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Copyright, 1890, 

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The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass. , U, S. A. 
Electrotyped and Printed by II. 0. Houghton & Co» 








Many years ago, when I first realized the difficulty of obtaining any true kno-vvl- 
edge of the trees of this country, I formed the plan of -writing a Silva -which should 
contain an account of all the species that gro-w spontaneously in the forests of North 
America, The books which had been -written on this svibject related only to the trees 
of comparatively limited regions, and therefore presented no general or systematic 
view of the composition of our forests. Such Avorks as existed were long out of 
date, too, and included none of the information collected by recent explorers and 
observers, and no account Avhatever of the trees discovered in late years west of the 
Mississippi River. Many of our trees have never been fully described. All that can 
be learned about them from books is contained in a few words of purely technical 
description of little value to the general reader ; and these descriptions are widely 
scattered in American and foreign publications, to be found only in a fcAv special 
libraries beyond the reach of the general reader. The difficulty of studying our 
trees has been increased, too, by the fact that many of them have been named by 
different botanists in different countries without proper regard to names previously 
bestowxd upon them, so that such a mass of synonyms has been heaped upon some 
of the species that it is extremely difficult to determine the names which they 
should rightly bear. Books, however, are only guides towards obtaining a knowl- 
edge of trees. To be really understood, they must be studied in the forest; and 
therefore, since the plan of writing this Silva was formed, I have examined the 
trees of America growing in their native homes from Canada to the banks of the 
Rio Grande and the mountains of Arizona, and from British Columbia to the islands 
of southern Florida. I have -watched many of them in the gardens of this coun- 
try and in those of Europe, and there are now hardly half a dozen of the trees 
which Avill be described in this w^ork which I have not seen in a living state. 

It may be useful to glance at the books which have been specially devoted to 
the trees of North America. The earliest is the Arbustum Americanum, which was //^ 
written by Humphrey Marshall, and published in Philadelphia in 1785. Marshall 
was a Pennsylvania farmer and a kinsman of John Bartram, who bore the title of 
king's botanist and enjoyed the friendship and correspondence of many European 
men of science. Bartram established the first Botanical Garden in America. Marshall 
followed his example, and collected several American trees on his farm in Chester 
County. Here, as w^ell as during his numerous journeys, he acquired much infor- 
mation Avith regard to the trees of the eastern part of the country, Avhich he 


described in popular language, with much spirit and considerable acumen. His book 
includes an account of two hundred and seventy-seven trees and shrubs, and a fciv 

original dcscriptions= 

The next work devoted to American trees was published in Gottingen, in 1787, 
by r. A. J. von Wangenheim, a Hessian officer in the employ of the king of Eng- 
land, who fought in the war of the Revolution, and found opportunity in the pauses 
of the conflict to study our trees Avith reference to their value for introduction into 
the forests of Germany. Wangenhcim described one hundred and sixty-eight trees 
and shrubs, illustrating his work wdth thirty-one plates of seventy-two rude figures. 

The next book Avhich appeared upon American trees was devoted to the Oaks. 
It was published in Paris, in 1801, and was entitled Hisioire des Chencs de fAwc- 
Tique. The name of Andre Michaux is printed on the title-page as the author of 
this classical work, but there is reason to believe it was really from the pen of the 
distinguished French botanist, Achille Richard. Michaux was a liardy and cour- 
ageous explorer, with excellent powers of observation and great industry- and perse- 
verance. He possessed, hoAvever, little literary skill, and the account of our Oaks, 
like the Flora of North America, which also bears his name, was a work beyond his 
ability. Twenty of the Oaks of eastern America are systematically described and 
very accurately figured in this book, which was the first to give any real idea of 
the character and value of these trees. 

Michaux resided in America during thirteen years as botanical agent of the 
French government, and traveled here more widely than any of his botanical prede- 
cessors. He was accompanied in many of his journeys by his son, F. A. Michaux, 
Avho afterwards wrote the best book on the trees of North America Avhich has yet 
appeared. It was published in Paris, in 1810, and was illustrated Avith Iiandsomely- 
colored plates. It includes one hundred and fifty-five American trees, the descrip- 
tions being based on observations carefully made in the forest, and carried on for 
several years. An American edition soon appeared, and this was foIIoAvcd by tAvo 
American reprints, the latest bearing the date of 1859. 

The work of the younger Michaux covered only the trees found in the region 
east of the Mississippi River and in some parts of western Louisiana. It was sup- 
plemented in 1842 by three volumes from the pen of Thomas Nuttall, a distin- 
guished English naturalist, w^ho devoted many years to exploring the flora of the 
North American continent. Nuttall described one hundred and nine American trees, 
mcluding a large number of West Indian species which had been found a few years 
earlier on the islands of the Florida coast, and several trees from the interior of 
the contment and from the northwest coast, Avhich the naturalists attached to the 
first transcontinental expeditions and the European botanists Avho early visited the 
Oregon Territory had brought to light. Nuttall's supplement Avas hastily prepared, 
and IS very mferior in its descriptions and illustrations to Michanx's great work. 
A second edition was issued with the third reprint of Michaux's Sylva, under the 
general titleof The Sylva of AW/A Amenca, the only illustrated descriptive work upon 
iN ortli American trees Avhich has yet appeared. 



In 1832 The Sijlva Americana was published in Boston, in a single octavo volume. 
The author, Mr. D. J. Browne, made no claim to originality, and the work was a 
hasty compilation from the writings of Michaux and other authors. A second edition 
of this work, enlarged to contain accounts of several foreign trees borrowed from 
Loudon's Arboretum Britanmcum, was published in New York, in 1846, under the title 
of The Trees of America, 

About 1850, or a little later, Professor Asa Gray undertook to prepare, under 
the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, an illustrated work on the trees of this 
country. Twenty-two plates were lithographed for it from drawings made in color 
by Isaac Sprague, but no text was prepared, and the work was then abandoned. 

Another effort to prepare a Silva of America Avas made in 1858, when Dr. H. U. 
Piper, of Woburn, Massachusetts, published sixty-four pages of The Trees of America, 
illustrated with thirteen well-executed portraits of various trees selected from dif- 
ferent parts of the country, without regard, however, to any systematic arrangement. 
The publication was then discontinued. 

The next attempt at anything like an account of all the trees of this country 
appeared in 1858, in which year Dr. J. G, Cooper published, in the Proceedings of the 
Smithsonian Institution, a list of the arborescent species of the country, with special 
reference to theii* geographical distribution, supplementing his first paper by a second 
published two years later, 

A catalogue of the forest trees of the United States, with notes and brief de- 
scriptions of the most important species, was published in Washington in 1876, by 
Dr. George Yasey, the botanist of the United States Department of Agriculture, to 
illustrate the collection of wood sections which formed part of the Centennial Exhi- 
bition at Philadelphia. Four hundred and nineteen species were enumerated in 
this catalogue. 

The last general work on American trees appeared in Yolume IX. of the Final 
Reports of the Tenth Census of the United States, published in 1883, to which I ( f'^f^'^^^ 

added a catalogue of the forest trees of North America with their synonymy and 
bibhography, with remarks upon their distribution, size, and uses, and with an account 
of the value and properties of their wood, based on a series of original investigations 
made by Mr. S. P. Sharpies, of Cambridge. This catalogue contained four hundred 
and twelve species. It was substantially reprinted in New York in 1885, under the 
title of The Woods of the United States, as a guide to the Jesup collection of North 
American woods in the American Museum of Natural History. 

A few publications devoted to purely botanical accounts of particular groups of 
trees, and others descriptive of the trees of parts of the country, have added largely 
to our knowledge of the American silva. The most important of the former are 
Dr. George Engelmann*s papers on the Oaks and on different genera of Conifers, 
the result of years of patient study. The most comprehensive of the latter is Mr. 
George B. Emerson's Report on the Trees and Shrubs Growing Naturally in the Forests 
of Massachusetts. This work, which is a model of its kind, was published in one vol- 
ume, in 1846, under the auspices of the Commonwealth. A reprint in two volumes, 




superbly illustrated with lithographs printed in color from drawings by Isaac Sprague, 

was publislied in 1875. i ■ ^ -n .- i ^ - 

An account of the literature on the subject, however brief, will not be complete 

without mention of Mr. M. A. Curtis's Woody Plants of North Carotnu, of the val- 

uable notes on the native trees of the lower Wabash River in Indiana and Illinois by 

Mr. Robert Ridgway, of the paper on the forest trees of British Columbia b)- Mr. 

George M. Dawson, and of Professor Edward L. Greene's account of some of the Oaks 

of California. 

The line AvMch divides trees from shrubs is a purely arbitrary one, and an attempt 

to separate them is often unsatisfactory. A division based on liabit rather than on ^ize 
,, upon the whole, more easily apphed than any other, and therefore less objection- 
able. So, for the purposes of this work, I have considered as trees all woody plants 
which grow up from the ground with a single stem, excluding all such as habitually 
branch at the ground into a number of stems, whatever size or height they may attain. 
The forests, of North America exclusive of Mexico, the region embraced in this work, 
are now beheved to contain four hundred and twenty-two species of plants, besides 
numerous varieties, which, under the rule adopted, can fairly be cousidercd trees. 

The sequence of the orders and of the genera adopted in the first volumes of this 
work is that of the Genera Plantarum of Bentham & Hookei', and of the standard 
botanical works published in the United States. 

The question of nomenclature, which is beginning to occupy the attention of bota- 
nists more seriously than ever before, is perplexing. I have adopted the method A\liicli 
imposes upon a plant the oldest generic name applied to it by Linnaeus in the first 
edition of the Genera Plantarum, published in 1737, or by an}" subsequent author, and 
the oldest specific name used by LinnEEUS in the first edition of the Species Planfarumj 
published in 1753, or by any subsequent author, Avithout regard to the fact that such 
a specific name may have been associated at first with a generic name improper!}' em- 
ployed. The rigid application of this rule leads to the change of many fiuniliar names 
and considerable temporary confusion. But unless it is adopted, anytliing like stability 
of nomenclature is hopeless, and the sooner changes which are inevitable in the 
future are made, the more easily students will become accustomed to them and acquire 
a knowledge of the correct names of oiu* trees. 

Unless other sources of information are specially mentioned, the figures represent- 
ing the specific gravity and the weight of the wood of the different trees described in 
this work are taken from the Report on the Woods of the United States, published in 
Yolume IX. of the Final Reports of the Tenth Census. In most cases these are averages 
from several specimens, obtained, as far as possible, from trees groAving under different 
conditions in diff-erent parts of the country. The specific gravity is calculated from 
specimens of wood from Avhich all moisture was artificially expelled ; the weight of the 

cubic foot is that of wood seasoned naturally and containing, therefore, mote or less 

No one can realize more clearly than I that the chief value of this new Silva is due 
to the accuracy and beauty of the drawings, upon which my associate, Mr. C. E. Faxon, 



has "worked assiduously during the last eight years, and to the skill of the admirable 

French cngrayers, Avho have reproduced them under the general dii'cction of Monsieur 

A. Riocreux, the most distinguished European botanical artist. I take this oppor- 

tunity to express to them all the sense of my personal obligation for their zeal and 


The entomological notes have been supplied by Mr. J. G. Jack of the Arnold Arbo- 

return. Mr. William D. Ely, of Providence, Uhodc Island, and Mr. Erancis Skinner, of 

Boston, have aided me greatly in collecting information relating to the early literature 

of many of the trees described ; and Mr. Faxon's careful scrutiny of the proof-sheets 

has freed them from many errors. A list of the other friends and correspondents -who 

hayc aided me in the preparation of this A^'ork Avould include the names of the chief 

botanists and of the most intelligent lovers and zealous cultivators of trees in America 

and Europe. My sense of obligation and of gratitude to them all is deep and sincere, 

but their number is so great that I must content myself Avitli this general acknoAvledg- 

ment of their kindness and assistance. 

C. S. Sarge^^t. 

Brookli:™, Mass., September, 1890. 


Synopsis of Ordeks 
]Magn"olia f<etida . • 
Magnolia glatjca . 
Magnolia acuminata 


Magnolia tripetala 
Magnolia Feaseri 



AnONA GLABRA . . . . 

Capparis Jamaicensis , 
Canella alba - . . . 


Freiiontia Californica 
Tilia Americana 


tilia hetekophylla 
guaiagum sanctum 
Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis 


Xanthoxylum Fagara 
Ptelea teifoltata 
Helietta parvifolta 
Amyris maritima , 

Canotia holacantha 
Simaruba glauca . 
Koeeerlinia spinosa 
Bursera Simaruba 


Ilex opaca , . . . 
Ilex Cassine . . . . 
Ilex vomitoria 

Ilex decidua . - . . 
Ilex monticola 

Plates i., ii. . 
Plate iii. 
Plates iv., v., vi. 
Plates vii., viiL . 
Plates ix., x. < 
Plates xi., xiL 
Plates xiii,. xiv. 
Plates XV., XVI, • 
Plates xvii.j xviii, . 
Plate xix. , 
Plate XX. 
Plate xxi, • 
Plate xxii. 
Plate xxiii. 
Plates xxivp, xxv, . 
Plate xxvi. 
Plate xxvii. < 
Plate xxviii. 



V * 

Plates XXX., xxxi» 
Plate xxxii. . 
Plates xxxiii., xxxiv 
Plate XXXV- . 
Plate xxxvi. 
Plate xxxvii. , 
Plates xxxviii.j xxxix, 
Plate xl. 

Plates xIl, xlii. . 
Plates xliiLj xliv. . 
Plate xlv, . 
Plates xlvi., xlvii. . 
Plate xlvili- 
Plate xlix- 
Plate L 


XI u 






















Stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. Leaves netted-veined- Embryo 
with a pair of opposite cotyledons, 

Sub-Class L Angiospermse. Pistil, a closed ovary containing the ovules and developing into the fruit 

DlvmoN L Polypetalae. Flowers with calyx and corolla, the latter divided into separate petals, 

A. THALAMIFLOR^. Stamens and petals free from the calyx and from the superior ovary, and inserted on a 
usually narrow receptacle. 

* Carpels distinct. 

1. Magnoliace^. Sepals and petals in three or four rows of threes, imbricated In iestivatlon. Stamens 
numerous. Fruit conedike, formed of the numerous cohering carpels. Leaves alternate, stipulate. 

2. Anonace^. Sepals 3, valvate In aestivation. Petals i5, in two rows, valvate or sometimes imbricated In 
estivation. Stamens numerous. Fruit pulpy. Leaves rilternate, exstipulate. 

* * Carpels united into a compound ovary with parietal placenta. 

3. CapparidaceEe, Sepals and petals 4. Fruit baccate or capsular, indehiscent or dehiscent. Seeds destitute 
of albumen. Embryo coiled. Leaves alternate ; stipules often spinescent, sometimes wanting. 

4. Canellaoeee. Sepals 3, Petals 5. Stamens monadelphous, the anthers udnate into a column. Fruit fleshy. 
Seed albuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 

* * ^ Carpels united into a compound ovary with axile placenta. 

5. TernstrcBmiaceee, Calyx imbricated in aestivation. Stamens Indefinite, more or less united together and 
with the base of the petals. Fruit, a 3 to 5-celled pod. Embryo straight or slightly curved. Leaves alternate, 

6. Cheiranthodendre^, Calyx subcampanulate, deeply 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in estivation. Petals 0. 
Stamens united into a column. Capsule loculicidally dehiscent. Embryo straight, in fleshy albumen. Leaves 
alternate, stipulate. 

7- Tiliaoe^. Calyx valvate in aestivation. Stamens numerous, usually more or less united together. Leaves 
alternate, the stipules usually small and deciduous, sometimes wanting- 

B, DISCIFLOE-^, Sepals generally distinct. Stamens as many as the petals, or twice as many, or fewer, usually 
inserted on a hypogynous or perigynous disk. Ovary superior, many-celled. 

* Ovules pendulous, raphe ventral- 

8. Zygophyllaceaa. Sepals 5, or rarely 4, usually free, destitute of glands. Filaments often provided with a 
basal bract- Disk usually fleshy. Ovary angled or lobed. Branches jointed. Leaves usually opposite, 2-foliolate 
or pinnate ; stipules persistent. 

9. Eutaoe^, Flowers usually diceeious or polygamous. Ovary 2 to 5-lobed, or the carpels almost distinct, on 
a glandular disk, often produced into a gynopliore. Leaves compound, glandular-punctate, exstipulate. 

10. Simarubeee. Flowers regular, polygamous, or rarely perfect- Calyx 3 to 5-lobed or divided. Petals 3 to 5 
or wanting, imbricated or valvate. Disk annular, lobed or entire. Ovary 2 to 5-lobed, or rarely entire ; ovules usually 
solitary. Seeds albuminous- Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, pinnate or rarely 1 to 3-foliolate, exstipulate, 

11- BurseraceEe, Flowers perfect or poly gam o-diceclous. Calyx 3 to 5-lobed, imbricated or valvate. Disk annu- 
lar or cup-shaped, free or adnate to the calyx- Ovary entire, 2 to 5-celled. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves opposite or 
alternate, 3-foliolate, unequally pinnate, or rarely 1-foliolate, exstipulate. 

12, Meliaceaa. Flowers usually perfect. Calyx imbricated or rarely valvate in aestivation. Petals contorted 
or valvate in jestlvation. Anthers united into a sessile or stipitate tube. Ovary entire. 3 to 5-celled. Seeds usually 
destitute of albumen. Leaves alternate, usually pinnate, exstipulate. 

* * Ovules pendulous, raphe dorsal, 

13, Ilioinege, Flowers diceciously polygamous, axillary, 4 to 8-parted, Disk minute. Ovules 1 to 2 in each cell. 
Embryo minute, in copious albumen. Leaves alternate; stipules minute. 



Flowee-bud inclosed in a stipular caducous spathe. Flowers perfect, solitary, 
terminal ; sepals 3 ; petals 6 to 12, in series of 3's ; anthers introrse ; pistils indefinite, 
nnbrioatcd on an elongated receptacle. Carpels drupaceous-baccate, persistent, opening 
on the back at maturity. Seeds drupaceous. 

Magnolia, Liniiaeus, Ge7i. 162. - Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 837. - Meisner, (?e;^ 3. - Gray, Gau III. i. 59.-Ben- 

364. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 281. — Endlleher, Gen. tham & Hooker, (?en. i. 18. — BaUlon, iZ/si;. PA i. 188. 

Trees, or rarely shrubs, witK fleshy roots, ashy gray or bro^, smooth or sometimes scaly, bitter- 
aromatic bark, and terete branchlets conspicuously marked by large round leaf-scars and narrow stipular 
rings. Buds terete, acute ; then- scales large membranaceous stipules adnate to the base o£ the stout 
petioles, deciduous with the unfolding of each successive condupllcate leaf. Leaves alternate, entire, 
sometimes auriculate, deciduous or sempervirent, feather-veined, often minutely punctate. Flowers sessile 
or slightly pedunculate, conspicuous, sometimes precocious, often fragrant, white, green, or yellow, rarely 
purple or rose. Spathe thin, membranaceous, or, when the flower is precocious, thicker and densely 
covered with wool. Sepals spreading or reflexed, deciduous. Petals imbricated in the bud, hypogy- 
nous, concave, erect or spreading, deciduous. Stamens indefinite, imbricated in many ranks upon the 
base of the receptacle, stout, early- deciduous ; filaments much shorter than the adnate introrse two-cefled 
anthers ; the fleshy connective apiculate. Pistfls densely imbricated on the receptacle ; ovaries fleshy, 
one-celled ; style short, recurved, stigmatose only on the inner face ; ovules two, collateral, horizontal, 
anatropous. Fruit a scarlet or rusty brown cone, formed of the coalescent two-seeded carpels. Seeds 
suspended at maturity by a long thin cord of unroUed spiral vessels contained in the short funiculus 
and placenta ; testa thick, drupaceous, the outer portion becoming fleshy and at maturity pulpy, bright 
red or scarlet, the interior crustaceous, grooved along the inner side j tegmen very thin, adherent to the 
albumen. Embryo minute, at the base of the fleshy homogeneous albumen, its radicle next the hilum ; 
cotyledons short and spreading. 

The genus Magnolia is now confined to eastern North America, southern Mexico, and eastern and 
southern Asia. Twenty species are known. Of these, six are North American, with their centre of dis- 
tribution in the southern Alleghany-mountain region ; two are Mexican ; ^ ten are eastern Asiatic ; ^ one 
is a native of the mountains of Yun-nan ; ^ and four are Himalayan.* Magnolia once occupied a much 
larger area of the earth's surface, and its fossil remains are well marked and widely distributed.^ As late 

1 Hemsley, Bat. Biol. Am, Cenl. i. 13. a fine tree with persistent foliage, not unlike Magnolia fatida of 

2 Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, viii. 507. — the south Atlantic states. 
Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 23. * Hooker f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 41. 

8 Magnolia Delavayi, Franchet, PL Delavayance, 33, t. 9, 10 : ^ Saporta, Origine Paleuntologique des Arbres, 2C3. 


as the Tertiary period it was common in the Arctic Circle, in Greenland, in central Eiu'oxie, and on the 

mid-continental plains of North America.^ 

The largest of the genus is M. Camphdlii,- a noble tree of the Sikkim Himalaya, where hi elevated 
sub-tropical valleys it attains the height of a hundred feet. M. hypoleucaf a native of mountain forests 
in northern Japan, is one of the largest, and perhaps the most useful of the genus. The Chinese M. 
consinciia and IL ohovata, as well as several liybrids^ between these species, have long been cultivated 
for their conspicuous precocious flowers.'' The North American species are interesting and widely cid- 
tivated ornamental trees. 

The wood of Magnolia is light or rarely heavy, moderately hard, close-grained, easily worked, 
although not strong or durable, creamy white or brown, quickly becoming stained with decay. The sap- 
wood is a little lighter colored than that of the heart. The medullary rays are thin and inconspicuous. 
It has few economic uses.^ 

All parts of Magnolia are slightly bitter and aromatic. The dried bark, especially of the root, aiul 
the cone and seeds of several American species were formerly used occasionally as a stimulant and tonic.'' 
The Chinese employ the powdered seeds of M. conspicua in the treatment of inflammatory troubles of 
the tJiroat and eyes,^ and the dried flower-buds medicinally, and to season rice." 

All the Magnolias grow freely and rapidly in cultivation ; they require deep, rather moist, well- 
dranied soil, and thrive in peaty loam. They are easily raised from seed, and may be propagated by 
grafting or by layers. The American Magnolias are singularly free from the attacks of injurious insects." 

The genus Magnolia was established by Plumier in 1703.'^ Plumier's species, however, a noble 
West Indian evergreen tree, with which one of the North American species of MagnoHa was afterwards 
confounded by Linnaeus, is now the type of the allied tropical genus Talauma. The name commemo- 
rates the labors of Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor of botany at Montpelher, who first indicated 
the natural families of plants. 

Hooker f . III. Him. PI. t. 4, 5. - Griffith, Icon. ir. t. GoG. schen liegierung dargestdU, u. 259.) 

* Garden and Forest, i. 304, f. 49. 7 t i i r. ^ :,*- j at- ^ .. - 

. T ■, . Lloyd, Drugs and Med. N. Am. ii. 41. 

^ Loudon, ^ri. ifrii.i. 278. 8 a^ r, i 7 ■■ ^^~ 

** Aoui-eau Duhamel, 11. 225. 

ihe so-called Magnolia fu-^cala, a tall evergreen shrub from ^ Pickerin-, Chron. Hist. PI 600 

^i^^:^:": '"' -°^ ^" ^" t t^'^'' '^''' '' ^'^ '' ^- ^- "^^^-"^^^^ ^ ^"^^- ^- '■ ^-^^^- ^-- ^^ '«- - ^^^) --- 

MicheHa. ' ' ""^' '' "" '''"' ^""^ '^"^^ ' ^^^^'""^""'^ ^^^™ '' ' lepidopterous insect to which he gives 

6 -,, ,. fi^e ^ Phyllocnistis magnolia^dla. 

^ Magnolia hypoleuca furnishes the wood «sed by the Japanese " Nov. PI. Am. Gen 38 

m the manufacture of sword-sheaths and lacquered ware. (Rein, 


Leaves scattered along tlie branches : leaf-buds silky. 

Leaves persistent : slioots of the year and carpels densely pubescent . 1 M wrm . 

Leaves subpersistent : young shoots pubescent .... • • • - ■ . fcbtida. 

Leaves deciduous. 

Oblong, ovate, or suheordate : flowi 


v^uiuiig, ovaio, or subeordate : flowers small, green or yellow o 

Obovate or oblong, cordate at the narrow base : flowers very We and white ' ' ' A at ^'''''''-''^'^^• 
Leaves crowded at the of the flowering branches : leaf-buds glabrous ' * -~— • 

Leaves obovate-lanceolatc, pointed at both end; 


Leaves obovate-spatulate, auriculate at the base . . ^ tkipetala. 

CM. Fkaseki. 





Magnolia. Bull Bay. 

Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, ferriiginoiis-tomciitose beneath. Pistils woolly 
Fruit and shoots of the year densely pubescent. 

Magnolia f cetida, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 615. 

Magnolia Virginiana, y3. fcetida, Linn^us, Spec. 536. 

Magnolia graudiflora, Linu^us, Spec. ed. 2, 755. — MiUei-, 
Diet. ed. 8. — Edwards, Brit. Herb. 46, t. 93. — Marshall, 
Arhust. Am. 84.— /core. Am. Gewach. ii. 45, t. 185, 
186. — "Walter, Fl. Car. 158. — Ga-rtner, Fruct. i. 343, t. 
70. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 672; III. iii. 35, t. 490.— 
Moench, Meth. 274. — Willdeuow, .S'^ec. ii. 1225. — Mi- 
chaux, Fl. For.- Am. i. Zll. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 219, 
t. 65. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 5. —Andrews, Bot. 
Rep. viii. t. 518.— Michaux, f. Rist. Arb. Am. iii. 71, t. 
1. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 380. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 18. — 
De Candolle, Syst. i. 450 ; Prodr. i. 80. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 

36.— Andubon, Birds, t. 5, 32. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 
82. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 261, t. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N.Am. i. 42. — Dietrich, Sijn. iii. 308. — Spadi, Hist. 
Veg. vii. 470. — Chapman, Fl. 13. — Curtis, Geolog. Siirv. 
iV. Car. 1860, iii. 66. ~ Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 133, f. 165- 
169; Diet. i. 557, f. — Koch, Dendr. i. 367. — Keisuke 
Ito, Icon. Bot. Gard. Koishikawa, i. t. 18. — ■ Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 19. 
M. grandiflora, var. elliptica and obovata, Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii. 380. 

M. grandiflora, var. lanceolata, Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 
380. — Bot. Mag. t. 1952. 

A noble tree, of strict pyramidal liabit, sixty to eighty feet in lieiglit, "witli a tall straight trunk 
sometimes under favorable conditions four to four and a half feet in diameter. The bark of the trunk 
on fully grown individuals is a half to three quarters of an inch thick, gray or light brown in color, 
covered with thin appressed scales rarely more than an inch longj that of the branches is smooth, liglit 
gray, and much thinner. The leaves, which fall in the spring at the end of their second year, are bri'»-lit 
green, shining, coriaceous, oblong or ovate, strengthened by a prominent midrib and primary veins, and 
borne on stout petioles an inch or two long. They are five to eight inches long and two to three inches 
broad. The underside, as well as the petiole, winter-buds, and spathe, is coated with a thick dark rusty 
tomentum, varying greatly in length and density. The dehciously fragrant creamy white proterogynous 
flowers, seven or eight inches across when expanded, continue to open from April or May until July or 
August. The petaloid sepals and the six or sometimes nine or twelve petals are abruptly unguiculate, 
oval or ovate, those of the inner rank often somewhat acuminate, concave and coriaceous. They are 
three or four inches long, and one and a half to two inches broad. The base of the receptacle and lower 
part of the filaments are bright purple. The fruit is ovate or oval, rusty brown and pubescent, three 
to four inches long, and one and a half to two and a half inches broad. The seeds are nearly half an 
inch long, somewhat triangular, often flattened on the face opposite the raphe by mutual pressure. 

The northern station of Magnolia fcetida is on the coast of North Carolina soutli of the Cape 
Fear Eiver. In South Carolina and Georgia it is rarely found more than fifty or sixty miles from the 
coast; in Florida it extends across the peninsula as far south as Mosquito Inlet on the east coast and 
the shores of Tampa Bay ; it is common in the maritime portions of the GuLf states as far west as the 
valley of the Brazos Eiver in Texas, extending through western Louisiana to southern Arkansas, and 
appearing on the bluffs of the lower Mississippi Eiver as far north as the mouth of the Yazoo River in 
Mississippi.^ Magnolia fcetida flourishes in rich moist soils. Near the coast it is generally confined 
to the borders of river-swamps and pine-barren ponds ; in western Louisiana it is often the character- 
istic and most conspicuous feature of the forest ; and here, and on the rich high rolling hills of the 
Mississippi bluffs, this tree reaches its greatest development. It is usually found associated with the 

1 Magnolia Inglefieldi, the direct ancestor, perhaps, of M. fcetida, was common in the Arctic region during the Tertiary period. (Ileer, 
Fl. Foss. Arct. vii. 121, t. 69, f. 1, t. 85, f. 3, t. 8G, f. 9.) 


Swamp Chestnut Oak, tlie Water Oak, the Willow Oak, the Beech, the Horabeam, the Black Gum, the 
Water Gum, the Great Tupelo, and the Liquidamber. 

The wood of Magnolia faitida is harder, heavier, and more valuable than that of the other 
North American Magnolias. The thick sapwood generally consists of seventy to eighty layers of annual 
growth ; it is creamy white, soon turning light brown with exposure, and is not easily distinguished 
from the rather lighter heartwood. This when perfectly dry has a specific gravity of 0.G3G0, a cubic 
foot of the dry wood weighing 39.64 pounds. The wood of this tree is little used except for fuel, 
although well suited for the finer kinds of cabinet work and the interior finish of houses. 

It does not a-p^eav who first brought Magnolia fcetida to the attention of European botanists. 
The earliest account, that of Phikenet, was published in his AmaliJmim Botankum in 1705.^ It is 
not known wdio first introduced living plants into Europe ; a single specimen, said to have been brought 
from the banks of the Mississii^pi, w^as planted near Nantes in 1732 ; ^ and two years later, according to 
Aiton,^ it was cultivated in Sir John Colleton's garden at Exmouth in Devonshire. Magnolia feet Ida 
is the most splendid ornamental tree of the North American forests. It is now widely cultivated in the 
extreme southern states, and has become a strildng and beautiful feature in the gardens and streets of 
many southern cities. It is precariously hardy as far north as Philadelphia. It has been generally 
introduced into the gardens of temperate Europe and Asia, although in Great Britain often rec^niring 
the protection of a w^all to insure its blooming. 

Several varieties have appeared at different times in European nursery-gardens, especially in those 

of central and western France, where the propagation of the evergreen Magnolia has been an important 

industry since its first Introduction. These varieties differ principally in the form of the leaf and in the 

duration of the flowering period. The variety ExoniensiS;^ raised in England early in this century, with 

a rather fastigiate habit of gi-owth, oblong elliptical leaves densely clothed with tomentum on the lower 

surface, and somewhat contracted flowers, is considered in that country the most distinct, and, from its 

habit of flowering when only a few feet high, the most valuable for cultivation. The variety aagustl- 

folia, which aj^peared at Angers about 1825, is one of the most distinct and permanent of these seminal 

varieties.^ The variety proicox, another French variety, is distinguished by early and continuous 


1 Tidipifera arbor Floridana, lauri longe ampUoribus splendentihus a Merlet de la Eoulaye, Nouveau Dahamel, u. 220. 

ei densioribus foliis, fore majore albo, 206. a ^^^;_ j^^^^_ ;;_ o-^. 

Magnolia allissima, fiore ingenti candido, Catesty, Nat. Hist. Car. ^ Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 2G1. — Loddlges, Bot. Cab t 8U 

ii. t. 61._Duhame], Traite des Arbres, ii. 1, t. 1. 5 Another narrow-leaved form with curiously undulatlii^^ leaf- 

Magndia folus oblongis subtusferruglniis,Jlore amplissimo candido, margins, of unknown origin, is now found in the gardens of^north- 

haccis rubdUs, Trew, PL Elret. 8, t. 33. 35, f. 2. ern Italy under the name of '' Magnolia Hart.egas." 

Magnolia fohis lanceolatis persistentibus, caule erecto arhoreo, Miller, 
Did. Icon. ii. 115, t. 172. 


Plate I. Magnolia fcetida. 
A flowering branch, natural size. 

Plate II. Magnolia fcetida. 

1. A fruit, natural size. S A .„ i .i, i 

2. Diagram of the tlower. J;^t ^ , ■ ' '' '"'^"'^ '' ''^ '"^^ "■ 
o A fl „ 1 7 ■ „ , ' '^'^^S ttie stony interior portion, enlarged. 

6. A tlower, the calyx and coroUa removed, natural size. . 9. A seed tl... flp.i,,. ^..f p *i * . , , . , 

4. A stamen, enlarged. J , ' ^ ^''' "^ '^" *"'*" ''"^"''''^^ ^'^^^"'^^ ^'^« 

.,...'. V gi-ooved stony portion, enlarged. 

o. ^ ertKa sect.on of the gyncecium, natural size. 10. Cross section of a seed, enlarged 

b. An ovule, enlarged. 1 1 a , 

„ ,r ^. , ,. p , ^^- -^'1 embryo, much enlarged. 

i. V ertical section of a seed, enlarged. 12 a,,-,, t, , , , . 

^ -i-i. A winter-hud, natural size. 

Silva of North Ameri 

ca . 



C.AFaxoTi d^l. 

Ficartfr, sc. 


A.Fi^creiLv^ direxP 

Imp.RSa/ieiw, Paris . 

Silva of North America. 

Tab. II . 




C^E, Faxon del. 

Fioari^, j-c 



A. Riocpeux (£re^. 

Imp M .Tan^ur^Fartj' , 





Sweet Bay. Swamp Bay. 

Leaves subpersistent, pale on the lower surface. Fruit glabrous. Young shoots 

and winter-bucls pubescent. 

M. glauca, LinniEus, Spec. ed. 2, 755. — Miller, Diet. ed. 
8. — Marshall, Arhust. Am. 83. — Wangenlieim, Nordam. 
Holz. 60, t. 19, f . 46. — Walter, Fl. Car. 158. — Icon. 

Sett. Am. Gewach. t. 40. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 674 

Moench, Meth. 274. — Will den ow, Spec. ii. 1256.— 
Schkuhr, Handh. ii. 1441, t. 148. — Mit^haux, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. i. 327. — Nouveaii Duhamel, ii. 223, t. 66. — Des- 
fontaines, Rist. Arb. ii. 5. — Bonpland, Fl. Malm. 103, t. 
42. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 77, t. 2. — Pursh, 
FL Am. Sept. ii. 381. — Blgelow, Med. Bot. ii. 67, t. 27 ; 
Fl. Boston, ed. 3, 244. — Barton, Med. Bot. i. 77, t. 7.— 
Nuttall, Gen. ii. 18. — Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 215. — De 
Candolle, Syst. i. 452 ; Prodr. i. 80. — Hayne, Dendr. 
Fl. 116. — Elliott, ,S'/^. ii. 37. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 27, 
t. 5. — Audubon, Birds, 1. 118. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 82. — 
Rcichenbadi, Fl. Exot. v. 37, t. 342. — Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. Am. i. 42. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 308. — Spaeh, Hist. 
Vet/, vii. 473. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 267, t. — Emerson, 

. Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 603, t. — Gray, Gen. III. i. 61, t. 

23. — Schnizlein, Icon. 1. 176. — Darliuirton. Fl. Cestr. ed. 

3, 8. — Chapman, Fl. 13. — Curtis, Geolog. Snrv. iV. Car. 

1860, iii. 66.— Koch, Dendr. i. 369. — Sargent, Forest 

Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 19. — Lloyd, Drugs 

and Med. N. Am. ii. 25, t. 28, f. 115. — Watson & Coid- 

ter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 49. 
M. Virginiana, a. glauca, Linnreus, Spec. 535. 
M. fragrans, Salisbury, Prodr. 379. — Rafinesque, Fl. Ludo- 

vic. 91 ; 3fed. Bot. ii. 32. 
M. longifolia, Sweet, Jlorf. Brit. 11. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 

83. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 308. 
M. glauca, var. latifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii. 251. — 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 381. 
M. glauca, var. longifolia, Aiton, Hort. Keu\ ii. 251. — 

Pin-sh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. SSI. — Rafinesque. 7'7. X)(f?oWc. 

91. —Hayne, De7idr. Fl. 116. 
M. glauca, var. pumila, Ntittall, A^n. Jour. Sci. ser. 1, v. 295. 

A slender tree, fi% to seventy feet in height, with a trunk two to three, or, under exceptionally 
favorable conditions, three and a half feet in diameter ; often much smaller, and at the north reduced to 
a low shrub. The bark of the trunk on fully grown individuals is three eighths to half au inch thick, 
light brown in color, and covered with small thin appressed scales ; that on small trunks and large 
branches is smooth and hght gray. The bark of the slender hranchlets, during the fust year, is bright 
green, gradually turning during the second summer to reddish brown. The leaves are ohlong or oval, 
obtuse or sometimes oblong-lanceolate, four to six inches long and one and a half to two and a half inches 
broad, mth a conspicuous midrib and primary veins ; they are borne on slender petioles a half to three 
quarters of an inch long. The leaves are covered, when they first unfold, with long white silky hairs 
which soon disappear, and at maturity they are bright green and lustrous on the upper surface, which is 
then quite glabrous and minutely pubescent, pale or nearly white on the lower. They fall, in the north- 
ern states, late in November or in early winter, and at the south remain on the branches with little 
change of color until the appearance of the new leaves in spring. The creamy white fragrant globular 
flowers, two or three inches across when expanded, continue to open durmg several weeks in spring and 
early simmer. The sepals are membranaceous, obovate, obtuse, concave, and shorter than the nine to 
twelve obovate, often unguiculate, concave petals. The dark red fruit is oval, glabrous, two inches 
long and one and a half inches broad. The seed is a quarter to half an inch long. 

Magnolia glauca is found at its most northern limit in swamps in the town of Gloucester in Essex 
County, Massachusetts. It reappears in a swamp at the north end of Turtle Pond in Suffolk County, 
Long Island,^ and extends from New Jersey southward, generally near the coast, to the shores of Bay 
Bisclyne and of Tampa Bay, Florida. It is not found in the Alleghany-mountain region, hut abounds 
in the Gulf states, extending west to southwestern Arkansas and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas. 

1 G. M. Wilbur, Bull Ton, Bot. Clul, xii. 87. 


Magnolia glauca inhabits at the north, deep ^et swamps/ where it is associated with tlie Red Maple, 
the White Cedar, the High-bush Bhieberry, the Andromedas, tlie Red-berried Priuos, and the Poisonous 
Sumach ; in the south Atlantic and Gulf states it is found along the borders of pine-barren ponds and 
shallow swamps, where it forms,mth the Loblolly Bay and the Red Bay, low, almost impenetrable thick- 
ets, reaching its greatest development in the interior of the Florida peninsula on the rich hummocks or 

islands which rise above the level of the pine-lands. 

The wood of MarjnoJki glauca is soft and light. The color of the heartwood, which is found only 
in old specimens, is light brown tinged with red; the thick sapwood, consisting of ninety to a hundred 
layers of annual growth, is creamy white, turning darker with exposure. This has, when perfectly dry, 
a specific gravity of 0.5035, a cubic foot o£ the cb-y wood weiglnug 31.3S pounds. The wood of this 
tree is now occasionally used in the southern states in the manufacture of broom-handles and other 

articles of wooden ware. 

The earhest mention of Magnolia gkmca is of "the tree that beareth the rine of blacke Sinamon, 
of which Master "Winter brought from the streiglits of Magellan," which Philip Amadas and Arthur 
Barlowe found in 15S4 on an island in Pimlico Soiind.^ It was first cultivated in Europe by Bishop 
Compton,^ in his garden at Fulham, near London, who received it from John Banister"' in 16SS j and 
the earliest description is that of Plukenet.^ 

The value of Magnolia glauca as an ornamental plant was at once recognized; and it has always 
been a favorite in gardens where, at different times, several varieties have been distinguished. Magno- 
lia glauca longifolia, with lanceolate leaves and a blooming period which sometimes extends through 
two or three months, is the only one of these that has sur^-ived." Magnolia Thorir£)RO)uari(ij a probable 
hybrid between Magnolia glauca and Magnolia tripetala, raised early in this centiuy by a Mr. Thoni])- 
son of Mile End in England, has been preserved in gardens, where it is esteemed for its handsome 
foliage and large and deliciously fragrant flowers.^ 

Magnolia glauca thrives in rich and rather moist soil, and is found to grow more rapidly and 
vigorously when grafted on Magnolia aci-iminata than it does on its own roots. 

1 Magnolia glauca, as the fleshy roots were eaten by heavers, 39, t. 39. — Duhame], Tralte des Arhres, ii. 3.— Trcw, PI. Ehrei. 
ivas known to the early settlers in Pennsyh-ania as Beaver-tree ; 2, t. 9, — Dillenuis, Hort. EUh. 207, t. IGS, f. 205. 

and beavers, according to Kalni, were caught in traps baited with Magnolia foliis ovato-lanceolatis, Linnieus, Tlort. Cliff. 222. 

pieces of the root. (Travels into North America, English ed. i. 20i.) Clayton, Fl. Virgin. CI. 

2 First voyage to the coast of Virginia. (Ilakluyt, Vot/ages, ed. e This variety does not apprar to he kno^^-n in a wild state, and 
Evans, iii. 302.) ^ itg origin is uncertain. It is, perhaps, the Magnolia longifolia of 

3 Henry Compton (1G32-38), bishop of London, first cultivated ' Sweet and of Don {l c), but as the cultivated plant thrives in 
in England many North American plants. . New England it can hardly be, as they supposed, a native of Cai-o- 

' John Banister, a missionary to Virginia, wliere he died about lina and Georgia ; its garden origin seems more probable. 
1692 ; author of the first catalogue of North American plants (pub- ' Bot. Mag. t. 21G4.- Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 2G7. — Jaunie St. 

lished in Eay, Hist. PI. il. 1928). His herbarium is preserved in Hilaire, Flore et Pomone, v. t. 451.- Reiehenbach, Fl. Exot. v. t. 

the British Museum. 34... _ Sertum Bolani^um, v. t. - Garden and Forest, i. 2GS, f. 43. 

s Tulipifera Virgimana, Laurinis foliis, aversa parte rore ca^ruleo ^ A second supposed hybrid between these species, described by 

ttnctis, Coni-haccifera, Hnkeuet, Aim. Bot. 379, t. 68, f. 4. London (I. c.) as Magnolia glauca longifolia, has now probably dis- 

Magnolm laun folio suhtus albicante, Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car. i. appeared. 


Plate III. Magxolia glauca. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 6. A seed, the floshy part of the testa removed, showing the 

2. A frmt, natural size. g,,,^,^ ,t,^^, ^^^^j^^_ ^_^^^^^^^^_ 

3. -^ertical section of a carpel, enlarged. 7. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 
. s amen, en arge . g_ ^^ embryo, much enlarged. 

5. \ ertical section of a seed, enlarged. 0. a winter-bud, natural size. 

Silva of North A 


Tab. Ill ■ 


CB, Fawn.. del' ^ 

Picurt/fi sc. - 


A.Rwcre^i^ di^eff^- 





Cucumber Tree. Mountain Magnolia. 

Leaves deciduous, ovate or subcordate. 
ter-buds densely pubescent. 

Magnolia acuminata, Linnaeus, Sj^ec. ed. 2, 756. — Miller, 
Diet. ed. 8. — Marshall, Arhust. Am. 83. — Walter, Fl. 
Car. 159. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 674. — Willdenow, S^jec. 
ii. 1257. — Miehaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 328. — Nouveau Dit- 
liamel, ii. 222. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 5. — Mi- 
ehaux f. Hist. Arb. Am,, iii. 82, t. 3. — PursJi, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii. 381. — De Candolle, Sijst. i. 453 ; Frodr. i. 80. -— 
Loddlges, Bot. Cab. t. 418. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 18. —^o^. 
Maff. t. 2427. — Hayne, Hendr. Fl. 117. — EiHott, Sk. 
ii. 37. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Ahbild. Holz. 18, t. 
17. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 28. — Sertum Botamcimi,v. t. — 
Don, Gen. S^/st. i. 83. — Reichenbach, FL Exot. iv. t. 

Fruit glabrous. Young shoots and win^ 

.251. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 273, t. — Jaume St. Hilaire, 
Flore et Fomone, v. t. 450. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. ^\ Am. 
i. 43. — Dietrich, Sijn. iii. 308. — Darlington, Fl. Cestr. 
ed. 3, 9. — Chapmau, FL 14. — Curtis, Geolog. Surv. if. 
Car. 1860, iii. 67. — Baillon, Hist. FL I 140. — Koch, 
Dendr. i. 371. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Avi. Vdth Cen- 
sus U. S. ix. 20. — Lloyd, Dniffs and Med. JS'. Am. ii. 
29, t. 29, f. 116, 117. — Watson & Coulter, Grab's Ma7i. 
ed. 6, 49. 

M. Virginiana, e. acuminata, Linnreus, <S^)ec. 536. 
M. De CandoUii, Savi, BibL ItaL i. 224, t. 
Tulipastrum Americanum, Spac-h, Hist. Veg. vii. 483. 

A tall slender tree, attaining in its native forests a height of sixty to ninety feet, with a trunk tln-ee 
or four feet in diameterj or, "wliere it finds sufficient room for the development of its lower brunches, 
assuming a broadly pyramidal habit. Tlie bark of the trunk is a third to half an inch tliick, furrowed, 
dark brown, the surface broken into numerous thin scales ; that of the slender young branches is bright 
red-brown, turning gray during their third season. The leaves are membranaceous, oblong, pointed, 
sometimes rounded or slightly cordate at the base, strengthened by a prominent midrib and primary 
veins, and borne on slender petioles an inch or an inch and a half long. They are seven to ten inches 
long and four to six inches broad, and are coated, when they first appear, with white silky hairs which 
are longest and most abundant on the lower surface. These soon disappear, and at maturity the leaves 
are glabrous on the upper and slightly pubescent on the lower surface. The bell-shaped glaucous green 
or pale yellow flowers appear from April to June. The sepals are membranaceous, acute, an inch or an 
inch and a half long, and soon reflexed. The six petals are obovate, concave, pointed, two and a half 
to three and a half inches long ; those of the outer row rarely more than an inch broad ; those of the 
inner row narrower and often acuminate. The fruit is ovate or oblong, often curved, dark red, two and 
a half to three inches long, and rarely more than an inch broad. 

Magnolia acuminata first appears at the north in western New York ; it extends westward through 
southern Ontario to southern Illinois, and southward on the Appalachian ranges to southern Alabama ^ 
and northeastern Mississippi.^ It occurs sparingly in central Kentucky and Tennessee, and reappears 
w^est of the Mississippi River in northeastern and in southern and southwestern Arkansas. 

Magnolia acuminata is rare at the north, and is nowhere sufficiently coimnon to be a characteristic 
feature of the forest. It flourishes on the lower slopes of mountains, on the rocky banks of streams, 
and in narrow valleys, reaching Its greatest size and abundance In those about the base of the high moun- 
tains of Carolina and Tennessee. Its usual companions in the forest, the Tulip Poplar, the "White Oak, 
the White Ash, the Hickories, and the Sugar Maple, indicate the presence of the generous soil and 
humid climate essential to Its multi2)lication and best development. 

The wood of Magnolia acuminata is light, soft, satiny, not strong, but close-grained and durable. 
It is fio-ht yellow-brown in color, and has, when perfectly dry, a specific gravity of 0.4690, a cubic foot 

1 Stockton, C. Mohr. ^ JMeridiaii, C. Molir. 




of the dry wood weighing 29.23 pounds. The thin sapwood, consisting- usually of twenty-five to thirty 
layers of annual growth, is Ughter colored, often nearly white. The rarity of the Cucumber-tree de- 
prives the wood of commercial importance; the trunks, however, were formerly cut for water-pipes and 
troughs, and are occasionally manufactured into lumber used for flooring and in cabinet-making, for 

which it is well suited. 

Magnolia acuminata was first made known in 1736 by John Clayton.^ A few years later John 
Bartram^ sent i)lants to Peter Colhnson,' in whose gardens and in those of Lord PetreMt was first cnlti-- 
vated in Europe. The earliest description is that of Cateshy.^ 

Magnolia acuminata is now often planted in the United States, and in northern and central 
Europe. Its habit of retaining its lower branches when it is allowed sufficient room for their develop- 
ment, its rapid growth and handsome fohage and flowers, make it a desirable ornament for the lawn ; its 
pyramidal habit and lofty stem, for the formal plantations of the highway. It has been found that the 
Magnolias of eastern Asia with precocious flowers, their hybrids, and Magnolia ylauca, grow more rap- 
idly and make larger and more vigorous plants when they are grafted on Magnolia acuminata than 
they do when grown on their own rootsj and it is now often used for this purpose in American nurseries. 

Magnolia cordata,^ a variety of this species, has been cultivated in gardens for nearly a century. 
It is distinguished by its broader, darker green, and more persistent leaves, sometimes cordate at the 
base, and by its smaller bright canary-yellow flowers.'^ This tree Avas probably introduced into Europe 
by the elder Michaux, but the exact counterpart of the cultivated plant is not known in a wild state.* 
Forms approaching it in the shape and texture of the leaves, and in the size and color of the flowers, are 
occasionally found, however, on the Blue Ridge in Carohna and in central Alabama.^ 

1 John Clayton (1CS6-1773) ; born at Fulliam in England. He 
emigrated to Virginia in 1705, and is best known by the Flora Vir- 
ginica pnblislied in 1739 at Leyden by Gronoviiis, from specimens 
and descriptions furnished by Clayton. 

2 John Bartram (1099-1777) ; the first botanist born in ^^^'ortli 
America, and the founder of the first botanical garden on the con- 
tinent. Bartram traveled extensively through the eastern part of 
the conntry ; he was in active correspondence with the principal 
botanists in Europe, and discovered and introduced many American 
plants into gardens. 

3 Peter Collinson (1G91^1768) ; a Friend and London woolen- 
draper, ill whose gardens, first at Peekliam and then at Jlill Hill, 
many American trees were cultivated in Europe for the first time. 

* Robert James, eighth Lord Petre (1713-1742) ; an enthnsias- 
tic lover of plants, whose gardens at Thorndon Hall in Essex are 
thought to have been the finest in England in their day. His early 
death was described by Collinson as "the greatest loss that botany 
or gardening ever felt in this island." 

