flowers, but so secret, and frequently inaccessible, 
are the situations in which they grow, that probably, after all his labour and perils, nine-tenths of their number would 
have eluded his grasp ; the result of his mission would therefore have been to impress us, in the first place, with an 
idea that the species were not numerous, and in the next, to convey but a very imperfect notion of their beauty ; for as 
the largest and most extraordinary forms are invariably the most fleeting, so they are the most rarely met with in per- 
fection, and, even when detected, are the most difficult to preserve. All these circumstances combining with the great 
similarity which, when out of flower, the members of this family bear to each other (in the eyes at least of all hut the 
initiated), it will no longer excite our surprise that a very erroneous estimate should have been formed of their number 


and merit, until we discovered the proper mode of their cultivation. But no sooner was this grand object attained, 

* We allude to a recent paragraph in the Morning Post, in which " the Chinese Air-plant" is stated to have flowered in the royal conservatory 
t E. g. Dr. Lindley's " Serttmi OrchideumP and our own " Opiiscuhimy 


X Vide. Mr. Kutger's designs for residences in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine. 
II At Lowesby's Terra-cotta warehouse, 18^ King William Street, Strand. 
§ At Foster's, 16, Wigmore Street. 


most splendid and extraordinary beoran to make 

been brought 
From Guiana 
been already received, and 

appearance : produced 

by plants which had 

from countries whose Orchidaceous Flora was supposed to possess little of either novelty or interest. 


Aublet, contained only 


species, nearly 

Coryanthes maculata, and Cycnoches Ijodd 

which, when they flowered for the first time, were found not merely to be new to science, but to constitute genera 
with which botanists were altogether unacquainted. 

Having now explained the cause which has so long delayed the growth of a passion for the Orchidaceee amono- 

us, we will next proceed 


opinion, a popularity so great, and therefore so likely to wane, 

should in their case appear destined to endure ; and to do this satisfactorily, it is clear we must notice some of 
the numerous modes in which they commend themselves to our attention and regard. Of these the most attractive is, 
perhaps, their beauty; and of their superiority in this respect, the most sceptical are even now beginning to be 

convinced — even now, we say, when our 

of the most magnificent species have flowered with us either im 

in all their glory, and arranged in our stoves with all the adva 

plants as the GrammatopTiyllums and Saccolabiums of the Spice Islands! or the Dendrob 

by far the 


of mutual 

mriant foliage, — such 
of India ! ! or the 


Oncidiums^ of America ! ! ! all of 


In colour though variedj in beauty may vie ; 


spontaneously grows. 

And then their 

1 admit that the eye never before rested 
blage of flowers, each of which is consic 

mass of such surpass 
he choicest ornament 

loveliness, com 


fragrance ! We question whether even '' Araby the blest'' can boast of any perfumes that can at 

all compete in sweetness with those exhaled by 


brides odoratum, and Epidendrum aromaticum (Tab. X. of 

Angrcecum odoratissimum (Lindley MSS), Tet 

which remind the recipient of the smell of a drug 
violets, pomatum, aniseed, and angelica, of noyau, 
no fragrance, except in the day-time, but there are others which. 


Work). Other species emit odours 

cinnamon, allspice, citron, musk, and honey.t Some of 


nocturnum and B 

are aromatic 


or day. 

Another characteristic of the tribe is the long: duration of their blossoms 

what we before remarked. 

This assertion will appear to contradict 

some of the most 

it is but too true in the case of such genera as Stanhopea, Catasetim, Cycnoches, and Cory 
pre-eminent for the large size and strange configuration of their flowers; 

and, unfortunately, 
ithes, which stand 


though less 
of EpidendrecB, 
Vandese, where 
Coryanthes, wh 

such as Lmlia 

m many, however, of the more 

Cattleya, and we may 

flower-spikes remain in perfection for weeks, and even sometimes for 


3n, the whole tribe 
together. Even in 

continues nevertheless in beauty for 

they may be removed with safety (and sometimes 

ordinary temperature, where their 


the order, we know of none so fugitive as 
They bear carriage remarkably well, and 
vantage to themselves), into apartments of 
a stove. Indeed, it is easy to foresee the arrival, 



that too at no distant period, of the time when their flowers will appear as much " at home'' in the B 
L as in the Mexican temple, and when they will be prized as highly by the English as by the Indian belle. 

F ' 

We would next direct attention to a circumstance connected with their cultivation, which seems to place 

most advantageous light : we mean the much sfreater amount of 

a small house, if devoted 

be derived from one of four times the extent, if 


any other description. Their superiority in this respect shews itself 



in the first place, 

the space required for each individual is usually very small, and while the shelves, stages, or even flues, are preferred 

f the true Air 


two distinct tiers of vegetation are thus obtained. In the 
suffered to flag, something is constantly going; on, either 





opening of the flowers is to be expected, or the progress 


* Should there be any, especially among the softer sex, who may be disposed to cavil at the hard names which Botanists have given to these plants, the fair 

objectors may adopt (if they prefer them) those by which they are known in their respective localities; such as the following, for example, which are the siviple 

appellations of some of the finest of the Mexican species, viz. " Tzauhxilotl," " Amazauhtli," " Coatzonte coxochitl," " Chichiltic tepetlauhxochitl/' Hernandez Re 
Mid. Lib. 8, Cap. 7. . 



The species are arranged in this note in the same order as their odours in the text. 


of development in the leaves and pseudo-bulbs may be marked, or the progress of a young shoot has to be observed, 
or the life-and-death struggles of a recent importation have to be v^atched over, and that too with a degree of care and 
anxiety that could never be felt for ordinary plants. Then there are the seasons of growth and of rest, each of which 
has an interest peculiar to itself; since during the first the greatest change occurs in the circumstances and appear- 
ance of the plants, while during the second the greatest number of them flower;— and thus, throughout the dreary 
months of Winter, which, in the majority of Conservatories, is the season of nakedness and inaction, the Orchidaceous 
House is gayer than in the most glowing days of Summer. * 
the strictest sense of the word, and realize the 

The plants too with which it is stored are evergreens in 


virct semper — nee fronde caduca 

" Carpitur ; " 

of the Latin poet in a far higher degree than is to be seen elsewhere ; for while many of their number retain the same 
leaves in perfect health and beauty for six or eight seasons together, there are none which lose them in a shorter period 
than twelve months, f It is likewise worthy of remark, that the species which are the most unwilling to part with 
their natural advantages, are also the most loth to change the abode which has been artificially afforded them; and 
they may therefore, when once firmly established in a suitable tenement, be left in undisturbed possession of it for ten 
or more years in succession;— thus relieving the cultivator from the unsightly changes and continual shiftings which 
stove-plants in general are wont to require, t 

But the appearance of the genuine Air-plants, when suspended from the rafters of the Orchidaceous House, forms, 

thrusting their long 

perhaps, its most characteristic feature. And wonderful it is to see these " children of the sun " 
tortuous roots into the surrounding atmosphere, and maintaining the most vigorous health with no other support than 
what that pure element affords them ; — thus reversing as it were the settled laws of Nature ; for while other plants are 
compelled to seek their coarse subsistence from the ground, our Orchidaceas, like unearthly beings, are enabled to 
live solely upon air. 

Even the rarity of the tribe, and the difficulties and expense attendant upon their cultivation, although they may 
have the effect of diminishing the number of their votaries, will at the same time tend to strengthen the devotion 
of such as have the courage to encounter, and the means to overcome those formidable impediments. It is indeed, 
probable, that Orchidaceous culture will always continue in a (comparatively) few hands; and that it will, therefore, be 
pursued with the same ardour in the upper walks of life, that already, in a humbler sphere, attends the cultivation of 
the many beautiful varieties of the tulip, auricula, and carnation. Some, perhaps, there may be, who, looking only at 
the greater facilities afforded by the latter, may be disposed to question the importance of the former in a social point 
of view ; but while we admit the superior value of whatever is placed within the reach of the great mass of mankind, 
we must at the same time maintain that nothing ought to be condemned or disregarded, merely because it can never be 
extensively diffused. Few will value what all may possess; so long, therefore, as each class has enjoyments suited to 
its circumstances and position, we are satisfied that the happiness of the community at large will be far more effectually 
promoted, than if all were interested in the same objects, or occupied with the same pursuits. The reciprocal pleasure 
which the lovers of " florist's flowers " and of " rare plants " may derive from the sight of their respective collections, 
is a sufficient example of the truth of our assertion. 

*• In the collection of the Author, although specimens in flower may at all times be seen, March and April, in the Spring, and October and November, in the 
Autumn, are perhaps the gayest months ; the intervening period is " growing season " with a large majority of the species, many of which come into blow just before its 
commencement, and a still greater number immediately after its termination. There are, however, several that flower at uncertain periods ; others that flower all the year 
round ; and likewise a few that, we are concerned to say, never flower at all. 

t We are now, of course, speaking of epiphytal and not of terrestrial Orchidaceaj; many, indeed most, of the latter lose their leaves and entirely disappear, for half 
the year ; but there are divers weighty reasons why these should not be admitted into the Orchidaceous House, properly so called. There are, also, a few of the Catasetwns, 
which are sometimes destitute of leaves for a short time ; but it is doubtful whether they ought not to be classed with the terrestrial species, rather than with the epiphytes, 
since they are quite as frequently found under trees as upon them. 

I -• 

X These remarks apply more particularly to species of some of the caulescent and slow-growing Eastern genera, such as Vanda, Saccolahiian, jErides, and 
their alhes. 


II All the OrchidacejB which are really entitled to the name of ** Air-plants " are of Easier?! extraction, and constitute a well- defined section of the " Vandew " group, 
which is readily distinguished by its peculiar habit from the corresponding group of the West, where heavy masses of pseudo-bulbs usurp the place of the long and graceful 
stems of the EasL It is not a little singular that the habit of many of the South American Epidendrece approaches that of the oriental Vandece far more closely than any 
genera of their own tribe have been observed to do in the former country. 

brides odoratum affords, probably, the best example of a true Air-plant with which we are at present acquainted, for it will grow freely, for any length of time, if 
merely suspended by a wire from the roof of a moist stove. A plant of this species, in the possession of the Messrs. Loddiges, has attained an extraordinary size, and when 
loaded, in spring, with thirty or forty bunches of its beauteous flowers, forms an object of unsurpassed loveliness, and affords us a glimpse of what our collections will 
one day become. 

Some persons, seeing plants of this description seated in pots among pieces of decayed wood or peat, imagine that they derive their nutriment from these sources, 
although such treatment is purely artificial, and merely designed to supply them with moisture more perfectly than could otherwise be done. 



But will the rarity of Orchidace^^ o 
fascination which they are felt to possess ? 
their flowers ? — or by the presence of all 

Or is it to be accounted for by the beauty^ the fragrance^ or the durability of 
these qualities combined ? , No ; other plants might be mentioned^ as rare, and 
as difficult of culture^ and scarcely inferior to them in personal charms^ and yet they could never boast of the train of 


spell consist ? We 

of their 
in all 

that constitutes the charm of other plants ! Neither 




but it is the means to that end,— the secret of that power which we are now so anxious to arrive at. Something it must 

Orchidaceae, but which at once distin 


where is a character so marked and peculiar to be found ?— where, but in the marvellous structure, the grotesque 
conformation, and imitative character of their flowers? Yes; here we have that which is more than sufficient to 


esides. It 

and from which we believe their interest to be derived, are neither idly nor fancifdly 
apprehend, we shall have but little difficulty in effecting. 

Accustomed as we are to look upon the animal and ve.sretable kingdoms as altogether d 


the other ; and yet 
; for, as if it were 

too simple a matter to imitate the works of Nature only, they mimic, absolutely mimic, the productions of art ! But 
not contented to rest even here, they display a restless faculty of invention, fully equal to their powers of imitation, and 
after having, like Shakspeare, ^^ exhausted worlds," like him too, they seem to have "imagined new;" and thus we 
find their flowers exhibiting a variety of strange and unearthly objects, such as bear no resemblance to created things, 
nor yet to any of the works of man. Such a host of examples of their freaks in all these departments are on record, 
that we scarcely know where to commence our selection ; perhaps, however, it may be well to take first a few of the 


reptiles.* W 


then, with the insects ; not only because they are the class most frequently imitated, but 


proper season, 
of the originals. 


t &c. &c 

variety ; and we have, also, the gorgeous vegetable-butterfly of Trinidad, whose blossoms, poised at the extremity of 
their long elastic scapes, wanton gaily in the wind, and "seem impatient of that fixture by which they are differenced 
in kind from the flower-shaped Psyche that flutters with free wing above them." 



from which the 

have borrowed their swans, eagles, doves, 

§ to say nothing of a large 


* Our examples will be principally derived from South America^ for owing to the much greater uniformity in the blossoms of the OrchidacefB of the Old World, the cases 
in which strange figures and animal likenesses occur are not nearly so numerous as in the New. Among the more remarkable of the " Orientals " we may mention Vanda 
peduncularis, Renanther a arachnites, and Phalcenopsis amaUle ; the latter bears a most striking resemblance to a downy white moth (hence the name), and flowered last 
year (1837), for the first time in Europe, in the rich collection of the Messrs. Rollisson, of Tooting. It is figured in the Herharium Aynholnense of Rumphius ; and this 
worthy man (hardly knowing what to make of the insect and animal mockeries of which this Phal^nopsis and others of its tribe are guilty,) quotes the opinion of 
a contemporary botanist who seems to be convinced that all such4ike Orchidace^ spring '^ vel ex putridis quorundam animalium cadaveribus, in quibus vis qu<Bdam 
seminalis latet, vel ex ipsis animalium seminihus, qum in montlhiis vel pratis coeunt, atgue pro ejus argwnento dicit in Satyriorum (meaning all Orchidace^) floribus detegi 
speciem istius animalis ex cuius semine in terra putrefacto hoc Satyrium excrevit, vel istius insecti, quod pier umque ex cadavere cujusdam animalis prodit" — Rumph. 

Herb, Amb, vi. 98, 

t E. q, "flies" in Ophrys muscifera, "bees" in 0. apifera, "drones" in 0. fucifera, "spiders" in 0. aranifera, A remarkable circumstance, connected with 
OpTirys muscifera has twice occurred in the garden of the Rev. T. Butt, of Trentham, whose devotion to the Orchidacese of Europe and North America is fully equal to 
that of some of his contemporaries for those of the torrid zone. The flowers of 0. muscifera bear, it is well known, a striking resemblance to a certain (and that an 
uncommon) species of fly; and some years since, one of this description was observed by Mr. Butt to settle for days together on a blossom of the unconscious plant, no 
doubt under the impression that it was enjoying the society of one of its own kind. For several summers afterwards, although the Orchis continued to flower, the fly was 
no where to be seen ; last year, however, it was again observed at its post, where it remained, as before, for several days in succession. 

% The colmims of many of the Catasetums and other genera make excellent " Grasshoppers. 



Mosquitoes " are borne by TricJioceros antennifer, or "Flor de 

Mosquito " of the^Peruvians ; " Dragon-flies " by Renanthera arachnites ; " Moths " by Fhalmnopsis amabile, &c. &c. Insect-like " Antennsg " are also conspicuous in the 
flowers of Restrepia antennlfera, and an unpubhshed Mexican Epidendrwn {E. antenniferum, Lind. MSS.) discovered by Mr. Henchman. The Genera Myanthiis of 
LiNDLEY, and Myoxanthus of Poeppig and Endlicher, (though now abolished) were also founded, as their names imply, on the resemblance of their flowers to different 
kinds of flies. 

II Coleridge's ''Aids to Reflection:' The " Butterfly-plant " of Trinidad, is the now well-known Oncidium papilio ; it had not flowered in this country at the time the 
"Aids to Reflection" were written, otherwise we might have supposed it to have been in the eye of the "Ancient Mariner" when he penned the passage we 
have quoted. 

§ "Swans" are found in both the species of Cycnoches (vide Tab. V.); "doves," in Peristeria elata ; "Pelicans," in an unintroduced Mexican Cypripedium 
(C Irapceanum La Llave,) which, from the great resemblance of its flowers to the bird of that name, is styled by the natives " Flor de Pelicano." As to the " Eagles/' 
they have not yet come under the cognizance of any professed botanist; but a fine Orchidacea which has been imported from Jamaica by that zealous collector, 
Mr. HoRSFALL, of Liverpool, is always spoken of as the " spread eagle " by the inhabitants of that island. Unfortunately, the plant has hitherto refused to flower ; and, 
therefore, we have had no opportunity of judging how far it deserves its title. 




assortment of wings, feathers, beaks, and bills.* From the beasts they have not copied quite so freely as from the 


In the catalogue of reptiles we find an endless variety of snakes, lizards, toads, and frogs.J Of shells, hkewise, there 

Then follows a mixed multitude of masks, cowls, hoods, caps, and helmets ; swords, spurs, crests. 


pikes, arrows, and lances ; whiskers, eyelashes, beards, bristles, tails, horns, and teeth ; combs, slippers, buckets, trowels 
pouches, saddles, &c. &c. |1 Nor is this mimicking propensity confined to the flowers alone, being equally conspicuous in 
their leaves and pseudo-bulbs, which have been likened to onions, cucumbers, bamboos, and palms ; tongues and mouse- 
tails ; hooks, whips, and straps ; swords and needles, &c. &c. Of some the leaves are inscribed with Arabic characters, 
of others the roots are cased in coral.^ 

Such are Orchidacege as distributed 


the world at large; it now only remains to notice them when 

confined within the limits of Mexico and Guatemala. And in so doing our attention will at once be attracted by the 
prominence of the particular tribe of Epidendrece, which, although greatly surpassed in other countries by the Vandece 
and Malax'idecB, may here challenge a comparison with either, not merely in number of species, but in the interest 
and beauty of their flowers. To the truth of the latter proposition the illustrations of this work bear ample testimony, 
the very choicest subjects being derived from the ranks of that dominant tribe. What, for example, can exceed the 
magniflcence of such plants as Lwlia superbiens, Epidendrum macrochilum, Barkeria spectahilis, or Cattleya Skinneri /* * 

The splendid genera Lwlia and Barkeria 


are almost exclusively Mexican, and where shall we hope to find forms of more perfect elegance, penciUing of more 
exquisite delicacy, or colours of more sparkling lustre than their various flowers display ! 

But these regions so unusually rich in Epidendrem are far from poor in other tribes. Here Oncidmm flourishes in 

the greatest variety and beauty, while Stanliopea, 


most showy attire, and 

Mormodes, CycnocJies, and Catasetum their most marvellous forms, ff The terrestrial species, also, are both numerous 
and beautiful, but the greater difiiculty that attends their introduction and cultivation has unfortunately narrowed our 
acquaintance with them. The Pelican-flower {Cypripedium Irapwanum) and Gove^iia capitata, W\i\i many other plants 
of extraordinary interest, are still included amongst our desiderata, notwithstanding that every exertion has been made 
to obtain them. A splendid exception, however, occurs in Sohralia macrantha, already the pride of British collections, 
though far from having attained the vigour which distinguishes it in its native haunts, where it is no unusual thing to 
meet with thickets ten feet high, composed entirely of its reed-like stems. 


The only other pecuharity of Mexican Orchidacege to which it is necessary to advert, is the circumstance of their 
being more abundant in the higher latitudes and purer air, than in the hot and pestiferous jungles of the coast. They 
have even been found in situations where snow not unfrequently falls, of which Oncidium nuUgenum and Lwlia superbiens 
are conspicuous examples. This power of withstanding a certain degree of cold must be regarded as a most important 
circumstance, especially by those— a numerous class, no doubt— who have hitherto only admired Orchidacege at a 
distance, and been deterred from attempting their cultivation by the heat and expense that ordinarily attend it. 

* The column in most Orchidaceous plants has its wings and beak infinitely diversified in structure. Feathers are not so plentiful, but they may be seen in great 
beauty m the various species of Ornithocephalus, all of which are quite birds in miniature. Psittacoglossum atratum, an unintroduced Mexican plant, has a black ton-ue 
like a parrot, and La Llave named it accordingly. ^ 

t The skins of the tiger and the leopard are rivalled by the petals of such plants as Sianhopea tigrina, Bidhophyllum leopardinum, &c. ; the "flos lyncea" of 
Hernandez (which can be no other than the Stanhopea Martiana of this work) is so called from its lynx-like eyes and teeth ; Dendrohhan taurhmm has nmch of the bull 
about Its face; and various Cataseta-C. semiapertum especially-grin like the ugliest monkey. Jceras anthropofera, the man-orchis, is a well-known plant 
extinct animals do not always escape ; a geologist would instantly recognise the head of a Dimtherium in the flowers of Masdevallia infracta. 

^ I PleurothalUs ophiocephala has a strong resemblance to a serpent's head, and PhoUdota imbricata an equally strong resemblance to a rattle-snake's tail. Lizards 
occur in PleurothalUs saurocephalus and Epidendrum lacertinum, and frogs in Epidendrum raniferam. 


§ Zygopetatum cochleare, Epidendrum cocUeatum, and PhoUdota Conchoidea afford as pretty specimens as any; PleurothalUs chitonoides is also a little gem of its 



II The genera Coryanthes, Coryclum, Bouatea, Pelexia, &c., all derive their names from caps and helmets, which they yield abundantly. For hideous masks we 
must look to Mormodes atropurpurea ; for cowls to Monacanthus (now Catasetum) discolor and viridis ; swords and pikes and other weapons of war are supplied in 
quantities innumerable by the various and complicated forms of the lip. Epidendrum selligerum, and many more, are provided with good saddles, and a host of Sac- 
colabia and aUied genera carry large bags and pouches. 

^ Onions in Oncidium ceholleta; cucumbers in BendroUum cucumeroides ; bamboos in Arundina hamhusifolia ; palms in Angrcecum palmiforme ; tongues and mouse- 
tails in BendroUum Unguceforme and B. myosurus ; hooks in Arpophyllum spicatum ; whips in Maxillaria (now Scuticaria) flagellifera ; straps in PleurothalUs strupifolia • 
needles in Epidendrum aciculare ; swords, passim. The name of Grammatophyllum scriptum proclaims its pecuharities (somewhat tautologically) ; Corallorhiza also. 


* * In the establishment of Messrs. Loddiges this plant has produced clusters of flowers as large as a man's head. In the same collection, Cattleija citrina—o^ 
old so refractory— has been found to succeed perfectly by merely inverting the plant (when suspended), and permitting it to grow downwards. 


1 1 Sianhopea tigrina, S, Martiana, Odontoglossum grande, and Maxillaria Skinneri, all belonging to Vandece, are unrivalled for the beauty and 
Dwers. Catasetum Russellianum, figured in the "Botanical Magazine," is, perhaps, the best of the Cataseta, at least if seen in perfection, when its h 

their flowers 

masses of whitish green flowers have a striking effect. 

magnitude of 
large pendulous 



'^<r7f? ^'i^FXB^^^^i 

Meya jBl.SXlov jx^ya kukov. 



'^ w 





- f 



made any progress among the 

moderns until the commencement of the present century. A few species had, it is true, been estabhshed at Kew, and in 


defiance than in consequence of the barbarous treatment they received. If, however, the gardener was in the dark as 
to the management of the tribe, the botanist w^as as much at fault as to their numbers and importance, for even Professor 
LiNDLEY — the first to entertain enlarged views upon the subject — in an early edition of his '' Natural System," estimates 
the probable extent of the tribe at only two thousand, a number that is exceeded, at the present time, by those actually 
cultivated in the hot-houses of England alone ! 

But, before we enter upon the details of the prevaihng modes of culture, it may not be uninteresting to make brief 

mention of the parties who, by their zeal and skill, have successively contributed to bring Orchis-growing to its present 
palmy state ; and first on the list must stand the well-known firm of C. Loddiges and Sons. A collection appears to have 
existed in this establishment for more than half a century, which, in the last ten years, has increased so rapidly that it 
now includes more than one thousand eight hundred species. Mr. Cattley, of Barnet, w^hose memory is embalmed in 


the splendid genus that bears his name, appears to have been the first successful private grower, and had the merit of 
introducing many excellent plants.^ The Horticultural Society had also, from the first estabhshment of their garden 
at Chiswick, spared no pains to discover the secret of epiphyte culture, and their experiments enabled Professor Lindley 
to compile his memorable paper '' Upon the Cultivation of Epiphytes of the Orchis Tribe," which was read May 18, 
1830, and from which the science of Orchis-culture may be said to date.f Contemporary with Mr. Cattley, and 
no doubt prompted by his success, other collectors soon appeared, of whom the most remarkable were the late 

■ -J f 

A - 

Mrs. Arnold Harrison and her brother, Mr. Richard Harrison, the Rev. J. T. Huntley, and the late T.ord FiTzwTT.LiAM.t 

Mr. R. Harrison's collection was, for many years, " the leader/' and was visited accordingly not by epiphyte-lovers only, 
but by botanists and men of science from all parts of the world. Aigburgth, in fact, became a sort of Mecca, to which the 
faithful Orchis-grower made his annual pilgrimage, and never without finding himself abundantly rewarded by the sight 
of its then unrivalled treasures. What are called ^' fine specimens" were here seen for the first time, and many were 
the years of patient care and skill that had been requisite to produce them. Next in order, and second to none of 
his predecessors in enthusiasm, came the writer of this article, who, impatient of the tardy rate at which new species 
crossed the seas, determined to expedite matters by dispatching a botanical collector to seek them in their native haunts. 
This service was undertaken by Mr 
fell short of expectation, it yet was sufficient to encourage other parties to embark in similar adventures. From this 
period the importation of Orchidace^ has steadily increased, and, although we now reckon the species by thousands, an 
inexaustible fund of novelty seems to be in store for us : and collections have multipHed almost as rapidly as the plants. 
Those of Mr. Barker and Mr. Williams, in the neighbourhood of Birmingham, became celebrated about the year 1834; 
and the former 

Mr. Ross to Mexico 


collection of the Rev. John Clowes next came into notice, as did shortly afterwards that of the Duke of Devonshire, at 

N to India, in 1836. But the annus mirahilis 

' I 

Gibson from the Nipalese Hills, and which 


■ . - . 

of Orchis-importatum was 1837. 





exquiste species from the interior of Guiana ; 



In the whole, not less, probably, than three hundred species were seen in 

England for the first time in this memorable year. 


Besides the collections already noticed, many others deserve to be enumerated, which, although more recent than some 



* Mr. Cattley's collection was disposed of to Mr. Knight, of the Exotic Nursery, about the year 1832. 

■ J 

f This paper is published in the "Horticultural Transactions," 2nd Series, Part I. : except that it advocates a temperature unnecessarily high, it contains no views 
that subsequent experience has not amply confirmed. 

X Of these, all except the collection at Wentworth, have disappeared. At the death of Mrs. Arnold Harrison, that lady's collection passed, like Mr. Cattley's, 
into the hands of Mr. Knight : Mr. Huntley's was removed to Chatsworth in 1835, and Mr. R. Harrison's dispersed by the hammer last year. 




Mr. Allcard, Mr. Cox, and Mrs. Lawrence, all in the neighbourhood of London, — Mr 


HoRSFALL and Mr. M 

Mr. Wanklyn and Mr. Bow, at Manchester 

There are also good collections at 



(Lord Mountnorris) 


Lemon) ; 

(Mr. Llewelyn) ; Bicton (I 


Although many of the collections above enumerated are nearly on a par, as respects the number of species they con- 
tain, there is a wide difference in the modes of culture employed, and in the degree of success attained ; and, therefore, a 
tour among those of greatest note would be of more service to the young Orchis-grower than any code of instructions 
that mififht be laid down for his guidance. 


studied with the 


are those of the Duke of 

Messrs. Loddiges. at Hacknev : the Rev. John Clowes, of Brousfhton Hall 

of West Hill, Wandsworth 

The two first are on 

immense scale, and 

ire, at 

nd Mr. 






from such sultrv localities as Sierra Leone, the Mauritius 




smaller house and lower temperatu 

In the 

some magnificent specimens 

but the 



The collections of Mr. Clowes and Mr. Rucker are admirably grown, and the houses in which they are disposed, 
seem so well adapted to serve as models^ that, with the permission of the owners^ a ground plan of each is given 
in a subsequent page. Mr. RucKER'sf plants are the most vigorous ; but the house of Mr. Clowes is the most 
enjoyable, and displays Orchidaceas to greater advantage than any other that we have hitherto seen. The plans will 

explain themselves. 



is an indispensable preliminary 


Supposing the plants estabhshed in a suitable house — which 
found to contain all that is most essential for their successful 

1st. The plants can scarcely have too much light or too little sun. 


Light prevents mildew, strengthens the fibre, and checks the disposition to throw up a succession of weakly shoots. 



he production of flowers. The sun, on the contrary, scorches and turns the leaves 
is to shine powerfully upon plants that have just left their winter quarters. In order 
many species should be suspended in the air from rafters or chains, some being placed 

blocks of wood (cork-wood is the best) or fragments of cocoa-nut husks 

moss and broken peat, or in pots with pierced 

perfectly for plants ( 



Examples of all these contrivances will be seen in the vignette at the conclusion of this article. To prevent injury from 
the rays of the sun, shading is, of course, necessary, but this should be so arranged as to be easily removed, as it ought 
not to be continued for more than ten or twelve hours on the very longest summer's day. Exotic climbing plants^ intro- 
duced SDarindv, are advantasreous, and have a good effect. 

2nd. Take care of the roots. 

depends. The winter is with them the most critical season, for if suffered to 

grow too drij they shrivel up and perish ; if too wet^ they rot. 

depends upon the mode 

plants are potted, and which should be such as to admit of their readily parting with all suDerfluous moisture ; and to 
secure this nothing is better than a plentiful admixture of broken potsherds. Hi^h-potting; is now so generallv practised 

* An example of perfectly natural treatment will, probably, ere long be afforded in the great conservatory at Chatsworth, where the palms and other glories of 
the tropical forest will soon be ready — at the rate they are now progressing — for the reception of epiphytes of all denominations. 

t Mr. Rucker has kindly sent the following memorandum of the mode of treatment, &c., at West Hill :— " Our average temperature, in winter, is about Qb'' at the 
warm end of the house, which usually falls to about 60^ at the other end, in summer 75° to 80°. I find that all the plants from temperate climates thrive better at the cool 
end of this long house than in another where is less moisture, and a lower temperature." 

* ■ '--I-'. " f - - — i- 


' - 

- 1-. 




in good collections, that it is needless to insist upon its importance. Rapidly growing plants, such as the different species 
of Phaius, Gongora, Peristeria, Stanhopea, &c., require to be broken up and entirely repotted every second or third year ; 
on the other hand there are some air-plants, &c., that may remain undisturbed for five or ten years together. 