5 Magnolia Jlore alho, folio majore acumlnalo laud albicante, Nat. 
Hist. Car. ii. Appx. 15, t. 15. ~ Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 61. 

Magnolia foliisovato-lanceolatis, lAmii&Ms, Hort. Cliff.22% 

« Magnolia acuminata, var. cordata, Sargent, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 
3, xxsii. 473. 

M. cordata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 328. — -Poiret, Lam. Diet. 
Suppl. iii. 574. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii. 87, t. 4. — Pursli, 
Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 382. — Lindley, Bol. Reg. iv. t, 3li5, — Xuttall, 
Gen. ii. 18. — De Candolle, Sgst. i. 455; Prodr. I 80. — Hayne, 
De>idr. Fl. 118. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 38. — Loddlges, Bot. Cab. t. 474. — 
SeHum Botanicum, v. t. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 83. — Reichenbacii, Fl. 
Exot. iv. t. 250. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 275, t. — Janme St. ililaire, 
Flore et Pomone, v. t. 452. — Xorrey & Gray, Fl. N. A m. i. 43. — 
Chapman, Fl. 14. — Curtis, Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 18G0, iii. 08.— 
Koch, Dendr. i. 371.— Lloyd, Drugs and Med. iV. Am. ii. 37. 

Tulipastrum Americanum, var. suhcordatum, Spach, Hlsl. Veg. vii. 

' Michaux's specimen upon which Richard founded his .1/. cor- 
data, preserved in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris repre- 
sents a common form of M. acuminata. 

8 According to Alton {Tlort. Kew. ed. 2, iii. 331), M. cordata was 
introduced into England in 1801 by John Fraser, a ticoLchniau who 
traveled in North America between 1780 aiul ISIO, and sent many 
American plants to Europe (Comp. Bot. Mag. ii. 300). 

^ Our figure is made from specimens taken from one of the two 
trees in the botanic garden of Harvard University, whicli wore im- 
ported from Europe, probably not long after the garden was estab- 
lished in 1805. 




Plate IV. Magnolia acuminata. 
.' A flowering branchj natural size. 

Plate V, Magnolia actjmixata. 

1. A fruiting branchy natural size, 

2. A flower^ the calyx antl corolla removedj natural size. 

3. Vertical section of the gynosciumj enlarged. 

4. A stamcnj enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

6. A seed, the base of the pulpy portion of the testa removed, showing the stony Interior portion, enlarged 

7. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. A seed, the fleshy part of the testa removed, showing the grooved stony portion, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, much enlarged. 
10. A winter-bud, natural size. 

Plate VL Magxolia acuminata, var- cordata. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a carpel, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, enlarged. 
6. A seed, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, much enlarged. 

8. A wlnter-budj natural size. 

Silva of Nortli America. 

Ta"b. iV. 

CE^Fa^Ton^ del. 

Picar^Jr^ SC^ 


^.Ri^crenj^ y^yvj-: 


Jmf;. R.Tanftir, Pane. 

Silva of Morth Amen 

ca . 

Tab. V, 


a ' 




C.KFcuMn del. 

Ficartfr. sc- 


A.Siocreaa^ dire^^ 

Imp^ILTiUUun Paris, 


Silva of North America, 

Tab. VI. 

GS.I^ax^rL deZ, 

Fi-cartjT. sc . 


A.Jii^creiiT direx. 


Iny?^ R.Ta/i^ar, Far is 





Large Leaved Cucumber Tree. 

Leaves deciduous, obovate or oblong, cordate at the narrow base. Pistils woolly. 
Fruit and young shoots pubescent. AYinter-buds covered with thick silky white hairs. 

Magnolia macrophylla, Michaus, Fl Bor.-Am. 1. 327. — 
Nouveau DuJiamel, i\. 221. — Desfontaines, Hist. Art. \i. 
5. — Miehanx i. Hist. Arh. Avi. iii. 99, t. 7. — Bonpland, 
PL Malm. 84, t. 33. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 381.— 
Nuttall, Gen. n. 18; Sylva, I 83. — De Candolle, Sijst. i. 
454 ; Prodr. i. 80. — Bot. Mag. t. 2189. — Hayiie, Dendr. 
Fl. 117. — Elliott, Sic. ii. 40. — Kafinesqae, Med. Bot. ii. 
31, t. 62. — SeHum Botanicum, v. t. — Don, Gen. Sj/st. i. 

83. — Eeicheiibaeh, Fl. Exot. 44, 1. 139. — Loudon, .4 rZ<. 
Brit. i. 271, t. — Torrcy & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 43. — 
Dietrich, Sijn. iii. 308. — Spach. Hist. Veff. vii. 479. — 
GrilHth, Med. Bot. 98, f. 57. — Chiipinan, Fl. 14. — Cur- 
tis, Geoloff. Surv. iV. Car. ISGO, iii. 67. — Koch, Dendr. i. 
374. — Sargent, Forest Trees N.Am. lOlk Census U. S. 
ix. 21. — Lloyd, Drugs and Med. N. Am. ii. 38, t. 30. — 
"Watson & Coulter, Grcujs Man. cd. G, 119. 

A spreading tree, thirty to fifty feet high, with a straight trunk -^vliieh sometimes attains, micler 
favorable conditions, a diameter of eighteen or twenty inches. The bark of the trunk on old trees is 
thin, generally less than a quarter of an inch thick, the surface divided Into minute scales, smooth and 
light gray in color. The bark of the stout brittle branchlets is green, turning reddish brown during 
the second; and becoming gray during the third season. The leaves are membranaceous, obovate or 
oblong, narrowed and cordate at the base, strengthened by a prominent midrib and primary veins, and 
borne on stout petioles three or four inches long. They are often twenty to thirty inches long or more, 
and nine or ten inches broad, and are bright green and glabrous on the upper surface, silvery gray and 
slightly pubescent, especially along the midrib, on the lower surface. The great creamy white cup- 
shaped fragrant flowers, ten or twelve inches across when expanded, appear In May and June. The 
sepals are membranaceous, ovate or oblong, rounded at the end, five to six Inches long, and much nar- 
rower than the six ovate concave petals which are six or seven inches long and three or four Inches 
broad, those of the inner row being narrower and often somewhat acuminate. They are thick, creamy 
white, marked on the interior surface near the base with a small rose-colored spot, and at maturity are 
reflexed above the middle. The fruit is broadly ovate, or often nearly round, two and a half or three 
inches long, and when fully ripe bright rose-colored. The seeds are two thirds of an Inch long, often 
flattened on the face opposite the raphe. 

Magnolia macrophylla Is found in the region about the base of the southern Alleghany Moun- 
tains, from North Carolina and southeastern Kentucky to middle and western Florida and southern 
Alabama ; it extends through northern Mississippi to the valley of the Pearl River in Louisiana ; and 
west of the Mississippi Elver it occurs in central Arkansas in Garland, Montgomery, Hot Springs, and 
Sebastian comities. 

Magnolia 'macropliylla inhabits sheltered valleys In deep rich soil, protected from the wind by the 
forest of Swamp Chestnut Oaks, Gum-trees, Hickories, and Dogwoods, which are usually associated witli 
it. It is nowhere a common tree, growdng generally m isolated groups of a few individuals. In the 
Atlantic states it has been found in a few mdely separated regions only ; west of the mountains it is 
more abundant, reaching Its best development in the limestone valleys of northern Alabama, 

The wood of Magnolia macrophylla is hard and close-grained, but hght and not strong. It is 
light brown in color, and has, when perfectly dry, a specific gravity of 0.5309, a cubic foot of the ury 
wood weighing 33.09 pounds. The thick sapwood, consisting of about forty layers of annual growth, 
is light yellow. 


SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. jiagnoliace.t^. 

Magnolia macrophylla was discovered by the elder Michaux in June, 17S9, near Charlotte, North 
Carolina.' It was introduced into European gardens in 1800 ; but it has never become widely distrib- 
nted in them or in those of the United States, although few trees equal it in beauty. The flowers and 
the leaves are the largest of any species of the genus, and they are larger and more conspicuous than 
those produced by any other tree of the North American forests. Magnolia macrophylla is hardy as 
far north as eastern Massachusetts. It requires no special care in cultivation, and young plants begin 
to flower when they are only a few years old. 

1 Michaux, Jour, in Proc. Am. PMLSoc. xxvi. 53,61. In his Flora MIchaus makes no reference to the Carolimi station, and Magnolia 
macrophylla is credited to the region west of tiic mountains. 


Plate VII. Magxolia maceophvlla. 

A flowering branch, natural size. 

Plait: VIIL Magnolia mackophylla. 

1. A fruit, natural size- 

2- Vertical section of the gynceciuuij enlarged. 

3. A stameUj enlarged. 

4. A seed, the base of the pulpy portion of the testa removed, showing the stony interior portion^ enlarged 

5. A seed, the fleshy part of the testa removed, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, much enlarged, 

9- A winter-bud, natural size, the outer scale expanded. 
10- Cross section of a winter-bud, enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 

Ta"b. VIL 

Pkartjr. sc, 

CB.FawTi del. 



A.Iiiccreux direx^^ 


Imp.R.Taneur, Paris. 

Silva of Nortli America, 

Tab_ VII! 



' Cfi^axon-^ d^ 'y 


Fwaitfi-. sc. 


A.Rwcreur. direx- 

t ■ 

Imp.R. Tanear. Tarts 





Umbrella Tree. Elk Wood. 

Leaves oboyate-lanccolate. 

Fruit and -winter-buds glabrous. 

Magnolia tripetala, Linnffius, Spec. ed. 2, 756. — Miller, 
Dtc(!. ed. 8. — Jlai-shall, Arhust. Am. 84 — Walter, Fl. 
Car. 159. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 1258.— Michaux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. i. 327. — Desfontalnes, JfLSt. ^r5. ii. 5. — Mi- 
. cbaux i. Hist. Arh. Am. iil. 90, t. 5. — Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii. 381. — Nuttall, Gen. Ii. 18. ~ Guimpel, Otto & 
Haync, Ahbild. Holz. 20, t. 18.— Hayne, Dendr. Fl 
116. — P:mott, 8h. ii. 38. — Loudon, Arh. Brit i. 269, t. — 
Jaume St. Illlaire, Flore et Fomone, v. t. 449.— Kochj 

Dendr. i. 370. 
M. Virginianaj S. tripetala, LinnKus, Spec. 536. 

M. Umbrella, Lamarck, Diet. iii. 673. — H^ouvcnu Duha- 
mel, ii. 221. — De Candollc, Sijst. i. 452 ; Frodr. i. SO. — 
Loiseleur, Herh. Amat. iii. t. 108. ^ Don, Gen. Si/st. i. 
83. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. iV. Am. i. 43. — Dietrich, S'J7U 
iii. 308. — Spaeh, /r;si. Veg. vil. 475. — Gray, Gen. III. 
i. 62, t. 24; Jour. Linn. Soc. ii. 106, f. 1-18. — Cliapman, 
Fl. 13. — Curtis, Geolof/. Snrv. N. Car. 1860, iH. 67.— 
Salient, Forest Trees iV. Am. IQtfi Census U. S. ix. 21. — 
"Watson & Coulter, Grays Ilan. cd. 6, 49. 

M. frondosa, Salisbury, Prodr. 379. 

A small tree, thirty to forty feet liig-li, witli a straight or often inclining trunk rarely more than 
eighteen inches in diameter, generally much smaller, and sometimes surrounded by several stems spring- 
in- from its base and grooving into a large bush surmounted by the head of the principal trunh. The 
branches are often developed irregularly ; they are contorted, or are ^-ide-spreading nearly at right 
auo-les with the stem, or turn up towards the extremities and then grow parallel with it. The bark on old 
trunks and branches Is half an inch thick, light gray, smooth, and marked with numerous small blister- 
like excrescences ; that of the stout brittle branches is green during the first year, turnmg brown durmg 
the second, and gray during the third season. The large ^nter-buds are purple and covered a 
o-laucous bloom. The leaves are membranaceous, bright green, oh ovate-lanceolate, pomted at both ends, 
and covered on the lower surface, when they first appear, with a thick silky tomentum. They are quite 
glabrous at maturity, and are then eighteen or twenty inches long and eight or ten inches broad, with a 
short stout petiole an inch and a half long, and a prominent midrib. The creamy white flowers, four or 
five inches deep, appear during the month of May and exhale a strong disagreeable odor. The sepals 
are narrowly obovate, five or six inches long, one and a half inches broad, thin, light green, and reflexed. 
The six or nine petals are concave, coriaceous, ovate-unguiculate ; those of the outer row are four 
or five inches long and sometimes two inches broad, those of the inner rows bemg shorter and much 
narrower. The filaments are bright purple. The fruit is ovate, two and a half to four mches long, 

and bright rose-colored when fully ripe. ^ . 

mgnoUa tripetala is.4dely distributed in all the Alleghany-mounta.n region from -"«- " J-- 
syWani/to central Alabama, extending in the south Atlantic states neariy to the coast, and .-^ of th 
mountains to middle Kentucky and Tennessee and northeastern,pp>, roappeanng beyond the 

Mississippi in central and -^'l™-'-" ^^^^^^^^.^ „.^^„ „ „„, ;„ jeep and rather moist rich 
Jia(/«o/M iripci-rfa IS nowhere common. It gro^ s naturaiiy o y i 

soil. Itlcnpies L banhs of mountain streams, sp^ging from _ o ^ ^-J^^^^^^-^. 
is found on the margins of the great swamps which extend along the rneis 

it is shaded by forests of the Swamp Chestnut Oak, the Scarlet Maple, and «- ^j" f^^'^^ -;;' 
reaches its greatest size in the valleys which extend from the western slopes of the Great Smoky Moun 

"^^^17 M.,n^ia tHp^aJa is light, soft, close-grained, but not strong. The heartwood is 

U SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. magnoliace.e. 

brown and has, Avlien perfectly dry, a specific gra^^ty of 0.4487, a cubic foot of the dry wood weigli- 
ing 27.96 pounds. The rather heavier sapwood, consisting- of thirty-five to forty layers of annual 
growth, is creamy white. 

Magnolia tripetala was first described by Catesby in his Natural History of Carolina, published 
in 1743,^ and was introduced into the gardens of Europe as early as 1752.^ The arrangement of the 
leaves at the end of the brancheSj resembfing somewhat that o£ the ribs of an umbrelhij led the early 
settlers in Virginia and Carolina to call tliis Magnolia the Parasol-treCj or Umbrella-tree ; ^ and the 
specific name, Umhrdla, was given to it by Lamarck, who discarded the older Linnjean name referring 
to the three conspicuous rellexed petaloid sepals. Such a changej in spite of the technical inaccuracy 
o£ the name, is contrary to the modern ideas of botanical nomenclature, however, and the Linnjean 
tripetala is now generally adopted. The hardiness of the Umbrella-tree, its ample foliage, large flowers, 
and brilliant and conspicuous fruit, have made it a favorite in gardens and parks, in spite of its small 
size and sprawling habit ; and it is one of the most commonly cultivated of the American Magnohas in 
the northern United States, and in northern and central Europe. It is often used in American nurse- 
ries as stock upon which to propagate the less vigorous species. It grows in culti\ation with rapidity 
and vigor, and is hardy as far north as New England. 

1 Magnolia ampUssimo Jiore albo,fruclu cocdneo, ii. SO, t. 80. Magnolia foliis ovato-ohhngis, ad basin et apicem angustis, utrinque 

Magnolia Jlore mazimo albo fcetido, foliis dedduis ampHs,fiorem ad virentibus, PL EJtrh. 30, t. 62, 03. 
ramulorum seriem sph(cnce dngentihus, fruciu majori, Clayton, Fl. ^ iiiton, liort. Kew. ii. 252. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 2G9. 

Virgin. CI. a CatesLy, l. c. 


Plate IX. Magnolia tkipetala. 

A flowering branch, natural size. 


Plate X. Magnolia tripetala. 

1. A fruit, natural size. 

2. A floiver, the calyx and corolla removed, natural size. 

3. A stamen, posterior -view, enlarged. 

4. A stamen, anterior view, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of the gjmcEeium, enlarged. 
0. A carpel laid open, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

9. A seed, the fleshy part of the testa removed, showing the grooved stony portion, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much enlarged, 

11. A \ymter-bud^ the outer scale removed^ natural size. 


Silva of North America. 

Tat. IX. 

C.B^Fao'^n dsl. 

Fu^ircjr. 3C 


A.JfJtJcr£u.u dlrex. 


Imp.RSanear, Paris. 

Silva of North. America- 

Tat. X, 


C.£.Fa:wn_ d^tl. 

Ficar^Jr. se. 


-4- J^creicz' i/iTF^r . 

Jmp.M-TarieiiP, Farls. 






Mountain Magnolia, Long Leaved Cucumber Tree, 

Leaves obovatc-spatulatc, auriculate at the base. Point of the carpel of fruit 

long and recux^ved. 

Magnolia Fraseri, "Walter, FL Car, 159, t. — Torrey & 
Gray, FL N. Am, i, 43. ^ Dietrich, Syn. iii. 308, — 
Chapmaiij FL 14, — Curtis, Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, 
iii. 68. — Koch, J)endr,\, 372, — Sargent, Forest Trees 
JST. Am, 10th Census U, S, ix. 22. — -Watson & Coulter^ 
Grai/s Man, ed, 6, 50. 

M. auricnlata, Lamarck, DicL iii, 673, — Bartram, Trav, 
339, ■^— "Willdenowj S'peo, ii, 1258, — Michaux, FL Bor- 
Atn, i- 328, — Nouveait DiiJutmel^ ii. 222. — Desfontainesj 
Hist, Arh- ]i, 5, — IMicliaux f, IlisL Arh, Am. iii, 94^ t. 
6, — Andrews, Bot, Hep. ix. t, 573. — - Bot. Mag. t, 
1200. — Cuhicrcs, Mem. Magn. t, — Piirsh, FL Am. Sept, 
ii- 382, — ^^lttal], Gen, i\, 18, -De Candolle, Syst, i- 

454; Prodr, I 80. — Hajiie, Dendr, 7^^. 117- — ElUott, 
Sk, ii, 39.— Rafiiiesque, Med. Bot, ii, 32. — Audubon, 
Birds, t. 38. — Don, Gen, Syst I 83. -^ Spaeli, Hist. Veg. 
vii, 477. — Loudouj Arh, Brit, i. 276, t, — Jaumo St. Ili- 
laire, Flore et Pomoney v- t. 453. 

M, pyramidata, Pursh, FL Am, Sept, ii. 382, — De Can- 
dolle, SijsL i. 454; Prod^r. i, 80. — Ilayne, Deyndr. FL 
117. — Lindley, BoL Reg, x, t. 407, — Loddiges, Bot, Cab- 
t 1092,— Bafinesque, Med, BoL ii. 33, — Don, Geti, 
SgsL I 83, — Loudon, Arb. Brit. I 277, t, — Scringe, FL 
Jard, iii, 230- 

M, auricularis, Salisbury, Parad, Loud, i. t, 43, — Kerncr, 
Sort, t 360, 

A treBj thirty to forty feet higlij -with a straight or inclining trunk twelve or eighteen inches in 
diameter, often undivided for half its length or separated at the ground into a number of stout shruh- 
like diverging steins. Tlie branches are regular and wide-spreading, or they are contorted or turned 
up towards the extremity. The bark o£ the trunk rarely exceeds a third o£ an inch in thickness ; it is 
dark brown, smooth, covered with small excrescences, or on old individuals broken into minute scales. 
The bark of the stout brittle branchlets is bright red-brown, turning gray during their third season, and 
marked with numerous small white dots. The large winter-buds are purple. The leaves are membra- 
naceous, obovate-spatulate, pointed, cordate and conspicuously auriculate at the base, and borne on 
slender petioles three or four inches long. They are bright green, often marked on the upper surface, 
when young, with red along the principal veins, glabrous, ten or twelve niches long and six or seven 
inches broad, or, on vigorous young plants, sometimes twice that size. The creamy white sweetly 
scented flowers, eight or nine inches across when expanded, appear in May or June. The sepals, which 
fall almost immediately after the opening of the bud, are narrowly obovate, rounded at the extremity, 
four or five inches long, and shorter than the six or nine obovate acuminate membranaceous spreading 
petals, which are contracted below the middle, those of the inner rows being narrower and conspicu- 
ously unguiculate. The fruit is oblong, four or five inches in length, one and a half to two inches 
broad, bright rose-red when fully ripe, and distinguished by the long persistent subulate points crown- 
ing the carpels, which are bright yellow on the inner surface. 

Magnolia Fraseri is the least widely distributed of the American MagnoHas. The northern limit 
of its range is in the mountains of southwestern Virginia ; it extends southward to the valley of the Chat- 
tahoochee River in western Florida, and to southern Alabama, and westward through east Tennessee 
and northern Mississippi to the valley of the Pearl River. It grows in great abundance on the lower 
slopes of the high Alleghany Mountains, and of the Blue Ridge in North and South Carolina at an 
elevation of two to three thousand feet above the sea-level; while at lower elevations and remote from 
the mountains it is found only occasionally in isolated situations. Its real home is in the valleys of the 
mountain streams which flow from the Blue Ridge to form the principal tributaries of the Savannah, 
and from the slopes of the Black and the Big Smoky Mountains. It is a conspicuous feature in these 



valleys, growing witli Black Oaks and White Oaks, Hickories, the Black Birch, the Buckeye, the Sorrel- 
tree, the Cucumber-tree, and the Yellow Poplar. 

The wood of Magnolia Fraserl is light, soft, close-grained, but not strong. The thick creamy 
white sapwood, consisting of thirty to forty layers of annual growth, has, when perfectly dry, a specific 
gravity of 0.5003, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 31.18 pounds. The heartwood, which appears 
in large specimens only, is hght brown. 

Magnolia Fraseri was discovered by ^yimam Bartram^ in May, 177G, on the headwaters of the 
Keowee in South Carolina. It was introduced by Bartram into England ten years later, and was sent 
by the elder Michaux^ to France in 1789. The oldest specific name bestowed upon this tree commemo- 
rates the services of John Eraser, who shares with Bartram the honor of having Introduced it into 

Magnolia Fraseri is rarely found in cultivation. It Is not generally a robust or vigorous plant 
when removed from the humid climate and rich soil in which It naturally grows, and it Is less easily 
propagated than the other American MagnoHas. In New England it is only precariously hardy. 

' William Bartram (1739-1823), a son of John Bartram, and the els through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and We.t Flor 
first hotauist to explore the high Alleghany Monntains. in which he ida, the Cherokee country, etc., puhhshed i,i Philadelphia in 1791 
made many interesting discoveries. He is remembered by his Trav- = Michaux, Jour, in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxvi. 4G. 


Plate XI. Magxolia Fraseri. 
A flowering branch, natural size. 

Plate XII. IUgjtolia Fraseri. 

1. A fruit, natural size. 


2. A flower, the calyx and corolla removed, natural size- 

3. Vertical section of the same^ enlarged. 

4. A stamen, posterior view, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, anterior view, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a carpel, enlarged- 

7. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged, 

8. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

0. A seed the fleshy p.. of the testa removed, showing the grooved stony portion, enlarged. 

11. All embryo, much enlarged. 

12. A winter-bud, natural size. 



Silva of North America. 

Tab. XI. 

C.RFaxon del. 




A^Ricareus:- direa^f 


Silva of Nortli America 

Ta-b. XII 

C-B-Fa:wn del. 

Twart fr sc . 


AJiwcreuj: direr. 

Irr^.KFarmir. Paris. 





Flower-bud inclosed in a two-valved stipular caducous spathe. Flowers perfect, 
solitary, terminal ; sepals 3 ; petals 6, in two rows ; anthers extrorse ; piatils indefinite, 
imbricated. Carpels samarseform, indeliiscent, deciduous from the receptacle at ma- 

Liriodendron, Linnasus, Gen. Suppl. 9. — A. L. de Jussleu, 
Gen. 281. — EncUichor, Gen. 83S. — Meisner, Gen. 3. ~ 

Gray, Gen. III. \. 63, t. 25. — Bentliam & Hooker, Gen. \. 
19. — BaiUoii, Hkt. PL i. 188. 
Tulipifera, Adanson, Fam. PL ii. 365. 

A tree, with fleshy roots, deeply furrowed brown bitter hark, and branchlets marked by round leaf- 
scars and narrow stipular rings. Buds compressed, obtuse, their scales membranaceous stipules joined 
at the edges, tardily deciduous ' after the unfolding of the leaf, which is recurved in vernation by the 
bending down of the petiole near the middle, bringing the apex of the eonduphcate blade to the base of 
the bud.^ Leaves alternate, smooth, long-petioled, feather-veined, sinuatoly four-lobed, heart-shaped, 
truncate or slightly wedge-shaped at the base, the extremity truncate by a broad shallow sinus minutely 
apiculate.^ Flowers pedunculate, cup-shaped, conspicuous ; spathe membranaceous. Sepals imbricated 
in the bud, spreading or reflexed, ovate-lanceolate, concave, greenish white, early-deciduous. Petals 
imbricated in the bud, hypogynous, erect, broadly ovate, rounded at the extremity, light green, reticu- 
late-veined, marked with orange at the base, deciduous. Stamens indefinite, imbricated in many ranks 
upon the base of the receptacle, two thirds the length of the petals, deciduous ; filaments filiform, half 
the length of the elongated linear two-celled anthers adnate to the outer face o£ the connective, the con- 
tiguous cells opening longitudinally. Pistils densely imbricated on the elongated sessile receptacle into 
a spindle-shaped column j ovary inserted by a broad face, one-celled; style narrowly acuminate, laterally 
flattened, appressed ; stigma short, unilateral, recurved at the summit ; ovules two, collateral, suspended 
from near the middle of the ventral suture, anatropous. Fruit a narrow light brown cone formed of 
the closely imbricated carpels, which fall when ripe from the slender elongated axis persistent during 
winter.* Carpels dry and woody, indehiscent, consisting of a laterally compressed four-ribbed pericarp, 
the lateral ribs confluent into the margins of the large wing-like lanceolate compressed style marked 
vertically with a thin sutural Kne. Seeds suspended, two, or single by abortion ; testa thin, dry, coria- 
ceous, and marked with the narrow prominent raphe. Embryo minute, at the base of the fleshy albu- 
men, its radicle next the hilum. 

The genus Liriodendron, with a single species, is found in eastern North America and western 
China.^ It was represented by several species In the Cretaceous age, when the genus was widely distrib- 
uted m North America and Europe. It continued to exist during the Tertiary period, with a species,^ 

^ The stipules generally do not fall until the leaf is fully grown, 
and sometimes remain on vigorous shoots imtil the end oC summer. 

" Mirbel, Ele'mens de Physiologie et de Botanique, t. 20. — Trdeul, 
Ann. Set. Nat. ser. 3, xx. 296. 

^ This minute point is the extremity of the midrib prolonged 
without cellular tissue beyond the leaf-blade. (Godron, Observations 
sur les Bourgeons et sur les Feuilles du Liriodendron Tulipifera, Bull. 
Soc. Bot. France, viii. 33, t. 1.) 

* The carpels of the outer rows are almost always sterile, and 
often remain attached to the axis during the winter, giWng to the 
naked branches the appearance of terminating in brown tulip- 
shaped flowers. 

' The Tulip-tree was discovered in China in 1875. The speci- 

mens gathered on the mountains near Kiukiangwere first supposed 
to belong to a distinct species (Lo Marchant Moore, Jour. Boi. 1875, 
225); later it was collected again in the same district by Maries, 
and the Chinese plant was considered a variety of the American 
species, or the American species itself introduced and naturalized 
in China. (Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 25 ; Garden and Forest, 
ii. 123.) Dr. A. Henry found the Tulip-tree abundant and grow- 
ing spontaneously on the mountains north and south of the Yang-tse 
River in the district of Hupeh, and his specimens received in Eng- 
land in 1889 lead Mr. W. Botting Hemsley to pronounce the Chi- 
nese tree identical with the North American species. (Gard. 
Ckron. 3d ser. vi. 718, December 21, 1889.) 
Liriodendron Procacdnii, Unger, Gen. et Spec. PI. Foss. 443. 





hardly different from the one now living, extending over eastern North America, and Enrope as far 
south as Italy/ until the advent of glacial ice destroyed it in Europe, and restricted its range iu America 

to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. 

The wood of Liriodendron is light and soft, hrittle and not strong ; it possesses a close straight 
ain-=^ it is readily worked, and does not easily split or shrink j the numerous medullary rays are thin 
and inconspicuous- The color of the heartwood is light yellow or brown, with a specific gravity, when 
absolutely dry, of 0.4230, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 26.36 pounds. The thin sapwood, 
which varies in the number of layers of annual growth in different individuals, is relatively thin and 
creamy white. The wood of Liriodendron, known as yellow poplar and as whitewood^ is one of the 
most valuable products of the American forest. Canoes made from it were used by the aborigines when 
this country was first visited by Europeans,^ and ever since, it has been largely manufactured into lum- 
ber used in construction,^ in the interior finish of houses, in boat-building, and for shingles, pumps, 

and wooden ware.^ 

All parts of Lmodendron are bitter and slightly aromatic. The inner bark, especially of the root, 

is intensely acrid and bitter^ and has long been used domestically in the United States as a tonic and 
stimulant.^ Hydro chlorate of tulipiferine, an alkaloid recently separated from the bark of Lirioden- 
dron, possesses the power of stimulating the action of the heart.'^ 

No vitally destructive insects are known to prey upon Liriodendron. LarVc^ of a small moth [Phyl- 
locnisiis liriodendreUa) ^ make long linear channels through the leaves. The foliage is occasionally 
disfi;^nred by a dipterous insect ^ which, when abundant, covers the leaves with small brownish spots, 
causing them to become dry and fall from the branches; an aphis (Slphonopliora lirlodendri) ^^ some- 
times blackens the foliage, and a scale {Lecanimn tulipiferm)^^'^ found upon the bark of the branches, 
injures the trees in the western states. 

The earliest generic name of the Tulip-tree, Tulipifera, was published by Paul Hermann in 1687,^^ 
and was adopted by Linnaeus as his specific name for this tree. The Linn^an generic name [/d^iov and 
hhhoov) is descriptive of the lily-like or tulip-like flower. 

1 Massalon^o, FL Senog, 311, t. 7, f. 23, t. 39, f. 3-6. 

^ Iiidlvidual trees are occasionally foimd with the grain of the 
wood beautifully curled or contorted. The wood of such trees is 
valued highly for cabinet-making. 

^ "Rakiock, a kind of trees so called that arc sweet wood of 
which the iiihabitans that were neere unto us doe commonly make 
their boats or Canoes of the form of trowes," (-4 hriefe and true re- 
part of the newfound land of Virginia, 23, Thomas Hariot.) Pick- 
ering (Chron, Hist. PL 900) considers, probably correctly, that Ra- 
kiock was the Tulip-tree. The methods used by tlie aborigines of 
Virjjinia in felling trees and shaping their canoes with the aid of 
fire are described and illustrated in Appendix XII, to Harlot's 
narrative p 

Canoc-trcc was ouco a common name for Liriodendron among 
the early settlers in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 

^ Kalm, Travels into North America, English ed. i, 202. 

^ Lumbermen recognize varieties of yellow poplar, differing 
slightly in color and in the amount of sapwood, and believe that 
such varieties can be distinguished by the shape of the leaves and 
by the habit of the individual trees which produce them. Such 

characters, if they exist, are certainly not constant, and bear no ap- 
parent relation to the nature of the wood, determined probably by 
the soil in which the individual tree has grown. 

^ Lloyd, Drugs and Med. N. Am^ ii. 12. 

' Llovd, t c. 18, 


s Bull Hayden's U. S. Geolog, Suri\ 1S7S, iv. 108- 
^ Cecidomyia liriodendri, Osten-Sacken, Monog. Biptera, N. Am^ 
i. 202. — J, Gi Jack, Garden and Forest, ii. 605, L 152, 

10 Bull Hayden's U. S. Geolog. Surv. 1878-80, v, 20. 

11 Cook, American Naturalist^ xiii- 324, 

1^ Tulipifera arbor Virgimanaf Cat. Hort. Lugd. Bat. 612, t- 

Tulipifera Caroliniana folils prodnctioribus magL-i angulosis, Pluke- 
net, Phjt. t. C8, f. 3, 

Tulipifera Virginiana tripartito Aceris folio media laciniata, velut 
abscissa, Plukenet, Aim, Bat 379, t. 117, L 5, t. 248, f. 7. — Ray, 
Hist. PI. ii. 1798. — Duhamel, Traitt des Arhres, il 347, t. 102. — 
Catesby, Nat. HisL Car. i. 48, t. 48, 

Liriodendrum, Linn^us, Hort. Cliff'. 223, — ClaytoHj FL Virgin. 


L. foliis angulatis truncatis, Trew, PL Ehret. 2, t, 10, 





Yellow Poplar. Tulip Tree. 

LinnaBus, S;pec. 1. 535. — Da Eoi, Harhk. Baum. i. 374. — 
'MzxsW'aW., Arhust. Am- 78. — Wangenheim, Nordam. IIolz. 
32, t. 13, f. 32. — Walter, Ft Car. 158. — Giertner, Fruct. 
ii. 475, t. 178. — Bot. Mag. t. 275. — Abbot, Insects of 
Georgia, ii. t. 102. — Schkuhr, Handh. ii. 93, t. 147. — 
Willdenow, Spec. ii. 1254. — Miehaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 
326. — Nouveau DuhaTnel, iii. 62, t. 18. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arh. ii. 15. — Poiret, Lo,m. Diet. viii. 137; III. iii. 
36, t. 491. — Jaume St. Hilaire, PI. France, iii. t. 377. — ■ 
Miehaux f . Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 202, t. 5. — Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. ii. 382. — - Nuttall, Gen. ii. 18.— Bai-ton, Med. 
Bot. i. 91, t. 8. — De Candolle, Sgst. i. 461; Frodr.ii. 
82. — Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii. 107, t. 31. — liayne, Dendr. 
Fl. 115. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 40. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. 1. 28. — 
Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii. 239. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, 

Ahbild. Holz. 34, t. 29. — Audubon, Birds, t. 12. — Don, 
Gen. Syst. i. 86. — Spach, Hist. Veg. vii. 488. — Loudon, 
Arb. Brit. i. 284, t.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. X. Am. i. 
44. — Dietrich, Sgn. iii. 309. — GrilHtb, 3Ied. Bot. 98, 
f. 58. — Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 605, t. — Dar- 
lington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3, 9. — Agardh, Theor. et Sgst. 
PL t. 11, f. 2, 3. — Chapman, Fl. 14. — Curtis, Geolog. 
Siirv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 77. — Lemaire, HI. Hort. 15, 
t. 571.— Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 143, f. 175-178. —Koch, 
Bendr. i. 380. — Eichler, Verhandl. Bot. Ver. J, rand. 
xxii. 82, f. 1-3. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 'XOth 
Census U. S. ix. 22. — Lloyd, Drugs and Med. N. Am. 
ii. 3, t. 26, f. — "Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 
Liriodendron procertim, Salisbury, Prodr. 379. 

The Liriodendron is one of the largest and most beautiful trees of the American forest. The Occi- 
dental Plane and the Southern Cypress are the only American deciduous trees which grow to a larger size. 
■It sometimes attains^ under favorable conditions, a height of one hundred and sixty to one hundred and 
ninety feet, "\vith a straight trunk eight or ten feet in diameter, destitute of branches for eighty or a hun- 
dred feet from the ground.^ Individuals a hundred or a hundred and fifty feet tall, with trunks five or 
six feet in diameter, are still common. The branches, which are short and small in proportion to the 
size of the trunk, give to this tree a pyramidal habit, except in the case of old or very large individuals 
on -which the head is spreading. The winter-buds are dark red, covered with a glaucous bloom. The 
smooth lustrous bark of the young branches is red or red-brown during their first and second seasons, 
turning dark gray during the third. The leaves, supported on slender angled petioles five or six inches 
long, are dark green and shining on the upper, and paler on the lower surface. They are five or six 
inches long by as many broad, and quiver with the slightest movement of the air.^ The flowers, which 
are borne on stout peduncles an mch and a half to two inches long, appear In May. The fruit ripens 

late in September and in October. 

Liriodendron Tulipifera is found from Rhode Island^ to southwestern Vermont and west to the 
southern shores of Lake Michigan, and extends south to northern Florida, southern Alabama and 
Mississippi. It occurs west of the Mississippi Kiver only in southeastern Missouri and the adjacent parts 
of Arkansas. It prefers deep rich and rather moist soil on the intervales of streams or on mountam 
slopes, and is most abundant and reaches its greatest development m the vaHeys of the rivers flomng 
into the Ohio, and on the lower slopes of the high mountains of North CaroHna and Tennessee. The 
Tulip-tree, although widely distributed, is nowhere common enough to become the characteristic feature 
of the forest, and even in regions where the soU and climatic conditions are most favorable to it, more 
than four or five large specimens are seldom found growing on a single acre of ground. 

Wilson, who discovered his body a few days later. This tree 
was visited by Mr. W. M. Cauby in 18GG, and was then in perfect 


2 It was perhaps this hahlt, recalling the Aspen and other species 

of Poplar, which led the early settlers in America to apply the 
name of " Poplar " to this tree. 

8 L. W. Kussell, Garden and Forest, ii. 34. 

1 Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 59. 

The great Tulip-tree on the steep slopes of Mount Mitchell in 
North Carolina, the highest point of land in North America east of 
the Rocky Mountains, has a trunk thirty-three feet round at three 
feet from the ground. It stands at the head of the cove between 
the pool in which Professor Elisha Mitchell lost his life June 
27, 1857, and the hut of the well-known mountameer, "Tom" 

2Q SILYA OF NORTH AMERICA. magxoliace.e. 

John TradescanV ^to visited America about tlie middle of tlie seventeenth century, sent several 
plants from this country to England, and the Tulip-tree was perhaps among them.^ It appeared in 
several English gardens soon after Tradescant's return from America, and was cultivated by Bishop 
Compton at Fulham as early as 1688/ a year later than the date of the publication of Hermann's 
description, which was drawn up from a tree in the Leyden garden. 

Few permanent varieties of Lhiodendron have been developed in cultivation, although for more 
than a hundred years it has been a favorite ornamental tree in America and Europe.^ A form with 
nearly entire leaves, and others ^Aih. the leaves marked with yellow or silver blotches, are known in gai- 
dens ; and a seedlmg with strictly fastigiate branches appeared a few years ago in the nursery establisli- 
ment of Simon-Louis at Metz in Germany, where it has been propagated. 

lAriodendron Tulipifera is easily raised from seed,^ the seed germinating during the second year 
after sowing, and it is easily transplanted. It grows rapidly ; it is extremely hardy, and is one of the 
most beautiful and distinct American trees for ornamental or roadside planting. 

1 John Tradescant, a Dutch gardener wLo emigrated to England ginia to collect curiosities for this museum, and published in IGoG, 

towards the end of the sixteenth century, obtained in 1629 the title a few years after the death of his father, a catalogue of his plants, 
of gardener to Charles the First. He had a garden and museum at = Evelyn, Silva, 79. * Miller, Diet. ed. 8. 

Lambeth. His son, the second John Tradescant, traveled in Vir- ^ Kay, Hkt. PL ii. 1798. ^ Cobbett, Woodlands, No. 523. 


Plate XIII. Liriodexdeon Tulipifeea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A winter-bud, natural size. 

Plate XIV. Lirtodexdron Tulipifeea. 

1. A fruit, natural size. 

2. Diagram of tbe flower. 

3. A flower, a sepal and two petals removed, 

4. A stamen, anterior view, enlarged. • 

5. A stamen, posterior view, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, enlarged. 

7. A stigma, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much enlarged. 

10. A carpel, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section o£ a carpel^ enlarged. 

12. A seedj showing the raphe, enlarged. 

13. A seed, showing the side opposite the raphe, enlarged. 

14. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

15. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

16. An embryo, much magnified. 

Silva- of Nortli America'. 

Tab. XIII 

Ciz-Fajwri- del. 



A.Bi^^eiLr direx. 



Silva of North , America. 

Tai, xrv. 



■s ■ 







C.E.Fa^orL deL. 

Kcart fr. 

'. se 


A-RwcreiLD dwex!^ 

ImpR Taneur. Paris, 



Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs ; sepals valyate, 3 ; petals 6, in two scries, 
unequal, imbricated in aestivation ; stamens inserted on the subglobose receptacle, 
indefinite ; pistils 3 to 15, distinct, many-ovuled. Fruit baccate ; seeds horizontal, flat- 
tened, inclosed in a pulpy membranaceous aril ; albumen ruminate. 

Asimina, Adanson, Fam. Fl. \\. 365. — Meisner, Ge?i. 4. — OrcMdocarpmn, Miehaux, Fl Bor.-Am. i. 329. 

Gray, Gen. Ill i- 67; Bot. Gazette, xi. IGl. — Benthain Porcelia, Peraoon, Syn. ii. 95, in part. 

& Hooker Gen. i. 24. Uvaria, Endlicher, Gen. 832, in part — Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 
Anona, Linna;usj Gen. 158, in part. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 281, in part. 

283, in part 


Trees or shrubs, emitting a heavy disagreeable odor -when bruised, "witli fleshy roots, minute cinereo- 
puhescent caducous bud-scales, and terete slender branches marked with conspicuous leaf-scars. leaves 
conduplicate in vernation, destitute o£ stipules, ahernate, entire, membranaceous or suh coriaceous, 
feather-veined, reticulate-venulose, deciduous. Flowers pedunculate, nodding, dingy green, purple or 
white, proterogynous, bad-smelling. Sepals ovate, smaUer than the petals, green, deciduous. Petals 
hypogynous, sessUe, ovate or obovate-oblong, reticulately veined, accrescent; the three exterior alternate 
with "the sepals, spreading; those of the inner row opposite the sepals erect and much smaller than 
those of the outer row. Stamens hnear-cuneate, densely packed on the receptacle ; filaments shorter 
than the fleshy connective terminated by a broad truncate glandular tip ; anthers extrorse, the cells 
ohlong, separate, opening longitudinally. Pistils sessile on the summit of the receptacle, projectmg 
from the globukr mass of stamens; ovary one-celled ; stigma sessile, unilateral at the tip ; ovules four 
to twenty, horizontal, two-ranked ^ on the ventral suture, anatropous, the raphe towards the suture. 
Fruit sessile or stipitate, thick, oval or oblong, smooth, somethnes slightly torulose.^ Seeds m one or 
two ranks ; testa crustaceo-corlaccous, smooth ; the tegmen adherent to the testa, its n.ombranaceous 
appendages dividing the corneous albumen nearly to the axis. Embryo minute, next the hilum ; cotyle- 

dons short. . - a i 

The genns Asimina, as no^' known, is confined to eastern North America.' It contams the only 
species of the great Custard Apple family, ^-idely distributed in both hemispheres, which extends iar 
outside the tropics. Six species are distinguished: one, A.imina iriloU, the most northern m its 
range, is a smaU tree ; the others are low shrubs, confined to the south Atlantic and Gulf regions, ilie 
handsome white flowers of A. grandiflora are the largest of the genus. The fruit in all the shrubbj 

species is small and barely edible. i j. „ j-i,^^^ i,ot-o 

The genus Asimina was separated by Adanson from Anona of Some later u hors 1 a^ 
united it tith the aUied old-world Uvaria, and the species have also been referred to the Me hno. n 
Peruvian genus PorceKa. Ashnina is weU characterized, however, by the heterogeneous petals of 

8 Til Cuban plants referred by GrlHel)<icb {Cat. PL Cub. 3) 
1 The ovules in Asimina parvijlora are indistinctly two-ranked, ree i ■■ ^ _f„„fiv known Their coriaceous nearly 

, . . , . to Asimina are still imperiei^t-^j 
appearing nearly in a single series. cpnirate them, however, from this genus. 

^ Karely more than three carpeb mature from one flower, often homogeneous petals sepa 

. \ ^ (A. Gray, Bot. Gazette, xi. lOi.J 

only one or two. ^ 



two rows. Those of the outer row are accrescent and spreading, and always larger than those of the 
inner, which are concave and erect; and in spite of their imbricated arrangement in aestivation, depended 
on to unite the species with Uvaria, the genus is generally maintained by botanists, 

Asimina is formed from Asminier^ an early colonial name used by the French in America for 
Asimina triloba} 

^ Asiminier hom Asimina, the Algouqiiin corruption of the south- sleeve, and "min" pi, "mina" fruit, from its shape. Century Die- 
ern Illinois rasshninay used probably for the fruit ("ras5a," a tiojiary, 1889), 


Flowers from axils of deciduous leaves of the preceding year. 

Leaves membranaceonsj mostly acute at both ends, obscurely venulose. 

Flowers large, long-pediceled ; seeds flattened 1. A. triloba. 

Flowers small, nearly sessile ; seeds turgid 2. A, pakviflora. 

Leaves rctuse or obtuse, pubescent when young, subcorlaceous and conspicuously reticu- 
late-venulose at maturity. Petals white. 

Outer petals three or four times as long as those of the inner row . . , . 3. A, gkai^diflora. 

Outer petals twice the length of those of the Inner row 4- A, cujneata. 

Flowers from the axils of existing leaves. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, reticulate-venulose- 

Leaves linear or narrowly spatulate; flowers large, usually erect; petals white, 

those of the outer row one and a half to two inches long 5. A. axgustifolia. 

Leaves cuncate-llnear to oblong ; flowers nodding, petals green turning purple, those 
of the outer row less than half an inch long, twice the length of those of the inner 

-^^^ a A. PYGM.EA. 

■ ' ■" ■ . ^.-'■-■..f 





Pap aw. 

Flowers solitary ; styles distinct, introrsely stigmatic ; ovules numer 

ous. Leav 


ample, membranaceous. 

Asimina triloba, Dunal, Mq7i. Anon. 83. — De Candolle, 
^Sy^;. i. 479 ; Prodr. i. 87. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 42. — Guim- 
pel, Otto & Hayne, Abhild. Holz. ^^, t. 53. — Hayne, 
Dendr. Fl. 118. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 91. — Loudon, Arh. 
Brit. i. 293, f . 39. — Gray, Geii. 111. i. t. 26, 27. — Dar- 
lington, Fl. Cestr. ed. 3,10. — Chapman, i^/. 15. — Curtis, 
Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 94. — Bot. 3Iag. t. 5854. — 
Koch, Dendr. ii. 383. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 
10th Census U. S. ix. 23. — Lloyd, Drugs and Med. N. 
Am. ii. 49, t. 33, f. 120-123. —Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed. 6, 50. 

Anona triloba, Linnosus, Spec. 537. — ■ Du Roi, Harhk. Baum. 
i. 59. — Marshall, Arbust. Am. 10. — Lamarck, Diet, ii, 
125.— Walter, Fl. Car. 158. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 
1267. — Nouveau DnJio.mel, ii. 83, t. 25. — Desfontaines, 

Hist. Arh. ii. 21. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 161, t. 

9. — Sehkuhr, Ilandh. ii. 95, t. 149. 
Anona pendula, Salisbury, Prodr. 380. 
Anona palustris, Abbot, Insects of Georgia, i. t. 4 (not 


Orchidocarpum arietinum, Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Avi. i. 329. 

Porcelia triloba, Persoon, Syn. ii. 95.— Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii. 383. — Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 92. — Nuttall, 
Gen. ii. 19. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iv. 529. — Audu- 
bon, Birds, t. 2 ; ed. 8vo, iii. t. 147. 

Uvaria triloba, Torrey & Gray, FL JS^. Am. I 45. — Tor- 
rey, Fl. iV. Y. i. 30. — Caniel, Ann. Mm. Firenze, 1864, 
9, t. 1, f . 1-7. — Baillon, Hist. PL {. 193, f . 220-228 ; 
Diet. i. 290, f. 

A. campaniflora, Spach, Hist. Veg. vii. 528. 

A slinib or low tree, rising sometimes under favorable conditions to a height of thirty-fivo or forty 
feet/ with a straight trunk, rarely exceecUng a foot in diameter, and slender spreading branches. The 
bark of the trunk, rarely more than an eighth of an inch thick on full-grown individuals, has a dark 
brown surface marked with large ash-colored blotches ; it is covered with small wart-like excrescences, 
and divided by numerous shallow reticulate depressions. The inner bark is tough, fibrous, and separates 
easily into thin layers. The bark of the branchlets is light brown tinged with red, and plainly marked 
by longitudinal, parallel or reticulate; narrow shallow grooves. The winter-buds are acuminate, flattened 
on the side next the stem, an eighth of an inch long, and covered thickly with rusty brown hairs. The 
leaves, which are glabrous, light green on the upper and pale on the lower surface, are ob ovate-lanceo- 
late, ten or twelve inches long, and four or five inches broad, sharply pointed, and gradually and regu- 
larly contracted at the base into a stout petiole half to three quarters of an inch long, and strengthened 
by a prominent midrib and primary veins. They are covered on the lower surface when they first 
appear, as are the petioles and young shoots, with a short rusty brown caducous tomentum, reduced on 
the upper surface of the young leaves to a few scattered hairs. The flowers, which are nearly two 
inches across when fully grown, appear at the extreme south in March, and open at the north m May 
and June. They are borne on stout club-shaped peduncles an inch or an inch and a half long, covered 
with long scattered rusty bro^ra hairs. The sepals are ovate, acuminate, pale green, and densely pubes- 
cent on the outer surface. The petals are green when they first unfold, and are covered with short 
appressed hairs ; they gradually turn brown, and at maturity are deep vinous red and conspicuously 
reticulate-vcnulose ; those of the outer row are broadly ovate, rounded or pointed at the apex, reflexed 
at maturity above the middle, and are then two or three times longer than the sepals ; those of the inner 
row are pointed, erect, the concave base glandular, nectariferous, and marked by a broad band of a 
lighter color.2 The fruit, which is attached obHquely to the enlarged torus, is oblong, nearly cylmdncal, 

^ Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 18S2, 60. m considerable quantities fron. the glandular surface of the petal. 

= Baillon iAdansonia, vi. 253) suggests that the nectar secreted of Asimina serves to hold the pollen falls fron. the anthers 




roundedj or sometimes slightly pointed at the extremities, more or less falcate, and often irregular from 
the imperfect development of some of the seeds. It ripens in September and October. It is three to 
five inches long-, an incli or an inch and a half in diameter, and weighs from six to twelve ounces. The 
seeds, which separate readily from the ard confluent with the pericarp, are an inch long, half an inch 
broad, ovate, and rounded at the extremities. The brown shining outer coat becomes paler on exposure 
to the air, and wrinkles by the shrinking of the albumen in drying.' 

The western part of the state of New York and the northern shores of Lake Ontario ^ are the most 
northern points reached by Asimina triloba; it occurs In eastern and central Pennsylvania, and thence 
spreads west to southern Michigan, southern Indiana, and eastern Kansas, and south to middle Florida 
and to the valley of the Sabine River in Texas. It is comparatively rare in the region borderino- the 
Atlantic seaboard ; in the valley of the Mississippi River it is often very common, forming the thick 
forest-underwood on rich river-bottom lands, or sometimes exclusively occupying the ground with dense 
thickets many acres in extent. The presence of this tree is always an indication of deep rich and rather 
moist soil ; it attains its greatest size in the fertile valleys of the streams flowing into the lower Ohio 
River, and in those of central and southern Arkansas. 

The wood of Asimina triloba is light, soft and weak, coarse-grained and spongy, wath the layers 
of annual growth clearly marked by several rows of large open ducts. The color of the heartwood is 
hght yellow shaded with green, and rather darker than the thin sapwood composed of from twelve to 
twenty layers of annual growth. It has, when perfectly dry, a specific gravity of only 0.3969, a cubic 
foot of the dry wood weighing 24.74 pounds. The inner bark, stripped from the branches in the early 
spring, is stlfl used by fishermen on the Ohio and other western rivers for stringing fish j formerly it 
was often employed In making fish-nets, and for similar purposes.^ 

The Papaw was first noticed in 1541 * by the followers of De Soto in the valley of the Mississippi. 
It was not described, however, until more than two centuries later, when Catesby published a fio-ure of 
it in his JSfatural History of Carolina.^ The Papaw was first cultivated in Europe in 173G by Peter 
ColHnson, who probably received it from John Bartram. Although rarely seen in cultivation outside of 
botanical gardens, It is well worth a place in ornamental plantations for its large and conspicuous foliage 
and for its handsome flowers and fruit. The Papaw ^ is only precariously hardy in NewEno-knd. 

into the cup of the corolla. It seems more probable, however, that 
its ohject is to attract insects, without whose aid the proterogynons 
flowers would be obliged to depend for fertilization on the dubious 
chance of the pollen of one flower dropping or being blo-^vn upon 
the stigma of another. 

^ The skin of the fully grown fruit is at first green covered with 
a glaucous bloom. The flesh at this time is green, gradually turn- 
ing white towards the centre ; it is firm and may be broken with a 
sharply defined fracture which generally intersects a seed from 
which it separates easily, and has a. fetid odor and a most disagree- 
able flavor. As the fruit ripens the flesh changes from green to 
yellow, the tough grain becoming soft. 'When fully ripe the skin is 
dark brown or almost black ; the flesh is then semi-transparent, 
sweet and luscious to the taste, the delicacy of the flavor increasing 
after the fruit has been slightly frozen. The fruit of the Papaw in 
this stage is wholesome and can he eaten freely. It is sold in large 
quantities in cities and towns in those parts of the country where 
the tree grows naturally, although it is not sent to the large eastern 

" Papaw eaters recognize two varieties of the fruit, the white 
and the yellow. The yellow papaw flesh is edible, but there is 
no difference in the trees. Wliite papaws retain their disagree- 
able odor until they decay ; they do not turn yellow upon ripening. 

and will sicken those who highly relish the other fruit." (Lloyd, 
Drugs and Med. N. Am. ii. 51.) 

2 J. W. Burgess, Bot. Gazette, vii. Qo. 

8 A white colorless and tasteless alkaloid, Asimine, has been ob- 
tained by Lloyd from the seeds of Asimina triloba. (Lloyd, /. c. ii. 
54.) Preliminary studies of this new product show that it acts 
on the brain of animals, causing somnolence and finally stupor and 

* " There is a fruit through all the eountrie which groweth on a 
plaut like llgoacan, which the Indians doe plant. The fruit is like 
uuto peares rlall : it hath a verie good smell, and an excellent 
taste." i^The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida, Hakluyt, 
Rye's ed. 169.) 

^ Anonafructu lutescente, l(Evi, scrotum Arietis referente, ii. 85, t. 

85. — Trew, PI. Ehret. i. t. o.~Duhamcl, Traite des Arhres, i. 56, 

1. 19.— Clayton's description in tlie Flora Virginica, 61, published 

m 1739, refers to the Papaw, which was confounded, however, by 

Gronovius with a West Indian species of Anona. 

Anona foUis lanceolatis, fructibus trifdis, Miller, Diet. Icon. i. 23, 
t. 35. 

^ The popular name Papaw was probably given to Asimina tri- 
loba from a fancied resemblance of the fruit to the true papaw, the 
fruit of Carica Papaya, L., of tropical America. 



Plate XV. Asi3iixa triloba, 

1. A flowering branchy natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower- 
s' Vertical section of a fiowerj natural size. 

4- A flower, the sepals and petals removed, enlarged, 

5. An antherj anterior vlewj enlarged. 

6. An antliei'j posterior vieWj enlarged. 

7. A gynfficium, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

10. An ovule, much enlarged. 

11, A leaf, natural size. 

Plate XVI. Asimika triloba. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 

4. A seed, with its aril laid open, natural size. 

5. A seed, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a seed, natural size, 

8. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America 

Tab, XV. 

C.E.Fa:wn dei'. 

Picartfr. sc, 


A'RwcreiiX! dir&^. 

Imp, K Tanmr. Parw . 

Silva of North America. 


a E. Faxon dd. 




A.Rwcrsuz direx^ 

Imp,R^Tan£ur, Paris ^ 





M ■ 


Flowers solitary, fascicled, or rarely cymoscly racemose, terminal or extra axil- 
lary ; sepals 3, yalvate ; petals usually 6, in two series, valvate or rarely imbricated in 
estivation ; stamens inserted on a hemispherical receptacle, indefinite. Carpels con- 
fluent into a many-celled fleshy fruit ; seeds inclosed in an aril ; albumen ruminate. 

Anona, Linn^us, Gen. 158, m part. — Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. Endliclier, Gen. 834. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 27. — 

365. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 283. — Meisner, Gen. 4. — Baillon, Hist. PI. i. 285. 


Trees or shrubs, emitting a pungent aromatic odor when bruised, witli flesliy roots, glandular and 
often reticulated bark, and terete slender branches marked "nith conspicuous leaf-scars, and often pubes- 
cent during the first season. Leaves conduplicate in vernation, destitute of stipules, alternate, entire, 
coriaceous, feather- veined, often glandular-punctate, persistent or tardily deciduous. Flowers nodding 
on bracted peduncles. Calyx small, three-lobed, or composed of three concave suhcordate acute sepals, 
green, deciduous. Petals hypogynous, sessile, ovate, acuminate or obtuse, concave, triquetrous at the 
apex, thick and fleshy, generally white or yellow, the exterior alternate with the sepals ; those of the 
inner row opposite the sepals often much smaller than those of the outer row, and sometimes reduced 
to minute scales or absent. Stamens club-shaped, densely packed on the receptacle ; filaments shorter 
than the fleshy connective terminated by a broad ovoid truncate often glandular tip extending above 
the extrorse anthers ; their cells oblong, contiguous, opening longitudinally. Pistils sessile on the 
receptacle, free or united ; ovary one-celled ; stigmas sessile or slightly stipitate, oblong ; ovules one, or 
rarely two,^ erect, anatropous ; raphe ventral. Fruit ovate or globose, the surface muricate, squaraulose 
or smooth, many-seeded. Seeds ovate or elliptical ; testa crustaceo-coriaceous, smooth, chestnut-brown ; 
the tegmen adherent to the testa, its broad appendages penetrating the albumen nearly to the axis. 
Embryo minute, the radicle next the Iiilum ; cotyledons appressed. 

The genus Anona Is found In tropical America and in tropical Africa. About fifty species have 
been described by botanists. A single species extends north of the tropics to the coast of southern 
Florida and to the Bahama Islands. Six African species are known ; ^ twenty-eight species, including 
two or three naturalized from the "West Indies, are found in Brazil ; ^ ten or twelve species are Central 
American,* one at least extending south of the equator to Peru ; ^ the remainder inhabit the West 
Indies ^ and the northern countries of the South American continent.^ 

Several species cuhlvated for their fruit have become naturalized In the tropics of the two worlds.^ 
The Sweetsop or Sugar Apple {A. squamosa^ Is now perhaps the most widely distributed and the 
most firmly fixed in the Old World." The yellow-green fruit, two to four inches across, is oblong and 
embossed with oblong, obtuse scales ; the flesh is soft and white, with an agreeable perfume and Insipid 
flavor. The seeds are acrid and are used as an Insecticide. The soursop, the ovold or nearly globular 

1 Baillon, Hist. PL i. 229. "^ Aublct, Fl. Guian. i. Gil. 

^ Baker, FL Maur. and Seych. 3. -Oliver, Fl Trap. Aft. 14. « A. De CandoUe, Giograplm Botanique, ii. 859 ; Origlne des 

3 St. Hilaire, FL Bras. Merid. i. 24. — Martlus, FL BrasiL xiii. 1, 3. Plantes CuUive'es, 133. 

^ Hemsley, Bot. BioL Am. Cent. i. 18. ' Linn=e«s, Spec. 537. - Desco.rtilz, FL Med. AnUL u 65. t. 

'A. Cherimolia Miller, Diet. (A De Caadolle, Origine des 83.-£.^ il/«i/. t. 309o.-Tussac, H. ^«(-7. iii. 4.-^ an Nooteu, 

Plantes Cultivees, 138.) " -^'^^"''^ •^«'^- *■ ^^■ 

« Sloane, Nat. Hist. Jam. ii. 166. -Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. '" Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. i. 7S.-Brandis. Forest^ Fl Ind.G. 

255— Maycoek,F/.fior&. 232. - Maef.dyen, Fl. Jam.6.--Rich^ The irnitoi A. squamosa i. called "custard apple m Iiidta, the 

ard, FL Cub. 27— Griscbach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 4. American name of the fruit of A. reticulata. 



fruit of A, muricata, is three or four inches across, covered with short incurved points.^ The o-reen or 
yellow surface has a terebinthine odor and a disagreeable flavor ; it is easily removed from the white 
subacid aromatic flesh, which is eaten with or without sugar, or is cooked as a vegetable when partly 
grown. The fruit is considered an antiscorbutic and febrifuge, and a powder prepared from the dried 
unripe fruit is used in the treatment of dysentery. Anona reticulata ' is now generally naturalized 
and mdely cultivated in the tropics,^ but its fruit, the custard apple or bullock's heart, which is sub- 
globose with a rough skin marked with pentagonal areoles, is less esteemed than the fruit of the other 
cultivated species. The cherimoyer, the fruit of A. Gherimolia, a native probably of western tropical 
America from Mexico to below the equator, and now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics 
is the best fruit produced by any species of the genus. Many travelers have declared the flavor of the 
cherimoia, recaUing the strawberry and banana, more dehcate and exquisite than that of any other fruit. 
The pulp of the fruit of all these species is refreshing, aromatic, and agreeable j but, as is the case ynth 
many tropical fruits, it is reaUy inferior to the best products of the temperate zone. The fruit of Anona 
eaten with sugar before it is fully ripe is a useful tonic, and the fermented juice is manufactured irito a 
sort of sweet wine or cider in the AYest Indies. 

The genus was first established by Plumier as Guanabanus j "* this name was discarded by Linn^us 
for Anona,^ the name given by early authors ^ to the Soursop. Linnceus changed Anona to Annona 
(the year's product) in the Uortus Glifforiianus in order to avoid the use of names of barbarous origin. 

1 LiiuiEeus, Spec. 537. — Deseourtilz, Fl. Med. Anlil. ii. t. 87. — Guanabano, was adopted by Oviedo to designate A. muricata. (Hist. 
Tussac, Fl. Antil. ii. t. 24. —Van Nooten, Fleurs Jav. t. 39. Gen. Nat. Ind. lib. 8, cap. 17.) 

2 LinnjEus, 5pec. 537. — Deseourtilz, Fl. Med. Antil. ii. t. 82.— c From Fanow, used by Oviedo Q. c.) to designate A. squamosa, 
Bot. Mag. t. 2912. — Van Nooten, Fleurs Jav. t. 20. Kb. 8, cap, 18, t. 3, f. 7. 

s Rookei L FL Brit. Ind. i. 78. 6 Commeljn, Hort. l 133, t. 69. — Hermann, Cat. Hort. Lugd. 

* Nov. Plant. Am. Gen. 42, 1. 10. GuanabauiiSj from the Indian Bat. G45. — Plukeuet, Aim. Bot. 31, 1. 134, f. 2. 




Pond Apple. 

Glabrous throughout, peduncles sohtary, opposite the leaves. Petals 6. Fruit 
smooth, faintly marked Avith pentagonal areoles. 


A. glabra, Linnreus, Speo. 537. — Marshall, Arhust. Am. A. laurifolia, Dunal, Mo^i. Anoji. G5.~T>e CandoWe, Stjst. 

10. — Lamarck, iJiei. ii. 125, cxc. syn. — Dii Roi, .ff«?-&A. i. 468 j Frodr. I 84. — Dietrich, S^}i. iii. 304. — Grise- 

Bauni. I 62, — Wiildenow, Sj^ec. ii. 1267. — Dimal, Mou. bach, FL Brit. W. Ind. 4. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 

Ano?i. 74. — De Candolle, Sijst. i. 475 ; Prodr. I. 85.— 603. — Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 1860, 439. — Sargent, 

Dietrich, Syn. iii. 306.— Chapman, Bat. Gazette, iii. 2.— Forest Trees N. Am. lO^A Census V. S. ix. 23. 

Sargent, GardeR and Forest, ii. 616. Porcelia parviflora, Audubon, Birds, t. 162 (not Persoon). 

A low tree, thirty to forty feet high, with a short trunk often eighteen inches in diameter ahove 
the swell of the thickened tapering base, which is sometimes strengthened by spreading buttresses, and 
with stout wide-spreading often contorted branches. The bark of tlie trunk is an eighth of an inch 
thickj dark red-brown, divided by broad shallow anastomosing fissures, the surface separating into 
numerous small scales. The bark of the branches is brown or yellow during their first season, turning- 
brown during the second, Avhen the surface is broken by numerous depressions, and marked by small 
scattered wart-like excrescences. The persistent leaves are bright green on the upper, and palor on the 
lower surface, coriaceous, oval or oblong, acute, tapering or rounded at the base, with a prominent 
midrib and stout petiole half an inch long. They are three to five inches long and one and a half to 
two inches broad, and in Florida appear in March and April. The nodding flowers, borne on short 
stout peduncles thickened at the two extremities and bearing at their base a pair of minute acute mem- 
branaceous deciduous bracts, open in April from an ovoid three-angled bud. The calyx is three-lobed, 
with broadly ovate acute divisions. The petals are valvate in estivation, connivent, acute, concave, pale 
yellow or dirty white ; those of the outer row are marked on the inner surface near the base with a 
bright red spot ; those of the inner row are narrower and somewhat shorter. The fruit ripens in 
November. It is broadly ovate, truncate or depressed at the base, rounded at the other end, three to 
five inches long and two to three and a half inches broad. The color of the thick leathery skin is 
fight green when the fruit is fully grown, turning yellow as It becomes fully ripe, when it is often 
marked by numerous dark brown blotches. The flesh surrounding the thick elongated fibrous torus is 
light green, slightly aromatic, insipid, edible but of no comestible value. The seeds, inclosed in a thin 
aril, are half an inch long, shghtly obovate, turgid, rounded at the extremities, the margins contracted 
into a narrow wing formed by the thickening of the outer coat. 

Anona glabra is found in Florida from Cape Malabar on the east coast to the shores of Bay 
Biscayne, and on the west coast from Pease Creek to the Caloosa River.' It occurs on the Bahama 
Islands, on San Domingo, and on St. Thomas and St. Croix.^ 

Anona glabra grows in Florida in shallow fresh-water ponds, on swampy hummocks, or by the 
borders of small fresh-water streams flowing from the Everglades. It reaches its largest size on the 
shores of Bay Biscayne near the Miami River, where it is found surrounded and oversliadowed by 

1 A number of trees of Anona glabra are growing in a small pond was early and constant communication between New Providence 

within the present limits of the citj of Key West. This tree is not and Key West. 

found, however, elsewhere on the island, or on any of the neighbor- ^ I have not seen West Indian spechnens ; and these stations are 

ing keys ; and as it was not noticed by Dr. Blodgett, who explored given on the authority of Dunal (I. c.) and of Eggers. (FL St. 

the Key West flora fifty years ago, it was perhaps introduced here Croix and the Virgin Islands, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13, 

from the mainland, or more probably from the Bahamas, as there 23.) 





the Live Oak^ the Mastic, the Pigeon Plum, the Lanoewood, the Eed Mulberry, the Gumbo Limbo d 
the Bhick Calabash. ' 

The Avood of Anona glabra is light, soft, and not strong, and contains numerous large open scat- 
tered ducts ; it is light brown streaked with yellow, and has, when perfectly diy, a specific gravity of 
0.5053, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 31.49 pounds.^ 

Anona cjlalm was first made known by Catesby.^ He gave no locality for the plant, which he 
probably obtained from the Bahama Islands, where it was seen by Michaux in 1789.^ The excellent 
figure of Anona (jJahra in iU Birds of America shows that Audubon, who visited south Florida Tu 
1835, was the first naturalist to detect this tree in North America. His discovery was overlooked 
however, by botanists, and Anona glabra was not recognized as a Florida plant until 1859, when it 
was found by Dr. J. G. Cooper ^ on the shores of Bay Biseayne. 

^ No difference cau be detected between the Iieartwood and sap- 
wood in tlic specimens examined, although it is possible that the 
trees from which they were taken were not old enough to form 
he art wood. 

^ Anona maxima, folus latis fructu maxima luteo conoide, cortice 
glabra, Nat. Hist. Car. ii. G4, t. 04. 

Anona fructu viridi Imvi, Pyri inversi forma, Nat. Hist. Car. U. 
67, t. 67. 

3 Jour, in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xxvi. 51. There are two entries 
in Michaux's Journal which indicate that he may have found Anona 
glabra on the cast coast of Florida. No specimens, however, are 
preserved in his herbarium, and his remarks may refer to one of 
the large-flowered dwarf Aslminas. (Journal, 32, 33.) 

^ J. G. Cooper, horn in New York June 19, 1830, graduated from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1853. He 
received soon after graduation the appointment of naturahst and 
surgeon to the expedition organized under the leadership of General 

Isaac I. Stevens, to explore a northern route for a railroad to the 
Pacific Ocean. The scientific fruits of this journey wore published 
in volume xii. part 2 of the Pacific Kaiiroad Reports. Dr. Cooper 
devoted much attention for several years to studying the geograph- 
ical distribution of North American trees, the results of these 
investigations being published in the reports of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution for 1858 and 1800. He visited south Florida in 1859, and 
made several interesting botanical discoveries there. Dr. Cooper, 
as surgeon of a government exploring expedition, had an opportu- 
nity in ISOO of seemg the country between Fort Benton on the Mis- 
souri River and the waters of the Columbia. The results of his 
observations upon the trees of this region were published in the 
third volume of the Ainerican Naturalist, in an article entitled The 
Trees of Montana. He joined during the same year the Natural 
History Survey of California as a member of the zoological staff, 
and is still a resident of that state. 


Plate XVII. A>.-o^a glauha. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flowei'. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

4. A flower, the sejials and petals removed, natural size. 

5. A flower, the petals and stamens removed, natural size. 
G. A stamen, anterior view, enlarged. 

7. A stamen, posterior view, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

9. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 
10. An ovule, much enlarged. 

Plate XVIII. glabra. 

1. A fruit, natural size. 

2. Section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, with its aril laid open, natural size, 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 
G. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 
7. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of Nortli America, 

Tat. XVI i. 






C.E.Faxon del-. 

Picartjr. so. 


ABiocreuX' di^eX'- 

Imp.R'Tanai/: Paris. 

Silva- of North America, 

Tat. XVIII, 

C.E.Faxon del. 

Picartjr. so. 


A.IUocreiu> dir€j>. 

Imp- Rfanmr. Pans. 





Flowers perfect ; sepals 4, rarely 5 ; petals usually 4, imbricated ; torus short, 
destitute of basal appendages. Fruit baccate, stalked; embryo conyolute. 

LiniiKus, Gen. 155. — Adanson, ^am. PI. ii. 407. — A. L. 
de Jussleu, Gen. 243. — Meisner, Gen. 17. — Endlieher, 

Gen. 893. — Bentham & Hooker, (?m. i. 108. — Eallloii, 
Eist. PL iii. 174. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery acrid or often pung-ent juice, sometimes climbing or prostrate, 
unarmed or armed with short, often recurved, stipular spines, glabrous, pubescent or variously lepidote. 
Leaves conduplieate in vernation, alternate, rarely opposite or more rarely wanting, entire, feather- 
veined, membranaceous or coriaceous ; stipules spinescent or setaceous, often confined to young or bar- 
ren shoots. Flowers regular or irregular, axillary or supra-axillary, solitary, fascicled or arranged in a 
terminal cyme or raceme, usually bracteate. Sepals valvate or imbricate, in two series, free, or the two 
outer united in the bud, and splitting irregularly as the flower opens, naked or glandular on the inner 
surface. Petals rarely more than four, inserted on the base of the receptacle. Stamens usually indefi- 
nite, inserted on the receptacle ; filaments filiform, free, much longer than the short two-celled introrse 
anthers. Ovary long-stalked, one to four-celled, with two or more parietal placentas ; stigma sessile, 
orbiculate, rarely slightly two-lobedj ovules indefinite, campylotropous. Fruit globose, elongated or 
siliquiform, indehiscent or rarely separating into three or four valves ; seeds renlform, numerous or indefi- 
nite, immersed in pulp, exalbuminous j testa corneous or crustaceous. Embryo convolute ; cotyledons 

foliaceous, fleshy.^ 

The genus Capparis is widely and generally distributed over the warmer parts of the earth. More 
than a hundred species, chiefly tropical, are distinguished. Its greatest development in number of 
species is in Central and South America;^ one species, Capparis spinosa^ abounds in southern Europe, 
extending through the Orient to India, where about thirty species are known ; '* two others occur in the 
Orient,^ eight are found in south Africa," thirteen are tropical African,^ twelve are Australian,^ and one 
is Hawaiian.^ Five species are known in China ^^ and eighteen in Central America and Mexico,'' while 
two of the nine or ten West Indian '^ species reach the shores of southern Florida, the most northern 

station of the genus in America.'^ 

The useful properties of Capparis are not numerous. The flower-buds and sometimes the young 
fruit of C. spinosa pickled in vinegar furnish the well-known capers of commerce." The bark of the 

^ The genus Cappnris may be divided, chiefly upon characters 
found in the remarkable differences in tlie calvx, into nine sections 
which have been sometimes considered gcnerically distinct. Each 
is composed of species confined either to the Old or to the New 
AYorld. (De Candolle, Prodr. i. 245. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. 
i. 109.) 

2 Eichler, Uartlus Fl. Brasil siil, 1, 2G7. 

8 LInnffius, Spec. 503. ~ Sibthorp, Fi. Grcec. t. 486. — Delessert, 
Icon. Sel. iii. t. 10. — Baillon, Hist. PI. iii. 150, f. 174-179 ; Did. i. 

* Hooker f. FL Brit. Ind. i. 173. 
^ Boissier, Fl. Orient i. 419. 
^ Harvey & Sonder, Fl. Cap. i. 61. 
' Oliver, Fl. Trop. Af. i. 94. 

8 Bentham, Fl. Austral, i. 93. 

9 Hlllebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 14. 

10 Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 50. 

11 Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 43. 

12 Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 17, 

13 Capparis cynophallophora (Linnffius, Spec. 504. — Jacquin, Stlrp. 
Am. 158, t. 98. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antd. v. 193, t. 355.— 
Eichler, \larth^ Fl. Brasil. xiii. 1, 282, t. 63, 2) a shrubby species 
■with oblong, blunt or emarginate, coriaceous leaves and linear fruit, 
widely distributed through tropical America, is the second species 

found in Florida. 

» Capparis spinosa is a trailing undershrub, with large white 
show}- axillary pedunculate flowers, growing naturally in the crev- 
ices of rocks and walls. Its cultivation gives employment to a 

32 SILVA OF NORTH AMEHICA. cappakidace^. 

root of this species has a sharp bitter taste, and was formerly used as a tonic. The flower-huds of 
C. aphylla are used as a pickle in India ; the unripe fruit is cooked and eaten, and a bitter condiment 
is prepared from both the ripe and the unripe fruit.^ The bark of the roots of several American species 
contains, according to Baillon,^ exciting and epispastic properties. The fruit of C. Breynia and prob- 
ably of C. Jamaicensis is beheved in the West Indies to be antispasmodic, and its flowers and root- 
anthysteric and aperative. The fruit of C.frondosa and of C. pulcherrima is considered poisonous in 
the "West Indies ; and horses and mules are kiUed, according to Martins,^ by eating the leaves of C. Yco 
a Brazilian species. The leaves of G. DaJd and C. Mithridatica are used in Africa in the treatment of 
snake bites.* 

The wood of two or three Indian species is hard and diu-able, and is used by the natives in the 
construction of small houses, for agricultural implements, and in boat-building.'^ C. S€2naria is em- 
ployed in India as a hedge-plant, for which purpose its stout branches with sharp hooked stipular spines 
adapt it.^ 

Capparis, the classical name of C spmosa, is from the Greek xdnnapig, the name given to this 
plant by Dioscorides, and derived from the Persian kahar, capers. 


large number of persons In soutliern France and Italy, and permits 3 Sysl. Mat. Med. Brasil. 74. 

the profitable use of dry and sterile land unsuitable for otbcr crops. * Bailloii, Hist, PI. iii. 169. 

Pomet, Hist. Gen. Drog. 2i5.~ Nouv. Cours <VAgr. iii. 4U. s Gamble, Man. Ind. Timbers, 15. 

1 Brandis, Forest Fl. Ind. 14. 6 Cleghorn, Forests and Gardens, S. Ind. 211. 

= Hist. PI. iii. 1(J9. 



Flowers in a terminal cyme ; sepals valvate, glandular. Fruit siliquiform, Yalvular- 

Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacquin, Enum. Fl. Carib. 23 ; C. emarginata, Richard, Fl. Cub. 78, t. 9. — Walpers, Fej). 
Stirp. Am. IGO, t. 101. — Icon. Am. Gewach. ii. 38, t. i. 201. 

]_71. Alton, FTort. Kew. ed. 2, iii. 285. — De CandoUe, C. Jamaicensis, var. emarginata, Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. 

Frodr. i. 252. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 39. — Dietrich, Ind. 18. 

Syn. iii. 231. — Chapman, Fl. 32. — Eichler, Martins 
Fl. Brasll. xiii. 1, 270, t. 64, f . 2. 

A small slender shrubby tree, growing in Florida to a beigbt of elgbteen or twenty feet, witb a 
stralo-lit trunk sometimes five or six inches in diameter. The bark of the trunk is rarely more than an 
eio-hth of an inch thiekj slightly fissured, the dark red-brown surface broken into small irregularly-shaped 
divisions ; that of the branches is dark gray, smooth or slightly rugose. The branchlets are angled and 
covered like the under surface of the leaves, the petioles and inflorescence, with minute ferruginous 
scales, which are most abundant and darkest colored on the flower-buds and their stout angled stems. 
The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, rounded and emarginate at the apes, shghtly revolute, coiiaeeous; with 
a prominent midrib and inconspicuous primary veins ; they are two to three inches long and an inch or 
an inch and a half broad, the upper surface rather light yellow-green, smooth and lustrous. The flower- 
buds are obtuse or acute, four-angled by the prominently reduplicate margins of the sepals. Tlie showy 
fragrant flowers open in Florida, in April and May. The sepals are ovate, acute, lepidote on the outer 
surface, and furnished on the inner with a smaU ovate gland j they are recurved when the flower is fully 
expanded, and are about half the size of the rounded membranaceous white petals which turn purple in 
fading. The filaments of the twenty to thirty stamens are purple and conspicuously viUose towards the 
base, and are an inch and a half to nearly two inches long ; the anthers are yellow. The slender stalk 
of the ovary is an inch and a half or more in length and quite glabrous. The fruit is nine to twelve 
inches long, terete, sometimes slightly torulose, pubescent-lepidote, the long stalk appearmg jomted by 
the enlargement of the pedicel and torus below the insertion of the stipe. The outer coat of the seeds 

is hght brown and coriaceous.* 

Capparis Jamaicensis grows on the Florida coast from Cape Cimaveral to the southern keys, on 
which, although nowhere common, it is generaUy distributed. It grows .vith the smaU Eugemas, the 
Exostema, the Ehamnidium, the CondaKa, and the Pisonias, which form a large part of the shrubby sec- 
ond growth which has replaced the original forests on Key West and some of the ne:ghbonng islands 
The largest trees noticed in Florida are on Upper Metacombe and Umbrella Keys, two smdl islands eas 
of Key West. It was first distinguished in Jamaica, and occurs in Cuba, Dominica, the Bahamas, and 

probably on some of the other West Indian Islands. ^ . , i i i 

The wood of Capparis Jamaicensis is yellow faintly tinged with red. It rs heavy, hard, close- 
grained, and satiny, and contams many evenly distributed large open ducts and obscure medullary ray. 
The specific gravij of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6971, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 43.44 
pounds. The sapwood, composed of about fifteen layers of annual growth is rather hghter colored. 
Capparis Jamaicensis was discovered in Florida by Dr. John L. Blodgett. 

. C.,,„„. J^i.e„,, ,o,ong. to fte .ection Qu.,Mla (Benth.. vatc g.a„du,„ .epa,s a,u, ^^^f^^J^^^^' '"'' ^ '^"^ ^^ ^ 
S. Hooker, Gen. i. 109. - Eichler, Manius FL Braul xiii. 1, 207). ar^ed, destitute of sepa s -^ I • __^ ^^^^^ ^^___,^^^^^ 

The speeie, are all Ameriea,,, and are distinguished by large val- ' John Loom.s Blodgett (IbOO l»o.i,, 




Massachusetts ; received a medical diploma at Pittsfield ; moved 
to Oliio in 1834, and then, in search of a milder climate, to Mobile, 
Alabama ; was appointed physician and surgeon of the Mississippi 
and Louisiana Colonization Society engaged in the removal of lib- 
erated slaves to Liberia, where he remained dm-ing two years. 
Keturning to America, Dr. Blodgctt settled, in DecembcFj 1838, 
in Key West, where he established himself as a physician and 
drui'rist, and where he continued to reside until nearly the time of 

his death, which occurred in Amherst, Dr. Blodgctt is the first 
botanist who explored the flora of the south Florida keys ■ his col 
lections were communicated to Torrey and to Nuttall who pub- 
lished several of the trees in his continuation of Michaus's Sylva in 
1842, His collections of seaweeds, in which he became specially 
interested in the last years of his life, were sent to Dr. W. H, Har- 
vey of Dublin, author of the Nereis Boreali-Amertcana. 


Plate XIX. Capfaris Jamaicexsis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower, 

4. A flow^er, the petals and all but one stamen removed, showing 

the glands at the base of the sepals, natural size, 

5. An anther, posterior view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, anterior view, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much enlarged, 

9- Vertical section of a portion of a fruit, enlarged- 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged, 

11. An embryo, much enlarged, 

12. An epidermal scale, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 

Tat. XIX. 

C.E.Fa^on del. 

PicartjT. so. 


A.Jiwcreux direr ^ 

ImnR.TanmiT. Paris 





Flowers perfect, regular; sepals 3, inabricated, persistent; petals 5, imbricated ; 
stamens monadelplious. Fruit baccate, indebiscent, 2 to 4-seeded. 


Canella Browne, Nat. Sist. Jam. 275, t. 27, f. 2, 3. — Meis- "Winterania, Linn^us, Syst. ed. 10, 10-15, Appx. 13G6 ; Gen. 
ner Gen. 42. — Endliclier, Gen. 1029. — Bentham & ed. 6, 238. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 263. 

Hooker, Gen. i. 121. — Baillon, Hist. PI. \. 191. 

A tree, with scaly aromatic bark, stout asby gray brancblets conspicuously marked with large 
orbicular lea£-scars. Leaves petiolate, alternate, destitute of stipides, penniveined, entire, pellucid-punc- 
tate coriaceous. Flowers arranged in a many-fiowered subcorymbose terminal or subterminal panicle 
composed of several dichotomously branched cymes from the axis of the upper leaves or of miuute cadu- 
cous bracts. Sepals suborbiculate, concave, coriaceous, erect, their margins ciliate. Petals hypogynous, 
in a sino-le row on the slightly convex receptacle, oblong, concave, rounded at the extremity, fleshy, 
twice the length of the sepals, white or rose-colored. Stamens about twenty, hyi^ogynous, the filaments 
connate into a tube crenulate at the summit, and slightly extended above the linear anthers, which are 
adnate to its outer face, and longitudinally two-vaived. Ovary free, included in the andrcecium, cylin- 
drical or oblong-conical, one-ceUed, with t^^'o parietal placentas, few-ovuled ; style short, fleshy, the sum- 
mit t^vo or tbree-lobed, stigmatic ; ovules arcuate, horizontal or descending, imperfectly anatropous, 
attached by a short funiculus. Fruit globular or slightly ovate, fleshy, minutely pointed with the base 
of the persistent style. Seeds renlform, suspended ; testa thick, crustaceous, shining black ; tegmen 
soft, membranaceous. Embryo curved, near the summit of the copious oleo-fleshy albumen, its radicle 

next the hilum j cotyledons oblong. 

The genus, consisting of a single species/ is West Indian, extending to southern Florida and to 

The wood of CaneUa is very heavy and exceedingly hard, strong and close-grained, with numerous 
thin inconspicuous medullary rays ; it is dark red-brown, the thick sapwood consisting of twenty-five to 
thirty layers of annual growth, light brown or yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
grown in Florida is 0.9893, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 61.65 pounds. 

The pale inner bark of Canella, under the name of Cortex Candlw albc, furnishes an aiwatic 
stimulant and tonic.^ It has a pleasant cinnamon-like odor, and a bitter acrid taste. It is now 

1 A second species (Flee, Herb. Mus. Paris, No. 720) from 
Maraeaibo in Venezuela, described by Jliers as Canella ohtusifoUa 
{Contrih. i. 118, t. 23, B.), is probably, as Baillon suggests, a vari- 
ety of C. alba, from whieli it differs principally in its shorter leaves 
and in the shorter terminal inflorescence, ternately branched. The 

flowers have not been seen. 

2 Canella bark is now principally obtained from the Bahama Isl- 
ands. Preparatory to the stripping, the bark is generally beaten 
with a stick for the purpose of removing the suberous outer layer ; 
the inner bark is then separated by a further beating, peeled off and 
dried, and is then ready for export without further preparation. 
(Flilckiger & Ilanbury, Pharmacograpkia, G8.) 

The dnig was first described in 1605 by Cluslus in the Exotlco- 
rum Libri Decern. (Canella alba quorundam, 78 ; Lignum aromatlcum, 
323 ; Lignum seu potlus Cortex aromatkus, 324), by Parkmson m 
1640 in the Theatrum Botankum {Canella alba, 1581), and by J. 
Bauhin in 1650 in the Historia Planiarum Universalis (Canella foho 
n,ali punica^, i. Hb- 4, 455 ; Lignum aromaiicum seu potius cortex Mo- 
nardes i. lib. 4, 460 ; Canella alba quorundam, i. hb. 4, 401, also 
Kav Hist PI- ii- 1S02). It was early confounded with the bark of 
Drimys Winteri, a native of Patagonia, and was sold as Wmter's 
bark previous to 1693. (Dale, Pkarmacologia, 432.) It was well 
described by Pierre Pomet in 1694 (Hist. Gen. Drog.m^J^o pub- 
lished a fanciful portrait of the tree. According to Pomet the bark 

36 SJLVA OF NORTH AMERICA. canellace^. 

rarely used^ except perhaps locally in medicine, and as a condiment by the negroes of the West 

Canellaj the diminutive of the Latin cana or carina^ a cane or reed, was first applied to the bark of 
some old-world tree ^ from the form of a roll or quill which it assumed in drying, and was afterwards 
transferred to the West Indian tree. 

was known in his time also as Costus hlanc and Costus corticuR or ' Cassia bark was an article of commeree in London under the 
corticosus. The confusion regarding the tree discovered by Captain name of canel in the thirteenth century (Fliickigcr & Hanbury 
"Winter on the shores of the Strait of Magellan in 1578 and the West Pharmacof/raphia, 47G) ; and the bark of the true Cinnamon (Cm- 
Indian Canella lasted during two centuries. (Linnaeus, Mat Med. namomum Zeylanicurri) was known in Europe as Canella bark before 
66 ; Barham, HorU Am. 209 ; Miers, Ann, Nat. IlisL ser, 3, i. M2,) the introdactiou of West Indian canella- 

! / 





Cinnamon Bark. White Wood. Wild Cinnamon, 

Canella alba, Murray, Linn. Syst. ed. 14, iv. 443. — Swartz, 
Ohs. 190; Trans. Linn. Soc. i. 96, t. 8. — "WiUdenow, 
Spec, ii- 851. — Titford, JTort. Bot. Am. Siippl. ilL t. 10, 

f_ 4_ De CaiidoUe, Prodr. i. 563. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. 

Antil. viii. 229, t. 568. — Hayne, Arsen. 9, t. 5. — Ste- 
venson & Churchill, Med. Sot. ii. t. 66. — Woodville, 3Ied. 
Bot. iv. 694, t. 234. — Lindley, Med. Bot. 116. — Carson, 
Med. Bot. i. 24, t. 16. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 181, f . 98. — 
A. Richard, Fl. Cub. 248. — Dietrich, Syn. iv. 811. — 
Micrs, Contrib. I 116, t. 23, A. — Griscbach, Fl. Brit. W. 

Ind. 109. — Chapman, FL 43. — Guiboart, Ilist. Brag. 
ed. 7, iii. 621, £. 767. — Bentley & Trimeu, Med. Fl. I 
26, t. 26. — BaiUon, Hist. FL i. 164, f. 211-215. — Sar- 
gent, Forest Trees JV. A?)i. 10th Ce7isus U. S. ix. 24. 

Laurus Winterana, Linnceus, S^ec. 371. 

Winterania Canella, Linnjeus, Sj}ec. ed. 2, 636. — Pou'et, 
Lam. Diet. Suppl.' iii. 799, t. 399. 

0. Winterana, Giertner, Fruct. i. 377, t. 77. 

C. laurifolia, Loddiges, Cat. — Sweet, Sort. Brit. 65. — 
Don, Gen. Syst. i. 679. 

Cmiella alha attains in Florida a height of twenty-five to thirty feet, with a straight trunk eight 
or ten inches in diameter. On the mountains of Jamaica it is said to grow sometimes to the height of 
fifty feet. The principal branches are slender, horizontal and spreading, fonuuig a compact round- 
headed top. The bark of the trunk is an eighth of an inch thick, light gray, the surface broken into 
many short thick scales rarely more than two to three inches long, and about twice the thickness of the 
pale yellow aromatic inner bark. The leaves are obovate, round or slightly emarginate at the apex, and 
contracted into a short stout grooved petiole ; they are three and a half to five inches long, an inch and 
a half to two inches broad, bright deep green, and lustrous. The flowers open in the autumn, and the 
fruit ripens in March and April, when it is bright crunson, soft and fleshy, and is devoured by many 


Canella alha is widely distributed, and not uncommon on the Florida keys, where it was first 

discovered by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. It generaUy grows under the shade of krger trees in dense forests 
composed of Sideroxylon, Lysdoma, Swietenia, Bursera, Hypelate, DiphoHs, and Nectandra. 

Canella alha was one of the first American trees to attract the attention of Europeans,^ and it is 
mentioned in the accounts of many of the early voyages to America.' 

1 Cinnamodendron corticosum (Miers, Contrib. i. 121, t. 24), a 
small tree of the mountain forests of Jamaica, of the same family 
and with the same properties, was doubtless confounded with the 
true Canella in the early accounts of that island. The bark of the 
two trees Is not distinguished commercially, and the pharmaceutical 
descriptions of Canella bark published prior to 1528 cover in some 
cases at least the bark of Canella and of Cinnamodendron. (Fluck- 
iger & Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 19.) 

3 " AUi hallamos un arbol, cuya hoja tenia el mas fino olor de cla- 
vos que nunea vi, y era como laurel, salvo que no era ansi grande ; 
yo ansi pienso que era laurel su especie." La carta del Doctor 
Chanca, que escribio a la Ciudad de Sevilla. Segunda viage de Co- 
lon, 1493. (Select Letters of Christopher Columbus relating to four 
voyages to the New World, Major's ed. 23.) 

"Aleuni alberi che nel sapore & odore parevano di Cannella." 
Fernando Colombo, Hist, fob 96, and " Alberi di Cannella selvatica," 
fob 104. 

Cinamomum sive Canella Peruana, C. Bauhin, Pinax, 409. — 

Ray, Hist. PL ii. 1563. 

" There hath beene Cinnamon and something else given me as 
fruits of the islands." (Layfleld in Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1174.) 

De Arborihus, Jucaia;, Nieremberg, Hist. Nat. 294. 

De Cassia Lignea, Cinnamomo, seu Canella, Francisco Hernan- 

dez, Nov. PI. Hist. (ed. Koma, 1651), lib. ii. cap. 11 ; De Caninga 
arhore, lib. ii. cap. 25 (and Ximencs, Spanish ed. Mexico, 1615). 

De la Canella de nuestras Indias, Nicolas Monardes, Hist. Med. 

Sevilla, 1574, fob 98. 

"Ex concisis arboribus, cinamomi forma." (Feter Martyr, Dec- 
ades, dec. i. 7.) 

"They suppose to be the Cinnamon-tree." (The Hisiorie of the 

West Indies, 77. English ed. of Peter Martyr's Dtcades.) 
« Bois de Canelle," Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Antilles de 

I'Amerique, 80. 

Canella alba Clusii, Jonston, Dendrographias, 1G6. 

Canella Americana, Cubana, Jonston, Hist. Nat. Arh. (ed. Ecke- 

brecht), i. 170. 

" De la Canelle qui se trouve dans la grande tcrre de la Guade- 
loupe." (Du Tertre, Hist. Gen. Antil. ii. 145.) 

Cassia Cinamomea, s. Cinamomum syhestre Barhadensium Arbor 
haccifera fructu cahjculato tetrapyreno, folio enervi, Plukenet, Aim. 

Bot. 89, t. 160, f. 7. 

Cassia lignea Jamaicensis, Laureolm foliis subcinere^, cortice Pipe- 

ris modo acri, Flukenet, Aim. Bot.89, t. 81, f. 1. 

Cassia lignea Laurifolia, Americana, cortice albo, valde acn et 

aromatico, Flukenet, Aim. Bot. 89. 

Arbor bacdfera laurifolia aromatica, Sloane, PhiL Trans, xvu. 

38 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. canellace^. 

The white barkj the brilliant deep green foliage^ and crimson fruit make the Canella one of the 
most ornamental of the smaller south Florida trees. It was introduced into England in 1738/ and was 
first cultivated in Europe by Philip Miller." 

465, t.; Cat. PL Jam. 165; Nat HisL Jam. ii. 87, t. 191, f- 2.— ^ Philip Miller (1691-1771) ; 'aiortulauorum prmceps;" gar- 

Catesby, Nat. HisL Car. ii. 50, t 50. deuer of the Chelsea Physic Garden ; author of the Gardener^s Die- 

Winterania^ Linu^us, Hort Cliff. 488. tionary, of which eight editions were published during his life. 

^ Alton, Hort^ Kew. ii» 125. 


Plate XX. Canella alea. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower, 

4. A flowerj enlarged. 

6- Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A flower, the sepals and petals removed, enlarged. 

7. An ovule, much enlarged, 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, somewhat enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged, 

11. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 

Tab, XX. 




C.E. F'axon, d&ly. 

I" u art Jr. sc^ 


jiEwcT-eiLr- fitre.-c^. 

Inip^Ji^Tarmir. Paris. 





Flowers solitary, regular, perfect ; sepals 5, hypogynous, unequal, imbricated; pet- 
als usually 5, hypogynous, imbricated ; stamens pentadelphous or united into a tube. 

Capsules dcliiscent ; seeds exalbuminous. 

Gordonia, Ellis, Phil. Trans. Lx. 518, t. 11. — Linnaeus, 
Mant. 556. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 275. — Cambessedes, 
MSm. Mus. Paris, xvi. 408, t. 16, B. — Endlicher, Gen. 
1022. — Meisner, Gen. 41. — Gray, Gen. III. i\. 1^1. ~~ 
Eentbam & Hooker, Gen. i. 186. — Baillon, Hist. PI. iv. 


Pranklinia, Marshall, Arbust. Am. 48. 

Lacathea, Salisbury, Parad. Lond. No, 56. 

Polyspora, Sweet, Hort. Brit. 61. 

Carria, Gardner, Calc. Jour. Nat. Hist. vii. 7. 

Antheischima, Kortlials, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 137, t. 27. 

Dipterospermuin, Griffith, Notul. ix. 564. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice. Leaves ample, alternate, pinnately veined, entire or crenate, 
exstipulate, sempervirent or membranaceous. Flowers long-peduncled or snbsessile, soKtary in the axils 
of the leaves, or collected at the ends of the branches. Calyx with two to five caducous bracts below the 
flower ; sepals rounded, concave, coriaceous, graded from the bracts to the petals, persistent. Petals 
(rarely six or indefinite) alternate with the sepals, free or often slightly united with each other at the 
base and mth the clusters of stamens, obovate, concave, white or rarely rose-colored, deciduous. Sta- 
mens indefinite, the clusters opposite the petals ; filaments short and united at the base into a fleshy cup 
adnate with the base of the petals, or long and inserted directly on the petals; anthers inserted near 
their base, versatile, introrse, two-celled, the oblong cells opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile, three 
to five or rarely six-ceUed ; style elongated, erect, simple, the stigmatic apex spreading ; ovules anatro- 
pous, four to eight in each ceU, pendulous in two series from the inner angle, collateral. Capsule 
woody, oblong or subglobose, five-celled, loculicidally five-valved, with a persistent axis angled by the 
projecting placentas. Seeds two to eight in each cell, pendulous, flat or compressed, the woody testa 
produced upwards into an oblong mng (rarely obsolete). Embryo mostly straight or oblique, with 
ovate flat or crumpled cotyledons ; the short radicle superior.^ 

The genus Gordonia is confined to the south Atlantic states in North America, and to tropical 
Asia. Ten species are described ; two are American, six occur in India ^ and the Malay penmsula and 
one in southern China.^ Gordonia excdsa^ is common to the Indian and Malay penmsulas and the 
East Indian islands, where a second species occurs.^ . ■ , • 

Gordonia has few economic properties. The bark of the American G. Lasianthus is rich m tanmn, 
and has been locally used in tanning leather. The wood of G. oMusa, a fine tree of the mountain 
forests of India, is manufactured into lumber and used for doors, rafters, and beams. 

^ The genus has been divided into two sections : — 

1. Eugordonia, with short fllainenta rising from the partly free 
summit and inner face of the thickened lohes confluent at the base 
into a fleshy cup, and a capsule pointed with the base of the short 
style, the valves entire, with four, or by abortion two, winged seeds 
in each celh 

2. Franklinia, with long filaments connate with the base of the 
petals ; an elongated deciduous style ; a capsule loculicidally five- 
valved from the obtuse apex to the middle, and septicidally five- 
valved from the base ; and six to eight, or by abortion fewer seeds 

in each cell, their loose testa hardly produced into a whig. (Gray, 

Gen. III. ii. 103.) 

2 Thwaites, Enum. PL Zeyl 40. - Hooker, f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 291. 

s Gordonia anormla, Sprengel, Syst. lii. 126. - Bentham, Fl. 
H^^„^ 29. -Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxui. 80 (Camel- 
lia axillaris, Boi. Reg. t- ^ - Bot. Mag. i. 2(H7. - Polyspora ax- 
illaris, Sweet, Hort. Brit. 61.-I>on, Gen. Syst. i. 574). 

4 Blame, Bijdr. ih. 130. -Miquel. Fl. Ned. Ind. .. 489. 

5 Gordonia acuminata, Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. i. 489. 

6 Beddome, Fl. Syl S. Ind. t. 83. The wood is described " as 




All the species bear handsome foliage and flowers, and are desirable ornamental plants. The 
American G. Altamaha is perhaps the most commonly found in gardens. Q. rmomala has long been 
cultivated under glass in Europe. 

The genus Gordonia, founded by Ellis ' on the American G. Lasiantlius, was named by Br. Alex- 
ander Garden ' of Charleston, South CaroKna, in honor of Dr. James Gordon ^ of Aberdeen. This 
honor was transferred, however, by Elhs to James Gordon,* a nurseryman at Mile End near London. 

white with a straw tint, even-grained and pleasant to work, and not 
unlike beech ; it warps if not well seasoned," 

1 Johti Ellis (1710-1770), a London merchant, agent for West 
Florida and for Dominica; a correspondent of Linnaeus, and the 
anthor of the Natural History of Corallines^ and of several papers 
on botany. 

^ Alexander Garden (1728-1791), a Scotch physician who resided 
in Charleston, South Carolina, for thirty years from 1752 ; a corre- 
spondent of LimiECus, Elhs, and Collinson. Dr. Garden returned 
to England on the breaking out of the Kevolutionary "War, and 
died in London. 

^ James Gordon, "a very ingenious and skillful physician and 

botiinist who first interested me in these studies, and tinctured my 
mind very early with a relish for them." (Letter of Alexander 
Garden, Smith, Correspondence o/Linnmus, I 378.) 

^ James Gordon (d. 1780), nurseryman (1750-1776) ; introduced 
into England Ulmus Americana (1752), Sophora Japonica (1753), 
and the Ginkgo (1751) ; he was '^bred under Lord Petre and Dr. 
Sherard, and knows systematically all the plants he cultivates. He 
has more knowledge in vegetation than all the gardeners and writ- 
ers on gardening in England put together, but he is too modest to 
publish anything," (Letter of John Ellis to LimiEeus. Smith, 
Correspondence of Linnceus^ i, 93.) 


Flowers long pedunculate ; filaments united into a tube ; capsule ovoid ; seeds furnished with 

a membranaceous wing; leaves evergreen , L G, Lasianthus- 

Flowers subsessile ; filaments distinct; capsule globose; seeds without wings ; leaves mem- 
branaceous 2, G. Altamaha. 





Bay. Loblolly Bay. 

Flowers on long slender peduncles ; tube of the filaments short, 5-lobed, adnatc to 
the base of the petals. Capsules ovoid ; seeds winged. Leaves evergreen. 