3rd. Beware of 



Orchidaceje are more particularly exposed to the attacks of the following insects— woodhce, crickets, and cock- 
roaches, the thrip, a minute woolly w^hite scale, and a diminutive species of snail ; the two last being infinitely the most 
pernicious. WoodHce are easily kept in check by placing the plants on saucers, or within troughs filled with water, 
especiahy if the valuable aid of a few toads be called in. The " onyscamyntic epiphyte-stand"* invented by Mr. Lyons, 
IS an mgemous and, no doubt, effectual way of accomplishing the same end. It is made by merely fixing a forked branch, 
or block of wood, to the raised centre of a massive saucer or feeder which, being kept constantly full of water, forms a 
sort of foss — impassable to vermin — round the plant it is intended to guard. Crickets and cockroaches are very fond of 
flower-scapes, and to be dreaded accordingly. Red wafers scattered over and among the pots, are to them very tempting 
baits, and, if swallowed, the red lead they contain acts as a poison, but these pests are best destroyed by the mixture 
recommended for the white scale. The thrip does not do much mischief, except where plants are either neglected, or 
grown in too hot and dry a temperature. It usually first appears among the Calaseia, and is to be removed by careful 

Small snails abound in some collections, while, in others, they are unknown ; it is difficult to conjecture whence 
they come, and all but impossible to eradicate them entirely. They batten upon the tenderest roots, such as plants put 
forth when they are just beginning to grow, and if not kept in check would speedily produce irretrievable mischief 
Lettuce leaves, shces of potato, turnip, &c., are very enticing, and while they divert the attention of the enemy from the 


roots^ they also afford an opportunity of capturing him. The collections which are watered exclusively with ram-water 
are the least infested. But the worst plague of all is the small white scale, which, in its first insidious approaches, appears 
only as a white speck upon the leaves, then covers them with a soft whitish down, and finally kills them. For this the 
following remedy will be found efficacious ; viz., dissolve half a pound of camphor in a pint of spirits-of-wine ; the result 
will be an impalpable powder, to which add one pound of Scotch snuff; one ditto, pepper; one ditto, sulphur, and keep 
in a bottle (carefully stopped). This mixture should be dusted over the infected parts, and repeated whenever or 
wherever the enemy shows itself If persisted in for some time, the mixture rarely fails to effect a perfect cure ; and it 

has the further good property of acting as a most deadly poison to cockroaches, &c., which have quite disappeared in the 


collection at Knypersley since this mixture came into frequent use. Besides the above annoyances, the red spider and 
the brown scale are frequently injurious, but never except in' cases of gross neglect. 

4th. Give the plants a season of rest. 

Without a season of rest, most plants will not flower at all, and others do so very imperfectly. It is easily accom- 
plished in a variety of ways, either by moving the plants from the warmer to the cooler end of the house ; or by 
diminishing the quantity of water ; or by placing them in a cooler house. Even exposure in a hot, dry atmosphere, 
although it scorches their leaves, not unfrequently throws them into vigorous flower. Plants from the East Indies, and 
from other climates where the extremes of drought and wet are not felt so severely as in Brazil or Hindostan, require a 
season of rest proportionably short, and of a less decided character. 


5th. Attend to the condition of the air. 

In winter 60° to 65° is a wholesome temperature for most of the species ; in the summer it may rise to 70° or 75°, or 

even higher if derived from the heat of the sun. Where there are two houses, the warmer one should not be 
70^ even in winter ; but, fortunately, there are comparatively few kinds that insist upon so hot a berth. 



should always 


The latter should, however, be prevented from dripping 

upon the plants, as it condenses ; and this is easily effected by fixing a small copper pipe, or piece of channelled wood, under 
each rafter and sash-bar, to catch and carry off the water. 

6th. Do not over- water. 


This a beginner is very apt to do, and a grievous fault it is. When plants do not shrivel or flag, it is a sign that they 
are content with the humidity that the atmosphere of the house supphes. When watering is necessary, it should not be 
done indiscriminately, but according to the wants of particular plants. It is, also, of great importance to use rain-water 
only, which may be collected for the purpose in a tank, as shewn in the nlan of Mr. Rucker's house, and whirh should 

* What a pity Mr. Lyons did not invent an easier name for his ingenious device 


not be applied of a temperature below 60°, Syringing, in moderation, may be had recourse to in hot weather. Some of 
the Sohralias, together with Bromhcedia palustris, grow more vigorously if their pots are set in saucers of water during 
the summer months. 

To the foregoing rules the following advice may be added : — '' Do not aim at having too large a collection^ but rather 


strive to grow a few good kinds in the best style." With 

plants enumerated in the subjoined '^ Century/' will thrive apace^ and bloom freely — ^and he w4iom such a brilliant assem- 

blage fails to satisfy must be an ardent collector indeed. 











T€H-7z. u^clIbtz^ ^^^ 

-t! -J iy 



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' ^ 




J^- 171. 

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^t ill'. 


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■fc?T*»f *af 11 ifTTT 'tlrtn inwBa JaaamJ^^BJMjSa 

■^^OTg™,ra-rj^^nf„-tKqBtt3TiaTOWBMM^^ „ ■■■ rTi« f.3&aTj'*a«g<sagaMi>njcaamit^^ 






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ynoke ^^lix^e 

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These Shel^je^ are all JDislv Top^'i'- 










"r^-GallerT/- - ,— ..^^— ^„^__„^^^j^^. 







TJtefie Shelfe^y^ aUy Slope 'Lzti/ards. 


























aggregatum . 


























coccinea. j 












* • 












































































-The plants marked with an asterisk have not yet flowered in England, but are known, from dried specimens, to be admirable things. Many 
fine species are omitted in this list on account of the difficulty of managing them, and none are inserted but such as will succeed with ordinary care. 






Loddigesii. — LindL Gen, 8^ Spe. 172. 
{Maxillaria galeata. — Lodd, Bot. Cab, 1. 1645.) 


punicea. — La Llave, Nov. Veg, 31. 


s])iCRtnm,— La Have, Nov. Veg. 2, 22; Bat. Reg, 
1839, Misc. 16. 


epidendroides. — LindL Bat. Reg. sub. t. 1907. 


elegans. — Knowles ^ Westcott, Floral Cabinet, 
t. 49. 

Lind\eyana.~Bate. Orchid, t. 28. 
spectabilis. — Bot. Reg. Misc. 1842, 45 ; Bateman 
Orchid. Mex. t. 33. 



gracilis.— 5o^. Reg. t. 1681. 
campanulata.— Za Llave, Nov. Veg. 2, 17. 
coccinea. — La Llave, Nov. Veg. 2, 16. 
secunda. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 120. 
punctata. — La Llave, Nov. Veg. 2, 15. 


sordidum. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 217. 


grandiflora. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1839, Misc. 14. 
glauca. — -LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, t. 44; Bate. 

Orchid. Mex. t. \Q>. 
venosa. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 24, t. 39. 


aurea. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 22. 


candata.. — LindL Bot. Reg., t. 832. 
brachiata. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 2. 

(B. JVrayce, Hart.) 
verrucosa. — Bateman Orchid, t, 22. 


laminatura. — LindL Sert. Orchid, t. 30 ; Bot. 
Reg. 1841,/. 5. 

maculatLim. — Humboldt Sf Kunth; Bateman, Or- 
chid. Mex. t. 2. 

Russellianum. — Hooker Bot. Mag, t. 3777. 

tridentatum, — Hooker Exot. FL 91. 

L 1. 


grsinnlosa.— LindL Bot. Reg. 1842, 
citrina. — Paxton, Mag. Bot. 
(^Sobralia citrina.- — La Lave.) 
Skinneri. — Bateman Orchid. /. 13. 


loevis." OrcAzt/. Mex. t. 31, Bot. Reg. 1840, 

Misc. 130. 
bractescens. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1841, t. 23. 


Irapa;anum. — La Llave, Nov. Veg. 12. 


tristis. — LindL Bot. Reg. t, 1889. 


Bauerana.— 5o^ Reg. 1842, t. 36. 
macrostachia. — LindL in Bot, Reg. sub. t. 36. 


coccinea. — Bot. Reg. 1838, t. 68. 
rose-d.—Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 86. 


* 7 T 7 



var. — Bateman Orchid, t. 36. 


tubulosa. — LindL Gen. ^^ Spe. p. 451. 


pendula. — La Llave, Nov. Veg. 2, 36. 


rosea. — LindL Bot. Reg. t. 1872. 


_ / 

Egertonianum. — Bateman Orchid. Mex. t. 40. 
maculatum. — LindL Sert. Orchid. 
ventncosum.~B ateman Orchid. Mex. t. 5.'] 


filipes. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1841, t. 59. 

graminifolium. — LindL in Bot. Reg. 1841, sub. 
t. 59. 

maculatum. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1838, t. 44; Sert, 
Orch. XXV. 


punctatum. — LindL Sert, Orchid, t. xii. ; Bot. 
Mag. t, 3507. 
(C. Wilmorei ; C, speciocissimum.) 


iridifolia. — Hart. 


cordata. — LindL Bot, Reg. 1838, Misc. 134. 


paleacea. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 112. 


adenocarpum. — La Llave, Bot. Mag. t, 3631. 
(J?, papillosum, Batemaji,) 

adenocaulon. — La Llave, Nov. Veg. 2, 22. 
altissimum. — Bateman, Bot. Reg. 1838, t. 61. 
{E. Grahami, Bot. Mag. 3885). 

aloifolium. — Bate., Orchid, Mex, t. 25. 
alatnm, — Bateman, Orchid, Mex. t. 18. 

(i?. calocheilum. 


Hooker, Bot. Mag. t.3898,) 
La Llave, Nov, Ve(^. 2, 31. 


Lindl. Bot, Reg, 1843, Misc. 43. 
Bateman, Orchid, Mex. t. 10. 

aurantiacum. — Bateman, Orchid. Mex. t. 12. 

antennifcrum. — LindL 

articulatum. — Klotzsch, Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc. 

asperura. — Lindl, Bot, Reg. Misc. p. 29, 1842. 

auYitvim.-^ LindL Bot. Reg* 1843, Misc. 4. 

Boothianum.— Zmrf/. Bot, Reg, 1838, Misc. 7. 

bractescens. — LindL Bot. Reg. Misc. 1842, p, 32. 

calocheilum.— //"ooAer in Bot. Mag. t. 3898. 

Candollei. — LindL Bot, Reg. Misc, 1839, 76, 
{E. cepiforme. — Hooker Bot. Mag. t, 3765,) 

cochleatum. — Linnceus, Passim. 

concolor. — lAndl. Bot, Reg, 1842, Misc. p. 31. 

crispatum. — Knowles Sf Westcott, Flor, Cab. v. 2, 
p. 79. 

erubescens. — Bateman, Orchid, Mex. t. 32. 

equitans.— i?o;. Reg. Misc. 1838, 76. 

floribundum. — Humboldt 8f Kunth, Nov. Gen. 1, 
353, t. 86. 
{E, densijlorum ? — Hooker, Bot. Mag. t, 3791.) 

falcatum.— i5oi^. Reg. 1840, Misc. 20. 
{E. Parkinsonianum. — Hooker, Bot, Mag, t, 3778.) 

fruticosum. — Pavon. 



gladiatum. — Lindl, Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc. 20. 
glaucum. — Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 56. 
(Epithecium glaucum.- — Knorvles ^ Westcott, Flor. Cab. 
t. 87.) 

hastatum. — LindL in Hooker's Journal, 3, 82. 
lamellatum. — Westcott in Bot. Rexr. 1843, Misc, 


ndL Bot: Reg. 1842, Misc. 70. 
Lind. Bot. Reg, 1842, t, 50. 
LindL Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc. 109. 
Klobzsch in Allfiem. srarten. 1829. 
La Llave, p. 98. 




EPIDENDRUM (continued), 

miserum. — Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc. 62. 

Michuacanum.' — La Llave, L. Gen. 8f Spe, j^- 

nemorale. — LindL in Hooker's Journal, 3, 32. 
ovalifolium, — Lindl. Gen. and Spe. p. 104. 
{E. Clorvesii. — Hart.) 

ocbraceum. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1838, Misc. 15, 

t, 26. 
pastoris. — La Llave, Bot, Reg. 1842, Misc, p. 



(jB. bisetum. 


pterocarpum. — Li^idl. in Hooker's Journal, 3, 82 ; 

Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc. 128. 
raniferum. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1842, t. 42. 
^^ radiatum. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1842, sub. t, 50. 
radicans. — Pavon. 
? (E, rhizophorum. — Bateman.') 

selligerum. — in Bot. Re^. Misc. 66, 





Skinneri. — Bateman, Bot. Reg. t. 1881. 
Stamfordianum. — Bateman Orchid, Men 
Bot. Mag 

tripterum. — LindL Hooker's Journal, 3, 83. 
tripunctatum. — LindL Bot, Reg. Misc. 1841, 113. 
varicosum. — Bateman Bot. Reg. Misc. 37, 1838. 
vitellinum. — LindL Sert. Orchid, t, 45 ; Bot, Reg. 

1840, t. 35. 
venosum. — LindL Gen. ^ Spe, p. 99. 
virgatum. — LindL in Hooker's Journal, v. 3, p. 83. 
vimheWatnm.—Swartz. Bot, Mag. t, 2030. 
viscidum. — LindL Bot. Reg, Misc. 1840, 190. 


Americana. — LindL in Amer. Nat. Hist. 4, 385, 


brevilabris. — Lindl. Gen, 8f Spe, 161. 


robusta. — Bateman. 


Baueri. — Lindl, Bot. Reg, 1840, t. 49; Bateman 
Orchid. Mex, t.\9. 


fulva. — Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1839, ^.51. 
maculata. — Bot. Reg, 1841, Misc. 101. 
truncata. — Lindl, Bot. Reg. 1843, Misc. 


var, angustifolia. 


capitata, — Lind, Bot, Reg. sub. t. 1795. 

liliacea. — Lindl, Bot. Reg. 1838, t. 13. 
{Maxillaria liliacea. — La Llave,) 

superba. — Lodd, Bot. Cab. t, 1709. 
(Maxillaria superba. — La Llave.) 

lagenophora. — Lindl, Bot, Reg. 1839, Misc. 66. 


purpurea. — LindL Bot, Reg. 1840, Misc, 96. 

Bot, Reg, 1843, Mac. 58. 


fasciculata. — Adolphe Brongniart Ann. Sc. xvii., 

p. 44; Bot. Reg, 1842, Misc. 46. 
crurigera. — Bateman. 

{Hexopea crurigera. — Bateman.) 

lurida. — Bateman MSS. 


flexuosa. — Lind. Gen, <^ Spe. 310. 
crassicornis.— imfZ. Gen. ^' Spe, 310. 
clypeata. — Lind. Gen, ^ Spe. 310. 
entomantha. — Lindl. Gen. 8^ Spe. 310. 
(Orchis, entomatha, — Za Llave.) 


utriculariodes.—ii^iti!. Gen, Sf Spe. 193. 



SYNOPSIS (continued.) 


lividum. — LindL Bot. Reg» 1839, Misc. 45. 
graminifolium. — Humboldt Nov, Gen, 1, 340, t, 

grandifloruin. — LindL Bot, Reg, 


autumnalis. — La Llave, — Bateman Orchid, Mex, 

t. 9, 
anceps. — Bot, Reg, t, 1751, 
acuminata. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1841, t, 24, 

albicla Bot, Reg, 1839, t. 54. 

farfuracea.— ^0^. Reg, 1839, t. 26. 
fiava.— LindL Bot, Reg, 1842, t. 62, 
grandiflora. — La Llave, 2, 17; LindL Bot, Reg, 

1842, suh, t, 62. 
majalis. — Orchid, Mex, t, 23, 
peduncularis. — LindL Bot, Reg, Misc, 1842, 10. 
rubescens. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1841, t, 41. 
superbiens. — LindL — Orchid, Mex, t, 38. 


alata. — Scheidweiler in Garten-zeitung 1842, p, 

elata. — Bot, Reg, ^.1175. 


carinatus. — Bot, Reg, Misc, 1842, 22. 
{^Oncidium cartnatum, — Floral Cabt, 2, p, 30.) 

oncidioides. — Bot, Reg, Misc, 1842, 22. 


acutipetala. — Hooker Bot, Mag, t, 3966. 
aromatica. — Hook, Ex, Flo, t, 219; Bot, Reg, t, 

Boothii,— LindL Bot, Reg. 1838, Misc, 95, 
cruenta. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1842, ^.13. 
cucuUata. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1840, t, 12. 
densa. — Landl. Bot, Reg, 
Deppii. — Loddiges Bot, Cab, t, 1612. 

Macleei. — Bateman in Bot, Reg, 1840, Misc, 

rhombea. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1840, sub, t, 12. 
Skinneri. — Bateman Orchid, Mex, t, 35. 
{Lycaste Skinneri, — LindL Bot, Reg, Misc, 1843, p. 16.) 

tenui folia. —_BoL Reg, 1839, t, 8. 
variabilis.— 5o^. Reg, 1838, Misc, 36. 
xanthina.— ix/xc?. Bot, Reg, 1839, sub, t, 17.' 


excavata. — LindL Bot. Reg, 1838, Misc, 93. 


aromaticum. — LindL Bot, Reg-, Misc, 1841, 162. 



lineatum. — LindL Bot. Reg. 1842, t, 43. 
luxatum. — LindL Bot, Re^. 1842, Misc. 60. 


1843, t, 33, 
var, citrinum. — Hort, 
{Cyclosia maculata, — Klotzsch.) 


Barken.— LindL Bot. Reg. 1838, Misc. 168. 


Barkeri, — Hort, 



apterum.— ia Llave, Nov, Veg. 2, 38. 
Cervantesii.— ia Llave, Nov, Veg, 2, 39. 
Clowesii. — Hort, 

Bictoniense. — Liiidley Bot, Reg, 1840, t, 66. 

(Cyrtochilum Bictoniense, — Orchid. Mex. t, 6.) 

citrosmum. — 

grmAe,— Bateman Orchid, t, 24 ; Bot. Reg, 
Misc. 1840, 94. 

pulchellum — Bateman in Bot, Reg. 1841, t, 48, 
maculatum.— Za IJave, Bot. Reg, 1840, t, 30. 
Rossii.— imrf/. Bot, Reg, 1839, t. 48. 

(0. Ehrenbergii, 








1 : 


i ' U 

Barkeri.— Zmc/^. Bot. Reg. 1841, Misc, 174; 
Sert. Orchid, t, 48* . . 

ONCIDIUM (continued), 

bicallosum. — LindL Bot. Reg, Misc. 1842, 14; 

1483, t. 12, 
brachyphyllum. — LindL Bot. Reg, 1842, sub, t. 4. 
brachyandrum. — LindL Sert, Orchid, sub, t. 48. 
candidum. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1843, Misc. 76. 
Cavendishianum. — Bateman Orchid. Mex, t. 3. 
(^Oncidium pachyphyllum. — Hooker.) 

confragosum. — LindL Sert, Orchid, sub. t. 48. 

hyalinobulbon — La Llave. 

echinatum. — Humboldt. 

ensatum. — LindL Bot, Reg. Misc, 1842, 15. 

Forkelii. — Scheidweiler, — Garten-zeitung, 1842, 

p, 309. 
Insleayii. -—Zmr?. Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 21 ; 

Orchid, Mex. t. 2\, 
incurvum. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1840, Misc, 174; 

Orchid. Mex. t, 29. 
leucochilum. — Bateman Orchid, Mex, t. \, 
longifolium. — LindL Bot. Reg, t, 4, 1842. 
Karwinskii. — LindL Sert, Orchid, sub, t, 48. 
{Cyrtochilum Karwinskii, — Bot. Reg, sub, t, 1992.) 

funereum. — La Llave ; LindL Sert, Orchid, sub, 

t, 48. 
microchilum. — LindL Bot, Reg, Misc. 1840, 193 ; 

1843, t, 23. 
nebulosum. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1841, Misc, 175, 
omithorhynchum. — Humboldt ^ Kunth, Nov, 

Gen. 1, 345, t, 80 ; Orchid, Mex, t, 4. 
obovatum. — Presl, reliq, 1, 99. 
pelicanum. — Hort, Monac, ; Bot. Reg, 1840, 

Misc, 216. 
pergameneum. — Bot, Reg, 184.2, Misc, 7, 
Lindenii. — Sert. Orchid, sub, t, 48. 
sphacelatum.—imd'/. Bot. Reg, t, 30, 1842. 
Suttoni, — Bateman in Bot, Reg, 1842, Misc. 8. 
stramineum. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1840, t, 14. 
^\mYe.~- LindL Bot, Re^, 1843, Misc. 22. 


La Llave ; LindL 


203 ; LindL Sert, Orchid, sub, t. 48, 







nudum. — Bateman Bot. Reg, sub, t, 1994, 
longifolium, — LindL Bot, Reg, 1842, t. 4. 
cebolleta. — Swartz.—Bot. Reg, t, 1994. 
iridifolium. — Bot. Reg, t, 1911, 
digitatum. — LindL Sert. Orchid, sub, t. 48. 
carthaginense. — Srvartz. 

(O. luridum, — LindL Bot. Reg, t. 727.) 

(0. intermedium, — Knorvles <§' Westcott, Flor. Cab. 

t, 60.) 
(0. sanguineum. — LindL Sert. Orchid, t. 27.) 

(0. roseum, — Hort,) 

(0. Henchmanni. — Hort.) 


procumbens. — Humboldt ^ Kunth ; LindL Gen. 
Sf Spe. 208. 


Barkeri, — Bateman Orchid. Mex. t, 8, 


carinatus. — LindL Bot, Reg. 1838, Misc, 132. 

{Stelis tubata. — Lodd, Bot. Cab,) 



angustifolia. — Lind. Bot, 












ophiocephala, — LindL Bot, Reg. Misc, p, 78, 


pachyglossa. — LindL Bot, Reg, 1842, Misc. p 


pubescens, — LindL Bot, Reg. 1842, Misc, 76, 

PLEUROTHALLIS (continued), 






& Westcott, Flor, Cab. v. 2, p. 




graminifolia. — Bot, Reg. Misc. 1839, 15. 
{Nemaconia gramini folia, — Floral Cab, p, 127.) 

juncifolia. — LindL Gen. ^ Spe, p, 113. 
striata. — LindL Bot. Reg. Misc. 1842, 17. 


clavata, — LindL Bot, Reg. Misc. 1842, 71. 


atratum. — La Llave, Nov. Veg, 29. 



maculata. — LindL Bot, Reg. 1840, Misc, 218. 



tibicinis. — Bateman Orchid, t, 30. 
{Epidendrum tibicinis, — Bot. Reg. 1838, Misc. 12.) 


Martiana. — Bateman Orchid. Mex. t. 27. 
oculata, — Loddiges, Bot, Cab, ; Bot. Reg. 1800. 
var. Wardii. — LindL Sert, Orchid, t. 14. 

graveolens,— j5o^. Reg, 1840, Misc. 125.. 

aurea. — Bot. Reg, 1841, Misc, 31. 

venusta, — Bateman, 
saccata, — Bateman Orchid, Mex, t, 15. 

maculosa Knowles ^ Westcott, Floral Cab. t, 

tigrina. — Bateman Orchid, t. 7; Bot. Reg, 1839, 

t. 1, 


cerina. — Bot. Reg, Misc. 1842, 19, 


sulphureus. — LindL Gen, Sf Spe, 478. 
(Neottia sulphurea. — La Llave,) 

lupulinus. — LindL Gen. ^' Spe. 479. 

aurantiacus. — LindL Gen, 8f Spe, 479. 
(Neottia aurantiaca. — La Llave.) 

cinnabarinus. — LindL Gen, <^ Spe. 479, 
(^Neottia cinnabarina.—La Llave.) 

Michuacanus. — LindL Gen, ^ Spe, 479. 
(Neottia Michuacana, — La Llave.) 


graminea, — LindL in Benth, PL Hartweg, p. 25, 

No, 224. 
ramentacea, — LindL Ann, Nat, Hist. 4. 
pyramidalis. — LindL Gen. ^ Spe, 473. 
Llaveana. — LindL in Benth. PI. Hartweg, p, 72, 
(Neottia micrantha, — La Llave,) 


ciliaris.— Zmc?Z. Bot. Reg. 1838, Misc, 40. 
linearis. — LindL Gen. ^ Spe, p, 9. 
(Humboldtia purpurea,') 








macrostachia. — Hort. 



LindL Bot. Reg. 

1843, Misc. 17. 

LindL Bot. Reg. t, 1951. 


tortilis. — LindL Bot, Reg. t, 1863 




LindL Bot, Reg,, 

Misc, 1838, 135. 

xlngens,— LindL Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. 121. 


J£^ss Br^Jai. del/- 



M Oaual hth SJiortA Q-escm-t^ Sedfin^d Sq^ 

PiMhyJ.B/-j0m7y A- Son/6, 269. Jk/:cmh% Ju^ I IS37. 

Tab. I. 



Tribus: YAN'DE^.—Lindi.ey. 

O^ClBlVM.^Swartz. Act. Holm. 239. 1800. Broion in Hort. Keic. 5. 215. 

Periantiiium explanatum. Sepala saepiiis unclulata : lateralibus nunc sub 
labello connatis. Petalia conformia. Labellum maximum ecalcaratum, cum 
columna continuum, varie lobatum, basi tuberculatum v. cristatum. Columna 
libera, semiteres, apicc utrinquc alata. Anthera semibilocularis, rostcllo nunc 
abbreviatOj nunc elongato rostrato. PoUinia 2, postice sulcata, caudicula plana, 
glandula oblonga.— Herbse epiphytae, nunc pseudo-bulbosae. Folia coriacca. 
Scapi paniculati vaginati, rarius simplices. Flores speciosi, lutei, sa^pius 
maculati, raro alhu^LtiuUey, Gen, et Sp. OrcJi. 196. 

OwciDiun pseudo-bulbis ovatis sulcatis 1-2 phyllis, foliis ensiformibus scapo exaltato paniciilato 
multo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongis obtusis subasqualibus patentissimis, labello rcnifonui altc 
bilobo utrinque emarginato : laciniis lateralibus nanis retusis, crista 3-corni basi utrinquc dcntato, 
columnar alis acinaciformibus crenulatis. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skikner, 


An Epiphyte. Pseudo-bulbs deeply sulcated, ovate, tapering towards the apex, compressed 
at the edges, from 2 to 4 inches long, throiving out numerous slender icirg roots. LEAVES sword- 
shaped, a foot or more long, one and sometimes two on each pseudo-halh. SOAPE, 3-4 feet high, 
quite erect, hearing from its very commencement numerous hranches^ on ichich the flowers are 
rather loosely scattered, SepalS and Petals nearly equal, ohlong, ohtuse, spread ivide open, 
of a bright green colour, blotched with a rich reddish brown. LiP pure lohite, lohed ; the lateral 
lobes small, rounded; the middle lobe broadly kidney -shaped, emarginate. CreST, consisting of 
5 tubercles, of which the two outer are thin and sharp, the 2 inner fleshy and straight, and the 
middle one, (which is much the largest,) resembling in form the horn of a rhinoceros, pointing 
towards the base. Wings of the Column crenulate, scimitar-shaped, of a faint rose-colour. 

The extensive genus Oncidium, which now comprehends upwards of sixty species, contains 
none more distinct or remarkable, — we had almost said, more beautiful,— than our present subject. 
In habit O. leucochilum is large and stately, and approaches O. altissimum, Baueri, and pictum; but 
its flower-stems have the peculiarity of being branched from the very base, which we have never observed 
in any other species. Its most characteristic feature is, however, the well-proportioned pure white 
labellum, which contrasts agreeably with the dark-green sepals and petals. The rose-coloured wings of 
the column likewise add to the elegance of the flower. In O. pidchellum (which oflcrs the onlyj- other 
known example of a white labellum), not only is the habit totally different, but the lip is spotted 

* " So named from oyKoc, a tumour ; the genus being composed wholly of species^ the labellum of which bears at its base warts, tumours, or 
other excrescences."' — Lindley. 

t Something like a white labellum is found in a httle species, called 0. lunaium ; but it is a very dirty white, and also blotched with brown. 

towards the c-entrc with yellow, and is so large as nearly to conceal the sepals and petals, which, like 
itself, are white. 

Tlic roots of O. hucocMlum are produced in great abundance, and are of a very fine wiry texture. 
As an example of a directly opposite character, we may instance O. Cavendkluaitum (Tab. III., of this 
Work) of which the roots are few, but the thickest in the genus. Tlie pseudo-bulbs of O. leucochilum 
press closely upon one another, so that the roots get cramped and entangled amongst them in hopeless 
confusion, and to such an extent as almost to bury the poor tubers alive. When, on the arrival of 
a collection of Orcludacem from abroad, a case of this description is observed, strong measures must 
be immediately resorted to ; for although the love of fine specimens may plead against the dismemberment 
of so larf>-e a mass of bulbs so " full of lusty life," still it is next to impossible to cultivate the species 
with any success till it has been freed from this incubus of rubbish and roots. The latter have usually 
lost their vitality on their arrival ; and if not, they soon become rotten when subjected to a moist heat ; 
they are, therefore, apt to occasion the decay of the pseudo-bulbs, and at the same time are incapable of 
contributing in any way to their support. They are therefore to be removed carefully and speedily, which 
is not to be effected without breaking up the masses into pieces, each containing 3 or 4 pseudo-bulbs ; 
and if among these any decayed ones be observed, they must at once be cut away. Besides the danger 
to be apprehended from decomposition, these collections of roots afford a secure retreat to a species of 
" Cockroach," of which we shall hereafter speak, and than which, Orchidacem have no greater foe. 

O. leucochilum appears to be not uncommon in Guatemala, Avhere it was found by Mr. Skinner, 
and sent to us in 1835 ; and in the autumn of the following year was produced the specimen from which 
our fiiiure is taken. 

The Yignette is a representation of Istapa, from a spirited sketch by Mr. Skinner, made while 
out at sea in 1834. 


Andes, giant of the ^Vestern Star ! 

With meteor standard to the winds iinfurrd; 

Looks from his throne of clouds o'er half the world/' 

My} Ih-aJi^ dd. 

M- CamiL. lUk. c? :\vrtli Oc.;rmt Bidfcri S</^- 

C A:r A >S :E T r?I ZlAmAT Oi » 

71./ d /.,, rD. 

W fyJ.J^chniuyaSciu:. I6^JYrca.Mly,Ji(fy J'^L'SST. 

Tab. II. 



Tribus: VANDE^.— Lixdley. 

C AT A^Y/IU^l.— Richard, in Kunth Synops. I. 330. Lindley, Gen. et Species Orcli. 13G. 

Periantiiium ssepius giobosum, nunc explanatum. Sepala et petala sub- 
aequalia. Labellum crassmn, carnosum, nudum ventricosum, v. explanatum 
fimbriatum ; sub apice saccatum, obsolete trilobum. Columna erecta, aptera, 
libera, apice utrinque cirrhosa. Anthera sub-bilocularis, anticc truncata. 
Pollinia % posticc biloba v. sulcata, caudicula maxima nuda demum elastice 

contractili, glandula cartilaginea subquadrata. Herbte tenestres v. epiphyte, 

caulibus brevibus fusiformibus vestigiis foliorum vestitis. Folia basi vaginantia, 
plicata. Scapi radicales. Flores speciosi, racemosi, virides, nunc purpureo- 

Catasetum iDseudo-bulbis sub-globosis fusi-formibus, foliis lato-Ianceolatis acutis plicatis, scapis 
paucifloris foliis suba^qualibus ; scpalis lanceolatis aciiminatis petalisque majoribus oblongis acutis- 
labello cucullato apice l-dcntato marginibus ciliatis ; columnEe cirrhis brevibus crassis. 

Catasetum maculatum, Kunth, Synops. I. 831. 

Habitat in Regno Novo-Granatcnsi, propc Turhaco, Humboldt; In Nlcaragud versus littora 
Occani Atlantici, Skinner. 


An Epiphyte. PseudO-DVLBS large and inclining to he globular, each heariiuj several 
broadly lanceolate, plicated, acute LEAVES, of a foot or a foot and a half in length. SCAPES radical, 
about the same length as the leaves, hearing from 4: to S flowers. SepaLS narroio, acuminate, the 
lateral ones arched after the -manner of the half of a how, whitish on the outer side, and faintly spotted 
with claret colour on the inner, PETALS broader than the sepals, with blotches of a clear reddish 
chesnut hue. LiP cucidlate, tvith a small circular opening on its face (the sides of tchich are delicately 
fringed), and firnished in front with a not very prominent tooth ; the lip is of a uniform yellowish green 
on the outside, but is dark brown, approaching to black, within. CoLUMN erect, nearly straight, hearing 
two short and stout bristles, which point downwards and lean towards each other, with their extremities 
almost touching ; spotted on the hack after the manner of a frog. 

Fig. 1 represents the face of the column. Fig. 2 is a side view of the same. 

/ALTHOUGH the figure on the opposite side does not exactly agree with the description of Catasetum 
maculatum given by M. Kunth in his Synopsis, still we have little or no doubt that we are correct in 
referring it to that species ; and we have, moreover, the satisfaction of knowing that the opinion of Professor 

* So called from " kutu," downwarJsj and " setK," bristles, — tlie column of all the species being furnished with two processes like hairs, 

which point downwards. 

LiKDLEY on this point coincides Avith our own. The only discrepancies of any moment arc, tliat 
M. Kunth's plant is described as having serrated petals, and leaves only three inches long. Now, as to 
the latter character, it is too variable in this genus to be of any weight; and as to the former, we 
apprehend there must be some mistake, for no such a thing as a " serrated petal" has, wc believe, ever 
been seen amongst Orchidacea3. The nearest affinity of this species is, undoubtedly, with C. tridentatum ; 
but from that it is easily distinguished, by the fringed margin of its lip (the apex of which terminates in 
a single tooth), and by its sepals and petals, which stand away from, and clear of, the lip, instead of half 

concealing it. 

C. maculatum was originally discovered by Humboldt, near the town of Turbaco, in New Grenada 
(and at that time was the only Catasetum known) ; but Mr. Skixner, who met with it on the eastern 
coast of Nicaragua, lias the merit of having introduced it into this country ; and our figure is taken from a 
plant which we received from him in the summer of 183G, and which flowered in the followino; winter. 

Having had occasion, in these remarks, to mention the name of the Baron vo:j- Humboldt, we 
cannot deny ourselves the satisfaction of taking this opportunity of alluding, in terms of the most respectful 
gratitude, to the courtesy and kindness with which we were received by that illustrious traveller, when we 
visited Berlin in 1836. How deep was the admiration with which we gazed on his expressive countenance ! 
and how great Avas our wonder when we found nothing to lead us to conclude that the perils and hardships 
of his long and laborious life had in any way impaired his physical energies, or damped the scientific ardour 
of his mind! His recollection of the scenes and incidents of his travels in South America (anno 1799), 
seemed as fresh as if he had returned but yesterday from those sultry shores! of the truth of wiiich 
observation, the following anecdote will furnish a good illustration. Having had occasion to put a question 
to him respecting the Orchidacete of a portion of Columbia, he at once proceeded to name the different 
genera and species which it contained, and to point out their respective localities, with such ease and 
precision, that one would almost have supposed Botany to have been his only study, and the Orchidaccce 
his favourite tribe : this will appear not a little remarkable, when we remember that there is scarcely a 
science with which he is not even more familiar than with Botany. 

Nothing can be easier to cultivate than the different species of Catasetum ; they flower profusely alike 
under damp or dry, under hot or cold treatment; perhaps, however, they attain their highest vigour if 
subjected during the summer to a powerful moist heat, with a plentiful supply of water ; but in the winter 
they should be kept tolerably dry. 

The Vignette is a full-length portrait of Blatta yir/antea, taken from a specimen in the extensive 
cabinet of natural history belonging to Miss Charlotte Wilbraham, of Rode Hall. He (the Blatta, 
Anglicii Cockroach) arrived in this country in a box of Orchidacea^, upon which, judging from the condition 
of the plants, he must have made many a hearty meal ; indeed, the Catasetum now described was almost 
the only plant which survived the effects of his voracious appetite. 






^ n. 

-- -< 


— r- * r- ■— — 



' ■; ' 

/ . 'S J 

w- • 


rA:T:Er?'Di^si[iArTr2i , 


■ •* 


_. h J? : MM 

' I 

H J 

Tab. III. 



Tribus: VA^N'DExE.— Li.xdley. 

OxciDiUM foliis erectis carnosis lato-lanceolatis acutis scapo elato paniculato triplo brcvioribus, 
sepalis obovatis obtusis, supremo fornlcato, petalls suba;qualibus oblongis obtusis valdc undulatis : labello 
niagno trilobo, laciniis latcralibus rotundis petalis sub-conformibus, intermedin majore reniforme profunda 
emarginata, crista? tuberculis 2 ad basin 2 a fronte lamella; elevatSB rotundatai sitis : columna brevi crass^ 
auriculo decurvo clavato versus apicem utrinque auctA. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 


PsEUDO-BULBS, none. LEAVES erect, fleshy, hroadhj -lanceolate, sharp-pointed, very deeply 
keeled , a foot or a foot and a half long . RoOTS few, very thick. SCAPE 4 feet high, half an inch 
thick at the base, hut tapering gradually, and hearing at its extremity a rather dense PaNICLE, 
almost a foot in length. SePALS and PETALS nearly equal, obtuse, of a greenish yellow colour, 
spotted with bright chesnut. LiP of a pure dazzling yellow, 3~lobed, the lateral lobes are nearly 
circular, and approach, in form, the petals, which, from their position, they almost conceal ; the 
central lobe is very large, kidney -shaped, and deeply emarginate. COLUMN short and thick, 
provided, in lieu of wings, with two singular processes, which curve downwards and incline towards 
each other, surmounted by a cowl-shaped AktHEH. 

Fig. 1 is a magnified representation of the Column and Crest. 

J, HIS is a very handsome and distinct species of Oncidium ; and we have, therefore, no hesitation 
in naming it after a nobleman, whose devotion to botany and horticulture is now far too well known 
to render it necessar}^ for us to enlarge upon it here. In a few years we hoj)e to see the beautiful 
family, to which this plant belongs, seated in all their natural majesty on those trees of which they are 
the proper " incumbents," and under the shelter of the great Plant-Stove at Chatsworth. When this 
grand structure is completed, all the most striking vegetable forms of India, Africa, and America, will 
be seen in, perhaps, more than their native luxuriance within its ample boundaries ; and tlius, anndst 
the wildest scenery of Derbyshire, there will be foiuid an example of tropical vegetation, richer and more 
varied than could be met with in any of those baleful latitudes themselves. 

Oncidium Cavendishianum Is another of the important discoveries of Mr. Skinner; and it formed 
part of the first collection that we had ever the pleasure of receiving from him. On opening the box 
in which it was packed, our attention was at once arrested by the prodigious strength of the flower stems, 
which had the further peculiarity of being destitute of flowers for upwards of three-fourths of their height; 
and thus they contrasted, in the most striking manner, with those of O. leucochllum (Tab. I.), of which a 
plant arrived in the same case. O. Cavendishianum approaches, perhaps, nearer to O. luridum than to 
any other known species; but not only are the floAvers of a very difierent form, and of nearly double the 
size, but the erect habit of its rigid leaves would at once distinguish the species, even when not in bloom. 

* Oncidium supra. Tab. I. 

It will prove a very easy species to cultivate, and a very free flowerer, in which it seems to follow the 
example of O. luriJum ; but it will, we fear, long continue a scarce plant, as it grows very slowly, and 
seems indisposed to make more than one shoot in a year, or than one shoot at a time. The species was 
found by Mr. Skinner in the neighbourhood of the city of Guatemala, where it flowers in January ; 
and in the same month of the present year, the specimen was produced which is represented in our plate, 
and which, we may here observe, is very much inferior in the number of its flowers to the wild specimens 
which were attached to the plant on its arrival : beautiful, therefore, as the species now is, it may be 
expected to prove far more so, after it has become better established and more reconciled to its artificial 

The insect, which graces the foot of our page, is of lean and hungry aspect, and, most assuredly, as 
Wordsworth says. 

" Strange contrast doth afford" 

to the one which we had the honour of presenting to our readers after the letter-press of Tab. II. There 
we had a j^ortly, well-conditioned insect, happy, to all appearance, in the resources of his well-stored 
stomach; Aere we have an ascetic half-starved wretch, who might not have eaten an Orchis for a month : — 
yet they are positively one and the same creature. The fact is, that, like some beings of a higher order, 
our hero has literally two faces. Look at him as he lies before you, and you pity his cadaverous 
countenance and admire his self-denial; turn him over, and you have the very " et^wAoi'" of plumpness 
and sensuality ; on one side all is *' roses," while all is " thorns" on the other : reverse him once more, 
and he who but a moment since " looked every inch an alderman/' is now the picture of an insect 
anchorite. This seeming contradiction is thus explained ; the head is protected by a membranous shield, 
on which, as on a mask, a set of features are very distinctly traced; and these, on the first view, might 
almost be mistaken for the real physiognomy ; this they, of course, are not ; yet, judging from the behaviour 
of their owner during his voyage, they afford a much surer guide to his real disposition than would be 
gathered from the examination of his countenance properly so called. 


Mutato nomine de te 

Fabiila iiarratur 



Miss .DraAc' d£i/ 


Ihib'^ifJ. Ihd^-ay. f6S, Ih:ccadd(yJufyJ. mz. 

Taj!. IV. 



Tribus : VANDE^^. — Lixdley. 

Oncidil'JI {oY\h lanceolatis bulbo oblongo compresso 2-3 phyllo 4-plo longioribus, scapis pcndulis 
paniculatis ; sepalis petallsque subECqualibus spathulatis ; labcllo subpanduriformi apice emarginato, crista 
7-dactyla ; columnse coronatee longc rostratge alis duabus cuncatis crectis rostro recto :^IIumhoIdt et 
Kuntlt. quihusdam mutatis. 

Oncidium oniithorhyuchuin, Hu^iijolot et Kuntii, Nova Genera et species Pluntarum I. 345. t. SO. 

Habitat m Mccboacan, Humboldt; Oaxaca, Loddiges; Guatemala, Skinner. 

An EpiPiTYTEy PsEUDO^BVLDS oblong ^ or occasionallt/ ovate, striated, compressed, 1 or 2 
incites long, hearing 2 or 3 lanceolate^ acute, shining, slightly coriaceous narrow LEAVES, of from half 
a foot to a foot in length. SCAPES pendulous, branched^ many -flowered, longer than the leaves. 
Sepals and Petals spatkulate, nearly equal, of a beautiful rosy-lilac colour, LiP jiddle-shaped, 
S'lobed, the central lobe is long and narrow, but spread out towards the apex, tohich is emarginate ; 
7iear the centre the 7nargin is reflexed, as is that of the lateral lobes, to such an extent that they 
appear extremely narrow, and they Ukeicise clasp the sepals which are placed immediatehj in their 
rear ; in colour, the lip resembles the sepals, but is rather of a deeper hue, and its crest is of a deep 
orange. The crest is composed ofl tubercles, of ichich the one that occupnes the centre is the tallest, 
and has 3 points. CoLUiUN, composed of a curious 2-lobed fleshy body, of which the head is turned 
backwards ; near its apex start the two wings, which are toothed, and betiveen them projects 
the curious straight beak, which is formed by the Anther on the upper side, and by a projection 
of the column on the under ; the Gland of the PoLLEN-MASSES, and the CaudiCULA or Stuap 
which connects them with it, are stretched across this Leak. 



1 HIvS singubirly beautiful species of Oncidium appears to inhabit an extensive range of country ; 
more so, indeed, than is usually allotted to the epiphitical species of its tribe. It was found originally by 
Humboldt, during his memorable visit to Mexico, near the town of Valladolid, in the province of Mccboa- 
can ; but although figured upwards of twenty years ago in the " Nova Genera, &c." of himself and M. 
KuNTH, it had never been seen in Europe in a living state nntil the summer of 1830, when it was received 
almost simultaneously by the Messrs. Loddiges, from Oaxaca, and by ourselves from Guatemala. We need 
scarcely state, that, in the latter case, Mr. Skinner was the sender. 

Messrs. Loddiges' plants were the first to flower ; and our figure was derived from a specimen, pro- 
duced in December last, in their rich collection. Shortly afterwards, our own plants came into blow; but 
with the exception of having rather stiffer and shorter flower-spikes, they did not differ perceptibly from 

their brethren of Oaxaca. 

The column and antlier of this species are sufficiently like the neck and beak of a bird, to justify the 
specific name given to it by its illustrious discoverer ; but, in addition to these points of resemblance, the 
whole figure of the flower approaches, in our opinion, very closely to that of a bird when flying at the top of 
its speed; or its long rosy labellum may be likened to the flowing train of a fairy passing nimbly througli 

''^ Oncidiiim supra, Tab. T 

the air. But, leaving to the fanciful these fancied resemblances, we must drau the attention of our more 
sober readers to three peculiarities which will at once distinguish O. ornithorhynchum from all the other 


species of its extensive genus. 

The first of these is its colour, which is wholly without precedent amongst Oncldiums ; its pendent 
flower-stems next attract our notice, which are admirably fitted for showing off its elegant blossoms to 
advantage; and lastly, it diffuses a most delightful perfume, which is not unlike that of fresh hay. These, its 
peculiarities, arc also its charms; and when to them wc add that it is a free flowerer, and easily managed, we 
shall, wc think, have said enough to make every collector of Orchidaceee wish to have O. ornithorhynchum 
in his stove. In a wild state, it floAvers in February; but, in this country, it will probably, when fully 
established, flower in the latter part of summer. Being found at a considerable elevation, a great heat is 
not required for its cultivation ; although, such is its accommodating disposition, that It seems perfectly at 
home in the hottest part of Messrs. Loddiges' Orchidaceous House. It seems to be partial to potsherds, 
into which, if mixed with small pieces of turfy peat, it will soon thrust its long wiry roots. In 
Humboldt's work, the flowers of these species are represented as of a yellow colour; but this is, 
doubtless, owing to the figure having been taken from dried specimens. This is rendered the more 
probable, as in the letter-press by which his plate is accompanied, no mention whatever is made of the 
colour of the flowers. 

For the Vignette, we have to thank Mr. George Ackermann, for whose liberality in placing at 
our disposal the whole of his beautiful collection of unpublished Mexican sketches, we have already, 
in another place, expressed our acknowledgments. Mr. Ackermann's sketch was taken in the Village 
of Temascaltcpcque, thirty leagues from the capital of Mexico, where, In a neighbourhood celebrated 
for the richness of its vegetation, is to be seen the ruinous old ecclesiastical building, represented 
below, in which, however, mass is still occasionally performed. 

^\ ■''^\ V'^^vj 



. Janua limeiij 
QuEe priu5 multum facllis movcbat 

Cardines " 


. y. i ^^iaa , hi'Ji. t' yp^ih (hv-nii ,JJ -f /vr/ Z'.^^' 


TT. ^" !• MI C O § DM 

A7j "^h'J.Pivljivi^ & Sat! 169,RaajUl,-:Jufy 1 18S7. 

Tab. V. 



Tribus: VANDE^.— Lindley. 

CYCNOCHES.— Zmc/%, Gen. et Sp. Orch, 154 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala lateralia lanceolata, basi paululum sub 
labello connate ; supremo angustiore. Petala latiora, falcata, decurva. Labellum 
liberum, ecalcaratum, columna continuum, lanceolatum aut ventricosum, inte- 
gerrimum, ungue abrupto calloso. Columna elongata, arcuata, teres, apice 
clavata, auriculis duabus falcatis ad latera clinandrii. Anthera bilocularis. 
Pollinia 2, postice sulcata, subpedicellata, caudicula lineari, glandula grossa. 
Herbae epiphyte, caulibus incrassatis vestigiis foliorum cinctis. Folia plicata 
lanceolata, basi vaginantia. Racemi multiflori, penduli, ex axillis foliorum 
supcriorum orti. Flores maximi, odorati. 

Cycnociies sepalis petalis que lanccolatis acuminatls reflexis, labello integro ventricoso acuminato, 
basi calloso, ungue brevi ; columna arcuata sepalo supremo duplo breviore. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 


An Epiphyte. Stents fleshy, slightly compressed, about a foot high, bearing five or six 
lanceolate, acute, plicated Leaves, of which the uppermost are the longest. After the floivering 
season, these leaves fall off, the stem becomes shorter and more swollen, and is then deeply marked by 
longitudinal lilies, as well as by horizontal contractions, at the points from ichence the leaves fell. 
From the axils of the upper leaves proceed the Racemes, sometimes two or more at the same time, 
hut more usually in succession ; each of these hears about five FlowerS, which open simultaneously, 
lasting about three days. The raceme is at first horizontal, but is afterwards weighed down by the 
floioers, which, consequently, are always seen in an inverted position. SepalS lanceolate, acuminate, 
the upper one being rather narroiver, and the lateral ones slightly unguiculate. PETALS broader 
than the sepals, curved downwards, of a light green colour, as are also the sepals. LiP somewhat 
heart-shaped, very much swollen on the upper side, hollow underneath, of the purest white, communi- 
cating with the column hy a short Claw, which, at its junction with the base of the lip, presents a 
black callosity. Column round and club-shaped, only half the length of the upper sepal, and 
at its extremity, bearing two small falcate horns, lohieh guard the Antber. CapSULE very large, 
oblong, bearing innumerable minute SeedS. 

-A.MONG the Orchidaceous genera, Cycnoches will ever be conspicuous, as yielding one of the 
most notable examples of the strange propensity of its tribe to mimic tlie forms of animated nature. 
The Genus was founded by Professor Lixdley, upon a remarkable plant from Surinam(the C.Loddigesii), 
the sepals and petals of which bore as close a resemblance to the expanded wings of a swan, as did the 
column to the long arching neck of the same graceful bird ; and these peculiarities are well expressed in 
the name Cycnoches {Anglic^, *' swan-neck"). For upwards of four years, the genus had consisted of only 
a solitary species, when a second made its appearance in the person of our present subject, which was 

* So called from kvkvoc, a s-wan, and uij(j)y, a neck, in. allusion to the column of this plant, which is curved like the neck of a swan. — Lindley. 

discovcrcdlntheneighbourlioodoflstapa, by our Indefatigable friend Mr. Skinner, who has thus gained 
the distinction of making an important addition to one of the most extraordinary genera of this sino-ular 

We will now proceed to contrast the two rival swans. C. Loddigesii, perhaps, bears, on the whole, 
the closest resemblance to its feathered prototj^pe ; for the column (ansAvering to the neck of the bird) is 
long and pleasingly curved, whereas that of C. ventricosum is lamentably short ; the sepals and petals too 
(wings) of the former are thrown wide open, which looks better than to have them thrown entirely back, as 
is the case with the latter : in the body, however, C, ventricosum has decidedly the advantage, for nothing 
could approach nearer to the swelling bosom of a SAvan, than its pure milk-white lip ; the same part in 
C. Loddigesii being of a dingy colour, and much more like the male Meloe beetle than the breast of the 
most g- dceful of birds. If it were but possible to unite the sepals and petals and column of the one with 
the lip of the other, we should then have a vegetable swan, as perfect in all its parts as are the flies and 
bees with which the Orchises of English meadows present us.* Both species difl'use a powerful odour ; 
that of the C. Loddigesii is agreeable, and resembles honey ; that of C. ventricosum, on the contrary, is 
somewhat acrid, especially when the flowers have begun to wane. Leaves are produced in greater abundance 
m the Surinam species than in the one from Guatemala. The capsule represented in the drawing adhered 
to the plant on its arrival in this country, and a most interesting relic it is, the huge size of the seed- 
vessel being scarcely less remarkable tlian the extreme minuteness of the seeds, with an innumerable 
quantity of Avhich it was at one time filled. This plant requires precisely the same treatment as Catasetum. 
(vide Tab. II.) 

We are indebted to Miss Jane Ed^vards for the very beautiful draAving from Avhlch our plate is copied. 
Fearing that the flowers of our new Cycnoches might prove too fleeting to admit of their being sent to a 
professional artist in London, we Avere extremcl}- perplexed as to Avhat course to pursue, when this young 
lady Avas so kind as to relieve us from our embarrassment, by tendering the assistance of her admirable 
pencil, Avhich she used on this occasion Avith even more than her wonted skill. 

* To catch the resemblance of the two' species of Cycnoches to swans, it is necessary to reverse their flowers ; this, however, merely restores them 
to their natural position, which they have lost by the circumstance of the raceme growing doionwards instead of ujmurds. 

JC' l^^J^^^rs dd} 

C '¥' 



•Jf (y^rjj^i^L' liihy 

/V^i^(^ l/Y P. i7fLux:i^. 

Tab. VI. 

C Y R I C H 1 1 ;U M • B 1 C T N I E N S E : 


Tribus: VANDE^.— Li>dley. 

CYRTOCUlhVM.^Humb. et Kvnth.—Lindl Gen. et Sji. Orvli. 210. 

Peuianthiim explanatum. Sepala libera, lateralia unguiciilata. Petala 
paiilo minora. Labelluni ecalcaratum, indivisum, ungiie tubcrculafo cum basi 
cobmina? continuo. Columna ssepius alata. Anthera bilocularis. Pollinia 2, 
caudicula filiformi, glandula minuta.- — llcrbae epiphytal, pseudo-bulbosse. Scapi 
radicale.s. Flores speciosi. 

Cyutociitlum Bictoniense ; pseudo-bulbis oblongis compressis 2-3 phyllib, foliis liueari-ensifoniubus 
scapo tereti exaltato duplo brevioribus, racemo secundo terminali multitloro, sepalis petalisque uiinoribus 
ovali-lanceolatis acuminatis; labelli lamina cordiformi basi nuda uno-ue lamellata; columna alata. 

llahitat in Guatemala. Skinner. 


PSEUDO-Bi LBS oMo/t(/, sJightli/ compressed, 2 to A inches long ; Leaves sometvhat coriaceoiis, 
narrow -Ugtdate, from a foot to a foot and a half in length, placed some at the base, and others at 
the apex of the pseudo-hidhs. Scape from 2 to ^ feet high, having, at considerable intervah, short 
loose pointed Bracts, and terminated by a many-flowered sectind Raceme. Sepals and Petals 
oval' lanceolate, the latter narrower and shorter than the former ; both are of a lively green, 
irregidarly blotched with reddish chestnut. Lip ofapvrpUsh rose-colovr, heart-shaped, destitute of 
teeth or tubercles at its base, hut bearing two upright plates {which cohere in the centre) on the claw 
by which it is articulated with the column. Column only half the length of the lip, furnished with 
two rounded slightly decurved Wings. 

OUll figure of this elegant new species of Cyrtochilam, is derived from specimens obligingly commu- 
nicated to us from Bicton, near Exeter, the well-known seat of Lord Rolle. The name which we have 
given to it will not merely serve to commemorate the circumstance of its having flowered there, but is also 
designed as an acknowledgment of the many obligations which Botany owes to the noble proprietor and his 
accomplished Lady. 

Many a noble CUjrtochilnm f has yet to he introduced from Mexico, in vvliich country the head-quarters of tlie 
genus would seem to he fixed. Three species, erroneously referred to Odontoglossum, have been described by La 
Llave and Lexarza, from the neighbourhood of Valiadolid alone; and several others, gathered in Oaxaca by Baron 
Karwinski, occur among the Orchidacege of the Royal Munich Herbarium, for the opportunity of examining wliich we 

* So called from kv^tos, convex, and x^'^^'>s> a ''P ; i" allusion to the form of the labellum of some of the species. 

f Only two otiier species of Cyrtochilum have as yet blossomed in English collections ; and Mr. II. Harrison, of Liverpool, has had the 
honour of flowering them both for the first time. One of these (C. mystacimim, Lind. MSS.) is a native of Peru,— the other {C. flavescens) is said 
to be a native of Mexico ; but as we have no evidence, beyond tiiat of report, to establisli the fact, and as we know positively (from the circumstance 
of Its existing among M. Ic Baron B. Delessert's splendid scries of drawings) that it occurs in Brazil, we have little doubt that its habitat is exclusively 
confined to the latter country. 

have to thank the liberality and kindness of our excellent friend, that distinj^uished traveller and botanistJ^'o^ .AIautius. 
Short teeth of various sizes are found on the kbelluiu of most of the Mexican Cyrtochiluuis; and in this, as in many 
other respectsj Cyrtoclulum approaches Odontoglossum so closely, as to be most easily confounded with it; indeed, 
we were disposed to consider the subject of this article to be a species of the latter genus, until Dr. Lindlev convinced 
us that it belonged to the former, and, at the same time, pointed out the following as the principal distinction between 
the two genera, viz. — the labelluni in Cyrtochilum is distinct from^ while in Odontoglossum it is partially united ti), 
the base of the column. 

Autuum is the flowering season of C. Bicfoniense ; and it has already blossomed twice under the care of Lord 
Rolle's gardener, Mr. Glenoinxing, who is known to have i)ut few rivals in his management of the Tropical 
Orchidaceje. We have now (Nov. 1837) in blow a variety of this plant, with a pure white lip, and pale green sepals 
and petals, faintly blotched with a darter colour; in habit it exactly resembles the Bicton specimens, but its flowers 
are neither so large nor so beautiful Both varieties are natives of the warmer parts of Guatemala, where tliey were 
detected by Mr. Skinxer. By this gentleman they were placed, with other treasures of a like description, in the 
hands of Captain Sutton, R. N., and to the care which he bestowed upon them during their passage to this country, 
must be ascribed the beautiful condition in which they reached its shores, in June, 1835. Agreeably to the wishes 
of their generous discoverer. Captain Sutton distributed in various quarters the vegetable spoils which he had so 
successfully brought home, and the collections of Lord Rolle, Sir Charles Lemon, and the Author, are severally 
indebted to him for many of the greatest rarities they contain. Although the important services rendered to science 
by the gallant Captain are now well-known and appreciated by the public, we cannot omit the present opj)()rtunity of 
expressing our otvn gratitude to him, for the favours which we have, on so many occasions, received at his hands, — 
favours which are not felt the less warndy, because bestowed upon a perfect stranger. 


The Vignette will, it is hoped, serve to convey some idea of the tangled luxuriance and dismal grandeur of the 
forest scenery of Tropical America. What rich and redundant vegetation ! What an endless profusion of climbers 
and twiners, epiphytes and parasites, et id genus omne! f And, then, what a strange variety ol' animated beings ! ! ! 
Here we have a serpent coiled round one tree, — there a monkey scrambling up another; in a still more elevated 
position, parroquets and the pendent purse-like nests of the orioles, or corn-birds, may be discerned ;— care must also 
be taken, lower down in the picture, not to overlook the cayman's "awful head." The happy pair in the 
foreground, although quite unacquainted with " these troublesome disguises which we wear," betray, we fear, in other 
respects, a less primitive taste, as they evidently are not confining themselves to a vegetable diet. That Epideudr?im 
on the trunk of the prostrate tree must be a tine tiling, and we are only sorry to see the lady turn her back upon it. 

M\n MAY BR DEFISRD 10 [iF, * A i'00k-l.\G A^iMAL.' ''—BoiWelL 

M7 WuJi6rs d^A 


J£~ Gau^i^. fj^. 




Fil6. ' Ijy J Rui^^ay & Sgtl^ loS^ /ir^vv^^; . ¥:i^rA^ /^'^ 1838 


F'lrU&d. ^jy F (?au<:i, 9, North, Crg^cm^ S^d/brd^ Sf 


Tab. VII. 



Tribus : VANDE^.— LiNDLEY. 

STANHOPEA. Hooker in Bot. Mag. 2948-9. Lindl Gen. et Spe. Orch. p. 157. 

Perianthium membranaceum, patentissimum vel reflexum. Sepala libera, 
subundulata. Petala conformia, angustiora. Labellum liberum, anticum, ecal- 
caratum, carnosiim, utrinque cornutum ; dimidio superiore (epichilio) convexo, 
inferiore (hypochilio) excavate. Columna longissima, petaloidea-marginata, raris- 
sime mutica. Anthera 2-locularis. Pollinia 2, elongata, fissa, caudicula quam 
glandula biloba stipitata breviore. — Herba? Americana^ epiphytal pseudo-bulbosse, 
apice folium unicum plicatum gerentes. Scapi radicales, vaginati, pauciflori, 
penduli. Flores maximi, speciosissimi, odorati, magis minusve maeulati. 

Staniiopea tigrina; foliis lato-lanceolatis sub-undulatis scapis 2-4-floris longioFibus ; sepalis petalisque 
angustioribus, ovato-lanceolatis acutis ; labello medio constricto, hypochilio inflate, subrotundo, in fronte 
utrinque cornuto, cornubus falcatis compressis incur vis acutis epichilio obovato intense tripartite longioribus ; 
columna meinbranaceo-marginata. 

Habitat in Mexico, prope urbem Xalapam. Henchman. 


Pseudo-bulbs ovate, deeply fmroiced, someithat quadranyidar, an ineh and a half long, 
each terminated by a solitary broadly -lanceolate, shining, coriaceous, acnte Leaf, somewhat waved 
in the margin, and afoot in length by four inches in width, united to the pseudo- bulb by a Petiole 
which is only one-third the length of the leaf, and channelled thronghont. Scape short, pendulo^ts, 
entirely clothed with thin, sheathing, convolute Scales, 2-4: flowered. Peduncles longer than the 
scape. Flowers very large and handsome, measuring upwards of seven inches (whenfidly expanded) 
from the tip of the upper sepal to the point of the lip. Sepals ovate -lanceolate, four inches long, 
straw-coloured, marhed with irreg^dar longitudinal blotches, of the colour of port wine stains, which 
approach, or run into, each other at the origin of the sepals. Petals narrower than the sepals, 
very 7nuch undulated, and marhed at their base with transverse bands, of a darker colour than those 
of the sepals. Lip very large and fleshy, polished, spotted, three inches long, much inflated, slightly 
convex on its under side f where there is a low transverse ridge), with its margins turned slightly 
inwards on the upper side, and widely .separated from each other : the interior of the lip is richly 
marhed with various colours, and is covered in front with many rows of tubercles, which terminate 
in two rough callosities at the base of a j)air of compressed falcate, sharp-pointed Horns, which 
bend inwards, and reach beyond the smooth, obovate, tripartite body which is appended to the 
lower division of the Up Column the length of the lip, arched, with a membranous, dilated 
margin, sprinkled over with a variety of minute vinous spots.j- 

* So called by Sir William Hooker, in compliment to the present Earl Stanhope, the distinguished President of the Medico-Botanical Society. 