Gordonia Lasianthus, Ellis, FUl. Trans. Ix. 518, t. 11 ; 
Letters, t. 2. — LiniiEeus, Maiit. 570. — L'Herltier, Sthy. 
J<fov. 156. — Cavanllles, Diss. ii. 307, t. 161. — Walter, 
Fl. Car. 111. — Bartram, Trav. 161. — Lamarck, Diet. 
ii. 770; III. iii. 146, t. 594, f. 1. — Swartz, Obs. 111.— 
Willdenow, Spec. iii. 840. — Michaux, Fl. Dor.-Am. ii. 

42. Sot. Mag. t. 668. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 236, t. 

68. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 484. — Michaux £ Hist. 
Arh. Am. iii. 131, t. 1. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 451. — 
Nuttall, Gen. il. 84. — De Candolle, Proc/r. i. 528. — Elli- 
ott, >S/A;. ii. 171. —Don, Gen. Syst. i. 573, f. 99. — Audu- 
bon, Birds, t. 168. — Reiclienbach, Fl. Exot. t. 151.— 

Spach, Hist. Veg. iv. 79. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 379, f. 
93. — Torrey & Gray, i^;. N.Am. i. 223. — Gray, Gen. 
III. ii. 102, t. 140, 141. — Choisy,il/'em. Temst. et Camel. 
51. — Payer, Organ. Compt. 533, 1. 149, f. 1-23. — Chap- 
man, Fl. 60. — Curtis, Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 
80. — Baillon, Hist. Fl. iv. 230, f. 254, 255 ; Diet. ii. 725, 
f. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOtk Census U. S. ix. 
25. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 96. 

Hypericum Lasianthus, Linngeus, Spec. 783. — Hill, Veg. 
Syst. XV. t. 1, f. 3. 

G. pyramidalis, Salisbury, Prodr. 386. 

A tree, sixty to seventy-five feet in height, with a tall straight trunk eighteen or twenty inches in 
diameter, and branches which generally grow upright at first, and then spread into a rather narrow com- 
pact head; or rarely a low shrub. The bark of the trunk of full-grown individuals is nearly an inch 
thick and deeply divided into regular parallel rounded ridges, their dark red-brown scaly surface broken 
into many regular shallow furrows. The bark of the stout branchlets, marked during several years with 
lar-e circular leaf-scars, is dark brown and rugose, becoming furrowed during the second or third 
season. The winter-buds are narrowly acuminate and covered with pale silky hairs. The leaves are 
coriaceous, lanceolate-oblong, pointed and narrowed gradually at the base into stout channeled petioles, 
minutely crenately-toothed usuahy above the middle only, dark green, smooth and shmmg. The flow- 
ers, which begin to expand in July and continue to open successively during several weeks, are borne 
on slender peduncles two and a half to three inches long. The subfloral bracts, of which there are 
usually three or four, are ovate, minute and caducous. The sepals are ovate and a tlurd to half an 
inch long by as much broad, fringed on the margins with short white hairs and covered ou the outer 
surface with a dense velvet-like pubescence. The petals are rounded at the extremity, gradually and 
regularly contracted to the base, and silky puherulent on the back. They are white an inch and a 
quarter to an inch and a half long and an inch broad. The stamlnal cup is fleshy, deep y five-lobed, 
and pubescent on the inner surface. The anthers are yellow. The ovary is pubescen , ovate, and grad- 
ually contracted into the stout style which equals the stamens in length. The seeds are ±lat neai :^ 
square, slightly concave on the inner and rounded on the outer sur^face with a black rugose oiM 
dotted with small pale brown excrescences. They are nearly one sixteenth of an inch ong and liaK 1 e 
length of the thin membranaceous oblong or obhque .-ing, which is pointed or rounded at «- exti n ty 
and pale brown. The embryo fiUs the cavity of the seed, and is nearly straight. The cotyledons are 
oval, subcordate, foliaceous; the short radicle centripetal superior. , , , . l r ,lf „„,,t^ 

GordonAa Lasiantlms is confined to the region adjacent to the south Atl-^i-ud Gul^ <^ 
The most northern point where it is found growing naturaUy is in the southenr part of ''^^^^^^'^^^^^ 
it extends south to Cape Malabar and Cape Eomano in Florida, and westward to the valley of the ft1.s 
sissippl River. It is most common in Georgia and' east Florida, much less common m west Florida 
Alabama, and rare towards the western limits of its range. 




Gordonia LasiantJms grows in shallow swamps or on moist springy lands^ scattered with the Great 
Magnolia^ the Red Bay^ the Scarlet Maple, and other moisture-loving trees, through forests composed 
principally o£ the Water-gum ; or with the Small Magnolia it almost exclusively occupies shallow depres- 
sions, often several huudied acres in extent, in the pine-barrens near the Atlantic coast. It is occasion- 
ally found in the sandy swamps which border the rivers of the Gulf coast, covered with almost impen- 
etrable forests of the "VYater-gum, the White Cedar, the Devil-wood, and the Swamp Red Bay. On the 
poorest pine-lands of South Carolina, usually covered with a dense undergrowth of the Saw Palmetto, 
Gordonia Lasianthus is sometimes found blooming as a shrub, and on such soils it rarely grows to a 
height of more than three or four feet or lives more than a few years. Gordonia Lasianthus is never 
long-lived, and the insecure hold which the superficial roots have in the wet soil in which this tree 
grows causes it to be blown down easily after it reaches its full size. 

The wood of Gordonia Lasianthus contains numerous thin medullary rays ; it is light, soft and 
close-grained, but not strong or durable. The color of the heartwood is light red ; when absolutely dry 
it has a specific gravity of 0.4728, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 29.47 pounds. The sapwood, 
consisting of forty to fifty thick layers of annual growth, is lighter colored. The wood is sometimes 
used in cabinet-making, for which purpose, were it not for its want of strength, its fine grain and good 
color would make it valuable. 

Gordonia Lasianthus^ was first described by Plukenet in the -4??ia?^/^eKm ^o^flnicinTi.^ It was 
introduced into England about 1768,^ and is occasionally seen in gardens, although no great sue- 
cess has ever attended its cultivation.* It is precariously hardy in the United States as far north as 

1 The Liniiieau use of the capital m Lasianthus (hairy- flowered) 
is retained, although Liim^us's reasou for so writing the word is 
not apparent. His quotation, " Lasianthus Gronovii vide Syst. 
Nat.," as a synonym under his species in the Hortus Cliffbrdanus, is 
not clear. The name does not appear in the first edition of the Sys- 
tema Naturce, the only one published before the Hortus Cliffbrlianus, 
and the only use of the word by Gronovius was in the Flora Vir- 
ginicai where this phrase occurs as a note to his Hypericum Jlore 
cameo: "Lasiantho affinis foliis ovatis integris ; flore specioso alho, 
esterius puhescente, fundo rubro, Clayt." (175), Linnaeus, when 
it was found that this plant was not a Hypericum, seems to have 
suggested Lasianthus to Ellis as the generic name for it. The sng- 
gestioOj however, came too late, as Ellis, writing to Linuffius on De- 
cember 28, 1770, eight days after his paper on Gordonia was read 
before the Royal Society, regrets that " I cannot oblige you in 
changing the name Gordonia to Lasianthus." The characters of 
Gordonia Lasianthus are given in this letter, (Smith, Correspond- 
ence of Linnaeus y i. 254,) 

Loblolly, a loutish or foolish person, nautically loblolly-boy or 
surgeon's assistant, is a nautical name also for water gruel or spoon 
meat, and is applied to medicines collectively. It was early used 
in the West Indies as a plant name, and appears in Plukenet's 
Almagesium Botanicum, published in London in 1096, where tliis 
phrase occurs on page 38 ; "Arbor Indiea baeclfera Verbasci foliis 
lanuginosa, Loblolly Barbadensibus dicta," Plukenet's plant Is 
Cordia macrophyllay Mill., which thus appears to be the first tree to 
which the name Loblolly was applied In print. 

A Cupania, probably C. glabra, Sw., is called by Browne in the 
Natural History of Jamaica, publisl;cd in 17S9, "Loblolly-wood." 
In the description it Is stated that '' the wood is soft and useless, from 
whence its name." This seems to connect the name of loblolly, a 
soft, foolish person, or soft mixture of porridge, with a tree with 

soft wood. Laplacea Hmmatoxylon ^ Camb,, Pinus Cuhensis, Griseb,, 
Sciadophyllum Jacquinii, Griseb., and Piaonia subcordatay Sw., are 
alsoj according to Grisebach {FL Brit. W> Ind.)^ called Loblolly. 
''Blolly," a corruption, no doubt, of Loblolly, is used by the inhab- 
itants of the Florida keys, and probably by those of the Bahama 
Islands, as the common name of Pisonia oitusata, Sw- 

Catesby first called Gordonia Lasianthus Loblolly Bay (NatHisL 
Car*'). The use of the name as applied to this tree is not, however, 
clear. Catesby may have given it the name from a fancied resem- 
blance of the Gordonia to a West Indian tree seen by him on the 
Bahamas ; or the name may have been used from the fact that old 
treeSj attached to the ground by their lateral surface roots only, are 
easily blown down. The name is more common in books than it is 
in familiar use by the people of the southern states. 

^ Alcea FloridanOf quinquecapsularis Laurinis foliis, leviter crena- 
tis, seminihus Coniferarum instar alatis, 7, t. 352, f . 3. — Catesby, Nat 
Hist, Car. I 4A, t. 44. 

Hypericum Jlorihus pentagynis, foUis lanceolatis serratis, Linnseus, 

Hon, Cliff. 380. 

^ Gordonia Lasianthus was first cultivated in England, according 
to Alton (Ilort. Kew^ ih 231), by a Mr, Benjamin Bewick, of whom 
I have no information in addition to that contained in the following 
extract from a letter from Ellis to Linnaeus : " You must know 
then, that we have lately got into a method of cultivating that ele- 
gant evergreen, called in South Carolina and the Floridas the Lob- 
lolly Bay. This tree has lately produced some well-blown flowers 
in the curious botanic garden of Mr, Bewick at Clapham, near Lon- 
don, who was so obliging to send them to me to examine their char- 
acter while fresh," (Phil. Trans. Ix, 518 ; read December 20, 

* Loudon, Arb, Brit L 379, 



Plate XXI, Gordoxia Lasiant:hus, 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branchj natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower, 

4. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

5. An anther, posterior view. 

6. An anther, anterior view. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary^ enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a capsule^ natural size. 
10. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

11- An embryo, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of an embryo, enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 


C^^Fcix^n^ deZ^. 

J^C^rU/r. SCr 


^,Miocf£ii^ dire^^ 

Imp. //. Tansur, Pari^ 






Flowers, subsessile ; filaments distinct. Capsule globose, septieidally 5-valved from 
the base to the middle ; seeds destitute of wings. Leaves membranaceous, deciduous. 

Gordonia Altaraaha, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 

Franklinia Altamaha, Marshall, Arhust. Am. 49. — Bar- 
tram, Trav. 16, 467. — Rafinesque, Atlant. Jour. 79, f. 

G. pubescens, L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov, 156. — Lamarck, Diet. 
ii. 770. — Cavanilles, Diss. ii. 308, 1. 162. — "WiUdenow, 
Spec. lii. 841. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 42. — Ventenat, 
Jard. Malm. 1. 1. — Nouveau Dulmmel^ ii. 237. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arh. i. 484. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. 
iii. 135, t. 2. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 451. — Nuttall, 
Gen. ii. 84. — Loiscleur, Herb. Amat. iv. t. 236. — Elliott, 
Sk. ii. 171. — De Candolle, Prodr. i. 528. — Don, Gen. 
S]/st. i. 573. — Audubon, Birds, t. 185. — Spach, Hist, 

Veg. iv. 80. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 380, £. 94. — Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 223. — Gray, Gen. 111. ii. 102, t. 
141, f. 11-14, t. 142. — Choisy, Mem. Ternst. et Camel. 
51. — Chapman, Fl. 60. — Goodale & Spraguo, Wild 
Flowers, 193, t. 47. — Sargent, Forest Trees iV. Am. 10th 
Census XJ. S. ix. 25. 
G. Franklini, L'Hei-itier, Stirp. Nov. 156. — Willdenow, 
Spec. iii. 841. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii. 237. — Desfon- 
taines. Hist. Arb. i. 484. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 

Michauxia sessilis, Salisbury, Prodr. 386. 
Lacathea florida, Salisbury, Farad. Lond. t. 56. — CoUa, 
Hort. lllpul. Appx. i. 134. 

A tree or slirub, " fifteen or twenty feet high branching alternately," * "vvith stout slightly angled 
branchlets covered with dark red-brown bark, dotted with minute pale wart-like excrescences and con- 
spicuously marked with large prominent leal-scars. The scales of the stout acuminate winter-buds are 
covered with a thick pale silky tomentum. The leaves are ob ovate-oblong, rounded or pointed at the 
apex, and gradually and regularly narrowed at the base into a short grooved petiole ; they are sharply ser- 
rate usually above the middle only, bright green and lustrous on the upper surface, and pale on the lower, 
and turn scarlet in the autumn before falling ; they are five or six inches long and two inches broad. 
The flowers, which in Philadelphia begin to appear about the middle of September, continue to open 
untU the buds are destroyed by frost. They are borne on short stout peduncles, at first pubescent, and 
finally glabrous, produced from the axils of the upper leaves, and marked with the broad conspicuous 
scars of the two minute lateral subfloral bracts, which are pubescent and early-deciduous. The sepals are 
nearly circular, half an inch long, with ciliolate margins, and are covered on the outer surface with short 
pale hairs. The white membranaceous petals, which before the expansion of the flower form a large 
spherical bud, are obovate with more or less crenulate margins j they are an inch or an inch and a half 
long by an inch broad, and are densely coated with fine pubescence on the outer surface. The anthers 
are yellow. The ovary is conspicuously ridged, pubescent, truncate, and crowned with the slender decid- 
uous style which nearly equals the stamens in length. The seeds, sis or eight, or by abortion fewer in 
each cefl of the woody capsule, are closely packed together on the whole length of the thick axile pla- 
centa ; they are nearly half an inch long and angled by mutual pressure. The embryo is not known.^ 

Gordonia Altamaha is not now known to grow anywhere naturally. It was discovered by John 
Bartram in 1765, during one of his journeys through the southern states, near Fort Barrington on the 
Altamaha River in Georgia, occupying with PincJcneya pubens an area of two or three acres. William 
Bartram, who had accompanied his father during the journey of 1765, revisited the Altamaha River 
eight years later, and again in 1778, and collected roots and seeds of the beautiful flowering tree which 
had so impressed his father and hunself that they had thought it worthy of the name of Frankhnia, 

^ Bartram, Trav. 467. 

2 I have never seen the bark of an old plant of Franklinia, or 
been able to examine its wood. 




which they proposed for it in honor of their distingnished friend and neighbor, Benjamin Franldin ^ 
Di\ Moses Marshall^ visited the same locality in 1790 and saw Franklinia. No botanist since 1790 
however, has seen the plant growing wild, and all efforts to find it in the original locality or elsewhere 
have been unsuccessful.^ 

Gordonia Altamaha was introduced into gardens by the Bartrams,' and reached England as early 
as 1774.' In cultivation it forms a low spreading shrubby tree, with a short stout trunk covered with 
smooth dark brown bark. It is hardy in the United States as far north as Philadelphia, and flourishes 
in England and in central Europe. It grows well in rich light loam near water, and may be propagated 
by layers. 

^ William Bartram, Trav. 16, 467. 

2 Moses Marshall (1758-1813), a nephew of the distinguished 
West Chester hotaiiist, Humphrey Marshall, autlior of the Arbustum 
Americanum, with whom he was associated during several years in 
hotanieal enterprises, made several long exploring journeys through 
the southern and southwestern parts of the country for the purpose 
of collecting plants and seeds for English correspondents. 

» W. H, Kavenel, Am, Nat xvi. 235. 

^ All the specimens of Franklinia in cultivation are descendants 
of the plants collected by the Bartrams and by Marshall, or of those 
raised from the seed gathered by William Bartram in 1778. The 
specimen planted by John Bartram in his garden near Philadelphia 
was described as fifty feet high by William Wynne, writing to Lou- 

don's Gardener's Magazine (viii. 272) in November, 1831, when the 
tree was in flower. A notice of this tree, or perhaps of a younger 
one, as it is said to be only about thirty feet in height, was pub- 
lished in 1853 by Mr, Thomas Meehan in The American Hand Book 
of Ornamental Trees, 121. The large tree in Bartram's garden was 
blown do\vn a few years ago. There is one of its descendants, now 
about twenty-five feet high, in the garden of Mr. William De Hart 
in Philadelphia, and there are trees nearly as large in Fairmoimt 
Park in that city, and in the nurseries of Mr. Thomas Mcchan at 
Germantown. Our figure has been made from specimens from the 
German town tree. 
^ Aiton, HorL Kew, ii, 231. 


Plate XXII. Gordonia Altamaha. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, natural size. 

5. A stamen, enlarged- 

6. A pistil, enlarged, 

7. An ovulCj much enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a carpel, natural size. 

9. A seedj natural size- 

Silva of Nortli America. 

Tab, XXI 

-^-Fa^on^ ^^ . 

Fmartjr. sC'\ 


ji.Jiwcreu^y c^irer^ 

Imp Jl. Taneur^ p£i.rLf. 



Flowers solitary, terminal or opposite the leaves ; calyx hypogynous, subcampan- 
ulate, deeply 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation, persistent ; petals ; stamens 
5, united into a column. Capsule 4 to 5-valved, loculicidally dehiscent. 

Fremontia, Torrey, Smithsonian Contrib. vi. 5. — Bentham Cheiranthodendron, Baillon, Hist. PI. iv. 127, in part. 
& Hooter, Gen. i. 212, 982. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
n. ser. sxil. 304. 

A tree or shrub, with stellate pubescence and mucilaginous inner bark. Leaves alternate, pal- 
mately lobed, furnished with minute deciduous stipules, tliich, prominently veined, usually rufous on the 
lower surface. Flowers petiolate, subtended by three or rarely five minute caducous bracts. Calyx cleft 
nearly to the base, the yellow lobes spreading, obovate, often mucronate, an inch long, the three outer 
a httle smaller, pubescent on the outer surface, with a hairy cavity at the base of the inner suiface. 
Staminal column divided to the middle into five slender divisions alternate with the sepals, each bear- 
ing on its summit an adnate oblong-linear curved extrorse two-celled anther, longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary five-celled, the cells opposite the sepals ; style filiform, elongated, terminated by an acute undi- 
vided stigmatic point ; ovules mimerous in each cell, horizontal, anatropous. Capsule ovate, acuminate, 
an inch long, densely coated with long stinging hahs, the inner surface of the iom or five cells villose 
pubescent. Seeds oval ; testa crustaceous, minutely pubescent, furnished with a small fleshy marginal 
deciduous arilloid appendage on the chalaza. Embryo straight, in thick fleshy albumen ; cotyledons 
oblong, foliaceous, three or four times longer than the short radicle. 

Fremontia ^ is represented by a single CaiiFornia species. 


Slippery Elm. 

Fremontia Californica, Toirey, SmUlisonian Contrib. vi. ters, Gard. Ghron. 1869, 610. - Seemann, Jour. Bot. vii. 

5, t. 2, f. 2; Proc. Am. Assoc, iv. 191; Pacijlc B. B. 297.- Garden, iii. 54, t.-Planchon, Fl. des Sevres, 

Bep.i^'.lo,n.~^^^yhe^'vy,PacificB.B.Bep.Vl.Q?..- xxli. 175, t.- Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. i. 88; n. 

Walpei-s, Ann. iv. 319. -Gray, Jour. Bast. Soc. Nat. 43T. - Eothrock, WMder's Bep. ^i. ^\,^ol. 
Hist. vii. 146. - Bot. Mag. t. 5591. - Lemaire, III. Hort. CheirautHodendron Californicum, BaxUon, Hist. PI iv. 

xiii. t. 496. — _Be^^. Hort. xvii. 226, t. 13. — Carri^re, 70. 
Bev. Hort. 1867, 91, t. — Koch, Dendr. i. 483. — Mas- 

A smaU tree, twenty to thirty feet high, with a short stout trunk twelve or fourteen inches in 
diameter, and stout rigid branches spreading almost at right angles with the stem ; or more often a low 
intricately branched shrub. The bark of the trunk is rarely more than a quarter of an mch thick ; it is 

^ The nearest ally to Fremontia is the Mexican Hand-tree. Clei. Cheirauthodeodron, while Gray retains ^^^^"^^^ 

rantUaenaron .latanoides, Bail., which differs from Fremontia in its family, CMrantUdenare., founded pnmardy on the ^^rong^ qn o- 

large .ubfloral bract., its more deeply pitted pnrple calyx, and its cncial calyx, for these two genera whjoh he -move f om SUrcuU- 

oblique staminal tube with connectives produced beyond the an- acm and Malvace^. {Proc. Am. Acad. n. scr. xxn. 6^6.) 
thers- Baillon, in spite of these differences, unites Fremontia with 

48 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. cheiraxtuodendre^. 

deeply furrowed; the dark red-brown surface broken into numerous short thick scales ; that of the stout 
terete branchlets thickly coated, when they first appear, with rufous pubescence, is light red-brown. 
The leaves are usually three-lobed, rarely entire, or sometimes five to seven-lobed, an inch and a half 
across, and are borne on stout petioles a half to two thirds of an inch long. The flowers, which appear 
in July, are produced in the greatest profusion from short spur-like lateral branches. 

Fremontia Californica grows on the lower slopes of the California mountains from Mariposa, at 
least, to Lower California. It is nowhere very common west of the Sierra Nevada, although it reaches 
its greatest size on the foothills of the western slope of these mountains. East of the Sierra Nevada, in 
the region of the Mohave Desert, Fremontia is much more common, always growing as a low shrub, and 
sometimes forming thickets several acres in extent, which may be seen miles away when the plants are 
covered with their brilliant yellow flowers. Here the ordinary associates of Fremontia in the dry grav- 
elly and rocky soil are Garrya flavescens, Primus fascicidata, Ceanothus cuneatiis, Purshia triden- 
tata, Aplopappus monactis, Lycmm Coojjeri, and the other shrubs of the Cahfornia desert, while above 
it on the higher slopes appear open stunted forests of the Desert Nut Pine {Phius monophylla). West 
of the Sierras Fremontia grows also in dry gravelly soil, generally occupying the slopes of narrow val- 
leys with Quercus dumosa, various species of Ceanothus, Prunus ilicifolia, Cercocarpiis parvifolius, 
the Manzanitas, etc. 

The wood of Fremontia Californica contains numerous groups of smaU ducts parallel with the 
thin conspicuous medullary rays. It is hard, heavy, close-grained, and dark brown tinged with red ; the 
the thick sapwood is lighter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7142, a cubic 
foot of the dry w^ood weighing 44.50 pounds. 

The mucilaginous inner bark of Fremontia is sometimes used in California in poultices ; and its 
resemblance to the bark of the Red Elm of the eastern states caused the tree to be caUed Slippery Elm 
by the early settlers of the region it inhabits. 

Fremontia Californica was discovered in the spring of 1846 by Fremont, whose service to botany 
the genus commemorates, during his third transcontinental journey.* It was introduced into cultivation 
in 1851 by James Veiteh & Sons, the London nurserymen, and flowered in their establishment in 18G5. 

1 More recent collections than Pr^mont's do not extend the range rest only on Fremont's collection. But the labels attached to his 
of Fremontia north of Mariposa, and the authority for Pitt River specimens ^ve no indication of the place where they were diseov- 
aud northern California, published stations for the plant, appears to ered. It was probably in the central part of the state. 

Plate XXIII. Fbemontia Califobnica. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower. 

4. A flower, cut vertically through the stamina! tube. 

5. An anther, posterior view, enlarged. 

6. An anther, anterior view, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovule, much enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a capsule, natural size. 

10. A seed, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a seed, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, much enlarged. 

14. An epidermal stellate scale, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 

Tab. XXIII. 

CMJ^axf^fi' c^l; j-c< 


^.JIwctbuj:^ c/^^^^. 

Imp - M. Ta^i^r, Fari^- 






Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes, regular, perfect ; sepals 5, distinct, val\ate 
in aestivation, hypogynous, deciduous ; petals 5, imbricated in Eestivation, liypogynous ; 


stamens numerous, polyadelphous or free. Fruit globose, indehiscent, 1 to 2-sceded. 

Tilia, LinnEeus, Gen. loG. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 292. 
Adanson, Fam. PI ii. 382. — Endlicher, Gen. 1008. 

Gray, Gen, III. ii. 91. ■ — Bentham & IIool;cr, Gen. i. 230. 
BocquiUon, Mem. Til. 18. — BalUon, Hist. PL iv. 185. 

Trees, with terete slender brandies, mucilaginous juice, and tougb fibrous Inner bark. Leaves con- 
duplicate in vernation, petiolate, alternate and two-ranked, usually obliquely cordate or truncate at the 
base, acute, serrate, and furnished with membranaceous ligulate caducous stipules. Peduncle connate 
to the middle with the axis of a membranaceous light green ligulate and persistent conspicuously reticu- 
late-veined bract, and bearing minute caducous bracts at the base of the branches of the terminal cyme. 
Flowers nectariferous, fragrant. Sepals lanceolate. Petals alternate with the sepals, oblong-ob ovate or 
spatulate, the narrow base sometimes thickened and glandular, creamy white, deciduous. Stameus 
inserted on a short hypogynous receptacle ; filaments filiform, distinct, or collected into five clusters and 
united at the base with each other and with a spatulate petaloid scale ^ placed opposite each petal j 
anthers fixed by the middle, two-celled, extrorse, the oblong ceUs separated by the forldng o£ the 
filament. Ovary sessile, five-celled, the cells opposite the sepals; style erect, the dilated summit with 
five introrsely stigmatic spreading lobes ; ovules two m each cell, ascending from the middle of its 
inner angle, semi-anatropous, the micropyle centripetal-inferior. Fruit nut-hke, woody, globular or 
ovoid, sometimes ribbed, one-celled by the obhteration of the partitions. Seeds obovate, semi-anatro- 
pous, ascending; testa cartilaginous; albumen fleshy. Embryo large, often curved; cotyledons folia- 
ceous, reniform or cordate, palmately five-lobed, the margins irregularly involute or crumpled ; the 

radicle inferior. 

The genus Tilia ^ is widely distributed m the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, occur- 
ring in all its great geographic o-botanical regions with the exception of western America, central Asia, 
and the Himalayas. It is represented in eastern North America by four species, of winch one is Mexi- 
can.^ Six or seven species are found in Europe* and the Orient;^' and six species are known in China, 

Manchuria^ and Japan.*^ 

TiKas are trees generally of large size,' with soft straight-grained pale-colored hght wood unable 

' Bacquillon conceived this scale to be the upper part of the stam- 
inal receptacle projected into a petaloid body. To Baillon it was 
the terminal interior and sterile stamen of the fascicle developed 
into a petaloid scale. 

^ Tilia appears first in the ancient Tertiary formations of Grinnell 
Land in 82° north latitude, and Spitzbergcn, where Tilia Malm- 
greni, Heer, is found. This species, which existing Tilias of Europe 
and America resemble, is believed by Saporta to be the ancestor 
from which the Lindens of the two continents have descended. 
{Origine Paleontologique des Arhres, 27G, f. 39.) 

« T. Mexicana, Schlechtendal, Linnaa, xi. 37C. — Hemsley, Bot. 
Biol. Am. Cent. i. 141. ' 

* Nyman, Compcct. Fl. Europ. 130. 

5 Boissier, Fl. Orient. I 84G. 

6 Franehet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 60.— Maximowicz, 
Bull Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, x. 584. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. 
Linn. Soc. xxiii. 94. Dr. A. Henry's explorations in western China 
have recently added two fine Lindens to the Chinese flora. 

T Accounts of several remarkable European Linden-trees liave 
been published. The trunk of a tree planted in tlic town of Fri- 
bourg in 1470 to commemorate the battle of Morat attained a di- 
ameter of thirteen feet nine inches in 354 years. The Linden-tree 
of Trons in the Grisons, a celebrated tree as early as 1424, had a 
trunk fifty-one feet in circumference in 1798, and was believed by De 
Candolle to be 533 years old. The trunk of the Linden of Villars- 
en-Moing, near Morat, was thirty-eight feet in circumference four 




to withstand decay when exposed to the elements, but esteemed and largely used for the interior finish 
of buildings, for cabinet-maldng, for the sounding boards of pianos, for wood carving, and for all kinds 
of wooden ware, and in the United States for the manufacture of paper, and the shavino-s used in stuf- 
fing furniture. The principal economic value of Tilia is in the tough inner bark or bast. This was 
used by the ancients for paper and for mats and in tying garlands,^ and is now largely manufactured 
into mats, cords, fish-nets, coarse cloth, and shoes, especially in some parts of Russia and in Sweden 
where forests of TiHa abound.^ The leaves of the different Tilias are gathered in some European coun- 
tries and fed, either fresh or dried, to cattle,^ and the young branches of Tilia hetaropliylla are cut in 
winter in the mountain regions of the southern United States for the same purpose. Lime-flower oil or 
Linden oil,* obtained by distilling the flowers of the European Tilias, has a pleasant odor and is used in 
perfumery. An infusion of the flowers is a popular domestic remedy in some European countries in the 
treatment of indigestion, nervousness, and hysteria.^ The flowers yield large quantities of nectar and 
honey made near forests of Tiha is unsurpassed in flavor and delicacy. 

Tihas, especially the species of western Europe,'' have for centuries been favorite shade and 
ornamental trees, particularly in Europe at the period when the formal style of gardenino-, under the 
inspiration of Le Notre, prevailed j and avenues of Lime-trees were long considered an essential feature 
in every park and town of central and northern Europe. The ability of the Lindens to thrive with 
severe pruning renewed year after year fit them for the decoration of formal gardens, and their free 
habit when allowed to grow naturally makes them desirable park and roadside trees. The Tilias of 
eastern Europe,^ less known in cultivation, are all beautiful hardy trees.^ Numerous varieties of the 
European Tilia have appeared in gardens, especially among seedlings of Tilia platyphyllos, and are 
cultivated for their abnormal habit or curious foliao-e. 

Tilias grow freely and rapidly in cultivation, flourishing in strong rich soil ; they may be propa- 
gated by grafting or by layers as well as from seed. They are subject, however, to the attacks of many 
msects which sometimes destroy the trees by boring mto the trunk, or disfigure them by devouring the 

feet from the ground in 1830, and was estimated to have lived 864 
years. More famous still is the Linden of Neustadt on the Kocher 
in Wiirtemberg, which was large enough in 1550 to require stone 
columns to support its enormous branches. This tree had, in 1664, 
a trunk thirty-seven feet four inches in circumference, and was com- 
puted to be from 800 to 1,000 years old. (^Notice sur la Longevitd 
des Arbres, A. P. de CandoUe, Bib. Univ. xlvli. 61. — Sdentijic Pa- 
pers, Asa Gray, ii. 89.) 

1 Horace, Odes, i. 38, 2. — Ovid, Fasti, v. 337. — Pliny, xvi. 14, 
25 ; xxiv. 8, 33. 

2 Trees twelve to twenty years old are usually cut In Russia for 
bast, generally in May or June when the sap Is flowing freely and 
the bark can be most easily removed. It is divided into longitudi- 
nal strips four to six feet long, loosened with a sharp knife, and 
then torn ofe by hand and spread on the ground to dry. The bark 
is then soaked in water, when the liber is easily separated from the 
coarse cortical layers. 

Linden-bast is exported from Russia principally in the form of 
mats sis feet long and three and a half feet wide. They are used 
in packing machinery, furniture, and other large objects, and by 
gardeners for tying their plants. The Russian product of bast mats 
IS estmiated at 14,000,000 pieces, a large part being exported. The 
principal domestic use of bast in Russia is in shoemaking, several 
mniion pair of bast shoes being made in the governments of Nijnii- 
Novgorod, Wiatka, Kostroma, and Minsk. (Spone, Encyclopmdm 
of Industrial Arts, Manufactures,and Commercial Products, 999.) 

' Linnaeus, Iter. Scand. 256. - Ventenat, Mem. Acad. Sci. iv. 18. 

LinniEus observed that the milk of cows fed on the leaves of Tilia 
was of poor quality and bad a disagreeable flavor. 

* Henry "Watts, Diet. Chemistry, in. 696. — Spone, EnajclopcEdia 
of Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Commercial Products, 1424. 

^ Stilld & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1430. 

^ Tilia platyphyllos, Scopoli, Ft. Cam. i. 373. — Garden and For- 
est, ii. 256, f. 109 (T. paucifolia, Hayno, Abbild. Holz. 145, t. 108). 
Tilia ulmifoUa, Scopoli, Fl. Cam. i. 374. — Garden and Forest, ii. 
257, f. Ill (T. parvifolia, Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 141, t. 106). Tilia 
vulgaris, Hayne, Abbild. Holz. i. 144, t. 107.— Garden and Forest, 
ii. 256, f. 110. 


^ Tilia argentea, De Candollej Cat, PL HorL Monsp. 150 (T,alba, 
WaMstein & KItaibel, PL Rar. Hung, i. 2, t. 3. — Reiclienbach, FL 
Ger, Ti. 60, t. 324)- Tilia petiolaris, De Candollo, Prodr, i, 514, — 
BoL Mag. t. 6737. Tilia dasysUjla, Loudon, Arh. Brit L 366.— 
Bayer, VerhandL BoL Verein, Wien, xii. 39, t, 9, f- 2 (T. euchlora, 
C. Koch, Deridni. 473). 

® Two or three j\siatic species of Tilia have been introduced into 
the United States and Europe, Tlieir introduction, however, is 
so recent that it is impossible to speak of their hardiness or of their 
value as ornamental trees. 

* The different species appear to be attacked by the same insects. 
All the American and European species are liable in America to 
Injury by a borer, Saperda vestita. (Harris, Injurious Insects, 109.) 
The larvfe of two species of moth, Cossxis Ugniperda and Zeuzera 
CEsculi, bore into the wood of Lindens and other trees- The Zeuzera 
has become naturalized in the United States, and has been found 





Tilia (^tXi^pa)^ tlie classical name o£ tlie Linden-tree^ adopted by Toiirnefort" for this genusj was 
retained by Liunieus. 

attacking Elm-trees in New Jersey. {Garden and Forest, iii. 30, f. 
6 \ The foliage of Lindens in some American cities is frequently 
destroyed by Orgyia leucosiigma. The different Tiliis are often 
injured by the fall Web-worm {Ilyphantria cunea), the Forest Tent- 
eaterpillar (Clmocampa sylvatica), by an Inch-worm (Ilibemia tilia' 
rid), and by a Leaf-beetle (Chrysomela scalaris). Tliey are much 
infested in Europe by the larva of a moth (Ocneria dispar). It has 
been introduced into the United States, and is abundant at Med- 
ford, Massachusetts (Bull. Exp. Sta. Mass, Agric, Coll No, 1, 18). 
Several species of Apliides often occur in large numbers, and seri- 
ously disfigure the foliage of Linden-trees, and red mites {Tetrany- 
chus) live on these trees in America and in Europe, where they are 

sometimes so abundant as to '* almost denude the trees of their fo- 
liage.^' (A, Murray, Economic Entomology y Aptera^ 107-) Lists of 
the insects infesting Tilia in Europe can be found in Kalicubach^s 
Die Planzen-Feinde aus der Classe der Insecteji, 70 ; and of those 
found on these trees in America in A, S- Packard's Insects Injurious 
to Forest and Shade Trees (Bull 7, U, S. Dept. of Interior, 124). 

^ Lime, previous to about Hie year 1700, appears to have been 
usually written Line (Line-grove, Shakespeare, Tempest, v. 10), a 
corruption of Lind which by the suffix en becomes Liiideu or Lin- 
den-tree» The family name of Linnaeus was derived from that of 

the Lindcn4ree» 

^ Elemens de Boianique, 484, t. 38L 


Stamens united to a petaloid scale. 
Leaves green on both surfaces 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so ; fruit ovoid 

1. T. Americana, 

Leaves pubescent on 

the under surface; fruit globose 2. T. pubescens, 

Leaves pale on the lower surface ; fruit globose 





t -n'- ~- 

■ - -- ., 

\ I ' 





Linden. Basswood. 

Leaves green on both surfaces, pubescent only in the axils of the principal veins 
Pedunculate bract usually tapering at the base. Fruit ovoid. 

Tilia Americana, Linnajus, Spec. 514. — Miller, Diet. ed. 
8, Jvo. 8. — Du Eoi, Harhlc. Baiim. ii. 467. — Marshall, 
Arbust, Am. 153. — AYjiiigenheim, Nordavi. Holz. 55. — 
Willdenow, (SjJee. ii. 11G2. — Desfontaincs, Hist. Arh. ii. 
37. — Persoon, Syii. ii. 66. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Avi, 
iii. 311, t. 1, — Watson, Dendr. Brit, ii. 134, t. 134. — 
Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 116.— Loudon, Arh. Brit, i, 373, t. — 
ToiTey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 239. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 
ed. 3, 227. —Emerson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 584, t — 
Gray, Gen. ii. 92, t. 136 ; Proc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxii. 
305. — Darlington, J^;. Cesin ed. 3, 38. — Payer, Orrjan. 
Compt. t. 18. — Chapman, Fl. 59. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 79. — Koch, Dendr. i. 480. — 
Sargent, Forest Trees iV. Am. IQth Census U. S. ix. 26. — 
Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 101. 

T. Caroliniana, Miller, Dic^ ed. 8, No. 4. — Du ^o\,Harblc. 
Banm. ii. 469. — Wangenheim, Nordam. Holz. 56. — 
Marshall, Arhust. Am. 154. 

T. nigra, Borkhausen, Handh. Forstbot. ii. 1219. — Bayer, 

VerJiandl. Bot. Verein, Wien, xii. 53. — Spach, Hist. Veg 
iv. 27. 

T. glabra, Ventenat, Mem. Acad. Sci. iv. 9, t. 2.~Noto- 
veau Duhanul, i. 22B,. — ~Poir:et, Lam. Diet. vii. 681.— 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 362.— Nuttall, Gen. ii. 3. — De 
CandoUe, Prodr. i. 513. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 112. El- 
liott, SL ii. 2. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 
55, t. 45. — Dietrich, S//?i. iii. 237. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. i. 108. — Don, Gen. S?/st i. 653. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestr. ed. 2, 312. — Eiehardson, Arcf. Exped. 422. 

T. latifolia, Salisbury, Prodr. 367. 

T. Canadensis, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i. 306. — Persoon, 
Syn. ii. 66. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vii. 683. 

T. pubescens, Nouveaii Duhamel, i. t. 51 (not Alton). 

T. stenopetala, Eafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. 92. — Eobin, Voy- 
age, iii. 484. 

T. neglecta, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 340, t. 15; 
Hist. Veg. iv. 29. — Walpers, Rep. i. 359. 

A tree, usually sixty to seventy, or sometimes one hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty 
feet in height, with a taU slender trunk three or four feet in diameter, and slender, often pendulous 
branches, the ultimate divisions spreading nearly at right angles. The bark of the trunk is about an 
inch thick, furrowed, the light brown surface broken into small thin scales. The bark of the branchlets 
is smooth, light gray, faintly tinged with red, and marked with numerous oblong dark wart-hke excres- 
cences; it becomes darker in the second year, and in the third is dark gray or brown and conspicuously 
rugose. ^ The dark red winter-buds are stout, ovate, and pointed. The leaves are obhquely cordate 
or sometimes ahnost truncate at the base, the acuminate apex often contracted mto a long slender point, 
sharply and deeply glandular-serrate, glabrous, with the exception of the tufts of rusty brown hairs on 
the lower surface in the axils of the principal veins ; they are thick and firm, lustrous on the upper sui- 
face, five or six inches long, three or four inches broad, and are borne on slender petioles an inch and 
a half or two inches long. They turn pale yellow in the autumn before faUing. The pedunculate bract 
IS fom- or five mches long, an inch or an inch and a half broad, rounded or pointed at the apex, and 
tapermg usually to a short-stalked base. The cyme of flowers is produced on a peduncle three and a 
half to four mches long. The flowers, borne on slender slightly angled pedicels, open during the first 
weeks of July from buds slightly angled by the reduplicate margins of the sepals, and densely coated 
with wlute tomentum. The sepals are densely hairy at maturity on the inner, and minutely pubescent 
on the outer surface. The ovary is hairy, and the fruit, tipped with the remnants of the style, is densely 
covered with short rufous tomentum. The seed is nearly a qi^arter of an inch long. 

The northern limits of Tilia Americana are in northern New Brunswick j thence it extends west 
to the eastern shore of Lake Superior, and then northward and westward to the southern shore of Lake 
Wmnipeg and to the valley of the Assiniboine Eiver.^ It extends southward through the Atlantic 

^ Robert Bell, Rep. Geolog. Surv. Can. 1878-80, 35. 




states to Virginia and along the Alleghany Mountains to Alabama and Georgia, and west in the United 
States to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, the Indian Territory and eastern Texas. 

Tilici Americana is one of the most common trees in the northern forest. It occupied, before the 
country was generally cleared, large tracts of the richest land to the exclusion of other trees, or often 
formed two thirds of the forest growth. Its usual associates in the forest, when it grows "with other 
trees are the Sugar Maple, the White Elm, the White Oak, and the Hickories. It is less conunon 
towards the southern and western limits of its range than it is near the northern boundary of the United 
States • reaching, however, its greatest size on the bottom-lands of the streams which flow from the north 

into the lower Ohio River.^ 

The wood of Tilia Americana contains numerous obscure medullary rays; it is Hght brown, 
faintly tin«-ed with red, and hardly distinguishable from the thick sapwood consisting usually of from 
fifty-five to sixty-five layers of annual gro^vth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.4525 a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 28.20 pounds. It is largely sawed into lumber, and 
under the name of whitewood is used in the manufacture of wooden ware, cheap furniture, the panels 
and bodies of carriages, and the inner soles of shoes. It is one of the woods prmcipally used in 
America in the manufacture of paper pulp, the quick decomposition of the sap, however, making it 
unfit for white paper. The inner bark is occasionally made into coarse cordage and matting, although 
this industry has never attained any importance in the United States. 

The earliest mention of the Linden in America appears in the remonstrance carried to Holland in 
1649 by a delegation of the citizens of New Netherland under the lead of Adrien Van der Donck, and 
printed at the Hague in 1650.^ It was described by Plukenet^ in 1700, and was first sent to England 
by Catesby, and cultivated at Chelsea by PhiHp Miller in 1752.^ 

The large size which the American Linden attains in good soil,' its graceful habit, rapid growth, 
ample dark green foHage and fragrant flowers, make it one of the most desirable ornamental trees in 
the northern part of the United States, where it suffers less from insects than any of the foreign species 
which have been planted there. Several Lindens have appeared in European nurseries which must be 
considered varieties of the American Lmden, or as hybrids influenced by it.'' 

1 Kidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mw:. 1883, Gl. 

2 « There are three varieties of beech, — water heech, common 
heech, and hedge beech, — also axe-handle wood, two species of ca^ 
noe wood, ash, birch, fir, fire-wood, wild cedar, linden, alder, willow, 
thorn, elder, and many other kinds, useful for various purposes, hut 
unknown to us by name, and which the carpenters will be glad to 
submit for examination." (Representation from New-Nether-Land, 
Concerning the Situation, Fruitfulness, and poor Condition of the same. 
English ed. Henry C. Murphy, 14.) 

"The Line-tree with long nuts, the other kind I could never find ; 
the wood of this Tree, Laurel, Rhamnus, Holly, and Ivy, are ac- 
counted for woods that cause fire by attrition." {An Account of 
Two Voyages to New England, by John Josselyn, Gent., 69, 1675.) 

3 Tilia ampUssimis glahrk foliis, nostrati similis, ex Terra Mari- 
ana, Aim. Bot. Mant. 181. 

Tilia foliis majoribus mucronath, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 58. — Duha- 

mel, Traito'des Arlres, ii. 334. 

Tilia foliis cordatis acuminatis serratis, subtus pilosis floribus necta- 

rio instructis, Miller, Diet. ed. 6, No. 3. 

Tilia foliis cordatis obliquis glabris subserratis cum acuvilne, floribus 
nectario instructis, Miller, Diet. ed. 6, No. 4. 

* Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii- 22D. 

6 Tilia Americana is known in some parts of the country as Lime- 
tree, Whitewood, Lin, and Bee-tree. 

6 Tilia Americana Moltke.— Tilia hjhrida superha, etc. 


Plate XXIV. Tilia Amerigan'a. 

L A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, with two of the sepals and petals removed, enlarged. 

4. A cluster of stamens, with their petaloid scale, enlarged. 
6, A stamen enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

7. A cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. An ovulej much enlarged. 

Plate XXV. Tilia Americana- 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size- 

2. Vertical section of a fruitj enlarged. 

3. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

4. A seed, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, with the five-lobed cotyledons displayed, much enlarged 

Silva cf North America, 

Tat . XXIV, 



C.I!.Faju>n- deh 

ricartjr. sc^ 



A. Eiocrewv^ direa:- 

Juip^R Tamar. Taris- 


Silva of NortK America, 

Tab . XXV 


C.E.Faxon det. 

PicarLjr sc. 


A, BiocrcuX' dire(D ^ 

Imp /?. Taneur. Pans. 





Linden. Basswood. 

Young shoots and lo-vver surface of the leaves covered with rufous pubescence. 
Pedunculate bract usually rounded at the base. Truit globular. 

Tilia pubescens, Alton, I£(yrt. Kew. ii. 229. — "Willdenow, 
Spec. ii. 1162, — Ventenat, Mem. Acad. Sci. iv. 10, t. 3. — 
Nouveau Duhamel, i. 228. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 66. — Des- 
fontaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 37. — Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. 
iii. 317, t. 3. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. ii. 363. — De Can- 
dolle, Prodr. i. 513. — Hayne, Dendr. M. 112. — Elliott, 
Sh. ij. 3. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. ii. t. 135. — Don, Gen. 
Syst. i. 553. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 237. — Chapman, Fl. 
59. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 79. — 
Bayer, Verhandl. Bot. Verein, Wien, xii. 56. — Koch, 
Dendr. i. 479. — Gray, Froc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxii. 
305. — Watson & Coulter, Gray^s Man. ed. 6, 101. 

T. Americana, Walter, Fl. Car. 153 (not Linnaeus). 

T. laxiflora, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 306. — Poiret, Lam. 

Diet. vii. 683. — Persoon, Syn. ii. 66. — Pursh, FL Am. 
Sept. ii. 363. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 2. — De CamloUe, Prodr. 
i. 513. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 113. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 
237. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 553. — Spach, Aim. Sci. Nat. 
2 ser. ii. 343, 1. 15 ; Hist. Veg. iv. 32. 

T. grata, Salisbury, Prodr. 367. 

T. tmncata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii. 342 ; Hist. Veg. 
iv. 30. — Dietrich, Syn. iii. 237. 

T. Americana, var. pubescens, Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 374, 
t. — Gray, Man. ed. 5,103; Hall PL Texas, 5. — Sar- 
gent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Cemm U. S. ix. 27. 

T. Americana, var. "Walter!, Wood, CL Book, 272 ; BoL & 
Fl. 64. 

A small tree, thirty or forty feet in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding twelve or fifteen inches 
in diameter. The bark of the trunk is a half to two thirds of an inch thick, furrowed, and divided into 
numerous parallel ridges, the reddish brown surface broken into numerous short thick scales. The bark 
of the branches, densely covered with pubescence during their first season, is puberulous during the 
second, and does not become glabrous until the third year, when it is red-brown, rugose, and marked 
with occasional small wart-like excrescences. The winter-buds are flattened, acuminate, dark reddish 
brown, and covered with short fine pubescence. The leaves are obliquely truncate at the base, rather 
remotely glandular-serrate, pubescent when they first unfold, especially on the lower surface, petioles and 
stipules, the upper sui'face becoming quite glabrous, and the lower surface nearly so at maturity. They 
are thin, membranaceous, and vary in length from two or three inches to four or five, and are borne on 
long stout or sometimes exceedingly slender petioles. The pedunculate bract is three or four inches 
long, usually sessile or very short-stalked, rounded at the two extremities, the midrib, as well as the 
peduncle and flower-buds, covered with pubescence. The flowers are smaller than those of Tilia Amer- 
icana, with shorter and narrower calyx-lobes and narrow petals. They open in South Carolina late in 
May and during the first days of June. The ovary is covered with dense white tomentum which is pale 
brown when the fruit is full grown. 

The northern station of Tilia jmhescens is on Long Island, where this tree has been found in a 
swamp in "Wading River, Suffolk County.' It grows on the coast of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia, in northern Florida, Louisiana, and occasionally in Texas, where it has been seen as far west as 
the Rio Blanco.- 

Tilia 'pubescens is nowhere a common tree. On the coast of South Carofina and Georgia, where it 
appears more frequently perhaps than in other parts of the country, it is usually found growing on the 

1 E. S. Miller, in -fJeri. Gray. several points between its isolated northern station and North Car- 

= By N. J. Reverchon in 1885 near the town of Blanco. The ollna, and any Linden approaching the coast of southern Now Jer- 

distrihution of Tilia pubescens is not yet satisfactordy determined. sey, or southw-ird, might he this species, which will no doaht be 

It will probably be found growing along the Atlantic seaboard at found, too, oa the Gulf coast of Alabama and Mississippi. 



low bluffs of the sea islands in rich loam mixed with oyster-shells, the remains of Indian settlements o 
feeding-places, or along the hanks of tide-water streams in rich sandy humid soil. It grows here with 
the Live Oak, the Hickories, the Palmetto, and the Carolina Cherry or Mock Orange ; never however 
in sufficient numbers or of sufficient size to possess any commercial importance. 

The wood of Tilia j^uhescens does not differ in appearance from that of Tilia Americana. The 
specific gravity of the absolutely di-y wood of a tree from Bainbridge, Georgia, is 0.4074, a cubic foot 
of the dry wood weighing 25.39 pounds. 

Tilia puhescens was, according to Alton,^ who first distinguished the species, introduced into 
England by Mark Catesby about 1726. The variety lejDtophj/Ua, with larger and thinner leaves was 
established by Ventenat on the Louisiana tree.^ 

1 Hort. Kew. ii. 229. ceis, suhtus puhescmtibus, Mem. Acad. Sci iv. 11. — Pursh Fl. Am 

2 FoUis hasi oblique tmncatis, laxe serratis, tenuissimis, subpapyra- Sept. ii. 363. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. n. ser. sxii. 305. 