"i The separate view of the lip was unavoidably taken after the specimen had shrivelled, and, therefore, represents that organ (and its lower 
portion in particular) much below the natural size. 

bPLENDID as are all the species of Stanhopea, this is, unquestionably, the finest of ihem all. Its 
flowers are powerfully fragrant, and larger than any that have been hitherto met with among Orcliidaceous 
plants ; they are also funiished with a huge fleshy lip, of so strange and fantastic a figure, that it would 
rather seem to have been carved out of ivory, or modelled in wax, than to be a honff-fide production of the 
vegetable world. Its colouring, too, is so rich and varied, that even Mrs. AA^ixii i:iis's skill was taxed to the 
utmost to convey an adequate notion of it. 

Our gardens are indebted for its possession to the exertions of Air. Henchman (of the Clapton 
Nursery), N\ho discovered it in the neighbourhood of Xalapa, when he visited that to^\n in the course of his 
botanical mission to Mexico, in 1835 ; and certainly, even if they had yielded no other fruits, he might 
almost have been satisfied with the result of his labours. Mr. Henchman had, however, the good fortune 
to introduce some other Orchidacea* oi' the highest interest and beauty, among which Trlchojnlia torfili,s\ 
and Comparcttia falcata, may be especially noted ; the former of which is already known by the excellent 
figure of it in the Botanical Register, and the latter, which is also found in Peru (and is figured accordingly 
in the invaluable Avork on the plants of that country, now in course of publication by M. M. Pceppig and 
Endliciier), has a spike of bright rose-coloured flowers not less graceful in form than singular in structure. 

^S*. figr'ma was found Ijy Mr. Henchman at a considerable elevation above the level of the sea, and the only 
specimen which iie observed in flower, was growing (at the distance of about five feet from the ground) in the cleft of an 
aged tree in a deep and dismal glen, and at the time of its discovery (July) its blossoms were already on the wane. We 
received a plant of the species in the latter part of 1835, and immediately placed it in a suitable position among a 
group of old oak stumps which occupy the centre of our Orchidaceous House, and^ in this situation, it (lowered freely 
in May, 1837 ; indeed we have no hesitation in pronouncing it the most easily cultivated of all the Stanhopeas — no 
small addition to its otliei- merits. We would not, however, be understood to recommend our readers to adopt 
generally the system of treatment which lia])pened to succeed in the present instance; and, to say truth, we no sooner 
discovered the rare perfections of our plant, than we gave it the security of a pot, in which it now grows far more 
vigorousiy thnn before its transhition. Like all the other Stanliopeas, it must be placed on ihe apex of a cone, eight 
or ten inches iiigli, formed of small pieces of turfy peat neatly put together. 

The Vignette represents Stanhopea tigrma as it appeared at the time of its flowering in the Epiphyte House at 
Knypersley, and is taken from a sketch made on the spot by a very promising young artist of the name of Wood. 

'* Nomen orit t'tgris^ pardus, leo^ si quid adhuc est, 
'■ Quod fvcmit \\\ terris violentior /' 



x:^y/i^hfrs. d^L 

^f. Cray'rt, Uch- 


V . 






11 ac "JE M, 


/i-^.^'' by . ^ RuLnvay ^ Sor^^ Ih'9. h^^c^xciiUj . '-L-zr.-^ /!' WS. 

Frmf^^.y P Cfiu^i, ^ 'NrjTiJv a-i^-c&U /JaUcrd So ^''^ 

Tab. VTII. 



Tribus: VANDE^.— Lindley. 

PERISTERIA.— //ooA^r in Bot. Mag. 3116. Lindl. Gen. et Sp, Orch, IGO. Bot. Reg, 1953. 

Pkrianthium globosum, ssope semi-clausum. Sepala basi sub-connata, 
concava, basi labello connata. Petala eonformia, panlo minora. Labellnm erectum, 
medio articulatum ; dimidio superiore obovato, truncato, medio pulvinato, inferiore 
bilobo columna continuo. Cohimna erecta semiteres, basi dilatata. Anthera 
ecristata, bilocularis. Pollinia 2, postice fissa, glandubi sessili nuda rostellum 
involvente. — Herba.^ Americanse, subterrestres, pseudo-bulbosa?, inter maximas 
ordinis. Folia plura, plicata. Scapi vaginati, radicales, multiflori, sa^pius penduli. 
Flores speciosi, 

Peristeria Barkeri ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis, profundi sulcatis, 3-4 pbyllis, scapis pcndulis multifloris 
foliis suba-qualibus ; floribus carnosis fere clausis ; sepalis petabsque subicquabbus concavis obtusis, labeUi 
trilobi lobis laterabbus integris erectis, intcrmcdio angustiore basi calloso ; columna aptcra leviter pubescente. 

Habitat in Mexico, prope Xalapam. Ross. 


Pseudo-bulbs very large, ovate, deeply furrowed, hearing from two to fowr laneeolate, acnfe, 
very nmch plicated, dightly coriaceous. Leaves, which are from afoot and a half to two feet or 
more in length. From the base of the jysendo-bulbs issue one or more sfont Scapes, which are 
pendakms, from one to two feet long, nearly covered with the memhranaceons scales for about 
one-fonrth of their length, and then changing into a many-Jioivercd Raceme, on which the flowers 
are loosely scattered. Flowers sub -globose, fleshy, rather shorter than their Peduncles, Sepals 

ETALS nearly equal, concafc, obtuse, of an uniform yellowish- orange colour, so slightly 

expanded as almost to conceal the Up, Lip deeply three-lobed, articulated with the elongated base 

of the cohnnn, of a rich orange colour on its inner side, spotted with red; its two lateral lobes are 

of a broadly ovate form, with their margin entire, and are separated at their base by an almost 

square callosity ; the intermediate lobe is longer and narrower than the lateral ones, obscurely iwo- 

lobed, convex on its outer face, but w'ith its margins turned inward, so as to give it a somewhat 

cucidlate appearance. Column about the length of the upper sepal, slightly hairy, destitute of 

llIIS fine Peristeria was discovered in one of those dark ravines, with which the neighbourhood of 
Xalapa abounds, by a Mr. Joiix Ross, Avho has lately been ransacking the Mexican Flora, in the service 
of Mr. G. Barker of Birmingham, to whose noble collection of Orchidacea^ he has succeeded in adding 
many new and valuable species ; — among which that now represented is not the least striking. It was 


So called from Trepiartpa *^ a dove^'^ to which bird the column of the original species, with its erect wings and beak-like anther, bears 
a close resemblance. 

received by Mr. Barker in the earl\" part of 1S37, and tioMcred with him in the course of the following 
summer i and as it proved to be iindescribed, we at once gave it tlie name of its fortunate possessor, th;ni 
whom Botany has not a more zealous or liberal friend. 


Four species of this stately genus have now found their way into European collections,* of which number 
two (P. pendula and P.cerlnd) are natives of British (Juiana, another (P.elata) inhabits the Isthmus of 
Panama, and so conies within the scope of our work, while the fourth (P. Barhen) was found, as we have 
already stated, in the neighbourhood of Xalapa in New Spain. P. cerina is, perhaps, the most nearly allied 
to the subject of this article, but differs from it in having the middle lobe of its labellum fringed instead of 
entire, and also in its short densely flowered racemes, A\hich are not one-fourth so long as those of Per'isfcrta 
BarLeri, on which also the flowers are very loosely scattered. 

All the species of Peristeria are of easy cultivation and flower freely. To grow them, however, to perfection, 
a powerful heat, plenty of water, and abundance of pot-room are indispensable ; indeed, unless the latter 
circumstance be especially attended to, the shoots will every year grow weaker and weaker until at last they 
have become so feeble as to be quite incapable of throwing up a flower-scapo. lacing of a sub-terrestrial 
nature, it will not be necessary to mix so large a proportion of broken potsherds with the lumps of fibrous 
peat in which they are to be planted, as is usual and advisable for the majority of the true epiphytes. Sup- 
posing the plants to have entirely filled with their roots the largest pots which can be procured, it will be 
necessary to replant, after having previously divided them ; a cruel alternative certainlv, but preferable to 
w^itnessing their gradual decline ; and, happily, such sacrifices are not often required, as most of the plants of 
this order, when once estal^lished in a pot of moderate dimensions, may be permitted to remain unmolested 
for a great number of years. 

Peristeria elata, on which Sir W. Hookkr founded the genus, is, in point of habit, the most striking 
Orchidaceous plant yet in our collections, where it stands without a rival in the huge size of its leaves and 
pseudo-bulbs: its flower, also, is celebrated for the strong resemblance it bears to a dove, which, in the super- 
stitious atmosphere of its native wilds, has procured for it the appellation of " el Splrito Satito," and likewise 
of course no small share of veneration. The art however of producing doves, not having been inherited by 
any other member of the family, we have ventured, in our Vignette, to copy a flower of the original species 
from the admirable figure of it in the Botanical ^lagazine ; to which we would beg to refer our readers, as the 
wood-cut underneath, being necessarily uncoloured, scarcely does justice to the charms of the plant or bird, 
as the case may be. 

* As an encouragement to those wlio go out in search of Tropical Orchiclacea;, it may be well to mention that not one of these extraordinary 
plants was known to science at the moment o^ its introduction. 


.K:-' Vkh^r.^, da. 

JL M 'L 1 A A U T IT M ^" A 1. 1 S 

j'^ . (riUL^y h^- 

Tt, id 

V 'u^. hyj. Rid^wa^ £ So^uv, J6.9, FuxxLcdl^y, March-, 1, 1836. 

Pn^U/edf by J' G^f^u/iC. 

Tab. IX. 

LtElia; autijmnale 



LiELIA. — Liiidl. Gen. et Spe. Orch. p. 115. 

Periantiiium explanatum. Sepala lancoolata, sequalia. Petala majora 
paulo difformia. Labellum (posticum) S-partitum, lamellatum, circa columnam 
convolutum. Columna aptera, carnosa, antice canaliculata. Anthera 8-locularis. 

Pollinia 8, caudiculis 4 elasticis. Hcrbae epiphytal, Americana^, rhizomate 

pseudo-bulbophoro. Scapi terminales, simplices, pauci vel multiflori. Flores 
speeiosissimi, odorati. 

L^LiA mitumnale, pseuclo-bulbis ovatis elongatis 2-3 pliyllis ; foliis arcuatis, carinatis, oblongo- 
lanceolatis, scapo tereti multifloro G-plo lirevioribus ; sepalis, petalisque majoribus, ovali-lanceolatis acuminatis ; 
labelli trilobi lobis lateralibus rotundatis, intcrmedio deflexo obovato apiculato, margine sub-crispo. 

Bletia autumnale, La Llave et Lexarza. Orchi. Ojnisc. Vd. 
Leelia autumnale, Lind. Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 115. 

Habitat in Mechoacan, La Llaye & Lexarza. In Oaxaca, Kakwinski. In Mexico passim, Bates. 


PsEUDO-BVLBS, clotlied at their base with glaucous aheatliing wemhrmiaceo^is scales, throtcing 
out spariugJu long and somewhat fleshy roots, from two to four inches long, of an elongated ovate 
form, bearing two or three coriaceous, heeled, arched, oblong -lanceolate acute Leaves, of six or 
eight inches in length. From the apex of the pseudo-bidb arises an upright, rounded Scape, 
bearing, at intervals a few acute memhranaceous Bracts, an inch in length, and terminated with 
from two to six, or even more, large, handsome, and fragrant Flowers, which, in wild sj^ecimens, are 
quite resupinate, and are nearly so in cultivated ones. Sepals, linear -lanceolate, acuminate, 
about two inches long, of a faint rose, or rosy lilac colour ; Petals the same length and colour 
as the sepals, but broader, and of an oval-lanceolate form. Lip 3-lobcd, the lateral lobes rounded, 
oblong, pressed against the column, nearly white; the middle lobe obovate, apictdate, an inch long, of 
a deeper colour than the sepals and petals, especially at its margin. Column semi-terete, in a line 
with, but somewhat shorter than, the Ovarium. 

WE bavc already alluded (in our " Introductory Remarks") to the great partiality of tlie inliabitants 
of Mexico ibr Orchidaceous flowers ; — a partiality -svluch is displayed on all occasions of a sentimental 
nature, but more particularly at the festivals and solemnities of the Koman Catholic Church. At such 
seasons, o-sving to their beauty and durability, the blossoms of diis tribe are in great request, and are used 
in preference to all others in the decorations of altars, &c. We need not, therefore, wonder at the 
vernacular names -s^hich have been applied to certain of their numbers, such, for example, as that of the 
" Flor de los Santos," by which the subject of the accompanying plate is known throughout the whole of 

" So called by Professor Lindley, in compliment to a Vestal of that name. 

New Spain. It was first described by M. M. La Llave and Lexarza, in tlieir interesting work on the 
Orchidaceic of the Province of Mcchoacan, and their account of its beauty appeared to be fully borne out 
by some specimens of the plant which were more recently gathered in Oaxaca by the Baron Karwinski. 
The species had not, hoAVCver, found its Avay into English collections until the yeiw 1836, when Mr. Bates 
transmitted some fine plants of it to INIr. Tayleurf,, of Parkfield, near Liverpool, in whose choice 
collection they flowered shortly after their importation, and again in the autumn of the following year, 
when our drawing of the subject was prepared. Although the specimen figured had not reached the highest 
degree of vigour which may be expected from it after it has been longer in cultivation, it Avas still a most 
strikingly beautiful object, and satisfied us that it is not likely to prove less attractive on this side of the 
Atlantic, than it is already known to be on its own. 

The genus " La^dia," to which our plant belongs, may be regarded as one of the most ornamental of its 
tribe, since pleasing colour, graceful habit, long duration, and delicious perfume,— in short, all the essentials 
of floral beauty, seem to be combined in its various species. Of these, five or six are already known, of 
which the one now represented, however charming it may be, is, perhaps, the least interesting ; for it is far 
surpassed by L. grandijlora (the Flor de Corpus of Mechoacan) in the magnitude of its fliowers, and by 
L. anccps and some unpublished species, in the brilliancy of its colours. Being found at a considerable 
elevation, they all thrive best in a moderate temperature, and require to be high-potted, as by that means 
the roots arc more likely to be retained in a healthy state, and are better able to withstand the extremes of 
heat and moisture which, even in the most carefully conducted establishments, will sometimes occur, and 
■which we have found excessively injurious to Lielias, Cattleyas, and species of some oUier allied genera. In 
winter they should be very sparingly watered, and kept in almost a dormant state. L. mdumnale fioAvers 
both in this countiy and its own, at the season which its name implies. 

Those who have ever received a case of Orchidacea? iroiu the Tropics, know full well that the opening of it is 
attended with the most intense and feverisli excitement: and those who have not been so fortunate, will be glad 
to gather some notion of such stirring scenes from the accompanying Vignette^— which, it is needless to say, is from 
the inimitable pencil of Cruikshank.— If we read aright tlie address on that box, the cargo belongs to one of the most 
staunch and scientific collectors of his clay, and we, therefore, only the more deeply deplore the calamity with which, it 
is but too clear, his importation has been visited. The conduct of his people is, however, beyond all praise ; and we 
earnestly pray that their gallant exertions may be crowned with triumphant success. It is indeed a cruel thing to 
expect Epiphytes^ and receive only Cockroaches ! ! to see the very case which ought to have been richly stored with 
lusty Orckidacem, prove, upon opening, to contain nothing more than— 

' Liicifugls congcsta ciibilia hlnilis ! !" 



curramus priBCipiteSj el 

** Dum jacct in ripu, calcemus Ca^saris liosleni." 


' ^/J^ JPror^'^ deZ.' 


-L^ A.\! 




i^- Gnjj^i', -li^y^ 


. ^v. ^y ; ^^ ^^ ^ j>^„ ^ ^^g /^y^^£/J., ..^^^^^ y.-V^, 


I^7^u^ djy J" aaa^n.^-9^ .NoTtA. 

Or&sc/^U, Bf^l/hrd S.'pi<m>, 

Tab. X. 



TruBus: EPIDENDRE^.— Li>dley. 

EPTDENDRUM.— ZyJn^ Brown in Hort. Kew, ed. 5. 5. 217. Lindley. Gen. et Spe. Orch. 96. 

Pr.iiiANTHiUM explanatum. Sepala patentia, subaequalia. Petala sepalis 
aeqiialia vel angiistiora, rarius latiora, patentia vel reflexa. Labellum cum mar- 
ginibus columnar omnino vel parte connatum, limbo intcgro vel diviso, disco siepius 
calloso, costato vel tuberculato; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et 
cunicuhim formans. Columna elongata: clinandrio marginato, sajpe fimbriato. 
Anthera carnosa 2-4 locularis. Follinia 4, caudiculis totidem replicatis annexa.^ 
Herbic Americansc epiphjtae caule nunc apicc vel basi pseudo-bulboso, nunc 
elongate apice folioso. Folia carnosa. Flores spieati, racemosi cor^^mbosi vel 
paniculati, terniinales, ssepe speciosi. 

Epidendklm aromatkum; pseudo-bulbis magnis fere globosis, 1-2 phyllis ; foliis rigidis lineiiribus 
scapo paniculato duplo brevioribus, arcuatis, aciitiusculis ; sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis petalis sub- 
aequalibus ovali-lanceolatis unguiculatis ; labelli trilobi fere liberi lobis lateralibiis ovatis acuminatis columnie 
adpressis, intermedio majore venoso orbiculari. 

Habitat in Guatemala. Skinnee. 


Pseudo-bulbs very large, nearly globular, two or three inches in diameter, of an extremely 
hard texture, shining, emitting a nuwher of long, slender wiry Boots, and surmonnted by one, or 
more frequently, two, rigid, narrow, linear, somewhat acute, curved Leaves, nsnally about a 
foot in length. Scape issuing from the apex of the pseitdo^htdbs, erect, one and a half or two feet 
high, branched for nearly its whole length in the cultivated plant, [but in wild specimens branched 
only at its extremity, where it bears a very dense compound head of flowers.'] Flowers about an 
inch across, shorter than their Peduncles. Sepals and Petals nearly equal, acute, turned 
bacJiwards, of a delicate pule greenish primrose colour; the former are of an oblong -lanceolate form, 
the latter considerably nnguiculate, and oval-lanceolate, rather inclining to be spatulate. Lip 
3-lobed [the lateral lobes orate and acuminate, pressed against the sides of the column, the central 
one almost orbicidar,] of the same hue as the sepals and petals, but beautifully marked with 
numerous minute centripetal veins, united with the base only of the short, someivhat arched, 


JiiPIDENDRUM aromaticum is one of the most sweet-smelling of the whole tribe of Orchidacea:, and 
yet the scent which it difluscs is of such an agreeable nature that it never cloys, nor, while in its vicinity, 
are the senses ever '' oppressed with perfume," as too frequently happens in the case of its highly odoriferous 

* From eTTt " upon," and cevcpov " a tree ; " it being usual for tlie species of this genus to grow upon trees. 

brethren. Some idea of its ^' puhsance" may be gathered from the fact of its having completely over- 
powered the fragrance of ^'cerides odoratinn^" Avlien placed by its side, although the latter had been 
designated by Professor Lr.\j:)Lj:Y as "the SAvectest of all flowers." Perfumes are not easily described in 
words, especially when they cannot be compared to something of the same kind previously known; and this 
is emineutl) the case with our present Epidendrum, whose rich sugary odour has been said, by one, to 
resemble that of the Sweet Scabious, — by another, to approach that of Pergularia odoratisslma,—\\\\i\e a 
third has declared that it smells as .Vngelica tastes^ and thus affords a good example of the near connexion 
of the two senses. The above attempts at description will, however, at best, convey but a very inadequate 
notion of its sweetness, and we must, therefore, hope that our readers may, one day, have an opportunity of 
judging of it for themselves. 

Our plant is a native of Guatemala, whence it was sent to us, in 1835, by Mr. Skinnek, but it does 
not appear to be at all plentiful there, as not more than two specimens have ever reached us ; neither have 
we observed it in any other collection. It is, in some respects, allied to E. odoratisshmim, from Avhich its 
habit alone would at once distinguish it; indeed, we are acquainted with no species that at all approaches 
this in the form and magiiifude of its pseudo-bulbs, unless it be an undescribed one from INIexico 
{E. luridum Non.), which has been recently imported by Mr. l>ATtKER, and the Horticultural Society ; and 
likewise by Messrs. Low and Co., of the Clapton Nursery ; but this plant, independently of its very 
diflerent flowers, has broader and shorter leaves, and never more tlian one on each pseudo-bulb.* 

E.aro}naticu}}i flowers very freely in the early part of suiuincr, and continues in perfection for several weeks; it 
is, however, by no means of a robust disposition, and we have not yet seen it form any pseudo-bulbs even onc-lialf the 
-size of tlie imported ones; but we expect it will be found to prefer a drier and cooler atmosplicre than Orchidace* are 
usually grown in ; as its roots, which it is now^ very apt to lose, would then enjoy a greater likelihood of being preserved 
from decay. For the necessity of attending to tlie welfare of the " old roots," as also for many other important 
remarks on the cultivation of the tribe, we would beg to refer our readers to the first number of Dr. Ljxdley's 
" Sertuui Orchidaceum," a truly valuable and beautiful work, and one of which even the Orchidacese mav be proud. 

In the interior of Mexico, and other parts of Tropical America, a singular kind of "Club-Moss" is not uufrc- 
quently met witii, wliicii, when dry, folds itself up into a compact ball, much after the manner of a young hedge-hog, 
but wiiicii, when under the influence of rain or moisture, gradually expands again. This is the " Lycopodium 
involvens," and tufts of it are occasionally brought to this country, which retain possession of their elastic powers 
for a great length of time, stretching themselves out when plunged in warm water, but folding themselves up again 
when suffered to become dry. The specimen introduced below enjoyed tlic distinction of sitting for its portrait to 
Lady Jane Walsh, from whose exquisite drawing ^\ e were kindly permitted to copy our Vignette. This Lycopodium 
also officiates as tail-piece to Plate XI., where it may be seen wielding as many arms as Briareus ; — here, it is 
represented as "closed for tlie present." 

y."/« Z,n,. JKuUi H: 


■■'merges frofunuo, — rCLCHKioi; EVENii."— //or. 

* Cultivation frequently effects quite " a revolution in the halnts" of Orchidaceae, and of tiiis a notable example is furnished by E. aromaiicum. 

In tlio wild specimens which adhered to the plant on its arrival, the spikes were naked for nearly their whole length, and terminated in a very dense 

compound head of flowers, while in cultivation tliey are metaniorpliosed into loose panicles, which commence within a few inches of the crown of the 

n. //. 


JtT a^uA^s d^l'^ 


11 /ir-^ 



^^ BaxLCt. i£ch- 

J'Uj sy J K^d^wa-y £ryan.''\ Jd'.O Picc^.(ZlIZ,'. ymf/^/ 1^:HS 

■"n^fOd^fy £• i9ia^,^,^^r/^^ nf.ytfU Sf^T/hr^i JVr'"* 

Tab. XI. 



Epidendrum Stamfordiamiin, caulibus incrassatis 2-3 vel 4-pliyllis racemis radicalibus multifloris 
brevioribus ; sepalis, petalisque duplo angustioribus, lanceolatis acutis ; labelli trilobi columnar apice connati 
lobis lateralibus obovatis intcgris, intermedio unguiculato transverso emarginato lacerate ; columna dentibus 
duobus brevibus instructa : anthera dorsali. 

Stems rhizoniated^ a foot high, hearing fro^n tico to font ohlong coriaceons Leaves. Spikes 
proceeding from the base of the stems, than which tltey are considerablg longer, terminated hg a 
many 'flowered cerniiovs raceme. Sepals oral -lanceolate, acnte, two-thirds of an inch long, of a 
dull greenish yellow, with crimson streaks. Petals linear -lanceolate, not quite half so wide as the 
sepals, ichieh they resemble in colottr. Lip three-lohed; the two lateral lobes obovate, rounded, 
entire, broader than the sepals, whitish, destitute (f spots; the central lobe iinguictdate, nearly the 
same size as the lateral ones, emarginate or two-lobed, its anterior edges deeply indented, ydlow in 
some varieties, in others (jf the same hue as the sejmls, and with a few crimson spots ; the Up, tvhich 
has a longitudinal callosity on its disk, is united with, the vpper extremity of the cohvmn. Column 
short, furnished at its union with the lip, tcith two short diverging horns. Anther dorsal, deeply 
imbedded in the column, of a reddish purple colour. 

W IIILE detained at Isabal by the cholera, I quietly took a canoe, and amused myself by a cruise 
of a few leagues along the shores of the great lake, in search of our favourite Orchiducese. I returned 
home, drenched to the skin, but happy, nevertheless, in the highest degree, for I had discovered a most 
beautiful plant, and one -Nvhich I am perfectly certain is new to you all. It is called here ' Quartorones,' in 
allusion to the four colours which may be seen in its blossoms; and a more beautiful spectacle than they 
presented, I never beheld. It hung suspended, as it were, over the margin of the lake, and sent forth 
perfumes that reminded me of the violet, and reached me at a great distance. For twenty minutes I stood 
gazing at it, before I could prevail upon myself to disturb it ; but I found it in such abundance, and in 
such splendid tlower withal, that I at length nearly filled my canoe before I could stay my hand, fancying 
each specimen fmer than the one before it. Oh, that it were with you safe !" 

Such is Mr. Skinner's account of his discoveiy of this extraordinary plant. The specimens, for 
which he expresses so much solicitude, had a most prosperous voyage, and reached us in safety about the 
end of June, 1837. They did not long remain inactive, and early in 1838 the tw^o flower-stems made their 
appearance from which our figure was prepared. The four colours from which, according to Mr. Skinner, 
it derives its vernacular name, are not very prominent in cultivation ; indeed, unless we distinguish the 
yellowish white of one portion of the lip from the purer yellow of the other, Ave do not see how they are to 
be made out. It is, however, probable that there are many varieties of this species, some of which may 
have their colours more distinctly marked than others. In cultivation it requires no peculiar treatment, 
but is perfectly satisfied with such as the most roljust of its fellows receive. 


Supra. Tab. X, 

Those who are conversant with the habits of the Epiphytic Orchidacea? of the West, must have 
observed that a term'mal inflorescence is usually characteristic of the tribe called EpldcndrecB, and that a 
radical or lateral inflorescence is almost invariably confined to the Vaiidew and MalaxidecE ; at all events, 
until the appearance of our present subject, no case had come to our knowledge of an Epidendreous plant 
with a radical scape ; when, therefore, flower-stems were seen to issue, right and left, from the base of its 
recent shoots, we had not the most remote idea of its ever belonging to that section. In due time the flowers 
expanded, and our astonishment may be imagined, Avhen we found that they differed in no respect from 
those of an ordinary Ejndcndrum ! ! Still, the habit of flowering from the base appeared so very peculiar, 
that we felt strongly disposed to constitute it a new genus on that ground alone ; and were only dissuaded 
from so doing by the prudent counsel of Professor Lixdley, who remarked that, however striking such a 
distinction might for the present appear, it would be untenable in the event of any species being discovered 
which produced its flowers from the side.* To reasoning so just as this, it w^as, of course, impossible not 
to assent, and our plant was accordingly retained in the genus Epidendrum. 

The " Quartorones," then, although it cannot be regarded as the type of a new genus^ will be looked 
upon by botanists as a most remarkable and interesting species ; while the elegance of its appearance, the 
facility with which it is cultivated, and its agreeable perfume, cannot fail to render it a favourite with the 
general collector. 

The merits, therefore, of die plant being undoubtedly high, we have ventured to name it after the 
Earl of Stamford and Warrington, whose seat, Enville Hall, is so justly celebrated for its beautiful gardens, 
and the magnificent specimens of hardy forest trees, which have so long "floated redundant" on its lawns. f 
Enville also possesses a rich collection of tropical Orcliidaccfle. AVould that it were possible to allude to 
these vegetable treasures without being painfully reminded of him by whose taste and ardour they were 
assembled — the late lamented Lord Grey of Groby, — whose too early fate those only who knew him well, 
know how to adequately mourn ! 

Below w^ill be found, in its expanded state, the Lycopodium represented in tlic preceding Vignette. It 
also is from the elegant pencil of Lady Jane W\\Lsn, whose labours in this instance appear to be 
singularly appropriate, as forming a pleasing accompaniment to the plant named after her noble Sire. 

i^tf^ /7v« lyU'i ^^f 

" The other shape, 

If shape it might be called, that shape had none." — Milton 

* Dr. Lindley's views nnight almost be said to have been prophetic, for there has lately blossomed, in Messrs. Loddiges' collection, a new 
Brazilian Epidendrum (£. caulifloruin), with precisely the side-flowering habits he anticipated. 

■\ A well-known and popular pine-apple was originated at Enville, from whence it has borrowed its name. 

Fl. f2. 

M7 ~.irui:^t:^ del" 

E F ii li) E 1^ B M m ^ A If iti, A :ef T ;( A {;; iiT :m .. 

.-£. ifiUiri :uhy. 


tf'^q;/ .ir '^ons;26'S. Hcca^/ii^y, SrptSJ^^/f " 

'''■fK-^ •■:-• 

Zi^ci .9 

, ,<r.-,Pr^" 'v,/-'- 

Tab. XII- 



EpiDEXDiiuM aurantiacum ; caulibus clavatis diphyllis ; foliis oblongis obtusis racemo brcvi lonoio- 
ribus ; sepalis lineari-lanccolatis acutis sub-lunatis, petalisque sub^qualibus conniventibus ; labello libero 
integro ovato columnam involvente, petalisque subconformi : columna labello duplo breviore. 

Stems imrassated, jointed, nearhj eyUndr'tcal, from half a foot to ten Inches high, hearing two 
very coriaceou.s, ovate-ohlony, obtuse, and obliquely emarginate Leaves, of a deep shining green, 
from two to four inches long. Raceme, issuing from a whitish brown spafhe, shorter than the 
leaves, jjrodacing from two to thirteen flowers, of a rich and deep orange-colour. Pedicells ronnd, 
clavate, one inch and a half long, having a slight enlargement on the nnder side, adjoining the flower. 
Sepals linear-lanceolate, acute, about an inch long, and scarcely a quarter of an inch broad, the 
upper 07i€ is erect, the lateral ones slightly crescent-shaped. Petals same size as the sepals, and 
converging inwards, so as partially to conceal the coltmm. Lip entire, united only to the base ef the 
column, ovate, broader than the petals, hut of the same length, having its edges turned inwards, and 
thereby overlapping the column, orange-coloured, hut adorned with a few minnte crimson streaks. 
Column scarcely half the length of the petals, of a pale greenish yellow. 

rOR the introduction of this exceedingly pretty Epidendrum we have again to thank :\[r. Skinner, 
by whom plants of it were sent in the early part of 1835, from Guatemala, where it is exceedingly plentiful. 
It was also found, by Baron Karwinski, in Oaxaca, although, probably, rare in that locality, since it was 
neither met with by Mr. Barker's collector, nor included in a large and richly-stored box, which the 
Messrs. Sadler, of Oaxaca, have kindly sent to us from the environs of that city (the capital of the 
province of the same name). 

In Guatemala it growls only in the higher parts, where the mean temperature of the air is, probably, 
not more than 65° (Fahrenheit), a circumstance which ought never to be lost sight of in its cultivation; for 
like many other Orchidacea? which are found above the usual elevation, it will not thrive under the treatment 
applied to the majority of its tribe. It grows, indeed, and freely, among its compeers, and even produces 
vigorous spathes, but these prove either altogether abortive, or are the harbingers only of very feeble dower- 
scapes. When our plants arrived in the autumn of 1835, we observed that even the w^eakest stems had borne 
from five to seven flowers, while upon the strongest we counted as many as thirteen ; when, therefore, the 
stems, w^hich, in a short time, were perfected in the epiphyte house, rivalled in their dimensions the largest 
of those imported, we expected a corresponding profuseness in the number of their flowers. To our o-reat 
mortification, however, but one of these stems sent forth a scape, and to this there were attached only two 
flower-buds, which, although they never made an attempt to expand, contrived, nevertheless, to mature very 
formidable capsules, similar to the one represented in the Plate. This ill success was attributed to the 
unfavourable season at which the shoots w^ere made; when, therefore, in the early part of the ensuinn- 
summer, stems were seen rising much above the former height, our hopes rose in proportion, but only to be 
again disappointed; for, instead of flower-scapes, another set of shoots started up. As it was evident that 
the plant required rest, it was removed to a cooler house, in which, after remaining dormant durin^'- the 
winter, it produced, in the spring, a few heads of flowers, none of them, however, numbering more than four 
or five blossoms. This deficiency we at once ascribed to over-exertion in the preceding summer, and, in 
order to prevent the recurrence of a like catastrophe, we determined that, when growing season again arrived, 
the plant should be permitted to form only one set of shoots, and be immediately removed from the excite- 

« Supra. Tab. X. 

mcnts of the epiphyte house. This was accordingly done ; and the plant, as before, was dormant until the 
spring, when scapes again made their appearance, but still with the slender complement of three or four 
buds, several of which formed their seed-vessels without deigning to open their tlowers. Some further 
change in the treatment of our perverse plant being now imperatively called for, we kept it, during the whole 
of last summer, in a vinery, where it was occupied, for six months, in completing shoots, which would have 
been hurried over in the epiphyte house in half that time, but these shoots are so exceedingly strong, and 
have so much of that bulky appearance which always portemh a vigorous flowering, that we fully expect to 
see the species in the course of the present spring (1839) in all its native splendour. Should this happily 
be the case, the plant will be one of the most showy of its genus, for nothing can surpass the rich orange 
colour of its flowers, which, according to Mr. Skinnep,, attract the eye at a considerable distance by their 
brilliant hues, and sparkle on the trees like so many stars. 

This plant has also blossomed in the collections of Lord Rolle and Sir Charles Lemox, by both of whom 
specimens were obhgingly forwarded to us, but these were as deficient as our own in the number of their flowers. The 
specimens from Carclew were accompanied by a drawing, which does no small credit to Mr. Booth, Sir Charles's 
skilful gardener. Our figure was prepared in part from the plant when flowering with us in the spring of 1838, and 
in part from native specimens belonging to the Royal Herbarium of Munich. The habit of this plant is so precisely 
that of Cattleya, that, prior to its blossoming, and when nothing was known of its flowers but their colour, we gave it 
the provisional title of « Orange Cattleya, "—a title by w hich it is still known in many collections, and which the lovers 
of that magnificent genus will be sorry to find has been usurped by an EpidendruuL* 

In the Vignette two fine Quesals are to be seen, perched upon the branches of cheirosfemon plat ani folium., the 
remarkable "hand-plant" of central America. The Quesal is the irorjon resplendens of Gould, in whose magnificent 
monograpli of the genus it is wortliily figured. The plumage is green and scarlet, and exceedingly glossy ; the tail 
feathers, in fine specimens, measuring upwards of three feet in length. Mr. Skinner has shot, and presented to the 
Natural History Society of Manchester, one of these extraordinary birds, from which, we must not omit to mention, 
the province of ^?/e.9a/tenango (where they are exclusively found) derives its name. 

The "hand-plant" is another peculiarity of the country, and is so called from the resemblance of its striknig red 
flowers to a hand or claw. 


***** talos a vcvtice piilclier ad imos, 

Fiet eritque tuns mimmorum milHbus octo, — IIor, EphL ii, 4, 

* Since the above was written \vc have received, from the fine collection of Mr. Brocklehurst, of the Fence, near Macclesfield, a flower of 
this species of a larger size and richer colour than any we had previously seen. 

/7. /3. 



J{^-' W,^^s, ^.WJ 

A. T T h 

Y K 

K IW 1^ ]K 111 I 


Jf-. &,,.- 



rij.?>f^by .7 J^.ul^^wa.y f- SryTT.r t69^ Iyrx:rid^My\ S^^: If.'^ldSd. 

TnrUtd by T, ^€Uj^7 3. jr,-yrt>> f -^d'S aariJ- _S&il/f'rd Sff''' 

Tab. XI 1 1. 



Tribus: EPIDENDRE^.— Lixdley. 

CATTLEYA. Lindley, Gen. et Sp. Orcli. 116. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala patentia, aequalia. Potala sa>pius 
majora. Labellum cuciiUatum, coliimnam involvens (rarissime liberuni) trilobum 
vel indivisum. Columna clavata, elongata, semiteres, marginata, cum labello arti- 
culata. Anthcra carnosa, 4-locularis5 septorum marginibus membranaceis. Pollinia 
4, caiidiculis totidem replicatis. — Herbae Americanse epiphytse. Folia coriacca. 
Flores speciosissimi, ssepe e spatha magna erumpentes. 

Cattleya Skinneri; pseuclo-bulbis valde incrassatis compressis diphyllis foliis oblongis duplo lonnio- 
ribus; racemo denso brevi multifloro. Sepalis lincari-lanceolatis acutis, petalis ovalibus undulatis duplo 
latioribus : labello integro infundibuliformi emarginato obtuso, columna nana 4-plo longiore. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 


Psendo-htdhous Stems verp much incrassated, jointed, compressed, about afoot long, terminated 
hy two oblong fleshy Leaves, from four to six inches long. Raceme short, issuing from a large 
Spathe, composed of from four to twelve flowers, clustered together. Sepals linear -lanceolate, 
acute, tico inches long, of a rich rosy hue. Petals broadly oval, twice the width of the sepals, 
waved at the edges, and rose-coloured. Llp entire or very obscurely three-lobed, funnel -shaped, 
folded closely over the column, of which it is more than four times the length; towards the middle 
the lip is bent downwards, and very much constricted, but spreads open at its upper extremity; 
externally it is of the same hue as the petals, but all round its interior edges there is a band of the 
most intense crimson, which passes, towards its disk, into a dirty white; one small elevated ridge 
traverses, longitudinally, its entire length. Column dwarf, about one third of an inch in length. 

Until within the last few years^ the extensive province of Guatemala had continued quite a ^^ terra incognita^'' 
to the admirers of Orchidacese^ who were ready, nevertheless, to regard it as a rich storehouse of their favourite plants, 
in consequence of the known beauty of the tribe in Mexico and Panaina,^the two extremities of that remarkable 
Isthmus, of which Guatemala is itself the centre. The small number of European, and almost total absence of English, 
residents, had rendered the attainment of any precise information as to its natural history, all but impossible; and to 
have dispatched a botanical collector on a mission to a country whose Flora possessed only a conjectural interest, was 
too wild a speculation, even for Orchido-mania to venture on. Things might still have remained in this tantalizing 
state, had we not accidentally heard that some insects had been received in Manchester from a gentleman of the name 
of Skinner, the owner of extensive estates in Guatemala, and the partner in a flourishing mercantile firm in the same 
country. -j- This piece of intelligence immediately brought with it a faint gleam of hope ; for, as entomology and botany 
are kindred sciences, we were at no loss to persuade ourselves that he who had dune so much for the one, mio-ht 
possibly be tempted to lend a helping hand to the other. We accordingly addressed a letter to Mr. Skinner, in which 
we frankly described the circumstances of the case, and humbly craved his assistance. This letter, addressed as it 
was to an entire stranger, and on a troublesome errand, we could scarcely expect to see otherwise than coollv received, 
if not altogether disregarded ; — that such, at least, is the fate of most epistles of its class, a host of disappointed suitors 
will bear us out in asserting; must we add, that even the promises of zealous aid, which the more fortunate applicants 
receive, are not unfi-equently lost sight of amid the difficulties that oppose their fulfilment, or are dissolved under the 
enervating rays of a tropical sun ! But with Mr. Skinner the case was far otherwise. From the moment lie received 
our letter, he has laboured almost incessantly to drag from their hiding places the forest treasures of Guatemala, and 

* So called by Professor Lindley in lionour of the late Mr. Cattley, of Barnct, one of the earliest, most zealous, and successful cultivators 
of the Orchidacete. 

f Mr. Skinner is the son of the Rev. John Skinner, Episcopal Clergyman at Forfar, and the grandson of Bishop Skinner, an eminent divine and 
excellent scholar, as his numerous works abundantly testify. 

transfer them to the stoves of his native land. In pursuit of this object, there is scarcely a sacriOce uliich he has not 
made, or a danger or hardship which ho has not braved. In sickness or in health, amid the calls of business or tJie 
perils of war, whether detained in quarantine on the shores of the Atlantic,* or shipwrecked uu the rocks of the 
Pacific, he has never suffered an opportunity to escape him of adding to the long array of his botanical discoveries ! 
And, assuredly, he lias not laboured in vain, for lie niav truly be said to have been tlie means of introducing a greater 
number of new and beautiful Orchidacese into Europe, than any one individual of his own or any other nation. As 
the channel through which his discoveries have found their way into his mother country, it would ill become us, in this 
place, to enlarge upon the generous, kind, and spirited manner in which he has uniformly acted towards us; we must, 
therefore, without further preface, request his acceptance of the only acknowledgments which it is in the power of the 
science he has so much befriended to bestow. Unfortunately, there is already a Peruvian (jemts called 'Mwi not after 
our friend) Skumeria ; we can, therefore, do no more than select some species which may not do discredit to his name, 
and we confess we are unable to conceive one better fitted for our purpose than the magnificent Cattleya represented 
in the accompanying Plate. 

The colour of Cattleya-Skinneri (for we must hencefortli call it by its title) is that of the most brilliant and intense 
rose, and there is a delicacy about it which is not surpassed by any plant with which we are acquainted. It is easily 
grown, and produces its flowers freely in the month of March ; but, when they first expand, they are of a very pale hue, 
and not more than half the size to which they attain in the course of a day or two. We mention this circumstance, 
which, though rare, is by no means peculiar fo the species, to prevent others feeling as much disappointed as we did 
ourselves, at the appearance of its blossoms while in a state of immaturity. Some of the imported specimens have 
borne upwards of twelve flowers, that we think. Jt probable that this number may eventuall} be exceeded in cultivation. 
The present sj^ecies is readily distinguished from all the Cattleijas as yet known, by the extreme shortness of its 
colunni, which is not more than one quarter the length of the lip. 

Mr. Skinner found this plant almost exclusively in the warmer parts of Guatemala, and along the shores of the 
Pacific. Its familiar appellation is "Florde San Sebastian," and like Mr. Skinner's other namesake (the beauteous 
Epidendrnm Skinneri)^ it is eagerly sought for, when in season, by the people of the country, as an ornament for the 
temples and shrines of their favourite saints. 

The Vignette is copied from a drawing, obligingly procured for us by 3Ir. M'^ Klee (Mr. Skinner's partner), and 
furnishes a view of the Altar of a Church in Guatemala, which arrested Mr. Skinner's attention by the beauty of the 
Orchidacea^ with which it w^as adorned. f 


*'Ite igitur pueri. Unguis, auimij^que faventes, 
Sortaque dolubris, et farra impoiiite cultrisj 

* graciles ubi parva coronas 
AccipiuTit fragili simulacra nitentia cera/* 

JuvtNAL, Sat. xii. S3. 

* Mr. Skinner was detained in quarantine at the Castle of St, Philip, in tlie Bay of Dulce, for more than a fortnight, on liis return from England 
in 1837 ; to his detention there we owe some valuable plants : and, to his yubsequent shipwreck on the coast of the Pacific, we owe many more. When 
thrown (after the loss of his good ship the "Spartan/'} upon an inhospitable shore, his first care was not^ as some might have supposed, to ascertain 
whether the strange spot produced any food, but whether it produced any plants ! 

\ In the wood-cut the Orehidace^ are represented wilh their pseudo-bulbs attached, hut it is much more usual to see the flower-spikes only. 


T(. I -I. 


' V 



Jtr::" Wl6kers deZ^ 



\\IM (Q) BF. S r.A (HilDlNA 

Jf. Sauci', U{h 


J^.. ^ y. ^e;:^,.'^ s Son^, iffs. n^cadai^v, s^arrfidsd 

.TnnC€^ h -^- Oauao9.Nar^ ^^//y^^.^ Sq" 

Tab. X I V. 



Tribus: VANDEiE.-^Li>DLEY. 

MORMODES.— i/yi^/%, Bot. Reg. 18G1. 

Sepala, et petala subsequalia libera, conniventia vel reflexa. Labellinn 
membranaceum, sclla^forme, trilobatum, asccndens, cum columna articulatum. 
Columna scmlteres, mutica, semi-torta; gynizus longus angustus ; clinandrium 
postice acuminatum. Pollinia 4, perparia comiata, caudicula) crassa.' affixa, glan- 
dular carnosae crassse adha^renti. Hcrbae epiphytal Americanse, caulibus brcvi- 

bus fusiformibus. Folia basi vaginantia, plicata. Scapi radicales. Fiores race- 
mosi, speciosi. 

MoRMODEs Pardina, pseudo-bulbis vestitis foliis strictis 4-plo brevioribus; racemo iiutantc multi- 
floro foliis breviore, sepalis petalisque subsequalibus ovato-lanceolatis acutis, conniventibus, labelli trilobi 
lobis lateralibus acutis decurvis intermedio elongate acuminate. 

Cyclosia Maculata, Y^i^oizscii in Allgem. Gartenzeiiung, No. 39, 1838. 

Habitat in OaxacCt. Kx\ii%vinski. 


Pseudo-bulbs, afoot long, turbinate, cocercd (and in aged specimens rendered prkJdgJ by 
the slieatUny bases of the numerous leaves. Leaves, in fill- sized specimens, npicards of two feet 
long, not more than an inch wide, and tapering very much at the extremities. Roots thick and fleshy. 
Scape nodding, shorter than the leaves, producing from fifteen to twenty or thirty flowers, which 
are never more than half opened. Sepals and Petals, nearly equal, an inch and a half long, con- 
mvent, ovate-lanceolate, acute, of a yellowish colour; covered over with numerous claret -coloured 
spots, except on their outside tips, where they are deeply stained with reddish hrowm. Lip shorter 
than the petals, and, like them, speckled, but of a paler hue, saddle- shaped, membranaceous, 
deeply three-cleft ; its lateral lobes acute ; bent downwards, shorter than the intermediate one, which 
is acuminate. Column turned half round, so as to appear to look askance at the spectator. Anther 
and Pollen-masses, as in Catasetum. 

MORMODES Pardina is a native of Oaxaca, where it was originally discovered by Baron 
Karwikski. It formed a part of a most extensive collection of vegetable treasures, which that distinguished 
traveller had assembled during his researches in New Spain, and which he attempted to bring with him on 
his return to Europe. Unfortunately, however, the vessel in which he sailed was wrecked on one of the 
West India Isles, and thus by far the greater portion of his hving collections were consigned to a watery 
grave. The individual from which our figure is taken was one of the few survivors, and was communicated 
to us by the Baron in the year 1836. A pale self-coloured variety has more recently been introduced by 
Mr. Bakker, by whom specimens were obligingly forwarded to us in the Autumn of 1838. The species 
also appears to have found its way into Germany, having been described by that excellent Botanist, Dr. 
Klotzsch. in the '' AUgemeinen Gartenzeitung," under the name of" Cyclosia maculata ;" but this name 

* From jiopix^, a frightful-looking object, a goblin, in allusion to the strange appearance of the flowers. 

will have to give way, in conseciuence of tlie prior claims of our own, which was pubhshed in the " Miscel- 
laneous Notices" of the ''Botanical Register," considerably before the appearance of that of Dr. Klotzscii. 

Since the estabhshment of the Genus Mormodes, by Professor Lindley, circumstances have occurred 
which, in his opinion, render it advisable that it should be referred to Catasetum. We allude of course to 
the truly wonderful fact of perfect flowers of the (to all appearance at least) distinct genera, Monaclianthns, 
Myanthusy and Catasetum having actually been produced on the same flower-stalk by a plant in Lord 
FitzwiUiam's possession. From the similarity of its habit, Dr. Lixdley conjectures that Mormodes may one 
day be detected in similar vagaries, and, therefore, proposes to cancel it, as he has already and most properly 
done in the case oi Monachanthus and Mynnthiis. That its suppression may eventually become necessary, 
on the grounds above-stated, we readily admit ; but since Mormodes has hitherto adhered, most scrupulously, 
to its original form, we think that it would, for the present at least, be premature to condemn it. * 

Mormodes pardina flowered with us, for the first time, in July, 1838, when our figure was prepared. 
It is cultivated like the Cataseta, and without the slightest difficulty. 

Our Vignette is taken from a cast (in Mr. George Ackermanns possession) of the hieroglyphical calendar 
of the Atzecs, an early Mexican race. We do not profess to under.stand it ourselves; but if any of our 
readers sliould be desirous of further information, we must beg leave to refer them to the splendid " Atlas 
Pittoresque" of Humboldt, where this abstruse subject is copiously and ably discussed. 

" O CLiras hominum ! o quantum est in rebus inane I 

Quis leget Iiaec, min' tu istud ais, nemo Hercule nemo ?" 

Persius, Sat. i. 1 

* The Cataseta are not the only Orchitlaceae that " trifle with us in a double sense." We have, in our own collection, a Zygopetalum, which 
produces, alternately, spikes of Z. StenocMlon, and of Z. Machdi, while the Cycnochcs figured at Tab. V. of this work, has lately presented us with 
flowers of a totally different aspect from those represented in our Plate ! All this is very hard upon poor botanists ! 

n. /s. 


' - 





^^ Wldh^s. d^L 


A C C ATA o 

M. GoJiun. 2i^. 

Jhil.^ 'by J.Jhd^way & Sm^ J^S^ Ihx^adilfy, Sep&f 1J838 

yrifiOJ h^ ? f^iu.^ S Norih Cru^-c>^ru Bsd^ord SfT* 

Tab. XV. 



Stan 110 1'KA saccnta ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis scapis paucitloris brevioribus ; sepalis oblique ovatis, 
petalisquc oblongo-lanceolatis acutis undulatis, reflexis : — labello medio vix constricto ; hypochilio abrupt^ 
et alte saccate ; mctachilio cornubus maximis ascendentibus incurvis compressis utrinque instructo ; epichilio 
ovato trilobo, subtiis carinato trilobo, lobis lateralibus ercctis truncatis intermcdio uiinore apiculato : — 

columna marginatri. 


Leaves, including the jietiole, ahotd a foot long^ narrow^ acuminate^ longer titan the Hcapes. 
Scapes, 2-3 flowered, ahout the length of the Pedicells, and almost entirely clothed with acute 
sheathing Bracts, Sepals and Petals jmich waved at the margin and extremities, and turned 
entirely bach, the former ohUqnely ovate, the latter ohlong -lanceolate ; hoth of them being of a pale 
straw colonr, sprinhled with vinons spots; at the base, however, of the sepals there is an intense orange 
shade^ which has the effect of being reflected from the interior of the pouch of the lip. At the base 
of the Lip there is a deep perpendicular pouch, which glows inside, tvith the most brilliant orange; 
attached to t lie front of this pouch, on either side, are placed two very large parallel flattened fcdcate 
Horns, bent slightly inwards; between these horns is stationed an ovate three-cleft fleshy process, 
the lateral lobes of which are bent upwards, and rather truncated, the central lobe being apiculate 
and shorter than the side ones. Column arched, furnished, at its up)per jjortion, with an oval 
membranous margin, where it almost touches the horns of the Up : both lip and column are highly 
jwlished, and of a dirty whitish hue, sprinkled with minute spots of the same colour as those in the 

This elegant little Slanliopca was discovered by Mr. Skinner in some part of Guatemala, but, 
unfortunately, we are not in possession of its precise locality; which is the more to be regretted as it was never 
met with except on one occasion. We received it in 1837, and it tlowcred profusely the following summer; 
it is almost needless to add that its management is attended with no difficulty whatever. Independently 
of its peculiar flowers, the small narrow leaves of this plant readily distinguish it from all other species of 
the genus A\hich have, as yet, taken up their abode in our stoves. . 

The awful personages represented below are copied from a curious print in Mr. George Ackeumann's 
possession, and which he most obligingly lent to us for the occasion. Figures, similarly habited, still \\ alk the 
streets of Guatemala on certain public days, their office being to strike terror and collect contributions 
among the spectators. 

" Hie iiiger est: hunc tu Komane caveto!'' — Hoit. S.\t. 

» Supra. Tab. VII. 



Mif^ Dra^Tcec del/" 

^ S^azu^ Iz^ 

IB M, 





-?^/5y J.Jbu^wq^ ^ Sm,^ a^)9,I^j>€0.^^j^_UsoT 16 


Tr'^urg^ ~by :p. i^^Ti J^ JfiP-^ Ot-BJ ^5'i^^* Sf* 

Tab. XVI. 



Tribus: EPIDENDRE^.— Lindley. 

BRASAVOLA. R. Brown in Hort. Keiv. ed. 2-5, 2l6.—Lind. Gen. et Sp. Orchid. 114. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala et petala suba^qualia, libera, acuminata. 
Labellum cucullatum, integrum, columnam invohens. Columna marginata, clavata, 
stigmate infundibular], clinandrio posticc tridentato. Pollinia 8, subsequalia, qui- 
busdam aliis parvis interjectis. Anthera 4-locularis, septis marginatis, loculis 

semibipartitis. Herba3 Americanse caulescentes, epiphyta?, apice folium solita- 

rium, sa^pius semi-cylindraceum, carnosum, supra sulcatum, apice subulatum 
gerentes. Flores terminales, magni, speciosi. 

Bkasavola glanca ; caulibus brevibus incrassatis compressis folio quam maximc carnoso paulo 
brcvioribus, floribus solitariis e spatha magna pedunculo subivcjuali erumpentibus : sepalis petalisque 
conformibus coriaceis repanclis lanceolatis obtusis, labello-cordato basi convoluto lateribus intequaliter 
lobatis : columna brevissima marginibus membranaceis, clinandrio 5-lobo. 

Habitat prope Xalapam in Mexico. — Henchman, Hartweg, Deschamps. 


From a stont Riiizoma, spring, at intervals of about an inch, the short, sivollen, compressed 
Stems, three or four inches long, rather shorter than the leaves. Leaves solitary, exceedingly 
fleshy, glancons (as are also the stems), ohtnse, sometimes boat-shaped. From the axil of the leaf 
issues a brown compressed Spatiie, as long as the peduncle, and about three inches in length. 
Pedicell tapering into a long neck. Sepals and Petals spreading, leathery, lanceolate, obtuse, 
equal to each other, of a pale olive-green. Lip convolute at the base, but expanded upwards into a 
broad, cordate, acute, flat, tchltish- yellow plate, irregularly lobed at the sides; at its base, in the 
inside, are four sangiiiiie streaks; it is fully two inches long, and fin the widest part J almost as 
broad. Column very short, membranous at the edges, with an unequally o -lobed Clinandrium. 

(Lindlcij in litt.) 

illlS remarkable Brasavola was originally sent to England by Mr. Henchman, wlio discovered a 
solitaiy plant of it in the neighbom-liood of Xalapa. It was subsequently met with, near the same locality, 
by Mr. Hartweg, by whom some fine plants were transmitted to the Horticultural Society of London, in 
the early part of 1837 ; and from one of these, which floAvered in their garden at Chiswick, the following 
spring, the accompanying drawing was prepared. 

Shortly after the arrival of ]\rr. Hartweg's collection, the species again made its appearance, amongst 
a huge assemblage of Mexican Orchidacea?, wliich had been brought to England (on speculation) by a 
Frenchman, of the name of Desch AMPs.f To some of these plants Avere attached the remains of Avhat had 

* So called by Brown, in honour of Ant. Musa. IJrasavola, an Italian botanist. 

f This importation was quite unique in its way, and formed a sort of epoch in the liistory of the Orchido-mama. A vessel came into port 
freighted, almost exclusively, with Epiphytes and Cadi, and such was their abundance, that it was found necessary to engage an extensive suite of 
apartments for their accommodation, in Hungerford Market ! The plan pursued by M. Deschamps was to parcel out his plants in small collections of 
about twenty species, for wliich, in the first instance, he asked and obtained very high prices, but the London market being at length exhausted, 
similar collections were distributed dirough the provinces, and offered at greatly reduced rates. The author himself purchased, in a country town, a 
set of at least twenty kinds for a sum which, in the metropolis, he had in vain tendered for only In-o ! In case of any future inundation of Orchidaceje, 
this little fact should be borne in mind. 

evidently been tiowers of considerable size, but in sucli a tattered condition as to preclude all attempts at 
minute examination ; their dimensions, liOAvever, taken in connexion with the rigid leaves and stems, induced 
an impression that they belonged to a new species of Cattleya^ to which the name of C crassifoUa was 
provi^sionally applied. Unfortunately the latter appellation proved to be premature, for instead of adding 
to our list of Cattleyas, the plant, as it afterwards appeared, was only a scion of the comparatively 
humble family of Brasavola ; it forms, however, the most distinct and interesting species of its genus. 
Dr. Lixdley's specific name of glauca is judiciously given, in reference to the remarkable aspect of the 
stems and leaves. 

'i'he species grows freely ; but we have not heard of its producing flowers in any other collection than 
that of the Horticultural Society ;— indeed, its shy disposition in this respect is suflicicntly indicated by the 
fact of many of the imported stems having evidently been abortive, — a rare occurrence amongst Orchidacece. 


The stately plant represented in the Vignette is Foiircroya long(^va^ one of the most marvellous 
productions of the vegetable world. It belongs to the family of Amaryllidacece^ and has the habit of a 
gigantic Yucca^ its stem being frequently fifty feet high, and its flower-spike forty more ! It was originally 
discovered by Baron Karwinski, on Mount Tanga in Oaxaca, at an elevation of 10,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. Mr. Skinxer has also met with the plant on the high mountain ridges in the interior of 
Guatemala. Plants of the species exist in the nurseries, but (contrary to expectation) it seems to suffer 
severely from the cold and changes of our climate. 

_ ^ f »f4f J ^ 



" Unde nil majus genevatur ipso, ^ 
Xec viget quidquam simile, aut secundum/' 

HoR, Car,]. 12, 

ft. J7. 

JCf yfidur^ del 



RTU M MA€m© 

1 T 




S ^ IT M 

M (j-aU'^x/. IzSt' 

- -' ^ 

Tab. XVII. 



{Rose-colovred Variety.) 

EpiDENDRUM macrocliihnn ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis diphyllis, foliis lineari-oblongis coriaceis acutis scapo 
simplici vcl paniculato subsx^qualibus aut brevioribus, sepalis petalisque conformibus obovatis apicibus incur- 
vis, labello libero alte trilobo lobis lateralibus ovatis acutis columnam amplcctentibus intermedio maximo 
obcordato sub- sell vuformi disco calloso, columna aptera. 

Epidendrum macrochilumj Hooker, Bot. Mag. 3534. 

PsEUDO-BVLBS ovate, from one, to three inches long, of an extremely hard texture, smooth or 
wrinJded, but never furrowed ; bearing two or three shining, rigid, coriaceous, sharj) -pointed Leaves, 
nsnalhj from four to six inches in length. Flower-Spike erect, simple in culticated, hut occasionally 
branched in native, specimens; hearing from two to twelve large, handsome Flowers, which are 
nearly three inches in diameter, from the tip of the npper sepal to the extremity of the lip. 
Sepals obovate, mucronate, spreading, incurved at their extremities, an inch and a quarter long, 
chocolate-coloured, except at the base, tchere they have an olixaceous line. Petals similar in form 
and colour to the sepals, excepting that they are rather smcdler. Lip, on its upper surface, of a 
bright rose colour, irJiich is deepest at the apex, pcder nnderneath, not united with the column, 
deeply S-lobed — the lateral lobes enveloping and almost concealing the column, ovate, acute, — the 
middle lobe very large and broad, obcordate, and saddle-shaped in consequence of its edges being 
deflexed ; — at the base there is a flat tlsh fleshy disk. Column not attached to the lip, triangular, 
compressed, destitute of wings, surmounted by the large, conspicuous, orange- coloured Anther. 

XHIS is one of tlic most attractive oi' Epide77dra, even in tlie comparatively feeble state in which it is usually met 
with in our stoves; but when seen in all its native luxuriance^ it must be, indeed, magnificent ! In cultivation, not more 
tlian six or eight flow^ers are ordinarily produced^ whereas in wild specimens, gathered in Guatemala by Mr. Skinner, 
we find many-flowered panicles, like the one represented in the plate. The species succeeds best in houses where air 
is freely admitted, and appears to sufler from excessive moisture : if allowed to rest during the winter months, it rarely 
fails to flower in April or May. Its blossoms emit a powerful odour, which though agreeable at a distance, is pungent 
and slightly nauseous when too closely inhaled. 

E. macrochilum is found abundantly in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: and, as is usually the case with 
widely-di.slributed species, its varieties are exceedingly numerous; in some of these (like the one figured by Dr. Hooker), 
the labelluni is white, while in others it is of the beautiful rose-colour shewn in the plate :^Mr. Skinner was, we 
believe, tlie first to enrich European collections with the latter. 