Plate XXVI. Tilia Pubescens. 

1. A flowering branch. 

2. A group of stamens, with their petaloid scale, enlarged. 

3. A pistil, enlarged. . 

4. A cluster of fruit. 

6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

Silva of North America 

Tab, XXVI, 


CE.Faxon^ del. 

Picarijr. sc. 


A.Jtwcreur dtrej>^ 

Imp.R Tanciir, Faris. 

-riLlACE JE. 



Linden. Bee Tree. 

Leaves pale on tlie lower surface. Pedunculate bract tapering to a sliort-stalkecl 
or sessile base. Fruit globose. 

Tilia lieterophylla, Ventenat, Mem. Acad. Sci. iv. 16, t. n. ser. ssii. 305. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 

5. JSfouvemt Duhaniel, i. 229. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. vii. 6, 101. 

083. Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 363. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. T. alba, Michaux f. Hist. Arh. Am. iii. 315, t. 2 (not 

3; Sylva, i. 90, t. 23. — Dr Candolle, Prorfr. i. 513.— Aiton). — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 452. —Darby, Bot S. 

Dietrich, Sijn. iii. 237. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 553. — Spach, States, 262. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii. 345 ; Hist. Veg. iv. 34. — Torrey T. Americana, var. heterophylla, Loudon, Arb. Brit. i. 

& Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 239. — Chapman, FL 60. — Car- 375, t. 

tis, Eep. Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 79. — Bayer, T. heterophylla, var. alba, Wood, CI. Book, 272 ; Bot. & 

Verhandl. Bot. Vereln, Wien, xii. 51. — Ridgway, Proc. PZ. 64. 

U.S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 61.— Sargent, Forest Trees N. T. heterophy liar nigra, Bayer, Verhandl. Bot. Vereiii, 

Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 27. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. Wien, xii. 52. 

A tree, fifty to sixty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter, and slender 
branches which form generally a narrow rather pyramidal head. The bark of the trunk is half an inch 
thick, furrowed, the surface broken into short thin light brown scales. The bark of the branchlets is 
glabrous, green, or, when they have grown fully exposed to the sun, bright red, gradually turning brown 
during their second year, and plainly marked with many large oblong wart-like excrescences. The stout 
broadly ovate flattened winter-buds are bright red, covered with a slight glaucous bloom. The leaves 
are obliquely truncate or cordate at the base, the apex usually contracted into a short point, serrate "with 
rather remote short glandular teeth. They are membranaceous, six or seven inches long, four or five 
inches broad, and are borne on long slender petioles j they are bright green and glabrous on the upper, 
pale or often silvery white on the lower surface, which is covered with short fine pubescence. The 
pedunculate bract is four or five inches long, obovate, generally less than an inch broad, rounded at 
the apex, and gradually narrowed into a sessile or short-stalked base. The flowers appear early in June, 
or, on the moxmtains of Tennessee and Carolina, late in June or early in July. They are larger than 
those of the other American species, with narrow calyx-lobes, pubescent on the inner, and pnberulent on 
the outer surface, and narrow petals rather shorter than the long style. The ovary is covered with 
dense white tomentum, and the fruit is pubescent with short closely appressed cinereous hairs. 

The northern limit of Tilia heterophylla is in the mountains of Pennsylvania; it extends south- 
ward through the Alleghany-mountain region to northern Alabama and to western and central Florida,' 
and westward to middle Tennessee and Kentucky and southern Indiana and Illinois. It is common on 
the slopes of the Iiigh mountains of the southern states, reaching its best development on those of east- 
ern Tennessee. 

Tilia heterophylla is found on rich wooded slopes in rather humid soil, or near the banks of 
streams, often growing in Hmestone soil. The trees with which it is often associated are the Tulip 
Poplar, the Yellow Buckeye, the White Ash, the Sorrel-tree, the White Birch, the Mountain Magnoha, 
the Hemlock, the Great Rhododendron, and the Chestnut and Red Oaks. 

The wood of Tilia heterophylla resembles that of the other American Lindens. The sapwood is 
much thinner, however, being reduced sometimes to five or six layers of annual growth with a thickness 
of only half an inch. The specific gra^dty of the absolutely dry wood is 0.4253, a cubic foot of the 

1 Lake Charm, Orange County, Theodore L. Meade. 




dry wood weighing 26.51 pounds. It is confounded commercially with the wood of Tilia Americana 
and is used for the same i^urposes. 

Tilia heterophylla was first distinguished by the French botanist Yentenat/ whose monooraph of 
the genus Tiha was published in 1802. It had been previously introduced into European o^ardeus bv 
the elder Michaux^ and by Fraser^ although the fact that two species of TiHa were growing in the Alle- 
ghany Mountains seems to have escaped their notice, as w^ell as that of the other botanists who visited 
that part of the country before the beginning of the present centmy. 

Tilia heterophylla probably soon disappeared from gardens ; and in cultivation it is still one of 
the rarest of the trees which inhabit the cooler parts of North America. Few North American trees 
howeverj surpass it in beauty of foliage j and the contrast made by the silvery wdaiteness of the under 
surface of its ample leaves^ as they flutter on their slender stems^ with the dark green of the Hemlocks 
and Laurels on the banks of rapid mountain streams, produces one of the most beautiful effects which 
can be seen in the splendid forests which clothe the valleys of the southern Appalachian Mountains. 

1 Etienne Pierre Ventenat (1757-1808) ; a distinguished French 
botanist, author of several Important works, the best known being 
Lis Description dea Plantes Nouvelles ou pen Connues, Cultive'es dans 
le Jardin de J. M. Cels^ published in Paris in 1800, and the sump- 
tuous Jardin de la Malmaison, published in Paris in 1803-4, under 
the auspices of the Empress Josephine* 

2 Andr^ Michaux (174G-1802) ; a French botanist who resided 
in America from 1785 to 1796, for the purpose of studying for the 
French government the plants and natural resources of the country, 
Michaux traveled extensively in the region east of the Mississippi 

Eiver, from Hudson's Bay to Florida, and discovered many plants 
afterwards described by A, Richard in the Flora Boreali- Americana, 
published in Paris in 1803, Michaux's name as author appears on 
the title-page of this classical work, which was not published until 
after his death, and upon that of the Histoire des Chenes de VAme- 
riquej published in 1801, after Miebaux had left France for Mada- 
gascar, where be died of fever. The journal of his travels in 
America, presented by his son, F. A. Michaux, to the American 
Philosophical Society, was published in 1889 in volume xxvi. of the 
Proceedings of that society. 


Plate XXVIL Tilia heterophylla. 

1- A cluster of flowers^ with its pedunculate bract. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged, 

3. A fruiting branch. 

4- Cross section of a fruitj with two seeds developed, enlarged. 

5, A seed, enlarged* 

6, Vertical section of a seedj enlarged. 

Silva of Nortli America. 

Tab. XXVll 

C, E. Faxon, del: 

Picartjr. sc 



A.RLOcrGu.v direa^^ 

Jfnp, K. Taneur. Paris- 




Flowers perfect, terminal, solitary or umbellate- fascicled ; calyx 5 or rarely 
4-lobcd, imbricated in aestivation, deciduous ; petals as many as the lobes of the calyx, 
imbricated in aestivation, hypogynous ; stamens hypogynous, the filaments naked or 
squamate. Fruit fleshy, 2 to 5-celled, dehiscent ; albumen corneo-cartilaginons, rimosc. 
Leaves abruptly pinnate. 

Guaiacum, Linnffius, Gen. 140. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Porlieria, Ruiz & Pavon, Prodr. 55, t. 9. — MeUner, Gen. 

296. Adanson, Fam. PL n. 507. — Endlicher, Gen. 59. — Endlicher, Gen. 1164. — Bentham & Hooker, Ge/i. 

1164. — Meisner, Gen. 59. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 121 ; i. 268. 

Ptoc. Am. Acad, n, ser. xxii. 306. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. i. 267. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. iv. 608. 

Trees or shrubs, with white scaly bark, stout terete ahernate branches often with swollen nodes, and 
hard resinous wood. Leaves petiolate, opposite, abruptly pinnate, with two to fourteen entire reticulate- 
veined leaflets, and mmute more or less deciduous stipules. Flowers pedunculate from the axils of 
minute deciduous bracts, blue or purple. Sepals slightly united at the base, unequal. Petals broadly 
obovate, more or less unguiculate. Stamens ten, inserted on the short inconspicuous or elevated di^k 
opposite to and alternate with the petals ; filaments filiform, naked or bearing at the base on the inner 
surface a minute membranaceous scale ; anthers oblong, fixed near the base, introrsc, two-celled, the cells 
opening longitudinally. Pistil of two or five united carpels ; ovary raised on a short thick stalk, obo- 
vate or clavate, two to five-Iobed and two to five-celled, contracted into a slender subulate acute style ; 
stigma minutely two to five-toothed or entire ; ovules eight to ten in each cell, suspended in pairs from 
its inner angle by a slender funiculus, anatropous ; the raphe ventral. Fruit smooth, coriaceous, nar- 
rowed at the base into a short stem, with two to five wing-like angles, ventially and sometimes dorsally 
dehiscent. Seeds solitary or sometimes in pairs in each cefl, suspended, ovoid ; testa thick and fleshy, 
easily separating from the hard bony nucleus closely invested with a thin Indistmct tegmen Embryo 
straight or nearly so ; cotyledons oval, f oliaceous, incumbent or sometimes accumbent to the axis ot 

the fruit ; radicle short, superior.' 

The genus Guaiacum, extended to include Porlieria, is found in the West Indies, m the countries 
adjacent to the Caribbean Sea and the gulfs of Mexico and CaKfornia, and in the Andes of Peru. Bot- 
anists have distinguished about eight species, although further explorations in southern Mexico and in 
Central America, .vhere seem to be the headquarters of the genus, may be expected to increase he ninn- 
ber. The two ' species first known occur in the West Indies. One of these reaches the South Ameri- 
can continent, and the other the keys of southern Florida and the Bahama Islands, the most northern 
stations of the genus. One species ^ is found in western Texas and the adjacent regions of Mexico, 

^ A.. G», .as pointed out (P. Wri.M. i. 28. - S,ni.,.onian well as ps„ta.e™.s. ^lon (^"'~»"°; -^^^r"'' "^'"" 

Con.rU.. in.) that the position of the cotyledons of PorUeria ^^c. the san,e conclusion, and united ^f "; '■^"2^7;„„^,„„ ^in- 

».*,•», Ruiz & Pavon, is not uuiforn., that they are occasionally in- = G™— -i'-^"^'- 1— ■ ^^^ "^^^ ''"'»"""" "'"*'"' 

cumhent in G^fac™ .ffidnaU, L. (ft«. Ara. Acad. n. ser. zxii. ^...Spec. ^^'- Engehnann, Wi.lize«.s Mano.r of a 

306), and that the squamiferous filaments depended on to separate » G.<..» »'» °"»" '■^°''"'"' „ f^ ^„, 548), Bol. Appx. 113. - 

Porlieria from Gnaiacmu are sometimes found in hoth genera, while Tour in Northern Menco^(S.nate Doc. im>), PI 

the flowers ot Guaiacum parmjlorum are sometimes tetramcrous as Gray, Oen. III. 11. 12 , . 




wliere it is common on the dry gravelly mesas of tlie valley of the lower Eio Grande. A second North 
American species ^ is common in Sonera, and at least three little known species are foimd in southern 
Mexico and in Gautemala. One species ^ is widely distributed through the northern countries of South 
America from Cartagena to Venezuela^ and a second South American species inhabits the Andes of 
Peru.^ Guaiacum officinale, Gtiaiacum sanctum, and Guaiacum arhoreum. are small trees. The other 
species which with Guaiacum arhoreum form the section Porlieria or Guaiacidium * are distino-uished 
by their usually squamulose iilamentSj and are all low shrubs. 

Heavy dense close-grained resinous wood is peculiar to all the species of the genus. The cells of 
the heartwood are filled with dark-colored resin, which gives it a dark greenish or yellow-brown color 
while the sapwood, which is not resinous, is clear yellow. The Lignum-vitse and the Guaiacum resin ^ of 
commerce are produced principally by the two West Indian species, G. officinale and G. sanctum.^ The 
wood of these two trees, which is not distinguishable, owes its great strength to the peculiar intricate 
arrangement of the wood-fibre."^ The medullary rays, which are numerous and equidistant, are not 
visible to the naked eye, and the layers of annual growth are hardly distinguishable, althouo-h the 
numerous circles formed by alternate darker and lighter bands which appear in the wood of these trees 
are sometimes mistaken for them. Lignum-vit^e is largely used for the sheaves of ship-blocks, for mal- 
lets, skittle-balls, and ten-pin balls, and for similar purposes. 

Guaiacum wood enjoyed for centuries after the discovery of America a reputation as a remedy for 
syphilis ; ^ it is now, however, only retained in the materia medica as an ingredient in the compound 
decoction of sarsaparilla. The resin is a stimulating diaphoretic and alterative, and is sometimes 
employed in the treatment of gout and rheumatism.^ 

Guaiacmn, owing to its reported medicinal virtxies, was one of the first plants of the New World 
to attract the attention of Europeans. Oviedo y Valdes, who landed in America in 1514, describes the 
tree under the aboriginal name of Guayacan, the Palo Sancto of the early colonists.^^ This was the 
G. officinale; Oviedo knew, however, of the existence of a second species which he found on the island 
of Porto Rico or Sanct Johan, where it was known also as Palo Sancto, the name which Linnaeus 
has preserved for it. Oviedo's first work on the Natural History of America was pubhshed in 1526. 
Guaiacum, however, was known in Europe some years earlier. The stories of its medical virtues, told by 
the natives of San Domingo, were soon repeated in Spain and attracted the attention of European physi- 
cians. One Gonsalvo Ferrand has the reputation of having carried it to Europe about 1508 ; " and 
three works describing Its virtues were pubhshed in Germany previous to 1520.^^ 

1 Guaiacum CouUeri, Gray, PI Nov. Thurb. 312 {Mem. Am. Acad. 
n. ser. v.). 

2 Guaiacum arhoreum, De CandoUe, Prodr. i. 707. — Guibourt, 
Hist. Drog. ed. 1, iii. 553 {Zygophyllum arhoreum, Jacquin, PI. Amer. 
130, t. 80). 

3 Guaiacum hygrometricum, Baillon, Adansonia, x. 315 (Porlieria 
Tiygrometrica, Kuiz & Pavon, Syst. 9-1.— Guibourt, Hzs(. TJroj. ed. 
7, iii. 553), the type of the genus Porlieria. 

^ Gray, Gen. III. ii. 121. 

6 In the island of San Domingo, where Guaiacum resin is chieHy 
produced, it is collected from the trunks of the trees in part as a 
natural exudation, and sometimes from incisions made in the Lark. 
It is obtained also by heating chips of the wood, or by setting fire 
to the ends of logs supported in a horizontal position above the 
ground on upright bars, a large incision having been made previ- 
ously in the middle of the trunk ; the resin, liquefied by the heat, 
flows from the cut in the trunk in considerable abundance. (Fluck- 
iger & Hanbnry, Pharmacographia, 95.) 

« The wood of Guaiacum angustifolium is locally employed in 
medicine In the same manner as that of the West Indian trees 

Wislizenus, Memoir of a Tour in Northern Mexico (Senate Doc. 
1848), Bot. Apps. 113 ; and the wood of G. arhoreum is said to be 
sometimes exported In small quantities from the United States of 

' Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 226. — Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot. ed. 2, 

^ The treatment with Guaiacum consisted In confining the pa- 
tient in a closed room heated to a high temperature, and in admin- 
istering twice a day, for several days, copious doses of a milk-warm 
decoction prepared from the wood. It was generally recognized in 
the beginning of the present century that Guaiacum was powerless 
to eradicate the venereal poison. (Mat. Med. Brit. ed. 1807.) 

^ Berg, Pharm. Anat. All. 53, t. 27. — Fluckiger & Hanbury, 
Pharmacographia, 9G. — Guibourt, Hist. Drog. ed. 7, ill. 551. 

^'^ Sumario, cap. Ixxv. ; Hist. Gen. Nat. Ind. lib. 10, cap. 2. 

^^ Jonathan Pereira, Elements Mat. Med. ed. 2, ii. 1653. 

'^^ De cura Morbi Gallici per Lignum Guayacanum libellus, printed 
In 1535, but dated December 19, 1517. 

De morbo Gallico tractatus, Salisburgi, November, 1518. 

Ulrichi de Hutten equitis de Guaiaci medicina et morbo Gallico liber 




The generic name Guaiacunij derived from the West Indian Giiaiaco or Gumjacan, the aboriginal 
name of G. officinale and of G. sanctum, first used by Plumier,^ was afterwards adopted by Linua3us, 

unus^ Morguntise, 1519. These tracts, which I have not seen, are 
quoted by riuckiger & Hanburj, l. c. Two early tracts, published 
in German, and believed to have been translated from the Spanish, 
are contained in the John Carter Brown Library at Providence. 
The first of these, published in 1524, is entitled Ayn Recept von 
ainem Jioltz zu Irauche fur die kranclchait der franczosen vnd ander 
flussig offen sckdden, ausz Hispanyscker sprach zu teutsch gemacht, 
darzu dz. RegemGnt me man sick darin halten vn auch darzU schicken 

soli (Colophon :) Gedruckt vn volendt in der Kaiserlkh^ Stat 
Augspurg, an de acMenden tag des Aprillen, des jars nacJi der geburt 
Christi vnsers herren, Tausent filnffhundert vnd im. xxiiii.Jare. The 
second, without date, but beheved to have been printed about the 
same time, is entitled Eyn Bewert Precept, ivlc man das holu Guayacd 
fur die hranckkeyt der Frantzosen hrauchen sol. 
^ Nov. Gen. PL Am. 39, t, 17. 




Flowers solitary ; filaments naked. Pruit 5-celled, 5-angIed ; cotyledons accum- 
bent to the axis of fruit. Leaves composed of several pairs of leaflets. 

Guaiacmn sanctum, Linn^us, Spec. 382. — De Candolle, G. verticale, Ortega, Z'ee. viii. 93. — De CaudoUe, P;Wr. 1. 
Prodr. i. 707. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 16, t. 86. — Gray, 707. — Richard, i^^. Ck5. 321. — Hemsloy, i?of. SiV. ^m. 

Gen. III. ii. 123, 1. 148. — Sehnizlem, Icon. t. 253, f. 21. — Cmt. i. 159. 

Grjscbach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 134. — Chapman, Fl. 64. — G. sanctum, vav. parvifolium, Nattall, Sijlva, Hi. 17. 
Sargent, Forest Trees N- Am. lOth Census U. S. ix. 28. 

A low gnarled round-lieaded tree, growing sometimes to a height of twenty-five or thirty feet, with 
a short stout trunk occasionally two and a half to three feet in diameter, and slender pendulous branches. 
The bark of the trunk is rarely more than an eighth of an inch thick, the surface separating into small 
thin white scales resembling those covering the trunk of a vigorous White Oak. The branches are con- 
spicuously enlarged at the nodes, slightly angled, and covered when they first appear with a short fine 
pubescence ; this gradually disappears during their first season, and in the second year they are gla- 
brous and covered with white slightly furrowed bark, roughened by numerous small excrescences. The 
leaves are three or four Inches long, and are composed of three to five pairs of obliquely oblong or obo- 
vate mucronate sessile leaflets an inch long and nearly half an inch broad. The stipules are broadly 
acuminate, tipped with a short mucro, and covered with pubescence ; they are an eighth of an inch long, 
usually caducous, but sometimes persistent during the season. The leaves remain on the branches until 
the appearance of the new growth, which, in Florida, is in March or early April. The young leaves 
when they first appear are pubescent, especially on the midrib and on the under surface of the thin 
membranaceous light green leaflets, which become glabrous at maturity and are then rather coriaceous 
and dark lustrous green on both surfaces. The flowers, which are two thirds of an inch across when 
expanded, appear almost hnmediately after the beginning of the annual growth, and conthuie to open 
during several weeks. They are borne on slender pubescent peduncles shorter than the leaves, and gen- 
erally produced three or four together at the end of the branches from the axils of the upper pair of 
leaves. The three pedunculate bracts are acuminate, minute, the two lateral rather smaller than the 
outer one. The sepals are obovate, slightly pubescent, especially on the outer surface near the base, and 
smaller than the broadly obovate unguiculate petals which have a half twist from left to right near the 
base, giving them the appearance of being inserted obliquely. The ovary is obovate, prominently five- 
angled, glabrous, and contracted at the base into a short stout stalk. The fruit is broadly obovate, three 
fourths of an inch long, half an inch broad, and bright orange-colored. It opens at maturity by the 
splitting of the thick rather fleshy valves, disclosing the large seeds with theh thick fleshy scarlet 

aril-like outer coating. 

Ghmiacum sanctum inhabits, in Florida, the southern keys from Key West eastward. It was 
formerly common on Key West, where a few old specimens with large hollowed trunks still exist; it 
abounds on Upper Metacombe and Lignum-vit^e Keys, and is less common on Lower Metacombe and 
Umbrella Keys. It grows also on the Bahama group, on San Domingo and Porto Rico, and perhaps on 
Barbadoes.^ Its companions in the forests of the Florida keys are the Eugenias, the Gumbo Limbo, 

^ The only authority for Barhacloes as a station for this tree is refer to either of the West Indian species ; his, however, very 
Griffith Hughes' History of tie Barbadoes, published in 1750. His well represents G. sanctum. 
description, on page 142, of " Lignum-vit^ or Guaiacum," might 

64 SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA. zygophyllace^. 

the PisoniaSj the Citharexylum, the Florida Coccoloba, the Drjpetes, the Bumeliaj the Arclisia, and the 

The specific gravity o£ the absolutely dry wood of Guaiacuni smictum produced in Florida is 
1.1432j a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 71.24 pounds. The tree is not abundant enouo-h within 
the Hmits of the United States to give the Florida-grown wood any commercial importance • on the 
Bahama Islands it is more common, and is the source of all the Lignum-vit« which at different times 
has been exported in considerable quantities from those islands. 

Guaiaciim sanctum was first distinguished by Oviedo, and it was noticed and described by several 
of the early authors who wrote upon American plants.^ The fact that it grew within the limits of the 
United States was first established by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 

The whiteness of the bark of this tree, its dark green lustrous foliage, and the graceful habit of its 
branches, make it a striking and attractive object at all seasons of the year; its beauty in the early 
spring, when the delicate new foHage is unfolding and the branches are covered with the bright blue 
flowers, is not surpassed by that of any of the plants which inhabit the Florida keys. 

1 Del Guayacum y palo sancto, Moiiardes, Hist. Med. fol. 12 (ed. Guajacum foUis LenOsd, Breyuc, Prodr. ii. 69. 

Sevilla, lu74). Euonymo adjinis , Occidentalis, alatis Rusci foliis, Nuci/era, cortice 

Guajacum, propemodum sine matrice, quihusdam lignum sanctum, ad gemcula,fungoso, Plukeuet, Aim. Bot. 139, t. 94, f. 4. 

Indis Hoaxacan §■ MatlalquauJiitl, Joiiston, Dendrolographia, 426. Guaiacum Jiore cmruko, fimbriato, fructu tetragono, Plumier, Nov. 

Guajacum propemodum sine matrice, C. Bauhin, Pin. 448. PI. Am. Gen. 39. 

Guajacum Americanum alterum, fructu Euonymi, Breyne, Prodr. Guajacum folds pinnatis,foliolis obverse ovatis integerrimis, Eoyon, 

i- 24- Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 268. 


Plate XXVIII. Guaiacum sanctum. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. Vertical section of a flower, the pistil entire, enlarged 

4. Anterior and posterior views of a stamen, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

6. An ovule, much enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

9. A seed, the outer coating removed, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

11. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of NortK America, 


C,£.Fair^7i' dei^ 

FU&rtJh sc. 


A. Ihocreuay dxra^. 

Trap n Tamur, Tans, 





Flowers dioecious or polygamous ; calyx 3 to 5-lobed, hypogynous, imbricated ia 
Eestivation, rarely wanting ; petals 3 to 5, hypogynous, imbricated or rarely induplicatc- 
valyatc in gestivation. Fruit composed of 1 to 5 coriaceous or fleshy 1-secded carpels. 

Xanthoxylum, Linnffius, Gen. ed. 6, 519. — A. L. de Jus- 
sieu, Gen. 374. — Endliclier, Gen. 1146. — Meisner, Gen. 
64. — Gray, Geji. III. ii. 147. — Bentliam & Hooker, Gen. 
297. — Baillon, Hist. Fl iv. 468. 

Fagara, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 364. 

Pterota, Browne, Nat. Mist. Jam. 189. 

Blaokburnia, Forster, Char. Gen. t. 6. 

Curtisia, Schreber, Gen. 199. 
Ochroxylum, Sclireber, Gen. 826. 
Pseudopetalon, Rafinesque, Fl. Liidovw. 108. 
Langsdorfia, Leandro, Act. Monac. 1819, 239 (ex. V!nd- 

licher Ge7i. 1147). 
Tobinia, Desvaux, Hamilton Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 56. 
Pohlana, Nees & Martius, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. ii. 185. 

Trees or shrubs, with acrid aromatic hark and pellucid aromatic-punctate fruit and fohage, usually 
armed with stipular prickles. Leaves alternate, usually unequally pinnate, or rarely one to tliree folio- 
late, the petioles sometimes prickly, rarely winged ; leaflets generally opposite, often obUque at tlie base, 
entire or crenulate. Flowers small, often unisexual, greenish white or white, produced in axillary or 
terminal, broad or contracted, pedunculate cymes. Disk small or obscure. Stamens as many as the 
petals and alternate with them, hypogynous ; effete, rudimentary or wanting in the female flowers ; 
filaments filiform or subulate ; anthers introrse, two-ceUed, opening longitudinally. Pistds one to five, 
oblique, raised on the summit of a fleshy gynophore, connivent, sometimes slightly united below ; rudi- 
mentary, simple or two to five-parted in the sterile flowers ; ovary one-celled ; styles short and slender, 
connivent or connate towards the summit ; stigmas capitate ; ovules two, collateral, pendulous from tlie 
inner angle of the cell, anatropous j the raphe ventral. Foflicles of fruit as many as the pistils or 
by abortion fewer, broadly obovate, sessile or stipitate, ventrally dehiscent. Seed oblong or globular, 
suspended on a slender funiculus, often hanging from the carpel at maturity; testa thm bony or crus- 
taceous, blue or black, shiny, conspicuously marked by the broad hilum ; tegmen thick, crustaceous. 
Embryo axile, straight or arcuate ; cotyledons oval or orbicular, foliaceous ; radicle short, superior. 

The genus Xanthoxylum is widely distributed through tropical and extra-tropical regions. E.glity 
to one hundred species are distinguished, of which a large part inhabit tropical America. The genus 
is represented in North America by five species ; three attain the size of small trees, the others are tree- 

bke shrubs.^ 

1 Xanthoxylum Americanum, Miller, Diet. ^ Xanthoxylum emar- 
ginaium, Swarfcz, Fl. Occ. i. 572, 

X. Ajnericanum is common in the nortliera states from eastern 
Massachusetts to Minnesota, extending south to the mountains of 
Virginia, and to eastern Kansas. It is a spreading shrub, attaining 
sometimes in cultivation the liabifc of a small tree. The flowers, 
which are produced before the leaves in axillary clusters, are desti- 
tute of sepals. The bark, leaves, and fruit are exceedingly acrid 
and aromatic, and are a popular remedy for toothache. 

X. emarginatum is a "West Indian species with coriaceous shiumg 
leaves, composed of two or four pairs of entire leaflets, and a three- 
parted calyx. It is described as a shrub or small tree. The wood 

is said by Baillon (Hist. PI iv. 438) to he white, heavy, and aro- 
matic, and to be one of the so-called rosewoods exported from the 
West Indies. It is described by Macfadyen (H. Jam. 191), who 
makes no mention of its economic properties, as a shrubby tree. 
This species was found by Dr. A. P. Garber, on an island m Bay 
Biscayne ia 1877, growing as a small shrub. It has not since bee» 
seen in the United States, although the shores of Bay Biscayne have 
been several times carefully explored by botanists. 

Abraham Pascal Garber (1838-1881), who found this plant m 
Florida was a native of Columbia. Pennsylvania, a graduate of 
I a Favette College, where he acquired a taste fur botany, and of 
the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Garber 




Numerous species occur in the West Indies^^ in Mexico and Central Amerieaj^ in Brazil^ wliere 
nearly fifty species are recognizedj and in the other countries of tropical America. The genus has 
several representatives in tropical Africa/ in India/ China/ and Japan/ in the Malay Archipelao^o and 
in Australia^, where three species occur,^ 

The bark of Xanthoxylum^ especially that of the rootSj contains a bitter principle/ which has been 
found identical with Berberina/** an acrid resin^ and a yellow coloring matter. It is a powerful 
stimulant and tonic^ sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatism, to excite salivation and to alle- 
viate toothache- The bark of several "West Indian species Is considered anti-syphilitic. The roots of 
Xxinthozylum nitidura are deemed sudorific in Chinaj and are thought to furnish a valuable febrifuge 
The fruit of Xanthoxyhmi elatum is used in India as a condiment^ and the seeds to poison fish • ^^ and 
the leaves and fruit of this species are used by the Chinese as a stimulant, sudorific, and anthelmintic ■ 
and silkworms are fed upon the leaves,^^ The capsules of X, piperitum furnish the Japanese pepper 
of commerce, and are used medicinally in Cliina-^^ The wood of X. hracliyacantlium of Austraha is 
used in cabinet-making/^ and the wood of some of the West Indian species is considered valuable. 

Xanthoxylum/^ derived from ^avQog and ^vTiov^ aj^pears to have been first used as the name of a 
plant by Plukenet/^ who applied it to a West Indian tree- The name was afterwards used by Catesby, 
and adopted by Linnaeus, who credited the genus to Cadwallader Golden " w^ho had published a descrip- 
tion of the northern Prickly Ash with generic characters,^® 

practiced his profession for a short time iii Pittsburgh, but was forced 
by ill-health to seek a milder climate* He passed four winters in 
southern Florida, where he discovered many new species of plants 
(Eugenia Garberi, Liatris Garberi, Habenana Garberi, etc.), and de- 
termined the presence in Florida of several West Indian trees- Dr, 
Garber made a botanical excursion to Porto Rico in 1S80. Garhe- 
riaoi^ single species — a Florida shrub with Liatris-like flowers — 
commemorates Dr. Garber's services to American botany. 

^ Grisebacli, FL Brit W, Ind. 136. 

2 Hemsley, BoL Biol Am. Cent. i. 168. 

^ Eichlcr, Martins FL Brasil xii. 2, 151. . 

■* Oliver, FL Trop. Afr. i. 304. — Baker, FL Maur, ^^ SeycL 39. 

^ Hooker f. FL BriL Ind. i. 492. 

* Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. zxiii. 105. 

' Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 72. 

^ Bentham, FL Austral i. 362, 

^ Xanihopicrite, Chevallier & PcUetan, Ann. Cliem. Pky. ser. 2, 
xxxiv- 200. 

10 Dyson^Perrins, Pharm. Jour. ser. 2, iv. 403. 

*i Erandis, Forest Flor. Brit Ind. 47, 

12 Smith, Contrib. Mat, Med. China, 234. 

13 Smith, I c. 

1* Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia, 615. 

1^ The word was written ZantTioxylum by Plukenet and Linnteus, 
and many authors have followed this faulty orthography. It was 
corrected, however, by Miller, whose spelling of the word has been 
adopted by several prominent botanists, including Asa Gray (Proc, 
Am. Acad, u- ser. xxiii. 225). 

1^ Aim. Bat 396, t. 239, f. 3. 

IT Cadwallader Colden (16S8-177C) ; a native of Dunse, Scotland, 
graduated at the medical school of Edinburgh in 1775. Dr. Colden 
practiced his profession in Pennsj'-lvama from 1708 to 1715, and in 
1719 received the appointment of surveyor-general of N"ew York, 
and that of lieutenant-governor of the province in 1761, perform- 
ing the duties of governor for much of the time until 1775, when 
he retired to Long Island, where he died in his eighty-ninth year. 
Dr. Colden was one of the most distinguished of the early cultivat- 
ors of science in America. He became interested in botany through 
the publications of Linmeus, with whom, and mth other European 
men of science, he carried on an active correspondence during many 
years. His paper on the PlantcE Coldenhamic^, published in the 
Transactions of the Koyal Society of Science at Upsala, in 1742, is 
the earliest contribution to a knowledge of the botany of the State 
of New York. It was considered an extraordinary performance, 
and received the highest praise from Linnffius and Gronovius. 

^s PL Colden, 107. 


Inflorescence terminal. 
Calyx lobes 5, 

Leaves deciduous, stems armed 1_ X- ClavaJIerculls. 

Leaves persistent, stems unarmed , 2 X Cribrosum. 

Calyx lobes 3- 

Leaves evergreen 3_ ^j^-^ emarginatum. 

Inflorescence axillary. 

Mowers complete ^^ p^^^^^_ 

Flowers destitute of calyx 5_ X. Amekicanum. . 






Prickly Ash. Toothache Tree. 

Flowers in terminal clusters ; sepals and petals 5, Leaves deciduous. 

Planclion & Tri- 

- Sargent, Forest 

- Watson & Coul- 

Santlioxyluni ClavarHerculis, Linnseus, Spec. 270 (escl. 

loc. nat. Jam.). — Bartram, Trav.B'^. — Willdenow, Spec. 

iv. 754, In part. — Elliott, Sk. li. 690. - 

ana, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 317. 

Trees N. Am. lOfh Census U. S. is. 30. 

ter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 107. 
X fraxinifolium, Walter, Fl. Car. 243 (not Marshall). 
Fagara fraxinifolia, Lamarck, El. t. 334. 
X. Carolinianum, Lamaret, Diet. ii. 39 ; III. 403, t. 811, 

f . 1. _ Giertner, Fruct. i. 333, t. 68, f . 8. — Torrey & 

Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 214. — Gray, Gen. III. ii. 148, 1. 156, 

f. 13, 14. — Scheele, Eoemer Texas, 432. — Nuttall, Sylva, 

iii. 8, t. 83. — Chapman, Fl. 06. — Curtis, Bep. Geolog. 

Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 103. 

X. aromaticum, Willdenow, Si)ec. iv. 755 (excl. syn.). — 

Jaequin f. Eclog. i. 103, t. 70. 
X. tricarpum,, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 235. — Poiret, 

Lam. Diet. Suppl. ii. 294. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 

383. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 210. — De Caiidolle, Frodr. 

i. 726. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 690. — A. de Jussieu, M^m. Mus. 

xii. t. 25, f. 38. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 945. — Don, Ge7i. 

Syst. i. 803. — Spach, Hist. Vet/, ii. 365. — Loudon, Arb. 

Brit. i. 488. — Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1000. 
Kampmania fraxinifolia, Rafinesque, Med. Bep. v. 352. 
Pseudopetalon glandulosum, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoulc. 

108 ; Med. Dot. ii. 114. 
Pseudopetalon tricarpum, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. li. 114. 
X. Catesbianum, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii. 114. 

A round-headed tree, tweuty-five or thirty, or exceptionally fifty feet in height, with a short trunk 
twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and niunerous branches spreading nearly at right angles ; or often 
a low shrub. The hark of the trunk of fully grown trees is barely a sixteenth of an inch tliick, Hght 
gray, and studded with corky tubercles with ovoid dilated bases sometimes an inch or more across, and 
thick and rounded at the apex. The bark of the branches is covered, when they first appear, with 
brown pubescence, and is glabrous and light gray the second season. It is marked with small glandular 
spots and armed with stout straight, or sometimes slightly curved, sharp chestnut-brown prickles, half 
an inch or more long, with perpendicularly flattened, enlarged bases. The winter-buds are short, obtuse, 
and dark brown or nearly black. The leaves, which remain upon the branches until late m the wmter, 
or until the tree begins to grow in early spring, are five to eight inches long, and are composed of t n-ee 
to eight pair of leaflets borne on stout pubescent or glabrous armed leaf-stalks termmated by smgle leat- 
lets. The leaflets are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sometimes slightly falcate, usually obhuue at the iKtse 
crenately serrate, sessile or short-stalked. They are an inch to two and a half inches long, green and 
lustrous on the upper surface, paler and often somewhat pubescent below, especially when they first 
unfold. The sterile and fertile flowers are borne on different trees. The inflorescence, whicli is an 
ample wide-branehed cyme four or five inches long and two or three inches broad, that ot he tcrtile 
tree being somewhat contracted, appears when the leaves of the year are about half grown ihe flowers 
are borne on slender pedicels a third to a quarter of an inch long, .vith a minute lanceolate deciduo.^ 
braet at their base. The sepals are minute, membranaceous, persistent, barely a quarter of the leng 1 
of the oval greenish white petals which vary from an eighth to a quarter of an mch in length X .live 
stamens with slender filiform filaments are conspicuously exserted ^^^f^^^l^^^^ 
mentary or wanting in the female flowers. There are two, or most frequently three, wit^^^^^^^^^^ 
"^ ^ , 1 1 1 X* ^^ T 1^ fniit IS borne in dense orten 

ovaries, and short .tyles crowned by a slightly two4ohed f^^;^^! are obliqnely ovoid, 
nearly globose clusters and ripens in August and September. The npe ca pels J 

one-seeded, chestnut-brown, a quart- "^ - '-1^ 1™°^' ^"> ^ ™""'^ " ^" 

blact and lustrous, and hang at maturity outside the cari^ls. southward 

Xanthoxylum OUva-Herc^dis grows from the southern part of the btate 




near the coast to the shores o£ Bay Biscayne and Tampa Bay, Florida j it extends westward thro 1 
the Gulf states to northwestern Louisiana and southern Arkansas, and through Texas to the valley of W 
Devil's River, in the western part of the state. It is nowhere common in the Atlantic states where it " 
confined to the immediate neighhorliood of the coast, growing in liglit sandy soil, often on the low hi ff 
of islands or river hanks, or occasionally in abandoned fields. Its associates here are the Live O' 1 
the Water Oak, the Loblolly Pine, the Eed Bay, and the Dwarf Palmetto. It extends farther from tl 
coast in the Gulf states, especially west of the Mississippi Eivei-j and it is not unusual to find it in so tl 
ern and central Alabama and Mississipi>i, growing along the margins of swamps, in rich sandy soil w'tl 
Pines, Live Oaks, the Florida lUiciiim, the Styrax, the Syniplocos, the Holly, and the Nvssa. It is v 
common m eastern Texas, attaining its largest size on the rich intervale lands of the streams flowii 
into the Trinity Eiver. Farther west it is greatly reduced in size and of rare occurrence. 

The wood of Xanthoxyhim Clava-EerculAs is liglit, soft, and close-grained, with numerous thin 
medullary rays ; it is light brown, with yellow sapwood, and has, when absolutely dry, a specific gravity 
of 0.5056, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 31.51 pounds. 

The bark of XantJioxrjJum Clava-HcrcuUs contams the active properties found in that of the other 
species of the genus, and, as well as the leaves and fruit, is used for the same purposes.^ The bark is 
held in high esteem by the negroes, who collect it in large quantities, and are fast exterminating the 
tree, especially along the Atlantic seaboard. 

The earliest account of Xanthoxylum Clava-UercuUs seems to have been that of Ray,^ published 
in 16G8. It was known to Phdienet,^ and described by Catesby in his Natural History of Carolina.'^ 
It appears to have been introduced into England at least as early as the beginning of the eighteenth 
century,^ and was cultivated in 1739 by Philip Miller at Chelsea." 

There is a form' of this tree in southern Florida and in western Texas with short, sometimes three- 
foliate,^ more or less pubescent leaves with small ovate or oblong blunt and conspicuously crenulate 
rather coriaceous leaflets. This is the common form of west Texas, where it grows usually as a low 
shrub, attaining sometimes hi the region hnmediately adjacent to the coast the size and habit of a smaU 

^ " It is used to cure the Tooth-ache, by putting a Piece of the 
Bark In the Mouth, which being very hot, draws a Rhume from the 
mouth, and causes much Spittle." (Lawson, The History of Caro- 
lina, ICO.) 

B. S. Barton, Coll. l 26, 54 ; ii. 38. 

U. S. Nat. Disp. ed. 2, 1535. 

■' Arhor spinosa Virginiana, caudice ^- ramis LanigercE spinosx 
Malabnrica smilis ; an HercuUs clava Mus. Societ. liegicE ? Hist PI 
ii. 1800. 

^ ^ Arbor aculeata, Caroliniana, spinis grandioribus, crebris tulerculis 
vnnascentihus ; cortice urens, Aim. Bot. 43. 

Euor>,ymo adjinis aromalica, s. Zanthoxylum Floridanum, Fraxini 
foliis, minus spinosum, AmallTt. Bot. 76. 

* Zanthoxylum spinosum, Lentisci longioribm foliis Euonymi fructu 
capsulan ex insula Jamaicensi, i. 26, t. 26. _ Royen, Fl. Luad. Prodr. 

Zanthoxylum, Linu=eus, Hori. Cliff. 487 (excl. syn. Plukenet). 
The name of Clava-Herculis appears to have been first used by 
Trew to describe the spiney truuk of a Xanthoxylum from the south- 
ern part of North America in the museum of the Koyal Society at 
London. This is the plant described by Linn^us as Z. Clava-Her- 

culis in the Species Plantarum, as shown by his reference to Cates- 
by's excellent figure. Misled, however, by Catesby's erroneous 
reference to Jamaica, Linnsus supposed that the Carolina and Vir- 
ginia plant was a native also of that island. The error was copied 
by Willdeuow ; Swartz and De Candolle suppressed the North 
American station entirely, describing a West Indian tree as X. 
Clava-Herculis ; but that name being preoccupied for the Carolina 
plant, the West Indian species, as shown by Triana & Planchon 

(Ann. Sd. Nat. ser. 5, 14, 319), becomes X. Caribceum of Lamarck 
(Diet. ii. 110). 

^ "In Horto Industrii Hortulani D. Darby, apud Hoxtoniam, vi- 
cum Londoni nostri suburbanam, ex feminibus natum conspcximus," 
Plukenet, Amalth. Bot. 76. 

^ Hort. Kew. iii. 399. 

^ Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, var. fruticosum, Gray, PI Wright. 
1- 30 {Smithsonian Contrib. iii.) ; Proc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 
225. — Torrey & Gray, Pacifc R. R. Rep. ii. 161. — Torrey, Bot. 
Mex. Bound. Surv. 43. — Chapman, FL 66. 

X hirsutum, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1861, 450. 

« Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 335. 


Plate XXIX. Xanthoxtlum Clava-Herculis. 

1. A staminate inflorescence, natural size, 

2. A pistillate inflorescence, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a staminate flowerj enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower^ enlarged. 
?• A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a fmit, enlarged. 

9, Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 
10- An embryo", much enlarged. 

11. Diagram of a staminate flower. 

12. Diagram of a pistillate flower- 

13. Portion of a young branch with prickles. 

Silva of North A 

ni erica 

Tab . XXIX 

O.E. Fu^on del. 

Pur. art Jr. so 


A, ItiocreiiO} dJj-ea^: 

Imp li. 'Jancur, /\if^iy. 







Unarmed. Flowers in terminal clusters; sepals and petals 5, Leaves persistent. 

Xanthoxylum cribrosum, Sprengel, Syst. i. 946. — Die- X. Carib^um, Watson, Index, im (not Lamarck). — S 
trich, Syn. ii. 1001. — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 616. gent. Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 30. 

X. Floridanum, Kuttall, Sylva, iii. 14, t. 85. — Chapman, X. CaribEeum, var. Floridanum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
Fl. 66. n. ser. xxiii. 225. 

A small round-headed tree, thirty to thirty-five feet in height, with a trunk twelve to eio-liteen 
inches in diameter. The bark of the trunk is a quarter of an inch thick, with a smooth light gray sur- 
face divided by shallow furrows and broken into numerous short appressed scales. The branchlets when 
they first appear, are densely coated with thick silky pubescence ; they are stout, very brittle, puberulent 
during their second and third years, and covered with light gray rugose bark conspicuously marked with 
large triangular leaf-scars. The winter-buds are narrowly acuminate, half an inch long, and coated with 
short thick pale tomentum. The leaves, which appear in Florida during the month of June, are usually 
composed of four pairs and a terminal leaflet ; they are sometimes three-foHolate, and are rarely reduced 
to a single leaflet. They vary usually from sik to nine inches in length, although sometimes much 
shorter, and are borne on stout glandular petioles with enlarged bases. The leaves are densely covered 
with tomentum when they first unfold, and retam at maturity a few scattered hairs on the petioles and 
along the midribs of the leaflets. These are ovate-lanceolate, or elliptical and obtuse, often slightly 
falcate, regularly contracted into a stout petiole, or sometimes distinctly oblique at the base. They are 
nearly sessile or long-stallied, two to three inches long, an inch and a half to two inches broad, with 
entire or slightly crenulate margins, and are coriaceous, pale yellow-green, and conspicuously marked 
■with large pellucid glands. The staminate and pistillate flowers are produced on separate plants, and 
are borne in wide-spreading pubescent sessile cymes, those of the female plant being usually divided 
at the base into three principal branches. The flowers appear in Florida in June soon after the trees 
begin their annual growth; they are borne on slender pubescent pedicels a quarter of an inch or 
more long, the basal bract covered with thick white tomentum. The minute acuminate calyx-lobes with 
ciliate margins are barely an eighth of the length of the ovate greenish white petals, which are reflexed 
when the flowers are fully expanded. The staminate flowers have five stamens with slender filaments 
much longer than the petals, and a minute depressed rudimentary ovary. The fertile flowers show no 
trace of stamens, and contain usually two, or sometimes a single pistil with a stipitate obovate ovary and 
a short style with a spreading entire stigma. The fruit ripens in autumn or early winter, and may some- 
tunes be found attached to the branches late in the spring of the following year. The ripe carpels are 
obliquely obovate, short-stalked, one-seeded, pale chestnut-brown at maturity, a third of an inch long or 
less, the surface faintly marked with minute glands. The seeds are black and lustrous. 

Xantlioxylum cribrosuTn now grows in Florida on the Marquesas Keys, and on South Bahia 
Honda and Boca Chica Keys.^ It occurs in San Domingo/ Porto Rico,^ the Bahama Islands,^ and 

There is reason to believe that this tree was formerly much ^ Sprengel, I. c. 

more common on the Florida keys, where it is sought for its valuable ^ p. Sintenis, Plantm Portoricensis, No. 3708, 1886, in Herb. 

wood. Dr. Blodgctt, as quoted by Nuttall {Sylva, ili. 14), spoke of Kew. 

It as a large and common tree on Key "West, from which it has now * Briee, No. 410, Eggers, No. 4497, in Herh. Kew. 

entirely disappeared. 5 Lefroy, in Herl. Kew. 


The wood of Xanthoxylum crlhrosum is very Iieavy and exceedingly hard, althouo-h britth 
not strong ; it possesses a clear firm grain and is easily worked, and the surface can be made to ^ 
a beautiful polish ; it contains numerous thin conspicuous medullary rays and is lio-ht orano-e- ■ 1 *^^^7 
the thin sapwood being rather lighter colored. The specific gravity of the absolutely diy ^00^"' 
0.9002, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 56.10 pounds. It has, when first cut, the odor of t^ 
true satinwood, a pecuharity which causes this tree to be called Satinwood by the inhabitants of th^ 
Florida keys, by whom it is used in the manufacture of various articles of furniture, the handles \ 
tools, and other objects of domestic use. ' ' 

Xanthoxylum crlhrosum was discovered in San Domingo during the first quarter of the centur ' 
and was detected in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. ^^^' 

1 Speeimens collected in San Dommgo by Berterio, and commu- herbarium of the Berlin Botanic Garden, where there are also S^ 
meated m 1824 by Professor Balbis of Turin, are preserved in the Domingo specimens from Knnth's herbarium. ^ 

Plate XXX. Xanthoxylum cribrosum. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size, 

3. A flower-bud, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a stamijiate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7- Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 
8. Vertical section of an ovary^ enlarged. 

Plate XXXI. Xanthoxyltibi cribrosum, 
1- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. The ripe fruit, enlarged- 

3. Vertical section of a ripe carpel, enlarged. 

4. Cross section of a seed, enlarged- 
5- An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of Worth America. 

Tat, XXX 

C.H.Fcucon. de.l.^ 

Picfirt^ so. 



A.J^iocreur- direa>/' 

Inip^RTaneiw. Paris, 

Silva of North America. 

Tat. XXXI 

C.E.Faxon del 

Ficartfr. sc< 


A.Riocreif:v dzrea^f 

Imp. K Ta/icur, Paris. 





Wild Lime. 

Flowers in axillary clusters ; sepals and petals 4. Leaves persistent. 

Santhoxylum Fagara, Sargent, Garden and Forest, iii. 

Schinus Fagara, Linnsens, Spec. 389. 
Pterota subspinosa, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 146, t. 5, 

f. 1. 
Fagara Pterota, Linn^us, Amain, v. 393 ; Mant. 331. — 

Miller, Diet. ed. 8. — Lamarck, Diet. ii. 444 ; III. i. 335, 

t. 84. — Willdenow, Spec. i. 666. — Lunan, Ilort. Jam. 

ii. 146. — Titford, Bort. Bot. Am. 40. — Turpin, Diet. 

Sci. Nat. xvi. 107, 1. 127. 

Fagara tragodes, Jacquin, Enum. PI. Carih. 12; Stirp. 
Am. 21, 1. 14. 

Fagara lentiscifolia, "VVilldenow, Enum. i. 165. — Grise- 
bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 137. 

Pterota, Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 
Spec. vi. 3. — Kunth, Syn. iii. 325. — De Candolle, Prodr. 
i. 725. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 802. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N. Am. i. 680. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 190. — Dietrich, 
Syn. ii. 1000. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii. 11, t. 84. — Socman, 
Bot. Herald, 275. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Suru. 
43. — Chapman, Fl. 66. — Triana & Planehon, Ann. Sci. 
Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 311.— Engler, Martins Fl. Brasil. xii. 2, 
154. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 169. — Sargent, 
Forest Trees N Am. liith Census U. S. ix. 31. 