The Insect figured below^ is a species of Mantis^ from the shores of the Pacific. Its vernacular appelhition 
(according to Mr. Skinner) is ^^Qiicbra Patita/' and its bite is said to cause deatli. 

'* Duplices tendcns ad sidera palmas." — VirGh 

* Supra, Tab. V. 

7^ y^V. 

If^ld^. dd,' 




J ^v 



Tn T 



-^ aazjcf ^'^ 

A^'^3/ J IM^-^a^ I Sotl: I6S Fu^:adilly. ^^3^1^4-0 

Tab. XVIII. 



Epidendrum alatum; pseudo-bulbis pyriformibus laevibus bi-triphyllis, foliis loratis arciiatis coriaceis 
acutis scapo paniculato duplo brevioribus, — sepalis petalisque subiequalibus obovato-imguiculatis maroine 
imdulato,— labello alte trilobo basi tantum columnar adnato, lobis lateralibus oblique obovatis, intermedio 
majore subrotundo crispo venoso calloso,— columna arcuata stipitata alis duabus falcatis decurvis versus 
apicem instructs. 

Habitat in Honduras prope Isahal. Skinner. 

Pseudo-bulbs pear-shapcdy smooth, three or four inches long, hearing two or three fleshy, 
shining, pointed, curved Leaves, sometimes two feet long, and an inch and a haJfhroad. Sheathed 
at the base by the leaves, rises the Scape to the height of three feet or more, hearing a large panicle 
of shewy Flowers, tchich are rather loosely arranged. Pedicells upwards of an inch long. 
Sepals and Petals nearly equal, rather shorter than the pedicells, tmguiculate, obovate, waved at 
the margin, slightly obtuse at the point, reddish-hroivn, with a margin of greenish-yellow, on the 
upper side, olive on the under. Lip united with the base of the cohimn, an inch long, deeply ^-lobed; 
the lateral lohes obliquely obovate, primrose- coloured, smaller than the middle one, which is nearly 
round, curled at the margin, bordered by a narrow band of brilliant orange, and covered with 
innumerable streahs, composed of small purplish hairs, which radiate from its base. Column bent, 
clah-shaped, its inargins 7nembranous, and forming in its vjyper part two decurved falcate 2^seudo- 
wings, from between which protrudes the deep orange-colovred Anther. 

A SOLITARY plant of this stately Epidcndrum was discovered by Mr. Skinnek on his return to 
Guatemala, in 1837. It was found growing in company with E. Stamfordianum (figured at Tab. XI. of 
this work) ; and, like that species, it seems to delight in a greater degree of warmth and humidity than the 
majority of Mexican Orchidacew require: — if this circumstance be borne in mind, its cultivation will 
be found perfectly simple. It flowers, at Knypersley, in May and June, and its blossoms, which are 
most exquisitely fragrant, continue in perfection for several weeks. The rich band of intense orange, which 
skirts the front part of the labellum, gives to the species a remarkable appearance, and such as it is quite 
impossible for any drawing to convey. 

The \^ignette represents a rude earthenware Vase, doubtless of great antiquity, which, with many 
other relics of equal singularity and interest, were dug up, by Mr. Skinner, in the vicinity of Istapa. 

^■^■- --r. 

* ^3E 'w/iifi.iasa-'Ti.-r^' "^^^" r— ■ 

'* With uncoutii rliymes and shapeless sculpture decked." — Gray's Elegy, 

Supra, Tab. V. 

PL 1.9. 

Mifi Drak^ d^I^ 



M Gmin. li^h 

fiji'^^j ^^Brji^wcLy ^Sor^/d9Az:am:^S^?JS4rJ 

/r.i-=*. J- 

Tab. XIX. 



TiiiBus: VANDEiE.— LiNDLEY. 

GALEANDRA.— Z??i^/. Illus. Orchid. PI 1. S.—Gen. et Spe. cxii. 

Perianthium patens, vel connivens, sepalis petalisque ascendentibus, liberis. 
Labellum infundibuliforme, calcaratum, sessile intus laeve, margine nunc fimbriato. 
Columna erecta, membranaeeo-alata, elinandrio declivi. Anthera galeseformis, 
crista recurva cum dorso clinandrii cardinata. PoUinia 2, postice excavata, cau- 
dicula brevi, cum glandula elongata basi divergenti-biloba, articulata. — Herbfe 
terrestres vel epiphyta}, foliis plicatis scapis radicalibus vel racemis terminalibus. 

Galeandra Baueri; pseudo-bulbis attenuatis vel fusiformibus foliis lanceolatis acutis, racemo ter- 
minali pauci-vel-multilloro foliis supcrante, sepalis petalisque subiiequalibus obovatis acutiusculis, labello 
maximo antico convolute emarginato apiculato indiviso margine crenato, calcare ovario longiore. 

Galeandra Baueri. Lindl. Illus. Gen. et Spe. I. c. 

Habitat in Mexico. — Ross. In Guatemala. — Skinner. In Guiana. — Martin. 


Pseudo-bulbs, variable in form ^ attenuated, or fusiform, four or five inches long, bearing several 
lanceolate, sharp-pointed plicated Leaves, of about afoot in length. Raceme issuing fi^om the apex 
of the pseudo-bulbs., nodding, clothed at the base with several imbricated striated Bracts, nunuj-flowered. 
Sepals and Petals nearly equal, obovate, acute; all directed fas in Etdophia) towards the np}2)€r 
side of the flower, — nearly an inch long, yellowish green, tinged ivith dull red at the base. LiP, much 
larger than the other parts, convolute, obtuse, emarginate, undivided, but crenated along all the border; 
ivhite at the base outside, yelloiv on the inside, but, at the end, of a deep and bright rose-colour : — near the 
base, in the inside, are tivo elevated lines. Column, almost concealed by the Up), dwarfish, erect, with a 
membranous margin. AxTHER, helmet-shajjed. 

IHIS rare Orchidaceous plant has been long known to English botanists, although, prior to the y 


1838, it had never been imported in a living state. It was first discovered by Martin, in Guiana; and 
from specimens then collected, Mr. Bauee prepared the admirable drawings which appear in Professor 
Lindley's " Illustrations of the Genera and Species of Orchideous Plants." The species would appear to 
be extremely rare in the scat of its original discovery, since none of the many botanical collectors who 
have recently visited that country have succeeded in obtaining even a solitary specimen of it. Mr. Collet, 
Mr. IIenciiman, Mr. Sciiomburgk, and others, have all successively sought it, but in vain; and when, 
at length, Mr. Barker was so fortunate as to obtain possession of a single plant, he was indebted for his 
good fortune to the exertions of his collector, ]\lr. Ross, who re-discovered the species in the neighbourhood 
of Oaxaca, a distance of some thousand miles from the spot where it was formerly found ! 

* So called by Professor Lindley, from galea, " a helmet," and avrjp, " a man," in allusion to the hehnet-like form of the anther. 

Mr. Barker's plant produced tiowers in the autumn of 1839;* and from these, assisted bv native 
speciuK-ns more recently discovered by Mr. Skixxek in Guatemala, Miss Dkakk prepared the exquisite 
drawing from Avhence the accompanying plate is taken. In cultivation, the species does not appear to 
require any particular care, but ^ve fear that it is likely to continue a scarce plant for many years to come; 
—a circumstance the more to be regretted, as the singularity of its structure-its lovely flowers-and 
graceful habit, cannot fail to render it an object of desire, both to tlie botanist and the amateur. 

Mr. Bauer, after whom the species is named, is well known to the botanical world as {\\(d facile 
princcjjs of microscopical draughtsmen. Although now between eighty and ninety j^ears of age, he retains 
all his early fondness for his favourite science, and not unfrequently plies his pencil with no unsteady hand, j- 

The ^'ignette is borrowed from a curious tableau in the 


Hn-Jimi," or, to speak more correctly, 
the " Museum siccmn' of Lady Grey of Groby, which is rich in (|uaint devices of the same kind. The 
scene is evidently laid on the shores of some Indian stream, whither part of the numerous progeny of 
Cycnoches (a genus exclusively American) are supposed-by poetic licence-to have migrated; attracted, 
perhaps, by die well-known daintiest w^hich are so plentifully provided in the pitchers of Nepenthes 

. . p , '^ wlicve the slave of sense 

Drowns liis soul's jewel, in tlie cup of riot." 

Ij* xU* Ijf 

*" Mr. liarker's plant, happening to be in i3ovvt?r at the time of their visit, was exhibited to the members of the '' Britisli Association tor tlie 
Advancement of Science," who honoured Birmingham w'nh their company in tlie autumn of 1839 ; and a most attractive object it proved. 

f Scarce a botanical work of any pretension has been published during the last fifty years, but is deeply indebted to Mr* Bauer's assiduity and 
skill. His published drawings, however, bear but a poor proportion to those which are still retained in his own portfolio, or preserved in tlie British 
Museum* Among the latter, his illustrations of '' Wheat," in every stage of germination, stand quite unrivalled,— their publication would he a national 
boon,— but as the great expense and comparatively slight encouragement likely to attend it, would deter a private individual from making the attempt, it 
would seem to be the duty, as it surely is the policy, of a paternal Government to luidertake it. 

;{; Ants, flies, woodlice, spiders, &c\ ])erish by thousands in llie vegetable cyatkl of the " Pitcher-plant;" — some say it gets its nourishment in 
this wav. 

TL 20. 

M7 Wl^^s^ MP 





{€ S-ai^ci li^. 

'ij-b'^lj J H.idc--yay d Son^^JSx 'i:cc-aJul^'J)3C^ M-3-9. 

L^ctd' ^y T C'oi^L^ Har^^a-M'Bedr'-Sc^ 

Tab. XX. 



Tribus: VANDEiE.— Lindley. 


Hwnboldt ^ Knnth. Nov. gen. et spe. 

Orchid, gen. et spe. 211. 

Lindl. Sert. Orchid, xxv. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala lateralia patula, libera. Labellum planum, 
unguiculatum, ascendens, limbo reflexo diviso dentato, apice angustato; basi con- 
cavum crista bilamellata raro fimbriata ssepius antice bidentata auctum. Columna 

elongata, apice auriculata aut aptera. Pollinia 2. Herbae Americanse epiphyta?, 

pseudo-bulbosae. Scapi sa^pins radicales, floribus speciosis. 

Odontoglossum hastatum ; pseudo-bulbis ovalibus ancipitibus plerumqu6 cliphyllis, foliis oblongo- 
lanceolatis scapo radical! flexuoso paniculate 5-plo brevioribus, bracteis brevibus, acutis, sepalis petalisque 
subeequalibus ovali-lanceolatis acuminatis undulatis, labelli trilobi hastati lobis lateralibus oblongo-rotundatis 
incurvis, intermedio 3-plo longiore unguiculato acuminato, basi 4-lamellato, columnai alis integris cuneatis. 

Habitat in iV/(?;rico. —Loddiges. 


Pseudo-bulbs oval, sharp at the edges, tcith a few prominent ridges, from tico to three inches 
long, hearing sometimes one, hut more frequently two, oblong-lanceolate shining sharp-pointed 
Leaves, of about a foot in length. From between the base of the pseudo-bidb, and a sheathing 
radical leaf springs the Scape, rising in a somewhat zigzag manner to the height of from three to 
four feet or upwards, branched, and bearing numerous flowers. Bracts, short, acute, sheathing, 
sessile, occurring at intervals of four or five inches. Sepals and Petals similar in form and 
colour, oval-lanceolate, sUglitlg acuminate, almost an inch long, green, with rich reddish- chest nut 
blotches. Llp three-lobed, the lateral lobes rotmdish-oblong, curving inwards, pure white, the inter- 
mediate lobe thrice the length of the lateral ones, narrow at its base, where the edges are depressed, 
ohocate, acuminate, yellowish- green at the apex, but a purplish or reddish-brown at the base, where 
are situate four oblong, elevated, longitudinal plates, of which the two central ones are heahed, and 
extend forward beyond those at the sides -all being whitish streaked with 2>^fyple; the entire length 
of the lip slightly exceeds that of the sepals and petals. Column at right angles with the Up, 
hollowed otit at the base, furnished, near its apex, with wedge-shaped rounded wings, which, like 
itself, are white. 

UUR draAving of this ncAV Odontoglossum was obtained, in the spring of 1888, from the rich establish- 
ment of the jNIessrs, Loddiges, by whom it had been introduced, from Mexico, in the preceding year. 
It is a pleasing and elegant species, — its flowers are very durable, — and its cultivation is attended with no 
difficulty whatever. 

• So called from oSods, a " tooth," and yXwcro-o, a " tongue," in allusion to tlie teeth which are found at the base of the lip. 

The genus to which this plant belongs, as at present limited by Professor Lixdlky, is rich in curious 
and beautiful species; — more especially in INIexico, from ^vhence several have been alread\' received, and 
from whence many more have yet to follow. With respect to the distinctive characters of Oncidhim, 
Odontoglossum, and Cijriochilum, some excellent remarks will be found in Part V. of the Serf urn Orcld- 
daccum (sub. Tab. XXV.), from which we copy the following : — 

" The true characters of Odontogloss/im, and those by which alone it can be distinguished generally 
from Cyrtochilum and Oncklium^ are, a long column, and an entire unguiculate lip, narrowing to the point, 
and furnished, at the base, with a pair of fleshy, entire, or fringed lamella'^ in front of ^\hich stand two, or 
rarely three, teeth, or bristles. In this view of the case, AFr. Bateman's Cyrtodi'ilum B'tctonicnse will 

belong to Odontoglossum." 

To the character of the genus, as here laid down by Dr. Lindlev, the lip of the present species 
(being distinctly three-lobed) offers a remarkable exception ; it conforms, however, so perfectly in other 
respects, that we cannot doubt its being a true Odontoglossum. 

The Vignette is taken from a figure of Mexican manufacture, in the possession of Mr, George 


** Begone, dull care, I prithee begone from me." — Old Sovg, 

/7. 21 

^:<- JI^Ff/c^. a^ ^ 



Jf d-az^i JzSTz 


Jh^'^^y Z/bd^'^a-r t'Sans, JfS ?u:CMilZ/ Sept' J3^X 

^njiad ^Y -F dr ojt-i^ 

Tad. XXI. 



OxciDiuM Insleayl; pseudo-bulbis ovatis compressis diphyllis, foliis coriaceis apice recurvis racemo 
simplici erecto rigiclo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongis subrequalibus undulatis infimis basi connatis, 
labello obovato retuso basi sagittato disci tuberculo apice depresso dilatato bilobo utrinque in medio uniden- 
tato lamellaque unica retrofracta. aucto, columnae alis cirrhatis. LindL in Bot. Keg. Misc. 1840. No. 21. 


Pseudo-bulbs two or three inches long, ovate, compressed, with the edges somewhat sharp. 
1AVES of a Mulsh green hue, icith numerous very minute hlaeh dots on the vtulcr side, front six to 
ten inches long, leathery, recurved at the extremities, two on each pseudo-hidh, shorter than the scape. 
Scape rigid, erect, a foot or more high, hearing from six to twelce flowers. Sepals and Petals 
nearly equal, oblong, waved at the edges, the lower ones connate at the base, an inch or more long, of 
a light yellowish green, richly barred and spotted with bright chesnut. Lip of a bright yellow, its 
base and mar^gin blotched ivith numerous patches of reddish brown,— in form obovate, arrow-shaped 
at the base, and furnished with a tubercle ichlch spreads itself out into two divergent lobes, and 
which, at its middle, is armed tcith a tooth on either side, pointing in an opposite direction to the 
reversed lamella at its base. Column yellow, hearing two speclded cirrhl^ resembling the anteuncc 
of an insect, and curving inwards. 

rOR the introduction of this charming Oiicidium we are indebted to Mr. Barker, in whose col- 
lection at Springfield it flowered in the spring of 1840, and continued in great beauty for a length of time. 

It is a native of Mexico, but is, probably, a scarce plant there, having been met with only by Mr. 
Barker's collector, although from the resemblance of its leaves and pseudo-bulbs to those of Odontoglos- 
sum grande, the latter species has, in many instances, been confounded with it.* In the colouring of the 
flowers it is not unlike Oncidium papilio, as also in the singular processes which are attached to the 
column, and which closely resemble the antennce of various insects. The plant was named by Mr. Ba rker 
after his gardener, Mr. Insleay, to w^hose skill and care the collection at Springfield owes much of its 

The grotesque figures in the Vignette are notable specimens of the dresses worn by the Mexicans at 
certain of their feasts. 

" Hoc te 
Crede modo iiisanum ; nihilo ut sapientior ille 
Qui te dcridet, caudam trahat." — Hor. Sat. ii. 

* Vide Remarks under Tab. XXIV. 

n 22. 

r insh^ d£i 

M, A 

S I _A T !K \\ J_ti 

"T ( V- 

Jf 0-aii£v udt. 


§ A 



.^ui^byJJiid^way&Jom 169,.FLcmdi:0^\. Sm':34y- 

T'nTia^ b\ I" ,iuiri 

Tab XXII. 



Tribus: VANDE^.— Lindley. 

BRASSIA. B. Brown in Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 5, 2\5.—IAndley Gen. et Spe. OrcMd. cxxxii. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala et petala angusta, libera^ his ssepius 
minoribus. Labellum planum, indivisum, ecalcaratiim, columna continuum, basi 
bi-cristatum. Columna libera, aptera, nana. Anthera 1-locularis. PoUinia 2, 
postice sulcata, caudicula brevi, glandula crassa. — HerbjB Americanae epiphytse 
pseudo-bulbosae. Folia pergamenea. Scapi radicales vaginati. Flores speciosi, 


Brassia verrucosa; pseudo-bulbis compressis dipliyllis margine obtusis, foliis ligulato-oblongis acutis 
scapo gracili multifloro duplo brevioribus, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, petalis minoribus acutis, 
labcllo petalis longitudine acquali unguiculato obovato apiculato : basi verrucis crebris munito. 


Pseudo-bulbs comjwessed, ovate, furroived, ohivse at the edges, three or four inches long, and 
usually clustered. Leaves two on each pseudo-hidh, ohlong, strap-shaped, acute, varying in length 
from half a foot to a foot and a half. Scape radical, slender, about two feet high, bearing about 
a dozen flowers in a crowded raceme at its extremity. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, very 
slightly undulate, the upper one two inches and a half the loiver nearly three inches long, pale green, 
sjjrinlded near the base with small dark spots. Petals scarcely more than half the length of the 
sepcds, hut of the same colour and form. Lip nngniculate, heart-shaped, acuminate, channelled, 
down the centre, and provided at the base with two parallel glands, — whitish in the upper part, but 
in the lower curionsly covered with green tvarts. Column dwarf, light green. 

iHE genus Brassia is so nearly related to Odontoglossum, that a country kno\vn to abound in the 
one, might naturally be expected to offer numerous examples of the other; — it is, therefore, singular that, 
among the vast numbers of new Orchidacece which have of late years been imported from Mexico and 
Guatemala, not a single species of Brassia should have been found, until Messrs. Rollisson were so 
fortunate as to introduce the subject of the accompanying plate, which, if not so brilliant in its colours as 
B. Tjanceana or B. macrostacluja, is superior to either in the elegance of its habit. Messrs. Rollisson 
received their plant from Afexico, but the species has more recently been discovered in Guatemala, where 
fudging from the aspect of the specimens imported — there probably are many varieties. 

* Tims named by Mr. Brown in due commemoration of the late Mr. Brass, a skilful botanical traveller and drauglitsnian, who collected seeds, 
plants, and dried specimens, on the Guinea coast, for Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. FotliergiU, and Dr. Pltcairn, and whose sketches being most liberally lent 
by Sir Josepli Banks to Dr. Afzelius, on his visit to Sierra Leone, were maliciously damaged and partly destroyed, out of characteristic and wanton 
brutality, by some piratical slave-mongers, under the French flag, during the late war. — Smith in Rees' CyclopcBdia. 

B. verrucosa is readily distinguished from B. caudata, B. Lanceana, and B. meter ost achy a j by the 
obovate (not oblong, oval, or ovate) form of the labcllum, and from B. maculata by the great disparity 
between its sepals and petals. Another peculiarity is to be found in the little green warts which are 
profusely scattered over the lower parts of the labellum, and which suggested to Professor Linbley the 
specific name. {Vide Bot. Reg. Misc. 1840, No. 6Q.) B. verrucosa also differs from its congeners in 
the form of the pseudo-bulbs, which are rounder at the edges than in the other species, and likewise more 
deeply furrowed ; their colour, too, is darker. 

As regards culture, the treatment ordinarily applied to Orchidaceaj will be suitable for B. verrucosa; 
the plant, however, is a slow grower. It flowered at Tooting in April, 1840. 

In the Vignette are seen the famous Chinampas (or floating gardens) of Mexico, of which Humboldt, 
in his "Personal Narrative,'* has given such an interesting account. They occur in the River Chalco, 
about ten miles from the capital, and owe their singular appellation to the circumstance of their having 
been formed upon what were originally drifting masses of reeds, roots of trees, &c., which, acquiring con- 
sistency by degrees, were at length compact enough to support a fresh vegetation of their own. Their 
peculiar fitness for what we call "kitchen gardens" seems to have early attracted the quick eye of the 
Indians, and the care still taken of them by these industrious people is sufhciently attested by the rich 
variety of fruits and vegetables which they furnish daily to the markets of IMexico. " In fine evenings," 
says Humboldt, "hundreds of canoes, crowded with Indians neatly dressed, their heads crowned with 
the most gaudy flowers, are seen passing in every direction ; each boat with its musician, and some of the 
party singing or dancing, or both." 

" Quis est nam hidus in undis ? 

Hie ver piirpurcum: — varios hie flumina circuni 

Fuiidit humus flores," 

YlRG. EcLOG, ix- 



. / 





jr-'Wl^rs diV 





I A 



JT. (juzLCi^ Tidi- 

Tubf-dj JlhjIxjYwjf ^JoTLs: ;6S. TLcmdilk' S^C IS4(J. 

/yitaa by T Sana. 

Tab. XXIII. 



L/LLiA majalis; pseudo-bulbis ovatis vel sub-rotundis monophyllis, foliis crassissimis oblongis acutis 
scapo 1-4 tloro tereti brevioribus, scpalis lanceolatis acutis, pctalis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusiusculis undulatis 
duplo latioribus mcmbranaceis, labelli trilobi marginibus edentulis : lobo medio unguiculato subrotundo 
emarginato, lobis lateralibus rotundatis. 

Ljelia majalis, Bot. Reg. Mise, 1839. No. 43. 
Cattleya Grahami, Lind. Gen. et Spe. Orchid. 116. 

Habitat in M^exico. — Sciiiede, Hartmeg, Ross. 

PsEUDO'BULBS sometimes ovate, sometimes nearly splier leal, faintly wrinhled, from an inch to 
an inch and a half long, clothed, when yoiing, with whitish memhranovs scales. Lea ves one on 
each pseifdo-hulb, exceedingly crassular, oblong, acute, from three to five inches long, shorter than 
the scape. Scape from six niches to afoot high, romid, hearing from one to four floicers. Sepals 
at least ttco inches long, lanceolate, acute, of a beautiful rosy lilac colour. Petals more than twice 
the width of the sepals, oblong -lanceolate, waved at the margin, and bent backwards ; of the same 
hue as the sepals. Lip two inches and a half long, three-lobed ; the lateral lobes leaning against the 
sides of the column, which they almost encircle, rounded at the extremities where they spread open, 
of a whitish cast, excepting a few pink dots near their inner margin ; the middle lobe is much larger 
than the others, deeply emarginate, unguiculate, and slightly notched in the margin, beautifully 
pencilled with crimson streaks and dots, all ef which radiate towards the elevated plate by which the 
disk is traversed ; the edges are faintly stained with rose-colour. Column shorter than the lateral 
lobes of the Up — of a pink colour. 

IHIS lovely plant abounds in the more temperate parts of Mexico, where its exquisite beauty has 
rendered it a prime favourite Avith the natives, from Avhom it has received the familiar appellation of " Fior 
de ^Fayo." It does not, however, appear to have been long known to botanists, Dr. Sciiiede having been 
the first to send specimens to Europe, which, through the liberality of Professor Schleciitendaiil have 
been extensively distributed. Living plants w^ere first obtained by Mr. Baekek, from Oaxaca, through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Ross ; and, more recently, a large supply has been received by the Horticultural 
Society of London, collected by Mr. Hartweg in San l^artolo, in situations so elevated that the tempera- 
ture sometimes falls below the freezing point. This habitat, so unusual for an Orchidaceous plant, will go 
far to exphiin the ill success that has hitherto attended its cultivation, for while it is comparatively easy to 
imitate the close and humid atmosphere in which most of the tribe are found, it is infinitely more difficult to 
provide a substitute for the pure air and frequent changes of temperature in which these mountain epiphytes 
would seem to delight. Lideed, so signal, in the case o[ La'lia majalis, has been the failure of even the 
most experienced cultivators, that although there w^as scarce a collection that did not contain one or more 
specimens of the plant, still did it obstinately- refuse to floAver, except in the solitary instance about to be 
described, when it yielded to the skilful treatment of Mr. Dillwyn Llewelyn, of Penllergare, who has 
favoured us with the follo-ssing note : 

* Supra. Tab. IX. 

" The plant was purchased," says Mr. Llewelvn, "about three years since, from M. Deschamps,* 
and soon afterwards potted in very rough fibrous peat, being kept nearly dry in a cool plant-house, until 
its new buds ben-an to swell, when it was removed to a hot and damp stove, kept exclusively for Orcliidacem. 
Water was regularly given until its bulbs had acquired their full si^e, when it was discontinued by degrees, 
and the plant carried back to a lower temperature. This treatment has been repeated, and under it 
the entire genus seems to thrive, although, perhaps, from the vigour of some specimens of L. anceps and 
L. autumnalis, which I have attached to pieces of rough-barked wood (with a little peat tied round the 
roots), I should prefer that course of treatment to the more usual one of potting them/' 

The mode of treatment pursued by Mr. Llewelyn is certainly the only one under which success can 
reasonably be expected ; but there is yet a point to be gained, for while the specimen at Penllergare, how- 
ever beautiful, consisted of only a solitary flower, in a wild state three or four are borne upon a spike, in the 
manner represented in the plate. We must not omit our acknowledgments to Mrs. Llewelyn for a most 
accurate drawling made upon the spot (in July, 1840), and which enabled us, with the assistance of native 
specimens in Prof. Lind ley's Herbarium, to prepare the accompanying figure. 

The vignette represents a Cocoa-nut, marvellously carved by the native Indians of Guatemala, from 
whom it was procured by Mr. Skinner. 

* Vide note to Brasarolu elauca. 










M' WP^^M M' 

J£ . Gaji^h-. Lien-. 

©ID) (D^T©(&TL©SS©M 

a B A ITU) 


AiTby JJhdffvyra^ &So7is_, Ii?S ,FiccajMl^, Septal'; 1S40 

Tab XXIV. 



Odontoglossum grande ; pseudo-bulbis aggregatis ovato-oblongis compressis ancipitibus diphyllis 
foliis lanceolatis acutis scapo paucifloro duplt^ brevioribus, sepalis lanceolatis lateralibus convexis falcatis 
petalisque oblongis obtusiusculis latioribus subundulatis , iabello subrotundo basi auriculato sepalis plus 
dupl6 breviore : tuberculis basi tribus corrugatis aliisque lateralibus denti-formibus minoribus, columnar 
tomentosa^ marginibus rotundatis convexis incurvis. Lind. in Bot. Reg. Misc. 1840. No. 94. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 


Pseudo-bulbs in dense masses, of an ovate or otate-ohlong shajie, flattened and sharp at the 
edges, from one to four inches long, slightly furrotced, and of a glaucous cast, hearing two lan- 
ceolate, bluish green Leaves, half a foot or more long, and sprinkled on the under side with snudl 
black dots. From among the small sheathing leaves which clothe the base of the pseudo-bulbs springs 
the erect Scape, partially enveloped in large, close-fitting, greyish Bracts, of the thickness of a 
swan's quill, rising to twice the height of the leaves, and bearing from three to eight Flowers, of 
great size and beauty. Sepals lanceolate, the lateral ones falcate, three inches or 'inore in length; 
Petals broader than the sepals, oblong, sonieivhat obtuse, mucronate, tcaved at the edges; — both 
petals and sepals have a greenish yellow ground, on which large blotches and streaks of the richest 
chesnut are irregularly scattered, varying exceedingly in different specimens. Lip ungtiicidate, 
almost round, not half the length of the sepals, of a dirty white, decorated with concentric brown 
streaks, which, although arranged closely at the jjoint where they spring, disappear almost entirely 
in front ; at the base three large tusk-like Tubercles are stationed, which are of the richest orange 
colour, spotted with red. The Column is slightly downy, and its convex rounded margins have an 
inward direction, of a yellowish cast, excep)ting near the base, which is almost white. 

IHIS noble plant may well be described by its discoverer — INIr. Skinner — as among the most 
magnificent ornaments of the Orchidaceous Flora of Guatemala. In brilliancy of colour, if it yield to 
certain species of Lcelia and Cattleya, it must confessedly be placed at the head of the vast group of South 
American Yandece, curious and beautiful though they be ; for not merely does it surpass the ^Yhole of its 
o\s'n extensive genus, but like\s'ise all the known species of Oncidium, Cyrtocliilum, and other allied forms. 
These remarks must however be understood to apply solely to the superior varieties, for there are others 
which, in the size of the flowers and the distribution of the colours, are greatly inferior to the one represented 
in the Plate. 

Odontoglossum grande delights, according to Mr. Skinner, in situations where the mean temperature 
scarcely exceeds 60° ; but although a great degree of heat may not be essential to its welfare, still it foitu- 
nately soon accommodates itself to the ordinary routine of culture that its tribe receive in England, Two 
varieties have flowered at Knyperslcy (the one in August, the other in October 1840), each bearing four 
flowers on a spike, the plants being then young and weak, but they have subsequently attained to a vigour 
of growth that leaves little doubt they will eventually produce the full complement of flo^^ers, which, in 
native specimens, is sometimes not less than eight! 

* Supra. Tab. sv. 

When this plant first arrived, it was universally supposed to be identical with OnckUum Inslemji 
(Tab. XXIL), a mistake which might naturally arise out of the exact similarity between the pseudo-bulbs 
and leaves of the two species ; and truly it must be regarded as a remarkable fact, that a habit so peculiar 
should be possessed in common by two plants producing such totjdly different flowers. In characterizing 
the habit as " peculiar," w^e wish to be understood to allude to the glaucous aspect of the pseudo-bulbs and 
leaves, and to the minute black dots which cover the under surface of the latter, for there is nothinc^ in the 
mere form of either that is not of constant occurrence among tropical Orchidacece.* 

Not content with ransacking the interior of Guatemala for plants, Mr. Skinner has lately been 
scouring the coast in quest of shells, and an ample harvest would seem to have awaited him : among other 
rarities he succeeded in obtaining numerous specimens of the beautiful shell that appears below, and which 
was met with in tolerable plenty on the shores of the Pacific. It belongs to the curious genus Venus, and 
although not new to conchologists, is but seldom to be seen in their collections, in its perfect state. When 
in its zenith the colours exhibit a pretty combination of lilac and white. 