A tree, occasionally reaching the height o£ twenty-five or thirty feet, with a slender, often incHning 
trunk and fastigiate branches ; or more frequently a tall or low shrub. The bark of the trunk is an 
eighth of an inch thick, the smooth light gray surface covered with small appressed persistent scales. 
The branchlets are more or less zigzag, slender, covered with smooth dark gray bark, and armed with 
sharp hooked stipular prickles. The leaves are three or four inches long, Avith broadly winged jointed 
petioles, and are composed of three or four pairs and a terminal leaflet. The leaflets are obovate, 
rounded or emarginate at the apex, minutely crenulate-toothed above the middle, sessile, half an inch 
long or less, coriaceous, glandular-punctate, bright green and lustrous especially on the upper surface, 
and furnished with minute hooked deciduous stipular prickles. The staminate and pistillate flowers 
are produced on separate plants. The short axillary contracted cymes appear singly or in pairs from 
April until June on the branches of the previous year from minute dark brown globular buds. The 
flowers are small and are borne on short pedicels from the axils of minute ovate-obtuse deciduous 
bracts. The sepals are membranaceous and much shorter than the ovate yellow-green petals. The 
sterile flowers have four exserted stamens with slender filaments and a rudimentary pistil crowned by 
the incurved rudimentary styles. The fertile flowers are destitute of stamens, and have two pistils 
with ovate-sessile ovaries, gradually contracted into long slender subulate exserted styles, connivent near 
the apex and crowned with obliquely spreading stigmas. The fruit, which ripens in September, is 
obovate, rusty brown, rugose, and less than a quarter of an inch long, and contains a single seed covered 
■with a bright shining coat. 

Xanthoxylum Fagara is widely distributed on the coast and islands of Florida south of Mosquito 
Inlet, and latitude twenty-nine north on the west coast ; and in Texas from Matagorda Bay to the Rio 
Grande. It is conunon in north Mexico, and is widely distributed through the West Indian islands, 
southern Mexico, and Central and South America as far south as Brazil and Peru. This species is one 
ot the commonest of the south Florida plants, where it usually grows as a tall slender shrub, assuming a 
truly arborescent habit on the rich hummock soil of Eliott's Key and the shores of Bay Biscayne. In 
iexas it IS generally shrubby, although occasionally reaching tree-like proportions in the neighborhood 
of Matagorda Bay. 

ihe wood of Xanthoxylum Fagara is heavy, hard, and very close-grained ; it is brown tinged with 
red, and contains numerous thin medullary rays. The thin sapwood, composed of ten or twelve layers 




of annual growth^ is yellow. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.7444 a cuhi f 
the dry wood weighing 46.39 pounds. 

Paul Hermann ' published in 1689 the earliest account of Xanthoxylum Fagara ; the first fio- 
is that of Plukenet/ published in 1691. It was discovered in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blod^ett ^V^ 
Texas on Matagorda Bay in February, 1845, by Mr. Ferdinand Lindheimer.^ ' 

Xanthoxylum Fagara ' was cultivated in England as early as 1782 by Philip Miller.^ 


1 "-'An Coriaria Arbor spmosa AcacicE foUis ^ facie, Parad. Bat. 

2 Hhus Ohsoniorum similis leptipliyllos, Tragodes, Americana, spi- 
nosa, racU medio appendicibus aucto, Aim. Bot. 319, t. 107, f. 4 

Lauro affinis Jasmini folio alato, casta' media memhranulis utrin- 
que extantibus alata, ligni duritie ferro viz cedens, Sloane, Cat. PL 
Jam. 137 ; Nat. Hist. Jam. il. 25, t. 1G2, f. 1.— Kay, Hist. PI. 
Dendr. iii. 86. 

Sclunoides petiolis suhtus aculeatis, Linnajus, Hort. Cliff. 489. 
Schinus foliis pinnatis ; foliolis ov.-oUongis, petiolo marginato artic- 
ulate inermi, Liiinreus, Mat. Med. 187. 

3 Ferdinand Liudheimer (1801-1879), a German resident of 
Texas, where he was a most assiduous and successful botanical col- 
lector and observer during a period of more than thirty years. He 
was a member of the German colony at New Eraunfels. where he 

edited a newspaper and where he died. He discovered a lar e 
number of new plants, among them Lindheimera Texana a we^ 
known garden annual. Slany of his discoveries were published by 
Engelmann and Gray in the Journal of the Boston Society of Nat. 
ural History {Plantce Lindheimerianm). 

* Fagara was early used by the Arabians to designate an aro- 
matie plant of which the name is now lost (Wittstein, Etymolog. Bot. 
Hand.). It was afterwards taken up by Clusius and the apothe^ 
caries to designate, nnder the name of Fagarm majores, the aro- 
matic fruit of some eastern tree, probably of Xanthoxylum Rhetsa, 
DC, of India. Linnaius, under the impression, perhaps, that the 
American plant was identical with the tree which produced the Fa- 
gara: of commerce, gave it the specific name Fagara. 
• 5 Alton, Hort. Kew. i. 16l'. 



Plate XXXIL " Xanthoxylum Fagara. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate tree, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural size. 

3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

■ 4. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section o£ a pistillate flower, eiflarged. 

7. Cluster of fruit, natural size. 
S. A ripe carpel, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

1 . 

i - 


1 1^1 

Silva of North America, 



^^ -Faxon, del. 

r- sc^ 



AlUocreu^ direa>^ 

Jnyy.K. Taneur. Paris. 



Flowers polygamous ; calyx 4 or 5-parted, the lobes imbricated in estivation ; 
petals 4 or 5, imbricated in aestivation, liypogynous. Fruit, a 2 or 3-celled broadly 
Avingcd, or rarely wingless, indchiscent samara. Leaves trifoliate, or rarely pinnately 

Ptelea, Linnieus, Ge7U 29. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 375- — Bentham & Hooker, Ge?i. i. 301. — BaiUon, MisL PL iv. 

Endlicher, Gen. 1147, — Meisner, Gen, 65, — Gray, Gen. 482, 

III ii. 149; Froc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 224.— BeUucoia, Adansou, i^a^^i. P^. ii. 344. 


SmaU unarmed trees or shrubs, with smooth bitter bark, slender terete brandies, small depressed 
almost subpetiolar buds, and thick fleshy acrid roots. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, destitute of 
stipules, long petiolate, usually trifoliate, the leaflets conduphcate in vernation, ovate or oblong, entire, 
crenate or serrulate, punctate with pellucid dots. Flowers produced on slender bracteolate pedicels m 
terminal cymes or compound corymbs, greenish white. Receptacle convex, inconspicuous. Calyx 
parted nearly to the base, much shorter than the petals, deciduous. Petals spreading, deciduous. Sta- 
mens three or four, alternate with and as long as the petals, hypogynous; much shorter in the fertile 
flowers with imperfect or rudimentary anthers; filaments subulate, more or less pilose towards the base, 
especially on the inner surface ; anthers ovate or cordate, introrse, two-celled ; the ceUs opening longi- 
tudinaUy. Pistil raised on a short gynophore ; abortive and nearly sessile in the sterile flowers; ovary 
compressed, two to three-ceUed; style short; stigma two to three-lobed; ovules two in each cell, 
mserted one above the other, ascending, amphitropous, raphe ventral, micropyle superior, the upper 
ovule only fertilized. Fruit orbicular, surrounded by a broad reticulate wing, or rarely nut-lilze and 
wmgless. Seed oblong; testa smooth or slightly wi-inkled, coriaceous; albumen fleshy. Embryo 
straight ; cotyledons ovate-oblong ; radicle short, superior. 

The genus Ptelea is confined to the United States and Mexico. Four or five species are known. 
Ptelea trifohata, a smafl tree, and the only arborescent species of the genus, ranges from southern 
Ontario to Mexico. Ftelea angustifolia^ inhabits the Atlantic-coast region from South Carolina to 
Florida, and is common from Texas to California, extending north to the mountains of Colorado and 
south into northern Mexico. One, and perhaps two species occur in southern Mexico,^ and one species 
in the peninsula of Lower California.^ 

The bark and foliage o£ Ptelea is bitter and strong-scented, and possesses tonic and anthelmintic 

The name Ptelea, derived from the Greek nt^Xka, a classical name of the Elm-tree, was transferred 
by Linnseus to this genus from the resemblance of its winged fruit to that of the Elm. 

Bentham, PI Hartweg. 9. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cat i. 97. s pi^i^a aptera, Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci. iv. 39, a low 

{P. Baldwinii, Torrey & Gray, FL N. Am. i. 215. — Chapman, FL aromatic shrub from the shores of Todos-Sautos Bay, distinguished 

by its remarkable nut-like glandular turgid fruit, surrounded by a 
Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 171. narrow rudimentary wing, or quite wingless. 





Hop Tree. Wafer Ash. 

Flowers polygamo-moncEcious. Fruit broadly winged. Leaves usually trifoliate 

Ptelea trifoliata^ LinnKus, Spec. 118. ~ Miller, /)ic;:. ed. 
8. — Medieus, Bot. BeohacU. 215. — Marsiiall, Arhust. 
Am. 115. — Walter, FL Car. 88. — Lamarck, III. i. 336, 
t. 84. — Moeneli, Meth. 55. — Willdenow, Spec. i. 670 ; 
Emm. i. 166. — Noiiveau Duhaviel, i. 251, t. 57. — Mi- 
chaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 99. — Schkuhr, Eandb. i. 83, t. 

25 Poii-et, Lam. Diet. v. 706. — Persoon, Syn. i. 

145. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii. 344. — Robin, Voyages, 
ili. 509. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1. 107. — Nuttall, Gen. 
i. 104. — Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abbild. Holz. 94, t. 
74. — Hayne, De7idr. Fl. 8. — ElHott, Sk. i. 210. — 
Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 291. — Torrey, Fl. XJ. S. 
189 ; Fl. N. Y. i. 133. — De Candolle, Brodr. ii. 82. — 
Sprengel, Syst. i. 441 — Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. xliv. 2, t. 

128. — A. de Jussieu, Mim. Mus. xn. t. 26, f. 42. — Don 
Ge7i. Syst. I 806. — Spaeh, Hist. Veg. ii. 369. — Lindley! 
FL Med. 215. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. i. 489, t. — Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. Am, i. 215. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 497. _ 
Gray, Gen. III. ii. 150, t. 157. — Agardh, Theor. et Syst. 
Fl. t. 19, f. 7, 8. -Chapman, Fl. 66. — Curtis, Rep. 
Geolog. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 107.- Schnizlein, Icon. 
t. 250, f. 15-26. - Baillon, Hist. Fl. iv. 395, f. 445, 
446. — Kofh, Dendr. i. 566. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent. i. 171. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \Oth Census 
If. S. ix. 31. — Watson & Coulter, Gi-ay's Man. ed. 6 

P. pentaphylla, Fabricius, Enum. Fl, Ilelmst. 416. 
P. viticifolia, SaHsbury, Frodr. 68. 

_ A smaU round-headed tree, rarely twenty or twenty-fne feet in height, mth a straight slender trunk 
SIX or eight inches m diameter ; or, more often, a low spreading shrub. The bark of the trunk is rarely 
more than an eighth of an inch thick, ^vith a smooth dark gray surface marked with numerous oblong 
wart-like excrescences which also appear on the dark brown lustrous bark of the young branches 
These are conspicuously marked during the winter by the scars left by the falKng of the leaf-stalks, 
which almost surround and coyer the depressed nearly round buds which are pale or ahnost white, and 
covered with scattered silky hairs. The leaves are alternate, or rarely opposite, and are borne on stout 
petioles with thickened bases, and two and a half to three inches long. When they first appear tiey 
are covered, as are the young shoots, the branches of the inflorescence, and the petioles, with short fine 
pubescence, and become glabrous at maturity. The leaflets are sessile, ovate or oblong and pointed, 
the terminal one generally larger and more gradually contracted at the base than the others; they are 
entire or finely serrate, rather coriaceous at maturity, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale 
on the lower, four to six inches long by two and a half to three inches broad, with prominent midribs 
and prmiary veins. The flowers appear in the extreme south as early as March, and in the north dur- 
ing the early part of the month of June. The fertile and sterile flowers are produced together in com- 
pound terminal spreading cymes, the sterile flowers being usuaUy less numerous and falling soon after 
the opening of their anther cells. The slender pedicels, an inch or an inch and a half long, are thickly 
covered with pubescence, as are the calyx and the ovate-oblong petals. The ovary is puberulent. The 
truit with its^ wing is ahnost orbicular, or sometimes slightly obovate, and nearly an inch across. It 
npens m Florida in early summer, or at the north late in the autumn, and hangs at maturity on long 
Slender reflexed pedicels, the remnants of which remain upon the branches untfl the plants begin thch- 
growth the following spring. i" a 

Pomt Pelee on the north shore of Lake Ontario is the point farthest north where Ptdm trifoliata 
has been observed growing naturally.' It is found on Long Island, New York ; it is common in Penn- 
syn ania, and thence extends west to Minnesota and south to northern Florida and through Texas and 

' J. W. Burgess, Bot. Gazette, vii. 95. 




New Mexico to the valley of the Mimhres River and the mountains of Colorado^ and northern Mexico. 
Ptelea trifoliata generally grows on rocky slopes near the borders of the forest, often in the shade 
of larger trees. 

The wood of Ptelea trifoliata is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with a satiny surface. The med- 
ullary rays are thin and not numerous, but the layers of annual growth are clearly marked by two or 
three rows of open ducts. The color o£ the heartwood is yellow-brown, the thin sapwood, composed of 
six to eight layers of annual growth, being hardly distinguishable from it. The specific gravity of the 
absolutely dry wood is 0.8319, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 51.84 pounds. 

Herbalists employ the bitter bark of the roots of Ptelea trifoliata in the form of tinctures and 
fluid extracts as a tonic in the treatment of dyspepsia and debiHty ; ^ and the bitter fruit is said to be 
sometimes used domestically as a substitute for hops in beer-bre\\dng.^ 

The earliest description of Ptelea trifoliata is that of Plukenet, published hi 1696 in the Alma- 
gestum Botanicum^ It was cultivated in England as early as 1724^ by Dr. James Sherard,*^ in his 
garden at Eltham, and has since been an esteemed plant m gardens, where, at different times, forms 
with variegated or blotched foliage have appeared. 

Ptelea trifoliata is the favorite food of a Tree-hopper which punctures its branches,' and the larvte 
of a Tineid moth ^ are known to disfigure the leaves.** 

Ptelea trifoliata flourishes in rich rather moist soil, and may be easily propagated from seed 
which, i£ planted as soon as it is ripe, germinates the following spring. 

There is a shrubby form of this species, smaller in all its parts than that represented in our figure, 
more pubescent, and -with the under surface of the leaves often coated with thick white tomentum.^" It 
is not rare in the south Atlantic states near the coast and in Florida ; it is the common form of western 
Texas and New Mexico. 

1 Canon City, Hooker & Gray (1877), in Herb. Gray. 
= Am. Jour. Pharm. 1862, 198; 1867, 337. — iVa(. Disp. ed. 2, 

8 This statement of the use of the frnit of Ptelea has been re- 
peated in most of the published accounts of the tree. I have no 
reason for supposing that it is now used for this purpose. 

*, Frutex Virginianus trifolius Ulmi Samarris Banisteri, 159. — Dil- 
lenins, Hori. Elth. 147, t. 122, f. 148. — Gate sby, Nat. Hist. Car. 
ii. 83, t. 83. — LinuEeus, Hort. Cliff. 36. 

Ptelea foliis ternatis, MiUcr, Icon. Diet. ii. 141, t. 211. 

s Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 162. 

^ James Sherard, M. D. (1666-1737), brother of the more dis- 
tinguished William Sherard, who was one of the most eminent bot- 
anists of his time and the founder of the Botanic Garden at Oxford. 
James Sherard, a successful London physician and apothecary, was 
devoted to botany and horticulture. His garden at Eltliam in Kent 

was one of the richest of its time in England, and was made famous 
by Dillenius in his sumptuous Hortiis Elthamensis, published in 1732, 
in which he figured many of the plants cultivated by Dr. Sherard, 

* EcTtenopa binotata, Say, First Ann. Rep. State Entomol. N. Y. 287. 

^ Nepticula pielea^ella. 

^ The foliage of Ptelea trifoliata is ruined every year during the 
month of August in the neighborhood of Covington, Kentucky, by 
the larvEe of this species. (T. V. Chambers, Psyche, iii. 137.) 

1° Ptelea trifoliata, var. mollis, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. A m. i. 680. — 
Engelmann & Gray, Jour. Boxt. Soc. Nat. Hist. v. 33 (PL Lind- 
^em.).— .Torrey, Marcy's Rep. 269. — Gray, PL Wright, i. 31 

(Smithsonian Contrib. iii.). — Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 335.— 
Sai-gent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOih Census U. S. ix. 31. 

P. mollis, Curtis, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, vii. 40G ; Rep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 107. — Walpers, Ann. ii. 259. — Chapman, 
JY. 67. 

Plate SXXIIL Ptelea trifoliata- 

!• A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a fertile flower. 

3. A sterile flower, enlarged. 

4 Vertical section of a sterile flower, enlarged. 

5. Posterior and anterior views of a stamen, enlarged, 

6. A fertile flower, enlarged, 

7. Vertical section of a pistil, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

Plate XXXR^ Ptelea XRiroLiAXA. 

L A fruiting branch, natural size, 

2. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

3. A seed, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

5. An embryo, much enlarged. 



SilvsL of North America 

Tab. xxxni 






C, E r^vorv del. 


r. sa 


J1 . Riocreuw direa> ^ 

Jmp.R; Taneur. Paris. 

Silva of North. America 


C^-E.Fa3U}7i^ del^. 

Ficoi'tjr, so. 


-A,I^creim> direa>^ 

Imp. R ToTieur. Farif- 



Flowers regular, perfect ; calyx 3 to 4-parted, the divisions imbricated in ^stiya- 
tion ; petals 3 to 4, imbricated in estivation, hypogynous. Fruit composed of 3 to 
4 -winged indehiscent eoccules. Leaves trifoliate, persistent. 

■ Helietta, Tulasne, Ann. Set. Nat. ser. 3, vii. 280. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 301. — Baillon, Hist. PI. iv 477 —En ler 
Martins Fl. Brasil. xii. 2, 184. ' • K » 

Trees or shrubs, with slender terete branches. Leaves opposite, long-petiolate ; leaflets sessile, obo- 
vate-oblong, obtuse, entire or crenate, sub coriaceous, glandular-punctate, the terminal much larger than 
the two lateral. Flowers produced on slender bibracteolate pedicels in terminal or axillary panicles. 
Sepals slightly united at the base, persistent, much shorter than the oblong concave glandular-punctate 
petals reflexed at maturity. Stamens inserted under the disk ; filaments shorter than the petals, slightly 
flattened, glabrous j anthers ovate, slightly cordate at the base, attached on the back below the middle, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Disk free, cup-shaped, erect, sub corrugated, with 
a sinuate margin, entire or four-lobed, the lobes entire or crenate and opposite the petals. Ovary 
minute, sessile, depressed, three to four-lobed, glandular-verrucose or minutely pilose, the lateral lobes 
slightly compressed ; styles united into a single slender column, crowned by the globose three to four- 
lobed stigma ; ovules two in each cell, collateral, anatropous. Fruit obconical, composed of three to 
four dry woody carpels ^vith prominent horizontal wings, separating at maturity into three to four one- 
seeded indehiscent eoccules. Seed linear, oblong, inclosed in a cartilaginous indehiscent endocarp j testa 
erustaceous, fragile, black. Embryo axile, surrounded by thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons straight, 
obtuse; radicle terete, superior. 

The genus Helietta is widely distributed from the valley of the Rio Grande in Texas to Brazil and 
Paraguay. Four species are now recognized by botanists. Belietta parvifoUa is peculiar to northeast- 
em Mexico and the adjacent portions of Texas. Selietta Plmana^ the type of the genus, is a native of 

Colombia. Helietta muUiflora ^ is Brazilian, and Helietta apiculata,^ described as a smaU tree, is found 

in Paraguay. 

The genus Helietta was named by Tidasne in honor of Louis Theodore Helie,' a distinguished 
French physician who studied the poisonous properties of the Rue." 

Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, vii. 281. founded a museum of anatomy. Ho contributed numerous articles 

^ Engler, Martins Fl. Brasil. xii. 2, 183, t. 39. to medical journals, and at the time of Ms death was an officer of 

Bentham, Hook. Icon. xiv. G7. the Legion of Honor, and a member of many learned societies. 

" Louis Theodore Il^lie (1804-1867) ; born in Nantes, graduated ^ » pe Taction v^n^neuse de la Eue, et de son influenee sur la 

in medicine at Paris in 1827, and professor of anatomy and physi- grossesse." (Annales d'Hygiene Publique, Paris, 1838, xx. 180.) 
ology in the school of medicine of his native city, in which he 

- '** t 







Sepals and petals 4 ; disk 4-lobed. 

Helietta parvifolia, Bentham, Hook. Icon. xiv. 66. — V. Ptelea parvifolia, Hemsley (ex. char. A. Gray in Eerh. 
Havard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. viii. No. 29, 475. — Sar- Kew.), Sot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 170. 

gent, Garden and Forest, ii. 352. 

A slender tree, twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a trunk five or six inches in diameter, 
and rather erect branches forming a small irregular head ; or a low shrub. The bark of the trunk 
is an eighth of an inch thick, the surface covered with dark brown closely appressed scales which sepa- 
rate in large irregular patches, leaving when they fall a smooth pale yellow surface. The bark of the 
branchlets is pale, covered with minute wart^Hhe excrescences j it is minutely puberulous when they first 
appear, soon becoming glabrous, and is marked during the second year with small inconspicuous leaf- 
sears. The leaves remain on the branches until March or April, when the new growth begins. They 
are borne on stout slightly club-shaped petioleSj which are at first puberulent, and become glabrous at 
maturity. The leaflets are oblong or narrowly obovate, rounded or sometimes slightly emarginate at 
the apex, and gradually and regularly contracted at the base ; they are entire or slightly and remotely 
crenulate-serrate, yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler below, and conspicuously marked 
with black glandular dots ; the terminal leaflet, which is sometimes wanting, is half an inch to an inch 
and a half long, sometimes half an inch broad, and nearly double the size of the two lateral leaflets. 
The flowers, which open in April and May, are produced in dichotomously-h ranched subsessile panicles 
on the shoots of the season from the axils of the upper leaves above which they hardly appear. The 
flower-buds are round, obtusely-flattened, and covered with pubescence. The bracts of the pedicels are 
minute, acuminate, and early-deciduous, and, hke the petioles and calyx, are covered at first with short 
dense pubescence. The petals are white, ovate, an eighth of an inch long or nearly so, with scattered 
hairs on the outer surface, and thin scabrous margins, and are four or five times longer than the calyx- 
lobes. The disk is four-lobed with entire margins, and, like the four-lobed ovary and slender style, is 
minutely glandular-punctate. The fruit, of which only two or three specimens appear to mature from a 
panicle, ripens in October ; it is oblong, a quarter to a thu-d of an inch long, and produced into a rigid 
broadly ovate, sometimes slightly falcate wing, rounded at the apex, half an inch long, and conspicu- 
ously reticulate-veined. 

Helietta j)arvifoUa forms thickets of considerable extent near Eio Grande City in Texas, where it 
is a common shrub. It was first noticed there by Dr. Valery Havard ^ in 1883, and is not known else- 
where within the limits of the United States. HeHetta is rather common on the mesas south of the 
lower Rio Grande, where it is found with the Acacias, Buckthorns, Yuccas and Cacti, the Texas Per- 
srnimon, and the Parkinsonias, which form the characteristic features of the flora of that region, and 

^ Yal^ry Havard was born near Compifigiie in France in 1846, 
and was edncated at Beauvois, where he followed assiduously in 
the Agrienltural Institute courses in botany and in other depart- 
ments of Natural History. Havard emigrated in 18GG to the 
United States, and obtained the appointment of professor in Man- 
hattan College, New York. Four years later he graduated in med- 
icine from the University Medical College of New York, and in 
1874 received the appointment of assistant surgeon In the United 
States army. Dr. Havard's knowledge of botany has enabled him 

to make many interesting and important discoveries in connection 
with his official duties in various parts of the country, especially in 
Dakota, Montana, and western Texas. His description of the nat- 
ural features of western and southern Texas, published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the United States National Museum for 1885, gives a 
detailed account of the distribution of the plants of this interesting 
re<Hon. and of their economic properties and uses, and is an impor- 
tant botanical paper containing much information which had not 
previously been made known. 




reaches the lower slopes of the Sierra Madre, along which it extends southward tlirouo-h the Stat 
Nuevo Leon, flourishing; on limestone ledges where it attains its largest size and tree-like habit i!/tl 
fertile soil and comparatively humid atmosphere of that reo-ion. ' '^ ^^ 

The wood of miietta jjarmfoUa is hard, very heavy and close-grained ; it contains numerous tl ' 
medullary rays, the layers of annual growth being marked by several rows of minute open ducts""^^ It''"^ 
light orange-brown, the sapwood, which is not otherwise distinguishable, behig rather %hter 'c 1 T 
The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.S7S5, a cubic foot weighing 54.75 pound "^^^ Tt 
probably used for fuel only. ° ^ ■ it is 

Belietta parvifolia was discovered near Monterey by Mr. J. L. Berlandier ' in 1828 

* Jean Lonis Berlandier, a native of Belgium, was a pupil of De 
Candolle, under whose auspices he published at Geneva, in 1S28, a 
Mmoire sur la Famille des Grossulark'es, also elaborating these 
plants for the Prodromus of De Candolle (iii. 477-483). Berlandier 
left Europe probably in 1827 or 1828, and established himself as an 
apothecary at Matamoros in Mexico. He was the first botanist to 
explore Nuevo Leon, where he made large eollections' and many 
discoveries, as he did later in western Texas also. At the breaking 
out of the war between the United States and Mexico, Berlandier 
espoused the cause of the former, and was present as guide at the 

battle of Resaca de la Palma and at some of the other combats 
which took place at the beginning of the war north of the Eio 
Orande. He was drowned in 1851 in attempting to cross on horse- 
back one of the small streams which flow into the Gulf of Mexico 
south of the Rio Grande. The manuscripts of Berlandier's pub- 
lished papers, the notes of some of his .Alexican journeys, and a 
number of his unpublished paintings of Mexican plants,. are pre- 
served in the herbarium of Harvard University. The genus Ber- 
landiera, dedicated to him by De Candolle, commemorates his 
services to botany. 


Plate XXXV. Helteti'a pabvifolia. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. A flower, the calyx and petals removed, enlarged, 

6. An ovule, much magnilied. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Vertical section of a carpel, enlarged. 
9- A seed, enlarged. 

10. An embryo, much magnified. 

H ■■ -m 

Silva of North America, 

Tab . XXXV 


C. E. FaiT^n/ deL 

Ptcartfh, j-c 



A.Rwcreii^r diPiSryr 

Imp, It: Tarisur, Parir . 





Plowers hermaphrodite or polygamous ; calyx gamosepalous, 4-toothed ; petals 4, 
imbricated in a)stiyation, hypogynous. Fruit, a 1-seeded drupe. Leaves 1 to 3-foliatc 
or unequally pinnate. 

Amyris, Lfnnajus, Gen. ed. 6, 188. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 
371 (in part).— Endlicher, Gen. 1139. — Meisnei-, Gen. 
74. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 327. — Ti-iana & Plan- 

chon, Ann. Sei. Nat ser. 5, xiv. 320. - BaiUon, Hist 
I'l. IV. 483. ~ Gray, Froc. Am, Acad. n. ser. sxui. 226. 

Glabrous glandular-punctate trees or shrubs, with balsamic resinous juice. Leaves opposite, or 
rarely opposite and alternate, destitute o£ stipules, persistent, the petioles often winged; leaflets oppo- 
site, petiolulate, entire or crenate. Flowers white, minute, produced generally in three-flowered corymbs 
in terminal or axillary branched panicles, bibracteolate at the base o£ the branches. Tedicels slender, 
bibracteolate. Petals mucli longer than the minute calyx, spreading at maturity. Disk of the stami- 
uate flowers inconspicuous ; that of the pistillate and perfect flowers thickened and pulvinate. Stamens 
eight, hypogynous, opposite and alternate with the petals; filaments filiform, exserted ; anthers ovate, 
attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the contiguous cefls opening longitudinally. 
Ovary ellipsoidal or ovoid, one-celled, rudimentary or sterile in the staminate flowers; style short, 
terminal, or wanting ; stigma capitate ; ovules two, collateral, suspended near the apex of the ovary, 
anatropous ; micropyle superior. Drupe globose or ovoid, aromatic ; putamen one-seeded by abortion, 
chartaceous. Seed pendulous, exalbuminous ; testa membranaceous. Embryo minute; cotyledons 
plano-convex, fleshy, glandular-punctate ; radicle very short, superior. 

The genus Amyris ^ is tropical American and north Mexican. Twelve or fourteen species ^ are 
distinguished, two extending into the territory of the United States ; one of these, A. maritima, a small 
West Indian tree, is common on the shores o£ south Florida. Amyris parmfoliaj^ a shrub of the Sierra 
Madre of Mexico, has been noticed in Texas near the mouth of the Rio Grande. 

The plants of this genus are fragrant and yield a balsamic resin which, in Amyris sylvatica,^ is 
aromatic and stimulant. Amyris halsamifera^ of the same region is reputed poisonous. The branches 
of this tree produce in burning an agreeable odor, recafling that of roses, and fires are made with them 
to perfume dwellings.^ The wood of Amyris is heavy, hard, and close-grained. It furnishes valuable 
iuel, and is sometimes employed in cabinet-making. According to BaiUon, the Lemon-wood "^ of com- 
merce is produced by Amyris sylvatica. 

The name Amyris, derived from fivppa, relates to the balsamic properties of the plants of this genus. 

^ Amyris was formerly united with Burseracece. Hooker, in the 
Genera Plantarum, although he retained the genus at the end of 
that family, suggested that it might be united more properly with 
Aurantieoi in RutacetE. Triana & Planchon {Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, 
X!V. 320) adopted this view, pointing out that the flower and fruit 
or Amyris and Glycosmis are so similar that these two types can- 
not be separated, and that if Glycosmis, in spite of its short persist- 
ent stj'le, IS to remain in Rulacecs, it is necessary to place Amyris 
With it. The genus is, however, widely separated geographically 
from the other Aurantieo', which are confined to the Old World, and 
are destitute, moreover, of the resinous gum peculiar to Amyris. 

2 Brovme, iVdf. Hist. Jam. 208.— Jacquin, Siijy. ^m. 107.— 
Humboldt, Boiipland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. el Spec. vii. 37, t. 610. — 
De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 81. — Walpers, Kep. i. 560 ; ii. 831 ; v. 120 ; 
Ann. vii. 552. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 230. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. 
Ind. 174. — Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 321. — 
Karsten, Fl. Columb. t. 158. — Hemslcy, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 180. 

5 Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 226. 
* Jaeqnin, Stirp. Am. 107. 

6 Linnffius, Spec. ed. 2, 496 (A. toxifera, Willd. Spec. ii. 336). 

^ Triana & Planchon, I. c. 
' Hist. PI iv. 448. 





Torch Wood. 

Flowers perfect. Leaves 3-foliolate. 

Amyris maritima, Jaequin, Enum. PI. Carib. 23 ; Stirp. 
Am. 107. — Linnffius, Spec. ed. 2, 496. — De CandoUe, 
Prodr. ii. 81. — Maefadyen, Fl. Jam. 231. — Richard, Fl. 
Cub. 392. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 174 (in part). ~ 
Planchon & Triana, -^wn. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 324. — 
Baillon, Hist. PI. iv. 397, f. ^^1-4TA ; Diet. i. 159, £. — 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. n. ser. xxiii. 22G. 

A. Elemifera, Linnieus, Spec. ed. 2, 495. 

A. sylvatica, De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 81 (in part). — Grise- 

bach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 174 (in part). — Sargent, Forest 
Trees iV. Am. 10th Census U. S. is. 33. 
A. dyatripa, Sprongel, Neue End. iii. 48. — De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii. 81. 

A. Ploridana, NuttaU, Am. Jour. Sci. v. 294 ; Sylva, ii. 
114, t. 78. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 81. — Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. Am. i. 221. — Loudon, Arh. Brit, ii. 561. — Chap- 
man, Fl. 68. 

A. maritima, var. angustifolia. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. n. 
ser. xxiii, 226. 

A small slender tree, forty or fifty feet in height^ with a trunk sometimes, altliougli rarely, a foot in 
diameter, covered witli tliin gray-brown bark slightly furrowed and broken into short appressed scales. 
The branches are slender, terete, covered with wart-like excrescences ; they are light brown at first and 
become gray during their second season. The winter-buds are acute, flattened, an eighth of an inch 
long, with broadly obovate scales slightly keeled on the bach. The leaves are borne on slender petioles, 
an inch or an inch and a half in length, slightly thickened towards the base. The leaflets are broadly 
ovate or roundish, obtuse, acute or acuminate at the apex, distinctly wedge-shaped at the base, or some- 


times ovate-lanceolate or rhombic-lanceolate.^ They are entire or remotely crenulate, coriaceous, lustrous 
on both surfaces, dark yellow-green^ conspicuously reticulate-veined, and covered on the lower surface 
with minute black glandular dots. They are an inch to two and a half inches long, and are borne on 
slender petioles, that of the terminal leaflet being often twice the length of those of the lateral leaflets, 
and often an inch or more long. The panicles of flowers are terminal, pedunculate or nearly sessile, 
and appear in Florida from August to December. The filaments of the four stamens which are opposite 
the sepals are sometimes a little longer than those which alternate with them.^ The fruit ripens in the 
spring ; it is ovoid, nearly half an inch long or sometimes much smaller. The fleshy outer covering is 
black, covered with a glaucous bloom when fully ripe, and possesses an aromatic oily rather agreeable 

Amyris maritima is found in Florida from Mosquito Inlet on the east coast to the southern keys, 
where it is a common plant, growing in different situations, from the immediate neighborhood of the 
shore to the rich hummocks of the interior. It irrows also on the Bahama Islands, on St. Thomas, 
Cuba^ Jamaica^ and no doubt on several o£ the otlier West Indian islands. In Florida it attains its 
greatest size on Umbrella Key^ where trees fifty feet in height are not uncommon. 

The wood of Amyris maritima is hea\7j exceedingly hard, strong, and close-grained; it is very 
resinous, extremely durable, and can be made to take a beautiful pohsh. The medullary rays are thin 

^ In the variety angustifoUa, wliich does not appear to differ oth- 
erwise from the more robust forms except in the feehlcr growth 
and the smaller foliage and fruit dne to the poor soil and exposed 
situation on the borders of sea-beaches where it is found. The 
extreme forms, characterized by Gray {L c), pass one into the 

other as surroundings and conditions of growth are more or less 

-Daillon, in liis figure of this species, represents the filaments of 

the four stamens opposite the petals as fully a third shorter than 
those which alternate with them. There is, however, no such differ- 
ence in the length of the filaments in any of the Florida specimens 
I have examined. In a specimen (Xo. 178) collected by Baron Eg- 
gers on St. Thomas in 1887, the stamens show a greater inclination 
to vary in length. This specimen was collected in full flower in 
April, showing that the flowering period of this tree varies consid- 
erably in different latitudes. 




and obscure. It is light orang-e-colored with a thin, rather Hghter colored sapwood composed of twel 
or fifteen layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 1.0459 a cub* 
foot weighing 65.18 pounds. It furnishes excellent fuel, and is used for this purpose by the inhabit- 
ants of the Florida keys. The hardnesSj strength^ and durabihty of this wood would make it valn^W 
in the arts if it could be obtained in large quantities. 

The earliest account of Amyris maritima appears to be that of Catesby, who published in hi^ 
Natural History of Carolina a very good figure of the small-leaved littoral variety,^ It was first 
noticed in Florida on the east coast in 1821 by Mr. N. A. Ware,^ and was collected later on Key West 
by Dr. J. L. Blodgett. 

^ Frutex tnfolius resinosusj Jlorihus tetra-petalis albis racemosis^ ii. 

Elemifera foliis (ernatisj Linnaius, HorL Cliff'. 486» 
Amyris ; fruticosus minor, foliis orUadatis venosis, pinnato-ternatis ; 
racemis lerininatricibus, Browne, Nat. HisL Jam. 209, 

^ Nathaniel A. "Ware (about 1789-1853) ; a native of Massachu- 
setts, and a teacher and la^wyer in South Carolina and then at 
Natchez, Mississippi, where he became a major of militia and the 

secretary of the territorial government, and where he acquired a 
large fortune by the purchase of lands. He traveled extensively in 
the southern states, and was known for his attainments in geogra- 
phy and the natural sciences, and as the author of works on the 
Pestalozzian system of education, on the federal constitution, and 
on political economy. liis services to science are commemorated 
in the genus Warea established by Nuttall in his honor. 


Plate XXXVL Amyeis mabitima. 
1- A flowering branch, natural size- 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged, 

4- Vertical section of a flower cut transversely, enlarged. 

5- A flower, the petals and stamens removed, enlar^^ed, 

6- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged- 

8. Cross section of a fruity enlarged. 

9. Embryo, much magnified- 


Silva of North America. 


^■^Fa.r^rL' del. 

Ficartjr. so- 


A HiocreifiTy dir&^f' 

Imp.R Tan£iir, Fans. 




Flowers perfect ; calyx S-lobed, imbricated in eestivation, persistent ; petals 5 
imbricated in aestivation, hypogynous. Fruit, a woody 5-celled capsule. 

Canotia, Torrey, P«..> B. R. Mep. iv. 68. _ Bentham & PI. yi, 4.2; Diet i. 612. _ Gray Proc Am Acad x' 

Hooker, Gen. I 616. - BaiUon, Adansonia, x. 18 ; Hist. 159. -Maximowicz, Act. Hart. St. Petershourg, vi. 256.' 

'A glabrous leafless tree, with light brown deeply furrowed bark. Branches stout, terete alternate 
terminated m rigid spines, pale green, striate, their bases and those of the peduncles surrounded with 
black triangular persistent cnshlon-like processes, with a minutely papillose surface havin<. the appear- 
ance of appressed scales. Flowers three to seven together in short-stemmed fascicles or c^orymhs near 
the extremities of the branches, from the axils of minute ovate subulate bracts. Pedicels slender spread- 
ing, jointed below the middle. Calyx minute, the lobes much shorter than the oblong obtus'e sessile 
wHte petals reflexed at maturity above the middle, deciduous. Stamens five, hypogynous, opposite the 
lobes of the calyx; filaments awl-shaped, rather shorter than the petals, persistent on the fruit j anthers 
oblong, cordate, introrse, minutely apiculate, attached below the middle, grooved on the back, two-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary raised upon and confluent with a fleshy slightly ten-angled 
gj-nophore, papillose-glandular on the surface, five-celled, the cells opposite the petals, terminated In a 
fleshy elongated style ; stigma slightly five-lobed ; ovules six in each cell, inserted in two ranks on its 
inner angle, sub-horizontal; the micropyle inferior. Capsule terete, oblong, tapering at each end, 
crowned with a subulate persistent style, five-ceUed, septicidally five-valved, the valves two-lobed at the 
apex ; epicarp thin, fleshy ; endocarp woody. Seed solitary or in pairs, ascending, subovate, flattened ; 
testa subcoriaceons, papillate, produced below into a broad subfalcate membranaceous wing. Embryo 
surrounded by thhi fleshy albumen, erect ; cotyledons oval, compressed ; the radicle very short, inferior. 

The wood of Canotia is heavy, hard, and close-grained, with numerous thin rather obscure medul- 
lary rays. It is light brown with thick lighter colored sapwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.GSS5, a cubic foot weighing 42.91 pounds. 

The generic name Canotia,^ given to this tree by Torrey, is the name by which it was known to the 
Mexicans of Arizona at the time of its discovery. The genus is represented by a single species. 

^ 1 Canotia was compared by Torrey, who knew the fruit only with Gray, relying on the structure of the gj-nobase and the faint traces 

Its persistent ^ calyx and fdainents, to Euchryphia, wliieh Lindley, of Rutaceous oil-glands in the bracts of the inflorescence, the sepals 

owing Choisy, had referred to i7(y)er;cacecE. Bcntliam & Hooker, and petals, placed it in Rutacece in spite of the inferior radicle, 

to whom the flowers were also unknown, placed it with Euchryphia {Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 160.) 
in RomcecB. BaiUon referred the genus to Celantracem, and finally 





Canotia holacantha, Torrey, JPacific R. E. Rep. iv. 68. — 24, 81, t. i. — Uusby, Bull Torrey Bot. Club, is 106 — 

Gray, Ives" Bep. 15 ; Froc. Am. Acad. xii. 160. — Brewer Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Census V. S jx 32 

& "Watson, Bot Ca^. i. 190. — Rothrock, Wheeler's Bej}. Koeberlinia (?), Engelraann, ^mo?ys ^eo. 158 f 14 

Canotia holacantha is a small slirub-like tree, sometimes twenty to tliirty feet liio-h witli a short 
stout trunk rarely a foot in diameter, or often a lo-\v spreading slirub. It grows on the dry gravelly 
mesas of the Arizona foothills, from the Wliite-mountain region to the valley of Bill Williams Fork in 
the northwestern part of the territory, and on Providence Mountain in southern California/ 

Canotia holacantha was discovered in January, 1851, on the hills above White Cliff Creek, a small 
tributary of Bill WilHams Fork, by Dr. J. M. Bigelow,^ botanist of the expedition under Lieutenant A. 
W. Whipple, United States army, to explore a route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the 
Pacific Ocean near the thirty-fifth parallel. 

^ Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal, I c. 

2 John Milton Bigelow (lSOl-1878) was born in Middlebury, 
Vermont. His family moved to Oliio in 1815, and in 1832 the son 
graduated from the Medical College of Ohio. He established 
himself in the practice of Ins profession in Lancaster, Ohio, and 
received in 1850 the appointment of surgeon of the Mexican 
Boundary Commission, and three years later, on the completion of 
the boundary survey, that of surgeon and botanist of the govern- 
ment expedition organized to explore, under command of Lieuten- 
ant Whipple, a route along the thirty-fifth parallel for a railroad 
from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. In 1860 Dr. 
Bigelow made his home in Detroit, where later he was appointed 

surgeon of the Marine Hospital, and Professor of Medical Botany 
and Materia Medica in the Medical College. The list of Dr. Big- 
clow's botanical contributions includes a paper on the medical 
plants of Ohio, publislied in 1849 ; important papers on the bo- 
tanical character of the country traversed by Lieutenant Whip- 
ple's expedition, and a description of Its forest trees and of some 
of the valuable and remarkable trees of California, published in 
the fourth volume of the Pacijic Railroad Reports; a number of 
papers on the medicinal properties of plants, written during the last 
years of his life, and published iu tlie Detroit Journal of Medicine 
and Pharmacy. 


Plate XXXVII. Cakotia holacantha. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

5. Anterior and posterior views of a stamen, enlarged, 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 
10. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 




f^' ^ /"t^nZfj/z. deJy 



Ficartjr. j-r.. 

A.lUocrcua> dir&a:,!^ 

j7np.R Tari^ur. Fari^ 



Flowers dioecious ; calyx 5-lobed, imbricated in aestivation ; petals 5, imbricated 
in [estivation, hypogynous. Fruit composed of 1 to 5 drupes. Leaves alternate, 
abruptly pinnate. 

Simaruba, Aublet, PI. Guiari. ii. 859. — Meisner, Gen. 65. — Endlicher, Gen. 1143. — Bentham & Hooker, Gen i 309 — 
Baillon, Hist. PL iv. 490. 

Trees, with bitter resinous juice and tonic properties. Leaves persistent, long-petioled, destitute 
of stipules, abruptly pinnate j leaflets usually alternate, conduplicate in vernation, entire, coriaceous, 
glabrous or sliglitly puberulous on the lower surface, feather-veined. Flowers subc}Tnose in elongated 
widely branched axillary and terminal panicles. Disk cup-shaped, depressed in the sterile flower, pubes- 
cent. Stamens ten, inserted at the base of the dish, as long as the petals ; reduced in the fertile flower 
to minute scales ; filaments free, filiform, thickened towards the base, inserted on the back of a minute 
cihate scale ; anthers oblong, slightly emargmate, introrse, attached on the back below the middle, two- 
celled, the ceUs opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile on the disk, deeply five-lobed, the lobes opposite 
the petals, five-ceUed ; rudimentary, lobulate, minute or wanting in the sterile flower; styles united into 
a short column crowned by a three to five-lobed spreading stigma ; ovules sohtary in the cells, suspended 
from their inner angle towards the apes, anatropousj raphe ventral j micropyle superior. Drupes 
sessile, spreading; sarcocarp thin, fleshy; putamen crustaceous. Seed inverse, esalbuminous ; testa 
membranaceous ; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy ; the radicle very short, partly included between the 
cotyledons, superior. 

The genus Slmaruba, of which foui- species are known, is confined to tropical America. Simariiba 
glauca, a widely distributed tree in the West Indies, and in Central and South America, extends to the 
coast of southern Florida, the most northern station of the genus. Simariiba amara,^ the type of the 
genus, IS a native of Guiana and the islands of the Caribbean Sea. Simaruha versicolor ^ inhabits 
Brazil and Guatemala, and Simaruha Ttilce ^ the island of Porto Rico. 

Simaruba, in common with several other genera of its family, contains a small amount of resin, a 
volatile oil, and an exceedingly bitter principle, quassin, which give it tonic properties and make it 
digestible. The bark of the roots is most active, although that of the trunk and branches, like the wood 
of ah the species, is bitter, aromatic, and tonic. The bark of the root of ;S^. amara furnishes a valuable 
tonic; it is purgative and emetic, and is used in Guiana In the treatment of fevers and diarrhoea.* 
Snnaruba bark was first sent to Europe In 1713,^ where it was at one time used in considerable quanti- 
ties, and is still occasionally met with in commerce in the form of long narrow quills.^ The bark of the 
root of S. glauca possesses the same properties, and is occasionally used for the same purposes.^ The 

^ Aublet, PI. Guian. ii. 860, t. 331, 332. —A. do Jussieu, Mem. » Urban, Jahrbuch Konig. Bot. Gart. Berlin, iv. 245. 

Mus. xii. 514, t. 27, f. 44. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 139. — * Aublet, PI. Guian. ii. 860. - Lindley, Fl. Med. 208. 

Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 173. = WoodviUe, Med. Bat. ii. 211, t. 7G. 

' St. Hilaii-e, PI. Usuelles Brasil. 1, t. 5 ; Fl Bras. Merid. i. 70. — . ^ Still<i & Maisch, Nat. Dispens. ed. 2, 1295. ~ Guibourt, Hist. 

Engler, Martius FL Brasil. xii. 2, 226. —Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Drag. cd. 7, iii. 570. 
*^^'"- >■ 173. T Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 198. — StQl^ & Maisch, I. c. 




bark of S. versicolor is valued bj tlie Brazilians for tlie treatment of fevers^ and as a remedy for sn 1- 
bites. The wood of this species is reputed to be so bitter that insects will not attack it.^ 

The generic name Simaruba is formed from Slmarouha, the Carib name of the species descrih f] 
by Aublet.^ 

1 Lindley, Fl. Med. 208. 

^ The generic name was written Simarouba by Aublet, and this 
form was used by the early authors who mentioned the tree. (Eti~ 
onymusfructu nigro tetrayono vulgo Simarouba, Barr6rc, France Equi- 
noxiale, 50. — Ze Simarouba vet Bois amer. Des Marchais, Voyages 
en Guine'e ei a Cayenne, ii. 124.) Simaruba appears to have been 

first used by Linnseus in the Materia Medica (188) to desiguate a 
species of Burscra, and again in the first edition of the Species Plan- 
tarum, as the specific name of his Pisiacia Simaruba, the Bnrsera of 
Jaequin. Endlicher and all subsequent authors have followed the 
Linmean sncllinir of the word. 




Paradise Tree. 

Leaflets glabrous, obtuse or minutely mucronate. Petals fleshy. 

Simaruba glauca, Do Caiulolle, Diss. Ann. Mus. xvii. 323 ; tins Fl. Brasil. xii. 2, 223. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 

Prodr. i. 733. — Humboldt, Bonplancl & Kunth, N'ov. Gen. Cent. i. 173. — Sargent Forest Trees N. Am. IQth Censiis 

et Spec. vi. 16. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. A?itil. i. 66, t. U. S. ix. 32. 

14. — Planclion, Lond. Jour. Bot. v. 567. — Nuttall, S. officinalis, Jlaefadyen, Fl. Jam. 198 (not De CandoUe). 

Sylva, iii. 20, t. 87. — Walpers, Ann. i. 164. — Grisebaeb, S. medicinalis, Endlicber, Medz. Pf. 525. — Berg, Handb. 
Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 139. — Cbapman, Fl. 67. — Plancbon 1. 373. — Berg & Schmidt, Off. Gen. ii. t. 13. 

& Triana, Ann. Sci. uSfat. ser. 5, xv. 357. — Engler, 2Iar- 

A low round-headed tree, growing occasionally in Florida to the height of fifty feet, with a straight 
trunk eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, and slender spreading branches. The bark of the trunk 
is a half to three quarters of an inch thick, its light red-brown surface broken into broad thick appressed 
scales. The bark of the stout branchlets is pale green and glabrous when they first appear ; it turns 
fight brown before the end of the summer, and is rugose and conspicuously marked during the second 
season with the large oval scars left by the falling of the leaves. The leaves are six to ten inches long, 
on stout petioles two or three inches in length and dilated at the base, and are generally composed of 
SIS pairs of leaflets. These are opposite or aUeruate, ovate, obovate or oval, two to three inches in 
length, and an inch or an inch and a half wide, with revolute margins, a prominent midrib, and remote 
narrow conspicuous primary veins j they are rounded or slightly mucronate at the apex, and are often 
oblique at the base, which is contracted into a short stout petiolule a quarter to a third of an inch in 
length ; they are thin, membranaceous and dark red when they first unfold, but soon become coria- 
ceous, dark green and very lustrous above, and pale and glaucous on the lower surface. The panicles 
of flowers are twelve to eighteen inches long and eighteen to twenty-four inches broad, with stout pale 
glaucous stems, and spreading branches from the axils of small acute scarious deciduous bracts. The 
inflorescence of the pistillate plant is often larger and less compact than that of the staminate plant. 
The panicles appear in Florida early in April or at the tune the trees begin their annual growth, the 
flowers opening irregularly, a few at a time, and continuing to appear during several weeks. They are 
borne on short stout club-shaped glaucous pedicels, and are an eighth to a quarter of an inch long. 
The oval or often acute pale yellow petals are four or five times longer than the glaucous calyx. The 
fertilized ovajies grow rapidly, and the fruit is almost fully grown by the end of April, when it is bright 
scarlet, nearly an inch long, ovate or sometimes falcate, and slightly angled on the ventral suture. 
According to Macfadyen it is dark purple when fully ripe. The outer coating of the seed is papillose 
and orange-brown. 

Simariiha glauca grows in Florida from Cape Canaveral on the west coast to the southern keys 
and the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne. It has been found in Cuba and Jamaica, in Nicaragua,^ and in 
Brazil. In Florida, where it is nowhere common, it reaches its best development on the rich hummock 

lands near the shores of Bay Biscayne. 

The wood of Simaruba glauca is hght, soft, and close-grained, possessing little strength or value. 
It contains many large scattered open ducts, and thin remote medullary rays. The thick sapwood is 
rather darker colored than the h<.-ht brown heartwood. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood 
IS 0.4136, a cubic foot weighing 25.78 pounds. 

^ By Charles Wright, on the North Pacific Exploring Expedition. 



Slmaruba glauca was first distinguislied by Humboldt, who found it near the port of La T ' 'A 
on the island of Cuba. It was discovered in Florida by Dr. J. L. Blod<«-ett. ^^"^ 

The Paradise-tree, as Simariiba glauca, perhaps on account of its beauty, is sometimes called b 
the inhabitants of Key West, is the handsomest of the tropical trees found in southern Florida It ' ^ 
desirable ornamental tree to cultivate in the gardens of the tropics for its excellent habit hrJir f '' ! 
ample foliage, and bright-colored fruit. ' ' ""^ ^"'^ 





Pirate XXXVIII. Suiaeuba glauca. 

1. A staminate inflorescence, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. Anterior and jjosterior views of a stamen, enlarged, 


Plate XXXIX. Simaruba glauca. 

1. A pistillate inflorescence, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

3. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. An ovary, enlarged. 

5. A panicle of fruit, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

8. An embryo, much enlarged. 



Silva of North America- 


^■^•^o^rorL- del. 

Picartjh sa 


A.IUoci'eita^ di/^ex-^ 

Imp.R fansur. Paris', 

Silva of North America 

Tab . XXXIX 



^. E, Fcuron- del. 

Fu^rtjr. j^c-. 


A-IUocreua> dtre-H^!^ 

Irrtp.RTansar, Paris. 



Flowers perfect; sepals 4, imbricated in aestivation, deciduous; petals 4, conyo- 
lute in aestivation, hypogjnous ; disk 0. Fruit, a 2-celled berry. Leaves bract-like, 
minute, early-deciduous. . 

Koeberlinia, Zuccarini, PL ffort. et Herb. Monac. i. 358 sonian Contrib. iii. 66). — Bentham &, Hooker, Gen. i. 

(Milnchner Denkschrift, 1832). — Meisner, Gen. 66. — 315. — ^aWlon, Hist. PL iv. 503. 

Endlicher, Gen. 1084. —Gray, PL WrlgM. 1. 30 {Smith- 

An intricately branched^ almost leafless tree or shrub^ with tliin red-brown scaly bark. Branches 
stoutj alternate, glabrous, covered with pale green bark, and terminating in sharp rigid straight or 
slightly curved spines. Leaves minute^ alternate^ narrowly obovatcj rounded at the apexj deciduous. 
Flowers minute, in short umbel-like lateral racemes produced below the ends of the branches. Pedicels, 
from the axils of minute scarious deciduous bracts, slender, club-shaped, puberulous. Calyx composed 
of three or four minute sepals with scarious margins, much shorter than the ob ovate-oblong subunguic- 
ulate white petals. Stamens eight, free, hypogynous, as long as the petals ; filaments thickened in the 
middle, subulate at the two extremities ; anthers oval, attached on the back near the base, two-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary ovoidj two-celled, contracted at the base Into a short stalk, and 
above into a short simple subulate style ; stigma terminal, obtuse, slightly emarglnate ; ovules numerous, 
adnate in several series to the fleshy placenta, horizontal or dependent, anatropous. Fruit black at 
maturity, subglobose, tipped with the remnants of the pointed style, two-celled ; sarcocarp thin and 
fleshy ; the cells one to two-seeded by abortion. Seed vertical, circinate-cochleate ; testa crustaceous, 
sUghtly rugose, striate ; albumen thin. Embryo annular, filling the tumid inner seed-coat ; cotyledons 

semi-terete ; the radicle ascending. 

The wood of Koeberlinia is very hard, heavy, and close-grained ; it contains numerous smaU ducts 
in narrow lines faintly marking the layers of annual growth, and many thin medullary rays. It is dark 
brown, somewhat streaked mth orange, turning almost black with exposure, with thin pale yellow or 
nearly white sapwood composed of twelve to fifteen layers of annual growth. The specific gravity of 
the absolutely dry wood is 1.1201, a cubic foot weighing 69.80 pounds. 

The genus Koeberlinia was named by Zuccarini In honor of C. L. Koeberhn.^ It is represented by 

a single species. 


Koeberlinia spinosa, Zuccarini, P;. ffoT!!. e^ i?er&. i¥onac. Wright, i. 30; ii. 26 {Smithsonian Contrib. iii. v.). — 

i. 359 {Milnchner Denkschrift, 1832). — Bentham, PL Torrey, Pot Mex. Bound. Surv. 42. — Hemsley, Pot. 

mrtweg. 35. — Walpers, Bep. i. 258. — Engelmann, Wis- PioL Am. Cent. i. 175. - Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 

lizemis Rep. 29 ; Emort/s Rep. 158, f . 13. — Gray, PL 352. 

Koeherlinia spinosa is a small shrub-like tree, rarely twenty or twenty-five feet in height, with a 
short stout trunk sometimes six or eight feet long and a foot In diameter ; or more often a low branch- 
ing shrub forming impenetrable thickets, often of considerable extent. It grows on dry gravelly mesas 

1 " Diximus hoe genus in honorem L. Koeberlin, amiei eandidisslmi, botaniei indefessi, de patria flora optime meriti," Zuccarini, ;. c. 359. 




from the valley of the lower Rio Grande in Texas soutliTOid through northern Mexico to the neighbor- 
hood of San Luis Potosi, and to the plains near the Altar River in Sonora/ 

Koeherlinia S2nnosa^yas discovered in Mexico by Karwinsky,- a Bavarian naturalist^ about 1830, 
and in Texas by Mr. Charles Wright' in 1848. 

1 C. G. Pringlc. 

2 "Wilbelm Preiherr Karwiusky von Karwin (1778-185-1) vis- 
ited Mexico in 182C, renialniug for five years in the province of 
Oaxaca, and again in 1840. He made many interesting discoveries, 
and introduced many plants, especially of the Cactus family, into 
European gardens. Earwmskia, a genus of Rhamnacece, established 
by Zuccarmi, and represented by half a dozen shrubs of Mexico, 
Texas, and California, preserves his memory. 

3 Charles "Wright (1811-188G) ; born at Wethersfield, Connecti- 
cut, a graduate of Yale College in 1835, and one of the most assid- 
uous, industrious, and successful botanical collectors, Wright 
moved to Texas in 1837, establishing himself there as a land-sur- 
veyor and school-teacher, but devoting much time to botanical study 
and collecting. He visited the Rio Grande in 1847, and in 1849 
accompanied a small body of United States troops on an expedition 

from San Antonio to El Paso. The discoveries he made on this 
journey were published by Gray in his Plant(E Wrightiancs. Two 
years later he was attached as botanist to one of the parties of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. In 1852 lie was 
appointed botanist of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, the 
duties of this position engaging him during nearly three years ; 
while from 1856 to ISGH he was actively employed in the botanical 
exploration of the island of Cuba. In 1871 he undertook his last 
long journey, going to San Domingo as a member of a government 
exploring party, Wright discovered large numbers of new plants 
in the different parts of the world which he visited, and none of his 
contemporaries did more to make known the peculiar flora of the 
region along the southern boundary of the United States. Carlo- 
wrightidf an Acanthaeeous genus of his discovery established by 
Gray, commemorates his services to science. 


Plate XL. Koeberlinia spixosa. 

1, A branch showing the new growth and leaves, natural size. 
2- A flowering branchy natural size- 
s' A leaf, enlarged, 

4. Diagram of a flower- 

5. A fiower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged, 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size, 

8. Vertical section of a fruitj showing the seed, enlarged,. 

9. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged- 
10- Vertical section of a seed, enlarged- 
11. An embryo, much enlarged. 

Silva of North America, 

Tab . XL 



C,E,Fcuz:dti, del. 

J'icartjr. sc* 


A.Hwcreu^ dire^>. 

Imp.R, Tarte-ur, Pi^irir. 





Floweks polygamous ; calyx 4 or 5-parted, the lobes imbricated in estivation ; 
petals 4 or 5, imbricated m estivation. Fruit, a drupe with valvate epicarp. Leaves 
compound, alternate. 

Bursera, Jacquin, St^ry. An.. 94. -, Gen. ed. 6, (excl. Protiu^, Marirjnia, and /.'..). - 

174. - A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 372. - Meisner, Gen. 11. _ dolle Monogr. Phaner. iv 36 

Endheher, Gen.^ 1136. - Bentham & Hooker, Gen. i. 324 Elaphriuzn. Jacqnb, Stirp. Anu i. 105, t 71. 
(excl. Mar^gn^a and Icica.). - BaiUon, Hist. PL v. 309 Gen. 11. -Endlieher, Gen 1136 

Engler, De Can- 


Trees, witli balsamic resinous juices. Leaves destitute of stipules, membranaceous, often confined 
the ends of the branches, unequally pinnate, or three or rarely one-foliolate ; the rhachis terete, some- 
times ymged ; leaflets opposite, petiolulate, entire or subserrate. Flowers small the pedicels fascicled 
or rarely sohtary, in short elongated lateral simple or branched panicles. Calyx minute, membranaceous, 
the lobes much shorter than the ovate-oblong petals inserted on the base of the annular crenate disk 
and reflexed at maturity above the middle. Stamens eight to ten, inserted on the base of the disk • 
filaments free, subulate ; anthers oblong, attached on the back above the base, introrse, t;yo-celled the 
cells opening longitudinally ; usually effete m the pistillate flower. Ovary free, sessile, ovoid, three- 
celled J rndmientary in the staminate flower. Style short ; stigma capitate, obtuse, three-lobed • ovules 
t^'O in each cell, suspended below the apex from the central angle, collateral, anatropous ; micropyle 
superior ; raphe ventral. Drupe globose or oblong-obliqne, indistinctly three-angled ; epicarp coriaceo- 
camose, two or three-valved ; nutlets one to three, usually soHtary, or when more than one, closely 
united, adnate to a persistent fleshy axis, one-celled, one-seeded, covered with a thin membranaceous 
coat. Seed ovoid, destitute of albumen; testa membranaceous; hilum ventral, below the apex. Em- 
bryo straight j cotyledons foliaceous, contortuplicate ; racbcle short, superior. 

Bursera is Mexican, Central and South American, and West IncHan, with a single species reaching 
the shores of southern Florida. About forty species^ are described, of which more than half belong to 
the warmer regions of Mexico.^ Four or five species grow in the West Indies,^ and eight or nine^are 
scattered over Central* and South America from Guatemala to VenezueV Brazil," and Peru.^ The 
plants of this genus have few properties useful to man. It was estabhshed by Jacquin, and named in 
honor of Joachim Burser,^ a German botanist and physician of the seventeenth century. 

1 De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 78. — Eiigler, De Candolle Monogr. 
Phaner. iv. 37. 

2 Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. vii. 20, t. 
Gil, 612. — Schlechtendai, Linnma, xvi. S23 ; xvii. 245, 625. — 
Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, ii. t. 8. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. v. 155 ; 
xvii. 230. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 177. — Watson, Proc. 
Am. Acad. xxi. 421 ; xxii. 402, 469 ; xxiv. 43. — Brandegee, Proc. 
Cal. Acad. ser. 2, ii. 138. 

3 Richard, Fl. Cub. 389. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 173; 
Cat. PI. Cub. 65. 

* Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, xiv. 302. 
^ Eiigler, De Candolle Monogr. Phaner. 41. 

« Engler, Martins FL Brasil. xii. 2, 251. 

' Triana & I'lanchoa, I. c. 303. 

e Joachim Burser (1593-1649) ; a native of Camentz in Upper 
Lusatia, a disciple of Kaspar Bauhln, the botanist of Basel, and 
himself a distinguished physician and botanist, and professor of 
physic and medicine in the academy of Sortie in Denmark. The 
catalogue of his herbarium, gathered in numerous journeys, espe- 
cially in the Alps and Pyrenees, and preserved in the University of 
Upsala, was prepared by Peter Martin, and published in 1724 in 
the Transactions of the Academy of Upsala, under the title of Cat- 
alogus Plantarum Novarum Joachini Burseri. 





Gumbo Limbo. West Indian Birch. 

Sepals and petals 5. Fruit 1 to 2-seeded. Leaflets green on both surfaces, prom- 
inently rcticulatc-veincd below. 

Bursera Simaruba, Sargent, Garden and Forest, in. 2<j(i. 79. - Richard, i^^. fJuh. 390. - Griscbach Ft Brit W 

Pistacia Simaruba, Limi^us, Spec. 1026. Ind. 173. - Chapman, FL 08. - Marchand, Organ. Bur^ 

Bursera gummifera, Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 94, t. 65. - Lin- serarAes, 13.-Triana & PUnchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser 

n^us. Spec. ed. 2, 471. - Lamarck, lit ii. 767, t. 5, xv. 302. - Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 177 - 

2o6. - Willdenow, Spec. iv. 1119. - Titford, Ilort. Bot. Engler, Be CandoUe Monogr. Phaner. iv. 39. - Sar<^ent 

Am. 107. — De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 78. — Descourtilz, Ft. Forest Trees N. Am. mil Census U S ix S2 
3fed. Antil ii. 117, t. 97. - Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 239. - Blaphrium integerrimum, Tnlasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 

Macfadyen, Fl. Jam. 229. — Kuttall, Sylva, ii. 117, t. vi. 369. ' 

A glabrous tree, fifty or sixty feet In height, with a trunk two and a half to three feet in diameter, 
and stout massive primary branches spreading nearly at right angles. The bark of the trunk and 
pnncipal branches is an inch thick, marked with glandular dots, and separating freely into thin papery 
scales which are bright red-brown, while the surface, which is exposed when they fall, is dark brown or 
gray. The branchlets are stout, terete, light gray during their first season, becoming reddish brown 
during the second year, covered with lenticular spots, and conspicuously marked with yellow leaf-scars. 
The winter-buds are short, round, obtuse, and have broadly ovate dark-red scales with slightly scarious 
margins. The leaves are confined to the ends of the branchlets, and are usually composed of five leaf- 
lets, although they sometimes have three or seven; they are six to eight inches in length and four to 
eight inches broad, with a long slender petiole j they fall in the early winter, or occasionally remain on 
the branches until the beginning of the new growth in the spring. The leaflets, which are slightly 
coriaceous at maturity, are oblong, ovate, obHc^ue at the base, and contracted at the apex into a long or 
short point j they are two and a half to three inches in length, and one and a half to two inches broad, 
and are borne on stout petioluies, often half an inch long. The flowers appear before the leaves or 
while they are imfolding. They are produced in slender raceme-like panicles, those of the sterile plants 
being four or five inches long, or nearly twice the length of those of the fertile plants. The slender 
pedicels, which appear two to five together in lateral fascicles, are a third to half an inch long, and 
two or three times longer than the ilower-buds. The petals are ovate-lanceolate, acute, with revolute 
margins, and are four times as long as the slender acute lobes of the calyx. The stamens of the sterile 
flowers are as long as the petals, and in the pistillate flowers not more than half as long with smaller, 
often effete anthers. The fruit, which Is produced in short raceme-like clusters, is a quarter to a tlnrd 
o£ an Inch long, three-angled, with a thick dark red leathery outer coating separating readily into three 
broad ovate valves. It contains one or rarely two bony triangular nutlets rounded at the base, pointed 
at the other end, and covered with a thin membranaceous light pink coat which separates from them 
easily when the fruit is ripe. 

Bursera Slmaruha grows in Florida from Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, and on the west 
coast on the Caloosa River and the shores of Caximbas Bay. It is found on most of the West Indian 
islands, in tropical Mexico, in Guatemala, New Grenada, and Venezuela. It is one of the laro-est and 
most common o£ the south Florida trees, and the only one that sheds its fohage during the autumn and 

The wood of Bursera Shnaniha Is spongy, very hght, exceedingly soft and weak, and contains 




many numerous open ducts and tliin medullary rays. It is \\g\\t brown "witli a thick sapwood of tlie 
same color, and soon becomes discolored by decay. Tbe specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.3003, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 18.71 pounds. The wood of only three other North 
American trees is hghter than that of Bursera Simaruha, which decays so rapidly that it is useless 
in the arts and even for fuel.^ Pieces of the trunk or the large branches cut and set in the ground 
quickly develop roots and grow rapidly into large treeSj a peculiarity which renders it valuable in mak- 
ing hedges or fences.^ The aromatic resin obtained from incisions cut iu the trunk of this tree was 
formerly used under the name of Caranna in the treatment of gout,^ and in the West Indies it is man- 
ufactured into varnish. Au infusion of the leaves is sometimes used in Florida as a substitute for tea. 

Bursera Simaruha was one of the first American trees which attracted the attention of Europe- 
ans, and many of the early authors mention it. It was noticed by Oviedo y Valdes ; ■* Paul Hermann ^ 
described it in 1689 ; and it was first figured by Plukenet.^ 

Bursera Simaruha, according to Alton, was cultivated in the gardens of Hampton Court palace, 
near London, in 1690.'' 

^ "rromage de Holland a cause que sou bois est le plus tendre 
de tout les bois qui soieiit dans les isles," Du Tertre, Histoire Gene- 
rale des Isles de St. Chrisloplie, etc. 220, 

2 " The Branches of this Tree being staked into the Earth, mil 
grow ; and, I have known a Branch of it, the' stripped of its Leaves, 
and exposed to "Wind and Weather (as Part of au Arbour for a 
Grape-vine), which, in this Situation, budded and put forth young 
Shoots, & Leaves." (Griffith Hughes, Natural History of the Bar- 
badoes, 145.) 

3 Henry Watts, Did. Chemistry, i. 749. — Guibourt, Hist. Drog. 
ed. 7, iii. 525, f. 749. 

* Hist. Gen. Nat. Ind. lib. 9, cap. 10. 

s Terehinthus Americ. pobjphylla, Palamalatta dicta, Parad. Bat. 
Prodr. 379. — Plukenct, Phyt. t. 228, f. G. 

^ Betula arbor Americana, serninibus Lithospermi frumentacei cemu- 
lis. Birch-tree Barhadcnaihus dicta, Phyt. t. 151, f. 1. 

Terebinlhus major, betul(E cortice, J'ructu triangulari, Sloane, Cat. 
Jam. 1G7 ; Hist. Jam. ii. 89, t. 199, f. 1, 2. — Catesby, Nat. Hist. 
Car. i. 30, t. 30. 

Terebinlhus foliis cordato-ovatis pinnatis, cortice levi rufescenie Jiori- 
bus masculinis spicatls, Browne, Nat. Hist. Jam. 345. 

' Hort. Kew. i. 479. 


Plate XLI. Bursera Simaruba. 

1. A flowering branch of staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of pistillate flowers, natural size. 

3. A fiower-bud, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. Anterior and posterior views of a stamen, enlarged. 

7. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

9. Diagram of a pistiflate flower. 

Plate XLII. Bursera SiiiAEmjA. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, tbe valves partly open, natural size. 

3. Vertical section of a drupe, enlarged. 

4. A nutlet, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a nutlet, enlarged. 

6. An embryo, much enlarged. 

7. An embryo, the cotyledons displayed, much enlarged. 


Silva of North America 

Tab . XLI . 




C. E. Fa^x^ri^ deL 

Picartfr sc- 


AJUx)creiia> diren:- 

Intp.R.Tan&ur, Parw, 

Silva of North America 

Tat . XLII . 

C. F., Fa^coTU de^ 

Pic^irtji; S£y. 


A.RwcTdit^' diye^.* 

Inp.IL Tanear. Paris. 





Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes contorted in aestivation ; petals 5, con- 
Yolute in aestivation ; filaments united into an urn-shaped tube. Fruit, a 5-celled 
capsule. Leaves alternate, abruptly pinnate. 

Swietenia, Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 127. — Linnseus, Ge^i. ed. Mahagoni, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 343 (excl. syn. Guidonia, 
6,209. — A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 266. — Meisner, Gen. Plumier). 

47. — Endlicher, Gen. i. 1053. — Bentham & Hooker, 
Gen. i. 338. — Baillon, Hist. PL v. 504. 

Noble trees, ^Ath. heavy dark red wood. Leaves glabrous, destitute of stipules, long - petioled ; 
leaflets opposite, petiolulate, usually obUc^ue at the base. Flowers small, in axillary or subterminal pani- 
cles produced near the ends of the branches. Pedicels slender, bibracteolato near the middle. Calyx 
minute, much shorter than the spreading petals. Staminal tube connate with the petals, ten-lobed, the 
lobes convolute in eestivation ; anthers ten, fixed by the back below the sinuses of the staminal tube, 
included, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary free, sessile on the annular disk, 
ovoid, five-celled, the cells opposite the petals ; style erect, exserted from the tube of stamens, dilated 
into a discoid five-rayed stigma. Ovules many In each cell, suspended from the central axis, seml-anat- 
ropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Capsule five-valved, septicidally dehiscent from the base, 
the valves bllamellate, separating from a persistent five-angled axis thickened towards the apex and 
five-winged towards the base. Seeds suspended from near the summit of the axis. Imbricate In two 
ranks, compressed, eraarglnate, produced above into a long membranaceous whig with the hilum in Its 
apex and transversed by the raphe ; chalaza lateral. Embryo transverse ; cotyledons conferrumlnate 
with each other and with the thin fleshy albumen ; radicle short, papillseform, opposite the chalaza. 

Swietenia, of which three species are recognized. Is tropical American and west-tropical African. 
Swietenia Mahagoni, the type of the genus and one of the most valuable timber trees known, Is distrib- 
uted from south Florida, the most northern station of the genus, to Mexico, Central America, and Peru. 
Swietenia humilis,'- perhaps a form of the last species. Is found on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Swie- 
tenia Angolensis,^ a large deciduous tree, inhabits the mountain forests of central Quitta in west- 
tropical Africa.^ 

The genus was named by Jacquin in honor of Baron von Swieten, a distinguished physician of the 

eighteenth century.* 

1 Zucearlni, PI. Hort. et Herb. Monac. ii. 355, t. 7 (Munchner 
Denkschriff). — C. de CandoUe, Monogr. Phaner. i. 723. — Hemsley, 

Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 183. 

2 Welwitsch, "Apont. Ann. do Conselh. 561."-C. de Candolle, 

Monogr. Phaner. i. 724. 

3 A fourth species, Swietenia macrophylla, King (Hooker Icon. 
xvi. t. 1550), is described. It was raised several years ago in the 
Calcutta Botanic Garden from seeds said to have been sent from 
Central America. The leaflets and the fruit are much larger than 

those of ordinary forms of Swietenia Mahagonij from which, how- 
ever, it does not appear to differ in any other respect. 

* Gerard von Swieten (1700-1772) ; a native of Leydcn, where 
he became a professor of medicine in the University, and a disciple 
of Boerhaavc, Being a Roman Catholic, Swieten was obliged to 
resign his professorship In the Protestant University of Leyden ; 
but Maria Theresa invited him to Vienna, whore he reformed the 
study of medicine in the University, induced the empress to estab- 
lish the Botanic Garden, and laid the foundation for the celebrated 
medical school. 






. Leaves persistent ; leaflets oyate-lanccolate, folcate, unequally narrowed at the base 

Swietenia Mahagoni, Jacquin, Emim. PL Carih. 20 ; Stirj). 
Am. 127. — Linnfeus, Spec. ed. 2, 548; Mant. 379. — 
Cavanilles, Diss. ii. 365, t. 209. — Gfertner, Fruct. ii. 89, 
t 96. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 678. — Willdenow, Spec. ii. 
557. — Titford, Hort. Dot. Am. 64. — Descourtilz, Fl. 
Med. Antil. ii. 125, t. 99. — De CaudoUe, Frodr. i. 625. — 
Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. Atlas, t. 170. — Tussac, Fl. Antil. 
iv. 65, t. 23. — Hayne, Arzn. i. t. 19. — A. de Jussieu, 
Mem. Mus. xix. 248, t. 11. — Don, Gen. Syst. i. 687. f. 
116. — Spach, Hist. Veg. iii. 164, t. 21. — Macfadyeii, Fl. 
Jam. 175. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. iV. Avi. i. 242. — Wal- 

pers, Eejy. i. 436. — Xuttall, Sylva, ii. 98, t. 75. — Rich- 
ard, Fl. Cub. 304. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 226, f. 1. _ 
Chapman, Fl. 62. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 131. _ 
BaiUon, Hist. Fl. v. 478, £. 472^76. — Tippel & BoUe- 
var, Ausland. Cult. Ffl. Atlas, i. t. 2, f. 1. _ Brandis, 
Forest Fl. Brit. Ind. 70. — C. de CandoUe, Monogr. 
Phaner. i. 723. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 
183. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOtk Census U. S. 
ix. 33. 

Cedrus Mahogoni, Miller, Diet. No. 2. 

S. macrophylla, King, Hooker Icon. xvi. t. 1550. 

A tree, with a trunk forty or fifty feet in height and sk or eight feet in diameter ahove the swell 
of the great buttresses which somethnes expand ten or twelve feet from the trunk, and with massive 
spreading branches. In Florida the Mahogany-tree is not now found more than forty or fifty feet in 
height, or with a trunk exceeding two feet in diameter, and is destitute of the buttresses which are 
developed on large individuals in regions more favorable for its growth. The bark of the trunk of the 
Florida trees is only one half to two thirds of an inch thick, with a dark red-brown surface broken into 
short broad and rather thick scales. The branchlets during their first season are glabrous, angled, and 
covered with pale red-brown bark, becoming fighter, or gray faintly tinged with red, and thickly covered 
with lenticels during the second year. The winter-buds are very short, with broadly ovate minutely 
apiculate fight red scales. The leaves are four to six inches long, with slender glabrous petioles thick- 
ened at the base, and are composed of three or four pairs of leaflets. These are ovate-lanceolate, 
rounded at the base on the upper side, and narrowly wedge-shaped or nearly straight on the lower j 
they are entire, coriaceous, pale yellow-green or slightly rufous on the under surface, three or four 
inches long and an Inch or an inch and a half broad, with stout grooved petiolules a quarter of an inch 
long promment reddish brown midribs, and conspicuous reticulate veins. The flowers appear m July 
and August, and are produced one or two together at the ends of the branches of the slender panicles 
which are developed from the axfis of the leaves of the year. The flower-buds are ovate, an eighth of 
an inch long, or half the length of the slender puberulous pedicels which bear near the middle a pair of 
mmute acute membranaceous bracts. The calyx is glabrous, cup-shaped, and much shorter than the 
ovate efiiptical white petals which are an eighth of an inch long and slightly emarglnato at the apex. 
I he staminal tube, with its acute lobes, is glabrous, as are the ovary and the flesliy disk ; the anthers 
are efiiptical and shghtly emarginate at the apex. The fruit, which ripens in the autumn or early 
winter, is long-stalked, four or five inches in length and two and a half inches broad, with thick dark 
brown valves rugose and pitted on the surface. The axis of the fruit is three or four inches long and 
an inch or an inch and a half thick, dark red-brown, and marked near the apex ^Aih the small scars left 
by the tailing of the seeds. These are three quarters of an inch long, almost square, thickened at 
be base, and nearly a quarter the length of the thick ovate rugose red-brown wing which is rounded or 
truncate at the apex and graduaUy contracted below 




Sio,etema Mahagoni grows in Florida on Key Largo and on EUiott's Kpv Wf ^ . , 

The .ood of S^ieterua Makagoni, the mahogany of commerce/ is heavy, exceedingly hard and 
stron, close-gra.ned and very durable. It contains nnmerous obscure mednUa^^ rays, and pole seT 
nch red-brown color wh.h becomes darker with age and exposure. The yellow sapwood consfst in th 
Flonda trees of about twenty layers of annual growth, and is not more than an inch tS t1 
specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood grown in Florida is 79S9 . I,' f / 7 , , 
..ghing 45 38 p.,nds. Mahogan^y is probtbly the mit ^e^roS itl^lltLS Cl 
IS also largely used m the interior finish of buildin-s and railro.d o.r.- f i .7'""'™^' ^"^ 

sh. a d boat buiHing, for which purpose it was ^r^^X^rbyti:!^^^^ 
and lightness and its power to resist decay.^ ^^tren^tn 

T'^; J"'^ "{ '^»-'»- ^^«'-?«« - Ktter and astringent, and although not admitted into the 
Matena Medica, is sometimes used wdth quinine in the treatment of intermittent fevers ' 

The Mahogany-tree did not attract the attention of early European travelers in America. They 
were seehing spices and plants possessed of medicinal virtues, and had Httle interest in trees principal y 
valuable for their timber. Sloane, who carefidly explored the forests of Jamaica, overlooked SweS 
entirely, and I was Mark Catesby who, having discovered it in the Bahama Islands, first describ Ih 
tree in his iV^:<.„™^ Il.tory of Carolina, published in 1734» The earliest mentio; of the Mahogany- 
tree as an inhabitant of Honda appeared in Wilham Stork's Description of EaM Florida » ° 

Swutenia Mahagoni^ was probably first sent to Europe by Catesby. It was cidtivated in the Chelsea 
Physic Garden near London in 1739," and was planted in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1795 " 

1 It is probable that the Mahogany-tree was once more common 
on the riorida keys than it ia at present, as thirty or forty years 
ago, or even earlier, considerable quantities of the wood were cut 
and sent to the Bahama Islands for export to Europe, and all the 
large trees were destroyed. 

2 Euiz, in Herl. Berol.Jide C. de Candolle, I. c. 

3 The wood of other trees sometimes appears in commerce under 
the name of mahogany, although very inferior to that of Swietenia. 
Madeira mahogany is the wood of Persea Indica, Sprg. Khaya 
Senegalensis, A. Juss., a large tree of west-tropical Africa, supplies 
the so-called African mahogany, and Soymida fehrifuga, A. Juss., 
the Indian wood sold in England as mahogany. The Bastard ma- 
hogany of the West Indies is the wood of Cedrella odorata, L. 

* The Mahogany-tree grows rapidly under favorable conditions 
m Central America, sometimes attaining in two hundred years a 
trunk diameter of four feet. In Florida it grows much more 
slowly. The two Florida logs in the Jesup collection of North 
American woods in the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York measure respectively twenty-two and a half and eigh- ' 
teen and a quarter inches in diameter ; the first has. two hundred 
and four layers of annual growth, and the second two hundred and 

^ Labat, Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de VAme'rique, v. 192 ; vi. 304 
(1772). — Givelt, EncydopcEdia of Architecture, 301. — M'CulIough, 
Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical and Historical, of Commerce and 
Commercial Navigation. — Honori Havard, Dictionnaire de VameuUe- 
ment et de decoration, 1. 

^ Laslett, Timber and Timber Trees, 170. 

Several grades of mahogany are recognized by timber merchants. 
They are distinguished by the weight, the character of the grain, 
and the color of the wood, which are affected by tfic soil and situa- 
tion in which the trees have grown. Trees in high rocky situations 

on mountain slopes, especially on limestone soil, produce the most 
valuable wood, while the poorer qualities come from trees grown in 
the forests which border the rivers near the coast of Central Amer- 
ica. The finest mahogany came originally from San Domingo, 
Cuba, and Jamaica, where the supply is now practically exhausted. 
The best now grows ou the lower slopes of the mountains of south- 
ern Mexico, British Honduras, and Guatemala. 

The methods employed in cutting the JIahogany-tree and in get- 
ting the logs to the coast are described in the article on Swietenia 
Mahagoni in Hooker's Botanical Miscellany, i. 21. Descriptions of 
the tree and of the modes of cutting it will also be found in Wells' 
Explorations and Adventures in Honduras, 340, in Morris's Colony of 
British Honduras, and in Brigham's Guatemala, the land of the 

^ Woodvillc, Med. Bol. ed. 3, iii. G20, t. 220. — U. S. Bispens. ed. 
14, 1768. — Guibourt, Hist. Drag. ed. 7, iii. 595. 

8 Arbor foliis pinnatis, Alam claudenle, nulla impari: nervo ad 
latus unum excurrente, etc., ii. 81, t. 81. 

Cedrela foliis pinnatis, foribus sparsis, ligno graviori, Browne, 
Nat. Hist. Jam. 158. 

^ " Mahogany grows only in the southern and interior parts of the 
peninsula ; it is in size and quality inferior to the Jamaica, but good 
enough to become an article of trade. The woodcutters from the 
province come to east Florida to cut Mahogany and carry it ofp 
clandestinely." The first edition of this book is not dated. The 
third edition, which appeared probably only a few years later, was 
published in 17G9, 

10 Alton, Hort. Kew. ii. 59. 

" The trees in Calcutta had attained a large size in 1864, when 
they were blown down by the hurricane which devastated the gar- 
den. In 1865 efforts were made to introduce the Mahogany-tree 
into India on a large scale. They were only partially successful, 




Mahagoni/ first used bj Jacquin as the specific name o£ tliis tree, is of aboriginal derivation. 

but are being continued in both Bengal and Burmah with seeds ob- ^ The change in Jacquiu's specific name from Mahagom to Maho- 

tained from America, and it is now believed that the Indian forests go?n was made by Miller in the eighth edition of his dictionary ■ 

will eventually produce mahogany in large quantities and of excel- 
lent quality, (Gamble, Man. Ind. Timbers, 74. — Rep, Forest Dept. 
Jnd. 1888-89, 30.) 

and Miller's orthography was afterwards adopted by Dc Can- 


Plate XLIII. Swtetenia BIahagoni. 


1. A flowering branch, natm-al size. 

2. Diagram of a flower, 

3. A flower bud, enlarged." 
- 4, A flowerj enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistil, with the stamlnal tube displayed, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

Plate XLH^ Swtetexia IL^hagoni. 

1- A fruiting branch, natural size. 

2. A fruit, with one of the valves and the outer lamella of 

another removedj natural size, » 

3. The axis of a fruit, natural size. 

4. A seed, natural size. 

5. Cross section of a seed, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, natural size. 

7. An embryoj much enlarged- 


Silva of North America 

T^t . XLIII 


^'UFaxoft del. 

Ficartjh. sc^ 


A.Riocreux direa^.^ 

ImpRTaneur- /hris- 


Silva of Nor".: 

.1. ^ 



Tab . XLIV 

^- E.Faxon del. 

Ficart fr sc. 


A hUc^rr^Hur dir<\i^ 






Floweks usually polygamo-dioecious ; calyx 4 to 6-lobed, imbricated in eostivation 
persistent ; petds 4 to 6, free or united at the base, imbricated in estivation, hypcy' 
nous. Fruit, a berry-like drupe. ^^ "^"^ 

A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. 379. — 
Meisner, Gm. 252. — Bentham 

Ilex, Liniiieus, Gen. 33. - 

Endlicher, Gen. 1092. - 

& Hooker, Gen. i. 356. 

Prinos, Linn^us, Cor. Gen. 6; Gen. ed. 2, 952. —A. L. de 

Jussieu, Gen. 379. - Endlicher, Gen. 1092. - Meisner, 
Gen. 252, 

Aquifolium, Adanson, Fam. PI ii. 166. 

Ageria, Adanson, Fam. PI. ii. 166 (in part). 
Macoucoua, Aublet, PI. Guian. i. 88, t. 34. 
Paltoria, Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. l 54, t. 84, f. b. 
Chomellia, Vellozo, Fl. Flum. i. t. 106. 
Pileostegia, Turezaninow, Bull. Mosc. xsxil., i. 276. 
Pseudehretia, Turczaninow, Bull. Mosc. xxxvl, i. 607. 

Trees and shrubs, with watery juice. Leaves alternate, petiolate, persistent or deciduous, often 
nitidous, entire, dentate or spinescent, stipules minute, deltoid or subulate, chartaceous, or filiform and 
membranaceous, deciduous. Flowers minute, in axillary cymes, fascicles, or umbellules. Calyx minute 
four or six-Iobed, persistent. Corolla rotate; petals oval or oblong, obtuse, free or united at the base' 
white or greenish white, deciduous. Stamens inserted on the base of the corolla, as many as and alter- 
nate with Its divisions ; filaments subulate, exserted in the sterile, much shorter in the fertile flower • 
anthers attached on the back, oblong, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; effete or 
rudimentary in the fertile flower. Ovary free, sessile, sub cylindrical, two to twelve-celled ; rudimentary 
m the sterfle flower ; style short or wanting ; stigmas as many as the cells of the ovary, distinct or con- 
fluent ; ovules one or two in each cell, suspended from near their apex, collateral, auatropous ; raphe 
dorsal or rarely lateral; the micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, subglobose, crowned with the rem- 
nants o£ the stigma; sarcocarp fleshy; nutlets usually four to eight, bony or crustaceous, one-seeded. 
Seeds suspended ; testa membranaceous. Embryo minute, in the apex of the copious fleshy albumen, 
subglobose, two-lobed ; the radicle superior.* 

The genus Ilex is mdely distributed over the tropical and temperate parts of the world with the 
exception of western North America, AustraHa, New Zealand, Tasmania, and New Guinea. About one 

^ The genus Ilex was separated by Asa Gray (Man. Bot. N. 
States, ed. 5) into the following' sections : — 

1. Aquifolium. Parts of the flower usually in fours, some- 
times in fives or sixes ; drupe red, nutlets ribbed, veiny or one- 
grooved on the back ; leaves coriaceous, persistent. 

2. PiiiNOiDKS. Parts of the flower in fours or fives, or rarely in 
sixes ; drupe red or purple, nutlets striate, many ribbed on the 
back ; leaves deciduous. 

3. Prinos. Parts of the staminate flower commonly in fours, 
fives, or sixes ; parts of the pistillate flowers commonly in sixes, or 
rarely in fives, sevens, or eights ; nutlets smooth. 

Maximowicz (Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petershourg, ser. 7, xxix. 20) 
proposes the following sections for the genus : — 

1. Paltoria. Parts of the flower in fours or very rarely in 

fives ; pedicels produced from the shoots of the year. Intricately 
branched evergreen shrubs or small trees, with small coriaceous 
often punctate leaves destitute of spiny teeth. 

2. Ilex. Parts of the flower generally more than four ; pedicels 
produced with the young leaves from the shoots of the year. Trees 
or rarely tall shrubs, with ample persistent coriaceous or charta- 
ceous entire or serrate leaves, never spinescent, even when young. 

3. Aquifolium. Parts of the flower generally in fours. Trees 
or usually tall shrubs, with ample persistent or rarely chartaceous 
and usually spino-serrate leaves ; cymes aggregated from the old 
wood or occasionally solitary from shoots of the year. 

4. Prinos. Parts of the flower usually in fives ; pedicels pro- 
duced from shoots of the year. Trees or shrubs, with deciduous 
membranaceous leaves and succulent drupes. 




hundred aud seventy-five species are now recognized/ the lieadquarters of the genus, as represented by 
the largest number of species, being in Brazil and Guiana," where sixty-seven are known. The moun- 
tain regions of western South America contain at least ten species ; ^ seven have been distinguished in 
southern Mexico and Central America/ and ten in the "West Indies ; ^ while in eastern North America 
there are thirteen or perhaps fourteen species'' of which foiu- are small trees. The genus is, therefore, 
nearly two thirds American. The flora of Europe contains a single species of Ilex j the Canary Islands 
and Madeira possess three species ; ^ one is south African,^ and one is found on the island of Madagas- 
car.® Twenty-four species grow in India ; ^^ t^'enty-eight or thirty are already known in China and 
Japan ; ^^ three species have been found in the islands of the Indian Archipelago,^' and two in Poly- 



In the early Tertiary period Ilex existed in the Arctic regions ^* M'ith several forms, among them Ilex 
spinescens, in which Saporta finds the probable remote ancestor of the existing European species and of 
the spiny-leaved HoUy of North America/^ and Ilex stenoiyliyUa,^'^ which is reproduced in Ilex Cassine 
of the southern United States. The genus had several representatives at this 2>eriod in western North 
America, whence it has now disappeared.^'^ 

Ilex contains a bitter principle, Ihcine, combined with glutinous matter and an aromatic resin, and 
possesses tonic, and sometimes diuretic, diaphoretic, and emetic properties. Hex Paraguariensis,^^ a tree 
widely distributed from Brazil to Paraguay, furnishes the mate or Paraguay tea of the South Ameri- 
cans, and is the most useful species to man. The leaves of the European HoUy were formerly sometimes 
used as a febrifuge ; ^^ the fruit is purgative and emetic j bii-d-lime is prepared from the inner bark,-° and 
the hard close-grained white wood is used in turnery and cabinet-making. The European Holly has been 
a favorite garden plant for centuries, and innumerable varieties, with variously shaped and curiously 
variegated leaves and with abnormally colored fruit, have been produced and are esteemed by European 
gardeners.^^ The Holly is also a favorite hedge plant.^ Branches of Holly were sent by the Romans to 
theh friends as emblems of good-will at the festival of the Saturnalia. The early Christians of Rome 
used them to decorate their places of worship,^ and this custom still prevails in Europe and in America, 
where bunches of the native HoUies are now in great demand for Christmas decoration. The shi'ubby 

1 Maximowiez, Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Pe'tersbourg, ser. 7, xxis. 18. 
= Reissek, Martius Fi. Brasil. -a. 1, 39, t. 12-21.— Maximowiez, 
I. c. 25. 

s Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Spec, et Gen. yii. 70. 
^ Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 180. 
6 Grisebaeh, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 146. — Maximomez, t c. 27. 
^ Trelease, Tram. St. Louis Acad. Sci. v. 345. 
T Barker-Webb & Berthelot, Pkytogr. Canar. ii. 135, t. 68, 69. 
E Harvey & Sonder, Fl. Cap. i. 473. 
3 Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. viii. 111. 
10 Hooker f . Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 598. — Maximowicz, I c. 24. 
" Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PL Jap. i. 7G. — Maximowicz, 
I. c. 32. — Forbes & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. xxiii. 115. 

12 Miquel, FL Ind. BaU u. 594. 

13 Gray, BoL N. Pacific Explor. Exped. i. 295, t. 25. — Maximo- 
wicz, L c. 23. 

" Heer, FL Foss. Arct. vi. ; FL d. AtanescUcM. 97, t. 27, f . 1, a ; 
GrSnland. 15, t. 6, f . 6. 

" Origine Pak'ontologique des Arbres, 289. 
1^ Saporta, I. c. 

1^ Lesquercux, Contrih. Foss. FL WesL Territ. ii. Tertiary, 270, t. 
50, f. 1-9 (Hayden's Rep. vii. 1878). 

IS St. Hilaire, Mem. Mus. ix. 351. — D. Don, Lambert Pin. ii. 
Appx. t. 4. — Reissek, Martius FL BrasiL xi. 1, 162, t. 13, f . 15 • t 
19, 20. 

The leaves of Ilex Paraguariensis, whicli contain a principle 
identical with the caffeine of tea and coffee, are stripped from the 
trees once in every two or three j'ears during the summer mouths, 
that hj from Pecemher to August. As fast as gathered they are 
dried over slow fires, and are then reduced to powder and carefully 
protected from moisture during the seasoning poriodj which some- 
times lasts for several months. The powder is then packed in sacks 
and is ready for use. It has a bitter taste and a balsamic odor, and 
is used in the form of an infusion, which has a pleasant stimulating 
effect on the human stomach* Matt^ has wonderful power in in- 
creasing the ability of the human frame to endure sustained phys- 
ical effort ; but the habit of using it being once acquired is not 
easily given up, and taken in excess mat^ produces the same phys- 
ical and mental derangements which follow the excessive use of alco- 
hol, (Hooker, London Jour, BoL i. 30, t. 1-3. — Lindley, Treasury 
of Botany y ii. G18. — AVittstein, Viertcljahresschri/l, xvi. 167» — Gui- 
bourt, Hist. Drorj, ed. 7, iii, 544.— £7. 5. Disj)ens. ed. 14, 1G70. — 
Naudin, Manuel de I'Acdimateur, 315.) 

^« Lindley, FL Med. 393. — Guibourt, Hist. Drag. ed. 7, iii. 543. 
— U, S. ni^pens. ed. 14, G70. 

^0 Evelyn, Siha, ed. Hunter, i. 2G8. 

"^ Loudon, Arh. BriL ii, 500. —Nicholson, Diet. Card, 

^^ Loudon, /. c. 509. 

23 Loudon, ;. c. 51L 




North American species of the section Prinos are cultivated for their showy persistent fruit, and some of 
the Asiatic species are also occasionally seen in gardens. 

The name of the genus was bestowed upon it by Linnaeus, who discarded Tournefort's generic 
name, Aquifolium,* and adopted the classical name of the Evergreen Oak of southern Europe, Ilex, on 
account of the resemblance of its leaves to those of the Em-opean Holly. 

1 Inst. 600, t. 371. 


AQtiiFOLiUM. Parts of the flower in fours; pedicels bracted at the base; nutlets prominently few-ribbed on the back and 
sides ; leaves evergreen. 

Leaves armed with spiny teeth. 

Young shoots glabrous or sparingly pubescent 1. I. opaca. 

Leaves serrate or entire. 

Young shoots pubescent ; calyx-lobes acuminate 2. I. Cassi:nt:. 

Young shoots puberulous ; calyx-lobes obtuse 3. I. vomitoeia. 

PbinOides. Parts of the flower in fours or fiveSj rarely in sixes ; pedicels destitute of bracts ; 
nutlets striate, many-ribbed on the back ; leaves deciduous. 

Calyx-lobes broadly-triangular; leaves cuneate, oblong-spatulate, or lanceolate-obovate . 4. L decidtja. 
Calyx-lobes acute; leaves ovate or lanceolate-oblong 5. L imox"ticola. 








Parts of the flower in 4's; calyx-lobes acute; leaves spinose-dentate 

Ilex opaca, Aiton, Hort. Kew. i. 169. — "Willdenow, Spec. i. 
708 ; Enum. 172 ; Berl. Baumz. 189. — Nouveau Duha- 
Tiiel, i. 8. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 228. — Persoon, 
Syn. i. 151. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. 65. — Mi- 
chauXj f. S^ist. Arb. Am. ii. 191, t. 11. — Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. i. 117. — ■ Rafinesque, Fl. Ludovic. Ill ; Med. Bot. 
ii. 1, t. 53. — Eoemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 487. — Link, 
Emim. 147. — Hayne, Dendr. Fl. 10. — Torrey, Fl. XJ. S. 
194 ; Fl. N. Y. ii. 2. — Elliott, Sk. ii. 679. — De Can- 
dolle, Frodr. ii. 14. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 495= — Watson, 
Dendr. Brit. i. 3, t. 3. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. n. 516, t. — 
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 121. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 41. — 
Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 17. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 427. — 
Dietrich, Syn. i. 554. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 432. — Em- 
erson, Trees Mass. ed. 2, ii. 385, t. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestr. ed. 3, 175. — Chapman, Fl. 269. — Curtis, Bep. 

Geolorj. Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 58. — Maximowicz, Mem. 

Acad. St. Petershourg, ser. 7, xxix. 29. — Sargent, Forest 

Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 34. — Trelease, Trans. 

St. Louis Acad. v. 345. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. 

ed. 6, 108. 
I. Aquifolium, Linn^us, Spec. 125 (in part). — Marshall, 

Arhust. Am. 63. —Walter, Fl. Car. 241. 
I. laxiflora, Lamarck, Diet. iii. 147 ; III. i. 355. — Pursh, 

Fl. Am. Sept. i. 117. — Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 494 ; 

Mant. iii. 334. — De Candolle, Frodr. ii. 14. — Sprengel, 

Syst. i. 495. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 17. — Spach, Hist. Veg. 

ii. 427. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 555. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 

"I. querclfolia, Meerburgh, Icon. t. 5." 
Ageria opaca, Rafinesque, Sylva Telhir. 47. 

A tree, forty to fifty feet in height, with a trunk two or three, or exceptionally four feet in diam- 
eter, with short slender branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, and thick fleshy roots. The baik 
of the trunk is half an inch thick, with a light gray surface roughened hy wart-like excrescences. The 
stout branchlets are covered, when they first appear, with fine rufous pubescence which disappears by 
the end of the season, when they are glabrous and pale brown. The winter-huds are short, obtuse or 
acuminate, with narrow acuminate scales ciliate on the margins. The leaves are elliptical or obovate- 
oblong, pungently acute, with thickened wavy margins and a few stout spinose teeth, or sometimes quite 
entire, especially on the upper branches ; ^ they are two to four inches long, with a prominent midrib 
and conspicuous veins, and are borne on short stout petioles thickened at the base, grooved above, and, 
like the midrib, slightly puberulent. They are thick, coriaceous, dull yellow-green, paler and often 
quite yellow on the lower surface, and remain on the branches for three years, falling when the growth 
begins in the spring. The stipules are minute, broadly acute or nearly deltoid and persistent. The 
sterile and fertile flowers are produced on different plants in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of 
the young leaves, or are scattered along the base of the young shoots. The inflorescence is three to 
nine-flowered on the sterile plant, and one or rarely two or three-flowered on the fertile. The slender 
peduncles and pedicels are puberulous with minute acute bracts near their base. The flowers open in 
spring ; they are characterized by acute calyx-lohes with ciliate margins, and by the broad sessile stigma. 
The fruit, which ripens late in the autumn, remains on the branches until the early spring of the follow- 
ing year ; it is spherical or ovoid, a quarter of an inch across, dufl red or rarely yellow. The nutlets are 
prominently few-ribbed on the hack and sides, nearly triangular, and rather narrower towards the apex 

than at the base. 

The most northern station of Ilex 0]}aca is near the coast of Massachusetts Bay in the city of 
Quincy. It is rare on the coast of New England and New York where it never grows to a large size, 
becomes larger and more common south of the Hudson River, and extends south, generally near the 
coast, to the shores of Mosquito Inlet and Charlotte Harbor, Florida. It is exceedingly rare in the 

1 McUichamp, Bull. Torrey Boi. Cluh, viii. 112. 




AUegkany-moiintain region and in the country immediately west of it, but reapi)ears in the valley of 
the Mississippi Kiver, extending from southern Indiana to the Gulf of Jlexico, and through Missouri, 
Arkansas, and Louisiana to eastern Texas. 

Bex opaca generally grows at the north in dry, rather gi-avelly soil, and often on the margins of 
Oak woods ; at the south it is found on the borders of swampy rivei'-bottoms in rich, rather humid soil 
often growing under the shade of Water Oaks, Gums, and Bay-trees. It reaches its greatest size on the 
fertile bottom-lands of the streams of southern Arkansas and eastern Texas, where it is more abundant 
than in other parts of the country. 