31-' -h m- 

"nemo me impune lacessit." 

* After what has been stated of the close similitude between the two plants, certain of our friends who have received from us bulbs of Oncidimn 
. Indeayi, must not be surprised to see them producing flowers of Odonloglosmm grande. 

fr ?.i 


M:~ WiXhsr^ d£l^ 

Jif^ Sau/^- <zl^^ 


Tul^dy J.RLdff^cLs k Sansje9 B^cadzEy. SssC 1&40. 

Tab XXV. 



EpfDENDRUM aloifolium; rhizomate repente parce folioso, caulibus brevibus monophyllis, fioribus 
3-5 longe-pedicellatis ex axillo folii ovato-lanceolati crassissimi prodeuntibus sopalis pctali^que conformibus 
lanceolatis acuminatis explanatis ; labelli alte trilobi lobis lateralibus acinaciformibus, intermedio paulo 
longiore setaceo ; columna labello connate. 

From a stout creeping Ruizoma proceed the short, round, sUglithj incrcissated Stems, each 
bearing a single leaf. Leaves exceeding Ig flesh g, ovate-lanceolate, channelled, sharp -pointed, from 
a foot to a foot and a half or two feet long, in their wild state hanging down from the branches 
of trees. From the axil of the leaves, and protected at the base with two or three short acuminate 
Bracts, issue from three to five Flowers, supported on Pediceils of nearlg five inches in length. 
Sepals and Petals similar in form, lanceolate, acnte, spread completelg open, of an olive green 
colour, about two inches long. Lip united with the upper part of the column, deeplg three-lobcd^ the 
lateral lobes scimitar -shaped, pure white, rather shorter than the intermediate one, which is sharp 
and bristle -shaped, and tipped with green at its extremitg ; at the base of the Up appear two large 
oval glandular proces.^es, of a yellow colour. Column white, rather club-shaped, short and thick, 
excavated at its apex, where is situate the yellow Anther. 

Ie habit alone were to be taken as a guide, the singular plant represented on the opposite page would 
never have been placed in the genus Epideudvum, to which, nevertheless, it undoubtedly belongs. The 
only known species to which it bears even die slightest resemblance in its mode of growth is E. falcatum, 
but the leaves of the latter are less crassular, and much shorter. There is also some degree of similarity in 
the flowers of the two species ; but, independently of the difference of their colours, the following distinctive 
characters may be relied upon. In E. aloifolium the pedicell is more than double the length of the sepals; 
in E. falcatum it scarcely exceeds them. Again, in E. aloifolium the lateral and middle lobes of the lip 
are nearly equal; in E. falcatum the middle is twice the length of the sides. 

E. aloifolium was discovered near Xalapa by Mr. Ross, by whom it was sent to Mr. Barker, and 
from a plant that flowered at Springfield our drawing was made in the winter of 1839. It is a plant of 

easy culture. 

A kind of sea-weed, found with the shells figured under Odontoglossum grande, forms the Vignette. 

* Supra. Tab. X. 

n 26, 



^ \ 

!■ ^ 


M?.-^ ./oTLC ^dyyardj ^ del 


Jf. (j-aiLCL. Iztk 

(D)]BM,AI.IA J]j)]B€(I])i^A 


Iui?^by JFadgway &S0TLSJ6S Ikcai&Ej, S^rJd4' 

Jh'Uid 5/ -^ ^anrt 

Tab XXVI. 



Tribus: EPIDENDRE^.^Lindley. 

SoBUALiA, FL Periw. Perianthium maximum, petaloideum, subaequale; 
sepalis patcntibus vol reflexis, petalis erectis. Labellum cucullatum, columnam 
amplexans, basi angustatum, disco plicato-barbatum, apice bilobum. Cobimna 
elongata, marginata, clavata, apicis trifidi lobo medio cucullato antherifero. Stigma 
marginatum, basi gibbere gemino nectarifcro. Anthera terminalis, stipitata, semi- 
quadriloeuraris. Pollinia farinacca, 4, eompressa, postice coha^rentia et contortu- 
])lieata, ecaudiculata.^ — ^rierl)a3 Americana? a^qtiinoctialcs, terrestres, simplices, ssepe 
triorgyales, foliosissimtc ; foliis plicatisj floribus racemosis terminalibus, vel axil- 
laribus, niveis, roseis, sanguineis, violaceisve, s^epius speciocissimis. Omnes fere 
species loea rupestria, sicca, aprica, cali(bssima eligunt, dumeta sa^pe ampla 
formantes. — Lindh Gen. §" Spe. Orch, p. 176. 

SojiiiALiA decora; radicibus dense fasciculutis, caulibus brevibus plicatis ; floribus solitariis cernuis 
patentibus, sepalis petalisque latioribus brevioribus explanatis, lanceolatis acutis apicibus retiexis, labello 
obovato crispo medio lamellato niarginibus dilatatis crispis. 

Hahitat in Guatemala. — Skinnkk. 


Roots very nnmerons, Jfcslnj, hmidled together in Imge masses. Stems from one to two feet 
high, leafg, and in part covered, tltOKgh not thichhj, tvith small hairs. Leaves lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, plicated, ahovt six inches long. Flowers solitary, produced in succession from the sicollen 
extremities of the stems, lasting only a single day. Sepals an inch and a half long, lanceolate, 
acnte, curved Imckwards, of a faint Ulacish ichite. Petals broader and shorter than the sepals, 
curved only at the extremities, white fused into rose-colour down their centre. Lip cucullate, 
ohovate, curled at the margin, which is also bent onticards,~an inch and a half long, externally of 
rose-colotcr, in the inside along the disk prettily streaked with yellow, and provided also with 
numerous small lanullce, which traverse it longitudinally. Column almost concealed by the lip, 
an inch long, and at its apex, tvhich is three-cleft, bearing a yellow Anther. 

The present is the second Sohralia that has flowered in European collections, but although a pretty 
and interesting- plant, it is by no means an adequate representative of the splendid genus to which it belongs, 
containing, as does the latter, several of the most showy plants in the order. It is to be hoped, however, 
that the flowers of some of these will shortly adorn our stoves, into which t^^ o of the very fmest, S. macrantha 
and S. rUiastrum, have already found their way. And fortunately, whatever dithculties may attend the 
introduction of the species of this lovely genus, none are experienced in their cultivation, as they all appear 

* So called by the authors of tlie Flora Peruviana, after Don Francisco Martin Sobral, a botanist of their acquaintance, 

quite at home, potted either in peat or sandy loam, or even suspended in the stove Avith no otlier aids or 
appliances than what may be obtained tln-ough the medium of the dense masses of tieshy roots, with which, 
on their importation, they are often found to be well pro\ided.*" The specimen from which the plate is 
taken was hung up in this manner for nearly two years, and not a particle of moss, soil, or covering of 
any kind was permitted to touch the roots throughout the whole of the time, and yet there was no lack of 
either shoots or flowers. Subsequent experiments, however, go to prove that aUhough Sohrnlias may be 
readily cultivated in various ways, yet under no circumstance do they succeed so perfectly as when grown 
in a house of moderate temperature, and potted in sandy loam, — conditions that might naturally be expected 
to suit a race of plants that are almost confined to the defiles of the Andes and Cordilleras. 

S. decora is a native of Guatemala, from whence it was originally sent to Knypersley by JMr. Skina ku. 
It blooms in the autumn for weeks together, throwing up a succession of blossoms, each of which lasts only 
a single day : — a peculiarity that unfortunately characterizes all the species of the genus. In the form of 
the flower, ;S'. decora approaches a Brazilian species {S. sessiUs) that has recendy been figured in the 

" Botanical Register," but the colours are different, as are also the habit and aspect of the two plants ; 
S. decora beini>; of slender growth, with its leaves and stems of a greenish hue and nearly smooth, while 
S. sessUis has a stout and robust character, and is so thickly covered with dark hairs as to have quite a 
purplish cast. 


The beautiful drawing from which die plate is engraved was most kindly made by Miss Edmards, 
who has been highly successful in her portraiture of the plant. 

The Vignette represents a woman of Guatemala attired in one of the most becoming of the many 
costumes of diat country. 

/^ , 

" If I had such a tire, this face of mine 
Were full as lovely as is this of her's,'^ 


* If no plants of Sobralia were ever packed with a view to a passage across the seas, except such as have the large masses of roots described 
above, or in any other than the dry season, we should not have so continually to deplore tlieir death on the voyage. 




7 '}' 

■ X.-. 


•■ - -- 

■ ^i- ^ 

Ml' }m^L^.rs, d€l^ 

T A ^^ 


}r G-aiwz. ''Jz?h 

hihfhy J.Bzdg'^a>f ^ Som, I69,Iicoadz/ty^ Dsc.^ IML 

J^nnifd^ bj J" f?Hi>ci' 




SiANuopiiA Martiana ; foliis ovalibus acutis racemo paucitloro longioribus, sepalis petalisque paulo 
angustioribus ovatis obtusis, hypochilio brevi sessili saccato utrinque cornubus maximis porrectis apice 
cirrhosis sub-incurvis instructo, epichilio oblongo la?vigato obscure 3-dentato apice subretlexo cornubus 
hypocliilii breviore vel subaequali, coluninie subclavatae marginibus parum dilatatis. Batcman in Bot. 
Reg. Misc. 1840. 109. 

Habitat in Mexico. — Kakwinski, Galeottl. 


Pseudo-bulbs similar to those of other StauJiopeas, bearing solitary, oval, acute Leaves. 
Scape much shorter than the leaves^ hearing two or three very large and heautiftd Flowers. 
Sepals verg broad, obtuse, straw-coloured, f^paringly viarked with clusters of little vinous dots; 
TALS narrower titan the sepals, and, like them, obtuse, of transparent whiteness, with large and 
rich spots of the deepest crimson, especially near their base. The lower portion of the Llp is short, 
sessile, saccate, and armed, on either side, with very large horns, which are twisted at the extremities 
into cirrhi, — tlte upper part oblong, obscurely '^-toothed, slightly reflexed at the apex, and somewhat 
shorter than the horns; excepting a slight discoloration at the base, the Up is uniformly of a pure 
ivory white. CoL UMN sprinkled over with innumerable dots, its membranous edges but slightly dilated. 

A NATIVE of Mexico, discovered by Baron Karwinski, in 1827, and by him communicated to 
Knypersley, where it flowered, for the first time, in ]\lay, 1840. More recently it has made its appear- 
ance, and in high perfection, in the collection of Air. Richard Harrison, to whom it was sent by 
M. Galeottt. It is a species of great interest and beauty, but appearing to much disadvantage in a 
drawing, which, however accurate, can convey but an inadequate idea of the peculiar lustre and trans- 
parency of its colours. The singular manner in which the extremities of the huge uncouth horns are 
twisted into slender ciri'hi, will at once distinguish this from all other species of the genus. In cultivation 


it requires no particular management. 

The specific name of Martiana is given to this beautiful plant in grateful acknowledgment of the 
many courtesies bestowed upon the Author by the distinguished Professor of Botany at Munich. 

> ^ 







-J - . 


_ X 







^ ^i 








ff^ ' 


.IC" Wil}wrs. dcl^- 

B A m. IK 

m I A 1.1^ B 


.If. Gaucv. luh'. 

Tubf-by J.BjJ^y^o.y ScSoi^, 163,PfxoadiIIy, DffcTJSSj. 

T^atZ ij J^ (jaiLci'. 





Tribus: EPIDENDRE^.— Lindley. 

BARKERIA. Knowles Sf Westcott, Floral Cab, t. 4:9,~Lmdl Bot. Reg. Misc. 57. 1840. 

Sepala et petala sequalia, libera, membranacea patentissima. Labellum 
planum, integerrimum, columnar adpressiim. Columna petaloidea. Anthera 
4-locularis3 carnosa, scptorum marginibus membranaceis. Pollinia 4, caudiculis 
totidem ligulatis reflexis, per paria connatis. — Herbae epiphyta^, caulescentes. 
Pedunculi caulibus longiores, graciles, squamati, terminales apice racemosi. Flores 
speciosi nutantes. 

Barkeria Lindleyana ; foliis ovalibus acutis, bracteis linearibus pedunculo multo brevioribus, labello 
exactc oblongo apiculato bicarinato carina altera sub apice interjecta, unguiculato piano basi columnee 
adnato, columna clavat4 alata apice tridentata immaculata. 

Habitat in Costa Rica. — Skinner. 


Roots few J hut large and fleshg. Stems three or four inches high, surmounted hg a few 
crassular, oval, sharp -pointed Leaves, inclining to he glaucous. Peduncle about a foot high, 
invested with linear Reacts. Sepazs and Petals linear-lanceolate, nearlg equal, and disposed 
in the same plane, of a rosy purplish colour. Lip nearlg an inch long, exactly oblong, and rounded 
at each end, terminated in front hy a small mucro, and abruptly narrowed at the base into a short 
unguis, united to the base of the column ; it is of a still deeper and richer hue than the petals, with 
a beauty-spot of white shaded into rose-colour near its centre; two ridges traverse its centre, and 
terminate near the point of the Up — with a third, hut much shorter, intervening. Column slightly 
winged, wedge-shaped, and ^-toothed at the point. The Anther is sunk within these three teeth, 
and is depressed in the middle, while elevated at each side ; containing four cells, in which as many 
J) oil en-mosses are located, each with a powdery strap bent hack iqjon it. Lindl. I. c. 

A SECOND species of Rarhcria has at length made its appearance, not less attractive than the rare 
B. elegans on which the genus was founded. In addition to the singular beauty and delicacy of its 
colouring R. Lindleyana has the advantage of a more tractable disposition than the original species, and 
may be cultivated with the most perfect facihty ;-f- its flowers, too, are freely produced, and continue in 
perfection for the unusual period of two months. 

* So called in Iionour of George Barker, Esq., of Springfield, near Birmingham, one of the most ardent and successful collectors of Orchidaceous 


f Barkeria elct^ans is amon*"" the most refractory of the tribe. To maintain it alive is all that the utmost skill of the cultivator is usually able to 


B. Lindlcijana inhabits tlie thickets of Costa Rica, where it Avas discovered by Mr. Skixxee in an 
excursion along the coasts of the Pacific ; but it would seem to be a scarce plant, having never been met 
with but on that occasion, and then only to a small extent. Through the kindness of INIr. Skinxer, the 
species w^as added to the collection at Knypersley in 1839, but did not tlower until November, 1841, w^hen 
the accompanjdng drawing was made by Mrs. AYithehs. Coming from the mild shores of the Pacific, it 
does not require a great degree of heat, but appears quite at home in a temperature of little more than 60°. 
Neither will it succeed in broken peat, but prefers a mixture of small sticks and twigs, into wdiich, after 
the fashion of a true air-plant, it delights to thrust its little store of fleshy roots. Other species of Barlieria 
are already in English collections ; one in particular, called in its native country " Flor de Izabal," is a 
plant of great beauty, and through IMr. Skixxer's liberality, has been extensively distributed, but unfor- 
tunately all attempts to induce it to tiower have hitherto proved unavailing. 

Amono' the varied labours of the distinguished Botanist to whom" the present Barheria is dedicated, 
his researches into the vast and intricate family of Orchidaceae stand pre-eminent. Not only Avas he the 
first to call public attention to the extent and attractions of the tribe ; but he was the first, also, to 
reduce into harmony, and refer to their proper genera, the confused multitude of species of which it was 
composed. The manner in which he executed this difHcult task must ever entitle him to the gratitude not 
less of the cultivator than the botanist ; extending, as he did, the views of the one, while to the other he 
may almost be said to have introduced that greatest of rarities — a new pleasure. 

The Vignette affords another and familiar example of the conchoiogy of the Pacific. 

.- s 


on the wave-wom bank lie lay, 

Stretch'd forth, and panting in the sunny ray/' 



fL ^. 

M^ WUher.j, del: 

M. Gauoi. luk'. 

®^CI33)IirM I^ CJJJi'^TYl 

lUfiy J. PMiv^a^ ScSon^^jeS I^rMMlyJjec^ k 


J^riflZ^ ?i ." Gauj^ 

Tab. XXIX. 

N C I D 1 1 M' I N C L R V U M 


OxciDiUM incurvum ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis ancipitibus utrinque tricostatis diphyllis, foliis ensiformibus 
acutis, scapo elongato racemoso-paniculato, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis undiilatis liberis, petalis conformibus 
incurvis, labelli laciniis lateralibus rotundati^ nanis intermedia subrotunda concava acuta, crista ovata de- 
pressa dimidia inferiore lineata superiore tricostata, columntl aptera. Lindley in Bot. Reg. Misc. Vili:. 1840. 

Habitat in Mexico. — Barker, Lee. 


Pseudo-bulbs ovate, compressed at the edges, deeply furrowed, about an inch and a half high.., 
hearing ttco or three rather short, acvte, ensiform Leaves. Scape slender, rising to the height of 
three feet and upwards, branched (simply) at lax intervals throughout almost its entire length. 
Sepals and Petals nearly etpial, linear -lanceolate, waved at their margin, tvhite, elegantly blotched 
and spotted with lilac, shorter than the Petioles, which are an inch long. Lip three-lobed, the 
lateral lobes dwarf rounded^ the intermediate one mncronate, sub-rotimd, hollow, with a of 
which the lower half is depressed and thi'own into lines, ichile the upper consists of three elevated 
ribs. Column destitute of icings. 

An elegant addition to the genus Oncidiwn, for which ^^e are indebted to Mr. Barker, in -sYhose 
ample collection at Springfield it flowered for the first time in the early part of 1840. 

O. inciij'vum, like its nearest ally O. ornitliorhynchum (figured at Tab. IV. of this work), is a native of 
Mexico, but apparently much less extensively diffused than the latter species, and much rarer even in its 
proper haunts. In the general aspect of their flowers a certain degree of similarity exists between the two 
plants, but their habit and the colour of their flowers are perfectly distinct, as is also the structure of the 
latter when carefully examined. Both are of the easiest culture. 

An elegant manufactui'e in gold and silver filigree is carried on at Lima and other towns on the shores 
of the Pacific, of which the butterfly delineated in the Vignette affords a pleasing example. 

* Supra sub. Tab. I. 




Jfy'j JjraM del^' 

^ 'J 

IH ©M 

F "IR ^C IK 3 A 

^r I B I c I p^ I s . 

M. (lauoi, (^Sb 


FuA:- by j\J\ul^way & SonsJffS PicA-A^dJJy Df^T JMl 

3-tfUifJ.h - (la^u/Cb 

Tab XXX. 



Tribus: EPIDENDREiE.— Lindley. 


Columna marginata. 

SCHOMBURGKIA. LindL Serf. Orch. sub Tab. x. 

A et petala conformia, patentia, omnino libera, basi sequalia. Labclkim 
diflforme, mcmbranacelim, trilobum, cucullatum, basi cum margine columnar con- 
natum, supra basin tumidum (intrusum) : venis lamellatis. 
Pollinia octp. Rhizoma repens, annulatum, pseudo-bulbigerum. Folia coriacea. 
Scapi terminales vaginati, longissimi. Bractese spathaceae. — Herba? epiphytal' 
Amcricae a^quinoctialis, floribus speeiosis, racemosis, congestis. 

SciiOiiBUiiGKiA tibicinis ; pseudo-bulbis conicis corniformibus annulatis sulcatis 3-phyllis, foliis 
oblongis coriaceis patcntibus, scapo longissimo tcrcti di^tanter squamato apice paniculate, panicula pyra- 
midali laxitlora, sepalis petalisque undulatis crispis, labello oblongo venis per medium 5 elevatis approxi- 
matis : laciniis lateralibus apice rotundatis intermedia subrliombea emarginata, anthera emarginata. LindL 
Bot. Reg. Misc. 119. 1841. 

Epidendrum tibicinis, Bateman in Bot. Reg. Misc. 12. 1838. 

Habitat in Ilondiiras, passim.' — Skinner. 


Stems tapering, Iwlloiv, deephj f nr voiced, from a foot to afoot and a half or even two feet 
long, bearing three or four broad, oblong, leathery Leaves, six inches long. Flower-stem terniinal, 
upright, terete, very long, occasionally reaching the height of ten feet, at its extremity producing a 
Spike of about twenty floicers; mmdly it is simple, but occasionally, as is represented in the figure, 
sUghtlg branched. Flowers two inches and a half across, ojjening in succession. Sepals and 
Petals nearly equal, very much curled, upwards of an inch long, dark chesnut brown inside, and 
dirty purple without. Lip three-lobed, the lateral divisions roimded at their extremities, the middle 
one much smaller, somewhat of a rhomboideal form, emarginate; the whole of the inside of the lip is 
white, with the exception of the edges, which are beaut if idly pencilled ivith crimson, andfice elevated 
yellow ridges, that pass along its centre. Column ichitish brown, tipped with an emarginate 

llIIS striking plant is a native of Honduras, where it exists in great abundance; it is also found, 
though more rarely, in Oaxaca and Caraccas. Mr. Skinner was the fu'st to discover it; his attention 
having been attracted, at a considerable distance, by a cluster of its lofty flower-spikes, which, when in fall 
blow, and in the dense masses that the plant produces in its wild state, must be very conspicuous. On 
the occasion in question, its original discoverer was not permitted to obtain quiet possession of his prize, as 
swarms of fiery ants, to which the hollow stems of the species afford a snug retreat, issued forth in thousands 
to repel the spoiler, and inflicted pangs which none but the most ardent naturalist would have braved. 

* So called in honour of JI. Scliomburjrk, die celebrated traveller in Guiana. 

The original specimen reached Knyperslej- as early as 1S3G, but made no attempt to flower until the 
spring of 1840. "when the spike, after attaining the length ol' several feet, was unluckily broken otF. 
Sir Thomas Aclaxu was more fortunate, and in the ensuing summer had the satisfaction of flowering 
the species in higli perfection in his garden at Killerton. The spike then produced was exhibited at a 
meeting of the Horticultural Society, from whence it passed into the hands of the artist, who has furnished 
a most characteristic representation. The species is less bright in its colouring than was expected, but no 
doubt many varieties exist, and perhaps some of these may as far surpass the subject of the plate as others 
certainly fall short of it; among the latter may be ranked one that flowered at Knypersley last year (1841), 
the blossoms of which were much paler, and in all respects inferior to those of the figure. 

In cultivation this is the most manageable species of the untractable genus to which it beloniis. Sus- 
pension on a block of wood, in a hot and damp situation, appears to be the condition most congenial to its 
gTo^\■th, but a season of rest is necessary to induce it to flower. Yet even in the collections where it 
succeeds the best, it lacks the vigour exhibited in imported specimens. 

The ants of Honduras, as it has been already shown, turn to good account the long hollow stems of this 
singular plant ; another purpose to which they are applied may be gathered from the Vignette, where an 
Indian child is seen sounding with all his might " an echoing horn," formed by merely cutting off the 
extremities. His companions emulate his musical ardour, but in their attempts to possess the jnateriel 
are interrupted by a catastrophe. 

In such request are these vegetable trumpets among the Avild urchins of Honduras, that the plant 
yielding them is called " the trumpet-plant," — an epithet that has suggested its specific name. 

A'^'S?^ ;\ 





M^'' ruJterr ri^l 

M (fdU/"^ ^i^v 

C M T 



T I § , 


Fob. by- J^/^Adgway & Sons, I6S. Ficaidilfy JuA' 1^4<f . 

J^.f-^i by r '^OiU^ 

Tab XXXI. 

QE V 1 S: 


Tribus: EPIDENDRE.^1— Lindley. 

CHYSIS.* Llndlcf/ hi Bot. Rey, mh. t. 1937. 

Sepala paulo connata patula; lateralia pedi producto columnao adnata et calcar 
simulantia. Petala scpalis confovmia. Labellnm trilobum, patuluni, veiiis basi 
callosis. Columna marginata, canaliculata miitica. Anthera subrotuiida opercu- 
laris, glabra. Pollinia 8 in laminam lutcam semifiisa ; quataor exterioribus tenuibus 
quatuor intcriora crassiora abscondentibus. Rostellum laminatum convexum.— 
Herbte epiphytie occidcntales ab arboribns pondnlse, caulibus incrassatis, foliis 
nervosis basi vaginantibus, racemis lateralibus multifloris. 

Chysis Icevis; bracteis brevibus ovatis pedicclli longitacline, sepalo dorsali lineari-oblongo lateralibus 
acuminatis, petalis falcatis, labclli lobis lateralibus falcatis apice rotundatis supra colurnnam convergentibus 
intermedio membranaceo crispo subrotundo emarginato lamellis 5 carnosis glabcrrimis parallelis lateralibus 
minoribus, columna basi alt6 excavata, L'nidl. Bot. Reg. 1840, misc. 130. 

Habitat in Mexico. — Ross. 


Stems duh-shaped, a foot long, pendulom. Leaves shorter than the stem, waved, plicated, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Racemes pendulous, evolved from among the sheathing scales at the 
base of the stem. Bracts short, two or three on the stem, to which they closely adhere. The vpper 
Sepal is linear - oblon g ; the lateral ones acuminate, upwards of an inch long. Petals falcate^ 
about the same size as the sepals, and lilie them of a bright yellow. Lip three-lobed,^fhe lateral 
lobes, tchich fold over the column, being falcate and rounded at the ends; the middle lobe roundish, 
very much curled at the edges, slightly emarginate, icith five perfectly smooth parallel elevated 
plates, confluent at the base (the side plates being the smallest); the colour of the Up is yellow, icith 
orange dots and streaks distributed about the dish. Column deeply hollowed at its base. 

This, the Imest species of a most singular genus, was discovered in Mexico by Mr. Barker's 
collector, and by him sent to Springfield, where it tlowered freely in 1840. It has a more robust habit than 
either C. aurea or C. braetescens ; its dowers are also larger, and produced in more conspicuous racemes. 
All the species, being naturally of a pendulous habit, require to be suspended in the stove ; they are, 
however, objects of g^'reater interest to the botanist than to the cultivator, for the bunches of flowers, pretty 
though they be, bear no sort of proportion to the huge unwieldy stems from which they spring ; they last, 
moreover, for only a short time. 

« So called from Xvy.f, a melting ; the pollen-masses being as it were fused together.— I. indl. Bot. Reg. t. \9S7. 

In illustration of the singular structure of this genus, it may be interesting to quote Professor Lind ley's 
observations in the " Botanical Txegister/' under the head of C. aurea (on which the genus was founded), 
but which are equally applicable to the more recent species : — 

" The pollen-mosses consist of two yellow plates placed side by side in the bed of the anther, united at the back, 
and slightly notched on the outer edge, so that it is, in reality, four-lobed, the lobes being extremely unequal ; each lobe 
has a thickened margin, and, rising up, ovedies and conceals four other lobes of a thicker texture and smaller size, two of 
which arise from the back and two from the front of the inner edge of the principal lobes of the plates above described. 
This remarkable structure may be theoretically described as being equivalent to eight pollen-mosses, of which the straps 
of connection, such as exist in all Lpideiidrece, are run together into two plates, from the expansion of the edges of which 
the pollen-mosses appear to spring." — {Siih. t. 1937, Bol. Reg. 1810.) 

Crosses similar to the one introduced below are of frequent occurrence in various districts of Mexico 
and Guatemala. 

* r 


n 32 


Mify DrjJo^ d&L' 

M Gaw^y, k^ 






C E F 

A^/ .^r ./ Rid^m^- & Sons, 1€ i- . FiccutiJIy . JuJmJUZ. 

TrjM?^ 'hy T -^■zu^.-. 

Tab. XXXII. 



E, erubescens; caulibus brevibus (?) foliosis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis panicula laxa multiflorfi 
5-plo brevioribus. Sepalis ovali-lanceolatis, pctalis latioribus spatiilatis labelli trilobi lobis lateralibus 
rotundatis intermedio multo majore reniformi. 

Habitat in Oaxacd, Karwinski; in Mexico^ Galeotti. 


Stems probably short, and bearing but few ovate-lanceolate acmiiinate Leaves, tico or three 
incJies long. Panicle terminal, ^mially compound, and sometimes rising to the height of a foot 
and a half bearing a multitude of large flowers, supposed to be of a rosy hue thronghout. Pedi- 
CELLS longer than the flowers. Sepals nearly an inch long, oval-lanceolate, much narrower than 
the spatulate Petals. Lip about the same length as the sepals, united to the column at its apex, 
and three-lobed, the lateral lobes being short and rounded, and not half the size of the intermediate 
one, which is Iddney -shaped, and half an inch long. 

Cultivators -svlll be disappointed to leam that this superb Epidendrum is at present known only 
by dried specimens belonging to the Royal Herbarium at Munich. The dowers, although faded, still retain 
a rosy tint, and when fresh could scarcely have been arrayed in less attractive hues than those in which 
Miss Drake has ventured to portray them ; but whatever their precise colouring may have been, there 
can be no doubt that the species to which they belong may take rank among the very finest plants of its 
tribe. It was accordingly made a special object in the instructions of the various collectors who have been 
sent from time to time to ransack the forest treasures of Oaxaca, but neither Hartweg nor Ross (who 
closely followed Kauwinski's steps) succeeded in discovering its retreat. Signer Galeotti was more 
fortunate, but the plants which he transmitted to Paris have, it is to be feared, entirely perished. But let 
us hope that as this species, independently of its beauty, belongs to a section of the genus which is usually 
of the easiest growth, renewed exertions will be made to introduce it into our stoves. 


//. J J 




M tioii^i, Wk 

Mys Dr.'ih^ del 


A R K E jR I A 

S F 


€ TAB I L I 


M)^hy -.f liuujW'V/ & Sam. 16-9 TuTnjiiUjf, Jii^\ m^ 

i-if-frd Jy /'. ''JT^ 




Barkeria spectahilis; caulibus brevibus foliosis 2-4 phyllis racemo laxo multifloro subvqualibus ; 
sepahs hneari-lanceolatis, petalis ovatis acuminatis, labello ovato-lanceolato tricarinato. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner, Hartweg. In Mexico. — Kar 

A\- INS K I 

Stems cylindrical, four or Jive inches high, each of which hears two to four fleshy, lanceolate, 
acute Leaves, separated from each other by intervals of about an inch. Raceme rising out of 
some brown dry sheaths, hearing from three to twelve most lovely nodding blossoms. The expanded 
Flowers are nearly three inches and a half wide, their colour is bright lilac. The Sepals are 
linear 'lanceolate; the Petals ovate-lanceolate and unspotted; hut the Lip is white at the base 
and in the middle, lilac at the edge and point, and richly marked with small blood-red spots. Along 
its iniddle, below the column, are five pnrple lines, which pass into three elevated colourless ridges, 
beyond the place where the anther touches the lip.—LindL Bot. Reg. Misc. 45, 1842. 

illlS beautiful Barkeria has been frequently received from Mexico and Guatemala, but the plants 
were almost invariably infested by the deadly white scale (too well known to cultivators), and, after lingering 
a few seasons, pined and died. Some noble specimens, collected by Mr. Hartweg, and received under 
more favourable auspices by the Horticultural Society, were the first to flower, and from one of these the 
accompanying figure was obtained in May, 1842, in the Society's garden at Chiswick. Mrs. "Wray, of 
Cheltenham, to whom the species was sent by Mr. Skinner, has also succeeded in tlowerin*^ it in hioh 
perfection, the secret of her success being obviously the comparatively moderate temperature maintained in her 
sto\'es, and which appears to be exactly adapted to the Orchidaceai of the more elevated districts of Guatemala. 

Baskets filled with moss, or blocks of wood, are found to be most congenial to the roots of this Barkeria ; 

in peat they perish directly. 

In the monster below, disinterred by Mr. Skinner near Istapa, we have another, but by no means 
prepossessing specimen of the sculpture of the early ]\Iexicans. It was most kindly drawn for this work 
by Mrs. Randle AVilbaiiari. 

■ * 


^ -^-r--- 

* Barkeria S2ipra sub. Tab, XXVIIL 

II. M 

' V. 

- — 

i% -t 




E F I B 




Jf . Gazia, ii^ 

F © IL X A K 

M F M o 



& Sojf'iS. J63, Fi/mdARy, July. 184-2, 

Tru-^jl ly r.^^rt^. 

Tab. XXXIV. 



E. pohjantlium; foliis distichis ovali-Ianccolatis acuminatis, caule ramoso racemis plurimis multifloris 

cernuis basi spathaceis sepalis ovato-lanceolatis acutis striatis petalis linearibus reflexis, labelli trilobi lobis 

lateralibus ovatis dimidiatis denticulatis : intermedio lineari retuso disco tricostato.— ii/;c//. Gen. et Spe. 
Orchid. lOG. 

Epidendrum polystachium, Pavon MSS. 

Habitat in Mexico, Pavon; in Guatemala, Hartweg. 


Stems from one to three feet long, tliiclier than a goose-quill, hearing several distichous, oval, 
lanceolate, acuminate Leaves, about six inches long. At its upper extremity the stem is clestittite of 


leafves, hut amphj furnished with large inflated, sheathing, sharp-pointed Bracts, from ichich issue 
numerous many flowered Racemes. Sepals ovate, or inclining to ohovate, with rather sharp 
points, orange-coloured. Petals shorter than the sepals, and so narrow as to rcsemhle fine hairs. 
Lip attached to the dipper extremity of the column, three-lohed — the lateral lohes divided, and 


someichat scimitar -shaped, not so hroad as the intermediate lohe, of which the margins are p7'ess€d 
inwards in such a manner as to present the appearance of two teeth; a three-rihbed process is situate 
at the junction of the column with the lip; the latter is a rich orange colour. Column stipitate, 
ttoice the length of the Up. 


This pretty Epidendrum, although long since known to botanists from Pavon's description and the 
specimens in Lambert's herbarium, has but lately been seen in this country in a living state. It tiowered 
for the first time in INIessrs. Loddiges's collection, and afterwards in the garden of the Horticultural 
Society, to whom it was sent from Guatemala by their zealous collector, Mr. Hartweg. As yet, however, 
the cultivated plants have not exhibited the vigour and beauty of the native specimens ;— a circumstance 
that may be attributed to their tender age, and which will probably cease when they are more fully 
established. They grow freely under ordinary treatment in a moderate temperature. 

FL 35. 





■ '\ 

M:' WUiuTs, dd>' 

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m I . 

Tuh^by J Rid^woj' ScSoiis, 169, I^^^xijMy, July 1642 

I'-az^iPd If T. Oiiii^ 

Tab XXXV. 



Tribus: VANDEiE.— Lindley. 

MAXILLARIA.* Flora. Penw, Proclr. t. ^5.—Lijcastef Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 3Iisc, p. 10, 1843. 

Florks ringentes, petalis saepius dissimilibus, in mentuin breve producti. 
Labellum medio appendice transvcrso carnoso integro v. emarginato auctum. 
Columna elongata, scmiteres, saepius pilosa. Pollinia 4, per paria caudiculae 
angusta^ elongatae adnata ; glandula parva subrotunda ; rostello subulato. — Herbae 
pseudobulbosa?, foliis plicatis. Scapi radicales, erecti, uniflori. Flores semper 
speciosi bractea magna spathacea suffulti. 

M. Skinneri; pseudo-bulbis subrotundo-ovatis triphyllis foliis lanceolatis acutis plicatis scapo laxe 
vaginato asccndcnte duplo longioribus, bractea herbacea acuta cucullata ovario mult6 longiore sepalis 
patentibus oblongo-lanceolatis acutis, petalis 2-plo brevioribus ovalibus erectis supra columnam convolutis 
apicibus reflexis ; labelli trilobi lobis lateralibus erectis truncatis, intermedio longiore ovato rotundato 
deflexo, appendice carnosa lingui^formi inter lacinias laterales locata ; columna subtus pubcscentc. 
Batemcm in Bot. Reg. Mine. 13, 1842. 

Lycaste Skinneri, Bot. Reg. Misc. j). 10, 1843. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 


Pseudo-bulbs roundish ovate, deeply furrowed, frequently attaining a very large size; hearing 
two or three lanceolate, sharp-pointed, deeply plicated Leaves. Scape from six inches to a foot 
high, shorter than the leaves, invested, at its upper extremity, with a large inflated greenish Bract, 
tvhich is twice the length of the ovary. Flowers solitary, very large and heautifid. Sepals often 
three inches long, pure white, oblong -lanceolate, acute. Petals half the length of the sepals, oval, 
erect, rolled, round the column, reflexed at the points, of a delicate rosy hue, esjjccially at the base. 
Lip S-lobed, the lateral lobes erect and truncated; the central lobe longer than the others, ovate, 
rounded, and bent downwards;— a curious fleshy tongue-Ulic process is lodged between the lobes. 
Column pure white at the apex, hut mottled with crimson dots at the base, tdth a profusion of 
woolly hairs scattered on its under side. 

The following notice of this admirable plant appeared in the " l^otanical Register," for February, 1842. 

" This, the facile princeps of all known MaxiUarias, has at length flowered in the collection of the Rev. John Clowes, 
with a vigour and beauty that could not be exceeded in its native haunts. The flowers, which are very durable, actually 
measure upwards of six inches across, from the tips of the lateral sepals, while the latter are nearly an inch and half wide 
in the broadest part. The colours of this flower are pecuharly delicate, the sepals being pure w^hite, faintly tinged with 

* So called by tlie authors of tlie Flora Peruviana^ from the resemblance of tlie lip m many of the species to the jaws, or maxilla^^ of various insects, 
f In a recent number of the '' Botanical Register" (after the name on the plate was engraved), Professor Lixdley published a re-arrangement of 

the unwieldy old genus MaxUlaria^ restricting the latter to such plants as M. -picta and its allies, and referring the present subject to a new genus, which 

lie terms Lycaste. Of tliisj and not Maxillarm proper, the generic characters are given above. 

crimson at the base ;— the petals of a more rosy hue, while the lip is almost covered with spots and streaks of the most 
brilliant carmine. The column again is pure white at the apex, and mottled with crimson spots at the base ; while a 
number of woolly hairs are scattered on its under side. The habit of the plant is stately, and its growth free and 
vigorous, more nearly resembling M. Deppii than any other species. It is a native of Guatemala, and is another of the 
brilliant discoveries of the gentleman to Avhom I have ventured to dedicate it, and who, after an absence of four years in 
the most interesting countries of the New World, has lately returned once more in safety to the shores of his native 
land ; in wdiich, I must be allowed to remark, there is scarcely a collection of any note that is not more or less indebted 
to his enterprise and generosity." 

To this account there is little to add. The species continues to flourish in Mr. Clowes's stove, 
producing its striking blossoms with unsparing profusion at every season of the year ; it has also flowered at 
Knypersley, at Springfield, and most probably at other places, being now (1843) by no means a rare plant. 
It is of the easiest cultivation. 

The Vignette presents a view of a remarkable bridge over the Polochic river, and which, from the 
resemblance of its form to the hammocks of the natives, is called by them La Ilamaca. It is constructed 
of the cord-like stems of the Bejnca (a sort of twiner), and is certainly a beautiful specimen of Indian 
ingenuity. Had Telford visited the spot, it would certainly have been regarded as the prototype of those 
wonderful structures which he was the first to sling across the rivers of the Old World. 


'^This is no act of common passage, but 
A strain of rareness." — SnAKSPEARE, 

Fl. J6\ 












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C D M 

A i^ T 


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S A- , . V A :r 

M (laZiOy, li3i 

IlJ)^by J,Tu<^maM ^Jom. 163 Rccadz^, July. :$42. 

Irm^id IfsT. &a2u:i^ 






Tribus: VANDE^.— Lindley. 

CORYANTHES. Hooker, Bot. Mag. t. 3102.— im*/. Gen. Sf Spe. xciii. 

Perianthtum patentissimum. Sepala dilatata, flexuosa, conduplicata ; late- 
ralibus maximis, basi distinctis. Petala multo minora erecta. Labellum unguicu- 
latum, maximum, galeatum, cum basi columna) continuum, nuUo mode articulatum, 
tridentatum, in medio unguis appendice poculiforaie circumdatum. Cobimna teres, 

basi bicornis, elongata, apice recurva, bialata. Stigma rima transversa. 


bilocularis. Pollinia 2 compressa, postice sulcata, caudicub'i lineari arcuata, glan- 
dula lunata apicibus approximato-recurvis. — Her bre Am€rican{s epii^hy tie, pseudo- 
bulbosae. Racemi penduli. Flores maximi. — Laid. Gen. et Spe. xciii. 

Gongora speciosa. Hooker^ Bot. Mag. i, 2755. 

Coryanthcs niaculata. Hooker, Bot. Mag. t. 3102. LindL Bot, Reg. L 

Habitat in Brazilid, Harrison ; in Demerard, Parker ; in Mexico, Ruckkr. 


Pseudo-bulbs deeply striated, broadest at the base, sometimes nearly six inches long, clustered. 
Leaves two on each pseudo-bulb, broadly lanceolate, striated, a foot or more long. Scape about 
two feet long, pendent from its weight, bearing from two to six large and remarkable Flowers. 
Bracts membranaceous, ovate-lanceolate, three or four on the scape, where they are sheathing, and 
one at the base of each flower. The lateral Sepals are spread out in an horizontal direction, and 
resemble a bat's icings; they soon become reflexed and withering; the upper sepal is narrower than 
those at the sides, but, like them, is folded backwards; in most varieties the sepals are yellowish 
green, semi-transparent, and destitute of sjwts, but occasionally, as in the Plqte, a few spots 
occur. Petals much waited, erect, linear -oblong, much smaller than the sepals; usually spotted 
with rich chestnut on a yellowish ground. The Lip is in two portions; at the base is a deep 
orange, satiny large cup or sack, from the inner and upper margin of which there rises a very large, 
again pedunculated, helmet -shaped process, of a thick and fleshy nature, hollow within, .standing 
erect, which covers with its rigid apex the top of the column. Column exactly perpendicular, 
almost two inches long, cylindrical, enlarged at the top so as to resemble an inverted foot, pale green, 
sprinkled with reddish streaks ; at the base two oblong curved processes occur, from which honey is 
constantly distilled, and falls into the cup below.— Hooker, I. c. 

This beautiful plant flowered in June, 1842, in Mr. Rucker's fine collection at Wandsworth. 
Having been imported from Mexico, where no Coryanthes had been previously found, its progress was 
eat'-erly watched, and die development of its huge flower-buds awaited with no small anxiety. Contrary, 
however, to expectation the expanded blossoms exhibited no distinctive characters, but approached so closely 

* So called from the resemblance of the flowers to Kopv^, a helmet. 

to both C spcciosa and C. maculata as to prove that these two supposed species must hcncefonvard be 
regarded merely as varieties of each other. They have accordingly been quoted as synonyms in the text. 

In Mr. Rucker's collection no genus appears to succeed more perfectly than Coryantlies^ although 
in others its cultivation is attended with much difficulty and vexation ; but by noting its peculiarities, such 
frequent disappointments may, perhaps, be avoided. The supplies of heat and moisture require to be most 
carefully regulated, for if either be permitted to continue in excess, the plants will quickly perish ; — on the 
other hand, a cold or dry atmosphere is always prejudicial. Suspension in the air, which is usually adopted 
with so much advantage in cases where the flower-scapes are pendulous, is here unsuitable, and if on a 
block of wood is certainly fatal. Another danger to weakly plants is their proneness to make a succession 
of attempts to flower, which, although abortive, are still persisted in until death ensues from sheer 
exhaustion. To meet cases of this description, it is advisable to remove the flower-stems as they appear, 
until the plants have gathered strength enough to support them without risk of injury. 

C macrantha is, perhaps, the most robust, as it is certainly the most wonderful, species of the genus ; 

it may, indeed, be questioned whether the whole tribe of Orchidacese can ofler anything more unaccountable 

or extraordinary than its huge elaborate flowers, w^hich are so unlike aught that is ordinarily met with in 

the vegetable world as to be not unfrequently regarded rather as examples of the modeller's skill than of 
the plastic powers of Nature.* 

In the Vignette an Indian claims our notice, attired in one of the most striking and characteristic of 
the native costumes of Guatemala. 




" Xani qui dabat olhn 

Imperinm, fasces^ Icgiones, omniay nunc se 

Continet, atque duas tantum res anxius optat, 

Panem, et Circenses. 


* When flowers of fliis species were first shewn to the natives of Trinidad — albeit accustomed to the wonders of a tropical Flora — they would 
not be persuaded that no imposition was intended; even a sight of the plant itself flourislnng in the Botanic Garden, scarcely removed their suspicions. 

//. .37 

M/s DraJc^, dd'^. 


M d-aacb, ^^. 



A C R 1 jir T M A , 

n^^ dy J Ru^i^ay J- Jon^J6S,.FwcoJzJJy Ji^.m^. 

/^ttffvr ii Ptftnu^^ 







SocRALiA macrantha ; foliis ovalibus basi planis, bracteis strobili imbricatis giabris, sepalis oblonoo- 
lanceolatis acutis, petalis conforinibus majoribus, labello maximo emarginato piano glabro.-~Z?J?c//. Sert. 
Orchid, suh. Tab. xxix. Bot. Reg. 1842, Misc. 65. 

Hahitat in Oaxacd, Karwinski, Ross; in Guatemala, Skinkek, Hartweg. 

Stems rising from a compact mass of thick tomentose Boots to the height of from two to ten 
feet, sometimes as thick as the little finger. Leaves alternate, oval-lanceolate, greatly acnminated, 
from six inches to a foot in length. At its summit the stem swells into a sort of hracteated cone, 
from whence, at intervals of several days, issue a succession of large and sjjlendid fioicers, each con- 
tinuing only about twelve hours. Sepals usually about three incites long, ohlong, sharp-pointed. 
Petals larger than the sepals, and like them of a transparent rosy hue. Lip much larger and 
longer than the petals^ in the form of a funnel, emarginate at the apex, tvhere its edges are dilated, 
waved, and bent slightly hack; the colour of the lip is a more intense rose colour than the petals, 
and beautifully shaded, with deeper tints; at the entrance of the tube the rose colour ceases, and is 
replaced by white jiassing into yellow, and beautifully veined ivith crimson streaks. Column 
entirely concealed by the lip. 

i HIS, perhaps tlie most beautiful of terrestial Orchidacea^, is extensively distributed throughout the 
Avarmer parts of Mexico, Oaxaca, and Guatemala. 

Although repeatedly gathered by botanical travellers, it was never introduced into this country until 
1841, when, through the care and exertions of Mr. Hartweg and Mr. Skin^ner, a few plants survived 
the hitherto fatal ordeal of the voyage. Placed in a moist heat, and treated like BIctia or Phaius, these 
plants Avere found to thrive amazingly, and from one of them, which tlowered in the garden of the Horticul- 
tural Society, Miss Drake was permitted to prepare the accompanying Plate. The splendour of the 
subject speaks for itself. 

Mr. Skinker remarks that in the situations where the plant attained the highest degree of luxuriance, 
he observed that its roots were frequently overflowed with water for two or three months together — in the 
rainy season, of course. Cultivators will, therefore, do well to bear this singular fact in mind, and approxi- 
mate their treatment as closely as circumstances will permit. All Sohralias require a season of rest, which 
is readily obtained by merely removing them from a warm and humid house to one that is cool and dry. 
The present species is more rapid and vigorous in its growth than any hitherto domiciled in our stoves ; it is 
now (July, 1843) flowering profusely at Knypersley. 

n. .v,v. 




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v/1f. &auc7^ iXh' 


'Ji^'.v' JjraJ:^, €iel 

L I A 

§ U r E IE B I E 

/Vi'„'^ by J. Md^jway & Sons, 163, nccadiily, M^ch.JS43 

Tr-jT^ad^ y. T ^iKt 




Tribus: EPIDEXDRE^.— Lindley. 

'L&'LiA superhiens ; scapo longissimo multifloro, sepalis petalisque lineari-oblongis obtusis membra- 
naceis labello longioribus, lubelH lobo medio obtusissimo : disco lamellis quinque maximis subserratis anticfe 

truncatis aucto, antherai crista biaurita, clinandrio denticulato. 
Tah. 62, 1842. 

LiiidL Bot. JReff. Misc. 87, 1840 ;—sub 

Habitat m Guatemala. — Skinner, Hartweg. 

Pseudo-bulbs elongated, sivollen in the centre, channeled, slightly compressed, a foot or more 
high, and hearing two extremely rigid, shining, sharp-pointed Leaves, of about their own length. 
Scape upright, springing from between the leaves, very thick atid strong, and occasionally attaining 
the leiigth of twelve feet ; it is almost entirely cased by the sheathing, ventricose, acute Bracts. 
Flowers numerous f sometimes not fewer than tweyity), forming a dense and magnificent head at 
the extremity of the scape. Sepals linear -oblong, more than two inches long. Petals obtuse, 
broader than the sepals, and, like them, rose-coloured. Lip shorter than the petals, fhree-lobed, the 
middle lobe depressed, exceedingly blunt, and larger than the lateral lobes, which are rounded; the 
colour of the Up is an intensely deep rose, enlivened by rich yelloic streaks along the disc and base, 
where are placed five large somewhat serrated jilates. Column arched, not half the length of the 
Up. Anther furnished with a two-eared crests and a cUnandrlum with indented edges. 

This truly magnificent plant is a native of the cooler districts of Guatemala, where the honour of 
first discovering it is justly claimed by Mr. Skixner. Mr. Hartweg also met with it in abundance in 
the neighbourhood of Chantla, and forwarded some enormous masses to the Horticultural Society ; but 
unfortunately neither these nor any of the plants sent over by Mr. Skinner have yet flowered. Miss 
Drake's drawin*!- was most carefully prepared from materials communicated by Mr. Skinner, and there 
can be no doubt that, however brilliant her representation may appear, it will fail to do justice to the 
splendour of the living plant. Respecting its habitat, &c. Mr. Sk inner writes as follows: — 

" I first found Lcella siq^erhiens in the village of Sumpango, planted by the Indians in front of their 
doors. This was in 1839; afterwards (in November, 1840,) I went in search of its true habitat, and, after 
an excursion of three days, found it in the barrancas of Sachmarachon, near the town of Comalapa, about 
twenty leagues due north of the city of Guatemala. Here it exists in immense quantities; the finest 
specimens orowino- out of crevices of the rocks, and sheltered from the north winds. Some of the plants had 
bulbs of the height of twenty-two inches, with flower stems four yards in length, and bearing upwards of 
t^venty flowers (one, of which I sent you the dried specimen, had twenty-two. f) On the morning on which 

i T 

* Supra Tab. IX. 

f From this specimen, which was remarkably well preserved, Miss Drake compiled the figure. The flowers appear to have been all in 

perfection together. • 

I made this excursion (November 27), when I got to the town of Comalapa, the ground was covered with 
hoar frost, the La?lias, however, as has been ah'eady mentioned, were usuall^^ screened from the north, and, 
where diis was not the case, the plants had a stunted appearance. The name given to the species by die 
Comalapa Indians is 'Coteach K'laj,' meaning simply 'red flower:' but by the Indians Avho speak Spanish, 
it was termed ' La vara del Senor San Jose,' /. e, ' The wand of Lord San Joseph.'"* 

Elsewhere {vide Bot. lleg. Misc. 87, 1840,) ]\Ir. Skinnp.u states that, Chantla, another habitat 
of the plant, is very cold, the usual range of the thermometer being from ^o to ^o , and expresses his 
conviction diat to cultivate it successfully in England, a greenhouse temperature a\ ould be required. In 
this he is not mistaken, for most of the plants that, on dieir arrival, were placed in a hot and damp 
atmosphere have already perished, while those that were subjected to a cooler treatment have succeeded 
much better, and in some instances made attempts to flower, although the scapes never arrived at 
maturity. Probably w^hen the plants are more firmly established we may be spared such bitter mortifi- 
cations, yet it is greatly to be feared that the species will always prove wayward in cultivation. At present 
it seems to thrive best suspended from the rafters, on blocks of any hard-barked Avood. 

The Vignette presents a view of three crosses beneath a gigantic tree, on the road to Naguisalco. 

Mr. Skinner found them profusely decorated with orchidaceous flowers, as was the tree with plants of the 
same class. 

ri ^ 

^ ^<^,. 

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'^ All nature tcachelli worship unto man, 
And the first inslmct of the heart is faith/' 

L. E. L. 

* The wand of San Joseph is usually represented as bearing a quantity of flowers, and from the strong resemblance to Lo'lia yuperbiens the 
name is generally applied to it by the Indians of the Altos, A battle having been gained on t!ie lOth of March, 1840 (the day ol San Jose), the troops 
of Guatemala shortly afterwards gave a fete in his honour^ and now regard him as tlteir Patron Saint, 

// J:- 





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/^^.^ '^v. Jrlb^gwcoy & Sonsje^^UcccukUx M(w<^i, IS43 

Truii^d by T^ G'am^v 

Tab. XXXIX. 



Tribus: VANDE^,— Lindley. 

Oncidium Wentworthianum ; pseiido-bulbis nebulosis oblongis compressis ancipitibus diphyllis, 
panicula angust.i elongatfi ramulis 3-5 floris sepalis liberis petalisque oblongis lanceolatis acutis, labelli 
cordati laciniis lateralibus rotiindatis grosse crenatis intermedia multo brevioribus ; intermedin ungue basi 
lato apice angustiore lateralibus rectis lamina reniformi denticulata basi ipsa labelli duplo angustiore, cristd 
5-dentata denticulis 2 anticis auct^, columna) alis erosis brevibus. — Lindl. Bot. Reo-. Misc. 194, 18-10. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinneu, HAET^vEG. 

Pseudo-bulbs oblong, compressed, with sharp edges, usually about three inches long, but in 
some varieties considerably larger, of a very dark green colour, beautifully clouded with brown. 
Leaves two on each iiseiulo-bulb, shining, lanceolate, acute, from six inches to a foot long. 
Flower-stem extending in a wavy irregular line to the length of three to twelve feet, producing 
numerous short, few-flowered, lateral branches. Sepals and Petals nearly alike, oblong, lanceolate, 
acute, of a rich yellow ground, strikingly marked with spots and streaks of the most intense reddish 
brown. Lip three-lobed, the lateral lobes crenate, rounded, and much shorter than the intermediate 
one, at the base of which is placed a short kidney-shaped jjlate, the edges of which are erect and 
toothed; on this plate is the crest, composed of five poitited processes, with two smaller teeth in 
front. The wings of the Column are short and bitten off. 

UNCIDIUM Wentworthianum — so called, it is needless to say, after the noble proprietor of AVent- 
worth-j- — is among the most elegant species of the vast genus to which it belongs. The beautifully clouded 
pseudo-bulbs are a very remarkable feature, especially in a wild state, for, in cultivation, the markino-s 
frequently become indistinct ; the great length of the flower-stems — not less, in some instances, than ten or 
twelve feet — and the shortness of the lateral branches, also serve to characterize the species. 

It is a native of Guatemala, where it was first discovered by Mr. Skixnee, and its natural habitat 
being usually in the higher lands, a moderate temperature is required for its successful culture. The 
specimen from whence the figure was taken flowered at Knypersley in 1840, since then many superior 
varieties have appeared, especially in the garden of the Horticultural Society, to which Mr. Hartweg 
sent them. 

* Supra, Tab. I. 

t The collection of Orchidaceous plants at Wentworth was, perhaps, the very first in which the manifold attractions of this beautiful tribe were 
developed on an extensive scale, and under the care of Mr. CoorER, the veteran curator, its celebrity is well sustained. 

.//. /M 



Jfr/:y BraJce, del 
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fudfbv J- Mdijwa.y ^ Som^ 103^ PicauMy, jtc^% ld4Z 

Tny^/^ 2>y T '9^ati:r^. 

Tab XL. 



Tribus: VANDEiE.— Lindley. 

Cycnoches Egertonianum ; foliis vaginantibus undulatis lanceolatis acuminatis racemis multifioris 
nutantibus brevioribus ; sepalis pctalisque subrcqualibus ovatis acutis, labcllo columna continuo obovato 
niargine incurvo digitis 5 clavatis utrinque instructo epicliilio lineari meinbranaceo digitis vix longiore. 

Habitat in Guatemala. — Skinner. 

Stems from half a foot to a foot long, hearing several membranous, Kxwg, lanceolate, sharp- 
pointed, sheathing Leaves. Racemes drooping, many -flowered, longer titan the leaves, sometimes 
a foot and a half long. Sepals and Petals almost sbnilar in size and form, ovate, acute, rtearly 
an inch long, of a deep chocolate colour on the inner side, and greenish without. Lip exactly con- 
tinuous with the column, contracted at the base, but spreading in a somewhat obovate form, the 
margins being turned inwards, and on either side puchered into five finger-lllie processes, which 
spread themselves out into a kind of circular wreath; the apex of the lip is j)^olonged into a mem- 
branous po'utt about the length of the fingers ; the ground colour of the Up is green, but the fingers 
are tinged with purple. Column extremely clavate, longer than the petals, of a dark pi ir pie colour. 

oTRANGE things — and no less strange than true — have ah'eady been recorded of Orchidaceous 
plants, but the case which is rcpix'sented in the accompanying Plate casts into the shade all former frolics 
of this Protean tribe. The facts are briefly as follow. 

Among Mr. Skinner's earliest Guatemala collections, attention was particularly directed to the 
specimens of a plant which to the habit of a Cycnoches joined the long pendulous stems of a Gongora, and 
for the possession of which, in a living state, no small anxiety was entertained. Some plants were 
speedily transmitted by Mr. Skinner, but these, on flowering, proved to be merely the old C ventricosum. 
A mistake w^as of course suspected, and iMr. Skinner being again applied to, sent over a fresh supply- of 
plants, for the authenticity of which he vouched ; but these were scarcely settled in the stove, when 
flowers of C ventricosum were again produced. Mr. Skinner being importuned for the third time, 
and being then on the point of returning to this country, determined to take one of the plants under his 
special protection during the voyage, which, flowering on the passage, seemed to preclude the possibility of 
further confusion or disappointment. The specimens produced at sea w-cre exhibited, and the plant itself 
placed in the stove at Knypersley, where it commenced growing with the utmost vigour. The season of 
flowerinii soon arrived, but brouoht with it a recurrence of the former scene of astonishment and vexation, 

Stij)ra sub. Tab. V. 

for the blossoms, instead of those of the coveted novelty, were not distinguishable from the old C. ventri- 
cosum. These were still hanging to the stem when the inexplicable plant sent forth a spike of a totally 
different character, and which was, in fact, precisely similar to the specimens gathered in Guatemala, and to 
those produced on the voyage. 

It is, at present, impossible to attempt any explanation of so strange a phenomenon, especially on the 
supposition that the two forms of flower arc analogous to the male and female blossoms of other tribes, for 
C. ventricosinn alone not unfrequently perfects seeds. 

The species (if as such it maybe regarded) was named in honour of Sir Philip Egerton-, before any 
of its eccentricities had been discovered, otherwise the compliment might have been deemed a dubious one. 

For the tail-piece Lady Grey of Groby has kindly contributed a most ingenious device, compounded 
of divers Orchidaceous flowers, which, with verj^ gentle violence, have been induced to assume the attitudes 
in which they appear below.* 

T*- - 


N.tture breeds 

Perverse, all nionatrous, all prodigious things, 
Abominable, unntterable, and worse 
Tlian fables yet have feigned, or fear conceived, 
Gorgons, and hydras, and cliimcras dire/* 


* Tlio liag came fortli, broom and all, from a flower of Cypripedium ifisigite ; her attendant spirits arc composed o^ Brassia Lauceana^ Angrcecum 
caudatum, Onddtiim pap'dioy &c. &:c. ; two specimens of Cycnoches sail majestically on the globe below, on the right of which crawls Megaclhuum 
falcatxtm. In the centre stands a desponding Monachanthus ; on the left a pair of Masdcvallms are dancing a minuetj while sundry Epidendra, not 
unlike the '' walking leaves" of Australia^ complete the group. 


Cyrtocfitlum Bictontense (Tab. VT.) In a rc-aiTangement of Cyrtochiluvi, Odonfofjlossum, and their allied genera, Ui\ 

LiNDLEY refers this plant to Odonioghmum. 
L^LiA AuTUMNALis (Tab. IX.) On the plate the name is spelt '-aidximnale^ which is, of course, wrong. 

Stakhopea Martiana (Tab, XXVIL) There can be little or no doubt that this. beautiful plant is the true " i^^o,^ Xyncea'' 

of Hernandez, S, X>^^^on^G;^fz— supposed to be so by Professor Lindley — is, in reality, a native of Peru. 

Galeandra Baueri (Tab. XIX.) The figure of this .species is inaccuratCj and greatly exaggerates its beauty. Miss Drake's 

drawing was in part taken from a weak specimen supplied by Mr. Barker, and in part from the bulbs and leaves of an 
Epidevdrnm (since ascertained to be _£, laceritnum) which, at the time, was supposed to be the Oaleandra in <juestion, 
Tlic flowers arc, in reality, produced in a loose nodding raceme, and the pseudo-bulbs have a considerable resemblance 
to those of a thin Catasetum. Unfortunately the plaut is of so weakly a habit that it will, probably, soon be lost to 
the country. 

Sobhalia Macrantiia (Tab. XXXVII,) The flowers of this superb plant arc not quite so ephemeral as was supposed ; they 

continue in bigli beauty for two days, and are much larger the second day than the first, an occurrence by no 
means unusual amongst OrchidaceEe.