The wood of Bex opaca is light, tough, although not strong, and very close-grained. It contains 
numerous thin and inconspicuous medullary rays, and is nearly white when first cutj turning brown with 
age and exposure, the thick sapwood being rather lighter colored than the heartwood. It can be easily 
worked, and will receive a beautiful polish, and is valued and now much employed iu cabinet-maldno-j iu 
the interior finish of buildings, and in turnery. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 
0.5818, a cubic foot weighing 36.26 pounds. Ilicine has been obtained from tlie fruit of Ilex opaca} 
which furnishes the principal supply of the Ilolly branches. which are now used in this country iu large 
quantities for decoration at Christmas festivals. 

The American Holly, owing to its resemblance to the familiar Holly of European gardens, naturally 
attracted the attention of the early voyagers to America, and it was noticed as early as 156-1 by the 
party of French Protestants who landed near the mouth of the St. Jolm's River in Florida under the 
leadership of Laudonniere.^ It was first described by Clayton in the Flora Yvrifutka^ and, according 
to Aiton, was first cultivated in Europe in 1744 by the Duke of Argyll.^ It may still be occasionally 
seen in European gardens, and is sometimes cultivated in the United States.' The number of insects 
known to injure the American Hollies is not large, and the damage they inflict is not serious.^ 

1 Am. J OUT. Pharm. xxviii. 314.— U. S. Dispens. ed. 14, 1670. 

^ "Frequeutes cedri, eupressi, lauri, palms, aquifolias & vites 
sylvestri." (Le Moyne de Morgue, De Bry Voyages, Part II. 3.) 

^ Ilexfoliis ovatis acutis dentatis, 18. 

* Archibald Campbell, tbird Duke of Argyll (lGSO-1761) ; the 
most assiduous collector and planter of exotic trees of his time in 
England, and Horace Walpole's "Tree-Monger." Many of the 
trees which were planted in the grounds of bis villa of Whitton, 
near Hounslow, were after bis death removed to the Royal Gardens 
at Kew, where they formed the basis of the present Arboretum. 

s The thick fleshy roots of this tree make It difficult to transplant 
successfully. Tlie seeds, like those of many species of Ilolly, do 
not germinate until the second year after planting. 

^ The Fall M'eb-worm (Hyphantria curiea, Drury) is sometimes 
quite injurious to the foliage of species of Ilex (Bull. No. 10, Div. 
Entomol. Dept. Agr. U. S. -lOJ. Larva; of a small moth, Cryptole- 
chia cryplolecldella, Chamb., fasten leaves of Ilex o^aca together 
and feed upon them {Bull. Hayden's U. S. Geohg. Surv. 1878, iv. 
pp. 84, IIG). 


Pi^TE XLV. Ilex ofaoa. 

1. A branch with staminate flowers, natural size. 

2. A branch with pistiUate flowers, natural size. 

3. Diagram of a flower, 

4. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a staminate flower, enlarged. 

6. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. Vertical section of a pistlUate flower, enlarged. 

8. Cross section o£ an ovary, enlarged. 

9. An ovule, much magnified. 

10. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. - 

12. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

13. A nutlet, enlarged. 

14. An embryo, much magnified. 

15. Part of a leaf with a stipule, enlarged. 


Silva of North America. 

Tat. XLV. 





C.E-FaaMTL dd'. 

Picaz-L/r. jc 


A ^Ri^ycre.u^ ili'reai . 


Imp. IL Ta/t^iw./'aJ'u: 






Pakts of the flower in 4's; calyx-lobes acuminate. Leaves entire or sharply ser 
rate towards the apex. 

Ilex Cassine, LiniiKus, Spec. 125 (excl. y3.)- — Marshall, 
Arhust. Am. 64. — Lamarck, Diet. iii. 147 ; III. i. 355. — 
Willdenow, Spec. i. 709 ; _£'7iMm. 172 ; HoH. Berol. i. t. 
^l.—N'ouveau Duhamel, i. 9. — Persoon, Syn. 151.— 
Desfontalnes, ITi^^. ^rZ.. ii. 362. _ Poiret, Lam. Diet. 
Siippl. iii. 65. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 117. — Roemer 
& Sclmltes, Syst. iii. 490. — Hayne, Deridr. Fl. 10. — De 
Caiidolle, Prodr. ii. 14. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 495. — Don, 
Gen. Syst. ii. 17. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 428. — Dietrich, 
Syyi. i. 554. — Loudon, Arh. Brit. ii. 517, f. 184. — C. 
Koch, Dendr. ii. 223 (escl. syn.). — Goeppert, Del. Sem. 
Vratisl. 1852 (Linn(Ea, xxvi. 746). — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, ii. 616. 

lies Dahoon, Walter, FL Can 241. — Michaux, Fl. Dor.. 
Am. ii. 228.— Pursh, Fl Am. Sept. i. 117.- Nuttall, 
Gen. i. 109. —Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 489 ; Mant. iii. 
332. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 14. — EUiott, Sk. ii. 680. — 

Watson, Dendr, Brit. ii. 114, t. 114. - Sprengel, Syst. i. 
495. — Audubon, Birds, t. 48. — Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 19. — 
Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 428. — Dietrich, Syn. i. &U. — Lou- 
don, Arb. Brit. ii. 519. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 433. — 
Chapman, Fl. 269. — Curtis, Rej?. Geolog. Saw. ]SL Car. 
1860, iii. 58. — Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. St. Pitersboiirg, 
ser. 7, xxix. 29. — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th 
Census U. S. ix. 35. — Trelease, Tram. St. Louis Acad. 
V. 345. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 108. 
I. Cassine, var. latifolia, Alton, Hort. Jiew. i. 170. 

L cassinoides, Link, Enum. i. 148. — Roemer & Schultes, 
Mant. iii. 332. 

L laurifolia, IS"uttall, Am. Jour. Sd. v. 289. —Eaton, Man. 

ed. 6, 186. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282. 
Ageria palustris, Rafincsque, Sylua Tellitr. 47. 
Ageria obovata, Rafinesque, SyUa Tellur. 48. 
Ageria heterophylla, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 48. 

A small tree, twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with a trunk twelve to eighteen inches in diameter ; 
or, in some forms, a low tree-like shrub. The bark of the trunk is hardly more than one sixteenth of an 
inch thick, with a dark gray surface thickly covered and roughened with lenticels. The young branches 
are coated with dense silky pubescence which does not disajipear until the end of the second or third 
year, when they are dark brown and marked with occasional lenticular spots. The winter-buds are 
acute with lanceolate scales thickly covered with pale silky pubescence. The leaves are oblanceolate or 
obovate-oblong, acuminate at the base, acute, mucronate or rarely rounded at the apex, with revolute 
margms entire or sometimes serrate above the middle with sharp mucronate teeth ; they are puberulous 
above and densely covered with pubescence below when they first unfold, glabrous at maturity with the 
exception of occasional hairs on the lower surface of the broad midrib, which is conspicuously orooved 
on the upper surface, and on the short thick petiole which is thickened at the base. They are dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, and pale on the lower. The minute caducous stipules are 
filiform. The infloresence is sometimes nearly an inch long, generally much shorter, pedunculate, and 
produced from the young shoots or occasionally from the branches of the previous year. It is three to 
nine-flowered on the sterile plant, and usually three-flowered on the fertile. The pedicels are covered 
witli hairs, and furnished at their base with acute scarious bracts. The calyx-lobes are acute, with cihate 
margins. The fruit, which ripens late in the autumn and remains on the branches until the followino- 
spring, is globose, sometimes a quarter of an inch in diameter, briglit or occasionally dull red or nearly 
yellow, with stout densely pubescent pedicels, solitary or often in clusters of threes. The nutlets are 
prominently few-ribbed on the back and sides. 

Ilex Cassine grows from southern Virginia southward in the immediate neighborhood of the coast 
to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward along the Gulf coast to western 
Louisiana. It is found in cold swamps, or more often along their borders in rich humid soil and occa- 
sionally near the Gulf coast on the high sandy banks of pine-barren streams. The Dahoon is nowhere 




common on the Atlantic seaboard. It occurs more frequently in Florida and in southern Alabama 
gradually disappearing towards the western limits of its range. 

The wood of Ilex Cassine is light, soft, and close-grained, but not strong ; it contains many thin 
medullary rays, and is pale brown with thick nearly white sapwood. The specific gravity of the abso- 
lutely dry wood is 0.4806, a cubic foot weighing 29.95 pounds. 

The Dahoon Holly U-as first described in the Natural History of Carolina^ hy Mark Catesbv 
who sent seeds to Europe which produced plants in the Physic Garden at Chelsea.^ 

Ilex Cassine varies remarkably in the size and shape of its leaves, passing through forms with 
elongated narrow leaves* into the variety myrtlfolia.' This is a low shrub, or occasionally a slender 
wide-branching tree mth pale nearly white bark, puberulous branehlets, and crowded, generally entire 
mucronate leaves which are half an inch to nearly an inch in length and an eighth of^'an inch broad 
with reflexed margins, very short petioles, and broad prominent midribs. The fruit is short-stalked and 
much smaller than that of Ilex Cassine. This plant, which is found in the neighborhood of the coast 
from North Carolina to Louisiana, always inhabits cypress-swamps and pine-barren ponds or their 
margms, and is much more common than the Dahoon, from which many careful observers are inclined 
perhaps with reason, to consider it specifically distinct. The wood is heavier and Hghter colored than 
that of the Dahoon, ivith a specific gra.%, when absolutely dry, of 0.5873, a cubic foot wei-hino- 36 60 
pounds. o o 


1 The confusion in the names of the two arborescent HoUies 
of the southern states commenced in the Hortus CUffortianus, in 
which Linnsus united them under his Ilex foliis ovato-lanceolatis, 
etc. It was increased in the Species Plantarum, in which the Da- 
hoon of the American Indians was made the type of the Ilex Cas- 
sine, and the aborig:inal Cassina a variety of it ; so that the oldest 
Linmean specific name of the Dahoon Holly is the well established 
and familiar yernacular name of a different tree of the same region. 

2 Agrifolium Cariolinmse foliis deniatis haccis rubris, i. 31, t. 31. 

Ilex foliis ovato-lanceolatis serratis, LInnreus, Hart. Clijf. 40 (exel. 
syn. Plukcnet). — Eoyen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 400. 

Ilex mariiima ramosa foliis oUongis non sinmtis, glandibus esculen- 
Us, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 18. 
8 Miller, Diet. ' ' 

* Ilex Cassine, var. angustifolia,mm^no^v,SpecA. 709. -Alton 
Hort. Kew. i. lIQ.^Nouveau Duhamel, I. 9, t. 3. -Sargent. Garden 
and Forest, ii. 61G. 

I. angustifolia, Willdenow, Enum. 172.-Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept 
1. 118. _ Nuttall, Gen. i. 109. - Koemer & Schultes, Syst. iii. 489 - 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 14. -Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 4 t 4 - 
Sprengel, Syst. i. 495. - Don, Gen. Syst. ii. 17. - Spach, Hist. Veg. U 
428. - Dietrich, Syn. i 534. _ Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 517, f. 185. 

/. ligustrina, Elliott, Sk. n. 708 (not Jacquin). — Spach, Hist. Veg. 
ii. 429. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 123. 

?7. Watsonia, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 429. 

/. Dahoon, var. angustifolia, Watson, Index, 158. — Sargent, For- 
est Trees N. Am. mh Census U. S. ix. 35. -Trelease, Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. v. 345. 

■ This is the common form in southern Alabama, where it is abun- 

.6 Ilex Cassine, var. myrtifoUa, Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii, 616. 

/. myrlifolia, Walter, Fl. Car. 241. ~ Nouveau Duhamel, i. 10, t. 
4,- Michaux, Fl. Bor.~Am. ii. 229. -Poiret, Lam. Diet. Snppl. iii. 
65. — Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 8. — Roetoier & Schultes, Syst. iii. 
489. - Link, Enum. 148. - Spach, Hisl. Veg. ii. 429. - Gray, Man. 

ed. 5,306. — Maximowicz, Mun. Acad. St. Petersbourg, xxix. ser. 
7, 26. 

/. TosmarifoUa, Lamarck, III. i. 356. - Persoon, Syn. i. 151. - 
.Poiret, Lam. Diet. Suppl. iii. Qo. - 

I. ligustrifolia, Don, Gen. Syst. n. 19. 

/. Dahoon, var. myrtifoUa, Chapman, Fl. 269. — Sargent, Forest 
Trees 'N. Am. \m Census U. S. ix. 3G. - Trelease, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. V. 346.- Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 108. 


Plate XLVI. Ilex Cassixe. ; ' 

1. A flowering branch of the staminate plant, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of the pistillate plant, natural size. 
6. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A staminate flower, the corolla removed and laid open, en- 
' larged. ^ 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a pistillate flower, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. A fruiting braneh (var. angustifolia), natural size. 
y. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. - 

11. A nutlet, enlarged. 



_ 'J 

Plate XL VII. Ilex Cassixe, var. mybtifolia, 

1. A branch of a sterile plant, natural size. 

2. A branch of a fertile plant, natural size. 

3. A sterile flower, enlarged. 

4. A fertile flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

. 6. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

Silva of North America.. 

Tat. XLVr. 



C.KFaax>n del. 


Plc^cj9. jc 

A.Riocreiu^ direj^^ 

Imp. R. Tamur, Faris. 

Silva of North America. 

Ta.t . XLVII . 

C.£.Fa3^^n.' del . 

Ficart/r. sc. 


A.BwcrMiJi> di/'e^f 

^7^. H. Taneur, Faru 





Cassena. Taupon, 

Parts of the flower in 4's ; calyx4obes obtuse* Leaves crenulate-serrate. 

Ilex vomitoriaj Aitonj Hort Ketv. i. 170. — Salisbury, 
Prodr. 70. — "WiUdenow, Spec. I 709; Enum. SuppL 
8. — Noiiveau DuhaTnel^ i. 10. — Persoon, Syn. I, 151- — 
DesfontaineSj Hist^ Arb. ii. 362, — Titford, Sort Bot, 
'■ Am, 41. — Pursh, FL Am. Sept. 1. 118. — Nuttallj Gen. i. 
. 109.— Roemer & Schulteg, Syst iii, 491 ; Mant iii. 333, — 
De CanduUe, JProdr. ii. 14. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 495. — 
DoHj Gen, Syst. ii. 17. — Spacb, Hist. Veg. li. 430- — 
Lindley, Fl. Med. 393. — Dietrlchj Syn. i, 555. — Loudon, 
Arb. Brit, ii- 518, f . 186. — Griffith, Med. Bot 433. — 
Sargent, Garden and Forest^ ii. 616. . 

I. Cassine, /3. Linnaeus, Spec. 125. 

Cassine Peragua, lAim^MSy Mant. 220 (in part)- — Mar- 
shall, ArbusU Am, 2G. 

Cassine Caroliniana, Lamarck, Diet. i. 652. 

I. ligustrina, Jacquin, Icon. PI. Mar. ii. 9, t. 310 ; Coll. iv. 

I. Cassine, Walter, FL Car. 241, — i\Jton, Uort. Keit\ i- 170 
(in part). — Chapman, FL 2G9- — Curtis, Hep. Gcoloy. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 59. — MaKimowicz, Mem. Acad. 
St. Petersbourgy ser, 7, xxix, 22. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N, Am. lOtli Census U. S. ix. 36. — Trelcaset Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. v. 346. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's Man* 
ed. 6, 108. 

L Floridana, Lamarck, III. i. 356. 

L Cassena, ilichaus, FL Bor,-Am. ii. 229- — Poiret, Lam. 


Diet. Suppl. iii. 65. — Roemer & SchulteSj Syst. iii. 490. — 
Elliott, 5/:. ii. 681. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 426. 

I. religiosa, Barton, FL Virgin. 66. 

Cassine ramulosa, Eafinesque, Fl. Ludov'ic. 110. 

Hierophyllus Cassine, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii. 8. 

Emetila ramulosa, Rafinesque, Syloa Tellur. 45. 

Ageria Cassena, Rafinesque, Sylva Tellur. 47. 

A small ramulose tree, twenty to twenty-five feet in height, with a slender often incHning trunk 
rarely more than six inches in diameter ; or generally a tall shrub sending up many stems from the ground, 
and forming dense thickets. The bark of the trunk is from a sixteenth to an eighth of an inch thick, 
with a light red-brown surface broken into minute thin scales. The branchlets are stout and placed 
nearly at right angles with the stems ; they are slightly angled and puberulous during the first season, 
and become glabrous or nearly so the second year, when they are terete and covered with pale gray 
rugose bark. The winter-buds are minute and obtuse, with narrow dark brown, or often nearly black 
scales. The leaves are elliptical or elliptical-oblong, obtuse, coarsely and remotely creuulatu-serrate ; 
they are coriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper sm-face, pale and opaque below, an inch to 
sometimes two inches long, a quarter of an inch to an inch broad, and contracted at the base into short 
broad grooved petioles. They remain on the branches during two or three years, generally falhng just 
before "the appearance of the new growth of the third season. The flowers are produced in short 
glabrous cymes from the wood of the previous year ; on the sterile plant they are short-stemmed and 
many-flowered, and on the fertile plant sessile and one or two-flowered. The slender club-shaped pedi- 
cels are glabrous and furnished at the base with minute bracts. Rounded obtuse calyx-lobes with slightly 
cihate or entire margins, and an ovary contracted below the broad flat stigma characterize the flowers. 
The fruit, which is borne on short stems not more than a quarter of an inch in length, is produced in 
the greatest abundance ; it ripens late in the autumn or in the early winter, and falls during winter, or 
sometimes remains on the branches until the new growth begins. It is scarlet, nearly spherical, and a 
quarter of an inch across or rather less. The nutlets are prominently few-ribbed on the back and sides. 

Ilex vomitoria is found near the coast from southern Virginia to the St. John's River and Cedar 
Keys, Florida ; it extends along the Gulf coast to the shores of Matagorda Bay, and west of the Missis- 
sippi 'River penetrates the interior to southern Arkansas and the valley of the upper Rio Blanco in 
western Texas, the extreme western station at which it has been noticed. In the Atlantic and west 
Gulf states the Yaupon is rarely found very far from salt water, or growing to a greater height than 


3ILVA or N on Til AMERICA. 


ten or fifteen feet j and it is only on the ricli bottom-lands of eastern Texas^ where it attains its largest 

size^ that it assumes a really tree-like habit. 

The wood o£ Hex vomitorla is heavy^ hard^ and close-grained. It is nearly white^ turning yellow 
with exposure^ with thick light ei^colored sapw^ood^ and contains numerous conspicuous medullary rays. 
The specific gravity of the absolutely diy Avood is 0.7270^ a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 45,31 


Branches of this plant covered with fruit are sold during the winter months in the northern cities 

for decorative purposes. 

The Indians of the southern part of the country formerly visited the coast in large numbers every 

spring for the purpose of drinking an infusion of the leaves of the Yaupon^ which are emetic and purga- 
tive.^ These medicinal properties attracted the attention of early travelers in America^ and the plant, 
according to Plukenetj was common in the gardens about London in 1700, the date of the publication 
of his Mantissa^ in which it was first described.^ The Yaupon was early introduced into Bermuda^ 
where it has become naturalized.^ 

^ Nunez Cabe^a de Vaca saw the Cutalcbiches drinking a tea 
made from the Icavea of this tree, "Behen tamhien otra cosa, que 
sacan de las Lojas de los Arboles, conio de Eneinaj i tnestanla en 
unos botes al fuegOj i despues que la tienen tostada, hinehen cl bote 
de agua, i asf lo tienen sobre el fuego, i quando ha hervido dos 
veceSj echanlo en una Vasija, i estdii enfriandola eon media Cala- 
baea ; i quando estfl eon mucho espuma, bebenla tan calientej quanto 
pueden snfrir ; i desde que la sacan del Bote, hasta que la beben, 
estin dando voces, dicieudo ; Que quten qniere beber, . . . i estan 
hebiendola tres dias, fin comer, i cada dia bebe cada uno arroba i me- 
dia de ella." (Naufragios, cap. 26, Barciuj Hist^ Prim. Ind. Occ. ii.) 
And the followers of Laudonnifere found the Indians in 1564 fre- 
quenting the shore of Florida near the mouth of the St. John's 
ilivcr for a similar purpose, "They drinke this Cassine very 
hotte : . , . they make so great account of this drinke that no man 
may taste thereof in this assembly unlesse hee hath made proofe of 
his valure in the warre. Moreouer, this drinke hath such a vertuc 

that assoone as they haue drunke it, they become all in a sweate 
which sweate being passed, it taketh away hunger and thirst for 
foure and twenty hours after." (Hakluyt, Voyages^ ed, Evans, iii. 
370.) There is a picture representing the Indians of Florida drink- 
ing "Casinam" in the narrative of the French artist, Le Moyue 
do Morgue, who accompanied Laudonni^re to Florida (De Bry, 
Voyages, Part II. t. 29). Accounts of the *' Black Drink'' of the 
southern Indians are found also in Charlevoix's Histoire de la Nou* 
velle France^ I'i. 221, and in John Lawsou's History of Carolina, 90< 
See also B. S. Barton, ColL i. 38, 59. — U. 5. Dispens. ed. 14, 1G70 ; 
NaU Dispens. ed» 2, 754, 

^ Cassine vera Floridanorura Arhuscula haccifera Alaierni ferrae 
facie, foliis alternatim sitis, tetrapyrene, 40. — Catesby, Nat, HisL 
Car. ii, 57, t. 57. 

Cassine, Clayton, FL Virgin. 33 (excL syn.), 

s Lefroy, Bat Bermuda, Bull, U. S, Nat Mus, No, 25, 59, 


Plate XLVIIL. Ilex vomitoria, 

L A flowering branch of the sterile plant, natural size. 

^ 2, A flowering branch of the fertile plant, natural size, 

3. A sterile flower, enlarged. 

4. Vertical section of a sterile flower, enlarged. 

5. Posterior and anterior views of a stamen, enlarged. 

6. A fertile flower, enlarged, 

7. Vertical section of a fertile flower, enlarged. 

8. A fertile flower, the petals removed. 

9. Cross section of an ovary^ enlarged 
10, A fruiting branch, natural size. 

11- Vertical section of a fniit, enlarged. 

12. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged, 

13. A nutlet, enlarged. 

Silva of North America. 

Tab. XLVai, 





C.Z.FmMTV deb. 


A^ Riocreuxy direx'. 

Imp.ItTan^iir, Paris. 





Parts of the flower usually in 4's ; calyx-lobes broadly triangular. Leaves oblong- 
spatulate, or lanccolatc-obovate. 

Ilex decidua, Walter, Fl. Car, 241. — Poiret, Lam. Diet. 
Suppl. iii. Q^- — Chapman, Fl. 269. — Curtis, Eep. Geolog. 
Surv. N. Car. 1860, iii. 59. — Koch, Dendr. ii. 227. — 
Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. St. Petershourg, ser. 7, sxix. 
30, — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOiA Census U. 8. 
ix. 37. — Trelease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 346, — Wat- 
son & Coalter, Grai/s Man. ed. 6, 108. 

I. prinoides, Alton, Ilort, Kew. i. 169. — Lamarck, HI. i. 
355. — Willdenow, Spec. i. 709, — Nouveau. Duliamel, i. 
11. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 229. — Persoon, 5;/n. i. 

151. — Desfoutaines, Hist. Arh. ii. 362. — Pursh,^?;. ^m. 
Sept. i. 118. — Nuttall, Gen. i. 109. — Roemer & Schultes, 
Sijst. iii. 488 ; Mant. iii. 332. — Watson, Dendr. Brit. i. 
115, t. 115. — Sprengel, Syst i. 495. — Audubon, Birds, 

t. 89. 
I. Eestivalis, Lamarck, Diet. iii. 147 ; III. i. 356. 
I. Prionitis, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 8. 
Prinos deciduus, De CandoUe, Prodr. ii. 16. — Don, Gen. 

Syst. ii. 20. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 520. 
I. ambiguus, Elliott, Sk. ii. 705. 

A small ramiUose tree, twenty to thirty feet in height, with a slender trunk six to ten inches in 
diameter, stout spreading branches, and thin fibrous roots j or more ofteuj a tall straggling shrub. The 
bark of the trunk is rarely more than one sixteenth of an inch thick, with a light brown surface rough- 
ened with wart-like excrescences. The branches are terete and covered with glabrous pale silver-gray 
bark. The winter-buds are minute and obtuse, with ovate light gray scales. The leaves are deciduous, 
and, except on vigorous shoots, are fascicled on the ends of short spur-hke lateral branches, which in 
winter are conspicuously marked by the scars left by the falling of the petioles. They are oblong- 
spatulate or spatulate-lanceolate, acuminate, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, gradually contracted 
into slender grooved pubescent petioles^ aind remotely crenulate-serrate, the lower teeth tipped with 
minute glands. They are two to three inches long, and a third of an inch to nearly an inch in breadth, 
membranaceous, becoming thick and firm at maturity, pale on the lower surface, with a few scattered 
hairs along the narrow midrib, light green and grooved along the midrib above. The stipules are 
filiform, membranaceous and deciduous. The flowers are produced in one or two-flowered glabrous 
cymes aggregated at the ends of the lateral branches of the previous season, or rarely solitary on the 
shoots of the year ; they appear with the leaves, the sterile flowers on slender pedicels half an inch long 
and longer than those of the fertile flowers. The calyx-lobes are triangular, the acute apex often dark 
colored, the margins smooth or sometimes slightly cihate. The fruit is globose or depressed-globose, 
orange or orange-scarlet, and a quarter of an inch across ; it Is borne on short stout stems, and ripens in 
the early autumn, often remaining on the branches until the appearance of the leaves in the following 

The nutlets are many-ribbed on the back. 

laex decidua grows from southern Virginia to western Florida In the high country which hes 
between the eastern base of the Appalachian Mountains and the immediate neighborhood of the coast. 
It occurs in southern Illinois, and extends southward to the Gulf of Mexico and through southwestern 
Missouri, Arkansas, and eastern Texas to the valley of the Colorado River. 

Ilex decidua' inhabits the borders of streams and swamps in low wet soil. It is usually a strag- 
ghng shrub in the states east of the Mississippi River, and only hi some parts of Missouri and m south- 
ern Arkansas and eastern Texas does it assume the habit of a tree. , t i . 

The wood of Ilex decidua is heavy, hard, and close-grained. It is creamy white with rather lighter 

^ This plant is not sufficient., comznon or sufficiently well known, apparently, in any part of the country, to have acquired familiar 
popular names. 





colored sapwood, and contains numerous thin medullary rays. The specific gravity o£ the absolutely 
dry wood is 0.7420, a cubic foot of the dry wood weighing 46.25 pounds. 

Bex decidua, according to Aiton/ was cultivated in England by the Duke of Argyll before 1760. 
It is rarely found in gardens, and is only doubtfully hardy in New England. 

1 Hon. Kew. i. 169. -. ' 

f ' 


Plate XLIX. Ilex decidua. 

1. A flowering branch of a sterile plant, natural size. 

2. A flowering branch of a fertile plant, natural size- 

3. A sterile flowerj enlarged. 

4. A fertile flower, enlarged- 

5. A branch showing the mature leaveSj natural size. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size, the leaves just expanding, 

7. A fruit with portions of the nutlets exposed, enlarged. 

8. A nutletj enlarged. 


'■ ' 


K - 

^L H d b - J 

Silva of North America 

Ta'b . XLIX 


Fic<u-t>fr. J-r. 

C. E. Faa^n. (IaI . 


A.Rwcrau^ direco',^ 

Imp.K Tim£iir, Paris. 




Pakts of the flo^ver usually in 4's or o's ; calyx-lobes acute, ciliate. Leaves ovate 
or lanceolate-oblong. 

Hex monticola, Gray, Man. ed. 2, 264. — Koeh, Dendr. ii. and Forest, ii. 352. — Watson & Coulter, Grai/s Man. ed. 

228. — Maximowicz, Mem. Acad. Sd. St. Petershourg, 6, 108. 

ser. 7, xxix. 30. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 633. — Tre- I. ambiguus, Torrey, Fl. JSf. T. ii. 2 (excl. syn.). 

lease, Trans. St. Louis Acad. v. 347. — Sargent, Garden I. montana, Gray, Man. 276 (not Frinos montana, Sw.). 

A tree, thirty to forty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes ten to twelve inches in diam- 


eter, slender branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, and fibrous roots ; or more often, a low shrub 
with spreading stems. The bark of the trunk is usually less than one sixteenth of an inch thick, with 
a light brown surface covered with lenticels. The branchlets are more or less zigzag, glabrous, and cov- 
ered when they first appear with pale red-brown bark, which becomes dark gray by the end of the first 
season. The winter-buds are obtuse, with ovate keeled aplculate light brown scales. The leaves are 
ovate or lanceolate-oblong, wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, and acute at the apex ; they are decid- 
uous, membranaceous, long-petioled, sharply and rather remotely serrate with minutely glandular teeth, 
glabrous or sparingly hairy along the veins on both surfaces. They are four- or five inches long and a 
half to two inches broad, or at the north often much smaUer, light green above, pale on the lower 
surface, with a prominent midrib and primary veins. The flowers appear in June when the leaves are 
more than half grown, and are produced m one to two-flowered cymes aggregated at the ends of the 
lateral spur-like branches of the preceding year, or solitary on the shoots of the season. The pedicels 
of the sterile flowers are half an inch long, and much longer than those of the fertile flowers. These 
are characterized by acute calyx-lobes with cihate margins and by an ovary contracted below the broad 
flat stigma. The fruit is globular, nearly half an inch in diameter, bright scarlet, and crowned with the 
remnants of the large stigma. The nutlets are deeply ribbed on the back and sides. 

The most northern stations where Ilex monticola is known to grow naturally are the CatskiU 
Mountains and Cattaraugus County, New York; it extends through the mountains of Pennsylvania, 
its eastern station in that state being in Northampton County, and southward along the mountains to 
northern Alabama. It is only on the lower slopes of the Alleghany Mountains in North and South 
Carolina that Hex monticola attains the habit and size of a tree, reaching its greatest development on 
the banks of streams flowing from the Blue Eidge, where it is often found growmg m peaty sod in 
thickets of the Great Rhododendron, and accompanied by the Mountain Magnolia, the Yellow Poplar, 
the Black Birch, the YeUow Birch, the Red Maple, and the Mountain Ash. 

The wood of nex monticola Is hard, heavy, and close-grained. It is creamy white and contams 
numerous thin meduUary rays. The specific gravity of the absolutely dry wood is 0.6.03, a cubic toot 

weighing 40.90 pounds.^ , -, ^ 2 j. 4? fi 

nex raonticola was apparently overlooked by. the early botanists who explored the forests of th 
Alleghany Mountains ;' and it was not distinguished until about 1840, when Mr. John Carey discovered 
it on the CatskiU Mountains. 

A i- FiiP'laud and en"-a"-ed in commercial pursuits. On hia 

1 This tree apparently grows very slowly. The specimen in the returnea to t, ^ ^^^ Carey Settled first at Touawauda, New 

Jesnp collection of North American woods in the American Mu- ^^"^J^^ |" * ;„ Vermont, and finally in the city of New York. He 
seum of Natural History, New York, is five inches in diameter, and lorK, tnt ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^_ 

shows one hundred and seven layers of annual growth, of which had acquire a as c , ^ ^^^^ to devote himself 

land and on his arrival m America utj,."! 
seventy-nme are sapwood. ' ^^. ^f tl^e flora of the northern states, form- 

2 John Carey (1798-1880) ; a native of London, who removed assicluousij c ^^..^j^ ^j^^ j^^^ 
in 1830 to the United States where be resided until 18.2, when he ing intimate relations with Drs. Torrey 




The large brilliant fruit and ample foliage of this species make it the most ornamental of the 
deciduous-leaved Hollies of North America, and a desirable garden plant. It was introduced into culti- 
vation in 188S at the Arnold Arboretum. 

he made In 1841 a long journey through the mountains of the and on Salix to the first edition of Gray^s it/ar^uaZ of the Botany 
southern states. Mr. C^irey occupied himself specially with the of the Northern United States. His herbarium of American plants 
study of the genus Cares, and contributed the articles on that genus was presented several years ago to the Royal Gardens at Kew. 


Plate L- Ilex moxticola. 

1. A flowering branch of a staminate plant, natural size^ 

2, A flowering branch of a pistillate plant, natural size. 
'3. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A pistillate flower, petals removed, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

7. Cross section of a fruitj enlarged. 

8. Rear view of a nutlet, enlarged. 

9. Side view of a nutlet, enlarged- 

Silva of Noptli Americ 


Tat , L . 

C<E- Faxon/ d^. 




A. Itiocreux/ Ju-ea>. 

hip.. ..sir, Paris'. 


Names of Orders are m small capitals ; of admitted Genera ai>d Species and other proper names, in roo,an tjpe ; 

of synonyms, in italics. 

Ageria, 103. ' 

Ageria Cassena, 111. 

Ageria Jieterophylla^ 109. 

Ageria ohovata, 109. 
Ageria opaca^ 107. 

Ageria paluslris, 109, 
AmyriSj 83. 

Amyris balsamifcraj 83. 
Amyiis dyatripa, 85, 
Amyris Elemifera, 85. 
Amyris Floridana^ 85. 
' Amyris maritima, 83, 85. 
Amyris mariUma, var. angustifoUa^ 85, 
Amyris parvifolia, 83, 
Amyris sylvatica, 83. 
Amyris sytvaticaj 85. 
Amyris toxifera^ 83. 
Annona, 28. 
Anona, 27. 
Anona, 21, 
Anonace^, 21, 
Anona Cherimolia, 28- 
Anona glabra, 29. 
Anona laurifolia^ 29. 
Auona murieata, 28. 
Anona palustris, 23, 
Anona pendulay 23, 
Anona reticulata, 28- 
Anona squamosa, 27» 
Anona triloba, 23. 
AntheiscJiima, 39. 
A qui folium, 103. 
Aquifolium^ 103, 105. 
Argyll, Duke of, 108, 
Asimina, 21, 
Asimina angustifolia, 22. 
Asimina campanijlora, 23. 
Asimina cuiieata, 22, 
Asimina grandiflora, 21, 22. 
Asimina parviflora, 21, 22, 
Asimina pygma^a, 21, 22. 
Asimina triloba, 21, 22, 23. 
A si mine, 24, 
Aslminier, 22. 

Banister, John, 6. 

Earetta, 81, 
Bartram, John, 8, 
Bartram, William, 16, 
Basswood, 52. 
Bay, 41. 
Be aver- tree, 6. 
Bee -tree, 53, 57, 
Belluccia^ 7o* 
Berberina, 66, 

Berlandicr, Jean Louis, 82. 
Bew:>k, Benjamin, 42, 
Bigelow, John Milton, 88. 
Blackburnia, 65, 

Blodgett, John Loomis, 33, 
Blolly, 42. 

Bull Bay, 3. 

Bullock's heart, 28, 

Burser, Joachim, 95. 

Bur sera, 95. 

Bursera gummifera, 97. 

Bursera Simaruba, 97. 


Camellia axillaris, 39, 

Campbell, Archibald, 108, 

Cauel, 36. 

Can ell a, 35, 

Canellace^, 35. 

Canella alba, 37, 

Canella lauri/olia, 37. 

Canella ohtusifolia, 35, 

Canella Winterana, 37. 

Canotia, 87, 

Canotia holacantha, 88. 

Capfaribace/E, 31. 

Capparis, 31. 

Capparis aphylla, 32, 

Capparis Breynia, 32, 

Capparis cynophallophora, 31. 

Capparis Dahi, 32. 

Capparis emarginala, 33. 

Capparis frondosa, 32. 

Capparis Jamaicensis, 32, 33. 

Capparis JamaicensiSf var. emarginata^ 33. 

Capparis Mithridatiea, 32. 

Capparis pulcherriina, 32. 

Capparis scpiaria, 32. 

Capparis spinosa, 31< 

Capparis Yco, 32, 

Carey, John, 115, 

Carria, 39, 

Cassena, 111. 

Cassine Caroliniana, 111. 

Cassine Peragua, 111. 

Cassine ramulosa-, 111. 

Cecidomyia liriodendri, 18. 

Cedrella odorata, 101. 

Cedrus Maliogoni, 100. 

Cheirantiiodesdrk-'E, 47. 

CheiranthodendroUf 47. 

Cheiranthodendron Californicum, 47. 

Cheiranthodendron platanoides, 47, 

Cherimoia, 28. 

ChomelUa, 103, 

Chrysotnela scalaris, 51. 

Cinnamodendrou corticosum, 37, 
Cinnamonnun Zeylanlcum, 3G. 
Cinnamon ISaik, 37. 
Clayton, John^ 8. 
Ciisiocampa sylvatica, 51. 
Golden, Cadwalladcr, G6. 
Collinson, Teter, 8. 
Comptoii, Henry, 6. 
Cooper, J. (;., :;o. 
Cortex Canellffi alb», 35, 
Cossus ligniporda, 50. 
Cryptolecliia cryptoleehiella, 108. 
Cucnniber-tree, 7, 
Cueumber-tree, Large-leaved, 11. 

Cucunibcr-tree, Long-leaved, 15, 
Cupaiiia glabra, 42, 
CurtisiUj iJo. 
Custard apple, 28. 

Dahoon, 100. 
Dipterospermtim, 39. 

Eclicnopa binotata, 77. 

ElapJirium, 95. 

Elaphrium inlegerrimum, 97, 
Elk-^v'ood, 13. 

Ellis, John, 40. 
Emetila rainulosa, 111, 
Eugordonia, 39. 

Fagara, 65. 

Fagara fraxinifolia, 67, 
Fagara leniiscifolia, 73, 
Fa gar a Pterola, 73. 
Fagara tragodesj 73. 
Franklinia, 39, 45. 
Franklinia, 39, 
Franklinia Altamaha, 45. 
Eraser, John, 8. 
Fremontia, 47. 
Eremontia Calif ornica, 47. 

Garber, Abraham Pascal, 65. 
Garden, Alexander, 40. 
Gordon, James, 40, 
Gordonia, 39. 
Gordon! a acuminata, 39. 
Gordonia Altamaha, 40, 45. 
Gordonia anomala, 39, 40, 
Gordonia excelsa, 39. 
Gordonia Franklini, 45. 
Gordonia Lasianthus, 39, 41, 
Gordonia obtusa, 39- 
Gordonia pubescensj 45, 



Gordonia pyramidalisy 41. 

Guaiacidium, 00. 

GiiEiiaco, Gl. 

Guaiacum, 59» 

Guaiacum angiistifolium, 59, 60, 

Guaiaeum arboreum, GO, 

Guaiacum Coulteri, GO. 

Guaiaeum hygromctrieum, 60. 

Guaiacum officinale, 50^ 00. 

Guaiacum parviflorunij 59. 

Guaiacum rcsiii, CO. 

Guaiacum sanctum, 59, 60, 63. 

Guaiacum sanctum^ y^it. parvifoUumj 63. 

Guaiacum verticale^ G3. 

Guaiacum wood, GO, 

Gfuanabanus, 28, 

Guayacan, Gl. 

Gumbo Limbo, 97- 

HanoD, 28. 
Havard, Valdry, 81. 
H^Iie, Louis Tb^odorc, 79. 
Helietta, 79, 
Hclietta apiculata, 79. 
Helietta multiflora, 79, 
Helietta parvifolia, 79, 81. 
Helietta Pla;aiia, 79. 
Hibernia tiliaria, 51, 
Hierophyllus Cassincj Ill- 
Holly, 107. 
Hop -tree, 76, 
Hypericum LasianthuSj 41. 
Hyphaiitria cunea, 51, 108. 

Hex, 103. 

Ilex (BstivaliSf 113. 

Ilex amhiguuSf 113, 115, 

Ilex angusiifolia^ 110. 

Ilex Aqui/olium, 107. 

Ilex Cassena^ 111, 

Hex Cassine, 109- 

Ilex Cassine, 111. 

Ilex Camne, ^. 111. 

Hex Cassine, var. angustifolia, 110, 

Ilex Cassine, var. latifoUa, 109. 

Hex CassinCj var. myrtifolia, 110- 

Ilex cassitioidcs, 109- 

Ilex DaliOOTiy 109. 

Ilex DaJtoon, var, angustifolia, 110- 

Ilez Dahoon, var. myrtifoliay 110, 

Hex deeidua, 113. 

Ilex Floridana, 111. 

Ilex laurifolia, 109. 

Ilex laxijiora, 107. 

Ilex ligustrifolia, 110. 

Ilex ligustrina, 110, 111. 

Ilex montanaf 115. 

Hex monticola, 115 

Ilex myrtifolia, lift 

Hex opaca, 107, 

Hex Paraguariensia, 104. 

Ilex prino ides, 113. 

Ilex prionitis, 113. 

Ilex quercifoUa, 107. 

Ilex religiosa^ 111- 

Ilex Tosmarifolia, 110. 

Hex spine seen s, 104. 

Hex stenopliylla, 104, 

Hex vomitoria, 111, 

Ilex Watsoniay 110. 

Ilicike^j 103. 

Kampmania fraxinifolm, 67, 
Karwinsky, Wilbclm Freiherr, 94, 

Kliaya Senegalcnsis, 101. 
Koeberlin, C, L., 93. 
Koebcrlinia, 93. 
KoeberUnia^ 88. 
Koeberlinia spinosa, 93. 

Lacathea, 39. 
Lacatliea florida, 45. 
Langsdorfia, 65. 
Laplacca Ha^matoxylon, 42. 
Large-leaved Cucumber-tree, 11. 
Lasianthus, 42. 
Laurus Winterana, 37. 
Lecaiiium tulipiferie, 18- 
Lemon-wood, 83. 
Lignum-vitffi, 60, 63. 
Lime-tree, 53. 
Lin, 53. 

Linden, 52, 55, 57. 
Linden-bast, 50. 
Lindheimer, Ferdinand, 74. 
Liriodendron, 17. 
Liriodendron Procaccinii, 17. 
Liriodendron procerum, 19- 
Liriodendron Tulipifera, 19. 
Loblolly, 42. 
Loblolly Bay, 41. . 
Loblolly-wood, 42. 
Long-leaved Cucumber-tree, 15. 

Macoucoua, 103. 

Magnol, Pierre, 2, 

Magnolia, 1. 

Magnolia acuminata, 7. 

Magnolia acuminata, var. cordata, 8. 

Magnolia auricularis, 15. 

Magnolia auriculata, 15. 

Magnolia Campbelliij 2. 

Magnolia conspicua, 2. 

Magnolia cordata^ 8. 

Magnolia, De Candolliiy 7. 

Magnolia fcetida, 3. 

Magnolia fcetida, var. angustifolia, 4. 

Magnolia fcetida, var. Exoniensis, 4, 

Magnolia fcetida, var. precox, 4» 

Magnolia fragrans, 5- 

Magnolia Fraseri, 15. 

Magnolia frondosa, 13. 

Magnolia fuscata, 2. 

Magnolia glauca, 5. 

Magnolia glauca, var. lalifoUa, S- 

Magnolia glauca longifolia, 6. 

Magnolia glauca, var. longifolia, 5- 

Magnolia glauca^ y3.t. pumila, 5. 

Magnolia grandijiora, 3. 

Magnolia grandiflora, var, etlipfica, 3. 

Magnolia grandiflora, var. lanceolata, 3. 

Magnolia grandiflora, var. ohovata^ 3. 

Magnolia Hartwegus, 4. 

Magnolia liypoleuca, 2, 

Magnolia Inglciieldi, 3. 

Magnolia longifolia^ 5. 

Magnolia macropliylla, 11, 

Magnolia, Mountain, 7, 15. 

Magnolia obovata, 2, 

Magnolia pyramidata, 15. 

Magnolia Thompsoniana, 6. 

Magnolia tripetala, 13. 

Magnolia Umbrella, 13. 

Magnolia Virginiana, a. glauca, 5. 

Magnolia Virginiana, p.faitida, 3. 

Magnolia Virginiana, e. acuminata, 7. 

Magnolia Virginiana, 5. tripetala, 13- 

Magnoliace^, 1, 

Mahagoni, 99. 
Mabogany, 100. 
Mahogany, African, 101, 
Mahogany, Bastard, 101. 
Mabogany, Madeira, 101. 
Marshall, Moses, 46. 
Meliace-Ej 99. 
Micbaux, Andr^, 58. 
Michauxia sessilis, 45. 
Michelia, 2. 
Miller, Philip, 38. 
Mountain Magnolia, 7, 15- 

Ncpticula pteleasella^ 77- 

Ochroxylum, 65. 
Ocneriadispar, 51. 
Orcliidocarpum, 21. 
Orchidocarpum arietinum, 23. 
Orgyia leucostigma, 51. 

Paltoria, 103. 

Pap aw, 23. 

Paradise-tree, 91- 

Persea Indica, 101. 

Petre, Robert James, Lord, 8, 

Phyllocuistis liriodendrella, 18. 

Phyllocnistis, magnoliEeella, 2. 

Pileoslegia, 103. 

Pinus Cubensis, 42. 

Pisonia obtusata, 42. 

Pisonia subeordata, 42, 

Pistacia Simaruha, 90, 97. 

Pohlana, 65. 

Poly spar a, 39. 

Polyspora axillaris, 39- 

Pond Apple, 29. 

Porcelia, 2L 

PoTcelia parviflora, 29. 

Porcelia trilobaj 23. 

Porlieria, 59. 

Porlieria hygromelrica, 59, CO. 

Prickly Ash, 67. 

Prinoides, 103. 

Prinos, 103. 

Prinos, 103. 

Prinos deeiduus, 113. 

Prinos montana, 115, 

Pseudehretia, 103. 

Pseudopetalon, 05> 

Pseudopetalon glandulosum, 67. 

Pseudopetalon tricarpum, 67. 

Ptelea, 75. 

Ptelea angustifolia, 75. 

Ptelea apt era, 75- 

Ptelea Baldwinii, 75. 

Ptelea mollis, 77. 

Ptelea parvifolia, 81. 

Ptelea pentaphylla, 76. 

Ptelea trifoliata, 75, 76. 

Ptelea trifoliata, var, mollis, 77. 

Ptelea viOcifolia^ 76. 

Pierota, 65. 

Pterota subspinosa, 73. 

Quadrella, 33. 

EUTACE^, 05. 

Saperda vestita, 50. 
Satimvood, 71. 
Schinus Fagara, 73. 
Seiadophylluni Jacquinil, 42. 
Sherard, James, 77. 

Siinarouba, 90, 
Siniaruba, 89. 
Siinaruba amara, 89, 
Sinuiniba glauca, 89, 91. 
Simaruba medicinalis, 91, 
Sbnaruha officinalis^ 91, 
Simaruba Tulaj, 89, 
Simaruba versicolor, 89, 

SiMARUBE-E, 89. 

Siplionophoraliriodendri, 18. 
Slippery Elm, 47. 
Soursopj 27. 

Soymida febrifuga, 101, 
Sugar Apple, 27. 
Swamp Bay, 5. 
Sweet Bay, 5, 
Sweetsop, 27, 

Swieten, Gerard von, 99. 
Swic tenia, 99, 
Swieteuia Angolensis, 99. 
Swietcnia humilis, 99, 
Swieteuia macropkylla^ 99, 100, 
Swietenia Mabagoni, 99, 100. 

TIlia, 49. 

Tilia alba, 50, 57. 

Tilia Americana, 52. 

Americana, 55. 

Americana, var. helerophylla, 57, 

Americana Moltke, 53. 

Americana, var. pubescens, 55. 

Americana, var, Walteri, 55, 

argentea, 50. 

Canadensi'^, 52, 
Caroliniana^ 52, 
dasystyla, 50. 
eucidora, 50, 
glabra, 52> 
grata, oo. 
heterophylla, 50, 57, 




Tilia TteteropTiyUa, var. albay 57, 

Tilia keteropkylla-nigra, 57, 

Tilia bybrida superba, 53. 

Tilia laUfolia, 52, 

Tilia laxijlora, 55. 

Tilia Mahngreni, 49, 

Tilia Mexicana, 49, 

Tilia neglecta, 52- 

Tilia nigra, 52, 

Tilia pardfoUa, 50, 

Tilia pauci/olia, 50. 

Tilia pctiolaris, 50. 

Tilia platypliyllos, 50. 

Tilia pubescens, 55. 

Tilia pubescens, 52, 

Tilia pubescens, var, leptopbylla, oQ. 

Tilia stenopetala, 52, 

Tilia truncata, 55. 

Tilia ulniifoliaj 50, 

Tilia vulgaris, 50, 

Tjliace^, 49, 

Tobinia, Qo. 

Tootbacbe-trce, G7. 

Torcl]--\vood, 85. 

Tradescant, John, 20- 

Tulip-tree, 19. 

Tulip-tree, Chinese, 17. - 

Tulipastrum A?nericanum, 7. 

Tulipastrmn Americanum, var, subcorda- 

tum^ 8, 
TuUpifera, 17. 

Umbrella-tree, 13. 

Uvaria, 21- 
Uvaria triloba, 23, 

Ventenat, Etienne Pierre, 58, 

Wafer Ash, 76. 

Ware, Nathaniel A., 86. 


West India Birch, 97, 

Wliitcwootl, 37, 53. 
Wild Cinnamon, 37. 
Wild Lime, 73. 
Winterania, 35. 

Winterania Canella, 37. 
Wright, Charles, 94. 

Xanthopicrite, G6- 
Xanthoxylum, 65. 

Xanthoxylum Americanum, 05, 

Xanthoxylum aromaticum, 67. 

Xanthoxylum bracliyacanthum, GO. 

Xantkoxylum Caribceum, 68, 71, 

Xanthoxylum Canninianum, 67, 

XatUhoxylum Cafesbianum, C}7. 

Xanthoxylum Chiva^Herculis, 67. 

Xanthoxylum CLiva-IIercuIis, var. frutico- 
sum, OS- 

Xanthoxylum cribrosmn, 71. 

Xantiioxylum elatum, 60. 
Xanthoxyhim emarginatiTin, 65. 
Xant]ioxyhim K:igara, 73, 
Xanthoxylum Floridnnum, 71, 
Xanthoxyhim fraxinifoUum, G7, 
Xanthoxylum hirsutum, C8. 
Xaiitlioxylum nitidum, G6. 
Xanthoxylum piperitiim, GG. 
Xanthoxyhim Pteroia, 73. 
Xantlioxyhim Rhetsa, 74- 
Xanthoxylum tricarpum, 67, 

Yaupon, 111, 
Yellow Poplar, 19. 

Zanthoxyhim, 66. 
Zenzcra icsculi, 50, 
Zygophylhmi arboreim, GO. 
Zvuoi'UYLLiiCE-i:, 59.